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Full text of "Birds"

BJOLOOY 
LIBRARY 

S 



/. , : i'- : "'" 5 -r- 
- ':::..''>?. vi.V 

^p ^ 






THE FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA, 



INCLUDING 



CEYLON AND BURMA. 



PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE SECRETARY OF 
STATE FOR INDIA IN COUNCIL. 

EDITED BY W. T. BLANFORD, 



BIRDS Vol. II. 

BY 

EUGENE W. GATES. 



LONDON: 
TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 

CALCUTTA : I BOMBAY : 

THACKER, SPINK, & CO. THACKEK & CO., LIMITED. 

BERLIN: 

B. FRIEDIANDER & SOHX, 11 CARL8TBA8SE 

1890. 



BIOLOGY 
LIBRARY 

G 




PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, 
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



PREFACE. 



THE appearance of the second volume of ' Birds ' with fewer 
pages than are contained in other volumes belonging to the 
e Fauna of British India ' requires a brief explanation. 

When the ' Birds ' were undertaken by Mr. Gates in 1888, 
he knew that it would not be possible to complete them 
within the two years of furlough to which he was entitled, 
but it was hoped both by him and by myself that he would 
obtain additional leave of absence. This has not proved 
to be the case, and within the time available Mr. Gates 
has only found it practicable to finish the Passerine Order, 
comprising about five ninths of all the species of birds 
found in India. As will easily be understood by those who 
have been engaged in similar scientific work, constant 
application has been necessary in order to accomplish this 
within the period mentioned. 

The first volume of the 'Birds' having appeared in 
December of last year, there was, when Mr. Gates left 
England in August last, considerably less than another 
volume ready in manuscript. To have waited for a full 
volume to be prepared would have entailed considerable 
delay, and, under the circumstances, it has been thought 
best to publish at once a second volume of less bulk at a 
reduced price, and to leave the remaining birds to be 

358259 



IV PREFACE. 

described in a thicker third volume, the cost of which will 
be proportionately greater, so that the price of the two 
volumes together will remain unaltered. By this means 
descriptions of all Indian Passerine birds, which are more 
numerous than those of all other orders together, and 
which afford the greatest difficulties in identification, are 
placed at once in the hands of Indian ornithologists, whilst 
Mr. Gates' s work is kept distinct from that of any other 
writer. I can only express my regret that Mr. Gates has 
been unable to finish the work he has so well begun. 

The present is the second volume of the ' Fauna of British 
India ' published in the current year, Mr. Boulenger's 
( Reptilia and Batrachia' having been issued in August. 
The only part now wanting to complete the Vertebrata of 
the Indian Fauna, besides the third volume of Birds, is the 
second half of the volume containing Mammalia ; and this 
half -volume, the greater portion of which is written, will, I 
hope, be completed early in 1891. It is not probable that 
the Birds can now be finished next year, but I propose to 
undertake the third volume as soon as the Mammalia are 
completed. 

W. T. BLANFORD. 

October, 1890. 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Fam. MUSCICAPIDJE 



Page 



1. Muscicapa, Briss 4 

1. grisola, Linn 4 

2. Hemiclielidon, Hodys. . 

1. sibirica (Gm.) 

2. ferruginea, Hodgs 

3. Siphia, Hodys 

1. strophiata, Hodys 

2. parva (Bechst.) 

3. albicilla (Pall.) 10 

4. hyperythra, Cab 10 

4. Cyorms, Blyth 11 

1. cyaneus (Hume) .... 13 

2. hodgsoni (Terr.) .... 14 

3. hyperythrus (Blyth) . . 15 

4. leucoinelanurus 

(Hodys.) 16 

5. superciliaris (Jerd.) . . 17 

6. melanoleucus (Hodys.) 18 

7. astigma (Hodys.) 19 

8. sapphira (Tick.) 20 

9. oatesi (Salvad.) 20 

10. pallidipes (Jerd.) 22 

11. unicolor, Blyth 22 

12. rubeculoides (Vig.) .. 23 

13. tickelli, Blyth 2o 

14. magmrostris, Blyth . . 26 

5. Nitidula, Jerd. $ Blyth . . 27 

1. hodgsoni (Moore) .... 27 

6. Stoparola, Blyth 27 

1. melanops (Vig.) 28 

2. sordida(JFaW.) .... 29 

3. albicaudata (Jerd.) . . 30 

7. Muscitrea, Blyth 30 

1. grisola (Blyth) 31 

8. Anthipes, Blyth 31 



1. moniliger (Hodys.) 

2. leucops (Sharps) . . . 

3. submoniliger, Hume, 

4. poliogenys (Brooks) . 

5. olivaceus (Hume) . . . 



9. Alseonax, Cab 34 

1. latirostris (Raffi.) 35 

2. ruficandus (Swains.) . . 36 

3. muttui (Layard) .... 36 

10. Ochromela, Blyth 37 

1. nigrirufa (Jerd.) .... 37 

11. Culicicapa, Sivinh 38 

1. ceylonensis (Swaitis.) . 38 

12. Niltava, Hodga 39 

1. grandis (Blyth) 40 

2. sundara, Hodys 41 

3. macgrigorice (Burt.) . . 42 

13. Philentoraa, Eytan.. ...... 42 

1. velatum (Temm.) .... 43 

2. pyrrliopterum(7eww.) 43 

14. Terpsiphone, Gloyer .... 44 

1. paradisi (Linn.) 45 

2. affinis (Hay) 47 

3. nicobarica, Dates .... 48 

15. Hypothymis, Boie 48 

1. azurea (Bodd.) 49 

2. tytleri (Beavan) 50 

16. Chelidorlayiix, Hodys. . . 51 
1. hypoxanthum (Blyth) . 51 

17. Rhipidura, Vig. $ Horsf. 52 

1. albifrontata, Frankl... 52 

2. albicollis ( VieiU.) .... 53 

3. javanica (Sparnn.) . . 64 

4. pectoralis (Blyth) .... oo 

Fam. TUKDID^E 56 

Subfam. Saxicolinee 57 

1. Pratincola, Koch 58 

1. caprata (Linn.) 59 

2. atrata, Kelaart 60 

3. maura (Pall.) (51 

4. leucura, Blyth (53 

5. macrorhyncha, Stol. . . 63 

6. insignis (Hodys.) .... 64 



VI 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

2. Oreicola, Bonap 66 

1. jerdoni, Blyth 66 

2. ferrea (Hodgs.) 66 

3. Saxicola, Bechst 67 

1. monacha, Riipp 69 

2. albinigra, Hume .... 70 

3. picata, Blyth 71 

4. cajtistrata, Gould .... 72 

5. opistholeuca, Strickl. . 73 

6. pleschanka (Lepech.) , 73 

7. barnesi, Oates 75 

8. vittata, Hempr. $ Ehr. 75 

9. penanthe (Linn.} .... 76 

10. isabellina, Cretzschm. . 77 

11. deserti, Temm 78 

12. montana, Gould .... 78 

13. chrysopygia (De 

Filippi) 79 

4. Cercomela, Bonap 79 

1. fusca (Blyth) 80 

Subfam. Rutidttince 81 

1. Henicurus, Temm 82 

1. maculatus, Vig 83 

2. guttatus, Gould 84 

3. schistaceus, Hodgs. . . 84 

4. irnmaculatus, Hodgs. . 85 

5. leschenaulti (Vieill.). , 86 

2. Hydrocichla, Sliarpe 86 

1. frontalis (Blyth) .... 87 

2. ruficapilla ( Temm.} ..87 

3. Microcichla, Sharpe .... 88 

1. scouleri ( Vig.) 88 

4. Chimarrhornis, Hodgs. . . 89 
1. leucocephalus ( Vig.) . . 89 

5. Ruticilla, Brehm 90 

1. frontalis (Vig.) 91 

2. scbisticeps, Hodgs. . . 92 

3. aurorea (Pall.) 93 

4. erythronota (Eversm) 94 

5. hodgsoni, Moore .... 95 

6. rufiventris (Vieill.) .. 95 

7. erythrogaster (Gilkl) . 97 

6. Khyacornis, Blanf. 97 

1. f uliginosus ( Vig.) 98 

7. Cyanecula, Brehm 99 

1. suecica (Linn.) 99 

2. wolfi (Brehm) 100 

8. Daulias, Boie 100 

1. golzi (Cab.) 101 

9. Calliope, Gould 101 

1. camtschatkensis 

(Omel.) 102 



Page 

2. pectoralis, Gould ____ 103 

3. tschebaiewi, Prjev. . . 104 

10. Tarsiger, Hodgs ......... 104 

1 . chrysaeus. Hodgs ..... 104 

11. lanthia, Blyth .......... 105 

1. rufilata (Hodgs.) ____ 106 

2. indica ( Vieill.) ...... 107 

3. hyperythra, Blyth . . 108 

12. Adelura, Bonap ......... 108 

] . caemleicephala ( Vig.) . 108 

13. Grandala, Hodgs ....... 110 

1. coelicolor, Hodgs ..... Ill 

14. Notodela, Less ......... Ill 

1. leucura (Hodgs.) ____ 112 

15. Callene, Blyth ..... ..... 113 

1. frontalis (Blyth) ____ 113 

16. Thamnobia, Swains ..... 113 

1. cambaiensis (Lath.) . . 114 

2. fulicata (Linn.) ...... 115 

17. Copsychus, Way 1 ....... 11(5 

1. saularis (Linn.) ...... 116 

18. Cittocincla, Gould ...... 118 

1. macrura (Gmel.) .... 118 

2. albiventris, Blyth ____ 120 

Subfam. Turdina .......... 120 



1. Merula, Leach .......... 

1. maxima, Seebohm .... 

2. simillima (Jerd.) .... 

3. kinnisi, Kelaart ...... 

4. bourdilloni, Seebohm . . 

5. erythrotis, Dav ..... 

6. nigripileus (Lafr.) . . 

7. albicincta (Royle) ____ 

8. castanea, Gould ...... 

9. fuscata (PaU.) ...... 

10. ruficollis (PaU.) ____ 

11. bonlboul (Lath.) ____ 

12. atrigularis (Temm.) . . 

13. unicolor (Tick.) ...... 

14. protomomeleena (Cab.) 

15. obscura (Gmel.) ____ 

16. subobscura, Salvad. . . 

17. fese, Salvad. ........ 

2. Geocicnla, Euhl ......... 

1. wardi (Jerd.) ........ 

2. sibirica (Pall) ...... 

3. cyanonotus (Jard. $ 



. 

4. citrma (Lath.) ...... 

5. innotata, Blyth ...... 

6. albigularis, Blyth ____ 

7. andamanensis, Wald. . 



121 
123 
124 
124 
125 
126 
126 
127 
128 
129 
130 
130 
131 
132 
133 
134 
135 
135 
130 
137 
133 

139 
140 
141 
142 
142 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Vll 



3. Petrophila, Swains 142 

1. erythrogostra (Vig.). . 143 

2. cinclorhyncha ( Vig.) . . 144 

3. solitaria (Mill.) 146 

4. cyanus (Linn.) 146 

4. Monticola, Boie 147 

1, saxatilis (Linn.) .... 147 

5. Turdus, Linn 148 

1. viscivorus, Linn 148 

2. pilaris, Linn 150 

3. iliacus, Linn 150 

G. Oreocincla, Gould 151 

1. dauma (Lath.) 152 

2. varia (Patt.) 153 

3. nilgiriensis, Blyth . . .153 

4. imbricata (Lay.) . . . 154 

5. inollissiina (Blyth) . 154 

6. dixoni (Seebohm) . . . 155 

7. spiloptera, Blyth . . . ]55 

7. Zoothera, Vig 15G 

1. monticola, Vig 157 

2. marginata, Blyth .... ] 57 

8. Cochoa, Hodgs 158 

1. purpurea, Hodgs 159 

2. viridis, Hodgs 160 

Subfam. Cinclince 161 

1. Cinclus, Bechst 162 

1. kashmiriensis, Gould. . 162 

2. asiaticus, Sivains 163 

3. pallasi, Temm 164 

4. sordidus, Gould 165 



Subfam. Accentorince 165 

1. Accentor, Bechst 166 

1. nepalensis, Hodgs. . . 166 

2. himalayanos, Blyth . . 168 

2. Tharrhaleus, Kaup 168 

1. immaculatus (Hodgs.) 169 

2. rubeculoides (Hodgs.). 169 

3. atrigularis (Brandt) . . 170 

4. fulvescens (Sev.) .... 171 

5. strophiatufl (Hodgs.) . 17] 

6. jerdoni (Brooks) 172 



Fani. PLOCEIDJE 173 

Subfam. Ploceincc 174 

1. Ploceus, Guv 174 

1. baya, Blyth 175 

2. megarhynchus, Hume . 176 



3. bengalensis (Linn.) . . 177 

4. manyar (Horsf.) .... 179 
2. Ploceella, Gates 179 

1. javanensis (Less.). . . . 180 

Subfam. Viduince 181 

1. Munia, Hodgs 181 

1. malacca (Linn.) .... 182 

2. atricapilla(F.) .. 183 

2. Uroloncha, Cab 183 

1. acuticauda (Hodgs.) . . 184 

2. striata (Linn.) 185 

3. semistriata (Hume) . . 186 

4. fumigata (Wold.). ... 186 

5. leucogastra (Blyth) . . 186 

6. pectoralis (Jerd.) 187 

7. kelaarti (Blyth) 187 

8. nmlabarica (Linn.) . . 188 

9. punctulata (Linn.) . . 189 

3. Erythrura, Sivains 190 

1. prasina (Sparrm.). . . . 190 

4. Stictospiza, Sharpe 190 

1. formosa (Lath.) 191 

5. Sporaegintkus, Cab 192 

1. amandava (Linn.). . . . 192 

2. flavidiventris (Wal- 

lace) 193 



Fani. FRINGILLIDJE . , 194 

Subfam. Coccothraustince .... 196 

1. Coccothraustes, Briss. . . 196 
1. humii, Sharpe 196 

2. Pycuorhaniphus, Hume. . 198 

1. icteroides (Vig.) 198 

2. affinis (Blyth) 199 

3. carneipes (Hodgs.) . . 200 

3. Mycerobas, Cab 200 

1. melanoxanthus 

(Hodgs.) 201 

Subfam. Frini/iUinee 202 

1. Pyrrhula, Briss 204 

1. aurantiaca, Gould .... 204 

2. erythrocephala, Vig.. t 205 

3. erithacus, Blyth 206 

4. nepalensis, Hodgs 206 

2. Pyrrhoplectes, Hodgs. . . 207 

1. epauletta (Hodgs.) . . 207 

3. Loxia, Linn 208 

1. hiinaljiy.-iiia, Hodgs. . . 208 

4. Hajmatospiza, Bli/th . . , . 209 

1. eipahi (Hodgs.) 209 



Vlll 

5. 

6. 

7. 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Propyrrhula, Hodgs 210 

1. subhimalayensis 

(Hodgs.) 210 

Pyrrhospiza, Hodgs 211 

1. punicea, Hodgs 21 1 

Propasser, Hodgs 212 

1. thui&(Bonap4Schleff.) 213 

2. pulcherrimus, Hodgs. . 215 

3. ambiguus, Hume 215 

4. grandis (Blyth) 216 

5. rhodochrous ( Vigors) . 217 

6. rhodopeplus ( Vigors) . 217 

7. edwardsi ( Verr.} . . . . 218 



8. Carpodacus, Kaup . . 219 

9. 
10. 



219 
220 
221 
221 
222 
223 
223 
224 



1. erythrinus (Pall.) . 

2. severtzovi, Sharpe. . 
Erythrospiza, Bonap. . . 

1. githaginea (Temm.) 

2. niongolica (Swinh.) 
Procarduelis, Hodgs. . . 

1. nepalensis (Hodgs.} 

2. rubescens, Blanf. 

11. Carduelis, Briss 225 

1. caniceps, Vigors 225 

12. Callacanthis, Reichenb. . . 226 

1. burtoni (Gould) 226 

13. Acanthis, Bechst 227 

1. fringillirostris (Bonap. 

8f Schleg.) 228 

2. brevirostris (Gould) . . 229 

14. Metoponia, Bonap 230 

1. pusilla (Pall.) 230 

15. Hypacanthis, Cab 231 

1. spinoides ( Vig} 231 

16. Chrysomitris, Boie 232 

1. tibetana, Hume 232 

17. Fringilla, Linn 233 

1. montifringilla, Linn. . . 233 

18. Gymnorhis, Hodgs. . . . 

1. flavicollis (Frankl.) . 

19. Passer, Briss 

1. domesticus (Linn.) . 

2. pyrrhonotus, Blyth .. 

3. hispaniolensis(remw.) 238 

4. montanus (Linn.) .... 24C 

5. cinnamomeus (Gould). 24C 

6. flaveolus, Blyth 242 

20. Petronia, Kaup 243 

2. stulta (Gmel.) 243 

21. Montifringilla, Brehm . . 244 

1. blanfordi, Hume 24 

2. ruficollis, Blanf. .... 245 

3. adamsi, Moore ..... 24( 

22. Fringillauda, Hodgs 24^ 

1. nemoricola, Hodgs. . . 247 



235 
235 
236 
236 

238 



Page 



2. sordida, Stol 

3. brandti (Bonap.) 



Subfam. Emberizince ........ 249 

1. Einberiza, Briss. . . ...... 

1. schoeniclus, Linn ..... 

2. fucata, Pall ......... 

3. pusilla, Pall ......... 

4. leucocepliala,^. G. Gm 

5. stewarti,, Blyth ...... 

6. stracheyi, Moore .... 

7. buchanani, Blyth .... 

8. hortulana, Linn. . . . 

9. aureola, Pall ........ 

10. spodocephala, Pall. . 

11. melanocephala, Scop. 

12. luteola, Sparrm. . . . 

13. rutila, Pall. ....... 

14. striolata (Licht.) . . . 
2. Melophus, Swains ...... 

1. melanicterus (Gm.) . 



250 

251 

252 

254 

254 

256 

257 

258 

259 

259 

260 

261 

262 

263 

264 

265 

265 

, 267 



Fam. 

1. Chelidon, Forst 268 

1. urbica(i/m.) 269 

2 kashmiriensis, Gould. . 269 

3. lagopus (Pott.) 270 

4. nepalensis (Hodgs.) . . 271 

2. Cotile, Boie 271 

1. rip aria (Linn.) 272 

2. sinensis (Gray) 273 

3. Ptyonoprogne, Reichenb. . 273 

1 . rupestris (Scop.) 274 

2. concolor (Sykes) .... 275 

3. obsoleta ( Cab.) 275 

4. Hirundo, Linn 276 

1. rustica, Linn 277 

2. gutturalis, Scop 277 

3. tytleri, Jerd 278 

4. erythrogastra, Bodd. . . 279 

5. javanica, Sparrm 279 

6. smithii, Leach 280 

7. fluvicola, Jerd 280 

8. striolata, Temm 281 

9. daurica, Linn 282 

10. nepalensis, Hodgs 282 

11. erythropygia, Sykes . . 283 

12. rufula, Temm 284 

13. hyperythra, Lay 284 

Fam. MOTACILLID^B 285 

1. Motacilla, Linn 285 

1. alba, Linn 287 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



IX 



2. leucopsis, Gould .... 

3. ocularis, Swinh ....... 

4. personata, Gould .... 

5. hodgsoni, Gray ...... 

G. maderaspatensis, Gmel. 

7. melanope, Pall ....... 

8. borealis, Sitndev ..... 

9. flava, Linn ......... 

10. beema, Sykes ........ 

11. feldeggi, Michah ..... 

12. citreola,PW......... 

13. citreoloides(lT<%*.) . . 

2. Limonidroinus, Gould. . . . 

1. indicus (Gmel.) ...... 

3. Anthus, Bechst ......... 

1. trivialis (Linn.) .... 

2. maculatus, Hodgs. . . 

3. nilgiriensis, Sharp* . . 

4. cockburniaB, Oates . . 

5. similis (Jerd.) ...... 

(',. richardi, VieiU ....... 

7. striolatus, Blyth .... 

8. rufulus, Vieill. ...... 

9. campestris (Linn.) . . 

10. cervinus (Pall.) ...... 

11. rosaceus, Hodgs ..... 

12. spinoletta (Linn.) ---- 

13. japonicus (Tenmi. 

Schley.) ..... ..... 

4. Oreocorys, Sharpe ...... 

1. sylvanus (Hodys.) ____ 



Page 

288 
289 
290 
291 



293 
294 
295 
296 
297 
298 
299 
300 
300 
301 

302 ; 

304 ! 

305 | 

305 I 

306 i 

307 ! 

308 I 
308 
309 
310 
311 
312 

312 
313 
313 



Fam. ALAUDIDJE .......... 315 

1. Algernon, Keys, ft Bias.. . 317 

1. deserter um (Stanl.) . . 318 

2. Otocorys, Bonap ....... 319 

1. penicillata (Gould) . . 319 

2. longirostris, Gould . . 320 

3. elwesi, Blanf. ...... 321 

3. Melanocoryplia, Boie .... 322 

1. maxima, Gould ...... 322 

2. bimaculata (Menefr.) . 323 

4. Alauda, Linn ......... 324 

1. arvensis, Linn ....... 324 

2. gulgula, Frankl ..... 326 

5. Calandrella, Kaup ...... 327 

1. brachydactyla (Leisl) 327 

2. dukhunensis (%&).. 328 

3. tibetana, Brooks .... 329 

4. acutirostris, Hume . . 329 
<>. Alaudula, Blyth ........ 330 

1. raytal (IJuch. Ham.). . 330 

'2. adamsi (Hume) ...... 331 

3. porsica, Mharpr ...... '!'! I 

VOL. Tl. 



7. Mirafra, Horsf. 332 

1. cantillans,' Jerd 333 

2. assamica, McCkll. . . 334 

3. erythroptera, Jerd. . . 334 

4. affinis, Jerd 335 

5. microptera, Hume . . 336 

8. Galerita, Boie 336 

1. cristata (Linn.} 337 

2. deva (Sykes) 338 

3. malabarica (Scop.) . . 339 

9. Ammomaiies, Cab 339 

1. phcenicura(jyaw&/.).. 339 

2. phcenicuroides (Blyth) 340 
10. Pyrrhulauda, Smith 341 

1. grisea (Scop.) 341 

2. melanauchen (Cab.).. 343 

Fam. NECTAEINIIDJE 343 

Subfam. Nectariniince 345 

1. Chalcostetha, Cab 345 

1. pectoralis (Temm.) .. 345 

2. ^Ethopyga, Cab 346 

1. seheri^ (Tick.) 348 

2. andersoni, Oates .... 349 

3. cara, Hume 349 

4. nicobarica, Hume .... 350 

5. vigors! (Sykes) 350 

6. ignicauda (Hodgs.) . . 351 

7. gouldi(Ft>.) 352 

8. dabryi ( Verr.) 353 

9. saturata (Hodys.). . . . 354 

10. sanguinipectus, Wald. 354 

11. nepalensis (Hodgs.) . . 355 

12. horsfieidi (Blyth).... 356 

3. Arachnechthra, Cab 357 

1. lotenia (Linn.) 358 

2. aaiatica (Lath.) 359 

3. hasselti (Temm.) 360 

4. pectoralis (Horsf.) . . 361 

5. liammaxillaris (Blyth) 262 

6. andauianica, Hume . . 363 

7. minima (Sykes) 363 

8. zeylonica (Linn.) .... 364 

4. Anthothreptes, Swains. . . 365 

1. hypogrammica(J1f//.) 365 

2. malaccensis (Scop.) . . 366 

3. rhodolajnia, Shell. 367 

4. simplex (Miill.) 367 

Subfam. Araclmothennce . . 36S 

1. Arachnothera, Temm. . . 368 
1. nijiiriiH (J/tn?;/x.) .... :'.)!> 



SYSTEMATIC INVDEX. 



Page 

2. aurata, Jilyth 370 

3. modesta (Jfytm) 370 

4. longivostris (Lath.) . . 371 

5. clirysogenys (Temm.). 371 



[Fain. CBATKROPODIDJE. 

Subfam. Liotrichince. 

6 a. Chalcoparia, Cab ....... 373 

]. phoenicotis(7Vwm.).. 373] 



Fain. 



374 



1. Dicaeuin, Cuv ........... 375 

1. cruentatum (Linn.} . . 376 

2. trigonostigma (Scop.). 377 ! 

3. chrysorrhceum, Temm. 378 

4. ignipectus (Hodgs.) . . 378 

5. concolor, Jerd ....... 379 

6. olivaceum, Wald ..... 380 

7. virescens, Hume .... 380 

8. erythrorhynchiLs 

(Lath.} .......... 381 



2. Acinonorliynclius, Oates. . 381 
1. vincens (Scl.) ...... 382 

'). Piprisoma, Blytli ...... 382 

1. squalidum (Burt.) . . 382 

2. modestum (Hume) . . 383 

4. Prionochilus, Strickl ..... 384 

1. ignicapillus (Eytori) . . 384 

2. maculatus (Temm.) . . 385 

5. Pacliyglossa, Hodys ..... 385 

1. melanoxantha, Hodys. 386 



Fam. 



386 



1. Anthocincla, Blyth 387 

1. phayrii, Blyth 387 

2. Pitta, Vieill. 388 

1. nepalensis (Hodys.) . . 389 

2. oatesi (Hume) 390 

3. cserulea (Raffl.) 390 

4. cyanea, Blyth 391 

5. cyanoptera, Temm. . . 392 

6. megarhyncha, Schley. 393 

7. brachyura (Linn.} . . 393 

8. coccinea, Eyton .... 394 

9. cucullata, Hartl 395 

10. gurneyi, Hume 395 




Fig. 1 . Terpsiphone paradisi. 



Family MUSCICAPID.E. 

The intrinsic muscles of the syrinx fixed to the ends of the 
bronchial semi-rings ; the edges of both mandibles smooth, the 
upper one simply notched ; hinder aspect of tarsus smooth, com- 
posed of two entire longitudinal lamina) ; wing with ten pri- 
maries ; tongue non-tubular ; nostrils clear of the line of forehand, 
the lower edge of the nostril nearer to the commissure than the 
upper edge is to the culmen ; plumage of the nestling mottled or 
squamated ; nostrils covered more or less by long curly hairs ; 
rectrices twelve ; tarsi short ; an autumn moult only. 

The Muscicapidce, or flycatchers, constitute a large family of 
birds, which is well represented in India. Sonic :uv resident ; but 
the majority are migratory to a greater or less extent. 

The Flycatchers may be known by the mottled plumage of the 

VOL. IT. B 



o * " v \.* 1 

,* V , v : FV. 

-> , *.<> > ^ 

> "O * ^ * a 9 * "* * 

_. . * - , 

Q * -, l" A T ** * 

nestling, and by the presence of numerous hairs stretching from 
the forehead over the nostrils. These hairs lie horizontally, and 
in all cases reach beyond the nostrils, and not unfrequently nearly 
to the end of the bill. They are not to be confounded with the 
rictal bristles, which are stiff and strong and lie laterally, nor are 
they to be confounded with the lengthened shafts of the frontal 
feathers, which in some of the Thrushes resemble hairs. These 
latter, moreover, are never horizontal, nor do they extend over the 
nostrils except in cases where this is brought about by accident, 
such as careless preparation of the preserved specimen. 

The amount of mottling or squamation in the plumage of the 
nestling varies considerably, but is present in every species in 
a more or less marked degree. This character is perhaps least 
developed in the genus Terpsiphone, the most typical of Fly- 
catchers so far as structural characters are concerned ; but even in 
this genus the mottled breast is unmistakable. 

The Flycatchers may further be recognized by their very feeble 
tarsi and feet, which quite incapacitate them from walking on the 
ground; and this character will by itself be sufficient to separate 
them from the Thrushes, in which the tarsi are long and the feet 
strong. 

Young Flycatchers moult into adult plumage in most cases the 
first autumn ; but Terpsiphone differs in this respect, the males 
retaining an intermediate plumage for two or more years. 

Those Flycatchers which have abandoned their migratory habits 
and have become resident are well differentiated by generic cha- 
racters ; but others which are still migratory resemble each other 
structurally very closely, and generic characters by which to 
separate them into convenient groups are not easy to be found. 
In the following key, therefore, I have had recourse to types 
of colour, which appear to work well and to bring allied birds 
together into natural groups. 

The Flycatchers feed on insects, which they either catch on the 
wing, starting from a perch to which they usually return several 
times, or by running with the aid of their wings along the limbs of 
trees. They seldom or never descend to the ground. The majority 
construct their nests in holes of trees or banks, and some of the 
species build very beautiful cup-shaped nests in the branches of 
trees. Few of these birds have any song, and on the whole the 
Flycatchers are remarkably silent. They are found solitary or in 
pairs, and they are frequently familiar birds. 



Key to the Genera. 

a. Tail considerably shorter than wing. 
'. Second primary equal to the fifth. 

a". Closed wings not reaching- beyond 

middle of tail MUSCICAPA, p. 4. 

b . Closed wings reaching nearly to tip 

of tail HEMICHELIDON, p. 5. 



MUSCICAP1DJE. 

b'. Second primary very much shorter than 

fifth. 
c". Frontal feathers of ordinary structure, 

not concealing the nostrils. 
'". Rictal bristles short and few in 

number, generally less than six. 
4 . Sexes different. 

a 3 . In both sexes base of tail white, 
upper tail-coverts black, upper 
plumage brown or rufescent, 

never blue nor black SIPHIA, p. 7. 

b 5 . Males with whole upper plu- 
mage blue or black ; lower 
plumage never entirely blue 
or greeii. Females brown or 
rufescent above, never com- 
bined with black upper tail- 
coverts and white on tail. 

a 6 . Bill wide at base and strong. CYORNIS, p. 11. 
b 6 . Bill narrow throughout, and 

feeble NITIDULA, p. 27. 

c 5 . Both sexes with the entire 
plumage suffused with blue 

or green STOPAROLA, p. 27. 

6 4 . Sexes alike ; plumage plain brown 

or rufous throughout. 
d s . First primary never less than 

half second. 
c 6 . Bill laterally compressed ; 

lower mandible pale MUSCITREA, p. 30. 

d 6 . Bill flattened ; lower man- 
dible dark ANTHIPES, p. 31. 

e 5 . First primary much less than 

half second ALSEONAX, p. 34. 

b'". Rictal bristles very long and nume- 
rous, about ten on each side. 
c 4 . Tail much rounded; first primary 

much longer than half second . . OCHROMELA, p. 37. 
d*. Tail quite even ; first primary 

much less than half second .... CULICICAPA, p. 38. 
d". Frontal feathers lengthened and very 

dense, concealing the nostrils. 
c'". Bill carinated and narrow; both 

sexes with a brilliant neck-spot . . NILTAVA, p. 39. 
if". Bill broad and flattened ; no neck- 
spot in either sex PHILENTOMA, p. 42. 

b Tail as long as, or longer than, wing. 

c . Head crested TERPSIPHONE, p. 44. 

d'. Head not crested. 

e". Tail about equal to wing. 

e'" '. Length of culmen about twice the 

breadth of bill at forehead HYPOTHYMIS, p. 48. 

/'". Length of culmen about equal to 

breadth of bill at forehead CHKLIDORHYNX, p. 51. 

f". Tail considerably longer than wing . . RHIPIDURA, p. 52. 



B2 



MUSCICAPIim 



Genus MUSCICAPA, Brisson, 1760. 

The genus Muscicapa contains the Spotted Flycatcher, a common 
summer visitor to England and Europe. 

In this genus the sexes are alike : the culmen of the bill is about 
as long as twice the breadth of the bill at the forehead ; the rictal 
bristles are few and moderate in length ; the wing is long and 
pointed, the first primary being very small and the second very long 
and equal to the fifth ; the tail is square ; and the plumage is 
streaked. M. grisola is migratory. 

557. Muscicapa grisola. The Spotted Flycatcher. 

Muscicapa grisola, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 328 (1766) ; Sharpe, Cat. 

B. M. iv, p. 151 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 437 ; Gates in Hume's N. 

$ E. 2nd. ed. ii, p. 1. 
Butalis grisola (Linn.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 175; Hume fy Headers. Lah. 

to York. p. 185; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 467, v, p. 495; id. Cat. 

no. 299 bis j Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 52 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 

p. 163. 

Coloration. Upper plumage brown, the forehead, crown, and nape 
with black centres ; wing-coverts, secondaries, and tertiaries dark 
brown, rather broadly edged with pale fulvous ; primaries and the 




Fig. 2. Bill of M. grisola. 

primary-coverts more narrowly edged with the same ; tail dark 
brown, obsoletely edged paler ; lores greyish white ; a buff ring 
round the eye; sides of the head brown; cheeks whitish, with an 
irregular dark moustachial streak below ; lower plumage white, the 
breast and the sides of the throat streaked with brown ; the sides 
of the body less distinctly streaked. 

The young have the upper plumage pale fulvous, with brown or 
blackish margins; the wings broadly edged, the lesser coverts 
broadly tipped, with buff ; the lower plumage whitish, variegated 
with dark brown. 

Legs and feet black ; bill blackish, yellow at the base of the lower 
mandible ; iris dark brown (Butler). 

Length about 6; tail 2-5; wing 3*3; tarsus -6; bill from 
gape -8. 

Distribution. Common from May to September in Gilgit, where 
this species breeds at elevations over 8000 feet. This bird visits the 
plains in the autumn, and is found at that season in Sind, Eaj- 
putana, Guzerat, Cutch, and Kattywar. Its eastern limit in the 



HEMICIIELIDON. 5 

Himalayas appears to be Simla, where it has been obtained in 
September. 

This Flycatcher has an extensive range, being found, according 
to season, over the greater part of Europe, Africa, and South- 
western Asia. 

Habits, $c. This bird 'breeds in Gilgit, but nothing beyond this 
is on record about its nidification in India. In Europe it makes its 
nest on a branch of a tree near the trunk, in a shallow hole in a 
tree, or on a branch of a fruit-tree or creeper trained against 
a wall. The eggs are pale bluish or greenish, marked with reddish 
brown, and measure about '75 by '57. 

Genus HEMICHELIDON, Hodgs., 1844. 

The genus Hemichelidon contains two species of Flycatchers 
which are permanent residents in the Himalayas, a considerable 
number descending to the lower ranges and plains in the winter. 

In Hemichelidon the bill viewed from above is almost an equi- 
lateral triangle, sharp-pointed, pinched in towards the tip, and 
very depressed ; the rictal bristles are moderate ; the wing is 
long, reaching nearly to the end of the tail, the first primary very 
minute and the second equal to the fifth ; the tail is square. In 
this genus the sexes are alike, and the plumage brown or fer- 
ruginous. 

Key to the Species. 

a. General colour of plumage brown H. sibirica, p. 5. 

b. General colour of plumage ferruginous . . H.ferrityinea, p. 6. 

558. Hemichelidon sibirica. The Sooty Flycatcher. 
Muscicapa sibirica, Gm. Syst. Nat. i, p. 936 (1788). 




p. 75 ; Hume fy Henders. Lah. to York. p. 184, pi. iv. 
Hemichelidon sibirica (Gm.), Hume, N. 8f E. p. 206; id. Cat. 
no. 296 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 120 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 275 ; 
id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 1. 
Dang-chim-pa-pho, Lepch. 




Fig. 3. Bill of H. sibiricu. 

Coloration. Upper plumage brown, the feathers of the head \\ith 
darker centres and those of the wings more or less edged paler ; 



6 MUSCICAPID^. 

tail plain brown ; a ring of white feathers round the eye ; lores 
mixed white and hrown ; sides of the head brown ; chin, throat, 
breast, and sides of the body smoky brown, dashed with grey 
in places ; an indistinct white patch on the lower throat ; abdomen, 
vent, and under tail-coverts white, the last mixed with brown. 
After the autumn moult, the margins to the wing-feathers are 
broader and more rufous. 

The young have the crown and nape streaked with fulvous 
white and the upper plumage spotted and streaked with fulvous ; 
the lesser wing-coverts are tipped, and the greater coverts and 
quills margined broadly, with fulvous ; the lower plumage is much 
whiter than in the adult. 

Upper mandible dark brown, lower yellowish ; iris brown ; legs 
brownish black. 

Length about 4-5 ; tail 2 ; wing 2-8 ; tarsus '5 ; bill from 
gape *55. 

Distribution. A permanent resident in the Himalayas, from 
Afghanistan and Kashmir to Sikhim, occurring as high as 
33,000 feet in the summer. In the winter this species is found 
along the lower ranges of those mountains, and it has been 
observed at Shillong, Manipur, and generally throughout Pegu and 
Tenasserim, extending into the Malay peninsula. It is widely 
spread over China and Eastern Siberia in summer. This Flycatcher 
appears to be entirely absent from the plains of India. 

Halnts, fyc. Breeds in Kashmir in June. A nest found by 
Major Cock was placed against the side of a tree-trunk. The 
eggs are pale green mottled with pale reddish, and measure about 
65 by -46. 

559. Hemichelidon ferruginea. The Ferruginom Flycatcher. 

Hemichelidon ferruginea, Hodgs. P. Z. S. 1845, p. 32 ; Blyth, Cat. 

p. 175; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 137; Hume, N. $ E. p. 207; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 122: Gates. B. B. i, p. 276; id. in 

Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 2. 
Alseonax ferrugineus (Hodgs.), Jerd. B. I. i, p. 460 ; Hume. Cat. 

no. 299; id. S. F. xi, p. 106. 

Dang-chim-pa-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Forehead and crown of head dark brown; back, 
scapulars, lesser wing-coverts, rump, and upper tail-coverts reddish 
brown, changing to chestnut on the latter two parts ; median and 
greater coverts brown, edged and tipped with chestnut; quills 
dark brown, the later secondaries and tertiaries edged with reddish 
brown ; tail reddish brown ; a distinct ring of feathers round the 
eye whitish or pale buff; lores and ear-coverts mixed rufous and 
brown ; lower plumage pale rufous, deepening to chestnut on the 
abdomen, under tail-coverts, and flanks, the breast infuscated, the 
lower part of the throat whitish, and the sides of the throat mottled 
with brown. 

The young have the forehead, crown, and nape black, boldly 



S1PHIA. 7 

shvakrd with fulvous; the upper plumage chestnut, mottled with 
black ; wings and tail more rufous than in the adult ; chin and 
throat white ; lower plumage uniform pale chestnut. 

Bill dusky, fleshy-yellow at the base beneath ; legs pale whitish- 
fleshy ; iris dark brown (Jerdoii). 

Length about 5 ; tail 2 ; wing 2' 7 ; tarsus '5 ; bill from 
gape -65. 

Distribution. A permanent resident in the Himalayas from. 
Nepal to the extreme east of Assam, from about 4000 to 8000 feet. 
This species has been procured in winter at Shillong, in the Khasi 
hills ; in Pegu and in Tenasserim. Hume obtained it in April in 
Manipur, where he is of opinion that it breeds. This Flycatcher 
extends to China. 

Habits, $c. Hodgson figures the nest, made of moss and lichens 
and placed upon the surface of an old stump of a tree. The eggs 
of this bird appear to be buff freckled with reddish, and to 
measure -69 by -5. 

Genus SIPHIA, Hodgs., 1837. 

The genus Sipliia contains four Indian birds, one of which is the 
type of the genus, and the other three are closely allied species, 
which have been placed by various ornithologists in Muscicapa^ 
Sipliia, or Erytlirosterna. I consider the four species now noticed 
to be absolutely congeneric both in structure and in style of 
coloration. They have no close relationship with Muscicapa, in 
which the sexes are alike and the wing very lengthened, and I 
prefer to associate them together in the genus Sipliia, which is 
equal to Erytlirosterna but of older date. 

In Siphia the sexes are differently coloured, the base of the tail 
in both sexes is white, the upper tail-coverts black, and the back 
brown or rufous. The bill is small, and the rictal bristles mode- 
rate ; the wing is of moderate length, but sharply pointed, and the 
first primary is shorter than half the second; the tail is square. 

The male nestlings soon lose their spotted plumage, and assume 
the plumage of the adult female in September. It is not, however, 
till towards the end of the winter that they commence to put on the 
characteristic red colouring of the adult male, and consequently the 
mass of birds which visit India are in the garb of the female till 
near the time for their departure to summer-quarters. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Throat chestnut, not extending to the chin 

or breast .......................... S. strophiata, p. 8. 

b. Chin, throat, and breast chestnut ; crown 

of different shade to back ............ S. parva tf , p. 9. 

c. Chin and throat chestnut, breast ashy; 

crown and back of the same shade .... & albicilla cT , p. 10. 

d. Chin, throat, breast, and upper abdomen 

chestnut, surrounded by a black band . . S. hyperythra $ , p. 10. 



I S. parva ) O e t rf 

e. No chestnut on lower plumage .......... v s> - ^Sneilla > 

(S.hyperytha \ J UV ' 



'g MUSCICAPID^E. 

560. Siphia strophiata. The Oranye-yoryeted Flycatcher. 

Siphia strophiata, Hodgs. 2nd. Rev. i, p. 651 (1837) ; Blyth, Cat. 
p. 171 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 293 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 479 ; Stoliczka, 
J.A.S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 32 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 47 ; 
Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, p. 72 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., 
Aves, p. 620 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 232 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 
iv, p. 455 ; Hume, Cat. no. 319 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 278 ; Gates, 
/>'. n. i, p. 290. 

Siphia rufigularis, Scully, S. F. viii, p. 279 (1879). 

X/y hija, Nep. ; Phatt-tayrak-pho, Lepch. 




Fig. 4. Bill of 8. strophiata. 

Coloration. Male. Upper plumage olive-brown, tinged with 
fulvous on the back and rump ; upper tail-coverts black ; lores, 
cheeks, chin, and throat black; forehead and a short eyebrow 
white ; ear-coverts and feathers above the eye deep slaty ; a large 
oval patch below the throat bright chestnut ; breast and sides of 
the neck slaty ; abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts white ; 
flanks olive-brown; lesser wing-coverts slaty; the other coverts 
and all the quills brown, edged with fulvous ; tail blackish ; the 
pair next the middle pair with a patch of white on the outer web ; 
the others with a larger white patch on both webs : under wing- 
coverts and axillaries light buff. 

Female. Similar in style of coloration to the male, but the orange 
gular patch paler and smaller, the white on the forehead of less 
extent, and the black of the face and throat replaced by slaty. 

The young bird is brown all over, closely streaked and mottled 
with fulvous ; the tail is marked with white as in the adult, but 
there is no indication of the gular patch. 

Bill black'; gape fleshy-rwhitish ; iris dark brown; feet dark 
horny-brown ; claws black (Scully}. 

Length nearly 5-5 ; tail 2-3 ; wing 3 ; tarsus *8 ; bill from 
gape '65. 

It is not unusual for the female to have the throat to some 
extent orange-rufous, and it was to a specimen exhibiting this 
peculiarity that Scully assigned the name of Siphia rufyularis. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Eastern Kashmir to the 
Daphla hills in Assam up to 12,000 feet in summer, and descend- 
ing to the lower valleys in winter; the Khasi and Naga hills; 
Manipur ; the neighbourhood of Bhamo ; Arrakan ; Muleyit moun- 
tain in Tenasserim. This species extends into China. 

Halits, fyc. Nothing is known of the nidincation of this Ely- 
catcher. According to Jerdon it frequently alights on the ground 



SIPHIA. 



to pick up an insect, and occasionally makes a dart at oue in the 
air, returning after each sally to its perch. 

561. Siphia parva. The European Red-breasted Flycatcher. 



Muscicapa parva, Bechst. Naturg. Deutschl. iv, p. 505 (1795) ; 

Cat. B. M. iv, p. 161. 
Erythrosterna parva (Bechst.}, Blanf. J. A. S. B. xxxviii, pt. ii, 

p. 174 ; id. S. F. v, p. 484 ; Hume, 'J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 116 ; 

id. Cat. no. 323 bis ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 167. 

Coloration. Male. When in fresh plumage, after the autumn 
moult, the forehead, lores, and cheeks are grey, speckled at times 
with blackish ; a ring of white feathers round the eye; sides of the 
head bluish ashy ; crown and nape ashy brown ; remainder of the 
upper plumage fulvous-brown ; upper tail-coverts black ; wing- 
coverts, secondaries, and tertiaries brown, edged with fulvous- 
brown ; primaries and primary-coverts edged more narrowly with 
the same ; chin, throat, and breast bright chestnut ; remainder of 
the lower plumage white, tinged with buff on the sides of the 
body ; the two middle pairs of tail-feathers wholly black ; the 
others with the basal two thirds more or less white. 

Female. The whole upper plumage brown, tinged with fulvous, 
the crown being of the same colour as the back ; wings and tail 
as in the male ; upper tail-coverts black ; feathers on the eyelids 
white ; sides of the head rufous-brown ; lores whitish ; lower 
plumage dull white, suffused with pale fulvous-ashy on the breast 
and sides of the body. 

The young are spotted on the upper plumage and breast with 
fulvous. After the autumn moult young males commence to 
assume some red on the breast, and they become fully adult by 
the spring. 

Iris blackish brown ; legs and feet black ; bill brown above, 
brownish-flesh below (Butler}. 

Length about 5; tail 2-1; wing 2-6; tarsus -65; bill from 
gape -6. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to a great portion of the Indian 
peninsula, being found to the east as far as the Bhutan Doars at 
the base of the Himalayas and Singbhoom in the plains, and to the 
south as far as Mysore and the Nilgiris. 

This species is found in Central and South-eastern Europe 
during the summer. Its distribution out of India is very difficult 
to trace, as this Flycatcher has been confounded with the next by 
many ornithologists, Seebohm going so far as to unite S. parva^ 
S. albicilla, and S. hyperythra into one species. I have seen no 
example of S. parva from any portion of the Himalayas *, and I 
doubt if it ever crosses those mountains, the specimens said to 



* Stoliczka (J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 3*2), however, records 
leucura from Kotgarh. The species he obtained may have been S. parva or 
more likely S. hyperythra. 



10 

heave been procured from Central Asia having probably found their 
way thither from the west. This species is found in India from 
October to April. 

Habits, $c. This bird breeds in Europe, making a nest of moss 
lined with grass and hairs, either against the trunk of a tree or in 
a hollow of the trunk The eggs are pale green, marked with 
pinkish brown, and measure about -65 by '53. 

562. SipMa albicilla. The Eastern Red-breasted Flycatcher. 

Muscicapa albicilla, Pall. Zoogr. Rosso- Asiat. i, p. 462, Aves, tab. i 

(1811) ; Sharps, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 162 ; Gates, B. B. i, p. 278. 
Erythrosterna leucura (Gm.), Blyth, Cat. p. 171 ; Horsf. 8f M. Cat. 

i, p. 297; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 481. 
Erythrosterna albicilla (Pall.), Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 621 ; 

Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 233; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 280; Hume, 

Cat. no. 323. 

The White-tailed Robin Flycatcher, Jerd.; Turra, Hind.; Chut-ki, 
Beng. 

Coloration. Male. Similar to the male of S. parva, but having 
only the chin and throat chestnut, and not the breast, which is 
ashy ; it differs also in the crown being, in freshly moulted birds 
in good plumage, of the same colour as the back, and in the ear- 
coverts being brown instead of bluish ashy. 

Female. So similar to the female of /S. parva, as to be undistin- 
guishable from it. 

I have not been able to examine nestlings of this species, but 
there is no reason to think that they differ from those of S. parva. 
The youngest birds I have seen are like the females, but with some 
fulvous tips to the wing-coverts. 

Bill dark brown, yellowish at the gape ; mouth yellow ; iris 
hazel-brown ; legs and claws black ; eyelids grey. 

Length about 5 ; tail 2*1 ; wing 2*7 ; tarsus '65 ; bill from 
gape -6. 

Distribution. Visits the Eastern portion of the Empire from 
October to April, extending on the west as far as Nepal in the 
Himalayas and Dinapore in the plains, and southwards to Tenas- 
serim. This species summers in Eastern Siberia and Northern 
China. 

Habits, $c. The nest and eggs of this bird do not appear to be 
known. This Flycatcher frequents groves of trees, running among 
the larger branches and constantly flitting its tail up and down 
and partially expanding it. 



563. SipMa hyperythra, The Indian Red-breasted Flycatcher. 

Siphia hyperythra, Cabanis, J. f. Orn. 1866, p. 391 : Oates in Hume's 
N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 2. 

rythrosterna parva (Bechst.}, Brooks, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 76, 
xliii ; pt. ii, p. 245. 



CYORNIS. 11 

Ervthrosterna hyperythra (Cab.), Holdsworth, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 442, 
pi. 17; Hume, N. $ E. p. 217; Brooks, 6'. F. iii, p. 236; Hume, 
S. F. vii, p. 376 ; id. Cat. no. 323 ter. 

Muscicapa hyperythra (Cab.}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv. p. 163; Leyye, 
Birds Ceyl p. 428. 

Coloration. Male. The whole upper plumage dark ashy brown ; 
the tail -coverts black; wings and coverts dark brown, edged with 
the colour of the back ; tail black, with the same distribution of 
while as in S. parva and S. albicilla-, sides of the head dark ashy 
brown like the crown ; chin, throat, breast, and upper part of the 
abdomen rich chestnut, separated from the head and neck by a 
broad black band produced down the sides of the breast; remainder 
of the lower plumage white, tinged with rufous on the flanks and 
under tail-coverts. 

Female. Very similar to the females of S. parva and S. albicilla, 
but darker above. 

Some young males in May are acquiring the black pectoral band 
and show indications of rufous on the throat and breast. 

Iris hazel-brown ; bill above brown, pale next the forehead ; 
gape and lower mandible fleshy yellow, with the tip dusky ; inside 
of mouth yellow ; legs and feet deep brown ; soles yellowish 
(Legge). 

Length about 5 ; tail 2 ; wing 2*7 ; tarsus *75 ; bill from 
gape -6. 

Distribution. Summers in Kashmir and winters in Ceylon. This 
species has not yet been procured in the intervening countries 
during the periods of migration. 

Habits, fyc. Brooks remarks that this Flycatcher breeds in 
Kashmir between 6000 and 7000 feet elevation, but he failed to 
find the nest. 

Genus CYORNIS, Blyth, 1843. 

I place in the genus Cijornis fourteen species of Flycatchers in 
which the sexes are different, and which appear to be congeneric 
in structure, habits, and style of coloration. 

The females of some of the species of this genus are amongst 
the most difficult of birds to discriminate, and they remained in 
givat confusion till Sharpe brought them into order with the aid 
of Hodgson's types and drawings. 

In Cyornis the bill is about half the length of the head, 
depressed, and rather broad at the base; the rictal bristles are 
moderate ; the wing in most of the species is sharply pointed, and 
the first primary generally small; the tail is square or nearly so. 

In this genus all the males are blue or black on the upper 
plumage, and the females brown or rufescent. 

All the species are true Flycatchers, catching their prey on the 
wing or by running along branches. 



12 MUSCICAPID^E. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Base of tail white. 

a. White on taitffetending nearly to tips of 

feathers C. cyaneus, p. 13. 

b'. White on tail confined to base. 
a". Upper plumage blue. 
a'". Breast orange-chestnut. 

4 . No white frontal band C. hodgsoni <5, p. 14. 

b*. A white frontal band C. hyper ythrus d", p. 15. 

b'". Breast white, pale buff, or fulvous- 
grey, [p. 16. 

e 4 . No white supercilium C. leucomelanurus <3 , 

d*. A white supercilium C. superciliaris J , p. 17. 

b". Upper plumage black C. melanoleucus <J , p. 18. 

b. No white on tail. 

c'. Upper plumage blue. 

c''. Crown and rump cobalt-blue, back 

dull blue, 
c'". Axillaries and under wing-coverts 

white C. sapphira $ , p. 20. 

d'". Axillaries and under wing-coverts 

chestnut C. oatesi d , p. 20. 

d". Crown, rump, and back of the same 

blue. 

e'". Whole lower plumage white .... C. astigma d , p. 19. 
f". Chin, throat, and breast dark blue ; 

abdomen white C. pallidipes $ , p. 22. 

ff'". Whole lower plumage pale blue . . C. unicolor <$, p. 22. 
h'". Breast ferruginous or chestnut. 

e 4 . Chin and throat blue C. rubeculoides $ , p. 23. 

f 4 . Throat ferruginous like breast. 
a 5 . First primary about half length 

of second ; wing under 3 . . C. tickelli, p. 25. 
b 5 . First primary much shorter 

than half second; wing over 3. C. magnirostris <J , p. 26. 
d'. Upper plumage brown or rufescent. 
e". Breast chestnut or ferruginous. 
f". First primary about half length of 

second ; sides of head grey .... C. pallidipes $ , p. 22. 
k'". First primary much shorter than 
half second ; sides of head fulvous 
or rufous. 
# 4 . Wing considerably under 3 .... C. rubecidoides $ , p. 23. 

A 4 . Wing over 3 C. magnirostris $ , p. 26. 

f 1 '. No chestnut on breast. 

I'". Wing considerably over 3. 

i l . First primary much shorter than 
half second ; yellowish - buff 

patch on throat C. oatesi 5 , p. 20. 

A; 1 . First primary about equal to half 

second ; no patch on throat . . C. unicolor $ , p. 22. 
m'". Wing considerably under 3. 
I*. Second primary equal to ninth ; 

wing 2-3 ; tail 1-6 C. hyperythrus $ , p. 15. 

m 4 . Second primary shorter than the [p. 16. 

secondaries; wing 2 -4; tail 2,, CJeucQmelanurus $, 



CTOBK18" 13 

w 4 . Second primary between the 
sixth and seventh or equal to 
seventh. 

c 5 . Wing 2-8 j tail 2-2 C. hodgsoni 9 , p. 14. 

d 5 . Wing 2-3 or 2-4 ; tail 17 or 1-8. 
a 6 . Chin, throat, and breast pale 

buff or sordid white. 
a 7 . Upper tail-coverts and 
outer webs of tail-fea- 
thers suffused with blue. C. superciliaris $ , p. 17. 
V. Upper tail-coverts and 
outer webs of tail-fea- 
thers fulvous C. astigma $ , p. 19. 

c 7 . Upper tail-coverts and 
outer webs of tail-fea- 
thers bright ferruginous. C. melanoleucus $ , p. 18. 
b". Chin, throat, and breast 

orange-chestnut C. sapphira , p. 20. 

564. Cyornis cyaneus. The White-tailed Blue Flycatcher. 

Muscitrea cyanea, Hume, S. F. v, p. 101 (1877) ; Hume Sf Dav. S. F. 

vi, p. 207 ; Hume, Cat. no. 2GG bis. 
Trichastoina leucoproctura, Tweedd. P. Z. S. 1877, p. 306: Hume, 

S. F. vii, p. 318 

Niltava leucoprocta (Tweedd.), Oates, B. B. \, p. 298. 
Pachycephala cyanea (Hume), Gadow, B. M. Gat. viii, p. 224. 




Fig. 5. Bill of C. cyaneus. 

Coloration. Male. Lores and front line of the forehead black ; 
forehead, crown, nape, and some of the lesser coverts cobalt-blue ; 
the remaining wing-coverts and the whole upper plumage deep 
blue ; quills dark brown, edged with blue ; the four middle tail- 
feathers dull blue, the next pair white on both webs, with a broad 
black tip, the next two pairs nearly entirely white on the inner 
web, the outermost pair narrowly white on the inner web ; sides 
of the head and neck, chin, throat, and breast dull blue ; abdomen 
and sides of the body bluish grey; vent and under tail-coverts 
pure white; under wing-coverts ashy. The disposition of white 
in the tail varies somewhat. 

Female. Lores and front line of the forehead reddish brown ; 
upper plumage olive-brown, tinged with rul'ous; wing-coverts and 
quills dark brown, broadly edged with bright rufous ; tail brown, 
tinged with rufous and with the same distribution of white on it 
as in the male ; ear- coverts olive-brown, with pale shafts ; chin, 
throat, bivast, and sides of the body rufous-olive ; a large patch of 



14 MUSCICAPID.E. 

white on the fore neck ; middle of the abdomen whitish ; vent and 
under tail-coverts pure white ; under wing-coverts and axillaries 
rufous- ashy. 

Bill black ; legs light brown ; iris deep brown (Limbory). 

Length about 7 ; tail 3 ; wing 3*6 ; tarsus '9 ; bill from gape 1. 

Distribution. Muleyit mountain in Tenasserim up to 5000 feet. 
This species has also been found on the mountains of Perak in the 
Malay peninsula. 

Habits, fyc. A forest bird, found constantly on trees, and never 
descending to the ground. 

565. Cyornis hodgsoni. The Rusty -breasted Blue Flycatcher. 

Siphia erythacus, Jerd. $ Blyth, P. Z. S. 1861, p. 201 (nee Blyth) ; 

Jerd. B. I. i, p. 480 ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 458 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. 

S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 158 j Hume, 8. F. v, p. 137 ; Hume fy Dew. 

S. F. vi, pp. 233, 510 ; Hume, Cat. no. 322 j id. S. F. xi, p. 115. 
Siphia hodgsonii, Verr. N. Arch. Mus. vi, Bull. p. 34 (1870), vii, p. 29 ; 

David, op, cit. ix, pi. 4, tig. 4. 
Erythrosterna sordida, Godw-Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 158 

(1874); Hume, S. F. iii, p. 392. 
Poliomyias hodgsoni (Verr.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 203 ; Gates, 

B. B. i, p. 286. 
The Rusty -breasted Flycatcher, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. The whole upper plumage slaty blue ; lores, 
cheeks, under the eye, and the upper tail-coverts black ; sides of 
the head and neck slaty blue ; wing-coverts brown edged with 
cyaneous ; quills black edged with brown ; tail black, the base of 
all the feathers except the middle pair white ; chin, throat, breast, 
and abdomen orange-chestnut; lower abdomen, vent, flanks, and 
under tail-coverts pale ferruginous. 

Female. Upper plumage olive-brown, tinged with fulvous on the 
upper tail-coverts ; tail brown, edged on the basal half with fulvous- 
brown ; wing-coverts and quills brown edged with fulvous-brown, 
and the greater coverts tipped with the same ; lores whitish ; a pale 
ring round the eye ; sides of the head olive-brown tinged with 
rufous ; lower plumage ashy brown, the abdomen whitish. 

The young bird is not known. 

The legs and feet vary from dusky liver-brown to plain dark 
brown ; the bill in one bird entirely black, in other two blackish, 
horny grey on base and lower ridge of rami of lower mandible ; 
iris deep brown (Hume). 

Length about 5-5 ; tail 2-2 ; wing 2-8 ; tarsus -65 ; bill from gape 
'55. 

C. luteola is an allied species found outside our limits and differs 
chiefly in having a considerable amount of white on the wing-coverts 
of both sexes. It was to this species that Blyth first applied the 
name Siphia erythaca (J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 126, 1847;. Subse- 
quently he and Jerdon reapplied this name to the Indian species, 
for which, under these circumstances, the term, erythaca cannot be 
used. 



CYORNIS. 15 

I have examined the types of E. sordida obligingly sent me by 
Godwin-Austen and I find them to be the females of the present 
species. 

Distribution. Specimens of this species have been obtained in 
Sikhitn (March and April) ; Shillong (no date) ; Japvo peak, Naga 
hills, at 6000 feet (January) ; Manipur (February and April); Karen 
hills near Toungngoo at 4000 feet (January) ; pine-forests, JSalvveen 
(February) ; Muleyit mountain (January and February). This 
Flycatcher extends into China. 

566. Cyornis hyperythrus. The Rufous-breasted Blue Flycatcher. 

Dimorpha superciliaris, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi, p. 190 (1842, nee Jerd.}. 
Muscicapa hyperythra, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi, p. 885 (1842). 
Muscicapula rubecula, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 940 (1843). 
Siphia superciliaris (Bl.\ Blyth, Cat. p. 172 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 480 ; 

Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 159 j Hume, Cat. no. 321 ; id. S. F. 

xi, p. 115. 
Digenea superciliaris (BL), Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 293 ; Hume, N. $ E. 

p. 216. 

Muscicapula hyperythra (Bl.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 206. 
Cyornis hyperythrus (Bl.), Oates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 2. 
The Rufous-breasted Flycatcher, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, lores, chin, and cheeks black ; a 
frontal band extending to the posterior part of the eye white ; the 
whole upper plumage, sides of the head, and wing-coverts slaty 
blue ; quills brown, the primaries and secondaries edged with rufous ; 
tail brown suffused with slaty blue, and the bases of all the feathers 
except the middle two pairs white; throat and breast orange- 
chestnut, paling below the breast and becoming white on the 
abdomen and under tail-coverts ; sides of the body tinged with 
brown ; axillaries white. 

Female. Forehead, lores, and a conspicuous ring round the eye 
fulvous ; sides of the head fulvous-brown with paler shafts ; upper 
plumage olive-brown, the wings edged with ferruginous and the 
tail suffused with rufescerit olive-brown ; lower plumage ochraceous, 
pale on the throat and abdomen, bright on the breast, the flanks 
infuscated. 

The young are streaked with fulvous above and on the sides of 
the head, and the lower parts are fulvous with black margins on 
the feathers of the breast. 

Legs and feet very pale silvery to fleshy pink, the terminal joints 
of the toes and the claws slightly brownish ; bill black ; iris deep 
brown (Hume). 

Length about 4'5 ; tail 1-6 ; wing 2-3 ; tarsus *7 ; bill from gape 
5. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Garhwal to Sikhim ; the Khasi 
and Naga hills; Manipur. This species breeds in the Himalaya* 
and also in the Khasi hills, whence I have seen specimens obtained 
in .July and August. 

, $c. According to Hodgson this species makes a nest of 



16 IMUSCTCAPID^E. 

moss under the roots, or near the base, of a tree. The eggs are said 
to be pale grey "or brownish white marked with brownish red, and 
to measure about -68 by -44. 

567. Cyornis leucomelanurus. The Slaty-blue Flycatcher. 

Digenea leucomelanura, Hodgs. P. Z. S. 1845, p. 26 ; Horsf. $ M. 

Cat. i, p. 294 ; Hume, N. # E. p. 216 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, 

p. 459, pi. xiii. 
Digenoa tricolor, Hodgs. P. Z. S. 1845, p. 26; Horsf. % M. Cat. i, 

p. 294. 
Siphia tricolor (Ilodgs.), Blyth, Cat. p. 172; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 478; 

Brooks, S. F. v, p. tfli_Hume, Cat. no. 318. 




. 

8. B. xh'ii, pt. ii/p. 15 ; Hume, Cat. no. 320. 
Siphia minuta, Hume, Ibis, 1872, p. 109 ; id. S. F. vii, p. 376 ; id. 

Cat. no. 318 bis. 
Digenea cerviniventris, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 460 (1879) ; Salv. 

Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) vii, p. 388. 
Cyornis leucomelanurus (Hodgs.), Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. 

ii, p. 3. 
The Brown-winged Flycatcher, The Slaty Flycatcher, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. Upper plumage and the margins of the wing- 
coverts and tertiaries dull blue ; forehead and eyebrow greyish blue ; 
lores and sides of head black ; upper tail-coverts and tail black, 
the basal half of all the tail-feathers, except the middle pair, white ; 
quills brown, edged with pale rufous ; chin and throat white, and 
the remainder of the lower plumage pale fulvous-grey ; sometimes 
the whole lower plumage including the chin and throat is a pale 
buff. 

Female. "Whole upper plumage olive-brown, tinged with rufous 
on the rump ; upper tail-coverts and tail ferruginous ; a fulvous 
ring round the eye ; lores and sides of the head mixed fulvous and 
brown ; wings brown, margined with pale rufous ; chin, throat, 
and middle of the abdomen whitish; remaining lower plumage 
ochraceous. 

The young nestling has the upper plumage brown streaked with 
fulvous and the lower plumage fulvous. 

Bill black; legs dark brown; iris brown (Coclcburn). 

Length about 4'5 ; tail 2 ; wing 2-4 ; tarsus '75 ; bill from gape *5. 

In Sikhim males the chin and throat are generally white and the 
lower plumage pale. Birds from Shillong and Manipur become 
much darker ; and to such a dark bird from the latter locality Sharpe 
gave the name Digenea cerviniventris. I do not think the two 
forms are more than races. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Murree and Kashmir to Sib- 
sagur and Sadiya in Assam ; the Khasi hills ; Manipur ; Karennee. 
This species is found up to 7000 or 8000 feet. 

Habits, fyc. The nest of this Flycatcher is a massive little cup 



CYORNIS. 1 i 

of moss, fur, and wool placed in a hollow at the side of the trunk of 
a tree. Brooks found the nest in Kashmir at the commencement 
of June. The eggs, four in number, are pale buff clouded with 
rufous, and measure about '62 by '48. Many males of this species 
breed while still in immature plumage, that is in the plumage of 
the female. 

568. Cyornis superciliaris. The White-lrowed Blue 
Flycatcher. 

Muscicapa superciliaris, Jerd. Madr. Journ. L. S. xi, p. 16 (1840). 
Dimorpha albogularis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi, p. 190 (1842). 
Muscicapa ciliaris, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 84 (1844). 
Muscicapa hemileucura, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 84 (1844). 
Muscicapula acornaus, Hodgs., Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 127 (1847). 
Erythrosterna acornaus (Hodgs.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 171 ; Jerd. B. 1. i, 

p. 483 ; Hume, Cat. no. 325. 

Muscicapula hemileucura (Hodgs.}, Horsf. fy M. Cat. i. p. 296. 
Muscicapula albogularis (Bl.} } 'Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 297. 
Muscicapula superciliaris (Jerd.), Blyth, Cat. p. 172 ; Horsf. fy M. 

Cat. i, p. 296; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 470 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii. 

pt. ii, p. 30 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 213 ; Ball, S. F. v, p. 415 ; Hume, 

Cat. no. 310 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 204 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 

p. 166. 

Muscicapula ciliaris (Hodgs.}, Hume, Cat. no. 311 bis. 
Cyornis superciliaris (Jerd.}, Oates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, 

p. 4. 
The White-brotved Blue Flycatcher, Tlie Brown Flycatcher, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. The whole upper plumage, lesser and median 
wing-coverts, ear-coverts, cheeks, and sides of the neck dull blue ; 
greater' coverts and quills dark brown, edged with pale blue; tail 
black, edged with blue, the basal half of all the feathers except the 
median pair white ; lores black ; a broad supercilium from the eye 
to the nape white ; a broad collar across the breast, interrupted in 
the middle, dull blue like the back; the whole lower plumage 
white. 

Female. After the autumnal moult the upper plumage is olive 
brown, the forehead tinged with fulvous, the crown with minute 
dark spots ; the upper tail-coverts tinged with blue ; wing-coverts 
and tertiaries edged and tipped with fulvous ; the other quills more 
narrowly edged with the same ; tail brown, with a tinge of blue on 
the outer webs ; lores and sides of the head fulvescent ; lower 
plumage pale buff, turning to white on the lower part of the 
abdomen and under tail-coverts. 

When the plumage becomes worn, the female is frequently found 
with the back and rump suffused with blue. 

The nestling is ashy brown above, with numerous buff spots, and 
the wing-coverts tipped with the same ; lower plumage pale buff, 
closely mottled with brown ; the outer webs of the tail-feathers 
suffused with blue. In the young male the white on the tail is 
present from the earliest age. The spotted plumage is soon lost, 
and the adult plumage quickly acquired. 

VOL. II. C 



18 MUSCICAPID^. 

Bill black ; legs and feet dull purplish black ; iris deep brown 
(Hume). 

Length about 4-5 ; tail 1*9 ; wing 2'6 ; tarsus '6; bill from gape *6. 

Distribution. The Himalayas, from Kashmir arid the Hazara 
country to Sikhim. In summer this species is found up to 
12,000 feet ; but in winter it descends to the lower ranges, and 
many birds find their way to the plains, whence I have examined 
specimens procured at Allahabad, Etawah, Jhansi, Saugor, Eaipur, 
Seoni, and Khandesh. It probably does not occur east of the 
longitude of Calcutta. Two birds procured in Karenuee by 
Wardlaw E/amsay were entered in my ' Birds of Burmah ' as 
belonging to this species. On reexaminiug these specimens, I find 
that they are without doubt females of C. astiyma. Other localities 
recorded for this species are Ajanta by Jerdon and Ahmednagar in 
the Deccan by Eairbank. 

Habits, <$fc. Breeds throughout the Himalayas from April to 
June, laying five eggs in a cup-shaped nest of moss in a hole of a 
tree or between two stones in a wall. The eggs are pale green, 
profusely marked with reddish, and measure about *62 by *48. 

569. Cyornis melanoleucus. The Little Pied Flycatcher. 

Muscicapa maculate, Tick. J. A. S. B. ii, p. 574 (1833, descr. mill.}, 

nee P.L. 8. Mull., nee GmeL 
Muscicapula melanoleuca, Hodys., Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii. p. 940 

(1843); id. Cat. p. 172. 
Erythrosterna pusilla, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviii, p. 813 (1849) ; id. 

Cat. p. 171 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 482 ; Brooks, S. F. iii, p. 236, 

v, p. 471 ; Hume, Cat. no. 324. 
Muscicapula maculata (Tick.), Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 296; Sharpe, 

Cat. B. M. iv, p. 207 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 294. 
Erythrosterna maculata (Tick.}, Jerd. B. I. i, p. 483; Brooks, S. F. 

iii, p. 277 ; Hume, Cat. no. 326 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 167 ; 

Hume, S. F. xi, p. 117. 

The Rufous-backed Flycatcher', The Little Pied Flycatcher, Jerd. ; Tuni- 
ti-ti, Lepch. 

Coloration. Male. The whole upper plumage, including the 
lores, cheeks, ear-coverts, and sides of the neck, black ; a very 
broad superciliary streak, reaching to the nape and widening pos- 
teriorly, white ; the whole lower plumage white; wings black, the 
later secondaries edged with white on the outer webs ; greater 
wing-coverts white; tail black, the basal two-thirds of all the 
feathers except the middle pair white ; the bases of some of the 
feathers of the rump white. 

Female. Eesembles closely the female of C. superciliaris, but may 
be recognized by the bright ferruginous colouring of the upper tail- 
coverts and the pale colour of the lower plumage. 

Specimens of females from Manipur and south of that place are 
generally much darker than those from the Indian peninsula. 

The young closely resemble those of C. superciliaris, and are, in 
fact, not distinguishable from them. 



CYORNIS. 19 

Bill, legs, and claws Mack ; iris drrp brown. 

Length about 4-5; tail 17; winu; '2- 1 ; tarsus '6; bill from 

p)- -55. 

Distribution. The Himalayas, from Nepal to the extreme east of 
Assam, up to 70<><) (Vcf ; the eastern portion of the Empire, from 
the Rajraehal hills, Maunbhoom, Singbhoom, and Midnapore, 
through Bengal and Assam, down to Tenasserim aud Karennee, 
extending to Sumatra and Java. This species breeds in the 
Himalayas and also in the Khasi hills ; and from the latter 
locality I have seen young nestlings procured in June. To the 
other parts above mentioned it appears to be a winter visitor. The 
nest of this Flycatcher does not yet appear to have been found. 



570. Cyornis astigma. The Little Blue-and-white Flycatcher. 




B. I. i, p. 471 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 157, 

xlv, pt. ii, p. 201, xlvii, pt. ii, p. 22. 
Muscicapula astigrna (Hodys.\ Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 205 ; Hume, 

Cat. no. 311 j id. S. If. xi, p. 112. 
Muscicapula superciliaris (Jerd.), apud Oal.es, B. B. \, p. 292. 

Coloration. Male. Resembles the male of C. superciliaris. 
Differs in having no white on the tail-feathers, the supercilium 




Fig. 6. Bill of C. 

absent or very faintly indicated, and the white on the throat and 
hrra>i somewhat narrower. 

/' male. Resembles the female of C. superciliaris. Differs, 
generally speaking, in having the upper tail-coverts more fulvous 
than the other parts of the upper plumage, and in never having any 
tinge of blue on these parts, as is almost always the case in 
C. super ciliar is. The plumage may be termed olive-brown on the 
sides of the neck and breast, and not buff. The females of the two 
species are, however, difficult to separate unless series of both are 
examined. 

The young are precisely similar to those of C. ruptrct/tartf, 

Bill and legs black ; iris brown (Cockbunt'). 

Length about 4'5 ; tail 1-9; wing 2'6; tarsus '6; bill from 
gape '6. 

The two female specimens of a Flycatcher procured by \Vardlaw 
Ramsay in Karennee, and retWivd by me to C. x//^< /< Ifin'riy in the 
' Birds' of Burmah,' are now, 1 find, females of C. ti.li>/in>i. 

o2 



20 MUSCICAPIDJE. 

Distribution. Nepal and Sikhim ; the plains of Bengal, whence I 
have seen specimens collected by Brooks at Mudhupur and 
Assensole on the E.I. Bail way in winter ; the Khasi hills, where 
this species is a constant resident and breeds ; probably Manipur, 
where Hume procured a specimen which he doubtfully refers to 
this species, but which specimen I have not been able to discover 
in his collection ; Karennee, where Wardlaw Bamsay obtained two 
specimens. 

571. Cyornis sapphira. The Sapphire-headed Flycatcher. 

Muscieapula sapphira, TicMl, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 939 (1843) ; 

Jerd. III. Ind. Orn. pi. 32 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 173 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. 

i, p. 295 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 471 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv. p. 203 j 

Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aoes, p. 619 ; Hume, Cat. no. 312. 
Siphia superciliaris P, apud Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, 

p. 201. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, nape, and upper tail-coverts 
bright ultramarine-blue ; lores and a band from the eyes to the 
nostrils black ; sides of the head and neck, upper breast, back, rump, 
and visible portions of wing-coverts deep purplish blue; quills 
black, narrowly edged with blue ; tail black, the outer webs suffused 
with bright blue; chin, throat, and upper breast chestnut; remainder 
of lower plumage pale bluish white ; under wing-coverts and axil- 
laries white. 

Female. Upper plumage olive-brown tinged with rufous ; the 
upper tail-coverts ferruginous ; wing-coverts and quills dark brown, 
edged with rufous ; forehead and sides of the head bright fulvous- 
brown, with 'a ring of fulvous round the eye; chin, throat, and 
breast pale orange-chestnut ; remainder of lower plumage whitish, 
the flanks and sides of the body tinged with fulvous ; under wing- 
coverts and axillaries white. 

The female of this species, with its red throat and breast, cannot 
be confounded with the females of O. super ciliaris^ C. melanoleucm, 
or C. astigma. 

The nestling is densely spotted above and on the coverts with 
fulvous, and mottled with brown below. 

At the autumn moult young males assume the plumage of the 
female, but have the wings, tail, rump, and upper tail-coverts like 
the adult male. 

Bill black ; legs ashy brown; iris brown (Cockburn'). 

Length 4-5 ; tail 1-8 ; wing 2-3 ; tarsus -6 ; bill from gape -55. 

Distribution. A permanent resident in Sikhim, probably extending 
into Nepal ; found also in the Graro and Naga hills, and in the hills 
to the east of Bhamo. 

572. Cyornis oatesi. The Rufous-bellied Blue Flycatcher. 

Cyornis vivida, Swinh. apud Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi. p. 229 ; Hume 
Cat. no. 309 bis; id. S. F. xi, p. 111. 



CYORNIS. 21 

Niltuva vivida (SwinA.), anuil Shurne. Cat. B.M. iv, p. 4G3 (part.) ; 

Gates, B. B. i. p. 2JM5. 
Niltava oatesi, Salvadori, Ami. Mas. Civ. Gen. (2) v. pp. 514 (1887), 

578 (1888). 

Coloration. Male. Forehead and lores deep black ; crown, nape, 
rump, upper tail-coverts, lesser and median wing-coverts shining 
cobalt- blue ; buck and scapulars dark bluish black: winglet and 




Fig. 7. Bill of C. oafesi. 

primary-coverts black ; greater coverts and quills black, edged with 
blue ; tail black, the outer webs suffused with cobalt-blue ; region 
of eye and ear-coverts black, the latter bordered posteriorly by a 
band of cobalt-blue running up to the nape ; chin and throat 
black suffused with blue ; remainder of lower plumage, axillaries, 
and under wing-coverts chestnut. 

Female. Forehead, lores, round the eye, cheeks, chin, and upper 
throat rufous, speckled and irregularly barred with brown; under 
tail-coverts and a large patch on the throat, the axillaries, and under 
wing-coverts clear yellowish buff; remainder of lower plumage 
ashy olive suffused with buff; crown, nape, and sides of neck 
ashy brown ; remainder of upper plumage olive-brown with a 
fulvous tinge ; tail brown, suffused with rufous on the outer 
webs. 

Legs, feet, and claws dark to blackish brown ; soles yellowish ; 
bill black ; iris deep brown to reddish chocolate (Hume). 

Length about 7'5 ; tarsus -7 to *8 ; bill from gape about -8. 
Males from Tenasserim have wings varying from 3*7 to 4, tails 3 
to 3-7 ; males from Manipur have wings varying from 3-9 to 4, 
tails 3-1 to 3-3. In the females the wing is 3'7, and the tail 2-8 
to 3-2. 

C. vividus from China differs from the present species in being 
much smaller, the wing in males varying irom 3'3 to 3'5 and tail 
2'6 to 2*8 ; in females the wing is 3*3 and the tail 2'5. The male 
has the upper parts of a much more brilliant blue. The female 
differs merely in si/<-. 

I have examined the type of C. oatesi, and find it the same bird 
as the one which Hume identified with doubt with c. vividus, and 
of which there are numerous specimens in the Hume collection 
from Manipur and Tenasserim. 

There is a female specimen of a Cyornis in the Hume collection 
from Tenasserim, which I cannot identify with any known species. 
It differs from the females of C. oatesi and C. vividus, among other 
things, in wanting the conspicuous yellowish-buff patch on the 
throat. It is probably the female of an mult -scribed species, and 



22 

it appears to be the same as a specimen noticed by Count Salvador! 
(Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) vii. p. 385, 1889) under the generic name 
of Niltava. Mr. Tea procured this specimen in Karennee, and 
Count Salvadori, with his usual courtesy, forwarded it to me for 
examination. Being a female specimen, and, as such, difficult to 
deal with till the male is known, the Count has prudently 
refrained from naming it*. 

Distribution. Muleyit mountain in Tenasserim ; Manipur. 

573. Cyornis pallidipes. The White-bellied Blue Flycatcher. 

Muscicapa pallipes, Jerd. Madr. Journ. L. S. xi, p. 15 (1840). 
Cyornis pallipes (Jerd.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 338; Jerd. B. 1. i, p. 469 ; 
' Hume, S. F. iv, p. 397 ; id. Cat. no. 309 ; Butter, 8. F. ix, p. 397 ; 
Davison, S. F. x, p. 371 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 165. 
Siphia pallidipes (Jerd.}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 444. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead and a supercilium ultramarine- 
blue ; lores and a space in front of the eye black ; feathers round 
the eye bluish black ; whole upper plumage, sides of the head and 
neck, chin, throat, breast, and the margins of the wings and tail 
indigo-blue; the lesser wing-coverts brighter; abdomen, vent, and 
under wing-coverts white. 

Female. Lores, in front of the eye, and the point of the chin 
white ; an indistinct supercilium grey ; ear-coverts greyish brown : 
forehead, crown, and nape ashy brown ; upper plumage and the 
sides of the neck rufescent olive-brown, the upper tail-coverts and 
the outer webs of the tail-feathers chestnut; wings brown, mar- 
gined with pale rufous ; throat and breast orange-chestnut 
remainder of the lower plumage white. 

Legs and feet fleshy tinged purple ; bill black ; iris dark wood- 
brown (Davison). 

Length about 6'5; tail 2'6 ; wing 3; tarsus *75 ; bill from 
gape *75. 

Distribution. A permanent resident in the South of India on the 
Western Grhats, from about the latitude of Belgaum to My nail 
in Travancore. This species appears to be found up to about 6000 
feet. 

Habits, $c. Davison calls this Flycatcher a magnificent songster. 

574. Cyornis unicolor. The Pale Blue Flycatcher. 

Cyornis unicolor, Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xii, p. ]007 (1843); id Cat. 
p. 173 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 465 ; Wald. Ibis, 1876, p. 353 ; Godw- 
Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, pp. 71, 195, xlvii, pt. ii, p. 15 ; Hume, 

* Count Salvadori thus describes the specimen : 

" 5 . Supra olivacea, pileo ct cervice griseis ; uropygio et supracaudalibus 
brmmeo-rufescentibus ; fronte, lateribus capitis et gularufo t'wctis,yula ima 
albicante ; gastrao reliquo griseo-olivacco, pectorc magis olivasenie sub- 
ca/ndalibusetsnbalaribnsftdvescente-albidis; alls fuscis, externis brimneo- 
olivaceo marginatis ; caitda briinnco-ntfcsccntc ; rostra nigro pedilms 
fuscis. Long, tota 0"\200 ; al. O m ,()96 ; caud. 0,077 ; rostri culm 
O n ',010; tarsi O m ,020." 



CTORNIS. 23 



Str. F. vii, p. 516 ; ill Cut. n... :\(V.\ : ,SV///Wtn, ^4nn. Mus. Civ. 
Gen. (2) vii, p. 386 ; 7/ww, AS'. F. xi, p. 107 j Ofe* w Humes N. 
$ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 5. 
Siphia unicolor (Bl.), Sharpe, Cat,. B. .If. iv, p. -111. 

Coloration. Male, Forehead, a broad eyebrow, and the lesser 
wing-coverts ultramarine-blue ; lores black, tipped with blue ; 
sides of the head and neck and the whole upper plumage, with the 
exposed parts of the closed wing, light blue ; upper tail-coverts 
and the margins of the tail-feathers deep blue ; lower plumage 
pale dull blue, becoming albescent on the abdomen ; the under 
tail-coverts broadly fringed with white ; axillaries pale fulvous. 

Female. Lores and a ring round the eye pale rufescent ; the 
whole upper plumage olive-brown tinged with rufous; the upper 
tail-coverts and the margins of the wings, together with the whole 
tail, ferruginous ; the whole lower plumage earthy brown, tinged 
with ochraceous on the sides of the body ; abdomen albescent ; 
axillaries pale fulvous. 

The young nestling is brown, densely spotted and mottled with 
bright fulvous. 

In the male the legs and feet are dull pale purple ; bill black ; 
iris brown. In the female the legs and feet are greyish brown ; 
upper mandible brown, lower mandible pale bluish horny ; iris 
brown (Hume). 

Length about 6%5 ; tail 2'8 ; wing 3'3 ; tarsus *65 ; bill from 
gape -75. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Sikhim to the Daphla hills in 
Assam; the Khasi hills; the Naga hills; Manipur; Karen nee ; 
probably Arrakan. 

C. cyanopolius, Blyth, from the Malay peninsula and islands, is 
a much brighter bird than C. unicolor, and may be kept distinct. 

//tibits, $c. Mandelli found the nest of this bird in Sikhim in 
August, a cup of moss and fern-roots placed in a depression in the 
trunk of a tree about 10 feet from the ground. 



575. Cyornis rubeculoides. The Blue-throated Flycatcher. 

Phoenicura rubeculoides, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 35 ; Gould, Cent. 
pi. 25, fig. 1. 

Cyornis rubeculoides (Via.), Blyth, Cat. p. 173 ; Ilorxf. 8f M. Cat. i, 
p^289; Jerd. S. L i, p. 4<;<J| Hume, N. $ E. p. 211; Hume $ 
Dav. S. F. vi, p. 227; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. <>1'.': 
Hume, Cat. no. 304 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 164 ; Hume, S. F. xi, 
p. 107 ; Oates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, ]>. ">. 

Sij.hia rubeculoides (Via.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 44/3 ; Leaue, 
Birds Ceyl. p. 424 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 287. 

Cyornis dialilaema, Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) vii, p. 387 

(1889). 

The Blur-//<rn<i/rJ Jtrdbmtxt, Jerd.; Chatki. Beng. Manzhil-phn, 
Lepch. 

Coloration. Mule. Forehead and a streak over the eye glis- 



24 MUSCICAPID^E. 

tening blue; lores and the feathers at the base of the bill black ; 
ear-coverts dusky blue; upper plumage dark blue, the tail with 




Fig. 8. Bill of C. ritbeculoides. 

black shafts and the inner webs mostly brown ; wings dark brown, 
each feather narrowly edged with dark blue ; lesser wing-coverts 
bright blue; chin, throat, cheeks, and sides of the neck dusky 
blue ; breast and upper abdomen bright ferruginous ; lower ab- 
domen and under tail-coverts white ; under wing-coverts pale 
ferruginous. 

Female. Lores albescent; upper plumage olive-brown, tinged 
with ferruginous, especially on the forehead, round the eye, and 
on the upper tail-coverts ; wings and tail brown, edged with fer- 
ruginous ; chin, throat, and breast ruddy ferruginous ; abdomen 
and under tail-coverts white. 

The young are brown, streaked above with fulvous, the coverts 
broadly tipped with fulvous ; throat and breast bright fulvous 
mottled with brown ; abdomen white. 

Iris brown ; bill black, flesh-coloured at the gape ; legs and toes 
pale flesh-colour ; claws pale horn-colour. 

Length 5'7; tail 2*4; wing 2*7; tarsus '7 ; bill from gape *7. 
All the males of this species throughout the continent of India, 
and from Assam to Manipur have the blue on the throat of con- 
siderable extent, and sharply denned from the red breast. In only 
a very few instances does the red of the breast run up into the 
blue for a short distance. 

From Manipur to Tenasserim the males almost invariably have 
the red running up into the blue throat, but a considerable amount 
of blue is always left between the tip of the red and the angle of 
the chin. The amount and character of the blue on the sides of 
the throat also varies a good deal in this species. I am therefore 
quite unable to recognize the Tenasserim and Karennee race as 
distinct from the Indian, as the transition from one type to the 
other is very gradual. 

Distribution. The whole extent of the Himalayas up to 6000 or 
7000 feet ; a considerable portion of the plains of India from the 
Himalayas to Ceylon ; I have failed to find any record of the 
occurrence of this species in Sind, the Punjab, Eajputana, Guzerat, 
arid Cutch; the line of migration from Kashmir is apparently 
along the Himalayas to Nepal, and thence to the plains. In India 
proper this bird is by no means common, but to the east, through- 
out Burma down to the extreme south of Tenasserim, it is more 
abundant. It is found in the Himalayas during the summer, and 



CYOBNIS. 25 

in tin* plains during the winter ; but in some portions of the latter 
this Flycatcher appears to be a constant resident, Hume stating 
that it breeds in Manipur, and Davison having found the nest in 
Tcnasserim near Ye at the end of March. In Pegu it appeared 
to me to be only a winter visitor. In the Malay peninsula this 
species is replaced by G. eleyans, in which the throat is a bright 
blue. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds in the Himalayas from April to June, con- 
structing a nest of rnoss and lichens in a hole of a tree, bank, or 
rock. The eggs, three or four in number, are greenish or brownish 
stone-colour, marked with purplish brown, and measure about '73 
by -6. 

576. Cyornis tickelli. TwkelTs Blue Flycatcher. 

Cyornis banyumas (Horsf.), apud Blyth, Cat. p. 173 ; Horsf. $ M. 

'Cat. i, p. 2iX) ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 466. 

Cyornis tickelliae, Blyth, J. A. X. B. xii, p. 941 (1843) ; Jerd. B. I. 
'i, p. 467; Blanf. Ibis, 1870, p. 533; Lloyd, Ibis,' 1872, p. 197; 
Hume, N. # E. p. 212 ; id. S. F. iii, p. 468. 
Cyoruis elegans (Zemin.), apud Blyth, Cat. i, p. 173. 
Cyornis jerdoni, G. J2. Gray, Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 371 ; Hume, Cat. 

'no. 305. 

Cyornis tickelli, Blyth, Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 620 ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 306 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 164 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ 
E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 7. 

Siphia tickellise (Bl.\ Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 447 ; Legge, Birds 
Ceyl. p. 421 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 289. 

Horsfelffs Blue Redbreast, Ticket? s Blue Redbreast, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. Resembles the male of C. rubeculoides, but is 
larger and of a duller colour ; the rufous of the breast runs up 
into the throat and chin, leaving only the extreme point of the 
latter black. 

Female. Resembles the male closely. The whole upper plumage, 
sides of the head, coverts and visible portions of the closed wings 
and tail dull blue; forehead, eyebrow, and bend of wing shining 
cobalt-blue; lores and feathers over the nostrils whitish; chin, 
throat, and breast pale orange; remainder of lower plumage, 
whitish. 

The young are streaked with fulvous, and resemble the young of 
the other members of the genus. 

Iris brown ; bill blackish ; legs and feet bluish brown, dusky 
bluish, or bluish grey (Legge). 

Length nearly 6 ; tail 2-5 ; wing 2-8 ; tarsus *7 ; bill from 
gape -75. 

The few Tenasserim specimens I have seen agree well in colour 
and size with Indian ones, but at Kossoom, in the Malay Penin- 
sula, a very much smaller race occurs, which may hereafter be 
thought worthy of separation under a distinct name. I have only 
been able to examine four specimens, and cannot do more than 
draw attention to the subject. 



26 MUSCTCAPIDJE. 

Distribution. The whole peninsula of India, except Sincl and the 
extreme north-west portion. This species is absent from the 
Himalayas. It appears to be a resident wherever found, but may 
be locally migratory according to season and place. To the east 
it has occurred in Manipur, the hills east of Bhamo, the Karen 
hills east of Toungngoo, Karennee, Thoungyah in Tenasserim, 
extending to Kossoom in the Malay peninsula in a modified form 
as above noticed. This Flycatcher occurs in Ceylon up to 4000 
feet. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds in May, June, and July, constructing a nest 
of dead leaves and grass in a hole of a bank or tree, and laying 
three eggs, which are so thickly speckled as to appear to be of an 
olive-colour or brownish rufous throughout, and measure about '76 
by -56. 

577. Cyornis niagnirostris. The Large-billed Blue Flycatcher. 

Cyornis magnirostris, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviii, p. 814 (1849); Jerd. 

B. I. i, p. 469 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 100 ; 

Blanf. J, A. 8. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 158 ; Hume, Cat. no. 308. 
Siphia niaofnirostris (Bl.}. Sharpe. Cat. B. M. iv. p. 45.13 : Oates, B. 

3. i, p. 290. 

Coloration. Male. Upper plumage, cheeks, ear-coverts, sides of 
the neck, and wing-coverts deep blue, brilliant on the forehead and 
over the lores and eyes ; feathers at the base of the upper man- 
dible and lores black ; chin, throat, and breast chestnut ; sides of 
the breast blue ; sides of the abdomen fulvous ; middle of the ab- 
domen and the under tail-coverts white ; under wing-coverts and 
axillaries clear buff ; tail-feathers dark brown, suffused with blue 
on the outer webs; greater wing-coverts and quills dark brown, 
with dull blue margins. 

Female. Upper plumage olive-brown, tinged with rufous on the 
upper tail-coverts ; tail brown, suffused with ferruginous ; coverts 
and quills brown, edged with rufous-olive ; lores and a ring round 
the eye fulvous ; chin, throat, and breast orange-rufous, paler on 
the chin and throat ; flanks suffused with ochraceous ; abdomen 
and under tail-coverts white. 

The young are similar to those of C. rubeculoides. 

Iris dark brown ; legs pale flesh-colour (Godwin-Austen}. 

Length about 6 ; tail 2-5 ; wing 3'2 ; tarsus -7 ; bill from 
gape -9. 

Distribution. Sikhim; Cachar ; the Khasi hills; the extreme 
south of Tenasserim. The distribution of this species as known 
is very incomplete, and it will probably be found spread over the 
greater part of Assam and Burma. It is a resident in Sikhim ; 
occurs in Cachar in May, and in Tenasserim from December to 
March. 

There are some specimens of this bird in the Hodgson collection, 
but nothing to show that they came from Nepal. They were 
probably obtained in Sikhim. 



NITIDTJr.A. STOPARQLA. 27 



Genus NITIDULA, Jerdon & Blyth, 1861. 

The single species of this genus differs from the members of 
Cyornis in having a very narrow slender bill. It has been observed 
very little, and I cannot find a single note about its habits. In 
structure this bird is a true Flycatcher, having well-developed hairs 
over the nostrils. 



578. Nitidula hodgsoni. The Pigmy Blue Fit/catcher. 

Neraura hodjrsoni, Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 70, pi. 62 : Horsf. 8f M. 

Cat.i t p. 300. 

Nitidula campbelli, Jerdon $ Bhftli, P. Z. S. 1861, 201. 
Xitidula hodgsoni (Moore), Jerd. B. I. \, p. 472 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. 

xli, pt. ii, p. 159 ; Gmlw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlvii, pt. ii, p. 15; 

Hume, Cat. no. 313 ; id. S. F. xi, p. lli>. 
Tarsiger hodgaoui (Moore), Sharps, ('<i/. Ii. M. iv, p. 258. 

Coloration. Male. Lores and a frontal band black ; sides of the 
head black, with a bluish tinge ; the whole upper plumage bright 




Fig. 9. Bill of N. hodgsoni. 

blue, the anterior half of the crown ultramarine ; wings and tail 
black, the outer webs edged with blue ; the whole lower plumage 
pale orange-yellow ; under wing-coverts and axillaries white. 

Female. The whole upper plumage, the exterior margins of the 
wing- and tail-feathers, and the ear-coverts olive-brown, slightly 
rufescent on the rump and upper tail-coverts ; lores and cheeks 
fulvous yellow, slightly mottled with brown; the whole lower 
plumage saffron-yellow, paling on the abdomen and under tail- 
covorts. 

I have not been able to examine a nestling bird ; but after the 
autumn moult the young of both sexes resemble the adult female, 
and the male begins to assume the adult plumage about March. 

Bill black ; legs pale reddish ; iris dark brown (Jerdon). 

Length nearly 4; tail 1*4; wing 1*9; tarsus *6 ; bill from 
gape *5. 

Distrilmtion. A resident species in Sikhim up to 7000 feet or 
higher ; Sadiya and Dibrugarh in Assam ; the Naga hills. 



Genus STOPAROLA, Blyth, 1847. 

The genus Stoparola is hardly worthy of separation from 
. All the members of the g< MI us, however, are green' or 
blue throughout in both scxrs, ami the tvpe of the genus has a 



28 MUSCICAPID.E. 

small and very depressed bill which, when viewed from above, 
forms an equilateral triangle. 

Two members of the genus are sedentary and confined to small 
areas. The third is spread over the Empire and is migratory to a 
greater or less extent. They are typical Flycatchers in habits. 

Key to the Species. 

a. No white on tail. 

a'. First primary much shorter than half 

second ; tail blue or green S. melanops, p. 28. 

b'. First primary quite half the length of 

second ; tail dark brown S. sordida, p. 29. 

b. Base of tail white S. albicaudata, p. 30. 

579. Stoparola melanops. The Verditer Flycatcher. 

Muscicapa melanops, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 171 ; Gould, Cent. 

pi. 6. 
Stoparola melanops (Vig.), Blyth, Cat. p. 174; Hume, N. fy E. 

p. 208; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 438; Hume, Cat. no. 301; 

Gates, B. B. i, p. 285 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 164 ; Gates in Hume's 

N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 9. 

Hypothymis melanops (Vig.), Horsf. # M. Cat. i, p. 292. 
Eumyias melanops (Vig.), Jerd. B. I. i, p. 463; Hume fy Henders. 

Lah. to Yark. p. 186 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 622. 

Nil kat-katia, Beng. ; Sibyell-pho, Lepch. 




Fig. 10. Bill of 8. melanops. 

Coloration. Male. Lores, feathers in front of the eye and the 
feathers at the base of the upper mandible black ; the whole plum- 
age verditer-blue, brightest on the forehead, chin, throat, breast, 
and upper tail-coverts ; under tail-coverts broadly fringed with 
white ; tail blue, the shafts black and the inner webs edged with 
brown; primaries and secondaries blue on the outer and black on 
the inner webs ; tertiaries wholly blue ; upper wing-coverts blue. 

Female. The general colour is much duller, but otherwise re- 
sembles the male; the chin and throat are mottled with white, the 
lores are brown, and the under tail-coverts are more broadly fringed 
with white. 

The young are greenish grey, the sides of the head and the whole 
lower plumage being spotted with fulvous. Occasionally white 
spots are present on the head and back, and one adult has a white 
nape-patch. 

The Stoparola spilonota of Gray (Hand-list, no. 4898), the type 
of which is still in the British Museum, resembles the present 



STOPAROLA. 29 

species, but each feather of the ruinp, upper tail-coverts, and 
abdomen has a triangular streak of brown. No other specimen 
ivxiMubling it has yet been found, and it is probably an accidental 
variety. It came from Nepal. 

Bill and legs black ; iris brown ; mouth flesh-colour ; claws 
black. 

Length about 6 ; tail 2*8 ; wing 3*2 ; tarsus *65 ; bill from 
gape -7. 

Distribution. The whole Empire with the exception of Sind, 
Ceylon, the Andamans and Nicobars, and that portion of the 
peninsula of India south of the Nilgiris. This species breeds 
throughout the Himalayas up to about 9000 feet, and visits the 
plains during the winter. It probably breeds in some portions of 
the plains, and in some of the hill-ranges of the peninsula and 
Burma, for I have examined specimens killed at Ahmednagar in 
July, Shillong in the same mouth, and Momein, to the east of 
Bhamo, in June. Hume found it breeding in Manipur, and 
Godwin-Austen on the Khasi hills. This Flycatcher extends into 
China, Cochin China, and the Malay peninsula. 

Habits, <$fc. Breeds from April to July, constructing a nest of 
moss inside a hole in a tree, wall, or bank, and laying four eggs 
which are pinky white, sometimes unmarked, at others speckled with 
reddish. The eggs measure about '78 by '57. 

580. Stoparola sordida. The Dusky-blue Flycatcher. 

Glaucomyias sordida, Wald. A. M. N. H. (4) v, p. 218 (1870) ; 

Hume, S. F. iii, p. 401. 
Stoparola sordida (Wald.}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 440; Hume, 

Cat. no. 302 bis ; Lef/</e, Birds Ceyl. p. 419, pi. xviii ; Oates in 

Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 11. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead and a short eyebrow bright cobalt- 
blue ; lores and region of the nostrils black ; the whole body- 
plumage ashy grey tinged with blue, brightest on the crown ; 
abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts albescent ; wing-coverts, 
wings, and tail dark brown, very narrowly margined with ashy 
blue. 

The young are dark brown above, each feather with a streak or 
oval drop of fulvous in the centre ; lower plumage fulvous white, 
each feather margined with blackish ; abdomen albescent. 

Iris reddish brown to brown ; bill black ; legs and feet dark 
plumbeous, the feet sometimes blackish, much darker than tarsus ; 
claws black (Legcje). 

Length about 6 ; tail 2-5 ; wing 3 ; tarsus '75 ; bill from 
gape -7. 

It is very probable that the female of this species will be found 
to be slightly duller in colour than th<> male, but I have seen no 
sexed female. All the birds in the small series of this species in 
the British iMuseum appear to be males, but only one is so sexed. 

Dittributmn. A resident in Ceylon up to 2000 feet. 



30 MUSCICAPID.E. 

581. Stoparola albicaudata. The Nilyhiri Blue Flycatcher. 

Muscicapa albicaudata, Jerd. Madr. Journ. L. 8f S. xi, p. 16 (1840) ; 
id. III. 2nd. Orn. pi. xiv. 

Stoparola albicaudata (Jerd.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 175 ; Hume, N. 8f E. 
p. 210 ; id. Cat. no. 302 ; Sharpe, Cat. JB. M. iv, p. 437 ; Davison, 
S. F. x, p. 370; Oat.es in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 11. 

Hypothymis albicaudata (Jerd.}, Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 292. 

Eumyias albicaudata (Jerd.}, Jerd. B. I. i, p. 464. 

Coloration. Male. The whole plumage indigo-blue; the fore- 
head, a short and broad eyebrow, and the edge of the wing ultra- 
marine-blue ; the throat suffused with the same ; lores and the 
region of the nostrils black ; abdomen bluish brown mottled with 
white ; under tail-coverts bluish brown, broadly fringed with white ; 
wings and tail dark brown edged with blue, all the tail-feathers 
except the median pair white at the base. 

Female. The whole upper plumage dull greyish tinged with 
olivaceous ; upper tail-coverts dark bluish brown ; tail blackish, 
the bases of all the feathers except the median pair white; entire 
lower plumage dull greyish blue, tinged with olivaceous on the 
throat and fore neck ; coverts and quills dark brown edged with 
rufescent, the greater coverts tipped with fulvous. 

The young have the upper plumage and wing-coverts brown, 
each feather margined with black and centred with fulvous ; wings 
and tail as in the adult ; lower plumage pale greyish brown, barred 
with black and fulvous. 

Bill, legs, and feet black ; iris dark brown (Davison}. 

Length about 6 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 3-2 ; tarsus '75 ; bill from 
gape -7. 

Distribution. The Nilgiri and Palni hills up to 7000 feet. 

Habits, <$fc. Breeds from February to May, constructing a nest 
of moss in a hole in a tree, wall, or bank, and laying three eggs, 
which are white or pale buff marked with reddish, and measure 
about -81 by '59. 



Genus MUSCITREA, Blyth, 1847. 

The genus Muscitrea contains one Indian species the position of 
which is somewhat doubtful. The British Museum does not con- 
tain a nestling bird of this species, but judging from the circum- 
stauce that a few birds have the wing-coverts margined with 
rufous, as is the case with so many young Thrushes and Flycatchers, 
I incline to the belief that the nestling will prove to be spotted. 
The presence of numerous long hairs over the nostrils further 
induces me to place this species in its present position. 

In Muscitrea the sexes are alike ; the bill is strong, deep, and 
much compressed laterally ; the wing is rather long and straight, 
and the first primary ^ is large, being more than half the length of 
the second; the tail is square, and the plumage brown. 

There is but little on record about the habits of this bird. The 



AN Till !'!.<. 31 

one I observed in Pegu was solitary and silent, and was perched 
on a stalk of elephant-grass. 

582. Muscitrea grisola. The Grey Flycatcher. 

Tephrodornis grisola, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 180* (1843) ; id. Cat. 

p. 153; Jertl. B. I. i, p. 411. 
Muscitrea cinerea, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 122 ; Hume, S. F. v, 

p. 101. 

Hylocharis philomela (Bole), Hume^S. F. ii, p. 201. 
Hylocharis occipitalis, Hume, S. F. ii, p. 202 (1874). 
Muscitrea grisola (Bl.}, Hume $ Dciv. S. F. vi, p. 206 ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 266 ; Gates, B. B. i, p. 257. 
Pachycephala grisola (BL), Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii, p. 220. 

The Arakan Wood-Shrike, Jerd. 





Figs. 11 & 12. Head and bill of M. grisola. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, and lores ashy brown ; upper 
plumage, wings, and tail rufous- or olive-brown, the secondaries 
broadly edged with rufous ; sides of the head pale brown ; chin 
and throat white mottled with ashy ; breast pale ashy ; remainder 
of lower plumage and under wing-coverts white. 

The young are slightly rufous. 

Bill dark brownish black ; mouth flesh-colour ; iris reddish 
brown ; eyelids plumbeous ; legs plumbeous ; claws pale horn- 
colour. 

Length about 6'5 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 3-3 ; tarsus *8 ; bill from 
gape *8. 

Some specimens are paler and greyer, others darker and browner, 
and the plumage varies apparently according to the length of time 
which has elapsed since the moult in the autumn. 

Distribution. Jerdon states that this species has been procured 
near Calcutta ; it occurs in the Andaman Islands, Arrakan, Pegu, 
and Tenasserim, extending to the Malay peninsula and islands. 

Genus ANTHIPES, Blyth, 1847. 

I place in the genus Anf/ilpesfive species of Flycatchers in which 
the sexes are alike, the plumage brown or rufous, relieved, in the 
case of three, by a patch of white on the throat, the bill flattened, 
the first primary large, and the lower mandible dark coloured. 
They are all very local, and they are not known to migrate. 

In addition to the above characters the rictal bristles are long 
but few in number, and the tail is square. 



32 MUSCICAPIDJE. 

Key to the Species. 
a. Chin and throat white, in strong contrast to 



surrounding parts. 
a'. White of chin an 



and throat surrounded by a 
firm black band. 

a". Forehead and eyebrow fulvous A. moniliger, p. 32. 

b' . Forehead and eyebrow white A. leucops, p. 33. 

b . White of chin and throat not surrounded 

by a black band A. submoniliger, p. 33 

b. Chin and throat buff or whitish, blending with 

surrounding parts. 

c'. General colour of lower plumage orange- 
buff A. poliogenys, p. 33. 

d'. General colour of lower plumage white, 
merely tinged with ochraceous on breast 
and flanks A. olivaceus, p. 34. 

583. Anthipes moniliger. Hodgson's White-yoryeted 
Flycatcher. 

Dimorpha monileger, Hodgs. P. Z. S. 1845, p. 26. 

Anthipes gularis, Blyth, J.A. S. B. xvi, p. 122 (1847). 

Anthipes moniliger (Hodgs.), Blyth, Cat. p. 172 ; Jerd. B. I. i, 

p. 477; Hume, Cat. no. 317 ; Gates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. 

ii, p. 13. 
Digenea moniliger (Hodgs.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 460, pi. xiv, 

tig. 1 ; Gates, B. B. i, p. 300. 
The White-gorgeted Flycatcher, Jerd. j Phatt-tagrak-pho, Lepch. 




Fig. 13. Bill of A. 



Coloration. Forehead and a short eyebrow bright fulvous ; lores, 
ear-coverts, and under the eye greyish brown with white shafts ; 
the whole upper plumage and sides of the head olive-brown tinged 
with rufous on the rump ; upper tail-coverts and tail dull ferru- 
ginous ; coverts and wings brown edged with ferruginous ; chin 
and throat white, surrounded on all sides by a black band ; lower 
plumage fulvous-olive, becoming white on the abdomen. 

Bill black ; legs and claws pale fleshy ; iris dark brown (Jerdon). 

Length about 5 ; tail 2 ; wing 2-4 ; tarsus '8 ; bill from gape '6. 

The young nestling is no doubt spotted, but the youngest bird I 
have seen merely differs from the adult in not having the black 
band round the white of tbe throat. 

Distribution. Sikhim up to about 7000 feet or so. Hodgson's 
specimens, now in the British Museum, do not appear to have been 
obtained in Nepal but in Sikhim. 

Habits, <$fc. According to Mandelli, this species breeds in Sikhim 



ANTHIPES. 33 

from April to June, constructing a nest of inoss on the ground in 
qrass and low jungle. ^The eggs are described as being white 
marked with brownish red, and measuring about '73 by '54. 



584. Anthipes leucops. Miarpes White-yoryeied Fit/catcher. 

Anthipes momliger (Hodf/s.), Blyth fy Walden, Birds Burm. p. 103 ; 

Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, p. 195. 
Digenea leucops, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 240. 

Coloration. Resembles A. moniliger, but has the forehead and 
eyebrow white, and the sides of the head ashy grey. 

Iris bright dark brown ; bill slate-brown ; legs white tinged 
fleshy ( Wardlaw Ramsay}. 

Of the same size as A. moniliyer. 

Distribution. The Kluisi hills ; Gougloug, Manipur hills ; Karen- 
nee at 5000 feet. 



585. Anthipes submoniliger. Humes White-yoryeted 
Fit/catcher. 

Anthipes submoniliger, Hume, S. F. v, p. 105 (1877) j Humefy Dau. 

S. F. vi, pp. 232, 510 ; Hume, Cat. no. 317 bis. 
Digenea submoniliger (Hume), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 461 ; Oates, 

B. B. i, p. 301 j Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 246. 

Coloration. Upper plumage fulvous-brown ; forehead, lores, a 
broad but short supercilium, and a circle of feathers round the eye 
rich golden-fulvous ; sides of the head fulvous-brown ; chin and 
throat white, with a few black feathers on the side of the chin ; 
breast and flanks olive-brown; abdomen, vent, and under tail- 
coverts white ; wings and wing-coverts brown, edged with rufous; 
tail ferruginous. 

Bill black, yellowish on lower mandible ; iris deep brown ; 
legs fleshy white (Davison*). 

Length about 5 ; tail 2; wing2'4; tarsus -85 ; bill from gape '6. 

Distribution. Tenasserim, where this species has been found on 
Muleyit mountain and at the foot of Nwalabo mountain. 

586. Anthipes poliogenys. Brooks's Flycatcher. 

Cyornis poliogenys, Brooks, S. F. viii, p. 4C9 (1879) ; Hume, S. F. 

ix, pp. OC>, :: <.).->; xi, p. 108. 
Siphia eaclmrensis, Madardsz, Zeitschr. yes. Orn. 1884, p. 52, pi. i, 

tig. 2. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape greyish brown; back, 
rump, scapulars, and the margins of the quills olive-brown ; upper 
tail-coverts and tail ferruginous ; lores and a ring round the eye 
light grey ; sides of the head brownish grey ; chin and throat pale 
buff ; breast and sides of the body orange-buff ; middle of the 
abdomen whitish ; under tail-coverts pale buff or buffy white. 

VOL. II. D 



34 MUSCICAPID^E. 

Iris brown; bill black; edges of the eyelids yellowish ; legs pale 
greyish pink, pale silvery fleshy, pale silvery purplish (Hume). 

Length about 6 ; tail 2'4 ; wing 2-8 ; tarsus '75 ; bill from 
gape '8. 

This bird resembles the female of Cyornis rubeculoides, but may 
be recognized at a glance by the size of its first primary, which is 
equal to half the length of the second, whereas in G. rubeculoides 
the first primary is much less than half the second. 

Distribution. The Bhutan Doars ; Dibrugarh in Assam ; Shil- 
long ; Cachar ; Tipperah ; Manipur. Hume records this species 
from the Sikhim Terai. 

587. Anthipes olivaceus. Hume's Flycatcher. 

Cyornis olivacea, Hume, S. F. v, p. 338 (1877) ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. 

vi, p. 229 ; Hume, Cat. no. 307 ter. 
Siphia olivacea (Hume), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 457 ; Oates, B. B. 

i, p. 292. 

Coloration. Upper plumage greyish brown, tinged with fulvous 
on the back and rump ; lores and the sides of the head ashy, the 
shafts of the ear-coverts whitish ; lower plumage whitish, the breast 
and the sides of the body suffused with ochraceous ; tail reddish 
brown edged with ferruginous ; wing-coverts and quills brown 
edged with rufous-brown. 

Bill black in the male, brown in the female ; iris brown ; legs, 
feet, and claws pinkish white (Hume <Sf Davison). 

Length 5-8 ; tail 2-5 ; wing 3; tarsus '75; bill from gape '8. 

The young bird, which Hume identified with some doubt with 
Hemichelidonferruyinea (S. F. vi, p. 227), is in my opinion the young 
of the present species. It resembles very closely the young of 
Cyornis rubeculoides at the same age. 

Distribution. The extreme southern part of Tenasserim at Ban- 
kasun and Malawun. This species also occurs in Java and Borneo. 
It appears to be a resident in Tenasserim, Hume's specimens having 
been obtained in March, June, and December. 

Genus ALSEONAX, Cabanis, 1850. 

The genus Alseonaw contains three Indian Flycatchers which are 
allied to Cyornis. In Alseonax, however, the sexes are alike and 
the plumage is brown or rufous as in Anthipes. The first primary 
is very small and all the three species are wide migrants. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Upper plumage and tail ashy brown with no 

tinge of rufous A. latirostris, p. 35. 

b. Upper plumage olive-brown ; upper tail- 

coverts and the whole tail chestnut A. ruficaudus, p. 36. 

c. Upper plumage ruddy brown; upper tail- 

coverts ferruginous; tail brown, suffused with 

rufous on the puter webs of the feathers only. A. muttui, p. 36, 



AI..Ni:n\AX. 35 

588. Alseonax latirostris. The Brown Fly catcher. 

Muscicapa latirostris, llaffl. 7V. Linn. Nn<: \\\\, p. 312 (1821). 
Butalis terricolor, Hotly*., Blylh, J. A. 8. B. xvi, p. 120 (1847) ; id. 

Cat. p. 175. 
Hemichelidon latirostris (Katfl.), Blyth, Cat. p. 175; Horsf.fyM. 

Cat. \, ]. 137. 
Muscicapa rimreo-alba, Temm. fy Schleo. Faun. Jap., Avcs, p. 42, 

pi. 15 (1850). 
Alseonax latirostris (Raffl.}, Jerd. B. I. i, p. 459 ; Hume fy Henders. 

Lah. to Yark. p. 185, pi. v ; Hume, 8. F. ii, p. 210 ; Sharpe, Cat. 

II. M. iv, p. 127; Leff(/e, Birds Cei/l, p. 415; Hume, Cat. no. 25)7; 

Brooks, S. F. ix, p. 225 ; Oates, 'B. B. i, p. 277 ; Barney Birds 

Bom. p. 163. 
Alseonax terricolor (Hodys.}, Jerd. B. I. i p. 4GO ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 2!K 

The Southern Brown Flycatcher, The Rufescent-brown Flycatcher, Jerd. ; 
Zakki, Hind. 




Fig. 14. Bill of A. latirostris. 

Coloration. Upper plumage ashy brown, the feathers of the crown 
with darker centres ; tail dark brown, the outer feathers very 
narrowly tipped with whitish ; wings and coverts dark brown, all 
but the primaries broadly edged with ashy white ; lores and a ring 
of feathers round the eye white ; sides of the head brown ; lower 
plumage white, tinged w it h ashy on the breast and sides of the body. 

The young have the crown blackish streaked with fulvous ; the 
upper plumage and wings with large terminal fulvous spots ; the 
lower plumage like that of the adult but mottled with brown. 
After the autumn moult and till the following spring the young 
are very rufous. 

Bill black, the base of the lower mandible yellow ; mouth orange ; 
iris brown ; legs and claws black. The young bird has the whole 
bill yellow except the tip, \vhich is dusky. 

Length rather more than 5 ; tail 2; wing 2-8; tarsus -5; bill 
from gape *7. 

Distribution. The whole Empire except the north-west portion. 
1 have seen no example of this species from Sind, the Punjab. 
Eajputana, or Guzerat. It occurs in Ceylon and the Andamans. 
On the Himalayas it is a summer visitor as far west as Chamba. 
and it is found in the other portions of the Empire chiefly in winter, 
but some birds appear to be resident in certain parts all the \var 
round, for I have seen a specimen obtained in Ceylon in June. 

'I his Flycatch<T lias a wide range, being found from Japan and 
Eastern Siberia to the Philippines and Java. Specimens killed in 
the Malay peninsula in July and August are contained in the British 
Museum Collection. 

D2 



36 MUSCIOA.P1D.E. 

589. Alseonax ruficaudus. Tne Rufous-tailed Flycatcher. 

Muscicapa ruficauda, Swains. Nat. Lib. x, Flycatchers, p. 251 (1838). 
Cyornis ruficauda (Swains.), Jerd. B. I. i, p. 4(38 ; Stoliczka, J. A. 8. B. 

xxx vii, pt. ii, p. 30 ; Hume, S. F. iv, p. 396 ; id. Cat. no. 307 ; 

Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 165. 
Siphia ruficauda (Swains.}, Sharps, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 457. 

Coloration. Upper plumage and sides of the neck dull olive-brown ; 
upper tail-coverts and tail chestnut ; coverts and quills of wing 
brown edged with olive-brown ; lores and round the eye greyish 
white ; ear-coverts fulvous-brown with pale shafts ; the whole lower 
plumage pale earthy brown. 

The young are of the usual spotted character, but the upper tail- 
coverts and tail are chestnut from the first. 

Iris dark brown ; upper mandible pale brown, lower fleshy ; 
legs, feet, and claws purplish brown (Duvison). 

Length 5'5 to 6 ; tail 2-3 ; wing 3'3 ; tarsus '6 ; bill from gape '7. 

Distribution. Found in summer in Kashmir, Grilgit, and the 
Himalayas from Murree to the valley of the Bhagirati river up to 
altitudes of 10,000 feet. This species extends in summer to 
Afghanistan, where Wardlaw Ramsay observed it breeding but 
failed to find its nest. In the winter months it has been recorded 
from Ahmednagar and Mount Abu, and from numerous other 
localities in the west of India down to Travancore, extending on 
the east as far as Raipur in the Central Provinces. 

Godwin- Austen records this species from Cachar, but probably 
by an oversight. 



590. Alseonax muttui. Layard's Flycatcher. 

Butalis muttui, Layard, A.M. N. H. (2) xiii, p. 127 (1854) ; Legge, 

Ibis, 1878, p. 203 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 513 ; id. Cat. no. 299 ter. 
Cyornis mandellii, Hume, S. F. ii, p. 510 (1874), iv, p. 396, vii, p. 456 ; 

id. Cat. no. 307 bis. 

Alseonax flavipes, Legge, S. F. iii, p. 367 (1875). 
Alseonax muttui (Layard), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 132 ; Leyye, 

Birds Ceyl. p. 417, pi. xviii. 

Siphia mandellii (Hume}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 453, footnote. 
Alseonax mandellii (Hume), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, App. p. 472 ; 

Hume, S. F. xi, p. 109. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape olive-brown, with indistinct 
brown shaft-streaks ; remainder of the upper plumage ruddy brown, 
changing to bright ferruginous on the upper tail-coverts ; wings 
brown, the outer webs of the coverts and quills broadly edged with 
ferruginous ; tail brown, suffused with ferruginous on the outer 
webs ; lores and a conspicuous ring round the eyes white ; chin 
and throat white ; ear-coverts olive-brown ; cheeks, sides of the 
neck, the whole breast, and the sides of the body yellowish brown ; 
middle of the abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts pale yellowish 
white. 



<>< HK'MMKLA. 37 

Legs and feet pale Wax-yellow ; claws brown ; upper mandible 
blackish brown, yellowish at tip ; lower mandible dull horny-yellow ; 
iris brown (Hume). 

Length about 5'5; tail 2-1; wing 2*8; tarsus '55; bill from 
gape '65. 

I have not been able to examine a young bird. 

Distribution. Summers in Sikhim and probably in other parts of 
the Himalayas and winters in Travancore and Ceylon. This species 
occurs at Shillong on the Khasi hills, where it has been obtained in 
August, September, and October, and in Manipur, where Hume 
observed it in April. It may probably be a permanent resident, 
therefore, in Shillong and in Manipur. Brooks observed it at 
Mudhupur on the E. I. Kailway on passage. Legge notes it from 
Ceylon in January and June. Altogether our knowledge of the 
movements of this Flycatcher is very imperfect. 



Genus OCHROMELA, Blyth, 1847. 

The genus Ocliromela was instituted by Blyth for the reception 
of a Flycatcher which is remarkable alike for its coloration and its 
habits. 

In Ocliromela the sexes are slightly dissimilar, but both preserve 
the characteristic black and orange plumage. The bill is blunt 
and thick, and the rictal bristles are not only very numerous but 
very long. The wing is blunt, with the first primary longer than 
half the length of the second, and the tail is considerably rounded. 

In habits this species approaches Pratincola, descending to the 
ground for an instant to capture its prey, and it differs from all 
other Flycatchers in constructing a large globular nest. It is 
described by Jerdon as frequenting dense woods. 

591. Ocliromela nigrirufa. The Black-and-Orange Flycatcher. 

Saxicola nigrorufa, Jerd. Madr. Journ. L. S. x, p. 200 (1839). 
Ochromela nigrorufa (Jerd.\ Blyth, Cat. p. 173 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, 

p. 289 ; Jerd. B. L i, p. 402 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 207 ; id. Cat. 

no. 300 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 309 ; Gate* in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd 

ed. ii, p. 14. 
Siphia nigrorufa (Jerd.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 455; Legye, Binh 

Ceyl. p. 425. 




Fig. 15. Bill of 0. nigrirufa. 
Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, nape, hind neck, lores, sides 



38 MTJSCICAPID^E. 

of the head, and the whole wing black, some of the coverts and 
inner quills very narrowly tipped with orange ; remainder of the 
plumage rich orange, somewhat paler on the abdomen. 

Female. Resembles the male, but the black is replaced by 
greenish brown, and the orange-coloured parts of the plumage are 
paler ; the lores and a large space round the eye are rufous 
speckled with dusky, and the wings are dark brown. 

I have not been able to examine a young bird of this species. 

Bill black ; iris dark brown ; legs and feet dark plumbeous fleshy 
(Davison}. 

Length about 5 ; tail 2 ; wing 2'5 ; tarsus *8 ; bill from gape '6. 

Distribution. The Hill-ranges of Southern India from the 
Wynaad to Cape Comorin at 2500 feet and upwards. This species 
appears to be common on the Kilgiri, the Palni, and the Assambu 
hills. Its occurrence in Ceylon is doubtful. Colonel McMaster is 
of opinion that he observed this bird at Chikalda in Berar. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds from April to June, constructing a large 
globular nest of coarse grass and fern-leaves in a clump of reeds 
or on the summit of a stump of a tree. The eggs, two or three in 
number, are greyish white marked with brownish red, and measure 
about -7 by -53. 

Genus CULICICAPA, Swinhoe, 1871. 

The genus Culicicapa contains one species of very wide distri- 
bution over the Empire, migratory in the plains, but resident in 
the Himalayas and many of the hill-ranges. 




Fig. 16. Bill of C. ceylonensis. 

In this genus the sexes are alike and the plumage is grey and 
yellow. The bill is very much depressed, and viewed from above 
forms an equilateral triangle; the rictals are extremely numerous 
and long; the first primary is short and the tail is square. 

592. Culicicapa ceylonensis. The Grey-headed Flycatcher. 

Platyrhynchus ceylonensis, Sivains. Zool III ser. 1, i, pi. 13 (1820-21) 
Cryptolopha cinereocapilla ( Vieill.\ Bhjth, Cat. p. 205 : Horsf. & M. 

Cat. i, p. 147 j Jerd. B. 1. i, p. 455. 

Myialestes cinereocapilla ( Vieill.), Hume, N. $ E. p. 205. 
Culicicapa ceylonensis (Swains.}, Hume, Cat. no. 295 : Scully. 8 F. 

vm p.275; Sharps, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 369 ; Legge, Birds On/I.- 

p. 410 ; Oatcs, B. B. i, p. 274 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 162 ; Ocites 

in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 16. 
Zird phutki, Beug. 



MI TATA. 39 

Coloration. The whole head, neck, and breast ashy, darker on 
the crown, the feathers of which are obsoletely centred with 
brown ; lower plumage bright yellow ; under wing-coverts pale 
yellow; lores and the edges of the eyelids whitish ; back, rump, 
scapulars, and upper tail-coverts greenish yellow ; wings and coverts 
dark brown, the outer webs of all the feathers edged with greenish 
yellow; the lesser coverts edged on both webs; tail dark brown, 
the outer webs of all the feathers except the median pair broadly 
edged with greenish yellow. 

Iris dark hazel; bill brown, paler at the base and gape; mouth 
yellow ; legs yellowish brown ; claws horn-colour. 

Length about 5 ; tail 2'2 ; wing 2-4 ; tarsus -55 ; bill from 
gape *55. 

Distribution. The whole Empire except Sind, the Punjab, and 
Rajputana, from which provinces I have not seen any specimens. 
This species is a permanent resident on the Himalayas up to 
8000 feet, and on all the hill-ranges such as the Nilgiris, Khasi 
hills, &c., but to many portions of the plains it is probably only a 
winter visitor. The most westerly locality on the Himalayas from 
which I have examined a specimen is Baramula on the Jhelum 
river in Kashmir. It is found in Ceylon at about 1000 feet eleva- 
tion, but it apparently does not extend to the Andamans nor to the 
Nicobars. This Flycatcher ranges as far as Java and Borneo. 

Habits, <$fc. Breeds from March to June, constructing a small 
nest of moss against a rock or tree-trunk. The eggs, three or four 
in number, are whitish marked with brown and grey, and measure 
about -61 by -43. 

Genus NILTAVA, Hodgs., 1837. 

The genus Niltava contains three species of Flycatchers remark- 
able for the brilliant plumage of the males. The sexes differ in 
colour, but both may be recognized by the presence of a bright 
spot or mark on the side of the neck. Cyornis oatcsi approaches 
these birds in having some bright blue on the side of the neck, but 
the patch is of a different character, being connected with the nape 
and forming a band rather than a spot. This bright mark is more- 
over absent in the female. 

The Niltavas frequent thick jungle and are less typical in their 
habits than the species of Cyornis, and they are said to eat berries. 
They appear to be resident on the Himalayas. Mr. Cripps, how- 
ever, states that N. sundara and N. macyrirforice are seasonal visitors 
to Dibrugarh in Assam, but he omits to state at what season they 
visit that district. 

In Niltava the bill is somewhat compressed laterally and narrow, 
and the base is covered by a multitude of dense plumelets, which 
conceal the nostrils; tin; rirtal bristles are moderate in number 
and in length; the first primary is large, being quite hull' the 
length of the second, and the tail is rounded. 



40 IfUBCI' .M-JF..K 



Key to the X 

a. Winy 4 inches Of lony'T ................ A', yra-ndi*, p. 40. 

/y. Wing not much exceediny .'{ jnch> 

a 7 . Uridor winy-covert:-; ;ind ftlillfriei chost- 

nut or buff ........................ A. wriilti.ru, ],. 41 . 

5. Under win^-covcrte and axillarieH white 

or ashy indtfl ...................... A', macgrifforue, p. 



. Niltava grandis. The Largt NUtova* 

Chaitaria grandis, /////<//, ./. /I. -V. //. xi, p. l^> (1842), 
Niltava grandin r/;//////;, ////////, <"'//. p. 174; /A,y*/*. (^ ^/. Ca. 
p. 288; ,7m/. //. '/. i, p. 470; ///////', A'. V /- p- ^l r >; //'* 
Z>y. fi. F. vi, p. 2. ( }i;; Mr/,-/,". Cat, H. M. iv, p. 4<:i : //"//"-, r 



no. .'{!; ? VA -V. /'. xi, p. I l-'J ; O/^, //. //. i, p. 207 : /'/. in Hume's 
N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 1H. 

, .J:rd.; 




Fig. 17. "Bill of N. grandis. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, rump, iipp<:r 
lesser and median wing-coverts, and a large patch on osi'-li ~i<l<- ot 
tlie neck brilliant cobalt-blue ; l^-i'-k arid scapulars purplish blue; 
middle tail-feathers purplish blu<-, Hi" otliors brown on th< innf.r 
web and blue on the outer; greater coverts and (juills black, 
narrowly edged with blue; leathers at ba.s", of \\\)\t<:\- rnan'lihl'-, 
lor<:H, sides of the h-ad, chin, throat, and upj>';r br'-ast black ; 
lower breast dull blu-; abrlornen bluish ashy, the under taiU-overtH 
fringed with wliitish. 

Female, \ head, lorea, round the eye, ear-corerf, and rhe<-,kH 

fulvous, with pale .shafts ; crown and nape ashy brown ; a pjitr-h on 
each side of the wch bright blue; bfiek find rump fulvous-brown ; 
tail and wings dark brown, with the outer web.s sufTus'-d \\ith d"-|> 
rufous; the whole lower plumage rich olive-brown, tin- fi-ath- 
the throat and breast with whitish shafts; the middle of the chin 
and throat clear buff, and of the abdomen ashy ; under wing-coverls 
and axillaries buff. 

The young nestling is darl: bro-.vn, s ( r. -ak-d willi fulvous; wings 
and tail as in th- fi-.male. 

Iris d'-'.p browji ; in the male flu- bill is blax-k, the h-^ s ., M ,| \',.,. ] 
bbu-k or very dark pliimbfous ; in the f-inale \\n- bill is brf*wnish 
black, the J-gs, feel, nnd claw.s fleshy-pink (/fume <Sf Davison). 



Ml/I \V \. 41 

about. *" ; tail >>'<> ; \vin<; -I'J ; tarsus t( j ; Mil from 

'/:.(,. "I. 

,-il,nt'i,ni. The Himalaya^ from Nepal to tin- Daphla hills in 
\ i from IOIID to 7""H'e-e| elevation; the Kha-i ami Na"ga 
hills; Manipur; Mule\ -it mountain in Toiiass.-rim. 

/A/A/'/x, ifv. IJn-eds iVom April to .June, con>t met \i\tr a ne.st of 
in a deft of a rock or of a t ivr-tnuik, and laying four -^s, 
which arc pair bull' freckled with pinkish bnnvn, and IIHMMII" 
about !> by -7. 

r>0 I. Niltava sundara. 77<e Jtufous-lellied Niltava. 

Mit;i\!i nadava. n<i;/*. 7//>/. ///-, . i, p. < : ntyth, Cat. 

p. 171: H / Cat i. p. 388; Ml, //. /. i, p. 47:i ; //////.-, 

A'. ^ A', p. L'i:J ; A'//////, ////v/^ A'///-,//, p. H)J; ////////-, <V//. DO, :il 1 ; 



v//. /;. .17. iv, p. n;;; ; r >,///-.<, /;. /;. i, p. 295* /,/. ln 77-<///.-\- 
jv.4- /;. 2nd ...i. ii, p. 20. 

'/'// /,'///'///.-,-/y<V///,/ /'////// I Hue- Chut, J:rd.; \ilfau, Nep. ; Mf/ri/ni/ t 
Lepcb. 

Cutifi-iition. Male. l''on-licad, Ion--, -id-^ of the head, chin, and 
tliroat dfcj) black; crown of tin- In-ad, najx-, rump, upper tail- 
coverts, a spot on either sidj of tlie neck, and the leaser \\ iur- 
covert> ^listeuiii^ blue; the remaining coverts and quills dark 
brown, cd^cd with purplish blip-; bad, and scapulars purpli>h 
black; tail Mark, tin; outer \\eb> e d^-d with bright blue; the 
\vliole lower plumage and the under win^-coverN chestnut. 

Female. Upp(;r ])lumago olivr-brou n, tinned witfi fulvous on the 
rump; uppor tail-cos erts and tail client nut ; win^s lirowu, 
with rufou- ; tide* of the bead Mid lore-, mixed fulvous and broun, 
\\ith paler shafts; lower plumage rich olive-brown, tinned with 
ochraceous ; tlie chin and thr> P rufous, the abdom-n 

xvhiti-h ; a lar^'e oval patch of white on the fore neck, and a 
patch of brilliant blue on ea--h >ide of it ; under t;iil-co\erl s pale 
buff ; under \s in t^'-co \ert-. and axillarie-, buff. 

n^' birds arc dark brown streake<l \\itfi fulvous both above 
nnd below. In males some trace of blue, and in females an indi- 
cation of the white neck-patch, make their appearance at an early 
ge. 

Bill black ; Iff^s brown ; iris dark brown (Jerdori). 

about '-.">; tail U'7 ; \\in^ '.'>"2 ; tar.-us -S ; bill from 
-7. 

ribuium. r l'he Himalayas from Simla to Assam from 
"'I 1',-,-t cle\ation ; tliel\h;i^i hill> ; Kan-une- 'fe,-t. 

Jilyth records t hi- -m Arrakan and Tenass(;rim. I have 

not been able to examine sperimen-, from fhe-i- localities. It 
(.-.xtencU into Western China. 

llnlxt.-;. t y<-. lin-eds in April and May, constructing a nest of 

amon^ the i cre\ ice of a trunk of a t: 

-ometime- a^ain~1 a rock. i pale bull' frerklird uith 

pink, and meainm about -'.)'.', by -71. 



42 MUSCICAPHLE. 

595. Niltava macgrigoriae, The Small Niltava. 

Phoenicura macgrigoriae, Burton, P. Z. S. 1835, p. 152. 

