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BIOLOGY 

LIBRARY 

G 




THE FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA, 



INCLUDING 



CEYLON AND BURMA. 



PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE SECRETARY OF 
STATE FOR INDIA IN COUNCIL. 

EDITED BY W. T. BLANFORD. 



BIRDS.-Vol. III. 

BY 

W. T. BLANFORD, F.R.S. 



LONDON: 
TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 

CALCUTTA : I BOMBAY : 

THACKER, SPINK, & CO. THACKER & CO., LIMITED. 

BERLIN : 

R. FRIEDLANDER & 8OHN, 11 CARL8TRA88E. 

1895. 



BIOLOGY 

:i4/, 
G 



ALEBE V FLAMMAM. 




PRINTED BY T AY LOB AND FRANCIS, 
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



? , * * 



^2^^,r*;* - **\ 



PREFACE. 



IN the Preface to the second volume, a change in the 
original plan of the ' Birds ' was announced. It was still 
proposed to complete the work in three volumes, but as the 
second was shorter than usual it was announced that the 
deficiency would be made good in the third, which would 
contain descriptions of all Indian birds except Passeres. As 
the work progressed, however, further modification became 
necessary, as it was evident that the proposed third volume 
would be of inconvenient size, and it has now been decided 
to divide it into two. The birds will therefore occupy four 
volumes instead of three, and of these the third is herewith 
published. The fourth volume is in preparation and a 
considerable portion is written. The publishing price of the 
last three is reduced, so that the cost of the whole work is 
only increased by a very small amount. 

Mr. Gates, after writing the two volumes containing the 
descriptions of the Passeres, was obliged to return to his 
appointment in India, as explained in the Preface to the 
second volume. The continuation of the ' Birds ' has been 
left in my hands, and I have endeavoured to keep the work 
uniform in general plan, and to render the change of author- 
ship as little conspicuous as possible ; but I fear there are 
many, besides myself, who will see cause for regret that the 
able ornithologist who commenced the work was prevented 
by circumstances from finishing it. 

The birds of which descriptions appear in the present 
volume are the Eurylsemi, the various groups known col- 
lectively as Picarian or non- Passerine perching birds, the 
Parrots, and the nocturnal and diurnal Birds of Prey. Thus 
the first three volumes of the present work correspond to 
the first two of Jerdon's, and contain the same families of 
Birds, though differently arranged. 

The question of the system to be employed in dividing the 
Birds of India into Orders did not present itself in the first 
two volumes, which were occupied by the Passeres, now 



IV PREFACE. 

regarded by all ornithologists as a distinct order, and the 
highest of the class. But in the present volume a general 
scheme of classification became a necessity : the arrangement 
hitherto adopted in the majority of works on Indian Ornith- 
ology Legge's ' Birds of Ceylon ' and Oates's ' Birds of 
Burmah' being the most important exceptions has been 
that of Jerdon's great work, and was taken from G. B. 
Gray's, which again was but slightly modified from that of 
Cuvier. This classification, proposed in the early part of 
the present century, when the anatomy of birds had received 
but little attention, was founded exclusively on the characters 
of the beak and feet. It was soon found that there were 
defects in the Cuvierian system, one of the leaders in the 
path of reform being Edward Bly th, the pioneer of Indian 
scientific ornithology ; but it was long before a satisfactory 
natural system could be devised, and even now birds are by 
no means so clearly arranged, or divided into orders so well 
defined, as mammals and reptiles are. Still some of the 
later attempts to arrange the intricate groups of birds have 
been fairly successful in consequence of their depending not 
on one or two characters but on several, of their taking into 
consideration both internal anatomy and external structure, 
and of their making use of such clues to affinity as are 
afforded by nidification, oology, and the changes of plumage 
in the young. 

The system adopted in the present work is, in the main, 
identical with those of Sharpe and Gadow, and differs in no 
important point from the classifications of Sclater and 
Newton. References will be found on page 15. The chief 
difference between the plan here followed and those proposed 
by the ornithologists named, is that no attempt has been 
made in the present work to arrange in larger categories the 
groups here termed orders. This is due to the circumstance 
that there is a much wider general agreement as to the 
distinctness of the smaller ordinal or subordinal groups 
than as to their relations to each other. 

The principal anatomical characters by which the different 
orders are distinguished are furnished by the bones of the 
palate, shoulder-girdle and sternum, and the vertebrae ; by 
the occurrence of cseca in the intestines, the presence or 
absence of particular muscles in the thigh, and the characters 
of the deep plantar tendons. Amongst the external cha- 
racters, pterylosis, or the disposition of the feathers with 
regard to the clad and naked tracts of the body (pteryla and 



PREFACE. V 

apteria), the presence or absence of an aftershaft on the 
body-feathers,, the occurrence of down, the presence or 
absence of a uropygial oil-gland, and its being tufted, i. e. 
partially surrounded by a circlet of feathers, or naked, and 
the number of remiges and rectrices, are amongst the points 
of importance. Latterly, since the late Mr. R. S. Wray, in 
the ' Proceedings of the Zoological Society ' for 1887, showed 
that, in several orders, the fifth secondary quill or cubital, 
counting from the distal extremity of the ulna, is wanting, 
some importance has been attached to the fact, and those 
birds have been termed quincubital which retain the remex 
in question, whilst those forms in which it is absent are dis- 
tinguished as aquincubital. 

Most of the terms employed are easily understood, but 
four diagrams are added for the explanation of the names 
applied to the bones of the palate and the muscles of the 
thigh. The two figures illustrative of the former, which are 
used by permission of their author, the late Professor Huxley, 
and are taken from his classical paper in the f Proceedings of 
the Zoological Society' for 1867, serve to explain the two 
most important types of palatal structure in carinate birds 
the " schizognathous " and " desmognathous."" In the des- 
mognathous palate the maxillo-palatines are united across 
the median line, and the vomer is either small and slender 
or rudimentary. In schizognathous skulls the maxillo- 
palatines are usually elongate and lamellar and do not unite 
either with the vomer or with each other. In both the 
vomer, if present, is pointed in front, not broadly truncated 
as in the segithognathous type, represented by the Raven 
(Vol. I. p. 4) . There are other distinctions in these three 
types of bony palate, but those mentioned are the most con- 
spicuous. The fourth principal type, the dromaeognathous, 
is not found in any Indian birds. 

The muscles of the thigh are shown in the two figures 
taken from the works of Garrod and Forbes, the former of 
whom attached great importance to them as evidence of 
affinity. The ' ambiens ' muscle was regarded by him as 
affording a clue to the whole system, and by means of it he 
divided all Carinate birds into Homalogonatse, in which the 
muscle (with a few aberrant exceptions) was present, and 
the Anomalogonatse, in which it was absent. The other thigh- 
muscles, to the presence or absence of which he attached 
importance, were the femoro-caudal, accessory femoro- caudal, 
semitendinosus, and accessory semitendinosus. 



V1 PREFACE. 

The parts of the sternum occasionally mentioned in the 
descriptions of orders are well known, with perhaps the ex- 
ception of the manubrium or manubrial process, called by 
some writers the rostrum. This is a simple or compound 
process, projecting forward at the middle of the anterior 
border, just where the keel of the sternum joins the body, 
and in front of the inner terminations of the coracoids. It 
comprises a distal spine (spina externa) and a proximal one 
(spina internet), either of which may be wanting. The spina 
externa is either simple or forked. 

The descriptions in this, as in other volumes of the Fauna 
of British India, are taken from the magnificent series of 
Indian Birds in the British Museum (Natural History), and 
every facility and assistance has been afforded to Mr. Gates 
and myself by Sir W. H. Flower, the Director of the Natural 
History Museum, and Dr. A. Giinther, Keeper of the De- 
partment of Zoology. Especially we are under the greatest 
obligations to the officers in charge of the bird collection, 
Dr. R. B. Sharpe and Mr. W. R. Ogilvie Grant, for aid of 
every kind most freely and kindly afforded during the pro- 
gress of the present work. Mr. Gates, when he left England, 
made over to me all the notes he had prepared for the con- 
tinuation of the work, and they have been of very great 
service. I have also to express my obligations to Dr. J. A. 
Waddell for a proof in advance of his excellent notes on 
Sikhim birds prepared for the ' Gazetteer' of that province; to 
Col. C. T. Bingham and Mr. Hauxwell for information about 
Burmese species ; and to Dr. Warth and Mr. W. M. Daly 
for lists of birds obtained in the Shevroy Hills. 

Whilst I regret that this is not the last of the series of 
volumes containing the descriptions of Indian Vertebrata, I 
hope the final part will not be long delayed. 

W. T. BLANFORD. 

August 1st, 1895. 



Figures to illustrate Structure of Palate. 



Pmx. 





Under view of the skull of Charadrius plu- 
vialis, to illustrate the schizognathous type 
of palate. 



Under view of the skull of Cuculus canorus, 
to illustrate the desmognathous type of 
palate. 



These two figures are copied by permission from the late Prof. Huxley's paper on the 
Classification of Birds (P. Z. S. 1867, pp. 427, 444). Pmx, the preuiaxilla; MX, the maxilla; 
Mxp, its maxillo-palatine process ; PI, the palatine bone ; Vo, the vomer ; Pt, the pterygoid ; 
Qu, the quadrate bone ; X the basipterygoid process ; * the prefrontal process . 

" In the large assemblage of birds belonging to the Ouvierian orders Gallinae, Grallae, and 
Natatores, which may be termed Schizognathous, the vomer, sometimes large and sometimes 
very small, always tapers to a point anteriorly; while posteriorly it embraces the basi- 
sphenoidal rostrum, between the palatines. 

" The maxillo-palatines are usually elongated and lamellar; they pass inwards over the 
anterior processes of the palatine bones, with which they become united, and then bending 
backwards, along the inner edge of the palatines, leave a broader or a narrower fissure 
between themselves and the vomer and do not unite with it or with one another." 
HUXLEY, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 426. 

" In Desmognathoiis birds the vomer is often either abortive, or so small that it dis- 
appears from the skeleton. When it exists it is always slender and tapers to a point anteriorly . 

" The maxillo-palatines are united across the middle line, either directly or by the inter- 
mediation of ossifications in the nasal septum. 

" The posterior ends of the palatines and the anterior ends of the pterygoids articulate 
directly with the rostrum, as in the preceding division" [and not with the diverging posterior 
ends of the vomer as in Dromaeognathous birds and generally in Ratitae]. HUXLEY, /. c. p. 435. 

In the JZgithognathous type of palate (figured Vol. I. of the present work, p. 4), " the 
vomer is a broad bone, abruptly truncated in front, and deeply deft behind, embracing the 
rostrum of the sphenoid between its forks. The palatines have produced postero-external 
angles. The maxillo-palatines are slender at their origin, and extend inwards and backwards 
obliquely over the palatines, ending beneath the vomer in expanded extremities, which do not 
become united by bone, either with one another or with the vomer." HUXLEY, 1. c. p. 450. 



Figures to illustrate Muscles of Thigh. 




Outer view of right thigh of Common Fowl, partially dissected. (Copied from 

Garrod's figure, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 627.) 

s, sartorius ; ve, vastus externus ; bo and bi, biceps, origin and insertion ; tf, tensor fasc 
(gluteus primus) ; fc, femoro-caudal ; afc, accessory femoro-caudal ; st, semitendinosus ; c 
accessory semitendinosus ; sm, semimembranosus ; Ad, adductor ; P, pubis ; B, rectrices. 



f-f- 




Thigh of Touraco ( Corythaix) viewed from the inner side, to show the ambiens muse 
arising from the prepubic side of the pelvis (P) and running along to blend with c 
of the tendons of origin of the flexor perfor. digitorum (f.p.}. F, femur ; Ft, patel] 
I.C., inner condyle of femur ; T, tibia ; b, biceps (cut short) ; s, sartorius (also cu' 
e, e, extensor femoris ; sm, semimembranosus ; add, adductores. 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

Order EURYLJ3MI 1 

Fam. EURYLJEMID^E. . 2 



1. Eurylaemus, Horsf 3 

1. jaranicus, Horsf. .... 4 

2. ochromelas, Raffles . . 5 

2. Cory don, Lesson 5 

1. sumatranus (Raffles] . . 6 

3. Cymborhynchus, Vigors. . 7 

1. macrorhynchus (G?n.) 7 

2. affinis, Blyth 8 

4. Serilophus, Swains 8 

1. lunatus (Gould] 9 

2. rubripygius (Hodgs.) . 9 

5. Psarisomus, Swains 11 

1. dalhousiae (Jameson). . 11 

6. Calyptomena, Raffles 12 

1. viridis, Raffles 12 



Order PICI... 14 



Fam. PICID^E 



1(5 



Subfam. Picince 17 

1. Gecinus, Boie 18 

1. squamatus ( Vigors) . . 19 

2. gorii, Hargitt 20 

3. striolatus (Blyth) ... 20 

4. viridanus (Blyth) ... 22 
6. occipitalis ( Vigors) . 22 

6. chlorolophus ( Vieill.) . 23 

7. chorogaster (Jerdon) . 25 

8. puniceus (Horsf.) ... 26 

9. nigrigenis, Hume ... 26 

2. Chrysophlegma, Gould . 27 

1. flavinucha (Gould) . 28 

2. humii, Hargitt 28 

VOL. III. 



Page 

3. Callolophus, Salvad 29 

1. malaccensis (Lath.) . . 29 

4. Gecinulus, Blyth 30 

1. grantia (McCkll.) .... 30 

2. viridis, Blyth 31 

5. Hypopicus, Bonap 32 

1. " hyperythrus (Vigors) . 32 

6. Dendrocopus, Koch 33 

1. himalayensis (Jard. fy 

Selby) 34 

2. cabanisi (Malh.) 35 

3. sindianus (Gould) 36 

4. darjilensis (Blyth) 37 

5. cathpharius (Hodgs.) . . 37 

6. pyrrhothorax (Hume).. 38 

7. macii (Vieill.) 39 

8. atratus (Blyth) 40 

9. auriceps (Vigors) 40 

10. pectoralis (Blyth) 41 

11. andamanensis (Blyth) . 42 

7. Liopicus, Bonap 43 

1. mahrattensis (Lath.). . 43 

8. lyngipicus, Bonap 44 

1. semicoronatus (Malh.) 45 

2. pygmaeus ( Vigors) .... 45 

3. canicapillus (Blyth) . . 46 

4. hardwickii (Jerdon) . . 47 

5. gymnophthalmus 

(Blyth) 48 

9. Pyrrhopicus, Malh 49 

1. pyrrhotis (Hodgs.). ... 50 

2. rubiginosus (Swains.) . . 61 

10. Miglyptes, Swains 52 

1 . grammithorax (Malh.) 52 

2. tukki (Lesson) 53 

3. jugularis (Blyth) 54 

11. Micropternus, Blyth .... 54 

1. phaeoceps, Blyth 55 

2. brachyurus ( Vieill.) . . 57 

3. gularis (Jerdon) 57 

b 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



12. Brachypternus, Strickl. . . 58 

1. aurantius (Linn.) 58 

2. erythronotus ( Vieill.) . . 60 

13. Tiga, Kaup 61 

1. javanensis (Ljung) . . 61 

2. shore! ( Vigors) 62 

14. Gauropicoides, Malh 63 

1. raffles! ( Vigors) 63 

15. Chrysocolaptes, Blyth .... 64 

1. festivus (Boddaert) . . 64 

2. gutticristatus (Tickett). 65 

3. Strickland! (Layard) . . 67 

16. Hemicercus, Swains 68 

1. sordidus (Eyton) 68 

2. canente (Less.) 69 

17. Hemilophus, Swains 70 

1. pulverulentus (Temm.) 71 

18. Thriponax, Cab. $ Heine . 72 

1. hodgsoni (Jerdon) .... 72 

2. feddeni (Blanf.) .... 73 

3. javensis (Horsf.) .... 74 

4. hodgii (Blyth) 75 

Subfam. Picumnince 75 

1. Picummis, Temm 75 

1. innominatus, Burton. . 76 

2. Sasia, Hodgs 77 

1. ochracea, Hodgs 77 

Subfam. lyngince 78 

1. lynx, Linn 78 

1. torquilla, Linn 78 



Order ZYGODACTYLI .... 80 

Farn. INDICATOBID^E 81 

1. Indicator, Vieill 81 

1. xanthonotus, Blyth . . 81 



Fam. 



82 



1. Calorhamphus, Lesson . . 83 

1. hay! (Gray} 83 

2. Megalaema, G. R. Gray . . 84 

1. marshallorum, Swinh. . 84 

2. virens (Bodd.) 86 

3. Thereiceryx, Blanf 86 

1. zeylonicus (Gmel.). . . . 86 

2. lineatus ( Vieill.) 88 

3. viridis (Bodd.) 89 

4. Chotorhea, Bonap 90 

1. mystacophanes(7'emm.) 91 

5. Cyanops, Bonap 92 

1 asiatica (Lath.} 92 



2. davisoni (Hume) . 

3. incognita (Hume).. . 

4. flavifrons (Cuvier) . , 

5. cyanotis (Blyth) . , 

6. franklini (Blyth) . . 

7. ramsayi ( W olden) . . 
6. Xantholaema, Bonap. . , 

1. haematocephala (P. 

S. Mull.) 

2. malabarica (Blyth) . 

3. rubricapilla (Gmel.) 



L. 



Page 

93 
94 
94 
95 

96 
97 
97 

98 

99 

100 



Order AN1SOD ACT YLI.... 101 
Suborder C o B A c i JE . , . 102 



Fam. CORACIAD^E 



102 



1. Coracias, Linn. 103 

1. indica, Linn 103 

2. affinis, McClelland . . 105 

3. garrula, Linn 106 

2. Eurystomus, Vieill. 107 

1. orientalis (Linn.) .... 107 



Suborder MEBOPES 109 

Fam. MEROPIDJE 109 

1. Merops, Linn 109 

1. viridis, Linn 110 

2. philippinus, Linn Ill 

3. persicus, Pall 112 

4. apiaster, Linn 113 

2. Melittophagus, Bole .... 114 

1. swinhoii (Hume) .... 114 

3. Nyctiornis, Swains 115 

1. athertom(Jrtrd. #/&&.) 115 

2. amictus (Temm.) 117 



Suborder HALCYON ES .. 118 

Fam. ALCEDINID^E 118 

1. Ceryle, Boie 119 

1. varia, Strickl 119 

2. lugubris ( Temm.) 121 

2. Alcedo, Linn 122 

1. ispida, Linn 122 

2. beavani, Wald 124 

3. meninting, Horsf. .... 125 

4. grandis, Blyth 125 

5. euryzona, Temm 126 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



XI 



Page 

3. Ceyx, Lacep 127 

1. tridactyla (Pall.) 127 

4. Pelargopsis, Gloger 128 

1. amauroptera (Pearson) 128 

2. leucocephala(G ! me/.). . 129 

3. gurial (Pearson) 129 

5. Halcyon, Swains 131 

1. smyrnensis (Linn.) . . 132 

2. pileata (Bodd.) 133 

6. Callialcyon, Bonap 134 

1. lilacma (Swains.) .... 134 

7. Sauropatis, Cab 135 

1. chloris (Bodd.) 135 

2. occipitalis (Blyth) 137 

8. Caridagrus, Cab 138 

1. concretus ( Temm.) .... 138 

9. Carcineutes, Cab 138 

1. pulchellus (Horsf.) . . 139 

Suborder BUCEROTES.... 140 

Fam. BUCEROTIDJE 140 

1. Dichoceros, Gloger 142 

1. bicornis (Linn.) 142 

2. Anthracoceros, Reich. . . . 143 

1. coronatus (Bodd.) 144 

2. albirostris (Shaw $ 

Nodd.) 145 

3. Rhytidoceros, Reich 146 

1. undulatus (Shaw) 147 

2. subruncollis (Blyth) . . 148 

3. narcondami, Hume . . 149 

4. Aceros, Hodys 149 

1. nepalensis (Hodgs.) . . 149 

0. Anorrhinus, Reich 150 

1. galeritus (Temm.) .... 151 

6. Ptilolaemiis, Grant 151 

1. tickelli (Blyth) 151 

2. austeni (Jerdon) 153 

7. Berenicornis, Bonap 153 

1. comatus (Raffi.) 153 

8. Lophoceros, Hemp, fy Ehr. 154 

1. birostris (Scop.) 155 

2. griseus (Lath.) 156 

3. gingalensis (Shaw) .... 157 

9. Rhinoplax, Gloger 158 

1. vigil (JForster) 158 

Suborder UPUP-EJ 159 

Fam. UPUPID^E 159 

1. Upupa, Linn 159 

1 . epops, Linn 159 

2. indica, Reich 161 



Order MACROCHIRES .... 162 
Suborder OYPSELI 162 

Fam. CYPSELIDJS 163 

Subfam. Cypselince 163 

1. Cypselus, Illiger 164 

1. melba (Linn.) 164 

2. apus (Linn.) 165 

3. murinus, Brehm 166 

4. pacificus (Latham) 167 

5. leuconyx, Blyth 167 

6. affinis, Gray 168 

7. subfurcatus, Blyth 169 

2. Tachornis, Gosse 170 

1. batassiensis (Gray) .. 170 

2. infumatus (Sclater) . . 171 

Subfam. Chteturinee 172 

1. Chaetura, Stephens 172 

1. nudipes, Hodgs 172 

2. indica, Hume 173 

3. sylvatica ( Tickell) 174 

4. leucopygialis (Blyth) . . 175 

2. Collocalia, G. R.^Gray . . 175 

1. fuciphaga (Thunb.) . . 176 

2. brevirostris (McClel- 

land) 177 

3. innominata, Hume. . . . 177 

4. francica (Gmel.) 178 

5. linc-hi, Horsf. $ M. .. 178 

Subfam. Macropterygince .... 179 

1. Macropteryx, Swains 179 

1. coronata (Tickell) 180 

2. longipennis(JR/?we9Mc) 181 

3. comata, Blyth 182 

Suborder CAPRIMULGI 182 

Fam. CAPBIMULGID^E 183 

1. Caprimulgus, Linn 183 

1. mahrattensis, Sykes . . 184 

2. monticola, Franklin . . 185 

3. asiaticus, Lath 186 

4. europaeus, Linn 187 

5. macrurus, Horsf. .... 188 

6. andamanicus, Hume . . 190 

7. indicus, Lath 190 

2. Lyncornis, Gould 192 

1. cerviniceps, Gould .... 192 



Ill 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Suborder P o D A B G i 



Fam. 



Page 

193 
193 



1. Batrachostomus, Gould . . 194 

1. hodgsoni (G. R. Gray}. 194 

2. affinis, Blyth ........ 196 

3. moniliger, Layard. ... 196 

Order TROGONES ........ 198 

Fam. TBOGONID^: .......... 198 

1. Harpactes, Swains ...... 199 

1. fasciatus (Pennant] . . 199 

2. erythrocephalus(0wW) 200 

3. duvauceli (Temm.) . . 201 

4. orescius (Temm.) .... 202 

Order COCCYGES ........ 203 

Fam. CUCTJLID^E .......... 203 

Subfam. Cuculince .......... 204 

1. Cuculus, Linn ......... 204 

1. canorus, Linn ....... 205 

2. saturatus, Hodgs ..... 207 

3. poliocephalus, Lath. . . 208 

4. micropterus, Gould . . 210 

2. Hierococcyx, 8. Mull. . . 211 

1. sparverioides (Vig.) .. 211 

2. varius(F/*/) ........ 213 

3. nisicolor (ffodffs.) .... 214 

4. nanus, Hume ....... 215 

3. Cacornantis, 8. Mull, ____ 216 

1. passerinus (Vahl) .... 216 

2. merulinus (Scop.) .... 218 

4. Penthoceryx, Cab ....... 219 

1. sonnerati (Lath.) .... 219 

5. Chrysococcyx, Boie .... 220 

1. xanthorhynchus 

(Hartf.) .......... 221 

2. maculatus (Gmel.) ____ 222 

6. Surniculus, Lesson ...... 223 

1; lugubris (Horsf.) ____ 223 

7. Coccystes, Gloger ...... 224 

1. jacobinus (Bodd.) .... 225 

2. coromandus (Linn.) . . 226 



Subfam. Phoenicophaincs 



227 



1. Eudynamis, Vig. $ Horsf. 228 
1. honorata (Linn.) 228 

2. Zanclostomus, Swains. . . 230 

1. javanicus (Horsf.) 230 



Page 

3. Rhopodytes, Cab. $ Heine. 230 

1. viridirostris (Jerd.) . . 231 

2. tristis (Less.) 232 

3. diardi (Less.) 233 

4. sumatranus (Raffl.) . . 233 

4. Phcenicophaes, Vieillot . . 234 

1. pyrrhocephalus 

(Forster) 234 

5. Rhamphococcyx, Cab. . . 235 
1. erythrognathus (Hart- 

laub) 235 

6. Rhinortha, Vig 236 

1. chloropheea (Raffl.) . . 236 

7. Taccocua, Less 237 

1. leschenaulti, Less 237 

8. Gentropus, Illu/er 239 

1. sinensis (Steph.) 239 

2. chlororhynchus, Blyth. 242 

3. andamanensis, Tytler. . 242 

4. bengalensis (Gmel.} . . 243 



Order PSITTACI. 
Fain. PSITTACID^; 



1. Palaeornis, Vig , 

1. eupatria (Linn.) 

2. nepalensis, Hodgs 

3. indoburmanicus, 

Hume 

4. magnirostris, Ball. . . , 

5. torquatus (Bodd.) . . . 

6. cyanocephalus (Linn.) 

7. rosa (Bodd.) 

8. schisticeps, Hodgs. . . . 

9. tinschi, Hume 

10. columboides, Vig 

11. calthropse, Layard. . . . 

12. fasciatus (Mull.) 

13. caniceps, Blyth 

14. erythrogenys, Blyth . . 

15. tytleri, Hume 

2. Psittinus,,%^ 

1. incertus (Shaiu) 

3. Lorieulus, Blyth 

1. vernalis (Sparrm.) . . 

2. indicus (Gmel.) 



Order STRIGES 
Fam. STRIGUD^E . . 



1. Strix, Linn 

1. flammea, Linn. 

2. Candida, Tickell 



245 
245 

246 
247 

248 

249 
249 
250 
251 
252 
253 
254 
255 
256 
256 
258 
258 
259 
259 
260 
260 
261 
262 

263 
264 

264 
264 
266 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Xlll 



Fam. 



Page 

267 



Subfam. Photodilina 268 

1. Photodilus, Is. Geofr. . . 268 

1. badius (Horsf.) 268 

2. assimilis, Hume 269 

Subfam. Asionince 270 

1. Asio, Briss 270 

1. otus (Linn.) 270 

2. accipitrinus (Pall.) . . 271 

2. Syrnium, Savigny 273 

1. nivicola (Hodgs.) 273 

2. biddulphi, Scully 274 

3. indrani (Sykes) 276 

4. ocellatum, Less 277 

5. seloputo (Horsf.) 278 

6. butleri (Hume) 279 

Subfam. Eubonina 280 

1. Ketupa, Less 280 

1. zeylonensis (Gmel.) ,. . 281 

2. flavipes (Hodgs.) 282 

3. javanensis, Less 283 

2. Bubo, Dumeril 283 

1. ignavus, Forster 284 

2. bengalensis(.Fnm&/.). . 285 

3. coromandus (Lath.) . . 286 

3. Huhua, Hodgs 287 

1. nepalensis (Hodgs.) . . 287 

2. orientalis (Horsf.) 289 

4. Nyctea, Stephens 289 

1. scandiaca (Linn.) .... 290 

6. Scops, Savigny 290 

1. eiu (Scojj.) 291 

2. brucii (Hume) 294 

3. spilocephalus (Blyth). . 295 

4. balli (Hume) 296 

5. sagittatus (Cass.) 296 

6. bakkamcena (Pennant) 297 

7. semitorques (Schl.) . . 300 

6. Athene, Boie 300 

1. brama (Temm.) 301 

2. blewitti (Hume) .... 303 
3. bactriana, Blyth 303 

7. Glaucidium, Boie 304 

1. cuculoides ( Vig.) 305 

2. radiatum (Ttdb.) .... 306 

3. castanonotum (Blyth) . 307 

4. brodiei (Burton) 307 

8. Ninox, Hodgs 309 

1. scutulata (Raffi.) 309 

2. obscura, Hume 311 

VOL. III. 



Page 

Order ACCIPITRES 312 

Fam. PANDIONID^J 313 

1. Pandion, Savigny 313 

1. haliaetus (Linn.) 314 



Fain. VULTUHIDJE 315 

1. Vultur, Linn 316 

1. monachus, Linn >317 

2. Otogyps, G. R. Gray 318 

1. calvus (Scop.) ... 318 

3. Gyps, Savigny. 319 

1. fulvus (Gmel.) 320 

2. himalayensis, Hume . . 321 

3. indicus (Scop.) 322 

4. tenuirostris, Hodgs. . . 323 

4. Pseudogyps, Sharpe .... 324 

1. bengalensis (Gmel) . . 324 

5. Neophron, Sav 325 

1. ginginianus (Lath.) .. 326 

2. percnopterus (Linn.) . . 327 

Fam. FALCONIDJE 327 

Subfam. Gypaetince 328 

1. Gypaetus, Storr 328 

1. barbatus (Linn.) 328 

Subfam. Falconina 330 

1. Aquila, Briss 332 

1. chrysaetus (Linn.} 333 

2. heliaca, Sav 334 

3. bifasciata, Gray 336 

4. vindhiana, Franklin . . 337 

5. fulvescens, Gray .... 339 

6. maculata (Gmel.) 340 

7. hastata (Less.) 341 

2. Hieraetus, Kaup 342 

1. fasciatus ( Vieill.) 343 

2. pennatus (Gmel) 344 

3. Lophotriorchis, Sharpe . . 345 

1. meneri (Sparre) 345 

4. Ictinaetus, Jerd 346 

1. malayensis (Reinw.) . . 347 

5. Spizaetus, Vieill 348 

1. cirrhatus (Gmel) 349 

2. limnaetus (Horsf.) 351 

3. nepalensis (Hodgs.) . . 352 

4. kelaarti, Legge 854 

6. albiniger (Blyth) 354 

6. Circaetus, Vieill 355 

1. gallicua (Gmel.) 355 

c 



XIV 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

7. Spilornis, G. JR. Gray 357 

1. cheela (Latham) 357 

2. minimus, Hume 361 

3. elgini (Tytler) 361 

8. Butastur, Hodgs 362 

1. teesa (Franklin) 362 

2. liventer ( Temm.) 364 

3. indicus (Gmel.) 365 

9. Haliaetus, Sav 366 

1 . leucoryphus (Pall.) . . 366 

2. leucogaster (Gmel.) . . 368 

3. albicilla (Linn.) 369 

10. Polioaetus, Kaup 369 

1. ichthyaetus (Horsf.) . . 370 

2. humilis (Mull. fySchl.) 371 

11. Haliastur, Selby 372 

1. Indus (Bodd.) 372 

12. Milvus, Cuv 374 

1. govinda, fykes 374 

2. melanotis, Temm. fy 

Schleg 377 

3. migrans (Bodd.) 378 

13. Elanus, Sav 379 

1. CEeruleus (Desf.) 379 

14. Circus, Lacep 380 

1. macrurus (S. G. Gmel.) 381 

2. cineraceus (Montagu) . 383 
8. cyaneus (Linn.) 384 

4. melanoleucus (Forster). 385 

5. aeruginosus (Linn.) . . 387 

6. spilonotus, Kaup .... 388 

15. Buteo, Cuv 389 

1. ferox (8. G. Gmel.) . . 390 

2. leucocephalus, Hodgs. . 392 

3. desertorum (Laud.) . . 393 

16. Archibuteo, Brehm .... 395 
1. hemiptilopus, Blyth . . 395 

17. Astur, Lacep 396 

1. palumbarius (Linn.) . . 397 



Page 

2. badius \Gmel.) 398 

3. soloensis (Horsf.) 400 

18. Lophospizias, Kaup 400 

1. trivirgatus(7emr>?.) .. 401 

19. Accipiter, Briss 402 

1. nisus (Linn.) 402 

2. virgatus (Reinw.) .... 404 

20. Pernis, Cuv 405 

1. cristatus (Cuv.) 406 

21. Machaerhamphus, Wes- 

terman 408 

1. alciuus, Westerm 408 

22. Baza, Hodgs 408 

1. lophotes (Temm.) 409 

2. jerdoni (Blyth) 411 

3. ceylonensis, Legge .... 411 

23. Falco, Linn 412 

1. peregrinus, Tunst 413 

2. peregrinator, Sundev. . 415 

3. barbarus, Linn 417 

4. jugger. Gray 419 

5. cherrug, Gray 420 

6. milvipes, Hodgs 42] 

7. subbuteo, Linn 422 

8. severus, Horsf. 423 

24. Eiythropus, Brehm 424 

1. amurensis, Gurney . . . . 424 

25. ^Esalon, Kaup 426 

1. regulus (Pall.) ...... 426 

2. chicquera (Daud.). . . 427 

26. Tinnunculus, Vieill. ... 428 

1. alaudarius (Gmel.) . 428 

2. cenchris (Naum.) . . . 430 

27. Microhierax, Sharpe . . . 431 

1. eutolmus, Hodgs. . . . 432 

2. melanoleucus, Blyth . 433 

3. fringillarius (Drap.) . 434 

28. Poliohierax, Kaup 434 

1. insignis, Wald 435 




Fig. 1. Psaruomus dalhousice and nest (from Hodgson's drawing). 



Order II. EURYL^MI. 

Palate aegithognathous (Vol. I, p. 4). The deep plantar tendons 
differ from those of the Passeres in the flexor longus hallucis being 
connected by a vinculum with the flexor profundus digitorum, as 
shown in the accompanying figure (fig. 2). Syrinx mesomyodian 
(Vol. I, p. 6) and oligomyodian as in Pittidce (Forbes, P. Z. S. 
1880, p. 384). The sternum, as in the Passeres, has but one notch 
on each side of the hinder border (Sclater, Ibis, 1872, p. 179, also 
p. 370), but the manubrium sterni (spina externa) is unforked, as 
in most non-Passerine birds. Oil-gland present but nude. 

VOL. in. B 



' 



ETTETLJEMIDjE. 



The relations of the Eurylmmi or Broadbills to other birds have 
long been in dispute. At one time members of the present group 
were referred to the neighbourhood of Coracias. But, chiefly 
through the researches of Blanchard, Grarrod, and Forbes, the close 
alliance between the Eurylcemi and Passerine birds has now been 




Fig. 2. Left foot of Cymfjorkynchus macrorki/nehus, from behind. The skin 
has been turned aside and the superficial flexors removed, so as to show the 
deep plantar tendons. I, II, III, IV, first, second, third and fourth toes ; 
f.l,h., flexor longus hallucis f.p.d., flexor prof undus digitorum ; V, vinculum. 
(Forbes, P. Z.S. 1880, p. 38*2.) 

ascertained, and the only question remaining is whether the 
Broadbills should be included in the Passerine group as a distinct 
section, or whether they should form a suborder or order apart. 
The latter is the view advocated by Seebohm and Sharpe, and 
accepted, as a provisional arrangement, in the present work. 
There is but a single family, confined to the Oriental region. 



Family EURYL^EMID^E. 

Bill normally broad and flat as in some Muscicapidce. Feet 
adapted for perching ; hind toe large, anterior toes joined at the 
base, the outer and middle toes (third and fourth) having only the 
last phalanx free (fig. 2). Tarsi reticulated behind, transversely 
scutellated in front, the scutellation often ill-marked and in some 
genera disappearing entirely on the inner anterior side of the 
tarsus. Tail generally rounded, often graduated. 



El'KYLJ-MUS. 3 

The Broadbills are forest birds living generally in small flocks 
amongst high trees, and feeding as a rule on insects. They are 
often remarkably tame, some of them being, it is said, so unwilling 
to move that several out of the same flock may be shot one after 
the other, without the survivors being alarmed. They build large 
round nests of grass and fibres, somewhat resembling those of the 
Nectariniidce, suspended from a fine twig and with an opening at 
the side (fig. 1). The eggs as a rule are white or cream-coloured, 
much speckled, especially towards the larger end, but occasionally 
they are spotless. 

The genera in this family are more distinct than is usually the 
case amongst Birds, each being distinguished by a peculiar type of 
coloration. No species occur in the Peninsula of India, nor in 
Ceylon, but the range of the family extends from the Western 
Himalayas to the Philippines and Borneo, the majority inhabiting 
the Malay Peninsula. 

Key to tlie Genera. 

a. Nostrils exposed. 

a'. Tail shorter than wing. 
a". Sides of upper mandible convex and 
overhanging. 

3 . Region below eye feathered EURYL^MUS, p. 3. 

5 3 . Region below eye nude; bill very 

broad CORYDON, p. 5. 

b". Sides of upper mandible straight, not 

overhanging. 
c 3 . Nostrils elongate, about length 

of bill from forehead CYMBORHYNCHUS, p. 7. 

d?. Nostrils rounded, at base of bill . . SERILOPHUS, p. 8. 
b'. Tail longer than wing PSARISOMUS, p. 11. 

b. Nostrils concealed by loral plumes CALYPTOMENA, p. 12. 



Genus EURYLJEMUS, Horsfield, 1821. 

Bill large, broad and flat, culmen very blunt, sides of upper 
mandible overhanging and convex near the gape. Nostrils rounded, 
exposed, at base of bill. Wings and tail rounded, the wing much 
longer than the tail. Rictal bristles present but small. Scutellation 
of tarsus in front almost obsolete, inside of tarsus covered with an 
undivided lamina. 

Upper plumage chiefly black and yellow ; lower plumage wholly 
or in part vinaceous red. Two species are known, ranging from 
Tenasserim to the Malay Archipelago. 



Key to tlie Species. 

Larger ; head and neck dark vinaceous red E.javanicus, p. 4. 

Smaller ; head and throat black E. ochromelas, p. 5. 

B2 



937. Eurylaemus javanicus. Horsfield's BroadUll. 

Eurylaimus javanicus, Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 170 (1821) f 

Blyth, Cat. p. 195 ; Horsf. 8? M. Cat. p. 116. 
Eurylsemus javanicus, Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 125 ; Hume, S. F. ii, 

p. 470 ; id. Cat. no. 139 ter ; Damson, S. F. v, p. 456 ; Hume $ 

Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 89, 499 ; Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 157 j Gates, B. B. 

i, p. 427 ; id. in Hume's N. # E. 2nd ed. p. 294 ; Sclater, Cat. 

B. M. xiv, p. 463. 




Fig. 3. Head of E. javanicus. 

Coloration. Male. Whole head and neck deep purplish red,- 
lores blackish, crown and nape very dark, ear-coverts much 
brighter ; a very narrow white line below the eye ; hind neck 
brownish, back and upper tail-coverts mixed black and bright 
yellow, basal portion of interscapulary feathers white ; wings 
black, each primary with a yellow spot at the base, each secondary 
with a long yellow spot on the outer web, inner webs of all quills 
whitish near the base ; tail black, all feathers except the middle 
pair with a subterminal fulvous white spot or band. Lower parts 
vinaceous red, the throat washed with dusky bronze, a narrow 
black band across the breast and a distinctly bronzed gorget behind 
it, lower breast and abdomen brighter red ; under wing-coverts 
mostly yellow, edge of wing the same, thigh-coverts dark brown. 

Female. Similar, but without the black pectoral band. 

Young birds have the head and nape yellowish brown, the shafts 
of the feathers brighter yellow; lower plumage yellowish throughout. 

Upper mandible bright blue to within one-third of tip ; rest 
of upper mandible pale sea-green ; lower mandible pale greenish 
blue ; both mandibles edged and tipped with brownish red ; irides 
bright blue ; legs and feet fleshy ; claws brown (Davison). 

Length 9 inches ; tail 2-9 ; wing 4'3 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape 
1*6. The female is slightly smaller. 

Distribution. Karennee; Tenasserim as far north as Moulmeiu, 
probably farther north on the hills to the eastward; Malay 
Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo. 

Habits, Sfc. This species feeds on insects and small reptiles, and 
has the typical habits of the family, living in forests in small 
parties. Davison found it breeding near Bankasun in March ; the 



COETDON. 5 

nest was a massive structure composed of moss, fibres, roots, dry 
leaves, bits of wood, and small twigs, suspended to the eitreme tip 
of a very tall bamboo overhanging a stream. Two fresh eggs were 
in the nest, dull white, thickly .speckled with minute spots of dusky 
brown, more thickly towards the large end : size 1*09 by *76. 

938. Eurylaemus ochromelas. The Blaclc-and-yellow Broadbill. 

Eurylaimus ochromalus, Raffles, Trans. Linn. Sac. xiii, p. 297 (1822) ; 

JJlt/th, Cat. p. 195 ; Horsf. Sf M. Cat. p. 116. 
Eurylflemus ochromelas, Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 125 ; Hume, S. F. ii, 

p. 470 ; id. Cat. no. 139 ter A ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 91 ; 

Oates, B. B. i, p. 426 ; Sclatcr, Cat. B. M. xiv, p. 465 ; Hartert, 

J.f. Orn. 1889, pp. 358, 391. 

Coloration. Male. Whole head black, except a few white fea- 
thers below each eye ; a white collar round the neck, narrow 
behind; upper parts from neck black, with a bright yellow stripe 
down the middle of the back, rump, and upper tail-coverts, and a 
shorter stripe on each side on the outer scapulars ; basal portion 
of interscapulary feathers white ; middle of outer webs of secondary 
quills yellow ; near the base almost all wing-feathers have a 
whitish inner border; a small yellowish spot on each primary 
nrar the base; tail-feathers with a subterminal yellowish- white 
spot on inner web, becoming a band on the outer feathers; a 
broad black gorget below the white collar, lower breast and abdo- 
men pale vinous purple ; under wing- and tail-coverts, vent, flanks, 
and edge of wing yellow ; thigh-coverts black. 

Female. Similar, but the black gorget is interrupted in the 
middle. 

The young have the forehead and supercilia yellowish white ; 
the throat whitish, breast and abdomen yellowish grey. 

Lower mandible and base of upper bright smalt-blue, rest of 
upper mandible bright green ; edges of both mandibles black ; 
irides bright yellow; legs and feet dark but fleshy-pink; claws 
brown (Davison). 

Length 6 ? -5 ; tail 2-2 ; wing 3-3 ; tarsus '8 ; bill from gape !!. 

Distribution. South Tenasserim as far north as Yay, Malay 
Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo. 

Genus CORYDON, Lesson, 1828. 

Bill very large, much deeper, broader at the base and more 
hooked than that of Etirylcemus, the upper mandible more over- 
hanging, and with the edge more convex near the gape ; but the 
culrnen is comparatively much shorter and more prominent. Eictal 
bristles replaced by plumules, which are situated in a nude area 
between the eye and bill. Wings and tail rounded; wing 
longer than tail. Tarsus distinctly scutellated in front. Sexes 
alike. 

The plumage is mostly black. Only a single species is known. 



EUKYL/EMID^E. 



939. Corydon sumatranus. The Duslcy Broadbill. 

Coracias sumatranus, Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 303 (1822). 
Corydon sumatranus, Strickl. A. M. N. H. vi, p. 417 (1841) ; Blyth, 

Cat. p. 195; id. Birds Burma, p. 125 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. p. 117; 

Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 97 ; Hume, Cat. no. 139 sex ; Binoham, 

S. F. ix, p. 157 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 430 ; Sclater, Cat. B. M. xiv r 

p. 466. 




Fig. 4. Head of C. mmaframi*. 

Coloration. Black throughout with the following exceptions : a 
concealed interscapulary patch crimson (or occasionally yellow) 
and white, consisting of the basal parts only of the feathers, the 
tips being black ; a broad white band across the primaries close to- 
the coverts ; a subterminal white spot or band on all tail-feathers 
except the middle pair ; the throat and upper breast, which are 
dirty brownish white, the edges of the feathers in places darker. 
Female the same. 

Young duller black, without an interscapulary patch, and with 
the white of the throat ill-defined. 

Upper mandible varying from dark reddish brown to. pale horny 
brown, lower mandible pale fleshy-pink with a dark median streak, 
tips of both whitish ; orbital skin and gape dark fleshy-pink legs, 
feet, and claws black ; irides deep brown. 

Length 10'5 ; tail 4'2 ; wing 5-4 ; tarsus 1-1 ; bill from gape 1*6, 

Distribution. Apparently throughout Tenasserim, except in the 
deciduous forests, as far north as Karennee ; also the Malay Penin- 
sula, Sumatra and Borneo. 

Habits, fyc. This bird is found in pairs or small parties in forests. 
It is somewhat crepuscular according to Tickell, and during the 
day very sluggish. It has an oft-repeated mellow, rather musical 
note ; also a clear whistle, which it utters when flying from tree 
to tree. The nest and eggs do not appear to have been recorded. 



CYMBORHYNClItlS. 7 

Genus CYMBORHYNCHUS, Vigors, 1830. 

Bill not differing much in form from that of Eurylcemus, but 
narrower, with a somewhat higher culmen, and with the upper 
mandible straight-edged, not overhanging. The nostrils are 
elongate, and open in a longitudinal depression a considerable 
distance from the frontal feathers, about 5 to 3 the length of the 
bill from the base. Rictal bristles long. Tarsi indistinctly scu- 
tellated in front. Coloration above mostly black, below deep 
crimson. 

Two species are known, ranging from Arrakan to Borneo. 

Key to the Species. 

Wing about 4 ; no red spots on tertiaries . . C. macrorhynchus, p. 7. 
Wing about 3-6 ; red terminal spots on ter- 
tiaries C. affinis, p. 8. 



940. Cymborhynchiis macrorhynchus. The Black-and-red 
Broadbill. 

Todus macrorhynchus, Gm. Syst. Nat. i, p. 446 (1788). 

Todus nasutus, Lath. Ind. Orn. i, p. 268 (1790). 

Cymborhynchus macrorhynchus, Gray, Gen. B. i, p. 66 ; Horsf. 
8f M. Cat. p. 119; Blyth, Birds Burma, p. 126 j Stoliczka, J. A. 
S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 285 ; Davison, S. F. v, p. 457 ; Hume #> 
Dav. S. F. vi, p. 92 ; Hume, Cat. no. 139 quint. ; Sharpe, Ibis, 
1876, p. 48 ; 1877, p. 22 ; 1879, p. 264 ; Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 157 ; 
Oates, B. B. i, p. 428 ; Sclater, Cat. B. M. xiv, p. 468 ; Hartert, 
J.f. Orn. 1889, pp. 358, 393 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, 
p. 294. 

Cymbirhynchus nasutus, Vigors, Mem. Raffles, p. 654 (1830) ; 
Blyth, J.A.S. B. xv, p. 311 ; id. Cat. p. 195. 

Cymborhynchus malaccensis, Salvad. Atti R. Ac. Sc. Tor. ix, p. 425 
(1874) ; Oates, S. F. iii, p. 336. 

Coloration. Upper parts except the scapulars, rump, and upper 
tail-coverts black ; chin, upper throat, and a broad pectoral band 
also black ; a white longitudinal band on each side of the back, 
formed by the outer half of the scapulars ; rump and upper 
tail-coverts, ear-coverts and the throat bet ween them, lower breast, 
abdomen, flanks, and lower tail-coverts deep crimson, sometimes 
mixed with orange on the belly ; wings black, the edge orange- 
yellow, under wing-coverts in part, and basal portion of inner 
web of most wing- feathers white, axillaries yellowish white ; tail 
black, a variable number of the outer feathers with a white sub- 
terminal spot on the inner web. 

Young dusky instead of black, white spots on tips of wing- 
coverts, rump mixed red and black ; lower plumage dark brown 
with traces of transverse bars. 

Upper mandible and a bordering along the edge of the 
lower mandible brilliant blue, remainder of the latter yellowish, 



.8 

edges of both transparent white ; irides emerald-green, shot with 

fold ; legs and feet ultramarine-blue ; claws horny (Bingham). 
nside of mouth bright blue (Davison). 

Length 9*5 ; tail 3-5 ; wing 4 ; tarsus '95 ; bill from gape 1*25. 
Females rather smaller. 

Distribution. From Tenasserim through Siam, Cambodia, and 
the Malay Peninsula to Sumatra and Borneo. This Broadbill 
was obtained as far north as the Dawna range near Kokarit, east 
of Moulmein, by Binghain. 

Habits, fyc. Similar to those of Eurylcemus, except that this 
species, according to Davison, is found in gardens and near villages. 
It lives entirely on insects. It breeds in Tenasserim from April 
to June, making the usual large globular BroadbilPs nest of grass, 
roots, &c., suspended to the end of a bough, and containing 3 or 
4 eggs varying from white to salmon-buff in colour, and densely 
spotted or speckled, especially about the larger end, with black or 
brownish red. The eggs measure about 1-06 by '75. 

941. Cymborhynchus affinis. The Arrakan Black-and-red 
Broadbill. 

Cymborhynchus affinis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 312 (1846) ; id. 
Cat. p. 195 ; id. Birds Burma, p. 126 ; Gates, S. F. iii, p. 336 ; x, 
p. 188 ; id. B. B. i, p. 429 ; Hume, Cat. no. 139 quat. ; Sclater, 
Cat. B. M. xiv, p. 470. 

Coloration. Similar to the last except that the red of the rump is 
mixed with black ; there are always white subterminal spots on all 
tail-feathers except the middle pair, and these spots become bars 
on the three outer rectrices on each side ; the white at the base of 
the primaries appears from beneath the outer wing-coverts, and 
each tertiary has a long red spot at the end. 

Length 8*2 ; tail 3 ; wing 3'6 ; tarsus *86 ; bill from gape 1. 

Distribution. Arrakan from about lat. 19 southward to Cape 
Negrais, also the Irrawaddy delta as far east as Rangoon. Nothing 
is known of the habits. 

Genus SEBILOPHUS, Swainson, 1837. 

Bill very much smaller than in Eurylcemus, sides of upper 
mandible straight, not overhanging. Tail much rounded. Second- 
aries and inner primaries truncated, and emarginate at the ends 
of the shafts. Eictal bristles present. Nostrils and tarsi as in 
Eurylcemus. 

Plumage soft, greyish or brownish above, ashy below ; a white 
gorget in females only. Two species, ranging from the Himalayas 
to Tenasserim. 

Key to tlie Species. 

Head above pale greyish brown S. lunatus, p. 9. 

Head above dark ashy grey iS. rubripygius, p 



SE1ULOPHUS. y 

1)42. Serilophus lunatus. Gould's Broadbill. 

Eurylaimus lunatus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1833, p. 133. 

Serilophus lunatus, Swainson, Class. B. ii, p. 262 ; Blyth, J. A. S. B. 
xv, p. 311 ; id. Cat. p. 196; id. Birds Hurm. p. 125; Horsf. 8fM. 
Cat. p. 118; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 470 ; iii, p. 53; id. Cat. no. 139 
bis ; Wardl. Ramsay, Ibis, 1875, p. 352 ; Damson, S. F. v, p. 455 ; 
Hume # Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 89, 499 ; Oates, S. F. viii, p. 164 ; x, 
p. 188 ; id. B. B. i,p. 424 ; Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 157 ; Salvadori, 
Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. 574 ; Sclater, Cat. B. M. xiv, p. 460 ; 
Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 291. 

Primary quills, especially 3rd and 4th, sharply pointed, the 
worn inner web of the two feathers named having the edge 
concave near the tip. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead pale ashy, crown and nape pale 
greyish brown, back darker, passing into chestnut on the rump 
and upper tail-coverts ; a broad black supercilium extending back 
to the nape ; lores pale rufous with black hairs intermixed, ear- 
coverts greyish rufescent ; wings black, basal portion of outer 
webs of almost all quills greyish blue, a large white spot on the 
inner web of each, 3rd and 4th primaries with broad white tips, 
tertiaries and tips of inner webs of all quills except the first five 
pale chestnut, tips of the outer webs of the same feathers and of 
the fifth primary white ; tail-feathers black, the outer 3 pairs with 
broad white tips ; lower parts ashy grey, whitish on the throat 
and abdomen ; lower wing-coverts and thighs black, edge of wing 
white. 

Female similar, but with a glistening silvery white gorget. 

Bill light blue, paler on the culmen ; gape and base of both 
mandibles orange ; mouth orange ; eyelids greenish vellow ; iris 
dark brown ; legs greenish orange ; claws light blue (Oates). 

Length 7 ; tail 2-8 ; wing 3'4 ; tarsus -8 ; bill from gape -92. 

Distribution. Evergreen forests of Pegu hills, also Karennee 
and throughout Tenasserim. JS"ot at present recorded outside 
British territory. 

Habits, #c. This Broadbill occurs in small flocks in forests, and 
is apparently strictly arboreal. It feeds chiefly on insects. It is 
described as very stupid and not easily alarmed. It breeds from 
April to July inclusive, making a globular nest, about six inches 
in diameter, of coarse grass, vegetable fibres, twigs, moss, rootlets, 
cocoons, and similar materials. The nest is lined with broad 
leaves, some of them occasionally green ; it has a side entrance 
protected by a rude porch, and hangs from the end of a small 
branch. The eggs, generally four in number, are thin and 
delicate, pure white with a slight gloss, marked with purplish- 
black specks and minute spots towards the larger end, and measure 
-95 by -67. 

943. Serilophus rubripygius. Hodgson's Broadbill. 

Raya rubropypria, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. viii, p. 36 (1839). 

Serilophus ruteopyghu, Bp. Cowp. i, p. 169; Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, 



10 

p. 311 ; id. Cat. p. 196 ; id. Birds Burm. p. 125 ; Horsf. & M. 
Cat. i, p. 119 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 238 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix r 
pt. 2, p. 95 ; xlv, pt. 2, p. 69 ; Hume, Cat. no. 139 ; id. S. F. ix, 
p. 247 ; xi, p. 49 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 425 ; Sclater, Cat. B. M. xiv, 
p. 461 ; Hartert, J. f. Orn. 1889, p. 395 ; Oates in Hume's 
N. $ JE. 2nd ed. ii, p. 293. 

The Red-backed Broadbill, .Terdon ; Ra-i-suya, Nepal : Rab-kyul, 
Lepcha. 







Fig. 5. Head of <S'. rubripygius, % 

Tips of outer primaries rounded. 

Coloration. Male. Head above, nape, and upper back dark 
ashy grey ; a long black supercilium to the nape ; back browner, 
passing into the ferruginous-red tertiaries, rump, and upper tail- 
coverts. Wings black, outer webs of almost all feathers dull blue 
near the base, corresponding to a white spot on the inner web ; 
extreme tips of first 5 primaries white, of the remaining primaries 
chestnut, bordered inside with bluish grey ; most of the wing- 
feathers except the first five with a small white spot on the outer 
web near the tip. Tail black, the three outer pairs of feathers 
with broad white tips. Lower parts ashy grey, under wing-coverts 
and thighs black ; edge of wing whitish. 

Female with pure white tips to some of the neck-feathers, 
forming a narrow collar at each side but interrupted in the 
middle. 

Bill blue, paler towards the tip, a green spot, in the male only, 
in the middle of the lower mandible ; iris greyish brown, naked 
skin round the eye dark yellow, narrow ring of the eyelid green ; 
feet yellowish green, whitish-blue spots on the toes, nails whitish 
blue (Hartert) ; iris brown speckled with gold (Hume). 

Length 7'25 ; tail 2-8 ; wing 3-3 ; tarsus -85 ; bill from gape -9. 

Distribution. Eastern Himalayas, below about 5000 feet, as far 
west as Nepal ; Assam and the hills to the southward as far as 
Arrakan and Manipur. 

Habits, $c. Very similar to those of S. lunatus, but this bird is 
less tame. It feeds on insects, and Hume shot one in Manipur 
that had eaten small land mollusca. The nest and eggs, which 



PSARISOMUS. 11 

resemble those of the last species, have been described by Mr. 
Gammie in Sikkim, aiid by Mr. Baker in Cachar. The eggs 
measure about -95 by '66. 

Genus PSAKISOMUS, Swainson, 1837. 

Bill similar to that of Eurylcwnus, but smaller, edge of upper 
mandible straight, not overhanging ; no rictal bristles ; loreal 
feathers directed forward. Tarsi indistinctly scutellated in front 
outside, the scutellation becoming obsolete inside. Tail greatly 
graduated, longer than the wing. General colour bright green. 
Sexes alike. 

A single species. 

944. Psarisomus dalhousiae. The Long-tailed Broadbill. 

Eurylaimus dalhousise, Jameson, Edinb. N. Ph. J. xviii, p, 389 
(1835) ; Royle, III. Bot. Him. i, p. Ixxvii, pi. vii, fig. 2. 

Psarisomus dalhousise, Blyth, Cat. p. 195 j id. Birds Burma, p. 126 ; 
Horsf. fy M. Cat. p. 117 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 236 ; Godioin-Austen, 
J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 95 ; xlv, pt. 2, p. 69 ; Walden, Ibis, 
1875, p. 460; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 52 ; v, p. 19 ; xi, p. 48; id. Cat. 
no. 138 ; Hume Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 88, 499 ; Biiigham, S. F. viii, 
p. 193 ; ix, p. 156; Gates, S. F. x, p. 188 ; id. B. B. i, p. 423; 
Salvadot-i, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. 574 ; Sclater, Cat. B. M. 
xiv, p. 458; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 289. 

Raya sericeogula, Hodgson, J. A. S. B. viii, p. 36 (1839). 

Psarisomus assimilis, Hume, S. F. iii, p. 53. 

The Yellow-throated Broadbill, Jerdon ; Rai-i, Nepalese ; Dang-mo- 
mith, Lepcha. 




Fig. (>. Head of P. aaikonsief. 

Coloration. Crown and nape with the sides of the head behind 
the eyes black ; a large bright blue patch on the crown ; a narrow 
frontal line, an elongate spot behind the eye, lores and chin bright 
yellow, passing into orange-yellow on the throat ; this colour is 
continued behind the black cap as a collar, the nuchal portion of 
which, sometimes difficult of detection in skins, is bright blue. 
Upper plumage from neck to tail-coverts inclusive bright grass- 
green ; tertiaries and outer webs of secondaries the same ; inner 
webs of wing-feathers black, outer webs of primaries bright blue 
near the base, dark bluish green towards the tip, a large white spot 



12 EURYL^EMID.E. 

on inner web of each primary near the base ; tail blue above, black 
below ; lower plumage from breast bright bluish green. Female 
the same. In some skins the spot behind the eye is greenish 
yellow or white ; the collar, too, has in many birds a satin-white 
hinder border. 

Bill green in general, but sometimes brownish yellow, gape and 
tip bluish or whitish; iris brown; orbits yellow or greenish; legs 
and feet dull light green ; claws horny. 

Young birds have the whole head green or greenish. 

Length 10-5 ; tail 5 ; wing 4-1 ; tarsus I'l ; bill from gape 1*3. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas as far west as Dehra 
Dun and Mussooree, from a low level to about 6000 feet elevation ; 
also Assam, Manipur, Cachar, and Burma generally, in hilly parts 
of the country, and through the Malay Peninsula to Sumatra and 
Borneo. 

Habits, <$fc. This beautiful Broad bill is found usually solitary or 
in pairs, but sometimes in small flocks, and is restricted to thick 
forest. It feeds entirely on insects, which it sometimes captures 
on the wing. The nests (fig. 1) are like those of other Broadbills, 
large globular structures of grass, roots, fibres, &c., with a lateral 
entrance, which is sometimes protected by an overhanging portico. 
This nest is suspended from a fine twig ; the egg-cavity is lined 
with green leaves ; the eggs, 3 to 5 in number, are laid in April 
or May, and are of two types the one pure white and glossy, the 
other white or pinkish, blotched, chiefly about the large end, with 
red and pale reddish purple, and almost without gloss. Average 
size 1 by '7. 



Genus CALYPTOMENA, Baffles, 1822. 

Bill smaller than in other Eurylcemidce, and the culmen higher. 
Nostrils at the base of the beak, and concealed, as is the greater 
part of the upper mandible, by the feathers of the lores, which are 
large and directed forward. JS"o rictal bristles. Tail short and 
nearly square. Tarsi distinctly scutellated in front. Plumage 
harsh, bright green nearly throughout. 

This is the most aberrant member of the group, and has been 
by many writers placed in a different family or subfamily. Three 
species are now known, two of which are peculiar to Borneo. 

945. Calyptomena viridis. The Green Broadbill. 

Calyptomena viridis, Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 295 (1822) ; 
myth, Cat. p. 196; id. Birds Burm. p. 124 ; Horsf. 8f M. Cat. p. 120 ; 
Stolictka. J. A. 8. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 284 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, 
pp. 86, 499; Hume, Cat. no. 137 bis ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 422 ; Sclater, 
Cat. B. M. xiv, p. 456 ; Oates in Hume's N. # E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 288. 

Coloration. Male. Bright green throughout, slightly paler on 
the abdomen ; a minute yellow spot in front of the eye ; sides of 
forehead (greatly concealed by loral feathers), a large spot behind 



CALYPTOMENA. I'd 

the ear-coverts, three bands across the wing-coverts, and the wing- 
feathers (except the outer webs of the secondaries and the basal 
portion of the outer webs in the primaries) black. 

Female duller and paler green throughout, especially below ; 
no black marks ; wing-feathers brown. Young birds are like the 
females, but duller in colour. 




Fig. 7. Head of C. viridi-. 

Upper mandible pale horny to brown or even black, the tip and 
the lower mandible light reddish horny or brownish orange ; gape 
orange ; iris dark brown ; legs pale dirty or horny green, sometimes 
tinged with bluish, sometimes with purplish grey. 

Males, length about 7'5 ; tail 2 ; wing 4*2 ; tarsus -8 ; bill 
from gape 1*1. Females are rather larger, wing about 4 f 4. 

Distribution. Tenasserim from Ainherst southward, also the 
Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo. 

Habits, 6fc. According to Davison this beautiful Broadbill lives 
entirely on fruit. It keeps to the forests and frequents the tops 
of the trees singly, in pairs, or in small parties. It is only active 
in the mornings and evenings. The note is a soft whistle. 
Several nests have been taken in Tenasserim by Mr. J. Darling, 
and are egg-shaped, measuring about 9 inches by 4, pinched flat 
at the top, along the twig from which each is suspended, and 
ending in a tail, sometimes 3 feet long. The nest is large, com- 
posed chiefly of fine grass, sometimes mixed with roots &c., and 
contains about 3 very pale yellow or creamy eggs, unspotted, with 
little or no gloss, and measuring about 1*15 by 'S. 




Fig. 8, Brachypternus aurantiits and nest-hole. 



Order III. PICI. 

With the Woodpeckers we commence a series of bird-families 
sometimes combined under the general name of Picarice, but 
exhibiting such complicated relations with each other and with 
other groups of birds that their classification is by no means finally 
settled. In the present work it appears best to leave them in a 
number of small orders, each frequently consisting, as in the 
present instance, of a single family. 

The Woodpeckers were formerly associated under the name 
Scansores with Barbets, Cuckoos, Parrots, and other birds having 
two hind and two fore toes, the fourth digit being directed back- 
wards as well as the first or hallux. But the Parrots have long been 
known to differ from the others widely in structure, and were classed 
apart by Blyth in his Catalogue in 1849. Huxley, in his important 
paper ''On the Classification of Birds ' (P. Z. S. 1867, pp. 448, 
467), distinguished the Woodpeckers as a group called Celeo- 
morphce, equal in rank to the Accipitrine birds or the Parrots, and 



P1C1. 



15 



the distinction was emphasized by Kitchen Parker, who separated 
Woodpeckers and Wrynecks as Saurognathce, on account of what 
he regarded as the reptilian characters presented by the bones of 
the palate. The view that Woodpeckers and Wrynecks form a 
separate group has been accepted by many recent writers, notably 
by Sundevall *, Sclater t, Newton J, Sharpe , and Gadow ||, though 
not by Garrod % by Eiirbriuger **, nor by Seebohm ft. The 
following are the principal characters : 

Vomer represented by several distinct paired lateral rods; 
maxillo-palatines small, widely distant from each other (fig. 9). 



fmx 




\'o 



Fig. 9. Palate of Gecinus viridis (Huxley, P.Z.S. 1867, p. 448). Pma; 
premaiillae ; Mxp, maxillo-palatine ; PI, palatine ; Vo, trie ossicles which 
appear to represent the voraer. 

The flexor lonyus hallucis, after sending off a vinculum to 
the flexor perforans diyitorum, is divided, one branch going to 
the fourth toe, the other being again divided to supply the first 
and second, whilst the flexor perforans digitorum runs to the third 
alone (see fig. 22, p. 80). The same arrangement is found in 
the Barbets, Indicators, Toucans, and some other families. 

Sternum with two notches behind on each side of the keel ; 
the manubrial process bifurcate as in the Passeres. The femoro- 
caudal and semitendinosus muscles present ; ambiens and accessory 
femoro-caudal absent. Caeca wanting or quite rudimentary. In 
pterylosis, the spinal feather-tract is well defined on the back and 
forked on the lower, not on the upper back. Oil-gland tufted, not 
nude as in Passeres. 



* 'Tentaraen,' p. 7 t 'Ibis,' 1880, pp. 350, 402. 

* Article " Ornithology," Encyclopaedia Brit. p. 47. 

' Review of Recent Attempts to Classify Birds,' p. 84. (The Neotropical 
Buccones and Galbulae are here associated.) 

|| Bronn, Klassen u. Ordn. des Thier-Reichs, vi, 4, p. 301. 

t P. Z. S. 1878, p. 935. ** ' Untersuchungen,' ii, p. 1392. 

tt ' Classification of Birds,' p. 6 ; Supplement, p. 23. 



1 6 



Family PICID.E. 

Tail-feathers always 12, the outermost pair in the majority of 
the genera short and often completely concealed by the coverts, so 
that these two feathers are difficult to find. Bill generally strong 
and in many forms modified into a cutting weapon, the end of 
the upper mandible being vertical and chisel-shaped. With this 
weapon "Woodpeckers cut away the bark of trees to look for 
insects, and make holes in the trunks or branches for nests, 
Many species by tapping on trees make a noise that may be heard 
a considerable distance. The nostrils are basal; above them, in 
several genera, a ridge known as the nasal ridge commences, and 
runs, parallel to the culmen, to join or nearly to join the com- 
missure. The tongue is excessively long, worm-like, and capable 
of great protrusion ; it is supplied with viscid mucus from the large 
salivary glands, so that insects, their larvae and eggs adhere to it. 
The point of the tongue is horny and barbed. The hyoid cornua, 
which are of enormous length, slide round the skull, passing in a 
sheath from the side of the gullet round the occiput to the base of 
the upper mandible. 

All Indian Picidce are insectivorous, a large proportion of them 
feeding mainly and some entirely on ants. All lay glossy white 
eggs, and all, with the exception of one genus, make holes in trees 
and lay their eggs in them, the eggs resting on the chips without 
any other lining to the hole. The exception is the genus Micro- 
pternus, which lays its eggs in ants' nests. 