Niltava macgrigoriaj (Burton), Blyth, Cat, p. 174 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. 
i, p. 288 ; Jerd. B. L i, p. 475 ; Hume, N. ty E. p. 214 ; Wald. in 
Blyth, Bird* Burm. p. 102 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 231 ; SJiarpe, 
Cat. B. M. iv, p. 465 ; Hume, Cat. no. 315 ; id. S. F. xi, p. 113 ; 
Gates, B. B. i, p. 299 ; id. in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 21. 
The Small Fairy Blue-Chat, Jerd. ; Phatt-tagrak-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Male. Upper plumage bright purplish blue ; fore- 
head, supercilium, rump, upper tail-coverts, and a patch on each 
side of the neck cobalt-blue ; lesser wing-coverts brown, tipped 
with blue ; median coverts entirely blue ; greater coverts and quills 
dark brown, edged with blue; median tail-feathers entirely blue, 
the outer webs of the others blue, the inner dark brown ; lores, 
feathers at base of the upper mandible and those in front of and 
below the eye black ; cheeks, ear-coverts, chin, throat, and breast 
purple ; the breast occasionally ashy like the abdomen ; remainder 
of the lower plumage ashy, becoming albescent on the abdomen 
and under tail-coverts ; under wing-coverts ashy white. 

Female. Upper plumage olive-brown, tinged with rufous ; tail 
rufous-brown ; wing-coverts and quills brown, edged with rufous- 
brown ; forehead and sides of the head mixed brown and fulvous ; 
a patch of brilliant blue on each side of the neck ; lower plumage 
ochraceous buff, paling on the abdomen and under tail-coverts ; 
under wing-coverts and axillaries pure white. 

The young nestling is streaked with fulvous. 

Bill black ; legs reddish black ; iris dark brown (Jerdon). 

Length nearly 5; tail 2-1; wing 2-6; tarsus '7; bill from 
gape -6. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Garhwal to Assam from about 
3000 to 5000 feet elevation ; the Khasi hills ; North Cachar hills ; 
Manipur; Karennee; Northern Tenasserim. 

Habits, $c. Breeds from April to June, constructing a nest of 
moss, sometimes, it is said, on the ground, at other times in the 
hole of a trunk of a tree. The eggs are described as being white 
or stone-coloured, freckled with brownish purple or brownish pink, 
and measure about '76 by '53. 

Genus PHILENTOMA, Eyton, 1845. 

The two Flycatchers which constitute the genus Pliilentoma are 
birds of peculiar coloration, maroon and chestnut entering into its 
composition. 

In this genus the sexes are dissimilar. The bill is very large 
and coarse, and its base is covered by the frontal plumelets ; the 
wing is rounded, and the first primary is much longer than half 
the length of the second ; the tail is square. Both species are 
resident, and they have all the habits of the typical Flycatchers, 
catching insects on the wing. 



miLENTOMA. 43 

Key to the Species. 

a. Wings and tail blue , P. velatum, p. 43. 

b. Wings and tail chestnut P. pyrrhopterum, p. 43. 

596. Philentoma velatum. The Maroon-breasted Flycatcher. 

Drymophila velata, Temm. PI. Col. no. 334. 

Philentoma velatum (Temm.), Blyth, Cat. p. 204 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. 

i, p. .392; JInme $ Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 224, 509; Hume, Cat. 

no. 289 ter ; Sharps, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 365 ; Gates, B. B. i, p. 263. 




Fig. 18. Bill of P. velatum. 

Coloration. Male. General colour indigo-blue ; forehead, lores, 
chin, cheeks, ear-coverts, and round the eye black ; throat and 
breast rich maroon ; quills black, the outer webs broadly margined 
with indigo-blue, and the tertiaries wholly of this colour, but with 
the shafts black ; median tail-feathers indigo-blue ; the others 
black on the inner web and blue on the outer. 

Female. Wholly dull indigo-blue except the wings and tail, 
which are coloured as in the male. 

The nestling has the whole plumage chestnut except the wings 
and tail, which are the same as in the adult, but all the median 
and greater wing-coverts are broadly tipped with chestnut. Almost 
before it is able to leave the nest blue feathers appear on all parts, 
and probably before the first autumn the full adult plumage is 
assumed ; but both sexes resemble the adult female at first, the 
male donning the maroon breast later on. 

Legs and feet bluish- or purplish-black ; bill black, iris lake to 
crimson (Hume 4' Davison). 

Distribution. Tenasserim from about Muleyit mountain to the 
extreme south. This species extends down the Malay peninsula to 
Sumatra, Java, and Borneo. 



597. Philentoma pyrrhopterum. The Chestnut-winged Flycatcher. 

Muscicapa pyrrhoptera, Tcmm. PI. Col. no. 590 (1823). 

Philentoma pyrrhopterum (7V;nm.), Blyth, Cat. p. 205; Huiw \ 

Dai-. ,v. /'. vi, p. >:}; Hume, Cat. no. 289 bis; Sharpe, Cat.B.M. 

iv, p. 300 ; Gates, B. B. i, p. 204. 

Coloration. Mali'. The whole head and neck, back, breast, and 



44 MUSCICAPIDjE. 

lesser wing-coverts indigo-blue ; lower back and ramp rufous- 
grey ; upper tail-coverts, the tail, a portion of the outer webs of 
the scapulars, the whole of the tertiaries, and the greater portion 
of the outer webs of the secondaries bright chestnut ; remainder 
of the quills dark brown, the outer webs of the primaries margined 
with reddish grey ; primary-coverts blue, centred with blackish ; 
greater wing-coverts chestnut ; lower plumage pale buff, becoming 
paler on the vent and under tail -co verts. 

Female. Forehead, crown, nape, and ear-coverts dark olive- 
brown ; lores and round the eye pale ashy ; back, scapulars, and 
rump rufous-ashy ; upper tail-coverts and tail chestnut ; lesser 
wing-coverts olive-brown, tinged with rufous on the margins ; 
greater coverts chestnut ; wings dark brown, the outer webs of 
the primaries rufescent, those of the other quills chestnut ; the 
tertiaries wholly chestnut; lower plumage pale buff, somewhat 
brighter on the throat and breast. 

In the males legs, feet, and claws pale purplish blue ; bill black ; 
iris crimson ; in the adult female legs, feet, and claws plumbeous 
olive ; upper mandible pale horny-brown ; lower mandible fleshy- 
white ; iris dull red ; in a young female legs and feet pale horny- 
red ; iris pale red, speckled with white (Hume &f Davison). 

Length about 7 ; tail 2'8 ; wing 3'2 ; tarsus '65 ; bill from 
gape -9. 

I have not been able to examine a young bird of this species, 
but it probably follows the young of P. velatam in its style of 
coloration. 

Distribution. Tenasserim from Nwalabo mountain to its southern 
extremity, extending to the Malay peninsula, Cochin China, 
Sumatra, and Borneo. 



Genus TERPSIPHONE, Gloger, 1827. 

In Terpsiphone the typical characteristics of the Flycatchers are 
developed to a greater extent than in any other genus. 

The bill is extremely large, depressed, and swollen, and the 
rictal bristles are very numerous, coarse, and long. The head is 
crested, and the tail is greatly developed in the mature males. 

In Terpsiphone the sexes are alike, or closely so, during the first 
two years, and the prevailing colour of the plumage is chestnut. 
The female never drops her chestnut garb, but the male after the 
second autumn, or even later, assumes a white plumage. It thus 
happens that a pair may be found breeding both being in the 
chestnut plumage, or a female in chestnut plumage may be 
found mated with a white male. 

The Paradise Flycatchers are found over the whole Empire, both 
on the Himalayas and in the plains and lesser hill-ranges, and are 
resident in many portions of the country, but in others they appear 
to be seasonal visitors, or in great measure so, but their movements 
are probably of no great extent. 

The members of this genus are typical Flycatchers, catching 



TERPSIPHONB. 



45 



insects oil the wing, never descending to the ground, and of 
solitary habits. Their notes are very harsh. 



Key to the Species. 

a. Crest long and pointed, reaching to upper 

part of back. 
a'. Throat and sides of head ashy 



b' ' . Throat and sides of head glossy black . . 

b. Crest short and rounded, not reaching 

beyond nape. 
c '. Back deep chestnut ; throat and sides 

of head bluish ashy 

d' '. Back ashy rufous. 

a". Throat and sides of head dark ashy. . 

b". Throat and sides of head black . 



T. parodist : 5 at all ages 

arid c? before second 

autumn, p. 45. 
T. paradisi : <J after 

second autumn moult, 

p. 45. 

T. affinis : 5 a t all ages, 

c? while in chestnut 

plumage, p. 47. 
T. nicobarica : $ at all 

agpes, p. ^48. 
T. nicobarica : $ while in 

chestnut plumage, p.48. 



598. Terpsiphone paradisi. The Indian Paradise Flycatcher. 

Muscicapa paradisi, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 324 (1766). 

IMuscipeta paradisea, Jerd. III. Orn. pi. 7. 

Tchitrea paradisi (Linn.), Blyth, Cat. p. 203 ; Horsf. Sf M. Cat i, 

p. 133 ; Jerd. B. L i, p. 445 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 196 ; Hume Sf 

Renders. Lah. to Yark. p. 184. 
Muscipeta paradisi (Linn.), Cripps, S. F. vii, p. 274; Hume, Cat. 

no. 288 ; Scully, & F. yiii, p. 273 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 158. 
Terpsiphone paradisi (Linn.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 346; Leyye, 

Birds Ceylsy. 404 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 22. 

The Paradise Flycatcher, Jerd. ; Shah Bulbul, Hosseini Bulbul, Sultana 
Bulbul, Taklah, Doodhraj, Hind. ; Tonka piyli pitta, Tel. ; Wai Konda- 
lati, Tarn. 




Fig. 19. Bill of T. paradisi. 

Coloration. The young of both sexes have the forehead, crown, 
nape, and crest metallic bluish black ; sides of the head, chin, 
throat, and the neck all round ashy brown, the brown of the throat 
blending gradually with the pale ashy of the breast, and this again 
with the white of the remainder of the lower parts ; upper plumage, 



46 MUSCICAPID^:. 

tail, wing-coverts, tertiaries, and the outer webs of the other quills 
chestnut. 

This plumage is retained till the second autumn by the male, 
and permanently by the female, which undergoes no further change 
of any kind. The young male for some time previous to the second 
autumn becomes gradually blacker on the chin and throat, and 
sometimes becomes quite black on those parts, as well as on the 
sides of the head, as in the adult, but the breast remains ashy and 
is never pure white contrasting with the black throat. 

After the autumn moult of the second year the male has the 
whole head and crest glossy black, the lower parts as before the 
moult, and the whole upper plumage rich chestnut ; the median 
tail-feathers grow to a great length, and are retained till May or 
June, when they are cast. 

After the autumn moult of the third year the chestnut plumage 
is again assumed, and also the long median tail-feathers, but the 
whole lower plumage from the throat downwards is pure white, 
the breast being sharply demarcated from the black throat. After 
this moult a gradual transition to the white upper plumage takes 
place, the wings and tail being the first parts to be affected, but 
the change to a complete white plumage is not affected till the 
moult of the fourth autumn. 

After this moult the male bird is fully adult, and permanently 
retains the white plumage. The whole head, neck, and crest are, 
glossy bluish black ; the whole body-plumage white, the feathers of 
the back, rump, scapulars, and wing-coverts with black shafts ; tail 
white, with black shafts and narrow outer margins, except on the 
middle feathers, where the shaft is black only on the basal third 
of its length and at the tip : wings black, with broad white margins 
on both webs, the later secondaries and tertiaries being almost 
entirely white. 

Bill, gape, and margin of eyelids cobalt-blue, the tip of the bill 
darker ; iris dark brown ; feet plumbeous blue ; claws dusky 
(Scully). 

Length from about 9 to 21 ; tail 4'5 to 16'5; wing 3'7 ; tarsus 
65 ; bill from gape 1*1. 

Distribution. The whole of India proper as far east as Nepal in 
the Himalayas and the Brahmaputra river in the plains. To the 
west this species extends into Afghanistan, and to the north into 
Turkestan. In Kashmir and other parts of the Himalayas it is 
found in summer up to 9000 feet or so. This Flycatcher occurs in 
Ceylon. It appears to be everywhere a permanent resident, except 
in the Himalayas, where it moves to lower levels in winter. 

Habits, $*c. Breeds from May to July, constructing a small cup- 
shaped nest of grass, fibres, or moss in the branch of a tree. The 
eggs, four or five in number, are pink marked with brownish red, 
and measure about *81 by *6. 



TERPSIPHOM:. 47 



509. Terpsiphone affinis. The Burmese Paradise Flycatcher. 

Tchitrea affinis, Hm/, />'/!///<, J. A. S. 13. xv, p. 202 (1846) ; id. Cat. 

p. 203 ; Horjf. $ \\L Cat. i, p. 134 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 448. 
Tchitrea paradisi (Linn.), Hume, S. F. iii, p. 102. 
Muscipeta affiuis (Hay), Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 223; Hume, Cat. 

no. 289. 
Terpsiphone ailinis (Haij], Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 654; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv/p. 349 ; Gates, B. B. i, p. 2(31 ; id. in Hume\ 

N. % E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 20. 

Coloration. Up to the second autumn both sexes are alike. The 
forehead, crown, nape, and a short blunt crest are metallic black ; 
sides of the head, chin, throat, and neck all round with the breast 
dark bluish ashy ; remainder of the lower plumage white ; back, 
rump, upper tail- and wing-coverts, and tail deep chestnut ; wings 
black, broadly margined with chest nut. 

The female undergoes no further change of plumage. 

The male after the moult of the second autumn acquires two 
long median tail-feathers, but probably sheds them at the end of 
the breeding-season. 

At the moult of the third autumn the white plumage is assumed 
in its entirety, and in this state resembles the white phase of T. 
jHii'ddiiti, differing only in the shaft-stripes of the upper plumage 
being much broader, the tail more broadly edged with black, and 
the shafts of the median pair of tail-feathers being black for a 
greater length (for three quarters of their length and at the tip), 
and in having a short rounded crest. 

The nestling is ricjh chestnut above, with darker tips to some of 
the feathers ; the lower plumage white, the breast mottled with 
rufous. 

Iris hazel-brown; eyelids plumbeous, the edges tumid and rich 
blue ; mouth yellow ; bill blue, the tip and anterior half of the 
margins black ; legs plumbeous blue ; claws dark horn-colour. 

Length 8 to 18; tail 4 to 14 ; wing 3'6 ; tarsus 7 ; bill from 
gape 1. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Sikhini to Dibrugarh in Assam, 
and thence south throughout the hill-tracts and Burma to the 
extreme southern part of Tenasserim. This species extends east 
of Burma and down the Malay peninsula, where it meets T. incii, 
and owing to the similarity of T. affinis and T. iticii in certain 
stages of plumage the respective limits of these two species have 
not been determined with any great exactness. 

T. incii resembles T. affinis very closely, but the large series of 
the former in the British Museum appears to prove beyond doubt 
that the male never assumes the white plumage. 

Habits, fyc. I found the nest of this bird in Burma at the end 
of April. It was cup-shaped, and composed of dry bamboo-leaves 
and tibres, and it was placed near the summit of a small tree. 
The eggs are similar to those of T. paradisi, and measure about 
85 by -6. 



48 MtTSCICAPIDyE. 



600. Terpsiphone nicobarica, n. sp. The Nicobar Paradise- 
Flycatcher. 

Tchitrea affinis (Hay), Walden, Ibis, 1873, p. 309 ; Hume, S. F. ii, 
p. 216. 

Coloration. The changes of plumage of this species cannot be 
followed with the same certainty as in the two preceding species, 
by reason of the smaller number of specimens available for ex- 
amination, but certain characters are present which serve to distin- 
guish the present form at once. 

In the chestnut plumage the male has the whole head and neck 
all round with the chin and throat glossy black ; the back ashy 
rufous ; rump dull rufous ; upper tail-coverts, tail, and the visible 
portions of the closed wing bright chestnut ; breast dark ashy ; 
remainder of lower plumage pale ferruginous. 

The female in the chestnut plumage, which is never changed, 
resembles the chestnut male, but has the sides of the head, chin, 
throat, breast, and sides of the neck uniform dark ashy. 

In the white stage the male is undistinguishable from the male 
of T. affinis. 

This species differs from T. paradisi in all stages of plumage by 
having a short, round crest, by the ashy tint of the plumage of 
the back when in the chestnut stage ; and by the same characters, 
when in the white stage, as those which separate T. affinis from 
T. paradisi. 

Erom T. affinis it differs when in chestnut plumage by the male 
having the whole head and neck, chin and throat glossy black, 
T. affinis (male) in this stage having only the crown and crest of 
this colour, the other parts being constantly dark ash}'-. In white 
plumage the two species appear to be uu distinguishable. 

From T. incii of the Malay peninsula it differs in the pale 
coloration of the back when in chestnut plumage, and further in 
attaining a white stage, which T. incii apparently never does. 

It is of the same size as T. affinis. 

Distribution. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, where this 
species appears to be a constant resident. 



Genus HYPOTHYMIS, Boie, 1826. 

The genus Hypothymis contains two Indian Flycatchers of a 
brilliant blue colour, one being of wide distribution and the other 
confined to the An damans. 

In Hypothymis the bill is very large and flattened, its length 
being about double its width at the nostrils. The rictal bristles 
are very strong and numerous. The tail is ample, being of the 
same length as the wing. The sexes differ, but preserve the same 
pattern of colour, with the exception of certain marks on the head 
and neck. Both the species found within the Empire are resident. 



HYPOTIIYMIS. 49 



Key to the Species. 

a. Abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts white //. azitrca, p. 49. 

b. Abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts blue II. tytleri, p. 50. 

601. Hypothymis azurea. The Indian BlacTc-naped Flycatcher. 

Muscicapa azurea, Bodd. Tabl. PL Evil. p. 41 (1783). 

Myiagra caerulea ( Vieill.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 204. 

Myiagra azurea (Bodd.}, Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 138 j Jerd. B. I. i, 

"p. 450 ; Hume, N. Sf E. p. 198. 
Hypothymis azurea (Bodd.}, Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 055 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 290 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 274 ; Oates, B. B. 

i, p. 265 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 159 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 

2nd ed. ii, p. 27. 
llypothymis ceylonensis, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 277 (1870); 

Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 408 ; pi. xviii. 

The Black-nttped />//// Flycatcher, Jerd. ; Kuht l-at-l-ntia, Beng. 




Fig. 20. Bill of H. azurea. 

Coloration. Male. A patch on the Dape, forehead, angle of the 
chin, and a crescentic bar across the fore neck black ; abdomen, 
vent, and under tail-coverts white, or faint bluish white ; re- 
mainder of lower plumage a/Aire-blue ; wings and coverts dark 
brown edged with blue; tail brown, suffused with blue on the 
median pair of feathers and the outer webs of the others ; under 
wing-coverts and axillaries white. 

Female. Head above azure-blue ; sides of the head, chin, and 
throat duller blue, the ear-coverts almost brown ; breast ashy 
blue ; abdomen, flanks, and under tail-coverts white tinged with 
grey ; wings, back, rump, and upper tail-coverts brown ; tail 
darker brown, the outer edges washed with blue. 

I have not been able to examine a nestling of this species. 

Iris dark brown ; eyelids plumbeous, the edges blue ; bill dark 
blue, the edges and tip black : mouth yellow ; legs plumbeous ; 
claws horn-colour. 

Length about 6*5 : tail 3 ; wing 2*8 ; tarsus '7 ; bill from gape 
75. 

//. ceylonensis, from Ceylon, is said to differ in the male wauling 
the black bar across the throat, but I am of opinion that this 
alleged difference does not really hold good. Ceylonese specimens 
of this Flycatcher are not common in collections, but the British 
Museum contains six males. Of these, five have no black throat- 
bar, but they als<> ha\i> no nape-patch, which shows them to be 

VOL. II. E 



50 

young. The sixth bird has a small nape-patch and traces of a 
throat-bar. This last specimen, therefore, clearly shows that the 
Ceylon bird does sometimes at least exhibit a throat-patch, and this 
being the case there is no character by which the two sup- 
posed races can be separated. 

Distribution. The whole Empire east of a line drawn approxi- 
mately from Mussoorie in the Himalayas to Khandala on the 
Western Ghats. This species does not ascend the Himalayas above 
3000 feet or thereabouts. It occurs in Ceylon and the Nicobar 
Islands, but is absent from the Andainans, where it is replaced by 
the next species. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds generally from May to August, constructing 
a beautiful cup of fine grass coated exteriorly with cobwebs and 
cocoons in the fork of a branch not far from the ground. The 
eggs, three to five in number, are white or pinkish marked with 
reddish, and occasionally some purple spots and specks, and 
measure about -69 by '53. 



602. Hypothymis tytleri. The Andaman Black-naped Flycatcher. 

Myiagra tytleri, Beavan, Ibis, 1867, p. 324 ; Ball, S. F. i, p. 68 ; 

Hume, 8. F. ii, p. 217 ; id. N. $ E. p. 199. 

Hypothymis occipitalis ( Vig.), Sharpe, Cat. E. M. iv, p. 275 (part.). 
Hvpothymis tytleri (Beavan), Hume, Cat. no. 290 ; Oates in Hume's 

"N. $ *E. 2nd ed. ii ; p. 30. 

Coloration. Resembles H. azurea. The male differs from the 
male of that species in having the abdomen, vent, and under tail- 
coverts of the same blue as the breast ; the female similarly in 
having those parts dingy lilac-grey. 

The differences pointed out above hold good in a considerable 
series of the Andamanese bird, and I think that it forms a species 
easily recognizable from the Continental and Nicobarese form. A 
richly-coloured Indian bird and a dull Andamanese bird may be 
difficult to separate, but such pairs of birds are not often met with 
and do not in my opinion affect the question. Hume recognizes 
the two species in his Catalogue. 

In retaining the Andamanese form under Beavan's name I do 
so because I am not satisfied that any prior name applies to it 
with certainty. The forms from the Malay peninsula and the 
islands do not seem identical with the Andamanese bird, but rather 
to be referable to H. azurea. 

Distribution. The Andaman Islands and the Great and Little 
Cocos. 

Habits, $c. Davison found the nest of this species on 23rd April 
at Aberdeen, South Andaman, with three eggs. Both nest and 
eggs resembled those of H. azurea. 



CHELLDOKin N \. 51 



Genus CHELIDORHYNX, Hodgs., 1844. 

The genus CTididorhynx contains only one species of Flycatcher 
remarkable for the shape of its bill, which is short and pointed, 
and \\hen viewed from above forms a perfect equilateral triangle. 




Fig. 21. Bill of C. hypoxanthum, 

The rictal bristles are extremely numerous and long. The tail is 
of about the same length as the wing, rounded, and with the shafts 
thickened and white. The sexes are quite alike. 



603. Chelidorhynx hypoxanthum. The Yellow-bellied 
Flycatcher. 

Rhipidura liypoxanllia, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 936 (1843); id. 
Cat. p. 205. 

Chelidorhynx hypoxantlia (Bl.~), Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 147 ; Jerd. 
B. I. i, p. 455; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 47; Hume, N. $ 
E. p. 204 ; Hume, Cat. no. 294 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 275 ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. M. iv, p. 279/Oates, B. B. i, p. 269; id. in Hume's N. 
$ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 30. 

The Yellow-bellied I 1 ant ail, Jerd. ; Sitte kleotn, Lepch. 

Coloration. A broad band on the forehead, continued back as a 
broad supercilium, and the whole lower plumage bright yellow ; 
lores, feathers round the eye, cheeks, and ear-coverts dark brown, 
tinged with green, the shafts of the latter part whitish ; tail brown, 
with conspicuous white shafts and all the feathers except the 
middle pair tipped white ; upper plumage and wing-coverts olive- 
brown, the greater coverts tipped with white; wings brown, edged 
with the colour of the back. 

I have not been able to examine a young bird. 

Bill black above, the lower mandible yellow; iris brown; gape 
orange; feet brownish (Scull 11). 

Length about 4-7; tail 2-3; wing 2*1; tarsus *6; bill from 
gape -4. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Simla to Assam up to 12,000 
feet; the Khasi hills; Manipur; the hills east of Toungngoo in 
IVini. This species appears to be a permanent resident wherever 
it is found. 

llnl/it*, ijj-c. According to Blanf ord this Flycatcher is usually 
seen in small flocks hunting about trees. The nest appears to be 
a deep cup made of moss, hair, wool, &c., built on the branch of a 
trt.v, and the eggs white without spots. 

E2 



52 MUSCICAPID^E. 



Genus RHIPIDURA, Vigors & Horsf., 1826. 

The genus Rhipidura is a very extensive one, and contains four 
Indian Flycatchers. In these birds the bill is large, about twice 
as long as broad, and the rictal bristles are very numerous and 
long. The tail is very ample and rounded. The sexes are alike 
or nearly so. 

These Flycatchers are abundant everywhere and are resident. 
They are very lively, constantly on the move, and frequently seen 
with outspread tail d-incing from branch to branch. They make 
small and very beautiful nests covered with cobwebs. 



Key to the Species. 

a. Forehead and sides of the crown broadly 

white , R. a^bifrontata, p. 52. 

b. Forehead black ; a small white supercilium. 

'. Abdomen black R. albicollis, p. 53. 

&'. Abdomen white or whitish. 

a". Outer tail-feathers distinctly and 

abruptly tipped white R. javanica, p. 54. 

b". Outer tail-feathers merely paler towards 

the tips R. pectoralis, p. 55. 

604. Rhipidura albifrontata. The White-browed Fantail 
Flycatcher. 

Rhipidura albofrontata, Frankl. P. Z. & 1831, p. 116 ; Horsf. 8f M. 

Cat. i, p. 145; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 655; Sharpe, 

Cat. B. M. \\, p. 338 ; Le.gge, Birds Cet/l. p. 412 ; Oates, B. B. i, 

p. 268 ; id. in Hume's N. If E. 2nd ed. 'ii, p. 31. 
Rhipidura aureola, Less. Traite, p. 390 (1831). 
Leucocerca albofrontata (Frankl.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 206; Jerd. B. I. i, 

p. 452; Hume, N. 8f E. p. 201. 
Leucocerca aureola (Less.}, Hums, S. F. i, p. 436, iii, p. 104; id. 

Cat. no. 292 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 160. 
Leucocerca burmanica, Hume, S. F. ix, p. 175, footnote (1880). 

The White-browed Fantail, Jerd. ; Macharya, Hind, in the South ; 
Manati, Mai. ; Dasari-pitta, Tel. 

Coloration. Male. Crown, lores, ear-coverts, and the feathers 
round the eye black ; forehead and a very broad supercilium to 
the nape white ; upper plumage and wings ashy brown, the wing- 
coverts tipped with white ; tail brown, all but the median pair of 
feathers tipped white, progressively more and more so to the 
outermost feather, which is almost entirely white ; cheeks, chin, 
and throat black, each feather broadly terminated with white, 
except on the lower throat, where the white is reduced to narrow 
margins ; sides of the breast black ; remainder of lower plumage 
white. 

Female. Very similar to the male, but browner above. 



RHIPIDURA. 53 

The young resemble the adult, but the back and wing-coverts 
are margined with rufous. 

Bill, legs, and feet black ; iris brown. 

Lengt h about 7 ; tail 3-7 ; wing 3-2 ; tarsus *8 ; bill from 
gape -7. 

Birds of this species from Burma are characterized by a nearly 
total absence of white spots on the wing-coverts and by the presence 
of more white on the chin and throat ; to this race Hume has 
given the name of burmanica. I do not propose to keep it dis- 
tinct, as the specimens of this species in the British Museum from 
Burma are very few, and the characters pointed out above may 
prove to be accidental or variable. 

Distribution. The whole Empire, ascending the Himalayas to 
4000 or 5000 feet. This species is apparently rare from Assam 
down to Tenasserim, but is found in suitable localities all over the 
tract. It occurs in Ceylon, but not, so far as is known, in the 
Andamans and Nicobars. 

Habits, tyc. Breeds from February to August, having two or 
more broods. The nest, composed of fine grass and coated with 
cobwebs, is generally placed on a stout branch of a tree, or some- 
times in a fork, and is cup-shaped. The eggs, usually three in 
number, are white or cream-coloured, marked with greyish brown, 
and measure about *G6 by '51. 



605. Rhipidura albicollis. The White-throated Fantail 
Flycatcher. 

Platyrhynchus albicollis, Vie-ill. Nmiv. Diet. it Hist. Nat. xxvii, p. 13 

Rhipidura fuscoventris, Frankl. P.Z.S. 1831, p. 117; Horsf. $ M. 

Cat. i, p. 144. 
Leucocerca fuscoventris (Frankl.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 206 ; Jerd. B. I. i, 

p. 451 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 200. 
Rhipidura albicollis ( Vicill.), Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. ('>">< ; 

Shftrpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 317; Oates, B. B. i, p. 266 ; iff. in 

Humes N. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 35. 
Leucocerca albicollis (Vieill.), Ball, S. F. vii, p. 211; Huine, Cat, 

no. 291 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 160 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 104. 

The White-throated Fantail, Jerd. ; Chok-dayal, Beng. ; C/iak-dil, in 
the N.W. Provinces ; Natn-dit-nom, Lepch. 

Coloration. Crown, lores, sides of the head, and angle of the 
chin black; a short supercilium white; throat white, extending 
laterally to the sides of the neck, the bases of the feathers black, 
causing the white to appear dull; with these exceptions the whole 
plimmge is dark sooty brown ; tail dark brown, all but the middle 
pair of feathers broadly tipped with white. The female does not 
differ from the male. 

The young have the back and wing-coverts tipped with rufous, 
the lower plumage fringed \\ith rufous, and the white supoc- 
ciliuin and white on the throat barely indicated. 



54 MUSCICAPID.S;. 

Bill, legs, and feet black; mouth fleshy white; eyelids grey; 
iris deep brown ; claws blackish horn-colour. 




Fig. 22. Bill of R. albicollis. 

Length about 7'5 ; tail 4 ; wing 2-9 ; tarsus '75 ; bill from 
gape -7. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Murree to Dibrugarh in 
Assam from their base up to 5000 feet, and occasionally, as re- 
corded by Stoliczka, up to 9000 ; portions of the Central Provinces 
and Chutia Nagpur, Ball recording this species from Maiibhoom, 
Loharclugga, Jashpur, Sambalpur north of the Mahanadi, Raipur, 
and the Godavari valley, and Hume from Bod ; to the west the 
range of this bird is somewhat undefined, Barnes expressing his 
belief that it does not occur in the Bombay Presidency, but Mr. 
B. Aitken stating that it is common both at Bombay and Poona. 
Sykes obtained it in the Deccan. It is found in Lower and Eastern 
Bengal, Assam, and all the countries between this latter province 
and Central Tenasserim, extending into Cochin China. 

Habits, &jC t Breeds in May, June, and July, constructing a nest 
of grass coated with cobwebs, of the shape of an inverted cone, in 
a small fork on a branch of a tree. The eggs, usually three in 
number, are fawn-colour or yellowish, marked with grey, and 
measure about -65 by -49. 



606. Rhipidura javanica. The Java Fantail Flycatcher. 

Muscicapa j avanica, Sparrm. Mus. Carls, tii, pi. 75 (1783;. 
Leucocerca j avanica (Sparnn.), Bhjth, Cat. p. 206 ; Hume 8f Dav. S, 

F. vi, p. 226 ; Hume, Cat. no. 293 bis ; id. S. F.ix, p. 175. 
Rhipidura javanica (Sparrm.), Horsf. # M. Cat. \, p. 144; Sharpe, 

Cat. B. M. iv, p. 332 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 267. 
Leucocerca infumata, Hume, S. F. i, p. 455 (1873). 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, and sides of the head sooty 
brown ; the whole upper plumage and the wings brown, suffused 
with rufous; tail dark brown, the four outer pairs of feathers 
broadly tipped with white, the pair next to these very narrowly 
tipped with white ; a short supercilium white ; chin, a band across 
the upper breast, and the sides of the breast blackish brown ; 
throat white ; remainder of lower plumage white tinged with buff. 



55 

. Resembles the male, but has the lower plumage more 
tinged with buff. 

The young resemble the adult, bufc the back and the wing- 
coverts are broadly tipped arid fringed with rufous. 

Iris brown ; bill black, fleshy at the base of the lower mandible 
(//nine and Davison). 

Length about 7'5 ; tail 3'6 ; wing 3 ; tarsus '75 ; bill from 
gape -7. 

Distribution. Tenasserim from Tavoy southwards, extending to 
Slum, Cochin China, the Malay peninsula and islands. 



607. Rhipidura pectoralis. The White- spotted Fantail 
F/ I/catcher. 

Leucocerca pectoralis, Jerd. III. Ind. Orn. text to plate ii (1847) ; 

myth, Cat. p. 200 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 453 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 203. 
Muscipeta leucogaster, Cuvier,Jide Pucker. Arch. Mus. vii, p. 333 

(1854). 
Rhipidura pectoralis (Jerd.), Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 935 (1843) ; 

Marpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 335 j Oatesin Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, 

p. 38. 
Leucocerca leucogaster ( Cuv.\ Hume, Cat. no. 293 ; Barnes, Birds 

Bom. p. 101. 

The White-shotted Fantail, Jerd. 

Coloration. Resembles R.javanica. Differs in having the breast- 
band ocellated with white and the outer tail-feathers merely paler 
towards the tips, not abruptly and broadly pure white. 

Iris blackish brown ; legs, feet, and bill black (Butler). 

Length about 7 ; tail 3'8 ; wing 3 ; tarsus '7 ; bill from gape -6. 

Distribution. Found chiefly and most abundantly in the western 
portion of India from Abu nearly down to Cape Comorin. To the 
eastward this species has been found at Raipur (Ball), Chikalda 
(McMaster), Goona (King), Chanda (Blanford), and a line con- 
necting these localities probably represents its eastern limits. It 
a j) ] tears to be found up to 6000 feet or even higher. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds from April to August, constructing a nest 
very similar to that of R. albifrontata. The eggs are buffy white, 
with a zone of brownish spots round the larger end, and measure 
about -66 by -47. 



56 



TUED1D.E. 




Fig. 23. Copsychus saularis. 



Family TURDID^E. 

The intrinsic muscles of the syrinx fixed to the ends of the 
bronchial semi-rings ; the edges of both mandibles smooth, or the 
upper one simply notched ; hinder aspect of tarsus bilaminated, 
the laminae entire and smooth ; wing with ten primaries ; tongue 
non-tubular ; nostrils always clear of the line of forehead, the 
space between the nostril and the edge of the mandible less than 
the space between the nostril and the culmen ; plumage of the 
nestling mottled or squamated to a greater or less extent ; one 
moult in the year, but frequently supplemented by a seasonal 
change of plumage caused by the casting-off of the margins of the 
feathers in spring ; rectrices usually twelve, very seldom fourteen. 



SAXICOLLN.K. ">7 

The Turdidit', or Chats, Hobins, Thrushes, Dippers, and Accen- 
tors, form a very large family of the Passeres. The only character 
which links all the species together is the mottled or squamated 
plumage of the nestling. In this character the Turdidce agree 
with the Muscicapidce, but they differ from this family in' having 
long or moderate tarsi and in having the nostrils and base of the 
upper mandible quite free from all hairs. The only exception to 
this latter feature appears to be in Zoothera, in which genus the 
frontal hairs are developed and reach over the nostrils. The long 
tarsus of the birds of this genus, however, will prevent them from 
being confounded with any of the Flycatchers. In some few genera, 
especially liuticilla and Pralincola, the shafts of the feathers of the 
forehead are somewhat elongated and the webs disintegrated, but 
these cannot be considered hairs nor do they lie over the nostrils 
as is always the case with the Muscica-pidas. 

The r l\rdid& are found over nearly the whole globe and their 
migratory instincts are generally very strong. 

The Turdidce may be divided into five subfamilies, characterized 
partly by habits and partly by structural characters. 

Tarsus smooth ; rictal bristles present ; habits 

Muscicapine, the insect-food captured 

by sallies from a fixed perch Saxicolince, p. 57. 

Tarsus smooth, with hardly an exception*; 

rictal bristles present : habits terrestrial, 

the insect-food captured on the ground. lluticillime, p. 81. 
Tarsus smooth ; rictal bristles present : habits 

terrestrial and arboreal, the species being 

both insectivorous and frugivorous .... Turdince, p. 120. 
Tarsus smooth ; rictal bristles absent : habits 

aquatic; eggs unspotted white Cindince, p. 161. 

Tarsus scutellated ; rictal bristles present : 

habits terrestrial ; eggs unspotted blue. . Accentorina?,\>A65. 



Subfamily SAXICOLIN^E. 

The Saxicolinee or Chats form a natural section of the Thrushes 
very nearly related to the Flycatchers and with many of their habits. 
The Chats feed entirely on insects, which they capture generally on 
the ground from a fixed perch, such as the summit of a stone, a stalk 
of grass, or a branch of a bush, and then return at once to their post 
of observation. The characteristic habit of the Chats is the fre- 
quent movement and expansion of the tail. The majority of this 
subfamily are migratory, and they have a very marked seasonal 
change of plumage caused by the abrasion of the margins of the 
feathers in the late autumn or early spring. The sexes usually 
differ very much in colour. 

* The only exception I know of is Thamnobia. 



58 TURDIDJE. 

In the Chats the bill is strong and the rictal bristles occasionally 
very numerous and strong ; the wing in most is pointed ; the tail, 
of twelve feathers, is seldom or never longer than the wing ; and the 
tarsus and foot are of medium size and strength. 

The 'Chats nest in holes in the ground or in walls, or among 
heaps of stones, and they lay eggs which, so far as is known, are 
always marked with brown or rufous. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Bill broad at base ; rictal bristles numerous and 

strong. 

a'. Tail shorter than wing ; outer feathers reach- 
ing nearly to tip PRATINCOLA, p. 58. 

b'. Tail about as long as wing ; outer feathers 
falling short of tip by about half length of 
tarsus OREICOLA, p. 66. 

b. Bill narrow, not strikingly broad at base ; rictal 

bristles few and weak. 

c'. Tail with a pattern of two colours SAXICOLA, p. 67. 

d'. Tail entirely of one colour . CERCOMELA, p. 79. 



Genus PRATINCOLA, Koch, 1816, 

The genus Pratincola contains a considerable number of species 
of wide distribution, some of which are migratory and others 
resident. They are mostly familiar birds, displaying little fear, 
and one or more species are generally common in every part of the 
Empire except the tracts covered with forest. 

In Pratincola the bill is rather less than half the length of the 
head, broad at base and well notched ; the rictal bristles are very 
strong ; the wing is rather sharp, and the first primary varies from 
one half to one third the length of the second ; the tail is shorter 
than the wing and slightly rounded, and the tarsus is moderate in 
length. The sexes are invariably dissimilar, and the seasonal changes 
of plumage are very marked. 



Key to the Species *. 

a. Plumage entirely black and white. 

a', Wing about 2'8 ; bill from nostril to tip '3 . P. caprata <$ , p. 59. 
b'. Wing about 3 ; bill from nostril to tip '4 . . P. atrata tf, p. 60. 



I exclude the following species from the Indian list : 



PRATINCOLA ROBUSTA, Tristram. 

Pratincola robusta, Tristram, Ibis, 1870, p. 497 ; Hume, 8. F. ix, p. 133. 
The type of this species, said to have been procured in Mysore by Mr. H. E. 
Fox more than twenty years ago, has been obligingly lent to me by Canon Tristram. 
It is identical with the larger Bush-Chat of Madagascar, and both Sharpe and 
Tristram agree with me in this identification. There are two Bush-Ghats of 
this type in Madagascar, agreeing in coloration but differing in size. To one 



P 11 A TIN CO LA. 59 

b. Plumage not entirely black and white. 
c. Chin and throat black. 

a". No white on tail except at extreme base . P. maura <5 , p. 01. 

b". Inner webs of tail-feathers white P. leucura tf , p. 03. 

d'. Chin, throat, and uppjr tail-coverts white or 
pale rufous. 

c". Inner webs of tail-feathers white P. macrorhyncha, 

d". Inner webs of tail-feathers black or brown. [p. 03. 

a'". Under wing-coverts and axillaries black 

broadly edged with white ; wing 3'0. . P. insignia, p. 04. 
V". Cinder wing-coverts and axillaries rufous I P. maura $, p. 61. 

or fulvous ; wing 2*0 \ P. leucura $ , p. 03. 

e 1 '. Chin and throat brown ; upper tail-coverts 
deep ferruginous. 

e". Wing about 2'8 P. caprata $ , p. 50. 

/". Wing about 3 P. utratu $ , p. GO. 



608. Pratincola caprata. . The Common Pied Bush-Chat. 

Motacilla caprata, Lmn. S</$t. Nat. i, p. 33o (1700). 

Saxioola bicolor, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 92. 

Pr.itincola caprata (Linn.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 109; Horsf. Sf M. Cat. 

i, p. 284 ; Jerd. B. 1. ii, p. 123 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 312 ; Anders. 

Yunnan Evpsd., Aces, p. 017; Hum?, Cat. no. 481 ; Sharpe, Cat. 

B. M. iv, p. 19-) (part.) ; Gates, B. B. i, p. 231 ; Barnes, Bird* 

Bom. p. 19J ; Gates in Hume's N. E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 41. 

The White-winged Black Robin, Jerd. ; Pidha, Kola pidha, Hind. ; 
Kumpa nalanchi, Tel. 

Coloration. Male. In the summer the whole plumage is black, 
except the lower part of the rump, the upper and lower tail-coverts, 
and those feathers of the wing nearest the body, which are white, 
the latter forming a very conspicuous patch on the wing. 

In the autumn the black feathers are more or less fringed with 
rufous -brown. 



of these, but to which will probably never be satisfactorily determined, Linnaeus 
assigned the name Motacilla sybilla (Syst. Nat. i, p. 337). I propose, therefore, 
that Linnows's name should be retained for the smaller bird, with wing 25 
or 2'G, and Tristram's name for the larger, with wing 2'9. 

The occurrence of P. robusta in India must, for the present I think, be viewed 
with a certain amount of distrust, and I therefore omit it from my list. The 
following is a description of the type, which appears to be a male, judging from 
its fine colour: 

The breast and sides of the body are a deep cinnamon-rufous, sharply de- 
marcated from the pure white of the abdomen, which extends to the vent and 
under tail-covert:* ; the axillaries and under wing-coverts are white with dark 
bases ; the tail is black ; the other parts of the plumage resemble the same 
parts in P. maura and P. leucura in autumn plumage. 

Length ah >ut <> ; tail 24 ; wing 29 ; tarsus '9 ; bill from gape '6. 

The many specimens from the Himalayas which have b3en identified with this 
species by Brooks, Scully, and others are quite a different type of bird and are, 
in my opinion, merely large specimens of P. maura. 



60 TUEDIDvE. 

Female. The upper plumage grey, with dark brown mesial streaks, 
the back tinged with rufous ; upper tail-coverts ferruginous ; tail 
black ; chin and throat brownish grey ; breast, upper part of the 
abdomen, and sides wood-brown with dark streaks ; lower part of 
the abdomen the same but without streaks ; under tail-coverts 
rufescent ; lores and feathers in front of the eye mixed with white ; 
quills and the larger coverts brown narrowly edged w ith rufescent, 
the other coverts brown broadly edged with light buff ; under wing- 
coverts bright buff with dark centres. In the winter the grey 
margins on the upper plumage are so ample that hardly any of the 
dark brown centres are visible ; otherwise there is no change. 

The young are fulvous -brown, mottled all over with dusky; in 
the young male the white patch on the wing makes its appearance 
from the earliest period. 

Iris brown ; eyelids plumbeous ; bill black ; mouth dusky ; legs 
and claws black. 

Length ahout 5'5 ; tail 2*2 ; wing 2*8 ; tarsus '85 ; bill from 
gape -7. 




Fig. 24. Head of P. caprata. 

Distribution. A resident species throughout the whole of India 
and Burma, except the southernmost part of the peninsula of India 
and portions of Tenasserim. This bird ascends the Himalayas up to 
8000 feet, probably in summer only. It is found in the south as 
far at least as Maddur in Mysore. It is more or less abundant 
throughout the peninsula and through Assam and the Burmese 
provinces to Pegu. In Tenasserim Davison observed this bird in 
the northern and central portions, but not in the extreme south, 
and Wardlaw Ramsay procured it in Karennee. 

Outside Indian limits this species extends to Persia on the west, 
and on the east and south to the Philippines and Java. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds from March to June, constructing a flat, and 
frequently shapeless, nest in a hole in the ground, in a bank or in 
a well, composed of grass, roots, and hair. The eggs, usually four 
in number, are pale bluish green, marked in various ways with 
brownish red, and measure about *67 by '55. 



C09. Pratincola atrata. Tlie Southern Pied Bush- Chat. 

Pratincola atrata, Kelaart, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xx, p. 177 (1851) ; 

Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 124 ; Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii,'p. 46. 
Pratincola bicolor (Syfces), apttd Hume, N. fy E. p. 814; Legye, Birds 

Ceyl. p. 430 ; Hume, Cat. no. 482 ; Damson, S. F. x, p. '389. 
Pratincola caprata (Linn.), apud Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 195 

(part.). 



PRATINCOLA. 61 

Coloration. In all respects similar in plumage to P. caprata, sex 
for sex. Differs ill being much larger and in having a con- 
spicuously more massive hill. 

Length about 6 ; tail 2'3 ; wing 3 ; tarsus *9 ; bill from 
gape -75. 

In distinguishing between this and the preceding species, 
P. caprata, the size of the bill alone is quite sufficient. In the 
present species the bill, measured from the anterior margin of the 
nostril to the tip^is '4; in P. caprata -3 or less. 

I adopt Kelaart's name for this species, as Sykes's Saxicola 
Incolor was procured in the Deccan, where, so far as I know, only 
P. capratx occurs. 

Distribution. Southern India, from the Nilgtris to Cape Comorin, 
above 5000 feet ; Ceylon. A permanent resident. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds from February to May, placing its nest in 
similar localities to thoss selected by P. caprata, and laying similar 
eggs, which, however, are much larger and measure about '77 by '6. 



610. Pratincola maura. The Indian Bush-Chat. 

Motacilla maura, Pall. Rds. Ruts. Reichs, ii, p. 708 (1773). 

Saxicola saturatior, Horlgs. in Grays Zool. Misn. p. 83 (1844). 

Pratincola indica, Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xvi, p. 129 (1847) ; id. Cat. 
p. 170 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 124 ; Cabanis, Journ. f. Orn. 1873, 
p. 359 ; Severtz. S. F. iii, p. 429 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, 
p. 018; Hume, Cat. no. 483 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 200. 

Pratincola albosuperciliaris, Hume, S. F. i, p. 337 (1873). 

Pratincola rubicola (Linn.), apud Hum?., N. fy E. p. 316 ; Hume Sf 
Headers. Lah. to Yark. p. 204. 

Pratincol i maura (Pall.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 188 ; Oates, B. B. 
i, p. 279 ; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 48. 

Ad'im-kampa-nalanchi, Adavi-kampa-jitta, Tel. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the forehead, crown, 
napo, hind neck, back, scapulars, and upper rump are black, with 
broad fulvous or rufous margins to the feathers ; the innermost 
wing-coverts pure white ; the remaining upper wing-coverts black, 
edged with rufous ; primary-coverts and winglet black, edged with 
whitish ; quills dark brown, the primaries narrowly, the other 
quills broadly, edged with rufous on the outer web and tip; lower 
rump and tail-coverts white, frequently suffused with orange- 
rufous ; tail black, narrowly edged with pale rufous ; the extreme 
bases of the feathers white ; lores, sides of the head, chin, and throat 
black, most of the feathers edged with fulvous ; a large patch of 
white on each side of the neck ; breast orange-rufous ; remainder of 
the lower plumage paler rufous ; under wing-coverts and axillaries 
black with narrow white tips. In summer the margins of the 
feathers of the black portions of the plumage are almost entirely 
lost, and these parts become deep black. 

Female. After the autumn moult the upper plumage, wings, and 
tail resemble those parts in the male, but the black is everywhere 



62 TUEDID^E. 

replaced by brown and the upper tail-coverts are uniform pale 
rufous ; the lores, ear-coverts, and round the eye are dusky ; 
supercilium, chin, and throat pale fulvous ; remainder of lower 
plumage pale orange-rufous ; no white on the side of the neck ; 
under wing-coverts and axillaries fulvous. In summer the edges 
of the feathers are much worn down, and the plumage is paler. 

The nestling has the upper plumage brown, the head and neck 
streaked with fulvous, the back broadly edged with fulvous ; lower 
part of the rump and upper tail-coverts bright ferruginous ; the 
lower plumage fulvous, with brown mottlings on the breast. After 
the first autumn moult the young male has the lower plumage very 
bright chestnut, but resembles the adult in other respects. 

Bill, legs, and feet black ; iris dark brown. 

Length about 5; tail 1-9; wing 2-8; tarsus '8; bill from 
gape "65. 

This species differs from the European P. rubicola in having the 
upper tail-coverts streakless, and the under wing-coverts and 
axillaries very narrowly tipped with white. 

Although I have assigned Pallas's name to the Indian Bush- 
Chat, I am by no means satisfied that the Siberian and Indian 
birds are identical, nor is it certain that any of the Bush-Chats 
which visit the plains of India in the winter cross over to the north 
of the Himalayas in the summer. The Indian Bush-Chat breeds 
so abundantly at all moderate levels in the Himalayas that it is 
not improbable that the Himalayas form the northern limit of its 
range. Siberian specimens of Bush-Chats are not very numerous, 
but all I have seen are so intensely black on the head and back, so 
intensely rufous on the breast, and, moreover, so small, the wing 
not exceeding 2-6 in length, that I have not been able to match 
them, with any breeding bird from the Himalayas, except in the 
case of one bird from the interior of Sikhim. This small dark 
race occurs also in Turkestan. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to every portion of the Empire 
except the southern portion of the peninsula of India south of 
Mysore. The most southern point from which I have seen a spe- 
cimen of this species is Belgaum ; but Hume says (S.F. x, p. 389) 
that it is reported common from South-west Mysore. It occurs in 
the Andamans. 

In the summer this species is found throughout the Himalayas, 
from Afghanistan to Assam, up to 5000 feet. Should the Indian 
bird prove identical with the Sibeiian form, its range will extend to 
Japan and China on the east and to Northern E-ussia on the west. 
Specimens from. Abyssinia are quite inseparable from Indian 
birds. 

Habits, 6fc. Breeds in the Himalayas at all heights up to about 
5000 feet, constructing a nest of grass and rnoss in small shrubs or 
in holes of walls, and laying four or five eggs, which are pale green 
marked with brownish red, and measure about '7 by "55. 



PRATINCOLA. 63 

611. Pratincola leucura. The White-tailed Bush-Chat. 

Pratincola leucura, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 474 (1817) ; id. Cat. 
p. 170; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 120; Godw-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, 
pt. ii, p. 270 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 183, iii, p. l:V5, v, p. 241 ; id. 
Cat. no. 484; Brooks, S. F. vih, p. 473; tiharpe, C<tf. B. M. iv, 
p. 194; Oates, B. B. i, p. 280; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 200; 
Hume, S. F. x^p. 191. 

Khar-pidda, Hind, at Monghyr. 

Coloration. Resembles P. maura very closely. The male P. 
leucura differs from, the male P. maura in having the inner webs 
and the basal half of the outer webs of all the tail-feathers, except 
the middle pair, white, and the abdomen, vent, and under tail- 
coverts also white. 

The females, although [indistinguishable from each other by mere 
description, may perhaps be separable by actual comparison of spe- 
cimens if the plumage be in good order. In P. leucura the rufous 
of the upper tail-coverts and the lower plumage is much paler, in 
P. maura much darker ; P. leucura is also somewhat greyer and less 
rufous on the back. 

Legs and feet black ; bill black ; iris brown (Hume}. 

Length about 5 ; tail 1-9 ; wing 2-6 ; tarsus '7 ; bill from 
gape -7. 

Hume draws attention to the great difference in plumage 
between birds of this species from Sind and from Manipur. Con- 
sidering, however, how very irregular the changes and tints of the 
plumage of these birds are, I do not think that there are any 
grounds for separating the Manipur from the Sind race. 

Dittribution. Sind ; the Terai and lower hills of Nepal and 
SSikhim : Eastern Bengal ; Dacca; Tipperah ; Mymensing; Mani- 
pur; Thayetmyo and the valley of the Irrawaddy immediately 
below this town ; Toungngoo ; Pahpoon in Teuasserim. There is 
little doubt that this species is a permanent resident in those 
places. 

Habits, <Sfc. This Bush-Chat is found invariably in or near 
swamps where there are reeds and grass. 

612. Pratincola macrorhyncha. Stoliczkas Bush-Chat. 

Saxicola rubetroides, Jameson, Jerd. B. I. ii, App. p. 872 (1864, 

descr. null.). 
Pratincola macrorhyncha, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 238 

(1872); Hume, 6'. F. iv, p. 40, vii, p. <M ; id. Cat. no. 485 bis; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, pp. 182, 473 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 201. 
Pratincola jamesoni, Hume, S. F. \, p. 239 (1877). 

Coloration. Upper plumage sandy buff streaked with dark 
brown ; upper tail-coverts pale rufous ; middle pair of tail-feathers 
dark brown, narrowly margined with fulvous-white ; the next pair 
with the basal third of the outer, and three quarters of the inner, 
web vi hit e, the remainder black; the others progressively more 
\\hite and less black ; the outermost almost entirely white ; wing- 
coverts blackish with broad sandy margins, the last of each series 



64 

next the body almost entirely white ; the earlier primary-coverts 
chiefly white on the outer webs, dark brown edged with sandy 
elsewhere ; quills dark brown edged with sanely ; lores and a 
broad supercilium pale buff; ear-coverts rufous; remainder of 
the sides of the head mixed brown and buff ; chin and throat white ; 
remainder of the lower plumage very pale buff, somewhat deeper on 
the breast ; under wing-coverts white mottled with black ; axillaries 
white, with blackish bases. 

The sexes appear to be alike in the winter, but may probably 
differ in the summer. 

The above is the plumage of adults of both sexes during the 
winter. I have not been able to examine birds in summer 
plumage ; but the skins most advanced towards this plumage in the 
Hume Collection have a dark blackish streak from the bill down the 
sides of the throat and breast, expanding in width gradually and 
leaving the throat narrowly white. The sandy margins of the upper 
plumage are probably at this season much reduced in extent, leaving 
the upper plumage blacker. 

The young resemble the adults in winter plumage, but there is 
no white on the tail, which is brown with fulvous margins, and the 
white on the wing-coverts is either absent or very much reduced. 

Legs and feet black : iris brown ; bill black (Hume). 

Length nearly 6 ; tail 2-2 ; wing 3 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from 
gape -7. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the Punjab, Rajputana, Northern 
G-uzerat, Cutch, and Sind. The summer-quarters of this species 
are unknown. No one has met with it in Central Asia, and 
Hume's conjecture that it may be a resident in the above provinces 
of India may prove to be correct. Natives of Jodhpur assured him 
that these birds remained in this State and bred there during the 
rainy season. 

Habits, fyc. Hume states that this species was extremely abun- 
dant in the thin, stunted, scrub-jungle that here and there studs 
the sandy, semi-desert, waterless tracts which occur all round 
Jodhpur. It has the ordinary habits of P. maura. 

613. Pratincola insignis. Hodgson s Bush-Chat. 

Saxicola insignis, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 83 (1844, descr. 

null.). 
Pratincola insignis, Hodgs., Bhjth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 129 (1847) ; 

Jerd. B. 1. ii, p. 127 ; Hume, 8. F. v, pp. 132, 496, vii, pp. 454, 

619; id. Cat. no. 485 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 183. 
Pratincola robustior, C. H. T. and G. F. L. Marshall, S. F. iii, 

p. 330. 

The Large Bush- Chat, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. In winter the lores, under the eyes, and the 
whole of the ear-coverts are deep black ; forehead, crown, and nape 
black with small fulvous edges ; mantle, back, and rump black with 
broad fulvous edges ; upper tail-coverts white dashed with rusty ; 
wing-coverts white next the body, black elsewhere ; the lesser 



PBATINCOLA. 65 

coverts near the edge of the wing fringed with fulvous ; primary- 
coverts with the basal half black, the terminal half white ; quills 
blackish, all of them broadly white at base, except the last two or 
three primaries and the first secondary, the primaries and secon- 
daries narrowly, the tertiaries broadly, edged with fulvous ; tail 
black, with conceal ed -white bases to the inner webs ; point of the 
chin and a narrow stripe along the base of the mandible black ; 
throat, extending laterally to the sides of the neck, white, more or 
less marked with rusty ; remainder of the lower plumage rusty 
ferruginous, the breast marked with some broad black streaks, the 
abdomen paler ; under tail-coverts pale fulvous-white ; under wing- 
coverts black edged with white ; axillaries white, with the bases of 
the feathers blackish. 

In summer, judging from the only specimen I have seen (one 
collected by Hodgson at Segowlie, and figured by him), the fulvous 
margins on the upper plumage are cast and this part becomes black, 
the black streaks on the breast are absent, and there is no rusty 
either on the throat or the upper tail-coverts. Hodgson's bird 
appears to have been obtained on the 10th January, but it seems 
nevertheless to be in full well-worn summer plumage, and there 
may be some mistake about the date. 

Female. In winter, and probably in summer also, the upper 
plumage is brown, each feather margined with dull fulvous ; upper 
tail-coverts rusty; tail brown, with fulvous margins and tips and 
with no white at the base ; wing-coverts dark brown, margined and 
tipped with fulvous ; the innermost greater coverts and the last 
tertiary chiefly white ; quills dark brown, with small dull white 
bases and margined with fulvous ; sides of the head and neck, lores, 
and above the eye dull fulvous, the ear-coverts rufescent; the 
whole lower plumage rusty brown, darker on the breast, which 
sometimes has a few dark-brown streaks. 

A young male obtained in December has the wings, tail, and 
upper plumage similar to the same parts of the adult male in 
winter, but the lower plumage is that of the female and the ear- 
coverts are nearly black. 

The male has the iris deep brown, the bill and legs black ; the 
female has the bill blackish brown, horny at base of the lower 
mandible (Cleveland}. 

Length about 6-5; tail 2-4; wing 3-6; tarsus 1-1; bill from 
gape *85. 

Distribution. A. rare species, occurring on the plains of Northern 
India from Cawnpore to the Bhutan Doars. The Marshalls pro- 
cured it near Cawnpore in February ; Mr. Cleveland in the 
Gorakhpur and Basti districts in October and December ; Hodgson 
at Segowlie, as already mentioned ; and Mandelli in the lower hills 
of Sikhim and the Bhutan Doars in April. The summer-quarters 
of this species are not known, but lie probably in the Central hills 
of Nepal and Sikhim. 

Habits, <Sfc. This Bush-Chat is found in flat open country thickly 
dotted with cane-fields, which appear to be its favourite haunts. 

VOL. II, F 



66 TURVIDM. 

Genus OREICOLA., Bonap., 1854. 

This genus differs from Pratincola in having a much longer tail, 
which is also very much more graduated. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Whole upper plumage, wings, and tail 

black O. jerdoni $ , p, 60. 

b. Upper plumage ashy and black; wing- 

coverts largely white; tail margined 

white O. ferrea <$ , p. 66. 

c. Upper plumage rufous-brown or rufous- 

ashy. 

a'. With no supercilium O. jerdoni $ , p. 66. 

b'. With a supercilium O. ferrea $ , p. 66. 

614. Or eicola jerdoni. Jerdon's Bush-Chat. 

Rhodophila melanoleuca, Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 128 (1863, nee VieilL), 

App. p. 872 j Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 270. 
Oreicola jerdoni, Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 14; Blanf. Ibis, 1870, p. 466; 

Hume] Cat. no. 487 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 264 ; Oates, B. B. 

i, p. 282 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) iv, p. 590; Hume, 

S. F. xi, p. 193. 
Pratincola jerdoni (Blyth), Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 616. 

Coloration. Male. The whole upper plumage, wings, tail, and 
sides of the head and neck deep black ; the whole lower plumage 
white ; under wing-coverts black slightly tipped with white. 

Female. The whole upper plumage brown tinged with rufous, 
especially on the rump and upper tail-coverts ; tail brown, edged 
paler ; wings and coverts brown edged with rufous ; sides of the 
head mixed ashy and brown ; chin and throat white j remainder of 
the lower plumage pale fulvous. 

Bill and legs black ; iris dark brown (Jerdon). 

Length about 6; tail 2-7; wing 2-7; tarsus -85; bill from 
gape -7. 

I have not been able to examine a young bird of this species. 

Distribution. Purneah inBehar; Eastern Bengal ; Dibrugarh in 
Assam ; Sylhet ; Cachar ; Manipur ; the neighbourhood of Bhamo ; 
Bassein district ; Leppadau on the Rangoon and Promo Eailway, 
where I lately observed this species in March in thick grass on the 
banks of the Leppadan river. It is not known whether this Bush- 
Chat is migratory or not. 

615. Oreicola ferrea. The Dark-grey Bush-Chat. 

Saxicola ferrea. Hodgs. in Gray's Cat. Mamm. fyc. Nep. pp. 71, 153 
(1846). 

Pratincola ferrea (Hodgs.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 170; Horsf.fyM. Cat. 
i, p. 286 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 127 ; Stohczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, 
pt. i, p. 41; Hume, N. $ E. p. 318; Hume Sf Henders. Lah. to 



8AXTCOLA. 67 

Yark. p. 205, pi. xii j Andei-s. Yunnan E.vped., Avcs, p. 017 j 
Hume, Cat. no. 486 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 301. 
Oreicola ferrea (Hodgs.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 26G ; Gates, 13. E. 

i, p. 283 ; id. in Humfs N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 50. 
Sarrak-chak-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the whole upper 
plumage is dark ashy grey, all the feathers except those of the 
rump centred with black and margined with a varying amount of 
rusty ; coverts and quills black edged with grey, which inclines to 
white on the tertiaries ; the inner greater coverts entirely white ; 
tail black, the feathers increasingly margined with white, the outer 
web of the outermost feather being entirely white ; a white super- 
ciliuui from the forehead to the nape ; sides of the head black ; 
lower plumage white, tinged with ashy across the breast and on the 
thighs. 

The margins of the feathers of the upper plumage get worn 
away rapidly, and later on in the winter almost disappear, leaving 
the upper parts black during the summer. 

Female. The whole upper plumage rufous ashy, the centres of 
the feathers dark, but not very distinctly visible till the spring, 
when the edges of the feathers are reduced in extent ; upper tail- 
coverts chestnut ; tail brown, broadly edged with chestnut ; wings 
brown, narrowly edged with rufous ; a pale grey supercilium ; sides 
of the head reddish brown speckled with brown ; chin and throat 
whitish ; remainder of lower plumage rufous ashy. 

The young are dark rufous-brown, with streaks and spots of 
fulvous, and broad rufous edges to the tail and wings. 

Iris brown ; tail black ; legs dark brown. 

Length nearly 6 ; tail 27 ; wing 2'7 ; tarsus -8 ; bill from 
gape '65. 

Distribution. The Himalayas, from Murree and the Indus valley 
in Kashmir to the extreme east of Assam. This species is found 
up to 9000 feet in summer, and it descends to the valleys in the 
winter. It extends in the winter from Assam through the hill- 
ranges and Burma as far as Karennee, Central Tenasserim, and 
the Thoungyeen valley. This Bush-Chat is found in China. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds in the Himalayas from April to July, con- 
structing a nesfc of grass, moss, and hair in a hole in the ground 
or under the shelter of a stone or clod of earth. The eggs, four 
or five in number, are pale green marked with reddish brown, and 
measure about '72 by "57. It is not improbable that this species 
may breed in some of the hill-ranges of Burma. 

Genus SAXICOLA, Bechst., 1802. 

The genus Saxicola contains a large number of species which 
are essentially birds of deserts and waste lands, and they are most 
developed in the dry parts of: South-western Asia and Northern 
Africa. The majority of them are migratory to a greater or less 



68 TURBID^. 

extent, and a few appear to be resident. The sexes are usually 
dissimilar, and both sexes undergo a seasonal change of plumage, 
which in some species causes a very great alteration in their 
appearance. In all the species and in both sexes the tail is 
marked with two colours, generally black and white and occasion- 
ally black and chestnut. 

In Saxicola the bill is about half the length of the head, slender, 
and not widened at the base j the rictal bristles are few and weak ; 
the wing is sharp, the first primary being about one third the 
length of the second ; the tail is shorter than the wing and nearly 
square, and the tarsus is moderate. 

The young of Saaricola are in general like the adult female, but 
each feather of the plumage has a terminal dark bar and a pale 
centre, causing a mottled appearance. This plumage at the first 
autumn gives place to that of the adult. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Tail white or buff and brown ; the lateral 

feathers immaculate or merely obliquely 

marked with black S. monacha, p. 69. 

b. Tail white and black ; the laterals with a 

broad band at the tip. 
'. Band on lateral tail-feathers not exceed- 
ing 1 inch in breadth. 
a". Second primary shorter than sixth, 
a'". Sexes alike; plumage black and 

white ; wing 4 inches or longer. . S. albiniyra, p. 70. 
b'". Sexes different ; males black and 
white ; female brown ; wing under 
37 inches. 
a 4 . Abdomen white, and crown 

black S. picata tf , p. 71. 

b\ Abdomen and crown white .... S. capistrata tf , p. 72. 

c 4 . Abdomen black S. opistholeuca tf , p. 73. 

d l . Throat and breast dark brown, 
contrasting with the pale ab- 
domen S. picata $ , p. 71. 

e 4 . Throat and breast buff, blending 
softly with the paler buff of the 

abdomen S. capistrata , p. 72. 

/ 4 . Throat, breast, and upper abdo- 
men sooty brown S. opistholeuca $ , p. 73. 

b". Second primary between the fifth and 

sixth ; sexes different *. 
c'". Chin and throat black. 
^r 4 . Back and scapulars of the same 

colour S. pleschanka tf , p. 73. 

A 4 . Back buff, scapulars black .... S. barnesi <$ , p. 75. 



* I am not acquainted with the females of 8. barnesi and 8. vittata, and con- 
sequently I do not enter either of these in the Key, nor the female of 8. ples- 
chd.ika, which comes into this same section. 



SAXICOLA. 69 

^ d'". Chin and throat white S. vittata <$, p. 75. 

c". Second primary equal to or longer 

than fifth ; throat never black. 
e'" . Sexes different ; band on tail '8 
inch ; under wing-coverts and ax- 
illaries black edged with white, or 

brown edged fulvous S, oenanthe, p 76. 

f '. Sexes alike ; band on tail 1 
inch ; under wing-coverts and ax- 

illaries uniform fulvous S. isabellina, p. 77. 

//. Band on lateral tail-feathers more than 

1 inch in breadth. 
(?". Wing 3-7; inner webs of quills of 

wing narrowly margined white .... *S'. deserti, p. 78. 
e". Wing 4; inner webs of quills of wing 

nearly entirely white S. montana, p. 78. 

c. Tail chestnut and black ; the lateral fea- 
thers with a broad band at the tip * . . S. chrysopyyia, p. 79. 

616. Saxicola monacha. The Hooded Chat. 

Saxicola monacha, Riipp., Temm. PL Col. no. 359, fig. 1 (1825) ; 
Blanf. # Dresser, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 227 ; Secbohm, Cat. B. M. v, 
p. 369 ; Hume, Cat. no. 490 bis ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 203. 

DromolaBa monacha (Riipp.}, Hume, S. F. i, p. 186. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the forehead, crown, 
nape, hind neck, rump, upper tail-coverts, abdomen, vent, and 
under tail-coverts are pure white ; tail white, the terminal two- 
thirds of the middle pair and a dash or two on the laterals brown ; 
remainder of plumage black, the back and breast with a few whitish 
fringes, the secondaries, under wing-coverts, and axillaries with 
white tips. In summer the white fringes on the back and breast 
disappear. 

Female. Upper plumage buffi sh brown ; wings and coverts brown 
edged with buffy white ; lower rump and upper tail-coverts buff ; 
tail as in the male, but the white replaced by buff and with more 
brown on the laterals ; lower plumage pale buff. 

Legs, feet, and bill black (Hume Coll.}. 

Length about 7 ; tail 2'9 ; wing 4-2 ; tarsus '9 ; bill from 
gape 1. 

Distribution. The hills dividing Sind from Khelat, extending 



1 * Saxicola hi a ens, Licht., has been recorded from Daulatpur in Sind by 
Mr. Murray, but under circumstances which render it doubtful whether the 
specimen uuon which the statement is based was really obtained in Sind. This 
( lint resembles S. plcschanka, but has the under tail-coverts a deep buff, and 
the inner webs of the quills of the wing very largely white. (Cf. S. F. vii, 
pp. 118, 527, where this bird is referred to under the name of S. leucomela ) 
This species occurs in Persia and westwards to Palestine and Northern Africa. 
S. persica, Seebohm, is also allied to 8. plcschanka and S. lugens, and differs 
from the latter in having the inner webs of the quills of the wing merely mar- 
gined with white. In the former the whole wing is black. 8. persica occurs in 
Persia in summer. 



70 

east to Sehwan, whence *! have seen a specimen procured by Brooks 
in January. This species is said to be a winter visitor to Sind, 
but this statement requires confirmation. It extends westwards 
to Baluchistan and Afghanistan, and on to Palestine, occurring 
also in Nubia. 

617. Saxicola albinigra. Hume's Chat. 

S axicola alboniger, Hume, S. F. i, p. 2 (1873) ; Blanf. $ Dresser, 

P. Z. S. 1874, p. 226 ; Blanf. East. Pers. ii, p. 153, pi. xi ; Seebohm, 

Cat. B. M. v, p. 366; Hume, Cat. no. 489 bis; Barnes, Birds 

Bom. p. 202; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 58; Scully, Ibis, 1881, 

p. 442. 

Dromolgea alboniger (Hume), Hume, S. F. i, p. 185. 

Coloration. The sexes are alike. The whole head, neck, back, 
scapulars, sides of breast, axillaries, and under wing-coverts deep 
black ; wings dark brown, the coverts edged with black ; remainder 
of the plumage white, except the terminal half of the middle tail- 
feathers and a terminal band on .the laterals, which are black. 

Bill, legs, and feet black (Hume Coll.). 

Length about 7 ; tail 2'8 ; wing 4 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape '9. 

Distribution. The hills dividing Sind from Khelat, ranging west 
to Sehwan and Larkana; Gilgit at 5000 feet; extending east to 
Persia. 

This species is no doubt resident in Sind and GilgJt, as it pro- 
bably is in the other parts of its somewhat limited range. I have 
seen specimens killed on the following dates : Gilgit, January 
and June ; Sind, November to January ; Baluchistan and Mekran 
Coast, February, April, August, and November; Afghanistan, 
August and December ; Persia, May. 



The- next two species are united by Hume and some other orni- 
thologists, but I consider them distinct on the following grounds : 
S. picata, a species with the crown black, visits the plains of India 
only in the winter, and retires for the summer to the mountains 
of Afghanistan and Kashmir. S. capistrata, a species with the 
crown white, is a constant resident in the plains of India and the 
lower parts of Afghanistan, and is never found on the mountains. 
The females of both species when in good plumage, from Septem- 
ber to April, are quite distinct, and may be recognized without 
difficulty by their colour. 

A few birds obtained in Gilgit have the crown largely white, 
but they were shot just before the autumn moult, when the feathers 
of that part are extremely \vorn and ragged, and this may be the 
result of bleaching. I do not think too much importance should 
be attached, to the occurrence of these abnormal specimens among 
a very large series of typical S. picata. In the same way a few 
specimens from the plains of India exhibit some black among 



SAXICOLA. 71 

the white feathers of the crown. These variations are no doubt 
puzzling, but their cause will probably be solved hereafter without 
having recourse to the theory of interbreeding, which in this 
instance is singularly inapplicable, since the breeding-areas of the 
two species are totally distinct one from the other. One point is 
quite clear from the immense series of these Chats in the National 
Collection : the white or the black crown, or the intermixture of 
black and white, is not due to age. 

618. Saxicola picata. The Pied Chat. 

Saxicola picata, Blyth, J.A.S. B. xvi, p. 131 (1847) ; id. Cat. p. 167; 
Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 287 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 131 ; Blanf. $ 
Dresser, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 227 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 475 ; id. Cat. 



no. 489 ; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 367 ; Barnes, S. F. ix, p. 217 ; 
~'ddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 56; Sadly, ~ 
Ibis, 1882, p. 236 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 202; Gates' in Hume's 



Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 56; Sadly, Ibis, 1881, p. 441 ; Biddulph, 



N. E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 52. 
Dromolrea picata (Blyth), Hume, S. F. i, p. 184 ; Ball, S. F. iii, 
p. 206. 

The Pied Stone-CJiat, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. The whole head and neck all round, back, 
scapulars and wings, under wing-coverts and axillaries deep black ; 
remainder of lower plumage with the rump and upper tail-coverts 
white ; tail white, except the terminal half of the middle pair of 
feathers and a broad band at the tip of the others, which are 
black. There is hardly any difference between the summer and 
winter plumages. 

Female. Upper plumage brown ; rump and upper tail-coverts 
white ; tail as in male, but black replaced by brown ; wings brown, 
all the feathers broadly edged with rufous ; chin, throat, and breast 
dark ochraceous brown ; remainder of the lower parts very pale 
buff or pinkish white. 

The young resemble the female but are mottled below, and the 
crown is always of the same colour as the back. 

A few adult males have sometimes a small amount of white on 
the crown or over the ear-coverts, and occasionally in birds about 
to moult nearly the whole crown is white. 

Bill and legs black ; iris dark brown (Binnhani). 

Length about 7 ; tail 2-7 ; wing 3'5 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from 
gape -75. 

Distribution. The Pied Chat summers in Gilgit and the moun- 
tains of Afghanistan and Baluchistan, extending at this season to 
Persia. In winter it visits the plains of the Punjab, Sind, Guze- 
rat, Rajputana as far east as Deesa and Sambhar, and the North- 
west Provinces down to Allahabad. At this season it is also 
found in the low country of Baluchistan and Afghanistan. 

J /> (frits, 6fc. Breeds from March to July, constructing a nest of 
grass, lined with feathers, in a hole of a wall or a cleft of a rock. 
The eggs are greenish blue, with very pale marks of rusty brown 
round the larger end, and measure about *81 by *56. 



72 TTJEDID2E. 

619. Saxicola capistrata. The White-headed Chat. 

Saxicola leucomela (Pall.}, apud Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 131. 

Saxicola capistrata, Gould, Birds Asia, iv, pi. 28 (1865) ; Hume, 

8. F. iii, p. 475 ; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 368. 
Saxicola morio (Hempr. fy JEhr.), apud Hume, Cat. no. 490 ; Barnes, 

Birds Bom, p. 203. 

The White-headed Stone-Chat, Jerd. 




Fig. 25. Head of 8. capistrata. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult, the forehead, crown, 
nape, and hind neck are greyish white, somewhat whiter over the 
eye and ear-coverts ; sides of the head, chin, throat, neck all 
round, back, scapulars, wings, under wing-coverts, and axillaries 
black ; remainder of lower plumage with rump and upper tail- 
coverts white ; tail white, except the terminal half of the middle 
pair of feathers and a broad band on the tip of the others, which 
are black. Soon after the autumn moult the tips of the crown- 
feathers become reduced, and the crown is much whiter than 
before. When these feathers become still more worn, the crown 
has a tendency to exhibit patches of black. There is no other 
seasonal change of plumage. 

Female. Resembles the female of S. picata, but the upper plu- 
mage is more sandy ; the chin, throat, and breast are light fulvous, 
very little darker than the remainder of the lower plumage. 

The young resemble the adult female, but are mottled below. 
After the first autumn the males are blackish brown with broad 
brown fringes, and the crown is always conspicuously paler than 
the back. 

Bill and legs black ; iris brown (Hume). 

Length about 7 ; tail 2*7 ; wing 3'6 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from 
gape '75. 

Distribution. A constant resident in the plains of the Punjab, 
Sind, and Eajputana, extending in this latter area as far south only 
as Jodhpur and Sambhar ; and apparently not passing east of the 
Jumna river. This species extends on the west to Kandahar. It 
appears to be somewhat rare, but I have seen specimens killed in 
the above localities in every month of the year except May and 
July, 

Seebohm records this bird from the cultivated districts of Turk- 
estan, apparently on the authority of Severtzoff ; but this gentleman 
states (S. F. iii, p. 429) that S. luc/ens, Licht., of his Turkestan list, 



SAXJCOLA. 73 

is nothing but S. morio or S. hendcrsoni, and consequently there 
are now no grounds for stating that S. capistrata occurs in Turk- 
estan. 

Habits, <Jr. Nothing is known of the nidificatiou of this species. 

620. Saxicola opistholeuca. Strickland's Chat. 

Saxicola opistholeuca, Stricld., Jard. Co)itr. Orn. 1840, p. 60 ; Blyth, 
Cat. p. 167; Blanf. $ Dresser, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 229: Butler $ 
Hume, S. F. iii, p. 475 ; Hume, Cat. no. 488 ; Seebohm, Cat. B. 
M. v, p. 376; Biddulph, ll>\*, 1881, p. 55; Scully, Ibis, 1881. 
p. 441 : Biddulph, Ibis, 1882, p. 276 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 201. 

Saxicola leucoroides, Guerin, apud Jerd. B. 1. ii, p. 130. 

The Indian White-tailed Stone-Chat, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. The whole plumage black except the rump 
and upper and under tail-coverts ; tail white, except the terminal 
half of the middle pair of feathers and a broad band at the tip of 
the others, which are black. There appears to be no seasonal 
change of plumage. 

Female^ liesembles the females of S. picata and 8. capistrata in 
general /olour, but is very dusky throughout and has the ear- 
coverts a rich brown. 

Bill, legs, and feet black ; iris dark brown (Bine/ham). 

Length about 6-5 ; tail 2-7 ; wing 3*6 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from 
gape -75. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the plains of India from the 
Punjab down to Khandesh and Nagpur, and from Sind to Etawah 
in the N.W. Provinces. This species extends to Afghanistan in 
the winter. It passes through Gilgit in the spring and autumn, 
and summers in Turkestan. In addition to the above localities in 
the plains, it has been recorded by Stoliczka from the lower hills 
of the Sutlej valley. 

621. Saxicola pleschanka *. The Siberian Chat. 

Motacilla pleschanka, Lepech. Nov. Com. Petr. xiv, p. 503, pi. xiv, 

fig. 2 (1770). 
Motacilla leucomela, Pall. Nov. Com. Petr. xiv, p. 584, pi. xxii,fig. 3 

(1770). 
Saxicola morio, Hempr. et Ehr. Symb. Phys. fol. aa (1833) ; Blanf. 

Sf Dresser, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 225 (part.) ; Wardlaw Rant*m/, Ihi*, 

1880, p. 55 ; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 372; Bi<l<lnlph, Ibis, 1881, 

p. 68; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 44., : A'/VA//^/,. Ibt*. 1882, p. 27ti. 
Saxicola hendersoni, IInim>, Ibis, 1871, p. 408; Hume 8f Hendvr*. 

Luh. to Yark. p. 206, pi. xiii ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 526; Scully, S. 

F. iv, p. 144 ; Htime, Cat. no. 492 bis ; id. S. F. ix, p. >\'2\\ pote. 
Saxicola pleschanka (Lep.) t Oates in Hume's N.fyE. 2nd ed. ii, p. 53. 

* As the names /(//<<,,//,/,/ and //tin-in have b<vn I'lvqtK'ntly misapplied, espe- 
cially by Indian ornithologists, it is a matter for congratulation that Lepecliiu's 
name is available for this species. 



74 TTJRDIDjE. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the feathers at the 
base of the upper mandible, lores, a narrow line above the eye, 
sides of the head, chin, and throat black, most of the feathers with 
fawn-coloured fringes ; forehead, crown, nape, and hind neck 
greyish brown, with the bases of the feathers white ; a pale buff 
supercilium ; back, scapulars, and upper rump black, very broadly 
fringed with rufous, the black being nearly invisible ; lower rump 
and upper tail-coverts white ; tail white, except the terminal two- 
thirds of the middle pair of feathers and a band at the tips of the 
others, which are black ; wings black, all the feathers margined 
with rufous ; lower plumage from the throat downwards rufous- 
fawn, deepest on the breast ; under wing-coverts and axillaries 
black, with very narrow white fringes. In spring and summer 
the plumage, by a course of abrasion of the tips of the feathers, 
becomes quite different to that of the autumn and winter. The 
forehead, crown, nape, and hind neck become pure white; the 
feathers at the base of the upper mandible, sides of the head, chin, 
throat, back, scapulars, wings, under wing-coverts, and axillaries 
uniform deep black ; the remainder of the lower plumage pure 
white ; the rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail undergo no 
alteration. 

Female. In the autumn the forehead, crown, nape, hind neck 
and sides of neck, back, and scapulars are rufous-brown, with 
narrow paler fringes ; wings dark brown, with broad rufous 
margins ; rump and upper tail-coverts white ; tail as in the male ; a 
pale rufous supercilium ; ear-coverts darker rufous ; lower plumage 
rufous -brown, varying in different individuals, darkest on the 
breast, a few feathers of the breast and flanks with dark streaks ; 
under wing-coverts and axillaries blackish, with narrow whitish 
fringes. In spring and summer all the margins to the feathers 
are lost. The chin, throat, and fore neck become dusky, and the 
remainder of the lower parts nearly white ; the upper plumage is 
earthy brown, with a fulvous tinge. 

Bill, legs, and feet black ; iris probably brown. 

Length about 6 ; tail 2'4 ; wing 3'7 ; tarsus '9 ; bill from 
gape "65 ; second primary longer than sixth. 

A perfectly connected series of this Chat in the British Museum 
conclusively proves that S. Jiendersoni is merely the present species 
in freshly-moulted plumage. 

Distribution. This Chat has a very extensive range, and is 
migratory, but the materials for tracing its movements are very 
imperfect. The only part of India in which it occurs is Qilgit 
and the extreme northern portions of Kashmir, where it is very 
common throughout the summer and breeds. At this season of 
the year this species is found in Turkestan and throughout Central 
Asia to Siberia and Western China. To the west it ranges in 
summer to Afghanistan, and it is said to breed in Persia and South- 
eastern Europe. The winter-quarters of this Chat are said to be 
Abyssinia and Arabia, but I have seen one specimen killed in 
Grilgit in December. 



SAXTCOLA. 75 

Habits, $-c. Breeds in May and June, building its nest in a hole 
of a stone wall or in a pile of stones. The eggs are described as 
being pale blue, with small dusky red freckles, and one measured 
72 by -56. 



622. Saxicola barnesi. Barnes's Chat. 

Saxicola erythrsea, Hemp. 8f Ehr., apud Blanford, East. Pers. ii, 

p. ISO. 
Saxicola fmsckii, IIcuyL, apud Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 388 (part.) ; 

apud St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 163. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the forehead, crown, 
nape, hind neck T and the middle portion of the back are buff; the 
sides of the back, scapulars, wing-coverts, tertiaries, lores, sides of 
the head and neck, chin, and throat black, a few of the feathers 
with narrow pale fringes ; winglet and primary-coverts black, 
broadly edged with pale huffy white; quills dark brown, more 
narrowly edged with pale buff ; rump, upper tail-coverts, breast, 
and lower plumage white ; under wing-coverts and axillaries black ; 
tail white, except the terminal half of the middle pair of feathers 
and a band at the tip of all the others, which are black. In 
summer the buff upper plumage wears down almost to a white 
colour, and the fringes on the black portions are cast. 

The female is unknown to me. The female of the allied S. 
finsclii is thus described by Canon Tristram : " Back uniform 
cinereous ; wings brown ; rump white ; tail white, with broad 
black termination like the male ; throat pale ashy brown ; rest of 
lower parts dull white." 

Length nearly 7 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 3*7 ; tarsus 1-05 ; bill from 
gape -2. 

This species differs from S. finschi, the only Chat with which it 
can be confounded, in having only the chin and throat black, and 
this colour not connected with the axillaries, from which it is 
separated by a broad band of white. In S.Jtnschi the breast is 
black, and connected with the black axillaries. 

Distribution. Occurs in Baluchistan and Afghanistan and east- 
wards to Persia. This species is probably resident in all parts of 
its range. I have examined specimens obtained at Quetta in 
February, at Kandahar in March and September, and in Persia in 
March and June. 



623. Saxicola vittata. The Black-backed Eared Clint. 

Saxicola vittata, Jlcntpr. ,S' Elir. Si/mb. r/iys. Are*, fol. cc (1833); 
Blanf. $ Drc.s-.svv, 1\ Z. S. 1874, p. 220 ; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, 
p. 3iMi: /iiddii/jA, Ibis, 1881, p. 59; Hume, S. F. ix, p. 324 note ; 
Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 444 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1882, p. 277. 

Coloration. Male. In autumn the forehead, crown, nape, hind 
neck, and a small portion of the upper back are white, tinged with 



76 

grey or brown ; lores, round eye, ear-coverts, sides of neck and of 
the breast, auxiliaries and under wing-coverts, back, scapulars, and 
wings black, many of the feathers fringed with greyish brown, and 
the wing- coverts with white ; rump, upper tail-coverts, and entire 
lower plumage white ; tail white, except the terminal two-thirds 
of the middle pair of feathers and a band at the tips of the others, 
which are black. The summer plumage hardly differs. 

Female. According to Seebohm differs from the male in having 
the black parts replaced by brown, and in having the head and 
nape suffused with brown. 

Bill black, gape leaden ; iris dark brown ; legs black (Scully}. 

Length about 6 ; tail 2'4 ; wing 3*6 ; tarsus *9 ; bill from 
gape -8. 

The only specimens of this Chat that I have been able to examine 
are two males in Seebohm's Collection, one obtained by Severtzoff 
in Turkestan in March, and the other by Scully in Grilgit in June. 
The female is unknown to me. 

Distribution. Has occurred in Gilgit in May and June. This 
species breeds in Turkestan, and is said to winter in Arabia and 
the Bogos country. 

624. Saxicola oenanthe. The Wheatear Chat. 

Motacilla cenanthe, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 332 (1766). 

Saxicola cenanthe (Linn.), Seebohm, Caf. B. M. v, p. 391 ; Biddulph, 

Ibis, 1881, p. 60: Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 444; Hume, S. F. ix, 

p. 325 note. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the feathers at the 
base of the upper mandible, a supercilium, and a moustachial streak 
are white ; lores, under the eye, and ear-coverts black ; upper 
plumage slaty grey with broad rufous fringes ; rump and upper 
tail-coverts white ; tail white, except the terminal two-thirds of 
the middle pair of feathers and the terminal quarter of the others, 
which are black ; all the tail-feathers also tipped with pale buff ; 
wings black, each feather with a rufous margin ; lower plumage 
buff ; under wing-coverts and axillaries brown, edged with white. 
In summer the rufous fringes are cast, leaving the upper plumage 
slaty grey and the wings black. 

Female. Feathers at base of upper mandible and supercilium 
pale rufous ; lores and upper part of ear-coverts brown ; lower 
part of ear-coverts rich ruddy ; upper plumage brown tinged with 
rufous ; rump and upper tail-coverts white ; tail as in male ; wing 
as in male, but not so black ; lower plumage rich buff; axillaries 
and under wing-coverts brown, edged with white. In summer 
the colours are less brilliant, and the fringes to the wing-feathers 
are reduced in extent. 

Bill and claws black ; legs and toes brownish black (Scully'] ; 
iris dark brown (Seebohm). 

Length about 6 ; tail 2-3 ; wing 3-8 ; tarsus 1-05 ; bill from 
gape -8. 



SAXICOLA. 77 

Distribution. Has been noticed in Gilgit during the spring 
migration in March and April. It is highly improbable that 
Jerdon should have procured this Chat in Central India, and there 
can be little doubt that the species recorded by him under the 
name of S. oenanthe was S. isabellina. 

The Wheatear Chat has an immense range and migrates great 
distances. According to season it is found over a great part of 
Asia, Europe, Africa, and North America. 



625. Saxicola isabellina. The Isabelline Chat. 

Saxicola isabellina, Cretzsclim. Rilpp. Atlas, p. 52 (1826) ; Stoliczka, 
J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 239 ; Blanf. # Dresser, P. Z. S. 1874, 
p. 229; Scully, S. F. iv, p. 142 ; Hume, Cat. no. 491 j Seebohm, 
Cat. B. M. v, p. 399 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 444 j Barnes, Birds 
Bom. p. 203. 

Saxicola rananthe (Linn.}, apud Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 132. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the upper plumage 
is sandy brown, the longer feathers of the rump and the upper 
tail-coverts white; wings dark brown, every feather with a fulvous 
margin and tip, the margins broader on the secondaries and greater 
coverts ; middle pair of tail-feathers with basal third white, re- 
maining two-thirds black ; the other tail-feathers with rather more 
than the basal half white, and remainder black, and all of them 
tipped narrowly with white ; a white supercilium from the nostrils 
to the end of the ear-coverts ; lores black ; ear- coverts fulvous- 
brown ; chin whitish ; whole lower plumage buff ; under wing- 
coverts and axillaries fulvous. In summer the margins of the wing- 
feathers are much reduced in breadth. 

Female. Hardly differs from the male, but has the lores generally 
paler. 

Legs and feet black ; bill black ; iris brown (Hume). 

Length about 7; tail 2'3 to 2-6 ; wing 3'6 to 4 ; tarsus 1-15 to 
1*25 ; bill from gape *8 to *9. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the plains of India from the 
Punjab south to Ahmednagar and east to Chuuar and Benares, 
which are the extreme limits of this species as indicated by the 
specimens I have examined. This Chat breeds and passes the 
summer in Turkestan, Afghanistan. Baluchistan, and Persia, and 
passes throught Gilgit in the spring and autumn. It has a very 
wide range, extending to South-east Europe and North-east Africa 
on the one side, and to the east of Asia on the other. 

Habits, #c. Breeds in Afghanistan, according to Barnes, in 
March, and in Turkestan, according to Scully, in April and May, 
but neither the nest nor eggs have yet been taken in these 
countries. 



78 

626. Saxicola deserti. The Desert Chat. 

Saxicola deserti, Temm. PI. Col. pi. 359, fig. 2 (1825) ; Jerd. B. I. 

ii ; p. 132 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pf. ii, p. 42 Hume, S. F. 

i, p. 188 ; Blanf. 8f Dresser, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 224 (part.) ; Scully, 

S. F. iv, p. 143 j Hume, Cat. no. 492 ; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, 

p. 383 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 205. 
Saxicola atrogularis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 131 (1847) ; Blyth, 

Cat. p. 167 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 287 j Hume $ Senders. Lah. 

to Yark. p. 205. 

The Black-throated Wheatear, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the upper plumage 
is rich buff, turning to pale fulvous-white on the rump and upper 
tail-coverts ; basal third of tail-feathers white, remainder black ; 
wing-coverts and quills black, all the feathers more or less mar- 
gined with white ; the tertiaries broadly margined with buff ; the 
inner coverts white ; feathers at base of upper mandible and a 
supercilium pale buff ; sides of head and neck, chin, and throat 
black, fringed with pale buff ; remainder of lower plumage buff, 
brightest on the breast ; under wing-coverts and axillaries black, 
tipped with white; the inner webs of quills, when viewed from 
below, narrowly margined with white. In spring and summer the 
supercilium becomes more distinct, the fringes of all the black 
feathers disappear, and the mantle is marked with dusky; the 
under wing-coverts and axillaries frequently become entirely black. 

Female. Resembles the male in general appearance, but has the 
colours duller and the supercilium paler ; the chin, throat, sides of 
head and of neck pale brown, not black ; ear-coverts rich brown ; 
all the wing-coverts and quills brown, broadly margined with buff, 
and the inner coverts not white as in the male ; under wing-coverts 
brown, tipped white. 

Bill, legs, and feet black ; iris brown (Hume). 

Length about 6'5 ; tail 2'7 ; wing 3*7 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from 
gape '85. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the plains of India, where the 
limits of this species are almost identical with those of S. isabellina, 
being the latitude of Bombay on the south and Nagpur on the 
east. This Chat has been obtained at Sambhar in June, and it is 
not improbable that this and other Chats, which are considered 
winter visitors, may remain in small numbers to breed in some of 
the less-frequented parts of the deserts of Eajputana and Sind. 
The Desert-Chat breeds in Turkestan, and at the seasons of passage 
to and fro must occur in Kashmir and Grilgit. It is common, 
according to Stoliczka, in Western Tibet. It ranges west as far 
as Algeria. 

627. Saxicola montana. Gould's Chat. 

Saxicola montana, Gould, Birds Asia, iv, pi. 30 (1865) ; Seebohm. Cat. 
B. M. v, p. 384 ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 164. 

Coloration. Male. Hesembles the male of S. deserti, but has 



CBROOMELA. 79 

almost the whole of the inner webs of the quills of the wing pure 
white quite up to the shaft ; is also much larger, the wing measur- 
ing 3*9 or 4 inches. 

Female. Resembles the female of S. deserti, but has a large 
amount of white on the inner webs of the quills, whereas 8. deserti 
has none or hardly any ; is also considerably larger. 

Distribution. 1 have examined specimens of this Chat killed by 
Biddulph at Skardo on the Indus river in Kashmir in October ; 
by Blanford at Gwadar, in Baluchistan, in December, and near 
Dizak in March. 

Outside our limits this species occurs in Afghanistan in Sep- 
tember, and in Turkestan and Tibet during the summer. It ranges 
to the west as far as the island of Socotra, whence I have seen a 
specimen killed in February. 

628. Saxicola chrysopygia. The Red-tailed Chat. 

Dromolsea chrysopygia, De Filippi, Arch. Zool. Genova, ii, p. 381 

(1803). 
Saxicola kingi, Hume, Ibis, 1871, p. 29 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, 

pt, ii, p. 239 ; Hutne, S. F. i, p. 187, iii, p. 476 ; id. Cat. no. 491 bis ; 

Barnes j Birds Bom. p. 204. 
Saxicola chrysopygia (De Fit.), Blanf. # Dresser, P. Z. S. 1874, 

p. 230 ; Blanf. East. Pers. ii, p. 161, pi. x, fig. 1 ; Hume, S. F. 

vii, p. 57 ; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 389. 

Coloration. Sexes alike. Forehead, crown, nape, back, and sca- 
pulars brown ; rump and upper tail-coverts pale chestnut ; tail 
brighter chestnut, the terminal half of the middle pair of feathers 
and a band at the tip of the others black ; lesser, median, and 
primary coverts and winglet brown, edged with grey; greater 
coverts and quills brown, edged with rufous ; lores dark brown ; 
ear-coverts rich hair-brown ; a supercilium greyish white ; chin, 
throat, and breast white tinged with ashy; remainder of lower 
plumage pale brown with a vinaceous tinge, and turning to buff 
on the vent and under tail-coverts; axillaries and under wing- 
coverts greyish white. 

Legs, feet, and bill black; iris dark brown (G. King). 

Length about 6-5 ; tail 2*5 ; wing 3'8 ; tarsus 1-05 ; bill from 
gape '85. 

Distribution. Apparently a winter visitor to the plains of 
North-western India, being found in the Punjab west of the 
Jhelum river, Sind, Cutch, Northern Guzerat, and Rajputana as 
far east as Jodhpur. This species extends to the west as far as 
Persia, where it is certainly found in the summer. 



Genus CERCOMELA, Bonap., 1856. 

The genus Cercomela contains one Indian species, the position 
of which is somewhat doubtful. The only young bird I have been 
able to examine resembles the adult, but, on the other hand, the 



80 TURDIDjE. 

habits and colour of the egg of this species ally it to the jSaxico- 
lince. It is probable that the position of Cercomela is among the 
Brachypterygince. 

The Kock-Chat seems to have the habits of Saxicola, frequenting 
stony tracts of land and breeding in holes of rocks and old build- 
ings. The sexes are alike, the plumage is very dull, and there is 
little or no seasonal change of plumage. 

In Cercomela the bill and rictal bristles resemble those of 
Saccicola ; the wing is blunt and the first primary is about half the 
length of the second ; the tail is entirely of one colour and much 
shorter than the wing, and the tarsus is short. 

Cercomela melanura (Temm.) occurs in Palestine, Arabia, and 
North-east Africa, and has been met with at Aden. This species 
was included among the birds of India by Jerdon, on the authority 
of Blyth, who identified it by a drawing in the possession of Sir A. 
Burnes. The bird, from which the drawing was taken, is stated to 
have been killed in Sind. I do not propose to include this species 
in my list, as I do not consider its occurrence in India sufficiently 
well authenticated. The general colour of the plumage is grey, 
paler beneath, and the tail and upper tail-coverts are black ; tail 
2-3; wing 3-1. 

629. Cercomela fusca. The Brown Rock-Chat. 

Saxicola fusca, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xx, p. 523 (1851) ; id. Cat. p. xi. 
Cercomela fusca (Blyth), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 134; StoUczka, J. A. S. B. 

xli, pt. ii, p. 240 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 319 ; Adam, S. F. i, p. 380 ; 

Butler, 8. F. iii, p. 477 ; Hume, Cat. no. 494 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 

p. 200 ; Gates in Hume's N. # E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 54. 
Myrmecocichla fusca (Blyth), Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 360. 

Shama, Cent. Prov. 

Coloration. Upper plumage dull rufous-brown, the feathers of 
the upper tail-coverts darker ; wings brown, every feather edged 
with rufous-brown ; sides of the head and lower plumage dull fer- 
ruginous ; tail very dark brown. 

Legs and feet black; bill black; iris dark brown (Hume). 

Length about 6'5 ; tail 2*6 ; wing 3*5 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from 
gape *85. 

Distribution. A resident in a considerable portion of the central 
parts of the Indian peninsula. The western limits of this species 
appear to be a line drawn from Cutch through Jodhpur to 
Hardwar. Thence it extends to Chunar, near Benares, on the 
east, and to Jubbulpur on the south, and I have not been able to 
trace its distribution more accurately than this. 

Habits, &[c. Breeds from March to July, constructing a nest of 
grass and roots, lined with hair and wool, in holes of walls, 
quarries, banks, and cliffs, and laying three or four eggs, which are 
blue marked with rufous, and measure about -82 by -62. 



RUTICILLIN.E. 81 



Subfamily RUTICILLIN^E. 

The Kutiri!liini\ or Redstarts and Robins, connect the Chats 
with the Thrushes. They feed principally on the ground, their 
tarsi are lengthened, and their feet are well adapted for running. 
They are almost entirely insectivorous, and they are seldom or 
never gregarious like the Thrushes. 

Many of the RuticiUina are migratory ; others are resident. 
The seasonal change of plumage in the majority of the species, 
caused by the abrasion of the margins of the feathers, is consider- 
able, especially in the Redstarts. 

The Redstarts and Robins have the habit of frequently moving 
the tail and drooping the wings ; they mostly build their nests in 
holes of trees and rocks, and their eggs are of various colours, 
generally spotted, but in the case of Ruticilla plain blue. 



Key to the Genera. 

a. Tail forked. 

a. Tail much longer than wing ; middle 

rectrices one third the length of tail. . HENICURUS, p. 82. 

b' . Tail about equal to wing ; middle rec- 
trices half the length of tail HYDROCICHLA, p. 86. 

c'. Tail much shorter than wing ; middle 

rertrices reaching nearly to tip of tail. MICROCICHLA, p. 88. 

b. Tail rounded or square. 

d'. Tail in both sexes largely chestnut *. 
". Tail considerably longer than twice 

tarsus. 

a"'. Tail much rounded ; sexes alike.. CUIMAUKIIOUNIS, p. 89. 
b"'. Tail nearly square ; sexes different. RUTICILLA, p. 90. 
b". Tail about twice tarsus. 

c". Rictal bristles very long and 

strong RHYACORNIS, p. 97. 

rf". Rictal bristles weak or obsolete. . CYANECULA, p. im. 
e'. Tail without any chestnut. 

c". First primary shorter than one-third 

of second. 
e'". Difference between wing and tail 

less than tarsus DAULIAS, p. 100. 

f". Difference between wing and tail 

twice tarsus GRANDALA, p. 110. 

d". First primary longer than one-third 

of second. 

</'". Tail equal to or shorter than wing. 

'. Outer tail-feathers Tailing short 

of tip of tail by a distance less 

than half length <>t' middle toe. 



* The only exception is in the female of Jttyacomit fttttffi 
VOL. II. 



82 



n b . Bill straight and Thrush-like ; 
rictal bristles well developed. 
a 6 . Tail about twice tarsus. 
a 7 . Throat of male brilliantly 

coloured ............ CALLIOPE, p. 101. 

b 7 . Throat of male coloured 
like remainder of lower 
parts ................ TARSIGER, p. 104. 

b 6 . Tail considerably more than 

twice tarsus. 
c 7 . Tail uniformly of one 

colour. 
a 8 . Tips of tail-feathers 

mucronate .......... IANTHIA, p. 105. 

b 8 . Tips of tail-feathers 

rounded ............ ADELUBA, p. 108. 

d 7 . Tail largely white ...... NOTODELA, p. 111. 

b 5 . Bill slender and curved ; rictal 

bristles obsolete .......... THAMNOBIA, p. 113. 

6 4 . Outer tail-feathers falling' short 
of tip of tail by a distance 
quite equal to length of middle 
foe. 
c\ Tail of one colour .......... CALLENE, p. 113. 

d 5 . Tail black and white ...... COPSYCHUS, p. 116. 

b'". Tail much longer than wing .... CITTOCINCLA, p. 118. 



Genus HENICURUS, Temm., 1823. 

The genus Henicurus comprises certain birds with the general 
appearance of Pied Wagtails, but differing from them in having a 
forked tail and ten primaries, together with a coarse bill. 

The JForktails are found in mountain-streams flitting from pool 
to pool and feeding on insects which are found on the edge of the 
water. They are solitary and not very shy when disturbed, flying 
some distance further on, and on being disturbed a second time 
frequently disappearing into the jungle to return to the stream 
shortly afterwards. They wag their tails incessantly, and seldom 
perch except on rocks and bare branches near the ground. They 
build nests of moss in the banks of streams or under rocks and 
snags, and lay spotted eggs. 

In Henicurus the bill is nearly as long as the head, stout and 
straight, and the lower mandible is much bulged out in the 
middle ; the rictal bristles are well developed ; the wing is large, 
the first primary being about half the length of the second ; the 
tail is much longer than the wing, deeply forked, and the median 
feathers of about one third the length of the outer ones ; the 
tarsus is long and of a very pale colour. The sexes are alike. 
None of the species are known to migrate. 



HENKTKI 8. 83 

1\< y to the Species. 

a. Back spotted. 

a'. Spots on back lunate ; feathers on lower 

breast fringed with white H. maculatus, p. 83. 

b'. Spots on back round ; feathers on lower 

breast entirely black H. yuttatus, p. 84. 

b. Back plain. 

r'. Chin and throat black. 

a". Back slate-coloured H. xchistaceus, p. 84. 

b". Back black H. immaculatus, p. 85. 

d'. Chin, throat, and breast black H. leschenaulti, p. 86. 

630. Henicurus maculatus. The Western Spotted Forktail. 

Enicurus maculatus, Viyors, P. Z. S. 1830, p. 9; Gould, Cent. 
pi. xxvii ; Bhjth, Cat. p. 159 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 346 : Jerd. 
B. I. ii, p. 212 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 374. 

Henicurus maculatus, Vigors, Bluth, Ibis, 1867, p. 29; Stoliczka, 
J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 47 ; Elwes, Ibis, 1872, p. 260 ; Hume 
8f Renders. Lah. to Yark. p. 222 ; Hume, Cat. no. 584 ; Scully, 
S. F. viii, p. 310 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 317 ; Gates in Hume's 
N. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 57. 

The Spotted Fork-tail, Jerd. ; Khanjan, N.W. Him. 




Fig. 26. Head of H. maculatus. 

Coloration. Forehead and anterior half of crown white; re- 
mainder of the head, the whole neck, breast, back, lesser and 
median wing-coverts, primary-coverts, and winglet black ; the 
feathers of the hind neck thickly marked with large round white 
spots, those of the back and scapulars with large ovate transverse 
bars ; greater wing-coverts black, tipped white ; the earlier pri- 
maries black ; the other quills broadly white at base and also 
tipped white ; rump, upper tail-coverts, abdomen, and under tail- 
coverts white ; the lower part of the black of the breast fringed 
with white ; the two outer pairs of tail-feathers white ; the others 
black, broadly white at base and tipped white ; under wing-coverts 
black; axillaries white. 

In many specimens the crown and nape are rufous-ashy, with 
black margins to the feathers. 

The young have the head, back, and lower parts down to the 
breast rufous-ashy, the breast with whitish shaft-streaks. 

Bill black; iris dark brown; legs, feet, and claws white, with u 
pink tinge at junction of toes with tarsi and on all the toe-joints 
(Hume). 

G 2 



84 TURDID.E. 

Length about 11 ; tail up to 6-2 ; whig 4-5; tarsus 1*15 ; bill 
from gape 1'05. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Murree to Nepal at all eleva- 
tions up to 12,000 feet. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds from April to June, constructing a cup- 
shaped nest, chiefly of moss, on a ledge of rock or at the root of a 
tree, or on a bank near water, and laying four or five eggs, which 
are greenish white marked with yellowish or reddish brown, and 
measure about *96 by *72. 

631. Henicurus guttatus. The Eastern Spotted Fork-tail. 

Enicurus maculatus, Viq., Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 212 (part.). 

Enicurus guttatus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 664 ; Hume, N. $ E. 

p. 375 ; Gates, S. F. iii, p. 342. 
Henicurus guttatus, Gould, Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 29 ; Ehves, Ibis, 

1872, p. 261 j Hume, S. F. vii, p. 399; id. Cat. no. 584 bis ; Scully, 

S. F. viii, p. 311 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 316 ; Oates, B. B. 

i, p. 26; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 227; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd 

ed. ii, p. 58. 
Oong-sam ching-pho, Lepch. ; Chubia leka, Bhut. 

Coloration. Resembles H. maculatus. Differs in having the 
white marks on the back fewer in number, small, and perfectly 
round in shape, and in having the breast deep black without any 
white fringes ; smaller in size. 

Length about 10 j tail 5'3 ; wing 4 ; tarsus 1'2 ; bill from 
gape 1. 

Distribution. Nepal ; Sikhim ; North Khasi hills ; Manipur ; 
Arrakan. I have seen a typical specimen of this species from 
Mussoorie, but it is seldom that this bird occurs so far west. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds in Sikhim from 2000 feet upwards in May 
and June. The nest and eggs do not appear to differ from those 
of H. maculatus. The eggs measure about '93 by *68. 

632. Henicurus schistaceus, The Slaty-backed Forktail. 

Enicurus schistaceus, Hodys. As. lies, xix, p. 189 (1836) ; Blyt.h, 

Cat. p. 159 ; Ilorsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 346 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 214 ; 

Hume, N. $ E. p. 376. 
Henicurus schistaceus, Hodys., Elwes, Ibis, 1872, p. 253 ; Godw.- 

Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, p. 80 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 361 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 586 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 311 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 

vii, p. 315 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 27 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 229 ; Oates 

in Hume's N. # E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 60. 

Coloration. A frontal band and the feathers immediately over 
and behind the eye white ; lores, cheeks, ear-coverts, chin, upper 
part of the throat, and the sides of the lower part black ; crown, 
nape, sides of neck and back slaty blue ; lesser wing-coverts black, 
margined with slaty black ; median coverts black ; greater coverts 
black, tipped with white ; scapulars slaty blue, tipped with white ; 
quills black, broadly white at base ; the secondaries and tertiaries 



HENICURUS. 85 

with white tips ; rump, upper tail-coverts, and the two outer pairs 
of tail-feathers white; the other tail-feathers black, with whit<> 
bases and tips ; lower part of throat and the whole lower pluma^y 
white, the breast with narrow indistinct black cross bars. 

The young have the head and back ashy brown ; chin and lower 
plumage white, the throat and breast mottled with brown. 

Bill black ; iris blackish brown ; feet fleshy white ; the tarsi 
livid in front ; claws whitish. 

Length up to 10; tail up to 5 ; wing 3-8; tarsus 1-05; bill 
from gape 1. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Kumaun * to the Daphla hills 
in Assam; the Naga hills; Manipur ; Arrakan ; the whole of 
Tenasserim. This species extends into Southern China. 

J/nhits, cjr. Breeds in Sikhim and Tenasserim from March to 
July. The nest and eggs do not differ in any respect from those 
of the preceding species. The eggs measure about -85 by -65. 



633. Henicurus immaculatus. The Black-lacked Forktail. 

Enicurus immaculatus, Hodgs. As. Res. xix, p. 190 (183G) ; Bli/f/i, 

Cat. p. 159; Hursf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 346; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 213 ; 

Hume, S. F. iii, p. 141. 
Henicurus immaculatus, Hodgs. , Elwes, Ibis, 1872, p. 254 ; Anders. 

Yunnan E.rped., Aves, p. 610 ; Hume, Cat. no. 585 ; Sharpe, Cat. 

B. M. vii, p. 314 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 25 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 228 ; 

Gates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 62. 

Coloration. Forehead and the feathers above and behind the eye 
white ; the plumes at the base of the bill, the lores, sides of the 
head, sides of the neck, chin, throat, crown, nape, and back black ; 
lesser and median wing-coverts black ; primary-coverts and winglet 
black ; scapulars and greater coverts black, tipped with white ; 
primaries black ; secondaries and tertiaries black, the bases broadly 
white and tipped white ; rump, upper tail-coverts, and the lower 
plumage white, the feathers at the side of the breast tipped with 
black ; axillaries white ; the two outer pairs of tail-feathers white, 
the others black, with broad white bases and narrower tips. 

The young have the head, neck, back, and breast sooty black, 
and there is no white on the forehead and about the eyes. The 
nestling is probably spotted. 

Iii 11 and inside of mouth black ; iris brown ; feet and claws pale 
yellowish white 4 . 

Length nearly 10; tail 5'3 ; wing 4; tarsus 1-2; bill from 
gape '95. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from (larhwa'l to Dibmgarfa in 
Ai-sam ; Cachar; Sylhet ; the Garo and Khu'si hills; Manipur; 



* Hume assures us that In 1 procured the nest of this species in Kumauu 
(N. & E p. :i7r,i. Mud I :icc>i(liiiul\ ^ive the range as extending westwards to 
this Stsiti-, Imt I liau- MOD im sp.Tiim-n from any locality \\.--t of Nepal. 



86 TUKDIDJE. 

the neighbourhood of Bhaino ; Arrakan ; Pegu, probably not 
extending to the east of the Sittoung river. This species is found 
at low elevations chiefly. 

Habits, fyc. I found the nest of thisForktaii placed on a bank ab 
the side of a nullah in the Pegu hills on the 20th April, and con- 
taining three fresh eggs. 



634. Henicurus leschenaulti. Lesclienaulf s Forldail. 

Turdus leschenaulti, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xx,p. 269 (1818). 
Enicums leschenaulti ( V.), Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 345 ; Godw.-Aust. 

J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 168. 
Henicurus leschenaulti ( V.\ Elwes, Ibis, 1872, p. 258 ; Hume, S. F. 

v, p. 249 ; Tiveedd. Ibis, 1877, p. 310 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, 

p. 360; Hume, Cat. no. 584 ter; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 313; 

Oates, B. B. i, p. 27 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 228. 
Henicurus sinensis, Gould, apud Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, 

p. 80; Salvad. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) vii, p. 412. 

Coloration. Forehead and two thirds of the crown white ; the 
remainder of the head, neck, breast, back, scapulars, and wings 
black, the scapulars and the greater coverts broadly tipped white, 
the secondaries and terriaries white at their bases, and the later 
ones tipped white ; rump, upper tail-coverts, abdomen, vent, under 
tail-coverts, under wing-coverts, and axillaries white ; the two 
outer pairs of rectrices entirely white ; the next black, with white 
base and tip ; the others black, tipped white. 

The nestling has the head, neck, and back chocolate-brown, the 
sides of the head with pale shafts ; chin and throat grey ; breast 
brown, with yellowish streaks ; the other parts as in the adult ; the 
white of the crown is assumed at a late period. 

Length about 11 ; tail up to 5'9 ; wing up to 4-5 ; tarsus 1-3 ; 
bill from gape 1-1. 

This species is slightly smaller than H. sinensis, Gould, from 
China, and is inseparable from it in coloration. The two species 
may, however, be always separated by the structure of the tail. In 
H. leschenaulti the outermost tail-feathers are about as long as 
those next to them, whereas in H. sinensis these feathers are 
shorter than the penultimate pair by about two inches. 

Distribution. Sikhim ; the Bhutan Doars ; Upper Assam ; the 
Daphla hills ; the E. Naga hills ; the Khasi hills; Manipur ; the 
northern and central portions of Tenasserim below 2500 feet. 
This speciess in occur Java. 



Genus HYDROCICHLA, Sharpe, 1883. 

This genus differs from Henicurus in having the tail about equal 
in length to the wing, and the middle pair of tail-feathers about 
half the length of the tail. There are two species of this genus 
found in India, in one of which the sexes are alike arid in the other 
dissimilar. 



HYDROCICHLA, 87 

Key to the Species. 

a. Crown of head white; nape black If. frontalis, p. 87. 

b. Crown of head and nape chestnut II. rujicapilla, p. 87. 

635. Hydrocichla frontalis. The White- crowned Forktail. 

Enicurus frontalis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 156 (1847) ; id. Cat. 

p. 159; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 346. 
Henicurus frontalis, Blyth, Wives, Ibis, 1872, p. 259, pi. ix ; Oates, 

S. F. v, p. 248 ; Ttceedd. Ibis, 1877, p. 310 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, 

p. 3GO ; Hume, Cat. no. 584 quat. 
Hydrocichla frontalis (Blyth), &harpe,Cat. B. M. vii, p. 321 : Oates, 

B. B. i, p. 29. 

Coloration. Forehead and front of crown white ; head, neck, 
breast, back, lesser and median wing-coverts, primary-coverts and 
\vinglet black ; scapulars and greater wing-coverts black, tipped with 
white ; primaries black ; secondaries and tertiaries black, with broad 
white bases ; rump and upper tail- coverts, abdomen, and under 
tail- coverts white; the two outer pairs of tail-feathers white, the 
others black with white bases and tips. 

The youngest bird I have been able to examine has the whole 
head, ntck, back, and breast dusky brown, with no trace of white 
on the forehead or crown. J^sestling birds will, no doubt, prove to 
be spotted as in the other species. 

Bill black ; legs flesh-colour. 

Length nearly 8; tail 3*6; wing 3-6; tarsus 1-1; bill from 
gape '95. 

Distribution. The extreme south of Tenasserim, extending down 
the Malay peninsula to Sumatra and Borneo. 

636. Hydrocichla ruficapilla. The Chestnut-backed Forktail. 

Enicurus ruficapillus, Temm. PI. Col. iii, pi. 534 (1832) ; Blyth, Cat. 

p. 159. 
Henicurus ruficapillus, Temm., Elwes, Ibis, 1872, p. 257 , Hume $ 

Dav. S. F. vi, p. 361 j Hume, Cat. no. 588 bis. 
Hydrocichla ruficapilla (Temm.}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 319 ; 

Oates, B. B. i, p. 28. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead white ; a frontal band, the lores, 
cheeks, ear-coverts, chin, and throat black ; the forehead, crown, nape, 
upper part of back, and the sides of the neck chestnut ; back, lesser 
and median coverts, primary-coverts, and winglet black ; greater 
coverts and scapulars black, tipped with white ; primaries black ; 
secondaries and tertiaries black, with broad white bases and narrower 
tips; rump, upper tail-coverts, and the lower plumage white ; the 
feathers of the breast and the upper part of the abdomen margined 
with black ; the two outer pairs of tail-feathers white ; the others 
black, with broad white bases and tips. 

Female. Resembles the male, except that the whole of the back 
is chestnut, tinged with olivaceous on the lower portion. 

The young bird is probably spotted in its first stage of plumage. 



88 TURDID^E. 

Legs, feet, and claws pale pinky- or fleshy- white ; bill black ; 
iris dark brown (Hume fy Davison\ 

Length about 8 ; tail 3-3 ; wing 37 ; tarsus 1-15 ; bill f/om 
gape I'l. 

Distribution. Tenasserim, from Nwalabo mountain southwards. 
This species extends down the Malay peninsula and is found in 
Borneo. 

Genus MICROCICHLA, Sharpe, 1883. 

This genus differs from the two preceding genera in its very 
short tail, which is very much shorter than the wing and very 
slightly forked, the middle feathers reaching nearly to the tip of 
the outermost ones. There is only one species known, and the 
sexes are alike. 

637. Microcichla scouleri. The Little Forktail. 

Enicurus scouleri, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 174 ; Gould, Cent. pi. 

xxviii ; Blyth, Cat. p. 159 ; Horsf. 8f M. Cat. i, p. 347 ; Jerd. B. I. 

ii, p. 214 ; Hume, N. 8f E. p. 377. 
Enicurus nigrifrons, Hodgs., Gray, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 102 ; Jerd. B. I. 

ii, p. 215 ; Hume, Cat. no. 588. 
Henicurus scouleri, Vigors, Elwes, Ibis, 1872, p. 255; Hume, Cat. 

no. 587 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 311 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1882, p. 279. 
Microcichla scouleri ( Vigors}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 322 ; Oates 

in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 62. 

The Short-tailed Forktail, The Black-fronted Forktail, Jerd.; Oong- 
sumbrek-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Forehead and anterior half of crown white ; the 
whole head, neck, upper part of breast, back, lesser and median 
wing-coverts, primary-coverts, and winglet black ; scapulars and 
greater coverts black tipped white ; primaries black ; secondaries 
and tertiaries black with broad white bases, the later quills also 
with white margins ; rump and upper tail-coverts white, with a 
broad black band across the former ; the two outer pairs of tail- 
feathers white ; third pair white, with a black tip ; the others 
progressively with less white and broader black tips ; lower plumage 
white, the breast and the sides of the body mottled with black. 

The young have the forehead and anterior half of the crown 
black like the rest of the upper plumage ; the chin and throat 
white and the breast more mottled than in the adult. 

Bill black ; iris dark brown ; feet and claws pure fleshy white 
(Scully}. 

Length 5 ; tail 1*9 ; wing 2'9 ; tarsus '95 ; bill from gape '6. 

Distribution. The whole of the Himalayas, from Grilgit to the 
Daphla hills in Assam; the E. Naga hills. This species is found 
up to 11,000 feet in summer. It extends into Western China. 

Habits, <$fc. This Forktail appears to differ from all the other 
Forktails in its habit of plunging into the water. The nest does 
not appear to have been found yet. 



CHIMABBHORNIS. 89 

Genus CHIMARRHORNIS, Hoclgs., 1844. 

The genus Chimarrhomis is closely allied to the Forktails in 
habits, and connects them with the Redstarts. The sole species of 
this genus is found on the Himalayas and on certain hill-ranges of 
Assam and Burma. 




Fig. 27. Head of C. leucoccphahis. 

In Chimarrhomis the sexes are alike, and the tail, which is 
chestnut tipped with black, is much rounded ; the wing is large 
and rounded, the first primary being about half the length of the 
second ; the tarsus is long. 



638. Chimarrhornis leucocephalus. The White-capped 
Redstart. 

Phcenicura leucocephala, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1830, p. 35 ; Gould, Cent. 

pi. xxvi, fig. 1. 
Ruticilla leucocephala (Vir/.), Blyth, Cat. p. 169; Horsf. fy M. Cat. 

i, p. 309 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 51. 
Chaemorrornis leucocephala ( Vig.), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 143 ; Stoliczka, 

J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 44 ; A. Anders. S. F. iii, p. 355 ; Hume 

8f Senders. Lah. to Yark. p. 214; Hume, Cat. no. 506; Scully, 

S. F. viii, p. 303 ; Gates, B. B. i, p. 24. 
Chimarrhornis leucocephala ( Vig.), Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, 

p. 613 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii,' p. 47 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 197 ; 

Gates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 63. 

Gir-chaondia, Hind. ; Kali-pholia at Molmn Ghat ; Mati-tap-pho, 
Lepch. ; Chubia-mati, Bhut. 

Coloration. Crown and nape white ; with this exception, the 
whole head and neck, with the breast, back, and the whole of the 
\\iiijfs black; rump, upper tail-coverts, abdomen, flanks, and under 
tail-coverts chestnut ; tail chestnut, broadly tipped with black. 

The young have the plumage blackish brown, the feathers of the 
back, rump, and of the whole lower plumage fringed with rufous ; 
crown and nape white with black edges; tail and wings as in the 
adult. The rufous and black tips and fringes are soon cast off, 
and the adult plumage assumed in October or November. 

Bill black; gape fleshy white; iris deep brown; feet blackish 
brown ; claws black (Scully). 

Length about 7*5 ; tail 3-2 ; wing 3-9 ; tarsus 1/2 ; bill from 
gape -8. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Afghanistan and Gilgit to 
Assam; the Kluisi hills; Manipur; (lie second defile, Irrawaddv 
river; Arrakan. 



90 

This species is found at high elevations on the Himalayas 
in summer, Stoliczka recording it from about 20,000 feet above 
the sea. In winter it descends to below 3000 feet, or probably to 
the plains at the foot of the hills. 

This Eedstart extends to China. 

Habits, fyc. Frequents the banks of rivers and nullahs, feeding 
at the edge of the water on insects, and constantly moving its tail 
up and down and expanding the feathers. Breeds in May, con- 
structing a cup-shaped nest of green moss and fibres, lined with 
hair, in the hollow of a bank on the side of a stream. The eggs 
are greenish white covered with rufous spots. 



Genus RUTICILLA, Brehm, 1828. 

The genus Ruticilla contains the true Redstarts, which may be 
recognized by their rather long tail, which is more than twice the 
length of the tarsus and nearly or quite square at the tip ; by the 
large amount of chestnut in the tail ; and by the sexes being dif- 
ferently coloured. The bill is short, slender, and black, and the 
rictal bristles moderate or short. The wing is sharply pointed, and 
the first primary less than half the second. The tarsus is of 
moderate length. 

The Redstarts feed on the ground largely, but they also catch 
insects on the wing and perch freely. They constantly vibrate 
their tail. Nearly all the species migrate to a greater^ or less 
extent, and those that inhabit the Himalayas move vertically 
according to season. They breed in holes of trees and rocks, and 
lay unspotted blue eggs. 

The nestlings of the Eedstarts are streaked with fulvous above 
and have the feathers margined with brown below. In each 
species the nestling has the same pattern of tail as the adult, render- 
ing specific recognition comparatively easy. 

The seasonal change of plumage in the Eedstarts, due to the 
wearing away of the edges of the feathers in the winter and spring, 
is very great. 

Key to the Species*. 

. All tail-feathers except the middle pair 

abruptly tipped with black R. frontalis, p. 91. 

b. None of the tail-feathers tipped. 

a'. A large white patch on throat J?. schisticeps, p. 92. 



* The following species are reported to have occurred in India, but either by 
error or on insufficient evidence : 

R. PHCENICURA (Linn.). Two skins of this species now in the British Museum, 
originally deposited in the Indian Museum, as noticed by Horsfield and Moore 
(Oat. i, p. 301), are said to have been procured at Saharanpur by Dr. Jameson. 
The two specimens in question, which ha\ e been at one time stuffed and mounted, 
are typical B. jjhoenicura. The occurrence of this species in India requires con- 
firmation. It resembles E. rufiventris, but has the anterior part of the crown 



BUTICILLA. 91 

//. Xo white patch on throat. 

a". Middle tail-feathers distinctly different 

to others ; wing- under 3 4 5. 
a"'. Secondaries with white on both 

webs R. attrorea, p. 03. 

b'". No white on inner webs of secon- 
daries. 
a 4 . Terminal portion of shafts of all 

lateral tail-feathers black R. erythronofa, p. 94. 

b*. Shafts of lateral tail-feathers uni- 
formly chestnut. 
a 5 . Throat and breast black. 

G . Portion of outer webs of secon- 
daries broadly margined with 

white R. hodgsoni <$ , p. 95. 

b e . No white margins to secon- 
daries R. rufiventris <5 , p. 95. 

b 6 . Throat and breast buff or ashy 

brown. 
c 6 . Lower plumage in general 

ashy brown R. hodgsoni ; P- 95. 

d 6 . Lower plumage in general 
buff, frequently suffused 

with orange R. rtifiventris $ , p. 95. 

b". Middle tail-feathers of much the same 

colour as others ; wing over 4 R. erythrogaster, p. 97. 

639. Ruticilla frontalis. The Blue-fronted Redstart. 

Phcenicura frontalis, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 172; Gould, Cent. 
pi. xxvi, tig. 1. 

Ruticilla frontalis (Vig.\ Blyth, Cat. p. 168; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, 
p. 308 ; Jerd. B. 1. ii, p. 141 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 50; 
Hume fy Henders. Lah. to Yark. p. 211 ; Hume, Cat. no. 03 ; 
Scully, S. F. viii, p. 302 : lliddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 63 ; Scully, Ibis, 
1881, p. 446; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 349: Hume, S. F. xi, 
p. 195 ; Oates in Hume's N. Sf E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 64. 

Tak-tirriri-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn inoult the forehead and 

white with a distinct greyish-white supercilium, and the back is grey without a 
trace of black at any season. 

E. ERVTIIKOPKOCTA, Gould. This bird has been recorded from India under a 
misapprehension as to what the species really is. The only specimens known 
are two from the Gould collection, now in the British Museum. They were 
obtained in Asia Minor. This Redstart resembles R. rujiventris, but has the 
under wing-coverts and axillaries black tipped with ashy, and the black of the 
lower parts produced further down on the abdomen. 

R. MKSOLEUCA (Hempr. & Ehr.). This species is said to have been procured 
at Daulatpur in Sind by Mr. Murray's native collector. The specimen obtained 
iv.-i.-lird Mr. Hume's hands without a label. Both Hume (S. F. vii, p. 115) 
and Blanford (S. F. vii, p. 527) entertain doubts of the occurrence of this species 
in India, and I think the matter requires confirmation. For the present it is 
perhaps advisable to omit it from my list. R. mesoleuca resembles R. rufivenfris, 
but has the anterior third of the crown pure white and the supercilium whitish ; 
the outer webs of the secondaries and later primaries are, moreover, margined 
with white. 



92 

supercilium are bright blue ; remainder of head, neck, back, and 
lesser and median wing-coverts dull blue, the feathers with brown 
fringes ; greater coverts dark brown, suffused with blue on the 
outer webs and tipped with rufous; quills dark brown, margined 
with pale rufous ; rump, upper tail-coverts, breast, and lower 




Fig. 28. Head of li.frontaHs. 

plumage chestnut; tail chestnut, except the middle pair of feathers 
and broad tips to the others, which are black ; under wing-coverts 
and axillaries chestnut with blue bases. In summer the fringes 
to the feathers of the blue parts of the plumage get worn away, 
leaving those parts pure blue. 

Female. Forehead, crown, nape, scapulars, and back rich brown 
with a tinge of fulvous ; rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail as in 
the male ; quills and coverts brown, edged with, fulvous ; a ring of 
pale feathers round the eye; chin fulvous; throat and breast 
fulvous-brown ; remainder of lower parts orange-brown, becoming 
brighter and purer orange on the abdomen and under tail-coverts. 

The young nestling has the tail similar to that of the adult. 

Bill, legs, feet, and. claws black ; iris deep brown (Hume}. 

Length about 6 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 3*4 ; tarsus -9 ; bill from 
gape -7. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Gilgit and Kashmir to Assam ; 
the Khasi hills ; North Cachar ; Manipur. This species is seldom 
found below 5000 feet in summer, and it occurs up to 14,000 feet 
or even higher at that season. It extends into Tibet and Western 
China. 

Habits, fyc. Little is known of the nidification of this Redstart ; 
eggs said to belong to this species, procured in Sikhim in June, 
measured about *82 by '59. 

640. Ruticilla schisticeps. The White-throated Redstart. 

Rnticilla schisticeps, Hodgs. Cat. Mamm. etc. Nep. Coll. p. 69, App. 

p. 153 (1846) ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 140 ; Blanf. J. A. 8. B. xlvii, pt. 2, 

p. 1, pi. i; Hume, Cat. no. 501 ; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 351. 
Ruticilla nigrogularis, Moore, P. Z. 8. 1854, p. 29, pi. xli ; Horsf. 

8f M. Cat. i, p. 307; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 140; Hume, S. F. iv, 

p. 497; id.Cat.no. 502. 

The Slaty -headed Redstart, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead and crown cobalt-blue, turning to 
duller blue on the nape ; feathers at base of upper mandible, sides 



HUTICILLA. !'{ 

of the head and neck, chin, throat, back, and scapulars black, the 
longer scapulars tipped with chestnut, and all the feathers of these 
black portions of the plumage, and also of the crown, fringed with 
fulvous after the autumn moult ; a well-defined white patch on the 
throat ; rump, upper tail-coverts, and lower plumage rich chestnut, 
the middle of the abdomen albescent ; tail black, all but the middle 
pair of feathers chestnut on the basal third of their length ; the 
median wing-coverts, the innermost greater coverts, and the outer 
margins of tertiaries and later secondaries white; remainder of 
wings black ; under wing-coverts and axillaries black, with broad 
white tips. 

Female. Forehead, crown, nape, back, upper part of rump, 
scapulars, and sides of neck rich brown ; lower part of rump and 
upper tail-coverts chestnut ; tail dark brown, the basal half of all 
but the middle pair of feathers dull rufous ; wings as in the male, 
but the black replaced by brown and the white margins narrower ; 
lower plumage pinkish ashy, albescent on the abdomen, and with 
a large white patch on the throat ; under wing-coverts and axil- 
laries brown, tipped white. 

Bill and legs black. 

Length about 6 ; tail 2-9 ; wing 3'3 ; tarsus '9 ; bill from 
gupe -55. 

Distribution. Confined to the higher portions of Nepal and 
Sikhim and the adjoining parts of Tibet and Central Asia, such as 
Kausu. 



641. Ruticilla aurorea. The Daurian Redstart. 

Motacilla aurorea, Pall. Rci*. Ru*$. Reicks, iii, p. 695 (1776). 
Phcenicura leucoptera, ////////, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 962 (1843) 
Ruticilla leucoptera (Bl.)\ Bli/th, Cat. p. 168. 
Ruticilla aurorea (Pall.), Horxf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 305 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, 

p. 139 ; Hume, Cat. no. 500 ; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 345 ; 

Oates, B. B. i, p. 16 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 195. 

Reeves' Redstart, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the forehead, crown, 
nape, and mantle are slaty grey, the feathers fringed with slaty 
brown, the portion over the eye and along the sides of the neck 
purer grey ; lower back, scapulars, and wing-coverts black with 
fulvous margins ; rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail chestnut, 
except the middle pair of feathers of the latter, which are black ; 
quills black, each secondary with a patch of white, forming a large 
wing-spot; feathers at base of bill, chin, throat, and sides of head 
black, with whitish margins ; remainder of lower plumage chest- 
nut. In the spring and summer the fringes of the feathers are 
much reduced in extent, but seldom entirely lost except on the 
throat. 

Female. Everywhere brown, paler beneath and albescent on the 
abdomen; a circle of pale foatfaen round the rvc; rump, upper 
tail-coverts, and tail as in tin male ; wings brown edged with 



94 TURDIDJE. 

fulvous, and the secondaries with white patches as in the male, 
but reduced in extent and slightly fulvous. 

Legs and feet black ; bill blackish brown to black, yellow or 
yellowish at gape in the male and sometimes on base of lower 
mandible also ; iris deep brown (Hume}. 

Length about 6 ; tail 2'5 ; wing 2*9; tarsus '9 ; bill from gape '65. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to Bhutan ; Assam ; the Khasi 
hills ; Cachar ; Sylhet ; the Naga hills ; Manipur ; Thayetmyo. 
In winter this species extends to Java and Timor, and in summer 
it is found in Siberia, Mongolia, Japan, and China. 



642. Ruticilla erythronota. Eversmanns Redstart. 

Sylvia erythronota, Eversm. Add. Pall. Zoogr. Ross-Asiat. fasc. ii, 

p. 11 (1841). 
Ruticilla rufogularis, Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 27, pi. lix ; Horsf. Sf 

M. Cat. i, p. 306. 
Ruticilla erythronota (Eversm.}, Hume, S. F. vii, p. 389 ; id. Cat. 

no. 498 bis ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 445 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1882, p. 277 ; 

Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 348. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the forehead, crown, 
nape, and hind neck are pale blue, nearly concealed by broad slaty- 
grey fringes ; lores, cheeks, point of chin, sides of the head and of 
the neck, produced round the upper back as a collar, black with 
narrower slaty-grey fringes ; back, scapulars, throat, breast, and 
flanks chestnut fringed with grey ; rump and tail chestnut, the 
middle pair of feathers black, as also the tip of the outer web of 
the outermost feather, and the terminal portion of the shaft of all 
the feathers ; lesser wing-coverts black, tipped with white ; median 
coverts and the inner greater coverts pure white ; remaining 
coverts and the quills brown edged with pale fulvous, the primary- 
coverts very largely white ; abdomen and under tail-coverts pale 
fulvous ; under wing-coverts and axillaries white with black bases. 
In summer the fringes are all dropped. 

Female. Forehead, crown, nape, back, scapulars, and upper part 
of rump brown ; lower part of rump and upper tail-coverts chest- 
nut ; tail as in the male ; wing-coverts and quills brown, broadly 
edged \vith fulvous white ; no white on wing ; a ring of pale 
feathers round the eye ; lower plumage greyish brown, tinged with 
dull orange in places, and paler on the abdomen. 

In the dry state the legs and bill are black. 

Length about 6'5 ; tail 2-9 ; wing 3*4 ; tarsus *9 ; bill from 
gape -6. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to every portion of Kashmir, ex- 
tending on the west to Hazara and Afghanistan and on to Asia 
Minor. The most easterly locality from which I have seen a 
specimen of this bird is Kotokhai in the Himalayas. In summer 
this Redstart is found in Turkestan, and even in Mongolia and 
Siberia, if R. alaschanica, Prjev., should prove to be the same 
species, as is probable. 



RFTICILM. 95 



643. Ruticilla hodgsoni, Hodysoris Redstart. 



Ruticilla erythrog-astra (Quid.), ajmd Blyth, Cat. p. 168 (part.). 
Ruticilla hodgsoni, Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 26, pi. Iviii ; Horsf. 8? 

M. Cat. i, pi 303 ; Jerd. B. L ii, p. 138 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. 

xlv, pt. ii, p. 199 ; Hume, Cat. no. 498 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 302 ; 

Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 344 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 195. 

Thar-capnij Nep. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the forehead, lores, 
sides of head aod neck, chin, throat, and uppar breast are deep 
black with a few grey fringes ; crown, nape, and back ashy, the 
portion of crown above the forehead and at the sides nearly white ; 
lower rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail chestnut, except the 
terminal two thirds of the middle pair of feathers of the latter, 
which are black ; wing-coverts black, edged with ashy ; quills dark 
brown, a few of the later secondaries margined with white about 
their middle portion, forming a patch in the closed wing ; lower 
plumage chestnut. Males in summer are unknown to me, but 
probably differ in wanting the grey fringes on the throat and 
breast. 

Female. Upper plumage and wings brown tinged with ashy, the 
feathers of the wings edged paler; lower rump, upper tail-coverts, 
and tail chestnut except the middle pair of tail-feathers, which are 
blackish ; a ring of whitish feathers round the eye ; lower plumage 
ashy brown, albescent on the abdomen and turning to pale rufous 
on the flanks, vent, and under tail-coverts. 

Bill black ; gape fleshy yellow ; iris dark brown ; feet black or 
brownish black, soles yellow ; claws black (Scully}. 

Length about 6 ; tail 2-8 ; wing 3'4 ; tarsus -9 ; bill from 
gape -7. 

Distribution. Nepal ; Sikhim ; Bhutan ; the Daphla hills in 
Assam ; the Naga hills ; Manipur. This species is only a winter 
visitor to the above localities. It summers in Western China and 
probably in Central Asia. This Redstart has been erroneously 
recorded from Afghanistan and Gilgit. 

644. Euticilla rufiventris. The Indian Redstart. 

(Enanthe rufiventris, Vieill. Nouv. Diet, a" Hist, Nat. xxi, p. 431 
(1818). 

Ruticilla indica, Blyth, Cat. p. 168 (1849). 

Ruticilla phcenicuroides, Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 25, pi. Ivii ; Horsf. 
# M. Cat. i, p. 301 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 136. 

Ruticilla nipalensis (Hodgs.\ Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 26 ; Horsf. $ 
M. Cat. i, p. 302. 

Ruticilla rufiventris (Vieill.}, Jerd. B. 2nd. ii, p. 137; Blanf. 
J. A. 8. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 60 ; Hume, N. % E. p. 321 : id. S. F. v, 
p. 36 ; id. Cat. no. 497 ; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 342 ; Hume, 
S. F. xi, p. 194 ; Oates in Hume's N. # E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 64. 

Thir-thira, Thirtir-kampa, Hind. ; Phir-ira, Lal-girdi, Beng. ; Nuni- 
budi-gadu, Tel. 



96 TURDIDJE. 

Coloration. Male. In typical autumn plumage the forehead, 
sides of the head, chin, throat, breast, and sides of neck are black 
with grey fringes, the black more or less concealed ; crown, nape, 
hind neck, back, and scapulars ashy grey, this grey appearance 
caused by broad fringes which generally quite conceal the black 
bases of the feathers ; lesser and median wing-coverts black, edged 
with ashy; the other coverts and the quills brown, edged with 
rufous ; rump and upper tail-coverts bright chestnut ; tail chestnut 
except the middle pair of feathers, which are brown ; abdomen, 
vent, under tail- and wing-coverts, and axillaries deep orange- 
brown. 

In typical summer plumage the whole head, neck, back, scapu- 
lars, lesser and median wing-coverts, and the breast are deep black, 
with an ashy supercilium and some ashy on the crown just behind 
the forehead. The rufous margins to the greater coverts and 
quills are reduced or disappear. 

Between these two stages every intermediate form occurs re- 
gardless of season, the deep black plumage sometimes making its 
appearance immediately after the moult, and some birds even at 
midsummer retaining the broad ashy- grey fringes in varying 
'legrees. Some males are said to breed in female plumage. 

Female. Upper plumage brown tinged with fulvous \ the wings 
broadly edged with fulvous ; rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail 
chestnut, except the middle pair of feathers, which are brown ; a 
circle of pale feathers round the eye ; lower plumage huffy brown, 
suffused with orange on the abdomen, flanks, vent, and under tail- 
coverts. 

Bill, legs, feet, and iris black ; base of bill yellow (Binyhani). 

Length about 6 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 3*3 ; tarsus *9 ; bill from 
gape -7. 

Distribution. A common winter visitor to a great portion of the 
Empire, this species occurs from the Himalayas down to Bangalore 
and the Nilgiris, and from Sind to Assam, thence ranging down to 
Manipur. It appears to be common from September to April. 
Some few birds are found in the plains in summer, but do not 
apparently breed. In the Hume Collection there are specimens 
shot at Sambhar in July and at Ahmednagar in June. 

This Eedstart extends on the west to Persia and on the east to 
China, and large numbers appear to summer in Turkestan and 
Mongolia. Within our limits it breeds on the higher mountains 
of Kashmir above 10,000 feet. It also breeds in Afghanistan. 
Mandelli procured a specimen in Native Sikhim in June, and pro- 
bably it may be found to breed throughout the Himalayas at great 
heights. 

Habits, Sfc. The nest of this species has seldom been found, and 
little is known of its nidification. Wardlaw Bamsay found the 
nest in Afghanistan on the 1st July in an old tree-stump, but the 
young had apparently left it some time before. 



I.MIVACOBNIS. 97 

<i 1"). Ruticilla erythrogaster. Guldemtadt's Redstart. 

Motacilla erythrogastra, G'tild. Nov. Com. Petrop.xu.. p. 469. pis. in, 

17 (1775). 
Ruticilla crytliroirustni (G'dld.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 168 ; Horsf. Sf M. Cat. 

i, p. 304 Jenl. B. I. ii, p. 131) ; Blanf. J. A. & 1L xli* pt. ii, p. 51 ; 

llmne $ Henrier*. Lh. to York, p. 210; Scully, S. F. iv, p. 144 ; 

Jlitinc, Cat. no. 409 ; llid,lnli>lt, Ibis, 1881, p. 03 j Scully, Ibis, 

1881, p. 445 ; Scebohm, Cat. Ii. M. v, p. 347. 
Ruticilla viprorsi, Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 27, pi. Ix ; Horsf. $ M. 

Cat. i, p. ."04. 

77w White-winyed Redstart, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the crown and nape 
are white with a few ashy margins ; forehead, sides of head and 
neck, back, scapulars, upper wing-coverts, chin, throat, and upper 
breast deep black, a few of the feathers margined with grey ; 
wings black, the middle portion of all the quills except the terti- 
aries white ; remainder of the plumage with the tail deep chestnut. 
Soon after the autumn, the few margins present on the black por- 
tions of the plumage drop off, and the crown becomes pure white. 

Female. Upper plumage brown tinged with ashy ; the lower 
portion of rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail ferruginous, the 
middle tail-feathers and the tips of the others dusky; wings brown, 
edged with pale fulvous ; sides of head and whole lower plumage 
uniform fulvous-grey. The female has no seasonal change of 
plumage. 

Bill black, yellow at gape; iris brown; legs, feet, and cla\vs 
black (Hume Coll.}. 

Length about 7 ; tail 3 ; wing 4-2 ; tarsus 1-05 ; bill from 
gape -7. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Kashmir and Gilgit to Sikhim. 
In summer this species is found at very high altitudes, from 10,000 
to 14,000 feet or even higher. In winter it descends to 5000 feet. 
This Redstart extends on the west to the Caucasus ; on the north, 
through Turkestan and Tibet, to Lake Baikal in Southern Siberia; 
and on the east into China. 

Habits, $c. This species, like Chimarrkomit leucocephalus, affects 
streams and lakes, but is more frequently seen, according to 
15 Ian ford, on rocky hill-sides. Its nest has not yet been found 
by any naturalist. 



Genus RHYACORNIS, Blauford, 1N7L'. 

The genus Rhyacornit contains one species, which is closely allird 
to both Clt'niiarrlnn'iiis and Itiil'n-iUa. It differs from both tlicM-. 
howt-Ner, in the simrl n<ss of its tail, which is about tuuv tin- 
length of the tarsus, ;md in its strong rictal bristles. The female, 
moreover, has no chest nut on the tail. 

The only member of this genus inhabits mountain-streams, and 
is always round near \\ater, especially \\here this forms a rapid or 
a cascade. It has the habit of expandini; its tail frequently. 

VOL. II. II 



08 TURD1DJ5. 

646. Ehyacornis faliginosus. The Plumbeous Redstart. 

Phoenicura ftdiginosa, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 35. 

Kuticilla fuliginosa (Vig.), Blyth, Cat. p. 169; Horsf. 8? M. Cat. i, 

p. 308 ; Jerd. B. 2nd. ii, p. 142 ; Hume fy Henders. Lah. to Yark. 

p. 212, pi. xv. 

Nymphseus fulipinosus ( Vig.}, Hume, N. 8f E. p. 322. 
Rhyacornis fuliginosa ( Vig.\ Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 50 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 505 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 303 ; Hume, S. F. xi, 

p. 196 ; Oates in Humes N. fy E. 2ud ed. ii, p. 65. 
Xanthopygia fuliginosa (Viy.), Sliarpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 253 ; Oates, 

B. B. i, p. 284. 
Chimarrhornis fuliginosa (Vig.}, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, 

p. 43. 

The Plumbeous Water-Robin, Jerd. ; Suradum parbo-pho } Lepch. ; 
Chubbia nakki, Bhut. 

Coloration. Male. The whole plumage dull cyaneous ; tail- 
coverts, both upper and lower, the veut, and tail bright chestnut ; 
wing black with bluish margins. 

Female. The whole upper plumage dull bluish brown ; upper 
and under tail-coverts white ; base of tail white, the amount on 
the outer four pairs of feathers increasing towards the outside, 
the outermost feather being white with a narrow dusky margin ; 
lores and ear-coverts dusky mottled with white ; the whole lo\ver 
plumage ashy brown, each feather with a whitish centre and a 
paler ashy margin ; upper wing-coverts and tertiaries brown, edged 
rufous and tipped with whitish ; quills brown, narrowly edged 
with rufescent. 

The nestlings of both sexes resemble the female, and have the 
same amount of white in the tail, but the whole upper plurcage is 
closely spotted and streaked with -dull white or pale fulvous ; the 
lower plumage is mottled and cross-barred with brown. 

Bill black ; gape fleshy white ; iris dark brown ; feet dark 
horny brown; claws black (Scully). 

Length about 5'5 ; tail 2'1 ; wing 3 ; tarsus *9 ; bill from 
gape '65. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Eastern Kashmir to Assam ; 
the Khasi hills ; Cachar; Manipur ; Arrakan. Blyth records this 
species from Thayetmyo, where, however, I failed to meet with it. 
This Redstart is found on the Himalayas from low elevations up 
to 13,000 feet, according to season. It extends into China and 
Mongolia. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds apparently in every portion of its extensive 
range. The nest is made of moss, lined -with hair, wool, or soft 
fibres, and placed on a shelf of a rock or in the hollow of a bank 
by the side of a stream. The nesting-season is May and June. 
The eggs are greenish white, thickly mottled Math yellowish or 
reddish brown, and measure about 76 by '6 



CYANECULA. 99 

Genus CYANECULA, Brehm, 1828. 

The genus Cyanecula contains the Blue-throats, birds which are 
very closely allied to the English Robin. The Blue-throats may 
be recognized by their very short tail, which is only twice the 
length of the tarsus, and by the chestnut colour of the basal half 
of the tail. The males, moreover, have the chin and throat a 
brilliant blue. The females are of a dull colour, but have the tail 
chestnut as in the male. 

The Blue-throats feed on the ground, and are generally found 
in India in thick grass-jungle, arid more rarely in open country. 
They prefer swampy ground. They run well, elevating the tail 
on arriving at the end of each short course of running, and some- 
times expanding it. They are said to be good songsters. They 
breed in holes on the ground, and lay blue eggs spotted with 
reddish brown. The only two species of this genus are highly 
migratory. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Throat blue, with a chestnut spot in the 

centre C. suecica <$ , p. 99. 

b. Throat blue, either entirely or with a white 

spot in the centre C. wolfi <3 , p. 100. 

, Throat huffish w) ,ite j ?$ 

647. Cyanecula suecica. The Indian Blue-throat. 

Motacilla suecica, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 336, part. (1766). 
Motacilla caerulecula, Pall. Zooyr. Ross.-Asiat. i, p. 480 (1811). 
Cyanecula suecica (Linn.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 167 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, 

p. 311; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 152; Hume $ Renders. Lah. to Yark. 

p. 214 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped, p. 614 ; Lcyye, Birds Ceyl. p. 443 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 514 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 304 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 

p. 209. 
Erithacus caeruleculus (Pall.), Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 308 ; Oates, 

B. B. i, p. 15. 

Huseni-pidda, Hind. ; Nil kunthi, Hind, in the N. ; Gunpigera, Gurpedra, 
Beng. ; Dwnbak, Sind. 

Coloration. Male. Whole upper plumage with wings brown, 
the feathers of the head and back with darker centres ; chin and 
throat bright blue, with a chestnut spot in the centre of the throat ; 
below the blue a band of black and below this a broader band of 
chestnut : lores black ; a stripe from the nostrils to the eye fulvous ; 
cheeks and ear-coverts mixed fulvous and black ; belly, flanks, vent, 
and under tail-coverts huffish white ; middle tail-feathers brown, 
the others chestnut on the basal half and brown on the terminal 
half. 

Female. The whole lower plumage huffish white, with a broad 
brown-spotted gorget across the breast. 

H2 



100 TUBDIDJE. 

It is seldom that the male is in the full plumage described above. 
The amount of blue and chestnut on the throat varies much ; and 
sometimes only the presence of a few blue feathers serves to indicate 
that the bird is a male. 

The nestling is blackish above streaked with fulvous, and fulvous 
below, each feather edged with black. 

Bill black, the base flesh-colour ; iris brown ; eyelids plumbeous ; 
inside of mouth yellowish ; legs dusky fleshy ; claws brown. 

Length 5-9 ; tail 2'3 ; wing 2-9 ; tarsus Ivl ; bill from gape '75. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to almost every portion of the 
Empire and Ceylon. The only parts from which this species has 
not yet been recorded are the Nicobar Islands and the portion of 
Tenasserim south of Tavoy, but even in these it probably occurs. 

In summer this species is found immediately north of the 
Himalayas and thence through Asia to the Arctic Circle, extending 
west throughout Europe and east to the Pacific. In winter it is 
found not only in India but in North Africa on the one hand and 
in Southern China on the other. 



648. Cyanecula wolfi. The White-spotted Slue-throat. 

Motacilla suecica, Linn. Si/st. Nat. i, p. 336, part. (1766). 
Sylvia cyanecula, Wolf, Taschenb. \, p. 240 (1810). 
Sylvia wolfii, Brehm^Beitr. zur Vogelk. ii, p. 173 (1822). 
Cyanecula leucocyana, Brehm, Voy. Deutschl. p. 353 (1831). 
Cyanecula wolfii (.Brehm) t Hume, S. F. vii, p. 391 ; id. Cat. no. 514 

bis. 
Cyanecula leucocyanea, Brehm, Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 65 ; Scully, 

Ibis, 1881, p. 447 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1882, p. 278. 
Erithacus cyaneculus (Wolf), Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 311. 

Coloration, liesembles C. suecica, the male differing from the 
male of that species in having the patch on the throat white instead 
of chestnut, or in wanting a spot altogether. The females and 
young of the two species appear to be inseparable. 

Distribution. A rare visitor to the extreme north of Kashmir, 
occasionally straggling even to the plains. Biddulph secured a 
specimen in Grilgit in April, and he records this species as very 
common on both sides of the Digar pass, between the Nubra and 
Indus valleys. In the Hume Collection there is a specimen which 
was obtained in Tirhoot in April, and Hume states that he has seen 
some half-dozen specimens from various parts of India. 

The headquarters of this Blue-throat are Europe in the summer, 
and North Africa and Palestine in the winter. 

Genus DAULIAS, Boie, 1831. 

The genus Daulias contains the Nightingales, birds of plain 
plumage but of great powers of song. The one species that has 
been known to occur in India is of extreme rarity in that country, 
only two instances of its occurrence being known. 

In Daulias the whole plumage is brown, somewhat ruddy on the 



CALLIOPE. If!]' 

tail, bufc making no approach to the chestnut exhibited in the pre- 
ceding genera. The sexes are quite alike. The first primary is 
miu-li smaller than in any other genus of this subfamily, being 
considerably less than a third of the length of the second. The 
toil is long and rounded, and the tarsus is also long. 

The Nightingales frequent dense brushwood and are shy birds. 
They feed principally on the ground like Robins, and they nest 
near the ground in dense underwood. 

649. Daulias golzi. TJie Persian Nightingale. 

Luscinia golzii, Cabanis, Journ.fur Orn. 1873, p. 79. 

Luscinia hafizi, Severtz. Turkext. Jevotti. p. 120 (1873). 

Daulias golzii (Cab.), Hume, S. F. iv, p. 500 ; id. Cat. no. 514 ter. 

Erithacus golzii (Cab.), Secbohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 297. 

Coloration. The whole upper plumage and the margins of the 
wing-feathers russet-brown, brighter on the upper tail-coverts and 
tail ; wings brown ; lores, cheeks, and the whole lower plumage 
pale buff. 

Length 7'5 ; tail 3-4; wing 3-6 ; tarsus I'l ; bill from gape '85. 

This species may be separated from D. lusrinia, Linn., which 
occurs in England and Europe, and from D. philomela, Bechst., of 
Eastern Europe and South-western Asia, by its long tail and by its 
first primary, which is equal to the primary-coverts. In both the 
above species the tail is less than three inches long : in the first 
the first primary is considerably longer than the primary-coverts ; 
in the second it is considerably shorter. 

Distribution. Two specimens of this rare Nightingale have been 
procured in Oudh, one in October and the other in November. 
They are both in the Hume Collection. No other instance of the 
occurrence of this species in India has been recorded. It extends 
to Turkestan and to the Caucasus. 

Genus CALLIOPE, Gould, 1836. 

The members of the genus Calliope are characterized by the 
absence of chestnut in the tail, a comparatively long first primary, 
a short tail, and by the males having a brilliant red throat. In 
habits Calliope agrees closely with Cyanecula. All the species of 
this genus are migratory, and the sexes are very different in colora.- 
tion. The tarsus is very long, and these birds spend most of their 
time on the ground in thick cover. 

Key to the Species. 

a. No white in the tail C. ca-m1s<-1intkcn*i* t p. in-j 

b. Base or tip of tail or both white, 
a'. Chin and throat red. 

a". Cheeks black C. p<'<-t< li* , p. 103, 

b". Cheeks white ('. fxc/icbfriciri rf , p. 10 I. 

b'. Chin and throat white . . \ C ' f f "'^ ? > P- ^ 

j C. tschebaiem $ , p. 10 L 



'. 

102 TURDID^E. 

650. Calliope camtschatkensis. The Common Ruby-throat. 

Motacilla calliope, Pall. Reise Russ. Reichs, iii, p. 697 (1776). 

Turdus camtschatkensis, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i, p. 817 (1788). 

Calliope camtschatkensis (Gmel}, Blyth, Cat. p. 169; Horsf. $ M. 

Cat. i, p. 3] 3 ; Jerd. B. /. ii, p. 150 ; Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, p. 337 ; 

Anders. Yunnan Eiped., Aves, p. 615 ; Hume, Cat. no. 512 ; Barnes, 

Birds Bom. p. 209 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 199. 
Calliope yeatmani, Tristram, Ibis, 1870, p. 444. 
Erithacus calliope (Pall.), Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 305 ; Gates, B. B. 

i, p. 14. 
Gunpiffora, Beng. ; Ganyula, Nep. 




Fig. 29. Head of C. camtschatkensis. 

Coloration. Male. The whole upper plumage olive-brown, the 
head darker, and all the feathers indistinctly edged paler ; a line 
from the forehead over the eye white ; lores and under the eye 
black; a broad moustachial streak white; throat and fore neck 
scarlet, each feather margined at the tip with white, and the whole 
patch bordered by black ; upper breast brownish grey, paling and 
becoming buffy grey on the lower breast and sides of the body ; 
abdomen and under tail-coverts white ; tail brown, edged on the 
outer webs with olive-brown ; wing-coverts and quills brown, edged 
w ith bright olive-brown ; axillaries buff. 

Female. Superciliary streak buffy white ; lores and in front of 
the eye dusky brown; the bright scarlet of the throat and the 
surrounding black line absent, and replaced by dull white ; mous- 
tachial streak olive-brown ; other parts as in the male. 

The young are mottled, and moult into the plumage of the adult 
female at the first autumn, and the crimson throat- patch is assumed 
in the first winter without a moult. 

Bill light brown, white at the gape ; mouth flesh-colour ; iris 
brown ; legs pale plumbeous ; claws horn-colour. 

Length 6 ; tail 2-4; wing 2*9: tarsus 1-15; bill from gape -8. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to Nepal and Sikhirn, extending 
through the plains of the Eastern portion of India proper as far 
south as the latitude of Eaipur in the Central Provinces. This 
species is common in Bengal, Bhutan, and Assam, and extends down 
to Arrakau, Pegu, Karennee, and the northern portion of Tenas- 
serim. As an accidental visitor this bird may be expected to occur in 
almost every part of India, and Jerdon records an instance of its 
being found near Bombay. 

In winter the Common Ruby-throat extends its migration as 
far as the Philippines, * and in summer it is found throughout 
Northern Asia up to the Arctic Circle. 



CALiJOFE. 

651. Calliope pectoralis. The Himalynn /ff>i/ -throat. 

Calliope pectoralis, Gould, Icon. Av. pt. i, pi. iv (1837) ; Blyth, Cat. 
p. 100 ; Horsf. # M. Cat. i, p. 313 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 150 ; Stoliczka, 
J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 45 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt, ii p. 52 ; 
Hume, N. $ E. p. 325 j id. Cat. no. 513 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 304 ; 
Biddulpk, Ibis, 1881, p. 64 ; Gates in Hume's N. # E. 2nd ed. ii, 
p. 67. 

Erithacus pectoralis (Gould), Seebokm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 30.1. 
The White-tailed Ruby-throat, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the whole upper 
plumage, wing-coverts, and sides of the neck are dark slaty, 
blacker on the crown ; forehead and a short supercilium white ; 
middle of chin and of throat bright crimson ; lores, sides of head, 
sides of chin and of throat, and the whole breast deep black, every 
feather fringed with ashy ; abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts 
white ; wings brown, edged with olivaceous ; middle tail-feathers 
black, (he others with the basal half white and the terminal half 
black tipped with white. In summer the ashy fringes are cast and 
the upper plumage is tinged with olivaceous. 

/' male. Olive-brown, the outer webs of the quills suffused with 
fulvous ; lores, edge of forehead, and a short superciliura dingy 
white ; chin and middle of throat white, contrasting with the ashy- 
brown of the sides of the throat and the breast ; abdomen pale 
fulvous ; middle tail-feathers olive-brown, the others blackish brown 
tipped with white. 

The nestling has the upper plumage fulvous-brown, much darker 
on the crown, all the feathers with fulvous streaks ; lower plumage 
fulvous, all the feathers margined with dark brown; the tail-feathers 
at first tipped with fulvous instead of white, and the male from 
the earliest age has the base of the tail white. At the first autumn 
moult the young male assumes the dark upper plumage of the adult 
male, but retains the lower plumage of the adult female; traces of 
the black breast are assumed during the first summer, but the 
breast does not become fully plumaged till the moult of the second 
autumn. The female becomes adult at the first autumn moult. 

Bill black, brownish at tip and base of lower mandible ; iris 
brown ; feet brown ; the tarsi rather livid ; claws dusky (Scully). 

Length about 6 ; tail 2*4 ; wing 3 ; tarsus 1'2 ; bill from gape *75. 

/)ixtrif>it(ion. A constant resident on, or a summer visitor to, the 
higher portions of the Himalayas from (Hlgif to Sikhim and Bhutan. 
A winter visitor to the intermediate and lower ranges of the same 
mountains, being occasionally found in the plains at the foot as in 
the Bhutan doars and at Sultanpur in Oudh, In summer this species 
is also found in Turkestan. 

J/nl'It*, i\v. Breeds in Kashmir and Sikhim at 10,000 feet and 
upwards. A nest, said to belong to this species and found in Sikhira, 
is described as being a saucer- shaped pad of fine mo-- and roots 
placed in a deep crevice of a rock. The eggs are described as being 
pale salmon-bull' and as measuring about '9 by "06. 



104 TUHDIDJE. 



652. Calliope tschebaiewi. The Tibet Ruby-throat . 

Calliope pectoralis, Gould, apud Godw.-Aust. J. A, 8. 12. xxxix, 
pt. ii, p. 270, xlv, pt. ii, p. 79 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, 
p. G15 ; Hume, 8. F. xi, p. 199. 

Calliope tschebaiewi, Prjev., Rowley's Orn. Misc. ii, p. 180, pi. liv, 
fig. 1 (1877). 

Erithacus tschebaiewi (Prjev.}, Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 308. 

Coloration. Male. Differs from the male of C. pectoralis, when 
adult, in being olive-brown, tinged with russet above, and in 
having the cheeks white, not black. 

The females and immature birds of both species are inseparable. 

Bill and legs black; iris brown (CocJcburn). 

Length about 6; tail 2-3; wing 3; tarsus 1'2; bill from 
gape *75. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the Himalayas from Sikhim to 
the Dikrang valley in Assam, extending to the Khasi hills, where 
it is very common at Shillong ; Godwin-Austen procured this 
species at Mymensing and Anderson near Bhamo. In summer 
this bird is found in Tibet and Kaiisu. 



Genus TARSIGER, Hodgs., 1844. 

The genus Tarsiger contains one species, in which the sexes 
resemble each other somewhat closely, and have the whole lower 
plumage yellow. In structure this genus differs in no respect from 
Calliope, 

Tarsiger chrysceus is a constant resident at moderate heights on 
the Himalayas. 

653. Tarsiger chrysaeus. The Golden Busli-RoUn. 

Tarsiger chrysams, Hodgs. P. Z. 8. 1845, p. 28 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 169 ; 
Horsf. Sf M. Cat. i, p. 310; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 149; Stoliczka, J. A. 
S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 45 ; Hume, N. fy E. p. 325 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. 
M. iv, p. 260 ; Hume, Cat. no. 511 ; Gates in Hume's N. & E. 
2nd ed. ii, p. 67. 

The Golden Bush-Chat, Jerd. ; Manshil-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, nape, hind neck, and the 
middle portion of the back olive-green; a superciliary streak 
reaching to the nape, the lesser wing-coverts, scapulars,' sides of 
the back, the rump, the upper tail-coverts, and the whole lower 
plumage bright orange-yellow, many of the feathers more or less 
fringed very narrowly with brown ; median and greater coverts 
and the quills black, margined with olive-green ; tail orange- 
yellow, broadly tipped with black, the median pair of feathers 
black, with a yellow margin on the outer webs ; lores, round the 
eye, and the ear-coverts black. 

Female. The whole upper plumage and the exposed parts of the 



lANTIIFA. 



105 



wings olive-green ; median pair of tail-feathers olive-green, the 
others golden yellow, broadly tipped, and margined on the outer 
webs, with olive-green ; a yellowish-white ring round the eye ; ear- 
coverts olive-brown, with pale shafts ; lores and an indistinct 
supercilium olive-yellow ; the whole lower plumage ochraceous 
yellow, most of the feathers with tiny dusky fringes and the flanks 
washed with olivaceous. 

The young have the whole plumage dark olive-brown, the 
feathers streaked with fulvous and tipped with black. 

Lower mandible and edge of the upper along the commissure 
yellow ; rest of the bill black ; iris very dark brown ; legs, feet, 
and claws fleshy, tinged with brown (Hume). 

Length about 6; tail 2-3; wing 2-7; tarsus 1-2; bill from 
gape -7. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Chamba to Sikhim, apparently 
up to 5000 feet ; the Khasi hills; the Niiga hills ; Manipur. This 
species extends into Western China. 

Habits, &c. Nests on the ground from May to August, in holes 
of rocks and banks, and lays three or four eggs, which are pale 
blue, and measure about '8 by '53. 



Genus IANTHIA, Blyth, 1847. 

The genus lantliia contains three species of Indian birds, in 
which the males are very brightly coloured and the females are 
dull. They inhabit the Himalayas, and migrate locally according 
to season. 




r 




Fig. 30. Tail of /. indica. 

This genus differs from Tarsiyer and Calliope in having a much 
longer tail, the feathers of which are moreover pointed at the tips. 
Very little is on record about the habits of the members of this 
genus, but they probably do not differ in any important particular 
from those of the Blue-throats and Ruby- throats. 



106 TUEDID^E. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Sides of body orange- chestnut, contrasting 

with remainder of lower plumage I. rufilata, p. 106. 

b. Sides of body of same colour as remainder of 

lower plumage. 

a'. A white supercilium /. indica, p. 107. 

b'. No white supercilium /. hijperythra, p. 108. 

654. lanthia rufilata. The Red-flanked Bush-Robin. 

Nemura rufilatus, Hodgs. P. Z. 8. 1845, p. 27 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, 
p. 199; Hume, N. $ E. p. 324 ; id. S. F. xi, p. 198. 

lauthia rufilata (Hodc/s.), Blyth, Cat. p. 170 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, 
pt. ii, p. 52; Brooks, J. A. 8. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 77 j id. S. F. iii, 
p. 240 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 68. 

lanthia cyauura (Pall.}, apud Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 146 ; Stoliczka, J. A. 
S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 44. 

Nemura cyauura (Pa//.), apud Hume, Cat. no. 508 ; Scully, S. F. viii, 
p. 304 ; Bidihdph, Ibis, 1881, p. 64. 

Tarsi ger rutilatus (Hodys.}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 2-56 ; Scully, 

Ibis, 1881, p. 446. 
The White-breasted Slue Wood-Chat, Jerd. ; Mangzhil-pho, Lepch, 




Fig. 31. Head of I. rufilata. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead and a broad eyebrow, rump, upper 
tail-coverts, and the median wing-coverts bright ultramarine-blue ; 
ear-coverts, lores, and round the eye black ; upper plumage, edges 
of wing-coverts and quills, sides of the head, throat, and neck 
extending down to the sides of the breast deep purplish blue ; tail 
black, the outer webs suffused with deep blue ; chin, throat, middle 
of breast, and remaining lower plumage white, sallied with ashy 
brown on the breast ; a very large and conspicuous patch of 
orange-chestnut on each side of the body ; under wing-coverts and 
axillnries white. 

Males from Sikhim are very bright ; those from other parts have 
the upper plumage a greenish blue. 

Female. Upper plumage olive-brown, the coverts and wings 
edged with rufous ; rump greenish blue ; upper tail-coverts deep 
blue ; tail dark brown, the outer webs suffused with deep blue ; 
chin and throat narrowly white ; sides of the head and neck and 
the whole breast ochraceous ; a large patch of orange-chestnut on 
each side of the body ; remainder of the sides ochraceous ; middle 
of abdomen and under tail-coverts white ; under wing-coverts and 
axillaries pale yellowish buff. 



IANTHIA. 1 U7 

Some females have a well-marked bluish-grey supercilium, and 
others are without it. 

The young resemble the female, and have the orange patch 011 
each side of the body and also a blue tail and rump, but the upper 
plumage is everywhere streaked with fulvous as well as the sides 
of the head and the throat. 

Bill black ; legs and feet deep brown ; iris brown (Hume). 

Length nearly 6 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 3'3 ; tarsus 1/05 ; bill from 
gape -6. 

/. cyanura is an allied species from Northern Asia. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Gilgit and Kashmir generally 
to Sikhim ; the Khasi hills ; Tipperah ; Manipur. This species is 
found up to 11,000 feet in the Himalayas in summer, and 
descends to lower levels in winter. 

Habits, $c. Breeds in May and June, constructing a nest of 
moss and grass in holes in banks and under tree-roots, and laying 
four eggs, which are white with a green tinge, spotted sparingly 
round the larger end with minute specks of reddish brown, and 
measuring about '71 by '56. 

655. lanthia indica. The White-browed Bush-Robin. 

Sylvia indica, Vieill. N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xi, p. 267 (1817). 

Nemura flavo-olivacea, Hodys. P. Z. S. 1845, p. 27. 

Tarsiger supevciliaris, Hodffs., Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 76 ; Horsf. # 

M. Cat. i, p. 311 ; Hume, Cat. no. 510. 
Erythaca flavo-olivacea, Blyth, Cat. p. 171. 
lauthia superciliaris (Hodys.), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 148 ; Blanf. J. A. S. 

B. xli, pt. ii, p. 161. 
Tarsiger iudicus ( Vieill.), Sharps, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 259. 

The Rufous-bellied Bush- Chat, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. The whole upper plumage dull slaty blue ; a 
very well-defined supercilium from the point of the forehead to 
the nape white ; lores and in front and under the eye black ; sides 
of the head blackish blue; coverts and quills dark brown, edged 
with olive-yellow, the coverts next the body more or less suffused 
\\ illi blue ; tail black, suffused with blue on the outer webs ; lower 
plumage orange-rufous, the sides of the throat mottled with white 
and the middle of the abdomen whitish. 

Female. The whole upper plumage olive-brown, tinged with 
fulvous on the rump ; a partially-concealed white supercilium 
extending to the nape ; sides of the head and a ring round the eye 
ochraceous, mottled with whitish ; wings and tail brown, edged 
with the colour of the back ; entire lower plumage ochraceous, 
tingi-d with rufous on the breast and paler on the abdomen. 

1 have not been able to examine a young bird of this species. 

Bill black; legs pale horny-brown : iris brown (Jerdou). 

Length about 6; tuil 2 <( J ; wing 3-2 ; tarsus 1/15; bill from 
gape 7. 

Distribution. Nepal and Sikhim, r\frmlmj into Western China. 
There are few birds about which so little is known as this species. 



108 TURDlD^l. 

656. lanthia hyperythra. The Rufous-bellied Bush-Robin. 

lanthia hyperythra, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 132 (1847) ; id. Cat. 

p. 170; e/m*. ,5. /. ii, p. 147; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, 

pt. ii, p. 106. 
Nemura hyperythra (Blyth), Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 299 ; Ilmne, Cat. 

no. 509. 
Tarsiger hyperythrus (Blyth), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 257. 

The Rusty-throated Blue Wood-Chat, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead continued back as a supercilium, 
the upper tail-coverts, and a patch on the lesser wing-coverts near 
the edge of the wing bright ultramarine-blue; ear-coverts, lores, 
and in front of the eye black ; upper plumage and the sides of the 
head and neck deep purplish blue ; wing-coverts and quills black, 
edged with purplish blue ; tail black, suffused with purplish blue 
on the outer webs ; chin, throat, breast, and abdomen chestnut ; 
vent and under tail-coverts white ; under wing-coverts and axil- 
laries pale chestnut. 

Female. Upper plumage and the visible portion of the closed 
wing olive-brown tinged with rufous ; rump slaty blue ; upper 
tail-coverts deep blue ; tail black, the outer webs suffused with 
deep blue ; sides of the head fulvous olive-brown ; lower plumage, 
under wing-coverts, and axillaries rich ochraceous, becoming white 
on the vent and under tail-coverts. 

I have not been able to examine a young bird, but it will prove, 
without doubt, to be spotted. 

Bill black in the dry skin ; legs and feet brown. 

Length about 5-5 ; tail 2-3 ; wing 3'2 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from 
gape -6. 

Distribution. Sikhim and the Khasi hills. In the former tract 
this species is a resident, probably moving vertically according to 
season. This bird is figured by Hodgson, and there are likewise 
some specimens collected by him in the British Museum, probably 
from Nepal, but there is no certainty on this point. 



Genus ADELURA, Bonap., 1854. 

The sole member of this genus is frequently associated with the 
true Redstarts, but the total absence of the chestnut in the tail, 
which forms so conspicuous a feature in all the Redstarts, induces 
me to place the present type apart from them. In habits this 
species appears to be a Redstart, and structurally it does not 
differ from Ruticilla. From lanthia, which it somewhat resembles 
in coloration, this genus differs in having the tips of the tail- 
feathers rounded. 

657. Adelura caeruleicephala. The Blue-headed Robin. 

Phoenicura caeruleocephala, Viyors, P. Z. S. 1830, p. 35 : Gould. 
Cent. pi. xxv, fig. 2. 



ADELURA. 109 

Jluticilla crcruleocephala ( FiV/.), Blyth, Cat. p. 168 ; Horsf. 8f M. 

( '//. i, p. 307 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 141 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, 

pt. ii, p. 42; Hume Sf Henders. Lah. to Yark. p. 211, pi. xiv ; 

1 1 tnm, N. $ E. p. 322; id. S. F. vii, p. 391 ; id. Cat. no. 504; 

Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 353 ; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. 

ii, p. 09. 
Adelura (Ruticilla) caeruleocephala ( FiV/.), Brooks, S. F. iii, p. 240. 

The Blue-headed Redstart, Jerd. 





Fig. 32. Tail of A. ccerideicephalu,. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the forehead, crown, 
and nape are pale blue, each feather with a broad brown fringe ; 
back, scapulars, upper rump, sides of neck, chin, throat, and breast 
black, the feathers broadly fringed with brown; lores, cheeks, and 
ear-coverts plain black ; lower rump and upper tail-coverts black, 
with very narrow brown fringes ; tail entirely black ; wings dark 
brown or black, the median coverts, the inner greater coverts, and 
broad margins to tertiaries and later secondaries white ; abdomen, 
vent, and under tail-coverts white ; under wing-coverts and 
axillaries black, with white tips. In spring all the fringes of the 
feathers are lost, the forehead, crown, and nape become uniform 
blue, and the black parts of the plumage deep black. 

Female. Upper plumage rich brown, the lower part of the rump 
tinged with rufous, and the upper tail-coverts ferruginous ; tail 
brown, narrowly edged with ferruginous; wings brown, the 
coverts and tertiaries broadly edged and tipped with fulvous-white ; 
the other quills narrowly margined paler ; lower plumage ashy 
brown tinged with fulvous, becoming almost pure white on the 
abdomen and upper tail-coverts ; a ring of pale feathers round the 
eye. 

The nestling is mottled all over, and the young male may be 
known at all ages by the white margins on the wings. 

Bill dark brown ; legs, feet, and claws black ; iris dark brown 
(Hume). 

Length about 6 ; tail 2'7 ; wing 3-2 ; tarsus '8 ; bill from 
gape '65. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Afghanistan and Gilgit to 
I)lui1;i!i. I have seen no specimen of this bird from Sikhim, 
and only one from Bhutan, collected by Pemberton. This species 



110 TUEDIDyE. 

is found from 10,000 feet upwards in summer, but at much lower 
levels in winter. In summer it extends into Turkestan. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds in Gilgit and Afghanistan in May and June, 
and generally throughout the higher parts of the Himalayas. 
According to Wardlaw Ramsay the nest is composed of small 
twigs and grass, lined with hair, and is placed in a crevice or hole 
in the face of a cliff. The eggs, five in number, are of a dull 
cream-colour, with a darker zone of the same round the thicker 
end, and measure about -84 by "62. According to Hume this 
species lays a blue unspotted egg, but it appears from his account 
that in the single instance in which he found the nest he did not 
secure the bird, and consequently there may have been some 
mistake about it. I am also disposed to believe that "Wardlaw 
Ramsay's identification of the eggs is correct, as the bird is not a 
Redstart according to my views. 



Genus GRANDALA, Hodgs., 1843. 

The genus Grandala contains one bird of remarkable structure, 
the position of which it is somewhat difficult to determine. It is 
placed by Seebohm among the Thrushes, and by Jerdon among 
the Saxicolince, and I place it here in an intermediate position, 
considering it more allied to the Robins than to the Thrushes or 
Chats. The proper position of this species may probably be among 
the Brachypteryyinw. 

The plumage of the nestling of this species is streaked, and so 
far it resembles that of the adult female ; but the streaks are more 
numerous and less distinctly defined, giving it a decided, though 
not typical, Thrush-like appearance. 




Fig. 33. Head of G. cxlicolor. 

In Grandala the bill is about half the length of the head and 
slender; the nasal membrane is clothed with plumelets to its 
middle portion, and the rictal bristles are rather long ; the wing 
is excessively long, the first primary very minute, and the second 
reaching to the tip of the wing ; the tail is rather longer than half 
the wing and square ; the tarsus is slender and smooth and fairly 
long. The sexes are coloured differently, and the plumage is soft 
and copious. 

Only one species of this genus is known. Seebobm unites it 
with Sialia, a genus of American birds, with which, however, it 
has, in my opinion, no affinities. 



NOTODKLA. HI 

658. Grandala coelicolor. HodgsoiC* Grandala. 

Grandala coelicolor, Hodf/s. J. A. S. B. xii, p. 447 (1843) ; Blyth, 
Cat. p. 166 ; Horsf. 8f M. Cat. i, p. 281 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 119 ; 
Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 49 ; Hume, Cat. no. 478. 

Grandala schistacea, Hodys. J. A. S. B. xii, plate illustrating p. 447 
(1843). 

Sialia coelicolor (Hodus.\ Scebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 328. 

The Long-winged Blue Chat, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. Wing, tail, greater wing-coverts, primary- 
coverts, and winglet black ; remainder of plumage bright smalt- 
blue, most brilliant on the rump and upper tail-coverts. 

Female. The whole plumage brown with a bluish tinge, the 
rump and upper tail-coverts decidedly blue ; the head, back, sides 
of head and neck, and the whole lower plumage except the flanks 
streaked with fulvous-white ; wings and tail brown ; the quills 
with a patch of white near the base, forming a wing-spot ; some 
of the secondaries tipped white ; under tail-coverts broadly edged 
with white. 

The young resemble the female closely, but they have the streaks 
broader and extending on to the flanks. The young male pro- 
bably assumes the adult plumage at the first autumn moult; before 
finally acquiring it some of the feathers of the head and neck are 
fringed with bro\vn. 

Bill and feet jet-black ; iris dark brown (Jerdori). 

Length about 9 ; tail 3'6 ; wing 5'8 ; tarsus 1'15 ; bill from 
gape !). 

Distribution. The highest parts of the Himalayas from Garhwal 
to Sikhim. Blanf ord did not meet with this species below 15,000 
feet in Sikhim, and he observed it as high as 17,000 feet. It ex- 
tends into the mountains of Tibet and Western China. 

Habits, fc. Probably found in pairs in the summer, but in flocks 
in the winter ; described as having the flight of a Starling, and 
feeding on the ground on insects. 



Genus NOTODELA, Lesson, 1831. 

The genus Notodela contains one species, which is largely dis- 
tributed from Nepal to Tenasserim. The sexes are very different, 




Fig. 34. Head of -Zv". leucura. 

the male being blue and the female rufous, but both sexes have a 
large amount of white on the tail, which is considerably longer 
than twice the tarsus. 



112 TTJEDIDJi. 

The White-tailed Blue Robin frequents the ground, flying up 
into trees when disturbed, and expanding and closing its tail 
frequently. It does not appear to be shy, and it is said to be very 
silent. 

659. Notodela leucura. The White-tailed Blue Robin. 

Muscisylvia leucura, Hodys. P. Z. S. 1845, p. 27. 

Myiomela leucura (Hodqs.}, Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 280 ; Jerd. B. I. 

ii, p. 118; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 161 ; Blyth $ Wald. 

Birds Burm. p. 100 ; Hume # Dav. S. F. vi, p. 334 ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 477 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 23 ; Hume, 8. F. xi, p. 190. 
Notodela leucura (Hodgs.), Blyth, Cat, p. 166 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 306 ; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 23 ; Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. 

ii, p. 70. 
The White-tailed Blue Chat, Jerd. ; Mangshia, Lepch. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, eyebrow, and the smaller upper 
wing-coverts near the bend of the wing bright cobalt-blue ; the 
whole upper plumage black suffused with blue ; lores, sides of the 
head and neck, and lower plumage deep black, with a few of the 
feathers of the abdomen fringed with blue ; a concealed patch of 
white on the side of the neck ; wings black with bluish edges ; 
tail black, all the feathers except the outermost and the middle 
pair with a large patch of white on the outer web, increasing in 
size towards the middle of the tail ; under tail-coverts fringed with 
white. 

Female. The whole plumage rufescent brown, and the exposed 
parts of the closed wings and tail bright ferruginous ; no concealed 
white spot on the side of the neck : tail brown with white patches, as 
in the male, but smaller in extent ; the feathers of the chin, throat, 
lores, and sides of the head with paler shafts ; a ferruginous ring- 
round the eye. 

The young are reddish brown, with bright shaft-streaks and 
with ferruginous tips to the feathers of the upper wing-coverts ; 
the white patches on the tail-feathers are present from the earliest 
age ; in the young male the tail and wings are black, in the female 
rufous ; the adult plumage appears to be acquired by a moult when 
the young are about a year old. 

Bill, legs, feet, and claws black ; iris deep brown (Hume $ 
Davison). 

Length about 7 ; tail 3 ; wing 3'8 ; tarsus 1-1 ; bill from gape 
9. 

Distribution. Nepal, Sikhim, the Daphla hills in Assam, the Khasi 
hills, Cachar, Manipur, Karennee, Muleyit mountain in Tenasserim. 
Blyth. in his catalogue, recorded a specimen obtained by Hutton 
at Mussoorie, but no specimen is contained in the British Museum 
from any locality west of Nepal. This bird is found from about 
4000 to 9000 feet, and appears to be a constant resident in the 
parts it affects. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds in April and May, constructing a cup-shaped 
nest of roots and leaves, sometimes hooded, on the ground under 



CALL KM:. 113 

the shelter of a rock or on the face of a bank. The eggs are 
salinon-pink, very faintly freckled with grey all over, and measure 
about -91 by -65. 



Genus CALLENE, Blyth, 1847. 

The genus Callene differs from Notodela in having a very much 
longer tail, and one the feathers of which are greatly graduated 
and without any white pattern. The tarsus is extremely long. 
Little is recorded of the habits of the sole Indian member of the 
genus, which, however, are not likely to differ materially from 
those of Notodela. 

660. Callene frontalis. The Blue- fronted Callene. 

Cinclidium frontale, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi, p. 181 (1842). 

Callene frontalis (Blyth}, Blyth, Cat. p. 178; Hor.-f. $ M. Cat.i, 

p. 396 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 496 ; Hume, N. fy E. p. 220 ; id. Cat. 

no. 340 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 15 ; Oates in Hume's N. 8f E. 

2nd ed. ii, p. 71. 

The Blue-fronted Short-iviny, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. Lores and a frontal band black; forehead 
and a short eyebrow cobalt-blue ; with the exception of the abdo- 
men, which is dark brown, and the under tail-coverts brown 
fringed with white, the whole plumage is slaty-blue with the edges 
of the feathers brighter ; wings and tail dark brown, the outer 
webs suffused with blue; a portion of the under wing-coverts 
white ; the lesser upper wing-coverts bright cobalt-blue. 

Female. The whole plumage rufescent brown, and the visible 
portions of the closed wings and tail bright ferruginous ; tail 
brown ; the feathers of the chin, throat, lores, and sides of the 
head with paler shafts ; a ferruginous ring round the eye ; a portion 
of the under wing-coverts white. 

The young are dusky brown, with pale mesial streaks on the 
feathers of the scapulars and the lower plumage. The young male 
assumes the adult plumage at the commencement of its first year. 

Bill black ; legs brown. 

Length about 8 ; tail 37 ; wing 3-6 ; tarsus T5 ; bill from 
gape *8. 

This bird, though structurally very different from Notodela 
leucura, resembles it closely in coloration. 

Distribution. Sikhim only. There is no evidence that Hodgson 
met with this bird in Nepal ; on the contrary, his drawing appears 
to have been taken from a Sikhim specimen. There is nothing 
known of the habits of this species. 



Genus THAMNOBIA, Swains., 1831. 

The genus Thamnobia contains two species, one or other of 
which is found over a considerable portion of India. 

VOL. II. I 



1 14 TUflDID JS. 

I have much hesitation in placing this genus here. It is the 
only genus of the Turdidce, with the exception of the Accentorincv, 
in which the tarsus is strongly or at all scutellated ; the bill is, 
moreover, quite of a different character to that of any of the 
Thrush tribe, and the rictal bristles are reduced to a minimum. 
The young are mottled to a slight extent only. A better place 
may possibly hereafter be found for it. 

In Thamnobia the bill is slender and curved downwards, the 
wing is very rounded, and the tarsus is strongly scutellated in 
front. 

The two species of this genus appear to run into each other at 
the common point of meeting in about the latitude of Bombay ; 
but with reference to this, two points should be carefully regarded. 
They are both subject to two kinds of change of plumage. One 
change is caused by the ordinary wearing away of the margins of 
the feathers during the winter, and the other, coincident in time 
with this, is caused by the further abrasion of the feathers after 
the margins are worn off. In consequence of these changes it is 
difficult for nine months of the year to be quite certain to which 
species any particular specimen may belong if the abrasion of the 
feathers has been at all normal. I have had no difficulty, how- 
ever, in separating autumnal freshly-moulted birds, and they can 
be ranged into two series, each of which is found to occupy a 
different geographical area. In a certain zone, from Ahmednagar 
to the mouth of the Godavari valley, both species occur, but they 
are to be separated even here if birds in good plumage be 
examined. 

The Indian Robins, as they are termed by residents in India, 
are familiar birds, being found in compounds, &c., and nesting in 
houses, or in their immediate vicinity. These birds feed a good 
deal on the ground, and- have the habit of erecting the tail after the 
fashion of Robins. Both species are resident. The sexes are 
different, and while the males of the two species are not difficult to 
discriminate, the females are very close to each other. 
i 

Key to the Species. 

a. With white on the wing-coverts. 

a'. Upper plumage sandy brown T. cambaiensis tf, p. 114. 

b'. Upper plumage black T.fulicata rf, p. 115. 

b. With no white on the wing-coverts . . \ T ' c ^ lba j ens j s ? ' P 114 ' 

) T.fulicata <j>, p. 115. 

661. Thamnobia cambaiensis. The Brown-backed Indian Robin. 

Sylvia cambaiensis, Lath. Ind. Orn. ii, p. 554 (1790). 

Thamnobia cambaiensis (Lath.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 165 ; Horsf. & M. 

Cat. i, p. 283 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 122 ; Stoliczka, J. A. & B. xxxvii', 

pt. 11, p. 40, xli, pt. ii, p. 237 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 182 ; id. N. $ E. 

p. 309; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 216 ; Hume, Cat, no. 480 ; Sharpe, Cat. 

B. M. vii, p. 55 ; Barnes, Birds Bom, p. 198 ; Gates in Hume's 

N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 71. 



THAMNOBIA.. 115 

Coloration. Male. When freshly moulted in September, the 
M hole upper plumage is sandy brown ; upper tail-coverts and tail 
black ; wings dark brown, the lesser coverts and a portion of the 
median ones white, the remaining coverts with bluish edges ; lores, 
sides of the head and neck, chin, throat, breast, upper part of 
abdomen, and the sides of the body glossy black with a few sandy 
edges ; lower part of abdomen and the under tail-coverts deep 
chestnut. 

The male continues in this plumage up to February, when the 
feathers of the upper plumage become much darker in colour, 
owing apparently to the wearing away or casting off of the lips. 
During the summer the plumage resembles that of T. fulicata in 
many respects, but is seldom or never so dark. 

Female. Ear-coverts and round the eye rufous, the former with 
pale shafts; chin, cheeks, and a frontal band over the lores pale 
fulvous ; with these exceptions, the whole plumage is sandy brown, 
tinged with ashy below ; tail and wings dark brown ; middle of the 
abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts chestnut. 

The young are rufous, the feathers of the back oosoletely barred 
and the wing-coverts and quills broadly edged with brighter rufous ; 
upper tail-coverts smoky brown ; tail very dark brown ; lower 
plumage ashy brown tinged with rufous and slightly mottled ; 
under tail-coverts, vent, and middle of abdomen pale chestnut. 

Iris dark brown ; legs, feet, and bill black (Hume Coll.). 

Length about 6*5 ; tail 2*7 ; wing 3 ; tarsus 1'05 ; bill from 
gape '75. 

Distribution. A. resident in a very large portion of India proper. 
On the w r est this species extends to Sind and the Punjab ; on the 
north to the lower ranges of the Himalayas, ascending them at 
times up to 5000 or 6000 feet ; on the east to the Rajmehal hills 
and Midnapur, and on the south to Ahmednagar and the Goddvari 
valley. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds from March to August, constructing a flimsy 
nest of miscellaneous materials in holes of walls, banks, &c., and 
laying four to six eggs, which are greenish white mottled with 
reddish brown, and measure about *79 by *59. 



662. Thanmofoia fulicata. The Black-backed Indian Robin. 

Motacilla fulicata, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 336 (1766). 

Thamnobia fulicata (Zm.), Blyth, Cat. p. 165; Horsf. $ M. Cat. \. 

p. 281 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 1 21 ; Hume, N. % E. p. 307 ; id. Cat. no. 170 ; 

Lef/f/e, Birds Ceyl. p. 440 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 54 : 



S. P. x, p. 388; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 198; Oates in Hum,'* 
N. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 76. 

The Indian Black Robin, Jerd.; Kalchuri, Hind.; Nalanchi, Tel. ; 
Wannati-kuravi) Tain. 

Coloration. Male. When freshly moulted in September, the 
whole plumage is glossy black except the lesser wing-coverts and 
a portion of the median, which are white, and the under tail- 

i2 



116 TURDID^E. 



coverts and a portion of the lower part of the abdomen, which are 
chestnut ; wings brown or dull black. This plumage is retained 
till February, when the coloration becomes paler either by bleach- 
ing or abrasion of the feathers, and in this state the birds resemble 
T. cambaiensis, but there is always some black left to indicate the 
species. 




Fig. 35. Head of T.ftdkuta. 

Female. Lores, forehead, and chin rufous-ashy ; ear-coverts 
rufous, with pale shafts ; the whole upper plumage brown with a 
rufous tinge, the wing-coverts edged paler ; quills brown, edged 
with the colour of the back ; lower plumage ashy grey, varying in 
different individuals ; middle of the lower abdomen and the under 
tail-coverts chestnut. 

The young are rufous-brown above, obsoletely barred or tipped 
brighter ; wing-coverts and quills broadly edged with rufous ; 
upper tail-coverts dusky ; tail blackish : lower plumage brown 
mottled with rufous, the* chin paler; middle of the abdomen and 
the under tail-coverts pale chestnut. 

The young of this species are more distinctly spotted than are 
those of T. cambaiensis. 

Iris dark brown ; legs, feet, and bill black (Butler). 

Length about 6-5 ; tail 2'5 ; wing 2-9 ; tarsus T05 ; bill from 
gape -75. 

Distribution. Ceylon ; the southern portion of India up to 
Ahmednagar on the west and the Godavari valley on the east. 

Habits, fyc. Precisely those of the last species in all respects. 
Eggs of the same type and size. 



Genus COPSYCHUS, Wagler, 1827. 

The genus Copsychus contains the well-known Magpie-Robin of 
India and some other allied species. It differs from all the other 
genera of this subfamily in having a tail which is about equal to 
the wing in length, considerably graduated, and coloured black 
and white. The sexes are different, although both possess the 
same pattern of colour. 

663. Copsychus saularis. The Maypie-Robin. 

Gracula saularis, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 165 (1766). 

Copsychus saularis (Linn.), Blyth, Cat. p. 166: Horsf. # M. Cat. i, 

p. '275; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 114; Hume fy Henders. Lah. to Yark. 

p. 202; Hume, N. $ E. p. 303; id. S. F. ii, p. 230; Hume # 



COPSYCIIfS. 



117 



Jhir. S. F. vi, p. 332 ; Anders. Yunnan Hxped., Aves, p. C13 ; 
J'<'(/(/?, Birds Ceyl. p. 433 ; Hume, Cat. no. 475 ; Gates, B. B. i, 
p. 20 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 01 : Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 197 ; 
Oates in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 80. 

Copaychus musicus (Rqffi.), apud Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 333 ; 
Hume, Cat. no. 475 bis ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 21. 

Dayar or Dayal, Hind, and Beng. ; Pedda nalanchi, 8arcla-gachi, Tel. 
Zannid-pho, Lepch.; Thapate-livay, Burm. 




Fig. 30>. Head of C. saulari?. 

Coloration. Male, Head, neck, breast, and upper plumage glossy 
black ; abdomen, sides of the body, and under tail-coverts white ; 
wing black, the last two secondaries with a considerable amount of 
white on the outer webs, the lesser and median coverts and the 
outer webs of the later greater coverts also white ; the median 
two pairs of tail-feathers black, the others white, the fourth pair, 
however, varying from white with a small black tip to white with 
a greater or less amount of black in combination ; under wing- 
coverts and axillaries white, with ashy bases varying in extent. 

Female. Wings and tail dark brown, with white distributed as 
in the male ; chin, throat, breast, and sides of the neck dark grey ; 
forehead, lores, and cheeks mottled with white and grey ; the 
whole upper plumage uniform dark brown glossed with bluish ; 
sides of the body, vent, and under tail-coverts pale fulvescent ; 
middle of the abdomen whitish ; under wing-coverts white. 

The young have the crown and nape ashy brown ; upper plumage 
dark brown, streaked or barred with rufous ; wings dark brown, 
with rufous tips to the lesser coverts and broad rufous margins to 
the quills ; the white in the wing disposed as in the adult, and 
the tail brown, with the white portions similarly disposed ; throat 
and breast greyish brown tipped with rufous ; remainder of the 
lower plumage white. The adult plumage is assumed almost as 
soon as the young bird is fully fledged. 

Bill black ; mouth flesh-colour ; eyelids plumbeous ; iris hazel- 
brown ; legs dark plumbeous ; claws horn-colour. 

Length about 8 ; tail 3'6 ; wing 3-7 ; tarsus 1-15 ; bill from 
gape 1. 

Throughout its great range C. saularis is very constant in its 
type of plumage, the only variation noticeable being in the colora- 
tion of the tail and the under wing-coverts and axilhiries. 

Throughout Continental India and Burma to about Moulnirin 
most of the birds have tho fourth pair of tail-feathers, from tin 1 
outside, white with a small black tip. South of Moulmein and 



118 

throughout Tenasserim these feathers contain more black and less 
white, and in this respect approach C. musicus of Java. It is not, 
however, difficult to find birds in Ceylon and parts of India with 
these feathers almost entirely black, and consequently I do not 
think that this character can be utilized for the separation of the 
two species. 

With regard to the other point, Indian and Burmese birds 
have the under wing-coverts and axillaries almost entirely white, 
but in the southern parts of Tenasserim some birds are found 
with these parts more black than white ; but still they cannot be 
considered to be C. musicus, in which these parts are almost entirely 
black, and consequently I do not admit this latter species into the 
Indian list. 

Distribution. Occurs in almost every part of the Empire and 
Ceylon, ascending the Himalayas up to about 5000 feet ; rare in 
the extreme North-west and Sind, and probably absent from the 
Nicobars. 

Habits, fyc. A common and familiar bird wherever it occurs. 
This species has many of the habits of the common English Robin, 
being equally confiding and entering verandahs of houses without 
fear. It is a fairly good songster, feeds on the ground on insects, 
and has the habit of raising its tail perpendicularly at the end of 
its run. This bird breeds from March to July, constructing a 
rough nest in holes of trees, or walls, or in houses, and laying five 
eggs, which are greenish marked with reddish brown, and measure 
about -87 by -66. 



Genus CITTOCINCLA, Gould, 1836. 

The genus Cittocinda contains the Shamas, of which two species 
inhabit India, one being universally distributed and one confined to 
the An damans. 

This genus differs from Copsyclius in its longer tail, which con- 
siderably exceeds the wing in length. The Shamas frequent thick 
woods and tree-jungle, and feed on the ground. One species at 
least sings very well, but C. albiventris is said to have no voice. 



Key to the Species. 

a. Abdomen rufous C. macrura, p. 118. 

b. Abdomen white C. albiventris, p. 120. 

664. Cittocincla macrura. The Sliama. 

Turdus macrourus, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i, p. 820 (1788). 

Kittacincla macroura (<7m.), Blyth, Cat. p. 1G5 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. 

i, p. 279; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 116 ; Sanies, Birds J5om.'p. 197. 
Cittocincla macrura (Gm.), Legge, Birds Ceyl. -p. 437 ; Oates, J3. B. 

i, p. 22 ; id. in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii. p. 86. 



CITTOCINCLA. 119 

Cercotrichas macrurus (Gm.), Hume, N. # E. p. 300 ; id. $ Dav. 

S. J?. vi, p. :j:.J3 ; Hume, Cat. no. 470. 
Cittocincla tricolor (Vie ill.), apnd Munye, Cat. P. M. vii, p. 85. 

Shama, Hind. ; Poda nalanchi, Tonka nalanchi, Tel. 

Coloration. Male. Head and neck all round, breast, back, sca- 
pulars, and wing-coverts glossy black ; rump and upper tail-coverts 
white; the median four tail-feathers entirely black, the others 
black at the base and then white ; quills, winglet, and primary- 
coverts dull black, with a slight gloss on the outer webs only; 
abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts bright chestnut ; thighs 
white. 

Female. In the female, which resembles the male in the distri- 
bution of colours, all those parts are slaty brown which are black 
in the male ; the bright chestnut parts of the male are pale rufous 
in the female, and the quills and wing-coverts are narrowly edged 
with rufous. In other respects the sexes are alike. 

The young vary a good deal. The general colour of the upper 
plumage is dark brown, the wing-coverts and some of the feathers 
of the back tipped with rufous ; the quills margined with rufous ; 
the lower plumage is chiefly pale rufous, mottled with brown on 
the throat and breast. Young birds assume the adult plumage 
very soon after they are fully fledged. 

The coloration of this bird is very constant to type throughout 
the large area of its distribution, the only variation apparent 
being in the darker coloration of some of the females in Tenas- 
serim. 

Bill black ; legs pale flesh-colour ; claws light horn-colour ; 
mouth flesh-colour ; eyelids plumbeous ; iris dark brown. 

Length about 11 ; tail about 6; wiug3'7; tarsus 1-1 ; bill from 
gape *95 ; the female has the tail about one inch shorter than the 
male. 

Distribution. Ceylon ; the hills along the western coast of India 
from Cape Comorin to Khandala ; the Eastern Ghats, according to 
Jerclon ; Orissa ; the Central Provinces ; Chutia Nagpur ; Western 
Bengal ; the lower ranges of the Himalayas, from Nepal to Dibru- 
i^ai-h in Assam; the Khasi hills; Cachar; Tipperah ; Mauipur; 
universally distributed over the whole of Burma and Kareunee. 
The range of this common species is not well exhibited by the series 
in the Hume Collection, and it may be more widely spread over 
India proper than the above localities indicate. This bird is a 
permanent resident, and does not ascend the hills to any great 
height. 

Habits, $c. Frequents thick jungle and is very shy ; a most 
excellent songster; breeds from April to June, constructing a m-si 
of leaves and grass &c. in a hole of a tree at no great height From 
the ground, and laying four eggs, which are very similar in colour 
to those of Copsychus wmlm-ix, and measure about -85 by .62. 



120 TTJRDID^. 

665. Cittocincla albiventris. The Andaman SJiama. 

Kittacincla albiventris, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxvii, p. 269 (1858) ; Ball, 
S. F. i, p. 73; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 232 ; Walden, Ibis, 1873, p. 307, 
pi. xii, fig. 1. 

Cercotrichas albiventris (Blytli), Hume, Cat. no. 476 bis. 

Cittocincla albiventris, Blyth, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 90. 

Coloration. Both sexes are alike, or nearly so, the female merely 
differing from the male in having the chin and throat less glossy 
and they both resemble the male of C. macrura, from which they 
differ in the colour of the abdomen and vent, which is white instead 
of chestnut. The under tail-coverts and flanks are pale ferru- 
ginous. The tail is much shorter. 

The nestling bird is dark brown, spotted with ferruginous ; the 
wings are margined with the same, and the coverts spotted. 

Legs and feet pale fleshy ; bill black (Hume). 

Length about 9 ; tail about 5 ; wing 3*6 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from 
gape 1. The female has usually a shorter tail. 

Distribution. The Andamans. 



Subfamily TURBINE. 

The Turdince comprise the true Thrushes. These differ chiefly 
from the Saxicolinw and Ruticillince in being of larger size, in 
having a greater tendency to be gregarious, and in being less 
dependent on insects for their food berries forming a considerable 
portion of their diet during winter. 

The Thrushes are mostly migratory ; some few are resident, and 
when this is the case they are generally confined to limited areas. 
The majority undergo a seasonal change of plumage through 
the margins of the feathers dropping off ; but these changes are 
never very striking, and frequently hardly appreciable. The 
Thrushes feed a great deal on the ground, and their long tarsi 
enable them to hop with great facility ; they are good songsters ; 
they mostly build cup-shaped nests in trees, and they lay spotted 
eggs. 

The Turdinas resemble each other closely in structure, and it is 
by no means easy to divide them into genera. I have had recourse 
to the type of coloration in subdividing them, and I have found the 
colour of the under wing-coverts arid axillaries of considerable 
importance in classification. 

The young of the Thrushes are greatly spotted, and they acquire 
the adult plumage at the first autumn moult. I have not attempted 
to describe the young of each species, as, from the nature of the 
coloration, the descriptions, to be of any utility, must of necessity 
be somewhat lengthy, and space does not permit of this ; and it 
may be doubted if any description of young Thrushes, however 
ehborate, would enable the student to identify the species. 



Kc>i to the Genera. 

a. Bill narrow ; breadth at forehead not more 

than half length of culmen ; rictal bristles 
well developed. 
'. Sexes different in coloration. 

a". Axillaries and under wing-coverts in 
both sexes uniformly of one colour or 
very nearly so ; lower plumage never 
blue nor chestnut combined with black 

or blue MKBULA, p. 121. 

//'. Axillaries and under wing-coverts in 
both sexes of two colours in strong 
contrast ; arrangement of colours in 
axillavies transposed in under wing- 
coverts GEOCICHLA, p. 130 

c". Axillaries and under wing-coverts in 
males of one colour, in females more 
or less barred with two colours ; lower 
plumage of males wholly blue, or chest- 
nut combined with blue or black, in 
females squamated. 
a'". Tail very much longer than half 

wing PETBOPHILA, p. 142. 

It" . Tail about equal to half wing MONTICOLA, p. 147. 

I'. Sexes alike in coloration. 

d' 1 . Axillaries and under wing-coverts en- 
tirely of one colour TURDUS, p. 148. 

e. Axillaries and tinder wing-coverts of 
two colours ; arrangement of colours 
in axillaries transposed in under wing- 
coverts. 

c'". Lower plumage distinctly barred or 
spotted ; rictal bristles few and 

lateral OREOCINCLA, p. 151. 

d'". Lower plumage squamated; rictal 
bristles numerous, and anterior ones 
projecting forwards over nostrils .... ZOOTHERA, p. 156. 

b. Bill broad ; breadth at forehead more than half 

length of culmen ; rictal bristles obsolete . . COCHOA, p. ]58. 



Genus MERULA, Leach, 1816. 

I restrict this genus to those Thrushes in which the sexes are 
different in coloration and in which the under wing-coverts and 
axillaries in both sexes are uniformly of one colour or nearly so. 
The lower plumage of the Thrushes of this genus is, moreover, 
never blue, nor chestnut combined with black or blue. 

In Met-ula the bill is about half the length of the head ; the 
rictal bristles moderate ; the wing long and sharp, the first primary 
being small ; the tail rather ample, and the tarsus long. The under- 
side of the wing has no pattern. 



122 

Key to tlie Species. 

a. General colour of plumage black or brown, 

unrelieved by any distinctive marks. 

a'. Legs black or brown M. maxima, p. 123. 

b'. Legs yellow or orange. 

a". Wing quite 5 inches and generally 

more. 

a'". Lower plumage uniformly dark 
brown ; crown of male not much 

darker than back M. simillima^ p. 124. 

b'" '. Lower plumage albescent on abdo- 
men and under tail-coverts ; crown 
of male black, forming a cap con- 
spicuously darker than back M. nigripileus, p. 126. 

b". Wing about 4*5 inches, rarely reach- 
ing 5. 
c'". Upper plumage with all feathers 

margined M. kinnisi, p. 124. 

d'". Upper plumage uniform. 

a 4 . Sides of head of much the same 

colour as other parts of head .... M. bourdilloni, p. 125. 
6 4 . Sides of head rufous * M. erythrotis, p. 126. 

b. Plumage variegated. 

c'. Hind neck of different colour from back. 

c". Crown and back of same colour M. albicincta, p. 127. 

d". Crown and back of different colours . . M. castanea, p. 128. 
d'. Hind neck of same colour as back. 

e". Feathers of upper plumage variegated 

with dark central marks M.fuscata, p. 129. 

f". Feathers of upper plumage not varie- 
gated. 
e'". Tail, throat, and upper breast chiefly 

chestnut M. ruficollis, p. 130. 

f". No chestnut on tail, throat, or upper 

breast, 
c*. Wings boldly marked with a large 

patch of grey or rufous M. boulboul, p. 1 30. 

d 4 . Wings uniform. 

a 5 . Under wing- coverts and axil- 
laries wholly or in part chest- 
nut or orange-brown, 
a 6 . Sides of breast and abdomen 

grey or brown. 

a 7 . Throat and breast uni- 
formly of one colour. 

a 8 . Throat and breast black. M.atrigularis <$,"$. 131. 
b s . Throat and breast slaty 

grey M. unicolor tf , p. 132. 

b 7 . Throat and breast streaked. 
c 8 . Under wing - coverts 
orange-brown; axillaries 
rufous-grey M. atrigularis , p. 131. 

* Of M. Jcinnisi, M. bourdittoni, and M. erythrotis the series to which I 
have access is so very small and unsatisfactory that the characters for these 
three species given here may not prove to hold good in all cases. 



MERULA. 123 

d*. Under wing - coverts 
and axillaries uniformly 

chestnut-brown M. unicolor , p. 132. 

b r \ Sides of breast and abdomen 

orange-ferruginous M . protomomeltena, 

b 5 . Under wing-coverts and axil- [p. 133. 

laries slaty grey. 
c 6 . Breast and sides of abdomen 

chestnut-brown. 
c 7 . Wing 4*8 ; second primary 

longer than fifth M. obscura, p. 134. 

d 7 . Wing 5'4 ; second primary 

shorter than fifth M . subobscura, p. 135. 

d 6 . Breast and sides of abdomen 

slaty grey* M.feee, p. 135. 

666. Merula maxima. The Central-Asian Blackbird. 

Merula vulgaris ?, Jerdon, Ibis, 1872, p. 137. 
Merula vulgaris, Ray, Scully, S. F. iv, p. 139. 
Merula vulgaris, Leach, Hume, Cat. no. 359 bis. 
Merula maxima, Seebohm. Cat. B. M. v, p. 405 (1881) ; St. John, Ibis, 
1889, p. 161. 

Coloration. Male. Entirely black throughout. 

Female. Upper plumage dark slaty brown with an olive tinge ; 
tail black; wings dark brown, all the feathers edged with oliva- 
ceous ; lores dark brown, with a whitish line over them ; sides of 
the head ashy brown, the lower portion of the ear-coverts with white 
shafts ; lower plumage slaty grey, the chin, throat, and breast 
streaked with blackish ; axillaries and under wing-coverts uniform 
slaty brown. 

A young bird procured by Jerdon in Kashmir is black ; but the 
abdomen, vent, thighs, under tail-coverts, and under wing-coverts 
are barred with buff, and the feathers of the rump and upper tail- 
coverts are tipped with the same. 

The male has the bill yellow, tip of upper mandible blackish ; 
legs and feet dark brown ; claws black (Scully}. 

The female has the bill brownish black ; legs and feet blackish 
brown ; claws black (Scully}. 

Length about 11; tail 4-8 to 5'15 ; wing 5-4 to 5-9 ; tarsus 1-45 ; 
bill from gape 1*2. Scully gives the length of the tail of a female 
bird of this species as 5*6 ; but this is probably a misprint, as the 
tail of a male, as given by the same author, is only 5-15. 

This species differs from its European ally in being much larger, 
the wing in Merula vulyaris being seldom more than 5 inches and 
the tail 4*5 inches. 

* M. kcssleri, Prjev., was obtained by Mandelli in Tibet (S. F. v, p. 484), not 
far from the Sikhim frontier. In the male the abdomen and Hanks are deep 
chestnut, in tin- female dull chest nut-brown ; in both sexes the rump is dull 
rufous, the wings and tail nearly black ; tin- head and breast in the male are 
black or dark brown, in the female paler and streaked on the throat. Wing 
5-7 ; tail 4-7. 



124 TURDIDJE. 

Distribution. I have examined specimens of this Blackbird from 
Kashmir, Kandahar, Bala Murghab, Tashkent!, and Yarkand. It: 
meets M. vulgarism Persia, and both species occur in that country. 

Habits, fyc. According to Scully, this bird is said not to be 
uncommon during the winter near Kashgarh and Yarkand. It 
seemed to keep principally among Elezgnus trees and thorn-bushes 
in the vicinity of unfrozen bits of water. It migrated northwards 
in spring. St. John states that it is common about Kandahar. 

667. Merula simillima. The Nilgiri Blackbird. 

Turd us simillimus, Jerd. Madr. Journ. L. 8. x, p. 253 (1839). 

Merula simillima (Jerd.), Blyth, Cat. p. 162 ; Horsf. # M. Cat. i, 
p. 401 ; Jerd. B. 1. i, p. 524 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 232 ; Fairbank, 
S. F. v, p. 403 ; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 2ol ; Hume, Cat. 
no. 360 ; Gates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 88. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, and nape black ; the whole 
upper plumage and the outer webs of the feathers of the wings and 
tail dark ashy brown ; the whole lower plumage, axillaries, and 
under wing-coverts dark brown, the feathers indistinctly edged 
paler. 

Female. The whole upper plumage, including the forehead, crown, 
and nape, dark ashy brown ; the whole lower plumage, including 
the axillaries and under wing-coverts, brownish grey, some of the 
feathers of the abdomen with whitish shafts ; chin and throat 
streaked with dark brown. 

Iris brown ; bill reddish orange ; orbital skin and eyelids 
yellow; legs orange-yellow (Wardlaiv Ramsay}. 

Length about 10-5 ; tail 4-2 ; wing 5 to 5-2 ; tarsus 1-25 ; bill 
from gape 1*2. 

Distribution. A resident on the higher portions of the Nilgiri 
hills, the Brahmagiris in Coorg, and the Palni hills. 

Habits, fyc. Frequents dense woods, occasionally entering 
gardens. Breeds from March to May, constructing a massive 
cup-shaped nest of ferns, grass, moss, and roots, more or less 
plastered together with mud, in a branch of a tree up to 20 feet 
from the ground. The eggs, usually four or five in number, are 
greenish marked with brownish red, and measure about 1/17 
by -86. 

668. Merula kinnisi. The Ceylon Blackbird. 

Merula kinnisii, Kelaart, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xx, p. 177 (1851) ; id. 

Ibis, 1867, p. 304; Hume, Cat. no. 360 his ; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. 

v, p. 252 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 90. 
Turd us kinnisi (Blyth), Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 449. 

Coloration. Male. Upper plumage black, each feather with a 
bluish-grey margin at all seasons apparently ; quills and wing- 
coverts black, with similar margins ; tail black, the feathers with 
narrow and less distinct bluish-grey margins ; lower plumage 
slaty brown, each feather with a pale margin. 



.MI: HULA. 125 

Female. The small series of this bird iii the British Museum 
appears to consist entirely of males. Legge thus describes the 
female : Above dark bluish slate, pervaded with brownish on the 
head, the margins of all the feathers black ; outer webs of pri- 
maries and secondaries washed with brownish slaty ; tail blackish 
brown ; beneath slaty washed with earthy brown, the feathers of 
the abdomen sometimes with light shaft-streaks ; under wing- 
coverts edged with earthy brown. 

In the male the iris is pale brown ; eyelid and bill orange-yellow ; 
legs and feet paler yellow than the bill ; claws yellowish horny. In 
the female the bill is yellowish orange ; eyelid yellow ; legs and 
feet pale yellow (Leyye). 

Length about 9-5 ; tail 3'6 to 4 ; wing 4-3 to 4-5 ; tarsus 1*3 ; 
bill from gape 1*2. 

This species differs from M. maxima in being very much smaller 
and in having yellow feet ; from M. simillima in being smaller and 
blacker ; from. M. bourdilloni also in being smaller, and in having 
the feathers of the upper plumage margined with bluish grey ; and 
from M. erythrotis in having the whole head black or brown. 

Distribution. A resident in the forests of Ceylon above 2500 feet 
elevation. Breeds from April to June, constructing a cup-shaped 
nest in trees, and laying four eggs, which are pale green marked 
with reddish-brown and umber, and measure about 1'05 by '82. 



669. Merula bourdilloni. Bourdillon's Blackbird. 

Merula kinnisi (Kelaart), apud Hume, S. F. vii, p. 35 ; Terry, S. F. 

x, p. 474. 
Merula bourdilloui, Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 251, pi. xv (1881) ; 

Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 91. 

Coloration. Male. The whole upper plumage deep black ; tail 
black ; wings black, the outer webs of the feathers suffused with 
slaty grey ; the whole lower plumage blackish brown. 

Female. The only bird of this sex that I have seen has the whole 
upper plumage dark brown tinged with olivaceous, the chin and 
throat whity brown, and the lower plumage fulvous ashy. 

In the male the bill, legs, feet, and claws bright orange-red ; iris 
dark brown (Hume Coll.). 

Length about 9'5 ; tail 3'6 to 4 ; wing 4'6 to 5 ; tarsus 1'25 ; 
bill from gape 1/2. 

This species, long accepted as M. Icinnisi, differs from that species 
in being larger and in having the upper plumage (in the males) deep 
black without slaty margins. The legs would also appear to be of 
a different colour, judging from the recorded colours above. I have 
not been able to compare females of the two species together. 

Distribution. The hills of Southern Travancore, extending north 
to the Palnis. This species does not appear to be found below 
3000 feet. 

Habits, $c. Breeds on the Palnis in May and June. The nest 



126 TURBID^E. 

and eggs resemble those of M. simillima, but the size of the eggs 
has not been recorded. 



670. Merula erythrotis. Davison's BlackUrd. 
Merula erythrotis, Davison, Ibis, 1886, p. 205. 

Coloration. The type of this species, the only specimen I have 
seen, is in the British Museum. It appears to be a female, and 
resembles the only female of M. bourdilloni contained in the same 
collection in general appearance. It differs, however, in having a 
supercilium, the lores, the sides of the head, cheeks, and chin 
rufous-brown. 

Davison discovered this specimen, with another similar to it, in 
the Museum of Trivandrum in Travancore, and they are thought 
to have been obtained in the Palghat hills in Travancore. Davison 
remarks on the triangular bare patch of skin behind the eye in this 
species, but this patch is present, in a more or less distinct form, in 
all Thrushes, and forms no character of any value. 

Length about 10 ; tail 4*1 ; wing 4*8 ; tarsus 1'2 ; bill from 
gape 1-2. 

Distribution. Probably the Palghat hills in Travancore. 

671. Merula nigripileus. The Black-capped Blackbird. 

Turdus (Merula) nigropileus, Lqfresnaye, Delessert, Voy. de TInde, 
pt. ii, p. 27 (1843) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 162 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 523 ; 
Butler, S. F. iii, p. 470 ; Hume, Cat. no. 359 ; Vidal, 8. F. ix, p. 63 ; 
Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 250 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 173 ; Gates 
in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 91. 

Kasturi, Hind. ; Poda palisa, Tel. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, nape, and sides of head 
black, paling on the lower portion of the ear-coverts ; hind neck, 
mantle, sides of the neck, and the whole lower plumage brownish 
grey, inf uscated on the throat and suffused with ashy on the 
flanks ; the under tail-coverts whitish along the shafts ; lower 
back, scapulars, rump, the wings, and tail dark ashy ; axillaries 
and under wing-coverts ashy. 

Female. Whole upper plumage brown, tinged with ashy on the 
rump ; wings and tail with the outer webs of the feathers suffused 
with ashy ; ear- coverts with pale shafts ; chin and throat dull 
greyish white, streaked with brown ; breast, upper abdomen, and 
flanks brownish grey ; lower abdomen dull whitish ; under tail- 
coverts whitish, broadly edged with ashy brown ; axillaries and 
under wing-coverts brownish grey like the breast. 

In the male the legs and feet are dirty straw-colour; iris dark 
brownish red ; bill dirty orange : in the female the legs and feet 
are dark straw-colour; bill dark orange (Hume}. 

Length about 10*5; tail 4; wing 5'1 ; tarsus 1'2 ; bill from 
gape 1*2. 



MEEULA. 127 

The male of this species cannot be confounded with any other 
Blackbird, but the female resembles the females of the other 
species somewhat in colour and M. simillima in size. From this 
latter she may generally be recognized by the whitish abdomen. 

Distribution. The western parts of India from the Nilgiris and 
Mysore up to Mount Abu. This species extends into the interior 
of the peninsula, and has been recorded from Chikalda, Raipur, 
and Sambalpur. It appears to be a summer visitor only to the 
extreme northern portions of its range, but to be resident else- 
where. 

//?>its, $e. Breeds throughout its limits from May to July, con- 
structing a nest of twigs and grass mixed with earth and moss, 
and laying three eggs, which are greenish marked with brownish 
red and purple, and measure about 1*08 by *82. 

672. Merula albicincta. The WhiU-eoUartd Ouzel. 

Turdus albocinctus, Royle, El. Bot. Himal. fyc. pp. Ixxvii, Ixxviii 

(1839). 

Turdus albicollis, op. cit. pi. viii, tig. 3. 
Merula nivicollis, Hodgs. Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 83 (1844). 
Merula albocincta (Royle), Blyth, Cat. p. 162 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, 

p. 107 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 526 ; Stoh'czka, J. A. 8. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, 

p. 35 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 49; Hume, Cat. no. 362 ; 

>SVv/%, S. F. viii, p. 285 ; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 245 ; Oates in 

Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 92. 

Kundoo kastura, Hind. 

Coloration. Male. Entire plumage black, except the hind neck, 
upper back, sides of neck, chin, throat, and upper breast, which 
are white and form a broad collar ; the chin and throat frequently 
streaked with brown ; under tail-coverts with white shafts. 

Female. Forehead, crown, nape, and sides of the head rufous- 
brown ; the white parts in the male replaced by dull ashy ; lesser 
\ving-coverts, scapulars, back, rump, and upper tail-coverts rufous- 
brown ; wings and tail dark brown tinged with olivaceous ; breast, 
under wing-coverts, and axillaries rufous, gradually becoming darker 
and blacker on the remainder of the lower plumage, many of the 
feathers of which are fringed with light rufous; under tail-coverts 
with white shafts. 

The nestling exhibits no indication of the white collar till the 
autumn moult. 

Bill yellow, dusky at extreme tip ; iris deep brown ; tarsi and 
toes buffy yellow ; claws brown-horny (Scully). 

Length about 11; tail 4*4; wing 5%5 ; tarsus 1/3; bill from 
gape 1-3. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Eastern Kashmir to Sikhim. 
In the summer this species is found up to 13,000 feet, and in 
winter down to 7000 feet. Godwin-Austen procured this Ouzel 
at Remta in Manipur. 

Habits, fyc. Found singly or in pairs. Breeds in May. The 



J 28 TUED1D.E. 

nest has not been described, but the eggs are said to be greyish 
white marked with reddish brown, and to measure about l"2 
by -85. 



673. Merula castanea. The Grey-headed Ouzel. 

Merula castanea, Gould, P. Z. 8. 1835, p. 185 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 102 ; 
Horsf. 8f M. Cat. i, p. 197 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 526 j Cock & Marshall, 
S. F. i, p. 354 ; Godiv.-Aust. J. A. 8. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 268 ; 
Hume, N. $ E. p. 235 ; id. Cat. no. 363 ; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, 
p. 259 ; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 93. 

Lai kastura, Hind. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, nape, and sides of the head 
dark grey ; chin, throat, and neck all round pale greyish white ; 
upper back dark chestnut ; lower back, scapulars, rump, and upper 
tail-coverts bright chestnut ; wings and tail black ; lower plumage 
chestnut, the middle of the abdomen whitish ; under tail-coverts 
black, with mesial white streaks and fulvous margins near the tip 
of the feathers ; axillaries and under wing-coverts chestnut-brown. 

Female. Resembles the male in general pattern of colour, but 
the head and neck are a darker grey, the chestnut of the upper and 
lower parts is paler, and the wings and tail are brown ; the under 
tail-coverts are brown instead of black, but marked in the same 
manner as in the male. 

Bill, orbits, and legs yellow; iris brown (Jerdori); legs dull 
yellow, iris dark brown (Godw.-Aust.). 

Length about 11; tail 4-3; wing 5'3 ; tarsus 1*3; bill from 
gape 1-2. 

This species and M. albicincta w r ere at one time thought to be 
the same, but no one now doubts their distinctness from each 
other. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Murree to Sikhim. Godwin- 
Austen procured this species in the Tura range, Garo hills. 
Griffith appears to have obtained it in Assam. This Ouzel, accord- 
ing to Stoliczka (J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 35), comes to Kotgarh 
in the winter, and probably lives during the summer months in 
Central Asia and Eastern Tibet. This distribution has not, how- 
ever, been confirmed, and the nest of this species has been found 
at Kotgarh and Murree, showing that some birds at least remain 
in the Himalayas during the summer and at comparatively low 
levels. 

HaHttySfC. Associates in flocks (during the winter ?) according 
to Hutton. This species appears to construct its nest in banks, 
making it of moss and fern-leaves with a little earth, and lining it 
with grass. The eggs are pale green marked with brownish red 
and pinkish purple, and measure about 1*2 by *85. 



MKUFLA. 120 

674. Merula fuscata. The Dusky Ouzel. 

Turdus i'uscatus, Pall. Zooyr. Rosso-Asiaf. i, p. 4-51, pi. xii (1811). 
1'lunesticus fuscatus (Pott.), Jerd. B. I. i, p. 530 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. 

S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 159, xlv, pt. ii, p. 72. 
Turdus dubius, Bcchst. apud Hume, Cat. no. 3C6. 
Merula fuscata (Pall.}, Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 202. 

The Dusky Thrush, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the forehead, crown, 
and nape are black, with narrow grey margins; the remaining 
upper plumage black, with broad rufous-grey margins, the rufous 
increasing in intensity towards the tail ; wing-coverts and quills 
blackish, each feather margined exteriorly with dull chestnut; tail 
black, very narrowly edged with rufous ; a distinct pale buff super- 
cilium from the nostril to the nape ; lores and ear-coverts black ; 
chin, throat, upper breast, and sides of the head and neck pale buff, 
with a few brown marks ; lower breast and sides of the body black, 
the former with narrow, the latter with broad, white margins ; 
abdomen white ; under tail-coverts brown, broadly edged with 
white ; axillaries and under wing-coverts dull chestnut. 

Female. Differs from the male in having the dark portions of 
the upper plumage brown, in having the chin and throat much 
spotted with black, and in having the black on the lower breast 
much less in extent. 

In the spring the margins on the upper plumage disappear, and 
these parts become nearly uniform black or brown. Some birds 
from Siberia, however, exhibit a large amount of rufous on the 
upper plumage even in the height of summer, the black or brown 
parts becoming very worn and faded. 

Young birds after the first autumn moult have the black centres 
to the feathers of the upper plumage smaller than in adults, the 
chin and throat very much streaked and spotted and less black on 
the lower parts. 

Iris dark brown ; bill horny brown, yellowish towards the base 
of the lower mandible; legs light brown (Wardlaiv-Ramsay} ; iris 
dark brown, bill black above, dull yellow below, legs dull brown 
(Godw.-Aust.). 

Length about 9'5 ; tail 3-5 ; wing 5 ; tarsus 1*25 ; bill from 
gape 1. 

Distribution. A rare winter visitor to the north-eastern portion 
of the Empire. Hodgson procured this species in Nepal ; Godwin- 
Austen at Harmutti in the Daphla hills in Assam and on the peak 
of Japvo, the highest point of the Burrail range, at 10,000 feet ; 
Hume at Shillong and Dibrugarh in Assam, and AVardhuv-!v;imsay 
at Toungngoo in Burma. A specimen in the Hume Collection 
from the Bhutan Doars, referred to this species, appears to me to 
be M. atriyularis in immature plumage. 

This Ouzel summers in the eastern portion of Siberia, and is 
found in winter in Japan and China. Occasionally it wanders 
into Europe. 

VOL. II. K 



130 TTTRDID^. 

675. Merula ruficollis. The Red-throated Ouzel. 

Turdus ruficollis, Pall. Reis. Russ. Reichs. iii, p. 694 (1776) ; Blyth* 
Cat. p. 161 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 194 ; Hume, Cat. no. 364 ; 
Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 53 ; Hume, 8. F. ix, p. 318, xi, p. 129. 

Planesticus ruficollis (Pall.}, Jerd. B. I. i, p. 528 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. 
S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 102. 

Merula ruficollis (Pall.), Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 269. 

Turdus hyemalis (Dyboivski), apud Biddulph, Ibis, 1882, p. 271. 

The Red-tailed Thrush, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. The whole upper plumage ashy brown, the 
shafts of the feathers of the crown dark ; wings dark brown, the 
outer webs suffused with ashy brown ; tail chestnut, the terminal 
half or third of the middle pair of feathers brown, the others suc- 
cessively with less black at the tip ; a narrow pale chestnut super- 
cilium ; lores and ear-coverts ashy brown ; cheeks, chin, throat, 
breast, and sides of the neck chestnut, the feathers of these parts 
immediately after the autumn moult very narrowly margined with 
white, and all but the very oldest birds with a row of black spots 
down each side of the throat ; remaining lower plumage white, the 
sides of the body mottled with brown ; under tail-coverts chestnut 
at base ; axillaries and under wing-coverts orange-brown. 

Female. Eesembles the male, but has the chestnut of the lower 
parts much paler, and the breast spotted with black. In very old 
females, however, these spots disappear, and the sexes are then 
very closely alike. 

Tarsi greyish fleshy ; feet fleshy brown ; upper mandible and tip 
of lower brown, rest of lower mandible, gape, and margins of 
upper mandible, except at tip, dull yellow ; iris hazel (Hume}. 

Length about 10 ; tail 4 ; wing 5'4 ; tarsus 1-3 ; bill from 
gape ri. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the Himalayas from Kashmir to 
Assam. This species has also been observed in winter at G-oalpara 
in Assam, Sylhet, Cachar, the Khasi hills, and Mauipur. 

In winter this Ouzel occurs on the west in Afghanistan, and on 
the east in China. It summers in Siberia and Central Asia. 



676. Merula boulboul. The Grey-winged Ouzel. 

Lanius boulboul, Lath. Ind. Orn. i, p. 80 (1790). 

Turdus pcecilopterus, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 54 j Gould, Cent. 
pi. xiv. 

Merula boulboul (Lath}, Blyth, Cat. p. 162 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, 
p. 196 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 525 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, 
p. 35 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 234 ; id. Cat. no. 361 ; Scully, S. F. viii, 
p. 285 ; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 248 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 128 ; 
Gates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 93. 

The Grey-winged Blackbird, Jerd. ; Kasturi, Hind. ; Patariya masaicha, 
Beng. ; Phoyiong pho, Lepch. ; Chomam, Bhut. 

Coloration. Male. The whole upper plumage, wings and tail, 



MERULA. 131 

the whole head, neck, and breast deep glossy black, except the tips 
of the median coverts, the outer webs of the greater coverts and 
tertiaries, and the margins of the outer webs of the later secon- 
daries, which are silvery ashy grey with a tinge of vinaceous ; 
lower plumage from the breast downwards, the axillaries, and 
under wing-coverts dull black, each feather narrowly margined 
with whitish. 




Fig. 37. Head of M. boulboul. 

Female. Brownish ashy throughout with an olivaceous tinge, the 
marks on the wings, which are similar to those of the male in 
shape and disposition, being pale rufous. 

In the male the legs and feet are brownish in front, yellow 
behind ; bill coral-red, tip black ; iris brown ; edges of eyelids 
orange-yellow (Hume Coll.) : in the female the iris is hazel-red ; 
bill orange, horny at tip ; legs burnt sienna (Cockburn). 

Length about 11-5 ; tail 4-5 ; wing 5*7 ; tarsus 1'3 ; bill from 
gape 1-25. 

Distribution. A resident on the Himalayas from their bases up 
to 8000 feet, the range varying according to season. This Ouzel 
occurs from Murree to Sikhim ; it has also been obtained in the 
Bhutan Doars, the Khasi hills, Cachar, and Manipur. 

Habits, &fc. This Ouzel builds its nest sometimes on the ground 
in the hollow of a massive root or fallen trunk, and some- 
times, more frequently perhaps, on a ledge of rock or on the 
extremity of a thick branch, where it has been cut or broken off. 
The nest is constructed of moss and leaves, and little or no mud is 
used in the structure. The breeding-season lasts from April to 
August. The eggs, four in number, are dingy green thickly marked 
with reddish brown, and measure about 1*2 by '87. 

677. Merula atrigularis. The Black-throated Ouzel. 

Turdus atrogularis, Temm.Man.tfOrn. ed.2, i, p. 169, pi. (1820); M/th, 
Cat. p. 101 ; Horsf. Sf M. Cat. i, p. 195 ; Hume, Cat. no. 80o. 

Planesticus atrogularis (jPewiw.), Jerd. B. I. i, p. 529; Stoliczka, 
J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 35 ; Hume $ Henders. Lah. to Yark. 
p. 192 ; Scully, S. F. iv, p. 140, viii, p. 286. 

Cichloides atrogularis (Temm.), Hume, 8. F. i, p. 179. 

&2 



182 TTJRDID^. 

Merula atrigularis (Temm.), Barnes, Birds 'Bom. p. 173; Seebohm, 
Cat. S. M. v, p. 267. 

The Black-throated Thrush, Jerd. ; Mach-reycha, Beng. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the lores, cheeks, 
chin, throat, breast, and sides of the neck are black, each feather 
with a broad white margin ; rest of the underparts white, the sides 
of the body with ashy streaks ; under wing-coverts dull orange- 
brown ; axillaries rufous-grey; under tail-coverts dark brown tipped 
with white ; ear-coverts, the whole upper plumage, and the visible 
portions of the closed wings and tail greyish brown, the feathers 
of the crown centred with dark brown. Soon after the moult the 
white margins of the head, neck, and breast become reduced in 
width, and are altogether lost by summer, causing the parts to 
appear uniformly black. 

Female. Sides of the head and neck greyish brown like the upper 
plumage ; chin and throat whitish streaked with dark brown ; 
breast ashy brown spotted with black ; otherwise as the male. 

Legs and feet greyish brown ; bill blackish brown, dusky yellow 
at base of lower mandible ; iris blackish brown {Butler}. 

Length about 10 ; tail 3*8 ; wing 5'2 ; tarsus 1*3 ; bill from 
gape 1. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the Himalayas and the plains 
of Upper India. This species extends throughout the Himalayas 
from Hazara to Assam. In the plains it is found as far south as 
Karachi, Cutch, Delhi, and Dacca. Erom Assam it ranges south 
through the hill-tracts to Manipur. 

Jerdon speaks of this Ouzel as inhabiting the higher ranges of 
the Himalayas in summer. This statement has received no confir- 
mation since he made it ; but it is not improbably correct, as I have 
seen a specimen killed at Simla on the 14th August and one killed 
in Kashmir in May. The bulk of these Ouzels, however, if not 
all, retire north to Siberia to breed. In winter they are found in 
Central Asia and Afghanistan, but not to the east of Assam. 

678. Merula unicolor. TickelTs Ouzel. 

Turdus unicolor, Tick. J. A. S. B. ii, p. 577 (1833). 
Petrocincla homochroa, Hodgs. in Grays Zool. Misc. p. 83 (1844). 
Turdus dissimilis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 144, part. (1847). 
Geocichla dissimilis, Blyth, Cat. p. 163 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 101. 
Geocichla unicolor (Tick.), Blyth, Cat. p. 163; Jerd, B. I. i, p. 519; 

Hume $ Renders. Lah. to Yark. p. 192 ; Hume, N. 8f E. p. 230; 

Ball, S. F. ii, p. 408, vii, p. 213 ; Hume, Cat. no. 356 ; Scully, S. F. 

viii, p. 283 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 171. 
Merula unicolor (Tick.), Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 271 ; Oates in 

Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 96. 

The Dusky Ground-Thrush, Jerd. ; Desi pawai, Hind. ; Machasah, 
Beng. ; Poda paliaa, Tel. 

Coloration. Male. The upper plumage, sides of head and neck, 
and the visible portions of the closed wings and tail ashy grey ; 



MERIT LA. 133 

lower plumage slaty grey, paler on the chin and becoming white 
on the abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts ; auxiliaries ashy grey, 
generally tinged with buff ; under wing-coverts chestnut-brown. 

Female. Upper plumage and sides of neck olive-brown ; wings 
and tail dark brown, the outer webs suffused with olive-brown ; 
lores blackish with a pale band above ; sides of the head mixed 
brown and fulvous ; chin and throat white, the sides streaked with 
black ; breast olivaceous, the upper part spotted with black ; sides 
of the body pale ochraceous ; abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts 
white; axillaries and under wing-coverts chestnut-brown. 

In the male the iris is reddish, legs and feet light brownish 
(Hwne Coll.} ; in the female the bill is yellow with a few dusky 
cloudings ; iris brown ; eyelid greenish yellow ; feet vivid orange- 
yellow ; claws yellowish horny (Scully). 

Length about 9 ; tail 3-4 ; wing 4'7 ; tarsus 1-2 ; bill from 
gape 1-1. 

Distribution. Found in summer throughout the Himalayas from 
Murree to Sikhim up to about 7000 feet. In the winter this species 
occurs throughout the plains of Northern India from Sincl to Bengal. 
So far as is known it extends at this season to Khandala, Raipur, 
and Orissa, and Jerdon records it even from the Eastern Ghats, 
a specimen from this latter locality being no win the British Museum. 
An Ouzel obtained at Belgaum in March, now in the Hume Col- 
lection, and referred to M. unicolor, is undoubtedly a specimen of 
M. obscura. 

Habits, $c. Breeds in the Himalayas in May and June, con- 
structing a nest of moss and fibres in trees. The eggs, three or 
four in number, are greenish white, spotted and freckled with rufous 
and measure 1/06 by '78. 



679. Merula protomomelaena. The Black-busted Ouzel. 

Turdus dissimilis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 144, rf (1847) ; Godw.- 
Aust. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii,p. 142; Seebohm, S. F. viii,_p. 437. 

Geocichla dissimilis (Blyth), Blyth, Cat. p. 163, rf; Jerd. Ibis, 1872, 
p. 136, pi. vii ; Hume, Cat. no. 358 ; id. 8. F. ix, p. 103, xi, p. 126. 

Turdulus cardis (Temrn.), apud Jerd. B. I. i, p. 521. 

Turdus protomomelas, Cabanis, Journ.f. Orn. 1867, p. 286. 

Geocichla tricolor, Hume, Ibis, 1871, p. 411 ; id. S. F. iii, jp. 409. 

Merula protomomelrena (Cab.), Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 265. 

The Variable Pied Blackbird, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. The whole head, neck, and upper breast black ; 
upper plumage, wings, and tail dark slate-colour ; sides of the 
lower breast, sides of the body, axillaries, and under wing-coverts 
bright orange-ferruginous ; middle of lower breast, abdomen, vent, 
and under tail-coverts white. 

Younger males have the upper wing-coverts tipped with rufous 
and some black spots on the red of the lower parts of the plumage. 

Female. The whole upper plumage olive-brown tinged with slaty ; 
wings and tail brown, suffused with olive on the outer webs ; sides 



1 34 TUKDIDjE. 

of the head ashy brown, the shafts of the ear-coverts whitish ; 
chin and upper throat white streaked with brown, the streaks in- 
creasing in number at the sides ; upper breast olivaceous, spotted 
with black ; middle of lower breast, abdomen, vent, ,and under 
tail-coverts white ; sides of breast, sides of body," axillaries, and 
under wing-coverts bright orange-ferruginous. 

In the male the bill and orbital skin are yellow ; iris deep brown ; 
legs and feet dusky orange-yellow (Cripps}. In the female the 
legs, feet, bill, and eyelids are wax-yellow (flume) ; iris deep brown 
(Scully). 

Length about 9; tail 3-3; wing 4-7; tarsus 1-3; bill from 
gape 1-1. 

The synonymy of M. protomomelcena has been determined entirely 
by a careful perusal of the various original descriptions of the bird, 
which fortunately are sufficiently in detail to render the identification 
certain. Judging from Hume's remarks (S. E. ix, p. 103), any appeal 
to Blyth's types in the Indian Museum on this point must prove 
useless if not misleading. Blyth applied the name Turdus dissimilis 
to specimens of both j$f. unicolor ai\dM.^)rotomomelcena, confounding 
the two together, and consequently it is advisable to discard this 
name. 

Distribution. I have examined specimens of this Ouzel from 
Dibrugarh in Assam, the Tipperah hills and Manipur. Blyth 
appears to have procured it from the neighbourhood of Calcutta, 
and I know of no other locality for this species, which is probably 
a constant resident in the above-mentioned places. 

Scully (S. E. viii, p. 284) records a specimen of this Ouzel from 
Nepal, but judging from his description, in which a supercilium is 
mentioned, and the sides of the breast and flanks are referred to 
as ferruginous, there can be little doubt that the bird was M. obscura, 
which Hodgson procured in Nepal, one of his specimens being now 
in the British Museum. 

680. Merula obscura. TJw Dark Ouzel. 

Turdus ohscurus, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i ; p. 816 ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, 
p. 251 ; Hume, Cat. no. 369 his ; id. S. F. xi, p. 130. 

Turdus pallens, Pall. Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat. i, p. 457 (1811). 

Turdus rufulus, Drap. Diet. Class. (THist. Nat. x, p. 443 (1826) ; 
Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 401. 

Turdus modestus, Eyton, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 103. 

Turdus javanicus?, Horsf., Blyth, Cat. p. 161. 

Geocichla dissimilis (Blyth}, Scully, S. F. viii, p. 284, 

Merula obscura (Gm.), Seebohm, Cat B. M. v, p. 273 ; Oates, B. B. 
i, j). 1. 

Geocichla unicolor (Tick.}, apud Butler, S. F. ix, p. 399. 

Coloration. Male. Upper plumage olive-brown : the forehead, 
crown, and nape in old birds tinged with ashy ; lores black ; a broad 
white supercilium from the lores to the nape ; chin, a patch at base 
of bill, and under the eye white ; ear-coverts and the whole throat 
dark slaty brown ; breast and sides of the body chestnut-brown ; 



MERULA. 135 

abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts white, the last basally mar- 
gined with brown ; wings and tail brown, suffused with olive on 
the outer webs ; axillaries and under wing-coverts slaty grey. 

Female. Resembles the male in general coloration, but has the 
crown always of the same colour as the upper plumage ; the lores 
and ear-coverts pale, the latter with whitish shafts ; the middle of 
the chin and throat white with a few minute brown streaks. 

Iris olive-brown ; eyelids greenish ; upper mandible dark brown ; 
lower mandible and gape yellow ; inside of mouth yellow ; legs 
yellowish brown ; claws horn-colour. 

Length nearly 9; tail 3-5; wing 4-8; tarsus 1-2; bill from 
gape 1-1. 

Distribution. A winter visitor, more or less abundant, to the 
whole of Burma, the Andamans, Manipur, Shillong, Sikhim, and 
Nepal. An occasional straggler visits the plains of India, and in 
the Hume Collection there is a specimen procured at Belgaum in 
March. In the winter this species extends to China and to the 
Malay peninsula and islands, and it summers in Siberia. 

681. Merula subobscnra. Salvador's Ouzel. 

Merula subobscura. Salvador!. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) i, p. 413 
(1889). 

Coloration. Similar to Merula obscura but larger, with the white 
superciliary band less conspicuous, the sides of the body paler 
ochraceous, and the proportion of the primaries different. 

The type of this species, the only specimen known, was procured 
by Mr. 1'ea at Taho in the Karen hills, north-east of Toungngoo, 
in March. It is an adult male. 

The measurements of this specimen are : length 10 ; tail 3'8 ; 
wing 5-25 ; tarsus 1'2; bill from gape 1. 

The third and fourth primaries are subeqnal and longest ; the 
second shorter than the fifth and longer than the sixth. In 
M. olscura the third primary is the longest, the fourth is rather 
shorter than the third, and the second is between the fourth and 
fifth. 

I have examined the type of this species and I have failed to 
find any example of this Thrush from Burma in the British Museum 
series. 

682. Merula feae. Feet's Ouzel. 

Turdus chrysolaus, Temm., apud Godiv.-Aust. J. A. 8. B. xxxix, 

pt. ii, p. 102, xli, pt. ii, p. 143. 
Turdulus pallens (rail.}, apud Godw.-Amt. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, 

p. 178. 
Turdus pallidus, Gmel., apud Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, 

p. 196 ; Hume $ Dav. 8. F. vi, p. 253 ; Hume, Cat. no. (}'.) tt>r : 

id. S. F. xi, p. 130. 

Merula pallida, GmeL, apud Oates, B. B. i, p. 2. 
Merula feae, Sakadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. 514 (1887), 

p. 610 (1888). 
Turdus subpallidus, Hume, S. F. xi, p. 132 (1888). 



136 

Coloration. Resembles M. olscura, but differs in the following 
respects : the breast and sides of the body in both sexes are slaty 
grey, not chestnut-brown ; the upper plumage in both sexes is 
russet-brown, not olive-brown ; the crown in the adult male is never 
darker than the other upper parts ; the sides of the head and the 
sides of the chin and throat are russet-brown, not slaty brown ; 
and in the adult male the throat itself is slaty grey, not slaty brown. 

Iris deep chocolate ; bill black ; legs pale cloudy brown ( Wardlaw 
Ramsay) ; legs and feet brownish yellow ; bill blackish brown, 
yellow at gape and on base of lower mandible ; iris brown (Hume). 

Of the same dimensions as M. obscura. 

This Ouzel resembles M. pallida, Ginelin, but may be instantly 
distinguished from that species by the presence of a supercilium, 
which is altogether absent in M. pallida. The latter inhabits 
Eastern Asia and may occasionally visit Burma. 

Distribution. Shillong and Cherra Poonjee ; Japvo peak in the 
Naga hills at 10,000 feet; Manipur; Karennee at 5000 feet; 
Muleyit mountain in Tenasserim. 

All the specimens of this species that I have examined from the 
above localities were procured in the winter months, but this Ouzel 
is not unlikely to prove a resident species in those parts. 



G-enus CKEOCICHLA, Kuhl (teste Gould), 1836. 

In the Thrushes of this genus the sexes are different and the 
under wing-coverts and axillaries are each of two colours, the 
position of the two colours on the under wing-coverts being 
transposed on the axillaries. 

From Merula this genus differs in having a somewhat blunter 
wing and shorter tail. The underside of the wing presents a 
pattern formed by the white bases of many of the quills. 

Key to the Species. 

a. No chestnut on lower plumage. 

a'. Upper tail-coverts margined with white . . G. wardi, p. 137. 
b'. No white on upper tail-coverts G. sibirica, p. 138. 

b. Lower plumage almost entirely chestnut. 

c'. Median wing-coverts broadly tipped with 
white. 

". Chin and throat white G. cyanonotus, p. 139. 

b". Chin and throat chestnut like the breast. G. citrina, p. 140. 
d\ Median wing-coverts without white tips. 

c". Chin and throat chestnut G. innotata, p. 141. 

T. Chin and throat white G. albiyularis, p. 142. 

e" Chin white, throat chestnut G. anflamanensis, 

[p. 142. 



GEOCICHLA.. 137 

683. Geocichla wardi. The Pied Ground-TJirusli. 

Turdus wardii, JenL J. A. S. B. xi, p. 882 (1842) ; id. III. Ind. Om. 

pi. viii ; Lc(/qe, Birds Ceyl. p. 453. 
Merula wardiV (Jerd.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 163 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat, i, 

p. 402. 
Turdulus wardii (Je.rd.\ Jerd. B. I. i, p. 520 ; Hume, Cat. no. 357 ; 

Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 172. 

Cichloselys wardii (Jerd.}, Hume, N. fy E. p. 231. 
Oreocincla pectoralis, Legge, S. F. iv, p. 244. 
Geocichla wardi (Jerd.}, Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 178 ; Gates in 

Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 97. 

Ward's Pied Blackbird, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. The whole head, neck, breast, upper plu- 
mage, wings, and tail black ; the lesser and median wing-coverts 
very broadly tipped with white ; the greater wing-coverts and 
quills tipped with white, except the earlier primaries, which, with 
the primary-coverts, are partially margined with white ; the rump 
and upper tail-coverts with crescentic white tips; tail with a con- 
siderable amount of white, increasing in extent from the middle 
feathers to the outer ; a w r hite supercilitnn to the nape ; abdomen, 
vent, and under tail-coverts white ; sides of the body and the 
axillaries white, each feather with a subterminal black bar ; under 
wing-coverts black tipped white. 

Female. Upper plumage and wings olive-brown, all the wing- 
coverts and tertiaries with buff tips, the outer webs of the quills 
suffused with russet, the longer feathers of the rump and upper 
tail-coverts tipped with dull white ; tail olive-brown, the portion 
next the shafts darker, the four outer pairs of feathers tipped 
white ; a broad buff supercilium to the nape ; sides of the head and 
of the throat mixed buff and black ; chin nearly plain white ; 
middle of throat and the upper breast pale huffish white, each 
feather margined with dark brown ; lower breast, upper abdomen, 
and sides of the body barred with olivaceous and suffused wit h 
ochraceous ; middle of abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts 
white. 

Iris brown; bill ochre-yellow, the tip of upper mandible black ; 
legs and feet fleshy ochre (Hume). 

Length about 8'5 ; tail 3'3 ; wing 4-5 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from 
gape 1'15. 

Distribution. Summers in the Himalayas from the Sutlej valley 
to Sikhim and the Bhutan Doars up to 6000 or 7000 feet ; \vint crs 
in Southern India and Ceylon. The chief winter-quarters of this 
species appear to be the Nilgiris and other hill-ranges down to 
Cape Comorin and Ceylon. It must necessarily occur over a great 
part of India when migrating, but it has seldom been observed at 
that period. Major Lloyd records it from the Konkan, and Jerdon 
from Nellore in the Carnatic. 

Habits, Sfc. Brooks remarks that this species has a strange song 
of two notes and quite unmusical. It breeds in the Himalayas 
from May to July, constructing a nest of moss and fibres, with or 



138 

without mud, in the branch of a tree, and lays four eggs, which are 
described as being pale green marked with purple and brownish 
red, and measuring about 1 by -72.* 

684. Greocichla sibirica. The Siberian Ground-Thrush. 

Turdus sibiricus, Pall. Reis. ~Russ. Reich, iii, p. C94 (1776) ; Hume, 

Cat. no. 369 quat. 
Oreocincla inframarginata, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxix, p. 106 (1860) ; 

Ball, S. F. i, p. 70 ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 223. 
Turdulus davisoni, Hume, S. F. v, pp. 63, 136 (1877). 
Turdulus sibericus (Pall.), Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 255, 513 ; 

Hume t S. F. xi, p. 132. 
Geocichla sibirica (Pall.), Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 180; Gates, 

B. B. i, p. 4. 

Coloration. Male. The fully adult has the whole plumage slaty 
black, the margins of the feathers paler ; the outer three pairs of 
tail-feathers narrowly tipped with white ; a broad white super- 
cilium to the nape ; the under tail-coverts tipped with white ; 
axillaries white tipped with dark ashy, and the under wing-coverts 
ashy tipped white. Males after the second autumn moult are 
bluish slaty instead of slaty black, but the middle of the abdomen 



* GEOCICHLA AVENSIS. 

Turdus avensis, Gray, Griffith's ed. Cuvier, vi, p. 530, pi. (1829). 
Geocichla avensis (Gray), Hume, 8. F. viii, p. 39 ; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, 
p. 167. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, and hind neck bright chestnut ; upper 
plumage, wings, and tail dark slaty brown, the lesser and median wing-coverts 
almost entirely white, and the greater coverts tipped with white ; lores, cheeks, 
and a portion of the ear-coverts white ; remainder of the head, throat, and 
upper breast black ; lower breast, abdomen, and sides of the body white spotted 
with black ; middle of abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts white ; axillaries 
white tipped black ; under wing-coverts black tipped white. Wing 4'2 ; tail 2'5. 
It is not known how the sexes differ. The above description probably applies 
to the male only. 

The only record of the occurrence of this species within Indian limits is the 
statement of Gray that the plate of G. avensis in his work was taken by 
Mr. Crawfurd from a specimen procured at Ava. Until this habitat is con- 
firmed, I think it preferable merely to notice this species and thus draw atten- 
tion to it. This species has never been observed in Burma again since 
Crawfurd's time. 

I have little doubt that G. avensis is the same bird as G. interpres, Kuhl. 
The two species are said to differ only in one slight respect. G. avensis has 
the greater wing-coverts plain, and G. interpres has them tipped with white ; 
but as all we know of the former bird is derived from Gray's figure, too ^much 
reliance must not be placed on this character. 

Hume received a specimen of a Thrush from the Malay peninsula (Kumbow) 
which he identified with G. avensis. On examining this specimen, which is 
now in the British Museum, I find that the greater wing-coverts are wanting 
or in part moulting, and that the new sprouting feathers of this part appear 
to be tipped with white. The specimen is by no means a good one for the 
purpose of deciding the question of the identity or difference of the two species, 
which must for the present remain unsettled. 



GEOCICHLA. 139 

is white ; and the distribution of white marks is the same as in the 
fully adult. Males after the first autumn moult are similar to 
those just described, but the centres of the feathers of the upper 
abdomen and sides of the body are white and the tips darker than 
the other parts, causing a barred appearance ; they have also a 
rufous band across the breast, the remains of the nestling plumage. 
The nestling is unknown. 

Female. The whole upper plumage, wings, and tail olive-brown 
with a slaty tinge on the rump ; the wing-coverts tipped with 
buff ; the outer webs of quills tinged with rufescent ; the outer 
tail-feathers narrowly tipped white ; an indistinct buff supercilium 
to the nape ; sides of the head mixed brown and buff ; cheeks buff 
bordered below by a dusky stripe ; chin and throat buff ; breast 
pale buff, the feathers tipped and margined with brown ; middle of 
abdomen white ; sides of the body olivaceous brown obsoletely 
barred darker; under tail-coverts white with basal brown margins ; 
axillaries white tipped olive-brown ; under wing-coverts olive- 
brown tipped white. 

Adult males have the bill black ; iris deep brown ; front of legs, 
feet, and claws greenish yellow ; back of legs dirty yellow. Females 
have the iris dark brown ; the upper mandible very dark brown ; 
the lower mandible and gape to angle of gonys dirty yellow ; legs, 
feet, and claws orange-yellow (Hume 3f Davison}. 

Length about 9 ; tail 3'6 : wing 4-8 ; tarsus I'l ; bill from 
gape 1*1. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the eastern portions of the 
Empire. This species has been obtained on Muleyit and Nwalabo 
mountains in Tenasserim ; at Toungngoo ; in Karennee ; and in 
Manipur. It has also occurred in the Andamans, a female speci- 
men from these islands having been named 0. inframaryinata by 
Blyth. In winter this bird is found from China to Java, and it 
summers in Siberia and Japan. 



685. Geocichla cyanonotus. The White-throated Ground- 
Thrush. 

Turdus cyanotus, Jard. $ Sclby, III. Orn. i, pi. xlvi (1828). 
Geocichla cyanotus (J. $ S.), Blyth, Cat. p. 163 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, 

p. 101 ; Jcrd. B. I. i, p. 517 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xxxviii, pt. ii, 

p. 179; Hume, J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 118; id. N. 8f E. 

p. 229 ; id. Cat. no. 354 ; Davison, S. F. x, JD. 374 ; Seebphm, Cat. 

B. M. v, p. 172; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 1/1 ; Oates, in Hume's 

N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 98. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, nape, hind neck and sides 
of the neck, breast, abdomen, and sides of the body golden rufous, 
the crown tinged with greenish ; vent and under tail-covert s 
white ; back, rump, upper tail-coverts, scapulars, and wing-coverts 
slaty blue; the median wing-coverts broadly tipped with white; 
quills dark brown, margined on the outer webs with pale slaty; 
tail slaty blue, the outer feathers tipped pale ; lores, cheeks, chin, 



] 40 

and throat white ; an oblique brown band from the eye down- 
wards, succeeded by a baud of white behind it running down the 
neck, and by another brown band running through the middle of 
the ear-coverts, followed again by a narrow white patch ; axillaries 
white, tipped with ashy fulvous; under wing-coverts slaty blue, 
tipped with white ; a large patch of white on the underside of the 
quills. 

Female. Differs from the male in having the back, scapulars, 
the outer webs of the secondaries, and many of the wing-coverts 
suffused with olive-green. 

Iris dark brown ; bill black ; feet fleshy ; claws dusky (Fair- 
bank}. 

Length about 8*5 ; tail 3 ; wing 4*1 ; tarsus 1*2 ; bill from 
gape 1-1. 

Distribution. The southern half of the peninsula of India, from 
about north latitude 24 to Travancore. This species appears to 
be resident or very locally migratory within the above-defined area, 
and to be found up to 4000 feet. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds from June to September, making a nest 
apparently very similar to that of G. citrina, but using mud in its 
construction. The eggs are pale bluish or greenish white marked 
with rufous, and measure about 1 by '75. 



686. Geocichla citrina. The Orange-headed Ground- 
Thrush. 

Turdus citrinus, Lath. Ind. Orn. i, p. 350 (1790). 

Geocichla citrina (Lath.), Blyth, Cat. p. 163 ; Horsf. 8f M. Cat. i, 

p. 189; Jerd. B. I. \, p. 517 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 229 ; Hume $ 

Dav. S. F. vi, p. 250 ; Hume, Cat. no. 355 ; Leyge, Birds Ceyl. 

p. 457 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 283 ; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 172 ; 

Gates, B. B. i, p. 3; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 171 ; Oates in Hume's 

N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 100. 
Geocichla layardi, Wald. A. M. N. H. (4) v, p. 416 (1870); Hume, 

S. F. iii, p. 401. 

Coloration. Male. The whole head, neck, and lower parts as 
far as the vent orange-chestnut, darker on the crown and paler 
beneath ; vent, thighs, and under tail-coverts pure white ; back, 
scapulars, rump, upper tail-coverts, and lesser wing-coverts bluish 
grey, the edges of the feathers paler ; median wing-coverts broadly 
tipped white, forming a conspicuous spot ; remaining coverts and 
the quills dark brown, edged exteriorly with bluish grey ; tail ashy 
brown indistinctly cross-barred ; axillaries white, tipped with 
grey ; under wing-coverts ashy tipped with white ; a large white 
patch on the underside of the quills. 

Female. Of a paler chestnut throughout ; the back and scapulars 
greenish brown with yellowish margins ; upper tail-coverts and 
the outer webs of the feathers of the wings and tail suffused with 
green. 

Bill very dark brown, the gape and the base of the lower mandible 



GBOCIOHLA. 141 

flesh-colour ; inside of mouth flesh-colour ; eyelids slate-colour ; 
iris dark hazel ; legs fleshy pink ; claws pink. 

Length nearly ; tail 3 ; wing 4'6 ; tarsus 1-3 ; bill from 

I'l. 

Distribution. Found in summer throughout the Himalayas from 
Murree to the extreme east of Assam up to 5000 or 6000 feet. 
At other times of the year this Thrush occurs sparingly in the 
plains of India, extending occasionally to Ceylon, but it has not 
been known to occur in the Punjab, Eajputana, Sind, or (Tiizerat, 
and it appears to be extremely rare in the west and south of the 
peninsula. This bird is more abundant to the east, being found 
throughout the whole country stretching from Assam to Tenas- 
serim, where a considerable number remain the whole year and 
breed. This species extends down the Malay peninsula as far as 
Tongkah, but does not otherwise occur outside the limits of the 
Empire. 

Habits, $'c. Breeds on the Himalayas and also in Burma from 
April to July, constructing a large nest of coarse grasses, roots, 
and fibres, in a bush or low tree, and laying three or four eggs, 
which are greenish white freckled with rufous, and measure about 
1 by -77. 

687. Geocichla innotata. The Malay Ground-Thrush. 

Geocichla innotata, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 370 (1846), xvi, p. 146 ; 
id. Cat. p. 103 ; Ball, S. F. i, p. 69 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 250 ; 
Hume, S. F. viii, p. CO ; id. Cat. no. 355 ter ; Scebohm, S. F. ix, 
p. 99 ; id. Cat. B. M. v, p. 176. 

Coloration. Eesembles G t citrina, and differs only in entirely 
wanting the white tips to the median wing-coverts. 

Iris intense rich brown ; bill black, whitish plumbsous at base 
of lower mandible ; legs dull white tinged with pink, especially on 
the feet (Wardlaw Ramsay). 

Of the same size as 0. citrina. 

I look upon this species as quite distinct from G. citrina. In 
the large series of this latter bird in the British Museum, I fail to 
find a single specimen from any part of India or Burma north of 
Amherst without the white tips to the wing-coverts. From 
Amherst southwards to Malacca spotless birds occur as far as 
Tongkah in company with G. citrina, but south of that place by 
themselves. 

Distribution. G. innotata occurs at Amherst, Toungya, Banka- 
sun, and Malawun in Tenasserim ; in Karennee ; and down the 
Malay peninsula as far at least as Malacca. There are no grounds 
for the belief that this species occurs in the Andamaus or Mcobars. 

Young birds shot in Tenasserim in September and October show 
that this species breeds in Burma. 



142 

688. Geocichla albigularis. The Nicobar Ground-Thrush. 

Geocichla albogularis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 146 (1847) ; Hume, 
S. F. ii, p. 221 (part.) ; id. S. F. iv, p. 289 (part.) ; id. Cat. 
no. 355 bis (part.) ; Seebohm, S. F. ix, p. 99 ; id. Cat. B. M. v, 
p. 175. 

Coloration. Resembles G. citrina, sex for sex, but differs in 
having the chin and throat white, and the lores and cheeks also 
whitish ; the median wing-coverts are not tipped with white ; the 
under tail-coverts are much tipped and otherwise marked with 
greenish or slaty brown ; and the chestnut of the hind neck 
descends on to the upper back. 

The colour of the bill &c. does not appear to have been re- 
corded. 

Length about 8-5 ; tail 2'8 ; wing 4 ; tarsus 1-2 ; bill from 
gape 1-05. 

Distribution. The Nicobar Islands. 

689. Geocichla andamanensis. The Andaman Ground-thrush. 

Geocichla albogularis, Blyth, apud Wald. Ibis, 1874, p. 138 ; Hume, 

S. F. ii, p. 221 (part.), iv, p. 289 (part.) ; id. Cat. no. 355 bis 

(part.). 
Geocichla andamanensis, Wald. A. M. N. H. (4) xiv, p. 156 (1874) ; 

Hume, S. F. ii, p. 495 j Seebohm, S. F. ix, p. 100 ; id. Cat. B. M. 

v, p. 175. 

Coloration. Resembles G. citrina. Differs in having the forehead, 
crown, and nape suffused with brown, in having no white tips to 
the median wing-coverts, and in having the chin white. 

From G. albigularis it differs in having the forehead, crown, 
and nape suffused with brown, and the throat chestnut. 

Iris umber-brown ; bill horny brown, whitish at base of lower 
mandible ; legs fleshy white ( Wardlaw Ramsay). 

Length rather more than 8 ; tail 2*9 ; wing 4-1 ; tarsus ! ; 
bill from gape 1. 

Distribution. The Andaman Islands. 



Genus PETROPHILA, Swains., 1837. 

The genus Petrophila contains those Rock-Thrushes which have 
a short wing and a comparatively long tail. The males have the 
under wing-coverts and axillaries entirely of one colour and the 
lower plumage blue, chestnut, or black, or a combination of these 
colours. The females have the lower plumage squaniated or 
irregularly barred and the under wing-coverts and axillaries also 
barred. 

The Rock-Thrushes frequent open rocky ground and are 
generally solitary in their habits. They make their nests in holes 
of walls and rocks. 



PETROPHILA. 143 

Key to tlie Species.* 

a. Lower plumage of two colours, black 

or billy with chestnut. 

a'. Chin and throat black P. erythrogastra <5, p. 143. 

b'. Chin and throat blue. 

a". Large white patch on wing. ... P. cmdorkyncha J, p. 144. 

//'. No white patch on wing P. solitaria cJ, p. 145. 

b. Lower plumage almost uniformly of 

one colour, barred or squamated with 
black or brown. 
c'. Upper plumage blue or suffused 

with blue. 

c". Under wing-coverts and ax- 
illaries blue, narrowly tipped 

white P. cyanus J , p. 140. 

d". Under wing-coverts and axil- 

Uries barred with black or , p Maria ? _ p J45 

d'. Upper plumage olke-brown.' " ' ' P ~ c 'J anUS ? ' *' 146 ' 
c" . 13ack and rump barred ; wing o. P. erythrogastra $ , p. 143. 
f". Back plain, rump barred ; wing4. P. cinclorhyncha , p. 144. 

<>'JO. Petrophila erythrogastra. The Chestnut-bellied Rock- 
Thrush. 

Turdus erythrogaster, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 171 ; Gould, Cent. 

pi. xiii. 
Petrocincla erythrogastra ( Viy.\ Blyth, Cat. p. 164 ; Horsf. $ M. 

Cat. i, p. 185. 
Orocetes ervthrogastra (FiY/.), Jerd. B. I. i, p. 514; Wardlaw 

Ramsay, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 077 ; id. Ibis, 1877, p. 463. 
Petrophila erythrogaster ( Viy.}, Hume, N. fy E. p. 227 ; id. Cat. 

no. 352 j Scully, S. F. viii, p. 282 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd 

ed. ii, p. 102. 
Monti cola erythrogaster ( Vig.\ Seebohm. Cat. B. M. v,p. 325; Oates, 

/>'. B. i, p. 10. 
The Chestnut-bellied Thrush, Jerd. j Ninyri-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult, the lores, sides of 
the head and neck, and the mantle black, each feather margined 
with whitish ; remaining upper plumage brilliant cobalt-blue ; 
lesser and median coverts brown edged with cobalt-blue ; greater 
coverts and quills brown edged with duller blue ; tail bluish brown ; 
chin and throat black overlaid with blue; remainder of lower 
plumage maroon-chestnut. The white edges to the black portions 
of the plumage soon wear off, and in spring and summer these 
parts are usually black. 

Female. Dull olive- brown, the feathers of the back, scapulars, 
rump, and upper tail-coverts with wavy black bars and paler fringes ; 



* I cannot identify Petrocincla castancocollis, Lesson, Kev. Zool. 1840, p. 166, 
described as occurring in the Himalayas. Seebohm does not refer to this species 
in his Catalogue of the Thrushes. Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, p. 34 note, 
suggests that the type was a young Monticola saxatUis. 



144 TFRTJIDTE. 

lores, centre of chin and throat, a patch on the side of the neck, 
and a broad but ill-defined cheek-stripe buff, each feather more or 
less fringed with black ; ear-coverts black with mesial buff streaks ; 
greater coverts and quills more or less margined white ; tail plain 
brown ; lower plumage, axillaries, and under wing-coverts barred 
with black and buff. 

In the male the bill is black ; gape yellow ; iris dark brown ; 
feet vinous brown or black ; claws blackish : in the female the bill 
is dusky ; mouth and gape yellow ; iris brown ; tarsus dark brown ; 
toes blackish (Scully}. 

Length about 9*5; tail 4'2; wing 4'9 ; tarsus !! ; bill from 
gape 1-2. 

Distribution. A permanent resident in the Himalayas from 
Chamba to Bhutan ; the Khasi hills ; Cachar ; Manipur ; the 
mountains east of Toungngoo. This species extends into Western 
China. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds from April to July, constructing a nest on 
the ground under a rock or stump or in a hole in a bank, and laying 
three eggs, which measure about 1 by '75, and are described by 
Hodgson as being somewhat buff-coloured. 

691. PetropMla cinclorhyncha. The Blue-Jieaded Rock-Thrush. 

Petrocincla cinclorhyncha, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 172. 
Phoenicura cinclorhyncha ( Vig.\ Gould, Cent. pi. xix. 
Mouticola cinclorhvncha ( Vig.), Blyth, Cat. p. 164 ; Seebohm, Cat. 
B. M. v, p. 320 ;" Gates, B. B. i, p. 9 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 170. 

Jerd. 




id. Cat. 

no/353 ; Scully, S. F. via, p." 282; Oates in Hume's N. '$ E. 2nd 
ed. ii, p. 103. 
The Blue-headed Chat-Thrush, Jerd.; Krishen patti, Nepal. 

Coloration. Male. Head, from the nostrils to the nape, and the 
lesser wing-coverts, the chin, throat, and cheeks cobalt-blue ; lores, 
under the eye, ear-coverts, sides of neck, back, and scapulars black ; 
primaries black, all but the first two edged exteriorly with blue ; 
secondaries black, each with a white patch on the outer web ; tertiaries 
wholly black ; greater coverts black, edged with faint blue ; rump, 
upper tail-coverts, and lower plumage, with the axillaries and under 
wing-coverts, chestnut ; tail blackish, edged faintly on the outer 
webs with bluish. In autumn most of the feathers of the black 
and blue portions of the plumage are fringed with pale buff and 
these fringes are dropped in spring and summer plumage. 