The Picidce are not found in Madagascar, Australia, or Poly- 
nesia, but range through all other temperate and tropical regions. 
They are divided into three subfamilies, thus distinguished: 

Shafts of tail-feathers stout and rigid Picince, p. 17. 

Shafts of tail-feathers flexible. Tail (in Indian 

forms) less than f length of wing ; 

nostrils concealed by plumes Picumnince, p. 75, 

Shafts of tail-feathers flexible. Tail j wing or 

more ; nostrils not concealed by plumes, 

but partly covered by a membrane .... lyngince, p. 78. 

Woodpeckers are known as Kat-toJcra, H., in Northern India, 
LakhoT-phor in the South ; Kat-barya at Mussooree ; Katparwa 
in Oude ; Lohdr, Marathi ; Manu-tolachi, Telugu ; Marram-tolas7ii r 



17 

Tainul; Tatchan-kuruvi, Tarn, in Ceylon; Koerella, Cingalese; 
Tint-ionic, Burmese ; these names being applied to all kinds. The 
Lepchas of Sikhim, as Jerdon observes, alone appear to have 
names for different species. 



Subfamily PICIN^E. 

This contains the true Woodpeckers, with very stout shafts to- 
the tail-feathers, the points of which are pressed against the bark 
of trees when the birds are climbing or tapping to get at 
insects. The tail is frequently much worn, and hence varies 
considerably in length. Woodpeckers seldom perch, they cling 
to the stems and branches of trees with the tail always downward, 
and they usually ascend and descend diagonally. They have a 
peculiar undulating flight easily recognized. The Indian genera 
are numerous. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Primaries spotted or banded. 
'. Nostrils concealed by plumes. 
a". Toes 4. 

3 . Mantle wholly or partly green, 

back not barred. 

4 . Culmen nearly straight, a dis- 
tinct nasal ridge GBCINUS, p. 18. 

i 4 . Culmen curved, nasal ridge ob- 
solete CHRYSOPHLEGMA, p. 27, 

6 3 . Mantle chiefly crimson, back 

barred across CALLOLOPHUS, p. 29. 

c 3 . Mantle black and white. 

c 4 . Nasal ridge less than half 
length of bill, and at base 
nearer commissure than cul- 

men HYPOPICUS, p. 32. 

#. Nasal ridge half length of bill 
or more, and at base not nearer 
commissure than culmen. 
a 5 . Second primary shorter than 

sixth. 

a c . Primaries exceed second- 
aries by length of culmen 

or more DENDROCOPUS, p. 33. 

V'. Primaries, exceed second- 
aries by less than length 

of culmen LIOPICUS, p. 43. 

6 5 . Second primary longer than 

sixth IYNGIPICUS, p. 44. 

b". Toes 3. 

d?. Mantle green or red GECINULUS, p. 30. 

e 3 . Mantle golden olive GAUROPICOIDES, p. 63, 

YOL. III. C 



18 PICIDJE. 

b'. Nostrils exposed. 

c". Mantle rufous or crimson, more or 

less banded. 

f 3 . Culrnen nearly straight, tip trun- 
cated PYBBHOPICUS, p. 49. 

g 3 . Culmen curved, tip pointed MICBOPTEBNTJS, p. 54. 

d". Mantle wholly or partly golden 

olive or crimson, not banded, 
fa. Toes 4. 

e 4 . Hallux well developed, half 

length of second digit CHBYSOCOLAPTES, p. 64. 

/" 4 . Hallux small, about second 

digit BBACHYPTEBNUS, p. 58. 

i s . Toes 3 TIGA, p. 61. 

e". Mantle black or brown and buff. . . . MIGLYPTES, p. 52. 
b. Primaries without spots or bands. 

c'. Tertiaries with large spots ; size small. HEMICEBCUS, p. 68. 
d'. All quills unspotted ; size large. 

/". Plumage mostly ashy grey HEMILOPHUS, p. 70. 

"g". Plumage mostly black THBIPONAX, p. 72. 



Genus GECINUS, Boie, 1831. 

Nostrils concealed by harsh plumes ; culmeii slightly curved, 
a distinct nasal ridge, nearer to the culmen than to the commissure 
at the base of the bill. Four toes to each foot, the 3rd (outer 
anterior) toe longer than the 4th (outer posteriorj ; tail less than 
two-thirds the wing in length ; outermost tail-feather on each side 
very short, not nearly so long as the upper tail-coverts. Upper 
plumage green wholly or in part : sexes distinguished by portions 
of the head, generally of the crown, being red in males and not in 
females. 

This genus, of which the type is the common European G. viri- 
dis, ranges almost throughout the Palsearctic and Oriental regions, 
and is represented by nine species within our area. Members of 
this genus obtain their insect-food more frequently on fallen trunks 
of trees and on the ground than Woodpeckers in general are wont 
to do. 

Key to the /Species. 
a. Rump green or yellow. 

a'. Lower parts with longitudinal markings ; 
male with crimson, female with black 
cap. 
#". Tail barred throughout. 

a 3 . Dark bars on middle tail-feathers 

broader than white bars G. squamatus, p. 19. 

b 3 . Dark bars narrower than white .... G. yorii, p. 20. 
b". Tail not barred throughout. 

c 3 . White predominating on lower parts. G. strwlatus, p. 20. 
d 3 . Dark predominating on lower parts. G. viridanus, p. 22. 
b'. Lower parts almost uniformly coloured ; 
crown crimson and occiput black in male, 
both black in female G. occipitalis, p. 22. 



GECINUS. 19 

c'. Lower parts with transverse bars or spots ; 

;t yellow nuchal crest. 
c". Outer surface of wing green, tinged 
with red. 
c 3 . Whole occiput never crimson ; wing 

about 5 - 4. 
a*. Forehead, each edge of crown and 

of occiput and malar stripe crimson. G. chlorolophus c? , p. 23. 
b l . Sides of occiput only crimson . . G. chlorolophus $,p. 23. 
f 3 . Whole occiput crimson ; wing about 

4-6. 
c 4 . Crown and malar stripe crimson. G. chlorogaster $ , p. 25. 

d*. Only occiput crimson G. chlorogaster $ , p. 25. 

d" . Outer surface of wing red G. puniceus, p. 26. 

b. Rump bright red G. nigrigenis, p. 26. 

946. Gecinus squamatus. The West-Himalayan Scaly-bellied 

Green Woodpecker. 
Picus pquamatus, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1830, p. 8 ; Blyth,J. A. S. B. xii, 

p. 998. 

Gecinus squamatus, Blyth, Cat. p. 57 ; Horsf. Sr M. Cat. p. 659 ; 
Jcrdon, B. I. i, p. 286 ; id. Ibis, 1872, p. 9 ; Tytler, Ibis, 1868, 
p. 202 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 20 ; Beavan, Ibis, 
1869, p. 414 ; Cock $ Marsh. S. F. i, p. 350 ; Hume. Cat. no 170 ; 
Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 49 ; Sadly, Ibis, 1881, p. 430 ; Hargitt, 
Ibis, 1888, p. 153 ; id Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 43 ; Oates in Humes 
N. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 297 ; Skarpe, Yarkand Miss., Aves, p. 108. 
The Scaly-bellied Green Woodpecker, Jerdon ; Tuktola, Chamba. 

Coloration. Male. Crown and occipital crest crimson ; mantle, 
including sides of neck, back, scapulars, and secondary wing-coverts, 
green, rump aud upper tail-coverts strongly tinged with yellow ; a 
broad yellowish-white supercilium extending to the nape with 
a black line above continued across the forehead, and another 
black line below from the eye to the nostril ; a black spot behind 
the eye ; another broad yellowish-white streak from the base of the 
bill below the eye, below this streak the malar region is black 
mixed with greenish white ; ear-coverts greenish grey ; wing- 
feathers brownish black, inner webs of all with imperfect white 
bands, in the primaries towards the base only; outer webs of 
primaries with equidistant yellowish- white spots ; outer webs of 
secondaries and tertiaries greenish dusky barred with whitish ; 
primary-coverts dusky, with white spots ; tail-feathers above 
brownish black with white bars rather narrower than the inter- 
spaces ; below, the dark bars are pale and the whole feathers 
tinged with yellow ; throat and breast pale greyish green, some- 
times varying to pale ashy ; abdomen and flanks with lower wing- 
and tail-coverts greenish white, each feather with a black intra- 
marginal band producing a scale-like marking, and with sometimes 
a black shaft-stripe. 

Female. Crown and occiput black instead of crimson, the bases 
of the feathers leaden grey, and the sides of the frontal and coronal 
feathers greenish grey. 

c2 



20 PICIDjE. 

In young birds the upper plumage is dusky, the feathers being 
edged with green, and the breast-feathers bear scale-like marks 
like those of the abdomen. 

Iris a circle of darkish pinkish red surrounded by a second ring 
of light pink ; upper mandible horn-coloured at the base, the tip 
and the whole lower mandible brightish yellow (Beavari); legs 
greenish plumbeous (Jerdon). 

Length 14 ; tail 5*3 ; wing 6'5 ; tarsus 1-1 ; bill from gape 1'9, 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Grilgit and Kashmir to 
Kumaun and probably Western Nepal, at elevations from about 
5000 to 9000 feet. A skin was obtained in Afghanistan by 
Griffith. 

Habits, fyc. This Woodpecker is often seen feeding on the ground. 
It lays generally five, sometimes six eggs in a hole excavated in the 
stem of a tree, in March, April, or May. The eggs are white and 
very glossy, and measure on an average 1*28 by '93. The nest- 
hole is generally placed at a considerable height from the ground, 
as a rule more than 20 feet. 



947. G-ecinus gorii. Hargitt's Scaly-bellied Green Woodpecker. 

Gecinus gorii, Hargitt, Ibis, 1887, p. 75, 1888, p. 159 ; id. Cat. B. 
M. xviii, p. 45 ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 158 ; Aitchison, Trans. 
Linn. Soc. (2) Zool. v, p. 83, pi. vi, fig. 1. 

This is paler throughout than G. squamatus, but otherwise very 
similar. The pale spots and bars on the wing- and tail-feathers 
are larger, the pale bars on the tail-feathers and the white spots 011 
the outer webs of the primaries being broader than the dark 
interspaces ; the scale-like markings on the abdomen are narrower 
and fainter. Dimensions the same. 

Distribution. South Afghanistan. Only known from two speci- 
mens, one from Quetta, the other from the Helm and River. Sir 
O. B. St. John saw G. gorii on the Kwaja Amran hills, and 
probably in the juniper forests of Ziarat. 

I suspect that this is merely a pale variety of G. squamatus. 



948. Gecinus striolatus. The Little Scaly-bellied Green 
Woodpecker. 

Picus striolatus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 1000 (1843) ; Jerdon, Mad, 
Jour. L. S. xiii, pt. 2, p. 138. 

Gecinus striolatus, Blytli, Cat. p. 57 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 660 ; 
Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 287 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 21 ; 
Blanf. Ibis, 1870, p. 464 ; Jerdon, Ibis, 1872, p. 9 ; Legge, S. F. i, 
p. 488; id. Birds Ceyl. p. 194 ; Ball, S. F. ii, p. 391 ; v, p. 413 ; vii, 
p. 206 ; Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 76 : Hume $ Gates, S. F. 
iii, p. 68 ; Butler, S. F. iii, p. 458 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, 
pt. 2, p. 70; xlvii, pt. 2, p. 14 ; Inalis, S. F. v, p. 26 ; Fairbank, 
S. F. v, p. 396 ; Anderson, Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 585 ; Cripps, 
S. F. vii, p. 262 ; Hume, Cat. no. 171 ; Scully, S. F. vtii, p. 247 ; 



flutter, 8. F. ix, p. 38(J ; Oates, S. F. x, p. 191; id. B. B. ii, 
p. 49; Davison, S. F. x, p. 3o5 ; Terry, ib. p. 471 ; Barnes, Birds 
Horn. p. 116; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 62 ; Haryitt, Ibis, 1888, p. 171 ; 
id. Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 50; Oates in Hume's N. fy J2. 2nd ed. ii, 
p. i>98. 

The Small Green Woodpecker, Jerdon. 

Coloration. Male. Crown and occipital crest crimson, posterior 
-crest-feathers sometimes orange ; mantle olivaceous green ; rump 
bright gamboge-yellow or sometimes orange ; a greyish-white 
superciliary stripe bordered with black above, beginning above the 
ye and extending back to the nape, the black extends forward 
to the base of the forehead and to the brownish-black plumes over 




Fig. 10. Head of G. stnolatus. 

the nostrils ; lores and a stripe under the eye and ear-coverts 
brownish white ; ear-coverts grey, faintly streaked with whitish ; 
malar band white, streaked with black ; wing-feathers as in G. 
*i n.f (matus brownish black with white spots ; tail-feathers brownish 
black, imperfectly barred towards the base with light brown, 
outermost pair but one barred throughout ; lower parts greenish 
white, bivn^t UTCIMKT and with a yellowish tinge; chin and throat 
striped; feathers of remainder of lower parts with intramarginal 
bands and occasional shaft-stripes of olive or brown. 

Female. The crown and occiput black, the sides of the crowii- 
feathers brownish ashy. Otherwise like the male. 

Iris red, surrounded by white ; eyelids plumbeous ; upper man- 
dible and tip of lower horn-colour, remainder of lower mandible 
yellow ; legs olive-green (Oate*\ 

Length 11-5 ; tail 3-8 ; wing 5-2 : tarsus 1 ; bill from gape 1'4. 

Distribution. The range of this Woodpecker is somewhat peculiar. 
It is found throughout the Himalayas as far west as Mussooree, 
and is generally distributed throughout the countries south of the 
Eastern Himalayas as far south as the Irrawaddy delta and 
Toungngoo. Anderson obtained it at Momein. There is also in 
the British Museum a skin from Siam. It also occurs, though 
sparingly, throughout the forest country between the Ganges and 
Godavari, east of long. 80 East, and in the forests of Malabar and of 



22 PICID^E. 

the Western Ghats as far north as the neighbourhood of Belgaum, 
in Mysore, and in other forest-clad tracts of Southern India ; also, 
but rarely, in Ceylon. In the Bombay Presidency north of Bel- 
gaum and in Central and North-western India it is excessively 
rare or wanting except on the Aravalli Eange near Abu. 

Habits, c. Breeds from March to May, in holes in the stems or 
branches of trees, laying generally five glossy porcellanic white eggs, 
that measure on an average T05 by -8. 



949. Gecinus viridanus. The Burmese Scaly-bellied Green 
Woodpecker. 

Picas viridanus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 1000 (1843) ; xiii, p. 394. 

Gecinus dimidiatus, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 58, nee Temm. 

Gecinus viridanus, Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 660 ; Walden, P. Z. S. 

1866, p. 539 ; Beavan, Ibis, 1869, p. 414 ; Blyth $ Wald. Birds 

Burm. p. 76 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 48 ; Hargitt, Ibis, 1888, p. 166 ; 

id. Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 47 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, 

p. 566; vii, p. 432. 
Gecinus vittatus, apud Hume $ Oates, S. F. iii, p. 68 ; Armstrong, 

S. F. iv, p. 310 ; Hume # Dav. S. F. vi, p. 136 ;' Hume, Cat. 

no. 171 bis ; Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 163, nee Vieill. 

Very similar to G. striolatus, but larger, the bill and tail longer, 
the malar band much more marked, owing to the feathers having 
much broader black median stripes, the scale-like markings on the 
lower parts much broader, so that the lower coloration is alto- 
gether darker, the greenish brown predominating over the white 
on the abdomen and especially on the lower tail-coverts, whilst the 
reverse is the case in G. striolatus. As a rule in the present 
species the rump is greenish yellow, not clear yellow or orange. 
The upper parts are generally green as in G. striolatus, but are 
sometimes darker and sometimes bronzy green. 

Irides dull lake; bill above dark, below yellowish, orbits slate- 
lavender ; legs greenish ( Wardlaw Ramsay). 

Length 13; tail 4-2 ; wing 5'6 ; tarsus^l'l ; bill from gape 1-6. 

Distribution. Throughout Arrakan, Pegu and Tenasserim, and 
down the Malay Peninsula to Salanga and into Siam. 



950. Gechms occipitalis. Tlie Black-napped Green Woodpecker. 

Pirns occipitalis, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1830, p. 8 ; Blyth, J. A. S. B. x, 

p. 922 ; xii, p. 1002; xiv, p. 191. 
Picus barbatus, Gray in Hardw. III. Ind. Zool i, pi. xxxi, fig-. 2 

(1830-32). 
Gecinus occipitalis, Blyth, Cat. p. 58 : Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 661 ; 

Jerd. B. I. i, 

xlv, 




V, ^ , ^ _., / ^ 

p. 76 ; Hume Sf Dav. S. F. vi, p. 137 ; 'bates, S. F. viii, p. 165 
Scully, ibid. p. 248 ; Bingham, 8. F. ix, p. 164 ; Oates, B. B. 
ii, p. 51 ; Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 410 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ 



<;I:CINUS. 23 

Gen. (2) iv, p. 570 ; v, p. 5GO ; Haryitt, Ibis, 1888, p. G ; id. Cat. 
B. M. xviii, p. 50; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 299 ; 
Skarpe, Yarkand Miss., Aves, p. 109. 

Mong-chok, Lepcha. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead and crown crimson ; plumes over 
nostrils, upper lores, a line above the grey superciliuin, occiput 
and short occipital crest, and a broad malar stripe from the lower 
mandible black ; the occiput and malar stripe more or less mixed 
with grey ; sides of head, including lower lores, supercilia, area 
below eye, and ear- coverts, ashy grey : sides of neck, hind neck, 
and back moderately bright green, generally tinged with bright 
yellow on the rump and occasionally with orange, but sometimes 
only brighter green ; secondary wing-coverts, tertiaries, and outer 
webs of secondaries yellowish olive ; quills dark brown, the inner 
webs, except near the tips, with imperfect white bars, the outer 
webs of the primaries with equidistant white spots, primary-coverts 
barred ; tail-feathers black, with greenish edges near the base, the 
median pair with imperfect greenish-drab bars; breast green, 
duller and more olivaceous than the back, passing into greyish 
white on the throat and chin, and into ashy grey or sometimes 
brownish grey on the abdomen ; lower wing-coverts banded white 
and brown. 

Female. Whole forehead, crown, and nape black, the sides of 
the feathers grey, producing a striped appearance. 

The young is duller in colour and the lower plumage and tail- 
feathers are barred. 

Bill dull blackish brown ; eyelids purplish brown ; iris dull red ; 
legs dull green ; claws greenish horn-colour (Oates). 

Length 12-5; tail 4'7 (3'8 to 5-1); wing 5*6 ; tarsus 1-2; bill 
from gape 1'7. 

Distribution. From Murree and Kashmir throughout the Hima- 
layas to Assam and Yunnan at moderate elevations, up to about 
8000 feet to the westward and 5000 in Sikhim ; also the countries 
between Assam and Burma, throughout Burma and in Siam. 

Habits, $'c. Breeds in the Himalayas from the middle of May to 
the middle of June, laying four, five, or sometimes six white eggs, 
moderately glossy or very polished, in a hole, usually bored in the 
stem of a tree, but much nearer the ground than in the case of 
G. sqiMmatus. The average size of the eggs is 1-14 by '88. 



951. Gecinus chlorolophus. The Small Himalayan 
Yellow-naped Woodpecker. 

Picus chlorolophus, VicilL Nouv. Diet. (THist. Nat. xxvi, p. 78 (1818). 
Picus uepaulensis, Gray in Hardw. III. Ind. Zool. i, pi. xxxi, fig. 1 

(1830-32). 
Gecinus chloropus, Blyth, Cat. p. 58 ; Tytkr, A. M. N. H. (2) xiii, 

p. 367 (1854;. 
Chrysophlegma clilorolophus, Horsf. 8f M. Cat. p. 662; Jerdon, 

B. I. i, p. 289 ; Godiv.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 97 ; xlv, 



24 PICID.E. 

pt. 2, p. 70 : Hume, S. F. ill, p. 71 ; v, p. 26 ; xi, p. 62 ; id. Cat. 
no. 174 ; Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 76 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. 
vi, p. 138; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 206; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 249; 
Binyham, S. F. ix, p. 164 ; Gates, B. B. ii,'p. 45 ; (7. ^. T. Mar- 
shall, Ibis, 1884, p. 410 ; Salvador*, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. 2, iv, 
p. 578 ; v, p. 565 vii, p. 379. 

Gecinus chlorolophus, Hargitt, Ibis, 1888, p. 184 ; id. Cat. B. M. 
xviii, p. 59 ; Gates in Humes N. 8f E. ii, p. 300. 

The Lesser Ydlow-naped Woodpecker, Jerdon. 

Coloration. Male. Nasal plumes and a line above lores black ; 
forehead, a stripe from the forehead on each side of the crown to 
the nape, and the tips of the feathers forming a malar stripe on 
each side of the lower mandible crimson ; crown of head olive- 
green, some of the occipital feathers occasionally tipped crimson ; 
nuchal crest of loose-textured feathers ending in filaments golden 
to orange-yellow ; back, wing-coverts, rump, and upper tail-coverts 
bright yellowish green ; lores and a band beneath the eye and 
ear-coverts, also a narrow line over the eye, whitish ; ear-coverts 
pale olive; quills dark brown, the inner webs, except near the 
tips, with squarish white spots ; outer webs of primaries near 
their base, and outer webs of secondaries throughout red bordered 
with green ; a few small white spots (sometimes wanting) on 
outer webs of primaries : tail black, the median feathers with 
bronzy-green edges near the base ; lower parts olive ; chin, throat, 
abdomen, under wing-coverts, and lower tail-coverts barred with 
w T hite or greenish white. 

Female. No crimson on the forehead, sides of head above the 
eye, nor on malar stripe, but there is a band on each side of the 
occiput ; otherwise the plumage resembles that of the male. The 
young are duller, the lower parts dusky, not green, and barred or 
spotted throughout. 

Bill yellowish-green horny, culmen and tip dark plumbeous ; 
irides carmine-red ; orbital skin bluish plumbeous ; tarsi dingy 
green ; claws pale horny (Scully}. 

Length 10-5 ; tail 4 ; wing 5'4 ; tarsus -9 ; bill from gape 1-25. 

Distribution. The lower Himalayas up to about 10,000 feet, as far 
\vestas Chamba, also Assam, Cachar, Tipperah, Manipur, Arrakan, 
Burma generally, and Tenasserim. A specimen referred to this 
species has been obtained from Perak. This Woodpecker has been 
reported from Orissa, but its occurrence in the Indian Peninsula 
must be regarded as doubtful. 

Habits, <$fc. Like other members of the genus, this green Wood- 
pecker sometimes feeds on the ground. In Burma it is found 
both in thick forests and open tree-jungle. The nest has been taken 
in Sikkim in April, and contained three eggs, one measuring 1-14 
by 72. The nest-hole was 14 feet from the ground in the stem 
of a dry tree, the eggs white and glossy. 



..I.. 'I NUB. 20 

">2. Gecinus chlorogaster. The South-Indian Yellow-naped 
Woodpecker. 

Hrarliyloplm.s iiH'iitalis, ajmtl Jrrdo/i, Madr. Jour. L. S. xi, p. 214 

(1S40), nee Picas mentalis, Tcnim. 
Picas chlorigaster, Jcrdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. xiii, pt. 2, p. 139 

(1844). 

Picas (Chloropicus) xanthoderus, Malherbe, Rev. Zool. 184o, p. 402. 
Gecinus chlorigaster, Bh/th, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 16; Haryitt, Ibis, 

1888, p. 180 ; id. Cat. '/>'. M. xviii, p. 62. 
Gecinus chlorophanes, Blyth, Cat. p. 59 ; Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) 

xiii, p. 448 (1854). 
Chrysophlegma chlorophanes, Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 290 ; Holdsworth, 

P. Z. S. 1872, p. 428: Leyye, Ibis, 1874, p. 15, 1875, p. 283; 

Ilourditton, S. F. iv, p. .>90. 

rhrysophli'gma xanthoderas, Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 197. 
Chrysophlegma chlorigaster, Hume, S. F. vii, p. 517 ; id. Cat.no. 175 ; 

Butler, ,SC F. ix, p. .180 ; Davidson, S. F. x, p. 298 ; Davison, ibid. 

p. ; J.")") ; Tat/lor, ibid. p. 457 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 117. 

The Southern Yellow-naped Woodpecker, Jerdon; Pachcha kceralla, 

Cingalese. 

Coloration. Malt'. Xasal plumes brownish black ; forehead, 
crown, occiput (feathers elongated), and inalar stripe crimson, only 
the tips of the feathers red and the dusky bases conspicuous ; 
nuchal crest yellow, the feathers loose-textured ; back, scapulars, 
rump, and upper tail-coverts green ; wing-coverts yellow bronze- 
green, tinged with red towards the shafts ; quills brownish black, 
the inner webs, except near the tips, with round white spots : 
outer webs of primaries near base and of secondaries throughout 
red, bordered with bronze-green, a few small white spots on outer 
webs of primaries ; tail black or brownish black ; lores whitish ; 
sides of head and neck and all lower parts dull olive, spotted or 
barred with white ou the chin, throat, and abdomen, or in the 
young almost throughout, but generally the breast is unspotted. 

Female. Forehead and crown dark olive, the occiput alone being 
crimson, and there is no malar stripe; otherwise as in the male. 

Bill slaty greenish, yellow beneath ; legs dull green ; irides 
reddish brown (Jerdon}. 

Length 9*5 ; tail 3*25 (varying from 2-9 to 5'5) ; wing 4'65 ; 
tarsus '85 ; bill from gape 1*05. 

Distribution. The hills in the neighbourhood of the Western 
coast of India as far north as Khandesh, also in the greater part 
of Ceylon. This Woodpecker is not found above 5000 feet on the 
Nilgiris. It occurs in the Wynaad and Mysore, but not to the 
east ward. 

Habits, $c. This bird has a plaintive call, which it frequently 
utters when perched on the upper branch of a high tree. It 
often, like other Gecini, feeds on fallen trees on the ground, 
and according to Layard breaks into dried cowdung in search of 
insects. Legge found ants besides coleoptera in the stomach of 
those he examined. 



ZG PICIM. 

953. Gecinus puniceus. The Crimson-wim/ed Green 
Woodpecker. 

Picus puniceus, Horsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 176 (1821). 
Gecinus puniceus, Blyth, Cat. p. 59 : Hargitt, Ibis, 1888, p. 176; id. 

Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 64. 

Venilia punicea, Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 664. 
Chrysophlegrna puniceus, Blyth, Birds Burin, p. 77 ; Hume, S. F. 

iii, p. 324 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 44. 
Callolophus puniceus, Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 139 ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 175ter. 

Coloration. Male. Nasal plumes and a line over the lores 
brownish black ; forehead, crown, nape, and broad malar stripe 
crimson, this colour descending for some distance behind the ear- 
coverts ; nuchal crest of loose-textured feathers yellow ; back and 
scapulars green, more or less olivaceous ; lower back and rump 
the same, the feathers edged with pale yellow ; wing-coverts, 
whole outer webs of secondaries, and basal portion of outer webs 
of primaries deep crimson; tips of secondaries and tertiaries 
green ; remainder of quills dark brown, outer webs of primaries 
sometimes with a few white spots ; inner webs of all with larger 
white spots or imperfect bars ; tail black ; sides of head dull olive ; 
chin and throat light brown or brownish olive ; sides of neck 
and lower parts olive-green ; the flanks spotted with white. 

The female has no malar band, but otherwise precisely resembles 
the male. Young birds are duller in colour and have the lower 
parts browner and spotted more or less throughout. 

Upper mandible black ; lower mandible and edges of upper at 
gape dark greenish yellow ; iris crimson ; orbital skin lavender- 
blue ; legs and feet pale green (Davison). 

Length 10-5; tail 3-75; wing 5-15; tarsus -9; bill from 
gape 1*4. 

Distribution. The Malay Peninsula, extending into Southern 
Tenasserim as far north as Tavoy ; and to the southward to 
Sumatra, Java, and Borneo. 

Habits, $c. According to Davison this Woodpecker inhabits 
evergreen forests. It is very noisy in the evening and has a 
peculiar note, which it utters from the top of a high tree. It is 
usually seen singly and has not been observed on the ground. 

954. Gecinus nigrigenis. The Eed-rumped Green Woodpecker. 

Gecinus erythropygius, apud Ward I. Ramsay, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 212, 
pi. xxxv ; Walden, Ibis, 1875, pp. 148, 463 ; id. in BlytJis Birds 
Burm. p. 76 ; Oates, S. F. x, p. 191 ; id. B. B. ii, p. 52 ; Hargitt, 
Ibis, 1888, p. 189, nee Elliot. 

Gecinus nigrigenis, Hume, P. A. S. B. 1874, p. 106 ; id. S. F. ii, 
pp. 444, 471 ; id. Cat. no. 171 ter ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi,p. 136; 
Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 163 ; Haryitt, Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 67 ; Oates 
in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. ii. p. 300. 

Coloration. Male. Cap including the sides of the head and 



CHBYSOPHLEGMA. 27 

nuchal crest black, except an area of variable size on the crown, 
which is crimson ; back, scapulars, wing-coverts, and upper tail- 
coverts yellowish green ; rump bright scarlet, sometimes mixed 
with yellow (the latter may sho\v immaturity); quills dark 
brown, the inner webs with white bands, outer webs of 
primaries with white spots, outer webs of secondaries through- 
out and of primaries near the base yellowish green ; tail black, 
the median feathers with green edges towards the base ; chin, 
throat, sides of neck, and upper breast yellow, shading off 
on the lower breast into the colour of the abdomen, which is whitish 
with scale-like brown markings formed by intramarginal bands and 
shaft-lines to the feathers, these markings being broader on the 
lower tail-coverts. 

The female wants the red of the crown, but otherwise resembles 
the male. In some specimens of both sexes there is a white or 
yellow line behind the eye. 

Bill dark horny : iris sulphur-yellow ; legs and feet dark green; 
claws horny (Bingltam). The basal portion of the lower mandible 
is yellow to a variable extent. 

Length 12-75 ; tail 5 ; wing 6-3 ; tarsus T2 ; bill from gape 1'6. 

Distribution. From Karennee and Toungngoo in the north to 
Southern Tenasserim. A specimen has also been received at the 
British Museum from Siam. The true G. erytliropygius^ from 
Cochin China and Laos, has a white bill. 

Habits, fyc. This beautiful green Woodpecker keeps to the drier 
and more thinly wooded Tenasserim hills, and is chiefly found in 
eng- (Dipterocarpus) and bamboo-jungle. According to Bingham 
its note is peculiar and consists of 12 to 15 whistled notes, the 
first high and shrill, the others descending in the scale. The nest, 
containing two glossy white eggs measuring 1'18 by '93, was 
found by the same observer in a pynkado-trec (Xylia) on 
March 18th. 



Genus CHRYSOPHLEGMA, Gould, 1849. 

Bill more curved than in Gecinus ; culmen blunt, nasal ridge 
almost obsolete. A moderately long nuchal crest. The coloration 
above is similar to that of Gecinus, green being the prevailing tint, 
the crest is yellow and the quills barred with rufous. Below, 
except on the throat, the colour is nearly uniform. The sexes are 
distinguished by difference of colour in the chin and malar region, 
not on the crown. This genus ranges from the Himalayas to 
Borneo and Java. 



Key to the Species. 

Upper surface of wings green C. flamnucha,) p. 28. 

Upper surface of wings red = C. humii, p. 28. 



28 PICID^E. 

955. Chrysophlegma flavinucha. The Large Yellow-naped 
Woodpecker. 

Picus flavinucha, Gould, P. Z. S. 1833, p. 120; Blyth, J. A. S. B. 

xii, p. 1003. 

Dryotomus flavigula, Hodgson, J. A. S. B. vi, p. 106. 
Gecinus flavinucha, Blyth, Cat. p. 58. 
Chrysophlegma flavinucha, Gould, B. Asia, vi, pi. xxxvi ; Horsf. $ M. 

Cat. ii, p. 662 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 289 ; id. Ibis, 1872, p. 9 ; Hume $ 

Oates, 8. F. iii, p. 71 : Hume $ Inglis, S. F. v, p. 26 ; Godw-Aust. 

J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 97 ; Blyth % Wald. Birds Burm. p. 76 ; 

Hume Sf Dav. S. F. vi, p. 137 ; Hume, Cat. no. 173 ; id. S. F. xi, 

p. 62 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 43 ; Hargitt, Ibis, 1886, p. 262 ; id. Cat. 

B. M. xviii, p. 127. 

Mong-hli-ong, Lepcha. 

Coloration. Male. Top and sides of head olive, more or less 
passing into rufous-brown on the forehead and crown and some- 
times on the occiput, ear-coverts a little paler ; nuchal crest of 
loose-textured feathers orange or golden yellow ; whole back and 
outer surface of wings glossy yellowish green ; quills dark brown, 
broadly banded on both \vebs, except towards the tips, with pale 
chestnut ; tail black, the middle feathers with olive fringes towards 
the base ; malar region, chin, and throat pale yellow ; sides of neck 
deep olive ; feathers of fore neck white, each with a large terminal 
olive spot, forming a mixed pattern of olive and white ; breast 
olive, passing on the abdomen into ashy grey or ashy brown. 

Female. The malar region, chin, and throat rufous brown instead 
of yellow. 

Bill dusky bluish white; iris red; eyelids and gape greenish 
blue ; legs dusky blue ; claws horn-colour (Oates). 

Length 13 ; tail 5 ; wing 6'5 ; tarsus I'l ; bill from gape 1'6. 

Distribution. The Himalayas as far west as Mussooree, chiefly 
between about 2000 and 7000 feet. This bird has not been 
recorded further west, but to the eastward it ranges through 
Assam, Cachar, Arrakan, Pegu, Karennee, and Northern Tenasserim 
to a little south of Moulmein. 

Habits, $c. This Woodpecker inhabits forests and feeds fre- 
quently on the ground. The nidification has not been observed. 

956. Chrysophlegma hnmii. The Chequered-throated 
Woodpecker. 

Gecinus mentalis, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 59 (nee Picus mentalis, Temm.). 
Chrysophlegma mentalis, apud Blyth, Birds Burma, p. 76. 
Callolophus mentalis, apud Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 138; Hume, Cat. 

no. 175 bis ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 46. 
Chrysophlegma squamicolle, apud Hargitt, Ibis, 1886, p. 269 (nee 

Picus squamicollis, Lesson). 
Chrysophlegma humii, Hargitt, Ibis, 1889, p. 231 ; id. Cat. B. M. 

xviii, p. 126. 

Coloration. Male. Top and sides of head olive-green ; occipital 



( AhLOLOPHUS. 29 

crest of loose-textured feathers bright yellow; back, scapulars, 
tertiaries, and rump olive-green, paler than the head ; wing-coverts, 
outer borders of secondaries throughout, and of primaries near 
base dull red ; remainder of wing-feathers brown, secondaries 
broadly barred on the inner webs and primaries on both webs, 
except near the tips, with rufous ; tail black ; a broad malar band 
from the lower mandible dark olive, sometimes brown, spotted 
with white ; feathers of the chin and throat white, each with a 
broad brown shaft-stripe ; sides of neck, fore neck, and upper 
breast bright chestnut, this colour passing round to the hind neck 
behind the crest ; lower parts from breast olive-green, rather more 
olive than the back. Under wing-coverts barred brown and pale 
rufous or dirty orange. 

In the female the chin and malar band are chestnut like the 
breast and not spotted. 

Upper mandible dull black, lower mandible and edges of upper 
near nostrils pale plumbeous ; irides deep red ; orbital skin green : 
legs and feet green ; claws plumbeous. 

Length 11 ; tail 3-9 ; wing 5-25 ; tarsus -9; bill from gape 1-5. 

Distribution. Malayan Peninsula, Borneo arid Sumatra, extend- 
ing north into the southern extremity of the Tenasserim provinces, 
where this Woodpecker is rare. The true C. mentale, long sup- 
posed to be identical with the present species, is peculiar to Java. 



Genus CALLOLOPHUS, Salvadori, 1874. 

This genus was proposed for three species : C. puniceus, which 
belongs to Gecinus, C. mentalis (Chrysophlegma humii), and 
C. malaccensis, no type being named. The last-named species has 
been placed in Chrysopldeyma by Hargitt, but it and its near ally 
C. mtmdfti*, which is confined to Java, exhibit a widely different 
coloration from that characteristic of Chrysoplileyma, the plumage 
being barred both above and below. This is, I think, especially 
amongst AVoodpeckers, a more important generic distinction than 
slight differences in the form of the bill. 

Callolophus has a long and broad occipital crest, and the bill is 
shorter, more curved, and broader at the base than that of 
Chrysoph legma. 

957. Callolophus malaccensis. The Banded Red Woodpecker. 

Picus malaccensis, Lath. 2nd. Orn. i, p. 241 (1790) ; Blyth, J. A. S. B. 

xiv, p. 192. 

Gecinus malaccensis, Blyth, Cat. p. 59. 
Chrysophlegma malaccensis, Hume, S. F. iii, p. 324. 
Callolophus malaccensis, Salvad. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. v, p. 50 ; 

Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 140, 601 ; Hume, Cat. no. 175 quat. : 

Gates, B. B. ii, p. 47. 
Chrvsophlegma nmlaccense, Haryitt, Ibis, 1886. p. 276 ; id. Cat 

B. M. xviii, p. 122. 



30 PICID^E. 

Coloration. Male. Nasal plumes brown ; forehead, lores, crown, 
occiput, and upper part of long occipital crest dull crimson ; lower 
and longer feathers of the crest pale yellow ; on the sides of the 
head the feathers are brown, tipped with crimson, sometimes 
with terminal whitish spots ; hind neck and back dull olive-green 
with wavy buff or yellow cross-bars ; the feathers of the lower 
back and rump edged with pale yellow ; upper tail-coverts brown 
with a few buff spots ; sides of neck and of back more or less tinged 
with crimson ; scapulars and whole outer surface of wing dull 
crimson like the head ; quills dark brown, the inner webs of all 
with pale rufous bars, outer webs of primaries with rufous spots ; 
chin, throat, and sides of neck light rufous brown, sometimes 
speckled with buff and dusky, and passing on the breast into the 
colour of the remaining underparts, which are marked with alter- 
nate undulating bars of dark brown and rufous white. 

In the female there is no crimson on the forehead or on the sides 
of the head in front of the ear-coverts, these with the chin and 
throat are dark brown and speckled, each feather tipped dusky 
with a terminal white spot. Young birds are dull pale brown 
beneath with ill-marked dark bars. 

Upper mandible black, lower bluish white ; irides red ; eyelids 
grey ; legs and feet pale dingy green (Davison). 

Length 10 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 5 ; tarsus -9 ; bill from gape 1-2. 

Distribution. Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo, extending 
into Southern Tenasserim as far north as Tavoy. 

Habits, fyc. According to Davison this Woodpecker is found 
in evergreen forests and mangrove swamps. It is never seen on 
the ground, and is generally solitary. 



Genus GECINITLUS, Blyth, 1845. 

Only three toes present, the hallux or inner posterior digit 
wanting. Bill short, compressed ; culmen blunt, nearly straight ; 
nasal ridge obsolete ; nostrils close to base of bill ; nasal plumes 
short. Tail-feathers broad, not acuminate ; outer pair longer than 
coverts, but much shorter than the rest, which are regularly 
graduated. Crest short, inconspicuous. 

Plumage of head pale and yellowish, of upper parts red or green, 
of lower parts uniform olive or brown. Males with a red crown, 
females without. Two species, both within our area. 

Key to the Species. 

Above dull red G. grantia, p. 30. 

Above green G. viridis, p. 31. 

958. Gecinulus grantia. The Northern Pale-Tieaded Woodpecker. 
Picus (Chrysonotus) grantia, McClelland, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 165. 



GECINULUS. 31 

Gecinulus m antia, h'li/th, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 192 ; id. Cat. p. 60 ; 
Horsf. # M. Cat. ii, p. 663 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 292 ; Bulger, Ibis, 
1869, p. 157; Godiv.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. 2, p. 155; xlv, 
pt. 2, p. 70 ; Hume $ Incjlis, S. F. v, p. 26 ; Hume, Cat. no. 177 ; 
id. S. F. xi, p. 63; Hanjitt, Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 134. 

The Pale-headed Woodpecker, Jerdon ; Ka-ter, Lepclia ; Koria, Dafla. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, lores, cheeks, and chin light brown ; 
crown pink, the feathers edged with deeper red ; occiput and nape 
with the ear- co verts dull olivaceous yellow ; upper parts from 
neck dull red, tail-feathers edged with the same ; primary-coverts 
dull yellow ; quills and tail-feathers brown, barred or spotted on 
both webs with rufous white ; lower parts dark olive, paler and 
yellower on throat and light brown on the chin ; under wing- 
coverts and axillaries dusky brown with rufous spots. 

I n the female the red of the crown is wanting, and the whole 
head is dull yellow. 

Bill bluish white, darker blue at the base ; irides red ; legs pale 
dusky green (Jerdon). 

Length 10 ; tail 3*7 ; wing 5 ; tarsus *95 ; bill from gape 1*1. 

Distribution. Common in the Eastern Himalayas, chiefly between 
2000 and 5000 feet as far west as Nepal ; found also in Assam, 
the hill-ranges to the south, Cachar and Manipur. A specimen is 
also recorded from Laos (Siam). 

Habits, fyc. According to Jerdon this Woodpecker has a squeaking 
note. Hume met with it in Manipur in pairs. 



959. Gecinulus viridis. Tlie Southern Pale-headed Woodpecker. 

Gecinulus viridis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxxi, p. 341 (1862) ; Hume, 
S. F. ii, p. 472, ix, p. 112 ; id. Cat. no. 177 bis ; Hume $ Gates, 
S. F. iii. p 71 ; Blyth # Wald. Birds Burm. p. 77 ; Hume $ Dav. 
S. F. vi, p. 144 ; Binaham, S. F. ix, p. 164 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 41 j 
Hnryittj Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 136. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, lores, and sides of head yellowish 
brown ; sides of neck more yellow, this colour extending round 



the neck behind the occipital crest, which, with the crown, is bright 
crimson ; back, scapulars, wing-coverts, and outer margins of wing- 
feathers, except of primaries towards their tips, yellowish olive, 
the rump-feathers the same, but narrowly edged and tipped with 
scarlet or orange ; quills brown, with white spots on the inner 
webs, and sometimes indistinct pale spots on the outer ; tail- 
feathers brown, the outer webs bordered with olive-yellow near" 
the base, the inner webs of all but the middle pair spotted with 
white ; lower parts dark olive-green to greenish brown ; throat 
more yellow. 

Female. No red on head, which is yellowish brown throughout, 
much yellower on the nape, so as to have a broad yellow collar. 

Bill pale bluish white, strongly tinged with blue at base ; irides 
brown ; legs, feet, and claws pale dirty green (Davison). 



32 

Length 10-5 ; tail 3-9 ; wing 5'2 : tarsus 1 ; bill from gape 1'2. 

Distribution. Common in the Pegu hills between Thayet Myo- 
and Toungngoo, also throughout Tenasserim. The most southern 
locality recorded is Kussoom, a little north of Junk Ceylon. 

Habits, fyc. This "Woodpecker inhabits both deciduous and ever- 
green forest, but is chiefly found on and amongst bamboos. 
According to Davison it occurs singly or in pairs, never hi parties. 

Genus HYPOPICUS, Bonap., 1854. 

Bill slender, compressed, truncated ; culmen straight, angulate ; 
nasal ridge strongly marked, but low down near the commissure 
and not extending more than halfway along the bill; nostrils 
basal, nasal plumes short ; gonys long, chin-angle near to 
the gape, much concealed by bristles ; fourth (outer posterior) toe 
slightly longer than third (outer anterior). Head scarcely crested. 
Outer pair of tail-feathers shorter than coverts. Plumage soft, 
black and white above, chestnut below ; crown of head red in 
males, black spotted with white in females. 

Only two species are known, one inhabits the Himalayas, the 
other Northern China. 

960. Hypopicus hyperythrus. TJte Ritfous-lellied Pied 
Wooclpecker. 

Picus hyperythrus, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 23 ; Blyth, J. A. S. B. 

xiv, p!" 196 ; id. Cat. p. 63 ; Blanford, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 43. 
Hypopicus hyperythrus, Bonap, Comp. Valuer. Zygod. p. 8 ; Horsf. < 

M. Cat. ii, p. 675 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 276 : 'id. Ibis, 1872, p. 7 ; 

Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. 2, p. 155 ; Hume, Cat. DO. 161 ; 

id. 8. F. xi, p. 59 ; Hargitt, Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 199 ; Oates in 

Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii. p. 301 : Sharpe, Yark. Miss., Aves, 

p. 109. 




Fig. 11. Head of H. hyperythrus, 

Coloration. Male. Nasal plumes black, white at the base ; base 
of forehead, sides of face, and chin grey (mixed black and white) : 
lores, a stripe below the eye and a spot above and behind the eye 
pure white ; crown and nape crimson ; upper plumage from neck 
to rump broadly barred black and white ; quills black, spotted 
on both webs and tipped with white, inner webs of primaries 
unspotted near the tips ; four middle tail-feathers black, the next 



DBNBBOCOPUS. 33 

pair black with fulvous-white spots on the outer webs ; the two 
outer large feathers on each side barred black and fulvous white ; 
sides of neck and lower parts from throat bright chestnut ; vent 
and lower tail-coverts light crimson ; thigh-coverts and under 
wing-coverts banded black and white ; axillaries white. 

Female. The crown and nape black, spotted with white. In 
young birds there are bars on the lower plumage. 

Bill black above, whitish beneath ; legs plumbeous (Jerdori). 
Bill pale yellow beneath (Godwin- Austen). 

Length 8 ; tail 3-5 ; wing 5 ; tarsus O85 ; bill from gape 1. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas from Murree to Sikhim 
and probably to Eastern Tibet, also in the Khasi, Naga, and Manipur 
hills, at 4000 to 5000 feet elevation. This Woodpecker has been 
obtained in Cochin China, but not in Burma. It ranges to a con- 
siderable elevation on the Himalayas, and is the commonest 
Woodpecker in the pine-forests of Sikhim, at 9000-12,000 feet 
above the sea. 

Habits, $c. The nest has been observed by Col. C. H. T. Marshall 
at Murree, and the eggs taken towards the latter end of April. 
The nests were as usual mere holes in trees, and the eggs, de- 
posited on the bare wood, were regular ovals, pure white, measuring 
about -87 by -67. 

Genus DENDROCOPUS, Koch, 1816. 

Bill wedge-shaped, upper mandible compressed towards the end ; 
culmen angulate, straight or very slightly curved, nasal ridge com- 
mencing halfway between culmen and commissure and extending 
more than half the length of the bill ; nostrils concealed by plumes, 
chin-angle similarly concealed ; gonys sharply angulate ; fourth 
(outer hind) toe longer than third (outer fore) ; occiput slightly 
crested, more in some species than in others ; wing rather pointed, 
the primaries exceeding the secondaries by about the length of the 
culmen. Upper plumage black and white, more or less in bars ; 
lower plumage white or fulvous, generally streaked brown or black. 
Crown and occiput wholly or partly red in males, black or brown in 
females. 

A large genus, of which the type is the European Picus major, 
and which ranges over almost the whole of Europe, Asia, and 
North America. Ten species occur within Indian limits. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Middle tail-feathers entirely black, outer 

barred white. 
a'. Back entirely black. 
a". Lower parts not striated. 
3 . Scapulars black. 

a 4 . Under tail-coverts red, not ab- 
domen ; crown red in tf , black 

in $ D. himalayensis, p. 34. 

VOL. III. D 



34 PICIDJE. 

b 1 . Abdomen and under tail-coverts 
red; crown always black; occi- 
put red in males only D. cabanisi, p. 35. 

b 3 . Scapulars white D. sindianus, p. 36. 

b". Lower parts striated ; occiput red in tf , 

black in <j> . 

c 3 . Larger, wing 5 ; no red gorget .... D. darjilensis, p. 37. 
d 3 . Smaller, wing 4 ; no red gorget . . D. cathpharius, p. 37. 
e 3 . Smaller, wing 4 ; a red gorget .... D. pyrrhothorax, p. 38.. 
b'. Back transversely barred with white, 
c". Crown and occiput crimson in tf , 

black in $ . 
y 3 . Throat and fore neck uniform ; breast 

spotted D. macii, p. 39. 

ff 3 . All lower parts except chin striated D. atratus, p. 40. 
d' 1 . Crown umber-brown in both sexes ; 
occiput crimson and yellow in d, 

dull yellow in $ D. auriceps, p. 40. 

b. All tail-feathers parti-coloured black and 

white, 
c'. Small spots on breast. 

e". Crown red D. pectoralis J , p. 41. 

/". Crown black D. pectoralis $ , p. 41. 

d'. Spots on breast broader than white spaces 
between. 

f". Crown and occiput red D. andamanemis <$ , p. 42. 
". Crown and occiput brown D. andamanensis $ , p. 42. 

961. Dendrocopus Mmalayensis. The Western Himalayan 
Pied Woodpecker. 

Picus himalayensis, Jard. 8f Selby, 111. Orn. iii, pi. cxvi (c. 1835) ; 
Hume, Cat. no. 154 ; Wardl. Rams. Ibis, 1880, p. 50 ; Biddulph r 
Ibis, 1881, p. 48 ; id. S. F. ix, p. 313 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 429 : 
id. S. F. x, p. 101 ; C. H. T. Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 410. 

Picus himalayanus, Gray, Gen. B. ii, p. 435 (1845) ; Blyth, J. A. S. B. 
xvi, p. 466 ; id. Cat. p. 62 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p.' 670 ; Adams, 
P. Z. S. 1858, p. 475, partim ; 1859, p. 173 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 269 ; 
Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 20 ; Cock $ Marsh. S. F. i, 
p. 350; Beavan, Ibis, 1869, p. 412; Jerdon, Ibis, 1872, p. 6; 
Hume $ Senders. Lah. to Yark. p. 179 ; Brooks, S. F. iii, p. 232 ; 
Wardl. Rams. Ibis, 1879, p. 447. 

Dendrocopus himalayensis, Haryitt, Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 220 ; Oates 
in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 301 ; Sharpe, Yark. Miss., Aves, 
p. 110. 

The Himalayan Pied Woodpecker, Jerdon ; Turkdn, Chamba. 

Coloration. Male. Nasal plumes black, white at base ; forehead 
brownish white ; crown and occiput crimson, the feathers dark 
grey at the base, then black and tipped with red ; lores, a narrow 
supercilium, and the sides of the face and neck white, often ful- 
vescent, and the ear-coverts in part black ; a black band from the 
lower mandible down each side of the neck, joined to the nape by 
a cross black band behind the ear-coverts ; hind neck, back, sca- 
pulars, rump, and upper tail-coverts glossy black ; wings and most 
of the wing-coverts black, the innermost median and greater 



DKximocopTis. 35- 

coverts wholly or chiefly white, and the quills spotted with white 
on both webs, the spots forming interrupted bands ; the four 
median tail-feathers black ; the others banded fulvous white and 
black, and sometimes having the outer webs almost or entirely 




Fig. 12. Head of D. himalayensis <$. 

white ; lower parts light brownish grey, sometimes almost white ; 
the lower abdomen more fulvous ; vent and lower tail-coverts pah" 
crimson. 

In the female the crown and occiput are black, like the back. 

Bill leaden grey ; upper mandible blackish ; irides red-brown ; 
legs and feet dark greenish brown. 

Length 9*5 ; tail 3'5 ; wing 5'2 ; tarsus *9 ; bill from gape 1*35. 

Cashmere birds are much paler beneath than those from other 
localities, and are often almost white below. A male skin in the 
Hume Collection from Kotgarh has the lower parts from the 
breast suffused with red. 

Distribution. The Western Himalayas from Kumaun to Murree, 
also Gilgit to the north, and Kuram in Afghanistan to the west. 
This Woodpecker breeds according to Hume between 3000 and 
8000 feet, but Jerdon found it common up to 10,000, Biddulph 
met with it between 9000 and 10,000 in Gilgit, and Stoliczka up 
to 11,000 in Chini. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds from the middle of April to the end of May 
in holes in trees as usual, trunks of oaks being often selected. 
The eggs are 4 or 5 in number, glossy and white, and measure 
about 1 inch by -75. 

962. Dendrocopus cabanisi. The Chinese Pied Woodpecker. 

Picus cabanisi, Malherbe, J.f. Orn. 1854, p. 172. 

Picus mandarinus, Malh. Bull. Soc. d'Hist. Nat. Moselle, viii, p. 17 

(1857) ; Godw.-Amt. J. A. S. S. xlv, pt. 2, p. 194; Hume, S. F. v, 

p. 53, xi, p. 50 ; id. Cat. no. 155 bis. 
Dendrocopus Ctibanisi, Hargitt, Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 218. 

This resembles D. himalayensis on the upper surface, except in 
having the crown of the male black and the crimson confined to 

D2 



36 

the occiput. Below there is more difference. In the present 
species the black malar band is much broader, and continued to 
the side of the breast, the feathers of the breast between the ends 
of the black bands are tipped with red ; the chin, throat, and 
breast are fulvous brown ; abdomen and under tail-coverts crimson ; 
edge of wing, under wing-coverts, and axillaries white. 

Bill dark plumbeous (G.-A.}. Length 8; tail 3-4; wing 5; 
tarsus "95 ; bill from gape 1*3. 

Distribution. Throughout China ; two male specimens were ob- 
tained by Godwin- Austen at G-onglong in the Manipur hills. This 
Woodpecker appears not to have been observed elsewhere within 
Indian limits. 



963. Dendrocopus sindianus. The Sind Pied Woodpecker. 

Picus assimilis, Natt., Bonap. Consp. Valuer. Zygod. p. 8 (1854 ; 

descr. nulla). 
Picus scindeanus, Gould, Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii. p. 671 (1856-58) ; 

Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 273 ; Hume, Ibis, 1870, p. 529 ; Jerdon, Ibis, 1872, 

p. 7 ; Hume $ Henders. Lah. to Yark. p. 179, pi. ii ; Hume, S. F. i, 

p. 170 ; Barnes, S. F. ix, pp. 215, 453 ; Murray, Vert. Zool Sind, 

p. 113 ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 157. 
Picus eindianus, Blanf. East. Pers. ii, p. 132 ; Hume, Cat. no. 158 ; 

Doig, S. F. viii, p. 370; ix, p. 279; Swinhoe, Ibis, 1882, p. 102 ; 

Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 112 ; Oates in Humes N. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, 

p. 303. 
Dendrocopus scindeanus, Hargitt, Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 227. 

Coloration. Male. Nasal plumes white with black tips ; forehead 
white, sometimes buff or light brown ; crown and occiput crimson ; 
a malar band from lower mandible down the neck, back of neck, 
back, rump, and upper tail-coverts black ; lores, supercilia, sides 
of head and neck, scapulars and innermost median and greater 
wing-coverts, together with the lower parts from the chin to the 
abdomen, under wing-coverts and axillaries, white ; lower abdomen, 
vent, and under tail-coverts crimson. Wings and tail similar to 
those of D. Tiimalayensis, except that the wing-feathers are brown, 
that the white spots on both webs are much larger, and the unspotted 
tips of the primaries shorter. In some specimens too the three 
middle pairs of tail-feathers are entirely black. The wing is 
differently shaped, being shorter and rounder. 

In the female the crown and occiput are black. 

Bill bluish plumbeous ; irides dark maroon ; legs and feet 
greyish plumbeous (Butler) irides crimson (Barnes). 

Length 8*5 ; tail 3*1 ; wing 4'5 ; tarsus *8 ; bill from gape I'l. 
Females slightly smaller, and with a somewhat shorter bill. 

Distribution. Throughout Sind, Baluchistan, and the Western 
Punjab as far north as Peshawar, Murree, and Sirsa, and westwards 
to Bampur in S.E. Persia. St. John obtained specimens, now in 
the British Museum, in the Khwaja Amran range north-west of 
Quetta. 



DEXDIIOCOPUS. 37 



Habits, <Sfc. This species is chiefly found in tamarisk scrub, 
which abounds in Si nd and the neighbouring countries. It breeds 
in holes in tamarisk and babul {Acacia arabica) trees in March 
and April. 

964. Dendrocopus darjilensis. The Darjeeling Pied Woodpecker. 

Dendrocopus maj oroides, Hodys. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 85 (1844 f 

descr. nulla). 
Picus (Deudrojopus) darjellensis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 19$ 

(J845). 

Picus darjellensis, Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xvi, p. 466; id. Cat. p. 62. 
Picus majoroides, Gray, Cat. Mamm. $c. Coll. Hodys. pp. 115, 155 

(1846) ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. \\, p. 671 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 270 ; id. 

Ibis, 1872, p. 7 ; Bulger, Ibis, 1869, p. 156 ; Godw.-Anst. J. A. S. B. 

xxxix, pt. 2, p. 97 ; 'Scully, S. F. viii, p. 244 ; Hume, Cat. no. 155. 
Dendrocopus daijilensis, Haryitt, Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 221. 
The Darjeeliny Black Woodpecker, Jerdon; Sadyer-monff-prek,Leycha,. 

Coloration. Male. Nasal plumes black ; forehead, lores, narrow 
supercilium, and sides of face, including the ear-coverts, whity 
brown ; sides of neck behind the ear-coverts the same, washed with 
orange or golden yellow ; crown and upper surface generally 
glossy black, except the occiput and nape which are light crimson, 
and the innermost median and greater wing-coverts which are 
mostly or wholly white; wing-feathers black with white spots on 
both webs ; tail-feathers black, the median two pairs uniform, the 
others more or less barred with fulvous white ; chin whitish, ends 
of bristles black, throat light brown unstriped ; breast and abdomen 
yellowish fulvous, with longitudinal black streaks, becoming bars 
on the flanks ; vent and under tail-coverts light crimson. 

In the female the occiput and nape are black instead of red. In 
a young male, described by Scully, all the feathers of the crown 
were tipped with dull crimson. 

Upper mandible slaty black, lower grey horny ; orbital skin 
plumbeous; irides reddish brown to deep crimson; feet dingy 
green (Scully). 

Length 9-5 ; tail 375 ; wing 5 ; tarsus '9 ; bill from gape 1'5. 

Distribution. Himalayas in Sepal and Sikhim, from about 3000 
to 12,000 feet elevation, and eastward to Moupin and Western Se- 
chuan. This Wood pecker was also obtained in the North Cachar 
and Anghami Naga hills by Godwin- Austen. 

Habits, $c. The breeding does not appear to have been recorded. 
This species was observed by Scully on moss-covered oaks, usually 
singly or in pairs high up on the trees. 



965. Dendrocopus cathpharius. The Lesser Pied Woodpecker. 

Picus (Dendrocopus) cathpharius, Hodys., Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii r 

p. 100(5 (lsi:;>. 
Picas c.!itli|.!i:irius, lih/th, Cttf. ]>. 63; Horsf. % M. Ca/T. ii, p. 673. 



38 

Jerdon, B. 1. i, p. 271 ; Blanford, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 155 ; 
Godw.-Aust. J.A.S. B. xliii, pt. 2, p. 154; Hume, Cat. no. 156; 
id. S. F. xi, p. 57. 
Dendrocopus cathpharius, Hargitt, Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 223 ; Gates 

Vz Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 302. 
7%e Lesser Black Woodpecker, Jerdon. 

Coloration. Male. Upper parts glossy black with the following 
exceptions : the forehead is brownish white, the ends of the nasal 
bristles being black ; the occiput, nape, and sides of the neck are 
orimson, and some of the innermost greater and median coverts 
are in great part white ; quills black, with white spots on both 
webs and generally a spot at the tip ; inner webs of primaries 
unspotted near the tip ; tail-feathers black, the two median pairs 
unspotted, the remainder more or less barred with buff; sides of 
head buffy white ; chin the same with some black mixed, a black 
malar band from lower mandible below ear-coverts and red of the 
neck to side of breast; throat uniform light brown, remainder of 
lower parts isabelline with longitudinal black streaks, that are 
broadest and most marked on the breast ; feathers in middle 
of breast and under tail-coverts sometimes tipped with red ; under 
wing-coverts black and white, axillaries white. 

The female has no red on the nape, but there is some on the 
sides of the neck, it is, however, fainter than in the male ; rufous 
gorget generally faint or wanting. 

Bill bluish white; irides brown ; legs plumbeous (Jerdon). 

Length 7 ; tail 2'7 ; wing 4 ; tarsus *7 ; bill from gape '75. 
This species is very similar to D. darjilensis, but much smaller. 

Distribution. Eastern Himalayas ; not rare in Sikhim, where the 
range in elevation is similar to that of D. darjilmsis, and extending 
into Nepal. This Woodpecker has only once been recorded from 
any locality out of the Himalayas ; a single specimen was obtained 
by Godwin-Austen in the Naga hills. 

Habits, fyc. The eggs, which are pure white and fairly glossy, and 
measure about *77 by "61, are laid in April, as usual in a hole 
-excavated in a tree. 



966. Dendrocopus pyrrhothorax. The Red-breasted Pied 
Woodpecker. 

Picus cathpharius, apud Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. 2, p. 154. 
Picus pyrrhothorax, Hume, 8. F. x, p. 150 ; xi, p. 57. 
Dendrocopus pyrrhothorax, Hargitt, Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 224, 
pi. iv. 

Khupi-woi-ru, Anghami Naga. 

This only differs from D. cathpliarius in having a distinct broad 
crimson gorget on the breast, and the under tail-coverts much more 
deeply tinged with red. The other differences prove to be merely 
individual. It was supposed from the only pair originally de- 
scribed that the sexes were alike and that both had the occiput 



DENDROCOPUS. 39 

Crimson, but a female in Col. Godwin- Austen's possession from the 
same locality as the types has the occiput black as in D. cathpliarius. 

There appears to be a passage from true catfipharius into the 
present form, some specimens of the former from Sikhim and 
Bhutan having a considerable amount of red on the breast. 

Bill leaden dusky, paler at base of lower mandible ; irides lac- 
red ; legs and feet dull sap-green in the male, dusky lavender in 
the female (Hume). 

Size rather less than that of D. cathpliarius. Length 6'8 ; 
tail 2-6 ; wing 3*8 ; tarsus -65 ; bill from gape -8. 

Distribution. Mr. Hume obtained two specimens (the types) at 
Aimole, in the Eastern Manipur hills. Col. Godwin-Austen also 
obtained a specimen at Aimole and two others in the Anghami 
Naga hills. No others are known to me. 

967. Dendrocopus macii. The Fulvous-breasted Pied Woodpecker. 

Picus macei, Vieill. Noui\ Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxvi, p. 80 (1818); Gray, 

in Hardw. III. Ind. Zool. i, pi. xxxii ; Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 196 ; 

id. Cat. p. 62 ; Horsf. 8f M. Cat. ii, p. 672 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 272; 

id. Ibis, 1872, p. 7; Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 354; Layard, Ibis, 1868, 

p. 249; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 97; xlv, p. 70; 

xlvii, p. 22 ; Blanf. J.A.S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 155 ; Cock # C. H. T. 

Marsh. S. F. i, p. 350 ; Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, p. 123 ; Cripps, S. F. 

vii, p. 261 ; Hume, Cat. no. 157 ; Scully, S.F. viii, p. 245; Inqlis, 

S. F. ix, p. 247 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 57 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 33'. 
Picus westermani, Blyth, Ibis, 1870, p. 163 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 411 ; 

id. Cat. no. ? 157 quint. 

Dendrotypes macei, Blyth 8f Wald. Birds Burm. p. 77. 
Dendrocopus macii, Harqitt, Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 260 ; Oates in Hume's 

N. $E. 2nded. ii, p. 303. 

The Indian Spotted Woodpecker, Jerdon. 

Coloration. Male. Nasal plumes black towards the tips ; narrow 
forehead brownish buff; crown and occiput crimson; sides of 
head and neck, including lores, supercilia, and ear-coverts, brownish 
white ; a black stripe from the lower mandible to each side of the 
neck not joined to the black of the dorsal region ; hind neck, 
upper back, and upper tail-coverts uniform black ; remainder of 
upper parts barred black and white ; wings and their coverts 
black ; median and greater coverts and quills with white spots, 
the latter on both webs ; tail black, the two outer pairs of large 
feathers barred with buffy white, and sometimes a few white spots 
on the next pair ; chin, throat, and fore neck uniform light rufous 
brown; breast and abdomen isabelline, with black longitudinal 
spots on the breast, faint stria3 on the abdomen, and bars on the 
flanks ; vent and lower tail-coverts bright crimson ; under wing- 
coverts and axillaries white, the former barred or spotted with 
black. 

In the female the crown and occiput are black. 

Bill dusky plumbeous, reddish beneath ; irides brown ; feet 
plumbeous (Jerdon). 



40 PICID^E. 

Length 7*5 ; tail 3 ; wing 4'3 ; tarsus *8 ; bill from gape !!. 

Distribution. Along the base of the Himalayas from near Murree 
to Upper Assam, ascending the outer hills to an elevation of 5000 
or 6000 feet in the Western Himalayas. This species occurs also 
throughout Lower Bengal; it is common around Calcutta, and 
was obtained by Mr. Brooks at Mudhupur in the Sonthal Pergun- 
nahs ; it also occurs in Tipperah and as far south as Akyab, where 
it is common, and in Cachar and Manipur. Its occurrence farther 
south is doubtful ; it was said by Lord Walden to have been 
obtained by Wardlaw Bam say in Karennee, but there are no 
specimens in his collections now in the British Museum ; and it 
was formerly reported from Tenasserim, the Malay Peninsula, and 
Ceylon, but the reports are discredited by later writers. 

Habits, $c. Breeds in March, April, and May, laying about 
three white eggs in a hole in a tree as usual. Eggs measure about 
9 by -67. 



968. Dendrocopus atratus. The Stripe-breasted Pied 
Woodpecker. 

Picus atratus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviii, p. 803 (1849) ; xxviii, p. 412;, 

id. Cat. p. 313 ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 471 ; xi, p. 58 ; id. Cat. 

no. 157 quat. ; Walden, Ibis, 1876, p. 343, pi. ix ; Godw.-Aust. 

J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. 2, p. 193; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 123,. 

500 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 34 ; Sahad. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2 a) \, 

p. 564 ; vii, p. 378. 

Dendrotypes atratus, Blyth fy Wold. Birds Burm. p. 77. 
Dendrocopus atratus, Hargitt, Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 263. 

Similar to D. macii, except that the sides of the head and neck 
are purer white, and that all the lower parts except the chin are 
boldly streaked longitudinally with black, the breast especially ; 
the abdomen, too, is yellower. 

Upper mandible dull black, dark brown, or horny brown ; lower 
mandible pale plumbeous or bluish white; irides light wood to' 
deep brown ; legs and feet dark plumbeous (Davison). 

Length 8-25 ; tail 3 ; wing 4-75 ; tarsus -8 ; bill from gape 1*2. 

Distribution. Manipur; Karennee and Tenasserim hills as far 
south as Muleyit, east of Moulrnein, also Laos. Only found on 
hills, and not below about 3000 feet elevation. 