Female. The whole upper plumage is olive-brown tinged with 
ochraceous, especially on the rump and upper tail-coverts, which 
are also barred with black ; wings brown, the quills ochraceous on the 
outer web, and the tertiaries and later secondaries margined with 
white ; chin and throat nearly white ; sides of the head mottled with 
white and brown ; remainder of lower plumage white, tinged with 
ochraceous on the breast, and the whole, with the exception of the 



PETROPHILA. 5 

abdomen, barred with dark brown; under tail-coverts white \\itli 

blackish streaks. 

13111 brownish black, the gape bright yellow ; tarsi dusky slaty ; 
the toes brownish black ; claws blackish horny (Scully). 

Length about 7*5 ; tail 2*8 ; wing 4 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape 1*1 . 

Distribution. Found in summer throughout the Himalayas from 
Afghanistan and Kashmir to Bhutan; in winter throughout the 
plains of India as far south as Coorg, the Nilgiris and probably to 
Cape Comorin. This species in the winter months is more fre- 
quent on the hill-ranges of Western India than elsewhere, but it is 
known to occur in almost all parts of the peninsula from. Sind to 
Bengal. Blylh records it from Arrakan. 

Habits, cj-c. Breeds in the Himalayas from 4000 to 8000 feet 
from April to June, constructing a cup-shaped nest of moss and 
dead leaves at the root of a tree, in a hole in a bank or in an old 
wall. The eggs, four in number, are pinkish white, densely 
IVeekled witli brown and rufous, and measure about '92 by *72. 

092. Petrophila solitaria. The Eastern Blue Roclc-Thrmli. 

T urclus solitnrius, P. L. S. Mii/fcr, A>/.< Nat., Anlumy, p. 142 (1770). 

Tiirtlus manillensis, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i, p. 833 (17s s ). 

Petrocincla manillensis (Gm.),Blyth, Cat. p. 164; Horsf. $ M. Cat. 

i, p. 188. 
Cyanocincla solitaria (MiiU.\ Hume 8f Lav. S. F. vi, p. 248 ; Hume, 

Cat. no. 3olbis; id. S. F. xi, p. 125. 
Monticola solitaria (Mull), Scebohm, Cat. JB. M. v, p. 319. 

Coloration. Male. The whole head, neck, breast, upper plumage 
and lesser wing-coverts bright blue, most of the feathers \\ithsmal 
white tips and subterminal black spots ; median, greater, and 
primary coverts blackish, edged with blue and tipped with white; 
quills and tail black, edged with bluish and each feather very 
narrowly tipped white; abdomen, vent, under tail-covert, axil- 
laries, and under wing-coverts chestnut, with narrow white fringes 
and black subterminal bars ; thighs and flank-feathers adjacent 
to them blue. 

At the end of winter the white fringes and subterminal black 
bars on the blue parts of the plumage are entirely lost, and the 
marks on the chestnut parts are also removed by abrasion in great 
measure, but never entirely. 

Female. After the autumn moult the whole upper plumage and 
lesser wing-coverts are avery dull blue, most of the feathers being 
fringed with white and with a subterminal black bar, and the 
feathers of the back with black shafts ; quills and remaining wing- 
coverts dark brown, edged with dull blue and tipped white ; the 
whole lower plumage and the sides of the head and neck pale buffy 
white, each feather subterminally margined with black ; the under 
wing-coverts axillaries, and under tnil-co\vr1> snlViiM-d \\ith rufous 
and irregularly barred with black. In summer all tin- margins of 
the feathers become abraded, causing the plumage to become more 
uniform. 

VOL. II. L 



146 TUHDID^E. 

The nestling resembles the adult female, but has the margins of 
the feathers more extended, causing a squamated appearance. The 
young male assumes the chestnut of the adult very rapidly and 
acquires the greater part of it before the autumn moult. 

The females and young of this and the next species cannot be 
discriminated with certainty ; but the females of P. solitaria are 
generally suffused with rufous on the under wing- and tail-coverts. 

Length about 9*5 ; tail 3*4 ; wing 4-9 ; tarsus 1*2 ; bill from 
gape 1-2. 

Birds of this species in typical plumage are only found in Japan 
and the islands of the China seas. Further west the males always 
exhibit some admixture of blue with the chestnut of the lower parts. 
The only bird killed within Indian limits that I have been able to 
examine at all approaching a typical Japan bird is from the Anda- 
inans. On examining all the available specimens of Blue Rock- 
Thrushes killed in the Indian Empire, I find that out of 102 birds 
from the west of the longitude of Calcutta only 8 exhibit a trace 
of red ; of 30 specimens from Assam down to Rangoon, only 7, 
and out of 72 Tenasserim birds only 27 show any red. This red 
is generally present on the under tail-coverts, and only in a few- 
cases extends to the abdomen in varying quantities. The cause of 
this variation is unknown, but may be attributed either to climatic 
causes or to the interbreeding of P. cyanus with P. solitaria. 

Distribution. Birds exhibiting red in the lower plumage are 
found in Nepal, Sikhim, Dacca, Cachar, the whole of Burma and 
the Andamans. This species visits the Empire in the winter only, 
and at this season is found also in Southern China, extending down 
to the Malayan islands. It breeds in Japan and Northern China. 

693. Petrophila cyanus. The Western Blue Itock-Tlimsli. 

Turdus cyanus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 296 (1766). 

Petrocincla pandoo, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 87 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, 

p. 186. 

Petrocincla cyaneus (Linn.), Blyth, Cat. p. 164. 
Petrocincla affinis, Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xii, p. 177* (1843) ; id. Cat. 

p. 164 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 187. 
Petrocossyphus cyaneus (Linn.}, Jerd. B. I. i, p. 511 ; Hume fy 

Henders. Lah. to Yark. p. 190. 
Cyanocincla cyanus (Linn.), Hume, N. 8f E. p. 226 ; Hume fy Dav. 

S. F. vi, p. 247 ; Hutne, Cat. no. 351. 
Mouticola cyanus (Linn.), Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 611 ; 

Legc/e, Birds Ceyl p. 460 ; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 316 ; Gates. 

B. B. i, p. 11 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 169. 
Petrophila cyana (Linn.}, Gates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 105. 

The Blue Rock- Thrush, Jerd. ; Shama, Hind, in the South ; Pandu, 
Mahr. ; Poda kachi pitta, Tel. ; Ninyri-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn inoult the whole plumage 
is bright blue, most of the feathers with white fringes and sub- 
terminal dark bars ; a supercilium, the cheeks, throat, and ear- 
coverts brighter than the other parts ; lores blackish ; wings and 



MO.NTJCOLA. 147 

tail dark brown, the ijuills all tipped with white and edged with 
Muish. In summer most, if not all, of the whitish fringes and 
subterminal bars are cast, and the bird is nearly uniform blue. 

Female. After the autumn moult the upper plumage, together 
with the wings and tail, resemble the same parts in the male, but 
are of a very dull blue ; the lower plumage is pale buffy white, 
each feather subterminally margined with black, the under wing- 
coverts, axillaries. and under tail-coverts barred with black. In 
summer most of the whitish fringes and black bars are lost. 

The nestling closely resembles the adult female, but has the 
white fringes to the feathers broader. 

Iris hazel ; eyelids plumbeous ; bill blackish hora ; mouth yellow ; 
feet black ; claws dark horn. 

Length about 9-5; tail 3-4; wing 4-9; tarsus 1-2; bill from 
gape 1*2. 

Distribution. This species, without any admixture of red in the 
lower plumage, is found in the winter throughout the whole Em- 
pire. It extends to Southern Europe and Northern Africa. The 
birds which are found in India and Burma appear to breed in 
Afghanistan, Kashmir, and probably other parts of the Himalayas, 
Turkestan, Tibet, and Western China. 

JIafnis, $c. This Hock-Thrush frequents open, and by preference 
rocky, country, and it is not unfrequently found near buildings. 
Colonel C. H. T. Marshall found a nest of this bird at Murree in 
a low stone wall in June. The eggs are described as pale blue 
speckled with brownish red, and measured about 1*1 by "75. 



Genus MONTICOLA, Boie, 18>. 

The genus Moidkola differs from Petropliila in the proportion 
between the length of the wing and tail, the former in Monticola 
being twice the length of the latter. The Thrushes of the two 
are quite alike in habits and in general type of coloration. 

694. Monticola saxatilis. The Rock-Thrush. 

Turdus saxatilis, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 294 (1706). 

Monticola saxatilis (Linn.), Blyth, Cut. p. 1(55; Blanf. Ibis, 1870, 
p. 4C6 ; Hume $ Hmders. Lah. to Turk. p. 190 ; Scully, S. F. iv, 
p. 139; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 379; id. Cat. no. 351 ter ; Bicldulph, 



Hi*, 1881, p. 53 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 439 ; Secbo/.m, Cat. B. M. 
v, p. 313. 
Orocetes saxatilis (Linn.}, Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 189. 

Coloration. Male. The entire head and neck blue; back, scapu- 
lars, lesser wing-coverts, and rump blackish blue; the centre of 
the back occupied by a large white patch ; lower plumage, upper 
tail-coverts, and tail chestnut, the middle pair of tail-feathers \\iih 
their terminal half brown ; median and greater coverts and quills 
dark brown, the coverts and secondaries narrowly tipped with 

L2 



148 TURDID^E. 

whitish. After the autumn moult the lower parts are fringed 
with white, and some of the feathers of the head with black. 

Female. Upper plumage brown, each feather with a blackish 
shaft-streak and a subterminal dark bar with a pale tip ; upper 
tail-coverts chestnut, similarly barred and tipped ; tail chestnut, 
the middle pair of feathers brown on their terminal half ; lower 
plumage dull white, suffused with rufous everywhere except on the 
throat, each feather with a wavy interrupted cross-bar near the 
tip ; under tail- and wing-coverts and the axillaries chestnut with 
indistinct white tips. 

Bill dusky, lower mandible yellow at base ; iris brown ; legs, 
feet, and claws black (Scully}. 

Length about 7'5 ; tail 2'5; wing 4'7 ; tarsus 1*1; bill from 
gape 1-1. 

Distribution. Occurs in Gilgit at the autumn migration, the 
birds met with in this locality being chiefly young. Stoliczka 
obtained a specimen, probably of this species, near Dras. Blanford 
records this species from the banks of the Irrawaddy, near Ava, in 
Upper Burma. 

This Rock-Thrush has an extensive range from Northern Africa 
and Southern Europe through Asia to China. Its migration 
appears to be of very limited extent. 



Genus TURDUS, Linn., 1766. 

The genus Turdus contains those Thrushes in which the sexes 
are alike and the under wing-coverts and axillaries of one colour. 
The three Indian species of this genus are found in Europe (and 
in England) and are among the best known birds of the tribe. 

In Turdus both the wing and tail are long, and the latter is 
slightly graduated ; the bill is small, and there is no pattern on 
the underside of the wing. 

The Thrushes of this genus are good songsters ; they are 
found in well-wooded country; they make cup- shaped nests in 
trees, using mud in the construction, and they feed largely on 
berries and fruit. 



Key to tlie Species. 

1 axillaries white. 

a . urown ana mantle Drown T. viscivorus, p. 1< 

b' '. Crown blue, mantle rufous T. pilaris, p. 150. 

?. Under wing-coverts and axillaries rufous T. iliaeiis, p. 150. 



a. Under wing-coverts and axillaries white. 

a. Crown and mantle brown T. viscivorus, p. 148. 



695. Turdus viscivorus. The Missel- Tlirusli. 

Turdus viscivorus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 291 (1766) ; Blyth, Cat. 
p. 160 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 194 ; Hume, Cat. no. 368 ; Seebohm, 
Cat. B. M. v, p. 194 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 53 ; Scully, Ibis. 
1881, p. 439 ; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed, ii, p, 106, 



TURDUS. 149 

Turdus hodgsoni, Homeyer, Rhca, ii, p. 150 (1849) ; Jerd. B. I. i, 
p. 531 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 3G ; Hume, N. # E. 
p. 236 ; Brooks, S. F. iii, p. 237, viii, p. 471. 

The Himalayan Missel-Thrush, Jerd. 




Fig. 38. Head of T. viscivorus 

Coloration. Upper plumage greyish brown, the edges of the 
feathers paler, a tinge of oehraceous running through the rump 
and upper tail-coverts ; tail ashy brown, the exterior webs nar- 
rowly edged with white, and all the feathers tipped whitish, the 
middle pair narrowly, the others more and more ; wings brown, 
all the quills and coverts edged and tipped with fulvous white ; 
lores pale fulvous ; a whitish ring round the eye ; ear-coverts 
brown streaked with fulvous ; lower plumage pale buff, the chin 
and middle of the throat nearly spotless, the sides of the throat 
and the whole breast with triangular black spots, the abdomen and 
sides of the body with roundish spots ; the under tail-coverts 
broadly margined at the base with brown ; axillaries and under 
wing-coverts pure white. Birds in the summer with worn plumage 
are paler and greyer. 

Bill dark horny brown, paler on lower mandible, which is yel- 
lowish along the margins ; iris deep brown ; legs and feet palo 
yellowish brown; claws dark horny brown (Hume). 

Length nearly 12 ; tail 4'8 ; wing 6-4 to 6-8 ; tarsus 1'4 ; bill 
from gape 1*2. 

Birds from Europe have the wing generally under 6 inches and 
the bill slightly smaller, but do not otherwise differ from Hima- 
layan examples. 

Distribution. Occurs in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal. 
All the dated specimens that I have seen from India were killed 
in the summer months. Scully states that this species is met 
with in the Grilgit district in summer at elevations of over 9000 feet, 
where it breeds ; and Biddulph writes that it was tolerably common 
in Gilgit during the severe winter of 1877-7^, but seldom comes 
so low down, keeping generally to the higher valleys, whore he 
found it in .Inly al 10,000 feet. The Missel-Thrush occurs in 
Europe, North Africa, and a considerable part of Asia. 



1 50 TURDIJXE. 

Habits, tyc. Breeds in the Himalayas from April to June above 
6000 feet. The nest is a large deep cup made of grass and dry 
leaves, with clay and mud, placed in trees. The eggs vary from 
pink to greenish grey ; they are marked with brownish red and 
purplish pink, and measure about 1*2 by *9. 



696. Turdus pilaris. The Fieldfare. 

Turdus pilaris, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 291 (1766) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 161 ; 

Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 194 ; Hume, Cat. no. 367 ; Seebohm, Cat. 

B. M. v, p. 205. 
Planesticus pilaris (Linn.), Jerd. B. I. \, p. 530. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, and hind neck slaty grey, the 
feathers with narrow brown tips and darker shafts ; back and 
scapulars chestnut-brown, with pale edges ; rump and upper tail- 
coverts slaty grey; tail dark brown, the outer feathers very nar- 
rowly tipped white ; wing-coverts dull rufous-brown with greyish 
margins ; winglet, primary-coverts, and primaries dark brown with 
narrow grey margins ; secondaries with the outer webs rufous, 
the inner brown ; lores and under the eye dark brown ; ear-coverts 
slaty grey ; traces of a pale supercilium extending as far as the 
ear-coverts; chin, throat, and breast bright buff streaked with 
black ; abdomen white ; sides of the body white, with large roundish 
rufous-brown spots ; axillaries and under wing-coverts pure white. 

The plumage of this bird in summer differs little from the 
plumage in winter, the loss of the margins of the feathers causing 
but little change. 

Bill yellow ; feet and legs black ; iris very dark brown (Seebohm). 

Length about 11 : tail 4 ; wing 5*5; tarsus 1-3 ; bill from gape 
M. 

Distribution. The Fieldfare, according to Jerdon, has occurred 
once at Simla, and Adams records it from Kashmir. The only 
specimen I have ever seen from India is one obtained by Dr. 
Jameson at Saharanpnr, and presented by him to the Indian 
Museum, from which it passed to the British Museum. It can 
only be considered a very rare winter visitor to the north-west of 
India. 

The Fieldfare has a wide range, being found from the Atlantic 
to the Tenesay river in Siberia, and coming south in winter as 
far as Turkestan on the east and North Africa on the west. 



697. Turdus iliacus. The Redwing. 

Turdus iliacus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 292 (1766) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 161 ; 
Jerd. B. 1. i, p. 532 ; Hume, Cat. no. 3C9 ; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. 
v, p. 189. 

The Reducing Thrush, Jerd. 

Coloration. The whole upper plumage and tail olive-brown ; the 
wings dark brown, all the feathers edged with olive-brown, the 



OREOCINCLA. 151 

greater coverts most conspicuously so; a broad pale buff super- 
cilium from the bill to the nape; lores black; ear-coverts brown 

streaked with buff; chin, throat, and breast pale buff streaked 
with blackish ; middle of the abdomen white ; sides of the abdomen 
white streaked with brown ; flanks, axillaries, and under wing- 
coverts chestnut; under tail-coverts white, ba.sally margined witli 
brown. 

The summer plumage, resulting from the wear of the feathers 
at their margins, does not differ very much from the winter 
plumage. 

Bill dark brown ; legs pale ; iris brown (Seebohm). 

Length about 8'5; tail '3-3; wing 4'6 ; tarsus 1-2; bill from 
gape 1. 

Distribution. I have not been able to examine any specimen of 
Redwing procured in India, and I admit the species on the authority 
of Jerdon, who states that at the time he wrote it had been lately 
found in the N.W. Himalayas, but very rarely. " But at Kohtit, ' 
he adds, ** as I am assured by Mr. Blyth, according to a very good 
observer, the late Lieut. Trotter, it is a regular winter visitant in 
large flocks." 

The lied wing has even a larger range than the Fieldfare, being 
found in the Northern parts of Europe and Asia in summer from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific, and wandering south in the winter as 
far as Turkestan and Persia on the east, and Southern Europe on 
the west. 



Genus OREOCINCLA, Gould, 1837. 

In the genus Oreocincla the sexes are alike, the under wing- 
coverts and axillaries are each of two colours, those on the axillaiies 
being transposed or reversed in order on the under wing-coverts ; 
the lower plumage is distinctly barred or spotted, never squamated, 
and the rictal bristles are few and confined to the gape. The tail 
is typically short, and the upper tail-coverts very ample. There 
is a distinct pattern on the underside of the wing. 

The Thrushes of this genus are permanent residents in the tracts 
they inhabit, or very locally migratory. They are found in thickly 
wooded parts. 

The bill of the Thrushes of this genus varies much in shape and 
size. In 0. dauma, 0. mollissima, and 0. dixoni it is as small as 
in Turdus ; in 0. spiloptera it is larger and very deep ; and in 
0. imbricata and 0. nilyiriensis it is extremely large and coarse, 
resembling the bill of Zoothera. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Feathers of upper plumage boldly tipped with 

crescentic black bars. 

a'. Ground-colour of lower plumage white 
a". Third and fourth quills equal and longest ; 



152 

second and fifth nearly equal, and about 
a quarter inch shorter than longest ; 

wing- 5'5 O. damna, p. 152. 

b". Third, fourth, and fifth quills equal and 
longest ; second rather shorter than 
sixth, and about half inch shorter than 

longest ; wing 5 O. nilyiriensis, p. 153. 

b'. Ground-colour of lower plumage ochraceous 

buff O. imbricata, p. 154. 

/-. Feathers of upper plumage plain without 

darker margins or tips. 
c' . Lower plumage with black crescentic tips ; 

wing over 5. 

c". Wing-coverts not tipped ; tail not ex- 
ceeding 4-3 O. mollissima, p. 154. 

d". Wing-coverts tipped ; tail about 4*7 . . O. dixoni, p. 155. 
d' . Lower plumage with black triangular 

spots ; wing about 4 O. spiloptera, p. 155. 

698. Oreocinda daiima. Tlie Small-billed Mountain-ThrusJi. 

Turdus dauma, Lath. Ind. Orn. i, p. 362 (1790). 

Oreocincla dauma (Lath.), Blyth, Cat. p. 160 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, 

-i r\f\ Y 1 T\ T * fOO TT ~\T TTJ -_ rtOO _ 7~> _. 77 Or T7J 




Sf K 2nd ed. ii, p. 107. 
Geocichla dauma (Lath.), Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 154 ; Gates, B. 
B. i, p. 6. 

Coloration. After the autumn moult the whole upper plumage 
is ochraceous brown, each feather with a crescentic black bar at 
the tip, preceded by a fulvous patch ; wing-coverts with large 
bright fulvous tips, the median series blackish above the tips ; 
primary-coverts black, with a broad band of fulvous on the outer 
webs ; 'quills dark brown, margined on the outer web with fulvous ; 
the four middle tail-feathers olive-brown, the next three pairs 
blackish with white tips, the outermost feathers blackish, with the 
terminal third fulvous ; sides of the head pale fulvous variegated 
with black; chin, middle of throat, and middle of abdomen white; 
remainder of lower plumage white, tinged with fulvous, each 
feather with a terminal band of black, and with a subterminal 
lighter patch ; under tail-coverts white, some of the feathers tipped 
with black; axillaries with basal half white and terminal half 
black ; under wing-coverts black and terminally white. 

In summer the plumage becomes very dull, the fulvous parts 
fading to olive -brown. 

Upper mandible and middle of lower dark brown, remainder of 
bill pale brown, the gape tinged with orange ; inside of mouth 
yellowish ; eyelid and ocular region plumbeous ; iris dark hazel- 
brown ; legs and claws fleshy white. 

Length about 10-5; tail 3*8; wing 5*6; tarsus 1 '3 ; bill from 
gape 1-2. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Hazara and Kashmir to Assam, 



OREOCINCLA.. 1 53 

and thence down to the central parts of Tenasserim. This Thru-li 
is ;il so found in the plains of India, where it has been recorded 
from the North- West Provinces, Behar, Bengal, Chutia Na.sjpur, 
OrUsa, and Central India, extending, according to Jerdon, as far 
sou Mi as the Wynaad. 

It is doubtful to what extent this Thrush is migratory. It breeds 
throughout the Himalayas, and also occurs in those mountains in 
winter, and it is found throughout the year in the Dhoon. From 
the plains of India and from Assam to Tenasserim I have seen no 
specimens that were killed in the summer months ; but this is not 
improbably due to the inactivity of collectors during the latter 
part of the hot season and during the rains. On the whole I am 
inclined to think that this bird is resident on ah 1 the hill-ranges 
wil hin its area of distribution, and merely descends to the adjoining 
plains in the winter. 

Habits, $c. Breeds in the Himalayas in May and June up to 
7000 feet at least. The nest is a cup, constructed of moss and 
lined with fern-leaves, placed in a tree. The eggs, probably three 
in number as a rule, are greenish white, marked with bro\\ nish 
and reddish purple, and measure about 1'23 by '91.* 



ODD. Oreocincla nilgiriensis. The Nilgiri ThrusJi. 

Oreocincla nilgiriensis, Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xvi, p. 141 (1847) ; id. 

Cat. p. ]60; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 534; Hume, S. F. iv, p. 399; id. 

Cat. no. 372 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 374 ; Terry, S. F. x, p. 474 ; 

Dates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 107. 
Geocichla nilgiriensis (Blijth\ Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 157. 

Coloration. Resembles 0. dnuma in general appearance, but has 
the wing shorter and more rounded, the third, fourth, and fifth 
quills being about equal and longest, the second rather shorter than 
the sixth ; has a much larger bill, resembling that of Zoothera ; 
has the upper plumage more rufous, with the sub terminal pale 
patches hardly indicated, and the lower plumage less tinged with 
fulvous and whiter throughout. 

Legs, feet, and claws dark fleshy ; iris dark brown : upper man- 
dible blackish ; lower mandible brown, palest at base ; gape yellow 



* 698 a. OREOCINCLA VAUIA. White's Thrush. 

Turdus varius, Pall. Zoogr. Rosso-As. i. p. 449 (1811). 
Geocichla varia, Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v. p. 151. 

So similar to 0. dnuma as to require no separate description, but much larger 

;md \\iili 1 1 tail-Tea! hers. 

Iris brown ; upper mandible brown, lower pale ; legs whitish brown ( ff "<//v//,/w 



Length about 12; tail 4-5 ; wing 6'4 ; tarsus 1'3."> ; bill from gape 1'5. 

Distribution. South-eastern Siberia and North China in summer ; South 
Japan, South China, and the Philippine Islands in winter. A male specimen 
was procured by Ward law Rain-ay at Toungngoo on January llth. 1 X 7<-. 



154 TURDID^!. 

Length about 10'5; tail 3'6 ; wing 5-2 ; tarsus 1*2 ; bill from 
gape 1-5. 

Distribution. The hill-ranges of Southern India, from the Nilgiris 
to Travancore, above 2000 feet, where this Thrush appears to be a 
permanent resident. 

Habits, $~c. Represented to be a very fine songster. Breeds 
from March to June, constructing a nest of green moss in trees, 
and laying three eggs, which are greenish blue speckled with rusty 
brown, and measure 1'21 by *82. 

700. Oreocincla imbricata. The Ceylon Thrush. 

Zoothera imbricata, Layard, A. M. N. H. (2), xiii, p. 212 (1854). 
Oreocincla gregoriana, Nevill, Hume, S. P. i, p. 437 (1873). 
Oreocincla imbricata (Layard}, Hume, Cat. no. 372 quat. ; Leyye, 

Birds Ceyl. p. 455, pi. xix. 
Geocichla imbricata (Layard}, Seebohm, Cat. B. M. \, p. 159. 

Coloration. Resembles 0. dauma in general appearance, but has 
the upper plumage darker olive-brown, the tips of the feathers 
blacker, and the subterminal pale bars absent ; tips of wing-coverts 
inconspicuous ; the whole lower plumage a rich ochraceous buff, 
with the bars very black ; the bill is much larger, resembling that 
of a Zoothera. 

Iris brown ; bill blackish brown, paling at the base of the lower 
mandible ; legs and feet fleshy brown, some with a bluish tinge ; 
claws brownish at the tips (Legge). 

Length about 9'5; tail 3-2; wing 4-9; tarsus 1-1 ; bill from 
gape 1-4. 

Distribution. Confined to Ceylon, above 3000 feet. 

701. Oreocincla mollissima. The Plain-backed Mountain- 
Thrush. 

Turdus mollissimus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi, p. 188 (1842). 

Oreocincla mollissima (Blyth}, Blyth, Cat. p. 160 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. 
i, p. 193 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 533 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, 
p. 36; Hume, Cat. no. 370; id. 8. F. xi, p. 132; Gates in Hume's 
N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 108. 

Geocichla mollissima (Blyth}, Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v. p. 159. 
Phanaiok-kiok-pho, Lepch. ; Teliakanrim, Bhut. 

Coloration. The whole upper plumage rich olive-brown ; wings 
dark brown, the feathers all broadly edged with olive-brown, the 
median and greater coverts very narrowly and indistinctly tipped 
with fulvous ; the four middle tail-feathers olive-brown, the next 
three pairs blackish faintly tipped with white, the outermost pair 
black on the basal two thirds of the inner web, olive-brown else- 
where and tipped with white ; a ring of fulvous feathers round the 
eye ; sides of the head mingled black and fulvous ; chin, throat, 
breast, and sides of the body ochraceous, each feather with a 
terminal black band ; abdomen white, with similar bands ; under 
tail-coverts greenish brown streaked with white ; axillaries white 



OREOCINCLA. 155 

broadly tipped with black ; under wing-coverts black, broadly tipped 
with white. 

The young after the first autumn moult appear to be tinged with 
rufous, and to have the spots on the wing-coverts larger than in 
the adult. 

Legs and feet yellowish fleshy ; claws horny brown ; bill dull 
black; base of lower mandible pale fleshy brown; iris deep brown 
(Hume). 

Length about 11 ; tail 3-8 to 4-2; wing 5-5 to 6; tarsus 1-4 ; 
bill from gape 1*2. 

Distribution. I have examined specimens of this Thrush from 
numerous localities in the Himalayas from Chamba to Darjiling, 
and from no other part. Godwin- Austen records it from the 
Khasi hills, and Hume is under the impression that he recognized 
this species in Manipur, but he was unable to secure a specimen. 

This Thrush ascends the Himalayas up to 6000 or 8000 feet in 
summer, and probably descends to the lower valleys in winter. 

Habits, fyc. The eggs of this species are described as being 
white marked with two shades of red, and measuring about K35 
by -88. 

702. Oreocincla dixoni. The Long-tailed Mountain-Thrush. 

Oreocincla mollissima (Blyth), apud Walden in Blyttts Birds Burm. 

p. 100 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 256 ; Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 

1877, p. 403. 
Geocichla dixoni, Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 161 j Oates, B. B. i, p. 7. 

Coloration. Resembles 0. mollissima, but differs in having a 
much longer tail and large and distinct fulvous tips to the median 
and greater wing-coverts at all ages. 

Iris brown ; bill brown ; gape yellowish ; legs dull brownish 
yellow (Wardlaw Ramsay}. 

Of the same size as 0. mollissima, with the exception of the tail, 
which measures about 4'7. 

Distribution. I have examined specimens of this species procured 
in the hills north of Mussooree, in Nepal, at Darjiling, and in 
Karennee. 

703. Oreocincla spiloptera. The Spotted-wing Thrush. 

Oreocincla spiloptera, Bh/th, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 142 (1847) ; id. Cat. 

p. 100 ; Legge, S. F. ii'i, p. 367 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 382 ; id. Cat. 

no. 372 ter ; Oates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 109. 
Turdus spiloptera (Blytli), Leyge, Birds Ccyl. p. 451, pi. xix. 
Geocichla spiloptera (BlytJi), Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 167. 

Coloration. Upper plumage and lesser wing-coverts rich olive- 
lirown tinged with russet; tail rusty olive-brown; wings dark 
brown, broadly edged with olive-brown, the median and greater 
coverts more or less black tipped with white ; lores whitish ; ear- 
coverts mixed white and black; lower plumage white, tinged with 



156 



grey on the sides of the breast and body ; the cheeks, sides of the 
throat and neck, the whole breast, and the upper half of the 
abdomen with fan-shaped or triangular black spots ; axillaries 




Fig. 39. Head of Cr. sjj 



white, tipped with dark brown ; under wing-coverts dark brown, 
tipped with white. 

Iris brown ; eyelid leaden grey ; bill blackish, pale at gape ; legs 
and feet dusky bluish grey or greyish fleshy ; claws dusky horn 
(Legge). 

Length about 8-5 ; tail 3*2 ; wing 4 ; tarsus 1-4 ; bill from 
gape 1-15. 

Distribution. Confined to Ceylon up to 4000 feet. 

Habits, $c. A nest of this bird was found by Legge in January 
containing two eggs bluish green freckled with rufous, and 
measuring 1*19 by '79. 



Genus ZOOTHERA, Vigors, 1831. 

In the genus Zoofhera the sexes are alike, the under wing-coverts 
and axillaries of two colours, the colours in the one part transposed 
or reversed in the other, the lower plumage squamated, not distinctly 
barred nor spotted, and the rictal bristles very numerous and long. 
The anterior or supplementary bristles extend over the nostrils as 
in the Flycatchers, and Zoothera is the only genus of Thrushes in 
which this feature is present. The bill is very long and strongly 
curved near the tip, and the edges of the mandibles are frequently 
serrated by wear and tear, but never originally so. 

The Thrushes of this genus are non-migratory, and they are 
found in thickly-wooded tracts. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Upper plumage dark slaty ; feathers of breast 

tipped with brown ; wing- 5'5 Z. tnonticolo, p. 157. 

b. Upper plumage olive-brown ; feathers of breast 

margined with brown ; wing 5 Z. marginata, p. ]57. 



ZOOTHERA. 157 

704. Zoothera monticola. The Large Brown Thrush. 

Zoothera monticola, Vigor*, P. 7,. S. 1831, p. 172 ; Gould, Cent. 

pi. xxii ; Blyth, Cat. p. 100 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 102 ; Jerd. B. 

I. i, p. SOU ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 33 ; Blanf. J. A. 

S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 49; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, p. 72 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 350. 
Geocichla monticola (Vig.}, Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 161. 

Coloration. The whole upper plumage dark slaty, each feather 
narrowly but distinctly margined darker, giving a scaly appearance 
to the feathers ; forehead and crown tinged with rufous ; wings 
dark brown, the quills margined with fulvous-brown and the 
median and greater coverts tipped with ochraceous ; sides of the 
head rufescent brown, with ochraceous shafts to the feathers ; 
chin and middle of the throat white, each feather with a triangular 
brown tip ; breast and sides of the throat dark olive-brown, with 
black subterminal spots, the feathers of the middle of the breast 
with a good deal of fulvous at their centres ; abdomen white, irre- 
gularly spotted and barred with brown ; under tail-coverts dark 
olive-brown, broadly tipped white ; sides of the body dark oliva- 
ceous ; axillaries basally white, then black, and narrowly tipped 
white ; under wing-coverts black, tipped white ; tail blackish, obso- 
letely cross-barred, and the outer feathers paler. 




Fig. 40. Head of Z. monticola. 

Legs and feet light brown ; iris dark brown ; bill dark brown 
(Hume). 

Length between 11 and 12; tail 3'5 ; wing 5'5; tarsus 1'3 ; 
bill from gape 1*8. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from the Sutlej valley to the 
Daphla hills in Assam, where this bird is a permanent resident 
up to 10,000 feet. 

705. Zoothera marginata. The Lesser Brown Thrush. 



158 - 

Binyham, S. F. viii, p. 195, ix, p. 177 ; Gates, B. B. i, p. 8 ; Hume, 
8. F. xi, p. 124 ; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 109. 

Zoothera monticola, BL, apud Godiv.-Auit. J. A. S. B. xli ; pt. ii, 
p. 142 (Jide Wald. in BL Birds Burm. p. 100 n). 

Geocichla marginata (Blytk), Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v ; p. 162. 

Coloration. The whole upper plumage olive-brown tinged with 
rufous, especially on the outer webs of the quills, all the feathers 
margined darker, causing a scaly appearance ; tips of the median 
and greater coverts ochraceous ; tail brown, indistinctly cross-rayed, 
and the outer feathers paler ; sides of the head mixed fulvous and 
dark brown ; chin, throat, middle of breast, and abdomen white, 
with brown tips and margins; sides of the throat, breast, and 
body dark olive-brown, the feathers of the sides of the throat and 
upper breast with darker centres ; under tail-coverts pale buff, the 
feathers broadly margined with olivaceous at the sides ; auxiliaries 
basally white, then black ; under wing-coverts basally black, and 
then white. 

Bill very dark horny brown, lower mandible reddish from angle 
of gonys to base ; iris dark brown ; legs and feet dark brown 
(Hume Coll.). 

Length about 10 ; tail 3 ; wing 4'9 ; tarsus 1-1 ; bill from 
gape 1-5. 

Distribution. Sikhim ; Bhutan ; the whole of the Eastern portion 
of the Empire from the Brahmaputra river to the extreme south 
of Tenasserim. This species is probably a permanent resident 
throughout its range. 

Habits, &fc. Mr. Grammie found the nest of this Thrush in Sikhim 
at the end of May a cup composed of moss and fibres and placed 
on a low branch of a tree. The eggs were three in number, and 
one of these is described by Hume as being very pale greenish 
white much marked with ferruginous-brown and pinky purple. It 
measured 1*05 by '79. 



Genus COCHOA, Hodgson, 1830. 

The genus Cochoa contains two species, the position of which 
remained doubtful for many years. An examination of the young 
of these birds, however, clearly proves, as shown by Hume, that 
they belong to the Turdince. 

In Cochoa the sexes differ and the plumage of both sexes is very 
brilliant. The bill is short and very broad at the base ; the nostrils 
are large exposed ovals ; the rictal bristles are obsolete ; the wing is 
long and pointed, and the first primary minute ; the tail of moderate 
length, and the tarsus short. 

The Thrushes of this genus inhabit forests, go in pairs or small 
fiocks, feed both on the ground and on trees, and have a harsh 
note. They make cup-shaped nests in trees, and lay spotted eggs. 
They are non-migratory. 



cocuuA. 159 

Key to the /ty<r/',x. 

a. Crown of head lavender-blue C. purpurea, p. 159. 

b. Crown of head cobalt-blue C. viridis, p. 1(50. 

706. Cochoa purpurea. The Parole Thmsli. 

Cochoa purpurea, Hodys. J. A. S. B. v, p. 359 (1836); Bhjth, Cat. 
p. 195 ; Horsf. Sc M. Cat. i, p. 390 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 243 ; Hume, 
N. # E. p. 338 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 337 ; Hume, Cat. 
no. 607 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 3 ; Gates, B. B. i, p. 136 j id. 
in Humes N. $ E. 2od ed. ii. p. 110. 

The Purple Thrush-Tit, Jerd. ; Cocho, Nep. ; Lho-nyum-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, and nape lavender-blue ; a 
narrow frontal band, lores, and sides of the head black, this colour 
extending narrowly round the hind neck ; the upper plumage ashy 
purple; wing-coverts, wiuglet, tertiaries, and the basal half, or 
more, of the outer webs of most of the primaries and of all the 
secondaries dull lavender; primary-coverts and remainder of wing 
black; tail lavender-blue, the inner webs of all but the median 
pair of feathers mostly black, and all tipped black ; the whole 
lower plumage purplish brown, inclining to black on the chin and 
throat. 

Female. Forehead, crown, and nape lavender-blue ; a narrow 
frontal band, lores, and sides of the head black, this colour extend- 
ing narrowly round the hind neck ; upper plumage reddish brown ; 
wing-coverts, tertiaries, and the basal half, or more, of the outer 
webs of the secondaries reddish brown ; the basal portion of the 
outer webs of the primaries blue ; remainder of the wing dark 
brown ; winglet and the larger coverts near the edge of the wing 
and the bases of the primary -co verts suffused with blue ; tail as 
in the male ; lower surface reddish brown, paler than the upper 
plumage. 

The young male has the wings and tail like the adult male ; the 
forehead, crown, and nape black, barred with white ; the upper 
plumage black, with fulvous streaks on the scapulars and lesser 
wing-coverts ; the sides of the head black, with a white patch on 
the ear-coverts ; the whole lower plumage bright reddish brown 
cross-barred with black. A young male in August has nearly lost 
the fulvous streaks on the scapulars and lesser wing-coverts; the 
back is turning to ashy purple ; the head is still barred with white, 
aud the lower plumage is still barred as in the young bird above 
described. This plumage is probably retained throughout the 
winter. 

The young female has the wings and tail like the adult female ; 
the forehead, crown, and nape black, each feather with a broad 
Bubtermiaal white band; the upper plumage reddish brown, with 
pale fulvous stripes, which become elongated drops on the sca- 
pulars ; sides of the ho;id black; ear-coverts centrally white: 
lower plumage reddish brown cross-barred with black. 



160 

Legs and feet dark plumbeous, shaded with black ; claws dark 
horny-brown ; bill black ; gape dark plumbeous ; iris red-brown ; 
eyelids dark plumbeous (Hume fy Davison). 

Length about 11; tail 4'5; wing 5*7; tarsus 1/1; bill from 
gape 1/3. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Kumaun to Sikhim ; Muleyit 
mountain and the Thoungyeen valley in Tenasserim. This species 
is no doubt a permanent resident up to at least 8000 feet. 

Habits, fyc. A nest said to belong to this species, and found by 
Mr. Home at Binsur, in Kumaun, was a cup made of moss placed 
in a small tree. The egg was greenish thickly blotched with brown. 



707. Cochoa viridis. The Green Thrush. 

Cochoa viridis, Hodys. J. A. S. B. v, p. 359 (1836) ; Blyth, Cat. 
p. 194 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 243 ; Hume, N. fy E. p, 389 ; id. Cat. 
no. 608 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 2 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 239 ; 
Oates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 111. 

The Green Thrush-Tit, Jerd. 




Fig. 41. Bill of C. viridis. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crow r n, nape, and hind neck bril- 
liant cobalt-blue ; lores and a short supercilium black ; ear-coverts 
indigo-blue ; cheeks greenish blue ; the whole upper plumage and 
scapulars varying in different individuals, according to age, from 
deep green to golden-yellow, the feathers of the back and scapulars 
fringed with black ; median pair of tail-feathers purplish blue 
tipped black, the next four pairs black on the inner web, blue on 
the outer and tipped black, the outermost pair entirely black ; 
lesser wing-coverts green narrowly tipped black, the median with 
broader tips; winglet black; primary-coverts with the inner webs 
black, the basal two thirds of the outer blue and the terminal third 
black ; greater coverts with the inner webs greenish brown tipped 
black, the outer with the basal two thirds green, broadly edged 
with blue, the remainder black ; first two primaries black ; the 
remaining quills black, with a long patch of blue at the base of 
each outer web ; the whole lower plumage green, suffused with 
blue on the abdomen and with oil -yellow on the breast and 
flanks. 



CINCLINjE. 161 

Female. Differs from the male in the coloration of the wing 
only. The secondaries and tertiaries have the basal patch on the 
outer webs yellowish brown instead of blue, and this colour occu- 
pies the major portion of the outer webs of the greater coverts, 
the blue edgings being very narrow. 

The young bird (perhaps the female nestling onl} r , the male 
resembling the adult male probably in the coloration of the wing) 
has the croxvu, forehead, and nape bluish brown, each feather 
tipped black and with a subterminal band of white ; the upper 
plumage greenish brown, with large buff spots : supercihum black ; 
ear-coverts white, with blackish tips ; the whole lower plumage 
buff, irregularly and narrowly cross-barred with black ; the wings 
and tail as in the adult female. 

A nearly adult bird killed in Sikhim in March, and one in 
Manipur in May, have the cheeks, ear-coverts, and a demi-collar 
at the side of the neck pure white ; the chin and throat also are 
whitish, and the lower plumage bright chestnut-brown. Accord- 
ing to Hume this is the second stage of plumage. There does not 
appear to be anything analogous to it, however, in C. purpurea. 

Iris brown, brownish orange, dull brownish maroon ; legs brown, 
with a varying amount of pinkish tinge ; bill black ; gape and 
orbital skin pink (Hume Coll.). 

Length about 11; tail 4*8; wing 5*6; tarsus 1-1 ; bill from 
gape 1'2. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Kumaun to Sikhim up to 
11,000 feet; Cachar; Manipur. This species extends into China. 
Hume gives the Bhagirati valley as the western limit of this- 
Thrush, but there is no specimen from this locality now in his 
collection, and I have seen none from further west than Jeoli 
below Naini Tal. 

Habits, $c. The nest of this species is described as being a cup 
composed of fine twigs and roots coated externally with moss, and 
built on branches of large trees ten to twenty feet from the 
ground. An egg was greyish green marked with red, and measured 
1-03 by -75. 



Subfamily CINCLIN^l. 

The Cinclince or Dippers appear to be allied to the Thrushes, but 
to have undergone some modification of structure to adapt them to 
a different mode of life. 

In the Dippers the bill is about as long as the head, narrow and 
straight, the tip slightly bent down and notched ; the nostrils are 
covered by a large membrane and the rictal bristles are entirely 
absent ; the wing is very short and rounded ; the tail exceedingly 
short ; the tarsus long and smooth. 

The sexes are alike and the young are spotted. These do not 
assume the adult plumage till the first spring of their life, and tli> 
change is effected by the casting-off of the margins of the feathers. 

VOL. it. M 



1 62 TTTRDTDvE. 

The Dippers are aquatic in their habits, and they are admirably 
fitted for obtaining their food in the water. The plumage is every- 
where very dense and even the eyelids are clothed with feathers ; 
the head is narrowed in front, and the feathers of the forehead are 
very short and lie flat. 

The Dippers frequent mountain-streams, and the Indian species 
do not migrate. They build large domed nests of moss amongst 
rocks or between the roots of trees near the water, and they lay 
numerous white eggs. 



Genus CINCLUS, Bechst., 1802. 

The characters of the genus are the same as those of the sub- 
family. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Throat and breast white , C. kashmiriensis, p. 162. 

b. Throat and breast brown, uniform with re- 

mainder of lower plumage. 

a'. Plumage light-coloured C. asiaticus, p. 163. 

b'. Plumage dark-coloured C. pallasi, p. 164. 

c. Throat and breast brown, but conspicuously 

paler than remainder of lower plumage . . C. sordidus, p. 165. 



708. Cinclus kashmiriensis. The White-breasted Asiatic Dipper. 

Cinclus cashmeriensis, Gould, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 494 ; Salvin, Ibis, 
1867, p. 117; Blaf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 48; Hume, Cat. 
no. 348 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 312 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 438. 
Hydrobata cashmiriensis (Gould), Jerd. B. I. i, p. 507 ; Blyth, Ibis, 
1866, p. 374 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 33 ; Hume $ 
Holders. Lah. to Yark. p. 189. 
The White-breasted Cashmere Dipper, Jerd. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, lores, sides of the head and 
neck, and the whole mantle chocolate-brown ; remainder of the 
upper plumage slate-colour, each feather distinctly margined with 
black ; the mantle and back blending gradually together, the brown 
of the former suffusing the upper part of the latter ; wings dark 
brown, the outer webs edged with slate-colour, and the secondaries 
and tertiaries tipped with white ; wing-coverts dark brown, broadly 
edged with slaty ; tail slaty, the shafts dark; cheeks, chin, throat, 
and breast pure white ; remainder of the lower plumage chocolate- 
brown, gradually turning to dark brown or blackish towards the tail. 

The young have the whole upper plumage slate-colour with black 
margins; the wing-coverts tipped white ; the quills more broadly 
tipped with white than in the adult ; the whole lower plumage 
white with numerous irregular - cross-lines of brown. After the 
autumn moult the young resemble the adult, but the abdomen is 
dark brown without any tinge of chocolate immediately next the 
white of the breast, as is the case in the adult, and each feather 



CINCLUS. 163 

of the vent, abdomen, and under tail-coverts narrowly margin. -d 
with white; tips to quills broader than in the fully adult. Early 
in the first spring the white margins and tips are cast and the 
full plumage donned. 

Legs and feefc dark brown ; bill black (G. Ifenderson). 

Length about 8; tail 2-1; wing 3'8 ; tarsus 1*15; bill from 
gape -95. 

This species extends westward to Asia Minor, and is closely allied 
to the three races of Dipper which are found in Europe. It may 
be distinguished from them by the absence of rufous on the abdomen 
immediately next the white breast, and further by the brown of 
the mantle extending some distance down the back and blending with 
the colour of the latter. To the north, the present form tends to 
run into O. leucoyaster, in typical examples of which the whole 
lower parts are white. In some specimens there is a tendency 
towards G. sordidus, the white of the throat and breast being 
infuseated and occasionally these parts are quite brown. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Gilgit to Sikhim from 9000 to 
14,000 feet or higher, according to season. This Dipper extends 
on the west to Asia Minor and on the east to China, and it has a 
very extended range through Central Asia. 



709. Cinclus asiaticus. The Brown Dipper. 

Cinclus asiaticus, Stcains. Faun. Bor.-Amer., Birds, p. 174 (1831) ; 
AV//rm, His, 1807, p. 120 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 48 ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 347 ; Sharpe, Gat. B. M. vi, p. 314 ; Scully, S. F. viii, 
p. 281 ; id. Ibis, 1881, p. 437 : Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, 
p. 112. 

Ilydrobata asiatica (Swains.), BlytTi, Cat. p. 158 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. 
\ p. 185 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 500 ; Hume, N. Sf E. p. 225 ; Hume $ 
Henders. Lah. to Yark. p. 188 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, 
p. 203 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 52. 

The Brown Water-'Ouzel, Jerd. ; Nambong karriak, Lepch. ; Cltubia 
i.akka, Bhut. 




Fig. 42. Head of C. asiaticus. 

Coloration. The whole plumage chocolate-brown, the edges of 
the feathers somewhat paler in places ; the eyelids covered with 
\\hite IVatlu-rs: wings and tail dark brown, edged with the sanio 
colour as that of the plumage in general, the later quills tipped white. 

The young in March, just fledged, have the upper plumage grey, 
the feathers tipped with black and the subterminal portion more 

if 2 



164 

or less whitish ; wings black, the quills and coverts all tipped and 
margined with white ; tail very dark brown, tipped white ; sides 
of the head grey with white shaft-streaks ; the lower parts grey 
and marked in the same manner as the upper plumage, but with 
more conspicuous black tips and subterminal white patches. In 
August the nearly adult plumage is assumed by a moult, but 
the new feathers of each side of the head, of the throat, breast, 
and middle of the abdomen, and sometimes those of the crown 
and back, are fringed with white, and the wing-coverts and 
quills are conspicuously margined with white. The fully adult 
plumage is assumed in the first spring by the casting of the white 
fringes. 

Bill black ; legs pale brown ; soles of the feet yellow ; iris dark 
brown (Jerdon). 

Length about 8; tail 2-2; wing 3'9 ; tarsus 1-15; bill from 
gape 1'05. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Afghanistan and Grilgit to 
Bhutan at elevations from 1000 to 14,000 feet, according to season. 
This species occurs in the North Khasi hills, specimens from 
that locality being in the National Collection. It extends into 
Turkestan. 

Habits, $c. Breeds throughout the Himalayas at all levels from 
December to May. The nest is a rounded ball of moss lined with 
ferns and roots, with an opening at the side, wedged into a deft of 
a rock near water and not far above its surface. The eggs, gene- 
rally five in number, are white and measure about 1 by '72. 



710. Cinclus pallasi. Pallas's Dipper. 

Cinclus pallasii, Temm. Man. (VOrn. ed. 2, i, p. 177 (1820) ; Salvin, Ibis, 
1867, p. 118 j Hume, S. F. vii, p. 378 ; id. Cat. no. 349 bis ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. M. vi, p. 316 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 124. 

Coloration. The whole plumage with the lesser wing-co verts a 
very rich dark chocolate-brown ; the eyelids clothed with white 
feathers ; the abdomen blackish ; greater wing-coverts dark brown, 
edged with chocolate-brown ; wings and tail blackish, suffused with 
chocolate-brown on the outer webs. 

The young differ markedly from those of 0. asiaticus. The whole 
upper plumage and the sides of the head and neck are blackish 
brown with subterminal rufous margins ; the wings and coverts 
with white, or on some of the feathers slightly rufous, edges ; tail 
black, narrowly tipped with white ; the whole lower plumage 
blackish brown, with ashy fringes to all the feathers. 

Another bird, which has just completed its first autumn moult, 
resembles the adult, but the throat, breast, and middle of the 
abdomen are mottled with white and the wings retain their white 
edges. 

Iris hazel ; bill horny ; legs plumbeous in front, dusky behind 
(CocJcburn). 



ACCENTORIN/E. 165 

Length about 8 ; tail 2'1 ; wing 3*9; tarsus 1*15; bill J'rom 
gape 1'15. 

Distribution. In the British Museum there is an adult prormvd 
by Cockburn at IShillong and two young birds obtained by A. W. 
Chennell in the North Khasi hills. The latter were shot in March 
and are those described above. In the collection of Godwin-Austen 
are three specimens of this species, two adults, procured at Shillong 
in April and May respectively, and a young bird procured in North 
Cachar without date. I have seen no other specimens from Indian 
limits. This species is found in China and the whole of North- 
eastern Asia. 



711. Cinclus sordidus. The Sombre Dipper. 

Cinclus sordidus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 494 ; Salvin, Ibis, 1867, 
p. 118 ; Blanf. J, A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 48 ; Hume, Cat. no. 349 j 
Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 317. 

Hydrobata sordida (Gould), Jercl. B. I. i, p. 507. 

The Black-bellied Cashmere Dipper ^ Jerd. 

Coloration. t Forehead, crown, nape, mantle, sides of the head 
and neck chocolate-brown ; chin, throat, and upper part of breast 
the same but strikingly paler ; upper plumage and wing-coverts 
blackish brown; wings and tail blackish, the outer webs somewhat 
paler ; lower plumage very dark chocolate-brown ; the eyelids are 
probably clothed with white feathers as in the other members of 
the genus, but the type specimen, the only one I have been able 
to examine, exhibits no trace of them. 

Length about 7 ; tail 2 ; wing 3'5 ; tarsus I'l ; bill from 
gape -9. 

Distribution. This species was founded on a specimen procured in 
Kashmir. Blanford appears to have met with this Dipper in Sikhiui 
at 15,000 feet, and Hume records its occurrence in the tract of 
country traversed by Dr. Henderson (Lah. to Tark. p. 189). I can 
find no other notice of it, and this species appears to be very rare. 
It has been met with in Kansu and Northern Tibet. 



Subfamily ACCENTOEIN.E. 

The Accentorince or Accentors comprise a number of birds the 
position of which has been much disputed. Looking to their 
habits and to the colour of the nestling, their position appears to 
me to be among the Thrushes. 

The Accentors have a bill about half the length of the head, 
wide at base, compressed somewhat abruptly in the middle, the 
culmen nearly straight, the upper mandible teiminating in rather 
a fine point and slightly notched ; the nostrils large, diagonal, and 



166 TUBDIDJE. 

covered by a large membrane ; the rictal bristles few and weak ; 
the feathers of the forehead slightly disintegrated ; the tail nearly 
square or sometimes slightly forked ; the tarsus strongly scutel- 
lated. 

The sexes are alike, and some species have a seasonal change of 
plumage caused by the wearing away, in winter, of the margins of 
the feathers. The young moult into adult plumage at the first 
autumn. The nestlings of the various species resemble each other 
closely, and may be described as pale rufous below, densely streaked 
with dark brown, especially on the breast and sides of the body, 
the chin being frequently barred. The upper plumage is dark 
brown, each feather edged with rufous. 

The majority of the Accentors inhabit mountains at considerable 
elevations ; others, hke the common Accentor or Hedge-Sparrow 
of England, inhabit gardens and cultivated spots. They feed on 
insects, and also, it is said, on small seeds. They build their nests 
in bushes or in holes of rocks, and lay blue eggs. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Wing large and pointed, longer than tail by 

more than length of tarsus ACCENTOR, p. 166. 

b. Wing small and blunt, longer than tail by 

much less than length of tarsus THARB.HALEUS, p. 168. 



Genus ACCENTOR, Bechst., 1802. 

The genus Accentor, in addition to the characters of the subfamily, 
has a long and pointed wing. The wing is longer than the tail by 
more than the length of the tarsus, and the secondaries fall short 
of the tip of the wing also by about the length of the tarsus. 

The Accentors of this genus are more or less migratory. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Breast uniformly greyish brown A. nepalensis, p. 166. 

b. Breast rufous, feathers edged with white . . A. himalayanm, p. 168. 



712. Accentor nepalensis. The Eastern Alpine Accentor. 

Accentor nipalensis, Hodgs., Blyth, J. A, S. B. xii, p. 958 (1843) ; 
Blyth, Cat. p. 130; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 359 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 286 j 
Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 63 ; Hume 8f Hend. Lah. to Yark. 
p. 234; Hwne, Cat. no. 652; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 74; 1882, 
p. 281 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 568 ; SJiarpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 664. 

Accentor cacharensis, Hodgs. P. Z. 8. 1845, p. 34. 

The Large Himalayan Accentor, Jerd. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, and hind neck greyish 



A.CCEKTOB. 



In-own, with indistinct darker slreaks : back dark brown, edged 
\\illi rufous-brown: mini) and upper tail-COVerta pale rufous, \\ ill i 
I>laeki>li >haH-shvaks : lesser \\ ing-coverts greyish hrown ; all the 
oilier coverts blackish, tipped with white ; scapulars and tertiaries 
black, edged with ferruginous; the other quills dark brown, 




Fig. 43. Head of A. 



narro\\]y edged and tipped with rufous; tail dark brown, each 
inner web tipped with a spot, which is white on the outer feathers 
and gradually turns to rufous on the inner ; chin and throat white 
barred with black; sides of head, sides of neck, and the breast 
greyish brown ; the region of the eye speckled with white ; middle 
of the abdomen rufous-grey, barred with white and brown ; under 
tail-coverts chestnut-brown, broadly edged with white; sides of 
body and flanks dark ferruginous, some of the feathers near the 
thighs narrowly margined with white. 

Ease of upper mandible from nostril to gape, the gape, and base 
of lower mandible bright yellow ; rest of bill black ; iris very dark 
brow*n ; legs and feet very pale reddish brown, almost fleshy 
(Hume). 

Length about 7 ; tail 2'8 ; wing 4 ; tarsus '95 ; bill from gape 
65. 

This species is allied to the European A. collaris, from which it 
differs in being very richly coloured, and in having the second 
primary equal to or shorter than the sixth, whereas in A. collaris 
the second primary is much longer than the sixth. A. nepalensis 
has, moreover, few white margins on the flanks, and is not so much 
barred beneath. Gilgit examples of A. nepalensis are paler than 
typical birds, but do not otherwise differ. Afghan specimens are 
still paler, and in Asia Minor an intermediate race is found. A. 
nijilatus, Severtzow, from Turkestan, appears to me to be identical 
with A. nepalensis. A. erythropygius, Swinhoe, from China, differs 
from the present species in having very rufous upper tail-coverts, 
and is doubtfully distinct. 

ttintrilntt'nni. The ]Iiinalayas from Afghanistan and Gilgit to 
Sikhim, at very high elevations, Blanford recording this species 
from 11, <><!<) feet. I have seen sptrinicns from Sikhim killed in 
every month of the year, but in Gilgit this Accentor is represented 
to be merely a \\inter visitor. 



168 

713. Accentor himalayanus. The Altai Accentor. 

Accentor himalayanus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi. p. 187 (1842). 
Accentor altaicus, Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. i, p. 365 (1843) j 

Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 287 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 52 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 653; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 74 ; Skarpe, Cat. B. 

M. vii, p. 660. 
Accentor variegatus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii ; p. 958 (1843) j id. Cat. 

p. 131 j Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 359. 

The Himalayan Accentor, Jerd. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, and hind neck greyish 
brown, with darker shaft-streaks ; a pale but distinct greyish 
supercilium ; ear-coverts rufous, with pale shafts ; all the feathers 
under the eye speckled with white ; back, scapulars, and tertiaries 
black edged with rufous ; rump greyish brown, with obsolete darker 
shaft-streaks ; upper tail-coverts and tail dark brown, edged with 
rufous, the inner web of each feather tipped with white or rufous ; 
wing-coverts blackish, more or less edged with rufous and tipped 
with white ; quills dark brown, edged with rufous ; middle of chin 
and throat pure white ; sides of these parts banded with black ; 
feathers of lower throat tipped with black, forming a small collar ; 
sides of neck greyish brown ; remainder of lower plumage ferru- 
ginous, each feather edged with white ; the middle of the abdomen 
almost pure white ; the feathers of the flanks and under tail-coverts 
with broader white edges. 

Base of bill at gape and the gape fleshy ; rest of bill dull black ; 
legs and feet brownish fleshy ; claws dull black ; iris carmine-red 
or cinnabar-red (Hume). 

Length about 6 ; tail 2-4 ; wing 3'7 ; tarsus -85 ; bill from 
gape -6. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Chamba and Grilgit to Sikhim. 
This species occurs in Sikhim throughout the year, but probably at 
various altitudes according to season. At Simla it appears to be 
found only in winter, and it visits Gilgit at the same season. It 
occurs throughout a considerable portion of Central Asia. 



Genus THARRHALEUS, Kaup, 1829. 

The genus TJiarrJialeus contains those Accentors which have a 
blunt and feeble wing. The wing is longer than the tail, but by a 
distance much less than the length of the tarsus, and the second- 
aries fall short of the tip of the wing by a distance equal to about 
half the length of the tarsus. 

The Accentors of this genus do not migrate to such an extent 
as those of the genus Accentor, and some are resident. 



THARRHALEUS. 169 

Key to the Specif s. 

a. Upper plumage unstreaked T. immaculatus, p. 169. 

b. Upper plumage streaked. 

a'. No supercilium T. rubeculoides, p. 169. 

b'. A supercilium. 

a". Chin and throat black T. atriyularis, p. 170. 

b". Chin and throat white or fulvous. 
a'". Breast of same colour as remainder 

of lower plumage T. fttlvesceiis, p. 171. 

b'". Breast ferruginous, quite different 

to other parts of lower plumage. 
a 4 . Supercilium and breast deep ferru- N 
ginous ; crown and rump dis- 
tinctly streaked T. strophiatm, p. 171. 

6*. Supercilium and breast pale ferru- 
ginous ; crown and rump obso- 
letely streaked T. jerdoni, p. 1 72. 

714. Tharrhaleus immaculatus. The Maroon-backed Accentor. 

Accentor immaculatus, Hodys. P. Z. S. 184-5, p. 34 ; Horsf. fy M. 

Cat. i, p. 361 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 286 ; Hume, Cat. no. 651 ; Sharpe, 

Cat. B. M. vii, p. 656. 
Accentor mollis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 581 (1845) ; id. Cat. p. 131. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape dark ashy, the feathers 
of the forehead margined with white ; upper back olive-brown 
tinged with rufous, gradually changing to maroon on the lower 
back, rump, scapulars, and outer webs of tertiaries and later 
secondaries ; upper tail-coverts olive-brown tinged with rufous ; 
tail greyish brown ; wing-coverts dark grey ; primary-coverts and 
winglet black ; quills dark brown, the earlier primaries edged with 
grey on the outer webs above the emarginations ; lores black ; 
ear-coverts slaty brown ; chin, throat, breast, sides of neck, upper 
abdomen, and sides of body ashy brown ; lower abdomen, vent, 
and under tail-coverts dark chestnut ; thighs slaty. 

Iris whitish yellow ; bill black ; legs horny (Hume Coll.}. 

Length about 6 ; tail 2-5 ; wing 3-2 ; tarsus -9 ; bill from 
gape -6. 

Distribution. Nepal and Sikhim. The specimens of this species 
that I have examined from the latter country were killed from 
October to April. It extends to Western China and Moupin. 

715. Tharrhaleus riibeculoides. The Robin Accentor. 

Accentor rubeculoides, Hodys., Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 118 ; Horsf. 
8f M. Cat. i, p. 361 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 288; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. 
xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 53 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 64 ; Hume Sf 
Henders. Lah. to Yark. p. 234 ; Hume, Cat. no. 656 j Sharpe, 
Cat. B. M. vii, p. 657. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, and sides of head brown ; 
back, scapulars, and rump reddish brown with broad black streaks ; 
upper tail-coverts nearly plain brown ; tail br.own, edged paler ; 



170 TURDID^E. 

lesser and median wing-coverts ashy, centred darker and tipped 
whitish ; greater coverts dark brown, broadly edged with rufous 
and tipped whitish ; quills dark brown, edged with rufous ; chin, 
throat, and sides of neck ashy brown with the bases of the 
feathers darker, causing a mottled appearance ; breast deep ferru- 
ginous ; abdomen whitish or pale fulvous ; sides of the body and 
under tail-coverts rufous streaked with brown. 

Iris clear pale brown ; bill black ; legs reddish brown (Blanford). 

Length about 6'5 ; tail 2'7 ; wing 3'2 ; tarsus -9 ; bill from 
gape -6. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Eastern Kashmir and Ladak 
to Sikhim. Blanford found this species above 14,000 feet, and I 
have seen specimens from Sikhim killed in June and October and 
in the adjoining parts of Tibet in February, March, and September : 
it breeds in Tibet, as Mandelli procured quite a young bird in 
September. Dr. Henderson met with this species at Sukti in July 
and at Tankse in October. 



716. Tharrhaleus atrigularis. The Black-throated Accentor. 

Accentor atrigularis, Brandt, JBull. Acad. St. Pctersb. ii, p. 140 
(1844) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 131 ; Hume, Cat. no. 6-55 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 
1881, p. 75 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 569 j Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, 
p. 656. 

Accentor huttoni, Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 119 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, 
p. 360 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 288 ; Stoliczka, J. A. 8. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, 
p. 53 j Scully, S. F. iv, p. 155. 

Coloration. After the autumn moult the forehead, crown, nape, 
back, and scapulars dark brown, each feather with lateral fulvous 
margins ; rump and upper tail-coverts ashy brown ; a broad black 
band on each side of the crown, below which runs a broad buff 
supercilimn ; lores, cheeks, ear-coverts, and under the eye dark 
brown or blackish ; a narrow moustachial streak buff, joining the 
breast and enclosing the chin and throat, which are black with 
narrow white margins ; the w y hole breast and sides of the throat 
ochraceous buff, with partially concealed black bases to all the 
feathers ; middle of the abdomen creamy white ; sides of the body 
and under tail-coverts buff streaked with rich brown ; tail brown, 
edged paler ; quills and coverts brown, margined with fulvous or 
rufous and the coverts more or less tipped paler. In summer the 
buff tips of the moustachial streaks wear away, as also the whitish 
margins of the chin and throat, which parts become quite black 
and are joined to the black of the sides of the head. The front 
part of the supercilium in a similar manner becomes black and the 
hinder part bleaches to white. 

Iris hazel-brown ; base of upper and lower mandibles at gape, 
and the gape, legs, and feet brownish fleshy ; rest of bill dull black ; 
claws horny brown (Hume). 

Length about 6 ; tail 2' 6; wing 2-9 ; tarsus '8; bill from gape 
55. 



TIIARHIIALEUS. 171 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Afghanistan and Gilgit to 
Garhwal. Jerdon records this species from the Punjab Salt- 
llange. This Accentor is a winter visitor to the Himalayas, 
summering in Turkestan and other parts of Central Asia. 

717. Tharrhaleus fulvescens. The Brown Accentor. 

Accentor fulvescens, Severtz. Turl;e*t. Jerofn. pp. 66, 132 (1873) ; id. 

S. F. iii, p. 428; Biddulph, Ibis, J881, p. 75 ; *S'cw//y, Ibis, 1881, 

p. 569; Biddidph, Ibis, 1882, p. 281, pi. viii ; Shaiye, Cat. JB. M. 

vii, p. 655. 
Accentor montanellus (Pall.), apud Scully, S. F. iv, p. 155 ; Hume, 

Cat. no. 655 his. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape uniform dark brown, or 
sometimes dark brown with the feathers edged paler; a broad 
supercilium white or huffy white ; lores, ear-coverts, and under 
the eye dark brown ; back and scapulars ashy brown, sometimes 
tinged with fulvous, each feather with a broad dark brown streak ; 
rump and upper tail-coverts plain ashy brown ; wings and tail 
brown, edged with fulvous ; the wing-coverts and tertiaries tipped 
with huffy white ; lower plumage rich oehraceous buff, the flanks 
with a few darker streaks. 

Bill black, brownish at base below ; iris very dark brown ; legs 
and feet fleshy ; claws dusky, yellowish at tips (Scully). 

Length about 6 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 3 ; tarsus -8 ; bill from gape -6. 

T. montanellus, Pallas, from Lake Baikal and Amurlaud, differs 
from the present species in having the back and scapulars rich 
chestnut-brown, the feathers edged with pale ashy, and the breast- 
fi -Mllicrs with partially concealed black bases. In both species the 
colour of the supercilium is liable to variation from buff to white. 

Distribution. Gilgit and Sikhim in winter only. Mandelli pro- 
cured this species in the country north of Sikhim. It summers in 
Turkestan, Mongolia, and Southern Siberia. 



718. Tharrhaleus strophiatus. The Rufous-breasted Accentor. 

Accentor strophiatus, Hodys., Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 959 (1843) ; 

Bhjth, Cat. p. 131 j Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 360 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, 

p. 287 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 401 ; id. Cat. no. 654 ; Sharpe, Cat. 

B. M. vii, p. 658. 

Accentor multistriatus, David, A. M. N. H. (4), vii, p. 256 (1871). 
Tharrhaleus strophiatus (Hodgs.), Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. 

ii, p. 113. 
Phooching-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. The whole upper plumage rufous-brown streaked 
\\ith black: wings dark brown edged with rufous, the coverts 
tipped with fulvous on the outer web; tail brown; lores, cheeks, 
and ear-coverts black ; a broad supercilium, white in front of the 
eve, deep ferruginous behind, bordered above by a black band ; 
chin and throat white, spotted with black chiefly at the sides ; sides 



172 

of neck fishy streaked with black ; breast deep ferruginous ; middle 
of abdomen whitish ; remainder of lower plumage reddish brown 
streaked with black. 

Many birds have the breast streaked with black ; they are pro- 
bably birds of the first winter. 

Bill black ; legs reddish brown ; iris dark brown (Jerdon). 

Length about 5'5 ; tail 2-3 ; wing 2-7 ; tarsus -8 ; bill from 
gape *55. 

Distribution. Sikhim and Nepal, extending west along the 
Himalayas to Kotgarh. This species appears to be a constant 
resident in the higher portions of the Himalayas and to breed 
both in Nepal and Sikhim. It is found throughout Tibet and 
Western China. 

Habits, fyc. According to Hodgson this species makes a cup- 
shaped nest of grass-roots and moss, lined with wool and hair, in 
tufts of grass, and lays three or four eggs, which measure about 
74 by -54. 

719. Tharrhaleus jerdoni. Jer don's Accentor. 

Accentor jerdoni, Brooks, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 327 (1872) ; Hume, 
N. $ E. p. 408 ; id. 8. F. iv, p. 491 ; id. Cat. no. 654 bis ; Bid- 
dulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 75 ; 1882, p. 281 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 569 ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 660. 

Accentor strophiatus, Hodgs., Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, 
p. 53 ; Hume fy Senders. Lah. to Yark. p. 234. 

Tharrhaleus jerdoni (Brooks), Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, 
p. 314. 

Coloration. Eesembles T. strophiatus. Differs in having the 
whole upper plumage greyish brown, with only the back streaked, 
the few traces of streaks visible on the crown being obscure or 
obsolete ; the lateral black bands on the crown are broader and 
more massive ; the hinder part of the supercilium and the breast 
are pale rufous, not deep ferruginous. 

Iris dark brown ; base of bill, legs, and feet fleshy white ; upper 
mandible and base of lower dull black ; rest of lower mandible and 
claws pale brown (Hume). 

Length 5'5 ; tail 2-2 ; wing 2-7 ; tarsus -8 ; bill from gape -55. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Gilgit to Mussooree. This 
species appears to be a summer visitor to Gilgit, where it breeds 
at 10,000 feet and upwards, and a winter visitor to the lower 
portions of the mountains. 

Habits, Sfc. Captain Cock found the nest of this bird at Sona- 
marg in Kashmir in June, a cup of pine-needles and grass placed 
in a low bough of a pine-tree. The eggs measure about -75 by 
55. 



PLOC'Klli I . 



173 




Fig. 41. Ploceus baya. 



Family PLOCEID/E. 

The intrinsic muscles of the syrinx fixed to the ends of the 
bronchial semi-rings; the edges of both mandibles perfectly smooth ; 
the hinder part of the tarsus longitudinally bilaininated, the laminae 
entire and smooth; wing with ten primaries, the first notably 
small ; nostrils pierced within the line of the forehead or closely 
outside it, the space between the nostril and the edge of the 
mandible greater than the space between the nostril and the 
cuhrien ; bill conical and entire, the notch being absent or obsolete. 



174 PLOCEID^E. 

The Ploceidce are divisible into two subfamilies, the Ploceince or 
Weaver-birds and the Viduince or Manias. 

First primary about as long as the tarsus ; a 

partial spring moult Ploceince, p. 174. 

First primary very minute, much shorter than 

tarsus ; no spring moult Viduince, p. 181. 



Subfamily PLOCEIN^E. 

The PloceincK or Weaver-birds comprise a large number of birds 
which are found in Africa and South-eastern Asia. They are 
Finch-like in structure and appearance, but they differ from the 
Finches in having ten primaries and in undergoing a partial spring- 
moult. 

The Weaver-birds are gregarious, breeding in company, and 
associating at other seasons in large nocks. They construct elabo- 
rate nests of grass which are suspended from the branches of trees 
or attached to the stalks of tall reeds. The eggs are either two or 
three in number, in the genus Ploceus pure white, in Ploceella of 
various colours. 

The males of these birds have a distinct summer and winter 
plumage, and the former is acquired by a moult of the feathers of 
those parts which undergo a change of colour. The moult in the 
spring is thus apparently partial. 

All the Weaver-birds are sedentary in their habits, fearless of 
man in the breeding-season, but more wary at other times. They 
feed largely on grain and seeds. They have no song, but they 
keep up a ceaseless chirping in the breeding-season, especially 
when the building of the nest is in progress. 

The Asiatic Weaver-birds form two well-defined genera, differ- 
ing in structure and their mode of nidification, as well as in the 
colour of their eggs. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Bill considerably longer than it is high ; no 

nuchal hairs ; difference between length of 
wing and length of tail more than length of 
tarsus PLOCEUS, p. 174. 

b. Bill as long as it is high ; nuchal hairs present ; 

difference between length of wing and length 

of tail much less than length of tarsus PLOCEELLA, p. 179. 



Genus PLOCEUS, Cuvier, 1817. 

The genus Ploceus contains the true Weaver-birds, which con- 
struct flask-shaped nests with a tubular entrance, varying in length 
from two feet to a few inches. The eggs are in all cases white. 
In this genus the males acquire a yellow crown in the spring, and 



PLOCEUS. 175 

in the autumn resume their plain appearance, which resembles 
Huil of tin' IVmale. 

In Pimm* (ho bill is thick with the culinen curved, and the 
length of the bill is considerably more than its height ; the wings 
are of moderate length, and the first primary is as long as the 
larsus, and slightly curved inwards; the tail is short and mode- 
rately rounded, of twelve feathers; the tarsus is strong and 
scutellated, and the claws are of considerable length. 

Key to the Species. 

. Crown of head yellow (breeding-males). 

'. Breast yellow P. baya, p. 175. 

//. Breast fulvous P. mcr/arhi/nchus, p. 176. 

c'. Breast black, or black with fulvous 

fringes P. bengalensis, p. 177. 

d'. Breast fulvous, boldly streaked with 

black ' P. manyar, p. 179. 

b. Crown of head brown (females at all seasons 

and males in winter). , p b 17g 

e'. Lower plumage plain fulvous j p J^ ljnchu ^ p> 17G 

/'. Breast black, or black fringed with 

fulvous P. bengalensis, p. 177. 

g . Breast boldly streaked with black .... P. manyar, p. 179. 



720. Ploceus baya *. The Baya. 

? Loxia philippina, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 305 (17CG). 

Ploceus baya, Bhjth, J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 945 (1844) ; Harsf. $ M. 

Cat. ii, p. 515 (part.) ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 343 (part.) ; Blanf. J. A. 

S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 167 ; Hume, N. 8f E. p. 436 (part.) ; id. $ Jhir. 

S. F. vi, p. 399 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 488 ; Gates in Hume's 

N. # E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 114. 
Ploceus philippinus (Linn.), Blyth, Cat. p. 115 (part.) ; Legge, Birds 

Ceyl. p. 641 ; Hume, Cat. no. 694; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 1>.V.. 

The Common 1\'ram--lird (Jerdon) ; Baya, Hind.; Chindora, Hind, 
in Bengal ; Bawi, Talbabi, Bong. ; Parsnpu-jntta, Tel. ; Manja-kuravi, 
Tarn. ; Tkucker&m /.///////, Tarn, in Ceyl. ; Tatta kurula, Wada kurulla, 
Ceyl. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the whole upper 
plumage is fulvous streaked with blackish brown, the streaks be- 
coming obsolete on the lower rum]) and upper tail-coverts ; wing- 
coverts, quills, and tail dark brown, each feather edged with 
fulvous, the edges of the primaries and tail-feathers also being 
tinged with greenish; a clear fulvous supercilium ; sides of the 
head pale fulvous-brown; the whole lower plumage fulvous, 

* Linnieus's name, even if it applied to the Continental race of Weaver-bird, 
which is very doubtful, is inappropriate, as no bird of this genus is known to 
occur in the Philippine Islands. I prefer, therefore, to follow Sh.-irpe in 
adopting Blyth's \vrll-kno\vn name for this species. 



176 PLOCEIDvE. 

darker on the breast and flanks, the feathers of which parts are 
frequently streaked with narrow shaft-lines of brown. After the 
spring moult the appearance of the bird is much changed : the 
forehead, crown, and nape become bright yellow ; the back and 
scapulars are black, each feather broadly margined with bright 
yellow ; the sides of the head, the chin, and throat dark blackish 
brown, and the breast bright yellow; the other parts of the 
plumage remain unchanged. 




Fig. 45. Head of P. baya. 

Female. At all times resembles the male in winter plumage so 
closely as to require no separate description. 

The intensity of the fulvous tinge on these birds varies much 
according to age, and in some degree according to the time which 
has elapsed since the moult- 
In the male in summer the bill is dark horny brown, yellowish 
at gape and base of lower mandible ; legs and feet flesh-colour ; 
iris brown. The female in summer and both sexes in winter have 
the bill yellowish horn-colour. 

Length about 6 ; tail 2 ; wing 2'9 ; tarsus -8 ; bill from gape 
65. 

Distribution. Ceylon and the whole of India proper from the 
extreme south to the base of the Himalayas as far east as the 85th 
degree of longitude, about which boundary this species meets the 
next. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds from April to September, constructing a 
hanging flask-shaped nest of grass, strongly woven, suspended 
from a branch of a tree generally growing over water. The nest 
terminates in a long funnel of grass, sometimes nearly two feet in 
length, through which the bird enters the nest proper. The eggs, 
either two or three in number, measure about -82 by -59. 

721. Ploceus megarhynchus. The Eastern Baya. 

Ploceus atrigula, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 84 (1844, desc. 

null.) ; Skarpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 491 (1890). 
Ploceus philippinus (Linn.), Blyth, Cat. p. 115 (pt.). 
Ploceus baya, Blyth, Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 515 (pt.) ; Jerd. B. I. ii, 

p. 343 (pt.) ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 436 (pt.) ; id. $ Uav. S. F. vi, 

p. 398 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 597 ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 694 bis ; Oates, B. B. i, p, 358. 



PLOCET7S. 177 

Ploceus Baegarhynchus, Hume, S. F. iii, p. 406 (1875) ; id. Cat. 

no. 694 ter; Gates in Hume's N. 8? E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 119. 
Ploceus passerinus, Hodgs. MS., Reichenoiv, Zool. Jahrb. Jena, i, p. 156 

(1886). 

Took-ra, Assam. 

Coloration. The male in winter and the female at all seasons 
resemble the same sexes of P. baya at the same seasons. In 
summer the male has the forehead, crown, and nape bright yellow ; 
the whole upper plumage fulvous streaked with blackish brown, 
the streaks becoming obsolete on the lower rump and upper tail- 
coverts ; wing-coverts, quills, and tail dark brown edged with 
fulvous ; sides of the head, chin, and throat dark blackish brown ; 
the remaining lower plumage fulvous or tawny, becoming albescent 
on the abdomen ; the breast and flanks occasionally with narrow 
shaft-streaks. 

The present species varies as much as does the last in the in- 
tensity of the fulvous tinge, and towards the southern portion of 
the bird's range the fulvous changes to a rich tawny. 

The male in summer has the bill black, the inside of the mouth 
Hesh-colour ; eyelid grey ; iris dark brown ; legs flesh-colour ; 
claws pinkish horn-colour. The male in winter and the female at 
all seasons have the bill yellowish horn-colour. 

Length about 6 ; tail 2 ; wing 2*9 ; tarsus "8 ; bill from gape 
75. 

This species increases in size from south to north, and attains 
its greatest size in the Himalayan Terai. Here the tarsus fre- 
quently reaches to a length of *95, and the bill, from gape to tip, 
85. To this larger bird Hume gave the name of megarhynchus. 
It is, however, impossible to separate this larger race from the 
form inhabiting Burma and the Malay peninsula, and consequently 
Hume's name will stand for the species, no previously-imposed 
name being available. 

Distribution. Bengal and the base of the Himalayas from the 
85th degree of longitude to Assam, and southwards through the 
whole of Burma to the southern end of the Malay peninsula, ex- 
tending to Sumatra and Java. This species, in a somewhat larger 
form, is found along the base of the Himalayas as far west as the 
Dhoon, in company with P. lay a. 

Habits, Sfc. Breeds from April to September, constructing a 
nest very similar to that of P. baya. The nest is not unfrequently 
attached to the thatched eaves of native houses, or even to the 
ends of the loose leaves inside the verandahs. The eggs measure 
about -82 by -6. 

722. Ploceus bengalensis. The Black-throated Weaver-bird. 

Loxia benghalensis, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 305 (1766). 
Ploceus bengalensis (Linn.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 115 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. 
ii, p. 515; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 349; Hume, N. $ E. p. 44 1 ; id Cat. 
no. 696 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 361 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 493 ; 
VOL. II. y 



178 PLOCEID^E. 

Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 261 ; Hume, S. F, xi, p. 270 j Oates in 
Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 120. 

Sarbo baya, Hind, j Shor baya, Kantawala baya, Beng. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the forehead, crown, 
and nape are dark brown, each feather narrowly margined with 
fulvous-brown ; back, scapulars, and all the feathers of the wings 
dark blackish brown, each feather broadly margined with fulvous ; 
rump and upper tail-coverts dull fulvous, streaked with pale brown ; 
tail brown, narrowly margined paler ; a distinct supercilium, widen- 
ing and becoming paler at the nape, yellow ; a large yellow patch 
on the side of the neck ; a pale yellow patch under the eye ; re- 
mainder of side of the head brown ; cheeks, chin, and throat pale 
yellow ; a narrow moustachial streak black ; fore neck and upper 
breast black, each feather very broadly margined with fulvous ; 
remainder of lower plumage fulvous, paler on the abdomen, and 
the sides of the body narrowly streaked with brown. Soon after 
the moult the broad fulvous margins on the fore neck and upper 
breast commence to wear away, and by February and March these 
parts are almost uniform black. 

After the partial spring moult the forehead and crown become 
bright golden yellow surrounded by a black band ; the chin and 
throat become whitish or whity brown, and the entire side of the 
head and neck become uniform brown ; the other parts of the 
plumage remain unchanged, except that the pale margins to the 
feathers of the back and wings get worn away, causing those parts 
to become very dark and more uniform brown. 

Female. Very similar to the male in winter plumage, but with 
all the yellow marks on the head paler, and with much less black 
on the fore neck and upper breast. The pale margins on these 
parts wear away as in the male, but these parts apparently never 
become quite so black in the breeding-season as in the male. 

Bill pearly white or pale plumbeous at all seasons and in both 
sexes ; iris light brown ; legs flesh-colour. 

Length about 5-5; tail 1-8; wing 2'S ; tarsus '8; bill from 
gape *65. 

Distribution. Occurs sparingly throughout Northern India from 
Sind to Bengal, and up to the foot of the Himalayas. The Southern 
limit appears to be a line drawn from Bombay to Bastar, south 
of which line this species does not appear to have been recorded. 
Eastwards it occurs throughout Assam, and it is found commonly 
as far south as Manipur. Blanford records this Weaver-bird from 
Ava and Thayetmyo, but its occurrence in Burma has not been 
confirmed. 

Habits, $c. Breeds in the rains. The nest resembles that of 
P. baya in general shape, but the funnel is very short. The nest 
is invariably attached to the leaves of elephant-grass, with which 
it is well incorporated and by which it is more or less supported. 
The eggs measure about -83 by *58. 



PLOCEELLA. 179 



723. Ploceus manyar. The Striated Weaver-bird. 

Fringilla manyar, Horsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 160 (1820). 
Ploceus manyar (Horsf.), Blyth, Cat. p. 115 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, 
p. 514 ; Jerd. B. /.'ii, p. 348; Hume, N. $ E. p. 440 ; Anders. 
Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 598 ; Legye, Birds CeyJ. p. 646 ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 695 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 360 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 
p. 260 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 496 ; Oates in Hume's N. 8f E. 
2nd ed. ii, p. 121. 

Bamani bay a, Hind, in the Deccan ; Telia bay a, Beng. ; Bawoyi in 
Rungpore. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn inoult the forehead and 
crown are yellow ; throat, cheeks, ear-coverts and sides of neck 
black or brownish black; lower plumage fulvous, each feather 
striated with black down the centre, except on the abdomen and 
under tail-coverts ; upper plumage dark brown edged with pale 
fulvous ; wings and tail brown edged with yellowish ; the throat is 
sometimes coloured a pale brown, and the intensity of the fulvous 
on the lower parts varies much. 

After the partial spring moult the forehead, crown, and nape 
become deep yellow ; the supercilium and the spot behind the ear- 
coverts disappear, and the whole of the sides of the head and neck 
together with the cheeks, chin, and throat become blackish brown 

Female. Resembles the male in winter plumage. 

The male in summer has the bill bluish black, paler at gape ; 
the female in summer and both sexes in winter have the bill yellow- 
ish horn-colour ; the iris is at all times brown, legs flesh-colour, and 
claws pinkish horn. 

Length nearly 6 ; tail 1-8; wing 2-7; tarsus -8; bill from 
gape -7- 

Distribution. The whole Empire from the foot of the Himalayas 
southward to Ceylon on the one hand, and to about the latitude 
of: Moulmein in Tenasserim on the other. This species also occurs 
in Java. 

Habits, $c. Breeds throughout the rains, attaching its nest, which 
resembles that of P. bay a, but has a shorter funnel, to the extremities 
of several leaves of elephant-grass. The eggs measure about *8 
by -58. 

Genus PLOCEELLA, Oates, 1873. 

The genus Ploceella differs from Ploceus in many important par- 
ticulars. The bill is much shorter, being no longer than it is high ; 
the nape is furnished with a few short hairs, and the tail is much 
longer and more rounded. The plumage of the male in summer 
is largely yellow. The nest differs much from that of a Ploceus, 
being supported at the sides by reeds and not suspended from their 
tips ; it has no tubular entrance, and the exterior surface of the 
nest is of quite a different appearance, being rough and coarse 

N2 



180 PLOOEID^E. 

instead of smooth. The eggs are of all colours and but seldom 
pure white. 

Ploceella approximates more to the African Weaver-birds than 
does Ploceus. Only one species of this genus is known. 

724. Ploceella javanensis. The Golden Weaver-bird. 

Loxia javanensis, Less. TV. d'Orn. p. 446 (1831). 

Ploceus hypoxanthus (Daud.), Blyth, Cat. p. 114 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. 

ii, p. 613 ; Hume, N. fy E. p. 442 ; id. S. F. iii, p. 154. 
Ploceella javanensis (Less.}, Oates, S. F. v, p. 160; Hume, Cat. 

no. 696 bis ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 362 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 474 ; 

Gates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 124. 
Ploceus chryseus, Hume, S. F. vi, p. 399 note (1878). 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the whole upper 
plumage is rufous-brown streaked with dark brown ; wings and 
tail brown, margined with rufous-brown ; a supercilium, the sides 
of the head and neck, and the whole lower plumage tawny buff, 
becoming paler on the abdomen. After the spring moult, the 
cheeks, ear-coverts, chin, and throat become deep black ; the re- 
mainder of the lower plumage, the sides of the neck, forehead, 
crown, nape, rump, and upper tail-coverts rich golden yellow ; back 
and scapulars black, each feather edged with bright golden yellow ; 
wings and tail black, edged with pale yellowish, the latter also tipped 
with the same colour. 

Female. Resembles the male in winter plumage. 
The male in summer has the bill black with the underside of the 
lower mandible dark horn ; inside of the mouth flesh-colour ; iris 
brown ; eyelids grey ; legs pinkish flesh-colour ; claws horn-colour. 
The female in summer and both sexes in winter have the bill fleshy 
brown, dark on the upper and pale on the lower mandible, and the 
other parts as in the male in summer. 

Length nearly 6 ; tail 2'3 ; wing 2'7 ; tarsus '8 ; bill from gape 
55 ; the female has the tail about 1'9 and the wing about 2-5. 

Distribution. Upper Burma and Pegu between the Irrawaddy 
and Sittoung rivers from Mandalay down to the Grulf of Martaban ; 
Northern Tenasserim ; Siam, Cochin China, and Java. 

Habits, fyc. Commences to breed in May and June, making a 
cylindrical nest of woven grass attached to several stalks of elephant- 
grass or sometimes placed in a thorny bush or tree. The eggs, 
either two or three in number, vary much in colour, being white, 
greenish white, grey, or purplish, either unmarked or marked with 
grey, greenish brown, and neutral tint. They measure about -73 
by -54. 



MUNIA. 181 



Subfamily VIDUIN^). 

The Vidwnce or Munias differ from the Weaver-birds in having 
a very minute first primary and in having no spring moult. 

The Munias associate in large flocks during the winter months, 
but they separate and are no longer sociable in the breeding-season, 
although several nests may be found near each other. They have 
a rapid flight. The sexes of these birds are usually quite alike in 
plumage, and when they differ, the differences between the sexes 
are not very great. 

The Munias construct large round nests of grass with an opening 
at the side. The nest is placed in a bush or in a clump of grass, 
and some species approach man and build their nests in houses, under 
the eaves or in the treUis-work of a verandah. The eggs are 
numerous, being frequently six or more, and they are invariably 
pure white. 

None of the Munias are known to migrate. They feed on the 
ground or else cling to the heads of flowering grass or corn, and they 
consume large quantities of grain. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Middle pair of tail-feathers narrow and 

pointed. 
a'. Tail rounded and very slightly graduated ; 

difference between wing and tail quite 

equal to tarsus ; crown black, different 

from back MUNIA, p. 181. 

b'. Tail wedge-shaped and much graduated ; 

difference between wing and tail much 

less than tarsus; crown of much the 

same colour as back UROLONCHA, p. 183. 

c'. Tail wedge-shaped and much graduated; 

tail in male longer than wing ; colours 

green and crimson ERYTHRURA, p. 190. 

b. Middle tail-feathers broad and rounded. 

d'. Difference between outer and middle tail- 
feathers less than tarsus; plumage 
jrreen STICTOSPIZA, p. 190. 

e'. Difference between outer and middle tail- 
feathers equal to tarsus ; plumage red. SPOR^GINTHUS, p. 192. 

Genus MUNIA, Hodgs. 1836. 

The genus Munia contains two Indian species, which are 
characterized by a short and rounded tail, having the middle 
pair of feathers very narrow and pointed. The tail is shorter 
than the wing by a distance quite equal to the length of the 
tarsus. The plumage is chiefly black and chestnut, and the sexes are 
absolutely alike. 



182 

Key to the Species 

a. Lower breast and sides of body white .... M. malacca, p. 182. 

b. Lower breast and sides of body chestnut . . M. atricapilla, p. 183. 





Fig. 46. Tail of M. malacca. Fig. 47. Head of M. malacca. 

725. Munia malacca. The Blade-headed Munia. 

Loxia malacca, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 302 (1766). 
Munia malacca (Linn.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 116; Horsf. 8f M. Cat. ii, 
p. 507 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 352 ; Hume, N. fy E. p. 443 ; Legge, Birds 
Ceyl. p. 652 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 330 ; Gates, in Hume's 
N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 126. 
Amadina malacca (Linn.}, Hume, Cat. no. 697 j Barnes, Birds Bom. 

p. 362. 

Nakal-nor, Hind. ; Nalla jinawayi, Tel. ; W&-kurulla, Ceyl. ; Tinna 
kuruvi. Tarn. 

Coloration. The whole head, neck, and upper breast, the middle 
of the abdomen, vent, thighs, and under tail-coverts deep black ; 
remainder of lower plumage white ; back, upper rump, scapulars, 
and the whole of the wings chestnut ; lower rump and upper tail- 
coverts glistening maroon ; tail dull chestnut, edged with glistening 
maroon. 

The young bird has the whole upper plumage, wings, and tail 
rufous-brown ; the whole lower plumage pale buff. 

Bill pale lavender ; legs and feet leaden blue ; iris dark brown 
(Butler}. 

Length about 5 ; tail 1*6 ; wing 2-2 ; tarsus *6 ; bill from gape 
45. 

Distribution. Ceylon and the southern half of India up to about 
the latitude of Bhandara and E-aipur in the Central Provinces. 

* MUNIA ORYZIVORA (Linn.). 

The Java Sparrow has been introduced into parts of India and is now to be 
met with in the wild state in Madras and, according to Blyth, in Tenasserim. 
I do not, however, propose to include it in my list. The following is a descrip- 
tion of the bird. The sexes are alike : 

Cheeks and ear-coverts white ; chin, throat, a line bordering the ear-coverts, 
the forehead, and the whole top of the head black ; neck, breast, upper abdomen, 
back, scapulars, and wings bluish grey ; rump, upper tail -coverts, and tail black ; 
abdomen, sides, thighs, and vent vinous, paler down the middle ; under tail- 
ooverts white, 



UROLONCI! A . 183 

Jerdon states that tbis species occasionally extends to Bengal, but 
I have not seen any specimen from that province. 

Habits, &fc. Breeds from April to October. The eggs measure 
about -64 by '47. 

726. Munia atricapilla. The Chestnut-bellied Munia. 

Loxia atricapilla, Vieill. Ois. Chant, p. 84, pi. 53 (1805). 

Munia rubroniger, Hodgs. As. Res. xix, p. 153 (1836) ; Blyth, Cat. 

p. 116 ; Hotvf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 507 : Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 353 ; Legge, 

Birds Ceyl. p. 652. 
Munia atricapilla (Vieill.}, Hume, N. fy E. p. 444; Anders. Yunnan 

Exped., Aves, p. 598 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 334 ; Oates in 

Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 129. 
Amadiua rubronigTa (Hodgs.}, Hume, Cat. no. 698 ; Barnes, Birds 

Bom. p. 262 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 272. 
Amadina atricapilla ( Vieill}, Oates B. B. i, p. 366. 

Coloration. The whole head, neck, and upper breast deep black ; 
middle of the abdomen, vent, thighs, and under tail-coverts dull 
black ; remainder of the lower plumage, the back, scapulars, upper 
rump, and the whole of the wings chestnut ; lower rump and upper 
tail-coverts rich maroon, the latter tipped with glistening golden 
fulvous ; tail brown, margined with glistening golden fulvous. 

Towards the southern part of its range this species has the back 
washed with silvery grey. 

The young bird is plain rufous-brown above and pale buff 
below. 

Bill leaden blue ; iris dark brown ; legs dark plumbeous. 

Length about 4*5; tail 1*5; wing 2*1; tarsus "55; bill from 
gape *45. 

Distribution. The country skirting the base of the Himalayas 
from the Dehra Dun to the extreme east of Assam; Lower 
Bengal ; Chutia Nagpur and Sambalpur in the Central Provinces ; 
the whole eastern portion of the Empire from Assam down to 
Tenasserim. This species has been recorded from Ceylon, but it 
is probable that the specimens observed there had escaped from 
captivity. M. atricapilla has a wide range, being found in China, 
Siam, and the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds from June to September in swampy localities. 
The eggs measure about *63 by *43. 

Genus UROLONCHA, Cabanis, 1851. 

The genus Urolonclia contains numerous species of Munias in 
which the tail is much longer than in typical Munia, the difference 
between the tail and the wing being much less than the length of 
the tarsus ; the graduation of the tail-feathers is also much 
greater. 

In this genus the sexes are absolutely alike, and the colour of 
the crown of the head is very closely, or quite, the same as that of 
the back. 



184 



PLOCEID^. 



Key to the Species. 

a. Rump white. 

a'. Abdomen white mottled with brown .... 
b'. Abdomen plain, unmottled white. 
a". Feathers of upper plumage with white 

shafts. 

a'". Fore neck and breast deep black . . 
b"'. Fore neck and breast brown with 

rufous margins 

b". Feathers of upper plumage without 
white shafts 

b. No white on rump. 

c'. Shafts of feathers of upper plumage pale ; 
upper tail-coverts black or tipped with 
glistening fulvous. 

c". Abdomen white, sides of body black. . 
d". Abdomen and sides of the body plain 

pinkish brown 

e". Abdomen and sides of the body cross- 
barred with brown. 

c'". Chin and throat black 

d'". Chin and throat chestnut 

d'. Shafts of feathers of upper plumage of 



same colour as 
coverts white . 



feathers ; upper tail- 



U. acuticauda, p. 184. 

U. stnata, p. 185. 

U. semistriata, p. 186. 

U. fumigata, p. 186. 

U. leucogastra, p. 186. 
U. pectoralis, p. 187. 

U. kelaarti, p. 187. 
U, punctulata, p. 189. 

U. maldbarica, p. 188. 




Fig. 48. Tail of U. acuticauda. 



727. Uroloncha acuticauda, Hodgson's Munia. 

Munia acuticauda, Hodgs. As. Res. xix, p. 153 (1836) ; Horsf. fy M. 

Cat. ii, p. 510 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 356 ; Hume, N. $ JS. p. 450. 
Munia molucca (Linn.), Blyth, Cat. p. 117. 
Amadina acuticauda (Hodgs.}, Hume, Cat. no. 702; Gates, E. B. i 

p. 364; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 273. 
Uroloncha acuticauda (Hodgs.'), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 356; 

Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 131. 

The Himalayan Munia, Jerd. ; Samprek-pho, Lepch. ; Namprek, Bhut. 

Coloration. The whole upper plumage chocolate-brown, with a 
band of white across the rump, the upper tail-coverts washed with 
rufous, all the shafts of the feathers of the upper plumage white ; 
tail black ; wing-coverts brown with white shafts ; wings blackish 



UROLONCHA. 185 

brown ; feathers round the bill, the chin, and upper throat black ; 
ear-coverts and sides of neck rufous, with paler margins and white 
shafts ; lower throat, fore neck, and In-east chocolate-brown, witli 
pale rufous or whitish margins and white shafts ; abdomen and 
sides of the body white mottled with brown ; vent, thighs, and 
under tail-coverts chocolate-brown with white shaft-streaks. 

Young birds have the upper plumage somewhat similar to that 
of the adult, and the lower plumage almost uniform dull greyish 
white mottled with brown. 

Upper mandible blackish, the lower plumbeous ; iris dark brown ; 
legs plumbeous ; claws horny. 

Length about 4*5 ; tail 1*75 ; wing 2 ; tarsus '55 ; bill from 
gape -4. 

This bird varies slightly in plumage throughout its great range. 

Distribution. The lower ranges of the Himalayas from Grarhwal 
to Assam, up to 5000 feet ; the whole eastern portion of the 
Empire from Assam to Tenasserim : sparingly distributed. This 
species extends to Southern China, Siam, the Malay peninsula, 
and Sumatra. 

Habits, $c. Breeds from about June to November or December. 
The eggs measure about -61 by -42. 

728. Uroloncha striata. The White-backed Munia. 

Loxia striata, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 306 (1766). 

Munia striata (Linn.), Blyth, Cat. p. 117 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, 

p. 511 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 356 ; .Hume, N. $ E. p. 448 ; Legge, Birds 

Ceyl. p. 660. 
Amadina striata (Linn.'), Hume, Cat. no. 701 ; Gates, B. B. i, p. 365 ; 

Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 263. 
Uroloncha striata (Linn.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 359; Oatfs 

in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 133. 

Shakari munia, Beng. ; We-kurulla, Ceyl. ; Tinna kuruvi, Tani. 

Coloration. Forehead and crown blackish, with the shafts in- 
distinctly white ; upper plumage chocolate-brown, becoming blacker 
on the upper tail-coverts, all the feathers with a white shaft ; a 
broad white band across the rump ; tail black ; wing-coverts black 
with whitish shafts ; quills black ; lores, round the eye, cheeks, 
chin, throat, and breast deep blacky ear-coverts and sides of the 
neck chocolate-brow r n with pale shaft-streaks ; abdomen and sides 
of the body white ; vent, thighs, and under tail-coverts dark brown 
or blackish ; under wing-coverts and axillaries white. 

Young birds resemble the adult, but have the chin, throat, and 
breast brown with paler margins and shafts. 

Upper mandible blackish, the lower bluish ; iris reddish brown ; 
legs greenish horny. 

Length about 4-5 ; tail 1*8 ; wing 2 ; tarsus '5 ; bill from gape *4. 

This bird is subject to slight variations in plumage according to 
age and locality. 

'',. Ceylon and the southern half of India up to a Hue 



186 PLOCEID^:. 

drawn roughly from Bombay to Sambalpur and Manbhoom in 
S.W. Bengal. Blyth recorded this species from Arakan, but pro- 
bably by an oversight. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds from April to December and probably in 
the remaining months of the year. The eggs measure about -61 
by -44. 

729. Uroloncha semistriata. The Nicobar White-backed Muni a. 

Munia semistriata, Hume, S. F. ii, p. 257 (1874). 
Amadina semistriata (Hume), Hume, Cat. no. 701 quat. 
Uroloncha semistriata (Hume), SJiarpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 361. 

Coloration. Eesembles U. striata but is smaller ; the striations or 
white shafts on the upper plumage less distinct ; and the feathers 
of the fore neck and breast dark brown, not deep black, with 
conspicuous rufous-brown margins. 

Length about 4'2 ; tail 1*6 ; wing 1/8 ; tarsus '5 ; bill from 
gape -4. 

Distribution. The Nicobar Islands. 



730. Uroloncha fumigata. The Andaman White-backed Munia. 

Munia fumigata, Walden, A. M. N. H. (4) xii, p. 488 (1873) ; id. 

Ibis, 1874, pp. 144, 14/5. 

Munia nonstriata, Hume, S. F. ii, p. 257 (1874). 
Munia striata (Linn.}, Hume, S. F. ii, p. 497. 
Amadina fumigata (WaM.}, Hume, Cat. no. 701 ter. 
Uroloncha fumigata ( Wold.}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 361 ; Oates 

in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 135. 

Coloration. Eesembles U. striata. Differs in entirely wanting 
any white shafts on the upper plumage, in having the upper tail- 
feathers broadly margined with rufous-brown, and in the feathers 
of the sides of the breast being also margined with rufous, these 
margins sometimes extending across the lower breast. 

Iris reddish brown ; upper mandible black, the lower leaden blue ; 
legs and feet plumbeous green or greenish horny (Hume). 

Length about 4'5 ; tail 1-8 ; wing 2 ; tarsus '5 ; bill from gape '4. 

Distribution. The Andaman Islands. 

Habits, Sfc. Davison remarks that when he arrived at the Anda- 
mans in December, the young birds of this species had left the 
nest. This bird probably breeds, therefore, in the latter part of 
the rains. 

731. Uroloncha leucogastra. The White-bellied Munia. 

Amadina leucogastra, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 286 (1846) ; Hume, 

Cat. no. 701 bis ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 367. 
Munia melanictera (Gm.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 117. 
Munia leucogastra (Blyth}, Davison, S. F. v, p. 460 ; Hume fy Dav. 

S. F. vi, p. 402. 
Uroloncha leucogastra (7?/.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 362 ; Oates 

in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 135. 



UROLONCHA. 187 

Coloration. Upper plumage, scapulars, and wing-coverts chocolate- 
broxvn, the .shaft of each feather white ; upper tail-coverts black ; 
tail blackish, with broad shiny fulvous margins ; wings blackish ; 
lores, cheeks, chin, throat, breast, sides of the body, thighs, and 
under tail-coverts black ; abdomen and under wing-coverts white, 
the white of the abdomen forming an angle in the breast. 

Legs and feet dusky plumbeous or dull smalt-blue ; lower man- 
dible dull smalt- or pale blue ; upper mandible brownish black or 
black ; iris dark brown (Hume $- Dav.). 

Length about 4*5 ; tail 1/8 ; wing 1*9 ; tarsus '55 ; bill from 
gape '45. 

Distribution. The extreme south of Tenasserim, ranging down 
the Malay peninsula and to Borneo. 

Habits, $'c. Davison took a nest of this species in Tenasserim in 
April. The eggs appear to measure about *65 by -44. 

732. Uroloncha pectoralis. The Rufous-bellied Munia. 

Munia pectoralis, Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 355 (1863) j Hume, N. $ E. 

p. 448 ; id. S. F. iii, p. 263, iv, p. 403. 
Amadina pectoralis (Jerd.), Hume, Cat. no. 700. 
Uroloncha pectoralis (Jerd.), Sharpe, Cat. S. M. xiii, p. 365 ; Oates 

in Hume's N. % E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 136. 

Coloration. Upper plumage chocolate-brown with pale shafts, 
the head a darker brown ; the rump blackish, with broad triangular 
streaks of pale buff; upper tail-coverts glistening fulvous; tail 
black ; wings dull black ; lores, cheeks, chin, throat, and fore neck 
black ; ear-coverts buff with pale shafts ; sides of the fore neck, 
sides of breast, breast, sides of the body, and the whole abdomen 
pinkish brown ; vent and under tail-coverts blackish, with pinkish- 
brown streaks. 

The young are plain chocolate-brown above with fulvous upper 
tail-coverts, and have the lower plumage buff with pale shaft-streaks. 

Bill, legs, and feet slaty ; iris brown (Miss Cockburn). 

Length nearly 5 ; tail 1*8 ; wing 2*2 ; tarsus '5 ; bill from 
gape *45. 

Distribution. The hills on the western coast of India from the 
Wynaad to Travancore. 

Habits, fyc. Appears to breed chiefly in June and July. The 
eggs measure about *62 by '44. 

733. Uroloncha kelaarti. The Ceylon Munia. 

Munia kelaarti, Bluth, Jerd. B. 1. ii, p. 356 (1863) ; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, 
p. 299 ; Hume, F. vii, p. 410 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 650, pi. xxvii, 
tig. 2. 

Amadina kelaarti (Blyth), Hume, Cat. no. 700 bis. 

Uroloncha kelaarti (Blyth), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 366. 
We-kurulla, Ceyl. ; Tinna kuruvi, Tarn. 

Coloration. Upper plumage chocolate-brown with pale shafts, 



188 

the head darker ; rump black, with white cruciform marks ; upper 
tail-coverts glistening fulvous ; tail black ; wings dark brown or 
blackish ; cheeks, lores, chin, throat, and fore neck black ; sides o 
the neck and of the breast pinkish brown with pale shafts ; breast 
and whole lower plumage pinkish white, irregularly but closely 
cross-barred with black. 

The young are plain chocolate-brown above, without pale shafts 
or white marks on the rump, and pale buff below with white shafts 
and irregular cross-bands of brown. 

Iris sepia-brown ; bill blackish leaden, bluish at the base of the 
lower mandible ; legs and feet plumbeous, in some with a greenish 
tinge (Legge). 

Length about 4-5; "tail 1-8; wing 2-1; tarsus -5; bill from 
gape *45. 

Distribution. Confined to the island of Ceylon. 



734. Uroloncha malabarica. The White-throated Munia. 

Loxia malabarica, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 305 (1766). 

Munia malabarica (Linn.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 117 j Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, 

p. 508; Jerd. B.I. ii, p. 357 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 451; Legge, 

Birds Ceyl. p. 662. 

Munia similaris, Stoliczka,^ J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 56 (1868). 
Amadina malabarica (Linn?), Hume, Cat. no. 703; Barnes, Birds 

Bom. p. 263. 

Aidemosyne malabarica (Linn.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 369. 
Uroloncha malabarica (Linn.), Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, 

p. 136. 

The Plain Brown Munia, Jerd. ; Charchara in the N. W. Prov. ; Piddari, 
Southern and Central India ; Sar-munia, Beng. ; Jinuwayi, Tel. 

Coloration. Upper plumage, wing-coverts, secondaries, and ter- 
tiaries earthy brown ; primaries and winglet black ; upper tail- 
coverts w r hite, the outer webs of the exterior feathers partially black ; 
tail dark brown, margined with rusty ; sides of the head and lower 
plumage pale buffy white, the sides of the body faintly cross-barred 
with rusty. 

The young closely resemble the adult. 

Upper mandible plumbeous horn-colour; lower mandible lav- 
ender ; legs and feet pale purplish pink ; iris dark brown (Butler}. 

Length about 4'5 ; tail 1-9 ; wing 2-1 ; tarsus -55 ; bill from 
gape -4. 

Distribution. The whole continent of India from the Himalayas, 
which this species ascends up to 5000 feet, to Cape Comorin and 
Ceylon. The most easterly locality at which this bird appears 
to have been observed is Kooshtea on the Ganges, Bengal, 
where Godwin- Austen obtained it ( J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. ] 71). 
To the west it ranges into Afghanistan. 

Habits, $c. Breeds throughout the greater part of the year. 
The eggs measure *6 by -47. 



UBOLONCHA. 189 

735. Uroloncha punctulata. The Spotted Munia. 

Loxia punctulata, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 302 (1706). 

Loxia undulata, P. L. 8. Mull. Syst. Nat., Anhany, p. 151 (1776). 

Mimia undulata (Lath.}, Myth, Cat. p. 117; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, 

p. 506 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 354. 
Munia punctulata (Linn.), Hume, N. Sf E. p. 444 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. 

p. 656 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 346. 
Munia subundulata, Godw.-Aust. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 48 j Hume, S. F. 

iii, p. 398. 
Munia superstriata, Hume, S. F. ii, p. 481 (1874) ; Hume 8f Dav. 

S. F. vi, p. 402. 

Munia inglisi, Hume, S. F. v, p. 39 (1877). 
Amadina punctulata (Linn.), Hume, Cat. no. 699 ; Oates, B. B. \, 

p. 368 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 262. 
Amadina subundulata (Godw.-Aust.), Hume, Cat. no. 699 bis ; id, 

S. F. xi, p. 272. 

Arnadiua superstriata (Hume), Hume, Cat. no. 699 ter. 
Amadina inglisi (Hume), Hume, Cat. no. 699 quat. 
Uroloncha punctulata (Linn.), Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, 

p. 141. 

Telia munia, Hind, in the North ; Sing-baz, Shinbaz, Hind, in the 
Deccan and at Mussooree ; Shubz munia, Beng. ; Kakkara jinuwayi, Tel. j 
We-kurulla, Ceyl. ; Tinna kuruvi, Tarn. 

Coloration. Upper plumage dull chocolate-colour with the shafts 
pale ; lower rump barred irregularly with brown and yellowish and 
streaked with white ; upper tail-coverts glistening yellowish fulvous ; 
tail fulvous-yellow ; wings chocolate, the coverts with pale shafts ; 
sides of the head, chin, and throat rich chestnut ; lower plumage 
white, each feather, with the exception of those on the abdomen, 
subinarginally banded with fulvous-brown ; under tail-coverts 
fulvous white mottled with black. 

The above description applies to birds from the Continent of 
India, which, however, vary considerably among themselves in the 
shade of colouring of the rump and the amount and distinctness of 
the bars on this part. Birds from Assam, southwards to Burma, 
are less distinctly barred on the rump, the general colour of which 
and of the upper tail-coverts and tail is more olivaceous. Many 
species have been established on these slight differences, but I am 
unable to recognize them even as races, the differences being by no 
means constant over the same small areas. 

Bill bluish black, paler and somewhat plumbeous on the lower 
mandible ; iris deep reddish brown ; legs plumbeous ; claws horny. 

Length nearly 5; tail 1*7; wing 2'1; tarsus '6; bill from 
gape *45. 

Young birds are rufous-brown above and pale buff below without 
marks of any kind. 

Distribution. The whole continent of India, except Sind, the 
Punjab, and portions of Eajputana and the N.W. Provinces, 
ascending the Himalayas up to about 5000 feet ; Ceylon ; the 
eastern part of the Empire from Assam to about the latitude of 



190 

Tavoy. To the east, in China, this species is replaced by an allied 
race M. topela. 

Habits, <$fc. Breeds almost throughout the year. The eggs 
measure about *65 by *46. 

Genus ERYTHRURA, Swains., 1837. 

The genus Erythfura contains one species of Munia, the pre- 
vailing colours of which are green and crimson. The sexes are 
slightly different. In the male the tail is longer than the wing ; 
in the female it is considerably shorter. The middle pair of tail- 
feathers is very narrow and pointed. 

736. Erythmra prasina, The Long-tailed Munia. 

Loxia prasina, Sparrm. Mus. Carls, pis. 72, 73 (1788). 

Erythrina prasina (Sparrm.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 118. 

Erythrura prasina (Sparrm.}, Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 503 ; Hume fy 

Dav. S. F. vi, p. 405; Hume, Cat. no. 703 ter; Oates, B. B. i, 

p. 370; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 381. 

Coloration. Male. Lores and a narrow line to the nostril black ; 
forehead, cheeks, round the eye, chin, and throat blue ; upper 
plumage, wing-coverts, and tertiaries bright green ; lower rump 
and upper tail-coverts crimson ; middle pair of tail-feathers dull 
red, the others brown tipped with greenish; primaries and secon- 
daries black, margined with green ; ear-coverts and sides of the 
neck green ; lower plumage buff, except the middle of the abdomen, 
which is crimson. 

Female. Resembles the male in general appearance, but has the 
blue of the forehead, cheeks, and round the eye replaced by green 
with a slight blue tinge, and the blue of the chin and throat replaced 
by greenish buff; the crimson on the abdomen is absent, that part 
being buff like the remainder of the lower plumage. 

The young resemble the female in general appearance, but have 
the upper tail-coverts and middle pair of tail-feathers yellowish, 
not crimson. 

Legs, feet, and claws fleshy pink : bill black ; iris dark brown 
(Hume 6f Dav.}. 

Length of male about 6 ; tail 2-8 ; wing 2-3 ; tarsus -6 ; bill from 
gape -55. Length of female nearly 5 ; tail 1-6 ; other parts as in 
the male. 

Distribution. The extreme south of Tenasserim, extending down 
the Malay peninsula and to Sumatra, Java, aud Borneo. 

Genus STICTOSPIZA, Sharpe, 1890. 

The genus Stictospiza contains a single species of Munia of a 
green colour. The female differs from the male chiefly in being 
paler. In this genus the middle tail-feathers are broad and 
rounded, and not narrow and pointed as in the preceding genera. 



STICTOSPIZA. 191 



737. Stictospiza formosa. The Green Munia. 

Fringilla formosa, Lath. Ind. Orn. i, p. 441 (1790). 

Estrelda formosa (Lath.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 119 ; Jerd. B. 1. ii, p. 361 ; 

Hume, N. $ E. p. 456 ; Butler, S. F. iii, p. 496 ; Hume, Cat. no. 

705 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 56 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 265. 
Stictospiza formosa (Lath.}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii. p. 287 ; Oates 

in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 145. 
The Green Wax-bill, Jerd. ; liar re lal, Harre munia, Hind. 




Fig. 49. Tail of S. for mow. 

Coloration. Male. The whole upper plumage light green, tinged 
with yellow on the upper tail-coverts ; wings and their coverts 
brown, each feather broadly edged with light green, the closed 
wing appearing entirely of this latter colour ; tail black ; sides of 
the head and neck yellowish green ; lower plumage yellow, pale on 
the chin, throat and fore neck, brighter on the breast, and becoming 
deep on the abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts ; flanks and 
sides of the body transversely barred with dark greenish brown 
and white, the white bars sometimes tinged with yellow ; under 
wing-coverts pale yellowish. 

Female. Not very dissimilar to the male, but having the green 
of the upper plumage and wings duller ; the chin, throat, and breast 
grey barely tinged with yellow, and the yellow of the remaining 
lower parts much paler. 

The young bird has the upper plumage olive-brown ; the lower 
plumage ochraceous, turning to pale yellow on the abdomen ; flanks 
and sides of the body pale buff, uniform and unbarred ; bill black. 

Bill waxy red ; feet plumbeous brown ; iris pale brown (Jerdoti). 

Length about 4; tail 1-5 ; wing 1-95 ; tarsus -5; bill from gape 
45. 

Distribution. The Central portion of the Indian continent, the 
extreme points to which this species extends being apparently 
Mount Abu on the west, Palamow and Lohardugga on the east, 
Jhansi on the north, and Chanda and Ahiri on the south. 

Habits, $c. Breeds apparently twice a year, once in the rains 
and once in the cold season, laying five eggs, which measure about 
66 by -47. 



1 92 

Genus SPORJEGINTHUS, Cabanis, 1850. 

The genus /Sporceginthus contains two Indian species of Munia, 
in which the males are red and the females brown, and both sexes 
are much spotted with white on various parts of the plumage. 
This genus differs from the last not only in the general coloration 
of the plumage but also in the shape of the tail, which in Sporce- 
yinthus is much more rounded. 

Key to the Species *. 

a. Abdomen black S. amandava rf , p. 192. 

6. Abdomen yellowish red S.flavidiventris $ , p. 193. 

738. Sporaegintlms amandava. The Indian Red Munia. 

Fringilla amandava, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 319 (1766). 
Fringilla punicea, Horsf. Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 160 (1820). 
Estrelda amandava (Linn.) Blyth, Cat. p. 118 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, 

p. 502 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 359 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 454 j Legge, 

Birds Ceyl. p. 662 j Hume. Cat. no. 704 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 

p. 264. 
Sporseginthus amandava (Linn.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii ; p. 320 ; 

Oates in Hume's N. $ JE. 2nd ed. ii, p. 147. 
The Red Wax-bill, Jerd. ; Lai munia, Hind. ; Torra jinuwayi, Tel. 

Coloration. Male. The fully adult has the whole head, upper 
plumage, neck, breast, and sides of the body crimson, with the 
ashy or brown bases of the feathers showing through more or less 
rump and upper tail-coverts, sides of the neck, breast, and body 
spotted with white ; abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts black, 
the feathers of the abdomen with crimson fringes ; wings and 
coverts brown, each covert-feather and the tertiaries with a term- 
inal white spot ; primary-coverts and winglet plain brown ; tail 
blackish, the outer feathers tipped white. 

female. Upper plumage and scapulars brown ; upper tail-coverts 
dull crimson vvith minute white tips ; tail dark brown, the lateral 
feathers tipped white; wings brown, the median and greater 
coverts with the tertiaries tipped white ; lores black ; chin and 
throat whitish ; sides of the head and neck and the breast ashy 
brown ; remainder of lower plumage dull saffron, the sides of the 
body more or less tinged with ashy. 

The young have the whole upper plumage brown, the wing- 
coverts and tertiaries broadly edged with fulvous ; the whole lower 
plumage uniform ochraceous brown ; bill dark brown. 

Iris orange-red ; bill red, dusky at base of culmen ; legs and 
feet brownish flesh (Butler']. 

Length about 4-5 ; tail 1/6 ; wing 1/9 ; tarsus *55 ; bill from 
gape -4. 

* The females of the two species are not separable by any characters kn own 
tome. 



SPOR^EGINTHUS. 193 

Sharpe is of opinion that the male bird of this species undergoes 
a seasonal change of plumage. I cannot follow him in this, as all 
the evidence 1 can find in the large series of this bird in the British 
Museum leads me to the same conclusion 1 arrived at some years 
ago with respect to the allied Burmese race, viz., that the male 
is a very considerable period in acquiring his perfectly mature 
dress, but that having once acquired it he never changes. 

The nestling male at the first autumn appears to don the female 
plumage, and from this point slowly advances step by step towards 
his complete adult plumage, which is probably not fully attained 
till the second autumn or a short time previously. 

Distribution. The whole of India proper from Sind to Assam and 
from the foot of the Himalayas to Cape Comorin ; Ceylon; the 
hill-ranges of Assam, Cachar, Sylhet, and Tipperah. This species 
is again found in Siam, Cochin China, Singapore, and Java. 

Habits, <$fc. Appears to breed twice a year, once in the cold 
season and once in the rains, constructing its nest near the ground. 
The eggs measure about *55 by '43. 

739. Sporaeginthus flavidiventris. The Burmese Red Munia. 

Estrelda flavidiventris, Wallace, P. Z. S. 1863, pp. 486, 495 ; Ward- 
laiv Ramsay, Ibis, 1877, p. 461 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, 
p. 600 ; Hume, Cat. no. 704 bis. 

Estrelda amandava (Linn.), Oates, S. F. iii, p. 342. 

Estrilda burmanica, Hume, S. F. iv, p. 484 ; Oates, S. F. v, p. 163. 

Estrilda punicea (Horsf.), Oates, B. B. i, p. 371. 

Sporeeginthus flavidiventris (Wall.}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii,p. 323; 
Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 149. 

Coloration. Very similar to S. amandava, the male differing from 
the male of that species in having the abdomen yellowish red. The 
females of the two species are apparently undistinguishable. The 
young are also alike, and the males undergo the same changes in 
adopting the adult plumage. 

Bill deep red, the posterior half of culmen black ; iris crimson ; 
eyelids purpurescent ; inside of mouth salmon-colour ; legs flesh- 
colour ; claws horny. 

Leagth 4 ; tail 1'5 ; wing 1*8 ; tarsus -55 ; bill from gape -35. 

Upon re-examining Horsfield's type of Fringilla punicea from 
Java, it now appears to me to be a specimen of S. amandava 
rather than of S. Jlavidiventris. Such is also Sharpe's opinion. 
A considerable number of specimens from Singapore are undoubt- 
edly S. amandava. The distribution of the two species is thus 
very difficult to understand. 

Distribution. Burma, from the neighbourhood of Bhamo down to 
the southern coast of Pegu and to Karennee and Central Tenas- 
serim. This species occurs in the islands of Elores and Timor. 

flabits, #c. Breeds in Pegu in October and November, con- 
structing its nest in clumps of low grass. The eggs, four to six 
in number, measure about ! 56 by '44. 

YOL. II. O 



194 FBINGILLIDJE. 



Family FRINGILLID^. 

The intrinsic muscles of the syrinx fixed to the ends of the 
bronchial semi-rings ; the edges of the mandibles smooth ; the 
hinder part of the tarsus longitudinally bilaminated, the laminae*, 
entire and smooth ; wing with nine primaries, the first and second 
about equal in length ; secondary quills reaching about three- 
quarters the length of the wing ; bill more or less conical ; tail of 
twelve feathers ; tarsus scutellated ; nostrils pierced close to the 
line of the forehead and very near the culmen; rictal bristles 
few and short ; plumage of nestling various ; sexes generally 
dissimilar. 

The Fringillidce or Finches comprise a very large number of 
birds which have a considerable general resemblance to each other, 
and are characterized by points of structure which render their 
separation from other groups comparatively easy. 

Although Einches have, as a rule, but one moult a year, yet their 
summer and winter plumages differ considerably in many of the 
species. In spring and summer the margins of the feathers are 
lost by abrasion or by being cast off, and then the colour of 
the parts affected becomes more uniform and frequently more 
brilliant. 

The Pinches are normally granivorous or frugivorous, but they 
also eat insects and the young are fed entirely on these. They are 
for the most part gregarious and arboreal, but they descend to the 
ground freely to pick up food. Many of them are good songsters, 
and they are all hardy and bear captivity well. 

Sharpe, in the twelfth volume of the British Museum Catalogue 
of Birds, has treated this family in a very complete and satisfactory 
manner. This was the first Catalogue written by him with the 
combined Hume and Tweeddale Collections at his disposal. I 
follow him in the arrangement of this group, and I have found no 
reason to differ from him except in some minor matters, such as 
the extent of a few of the genera. 

The Fringillidce may be divided into three very natural sub- 
families by the character of the shape of the skull and bill. 



i KIM. ii, i. in. i:. 



Upper mandible produced backwards 
beyond the front line of the bony 
orbit ; inferior outline of lower 
mandible straight or nearly so .... 



19o 



Coccothraustinc?, p. 196. 




Fig. 50. Skull of Coccothraustes vulgari*. 



Upper mandible not produced backwards 
beyond front line of orbit ; inferior 
outline of lower mandible with a 
slight re-entering angle ; cutting- 
edges of upper and lower mandibles 
everywhere in contact 



Frinfjillmce, p. 202. 




Fig. 51. Skull of Fringilla Calebs. 

Upper mandible not produced backwards 
beyond front line of orbit ; inferior 
line of lower mandible greatly an- 
gulate; cutting-edges of mandibles 




Fig. 52. Skull of Embcriza citrindla. 



not everywhere in contact, but 
leaving a gap of greater or less 
extent Emberiz'uux, p. lM9. 



196 FRINGlLLIDvE. 



Subfamily COCCOTHRAUSTIN^. 

The subfamily Coccoihraustince contains those Finches which are 
characterized by a very large bill. They are birds of considerable 
size and rather bright coloration, and in all the Indian species the 
sexes differ from each other. They have only one moult a year. 

The Indian Grosbeaks are chiefly inhabitants of the higher parts 
of the Himalayas ; they live in forests, feed on stony fruits, and 
are mostly gregarious. They make, so far as is known, cup-shaped 
nests in trees and lay spotted eggs. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Tips of later primaries and earlier secon- 

daries square or sinuated ; margin of 
upper mandible not toothed near 
gape COCCOTHRAUSTES, p. 196. 

b. Tips of later primaries and earlier secon- 

daries rounded or pointed ; margin of 
upper mandible sinuated or toothed 
near gape. 
n'. Difference between wing and tail 

hardly equal to tarsus PYCNORHAMPHUS, p. 198. 

b'. Difference between wing and tail 

about equal to twice tarsus MYCEROBAS, p. 200. 



Genus COCCOTHRAUSTES, Brisson, 1760. 

The genus Coccothraustes contains the Hawfinches, of which two 
species are known, one inhabiting a considerable portion of Europe 
and Asia, and the other the north-west portion of the Punjab and 
probably Afghanistan. 

In Coccothraustes the bill is conical, with the culmen nearly 
straight and the cutting-edge of the upper mandible curved, but 
not toothed near the gape ; the nostrils partially concealed by 
hairs ; tail short and almost square ; wing sharp, the primaries, 
commencing from the fifth, with sinuated or square tips ; tarsus 
short. 

The nestling in this genus is highly spotted and also suffused 
with yellow. 

740. Coccothraustes humii. Hume's Hawfinch. 

Coccothraustes vulgaris (Pall.}, Hume, Ibis, 1869, p. 456 ; id. S. F. 

vii, p. 462 ; id. Cat. no. 728 bis ; Barnes, S. F. ix, p. 456. 
Coccothraustes humii, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1886, p. 97 j id. Cat. B. M. 

xii, p. 40, pi. 1. 

Coloration. Male. Feathers immediately next the bill, the lores, 
chin, and throat black; a narrow baud next these black parts dull 



COCCOTHRAUSTES. 197 

white ; forehead, crown, nape, back, scapulars, and tertiaries tawny 
brown ; a broad ashy collar on the hind neck and sides of neck ; 
rump, upper tail-coverts, sides of the head, and the whole lower 
plumage a paler but clearer tawny brown ; middle of abdomen and 
the under tail-coverts white ; tail black, the feathers with broad 
white tips, the middle pair frequently ashy for some distance in front 
of the white tip; lesser wing-coverts brown, tipped ashy; median 




Fig. 53. Head of C. humii. 

coverts and the greater part of the outer \vebs of the greater coverts 
white ; remainder of wing black, the primaries tipped with metallic 
blue, and each with a large white patch on the inner web ; the later 
primaries and secondaries edged wdth metallic lilac or purple. 

Female. Black parts of the head as in the male ; remainder of 
head and neck ashy brown ; other parts of plumage as in male, but 
the tawny brown everywhere very pale and dull, the wings chiefly 
brown with some ashy on the outer w r ebs. 

Both sexes in winter have the black feathers of the chin and 
throat narrowly tipped with w r hite. These margins soon wear 
aw r av. 

The young of this species are unknown, but in the European 
ally the nestling is brown above with black tips to the feathers ; 
the head is suffused with yellow ; the lower plumage is white, each 
feather with a black terminal bar ; the wings and tail resemble 
those of the adult. 

Bui in winter whitish ; in summer blue ; legs flesh-colour. 

Length about 7 ; tail 2-5 ; wing 4 ; tarsus -85 ; bill from gape 
85. 

This species differs from C. vulyaris of Europe in having a 
lighter and less richly coloured head, a paler back, and the lower 
plumage taw r ny brown, not vinaceous. 

Distribution. The only specimens of this species that 1 have seen 
were collected at Attock in the Punjab in February and March. 
There can be little doubt that the Hawfinch procured by Barnes nt 
Chaman in Afghanistan belonged to this species. Of it he renmrks 
that it is a common bird and resident. 



198 



Genus PYCNORHAMPHUS, Hume, 1874. 

In Pycnorliamplius the bill is very similar in sha-pe to that of 
Coccotliraustes, but the cutting-edge of the upper mandible is 
toothed near the gape ; the tail is square and comparatively long, 
the difference in length between it and the whig being about equal 
to the tarsus ; the primaries have the ordinary rounded tips. 

The Grosbeaks of this genus are of rather large size and well- 
marked colours. They inhabit the Himalayas and but little is 
known of their habits. 

The nestling bird appears to resemble the adult female closely 
in this genus, but it is doubtful whether the young male moults 
into adult plumage at the first autumn moult. Materials for 
settling this question are at present insufficient. 

Key to the Species. 

a. No white spot on wing. 
.' Head black. 

a". Thighs black P. icteroides $ , p. 198. 

b". Thighs yellow P. affinis <$ , p. 1 99. 

b'. Head ashy. 

c". Breast ashy grey j abdomen fawn- 
buff P. icteroides $ , p. 198. 

d". Breast and abdomen olive-yellow . . P. qffinis , p. 199. 

b. A white spot on wing P. carneipes, p. 200. 



741. Pycnorliamphus icteroides. The Black and Yellow 
Grosbeak. 

Coccothraustes icterioides, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1830, p. 8 ; Gould, Cent. 
pi. 45 ; myth, Cat. p. 125. 

Hesperiphona icterioides ( Vig^), Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 462 ; 
Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 384 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 59 ; 
Hume fy Henders. Lah. to Yark. p. 257 ; Cock fy Marsh. S. F. i, 
p. 358 ; Brooks, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 84 ; Wardlaw Ramsarj, Ibis, 
1880, p. 66 ; C. H. T. Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 420. 

Pycnorhamphus icteroides (Vig.), Hume, N. fy E. p. 469; id. Cat. 
*no. 725 j Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 44 ; Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 
2nd ed. ii, p. 150. 

Coloration. Male. The whole head, chin and throat, wings, 
scapulars, sides of the back, upper tail-coverts, under wing-coverts, 
axillaries, and thighs dull black ; remainder of plumage deep 
yellow, tinged with orange on the hind neck. 

Female. Head, neck, chin, throat, breast, axillaries and under 
wing-coverts, back, scapulars, lesser and median wing-coverts, and 
the greater part of the outer webs of the greater coverts and 
secondaries ashy grey, the head darker than the other parts ; rump 
fulvous ; upper tail-coverts grey ; winglet, primary-coverts, and 
primaries black ; abdomen, sides of the body, and under tail-coverts 
fawn-buff. 



PYCNORHAMPHUS. 199 

A young male shot in August is moulting from the female to the 
adult male plumage. 

Legs and feet fleshy pink ; bill horny greenish ; iris reddish 
hrown (Hume). The bill becomes yellow in winter. A young bird 
had the bill waxy green ; iris hazel ; legs and feet pale fleshy 
(Bingham, August). 

Length about 9 ; tail 37 ; wing 5-2 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from 
gape 1. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Murree and Central Kashmir 
eastwards to Garhwal, where this species is found in the hills 
north of Mussooree. Jerdon's statement that this bird extends 
into Nepal requires confirmation. This Grosbeak occurs from 
5000 to 9000 feet, and according to Stoliczka not beyond the limit 
of the large forests. 

Habits, <${c. Breeds in May and June, constructing a nest of 
twigs and grass, lined with fern-roots, in a branch of a tree, and 
laying two or three eggs, which are white marked with broad longi- 
tudinal dashes of rufous-brown at the larger end, and measure from 
9 to 1-07 in length by -77 to -81 in breadth. 

742. Pycnorhamphus affinis. The Allied Grosbeak. 

Hesperiphona affinis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiv, p. 179 (1855) ; Jerd. 

B. I. ii, p. 385 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1807, p. 43. 
Pycnorhamphus affinis (Blyth}, Hume, Cat. no. 726 ; Sharpe, Cat. 

B. M. xii, p. 46. 

Coloration. Male. The whole head, chin and throat, the upper 
part of the fore neck, wings, scapulars, the sides of the back, and 
the tail deep black ; the feathers of the middle line of the back 
black on the outer web, yellow on the inner ; neck all round, rump, 
and entire lower plumage from the throat downwards rich yellow, 
tinged with orange on the rump and hind neck ; upper tail-coverts 
black ; under wing-coverts and axillaries black. 

Female. The whole head, chin, and throat ashy ; hind neck, sides 
of neck, rump, and lower plumage olive-yellow ; back, scapulars, 
upper tail-coverts, the lesser and median wing-coverts, and the 
greater portion of the outer webs of the greater coverts and second- 
aries ashy green ; remainder of wing and the tail deep black. 

Males not quite adult have the head, chin, and throat dark brown 
with pale fringes, and the lower plumage saffron-yellow. 

Bill bluish in winter, yellow in summer ; feet fleshy yellow 
(Jerdori). The few dated specimens in the British Museum, 
however, show that the bill is blue in summer and yellow in winter, 
in the dried state at least. 

Length about 9 ; tail 3*8 ; wing 5 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from 
gape !.">. 

Distribution. Nepal and Sikhim, extending into Tibet and 
"Western China. In the British Museum ihere is a specimen of 
this bird which is marked as having been procured at Dharmsala. 
This Grosbeak appears to be found only at high elevations. 



200 FRINGILLTDjE. 



743. Pycnorhamphus carneipes. The White-ivinged Grosbeak. 

Coccothraustes carnipes, Hodgs. As. Res. xix, p. 151 (1836); 

Blyth, Cat. p. 125. 
Mycerobas carnipes (Hodgs.), Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 462 ; Jerd. 

'B. I. ii, p. 387 ; Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 1879, p. 448, 1880, p. 66 ; 

Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 81 ; Scully, Ibis, 1831, p. 577. 
Pycnorhamphus carneipes (Hodgs.), Hume, Cat. no. 728 ; Sharpe, Cat. 

B. M. xii, p. 47. 

Coloration. Male. The whole head, neck, back, scapulars, wings, 
chin, throat, breast, upper abdomen, upper tail-coverts, and tail 
black with ashy margins ; the upper tail-coverts margined with 
greenish yellow ; the scapulars, innermost greater coverts, and 
tertiaries tipped with greenish yellow on the outer web ; all but 
the first primary with a white patch at base ; the primaries and 
secondaries narrowly margined with white on the outer web near 
the tip ; rump, lower abdomen, sides of body, and under tail- coverts 
greenish yellow ; thighs ashy brown ; under wing-coverts and 
axillaries pale ashy. 

Female. Very similar to the male in general appearance. The 
dark parts of the plumage are ashy brown, not black, and the 
margins of the feathers have a greenish tinge ; the cheeks and the 
sides of the head are streaked with whitish ; the lower abdomen, 
sides of the body, and under tail-coverts are ashy yellow ; the breast 
is more or less streaked with white, but is occasionally quite plain. 

Upper mandible brownish, the lower one whitish horn-colour ; 
legs pale fleshy brown ; iris hair-brown ( Wardlaw Ramsay}. The 
bill does not appear to undergo any seasonal change of colour. 

Length 8 to 9 ; tail 3-5 to 4 ; wing 4-3 to 4-8 ; tarsus I ; bill 
from gape '8 to 1. The size of this species varies extremely but not 
according to locality, probably according to age. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Grilgit to Sikhim, generally 
above 8000 feet, but occasionally descending to 5000 feet. This 
species extends to Afghanistan on the west, and to parts of Central 
Asia on the north. 



Genus MYCEROBAS, Cabanis, 1847. 

In the genus Mycerobas the bill is of very great size, the height 
at the nostrils being about equal to the length of the bill ; the 
cutting-edge of the upper mandible, as in Pycnorhamphus, is 
provided with a large tooth near the gape, and the nostrils are 
covered by hairs ; the tail is comparatively short and decidedly 
forked ; and the wing-quills have ordinary rounded tips. The sexes 
differ in colour. 

The only member of this genus inhabits the Himalayas, and has 
also occasionally been found in Mauipur. Very little is known of 
its habits. 



MYCEROBAS. 201 

744. Mycerobas melanoxanthug. The Spotted-winged Grosbeak. 

Coccothraustes melanozantliiis, Hodgs. As. Res. xix, p. 150 (1836) ; 

Blyth, Cat. p. 125. 
Mycerobas melanoxantlms (Hodys.}, Horsf. Sf M. Cat. ii, p. 461 ; 

Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 336 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 64 ; Oodio.- 

Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, p. 200; Hume, Cat. no. 727; Sharps, 

Cat. B. M. xii, p. 41 ; Hum*, S. F. xi, p. 286. 

MaUam-pho, Lepch. 




Fig. 54. Head of M. melanoxanthiis. 

Coloration. Male. The whole upper plumage, sides of the head 
and neck, chin and throat slaty black, each feather with an ashy 
margin more or less distinct ; wings black, the feathers margined 
with ashy, the inner greater coverts and tertiaries with an elongated 
oval pale yellow spot on the outer web near the tip ; the fourth to 
eighth primaries white at base ; the secondaries and inner primaries 
with a short white margin near the tip of the outer web ; tail black ; 
lower plumage deep yellow ; axillaries black, tipped with yellow. 

Female. Upper plumage black, the feathers edged with yellowish 
green, those of the head, hind neck, and back subterminally bright 
yellow, causing those parts to be about equally black and yellow ; 
feathers of forehead and those at the side of the crown almost pure 
yellow ; a broad black band from the lores through the eye to the 
ear-coverts, followed below by a yellow band ; a black patch on the 
cheeks ; sides of the chin and throat, sides of neck, breast, and 
sides of body deep yellow streaked with black ; chin, throat, 
abdomen, and under tail-coverts deep unstreaked yellow ; wings 
and tail much as in the male, but the feathers margined with 
greenish yellow. 

The nestling resembles the female in general appearance, but 
has the yellow of the head and upper parts replaced by yellowish 
white, and the lower plumage pale vinaceous streaked with black 
and occasionally tinged with yellow. It is difficult to trace the 
transition of plumage from youth to maturity in the series in the 
British Museum, but Hodgson asserts that the young males retain 
the plumage of the female till after the second moult. 

Bill leaden blue ; feet leaden grey, claws brown ; iris brown 
(ffodyson). 



202 

Length about 8-5 ; tail 3-1 ; wing 5 ; tarsus *85 ; bill from 
gape 1. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from the Hazara country to Sikhim 
at considerable elevations ; Manipur. 



Subfamily FRINGILLIN^E. 

The Fringillince comprise the Bullfinches, the Bose-Finches, the 
Crossbills, the true Finches, the Sparrows, and the Mountain- 
Finches. They have a bill of medium size, the upper mandible not 
being produced behind the front line of the bony orbit, and the 
cutting-edges of the two mandibles are everywhere in contact. 

The Fringillince have one moult a year only, but the wearing 
away of the margins of the feathers in parts of the plumage in 
the spring causes many of them to have a summer plumage, which 
in some cases is very different to the winter dress. The young 
birds resemble the adult females and probably retain this dress 
till the second autumn. 

The Fringillince are more or less gregarious or sociable, live 
both on seeds and insects, and are frequently good songsters. 

1 have made the division of the Fringillince into genera to depend 
in great measure on types of colour as well as structure *. 

Key to tlie Genera. 

a. Rump white ; quills and tail uniform 

black PYRRHULA, p. 204. 

I. Inner webs of tertiaries white PYRRHOPLECTES, p. 207. 

c. Sexes (except in Erythrospiza) very dis- 
similar; males red or pink, females 
brown or greenish ; no white on tail ; 
tail forked. 

'. Tips of mandibles crossed. LOXIA, p. 208. 

b'. Bill of normal shape. 
a". Bill short and thick ; culmen curved. 
'". Tail conspicuously short, the tip 
of the wings reaching- considerably 
beyond middle of tail. 
a 4 . Nostrils exposed ; male scarlet, 

female green H^EMATOSPIZA, p. 209. 

b 4 . Nostrils densely plumed ; sexes 

nearly similar ERYTHROSPIZA, p. 221. 

b'". Tail of moderate length ; tip of 
wing not reaching byond middle 
of tail. 

* I cannot determine the following Finches : 

FRINGILLA PYRRHOPTERA, Less, in Belang. Voy. p. 271 (1834). 

PROPASSER MURRAYI, Blyth, 3. A. S. B. xxxii, p. 458 (1863). 

LTNOTA PYGM^A, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 62 (1868). 

All of which were described from specimens procured in India, but too 
insufficiently to be recognizable. 



FKTNGTLLTN r. 203 

< 4 . Males with the abdomen and 

breast of quite different colours. 

'"'. Culmen much longer than 

depth of bill at base PYRRHOSPIZA, p. 211. 

b 5 . Culmen about as long- as depth 

of bill at base PROPYRRHULA, p. 210. 

d*. Males with the abdomen and 

breast of the same colour. 
c 5 . A supercilium present in both 

sexes PROPASSER, p. 212. 

d?. No supercilium present in 

either sex CARPODACUS, p. 219. 

b' 1 . Bill lengthened and slender ; culmen 

straight PROCARDUELIS, p. 223. 

(I. Lateral tail-feathers largely marked with 

white ; tail forked. 
c'. Bill long, slender and pointed ; a large 

amount of yellow on wings CARDUELIS, p. 225. 

d'. Bill long and thick ; wings spotted 

with white CALLACANTHIS, p. 226. 

e'. Bill short and pointed ; plumage 

streaked ACANTHIS, p. 227. 

e. Both sexes with greater part of plumage 

yellow or green. 

f." Bill small and swollen; culmen curved. METOPONIA, p. 230. 
(/'. Bill lengthened and sharp; culmen 

straight. 

c". Length of culmen about equal to 
depth of bill at base ; sexes closely 

alike HYPACANTHIS, p. 231. 

d". Length of culmen about twice depth 

of bill at base ; sexes dissimilar . . CHRYSOMITRIS, p. 232. 

f. Sexes not strikingly dissimilar ; two bars 

on wing- co verts ; throat and breast 
generally rufous; bill lengthened and 
straight FRINGILLA, p. 233. 

g. A yellow patch on throat ; no pattern on 

outer webs of earlier primaries GYMNORHIS, p. 235. 

h. Pale margins on outer webs of earlier 

primaries not of uniform width, forming 

two patches, one below primary-coverts 

and one above emarginations. 

h'. No yellow patch on throat and no 

white spots on tail PASSER, p. 236. 

i'. A yellow patch on throat and white spots 

on tail PETRONIA, p. 243. 

t. Tail square, middle pair of feathers as long 
as the others; quills and tail largely 

white ; no yellow on throat MONTIFRINGILLA, p. 244. 

k. Tail forked and not marked with white ; 
sexes alike ; plumage occasionally pink 
on rump and shoulder FRINQILLAUDA, p. 247. 



204 PRINGILLID^). 

Genus PYRRHULA, Briss., 1760. 

The genus Pyrrhula comprises the Bullfinches, which are cha- 
racterized by a short and very swollen bill, a white rump, 
and deep black wings and tail. The sexes differ considerably 
from each other. Three of the Indian species of Bullfinches have 
the tail deeply forked, but the fourth has it nearly square. 

The Bullfinches inhabit well-wooded districts arid are strictly 
arboreal. They sing well and are easily kept in captivity. They 
make cup-shaped nests in trees, and lay blue eggs spotted with 
various shades of brown. Hardly anything, however, is known of 
the nidification of the Indian species. 

Key to tlie Species. 

a. Middle pair of tail-feathers nearly as long 

as outermost pair P. aurantiaca, p. 204. 

b. Middle pair of tail-feathers fully half an 

inch shorter than outermost pair. 
'. A well-defined deep black band round 

base of bill. 
a". Crown varying from greenish yellow 

to vermilion P. erythrocephala, p. 205. 

b" . Crown ashy grey P. erithacus, p. 206. 

b'. An ill-defined brown band round base 

of bill P. nepalensis, p. 206. 

745. Pyrrhula aurantiaca. The Orange Bullfinch. 

Pyrrhula aurantiaca, Gould, P. Z. 8. 1857, p. 222 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, 
p. 390 ; Hume # Henders. Lah. to Yark. p. 258 ; Hume, N. $ E. 
p. 470 ; id. Cat. no. 732 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 82 ; Scully, Ibis, 
1881, p. 577 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 455; Oates in Humes 
N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 151. 

Coloration. Male. A broad black band round the base of the 
bill ; rump, under tail-coverts, axillaries, and under wing-coverts 
white ; upper tail-coverts, tail, and quills of wing black ; lesser and 
median wing-coverts dusky edged with orange-rufous, the latter sub- 
terminally ashy ; greater series black, broadly tipped with orange- 
rufous ; the other parts of the body deep orange. 

Female. A broad black band round the base of the bill exactly 
as in the male ; crown, nape, hind neck, and sides of the head ashy 
brown ; back and scapulars yellowish brown ; rump white ; upper 
tail-coverts and tail black ; lesser and median coverts like the 
back but with subterminal ashy bars ; greater coverts black, with 
broad tips of the colour of the back but paler ; throat and breast 
pale rufous ; abdomen dull yellowish ; under wing-coverts and 
axillaries white. 

Young males have the sides of the head and the whole lower 
plumage bright yellow and the upper plumage more or less yellow. 

Bill black ; feet fleshy ; iris dark brown (Jerdon). 

Length about 5-5 ; tail 2-4 ; wing 3'2 ; tarsus -65 ; bill from 
gape '45. 



I'YKHHULA. 205 

Distribution. The Hazara country and Kashmir, extending into 
the adjoining native territory. 

ffalntf, fyc. Appears to breed in July, but the nest and eggs have 
not been taken. 



746. Pyrrhula erythrocephala. The Red-headed Bullfinch. 

Pyrrhula erythvocephala, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 174 ; Gould, Cent. 
pi. 32 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 123 ; Horsf. ^ M. Cat. ii, p. 454 ; Jerd. 
B. I. ii, p. 389 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 59 ; Blanf. 
J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 64 ; Hume, Cat. no. 729 ; Sharpe, Cat. 
B. M. xii, p. 457. 




Fig. 55. Head of P. erythrocephala. 

Coloration. Male. A broad black band round the base of the 
bill, followed by a pale zone which is succeeded on the crown, nape, 
and hind neck by vermilion, and on the sides of the head, sides of 
the neck, throat, breast, and upper abdomen by paler red ; back, 
scapulars, lesser and median wing-coverts ashy grey ; rump white, 
with a narrow black bar between it and the lower back ; greater 
wing-coverts black, broadly tipped with ashy grey ; quills, upper 
tail-coverts, and tail black ; lower abdomen pale ashy, passing to 
pure white on the under tail-coverts ; under wing-coverts and 
axillaries white. 

Female. A broad black band round the base of the bill, followed 
by a pale zone which is succeeded by yellowish green on the crown, 
nape, and hind neck, and by drab-brown on the entire lower 
plumage except the abdomen, under tail-coverts, axillaries, and 
under wing-coverts, which are white ; back, scapulars, lesser and 
median wing-coverts drab-brown ; greater coverts black, broadly 
tipped with drab-brown ; quills, upper tail-coverts, and tail black ; 
rump white. 

The young males are at first like the female, and gradually 
assume the plumage of the adult male by a slow change of colour 
in the feathers. 

Bill black ; legs pale fleshy brown ; iris light brown (Jerdon). 

Length about 5'5 ; tail 2-6; wing 3' 1; tarsus '65 ; bill from 
gape -45. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Chamba and Southern 
Kashmir to Bhutan. Stoliczka states that this species breeds near 
Kotgarh between 6000 and 8000 feet, and Blanford met with it in 
Sikhim at 11,000 feet. 



206 



FRINGILLIILE. 



747. Pyrrhula erithacus. Beavan's Bullfinch. 



Pyrrhula erythaca, Blyth, Ibis, 1862, p. 389 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 389 ; 

Hume, S. F. ii, p. 455 ; id. Cat. no. 730. 
Pyrrhula erithacus, Blyth, Ibis, 1863, p. 441, pi. 10 j Sharpe, Cat. 

B. M. xii, p. 455. 

Coloration. Male. A broad black band round the base of the 
bill, edged posteriorly with greyish white shading off into the dark 
ashy grey of the crown, nape, back, and scapulars, and the paler ashy 
grey of the sides of the head and throat ; a broad black band across 
the rump followed by a broader white band ; upper tail-coverts 
and tail deep glossy black ; lesser and median coverts ashy grey with 
dark centres ; greater coverts with basal half black and terminal 
half ashy grey ; quills black, the outer webs becoming more glossy 
inwardly and the tertiaries being entirely glossy black ; breast, 
upper half of abdomen and of the sides of the body orange ; re- 
mainder of lower plumage greyish white ; under wing-coverts and 
axillaries greyish white. 

Female. Differs from the male by having all the underparts, with 
the exception of the white abdomen, of a light chocolate-colour, 
and the back darker. 

Iris dark brown ; culmen black ; tarsus body-colour (Prje- 
valsky}. 

Length about 6 ; tail 2-9 ; wing 3'3 ; tarsus '65 ; bill from 
gape *45. 

Distribution. Sikhim, extending to Kansu and Western China. 

748. Pyrrhula nepalensis. The Brown Bullfinch. 

Pyrrhula nipalensis, Hodf/s. As. Ees. xix, p. 156 (1836) ; Blyth, Cat. 
p. 122 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 455 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 390 ; Blanf. 
J.A.S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 65; Hume, Cat. no. 731 ; Scully, S. F. viii, 
p. 335 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 453. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead and feathers round the bill dark 
brown; crown and nape ashy brown, the feathers with dusky 
centres ; hind neck, sides of the neck and head, throat, breast, 
and the whole lower plumage (except the under tail-coverts and 
middle of the abdomen which are white) plain ashy brown ; back 
and scapulars darker ashy brown ; a white patch under and behind 
the eye ; upper part of rump purplish black, lower white ; upper 
tail-coverts and tail black with a bronze gloss, and all the feathers 
tipped with velvety black ; lesser and median wing-coverts dark 
ashy brown ; greater wing-coverts pale ashy brown, the outer ones 
broadly margined with purplish black ; quills black, margined on 
the outer web increasingly with purplish black, the tertiaries becom- 
ing entirely of this colour and the innermost margined exteriorly 
with crimson ; under wing-coverts and axillaries white. 

Female. Eesembles the male, and differs merely in the edging to 
the innermost tertiary being yellow instead of crimson. 

The young appear to resemble the adult female. 



PYJIEHOPLECTES. 207 

Bill greenish horn-colour with a black tip ; legs fleshy brown; 
iris brown (Hodgson). 

Length about 6 P 5 ; tail 3 ; wing 3*4 ; tarsus '65 ; bill from 
gape -5. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from G-arhwal to Sikhim. Blanford 
observed this species in Sikhim at 10,000 feet. 

Genus PYRRHOPLECTES, Hodgs., 1844. 

The genus Pyrrhoplectes contains one species, which resembles the 
Bullfinches in general appearance and structure, but it has the bill 
less tumid and the rump is of the same colour as the lower back. 
It may be recognized from all the other species of Indian Frin- 
yillidce by the colour of the inner webs of the tertiaries, which are 
pure white. Both sexes possess this character. 

749. Pyrrhoplectes epauletta. The Gold-healed Black Finch. 

Pyrrhula ? epauletta, Hodgs. As. Res. xix, p. 150 (1836). 
^yrrhoplectes epauletta (Hodys.), Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 455 ; Jerd. 

B. I. ii, p. 392 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 65; Hums, Cat. 

no. 733 ; Sharps, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 386. 
Pyrrhuloides epauletta (Ilodgs.), Bhjth, Ca.p. 337. 
The Gold-headed Black Bull/inch, Jerd. ; Lho sampreh-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Male. The whole plumage black except the hinder 
part of the crown and nape, which are golden orange, the axil- 
laries and a small portion of the middle abdomen, which are orange- 
buff, the under wing-coverts and the inner webs of the tertiaries, 
which are white. 

Female. Forehead, anterior part of crown, lores, round the eyes, 
and base of cheeks ashy grey more or less suffused with olive-yellow, 
and turning to this colour entirely on the remainder of the crown, 
the ear-coverts, and the sides of the head ; hind neck, sides of neck, 
and upper back ashy grey, turning to chestnut-brown, which is the 
colour of the lower back, rump, upper tail-coverts, scapulars, and 
visible portions of the wing-coverts ; wings and tail dark brown, 
the tertiaries rufous on the outer, white on the inner, webs ; entire 
lower plumage chestnut-brown except the axillaries, which are 
orange-buff, and the under wing-coverts, which are whitish. 

The nestling resembles the adult female aud moults into female 
adult plumage at the first autumn moult ; the young males acquire 
the adult plumage during the first winter and by a very gradual 
process extending over several months. 

Bill dusky horny ; legs brown ; iris brown (Jerdoti). 

Length nearly 6 ; tail 2'4 ; wing 31; tarsus '75; bill from 
gape '5. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from the eastern side of the valley 
of the Sutlej to 8ikhim. Blanford met with this species in Sikhim 
at 11,000 feet. 



208 FRHSTGILLID^. 

Habits, $c. Little is recorded of the habits of this bird. Hodgson 
says it is shy, adhering to the forests. 

Genus LOXIA, Linn., 1766. 

The genus Loccia contains one Indian species of Finch which 
may be recognized at a glance by the peculiar structure of the bill, 
in which the tips of the mandibles cross each other. The plumage 
of the male is red and that of the female greenish. In Loxia the 
wing is very Jong, reaching to a considerable distance beyond the 
middle of the tail. 




Fig. 56. Head of L. himalayana, 

The Crossbills feed chiefly on seeds from the cones of various 
pine-trees, for the extraction of which their bill is specially 
adapted. 

750. Loxia himalayana. The Himalayan Crossbill. 

Loxia himalayana, Hodgs., Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 85 (1844); Horsf. fy 
M. Cat. ii, p. 453 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 393 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. 
xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 60 ; Hume, Cat. no. 734. 

Loxia himalayensis, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 952 (1844) ; Blyth, 
Cat. p. 123. 

Loxia curvirostra, Linn., Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 435 (part.). 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, nape, and hind neck red, 
the rump brighter red ; back and scapulars brown, the feathers 
broadly fringed with red ; wing-coverts brown, margined with rufous- 
brown ; primary-coverts, winglet, and quills blackish with very 
narrow rufous margins ; upper tail-coverts and tail dark brown 
margined with rufous ; sides of the head dark brown, more or less 
mixed with red ; lower plumage red ; under tail-coverts brown, 
broadly edged with whitish; under wing-coverts and axillaries 
ashy brown washed with rufous. 

Female. Upper plumage brown, each feather edged with olive- 
yellow; the rump purer yellow ; wings and tail dark brown, mar- 
gined narrowly with olive-yellow : chin, throat, and sides of the head 
and neck ashy, more or less mottled and washed with dull yellow ; 
abdomen ashy ; remainder of lower plumage dull yellow. 

Young birds are ashy brown tinged with yellow and densely 
streaked all over with dark brown. 

Bill and feet brown ; iris dark hazel. 

Length about 5'5 : tail 2-2; wing 3'4; tarsus '65; bill from 
gape *75. 

The Crossbills of the Himalayas form a very small race which I 
think it is advisable to keep distinct. There is a very marked 



H.EMATOSPIZA. 209 

difference in size between the Himalayan birds and L. curvirostra, 
from Northern Europe, on the one hand, and L. japonica, from 
Japan, on the other ; and the only Crossbills which approach the 
Indian birds in size are some from America. Sharpe's view that 
all these Crossbills form but one species is no doubt correct ; at the 
same time the Himalayan Crossbills are in my opinion quite dis- 
tinguishable from all others in size, and it is consequently more con- 
venient to retain them as distinct. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Chini and Lahul to Sikhiin, 
extending into Tibet and Western China. 

Habits <$fc. Inhabits the pine-forests and is highly gregarious. 



Q-enus HJEMATOSPIZA, Blyth, 1844. 

The genus Hcematospiza is closely allied to Loxia, the male being 
red and the female green, but the bill is of a normal shape and very 
stout and strong. The wing is of considerable length, reaching 
beyond the middle of the tail. A curious feature of this species 
is the white colour of the bases to the feathers of the head and 
neck ; these white bases show up when the feathers are dis- 
arranged and are hardly ever completely hidden. 

751. Haematospiza sipahi. The Scarlet Finch. 

Corythus sipahi, Hodgs. As. Res. xix, p. 151 (1836). 

Hsematospiza boetonensis (Lath.), Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 951 

(1844) ; id. Cat. p. 122. 

Haematospiza sipahi (Hodgs.), Blyth, Cat. p. 342 j Horsf. fy M. Cat. 
ii, p. 454 ; Jerd. B. L ii, p. 394; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, 
pt. ii, p. 110 ; Hume, Cat. no. 735. 

Carpodacus sipahi (Hodgs.}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 397. 
The Scarlet Grosbeak, Jerd. ; Phanying-pho bin, Lepcli. ; Labbia ma- 
p/too, Bhut. 




Fig. 57. Head of H. xipahi. 

Coloration. Male. The whole head and body brilliant scarlet, 
the concealed bases of the feathers ashy; wings black, every 
feather margined with scarlet ; tail black with narrow crimson 
margins ; thighs black ; under tail-coverts black, with scarlet tips ; 
axillaries and under wing-coverts ashy, with very small scarlet tips.. 

VOL. n. p 



210 

Female. E-ump bright yellow; with this exception the whole 
upper plumage, sides of neck, lesser and median wing-coverts are 
dark brown, each feather with a large and well-defined greenish- 
yellow margin ; greater coverts and quills dark brown, margined 
with greenish yellow on the outer webs ; tail dark brown, with a 
greenish-yellow tinge on the outer webs ; region of the eye and 
cheeks ochraceous yellow ; ear-coverts greenish yellow with pale 
shafts; the whole lower plumage pale ochraceous, each feather 
with a subterminal black mark showing more or less clearly and 
sometimes concealed. 

The young bird resembles the adult female ; the male moults 
the first autumn into the female plumage again, but immediately 
after commences to assume the adult male plumage by a change of 
colour in the feathers, and probably attains the full plumage by the 
first breeding-season. 

Bill yellow ; legs brown ; iris hazel-brown (Jerdon). 

Length about 7'5 ; tail 2-8 ; wing 4 ; tarsus -8 ; bill from gape '8. 

Distribution. Nepal and Sikhim from 5000 to 10,000 feet ac- 
cording to season ; the Khasi hills. 

Habits, 6fc. According to Jerdon frequents both forest and bushy 
ground and has a loud whistling note. This species is captured in 
the Khasi hills and kept in captivity. 



Genus PROPYRRHULA, Hodgs., 1844. 

The genus Propyrrhula connects Loccia and Hcematospiza with 
the large group of the Rose-Finches. It has much the same bill 
as Hcematospiza but a longer tail, and the plumage of the male is 
less brilliant, being much mixed with green above and the abdomen 
being brown. The female of Propyrrhula, however, is not very 
unlike the female of Hcematospiza. 

752. Propyrrhula subhimalayensis. The Red-headed Hose-Finch. 

Corythus subhimachalus, Hodgs. As. Res. xix, p. 152 (1836). 
Propyrrhula subhemachalana, Hodgs., Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 952 

(1844) ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 454. 
Propyrrhula subhimachala (Hodgs.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 123 ; Jerd. B. I. 

ii, p. 396 ; Godiv.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xly, pt. ii, p. 200 j Hume, Cat. 

no. 736. 
Propyrrhula subhimalayensis * (Hodgs.}, Sharps, Cat. B. M. xii, 

p. 462. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, supercilium, cheeks, chin, and 
throat crimson ; fore neck and upper breast duller crimson, with 
the feathers subterminally paler, causing a mottled appearance ; 
remainder of lower plumage greyish brown, paler on the abdomen ; 
crown, nape, hind neck, sides of head and neck, back, scapulars, 

* As pointed out by Sharpe, it will be convenient to employ this name for the 
present species rather than subhimachal'iis and subhemachalana. 



PYRRHOSPIZA. 211 

and wing-coverts dull crimson, eacli feather with a brown centre ; 
rump and upper tail-coverts bright crimson ; quills and tail brown, 
margined with reddish. 

Female, forehead and an indistinct supercilium rather bright 
yellow ; anterior part of crown yellow, the feathers with dusky 
centres, becoming ashy on the posterior portion of the crown, and the 
nape with narrow yellowish margins; back, scapulars, and wing- 
coverts bright olive-yellow, the feathers with dusky centres ; rump 
and upper tail-coverts nearly pure olive-yellow ; quills and tail 
brown, edged with olive-yellow ; sides of the head ashy ; lores, 
cheeks, and chin pale grey mottled with ashy; throat and sides 
of neck ashy; breast yellow, with ashy bases to the feathers; 
remainder of lower parts ashy, paler on the abdomen. 

The young birds resemble the adult female. 

Bill fleshy brown ; legs pale brown ; iris hazel-brown (Jerdon). 

Length about 3 ; tail3'2; wing 3*8; tarsus *8; bill from gape *6. 

Distribution. Nepal; JSikhiin ; Manipur. 

Habits, $c. Jerdon states that he found this species near Dar- 
jeeling, frequenting the more open parts of the woods in small 
parties. 

Genus PYRRHOSPIZA, Hodgs., 1844. 

The genus Pyrrhospiza approaches the Rose-Finches still more 
than the preceding genus does, but differs in the male having the 
abdomen brown, streaked with black. The female is absolutely 
like the females of the Rose-Finches and has no green whatever in 
the plumage. In structure Pyrrhospiza resembles Prvpyrrhula, 
but in the former the bill is rather more slender and longer. 

753. Pyrrhospiza punicea. The Red-breasted Rose-Finch. 

Pyrrhospiza pimicea, Hodgs. Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 953 (1844) ; 
Blyth, Cat. p. 121 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 401 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, 




p. 
Y Pyrrhospiza humii, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 433. 

The Large Red-breasted Finch, Jerd. 




Fig. 58. Head of P. punicea. 

Coloration. Male. The forehead and a broad but short super- 
cilium crimson, each feather tipped with black or dusky ; crown, 

r2 



212 FRITOILLID^E. 

nape, back, and scapulars black, each feather margined with light 
brown ; rump rosy red with dusky tips ; upper tail-coverts brown, 
with black shafts ; wing-coverts dark brown with pale brown 
margins, the lesser series washed with rosy ; quills and tail dark 
brown, very narrowly margined paler ; a streak behind the eye and 
the sides of the neck and of the body pale brown, streaked 
with dark brown ; cheeks, ear-coverts, chin, throat, and breast 
crimson, most of the feathers with white terminal shaft-streaks : 
abdomen ashy brown, sparingly streaked with black; under tail- 
coverts brown, margined with pink. 

Female. The whole upper plumage, wings and tail, sides of the 
head and neck dark brown, each feather margined with pale brow T n 
and those of the rump with dull greenish ; lower plumage pale 
fulvous with narrow black streaks, the breast more or less suffused 
with buff. 

Bill horny brown. 

Length 7*5 ; tail 3*2 ; wing 4*4; tarsus '9 ; bill from gape *6. 

Sharpe has separated as a subspecies, under the name of P. liumii, 
a pale race of this bird with the red parts of the head and breast 
rosy, not crimson, and the brown of the back quite pale. The 
frontal band is also much broader, extending back as far as the 
middle of the eye. The female has the rump-feathers broadly 
margined with olive-yellow. In the British Museum there is a 
pair of these birds procured in Kansu ; one bird from Tibet ; 
another from the " Borenda Pass ; " and a fifth from Kotgarh. 
Altogether I am not satisfied that this race, as found in the Hima- 
layas, is worthy of separation from P. punicea. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikhim, at eleva- 
tions of from 10,000 to 17,000 feet, according to season, and 
extending into Tibet and Western China. 

Habits, fyc. Stoliczka found this Finch in Spiti and Ladak 
searching after food at the camping-grounds, and he also records 
the finding of a nest made of coarse grass and placed in a furze 
bush. The eggs were dirty white or greenish with some dark 
brown spots. 



Genus PKOPASSER, Hodgs., 1844. 

The genus Propasser belongs to the Bose-Finches, the males of 
which are characterized by rose-coloured plumage, and the females 
by streaked brown plumage. The birds of this genus may be 
separated from those of the next genus Carpodacus, by the presence 
of a supercilium in both sexes and by the bluntness of the 
wing, the secondaries falling short of the tip of the wing by a 
distance less than the length of the tarsus. The bill of Propasser 
is of much the same shape as that of Hcematospiza, but smaller in 
comparison to the size of the head. 



PROPASSER. 213 

Key to the Species. 

a. Supercilium red. 

a'. Crown of head with coarse black 

streaks. 

a". Feathers of forehead, superciliura, 
throat, and cheeks with shining 
white shaft-streaks ............ P. thura <$, p. 213. 

I". Feathers of above parts without 

white shaft-streaks. 
a'". Red parts of the head rosy. ... P. pulcherrimus J, p. 215. 

b'". Red parts of the head crimson. P. ambiguus <5, p. 215. 
b'. Crown of head unstreaked or with 

mere black shaft-lines. 
c". Rump red. 

c'". Wing-coverts not tipped. 
a 1 . Feathers of supercilium and of 
sides of head and throat 
pointed and shining rosy ; 
wing 3-5 ................ P. grandis tf , p. 216. 

/;'. Feathers of supercilium and of 
sides of head and throat 

rosy red, not pointed; wing 3. P. rhodochrous tf , p. 217. 
d'". Wing-coverts broadly tipped 

with rosy ................ P. rhodopeplus <$ , p. 217. 

d". Rump coloured like back ...... P. edivardsi <$ , p. 218. 

b. Supercilium butf or ochraceous. 

c'. Ground-colour of lower plumage not 

uniform ; abdomen whitish ...... P. tfatra $ , p. 213. 

d 1 . Ground-colour of lower plumage 

uniform throughout. 
e' 1 . Lower plumage ashy white 
streaked with brown. 



e"'. Wiag .ess than 3 

f". Wing more than 3-5 ........ P. grandis $ , p. 216. 

/". Lower plnmage ochraceous buff, 

streaked with brown. 
</"'. Wing under 3 ; culmen not 

exceeding -35 .............. P. rhodochrous $ , p. 217. 

h"'. Wing over 3; culmen over '4. 
c 1 . Lores and ear-coverts nearly 

uniform black ; tail 2'8 ____ P. rhodopeplus $>, p. 217. 

rJ l . Lores and ear-coverts brown, 

mottled with buff; tail 2'6. . P. edicardsi $ , p. 218. 



754. Propasser thura. The White-browed Itose-Fi ndi . 

Carpodacus thura, Bonap. $ Schleg. Mon. Lox. p. 21, pi. 23 (1850) ; 

HlKtrpe, Cat. E. M. xii, p. 425. 
Propasser thura (Bonap. 8f Schlec/.} Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 459 ; Moore, 

P. Z. S. 1855, p. 215, pi. 113; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 400; Blanf. 

J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii,p. (55 ; Hume. Cat. no. 740 ; Gates in HumSs 

N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 152. 
Propasser frontalis, lilyth, Ibi^ 1802, p. 390 ; id. J. A. 8. B. xxxii, 



214 

p. 458 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, pp. 403, 874 ; Hume, Cat. no 744 ; G. F. L. 

Marshall, Ibis, 1881, p. 84 ; Hume, S. F. ix,p. 349, note. 
Carpodacus dubius, Prjev. in Rowley's Orn. Misc. ii, p. 301, pi. liv, v 

(1877). 
Propasser blythi, Btddulph, Ibis, 1882, p. 283, pi. ix. 

Coloration. Male. Lores and front part of face crimson ; 
forehead, supercilium, cheeks, ear-coverts, chin, and throat pale 
shining pink, with white shaft-streaks ; the end of the supercilium 
white ; a broad band behind the eye nearly black ; sides of neck 
plain brown; crown, nape, backhand scapulars brown, broadly 
streaked with black ; rump rosy pink ; upper tail-coverts black, 
margined with rosy pink ; lesser wing-coverts black, edged with 
rosy ; median coverts black, broadly tipped with pink ; greater 
coverts black, narrowly margined with dull pink, and tipped on the 
outer web with pale buff ; quills, primary-coverts, and tail blackish, 
margined with dull rosy, the tertiaries with pale buff; lower 
plumage from the throat downwards uniform rosy pink ; under 
tail-coverts black, edged with rosy ; axillaries and under wing- 
coverts whitish. 

Female. Upper plumage dark brown, streaked with black ; the 
feathers of the rump and upper tail-coverts edged with golden 
yellow ; a broad supercilium and the feathers round the upper 
mandible buff, more or less streaked and mottled with black ; a 
broad band behind the eye black ; cheeks and ear-coverts pale 
rufous, streaked with black ; chin, throat, breast, and sides of the 
body rufous, streaked with black ; abdomen buffy white ; under 
tail-coverts black, margined with pale buffy white ; under wing- 
coverts and axillaries whitish. 

Length about 6*5 ; tail 3*1 : wing 3*4 ; tarsus *9 ; bill from 
gape -6. 

Distribution. Sikhim ; Nepal ; Gilgit ; extending to Tibet, 
Alachan, and Kansu. This species has been recorded at 12,000 feet 
and upwards both by Blanford and Man del Ii. 

Habits, fyc. This bird was observed by Blanford on rhododendron 
bushes, and sometimes on grassy hill-sides. Beavan observed it in 
flocks. Mandelli obtained the nest at Dolaka in Nepal in August. 
It was built in a thorny bush, was cup-shaped, and composed of 
fine grass coated exteriorly with brown moss, and was lined with 
white fur. The eggs, three in number, are dull greenish blue, 
sparingly marked with brownish grey, and measure about '87 
by -65. ' 

I have not been able to examine a specimen of P. blythi from 
Gilgit, but, judging from, the description, this race of P. thura is 
identical with P. dubius, which is characterized by a pale brown 
upper plumage, and differs from P. thura in no other respect. 
There are two specimens of this pale race in the British Museum, 
marked as having been received from the N.W. Himalayas, but 
the labels are unsatisfactory and the locality doubtful. P. thura 
may be looked upon as a dark race from Sikhim and Nepal, and 
P. dubius (or P. blythi) as a pale race from the drier regions of 



PROPASSEtt. 215 

Gilgit and Tibet. I do not consider these races worthy of 
separation. 

755. Propasser pulcherrimus. The Beautiful Eose-Finch. 

Propasser pulckerrima, Hody*. in Cray's Zoof. Misc. p. 85 (1844, 

sine descr.*). 
Propasser pulcherrimus, Moore, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 216 ; Horsf. fy M. 

Cat. ii, p. 460; Jerd. B. 1. ii, p. 402; Hume, N. & .E.'p. 471 ; 

id. Cat. no. 743 ; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. if, p. 153. 
Carpodacus davidianus, Milne-Edwards, Nouv. Arch. Mus. i, Buff. 

p. 19, pi. ii, fi ff . 2 (1864). 
Carpodacus pulcherrimus (Moore), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 429. 

Coloration. Male. Upper plumage ashy brown streaked with 
dark brown, the crown tinged with rosy ; the rump rosy red ; the 
upper tail-coverts rosy brown with dark shaft-streaks ; wing-coverts 
blackish, broadly edged with ashy rufous ; quills and tail black, 
narrowly edged with ruddy brown, the tertiaries more broadly with 
ashy ; a very broad supercilium, cheeks, ear-coverts, chin, throat, 
and a small portion of the forehead pale rosy, with the black bases 
of the feathers showing more or less ; lores and a band behind the 
eye rosy brown ; breast and abdomen rosy red, with black shafts ; 
sides of the body brown, streaked darker ; under tail-coverts rosy 
red, with large black centres. 

Female. The whole upper plumage fulvous-brown, streaked with 
black ; wing-coverts, quills, and tail dark brown or black, margined 
with fulvous-brown ; a very indistinct supercilium fulvous, mottled 
with brown ; sides of the head and neck and the whole lower 
plumage ashy white, tinged with fulvous and densely streaked 
with brown. 

Iris reddish brown ; bill horny brown with the lower mandible 
greyish ; legs rosy grey (David). 

Length about 6 ; tail 2'6 ; wing 3 ; tarsus '75 ; bill from gape -45. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Kumaun to Sikhim, extending 
to "Western China. 

756. Propasser ambiguus. Hume's Hose-Finch. 

Propasser ambiguus, Hume, S. F. ii, p. 326 (1874) ; Brooks, S. F. iii, 

p. 255 ; Hume, Cat. no. 743 bis. 
Carpodacus ambiguus (Hume), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 428, pi. x. 

Coloration. Male. The only male of this Rose-Finch that I have 
been able to examine is a carbolized specimen in the Hume Collec- 
tion and the type of the species. It is now in very bad order, and I 
shall therefore quote the original description made when the speci- 
men was fresher : " Forehead, crown, occiput, back, and scapulars 
dark hair-brown, most of the feathers narrowly and inconspicuously 
margined with pale brown ; a broad line from the nostrils over the 

* Hodgson confounded this species with P. rhodochrwis, but fortunately 
Moore, in redescribing the present species, retained Hodgson's name. 



216 FKINGULLIDJE. 

eye, the lores, cheeks, chin, and throat dull dark crimson, the 
feathers dusky at their bases ; the ear-coverts and sides of the neck 
like the back, but more broadly margined with very pale brown ; 
the wings, tail, and upper tail-coverts hair-brown ; the feathers with 
an excessively narrow pale brown margin, and the median coverts 
rather more broadly tipped with pale brownish pink ; the rump 
pale rose-colour ; breast, abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts pale 
rose-colour, paling towards the lower tail-coverts, each feather 
dusky at the base and with brown shafts or narrow brown shaft- 
stripes." 

Female. The specimens in the British Museum labelled as females 
of this species are absolutely inseparable from the females of P. 
pulclierrimus both as regards size and colour. 

Length 5-5 to 6 ; tail 2-2 ; wing 3 ; tarsus -8 ; bill from 
gape^-5. 

Distribution. The only male of this species known was obtained 
in the valley of the Bhaghirati river in Garhwal. Females, pre- 
sumably of this species, have been obtained at Suki and Darali in 
the same valley. Sharpe identifies with this species two females 
obtained by Hodgson in Nepal, but I cannot separate them from 
other females ascribed to P. pulcJierrimus and also obtained by 
Hodgson in Nepal. 

757. Propasser grandis. The Red-mantled Rose-Finch. 

Carpodacus grandis, Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xviii, p. 810 (1849) ; id. Cat. 

p. 342 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 404. 
Propasser rhodochlamys (-Z?m??^), apud Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii. p. 458; 

Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 401 ; StoUczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 60 ; 

Hume 8f Henders. Lah. to Yark. p. 259 ; Hume, Cat. no. 741 ; 

Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 84; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 578. 

Coloration. Male. The whole upper plumage and the visible 
portions of the closed wings and tail rosy brown, becoming pure 
rosy on the rump ; the feathers of the head and back with dark 
brown streaks ; supercilium, sides of head, chin, and throat pale 
shining rosy, the feathers all pointed ; lores and a band behind the 
eye reddish brown ; lower plumage rosy red ; under wing-coverts 
and axillaries rosy white. 

Female. Upper plumage ashy brown, streaked darker everywhere ; 
the lower plumage ashy white, streaked with dark brown ; wings 
and tail brown, the feathers with paler margins ; an indistinct 
supercilium pale buff mottled with brown. 

Iris light brown ; bill greyish brown, the lower mandible albes- 
cent; legs pinkish carneous brown (Warcttaiv Ramsay). 

Length about 7 ; tail 3'1 ; wing 3' 6 ; tarsus '8 ; bill from gape 
*65. 

This species differs from the true P. rliodoclilamys, Brandt, in 
having no rosy plumes on the forehead. 

Distribution. The whole Himalayas from Afghanistan and Gilgit 
eastwards to Garhwul and Ivumaun. In the British Museum 



PROPASSER. 217 

there is also a single female said to have been procured in Sikhim 
by Mandelli, but there is no original label attached to this 
specimen and I fear that some mistake may have been made re- 
garding the locality. This Rose-Finch is found from about 4000 
to 9000 feet according to season. 

758. Propasser rhodochrous. The Pink-browed Rose-Finch. 

Fringilla rhodochroa, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 23 ; Gould, Cent. 

pi. 31, fig. 2. 
Propasser rhodochrous ( Vig.), Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 459 ; Jerd. 

B. I. ii, p. 402; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 60; 

Brooks, S. F. iii, p. 255 ; Hume, Cat. no. 742. 
Carpodacus rhodochrous ( Viy.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 122 ; Sharpe, Cat. 

B. M. xii, p. 413. 
Gulabi tuti, Nep. ; Cheerya, Nep. plains. 

Coloration. Male. Crown and nape dusky crimson, with faint 
shaft-streaks ; back and scapulars ruddy brown, streaked darker ; 
rump rosy red ; upper tail-coverts dull crimson ; wing-coverts, 
quills, and tail dark brown, margined with ruddy brown ; lores and 
a broad band behind the eye crimson-brown ; a supercilium, cheeks, 
ear-coverts, and entire lower plumage rosy red, the plumage of the 
head with a pearly tinge ; under wing-coverts and axillaries ashy 
rosy. 

Female. Whole upper plumage olive-brown, broadly streaked 
with dark brown ; wing-coverts, quills, and tail dark brown 
margined with olive-brown ; a broad conspicuous ochraceous super- 
cilium ; lores and a band behind the eye dark brown ; cheeks, chin, 
and upper throat ashy, streaked brown ; the whole lower plumage 
ochraceous buff, streaked with dark brown. 

The young resemble the adult female. 

Upper mandible, legs and feet dark brown ; lower mandible a 
lighter brown, fleshy brown towards the base ; iris red-brown 
(Hume). 

Length 6 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 2'8 ; tarsus *75 ; bill from gape -45. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Dharmsala to Nepal, not 
occurring in summer much below 7000 feet according to Stoliczka. 
Royle, as quoted by Jerdon, asserts that this Kose-Finch occurs in 
the plains near Saharanpur. 

Godwin-Austen (J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 110) refers to this 
species, with some doubt, a female specimen of a Bose-Finch pro- 
cured in the Khasi hills by him. 

759. Propasser rhodopeplus. The Spotted-winged Rose-Finch. 

Fringilla rhodopepla, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 23 ; Gould, Cent. 

pi. 31, fig. 1. 
Propasser rhodopeplus (77</.), Hortf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 458 ; Jerd. 

B. 1. ii, p. 400 ; Hume, Cat. no. 739. 
Carpodacus rhodopeplus (F/V/.), Blyth, Cat. p. 121; Sharpe, Cat 

B. M. xii, p. 417. 
Gulabi tuti, Nep. 



218 

Coloration. Male. Upper plumage dark crimson-brown, the 
centres of the feathers darker ; lower back streaked with rosy ; 
rump-feathers broadly tipped rosy ; wings and tail dark brown, 
every feather margined with crimson-brown ; median coverts with 
a rosy tip ; greater coverts and tertiaries with a rosy tip to the 
outer web only; a very broad superciliuin pale shining rosy ; sides 
of the head and neck crimson-brown ; lower plumage rosy red, the 
crimson-brown bases of the feathers everywhere visible, the 
feathers of the throat pointed and tipped with pale shining rosy. 

Female. The whole upper plumage olive-brown, tinged with 
ochraceous and closely streaked with blackish ; wing and tail dark 
brown, the median and greater coverts tipped with ochraceous, the 
tertiaries with a long oblique patch of ochraceous on the outer 
web ; all the quills and the tail margined with olive-brown ; a 
broad ochraceous-buff supercilium ; lores and ear-coverts blackish ; 
the whole lower plumage ochraceous buff, streaked with dark brown. 

Bill horny-brown ; legs pale brown ; iris brown (Jerdon). 

Length nearly 7 ; tail 2-9 ; wing 3'3 ; tarsus '9 ; bill from 
gape *6. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Garhwal to Sikhim. 



760. Propasser edwardsi. Edivards's Eose-Finch. 

Carpodacus edwardsii, Verr. Nouv. Arch. Mus. vi, Bull. p. 39 (1870), 
vu,Bull. p. 58, viii, Bull. pi. 3, fig. 4 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 418. 

Propasser saturatus, Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 168, pi. viii 
(1872) ; id. Ibis, 1873, p. 218; Hume, S. F.i, p. 418. 

Propasser edwardsi ( Fen\), Hwme, S. F. vii, p. 415 ; id. Cat. no. 
744 bis. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, and nape dull crimson, with 
black shaft-streaks ; a broad supercilium, cheeks, chin, and throat 
rosy pink, with dashes of the same on the forehead ; lores and sides 
of the head dull crimson ; back, rump, scapulars, and upper tail- 
coverts brown washed with crimson, the back and scapulars 
with broad black streaks ; wing-coverts, quills, and tail blackish 
margined with reddish brown, the coverts and tertiaries also tipped 
with pale rosy ; breast dark rosy red, with black shaft- streaks ; 
remainder of lower parts pink, with black shaft-streaks. 

Female. Similar to the female of C. rliodopeplus, from which it 
can only be separated by its slightly shorter tail, measuring about 
2'6 (whereas in the other species the tail measures quite 2*8); by 
the colour of the lores and ear-coverts, which are brown mottled 
with buff (not black) ; and by the less distinct supercilium. 

Length about 6-5 ; tail 2-7 ; wing 3-1 ; tarsus -9 ; bill from 
gape *58. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Nepal to Bhutan, extending to 
the mountains of Western China. This species occurs at high 
levels, Mandelli having procured it at 10,000 feet. 



CARPODACU8. 219 



Genus CARPODACUS, Kaup, 1829. 

The birds of the genus Carpodacus differ from those of the genus 
Propasser in having a longer and more pointed wing, the second- 
aries falling short of the tip of the wing by a distance greater 
than the length of the tarsus, and in having no supercilium. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Wing under 3'5 C. erythrinus, p. 210. 

b. Wing considerably over 4 C. severtzovi, p. 220. 

761. Carpodacus erythrinus. The Common Rote-Finch. 

Loxia erythrina, Pall. Nov. Comm. Petrop. xiv, p. 587, pi. 23, fig. i 

(1770)." 
Carpodacus erythrinus (Pall.), Blyth, Cat. p. 122 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. 

ii, p. 456 ; Jej-d. B. I. ii, p. 398 ; Hume # Senders. Lah. to York. 

p. 259 ; Scully, S. F. iv, p. 170 ; Hume, Cat. no. 738 ; Scully, S. F. 

viii, p. 335 ; Bidihdph, Ibis, 1881, p. 83 ; Damson, S.F.x, p. 403 ; 

Oates, B. B.i, p. 345 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 274 ; Sharpe, Cat. 

B. M. xii, p. 391 ; Hume, S. F. xi. p. 286; Oates in Hume's N. 

$ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 153. 

Tuti, Hind. ; Amonga tuti, Nep. ; Chota tuti, Sylhet ; Phulin-pho, 
Lepch. ; Yedru-pichike, Yedru-jinowayi, Tel. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the forehead, crown, 
and nape are dull crimson ; back and scapulars crimson-brown, 
each feather margined with olivaceous ; lower back and rump 
nearly uniform rosy red; upper tail -co verts ruddy brown, edged 
with olive ; lesser wing-coverts crirnson-brown ; median coverts 
dark brown, broadly tipped with rufous ; greater coverts brown, 
broadly edged with rufous ; primary-coverts, winglet, quills, and 
tail brown, edged with ruddy brown tinged with olivaceous ; lores 
and a band behind the eye dusky rufous ; cheeks, chin, throat, 
and upper breast a beautiful rose-colour ; lower breast paler rose, 
becoming albescent on the abdomen and under tail-coverts ; sides 
of the neck and sides of the body olive-brown ; axillaries and under 
wing-coverts ash}'- rufous. 

After some months, owing to the wearing away of 'the margins 
and also to an increase of colour, the whole head and neck, chin, 
throat, and upper breast become bright crimson ; the back. 
scapulars, rump, upper tail-coverts, and lesser wing-coverts very 
dark crimson. 

Female. The whole plumage olive-brown, streaked with brown, 
the median and greater wing-coverts broadly tipped with ochra- 
ceous and the quills and tail margined with the same; under 
wing-coverts and axillaries pale ochraceous. 

Young birds of both sexes resemble the adult female in general 
appearance. The young male appears to retain this female plumage 
during the first summer. 



220 

Iris dark brown ; legs and feet dusky brown ; bill dark horny 
brown, paling at base of upper mandible. 

Length about 6-5 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 3-3 ; tarsus -8 ; bill from 
gape -5. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the whole of India as far south 
as the Nilgiri hills, and to the provinces to the east as far south as 
Arrakan and Northern Pegu. In summer the range of this species 
extends to Northern Europe and Northern Asia. Considerable 
numbers of these birds appear to summer in the higher and more 
remote portions of the Himalayas, breeding at 10,000 feet. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds in July and August, in low bushes near the 
ground, constructing a cup- shaped nest of grass. The eggs are 
described as being blue, marked with a few chocolate spots, and 
measuring about -81 by '6. 

762. Carpodacus severtzovi. Severtzoff's Rose-Finch. 

Propasser rubicillus (Guld.}, Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 457. 
Carpodacus rubicilla (Giild.), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 397 ; Hume fy Henders. 

Lah. to Yark. p. 258 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 471 ; id. Cat, no. 737 ; 

Biddidph, Ibis, 1881, p. 82. 
Carpodacus severtzovi, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1886, p. 354; id. Cat. B. M. 

xii, p. 400 j Oates in Hume's N, fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 154. 

The Caucasian Rose-Finch, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead and whole crown, except a patch 
on the hinder part, white, each feather margined with crimson ; 
lores and feathers near bill deep crimson ; hinder part of crown, 
hind neck, sides of neck, back, and scapulars rosy ashy ; all the 
coverts and quills of the wing and the tail brown, edged with the 
colour of the back ; rump and upper tail-coverts rose-colour ; ear- 
coverts pale rose-colour ; cheeks, chin, throat, and fore neck white 
and crimson, like the crown ; remainder of lower surface rosy 
mottled with ashy, the feathers of the breast and middle abdomen 
with small subterminal white shaft-streaks. 

Female. Upper plumage ashy brown, streaked with dark brown ; 
wing-coverts and quills brown, margined with ashy ; tail brown, 
edged with ashy, and the outer web of the outermost feather white ; 
sides of the head and entire lower plumage paler than the upper 
plumage and everywhere streaked with brown. 

Bill grey horny, with the upper mandible brownish above, the 
lower yellowish horny at base ; iris brown ; legs and feet brown or 
dusky brown ; claws dusky brown and dusky blackish (Scully}. 

Length nearly 8 ; tail 3*5 ; wing 4*5 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from 
gape -7. 

C. rubicilla from the Caucasus differs from the present species 
in being everywhere of a much deeper red colour. 

Distribution. Gilgit and Ladak, extending through Central Asia 
to Eastern Siberia. In summer this species is found in Turkestan 
from 10,000 to 12,000 feet and in winter it descends to the level 
of Gilgit. 



ERYTHROSPIZA. 221 

Habits, fyc. Stoliczka seems to have found the nest of this Eose- 
Finch in Western Tibet in July, but its authenticity is very 
doubtful. 

0. stoliczkce, Hume, from Tarkand, is a much smaller species, 
with the plumage pale ashy and the red parts of the head without 
the conspicuous white spangles which characterize C. albicilla. 
The female is plain unstreaked ashy throughout. 



Genus ERYTHROSPIZA, Bonap., 1831. 

The genus Erythrospiza contains the palest forms of the Hose- 
Finches, birds of the desert. In this genus the general colour of 
the males is brown or grey suffused with pale pink. The bill is 
short but extremely tumid, the lower mandible being as much 
curved a^ the upper. The wings are very long and reach much 
beyond the middle of the tail. The sexes do not differ much in 
colour. 

Key to the Species. 

a. In fresh plumage, upper parts bluish grey ; 

greatest depth of closed bill '4 E. (jithayinea, p. 221 . 

b. In fresh plumage, upper parts sandy brown; 

greatest depth of closed bill '3 E. monyolica, p. 222. 



763. Erythrospiza githaginea. The Desert-Finch. 

Pyrrlmla githaginea, Temm. PI. Col iii, pi. 400 (182G). 

Jiucauetes githaginea (Temm.), Hume, S. F. i, p. 210, vii, pp. 64, 

4v>4 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 273. 
Erythrospiza githaginea (Temm?), Hume, Cat. no. 732 bis ; Sharpe, 

Cat. B. M. xii, p. 284. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the forehead, crown, 
sides of the head, and entire lower plumage are bluish grey, suffused 
with rosy on the lower parts ; upper plumage and sides of the neck 
greyish brown, with a faint tinge of rosy on the rump ; wings and 




Fig. 59. Head of E. yithayinca. 

tail brown, edged with vinous grey, the quills subterminally 
blacfc. 

The above plumage is retained by the male for only a short time 
after the moult, and at this period the whole plumage has a decided 



222 

purplish tinge throughout, and hardly any pink is visible. A slight 
abrasion of the feathers soon causes a change, and as early as 
December the feathers round the bill, the cheeks, the whole lower 
plumage, the rump, and the margins of the quills and coverts 
become a beautiful rose-pink, becoming still brighter as the 
plumage gets more worn away. 

Female. Besembles the male, but never becomes so rosy in tint 
at any time of the year. 

Iris brown ; legs and feet fleshy brown ; claws dusky ; soles 
whitish ; bill orange-yellow, sometimes pale yellow, brownish on 
upper mandible (Hume). 

Length nearly 6 ; tail 2*2 ; wing 3*5 ; tarsus ? ; bill from, 
gape '5. 

Young birds appear to be characterized by the presence of some 
dark streaks on the breast and abdomen. 

Distribution. The whole of Sind and a considerable portion of 
Kajputana, extending east as far as the Gurgaon district in the 
Punjab. This Finch is probably a resident, and it is found west- 
wards throughout Afghanistan and Baluchistan to Europe. 

Habits, fye. Hume observed this species in Sind, feeding in desert 
places in patches of mustard and other cultivation, and running 
about a good deal on the ground like Sparrows. 



764. Erythrospiza mongolica. The Mongolian Desert-Finch. 

Carpodacus mongolicus, Swinh. P. Z. S. 1870, p. 447, 1871, p. 387 j 

Scully, S. F. iv, p. 169 ; id. Ibis, 1881, p. 577. 
Erythrospiza incarnata, Severtz. Turkest. Jevotn. pp. 64. 117 (1873) ; 

Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 82. 
Erythrospiza mongolica (Swinh.), Hume, S. F. ix, p. 347 note ; Bid- 

dulph, Ibis, 1882, p. 282 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 287. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the whole upper 
plumage and lesser wing-coverts sandy brown, the centres of the 
feathers almost everywhere darker brown, the lower rump suffused 
with rosy ; tail brown, broadly edged with pale buff : median wing- 
coverts brown, edged with rosy buff ; greater coverts brown, sub- 
terminally darker and broadly edged with rosy red ; winglet very 
dark brown, edged with buff ; primary-coverts paler brown, edged 
with buff: quills brown, the outer webs whity brown, and most 
of them suffused with rosy red on the greater part of the web ; 
tertiaries pale buff, with the middle portion brown ; ear-coverts 
and sides of neck brown ; lores, round the eye, the cheeks, and the 
whole lower plumage, except the abdomen and under tail-coverts, 
pale rosy pink ; the two latter parts pale isabelline. 

In the spring and autumn the rosy tinge on the plumage every- 
where is much brighter owing to the wearing away of the margins 
of the feathers, and the outer webs of the quills and coverts become 
crimson in many birds. 



PROCARDUELIS. 223 

I'\in<(f>'. Very similar to the male in autumn, but with the rosy 
much paler and entirely absent on the rump. 

Bill and legs pale fleshy ; iris dark brown (Mwrray\ 

Length about 5'5 ; tail 2-3; wing 3'6 ; tarsus 7; bill from 
gape -45. 

Distribution. Resident in Gilgit from 5000 to 10,000 feet ac- 
cording to season. To the west this Finch extends to Afghanistan. 
It is spread over a considerable portion of Central Asia and ranges 
to China. 

Habits, $c. Occurs in large flocks throughout the winter. 

The following two birds are likely to be found in India proper, 
but are not yet known to occur there : 

Ehodopechys sanyuinea (Gould), entered by Hume in his Catalogue 
with a note of doubt. A fine Finch with a wing over four inches, 
the bases of all the quills largely white and the outer webs of the 
quills and coverts a beautiful rosy red, paler in the female. Occurs 
in Yiirkand. 

lihodospiza obsoleta (Licht.). Sandy brown throughout, with the 
outer webs of the primaries pure white and those of the secondaries 
and greater coverts pink. Occurs in Afghanistan and Yarkand. 



Genus PROCARDUELIS, Hodgs., 1844. 

The genus Procarduelis contains certain species which are E.ose- 
Finehes in plumage, but differ remarkably from those birds in the 
shape of the bill, which is slender and pointed, with the culmen 
straight. The females differ from those of the Kose-Finches in 
being unstreaked. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Lower plumage red. 

a'. Forehead and supercilium of a different 

shade of red to the crown P. nepalensis tf , p. 223. 

b'. Forehead and crown of the same red and 

no supercilium evident : P. rubescens <$ } p. M. 

b. Lower plumage without a trace of red. 

c. Upper plumage without a trace of red . . P. nepafauu $ , p. -_'!. 
d'. Upper plumage suffused with red P. rubescens $ , p. 224. 

765. Procarduelis nepalensis. The Dark Hose-Finch. 

Carduelis nipalensis, Hodys. As. lie*, xix, p. 157 (1836). 

Procarduelis nipalensis (Hodys.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 121 ; Horsf. ISf M. 
Cat. ii, p. 492 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 400 ; Blanford, J. A. S. B. xli, 
pt. ii, p. 0(5 ; Hume, Cat. no. 746 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 336; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. M. xii, p. 182. 
Ka-biya, Lepch. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, anterior part of crown, broad super- 
cilia, cheeks, chin, and throat rosy red, the forehead and anterior 
part of crown of a richer colour ; lores and a broad band through the 



224 FKIITOILLID.E. 

eye over the ear-coverts black, tinged with red ; upper plumage, 
scapulars, lesser wing-coverts, sides of the neck, and the whole 
breast dusky, tinged with vinaceous, and each feather margined 
with sanguineous ; remaining wing-coverts, quills, and tail dark 
brown, edged with dusky red ; abdomen rosy red ; sides of the body 
brown, suffused with rufous; under tail-coverts brown, margined 
with pink ; under wing-coverts and axillaries dark brown. 




Fig. 60. Head of P. 



Female. The whole upper plumage brown, each feather more or 
less margined with ochraceous, most distinctly so on the back ; 
wings dark brown, the coverts and the tertiaries very broadly tipped 
and margined near the tip with ochraceous ; remainder of the wing 
and the tail brown, narrowly margined with ochraceous ; sides of 
the head and neck and the whole lower plumage uniform ochraceous 
brown, the under tail-coverts lighter and with dusky centres. 

This species does not appear to undergo any appreciable change 
of plumage according to season. 

The young resemble the adult female closely. 

Bill dusky, paler below ; iris dark brown ; legs fleshy brown 
(Scully). 

Length about 6'3; tail 2*6; wing 3-6; tarsus -85; bill from 
gape -55. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from. Kashmir to Bhutan at eleva- 
tions of from 6000 to 14,000 feet, according to season. This species 
extends into the mountains of Western China. 

Habits, fyc. This bird appears to be found in small flocks feeding 
on the ground, and is said not to be at all shy. 

766. Procarduelis rubescens. Blanford's Rose-Finch. 

Procarduelis rubescens, JBlanf. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 694, pi. 74 ; Hume, 

Cat. no. 746 bis ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 184. 
Procarduelis mandellii, Hume, S. F. i, pp. 14, 318 (1873). 

Coloration. Male. The whole upper plumage, scapulars, lesser 
and median wing-coverts crimson, brightest on the crown, the bases 
of the feathers showing through more or less everywhere and im- 
parting a brownish hue to the plumage ; greater coverts brown, 
edged with red in some specimens, with rufous or fulvous brown in 
others ; tertiaries the same ; remaining quills and tail-feathers 
dark brown, narrowly margined with reddish ; lores and a band 



A KIM Kl. IS. 225 

through the eye over the ear-coverts brown stippled with red ; the 
whole lower plumage rosy red, the lower part of the abdomen 
whitish; the under tail-coverts pale brown, edged with white; 
under wing-coverts and axillaries greyish brown tinged with fulvous. 

Female. In general appearance similar to the female of P. nepal- 
ensis, but the whole upper plumage, except the back, and the 
margins of the wings and tail suffused with crimson, of which there 
is not a trace in the other species ; the lower plumage much paler, 
becoming albescent on the abdomen. 

Length about 5*5 ; tail 2'2 ; wing 3*3 ; tarsus '75 ; bill from 
gape -55. The bill is thicker in this species than in P. nejpaleiisis. 

Distribution. Sikhim arid the eastern portion of Nepal, probably 
at high elevations. 

Genus CARDUELIS, Briss., 1760. 

The genus Garduelis contains the Goldfinches, of which two species 
are known, one inhabiting Europe and Western Asia, and the other 
Central Asia down to the Himalayas. The Goldfinches are charac- 
terized by a long, slender, straight and sharply pointed bill, long 
wings, the bright red colour of the face, and the bright yellow on 
the wing. The sexes are very closely similar. 

767. Carduelis caniceps. The Himalayan Gold/inch. 

Carduelis caniceps, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 23; Gould, Cent. pi. 33, 
fig. 1 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 124 ; Horsf. 8f M. Cat. ii,p.493 ; Jerd. B. I. 
ii, p. 408 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 61 ; Hume, Cat. 
no. 749; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 85 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 578 ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 189. 
Shira, Hind. ; Saira, Kashm. 




Fig. 61. Head of C. caniceps. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, chin, and the cheeks next the bill 
crimson ; lores black ; upper plumage ashy brown, becoming whitish 
on the rump ; upper tail-coverts white; lesser, median, and primary 
coverts with the winglet black, sometimes with ashy margins ; 
greater coverts chiefly bright yellow ; primaries and secondaries 
black, with a considerable portion of the outer webs of all but the 
first primary bright yellow, the inner w ebs margined with white ; 
the tertiaries each with a large oval white mark on the outer web ; 
tail black, the two outer pairs of feathers largely white on the inner 
webs, the two middle pairs tipped white: throat ashy white; sides 



TOL. ii. 



226 

of the head and neck and the breast ashy brown ; abdomen and 
under tail-coverts white ; sides of the body fulvous ashy ; under 
wing-coverts and axillaries whitish. 

Female. Yery similar to the male, but having the crimson on the 
head paler and the yellow on the greater wing-coverts less extensive. 

Bill carneous with a dusky tip ; legs pale brow n ; iris brown 
(Jerdon). 

Length about 5'5 : tail 2-1; wing 3-2; tarsus '55; bill from 
gape *6. 

This species differs from the English Goldfinch, C. elegans, 
chiefly in having no black on the head. Where the two species meet 
they appear to interbreed, and every intermediate form between 
the two may be found, as is well shown in the fine mounted series 
of these birds in the Central Hall of the British Museum of 
Natural History. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from the Hazara country and Gil- 
git to Kumaun, from 5000 to 9000 or 10,000 feet according to 
season. This species extends to Afghanistan on the west and 
through Central Asia to Siberia on the north. 

Habits, fyc. This Goldfinch, like its European ally, affects open 
country, feeding chiefly on the seeds of the thistle. Nothing is 
known regarding its nidification on the Himalayas. 

Genus CALLACANTHIS, Reichenb., 1850. 

The genus Callacanthis contains one species which appears to 
have considerable affinities for Carduelis. Both sexes are charac- 
terized by a large amount of white on the wings and tail ; the male 
is rosy red, and the female brown, but they both preserve the same 
pattern of colour. The bill is large and thick, but straight and 
pointed, and the wings are very long. 

This Einch probably resembles the Goldfinch in its habits. 

768. Callacanthis bur toni. The Eed-browed Finch. 

Carduelis burtoni, Gould, P. Z. S. 1837, p. 90. 

Fringilla burtoni (Old.), Blyth, Cat. p. 337. 

Callacanthis burtoni (Gld.), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 407; Stoliczka, J. A. 

S. B. xxxvii, pt ii, p. 61 j Hume, N.. $ E. p. 471 ; Brooks, 8. F. 

iii, p. 255 ; Hume, Cat. no. 748 ; Sharps, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 232 ; 

Oates in Hume's N. \ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 15.4. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, lores, and a large ring round the 
eye crimson ; crown and nape black ; cheeks and ear-coverts black 
with pale shafts ; upper plumage and scapulars brown suffused with 
rose-colour ; lesser and median wing-coverts black, margined 
with red ; the remaining wing-coverts and winglet black, tipped 
with white, the tips of the greater coverts tinged with rosy ; quills 
black, tipped with white ; tail black, the middle pair of feathers 
merely tipped with white, the others with an increasing amount of 
white, the outermost feather having nearly the whole inner we b 



ACANTHIS. 227 

white ; chin and throat blackish, tipped with red ; lower plumage 
brown suffused with rosy red ; under wing-coverts and axillaries 
white with asliy bases. 

Female. The forehead, round the eye, and supercilium buff ; crown 
and nape dusky brown ; upper plumage ochraceous brown ; lesser 
and median wing-coverts ochruceous brown, tipped paler; greater 




Fig. 62. Head of C. burton i. 

wing-coverts, primary-coverts, winglet, and quills black, tipped 
with white ; tail as in male ; lores and ear-coverts brown with pale 
shafts ; entire lower plumage ochraceous brown ; under wing- 
coverts and axillaries white with ashy bases. 

In the dry state the bill is yellow and the legs fleshy brown. 

Length 6-5 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 4 ; tarsus '8 ; bill from gape '7. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Murree to Garhwal and 
Kumaun. According to Stoliczka, this species is found occasionally 
in winter on the lesser ranges, about Kotgarh and Simla, between 
4000 and 7000 feet ; in summer it lives in the highest cedar-forests 
on the central range of the N.W. Himalayas. 

Habits, fyc. This Finch is said to make a large nest of moss in a 
pine-tree in dark forest situations. The eggs do not appear to be 
known. 



Genus ACANTHIS, Bechst., 1802. 

The genus Acanthis contains the Linnets, of which two species 
are found on the Himalayas. One of them is little more than a 
race of the common English Linnet, but it varies in certain constant 
particulars which I think en title it to separation from the European 
form. The Linnets are brown, but the males have portions of the 
plumage suffused with red. The bill is short, straight and pointed. 
The sexes do not differ very much from each other except with 
regard to the rosy parts of the plumage. 

Key to the /S/>< 

<i. Throat >ti< aU'd A.frirtgillirostris, p. L'i'S. 

b. Throat unstreaked , . A. brevirostns, p. 229. 



228 



769. Acanthis fringillirostris. The Eastern Linnet. 

Linota fringillirostris, Bonap. fy Schleg. Monog. Lox. p. 45, pi. 49 

(1850). 
Linaria canna"bina (Linn.), Hume, S. F. vii, p. 122 ; Butler, S. F. 

vii, p. 184 ; Hume, Cat. no. 751 ter ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 86; 

Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 579 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1882, p. 285. 
Acanthis fringillirostris (Bp. fy Schleg^, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, 

p. 244. 




Fig. 63. Head of A. fringillirostris. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the forehead, crown, 
nape, and hind neck are ashy brown, with dark brown streaks, the 
centres of the feathers of the forehead and front part of crown 
being red, but entirely concealed ; back, rump, scapulars, and wing- 
coverts dark brown, with broad chestnut-brown margins to all the 
feathers ; upper tail-coverts black, margined with white : tail-feathers 
black, the inner webs broadly, the outer more narrowly, margined 
with pure white ; primaries black, margined and tipped with white ; 
secondaries dark brown, edged with reddish brown, which colour 
occupies nearly the whole of the tertiaries ; a broad band above and 
below the eye fulvous ; sides of the head pale brown ; chin and 
throat fulvous, the middle portions streaked with dark brown ; 
breast dull red, the feathers with very broad fulvous margins which 
nearly conceal the red ; sides of the breast and of the body fulvous, 
streaked with brown ; abdomen and under tail-coverts whitish 
suffused with fulvous. 

In spring and summer the margins of the feathers of the forehead 
and front part of crown are worn down and the red centres become 
very evident, causing those parts to have a general red appearance ; 
the hinder crown, nape, and hind neck become more uniformly 
brown ; the breast becomes a deep rosy pink, with very narrow 
whitish margins ; a tinge of red is frequently observable on the 
rump. 

Female. Resembles the male, but has no red whatever on the fore- 
head, front part of crown, or breast, these parts being streaked with 
brown like the other parts of the plumage. 

The young bird appears to resemble the adult female closely. 

The colours of the bill &c. of this race have not been recorded ; 
in the Common Linnet the bill is horn-colour, the under mandible 
brown at base, legs pale reddish brown, iris brown. 

Length 5-5 to 6 ; tail 2'4 ; wing 3-2 ; tarsus '65 ; bill from 
gape '45. 

This race of Linnet differs from A. cannabina in being larger, and, 
as regards the males, in the colour of the forehead and breast in 



ACANTHT8. 

the full worn plumage of summer. In A. cannabina these parts 
are a deep carmine-red ; in A. fringiUirostris a bright pomegranate- 
red. Other differences alleged to exist between the two birds as 
regards the amount of white on the wing and tail are, I find, of no 
service in distinguishing them. 

Distribution. Occurs in G-ilgit from November to February at an 
elevation of 5000 feet. In the Hume Collection there is a specimen 
said to have been procured at Daulatpur in Sind in November, and 
Butler is under the impression that he observed a Linnet, probably 
of this species, at Karachi. This Linnet extends westwards to Asia 
Minor and it is found in Central Asia. 



770. Acanthis brevirostris. The Eastern Twite. 

Linota brevirostris, Gould, Bonap. Comp. List B. Eur. Sf N. Am. 

p. 34 (18:5S) ; //0/-.S-/; # M. Ct. ii, p. 490; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. 

xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 02 ; Hume, Sf Senders. Lah. to Yark. p. 260, 

pi. 26 ; Scully, S. F. iv, p. 170. 
Linaria brevirostris (Gould), Hume, S. F. vii, p. 417; id. Cat. no. 

7ol bis; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 86, 1882, p. 284; Scully, Ibis, 

1881, p. 578. 
Acanthis brevirostris (Gould), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 238; Oates 

in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, p. loo. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, nape, hind neck, back, and 
scapulars pale sandy brown, each feather with a dark brown streak 
down the middle; rump rosy pink ; upper tail-coverts dark brown 
with broad whitish edges ; tail-feathers blackish, edged with white 
on both webs ; wing-coverts dark brown, suffused with rufous 
towards the edges and tipped with sandy white ; primaries and 
secondaries blackish, the fourth to the eighth primaries broadly 
edged with white, the others more narrouly with sandy white; 
tertiaries brown, broadly edged with fulvous ; sides of head, chin, 
and throat sandy brown ; breast and sides of the body sandy brown, 
streaked with dark brown ; abdomen, under tail-coverts, under 
wing-coverts, and axillaries white. 

Female. Differs from the male in having the rump of the same 
colour as the back. 

In the summer the upper plumage is somewhat darker and the 
rump brighter pink than in the winter. 

The young bird appears to resemble the adult female, but to be 
more fulvous. 

Bill yellowish horny, brown on theculmcn : logs and feet brown, 
claws dusky or black with yellowish tips : iris brown (New////). 

Length about 5'5 ; tail 2*0; wing 3*1; tarsus *6 ; bill t'roui 
gape 1. 

Dlxirilnttion. Occurs in Gilgit app.-uvnily throughout the year 
from 5000 feet upwards, according to scnson. Stoliczka obsrnvs 
that this species is "rare in I,;ul;ik ami \isitiiiL;- Kulu and thcSutk-j 
\;illcy in winter; it is also in winter caught near Chini, and some- 
times caged." No one has since confirmed this account of this 



230 FRIffGILUDJE. 

Linnet's distribution in the Himalayas. This species extends west- 
wards to Asia Minor, and is found throughout a considerable portion 
of Central Asia. 

Habits, fyc. An egg of this species, said to have been found in 
Native Sikhira, is described as being white with a faint bluish 
tinge and mottled all over with reddish brown, and to have measured 
72 by *55. 

Genus METOPONIA, Bonap., 1853. 

The genus Metoponia contains one Finch which has a considerable 
amount of yellow in its plumage, and connects the Linnets with 
the Siskins. The sexes are almost alike. The bill is very small 
but somewhat thick, with the culrnen curved. In both sexes the 
front part of the crown is red. 

771. Metoponia pusilla. The Gold-fronted Finch. 

Passer pusillus, Pallas, Zooqr. Ross.-Asiat. ii, p. 28 (1811). 

Serinus aurifrons, Blyth, Cat. p. 125 (1849). 

Metoponia pusilla (Pall.), Horsf. 8f M. Cat. ii, p. 494 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, 
p. 410; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 61 ; Hume $ Sen- 
ders. Lah. to Yark. p. 259 ; Hmne, N. $ E. p. 473 ; Brooks, J. A. 
S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 84 ; Hume, Cat. no. 751 ; Wardlaw Ramsay, 
Ibis, 1880, p. 67; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 86, 1882, p. 284; 
Scully* Ibis, 1881, p. 578; Oafes in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, 
p. 155. 

Serinus pusillus (Pall.\ Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 373. 
The Gold-headed Finch, Jerd. 




Fig. 64. Head of M. pusilla. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the forehead and 
anterior portion of crown are crimson ; remainder of crown, nape, 
and sides of the neck black, with broad grey fringes ; sides of the 
head, chin, throat, and upper breast black, with narrow grey fringes ; 
back, scapulars, and rump black, with broad yellowish margins ; the 
shorter upper tail-coverts golden yellow, with a subterminal black 
mark and white tip ; longer coverts black, margined with W 7 hite ; 
tail black, the outer webs of feathers basally yellow, margined with 
white elsewhere ; lesser and median wing-coverts yellow, the longer 
ones tipped white, and the feathers more or less black in the middle ; 
greater coverts black, broadly tipped yellowish white ; primaries 
black, edged with yellow ; the remaining quills black, broadly edged 
with dull white on the terminal half of outer web ; lower plumage 
from the breast downwards yellowish streaked with black ; under 
wing-coverts and axillaries bright yellow. In spring and autumn 



HYPACANTHIS. 231 

the fringes and margins are every where reduced or cast off, and the 
plumage becomes darker. 

/< male. Closely resembles the male. 

The nestling is fulvous-brown streaked with brown above ; below 
fulvous, with a few streaks, and tinged with yellow on the throat ; 
the wings and tail are margined with paler yellow than in the 
adult. After the first autumn moult the plumage resembles that of 
the adult, but there is no black on the head, throat, and breast, 
this colour being gradually acquired during the winter. At the end 
of the first winter the young resemble the adult in all respects, but 
have no red on the forehead, this red being acquired at the second 
autumn moult. 

Bill dull black; gape whitish ; iris very dark brown; legs and 
feet black (Hume). 

Length 5 ; tail 2*4 ; wing 3'1 ; tarsus -55 ; bill from gape '35. 

Distribution. Kashmir and the Himalayas from Afghanistan to 
Garhwal, at heights from 5000 to 10,000 feet according to season. 
This Finch extends westwards to the Caucasus and Asia Minor and 
northwards to Turkestan. 

Habit*, <$fc. Breeds in Kashmir and Afghanistan in June and 
July, constructing a cup-shaped nest of grass and fibres and lined 
with wool, feathers, and hair. The eggs are described as being dull 
stone-white, marked with red-brown spots about the larger end, arid 
one egg measured -65 by '49. 

Genus HYPACANTHIS, Cabanis, 1851. 

The genus Hypacantliis contains one species of Finch which is 
closely allied to the Common Greenfinch of Europe, but has a much 
more slender bill and a darker style of coloration, the upper plumage 
Ix-ing a dark brown. The bill is of much the same shape as that 
of Acantltis (and is not therefore figured), but considerably deeper 
and broader. 

77-?. Hypacanthis spinoides. The Himalayan GreeiifincJi. 

Carduelis spiuoides, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 44; Gould, Cent. 

pi. 33, tig. 2. 
Clnysomitiis spinoMes (Vig.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 123; Horsf. $ M. Cat. 

ii, p. 493; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 409; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, 

pt. ii, p. 61 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 66 ; Brooks, J. A. S. B. 

xli, pt. ii, p. 84 ; Godiv.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, p. 200 ; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 201. 
Hypacanthis spinoides ( Vig.}, Hume, N. Sf E. p. 472 ; id. Cat. no. 

750 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 336 ; Vote* in Humes N. # E. 2nd 

ed. ii, p. 158, 

Coloration. Male. Forehead either black or yellow or a mixture 
of both, the differences probably dependent on age; a very broad 
eyebrow, the sides of the neck meeting behind and forming :i more 
or le-s distinct collar, the lores, a patch under Ilie eye, a narrow 
band between the ear-coverts and the cheeks, the rump, and whole 
lower plumage bright yellow ; crown, nape, ear-coverts, and a 



232 FRUSTGILLID^E. 

portion oE the cheeks black tinged with green ; back and scapulars 
dark greenish brown, sometimes suffused with yellow ; upper tail- 
coveris greenish brown ; tail with the two middle pairs of feathers 
dark brown, the others brown largely mixed with yellow, the 
outermost pair being yellow with brow T n tips and brown shaft- 
streaks: lesser and median coverts yellow ; greater coverts black 
tipped with yellow ; primary-coverts and quills black, all the quills 
except the first primary with a patch of yellow on the outer web ; 
the later secondaries and tertiaries broadly tipped and margined 
with white. 

Female. Eesembles the male, but has the yellow of the plumage 
paler and the dark upper plumage more tinged with green ; the 
forehead appears to be always black or brown. 

The young bird has the lower plumage pale yellow streaked 
with brown ; the upper plumage dull greenish brown streaked 
with dark brown, the rump being merely tinged with yellow ; wing- 
coverts greenish brown, tipped with pale yellow : quills and tail 
as in the adult but with less yellow ; sides of head brown where 
the adult is black. 

The amount of yellow on the forehead of the adult male appears 
to depend more on age than on season ; some birds in January have 
a great deal of yellow on this part and a few summer birds fail 
to have any. 

Bill fleshy, brownish on culmen and dusky at tip ; iris light or 
dark brown ; feet brownish fleshy ; claws dusky (Scull)/). 

Length about 5; tail 1-9; wing 3'1 ; tarsus "65; bill from 
gape -5. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from the Pir Panjal range in 
Kashmir to Sikhim ; Manipur. This species is found up to about 
9000 feet. 

Habits, $c. Breeds in July and August, constructing a cup- 
shaped nest of fine grass, hair, and moss in a branch of a tree 
and laying three eggs, which are pale green speckled with black, 
and measure about '69 by '52. 

Genus CHRYSOMITRIS, Boie, 1828. 

The genus Chrysomitris contains the Siskins, small birds of green 
plumage closely allied in form to the Linnets. In this genus the 
bill is very slender and pointed, but resembles that of the Linnets 
so closely in general shape that it is unnecessary to figure it. In 
the Siskins the sexes differ considerably in colour, the female being 
streaked. 

773. Chrysomitris tibetana. The Sikhim Siskin. 

Chrysomitris thibetana, Hume, Ibis, 1872, p. 107 ; Brooks, Ibis, 
1872, p. 469 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 416 ; id. Cat. no. 750 bis ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 226, pi. iii. 

Coloration. Male. Upper plumage olive-green, the back and 
scapulars streaked with blackish ; an indistinct patch on the nape, 



KltLXGILLA. L' ":' 

a broad snpeivilium, a streak under the eye and ear-coverts joining 
the supercilium behind the ear-coverts, the chin, throat, breast, 
abdomen, and under tail-coverts deep dull yellow, the sides of the 
body greener and more or less streaked with brown ; ear-coverts 
and a broad moustachial streak olive-green ; tail dark brown, 
margined with olive-yellow ; lesser and median wing-coverts olive- 
green; larger coverts dark brown, tipped and edged with olive- 
green ; quills dark brown, margined on the outer web with olive- 
green. 

Female. Not very dissimilar to the male, but with the whole upper 
plumage and most of the lower streaked with brown, the lower 
plumage being also very pale yellow ; wing*, tail, and marks on side 
of the head as in male. 

Bill and legs (in dry state) dusky flesh-colour. 

Length about 4-2; tail 1'6 ; wing 2'7 ; tarsus '5 ; bill from 
gape -4. 

Distribution. The interiorof Sikhim, at high elevations, bordering 
on Tibet*. 

Genus FRINGILLA, Linn., 1766. 

The genus Fringilla contains the typical Finches such as the 
Brambling and Chaffinches. In this genus the plumage is much 
variegated and in the Brambling, the only species found in India, 
the summer plumage differs considerably from that of the winter, 
owing to the margins of the feathers wearing away. The bill is 
long and the culmen straight except near the tip, where it is slightly 
deflected. 

774. Fringilla montifringilla. The Brambling. 

Fringilla montifringilla, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 318 (1766) ; Blyth, 
Cat. p. 121 ; Hortf. $ M. Cat. i'i, p. 491 : Jerri. B. I. ii, p. 412 ; 
Hume, S. F. vii, p. 465 ; id. Cat. no. 752; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, 
p. 87 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 579 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 178. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the forehead, crown, 
nape, hind neck, and back are black with broad rufous margins ; 
rump and the upper tail-coverts white, the sides of these black, 

* SERINUS PECTORALIS, Murray, Vert. Zool. Sind, p. 190 (1884), is the 
('ri/hnt/ra chri/sopyga of Swainson (jBirds West Afr. i, p. L'liii, pi. 17) or 
Serini'is ictericus, Bonn, et Vieill. apud Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 3f>6. This 
species inhabits a considerable portion of Africa and is a very common cage- 
bird, and it was doubtless a bird escaped from confinement that came under 
.Mr. Murray's observation. Both Mr. Murray's description and a coloured 
sketch of the bird sent to me by Mr. Hume agree with thei African bird in 
every particular. 

Forehead, supercilium, and cheeks bright yellow; a broad ashy band from 
the lores through the eve to the ear-coverts; a dark brown moustaehial streak; 
upper plumage ashy green streaked with dark brown ; lower plumage yellow, 
the sides of the breast ashy ; wings and tail brown, margined with yellow ; 
rump bright yellow. Tail l - 7 ; wing 2'5. 



231 FBING1LLIDJE. 

some of the longer tail-coverts mingled black and ashy ; tail black, 
the feathers narrowly margined with white and the outermost 
feather with a good deal of white on it ; lesser wing-coverts and 
scapulars orange-rufous ; median coverts chiefly white; greater 
coverts black, tipped with pale rufous, the innermost feather or two 
with the inner web white ; tertiaries black, edged with rufous ; 




Fig. 65. Head of F. montifringilhi. 

remainder of quills black edged with pale yellow, and many of the 
primaries with a basal white patch on the outer web and a broad 
white margin on the inner ; sides of the head and neck black, 
streaked and mottled with rufous ; chin, throat, and breast orange- 
rufous ; abdomen white ; under tail- coverts pale buff ; flanks buff 
spotted with black ; axillaries primrose-yellow ; under wing-coverts 
white suffused with yellow. In the late spring and summer the 
margins of the feathers of the head and back are cast or get worn 
away, leaving those parts deep black and the longer upper tail- 
coverts are also entirely black ; the margins of the wing- and tail- 
. feathers become reduced and in some cases entirely disappear. 

Female. Not very different from the male in winter plu- 
mage, but the dark parts of the plumage are paler and the rufous 
margins broader ; the lesser and greater wing-coverts and the 
scapulars are dark brown, fringed with rufous, and the median 
coverts are broadly tipped with white ; the chin, throat, and breast 
are much paler rufous. Many specimens have an ashen patch on 
the nape, and this colour suffuses the sides of the neck. 

Young birds resemble the female in general appearance, but are 
suffused with yellow. 

Bill light grey at base, dusky at tip ; iris brown ; legs and feet 
fleshy brown (Unwin). In summer the bill becomes black. 

Length rather more then 6 ; tail 2'6 ; wing 3'5 ; tarsus *75 ; bill 
from gape '6. 

Distribution. Occurs in Gilgit and N.W. Punjab at the spring 
and autumn migrations. This species summers and breeds in the 
more northerly portions of Europe and Asia and in winter migrates 
southwards, being found at that season in Southern Europe, South- 
western Asia from Asia Minor to Afghanistan, and in China. 

Halits, Sfc. The Brambling is found in flocks and frequents 
forest country, but, like many other Finches, feeds on the ground 
both on seeds and insects as well as on trees. 



GYMNORHIS. - : '"> 



Genus GYMNORHIS, Hodgs., 1844. 

The genus Gymnorhis contains one Indian species of Finch 
which is generally termed a Sparrow, but its affinities for the 
Sparrows are not very great. In this genus the bill is long and 
slender with the culrnen gently curved throughout, and the chief 
characteristic of the plumage is the presence of a yellow patch on 
the throat in both sexes. 




Fig. 0>r>.--Heacl of G. flavicollis. 

This Finch or Sparrow is found in all descriptions of jungle and 
frequently near houses, and it has much the same habits as the 
House-Sparrow. 

775. Gymnorhis flavicollis. The Fellow -throated Sparrow. 

Fringilla flavicollis, Fmnkl P. Z. S. 1831, p. 120. 

Petronia flavicollis (Frankl.},Blyth, Cat. p. 120 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 

xii, p. 293. 
Gymnoris flavicollis (Frankl.}, Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 497 j Hume, 

N. $ E. p. 461 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 223; Hume, Cat. no. 711 ; 

Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 157. 
Passer flavicollis (FrankL), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 368 j Leyye, Birds Ceyl. 

p. 605 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 267. 

The Yellow-necked Sparrow, Jerd. ; Raji, Jangli-churi, Hind. ; Adavi 
pichike, Konde pichike, Ckeruka pichike, Tel. 

Coloration. Male. The whole upper plumage and scapulars 
a-liv brown; tail brown, narrowly edged with whity brown; 
lesser wing-coverts chestnut; median coverts brown, tipped with 
white ; greater coverts and tertiaries brown, margined and tipped 
\\itli pale buff; the other quills dark brown, very narrowly 
margined with buff ; primary-coverts and winglet black ; chin dull 
white ; throat yellow ; sides of the head and neck and the breast 
pale ashy brown ; remainder of lower plumage ashy white, the 
flanks darker. 

/'male. Resembles the male, but has the yellow throat-spot very 
pale and the lesser wing-coverts rufous-brown, not chestnut. 

Iris dark brown ; legs and feet greyish plumbeous ; the male 
appears to have the bill black in winter, brown in summer ; the 
female to have it always brown. The colour of the bill of the 
male is by no means constantly black in winter and brown in 
summer, but I cannot discover any reasons for the exceptions 

Length about 6; tail 2-1 ; wing 3-2; tarsus *6 ; bill from 
gape -6. 



236 

Distribution. The plains of India from the foot of the 
Himalayas down to Travancore, and from Sind eastwards to about 
the longitude of Midnapore in Bengal ; also Ceylon. This species 
ascends the Himalayas in parts, and the hill-tracts of the south of 
India up to about 4000 feet. It extends westwards to Persia. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds from April to July, constructing a small nest 
of grass and feathers in holes of trees and more rarely in houses. 
The eggs, three or four in number, are greenish white, densely 
blotched all over with brown, and measure '74 by -55. 

Genus PASSER, Briss., 1760. 

The genus Passer contains the true Sparrows, which are well 
represented over the greater part of the Old World. In this genus, 
as restricted by me, both sexes agree in exhibiting a peculiar 
pattern on the outer webs of the earlier primaries, caused by the 
varying width of the margins of the feathers. The bill is short 
and stout and the culmen slightly curved. 

The Sparrows are mostly well-known birds which frequent the 
neighbourhood of towns and villages. A few species, however, are 
only found in the open country away from houses. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Back streaked with black. 
a'. No super cilium. 

a". Crown of head ashy grey. 

a'". Chin, throat, and whole breast 

black P. domesticus <$ , p. 236. 

b 1 ". Chin and upper throat only 

black P. pyrrhonotus <$ , p. 238. 

b". Crown of head red or rufous. 

c'". Chin, throat, and breast black. P. hispaniolensis <$ , p. 239. 
d n> . Chin and throat only black. 

a 4 . A black patch on ear-coverts. P. montamis, p. 240. 
b 4 . No black patch on ear-coverts. P. cinnamomeus tf , p. 240. 
b'. A superciliurn. 

c". Lower plumage more or less 

streaked P. hispaniolensis $ , p. 239. 

d". Lower plumage unstreaked. 
e'". No yellow in lower plumage. 

c 4 . Wing about 3 P. domesticus $ , p. 236. 

d\ Wing about 2'5 P. pyrrhonotus $ , p. 238. 

/'". Lower plumage decidedly 

yellow P. cinnamomeus $ , p. 240. 

b. No black streaks on back P.faiveolus, p. 242. 

776. Passer domesticus. The House-Sparrow. 

Frinoilla domestica, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 323 (1766). 

Passer indicus, Jard. 8f Selby, III. Orn. iii, pi. 118 (1835?) ; Blyth, 

Cat. p. 119 ; Horsf. # M. Cat. ii, p. 499 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 362 ; 

Hume, N. fy E. p. 457 ; Gates, B. B. i, p. 346. 
Passer domesticus (Linn.}, Hume, Cat. no. 706 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. 



PASSEK. 237 

p. 600 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 307 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 

p. 265 ; Oates in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 1-59. 
The Indian House -Sparrow, Jerd. ; (lonrh/<i, Hind, in the North ; Churi 
and Khas churl, Hind, in the South ; Charia or Chata, Ben^. ; Uri-jnchike, 
Tel. ; Adiki lam kurairi, Tain. 




Fig. 67. Head of P. domett i<: it*. 

Coloration. Male. Head from forehead to nape ashy grey ; 
lores and round the eye blackish ; cheeks, ear-coverts, and sides of 
neck pare white ; a broad streak from the eye over the ear-coverts, 
and passing partially round the end of them, chestnut ; chin, throat, 
and the median portion of the breast black, some of the lowermost 
feathers margined with ashy ; remainder of lower plumage ashy 
white ; back and scapulars chestnut, the terminal two thirds of the 
inner webs black ; rump and upper tail-coverts ashy grey ; tail 
brown, margined paler ; lesser wing-coverts chestnut ; median 
coverts blackish, broadly tipped with white ; greater coverts 
blackish, broadly margined with rufous and tipped paler ; quills 
dark brown, margined with pale rufous. 

Female. The head from the forehead to the nape and the 
extreme upper back with the rump and upper tail-coverts brown ; 
the back and scapulars pale rufous, with the inner webs chiefly 
black ; tail brown, edged paler ; a rather broad supercilium pale 
rufous-\vhite ; sides of the head ashy brown ; the whole lower 
plumage ashy white, darker on the breast ; lesser wing-coverts 
brown ; median coverts blackish, broadly tipped with rufous-white ; 
greater coverts and wings dark brown, edged with pale rufous. 

In fresh or autumn plumage the male has the feathers of the 
back and breast margined with ashy ; but these margins soon 
wear off. 

In summer the bill of the male is usually black, but this is not 
always the case ; in winter the colour is a light horn-colour but 
occasionally black ; the female has the bill always brown ; in both 
sexes the iris is brown, the legs pale brown. 

Length 6 ; tail '2-2 ; wing 3 ; tarsus '75 ; bill from gape '55. 
The House-Sparrow of the East differs from the House-Sparrow 
of the West in being much whiter about the sides of the head, and 
in having more black below the eye and at the base of the cheeks, 
but these characters vary considerably and it is not advisable to 
keep the two birds distinct. 

IUxfrifmtion. The entire Empire and Ceylon, except the 
Andamans and Nicobars and the portion of Tenasserim south of 



238 FH1NGILLI1L*:. 

Moulmein. This species ascends the Himalayas to moderate 
elevations. It is capricious in its distribution, being rare in some 
parts of the Empire and extremely common in others. 

The House-Sparrow to the eastward is found in Cochin-China, 
and on the west it extends to Europe. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds usually from February to May, but also at 
other times of the year, making a shapeless nest of grass and 
various materials in holes about houses, in walls, in wells, and 
occasionally in some thick tree or shrub. The eggs, which are 
usually five in number, are white or greenish marked with various 
shades of brown, and measure about '81 by '6. 



777. Passer pyrrhonotus. The Rufous-backed Sparrow. 

Passer pyrrhonotus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 946 (1844) ; id. Cat. 
p. 119 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 36o; Hume, Cat. no. 709; Hume, S. F. 
ix, pp. 232, 442 ; Doio, S. F. ix, p. 280 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, 
p. 316, pi. v ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 266 j Oates in Hume's N. 8f E. 
2nd'ed. ii, p. 162. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the forehead, crown, 
and hind neck are ashy grey ; lores and under the eye blackish ; a 
broad band behind the eye and ear-coverts chestnut, with ashy 
fringes ; cheeks, ear-coverts, and sides of the neck ashy grey ; chin 
and throat black, with whitish fringes, and bordered on both sides 
by a broad whitish band ; lower plumage pale ashy, becoming 
whiter on the abdomen and under tail-coverts ; back chestnut, 
fringed with fulvous, and the inner web of each feather with a 
black streak ; lesser wing-coverts, scapulars, and rump chestnut 
with ashy fringes ; median coverts almost entirely white ; greater 
coverts blackish, edged with chestnut-brown ; quills dark brown, 
edged with pale chestnut-brown ; rump and upper tail-coverts 
ashy ; tail brown, edged with dull fulvous. In the spring and 
summer all the fringes on the various parts of the plumage get 
worn away, and those parts become a dark uniform colour. 

Female. The whole upper plumage ashy brown, the feathers of 
the back with black streaks on the inner web ; median wing-coverts 
black, broadly tipped with pale buff ; the greater coverts blackish, 
broadly edged with buff ; the quills dark brown edged with buff, 
most broadly so at the base near the coverts ; tail brown, 
narrowly edged with buff ; a broad supercilium isabelline ; sides of 
head ashy ; the entire lower plumage pale ashy white. 

Iris light brown ; eyelids leaden slaty ; legs and toes dusky 
fleshy brown (Doiy}. In winter the bill is dusky brown, in summer 
probably black. 

Length about 5-5 ; tail 2*1 ; wing 2-6 ; tarsus '65 ; bill from 
gape -45, 

Distribution. Bahawalpur ; the Eastern Nara, Sind. 

Habits, fyc. Mr. Doig remarks that he never met with these 
Sparrows at any distance from water, and that they were usually 
seen in small flocks. Their food consists of seeds and insects. 



P \SSEH. L'.'W 

He found three nests in August, built on the tops of acacia trees 
growing in the water. The nest 'resembles that of P. domesticu*, 
and the eggs do not differ in colour from those of that species. 
They measure about '69 by '51. 

778. Passer hispaniolensis. The Spanish S^an-ow. 

Fringilla hispaniolensis, Temm. Man. d'Orn. ed. 2, p. 353 (1820). 

Fringilla salicicola, Vieill. Faune Franq. p. 417 (1828). 

Pyrgita salicaria, Bonap. Comp. List B. Eur. 8f N. Am. p. 30 (1838). 

Passer salicaria (Bonap.}, Blyt/i, Cat. p. 119. 

Passer salicicola (Vieill.}, Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 501 : Jerd. B. I. 

ii, p. 364 ; Hume, 8. F. i, p. 209 ; Scully, S. F. iv, p. 164. 
Passer hispaniolensis (Temm.), Hume, Cat. no. 707 j Sharpe, Cat. 

B. M. xii, p. 317 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 266. 

The Willow Sparrow, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the forehead, crown, 
nape, and a band behind the ear-coverts are chestnut with creamy- 
white fringes ; sides of the forehead and a small patch behind the 
eye, forming a disconnected supercilium, dull white; lores and 
under the eye black ; cheeks, ear-coverts, and sides of the neck 
white ; chin, throat, and upper breast black with whitish fringes ; 
lower breast and sides of the body creamy white streaked with 
black ; abdomen and under tail-coverts creamy white unstreaked ; 
back black with broad fulvous margins, some of the lateral feathers 
with the whole outer web fulvous and the inner black ; lesser 
wing-coverts chestnut; median coverts almost entirely white; 
greater coverts and quills dark brown, broadly edged with chestnut- 
brown ; rump and upper tail-coverts fulvous ashy with paler 
margins ; tail brown, edged with fulvous. In spring and summer 
the fringes everywhere get worn away and the parts affected 
become uniform. 

Female. B/esernbles the female of P. domesticus so closely as to 
require no separate description. It differs in having a much larger 
bill and the lower plumage faintly streaked throughout. 

Legs and feet horny brown ; soles yellow ; iris brown ; bill 
brown, yellow at gape (Hume, December) ; in summer the bill of 
the male is black. 

Length about 6 ; tail 2*4 ; wing 3*2 ; tarsus '8 ; bill from 
gape -55. 

Distribution. Sind ; the Punjab ; the northern part of Rajputana 
down to Siimbhar; the N.W. Provinces and Oudh as far east as 
Mirzapore. This Sparrow is apparently found throughout the 
above tracts in the winter months only. It occurs in Kashmir, so 
far as I have been able to ascertain, both in summer and winter. 
It extends north to Yarkand, where it breeds. To tho west it 
ranges to Europe and Northern Africa. 

Habits, <Sfc. This Sparrow is said by Dr. Scully to frequent reeds, 
poplar trees, and corn-fields. He states that it breeds in Turkestan 
in May and June, nesting in trees. 



240 



779. Passer montanus. The Tree-Sparrow. 



Fringilla montana, Linn. Si/st. Nat. i, p. 324 (1766). 

Passer montanus (Linn.), Blyth, Cat. p. 120; Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, 

p. 500 ; Jerd. B. 1. ii, p. 366 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 460 ; Ander*. 

Yunnan Exped., Aces, p. 601 ; Hume, Cat. no. 710; Oates. B. B. i, 

p. 348 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 301 ; Oates in Humes' N. 8f E. 

2nd ed. ii, p. 162. 
The Mountain Sparrow, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male and female. The whole head from forehead to 
nape vinous chestnut; lores, feathers under the eye, and a patch 
under the ear-coverts and encroaching upon them black ; with this 
exception the sides of the face and neck are white ; chin and 
throat black ; lower plumage ashy, whitish on the abdomen and 
tinged with fulvous on the sides of the breast, flanks, and under 
tail-coverts ; back and scapulars pale chestnut, with the inner webs 
of the feathers chiefly black ; rump and upper tail-coverts yellowish 
brown ; tail brown, edged with fulvous ; lesser wing-coverts chest- 
nut; median coverts black, broadly tipped with while; greater 
coverts blackish, edged with pale chestnut and tipped with whitish ; 
quills dark brown edged with rufous. 

Bill black ; iris brown ; legs flesh-colour ; claws brown. 

Length 5'6 ; tail 2'3 ; wing 2*7 ; tarsus '1 ; bill from gape *55. 

This species throughout its vast range remains very constant in 
coloration. A slight exception occurs, however, in birds from 
Tarkaud and Central Asia, where the lower plumage of this 
Sparrow becomes white. 

Distribution. The whole of the Himalayas from Afghanistan to 
Assam up to 7000 feet in summer, descending to lower levels in 
winter; the whole of the countries from Assam southwards to the 
extreme southern point of Tenasserim. In the British Museum 
there is a skin of this Sparrow said to have been procured in the 
Deccan by Sykes, but probably erroneously, as Horsfield and 
Moore do not record the specimen in their Catalogue and the 
locality is quite outside the range of this bird. 

The Tree-Sparrow has a wide range over Europe, Africa, and 
Asia, extending south to Java. 

Habits, fyc. The Tree-Sparrow nests in the east chiefly in holes 
about houses and other buildings, but in Europe it nests generally 
in trees. The nest is constructed of all sorts of materials and is a 
shapeless mass, suited roughly to the cavity it occupies. The eggs 
resemble those of the House-Sparrow and measure about -73 by 
54. The nest may be found at most times of the year, but more 
commonly from February to May. 



780. Passer cinnamomeus. The Cinnamon Tree-Sparrow. 

Pyrgita cinnamomea, Gould, P. Z. S. 1835, p. 185. 

Passer cinnamomeus (Gould), Blyth, Cat. p. 119; Horsf. fy M. Cat., 



PASSER. 241 



ii, p. 500 ; Jet-d. B. I. ii, p. 365 ; Hume $ Ifr/idtm. Lah. to Yark. 
]>. 25:2, pi. 25; Hume, N. $ E. p. 459; Anders. Yunnan Exped., 
Aces, p. 002 ; Hume, Cat. no. 708 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 325 ; 
Hume, 8. F. xi, p. 275 ; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 164. 
The Cinnamon-headed Sparrow, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. The upper plumage from the forehead to the 
rump, including the scapulars and lesser wiug-coverts, bright 
cinnamon-rufous, the feathers of the back with the inner web black, 
wholly or partially, and all the feathers with very narrow pale 
fringes ; upper tail- coverts brown with ashy margins ; tail brown 
with greenish margins; median coverts black, broadly tipped 
white ; greater coverts and tertiaries black, edged with pale rufous ; 
primaries and secondaries black, edged with pale fulvous, more 
broadly so at the base and just above the emarginations of the first 
few primaries ; lores and round the eye black ; cheeks and ear- 
coverts pale yellowish white ; chin and throat black, fringed with 
whitish ; a large patch on each side of the throat bright yellow ; 
lower plumage greyish yellow, more yellow on the abdomen and 
under-tail coverts. The difference between the summer and winter 
plumage of this Sparrow is very slight, the colours in the former 
season being slightly more intense owing to the narrow fringes 
wearing away. 

Female. The whole upper plumage ruddy brown, tinged with red 
on the rump and with black and fulvous streaks on the back ; 
lesser wing- coverts ruddy brown ; median coverts black, tipped 
with white ; greater coverts, quills, and tail dark brown edged with 
fulvous ; a broad fulvous supercilium, with a broad dusky band 
below it ; sides of the head and neck and the whole lower plumage 
pale ashy yellow. 

Iris reddish brown ; legs and feet dark reddish brown ; bill pale 
brown in winter, black in summer. 

Length about 5*5 ; tail 2*3 ; wing 2-9 ; tarsus '65 ; bill from 
gape -55. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Murree to Bhutan up to 7000 
feet ; the Khasi hills ; the Naga hills ; Manipur ; the hills east of 
Bhamo ; the Karen hills east of Toungugoo. 

Habits, $c. Chiefly a jungle-sparrow. Breeds in May and June, 
constructing its nest in holes of trees as a rule, but sometimes in 
houses. Eggs, four to six, of the Sparrow type, and measuring 
about -76 by -57. 

Passer assimilis, Walden, A. M. N. H. (4) v, p. 218 (1870), is, 
I now find after a re-examination of the type, to be referred to 
P. rutilans, Temm., as already noted by Sharpe (Cat. B. M. xii, 
p. 827). The type of P. assimilis is said to have been procured at 
Toungngoo, but there may be probably some mistake about this, as 
the specimen was not shot by Wnrdhuv Ramsay or other trust- 
worthy collector. It appears to be a dealer's skin. It is also to 
be noted that a pair of true P. cinnnntomeus were procured by 
Wardlaw Bauisay on the Karen hills near Toungngoo, and it is 

VOL. II. B, 



242 FMNG.ILLID.3i. 

unlikely that two distinct but closely allied Sparrows should be 
found together in Toungngoo and its neighbourhood. Under these 
circumstances I shall not include P. rutilans among the birds of 
the Indian Empire. In case, however, it should be met with, the 
male may be recognized by its similarity to the male of P. cinna- 
momeus, from which it differs in having the cheeks and ear- coverts 
pure white and the lower plumage ashy white without a trace of 
yellow. The females of the two species are undistinguishable from 
each other. P. rutilans is found in China. 



781. Passer flaveolus. The Pegu House-Sparrow. 

Passer flaveolus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 946 (1844); id. Cat. 

p. 120 j Hume, N. fy E. p. 460 j Blyth $ Wold. Birds Burm. p. 94 ; 

Hume, S. F. iii, p. 156 j Anders. Yunnan Exped. } Aves, p. 602 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 708 bis ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 349; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 

xii, p. 330 ; Salvation, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2), vii, p. 419 ; Oates 

in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 165. 
Passer jugiferus, Temm., Bonap. Consp. Av. i, p. 508 (1850). 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the lores, chin, and 
a stripe down the throat are black ; a line over the lores from the 
nostrils to the eye yellow ; cheeks and ear-coverts with the whole 
lower plumage and under wing-coverts rather bright yellow; a 
patch extending from the eye over the ear-coverts to the sides of 
the nape chestnut ; forehead, top of head, nape, and hind neck 
greenish olive ; back, scapulars, and lesser wing-coverts chestnut 
fringed with greenish ; lower back and rump brown tinged with 
yellow ; tail brown, the outer webs tinged with olive-yellow ; 
median wing-coverts dark brown, broadly tipped with white ; 
greater wing-coverts and all the quills dark brown, edged with 
yellowish white. In the summer the greenish fringes are worn 
away. 

Female. The chin, throat, cheeks, and the whole lower plumage 
with the under wing-coverts pale yellow; a streak from the eye to 
the nape yellowish white ; the upper plumage from the forehead 
to the upper tail-coverts, the scapulars and lesser wing-coverts 
hair-brown, the shafts of all the feathers darker ; the median and 
greater wing-coverts and the quills dark brown, each feather edged 
with yellowish white ; tail brown, the feathers edged with whitish 
on the outer webs. 

Bill black in the male, flesh-colour in the female ; iris dark hazel- 
brown : legs and claws plumbeous flesh-colour. 

Length 5" 5 ; tail 2*1 ; wing 2*7 ; tarsus '6 ; bill from gape '55. 

Distribution. Mengoon on the Irrawaddy river in Upper Burma ; 
Arrakan; the greater part of Pegu, but the species is more 
abundant in the northern portion ; the Karen hills east of Toung- 
ngoo ; Karenuee ; extending into Cochin China. 

Habits, Sfc. Frequents habitations and jungle near houses, 
breeding in March and other months. 



PETRONIA. 248 

The following Sparrow, which occurs in Turkestan, may possibly 
hereafter be found within Indian limits : 

Passer ammodendri, Severtz. The male has the forehead, crown, 
and nape narrowly black ; the sides of the crown and the sides of 
the nape clear rufous ; chin and throat black ; lower plumage 
ashy white ; upper plumage ashy brown, streaked with black. 
The female has no rufous on the sides of the crown and nape, and 
the chin and throat are pale brown. Tail 2'7, wing 3. 

Passer pyrrliopterus (Less.), mentioned by Jerdon (B. I. ii, 
p. 367), is probably referable to P. domcsticus, but it is not easy to 
identify it. It is not, however, likely to be a Sparrow which 
remains to be rediscovered in Southern India. 



Genus PETRONIA, Kaup, 1829. 

The genus Petronia contains some species which resemble 
Sparrows in structure and habits, but differ from them in having a 
much stronger bill and longer wings. The only species found in 
India is characterized by the presence of a yellow patch on the 
throat in both sexes. This species has the same pattern on the 
earlier primaries as the Sparrows. 

The E/ock-Sparrows frequent open rocky land and are gregarious. 

782. Petronia stulta. The Rock-Sparrow. 

Fringilla petronia, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 322 (1766). 

Fringilla stulta, Gmel Syst. Nat. i, p. 919 (1788). 

Petronia stulta (Gm.) Blyth, Cat. p. 120 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, 

p. 497; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 79; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 674 ; 

Hume, S. F. ix, p. 343 (note). 
Petronia petronia (Linn.), Sharpe, Cat. J3. M. xii, p. 289. 




Fig. 68. Head of P. stulta. 

Coloration. Male. The forehead and crown dark brown, with a 
broad mesial buff band from the bill to the nape ; a broad super- 
cilium buff; back and scapulars with the inner webs of the 
feathers black, the outer buff; rump mingled brown and buff; 
upper tail-coverts brown edged with buff; middle tail-feathers 
ashy brown, becoming black towarks the tip and margined whitish : 
the other feathers the same but with a large terminal white patch 

E2 



244 

on the inner web ; quills and coverts brown edged with buff ; a 
dark brown band from the eye under the supercilium and a spot 
near the gape ; ear-coverts brown ; lower plumage wbity brown 
more or less streaked with dark brown, and with a yellow patch on 
the lower throat. 

Female. Eesembles the male closely. 

Bill horn-brown above, light brown below with a dark tip ; legs 
light brown ; iris brown. 

Length about 6-5 tail 2-3 ; wing 3-8 ; tarsus '7 ; bill from 
gape -7. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to Grilgit, occurring there from 
November to March. This species has a wide range, being found 
over a considerable portion of Europe, in North Africa, Asia 
Minor, Persia, Afghanistan, Central Asia, Siberia, and Northern 
China. 



Genus MONTIFKINGILLA, Brehm, 1828. 

The genus Montifringilla is closely allied to the genus Petronia 
in structure, but the wings are rather longer and the bill less deep 
though otherwise similar in outline. The birds of this genus are 
characterized by a large amount of white on the wings and tail. 
The sexes are alike or nearly so. The claws are somewhat length- 
ened. The tail is perfectly square, the middle feathers being as 
long as the others. 

The Mountain-Finches are found at high elevations feeding in 
flocks on the ground. 



Key to the Species. 

a. Sides of neck ferruginous ; lores black. 

a'. Chin black j no moustachial streaks M. blanfurdi, p. 245. 

b'. Chin white ; black moustachial streaks . . M. rujicollis, p. 245. 

b. Sides of neck pale fulvous; lores pale; no 

black marks on the head , . M. adamsi, p. 246. 

Montifringilla mandettii, Hume (S. F. iv. p. 488), was. procured 
by Mandelli in Tibet, north of Sikhim. It does not appear to have 
yet been met with in British territory. This species resembles 
M. ruficollis, but has no ferruginous on the sides of the head and 
neck, nor Las it any trace of the black moustachial streaks. The 
bill in the dry state is yellow with a black tip, not bluish black 
throughout as in M. ruficollis. Wing 4-1 ; tail 3. 

M. alpicola (Pall.) occurs in Persia and Afghanistan. In the 
latter country this species was procured by Griffith " near Gurdan 
Dewar, on the Helinund, at an elevation of 11,500 feet " (Horsf. 
& M. Cat. ii, p. 491). The specimen referred to is now in the 
British Museum. This species has a very long bill, a wing 
measuring 4*7, and the wing-coverts and secondaries entirely white. 



MONTIFBINGILLA. 245 

783. Montifringilla blanfordi. BlanforcTs Mountain-Finch. 

Montifringilla blanfordi, Hume, S. F. iv, p. 487 (1876) ; id. Cat. no. 
7~y2 quint. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 264, pi. iv. 

Coloration. Forehead white, with a median black streak; a large 
patch between the eye and the bill black, extending down to the 
cheeks and up to the forehead ; a short but broad white super- 
cilium ; cheeks and ear-coverts white ; the whole upper plumage 
fulvous ; wing-coverts and tertiaries brown, broadly edged with 
fulvous ; quills dark brown, edged with fulvous, the last few 
primaries with a patch of white on the outer web ; all the quills 
except the first two or three primaries also with a patch of white 
on the inner web ; middle tail-feathers brown edged with fulvous, 
the others ashy brown, then white and broadly tipped brown ; 
sides of the neck ferruginous, reaching forward to the sides of the 
throat and breast but not meeting in front ; chin black ; remainder 
of lower plumage pale fulvous-white. 

Xone of the birds in the British Museum series of this species 
are sexed. The sexes are, however, probably alike. Some few 
birds with the chin white or pale brown are obviously young birds 
just fledged ; they resemble the adult in other respects, but have 
the marks on the head paler, and some have the lower plumage 
suffused with yellow. 

In the dry state the bill is bluish and the legs black. 

Length about 6 ; tail 2-2 ; wing 3-8 ; tarsus -7 ; bill from gape 
55. 

Distribution. In the Hume Collection there are four specimens 
of this species which were procured " near Darjeeling " and 
numerous others from Tibet immediately north of Sikhim. Some 
of these latter are quite young birds. 



Montifringilla ruficollis, Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 66 ; Hume, 
S. F. vii, p. 420; id. Cat. no. 752 quat. ; Sharpe t Cat. 



784. Montifringilla ruficollis. The Red-necked Mountain-Finch. 

56; Hume, 
B. M. xii, 
p. 263. 

Coloration. Male. Eorehead whitish, turning to ashy and becoming 
umber-brown on the crown, nape, and hind neck ; a broad white 
supercilium ; lores and a band under the eye and over the ear- 
coverts black, passing into rufous posteriorly; sides of the nape, sides 
of the neck, the ear-coverts, and the sides of the lower throat ferru- 
ginous ; chin, throat, and cheeks pure white ; a moustachial streak 
black ; remainder of lower plumage white tinged with fulvous ; 
back and scapulars umber-brown streaked with dark brown ; rump 
and upper tail-coverts plain umber-brown ; middle tail-feathers 
brown, the others chiefly ashy with broad brown tips, the portion of 
each feather immediately before the brown tip being white : lesser 
wing coverts brown ; median and greater coverts chiefly white ; 
winglet and primary-coverts dark brown ; quills brown margined 
with fulvous ; the outer web of the first primary entirely white ; all 



246 

the quills except the first four primaries and the last two or three 
secondaries with a basal patch of white on the inner web ; tertiaries 
brown, broadly edged with fulvous. 

Female. Apparently differs from the male in having the ferru- 
ginous on the sides of the neck and throat produced so as to form 
a continuous collar across the lower throat ; and the white on the 
forehead less extensive. 

The young bird resembles the adult closely, but is paler and has 
the marks on the head less distinct. 

In the dry state the bill is bluish black and the legs black. 

Length about 6 ; tail 2-3 ; wing 3'7 ; tarsus -85 ; bill from 
gape '55. 

Distribution. Sikhim and Tibet, extending to Western China. 
This species is found at great altitudes, Blanford meeting with it 
at 15,000 and 16,000 feet. Mandelli procured many young birds, 
just able to fly, in Tibet, immediately north of Sikhim, in June. 

785. Montifringilla adamsi. Adams's Mountain-Finch. 

Montifringilla adamsi, Moore, Adams, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 482, 1859, 
p. 178, pi. 156 ; Hume $ Henders. Lah. to Yark. p. 262 ; Hume, 
N. 8f E. p. 473 ; Stoticzka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 62 ; id. 
8. F. ii, p. 463, iii, p. 220 ; Scully, 8. F. iv, p. 172 ; Hume, Cat. 
no. 752 ter ; Sharpe, Cat. S. M. xii, p. 261 ; Oates in Hume's N. 
$ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 165. 

Coloration. The whole upper plumage brown, the feathers of the 
back with a broad median darker brown streak ; upper tail-coverts 
with the outer webs whitish, the inner brown ; middle tail-feathers 
black with fulvous edges ; the next black at base of inner web 
and at tip of both webs, white elsewhere ; the others white with 
black tips ; lesser and median wing-coverts and tertiaries brown ; 
greater coverts dark brown, broadly tipped white ; primary-coverts 
white, tipped brown ; primaries blackish, edged with fulvous ; 
secondaries brown, with a large amount of white near the tips ; 
the sides of the head and neck and the whole lower plumage pale 
fulvous-white ; under wing-coverts and axillaries pure white. 

In spring and summer the plumage is much worn down and 
consequently duller, but no other change takes place. The sexes 
appear to be alike. 

Legs, feet, and claws black ; iris brown ; bill black in summer, 
orange-yellow, dusky on culmen and brown at tip, in winter (Hume}. 

Length nearly 7; tail 2-7; wing 4-3; tarsus -8 ; bill from 
gape -65. 

Distribution. The higher regions of the Himalayas beyond the 
first snowy range. On the east this species occurs as far as Sikhim 
according to Hume, and on the west it is met with over the greater 
part of the north and east of Kashmir, Laddk, Kulu, &c. It has 
also been met with near G-ilgit, and it extends to Kashgarh and 
Tibet. This species appears to be found between 11,000 and 1.4,000 
feet in summer. 



FRTNGILLATJDA. 247 

According to Adams this species breeds in Ladak and Little 
Tibet, constructing its nest in the long dykes built by the Tartars 
over their dead. 

Genus FRINGILLAUDA, Hodgs., 1836. 

The genus Fringfflauda resembles Montifringffla, but the bill is 
more slender and the tail is forked, the middle feathers being 
considerably shorter than the outer. There is moreover no whitt^ 
in the wings and tail except on the margins. 

The birds of this genus, like those of the last, are found at 
considerable altitudes and feed on the ground in flocks. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Wing nearly 4 ; no rose-colour on rump or 
winof-coyerts. 

a'. Axillaries yellow F. nemoricola, p. 247. 

b'. Axillaries pale ashy F. sordida, p. 248. 

I. Wing- nearly 5 ; rump and wing-coverts 

suffused with rose-colour F. brandti, p. 248. 

786. Fringillauda nemoricola. Hodgson's Mountain-Finch. 

Fringillauda nemoricola, Hodgs. As. Res. xix, p. 158 (1836) ; Horsf. 

Sf M. Cat. ii, p. 491 (part.) ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 414 (part.) ; Blanf. 

J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 66 ; Hwne, S. F. i, p. 41 ; id. Cat. 

no. 753. 
Montifringilla nemoricola (Hodys.}, Blytli, Cat. p. 121 (part.) ; 

Maryc, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 268. 

The Jlinialnyan Lark-Finch, Jerd. (part.). 




Fig. 69. Head of F. nemoricola. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, hind neck, back, scapulars, 
and lesser wing-coverts dark brown, with rufous margins ; rump 
ashy grey ; upper tail-coverts black, with distinct white margins ; 
tail brown, with narrow pale margins; median wing-coverts ashy 
brown, with white margins ; greater coverts brown, mottled with 
black and tipped white ; primary-coverts tipped with dark brown 
and edged with ashy ; quills brown, margined with rufous, and the 
inner webs of the tertiaries black ; a broad but indistinct super- 
cilium ashy white streaked with brown ; sides of the head and 
neck rufous-brown, the cheeks and the part under the eye streaked 
with brown ; lower plumage plain brown, the sides of the breast 
slivnked with darker brown, most of the feathers edged paler, the 



248 FEINGILLID^E. 

middle of the abdomen whitish, the flanks a darker brown, the 
under tail-coverts very broadly edged with white ; axillaries yellow ; 
under wing-coverts ashy white. 

The sexes appear to be alike. 

The nestling bird has the whole crown uniform deep rufous, the 
upper plumage darker than in the adult and with deeper rufous 
margins, and the lower plumage uniform rufous, a little paler than 
the crown. The change to the adult plumage is difficult to trace, 
but it is probable that the young bird retains the rufous head till 
the second autumn. 

Bill and legs fleshy- brown ; iris red-brown {Hodgson) ; iris clear 
nut-brown (A. David). 

Length about 6-5 ; tail 2-8 ; wing 3-9 ; tarsus -8 ; bill from 
gape -55. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Nepal to Bhutan, extending 
to Moupin and Western China. 

787. Fringillauda sordida. Stoliczlca's Mountain-Finch. 

Montifringilla nemoricola (Hodgs), Blyth, Cat. p. 121 (part.) 

Friii gill auda nemoricola, Hodgs., Horsf. 8f M. Cat. ii, p. 491 (part.) j 

Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 414 (part.) ; Hume fy Senders. Lali. to Yark. 

p. 264 ; Brooks, J. A. 8. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 84. 
Fringillauda sordida, Stoliczka, J. A. 8. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 63 

(1868) ; Hume, 8. F. i, p. 41 ; id. Cat. no. 753 bis j Biddulpli, 

Ibis, 1881, p. 88; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 579. 
Montifringilla sordida (Stol), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 266. 

The Himalayan Lark-Finch, Jerd. (part,) 

Coloration. Resembles F. nemoricola, but has the axillaries pale 
ashy and the tips to the median and greater wing-coverts less 
distinct and tinged with rufous, not pure white. 

Iris cinnabar-red ; bill brown, a spot of brownish fleshy at base 
of forehead between nostrils, and base of lower mandible brownish 
fleshy ; legs, feet, and claws blackish brown (Hume). 

Of much the same size as F. nemoricola. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Afghanistan and GHlgit to 
Kumaun, extending to parts of Central Asia. Common at about 
5000 feet in winter about Gilgit, and in summer at 9000 or 
10,000 feet. 

788. Fringillauda brandti. Brandt's Mounlain-FincJi. 



Leucosticte brandti, Bonap. Consp. Av. i, p. 537 (1850) ; 

Ibis, 1881, p. 88. 
Montifringilla hsematopygia, Gould, P. Z. S. 1851, p. 115; Stoliczka, 

J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 62 ; Hume 8f Henders. Lah. to Yark. 

p. 261 ; Scully, 8. F. iv, p. 171. 
Leucosticte haematopygia (Gould), Blanf. J. A. 8. B. xli, pt. ii, 

p. 66 ; Hume, Cat. no. 752 bis. 
Montifringilla brandti (Bonap), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 269. 

Coloration. After the autumn moult the forehead, anterior part 



of crown, and lores are black, margined with sandy brown ; the 
remainder of the crown, nape, hind neck, and sides of neck 
brown, margined with sandy brown ; back and scapulars ashy 
brown with fulvous fringes and dark shafts ; rump ashy, each 
feather delicately tipped with rosy red, the shafts dark ; upper 
tail-coverts ashy, broadly tipped and margined with white, and the 
shafts dark ; wing-coverts pale ashy with darker shafts, the lesser 
and median coverts fringed with rosy red, the greater coverts with 
pale fulvous white ; winglet, primary-coverts, primaries, and 
secondaries black edged with white ; tertiaries ashy brown ; tail 
black edged with white ; sides of the head, chin, throat, and breast 
ashy, the feathers edged with pale fulvous ; remainder of lower 
plumage pale ashy with darker shaft-streaks ; under wing-coverts 
and axillaries pale ashy white. The sexes appear to be alike. 

As the winter progresses, the margins of all the feathers get 
worn away, and the whole head and mantle become dark blackish 
brown ; the other parts are also much darker, and while the red 
on the rump becomes more intense in colour, the red on the wing- 
coverts disappears by abrasion ; the wings and tail become nearly 
uniform brown. 

The young bird has very broad fulvous margins to the feathers 
of the head, and the margins everywhere more fulvous ; there is no 
red on the wing-coverts, but the rump-feathers are rather broadly 
margined with red or reddish yellow from the earliest period. 

Bill, legs, and feet black ; iris brown (Hume). 

Length about 7*5 ; tail 3'1 ; wing 4*8 ; tarsus *85 ; bill from 
gape -55. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Gilgit to Sikhim, extending 
into Turkestan and Tibet. This species is found at high elevations 
from 12,000 to 19,000 feet, but descends occasionally in winter 
to the level of Gilgit, 



Subfamily EMBERIZIN.E. 

The Emlerizince comprise the Buntings, a very large group, of 
which fifteen species are found in India, the majority visiting that 
country in the winter and retiring north in the summer. A few 
remain to breed, but chiefly in the Himalayas. 

The Buntings have a conical and sharply pointed bill, with the 
culmen straight or nearly so; the edges of the two mandibles, 
however, unlike those of the other Friiifjillidtx, are not in contact 
throughout their length, but form a gap or angle about midway 
between the gape and the tip of the bill. The upper mandible, 
moreover, has the palate furnished with a small hard process or 
knob. With this exception the Buntings conform in structure to 
the Finches. Like them also they have a double plumage, caused in 
most cases by the abrasion or dropping off of the margins of the 
feathers in spring, while a few Buntings have in addition a partial 
spring moult. 



250 FEINGILLTD7E. 

The young of Buntings resemble the female, but are character- 
ized, where striation is present, by a greater amount of streaking. 
At the autumn moult of the first year the young assume the 
plumage of the adult female, and then the males gradually put on 
the plumage of the adult male, the process taking several months. 

The Buntings frequent cornfields, waste lands, and grassy tracts 
of country. They are more or less gregarious. They devour grain 
in large quantities and also feed on seeds of all sorts. Their nests 
are cup-shaped and placed on or near the ground in grass and 
bushes, and sometimes in crevices of rocks and walls. The eggs, as 
a rule, are richly marked with spots and lines of red and purple. 

With, the exception of one Bunting which is crested, all the 
Indian species appear to me to be sufficiently similar in structure 
to be congeneric, and I have accordingly placed them all in the 
genus Emberiza. 

Key to tlie Genera. 

a. No crest EMBERIZA, p. 250. 

b. A well-developed crest MELOPHUS, p. 265. 

Genus EMBERIZA, Briss., 1760. 




Fig. 70. Head of E. aureola, 

The genus Emberiza contains the typical Buntings, which are 
crestless and have a slightly forked tail. 

Key to the Species *. 

a. A large distinct white patch on the 

outermost tail-feather. 
a'. Sides of body streaked or differ- 
ently coloured to abdomen. 
a". No trace of yellow on lower 

plumage. 
a' . Chin and throat black. 

a 1 . Breast white E. schceniclus <$ , p. 251. 

b*. Breast chestnut E. stewarti $ , p. 256. 

b'". Chin and throat chestnut .. E. kucocephala <$ f p. 254. 



* This key applies only to fully adult birds, and the margins of the feathers 
in winter plumage are disregarded, the colours noted being those which are 
most fully developed at the breeding-season. 



EMBERIZA. 251 

c'". Chin and throat white or 
pale fulvous, with or without 
streaks. 
c 4 . Ear-coverts chestnut. 

a 3 . A chestnut pectoral band. E.fucata, p. 252. 

A 5 . No pectoral band E. pusilla, p. 254. 

d 1 . Ear-coverts fulvous or 

brown. 

c 5 . Rump and upper tail- 
coverts of same colour 

as back E. schcenidus $ , p. 251. 

d s . Rump and upper tail- 
coverts chestnut, quite 
different to back. 

a 6 . Wing 3-6- E. leucocephala <j> , p. 254. 

b. Wing 3-3 E. steicarti $ , p. 256. 

b". Lower plumage largely yellow. 
d"'. Crown chestnut; or brown 

greatly streaked with black. E. aureola, p. 259. 
e'". Crown green, with obsolete 

shaft-streaks E. spodocephala, p. 260. 

b'. Sides of body unstreaked and of 

same colour as abdomen. 

c". Throat and breast bluish grey . . E. stracheyi, p. 257. 
d". Throat and breast rufous. ..... E. buchanani, p. 258. 

e". Throat and breast yellow E. hortidana, p. 250. 

b. No distinct white patch on outermost 

tail-feather. 

c'. Sides of body unstreaked. 
f". No streaks whatever on lower 
plumage. 

/'". Crown black E. melanocepJiala <$ , p. 201. 

ff'". Crown golden . E. luteola $ , p. 262. 

ti" . Crown streaked with brown. 

r 1 . Wing about 3*5; rump 

more or less tinged with 

chestnut E. melanocephala $ , p. 2<>] . 

/ l . Wing about 3-2; rump 

tinged yellow E. luteola $ , p. 262. 

y". Throat and fore neck streaked . . E. striolata, p. 264. 
d'. Sides of body streaked E. rutila, p. 263. 

789. Emberiza schoeniclus. The Heed-Bunting. 

Einberiza schcem'clus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 311 (1766) ; Hume, S. f. 
vii, p. 412; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 81 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 575 ; 
llnme.j Cat. no. 720 ter ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 480. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the forehead, 
crown, and nape are black, each feather broadly margined with 
fulvous ; a broad collar round the hind neck white, the feathers 
with broad fulvous-ashy tips, which conceal the white bases of the 
feathers; the whole upper plumage and wings dark brown, each 
feather broadly margined with rufous or chestnut, the rump and 
upper tail-coverts strongly tinged with ashy ; the four middle 
pairs of tail-feathers very dark brown, margined with rufous; the 



252 FKINGILLIDJE. 

two outer pairs mostly white, the bases and a longitudinal streak 
along the shaft being brown or black ; sides of the head rufous 
with concealed black bases ; a broad white moustachial band more 
or less dimmed by rufous tips ; chin, throat, and fore neck black, 
with broad white edges ; sides of the neck and remaining lower 
plumage dull white, the sides of the body streaked with ochraceous 
brown. 

Soon after the moult the margins and tips of the feathers begin 
to wear away, and in full breeding-plumage the moustachial band 
and the collar round the hind neck become pure white ; the fore- 
head, crown, nape, sides of the head, chin, throat, and fore neck 
become deep black ; the margins of the feathers of the upper plu- 
mage decrease in size, causing the plumage to become much blacker. 

Female. Closely resembles the male after the moult, but has no 
concealed black bases to the feathers of the head, chin, throat, and 
fore neck, these parts being rufous or fulvous, more or less streaked 
and mottled with black ; the moustachial band, which is pale 
fulvous, is bordered below by another blackish band, and the 
breast and sides of the body are boldly streaked with rufous. 

The young resemble the adult female closely. 