969. Dendrocopus auriceps. The Brown-fronted Pied 
Woodpecker. 

Picus auriceps, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 44 (published Apr. 6, 1831), 
Picus brunnifrons, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 176 (Mar. 2, 1832) ; 

Blyth, Cat. p. 62 ; Jerdon, ibis, 1872, p. 7. 
Leiopicus brunnifrons, Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 674. 
Picus brunneifrons, Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 273 ; Stoliczka, J. A. 8. B, 

xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 20; Beavan, Ibis, 1869, p. 412; Hume. [Cat. 

no. 159; C. H. T. Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 410. 



DENDROCOPUS. 41 

Dryobates brunneifrons, Tytler, Ibis, 1868, p. 202. 

Picus incognitas, Scully, S. F. viii, p. 246. 

Dendrocopus brimneifrons, Haryitt, Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 264 ; Oates 

in Humes N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 304 ; Shwpe, Yark. Miss., Aves t 

p. 110. 
The Brown-fronted Woodpecker, Jerdon. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead and crown umber-brown ; occipital 
crest golden yellow in front and crimson behind ; sides of the 
head and neck and the chin white finely mixed with black ; ear- 
coverts very pale brown ; a brown malar band on each side passing 
into a broad black stripe that breaks up into black spots on the 
sides of the neck ; upper parts from the nape, wings, and tail as 
in D. modi ; lower parts, from throat to abdomen inclusive, 
fulvescent white, longitudinally streaked with black, middle of 
abdomen tinged with yellow ; lower abdomen and under tail-coverts 
pale crimson ; under wing-coverts white with black spots. 

The female has no golden yellow nor red on the occiput, which 
is, however, much yellower than the crown. 

Base of lower mandible pale plumbeous, rest of bill bluish horny 
brown ; irides deep brown ; legs and feet pale glaucous green 
(Davison) ; irides crimson (Seutty), 

Length 8 ; tail 3-3 ; wing 4-6 ; tarsus *8 ; bill from gape 1. 

Distribution. Throughout the Western Himalayas as far east as 
Nepal, chiefly between 2000 and 6000 feet but sometimes as high 
as 9000. This species has been found in Northern Afghanistan, 
Hazara (Agror), and Kashmir, and is common about several hill- 
stations. 

Habits, $c. D. auriceps is said to come into gardens, and to 
have a soft rolling whistle. It breeds in April and the first half 
of May, chiefly in oak and fir-trees, making holes sometimes 
in the stems, sometimes in branches, at varying heights from 
the ground, and laying 4 or 5 white eggs that measure about -92 
by -68. 



970. Dendrocopus pectoralis. The Spotted-breasted Pied 
Woodpecker. 

Picus pectoralis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 15 (1846) ; xviii, p. 804 ; 
id. Cat. p. 63. 

Picus analis, Temm. Horsfield, Res. Java (1824), descr. nulla ; 
Bonap. Consp. Av. p. 137 (1850) ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 672 ; 
Jerdon, Ibis, 1872, p. 7 ; Hume fy Oates, S. F. iii, p. 57 ; Arm- 
strong, S. F. iv, p. 309 ; Hume fy Dav.' S. F. vi, p. 123 ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 157 ter ; Oates, S. F. x, p. 190 ; id. B. B. ii, p. 35. 

Dendrotypes analis, Cab. Sf H. Mus. Hein. iv, 2, p. 47 ; Walden, Ibis, 
1875, p. 463 ; Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 78. 

Dendrocopus analis, Hargitt, Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 266. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead brownish white ; nasal plumes 
partly black ; crown crimson ; sides of face and neck white, the 



42 PICID^E. 

latter with a few black specks ; ear-coverts brownish; a black malar 
band on each side from the base of the lower mandible to the side 
of the neck ; nape and hind neck black, all the rest of the upper 
plumage barred black and white ; quills brownish black, with large 
white spots on both webs ; all the tail-feathers barred black and 
f ulvescent white ; chin and throat white ; breast and abdomen 
brownish white, the former distinctly spotted, the latter indis- 
tinctly; flanks barred brown and whitish; vent and under tail- 
coverts spotted with brown and faintly tinged with pink. 

In the female the crown is black. 

Bill bluish black, paler at the base ; iris brown ; legs and feet 
plumbeous (Oates). 

Length 7 ; tail 2-5 ; wing 4-1 ; tarsus '7 ; bill from gape I'O. 

Distribution. Locally distributed in Pegu ; common near Thayet 
Myo, rare to the southward, though this species has been procured 
near Rangoon. It has been found at Toungngoo and in Karennee, 
but nowhere in Tenasserim. Outside Indian limits it occurs in 
Siam, Cochin China, Malacca, Sumatra, Java, and some other 
islands. 

Habits, fyc. This Woodpecker according to Oates frequents brush- 
wood and thin tree-jungle, but not heavy forest. The eggs have 
not been recorded. 



971. Dendrocopus andamanensis. The Andaman Pied 

Woodpecker. 

Picus andamanensis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxviii, p. 412, note (1859) ; 

Beavan, Ibis, 1867, p. 321 ; Ball, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 279 ; 

id. S. F. i, p. 62 ; Walden, Ibis, 1873, p. 300 ; Hume, S. F. ii, 

p. 187 ; id. Cat. no. 157 bis. 
Dendrocopus audamanensis, Hargitt, Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 267. 

Very similar to D. pectoralis, especially above, except that on 
the crown and occiput the feathers are dark grey, tipped with 
crimson in the male, with brown in the female, the red in the male 
extending farther back than in D. pectoralis ; the present species is 
also distinguished by the greater prevalence of black, the white 
bars on the back being narrower, and the white spots on the wing- 
feathers smaller, whilst the tail-feathers are spotted with white on 
both webs, not completely banded ; the malar band is broken into 
spots near the mandible ; 'below, the difference from D. pectoralis is 
greater, as the breast is nearly covered with large spots, the breast- 
feathers being blackish brown with whitish edges ; the abdomen is 
light fulvous brown; the flanks paler and barred with dark brown; 
lower abdomen and under tail-coverts crimson ; under wing- 
coverts barred. 

Bill dark slate-colour, darkest on upper mandible; iris dark 
brown; legs and feet dark olive-green (W. Ramsay}. 

Length 7 ; tail 2-7 ; wing 3-8 ; tarsus -7 ; bill from gape '9. 

Distribution. The Andaman Islands. 



i.ioi'icus. 43 



Genus LIOPICUS, Bonaparte, 1854. 

This genus closely resembles Dendrocopus, but has a more 
rounded wing, the primaries exceeding the secondaries by less 
than the length of the culrnen. A small occipital crest is present. 
The upper plumage is black, spotted not barred with white. 

Only one species is known, and this is peculiar, or nearly so, to 
the Indian area. 



972. Liopicus mahrattensis. The Ydloiv-fronted Pied 
Woodpecker. 

Picus mahrattensis, Lath. Ind. Orn. Suppl. p. xxxi (1801) ; Gray in 
Hardw. III. Ind. Zool. i, pi. xxxiii; Blyth, Cat. p. 62; Jerdon, 

B. I. i, p. 274 ; Kiny, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 214 ; Blanford, 
J. A. S. B. xxxviii, pt. 2, p. 168 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, 
p. 232 ; Holdsworth, P. Z. IS. 1872, p. 426 ; Adam, S. F. i, p. 373 ; 
Ball, S. F. ii, p. 390 ; Hume 8f Gates, S. F. iii, p. 58 ; Blanford, 
x. F. v, p. 245 ; Murray, S. F. vii, p. Ill ; Butler, ib. p. 181 ; 
Ball, ib. p. 205; Hume, Cat. no. 160; Leyye, Birds Ceyl p. 184; 
Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 52 ; Butler, ib. p. 385 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 24 ; 
Davidson, ib. p. 297 ; Damson, ib. p. 354 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 37 ; 

C. H. T. Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 410 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 112. 
Picus aurocristatus, Tickett, J. A. S. B. ii, p. 579 (1833). 
Leiopicus mahrattensis, Bonap. Consp. Volucr. Zyyod. p. 8 ; Horsf. $ 

M. Cat. ii, p. 674. 
Liopipo mahrattensis, Cab. fy H. Mus. Hein. iv (2), p. 44 ; Blyth Sf 

Wald. Birds Burm. p. 78. 

Picus blanfordi, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxxii, p. 75 (1863). 
Liopicus mahrattensis, Hargitt, Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 290 ; Oates in 

Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 305. 

Coloration. Male. Nasal plumes, forehead, and sinciput pale 
brownish yellow, occiput scarlet, sides of face and neck white, 
ear-coverts with a brownish tinge ; nape and hind neck smoky 
brown ; back and scapulars brownish black and white mixed, not 
in bars nor distinct spots ; greater and median coverts black with 
large white spots ; smaller coverts black ; rump and upper tail- 
ooverts white, the feathers with broad dark shaft-stripes, which 
are generally concealed on the former but not on the latter ; quills 
and tail-feathers spotted white on both webs, the spots on the 
latter white above, fulvescent below, and sometimes forming bars 
on the outer tail-feathers ; chin, throat, and fore neck white ; no 
malar band, but a broad brown stripe runs from beneath the ear- 
coverts on each side to the side of the breast and then breaks up 
into brown longitudinal streaks ; breast, flanks, and under tail- 
coverts streaked with brown ; middle of abdomen bright scarlet. 

In the female the whole forehead, crown, and occiput are pale 
dull brownish yellow. 

Bill clear plumbeous, darker on the culmen and tip of both 
mandibles ; irides deep red ; legs and feet bright plumbeous ; claws 
horny blue (Oates). 



44 PIOID^E. 

Length 7 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 4 ; tarsus '8 ; bill from gape 1 to 1'2. 
The bill is generally shorter in females. 

Distribution. Generally spread, but only common locally, through- 
out the Peninsula of India and Northern Ceylon from the sea- 
level to about 2500 feet, or higher in places, and found at low 
elevations in the valleys of the Western Himalayas, but only out- 
side the base of the Eastern. Eare in the Western Punjab, Sind r 
and Rajputana ; not found in Southern Ceylon, Lower or Eastern 
Bengal, Assam, Cachar, or Arrakan, but reappearing in the dry 
parts of Upper Burma, being common about Thayet Myo and 
farther north, and at Toungngoo. Also obtained in Cochin 
China. 

Habits, <$fc. This is chiefly an inhabitant of low jungle and scrub, 
not of thick forest. It is often seen on Palas (Eutea frondoaa), and 
on species of Acacia and Euphorbia. It breeds in February, March, 
and April, and lays usually three white eggs measuring about '87 
by '68. The nest is the usual hole, generally in a dead trunk or 
branch. 

The variety called P. blanfordi by Blyth inhabits Upper Burma, 
and has the white markings of the upper plumage more developed, 
especially on the wings and tail. Similar birds are found in 
North-western India. 



Genus IYNGIPICUS, Bonaparte, 1854. 

This is but little more than a small form of Dendrocopus, distin- 
guished by a rather more pointed wing and a shorter tail. The 
primaries greatly exceed the secondaries in length ; the first pri- 
mary is quite small, and the second is only exceeded in length by 
the third, fourth, and fifth, which are subequal. The coloration 
above is black or brown, with white cross-bars ; beneath brownish 
white with, almost always, longitudinal brown or black streaks. 

lyngipicus ranges throughout the Oriental region, and one 
species is found in Africa. Five closely allied species or geogra- 
phical races are found within Indian limits. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Upper tail-coverts and median rectrices 

entirely black. 

a'. Whole occiput red in males /. semicoronatus, p. 45. 

V. A red stripe on each side of occiput 

in males J. pygm&us, p. 45. 

b. Upper tail-coverts fringed and banded 

with white ; median tail-feathers 
generally spotted white. 

c'. Crown ashy grey /. canicapillus, p. 4(5. 

d'. Crown light brown, lower parts 

striated I. hardivickn, p. 47. 

e. Crown blackish brown, lower parts 

plain I, gymnophthalmus, p. 48. 



1YNGIPICUS. 45 

973. lyngipicus semicoronatus. The Darjeeling Pigmy 
Woodpecker. 

Picus semicoronatus, Malherbe, Bull. Soc. d'Hist. Nat. Moselle, v, 

p. 21 (1848) ; id. Picida, i, p. 148, pi. xxxiv, fig;. 8. 
Picus rubricates, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviii, p. 804 (1849) ; id. Cat. 

p. 63. 

Picus meniscus, Malh. Picida, i, p. 151, pi. xxxv, figs. 2, 3, 4 (1861). 
Yungipicus rubricates, Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 276 ; Godw.-Aust. J.A.S. B. 

xxxix, pt. 2, p. 97 ; Jerdon, Ibis, 1872, p. 8 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 60 ; 

id. Cat. no. 162 ; Anderson, Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 585. 
lyngipicus semicoronatus, Hargitt, Ibis, 1882, p. 25 ; id. Cat. B. M. 

xviii, p. 312 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 59. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead and crown ashy with a brownish 
tinge, occiput scarlet (feathers slightly elongated) ; nasal plumes 
and lores fulvescent white ; broad superciliary stripe extending 
back to the side of the neck white, speckled with black, a black 
line forming a border to the crown above the supercilium, and a 
brown band, becoming black behind, from the eye to the side of 
the neck over the lower ear-coverts ; nape and upper back and 
the upper tail-coverts velvety black ; remainder of back, rump, 
scapulars, and wings black with white transverse bars ; quills with 
white spots on both webs, greater and median coverts with white 
spots or bars, smaller coverts unspotted ; the two middle pairs of 
tail-feathers black throughout as a rule, the two outer large pairs 
black barred with white above and with fulvescent below, third 
pair from the middle varying but generally bordered with white ; 
malar region dusky, chin and throat whitish ; under surface from 
throat very light fulvescent brown, with narrow blackish longitu- 
dinal streaks ; under wing-coverts and axillaries mixed white and 
black. 

The female has no occipital red band. 

Occasionally there are white markings on the upper tail-coverts 
and small white spots on the median tail-feathers, but this is 
-exceptional. The same occurs in other species of lyngipicus, in 
which the feathers mentioned are normally black throughout. 

Bill plumbeous ; irides red ; feet brown (Jerdon). 

Length 5*5 ; tail 2 ; wing 3*3 ; tarsus *6 ; bill from gape *65. 

Distribution. Sikhim, Bhutan, the Khasi and JSTaga hills, Eastern 
Manipur, and Yunnan at elevations above about 3500 feet. 



974. lyngipicus pygmaeus. The Himalayan Pigmy Woodpecker. 

Picus pygmams, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 44 ; Blyth, J. A. S. B. 

xiv, p. 197 (partim) ; id. Cat. p. 63. 
Picus mitchellii, Malh. Rev. Mag. Zool. 1849, p. 530. 
Yungipicus pygmseus, Horsf. fy M. Cat. p. 676 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, 

p. 277 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 60 ; id. Cat. no. 163 ; Scully, S. F. 

viii, p. 247. 
lyngipicus pygmaeus, Hargitt, Ibis, 1882, p. 30; id. Cat. B. M. 

xviii, p. 315 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 306. 



46 PICID^E. 

The only important distinction from /. semicoronatus is that in 
the male of the present species there is no red band across the- 
occiput, but merely a few scarlet feathers forming a short, very 
narrow, longitudinal stripe bordering the occiput on each side. 
There is no constant difference in the females, but as a rule the 
dimensions of /. pygmceus are rather larger, and the white bands 
and spots on the upper surface are more developed. 

Bill grey horny ; irides dark red ; feet dingy green (Scully}. 

Length 5'6 ; tail 2'1 ; wing 3-5 ; tarsus -65; bill from gape '7. 

Distribution. Forests of the base and lower valleys of the Western 
Himalayas from around Katmandu in Nepal to Mussooree. 

Habits, 6fc. According to Mr. E. Thompson this Pigmy Wood- 
pecker breeds in the dense forest districts of the bhabar and lower 
valleys of Kumaun in April and May, laying 4 or 5 eggs. The 
birds migrate into cultivated districts in winter. 



975. lyngipicus canicapillus. The Burmese Pigmy Woodpecker. 

Picus camcapillus,./3/a, J. A. 8. B. xiv, p. 197 (1845) ; xvi, p. 467? 

xviii, p. 805 ; id. Cat. p. 64 ; dates, B. B. ii, p. 36. 
Yungipicus canicapillus, Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 677 ; Blyth $ Wald, 

Birds Burm. p. 78 ; Hume fy Oates, S. F. iii, p. 59 ; Armstrong, 

S. F. iv, p. 309 ; Hume 8f Inglis, S. F. v, p. 25 ; Hume $ Dav. 

S. F. vi, pp. 125, 500 ; Hume, Cat. no. 163 bis. 
lyngipicus pumilus, Hargitt, Ibis, 1881, p. 599, 1882, p. 37 ; id. Cat. 

B. M. xviii, p. 321 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2 a) v, p. 565 ; 

vii, p. 432. 

Picus pumilus, Oates, B. B. ii, p. 37. 
lyngipicus canicapillus, Hargitt, Ibis, 1882, p. 39 ; id. Cat. B. M^ 

xviii, p. 322 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2 a) iv, p. 578 ; 

Hume, S. F. xi, p. 60. 

Precisely like /. pygmceus except that the upper tail-coverts are 
banded and fringed with white, and that as a rule all the tail- 
feathers are spotted or banded with white above and fulvous 
below ; sometimes, however, the two median pairs are unspotted. 
The lower parts in general are paler in tint in /. canicapillus, the 
streak behind the eye darker brown and broader, but these dis- 
tinctions cannot be depended on. Two red streaks border the 
occiput, one on each side, in males, as in /. pygmceus. 

Upper mandible horny brown, lower plumbeous ; irides red- 
brown ; legs, feet, and claws plumbeous (Davisori). 

Length 5-5 ; tail 1/8 ; wing 3'25 ; tarsus -6 ; bill from gape -75. 

Distribution. Throughout Burma, ranging north to Tipperah y 
Cachar, and Manipur, and probably to the ranges south of the 
Assam valley, and extending to the south throughout the Malay 
Peninsula, from the sea-level to about 5000 feet elevation. 

Habits, $c. Brushwood, low or thin tree-jungle, groves in culti- 
vation, or old clearings are the usual haunts of this bird, which 
is often seen on the smaller branches of trees. It is but seldom 



lYNGIPICL'S. 47 

met with in thick jungle or on bamboos. The nest has not been 
observed. 

I cannot separate from the present species /. pumilus, which is 
said to be distinguished by smaller size and by having the four 
middle tail-feathers without spots. Many specimens of /. cani- 
capillus have unspotted or almost unspotted median rectrices, and 
I find that the wings of seven specimens in the British Museum, 
marked as adults of /. pumilus, from Pegu and Tenasserim, 
measure from 3 to 3*15 inches, which is well within the limits of 
variation for /. canicapillus, as may be seen by Hume's measure- 
ments (S. F. vi, p. 126). 



976. lyngipicus hardwlckii. The Indian Pigmy Woodpecker. 

Picus (I)endrocopus) hardwickii, Jerdon, Madr. Jour* L. S. xiii. 

pt. 2, p. 138 (1844). 

Picus cinereigula, Malh. Rev. et Mag. Zool. 1849, p. 531. 
Picus variegatus, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 64 (nee Wagler). 
Yungipicus hardwickii, Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 278 ; id. Ibis, 1872, p. 8 : 

Blanf. J. A. S. B. xxxviii, pt. 2, p. 168; McMaster, J. A. S. B. 

xl, pt. 2, p. 209 ; Hume, S. F. hi, p. 458 ; iv, p. 36 ; Fairbankj 

S. F. iv, pp. 255, 265. 
Yungipicus nanus, apud Ball, S. F. ii, p. 390 ; vii, p. 205 ; Hume, 

S. F. iii, p. 60 ; id. Cat. no. 164 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 52 ; Butler, 

ib. p. 385 ; Davidson, S. F. x, p. 297 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 113 ; 

Littledale, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. i, p. 197 (nee Vigors). 
lyngipicus nanus, Reid, S. F. x, p. 24. 
lyngipicus hardwickii, Hargitt, Ibis, 1882, p. 45 ; id. Cat. B. M. 

xviii, p. 328 ; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 306. 

The Southern Pigmy Woodpecker, Jerdon; Chitta siruti pachi, Tel. 




Fig. 13. Head of /. hardwickii. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead and crown light umber-brown, 
nape darker ; no dark border at the side of the crown but a narrow 
scarlet streak on each side of the occiput ; lores and some of the 
nasal plumes brownish white ; a white stripe from above the eye to 
the side of the neck ; a broad umber-brown band from the eye over 
the ear-coverts, and a second white stripe beneath the brown 
band ; upper parts from nape dark brown with white cross-bands, 
rump and upper tail-coverts mostly white ; quills, greater and 



48 

median coverts with white spots, smaller coverts unspotted ; all tail- 
feathers with spots on both webs white above, fulvous below ; malar 
region and chin grey, the feathers tipped white but the ashy bases 
showing ; remainder of lower parts brownish white with brown 
longitudinal streaks. 

The female wants the occipital scarlet streaks. 

Bill and legs plumbeous ; orbital skin lake ; irides pale yellow 
(Jerdon). 

Length 5 ; tail 1-7 ; wing 3 ; tarsus -55 ; bill from gape -65. 

Distribution. The greater part of the Indian Peninsula, from 
the base of the N.W. Himalayas to Mysore, and from Mount Abu 
to Chutia Nagpur, wanting in the open plains of Rajputaua, the 
Deccan, &c. The Southern forms from the Western Ghats near 
Belgaum and from Mysore have darker heads, and thus show a 
passage towards /. gymnophthalmus. 

Habits, $c. This Wojdpecker is found chiefly in forest, but also 
in groves and gardens in well- wooded districts, and is frequently 
seen in parties of three or four, on the stems and branches of trees, 
generally climbing, but sometimes, as Jerdon observes, perching, 
and hopping from bough to bough. It breeds in the N."W. Pro- 
vinces in March ; its nest-hole has been several times recorded in a 
dead branch of a mango-tree, also in siris (Acacia catechu), and 
the eggs, usually 3 or 4 in number, are white and somewhat 
spherical, and measure about '7 by '52. 



977. lyngipicus gymnophthalmus. The Ceylon Pigmy 
Woodpecker. 

Picus gymnophthalmos, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviii, p. 804 (1849) ; id. 

Cat. p. 64 ; Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) xiii, p. 448 (1854). 
Yungipicus gymnophthalmus, Jerdon, Ibis, 1872, p. 8; Holdsworth, 

P. Z. S. 1872, p. 427 ; Legge, S. F. i, p. 433 ; id. Birds Ceijl. 

p. 186 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 60 ; id. Cat. DO. 164 bis ; Hume $ 

Bourdillon, S. F. iv, p. 389 ; Fairbank, S. F. v, p. 396 : Davison, 

S. F. x, p. 354 ; Parker, Ibis, 1886, p. 183. 
lyngipicus gymnophthalmus, Harqitt, Ibis, 1882, p. 47 ; id. Cat. B. 

M. xviii, p. 330 ; Gates in Hume's N. 8f E. ii, p. 308. 
lyngipicus peninsularis, Hargitt, Ibis, 1882, p. 48 ; id. Cat. B. M. 

xviii, p. 331. 

Coloration. Very similar to that of /. TiardiuicJcii, but much 
darker above and almost or quite streakless beneath in adults. 
Head above and stripe behind eye blackish sepia-brown. Upper 
parts dark brown with white cross-bars. Long supercilium ex- 
tending to neck, cheeks below eye-stripe, chin, and throat white ; 
no malar stripe ; lower parts unstriped, sullied white in adults, 
and faintly streaked in the young ; flanks generally streaked in 
all, and lower tail-coverts with dark shaft-stripes. There are 
the usual scarlet occipital stripes in males ; the white spots are 
often small and sometimes wanting on the outer webs of the 
primaries. 



PTREHOPICUS. 49 

Bill brownish olivaceous, somewhat paler beneath ; iris white, 
greyish white, yellowish white, or reddish white ; eyelid and orbital 
skin dull mauve or purplish ; legs and feet greenish plumbeous 
(Legge). 

Length 4-8 ; tail 1-6 ; wing 2-9 ; tarsus -55 ; bill from gape -65. 

Distribution. Throughout Ceylon up to about 3000 feet above 
the sea, also the Malabar coast and the ranges near it as far north 
as the Palni hills, and perhaps farther. Malabar specimens have 
the heads rather paler than Ceylonese, and are the race called 
/. peninsularis by Hargitt, and the specimens thus labelled by him 
in the British Museum include the Malabar skins of /. yymno- 
phtlialmus and the Belgaum and Mysore specimens already men- 
tioned of /. Tiardwickii. There is evidently in this, as in many 
similar cases, a passage between two well-marked forms. 

Habits, fyc. Similar to those of other lyngipici. This bird is 
thoroughly arboreal and frequents the uppermost branches of trees, 
picking up small insects, and often perching. It has considerable 
powers of flight, and its note, according to Legge, is a prolonged 
trill. It breeds in February and March, and also in July, nesting 
in holes in small branches, and the white eggs measure about '62 
by -53 *. 



Genus PYRRHOPICUS, Malherbe, 1861. 

Bill long and stout, culmen angulate, almost straight ; nasal 
ridge strongly developed, nearer to the culmen than to the com- 
missure at the base of the bill ; nostrils open, not concealed by 
plumes; chin-angle nearly halfway from gape to tip of bill; no 
crest. Wings rounded, primaries scarcely exceeding secondaries 



* IYNGIPICUS NANUS. 

? Picus nanus, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 172 (1832). 

lyngipicus nanus, Hargitt, Ibis, 1882, p. 38 ; id. Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 327 ; 
Gould, B. Asia, vi, pi. xxxiv. 

Coloration. Crown and eye-stripe dark brown, nape very dark ; supercilium 
extending to neck and a band below the eye-stripe white ; upper parts dark 
brown with white cross-bands ; all tail-feathers spotted, the spots on the outer 
webs of the primaries small ; chin and throat pure white, bordered on each side 
by a brown malar stripe; rest of lower parts sullied white with indistinct 
rather broad brown streaks. Male with, as usual, a red streak on each side of 
the occiput. 

Wing 3'05 inches; tail 1'6; tarsus -65 ; bill from gape '7. 

Distribution. Three specimens collected by Captain Stackhouse Pinwill, one 
at Dharnisala, the other two in North-western India, are in the British Museum, 
and have been referred by Hargitt to Vigors's species, which was said to be from 
the N.W. Himalayas, and with the description of which they agree fairly. At 
the same time they are, as Hargitt points out, only just separable from the 
Malay /. auritus, and it is difficult to believe that all the ornithologists who have 
ransacked the N.W. Himalayas of late years can have overlooked this bird, 
which is easily distinguished from /. pygmceus and I. hardwickii, if it inhabits 
the area. 

VOL. III. E 



50 PICIDJE. 

in length ; tail short ; outer pair of tail-feathers longer than the 
coverts ; first toe well- developed ; fourth (or reversible) toe a 
little longer than third. Colour bay above more or less banded 
with black, very dark brown beneath, a partial red collar in 
males. 

Only two species are known. 

Key to the Species. 

Larger : wing 575 ; back barred P. pyrrhotis, p. 50. 

Smaller : wing 4*8 ; back not barred P. rubiginosus, p. 51. 

The oldest name for this genus, Venilia (of which the type 
appears to have been V. porpliyromelas, Bp. Consp. i, p. 128) can- 
not be used, as it h;;d previously been employed in both Lepidoptera 
and Mollusca. Lcpocestes of Cabanis (1863) has been adopted by 
Hargitt, but Pyrrhopicus and Plinthopicus of Malherbe date from 
1861, and I accept the first. Blythipicus of Bonaparte (1854) is 
generally regarded as too absurd a term to be admitted. ' 

978. Pyrrhopicus pyrrhotis. The Red-eared Bay Woodpecker. 

Picus pyrrhotis, Hodys. J. A. 8. B. vi, p. 108 (1837). 

Gecinus pyrrhotis, Btyth, Cat. p. 59. 

Blythipicus pyrrhotis, Bonap. Consp. Valuer. Zygod. p. 9; Hume, 

S. F. vii, p. 520 ; xi, p. 63 ; id. Cat. no. 176. 
Venilia pyrrhotis, Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 666; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 291 ; 

Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. 2, p. 155 ; xlv, pt. 2, p. 70 ; 

Walden in BlytJis Birds Burm. p. 77 ; Inglis, S. F. v, p. 26 ; 

Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 142 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 39. 
Lepocestes pyrrhotis, Hargitt, Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 380. 

Fi-ing, Lepcha. 




Fig. 14. Head of P. pyrrhotis. 

Coloration. Male. Whole head brown, the forehead, sides of 
head, and chin paler ; feathers of forehead and crown pale-shafted ; 
a bright crimson half-collar behind the ear-coverts extending more 
or less completely round the nape ; all upper parts from the nape, 
with wing-feathers and coverts, barred rufous and black, the rufous 
bars broadest on the quills, back-feathers fringed with deeper red ; 



PYRRHOPICUS. 51 

tail-feathers rufous with black spots, forming imperfect bars, ou 
both webs, shafts of quills and tail-feathers light red ; lower parts 
from throat olive-brown, reddish on the breast, dusky on the abdo- 
men ; a few narrow rufous bands on the lower flanks and under 
tail-coverts. 

The female wants the crimson half-collar. The young have pale 
shaft-lines throughout the head and neck, and traces of bars on 
the breast and abdomen. 

Bill pale greenish yellow ; irides reddish orange to brownish 
red ; legs and feet very dark green (Davison). 

Length 1T5 ; tail 4; wing 5'75 ; tarsus I'l ; bill from gape 
1-9. 

Distribution. From the Eastern Himalayas (Nepal, Sikhim, 
Dafla hills) to the Malay Peninsula, throughout Burma and other 
intervening countries. 

Habits, <$fc. An inhabitant of dense underwood, keeping very 
much to the ground, and rarely ascending a tree unless disturbed. 
This bird is generally found in pairs or small parties, is very voci- 
ferous and has a loud screeching call. The eggs do not appear to 
have been observed. 

979. Pyrrhopicus rubiginosus. The Malay Bay Woodpecker. 

Henn'circus rubiginosus, Swainson, Birds W. Afr. ii, p. 150 (1837). 
Picus melanogaster, Hay, Madr. Jour. L. S. xiii, pt. 2. p. 163 

(1844). 

Gecinus rubiginosus, Blytk, Cat. p. 59. 
Venilia porphyromelas (Boie),Bonap. Consp. i, p. 128; Hume fy Dav. 

S. F. vi, p. 143 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 40. 
Venilia melanogaster, Horsf. fy M. Cat. p. 665. 
Lepocestes porphyromelas, Salvad. Ucc. Born. p. 48 ; Hume, S. F. 



iii, p. 319 ; Hargitt, Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 382. 
Blvthipicus porphyromelas, Hume, S. F. vii, p. 520 j id. 
bis. 



Cat. no. 176 



Coloration. Male. Whole head brown, paler in front all round 
the base of the bill ; feathers on each side of the neck behind the 
ear-coverts tipped with bright crimson, forming blood-red patches ; 
some of the malar feathers tinged red in some specimens ; whole 
upper plumage from nape, including the edges of the quills, dull 
crimson ; feathers of rump and upper tail-coverts, quills and tail- 
feathers very dark brown with narrow bars of pale rufescent 
brown, well marked on outer webs of all wing-feathers, but 
except on the tertiaries faint on the inner webs ; lower plumage 
from throat very dark olive-brown, the breast with a reddish 
tinge. 

The female wants the red patches behind the ears. 

Bill chrome-yellow, tinged with green towards the base ; irides 
red ; legs and feet dark, varying in shade, generally purplish or 
purplish brown (Davison). 

Length 9 ; tail 3 ; wing 4-8 ; tarsus -9 ; bill from gape T45. 

Distribution. Malay Peninsula, extending into Tenasserim as far 

E2 



52 PICIDJB. 

north as Bopyin, south of Mergui, and also into Sumatra and 
Borneo. Common in the extreme south of Tenasserim. 

Habits, &fc. Like P. pyrrhotis, this species is said by Davison to 
be very shy and to keep much to the underwood of the evergreen 
forests ; it avoids the larger trees, is generally found in pairs and 
utters incessantly a sharp metallic note. 



Genus MIGLYPTES, Swainson, 1837. 

Bill of moderate length, culmen much curved ; no nasal ridge ; 
nostrils round, exposed ; chin-angle halfway between gape and 
tip ; fourth or outer hind toe longer than third or outer front toe ; 
first toe (hallux) short. A nuchal crest. Wing rounded ; all tail- 
feathers pointed, the outer pair just extending beyond the lower 
coverts. Plumage brown or black and buff, more or less in 
alternating bars. 

This genus is restricted to Burma and the Malay countries, 
three species being found in British Burma. The coloration is 
peculiar and the habits are imperfectly known, the nest not having 
hitherto been found. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Back with buff cross-bands ; tail-feathers 

spotted. 

a'. Head barred above ; rump uniform buff. M. grammithorax, p. 52. 
b'. Head not barred above; rump barred 

like back M . tukki, p. 53. 

1. Back without cross-bands, tail unspotted. M.jugularis, p. 54. 

980. Miglyptes grammithorax. The Fulvous-rumped Barred 
Woodpecker. 

Meiglyptes tristis, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 60 ; Stoliczka, J. A. 8. B. 

xxxix, pt. 2, p. 294 ; Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 77 ; Hume $ Dav. 

S. F. vi, pp. 131, 501 ; Hume, Cat. no. 165 ter (nee Picus tristis, 

Horsf.). 
Phaiopicus grammithorax, Malh. Picidce, ii, p. 12, pi. xlviii, figs. 4-6 

(1862). 
Mig-lyptes grammithorax, Nicholson, Ibis, 1879, p. 165 ; Hume, 

S. F. viii, p. 497 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 59 ; Hargitt, Ibis, 1884, 

p. 191 ; id. Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 385. 

Coloration. Male. Lores, anterior half of orbital region, point 
of chin, lower back, and rump uniform buff ; a malar stripe pale 
crimson ; remainder of the bird blackish brown barred with buff, 
very closely on the head and neck all round and on the breast, 
the barring becoming wider behind and still wider on the abdomen, 
but the bars are broader still on the back, scapulars, wing-coverts, 
tertiaries, and upper tail-coverts ; wing and tail-feathers with 
buff spots on both webs ; under wing-coverts and axillaries buff 
with a few dark brown spots. 



MIGLYPTES. 53 

Female. No malar stripe. 

Bill black ; irides deep brown or dull red ; edge of eyelids black; 
legs and feet dirty green (Davison). 

Length 7 ; tail 2 ; wing 3-9 ; tarsus *8 ; bill from gape '9. 

Distribution. The Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo, ex- 
tending north into Tenasserim as far as the base of Nwalabo 
mountain, near Tavoy. 

Habits, <$fc. As described by Davison, this species is usually 
found in dense tree-jungle, and generally in pairs ; it is never 
seen on the ground, but always oil trunks and branches of trees. 
The note of all three species of Miylyptes is similar, a rolling 
Tcirr-r-r. 

The true M. tristis is confined to Java and has the middle 
of the breast and abdomen black without bars. Specimens of 
M. gratnmithorax from Nwalabo, Tenasserim, have the breast and 
abdomen brown, almost without bars, but not black. 



981. Miglyptes tukki. The Buff-necked Barred Woodpecker. 

Picus tukki, Lesson, Rev. Zool. 1839, p. 167. 

Hemicercus brunneus, Eyton, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 106. 

Meiglyptes pectoralis, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 60 (nee Picus pectoralis, 

Latham). 

Meiglyptes brunneus, Horsf. Sf M. Cat. ii, p. 668. 
Meiglyptes marginatus, Iteinw., Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, 

p. 294. 
Mig-lyptes tukki, Hume, S. F. in, p. 319 ; id. Cat. no. 165 quint. ; 

Hume Sf Dav. S. F. vi, p. 132 ; Oates, B. $. ii, p. 61 ; Haryiti, 

Ibis, 1884, p. 193 j id. Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 888. 

Coloration. Male. Dull dark olive or brownish olive, head 
uniform and unbarred above and on the sides ; a crimson malar 
band ; a large buff patch on each side of the neck ; back, scapulars, 
rump, tail, and wing-coverts with narrow buff cross-bars through- 
out ; quills with small marginal buff spots on the outer, and larger 
spots on the inner webs ; tail-feathers with narrow bars inter- 
rupted near the shaft ; chin and throat very finely barred with 
buff ; fore neck uniform blackish brown ; breast and abdomen dark 
brown with narrow buff bands ; middle of breast almost uniform ; 
lower wing-coverts and top of wing buff. 

Female. No crimson malar band. 

Upper mandible black, lower mandible plumbeous blue, in some 
greenish ; irides brown ; legs and feet dull or brownish green. 

Length about 8'6 ; tail 2'7 ; wing 4'1 ; tarsus '9 ; bill from 
gape M. 

Distribution. The Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo, 
ranging into the extreme south of Tenasserim. 

Habits, <f'c. Very similar to those of the last species, this Wood- 
pecker being found in dense forest. 



'54 

982. Miglyptes jugularis. The Blade -and- Buff Woodpecker. 

Picus (Meiglyptes) jugularis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 195 (1845). 
Meiglyptes jugularis, Myth, Cat. p. 60 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 669 ; 

Hume Sf Gates, S. F. iii, p. 63 ; Blyth S> Wald. Birds Barm. p. 77 ; 

Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 132, 501 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 60. 
Miglyptes jugularis, Hume, Cat. no. 165 quat. ; Bingham, S. F. ix, 

p. 16] : Hargitt, Ibis, 1884, p. 197 ; id. Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 391. 




Fig. 15. Head of M. jugularis. 

Coloration. Male. Black or brownish black, except two large 
patches, ore on each side o the neck, extending round the hind 
neck, and forming a demi-collar, the ramp, but not the tail-coverts, 
a large space on each wing consisting of all the minor coverts 
and of the innermost major and median coverts and tertiaries, 
the edge of the wing and wing-lining, which are pure buff; a 
malar stripe on each side with the feathers tipped red ; forehead, 
crown, and sides of head narrowly barred across with buff ; chin 
black and buff mixed in small subequa] spots ; quills with small 
submarginal spots on the outer webs and large spots on the inner, 
the latter wanting near the tip and increasing in size near the 
base ; a few buff bars on the flanks and thigh-coverts ; tail 
uniform. 

The female wants the red malar stripe. 

Bill black ; iris dark brown ; eyelids dark plumbeous ; legs dull 
bluish, claws horny brown (Oates). 

Length 7'5 ; tail 2 ; wing 4 ; tarsus -85 ; bill from gape 1. 

Distribution. The greater part of Burma (rare in the Arrakan 
and Pegu hills, and near Toungngoo, more common in Tenasserim), 
as far south as Tavoy ; also Siam and Cochin China. 

Habits, Sfc. This Woodpecker is found in high forests, but has 
also been observed by Davison in large clearings, open jungle, and 
even in bamboo-jungle. It closely resembles Hemicercus canente 
in coloration. 

Genus MICROPTERNUS, Blyth, 1845. 

Bill like that of Miglyptes, curved above, without nasal ridge, 
but the chin-angle is nearer to the tip than to the gape ; nostrils 
rounded and exposed ; wing rounded ; tail-feathers pointed, the 
outer pair just exceeding the tail-coverts in length ; first toe very 



MICEOPTEENUS. 55 

short, its claw very small, third and fourth toes subequal. Plumage 
throughout pale chestnut with black bars, which vary greatly in 
development in different species. 

The genus Micropternus extends throughout the Oriental region ; 
three species, which are merely geographical races, separated by 
very slight characters, and tending greatly to pass into each other, 
being found within our area. They are birds of very singular 
habits, having a peculiar, strong, unpleasant smell, and living 
chiefly or entirely on tree-ants. Their plumage is almost always 
smeared with a gummy substance derived from ants' nests, and 
the heads of ants are often found attached to their tail-feathers. 
Moreover, they lay their eggs in holes made in the large ants' nests 
that are so common in India attached to branches of trees or 
bamboos. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Central part of pale-edged chin and throat- 

feathers of same colour as breast M. phceoceps, p. 55. 

b. Central part of chin and throat-feathers darker 

than breast. 
a'. Pale-bordered throat-feathers extend to 

nialar region M. brachyurus, p. 57. 

b'. Pale-edged throat-feathers do not extend 

to malar region M. gularis, p. 57. 

983. Micropternus phseoceps. The Northern Rufous Woodpecker. 

Picus rufus, Gray in Hardw. Ill 2nd. Orn. i, pi. xxix, tig. 2 (1830- 

32), nee Gmel. 
Micropternus phaioceps, Blyth, J. A. S. S. xiv, p. 195 (1845) ; id. 

Cat. p. 60 ; Tytler, A.M.N. H. (2) xiii, p. 367 (1854) ; Horsf. $ 

M. Cat. ii, p. 667 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 294 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. 

xxxix, pt. 2, p. 267 ; xliii, pt. 2, p. 176 ; Ball, S. F. ii, p. 392 ; 

vii, p. 206 ; Hume $ dates, S. F. lii, p. 72 ; Blyth % Wald. Birds 

Burm. p. 77 ; Gammie, S. F. iv, p. 511 ; Hume, S. F. v, p. 480 ; 

Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 145, 501 ; Cripps, S. F. vii, p. 262 ; 

Scully, S. F. viii, p. 249. 

Phaiopicos blythii, Malherbc, Rev. Mag. Zool. 1849, p. 534. 
Meiglyptes rufmotus, Malh. Bonap. Consp. i, p. 113 (1850). 
Micropternus barmanicus, Hume, P. A. S. B. 1872, p. 71. 
Micropternus rufinotus, Godw.-Aust. J.A.S. B. xlv, pt. 2, p. 70. 
Micropternus phaeoceps, Hume, Cat. no. 178; id. S. F. ix, p. 112; 

xi, p. 64 ; Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 164 ; id. Ibis, 1885, p. 332 ; Oaten, 

B. B. ii, p. 57 ; Salvador?', Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) iv, p. 580 ; 

v, p. 568 ; vii, p. 380 ; Hargitt, Ibis, 1885, p. 3 ; id. Cat. B. M. 

xviii, p. 393 ; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 308. 

The Bengal Rufous Woodpecker, Jerdon ; Fi-ing, Lepcha. 

Coloration. Male. The whole plumage dull rufous (light chest- 
nut) ; top of the head and occiput tinged with dusky brown, the 
feathers slightly paler at the edges, feathers of the chin and throat 
with much more distinct pale edges ; feathers beneath the eye and 
for a short distance forwards and backwards tipped with crimson ; 
upper parts from the neck and the wing and tail-feathers with black 



56 PICID.E. 

transverse bars, which sometimes disappear completely on the 
back, and are very narrow on the tail-feathers ; lower surface 
rather duller in colour than the back, and without black bars 
except occasionally on the flanks, thigh- and under tail-coverts. 

In females there is no red below the eye. The young generally 
have crescentic black or dusky marks on the tinderparts. 

Bill very dark brown, plumbeous at the base of the lower 
mandible ; irides brown, eyelids plumbeous ; legs and feet greyish 
brown (Oates). 

Length 10 ; tail 3 ; wing 5 ; tarsus -95; bill from gape 1'25. 




Fig. 16. Plead of M. ph&oceps. 

Distribution. The forests at and near the base of the Himalayas 
as far west as Dehra Dun ; the greater part of Bengal and parts 
of the forest-region between the Ganges and Godavari, east of the 
meridian of 80 or 82 * ; Assam, Cachar, Manipur, and Burma as 
far south as Moulmein ; also Siam, Cambodia, and Cochin China. 

Habits, fyc. A quiet bird, generally silent but far from shy, and 
where common, as in parts of Burma, found in both evergreen 
and deciduous forest, in bamboo-jungle, and occasionally in culti- 
vation. It feeds chiefly on the ants t that form nests in trees, and 
has been several times found by Mr. Gammie in Sikhim, and by 
Major Bingham in Tenasserim, to make a hole in the middle of 
one of these ants' nests, and to lay its eggs in a cup-shaped cavity 
in the middle. The eggs, generally three in number, are laid in 
April and May ; they are thin, fragile, without gloss, and measure 
about 1-16 by '7. The ants' nests are well known ; they are a foot 
or more in diameter, and are composed of the leaves and twigs of 
the tree cemented together by a felt-like substance. 

* Barnes in the ' Birds of Bombay ' includes M. ph&oceps, because according 
to Jerdon it is found in some of the forests of Central India. The mistake 
has been repeatedly made of supposing that Jerdon. by the words ' Central 
India,' meant the region go-called at the present day, whereas in the Introduc- 
tion to the ' Birds of India,' p. xl, he defined the area, which as understood by 
him comprised Chutia Nagpur and the forest-tracts extending southward to 
Bastar. M. phaoceps is not known to occur anywhere within 300 miles of the 
Bombay Presidency. 

t Species of Cremastogaster, Jour. Bombay N. H. Sec. vii, p. 198. 



MICROPTERXUS. 57 

984. Micropternus brachyurus. The Malay Rufous Woodpecker. 

Picus brachyurus, Vieill. Nouv. Did. d'Hist. Nat. xxvi, p. 103 (1818). 
Picus badius, Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 289 (1822). 
Micropternus badius, Blyth, J. A.S. B. xiv, p. 194 ; id. Cat. p. 61 : 

Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 066 ; Hume, S. F. in. p. 319. 
Micropternus brachyurus, Hume, S. F. v, p. 481 ; id. Cat. no. 178 

bis ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 145 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 58 ; 

Hargitt, Ibis, 1885, p. 10 ; id. Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 396. 

This is very similar to M. phceoceps, but distinguished by being 
smaller, by the crown not being as a rule darker than the back, 
by the central portions of the pale-edged feathers of the chin, 
throat, and malar region being much darker than the breast, and 
by the black bars on the upper surface, and especially on the lower 
plumage, being more developed, and those on the tail-feathers 
broader. Most Tenasserim birds, except from south of Tavoy, are 
intermediate between M. brachyurus and M. phceoceps. 

Length about 8 ; tail 2-3 ; wing 4'5 ; tarsus '85 ; bill from 
gape 1. 

Distribution. The Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Java, ex- 
tending north into Tenasserim, where this Woodpecker appears to 
pass into M. phceoceps. 



985. Micropternus gularis. The Malabar Rufous Woodpecker. 

Picus (Micropternus) gularis, Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. xiii, pt. 2, 
p. 139 (1844). 

Micropternus gularis, Blyth, J. A.S. B. xv, p. 17 ; id. Cat. p. 61 ; 
Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 294; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 297; Holdsicorth, 
P. Z. S. 1872, p. 428 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 434 ; v, p. 481 ; id. Cat. 
no. 179 ; Blanf. Ibis, 1874, p. 92 ; Fairbank, S. F. iv, pp. 255, 
265 ; Laird, S. F. vii, p. 470 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 200 ; Vidal, 
S. F. ix, p. 53 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 356 ; id. Ibis, 1885, p. 331 ; 
Hargitt, Ibis, 1885, p. 7 ; id. Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 399 ; Barnes, 
Birds Bom. p. 118; Davidson, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. vi, p. 335. 

Phaiopicos jerdonii, Malh. Rev. Mag. Zool. 1849, p. 535 ; id. Picidce, 



naiopicos i< 
ii, p. 3, pi. 



xlvii. 



Coloration and sexual distinctions similar to those of the two 
preceding species, except that the feathers of the chin and throat 
which, as in M. brachyurus, are darker, except on their whitish 
edges, than the breast-feathers, are confined to a tract in the 
middle of the throat and do not extend to the malar region. 
The head is usually dusky above, as in M. phceoceps. Upper parts 
generally barred with black, lower parts seldom barred in adults, 
the flanks alone showing some traces of barring. 

Length 9 ; tail 2-75 ; wing 4'75 ; tarsus '9 ; bill from gape 1*2. 

Distribution. Ceylon, and the forest tracts near the Malabar 
coast, both below and above the Ghats, as far north as the 
neighbourhood of Bombay. 

Habits, $c. Similar to those of M. phceoceps ; this species has 
been observed by several writers to feed on ants, and both Davison 



58 PICIDJE. 

and Aitken found the eggs laid in ants' nests. According to Legge, 
it often feeds on the ground, and he has seen it breaking up the 
dried dung of cattle. He also says it has a loud note, often heard 
very early in the morning. 

Genus BRACHYPTERNUS, Strickland, 1841. 

Bill scarcely longer than head, the culmen curved ; nasal ridge 
close to the culinen, but subobsolete ; nostrils exposed. First 
(hind) digit and claw very small, together scarcely as long as one 
of the claws of the other digits ; third and fourth toes subequal. 
"Wings and tail longer than in Micropternus ; outer tail-feathers a 
little longer than the coverts. A red occipital crest in both sexes ; 
crown red in males, black with white spots in females ; back 
yellow or red, lower parts black and white or fulvous. 

This genus is peculiar to India and Ceylon. 

Key to the Species. 

Back yellow or orange B. aurantius, p. 58. 

Back crimson B. erythronotus, p. 60. 

986. Brachypternus aurantius. The Golden-backed Woodpecker. 

Picus aurantius and P. bengalensis, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, pp. 174, 175 
(1766). 

Malacolophus melanoehrysos, Hodgs. J. A. 8. B. vi, p. 109 (1837). 

Brachypternus aurantius, Strickl. P. Z. S. 1841, p. 31 ; Blyth, Cat. 
p. 56; Horsf. & M. Cat. ii, p. 654; Adams, P. Z. S. 1858, 
p. 475 ; 1859, p. 174 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 295 ; Ball, S. F. vii, 
p. 206; Cripps, ib. p. 263; Hume, Cat. no. 180; Reid, S. F. x, 
p. 25 ; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii. p. 309. 

Brachypternus micropus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 194 (1845). 

Brachypternopicus chrysonotus (Less.), apud Malh. Rev. Zool. 1845, 
p. 404. 

Brachypternopicus puncticollis, Malh. t. c. p. 405. 

Brachypternus dilutus, Blyth, Cat. p. 56 (1849); id. Ibis, 1866, 
p. 356 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 297 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 171 ; id. Cat. 
no. 182 ; Doig, S. F. viii, p. 370. 

Brachypternus chrysonotus, apud Horsf. Sf M. Cat. ii, p. 656 ; Jerdon, 
B. I. i, p. 296; McMaster, J. A. S. B. xl, pt. 2, p. 209; Fair- 
bank, S. F. iv, p. 255. 

Brachypternus puncticollis, Holdsivorth, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 428 ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 181 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 205, pi. ix ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 53 ; 
Butler, ib. p. 386 ; Davidson, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. vi. p. 336. 

Brachypternus intermedius, Legge, S. F. iv, p. 242 ; White, S. F. v, 
p. 201 ; Parker, S. F. ix, p. 479. 

Brachypternus aurantius and B. puncticollis, Davison, S. F. x, p. 356 ; 
Barnes, Birds Bom. pp. 118, 119; Hargitt, Cat. B. M. xviii, 
pp. 404, 407. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead and crown black, the feathers 
tipped with crimson ; occipital crest bright crimson, the feathers 
with whitish shaft-stripes ; a narrow stripe on each side of the 
crown, and a broad band through the eye to the nape, including 
upper lores and ear-coverts, mixed black and white ; remainder of 



BEACHYPTERXUS. 59 

sides of head, above and below the eye, and sides of neck white, 
often tinged yellowish ; hind neck, upper back, rump, and upper 
tail-covi'Hs velvety black; scapulars and interscapulary region 
golden yellow, sometimes tinged with orange-red ; most of the 
greater wing-coverts and some of the inner median coverts with 
the outer webs of the secondary quills golden olive, the other 
coverts black, nearly all coverts except along the forearm with a 
subterminal yellowish or olivaceous white spot, varying much in 
size; both webs of primaries and inner webs of secondaries 
brownish black, with large white spots; tail-feathers entirely 
black ; malar region, chin, throat, and fore neck black, with nume- 
rous short white stripes or spots, this pattern passing gradually 
into that of the breast, where the feathers are buffy white with 
broad black borders, that become narrower on the abdomen ; 
flanks and under tail-coverts white with broad black bars, or black 
with large white spots (fig. 8, p. 14). 

Female. Forehead and crown black, each feather with a terminal 
spot]; a crimson occipital crest as in the male. Nestling birds are 
sooty black and sullied white below, and the females want the 
white spots on the head. 

Bill slaty black ; irides red-brown ; orbital skin dusky green ; 
feet dark green ; claws dusky (Jerdon). 

Length 11/5 ; tail 3*75 ; wing 5*5 ; tarsus *95 ; bill from gape 1*5. 

Distribution. Throughout India and Ceylon, ranging throughout 
Sind and the Punjab, ascending the lower Western Himalayas to 
about 3000 feet, and extending on the eastward to Eastern Bengal 
and Cachar, but not to Assam. 

The pale form from Sind, distinguished by Blyth as B. dilutus, 
is a well-marked geographical race, paler yellow on the back, all 
the interscapulary feathers with white shaft-stripes and dusky tips, 
with white spots along the shafts of the scapulars, and large 
white spots on the wing-coverts. 

The dark Ceylon and Malabar and S. Indian form called 
B. micropus by Blyth and B.puncticollis by Malherbe, and wrongly 
identified with Picus chrysonotus of Lesson by several naturalists, 
has much smaller and more rounded white spots on the throat and 
fore neck, together with frequently a white bar near the base of 
each feather in those parts. Occasionally the fore neck (not the 
throat) is unspotted black. The black and white band through 
the eye is connected by a black stripe with the nape. The black 
edges of the breast-feathers are wider. But both in this case and 
in that of B. dilutus not only are intermediate forms between them 
and B. aurantius common, but there are in the Hume Collection 
characteristic skins of B. dilutus from Bengal and of B. puncti- 
collis from Lucknow. 

B. intermedius has a red back, and is probably a hybrid between 
the present "Woodpecker and B. eryihronotus ; and B. puncticollis 
itself, especially the very dark Ceylon birds, may result from an 
occasional cross with the red-backed species. 

Habits, fyc. By far the commonest and most familiar of Indian 
Woodpeckers, this is often seen about villages where there are 



60 PICID^E. 

trees, and especially in mango-groves. It is also found in thin 
forest, and in Sind in tamarisk-scrub, and feeds much on ants ; it 
is a bold noisy bird with a loud screaming call, often uttered on the 
wing. It breeds in Northern India in March and April, and again 
in June and July, in Ceylon from February till June ; the eggs, 
three in number as a rule, being often laid in Northern India in a 
hole in a mango-tree. The eggs are white and glossy, and measure 
about 1-11 by -8. 

987. Brachypternus erythronotus. The Red-backed Woodpecker. 

Picus erithronothos, Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d>Hist. Nat. xxvi, p. 73 

(1818). 

Picus ceylonus, Cuv. Regne Anim. e"d. 2 e , i, p. 451 (1829). 
Brachypternus erythronotus, Strickland, P. Z. S. 1841, p. 31 ; Hargitt, 

Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 409 ; Gates, in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, 

p. 311. 
Brachypternus ceylonus, Blyth, Cat. p. 56 ; Layard,A. M. N. H. (2) 

xiii, p. 449 (1854) ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 656 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, 

p. 297 ; Holdsworth, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 428 ; Hume, Cat. no. 182 bis ; 

Leyge, Birds Ceyl. p. 202, pi. viii. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead and crown black, the feathers 
tipped crimson ; occipital crest crimson, feathers more or less 
white-shafted ; sides of head black, with two buffy-white stripes, 
one from above the eye over the ear-coverts, the other from the 
base of the upper mandible below the eye and ear-coverts down 
the side of the neck ; supraorbital, upper loral, and malar regions 
spotted white, ear-coverts streaked with white ; back of neck and 
uppermost part of back, rump, and upper tail-coverts black, the 
rump-feathers edged with crimson; back and scapulars bright 
crimson like the crest ; coverts and outer webs of secondaries 
duller crimson ; generally several of the outer greater coverts and 
a few median coverts each with a subterminal pinkish- white spot ; 
both webs of primary quills and inner webs of secondaries black 
with white spots, except near the tips ; tail black ; chin and 
middle of throat like malar region black with apical white spots, 
and generally with the base of the feathers white, sides of throat 
entirely black ; rest of lower parts white, often sullied, the feathers 
with black edges, which are so broad on the breast as to pre- 
dominate, the white being frequently reduced to large spots ; 
flanks, thighs, and lower tail-coverts more or less barred with black. 

Female. Forehead and crown black, with small white apical 
spots ; occipital crest alone crimson. 

Bill blackish, base and sides of under mandible leaden ; iris red ; 
legs and feet murky greenish, olivaceous green, or dusky sap-green 
(Legge). 

Length about 11*5 inches ; tail 3-75 ; wing 5-4 ; tarsus -95 ; 
bill from gape 1*5. 

Distribution. Peculiar to Ceylon, found almost throughout the 
island up to 3500 or 4000 feet elevation. 

Habits, fyc. Very similar to those of B. aurantius. According to 



TIGA. 61 

Legge this Woodpecker is partial to cocoanut and other trees in 
cultivation, but is also common in forest. It is pugnacious, fear- 
less, and active, and has a loud harsh call ; it lives largely on red 
ants. It breeds in Southern Ceylon from February till June, and 
not unfrequently lays its eggs, which appear not to have been 
described, in a hole cut into the stem of a dead cocoanut-tree. 

Genus TIGA, Kaup, 1836. 

This genus is very close to Brachypternus, and differs chiefly in 
having no hallux (first digit or inner hind toe); the coronal 
feathers are more elongate and the wing more pointed. It repre- 
sents Brachypternus east of the Bay of Bengal, but is also found 
in the Indian Peninsula. 

Key to the Species. 

A single black line down middle of throat T. javanensis, p. 61. 

Two black lines with a brownish space between 

them down middle of throat T. shorei, p. 62. 

988. Tiga javanensis. The Common Golden-backed Tfiree-toed 
Woodpecker. 

Picus javanensis, Ljung, Kon. Svensk. Vet.-Ak. HandL 1797, p. 134 ; 

Walden, Jfos, 187], p. 164. 

Picus tiga, Horsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 177 (1821). 
Chrysonotus tridaetylus, Siuains. Classif. B. ii, p. 309 (1837). 
Picus (Tiga) intermedius, partim, and P. (T.) tridactylus (Swains.), 

Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xiv, p. 193 (1845). 
Picas (Brachypternopicus) rubropygialis, Malh. Rev. Zool. 1845, 

p. 400. 

Tig-a intermedia and T. tridactyla, Blyth, Cat. p. 56. 
Chrysonota tiga and C. intenuedius, Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 657. 
Chrysonotus intermedius and C. rubropygialis, Jerdon, B.f.i, p. 299. 
Tiga intermedia, Hume, S. F. iii, pp. 74, 328 ; Armstrong, S. F. iv, 

p. 311 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2).iv, p. 580; v, p. 567 ; 

vii, p. 432. 

Chrysonotus rubropygialis, Hume, S. F. iv, p. 390. 
Tiga javanensis, Blyth fy Wald. Birds Burm. p. 75 ; Hume fy Dav. 

S. F. vi, pp. 14(3, 501 ; Hume, Cat. no. 184 ; Oates, S. F. viii, 

p. 165; Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 164; Damson, S. F. x, p. 357; 

Oates, B. B. ii, p. 55 ; Hargitt, Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 412 ; Oates in 

Hume's N. 8f JE. 2nd ed. ii, p. 311. 

The Common Three-toed Woodpecker ; The Southern Three-toed Wood- 
pecker, Jerdon. 

Coloration. Male. Crown and long occipital crest crimson, the 
feathers dark ashy at the base, then black, then red ; forehead 
often brownish ; sides of head and neck white, except a broad 
black band from the eye to the nape, and another black band, 
often much mixed with white, from the malar region to the 
shoulder; hind neck and uppermost back black; back, scapulars, 
and wing-coverts golden olive, with orange or scarlet edges ; rump 



62 

and lower back crimson; upper tail-coverts black, often brownish ; 
outer webs of secondary quills golden olive, rest of quills brownish 
black, with white spots on the inner webs only, tips of primaries 
sometimes very pale or whitish ; tail black ; lower parts white or 
buffy white ; a broken black stripe down the middle of the chin 
and throat, getting broader below ; feathers of breast and abdomen 
with broad black edges, so broad on the breast as to produce a 
scale-like pattern ; flanks and lower tail-coverts barred black. 

Female. Whole crown and occipital crest black, with elongate 
subterminal spots on each feather. 

Bill very dark brown ; iris ha/el ; eyelids plumbeous ; legs 
greenish ; claws horn-colour (Oates). 

Length 11-5 ; tail 4; wing 5-8 ; tarsus -95 ; bill from gape 1'5. 

Distribution. Common throughout Burma, extending to Siam, 
Cambodia, Cochin China, the Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, 
and Java. Pound also in the hill-forests near the Malabar coast 
of India as far north as the Wynaad. The statement that the 
type of T. rubropygialis came from Bengal needs confirmation 
(according to Jerdon it came from Bangalore). Apparently this 
species is found nowhere in the Peninsula of India except the 
southern part of the Malabar coast, and it is also wanting in the 
Assam hills, Cachar, and Manipur. 

The Malabar form called Chrysonotus rubropygialis by Jerdon 
is rather smaller than the Burmese, and has rather more white on 
the breast, but there is no constant distinction. 

Habits, tyc. Very similar to those of Brachypternus. The present 
species has much the same shrill call and is equally familiar. The 
eggs have been taken in March in the Malabar forests by F. Bour- 
dillon, and in Burma from March to May by Oates and Bingham. 
They are laid, like those of other Woodpeckers, in holes in trees, 
are white, glossy, and usually three in number, and measure about 
1-11 by -8. 

989. Tiga shorei. The Himalayan Golden-backed Three- toed 
Woodpecker. 

Picus shorei, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 175. 

Picas (Tiga) shorei, Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xiv, p. 193. 

Tiga shorei, Blyth, Cat. p. 56, partim ? ; Hume, 8. F. iii, p. 73, 

partim ; id. Cat. no. 183 ; Davison, S. F. ix, p. 357 ; Hargitt, Cat. 

B. M. xviii, p. 417. 
Chrysonotus shorei, Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 658; Jerdon, B. I. i, 

p. 298 ; Anderson, Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 586 ; Ball, S. F. vii, 

p. 206. 
Chrysonotus biddulphi, Tickett, Walden, Ibis, 1876, p. 344 ; Hume, 

S. F. v, p. 497. 
The Large Three-toed Woodpecker, Jerdon. 

Very similar to T. javanensis. The differences are that in the 
present species there are two broken black lines down the throat 
and fore neck, the space between them heing isabelline, as is the 
malar region and sometimes the breast in part. There is less 



QAUROPTCOIDES. 63 

black on the lower parts throughout. There is no black or 
blackish bar behind the crimson tips of the coronal feathers in the 
male, and the bases of the feathers are paler ashy ; whilst in the 
female the feathers on the top of the head are brown with long 
white shaft-lines. 

Bill blackish slaty ; irides crimson ; legs plumbeous (Jerdon*). 

Length about 12 ; tail 4-25 ; wing 6 ; tarsus T05 ; bill from 
gape 1*6. 

Distribution. The lower valleys of the Himalayas from Dehra Dun 
to Bhutan, also Bhamo and the neighbourhood of Thayet Myo in 
Upper Pegu. It is remarkable that neither this species nor the 
last appears to have been observed in the countries between 
Burma and the Himalayas. Eeported occurrences of T. shorei in 
the Indian Peninsula need confirmation ; they may have been 
founded on large specimens of T. javanensis, but one in Blyth's 
Catalogue, from Goomsur, should not be forgotten. 

It is on the whole doubtful whether this form should be kept 
separate from T. javanensis. 

Genus GAUROPICOIDES, Malherbe, 1861. 

Three toes only, the hallux or inner posterior toe wanting ; 
hind toe shorter than outer fore toe. Bill with the culmen 
straight and sharply augulate, the nasal ridge well marked, near 
the culmen; nostrils at base of bill, nasal plumes short, but 
covering the nostrils. Tail-feathers narrow, all pointed except 
the outer pair, which are but little shorter than the next. Wings 
very rounded. 

Coloration yellow above, brown below, the head banded with 
black and white at the side ; male with a red, female with a black 
cap. A single species. 

990. Gauropicoides rafflesi. Raffles's Three-toed Woodpecker. 

Picus rafflesii, Vigors, Raffi. Mem., App. p. 669 (1830). 

Tiga rafflesi, Strickland, P. Z. S. 1846, p. 103; Blyth, J. A. S. B. 
xv, p. 16 ; id. Cat. p. 57. 

Chrysonotus rafflesi, Horsf. Sf M. Cat. ii, p. 658. 

Gauropicoides rafflesi, Malh. Picidce, i, p. liii ; Hume, S. F. iii, 
p. 319 ; id. Cat. no. 185 bis ; Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, p. 146; Oates, 
B. B. ii, p. 42 ; Hargitt, Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 132. 

Coloration. Male. Whole cap, nape, and long pointed nuchal 
crest bright crimson ; nasal plumes and lores pale brown ; lower 
lores and a band from them under the eye to far down the side of 
the neck white, also a white supercilium from above the eye to 
the nape ; a band down the back of the neck, a line above the 
supercilium, a broad band below it from the eye, and a third line 
from the base of the lower mandible black, the lowest line is 
narrow and brown at first but broader behind ; back, scapulars, 
secondary-coverts, and outer webs of secondaries golden olive, the 



64 

edges of the feathers brighter ; rump-feathers the same, but the 
edges sometimes tinged with red ; primary-coverts and wing- 
feathers blackish brown, the inner webs of the latter with a few 
round white spots towards the base, the primaries tipped with 
whitish and having occasionally a few very small pale spots on the 
outer webs ; upper tail-coverts dark brown ; tail black ; chin 
and throat white sullied with fulvous ; remaining lower parts 
olive-brown, the flanks and under wing-coverts spotted white. 

Female. The crimson of the head and nape is replaced by black ; 
forehead yellowish brown. 

Upper mandible and tip of lower black or bluish, rest of lower 
mandible plumbeous ; irides deep brown ; legs and feet dark 
green. 

Length 12 ; tail 4'6 ; wing 5-7 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape 1-5. 

Distribution. The Malay Peninsula, ranging into Tenasserim to 
a little north of the latitude of Moulin ein ; also Sumatra and 
Borneo. 

Habits, fyc. According to Davison this Woodpecker much 
resembles Tiga javanensis in its habits and voice. It keeps to 
evergreen forests, is found singly or in pairs, and is not shy. 
It is seen on fallen trees but not on the ground. 



Genus CHRYSOCOLAPTES, Blyth, 1843. 

Bill stout and long, culmen nearly straight ; nasal ridge strongly 
marked, commencing at base of bill halfway between culmen and 
commissure ; nostrils elongate, exposed. Feet large, first or hind 
toe well developed ; fourth toe longer than third ; claws very large. 
Head large and conspicuously crested, neck very small. Outer pair 
of tail-feathers just exceeding the coverts in length. Plumage 
very like that of Brachypternus ; yellow or red above ; white, the 
feathers edged with black, below. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Crown of male red, of female yellow ; back 

black C. festivus, p. 64. 

b. Crown of male red, of female black with 

white spots. 

a'. Back golden olive C. gutticristatus, p. 65. 

b'. Back red C. stricklandi, p. 67. 