In winter the bill is dark brown, the lower mandible paler and 
whitish ; legs and feet dark bronze-brown ; claws black ; iris 
brown (Hume Coll.} ; in the summer the bill of the male becomes 
nearly black. 

Length about 6 ; tail 2'7 ; wing 3'1 ; tarsus *75 ; bill from 
gape *4. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the north-west of the Empire. 
This species occurs in Gilgit from December to March, and a 
specimen in the Hume collection was obtained at Eohtak in the 
Punjab in December. 

This Bunting has a very wide range, being found over the whole 
of Europe and Central and Northern Asia. 

790. Emberiza fucata. The Grey-headed Bunting. 

Emberiza fucata, Pall. JReis. Russ. Reichs, iii, p. 698 (1776) ; Jercl 
B. 1. ii, p. 375; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Avcs, p. 603; Hume, 
Cat. no. 719 ; Oatcs, B. B. i, p. 35] ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, 
p. 493; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 269; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 279; 
Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 166. 

Euspiza fucata (Pall.), Blyth, Cat. p. 129 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, 
p. 488. 

Citrinella fucata (Pall}, Hume, N. fy E. p. 465. 

Emberiza arcuata, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 494 (1888). 
Puttliur-chirta, Hind. 

Coloration. Male. After the moult the forehead, crown, nape, 
and sides of the neck are ashy streaked with black; back and 
scapulars reddish brown, with broad black streaks ; rump reddish 
brown, with obsolete brown streaks ; upper tail-coverts fawn-brown, 
streaked with brown; lesser and median wing-coverts chestnut 
with concealed dark bases; greater coverts and tertiaries black, 



EMBBRIZA. 253 

- 

with broad rufous edges ; quills dark brown edged with rufous ; 
lores and round the eye fulvous mottled with ashy ; ear-coverts 
chestnut; cheeks fulvous, continued as a baud under the ear- 
coverts ; a moustachial baud black, gradually widening and reaching 
to the lower throat, where it meets the other moustachial streak, 
thus forming a gorget which on the fore neck is more or less 
interrupted by fulvous streaks ; chin and throat fulvous ; a band 
of chestnut across the upper breast; remaining lower plumage 
pale fulvous, the sides of the breast and of the body streaked with 
dark brown ; tail dark brown edged with rufous, the penultimate 
feather with a triangular patch of white at the tip, the outer 
feather with the outer web almost entirely white and half of the 
inner, next the shaft, also white. 

In spring the chin, throat, and streaks on the gorget become pure 
white, the rufous pectoral baud becomes broader and brighter by 
the wearing away of the tips of the feathers \vhich partially overlie 
the band, and the sides of the body become uniform bright 
chestnut ; the ashy parts of the head become purer ashy, and the 
upper plumage in general becomes a richer rufous. The difference 
between breeding and non-breeding plumage in this species is not 
very marked or noteworthy. 

Female, lleseinbles at all seasons the male after the moult ; is 
perhaps a trifle duller in colour. 

The young bird resembles the female. 

Bill dark fleshy brown, the lower mandible paler ; iris brown ; 
feet and claws pinkish. 

Length about 6 ; tail 2'7 ; wing 2-8 ; tarsus -8 ; bill from 
gape '6. 

The Himalayan Buntings of this type differ from the true 
E. fucata of Siberia, and from those which visit the Eastern portion 
of the Empire in having the scapulars and lesser wing-coverts and 
the whole of the sides of the body uniform chestnut. Should this 
form be distinct, it will bear Sharpe's name E. arcuata. 

Distribution. A resident species in the whole of the Himalayas 
from Kashmir to Assam, and a fairly common winter visitor to all 
parts of the Eastern portion of the Empire from Assam down to 
about the latitude of Houlmeiu. 

According to Jerdon, this species is spread sparingly through 
Northern and Central India and it has been found near Calcutta, 
Jalna in the Deccan, Mhow, Saugor, and Nagpur. Barnes re- 
cords it from Neemuch. There is, however, no specimen of this 
Bunting from any part of the plains of India proper either in the 
Hume or Tweeddale collections, nor have I ever seen a specimen 
from those parts. 

This species, if the same as E. fucata, ranges over the greater 
part of Northern and Eastern Asia. 

Habits, $c. Breeds from 6000 to 8000 feet in May, June, and 
July, constructing a saucer-shaped nest of dry grass on the ground 
under shelter of a bush or stone. The eggs, four in number, are 
pale greenish grey speckled all over with dull reddish or purplish 
brown, and measure about "83 by *6. 



254 FEINGILLID^E. 

791 . Emberiza pusilla. The Dwarf Bunting. 

Emberiza pusilla, Pall Reis. Russ. Reichs, hi, p. 697 (1770) ; Jerd. 
B. I. ii, p. 376; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 603; Oatet, 
B. B. i, p. 353 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 487 ; Hume, Cat. 
no. 720 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 280. 

Euspiza pusilla (Pall.), Blyth, Cat. p. 130. 

Ocyris oinopus, Hodgs., Horsf. Sf M. Cat. ii, p. 488. 

Coloration. Male. After the moult a broad rufous band over 
the crown from the forehead to the nape, some of the feathers 
with a brown mesial streak ; a broad dark brown band on either 
side of the coronal band, all the feathers broadly margined with 
rufous ; a distinct pale rufous supercilium ; lores and ear-coverts 
chestnut ; upper plumage and wings dark brown or blackish, each 
feather margined with rufous ; tail dark brown margined paler, the 
penultimate feather with a streak of white near the tip, the outer 
feather largely white on both webs ; cheeks pale fulvous, produced 
as a band under the ear-coverts ; chin and throat white ; sides of 
the throat, the whole breast, and the sides of the body white, 
sullied with fulvous and densely streaked with dark brown ; abdo- 
men, vent, and under tail-coverts white without streaks. 

In spring, the broad coronal band becomes richer rufous, and 
the broad lateral bauds pure deep black, in consequence of the 
rufous margins getting worn away, and the supercilium becomes 
very well defined and somewhat broader. 

Female. Resembles the male in winter plumage very closely, but 
apparently never acquires the deep black coronal bands. 

The young resemble the adults in winter but are paler. 

Bill horny ; legs pale fleshy brown ; iris brown (Jerdon}. 

Length about 5*5 ; tail 2*4 ; wing 2'8 ; tarsus *7 ; bill from 
gape *45. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from the Sutlej valley to Assam. 
This species has been observed at numerous localities in the 
Eastern part of the Empire from Assam through the hill-ranges to 
Bhamo. It has also been obtained in Karennee and on Muleyit 
mountain in Tenasserim. This Bunting does not appear to be 
found in the plains of the Indian Peninsula, but Jerdon records it 
from the Purneah district. A specimen from the Andamans is 
in the Tweeddale collection. 

The Dwarf Bunting visits the Empire in the winter only. In 
the summer it is found throughout Northern Asia and China. 

792. Emberiza leucocephala. The Pine-Bunting. 

Emberiza leucocephala, S. G. Gm. N. Comm. Acad. So. Imp. Petrov. 
xv, p. 480, tab. xxiii, fig. 3 (1770) ; Hume $ Henders. Lah. to 
Yark. p. 254 ; Hume, Cat. no. 712 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 79, 
1882, p. 282 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 574 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, 
p. 549. 

Emberiza pithyornis, Gm. Syst. Nat. i, p. 875 (1788) ; Horsf. fy M. 
Cat. ii, p. 482 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 370. 



BMBERIZA. 255 

Emberiza albida, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviii, p. 811 (1849); id. Cat. 

p. 128. 
The White-crowned Bunting, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. After the moult the forehead and crown are 
ashy, streaked with brown, the base of the feathers white, but not 
showing at first ; lores, round the eye, and a short but broad 
Bupercilium, cheeks, chin, throat, and sides of the neck chestnut, 
each feather margined with white ; ear-coverts brown, divided down 
the middle by a band of white which extends under the eye to the 
gape ; hind neck ashy, turning to rufous on the back and scapulars, 
the feathers of which are streaked with black ; rump and upper tail- 
coverts chestnut, margined with white ; tail dark brown, narrowly 
margined with pale rufous, the two outer pairs of feathers with 
the terminal two-thirds of the inner web, and a margin on the 
outer web, white ; lesser coverts pale rufous ; median and greater 
coverts and tertiaries black, with broad rufous margins ; quills 
brown, narrowly margined with pale rufous ; a large patch of white 
on the lower throat ; breast chestnut, margined with white ; abdo- 
men white ; sides of the body white, streaked with chestnut. 

In the spring the crown and nape become pure white, bounded 
on each side and on the forehead by a black band ; the chestnut 
on the sides of the head and on the chin and throat becomes pure, 
owing to the white margins wearing off ; the breast and sides of 
the body also become purer chestnut, but the white on these parts 
never entirely disappears. 

Between the two extreme plumages described every intermediate 
stage is to be found. 

Female. The forehead, crown, and nape ashy streaked with 
brown, and without any white at the base of the feathers ; the 
remaining upper plumage, wings, and tail as in the male, but 
duller ; the white band on the side of the head and all chestnut on 
this part and the chin and throat are wanting the former part 
being more or less plain brown, and the two latter whitish streaked 
with brown ; breast and sides of the body rufous, streaked with 
brown and varied with white; abdomen white. 

The young bird appears to resemble the male. 

Upper mandible very dark brown, the base from gape to nostril 
yellowish ; lower mandible very pale horny bluish ; legs yellowish 
fleshy, feet slightly tinged brown ; iris dark brown (Hume 
Coll.). 

Length about 7 ; tail 3-4 ; wing 3-6 ; tarsus '75 ; bill from 
gape -5. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to GHlgit, Kashmir, and the Hima- 
layas down to Garhwal. At this season the Pine-Bunting is also 
found in Afghanistan and Europe, but in the summer it is con- 
fined to Northern Asia. 



256 FRINGILLID.E. 

793. Emberiza stewarti. The White-capped Buntiny. 

Emberiza stewarti, Bhjth, J. A. S. B. xxiii, p. 215 (1854) ; Horsf. # 
M. Cat. ii, g. 485 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 374 ; Stolicxka, J. A. S. B. 
xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 58; Hume, Cat, no. 718; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, 
p. 81, 1882, p. 282 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 575 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 
xii, p. 547 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 269 ; Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 
2nd ed. ii, p. 167. 

Citrinella stewarti (Blyth), Hume, N. # E. p. 465. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the forehead, crown, 
nape, and ear-coverts are grey, with brownish tips to the feathers ; 
a broad black supercilium, each feather tipped with grey ; the whole 
upper plumage and scapulars chestnut with pale fulvous margins 
to the feathers ; lesser and median wing-coverts dull chestnut, edged 
paler ; greater coverts and quills dark brown, edged with rufous ; 
tail brown margined with rufous, the two outer pairs of feathers 
almost entirely white, the bases and the shafts with a narrow por- 
tion of the outer webs only being brown ; chin and upper throat, 
produced laterally down the sides of the lower throat, black, each 
feather margined with whitish ; lower throat and fore neck white ; 
breast chestnut, margined with white ; remaining lower plumage 
pale fulvous, the sides of the head streaked or blotched with 
rufous. 

In spring the margins and tips to the feathers of the crown, 
supercilium, upper plumage in general, chin, throat, and lower breast 
disappear in part or wholly by abrasion, leaving each part entirely of 
one colour or nearly so. 

Female. Forehead, crown, nape, hind neck, back, and scapulars 
ashy brown, streaked with blackish, the scapulars tinged with 
chestnut ; rump and upper tail-coverts chestnut, with paler edges 
and blackish shafts ; tail as in the male, but with rather less white 
on the two outer pairs of feathers ; wings brown, each feather 
margined with pale rufous or fulvous ; lores and round the eye 
fulvous ; ear-coverts and sides of the neck brown ; lower plumage 
pale fulvous streaked with brown. 
The young resemble the female. 

Bill brown, paler on lower mandible ; iris slightly reddish brown ; 
legs and feet pinkish fleshy ; claws pale brown (Hume}. 

Length about 6*5 ; tail 3 ; wing 3'3 ; tarsus *75 ; bill from 
gape -4. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from the Hazara country, Gilgit, and 
Kashmir to about Almora ; the Punjab, Sind, Rajputana, and the 
N. W. Provinces as far east as Etawah. This species is found in the 
plains on the lower ranges of the Himalayas in winter only and on 
the higher parts of the latter (up to 6000 or 8000 feet) in summer. 
It extends into Afghanistan. 

Habits, $c. Breeds in June and July, constructing a deep cup- 
shaped nest, of fibres and grass, in low bushes, or on the ground by 
the side of a road or bank. The eggs, usually four in number, are 
white mottled with purple, and measure about -78 by -59. 



794. Emberiza stracheyi. The Eastern Meadow-Buntl^j t 

Kuspi/i cia (Linn.}, ajntd Bli/t/i, Cat. p. loO. 

Emberiza stracheyi, Moore, P. /. -V. 18-V">, p. i>|r, f pi. 112; 




p. 168. 

Emberi/.a cia, Linn. apudJerd. B. I. ii, p. 371 ; StoliczJca, J. A. S. H. 

xxxvii, pt. ii, ]). 57 ; Hume $ Holders. La/i. fo Ytirk. p. -00. 
Citrinella cia (Linn.), Hume, N. $ E. p. 401. 

Coloration. Mole. After the autumn moult a longitudinal broad 
coronal band from the bill to the nape is bluish grey with a few 
black streaks ; a broad lateral band on each side of the crown black 
with rufous tips, succeeded by a distinct pale fulvous eyebrow reach- 
ing from the nostrils to the nape; lores and band through the eye 
black ; cheeks and ear-coverts pale fulvous ; a narrow black mou- 
stachial streak passing under and behind the ear-coverts and joining 
the eye-band ; back and scapulars chestnut-brown, streaked with 
black ; lesser wing-coverts bluish grey ; median and greater coverts, 
secondaries and tertiaries black, broadly margined with chestnut- 
brown ; primaries brown, narrowly edged with rufous ; rump chest- 
nut with paler edges ; upper tail-coverts chestnut-brown, with 
black shaft-streaks ; middle pair of tail-feathers black, broadly edged 
\\i1h chest nut-brown, the next two pairs entirely black, with narrow 
pale margins ; tin* next pair black with a white tip ; the outer two 
pairs white on the terminal half with black shafts ; chin whitish ; 
throat and breast bluish grey, each feather with an indistinct 
triangular brownish tip; remainder of lower plumage and the sides 
of the neck plain chestnut-brown. 

In the spring the tips and margins of the feathers become 
abraded, and the mesial coronal band becomes pure bluish grey ; the 
lateral bands, the eye-baud, and the moustachial streak deep black ; 
the eyebrows, cheeks, and ear-coverts pure white ; the throat and 
breast lose all traces of the triangular tips to the feathers. 

Female. Resembles the male in every respect, but is perhaps a 
little paler ; undergoes the same seasonal change of colour. 

The young bird is rufous-brown above, everywhere densely 
streaked with black, and the lower plumage is pale rufous, 
deepening on the abdomen and densely streaked with black on the 
throat, breast, and sides of the body. 

Bill dark plumbeous above, light plumbeous below; iris dark 
brown ; legs and feet fleshy yellow (Hume). 

Length (r5 ; tail 3-1 ; wing 3-2 ; tarsus *7 ; bill from gape '5. 

This Bunting may be looked upon as a race of K. cia of Kin-ope. 
/,'. da differs in wauling the pure black and white marks on the 
head which are so conspicuous in /:'. *//<///< ///', the while in />'. rin 
being always tinged with grey aiul the black olemvd by rufous 
tints. In E. cia the median and greater wing-COVertfl are tipped 
with a more or less pure white, whereas in the Indian bird the 

YOL. II. 8 



258 

tippings to these parts are chestnut-brown of the same colour as 
the back. Lastly, iuE. da the rufous of the lower parts is much 
paler. 

Distribution. The Himalayas, from the Hazara country and Gil- 
git to Kumaun. This species is resident on the Himalayas, moving 
vertically according to season. A few Buntings of this species 
appear to visit the plains of the Punjab in the winter. The range 
extends into Baluchistan. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds in the Himalayas from 4000 to 9000 feet, 
making a loose cup-like nest of grass on the ground. The eggs 
are pale greenish white or grey mottled with purplish, and covered 
by a series of delicate lines and scrawls which are dark brown or 
black. They measure about *83 by *63. 

795. Emberiza buchanani. The Grey-necked Bunting. 

Emberiza buchanani, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 957 (1844), xvi, 
p. 780 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 150 ; id. Cat. no. 716 ; Sharpe, Cat. 
B. M. xii, p. 533 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 268. 

Euspiza huttoni, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviii, p. 811 (1849). 

Emberiza huttoni (Blyth), Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 485 j Jerd. B. 1. 
ii, p. 373 ; Hume, J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 121. 

Citrinella huttoni (Bl.}, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 247. 
Jamjohara, Hind. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the whole upper 
plumage is ashy brown, each feather with a dark brown shaft- 
streak, the back slightly tinged with rufous ; lesser wing-coverts 
ashy brown ; the remaining coverts and quills dark brown, broadly 
margined with rufous; tail brown, the middle pair broadly, the next 
three pairs narrowly, margined with rufous ; the two outer pairs 
with the terminal half of the inner web white, as also a small 
portion of the outer web of the outermost feather ; lores and a 
ring round the eye fulvous ; sides of the head and neck ashy brown ; 
an indistinct black moustachial streak; entire lower plumage 
rufous, palest on the chin and darkest on the breast, most of the 
feathers with pale fulvous margins. 

In the spring the fulvous margins on the lower plumage get 
worn away. 

Female. Hardly distinguishable from the male, but slightly 
paler. 

Iris dark brown ; legs and feet yellowish brown j bill fleshy 
brown (Butler}. 

Length about 6-5; tail 2-8; wing 3'3; tarsus '75; bill from 
gape -45. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the whole of the North-western 
portion of the plains of India, extending south as far as Khaudala 
and Chanda and east as far as Etavvah. This species migrates 
through Kashmir and has been observed in Gilgit in September, 
and our Indian birds probably summer in Turkestan and Persia. 
Its range extends westwards to the Caucasus. 



KMMKIJI/A. 259 

7'. "5. Emberiza hortulana. The Ortolan Bunting. 

Emberiza hortulana, Linn. Si/sf. Nat. i, p. 309 (17GG) ; Horsf. $ M. 
Cat. ii, p. 4S4 ; Jcnl B. L ii, p. 372 ; JJtnn^ Cat. no. 715; Bid- 
dvlph, Hi*, 1S81, p. 80; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 574; Sharpe, Cat. 
B. M. xii, p. 530. 

Euspiza hortulana (Linn.}, Hlyth, Cat. p. 129. 

Emberiza shah, JtotKtp. Conxp. Av. i, p. 465 (1850). 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, and nape dusky olive-green ; 
back and scapulars pale rufous, with broad black streaks ; rump 
and upper tail-coverts pale rufous, with less distinct black streaks ; 
tail dark brown celled with rufous, the two outer pairs of feathers 
white on the terminal half of the inner web ; lesser wing-coverts 
ashy ; remaining coverts and quills brown with rufous margins ; 
feathers on the eyelids, lores, cheeks, chin, and throat yellow ; sides 
of the head and neck dusky olive ; a moustachial streak pale brown ; 
upper breast dull olive-yellow; remainder of lower plumage 
cinnamon-rufous. 

The above is the full breeding- plumage. I have not been able 
to examine freshly moulted autumn birds, but these are said to have 
pale margins to the feathers of the head and breast as in the other 
species of Buntings. 

Female. Hesembles the male very closely but is much paler on 
chin and throat, and the upper breast is frequently streaked with 
brown, which may, however, be only remains of the immature 
plumage. 

The young bird is pale rufous throughout, densely streaked with 
dark brown both above and below. 

Bill dsirk flesh-colour, rather darker above than below ; iris 
brown ; legs pale fleshy red (Dresser}. 

Length about 6*5; tail 2*8 ; wing 3'6 ; tarsus *75 ; bill from 
gape '55. 

Distribution. A rare visitor to Gilgit, where this species has 
been obtained in May. This Bunting is found in Afghanistan 
and Turkestan and extends westwards throughout Europe. 

797. Emberiza aureola. The Yellow-breasted Buntwy. 

Emberiza aureola, Pall. Eeis. Euss. Eeichs, ii, p. 711 (1773); 

Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. G02; Oates, B. B. i, p. 355; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 509. 
Mirafra flavicollis, McClell. P. Z. S. 1839, p. 163. 
Euspiza aureola (Pali.), Blylh, Cat. p. 129; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii. 

p. 487 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 380 ; Hwne, Cat. no. 723 ; id. S. F. xi, p. 282. 
Euspiza flavogularis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviii, pp, 86, 811 (1849) j 

id. Cat. p. 129. 

Colon/ fin/i. Mul,. After the autumn moult the whole upper 
plumage is a dull rhestnut, each feather margined with ashy ; tail 
brown, margined with dull rufous, the outermost feather with abroad 
diagonal white band across the inner web, the penultimate with a 
narrow white tip ; lesser wing-coverts chestnut edged with ashy ; 



260 

median coverts almost entirely white ; greater coverts and quills dark 
brown, margined with chestnut-brown ; a distinct supercilium, lores, 
cheeks, and ear-coverts ashy yellow ; a band above the ear-coverts 
and another below chestnut-brown ; the whole lower plumage 
yellow, with a chestnut band across the breast, and the sides of the 
body streaked with chestnut-brown ; the under tail-coverts paler 
than the other parts. 

In the spring the margins on the upper plumage become worn 
away and the general colour becomes rich maroon chestnut, and in 
a similar manner the lower plumage becomes rich yellow and the 
pectoral band broader and deeper chestnut. A change takes place 
in the colour of the head, but this is effected by a complete moult 
of the feathers of the parts affected : these parts are the forehead, 
anterior part of crown, lores, ear-coverts, cheeks, chin, and a small 
portion of the throat, which become deep black. 

The plumage of the males varies a good deal, as does also the 
time at which the black on the head is assumed. 

Female. Head chestnut-brown, with dark brown streaks ; nape 
and back of the neck olive-brown, with indistinct brown streaks 
and the centres of the feathers tinged with chestnut ; back and 
scapulars olive-brown, with broad distinct dark brown streaks ; 
rump pale chestnut, edged with grey ; upper tail-coverts brown, 
centred darker ; lesser wing-coverts brown ; median ones brown, 
very broadly tipped with white ; greater coverts and all the quills 
brown, edged on the outer webs with pale rufous-brown ; tail as in 
the male ; a broad supercilium reaching to the nape yellowish white ; 
sides of the head mixed brown and yellowish white; chin and 
throat whitish ; breast, sides of neck, and abdomen bright yellow, 
tinged with brown across the breast, which is also faintly streaked 
with brown ; flanks faint yellow, streaked with brown ; vent and 
under tail-coverts pale yellow, the latter indistinctly streaked. 

The young bird is very similar to the female, but has no chestnut 
on the head and rump and the whole breast is boldly streaked with 
brown. 

Iris rich brown ; upper mandible dark brown, lower fleshy 
brown ; feet and claws pinkish brown. 

Length 6-2; tail 2'4 ; wing 3 ; tarsus '85 ; bill from gape *55. 
Distribution. A common winter visitor to the Himalayas from 
Nepal to Assam and to the whole of the eastern portion of the 
Empire from Assam southwards to Tenasserim, and also to the 
Nicobar Islands. This species occurs from October to May, and 
at this season it ranges to the southern extremity of the Malay 
peninsula and to China and Siam. In summer it is found chiefly 
in Northern Asia. 



798. Emberiza spodocephala. The Blade-faced Bunting. 

Emberiza spodocephala, Pall. Reis. Russ. Reichs, iii, p. 698 (1776) ; 
Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 374 ; Hume, Cut. no. 717 ; id. IS. F. xi, p. 275 ; 
tiharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. d'2'2. 



l']iiib''ri/:i melanops, 7>Y///7/, J. A. 8. B. xiv, p. 554(1845). 

Ku<pi/a iiifliumps (7//////O, />//////, Cdf. p. 129. 

Colont / ion. Male. After the autumn moult the lores, the region 
of the gape, and the point of the chin are hlack , the whole head, 
whole neck, and breast dull olive-green, some of the feathers of the 
hind neck with dull rufous-brown tips and the feathers of the 
crown with indistinct dark shaft-streaks ; back and scapulars dull 
rufous-brown streaked with black ; rump and upper tail-coverts 
olive-brown ; tail dark brown, edged with olive-brown, the outer- 
most feather with the basal portion of the outer web and the 
terminal half of the inner web white; the penultimate feather 
with a large triangular white tip to the inner web ; lesser coverts 
rufous-brown ; remaining coverts and quills dark brown, broadly 
edged with rufous-brown ; lower plumage from the breast down- 
wards yellow, the sides of the body tinged with rufous and streaked 
with brown. 

The change that takes place in the plumage in spring is very 
trifling, the rufous tips to the feathers of the hind neck wearing 
away and the plumage in general becoming brighter. 

Ff in ale. The whole upper plumage, wings, and tail as in the male, 
but the head and hind neck less green and the shaft-streaks well- 
developed ; a supercilium, lores, cheeks, chin, and throat pale 
yellowish ; ear-coverts brown ; a series of brown spots on each 
side of the throat extending to the breast, which is dull yellowish 
streaked with brown ; remainder of lower plumage yellow, the 
sides of the body streaked with brown. 

Young birds resemble the female, but have the head more 
streaked and the throat spotted with brown. Young males have 
assumed the adult plumage by February or March, the last signs 
of immaturity left at that time being small triangular tips to the 
feathers of the crown. 

Legs and feet pale brownish fleshy; upper mandible dark 
brown ; lower mandible and gape horny pinkish white ; iris brown 
( 1 1 inne). 

I .ength about 6 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 2-8 ; tarsus -75 ; bill from gape -5. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the Himalayas from Nepal to 
Assum and to the eastern portion of the Empire from Assam down 
to Manipur. In the winter this species extends to China and it 
summers in Eastern Siberia. 

Habits, <$fc. According to Hume, this species is very partial to 
long grass and watery localities. 

791). Emberiza melanocephala. The Black-headed Bunting. 

Emlx-ri/a melanocephala, Scop. Ann. i, p. 142 (17G9); Sharj><>, Cnf 

7>'. M. xii, p. 50,3 ; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 170. 
l.i.MM/a simillimn, lllytlt, J. A. S. 7?. xviii, p. 811 (1849); id. Cat. 

p. 128 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 486 ; liuim; X. ,S- /,'. p. 400. 
Kiispi/;i ]iirlaii(c.],li;il;i (,SV-o/o. lilifth, ( 'at. p. 128 ; Jcrd. Ii. I. ii, 

p. :J7s ; lihnif. J. A. >s. /*'. XXXViil, pt. ii, p. 180; Hume, Cat. no. 

7'2\ ; 7iW///'.N-, Hints l><>nt. p. L ; 71. 
Gandam, Hind. 



262 FRINGILLID^E. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the forehead, crown, 
and nape are black almost concealed by ashy margins ; a concealed 
yellow collar on the hind neck ; back, rump, and scapulars orange- 
chestnut with ashy margins ; upper tail-coverts brown, edged with 
ashy; tail brown, margined with fulvous; lesser wing-coverts 
orange-chestnut, margined with ashy; remaining coverts and quills 
dark brown, edged with fulvous ashy ; lores and under the eye deep 
black ; ear-coverts black tipped with yellow ; cheeks, side of the 
neck, and the whole lower plumage deep yellow with pale lilac 
margins. 

In spring the margins everywhere get worn away ; the forehead, 
crown, nape, lores, under the eye, and the ear-coverts become 
deep black ; the upper plumage and lesser coverts become uniform 
deep orange-chestnut, and the whole lower plumage a deep yellow. 

Female. The whole upper plumage and lesser wing-coverts fulvous 
brown, streaked with dark brown, the streaks almost obsolete on 
the rump and upper tail-coverts ; coverts, quills, and tail as in the 
male ; the entire lower plumage is a delicate fulvous, washed with 
ochraceous on the breast and with yellow on the abdomen ; under 
tail-coverts bright yellow. The difference between the summer and 
the winter plumage of the female is slight. 

Young birds resemble the female closely ; young males not quite 
adult have brown ear-coverts. 

Iris dark brown ; legs and feet fleshy brown ; bill pale greenish 
horn, brown on culmen (Butler}. 

Length about 7'5 ; tail 3'1 ; wing 3'S ; tarsus -85 ; bill from 
gape -6. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the plains of India as far east 
as Delhi, ]N T agpur, and Chanda, and as far south as Belgaum. 
This species passes through Baluchistan, and, in smaller numbers, 
through Grilgit on migration, and the Indian birds probably 
breed in Persia. This Bunting extends westwards to South- 
western Europe. 

Habits, fyc. This Bunting is usually found in India in large 
flocks, which commit great devastation in corn-fields. It breeds 
about May in Western Asia and South-western Europe ; the nest, 
a cup of straw or grass lined with hair or roots, is usually placed 
in a bush, vine, or low tree, and the eggs, four to six in number, 
are pale greenish-blue, spotted throughout, more profusely round 
the larger end, and measure about 0*87 by 0-62. 



800. Emberiza luteola. The Red-headed Bunting. 

Emberiza luteola, Sparrm. Mus. Carls, fasc. iv. Taf. 93 (1788) ; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 506. 
Euspiza luteola (Sparrm.), Blyth, Cat. p. 128 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, 

p. 486 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 378; Hume, S. F. iii, p. '498 ; Scully, S. 

F. iv. p. 167 ; Wardlaw Ramsay ^ Ibis, 1880, p. 66 ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 722 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 271. 

Gxndam, Hind.; Dalchicli, Sind ; Pacha jinmuayi, Tel. 



KM i! KIM/A. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the forehead, crown, 
and napt-aiv rich golden brown, the feathers tipped with ashy ; hind 
nt>rk and sides of neck olive-yellow; back, scapulars, and lesser 
coverts olive-yellow streaked with brown ; rump yellow ; upper 
tail-coverts olive-brown, margined with olive-yellow ; tail dark 
brown, edged with fulvous; middle and greater coverts and quills 
dark brown, margined with fulvous ; lores, sides of the head, chin, 
throat, and middle portion of breast chestnut, the feathers margined 
with ashy; sides of the breast and remainder of lower plumage 
deep yellow. 

In spring the forehead, crown, and nape become deep golden 
brown, and the lores, sides of the head, chin, throat, and breast pure 
chestnut. This change is caused by the abrasion of the ashy 
margins on those parts. 

Occasionally the golden brown of the crown suffuses the entire 
upper plumage. This occurs probably in very old males only. 

/'-male. The whole upper plumage ashy brown, the back and 
scapulars streaked with dark brown and the rump tinged with olive- 
yellow ; tail and wings as in the male ; lores pale ashy white ; 
sides of the head and neck dark fulvous ; the whole lower plumage 
pale fulvous, the abdomen washed with yellow, and the under tail- 
coverts pure yellow. 

The young bird resembles the female, but has the whole upper 
plumage, sides of the throat, arid the whole breast thickly streaked 
with brown. 

Iris dark brown ; legs and feet brown ; bill greyish brown 
above, darkest on the cuhm>n and greenish horn below (Butler). 

Length about 7 ; tail 2'8 ; wing 3*5 ; tarsus - 8 ; bill from 
gape -6. 

Distribution. A. winter visitor to the plains of India from the 
foot of the Himalayas down to the Nilgiris and from Sind to 
Chiitia Nagpur. This species passes through G-ilgit on migration 
and breeds in Turkestan and Northern Asia. It extends to 
Afghanistan, Turkestan, and Persia*. 

//!>its, <${c. Not so commonly found in flocks, and not asso- 
ciating in as large numbers as the last species, and less confined to 
well-cultivated tracts. The nest and eggs are very similar to those 
of E. melanocepJiala, and have been taken in Eastern Turkestan by 
Stolic/ka and Scully in May and June, and by Wardlaw l&iinsay in 
the Hariab valley, Western Afghanistan. 

801. Emberiza rutila. The Chestnut Bnnti,nj. 

Einberiza rutihi, Poll. 7,V/x. 7.W /.V/r//s iii, p. 098 (1770); Oates, 

B. B. i, p. :;-Vt : K/HU-/H', Cat. B. M. xii, p. 514. 
Euspiza rutila (Pall.), Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, ]>. IiN; //;/;/>, 

Cat. n... 1-1-1 bis; id. S. F. xi, p. i>M'. 
( 'itrinella rutila (Pall.), Hume, & F. iii, p. 1 ">7. 

* Dr. Scully (Ibis, 1881, p. 575) indicates an mulon-i'lvd s|.-rifs uf Hunting 
allied to E. luteola. 



264 PETNGILLTD.-r. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the whole upper 
plumage, lesser and median wing-coverts, sides of the head and 
neck, chin, throat, and fore neck are deep chestnut, each feather 
fringed with ashy yellow ; greater coverts and tertiaries dark 
brown, margined with chestnut; primaries, secondaries, and tail- 
feathers dark brown, narrowly margined with ochraceous ; lower 
plumage from the fore neck downwards yellow, the sides of the 
body and the under tail-coverts streaked with dusky green. 

In the spring the ashy-yellow margins get worn away on all the 
chestnut parts of the plumage, and these become deep chestnut. 

Female. Forehead, crown, nape, hind neck, back, and lesser wing- 
coverts ashy brown streaked with black ; rump chestnut, edged 
with ashy ; upper tail-coverts rufous-brown, edged with ashy ; 
median and greater wing-coverts and tertiaries dark brown, broadly 
margined with fulvous or rufous ; quills and tail brown, edged 
with ashy or fulvous ; lores, an indistinct supercilium, cheeks, chin, 
and throat fulvous ; a brown moustachial streak ; remaining lower 
plumage oil-yellow, tinged with brown on the breast, which is 
also obsoletely streaked; sides of the body boldly streaked with 
dusky green. 

The young bird is brown above and pale yellowish below, every- 
where streaked with dark brown. 

Iris bright brown ; bill above dark horny, below pale ; legs pale 
yellowish brown (Wardlaw Ramsay), 

Length about 6; tail 2*5; wing 2- 9 ; tarsus *7 ; bill from 
gape -5. 

Distribution. The Eastern portion of the Empire, This species 
has been recorded from Sikhim, the Bhutan Dears, Manipur, 
Karennee, and various localities in Pegu and Northern and Central 
Tenasserim. It visits India only in the winter, at which season 
it is also found in China and Siam. It summers in North China 
and Eastern Siberia. 

802. Emberiza striolata. The Striolated Bunting. 

Fringillaria striolata, lAcht. Verz. Doubl. p. 24 (1823) ; Hume, N. $ 

E. p. 463; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 601. 
.Emberiza striolata (Lichf.), Hume, Ibis, 1870, p, 309; id. S. F. vii, 

p. 410 ; id. Cat. no. 7iO his; Oatcs in Hume's A 7 . & E. 2nd ed. ii, 

p. 170. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, and nape greyish white, 
thickly streaked with black; upper plumage, scapulars, and lesser 
coverts pale rufous with dark streaks ; wings and tail dark brown, 
each feather margined with rufous ; lores and a distinct supercilium 
white; a black eye-band followed below^ by a broad whitish band from 
the gape to the middle of the ear-coverts and by another black band 
meeting the eye-band behind the ear-coverts ; a white moustachial 
streak ; chin, throat, and upper breast ashy, with black streaks to 
the feathers ; remainder of lower plumage, under wing-coverts, 
and a portion of the inner webs of the quills rufous. 



The difference in plumage in \\in1er and summer is in this 
species very trifling. 

l'\nKil . Resembles the male closely but is somewhat duller in 
coloration. 

Iris brown ; legs and feet yellowish fleshy ; claws pale brown ; 
upper mandible dark brown, lower fleshy brown (Hume Coll.}. 

Length nearly 6; tail 2'G; wing 3-1; tarsus '6; bill from 
gape -45. 

Distribution. A permanent resident in a great portion of the 
plains of the north-west portion of the Empire from Sind to 
Klawah in the N.W. Provinces and from the Punjab down to 
ditch. This species also occurs as far as Saugor in the Central 
Provinces. It extends westwards to Arabia and Palestine. 

//afiits, $c. Breeds in November and December, and probably 
also a second time in June or July, constructing a nest cf grass 
under or between blocks of stone. The eggs are marked with 
brown of various shades and measure about '76 by '56, 



Genus MELOPHUS, Swains., 1837. 

In the genus Meloplius both sexes are crested, the crest of the 
female being shorter than that of the male, and the tail is more 
even or square at the tip than in Emberiza. The sexes are very 




Fig. 71. Head of M. mclanicterus. 

differently coloured, but both have a considerable amount of red on 
the wings and tail. The only Bunting of this genus affects rocky 
hill-sides and the banks of streams, and is solitary in its habits. 



803. Melophus melanicterus. The Crested Bunting. 

Frinrilla nu-lanictera, Gm. R;i*t. Nat. i, p. 910 (1788). 

Kmlx'riza cristata, JVc/orx, 7'. Z. V. Is.'Jl, ]>. '{">. 

Mnspi/a h.thami (.7. /,'. (,'r.\ ////////, Cut. }>. IL".. 

Meloplius mclanicterus (Gm.), Horsf. & M. Cat. ii, p. 489; Jerd. 
I!. I. ii, p. .">81 ; Hume, X. $ E. p. 407; And<-r*. Yunnan A'.ryW., 
.J/v.v, ],. <;<)!; ][,nne,S. F. vii, p. 517 ; id. Cat. no. 724 ; .SV //////, 
s. /'. viii, ]). :j:M ; OH/I-*. />. B. i, p. 357 ; Barnes, liirds Bom. 



266 FKHSTGILLID^E. 

p. 272 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 568 ; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 
2nd ed. ii, p. 173. 

Patliar chirta, Hind. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the whole head, 
neck, back, rump, scapulars, lesser wing-coverts, and the whole 
lower plumage except the thighs and under tail-coverts are black, 
each feather with a broad ashy margin ; wings, tail, under tail- 
coverts, and thighs chestnut, the quills, tail, and some of the wing- 
coverts tipped with black ; upper tail-coverts chestnut, margined 
with black, sometimes wholly black. 

In the spring the ashy margins disappear wholly or in part. 

Female. The crest shorter and not very apparent in some 
specimens ; the whole upper plumage dark brown, each feather 
edged with olive-brown, frequently with a tinge of rufous ; lesser 
wing-coverts dark brown, narrowly edged with pale rufous ; 
median and greater coverts dark brown, very broadly edged with 
cinnamon; primaries and secondaries with the outer webs blackish, 
edged exteriorly with pale cinnamon ; inner w r ebs cinnamon, 
broadly tipped with dark brown; tertiaries dark brown, edged with 
pale cinnamon on the outer webs ; outer tail-feathers cinnamon, 
with a broad band of brown on the inner web ; the other feathers 
brown, with a narrow margin of pale cinnamon on the outer webs, 
and the fifth pair from the middle also with a streak of cinnamon 
on the inner webs ; ear-coverts and cheeks dark brown, the former 
tipped with olive-brown ; lower plumage dull buff to yellowish 
brown, streaked and mottled, especially on the throat and breast, 
with dark brown ; vent and under tail-coverts brighter and 
sometimes tinged with rufescent. 

The young bird resembles the female very closely, and the young 
male commences in the autumn to put on the chestnut body- 
plumage of the adult. 

Bill dusky, blackish above and fleshy at base of lower mandible ; 
irides dark brown ; feet fleshy brown, the toes darker ; claws 
blackish, pale at tips (Scully). 

Length 6'5 ; tail 2-8 ; wing 3-2 ; tarsus '75 ; bill from gape *6 ; 
crest in male about -8, in female '5. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Kashmir to Bhutan ; the 
plains of India from Sind to Bengal as far south as about the 
latitude of Mahableshwar ; thence through the Assam hills, 
Manipur, and Upper Burma to Arrakan on the one hand, and to 
Karennee and Northern Tenasserim on the other. This species is 
somewhat capricious in its choice of localities, and it is absent 
throughout large tracts of country. It extends into China. It is 
everywhere apparently a resident species. 

Habits, c. Breeds from April to August, making a saucer-like 
nest of grass on the ground or in holes of banks and walls. The 
eggs are thickly marked with red or purple and measure about '79 
by -63. 







Fig. 72. HiritniJu crythropyyia. 



Family HIRUNDINID^E. 

The intrinsic muscles of the syrinx fixed to the ends of the 
bronchial semi-rings ; the edges of both mandibles perfectly 
smooth, with a single notch or the indication of one in the upper ; 
the hinder part of the tarsus longitudinally bilaminated, the 
laminae entire and smooth ; wing with nine primaries, the first and 
second nearly equal ; bill Hat, broad and triangular when viewed 
from above ; gape very wide ; the longest secondaries reaching to 
about the middle of the wing ; front of tarsus smooth ; rectrices 
twelve: sexes alike; a moult in the spring only; young very 
similar to the adult ; rictal bristles weak. 

The Swallows form n well-defined group of birds remarkable for 
their great powers of flight, the whole of their food, which consists 
of small insects, being caught on tin- \\ ing. Many of the Swallows 
migrate vast distances, others are resident, and some species are 
confined to small areas. 



268 



HIRTTNDlNIDyE. 



The Swallows resemble each other closely in structure, and the 
only point in which they vary is the shape of the tail. As the 
shape of the tail is, however, different in almost every species, it 
cannot very well be utilized as a generic character. The Indian 
Swallows may be divided into four genera by characters which are 
of considerable value, such as the feathered or bare condition of 
the leg, the colour of the plumage and of the tail, the mode of 
nidification, and the colour of the eggs. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Tarsus and toes feathered CHELIDON, p. 268. 

b. Tarsus and toes bare. 

a' . Upper plumage brown and without 
gloss. 

a". Tail-feathers uniform COTILE, p. 271. 

b". Tail-feathers with white spots .... PTYONOPROGNE, p. 273. 
b'. Upper plumage, or the greater portion 

of it, black and highly glossy HIRUNDO, p. 276. 



Genus CHELIDON, Forster, 1817. 

The genus Chelidon contains the Martins, which are distinguished 
from all the other birds of this group by their feathered tarsus and 

4-^,. mu _ _n j.1 _ _ _JI_L_ ._ j 



toes. The rump in all the species is white, and forms a conspi- 
cuous feature of the Martins when flying. The shape of the tail 
varies in the different species, C. urbica having the tail somewhat 
deeply forked, and C. nepalensis having it quite square. 

The Martins build nests of mud lined with feathers, and lay four 
to six pure white eggs. 




Figs. 73, 74, 75. Foot, head, and bill of C. urbica. 
Key to the Species. 



a. Under tail-coverts white. 

a'. The longer upper tail-coverts black. 
a". Lower plumage pure white ; fork 
of tail half to three-quarters inch 

deep 

b" . Lower plumage pale grey ; fork of 

tail one-quarter inch, or less, deep . . 

b' . The longer upper tail-coverts white . . 

b. Under tail-coverts black 



C. urbica, p. 269. 

C. kashmiriensis, p. 269. 



C. lay opus, p. 270. 
C. nepalensis, p 



271. 



269 
804. Chelidon urbica. The 



Hirundo urbica, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 344 (1766) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 198. 
Chelidon urbica (Linn.), Hor*f. $ M. Cat. i, p. 385 ; Jerd. B. I. i, 

p. IW ; ll,nne, Cat. no. 92 ; Butler, S. F. ix, p. 378 ; Scully, Ibis, 

1881, p. 428 ; Biddudph, Ibis, 1882, p. 269; Barnes, Birds Bom. 

p. 84 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 87 ; Oates in Humes N. % E. 2nd 

ed. ii, p. 177. 
TheEnylish House Martin, Jerd. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, lores, a small space below 
the eye, hind neck, back, and scapulars glossy bluish black ; rump 
and the shorter upper tail-coverts white, with the shafts very 
narrowly brown ; longer upper tail-coverts glossy black ; tail 
black with a slight gloss ; coverts and quills dull black, some of 
the smaller coverts margined with glossy bluish black ; cheeks, 
ear-coverts, and lower plumage white, washed with ashy on the 
sides of the breast and body and on the auxiliaries. 

The young have the chin, throat, fore neck, cheeks, and ear- 
coverts dull smoky brown, and the quills next the body tipped 
with white ; the upper plumage is dull brown. 

Bill black ; feet pale flesh-colour ; iris deep brown. 

Length nearly 6 ; tail 2-5 ; wing 4'4 ; tarsus *5 ; bill from gape 
5 ; bifurcation of tail from %5 to *75. 

Distribution. The series of Indian-killed specimens of this 
Martin in the Hume Collection is remarkably poor and the skins 
are in almost all cases badly prepared. It is not therefore easy 
to identify some of them with absolute certainty, especially the 
younger birds, which are very close to C. kashmiriensis. There are 
three nearly adult birds killed in April at Mussooree; one nearly 
adult and four immature birds from Hazara, killed in September ; 
one nearly adult from Khandesh killed in November; auother 
quite adult, but moulting, from Hhiinoga, Mysore, obtained in 
April, and four young January birds from Coimbatore. Until 
well-preserved adult specimens are obtained, the distribution of 
this Martin in India must remain in great doubt. Jerdon records 
this species from the Nilgiris in March. Scully informs us that 
it is very common in Gilgit in May and June, and Biddulph 
obtained it at Gilgit in July. 

This species is found in Europe, Africa, and the western half of 
Asia. 

Habits, $c. Has been found breeding in Mysore in May, con- 
structing a nest of mud pellets lined with feathers under a large 
rock in the bed of the river Tungabhadra. This Martin probably 
breeds in other similar localities. The eggs, varying from t\\<> t<> 
four in number, are pure white and measure about '75 by - 54. 



805. Chelidon kashmiriensis. The Kashmir Mn,-tin. 

Chelidon cashnicricnsis, f;,,n/,7, P. Z. S. 1858, p. :'."*( 5; ,/m/. D. I. i, 
p. K'>7; Jluim', A'. A /:'. p. 84; id. Cat. no. 93; Biddulph, Ibis, 



270 H1UUNJDINID.E. 

1881, p. 47, 1882, p. 260; Sfiarpe, Cat, B. M. x, p. 90; Gates in 
Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. \\, p. 177. 
The Cashmere House Martin, Jerd. 

Coloration. Very similar to C. urbica, but with the whole lower 
plumage pale smoky brown and the axillaries darker brown. The 
shaft-lines on the rump are generally coarser. 

This species and the preceding are so closely allied that they 
can only be separated with certainty when full-grown and when 
the tail is perfect. In C. urbica the difference between the middle 
and the outermost pair of tail-feathers varies from half to three- 
quarters of an inch, whereas in C. kasJimiriensis, it is never more 
than a quarter of an inch. C. urbica is a larger bird. 

Length about 5 : tail 2-1 ; wing 4 ; tarsus *5 : bill from gape 45. 

Distribution. The series of this bird in the Hume Collection is 
little better than that of C. urbica. There are three adult specimens 
from Sikhim (April) ; one nearly adult from the Sutlej valley ; 
five from Kashmir ; two from Gilgit (May and July) ; one from 
Hazara (November) ; one from Garhwal (December) ; and a solitary 
specimen from the plains, obtained by Blanford at Bilaspur in the 
Central Provinces in April. 

This species ascends the Himalayas up to 12,000 or 1 3,000 feet, 
and it appears to breed along the whole range, from Kashmir to 
Sikhim. Its range in the plains is quite unknown. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds in Kashmir in April and May, and probably 
a second time later on, constructing a mud nest, shallow 7 and cup- 
shaped, in the hollows of rocks, many birds breeding together. 
The eggs are not known, but will undoubtedly prove to be pure 
white. 

806. Chelidon lagopus. The Siberian Martin. 

Hirundo lagopoda, Pall. Zoogr. JRosso-Asiat.i, p. 532 (1811). 
Chelidon urbica (Pall.) apud Tick. J. A. S. B. xxiv, p. 277 note ; 

Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 127 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 45. 
Chelidon whiteleyi, Swinhoe, P.Z.8. 1862, p. 320; id. Ibis, 1874, 

p. 152, pi. vii, fig. 2. 
Chelidon lag-opoda (Pall.), Oates, B. B. i, p. 311 ; Seebohm, Hist. 

Brit. Birds, ii, p. 179 note. 
Chelidon lag-opus (Pall.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 93. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, back, scapulars, and lesser 
wing-coverts glossy steel-black ; rump and upper tail-coverts 
white, the shafts dark ; tail, wings, and greater coverts brown ; 
lores, the feathers under the eye and above the ear-coverts dull 
black ; cheeks, lower ear-coverts, and all the lower plumage pure 
white ; under wing-coverts and axillaries dark smoky brown. 

Length nearly 5 inches; tail 2-3; wing about 4-5; bill from 
gape '45. 

Distribution. A House-Martin was observed in Burma by the 
late Colonel Tickell many years ago. He identified it with C. ur- 
bica, but his description and figure of it in his MS. work, now in 
the Library of the Zoological Society of London, show that he 



i "I n.i;. 271 

procured the present species. I have frequently seen largo flocks 
of a Martin in Southern Pegu, but have failed to secure a specimen ; 
they were most probably of this species. 

The Siberian Martin summers in Northern and Central Asia, 
and visits Burma in the winter months. Colonel Tickell's specimen 
of this bird was obtained at Moulinein. 

807. Chelidon nepalensis. Hodysons Martin. 

Delichon nepalensis, Ifodgs., Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 104, pi. Ixiii ; 
Hortf. M. Cat. i, p. '384 ; Hume, Cat. no. 94 ; id. S. F. xi, p. 29. 

Chelidon nepalensis (Ifodys.), Jerd. B. I. i, p. 168 ; Blanf. J. A. 
S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 156 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, 
pp. 68, 193 ; xlvii, pt. ii, p. 13; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 90. 
The Little Himalayan Martin, Jerd. 

Coloration. Rump white, the feathers delicately fringed with 
black ; with this exception the whole upper plumage is glossy 
bluish black ; wings and tail dull black, some of the coverts 
margined and tipped with glossy bluish black ; lores and sides of 
the head deep black with a very slight gloss; chin and throat 
black speckled with white; fore neck, breast, abdomen, vent, and 
legs white ; under tail-coverts, axillaries, and under wing-coverts 
deep black. 

Some birds, probably the young, have the point of the chin black, 
the remainder of the chin and the whole throat white ; and in 
these birds the uuderparts are not quite so pure a white as in 
those with black throats. 

Bill brown, paler at gape ; legs and toes fleshy white. 

Length about 4-5 ; tail 1-8 ; wing 37 ; tarsus -45 ; bill from 
gape *4 ; tail quite square at tip. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Nairn Tal to the Daphla hills in 
Assam, and thence southwards through the hill-ranges to Manipur. 
This Martin appears to ascend the Himalayas up to at least 8000 
feet, and it also appears to be found on those mountains throughout 
the year, as I have seen specimens procured in Sikhim in every 
month from June to January. It probably visits the lower valleys 
and plains inthe winter months only. 



Genus COTILE, Boie, 1822. 

The genus Cotile comprises the Sand-Martins, which frequent 
large rivers and construct their nests in holes excavated in the 
banks. The eggs are white. 

In Cotile the legs and toes are bare except in C. riparia, which 
lias a small tuft of feathers at the base of the tarsus and behind it. 
The tail is forked to a very small extent, and the colour of the 
plumage is extremely plain and dull. The tail-feathers are not 
spotted witJi white as in tin 1 next genus. The Sand-Martins are 
highly gregarious and breed in large societies. 



27*2 HIRUNDINTD.I. 



Key to the Species. 

a. A well-defined collar across the upper breast ; a 

tuft of feathers on tarsus C. riparia, p. 272. 

b. No collar across breast and no tuft of feathers 0:1 

tarsus C. sinensis, p. 273 



808. Cotile riparia. The Sand-Martin. 

Hirundo riparia, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 344 (170(5) ; Blyth, Cat. 

p. 199. 
Cotyle riparia (Linn.}, Horsf. 8f M. Cat. i, p. 95 ; Jcrd. B. I. i, 

p. 163 ; Blanf. S. F. iv, p. 507 ; Hume, Cat. no. 87 ; id. S. F. 

xi, p. 28 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 82. 
Cotile riparia (Linn.), Oates, B. B. i, p. 310 : Sharne. Cat. B. M. x, 

p. 96. 

The European Sand-Martin, Jerd. 




Fig. 70. Foot of C. riparia. 

Coloration. The whole upper plumage greyish brown, each 
feather with a more or less distinct pale margin ; a dark spot in 
front of the eye ; lores and ear-coverts brown ; quills and coverts 
dark brown ; tail dark brown, narrowly margined with whitish ; 
a broad and distinct band across the 'breast brown; cheeks and 
remainder of lower plumage pure white. 

Young birds have all the feathers of the upper plumage and 
the wings margined with rufous, the chin and throat fulvous, and 
the breast broadly brown. 

Bill black ; iris brown ; legs dark brown. 

Length about 5 ; tail 2-3 ; wing 4 ; tarsus '45 ; bill from gape 
5 ; bifurcation of tail '4. 

Distribution. The Sand-Martin is probably spread over the 
whole of the northern portion of India proper as far south as the 
latitude of Bombay. It appears to be rare in India, for the Hume 
Collection contains but very few specimens, and these from Sind 
only; specimens from the eastern part of the Empire are more 
numerous. This species extends from Assam to Tenasserim, the 
most southern locality from which I have seen a specimen being 
Thatone near Moulmein. It appears to be a winter visitor to 
India for the most part, but specimens procured in May and 
.June are contained in the Hume Collection. This Martin is found 
over the whole northern hemisphere. 



PTYONOPROGNE. 273 



N>t>. Cotile sinensis. The Indian Sand-Martin. 

Jlirundo chiuensis, J. E. Gray in Hardw. III. Ind. Orn. i, pi. 3o, 

f. 3 (1830-2). 
Hirunoo subsoccata, Hodys. in Gray's Zool Misc. p. 82 (1844, desc. 

null.). 

Hirundo sinensis (J". E. 6V.), Blyth, Cat. p. 199. 
Cotyle sinensis (J. E. Gr.), Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 96 ; Jerd. B. I. i, 

p. 164; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 651; Hume, Cat.no, 

89 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 82. 

Cotyle subsoccata (Hodys.}, Jerd. B. I. i, p. 163 ; Hume, Cat. no. 88. 
Cotile subsoccata (Hod\/s.\ Hume, N. 8f E. p. 82. 
Cotile sinensis (J. E. Gr.), Hum?, N. $ E. p. 82 ; Oates, B. B. i, 

p. 309 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 104 ; Oates in Hume's N. Sf E. 

2nd ed. ii, p. 178. 

The Dusky Martin, The Indian Bank Martin, Jerd. ; Abali, Hind. ; 
Nakuti, Beng. 

Coloration. Upper plumage greyish brown, most of the feathers 
margined with paler brown; wings and tail darker brown ; chin, 
throat, breast, sides of the head and neck pale grey ; abdomen, 
vent, and under tail-coverts white. 

The young bird has all the feathers of the upper plumage and 
wings broadly margined with rufous, and the chin, throat, and 
breast are pale rufous. 

Iris brown ; bill black ; legs dark brown. 

Length about 4; tail 1-8 ; wing 3-4 ; tarsus *35; bill from gape 
45 ; bifurcation of tail about -2. 

Distribution. A resident species over the whole of the northern 
half of India down to about the latitude of Bombay, and probably 
further south. This Martin ascends the Himalayas wherever 
the streams are suitable to its habits. In the eastern part of 
the Empire it extends from Assam to Northern Tenasserim. It 
is found in Southern China, Siam, and the Philippine Islands. 

Habits, $c. Breeds in large societies in the sandy banks of 
rivers, constructing its nest, which consists of a few feathers and 
a little grass, in a roundish chamber at the end of a narrow 
tunnel, frequently three feet in length. The breeding-season lasts 
from November to February in the greater part of India, but in 
some parts these Martins breed in April and May. The eggs, 
either four or five in number, are pure white, and measure about 
68 by -48. 



Genus PTYONOPROGNE, Eeichenb., 1850. 

The genus Ptyonoproyne comprises the Crag-Martins, which are 
similar in appearance and structure to the Sand-Martins, but differ 
from them in some important points. 

The Crag-Martins have a white spot on the inner web of all 
the tail-feathers except the middle and outermost pair; they 

VOL. II. T 



274 HIETTNDINIT)^!. 

construct mud-nests amongst rocks, in caves or old buildings, and 
they lay spotted eggs. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Chin and upper throat streaked or spotted. 

a'. Wing 5; under tail-coverts much darker 

than abdomen P. rupestris, p. 274. 

b'. Wing little more than 4 ; under tail-coverts 

of same colour as abdomen P. concolor, p. 275. 

b. Chin and upper throat unmarked , . P. obsoleta, p. 275. 



810. Ptyonoprogne rupestris. The Crag-Martin. 

Hirundo rupestris, Scop. Ann. i, Hist. Nat. p. 167 (1769) ; Blytli, 

Cat. p. 198. 
Cotyle rupestris (Scop.), Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 95 ; Jerd. B. I. i, 

p. 166 ; Hume 8> Senders. Lah. to Yark. p. 177 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. 

xxxviii, pt. ii, p. 173 ; Hume, J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 116 j 

Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 83. 
Ptyonoprogne rupestris (Scop.}, Hume, N. fy E. p. 84; id. Cat. no. 

91 ; Oates in Hume's N, $ JE. 2nd ed. ii, p. 180. 
Cotile rupestris (Scop.}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 109. 
The Mountain Crag Martin, Jerd. 

Coloration. Upper plumage, sides of the head, wings, and tail 
ashy brown ; a large white spot on the inner web of all the tail- 
feathers except the middle and outermost pair ; chin, throat, and 
breast white, tinged with pale rufous, the chin and upper throat 
spotted with brown ; abdomen and sides of the body rufous ashy ; 
under tail-coverts dark ashy brown. 

The young has the whole upper plumage, wings, and under tail- 
coverts margined with rufous, and the lower plumage uniform, pale 
rufous. 

Bill black ; legs and feet fleshy ; claws dusky ; iris dark brown 
(Scully). 

Length about 6 ; tail 2'4 ; wing up to 5-4 tarsus -45 ; bill from 
gape -55. 

Distribution. The whole Himalayas as far east as Bhutan and 
the plains as far south as the Nilgiri hills. The range of this 
Martin is probably much greater than above indicated, for 
Davison observed a Ptyonoprogne in Tenasseriin, which was 
probably of this species. The Crag-Martin has an immense range 
out of India, being found in Southern Europe, Northern Africa, 
and a great portion of Asia. 

Habits, Sfc. Breeds amongst precipitous rocks high up in the 
Himalayas in April, constructing a saucer-shaped nest of mud, 
attached to the rock. The eggs are described as being white, 
speckled with red and purple. 



PTYONOPROGNE. 275 



811. Ptyonoprogne concolor. The Dusky Crag-Martin. 

Hirundo concolor, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 83 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 199. 
Cotyle concolor (Sykes), Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 97 ; Jerd. B. 2nd. 

i, p. 165 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 83. 
Ptyonoprogne concolor^AS^&es), Hume, N. fy E. p. 83 ; id. Cat. no. 

90 ; Oates in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 181. 
Cotile concolor (Sykes), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 108. 

Coloration. The whole upper plumage, wings, and tail dark 
sooty brown ; a white spot on the inner web of all the tail-feathers 
except the middle and outermost pairs, the spot on the pair 
next the middle one being obsolete or frequently wanting ; cheeks, 
chin, throat, and fore neck rufescent, streaked with brown; 
remainder of lower plumage sooty brown, many of the feathers 
with fulvous margins and darker shafts. 

The young bird has the upper plumage and wings margined 
with rufous. 

Iris dark brown ; bill, legs, and claws brown (Bingham). 

Length about 5 ; tail 2 ; wing 4 -2 ; tarsus -4 ; bill from gape -5. 

Distribution. The plains of India, from the foot of the Himalayas 
to the Mlgiris, and extending eastwards to Behar and Western 
Bengal. To the west this species is found throughout Eajputana, 
but does not appear to be found in Sind. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds during many months of the year, the 
time varying according to locality. The nest is cup-shaped, 
constructed of mud and attached to a rock or wall in caves, old 
buildings, and cliffs. The eggs are white, speckled with yellowish 
and reddish brown, generally four in number, and measure about 
72 by -52. 

812. Ptyonoprogne obsoleta. The Pale Crag-Martin. 

Cotyle obsoleta, Cab. Mus. Hein. i, p. 50 (1850) ; Barnes, Birds 

Bom. p. 83. 

Ptyonoprogne pallida, Hume, S. F. i, pp. 1, 417 (1873). 
Ptyonoprogne obsoleta (Cab.), Hume, Cat. no. 91 bis. 
Cotile obsoleta (Cab.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 111. 

Coloration. The whole upper plumage pale greyish brown ; 
wings and tail darker ; all the tail-feathers with a white spot on 
the inner web except the middle and outermost pair, but with 
signs of a spot on the latter sometimes ; a black spot in front of 
the eye ; sides of the head like the upper plumage ; lower plumage 
white, tinged with fulvous, and gradually turning to pale brown 
on the lower abdomen and under tail-coverts, which latter are 
margined paler. 

Legs and feet dusky greyish brown ; bill blackish brown ; iris 
blackish brown (Butler). 

Length about 5-5; tail 2-2; wing 4*5; tarsus '4; bill from 
gape -55. 

T2 



276 HIEUNDINIDJE. 

Distribution. Sind, extending west to Arabia and Egypt. This 
species appears to be only a winter visitor to Sind. 



Genus HIRUNDO, Linn., 1766. 

The genus Hirundo comprises the true Swallows, which are for 
the most part familiar and well-known birds. 

The Swallows have the upper plumage, or the greater portion of 
it, deep steel-blue and highly glossy. Many of them have the 
tail greatly forked, and a few have it nearly square. They all 
construct nests of mud lined with feathers, some making their 
nests cup-shaped, while others add a long tubular entrance. The 
eggs in some species are speckled, in others white without any 
marks. 

Key to the Species* 

a. Rump blue or brown. 
a. "White spots on tail. 

a". A complete or broken band across the 
breast. 

a'". Pectoral baud complete H. rustwa, p. 277. 

b'". Pectoral band more or less inter- 
rupted in the middle. 
# 4 . Chin and throat chestnut ; abdo- 
men white H. yutturalis, p. 277. 

6 4 . Chin, throat, and abdomen uni- 
form deep chestnut H. tytleri, p. 278. 

c 4 . Chin and throat much deeper 

chestnut than the abdomen . . H. erythrogastra, p. 279. 
V. No trace of a pectoral band, 
c'". Chin, throat, and fore neck chest- 
nut j abdomen grey H.javanica, p. 279. 

d'". Chin, throat, and fore neck white 

like abdomen H. smithii, p. 280. 

b'. No white spots on tail H. fiuvicola, p. 280. 

b. Rump chestnut. 

c'. Lower plumage pale rufous, much paler 

than ear-coverts. 

c". Rump and upper tail-coverts of same 
colour throughout, or very slightly 
paler posteriorly. 
c". Wing 4-9 to 5-3. 

t/ 4 . Shaft - streaks on rump very 
distinct j lower plumage nearly 
white, with very coarse stria- 

tions H. striolata, p. 281 . 

c 4 . Shaft-streaks on rump absent or 
obsolete j lower plumage de- 
cidedly rufous, with fine stria- 

tions H. daurica, p. 282. 

/'". Wing 4;3 to 4-7. 
/ 4 . Striations on lower plumage 

much broader than the shafts . . H. nepaknsis, p. 282. 



HIRUNDO. 277 

y l . Striations on lower plumage 

hardly broader than the shafts . . H. erythropygia, p. 283. 
d". Rump paling posteriorly and be- 
coming creamy white IT. rufula, p. 284. 

d 1 . Lower plumage chestnut, quite as dark 

as the ear-coverts //. hyperythra, p. 284. 



813. Hirundo rustica. The Swallow. 

Hirimdo rustica, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 343 (17G6) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 197 ; 
Jerd. B. I. i, p. 157; Hume, N. 8f E. p. 72; Anders. Yunnan 
Exped., Aves, p. C49 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl p. 587 ; Hume, Cat. no. 82 ; 
Oates, B. B. i, p. 302 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 79 ; Sharpe, Cat. 
B. M. x, p. 128 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd eel. ii, p. 184. 
The Common Swallow, Jerd. ; Ababil, Hind. ; Talli-illedi kuravi, Tarn. ; 
Wanna [kovela, Tel.; Paras pitta of the Mharis and Gonds; Tdm pddi, 
Tarn. ; Pyan-hhca, Burm. ; Wcchcelaniya, Cing. 

Coloration. Forehead, chin, and throat chestnut; lores black; 
upper plumage and wing-coverts glossy purplish blue ; quills and 
tail black suffused with glossy green, all the tail-feathers, except 
the middle pair, with a white patch on the inner web ; sides of the 
head and neck and a very broad pectoral band glossy black, a few 
of the feathers of the latter part narrowly fringed with chestnut ; 
lower plumage from the pectoral band downwards pale rufous, 
becoming rather darker on the under tail-coverts. 

The young bird does not differ very much from the adult, but 
has the colour of its plumage very dull. 

Bill black ; feet black ; iris dark brown. 

Length up to 8 ; tail up to 4*5 ; wing 5 ; tarsus '5 ; bill from 
gape *6 ; bifurcation of tail about 2-7. 

Distribution. Every portion of the Empire, breeding throughout 
the whole range of the Himalayas and being found in the plains 
during the winter. Young birds of this species are to be met 
with in the plains at nearly all times of the summer in small numbers. 

The Swallow has an enormous range, being found over the whole 
of Europe and Africa and over a great part of Asia. 

Habits, $c. Breeds throughout the Himalayas in April and May 
from 4000 to 7000 feet, constructing its nest of mud, lined with 
feathers, in outbuildings, verandahs of houses, and sheds. The 
eggs, four or five in number, are white or pale pink speckled with 
red and purple, and measure about -76 by '53. 



814. Himndo gutturalis. TJie Eastern Sivallow. 

Hirundo gutturalis, Scop. Del. Flor. et Faun. Insubr. ii,p. 96 (1786) ; 

Hume Sf Dav. S. F. vi, p. 41 ; Hume, Cat. no. 82 bis ; Sharpe, Cat. 

B. M. x, p. 134. 
Ilirundo panayana, Gm. Syst. Nat. i, p. 1018 (1788) ; Horsf. Sf M. 

Cat. \, p. 91. 
Hirundo andamanensis, Tytler, Beavan, Ibis, 1867, p. 316 ; Ball, S. F. 

i,p.r>5 



278 

Coloration. Resembles H. rustica, but the chestnut of the throat 
encroaches on the black pectoral band so as to nearly sever it down 
the middle of the breast ; the lower plumage below the pectoral 
band is pure white. 

Length about 6-5 ; tail 3-6 ; wing 4-6 ; tarsus -4 ; bill from 
gape *6; bifurcation of tail 1*7. 

Typical examples of this Swallow from Japan and North-eastern 
Asia are very distinct from H. rustica, the lower plumage being 
pure white and the pectoral band severed in two by the encroach- 
ment of the chestnut of the throat. Many examples procured in 
Burma are sufficiently typical to be easily recognizable, but the 
majority of Swallows from the eastern portion of the Empire are 
quite intermediate between the two species. 

Distribution. Common in winter over the whole of the Empire 
east of the Bay of Bengal and extending to Assam and Bengal. 
The western limits of this species cannot be determined with any 
accuracy, as many birds from the continent of India are quite inter- 
mediate between H. rustica and H. gutturalis, and I have seen no 
bird which could unhesitatingly be assigned to H. gutturalis from 
any point west of Calcutta. This species ranges from North-eastern 
Asia to the Malay islands and Singapore. 



815. Hirundo tytleri. Tytler's Sivallow. 

Hirundo tytleri, Jerd. B. I. iii, App. p. 870 (1864) ; Hume, S. F. 
i\i, p. 41 ; Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 1877, p. 466 ; Hume $ Lav. 
8. F. vi, p. 41 ; Hume, Cat. no. 82 ter ; Simson, Ibis, 1882, p. 84 ; 
Oates, B. B. i, p. 304 j Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 140. 

Coloration. Eorehead rufous ; lores black ; whole upper plumage 
glossy purplish blue ; wing-coverts brown, margined with glossy 
purplish blue ; quills black, suffused with glossy green ; tail brown, 
all the feathers, except the middle pair, with a patch of white on 
the inner web ; the whole lower plumage chestnut, the chin and 
throat very little if at all darker than the other parts ; sides of the 
head and neck, continued to the sides of the breast and forming a 
pectoral band, interrupted in the middle, glossy purplish blue. 

Length 6-5 to 7 ; tail up to 4 ; wing 4-8 ; tarsus -45 ; bill from 
gape -6. 

Distribution. A common but uncertain visitor to the eastern 
parts of the Empire. This species has been observed in Sadiya, 
Dacca, Cachar, the Khasi hills, Manipur, Pegu, and Tenasserim, 
and there are specimens from all these parts in the British Museum. 
It has been obtained during February, March, April, May, and 
June ; and it may breed on or near the eastern borders of Assam 
and Burma. It occurs in Eastern Siberia and Kamtschatka and 
probably has a very wide range. Some specimens of Swallows 
from Peru and Brazil in the British Museum are perfectly undis- 
tinguishable from H. tytleri. 



HIRUNDO. 279 

816. Hirundo erythrogastra. The American Swallow. 

ilirundo erythrogaster, Bodd. Tabl. PL Enl. p. 4/5 (1783) 

Hirundo horreorum, Bart. Fraym. Nat. Hist. p. 17 (1799) ; Hume 

$ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 42 ; Hume, Cat. no. 82 quint. ; Gates, B. B. i, 

p. 303. 
Hirundo erythrogastra, Bodd., Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 137. 

Coloration. Eesembles H. tytleri, and like it has an interrupted 
pectoral band, but the plumage below the band is pale rufous, 
whereas the chin, throat, and middle of the breast are chestnut. 

Of the same size as //. tytleri. 

Distribution. The only specimens of this species that I have seen 
from within Indian limits are two procured by myself in February, 
one at Toungngoo and one at Pegu. The former is adult and the 
latter young. There are two typical adult specimens from Cochin 
China in the British Museum. 

This Swallow is found in Eastern Asia and over the whole of the 
continent of America as far south as Brazil. 



817. Hirundo javanica. The Nilgiri House-Swallow. 

Hirundo javanica, Sparrm. Mus. Carls, iv, pi. 100 (1789) ; Leyge, 
Birds Ceyl p. 597 ; Hume, Cat. no. 83 ; Shar-pe, Cat. B. M. x, 
p. 142 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 386. 

Hirundo doniicola, Jerd. Madr. Journ. L. S. xiii, p. 173 (1844) ; 
Blyth, Cat. p. 198 j Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 384 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 158. 

Hypurolepsis domicola (Jerd.}, Hume, N. Sf E. p. 73. 

Hypurolepis javanica (Sparrm.), Oates, B. B. \, p. 308. 

Coloration. A broad band on the forehead, the chin, throat, upper 
breast, cheeks, and ear-coverts deep ferruginous ; lores dusky ; 
upper plumage glossy black ; wings and tail dark brown, slightly 
glossy on the outer webs ; the tail with an oval spot on all the inner 
webs of the feathers except those of the median pair ; lower plumage 
pale ashy, albescent on the abdomen ; under tail-coverts ashy, the 
feathers with white tips and subterminal patches of black. 

The young bird is without gloss above and has some of the 
secondaries margined with rufous. 

Bill black ; legs and claws lighter black ; iris dark brown. 

Length about 5; tail 2-1; wing 4'2 ; tarsus '4; bill from 
gape '65 ; bifurcation of tail '3. 

Distribution. Ceylon and Southern India as far north as the 
Nilgiris, being resident and confined to the higher parts of the hills ; 
Tenasserim ; the Andanians. This species extends down the Malay 
peninsula and is found throughout the islands. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds from February to June, constructing a cup- 
shaped mud nest in bungalows and outbuildings and laying three 
eggs, which are white spotted with brown and purple and measure 
about *7 by *5. 



280 



818. Hirundo smithii. The Wire-tailed Swallow. 

Hirundo smithii, Leach, App. to Tuckey's Voy. Congo, p. 407 (1818) ; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x. p. 150 : Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, 

p. 188. 
Hirundo filifera, Steph. Gen. ZooL xiii, p. 78 (1826) ; Blyth, Cat. 

p. 197 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 93 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 159 ; Anders. 

Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 650 ; Hume, Cat. no. 84 ; Barnes, Birds 

Bom. p. 79. 
Uromitrus filiferus (Steph.\ Hume, N. 8f E. p. 75 j Oates, B. B. i, 

p. 307. 
Leishra, Hind. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape chestnut ; sides of the 
head and neck and the whole upper plumage with the wing-coverts 
glossy steel-blue ; quills and tail dark brown, margined with steel- 
blue; all the tail-feathers except the two median pairs with a 
white spot on the inner web ; the whole lower plumage white. 

The nestling has the chestnut of the head replaced by brown, 
and the chin, throat, and breast are tinged with pale fulvous. 

Bill, legs, and feet black ; iris dark brown (Bingham). 

Length to tip of ordinary feathers of the tail about 5 ; tail to 
end of ordinary feathers 1*8 ; outer tail-feather with lengthened 
shaft about 7 in male, somewhat less in female ; wing 4-6 ; tarsus 
45 ; bill from gape -55. 

The Wire-tailed Swallow of India is quite identical with the 
Wire-tailed Swallow of Africa. 

Distribution. The whole peninsula of India as far south as Mysore 
and the Nilgiris ; this Swallow is apparently absent from, or rare in, 
Bengal, Assam, and Upper Burma, but reappears in Pegu and Tenas- 
serim. It ascends the Himalayas to a considerable height in the 
summer, and appears to be a constant resident in the plains. It 
extends to Africa and is found in various parts of that continent. 

Habits, dfc. Breeds from January to December, according to 
locality, constructing a small cup-shaped nest under bridges and 
culverts, and also under rocks in the immediate vicinity of water. 
The eggs, three or four in number, are whire marked with various 
shades of brown and red, and measure about '72 by -53. 

819. Hirundo fluvicola. The Indian Cliff-Swallow. 

Hirundo fluvicola, Jerd., Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xxiv, p. 470 (1855) ; 
Jerd. B. I. i, p. 161 ; Blanf. J. A. 8. B. xxxviii, pt. ii, p. 172 ; 
Hume, J. A. 8. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 115; id. Cat. no. 86 ; Barnes, 
Birds Bom. p. 81 ; Oates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 191. 

Lagenoplastes fluvicola (Jerd.}, Hume, N. 8c E. p. 80. 

Petrochelidon fluvicola (Jerd.], Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 200. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape dull chestnut, with black 
shaft-streaks; back and scapulars glossy steel-blue; rump and 
upper tail-coverts dull brown, with narrow pale margins ; wings 
and tail dull brown ; lores and upper part of the ear-coverts dark 



HIRTJNDO. 281 

brown ; remainder of the sides of the head, chin, throat, and upper 
breast white, tinged with very pale fulvous, and boldly streaked 
with brown ; remainder of lower plumage \vhite, the sides of the 
body slightly streaked with brown. 

The young bird has the head brownish, the feathers of the back 
margined with rufous, those of the rump very broadly margined 
with fulvous, and the wings more or less margined with the same. 

Legs dark brown ; toes black ; iris brown ; bill black (Hume). 

Length about: 4*o ; tail 1/75; wing 3'6; tarsus '4: bill from 
gape -5 ; bifurcation of tail -15. 

Distribution. A considerable portion of India proper. Towards 
the south this species has been found as far as Coimbatore ; to the 
east as far as Etawah ; and on the north and west to the foot of 
the Himalayas and in Kashmir, extending into all parts of the 
north-west except Sind. 

l/ahits, tj-c. Breeds in large societies from February to April and 
in July and August, constructing a mud nest, which is spherical or 
oval with a long neck or tubular entrance attached to it. Large 
numbers of nests are plastered together against the face of cliffs or 
under bridges. The fggs are sometimes spotless white, more 
frequently white speckled with yellowish or reddish brown, and 
usually three in number. They measure about *76 by '53. 

820. Hirundo striolata. The Japanese Striated Swalloiv. 

Hirundo striolata, Temm., Temm, $ Schlcg. Faun. Jap., Aves, p. 33 
(1850) ; Waldcn in BlytVs Birds Sunn. p. ] 27 ; Sharpe, Cat. 

B.M.X,?. lei. 

Hirundo alpestris japonica, Temm. Sf Seldeg. op. tit. p. 33, pi. ii 

(1850). 

Lillia substriolata, Hume, S. F. v, p. 2G4 (1877). 
Hirundo substriolata (Hume), Hume, Cat. no. 85 quat. 
Hirundo japonica (T.$ S.), Oates, B. B. i, p. 305; Skarpe, Cat, B. 

3f.x,p. UL>. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, hind neck, back, scapulars, 
lesser and median wing-coverts, and tail-coverts glossy steel-blue ; 
quills and tail black, slightly glossy on the outer webs; rump 
chestnut, with well-marked black shafts ; lores black ; a mark in 
front and above the eye, continued as a narrow line over the eye, 
and the ear-coverts chestnut, streaked with black ; lower plumage 
white, with a very pale fulvous tinge throughout, and very coarsely 
streaked with black throughout ; under tail-coverts with their 
terminal halves entirely black. 

Iris dark brown ; bill and legs dark brown ( Wardlaw Ramsay). 

Length nearly 8 ; tail up to 4-2 ; wing 4'9 to 5*3 ; tarsus '6 ; 
bill from gape "6 ; bifurcation of tail 2*1. 

Distribution. The only specimens of this species killed within 
Indian limits that I have seen are : two specimens from Cachar, 
February (types of LiHui snl>*triolata, Hume) ; a specimen from 
Karennee, 2600 feet, 29th March ; and two from the Karen hills, 
east of Toungngoo, 3000 feet, loth January. 



282 

This species is found from Japan down to Java and Flores, 
summering in the northern part of its range, and wintering in the 
south. It is common throughout China. 



821. Hirundo daurica. The Daurian Striated Swallow. 

Hirundo daurica, Linn. Mantissa Plant, p. 528 (1771) ; Sharpe, Cat. 

B. M. x, p. 159. 

Hirundo alpestris, Pall. JReis. Russ.Reichs, ii, p. 709 (1773). 
Lillia intermedia, Hume, S. F. v, p. 263 (1877). 
Hirundo intermedia (Hume), Hume } Cat. no. 85 ter. 

Coloration. Resembles H. striolata closely, but has the lower 
plumage distinctly rufous, and the striations less coarse ; the shafts 
of the feathers of the rump are with few exceptions rufous, a very 
few only being very finely black. 

The dimensions are much the same as those of H. striolata. 

This species, when compared with the last, appears very distinct, 
and it has a very different geographical distribution. 

Distribution. The only two specimens of this species killed 
within Indian limits that I have seen, are two in the Hume 
Collection from Sadiya in Assam, obtained in June. These are the 
types of Lillia intermedia (Hume). This species is found over a 
large portion of Northern and Central Asia, but does not extend 
to Japan or China. I have seen specimens from the Irtisch river, 
Dauria, and Mongolia, all killed in the height of summer. It is 
probably a resident species except in the more northern part of 
its range. 

822. Hirundo nepalensis. Hodgson's Striated Swallow. 

Hirundo nipalensis, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. v, p. 780 (1836) ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 85 bis ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 306 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 160 ; 

Gates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 195. 
Hirundo daurica, Linn., Blyth, Cat. p. 198 (pt.) ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, 

p. 92 (pt.) ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 160 (pt.). 
Cecropis arctivitta, Swirih. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 346. 
Lillia daurica (Linn.} apud Hume, N. fy E. p. 78. 
Lillia nipalensis (Hodgs.}, Hume, S. F. v, p. 262. 

The JRed-rumped Sivalloiu, Jerd. 

Coloration. Merely a small form of H. striolata, the wing 
seldom exceeding 4'7, and being frequently under 4'5 ; the colour 
of the lower plumage is also more rufous and the striations rather 
less coarse ; very few of the feathers of the rump have black shafts, 
while many are fringed paler. 

The expediency of separating this form from H. striolata may be 
questioned by many and with much justice. Having regard, 
however, to the fact that no Swallow of this type either from the 
Himalayas or from the plains of India ever attains the size of the 
true H. striolata, nor has the striations on the lower plumage as 
coarsely marked, nor those on the rump as numerous or distinct, I 



HIRUITDO. 283 

am inclined to consider the two races sufficiently well differentiated 
to be easily recognizable, notwithstanding that a few birds may 
occasionally be met with which it is difficult to assign to the one 
species or the other with certainty. 

Distribution. Every portion of the Empire, breeding along the 
whole extent of the Himalayas, and visiting the plains in the 
winter months. 

This species extends into China, where it appears to be common, 
and it ranges as far as Japan. 

Habits, 6>"c. Breeds in the Himalayas from April to August, 
constructing a retort-shaped nest like that of //. fluvicola in the 
verandahs of houses, and on rocks and cliffs. The eggs are pure 
white, and measure about *85 by *55. 



erythropygia, Sykes, P. Z. 8. 1832, p. 83 j Hume, Cat. 
; Legye, Birds Ceyl. p. 594 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 164 ; 
*, Birds Bom, p. 80 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, 



823. Hirundo erythropygia. Sykes's Striated Swallow. 

Hirundo erythropygia, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 83 j Hume, Cat. 

no. 85 ; 

Barnes, 

p. 197. 
Hirundo daurica, Linn., Blyth, Cat. p. 198 (pt.) ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. 

i, p. 92 (pt.) ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 160 (pt.). 
Lillia erythropygia (Sykes), Hume, N. fy E. p. 76 ; id. S. F. v, 

p. 255. 
The Red-rumped Swallow, Jerd. ; Masjid-ababil, Hind. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, back, scapulars, lesser and 
median wing-coverts glossy steel-blue ; rump and the shorter 
upper tail-coverts plain chestnut ; longer upper tail-coverts glossy 
black ; greater wing-coverts, quills, and tail dark brown, glossed 
with blue on the outer webs; the outermost tail-feather with an 
obsolete white patch on the inner web ; lores brown ; under the 
eye mixed rufous and brown ; ear-coverts and a narrow partially- 
interrupted collar on the hind neck chestnut; the whole lower 
plumage pale rufous, with delicate brown streaks, hardly anywhere 
broader than the shafts themselves ; under tail-coverts tipped with 
black ; sides of the neck glossy blue, extending to the sides of the 
breast. 

The young bird has the striations on the lower plumage very 
faint, and the quills are tipped with rufous. 

Bill and legs black ; iris brown. 

Length about 6-5 ; tail 3'2 ; wing 4-3 ; tarsus -5 ; bill from gape 
45 ; bifurcation of tail 1*4. 

Distribution. A resident in the plains of India from the foot of 
the Himalayas to the Nilgiris, and from Sind to about the longi- 
tude of Calcutta. This Swallow occasionally wanders to Ceylon. 

Habits, $c. Breeds from April to August, constructing a retort- 
si iMju.'d nest of mud under arches, against walls and rocks, and 
sometimes in old buildings. The eggs are pure white, three in 
number, and measure about '78 by '55. 



284 HIRTJNDINID^E. 

824. Hirundo rufula. The European Striated Swallow. 

Hirundo rufula, Temm. Man. 2 e ed. iii, p. 298 (1835); Wardlaw 
Ramsay. Ibis, 1880, p. 48 ; Scully, His, 1881, p. 427; Sharpe, Cat. 
B. M. x, p. 156. 

Hirundo scullii, Seebohm., Ibis, 1883, p. 167 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, 
p. 158. 

Coloration. Resembles H. eryihropyyia, but has the striations on 
the lower plumage even finer, and the chestnut on the rump paling 
off to creamy white posteriorly : much larger. 

Bill blackish ; iris blackish brown ; feet dark brown (Dresser). 

Length about 7'5 ; tail 4 ; wing 4- 8 ; tarsus '55 ; bill from gape 
6 ; bifurcation of tail 2-3. 

Mr. Seebohm has separated a small form of this species from. 
Nepal as H. scullii. As this only differs from H. rufula in being 
very slightly smaller, 1 do not propose to keep it distinct. On 
examining the type of H. scullii, kindly lent to me for the purpose 
by Mr. Seebohm. I have strong doubts as to whether it belongs to 
H. rufula or to H. nepalensis. The rump pales slightly posteriorly 
it is true, but not more so than in many specimens of undoubted 
//. nepalensis ; the striations, however, on the lower plumage appear 
to me to be too coarse for H. rufula. Fortunately, the occurrence 
of this latter species within Indian limits rests on other evidence 
than that of this dubious specimen collected in Nepal, Dr. Scully 
having obtained H. rufula in Grilgit, where its presence was not 
unexpected. Major Wardlaw Ramsay also procured an undoubted 
specimen of this species at Byan Khel in Afghanistan, and this is 
deposited in the British Museum. 

Distribution. Found in Gilgit in summer, and probably extends 
along the Himalayas to Nepal. This Swallow ranges westwards 
into Europe and Africa, and is also found in Central Asia. 

825. Hirundo hyperythra. The Ceylon Siuallow. 

Hirundo hyperythra, Layard, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviii, p. 814 (1849) ; 
id. Cat. p. 198; Legye, Birds Ceyl. p. 592 ; Hume Cat. no. 85 quint. ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 167 j Oates in Hume's N. E. 2nd ed. ii. 
p. 201. 
Wcehcelaniya, Cing. 

Coloration. Bump and the shorter upper tail-coverts deep chest- 
nut ; with this exception, the whole upper plumage, wings, and 
tail glossy steel-blue ; sides of the head and whole lower plumage 
deep chestnut with narrow shaft-streaks ; terminal half of under 
tail- co verts black. 

Iris sepia-brown : bill deep brown, in some blackish, base of 
lower mandible reddish ; legs and feet vinous-brown (Legge). 

Length about 6-5 ; tail 3-3 ; wing 4 7 ; tarsus -55 ; bill from 
gape -6 ; bifurcation of tail 1-4. 

Distribution. Confined to Ceylon. A similar but very much 
larger Swallow (H. badia} occurs at Malacca. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds from March to June, constructing a cup-shaped 
nest of mud under bridges or in outhouses. The eggs are pure 
white, and measure about -85 by *56. 



MOTACILLTD^;. 285 



Family MOTACILLID.E. 

The intrinsic muscles of the syrinx fixed to the ends of the 
bronchial semi-rings ; the edges of both mandibles perfectly smooth 
except for the presence of a small notch in the upper near the tip ; 
the hinder part of the tarsus longitudinally bilaminated, the 
laminsc entire and smooth ; wing with nine primaries, the first and 
second nearly equal ; bill long and slender ; the longest second- 
aries reaching nearly or quite to the tip of the wing ; a complete 
autumn and a partial spring moult ; young not very dissimilar to 
the adult ; tail of twelve feathers ; rictal bristles present and fairly 
well developed ; sexes alike or nearly so ; tarsus slightly scutel- 
lated. 

The Motacillidce comprise the Wagtails and Pipits, birds of wide 
distribution, and, in nearly all cases, migratory. 

The Indian species of this family resemble each other very closely 
in structure, and there are few characters by which to divide them 
into genera. I shall content myself with making use of four 
genera, two of them being of large extent, and two restricted to a 
single species each. 

The Wagtails and Pipits are chiefly found on the ground ; a few 
species have the habit of flying up into trees when disturbed. 
They feed entirely on insects, and their deportment is very grace- 
ful. They have no great power of song. 

Key to the Genera. 

A. Upper plumage neither streaked iior mottled, 

but plain. 
a'. Middle pair of tail-feathera as long as the 

others, or longer MOTACILLA, p. 285. 

b'. Middle pair of tail-feathers abruptly 

shorter than the next, and of a markedly 

different colour LIMONIDROMUS, p. 300. 

B. Upper plumage streaked or mottled. 

c'. Tips of tail-feathers rounded and of nor- 
mal shape ANTHUS, p. 301. 

d'. Tips of tail-feathers sharply pointed OBEOCOBYS, p. 313. 



Genus MOTACILLA, Linn., 1706. 

The genus Motacilla contains the typical Wagtails, which are 
found over the whole of the Old World. 

In Motacilla the upper plumage is quite plain, being character- 
ized by an utter absence of all streaks, spots, or mottlings. The 



286 MOTAOILLIDJ5. 

sexes are alike or nearly so, and the difference between the sum- 
mer and winter plumage in most of the species is very striking. 
The Pied Wagtails are constantly undergoing a change of colour, 
and it is hardly possible to find two birds at the same date in 
the same state of plumage. This causes them to be very difficult 
to identify by any set description. The Yellow Wagtails do not 
undergo such complete changes as the Pied, but their similarity 
to each other is so great in winter and immature plumage, that 
their recognition is still more difficult. 

The Wagtails have the tail and wing of nearly equal length, and 
they have the habit of vibrating the former repeatedly. They fre- 
quent open land, fields, and the banks of rivers and ponds, some 
of the species of Yellow Wagtails being only found on marshy land. 
They construct their nests on or near the ground or in holes of 
walls and banks, and their eggs are much spotted with brown. 



Key to the Species. 

A. Hind claw much curved and shorter than 

hind toe (fig. 78). 
a'. Plumage black, white, and grey. 

a". Ear-coverts and sides of neck always 

white-washed. 
a'". No black streak through eye. 

a 4 . Greater wing-coverts merely mar- 
gined with white ; back never 

black M. alba, p. 287. 

6 4 . Outer webs of greater wing-coverts 
entirely white ; back black or dusky 

on the mantle M. leucopsis, p. 288. 

&'". A broad black streak through the eye. M. ocularis, p. 289. 
b". Ear-coverts and sides of neck always 

black. 
c" f . Forehead entirely white. 

c 4 Back always grey M. personate, p. 290. 

(P. Back black or with traces of black 

or dusky M. hodgsoni, p. 291. 

d'". Forehead with black of the crown [p. 291. 

produced to base of bill M. maderaspatensis, 

b'. Plumage largely yellow and green M. melanope, p. 293. 

B. Hind claw little curved and much longer than 

hind toe (fig. 81, p. 294). 
c'. Tarsus unmistakably shorter than one inch. 

c". Crown dark slaty grey; supercilium 

absent or obsolete ; cheeks blackish . . M. borealis, p. 294. 

d". Crown dark slaty blue ; supercilium 
very broad and distinct ; cheeks black- 
ish and ear-coverts streaked with white. M.flava, p. 295. 

e". Crown pale grey ; supercilium broad 

and distinct ; cheeks white M. beema, p. 296. 

/". Crown black; supercilium absent or 
obsolete; cheeks and ear-coverts deep 
black M.feldeggi, p. 297. 



MOTACILLA. 



287 



d'. Tarsus considerably longer than one inch. 

ff". Back always ashy grey M. citreola, p. 298. 

h" . Back either black or with some black or 

dusky feathers M. citreoloides, p. 299. 

826. Motacilla alba. The White W </(!/. 

Motacilla alba, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 331 (1766) ; Hume, Cat. no. 591 
ter ; Scully, S. F. vi'ii, p. 314 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 156 ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. M. x, p. 404. 

Motacilla dukhunensis, Sykcs, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 91 ; filyth, Cat. 
p. 137 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 349 ; Brooks, S. F. ii, p. 457, vii, 
p. 137 ; Hume, Cat. no. 59 Ibis ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 236. 
Dhobin, Hind. 




Figs. 77, 78, 79. Wing, foot, and head of M. alba. 

Coloration. In normal full summer plumage, the forehead, an- 
terior portion of crown, sides of the head and of the neck are pure 
white ; remainder of crown, nape, and hind neck, chin, throat, fore 
neck, and breast deep black ; upper plumage, scapulars, and lesser 
wing-coverts grey ; upper tail-coverts more or less black, margined 
exteriorly with white ; wing-coverts and tertiaries blackish, broadly 
margined with white ; primaries and secondaries black, narrowly 
margined wit h whitish ; the four middle pairs of tail-feathers 
black, the others nearly entirely white ; lower plumage from the 
breast downwards pure white. 

In normal winter plumage the chin, throat, and fore neck 
become white, and the black on the breast is reduced to a narrow 
crescentic patch, sometimes extending narrowly up the sides of the 
fore neck. 

The nestling is uniform greenish ashy above, and the lower 



288 MOTACILLIDJE. 

plumage is yellowish grey with indications of a pale pectoral 
crescent. 

After the first autumn moult, the young bird resembles the adult 
in normal winter plumage, but has the posterior part of the crown, 
the nape, and the hind neck grey like the back, and the white parts 
of the head tinged with primrose-yellow. 

The full summer plumage is probably assumed the first spring, 
except in the case of the females, which appear to be much longer 
than the males in acquiring the black on the crown, nape, and 
hind neck, these parts being at first a pale brown, and afterwards 
for some time black mottled with brown. 

Bill black, bluish below ; iris brown ; legs and claws dark brown 
or nearly black. 

Length nearly 8 ; tail 3*6 ; wing 3'5 ; tarsus '85 ; bill from 
gape -75. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the whole Empire, as far south 
in the peninsula of India as Belgaum, and in Burma as Moulmeiu. 
A few specimens of this species are occasionally killed in summer, 
and I have seen a July specimen from Sambhar. Indian birds of 
this species appear to winter in Northern Asia. The range of this 
Wagtail extends to Europe and Northern Africa. 

M. baicalensis is a race of M. alba with the wing-coverts almost 
entirely white. It inhabits Eastern Siberia, and in the British 
Museum there is a specimen said to have been killed in " India." 
No reliance can, however, be placed on this locality. 

M. persica is another race of M. alba, with the wing-coverts 
almost entirely white, and the black of the hind neck almost in 
contact with the black of the breast. It inhabits Persia. 



827. Motacilla leucopsis. The White-faced Wagtail. 

Motacilla leucopsis, Gould, P. Z. S. 1837, p. 78 ; Brooks, S. F. vii, 
p. 139 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 519 ; id. Cat. no. 590 ; Scully, S. F. viii, 
p. 313; Gates, B. B. i, p. 154; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 482; 
Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 235. 

Motacilla luzoniensis (Scop.) apud Blyth, Cat. p. 137 ; Horsf. fy M. 
Cat.'\, p. 348 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 218; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, 
p. 609. 

Motacilla felix, Swinh. P. Z. S. 1870, p. 121. 

Dhobin, Hind. ; Tangzlienfleu, Lepch. 

Coloration. In normal full summer plumage the whole upper 
plumage, scapulars, and lesser wing-coverts are deep black except 
the forehead and the anterior portion of the crown, which, with the 
sides of the head and neck, cheeks, chin, and upper throat, are 
pure white ; lower throat, fore neck, and upper breast deep black; 
remainder of lower plumage white ; median and greater wing-coverts 
entirely white except a small portion of the inner webs ; quills 
black, a large portion of the inner webs white and the outer webs 
margined with white ; the four middle pairs of tail-feathers black, 
the others white. 



MOTACILLA. 289 

In normal winter plumage the whole back, .scapulars, rump, and 
shorter tail-coverts become grey; the lesser wing-coverts grey 
mixed with black ; the black on the lower throat and fore neck 
gives place to white, and the black on the upper breast is reduced 
to a crescentic patch. 

The young in first plumage are like the adults in winter, 
but have the grey of the upper parts much paler and the crown, 
nape, and hind neck grey like the back ; the head and lower plumage 
are suffused with yellow and the black patch on the breast is very 
small and ill-defined. 

The summer plumage of the adult is probably assumed in the 
first spring, except in the case of the female, which appears to have 
the black of the crown and nape mixed with grey at first, probably 
during the whole of the first summer. 

Bill black, bluish below ; iris brown ; legs and claws dark brown 
or nearly black. 

Length nearly 8 ; tail 3-6 ; wing 3-5 ; tarsus -85 ; bill from 
gape '75. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the eastern portion of the 
Empire from Assam down to Central Tenasserim. The western 
limit of this species appears to be Nepal on the Himalayas and 
Mirzapur in the plains. It is also found in the Andamans. This 
Wagtail is found throughout Eastern Asia, breeding in Eastern 
Siberia and China. 

828. Motacilla ocularis. The Streak-eyed Wagtail. 

Motacilla ocularis, Swinh. Ibis, 1860, p. 55 ; id. P Z. S. 1870, p. 129 ; 
1871, p. 304 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 518 ; Hume, Cat. no. 591 
quat. ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 315 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 158 ; Sharpe, Cat. 
B. M. x, p. 471, pi. iv, figs. 5, 0. 

Coloration. In normal full summer plumage the forehead, 
anterior part of crown, a broad supercilium, cheeks, ear-coverts, 
and sides of the neck white ; remainder of crown and nape, a 
streak from the lores through the eye and over the ear-coverts, 
chin, throat, and upper breast black ; remainder of lower plumage 
white shaded with grey on the flanks ; upper plumage grey, turning 
to black on the upper tail-coverts ; lesser wing-coverts grey ; 
median coverts dark brown broadly tipped with white; greater 
coverts with the outer webs and a considerable portion of the inner 
white ; quills dark brown edged with white, the later secondaries 
very broadly so ; the two outer pairs of tail-feathers nearly entirely 
white, the others black. 

In normal winter plumage the chin and throat are white, and 
the black on the breast is reduced to a narrow crescent extending 
laterally along the sides of the throat. 

Young birds resemble the adults in winter plumage, but the whole 
forehead and crown are grey like the back and the white parts, 
especially of the head, are suffused with yellow. The eye -streak is 
less distinct and brown. 

VOL. II. U 



290 MOTACILLID^E. 

Bill black, plumbeous at the base ; iris browii ; legs and claws 
black. 

Length about 8 ; tail 3-8 ; wing 37 ; tarsus -95 ; bill from gape 
8 ; the dimensions of this species vary much. 

Distribution. A. winter visitor to the greater portion of Pegu and 
Tenasserim, where this species is abundant. It has been obtained at 
Dibrughar in Assam, in Manipur, and in Nepal, and may therefore be 
expected to occur throughout the whole eastern half of the Empire. 
This Wagtail has a very wide range, extending to China and 
Eastern Siberia and being occasionally observed in North America. 

M. lugens, from China and N.E. Asia, resembles M. ocularis, but 
has the back black in summer and the wings with an immense 
amount of white on them. The note of this species is a prolonged 
" Pooh." 



829. Motacilla personata. The Masked Wagtail. 

Motacilla personata, Gould, Bints As.iv, pi. 63 (1861); Hume $ 
Senders. Lah. to Yark. p. 224; Scully, 8. F. iv, p. 150; Hume, 
Cat., no. 591 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 68 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 451 ; 
Skarpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 479, pi. v, figs. 3, 4 ; Barms, Birds Bom. 
p. 236; Gates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 201. 

Motacilla dukhunensis. Sykes, apud Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 218. 

Motacilla cashmeriensis, Brooks, P. A. S. B. 1871, p. 210; id. J. A. 
S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 82 ; xliii, pt. ii, p. 250; id. S. F. ii, p. 456. 

The, Black-faced Wagtail, Jerd. ; Dhobin, Hind. 

Coloration. In normal summer plumage, the forehead, anterior 
portion of crown, the upper part of the lores, round the eye, and 
a broad supercilium are white ; remainder of the head, nape, hind 
neck, the neck all round, and the lower plumage from the chin to 
the upper breast black ; rest of lower plumage white ; upper 
plumage grey turning to black on the upper tail-coverts ; lesser 
wing-coverts grey ; median and greater coverts entirely white in 
the closed wing ; quills dark brown, the inner webs largely white 
and the outer margined with white ; the later secondaries with 
the outer webs almost entirely white ; the two outer pairs of tail- 
feathers white, the others black. 

In winter plumage, the chin and throat become white, but a 
black moustachial streak remains dividing the white of the throat 
from the white round the eye ; the ear-coverts are always black ; 
the feathers of the lower throat have their bases white. 

The young have the whole upper plumage dull grey, and throat 
and breast dull brownish ; the wings and tail are from the first 
very similar to the same parts in the adult. The black plumage 
of the head and neck is assumed very slowly and probably not 
completely till the second spring. 

Iris blackish brown ; legs, feet, and bill black (Butler). 

Length about 8 ; tail 3-6 ; wing 3'6 ; tarsus -9 ; bill from 
gape '65. 

Distribution. A winter visitor .to the whole of India proper down to 



MOTACILLA. 291 

Belgaum on the south and to Calcutta on the east. This species 
is a constant resident in Q-ilgit and probably other parts of Kash- 
mir. It extends west to Afghanistan and Persia and north to 
Turkestan and Central Asia. 

Habits, $c. Breeds in Afghanistan in May and June, constructing 
its nest near water under large stones and in similar localities. The 
eggs have not, however, been described. 

830. Motacilla hodgsoni. Hodyson's Pied Wagtail. 
Motacilla alboides, Hodgs. As. Res. xix, 191, part. (1836). 




AWt. J. A. 8. U. xl v, pt. 11, p. 81 ; Lume, (Jat. no. DtW bis j Scully, 
S. F. viii, p. 312 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 486, pi. v, figs. 1, 2 ; 
Oates in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 202. 



Motacilla maderaspatensis, Gmel. apud Anders. Yunnan Exped. 
Ares, p. 610. 

Coloration. In normal summer plumage resembles M. personata 
in every respect except that the whole back, rump, scapulars, and 
lesser wing-coverts are black. 

In normal winter plumage this species is hardly distinguishable 
from M. personata in winter plumage. The only apparent differ- 
ence, and it is very slight, is that in M. hodgsoni the grey of the 
upper parts is darker and frequently mottled with traces of black 
or brown on the shoulders and lesser wing-coverts. 

Bill and legs black; iris brown (Cockburn). 

Of the same size as M. personata. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the lower ranges of the 
Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam, extending through the Khasi 
hills, Cachar, and Manipur to the Salween district of Tenasserim. 
This species summers in the higher parts of the Himalayas and in 
Turkestan. A few birds seem to visit the plains of Eudia, where 
this species has been procured at Etawah for instance, but its range 
in the plains is distinctly eastern, just as that of M. personata is 
western. 

Habits, <$fc. Breeds in Kashmir about May, constructing its nest 
in holes under stones, among shingle and pebbles, and in heaps of 
driftwood and rubbish. The eggs are greyish white speckled with 
brown and grey, and measure about *78 by *62. 

A specimen of a Wagtail from Toungugoo in the British Museum 
cannot be referred to any known species. It resembles M. leucopsis 
in having the black of the upper breast divided off from the black 
of the hind neck by a band of white running down the side of the 
neck, but the ear-coverts are black. 

831. Motacilla maderaspatensis. The Large Pied Wagtail. 

Motacilla maderaspatensis, Omel. Syst. Nat. i, p. 961 (1788) ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 589 ; Legae, Birds Ceyl. p. 607 ; Sharp, Cat. B. M. x, 
p. 490 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 234 ; Oates, in Hume's N. fy E. 
2ad ed. ii, p. 202. 

02 



292 MOTACILLID^E. 

Motacilla inaderaspatana, Briss. apud Blyth, Cat. p. 137 ; Horsf. $ 

M. Cat. i, p. 347 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 217; Hume, N. fy E. p. 377. 
The Pied Wagtail, Jerd. ; Mamula, Bhuin Mamula, Khanjan, Hind. ; 
Sdkala sarela-gadu, Tel. 

Coloration. Male. A broad supercilium from the nostril to the 
end of the ear-coverts, the whole head, neck, upper plumage, and 
lesser and median wing-coverts black ; greater wing-coverts almost 
entirely white ; quills black, edged with white, the edging on some 
of the secondaries extending to half the outer web ; the middle 
four pairs of tail-feathers black, narrowly margined with white, the 
other two pairs white, with a small portion of the inner web black ; 
breast and lower plumage white, the sides of the breast and body 
infuscated. 




Fig. 80. Head of M. maderaspateiisis. 

Female. Appears to resemble the male, but the upper plumage 
is more or less tinged with grey. 

I cannot discover that there is any seasonal change of plumage 
in this species. 

The young bird has the same pattern of colour as the adult, but 
the black is everywhere replaced by greyish brown, the superciliuin 
in front of the eye is not indicated, and the white parts of the 
plumage are tinged with fulvous. In the first spring the change 
to adult plumage first takes place by the assumption of some black 
feathers on the head, and the full plumage is entirely assumed at 
the succeeding autumn moult. Some males retain a few white 
feathers on the chin and throat to a late period. 
Iris dark brown ; legs, feet, and bill black (Butler). 
Length about 9 ; tail 4-3 ; wing 3*9 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape 
8 ; the female is considerably smaller than the male, of which the 
above are average dimensions. 

Distribution. A permanent resident throughout India, from 
Kashmir and Sind on the west to Sikhiin and Western Bengal on 
the east, and from the lower ranges of the Himalayas down to 
Ceylon. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds throughout the plains of India, and also in 
the Himalayas up to 3000 feet, as well as in the hills of Southern 
India, up to 7000 or 8000 feet, constructing a nest of grass and 
various other materials in holes of banks, under stones, amongst the 
timbers of bridges, on roofs, and in other similar localities. The 
nest is merely a pad, or sometimes cup-shaped. The eggs, four in 



MOTACILLA. 293 

number, are dull white or pale greenish marked with brown of 
various shades, and measure about *9 by *66. 



832. Motacilla melanope. TJie Gray Wagtail. 

Motacilla melanope, Pall. Reis. Buss. EeicJis, iii, p. 696, (1776) ; 

Legge, Birds' Cei/l. p. 610 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 497 ; Oates in 

Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 207. 

Motacilla boarula, Linn. Mant. p. 527 (1771) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 137. 
Motacilla sulphiirea, Bechst. Nature/. DeutscJil. iii, p. 459 (1807). 
Calobates sulpliurea (Bechst. \ Horef. $ M. Cat. \, p. 349 ; Jerd. B. 

I. ii, p. 220 ; Hume 8f Senders. Lah. to Yark. p. 224. 
Calobates boarula (Penn.), apud Hume, N. Sf E. p. 381. 
Calobates melanope (Pall.), Hume, Cat. no. 592; Oates, B. B. i, 

p. 159 ; Barnes, Birds Bom, p. 237. 

The Gray and Yellow Wagtail, Jerd. ; Mudi-tippudu-jitta, Tel. 

Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the whole crown 
and sides of the head, the hind neck, back, scapulars, and lesser 
wing-coverts are bluish grey, tinged with green ; the rump and 
upper tail-coverts yellowish green ; the three middle pairs of tail- 
feathers black, margined with greenish ; the next two pairs white, 
with the greater portion of the outer webs black ; outermost pair 
entirely white ; median and greater coverts and quills dark brown, 
edged with yellowish white ; a narrow dull white supercilium from 
the lores to the end of the ear-coverts ; chin, throat, and fore neck 
white ; remaining lower plumage bright yellow, rather deeper on 
the vent and under tail-coverts. 

In the spring the lores become dark brown, and the supercilium 
becomes much broader and clearer ; the lower eyelid is clothed 
with whitish feathers, and the ear-coverts are dark slaty ; there is 
a very broad white moustachial streak extending down the sides of 
the neck ; and the chin, throat, and part of the fore neck are black, 
with small white edges to the feathers ; as the summer passes, 
these edges become worn but seldom entirely disappear. 

Female. After the autumn moult resembles the male ; and in the 
spring merely acquires two rows of dark brown spots, one on 
each side of the chin, throat, and fore neck, the two sometimes 
meeting like a gorget on the upper breast ; the colour of the lower 
plumage is less brilliant than that of the male. 

The young bird resembles the adult in winter plumage, but the 
white parts are strongly tinged with buff. 

Bill horn-colour, paler at the base of the lower mandible ; iris 
brown ; legs flesh-colour. 

Length about 7'5 ; tail 3-7 ; wing 3-2 ; tarsus '75 ; bill from 
gape -7 ; hind toe and claw -55. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to every portion of the Empire, 
retiring in summer to those parts of the Himalayas which are 
above 6000 feet elevation, where a few birds of this species may 
also be found in winter. In the winter this Wagtail extends down 
to Malayana. In summer it has a very large range over the 



294 MOTACILLID^;. 

greater part of Central and Northern Asia, and it is found in 
Europe. 

Habits, 6fc. Breeds in Kashmir ahove 6000 feet, and in 
Afghanistan in May and June, making a nest of moss and fibres 
under large stones, or sometimes in a bush. The eggs, usually five 
in number, are yellowish or brownish white, closely marked with 
yellowish brown, and measure about *7 by *54. 

833. Motacilla borealis *. The Grey-headed Wagtail. 

Motacilla flava borealis, Sundev. (Efv. K. Vet.-Acad. Fork. Stockh. 

1840, p. 53. 
Budytes viridis (Gmel.), apud Blyth, Cat. p. 138; Horsf. fy M. Cat. 

i, p. 350 ; Jerd. JB. I. ii, p. 222 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, 

p. 608 j Leffffe, Birds Ceyl.y. 617 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 161. 
Budytes cinereocapilla (Savi), apud Hume, Cat. no. 593 ; Brooks, 

J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 248 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 238. 
Motacilla borealis, Sundev. Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 522, pi. vii, 

figs. 1-3. 
The Indian Field-Wagtail, Jerd. ; Pilkya, Hind. 




Fig. 81. Foot of M. borealis. 

Coloration. Male. In normal winter plumage, on first arrival 
in India, the forehead, crown, nape, and hind neck are bluish grey, 
a few of the feathers with greenish tips ; the back, scapulars, and 
rump dull olive-green ; upper tail-coverts dark brown edged with 
olive-green ; the four middle pairs of tail-feathers black, narrowly 
edged with olivaceous ; the two outer pairs almost wholly white ; 
coverts and quills dark brown or black, margined with pale fulvous, 
sometimes with a greenish tinge ; lores, cheeks, and ear-coverts 
dark slaty black, the ear-coverts paling to bluish grey posteriorly ; 
the whole lower plumage yellow, tinged with ochraceous across the 
breast, and the feathers of that part with dark bases showing 
through, and giving the breast a mottled appearance ; traces of a 
white interrupted supercilium are frequently visible over the lores 
and ear-coverts, but these traces are quite absent in most birds. 

* I agree with Sharpe that Brown's figure of the Green Wagtail is quite 
unrecognizable, and that consequently Gmelin's name of viridis, founded on this 
figure, must be rejected. 



MOTACILLA. 295 

As the winter passes the upper plumage becomes worn and 
browner iu colour, and the black bases of the breast-feathers larger 
and more distinct. 

After the spring moult the forehead, crown, nape, and hind 
neck are dark slaty grey ; the back, scapulars, and rump yellowish 
green ; the upper tail-coverts dark brown, with greenish margins ; 
the wings and tail as in winter, but with the margins of the 
feathers of the former decidedly yellow ; lores, cheeks, round the 
eye, and the ear-coverts black; traces of a narrow supercilium 
sometimes present ; the whole lower plumage very bright yellow, 
with concealed black bases to the feathers of the breast ; these 
bases become more conspicuous as the summer passes. 

Female. In winter does not differ from the male ; in summer it 
has the upper green parts duller, the crown and nape very faintly 
tinged with slaty, and almost concolorous with the green back, the 
lower plumage less brilliant yellow, with the mottlings on the 
breast more developed, the lores, cheeks, and ear-coverts brown, 
not black, and the supercilium generally slightly developed and 
of a pale fulvous colour. As the summer goes on, the head 
becomes greyer owing to the green tips wearing away. 

The young bird on first arrival in India has the entire upper 
plumage greyish brown, tinged with blue on the rump ; the upper 
tail-coverts black, edged with grey ; tail and wings as in the adult, 
but with the margins of the wing-feathers very pale and almost 
white ; a very broad and nearly white supercilium ; lores and ear- 
coverts greyish brown ; lower plumage white, with a row of brown 
spots on either side of the throat, meeting and forming a gorget 
across the breast. 

During the winter a series of changes are undergone, tending to 
make the young resemble the adult, and the full plumage appears 
to be assumed by the first spring. 

Iris brown ; bill blackish brown, the base of the lower mandible 
yellowish ; legs, feet, and claws dark horn-colour. 

Length about 7 ; tail 3'1 ; wing 3-2 ; tarsus -9 ; bill from 
gape -7. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to every portion of the Empire 
except the higher parts of the Himalayas, where this species is only 
found on migration. It occurs in winter in the Malay Peninsula. 
In summer it ranges to Northern Siberia, and it is also found 
according to season over a considerable portion of Europe and 
Africa. 

The true M. cinereicapilla, a closely allied species, is confined to 
Southern Europe and portions of Africa. 

834. Motacilla flava. The Blue-headed Wagtail. 
Motacilla flava, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 331 (1706) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 

x, p. 516, pi. vi, figs. 3-5. 
Budytes flava (Linn.), Hmne, Cat.uo. 593 ter (part.) ; Gates, B. B. i, 

p. 162. 
Budytes beema (Syfas), Hume, S. F, x, p. 227 note. 



296 MOTACILLIDjE. 

Coloration. Besembles M. borealis very closely in general appear- 
ance at all seasons and with regard to both sexes, but may be recog- 
nized : the male by having the crown darker slaty blue, the ear- 
coverts streaked with white, the chin and a moustachial streak 
bordering the nearly black cheeks white, and by the presence of a 
large and pure white supercilium extending from the nostril to the 
nape : the female by the darker green of the upper plumage, the 
presence of white streaks on the ear-coverts, and the large distinct 
white or pale fulvous supercilium. 

The dimensions and the colour of the soft parts are the same as 
those of M. borealis. 

An allied species, M. taivana, Swinhoe, from China and the 
Malay peninsula, is extremely likely to be found in Burma. In 
this species the crown is green, concolorous with the back, and the 
supercilium, which is very broad and distinct, is bright yellow. A 
specimen of a "Wagtail in the Hume Collection killed at Howrah, 
Calcutta, would appear to belong to this species, but unless sup- 
ported by other specimens it would be premature to pronounce it 
such. 

Distribution. Occurs in winter in the eastern portion of the 
Empire. I have examined unmistakable specimens of this species 
procured at various localities ranging from Shi Hong on the Khasi 
hills to the extreme south of Tenasserim. I have also seen it from 
the Andamans and Mcobars. Hume (S. E. xi, p. 232) gives this 
species from Cachar and Dibrugarh in Assam. This Wagtail in 
winter is found in China and the countries to the south and in 
summer in Siberia. A precisely similar bird is found in Europe 
and Africa, but it is probable that the two colonies meet on com- 
mon ground in Northern Asia in summer and take two different 
routes in the autumn when preceding to their winter-quarters. 



835. Motacilla beema. The Indian Blue-headed Wagtail. 

Motacilla beema, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 90 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, 

p. 521, pi. yi, fig. 6. 
Budytes dubius vel anthoides, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 83 

( Lo44 ), 

Budytes flava (Linn.), Brooks, J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 248 ; Hume, 

Cat. no, 593 ter (pt.) ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 239. 
Budytes dubius, Hodgs., Brooks, S. F. vii, p. 139 (1878). 

Coloration. Eesembles M. flava at all seasons and in both sexes, 
but may be distinguished from that species by the colour of the 
cheeks, and of the lower half of the ear-coverts, which are white 
and not dark slaty blue or black, and further by the extreme pale- 
ness and purity of the bluish grey of the forehead, crown, and nape. 

The dimensions and colour of the soft parts in this species are 
the same as those of M. flava. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the plains of India as far south 
as Belgaum, ranging from Sind to the longitude of Calcutta. 
I have examined specimens of this Wagtail from Calcutta itself, 



MOTACILLA. 297 

but from no point further east. This species is found on the lower 
ranges of the Himalayas in winter and it extends at that season to 
Afghanistan. It passes through Kashmir on migration and sum- 
mers in Central Asia and Southern Siberia, but does not apparently 
extend so far north at this season as to meet with M.flava. 



836. Motacilla feldeggi. TJte Black-headed Wagtail. 

Motacilla melanocephala, Licit. Vcrz. Doubt, p. 36 (1823), nee 

Gmetin. 
Motacilla feldeggi, Michah., Isis, 1830, p. 814; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 

x, p. 527, pi. viii, figs. 1-4. 
Budytes melanocephala (Sykes), Blyth, Cat. p. 138 ; Horsf. fy M. 

Cat. i, p. 351. 
Budytes melanocephala (Bonap.}, Brooks, J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, 

p. 248. 
Budytes melanocephala (Licht.}, Hume, Cat. no. 593 bis ; Barnes, 

Birds Bom. p. 239. 

Coloration. Kesernbles M. borcalis in general style of coloration, 
but in summer plumage and in both sexes the forehead, crown, 
nape, hind neck, lores, cheeks, and ear-coverts are deep black. The 
chin and a band below the cheek are usually, but not always, 
white. There is occasionally a slight trace of a white superci- 
liurn. 

In winter plumage the two species are very much alike, but the 
crown in M.fddeycji is generally concolorous with the back and 
not bluish grey, and in the male there is always a certain duski- 
ness about the coronal region, and not un frequently a few black 
feathers which suffice to indicate the species. 

The young of both species appear to resemble each other closely, 
but it appears that in M. feldeggi there is seldom or never a well- 
marked supercilium as in the young of M. borcalis, M.flava, and 
M. beema. 

The dimensions and colours of the soft parts are the same as in 
M. borealis. 

Owing to Lichtenstein having bestowed on this bird a name 
previously given by Gmelin to a very different species it seems 
advisable to follow Sharpe and discard the term melanocephala, not- 
withstanding that Gmelin's name has been shown to be applicable 
to Sylvia melanocephala. The greatest confusion has prevailed 
regarding these Yellow Wagtails and the adoption of an unused 
name, from which a new start may be taken for any one "Wagtail, 
is to be hailed with satisfaction. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the plains of India as far south 
as Belgaum, and east to Benares. This species passes through 
Kashmir on migration and summers in Central Asia. It extends 
to Southern Europe and North-east Africa. 

M. ctttHjH-Kti'Is, Pall. (Budytes rayi, auct.), has been recorded 
doubtfully from India, but I cannot find any trustworthy instance 
of its occurrence within Indian limits and I accordingly exclude it. 



298 MOTACILLID^E. 

This bird much resembles M. citreola, but is much yellower above, 
the entire head seldom becomes uniform yellow as in that species, 
and there is never any black band on the mantle. 



837. Motacilla citreola. The YeUoiv-headed Wagtail 

Motacilla citreola, Pali. -Em. JRuss. EeicJisj iii, p. 696 (1776) ; 
Sharps j Cat. B. M. x, p. 503. 

Budytes citreola (Pall.), Blyth, Cat. p. 138 ; Hvrsf. # M. Cat. i, 
p. 352 (pt.) ; Brooks, J. A. S. B. xli, pt, ii, p. 82 ; Scully, S. F. iv, 
p. 151 ; Hume, Cat. no. 594 bis ; Biddidpli, Ibis, 1881, p. 69 : 
Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 452; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 241. 

? Budytes calcarata, Hodc/s., As. Res. xix, p. 190 (1836); Hume, 
S. F. vii, p. 401. 

Coloration. In normal winter plumage the sexes are alike. The 
forehead, a broad supercilium, the sides of the head, and the whole 
lower plumage are yellow, the ear-coverts more or less streaked 
with dusky and with a blackish line bordering them below ; lores 
dusky ; the sides of the throat and breast with more or less con- 
cealed black bases to the feathers ; the upper plumage ashy grey, 
tinged with green on the head; the wings dark brown, the coverts 
and tertiaries very broadly edged with white, the other quills 
narrowly ; tail black, the two outer pairs of feathers nearly entirely 
white. 

In summer plumage the sexes are also alike except that the fe- 
male is slightly paler ; the entire head and neck become deep yellow, 
the feathers of the crown with tiny black tips which soon wear off; 
entire lower plumage the same deep yellow ; the yellow on the 
hind neck is bounded by a broad black band and the upper plumage 
is tinged with bluish ashy ; the other parts remain unchanged. 

The young bird is ashy brown above with very narrow paler 
margins to the feathers ; a very broad pale fulvous supercilium, 
bordered above, on the sides of the crown, by a black band ; lores 
and ear-coverts streaked with dusky and fulvous ; the lower plumage 
a very pale fulvous with a gorget of black spots down the sides of 
the throat and across the upper breast ; wings and tail as in the 
adult. The young bird probably assumes the adult plumage at the 
first spring moult. 

Bill, legs, and claws black ; iris dark brown (Binyham). 

Length about 7 ; tail 3*3; wing 3-5; tarsus 1*05; bill from 
gape -8 ; hind claw '5. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the greater portion of the Em- 
pire, descending in India to about the latitude of Belgaum and 
in the eastern part of the Empire as far as Manipur. This bird 
summers in Central and Northern Asia, and it also occurs in 
Europe. 



MOTACILLA. 299 



838. Motacilla citreoloides. Hodgson's Yellow-headed Wagtail. 

Budytes citreoloides, Hodgs., Gould, Birds As. iv, pi. 64 (1865) ; 

Hume fy Henders. Lah. to Yark. p. 224. 
Budytes citreola (Pall.), Horsf. Sf M. Cat. i, p. 352 (pt.) ; Jerd. B. 

//ii, p. 225. 
Budytes calcaratus (Ifodgs.), Brooks, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 82 ; 

tioliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p, 244; Hume, N. $ E. p. 382 ; 

Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 609 ; Hume, Cat. no. 594 ; Bid- 

dnlph, Ibis, 1881, p. 60 ; Scully, Ibis. 18ftl, p. 452; Gates, B. B. i. 

p. 163; Barnes, Birds Horn. p. 240. 
Motacilla citreoloides (Hodys.), SJitir/ie, ('(ft. B. M. x, p. 507 ; Gates 

in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 208. 

The Yellow-headed Wa</iail, Jerd. ; Pani-ka-pilkya, Hind. 

Coloration. Kesembles M. citreola, but in summer has the entire 
back, scapulars, rump, and upper tail-coverts deep black. In the 
winter months the two species are very close to each other, but 
M. citreoloides has generally a few black or dusky feathers on the 
upper plumage, by which it may be infallibly recognized. It is 
pretty certain that the two sexes of this species are alike in 
plumage, but reliably sexed females are very scarce in collections. 

The young do not appear to differ in any respect from those of 
M. citreola. 

The dimensions and colours of the soft parts are the same as in 
M. citreola. 

This species and the preceding cannot always be separated from 
each other, but they can always, even in their youngest stage, be 
separated from the other yellow Wagtails by the greater length 
of the tarsus. 

Both this species and M. citreola occur in Nepal and Hodgson 
procured a large series of the two. It is not clear to me to which 
species he assigned the names of calcaratus and citreoloides, but 
Gould identified the latter name with the present species and 
figured the bird. It is therefore convenient to discard calcaratus 
altogether as being unnecessary and adopt citreoloides of Hodgson, 
apud ' Grould, Birds of Asia/ 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the southern slopes of the 
Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam, extending on the west to Af- 
ghanistan. This species also visits the plains of India, and I have 
examined specimens procured at Sainbhar, Etawah, and Calcutta, 
but from no point further south. Stoliczka, however, records it 
from Cutch, and Dr. Fairbank from Khandala. On the east its 
range extends from Assam down to Northern Teuasserim and Pegu. 
A few birds of this species apparently breed in Kashmir, but the 
majority retire to Central Asia. 

//>tf>its, $c. Little is known of the nidification of this Wagtail. 
Theobald found the nest in Kashmir in May, in a depression in 
soft earth beneath a rock, with four eggs, which were pale grey 
marked with greyish brown and greyish neutral tint, and measured 
about -95 by 7. 



300 MOTACILLIDjE. 

Genus LIMONIDROMUS, Gould, 1862. 

The genus Limonidromus contains one species of Wagtail some- 
what resembling the Pied Wagtails in colour, but the whole upper 
plumage is suffused with green. The structure of the tail in this 
genus is peculiar, inasmuch as the middle pair of feathers is very 
markedly shorter than the others and of a different colour. The 
sexes are quite alike. 

The Forest- Wagtail is found in well-wooded parts of the country 
and frequently runs about under the shade of trees. On being 
disturbed it has the habit of perching on a branch. It wags its 
tail incessantly and does not differ from the other Wagtails in its 
general habits. 

839. Limonidromus indicus. The Forest- Wagtail. 

Motacilla indica, Gmel Syst. Nat. i, p. 962 (1788). 

Nemoricola indica (Gm.), Ulytft, Cat. p. 136; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, 

p. 353 ; Jerd. B. 1. ii, p. 226 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, 

p. 48. 
Limonidromus indicus (Gm.), Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 364 ; Lecjc/e, 

Birds Ceyl. p. 614; Hume, Cat. no. 595; Sharpe, Cat. B. M.'x, 

p. 532 ; Gates, B. B. i, p. 164 ; Barnes, Birds Bom, p. 241. 
The Black-breasted Wagtail, Jerd. ; Uzhalla-jitta, Tel. 




Fig. 82. Head of L. indicus. 

Coloration. Plumage above dull olive-green, the tail-coverts 
dark brown or sometimes black ; ear-coverts and lesser wing-coverts 
also olive-green ; a supercilium from the bill over the eye to the 
nape, the cheeks, chin, throat, and all the lower plumage yellowish 
white ; two black bands across the breast, the upper one entire, 
the lower one broken in the middle ; median and greater wing- 
coverts black, with broad yellowish- white tips forming two bands 
across the coverts ; quills brown, the second to the seventh primaries 
with a patch of yellowish white on the outer web near the base ; 
all the primaries and secondaries with an abrupt margin of 
yellowish white near the tip on the outer web ; tertiaries brown, 
broadly tipped with olive-green ; middle pair of tail-feathers 
similar to the back ; the next three pairs dark brown ; the next 
pair brown with a large white tip ; and the outer pair all white, 
except at their base, where they are brown. 

Irides nearly black; upper mandible dusky brown, lower 
mandible fleshy white ; legs and feet purplish white ; claws horny 
white (Armstrong). 



AKTIIUS. 301 

Length about 6-5 ; tail 2-7 ; wing 3*1 ; tarsus -85 ; bill from 
gape '75 ; hind toe and claw '6. 

Distribution. A somewhat rare winter visitor to all parts of the 
Empire except the portion lying west of a line drawn roughly 
from the Sutlej valley to the head of the Gulf of Cambay. This 
species extends to Ceylon and is also found in the Andamans. In 
winter it ranges down the Malay peninsula to the larger islands 
and eastward to Siain and Southern China. In summer this 
Wagtail retires to Northern China and Eastern Siberia. 



Genus ANTHUS, Bechst., 1807. 

The genus Anihus contains the Pipits, which may be recognized 
by their streaked upper plumage and comparatively short tail. 

The Pipits are found over nearly the entire world. They 
resemble each other greatly in their pattern of colour, and con- 
sequently they are difficult to describe, and in fact long descriptions 
of them are useless, their identification depending entirely on a 
few characters which are easily learnt. Each species is very con- 
stant to one type. The young are very much spotted beneath and 
these spots become reduced in size and number at each successive 
spring moult and in a few species disappear altogether, the lower 
plumage in these adults becoming uniform. The difference be- 
tween summer and winter plumage in the Pipits is very slight, 
and in my opinion it is useless attempting to treat the two plum- 
ages as distinct, although some authors do so. I have, therefore, 
only described the bird in its fresh autumn plumage. In summer 
this plumage becomes abraded and faded, and the black marks on 
the upper plumage more pronounced. Those Pipits which have 
bright colours about the head and breast assume this colour slowly 
and permanently and not seasonally. 

The Pipits frequent the ground, but a few species occasionally 
perch on trees and even run along the larger boughs in pursuit of 
insects. They build their nests on the ground and lay eggs which, 
like those of the Wagtails, are much spotted with brown. The 
sexes are invariably alike. 



Key to the Species. 

n. Hind claw not exceeding hind toe in length. 
a'. Pale tip of inner web of penultimate tail- 
feather very small, less than a quarter 
the length of feather; next feather 
never tipped. 

a". Streaks on lower plumage large and 
black, well defined ; light parts of 
tail-feathers white. 

'". Upper plumage brown with very 
large streaks ; supercilium fulvous 
throughout A. trivialis, p. 302. 



302 MOTACILLIDJE. 

6'". Upper plumage suffused with green 
with small ill-defined streaks : 

supercilium white posteriorly .... A. maculatus, p. 304. 
b". Streaks on lower plumage narrow and 
brown; light parts of tail-feathers 
pale rufous. 
c'". Upper plumage dark brown j streaks 

on breast well defined A. cockburnice, p. 305. 

d'". Upper plumage ashy brown ; streaks 

on breast ill defined A. similis, p. 306. 

b'. Pale tip of inner web of penultimate tail- 
feather large, about one third the length 
of feather ; next feather with a distinct 

tip A. nilyiriensis, p. 305. 

b. Hind claw exceeding hind toe in length, 
c' Sides of body plain or very obsoletely 

streaked, 
c". General colour of lower plumage sandy 

buff or fulvous. 
e"'. Breast spotted or streaked. 

a 4 . Upper plumage brown with broad 

dark centres to the feathers. 
a 5 . Wing 3 '5 or more. 

a G . Tarsus 1-2 to 1 '3 A. richardi, p. 307. 

6. Tarsus 1 to M A. striolatus, p, 308. 

I s . Wing about 3 A. rufulus, p. 308. 

6 4 . Upper plumage sandy with faint [p.O). 

centres to the feathers. A. campestris, juv., 

/"'. Breast plain A. campestris, ad., p. 309. 

d". General colour of lower plumage vin- 
ous A. spinoletta, ad., p. 312. 

d'. Sides of body coarsely streaked with 

black or dark brown. 
e". Axillaries and under wing-coverts 

yellow A. rosaceus, p. 311. 

/". Axillaries and under wing-coverts 

whitish or brownish. 

*/'". Throat and breast cinnamon-red . . A. cervinus, ad., p. 310. 
h'". Throat and breast whitish or pale 

fulvous. 
c 4 . Streaks on breast very broad, black 

and well defined. 

c 5 . Upper plumage black with ful- 
vous margins A. cervinus, juv., p. 310. 

d : \ Upper plumage olive-brown with 

darker centres to the feathers . A.japontcus ) jii\ r .,p. 312. 
d*. Streaks on breast narrow, pale 

and ill-defined A. spinoletta, juv., p. 312. 

840. Anthus trivialis. The Tree-Pipit. 

Alauda trivialis, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 288 (1766). 

Alauda plumata, P. L. S. Mull. Natursyst. Suppl p. 137 (1776). 

Anthus arboreus, Bechst. Nattirg. DeutschL iii, p. 706 (1807) ; Horsf. 

# M. Cat i, p. 354. 

Anthus agilis, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 91 ; Brooks, S. F. iv, p. 278. 
Dendronanthus trivialis (Linn.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 135. 



303 



Pipastea arborous (Bechst.), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 229 ; Hume $ Renders. 

Lah. to Yark. p. 226. 

Pipastea plumatus (Miill.), Hume, N. $ E. p 383. 
Anthus trivialis (Linn.), Hume, Cat. no. 507 j Skarpe, Cat. B. M. x, 

P- 043; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 242; Gates in Hume's N. * ^. 2nd 

t ed. ii, p. 208. 

Pipages trivialis (Linn.\ Oates, B. B. i, p. 172. 
The European Tree-Pipit, Jerd. 




Figs. 83, 84. -Head and foot of A. trivialis. 

Coloration. Upper plumage sandy brown with large black streaks 
or centres to the feathers except the rump and upper tail-coverts 
which are very faintly marked ; coverts and quills of wing dark 
brown margined with pale fulvous ; tail dark brown with narrow 
pale margins, the outermost feather about half white, the white 
and brown meeting diagonally ; the penultimate feather with a 
small white tip ; a pale fulvous supercilium : sides of the head 
mixed brown and fulvous ; lower plumage white tinged with ful- 
vous; a short black moustachial streak ; the whole breast and the 
sides of the throat with large, well-defined black streaks; the 
sides of the body tinged with olivaceous and indistinctly streaked. 

The young bird after the autumn moult resembles the adult, but 
is tinged with bright fulvous, especially on the throat and breast. 

Iris dark browu ; legs and feet flesh-colour ; bill dark brown 
above, pale brown below tipped with dusky. 

Length about 6'5 ; tail 2-7 ; wing 3*5 ; tarsus '85 ; bill from 
gape '0 ; hind claw about '3. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the western portions of the 
Empire. Judging from the specimens I have examined this species 
is found as far south as Belgauin and as far east as Manbhoom 
in Chutia Nagpur. Many years ago Hume identified a Pipit I 
sent to him from Pegu as this species, but I remember that the 
skin was a very bad one and I think it not improbable that some 
mistake was made regarding it. This bird winters in South- 
western Asia and in Africa, and summers in Europe and Northern 
Asia. A few birds of this species appear to breed in the Hima- 
layas. 

Habits, ^v. A nest supposed to belong to this Pipit wa> a 
circular, shallow saucer, made of grass, lined with a few hairs 
and placed on the ground at the foot of a tuft of grass. It \\ a> 
found at Kotgarh in May and contained three eggs, which were 
greyish white, marked with dull purple and purplish brown, and 
measured about -85 by -63. 



304 MOTACILLID^!. 

Anthus pratensis (Linn.), the Meadow-Pipit, is not unlikely to 
be found in the north-western parts of the Empire. It bears a 
close resemblance to A. trivialis, but may be recognized at once 
by its long hind claw. 

841. Anthus maculatus, The Indian Tree-Pipit. 

Anthus maculatus*, Hodys. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 83 (1844) ; 

A. Anderson, S. F. iii, p. 353 ; Hume, Cat. no. 596; Sharpe, Cat. 

B. M. x, p. 547; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 242; Oates in Hume's 
N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 209. 

Dendronanthus maculatus (Hodys.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 135. 
Anthus agilis, Sykes, Horsf. Sf M. Cat. i, p. 354 (nee Sykes). 
Pipastes agilis (Sykes), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 228 ; Hume. N. & E. 

p. 382. 
Pipastes maculatus (Hodys.}, Brooks, S. F. iii, p. 250 ; Anders. 

Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 608 j Scully, S. F. viii, p. 316 ; Oates, 

B. B. i, p. 171. 

Liku-jitta, Tel. 

Coloration. Resembles A. trivialis, but has the whole upper 
plumage strongly suffused with green, and the streaks and centres 
to the feathers much narrower and less well-defined ; the super- 
cilium is pale fulvous anteriorly and white posteriorly. 

In the summer the green tinge is much subdued, and the super- 
cilium becomes very white and distinct. 

Bill bluish black, darker above, and yellowish at base of the 
lower mandible ; iris brown ; legs and feet flesh-colour. 

Generally smaller than A. trivialis, the wing being seldom so 
much as 3*3, and frequently under 3-2 ; tail 2-5 ; tarsus '85. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the plains of the greater portion 
of the Empire, being found as far west as the Sutlej valley in the 
Himalayas and Kajputana and Gruzerat in the plains. This species 
appears to breed in considerable numbers on the higher ranges of 
the Himalayas. To the south this Pipit extends down to the Palni 
hills, and probably to Cape Comorin. Its winter range extends 
to China and Cochin China. In summer it is found in Siberia, 
North China, and Japan. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds in the higher parts of the Himalayas (7000 
to 12,000 feet) from May to July, constructing a nest of moss or 
grass on the ground under the shelter of a tussock of grass, and 
laying four eggs, which are thickly marked with dark brown and 
dingy purple, and appear to measure about '93 by *68. 

This species and the preceding frequent gardens and localities 
which are well wooded, feeding on the ground and flying up to a 
branch when disturbed. They are somewhat social in the winter. 
The males of both are fine songsters in the breeding-season . 



* Hodgson never described this species himself, and I should reject this 
name were a prior one available, which there is not. 



\vmis. 305 

MJ. Anthus nilgiriensis. The .\i/</iri ri t it. 

Anthus riifr.-rnis*, J vr <l. Math: Jt/rn. L. S. xi, p. 34 (1840). 
Anthus UK >nl 5m MS *, Jerd., Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 435 (1847) ; id. 

Cat. p. 136; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 4(51 : id. Cut. no. 598; Davison, 

S. F. x, p. .W. 
Pipastes montanus (Jerd.), Jerd. If. I. ii, p. 230 ; Hnmr, N. 8f E. 

p. 383 ; Fairbank, S. F. v, p. 407. 
Anthus nilofhiriensis, Sharpe, Cat. B. J/. x. p. 550 (1885) : Oates in 

l[,<mJs N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 211. 

The Hill Tree-Pipit, Jerd. 

Coloration. Upper plumage fulvous, tinged with olivaceous, each 
feather broadly streaked or centred with black, except on the ruinp, 
w r here the marks are brown and less distinct; wings blackish mar- 
gined with fulvous; tail black, edged with olivaceous, the t\v<> 
outer pairs of feathers dull white on the terminal half or third of 
their length, the next pair with a dull white tip ; a light rufous 
supcrcilium ; lores brown ; sides of head mixed rufous and brown ; 
lower plumage tawny fulvous, the sides of the neck, the whole 
breast, and the sides of the body with short, narrow, but very 
distinct and well-defined black streaks. 

Upper mandible dull black, apical half of lower mandible dark 
fleshy ; iris deep brown ; legs and feet fleshy ; claws pale brown 
(Davison). 

Length nearly 7 ; tail 2'6 ; wing 3*1 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape 
7 ; hind claw about '35. 

Distribution. The higher parts of the Nilgiri and Palni hills in 
Southern India, where this Pipit is a permanent resident. 

Habits, &fc. Breeds on the Nilgiris above 6000 feet in May, 
making a nest of grass under shelter of a tuft or bush. The eggs 
are greenish brown mottled with a darker sliadc, and measure about 
85 by -6. 

843. Anthus cockburniae, The Itufous ]li H -k-l*ipit. 

Anthus similis, Jerd. 111. 2nd. Orn. pi. 45 (1847), nee Madr. Jonrn. 

L. S. (1840). 

Agrodroma cinnamomea (Itiipp.), apud Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 235. 
Agrodruma similis, Jerd., Hume, N. $ E. p. 385 ; Fairbank, S. F. 



i\. p. 260; Hume, Cat. no. 603; Darison, S. F. x, p. 397; 
liii-ds Bom. p. 246. 
Anthus sordidus, Itiipp., apud Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 5CO ; Oates 
in Hume's N. Sf E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 212. 

Coloration. Upper plumage dark brown, the feathers nnrrowh 
margined with fulvous ; wings brown, broadly edged with bright 
fulvous; tail Mack margined with fulvous, the outermo-t frail r 



* Neither of the names given by Jerdon to this species can stand, as the first 
had previously hem implied by Ti inniinck, and the second by Koch, to other 
species of Pipits. 

VOL. II. X 



306 MOTACILLID^:. 

with the outer web and the terminal half of the inner pale rufous ; 
the penultimate feathers tipped with pale rufous ; supercilium and 
lower plumage fulvous or sandy buff ; a narrow black moustachial 
streak ; the breast with small, narrow, but very distinct triangular 
brown streaks. 

Iris wood-brown ; upper mandible black ; lower mandible fleshy, 
with the tip blackish ; tarsus reddish fleshy, the feet darker ; claws 
dark reddish brown ; gape yellow (Davison). 

Length about 8 ; tail 3-1 ; wing 3'7 ; tarsus 1*1 ; bill from gape 
9 ; hind claw "35. 

There has been much confusion regarding the name of this Pipit. 
It has been identified with two names of Riippell's, but wrongly 
so. Jerdon figured it as A. similis in his ' Illustrations,' and in 
the accompanying letterpress confounded it with that species. As 
there is, so far as I can ascertain, no specific term that applies to 
the present species, I have much pleasure in connecting this fine 
Pipit with the name of Miss Cockburn, a lady who has for so many 
years successfully worked the Nilgiri hills, and whose specimens 
enrich the Hume Collection. 

Distribution. A permanent resident in the Nilgiri hills, on the 
higher portions of which this Pipit appears to be not uncommon, 
frequenting grassy land and occasionally perching on bushes when 
disturbed. This species appears to extend some distance north, as 
the Hume Collection contains a specimen obtained at Ahmednagar 
by Dr. 1'airbank. 

Habits, $'c. A nest of this species was found in the Nilgiris by 
Miss Cockburn in March. It was placed under a shelving rock, 
and was composed of fine grass. The eggs are creamy white densely 
speckled with yellowish brown and purplish grey, and measure 
about *85 by *65. 

844. Anthus similis. The Brown Rock-Pipit. 

Agrodroma similis, Jerd. Madr. Journ. L. S. xi, p. 35 (1840). 
Anthus similis (Jerd.), Blyth } Cat. p. 135 (pt.) ; &or*f. fy M. Cat. i, 

p. 356. 
Agrodroma sordida (Riipp.'), apud Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 236 ; Hume, 

J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 119; Hume, Cat. no. 604; Barnes, 

Birds Bom. p. 246. 
Agrodroma jerdoni, Finsch, Trans. Z. S. vii, p. 241 (1870) ; Hume 

& Renders. Lah. to Yark. p. 227, pi. xxi ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 386 ; 

id. S. F. i, p. 203 ; Butler, 8. F, iii, p. 491. 
Corydalla griseorufescens, Hume, Ibis, 1870, pp. 286, 400. 
Anthus jerdoni (Finsch}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 562 ; Oates in 

Hume\ N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 212. 

Coloration. Upper plumage ashy brown, the feathers narrowly 
edged with fulvous, and with dark shaft-streaks ; wings brown, 
broadly edged with bright fulvous ; tail brown or black margined 
with fulvous, the outermost feather with the outer web and the 
terminal half of the inner pale rufous; the penultimate pair of 
feathers tipped with pale rufous ; supercilium and lower plumage 



ANTHUS. 307 

fulvous or sandy buff, the breast with a few ill-defined and pale 
brown streaks. 

Iris dark brown ; legs and feet yellowish flesh ; bill dark brown 
above, flesh-colour below (Hume Coll.). 

Length about 8*5 ; tail #6 ; wing 4'1 ; tarsus 1*1 ; bill from 
gape *9 ; hind claw about *45. 

This species very closely resembles A. sordidus, Riipp., from 
Palestine, Arabia, and Africa, but is much larger and more brightly 
coloured than that bird. 

Agrodroma similis of Jerdon was founded on a single specimen, 
the locality of which was not mentioned in the original description, 
but was subsequently, in the ' Illustrations of Indian Ornithology/ 
stated to be Jalna. In the 'Birds of India' the Jalna bird was 
referred to A. sordida, the name there adopted for the present 
species. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the plains of the north-west of 
India, extending to the east as far as the Sikhim terai and Mughal 
Sarai, and to the south as far as Jvhandesh, Jalna, and Nagpur. 
This Pipit retires in summer to the Himalayas, where it breeds 
from Hazara to Sikhim, up to about 6000 feet elevation. The range 
of this bird extends to Afghanistan, Baluchistan, and Persia. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds at Murree and in Afghanistan, below 
6000 feet, from May to July, making a rough nest of grass on a 
hill-side, and laying four eggs, which are brownish or greyish white 
marked with brown and purple, and measure about '85 by '63. 

845. Anthus richardi. Richard's Pipit. 

Anthus richardi, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxvi, p. 491 (1818) ; 

Blyth, Cat. p. 135 j Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 355 j Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 

x, p. 5G4. 
Corydalla richardi (Vieill.), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 231 ; Brooks, S. F. i, 

p. 358 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 606 ; Hume, Cat. no. 599 ; 

Legge, Birds Ceyl p. 621 j Gates, B. B. i, p. 166. 

The Large Marsh-Pipit, Jerd. ; Pulla puraki, Meta kdlie, Tam. 




Fig. 85. Foot of A. rwhardi. 

Coloration. Upper plumage fulvous-brown, llir leathers centred 
with blackish, the rump more uniform; wings dark hrmvn mar- 

x ^ 



308 MOTACILLID^E. 

gined with fulvous ; tail dark brown, with pale margins, the outer- 
most feather almost entirely white, the penultimate with an oblique 
portion of the inner web, about an inch and a half in length, also 
white; superciliuni and lower plumage pale fulvous, the sides of 
the throat and fore neck and the whole breast streaked with dark 
brown ; sides of the body darker fulvous, with a few indistinct 
streaks. 

Bill brown, yellowish at the base of lower mandible ; mouth 
yellow ; iris brown ; legs flesh-colour ; the claws darker. 

Length about 7*5 ; tail 3-4 ; wing 3'7 ; tarsus 1*2 ; bill from 
gape '85 ; hind claw about -8. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the whole of the Eastern part 
of the Empire from Assam to Tenasserim, extending along the 
Himalayas as far west as the Sutlej valley, and southwards through 
Bengal and Chutia Nagpur along the eastern side of India to 
Ceylon. In winter this species is found in China on the one side 
and in Europe on the other. It summers in Central and Northern 
Asia. 

846. Anthus striolatus, ElyiKs Pipit. 

Oichlops thermophilus, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 83 (1844, 

desc. nulla). 
Anthus striolatus, Bhjth; J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 435 (1847) ; id. Cat. 

p. 136 j Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 61 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, 

p. 568. 

Anthus thermophilus (Hodgs. \ Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 356. 
Corydalla striolata (Blyth), Jerd. B. 1. ii, p. 233 ; Brooks, S. F. i, 

p. 359 ; Hume, Cat. no. 601 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 628 ; Oates, 

J3. B. \, p. 167 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 245. 

The Large Titlark, Jerd. 

Coloration, llesembles A. richardi, but is considerably smaller, 
the tarsus and feet being conspicuously smaller, and the hind claw 
hardly longer than the hind toe ; the amount of white on the 
penultimate tail-feathers is much less, varying from half to a whole 
inch in length. 

Length about 7 ; tail 3 ; wing 3'5 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape "75 ; 
hind claw *5. 

Distribution. Occurs in every portion of the Empire from the 
Himalayas to Ceylon and the extreme south of Tenasserim, winter- 
ing in the plains and retiring to the higher parts of the Himalayas 
for the summer. This species is, however, met with in the plains 
up to a very late date (June), and a few pairs may breed in suit- 
able localities. Blanford observed this Pipit as high as 15,000 feet 
in Sikhim in October. Its nest has not yet been discovered. 



847. Anthus rufulus. The Indian Pipit. 

Anthus rufulus, Vieill Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxvi, p. 494 (1818) ; 
Blyth, Cat. p. 135 Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 356 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 
x, p. 574 ; Oates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, p, 213. 



ANTIIUS. 309 

Anthus ciunamomeus, ltiij>]). Xexe Wirb., Vb'yel, p. 103 ( 1 *'!">). 
Anthus malayensis, Eyton, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 104; Horxf. # M. Cat. 

i, p. 357. 
Corvdalla nifula (Jleill.), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 232 ; Hume, N. Sf E. 

p. 384 ; hi Cat. no. 600 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 317 ; Legge, Birds 

Cryl. p. 625 ; Oales, B. B. i, p. 168 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 214. 
Corvdalla malayensis (Eyton), Hume < Dav. S. F. vi, p. 366 ; Hume, 

Cat. no. 600 bis. 
Corydalla ubiquitaria (Hodgs.}, apud Anders. Yunnan E.rped., Aves, 

p. 607. 

The Indian Titlark, Jerd. ; Rugel, Chachari, Hind. ; Gurapa-madi jitta, 
Tel. ; Meta kdlie, Tarn. 

Coloration. An exact miniature of A. richardi, from which this 
species differs in nothing but size. It has, however, a proportion- 
ally larger bill. 

Bill dark brown, yellowish at the base of lower mandible ; iris 
brown ; legs flesh-colour ; claws brownish. 

Length about 6-5 ; tail 2-4 ; wing 3 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape 
7") ; hind claw -5. 

Distribution. A permanent resident in every portion of the 
Empire and Ceylon, ascending the Himalayas to about 6000 feet. 
This species has not yet been found in the Andamans or Nicobars, 
but probably occurs there. It extends through the Malay peninsula 
and islands to Lombock and Timor and it is largely distributed in 
Africa. 

Habits, $c. Breeds all over the Empire (up to 6000 feet in the 
Himalayas) from March to July and perhaps later. The nest is a 
small structure of grass placed on the ground under shelter of a 
tuft of grass or clod of earth. The eggs, three in number, are 
brownish or greenish stone-colour, thickly marked with brown and 
purplish red, and measure about '8 by *6. 

848. Anthus campestris. The Tawny Pipit. 

Alauda campestris, Linn. sv/.f. Nat. i, p. 288 (1766). 

Anthus campestris (Linn.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 136; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 

x, p. 5i il). 
Agrodroma campestris (Linn.}, Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 234; Hume, S. F. 

\, p. 202 ; id. Cat. no. 602 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 245. 
The Stone-Pipit, Jerd. ; Chillu, Hind. 

Coloration. The fully adult bird is pale sandy brown above, 
with darker centres or streaks to all the feathers except those of 
the rump ; wings dark brown, margined with bright sandy buff ; 
tail black, the outermost iVaihrr \\ith the terminal half obliquely 
white, the penultimate with an oblique patch of white about an 
inch in length ; lores and sides of the head mixed brown and fulvous ; 
a broad supercilium and the whole lower plumage sandy buff or 
fulvous entirely inmuirked. 

Tin- vtuini; bii'd has the upper plumage darker, a row of brown 
spots down each side of the throat and the whole breast sln-ak.-d 



310 MOTACILLID^. 

with rather well-defined brown marks and a few indistinct streaks 
on the sides of the body. At each spring moult the streaks become 
reduced in number and ultimately disappear. 

Iris blackish brown ; bill dark horny brown above, pale flesh 
below ; legs and feet pale yellowish flesh (Batter}. 

Length about 7*5 ; tail 3; wing 3-5 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape '8 : 
hind claw -45, very slightly longer than hind toe. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the plains of the north-west 
portion of India, ranging to Ahinednagar on the south and to 
Manbhoom and Mughal Sarai on the east. At this season this 
species ranges westwards to Northern Africa. It summers in 
Europe, Central Asia, and Siberia. 



849. Anthus cervinus. The Red-throated Pipit. 

Motacilla cervina, Pall. Zooi/r. Ross.-Asiat. i, p. 511 (1811). 
Anthus cervinus (Pall.}, Hume, S. F. ii, p. 239 ; Hume ty Dav. S. F. 

vi, p. 367 ; Hume, Cat. no. 605 bis ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 169 ; Sharpe, 

Cat. B. M. x, p. 585. 

Coloration. The fully adult has the whole upper plumage black 
with fulvous or pale rufous margins to all the feathers ; wings and 
tail dark brown, edged with pale fulvous, the outermost tail-feather 
diagonally white on the terminal two thirds of its length, the 
penultimate with a small white tip ; a distinct supercilium, cheeks, 
chin, throat, and upper breast vinous or cinnamon-red, the breast 
with a few black streaks ; sides of the breast densely streaked ; 
remainder of lower plumage fulvous, suffused with pink, the sides 
of the body densely and coarsely streaked with black ; lores and 
ear-coverts vinous-brown ; under wing-coverts and axillaries buff. 

The young bird has the upper plumage, wings, and tail like the 
adult ; the supercilium indistinct and fulvous ; lores and ear-coverts 
rufous-brown ; the whole lower plumage fulvous, the chin, throat,and 
cheeks unspotted, a broad black band down each side of the throat, 
the whole breast and sides of the body with very broad black streaks ; 
middle of abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts unmarked. 

At each successive spring moult the young bird acquires more 
and more vinous on the head and breast and probably becomes fully 
adult in three years. 

Iris brown ; bill dark brown, the gape and base of lower mandible 
yellowish ; legs yellowish flesh-colour ; claws horn-colour. 

Length about 6-5 ; tail 2-4 ; wing 3'3 ; tarsus -9 ; bill from 
gape '65 ; hind claw '45. 

Distribution. A common winter visitor to the eastern part of the 
Empire from Assam down to Tenasserim, extending along the 
Himalayas to Gilgit and Kashmir. This Pipit is also found in the 
Andamans in winter. At this season it ranges west to North-east 
Africa and East China and the Malayan islands. It summers in 
Northern Europe and Siberia. 



ANTHUS. 311 

850. Anthus rosaceus. IMf/sons Pipit. 

Anthus rosaceus vel rufogularis, Hodys. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 83 
(1844, descr. nulla). 

Anthus cervinus (Pa//.), apud Blyt.h, Cat. p. 130 ; Jerd. B. I. i, 
p. 237. 

Anthus roseaceus, Hodys., Horsf. Sf M. Cat. i, p. 357. 

Anthus rosaceus, Hodys., Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 61 ; Brooks, 
J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 83 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 386 ; id. S. F. ii, 
p. 241 ; Brooks, S. F. iii, p. 252 ; Hume, Cat. no. 605 ; Scully, 
S. F. viii, p. 317 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 170 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, 
p. 589 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 236 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. 
ii, p. iMii. 
The Vinous-throated Pipit, Jerd. 

Coloration. The fully adult bird has the upper plumage dark 
brovvii or blackish, the feathers broadly margined with olivaceous 
brown ; wings dark brown, margined with olivaceous and the 
median coverts broadly tipped with the same ; tail dark brown, 
half the outermost feather diagonally white, the penultimate with 
a triangular white tip ; lores dusky ; ear-coverts brown streaked 
with yellowish ; a broad supercilium, chin, throat, fore neck, and 
middle of the breast vinous-pink ; sides of the breast vinous pink- 
grey, streaked with black ; remainder of lower plumage pale fulvous, 
the sides of the body boldly and coarsely streaked with black ; 
axillaries and under wing-coverts yellow ; during the summer the 
green tinge on the upper plumage fades away and is almost entirely 
absent. 

The young bird has the axillaries and under wing-coverts yellow 
as in the adult, but has no trace of vinous-pink on the head and 
breast. The upper plumage, wings, and tail are as in the adult, 
and the whole fore neck and breast are thickly and coarsely streaked 
with black. The amount of streaking diminishes at each successive 
spring moult and the amount of pinkish grey acquired increases. 

Bill dusky, blackish on culmen and fleshy brown at base of lower 
mandible ; iris dark brown ; feet brownish fleshy ; claws dusky 
(Scully). 

Length about 6-5 ; tail 2'8 ; wing 3'6 ; tarsus -9 ; bill from 
gape '75 ; hind claw -4. 

Distribution. Found in winter on the lower slopes of the Hima- 
layas from Kashmir to Assam and in the plains of the Punjab and 
N.W. Provinces, extending on the east down to Manipur and, 
according to Blyth, to Arrakan. This species is found in summer 
on the higher parts of the Himalayas from 12,000 to 15,000 feet, 
and at this season it appears to be found also in Western China 
and probably in Turkestan. Westwards it extends to Afghanistan. 

//I>its, <$fc. There is little authentic information regarding the 
nidification of this Pipit. A nest found in Nepal in May \\ ;i> ;i 
pad of grass phu-rd on the ground and contained two eggs. An 
egg from Uarjiling is described as being greyish white, marked with 
earthy brown, and as measuring -85 by '6. 



312 MOTACILLID JE. 

851. Anthus spinoletta. The Water-Pipit. 

Alauda spinoletta, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 288 (1766). 

Anthus &a\iatic(l8,Bechst. Naturg. Deutschl. iii. p. 745 (1807) : Scully, 
8. F. iv, p. 152. 

Anthus blakistoni, Swink. P. Z. S. 1863, pp. 90, 273 ; id. Ibis, 1867, 
p. 389 ; Hume, S. F. v, p. 345 ; id. Cat. no. 605 quat. ; Brooks, 
8. F. viii, p. 484 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 70 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, 
p. 453; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 237 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 244. 

Anthus neglectus, Brooks, Ibis, 1876, p. 501 ; Hume, S. F. v, p. 345. 

Anthus spinoletta (Linn.), Hume, Cat, no. 605 ter ; Barnes, Birds 
Bom. p. 243. 

Anthus spipoletta (Linn.}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 592. 

Coloration. The adult has the upper plumage ashy brown, with 
the feathers streaked or centred darker ; the wings brown mar- 
gined with pale fulvous ; tail brown, the outermost feather with 
the terminal half obliquely white, the penultimate tipped white ; 
lores and sides of the head rufous ; supercilium and the whole 
lower plumage uniform fulvous or vinous. 

The young bird has the upper plumage, wings, and tail like the 
adult; the supercilium and lower plumage pale isabelline, with 
narrow ill-defined pale brown streaks on the fore neck and breast, 
and streaks of the same kind, but much larger, on the sides of 
the body. 

Iris brown ; bill, legs, feet, and claws black (Bine/ham'). 

Length about 6-5; tail 2-7; wing 3*5 ; tarsus '85; bill from 
gape -7 ; hind claw -4. 

This Pipit varies much in size and colour of plumage, and an 
attempt has been made to establish two species on these variable 
characters. After examining a very large series of these birds col- 
lected in all parts from Europe to China, I am quite unable to 
discover any grounds for separating the Chinese and Indian bird 
(A. blakistoni) from the European (A. spinoletta). It is note- 
worthy that nearly all the Pipits of this species procured in the 
North-west Provinces of India have the wing under 3'3 in length, 
whereas European birds have it 3-6 on the average. In the Pun- 
jab, however, the large and small birds are met with together, and 
birds of intermediate si/e occur everywhere. Chinese birds have 
the wing 3*4 The alleged differences of striation on the upper 
and lower plumages are apparently merely matters of age. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to Sind, the Punjab, and the North- 
west Provinces, the whole of Kashmir and the Himalayas as far 
east as the Sutlej valley. This Pipit ranges into Europe on the 'one 
hand, and into China on the other. It appears to breed in Northern 
and Central Asia. 

852. Anthus japonicus. The Eastern Water-Pipit. 

Anthus pratensis japonicus, Temm. fy tSchley. Faun. Japon., Aves, 

p. 59, pi. 24 (1850). 
Anthus blakistoni, Swinh., apud Butler, S. F. yii, p. 177. 



OREOCORYS. 313 

Antlms liulovicianus (Gincl. ), <t/>t<f/ Iro<>1;s, .V. F. viii, p. 48o ; Hume, 

-V. F. xi, p. i>:',s. 
Antlms japoiiicus, Trmw. <y S-///^., S/iarpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. o!>*\ 



Coloration. The adult of this species appears to be of a uniform 
unspotted vinous colour below, but I have been unable to examine 
anv but young birds. 

The young bird as usually found in India is ashy brown above, 
tinged with green, all the feathers except those of the rump and 
upper tail-coverts centred darker ; the wings blackish margined 
with fulvous white ; the tail dark brown margined paler, the outer- 
most feather with the terminal half obliquely white, the pen- 
ultimate with the inner web broadly tipped white ; sides of the 
head brown and fulvous ; a supercilium and the whole lower plum- 
age pale fulvous, every portion of the latter except the chin, throat, 
and middle of the abdomen streaked with very wide coarse black 
streaks, those on the breast being particularly large. 

Legs and feet brown ; bill black ; iris blackish brown (Butler}. 

Length about 6*5; tail 2-6; wing 3'5 ; tarsus *85; bill from 
gape -65 ; hind claw -4. 

Distribution. Undoubted specimens of this Pipit are in the 
British Museum from Karachi, Mooltan, and Darjiling, killed in the 
winter months ; a specimen from Nepal and another from Um- 
balla in indifferent order appear to be referable to this species. 
This Pipit winters in China and Japan, and apparently summers 
in Eastern Siberia and Kamtschatka. 

Anthus pennsylvanicus, Lath., of North America is an allied 
species. It differs in having the lower plumage in all stages of the 
young very fulvous, and in having the streaks on the breast narrow, 
well-defined, and detached from one another. 

Anthn* (justavi, Swinhoe, from China, Northern Asia, and other 
parts, is very richly streaked with black above on a bright fulvous 
ground, and the breast and sides of the body are streaked with 
Ion" well-defined black streaks. 



Genus OREOCORYS, Sharpe, 1885. 

Tin 1 only Pipit belonging to this genus is remarkable for the 
pointed shape of the tail-feathers. Otherwise it does not differ 
from the true Pipits. 

The Upland Pipit is confined to the higher parts of the Hima- 
layas, where it is found on grassy slopes. 

853. Oreocorys sylvanus. The Upland Pipit. 

Heterura sylvana, Hodys., Blylh, J. A. S. B. xiv. p. -V>.; ( IM/i) ; id. 

P. Z. S. 1845, p. ;j:ii /;//////, Ctrl. p. 1:14; ,hnl. li. I. ii, p. 239; 

Ball, V. F. iii, p. 207: Brooks, 8. F. iii, p. 2~>i ) : Hume, A. # E. 

p. 387 ; /</. Cat. Qo. (i()C. : ,S<-//////, S. F. viii, p. 318. 
Oreocorys sylvanus (Hodys.), Sh(tr/>c, Cut. B. M. x, p. 022; Oatv* in 

ffmme't N. # E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 217. 



314 



MOTACILLTD^E. 



Coloration. The whole upper plumage, wings, and tail blackish 
brown, each feather margined with rich rufous buff, the terminal 
two thirds of the outermost tail-feather diagonally white, the 
penultimate feather with about an inch of white at the tip, the 
next feather with a narrow white tip, the next tipped very faintly 
at the extreme tip ; an indistinct pale fulvous supercilium ; sides 
of the head pale fulvous streaked with blackish ; chin and throat 
white, bounded on either side by a narrow black moustachial 
streak ; fore neck, breast, sides of the body, vent, and under tail- 
coverts buff streaked with black, the streaks on the breast more or 
less triangular, those on the other parts narrow and long ; abdomen 
unspotted pale fulvous. 




Fig. 86. Tail of 0. sylvanus. 

In the summer the rufous margins on the upper plumage and 
the triangular marks on the breast become much worn away. 

Upper mandible blackish brown ; lower mandible, legs, and feet 
fleshy, tip of lower mandible and claws shaded dusky ; iris dark 
brown (Hume). 

Length about 7 ; tail 3 ; wing 3'2 ; tarsus *95 ; bill from gape 
8 ; hind claw '35. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Murree to Nepal, where this 
species appears to be a permanent resident. A specimen in the 
Hume Collection is stated to have been obtained at Etawah in the 
plains, but probably there is some error. 

Habits, &fc. Breeds on the Himalayas from 4000 to 8000 feet 
about May and June, making a shallow open nest of grass on the 
ground under a tuft of grass or a stone, and laying four or five eggs, 
which are whitish marked with red and purple, and measure 
about -9 bv 68. 



ALAUDID;E. 



315 




Fig. 87. Alauda arvensis. 



Family ALAUDID.E. 

The intrinsic muscles of the syrinx fixed to the ends of the 
bronchial semi-rings ; the edges of both mandibles perfectly smooth, 
except for the presence of a notch in the upper mandible : the 
hinder part of the tarsus transversely scutellated ; the front part 
of the tarsus also scutellated ; wing of nine or ten primaries ; tail 
of twelve feathers ; one moult a year, in the autumn ; plumage of 
the nestling spotted ; sexes usually alike ; rictal bristles well- 
developed ; head usually crested ; hind claw usually long. 

The Alaudidce or Larks form a group of birds which bear a close 
general resemblance to the Pipits, but which differ from them, as 
well as from all other Indian Passeres, in having the hinder part of 
the tarsus transversely scutellated. 



316 ALAUDID^E. 

The Larks have only one moult a year, but many undergo a 
seasonal change of plumage through casting off the margins of the 
feathers in spring. The variations of colour produced by this, 
combined with the plain coloration of many of the species, render 
the study of the Larks rather difficult. Specimens of Larks killed 
at the same time of the year should therefore be compared with 
each other. Some of the Larks are subject to much variation in 
size as well as in colour. 




Fig. 88. Foot of Alcemon desertorum, to show scutellations on 
hinder part of tarsus. 

The Larks for the most part frequent open plains and cultivated 
land, but some are found only in arid deserts, and others again 
affect the borders of woods. They generally sing whilst soaring in 
the air, and their song is always agreeable and in many cases fine. 
Many are migratory, others are resident or very locally migratory. 
They are generally sociable and occasionally gregarious. The} r 
all breed on the ground, constructing a slight grass nest in a hol- 
low, and their eggs are marked with brown. 

I have had the great advantage of studying the Larks with 
Mr. Bowdler Sharpe, who was engaged at the time in writing the 
Catalogue of these birds. "We have in every case arrived at the 
same conclusions with regard to each species, and the only point 
on which I subsequently found reason to differ from him was in 
the suppression of the genus Spizalauda. 



Key to the Genera. 

a. Nine primaries, the first reaching to 

about tip of wing-. 
'. A tuft of pointed feathers springing 

from each side of crown. OTOCOBYS, p. 319. 

b'. No tuft of pointed or other feathers 

springing from side of crown, 
a". The longer secondaries or tertiaries 

reaching- to about tip of wing. . . . CALANDRELLA, p. 327. 
b". The longer secondaries or tertiaries 
falling short of tip of wing by a con- 
siderable interval ALAUDULA, p. 330. 



\ i. I:MON. 317 

b. Ten primaries, the first minute. 

c. First primary large, considerably 

exceeding the primary-coverts. 
c". Bill as long as, or longer than, the 

head, and very slender ALJEMON, p. 317. 

d". Bill much shorter than the head, 

aud thick. 
a'". Nostrils not covered by plumelets, 

but clearly visible . .". MIRAFRA, p. 332. 

b'". Nostrils quite concealed by dense 

plumelets AMMOMANKS, p. 339. 

d'. First primary very small, not exceeding 

the primary-coverts. 
e" . Crest, if any, short, and covering the 

whole crown. 

c'". Hind claw long and straight. 
a\ Wings reaching nearly to tip of 
tail ; tertiaries falling short of 
tip of wing by more than 

length of tarsus MKLANOCORYPHA, p. 322. 

b 1 . Wings falling short of tip of tail 
by a considerable distance ; 
tertiaries falling short of tip of 
wing by less than length of 

tarsus ALAUDA, p. 324. 

d'". Hind claw very short and curved. PYRRHULAUDA, p. 341. 
f . Crest consisting of a few very 
elongate feathers, springing from 
centre of crown GALERITA, p. 336. 



Genus AL-EMON, Keys. & Bias., 1840. 

The genus Alcemon contains one Indian Lark of large size which 
is found in the desert tracts of Sind as a permanent resident. 

In Alcemon the bill is very long and slender, and gently curved 
on its terminal half, aud the nostrils are fully exposed to view. 




Fig. 89. Head of A. 

The first of the ten primaries of the whig is small, but exceeds 1h<> 
primary-coverts. The toes and claws are very short, and the 
latter are very stout. The sexes are quite alike. 



318 ALAUDID^. 

The Desert-Lark is said to run with great speed. The male at 
the breeding-season rises about fifty feet, and sings a short song of 
a few notes, after which he descends and perches on a bush, prior 
to reaching the ground. 



854. Alaemon desertorum. The Desert-Lark. 

Alauda desertorum, Stanley in Salt's Exped. Abyss. App. p. Ix 

(1814). 
Certhilauda desertorum (Stanl.), Blyth, Cat. p. 133 ; Horsf. # M. 

Cat. ii, p. 464 ; Jerd. B. I. u, p. 438 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, 

pt. ii, p. 248 ; Hume, Cat. no. 770 ; Doiff, S. F. ix, p. 281 ; Barnes, 

Birds Bom. p. 284. 
Alaemon desertorum (Stanl.), Hume, S. F. \, p. 216 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. 

M. xiii, p. 519 ; Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 219. 

Coloration. Upper plumage isabelline grey, tinged with ashy on 
the forehead and upper tail-coverts, which latter have dusky shafts ; 
middle pair of tail-feathers sandy brown, very broadly margined 
on both webs with bright fulvous ; the other tail-feathers black, 
narrowly margined with fulvous, the outermost feather with a well- 
defined white margin occupying half the outer web ; wing-coverts 
brown, with broad fulvous margins, some of the greater coverts 
tipped white ; primary-coverts black, tipped with white ; the first 
few primaries black, with white bases; the remaining primaries 
and secondaries white, with a black spot on the outer web, and a 
portion of the shaft also black ; tertiaries like middle pair of tail- 
feathers ; feathers immediately next the nostrils fulvous ; a black 
streak through the lores, with a white band above and below, the 
lower band continued under the eye ; a black band behind the eye, 
with a broad pale fulvous supercilium above it ; cheeks and ear- 
coverts bright fulvous, divided by a blackish patch ; chin and throat 
white ; fore neck and breast pale fulvous, with large black spots ; 
remainder of lower plumage white, the flanks shaded with brown. 

Legs and feet china-white ; iris brown ; bill horny brown above, 
darkening at the tip ; lower mandible fleshy (Butler}. 

Size extremely variable, the female being apparently much 
smaller than the male. Length 8*5 to 11 ; tail 3*3 to 4 ; wing 
4'5 to 5'5 ; tarsus 1*2 to 1*3 ; bill from gape about 1*4. 

Distribution. A permanent resident in Sind and Cutch, 
extending west through Afghanistan and Persia to Arabia and 
North-eastern Africa, and ranging in a modified form through 
Northern Africa. 

Habits, Sfc. This Lark affects the desert and runs like a Plover. 
Stoliczka observed it on tracts of mud in the Eann of Cutch. It 
breeds in May and June, making a small nest of grass on the sand, 
and laying three eggs which are greyish white, marked with 
yellowish brown, and measure about 1'02 by '74. 



OTOCORTS. 319 



Genus OTOCORYS, Bonap., 1838. 

The genus Otocorys contains the Horned Larks, three species of 
which are found at considerable altitudes in the Himalayas. They 
occur in flocks, and at the breeding-season the males are said to rise 
in the air, and sing in the same manner as the Sky-Lark. 

The Horned Larks have a few lengthened feathers springing 
from each side of the crown in both sexes. The bill is of median 
length, and the nostrils are densely covered by plumes ; the wing has 
nine primaries, of which the first reaches nearly to the tip of the 
wing ; the hind claw is straight and about as long as the hind toe. 
The sexes are slightly different in colour, and both sexes undergo 
a considerable variation of plumage according to season, caused by 
the gradual wearing away of the margins of the feathers in winter 
and spring. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Black of the side of the head connected with 

black of breast O. penicillatn, p. 319. 

b. Black of the side of the head divided from 

black of breast by a white band. 

a'. Wing about 5 ; bill at front "55 to '6 O. l&nyirostris, p. 320. 

b'. Wing about 4'5 ; bill at front '4 to '45 O. elwesi, p. 321. 



855. Otocorys penicillata. Gould's Honied Lurk. 

Alauda penicillata, Gould, P. Z. S. 1837, p. 126. 

Otocorys penicillata (Gould), Blanf. E. Pers. ii, p. 240; Biddulph, 

Ibis! 1881, p. 89 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 580 ; BiMidph, Ibis, 1882, 

p. 285 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 530. 

Coloration. After the autumn moult the feathers at the base of 
the upper mandible and the lores are deep black ; the forehead, a 
broad supercilium, the posterior part of the ear-coverts, the chin, 
and upper throat are dull yellow ; anterior part of crown black, 
each feather broadly margined with vinous ; coronal horns black, 
with pale tips ; upper plumage ashy brown, the crown, mantle, and 
upper tail-coverts with the major portion of the feathers rich 
vinous, imparting a tinge of this colour to those parts ; the rump 
and upper tail-coverts with blackish shaft-streaks ; middle tail- 
feathers dark brown, margined with paler brown ; the other 
feathers black, narrowly margined paler, the outermost feather 
more broadly margined with pure white ; wing-coverts brown, 
margined with ashy and washed with vinous; primaries and 
secondaries dark brown, narrowly margined with whitish ; tertiaries 
like the middle pair of tail-feathers ; cheeks, anterior part of ear- 
coverts, sides of throat, fore neck, upper breast, and sides of the 
neck deep black, each feather margined with yellowish ; remainder 



ALAUD1D/E. 



of lower plumage white, washed w r ith vinous on the breast and 
sides of the body. 

Soon after the autumn moult the yellow parts of the head become 
pure white, and the black parts lose all their fringes and become 
deep black ; the crown, mantle, and upper tail-coverts become deep 
vinous, and the whole of the upper plumage and wing-coverts 
become more or less tinged with this colour ; the coronal horns 
become very distinct and deep black. 




Fig. 90. Head of 0. penicillata, 

The female has no black band on the front part of the crown, 
the whole crown being streaked with black ; the black on the other 
parts of the head is much duller, and there never is any trace of 
vinous or pink on the plumage, except perhaps immediately after 
the autumn moult ; the black patch on the fore neck and breast is 
somewhat smaller, and the streaks on the upper plumage are more 
pronounced. 

Iris deep reddish brown ; bill blackish above, bluish grey below ; 
tarsi and upper surface of toes (in May) black in the male, dusky 
in the female ; claws the same ; soles of feet whitish (Blanford}. 

Length about 8 ; tail 3'3 ; wing 4-6 ; tarsus '9 ; bill from gape 
75 ; the female is considerably smaller. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to Gilgit, where this species is 
found at a height of about 5000 feet. Biddulph procured this 
Lark on the Shandur plateau, where it no doubt breeds. It ranges 
north into Turkestan, and west into Asia Minor. 



856. OtOCOrys longirostris. The Long-billed Horned Lark. 

Otocorys longirostris, Gould, Moore, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 215, pi. 3; 
Horsf. & M. Cat. ii, p. 470 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 431 ; Hume, Cat. 
no. 764;' Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 581; Biddulph, Ibis, 1882, p. 285: 
Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 536. 

Coloration. Very similar to 0. penicillata, but differing in having 
the white of the throat passing under the cheeks and ear-coverts 
and merging into the pale colour of the side of the neck, thus 
isolating the black on the fore neck and upper breast ; the pre- 
sent species is also much larger and the feathers of the upper 



OTOCORYS. 321 

surface have, in the worn summer plumage, very much larger and 
more conspicuous dark shaft-streaks. The pale parts of the head 
are at all seasons white, never yellow. 

The colours of the soft parts of this Lark do not appear to have 
been recorded. 

Length about 8-5 ; tail 3-7 ; wing 5 ; tarsus '95; bill from gape 
8 ; bill at front '55 to *6. 




Fig. 91. Head of 0. longirostris. 

Distribution. The higher parts of the Himalayas from Kashmir 
and Laduk down to Kumaun, extending into the adjoining parts of 
Tibet. This species appears to be found only at very high altitudes. 



857. Otocorys elwesi. Elwes's Horned Lark. 

Otocorys penicillata (Gould), Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 469 j Jerd. B. 

I. ii,p. 429; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 422; id. Cat. no. 763. 
Otocorys elwesi, Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 62 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. 

M. xiii, p. 534 ; Oates in Hume's N. 8? E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 220. 
Otocorys longirostris, Gould, apud Hume 8f Henders. Lah. to Yark. 

p. 267. 
The Horned Lark, Jerd. 

Coloration. Of the same coloration as 0. longiroslris. The 
present species differs in its much smaller size ; its conspicuously 
smaller bill ; in the large amount and intensity of the vinous or 
pink tinge, which suffuses the whole of the upper plumage and 
wings ; and in the small extent and paler tone of the streaks on the 
back and rump. 

The nestlings of this and other species of Otocorys have the whole 
upper plumage fulvous, each feather with a subterminal black bar 
and a white tip; the wing-feathers are all broadly margined with 
fulvous ; lower plumage pale yellowish wliite, spotted with brown 
on the throat, fore neck, and breast. The adult plumage is assumed 
at the first autumn moult. 

Bill black above, pale near the base below ; legs black ; soles of 
feet yellowish (Stanford). 

Length less than 8; tail 3'4 ; wing 4'3 to 4'8 ; tarsus *9 ; bill 
from gape '7. 

VOL. II. T 



322 ALAUDID^l. 

This species is easily distinguished from 0. longirostris by the 
characters pointed out above, the best of which are the smaller bill 
and general smaller size. 

Distribution. A permanent resident in the highest parts of the 
Himalayas from Sikhim toLadak, extending into Central Asia from 
Turkestan to Mongolia and China. Blauford met with this species 
in Sikhim at nearly 18,000 feet elevation. 

Habits, fyc. Some eggs, presumably of this Lark, found in Native 
Sikhim are described as being greyish white freckled and mottled 
all over with pale olive-brown and purplish grey and as measuring 
about -89 by '64. 



Genus MELANOCORYPHA, Boie, 1828. 

The genus Melanocorypha contains the Calaudra Larks, which 
are birds of heavy build and large size. One of the Indian species 
is found only on the highest parts of the Himalayas, but the other 
is found in the cultivated parts of the plains. 

The Alpine species has a much longer bill than the lowland species 
and has hardly any trace of the black pectoral patches which 
characterize the Calandras. It has also a much longer and a 
straighter claw. It is, however, hardly advisable to place the two 
in separate genera as there are many points of resemblance between 
them. 

In Melanocorypha the bill is thick and gently curved and the 
nostrils are covered by plumelets ; the wing has ten primaries, the 
first of which is very minute, and the wing is very long, reaching, 
when folded, nearly to the tip of the tail ; the hind claw is very 
long and straight. The sexes are alike or nearly so. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Wing about 6 and largely white M. maxima, p. 322. 

b. Wing about 4'5 and without any white M. bimaculata, p. 323. 

858. Melanocorypha maxima. The Long-billed Calandra Lark. 

Melanocorypha maxima, Gould, Birds As. iv, pi. 72 (1867) ; Hume, 
8. F. i, p. 492 ; id. Cat. no. 761 quat. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, 
p. 554. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown and nape, lower rump, and upper 
tail-feathers rufous brown, each feather rnesially darker and edged 
with pale fulvous ; back, scapulars, and upper rump dark brown, 
with broad lateral fulvous margins and narrow tips ; the hind neck 
and mantle suffused with ashy ; middle pair of tail-feathers brown 
margined with tawny, the others black increasingly tipped with 
white, the penultimate feather with half the outer web white, and 
a broad tip to the inner web, the outermost feather with the terminal 



MMI.\MM OKYI'IIA. 323 

two-thirds of both webs while ; wing-coverts and trrtiarie.s bro\\ 11. 
edged with fulvous ; primaries and secondaries dark brown, margined 
paler and with the outer web of the first primary almost entirely 
white ; all the quills except the first few primaries broadly tipped 
with white; ear-coverts rufous ; lores, supercilium, and cheeks 
white, mottled with rufous ; chin and throat whitish ; breast pale 
ashy with some ill-defined brown spots, and the sides of the breast 
with an obsolete dark patch ; remainder of lower plumage white, 
tinged with fulvous on the flanks. 

In the spring and summer months the plumage is much darker 
owing to the wearing away of the margins of the feathers. 

The young bird is nearly black above with yellowish or fulvous 
margins to all the feathers ; the breast is also very dark or blackish 
with yellowish margins and the remainder of the lower plumage is 
pale yellow. 

The colours of the soft parts of this Lark do not appear to have 
been recorded. 

Length about 9'5 ; tail 3-5 ; wing 6 ; tarsus 1*1 ; bill from gape 
1*2 ; hind claw up to '8. 

Distribution. The higher parts of Sikhim, extending into the 
adjoining parts of Tibet and the mountain region of Western 
China. 



859. Melanocorypha bimaculata. The Eastern Calandra Lark. 

Alauda bimaculata, Menetr. Cat. Rais. Cauc. p. 37 (1832). 
Melanocorypha bimaculata (Menetr.}, Blanf. S. F. \, p. 24(3 ; Hume, 

S. F. vii, p. 421 ; id. Cat. no. 761 ter ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 89 ; 

Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 580; Barnes, Birch Bum. p. 279 ; S/iarpe, 

( '(if. B. M. xiii, p. 555. 
Melanocorypha torquata, Blyth, J.A.8. B. xvi, p. 476 (1847) ; Hume 

fy Henders. Lah. to Yarlc. p. 265, pi. xxvii; Scully, S. F. iv, p. 173. 




Fig. 92. Head of M. H >,!> nhif a . 

Coloration. Tln> upper plumage dark brown, each leather latenilly 
margined with fulvous, the character of the upper plumage being 
streaky ; tail dark brown, margined with fulvous, the inner web of 
all the feathers, except the middle pair, with a terminal white spot ; 

Y2 



324 ALATJDIDjE. 

wing-coverts and quills dark brown, margined with fulvous ; no 
white whatever about the wing ; a dark line running through the 
lores and behind the eye ; a broad pale fulvous supercilium ; 
cheeks and ear-coverts rufous, streaked with brown ; a patch of 
white under the black band through the lores and under 
the eye ; chin, throat, and a lateral baud behind the ear- 
coverts white ; a broad black band across the upper breast inter- 
rupted in the middle ; remainder of breast fulvous streaked with 
brown ; other parts of lower plumage white, the flanks tinged 
with fulvous. 

The female has the black pectoral band reduced in size. 

Legs and feet fleshy or yellowish fleshy, more or less dusky at 
joints ; claws dusky ; iris brown, in some light brown ; bill horny 
brown or blackish horny on upper mandible, lower mandible 
greenish horny changing to yellow at base and gape. 

Length about 7*5 ; tail 2-3 ; wing 4*5 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape 
8 ; the female is smaller than the male. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to Sind, Rajputana, Bahawalpur, 
the Punjab, the N.W. Provinces and Ouclh, passing through 
Kashmir on migration and summering in Central Asia. This Lark 
extends on the west to Afghanistan and Persia and ranges as far 
as North-eastern Africa. 



Genus ALAUDA, Linn., 1766. 

The genus Alauda is now restricted to the Sky-Larks, two species 
or races of which occur in India. These Larks vary very much in 
size and plumage and I quite agree with Sharpe in not recognizing 
more than these two species as occurring in India. 

In Alauda the bill is slender and feeble and the nostrils are 
covered by plumelets ; there are ten primaries, the first of which is 
very minute, and the wing is somewhat short, not reaching to far 
beyond the middle of the tail, and the tertiaries are lengthened ; the 
hind claw is very long and nearly straight. The sexes are alike. 

The Sky-Larks frequent cultivation chiefly, and are noted for 
the excellence of their song, which is given forth at a great height 
from the ground. They are abundant in most parts of India, but 
become less frequent to the east in Burma. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Of larger size ; wing generally over 4 A. arvensis, p. 324. 

b. Of smaller size ; wing seldom exceeding 3'5 . . . . A. gulgula, p. 326. 

860. Alauda arvensis, The Sty-Lark. 

Alauda arvensis, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 287 (1766) : Blyth, Cat 
p. 131 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 466; Hume, 8. F. i, p. 39; id. 
N. $ E. p. 485 ; Sharpe, Cat.B. M. xiii, p. 567 ; Gates in Hume's 
N, 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 220. 



ALAUDA. 326 

Alauda leiopus vel orient-alls, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 84 

(1844, descr. nulla). 
Alauda dulcivox, Hodys. in G 'ray's Zool. Misc. p. 84 (1844, descr. 

nulla) ; Brooks, S. F. i, p. 484; id. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 253 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 766 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 338 ; id. Ibis, 1881, 

p. 582 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 89. 
Alauda triborhyncha, Ifodf/s. apud Horsf. 8f M. Cat. ii,p. 467 (part.) ; 

Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 433 j Hume $ Henders, Lah. to Yark. p. 268, 

pi. xxviii. 
Alauda guttata, Brooks, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 85 (1872) ; id. S. F. 

i, p. 485 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 90; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 583. 
The Himalayan Sky-Lark, Jerd. 

Coloration. Upper plumage and wing-coverts dark brown, each 
feather broadly edged with fulvous ; quills brown edged with fulvous, 
and with a tinge of rufous near the base of some of the quills ; tail 
brown, edged with fulvous, the penultimate feather with the 
outer web almost entirely white, the outermost all white, except 
the base of the inner web ; a pale supercilium from the nostrils to 
the end of the ear-coverts ; ear-coverts streaked brown and 
rufous ; lower plumage pale fulvous, the cheeks and throat slightly, 
the breast boldly, streaked with black ; the sides of the body less 
distinctly streaked with brown ; remainder of lower plumage very 
pale fulvous and at times almost white. 

The young have the feathers of the crown much rounded and 
tipped with white, and most of the feathers of the upper plumage 
are very rufous and also tipped with white ; the wing-coverts are 
much more broadly margined with fulvous or rufous. 

Bill dusky above, lower mandible greyish horny, faintly yellowish 
at the extreme tip ; iris dark brown ; legs and feet brownish fleshy 
(Scully). 

Size very variable ; length about 7 ; tail 2'5 to 2*9 ; wing 3'7 to 
4'4 ; tarsus '95 ; bill from gape '65 ; these represent the extreme 
measurements of numerous Indian birds. 

The Sky-Lark is as variable in size as the Eaven, and the shades 
of brown, fulvous, and rufous of which its plumage is composed also 
vary exceedingly throughout its great range. 

Distribution. The whole extent of the Himalayas from Hazara 
and Kashmir to Assam, where the Sky-Lark appears to be a con- 
stant resident, moving about to different levels according to season. 
In the winter many birds appear to visit the plains of the Punjab 
and North-west Provinces, and a Lark killed by Dr. Anderson near 
Bhamo in Upper Burma appears referable to this species. 

The Sky-Lark is spread over Europe and the greater portion of 
Asia as far as China. 

J faints, $c. Breeds in the Himalayas in May and June, con- 
structing a nest of fine grass on the ground and laying three to 
five eggs, which are marked with yellowish and purplish brown 
and measure about '95 by *67. 



326 ALATTBIDJE. 



861 . Alauda gulgula. The Indian Sky-Lark. 

Alauda gulgula, FranU. P. Z. S. 1831, p. 119 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 132 ; 

Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 434 ; Hume $ Renders. Lali. to Tark. p. 269, 

pi. xxix ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 40 ; Brooks, S. F. i, p. 485 ; Hume, N. 

8f E. p. 486 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl p. 630 ; Hume, Cat. no. 767 ; 

Scully, S. F. viii, p.' 338 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 373 ; Barnes, Birds 

Bom. p. 282 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 575 ; Oates in Hume's 

N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 221. 
Alauda triborhyncha, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 84 (1844, descr. 

nulla) ; Horrf. # M. Cat. ii, p. 467 (part.). 
Alauda malabarica, Scop, apud Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 467. 
Alauda australis, Brooks, S. F. i, p. 486 (1873) ; Hume, Cat. no. 

768. 
Alauda peguensis, Oates, S. F. iii, p. 343 (1875). 

Buruta-pitta, Niala pichike, Tel. ; Manam-badi, Tarn. ; Bhurut, Hind. ; 
Bee-lone, Burm. ; Gomarita, Cing. 

Coloration. So similar to A. arvensis as to require no separate 
description. Differs in being constantly smaller, the wing seldom 
exceeding 3*5. 

There are as many races of this Lark as there are of A. arvensis, 
but they are equally unworthy of recognition, as they are based on 
points of size and colour which are by no means constant or even 
definable. 

Sharpe is of opinion that A. gulgula differs from A. arvensis in 
having paler under wing-coverts, and by the almost entire absence 
of flank-stripes. These points may be of service in discriminating 
between the two birds, but the only character which is of real use 
seems to me to be that of size. 

Mouth yellowish ; upper, mandible dark horn ; lower mandible 
pinkish fleshy, dusky at the tip ; iris brown ; eyelids plumbeous ; 
legs fleshy brown ; claws pale horn-colour. 

Length about 6'5 ; tail 2'3 ; wing 3'4 ; tarsus '9 ; bill from 
gape '75. 

Distribution. Every portion of the Empire and Ceylon, except 
Tenasserim, south of Moulmein, and the middle ranges of the 
Himalayas, where this Lark is absent or comparatively rare. A 
specimen of a Lark procured by Brooks at Almorah, however, 
appears to be referable to this species. It has not been recorded 
from the Andamans or Nicobars. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds throughout India apparently from April to 
June and in Burma from December to April, constructing a nest 
similar to that of A. arvensis, and laying similar egejs, which are, 
however, somewhat smaller, and measure about '8 by -61. The 
habits of this species closely resemble those of the European Sky- 
lark, the soug is similar and is uttered in the same manner as the 
bird soars. Both species associate in flocks in the winter. 



CALANDRELLA. 



327 



Genus CALANDRELLA, Kaup, 1829. 

The genus Calandrella contains the Short-toed Larks, of which 
four fairly distinct and recognizable species occur in India. 

In Calandrella the bill is somewhat deep and short, and the 
nostrils are concealed from view by plumelets ; there are nine 
primaries only in the wing, and the first is long and reaches to the 
tip ; the tertiaries are lengthened and reach to the end of the 
primaries or nearly so ; the hind claw is rather longer than the 
hind toe and gently curved. 

The Short-toed Larks are fond of dry sandy ground, and their 
habits are similar to those of the Sky-Larks. The song, how- 
ever, is weak and monotonous. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Pale part of inner web of outermost tail- 

feather of large extent, more than an 
inch in length. 
a'. Light part of outermost tail-feather 

pale buff. 
a". General colour of lower plumage 

whitish ; wing generally under 3'6. C. brachydactyla, p. 327. 
b". General colour of lower plumage 

fulvous ; wing generally over 3-9. . C. dukhunensis, p. 328. 
b' . Light part of outermost tail-feather 

white C. tibetana, p. 329. 

b. Pale part of inner web of outermost tail- 

feather of very small extent, much less 

than an inch in length C. acutirostris, p. 329. 



862. Calandrella brachydactyla. The Short-toed Lark. 

Alauda brachydactyla, Leisler, Wetterau Gesellsch. Ann. iii, pp. 357- 
359 (1812). 

Calandrella brachydactyla (Leisl.), Hume, S. F. i, p. 213 ; Adam, S. 
F. i, p. 389 ; Butler, S. F. iii, p. 500 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 66 ; id. 
Cat no. 761 (pt.) ; /;i,/ ( /nlj>/t, Ibis, 1881, p. 88 (pt.) ; Scully, Ibis, 
1881, p. 579; HuMnlph, Ibis, 1882, p. 285 (pt.) ; Barnes, Birds 
Bom. p. 279 (pt.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 580. 




Fig. 93. Head of C. brachydactyla. 

Coloration. Upper plumage sandy buff, each feather broadly 
centred or streaked with dark brown or black, the upper tail- 



328 ALATJDID JE. 

coverts more sandy than the other parts ; wing-coverts and quills 
dark brown broadly edged with fulvous ; middle pair of tail-feathers 
dark brown broadly edged with rufous ; the next three pairs dark 
brown, very narrowly margined with fulvous ; the penultimate dark 
brown, with the terminal half of the outer web very pale buff ; the 
outermost with the outer web nearly entirely pale buff, and 
the inner web with the inner half brown and the outer half whitish ; 
lores and a supercilium pale buff ; ear-coverts hair-brown ; sides 
of the neck pale brown ; lower plumage dull white, the breast 
washed with brown ; the breast is frequently streaked with darker 
brown, but sometimes perfectly plain ; there is almost always a 
dusky or blackish patch on each side of the breast. 

Iris brown; legs and feet brownish flesh-colour ; upper mandible 
dark horny brown; lower mandible pale fleshy (Sutler). 

Length abaut 6'5 ; tail 2-4 ; wing 3-5 to 3'8 ; tarsus *8 ; bill from 
gape '55. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the north-west portion of the 
Empire, west of a line drawn roughly from Bombay to Kumaun. 
This species ranges into Turkestan and extends westwards to 
Europe and Northern Africa. 



863. Calandrella dukhunensis. The Rufous Short-toed Lark. 

Emberiza haghaira, Frankl. P. Z. 8. 1831, p. 119 (descr. nulla). 

Alauda dukhunensis, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 93. 

Calandrella brachydactyla (Temm.}, Blyth,* Cat. p. 132: Jerd. B. I. 
ii, p. 426 ; Ball, S. F. ii, p. 423 ; Fairbank, S. F. iv, p. 261 ; Ball, 
S. F. vii, p. 223 ; Hume, Cat. no. 761 (pt.) ; Scully, S. F. viii, 
p. 337 ; Butler, S. F. ix, p. 418 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 58 ; Davidson, 
S. F. x, p. 314; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 279 (pt.). 

Coryphidea Calandrella (Bonelli), Horsf. 8f M. Cat. ii, p. 472. 

Alauda (Calandrella) brachydactyla, Temm. Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, 
pt. ii, p. 62. 

Calandrella dukhunensis, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 584. 

Bayliaira, Bayheyri, Bayhoda, Hind. 

Coloration. Resembles C. brachydactyla, but has the whole lower 
plumage fulvous, darker on the breast and sides of the body ; the 
upper plumage also a rich fulvous : has a longer wing. 

Iris brown ; legs and feet brownish flesh-colour, dusky at the 
joints ; bill dark horny brown above, pale flesh below (Butler). 

Length about 6*5 ; tail 2-4 ; wing 3-8 to 4-1 ; tarsus -8 ; bill 
from gape -6. 

This appears to me to be an easily recognizable form of Short- 
toed Lark with quite a distinct area of distribution from C. brachy- 
dactyla. I have examined specimens killed in India from August 
to April. The deep fulvous lower plumage combined with the 
longer wing suffice to separate this species from C. brachydactyla 
when the plumage is in good order. 

Distribution. The whole of India east of a line drawn roughly 
from Bombay to Kumaun, and as far south as Belgaum, extending 



CALANDRELLA. 329 

into Assam, and more rarely into Pegu. This species also extends 
into Tibet and probably breeds there or in Central Asia. It is 
very probable that some of these Larks may also remain in the 
plains of India or in the Himalayas to breed, but a great majority 
are winter visitors. 

Habits, fyc. This Short-toed Lark frequents open ground, culti- 
vated or waste, and is generally found in smill flocks, which, about 
the end of March, associate together, often forming assemblages 
of many thousand birds. At this season these Larks are fat and 
are killed in great numbers for food ; they are commonly known 
by Europeans throughout India as Ortolans. 



864. Calandrella tibetana. Brooks' s Short-toed Lark. 

Calandrella brachydactyla (Temm.), Hume fy Henders. Lah. to 

Yark. p. 204. 
Calandrella tibetana, Brooks, S. F. viii, p. 488 (1879) ; Hume, S. F. 

ix, p. 97 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 585. 

Coloration. Resembles C. brachydactyla, but is much greyer or 
less fulvous above ; has a smaller bill ; and has the pale part of the 
outermost tail-feather pure white, not pale buff ; the superciliuin 
and cheeks nearly white. 

Length about 6 ; tail 2-5 ; wing 3'7 ; tarsus '8 ; bill from 
gape *6. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Gilgit and Kashmir to Sikhim, 
extending into the neighbouring parts of Tibet. This Lark appears 
to descend to the plains of Upper India in the winter, the British 
Museum containing specimens collected at Cawnpore and in the 
Eohtak District of the Punjab. 



865. Calandrella acutirostris. Hume's Short-toed Lark. 

Calandrella acutirostris, Hume, Lah. to Yark. p. 265 (1&73) ; Sharpe, 

Cdf. B. M. xiii, p. 585. 
Calandivlla brachydactyla (Leisl), Scully, S. F. iv, p. 172; 

Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 88 (pt.), 1882, p. 285 (pt.). 

Coloration. Resembles C. brachydactyla, but ha8 the upper 
plumage decidedly tinged with ashy ; the extent of light colour on 
the inner web of the outermost tail-feather of very small extent, 
much less than an inch in length ; and a much more slender bill. 

Bill dusky along ridge of upper mandible, at tip, and along half 
of under surface of lower mandible ; rest of bill yellowish horny ; 
iris brown ; legs and feet brownish fleshy ; claws dusky brown 
(Scully). 

Length about 6 ; tail 2-5 to 2-8 ; wing 3-6 to 3-9 ; tarsus '85 ; 
bill from gape -6. 

Distribution. Visits the plains of Upper India in the winter. I 
have examined specimens obtained at Delhi, Etawab, and Mughal 
Sarai. Summers in Afghanistan, Gilgit, and Turkestan. 



330 

G-enus ALAUDULA, Blyth, 1856. 

The genus Alaudula contains the Sand-Larks, which differ 
structurally from the Short-toed Larks only in having a more 
slender bill and shorter tertiaries, 

The Sand-Larks frequent the sandy banks of rivers, running 
about near the edge of the water. They have a poor song. 



Key to tlie Species. 

a. "Wing under 3 - 5. 

a'. Bill at front '5 .......................... A. raytal, p. 330. 

b'. Bill at front '4 .......................... A. adamsi, p. 331 . 

b. Wing about 4 ............................ A. persica, p. 331. 

866. Alaudula raytal. The Ganges Sand-Lark. 

Alauda raytal, Such. Hamilton, Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xiii, p. 962 (1844). 

Calandrella raytal (Blyth}, Blyth, Cat, p. 132. 

Alaudala raytal (Blyth}, Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 471 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, 

p. 428. 



Alaudula raytal, Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 46; Hume, N. $ E. p. 481 ; 

. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 606 ; 
Cripps, S. .F.'vii, p. 295; Hume, Cat. no. 762; Oates, B. B. i, 



id. S. F. iii, p. 159 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 606 ; 



p. 374 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 280 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 591 ; 
Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 225. 

The Indian Sand-Lark, Jerd. ; Retal, Hind. 




Fig. 94. Head of A. raytal. 

Coloration. Upper plumage greyish brown, with dark brown 
shaft-streaks ; lores, supercilium, and under the eye white ; ear- 
coverts streaked with grey and brown ; lower plumage white, with 
a few distinct and well-defined brown streaks on the breast, most 
numerous on the sides ; wings dark brown, edged with greyish 
brown ; middle tail-feathers brown, broadly edged with fulvous 
white, the others dark brown, the penultimate feather with the 
outer web almost entirely white, the outermost with the outer web 
entirely white, the outer half of the inner web white and the inner 
half black. 

Legs fleshy yellow ; claws pale horn ; bill horn-colour, with a 
greenish tinge, the tip dusky, the gape yellowish ; iris brown ; 
eyelids plumbeous ; mouth flesh-colour. 

Length about 5-5 ; tail 2 ; wing 3-3 ; tarsus *75 ; bill from gape 
65 ; bill from tip to forehead '5. 



ALAUDULA. 331 

Distribution. Found on the sand-banks of all the large rivers of 
the North-west Provinces, the Nepal Terai, Oudh, Behar, and 
Bengal. This Lark is also found along the banks of the 
Brahmaputra, and it occurs on the Irrawaddy river, on which it 
IIM* been procured near Bhtimo and Thayetrnyo. Barnes records 
this Lark from Neemuch in Rajputana, and Hume from the sand- 
banks of the Nerbudda river, but I have seen no specimens from 
these localities. 

Habits, fa. Breeds from March to May or June, making a small 
cup-shaped nest of grass or leaflets in a hollow on a sand-bank, 
under shelter of a shrub or stone, and laying two or three eggs, 
which are greyish white, speckled with yellowish brown, and 
measure about '75 by '55. 



867. Alaudula adamsi. The Indus Sand-Lark. 

Alauda adamsi, Hume, Ibis, 1871, p. 405. 

Alaudula adamsi (Hume), Hume, S.F.\, p. 213 ; id. N. $ E. p. 482 ; 

id. Cat. no. 702 ter : Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 280 ; Sharp*, Cat. B. 

M. xiii, p. 592; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 226. 

Coloration. Resembles A. raytal, but has a very much smaller 
bill, and, generally, a shorter wing and tail*. 

Bill fleshy, dark brown on culmen and tip, with a slight shade 
of horny blue on lower mandible ; legs and feet brownish flesh ; 
iris brown (Butler}. 

Length about 5'5 ; tail 1-8 ; wing 3'2 ; tarsus '75 ; bill from 
gape '55 ; bill from tip to forehead *4. 

Distribution. Sind, and along all the large rivers of the Punjab, 
as far east as the Jumna. 

Habits, <$fc. Breeds in March, April, and May : the mode of 
nidification of this species does not appear to differ in any 
important particular from that of A. raytal. 



868. Alaudula persica. Sharpens Sand-Lark. 

Alauda pispoletta, Pall., Hume, Ibis, 1870, p. 531. 

Alaudula pispoletta (Pall.), Hume, S. F. vii, p. 528 ; id. Cat. no. 762 

bis. 
Alaudula persica, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 590 (1890). 

Coloration. Upper plumage sandy fulvous, each feather with a 
narrow dark brown shaft-streak ; wings dark brown margined with 
sandy fulvous ; middle pair of tail-feathers brown broadly margined 
\\ilh fulvous ; the next three pairs dark brown with narrow mar- 
gins ; the penultimate dark brown on the inner web, white on the 
outer ; the outermost feather white, with the inner half of the inner 



* A. adamsi is said to be larger than A. raytal, but a series of measurements 
of both taken by me has convinced me that the contrary is the case. 



332 ALAUDIDJE. 

web black ; lores, superciliuin, and sides of the liead pale buff ; 
lower plumage fulvous white, rather darker on the breast and flanks ; 
breast distinctly streaked with brown ; flanks indistinctly streaked ; 
the cheeks frequently streaked with brown. 

The colours of the soft parts of this Lark do not appear to have 
been recorded. 

Length about 6 ; tail 2'6 ; wing 4 ; tarsus '8 ; bill from gape 
5 ; bill from forehead to tip *4. 

Sharpe has quite properly bestowed a name on this hitherto 
unnoticed and well-defined species, but in doing so he has selected 
a Persian example as his type, a bird collected by Blanford at Niriz 
in Persia. The Larks of this type found in India, although agree- 
ing with this Persian bird in general size, structure, and coloration, 
differ from it immensely in the size of the bill. The former have 
the culmen measuring -4 and the latter -6. Having seen only one 
Persian bird I do not wish to insist too much upon this difference 
in size of bill, otherwise I should be disposed to keep the Indian 
birds distinct. 

Distribution. The Punjab, extending west through Afghanistan 
to Persia. This species is probably only a winter visitor to the 
plains of the Punjab. 



Genus MIRAFEA, Horsf., 1821. 

The genus Mirafra contains the Bush-Larks, which are found 
in well-wooded districts. They frequently perch on bushes and 
low trees and they take short flights in the air. Their song is 
pleasant but weak. 

In Mirafra the bill is thick and short and the nostrils are quite 
exposed to view ; there are ten primaries in the wing, the first of 
which is about a half or a third the length of the second ; the hind 
claw is much longer than the hind toe and gently curved. 



Key to the Species. 

a. Inner web of outer tail-feather largely 

white M . cantittans, p. 333. 

b. Inner web of outer tail-feather dark 

brown. 

a'. Rufous on inner and outer webs of pri- 
maries not reaching to shaft. 
a". General tone of upper plumage ashy 

brown M. assamica, p. 334. 

b". General tone of upper plumage 
rufous. 

a'". Wing 3-2 to 3-5 M. affinis, p. 335. 

V". Wing 2-7 to 3 M. microptera, p. 336. 

b'. Rufous on inner and outer webs of pri- 
maries reaching to shaft and confluent. M. erythroptera, p. 334. 



UIRAFRA. 333 

869. Mirafra cantillans. The Sinyiny Bush-Lark. 

Mirafra cantillans, Jrrd, Myth, J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 960 (1844) ; id. 
Cat. p. 134 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 476; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 420; 
Hume, N. $ E. p. 476 ; id. Cat. no. 757 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 
p. 275 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 605 j Oates in Hume's N. # E. 
2nd ed. ii, p. 227. 
Aylmn, Ay/tin, Hind. ; Burutta pitta, Aghin pitta, Tel. 

Coloration. After the autumn moult the whole upper plumage 
is dark brown, each feather with rufous lateral margins and a 
whitish terminal band ; wing-coverts and tertiaries brown margined 
with rufous ; primary-coverts, primaries, and secondaries with nearly 
the entire outer web deep rufous or chestnut ; middle pair of tail- 
feathers brown broadly margined with rufous, the next three pairs 




Fig. 95. Head of M. cantillans. 

almost entirely brown, the penultimate brown on the inner web, 
white on the outer, the outermost white with a blackish band on 
the inner margin of the inner web ; lores and supercilium very pale 
fulvous ; sides of the head mottled with fulvous and brown ; chin 
and throat white ; remainder of lower plumage fulvous, the sides 
of the neck and the whole breast streaked with triangular brown 
marks. 

Shortly after the autumn moult the whitish terminal bands or 
fringes of the feathers of the upper plumage become worn away. 

Iris brown ; legs, feet, and lower mandible fleshy ; upper mandi- 
ble horny brown (Butler}. 

Length nearly 6 ; tail 2-1 ; wing 3'2 ; tarsus *75 ; bill from 
gape '55. 

Distribution. Locally distributed over a considerable portion of 
the Indian Peninsula. This species is found in the Punjab, Kaj- 
putana, the North- West Provinces, and Western Bengal, extending 
south to about the latitude of Madras. It appears to ascend the 
slopes of the Himalayas in suitable spots, as Stolic/ka records it from 
the Sutlej valley. 

Habits, $c. Breeds from March to August, probably having 
1 \\ o broods in the year, and laying four eggs, which are dull white 
thickly marked with various shades of brown, and measure about 
81 by '62. This species is less frequently found amongst bushes 
than other members of the genus, and it is commonly met with 
on grass-land about cultivate^ tracts. It is often kept caged for 
the sake of its song, 



334 

870. Mirafra assamica. The Bengal Bush-Lark. 

Mirafra assamica, McCleU. P. Z. 8. 1839, p. 162 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. 

ii, p. 476 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 416 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 473 ; Ball, S. 

F. vii, p. 223 ; Cripps, S. F. vii, p. 294 ; Hume, Cat. no. 754 ; 

Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 6C6 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 375 ; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 609 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 287 ; Oates in 

Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 229. 
Mirafra assamensis, McCleU., Blyth, Cat. p. 134. 
Mirafra immaculate, Hume, S. F. i, p. 12 (1873). 

Affffta, Hind. ; Bhiriri at Bhagalpur. 

Coloration. The whole tipper plumage dark ashy browo with 
blackish streaks on all parts except the rump ; wing-coverts blackish 
margined with pale ashy ; primary-coverts externally rufous ; quills 
dark brown, most of them externally margined with chestnut and 
all of them with a large portion of the inner web chestnut ; tail 
brown margined with ashy rufous, the penultimate and outer feathers 
with the greater part of the outer web pale rufous ; lores and an 
indistinct supercilium fulvous ; sides of the head fulvous barred 
with brown; chin and throat pale fulvous white; remainder of 
lower plumage darker fulvous, the breast coarsely streaked with 
triangular marks of brown ; under wing-coverts and axillaries 
ferruginous. 

Bill dusky above, fleshy white below ; legs fleshy white ; iris 
yellowish brown (Hume}. 

Length rather more than 6 ; tail 2 ; wing 3*3 ; tarsus 1 ; bill 
from gape *75. 

Distribution. The north-eastern part of the Indian Peninsula, 
north and east of a line drawn roughly from Garhwal to Cuttack, 
extending through Bengal into Assam and thence south on the 
one hand to the neighbourhood of Bhamo and on the other to 
Arrakan. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds from March to July, laying four or five eggs, 
which are greyish white speckled with brown of different shades, 
and measure about -82 by -61. 



871. Mirafra erythroptera. The Red- winged Hush-Lark, 

Mirafra erythroptera, Jerd. Madr. Journ. L. S. xiii, pt. 2, p. 136 
(1844) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 133 ; Jerd. III. 2nd. Orn. pi. 38 ; Horsf. 
$ M. Cat. ii, p. 474 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 418 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 475; 
Ball, S. F. vii, p. 223 ; Hume, Cat. no. 756 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 
p. 274 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 612 j Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 
2nded.'ii, p. 231. 
Jungli aaffia, Hind. ; Chinna eeli-jitta, Tel. 

Coloration. The whole upper plumage fulvous-brown streaked with 
dark brown or black ; middle pair of tail-feathers pale brown mar- 
gined with fulvous ; the others blackish, the outermost feather with 



MIRAFRA. 335 

the outer web entirely pale rufous, and the inner web tipped with the 
same colour ; wing-coverts brown edged with fulvous ; quills brown 
with a large portion of both webs chestnut ; lores and a supercilium 
pale fulvous ; cheeks and ear-coverts fulvous speckled with brown ; 
chin and throat whitish ; remainder of lower plumage pale fulvous, 
the breast spotted with triangular marks of brown or black ; under 
wing-coverts pale rufous. 

Bill horny brown above, fleshy below ; legs flesh-colour ; iris 
hazel (Butler). 

Length about 5'5 ; tail 2-1 ; wing 3 ; tarsus '85 ; bill from gape 
65. 

Distribution. The whole of India from the foot of the Himalayas 
to about the latitude of Nellore and east to the longitude of Cal- 
cutta. This Lark appears to be rare in Siud and the western parts 
of Eajputana and the Punjab. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds from March to September. The eggs, four 
or five in number, are speckled with various shades of red and brown, 
and measure about -76 by -59. 



872. Mirafra affinis. The Madras Bush-Lark. 

Mirafra affinis, Jerd. Madr. Journ. L. S. xiii, pt. 2, p. 136 (1844) ; 
id. Ill 2nd. Orn. text to pi. 38; Bh/th, Cat. p. 133; Horsf. '< 
M. Cat. ii, p. 475 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 417 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 474; 
Ball, S. F. vii, p. 223 ; Hume, Cat. no. 755 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. 
p. 634 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 404 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 614; 
Oates in Humes N. # E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 233. 

Eeli-jitta, Tel. ; Chirchira, Hind. ; Leepee, in Central India ; Gomarita, 
Cing. 

Coloration. Upper plumage rufous-brown with very broad 
median dark brown streaks to all the feathers ; tail dark brown 
narrowly margined with rufous, the outer web of the outermost 
feather being very broadly margined with this colour ; wing-coverts 
and quills dark brown, margined with rufous, most of the quills 
with a large band of rufous on the inner web; lores and superci- 
lium pale fulvous; ear-coverts rufous mottled with brown; chin 
and throat very pale fulvous ; remainder of lower plumage deeper 
fulvous, the breast streaked with large triangular patches of dark 
brown ; under wing-coverts and axillaries rufous. 

Legs, feet, claws, lower mandible, and edges of upper mandible 
fleshy white ; rest of upper mandible horny brown ; iris sienna- 
brown (Davison). 

Length about 6 ; tail 1-8 to 2-1 ; wing 3-2 to 3-5 ; tarsus 1 ; bill 
from gape '7. 

Distribution. Ceylon and Southern India, extending north to 
Midnapore in Bengal on the eastern side of the Peninsula and to 
the Nilgiris on the western. 

Habits, c. Little is known about the uidification of this Lark. 
It appears to lay in May and June and its nest and eggs are not 



336 ALAUDID^E. 

likely to differ in any respect from those of the other species, the 
habits of which are well known. 



873. Mirafra microptera. The Burmese Bush-Lark. 

Mirafra microptera, Hume, S. F. i, p. 483 (1873) ; id. N. $ E. p. 475 ; 
id. S. F. iii, p. 159 ; id. Cat. no. 755 bis ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, 
p. 615 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 233. 

Mirafra affinis, Jerd. apud Oates, B. B. \ } p. 376. 

Coloration. Resembles M. affinis, but is considerably smaller. 

Iris hazel ; lower mandible and margin of upper very pale 
pinkish fleshy ; remainder of upper mandible dark horny ; legs 
light fleshy ; claws pinkish. 

Length 5'5; tail 1-55; wing 2'7 to 3 ; tarsus -85 ; bill from 
gape -55. 

Distribution. The northern part of Pegu about the district of 
Thayetmyo. Specimens of a Bush-Lark from Saigon appear re- 
ferable to this species. 

Habits, fyc. A nest of this bird that I found in Pegu in July 
contained two eggs and one young bird, and was placed on the 
ground in a hoof-mark. It was partially domed and constructed 
of grass and fibres. One egg measured '83 by *6 and was thickly 
marked with brown. 



Genus GALERITA, Boie, 1828. 

The genus Galerita contains the Crested Lark, and two other 
Larks which have hitherto been placed in the genus Spizalauda. 
These two genera appear to ine to be identical and I therefore 
unite them. 

In Galerita the bill is about half the length of the head and 
pretty strong ; the head is furnished with a few long feathers 
forming a conspicuous crest ; the nostrils are completely covered 
by plumelets ; there are ten primaries in the wing, the first 
of which is very small ; the hind claw is about the same length 
as the hind toe and very slightly curved ; and the sexes are quite 
alike. 

The Crested Larks resemble the Sky-Larks closely in their 
habits. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Bill at front about '7 ; general colour above 

earthy brown - G. cristata, p. 337. 

b. Bill at front about '5 ; general colour above 

rufous. 

a. Wing about 3'4 ; pectoral streaks few 

and narrow G. deva, p. 338. 

b'. Wing about 3'8 ; pectoral streaks numer- 
ous and broad G. malabarica, p. 339. 



GALEEITA. 337 



874. Galerita cristata. The Crested Lark. 

Alauda cristata, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 288 (1766). 

Alauda chendoola, Frankl. P. Z. S. 1831, p. 119. 

Galerida chendoola (Frankl.), Blyth, Cat. p. 133. 

Galerida cristata (Linn.), Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 465; Jerri. B. I. ii, 

p. 436 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 488 j id. S. F. i, p. 214; Butler, S. F. 

vii, p. 185 ; Hume, Cat. no. 769 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 283 ; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 626 ; Gates in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. 

ii, p. 233. 
Galerida magna, Hume, Ibis, 1871, p. 407 ; id. fy Senders. Lah. to 

Yark. p. 270, pi. 30 ; Scully, S. F. iv, p. 175. 

The Large Crested Lark, Jerd. ; Chendul, Hind. ; Chendul, Jutu-pitta, 
lei. 




Fig. !)().- -Head of 6r. cristata. 

Coloration. Upper plumage earthy brown, with blackish streaks 
or centres to most of the feathers ; tail-feathers brown, with sandy 
margins and tips, the penultimate feather with the greater portion 
of the outer \veb pale rufous, the outermost all pale rufous except 
the inner portion of the inner web, which is brown; wing-coverts 
and quills brown with sandy margins, the quills with a largo patch 
of rufous on the inner web ; lores brown ; supercilium pale ful- 
vous ; ear-coverts pale fulvous white, mottled with brown ; entire 
lower plumage pale fulvous with some brown spots on the cheeks 
and numerous brown streaks on the breast ; the sides of the body 
obsoletely streaked ; under wing-coverts and axillaries rufous. 

Bill yellowish ; feet pale brown ; iris dark brown (Jerdon). 

Length about 7*5 ; tail about 2'7 ; wing 3'5 to 4'3 ; tarsus 1-05; 
bill from gape about '9. 

The Crested Lark varies as much as the Common Sky-Lark both 
in size and colour, and it is as difficult in the case of the one as of 
the other to subdivide it into two or more races. 

Distribution. The north-western portion of India, extending east 
as far as the 85th degree of east longitude, and south as far gene- 
rally as the 23rd degree of north latitude, but occasionally further 
south in favourable localities, this species having been recorded from 
Kaipur in the Central Provinces. Many Larks of this species are 
resident and breed in India, but the majority appear to migrate in 

TOL. II. Z 



338 

spring to Central Asia. This Lark, in a more or less variable 
form, has an immense range, being found in Europe and Northern 
Africa and the greater part of Asia, as far east as China. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds in India from March to June, constructing 
a small nest of grass on the ground under shelter of a stone or clod 
of earth. The nest is usually lined with cotton, hair, fibres, and 
feathers. The eggs, usually three in number, are dull white marked 
with brown and purple, and measure about *87 by '65. 



875. Galerita deva. Sykes's Crested Lark. 

Alauda deva, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 92. 

Mirafra hayii, Jerd. Madr. Journ. L. S. xiii, pt. 2, p. 136 (1844) ; 
Blyth, Cat. p. 133. 

Spizalauda deva (Sykes), Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 477 ; Jerd. B. I. 
ii, p. 432; Hume, Cat. no. 7(35; Davison, S. F. x, p. 704; Barnes, 
Birds Bom. p. 281 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 621. 

Alauda simillima (Hume), J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 120 (1870). 

Spizalauda simillima (Hume), Hume, N. fy E. p. 484. 

Alauda (Spizalauda) deva, Sykes, Blanf. S. F. iv, p. 240. 

Galerita deva (Sykes}, Gates in Hume's N, 4* E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 236. 

The Small Crested Lark, Jerd. ; Chinna chandul, Tel. 

Coloration. Upper plumage rufous, with dark brown streaks or 
centres to all the feathers ; the upper tail-coverts more uniformly 
rufous ; tail dark brown edged with rufous, the penultimate feather 
with the outer web entirely rufous, the outermost feather all rufous 
except a small portion of the inner web ; wing-coverts and quills 
brown, edged with rufous, all the quills with a large amount of 
pale rufous on the inner web ; a broad and well-defined pale rufous 
supercilium ; sides of the head pale rufous mottled, with brown ; 
the entire lower plumage rufous, with a few spots on the cheeks 
and a few narrow black streaks on the breast ; under wing-coverts 
and axillaries rufous. 

Bill horny brown above, pale flesh-colour below ; legs and feet 
yellowish brown ; iris dark brown (Butler). 

Length about 6; tail 2'1 ; wing 3'4; tarsus '8; bill from 
gape -6. 

Distribution. A considerable portion of the peninsula of India, 
where this species is a permanent resident. It occurs in Cutcb, 
Kajputana, the eastern portion of the Punjab, the North-west Pro- 
vinces and Central India, extending south to about the latitude of 
Bangalore and Madras. Its eastern limits are not known with any 
precision, but it does not seem to be found east of the 80th degree 
of longitude. To the west it is found everywhere as far as the 
sea-coast. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds from June to August, making its nest at the 
foot of a tuft of grass or bush, and laying three eggs, which are 
speckled with reddish brown and purplish, and measure about 77 
by -6. 



\MMOMANES. 339 



876. Galerita malabarica. The Malabar Crested Lark. 

Alauda malabarica, Scop. Del. Flor. et Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 94 (1786) ; 

Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 436. 
Spizalauda malabarica (Scop.), Hume, N. 8f E. p. 483 ; id. Cat. no. 765 

bis ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 405 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 282. 
Alauda (Spizalauda) malabarica, Scop. Blanf. S. F. iv, p. 241. 
Galerita malabarica (Scop.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 633 ; Oates 

in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 237. 
The Crested Malabar Lark, Jerd. 

Coloration. Resembles G. deva very closely, but is considerably 
larger, has the streaks on the breast very broad and coarse and the 
light pattern of the tail much deeper rufous. 

Iris dark brown ; legs and feet livid flesh ; bill horny brown 
above, whitish flesh below (Butler). 

Length nearly 7 ; tail 2-3 ; wing 3-8 ; tarsus -85 ; bill from 
gape -7. 

Distribution. A permanent resident in the western part of the 
peninsula of India from Guzerat to Travancore, occurring up to 
the summit of the hill-ranges of those parts. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds from March to September, having two broods. 
The mode of nidification of this species appears to be quite the 
same as that of G. deva, but the eggs are larger and more distinctly 
marked and measure about "87 by '65. 



Genus AMMOMANES, Cabanis, 1850. 

The genus Ammomanes contains those Finch-Larks which are 
characterized by a general rufous tone of plumage and by the 
sexes being alike in colour. 

In Ammomanes the bill is thick and slightly curved and resembles 
that of Galandrella very closely; the nostrils are covered by 
plumelets ; the wing has ten primaries, the first being small but 
exceeding the primary- coverts considerably, and the second quill 
is much shorter than the third ; the hind claw is short and curved. 

The Larks of this genus are found in open plains and arid spots. 
They rise singing in the air for a short distance and descend with 
a sudden drop. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Tail deep rufous broadly tipped black. . . . A. phoenicura, p. 339. 

b. Tail brown throughout, merely tinged with 

rufous A. phomicuroides, p. 340. 

^77. Ammomanes phcenicura. T7ie Rufous-tailed Finch-Lark. 

Mirafra phoenicura, Frankl P. Z. S. 1831, p. 119 ; Bluth, Cat. p. 134 

Ammomanes phoenicura (Frankl.), Horsf. ty M. Cat. ii, p. 477 

Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 421 ; Hume, N. 8? E. p. 477 ; id. Cat. no. 758 

z2 



340 ALATTDIDJS. 

Ball, S. F. vii, p. "223 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 276 ; Sharpe, Cat. 
B. M. xiii, p. 642 ; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 240. 

Aggiya, Eetal, Hind. 5 Ambali-jori-gadu, Dowa-pitta, Tel. 

Coloration. Upper plumage dark brown, with slightly darker 
shafts and obsolete pale margins to all the feathers, those of the 
head with blackish streaks ; upper tail-coverts deep rufous ; tail 
deep rufous with a broad black tip ; wing-coverts and quills brown 
margined with sandy brown, the quills with a large amount of 
rufous on the inner web ; a very indistinct supercilium pale rufous ; 
sides of the head rufous streaked with brown ; entire lower plum- 
age rufous, the chin, throat, and breast streaked with brown. 

Bill horny brown above, fleshy at the base beneath ; legs fleshy ; 
iris brown (Jerdon). 

Length about 6-5; tail 2-4; wing 4-1; tarsus -9 ; bill from 
gape *65. 

Distribution. A permanent resident over a considerable portion 
of the peninsula of India. The western limit of this species 
appears to be a line drawn from the head of the liann of Cutch to 
Delhi and thence produced to the Granges ; the northern boundary 
would appear to be the Ganges itself as far as Dinapore, and thence 
this Lark is spread over the entire country, in suitable localities, 
down to Coimbatore. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds from February to April, making its nest of 
grass on the ground and laying three or four eggs, which are 
speckled with yellowish and reddish brown and measure about '85 
by -62. 



878. Ammomanes phoenicuroides. The Desert Finch-Lark. 

Mirafra phoenicuroides, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxii, p. 583 (1853). 
Ammomanes phoenicuroides (BlytJi), Horsf, fy M. Cat. ii, p. 478 ; 

Sharps, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 647 ; Gates in Hume's N. $ JE. 2nd ed. 

ii, p. 242. 
Ammomanes lusitanica (Gmel.), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 422 ; Hume, N. fy E. 

p. 478; id. 8. F. i, p. 211. 
Ammomanes deserti (Licht.), Hume, Cat. no. 759; Barnes, Birds 

Bom. p. 276. 

The Pale-rufous Finch-Lark, Jerd. 

Coloration. Upper plumage greyish brown, tinged with rufous 
on the upper tail-coverts and slightly streaked with blackish on 
the crown ; tail brown margined with pale rufous, the outer web 
of the outer tail-feather entirely of this colour, the bases of all the 
feathers tinged reddish ; wing-coverts and quills brown margined 
with pale fulvous, the inner web of all the quills largely pale 
rufous ; lores brown ; a ring round the eye and a line above and 
below the lores fulvous white ; ear-coverts greyish brown ; chin 
and throat pale fulvous white, with a few brown spots on the 



PYRRHULAUDA. 341 

lower throat ; remainder of lower plumage fulvous grey, with a few 
brown streaks on the breast ; under wing-coverts and auxiliaries 
rufous. 

Bill dusky above, yellowish beneath ; feet pale yellow-brown 
(Jcrdon). 

Length about 7 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 4-1 ; tarsus -9 ; bill from 
gape '65. 

Distribution. A permanent resident throughout Bind and the 
northern part of the Punjab, ranging west to the Persian Gulf. 

Habits, <fr. Breeds in April, May, and June, making its nest on 
the ground and surrounding it with a circle of small pieces of 
stone. The eggs, three or four in number, resemble those of 
A. plicenicura and measure about *83 by *6. 



Genus PYRRHULAUDA, Smith, 1839. 

The genus Pyrrhulauda contains those Finch-Larks in which 
the sexes are very different, the males being black beneath and the 
females rufous or white. 

In Pyrrhulauda the bill is very short and deep, with the culmen 
well rounded ; the nostrils are densely covered with plumelets ; 
the wing has ten primaries, the first very small and not exceeding 
the primary-coverts, the second reaching to the tip of the wing ; 
the hind claw is very short and curved. 

The Larks of this genus affect open country and they take short 
nights, ascending and descending suddenly. They occasionally 
perch on houses and trees. 



Key to the Species. 

a. Lower surface blackish. 

a. Forehead and crown ashy brown, 

margined with pale grey P. grisea tf , p. 341. 

//. Forehead white, crown blackish .... P. melanauchen tf , p. 343. 

b. Lower plumage pale rufous or whitish. 
c'. General aspect of upper plumage 

brown ; wing 2'9 P. yrisea $ , p. 341. 

d'. General aspect of upper plumage 

sandy ; wing 3'1 or 3-2 P. melanauchen <j> , p. 343. 



879. Pyrrhulauda grisea. The Ashy-crowned Finch-Lark. 

Alauda grisea, Scop. Del. Flor. et Faun. Insubr. ii, p. 95 (1786). 

Pyrrhulauda grisea (Scop.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 134 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, 
p. 479 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 424 ; Hume, N. # E. p. 479 ; Batt, S. F. vii, 
p. 223 ; id.Cat. no. 760 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 637 ; Barnes, Birds 
Bom. p. 277 ; Sharpc, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 652 ; Oates in Hume's 
N. S? E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 2-l:J. 



342 ALAUDIDJE. 

The Black-bellied Finch-Lark, Jerd. ; Diyora, Duri, Dabhak chun, 
Jothauli, Hind. ; Chat-bharai, Dhula chata, Beng. ; Poti-pichike, Piyada 
pichike, Tel. 

Coloration. Male. Upper plumage ashy brown, each feather 
margined with pale grey and the forehead and crown more broadly 
margined than the other parts ; middle tail-feathers light brown, 
the others dark brown, the outermost feather with the outer web 
and the terminal half of inner whitish; wings dark brown 
margined with pale grey ; lores, front part of cheeks, a supercilium, 
chin, throat, sides of neck, breast, abdomen, and under tail-coverts 
dark chocolate-brown ; posterior part of cheeks, ear-coverts, and 
sides of the breast white ; sides of body mixed ashy and blackish ; 
under wing-coverts and axillaries chocolate-brown. 




Fig. 97. Head of P. grisea. 

Female. Darker brown above, with narrower and darker grey 
margins and with a tinge of rufous throughout ; tail as in the male ; 
wings of much the same colour as the upper plumage ; lores, a 
supercilium, and round the eye rufous ; ear-coverts mixed rufous 
and brown ; lower plumage pale rufous, with obscure, ill-defined 
brown striations chiefly on the breast. 

The young bird resembles the female, but has the margins of the 
feathers of the upper plumage very distinct and broad and of a 
pale rufous colour. 

Iris dark brown ; legs and feet brownish flesh ; bill bluish flesh, 
horny brown on the culmen (Butler). 

Length about 5-5 ; tail 1*8 ; wing 3 ; tarsus -55 ; bill from 
gape -5. 

Distribution. The plains of India from Sind to the longitude of 
Calcutta and from the foot of the Himalayas to Cape Comorin, 
extending to Ceylon. This species is not recorded from the northern 
and western portions of the Punjab, but with this exception is 
found throughout the above area in suitable localities. It is every- 
where a permanent resident. 

Habits, <$fc. Breeds from January to August, having two broods 
in the year. The nest is a small pad of grass, fibres, and feathers 
placed on the ground. The eggs, two in number, are speckled with 
brown and grey and measure about *73 by *55. 



:; |:s 

880. Pyrrhulauda melanauchen. The Black-crowned Finch-Lark. 

Coraphites melanauchen, Cabanis, Mm. Hein. i, p. 124 (1850). 

Pyrrkulauda affinis, Blyth, Ibis, 1807, p. 185 j Hume, S. F. i, p. 212. 

Pyrrhulauda melanauchen ( Cab.), Hume, S. F. vii, p. G4 ; id. Cat. 
no. 750 bis ; Barnes, iJirrfx Horn. p. 277 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, 
p. G55 ; Gates in Hume's N. Sf E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 248. 

Coloration. Male. Besembles male of P. yrisea, but differs in 
having the forehead broadly white, the whole crown dark chocolate- 
brown or blackish, and the white of the ear-coverts produced 
narrowly round the hind neck to form a collar ; the black sides of 
the neck are also produced as a collar over the mantle, im- 
mediately behind the white collar. 

Female. Resembles the female of P. yrisea, but is much paler and 
more sandy ; the lower plumage is less rufous and almost pure 
white on the abdomen, and the streaks are fewer in number. 

Bill pale whity brown, bluish on lower mandible ; legs and feet 
pale whity brown ; iris brown (Hume). 

Length about 5-5 ; tail 2-2 ; wing 3-3 ; tarsus -65 ; bill from 
gape '5. 

Distribution. A permanent resident in Sind and the western half 
of Rajputana. This species has also been obtained at Muttra, just 
within the limits of the Punjab. It extends westwards to Arabia 
and North-eastern Africa. 

Habits, $c. Breeds apparently throughout the year in Sind, 
having three broods. The nest and eggs appear to be very similar to 
those of P. yrisea, and the eggs measure about *75 by *54. 



Family NECTAKINIID^). 

The intrinsic muscles of the syrinx fixed to the ends of the 
bronchial semi-rings ; both mandibles finely and evenly serrated on 
the terminal third of their edges ; tongue tubular ; bill long and 
cylindrical ; the nestling resembling the adult female ; one moult in 
the year ; wing of ten primaries, the first small ; rectrices twelve ; 
tarsus scutellated ; rictal bristles short. 

The Nectariniidce, or Sun-birds, constitute a family of birds which 
are found only in the Old World and chiefly within the tropics. The 
Sun-birds are of small and delicate make and the majority are clothed 
in resplendent plumage. They are found solitary or in pairs ; they 
are entirely arboreal in their habits and they feed on minute insects 
and on the nectar of flowers. This latter they secure with their 
tongues when clinging to flower-stems, as they are unable to poise 
themselves in the air, after the manner of Humming-birds, except 



344 

on rare occasions, and only then for a very brief interval. The males 
have a short but pretty song in the breeding-season. The Sun-birds 
build elaborate pensile nests at the end of branches or attach them 
to the underside of a broad leaf, such as that of a plantain (Huso). 
They usually lay two eggs, which are always, so far as is known, 
spotted. 

After examining all the known species of Sun-birds I find that 
without exception they are characterized by having both mandibles 
of the bill serrated on the terminal third of their length. This 
character suffices to separate them from all the other Passeres 




Fig. 98. Bill of Anthothreptes malaccensis (enlarged), to show serrated edges 
of mandibles. 

except the Dicceidce, and from these they may be distinguished by the 
shape of their bill, which is long, fine, and cylindrical, whereas in 
the Dicceidce it is short and triangular. Under these circumstances 
the key to the families of Passeres (vol. i, pp. 8, 9) is susceptible of 
being considerably improved and simplified by deleting section a 4 , 
Tongue non-tubular and b*, Tongue tubular. The Nectariniidce 
may then be entered under section b' together with the Dicceidce, 
thus : 

b'. Both mandibles finely and evenly serrated on the 

terminal third of their edges. 
c". Bill long, fine, and cylindrical ; primaries invari- 
ably ten Nectariniidae. 

d". Bill short and triangular ; primaries either nine 

or ten Dicaeidae. 

I find also that, for reasons explained in their proper place, the 
genus Chalcoparia cannot be placed among the Nectariniidce. The 
position of this genus is undoubtedly among the Liotrichince in the 
family Crateropodidce, probably near Myzornis. 

It has frequently been asserted that the males of many species 
of Indian Sun-birds have a distinct summer and winter plumage. 
After examining the very large series of Sun-birds in the British 
Museum, I am convinced that this is never the case. Full- 
plumaged males of all the common species, and it is of these that 
the assertion has been made, shot in every month of the year, 
or at such frequent intervals as to practically amount to the same 
thing, are in the National Collection, and prove that the adult males 
never change their colours. Young males are to be found through- 
out their first year in immature plumage, and these have probably 



OHALCOSTETHA. 345 

given rise to the belief that a seasonal change takes place in the 
adult. 

The young birds of both sexes resemble the adult female up to 
the first autumn moult. The males then commence to assume the 
colours of the adult and the change is effected very slowly and 
probably extends over a whole year. 

The Indian Sun-birds may be conveniently divided into two 
subfamilies. 

Sexes different ; plumage of male in part 

metallic ; bill slender ; nest pensile. Nectariniince, p. 345. 
Sexes alike ; plumage non-metallic ; bill 

large ; nest cup-shaped, attached by 

a portion of the rim to a broad 

leaf Arachnotherince, p. 368. 



Subfamily NECTARINIINCE. 

The Sun-birds of this subfamily are characterized by a slender 
body and an attenuated bill ; by the sexes being different, and by 
the males having bright metallic colours in their plumage, the 
females being of a dull green or yellow colour. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Covering-membrane of nostril feathered. CHALCOSTETHA, p. 345. 

b. Covering-membrane of nostril bare. 

a'. Lower mandible of bill distinctly 

curved downwards. 
a". Males with middle tail-feathers 
elongated ; rump yellow ; females 

with lower plumage green ^ETHOPYGA, p. 346. 

b' 1 . Both sexes with short, rounded 

tails ; females yellow beneath . . ARACHNECHTHRA, p. 357. 
b'. Lower mandible of bill straight or 

nearly so ANTHOTHREPTES, p. 3(>">. 



Genus CHALCOSTETHA, Cabanis, 1850. 

The genus Chalcostetha contains a single species of Sun-bird, 
which may be recognized by the covering-membrane of the nostril 
being completely plumed and by the tail being of considerable 
length and well graduated. The bill is slender and the lower 
mandible is nearly straight. 

881. Chalcostetha pectoralis. Mnklot's Sun-in,-'!. 

Nectarinia pectoralis, Temm. PI. Col. pi. 138, fig. 3 (1823). 
Nectarinia insignia. Jard. Naturalist's Libr.. Sun-bird*, p. 274 

(1848). 

Nectarinia insignis, Gould, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 663. 
Chalcostetha insignis (Jard.), Wuldcn, Ibis, 1870, p. 44; Hume,S.F. 



346 

iii, p. 319 ; Shelley, Mon. Nect. pp. xxv, 87, pi. 30 ; Hume fy Dav. 

S. F. vi, p. 183 ; Hume, Cat. no. 231 ter j Gadmo, Cat. S. M. ix, 

p. 12. 

Clialcostetha insperata, Hume, S. F. iii, p. 320 (1875). 
Chalcostetha pectoralis (Te?nm.), Oates, B. B. i, p. 317. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, and nape metallic green ; 
lores, sides of the head, and back black \ scapulars, lesser and 
median wing-coverts, lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts 
metallic green suffused with lilac ; greater coverts and quills dark 
brown margined with purple ; tail deep blue margined with 
metallic purple ; chin and throat metallic copper-colour, surrounded 
by lilac-purple, which colour also covers the whole breast ; pectoral 
tufts bright yellow ; abdomen, sides of the body, and under tail- 
coverts dull brownish black. 

Female. Forehead, crown, and nape brown, edged with grey ; 
upper plumage dull olive-green ; quills brown, edged with the 
colour of the back ; tail black, all but the median pair of feathers 
tipped white ; feathers round the eye, sides of the head, chin, and 
throat pale grey ; breast, abdomen, and sides of the body yellow ; 
vent and under tail-coverts pale yellowish white. 

The young resemble the female, and the young male moults into 
adult plumage at the first autumn. 

Legs and feet black or bluish black ; bill black ; iris dark brown 
(Hume Damson). 

Length about 5*5 ; tail 2*1 ; wing 2*3 ; tarsus '55 ; bill from 
gape -8.^ 

Distribution. The extreme southern point of Tenasserim and 
Patoe Island, extending down the Malay peninsula to the islands. 



Genus JETHOPYGA, Cabanis, 1850. 

The genus ^fhopyga contains those Sun-birds, the males of 
which have the middle pair of tail-feathers produced beyond the 
next pair and the lower back or rump yellow. The females are 
not so easy to diagnose. They resemble each other very closely 
and also the females of the next genus AracTinecJithra, but they 
may be distinguished from the latter by the general green tone of 
the lower plumage. 

In this genus the bill is slender and well curved downwards and 
the covering-membrane of the nostril is bare. 



Key to the Species. 

a. Chin and throat crimson. 

a'. Middle tail-feathers exceeding next pair 

by more than length of tarsus, 
a". 'Crown and tail metallic green ; tail 

27 AL. seheria rf , p. 348. 

b". Crown and tail metallic violet ; tail 

2-4 JE. andersoni S , P- 349. 



jETHOPYGA. 347 

V. Middle tail-feathers exceeding next pair 

by less than half tarsus, 
c". No metallic patch behind the ear- 
coverts. 

a'". Moustachial streak entirely violet. AS. cara d*,p. 340. 
b'". Moustachial streak bordered with 

black interiorly AL. nicobarica c?, p. 350. 

d" '. A metallic patch behind the ear- 
coverts JE. rif/orsf $ , p. 350. 

b. Chin and throat of a dark colour, not 
crimson. 

c' '. Middle tail-feathers red A2. ignicauda $ , p. 351 . 

d'. Middle tail-feathers green or violet. 
e" . Back crimson. 

c'". Dark portion of crown abruptly 
defined posteriorly and not ex- 
tending to nape. 

a l . Breast yellow JE. goiddifP tf , p. 352. 

b 1 . Breast crimson AZ. dabryi $ , p. 353. 

d" '. Dark portion of crown extending 

to hind neck or mantle. 
c 4 . Crown, upper tail-coverts, and 
tail steel-blue. 

a\ Breast black JE. saturata $ , p. 354. 

6 5 . Breast yellow, streaked with [p. 354. 

crimson AL. sawjuinipectiis <$ , 

d 1 . Crown, upper tail-coverts, and 

tail green A2. nepaknsis <5 , p. 355. 

f". Back olive-yellow AL. Iwrsficldi <$ , p. 350. 

<-. Chin and throat green, like remainder of 

lower plumage. 

e'. A yellow band across the rump. 
y". Upper plumage light green. 

e'". Bill from gape to tip '8 AL. saturata $ , p. 354. 

/". Bill from gape to tip -65 AE. gonldia $ , p. 352. 

h". Upper plumage dull green tinged 

with ashy. [p. :55-l. 

(/'". Bill from gape to tip *8 A. rnng^mwecbu $ , 

h'". Bill from gape to tip 7 sE. dabryi $ , p. 353. 

f'. No yellow band across rump. 

i". Distance from tip of outermcst feather 
of tail to tip of tail equal to tarsus 
or more. 

i'". Pale tips to tail-feathers obsolete. A\. ii/Htcauda _9 , p. -151. 
//". Tips of tail-feathers large, white, ^ nepa i ensis $ p . 955. 

and weU-defined {^ JU-L 9 i> 'us 

k". Distance from tip of outermost feather ' 
of tail to tip of tail less than hind 
toe. 
I"'. Tail about 17 ; lower plumage 

distinctly ashy green JE. rigorsi $ , p. 350. 

m". Tail about 1'5 j lower- plumage 

distinctly pure green* JE. cam $ , p. 349. 



* I have not been able to examine females of M. nicobarica and JE. andcr- 
soni, and the only female of IE,, horsfieldi accessible to me has no bill. I conse- 
quently omit these three from the Key. 



348 NECTARIN1ID2E. 



882. JEthopyga seherise. The Himalayan Yellow-backed 
Sun-bird. 

Nectarinia seherise, Tickell, J. A. S. B. ii, p. 577 (1833). 

Cinnyris miles, Hodgs. Ind. Rev. ii, p. 273 (1837). 

Certhia goalpariensis, Royle, III. Him. Bot. p. Ixxvii, pi. 7 (1839). 

Nectarinia goalpariensis (Royle), Blyth, Cat. p. 223. 

^thopyga miles (Hodas.), Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 732 ; Jerd. B. 1. i, 
p. 362 ; Ball, S.F. ii, p. 396 ; Hume, S. F. v, p. 122. 

^Ethopyga goalpariensis (Lath.), Hume, N. fy E. p. 146. 

^Ethopyga seherise (Tick.), Shelley, Man. Aect. pp. xxi, xxiii, 67, 
pi. 22 ; Hume, Cat. no. 225 ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix, p. 18 ; Hume, 
8. F. xi, p. 80 ; Oates in Hume's N. Sf E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 249. 

The Himalayan Red Honey-sucker, Jerd. 

Coloration. Forehead and greater part of the crown metallic 
green; hinder part of crown and nape brownish green; back, 
scapulars, lesser and median wing-coverts, sides of head and neck, 
chin, throat, and breast crimson ; rump bright yellow ; upper tail- 
coverts and middle pair of tail-feathers metallic green ; the other 
tail-feathers brown, suffused with violet and edged with metallic 
green ; greater coverts of wing and quills dark brown, margined 
with olive-yellow; a long narrow moustachial streak metallic 
violet ; abdomen, flanks, and under tail-coverts slaty greenish 
yellow ; under wing-coverts and axillaries pale yellowish white. 

Female. General colour green, the centres of the feathers of the 
crown dark ashy, the back, upper tail-coverts, and the margins of 
the wing-feathers suffused with yellow and with a russet tinge ; 
under wing-coverts, axillaries, and sides of the body clear pale 
yellow ; chin, throat, and sides of head suffused with ashy ; middle 
tail-feathers greenish, the laterals blackish tipped broadly with 
white. 

Legs and feet dark brown ; upper mandible dark brown ; 
lower mandible dark horny brownish yellow ; iris dark brown 
(Hume). 

Male : length about 6 ; tail 2-7 ; wing 2-2 ; tarsus '55 ; bill from 
gape -8. Female: length about 5 ; tail T8 ; wing 2. In the male 
the middle tail-feathers project one inch beyond the tips of the 
next pair ; in the female the middle tail-feathers are *75 longer 
than the outermost feathers. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Garhwal to Dibrugarh in 
Assam up to 7000 feet in summer ; Cachar ; Sylhet ; the Khasi 
hills ; Manipur. This species is also found in the plains, having 
been recorded from Seheria in Borabhoom by Tickell and an ^Eiho- 
pyga was seen in Singbhoom by Ball. It is commonly found along 
the base of the Himalayas at all seasons, and it is probably resident 
in all parts of its range, except the higher portions of the Himalayas. 

Habits, Sfc. Breeds from April to August, constructing a pear- 
shaped nest suspended from the end of a twig not far from the 
ground. The materials of which the nest is made are grass and 



THOPYGA. 349 

rootlets externally and line steins of flowering grasses internally. 
The eggs, two or three in number, are white speckled with greyish 
purple, and measure about -59 by -46. 



883. TEthopyga andersoni, n. sp. Anderson's Yellow-backed 
Sun-bird. 

xEthopyga miles (Hodys.), apud Anderson, Yunnan Exped., Aves, 

p. 061. 
-Ethopyga cara, Hume, apud Salvadori, Ann. Mus.Cic. Gen. (2) iv, 

p. 593. 

Coloration. Male. Differs from JE. seherice in having the fore- 
head, crown, and the visible portions of the closed tail metallic lilac, 
not green, and the tail measuring 2-4 inches. 

Female. Unknown. 

Distribution. There are three specimens of this species in the 
British Museum two obtained by Dr. Anderson at JSawaddy east 
of Bhiimo in January, and one obtained by my own collector at 
Bhumo in November. All three are adult males and agree with 
each other in the particulars pointed out above. 



884. JEthopyga cara, The Tenasserim Yellow-backed Sun-bird. 

^Ethopyga miles (Hodgs.), apud Wald. P. Z. S. 1866, p. 541 j Seavan, 

Ibis, 1869, p. 419. 
./Ethopyga cara, Hume, S. F. ii, p. 473, note (1874) ; HutneSf Davi- 

son, tf. /*'. vi, p. 179; Shelley, Mon. Nect. pp. xxi, xxiii, 63, pi. 21 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 225 ter ; Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 170; Oates, B. B. i, 

p. 316 ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix, p. 19 ; Salvador}, Ann. Mus. Civ. 

G<>.n. (2) v, p. 690, vii, p. 68. 

Coloration. Male. Differs from the males of JE. seherice and 
<dE. andersoni in having the crown tinged with violet and the nape 
crimson, not brown ; the middle tail-feathers only "2 longer than 
the next pair, whereas in JE. seherice these feathers are '7 longer 
than the adjoining ones : the exposed portions of the closed tail 
are metallic violet, not metallic green. 

Female. Differs from the female of <&. seherice in wanting the 
pale yellow on the flanks, in having the tail 1*5 long, and in having 
the outermost tail-feathers only '2 inch shorter than the middle 
ones. 

Legs and feet dark chocolate-brown ; upper mandible black ; 
lower mandible pale reddish brown ; iris dark brown ; mouth pale 
salmon-colour. 

Male : length about 5 ; tail 2'1 ; wing 2'2 ; tarsus -5 ; bill from 
gape *75. Female : length about 4*3 ; tail 1*5 ; wing 2. 

Distribution. Pegu east of the Irrawaddy river, from the sea up to 
a few miles north of the town of Pegu ; Teuasserim from Toungngoo 
down to Tenasserim town and the Thouugyeeu valley. The limits 



350 

of this species to the north and west are unknown, and it must 
remain doubtful for the present whether this Sun-bird extends to 
Arrakan or not. 



885. JEthopyga nicobarica. The Nicdbar Yellows-backed Sun- 

bircL 

^Ethopyga nicobarica, Hume, S. F. i, p. 412 (1873) ; Shelley, Mm. 
Nect. pp. xx, 61, pi. 20 ; Hume, Cat. no. 225 bis ; Gadow, Cat. B. 
M. ix. p. 22. 

Coloration. Male. Differs from JE. seherice in having the metallic 
portion of the crown of very small extent and suffused with violet ; 
the nape crimson ; the moustachial stripe lined with black interiorly ; 
the exposed parts of the tail violet, not green. 

Female. Differs from ^E. seherice in wanting the yellow on the 
flanks ; in having the tail 1'3 inches in length, the lateral feathers 
being only '2 shorter than the middle pair ; and in having a much 
broader and a pale-coloured bill. 

The male agrees with that of &. cara in having short middle 
tail-feathers, but differs from it in having a smaller cap and the 
moustachial stripe lined with black. 

Both Hume and Shelley are in error, I think, in asserting that the 
female of this species has the throat red ; three specimens in the 
Hume Collection, sexed as females ib is true, but having the throat 
red, are in my opinion young males, and the females when obtained 
will probably prove to be green birds without a trace of red, as is 
the case with all the other species of this genus. 

This species differs from ^E. siparaja, which inhabits the Malay 
peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo, in having a much longer bill. In 
JE 1 . siparaja the bill measured at front is '6. 

Male : legs, feet, and upper mandible dark brown ; lower mandi- 
ble pale brown ; iris brown. Female : upper mandible horny brown ; 
lower mandible, legs, and feet yellow ; iris brown (Hume). 

Male: length about 5; tail 2 wing 2*1 ; tarsus *5; bill at 
front -75. 

Distribution. The Nicobar Islands. 



886. .ffithopyga vigors!. Vigors's Yellow-backed Sun-bird. 

Cinnyris vigorsii, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 98. 

^Ethopyga vigorsii (Sykes), Horsf. # M . Cat. ii, p. 733 ; Jerd. B. I. 

i, p. 363; Wald. Ibis, 1870, p. 33; Fairbank, S. F. iv, p. 255; 

Hume, S. F. v, p. 122 ; Cat. no. 226 ; Shelley, Mon. Nect. pp. xxi, 

xxiii, 71, pi. 23 ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix, p. 18 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 

p. 135 ; Gates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 250. 

The Violet-eared Red Honey-sucker, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead and central portion of crown 
metallic green ; hinder part of crown and nape dull blackish ; sides 



jETHOPYGA. 351 

of the head and neck, hind neck, back, scapulars, and lesser wing- 
coverts deep red, the concealed black bases of the feathers showing 
up in places ; rump bright yellow, some of the feathers occasionally 
tipped crimson ; upper tail-coverts metallic green ; tail black 
suffused with violet, the middle pair of feathers aud the outer 
margins of the others metallic green ; median wing-coverts black 
margined with crimson ; greater coverts, primary-coverts, winglet, 
and quills brown ; a long rnoustachial streak and a patch behind the 
ear-coverts metallic violet ; chin, throat, and breast deep red finely 
streaked with yellow ; the red of the breast bounded by a black 
baud which extends more or less down the middle of the abdomen ; 
remainder of lower plumage ashy grey ; under \viug-coverts and 
axillaries white. 

Female. General colour dull green ; the feathers of the forehead 
brow r n margined with green ; the lo\ver plumage suffused with 
ashy ; the under tail-coverts broadly margined with ashy yellow ; 
under wing-coverts and axillaries pale yellowish. 

The young resemble the adult female and the young male as- 
sumes the adult plumage at the first spring by a moult. 

Iris red-brown, crimson (Fairbank) ; legs and bill dark brown or 
blackish. 

Length nearly 6 ; tail 2'3 ; w r ing 2'5 ; tarsus 'G5 ; bill from gape 
95 ; the female has the tail 1'7 and the wing 2*2. 

Distribution. The British Museum series of this Sun-bird contains 
birds from Western Khandesh, Matheran, Khaudala, Mahablesh- 
war, and the Malabar coast. This latter locality is very vague. 
Hume gives the range of this bird as extending from the valley of 
the Tapti river to some distance south of Mahableshwar along the 
line of ghats. Jerdon observed this species in the Bastar country 
south-east of Nagpore, but this locality requires confirmation. 

Habits, $*c. The accounts of the nidificatiou of this bird are very 
incomplete. It breeds in June and in September, and the nest 
appears to resemble that of JE. seherice. An egg is described as 
being white, very thickly freckled with yellowish brown, and 
measuring *63 by *48. 



887. -ZEthopyga ignicauda. The Fire-tailed Yellow-backed 

bird. 

Cimiyris ignicaudus, Hodys. Lid. Rev. ii, p. 273 (1837). 

Nectarinia ignicauda (Hodgs.), Blytli, Cat. p. 223. 

^Ethopyga ignicauda (Hodr/s.), Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 734 ; Jcr<L 
B. I. i, p. 365 ; Wald. Ibis, 1870, p. 3G ; /Stanford, J. A. S. B. xli, 
pt. ii, ]>. 44 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 15(> ; tihcl/ci/, 
Mon. Ncct. pp. xx, 45, pi. 15 ; Hume, Cat. no. 228; Gadoiv, Cat. 
B. M. ix, p. 25. 

The Fire-tailed JKcd Honey-sucker, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead and crown metallic blue ; sides of the 
crown, nape, hind neck, sides of the neck, back, scapulars, upper 



352 

tail-coverts, and middle pair of tail-feathers crimson ; remainder 
of tail brown, margined with crimson or rufous exteriorly ; rump 
yellow ; wings brown, each feather edged with olive-yellow ; sca- 
pulars greenish ; chin and throat purple, changing to steel-blue at 
the sides ; lores and ear-coverts dull black ; breast yellow suffused 
in the middle with crimson ; remainder of lower plumage dull 
greenish yellow. 

Female. General colour green, the crown-feathers with concealed 
dark centres, the rump and upper tail-coverts margined with 
greenish yellow ; wings dark brown margined with yellowish ; 
middle tail-feathers yellowish brown, the others blackish on the 
inner web and green on the outer, and obsoletely tipped pale ; throat 
and breast tinged with ashy; middle of abdomen rather bright yellow. 

Bill and legs black; iris dark brown (Hume Coll.) 

Male : length about 8 ; tail 5 ; wing 2-3 ; tarsus '65 ; bill from 
gape "85 ; the middle pair of tail-feathers are 2'7 longer than the 
next pair. Female: length about 5; tail 1*6; wing 2*2; the 
outermost tail-feathers fall short of tip of tail by *5. 

Distribution. Nepal ; Sikhim ; Bhutan ; the Khasi hills ; the 
Naga hills ; Manipnr. Hume records this species from Kurnauu 
and Garhwal and also from Sylhet and Cachar ; but I have seen no 
specimens from these localities. Blanford observed this bird in 
Sikhim at 11,000 feet. 



888. .ffithopyga gouldiae. Mrs. Gould's Yellow-backed Sun-bird. 

Cinnyrisgouldise, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 44 ; Gould, Cent. pi. 56. 

Nectarinia gouldiae ( Vigors), Blyth, Cat. p. 223. 

^Ethopyga gouldiee ( Vigors), Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 733 ; Jerd. B. 1. 
i, p. 364 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. 'xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 23 ; Wald. Ibis, 
1870, p. 35 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 156 ; Shelley, 
Mon. Nect. Tpip. xx, xxii, 41, pi. 14; Hume, Cat. no. 227; Oates, 
B. B. i, p. 315 ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix, p. 27 ; Hume, S. F. xi, 
p. 81. 

The Purple-taUed Red Honey-sucker, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, chin, throat, and the posterior 
part of the ear-coverts coppery red or burnished purple according 
to the light ; lores blackish ; a line of feathers over the lores, cheeks, 
sides of the head and neck, lesser wing-coverts, back, and scapulars 
crimson ; rump yellow ; upper tail-coverts rich purple or violet ; 
basal three quarters of the median tail-feathers bright purple, ter- 
minal quarter brown ; the other rectrices brown, tinged with purple 
on the outer web and tipped with whitish ; greater coverts and 
quills dark brown, edged with yellowish brown ; lower plumage 
bright yellow ; the breast more or less streaked with crimson ; the 
sides of the breast crimson, with a patch of bright purple below the 
ear-coverts ; under wing-coverts and axillaries whitish. 

Female. Upper plumage light green, the feathers of the crown 
with brown centres ; rump sulphur-yellow ; tail brown edged with 



IT! I "I- VGA. 353 

olive-green, the lateral feathers broadly tipped with whitish ; quills 
brown edged with green ; the whole lower plumage yellowish green. 

Bill blackish brown ; iris reddish chocolate-brown ; tarsus deep 
brown ; toes a little paler (Hume). 

Male: length about 6; tail 3; wing 2-1 ; tarsus *55 ; bill from 
gape -7. Female : tail 1-4 ; wing 2 ; bill from gape -65. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from the Sutlej valley to Sikhim, 
up to 10,000 feet ; the Khasi hills ; the JNaga hills ; Manipur ; 
Arrakan. This last locality I give on the authority of Blyth. Hume 
gives this species from Hill Tipperah and Chittagong, but there 
are no specimens in his collection from these localities. 



889. JEthopyga dabryi. Dairy's Yellow-backed Sun-bird. 

Nectarinia dabryii, J. Verr. Rev. et Mag. Zool 1807, p. 173. pi. 15. 

^thopyga debrii (J. Verr.), Wald. Ibis, 1870, p. 35. 

^Ethopyga dabryi (J. Verr.), Shelley, Mon. Nect. pp. xx, xxi, 39, pi. 13 ; 

Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 662 ; Hume fy Dav. S. _F. vi, 

p. 180 ; Hume, Cat. no. 227 bis ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix, p. 28 ; 

Oates, B. B. i, p. 314 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) vii, 

p. 395. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, chin, throat, and upper part 
of ear-coverts metallic purple or lilac according to the light ; the 
nape, sides of the crown, feathers round the eye, sides of the neck, 
back, scapulars, and lesser and median wing-coverts deep crimson ; 
rump bright yellow ; upper tail-coverts and broad margins to basal 
two thirds of the middle tail-feathers metallic purple ; remainder 
of the tail black, the outer three pairs of feathers tipped with dull 
white ; greater coverts and quills brown, edged with yellowish green ; 
breast scarlet, with a patch of metallic purple on either side ; abdo- 
men, vent, sides of the body, and under tail-coverts yellow, tinged 
with dusky ; under wing-coverts and axillaries pale yellow. 

Female. Upper plumage olive-green ; the feathers of the crown 
with dark brown centres ; rump pale yellow ; tail brown, edged 
narrowly with olive-green and the three outer pairs of feathers 
tipped with dull whitish ; quills brown, edged with dull greenish 
yellow ; the whole lower plumage dull pale green. 

Legs and feet dark horny brown ; bill dusky black ; irides deep 
brown (Davison). Iris, bill, and legs brown (Wardlaw Ramsay). 

Male : length 5*7 ; tail 2'6 ; wing 2-2 ; tarsus -55 ; bill from 
gape *7. Female : length 3'5 ; tail 1/3 ; wing 1'75. 

Distribution. The higher portions of Muleyit mountain in Ten- 
asserim ; the Karen hills east of Toungngoo ; Kareunee ; the hills 
east of Bhamo, extending into South-western China. Hume is 
certain that he observed this species in Manipur, but he failed to 
obtain a specimen. This Sun-bird appears to be a hill-species and 
to be found only above 4000 feet. 

VOL. II. 1' A 



354 KECTAErNIIDJE. 

890. JEthopyga saturata. The Black-breasted Yellow-backed 
Sun-bird. 

Cinnyris saturatus, Hodgs. Ind. Rev. ii, p. 273 (1837). 

Nectarinia saturata (Hodg8.\ Blyth, Cat. p. 224. 

^Etkopyga saturata (Hodgs. \Horsf. 8f M. Cat.u,?. 735 5 Jerd. B. I. 
i, p. 367 ; Wald. Ibis, 1870, p. 36 ; Godiv.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, 
pt. ii, p. 98 ; Hume, N. 8f E. p. 147 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, 
pt. ii, p. 70 ; Shelley, Mon. Nect. pp. xx, xxi, 35, pi. 11 ; Hume, Cat. 
no. 231 ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix, p. 15 : Hume, S. F. xi, p. 82 : Oates 
in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 250, 

The Black-breasted Honey-sucker, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, nape, and hind neck metallic 
steel-blue ; back dark red ; lesser wing-coverts, scapulars, and lower 
back dull deep black ; the black of the lower back succeeded by a 
yellow band ; rump and upper tail-coverts metallic steel-blue ; 
tail dull black except the basal two-thirds of the middle pair of 
feathers, which are metallic steel-blue ; median, greater, primary - 
coverts, and winglet dark brown edged with black ; quills brown, 
edged narrowly with olivaceous ; lores and sides of the head black ; 
sides of neck dull red ; chin, throat, breast, and upper abdomen 
deep black ; a broad moustachial streak metallic steel-blue ; re- 
mainder of lower plumage pale greenish ; under wing-coverts and 
axillaries pale yellowish white. 

Female. General colour light green; a broad band of light 
yellow across the rump ; the wings and tail margined with olive- 
green ; the under wing-coverts and axillaries clear pale yellow ; the 
three or four outer pairs of tail-feathers blackish, broadly tipped 
with dull white. 

Bill black ; legs brown ; iris brown (Jerdon). 

Length of .male nearly 6 ; tail 3 ; wing 2-15 ; tarsus '55 ; bill 
from gape '8 ; the female has the tail 1*6 and the wing 1*9. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Garhwal to the extreme east 
of Assam ; the Khasi hills ; Manipur. This species appears to be 
found up to 5000 feet. 

Habits, $c. The nest of this bird appears, from Hodgson's de- 
scription,- to resemble that of ^E. seherice. The breeding-season 
commences in April. The eggs are described as being white marked 
with brown and measuring about '6 by '43. 



891. .ZEthopyga sanguinipectus. Walderis Yellow -backed Sun- 
bird. 

^Ethopyga sanguinipectus, Wald. A. M. N. H. (4) xv, p. 400 (1875) ; 
Hume, S. F. iii, p. 402 ; Wald. in Blyth' s Birds Burin, p. 142 ; 
Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, p. 182 ; Hume, Cat. no. 231 bis ; Shelley, 
Mon. Nect. pp. xx, xxi, 37, pi. 12 ; Oates, B. B. \, p. 313 ; Gadow, 
l at. B. M. ix, p. 27; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, 
p. 590, vii, p. 395. 

^Ethopyga waldeni, Hume, S. F. v, p. 51 (1877). 



JETHOPYGA. 355 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, nape, and hind neck purplish 
steel-blue ; sides of the head dull black ; sides of the neck, back, and 
the shorter scapulars red ; lesser wing-coverts, the longer scapulars, 
and a band on the back below and next to the red deep black ; next 
this black band another yellow one ; remainder of the rump, upper 
tail-coverts, and the basal three quarters of the middle tail-feathers 
steel-blue ; remainder of the tail, the median and greater wing- 
coverts, and the quills blackish brown ; lateral tail-feathers tipped 
with white ; chin black ; throat purplish steel-blue ; upper breast 
black, the lateral feathers tipped with red ; remainder of the lower 
plumage dull green, the breast streaked with crimson; under wing- 
coverts and axillaries yellowish white. 

Female. Upper plumage dull green tinged with ashy, and the 
feathers of the crown with dark centres : rump pale yellow ; lower 
plumage ashy green, becoming paler on the abdomen ; tail blackish, 
all the lateral feathers with pale tips ; under wing-coverts and 
axillaries whitish. 

Bill black ; iris and legs dark brown ( Wardlaw Ramsay}. 

Male : length 5-5 to 6 ; tail 2-7 ; wing 2-1 ; tarsus *55 ; bill 
from gape -8. Female : length about 4 ; tail 1*1 ; wing 1*8. 

Distribution. The Karen hills east of Toungngoo ; Karennee ; 
Mulevit mountain in Tenasserim. This species is found at eleva- 
tions above 2000 feet. 



892. JEthopyga nepalensis. The Nepal Yellow-backed 
Sun-bird. 

Chmyris nipalensis, Hodgs. Ind. Rev. ii, p. 273 (1837). 

Nectarinia nipalensis (Hodgs.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 224. 

JEthopyga nipalensis (Hodgs.}, Horsf. 8f M. Cat. ii, p. 735 ; Jerd. 

B. I. i, p. 366 ; Wald. Ibis, 1870, p. 35 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 147 ; 

Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, p. 70 ; Shelley, Mon. Nect. 

pp. xx, xxi, 29, pi. 10 ; Hume, Cat. no. 229 ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix, 

p. 26 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 82 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. 

ii, p. 251. 

The Maroon-backed Honey-sucker, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, nape, hind neck, sides of 
the crown, chin, and throat metallic green ; sides of the head black ; 
sides of the neck and back deep red ; scapulars, lower back, and the 
margins of all the wing-feathers olive-yellow ; rump bright yellow ; 
upper tail-coverts and the basal three quarters of the middle pair 
of tail-feathers metallic green ; remainder of tail black, all the 
feathers with broad pale tips except the two middle pairs ; lower 
part of throat pure yellow ; breast and upper abdomen yellow 
suffused with red and streaked with crimson ; remainder of lower 
plumage dull greenish yellow; under wing-coverts and axillaries 
white. 

Female. Quite undistinguishable from the female of ^E. seherice. 

Bill nnd legs black ; iris brown (Coclclnirn*). 

2A2 



356 

Male : length about 6 ; tail 2-7 ; wing 2-1 ; tarsus -6 ; bill from 
gape -9. Female : tail 1*7 ; wing 2. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Nepal to the Daphla hills in 
Assam ; the Khasi hills ; Manipur. This species ranges up to 
6000 feet. - The limits of this Sun-bird on the west are difficult 
to define ; they may extend to the extreme west of Nepal, but 
JE. horsfieldi also occurs in this State. 

Habits, Sfc. Judging from Hodgson's account of the nidification 
of this Sun-bird, the nest and eggs do not differ in any material 
respect from those of jffi. seTierice. The eggs, however, appear to 
be less densely marked and measure about '68 by '43. 

Jerdon remarks that a nest of this species which he found at 
Darjiling had a projecting roof over the entrance. No other 
species of this genus, so far as is known, constructs its nest in this 
manner. 



893. JEthopyga horsfieldi. Horsf eld's Yellow-lacked 
Sun-bird. 

Cinnyris horsfieldi, Blyfh, J. A. 8. B. xi, p. 107 (1842). 
Nectarinia horsfieldi (Blytfy, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 975 ; id. Cat. 

p. 224. 
^Ethopyga horsfieldi (BlytJi), Jerd. B. I. \, p. 366 ; Walden, Ibis, 

1870, p. 36 ; Shelley, Mon. Nect. pp. xx, 33, pi. 10 ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 230. 
^thopyga nipalensis (Hodgs.*), Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix, p. 26 (part.). 

The Green-backed Honey-sucker, Jerd. 

Coloration. The male differs from the male of JE. nepalensis in 
having the back and sides of the neck olive-yellow instead of deep 
red, there being merely traces of red along the margin of the metallic 
green of the hind neck ; in Laving the yellow of the breast and 
upper abdomen almost pure, there being hardly a trace of red, and 
in having the streaks of crimson on the breast few and indistinct ; 
and lastly in having a much shorter bill, measuring only '8 from 
gape to tip. 

The females of the two species are undistinguishable from each 
other in colour. The bill of the present species, however, is pro- 
bably shorter, judging from the length of bill of the males of the 
two species. The only female <3$. horsfieldi that I have been able 
to examine is without a bill. 