991. Chrysocolaptes festivus. The Black-lacked Woodpecker. 

Picus festivus, Boddaert, Tabl. PL Enl. p. 43, no. 696 (1783). 
Picus goensis, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i, p. 434 (1788). 
Dendrocopus elliotii, Jei'don, Madr. Jour. L. S. xi, p. 212 (1840). 
Picus (Chrysocolaptes) melanotus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 1005 

(1843). 

Chrysocolaptes goensis, Blyth, Cat. p. 55 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 282. 
Chrysocolaptes festivus, Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 355 ; Blanford, 



CHETSOCOLAPTES. 65" 

J. A. S. B. xxxviii, pt. 2, p. 168; Adam, S. F. i, p. 373; Ball, 
S. F. ii, p. 391 ; vii, p. 206 ; Sutler, S. F. iii, p. 458 ; ix, p. 385 ; 
Hume, Cat. no. 167; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 52; Legge, Birds Ceyl 
p. 191 ; Davidson, S. F. x, p. 297 ; Hume, ib. p. 355 ; Barnes, Birds 
Bom. p. 1 15 ; Hargitt, Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 445 ; Oates in Hume's 
N. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 312. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead with large huffy-white spots on a 
brown ground ; long feathers of crown and occiput crimson, a black 
border, often mixed with white anteriorly, to the crown ; hind neck 
and middle of upper back white ; remainder of back, scapulars, 
smaller wing-coverts along the forearm, tail-coverts and tail black ; 
larger and median secondary-coverts olive with golden-yellow edges, 
outer webs of secondaries golden olive, rest of quill-feathers 
brownish black, all outer webs with spots, brownish or greenish 
outside, white inside, inner webs with large white spots ; sides of 
head and neck and under parts white or buffy white, except a 
broad black band from each eye down the side of the neck, two 
black lines on each malar region, the two meeting at the side 
of the throat, and a median line down the throat, or five lines 
in all ; breast-feathers with broad black lateral margins producing 
a striped appearance, abdominal with narrower and less defined 
borders ; under tail-coverts mixed black and white. 

Female. Coronal and occipital feathers golden yellow, broad 
forehead spotted as in the male. In young males the crest- 
feathers are dull scarlet, in young females the yellow crest-feathers 
have red tips. 

Bill dusky blackish; irides crimson; legs and feet horny 
plumbeous (Jerdori). 

Length about 12-5 ; tail 3'5 ; wing 6'25 ; tarsus I'l ; bill from 
gape 2-2. 

Distribution. This Woodpecker is found throughout the greater 
part of the Indian Peninsula and Ceylon, in forest-tracts, ranging 
to Dehra Dun and the Oudh Terai in the north, the Aravalli Hills 
to the west, Behar and Chutia Nagpur to the east. On Lthe 
Malabar coast it appears to be much less common than the next 
species, but has been recorded from Ratnagiri, Goa, and the 
Nilgiris. It is, as a rule, rare or very locally distributed. 

Habits, fyc. This, though a forest bird, is not an inhabitant of 
thick jungle, and has been observed in cultivation occasionally. 
According to Davidson it breeds in the hills around Khandesh 
in November, December, and January, and lays a single white egg 
in a hole in a tree as usual. Generally a new hole is cut out every 
year. 

992. Chrysocolaptes gutticristatus. TickdVs Golden-backed 
Woodpecker. 

Picus guttacristatua, Tickell, J. A. S. B. ii, p. 578 (1833). 
Picus sultaneus, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. vi, p. 105 (1837). 
Picus strictus, apud Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. xi, p. 210. 

VOL. III. F 



PICIDJG. 



Chrysocolaptes sultanens, Blyth, Cat. p. 55 ; id. Ibis, 1866, p. 355 ; 

Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 653 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 281 ; id. Ibis, 1872, 

p. 8 ; Hume fy Oates, S. F. iii, p. 64 ; Armstrong, 8. F. iv, p. 310 ; 

Hume % Inglis, S. F. v, p. 26 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 133 ; 

Hume, Cat.no. 166; Anderson, Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 584; 

Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 52 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 61. 
Indopicus sultaneus (Hodgs.} and I. delesserti, Malh. Mem. Acad. 

Metz, 1848-49, p. 343. 
Chrysocolaptes delesserti, Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 355 ; Hume, S. F. 

iii, p. 64 ; Bourdillon, S. F. iv, p. 389 ; Fairbank, S. F. v, 

p. 396 ; Dav. 8f Wend. S. F. vii, p. 78 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 205 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 166 bis ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 114. 
Chrysocolaptes gutticristatus, Jerdon, Ibis, 1872, p. 8 ; Blyth fy 

Wald. Birds Burm. p. 75; Fairbank, S. F. iv, pp. 255, 265; 

Hargitt, Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 448 ; Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 

2nd ed. ii, p. 313. 
Chrysocolaptes strictus, apud Hume, S. F. viii, p. 154 ; Butler, S. F. 

ix, pis. 238, 385 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 354 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 53. 

The Golden-backed Woodpecker, Jerdon ; Tashi-on-bau, Lepcha. 




Fig. 17. Head of C. gutticristatus, J. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead and border of crown to above eye 
brown, crown and occiput covered with long crimson feathers and 
bordered with black ; hind neck in the middle white, the feathers 
often bordered with black and the white more or less reduced to 
spots ; back, scapulars, and whole outer surface of wings, except 
primary-coverts and outer webs of primaries, golden olive, the 
feathers with bright golden or sometimes scarlet edges ; quills and 
prima.ry-coverts brown, inner webs with round white spots, tips 
of primaries often pale ; rump crimson ; upper tail-coverts and 
tail black. Sides of head and neck and lower parts as in C.festivus, 
except that there is more black, especially on the fore neck and 
breast, which are generally black with white spots. 

Females have the crown and occiput black with round white 
spots. In young males the forehead is coloured as in females. 

Bill bluish brown ; iris pinkish yellow; eyelids dark slaty brown; 
legs greenish blue (Oates). 



CHRYSOCOLAPTES. 67 

Length about 13 ; tail 4'25 ; wing 6*5 (varying from 5'85 to 
7*45); tarsus 1*3 ; bill from gape 2. 

Distribution. Throughout the Lower Himalayas as far west as 
Dehra Dun, rare in Lower Bengal, Manbhoom (Beavan), Dholbhum 
and Borabhum (Tickell), and common in the neighbourhood of 
the Malabar coast from western Khandesh to Cape Comorin. This 
species has not been recorded from other parts of the Indian 
Peninsula, but east of the Bay of Bengal it appears to be found 
from Assam throughout Burma and the neighbouring countries 
to Singapore, Siam, and Cochin China. 

The Malabar race (wing 5*8-6'3 ; culmen l'T-1'9) is much 
smaller than the Himalayan (wing G'7-7'45 ; culmen 2-2-4) and 
has been distinguished as C. delesserti ; but Hume has shown that 
in Burma there is a complete gradation between the two, and that 
Malay Peninsula birds are small like those from Malabar. In 
many species of Oriental birds and mammals the size diminishes 
to the southward. The true C. strictus is peculiar to Java, and is 
distinguished by the female having a yellow head as in 0. festivus. 

Habits, fyc. This bird is found both in thick forest and in cultiva- 
tion, and in Burma often haunts trees on the banks of streams. It 
has, Jerdon says, a high-pitched, faint, screaming note, quite unlike 
the loud and harsh call of Brachyptemus aurantius. It also, like 
others of this genus, makes a great noise when tapping by repeating 
its strokes with unusual rapidity. It breeds on the Nilgiris between 
5500 and 7000 feet in December, January, and February, and in the 
northern Satpuras near Bombay in March, making a large hole in 
the trunk of a tree from 6 to 60 feet from the ground, and laying 
a single white egg. 



993. Chrysocolaptes stricklandi. Layard's Woodpecker. 

Brachypternus stricklandi, Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) xiii, p. 449 

(1854). 
Chrysocolaptes stricklandi, Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 297 ; Holdsivorth, 

P. Z. S. 1872, p. 427 ; Leggc, Ibis, 1874, p. 15 ; 1875, pp. 283, 410; 

id. S. F. iii, p. 200 ; id Birds Ceyl. p. 188, pi. vii ; Holdsworth, 

Ibis, 1874, p. 123 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 368 ; id. Cat. no. 166 ter ; 

Hargitt, Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 453 ; Oates in Hume's N. & E. 2nd 

ed. il, p. 313. 

Coloration. Back, scapulars, and outer surface of wings, except 
primary-coverts and outer webs of primaries, dull crimson, edges 
of feathers brighter, rump also brighter. In all other respects 
this species resembles C. yutticristatus except that there is every- 
where more black and less white, there are only white spots on 
the back of the neck, and the sides of the head above the malar region 
and of the neck are almost all black, the superciliary stripe being 
represented by a row of white spots. The black borders of the 
breast-feathers are very broad. Sexual distinctions as in C. yutti- 
cristatus. 

Bill brownish or olivaceous at the base, greenish white in the 

F2 



68 PICID^E. 

middle, the tip dusky ; iris yellowish white ; legs and feet greenish' 
slate (Legge). 

Length about 11*5 ; tail 3-5 ; wing 5-9 ; tarsus 1-1 ; bill from 
gape 1*9. 

Distribution. Confined to Ceylon. This Woodpecker is found in 
forests almost throughout the island, on both hills and lowlands. 

Habits, 6fc. Similar to those of C.gutticristatus. Legge observed 
birds of this species haunting a nest-hole high up a large tree in 
January in such a manner as to indicate that they had young. 

Genus HEMICERCUS, Swainson, 1837. 

Size small ; bill straight, compressed towards the end, nasal ridge 
well marked, beginning at the base halfway between culmen and 
commissure and extending half the distance to the tip ; nostrils 
covered with plumes ; feet very large, hallux well developed, fourth 
toe longer than third ; a long crest on the occiput and nape ; neck 
very slender ; tail very short, but little exceeding the tail-coverts 
and only about one-third the length of the wing, the tail-feathers 
rounded at the end, outer pair distinctly shorter. Plumage black 
or dark olivaceous grey and buff. Both sexes have in the middle 
of the back a tuft of bristly feathers smeared with a viscid secretion 
having a peculiar resinous scent. 

Only three species are known, of which one is peculiar to Java, 
the others inhabit India and Burma. 

Key to the Species. 

A. Crown red in males, olive-grey like remainder 

of head in females, ruddy buff in young .... H. sordidus, p. 68. 

B. Crown black with white specks in males, buff 

in females and young H. canente, p. 69. 

994. Hemicercus sordidus. The Grey-and-Buff Woodpecker. 

Dendrocopus sordidus, Eyton, A. M. N. H. xvi, p. 229 (1845). 
Hemicercus concretus (Temm.), apud Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 195; 

id. Cat. p. 54 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat, ii, p. 650. 
Hemicercus sordidus, Tweeddale, Ibis, 1877, p. 291 ; Hume fy Dav. 

S. F. vi, p. 128 ; Hume, Cat. no. 165 bis A ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 32 ; 

Hargitt, Ibis, 1884, p. 247 ; id. Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 483. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead and crown crimson ; coronal feathers 
elongate, the crimson cap tapering to a point on the occiput ; long 
nuchal crest, with the sides of the head and neck, chin, throat, and 
breast olivaceous grey; hind neck buff; back, scapulars, wing- 
coverts, and tertiaries black, each feather with a buff margin and 
many with a buff bar across the middle ; remaining quills brownish 
black except the inner margin towards the base, which, with the 
rest of the wing-lining, is buff ; on the secondaries some trian- 
gular buff spots appear on the outer webs, which gradually increase 
till they become bars on the tertiaries ; lower back uniform grey ; 
rump buff ; upper and low r er tail-coverts black tipped with buff ; 



1I1.MICE11CUS. 69 

tail black, the outer feathers barred and tipped with buff ; a slight 
trace of a buff line down the side of the neck ; abdomen grey, with 
buffy-white edges to the feathers. 

Female. Forehead and crown olive-grey like the rest of the head. 

In the young of both sexes the crown and long nuchal crest are 
ruddy buff, the feathers tipped with olive-grey ; in males the long 
nuchal feathers become partly crimson, as these become olive-grey 
the crown becomes crimson, the passage being gradual. The whole 
mantle is buff with black spots, the rump-feathers are edged with 
grey, and those of the lower parts with buff in very young birds. 

Bill plumbeous grey ; irides red-brown ; legs and feet plumbeous, 
tinged greenish (Davison). 

Length 5'5; tail 1*2 ; wing 3*4 ; tarsus '6 ; bill from gape 1. 

Distribution. The Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo, 
ranging north into the extreme south of Tenasserim, a single 
specimen having been obtained by Mr. Davison at Bankasiin. 

995. Hemicercus canente. The Heart-spotted Woodpecker. 

Picus canente, Less. Cent. Zool p. 215, pi. 73 (1830). 

Hemicercus canente, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 282 ; id. Cat. p. 54; 

Horsf. # M. Cat. ii, p. 650 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 280 ; Hume, 8. F. 

iii, p. 61 ; id. Cat. no. 165 bis ; id. S. F. xi, p. 61 ; Blyth $ Wald. 

Birds Burm. p. 74 ; Walden, Ibis, 1876, p. 344 ; Hume $ Inglis, S. f. 

v, p. 25 ; Butler, ibid. p. 503 ; Hume Sf Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 127, 500 ; 

Binyham, S. F. ix, p. 161 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 30 ; Hargitt, Ibis, 

1884, p. 252 ; id. Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 486 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. 

Gen. (2) v, p. 564 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 314. 
Hemicercus cordatus, Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. xi, p. 211 (1840) ; 

id. III. Ind. Orn. pi. xl ; Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 354 ; Hume $ Bourd. 

S. F. iv, p. 389 ; Hume, Cat. no. 165 ; Sutler, S. F. ix, p. 385 ; 

Damson, S. F. x, p. 354 ; Hargitt, Ibis, 1884, p. 257 ; id. Cat. B. M. 

xviii, p. 488 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 114. 

Coloration. Male. Top and sides of head with long occipital 
crest, nape and sides of neck, back, scapulars, upper and lower 
tail-coverts, and tail black, the forehead and anterior portion of 
crown with minute white spots ; a band round the hind neck, 
connected with a median patch on the interscapulary tract and 
running forward -along the sides of the neck to the chin, including 
the throat and malar region, buff, as are also all the wing-coverts 
along the forearm, the wing-lining, and the rump ; quills black, 
margined with buff towards the base of the inner webs ; tertiaries 
and a few of the larger and median coverts buff, each with a heart- 
shaped black spot near the end ; fore neck, breast, and abdomen 
dusky olive, darker behind, flanks black. 

In the female and in the young of both sexes the forehead and 
crown are buff. 

Bill black ; irides dark reddish brown ; legs and feet very dark 
green, sometimes appearing almost black (Davison). 

In males, length 6'4 ; tail 1-4; wing 3-9 ; tarsus '7; bill from 
gape 1*1. Females are rather smaller : wing 3*7 ; bill from 
gape -9. 



70 PldD^E. 

The Malabar variety H. cordatus measures less on an average 
(wing in males about 3-7, in females 3'6), but small Burmese 
specimens are identical in measurement with large Malabar skins. 
The Malabar form has, as a rule, a more slender but not a shorter 
tarsus. I can find no characters by which the two geographical 
races can be constantly distinguished. 




Fig. 18. Head of H. canente. 

Distribution. Throughout the Burmese countries from Cachar in 
the north to Kussoom, about 150 miles south of the Tenasserim 
frontier in the Malay Peninsula, ranging eastward to Siam, Cam- 
bodia, and Cochin China. Also in the forests along the Malabar 
coast of India both below and above the Ghats from Khandala to 
Cape Comorin. The only place in the interior of the Peninsula 
whence this bird has been reported is ia the Chanda forests, where 
Jerdon says he found it. I was on two occasions for some months 
each time in the forests around Chanda and certainly never saw it, 
nor has it been observed in the Central Provinces since Jerdon's 
time. Jerdon does not say he obtained specimens ; and although 
he very rarely made a mistake, I think the occurrence of this 
species in the Indian Peninsula, except in the Malabar tract, needs 
confirmation. 

Habits, &fc. Found in pairs, sometimes in families, in forest or clear- 
ings, usually haunting the tops of high trees. The note is peculiar, 
rather loud and long, and is frequently uttered. The eggs, usually 
two in number, have been found by Mr. Inglis in Cachar in March, 
by Major Bingham and Mr. Davison in Tenasserim in December 
and March, and by Mr. Darling near Kussoom, Malay Peninsula, 
in July : they are white and glossy, deposited on chips in a hole 
made in a tree, and measure about *9 by '7. 

Genus HEMILOPHUS, Swainson, 1837. 

Size very large. Bill large, culmen curved at the base, then 
straight, tip compressed and chisel-shaped ; nasal ridge well deve- 
loped, near the culmen, continued almost to the tip ; nostrils 
large, rounded, covered with plumes ; feet and claws large ; hallux 
well-developed ; fourth toe shorter than third ; wings and tail 
long ; tail-feathers very strong and pointed, the outer pair just 



HEMILOPHUS. 71 

extending beyond the coverts ; feathers of the head short, harsh 
and scaly ; no crest. Plumage ashy. 

A single species, which is the largest Indian Woodpecker. 

996. Hemilophus pulverulentus. The Great Slaty Woodpecker. 

Picus pulverulentus, Temm. PL Col. pi. 389 (1826). 
Picus gutturalis, Valenc. Diet. Sc. Nat. xl, p. 178 (1826). 
Hemilophus pulverulentus, 8wains. Classif. B. ii, p. 309 ; Blyth, 

Cat. p. 54 ; id. J. A. S. B. xxiii, p. 215 ; Blanf. Ibis, 1870, p. 464 ; 

Hargitt, Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 494; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 

2nd ed. ii, p. 315. 




P- 

p. 133 ; Hume, Cat. no. 168 ; Bint/ham, S. F. ix, pp. 141, 162, 472^ 
Alophonerpes gutturalis, Cab. fy Heine, Mus. Hein. iv (2), p. 106 ; 

Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 75. 
Mulleripicus gutturalis, Hume <y Oates, S. F. iii, p. 66. 
Alophonerpes pulverulentus, Wardl.-Rams. Ibis, 1877, p. 457 ; Oates, 

B. B. ii, p. 29. 

Coloration. Male. Ashy grey ; head paler, especially in front, 
all feathers of forehead, crown, neck, and breast with small pale 
tips ; a large dull pale crimson patch in the malar region below 
the eye ; chin, throat, and fore neck saffron-yellow, tinged with 
red, especially on the fore neck, the feathers of the yellow area 
short and stiff ; whole body slaty ash, paler and isabelline round 
the vent ; quills and tail-feathers darker ; outer webs of primaries 
sometimes tipped pale. 

The female wants the red malar patch, and the throat and fore 
neck are yellow without any red. In young males the forehead 
and greater part of the crown are tinged with pale crimson. 

Bill bluish white, black on the culmen and tips of both man- 
dibles ; mouth bluish black ; eyelids plumbeous ; iris dark hazel- 
brown ; legs dark plumbeous ; claws bluish (Oates). 

Length of males about 20 ; tail 7 ; wing 9 ; tarsus 1*55 ; bill 
from gape 3 : females rather less. 

Distribution. The Terai and base of the Himalayas, as far west 
as Kumaun (or, perhaps, Dehra Dun), not common ; also from 
Assam throughout Burma to Cochin China, Sumatra, Java, and 
Borneo, sparingly distributed as a rule, but common in a few 
localities. 

Habits, $c. This grand "Woodpecker is a deni/en of high forests, 
and especially of hilly tracts, and is generally seen high up the 
stems and upper branches of trees, keeping in small parties of 
from three or four to ten or twelve, and very noisy, often uttering 
a peculiar querulous call. The nest was found by Bingham during 
the rains in a Kanyin tree (Dipterocarpus alatus) that had been 
blown down and used as a bridge over ;i sin -am. The birds 
had made a hole 3| inches in diameter, extending a foot inwards 
and then 8 inches downwards. The hole contained two fresh 
glossy white eggs, measuring 1*41 x I'll. 



72 



PICID^E. 



Genus THEIPONAX, Cab. & Heine, 1863. 

This genus is structurally very similar to HemilopTius, except 
that it has a well-marked nuchal crest, and that the feathers of 
the head are of the ordinary texture. The bill is not quite so 
long as in HemilopTius, and the nasal ridge is farther from the 
culmen, though still nearer to it, at the base of the bill, than to 
the commissure. The plumage in Thriponax is chiefly black, in 
most species with some white on the body ; the cap and a malar 
patch are red in males, in females of all Indian species the 
occiput and nape retain the red colour. 

The genus occurs in Malabar, throughout Burma and the 
Malay countries, in the Philippines, and Korea. There are four 
Indian species. 

Key to the Species. 

<i. Rump white. 

a'. Primaries black throughout, or nearly so .... T. hodgsoni, p. 72. 

b'. Basal half of inner webs of primaries white . . T. feddeni, p. 73. 
b. Rump black. 

c'. Abdomen white T.javensis, p. 74. 

d'. No white in plumage T. hodgii, p. 75. 




Fig. 19. Head of T. Jiodgsoni. 



997. Thriponax hodgsoni. The Malabar Great Black 
Woodpecker. 

Hemilophus hodgsonii, Jerdon, Madr. Jour, xi, p. 215, pi. ii (1840) ; 
Blyth, Cat. j>. 55. 

Picus hodgsonii, Jerdon, 111. 2nd. Orn. pi. v. 

Mulleripicus hodgsoni, Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 284. 

Thriponax hodgsoni, Hume, S. F. iii, p. 67 ; id. Cat. no. 169 ; Hume 
8f Bourdillon, 8. F. iv, p. 390 ; Butler, S. F. ix, p. 386 ; Davison, 
S. F. x, p. 355; McGregor, ibid. p. 437; Hargitt, Ibis, 1885, 
p. 150 ; id. Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 503; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 116; 
Davidson, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. vi, p. 335. 

The Great Black Woodpecker, Jerdon. 



THIUPONAX. 



73 



Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, nape, and large malar 
patch on each side crimson ; lower back and rump, lower breast 
and upper part of abdomen, flanks, axillaries, and basal portion 
(1-1-15 inches long) of inner webs of secondaries buffy white ; 
remainder of plumage black. 

Female. The crimson is confined to the occiput and nape, all 
the remainder of the head black. 

Bill black ; irides crimson ; legs dark plumbeous (Jerdon). 

Length of males about 19, of females 17'5 ; tail 7 ; wing 8'5 ; 
tarsus 1'5 ; bill from gape 2' 6. 

Distribution. Forests near the Malabar coast up to an elevation 
of about 3000 feet or rather higher, from Travancore to west of 
Belgaum (16 N. lat.). Not recorded farther north. 

Habits, $c. A shy bird, not noisy, usually found in pairs, some- 
times in parties of three to six. It keeps generally to evergreen 
forest and has a loud, not unpleasant, call-note. The eggs are not 
known with certainty, and Davidson thinks it lays one only, as he 
never saw more than three birds together. 



998. Thriponax feddeni. The Burmese Great Black 
Woodpecker. 

Mulleripicus feddeni, Blanford, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxxii, p. 75 (1863). 
Thriponax jerdoni, Cab. $ Heine, Mus. Hein. iv (2), p. 105 (1863). 
Hemilophus feddeni, Blanf. Ibis, 1870, p. 464. 
Thriponax feddeni, Walden, Ibis, 1871, p. 164 ; Bingham, S. F. viii, 

p. 194 ; ix, p. 162 ; Hume, S. F. viii, p. 409 ; Oates, B. B. ii, 

p. 28 ; Hargitt, Ibis, 1885, p. 152 ; id. Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 504 ; 

Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) iv, p. 578. 
Thriponax crawfurdi, apud Hume, S. F. iii, p. 66 ; Blyth 8f Wald. 

Birds Burm. p. 75 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 134 ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 169 ter, nee Pic us crawfurdii, Gray *. 

Coloration very similar to that of T. hodysoni, but distinguished 
by the much larger extent of the white or creamy-white area on 
the lower parts, where the white extends from the middle breast 



* Picus crawfurdii was described in 1829 by Dr. J. E. Gray (Griffith's Ouv. 
An. King., Birds, ii. p. 513, fig.) from a coloured drawing made by a native artist 
for Mr. Crawfurd, by whom the drawing was brought to England. No specimen 
of the bird has ever been examined by a naturalist, and as in many similar 
cases, where names have been given to figures, it has proved impossible to 
recognize the species. The following description was taken by Dr. Gray from 
the drawing : 

" The whole upper part (except the crest) is deep dark brown, sprinkled 
with grey on the sides of the neck ; across the breast is a large lunule patch of 
slate-colour with small dark waves ; the belly is yellow, with the like crescent- 
shaped spots, and the crest is deep red." 

It should be added that in the figure the crown (not the forehead) is red, 
and there is no red malar patch. The black rump distinguishes the figure 
from T. feddeni. I strongly suspect the drawing to have been an inaccurate 
representation of a female T.javensis. Mr. Crawfurd, however, resided for a 
considerable time in Ava, where T. feddeni occurs. 



74 

to the vent inclusive, on the rump where it sometimes extends- 
to the tail-coverts, and especially inside the wings, the basal half 
or nearly half of the inner webs of all quills being white ; some 
of the outer primaries generally white- tipped ; some white mixed 
with the black on the sides of the head, and on the chin and 
throat. Sexual distinctions as in T. hodgsoni. 

Bill slaty ; irides yellow ; legs and feet plumbeous ; claws 
horny (Bingham). 

Length about 16 ; tail 6 ; wing 8*5 ; tarsus 1-4 ; bill from gape 
2*2 : the female as large as the male. 

Distribution. Throughout the greater part of Burma from 
Bharno in the north to the hills east of Moulmein (Kokarit). 
This bird has also been sent from Siam and Cochin China. 

Habits, fyc. A forest-bird found also in clearings, and generally 
observed in pairs on saplings and small trees. According to 
Captain Feilden and Mr. Davison the flight is peculiar and 
noiseless the blows given by the bill when tapping are loud 
but slow, not quickly repeated like those of Brachypternus, Cliryso- 
colaptes, and Hemiloplius. The call is not loud but is charac- 
teristic, somewhat resembling a Jackdaw's. The nidification has 
not been observed. 



999. Thriponax javensis. The Malay Black Woodpecker. 

Picus javensis, Horsjield, Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 176 (1821). 

Picus leucogaster, Valenc. Diet. Sc. Nat. xl, p. 178 (1826). 

Hemilophua javensis, Blyth, Cat. p. 55. 

Mulleripicus javensis, Horsf. 8f M. Cat. ii, p. 652. 

Thriponax javensis, Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 75 ; Hume, S. F. iii r 

p. 319 ; id. Cat. no. 169 quat. ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 135 ; 

Oates, B. B. ii, p. 27 ; Hargitt, Ibis, 1885, p. 145 ; id. Cat. B. M. 

xviii, p. 498. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, nape, and a large malar 
patch crimson ; lower breast, abdomen, flanks, auxiliaries, and the 
inner webs near the base of some of the quills, chiefly secondaries, 
creamy white; all the rest of the plumage black, small white 
streaks intermixed on sides of neck behind ear-coverts, and on chin 
and throat; sometimes a white tip to each of the outer primaries. 

In the female the crimson is confined to the occiput and nape. 

Bill black, lower mandible plumbeous; iris creamy white or 
yellow ; orbital skin dark plumbeous ; legs and feet pale plumbeous 
(Davison). 

Length about 17 ; tail 7 ; wing 9 ; tarsus 1/4 ; bill from gape 2-4. 

Distribution. The Malay Peninsula, ranging into the extreme 
south of Tenasserim, also Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and several of 
the Philippine Islands. 

Habits, 6fc. Similar to those of T. feddeni. 



PICUMNUS. 75 

1000. Thriponax hodgii. The Andaman Black Woodpecker. 

Mulleripicus hodgei, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxix, p. 105 (1860) ; Beavan, 

Ibis, 1867, p. 320 ; Ball, J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 241 ; xli, pt. 2, 

p. 279 ; id. S. F. i, p. 63. 
Thriponax hodgei, Walden, Ibis, 1873, p. 301 ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 139; 

id. Cat. no. 169 bis ; Hargitt, Ibis, 1885, p. 142 ; id. Cat. B. M. 

xviii, p. 502. 

Coloration. The forehead, crown, nape, and malar patch crimson 
in the male, occiput and nape only in the female, all the rest of 
the plumage black. 

Bill black, in some specimens, not in all, whitish and semi- 
transparent at the tip ; i rides pale yellow ; legs, feet, and claws 
blackish plumbeous (Hume}. 

Length about 15 ; tail 6 ; wing 7*5 ; tarsus 1-3 ; bill from 
gape 1-9. 

Distribution. The Andaman Islands. 

Habits, #c. This Woodpecker is said by Davison to keep to the 
larger trees, to have a shrill rasping whistle, and to make a great 
noise tapping. He shot the young well grown at the end of 
March. 

PICKS or Dryocopus martius was at one time believed by Hume 
to inhabit part of the Khirthar range, Sind. I have been all over 
the range, which is very barren and treeless, and there is no part 
suited for this bird ; moreover I ascertained when in Sind that the 
native story told to Mr. Hume about the occurrence of a black 
Woodpecker (S. F. i, pp. 129, 171) at Dharyaro was a hoax. 



Subfamily PICUMNIN^E. 

This subfamily consists of the smallest forms of the group, 
distinguished by having flexible tail-feathers and short tails, by their 
nostrils being always covered with dense plumes and bristles, and, 
according to Mr. W. Kitchen Parker, by a less developed type of 
palatal structure. The Picumnince or Piculets, as they have been 
called, climb less and perch more than the true Woodpeckers, 
which, however, they resemble in food and in nidification. They 
are found in the Oriental region, Africa, and South America. 
Two genera are Indian. 

Key to the Genera. 

Toes 4 ; orbital region feathered PICUMNUS, p. 75. 

Toes 3 ; orbital region naked SASIA, p. 77. 

Genus PICUMNUS, Teinininck, 1825. 

Size small. Bill conical, compressed, pointed, the culmen slightly 
curved and angulate, the nostrils and chin-angle concealed by dense 



76 . 

plumes with black bristles projecting. Wing and tail rounded. 
Toes 4. Orbits feathered. Plumage soft, lax, and elongate. 

A large genus comprising 33 species, of which all but two are 
South American ; one inhabits China, and one is Indian. 

1001. Picumnus innominatus. The Speckled Piculet. 

Picumnus innominatus, Burton, P. Z. S. 1835, p. 154 ; Blyth, Cat. 

p. 65 ; Hargitt, Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 549 ; Gates in Humes N. fy E. 

2nd ed. ii, p. 316. 

Vivia nipalensis, Hodgson, J. A. 8. B. yi, p. 107 (1837). 
Vivia innominata, Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 677 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, 



p. 300 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 21 ; Godw.-Aust. 
J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 97; Blyth 8? Wold. Birds Burm. 
p. 78 ; Hume, S. F. v, p. 351 ; xi, p. 64 ; id. Cat. no. 186 ; Scully, 
S. F. viii, p. 250 ; Hargitt, Ibis, 1881, p. 223 ; id. Cat. B. M. xviri, 

*> Af\ T- 7 rv TTT * 1 /- K Tl T I <Tfc A ^T ~i \ * 



A. & B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 97; Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. 
11 ; 

Ibi 

? 

^. 11 

Wi-wi, Nepal ; Dang-chim, Lepcha. 



p. 549 ; Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 165 ; Inglis, ibid. p. 247 ; Davison, 
S. F. x, p. 357 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 24. 




Pig. 20. Head of P. innominatus. 

Coloration. Male. Nasal plumes yellowish white, with black 
bristles projecting ; forehead olive ; sincipital feathers black with 
reddish-orange borders, occiput and hind neck olive ; a broad band 
from the eye down the side of the neck blackish olive ; a malar 
stripe the same but mixed with white ; two yellowish-white bands 
down each side of the neck, one from above the eye, the other 
below the eye and ear-coverts, and including the lores ; back, 
scapulars, and rump bright yellow-olive ; outside of wings the 
same, becoming duller on the coverts ; inside of quills brown ; 
yellowish white on the inner margins ; tail blackish brown, inner 
webs of middle pair of feathers white, each feather of the two 
outer large pairs and the small outermost pair with a broad oblique 
white bar close to the tip ; chin and throat white, breast and 
abdomen pale yellow, all with large black spots ; flanks barred ; 
wing-lining white. 

Female. The whole crown olive. 

Bill plumbeous black ; irides brown ; feet dark plumbeous 
(Scully}. 

Length about 4; tail 1*4; wing 2*3; tarsus *52; bill from 
gape 0'5. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas as far west as Murree, 
ranging from about 1500 to 6000, or even in places, according to 
Stoliczka, 9000 feet above the sea. This species has also been 



8ASIA. / 7 

found very rarely in the hills of Southern India near the \\-<t 
coast, by Mr. J. Darling in the Wynaad, and by Mr. W. Davison 
below Kotagiri on the Nilgiris. To the eastward it is found in 
Assam, Cachar, and Manipur, and very sparingly in Burma, the 
Malay Peninsula, and Sumatra. In Burma it has hitherto only 
been recorded from Karennee by Wardlaw Ramsay, and from 
Tenasseriin by Blyth and Binghain. 

Habits, <$fc. According to Jerdon this bird is found in tangled 
brushwood and among dead and fallen trees in damp spots. Scully, 
however, observed it on trees near Katmandu. To the eastward 
it haunts bamboos. It feeds on various insects, and, according 
to Mr. E. Thompson, on the eggs and larvae of wood-boring 
beetles. It breeds in April and May, making a hole precisely like 
that of a typical Woodpecker, sometimes in the stem, sometimes 
in a branch of a tree, and laying usually three eggs, oval, white, 
and very glossy, measuring on an average *6 by *5. 



G-enus SASIA, Hodgson, 1836. 

This genus of Piculets differs from Picumnus in wanting the 
first (inner hind) toe, and in having a naked space round each 
orbit, and a very short tail. The culmen is more rounded. The 
coloration, too, differs greatly from that of Picumnus. 

Three species are known one is Himalayan and Burmese, the 
other two Malay. 

1002. Sasia ochracea. The Rufous Piculet. 



Sasia ochracea, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. v, p. 778 (1836) ; Blyth, Cat. 
p. 65 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 678 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 301 ; id. 
Ibis, 1872, p. 10; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 97 : 
xlv, pt. 2, p. 70 ; Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 78 ; Hume 
Gates, S. F. lii, p. 75 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 148 ; i 



'bis, 1872, p. 10; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 97 : 

\; Hume 4' 

Uates, tf. JP. in, p. vo ; Lume $ JJav. a. Jf. vi, p. 148 ; Hume, Cat. 
no. 187 ; id. S. F. xi, p. 65 ; Inglis, S. F. ix, p. 247 ; Hargitt, Ibis, 
1881, p. 231 ; id. Cat. B. M. xviii, p. 555 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 26 : 
id. in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 317. 

Comeris (Sasia) ochracea, Hodgs. Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 85 (1844). 
Microcolaptes ochraceus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 191. 

Sasya, Nepal ; Chi?n, Lepcha. 

Coloration. Male. Nasal plumes and forehead golden yellow, 
the former terminating in long black bristles, the yellow shading 
into rufous on the sinciput ; occiput and nape olive ; lores light 
grey ; a white supercilium carried back some distance from above 
the eye ; back, scapulars, and edges of tertiaries rufous olive, re- 
mainder of outer surface of wing pure olive ; rump bright orange- 
brown ; quills (except the outer edges) brown with whitish inner 
margins ; tertiaries pale brown ; upper tail-coverts and tail black ; 
lower parts orange-brown (brownish ferruginous), occasionally 
brownish yellow, sides of neck and hind neck rather more rufous : 
wing-lining yellowish white ; edge of wing buff. 



78 

In the female the forehead and sinciput are brownish rufous, 
like the hind neck. 

Upper mandible dark brown, lower plumbeous ; iris crimson, 
orbits dusky red ; legs yellowish red (Oates). 

Length 3'4 ; tail 1 ; wing 2-1 ; tarsus '55 ; bill from gape "55. 

Distribution. The Himalayas in Nepal, and further eastward ; 
Assam, Tipperah, Sylhet, Cachar, Manipur, and throughout Burma, 
but not, so far as is known, farther south, this species being 
replaced in the Malay Peninsula by S. abnormis. In Sikkim 
8. ochracea is found between 1000 and 6000 feet. 

Habits, fyc. This little Woodpecker is usually solitary or in 
pairs ; it haunts brushwood and bamboos in forest, and, like Picum- 
nus innominatus, often makes its presence known by the noise it 
produces by tapping on bamboos. It lives on various insects, 
partly, at all events, on Coleoptera. Its eggs have been found in 
Sikhim by Mr. Gammie, amongst others, in June and July. It 
makes a hole, sometimes in the stem of a tree, sometimes in a 
bamboo. The eggs are white and measure about -63 by '5. 



Subfamily IYNGIN.E. 

Tail-feathers soft, flexible ; tail about three quarters the length 
of the wing or more ; nostrils not covered by plumes, but partially 
covered by a membrane. 

This subfamily contains the Wrynecks, which form a single 
genus. 

Genus IYNX, Linn., 1766. 

Bill of moderate length, conical, compressed ; nostrils large, near 
the culmen ; wing pointed ; plumage soft, brownish grey in colour, 
minutely speckled. Sexes alike. 

Four species are known, three of which are confined to Africa ; 
the fourth is a migratory bird, visiting India and Burma in 
winter. 

1003. lynx torquilla. The Common Wryneck . 

Yunx torquilla, Linn. Syst. Nat. \, p. 172 (1766) Blyth, J. A. S. B. 

xvi, p. 467 ; id. Cat. p. 65 ; Horsf. 8f M. Cat. ii, p. 679 ; Jerdon, 

B. I. i, p. 303 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 22 ; id. 

S. F. ii, p. 461 ; Brooks, J.A.S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 74 ; Butler, S. F. 

in, p. 459 ; v, p. 227 j ix, p. 386 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 206 ; Hume, 

Cat. no. 188 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 120. 
Jynx torquilla, Blyth, Ibis, 1866, pp. 356, 357. 
lynx torquilla, Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 49; Scully, ibid. p. 430; 

Oates, B. B. ii, p. 23 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 65 ; Hargitt, Cat. B. M. 

xviii, p. 560; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) vii, p. 380; 

Oates in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii ; p. 318 ; Sharpe, Yark. Miss., 

Aves, p. 110. 

Gardan eyengtha, H. ; Meda nulingadu, Tarn. 



IYNX. 79 

Coloration. Above brownish grey, finely speckled and mottled : 
a dark brown patch, unevenly coloured, from nape to middle of 
back, another across the coverts of each wing, a few longitudinal 
dark streaks on the lower back and rump, and some imperfect 
ocelli on the wing-coverts ; quills brown, with numerous rufous 
spots on both webs ; tail with narrow wavy black cross-bands ; 




Fig. 21. Head of /. torquilla. 

sides of head, throat, and fore neck pale rufous with dark cross- 
lines, a dark patch on the ear-coverts ; breast and abdomen white, 
with arrow-head-shaped dark marks. 

Bill brown, iris hazel ; legs and feet greenish brown (Oates}. 

Length 7*5 ; tail 2*8 ; wing 3-4 ; tarsus '8 ; bill from gape *85. 

Distribution. A winter vistor to the plains of India and Burma, 
extending south to Madras (Jerdon) and Belgaum (Butler), and in 
Burma to Pegu (Oates) and Karennee (Wardlaiu Bamsay, Fea). 
Not recorded from the Malabar coast, Ceylon, nor Tenasserim. 
Found in summer in Kashmir and Gilgit. Outside of India the 
Wryneck is found in summer throughout the greater part of 
Europe, Central and Northern Asia, and in winter in parts of 
Africa. 

Habits, $c. The Wryneck is generally seen on low trees or 
bushes or in high grass. It feeds on various insects, chiefly ants, 
which it sometimes captures on the ground. It has a peculiar 
plaintive call. It but rarely climbs trees like a Woodpecker, 
pressing its tail against the bark, though it has been seen to do so. 
The name is derived from a habit it has of twisting its head round. 
It has not been known to breed in the plains of India, but Brooks 
and Stoliczka have found it nesting in Kashmir. The eggs are 
laid in Europe about May in a hole not always made by the bird, 
often in a lime-tree. The hole is not lined. The eggs are white, 
7 to 12 in number, and measure about '81 by '64. 

Yunx indica, Gould (Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 304), is now known to 
have been founded on a specimen of an African species, I.pectoralis. 
The supposed Afghan or Tibetan locality must have been a 
mistake. 



Order IV. ZYGODACTYLI. 



The second order of Picarian birds comprises the Indicators or 
Honey-guides, the Barbets, and the Toucans (Rliampliastida?}, the 

last being peculiar to South America, 
All of these have zygodactyle feet 
like Woodpeckers, with the first 
and fourth toes directed backwards, 
and the picine arrangement of the 
deep plantar tendons, the flexor 
perforans digitorum running to the 
third toe only, whilst the first, 
second, and fourth toes are sup- 
plied by branches of the flexor 
lonyus hallucis, as shown in the 
accompanying figure by Garrod. 
The muscles of the thigh, too, in 
the present group, present the same 
arrangement as in Pici ; the spinal 
feather-tract is similarly disposed, 
the oil-gland is tufted, and there 
are no ca?ca. The nidification, too, 
is similar. 

On the other hand, the vomer in 
the present group, instead of being 
represented by a number of paired 
rods, is single and bifurcate, and 
the palate is either truly desmo- 
gnathous, the maxillo - palatines 
blending across the middle line, or 
segithognathous. The sternum, too, 
presents some characteristic differ- 
ences, being much broader, especi- 
ally in front, in proportion to its 
length, and the breadth in front 
being nearly the same as that 
behind, instead of much less ; the foramina or notches on the 
posterior border are deeper, the manubrium or rostrum sterni is 
pointed and not bifid, and the clavicles do not meet to form a 
furcula. Tongue of ordinary structure, not protrusile. 

The two Indian families of this order are thus distinguished 
(the characters do not apply to some African forms) : 

Tail-feathers 12 ; primaries 9 Indicatoridae. 

Tail-feathers 10 ; primaries 10 Capitonidae. 




Fig. 22. Tarsus and foot of Mega- 
IcBma asiatica from behind, dis- 
sected to show the deep plantar 
tendons, the /. long, hallucis on 
the right in the upper part of 
the figure, the /. per/, digitorum 
on the left. (G-arrod, P. Z. S. 
1875, p. 346.) 



IKDICATORID^E. 81 



Family INDICATOEID^E. 

Bill stout, short. Tail-feathers 12 (except in one aberrant 
African genus). Wing long and pointed ; only 9 primaries ; no 
short primary, the first nearly as long as the second. Ventral 
feather-tract forked on the throat, but not on each side of the 
breast. 

Ethiopian and Oriental regions. A single genus is found in 
India. 

Genus INDICATOR, Vieillot, 1816. 

Tarsus short, all toes well-developed, 3rd (outer anterior) longer 
than 4th (outer posterior). Bill finch-like ; culmen rounded, the 
profile considerably curved ; no nasal plumes nor rictal bristles ; 
nostrils large, subtriangular, partly covered by a membrane. Tail 
somewhat graduated, the outer pair of rectrices in several species, 
as in the Indian one, considerably shorter and narrower. 

This genus contains several African species and the only two 
Oriental members of the family ; one of these is Himalayan, the 
other, /. archipelagicus, is Malayan, not ranging into Tenasserim. 

The African Indicators frequently point out the position of 
bees' nests, and hence have received the name of Honey-guides. 
Throughout Africa these birds are said to lead men to bees' nests 
for the sake of sharing in the spoil. Nothing is known of similar 
habits in the Indian and Malay species, though they appear, like 
the African, to feed on hymenoptera. The Honey-guides, like 
Woodpeckers and Barbets, lay white eggs in a hole in the stem or 
branch of a tree, but they are said to utilize an old nest-hole of a 
Barbet or Woodpecker for the purpose. 

1004. Indicator xanthonotus. The Yellow-backed Honey-guide. 

Indicator xanthonotus, Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xi, p. 166 (1842) ; xii, 
p. 942, pi. ; xiv, p. 198 ; id. Cat. p. 65 ; Jerdon, III. Ind. Orn. 
pi. 60 ; id. B. I. i, p. 306 ; id. Ibis, 1872, p. 10 ; Hume, S. F. i, 
p. 313 ; Stoliczka, ibid. p. 425 ; Hume, Cat. no. 190 ; Shelley, Cat. 
B. M. xix, p. 3; Sharpe, Yark. Miss., Aves, p. 108. 

Indicator radcliffi, Hume, Ibis, 1870, p. 529; Jerdon, Ibis, 1872, 
p. 10. 

Pseudofringilla xanthonotus, Hume, S. F. i, p. 314 (1873). 

Pseudospiza xanthonota, Sharps, Rowley's Orn. Misc. i, p. 207. 

Coloration. Broad forehead, edges of a few sincipital feathers, 
and cheeks golden yellow; crown and sides of head including 
area round the eyes, back and sides of neck dusky yellowish olive, 
feathers of the crown with dark centres ; feathers of upper back and 
scapulars, wing-coverts and quills blackish brown, all except the 
primaries and their coverts narrowly fringed with yellowish olive ; 

TOL. III. G 



82 CAPITONIDjE. 

inner webs of secondaries and tertiaries with whitish margins ; 
middle of back pure yellow, lower back and rump orange-yellow ; 
upper tail-coverts and tail-feathers blackish brown, except the 
outermost (shorter) tail-feathers, which are paler and greyer ; lower 




Fig. 23. Head of 1. xanthonotus. 

parts dark grey ; the chin, throat, and fore neck tinged with yellow ; 
breast and abdomen with blackish shaft-streaks, broader behind 
vent; feathers and under tail-coverts blackish with pale edges; 
wing-lining whitish, edge of wing buff. 

Bill yellow, ashy towards the tip ; iris dark brown ; naked orbital 
area pale green ; feet pale greenish horny (Stoliczka). 

Length about 6 ; wing 3-8 ; tail 2-4 ; tarsus -6 ; bill from gape -5. 

Distribution. This species, which is very rare, has hitherto been 
found only in the Himalayas, in Sikhim, and also near Murree and 
Abbottabad, but nowhere in the intervening area. 

Habits, $c. The only published observations are by Stoliczka, 
who shot a male close to Dungagali near Murree. This bird had 
a heavy flight like Meyalcema, and in the stomach were several 
specimens of a predatory wasp and a small quantity of green 
vegetable matter. 



Family CAPITONID^E. 

Bill as a rule stout and strong. Nostrils at base of bill, often 
overhung by plumes and bristles. E-ictal and chin bristles often 
largely developed. Ventral feather-tract forked on the throat and 
on each side of the breast. Tail-feathers 10. Wing rounded in all 
Indian forms, and with 10 primaries, the first short. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. No green on plumage ; no rictal bristles . . CALORHAMPHUS, p. 83, 
6. Prevailing colour green; long rictal bristles. 

a'. Lower tail-coverts red ME GAL JEM A, p. 84. 

b' . Lower tail-coverts green. 

a". 2nd primary shorter than 10th. 
a 3 . Head, neck, and breast brown, 

more or less streaked THEREICERYX, p. 86. 



CA.LOEHAMPHUS. 83 

b 3 . Head and neck with bright colours. 

a 4 . Oilmen longer than tarsus .... CHOTORHEA, p. 90. 

b*. Culmen not longer than tarsus . . CYANOPS, p. 92. 

b". 2nd primary longer than 8th XANTHOL^EMA, p. 97. 

The Barbets are mainly fruit-eating birds. In the stomachs of 
the African species that I examined in Abyssinia I found insects 
in considerable quantities; but although some of the Indian species 
are occasionally insectivorous, none of them, with the exception of 
Calorhamphus, feed much on insect food. Indian species, with 
the same exception, have a peculiar call of one, two, or three 
syllables, repeated in a singularly monotonous manner for several 
minutes, then ceasing for a time, and recommencing after an 
interval. The calls of two or more birds are frequently heard 
together, the pitch of each bird's note being different. It is often 
very difficult to tell in which direction precisely a bird is calling, and 
both the direction and distance appear to vary as the bird turns 
its head in different ways. Each bird, in the act of calling, nods 
its head in a peculiar manner. All Barbets, so far as is known, 
excavate nest-holes in trees not unlike those made by Wood- 
peckers ; the entrance small, generally very well rounded and neatly 
bevelled, and the inside larger and well smoothed. The eggs, which 
are white but not so glossy as those of Woodpeckers, are laid on 
the bare wood, or on a few chips. When making their nest-holes 
these birds tap to detach the wood, but the action is much slower 
than that of Woodpeckers. 

As a rule Barbets perch, and they do not, commonly at all 
events, climb stems or branches as Woodpeckers do, but they 
sometimes cling to a vertical tree. Their flight is undulating, 
but strong and moderately rapid. 

In the plumage of all Indian species, except Calorhampfius hayi, 
green predominates. The sexes are generally alike. 



Genus CALORHAMPHUS, Lesson, 1839. 

Bill stout, culmen much curved, sharply angulate, upper 
mandible not swollen at the base ; nostrils partly overhung, but 
not concealed, by feathers and a few bristles ; no bristles on chin ; 
feathers of crown with coarse shafts, of which the ends are pro- 
longed as free bristles. Wings rounded, tail slightly rounded. 
Sexes alike except in the colour of the bill. 

A genus of two small dull-coloured species, brown above, 
whitish below, confined to the Malay countries. One is found 
in Southern Tenasserim. 

1005. Calorhamphus hayi. The Brown Barbet. 

Bucco hayi, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 33 (1831). 

Megalorhynchus hayii, Blyth, Cat. p. 69; Horsf. 8f M. Cat. ii,. 
p. 648. 

62 



S4 CAPITONID^E. 

Calorhamphus lathami, Marshall, Mon. Cap. p. 179, pi. 72; nee 

Bucco lathami, Gmel. 
Calorhamphus hayii, Hume, S. F. iii, p. 319 ; d. Cat. no. 190 bis ; 

Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 149 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 138 ; Shelley, 

Cat. B. M. xix, p. 50. 

Coloration. Upper parts throughout dark brown, the feathers of 
the crown with black shafts and narrowly edged with rufous, 
those of the mantle with narrow yellow edges, which are more 
conspicuous on the upper tail-coverts ; these pale fringes disappear 
with wear ; quills and tail-feathers also dark brown, the quills with 
fulvous inner margins ; sides of head dark brown like the crown, 
becoming paler and reddish in the malar region ; chin and throat 
still paler rufous, remainder of lower parts sullied yellowish white. 

Bill black in the male, dull reddish brown in the female ; irides 
dull red or brownish red ; legs and feet orange, claws black 
(Davison). 

Length 7*25 ; tail 2 ; wing 3'25 ; tarsus -85 ; bill from gape 1-2. 

Distribution. From the southernmost part of Tenasserim through- 
out the Malay Peninsula to Sumatra. 

Habits, fyc. According to Davison this is a forest bird, usually 
seen in small parties of three or four, hunting about the branches 
and leaves of trees, clinging in all positions like a Tit, and feeding 
on insects as much as fruits. It has a most peculiar note, a low 
soft whistle. 



Genus MEGALJEMA, GL E. Gray, 1842. 

Bill large, culmen rounded, not angulate, much curved, upper 
mandible considerably swollen at the base and overlapping the 
lower ; nostrils completely covered by plumes and bristles, base of 
bill surrounded by bristles not so long as the bill ; wings rounded ; 
tail square. Sexes alike. 

This genus as restricted comprises three species of large size, 
two of which are found within our area ; the third, M. lagrandieri, 
occurs in Cochin China. The prevailing colour is green. The 
under tail-coverts are bright red. 

Key to the Species. 

Head and neck deep violet-blue M. marshallorum, p. 84. 

Head and neck verditer with a greenish tinge. M. virens, p. 86. 

1006. MegalsBma marshallorum. The Great Himalayan Barbet. 

Megalaima virens, Blyth, Cat. p. 66 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 635 j 
Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 308 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 22 ; 
Beavan, Ibis, 1869, p. 415 ; Godiv.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, 
p. 97 ; Marshall, Mon. Cap. p. 33, pi. xvi. ; nee Bucco virens, 
Bodd. 

Megalaema marshallorum, Swinhoe, A. M. N. H. (4) vi. p. 348 
(1870) ; Jerdon, Ibis, 1872, p. 11 ; Cock 8f Marsh. S. F. i, p. 350; 



MEGAL^EMA. 85 

Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 73 ; Brooks, S. F. iii, p. 232 ; Hume, Cat. 
no. 191 j id. S. F. xi, p. 66 ; Scully, S. F. vih, p. 250 ; C. H. T. 
Marshall, Ibis, 1884, jx 410 ; Gate's m Hume's N. $ K 2nd ed. ii, 
p. 318 ; Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix, p. 53 ; Sharpe, York. Miss., Aves, 
p. 108. 

Traiho, H. Chamba ; Miouli, at Mussooree ; Nyahul, Neoul, Nepalese ; 
Kun-nyong. Lepcha. 




Fig. 24. Head of M. marshallorum. 

Coloration. Feathers of head and neck all round black with deep 
violet-blue edges ; back and scapulars brownish olive, the upper 
back with narrow pale green or greenish-yellow longitudinal 
streaks; lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts grass-green, 
with brighter green edges ; tail green above, blackish washed with 
pale blue below ; secondary- coverts like back ; primary-coverts 
and primaries near the base fringed with blue, outer webs of 
secondaries green, tertiaries bluer with the tips olive-brown, 
remainder of quills blackish brown, inner webs with yellowish- 
white margins, and outer webs of primaries with a pale linear 
border near the tips ; upper breast dark olive-brown ; lower breast 
and abdomen blue in the middle, yellow with broad brownish 
shaft-stripes at the sides ; under tail-coverts scarlet. 

Bill yellow, pale in front, dusky at the edge of the upper 
mandible ; irides brown ; legs greenish horny (Jerdon). 

Length 13 ; tail 4 ; wing 5*7 ; tarsus 1'25 ; bill from gape 2'1. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas as far west as Murree, 
between about 3000 and 8000 feet elevation, also south of the 
Assam Valley in Manipur, the Khasi hills, and, according to Blyth,, 
Arrakan. Birds from Karennee referred to this species by 
Wardlaw Bam say prove to belong to the next. 

Habits, $c. A forest bird ; according to Jerdon, " it has a loud 
plaintive call (pi-o, pi-o), keeps to the top of high trees, lives- 
entirely on fruit, and has a strong and vigorous flight in great 
undulations." It sometimes is met with in small flocks. It makes- 
nest-holes in various trees, in the trunks and larger branches, from 
10 to 50 feet from the ground, and lays from the middle of May 



'86 CAPITONID^E. 

to the middle of July. The eggs are dull white, usually four in 
number, and measure on an average 1'37 by *98. 

1007. Megalsema virens. The Great Chinese Barbet. 

Bucco virens, Bodd. Tabl. PL Enl. p. 53 (1783). 

Megalsema virens, Hume, S. F. ii, p. 472 ; id. Cat. no. 191 bis ; 

Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 150 ; Bine/ham, S. F. ix, pp. 165, 473 ; 

Oates, B. B. ii, p. 130 ; id. in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 319 ; 

Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix, p. 52 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. 

(2) vii, p. 377. 
Meg-alsema marshallorum, Walden, Birds Burm. p. 73; Wardl. 

Rams. Ibis, 1877, p. 457 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 129; nee Sivinhoe. 

Similar to M. marshallorum, except that the colour of the head 
and neck is verditer-blue with a greenish tinge, and that the pale 
streaks on the upper back are much fewer, less marked, and 
whitish or bluish, not green or yellow ; the median wing-coverts 
too are tinged with red. Soft parts and dimensions as in 
M. marshallorum. 

Distribution. Karennee and hill-forests of northern Tenasserim 
as far south as Muleyit, east of Moulmein, extending thence into 
South China. 

Habits, fyc. Similar to thos.e of M. marshallorum. The eggs 
were found by Major Bingliam in Tenasserim during February 
and March. 



Genus THEREICERYX, Blanford, 1893. 

Bill shaped somewhat as in Megalayma, but the upper mandible 
is not quite so high, and the bill is generally pale yellowish 
throughout. Nostrils exposed. Wing rounded. The plumage is 
peculiar ; the head, neck, and breast are brown, more or less 
streaked with white, the rest of the plumage green. 

Three species are found within Indian limits, a fourth, T. phce- 
ostictus (phceostriatus}, inhabits Cochin China. The members of 
this small group have hitherto been referred by various writers 
either to Megalcema or to Cyanops. 

Key to the Species. 

a. A large naked orbital space extending to gape . T. zeylonicus, p. 86. 
J). Orbital space smaller, not extending to gape. 

a'. Wing about 5" T. lineatus, p. 88. 

&'. Wing about 4" T. viridis, p. 89. 

1008. Thereiceryx zeylonicns. The Common Indian Green 
Barbet. 

Bucco zeylanicus, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i, p. 408 (1788) ; Blyth, J. A. S. B. 

xv, pp! 13, 282. 
Bucco caniceps, Franklin, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 121. 



THEEEICERYX. 87 

Megalaima caniceps, Blyth, Cat. p. C6 ; Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) 

xiii, p. 446 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 637 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 310. 
Megalaima zeylanica, Horsf. & M. Cat. ii, p. 638: Holdsworth. 

P. Z. S. 1872, p. 429. 
Megalrema caniceps, Beavan, Ibis, 1865, p. 411 ; Stoliczka,' J. A. S. B. 

xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 22; Marshall, Man. Cap. p. 91, pi. 39; 

McMaster, J. A. S. B. xl, pt. 2, p. 209 ; Ball, S. F. ii, p. 392 ; 

v, p. 413 ; vii, p. 206 ; Morgan, Ibis, 1875, p. 314 ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 193 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 2o ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 121. 
Megalcema zeylanica, Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 296 ; Marshall, Man. Cap. 

p. 95, pi. 40 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 369 ; id. Cat. no. 193 ter ; 

Leqge, Birds Ceyl. p. 208, pi. x. 
Megatema inornata, Walden, A. M. N. H. (4) v, p. 219 (1870); 



Marshall, Mon. Cap, p. 89, pi. 38; Jerdon, Ibis, 1872, p. 11 ; 
"lume, S. F. iii, p. 401 ; id. Cat. no. 193 bis ; Butler, S. F. iii, 
p. 459 ; ix, p. 387 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 54 ; Davidson. S. F. x, p. 298 ; 



Littledale, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. i, p. 197 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 

p. 121. 
Cyanops caniceps and C. zeylonica, Oates in Hume's 'N. fy E. 2nd ed. 

ii, pp. 322, 324 ; Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix, pp. 76, 78. 
Thereiceryx zeylonicus, Blanf. Ibis, 1893, p. 237. ' 

The common Green Barbet, Jerdon ; Barra Bussunta, H. & Beng. ; 
Kutumra, Deccan ; Kudrungfi, H. in Central India ; Kotur, H. (Rohilcund 
.and Doab) & Mahr. ; Sunterar, Beng. Manbhoom ; Kuturga, Mahr. ; 
Kutur haki, Can. ; Gandu Karnam, Tel. ; Kotoruwa, Cing. ; Kutur, 
Tamil (Ceylon). 




-7 

Fig. 25. Head of T. zeylonicus. 

A large naked space round the eye extending to the gape, lores 
almost entirely naked. Culmen much curved. 

Coloration. Head and neck all round, with the breast, and some- 
times the upper abdomen, brown, the feathers with narrow pale 
shaft-stripes, the pale shafts generally inconspicuous on the head, 
but becoming more and more distinct behind ; upper parts from 
neck bright green ; interscapulary feathers, scapulars, and upper 
wing-coverts more or less distinctly pale-shafted with small 
termiual whitish spots. Abdomen paler green than back ; tail 
below washed with light verditer-blue ; quills brown, with pale 
inuer margins and the primaries narrowly pale-edged near the 
snd. 



00 CAPITONID^E. 

Bill pale orange-brown ; iris red-brown ; bare orbital skin dull* 
orange ; legs light yellowish brown (Jerdori). 

Length 10-5 ; tail 3-2 ; wing 4-7 ; tarsus 1-25 ; bill from gape 1-8. 
Ceylon and Tranvancore birds run smaller, wing about 4*4. 

Distribution. Almost throughout India and Ceylon. Common 
at the base of the Western Himalayas in the Dehra Dun and 
Rohilcund Terai, throughout the North-west Provinces and the 
wooded parts of Central India, Eastern Guzerat, the Central 
Provinces, and South-western Bengal, the forest-tracts between the 
Ganges and Grodavari, some of the better wooded regions of the 
Madras Presidency, and near the Malabar coast ; wanting in the 
Punjab and Sind, in Eajputana except around Mount Abu, in 
Lower Bengal, and, I believe, in the open parts of the Deccan and 
Carnatic. In Ceylon this Barbet inhabits most of the low country 
and the lower hills, except close to the sea-shore, or in dense damp 
forest. 

As in so many other cases, the Southern bird from Ceylon 
and Travancore is rather smaller and darker. This is typical 
T. zeylonicus. The North Indian bird caniceps is larger and slightly 
paler. The intermediate form from the Bombay coast has been 
separated as inornata. I can discover no constant distinction : 
some freshly moulted northern forms are quite as dark in colour 
as Ceylonese, and in the British Museum collection there is a 
female Ceylon skin with the wing 4-6 long, and a female Allahabad 
specimen with the wing measuring 4-5, both being adult and 
thoroughly good specimens. 

Habits, 6fc. Like other Indian Barbets, this species lives chiefly 
upon fruit and seeds, and especially on the figs of the banyan 
and other kinds of Ficus. It is said, however, occasionally though 
rarely to eat insects, and Layard has related how an individual, 
kept in captivity, killed and swallowed small birds (Munias), its 
fellow-captives. The best known characteristic of this Barbet is its 
loud dissyllabic call, which Jerdon represents as Tcutur, Jcotur Jcotur, 
preceded by a harsh sort of laugh ; this call is heard from January 
or February till June. Each bird continues to call for some time, 
frequently even on moonlight nights. The flight is strong but 
heavy and somewhat undulating. In Northern India the breeding- 
season is chiefly in March and April ; 3 or 4 eggs are laid in a hole 
hollowed by the bird itself in a tree. The eggs are dull white,, 
slightly glossy, and measure about 1-21 by '88. 



1009. Thereiceryx lineatus. The Lineated Barbet. 

Capito lineatus, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. iv, p. 500 (1816). 
Megalaiina lineata, Blyth, Cat. p. 66 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 636 r 

Jerdon, B. /. i, p. 309. 

Megalaima hodgsoni, Bonap. Consp. Av. i, p. 144 (1850;. 
Megalaima macclellandi, Moore, Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 637. 
Megakema hodgsoni, Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 358 ; Walden, P. Z. S, 

1866, p. 540 ; Stoliczka, J.A.S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 22 ; Marshall, 



THEBEICEEYX. 89 

Mon. Cap. p. 85, pi. 36 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 76 ; id. Cat. no. 192 ; 

Blyth 8f \Vald. Birds Burm. p. 73 ; Hume # Dav. S. F. vi, p. 151 j 

Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 583 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 251 ; 

Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. (2) iv, p. 577 ; v, p. 561 ; Hume, S. F. 

xi, p. 67. 

Megalaema lineata, Marshall, Mon. Cap. p. 88, pi. 37. 
Cyanops hodgsoni, Oates, B. B. ii, p. 132. 
Cyanops lineata, Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 325 ; Shelley, 

Cat. B. M. xix, p. 80. 

Dang kun-nyong, Lepcha ; Kudurta, Khotoor, Nepal ; Pho-gouny. 
Burmese. 

Naked space round eye much smaller than in T. zeylonicus and 
not extending to gape. 

Coloration. Crown and nape brown, with rather broad white 
shaft-stripes ; upper plumage from the neck grass -green ; feathers 
of the upper back with narrow white shafts ; lores and cheeks 
whitish ; ear-coverts whity brown ; chin and throat white ; sides 
of neck, breast, and upper abdomen coloured like the crown, but 
the white shaft-stripes on the breast are much broader; lower 
abdomen and under tail-coverts light green, the feathers with 
broad whitish median stripes ; quills dark brown, with pale yellow 
inner margins ; primaries with pale outer borders near the tips ; 
tail washed with light blue below. 

Bill horny yellow ; orbits deep yellow; irides brown; feet fleshy 
yellow (Scully). 

Length 11 ; tail 3'3 ; wing 5*1 ; tarsus 1-25 ; bill from gape 1*7. 
These are the dimensions of Eastern Himalayan and Burmese birds ; 
Western Himalayan are larger, Malay specimens smaller. 

Distribution. Throughout the Lower Himalayas as far west as 
the Sutlej, not ascending more than 2000 or 3000 feet, and east- 
ward to Yunnan ; also in Assam, and to the southward throughout 
Burma, in Siam and Cambodia, and in Java, but not in the Malay 
Peninsula nor in Sumatra. 

The original T. lineatus is the Javan race, which is small (wing 
about 4-6), whilst the big West Himalayan race (wing 5-3) has 
been distinguished as Megalcema hodgsoni; but, as Shelley L has 
shown, the Eastern Himalayan, Assamese, and Burmese birds are 
intermediate in size. The case is similar to that of T. zeylonicus 
and T. caniceps, the Southern race being smaller and darker, but 
the distinction in size between T. lineatus and T. hodgsoni is much 
greater. 

Habits, Sfc. Similar to those of T. zeylonicus. The call is a 
monotonous dissyllabic note. The eggs, four in number, are laid 
in March and April, and measure about 1-27 by -87. 



1010. Thereiceryx viridis. The Small Green Barbet. 

Bucco viridis, Bodd. Tabl. PI. Enl. p. 63 (1783) ; Jerdon, Madr. 
Jour. L. S. xi, p. 217 ; xiii, pt. 2, 
pi. xxvi ; Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 13. 



90 CAPITONID^E. 

Megalaima viridis, Blyth, Cat. p. 67 ; Horsf. Sf M. Cat. ii, p. 639 ; 

Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 311 ; Davidson, S. F. x, p. 298; Barnes, Birds 

Bom. p. 122. 
Megalsema viridis, Marshall, Mon. Cap. p. 81, pi. 35 ; Morgan, Ibis, 

1875, p. 315 ; Fairbank, S. F. iv, p. 255 ; v, p. 396 ; Hume $ 

Bourdillon. 8. F. iv, p. 391 ; Hume, Cat. no. 194 ; Vidal, S. F. 

ix, p. 54 ;' Butler, S. F. ix, p. 387 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 358 ; 

Macyregor, ibid. p. 437 ; Taylor, ibid. p. 458. 
Megalsema sykesi, Hayes Lloyd, Ibis, 1873, p. 125. 
Cyanops viridis, Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix, p. 83 ; Oates in Hume's 

N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 325. 