Distribution. Garhwal, Kumaun, and Nepal, but probably only 
the extreme western portion of the latter State. This species 
descends to the Dehra Dun, and probably is found up to 6000 
feet, as is the case with JE. nepalensis. 



ARACHNECHTHBA. 35? 



Genus ARACHNECHTHRA, Cabanis, 1850. 

I retain the genus Arachnechthra for those Indian Sim-birds in 
which the tail in both sexes is short and rounded, the covering-mem- 
brane of the nostril bare, and the bill slender and much curved 
downwards. The type of the genus Cinnyris, in which genus these 
Sun-birds have latterly been placed, is C. splendida from Africa, and 
this species has the upper tail-coverts very ample, reaching quite to 
the tip of the tail. I cannot therefore consider the Indian species, 
which I retain in Araclmeclitlira, at all congeneric with this African 
bird. 

In the genus Arachneclitlira the sexes are very different in colora- 
tion, the males being clothed in metallic colours and the females 
being greenish above and yellow beneath. The females of the 
different species resemble each other very closely and are difficult 
to separate, except in the case of a few. 



Key to the Species. 

a. Chin and throat dark-coloured and 

metallic. 
a'. Lower plumage, below the breast, 

dark-coloured. 
a". Upper plumage uniformly of one 

colour. 

a'". Abdomen snuff-brown .... A. lotenia tf, p. 358. 
V". Abdomen violet-black .... A. asiatica cJ,p.360, 
b". Upper plumage green, black, and 

blue .? A. hasselti rf, p. 360. 

b' . Lower plumage, below the breast, 

yellow. 

c". Back olive-yellow. 
c'". Forehead and anterior part of 

crown violet-blue A. pectoralis <$ , p. 361. 

d'". Forehead and anterior part 

of crown like back, 
a*. Pectoral tufts yellow and 
flame-colour ; bill from 

gape -8 A. flammcwillaris $ , p. 362. 

b 1 . Pectoral tufts entirely yel- 
low ; bill from gape more 

than -9 A. andamanica 3 , p. 363. 

d". Back crimson. 

e'". Upper tail-coverts metallic 

red A . minima J , p. 363. 

f". Upper tail-coverts metallic 

purple A. zeylonica $ , p. 364. 

b. Chin and throat palo-coloured and non- 

metallic. 

c'. Entire lower plumage yellow. 
e". Rump and upper tail-coverts of 
the same colour as the back. 



358 



g"'. Bill from gape quite 1 inch 

or more .................. A. lotenia $ , p. 358. 

h'". Bill from gape well under 1 

inch. 

c 1 . Lower plumage rich yellow. A. pectoralis $ , p. 361. 
d*. Lower plumage pale yellow. 

d\ Bill at gape '65 ........ A. hasselti , p. 360. 

6 s . Bill at gape '8. 

6 . Lateral tail-feathers 

very narrowly tipped. A. asiatica , p. 359. 
b 6 . Lateral tail-feathers 

very broadly tipped .. A. flammaxillaris $,p. 362. 
c 5 . Bill at gape '9 ........ A. andamanica $ , p. 363. 

f". Kump aud upper tail-coverts 

red .... .................. A. minima $ , p. 363, 

d'. Chin aud throat ashy white; re- 
maining lower parts bright yel- 
low ........................ A. zeylonica $ , p. 364. 



894. Arachnechthra lotenia. Loten's Sun-bird. 

Certhia lotenia, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 188 (1766). 

Nectarinia lotenia (L.), Blyth. Cat. p. 224. 

Arachnechthra lotenia (L.) t Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 743 ; Jerd. B. I. 

i, p. 372 ; Wald. Ibis, 1870, p. 23 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 563 ; 

Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 251. 
Cinnyris lotenius (L.\ Shelley, Mon. Nect. pp. xxviii, xxxvi, 177, 

pi. 56 ; Hume, Cat. no. 235 ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix, p. 60 ; Vidal, 

8. F. ix, p. 57 ; Butler, S. F. ix, p. 390 ; Damson, S. F. x, p. 362 ; 

Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 137. 
The Large Purple Honey-sucker, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. The whole upper plumage metallic green 
glossed with lilac, the upper tail-coverts metallic blue ; lesser and 
median wing-coverts lilac ; greater coverts and wings brown ; tail 
blue ; sides of the head and neck green glossed with lilac ; cheeks, 
chin, and upper throat metallic green ; breast rich metallic violet 
changing to green at the sides ; a band of maroon below the breast ; 
pectoral tufts rich yellow with a small intermixture of crimson ; 
remainder of lower plumage snuff-brown. 

Female. Whole upper plumage, wings, sides of the head, and neck 
greenish brown ; entire lower plumage very dull yellow ; tail 
blackish, the lateral feathers broadly tipped with whitish. 
Bill, legs, feet, and claws black ; iris deep brown (Davison). 
Length about 5*5 ; tail 1*6 ; wing 2'3 ; tarsus *6 ; bill from gape 
1*2. The female is considerably smaller, the tail being about 1*3, 
the wing 2, and the bill from gape 1. 

Distribution. Ceylon and Southern India. On the west this 
species extends north as far as Eatnagiri, but on the east its limits 
are undetermined. Davison found this bird at 5000 feet in the 
Wynaad. 

Habits, fyc. A nest found by Mr. E. H. Aitken in November 
was similar to the nest of A. zeulonica, and contained a young bird 



ARACHNECHTHRA. 359 

and an egg. The latter is described as being dirty brownish white 
covered with dull brown marks. 



895. Arachnechthra asiatica. The Purple Sun-bird. 

Certhia asiatica, Lath. Ind. Orn. i, p. 288 (1790). 
Nectarinia asiatica (Lath.), Blyth, Cat. pp. 224, 328. 
Arachnechthra asiatica (Lath.), Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 743 ; Jerd. 

B. I. i, p. 370 ; Hume, N. fy E. p. 151 ; Wald. Ibis, 1870, p. 20; 

Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 190 ; Gates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. 

ii, p. 252. 
Arachuechthra intermedia, Hume, Ibis, 1870, p. 430 ; id. N. $ E. 

p. 154. 

Nectarinia (Arachnechthra) brevirostris, Blanford, Ibis, 1873, p. 86. 
Arachnechthra edeni, Anderson, Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 661, 

pi. xlix (1878). 
Cinnyris asiaticus (Lath.), Shelley, Mon. Nect. pp. xxviii, xxxvi, 181, 

pi. 57 ; Hume, Cat. no. 234 ; Legye, Birds Ceyl. p. 566; Gadow, Cat. 

B. M. ix, p. 56 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 259 ; Gates, B. B. \, p. 321 ; 

Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 137. 

The Purple Honey-sucker, Jerd. ; Shaken- khora, Hind. ; Jugi jugi, 
Bhagalpur ; Than kudi, Tana ; Gewdl kurulla, Cing. 




Fig. 99. Head of A. asiatica. 

Coloration. Male. The whole upper plumage, sides of the head 
and neck, and the lesser and median wing-coverts metallic violet- 
blue or greenish ; greater coverts and all the quills brown, edged 
paler ; tail bluish black ; chin, throat, and fore neck metallic violet ; 
breast like the sides of the neck ; a narrow band below the breast 
coppery brown, of varying extent, sometimes absent ; the large 
pectoral tufts mixed orange-red and bright yellow ; abdomen, vent, 
and under tail-coverts violet-blacL 

Female. Upper plumage, wings, and sides of the head and neck 
greenish brown ; lower plumage rather bright yellow ; tail dark 
brown or blackish, the laterals narrowly tipped with white. 

Young males have generally a broad stripe from the chin to the 
abdomen dark metallic violet ; the remainder of the lower plumage 
yellow. 

Bill black ; iris hazel-brown ; eyelids plumbeous ; legs black ; 
claws dark horn. 

Length 4-5 ; tail 1-5 ; wing 2-1 ; tarsus -6 ; bill from gape '8. 

Birds from Burma are remarkable for the rich tone of their 
coloration, the prevailing tint being rich violet. In India, especi- 
ally in the dry north-western portions, the prevailing tint is rather 
green. Intermediate birds are also found ; and this variation of 
colour, coupled with a bill which also varies remarkably in length 



860 NECTA.RINIIDJ3. 

has caused this bird to be subdivided into several races, none of 
which, however, appears worthy to be upheld. 

Distribution. The whole peninsula of India from Cape Comorin 
to the Himalayas, where this species is found up to 5000 feet, and 
from Sind and the Punjab to the extreme east of Assam, thence 
extending south through Burma to Central Teuasserim and the 
Thoungyeen valley. The furthest point south in Tenasserim 
where this bird has been observed on the sea-board is Tay. This 
Sun-bird also occurs in Ceylon. 

Outside Indian limits, this species is found on the west as far as 
Persia, and on the east it extends to Cochin China. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds almost the whole year round, having two 
or more broods. The nest is a pear-shaped structure suspended 
from a low branch and composed principally of grass, with which, 
however, are combined various other materials. The outside is 
invariably ornamented with cobwebs to which are attached pieces 
of bark, dead leaves, and excreta of caterpillars. The entrance, at 
the side, is overhung by a small porch in most instances. The eggs, 
two or three in number, are dull white, marked with various shades 
of brown and measure about '64 by '46. 



896. Arachnechthra hasselti. Van Jfasselt's Sun-bird. 

Certhia brasiliana, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i, p. 474 (1788). 

Nectarinia hasseltii, Temm. PI. Chi. pi. 376, fig. 3 (1825) ; Blyth, 

Cat. p. 226. 

Nectarinia phayrei, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 1008 (1843). 
Leptocoma hasseltii (Temm.}, Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 740; Godw.- 

Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, p. 156. 
Leptocoma brasiliana (Gm.), Wold. P. Z. S. 1866. p. 543; Hume 

$ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 184. 

Nectarophila brasiliana (Gm.), Wald. Ibis, 1870, p. 41. 
Cinnyris hasselti (Temm.), Shelley, Mon. Nect. pp. xxvii, xxxi, 127, 

pi. 42 ; Oates, S. F. x, p. 197 ; id. B. B. i. p. 318 ; Gadow, Cat. 

B. M. ix, p. 67. 

Cinnyris brasiliana (Gm.), Hume, Cat. no. 233 bis. 
Arac'hnechthra hasselti (Temm.\ Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. 

ii. p. 258. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead and crown shining golden green ; 
lores, cheeks, ear-coverts, the neck above and at the sides, the upper 
back, tertiaries, and all the wing-coverts except those near the edge 
of the wing deep black ; the wing-coverts near the edge of the wing, 
scapulars, lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts brilliant pur- 
plish blue ; primaries and secondaries brownish black ; under wing- 
coverts deep black; throat and fore neck brilliant amethystine- 
purple ; breast and upper abdomen rich red ; lower abdomen, sides 
of the body, vent, and under tail-coverts dull greyish black ; tail 
brilliant purplish black. 

Female. Upper plumage olive-green, the feathers of the crown 
dark-centred ; wings brown, the coverts edged with greenish, the 



A.RACHNECHTHRA.. 361 

quills with pale rufous ; tail blackish, the margins greenish and the 
lateral feathers tipped pale; entire lower plumage, under wing- 
coverts, and axillaries pale yellow. 

Bill dark brown ; the gape and mouth cinnamon-red ; iris dark 
hazel ; eyelids plumbeous ; legs black ; claws brown. 

Length 4; tail 1*2; wing 1-95; tarsus -45 ; bill from gape *65. 

Distribution. This species is spread over the whole of Arrakan, 
Pegu, and Tenasserim, but appears to be nowhere very common, 
except in the southern portion of the latter division. Godwin- 
Austen obtained this Sun-bird in Tipperah, whence Hume also 
records it as well as from Chittagong. It extends down the M alay 
peninsula to Sumatra, Java, and Borneo. The nest has not yet been 
found within Indian limits. 

//<(bits, <Sfc. This species probably breeds from March to June. 
A nest is described as being of the ordinary type, without a portico 
over the entrance, and composed of glistening red-brown scales 
taken from the stems of ferns felted together and covered with 
black moss-roots and cocoon-silk. The eggs, two in number, are 
brown with a darker ring round the larger end, and measure about 
58 by -4. 



897. Arachnechthra pectoralis. The Malay Tellow- 
breasted Sun-bird. 

Nectarinia pectoralis, Horsf. Tr.Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 167 (1822) ; Blyth, 

Cat. p. 2'2~>. 
Cyrtostomus pectoralis (H orsf.), Horsf. < M. Cat. ii, p. 739 : Hume, 

N. 8f E. p. 155. 
Arachnechthra pectoralis (Horsf.), Wald. Ibis, 1870, p. 25; Sail, S. 

F. i, p. 64 ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 196 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd 

ed. ii, p. 259. 
Cinnyris pectoralis (Horsf.'), Shelley, Mon. Nect. pp. xxvii, xxxvi, 87, 

10-1, pi. 53 ; Gadoiv, Cat. B. M. ix,p. 88 ; Hume, Cat. no. 234 bis. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, anterior part of crown, and cheeks 
violet-blue ; lores black ; upper plumage, sides of head and neck 
olive-yellow; wings brown, each feather margined with olive-yellow; 
tail blackish, the lateral feathers broadly tipped with whitish ; chin 
and throat metallic violet, bordered by a band of metallic blue, which 
gets broader on the upper breast and is narrowly margined with 
maroon ; lower plumage bright yellow ; pectoral tufts deep yellow 
tinged with red ; under wing-coverts very pale yellow. 

Female. Upper plumage olive-yellow, as also the sides of the 
head and neck; entire lower plumage deep yellow; wings brown, 
cai-h feather edged with olive-yellow; tail blackish, the lateral 
feathers broadly tipped with white. 

Legs, feet, and bill black ; iris brown (Hume). 

Length about 4*5; tail 1*4; wing 2*1 ; tarsus '55; bill from 
gape *7 to *9. 

There are two distinct races of this bird in the Nicobar Islands. 



362 

Those found in Car Nicobar, Bompoka, Trinkut, Camorta, and Kat- 
chal have the culmen short as in birds from the Malay peninsula 
and islands ; those found in Oondul have the bill extremely long, 
the culmen measuring about -85. These two races differ, however, 
in no other respect and I do not propose to separate them. 

Distribution. The Nicobar Islands as above, extending to the 
Malay peninsula and all the adjacent islands. 

Habits, fyc. Yery partial to the flowers of the cocoanut-palm. 
Breeds in the Nioobara in January and February, constructing a 
nest similar to that of A. asiatica, but larger and coarser. An egg 
measured *61 by '45 and was greyish brown speckled with darker 
brown, some of the spots being surrounded by a purplish tinge. 



898. Arachnechthra flammaxillaris. The Burmese 
Fellow-breasted Sun-bird. 

Nectarinia flammaxillaris, Blyth, J. A, S. B. xiv, p. 557 (1845) ; id. 

Cat. p. 226. 

Cyrtostomus flammaxillaris (Bl,), Horsf. fy M. Cat. \\, p. 739. 
Arachnechthra flammaxillaris (BL), Wald. Ibis, 1870, p. 24 ; Hume, 

N. 8f JE. p. 154 ; Hume Sf Dav. S. F. vi, p. 192 ; Oates in Hume's 

N. # E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 260. 
Cinnyris flammaxillaris (BL}, Shelley, Mon. Nect. pp. xxvii, xxxv, 161, 

pi. 51 ; Hume, Cat. no. 234 ter ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix, p. 83 ; 

Oates, B. B. i, p. 320. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, sides of the head, back, 
scapulars, rump, and upper tail-coverts olive-yellow ; tail black, the 
middle feathers narrowly tipped with white, the others progressively 
with larger white tips ; chin, throat, and breast rich metallic 
purple, bordered by rich steel-blue; below the breast a band of 
orange-red, and another, broader, below the orange band black ; 
axillaries flame-red ; abdomen, sides of the body, vent, and under 
tail-coverts yellow ; wings and coverts brown, edged with greenish 
brown ; under wing-coverts yellowish white ; edge of the wing 
bright yellow. 

Female. Upper plumage, wings, and tail like the male, but the 
lower plumage entirely yellow. 

Iris light brown ; eyelids plumbeous ; legs and claws deep 
bluish black; mouth light salmon-colour; bill blackish. In the 
breeding-season the mouth becomes livid. 

Length 4*5 ; tail 1*4 ; wing 2-1 ; tarsus '55 ; bill from gape '8. 

Distribution. The greater part of Pegu and the whole of 
Tenasserim. Blyth also records this species from Arrakan. It 
extends into Siam, Cochin China, and the Malay peninsula. 

Habits, $c. Breeds from February to August, constructing a nest 
similar to that of A. asiatica, with a porch over the entrance, and 
laying two eggs which are greenish white, marked with greyish 
ash, and measure about *6 by '45. 



ARACHtfECHTHRA. 363 



899. Arachnechthra andamanica. The Andaman $nu.-hi,'<l. 

Arachnechthra frenata (Mull.), apud Ball, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, 

p. 280 ; id. S. F. \, p. 65. 
Arachnechthra andamanica, Hume, S. F. i, p. 404, ii, p. 198 ; Oafes 

in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 262. 
Cinuyris andanianicus (Hume), Shelley, Man. Nect. pp. xxvii, 157, 

pi. 50 ; Hume, Cat. no. 234 quat. ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix, p. 83. 

Coloration. Male. Differs from the male of A. flammaxillaris in 
having a longer bill, the pectoral tufts pale yellow, unmixed with 
red, the maroon and black bands below the breast nearly absent, 
the band surrounding the chin, throat, and breast steel-green 
instead of blue, and in frequently having a pale supercilium. 

Female. Resembles the female of A. flammaxillaris, from which 
it only differs in having the bill longer. 

Bill, legs, and feet black ; iris deep brown (Hume). 

Of the same size as A. flammaxillaris, with the exception of the 
bill, which measures *9 to 1 from gape to tip according to sex. 

Distribution. The Andaman Islands. 

Habits, <$fc. A nest of this species was found on the 3rd March 
with two eggs. The nest appears to have been very similar to 
that of A. asiatica. One egg measured '67 by *48. 



900. Arachnechthra minima. The Small Sun-bird. 

Cinuyris minima, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 99 ; Shelley, Mon. Nect. 

pp. xxvii, xxxiv, 143, pi. 46 ; Leyge, Birds Ceyl. p. 572 j Hume, Cat. 

no. 233 ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix, p. 62 j Davison, S. F. x, p. 362 ; 

Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 136. 
Nectarinia minima (Si/kes), Blyth, Cat. p. 226. 
Leptocoma minima (Sykes], Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 742 ; Jerd. B. I. 

i, p. 369; Hume, N. # E. p. '150; Fall-bank. S. F. iv, p. 256; 

Hume, S. F. iv, p. 392. 
Arachnechthra minima (Sykes), Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, 

p. 263. 

The Tiny Honey-sucker, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead and crown metallic green ; back 
and scapulars deep crimson ; rump and upper tail-coverts metallic 
red, glossed with lilac ; tail black ; lesser and median wing-coverts 
black, tipped with crimson ; remaining coverts and quills dull black ; 
sides of the head dull black ; chin and throat metallic lilac ; sides 
of neck and the upper breast crimson, followed by a band of 
black ; remainder of lower plumage yellow ; axillaries and under 
wing-coverts pale yellowish white. 

Female. Upper plumage and sides of the head and neck olive- 
green ; rump and upper tail-coverts dull red ; tail dark brown, 
edged with rufous; whole lower plumage yellow; wings brown, 
each feather edged with olive-green. 

Bill, legs, and feet black ; iris dark brown (Davison). 



364 NECTAEINIID^!. 

Length 3*5 to 4 ; tail 1'3 ; wing 1*9 ; tarsus *6 ; bill from 
gape -6. 

Distribution. The Western Grhats of India from about the latitude 
of Bombay down to Cape Comorin ; Ceylon. This species is found 
up to 6000 feet. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds in the Nilgiris in September and October, 
making a nest of the usual type, and laying two eggs, which are 
dull white marked with grey and brown, and measure about '62 
by -42. 



901. Arachnechthra zeylonica. The Purple-rumped Sun-bird. 

Oerthia zeylonica, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 188 (1766). 

Nectarinia zeylonica (Linn.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 226. 

Leptocoma zeylonica (Linn.}, Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 740 ; Jerd. B. 

I. i, p. 368 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 147. 
Cinnyris zeylonicus (Linn.}, Shelley, Mon. Nect. pp. xxvii, xxxiii, 137, 

pi. 45 j Hume, S. F. v, pp. 270, 398 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl p. 569 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 232 ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix, p. 64 ; Barnes, Birds 

Bom. p. 136. 
Arachnechthra zeylonica (Linn.), Oates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. 

ii, p. 263. 

The Amethyst-rumped Honey-sucker, Jerd. ; Shakar khora, Hind. ; 
Man chungee, Beng. ; Than-kudi, Tain.; Mai sutika } Cing. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, and lesser wing-coverts 
metallic lilac ; hind neck, sides of neck, back, scapulars, and median 
wing-coverts dull crimson ; rump and upper tail-coverts metallic 
purple ; tail black, with pale tips to the lateral feathers ; greater 
coverts and quills brown, edged with rufous ; sides of the head 
coppery brown ; chin and throat metallic purple ; a collar below 
the throat maroon ; breast, abdomen, and under tail-coverts bright 
yellow ; sides of the body, axillaries, under wing-coverts, and the 
inner margins of quills white. 

Female. Upper plumage ashy brown, the longer rump-feathers 
tipped with rufous, the upper tail-coverts black ; tail black, the 
lateral feathers tipped pale ; wings brown, margined with rufous ; 
an indistinct narrow whitish supercilium ; lores and a streak 
behind the eye dark brown ; sides of the head ashy ; cheeks, chin, 
and throat pale ashy white ; breast, abdomen, and under tail-coverts 
yellow ; sides of body, axillaries, and under wing-coverts white. 

Iris dull red ; bill and legs black ( Cripps). 

Length about 4-5 ; tail 1'4 ; wing 2-3 ; tarsus -65 ; bill from 
gape *6. 

Distribution. Ceylon ; India proper from Cape Comorin to 
Bombay on the west ; thence the northern limits of this species are 
difficult to trace, but it occurs at Dhulia in Khandesh, at Raipur 
and Sambalpur in the Central Provinces, and at Lohardugga, and 
Burdwan in Bengal. A line drawn through these places will pro- 
bably indicate the ordinary northern limits of this bird. To the 
east it is said to ba cointnou at Furreedpore in Eastern Bengal and 



ANTITOTHREPTES. 365 

at Dacca, and it has been obtained in the Khasi hills. This latter 
locality was probably Jerdon's warrant for stating that this Sun- 
bird extended to Assam. This species is found up to 2500 feet in 
the Nilgiris. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds in almost every month of the year according 
to locality, making a nest of the usual type with a portico over the 
entrance. The eggs, two in number, resemble those of A. asiatica 
and measure about -65 by -47. 



Genus ANTHOTHREPTES, Swains., 1831. 

The genus Anthothreptes contains a few Sun-birds which are 
closely allied to Arachnechthra in structure. In Anthothreptes, 
however, the bill is deeper, and the lower mandible is straight or 
nearly so instead of being well curved downwards. The sexes 
are structurally the same, but differ in colour. 

The birds of this genus appear to make nests dissimilar to those 
of the genus Arachnechthra. That of A. malaccensis is described as 
being oval in shape, with a hole on one side near the top, and con- 
structed of cocoanut-fibres &c. This nest, as figured in Shelley's 
Monograph, is attached directly to a branch, and has none of the 
cord-like connection between the nest and the point of attachment 
so usual in the nests of the other Sun-birds. 



Kejf to the Species. 

a. Lower plumage streaked A. hypogrammica, p. 365. 

b. Lower plumage plain. 

a'. Whole upper plumage dark metallic. 

a". Sides of head greenish yellow. ... A. malaccensis <?, p. 366. 

b". Sides of head rufous A. rkodoleema 3 , p. 367. 

b'. Whole, or nearly whole, of the upper 

plumage plain green, 
c". Front of crown metallic dark 

green A. simplex $ , p. 367. 

d". Front of crown plain green like 

remainder of upper plumage. , A malaccmsh % p . m 

"'. Bill from gape '8 \ A rhodolama $ , p. 367. 

I/". Bill from gape -7 A. simplex $, p. 367. 

902. Anthothreptes hypogrammica. The Banded Sun-bird. 

Nectariiiiahypogrammica, S. Mull. Vei-hand. Nat. Gesch., Zool. Aves, 

p. 63 (1843) ; Blylh, Cat. p. 225. 
Anthreptes hypogrammica (S. Mull.), Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 738 ; 

Shelley, Mm. Nect. pp. xliii, xliv, 305, pi. 98 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, 

p. 178 ; Hume, Cat. no. 233 quint. ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 323. 
Anthothreptes hypogrammica (S. Mull.), Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix, 

p. 112. 



366 NECTAEINIID^E. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, nape, sides of the head and 
neck, back, scapulars, and wing-coverts yellowish green ; rump, 
upper tail-coverts, and a collar on the upper back metallic blue ; 
tail blackish brown, the two or three outer pairs of feathers 




Fig. 100. Head of A. hypoyrammica. 

narrowly tipped with white ; quills brown, edged with the colour 
of the back ; chin, throat, breast, abdomen, and sides of the body 
yellow, streaked with greenish brown ; vent, flanks, and under 
tail-coverts greenish brown. 

Female. The blue collar is absent, and the rump and upper tail- 
coverts are of the same colour as the back. 

Legs and feet greenish brown or dark plumbeous green ; the bill 
horny black, and, in the male, the gape dull yellow ; irides dark 
brown (Davison}. 

Length 5-5 ; tail 2 ; wing 2*6 ; tarsus *6 ; bill from gape *9. 
The female is a little smaller. 

Distribution. Tenasserim from Mergui southwards, extending 
down the Malay peninsula to Sumatra and Borneo. 



903. Anthothreptes malaccensis. The Broivn-throated Sun-Urd. 

Oerthia malaccensis, Scop. Del. Flor. etFaun. Insubr. ii, p. 91 (1786). 

Nectarinia malaccensis (Scop.'), Blyth, Cat. p. 225. 

Anthreptes malaccensis (Scop.}, Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 737 ; Shelley, 
Mon. Nect. pp. xliii, xliv, 315, pi. 102; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, 
p. 186 ; Hume, Cat. no. 233 ter ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 324. 

Anthothreptes malaccensis (Scop.), Gadoiv, Cat. B. M. ix ; p. 122 
(part.). 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, nape, back, and sides of the 
neck metallic lilac, according to the light ; rump and upper tail- 
coverts metallic violet-purple ; lores and sides of the head dull 
greenish yellow ; a stripe from the gape down the side of the 
throat coppery purple ; chin and throat cinnamon -brown ; lower 
plumage yellow, tinged with green on the flanks and vent ; under 
wing-coverts and axillaries yellowish white; tail bluish brown, 
edged with metallic purple on the outer webs ; lesser and most of 
the median wing-coverts brilliant purple ; the longer median 
coverts and scapulars olive-brown, tipped with cinnamon ; greater 
coverts olive-brown, edged with cinnamon ; quills brown, edged 
with olive-green, with a tinge of ferruginous. 



ANTHOTHREPTES. 367 

Female. The upper plumage and the sides of the head yellowish 
green ; the ear-coverts with pale shaft-stripes ; lower plumage 
yellow, with a tinge of green on the sides ; tail brown, tipped very 
narrowly with whitish and edged on the outer webs with yellowish 
green ; wings and coverts dark brown, edged like the tail. 

According to Davison the legs vary a good deal, but are generally 
more or less green ; claws green ; bill dark horny brown or nearly 
black, the gape orange ; irides light red to dark brown. 

Length 5'2 ; tail 1-9 ; wing 2-7 ; tarsus -6 ; bill from gape *8. 

Distribution. Blyth records this species from Arrakan in general, 
and Hume from Akyab. It does not appear to occur in Pegu, but 
it is found in Tenasserim from Amherst southwards. It extends 
down the Malay peninsula to the islands, and also to Siam. 



904. Anthothreptes rhodolaema. The Rufous-throated Sun-bird. 

Anthreptes rhodoloema, Shelley, Mon. Nect. pp. xliii, xliv, 313, pi. 101 
(1878) ; Salvador!, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) vii, p. 435. 

Coloration. Male. Resembles the male of A. malaccensis in 
general appearance. Differs in having the forehead, crown, nape, 
back, and also the sides of the neck metallic green, sometimes 
shaded with lilac ; the lores and sides of the head rufous ; all the 
wing-coverts rufous except those near the anterior edge of the 
wing ; and the breast tinged with olivaceous. 

Female. Itesembles the female of A. malaccensis so closely as to 
be undistinguishable from it. 

Of the same dimensions as A. malaccensis. 

Distribution. The extreme south of Tenasserim, whence Count 
Salvador! records this species. It extends down the Malay penin- 
sula and to Sumatra. 

905. Anthothreptes simplex. The Plain-coloured Sun-bird. 

Nectarinia simplex, S. Mull. Verhand. Nat. Gesch., Zool. Aves, p. 62 

(1843); Blyth, Cat. p. 225. 

Anthreptes xanthochlora, Hume, S. F. iii, p. 320, note (J875). 
Anthreptes simplex (S. Mull.}, Shelley, Mon. Nect. pp. xliii, xliv, 309, 

pi. 100 ; Hume S? Da>\ .S'. 7-'. vi, p. 188 ; Hume, Cat. no. 233quat. ; 

Gates, B. B. i, p. 324. 
Anthothreptes simplex (S. MiilL), Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix, p. 114. 

Coloration. Male. A large patch on the forehead metallic green ; 
the whole upper plumage and wing-coverts olive-yellow ; tail a 
deeper tint of the same ; quills brown, edged with olive-yellow ; 
sides of the head ashy green ; cheeks, chin, throat, and fore neck 
greenish ashy ; remainder of lower plumage dull oily yellow ; under 
wing-coverts whitish. 

Female. Differs only in wanting the metallic patch on the fore- 
head. 



368 

Legs and feet pale dirty green ; the bill dark horny brown; 
irides wood-brown (Davison). 

Length 4-5 ; tail 2-1 ; wing 2-4; tarsus -55 ; bill from gape '7. 
The female is slightly smaller than the male. 

Distribution. The southern part of Tenasserim from Mergui 
southwards, extending down the Malay peninsula to Sumatra and 
Borneo. 



Subfamily ARACHNOTHERIN^E. 

The Sun-birds of this subfamily are characterized by a somewhat 
massive body, a long and strong bill, and non-metallic plumage. 
The sexes are either quite alike or very nearly so. The tail of all 
the members of this subfamily is short and rounded. There is 
only one genus, containing five Indian species, represented within 
Indian limits. 

Genus ARACHNOTHEKA, Temrn., 1826. 

In the genus Arachnofhera the bill is extremely long, about 
twice the length of the head or longer, much curved, stout at base, 
and with the culmen ridged between the nostrils. In four out of 
the five Indian species of this genus the sexes are alike, and in the 
fifth they resemble each other very closely. The plumage of all is 
more or less green. 

The Sun-birds of this genus are generally found in dense ever- 
green forests or in thick plantain-gardens in retired spots. They 
affect the flowers of plantain-trees (Musa) more than those of any 
other tree and their nests appear to be frequently attached to the 
leaves of these. 

Key to the Species. 

a. No yellow on side of head, 
a'. Upper plumage streaked. 

a". Back and rump distinctly streaked ; 

wing 3'7 in males A. magna, p. 369. 

b" . Back and rump indistinctly streaked ; 

wing- 3*4 in males A. aurita, p. 370. 

)er plumage unstreaked. 
)wer plumage uniform ashy green, 

obsoletely streaked A. modesta, p. 370, 

d". Lower plumage yellow ; chin and 

throat dull white .4. longirostris, p. 371. 

b. Portion of side of head yellow A. chn/sogenys, p. 371. 



AllACHNOTHERA. 

006. Arachnothera magna. Ike Larger StreaJced Spider-hunt, r. 

Cinnyris magna, Hodt/s. Ind. Hev. 1837, p. 272. 

Arachnothera magna (Hodgs.), Blyth, Cat. p. 221 ; Horsf. # M. Cat. 
n, p. 727; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 360; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 
11, p. 23 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 85 ; Gammie, S. F. v, p. 385 ; Shelley, 
Man. Nect. pp. xlix, 347, pi. 112; Hume % Dav. S. F. vi, p. 173 ; 
Hume, Cat. no. 223 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 327 ; Bingham, S. F. ix, 
p. 169 ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix, p. 105 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 79 ; 
Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. li, p. 268. 

The Large Spider-hunter, Jerd. ; Dom-siriok-pho, Lepch. ; Yedonq- 
pichany, IJhut. 




Fig. 101. Head of A. magna. 

Coloration. Forehead and crown olive-yellow, each feather with 
a large black patch in the centre ; lesser and median wing-coverts 
the same; remainder of the upper plumage olive-yellow, with 
distinct broad black shaft-stripes ; greater wing-coverts and ter- 
tiaries olive-yellow with black shafts ; primaries and secondaries 
dark brown, margined with olive-yellow; tail olive-yellow, each 
feather with a band of black near the end, followed on all but the 
median pair by a lighter patch of pale yellowish ; sides of the head 
like the back, but paler ; the entire under plumage pale yellowish, 
each feather with a broad streak of black. 

Bill black : iris brown ; legs orange-yellow ; claws yellow. 

Length 7 ; tail 2 ; wing 3'7 ; tarsus -8 ; bill from gape 1-8. 

Distribution. The Himalayas, from Bilaspur in the Sutlej valley 
(according to Stoliczka, I. c.) to the extreme east of Assam ; the 
valley of Assam ; the Khasi hills ; Manipur ; Arrakan ; Tenasserim 
as far south as Tavoy and the Thoungyeen valley. This species is 
probably spread over the whole of Burma, but I failed to meet with 
it in any part of Pegu west of the Sittoung river. It occurs up to 
5000 feet. 

Habits, <$fc. Breeds from May to August, constructing an open 
cup-shaped nest of vegetable fibres felted together and minted 
with dead leaves, and lined with grass. The nest is attached by 
half its rim to a plantain-leaf, to which it is sewn by very numerous 
threads. The eggs, usually three in number, are brown speckled 
with purple, and measure about -95 by -7. 

YOL. II. 2 B 



370 KECTAKINIIDJE. 

907. Aradmothera aurata. The Smaller Streaked Spider-hunter. 

Arachnothera aurata, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiv, p. 478 (1855) ; Hume, 
S. F. iii, p. 85 j Blyth $ Walden, Birds Burm. p. 140 ; Shelley, 
Mon. Nect. pp. xlix, 351 , pi. 112 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 174 ; 
Hume, Cat. no. 223 bis j Gadmo, Cat. B. M. ix, p. 105 ; Oates, 
B. B. i, p. 328 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mm. Civ. Gen. (2) vii, p. 395. 

Coloration. Resembles A. magna very closely. Differs in being 
smaller and in having the striations on both the upper and lower 
plumage much narrower and almost or quite absent on the lower 
back. 

Bill black, the margins of the lower mandible yellow ; mouth 
yellow ; iris brown ; eyelids plumbeous ; legs orange-yellow ; claws 
yellow. 

Length about 6-5 ; tail 1-8 ; wing 3 to 3-4 ; tarsus -8 ; bill from 
gape 1*6. 

Distribution. Confined to Pegu. This species is found through- 
out the Pegu hills and it has also been procured both at Thayetmyo 
and Toungngoo. It is also recorded from the Karen hills east of 
the latter town. The late Captain Beavan is said to have procured 
this bird at Kyodan on the Salween river. 



908. Arachnothera modesta. The Grey-breasted Spider-hunter. 

Anthreptes modesta, Eyton, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 105. 

Arachnothera modesta (Eyton}, Hume, S. F. iii, p. 85 ; Hume fy 

Dav. S. F. vi, p. 176 ; Shelley, Mon. Nect. pp. xlix, 1, 353, pi. 113 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 224 bis ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix, p. 107 ; Oates, 

B. B. i. p. 329. 

Coloration. The whole upper plumage and wing-coverts bright 
yellowish green, the feathers of the head dark-centred ; quills dark 
brown, broadly edged with the colour of the back, the tertiaries 
almost wholly of this colour ; sides of the neck and the upper part 
of the ear-coverts olive-green ; cheeks, the lower portion of the ear- 
coverts, chin, throat, and fore neck ashy green, obscurely streaked 
with brown ; remainder of the lower plumage ashy green, paler on 
the abdomen, and the under tail-coverts tipped yellowish white ; 
median tail-feathers yellowish green, broadly tipped with black ; 
the others blackish, the basal two thirds of the outer webs yellowish 
green, and each of the feathers with a spot of white near the tip on 
the inner web; edge of the wing bright yellow: under wing- 
coverts and axillaries pale yellow. 

Legs and feet reddish ochre to pale reddish brown ; the upper 
mandible black, the lower reddish horny to pale reddish brown ; 
irides brown (Davison). 

Length 7 ; tail 2-2 ; wing 3-5 ; tarsus -75 ; bill from gape 1-5. 

Distribution. Tenasserim from the base of Muleyit mountain to 
Malawiin, extending to Cochin China, the Malay peninsula and 
the islands. 



ARACHNOTITEBA. 371 

909. Arachnothera longirostris. TJie Little S^H^y-A /,/,/-. 

Certhia longirostra, Lath. Ind. Orn. i, p. 299 (1790). 
Arachnothera affinis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 43 (1846) ; id. Cat. 
p. 222. 



Arachnothera pusilla, Blyth, Cat. p. 328 (1849) ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. 
ii, p. 730 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 361 j Hume, S. F. iii, p. 85. 

Arachnothera longirostra (Lath.}, Shelley, Mon. Nect. pp. xlix, 1, 
357, pi. 114; Fairbank, S. F. v, p. 397; Hume % Dav. S. F. vi, 
p. 174 ; Hume, Cat. no. 224 ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix, p. 103 ; Oates, 
B. B. i, p. 330 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 135 ; Hume, 8. F. xi, p. 80. 

Coloration. Male. Upper plumage olive-green, the feathers of 
the forehead and crown centred with dark brown ; lesser wing- 
coverts like the back ; greater coverts and the wings brown, edged 
with olive-green; tail blackish, tipped with dull white and obsoletely 
margined with olive-green ; lores whitish ; sides of the head ashy 
brown ; a short moustachial streak dark brown ; chin and throat 
dull white ; remainder of lower plumage deep yellow ; a tuft of 
feathers on each side the breast chrome-yellow. 

Female. Differs in wanting the pectoral chrome-yellow tufts. 

Bill above brown, below plumbeous ; iris dark brown ; legs 
plumbeous ; claws horn-colour. 

Length 6-3; tail 1*6 ; wing 2'6 ; tarsus *65 ; bill from gape 1*5. 

Distribution. The Western Grhats of India from the Palni hills 
to about the latitude of Belgauru, up to about 5500 feet ; the 
extreme eastern part of Assam ; Cachar ; Tipperah ; Sylhet ; 
Manipur; Chittagong; Arrakan; Pegu and the whole of Tenas- 
serim, extending down the Malay peninsula to the islands. 

Habits, 6fc. The nest of this species has not yet been found 
within Indian limits, but Bernstein, who procured it elsewhere, 
describes it as being oval and attached to the underside of a large 
leaf which forms the back wall of the nest. 



910. Arachnothera chrysogenys. The Yellow-eared Spider- 
hunter. 

Nectarinia chrysogenys, Temm. PI Col. pi. 388, fig. i (1826). 

Arachnothera chrysogenys (Temm.), Blyth, Cat. pp. 222, 327 ; Horsf. 
$ M. Cat. ii, p. 729; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 85; Hume $ Dav. S. F. 
vi, p. 177 ; Shelley, Mon. Nect. pp. xlix, Ii, 365, pi. 117 ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 224 ter ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 331 ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix, p. 108. 

Coloration. Upper plumage dull olive-green, the feathers of the 
head dark-centred ; coverts and quills dark brown, broadly edged 
with the colour of the back ; tail olive-green ; feathers on the edge 
of the upper eyelid and a bunch of feathers springing from near 
the angle of the gape bright yellow ; ear-coverts and sides of neck 
like the back ; cheeks, chin, throat, and upper breast dull brownish 
green, the centres of the feathers darker ; lower breast, abdomen, 
vent, and under tail-coverts yellow ; sides of the body yellow, 
tinged with dusky ; under wing-coverts and axillaries pale yellow. 



372 

Legs and feet fleshy white ; the bill darker horny brown ; the 
edges of both mandibles to within *6 of tip dirty yellow ; gape 
fleshy white ; irides brown (Davisori). 

Length 7; tail 1'7 ; wing 3'5; tarsus -75; bill from gape 1-8. 

Distribution. Tenasserim south of Mergui, extending down the 
Malay peninsula to Sumatra, Java, and Borneo. 

AraclmotJiera flavigastra is a closely allied species inhabiting the 
Malay peninsula, and is likely to occur in Tenasserim. It may be 
recognized by its larger size, by the eye being entirely surrounded 
by yellow, and by its stouter and more flattened bill. 

ArachnotJiera crassirostris (Eeichb.) occurs in the Malay penin- 
sula, and is not unlikely to be found in Tenasserim. This species 
resembles Arachnothera longirostris very closely, but may be known 
by its much broader and rounder bill and by the chin and throat 
being of the same colour as the breast. 



The following species, on being critically examined, proves to be 
no Sun-bird. I failed to discover this, however, till I was working 
the Nectariniidce^ with which it has always been associated. 

My reasons for excluding this bird from the Nectariniidce are 
threefold : 

It has no serrations on the margins of the mandibles, a character 
found in all the Sun-birds. 

It has, according to Wallace (Ibis, 1870, p. 49), a tongue which 
is " short, triangular, horny at the tip, and entire." 

It has habits which resemble those of no other species of Sim- 
bird. 

I know the bird well in life, but prefer to quote what Davison 
says on this point : 

" In its habits this species differs conspicuously from all its con- 
geners, reminding one very much of the White-eyed Tit (Zosterops 
palpebrosus) or again of Timalia (Cyanodermd) erythroptera. Except 
perhaps during the breeding-season, it goes about in small parties 
of from five to ten in amongst the undergrowth, or the skirts of 
the forest, or in scrtib-juugle, hunting amongst the foliage and 
roots of the trees for insects, on which it chiefly subsists, and keep- 
ing up the while an incessant twittering. 

" Of other species of Sun-birds a dozen, or even at times fifty, 
may be seen about a single tree ; but in the case of these there is 
never any concerted action between more than a single pair. They 
do not go about in flocks, though many individuals may happen 
to collect in a single place, but the present species, when not 
breeding, is almost always seen in flocks working together in concert, 
invariably moving away from one place to another at the same 
time and hunting, some high and some low, just as a mob of our 
Titmice on the Himalayas may often be seen doing." 

The nestling bird resembles the female, and therefore the proper 
position of this species appears to be among the Crateropodidce in 
the subfamily Liotrichince, probably near Myzornis (Vol. i, p. 233). 



CHALCOPABIA. 373 

Genus CHALCOPARIA, Cabanis, 1850. 

The single species of this genus has the bill shorter than the 
head, entire, without any serrations on the margins of the mandibles ; 
the cuJmen very slightly curved, the lower mandible straight; the 
nctal bristles weak ; the tarsus short and scutellated ; the tail of 
moderate length, slightlyrounded,and consisting of twelve feathers ; 
the wing moderate, with ten primaries, the first of which is small. 

The sexes are of different colours and the upper plumage of the 
male is metallic. 




Fig. 102. Head of C. ph&nicotis. 

911. Chalcoparia phcenicotis. The Ruby-Cheek. 

Motacilla singaleusis, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i, p. 9G4 (1788). 

Nectarinia phoenicotis, Temm. PI. Col. pi. 108. fig. 1 (1824), pi. 388, 

fig. 2; myth, Orf.p.225. 
Chalcoparia phoenicotis ( Temm.'), Horsf. 8f M. Cat. ii, p. 747 ; Oates, 

S. F. v, p. 147 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. u, p. 269. 
Chalcoparia singaleusis (Gmel.'), Wold. Ibis, 1870, p. 48; Hume Sf 

Dav. S. F. vi, p. 189 ; Hume, Cat. no. 233 sex. 
Chalcoparia ciiigalensis (Gmel.'), Anders. Yunnan Exped.,Aves, p. G02. 
Anthreptes phoenicotis (Temm.}, Shelley, Mon. Nect. pp. xliii, xlv, 

325, pi. 105. 

Anthreptes singalensis (Gmel.), Oates, B. B. i, p. 320. 
Anthothreptes phoenicotis (Temm.'), Gadoiv, Cat. B. M. ix, p. 121. 

Coloration. Male. The whole upper plumage and lesser wing- 
coverts brilliant metallic emerald-green ; lores blackish ; cheeks 
and ear-coverts rich copper-colour, bordered below by a line of rich 
metallic violet-purple ; chin, throat, and breast ferruginous buff; 
abdomen, sides of the body, vent, and under tail- coverts yellow ; 
tail black, edged externally with metallic green ; under wing-coverts 
pale yellow; greater wing-coverts black, edged with metallic 
green ; wings black, edged more or less with purple. 

Female. The lower plumage like that of the male ; the upper 
plumage and the lesser wing-coverts olive-green ; ear-coverts and 
cheeks slate-colour ; greater wing-coverts and wings dark brown, 
edged with yellowish green; tail brown, broadly edged with 
yellowish green. 

The young are like the female. 

Bill black ; gape orange-yellow ; mouth yellow ; iris lake-red ; 
legs yellowish green ; claws yellowish horny; eyelids greenish. 

Length 4-4; tail 1'6 ; wing 2-1 ; tarsus -65 ; bill from gape 6. 

Distribution. The SikhimTerai; the Bhutan Doars ; the Dibrugarh 
district of Assam; the Khasi and Garo hills ; Sylhet ; Cachar ; 



374 

Dacca ; Tipperah ; Manipur ; the neighbourhood of Bhamo ; 
Chittagong ; Arrakan ; the southern portion of Pegu ; the whole 
of Tenasserim, thence extending down the Malay peninsula to the 
large islands. 

habits, fyc. Breeds in Southern Pegu from May to August. The 
nest is suspended from the tip of a branch at any height from the 
ground and well surrounded by leaves. It is a pear-shaped 
structure constructed of hair-like fibres and roots and ornamented 
outside with various substances. The entrance is about midway 
up the nest and protected by a very ample portico which extends 
to the base of the nest. The eggs, two in number, are pinkish 
white marked with brown and purple ; they measure about -64 
by -45. 



Family 

The intrinsic muscles of the syrinx fixed to the end of the 
bronchial semi-rings ; both mandibles finely and evenly serrated 
on the terminal third of their edges ; bill short and triangular ; 
primaries nine or ten ; the nestling resembling the adult female; 
one moult in the year ; rectrices twelve ; rictal bristles short. 

The Dicceidce form a very compact and natural family of birds, 
which may be known at once, and separated from all other Passeres 
except the Nectariniidce, by the peculiar serrations on the edges of 
both mandibles, as shown in the accompanying cut. 







Fig. 103. Bill of D, cruentatum (enlarged), to show serrations on mandibles. 

This character holds good in all the species of this family 
without exception. A lens is generally necessary to observe the 
serrations, but frequently they may be seen with the naked eye, 
especially if the open bill is held against a sheet of white paper. 

The Dicceidce are all small birds, generally of brilliant plumage. 
In most species the sexes differ in colour, in some they are alike. 
The young resemble the adult female. They are all resident, not 
even migrating locally. 



DICJEUM. 375 

This family forms a connecting-link between the nine-primaried 
and the ten-primaried Passeres, some of the genera possessing 
nine of these feathers, and others ten. They all have twelve tail- 
feathers. The nostrils are covered by a large oval process leaving 
a lunar aperture ; the rictal bristles are short, but the naral bristles 
are sometimes greatly developed. The tail is always short, and 
the tarsus is never lengthened. 

The Flower-peckers are remarkable for the beauty of their nests, 
which are frequently pear-shaped, and suspended 'from a branch. 
The eggs are invariably white except in Piprisoma, in which they 
are spotted. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. With nine primaries, the first reaching 

to the tip of the wing. 
a'. Bill slender ; the lower line of the 

inferior mandible almost straight . . DICTUM, p. 375. 
//. Bill thick ; lower mandible swollen ; 

its lower edge much angulate. 
a". Tail rounded; nostrils covered by 

long hairs ACMONOBHYNCHUS, p. 381. 

b". Tail square ; nostrils perfectly 

bare of hairs PIPRISOMA, p. 382. 

b. Wing with ten primaries, the first one 

small, 
c'. First primary about equal to the 

tarsus PBIONOCHILUS, p. 384. 

(I '. First primary not longer than the 

hind toe PACHYGLOSSA, p. 386. 



Genus DICJEUM, Cuvier, 1817. 

The genus Dicceum contains eight species of Indian birds, which 
are characterized by the possession of nine primaries and a slender 
bill with the lower line of the inferior mandible nearly straight. 

In Dicceum the males of many of the species are brightly 
coloured, and in these cases the sexes differ in coloration ; in other 
species they are more dully coloured and the sexes are alike. 

They are all without exception of very small size. They 
frequent trees, generally at a considerable height above the ground, 
and feed both on insects and small berries. Their nests are 
beautiful structures made of the finest and most delicate materials, 
egg-shaped, and suspended from the tip of a branch. They all lay 
white eggs, so far as is known. 



Key to the Species. 

>me red in it. 
a'.* Whole upper plumage crimson .... D. cruentatum tf , p. 376. 



a. Upper plumage with some red in it. 
a'. Whole upper pi 
b'. Rump only crimson" D. cruentatum $, p. 370. 



c'. Back and rump bright orange-red . . D. triyonostigma tf , p. 377. 
d'. Rump only pale orange-red , . D. triyonostigma $ , p. 377. 



376 DICJEIDJE. 

b. Upper plumage without any red in it. 
e' . Lower tail-coverts of a different 
colour to the abdomen; lower 

plumage streaked D. chrysorrliceum <5 $ , 

/'. Lower tail-coverts of the same [p. 8. 

colour as the abdomen; lower 
plumage mistreated. 

a". A patch of red on the breast D. ignipectus rf, p. 378. 

b". No red on the breast. 

a'". Bill black or of a dark colour. 
4 . Lower plumage of one 

uniform colour. 

a 5 . Rump yellowish green con- 
trasting with the green of 

the back D. ignipectus $ , p. 378. 

b 5 . Rump of the same colour 

as the back. 
a 6 . Forehead and lores 

conspicuously whitish . . D. concolor tf $ , p. 379. 
b 6 . Forehead and lores of a 

dark colour D. olivaceum <$ $ , p. 380. 

b 4 . Lower plumage not uniform ; 
throat and breast whitish, 

abdomen dull yellow D. virescens c? $ , p. 380. 

b'". Bill yellow D. erythrorhynchus J $ , 

[p. 381. 

912. DicsBum cruentatum. The Scarlet-backed Flower-pecker. 

Certhia cruentata, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 187 (1766). 

Certhia coccinea, Scop. Del. Fl. et Faun. Insub. ii, p. 91 (1786). 

Dictum cruentatum (L.), Blyth, Cat. p. 226 j Hume, N. # E. p. 1/55 ; 
Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 192; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, 
p. 663 ; OateSjS. F. vii, p. 46 ; Hume, Cat. no. 236 ; Oates,B. E. i, 
p. 332 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 15 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 83 ; Gates 
in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 270. 

Dicceum coccineum (Scop.}, Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 747 ; Jerd. B. 1. i, 
p. 373. 




Fig. 104. Head of D. cruentatum. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, nape, back, ramp, and 
upper tail-coverts rich crimson ; lores, sides of the head and neck, 
tail, wings, and wing-coverts black ; lower plumage pale buff, the 
sides of the breast black, and the sides of the body ashy brown ; 
under wing-coverts and axillaries white. 

Female. Head, nape, and back olive-green, the centres of the 
feathers of the crown darker, and the nape with a golden yellow 
tinge ; rump and upper tail-coverts red ; tail black ; the whole 
lower plumage ashy buff, darker .on the sides of the neck and body ; 



DICTUM. 377 

upper wing-coverts dark brown, edged with olive-green ; tertiaries 
the same ; primaries and secondaries brown, edged exteriorly with 
greenish white. 

The young resemble the female. 

Legs and feet black ; bill and mouth black ; iris dark brown ; 
eyelids plumbeous ; in the female the mouth is flesh-coloured. 

Length 3*5; tail 1*05; wing 1/9; tarsus "5; bill from gape *45. 

Distribution. The western and northern limits of this species 
have not been determined with any great accuracy. It appears to 
be common at Calcutta, and it has been obtained in the Khasi hills, 
the Bhutan Doars, and the valley of Assam up to Dibrugarh. 
South and east of these localities it has been found in Sylhet, 
Cachar, and Manipur. It is common throughout the greater 
portion of Burma, and extends down to the southernmost point of 
Tenasserim. 

It is diffused through Southern China, Siam, and the Malay 
peninsula down to Sumatra. 

Habits, $c. Breeds from March to May and probably later, con- 
structing a small egg-shaped nest of vegetable down and grass, 
which is attached to the tip of a branch at a considerable height 
from the ground as a rule. The eggs, two or three in number, are 
glossless white, and measure "56 by '4. 



913. Dicaeum trigonostigma. The Orange-bellied Floiver-peclcer. 

Certhia trigonostigma, Scop. Del. Fl. et Faun. Insub. ii, p. 91 (1786). 
Dicseum trigonostigma (Scop.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 226 ; Iforsf. fy M. Cat. 

ii, p. 74 s ; Wahl. P. Z. S. 1866, p. 545; id. Ibis, 1876, p. 341), pi. x, 

f. 2 ; Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, p. 194 ; Hume, Cat. no. 236 bis ; 

Oates, B. B. i, p. 336; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 38; Oatcs in 

Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 272. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, nape, sides of the head 
and neck, scapulars, and wing-coverts dull blue ; back and rump 
flaming orange-yellow, deeper on the back ; upper tail-coverts dull 
blue; chin, throat, cheeks, and breast ashy grey; abdomen, sides 
of the body, vent, and under tail-coverts flaming orange ; under 
wing-coverts and axillaries whitish ; tail black ; wings black, edged 
with dull blue. 

Female. Forehead, crown, nape, back, sides of the neck, and 
scapulars olive-green ; rump and upper tail-coverts yellow, tinged 
with orange at the tips of the feathers ; tail blackish ; coverts and 
wings dark brown, narrowly edged with olive-green ; sides of the 
head pale ashy; chin and throat sordid green ; breast and side-; <>l 
the body ashy green ; abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts bright 
yellow. 

The young resemble the female, but have the abdomen dull 
yellow. 

Male : legs and feet horny black ; bill black ; iris brown. 
Female: legs, feet, and claws greenish to dark plumbeous; upper 
mandible from tip to nostrils and tip of the lower mandible 



378 VICJEIVJE. 

blackish horny ; base of upper mandible reddish brown ; lower 
mandible (except the tip) and gape pale orange-brown to orange- 
vermilion ; iris grey to dark brown (Hume fy Davisori). 

Length 3-6 ; tail 1 ; wing 1*9 ; tarsus *5 ; bill from gape *55. 

Distribution. Burma. Wardlaw E/amsay obtained this species 
in the Karen hills east of Toungngoo at 3000 feet elevation, and I 
procured it near the town of Pegu. Davison observed it in 
Tenasserim from Moulmein southwards to Bankasun. It extends 
to Cochin China and the Malay peninsula. 

914. Dicaeum chrysorrhceum, The Yellow-vented Flower-pecker. 

Dictum chrysorrhoeum, Temm. PI. Col. pi. 478, f. 1 (1829) ; Blyth, 
Cat. p. 227 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 751 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 374 ; Wold. 
Ibis, 1872, p. 380 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 156 ; 
Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, p. 195 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves,p. 663 ; 
Hume, Cat. no. 237 ; Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 170 ; Oates, S. F. x, 
p. 198 ; id. B. B. i, p. 335 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 44 ; Hume, 
S. F. xi, p. 84. 

Dictum chrysochlore, Blyth, J.A.S. B. xii, p. 1009 (1843). 

Coloration. Upper plumage and lesser wing-coverts yellowish 
green, brighter on the rump and upper tail-coverts ; tail blackish ; 
greater wing-coverts dark brown on the inner webs and yellowish 
green on the outer ; quills blackish brown, the secondaries and 
tertiaries broadly edged with yellowish green, the primaries very 
narrowly with whitish ; sides of the head and neck yellowish green ; 
cheeks, chin, and throat white, with a greenish-brown rnandibular 
streak below the cheeks ; lower plumage whitish, streaked with 
greenish brown ; under tail-coverts golden yellow ; under wing- 
coverts and axillaries white. 

Iris orange-red ; eyelids pinkish ; upper mandible and tip of the 
lower black; remainder of bill pale plumbeous ; legs dark plum- 
beous ; claws dark horn ; mouth flesh-colour. 

Length 4 ; tail 1-2 ; wing 2-3 ; tarsus -6 ; bill from gape '5. 

Distribution. Nepal and Sikhim ; Naga hills, Tipperah, Manipur ; 
the whole of Burma to the extreme south. The Nepal habitat is 
somewhat doubtful, for although Hodgson's specimens are said to 
have come from that country, they may nevertheless have been 
obtained in Sikhim. This species extends down the Malay penin- 
sula to the islands. 



915. Dicaeum ignipectus. The Fire-breasted Flower-pecker. 

Myzanthe ignipectus, Hodgs. Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 983 (1843) ; 
Blyth, Cat. p. 227; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 751; Jerd. B. I. i, 
p. 377 ; Stol. J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 24 ; Hume, N. fy E. p. 159 ; 
Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 200 ; Hume, Cat. no. 241 ; Scully, 
S. F. viii, p. 261 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 337 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 85. 

Dicseum ignipectus (Hodgsi}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 41 ; Oates in 
Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 272. 

Sangti-pro-pho, Lepch. 



DICTUM. 379 

Coloration. Male. Upper plumage, sides of head, and neck black 
with a green and purple gloss and each feather fringed with 
yellowish brown ; wings and tail black, edged with glossy green ; 
lower plumage buff, tinged with green on the sides of the body ; a 
large patch of crimson on the breast, with a black patch below it 
sometimes produced down the middle of the abdomen. The yellow 
fringes of the upper plumage get worn off a good deal during the 
winter. 

Female. Above green, rather glossy on the head and tinged with 
yellow on the rump and upper tail-coverts ; sides of the head ashy 
green, also the sides of the throat ; lores and lower plumage buff, 
tinged with green on the sides of the body ; wings and tail black 
edged with green ; under wing-coverts and axillaries white. 

The young resemble the female. 

Male : bill black ; iris brown or blackish brown ; feet and claws 
dull or brownish black. Female : bill black ; base of lower man- 
dible plumbeous (Scully). 

Length rather more than 3 : tail 1 ; wing 1*9 ; tarsus '5 ; bill 
from gape -4. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from the Sutlej valley to Assam, 
up to 7000 feet ; Khiisi hills ; Manipur ; Karennee and Muleyit 
mountain in Tenasserim. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds in the Himalayas from April to July, con- 
structing a pendent nest of very small size attached to the end of 
a twig of some large tree. In shape the nest is said to be like a 
purse and the walls to be like thin felt. The eggs are not known. 

910. DiCBBTim concolor. The Nilyiri Flower-decker. 

\ ticaeum concolor, Jcrd. Madr. Journ. L. S. xi, p. 227 (1840) ; id. 111. 
Lid. Orn. pi. 39 ; id. B. I. i, p. 37o : 7///////, Cat. p. 227 ; Hume, 
N. 8f E. p. 156 ; id. Cat. no. 239 ; Damson, 8. F. x,p. 303 ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. M. x, p. 45 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 138; Oatcs in Hume'* 
N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 272. 

Chitlu-jitta, Tel. 

Coloration. In freshly-moulted birds the lores, forehead, and 
round the eye are conspicuously white ; the whole upper plumage 
dull green, the centres of the crown-feathers darker ; wings and 
tail dark brown, edged with dull green ; sides of the head and neck 
pale ashy green ; low*er plumage pale yellowish buff. Soon after 
the autumnal moult the white of the face becomes dull. 

Iris dark brown ; legs and feet dusky slaty ; bill lavender-blue, 
dusky on the culmen (Butler}. 

Length about 3'5 ; tail 1*1 ; wing 2 ; tarsus *5 ; bill from 
gape -5. 

Distribution. The western coast of India from Khandala and 
Mahablesluvar to the Palui hills. Blanford is said to have obtained 
it at Bihispur in the Central Provinces, but most probably some 
mistake has occurred about this locality. 



380 

Habits, $-c. Breeds from January to April, making a pendent 
nest of vegetable down, lichens, &c., attached to the extremity of 
a twig of some tree. It lays three eggs, which are glossless white 
and measure '64 by '43. 



917. Dicaeum olivaceum. The Plain-coloured Flower-pecker. 

Myzanthe inornata, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 82 (1844, descr. 

nulld) ; id. Gray's Cat. Mamm. fyc. J^epal Coll. Hodgs. pp. 60, 151 

(1846, descr. nulld). 
Dicseum olivaceum, Wald. A. M. N. H. (4) xv, p. 401 (1875) ; 

Godw-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, p. 194 ; Hume, S. F. iv, p. 498 ; 

Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 195 ; Hume, Cat. no. 237 ter ; Oates, 

B. B. i, p. 333 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 84. 
Dicseum inornatum (Hodgs?), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 45. 

Coloration. The whole upper plumage olive-green, the rump 
rather brighter and the feathers of the head centred darker ; tail 
dark brown, the feathers faintly edged with olive-green ; wing- 
coverts brown, broadly edged with the colour of the back ; wings 
dark brown, edged with olive-green rather brighter than the back ; 
sides of the head and the whole lower plumage dull oily greenish 
yellow with an ashy tinge. 

Legs and feet very dark plumbeous ; upper mandible and tip of 
lower very dark brown ; rest of the bill pale plumbeous ; iris deep 
brown (Hume fy Davison}. 

Length 3-3; tail 1 ; wing 1-8 ; tarsus '45 ; bill from gape -45. 

The name D. inornatum cannot be used for this species, for 
Hodgson never published any description of the bird. He, more- 
over, confounded together the females of D. inornatum and D. 
ignipectus, as is shown by his specimens of both species in the 
British Museum being numbered 393. 

Distribution. Occurs in Nepal, Sikhim, the Bhutan Doars, Shil- 
long, the Naga hills, Manipur, the Toungngoo and Karen hills, 
at Pap won, on the Sal ween river, "Wimpong, and Meet an near 
Moulmein. This species ranges into the Malay peninsula and to 
Sumatra. 



918. Dicaeum virescens. The Andamanese Flower-pecker. 

Dicreum virescens, Hume, S. F. i, p. 482 (1873), ii, p. 198 ; id. Cat. 
no. 237 bis ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 46. 

Coloration. The whole upper plumage olive-green, brightest on 
the rump and upper tail-coverts, the feathers of the crown centred 
darker ; wings and tail dark brown, edged with olive-green ; sides 
of the head greenish ashy ; chin, throat, and breast ashy white ; 
remainder of the lower plumage yellow. 

Length about 3*5; tail 1-1; wing 1'8; tarsus -5; bill from 
gape -5. 

Distribution. The Andaman Islands. 



ACMONOHHYNCHUS. 381 

Oil). Dicaeum erythrorhynchus, Tickell's Flower-pecker. 

Certhia erythrorliynchos, Lath, 2nd. Orn. i, p. 299 (1790). 
Nectarinia minima, Tickell, J. A. S. B. ii, p. 577 (1833). 
Dictum tickulliae, Blyth, J. A. S. 11. xii, p. 983 (1843). 
Dicteuiu miiiiiuum (Tick.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 227; Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, 

p. 7-"">0 ; Jerd. B. 1. i, p. 37-4 ; Hume, 2\\ $ E. p. 155 j Leyge, Birds 

Ccijl. p. 574. 
Dicwimi erythrorhynchus (Lath.}, Hume, Cat. no. 238 ; Gates, B. B. 

i. p. 334 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 138 ; tiharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 48 ; 

Gates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 274. 

Sungti-pro-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Upper plumage ashy olive, the feathers of the crown 
with dark centres ; tail dark brown ; wings and coverts brown, 
edged with ashy olive ; sides of the head and lower plumage buffy 
white. 

Iris brown ; legs and feet bluish plumbeous ; bill pale livid 
lleshy, dusky brown on the culmen towards the tip of the upper 
mandible (Butler). 

Length &2 ; tail 1 ; wing 1-8 ; tarsus -5 ; bill from gape '5. 

Distribution. Occurs over the greater part of the peninsula of 
India, from the Himalayas to Ceylon. Its western limits are 
dillic-ult to define for want of information. It is abundant in 
South Guzerat, and 1 have seen specimens procured at Dehra aud 
at Dharmsala, but noue from intermediate localities. It probably 
follows the margin of the arid region of llajputana, keeping well 
outside it. To the east it ranges along the foot of the Himalayas 
to Dibrugarh, and it lias been procured in the Cairo hills. Blyth 
records it from Arrakan and Tenasserim, and in the latter divison 
Biugham, as quoted by Hume, once obtained a specimen. 

Habits, $'c. Breeds in March, April, and May, constructing a 
small nest about 3 inches long, which is suspended from the 
extremity of a twig on a tree. The nest is made of fine vegetable 
fibres and down and generally well concealed under some drooping 
li-avrs. The eggs, usually two in number, are glossless white and 
measure -58 by "41. 

Genus ACMONORHYNCHUS, n. gen. 

I propose this genus for the reception of a remarkable Flo \\cr- 
pecker which is found only in Ceylon and which has hitherto been 
placed either in Prionochilus or in Pachyglossa. It differs from 
both these genera in possessing only nine primaries. From 
Dicceum it may be recognized by its very large, coarse bill, and 
from Piprisoma, by its rounded tail and the numerous hairs which 
cover the nostrils. 

In AcmoiHjrhi/nckus the sexes differ and the young bird resembles 
the female. Its habits are those of the family, but nothing is 
known about its nidification. 



382 



920. Acmonorhynchus vincens. Legge's Flower-pecker. 

Prionocliilus vincens, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 729 ; id. Ibis, 1874, 
p. 2, pi. i, figs, i & ii ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 455, iv, p. 403 ; id. Cat. 
no. 240 ter ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 72. 

Pachyglossa vincens (Scl.), Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 577, pi. 20. 




Fig. 105. Head of A. vincens. 

Coloration. Male. Whole upper plumage aud wing-coverts and 
sides of the head and neck very dark bluish ashy approaching to 
black ; wings and tail glossy black, all the tail-leathers except the 
two median pairs broadly tipped with white and the quills with a 
broad band of white on the inner webs ; chin, throat, breast, and 
under tail-coverts white ; remainder of lower plumage bright 
yellow ; under wing-coverts and axillaries white. 

Female. Eesembles the male, but the black of the upper plumage 
is replaced by greenish brown ; wings and tail not quite so black. 

Iris brownish red ; bill black, leaden at base ; legs and feet 
blackish (Legge). 

Length about 4 ; tail 1'3 ; wing 2*35 ; tarsus '45 ; bill from 
gape *45. 

Distribution. Ceylon only, in the forests of the low hills of the 
Southern Provinces. 



Genus PIPRISOMA, Blyth, 1844. 

The genus Piprisoma contains two species which Sharpe places 
with Prionocliilus^ but which I prefer to keep separate on the 
ground of their having but nine primaries. 

In Piprisoma the bill is of much the same shape as in Acmono- 
rhynchus but proportionally shorter. Viewed from above the bill 
is nearly an equilateral triangle with the two sides sinuated. In 
this genus the plumage is dull and the sexes are alike. Both species 
are resident over the whole area they inhabit. 

Key to tlie Species. 

a. Upper plumage and sides of the head ashy 

green ; lower mandible coarse P. squalidum, p. 382. 

b. Upper plumage and sides of the head green ; 

mandible slender , P. modestum, p. 383. 

921. Piprisoma squalidum. The Thick-billed Flower-pecker. 

Pipra squalida, Burton, P. Z. 8. 1836, p. 113. 
Frmgilla agilis, TicMl, J. A. 8. B. ii, p. 578 (1833). 
Parisoma vireoides, Jerd. Madr. Journ. L. S. xi, p. 8 (1840). 



PIPEISOMA. 383 

Piprisoma agile (Tick.), Blyth, Cat. p. 228; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 376 ; 

livavan, Ibis, 1867, p. 430, pi. x ; Hume, N. 8f E. p. 158 ; id. 

S. F. i, p. 434 ; id. Cat. no. 240 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 579 ; O. F. 

L. Marsh. Bird*' -nesting Ltd. p. 69, pi. ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 260; 

Gates, B. B. i, i). 338 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 139. 
Prionochilus squalidus (Burt.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 73. 
Piprisoma squaliduni, Oates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 277. 
Chitlu jitta, Tel. 

Coloration. Upper plumage ashy green, purer green on the 
rump and upper tail-coverts ; wings and tail brown edged with 
olive-green ; the latter tipped with white, broadly on the outer- 
most feathers, more narrowly on the others, the middle feathers 
being almost without any white; lores, cheeks, chin, and throat 
white ; sides of the head and neck ashy brown ; a narrow brown 
streak down each side of the throat; lower plumage pale ashy yellow 
streaked with greenish brown. 

Iris light brick-red ; bill pale plumbeous horny ; legs dusky 
plumbeous (Cleveland). 

Length about 4 ; tail 1'3 ; wing 2*4 ; tarsus "5 ; bill from 
gape -45. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas at low elevations from 
the Sutlej valley to Sikhim, and throughout the peninsula down to 
Ceylon. The western limits of this species are difficult to define 
owing to want of specimens and records of occurrence. It is said 
to be very common at Baroda and then there is a great gap up to 
Ktiiwah and another up to Dehra. I have seen specimens from all 
three places but from no other locality west of them. 

To the east it can be traced to Midnapore and Dinapore, but it is 
probable that it does not pass the longitude of Calcutta. Hume, 
commenting on a collection of birds made by Inglis in Cachar, 
states that it occurs in that district, but the Cachar speci- 
mens in the Hume Collection that I have examined, as noted below 
are referable to P. modestum. I formerly erroneously recorded 
P. squalidum (P. ayile) from Pegu and Tenasserim. 

Habits, fyc. Constructs a small purse-like bag suspended from a 
horizontal twig on a tree, from February to May. The materials 
are fibres and the down of flower-buds felted together into a 
pliable fabric which will bear crushing in the hand and then re- 
cover its shape. The eggs, two or three in number, are white or 
pinkish, marked in various ways with brownish pink or claret- 
colour. They measure *63 by *45 *. 

922. Piprisoma modestum. Hume's Flower -pecker. 

Prionochilus modestus, Hume, S. F. iii, p. 298 ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. 

vi, p. 200 ; Hume, Cat. no. 240 sex ; Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 171 ; 

Hume, S. F. x, p. 198, note ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 340 ; Sharpe, Cat 

B. M. x, p. 74. 
Piprisoma agile (Tick.), apud Oates, S. F. x, p. 198. 

* The Prionochilus pipra, Less., of Hume's Catalogue, entered with doubt and 
stated by Lesson to have been received from Ceylon, is lodopleura pipra, now 
known to occur only in the New World. 



384 DICLEIDJE. 

Coloration. Resembles Piprisoma squalidum, but has the upper 
plumage a brighter green, the sides of the head greener and the 
streaks below darker and more distinct. The chief difference, 
however, lies in the form of the lower mandible of the bill, which 
in P. squalidum is very large, swollen, and much bent upwards in 
front of the angle of the genys, whereas in the present species it 
is very slender and nearly straight. 

Length about 4 ; tail 1/2 ; wing 2-4 ; tarsus -45 ; bill from 
gape -4. 

Distribution. Probably throughout Burma, for Davison procured 
it at Amherst, Mergui, and Malawun, and Bingham in the Thoung- 
yeen valley. I obtained it several times near the town of Pegu, 
and I at one time wrongly identified my specimens with P. agile 
(P. squalidum). I have now reexamined my birds and find them 
to be the present species as suggested by Hume. In the Hume 
Collection there is a specimen procured in Cachar. I have examined 
this bird with the greatest care and find it to be the present 
species and not P. squalidum, to which Hume, probably by an over- 
sight, refers it (S. E. xi, p. 85). 

Genus PEIONOCHILUS, Strickl., 1841. 

The genus Prionochilus contains two Indian species, the males 
of which are brightly coloured. The females are not very dis- 
similar to the males. 

In this genus the bill is of the same shape as in Acmonorliynclms* 
but the sides are slightly concave when viewed from above. The 
naral bristles are entirely absent. The wing has ten primaries, the 
first of which is of considerable size. The tail is square. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Upper plumage blue . . . . P. ignicapillus <$ , p. 384. 

b. Upper plumage green. 

a'. Lower plumage uustreaked P. ignicapillus $, p. 384. 

b'. Lower plumage streaked. 

a". Crown-patch crimson P. maculatus $ , p. 385. 

b". Crown-patch orange-yellow P. maculatus $ , p. 385. 

923. Prionochilus ignicapillus. The Crimson-breasted Floiver- 

pecker. 

Dicseum ignicapilla, Eyton, P. Z. 8. 1839, p. 105. 

Prionochilus percussus (Temm.^apud Blyth, Cat. p. 227; Horsf. fy 

M. Cat. ii, p. 751 ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 196 ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 240 quat. ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 339, 
Prionochilus ignicapillus (Eyt.) t Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 65. 

Coloration. Male. The whole upper plumage, sides of the head 
and neck, and lesser wing-coverts dull blue ; a patch of crimson on 
the centre of the crown ; tail brown, washed with blue on the 
outer webs ; greater wing-coverts brown, edged with dull blue ; 



PACHYGLOSSA. 385 

quills brown, edged with lighter blue ; a narrow white moustachial 
streak down the cheeks ; point of the chin white ; under wing- 
coverts and auxiliaries pure white ; the whole lower plumage deep 
yellow, paler on the vent and under tail-coverts and washed with 
green on the sides of the body ; a large patch of crimson on the 
breast. 

Female. Upper plumage green ; wings and tail dark brown edged 
with green; a pale red patch on the crown; sides of the head 
green tinged with grey ; an ashy-grey moustachial streak ; lower 
plumage dull ashy green, suffused with yellow on the breast and 
abdomen. 

The young resemble the female but have no coronal patch. 

Legs, feet, claws, and lower mandible dark plumbeous ; upper 
mandible black ; iris dark brown (Davison) ; iris red-brown (Ward- 
law Ramsay). 

Length 3*8 ; tail 1'2; wing2'2; tarsus '55; bill from gape '45. 

Distribution. Procured hitherto within our limits only at Ban- 
kasun at the extreme southern point of Tenasserim. The range of 
this bird extends down the Malay peninsula to Sumatra and Borneo. 

924. Prionochllus maculatus. The Wliite-iJiroated Flower-pecker. 

Pardalotus maculatus, Temm. PI. Col. iii, pi. 600, f. 3 (1836). 
Prionochilus maculatus (Temm.*), Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 752 ; Wald. 

Ibis, 1872, p. 379 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 199 ; Hume, Cat. no. 

240 quint, ; Gates, B. B. i, p. 340 j Sliarpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 69. 

Coloration. Male. The whole upper plumage and lesser wing- 
coverts green ; a patch of fiery red on the crown ; greater coverts, 
wings, and tail brown, edged with green ; sides of the head ashy 
green ; lores and moustachial streak greenish white ; a dull green 
streak below this moustachial streak ; the space between these green 
streaks pale yellow ; breast and sides of the neck bright yellow, 
streaked with brown ; abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts bright 
yellow ; sides of the body dusky yellow ; under wing-coverts and 
axillaries pale yellow. 

Female. Differs from the male merely in having the coronal patch 
orange-yellow. 

In the males, legs and feet very dark plumbeous, in the females 
dirty smalt-blue ; upper mandible and the lower to the angle of 
gonys black; the rest of the bill plumbeous in males, smalt- 
blue in females ; iris dull red (Hume fy Davisoii). 

Length 3'7 ; tail 1-1 ; wing 2-1 : tarsus -5 ; bill from gape -5. 

Distribution. Tenasserim from Mergui down to Malawun ; 
extending down to the Malay peninsula. 



Genus PACHYGLOSSA, Hodgs., 1843. 

The genus Pachynlossa resembles Prionochilus in many respects, 
but the wing is extremely long with a much shorter first primary, 
TOL. ii. 2 o 






386 PITTIDJC. 

and the secondaries fall short of the tip of the wing by a distance 
greater than the length of the tarsus. The lower edge of the 
inferior mandible is nearly straight. 

The sexes are dissimilar, but not very much so. I have not been 
able to examine a young bird, but it will, without doubt, be found 
to resemble the adult female. 

The only species of this genus inhabits the Himalayas, and 
nothing appears to be known about its habits. Hodgson, fide 
Jerdon, says that it feeds on small insects and viscid berries and 
makes a pendulous nest. 

925. Pachyglossa melanoxantha. Tlie Yellow-bellied Flower-pecker. 

Pachyglossa melanoxantha, Hodys., Blytli, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 1010 

(1843) ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 378 ; Hume, N.fyE. p. 160 ; Godw.-Aust. 

J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 156 ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 455 ; id. S. F. 

v, p. 348 ; id. Cat. no. 242 : id. S. F. xi, p. 85: Oatcs in Hume's 

N. Sf E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 279. 
Prionochilus melanoxanthus (Hodgs.}, Sclater, Ibis, 1874, p. 3, pi. i, 

fig. 3 j Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 71. 

Coloration. Male. The whole upper plumage, wings, tail, sides 
of head, neck, and breast black, the outermost pair of tail-feathers, 
or sometimes the two outer pairs with a patch of white on the 
inner web near the tip ; middle of chin, throat, and breast white ; 
remainder of the lower plumage bright yellow ; under wing-coverts 
white. 

Female. Eesembles the male, but the black is replaced by greenish 
brown, becoming paler on the sides of the head, neck, and breast ; 
abdomen and under tail-coverts duller yellow; middle of chin, 
throat, and breast greyish white ; under wing-coverts and axillaries 
white. 

Iris red ; legs dark plumbeous (Godwin-Austen). 

Length about 4-5 ; tail 1-7 ; wing 2-8 ; tarsus -55 ; bill from 
gape '45. 

Distribution. Sikhim and probably Nepal; extending toDibrugarh 
in Assam and Sopoomah in the Naga hills. 



Family PITTID^E. 

The intrinsic muscles of the syrinx fixed at or near the middle 
of the bronchial semi-rings ; wing of ten primaries, the first of 
considerable size and reaching nearly to the tip of the wiug ; tarsus 
elongated, the anterior covering entire and smooth ; tail very short 
and of twelve feathers ; feathers of crown elongate and forming 
a conspicuous crest when erected. 



ANTHOCINCLA. 387 

The Pittidce are a compact group of birds which are found 
over the whole of South-eastern Asia, extending to Australia ; 
and a single species is found in Africa. They differ from all 
other Indian Passeres in the structure of the syrinx and also in the 
formation of the wing, the first primary being of large size, whereas 
in all the other ten-primaried Passeres the first is markedly small. 
Their long legs and short tails also suffice to separate them from 
nearly all other Passeres. 

The Pittas live habitually on the ground and feed on insects ; 
they hop and run with great facility and their flight is strong for 
short distances. The males have a very sweet call consisting 
of a double whistle, uttered from a tree. The majority of the 
species prefer dense jungle, but some few may be found in gardens, 
sparse bamboo-jungle, and even in comparatively open country. 
Many of the species are locally migratory, others appear to be quite 
stationary throughout the year. 

The Pittas make large oven-shaped nests on the ground or on 
thick branches near the ground and lay four or five eggs which are 
very richly marked. 

It seems quite impossible to divide the Indian Pittas into 
more than two genera, as they are extremely similar to each other 
in structure. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Feathers at sides of nape long and pointed, 

forming conspicuous aigrettes ANTHOCINCLA, p. 387. 

b. Feathers at sides of nape not conspicuously 

lengthened PITTA, p. 388. 

Genus ANTHOCINCLA, Blyth, 1862. 

The only species of this genus is characterized by its conspicuous 
aigrettes and by its elongated and compressed bill. The sexes are 
not very different. 

926. Anthocincla phayrii. Phayre's Pitta. 

Anthocincla phayrii, Blyth, J.A.S. B. xxxi, p. 343 (1862) ; Hume, 
S. F. iii, p. 109, pi. ii ; Blyt h, Birds Burm. p. 100 ; Hume $ Dav. 
S. F. vi, p. 245 ; Hume, Cat. no. 346 ter ; Bingham, S. F. ix, 
pp. 177, 474 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 420 ; Sclater, Cat. B. M. xiv, 
p. 413 ; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 279. 

Coloration. Male. A black band from the forehead passing over 
the middle of the crown and expanding to cover the nape and 
whole hind neck; remainder of crown and forehead rich fulvous, 
each feather narrowly edged with black ; lores, cheeks, and ear- 
coverts mixed rufous and black ; a broad stripe from the eye over 
the ear-coverts, reaching well down the neck, white, each feather 
margined with black; some of the longer feathers, forming 
aigrettes, also barred with black; whole upper plumage rufous 

2o2 



388 PITTTD7F. 

brown ; wing-coverts tipped broadly with fulvous and with a subter- 
minal black bar on both webs ; tertiaries and tail rather duller than 
the back ; primaries brown, broadly tipped paler ; a large fulvous 
patch at the base of each feather ; secondaries brown, edged with the 
colour of the back ; chin and middle of the throat white ; sides of 
the throat fulvous, the feathers margined with black ; remainder of 
lower plumage fulvous ; the feathers of the breast very narrowly 
and indistinctly margined with black, and some of them with black 
spots ; the feathers of the sides of the body and flanks distinctly 
spotted near the tip of both webs ; under tail-coverts pink. 

Female. Differs in wanting the black coronal streak and the black 
on the nape and hind neck, this colour being replaced by the colour 
of the back, but rather darker ; the feathers of the forehead and 
crown margined with black ; also differs in having the breast more 
marked with black and the spots on the sides of the body larger. 

Male : bill dark horny ; iris nut-brown ; legs and feet dirty flesh- 
colour blotched with brown. Female : bill horny ; iris dark brown ; 
legs, feet, and claws fleshy white (BinyTiani). 

Length about 9 inches ; tail 2-3 ; wing 3'9 ; tarsus 1*25 ; bill 
from gape 1*5. 




Fig. 106. Head of A. phayrii, 

Distribution. Burma east of the Sittoung river from the Karen 
hills east of Toungngoo to the valley of the Thoungyeen river. 

Habits, $c. Bingham found a nest of this Pitta in Tenasserim in 
April. It was an oven-shaped structure on the ground at the root 
of a tree and was composed of leaves, roots, and grass, with a small 
platform of twigs leading up to the entrance, which was at the side. 
The nest contained four eggs, which were white marked with purple 
and black and measured about 1'09 by '86. 

Genus PITTA, Vieill., 1816. 

The genus Pitta contains those Pittas which have no aigrettes of 
pointed feathers, and which have a shorter and broader bill than 
Anthocinda. The tail-feathers of the birds of this genus vary 
considerably in shape, in some being broad and rounded, and in 
others narrow and pointed. 



PITTA. 389 

Key to the Species. 

a. Lower plumage plain fulvous. 
a'. Tail brown tinged with green. 

a". Nape and hind neck blue 7'. /irjialcHxi*, p. ">'.. 

b". Nape and hind neck fulvous P. oatesi, p. ;5'.K). 

//. Tail blue P. cccrulca, p. 390. 

b. Lower plumage cross-barred. 

c'. Nape red ; crown with a black coronal 

band P. cyanea, p. 391. 

d'. Nape ferruginous like crown ; no coronal 

band P. yurneyi $ , p. 395. 

c. Lower plumage with some brilliant crim- 

son. 

e'. Breast and abdomen fulvous or buff, 
c". Under wing-coverts black. 

a". Bill from gape to tip about 1-2 .. P. cyanoptera, p. 392. 
b'". Bill from gape to tip about 1-6 . . P. megarhyncha, p. 393. 
d". Under wing-coverts black -with a 

large patch of white P. brachyura, p. 393. 

f. Breast and abdomen all crimson P. coccinea, p. 394. 

//'. Breast and abdomen green P. cucullata, p. 395. 

d. Lower plumage deep black P. f/umeyi (J , p. 395. 




Fig. 107. Head of P. nepalensis. 

927. Pitta nepalensis. Th.e Blue-naped Pitta. 

Paludicola nipalensis, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. vi, p. 103 (1837). 

Pitta nipalensis (Hodgs.), Blyth, Cat. p. 150 ; Hor*f. $ M. Cat. i, 

p. 182 ; Sclater, Cat. B. M. xiv, p. 414; Oates in Humes N. $ E. 

2nd ed. ii, u. 281. 
Brachyur us nipalensis (Hodgs.), Elliot, Mon. Pitt. pi. iii ; id. Ibis, 1870, 

p. 413. 
Hydrornis nipalensis (Hodf/s.), Jerd. B. I. i, p. 502 ; Hume, N. fy E. 

p. 224 ; Oates, S. F. iii,' p. 337 ; id. B. B. i, p. 412 ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 344. 

The Large Nepal Ground-Thrush, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead and anterior half of crown rich 
fulvous, shading off into blue on the nape and hind neck ; upper 
plumage greenish brown ; tail brown tinged with green ; wings 



390 PITTID^E. 

dark brown, the outer webs of all the feathers broadly margined 
with f ulvous ; sides of the head, chin, and throat rich rusty or 
rufous ; a concealed black patch on the side of the neck ; remaining 
lower plumage deep fulvous ; the feathers of the fore neck with 
concealed black bases, sometimes showing through when the tips of 
the feathers get worn. 

Female. Differs from the male in having the throat whitish and 
the general colour of the head duller rufous. 

The young bird is blackish above, with large fulvous spots ; the 
front of the head is tinged with pink ; the lower plumage is blackish, 
with broad pale pink tips to all the feathers. 

Bill dusky, fleshy at the base ; legs ruddy flesh-colour ; claws 
whitish ; iris lightish brown (Jerdori). 

Length about 10 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 4'8 ; tarsus 2-1 ; bill from 
gape 1*4. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Nepal to Assam and the 
countries south of Assam to Manipur on the east and to Arrakan 
on the west. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds during May and June, constructing a covered 
nest of grass and leaves on the ground or on a tangled mass of 
branches of trees a short distance above the ground. The eggs, 
three or four in number, are white, sparingly marked with red and 
purple, and measure about 1'2 by "95. 

This species and the next are found in dense forests on the hills 
in the neighbourhood of water. 

928. Pitta oatesi. The Fulvous Pitta. 

Hydrornis oatesi, Hume, S. F. i, p. 477 (1873) ; Walden in Blyth's 
Birds Burm. p. 98 ; Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 1877, p. 463 ; Hume 
f Dav. S. F. vi, p. 237 ; Hume, Cat. no. 344 bis ; Gates, B. B. i, 



p. 411 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mm. Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. 574. 
itta oatesi (Hume], Sclater, Cat. B. M. xiv, p. 416. 



Pitta 



Coloration. Resembles P. nepalensis, but entirely wants all traces 
of blue on the nape and hind neck. 

Upper mandible brown, the tip and edges salmon-colour ; lower 
mandible brown; gape salmon-colour; inside of mouth flesh- 
colour ; iris rich brown ; eyelids plumbeous ; legs and claws 
pinkish flesh-colour. Of the same size as P. nepalensis. 

Distribution. Karennee ; Tenasserim as far south as Muleyit 
mountain ; the evergreen forests of the hills of Pegu. 

929. Pitta caerulea. The Giant Pitta. 

Myiothera cserulea, Raffl. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 301 (1822). 
Pitta ceerulea (Bafll.\ Blyth, Cat. p. 156 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, 

p. 181 ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 238 j Hume, Cat. no. 344 quart. ; 

Sciater, Cat. B. M. xiv, p. 416. 
Brachyurus caeruleus (RaM.}, Elliot, Mon. Pitt. pis. i & ii ; id. Ibis. 

1870, p. 412. 

Brachyurus davisoni, Hume, S. F. iii, p. 321 (1875) . 
Gigantipitta cserulea (Raffi.\ Oates, B. B. i, p. 413. 



PITTA. 31 H 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, front and sides, of bead, and the 
ear-coverts greyish brown, each feather narrowly margined with 
black ; crown, nape, and back of neck black ; a broad supercilium 
produced back nearly to the end of the black on the neck, as also a 
broad patch below this line and separated from it by a broad black 
streak starting from the eye and passing over the ear-coverts, f ul- 
vescent ; chin and upper throat plain f ulvescent ; lower throat and 
sides of the neck the same, but each feather slightly margined with 
blackish ; the whole lower plumage fulvous with a tinge of green ; 
the throat separated from the breast by a broad black collar formed 
by the bases of certain of the feathers ; this collar is not, however, 
always present ; wings chiefly black, all the exposed portions when 
closed being blue ; back, upper wing-coverts, rump, tail-coverts, 
and tail bright blue. 

Female. The whole head and nape rufous-grey, closely barred 
with black ; a broad streak from the eye over the ear-coverts and 
a broad collar round the back of the neck black ; a supercilium 
reaching to the black collar, widening as it approaches it, and half 
surrounding the end of the black streak just referred to, plain ful- 
vous ; upper plumage chestnut ; tail blue ; wing-coverts and 
tertiaries chestnut ; primaries and secondaries brown, more or less 
edged with ruddy ; chin and throat pale grey ; sides of the head 
and lower throat fulvous-grey, mottled with brownish ; remainder 
of lower plumage fulvous, with a tinge of green ; a black collar 
between the throat and breast, but not so conspicuous as in the 
male. 

Legs and feet bluish fleshy or dark fleshy, tinged with pale 
plumbeous ; bill black ; inside of the mouth white ; eyelids and 
gape very dark fleshy ; irides hazel-grey (Davisori). 

Length about 11'5; tail 2-5 ; wing 6-2; tarsus 2'4; bill from 
gape 1-75. 

Distribution. Tenasserim, from the foot of Nwalabo mountain 
southwards extending down the Malay peninsula to Sumatra and 
Borneo. 

930. Pitta cyanea. The Blue Pitta. 

Pitta cyanea, Blyth t J. A. S. B. xii, p. 1008 (1843) ; id. Cat. p. 157 ; 

Horsf. 8f M. Cat. i, p. 182 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 238 ; Hume, 

Cat. no. 344 ter ; Sclater, Cat. B. M. xiv, p. 417 ; Oates in Hume's 

N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 282. 
Brachyurus cyaneus (Blyth), Elliot, Mon. Pitt. pi. xiii ; id. Ibis, 

1870, p. 413 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 107. 
Eucichla cyanea (Blyth), Oates, ti. B. i, p. 419; Salvadori, Ann. 

Mus. Civ. (2) v, p. 575. 

Coloration. Male. The lores and a broad streak from the eye 
over the ear-coverts to the nape black; forehead and crown 
greenish grey, changing to red, and giving place entirely to red on 
the nape, where the feathers are long and form a crest ; a black 
streak from the bill, over the centre of the crown, to the nape ; the 
whole upper plumage and tail blue ; quills of the wing brown, each 
with a white patch at the base ; cheeks and ear-coverts fulvous ; below 



392 WTTIDJS. 

these a black rnoustachial stripe ; chin and throat whitish, mottled 
with black ; remainder of lower plumage light blue, barred with 
black, and the breast washed with yellow ; the abdomen and lower 
tail-coverts paler blue, and barely barred at all. 

Female. Differs from the male in having the upper plumage 
brown, tinged with blue, and the lower plumage yellowish brown, 
barred with black. 

Bill black ; inside of mouth dusky fleshy ; iris dark reddish 
brown ; eyelids plumbeous ; legs pinkish flesh-colour ; claws 
whitish. 

Length about 9 inches ; tail 2'3 ; wing 4*5 ; tarsus 1/8 ; bill 
from gape 1/2. 

Distribution. Bhutan ; Hill Tipperah ; Arrakan ; Pegu ; Teii- 
asserim as far south as Tavoy ; extending to Siatn. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds in May, constructing a massive globular nest of 
earth, leaves, and twigs on the ground. The eggs, four or five in 
number, are white, marked with various shades of purple, and 
measure about 1-07 by -84. 

931. Pitta cyanoptera. The Lesser Blue-ivinged Pitta. 

Turdus molucceusis *, P. L. 8. Mull. Natursyst. Suppl. p. 144 (1776) . 
Pitta cyanoptera, Temm. PL Col pi. 218 (1823) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 157 ; 

Horsf. # M. Cat. i, p. 183; Sclater, Cat. B. M. xiv, p. 420 ; 

Gates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 283. 
Brachyurus cyanopterus (Temm.}, Elliot, Mon. Pitt. pi. iv. 
Brachyurus moluccensis (Mull.). Elliot, Ibis, 1870, p. 413 j Hume. 

Ajp'.Uvp.ioe. 

Pitta moluccensis (Miitt.\ Hume 8f Dan. S. F. vi, p. 240 ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 345 bis j Oates, B. B. i, p. 415. 

Coloration. Crown from the nostrils to the nape fulvous-brown ; 
lores, cheeks, ear-coverts, a stripe over the eye, and a broad band 
round the back of the head black ; a dark brown stripe over the 
head from the forehead to the nape ; back, scapulars, and tertiaries 
dull green ; rump, upper tail-coverts, and the smaller upper wing- 
coverts bright ultramarine-blue; chin immediately near the bill 
blackish, remainder of chin and throat white ; breast, abdomen, and 
flanks ruddy buff ; a broad stripe down the abdomen, the vent, and 
under tail-coverts bright crimson ; tail black, tipped with dull blue ; 
primaries black, each feather with a large patch of white ; second- 
aries black, edged with dull blue on the terminal half ; tertiaries 
black, tipped and margined with bluish green ; larger wing-coverts 
dull green, edged with bright blue ; under wing-coverts black. 

Young birds have the coronal streak broader, and the feathers of 
the crown are narrowly margined with black ; the wing-coverts are 
dull blue, and the colours of the other parts of the body less bright 
than in the adult. 

Iris dark brown ; eyelid and ocular region plumbeous ; bill black ; 
inside of mouth flesh-colour ; legs fleshy pink ; cla"ws horn-colour. 

* This name conveys an erroneous impression of this bird's habitat, and has 
been very properly rejected by most authors. 



PITTA. 393 

Length 8 ; tail 1'6 ; wing 4-9 ; tarsus 1'7 ; bill from gape 1*2. 

Uistribution. The southern portion of Arrakan ; Pegu ; 
Tenasserim. This Pitta is a seasonal visitor to the northern 
portion of its range, visiting Arrakan, Pegu, and Northern 
To nas.se rim in April and May, and leaving in July. It appears to 
be a permanent resident in Southern Teuasserim. It ranges to 
Siam and down the Malay peninsula to some of the islands. 

Habits, $-c. Breeds in May, June, and July, constructing a large 
oven-shaped nest of leaves, roots, and earth, matted together on 
the ground or on a large branch or fallen tree near the ground. 
The eggs, usually five in number, are white, richly marked with 
red and purple, and measure about 1*05 by 0*87. 

932. Pitta niegarhyncha. The Larger Blue-ivinged Pitta. 

Pitta megaiiiyncha, Schleg. Vog. Ned. Ind., Pitta, p. 32, pi. 4, fig. L> 
(1803) ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 242 ; Hume, Cat. no. 345 ter ; 
Gates, B. B. i, p. 41G ; Sclater, Cat. B. M. xiv, p. 421 ; Oates in 
Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 285, note. 

Brachyurus niegarliynchus (Schlcg.), Elliot, Ibis, 1870, p. 414, pl.xii. 

Coloration. Very similar to P. cyanoptera, but differing slightly 
in coloration, larger, and with a much longer bill. The coronal 
streak is obsolete or altogether absent, the brown of the head is 
darker, the breast is paler, and the black collar narrower. 

Bill black ; iris deep brown ; legs and feet dark fleshy. 

Length ( J ; tail 1*7 ; wing 4'7 ; tarsus 1*6 ; bill from gape 1*6. 

Distribution. Southern Pegu and Tenasserim from Moulmein 
southwards. This species appears to visit Pegu and the more 
northern parts of its range in Tenasserim in May, and to depart 
in July, but in Southern Tenasserim it is probably a resident. Its 
range extends down the Malay peninsula, and it is also found 
in Bauka. 

Habits, <$fc. The nest of this species has not yet been found within 
Indian limits. Further south in the Malay peninsula a nest was 
found in April, and appears to have been of the usual type. 

933. Pitta brachynra. The Indian Pitta. 

Corvus brachyurus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 158 (1766). 

Corvus brachyurus, var. bengalensis, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i, p. 376 (1788). 

Turdus coronatus, P. L. S. Mull. Natursyst., Suppl. p. 144 (1776). 

Pitta triostegus (Sparrm.\ Blyth, Cat. p. 157. 

Pitta brachyura (Linn.}, Gould, Cent. pi. 23; Hume, Cat. no. 345; 

Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 169; Sclater, Cat. B. M. xiv, p. 423; 

Oates in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 285. 
Pitta bengalensis (Gmel.), Horsf. & M. Cat. i, p. 184 5 Jerd. B. I. 

i, t>. 503. 

Brachy lirus bengalensis (Gmel.}, Elliot, Mm. Pitt. pi. vi. 
Pitta coronata (P. L. S. Mull.), Hume, N. #. E. p. 224 ; Lec/ge, Birds 

Ceylon, p. 687. 

The Yellow-breasted Ground-Thrush, Jerd. ; Nourang, Hind. ; Shumcha, 
Beng. ; Pona-inki, Tel. ; Avitchia, Ayitta, Cing. 



394 PITTIDvE. 

Coloration. Forehead and crown pale fulvous, with a broad 
median black band from the forehead to the nape ; a narrow super- 
cilium and the feathers under the eye white ; a very broad black 
band passing under the eye, over the ear-coverts, and meeting the 
median coronal band on the nape : back, scapulars, and upper rump 
green ; lower rump, upper tail-coverts, and lesser wing-coverts 
shining pale blue ; tail black, tipped with dull blue ; median coverts 
and tertiaries green ; greater-coverts green, with the bases of the 
outer feathers black ; winglet and primary-coverts black ; primaries 
black, each with a basal white patch and a grey tip ; secondaries 
black, tipped with white, and with the terminal portion of the 
outer web margined with dull blue ; chin and throat white ; 
remainder of lower plumage fulvous, the middle of the lower 
abdomen and the under tail-coverts crimson ; under wing-coverts 
black, with a patch of white near the edge of the wing. 

Iris dark brown ; bill blackish, paling to reddish brown on 
culmen; legs and feet pale purplish fleshy (Butler). 

Length about 7*5; tail 1-8; wing 4-1; tarsus 1'4; bill from 
gape 1-1. 

Distribution. The whole of India from Eastern Eajputana and 
Garhwal to Sikhim and Calcutta, extending south to Cape Comoriu 
and Ceylon. This Pitta is a local migrant, being found in the 
southern part of its range in the winter, and in the central and 
northern portions in the hot weather and rains, but a certain 
number of birds appear to be constant residents in all parts of its 
range suited to its habits. 

Habits, &c. Breeds in the Central Provinces of India in July and 
August, building a huge globular nest of twigs and leaves on the 
ground or on low branches. The eggs are of the usual type, glossy 
white, marked with maroon and purple, and measure about 1*01 
by -86. 

934. Pitta coccinea. The Malayan Scarlet Pitta. 

Pitta coccinea, Eyton, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 104; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, 
p. 511 ; Hume, Cat. no. 345 quat. ; Sclater, Cat. B. M. xiv, p. 431. 

Brachyurus granatinus (Temm.), Elliot. Mon. Pitt. pi. xv (pt.) ; id. 
Ibis, 1870, p. 417 (pt.). 

Eucichla coccinea (Eytori), Oates, B. B. i, p. 417. 

Coloration. The forehead, for about a quarter of an inch or to a 
point well in front of the eye, the lores, a streak over the eye, and 
the sides of the head black ; crown and nape deep crimson, bordered 
on either side of the nape by a streak of lavender-blue ; the whole 
upper plumage purplish blue, most brilliant on the back and dull 
on the other parts and tail ; wing-feathers black, the outer edges 
and tips more or less tinged with blue ; lesser wing-coverts plain 
black ; the greater coverts black, all broadly tipped with glistening 
blue ; chin and throat rufous, the feathers all tipped with dark 
brown ; the breast purple, each feather edged with crimson ; sides 
of the body, abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts crimson. 



PITTA. 395 

A young bird shot by Mr. Davison had the legs, feet, and claws 
pale lavender ; the bill black ; the gape and a spot at the base and 
tip of both mandibles orange-verniilion. 

Length 7; tail 1/6 ; wing 3*5 ; tarsus 1*5 ; bill from gape 1*05. 

Distribution. Tenasseriin, at the foot of Nwalabo mountain, 
extending down the Malay peninsula. 

935. Pitta CUCullata. The Green-breasted Pitta. 

Pitta cucullata, Hartl. Rev. Zool. 1843, p. 65; Blyth, Cat. p. 1">7 ; 

Horsf. * M. Cat. i, p. 399 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 504 ; Uavison, S. F. 

v, p. 457 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 243 ; Hume, Cat. no. 346 ; 

Oatcs, B. B. i, p. 414 ; Sclater, Cat. B. M. xiv, p. 442 ; Oates in 

Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 286. 
Melanopitta cucullata (Hartl.), Hume, N. 8f E. p. 225. 
Brachyurus cucullatus (Hartl.}, Elliot, Mon. Pitt. pi. xxviii ; Hume, 

S. F. iii, p. 109. 
The Green-breasted Ground-Thrush, Jerd.; Phattim-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. The crown from the nostrils to the nape rich rufous- 
brown ; lores, cheeks, ear-coverts, chin, throat, and a collar sur- 
rounding the head black ; breast and sides of the body pale greenish 
blue ; the abdomen black ; lower abdomen, vent, and under tail- 
coverts crimson; back, scapulars, and rump dark glossy green ; upper 
tail-coverts and all the^smaller wing-coverts bright ultramarine-blue ; 
primaries black, with a large white patch on each feather ; secon- 
daries black, with the terminal half of the outer webs edged broadly 
with greenish blue ; tertiaries wholly dark green ; the larger wing- 
coverts dull green ; tail black, tipped with blue ; under wing-coverts 
black. 

Bill black ; inside of mouth dusky fleshy ; iris dark coffee-brown ; 
eyelids plumbeous ; legs and claws fleshy pink. 

Length about 7*5 ; tail 1*6 ; wing 4'5 ; tarsus 1'7 ; bill from 
gape 1*05. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Nepal to Assam ; Tipperah ; 
the Khasi hills ; Manipur ; Pegu and Tenasseriin. Blyth records 
this species from Arrakan. It extends down the Malay peninsula. 

Habits, Sfc. Breeds from April to July, making a globular nest of 
leaves, twigs, and fibres on the ground, and laying four eggs, which 
are white marked with purple and measure about 1-07 by -84. 

936. Pitta gurneyi. Gumetfs Pitta. 

Pitta gurneyi, Hume, S. F. iii, p. 296, pi. iii ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. 

vi, p. 244 ; Hume, Cat. no. 346 bis. 
Eucichla gurncyi (Hume), Oates, B. B. i, p. 418 ; Sclater, Cat. B. M. 

xiv, p. 448. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, front of the crown, lores, cheeks, 
ear-coverts, a stripe over the eye continued to the back of the head 
as a collar, breast, abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts deep black ; 
remainder of crown and nape bright glistening blue, the feathers 



396 PITTID/E. 

long and forming a crest ; chin and throat white ; sides of the 
neck and a broad collar on the upper breast bright yellow ; sides 
of the body and of the breast yellow, barred with black ; under 
wing-coverts black, a few of the feathers in the middle being white ; 
the upper plumage with the tertiaries and upper wing-coverts light 
chestnut-brown ; primaries and their coverts black ; secondaries 
black, the first two or three margined with whitish near the tip, 
the others margined more broadly with the same colour as the back ; 
tail bright blue, the inner webs being almost entirely black. 

Female. Forehead pale, the crown and nape bright ferruginous ; 
cheeks, ear-coverts, and a line along the neck black, a few of the 
feathers of the cheeks pale orange-brown ; chin and throat dirty 
white ; remainder of the lower plumage yellow closely barred with 
black ; the yellow most bright on the breast, and the bars almost 
absent on the abdomen ; with the exception of the head, which has 
been described, the whole upper plumage is like that of the male ; 
lower tail-coverts black, tipped with dull blue ; primaries and 
secondaries dull brown ; tail as in the male. 

Bill black ; iris dark brown; eyelids black ; gape whitish; legs 
and claws fleshy white (Davison). 

Length about 8'5; tail 2-2; wing 4-1; tarsus 1*6; bill from 
gape 1-1. 

Distribution. The extreme southern portion of Tenasseritn and the 
Island of Tonkah. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



Acanthis, 227. 
Accentor, 166. 
Accentorinae, 165. 
Acmonorhynchus, 381. 
acornaus (Ery throsterna), 

17. 
acornaus (Muscicapula), 

17. 
acuticauda (Amadina), 

184. 
acuticauda (Munia), 

184. 
acuticauda (Uroloncha). 

184. 
aoutirostris (Oalandrella), 

320. 

adamsi (Alauduln), 331. 
adamsi (Montifringilla), 

246. 

Adelura, 108. 
ae.-tigma (Muscicapula), 

19. 

jEthopyga, 346. 
nfllnis (Arachnothera), 

371. 
affinis (Hesperipbona), 

199. 

affinis (Mirafra), 335. 
affinis (Petrocincla), 

146. 
affinis (Pycnorhamphus\ 

199 
affinis (Pyrrhulauda), 

343. 

affinis (Tchitrea), 47, 48. 
affinis (Terpsiphone), 47. 
agile (Piprisoma), 383. 
ngilis (Anthus), 302, 304. 
agilis (Pipastes), 304. 
Agrodroma, 305. 
Aidemosyne inalabarica, 

188. 
Alsemon, 317. 



alaschanica (Ruticilla), 

94. 

Alauda, 324. 
Alaudidse, 315. 
Alauclula, 330. 
alba (Motacilla), 287. 
albicaudata (Stoparola), 

30. 
albicilla (Ery throsterna), 

10. 

albicilla (Siphia), 10. 
albicincta (Merula), 127. 
albicollis (Rhipidura), 

53. 

albicollis (Turdus), 127. 
albida (Emberiza), 255. 
albif'rontata (Rhipidura), 

52. 
albigularis (Geocichla), 

142. 

albinigra (Saxicola), 70. 
albiventris (Cittocincla), 

120, 
albof'rontata, (Leuco- 

cerca), 52. 
albogularis (Dimorpha), 

17. 
albogularis (Geocichla), 

142. 

alboides (Motacilla), 291. 
alboniger (Saxicola), 70. 
albosuperciliaris (Pra- 

tincola), 61. 

alpestris (Himndo), 282. 
alpestris japonicji (Hirun- 

do), 281. 

alpicola (Passer), 244. 
Alseonax, 34. 
altaicus (Accentor), 168. 
amandava (Estrekla\ 

1 ( .L>. 193. 
amandava (Sporn-^in- 

thllt), 192. 



ambiguus (Propasser), 

215. 
ammodendri (Passer), 

243. 

Ammomanes, 339. 
andamanensis (Geo- 
cichla), 142. . 
andamanensis (Hirundo), 

277. 
andamanica (Arach- 

nechthra), 363. 
andamauicus (Ciunyris), 

363. 
andersoni 

349. 
Anthipes, 31. 
Anthocincla, 387. 
antlioides (Budytes), 

296. 

Anthothreptes, 365. 
Anthreptes, 365. 
Anthus, 301. 
aquaticus (Anthus), 312. 
Arachnechthra, 357. 
Arachnothera, 368. 
Arachnotherinae, 368. 
arboreus (Anthus), 302. 
arboreus (Pipastes), 303. 
arctivitta (Cecropis), 

282. 
arcuata (Emberiza), 

252. 

arvensis (Alauda). 324. 
asiatica (Arachnechthni), 

359. 

asiaticus (Oinclus), 163. 
nsiaticus (Cinnyris), 359. 
assamensis (Mirafra), 

334. 

assamica (Mirafra), 334. 
assirailis (Passer), 241. 
astigraa (Cyornis), 19. 
atr.it. i (Pratincola), 60. 



398 



ALPHABETICAL IXDEX. 



atricapilla (Munia), 183. 
atrigula (Ploceus), 176. 
atrigularis (Accentor), 

170. 

atrigularis (Merula), 131. 
atrigularis (Tharrhaleus), 

170. 
atrogularis (Saxicola), 

78. 

atrogularis (Turdus), 131. 
aurantiaca (Pyrrhula), 

204. 
aurata (Arachnothera), 

370. 

aureola (Emberiza), 259. 
aureola (Euspiza), 259. 
aureola (Rhipidura), 52. 
aurifroiis (Serinus), 230. 
aurorea (Ruticilla), 93. 
australis (Alauda), 326. 
avensis (Greocichla), 138. 
azurea (Hypothymis), 49. 
azurea (Myiagra), 49. 

baghaira (Eraberiza), 

328. 
baicalensis (Motacilla), 

288. 

banyumas (Cyornis), 25. 
barnesi (Saxicola), 75. 
baya (Ploceus), 175. 
beema (Budytes), 295. 
beema (Motacilla), 296. 
bengalensis (Brachyurus), 

393. 

bengalensis (Pitta), 393. 
bengalensis (Ploceus), 

177. 

bicolor (Pratincola), 60. 
bicolor (Saxicola), 59. 
birnaculata (Melano- 

corypba), 323. 
Blackbirds, 121. 
blakistoni (An thus), 

312. 
blanfbrdi (Montifrin- 

gilla), 245. 
Blue-throats, 99. 
blythi (Propasser), 214. 
boarula (Calobates), 

293. 

boarula (Motacilla), 293. 
boetouensis (Haemato- 

spiza), 209. 

boreal! s (Motacilla), 294. 
boulboul (Merula), 130. 
bourdilloni (Merula), 

125. 
brachydactyla (Calan- 

drella), 327, 328, 329. 
brachyura (Pitta), 393. 



Brachyurus, 389. 
B rambling, 233. 
brandti (Fringillauda), 

248. 
brandti (Leucosticte), 

248. 
brasiliana (Cinnyris), 

360. 
brasiliana (Leptocoma), 

360. 
brerirostris (Acanthis), 

229. 
brevirostris (Nectarinia), 

359. 
Bucanetes githaginea, 

221. 
buchanani (Emberiza), 

258. 

Budytes, 294. 
Buntings, 249. 
burmanica (Estrilda), 

193. 
burmanica (Leucocerca), 

52. 
burton i (Callacanthis), 

226. 

burtoni (Fringilla), 226. 
Butalis grisola, 4. 
Butalis terricolor, 35. 

cacbarensis (Accentor), 

166. 
cacharensis (Siphia), 

33. 
caerulea (Gigantipitta), 

390. 

eaerulea (Myiagra), 49. 
casrulea (Pitta), 390. 
caerulecula(Motacilla), 99. 
cagruleicephala (Adelura), 

108. 

caeruleocephala (Ruti- 
cilla), 109. 
casruleus (Brachyurus), 

390. 

Calandra Larks, 322. 
Calandrella, 327. 
calandrella (Coryphidea), 

328. 
calcarata (Budytes), 

298. 
calcaratus (Budytes), 

299. 

Callacanthis, 226. 
Callene, 113. 
Calliope, 101. 
calliope (Motacilla), 102. 
Calobates, 293. 
cambaiensis (Thamno- 

bia), 1 14. 
campbelli (Nitidula), 27. 



campestris (Agrodroma), 

309. 

campestris (Anthus), 309. 
campestris (Motacilla), 

297. 

camtschatkensis (Cal- 
liope), 102. 
caniceps (Carduelis), 

225. 

cannabina (Linaria), 228. 
can I ]llans (Mirafra), 333. 
capistrata (Saxicola), 72. 
caprata (Pratincola), 59, 

60. 

cara (JEthopyga), 349. 
cardis (Turdulus), 133. 
Carduelis, 225. 
carneipes (Pycno- 

rhamphus), 200. 
Carpodacus, 219. 
cashmiriensis, vide kash- 

miriensis. 
cashmiriensis (Hydro- 

bata), 162. 
cashmiriensis(Motacilla), 

290. 

castanea (Merula), 128. 
castaneocollis (Petro- 

cincla), 143. 
Cercomela, 79. 
Cercotrichas macrurus, 

119. 
Certhilauda desertorum, 

318. 

cervina (Motacilla), 310. 
cerviniventris (Digerea), 

16. 

cervinus (Anthus), 310. 
ceylonensis (Culicicapa), 

38. 
ceylonensis (Hypo- 

thymis), 49. 
Chaemorrornis, 89. 
Chaitaris grandis, 40. 
Chalcoparia, 373. 
Chalcostetha, 345. 
Chats, 57. 
Chelidon, 268. 
Chelidorhynx, 51. 
chendoola (Galerida), 

337. 

Chimarrhornis, 89. 
chinensis (Hirundo), 273. 
chrysasus (Tarsiger), 104. 
chryseus (Ploceus), 180. 
chrysochlore 

378. 
chrysogen.ys (Araelmo- 

thera), 371. 

chrysolaus (Turdus), 135. 
Chrygomitris, 232. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



399 



chrysopygia (Saxicola), 

79. 
chrysorrhceum (Dicacum), 

378. 

cia (Emberiza), 257. 
cia (Euspiza), 257. 
Cichlops therraophilus, 

308. 

Cichloselys wardii, 137. 
ciliaris (Muscicapa), 17. 
Cinclidium frontale, 113. 
Cinclinas, 101. 
cinclorhyncha (Petro- 

phila), 144. 
Cinclus, 162. 
cinerea (Muscitrea), 31. 
cinereo-alba (Muscicapa), 

35. 
cinereocapilla (Budytes), 

294. 
cinereocapilla (Crypto- 

lopha), 38. 
cingalensis (Chalcoparia), 

373. 
chmamoruea (Agro- 

droma), 305. 
cinnainorneus (Anthus), 

309. 
cinnaraomeus (Passer), 

240. 

Cinnyris, 348, 357. 
citreola (Budytes), 298, 

299 

citreola (Motacilla), 298. 
citreoloides (Budytes), 

299. 
citreoloides (Motacilla), 

299. 

citrina (Geocichla), 140. 
Citrinella, LV>2. 
citrinus (Turdus), 140. 
Cittocincla, 118. 
coccinea (Eucichla), 394. 
coccinea (Pitta), 394. 
coccineum (Dicaeum), 

370. 

Coecothraustes, 196. 
Coccothraustinae, 196. 
Cochoa, 158. 
cockburniffi (Anthus), 

305. 
ccelicolor (Grandala), 

111. 

collaris (Accentor), 167. 
coucolor (Dicaeum), 379. 
concolor (Hirundo), 27."). 
coiu'olor (Ptyonoprogne), 

276, 

Copsychua, 111). 
Coraphites melanauchen, 
343. 



coronata (Pitta), 393. 
Corydalla, 306. 
Ooryphidea calandrella, 

328. 

Corytbus sipahi, 209. 
Corytbus subhiniacbalus, 

210. 

Cotile, 271. 
Cotyle, 271. 
crassirostris (Arachno- 

tbera), 372. 

cristata (Eraberiza), 20."). 
cristata (Galerita), 337. 
cruentatum (Dicaeum), 

376. 

Cryptolopha cinereo- 
capilla, 38. 
cucullata (Melanopitta), 

395. 

cucullata (Pitta), 395. 
cucullatus (Brachyurus), 

395. 

Culicicapa, 38. 
curvirostra (Loxia), 208. 
cyanea (Eucicbla), 391. 
cyanea (Pitta), 391. 
Cyanecula, 99. 
cyanecula (Sylvia), 100. 
cyaneus (Brachyurus), 

391. 

cyaneus (Cyoruis), 13. 
Cyanocincla, 145. 
cyanonotus (Geocichla), 

139. 
cyanopolius (Cyornis), 

aa, 

cyanoptera (Pitta), 392. 
cyanopterus (Brachy- 

urus), 392. 

cyanotus (Turdus), 139. 
cyanura (lanthia), 106. 
cyanus (Petrophila), 146. 
Cyornis, 11. 
Cyrtostomus, 361. 

dabryi (^Ethopyga), 353. 
Daulias, 100. 
dauma (Oreocincla), 152. 
daurica (Hirundo), 282. 
daurica (Lillia), 282. 
davidianus (Carpodacus), 

215. 
davisoni (Bracbyurus), 

390. 

davisoni (Turdulus), 138. 
debrii (yEthopyga), 353. 
Delicbon nepalensis, '21 1 . 
Dendronanthus, 302. 
deserti (Atnmomanes), 

340. 
deserti (Saxicola), 78. 



desertorum (Alaemon), 

318. 
deserter urn (Certhilauda), 

318. 

deva (Galerita), 338. 
deva (Spizalauda), 338. 
dialilaema (Cyornis), 23. 
Dicaeidae, 374. 
Dicseum, 375. 
Digenea moniliger, 32. 
Digenea subinoniliger, 

Digenea superciliaris, 15. 

Dimorpha uionileger, 32 

Dimorpha superciliaris, 
15. 

Dippers, 161. 

dissimilis (Geocicbla), 
132, 133, 134. 

dissimilis (Turdus), 133. 

dixoni (Oreocincla), 155. 

domesticus (Passer), 236. 

domicola (Hirundo), 279. 

domicola (Hypurolepsis), 
279. 

Dromolsea, 69. 

Dryinopbila velata, 43. 

dubius (Budytes), 296. 

dubius (Carpodacus), 
214. 

dubius (Turdus), 129. 

dukhunensis (Calan- 
drella), 328. 

dukhunensis (Motacilla), 
287, 290. 

dulcivox (Alauda), 325. 

edeni (Arachnechthra), 
359. 

edwardsi (Propasser), 218. 

elegans (Cyornis), 25. 

elwesi (Otocorys), 321. 

Emberiza, 250. 

Emberizinaa, 249. 

Enicnrus, 82. 

epauletta (Pyrrho- 
plectes), 207. 

epaulette (Pyrrhuloides), 
207. 

Erithacus, 99. 

erithacus (Pyrrbula), 
206. 

erythaca (Pyrrhula), 2( >< J. 

erythacus (Siphia), 14. 

erythraja (Saxicola), 75. 

erythrinus (Carpodacu> . 
219. 

erythrocephala (Pyr- 
rhula), 205. 

erythrogaster (Buticilla), 



400 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



erythrogastra (Hirundo), 

279. 
erythrogastra (Petro- 

phila), 143. 
erythrogastra (Euticilla), 

95, 97. 
erythronota (Euticilla), 

94. 
erythroprocta (Euticilla), 

91. 
erythroptera (Mirafra). 

334. 
erythropygia (Hirundo), 

283. 
erytbropvgia (Lillia), 

283. 
erythropygius (Accentor), 

167. " 
erythrorhynchus (Di- 

cseum), 381. 
Erythrospiza, 221. 
Erythrosterna, 7. 
erythrotis (Merula), 120. 
Erythrura, 190. 
Estrelda amandava, 192. 
Estrelda formosa, 191. 
Eucichla, 391. 
Eumyias albicaudata, 30. 
Eumyias melaiiops, 28. 
Euspiza, 252. 

feaj (Merula), 135. 
feldeggi (Motacilla), 297. 
felix (Motacilla), 288. 
ferrea (Oreicola), 66. 
ferrea (Pratincola), 66. 
ferruginea (Heniiche- 

lidon), 6. 

ferrugineus (Alseonax), 6. 
Fieldfare, 150. 
filifera (Hirundo), 280. 
filiferus (Uromitrus), 

280. 

Finches, 194. 
finschii (Saxicola), 75. 
flammaxillaris (Arach- 

nechthra), 362. 
flammaxiilaris (Cinny ris), 

362. 
flava (Budytes), 295, 

296. 

flava (Motacilla), 295. 
flava borealis (Motacilla), 

294. 

flaveolus (Passer), 242. 
flavicollis (Gymnorhis), 

235 

flavicollis (Mirafra), 259. 
flavicollis (Passer), 235. 
flavicollis (Petronia), 

235. 



flavidiventris (Estrelda), 

193. 
flavidiventris (Sporae- 

ginthus), 193. 
flavigastra (Arachno- 

thera), 372. 

flavipes (Alseonax), 36. 
flavogularis (Euspiza), 

259. 
flavo-olivacea (Nemura), 

107. 

fluvicola (Hirundo), 280. 
fluvicola (Lagenoplastes), 

280. 
fluvicola (Petrochelidon), 

280. 

Flycatchers, 1. 
formosa (Estrelda), 191. 
formosa (Stictospiza), 

191. 
frenata (Arachnechthra), 

363. 

Fringilla, 233. 
Fringillaria striolata, 

264. 

Fringillauda, 247. 
Frmgillidte, 194. 
Eringillinsc, 202. 
fringillirostris (Acanthis), 

228. 

frontalis (Callene), 1 13. 
frontalis (Henicurus), 87. 
frontalis (Hydrocichla), 

87. 
frontalis (Propasser), 

213. 

frontalis (Euticilla), 91. 
fucata (Citrinella), 252. 
fucata (Emberiza), 252. 
fucata, (Euspiza), 252. 
fulicata (Tharnnobia), 

115. 
fuliginosa (Hemiche- 

lidon), 5. 

fuliginosa (Euticilla), 98. 
fuliginosus (Ehyacornis), 

98. 
fulvescens (Accentor), 

171. 
fulvescens (Tharrhaleus), 

171. 

fumigata (Amadina), 186. 
fumigata (Munia), 186. 
funiigata (Uroloncha), 

186. 

fusca (Cercomela), 80. 
fuscata (Merula), 129. 
fuscoventris (Ehipidura), 

53. 

Galerida, 336. 



Galerita, 336. 
Geocicbla, 136. 
Gigantipitta carulea, 

390. 
gigathinea (Bucanetes), 

githaginea (Erythro- 
spiza), 221. 

Glaucomyias sordida, 29. 
goalpariensis (JEtho- 

pyga), 348. 
goalpariensis (Certhia), 

348. 

Goldfinches, 225. 
golzi (Daulias), 101. 
gouldiro (^Ethopyga), 

352. 

gouldioc (Cinnyris), 352. 
granatinus (Brachyurus), 

394. 

Grandala, 110. 
grandis (Niltava), 40. 
grandis (Propasser), 216. 
gregoriana (Oreocincla), 

154. 
grisea (Pyrrhulauda), 

341. 
griseorufescens (Cory- 

dalla), 306. 
grisola (Butalis), 4. 
grisola (Muscicapa), 4. 
grisola (Muscitrea), 31. 
grisola (Tephrodornis), 

31. 

gularis (Anthipes), 32. 
gulgula (Alauda), 326. 
gurneyi (Eucichla). 395. 
gurneyi (Pitta), 395. 
guttata (Alauda), 325. 
guttatus (Henicurus), 

84. 
gutturalis (Hirundo), 

277. 
Gymnorhis, 235. 

hamatopygia (Leuco- 

sticte), 248. 
Hnematospiza, 209. 
hafizi (Luscinia), 101. 
hasselti (Arachnechthra). 

360. 

hasselti (Cinnyris), 360. 
hasseltii (Leptocoraa), 

360. 

hayii (Mirafra), 338. 
Hemichelidon, 5. 
hemileucura (Muscicapa), 

17. 

hendersoni (Saxicola), 73. 
Henicurus, 82. 
Heturura sylvana, 313. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



401 



himalayaua (Loxiat. 2<ts. 
himalayaiius (Accentor), 

168. 
hinwlayensis (Loxia), 

208. 

Hirundinidte, 267. 
Ilirundo, 276. 
hispaniolensis (Passer), 

239. 

hodgsoni (Cyornis), 14. 
hodgsoni (Motacilla), 

291. 

hodgsoni (Nitidula), 27. 
hodgsoni (Ruticilla), 95. 
hodgsoni (Turd us), 149. 
homochroa (Petrocincla), 

132. 
horreorum (Hirundo). 

279. 
liorsfieldi (VEthopyga), 

356. 
horsfieldi (Oinnyris), 

356. 
hortulaua (Bmberiza), 

259. 
hortulana (Euspiza), 

259. 
huinii (Coccofchraustes), 

196. 
humii (Pyrrhospiza), 

211. 

huttoui (Accentor), 170. 
huttoni (Emberiza), 258. 
huttoni (Euspiza), 258. 
Hydrobata, 162. 
Hydrocichla, 86. 
Hydrornis, 389. 
hyemalia (Turdus), 130. 
Hylocharis pbilomela, 

31. 

Hypacanthis, 231. 
hyperythra (Erythro- 

sterna), 11. 
hyperythra (Hirundo), 

284. 
hyperythra (lanthia), 

108. 

hyperythra (Siphia), 10. 
hyperythrus (Cyornis), 

15. 
hypogrammica (Antho- 

threptes), 365. 
Ilypothymis, 48. 
liypoxantba (Rhipidura), 

51. 
hypoxanthum (Ohelido- 

rhynx), 51. 
hypoxanthus (Ploceus), 

180. 

Hypurolepis, 279. 
VOL. IT. 



lanthia, 105. 

icteriuides (Coecothraus- 

tes), 198. 
icterioides (Hesperi- 

phona), 198. 
icteroides (Pycnorham- 

phus), 198. 
ignicapillus (Dicaeuiu), 

384. 
ignicapillus (Prionochi- 

lus), 384. 
ignicauda (yEthopyga), 

351. 
ignicaudus (Cinnyris), 

ignipectus (Dicaeuin), 

378. 
ignipectus (Myzanthe), 

378. 

iliacus (Turdus), 150. 
iuibricata (Oreocincla), 

154. 
imraaculata (Mirat'ra), 

334. 
itnmaculatus (Accentor), 

169. 
imrnaculatus (Henicu- 

rus), 85. 
iinmaculatus (Tharrha- 

leus), 169. 
incarnata (Erythrospiza), 

222. 

incii (Terpsiphone), 47. 
Indian Robins, 114. 
indica (lanthia), 107. 
indica (Nemoricola), 300. 
indica (Pratincola), 61. 
indica (Ruticilla), 95. 
indicus (Limonidromus), 

300. 

indicus (Passer), 236. 
inframarginata (Oroo- 

cincla), 138. 
infumata (Leucocerca), 

54. 

iuglisi (Araadina), 189. 
inglisi (Munia), 189. 
innotata (Geocichla), 

141. 
inornata (Myzanthe), 

380. 
inornatum (Dicaeuui), 

380. 
insignis (Chalcostetha), 

345. 

insignis (Pratincola), (54. 
iusperata (Chalcostetha), 

346. 
intermedia (Arachnech- 

thra), 359. 



intermedia (Hirundo), 

282. 

intermedia (Lillia), 2 
interpres (Geocichla), 

138. 
isabellina (Saxicola), 77. 

jamesoni (Pratincola), 

(53. 

japonica (Hirundo), 281. 
japonicus (Anthus), 312. 
Java Sparrow, 182. 
javanensis (Ploceella), 

180. 

javanica (Hirundo), 279. 
javanica (Hypurolepis), 

279. 

javanica (Rhipidura), 54. 
javanicus (Turdus), 134. 
jerdoni (Accentor), 172. 
jerdoni (Agrodroma), 

306. 

jerdoni (Anthus), 306. 
jerdoni (Cyornis), 25. 
jerdoni (Oreicola), 66. 
jerdoni (Tharrhaleus), 

172. 
jugiferus (Passer), 242. 

kashmiriensis (Chelidon), 

269. 
kashmiriensis (Cinclus), 

162. 

kelaarti (Amadina), 187. 
kelaarti (Munia), 187. 
kelaarti (Uroloncha), 

187. 

kessleri (Meruia), 123. 
kingi (Saxicola), 79. 
kinnisi (Meruia), 124. 
Kittacincla, 118. 

Lagenoplastes fluvicola, 

280. 
lagopoda (Ohelidon), 

270. 

lagopoda (Hirundo), 270. 
lagopus (Chelidon), 270. 
Larks, 315. 

lathauii (Euspiza), 265. 
latirostris (Alseonax), 

35. 
latirostris (Hemicheli- 

don), 35. 

layardi (Geocichla), 140. 
leiopus (Alauda), 325. 
leschenaulti (Henicurus), 

86. 
leucocephala (Emberiza), 

254. 



402 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



leucocepkalus (Chimar- 

rhornis), 89. 
Leucocerca, 52. 
leucocyana (Oyanecula), 

100. 
leucogaster (Cinclus), 

163. 
leucogaster (Muscipeta), 

55. 
leucogastra (Amadina), 

186. 

leucogastra (Munia), 186. 
leucogastra (Uroloncha), 

186. 
leucomela (Saxicola), 69, 

72, 73. 
leucomelanura (Siphia), 

16. 
leucomelanurus (Oyor- 

nis), 16. 

leucoprocta (Niltava), 13. 
leucoproctum (Tricha- 

stoma), 13. 

leucops (Anthipes), 33. 
leucopsis (Motacilla), 288. 
leucoptera (Ruticilla), 

93. 
leucoroides (Saxicola), 

73. 

Leucosticte, 248. 
leucura (Erythrosterna), 

10. 

leucura (Notodela), 112. 
leucura (Pratincola), 63. 
Lillia, 281. 
Limonidromus, 300. 
Linaria, 227. 
Linnets, 227. 
Linota, 227. 
longirostra (Arachno- 

thera), 371. 
longirostris (Arachno- 

thera), 371. 
longirostris (Otocorys), 

320. 
lotenia (Arachnechthra), 

358. 

lotenius (Cinnyris), 358. 
Loxia, 208. 
ludovicianus (Anthus), 

313. 

lugens (Saxicola), 69. 
Luscinia, 101. 
lusitanica (Ammomanes), 

340. 

luteola (Emberiza), 262 . 
luteola (Euspiza), 262. 
luzoniensis (Motacilla), 

288. 



macgrigoria; (Niltava), 

42. 
macrorhyncha (Pratin- 

cola), 63. 
macrura (Oittocincla), 

118. 
maculata (Erythro- 

sterna), 18. 
rnaculata (Muscicapa), 

18. 

rnaculatus (Anthus), 304. 
maculatus (Dendronan- 

thus), 304. 
maculatus (Henicurus), 

83. 
maculatus (Pardalotus), 

385. 
maculatus (Pipastes), 

304. 
maculatus (Prionochi- 

lus), 385. 

maderaspataua (Mota- 
cilla), 292. 

maderaspatensis (Mota- 
cilla), 291. 
magna (Arachuotliera), 

369. 

magna (Galerida), 337. 
inagnirostris (Cyornis), 

26. 

Magpie-Robin, 110. 
malabarica (Aidemo- 

syne), 188. 
malabarica (Alauda), 326, 

339. 
malabarica (Amadina), 

188. 
malabarica (Galerita), 

339. 

malabarica (Munia), 188. 
malabarica (Spizalauda), 

339. 
malabarica (Uroloncha), 

188. 

malacca (Amadina), 182. 
malacca (Munia), 182. 
malaccensis (Anthothrep- 

tes), 366. 
malayensis (Anthus), 

309. 
malayensis (Corydalla), 

309. 

rnandellii (Cyornis), 36. 
mandellii (Montifrin- 

gilla), 244. 
mandellii (Procarduelis), 

224. 
manillensis (Petrocincla), 

145. 



manyar (Ploceus), 179. 
margtnata (Zoothera), 

157. 

Martins, 268. 
maura (Pratincola), 61. 
maxima (Melanocory- 

pha), 322. 

maxima (Merula), 123. 
megarhyncha (Pitta), 393. 
megarhynchus (Brachy- 

urus), 393. 
megarhynchus (Ploceus), 

176. 
melanauchen (Ooraphi- 

tes), 343. 
melanauchen (Pyrrhu- 

lauda), 343. 
melanictera (Munia), 

186. 
melanicterus (Melophus). 

265. 
melanocephala (Budytes