Naked space round eye much smaller than in T. zeylonicus ; area 
above the gape feathered. 

Coloration. Head above and nape dark brown not striated ; hind 
neck greener, the feathers pale-shafted ; sides of neck brown, with 
pale shaft-stripes ; upper plumage from neck bright grass-green ; 
sides of head, chin, and throat whitish, except the lores, a band 
running back from the eye, and a narrower rather broken malar 
stripe, which are dark brown ; breast whitish, the feathers with 
dark-brown edges ; abdomen and under tail-coverts pale green ; 
quills blackish brown, with pale buff inner margins ; primaries 
pale-edged outside near tips ; lower surface of tail washed with 
pale verditer-green. 

Bill pale horny brown ; irides red-brown ; orbital skin brown ; 
legs plumbeous brown (Jerdon) ; orbital skin dusky slate ; legs 
greenish plum beous (Butler}. 

Length 9; tail 2*6; wing 4; tarsus 1*05; bill from gape 1*5. 
Specimens from the North (Megalcema syJcesii) average slightly 
larger than those from Travancore. 

Distribution. The Sahyadri and other ranges of hills near the 
Malabar coast from the Tapti to Cape Comorin. This bird is 
found up to the tops of the Nilgiris and Palnis. 

Habits, $c. Very similar to those of T. zeylonicus and T. lineatus. 
Davison says this bird clings like a Woodpecker and taps (probably 
only when cutting its nest-hole). The call is less loud than that of 
T. zeylonicus but similar. T. viridis breeds from February to 
May, laying three or four eggs in a retort-shaped nest-hole ; the 
eggs are white, only moderately glossy, and measure about 1-13 
by -86. 

Genus CHOTORHEA, Bonap., 1854. 

To this genus belong six Malay Barbets distinguished as a rule 
by brilliant coloration about the head and by having a black, some- 
what elongate, but not high bill, the length of which is more than 
twice the height. The culmen is considerably curved and much 
exceeds the tarsus in length. The wing is rounded. Nostrils 
exposed. A single species extends into Tenasserim. This has 
been included by Shelley in Cyanops, but I agree with Salvador! 
and Oates in referring it to the present genus. 



CHOTORHEA. 91 

1011. Chotorhea mystacophanes. The Gaudy Barbel. 

Bucco mystacophanos, Temm. PI. Col. iii, pi. 315 (1824). 

Bucco quadricolor, Eyton, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 105. 

Megalaima quadricolor, Blyth, Cat. p. 67. 

Chotorea mystacophanus, Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 641 ; Salvadori, 
Ucc. Born. p. 34, pi. i ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 130. 

Megalflema mystacophanes, Marshall, Mon. Cap. p. 41, pi. 19 ; 
Hume, S. F. ii, p. 472 ; id. Cat. no. 196 quat. ; Walden in Blyth' s 
Birds Burm. p. 74 ; Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 152, 502. 

Cyanops mystacophanes, Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix, p. 72. 

Coloration. Male. Broad forehead golden yellow; vertex and 
occiput, the latter narrowing behind, crimson, sometimes verging 
on scarlet ; lores, chin, throat, and a patch on each side of the 
fore neck the same ; a black supercnium from the lores, much 
broader behind the eye ; a few feathers between the black super- 
cilium and yellow forehead, as also the sides of the face below the 
eye, and the fore neck verditer-blue ; a yellow malar spot on each 
side at the base of the lower mandible ; a bluish tinge on the 
cheeks farther back ; wing-feathers, except on the outer surface 
above, brown with pale yellow inner borders ; under wing-coverts 
also yellowish ; some primaries pale-edged outside near the ends ; 
under surface of tail washed with blue ; all the rest of the plumage 
grass-green, duller and sometimes yellower below ; ear-coverts 
and sides of neck with a yellowish tinge ; feathers o hind neck 
and sides of neck with brighter edges. 

Adult females are said to resemble males, but if so, they appear 
very rarely to attain the adult plumage, only one out of 18 sexed 
female skins in the British Museum having the coloration of the 
adult male. In young males and in females generally the black 
eyebrow is absent, the forehead is bluish green, and the chin and 
throat are first green, then yellow. The scarlet patch on the 
hind crown is present from a rather early period. The change 
from the livery of the young to full plumage is very irregular in 
different individuals, the same region not always acquiring the 
adult coloration first. Salvadori has already questioned the as- 
sumption of the adult male plumage by females of this species. 

Bill black (pale beneath in young birds) ; irides deep brown ; 
orbital skin dark greenish or greyish brown ; legs and feet very 
pale bluish or horny green. 

Length 9-25 ; tail 2-3 ; wing 3-9 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape 1'75. 

Distribution. The Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo, ex- 
tending into the southern half of Tenasserim as far as the Henza 
basin north of Tavoy. 

Habits, fyc. This Barbet is chiefly found in evergreen forests, 
and is very noisy, incessantly uttering its trisyllabic cry, especially 
in the evening after dusk, and sometimes on moonlight nights. 
Davison, who furnishes the preceding notes, adds that he has 
frequently seen this bird clinging to the stem of a tree and tapping 
like a Woodpecker. 



92 CAPITONID^E. 

Genus CYANOPS, Bonap., 1854. 

Except the form of the bill, which is much shorter, with a less 
curved culuien, there is but little to distinguish this genus from 
the last. The culmen is not longer than the tarsus, or if longer, 
then very slightly so. The wing is much rounded, the 2nd 
primary being shorter than any other primary except the 1st, and 
the 3rd shorter than the 4th. The plumage is chiefly green, the 
head and neck being decorated with patches of bright colour, red, 
yellow, or blue. 

Twelve species are known, distributed over the Oriental region ; 
of these seven occur within Indian limits. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Chin and throat blue or bluish green. 

a'. Crown red ; a black band across vertex .... C. asiatica, p. 92, 

b'. Crown red ; a blue band across vertex C. davisoni, p. 93. 

c'. Crown bluish green ; narrow frontal band 

crimson C. incognita, p. 94, 

d'. Forehead and sinciput golden yellow; occiput 

green C.flavifrons, p. 94, 

e'. Sinciput black ; occiput blue C. cyanotis, p. 95. 

b. Chin and throat yellow and grey. 

/'. Supercilium black C.franklini, p. 96, 

g'. Supercilium mixed black and grey C. ramsayi, p. 97. 

1012. Cyanops asiatica. The Blue-throated Barbet. 

Trogon asiaticus, Lath. 2nd. Orn. i, p. 201 (1790). 
Megalaima asiatica, Blyth, Cat. p. 67. 

Cyanops asiatica, Bonap. Consp. Volucr. Zygod. p. 12 ; Horsf. fy M. 
Cat. ii, p. 641 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 313 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. 




. P- c 

Megalsema asiatica, Marshall, Mon. Cap. p. 63, pi. 29 ; Blyth 
Wald. Birds Burm. p. 73 ; Inglis, S. F. v, p. 27 ; Wardl.-Rams. 
Ibis, 1877, p. 457 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 584 ; Hume 
Dav. S. F. vi, p. 151 ; Hume, Cat. no. 195 ; Scully, S. F. viii, 



p. 252; C. H. T. Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 410; Hume, &F. xi r 
p. 67 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) 
J.f.O. 1889, p. 429. 



). 67 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) vii, p. 377 ; Hartert, 



Burra bussunt bairi, Burra benebo, Beng. ; Corul, Mussalmans in 
Bengal ; Kat-tak, Lepcha ; JRuturki, Bussanta, Nep. ; Hutururu, Chamba ; 
Kok-kha-lounff, Burmese. 

Coloration. Nasal plumes black ; a broad black band, with a 
yellow anterior border, across the vertex ; anterior lores, forehead, 
and remainder of crown crimson, the occiput bordered with black 
on each side ; remainder of upper surface grass-green ; sides of 
the head, extending all round the eye, chin, throat, and fore neck 
pale verditer-blue, a large crimson spot on each side of the fore 
neck, and a small crimson speck at each base of the lower 



CYANOPS. 93 

mandible; rest of lower parts yellowish green; tail-feathers washed 
beneath with pale blue ; quills blackish brown, their inner border 
and the wing-lining yellowish white ; a narrow whitish line on 
the outer web of several primaries near the tip. In the young 
the colours of the head are indistinct. Males from the Cachar 
hills are said to have the mantle-feathers and upper tail-coverts 
tipped with maroon and the under tail-coverts splashed with 
vermilion. 

Bill greenish yellow horny, black above ; margins of eyelids 
orange ; irides hazel-brown, brown, and reddish brown ; feet dingy 
green, claws horny black (Scully). 

Length about 9'2 ; tail 2-7 ; wing 4-1 ; tarsus 1-05 ; bill from 
gape 1-4. 




Fig. 26. Head of C. asiatica. 

Distribution. Common throughout the Lower Himalayas and 
sub-Himalayan forests up to 3500 or 4000 feet as far west as 
Chamba, also in Lower Bengal, Assam, and the neighbouring 
countries as far as the Khakyen hills in Yunnan to the eastward, 
and south to Burma. This Barbet has been found by Gates in 
the Arrakan and Pegu hills, by Wardlaw-Bamsay in Karennee, and 
by Davison in Northern Tenasserim about Pahpoon. 

Habits, $c. A noisy, active bird, living on fruit, and having a 
peculiar frequently-repeated trisyllabic call. It breeds in the 
Himalayas in April and May, and generally lays three eggs in a 
hole, which it excavates in the trunk or a branch of a tree. As a 
rule there is no lining, but in a very few instances a pad of vege- 
table fibres or some other substance has been found. The eggs 
are white, with little or no gloss, and measure about 1-09 by '83. 



1013. Cyanops davisoni. Davison' 's Blue-throated Barbet. 

Megalcema davisoni, Hume, S. F. v, p. 108 (1877) ; id. Cat. no. 195 
bis ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 151 ; Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 165 ; 
Salvador!, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. 562. 

Cvanops davisoni, Oates, B. B. ii, p. 134 ; id. in Hume's N. 8f E. 
*2nd ed. ii, p. 321 ; Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix, p. 65, pi. iv. fig. 1. 



94 CAPITONIDJE. 

This species only differs from C. asiatica in smaller size, in 
having the band across the vertex verditer-blue instead of black r 
and with a blue line from the vertical band between the crimson 
of the occiput and a black stripe that extends from above the blue 
supercilium to over the ear-coverts. 

Length 8*5 ; tail 2-5 ; wing 3*9 ; tarsus 1*05 ; bill from gape 1'3. 

Distribution. Hitherto only found in Tenasserim about the base 
of the main range of hills east and south-east of Moulrnein. 

Habits, fyc. Precisely similar to those of C. asiatica. The eggs 
were obtained by Major Bingham in March on two occasions. 
In each case two white, rather glossy eggs were found, measuring 
on an average I'll by -8. 



1014. Cyanops incognita. Hume's Blue-throated Barbet. 

Megalaima incognita, Hume, S. F. ii, pp. 442, 472, 486 ; id. Cat. 

no. 195 ter j Wald. in Blyth's Birds Burm. p. 74 ; Hume 8f Dav. 

S. F. vi, pp. 151, 501 ; Bingham, S. F. viii, p. 194 ; ix, p. 166. 
Cyanops incognita, Oates, B. B. ii, p. 134 ; Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix r 

p. 68, pi. iv, fig. 3 ; Sharpe, Yark. Miss., Aves, p. 152, pi. xxiv. 

Coloration. Lores, a narrow frontal band, a nuchal patch, and a 
spot on each side of the fore neck crimson ; upper surface grass- 
green ; feathers of crown with pale bluish-green edges ; quills 
blackish brown, the inner borders and the wing-lining yellow, 
several primaries with a narrow pale outer border near the tip ; 
sides of head bluish green, a line of very small bright yellow 
feathers on the upper and lower eyelids, above these a black 
supercilium continued back above the ear-coverts, another black 
streak from the gape ; lower surface pale green, tinged with pale 
verditer-blue on the malar region, chin, and throat ; lower surface 
of tail dusky, washed with pale blue. 

Upper mandible and tip of lower dusky horny, remainder of bill 
paler ; eyelids the same ; irides nut-brown ; legs and feet grass - 
green (Davison). 

Length about 8'8 ; tail 2-3 ; wing 3*9 ; tarsus -95 ; bill from 
gape 1*4. 

Distribution. Tenasserim from near Amherst and Myawadee on 
the north to Tavoy in the south. Eare and local. 

Habits, fyc. Similar to those of C. asiatica. 

1015. Cyanops flavifrons. The Yellow-fronted Barbet. 

Bucco flavifrons, Cuvier, Regne An. i ; p. 428, note, ex Levaill. (1817). 
Megalgema flavifrons, Blyth, Cat. p. 67 ; Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) 

xiii, p. 447 (1854) ; Marshall, Mon. Cap. p. 69, pi. 30 ; Holdsworth, 

P. Z. S. 1872, p. 429 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 370 ; id. Cat. no. 196 ter ; 

Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 212, pi. x. 
Cyanops flavifrons, Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 297 ; Shelley, Cat. B. M. 

xix, p. 65 ; Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 321. 

Coloration. Broad forehead and a spot at each base of the lower 



CYANOPS. 95 

mandible golden yellow ; whole upper plumage dark grass-green, 
the coronal feathers tipped with gold, and those of the occiput 
and back and sides of the neck with whitish shaft-stripes ; quills 
blackish brown, their inner margins and the wing-lining pale 
yellow ; several primaries with a narrow pale outer border near the 
tip ; lores, supercilia, sides of head below eye, ear-coverts, chin, 
and throat verditer-blue ; remainder of lower surface of body pale 
green, the breast-feathers with well-marked emerald-green borders ; 
abdomen and flanks tinged with emerald-green ; lower surface of 
tail-feathers blackish washed with pale verditer-blue. 

Bill greenish horny, dusky at base of culinen ; iris light red ; 
tarsi and feet sickly green, the tarsi in some bluish (Legye). 

Length 8*5 ; tail 2'3 ; wing 3-6 ; tarsus '95 ; bill from gape 1*2, 

Distribution. Ceylon, chiefly in the hill-forests of the Kandyan 
province up to about 6400 feet, but found also locally in the low 
plains. 

Habits, fyc. Very similar to those of other Barbets. This is an 
active, noisy, fruit-eating bird, with a peculiar monotonous call, 
monosyllabic according to Legge, who adds that this species makes 
a nest-hole usually in a soft-wood tree, such as the cotton-tree 
(Bombax), and lays two or three smooth w T hite eggs, measuring on 
an average 1*11 by *81. It has apparently two broods in the year, 
the breeding-season lasting from ^February to September. 



1016. Cyanops cyanotis. The Blue-eared Barbet. 

Bucco cyanotis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 465 (1847). 

Megalsema cyanotis, Marshall, Mon. Cap. p. 77, pi. 33. fig. 3 ; Blyth 

8f Wold. Birds Burm. p. 74 ; Inglis, S. F. v, p. 27 ; Hume $ Dav. 

S. F. vi, pp. 155, 502 ; Hume, Cat. no. 198 ter ; Bingliam, S. F. ix r 

p. 166 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 69 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. 

(2) v, p. 64 ; vii, p. 378. 
Cyanops cyanotis, Godiv.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 98; 

Jerdon, Ibis, 1872, p. 11. 
Xantholeema cyanotis, Hume, S. F. iii, p. 77; Oates, B. B. ii r 

p. 137. 
Mesobucco cyanotis, Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix, p. 87 ; Oates in Hume's 

N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 328. 

Nyet-pa-din, Arrakan. 

Size small, rictal bristles extending beyond end of bill. 

Coloration. Feathers above nostrils white at base, those of lores 
and forehead black, all fringed with pale blue ; sinciput black : 
occiput cobalt-blue ; ear-coverts, chin, and throat light verditer- 
blue, area below eye bright red, the feathers white at the base ; a 
crimson patch above and another below the ear-coverts ; a black 
malar stripe ; remainder of upper and lower plumage bright grass- 
green except the bend of the wing, which is more or less blue, and 
the quills, which are blackish brown with whitish inner margins ; 
the tail-feathers are sometimes bluish green above with brighter 
edges, and always washed with verditer below. 



96 CAPITONIDJS. 

Young birds are green throughout. In nearly adult specimens 
the black sincipital feathers are tipped with blue. 

Bill black ; base of lower mandible slightly tinged reddish horny ; 
irides very dark brown ; legs and feet dirty green ; claws bluish 
black (Davison). 

Length about 6*5 ; tail 2-2 ; wing 3-25 ; tarsus -8 ; bill from 
gape 1. Tenasserim birds are a little smaller. 

Distribution. Eastern Himalayas (Sikhim), Assam, and hills to 
the south, and throughout Burma. An allied but distinct species, 
Q. duvauceli, inhabits the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo. 

Habits, $c. This is chiefly a bird of dense evergreen hill forest, 
and is usually seen on high trees. The note is peculiar, of two 
syllables, harsh and metallic. The eggs have been found in 
Tenasserim by Major Bingham in February and by Mr. Darling 
in April, two or three in number, white, and measuring about -93 
by -67. 

In size, coloration, and long rictal bristles this species approaches 
Xantholcema, but it has a rounded wing. 



1017. Cyanops franklini. The Golden-throated Barbet. 

Bucco franklinii, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi, p. 167 (1842). 

Bucco igniceps, Hodgson, Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 85 (1844), descr. 
nulla. 

Megaleema franklini, Blyth, Cat. p. 68 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. 
xlv, pt. 2, p. 70 ; Marshall, Man. Cap. p. 51, pi. 24 ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 196 ; id. 8. F. xi, p. 68 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 252. 

Cyanops franklinii, Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 643 ; Jerdon, B. L i, 
p. 314 ; id. Ibis, 1872, p. 11 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, 
p. 98 ; Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix, p. 69 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 
2nd ed. ii, p. 322. 

Ban-bad, Bdgh-basi, Nepal. 

Coloration, Forehead and a patch in the middle of the occiput 
crimson ; vertex golden yellow ; lores and area above and below 
the eye, with the sides of the crown growing broader behind, black ; 
a bluish collar behind the black; back, scapulars, and rump 
grass-green ; outer surface of wing the same near the back, 
passing into deep blue on the primary-coverts near the carpus ; 
many of the coverts and the outer primaries near the base with 
pale or bluish-green edges ; secondaries with green edges ; wing- 
feathers except on outer edges blackish brown, with pale yellow 
inner borders, wing-lining the same ; tail green above, washed with 
pale blue below ; ear-coverts, malar region below them, and a broad 
connecting band across the throat pale silvery whity-brown ; an 
orange spot at each base of the lower mandible ; chin and upper 
throat golden yellow ; lower parts from throat green or yellowish 
green. 

Bill blackish, plumbeous beneath ; irides brown ; orbital skin 
plumbeous ; legs greenish slaty (Jerdon). 

Length about 9 ; tail 2'6 ; wing 4 ; tarsus '95 ; bill from gape 1*3. 



XANTIIOLJEMA. 97 

Distribution. The Eastern Himalayas as far west as Nepal, also 
the hills south of the Assam Valley (Khasi, Naga, Manipur), 
between 3000 or 4000 and about 8000 feet. 

Habits, #c. This Barbet also is said to feed entirely on fruit. It 
has u call which sounds dissyllabic at a distance, but is said by Hume 
to consist of three successive sounds, the first being lower in pitch 
and having less resonance. The eggs, 3 or 4 in number, and 
pure white, are laid, according to Hodgson, in April, but one was 
obtained by Mandelli in August. They are deposited in a hole 
bored in a tree as usual, and measure about 1-1 by -85. 

1018. Cyanops ramsayi. Ramsay's Golden-throated Barbet. 

Megalrema ramsayi, Walden, A. M. N. H. (4) xv, p. 400 (1875) ; id. 
in Blytfis Birds Burm. p. 74; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 402; id. Cat. 



no. 196 bis ; Hume # Dav. S. F. vi, p. 152 ; Salvador}, Ann. 

Cir. Gen. (2) v, p. 561 ; vii, p. 377. 
Me"ilaima fvanklinii, apnd Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiv, p. 277 ; id. Birds 

Bitnn. p. 74. 
( Vanops ramsayi, Oates, B. B. ii, p. 135 ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1887, 

'p. 442 ; Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix, p. 70, pi. iv, fig. 2. 

This species only differs from C. franklini in having the area 
above the eye and on the sides of the crown above the ear-coverts 
mixed grey and black, the grey disappearing near the hinder 
border ; the chin and throat, too, are paler yellow. Soft parts and 
dimensions as in C. franklini. 

Distribution. Discovered on the hills of Karennee by Wardlaw 
Ramsay, and found common above 3000 feet on the Muleyit 
range, east of Moulmein, by Tickell, Davison, and Tea. Also found 
at Perak, in the Malay Peninsula, by Mr. L. Wray. 



Genus XANTHOLJEMA, Bonaparte, 1854. 

This genus comprises six small Barbets of the Oriental region, 
three out of the number occurring in India, Ceylon, and Burma. 
They are distinguished from all other Indian genera of CapitonicUe 
by a differently shaped and more pointed wing, the 2ud primary, 
instead of being shorter than any other primary except the first, 
being always longer than the 8th, 9th, and 10th, and sometimes 
longer than the 6th. The bill is short and thick; the rictal 
bristles long, often reaching to the end of the bill. The naked 
orbit is small. Prevailing colour green, with patches of red or 
yellow and other bright colours about the head. 

Key to the Species. 

Throat yellow, cheeks blackish -Y. ha-malocephala, p. 98. 

Throat orange, cheeks blue -Y. ntbricapillti, p. 100. 

Throat crimson A', malabarica, p. ( JU. 

VOL. III. 11 



98 

1019. Xantholaema haematocephala. The Crimson-breasted 
Barlet or Coppersmith. 

Bucco haeniatocephalus, P. L. 8. Mull. Natursyst., Anhang, p. 88 
(1776). 

Bucco philippinensis, Gm. Syst. Nat. i, p. 407 (1788) ; Sundevall, 
A. M. N. H. (1) xviii, p. 397. 

Bucco indicus. Lath. Lid. Orn. i, p. 205 (1790). 

Megalaima philippensis, Blyth, Cat. p. 68. 

Xantholaema indica, Horsf. 8f M. Cat. ii, p. 644; Jerdon, B. I. i, 
p. 315 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 22 ; King, ibid. 
p. 214; Beavan, Ibis, 1869, p. 416; McMaster, J. A. S. B. xl, 
pt. 2, p. 209 ; Walden, Ibis, 1871, p. 162. 

Xantholaema haemacephala, Marshall, Mon. Cap. p. 101, pi. 42; 
Hayes Lloyd, Ibis, 1873, p. 407 ; Adam, S. F. ii, p. 466 ; Butler, 
S. F. iii, p. 460 ; ix, p. 387 ; Stanford, S. F. v, p. 245 ; Hume $ 
Dav. S. F. vi, p. 155 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 206 ; Cripps, ibid. p. 264 ; 
Legge, Birds Ceyl, p. 218 ; Hume, Cat. no. 197 ; Scully, S. F. viii, 
p. 253 ; Vidal, 8. F. ix, p. 54 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 26 ; Oates, B. B. 
ii, p. 136 ; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 329 ; Barnes, Birds 
Bom. p. 122 ; Hume, 8. F. xi, p. 69. 

Megalsema haemacephala, Blyth fy Wald. Birds Burm. p. 74 ; Fair- 
bank, S. F. v, p. 397. 

Xantholaema haeruatocephala, Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix, p. 89. 

Kat-Khora, Tambayat, H. ; Chota bussunt bairi, Chota-benebo, Beng. ; 
Phouk Bussunt, Manbhiim ; Bussunta lisora, N.W.P. ; Juktuk, Mahr. ; 
Tokoji, Tel. ; Kokoorupan, Tamil (Ceylon) ; Kotoruwa, Mal-Kotoruiva, 
Cing. ; Hnet-padane, Burm. 




Fig. 27. Head of X. hcematocephala. 

Coloration. Lores black ; forehead and sinciput crimson, a black 
band across the vertex extending down each side of the head 
behind the eye to the malar region ; occiput and sides of neck 
greyish green, remainder of upper parts olivaceous green, varying 
to yellowish ; primary-coverts and quills blackish, the quills with 
pale yellow inner margins, and some primaries pale-edged outside 
near the tip ; a broad supercilium and a still broader streak below 
the eye, with the chin and throat, bright yellow ; fore neck crimson, 
fringed below by golden yellow ; breast, abdomen, and under tail- 
coverts yellowish white, streaked longitudinally with olive or 
olivaceous green, especially on the flanks ; tail faintly washed 
beneath with pale verditer-blue. 



XANTHOL^EMA. 99 

The young is duller in colour and wants the crimson and black 
on the head. 

Bill black ; irides dark hazel ; nude orbital skin dull crimson ; 
feet coral-red ; claws black (Jerdon}. 

Length about 6'5; tail 1-5; wing 3'2; tarsus *8; bill from 
gape -9. 

Distribution. Common throughout the greater part of the 
Empire, with the exception of the Himalayas and the higher ranges 
of the Peninsula and Burma. Eare in the Punjab, Sind, and Cutch, 
in Southern Malabar (south of Eatnagiri), and in the damper forests 
of Ceylon, in Assam, the hill-tracts south of the Assam Valley, and 
in Southern Tenasserim. This bird is only found in the valleys 
of the outer Himalayas up to 2000 or 3000 feet. It ranges to the 
Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and the Philippines. 

Habits, 6fc. One of the commonest and most familiar of Indian 
birds, the " Coppersmith " may be found in almost every garden, 
mango-grove or banyan tree, and its monotonous note took, took, 
took, resembling the tap of a hammer on metal, repeated at short 
regular intervals, is well known to most residents in the country. 
This bird, like other Indian Barbets, lives on fruit, but it takes 
insects occasionally. Captain Bulger (Ibis, 1863, p. 218) saw it 
feeding on flying termites. It breeds in Northern India in March, 
April, and May, earlier farther south, and in Ceylon from January 
to June, excavating a nest-hole of the usual kind and laying 
usually 3 or 4 eggs, which are white, fragile, with little or no gloss, 
and measure about '99 by *69. 

1020. Xantholaema malaharica. The Crimson-throated 
Barbet. 

Bucco malabaricus, Blyth, J. A. S. B.xvi, pp. 386, 465 (1847). 
Megalaima malabarica, Blyth, Cat. App. p. 336 ; Fairbank, S. F. iv, 

p. 255 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 54. 
Xantholaema malabarica, Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 647 ; Jerdon, B. I. 

i, p. 317; Marshall, Mon. 'Cap. p. Ill, pi. 45; Bourdillon, S. F. 

iv, p. 392 ; Hume, Cat. no. 198 ; Butler, S. F. ix, p. 387 ; Davison, 

S. F. x, p. 358; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 123; Shelley, Cat. B. M. 

xix, p. 95 ; Gates in Humes N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 332 ; Davidson, 

Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. vi, p. 336. 

Coloration. Crown and upper parts, wings and tail as in 
X. hcematocephala, except that the general colour is grass-green. 
The band above and that below the eye, a spot at the base of the 
lower mandible on each side, chin, throat, and fore neck crimson, 
the malar and gular areas fringed with golden yellow ; the black of 
the vertex runs down on each side behind the eye and the sub- 
ocular crimson patch but does not extend to the malar area ; sides 
of head behind the black, and area between ear-coverts and throat, 
light greyish blue, lower parts from neck pale green, the feathers 
of the flanks darker green near the shafts. 

Bill black; irides red-brown; legs red (Jerdon}. 

Length 6'25 ; tail 1-5 ; wing 3-2 ; tarsus -8 ; bill from gape -85. 

H2 



100 CAPITONID^E. 

Distribution. The forest-tracts near the Malabar coast as far 
north as Ratnagiri. 

Habits, fyc. Similar to those of X. hcematocephala, but the call is 
more subdued. The eggs were obtained by Mr. Bourdillon in South 
Travancore on March 6th, and are white, without gloss, and measure 
98 by -65. 

1021. Xantholasma rubricapilla. The Small Ceylon Barbet. 

Bucco rubricapillus, Gmel Syst. Nat. i, p. 408 (1788). 

Megalaima rubricapilla, Blyth, Cat. p. 68 ; Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) 
xiii, p. 448. 

Xantholsema rubricapilla, Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 646 ; Blyth, Ibis, 
1867, p. 297 ; Marshall, Man. Cap. p. 109, pi. 44 ; Holdsivorth, 
P. Z. S. 1872, p. 430 ; Hume, 8. F. vii, p. 371 ; id. Cat. no. 198 
bis ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 215, pi. xi ; Oates in Humes N. Sf E. 
2nd ed. ii, p. 333 j Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix, p. 93. 

Mal-Kotormva, Cing. 

Coloration. Plumes associated with rictal bristles, a band above 
and one below the eye, chin, and throat golden yellow 7 ; a narrow 
black frontal band ; no red spot at the base of the lower mandible 
on each side ; a small crimson patch on the fore neck : otherwise 
similar to X. malabarica. 

Length about 6 ; tail 1-4 ; wing 3'1 ; tarsus *75 ; bill from 
gape -85. 

Distribution. Peculiar to the island of Ceylon ; found in the low 
country and up to about 2500 feet elevation. 

Habits, fyc. Similar to those of X. hcematocephala, but the voice is 
more subdued. The breeding- season is from March till June ; the 
eggs glossy white, measuring about -9 by '65. 



Order V. ANISODACTYLI. 

Scarcely any two modern ornithologists are agreed as to the 
affinities between the Eollers and several other groups of Picarian 
birds, especially the Kingfishers, Bee-eaters, Hornbills, Hoopoes, 
Swifts, and Nightjars *. All these, except the Hoopoes, have a 
peculiar and variable arrangement of the deep plantar tendons 
(see Garrod, P. Z. S. 1875, p. 344). The two tendons coalesce 
more or less completely either before their subdivision to supply 
the different digits or below the point at which a slip leaves the 
flexor perforaiis diyitorum to supply the hallux. 

In other respects, such as the characters of the palate and 
sternum, the form of the dorsal feather-tracts, presence or absence 
of caeca, and the nature of the oil-gland, whether nude or tufted, 
there is much variation, and the majority of the families mentioned 
differ from each other quite as much as the Passeres and Eury- 
laemi do. It appears very doubtful whether the Swifts have any 
affinity to the other groups, and the Caprimulgidce and Podargidct 
are also isolated. In adopting Gadow's arrangement and leaving 
the Coraciadce or Rollers, Meropidce or Bee-eaters, Alcedinidce or 
Kingfishers, Bucerotidce or Hornbills, and Upupidm or Hoopoes in 
one order, I am very largely influenced by a desire to avoid 
increasing the number of ordinal groups. 

The Anisodactyli have a desmognathous palate ; basipterygoid 
processes are rudimentary or absent. Sternal characters vary. 
There is no ambiens muscle. A hallux is always present, and there 
are almost constantly three anterior toes, more or less joined 
together at the base. All the species lay white eggs in a hole, 
either in a tree or in the ground, and the young are hatched 
naked. The sexes are alike as a rule, but when they differ in 
plumage the young resemble adults of the same sex. 

There are five Indian suborders, thus distinguished : 

a. Oil-gland nude ; cca present ; 4 notches behind 

sternum. 
a'. Two carotids ; manubrium sterni simple, no 

foramen behind it CORACI^E. 

&'. Left carotid only; manubrium sterni complex 
and having behind it a perforation to receive 
ends of coracoids MEROPES. 

* Compare Garrod, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 117 ; Sclater, Ibis, 1880, p. 401 ; Forbes, 
Ibis, 1881, p. 31 ; Seebohm, Classification of Birds and Supplement; Fiirbringer, 
Untersuchungen, p. 1567; Sharpe, Eeview of Recent Attempts to Classify 
Birds, pp. 79-81 ; Gadow, P. Z. S. 1892, p. 251. See also yols. xvi and xvii 
of the British Museum Catalogue of Birds. 



CORACIAP^E. 

6. Oil-gland tufted ; caeca absent. 

c. Four notches behind sternum HALCYON ES. 

d'. Two notches behind sternum. 

a". No lateral bare tracts (apteria) on neck ; 

11 primaries BTJCEROTES. 

6". Lateral cervical apteria present ; 10 pri- 
maries UPIJPJE. 

The South-American Motmots and "W.-Indian Todies also 
belong here. 



Suborder COEACI^J. 

Caeca present. Oil-gland nude. Sternum with four notches 
on the posterior margin, and the manubrium sterni consists of the 
outer process (spina externa) only and is long and not distinctly 
forked. Both carotids are present. The spinal feather-tract well 
denned on the neck, but forked on the upper back, to leave a 
dorsal apterium or featherless space. 14 cervical vertebrae. The 
plantar tendons blend completely before subdividing at all. 

A single family. 




Fig. 28. Left foot of C. indica. 

Family COKACIAD^l. 

Bill corvine in shape, the upper mandible notched beneath near 
the end, culmen rounded. Outer united to the middle toe at the 
extreme base, inner toe united by its basal joint. Nostrils at the 
base of the mandible. Primaries 10 ; tail-feathers 12. Sexes 
alike. 



CORACIAS. 103 

This family is found in tropical and temperate regions of the 
Old World. Two genera are Indian. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Bill compressed ; breadth at gape about half 

length of culmen CORACIAS, p. 103. 

b. Bill snort, broad ; breadth at gape about equal 

to culmen EURYSTOMUS, p. 107. 



Genus CORACIAS, Linn., 1766. 

Bill rather long, compressed, culmen slightly curved, nostrils 
elongate ; gape wide, with strong rictal bristles. 

To this genus belong three Indian and Burmese birds, of which 
one is migratory and only occurs in North-western India. Species 
are found throughout Africa, Europe and Central Asia, and in 
Celebes. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Lower parts only blue in part. 

a'. Under wing-coverts, abdomen, and lower tail- 
coverts pale blue C. indica, p. 103. 

b'. Under wing-coverts deep blue, pale blue con- 
fined to vent and lower tail-coverts . C. affinis, p. 105. 

b. Lower parts pale blue throughout C. yarrula, p. 100. 




Fig. 29. Head of C. indica. 

1022. Coracias indica. The Indian Roller. 
Coracias indica, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 159 (1766) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 51 ; 




Legye, Birds Ceyl. p. 281 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 237 ; Murray^ 
Vert. Zool. Sind, p. 109 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 97 ; id. Jour. 
Bomb. N. H. Soc. iv, p. 9 ; Davidson, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. i, 
p. 176; Gates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 53 ; Sharpe, 
P. Z. S. 1890, p. 547 ; id. Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 10. 

Nilkant, Sal.zak, H. ; Tds, Mahr. ; Pain, pitta, Tel. ; Kuttu AWr/', 
Pal-kuruvi, Tarn. ; Panany-karda, Tarn. Ceylon ; Doong-kowluwa, Cing. ; 
Blue Jay or Jay of Europeans in India. 



104 

Coloration. Narrow forehead and chin pale brownish rufous; 
crown and nape bluish green, brighter and bluer above the eyes ; 
hind neck and sides of neck deep vinous ; back, scapulars, and 
tertiaries dull greenish brown ; small coverts near the edge of the 
wing deep purplish blue, other coverts light greyish green, except 
the outer large primary and the tips of the other greater coverts, 
which, with the edge of the wing, all under wing-coverts, and 
axillaries, are pale blue ; quills deep purplish blue ; a broad light 
blue band across the terminal half of the primaries, the tips dark, 
with the outer webs greenish. Rump light greenish blue, mixed 
with deep blue ; upper tail-coverts chiefly deep blue ; middle tail- 
feathers dull dark green, basal part near shaft blue ; other tail- 
feathers deep blue, crossed near the tip by a broad pale blue band, 
wider on the outer feathers. Sides of head and throat purplish 
liiac, with broad whitish shaft-stripes ; breast vinous rufous, with 
less marked white shaft-stripes ; abdomen and lower tail-coverts 
pale blue like wing-lining. 

Bill blackish brown; iris greyish brown ; eyelid and naked skin 
round the eye pale gamboge ; feet brownish yellow (Butler). 

Length about 13 ; tail 5 ; wing 7"3 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape 1*7. 

Distribution. Throughout India and Ceylon in suitable localities, 
not ascending the Himalayas nor the hills of the Peninsula in 
general, and wanting both in thick jungle and in open treeless 
deserts. East of Calcutta this species is replaced by C. affinis, 
but to the westward, though it becomes rare in the Northern 
Punjab and wanting in Kashmir, it is found sparingly throughout 
Baluchistan, all round the shores of the Persian Gulf to Muscat, 
and stragglers have even been obtained in Asia Minor and on the 
Bosphorus. 

Habits, <$fc. This is one of the typical Indian birds familiar to all 
inhabitants of the country. It is commonly found in cultivated 
tracts on trees about villages, and in thin tree and bush jungle. 
It is, as Blyth remarks, one of the birds that perch on telegraph, 
wires. Jerdon says : " It generally takes its perch on the top or 
outermost branch of some high tree, and, on spying an insect on 
the ground, which it can do at a very great distance, it flies direct 
to the spot, seizes it, and returns to its perch to swallow it. A 
favourite perch of the Roller is a bowrie pole, or some leafless tree, 
whence it can see well all round, also old buildings, a haystack or 
other elevated spot, sometimes a low bush or a heap of earth or of 
stones. When seated, it puffs out the feathers of its head and 
neck. I have on several occasions seen one pursue an insect in 
the air for some distance, and when the winged termites issue 
from their nest after rain, the Roller, like almost every other bird, 
catches them on the wing." (The Roller is also conspicuous at 
jungle fires, hunting for insects, and perhaps for lizards, in company 
with kites, crows, and king-crows.) " It flies in general with a 
slow but continued flapping of its wings, not unlike the crow, 
though more buoyant ; but it has the habit of occasionally making 
sudden darts in the air in all directions. Its food is chiefly large 



CORACIAS. 105 

insects, grasshoppers, crickets, Mantidce, and even beetles, occasion- 
ally a small fieldmouse or shrew." " The Boiler has a very harsh 
grating cry or scream, which it always utters when disturbed and 
often at other times also." " The Nilkant is sacred to Siva, who 
assumed its form, and at the feast of the Dusserah at Nagpur, one 
or more used to be liberated by the Rajah." The liberation of this 
bird takes place during other Hindu ceremonies in various parts of 
India. 

In most parts of India the Boiler is resident, but it leaves the 
open Bombay Deccan for better wooded tracts, according to several 
observers, during the breeding-season. It breeds from March in 
Upper India, from January in Ceylon, till June or July, but chiefly 
in March, April, and May, making use of a hole in a tree, or 
sometimes in an old wall or the roof of a house. The nest is 
generally lined with a varying amount of vegetable fibre, grass, a 
few feathers or some old rags, but the lining is often omitted 
altogether. The eggs are a broad oval, of the purest china-white 
and very glossy, usually 4 in number (occasionally 5) ; they measure 
about 1-3 by 1-06. 

1023. Coracias affinis. TJie Burmese Roller. 

Coracias affinis, McClelland, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 164 ; Blyth, J.A.S. B. 
xiv, p. 190 ; id. Cat. p. 51 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 574 ; Jerdon, B. L 
i, p. 217 ; Hume, S. F. iii, pp. 50, 262 ; v, p. 18 ; xi, p. 43 ; id. Cat. 
no. 124 ; Blyth 8f Wald. Birds Burm. p. 72 ; Hume 8f Dav. S. F. 
vi, p. 72 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped,, Aves, p. 581 ; Oates, B. B. ii, 
p. 69 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) iv, p. 589 ; Oates in 
Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 56 ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1890, p. 548 ; 
id. Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 13. 

Katnas, Konsa, Assam ; Tak-ral, Lepcha ; Hnet-Kah, Burm. 

Coloration. Head above pale dull green, passing into bright pale 
verditer-blue on the broad and long supercilia ; back, scapulars, 
and tertiaries olive-brown ; smaller and median wing-coverts dark 
blue, greater secondary-coverts bluish green, greater primary- 
coverts pale blue, quiUs deep blue with a bar of pale blue across 
the terminal half of the primaries ; rump deep blue ; upper tail- 
coverts pale blue ; middle tail-feathers dusky green, the others 
deep blue at the base, light blue on the terminal half, slightly 
tipped with dusky ; sides of head, chin, and throat purplish blue, the 
throat-feathers with shining blue shaft-stripes ; breast vinaceous 
brown, passing on lower abdomen into dark, then into pale blue ; 
wing-lining deep purplish blue throughout. 

Bill dark brownish black, mouth yellow ; edges of the eyelids, 
lores, and skin at the back of the eye yellowish orange ; iris brown ; 
legs yellowish brown. 

Length about 13 ; tail 4'75 ; wing 7'5 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from 
gape 1*7. 

Distribution. Throughout Burma except in the extreme south 
of Tenasserhn, also in Siain and Cochin China, and through the 



106 COEACIAD^B. 

countries north of Burma to the foot of the Himalayas in Assam. 
This species is found in Tipperah, Cachar, and Sylhet ; but north 
of the head of the Bay of Bengal, from Calcutta to Tipperah and 
from Eastern Nepal to Assam, over a belt 150 or 200 miles broad 
between E. long. 88 and 91, intermediate forms between C. in- 
dica and C. affinis prevail. These I regard as hybrids, as each of 
the two forms is found constant in character throughout a wide 
area. 

Habits, fyc. Similar to those of C. indica. This bird breeds in 
March, April, and May, and lays 4 or 5 white eggs, measuring 
about 1-37 by 1-09. 

1024. Coracias garrula. The European Roller. 

Coracias garrula, L. Syst. Nat. i, p. 159 (1766) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 51 ; 
Horsf. $ M. Cat. p. 570; Jerdon, B. L i, p. 218 ; Stoliczka, J. A. 
S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 19 ; Brooks, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 73 ; 
Jerdon, Ibis, 1872, p. 3 ; G. F. L. Marsh, ibid. p. 205 ; Blyth, Ibis, 
1873, p. 80 ; Hume $ Henders. Lah. to Yark. p. 177 ; Hume, S. F. 
i, p. 168 ; Blanford, East. Pers. ii, p. 125 ; St. John, S. F. v, p. 502 ; 
Butler, 8. F. vii, p. 181 ; Hume, Cat. no. 125 ; Bidd-ulph, Ibis, 
1881, p. 48 ; Scully 9 ibid. p. 429 ; C. Swinh. Ibis, 1882, p. 102 ; 
Davidson, S. F. x, p. 296 ; id. Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. i, p. 176 ; 
Littledale, ibid. p. 197 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 98 ; St. John, Ibis, 
1889, p. 157 ; Oates in Hume's N. # E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 56 ; Sharpe, 
P. Z. S. 1890, p. 549; id. Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 15. 

Nila Kras, Kashmir. 

Coloration. Narrow forehead and chin hoary white ; head, neck, 
and lower parts, including the wing-lining, pale blue with a 
greenish tinge ; head above and nape brighter, throat with bright 
longitudinal streaks ; back, scapulars, and tertiaries light brownish 
rufous ; wing-coverts pale blue, smaller coverts along the forearm 
deep blue, greater primary-coverts very pale blue, tipped dusky ; 
quills black, some of the primaries with a greenish gloss on the 
outer web outside, inner webs of all deep blue on the under 
surface ; rump deep purplish blue, more or less mixed with light 
blue and passing into light greenish blue on the upper tail- coverts ; 
middle pair of tail-feathers dull bronze-green, brighter along the 
shafts, about the basal two-thirds of outer webs of other tail- 
feathers dull green, of inner webs black, terminal portion of both 
webs, broader on the outer feathers, pale blue, extreme tips of 
outer pair blackish. 

Young birds are duller and browner. 

Bill black ; iris dark brown ; feet yellowish brown. 

Length about 12 ; tail 5 ; wing 7' 8 ; tarsus -9 ; bill from 
gape 1*6. 

Distribution. A migratory bird, wintering in Africa, passing the 
summer and breeding in Europe and Central Asia (Persia, Turkes- 
tan). It also breeds commonly in Kashmir and the Peshawur 
Valley, and is found during migration in Sind and throughout the 
Punjab. Specimens have been collected as far east as Dhulia in 



EUEYSTOMUS. 107 

Khanclesh, Ahmedabad, the Satpura hills, Ajmere, Mussooree, and 
Garhwal. 

Habits, <$fc. Very similar to those of C. indica, but the present 
species is more often seen away from trees. It has the same 
peculiar flight, the same habit of tumbling about in the air 
(whence the name of Boiler), and a similar harsh voice, and it lives 
on insects in the same way. It nidificates sometimes in holes or 
hollows in trees, often in cliffs or sandy banks, or mud walls, 
occasionally in ruins, and lays from May to July 4 or 5 or rarely 
H white, glossy, long oval eggs, measuring on an average 1*52 
by 1-1. 

Mr. Blyth states that he saw a skin from Kashmir showing 
intermixture of this species with C. indica. 

Genus EURYSTOMUS, Vieill., 1816. 

Bill short and broad ; width of the gape about equal to the 
length of the culmen, the terminal part compressed and the 
upper mandible hooked ; no rictal bristles. 

A single species is Indian ; other species occur in Madagascar 
and tropical Africa, China, the Malay Archipelago, and Australia. 




Fig. 30. Head of E. orientalis. 

1025. Enrystomus orientalis. The Broad-billed Holler. 

Coracias orientalis, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 159 (1766). 

Eurystomus orientalis, Blyth, Cat. p. 51 : Layard A. M. N. H. (2) 
xfi, p. 171 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. p. 121 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 219 ; id. 
Ibis, 1872, p. 3 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 345 ; Ball, J. A. S. B. xli, 
pt. 2, p. 277 ; Vipan, S. F. i, p. 495 ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 164 ; xi, 
p. 43 ; id. Cat. no. 126 ; Morgan, S. F. ii, p. 531 ; Godw.-Aust. 
J. A. S.B. xliii, pt. 2, p. 154 ; Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 72 ; Bour- 
dillon, S. F. iv, p. 382 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 285 ; Hume Sf Dav. 
S. F. vi, p. 72; Davison, S. F. x. p. 351 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 70; 
id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. lii, p. 57 ; Dresser, Ibis, 1891, 
p. 99 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 33, pi. ii, fig. 6. 

Eurystomus Iretior, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1890, p. 551 ; id. Cat. B. M. 
xvii, p. 36. 



108 COEACIADvE. 

Eurystomus calorynx, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 82 (descr. 

nulla). 
Eurystomus calonyx, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1890, p. 551 ; id. Cat. E. M. 

xvii, p. 38, pi. ii, fig 1 . 2. 

Tak-rdl-vong, Lepclia ; Mo-goun-hnet, Burmese. 

Coloration. Head and neck above and at the sides blackish brown, 
more or less tinged with green ; back much greener, passing into 
dark bluish green on the rump and upper tail-coverts, and on the 
scapulars and tertiaries, and into brighter greenish blue on the 
wing-coverts ; primary-coverts deep blue, quills black, deep blue on 
the outer webs, the outer primaries crossed near the base by a 
broad pale blue band ; tail-feathers black, the outer webs above 
and the inner below washed for a varying distance from the base 
with deep blue ; throat deep blue, with bright blue shaft-stripes ; 
remainder of lower surface greenish blue, darker on the breast. 

Bill, legs, and feet deep vermilion, tip of bill black ; iris dark 
brown : gape yellowish (Oates). 

The young is duller in colour, wants the bright blue streaks on 
the throat, and has a black bill. 

Length about 12 ; tail 4 ; wing 7'5 ; tarsus *8 ; bill from 
gape 1-7. 

Ceylon and Travancore birds are deeper in colour, the head very 
dark, almost black, and the underparts bluer. These form a well- 
marked race or subspecies, E. Icetior of Sharpe. Sharpe also dis- 
tinguishes the Himalayan and Chinese and some Burmese and 
Malay birds under the name E. calonyx, on account of the 
blue on the outer webs of the tail-feathers extending to the ter- 
minal half of the feathers and of the outer webs of the secondaries 
being washed with blue ; and he regards E. calonyx as a migratory 
and E. orientalis as a non-migratory form ; but I find considerable 
variation, and doubt whether two forms can be distinguished. 

Distribution. Along the base of the Himalayas as far west as 
Kurnaun up to about 3000 feet and from Lower Bengal, Cachar, 
and Assam locally throughout the Burmese countries to China 
and Manchuria, Siam and Cochin China, and down the Malay 
Peninsula to Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and the Philippines ; com- 
mon in the Andarnans. Also found in Southern India near the 
Malabar coast as far north as the Wynaad, and in Ceylon, where 
this bird is rare. 

Habits, fyc. A forest bird, resident or locally migratory, haunting 
high trees and usually perching on a dead tree or branch, some- 
times on a bamboo, whence it flies down to capture insects. It is 
somewhat crepuscular in its habits and is generally silent ; its call 
is a monosyllablic deep-toned whistle, but occasionally in the 
breeding-season it makes a chattering noise. In confinement it 
eats plantains. It breeds in March and April, in holes in branches 
of trees, as a rule at a considerable height from the ground, and 
lays on the bare wood usually 3 white eggs, measuring about 
1-38 by 1-15. 



MEEOPIDJ3. 1 09 

Suborder MEEOPES. 

Only the left carotid is present. The manubriurn sterni is 
trifid, the inner portion being forked, and the outer single. 
Behind the spine is a foramen as in Upupidce and Bucerotidce. 
Cervical vertebrae 15. The flexor perforans digitorum gives off 
from its inner side the slip which supplies the hallux, before 
blending with the /. longus hallucis. The conjoined tendons 
then divide into three to supply the other toes. Other characters 
as in Coracice. 

A single family. 

Family MEROPID^E. 

Bill long, slender, and curved throughout, culmen ridged, both 
mandibles pointed ; legs and feet feeble, syndactyle, the outer or 
fourth toe united to the third or middle toe as far as the last 
joint, second and third toes united by the basal joint only. Tail- 
feathers 12. Primaries 10. Sexes alike or nearly so. 

Key to the Getiera. 

a. Breast-plumes not elongate ; wing pointed ; 

2nd quill longest. 
a'. Middle pair of tail-feathers much longer 

than the others MEROPS, p. 109. 

V. Middle tail-feathers not longer MELITTOPHAGUS, p. 114. 

b. Breast-plumes elongate, pendent, and 

brightly coloured ; wing rounded ; 4th 

quill longest NYCTIORNIS, p. 115. 

Genus MEROPS, Linn., 1766. 

Bill very long, slender, and pointed, nostrils partially covered 
by plumes ; a few small rictal bristles at the base of the bill ; wings 
long, pointed, 1 st primary minute, 2nd longest ; the two middle 
tail-feathers longer than the others, and with their terminal 
portion narrow. 

The genus ranges throughout the greater part of the Old 
World ; four species are Indian. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Throat green or chestnut ; middle tail-feathers 

exceed others by more than length of 

culmen. 

a'. Throat green or bluish green : wing 3'6 . . M. viridis, p. 110. 
b'. Chin yellow, throat chestnut : wing 5-6. 

a'. Tail blue above M. philippinus, p. 111. 

b". Tail green above M . persicus, p. 112. 

b. Chin and throat yellow ; middle tail-feathers 

exceed outer by less than length of culmen . M. apiaste)', p. 113. 



110 MEROPID^E. 

The habits of all the Bee-eaters are similar. All feed on 
insects, and the larger species very much on bees and wasps, which 
they capture in the air, seize across the body, and crush, either 
with their mandibles or by beating the insect against their perch, 
before swallowing. They select a perch with a good look-out, 
often a dead branch at the top of a tree or bush, and they are 
fond of sitting on telegraph-wires. They generally, after sallying 
forth and hunting, return to the same perch. They have a 
pleasant whistling note : they generally live in colonies and make 
long nest-holes, two or three inches in diameter and often several 
feet deep, in the bank of a river, on a hill-side, or sometimes on 
level ground ; at the bottom of this hole they hollow out a 
chamber, in which their eggs, which are white, glossy, and very 
spherical ovals, are laid, usually without any lining. 


1026. Merops viridis. The Common Indian Bee-eater. 
Merops viridis, Linn. Syst. Rat. i, p. 182 (1766) ; Blylh, Cat. p. 53 ; 

Horsf. $ M. Cat. p. 84 ; Jerdon, B. I. \, p. 205 ; Stoiiczka, 

J. A. 8. B. xxxvii, p. 19; Hume, S. F. i, p. 167 ; iii, p. 49; 

xi, p. 42 ; id. Cat. no. 117 ; Adam, S. F. i, p. 371 ; Bh/th $ Wald. 

Birds Burm. p. 73 ; Morgan, Ibis, 1875, p. 314 ; Hume fy Dav. 

S. F. vi, pp. 67, 498; Zeyge, Birds Ceyl. p. 309; Scully, S. F. 

viii, p. 237; Damson, S. F. x, p. 350; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 65; 

id. in Humes N. 8f E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 60 ; Barnes, Birds Bomb. 

p. 93; Dresser, Mon. Mer. p. 31, pi. ix ; Sharye, Cat. B. M. 

xvii, p. 78. 
Merops ferrugeiceps and M. torquatus, Hodgs. Gray's Zool. Misc. 

p. 82 (1844), descr. nulla. 
Merops indicus, Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. xi, p. 227. 

Patringa, Harridl, H. ; Bdnspati in Bengal ; Tailingi, Veda Hdgliu, 
Mahr. ; Chinna passeriki, Tel. ; Kurumenne Kurulla, Cin^. ; Kattalan 
Kuruvi, Tamil, Ceylon ; Monayyi, Arrakan ; Hnet-pa sin-to, Burm. 
Several of these terms are also used for other species of Merops. 

Coloration. Upper parts, including wing-coverts and tertiaries, 
bright green, sometimes more or less tinged with ferruginous 
or golden on the crown, nape, and upper back, tertiaries and 
rump a little bluer ; lores and a band under the eye to the ear- 
coverts black, primary and secondary quills pale rufous, greenish 
on the outer webs, tipped blackish ; tail duller green above, dark 
brown below, tips of the elongate middle feathers blackish ; lower 
parts green ; a black gorget ; chin and cheeks, and sometimes the 
throat, bluish or even verditer-blue ; lower abdomen and lower 
coverts also sometimes bluish. 

Bill black ; irides blood-red ; feet dark plumbeous (Jerdon) . 

Length about 9 ; tail 4-5-5, outer rectrices 2'9 ; wing 3-6 
tarsus '4 ; bill from gape 1'4. 

Specimens with a ferruginous head are more common to the 
eastward, especially in Burma ; birds from the North-west 
Provinces show the blue throat best, but the intensity of this 
colour appears to increase as the plumage gets worn. Both of 
the varieties are occasionally found in Southern India. 



MEBOPS. Ill 

Distribution. Common and resident almost throughout India, 
Ceylon, and Burma. Wanting in the Himalayas, where this 
species rarely occurs, even in the lower ranges, though there are 
specimens from Kashmir and Murree in the Hume Collection. 
Absent also as a rule on the higher hills of the Peninsula, and in 
some of the denser and damper forests. In Ceylon M. viridis 
is only found in the drier parts of the low country. In Tenasserim 
it has not been observed south of Mergui, and it does not occur 
in the Malay Peninsula nor in the Andamans or Mcobars, 
though it is found in Siarn and Cochin Chiua. West of India 
it extends through Baluchistan and Southern Persia to North- 
eastern Africa. 

Habits, <$fc. One of the commonest and most familiar of Indian 
birds ; a resident in general, but locally migratory in some places : 
thus it is said to leave the island of Bombay from April till 
September. It has the usual habits of Bee-eaters, but generally 
prefers a lower perch than the larger species ; it lives on various 
insects, usually captured in the air, and it has a pleasant whistling 
note. It breeds from the middle of March till the beginning of 
June, and lays from 3 to 5 eggs at the end of a hole which it digs 
to a depth of 1 to 5 feet, usually in a bank or cliff. The eggs 
are spherical ovals, white and glossy, and measure about *78 
by '7. 

1027. Merops philippinus. The Blue-tailed Bee-eater. 

Merops philippinus, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. xiii (Vindob.}, i, p. 183 
(1767) ; Jerdon. Madr. Jour. L. S. xi, p. 228; Blyth, Cat. p. 52; 
Horsf. $ M. Cat. p. 86 : Walden, Tr. Z. S. viii, p. 42 ; Hume, 
S. F. iii, p. 456; iv, pp. 36, 287; xi, p. 42; id. Cat. no. 118; 
Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 72 ; Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, 
pp. 67, 498 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 203 ; Cripps, ibid. p. 258 ; Legge, 
Birds Ceyl. p. 306 ; Douj, S. F. viii, p. 370 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 49 ; 
Binyham, ibid. p. 152 ; Butler, ibid. p. 381 ; Davison, S. F. x. 
p. 350 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 66 ; Dresser, Mon. Mer. p. 55, pi. xv ; 
Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 94 ; Littledale, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. i, 
pp. 31, 196 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 63; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 71. 

Merops philippensis, Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 207 ; Ball, S. F. i, p. 57 ; 
Anderson, Yunnan Exp., Aves, p. 581. 

Merops daudini, Cuv. Kegne Anim. Nouv. ed. i, p. 442 (1829), 
descr. nulla ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 162 ; iii, p. 49. 

Bar a patrinya, II.; Komu passeriki, Tel. ; Huet-pasin-to, Burm. 

Coloration. Lores and a streak past the eye to the ear-coverts 
black, bordered above by a narrow pale verditer-blue supercilium 
and below by a broader blue line. Upper parts to rump, including 
the wing-coverts, green with a rufous tinge passing into the 
verditer-blue of the rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail ; tertiaries 
also sometimes bluish ; middle pair of tail-feathers with elongate 
black tips, and all tail-feathers dark brown beneath : wing-feathers 
more rufous green than the back, all except the tertiaries tipped 
with black, the outer webs bluish or brighter greenish towards 



112 MEEOPID^E. 

the tip ; chin yellow ; throat chestnut, passing into green on the 
breast, this passes into pale blue round the vent and on the lower 
tail-coverts ; wing-lining light brownish rufous. 

Bill black ; irides crimson ; legs dusky plumbeous (Jerdon). 

Length about 12 ; tail 5-6, outer feathers only 3'5 ; wing 5'25 ; 
tarsus '5 ; bill from gape 2. 




Fig. 31. Head of M. philippinus. 

Distribution. Throughout the greater part of the Oriental 
region. This Bee-eater is generally but somewhat locally dis- 
tributed over India, Ceylon, and Burma, extending west to Sind, 
but not found in the Himalayas. 

Habits, &fc. A resident species, but partially migratory in many 
places, and in Ceylon merely a winter visitant ; it keeps much to 
forest countries and well-wooded districts, and generally breeds in 
the banks of rivers. It feeds on wasps, bees, dragonflies, beetles, 
and even butterflies. It sometimes congregates in large numbers, 
but is more often seen in small companies or singly. Its voice is 
described by Jerdon as a full, mellow, rolling whistle. It breeds, 
usually in large colonies, from March to June, in a hole 4 to 7 
feet long, the egg-chamber being occasionally lined with grass or 
feathers ; it lays usually four or five white, glossy, nearly spherical 
eggs, measuring about *88 by "76. 

1028. Merops persicus. The Blue-cheeked Bee-eater. 

Merops persicus, Pall. Reis. Russ. Reichs, \\, Anhang, p. 708 (1773) ; 

Blyth, Cat. p. 52 ; Davids. $ Wend. S. F. vii, p. 77 ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 120; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 429: Davidson, 8. F. x, p. 295; 

Barnes, Birds Bomb. p. 95 ; Sivinhoe $ Barnes, Ibis, 1885, p. 61 : 

Dresser, Mon. Mer. p. 63, pi. xvi ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 157 ; 

Oates in Hume's N. Sf E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 65 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 

xvii, p. 66. 
Merops segyptius, Forsk. Descr. An., Aves, p. 1 (1775) ; Horsf. $ M. 

Cat. i, p. 89 ; Jerdon, B. L i, p. 209 ; G. F. L. Marshall, Ibis, 1872, 

p. 203 ; Hume, S. F. i. p. 167 ; iii, p. 326 ; Adam, S. F. i, p. 371 j 

Butler, S. F. iii, p. 456; vii, p. 181. 

The Egyptian Bee-eater, Jerdon. 

Coloration. Very similar to M. philippinus, but greener. Fore- 
head white, passing into verditer-blue, which unites the long blue 
supercilia ; a black streak through the lores past the eye to the 



MEROPS. 113 

ear-coverts, bordered below by white, passing down into blue and 
then into green on the cheeks; upper parts and wings green, 
bluer on the rump and upper tail-coverts ; quills greenish rufous, 
tipped blackish; tail-feathers also rufescent green, the long 
median pair dusky at the tips ; chin yellow, throat chestnut, rest 
of lower parts green like the back ; wing-lining brownish rufous. 

Bill black ; iris red ; legs and feet fleshy (C. T. Bingham). 

Length about 12 ; tail 5 to 6, to end of outer rectrices 3*7 ; 
wing 6; tarsus -55; bill from gape 1*75. 

Distribution. Migratory, wintering in Africa, and passing the 
summer in Western and Central Asia. A summer visitant to North- 
western India, breeding in parts of. Sind, Rajputana, the Punjab, 
and Afghanistan, and ranging occasionally during migration as far 
as Gilgit, Aligarh and Mainpuri in the N.W. Provinces, Mhow, 
Khandesh, and even Pandharpur in the Bombay Deccan, where 
Mr. Davidson obtained a young specimen in October. This 
species has not, so far as I know, been observed in Kashmir 
proper. 

Habits, $'c. Similar to those of other Bee-eaters. This species 
breeds near Delhi, as observed by Bingham, from the middle of 
May to the middle of July, and lays 3 to 5 eggs in the usual 
nest-hole. The eggs measure on an average -95 by *81. 

1029. Merops apiaster. The European Bee-eater. 

Merops apiaster, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 182 (1766); Blyth, Cat. 
p. 52 ; Adams, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 474 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 210 ; id. 
Ibis, 1872, p. 3 ; Murray, S. F. vii, p. 113 ; Hume, Cat. no. 121 ; 
Wardl. -Ramsay, Ibis, 1880, p. 49; Barnes, S. F. ix, pp. 215, 
453 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 48 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 95 ; St. 
John, Ibis, 1889, p. 157 ; Gates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 66 ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 63. 

Coloration. Forehead white, followed by an indistinct line of 
verditer-blue passing into green, that is continued on each side as 
a superciliuin ; a black line including the lores and ear-coverts 
and passing under the eye ; crown, hind neck, and upper back 
chestnut, darkest on the head and passing into pale yellowish 
brown, weathering in worn plumage to buff on the lower back 
and rump, paler still on the scapulars; secondary -coverts and 
quills chestnut ; primary-coverts and primary and tertiary quills 
bluish green, all quills except the tertiaries tipped black ; upper 
tail-coverts bluish green ; tail-feathers bronze-green above, the 
slightly elongate median pair tipped black, all blackish beneath ; 
chin and throat rich yellow, followed by a black gorget ; breast, 
abdomen, and under tail-coverts greenish blue, paler behind ; wing- 
lining buff. 

Bill black ; iris red ; legs and feet brown. 

Length about 10-5 ; tail 4 to 5, outer rectrices 3-5 ; wing 5-75 ; 
tarsus -55 ; bill from gape 1'7. 

Distribution. A migratory bird, wintering in Africa, and perhaps 
in Southern Arabia, and breeding in summer in Southern Europe 

VOL. in. 1 



114 MEEOPID^E. 

and Central Asia. Within Indian limits this Bee-eater breeds in 
Kashmir and probably in Afghanistan, and has been observed 
when migrating in the N.W. Punjab, Baluchistan, and on one 
occasion in Sind. 

Habits, Sfc. Those of the genus. This and other large Bee- 
eaters keep more on the wing than M. viridis and feed on various 
insects, chiefly bees and wasps. M. a/piaster breeds in Kashmir 
during May and June, and lays 4 to 7 eggs (6 being a common 
number) in a chamber at the end of a deep hole. The eggs are 
white and glossy, and measure about 1-08 by -9. 



Genus MELITTOPHAGUS, Boie, 1828. 

This genus contains one Indian species, other kinds being 
found throughout the Ethiopian region, whilst one, M. quinticolor, 
inhabits Java. The only distinction from Merops is that the 
middle pair of tail-feathers are no longer than the other 
rectrices. Plumage and habits are similar to those of Merops, and 
the two types are scarcely worth separating. 

1030. Melittophagus swinhoii. The Chestnut-headed See-eater. 

Merops erythrocephalus ?, Gm. Syst. Nat. i, p. 463 (1778) ; Blyth, 

Cat. p. 53 ; Blyth fy Wold. Birds Burma, p. 72. 
Merops quinticolor, apud Horsf. fy M. Cat. p. 88 ; Jerdon, B. I. 

i, p. 208 ; Beavan, Ibis, 1867, p. 318 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. 8. B. 

xxxix, pt. 2, p. 266 ; Holdsw. P. Z. S. 1872, p. 423 ; Jerdon, Ibis, 

1872, p. 3 ; Walden, Ibis, 1873, p. 301 ; Davidson, Jour. Bomb. 

N. H. Soc. Ti, p. 332 (nee F.). 
Merops swinhoei, Hume, N. $ E. p. 102 (1873) ; id. S. F. ii, p. 163 ; 

vii, p. 455 ; xi, p. 42 ; id. Cat. no. 119 ; Ball, S. F. ii, p. 386 ; vii, 

p. 203 ; Fairb. S. F. iv, p. 254 ; Armstrong, ibid. p. 305 ; Legge, 

Birds Ceyl. p. 312; Parker, 8. F. ix, p. 478 ; Damson, 8. F. x, 

p. 350 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 95. 
Merops leschenaultii, apud Fairb. S. F. v, p. 394; Anders. Yunnan 

Exped., Aves, p. 582 ; Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, p. 68 (nee F). 
Melittophagus leschenaulti, apud Oates, B. B. ii, p. 68. 
Melittophagus quinticolor, apud Dresser, Mon. Mer. p. 115, pi. xxvi ; 

Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. iii. p. 67. 
Melittophagus swinhoii, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 55. 
Kurumenne Kurulla, Pook-Kira, Cingalese. 

Coloration. Whole crown with the ear-coverts, hind neck, and 
upper back chestnut ; lores and a narrow line running back under 
the eye and ear-coverts black ; interscapulars, scapulars, and 
outside of wings bright green ; quills the same, but (the tertiaries 
excepted) with black tips and rufous inner margins ; rump and- 
upper tail-coverts pale blue ; tail-feathers green above, all except 
the median pair dusky on their margins and tips ; chin and 
throat yellow ; a rufous-brown gorget joining the chestnut of the 
upper surface, and bordered behind with black not extending to 
the sides of the neck, but succeeded by an ill-defined yellow band ; 



NYCTIOBNIS. 115- 

breast green, passing into bluish green on the abdomen and lower 
tail-coverts. 

Bill black ; iris crimson ; legs dusky black (Oates). 

Length 8*5 ; tail 4 ; wing 4-2 ; tarsus *43 ; bill from gape 1*7. 

After going over the original descriptions, I believe the true 
Merops quinticolor to be the Javan species. M. leschenaulti is 
not recognizable. Vieillot appears merely to have copied 
Levaillant's descriptions and localities, and the latter are notori- 
ously worthless. 

Distribution. A resident, locally distributed throughout Ceylon 
and in the hill-forests near the Malabar coast as far north as 
Belgaum, ascending the Nilgiris to about 5000 feet. Elsewhere 
in the Peninsula this bird is only known to occur in the great 
forest-region south-east of Bengal, and there it is very rare ; but 
Mr. Ball obtained a specimen in Sarguja and I shot one on the 
Grodavari below Sironcha. It ranges throughout the Lower 
Himalayas as far west as Dehra Dun, and east of the Bay of 
Bengal from Assam to the Malay Peninsula, Siam, and Cochin 
China, occurring locally throughout Burma and in the Andaman 
Islands. 

Habits, <$fc. Similar to those of Merops. This bird is usuaUy 
seen perched on a tree, very often on a dead branch, or catching 
insects on the wing. It chiefly prefers forests or well-wooded 
country near streams. It breeds about March and April, 
generally in colonies, in holes of considerable depth, and lays 
usually 5 or 6 glossy white eggs in a chamber at the end of the 
hole. The eggs measure about '87 by *76. 

Genus NYCTIORNIS, Swains., 1831. 

Larger than Merops; bill stronger and deeper; ridge of the 
culmen flattened ; a hoUow on each side of the ridge ; nostrils 
covered by plumes. Wing rounded ; first quill about two-thirds 
of the second, third or fourth longest ; tail rather long, even. 
Feathers of throat and breast elongate and richly coloured. 

Only two species are known, both are found within our area. 

Key to the Species. 

Middle of throat and of breast light blue N. athertoni, p. 116. 

Middle of throat and of breast scarlet N. amictus, p. 117. 

1031. Nyctiornis athertoni. The Blue-bearded Bee-eater. 

Merops athertoni, Jard. $ Selby, 111. Orn. ii, pi. 58 (1829). 

Nyctiornis athertoni, Horsf. fy M. Cat. p. 89 ; Jerdon, B.I. i, p. 211 ; 
Godw.-Aust. J.A.S. B. xliii, pt. 2, p. 153 ; Blyth 8f Wald. Birds 
Burma, p. 73 ; Hume Sf Inglis, S. F. \, p. 18 ; Fairbank, ibid. 
p. 394 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 68 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 203 ; 
xi, p. 42 ; id. Cat. no. 122 ; Anderson, Yunnan Exped., Aves, 
p. 583 ; Bingham, S. F. ix, pp. 153, 472 ; Butler, ibid. p. 382 ; 
Damson, S. F. x, p. 351 ; Macyregor, ibid. p. 436 ; Oates, B. B. ii, 

i2 



116 



p. 63 ; id. in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 58 ; Dresser, Mon. 

Mer. p. 7, pi. 3 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 96 ; Davidson, Jour. Bomb. 

N. H. Soc. vi, p. 333 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 88. 
Bucia nepalensis, Hodgson, J. A. S. B. v, p. 361 (1836). 
Merops cyanogularis, Jerdon, Mad. Jour. L. 8. xi, p. 229 (1840). 
Alcemerops athertonii, Blyth, Cat. p. 52. 

The Blue-necked Bee-eater, Jerdon ; Bukay Chera, Nepal ; Sany-rhyok, 
Lepcha ; Pya-too-huet, Burmese. 




Fig. 32. Head of N. athertoni. 

Coloration. Forehead, sometimes to vertex, pale verditer-blue ; 
whole upper parts, with sides of neck and breast and upper 
surface of wings and tail, grass-green; chin, middle of throat 
and of upper breast, forming a broad line, light blue, the long 
breast-feathers deep verditer except at the margins ; lower surface 
from breast, including the wing-lining, ochreous buff, streaked with 
broad green shaft-stripes from breast to vent ; tail-feathers dull 
ochreous yellow beneath, their outer margins and tips blackish. 

Bill horny, light at the base below ; iris brown : legs fleshy 
brown, tinged with green (Oates). 

Length 14 ; tail 5*25 ; wing 5'8 ; tarsus *7 ; bill from gape 2-3. 
The female somewhat less. 

Distribution. Resident throughout the Lower Himalayas as far 
west as Dehra Dun, from the plains to about 4000 feet, also from 
Assam to Tenasserim, Siam, and Cambodia, throughout the Burmese 
countries, in the larger forests. This Bee-eater is replaced in 
Southern Tenasserim by the next species, but it is found in the 
Malabar forests from the neighbourhood of Belgaum to Travancore. 
The only other reported occurrence in the Peninsula of India 
is at Sambalpur, whence there are two skins in the Hume Collection. 
Not known in Ceylon. 

Habits, fyc. A forest-bird, usually seen solitary or in pairs, 
perching on high trees, and capturing insects on the wing. The 
eggs were obtained by Major Bingham in Tenasserim from a hole 
7 feet deep in the bank of a stream on April 23rd ; they were four 
in number, hard-set, nearly round, white and glossy, and measured 
about 1'14 by 1'03. Several similar nests and eggs were taken by 
Mr. Davidson in Kanara at the end of March, and by Mr. E. C. 
Steuart Baker in Cachar from March till June. It was long supposed, 
doubtless erroneously, that this bird might breed in holes of trees. 



NYCTIORNIS. 117 

1032. Nyctiornis amictus. The Red-bearded Bee-eater. 

Merops amictus, Temm. PI, Col. pi. 310 (1824;. 

Nyctiornis amicta, Swaim. Zool, III. ser. 2, ii, text to pi. 56 ; Horsf. 
tf M. Cat. p. 383 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 345 ; Blyth fy Wald. Birds 
Burm. p. 73 ; Hume $ Z>av. S. F. vi, pp. 69, 498 ; Hume, Cat. no. 
122 bis ; Bingham, S. F. viii, p. 193 ; ix, p. 153 ; Oates, B. B. ii, 
p. 64 ; Dresser, Moti. Met: p. 1, pis. 1, 2 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xvii, 
p. 90. 

Alcemerops amicta, Blyth, Cat. -p. 52. 

Nyctiornis malaccenis, Cab. Sf Heine, Mus. Hein. ii, p. 133 (1859) ; 
Hume, S. F. ii, p. 469. 

Coloration. Nasal plumes and point of chin pale verditer-green ; 
lores and forehead pink, passing into lilac on the vertex ; feathers 
on eyelids dark green or blue ; whole upper parts, including ear- 
coverts, sides of neck and breast, and upper surface of wings and 
tail, grass-green ; cheeks in front of eye, throat, and elongate 
plumes in middle of breast scarlet, the latter dark green near the 
shafts; lower parts from breast pale green; tail-feathers beneath 
ochreous yellow, with broad black tips ; exterior margin of outer- 
most feathers also black ; wing-lining ochreous buff. 

In the female the forehead and lores are scarlet like the throat ; 
vertex only pink. Young birds are green throughout. 

Bill black, whitish at base ; iris bright yellow to orange ; legs and 
feet pale green, often dingy, sometimes bluish (Davison). 

Length 13 ; tail 5 ; wing 5-25 ; tarsus *6 ; bill from gape 2-45. 
Females measure rather less and have a shorter bill. 

Distribution. Tenasserim and throughout the Malay Peninsula 
to Sumatra and Borneo. In Tenasserim this bird is found as far 
north as Moulmein, Myawadi, and the Thoungyeng valley, but is 
rare north of Tay. 

Habits, $c. Similar to those of N. athertoni. The note, according 
to Davison, is hoarse, of four syllables, and uttered at irregular 
intervals. Nidification not known. 



118 ALCEDINLDJE. 



Suborder HALCYONES. 

No caeca; oil-gland tufted ; 15 cervical vertebrae. Sternum with 
four notches on the posterior margin ; manubrium simple, composed 
of the spina externa only. Both carotids are present. Spinal 
feather-tract well denned on the neck and not forked on the back, 
so there is no dorsal apteriuin. Down present in adults on the tracts 
not covered by feathers, a character absent in other suborders of 
Anisodactyli. No accessory semitendinosus muscle. The two 
plantar tendons are generally united, but the slip leading to the 
hallux branches off from the flexor perforans digitorum above the 
junction as in Meropes. In some cases however, as in Dacelo, this 
slip unites with the flexor longus hdllucis, and the latter runs to 
the fourth digit only and has no other connexion with the /. perf. 
digitorum (Gadow in Newton's Dictionary of Birds, p. 617). 



Family ALCEDINID^B. 

Bill long, stout, pointed, with a rounded or slightly flattened 
culmen ; tarsus and toes feeble ; the fourth or outer toe united to 
the third for more than half its length, third and second united 
tor basal third. 

Primaries 11, the first minute. Tail-feathers 12 (except in 
Tanysiptera, which has 10). 

All Kingfishers lay white, glossy, rather round 
eggs, very like those of Bee-eaters, almost always 
in a chamber without lining, dug by the birds in the 
earth at the end of a burrow from 6 inches to several 
feet in length. There is sometimes, but rarely, a 
layer of fish-bones on which the eggs are deposited. 

This family is generally divided into two sub- 
families, but as Dr. Bowdler Sharpe, to whom we 
Fig. 33. are indebted for an excellent monograph of the 
Eight foot of Kingfishers, has shown, the distinction between the 
A. ispida, \. two is not well marked. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Plumage (of Indian species) black and white. CERYLE, p. 119. 

b. Plumage varied, not black and white. 
a'. Tail shorter than culmen. 

a' r . Toes 4 ALCEDO, p. 122. 

b". Toes 3 CEYX, p. 127. 




CERYLE. 119 

b'. Tail longer than culmen. 
c 1 '. Sexes alike. 
a 3 . Bill red. 
a 4 . Bill compressed, culmen flattened, 

with a groove on each side PELARGOPSIS, p. 128. 

b*. Bill not compressed, culmen rounded. 

5 . Primaries white at base HALCYON, p. 131. 

b'\ No white on primaries CALLIALCYON, p. 134. 

3 . Bill black SAUROPATIS, p. 135. 

d". Sexes dissimilar; bill some what depressed. 

c 3 . Bill black above ; plumage not barred. CARIDAGRUS, p. 138. 
d 3 . Bill red throughout ; plumage barred. CARCINEUTES, p. 138. 

Genus CERYLE, Boie, 1828. 

Bill long, compressed ; culmen slightly curved, flattened or 
rounded above, with a groove on each side. Wings rather pointed, 
2nd or 3rd quill longest, 1st but little shorter. Tail longer than 
culmen. 

This genus inhabits the Ethiopian and Oriental regions with the 
Southern portion of the Palaearctic and the whole of America. 
There are two Indian species, distinguished by their black and white 
plumage. 

Key to the Species. 

Back not barred ; wing 5'5 C. varia, p. 119. 

Back transversely barred ; wing over 7 C. lugubris, p. 121. 

1033. Ceryle varia. The Indian Pied Kingfisher. 

Ceryle varia, Strickland, A. M. N. H. vi, p. 418 (1841) ; Salvad. Ann. 

Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) iv, p. 585 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 112. 
Ceryle rudis, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 49 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. p. 131 ; 

Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 232 ; Sharpe, Man. Ale. p. 61, pi. 19 ; Hume $ 

Henders. Lah. to Yark. p. 179 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 170 ; iii, p. 52 ; 

xi, p. 47 ; id. Cat. no. 136 ; Blyth Sf Wald. Birds Burm. p. 71 ; 

Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 85 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 288; Anders. 

Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 580 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 77 ; id. in Hume's 

N. 8f E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 8 ; Murray, Vert. Zool. Sind } p. 112 ; Barnes, 

Birds Bom. p. 103 ; (nee Alcedo rudis, Linn.). 

Koryala-Kilkila, H. ; Phatka Mach ranga, Karikata, Beng. ; Ung-ta- 
brik, Lepcha ; Pelihudmoa Waturanuwa, Gomera Pelihuduwa, Cing. ; 
Pane-nyin, Bu-dau-nen-jo, Burm. 

Coloration. Male. Crown, nape, and small nuchal crest black, 
sparingly streaked with white ; lores and a long supercilium white, 
a black eye-streak from the base of the bill to the ear-coverts, 
connected by a narrow black line with the black gorget ; an imper- 
fect white collar ; back, scapulars, and wing-coverts black edged 
with white ; rump-feathers white, with large black spots ; primaries 
with outer web and terminal portion of inner black, the rest white ; 
secondaries white, with irregular black markings forming imperfect 
bars ; tail-feathers white on the basal half and on^the tip, a broad 



120 

black band occupying the greater part of the distal half ; lower 
parts, with cheeks and wing-lining, white ; some small elongate 
spots forming a malar patch ; two gorgets, the upper the broader, on 
the breast, and spots on the flanks forming an imperfect belt, black. 
There are often black spots on the throat. 




Fig. 34. Head of C. varia, f . 

Females want the posterior black gorget and the anterior is 
interrupted in the middle. 

Bill black ; iris brown ; legs and feet blackish ; soles pale (Legge). 

Length about 11*7; tail 3; wing 5'5 ; tarsus '4; bill from 
gape 3. 

The Indian bird has usually been referred to the African and 
Western Asiatic 0. rudis ; but the latter differs in having the basal 
half of the tail-feathers more or less spotted with black, the black 
subterminal bands marked with large white spots, and the black 
marks on the throat and flanks less developed. The two are, how- 
ever, only just separable. 

Distribution. Common throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma in 
the plains, wherever there are rivers or large pieces of water, except 
in Tenasserim south of Amherst. This Kingfisher ranges east to 
China, but not west of Baluchistan, and does not inhabit the 
Himalayas, even to the westward, above a very moderate elevation. 

Habits, <$fc. The Pied Kingfisher avoids forest, but is found 
haunting all waters in open country. It may be seen on tidal 
streams and creeks, on backwaters and even on the sea-shore, 
though it is more common inland on rivers, marshes, ditches, and 
tanks. It lives entirely on fish, for which it never plunges from a 
fixed perch, but it flies over the water, and hovers with its beak 
pointed downwards, at a height of frequently 15 or 20 feet above 
the surface, when it suspects the presence of a fish. It dives 
for its prey after hovering, but not unfrequently checks itself in 
its plunge and flies on, uttering from time to time a sharp 
twittering cry. It breeds from the end of January till April, and 
lays 4 to 6 white, glossy, broadly oval eggs at the end ot a hole 
usually made in the perpendicular bank of a river. The eggs 
measure about 1*18 by *94. 



CERYLE. 121 

lo;U. Ceryle lugubris. The Himalayan Pied Kingfisher. 

Alcedo guttatus, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1830, p. 22 (nee Bodd. 1783). 

Alcedo lugubris, Temm. PL Col. pi. 548 (1834). 

Ceryle guttata, Blyth, Cat. p. 48 ; Horsf. # M. Cat. p. 132 ; Jerdon, 

B. I. i, p. 234; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 19; Sharps, 

Man. Ale. p. 57, pi. 18; Jerdon, Ibis, 1872, p. 4; Hume, S. F. ii, 

p. 470 ; id. Cat. no. 137 ; Walden in Blyttfs Birds Burm. p. 71 ; 

Godiv.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. 2, p. 69; xlvii, pt. 2, p. 14; 

Hume Sf Lu/lis, S. F. v, p. 19; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 85; 

Binyham, S. F. viii, p. 193 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 76 ; C. H. T. 

Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 409 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 48 ; Oates in 

Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 6. 
Ceryle lugubris, Sharpe, Mon. Ale. p. 59 ; id. Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 115. 

Machi Bdgh, II. (Dun.) ; Jel butara, Chamba ; Ung-ka-zhu, Lepcha. 

Coloration. Male. Crown and long nuchal crest, with the sides 
of: the head to some distance below the eyes, black, with white 
oval spots, that become stivuks at the side; a broad white collar; 
remainder of upper parts greyish black or dark grey, with white 
bars ; quills and tail black, with transversely elongate white spots. 
Lower parts including cheeks white, a stripe of black spots from 
the point of the chin down each side of the throat, widening 
behind and joining a broad gorget of black spots, the wider part 
and the gorget tinged to a varying extent with brownish rufous 
that is rarely entirely wanting ; flanks, wing-lining, and under tail- 
feathers barred or spotted with grey or black. 

Female. No rufous on throat or gorget ; under wing-coverts 
pale rufous brown. 

Bill black, greenish at the base ; iris dark brown ; legs and feet 
olive-green. 

Length about 16; tail 4'3; wing 7'4; tarsus -5; bill from 
gape 3*3. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas as far west as Kashmir, 
and up to an elevation of 7000 feet to the westward, less to the 
eastward ; also in the hills south of Assam, and in the Tenasserim 
hills, but not, so far as is known, in the intervening country. 
This species is also found in parts of China and in Japan. 

Habits, $c. This Kingfisher is only found on wooded hill-streams, 
though it follows them in places for some distance into the plains. 
It generally occurs in pairs. It lives on fish entirely, and usually 
sits in a bush near the water, keeping in the shade ; it swoops 
upon fish generally from its perch, but according to Mr. Baker, 
who has given an excellent account of its habits, it sometimes 
hovers like C. varia. The same observer says this bird has two 
notes, one like that of other Kingfishers, but less quickly repeated, 
the other a guttural croak which serves as a call. It breeds from 
April to June, and lays 3 or 4 large white, rounded eggs in a 
chamber at the end of a hole about 2 feet long. 



122 ALCEDINIDyE. 

Genus ALCEDO, Linn., 1766. 

Back bright blue, head banded black and blue. Bill long, coin- 
pressed; culmen very slightly curved, the ridge rounded not 
flattened above, and with a slight groove on each side. Wing 
somewhat pointed, 3rd or 4th quill longest, 1st and 2nd very 
little shorter. Tail very short, shorter than the bill and rounded 
at the end. Feet weak. 

A genus of 10 known species, half of which are Indian. The 
generic range extends throughout Europe, Asia, and Africa. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Size small ; wing 2 - 5 to 3-2. 

a 1 . Ear-coverts ferruginous in adults ...... A. ispida, p. 122. 

b'. Ear-coverts blue in adults. 

a". Middle of back pale blue A. beavani, p. 124. 

b". Middle of back deep blue A. meninting, p. 125. 

b. Size larger ; wing about 3'5. 
c'. No green band across breast. 

c". Bars on head conspicuous, whitish 

blue A. grandis, p. 125. 

d" . Bars on head inconspicuous, dull 

greenish blue A. euryzona $ , p. 126. 

d 1 . A green band across breast A. euryzona <$ ,p. 126. 



1035. Alcedo ispida. The Common Kingfisher. 

Alcedo ispida, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 179 (1766) ; Sharpe, Mon. Ale. 
p. 1, pi. i ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 168 ; id. Cat. no. 134 bis ; Blanf. 
East. Pers. ii, p. 121 ; Sutler, S. F. v, p. 208 ; Murray, Vert. Zool. 
Sind, p. Ill ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 102 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xvii, 
p. 141. 

Alcedo bengalensis, Gm. Syst. Nat. i,p. 450 (1788) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 49; 
Horsf. $ M. Cat. p. 129 ; Adams, P. Z. S. 1868, p. 474 ; 1859, 
p. 174 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 230; Hume fy Senders. Lah. to Yark. 
p. 178 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 168 ; ii, p. 173 ; xi, p. 46 ; id. Cat. 
no. 134; Blyth fy Wald. Birds Burm. p. 71; Anders. Yunnan Exped,, 
Aves, p. 580; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 81 ; Cripps, 8. F. vii, 
p. 260 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 292 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 72 ; id. in 
Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 1 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 101. 

Alcedo sindiana, Hume, S. F. i, p. 168. 

The Common Indian Kingfisher, Jerdon ; Chota kilkila, Nita or Nika 
machrdla, H. ; Khandu, Khandya, Mahr. ; Chota-machranga, B. ; Tint 
Konu, Tuntu, Kashmiri ; Ung-chin. Lepcha ; Nila buche gadu, Tel. ; 
Dane-nyin, Burm. 

Coloration. Crown and nape transversely banded dusky black 
and blue ; lores and a band below the eye to the ear-coverts deep 
ferruginous, ending in a white or rufous-white patch at the side 
of the neck ; lower edge of lores black, a broad stripe from the 
lower mandible down each cheek blue ; middle of back, rump, and 
upper tail-coverts bright blue; scapulars and wing-coverts greenish 



ALCEDO. 123 

blue, each of the lesser and median coverts tipped with a bright 
blue spot ; quills brown, edged outside with greenish blue ; tail blue 
above, brown beneath ; lower parts deep ferruginous, sometimes 
paler, always whitish or white on chin and throat. Some birds 
are a greener blue than others. Young birds are duller in colour 
and have the lower parts tinged with ashy. 

Bill black ; basal half of lower mandible in females red or orange ; 
iris dusky brown ; feet coral-red (Sharpe}. 

Length about 7; tail 1-4; wing 2'75 to 3-1 ; tarsus '37; bill 
from gape H). 




Fig. 35. Head of A. ispida, |. 

In accordance with the latest views of Dr. Bowdler Sharpe, 
who has made a special study of Kingfishers, I have united the 
Indian Kingfisher with the European and Central Asiatic bird. 
The former has long been distinguished as A. bengalensis, on 
account of its small size ; but unquestionably the two pass into 
each other, and the difference in size is probably due to a very 
common peculiarity that tropical races (or perhaps southern races) 
in Asia are smaller than those of temperate regions. 

Distribution. Throughout Europe and Asia, extending to the 
Malay Archipelago. In the British Indian area, this bird is only 
wanting in the Himalayas, where it is rarely met with far above 
the base of the mountains, though it abounds in Kashmir. It is 
of course most common in well-watered countries and comparatively 
rare in forest-tracts. The smaller race A. bengalensis occurs 
throughout South-eastern Asia ; the larger, typical A. ispida only 
occurs within Indian limits in Sind and Baluchistan, but inter- 
mediate forms are common. 

Habits, <$fc. The Common Kingfisher frequents streams of all 
sizes, marshes, tanks, irrigation-channels, road-side ditches, flooded 
paddy-fields, and even the sea-shore, anywhere, in fact, where small 
fish may be found, and perches on a tree or stump, and very often 
on a reed, or any post of vantage overlooking the water ; from its 
perch it plunges after its prey. It lives mainly on fish, occasionally 
on tadpoles or water-insects, but it is rarely, if ever, seen away 
from water. Very often these little Kingfishers are in pairs and 
they are exceedingly pugnacious, each pair driving away all others 
of the same species. It has a peculiar whistling cry or call, 
frequently uttered. Its flight is very swift and straight, generally 
just above the surface of the water. It breeds in India from 
January to June, earlier in the South of India than in the North, 



124 

but in some parts it breeds at other seasons. It digs in a bank 
immediately over water, usually a stream, a narrow hole, about 
2 feet in depth and rarely more than 2 inches in diameter, 
terminating in a chamber about 5 inches in diameter and 3 or 4 
high, in which 5 to 7 eggs are laid, very often on a few fish-bones. 
The eggs are white and glossy and measure *8 by *68. 

1036. Alcedo beavani. Beavan's Kingfisher. 

Alcedo memnting, apudBeavan, Ibis, 1867, p. 319 ; Blanf. Ibis, 1870, 
p. 465 ; Gates, S. F. v, p. 143 ; Brooks, S. F. viii, p. 468 ; Saka- 
dori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) iy, p. 584 (nee Horsf.). 

Alcedo asiatica, apud Ball, S. F. i, p. 59 ; Hume, 8. F. ii, p. 174 j 
Ball, S. F. iii, p. 289 ; Blyth $ Wold. Birds Burnt, p. 71 ; Hume, 
S. F. iv, p. 383 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 73 ; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd 
ed. iii, p. 6 (nee Swainson). 

Alcedo rufierastra, Wald. A. M. N. H. (4) xii, p. 487 (1873); id. 
Ibis, 1874, p. 136. 

Alcedo beavani, Wald. A. M. N. H. (4) xiv, p. 158 (1874) ; id. Ibis, 




p. 383 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 351 : Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 102 ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 160. 

Coloration. Crown, nape, and hind neck black, with bright blue 
cross-bands ; lores ferruginous, the lower border black ; sides of 
head and cheeks bright blue, an elongate buff or white spot on 
each side of the neck behind the ear-coverts ; middle of back and 
rump bright light blue, sometimes with a slight greenish tint ; 
upper tail-coverts rather darker blue ; scapulars, wing-coverts, and 
outer margins of secondary quills dull blue, most of the coverts 
each with a bright blue spot at the tip ; quills brown, with the 
inner margins pale rufous ; tail deep blue above, black below ; 
chin and throat buffy white ; rest of lower parts, including wing- 
lining, deep ferruginous. 

Adult females resemble males ; young birds have the cheeks and 
ear-coverts rufous, and the blue on these parts appears to be more 
slowly assumed by females than by males. 

Bill black, orange at the gape and base ; iris dark brown ; legs 
bright red, claws red. Young birds have most of the lower 
mandible red and the tip white (Oates}. 

Length about 6 '2 ; tail 1-25 ; wing 2*5 ; tarsus '35 ; bill from 
gape 1-8-2-2. 

Distribution. This Kingfisher is very rare west of the Bay of 
Bengal, but has been obtained in Travancore and west of Belgaum 
near the Malabar coast, also in the Eajmehal Hills, Manbhoorn, and 
Cuttack, and, quite recently, in Ceylon. It is more common at 
the base of the Himalayas in Sikhim and Bhutan, in Assam and 
Cachar, in various parts of Burma from Bhamo to Southern Tenas- 
serim, and in the Andaman Islands, bu it is locally distributed. 
It has also been brought from Cochin China and Celebes. 



ALCEDO. 125 

^ .\r. Very similar to those of A. ispida, except that this 
is purely a forest species, being restricted to woodland streams. 
The eggs, 4 to 6 in number, were taken from the usual nest- 
holes by Mr. Gates in Pegu in the month of July ; they were 
glossy white and round, and measured about '78 by *69. 

1037. Alcedo meninting. The Malayan King/fisher. 

Alcedo meninting, Iforsf. Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 172 (1821) ; BlytTi, 

Cat. p. 49 ; Horsf. 8? M. Cat. p. 130 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. 

vi, p. 83 ; Hume, Cat. no. 135 ter ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xvii, 

p. 157. 
Alcedo asiatica, Swains. Zool. III. 1st ser. i, pi. 50 (1821) ; Sharpe, 

Mon. Ale. p. 23, pi. o. 

Coloration. Precisely similar to that of A. beavani, except that 
the blue of the upper parts is deeper, the spots on the wing- 
coverts especially being comparatively inconspicuous ; and the 
middle of the back is deep cobalt. Measurements as in A. 
beavani. 

I am disposed to agree with Gates and to regard A. beavani as 
merely a bright-coloured variety. Hume was inclined to the same 
view, and the distribution of the two is anomalous if they are 
distinct ; but when a series of both is laid out, there is a percep- 
tible difference between them. 

Distribution. Malay Peninsula, extending into the extreme 
south of Tenasserim, also in Sumatra, Java, and Borneo. 

1038. Alcedo grandis. Blyttis Kingfisher. 

Alcedo grandis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 190 (1845) ; id. Cat. 
p. 49 ; id. Ibis, 1865, p. 30, 1866, p. 348 ; Sharpe, Mon. Ale. p. 19, 
pi. 3; Jerdon, Ibis, 1872, p. 4 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. 2, 
p. 69 ; xlvii, pt. 2, p. 14 ; Hume, Cat. no. 135 ; id. S. F. xi, p. 47 ; 
Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 4 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 
xvii, p. 156. 

Alcedo euryzona, apudBlyth, Cat., Addenda, p. xxviii ; Jerdon, B. I. 
\, p. 231 ; nee Temm. 

The Great Indian Kingfisher, Jerdon. 

Coloration. Whole cap and nape black, with small bluish- white 
transverse bars ; a ferruginous spot on the black lores ; a pale 
patch in front of the eye, another behind and below it ; cheeks 
and ear-coverts blackish, spotted and streaked with bright greenish 
blue ; a white longitudinal stripe on each side of the neck ; 
middle of back and rump bright pale blue, becoming deeper blue 
on the upper tail-coverts ; scapulars and wings dull green outside, 
with some bright bluish-white specks on the coverts ; quills 
brown, some of the secondaries with greenish-blue edges ; tail 
deep blue above, dark brown below ; lower parts deep ferruginous, 
whitish on throat and chin. Sexes, so far as is known, alike. 

Bill black, red at the base of the lower mandible ; feet red 
(Jerdon). 



126 

Length about 8 ; tail 1-8 ; wing 3*8 ; tarsus '42 ; bill from 
gape 2-5. 

Distribution. This Kingfisher has only been obtained at low 
elevations in the Sikhim and Bhutan Himalayas, in the Dafla 
hills east of Bhutan, and in some of the hills south of the Assam 
valley. 

Habits, fyc. These were unknown until an excellent account of 
them was given in the ' Asian ' newspaper by " Rekab " (Mr. 
Steuart Baker). He found the bird very shy, keeping to streams 
in dense jungle, and feeding chiefly or wholly on fish. It is a 
silent bird, its note, only uttered on the wing, resembling that of 
A. ispida, and its flight is exceedingly rapid. The eggs, taken on 
three occasions in April, were from 2 to fi in number, laid on fish- 
bones at the end of a burrow, varying from 1 to 6 feet in length in 
two cases in dark ravines through which a little water trickled in 
the rains, and in the third on the slope of a hill amongst the roots 
of a tree. 

1039. Alcedo euryzona. The Broad-zoned Kingfisher. 

Alcedo euryzona, Temm. PI. Col. text to pi. 508 (1830) ; Horsf. fy 
M. Cat. p. 128 ; Sharpe, Mon. Ale. p. 29, pi. 8 ; Hume, S. F. iii, 
p. 318; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 75 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 154. 

Alcedo ni^ricans, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 1180 (1847) ; id. Cat. 
p. 49 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 81, 499 ; Hume, Cat. no. 135 
bis ; Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 156. 

Coloration. Male. Crown and nape sooty black, with narrow 
faint greenish bars ; lores duh 1 ferruginous ; cheeks and ear-coverts 
bluish black, mixed with dull green ; a ferruginous or whitish 
band on each side of the neck, forming an imperfect collar ; 
middle of back and rump very pale blue, upper tail-coverts deeper 
blue ; scapulars and wings sooty black, the scapulars and coverts 
tipped and the inner quills edged near the base with greenish blue ; 
tail black, washed above with dark blue ; lower parts buffy white, 
a broad band of dull green across the breast, the feathers with 
white centres ; flanks dusky ; wing-lining rufescent. 

Female. Lower parts ferruginous, chin and throat whitish ; no 
band across breast ; upper parts as in males. 

Upper mandible black, lower very dark brown, paler at the 
base in males, dull vermilion in females ; iris dark brown ; feet 
milion (JDavisori). 

Length about 8; tail 1*5; wing 3-4; tarsus ! 48; bill from 
gape 2-4. 

Distribution. Tenasserim, as far north as Muleyit east of 
Moulmein, also in the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, and 
Borneo. 

Habits, fyc. This is a rare and shy bird, found only on streams 
in deep forest, and apparently restricted in Tenasserim to the 
hills. It is generally seen in pairs, lives entirely, so far as is 
known, on fish, and has a note similar to that of A. ispida. 



CEYX. 127 

Genus CEYX, Lace'pede, 1801. 

Bill intermediate in form between Alcedo and Halcyon, less com- 
pressed than in the former, not grooved ; culmen straight and 
slightly flattened. Only three toes, the inner or second wanting. 
Tail very short and rounded. Plumage very bright, red often 
predominating. 

This is a genus of 18 species, ranging almost throughout the 
Oriental region and to the Papuan Islands. One species is 
Indian. 

1040. Ceyx tridactyla. The Indian Three-teed Kingfisher. 

Alcedo tridactyla, Pallas, Spic. Zool. vi, p. 10, pi. ii, fig. 1 (1769). 

Alcedo erithaca et purpurea, Gm. Syst. Nat. i, p. 449 (1788). 

Ceyx tridactyla, Jerdon, III. Ind. Orn. pi. 25 ; id. B. I. i, p. 229 ; 
Horsf. $ M. Cat. p. 391 ; Layard, A. M. N. H. ('2} xii, p. 172; 
Sharpe, Mon. Ale. p. 119, pi. 40; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 173; iii, 
p. 51 ; iv, p. 287 ; v, p. 19 ; xi, p. 45 j id. Cat. no. 133 ; Butter, 
S. F. ii, p. 455 ; v, p. 503 ; ix, p. 383 ; Walden, Ibis, 1874, p. 137 ; 




ix, p. 478 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 80 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. 

(2) iv, p. 587 ; vii, p. 433 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 101 ; Oates in 

Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 13 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xvii, 

p. 174. 

Ceyx microsoma, Burton, P. Z. S. 1837, p. 89. 
Ceyx erythaca, Blyth, Cat. p. 50. 

The Three-toed Purple Kingfisher, Jerdon ; Dein-nygeen, Arrakan : 
Punchi Mal-pelihuduwa, Cing. 

Coloration. A spot, pointed behind, at base of forehead black, 
washed with purple ; crown, nape, hind neck, lower back, rump, 
and upper tail-coverts orange-red, with a ruddy violet gloss, espe- 
cially over the eye and on the rump and upper tail-coverts ; a 
black spot before the eye ; lores, cheeks, ear-coverts, and lower 
parts from the throat orange-yellow ; chin and throat white ; a 
deep blue spot behind the ear-coverts bordered behind by white ; 
scapulars and interscapulary region deep purplish blue ; wing dark 
brown outside, coverts tinged with deep blue ; edge of wing and 
smallest coverts, under wing-coverts, outer edge of first primary, 
and inner borders of all quills rufous ; tail orange-red. 

Bill and feet bright vermilion-red ; irides brown (Davwon). In 
the young the bill is paler and shorter. 

Length about 5-5; tail 1; wing 2-2; tarsus -3; bill from 
gape 1-55. 

Distribution. Ceylon, rare ; Carnatic and w r est coast of Southern 
India according to Jerdon, but very rare ; also some of the Sahyadri 
forests near Bombay. I find no other localities recorded in the 
Indian Peninsula, but Jerdon says this species is scattered, 
though far from common, over all India. To the eastward this 
Kingfisher is found in Lower Bengal, the Sikhim and Bhutan 



128 

Terai, Assam, Cachar, and the Burmese countries generally, with 
the Malay Peninsula, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 

Habits, <$fc. A forest bird, usually found singly or in pairs by 
hill-streams, but sometimes away from water. It has a shrill 
piping note, and its food, so far as is known, consists of small fish 
perhaps also of water-insects. It breeds from May to August, 
often away from water, in a hole dug by itself, and it lays 4 to 6, 
or even 7, very small white eggs, less rounded than those of 
Alcedinidce in general. 

Genus PELAEGOPSIS, Gloger, 1842. 

Size large ; back and rump pale blue, lower parts buff. iBill very 
large and strong ; culmen flattened, perfectly straight, with a well- 
marked groove on each side. Third or fourth quill longest, first 
about equal to tenth. Tail much longer than bill, slightly rounded 
at the end. 

This genus ranges throughout the Oriental region ; three species 
occur within the Indian area. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Wings and tail brown P. amauroptera, p. 128. 

b. Wings and tail blue or greenish blue. 

'. No distinct brown cap ; mantle blue .... P. leucocephala, p. 129. 
b'. A distinct brown cap ; mantle dull green. P. gturidl, p. 129. 

1041. Pelargopsis amauroptera. The Broivn-winyed Kingfisher. 

Halcyon amauropterus, Pearson, J. A. S. B. x, p. 635 (1841) ; Blyth, 

Cat. p. 313; Horsf. # M. Cat. p. 124; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 224; 

Blanf. Ibis, 1870, p. 465 ; Cripps, S. F. vii, p. 260. 
Pelargopsis amauroptera, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1870, p. 63 : id. Mon. Ale. 

p. 97, pi. 30; Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 70; Armstrong, S.F. 

iv, p. 305; Hume Sf Dav. S. F. vi, p. 73; Hume, Cat. no. 128; 

Oates, B. B. ii, p. 78 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 97. 

Coloration. Whole head, neck, and lower parts, including wing- 
lining, deep ochreous buff (brownish yellow) ; middle of back and 
rump bright pale blue; a narrow band across the upper back, 
scapulars, wings, upper tail-coverts, and tail dark brown. In young 
birds there are dusky edges to the buff feathers, especially on the 
hind neck and breast. 

Bill deep crimson ; irides brown ; eyelids brick-red ; legs scarlet 
(Cripps). The bill is black at the tip and for some distance up 
the culmen in immature birds. 

Length about 14 inches ; tail 4 ; wing 5*8 ; tarsus *7 ; bill 
from gape 3'75. 

Distribution. On tidal rivers and creeks, brackish or salt, near 
the coast, from Bengal to a little south of Tenasserim ; also occa- 
sionally, but rarely, near rivers above the tideway. 

Habits, fyc. This Kingfisher is generally seen on salt-water 
creeks. It is a noisy bird with a harsh grating cry. Nidification 
unknown. 



PELARGOPSIS. 129 



1042. Pelargopsis leucocephala. The Nicobar Stork-billed 
Kingfisher. 

Alcedo leucocephala, Gm. Syst. Nat. i, p. 456 (1788). 

Pelargopsis leucocephala, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1870, p. 64 ; id. Mon. Ale. 

p. 99, pi. 31. 

Pelargopsis fraseri, Ball, S. F. \, p. 57 ; nee Sharpe. 
Pelargopsis intermedia, Hume, S. F. ii, p. 166 (1874); id. Cat. 

no. 127 ter; Sharpe, S, F. ii, p. 489; id. Cat. B\ M. xvii, p. 99. 

Coloration. "Whole head, neck, and lower parts, including wing- 
lining, deep ochreous (brownish yellow) ; the crown spotted irregu- 
larly with brown from some of the feathers having dark brown 
centres, but there is no distinct cap ; upper back, scapulars, wings 
above, longer upper tail-coverts, and tail above deep blue, slightly 
greenish on the upper back, scapulars, and wing-coverts ; primaries, 
except the outer webs near the base, inner webs of secondaries, 
and lower surface of quills and tail-feathers dark brown ; middle 
of back, rump, and anterior upper tail-coverts bright pale cobalt- 
blue. 

Bill coral-red, dusky towards the tip ; irides deep brown ; orbital 
skin and feet bright orange-vermilion (Davison). 

Length about 15 ; tail 4 ; wing 6 ; tarsus -65 ; bill from gape 
3-75. 

Distribution. Borneo and the Nicobar Islands. Specimens from 
the latter were distinguished by Hume under the name P. inter- 
media on account of being deeper in colour, especially on the back, 
and wanting the whitish throat. I find, however, that fine Bornean 
skins are not distinguishable. 

Habits, fyc. A salt-water form, occasionally seen on the sea-shore, 
and haunting tidal creeks like P. amauroptera. Nidification 
unknown. 



1043. Pelargopsis gurial. The Brown-headed Stork-billed 
Kingfisher. 

Halcyon capensis, Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. xi, p. 231 ; Layard, 

A. M. N. H. (2) xii, p. 171 ; nee L. 

Halcyon gurial, Pearson, J. A. S. B. x, p. 632 (1841) ; Blyth, Cat. 

p. 47 ; id. Ibis, 1865, p. 30 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, 

p. 95. 
Halcyon bruniceps, Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. xiii, pt. 2, p. 143 

(1845). 
Halcyon leucocephalus, Horsf. fy M. Cat. p. 123 (partim) ; Jerdon, 

B. I. i, p. 222 ; McMaster, J. A. S. B. xl, pt. 2, p. 108 ; nee Gm. 
Halcyon capensis, Walden, P. Z. S. 1866, p. 553 ; nee L. 
Pelargopsis gurial, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1870, p. 66 ; id. Mon. Ale. p. 105, 

pi. 34 ; Ball, S. F. ii, p. 386 ; vii, p. 203 ; Fairb. S. F. iv, p. 254 ; 
v, p. 394 ; Hume, S. F. v, p. 18 ; xi, p. 44 ; id. Cat, no. 127 ; 
Oripps, S. F. vii, p. 259 ; Lcgge, Birds Ceyl. p. 295 ; Vidal, S. F. 
ix, p. 49 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 21 ; David? on, ibid. p. 296 ; Davison, 
ibid. p. 351 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 98 ; Littledale, Jour. Bom. 
VOL. III. K 



130 ALCEDINIDJE. 

N. H. Soc. i, pp. 32, 197 ; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, 
p. 11 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 101. 

Pelargopsis burmanica, Sharpe, P. Z. 8. 1870, p. 67 ; id. Mon. Ale. 
p. 109, pi. 35 ; Ball, J. A. 8. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 277 ; id. S. F. i, p. 57 ; 
Walden, Ibis, 1874, p. 136 ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 165 j iii, p. 50; id. 
Cat, no. 127 bis; Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 70; Bingham, 
S. F. v, p. 83 : ix, p. 154 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 73 ; Oates, 
B. B. ii, p. 78 ; id. in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 12 ; Sharpe. 
Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 104. 

The Brown-headed Kingfisher, Jerdon : Gurial Beng. ; Badami Kow- 
rilla, H. (Oude) ; Maha pelihudmca, Waturanuwa, Cing. ; Hsin-pay- 
nyin, Burm. 




Fig. 36. Head of P. gurial, f . 



Coloration. Crown, nape, and sides of head, including the 
cheeks and ear-coverts, brown, varying in shade from dark brown 
to (in some Burmese birds) whity-brown ; neck all round and 
lower parts, including wing-lining, varying from buff to deep 
brownish yellow, usually deeper on the breast and abdomen ; upper 
back, scapulars, wings, longer tail-coverts, and tail dull greenish 
blue ; quills and tail bluer ; primaries except outer webs towards 
the base, inner webs of secondaries, and lower surface of tail 
brown ; back, rump, and shorter tail-coverts bright pale blue. 

In young birds the buff feathers of the neck and breast have 
dark edges ; the end of the bill, too, is dusky. 

Bill dark blood-red ; irides light brown ; legs dull scarlet 
(Jerdon). Eyelids pinkish fleshy, the edges red (Oates). 

Length about 15 ; tail 4 ; wing 6 ; tarsus *75 ; bill from gape 3-8. 

The Burmese race has been distinguished as P. burmanica. Very 
many Burmese specimens have pale whity-brown caps and dark 
ochraceous lower parts, but birds in abundance occur throughout 
Burma that are absolutely undistinguishable from many Indian 
individuals. Very dark-headed birds are peculiar to India (the 
darkest are from the Malabar coast), but they are not a majority. 
The two races are not, I think, sufficiently distinct to be classed 
apart. 

Distribution. Along rivers and streams and about large pieces 
of water in well-wooded countries almost throughout the Empire. 



HALCYON. 131 

Wanting in Kajputana, Sind, and the Punjab, and very rare in 
the open tracts of the North-west Provinces and Central India, 
on the Deccan tableland, and in the Carnatic ; but occurring in 
Guzerat and throughout the Malabar coast and in Ceylon, in the 
wooded country between the Godavari and Bengal, near the base 
of the Himalayas as far west as Dehra Dun, and, still more 
commonly, in Bengal, Assam, Burma, and the Andaman Islands. 
This Kingfisher ranges into the northern part of the Malay 
Peninsula, and to Siam, Cambodia, and Cochin China. Farther 
south in the Malay Peninsula it is represented by another race, 
P. fraseri. 

Habits, fyc. Unlike the last two, this is chiefly a freshwater 
Kingfisher, though it may occasionally be seen on tidal streams. 
It is more often found on well- wooded rivers, large marshes, or 
tanks, perched on a branch overhanging the water, and plunging 
occasionally for fish. It also feeds on frogs, crabs, and it is said 
mollusca. According to Davison, it sometimes eats lizards. It has 
a loud peculiar cry several times repeated, generally uttered during 
flight. It breeds from April to June in Northern India, earlier in 
the South, generally in a hole in the bank of a stream ; but 
Mr. Cripps in Assam found a nest in a dead and rotten tree, and 
Major Bingham in Tenasserim obtained the eggs from a nest of 
grass-roots in the fork of a bamboo, and saw the parent bird 
distinctly. The eggs, 3 to 5 in number, are of the usual Kingfisher 
type, and measure about 1*17 by 1'05. 



Genus HALCYON, Svvainson, 1820. 

There is much difference of opinion as to the limits of the 
present genus. In the British Museum Catalogue it comprises 
the forms here referred to Callialcyon, Sauropatis, and Caridagrus, 
and contains 53 species, whilst by many writers it is restricted to 
the type H. sencgalensis and its allies. I do not see any necessity 
for generically distinguishing H. smyrnensis and H. pileata from 
//. senegalensis ; but the differences between Halcyon and Sauro- 
patis, for instance, appear to me quite as great as those usually 
regarded as of generic importance in the present work. 

In Halcyon the bill is red throughout, large, rather broad at the 
base, the culmen straight, rounded above and without any 
distinct groove at the side. The wing is rounded, the 3rd quill 
generally longest. Tail moderate, longer than culmen, slightly 
rounded at the end. One of the characteristic features in the 
plumage is the presence of a large white patch on the wing 
formed by the basal portions of the primary quills. 

Key to the Species. 

Head and neck above chestnut ; no white collar. H. smyrnensis, p. 132. 

Crown black ; a white collar H. pileata, p. 133. 

K2 



132 



1044. Halcyon smyrnensis. The White-breasted Kingfisher. 

Alcedo smyrnensis, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 181 (1766). 

Alcedo fusca, Bodd. TaU. PL Enl. p. 54 (1783). 

Halcyon smyrnensis, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 84 ; Jerdon, Madr. 
Jour. L. S. xi, p. 230 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 47 ; Sharpe, Mon. Ale. p. 161, 
pi. 59 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 168 ; ii, p. 167 ; xi, p. 44 ; id. Cat. 
no. 129 ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 74 ; Anderson, Yunnan Exped., 
Aves, p. 579 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 298 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 82 ; 




Haley. 

Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p.' 347. 
Halcyon saturatior, Hume, S. F. ii, pp. 168, 531 ; id. Cat. no. 129 bis; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 226. 

Kilkila, H. : Nula muchrdla, Chamba ; Khandu, Khandya, Malir. ; 
Sada-buk Machranga, Beng 1 . ; Lak-muka, Buche gattu, Tel. ; Vichuli, 
Tarn. ; Kalari Kuruvi, Tarn. (Ceylon) ; Pelihudmva, Cing. ; Dane-nyin, 
Bum. 

Coloration. Chin, throat, and middle of breast white, all the 
rest of head, neck, and lower plumage deep chestnut or chocolate- 
brown ; scapulars and interscapulary tract, tertiaries, outer webs 
of secondaries above, and upper surface of tail blue, generally with 
a greenish tinge ; lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts 
brighter blue ; greater wing-coverts duller and darker blue, 
median coverts black, lesser chestnut ; secondary quills except on 
outer web above black ; ends of primaries, much longer on the 
outer than the inner, black, basal portion white, with the outer 
web above pale blue. 

Bill dark red, the margins brownish ; iris brown ; legs coral- 
red {Oates). 

Length about 11; tail 3*3; wing 4'7; tarsus *65 ; bill from 
gape 2-8. 

The Andaman birds were distinguished by Hume as H. satura- 
tior on account of their deep coloration, the blue portion of the 
plumage being a darker blue and the chestnut parts chocolate- 
brown. The size too is rather large. But similarly coloured 
individuals, though rare, may be found in India and Ceylon. 

Distribution. Throughout India, Burma, and Ceylon, except in 
the Himalayas, into which this species only penetrates up to a 
moderate elevation to the westward. It is generally rare or 
wanting on the higher hills of the Peninsula, though Davison 
obtained it on the Mlgiri plateau. Outside of India it ranges 
throughout the Malay Peninsula, Cochin China, &c., to Southern 
China, and westwards through Persia and Baluchistan to Asia 
Minor and Cyprus. 

Habits, fyc. This, like Alcedo ispida and Ceryle varia, is a common 
Indian bird, but its habits are very different from those of the 
other two Kingfishers, for though it occasionally, but rarely, 
catches fish by plunging after them, it lives chiefly on insects and 
small lizards, and sometimes on mice or land-crabs. It has a 



HALCYON. 133 

so roaming cry, almost always uttered during flight. It breeds 
from March to July, laying 4 to 7 white rounded eggs in a 
chamber at the end of the usual burrow, which is generally made 
in the bank of a stream or tank, sometimes in a well, or on a 
cliff. In Cachar, however, Mr. E. C. Steuart Baker has described 
this bird as building a roughly constructed nest of moss amongst 
rocks or large stones. The eggs measure on an average 1*13 
by 1-03. 

1045. Halcyon pileata. The Black-capped Kingfisher. 

Alcedo pileata, Bodd. Tall. PL Enl p. 41 (1783). 

Alcedo atricapilla, Gm. Si/st. Nat. i, p. 453 (1788). 

Halcyon atricapillus, Blyth, Cat. p. 47; Lai/ard, A. M. N. H. (2) 

xii, p. 171; Horsf. $ M. Cat. p. 124; Jerclon, B. I. i, p. 226; 

Bearan, Ibis, 1867, p. 319 ; 1869, p. 409 ; Blanf. Ibis, 1870, p. 465 ; 

Hume, S. F. ii, p. 168 ; iv, p. 287. 
Halcyon pileata, Sharjx, Mon. Ale. p. 169, pi. 62 ; Hume, S. F. ii, 

p. 470; xi, p. 45; id. Cat. no. 130; Artnstr. S. F. iv, p. 306; 

Bhith $ Wold. Birds Burm. p. 70; Wardl.-Rams. Ibis, 1877, 




Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 100 ; Skarpe, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 229. 
The Black-capped Purple Kingfisher, Jerdon. 




Fig. 37. Head of H. pileata, f . 



Coloration. Crown, nape, and sides of head black, a few white 
feathers below the eye ; a broad white or buff collar round the 
neck, followed by a blackish band ; scapulars, back, rump, upper 
tail-coverts, upper surface of tail, outer webs of secondaries and 
tertiaries outside, and greater primary-coverts deep blue, brighter 
on the lower back and rump ; remainder of upper wing-coverts 
black ; primary-quills black at the tips, the first primaries for half 
their length, the inner primaries for less, basal portion white with 
the outer web pale lilac, a little of the outer web beyond the lilac 
part blue, secondaries black except on the dorsal surface of the 
outer web outside ; chin, throat, and middle of breast white ; sides 
of throat and breast and remainder of lower surface, with the 
wing-lining, ferruginous buff ; tail black beneath. 

In young birds and in many females the breast-feathers have 
dark borders, and there are black spots on the sides of the throat. 



134 ALCEDINIDJE. 

Bill deep red; iris dark brown ; legs dark red (Oates). 

Length about 12; tail 3'25 ; wing 5; tarsus -6; bill from 
gape 2-8. 

Distribution. A single specimen was obtained by Jerdon at 
Tellicherry, Malabar coast, and another by Layard in Northern 
Ceylon. The only other known locality in India is on the 
Ganges, where this Kingfisher has been found as high as 
Monghyr. It is more common in the Sundarbans and down the 
Burmese coast, being especially abundant in the Irrawaddy 
delta. It also occurs in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It 
is seldom found inland, but Gates obtained a specimen on the 
Irrawaddy at Palow, below Thayet Myo, and it appears, according 
to Davison and Bingham, to wander up the Tenasserim rivers 
from September till February. It ranges through the Malay 
Peninsula and Archipelago to Celebes, also through Siam, Cam- 
bodia and China, to Corea. 

Habits, 6fc. This Kingfisher, though chiefly found on salt-water 
creeks and mangrove-swamps, haunts fresh-water streams at times. 
It lives on fish and crabs and has. like most Kingfishers, a shrill 
cry. 

Genus CALLIALCYON, Bp., 1850. 

This genus is distinguished by its peculiar plumage, being 
rufous throughout except on the lower back and rump. There is 
no white on the primaries. Otherwise there is no difference 
from Halcyon. A single species. 

1046. Callialcyon lilacina. The Ruddy Kingfisher. 

Alcedo coromanda, Latham, Ind. Orn. i, p. 252 (1790). 

Halcyon coromanda, Steph. Shaw's Gen. Zool. xiii, pt. 2, p. 100 ; 

Sharpe, Man. Ale. p. 155, p. 57 ; Ball, J.A.8. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 277 ; 

Hume, S. F. ii, pp. 169, 494 ; xi, p. 44 ; id. Cat. no. 131 ; Blyth $ 

Wald. Birds Burm. p. 70 ; WardL-Ramsay, Ibis, 1877, p. 456 ; 

Hume # Dav. S. F. vi, p. 75 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 81 ; Sharpe, Cat. 

B. M. xvii, p. 217. 
Halcyon lilacina, Swains. Classif. B. ii, p. 335 (1837) ; Bonap. Consp. 

Av. i, p. 156. 
Alcyon calipyga, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 82 (1844), descr. 

nulla. 

Halcyon coroinander, Blyth, Cat. p. 47. 
Halcyon coromandelianus, Horsf. fy M. Cat. p. 126 ; Jerdon, B. I. 

i, p. 227. 
Callialcyon coromanda, Walden, Ibis, 1873, p. 302. 

Coloration. Upper parts, with the wing and tail, and sides of 
the head and neck light chestnut or cinnamon, more or less over- 
laid with a red- violet gloss ; middle of lower back and rump white, 
mixed with pale blue and occasionally with violet ; lower parts 
rufous, varying in depth, paler on the throat and chin. 

Young with dark edges to the breast-feathers. 

Bill red, blackish at the base ; iris brown ; legs and claws red 
(Oates). 



SAUEOPATIS. 135 

Length about 10-25 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 4-3 ; tarsus -65 ; bill 
from gape 2'5. 

Skins from the base of the Himalayas and from Burma, even 
from Tenasserim, are paler above and below, and much less 
suffused with violet gloss than Andaman specimens, and the 
latter are rather larger. The difference appears greater than in 
the case of H. smyrnensis and the variety H. saturatior. Andaman 
birds resemble those from the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago 
(true H. lilacina). Indo-Burmese birds are more like Japanese 
(H. schlegeli). 

The specific name coromanda, although the oldest, cannot be 
applied to a bird that is not found in the Peninsula of India. 

Distribution. Lower Himalayas up to about 5000 feet, in East- 
ern Nepal, Sikhim, and farther East; Assamese and Burmese 
countries, generally distributed but rare ; also the Andaman and 
Nicobar Islands, Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes, 
the Philippines, Eastern China, and Japan. 

Habits, <$fc. A shy bird, generally found in forests and* not un- 
frequently near the coast in mangrove-swamps. 



Genus SAUROPATIS, Cab., 1860. 

Bill shorter and broader than in Halcyon, and black not red, 
above at all events ; lower mandible much more curved upwards. 
Plumage marked by a prevalence of bluish green or greenish blue. 
Sexes alike. This group is chiefly found in the Malay Archipelago, 
Australia, and Polynesia, but two species come within our limits. 

Key to the Species. 

Crown not surrounded by a buff or white band . . 8. chloris, p. 135. 
Crown surrounded by a buff band inside a black 

one S. occipitalis, p. 137. 

1047. Sauropatis chloris. The White-collared Kingfisher. 

Alcedo chloria, Bodd. Tabl. PI. Enl p. 49 (1783). 

Alcedo collaris, Scop. Del. Flor. et Faun. Insub. ii, p. 90 (1786). 

Todirhamphus collaris, Blyth, Cat. p. 48 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 228 ; 

Walden, P. Z. S. 1866, p. 554 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 221 j Beavan, 

Ibis, 1867, p. 319 ; 1869, p. 409. 
Halcyon collaris, Horsf. $ M. Cat. p. 127. 
Sauropatis chloris, Cab. # Heine, Mus. Hein. pt. 2, p. 160 ; Walden, 

Ibis, 1873, p. 302 ; Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 71 ; Salvadori, 

Ann. MILS. Civ. Gen. (2), vii, p. 433. 
Halcyon chloris, Sharpe, Mon. Ale. p. 229, pi. 87 ; Ball, 8. F. i, 

p. 58 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 451 ; ii, p. 170 ; vii, p. 168 ; id. Cat. 

no. 132 ; Armstrong, S. F. iv, p. 306 ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, 

p. 78 ; Tidal, S. F. viii, p. 414 ; ix, p. 50 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 85 ; 

Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 100 ; Davison, Ibis, 1885, p. 332 ; Sharpe, 

Cat. B. xvii, p. 273, pi. vii, fig. 3. 



136 ALCEDIKEDJE. 



Halcyon armstrongi (subspecies of H. chloris), Sharpe, t. c. p. 277, 

pi. vii, fig. 1. 

Halcyon vidali (subsp. of H. chloris), Sharpe, t. c. p. 278. 
Halcyon humii (& H. davisoni, subsp.), Sharpe, t. c. p. 281, pi. viii. 




Fig. 38. Head of 8. chloris, $. 

Coloration. Crown, nape, and sides of head to below the eye 
bluish green ; a white streak above the lores occasionally extending 
back above the eye ; ear-coverts black in some varieties, and with 
a black band round the nape, separated from the green of the 
crown by an ill-defined white space (these black and white bands 
are often entirely wanting) ; a broad white collar ; upper back 
and scapulars dull bluish green to greenish blue; lower back, 
rump, and upper tail-coverts bright blue ; upper surface of wings 
and tail deeper blue, sometimes with a greenish tinge ; quills, 
except on outer webs outside, black ; lower surface of tail the 
same ; lower parts white, sometimes tinged with buff, especially 
on the flanks. 

Upper mandible, tip and edge of lower mandible greenish 
black ; rest of lower mandible pinkish white ; irides deep brown ; 
legs plumbeous (Davison). 

Length 9-5; tail*2'75; wing 4; tarsus -6; bill from gape 2-3. 

Distribution. Though represented by a variety (H. abyssinica) in 
the Red Sea, this Kingfisher has only been obtained in the Indian 
Peninsula near Batnagiri ; it is, however, common in the Sundar- 
bans and throughout the eastern coast of the Bay of Bengal, 
more abundantly to the southward, in the Andaman Islands (it 
appears to be replaced in the Nicobars by H. occipitalis\ and 
throughout the Malay Archipelago to the Philippines and 
Celebes. 

In the British Museum Catalogue Dr. Sharpe has divided this 
type into several species and subspecies, all the Indian forms of 
which appear to me to be races varying considerably amongst 
themselves and passing into each other. These races are : 

H. chloris typical, from the Malay Archipelago, a greenish bird 
with black ear- coverts and a well-marked black nuchal band. 

H. armstrongi : Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, North Borneo, 
Burmese coast, and Sundarbans. Ear-coverts green, and generally 
no black nuchal band. 

H. vidali, from Katnagiri, like H. armstrongi but greener. 

H. humii inhabits the Malay Peninsula with Southern Tenas- 



SAUROPATI8. 137 

serim and Sumatra, and is described as a distinct species. It is a 
very blue form, some birds having scarcely any green tinge on 
the back even, but others show a complete passage to H. arm- 
strongi, which inhabits the same countries. There is no nuchal 
band. 

H. davisoni, the Andaman race, is blue like H. humii, but lias 
black ear-coverts and a black nuchal band. 

Habits, $c. An inhabitant of sea-shores and of tidal waters, 
living chiefly on Crustacea, but partly on insects, centipedes, small 
lizards, &c. Hume mentions observing birds of this species 
hammering shells that contained hermit-crabs against stones in 
order to break the shells. They are noisy birds. The nest is 
said to be sometimes made under a stone or bush, but Davison 
found one in a deserted ants' nest tenanted by hornets (from the 
description much like a termites' nest, a pile of hard clay against 
a tree trunk) at Mergui. The eggs are said to measure about 
1-4 by 1. 



1048. Sauropatis occipitalis. Blyth's White-collared Kingfisher. 

Todiramphus occipitalis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, pp. 23, 51, 369; 

Sail, J.A.S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 31. 
Todirharnphus collaris, var. Blyth, Cat. p. 48. 
Halcyon occipitalis, Pdzeln, Novara Reise, Vb'yel, p. 46 ; Ball, S. F. 

i, p. 58; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 171 ; id. Cat, no. 132 bis; Davison, 

Ibis, 1885, p. 332 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. in, p. 19 ; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 265. 

Coloration. Similar to that of S. chloris, but the crown is sur- 
rounded by a buff rim formed by the lores, supercilia, and a band 
round the nape ; outside this again is a black band, more or less 
washed with green, especially behind the eyes, and commencing 
from the eye, including eyes and ear-coverts, and passing round 
the nape. The lower parts are buff, especially the flanks, wing- 
lining, abdomen, and lower tail-coverts. As in S. chloris, some 
specimens are greener than others. In young birds the feathers 
of the white collar and breast have dark edges. 

Upper mandible, and the tip and edge of the lower dark horny, 
rest of lower mandible pinkish ; legs and feet pinkish (Hume). 

Length about 10 ; tail 2-8 ; wing 4-25 ; tarsus -6 ; bill from 
gape 1*7. 

Distribution. The Nicobar Islands, where this is a common bird. 
Its nearest ally, H. julicp, inhabits the New Hebrides. 

Habits, $c. Very similar to those of H. chloris, but this bird is 
said by Davison to be more often found in forest. It lives 
chiefly on lizards and shell-fish. Davison found three nests on 
Camorta, all in ants' nests of clay, 12 to 30 inches in diameter 
and 4 to 20 feet from the ground, against trunks of trees. There 
was a tunnel 6 inches long and 2 or 2| in diameter, leading to the 
bird's nest, a chamber 7 inches across. A single egg, obtained 
from a female that was shot, measured 1*16 by *98. 



138 ALCEDINID^E. 

Genus CARIDAGRUS, Cab., 1860. 

Sexes differing in plumage, and one or both spotted. Bill 
broader and tail shorter than in Sauropatis. Two or three 
species are found in the Philippines, and one, a Malay form, 
ranges into Southern Tenasserini. 

1049. Caridagrus concretus. The Sumatran Kingfisher. 
Dacelo concreta, Temm. PI. Col. pi. 846 (1825). 
Halcyon varia, Eyton, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 101. 
Todirhamphus varius, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 11 ; id. Cat. p. 47. 
Halcyon concreta, Sharpe, Mon. Ale. p. 219, pi. 83 ; Hume $ Dav. 

S. F. vi, p. 76 ; Hume, Cat. no. 131 bis ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 84 ; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 285. 
Caridagrus concreta, Cab. fy Heine, Mus. Hein. ii, p. 161. 

Coloration. Male. Crown and nape deep green, paler, brighter, 
and sometimes bluer on the nuchal border ; the lores and a band 
from them, including the eye, passing above the ear-coverts 
and round the nape black, forming a border to the green crown ; 
a ferruginous superciliuin extending to the lores in front and to 
above the ear-coverts behind ; another ferruginous band from the 
gape including the ear-coverts and extending to the broad collar 
round the hind neck, which is of the same colour but deeper in 
tint ; a broad blue cheek-stripe below the ferruginous band ; a 
narrow black collar behind the ferruginous collar ; interscapular 
region, scapulars, and upper surface of wings and tail deep blue ; 
wing-coverts and scapulars with brighter edges ; middle of lower 
back, of rump, and generally of upper tail-coverts bright pale 
cobalt-blue ; sides of lower back and rump black ; quills black, 
except basal parts of outer webs above, which are blue, and the 
inner borders, which are buff ; lower surface of tail-feathers also 
black ; lower parts ferruginous, whitish or white in middle of 
abdomen and on lower tail-coverts. 

Female. Back and wings above dull green, with pale buff spots 
on the scapulars and wing-coverts. Young males have similar 
pale spots, although except in being duller the plumage resembles 
that of adults of the same sex. Nestlings of both sexes resemble 
adults of the same sex. 

Bill above black, lower mandible and edges of upper chrome- 
yellow ; irides deep brown ; legs chrome-yellow (Davisori). 

Length about 9'6 ; tail 2'5 ; wing 4-5, tarsus *75 ; bill from 
gape 2'4. 

Distribution. Malay Peninsula with the extreme south of Ten- 
asserim, Sumatra and Borneo. 

Habits, <$fc. According to Davison this Kingfisher is not found 
near water, but in thick forest, and lives on lizards and large 
wood-lice. 

G-enus CARCINEUTES, Cab., 1860. 

A small genus of only two species, one confined to Borneo, 
while the other is found in Burma &c. Sexes very different in 



CABCINEUTES. 139 

colour, the males barred with blue and black above, the females 
with rufous and black. Feathers of nape slightly elongate. Bill 
broad, comparatively short ; culrnen straight, rounded. First 
primary shorter than all the other primaries ; tail moderately long, 
rounded at the end. 

This approaches Dacelo, the " laughing jackass " of Australia, in 
structure, more than any other Indian or Burmese Kingfisher does. 

1050. Carcineutes pulchellus. The Banded Kingfisher. 

Dacelo pulcliella, Horsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 175 (1821) ; 

Blyth, Cat. p. 46 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. p. 122. 
Carcineutes pulchellus, Cab. $ Heine, Mus. Hein. ii, p. 163 ; Sharpe, 

Mon. Ale. p. 251, pi. 96 ; Blyth # Wald. Birds Burm. p. 70 ; 

Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 79, 499 ; Hume, Cat. no. 132 ter ; 

Bingham, S. F. viii, p. 193 ; ix, p. 154 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 86 ; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 198. 
Carcineutes amabilis, Hume, S. F. i, p. 474 ; Sharpe, S. F. ii, p. 484 ; 

Hume, ib. p. 485. 




Fig. 39. Head of C. puchellus, |. 

Coloration. Male. Broad frontal band, sides of head and neck, 
and a more or less perfect collar round the hind neck chestnut ; 
occiput and nape cobalt-blue, base of the feathers white, banded 
with black near the blue tip ; remainder of upper plumage, including 
the wings and tail, banded black and verditer-blue, the feathers 
barred with white instead of blue except at the ends or exposed 
portions ; quills black with white inner margins, the secondaries 
with white spots forming imperfect bars ; lower parts white ; breast, 
flanks, and under wing-coverts tinged with dull rufous ; tail-feathers 
barred with white beneath. 

Female. Upper parts and sides of head and neck transversely 
banded with black and pale brownish rufous, more narrowly on the 
head and neck ; primaries brown, unhanded ; lower parts white, 
with black spots forming imperfect bars on the breast and flanks. 

Bill vermilion ; irides purplish grey ; legs and feet dull pale green 
(Davisori). 

Length about 8-5 ; tail 2'75; wing 3-5 ; tarsus -5 ; bill from gape 
1-8. 

Distribution. Pegu (not Arakan) and Tenasserim, more common 
in the latter ; the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Java. 

Habits, #c. Generally found away from water in forest, feeding 
on small lizards and various insects. Nidification unknown. 




Fig. 40. Dichoceros bicornis and nest. 



Suborder BUCEROTES. 

Caeca wanting; oil-gland tufted. Sternum with two shallow 
notches, one on each side in the posterior margin ; behind the 
ill-developed manubrium is a perforation as in Meropidce. Both 
carotids present as a rule, though there are . exceptions. Spinal 
feather-tract not defined on the neck, which has no lateral bare 
tracts or apteria ; no aftershaft ; no down on bare parts of skin. 
Deep plantar tendons as in Coracice. 

Family BUCEROTIIXE. 

An enormous bill, generally curved, and furnished in most 
genera with a casque upon the basal portion of the culmen ; this 
casque varies in shape, and is generally hollow or cellular, but the 
anterior part is solid in RTiinoplax. Primaries 11. Tail-feathers 
10. The under wing-coverts as a rule do not cover the basal part 
of the quills, and this may, as Mr. Ogilvie Grant has suggested, 
account for the extraordinary noise made by some of the larger 
forms when flying, the sound being produced by the air rushing 
between the quills. The eyelids are furnished with strong eye- 



BUCEROTIDJE. 141 

lashes. The sexes are as a rule alike in plumage, but often differ 
in size, in the form of the casque, and in the coloration of the soft 
parts. 

The Hornbills are a very well-marked family found nearly 
throughout the Ethiopian and Oriental regions and occurring also 
in the Papuan subregion. They are especially remarkable for 
their nidification, the account of which was long regarded as a 
fable, but has now been confirmed by numerous observers. A 
hole in a tree is selected, and then the female, usually with the aid 
of the male, encloses herself and shuts up the orifice with the 
exception of a narrow vertical slit, by means of earth mixed with 
the birds' own droppings. In some cases, as Aceros nepalensis and 
Lophoceros birostris, the droppings alone are used, and the process 
of enclosure is then performed by the female from within the nest. 
She is thus enclosed before she begins to lay, and apparently 
remains in the hole till the young, which are naked when they 
leave the egg, are fledged, being fed all the time by the male 
through the slit left in the enclosing partition, which just allows 
room for the bird's bill to be pushed through. The eggs are white 
when laid, but generally become discoloured during incubation. 

All Oriental forms belong to one subfamily. By Europeans in 
India Hornbills are commonly, but incorrectly, called " Toucans." 
The true Toucans (Rhamphastidce) are peculiar to South America, 
and are allied to the Barbets. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Casque, when present, cellular within ; bill 

considerably curved; hind neck and 
middle of back feathered. 
a. Casque large in adults, as high as upper 

mandible or higher, 
a". Casque broad, concave above, ending 

anteriorly in two points DICHOCEROS, p. 142. 

b". Casque compressed, ending in a single 

point ANTHRACOCEROS,P. 143. 

b'. Casque moderate or small or wanting. 
c 1 ' Casque low, broad, rounded above, 

composed of transverse ridges RHYTIDOCEROS, p. 146. 

d". No casque ; oblique ridges at side of 

base of upper mandible : size large . . ACEROS, p. 149. 
e". Casque small, compressed, its upper 

edge curving down in front. 
a 3 . Crest moderate, of ordinary feathers. 

a 4 . Chin and throat naked ANORRHINUS, p. 150. 

6 4 . Chin and throat feathered PTILOLJEMUS, p. 151. 

b 3 . Crest very large, loose-textured . . BERENICORNIS, p. 153. 
/". Casque small, compressed and pointed, 
or wanting ; no ridges on side of bill : 
size of birds small , , . , LOPHOCEROS, p. 154. 

b. Casque solid in front ; bill nearly stra-'ght ; 

neck all round and middle of back naked ; 

middle rectrices very long RHINOPLAX, p. 158. 



142 BUCEROTID^E. 

Genus DICHOCEROS, Gloger, 1842. 

Size large. Bill very large, stout and much curved ; casque large 
and broad, covering more than the basal half of the culmen, the 
sides flat and vertical behind, the top overhanging in front, the 
posterior edge broad, projecting over the head behind and 
rounded, the upper surface flat behind, concave in front, ter- 
minating anteriorly in two lateral points that are blunted in old 
birds. No conspicuous crest; feathers of head loose-textured; 
chin covered with feathers ; tail slightly rounded at end. Sexes 
alike in plumage. 

The casque is small and pointed in front in the young and 
becomes gradually developed as in all Hornbills. 

A single species. 

1051. Dichoceros Mcornis. The Great Hornbill. 

Buceros bicornis, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 153 (1766) ; Elliot, Ibis, 1877, 

p. 416. 
Buceros cavatus, Shaw, Gen. Zool. viii, pt. 1, p. 18 (1812) ; Jerdon, 

Madr. Jour. L. S. xi, p. 37 ; Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 986 ; xvi, 

p. 993 ; id. Cat. p. 42 ; Tickell, J. A. 8. B. xxiv, p. 279 ; Baker, 

J. A. S. B. xxviii, p. 292. 
Buceros homrai, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. i, p. 251 (1832) ; id. As. Ees. 

xviii, pt. 2, p. 169, pi. 
Dichoceros cavatus, Gloger, Hand- u. Hilfsb. p. 335 ; Fairbank, S. F. 

iv, p. 254 ; Hume fy Bourdillon, ibid. p. 384 ; Hume $ Inglis, S. F. 

v, p. 20 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 98 ; Oates, S. F. vii, p. 45 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 140 ; id. S. F. xi, p. 51 ; Bingham, S. F. viii, 

p. 461 ; ix, p. 158 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 50 ; Butler, ibid. p. 383 ; 

Damson, S. F. x, p. 352 ; Macgregor, ibid. p. 436 ; Barnes, Birds 

Bom. p. 104 ; Davidson, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. vi, p. 333. 
Homraius bicornis, Bonap. Consp. Vol. Anisod. p. 2 ; Horsf. 8f M. 

Cat. ii, p. 583 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 242 ; id. Ibis, 1872, p. 4 ; Godw.- 

Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. 2, p. 154. 
Buceros (Homraius) cavatus, Tickell, Ibis, 1864, p. 176. 
Dichoceros bicornis, Blyth fy Wald. Birds Burm. p. 68 ; Wardl.- 

Rams. Ibis, 1877, p. 454 ; Elliot, Mon. Buc. pi. vi ; Oates, B. B. 

ii, p. 87 ; id. Ibis, 1888, p. 72 ; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, 

p. 68; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. 571 ; vii, p. 381 ; 

Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 355 



Homrai,H. Nepal; anrao,H. Mussooree; -K"w#m?#,Lepcha; Garuda, 
Can. ; Garud, Mahr. ; MalleMoraki, Mai. ; Hwang, Assamese ; Ouk-chin- 
gyee, Burm. 

Coloration. Head all round as far back as ends of ear-coverts 
black ; neck all round fulvescent white ; back, rump, scapu- 
lars, median and lesser wing-coverts, breast and under wing- 
coverts black ; greater coverts and quills black, with the bases and 
ends white ; lower abdomen, upper and under tail-coverts white ; 
tail yellowish white, with a broad subterminal black band on 
each feather. 

Bill and casque yellow, -tinged with red at the tip and with 
orange in the middle. In the male the culmen in front of the 
casque, a triangular patch at each side of the anterior end of the 



ANTHRACOCEBOS. 143 

casque, and the posterior portion of the casque are black, but not 
in the female, in which, however, the posterior portion of the 
casque is red. In both sexes the base of the mandible is black. 
Irides in male blood-red, in female pearly white ; eyelids black ; 
orbital skin dark fleshy pink ; legs and feet greenish plumbeous. 

Length about 52 inches ; tail 15 ; wing 20; tarsus 2-9 ; bill from 
gape to point in a straight line 1O5. Females rather less, 
wing 18; bill from gape 9. Tenasserim birds are decidedly smaller 
than Himalayan. 

Distribution. Along the Sahyadri or Western Ghats from the 
neighbourhood of Bombay to Cape Comorin ; this bird is unknown 
elsewhere in the Indian Peninsula, and is wanting in Ceylon, but 
is found throughout the Himalayas as far west as Kumaun, up to 
about 5000 feet ; and is generally distributed in Assam, Cachar, 
Tipperah, and other countries between Assam and Burma, 
throughout Burma, the Malay Peninsula, and Sumatra. 

Habits, fyc. Like the other large Indian and Burmese Hornbills 
this is a forest bird, and generally keeps to high trees ; it appears 
never to descend to the ground. Wherever it is found, it makes 
its presence known by the great noise produced by its wings in 
flying, a sound that may be often heard a mile away. Its flight 
is an alternation of a series of flappings of the wings and of sailing 
along with the wings motionless, but the flapping predominates 
and the flight is less undulating than in many Hornbills. Some- 
times this bird is found in pairs, more often in flocks of from five 
to twenty or more. The food consists mainly of fruit, but insects 
and lizards are also eaten, as Tickell has shown ; the fruit or other 
food, as with many other Hornbills, is tossed in the air and allowed 
to fall into the bird's throat. The nidification was observed first 
by Tickell, subsequently by Mr. E. Thompson, Major Bingham, 
and others, and is typical. The eggs, usually two or three in 
number, are laid about April in the Himalayas, but in February in 
Tenasserim, Kanara, and Travancore, and measure about 2*62 
by 1-88. 

Genus ANTHRACOCEROS, Eeich., 1849. 

Casque very large and high, sharp-edged and projecting in front, 
broader and carried back above the crown behind, the upper 
border curved and parallel with the commissure. Orbital skin 
and that on the sides of the throat nude ; chin and middle of 
throat feathered. Tail long and wedge-shaped at the end; wings 
rounded and short. Plumage of the two sexes similar, but casque 
differently coloured. 

A genus of five or six species, ranging throughout the greater part 
of the Oriental region. Two species are Indian. Both have the 
same habits. They are usually found in parties (families) of five or 
six, and keep to high trees either in forest or in groves in well- 
wooded country, especially near rivers ; they live chiefly on fruit 
and berries ; and are very noisy, making a cackling sound in 
chorus. Their flight, unlike that of the larger Hornbills generally 



144 BUCEROTID^;. 

is comparatively silent but weak and undulating, and consists of 
alternate flapping and sailing. The breeding-habits are the same 
as those of other Hornbills. 

Key to the Species. 

Outer tail-feathers entirely white A. coronatus, p. 144. 

Outer tail-feathers only white at the ends A. albirostris, p. 145. 



1052. Anthracoceros coronatus. The Malabar Pied HornUll. 

Buceros coronatus, Bodd. Tabl. PL Enl. p. 53 (1783). 

Buceros pica, Scop. Del Flor. et Faun. Insub. ii, p. 87 (1786) ; Blyth, 

J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 993 ; xviii, p. 802 ; xxi, p. 352 ; id. Cat. p. 43 ; 

Tickell, Ibis, 1864, p. 179. 
Buceros malabaricus, varr. /3 et y, Lath. Ind. Orn. i, p. 143 (1790) ; 

Tickell, J. A. 8. B. ii, p. 579 ; Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. xi, p. 38 ; 

Blyth, J.A.S.B. xii, p. 993; Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) xiii, 

p. 260. 
Buceros violaceus, Shaw, Gen. Zool. viii, p. 19 (1811); Blyth, J. A. 

S. B. xii, p. 994. 
Hydrocissa coronata, Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 588 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, 

p. 245 ; Holdsioorth, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 425 ; Ball, 8. F. ii, p. 387 ; 

iii, p. 290 ; vii, p. 204 ; Hume, Cat. no. 141 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, 

p. 51 ; Butler, S. F. ix, p. 383 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 352 ; Barnes, 

Birds Bom. p. 105. 
Anthracoceros coronatus, Elliot, Mon. Buc. pi. xi ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. 

p. 272 ; Parker, 8. F. ix, p. 478 ; id. Ibis, 1886, p. 184 ; Oyilvie 

Grant, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 362. 

DJian Churi, H. ; Suliman Murghi, Pakhani ; Bagma dunes, Ben*?. ; 
Kuchla-Kha, Uriya ; Wayera, Mahr. ; Kannari, Concan ; Peshta ganda, 
Gond. ; Porowa Kcendetta, Atta Kcendetta, Cing. ; Errana-chundoo- 
kuravi, Tamil (Ceylon). 

Coloration. Whole head and neck and upper parts throughout, 
including the wings above and the middle pair of tail-feathers, 
black glossed with dark green ; lower breast, abdomen, lower tail- 
coverts, and all the tail-feathers except the middle pair white, as 
are broad tips of all quills except the first two primaries and the 
tertiaries, the bases of the primaries and part of the edge of the 
wing ; under wing-coverts and axillaries black. 

The casque is large and compressed, not convex at the sides. 
Bill and casque are waxen yellow, except the base of both man- 
dibles and a large spot occupying about the anterior three fourths 
of the upper portion of the casque, which are black. In the male, 
but not in the female, the back of the casque is black. Irides 
orange-red in males, brown in females ; naked skin blackish round 
the eye in males, white in females ; bare skin on the throat flesh- 
coloured ; legs and feet grey. 

Length about 3 feet ; tail 12-5 inches ; wing 13-5 ; tarsus 2-f> ; 
bill from gape 7'5. Females rather less. As usual Ceylon birds 
are smaller than those of Orissa and Northern Malabar. 

In the young the basal half of the outer tail-feathers is black, 



ANTHRACOCEROS. 145 

and there is at first no black on the casque, which is small. The 
nestling, according to Parker, has a brownish-white bar on the 
black feathers, except on the quills and rectrices. 

Distribution. Ceylon, in the dry forests of the low country, 
woods at the base of the Western Ghats in Malabar as far north 
as Batnagiri, and the forest-region of South-western Bengal, 
Orissa, Bastar, and the Eastern Central Provinces ; not recorded 
elsewhere. 

Habits, fyc. The nidification has not been recorded by an eye- 
witness, but, as shown by Legge, Parker, and others, is undoubtedly 
similar to that of other Hornbills. This bird breeds in Ceylon 
from March to June and lays 2 to 4 eggs, measuring about 2 by 1*5. 

1053. Anthracoceros albirostris. The Indo- Burmese Pied 
Hornbill. 

Buceros inalabaricus, Gm. Syst. Nat. i, p. 359 (1788). 

Buceros albirostris, Shaw fy Nodd. Nat. Misc. xix, p. 819 (1790- 

1813) ; Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 995 ; xvi, p. 994; xviii, p. 803 ; 

id. Cat. p. 43 ; Tickell, Ibis, 1864, p. 179. 
Buceros nigralbus, Hodas. Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 85 (1831), descr. 

nulla. 

Buceros leucogaster, Blyth, J. A. S. B. x, p. 922 (1841) ; xii, p. 177. 
Buceros affinis (Hutton), Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviii, p. 802 (1849) ; id. 

Cat. p. 43. 
Hydrocissa albirostris, Horsf. Sf M. Cat. ii, p. 589; Jerdon, B. 1. i, 

p. 247 ; id. Ibis, 1872, p. 5 ; Ball, S. F. iii, p. 290 ; vii, p. 204 ; 

Godw.-Aust, J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. 2, p. 69; Blyth # Wald. Birds 

Burm. p. 68 ; Inglis, S. F. v, p. 20 ; Binaham, S. F. v, p. 84 ; viii, 

p. 462 ; ix, p. 158 ; Wardl.-Ravns. Ibis, 1877, p. 455 ; Hume 8f Dav. 

S. F. vi, p. 100; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 577; Gates, 

S. F. vii, p. 46 ; Hume, Cat. no. 142 ; id. S. F. xi, p. 51. 
Hydrocissa affinis, Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 247 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 349 ; 

Hume, S. F. vi, p. 103 ; vii, p. 205 ; id. Cat. no. 143. 
Hydrocissa coronata, apud Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, 

p. 266 ; xii, pt. 2, p. 143. 
Anthracoceros malabaricus, Elliot, Mon. Buc. pi. xiii ; Oyilvie Grant, 

Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 365. 
Anthracoceros albirostris, Oates, B. B. ii, p. 90 ; id. in Hume's N. 8f E. 

2nd ed. iii, p. 72 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mm. Civ. Gen. (2) iv, p. 588 ; 

vii, p. 428. 

The Bengal Pied Hornbill, The Dehra-Doon Hornbill, Jerdon ; Hay- 
tuk tek-ee, Assamese ; Ouk-khyen, Burmese. 

Coloration. Similar to that of A. coronatus, except that the four 
outer pairs of tail-feathers are black for three-fourths of their 
length and only white for 3 or 4 inches at the tip. The casque is 
very different in shape, not compressed, but convex at the sides 
and swollen. The black marks on the bill and casque are different : 
in males there is a black band running obliquely downwards and 
backwards from the anterior point ; the back of the casque, the 
base of both mandibles, and part of the commissure are black. In 
females the back of the casque, the anterior half of the casque, 

VOL. III. L 



146 BUCEROTID^;. 

the culmen in front of the casque, and the whole commissure and 
tips and base of both mandibles are black, and there is a red-brown 
mark on the lower mandible in front of the black base. The iris 
is reddish brown ; legs and feet plumbeous in both sexes. 




Fig. 41. Head of A. albirostris, rf, $. 

Distribution. There are two varieties, distinguished by size alone : 
the larger (A. afftnis) inhabits the Lower Himalayas, as far west 
as Dehra Dun, the Eajmehal Hills, Midnapore, and parts of Chutia 
Nagpur, where it meets A. coronatus. It is also found in Assam 
and the Khasi and Naga hills, and measures : length in males 
about 35 inches, tail 11 '5, wing 12 - 5, tarsus 2-3, bill from gape 6 ; 
females being rather less. The smaller race, A. albirostris, ranges 
from Cachar and Manipur to Southern Tenasserim, Siam, and 
Cochin China, and measures in males : length 28-5, tail 10-5, 
wing 10*75, tarsus 2, bill from gape 5 ; females somewhat 
smaller. The difference in weight is considerable, fine males 
weighing according to Hume 2*87 and 1*75 Ibs. respectively. 

I quite agree with all Indian ornithologists who reject the mis- 
leading name malabaricus for this species. 

Habits, Sfc. G-eneric. This species has been observed by Mr. 
Inglis to catch and eat fish ; it is also, according to Wardlaw 
Eamsay, very fond of snakes. It breeds in Burma in March, and 
lays usually 2 or 3 eggs, measuring about 1-9 by 1'35. 



Genus RHYTIDOCEROS, Eeich., 1849. 

Casque small, low, rounded, and apparently composed of imbricate 
plates, covering the basal portion of the culmen, their upper edges 
forming alternating furrows and ridges, which are curved forward 
in the middle and backwards at the sides. These ridges are 
wanting in the very young and increase in number to 7 or 8 with 
age. Chin and throat naked, forming a pouch. Commissure 
much worn in old birds, but not nearly so much broken away as 
in Aceros. Feathers of crown and nape lengthened and loose- 
textured, forming a crest. 

Three species occur in the Eastern part of our area ; the only 
other form known, R. plicatus, is Papuan. 



EHYTIDOCEROS. 147 

Key to the Species. 

a. Base of both mandibles with transverse 

ridges in adults : wing 17-20 R. undulatus, p. 147. 

b. Base of both mandibles smooth 

a'. Wing 14 to 17 R. subruficottis, p. 148. 

b'. Wing 11 to 12 -R. narcondami, p. 149. 

1054. Rhytidoceros undulatus. The Malayan Wreathed 
Hornbill. 

Buceros undulatus, Skate, Gen. Zool. viii, p. 26 (]811). 

Buceros plicatus, apud Mutter $ Schleg. Verhandel. pp. 24, 30 ; Blyth, 

Cat. p. 319 ; nee Latham. 
Buceros ruficollis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. x, p. 922, partim ; xii, p. 176 ; 

nee Vieillot. 

Buceros pucoran, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 990. 
Buceros pusaran, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 998 ; id. Cat. p. 45 ; 

Tickell, Ibis, 1864, p. 180. 
Rhyticeros plicatus, Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 598; Godw.-Aust. J. A. 

S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 96 ; Blyth. Ibis, 1866, p, 350 : Jerdon. Ibis, 

1872, p. 5. 

Aceros, sp. indet., Godw.-Ausi. I. c. 
Rhyticeros obscurus, apud Hume, N. fy E. p. 115 : nee Buceros 

obscurus, Gm. 

Aceros plicatus, Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 69. 
Rhytidoceros undulatus, Tiueeddale, Ibis, 1877, p. 292; Oates, B. B. 

ii, p. 93 ; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 80 ; Elliot, Mon. BUG. 

pi. 35 ; Offileie Grant, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 382. 
Rhyticeros undulatus, Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. Ill ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 146 bis ; id. S. F. ix, p. 247 ; xi, p. 52 ; Bingham, S. F. viii, 

pp. 194, 463 ; ix, p. 159. 

Mah-doh-la, Assamese. 




Fig. 42. Head of tf . undulatus, 



Basal portion of both mandibles obliquely, somewhat irregularly 
ridged at the side, in adults ; the ridges wanting in the young and 
increasing in number with age. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, middle of crown, and whole nape 
deep rich chestnut, passing into black on the hind neck ; sides of 
head, including lateral portions of crown, sides and front of neck 
white, more or less tinged with buff ; tail entirely white ; remainder 
of plumage black, glossed with dark green and purple. 

Bill pale yellow, reddish towards the base, the hollows between 
the ridges of the casque dark ; irides orange-red ; orbital skin dull 

L2 



148 BUCEROTID,E. 

red ; gular skin bright yellow, with a broad transverse interrupted 

band black or dusky ; legs and feet blackish. 

Length about 45 ; tail 13 ; wing 20 ; tarsus 2'75 : bill from 

gape 9. Tenasserim birds are smaller than those from Assam : 

wing 19 ; bill from gape 8. 

Female. Black throughout except the tail, which is white ; gular 

skin blue, with a dark transverse bar ; other soft parts as in male. 

Length 38 ; tail 10 ; wing 17 ; tarsus 2-6 ; bill from gape 6-5. 
Distribution. Assam, Khasi and Naga hills, Cachar, Manipur, 

Arrakan, Toungngoo, Tenasserim, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, 
Java, Borneo. 

Habits, fyc. Very similar to those of the other large Hornbills. 
This is a bird of powerful and steady, not undulating flight, and the 
noise made by its wings when flying may be heard for a very great 
distance. It lives almost entirely on fruit, and often travels long 
distances for its food ; it not unfrequently associates in consider- 
able flocks when flying. Its call-note is dissyllabic according to 
Tickell. Like other fruit-eating birds, it wanders about and does 
not always occupy the same forest tract. It breeds about March, 
usually laying two eggs, that measure on an average 2*45 by 1*75. 



1055. Rhytidoceros subruficollis. Blyih's Wreathed Hornbill. 

Buceros subruficollis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 177 ; id. Cat. p. 320. 
Buceros plicatus, apud Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 991; xvi, p. 998; 

id. Cat. p. 45 ; nee Forster. 
Rhyticeros subruficollis, Horsf. 8f M. Cat. ii, p. 600 ; Hume fy Dav. 

S. F. vi, p. 112; Wardl-Rams. Ibis, 1877, p. 455 ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 146 ter ; Bingham, S. F. viii, p. 463 ; ix, p. 159. 
Aceros subruticollis, Blyth $ Wold. Birds Burm. p. 69 ; Oates, 8. F. 

vii, p. 46. 
Rhytidoceros subruficollis, Tweeddak, Ibis, 1877, p. 295; Elliot, 

Mon. Buc. pi. 36 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 91 ; id. in Hume's N. fy E. 

2nd ed. iii, p. 81 ; Oyilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 384. 

This only differs from R. undulatus in smaller size, in having no 
dark bar across the yellow or blue throat, and especially in the 
sides of both mandibles being smooth, there being no trace of the 
grooves that are found on the bills of adult R. undulatus. 

Length of males about 34 ; tail 10 ; wing 16-5 ; tarsus 2*1; 
bill from gape 7. Females are smaller : length about 30 ; wing 
14-5 ; bill 6. 

Distribution. Arrakan, Eastern Pegu, and Tenasserim, more 
common from Moulmein to Tavoy than farther south ; also 
Sumatra and Borneo, and probably the Malay Peninsula. 

Habits, <$fc. Similar to those of the last species except that, 
according to Bingham, this is less of a hill bird. It is generally 
seen in large flocks, flying low. Oates found birds of this species 
feeding on snails on the ground in an open plain. Tickell noticed 
Hornbills of this or the last species bathing in a river in the evening. 
The eggs have been taken in Pegu and Tenasserim at the end of 



ACER08. 149 

February and in March ; the nest-hole is usually on very high trees 
and at a great height from the ground, the number of eggs one to 
three and the size about 2-29 by 1*61. 

1056. Rhytidoceros narcondami. The Narcondam Hornbill. 

Rhyticeros narcondami, Hume, S. F. i, p. 411 (1873) ; ii, pp. 108, 

176; id. Cat. no. 146 quat. 
Rhytidoceros narcoudami, Elliot, Mon. Buc. pi. 38 ; Ogilvie Grant, 

Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 386. 

Coloration. Male. Head and neck rufous ; throat a little paler ; 
tail white : remainder of plumage black glossed with dark green. 

Female. Black throughout except the tail-feathers, which are 
white. 

In both sexes the bill and casque are pale horny yellow, 
brownish red towards the base ; furrows on the casque blackish 
brown ; irides pale red ; orbital skiu pale smalt-blue ; gular skin 
white, tinged with greenish blue ; legs and feet brown. 

Length about 26 ; tail 7 ; wing 12 ; tarsus 2'1 ; bill from gape 
4'8. The female a little smaller. 

Distribution. The island of Narcondam, east of North Andaman, 
Bay of Bengal. Only a single pair are known ; these were obtained 
by Mr. Hume when he visited Narcondam in 1873. 



Genus ACEROS, Hodgson, 1844. 

No true casque, but the basal portion of the upper mandible is 
thickened and crossed at the sides by dark oblique grooves not 
extending across the culmen, wanting in the young and increasing 
in number with age ; cheeks, chin, and throat naked ; tail long 
and graduated. Feathers of head and neck loose-textured, both 
shafts and webs hair-like. Commissure of the bill greatly broken 
away in adults. Coloration of sexes different. 

A single species. 

1057. Aceros nepalensis. The Rufous-necked Hornbill. 

Buceros nepalensis, Hodgs. As. Res. xviii, pt. 1, p. 178, 2 pis. 

(1829) ; id. Gl. Set. i, p. 249 ; Blyth,J. A. S. B. xi, p. 970; xii, 

p. 989 ; xvi, p. 997, pi. xliv, tig. 1 ; id. Cat. p. 45 ; Tickell, Ibis, 

1864, 5. 182. 
Aceros nipalensis, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 85 (1844) ; Horsf. 

&f M. Cat. ii, p. 601 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 250 ; Godw.-Aust. J.A.S. B. 

xxxix, pt. 2, p. 95 ; Blyth, Birds Burnt, p. 69 ; Gammie, S. F. iii, 

p. 209 ; Elliot, Mon. Buc. pi. 45 ; Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, p. 110 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 146 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 98 ; id. in Hume's N.^JE. 

2nd ed. iii, p. 77 ; Beddard, P. Z. S. 1889, p. 588 ; Salvadori, Ann. 

Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. 572 ; vii, p. 382 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. 

xvii, p. 380. 
Aceros leucostiema, Salvadori. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, pp. 516, 

573 (1887). 



150 BUCEEOTID^;. 

Coloration. Male. Head, neck, and lower parts rufous, darkest 
on the abdomen and flanks ; end of middle primaries and terminal 
half of tail white ; remainder of plumage black, glossed with dark 
green ; in the lower tail-coverts some chestnut is often mixed 
with the black. 

Female. Black, except the ends of the middle primaries and the 
terminal third of the tail, which are white. The young resemble 
adults of the same sex, except in wanting the ridges at the base of 
the upper mandible, these increase in number with age up to 
about seven. 

Bill yellow, the grooves chestnut ; iris red ; naked skin round 
eyes and at base of bill velvety light blue ; naked skin of throat 
bright scarlet (Jerdori): feet dark brown (Hodgson}. 

Length 4 feet ; tail 18 inches ; wing 18'5 ; tarsus 2-5 ; bill 
from gape 8-5. Females are less : length 42 inches ; tail 16 ; 
wing 17*5. 




Fig. 43. Head of A. nepalensis, 



Distribution. The Himalayas of Nepal, Sikhim, and farther east, 
from 2000 to about 6000 feet ; the hills south of Assam, Karennee, 
and the Muleyit range in Tenasserim. 

Habits, fyc. Pood, mode of flight, and nidification similar to 
those of other large Hornbills. This bird has a monosyllabic 
croak. A full account of the nidification has been given by 
Mr. Gammie, who twice, both in April and in May, took a single 
egg from the hollow in a tree in which the female was enclosed in 
the usual manner. The number of eggs is said to be generally 
two. One egg measures 2-25 by 1-75, the other 2*12 by 1'57. 



Genus ANORRHINUS, Eeich., 1849. 

Casque small, compressed, sharp-edged, with the upper ridge 
parallel to the culmen, posteriorly curved downwards in front ; 
both mandibles serrated on the commissure (serrations indistinct 
in young individuals) and much worn down in aged birds. Chin 
and throat naked. Crest well developed, its feathers of ordinary 
texture. Tail slightly rounded, not white at the end. Sexes 
alike. 

A single species. 



PTILOL^EMUS. 151 

1058. Anorrhinus galeritus. The Bushy-crested Hornbill. 

Buceros galeritus, Temm. PL Col pi. 520 (1824) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 44. 
Buceros earinatus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 187 ; xvi, p. 996. 
Anorrhinus galeritus, Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 594 ; Hume, S. F. iii, 

p. 318 ; id. Cat. no. 145 quat. ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 109, 500 ; 

Elliot, Mon. Buc. pi. 42 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 95 ; Oyiloie Grant, Cat. 

B. M. xvii, p. 391. 

Coloration. Head, neck, body above, and wings brownish black, 
glossed with green, becoming browner on the breast and abdomen 
and still paler round the vent and on the lower tail-coverts ; basal 
two-thirds of tail-feathers brownish grey, terminal third black. 

Bill black ; irides lake-red ; gular and orbital skin pale blue ; 
angle of gonvs, base of throat, and eyelids mottled white and 
black ; legs and feet black. 

Young birds have the greater and median wing-coverts, secondary 
quills, and scapulars with pale buff edges to the outer webs, and 
the anterior part of the bill whitish yellow. 

Length of male 33; tail 11; wing 14'5; tarsus 2 ; bill from 
gape 5-75. Females are smaller, wing 13-3. 

Distribution. The Malay Peninsula, ranging into South Tenas- 
serim as far north as JN T walabo mountain ; also Sumatra and 
Borneo. 

Habits, fyc. Davison describes this Hornbill as a shy bird r 
keeping to high trees in forests, in parties of five or six, and never 
descending to the ground. The note resembles that of Anthra- 
coceros coronatus and is uttered at short intervals. 



Genus PTILOUEMUS, Grant, 1892. 

Like Anorrhinus, but with the throat covered with feathers ; tail 
more rounded ; feathers of crest, throat, and fore neck somewhat 
lax in texture ; tail-feathers all tipped with white. There are two 
species, both peculiar, so far as is known, to British territory east 
of the Bay of Bengal. 

Key to the Species. 

Sides of head, chin and throat rufous P. tickelli, p. 151. 

Sides of head, chin and throat white P. austeni, p. 153. 

1059. Ptilolaemns tickelli. TickelCs Hornbill. 

Buceros tickelli, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiv, p. 266 (1855) ; xxviii, 

p. 412 ; Tickell, J. A. S. B. xxiv, p. 285. 
Toccus tickelli, Tickell, Ibis, 1864, p. 173, pi. iii. 
Anorrhinus tickelli, Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 67 ; Elliot, Mon. Buc. 

pi. 43 ; Hume, Cat. no. 144 bis ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 96 ; id. in 

Hume's N. # E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 76. 
Ocyceros tickelli, Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 103 ; Hume, S. F. vii, 

p. 499 ; Bingham, S. F. viii, pp. 194, 460, 462 ; ix, p. 158. 
Ptilolaemus tickelli, Oyilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 392. 



152 BUCEKOTIDvE. 

Coloration. Male. Plumes at each side of forehead dull rufous ; 
crown and nuchal crest dark greyish brown, the feathers with 
whitish shaft-stripes and rufous edges ; back, rump, upper tail- 
coverts, scapulars, tertiaries, and wing-coverts dark brown, larger 
secondary-coverts pale-edged, larger primary-coverts black, some 
of them white-tipped ; primaries black, slightly glossed, tipped 
white and with a broad buff outer border for an inch or two near 
the middle, but gradually nearer the tip in the later primaries ; 
secondaries black, outer web greyish brown and the margin buff ; 
middle tail-feathers dark brown, other tail-feathers black glossed 
with green, all tipped white, the outer more broadly ; sides of neck 
and lower parts bright rufous, feathers of fore-neck with pale 
shaft-stripes ; thigh-coverts mixed with dusky ; wing-lining dark 
brown, edge of wing in front of winglet buff. 




Fig. 44. Head of P. tickelli, ? . 

Female. The plumes at the sides of the forehead are concolorous 
with the crown ; there are no white tips to the primary-coverts, 
and those to the quills are small or wanting ; lower parts duller 
and darker than in the male, growing blackish on the chin and 
dusky on the vent and lower tail-coverts. 

Bill and casque yellowish white in the male, the tip of the 
lower mandible blackish, and a saffron patch on each side of the 
base ; bill and casque of female brownish black ; irides in both sexes 
bright brown ; skin around orbits and at base of lower mandible 
bluish white or blue ; legs and feet brownish black. 

Length of male 30; tail 11-5; wing 13; tarsus 2; bill from 
gape 5. The female is smaller : wing 12 ; bill 4-5. 

Distribution. Only known from the Tenasserim hills east of 
Moulmein. 

Habits, $c. A shy restless bird, keeping to high forest, usually 
in parties of 8 or 10, and flying with the almost noiseless flight of 
Anthracoceros, alternately flapping and sailing. The nest has been 
described by Major Bingham, who found from 3 to 5 eggs in each 
of the usual nest-holes in February. The eggs are white originally, 
but generally stained during incubation, and average 1'82 by 1*34 
in dimensions. These birds, according to Major Bingham, are far 
less wary in the breeding-season than at other times. 



BERENICORNIS. 153 

1060. PtilolaBmus austeni. Godwin-Austen's Hornbill. 

Anorhinus galeritus, apud Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, 
p. 96 ; xli, pt. 2, p. 143 ; id. Ibis, 1878, p. 206 ; nee Temm. 

Anorhinus austeni, Jerdon, Ibis, 1872, p. 6 ; Hume, S. F. iv, p. 493 ; 
v, p. 117 ; vii, pp. 167, 499 : xi, p. 52 ; id. Cat. no. 144 ter ; 
Hartert, J.f. Orn. 1889, p. 426. 

Ptilolsemus austeni, Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 393. 

Coloration. Male. Similar to that of P. ticTcelli, except that the 
cheeks, throat, sides of neck, and fore-neck are white instead of 
rufous, and the rest of the lower parts paler ; the secondaries and 
middle tail-feathers too are not tipped white. The upper parts 
appear greyer, but this may be due to the state of the plumage. 
Female unknown. 

Length about 31 ; tail 11*5 ; wing 12*5 ; tarsus 2 ; bill from 
gape 4-7. 

Distribution. The only specimen known for a long time was 
obtained by Colonel Godwin-Austen at Asalu, in the North 
Cachar hills ; subsequently three more were shot by Hartert in 
the hill-forest south of the Dehing ; this species was also observed 
by Hume in Manipur. 

Habits, #c. Very little known. Hartert came upon a flock of 8 
or 10, and far from being as shy as P. tickelli, they allowed him to 
fire six shots and kill four birds, one of which was left hanging in 
a high tree, before they flew away. Their flight was rather noisy. 
They had eaten a few insects (Mantides, Blattce, and locusts) besides 
fruit. 

Genus BERENICORNIS, Bonap., 1850. 

The only species of this genus is distinguished by its very full 
crest of loose-textured, hair-like feathers. This crest covers the 
crown ; the feathers of the lores are similar and equally long, and 
are directed upwards and forwards. Bill large, curved, com- 
pressed ; casque as in Anorrhinus, but small. Tail long, white, 
middle pair of feathers considerably exceeding the others. 

1061. Berenicornis comatus. The Long-crested Hornbill. 

Buceros comatus, Rqffl. Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 339 (1822) ; Hay, 
Mad. Jour. L. S. xiii, pt. 2, p. 149 ; Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 99*6, 
pi. xliv, fig. 2 : id. Cat. p. 44. 

Berenicornis comatus, Bonap. Consp. Av. i, p. 91 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. 
ii, p. 594 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 318 ; v, p. 20 note : id. Cat. no. 145 
ter; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 106, 500; Kelham, Ibis, 1881, 
p. 385 ; Offilme Grant, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 423. 

Anorrhinus comatus, Elliot, Mon. Buc. pi. 39 ; Oates, B. B. ii, 
p. 94 ; Hartert, J.f. Orn. 1889, p. 369. 

Coloration. Male. Head, neck, breast, and anterior part of 
abdomen, tips of all quills except the first primary, the last 
secondaries and the tertiaries, a patch inside carpal bend of wing, 
and the whole tail white ; rest of plumage black. 



] 54 BUCEROTIDjE. 

Female. Crown, chin, tips of wing-feathers, and whole tail 
white, rest of plumage black, shafts of crest-feathers black. In 
the young male most of the white feathers are black at the base, 
and the tail is black with white tips. 

Bill black, slightly mottled with green at the base of both 
mandibles ; iris wax-yellow ; facial skin deep dull blue ; legs and 
feet black. In younger birds the bill is chiefly dull horny green, 
and the facial skin pale blue or pink. 

Length of adult male about 40 ; tail 18 ; wing 15 ; tarsus 2*5 ; 
bill from gape 7. Females a little less : wing 14, bill 5- 75. 

Distribution. Malayan Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo, ranging 
into Southern Tenasserim as far as the base of Nwalabo, near 
Tavoy. 

Habits, $G. According to Davison this Hornbill is found in 
forests about the lower trees and undergrowth ; it lives in small 
parties, often feeding on the ground and eating lizards, &c., as 
well as fruit ; the flight is uniform and almost noiseless ; the call 
a peculiar cry (a mewing sound according to Hartert) repeated 
several times in quick succession. 



LOPHOCEROS, Hemp. & Ehr., 1828. 

Size small. Casque either small, compressed, and terminating 
anteriorly in a point or entirely wanting. Bill much curved, 
carinate above. Tail graduated in all Indian species. Crest 
moderate. Plumage of Indian birds chiefly grey. 

I refer to this African type (which is identical with Tockus 
of Lesson) the three small Hornbills of India and Ceylon. By 
Jerdou, Hume, and others they have been divided into two 
genera ; by Ogilvie Grant they have been united and placed in a 
genus apart from their African relatives on account of their more 
wedge-shaped tail. This distinction I find does not hold good ; 
neither Indian nor African forms are all alike in the relative 
lengths of the rectrices. I do not place the Indian L. birostris in 
a separate genus from the other two species, because the type of 
Lophoceros, the Abyssinian L. nasutus, closely allied to the Indian 
forms but without a casque, is only distinguished from the 
S. African L. epirhinus by the presence in the latter of a small 
casque, precisely like that of L. birostris, but smaller. It is clear 
that in this group of small Hornbills the presence or absence of a 
small casque is not a generic character. 

The genus Lophoceros comprises 17 African species ; two occur 
in the Peninsula of India and one in Ceylon. None extend 
farther east. 

Key to the Species. 

a. A small casque, pointed in front L. birostris, p. 155. 

b. No casque. 

'. Nostrils in an elongate groove L. griseus, p. 156. 

b'. Nostrils round, not in a groove L. gingalensis, p. 157. 



LOPHOCEKOS. 155 

1062. Lophoceros birostris, The Common Grey HorMll. 

Buceros birostris, Scop. Del. Flor. et Faun. Insub. \\, p. 87 (1786) ; 

Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 995 ; id. Cat. p. 44. 
Buceros ginginianus, Latham, Ind. Orn. i, p. 146 (1790) ; Blyth, 

J. A. S. B. xii, p. 996. 

Tockus bicornis, Horsf. 8? M. Cat. ii, p. 597 (1856-8). 
Meniceros bicornis, Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 248 ; Blifth, Ibis, 1866, p. 350 ; 

King, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 214; Home, P. Z. S. 1869, 

p. 241 ; C. 8f G. Marshall, IS. F. iii, p. 331 ; Butler, S. F. iii, 

p. 457 ; v, p. 218. 

Ocyceros ginginianus, Hume, N. $ E. p. 113 ; Ball, S. F. ii,p. 388. 
Ocyceros bicornis, Fairbank, S. F. v, p. 394. 
Lophoceros birostris, Elliot, Mon. Buc. pi. 48. 
Ocyceros birostris, Davids, Sf Wend. S. F. vii, p. 78 ; Ball, ibid. p. 205; 

Hume, Cat. no. 144 ; Butler, S. F. ix, p. 384 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 22 ; 

Davids, ibid. p. 296 ; Barnes, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. i, p. 61 ; id. 

Birds Bom. p. 106 ; Oates in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 74 ; 

Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 394. 

Chakotra, Dhanmar, Dhand, Dhanel, Lamdar, H. ; Selagilli, H. at 
Saugor ; Puttial dhanes, Beng. ; Rundu-mukala-yuwa, Tel. ; Muntt- 
mukala-kaka, Irawache, Tarn. 




Fig. 45. Head of L. birostris, 



Coloration. Upper parts light brownish grey, broad supercilia 
whitish ; ear-coverts and cheeks blackish grey ; primary and 
secondary quills blackish brown, all except the first two primaries 
tipped with white, the secondaries fringed with grey outside, the 
middle primaries with part of the outer web white, halfway down 
at first, but gradually nearer the tip on the inner feathers ; tail 
above browner than back, each feather with a broad subterminal 
black or blackish-brown band glossed with green and a white tip ; 
below from the chin to the breast grey, then passing into the white 
of the abdomen. The white tips of the primaries are wanting in 
immature birds. 

Bill and casque blackish, the tips and outer edges of both 
mandibles (not of the casque) white ; irides red-brown ; feet dark 
plumbeous. In young birds most of the bill is white. 

Length of male about 24 ; wing 87 ; tail 11-5 ; tarsus 1-9 ; bill 
from gape 4. Females are smaller, wing 7'9. 

Distribution. From the base of the Himalayas throughout the 
better wooded parts of the Peninsula of India, except on the 
Malabar coast ; wanting in Sind, Western Rajputana (except at 
Mount Abu), and the Punjab ; rare in the Gangetic delta in Lower 



156 BUCEKOTID-E. 

Bengal, and not found farther east. This species does not occur 
in Ceylon. 

Habits, <$fc. This little Hornbill is generally seen in small 
parties about open jungle, groves of trees, and gardens, but not in 
thick forest. It lives chiefly on fruit, but occasionally eats insects 
also. It has a harsh cry, and an undulating flight, with alternate 
flappings and sailings. An excellent account of the nidification 
at Mainpuri is given by Mr. Home, who watched the female bird 
shut up, with her own droppings, the opening of the nest-hole in 
a sissoo tree, except the slit through which she received food from, 
the male. The female never leaves the nest from before laying 
her first egg till the young are about a week old. The eggs, 3 to 5 
in number, are laid from April to June ; they are dull white in 
colour and measure about 1'7 by 1*22. 

1063. Lophoceros griseus. The Malabar Grey Hornbill. 

Buceros griseus, Lath. Ind. Orn. i, p. 147 (1790). 

Tockus gingalensis, apud Jerdon, Mad. Jour. L. 8. xi, p. 38 ; id. B. I. 

i, p. 250; id. Ibis, 1872, p. 5; nee Buceros gingalensis, Shaw. 
Buceros gingalensis, Baker, J. A. S. B. xxviii, p. 292 ; nee Shaiv. 
Tockus griseus, Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 350 ; Fairbank, S. F. iv, p. 255 ; 

v, p. 395 ; Hume $ Bourd. S. F. iv, p. 387 ; Hume, Cat. no. 145 ; 

Elliot, Mon. Buc. pi. 54 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 51 ; Butler, ibid. 

p. 384 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 352 ; Macgregor, ibid. p. 436 ; Barnes, 

Birds Bom. p. 106 ; Davidson, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. \\, p. 334. 
Ocyceros griseus, Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 396. 

The Jungle Grey Hornbill, Jerdon ; Kaldal-haki, Can. 




Fig. 46. Head of L. griseus, . 

Coloration. Upper parts dark slaty grey, brownish on the back ; 
nasal plumes and broad supercilia, extending far backwards, 
brownish white ; ear-coverts blackish ; feathers of head, crest, 
throat, and breast with whitish shaft-stripes ; quills black, pri- 
maries, from 3rd to 7th, 8th, or sometimes 9th, with broad white 
tips ; tail-feathers black glossed with green, the three outer pairs 
white for some distance from the tips ; lower parts ashy grey, 
paler on the chin and on the abdomen ; vent and lower tail-coverts 
rufous. 

Both mandibles are thickened at the side by a kind of incrusta- 
tion towards the base ; nostrils elongate, in a groove, the posterior 
portion of which is covered by membrane and overhung by a tuft 
of feathers. 

Bill horny yellow, with a brownish-red tinge except towards the 
tip, dusky or black along the commissure ; irides red-brown ; 
orbital skin black ; legs and feet greenish. In the female the bill 



LOPHOCEBOS. 157 

is paler and has black patches on the top of the culmen and at 
each side of the lower mandible, near the base in both cases. 
Young birds have dull white or yellow irides. 

Length about 24 ; tail 9; wing 8-5; tarsus 175; bill from 
gape 4-25. Females measure rather less. 

Distribution. Forests along the Malabar coast, as far north as 
the neighbourhood of Bombay. This Hornbill does not ascend 
the hills of Southern India above about 3000 feet. Tockus yinga- 
lensis is included in Dr. King's list of Groona birds, but doubtless 
by mistake. 

Habits, fyc. A forest species, shy, usually keeping in small flocks, 
living on fruit, and having a peculiar call. The flight, according to 
Bourdillon, is more rapid and easy than that of L. birostris. 
Mr. Baker found 3 eggs in a nest that he took ; Mr. Davidson, in 
Kanara, 2 or 3. The latter found several nests in February and 
the beginning of March. The breeding-habits are similar to those 
of L. birostris. 



1064. Lophoceros gingalensis. The Ceylonese HornUll. 

Buceros gingalensis, Shaiv, Gen. Zool. viii, p. 37 (1811); Blyth, 
J. A. S. B. xii, p. 998 ; xvi, p. 996 ; id. Cat. p. 44 ; Layard 
A. M. JV. H. (2) xiii, p. 260. 

Tockus gingalensis, Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 350; 1867, p. 296; Holds- 
worth, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 425; Legge, Ibis, 1874, p. 14; 1875, 
p. 282 ; id. Birds Ceyl. p. 275, pi. xiv ; Elliot, Mon. Buc. pi. 55 
Hume, S. F. vii, p. 36ft ; id. Cat. no. 145 bis. 

Ocyceros gingalensis, Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 397. 

Kandetta, Cingalese. 

Coloration. Crown and nape greyish brown, the feathers with 
pale shaft-stripes ; an indistinct pale superciliary band extending 
over the ear-coverts, which are blackish ; upper parts dark ashy 
grey, browner on the hind neck ; wing-coverts dark-edged ; quills 
black ; outer webs of secondaries grey above, the five middle 
primaries, beginning with the third, with long white tips ; tail- 
feathers blackish brown, the middle pair throughout, the others 
with long white terminations, the three outer pairs become entirely 
white in old birds ; lower parts white, greyish in the young ; vent 
and lower tail-feathers pale rufous. 

Nostril round, free from feathers. Bill in males yellowish 
white, with a black patch on each side of the base of the upper 
mandible, and another beneath the lower mandible ; in females the 
bill is black, with a long white patch on the lower half of the 
upper mandible ; irides red ; orbital skin black ; legs and feet 
greenish plumbeous. 

Length about 23 ; tail 875 ; wing 8 ; tarsus 175 ; bill from 
gape 4-25. Females are smaller, the wing measuring 8-25, arid 
the bill 3-4. 

Distribution. Throughout Ceylon, in forest up to an elevation of 
4000 feet. 

Habits, fyc. Similar to those of the last species, but the flight as 



158 BUCEROTID^E. 

observed by Legge appears to resemble that of L. birostris. This 
Hornbill lives mainly on fruit, but occasionally eats lizards, 
scorpions, and insects. 

Genus RHINOPLAX, Gloger, 1842. 

Bill moderate, pointed, nearly straight. Casque high, flat at 
sides, rounded above, vertically truncated in front, all the front 
part solid. Whole chin and throat, neck all round, and middle of 
back naked. Middle tail-feathers in the male twice as long as the 
others. Sexes alike in plumage. 

This very remarkable and aberrant genus contains a single 
species only. 

1065. Rhinoplax vigil. The Helmeted Hornbill. 

Buceros vigil, Forster, Ind. Zool. p. 40 (1781). 

Buceros scutata, Bodd. Tabl PL Enl. p. 55 (1783). 

Buceros galeatus, Gm. Syst. Nat. i, p. 360 (1788) j Blyth, J. A. 8. B. 

xvi, p. 998 ; id. Cat. p. 45. 
Rhinoplax scutatus, Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 581 ; Hume, 8. F. iii, 

p. 318. 
Rhinoplax viaril, Elliot, Mon. Sue. pi. 10; Hume fy Dav. S.'F. vi, 

p. 115 ; Hume, Cat. no. 146 quint ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 89 ; Hartert, 

J.f. Orn. 1889, p. 366 ; Ogihie Grant, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 427. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape black ; feathers behind 
eyes and ear-coverts chestnut ; breast, sides of back, and outside of 
wings black ; scapulars, tertiaries, and rump browner ; abdomen, 
upper and lower tail-coverts, and under wing- coverts white ; base 
and tips of all quills, except the first primary and the last second- 
aries, white ; long middle pair of tail-feathers whity brown, the 
others white, all with a broad subterminal black band. 

Anterior half of bill and front of casque yellow, rest of casque 
and posterior half of bill crimson ; iris dark red ; bare skin of neck 
and back, legs and feet, and skin everywhere beneath feathers 
dull deep red in male, in the female the naked back and hind-neck 
are reddish lilac, sides and front of neck greenish blue, veined with 
sky-blue {Hartert}. 

Length of male about 5 feet ; tail 34 inches ; wing 19 ; tarsus 3 ; 
bill from gape 6'5. Female : length about 50 ; tail 26 ; wing 16*5 ; 
bill 5-75. 

Distribution. Malay Peninsula, extending into the extreme south 
of Tenasserim ; also Sumatra and Borneo. 

Habits, &fc. A very shy bird, inhabiting high forest generally in 
pairs, not descending to the ground, and living on fruit. The 
flight is weak. The note is very peculiar and powerful ; it begins 
with a series of whoops, uttered at intervals that grow gradually 
less till, after ten or a dozen quick repetitions, the call ends in a 
harsh cackling laugh. This account is taken from Davison, whose 
observations are confirmed by Hartert. Nothing is known of the 
nidification, nor of the use to which the bird puts its very singular, 
straight, pointed bill and heavy casque. 



159 

Suborder ~UPUPM. 

Caeca wanting ; oil-gland tufted ; sternum with two deep posterior 
notches, one on each side ; rnanubrium not forked, flat and broad, 
a perforation behind it ; spinal feather-tract well-defined on the 
neck, and forked on the upper back. Only the left carotid is 
present. Deep plantar tendons free from each other, as far as the 
subdivision of the flexor perforates digitorum, but a vinculum from 
the flexor longus hallucis leads to that slip from the other tendon 
which supplies the third digit or middle toe, the union of the 
vinculum with the slip taking place below, not above the root of 
the toe *. 

The Hoopoes have been shown by numerous observers, especially 
Murie (Ibis, 1873, pp. 181-211), to be closely allied both in struc- 
ture and nesting-habits to the Hornbills. There are two families, 
Upupidce and Irrisoridce, the latter confined to Africa. 

Family UPUPIDJE. 

Genus UPUPA. 

This is the only genus in the family. Bill slender, long, curved 
from the base ; tongue very short. A well-marked and long 
coronal crest, the hinder feathers longest. Tarsus short, scutellate 
behind as in Alaudidce. Wing rounded, with 10 primaries. Tail 
moderate, of 10 rectrices. 

The Hoopoes feed on the ground on grubs and insects and use as 
nests holes in trees, banks, or walls, frequently lining the hole 
with a little grass, feathers, or hair. The female sits very closely 
and is fed by the male. The nest-hole and the young smell very 
offensively, apparently owing to the dirty condition of the nest. 
The eggs are pale bluish or greenish white. 

The genus ranges throughout the temperate and tropical parts 
of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Two species are Indian. 

Key to the Species. 

White between buff and black of crest-feathers U. epops, p. 159. 

No white on crest U. indica, p. 161. 

1066. TJpupa epops. The European Hoopoe. 

Upupa epops, Linn. Sy*t. Nat. i, p. 183 (1766) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 46; 
Horsf. Sf M.Cat. ii, p. 723 ; Jerdon, B. 1. i, p. 390 ; Scott, Ibis, 1866, 
p. 222 ; 1867, p. 135 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 26 ; 
Beavan, This, 1870, p. 310 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, 
p. 99 ; xlv, pt. 2, p. 71 ; Jerdon, Ibis, 1872, p. 21 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. 

* This discovery has just been made by Gadow, and is announced in 
' Newton's Dictionary of Birds ' (pt. iii, 1894), pp. 617.. 618, fig. V d . Hitherto it 
had been supposed that the plantar tendons of Hoopoes were free, as in Passeres. 



160 UPUPID^E. 

xli, pt. 2, p. 44 ; Brooks, ibid. p. 75 ; Hume 8f Senders. Lah. to 
Yark. p. 182 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 174; xi, p. 87 : id. Cat. no. 254 ; 
Butler, S. F. iii, p. 462; v, p. 228; ix, p. 391 ; Ball, S. F. vii, 
p. 209; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 57 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 364 ; C. H. T. 
Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 412 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 141 ; Oates in 
Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 337 j Salvin, Cat. B. M. xvi, p. 4. 

Hud-hud, Pers. & H. ; Sutdr, Mahr. ; Sukdudu, Chamba ; Katkuto, 
Sind. 




Fig. 47. Head of U. epops, f . 

Coloration. Crest rufous-fawn, all the feathers with black tips, 
and on the longer feathers the rufous passes into pure white 
before the black end is reached ; sides of head, chin, neck all 
round, and breast varying from sandy to pale rufous with a vinous 
tinge ; upper back and wings along forearm light brown, then a 
black band, followed by a buffy-white one, crosses the wings and 
back, with a second black and a second white band on the wings, 
but the lower back is black or brown ; the rump white ; upper tail- 
coverts black, and tail black with a white bar across it halfway 
down ; quills black, the first primary generally, but not always, 
with a white spot on the inner web, the other primaries with a 
white band across them, imperfect on the innermost ; secondaries 
with white bases and four white bands ; tertiaries brown, edged with 
buff and with an oblique buff band near the shaft on the inner 
web ; abdomen white, with dark brown streaks in front. 

Bill dark brown, pinkish at the base ; irides red- brown ; legs 
and feet plumbeous. 

Length about 12 ; tail 4 ; wing 5 - 8 ; tarsus 9 ; bill from gape 
straight to point 2-5. Females rather less : wing 5-5 ; bill 2-3. 

Distribution. In summer throughout the Southern Palaearctic 
region, including the Himalayas, migrating in winter to Africa, 
Arabia, and India as far south as Eatnagiri, the Deccan, Chutia 
Nagpur, Sylhet, and Manipur. Henderson found this bird common 
on the desert plateau of Ladak. 

Habits, fyc. Hoopoes are chiefly found in open country, cultivated 



UPUPA. 161 

or waste, and keep generally on the ground, though they perch 
occasionally. They are sprightly and familiar birds, and may be 
seen running about and searching for insects and especially grubs, 
which they extract with their long bills from some distance 
beneath the surface. The crest is usually kept folded back, but is 
raised quickly if the bird is excited or alarmed. The note is a 
double or treble sound like hoop. This species breeds in the 
Western Himalayas in April and May, and lays from 4 to 7 pale 
bluish-white eggs, measuring about 1-14 by '7. 



1067. Upupa indica. The Indian Hoopoe. 

Upupa senegalensis, apud Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xiv, p. 189; id. Cat. 

p. 46 ; nee Sw. 
Upupa indica, Reich. Handb. spec. Om. p. 320, pi. dxcvi, fig. 4037 

(1851-4); Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 578; Salvin, Cat. 

B. M. xvi, p. 10. 
Upupa ceylonensis, Reich, t. c. pi. dcxv, fig. 4036; Blyth, Ibis, 1866,. 

p. 366 f Hume, Cat. no. 255 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 142 ; Oates in 

Hume's N. $ E. ii, p. 334. 
Upupa nigripennis, Gould MS., Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 725 (1858) ; 

Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 392; id. Ibis, 1872, p. 22; MacMaster,. 

J.A.S. B. xl, pt. 2, p. 209 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 235 ; 

Butler, S. F. iii, p. 462 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 278. 
Upupa longirostris, Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 393 ; Hume, 8. F. iii, p. 89 ; 

xi, p. 88 ; id. Cat. no. 254 bis ; Blyth fy Wald. Birds Burm. p. 69 ; 

Hume Sf Dav. S. F. vi, p. 202 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 62 ; id. in 

Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 338. 

Hudhud, H. ; Sutdr, Mahr. ; Kondeh pitta, Kukudeu guwa, Tel. 
Chaval kuruvi, Tarn., Ceylon ; Toun-bee-sote, Burm. 

Coloration similar to that of U. epops, except that there is no 
white on the crest, that the head, neck, back, and breast are more 
rufous, and that this colour extends farther over the abdomen : 
thighs often rufous. 

Typical Burmese specimens have the wing in males 5-6, bill 
from gape 2*6 ; in females 5'3 and 2*4 : but Indian and especially 
Ceylonese specimens run smaller wing in Ceylonese males 5'3, 
in females 4-85 ; bill 2-4 and 2-1. Skins from India, especially 
from the North, very often show a tinge of white on the crest ; 
these specimens Salvin regards as intermediate between U. indica 
and U. epops, hybrids in fact, and I agree with him. To separate 
the Indian and Burmese forms, and to make three species on such 
very small distinctions as exist, is neither necessary nor reasonable. 

Distribution. With the exception of Sind and the Western 
Punjab, throughout India, Ceylon, Burma, Siam, Cambodia, and 
the countries eastward to Hainan. A resident species. 

Habits, Sfc. Similar to those of U. epops. The breeding-season 
in various parts of India is from February till May, earlier to the 
southward ; in Ceylon, according to Legge, November to April. 
The eggs are 4 to 7 in number, sometimes, it is said, more, pale 
bluish or greenish-white in colour, and measure about '97 by *66. 

VOL. III. M 



Order VI. MACROCHIRES. 

The families of Swifts, Nightjars, and Frogmouths, here classed 
together, afford an even more difficult case than that of the 
Anisodactyli, their differences being of so well-marked and 
important a character as to make it very doubtful whether they 
can belong to the same order. The hallux in all is connected 
with the flexor perforans digitorum, and the arrangement of the 
deep flexors (except in Macropterycc] is Galline, as in Coracias and 
Buceros ; the oil-gland is nude or wanting, the manubrium sterni 
very small or absent, the coracoids separate, and the number of 
both primary-quills and tail-feathers 10. The spinal feather- 
tract is well-defined on the neck, but forked on the upper back. 
All, too, have a short bill and an excessively broad gape, and all 
live on insects captured in the air. 

The three families Cypselidw, Caprimulgidce, and Podaryidce 
form suborders. 

The Trochilidce, or Humming-birds of America, are generally 
placed in this order, but their relations to the Swifts are 
disputed by a few naturalists. 

Another American family, Steatornithidce, appears probably 
allied to the Podargidce. 

The other suborders are all Indian, and may be thus dis- 
tinguished : 

a. Palate segithognathous ; no basipterygoid pro- 
cesses ; no caBca ; a nude oil-gland CYPSELI. 

6. Palate schizognathous ; basipterygoid pro- 
cesses present; cseca functional; a nude 
oil-gland CAPEIMTJLGI. 

c. Palate desmognathous ; no basipterygoid pro- 
cesses ; caeca large ; no oil-gland ; a powder- 
down patch on each side of the rump PODAEGI. 



Suborder CYPSELI. 

No cseca. Oil-gland present, but nude. Palate segithognathous ; 
no basipterygoid processes. No median wing-coverts. Sternum 
without posterior incisions, the keel high. No semitendinosus 
muscle. A large aftershaft. 



CYPSELID^E. 163 

Nidification varies greatly, but all the Swifts lay elongate white 
eggs, and in all the saliva is used to cement together the materials 
of the nest and to attach it to some surface. In some forms of 
Collocdlia the nest consists entirely of inspissated saliva. The 
salivary glands are greatly developed, especially at the breeding- 
season. The young are hatched naked. 

A single family. 



Family CYPSELID^E. 

Bill small, hooked at the end, gape very broad. Wings long, 
the primaries greatly developed, curved ; secondaries very short. 
Humerus very short. Feet weak, the first or hind toe is more or 
less reversible, and all four toes are often directed forward in 
some of the genera. 

This family is cosmopolitan, except that it does not occur in 
Arctic or Antarctic regions. There are three subfamilies, thus 
distinguished : 

a. Tarsus feathered ; three anterior toes (2, 
3, 4), each with three phalanges ; wings 

extending far beyond tail Cypselince, p. 163. 

6. Tarsus generally naked ; second toe 
with 3, third with 4, fourth with 5 
phalanges as usual. 
a'. Tarsus equal to middle toe or longer ; 

wings extending far beyond tail . . GTiceturince, p. 172. 
V. Tarsus shorter than middle toe ; [p. 179. 

wings not extending beyond tail . . Macropterygince, 



Subfamily CYPSELIN.E. 

This includes the typical Swifts, in which the hind toe is 
completely reversible, and the third and fourth toes have only 
three phalanges each. Sexes always alike. Two genera are 
Indian. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Toes all directed forward as a rule CYPSELUS, p. 164. 

b. Toes in pairs; inner and hind toes directed 

inwards, the other two outwards TACHORNIS, p. 170. 



M2 



164 CYPSELIDjE. 

Genus CYPSELUS *, Illiger, 1811. 

The true Swifts have the toes as a rule all directed forward, but 
the first or hinder toe is reversible. They are birds of powerful 
flight, though inferior in this respect to Chcetura. All make nests- 
attached to rocks or buildings, or very rarely to trees. 




Fig. 48. Left foot of C. apus, \. 

Key to the Species. 

a. No white on rump. 

a'. Abdomen white C. melba, p. 164. 

V. Abdomen brown. 

a". General colour blackish brown C. apus, p. 165. 

b". General colour greyish brown C. murinus, p. 166, 

b. A white band across rump. 
c'. Tail deeply forked. 

c". Larger : wing 7 C. pacificus, p. 167, 

d". Smaller : wing 6 C. leuconyx, p. 167. 

d'. Tail even or nearly even. 

e" . Lower tail-coverts greyish brown, paler 

than abdomen C. affinis, p. 168. 

f". Lower tail-coverts blackish brown like 

abdomen C. subfurcatus, p. 169, 

1068. Cypselus melba. The Alpine Sivift. 

Hirundo melba, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 345 (1766). 

Hirundo alpina. Scop. Ann. i, p. 166 (1769). 

Cypselus melba, Illiger, Prodr. p. 230 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 85 ; Layard, 

A. M. N. H. (2) xii, p. 167 ; Adams, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 175 : 

Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 175; id. Ibis, 1871, p. 354 ; Stolicz/ca, J. A. S. B. 

xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 18; McMaster, J. A. S. B. xl, pt. 2, p. 208; 

Butler, S. F. iii, p. 453 ; v, p. 218 ; ix, p. 379 ; Blanford, S. F. 

v, p. 245; Davidson & Wenden, S. F. vii, p. 77; Ball, ibid. 

p. 202; Hume, Cat. no'. 98; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 317; Vidal, 

S. F. ix, p. 43 ; Davidson, S. F. x, p. 293 ; id. Jour. Bom. N. H, 

* The name Micropus, Meyer and Wolf, 1810, which has one year's priority 
over Cypselus has oeen substituted for the latter by some -writers, and especially 
by Mr. Hartert in the British Museum Catalogue, vol. xvi. But the existence 
of a Linnsean genus Micropus in Botany affords a fair reason for adhering to 
the well-known name of Cypselus for typical Swifts. The generic name 
Micropus (1837) used by Sharpe and Gates (ante, Vol. I. p. 294) for a genus of 
Bulbuls, is of later date than Meyer and Wolf's genus, and must be changed to 
Microtarsus, Eyton (1839). 



CYPSELUS. 165 

Soc. i, p. 177 ; Littledale, ibid. pp. 31, 196 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 347 ; 

Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 85 ; id. Journ. Bom. N. H. Soc. iii, p. 47 ; 

iv, p. 4 ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 155 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 

2nd ed. iii. p. 20. 

Cypselus alpinus, Jerdon, Mad. Jour. L. S. xi, p. 235 (1840). 
Micropus melba, Boie, Isis, 1844, p. 165 ; Hartert, Cat. B. M. xvi, 

p. 438. 

Coloration. Upper parts, sides of head and neck, a broad band 
across the upper breast, and the lower tail-coverts brown, varying 
slightly in depth of tint, nearly uniform in old birds, the feathers 
darker near the end, and with whitish edges in young individuals ; 
chin, throat, lower breast, and abdomen white, feathers sometimes 
black-shafted; under wing-coverts always with whitish edges, 
especially near the bend of the wing. 

Bill black ; iris dark brown ; legs and feet blackish purple. 

Length about 8-5 ; tail 3 ; wing 8-5, tarsus 0-6. The tail is 
deeply forked, the outer feathers being about -75 inch longer than 
the middle pair. 

Distribution. Europe as far north as the Alps, Northern Africa, 
South-western Asia, India, and Ceylon. This bird is resident, 
and breeds in the Himalayas, on rocky precipices amongst the 
Western Ghats, and doubtless in other hilly parts of the 
Peninsula. The nests and eggs have been taken by Miss Cockburn 
on the Nilgiris near Kotagiri, and nests have been seen by 
Mr. Davidson near Nasik, and by Mr. Littledale in Kashmir; 
whilst the hills of Ceylon (Legge), the cliffs of Gersoppa (Jerdon), 
Satara (Davidson), and Gawilgurh in Berar (McMaster) have been 
shown to be probable breeding-places. The Alpine Swift may be 
seen at times throughout the peninsula, and it has been recorded 
from Darjiling and Assam, but not farther east. 

Habits, fyc. This fine Swift is probably, with the exception of the 
larger species of Chcetura, the swiftest and most powerful flyer 
amongst birds. It roosts and breeds in companies on rocky cliffs, 
but flies enormous distances each day, generally in scattered flocks, 
and may be found hawking insects in the air hundreds of miles 
from its roosting-place. It has a shrill cry, often uttered during 
flight. The nests have walls about an inch thick made of feathers, 
dry grass, &c., firmly cemented together by the saliva of the birds ; 
they are 4 or 5 inches in diameter, not lined. Several nests are 
often clustered together. The eggs are laid in Europe about May 
and June ; they are white, elongate, 3 or 4 in number, and measure 
about 1-2 bv '75. 



1069. Cypselus apus. The European Sivift. 

Hirundo apus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 344 (1766). 

Cypselus apus, ///. Prodr. p. 230 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 85 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. 

i, p. 109 ; Adams, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 175 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 177 ; 

id. Ibis, 1871, p. 354 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 18 ; 

Hume, S. F. i, p. 165; id. Cat. no. 99; Barnes, Birds Bom. 

p. 85 ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 156. 



166 CYPSELID^!. 

Cypselus acuticauda, Blyth MS., Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 870 (1864) - r 

Blyth, Ibis, 1865, p. 45; 1866, p. 339; Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, p. 355 j 

Hume, S. F. ii, p. 156 ; id. Cat. no. 99 bis. 
Cypelus pekinensis, Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1870, p. 435; 1871, p. 345;. 

Brooks, S. F. iii, p. 231; Scully, S. F. iv, p. 132; x, p. 100; id. 

Ibis, 1881, p. 428 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 365 ; viii, p. 411 ; id. Cat. 

no. 99 quat. ; Sharpe, Yarkand Miss., Aves, p. 112. 
Micropus apus (& M. pekinensis, subsp.), Hartert, Cat. B. M. xvi r 

pp. 442-444. 

Coloration. Except the chin and middle of the throat, which 
are whitish, generally with indications of dark shaft-stripes, the 
whole plumage is dark brown, or blackish brown, with a greenish 
gloss. In younger specimens the forehead is pale, and the 
feathers, especially on the crown, wing-coverts (above all the 
under coverts near the edge of the wing), and abdomen, have pale 
edges. 

Bill blackish brown ; iris dark brown ; feet purplish 
brown. 

Length about 7 ; tail 3 ; wing 7 ; tarsus 0*5 ; the outer exceed 
the middle rectrices by about an inch or rather more. 

Distribution. A migratory bird, breeding throughout the greater 
part of the Palaearctic region, and spending the winter chiefly in 
Africa. It is found in Kashmir and the Western Himalayas 
generally, and in Afghanistan. A single specimen was shot at 
Port Blair, Andaman Islands, on July 30th, 1873, but the species 
has not been observed in the Eastern Himalayas, Assam, or 
Burma. 

Habits, fyc. This is a bird of powerful flight, though inferior to 
the Alpine Swift. It is almost constantly on the wing in the 
daytime hawking insects, generally high in the air, or playing 
about in flocks, and uttering its harsh screaming call. It roosts 
and breeds on high buildings and cliffs, much as C. affinis does, 
but it has not been observed to breed within Indian limits, where 
it is, as a rule, only a winter visitor. 



1070. Cypselus muriuus. The Pale Brown Swift. 

Cypselus murinus, Brehm, Vollstdnd. Vogelfang, p. 46 (1855). 
Cypselus pallidus, Shelley, Ibis, 1870, p. 445 ; 1871, p. 47 ; Hume, 

S. F. vii, p. 365 ; viii, p. 411 ; id. Cat. no. 99 ter. 
Micropus murinus (subsp. ofM.. apus), Hartert, Cat. M. xvi, p. 446. 

Similar to C. apus, but distinctly paler ; greyish brown (mouse- 
brown) almost throughout ; the white throat more extended and 
passing more into the brown on its edges. On the abdomen the 
dark subterminal bands and whitish edges of the feathers appear 
persistent at all ages. Wing 6-5 to 6-7, or a little shorter than 
in C. apus. 

Distribution. The desert region ; Northern Africa (and occa- 
sionally Southern Europe) and South-western Asia. This species- 



CYPSELTTS. 16' 



is probably non-migratory, and has been obtained in Sind and 
Baluchistan. 



1071. Cypselus pacificus. The Large White-rumped Swift. 

Hirundo pacifica, Latham, Ind. Orn. Suppl. p. Iviii (1801). 
Cypselus vittatus, Jard. $ Selby, III. Orn. iv. pi. 39 (1840) ; Blyth, 

Cat. p. 85 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 385 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1863, p. 369. 
Cypselus pacificus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, pp. 212, 548 ; Jerdon, 

Ibis, 1871, p. 355 ; Hume $ Gates, S. F. iii, p. 43; Blyth $ Wold. 

Birds Burm. p. 84 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 48 ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 101 bis ; id. S. F. xi, p. 31 ; Hume $ Inglis, S. F. ix, p. 246 ; 

Oates, B. B. ii, p. 1 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v r 

p. 573. 
Micropus pacificus, Hartert, Cat. B. M. xvi, p. 448. 

Coloration. Upper plumage blackish brown ; the feathers in 
young birds with pale edges, that grow indistinct in older speci- 
mens ; a broad white band, the feathers black-shafted, across the 
rump ; chin and throat whitish, the shafts dark ; rest of lower 
parts brown, each feather with a subterminal blackish band and a 
whitish edge at all ages. 

Bill black ; iris deep brown ; feet purplish black (Davisori). 

Length 7 ; tail 3'2 ; wing 7 ; tarsus 0*45 ; the outer exceed the 
middle tail-feathers by about 1-25 inch. 

Distribution. Assam, Cachar, and Manipur, throughout the 
Burmese countries and the regions to the eastward, from Japan 
to Australia. 

Habits, <${c. But little known ; it is even uncertain whether this 
species is resident in Burma. It was seen by Oates, generally 
in large flocks, flying at a considerable height, during the greater 
part of the year, but he doubts if it breeds in the country. It is 
known to breed on rocks and houses in islands off the coast of 
China. 

1072. Cypselus lenconyx. Blyih's White-rumped Swift. 

Cypselus leuconyx, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 212 ; id. Cat. p. 85 ; 

Jerdon, Mad. Jour. L. S. xiii, pt. 2, p. 144 (1844) ; Horsf. % M. 

Cat. i, p. 109; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 179 ; id. Ibis, 1871, p. 354 ; Sclater, 

P. Z. S. 1865, p. 600 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1865, p. 45 ; 1866, p. 340 ; 

1870, p. 161; Tytler, Ibis, 1868, p. 195; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 44; 

id. Cat. no. 101 ; Butler, S. F. ix, p. 379 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 

p. 86. 
Cypselus pacificus, apud Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 18 ;. 

nee Lath. 
Micropus leuconyx, Hartert, Cat. B. M. xvi, p. 450. 

The White-clawed Swift, Jerdon. 

Coloration similar to that of C. pacificus, but dimensions much 
less, so as fully to justify separation. The feet (not the claws) 
are pale coloured, almost albescent in some specimens (Hume). 



168 

Bill blackish ; iris dark brown ; feet flesh-colour (Delme Rad- 
cliffe). 

Length about 6 inches ; tail 2-5 ; wing 6 ; tarsus -4 ; the outer 
exceed the middle rectrices by about -75 inch. 

Distribution. Common in the North-western Himalayas at mode- 
rate elevations " between the outer ranges and the higher and 
more interior hills " (Jerdon} ; probably resident. Jerdon states 
that he obtained a specimen in the western part of the Deccan 
and several in Malabar, where it frequents rocky hills, but no one 
appears to have observed specimens in the Peninsula since Jerdon 
wrote. 

1073. Cypselus affinis. The Common Indian Swift. 

Cypselus affinis, Gray $ Hardw. III. Ind. Zool. i, pi. 35, fig. 2 (1832) ; 
Jerdon, Mad. Jour. L. S. xi, p. 235 ; Tickell, J. A. S. B. xvii, 
p. 303 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 86 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 106 ; Adams, 
P. Z. S. 1859, p. 175 ; Jerdon, B. 1. i, p. 177 ; JBlyth, Ibis, 1866, 
p. 339 ; Hume, 8. F. i, p. 166 ; Aitken, S. F. iii, p. 214 ; Ball, S. F. 
vii, p. 202 ; Hume, Cat. no. 100 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 234 ; Legge, 
Birds Ceyl. p. 319 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 44 ; Butler, ibid. p. 379 ; 
Davison, S. F. x, p. 347 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 3 (note) ; id. in 
Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 21 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 86 ; 
Littledale, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. i, p. 31 ; Barnes, ibid. p. 43 ; 
iv, p. 4 ; Newriham, op. cit. ii. p. 55 ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 156. 

Cypselus nepalensis, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. v, p. 780 (1836). 

Cypselus montanus, Jerdon, Mad. Jour. L. S. xiii, pt. 2, p. 144 
(1844). 

Cypselus abessynicus, Streubel, Isis, 1848, p. 354; Blanf. J. A. 
8. B. xxxviii, pt. 2, p. 169 ; Hume, Ibis, 1870, p. 405. 

Micropus affinis, Hartert, Cat. B. M. xvi, p. 453. 

Ababil, Babila, H. ; Pdkoli, Mahr ; Hawabil-bil, Saharanpur ; Batasi, 
Pahari, Sikhim ; Wcehcelaniya, Lceniya, Cing. 




Fig. 49. Head of C. a 



Coloration. Very dark brown, almost black, with a distinct gloss 
above and below; crown and nape paler, forehead and lower tail- 
coverts paler still; a black spot before the eye and slight pale 
supercilia ; quills glossed with green ; a broad white band across 
the rump, and the chin and throat white, the feathers more or less 
dark-shafted. 

Bill black ; iris deep brown ; feet vinous brown (Legge). 

Length about 5-5 ; tail 175; wing 5-25; tarsus -4. The tail 
is nearly square, the outer scarcely longer than the middle 
rectrices. 



CTPSELUS. 169 

Distribution. Besident throughout India and Ceylon, but locally 
distributed ; very common in places, wanting in others, ascending 
the Himalayas to about 6000 feet. To the westward this Swift is 
found in Kashmir, the Punjab, and Sind, throughout South- 
western Asia, including Persia and Palestine, and in the greater 
part of Africa ; but it is replaced east of the Bay of Bengal by the 
next species. 

Habits, <$fc. The Indian Swift is highly gregarious, and is com- 
monly seen about old buildings, being perhaps most common in 
large towns ; it is also found haunting rocky cliffs, and it breeds 
on cliffs, houses, temples, tombs, &c. Its flight is very like that 
of C. apus, but rather less powerful ; its call is similar, but even 
shriller. Its nests vary in shape and materials ; they consist of 
feathers, grass, or straw, with an occasional admixture of wool, 
twine, or rags, cemented together with saliva. Generally several 
nests are found clustered together. In some cases this Swift is 
said to lay its eggs in deserted Swallows' nests, and this doubtless 
accounts for some observers having supposed that it used mud in 
building. The eggs are from 2 to 4, generally 3 in number, 
white, not glossy as a rule, long ovals, measuring on an average 
87 by '57. The breeding-season lasts from February to August, 
both months included, two broods being produced in the year. 
The same nest is used by a pair several times. 

1074. Cypselus subfurcatus. The Malay House-Sivift. 

Cypselus subfurcatus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviii, p. 807 (1849) ; id. 
Cat. p. 85 ; Sclater, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 602 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1865, p. 41, 
note ; 1870, p. 161 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. 2, p. 153 ; 
Hume, S. F. li, p. 524 ; xi, p. 30 ; id. Cat. no. 100 bis ; Hume $ 
Inylis, S. F. v, p. 17 ; Hume % Dav. S. F. vi, p. 47 ; Oates, B. B. 
ii, p. 2. 

Micropus subfurcatus, Hartert, Cat. B. M. xvi, p. 456. 

Very similar to C. ajfinis, but darker, being blackish brown 
except on the white rump, chin, and throat ; head, and especially the 
under tail-coverts, blackish brown like the other parts, only the 
forehead paler; tail longer and distinctly subfurcate or emar- 
ginate. 

Bill black ; irides dark brown ; legs and feet varying from deep 
purplish black to flesh-colour. 

Length about 5'75 inches ; tail 2 ; wing 5*5 ; tarsus *4 ; outer 
rectrices '3 longer than middle pair. 

Distribution. Cachar and the Khasi hills, not rare ; Manipur, 
and here and there throughout Burma, but very few localities are 
recorded ; China as far north as Amoy, Cochin China, doubtless 
Siam, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Java. This Swift 
abounds in Penang. A single specimen from Chanda was found by 
Hume in the Calcutta collection : this was doubtless a straggler. 

Habits, fyc. similar to those of C. affinis. Godwin- Austen found 
this Swift breeding on cliffs near Shillong in June. 



170 CYPSELID^E. 

Genus TACHORNIS, Gosse, 1847. 

The toes are arranged in pairs, the 3rd and 4th toes outwards, 
the 1st and 2nd (inner and hind) inwards. Size small. 

The nests are always attached to the leaves of palms (where 
palm-leaves are employed in thatching huts, the Swifts make their 
nests on the thatch). 

This genus is found throughout the Oriental and Ethiopian 
regions and in the West Indies. Two species are found within 
our limits. 




Fig. 50. Left foot of T. batassiensis, \. 

Key to the Species. 

Dull earthy brown above T. batassiensis, p. 170. 

Glossy blackish brown above T. infumatus, p. 171. 

1075. Tachornis batassiensis. The Palm-Swift. 

Cypselus balasiensis (batassiensis), Gray, in Griffith's An. Kinyd., 

Aves, ii, p. 60 (1829) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 86. 
Cypselus batassiensis, Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 108 ; Jerdon, B. I. i r 

p. 180; Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 340; Holdsivorth, P. Z. S. 1872, 

p. 420 ; Davidson $ Wenden, S. F. vii, p. 77 ; Davidson, ibid. 

p. 172; Ball, ibid. p. 202; Cripps, ibid. p. 257; Hume, Cat. 

no. 102 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 44 ; Biebler, ibid. p. 379 ; Legge, Birds 

Ceyl p. 322 ; Hume, S. F. x, p. 348 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 87 ; 

Cripps, S. F. xi, p. 31 ; Oates in Hume's N. $E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 25 ; 

St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 156. 
Cypselus palmarum, Gray in Hardw. III. Ind. Zool i, pi. 35, fig. 1 

(1832) ; Jerdon, Mad. Jour. L. S. xi, p. 236 ; Hume, N. % E. i, 

p. 87 ; Butler, S. F. iii, p. 454. 
Tachornis batassiensis, Hartert, Cat. B. M. xvi, p. 466. 

Tdri ababil, Tal-chatta, Patta deuli, H. ; Batassia, Chamchiki, Beng. ; 
Ambattan Katthi, Tamul ; WceTicelaniya, Cing. 

Coloration. Dull brown above, head slightly darker, wing and 
tail-feathers much darker ; beneath pale greyish brown, chin and 
throat palest. 

Bill black ; iricles reddish ; feet dusky brown. 

Length about 5-25 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 4-5 ; tarsus -4 ; tail deeply 
forked, outer rectrices about 1'2 inches longer than middle pair. 

Distribution. Peninsula of India and Ceylon wherever there are 
fan-palms (Borassus faibelliformis). Wanting in the Punjab and 
Sind, and found in Eajputana only at Mount Abu. Common 
throughout Bengal and as far east as Dibrugarh in Assam ( Cripps), 



TACHOBNIS 171 

but replaced in the Assam hills and in Burma by the next 
species. 

Habits, fyc. This Swift keeps to the neighbourhood of the palms 
on which it builds its nest. The flight is, as Jerdon says, rather 
irregular and not very speedy. The nest is attached to the under- 
side of a palm-leaf, usually to one of those that hang bent down- 
wards, and consists of a small pocket-like cup, inserted in one of 
the furrows of the leaf, and made of vegetable down or small 
feathers glued together by the salivary secretion of the bird. 
Usually the nest is on the fan-palm (tar or toddy tree), but 
occasionally on the betel-nut (Areca). This bird breeds probably 
twice in the year, about March and July in Northern India, but 
from October to April in Ceylon. The eggs are generally three in 
number, white, long ovals, measuring on an average '71 by *46. 

1076. Tachornis infumatus. The Eastern Palm-Swift. 

Cypselus infumatus, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 602 ; Hume, Ibis, 
1870, p. 533 ; Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, p. 355, pi. x ; Walden in Bhjttts 
Birds Burm. p. 85 ; Hume fy Oates, S. F. iii, p. 44 ; Hume 8f 
Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 48, 497 ; Hume, Cat. no. 102 bis ; id. S. F. xi, 
p. 32 ; Bingham, S. F. viii, p. 192 ; ix, p. 149 ; Oates, B. B. ii, 
p. 4; id. in Hume's N. Sf E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 27. 

Cypselus tectorum, Jerdon, P. A. S. B. 1870, p. 61 ; Godw.-Aust. 
J.A.S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 94. 

Cypselus minusculus, Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) vii, 
p. 383. 

Tachornis infumata, Hartert, Cat. B. M. xvi, p. 467. 

Pyan-hhua, Burmese (applied to all Swifts). 

Coloration similar to thnt of T. batassiensis, but much darker, 
upper parts blackish brown, wing and tail-feathers black above 
with a slight purplish gloss ; lower plumage smoky brown, throat 
slightly paler. 

Bill and feet black ; iris brown (Oates). 

Length about 5-2 inches ; tail 2-2 ; wing 4-6 ; tarsus -35 ; tail 
less forked than in T. l.atassiensis ; the outer tail-feathers exceed 
the middle pair by '9 inch. 

Distribution. Hill-tracts south of the Assam valley and through- 
out the Burmese countries, to Southern China, the Malay Penin- 
sula, Borneo, and Java. 

Habits, <$fc. precisely similar to those of T. batassiensis, this bird 
haunting palms (Borassus and Areca) and breeding in them. In 
the Naga and Garo hills, where the people thatch their huts with 
two layers of palm-leaves, this Swift attaches its nest to the upper 
side of the leaves in the lower layer. 



172 CYPSELIDJ3. 



Subfamily CH^ETURINLE. 

This subfamily contains the Spiny-tailed Swifts, and the 
Swiftlets which make the edible nests. 

Key to the Genera. 

Shafts of rectrices very stiff, the ends projecting 

beyond the webs CH^TUBA, p. 172. 

Shafts of rectrices pliable, no projecting points. COLLOCALIA, p. 175. 

Genus CHJETUEA, Stephens, 1825. 

The principal character of this genus is that all the tail-feathers 
have rigid shafts, the ends of which project for some distance 
beyond the web. The tarsi are naked as in other members of the 
subfamily; feet as in Cypselus; claws stout and much curved. 
Wings very long and pointed, first quill longest. 

This genus of Swifts occurs throughout Eastern Asia, the Oriental 
and Australian regions, Tropical Africa, and nearly the whole of 
America. Four species occur within Indian limits. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Large, wing 7 to 8 inches. 

a'. Chin and throat white C. nudipes, p. 172. 

b'. Chin and throat brown C. indica, p. 173. 

b. Small, wing 4 to 5 inches. 

c'. Rump and abdomen white; upper tail-coverts 

black C. sylvatica, p. 174. 

d'. Rump and upper tail-coverts light grey ; [p. 175. 

abdomen black C. leucopygialis, 

1 1077. Chaetura nudipes. The White-necked Spine-tail. 

Chaetura nudipes, Hodgs. J. A. 8. B. v, p. 779 (1836) ; Deless. Voy. 

de rinde, Hist. Nat. p. 25, pi. 9 ; Hume, Cat. no. 97 ; id. S. F. 

ix, pp. 230, 286 ; Hartert, Cat. B. M. xvi, p. 474. 
Acanthylis fusca, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 84 ; nee Stephens. 
Acanthylis nudipes, Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 111. 
Acanthylis caudacuta, apud Jerdon, B. Z i, p. 173 ; id. Ibis, 1871, 

p. 354 ; nee Lath. 

Acanthylis ciris, apud Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 339; nee Pallas. 
Chaetura gigantea, apud Hume fy Cripps, S. F. xi, p. 30 ; nee Temm. 

SilU-ang tiphi-timbo, Lepcha. 

Coloration. A small black preocular spot ; crown and sides of 
head, nape, hind-neck, upper surface of wings and tail, sides of 
rump and upper tail-coverts blackish brown, glossed with metallic 
green ; inner webs of tertiaries partly or wholly white ; back 
brown, whitish in the middle ; chin, throat, a band down the 



CHjEIFBA. 



173 



hinder part of the flanks, area behind vent, and lower tail-coverts 
white ; breast and abdomen brown, with a slightly reddish tinge. 

Bill black ; irides deep brown ; legs and feet purplish Livid 
(Jerdon). 

Length about 8 ; tail 2 ; wing 8 ; tarsus *6. Tail nearly square, 
the spinous tips projecting *15 inch. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas from Hazara to Upper 
Assam. This bird has been shot at Dibrugarh. 




Fig. 51. Tail of C. nudipes, \. 

Habits, #c. This and other large Spine-tails are, I believe, 
absolutely the swiftest of living birds. Their flight far excels 
that of the Alpine Swift, and I doubt if any Falcon can approach 
them in speed. They are generally seen in scattered flocks that 
play about for a time, and disappear at a pace that must be seen 
to be appreciated. They roost and breed, so far as is known, 
amongst rocks. 

C. caudacuta, which ranges from Siberia to Australia, is closely 
allied, but is distinguished by its white forehead. 

1078. Chaetura indica. The Brown-necked Spine-tail. 

Acanthylis caudacuta, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 84 ; Layard, A.M.NH. 

(2) xii, p. 170; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 94; nee 

Latham. 
Acauthylis gigantea, Horsf. # M. . Cat. i, p. 387 ; Jerdon, B. I. i. 

p. 172 ; Beavan, Ibis, 1867, p. 317 ; Blyth 8? Wald. Birds Burm. 

p. 84 ; Wardlaw-Ramsay, Ibis, 1877, p. 459 ; nee Temm. 
Chsetura indica, Hume, S. F. i, p. 471 (1873) ; ii, p. 155 ; iv, pp. 223, 

286; xi, p. 30; id. Cat. no. 96; Hume $ Inglis, S. F. v, p. 17; 

Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 46 ; Hume Sf Bourdillon, S. F. vii, 

p. 34; Damson, S. F. x, p. 347 ; Hartert, Cat. B. M. xvi, p. 475. 
Hirundinapus giganteus, apud Walden, Ibis, 1874, p. 131; nee 

Temm. 
Chaetura gigantea, apud Jerdon, Mad. Jour. L. S. xiii, pt. 2, p. 144 ; 

Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi, p. 885 ; Hume, S. F. iv, pp. 223, 287 ; id. 

Cat. no. 96 bis ; Hume Dav. S. F. vi, p. 46 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. 

p. 314. 
Hirundinapus giganteus & II. indicus, Gates, B. B. ii, p. 5. 

Coloration. A large velvety black spot before the eye, with 
a white spot in front extending to the nostril ; crown and 



174 CYPSELIDjE. 

sides of head, hind-neck, sides of rump and upper tail-coverts, 
upper surface of wings and tail blackish brown, with dark metallic 
green gloss ; back pale brown, darker on the edges ; lower parts 
rich brown ; chin and throat much paler, but the feathers of the 
latter with dark tips ; a longitudinal band on the flanks behind 
the thighs ; area behind vent and lower tail-coverts white. 

Bill black ; irides dark brown ; legs and feet pale fleshy pink 
(Baker). 

Length about 9 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 8 ; tarsus -68. The tail is 
slightly wedge-shaped, and the shafts of the feathers are very 
strong and project nearly half an inch. 

Distribution. Ceylon and Southern India ; not observed north of 
lat. 12 in the Peninsula; commonest about the Nilgiris and other 
ranges; also Cachar, the Assam hills, and Manipur, through- 
out the Burmese countries, apparently passing farther south into 
the allied C. gigantea, which is only distinguished by wanting the 
white loral spots. The specimen from Tenasserim referred by 
Hume to C. gigantea, though not belonging to that race, may be 
an intermediate form. The two are merely races. 

Habits, tyc. Similar to those of C. nudipes, these Swifts being 
equal, or possibly even superior, in speed. So wonderful is their 
flight that Mr. H. E. P. Carter remarked that a flock of Alpine 
Swifts, passing over immediately after some of the present species, 
"seemed to fly like Owls after the arrow-like speed of the Spine- 
tails." He found that those he shot had fed on beetles, green 
bugs, sand-wasps, and grasshoppers. The nests were discovered 
by Mr. E. C. S. Baker in the North Cachar hills, on April 26th, 
and described by him in the ' Asian/ They were large, shallow, 
oval cups attached to the walls of (artificial) limestone caves, and 
composed of moss and mud. They measured about 6 by 3| inches 
outside, 4| by 3 inside, and nearly an inch deep. Only fragments 
of eggs, which were white and devoid of gloss, were found, but in 
one nest were three young birds. 



1079. ChaBtura sylvatica. The White-rumped Spine-tail. 

Acanthylis sylvatica, Tickell, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 284 (1846) ; Jerdon, 

B. I. i, p. 170; id. Ibis, 1871, p. 354; Blanford, J. A. 8. B. 

xxxviii, pt. 2, p. 169; Hume, J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 114; 

Ball, S. F. iii, p. 289 ; Walden, Ibis, 1876, p. 356. 
Chaetura sylvatica, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 614 ; Ball, S. F. vii, 

p. 202 ; Hume, Cat. no. 95 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 346 ; Hartert, 

Cat. B. M. xvi, p. 489. 

Coloration. Upper parts black or blackish brown, with slight 
green gloss ; a broad white band across the rump ; chin, throat, 
and breast greyich brown ; abdomen and lower tail-coverts white, 
the two colours passing into each other: wing beneath blackish 
and glossy. In young birds the white feathers of the rump, 
abdomen, and lower tail-coverts have black shafts. 

Bill, legs, and feet black ; iris dark brown. 



COLLOCALIA. 175 

Length about 4-25 ; tail 1-5 ; wing 4-2 ; tarsus -4. The under 
tail-coverts extend nearly to the end of the tail. 

Distribution. The forest country from Bengal to the Godavari 
and west as far as the Wyne Gunga, also Seoni in the Central 
Provinces, Garhwal and Sikhim in the Himalayas, the Wynaad, 
and Coonoor in the Nilgiris. Widely spread but local. 

Habits, <$fc. A forest species, generally seen in smaller or larger 
parties hawking insects amongst high trees, especially near streams, 
or frequenting open cultivated spaces in the jungle. The flight is 
not, I should say, much more rapid than that of the Palm-Swift. 
Nidification unknown. 

1080. Chaetura leucopygialis. The Grey-rumped Black Spine-tail. 

Acanthylis leucopygialis, myth, J. A. S. JB. xviii, p. 809 (1849) ; id. 

Cat. p. 85 ; id. Ibis, 1866, p. 339. 

Acauthylis eoracinus, Mull. Bonap. Consp. Av. p. 64 (1850). 
Chsetura coracina, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 614; Hume, S. F. iii, 

p. 318 ; Hume % Dav. S. F. vi, p. 45. 
Chsetura leucopygialis, Hume, S. F. vii, p. 518 ; id. Cat. no. 95 bis ; 

Hartert, Cat. B. M. x\i, p. 490. 
Rhaphidura leucopygialis, Oates, B. B. ii, p. 6. 

Coloration. Black, with a bluish gloss throughout, above and 
below, except the rump and long upper tail-coverts, which are 
greyish white (pearly grey) with narrow black shafts. 

Bill black ; irides dark brown ; legs and feet livid purple. 

Length about 4*75 ; tail 1'7 ; wing 4'9 ; tarsus *4. The upper 
tail-coverts extend to the end of the webs of the tail-feathers ; the 
naked shafts of the latter project -3 to -4 inch. 

Distribution. The extreme south of Tenasserim, ranging through- 
out the Malay Peninsula to Sumatra and Borneo. 

Habits, 6fc. very similar to those of C. sylvatica, but by Davison's 
account this appears to be a swifter bird. 

Genus COLLOCALIA, Gray, 1840. 

Feet small ; the hind toe directed backwards normally and only 
partially reversible. Tail-feathers of ordinary form and the shafts 
not rigid. Second quill longest ; tail slightly forked. 

This genus contains the birds generally designated Swiftlets by 
Indian ornithologists, some of which build the " edible nests " of 
commerce. These nests are shaped like a half saucer, and some of 
them are white, glistening, and composed of a substance resembling 
isinglass. This was formerly supposed to be seaweed, then as- 
certained to be a secretion produced by the bird, and finally shown 
by Blyth (J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 210 ; Ibis, 1860, p. 323) to be de- 
rived from the bird's salivary glands, which are greatly developed 
in both sexes at the nesting-season. Hume showed that in the 
Andamans the pure white nests are always made by one species, 
C. francica, whilst other species use extraneous substances such as 
grass and feathers cemented together by the inspissated saliva, and 



176 CTPSELID^. 

their nests are consequently either less valuable, or, in some kinds, 
not worth collecting. All lay two white, very elongate cylindrico- 
ovate eggs, and make their nests in caves. During the day the 
birds hunt about for insects, frequently travelling great distances- 
for the purpose ; Jerdon relates how the birds at Vingorla Bocks 
did not return to their roosts till 9 p.m., having been away all day. 
The flight is rapid. None, so far as is known, are truly migratory, 
though they wander over considerable distances. The gentis 
inhabits the greater part of the Oriental and Australian regions. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Abdomen brown like throat and breast. 
a'. Tarsi naked. 

a". No pale band across rump C.fudphaga, p. 176. 

b". A pale band across rump C.frandca, p. 178. 

V. Tarsi feathered. 

c". Smaller, wing 5; pale rump-band in- 
distinct C. brevirostris, p. 177. 

d". Larger, wing 5*3 ; pale rump-band dis- 
tinct C. innominata, p. 177. 

b. Abdomen white ; tarsi naked C. linchi, p. 178. 

1081. Collocalia fuciphaga. The Indian Edible-nest Swiftlet. 

Hirundo fuciphaga, Thunb. Kon. Svensk. Vet.-Ak. nya Handl. xxxiii r 

p. 151, pi. iv (181 2). 
Hirundo unicolor, Jerdon, Mad. Jour. L. S. xi, p. 238 (1840) ; xiii, 

pt. 1, p. 173 ; xiii, pt. 2, p. 144. 

Cypselus concolor, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi, p. 886 (1842). 
Collocalia unicolor, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, pp. 209, 212 ; Hume, S. F. 

i, pp. 295, 296 ; id. Cat. no. 103 ; Hume fy Bourd. S. F. iv, p. 374 ; 

Vidal $ Hume, S. F. ix, p. 44 ; Damson, S. F. x, p. 348 ; Terry, 

ibid. p. 470 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 87 ; Oates in Hume's N. 8f E. 

2nd ed. iii, p. 28. 
Collocalia nidifica, Gray, Gen. B. i, p. 55 (1845) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 86, pt. ; 

Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 98, pt. ; Jerdon, B. L i, p. 182, pt. 
Callocalia brevirostris, apud Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) xii, p. 168, 

necMcClell. 
Collocalia f uciphaga, Wallace, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 384 ; Holdsworth, 

P. Z. S. 1872, p. 420 ; Hartert, Cat. B. M. xvi, p. 498. 
Collocalia francica, apud Walden, Ibis, 1874, p. 132, partim ; Legge, 

Birds Ceyl. p. 324 ; Morgan, Ibis, 1875, p. 313 ; nee Gmel. 

Coloration. Very dark brown above, almost black, with purplish 
or greenish gloss on the wings and tail ; rump not paler ; lower 
parts greyish brown, the feathers sometimes dark-shafted. Tarsi 
quite naked. 

Irides dark brown (Bourdillon). 

Length about 4-75 ; tail 2-1 ; wing 4-6 ; tarsus -4. The middle 
tail-feathers are about half an inch short of the outer. 

Distribution. Ceylon and the neighbourhood of the Malabar 
coast as far north as Vingorla, common on the higher hills, 
Nilgiris, Anamalis, &c. A few birds of this species have also been 



COLLOCALIA. 177 

obtained in the Western Himalayas. Not known elsewhere 
within our area, but widely distributed in the Malay Archipelago, 
Papuasia, and the Philippines. 

Habits, $c. Those of the genus. The nests, found in caves in the 
Ceylon, Nilgiri, Palni, and Travancore hills, and on Vingorla 
Kocks, Pigeon Island, and other islets off the Malabar coast, are 
small shallow cups made of grass, moss, and feathers cemented 
together by inspissated saliva. They always contain extraneous 
materials and are never pure white. The breeding-season on the 
hills is from March to June, but on the coast rather earlier. The 
eggs, two in number, measure on an average *83 by *54. 

1082. Collocalia brevirostris. The Himalayan Swiftlet. 

Hirundo brevirostris, McClelland, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 155. 

Collocalia nidifica, Jerdon, B. I. \, p. 182, pt. ; Brooks, S. F. iii, p. 232. 

Collocalia fuciphaga, apud Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 44; nee 

Thunb. 
Collocalia brevirostris, Hume, S. F. iii, p. 232 ; ix, p. 290 ; xi, p. 32 ; 

Hartert (C. fuciphagae subsp.), Cat. B. M. xvi, p. 501. 
Collocalia unicolor, apud Scully, S. F. viii, p. 235 ; nee Jerdon. 

Coloration. Almost identical with that of C. fuciphaga, but the 
upper parts are a little darker in general, whilst the rump is 
slightly but distinctly paler than the back. Tarsi always feathered 
in front. 

Bill black ; irides dark brown ; tarsi and toes brownish fleshy 
(Hume). 

Length about 5-4 ; tail 2-2 ; wing 5 ; tarsus -4. The outer tail- 
feathers exceed the middle pair by '25 to *4 inch. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas as far west as Dal- 
housie, up to considerable elevations (I have seen this species at 
12,000 feet in Sikhim), also in Assam and Manipur. 

Habits, <$fc. Those of the genus. Nidification unknown. 

1083. Collocalia innominata. Hume's Swiftlet. 

Collocalia innominata, Hume, S. F. i, p. 294 (1873) ; ii, pp. 160, 
493 ; ix, p. 1 12 ; id. Cat. no. 103 ter ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 49 ; 
Gates, B. B. ii, p. 7 ; Hartert, Cat. B. M. xvi, p. 503. 

Collocalia maxima, Hume, S. F. iv, p. 223 (descr. nulla). 

Coloration. Upper parts blackish brown; crown and nape 
darker, sometimes forming a distinct cap ; wings and tail black 
with purplish or greenish gloss ; rump pale greyish brown, with 
dark shafts ; lower parts greyish brown, the feathers dark-shafted. 

Tarsi feathered in front throughout ; bill and feet black ; legs 
blackish brown (Davison). 

Length 5-25 ; tail 2'2 ; wing 5*3 ; tarsus -46. 

Distribution. Southern Tenasserim and the Andaman Islands. 
A skin has also been obtained at Selangore in the Malay Peninsula. 
The nidification is unknown. 

VOL. III. S 



178 CYPSELIDJE. 



1084. Collocalia francica. The Little Grey-rumped Siviftlet. 

Hirundo francica, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i, pt. ii, p. 1017 (1788). 
Collocalia francica, G. R. Gray, List Spec. Birds B. M., Fissirostres, 

p. 21 (1848) ; Walden, Ibis, 1874, p. 132 (part.) ; 1876, p. 356 

(part.) ; Hartert, Cat. B. M. xvi, p. 503. 
Macropteryx spodiopygia, Peale, U.S. Expl. Exped. p. 170, pi. 49 

(1848). 
Collocalia spodiopygia, Hume, S. F. i, p. 296; ii, pp. 102, 160; iii, 

p. 318 ; id. Cat. no. 103 quat. ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 51 ; 

Oates, B. B. ii, p. 8 ; id. in Hume's N. Sr E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 35. 
Collocalia inexpectata, Hume, S. F. i, p. 296 ; Hartert, Cat. B. M. 

xvi, p. 505 (C. francicee subsp.). 

Collocalia fuciphaga, apud Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 85 ; nee Thunb. 
Collocalia merguiensis (C. francicse subsp.}, Hartert, t. c. p. 506. 

Zee-wa-so, Burmese (generic). 

Coloration. Very similar to that of C. innominata, but the size is 
smaller and the tarsi are naked. The rump-band varies in distinct- 
ness, being ill-defined and brownish grey in Andaman birds 
{C. inexpectata), greyish white and well marked in those from 
Tenasserim (C. merguiensis). The pale rump-feathers are always 
dark-shafted, those of the lower surface sometimes. 

Bill black ; irides very dark brown ; legs and feet brown (Davison). 

Length 4-75 ; tail 2-1 ; wing 4*7 ; tarsus -4. 

Distribution. Islands of the Pacific and Indian Oceans from 
Samoa to Mauritius, ranging and breeding throughout the Malay 
Archipelago to the coasts of Burma (Tenasserim and Arrakan) 
and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 

Habits, fyc. So far as is known, this bird, which produces the 
best kind of the edible birds' nests of commerce, keeps mainly to 
the sea-coast. The nests are entirely, as Hume has show ; n, com- 
posed of inspissated saliva ; they are white except where they are 
fastened to the rock. The breeding-season in the islands of the 
Bay of Bengal begins in March. Eggs measure '81 by -53. 



1085. Collocalia linchi. , Horsfield's Swiftlet. 

Collocalia fuciphaga, apud Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xiv, p. 548 ; xv, p. 22 ; 

id. Cat. p. 86 ; Walden, Ibis, 1874, p. 135 ; nee Thunb. 
Collocalia linchi, Horsf. & M. Cat. i, p. 100 (1854) ; Pelzeln, Novara, 

You. p. 39, pi. ii, fig. 2, pi. vi, fig. 2 ; Ball, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, 

p. 276 ; id. S. F. i, p. 55 ; Hume, S. F. ii, pp. 64, 83, 108, 157 ; 

id. Cat. no. 103 bis ; Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 85 ; Hume 

fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 49 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 10 ; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 

2nd ed. iii, p. 33 ; Hartert, Cat. B. M. xvi, p. 508. 
Collocalia affinis, Tytler, Beavan, Ibis, 1867, p. 318; Blyth, Ibis, 

1868, p. 131 ; Walden, Ibis, 1873, p. 302 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 296. 

Coloration. Upper parts black, glossed with bluish green or 
purple, the feathers brown at the base ; sides of head and neck, 
chin, throat, and upper breast brown ; feathers of remainder of 
lower parts the same, but with broad white edges, so that the 



MACBOPTERYX. 179 

abdomen is all white except the dark shafts ; tail and wings black 
beneath. 

Tarsus naked ; bill and legs black (Beavan). 

Length 4 ; tail 1-5 ; wing 4 ; tarsus -32. Tail nearly square. 

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Mergui Archipelago 
{Elyih}, Johore and Malacca, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo. 

Habits, &fc. similar to those of other species. The nests are usually 
in caves, and according to Hume and Davison, the latter of whom 
watched the process of building, consist of brown moss firmly 
agglutinated with saliva. These nests are never collected for sale, 
as they are not regarded as edible. The present species at Port 
Blair in the Andamans has taken to buildings, and even makes its 
nests at times in inhabited rooms. The eggs, five in number, 
measure about *7 by *45. 



Subfamily MACROPTERYGIN^E. 

Genus MACROPTERYX, Swaiuson, 1831. 

The Crested Swifts form a subfamily composed of a single genus, 
distinguished by their short naked tarsi, and by the wings when 
folded not extending or scarcely extending beyond the tail. There 
are, however, several other characters of importance. The plumage 
is softer than in other Swifts, and there is a patch of silky downy 
feathers on each flank. The sexes differ, and the plumage of the 
nestling is unlike that of the adults, both characters not found in 
other members of the family. The sincipital feathers are more or 
less elongated and erectile ; in some species there are also elongate 
superciliary or moustachial tufts. The tail is long and forked. 
The hind toe is not reversible. The posterior portion of the 
sternum has two foramina, one on each side. 

Quite recently, too, it has been shown by Mr. E. A. Lucas (Ibis, 
1895, p. 300) that the deep plantar tendons in Macropteryx coronata 
differ from those of other Cypseli. The flexor longus haUucis gives 
off a slip to the hallux (which is not supplied by the /. perf. diyi- 
torum), and then goes on to blend, not with the f. perf. digitorum as 
a whole, but with that branch of it which goes to supply the fourth 
digit. 

The nidification on trees is described under M. coronata. Only 
a single egg is laid. The genus is found in the Oriental region 
and Papuasia, three species occurring within our limits. 

Key to the Species. 

(i. Sincipital crest long ; no superciliary or mous- 
tachial tufts. 

a'. Back bluish grey M. coronata, p. 180. 

b'. Back greenish bronze M. longipennis, p. 181. 

b. Crest smaller ; white superciliary and mous- 
tachial stripes elongated into tufts behind. , M. comata, p. 182. 

N2 



180 CYPSELID7E. 

1086. Macropteryx coronata. The Indian Crested Swift. 

Hirundo coronata, Tickell, J. A. 8. E. ii, p. 580 (1833). 
Macropteryx coronata, Btyth, J. A. 8. B. xv, p. 21 ; id. Cat. p. 87 ; 

Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) xii, p. 167 ; Fairbank, 8. F. iv, p. 254 ; 

Blyth fy Wald. Birds Burm. p. 86 ; Wardl.-Rams. Ibis, [1877, 

p. 458; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 12 ; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, 

p. 36; Hartei't, Cat. B. M. xvi, p. 512. 
Dendrochelidon coronata, Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 185 ; Beavan, Ibis, 1865, 

p. 405 ; 1869, p. 405; Blanf. J. A. 8. B. xxxviii, pt. 2, p. 169; 



Hume, J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 114 ; Ball, 8. F. ii, p. 384 ; vii, 
'. F. vi, p. 51 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 328 ; 
'Hume, Cat. no. 104 ; Vidal, 8. F. ix, p. 48 ; Butler, ibid. p. 380 ; 



Parker, ibid. p. 476 ; Davidson, 8. F. x, p. 294 ; Terry, ibid. p. 470 ; 
Swinhoe fy Barnes, Ibis, 1885, p. 60 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 88 ; 
Littledale, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. i, p. 196. 




Fig. 52. Head of M. coronata, j. 

Coloration. Male. Upper plumage and sides of neck, throat, 
breast, and flanks bluish ashy ; sincipital crest and upper wing- 
coverts darker and glossed with bluish green ; wing and tail- 
feathers dark brown with a green gloss; a very narrow white 
superciliary line ; lores velvety black ; ear- coverts and a moustacbial 
stripe from them to the chin chestnut ; chin the same but paler ; 
abdomen and lower tail-coverts white, which passes gradually into 
the grey of the breast and flanks. 

Female without any chestnut ; ear-coverts blackish grey, bordered 
below by a narrow whitish stripe from the gape ; chin grey like 
the throat and breast. 

Young barred ; the feathers of the upper plumage with broad 
brownish-grey borders, white at the edge, those of the lower parts 
with brown subterminal bars. 

Bill black ; iris dark brown ; eyelids plumbeous ; legs pinkish 
brown (Oates). 

Length about 9-5; tail 5-25 to end of outer, 1-75 to end of 
middle feathers ; wing 6-2 ; tarsus -4. 

Distribution. The better wooded parts of India and Ceylon, and 

throughout Burma, except in Southern Tenasserim; also in Siam. 

1 This Swift occurs along the base of the Himalayas as far west as 

Dehra Dun ; it is wanting in the Punjab, Sind, and the parts of 



MA.CROPTERYX. 181 

Rajputana, the Deccan, Garnatic, &c. that are deficient in trees, 
and is, even where common, very locally distributed. 

J/abits, fyc. The Crested Swift is commonly seen in small parties 
.about groves of trees and pieces of water in or near forest, flying 
elegantly but not very rapidly for a Swift, and frequently perching 
on dead branches at the tops of trees. It has a habit when perching 
of erecting its peculiar sincipital crest. It has, as Jerdon says, a 
loud parrot-like call, often uttered on the wing and also when 
perching. It makes a minute saucer-shaped nest, only about 
1| inches in diameter, of flakes of bark and sometimes a few 
feathers cemented together, and attached to the side of a horizontal 
dead twig or branch with saliva. The nest is so small that it is 
with difficulty seen, and the Swift sits on the branch with its body 
over the nest. The breeding-season is from April to June, and a 
single egg is laid, white, without gloss, and elongately-oval in shape. 
An egg in Mr. Hume's collection measured -85 by '55 inch, but 
he looked on this as small. 



1087. Macropteryx longipennis. The Malayan Crested Swift. 

Hirundo longipennis, Rafinesque, Bull. Soc. Philom. iii, p. 153 (1802). 
Hirundo klecho, Horsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 143 (1821). 
Macropteryx longipennis, Sivains. Zool. III. ser. 2, ii, pi. 47 ; JBlyth, 

Cat. p. 322; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 13; Hartert, Cat. B. M. xvi, 

p. 514. 
Dendrochelidon klecho, Boie, Isis, 1844, p. 166 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. 

i, p. 110 ; Bernstein, J.f. Orn. 1859, p. 183, pi. ii, figs. 3, 4, 5 (nest 

& egg) ; Sclater, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 616 ; Kelham, Ibis, 1881, p. 374. 
Dendrochelidon longipeunis, Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 52, 498 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 104 ter. 

Coloration. Crown, nape, back, sides of neck, upper back, scapu- 
lars, wing-coverts, and upper tail-coverts metallic greenish bronze, 
the sincipital crest and wing-coverts tinged with metallic blue as a 
rule ; lower back and rump bluish ashy ; tertiaries partly whitish 
grey ; the other wing-feathers and the tail-feathers blackish, with 
a purple or green gloss ; lores velvety black ; ear-coverts deep 
.chestnut ; chin, throat, breast, and flanks bluish ashy grey, passing 
into white on the abdomen and lower tail-coverts. 

The female has the ear-coverts black with a greenish gloss, not 
chestnut. In the young the plumage is barred ; the feathers of 
the upper parts pale brown, with dark borders and white outer 
edges ; crest-feathers with rufous tips ; those of the lower parts 
whitish with dark edges. 

Iris dark brown ; legs and feet dull purple (Kelham). 

Length about 8-5 inches ; tail 4, the outer feathers 2 inches 
longer than the middle pair ; wing 6'5 ; tarsus '35. 

Distribution. The Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo, 
ranging into Tenasserim as far north as Mergui and Nwalabo 
mountain. 

Habits, fyc. similar to those of M. coronata. 



182 CYPSELID^E. 



1088. Macropteryx comata. The Tufted Tree-Swift. 

Cypselus comatus, Temm. PL Col. 268 (1824). 

Macropteryx comata, Blyth, Cat. p. 87 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 14 ? 

Hartert, Cat. B. M. xvi, p. 517. 
Dendrochelidon comata, Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 110 ; Hume, S. F. in, 

p. 318; id. Cat. no. 104 bis; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 61. 

Coloration. Male. Crown, nape, throat, sides of neck just behind 
ear-coverts, and upper and under wing-coverts metallic purplish 
blue ; narrow frontal band, long supercilia, chin, and broad mous- 
tachial stripes, extending back below and beyond the ear-coverts, 
white ; lores black ; ear-coverts chestnut ; wing and tail-feathers 
blackish, glossed with purplish blue ; back, rump, upper tail-coverts, 
breast, and abdomen brown, glossed with bronze ; lower tail-coverts 
white. 

In the female the ear- coverts are metallic blue. The young has 
probably brown and white edges to the feathers. 

Crest small ; superciliary and moustachial stripes ending behind 
in long tufts. Bill black ; irides dark brown ; legs and feet purplish 
pink (Davison). 

Length about 6-3 inches ; tail 3, the outer feathers exceeding 
the middle pair by 1*5 ; wing 5 ; tarsus *25. 

Distribution. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago, including Celebes 
and the Philippines, extending into the extreme south of Tenasserim 
as far as Choungthanoung, 90 miles south of Mergui. 



Suborder CAPRIMULGI. 

Caeca present and functional. Oil-gland nude. Palate schizo- 
gnathous, the vomer truncated behind; basipterygoid processes 
present. Sternum with a broad shallow incision on each side 
behind. Semitendinosus muscle present. Aftershaft to feathers 
very small. 

Nest none : the eggs, generally two in number, are laid on the 
ground and (doubtless because of the protection thereby afforded) 
differ from those of all other Macrochires by being coloured. The 
young are hatched helpless, but covered with down. All members 
of this suborder are crepuscular and nocturnal. 

A. single family. 



CAPKIMULGID.E. 



Family CAPRIMULGID^. 

Bill short, weak and flexible ; gape very wide. Nostrils 
tubular. Wings long, the second quill generally 
the longest. Middle toe long, the claw (in the 
typical forms) pectinated on the inside. Fourth 
(outer) toe with only 4 phalanges. Plumage soft 
and finely mottled. 




This family is found in nearly all tropical and 
temperate regions. Two genera are Indian, both 
belonging to the typical section, with a pectinated 
claw to the middle toe. 
Fig. 53. 
Left foot of 
C. asiaticus. 

Key to the Genera. 

Strong rictal bristles ; no ear-tufts CAPRIMULGUS, p. 183. 

No rictal bristles ; ear-tufts present LYNCORNIS, p. 192. 

Genus CAPKIMULGUS, Linn. 1766. 

Wing long and pointed, first primary shorter than second and 
generally than the third ; tail long, more or less rounded. Sexes 
generally distinguished by the presence of white spots on the 
wings and tail in males ; represented by buff or rufous spots, or 
else wanting altogether, in females and young birds. In some 
species, however, the sexes are alike. Strong rictal bristles, 
generally white at the base. No ear-tufts. 

The range is that of the family. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Tarsus almost naked. 

a'. No distinct black streaks on back. 

a". Outer tail-feathers tipped white in $ , 

buft' in $ C. mahrattensis, p. 184. 

6". Outer tail-feathers white throughout 
except at tip in tf , banded and mottled 

throughout in $ C. monticola, p. 185. 

b'. Distinct but narrow black streaks on back C. asiaticus, p. 186. 
6. Greater part or whole of tarsus feathered ; 

back with black streaks or spots, 
c'. Two outer pairs of tail-feathers tipped 

white in $ . 
c". Black shaft-stripes in middle of crown 

only. 

a 3 . A white spot in d" on first three 
primaries ; tarsi three-quarters 
leathered C. europaus, p. ]87. 



184 CAPEIMULCHDJE. 

b 3 . A white spot in rf on first four 
primaries ; tarsi feathered through- 
out C. macrurus, p. 188. 

d". Black spots over nearly whole crown . C, andamanicus, p. 190. 
d 1 . Four outer pairs of tail-feathers with 

subterminal white spots in $ C. indicus, p. 190. 

The habits of all Nightjars are similar. They rest usually on 
the ground amongst vegetation or stones during the day, and issue 
forth at dusk to feed. Their food consists of insects, and largely 
of beetles, which they capture, chiefly at all events, on the wing. 
Their flight is noiseless and tolerably rapid. Prom time to time 
they settle on the ground, on a stump of a tree, or a branch, or on 
a stone, and thence utter a peculiar rather monotonous reiterated 
note, which varies much in different species. When a Nightjar 
perches it selects a branch of considerable size, and sits as a rule 
longitudinally, not across like an ordinary passerine bird, and 
whenever it alights it rests with its whole body on the ground or 
perch. Besides their calls most Nightjars have a chuckling note, 
uttered during flight. 

The following terms are generic and apply to all Nightjars : 
Chippak or Chappa, H. ; commonly Dab-churl or Dabliak (dabna to 
crouch) and Andha-chiriya (blind-bird) ; Kdpu, Mahr. ; As kappri 
yadu, Tel., also Kappa pitta (frog-bird) ; Bimbasa, Rabasa, Omerel- 
liya, Cing. ; PatheJcai (roadside-bird), Pay-marretai (devil-bird), 
Tamul in Ceylon ; Tamor, Lepcha ; Wapaislwi, Naga ; Hnet-pyin, 
Burmese. 

1089. Caprimulgus mahrattensis. Sykes's Nightjar. 

Caprimulgus mahrattensis, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 83 ; id. J. A. S. B. 

iii, p. 422; Horsf.fy M.Cat.'i, p. 114; Blyth, Ibis, 1862, pp. 304, 386 ; 

Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 197 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 232 ; 

Hayes Lloyd, Ibis, 1873, p. 406 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 167 ; iii, p. 455 ; 

id. Cat. no. 113 ; C. H. T. fy G. F. L. Marshall, S. F. iii, p. 331 ; 

Fairbank, S. F. iv, p. 254 ; Blanford, East. Pers. ii, p. 128 ; Butler, 

S. F. vii, p. 181 ; ix, p. 381 ; Doig, S. F. viii, p. 372 ; Barnes, Birds 

Bom. p. 92 ; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. iv, p. 8, pi. fig. 113 (egg) ; 

Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 49 ; Hartert, Cat. B. M. 

xvi, p. 561. 
Caprimulgus arenarius, Blyth, J.A. 8. B. xv, p. 21 (1846). 

Coloration. Male. General tint of the upper parts sandy grey, 
mottled and vermiculated with but few and small black streaks 
and spots, none on the back, whilst those on the head and 
scapulars consist of transverse spots, each produced in the middle 
down the shaft of a feather, the rest of the feather buff ; sometimes 
there is a collar of buff spots, but this is often inconspicuous ; 
much buff on the wing-coverts ; a large white spot on the middle 
of the first three primaries ; middle tail-feathers pale buffy grey, 
with distinct but very broken and irregular blackish cross bars ; 
two outermost pairs with pure white ends 1$-1% inches long; 
lower parts fulvous grey with dusky mottling, a white spot on 



CAPRIMULGUS. 185 

the throat, and the abdomen distinctly barred ; lower tail-coverts 
buff, without bars. 

The female has the white tips to the outer rectrices shorter than 
in the male, and often sullied and mottled ; the spots on the 
primaries are generally buff. 

Legs and feet pale fleshy brown ; claws black ; bill and irides 
dark brown (Hume}. 

Length about 9 ; tail 4-2 ; wing 7 ; tarsus, only feathered at the 
base, '8. 

Distribution. Throughout North-western India, extending west- 
ward to Afghanistan and Baluchistan, eastward to Upper Bengal 
(Jerdon obtained a specimen near Caragola, south of Purneah) and 
south to Belgaum, but rare except in Sind and the neighbouring 
provinces. 

Habits, &fc. This Nightjar is chiefly met with on sandy ground. 
It breeds in Sind about May and June, and perhaps at other 
seasons. The eggs are pale grey or greyish lilac, spotted and 
blotched with pale sepia-brown, and measure about 1*18 by *80. 

1090. Caprimulgus monticola. Franklins Nightjar. 

Caprimulgus raonticolua, Franklin, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 116 ; Blyth, 
Cat. p. 84; Horsf. 8f M. Cat. i, p. 114; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 198; 
Beavan, Ibis, 1865, p. 406, 1869, p. 406 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 342 ; 
Adam, S. F. i, p. 371 ; Ball, S. F. ii, p. 385 ; vii, p. 203 ; God w- 
Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. 2, p. 153; Blyth 8f Wald. Birds Burm. 
p. 83 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 455 ; x, p. 349 ; xi, p. 40 ; id. Cat. 
no. 114; Butler, S. F. v, p. 227 ; ix, p. 381 ; Damson, S. F. v, 
p. 453 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 59 : Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 48 ; 
Bingham, ibid. p. 151; Davidson, S. F. x, p. 295; Macgregor, 
ibid. p. 436 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 18 ; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 
2nd ed. iii, p. 51 ; C. 11. T. Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 409 ; Barnes, 
Birds Bom. p. 92 ; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. i, p. 43 ; iv, p. 8, 
pi. fig. 114 (egg) ; Hartert, Cat. B. M. xvi, p. 547. 

Coloration. Male. General colour above brown or brownish grey, 
with indistinct black markings and with rufous edges and spots on 
the scapulars and wing-coverts; no black stripes on the back; a 
partial collar of buff spots, sometimes inconspicuous ; tail-feathers 
\\ith distinct blackish cross-bands ; a large white spot or band in 
the middle of the first four primaries; two outer pairs of tail- 
feathers entirely white except at the tip ; a white spot on the 
throat, the white feathers with dark tips, some rufous spots on the 
breast; rest of lower parts to breast mottled brown, the abdomen 
mid lower tail-coverts buff, with bars on the former only. 

The female has no white on the tail-feathers, which are all 
barred throughout, and the spots on the first four primaries are 
rufous buff. 

Bill and gape pale brown ; irides dark brown ; legs and feet pale 
fleshy brown (Bingham). 

Length about 10 ; tail 4-5 ; wing 7*5 ; tarsus, almost entirely 
naked, '82. 



186 

Distribution. Throughout the greater part of India, from Sainbhar 
in Eajputana, Mount Abu and Kattywar to Mysore (but not 
apparently further south, nor in Ceylon); also throughout the 
Lower Himalayas, in Burma locally as far south as Amherst, in 
Cochin China and Southern China. 

Habits, fyc. This bird is badly named, for it is by no means a 
hill species ; its especial haunt appears to be thin forest. In the 
more jungly parts of the Southern Central Provinces I found it by 
far the commonest Nightjar. The call is very similar to that of 
G. asiaticus. The eggs are usually cream-coloured, spotted and 
blotched with faint purple and pale brown, and measure about 
1-16 by -84. 

1091. Caprimulgus asiaticus. The Common Indian Nightjar. 

Caprimulgus asiaticus, Lath. Ind. Orn. ii, p. 588 (1790) ; Gray in 
Hardw. 111. Ind. Zool. i, pi. 34 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 83 ; Horsf. $ M. 
Cat. i, p. 115 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 197 ; Stoliczka, J. A. 8. B. xli, 
pt. 2, p. 232 ; Holdsworth, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 421 ; Adam, S. F. i, 
p. 371 ; James, ibid. p. 419; Butler, S. F. iii, p. 455 ; ix, p. 380; 
Blyth Sf Wald. Birds Burm. p. 83 ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 59 ; 
Ball, S. F. vii, p. 203 ; Hume, Cat. no. 112 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl 
p. 343 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 48 ; Bingham, ibid. p. 150 ; Reid, S. F. 
x, p. 20 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 17 ; id. in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. iii, 
p. 48 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 91 ; id. Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. iv r 
p. 7, pi. fig. 112 (egg) ; Hartert, Cat. B. M. xvi, p. 558. 




Fig. 54. Head of C. asiaticus, j-. 

Coloration. Upper parts yellowish grey, with little or no rufous 
tinge ; black elongate spots on the middle of the crown, and very 
narrow black shaft-stripes on the back ; a broad buff collar broken 
by dusky markings ; scapulars richly marked with large black 
spots and broad bright buff edges ; large buff patches on the wing- 
coverts, first four primaries each with a white spot in the middle ; 
middle tail-feathers like upper plumage, but with ill-marked 
narrow black cross-bars, outer two pairs tipped white, the outer- 
most pair have frequently the outer webs brown at the tip, but 
edged with buff throughout; lower plumage buff, indistinctly 
barred with brown, the breast and throat mottled also ; under 
tail-coverts unbarred ; a narrow buffy -white moustachial stripe and 
a white spot on the throat, the feathers tipped buff and black. 
Sexes alike. 

Bill flesh-colour at base, the upper mandible reddish, tip dark 
brown ; irides brown ; legs and feet pinkish brown. 



CAPJUMULGUS. 187 

Length about 9-5 ; tail 4*5 ; wing 6 ; tarsus, unfeathered except 
on the uppermost part, *8. 

Distribution. From Sind and the Punjab throughout India and 
Ceylon, and in Burma as far south as the neighbourhood of 
Moulmein, but not in the higher hills nor in large forests. The 
commonest Indian species. 

Habits, fyc. This is a bird of the plains and of open and 
cultivated country, of groves, and gardens and low jungle. It 
is commonly found near habitations. The call, constantly heard 
at night, has been aptly compared to the sound made by skimming 
a stone over ice, the note being repeated slowly at first, then much 
more quickly. There is also, as usual, a chuckling note, uttered by 
the bird on the wing. The eggs, two in number, pinkish stone to 
deep salmon-pink in colour, with faint purplish blotches and 
brownish spots, are laid at various times from April to July in 
Northern India, but earlier in Southern India and Ceylon, and in 
Khandesh in July, August, and September. They measure about 
1-04 by -77. 

1092. Caprimulgus europaeus. The European Nightjar. 

Caprimulgus europseus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 346 (1766) ; Blanf. 

East. Pers. ii, p. 127 ; id. Ibis, 1877, p. 250 ; Scully, J. A. S. B. 

Ivi, pt. 2, p. 79. 
Caprimulgus unwini, Hume, Ibis, 1871, p. 406 ; id. S. F. iii, p. 407 ; 

iv, p. 501 ; id. Cat. no. Ill bis ; Cock $ Marsh. S. F. i, p. 350; 

Butler, S. F. vii, p. 175 ; Doig, S. F. viii, p. 372 ; Barnes, S. F. 

ix, pp. 215, 453 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 48 ; 1882, p. 270 ; Scully, 

Ibis, 1881, p. 428 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 90 ; St. John, Ibis, 

1889, p. 156 ; Oates in Humes N. # E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 47 ; Hartert, 

(C. europaei subsp.}, Cat. B. M. xvi, p. 528. 

Coloration. Male. Upper surface greyish brown, paler and 
greyer in Eastern specimens ; long black spots in the middle of the 
crown and shaft-stripes on the back and rump ; some elongate 
black spots with buff or whitish borders on the scapulars and 
buffy-white patches on the wing-coverts : a few buff streaks 011 
the sides of the neck ; first three quills each with a large rounded 
white spot beyond the middle ; tail-feathers with ill-marked 
blackish cross-bars, the two outer pairs with white ends ; a large 
white patch on the throat ; chin, throat, and breast greyish brown 
mottled ; lower breast, abdomen, and under tail-coverts buff with 
dark bars, which become more distant posteriorly and sometimes 
disappear on the under tail-coverts. 

The female wants the white spots on the outer rectrices, and 
those on the quills are buff or wanting. 

Bill and irides black ; legs reddish brown. 

Length about 10 ; tail 5 ; wing 7 ; tarsus, about three-fourths 
feathered in front, *7. 

Distribution. A migratory bird, passing the summer and breeding 
in temperate parts of Europe and Asia, and wintering in Africa 
and South-western Asia. In winter this Nightjar visits the 
Punjab, Sind, and occasionally part of the N.W. Provinces, there 



188 CAPRIMULGID.*:. 

being an immature specimen in the Hume collection from Etawah ; 
in summer it breeds in Kashmir, Gilgit, Afghanistan, Persia, &c. 

The Eastern form of this Nightjar, C. umvini, which occurs in 
India, is slightly paler and greyer and a little smaller than the 
ordinary European bird, whilst the Western European variety 
found in England is darker. If, as usually happens, the extreme 
forms are compared, there is a considerable difference, but many 
Eastern European skins are nearly as pale as G. umvini. 

Habits, fyc. Those of the genus. The eggs, usually two in 
number, are laid in May or June, and have been taken in the 
former month by Colonel Marshall at Murree. They are glossy, 
white, greyish white, or buff, blotched or marbled with pale purplish 
grey, spotted on the surface with pale sepia-brown, and they 
measure about 1-22 by -85. They are laid in a small hollow on 
the bare ground. The note of this species is a whirring sound. 

1093. Caprimulgus macrurus. Horsfield's Nightjar. 

Caprimulgus macrourus, Horsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 142 (1821) ; 
Blyth, Cat. p. 83 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 112 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 195 ; 
Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 83 ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 58, 
498 ; Cripps, S. F. vii, p. 258 ; Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 150. 

Caprimulgus macrurus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 204 ; Hume, S~F. 
iii, p. 46 ; xi, p. 39 ; id. Cat. no. 110 ; Anders. Yunnan Evped., 
Aves, p. 588 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 20 ; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd 
ed. iii, p. 45 ; Hartert, Cat. B. M. xvi, p. 537. 

Caprimulgus albonotatus, Tickell, J. A. S. B. ii, p. 580 (1833); 
Blyth, Cat. p. 83 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 194 ; Beavan, Ibis, 1865, 
p. 406 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 266, xlv, pt. 2, 
p. 68 ; Bulger, Ibis, 1869, p. 155 ; Wald. in BlyiKs Birds Burm. 
p. 83 ; Hume, 8. F. iii, p. 45 ; id. Cat. no. 109 ; Ball, S. F. vii, 
p. 203 ; Cripps, ibid. p. 257 ; Eeid, S. F. x, p. 19 ; Gates, B. B. ii, 
p. 19 ; id. in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 43 ; C. H. T. Marshall, 
Ibis, 1884, p. 409; Salvation, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) iv, p. 589; 
Hartert (subsp. C. macruri), Cat. B. M. xvi, p. 537. 

Caprimulgus atripennis, Jerdon, III. Ind. Orn. pi. 24 (1847) ; id. 
B. I. i, p. 196 ; Holdsworth, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 421 ; Legge, Birds 
Ceyl. p. 340; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 203 ; Hume, Cat. no. Ill ; Butler, 
S. F. ix, p. 380 ; Damson, S. F. x, p. 349 ; Macgregor, ibid. p. 436 ; 
Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 90 ; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. iv, p. 7, 
pi. fipr. Ill (egg) ; Gates in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 47; 
Hartert, Cat. B. M. xvi, p. 542. 

Caprimulgus mahrattensis, apud Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 206; id. 
Cat. p. 83 ; nee Sykes. 

? Caprimulgus sp., Scully, S. F. viii, p. 236. 

The Large Bengal Nightjar, The Malay Nightjar, The Ghat Nightjar, 
Jerdon ; Khallpecha, B. (Maunbhoom). 

Coloration. Male. General colour above brown or brownish 
buff, varying much in depth of tint, the feathers very finely 
mottled ; crown paler and generally greyer than back and marked 
with elongate black spots in the middle, not at the sides ; a few 
black shaft-stripes on the back; a rufous tinge round the neck, but 
no distinct collar ; scapulars with large velvety-black spots and 



CAPR1MULGTTS. 189 

some broad buff edges; wing-coverts spotted and stippled black 
and buff ; black cross-bars on the tail indistinct ; first four 
primaries with a white spot beyond the middle ; outer two pairs of 
tail-feathers with white tips 1|-^ inches long; a large white spot 
on the throat, the white feathers tipped buff and black, sides of 
head more or less rufous ; a whitish rnoustachial stripe ; chin, 
throat, and breast mottled brown, darker or paler, with a few 
broader buff edges to the feathers ; abdomen and lower tail- 
coverts buff, barred throughout, but the bars rather wider apart 
posteriorly. 

Female with the spots on the primaries and outer tail-feathers 
smaller and tinged with buff or rufous. 

Bill pinkish brown ; gape flesh-colour ; iris dark brown ; feet 
brown (Oates). 

Dimensions varying : in the large Northern form (C. albo- 
notatus}, length about 13 inches, tail 6-5-7, wing 8-9, tarsus '75 
in the small Ceylonese race (C. atripennis), length 11, tail 5-5, 
wing 7, tarsus *7. The tarsus is feathered throughout. 

Somewhat to my surprise I find the South Indian and Ceylon 
C. atripennis identical with typical C. macrurus from Java (the 
original locality). It is a small bird of very dark colour, the 
primaries without any rufous markings in adult males. The large 
pale C. albonotatus of Northern India, with a buff-coloured, finely 
and very neatly stippled crown, the breast scarcely darker than 
the abdomen, and imperfect rufous bars at the base of all 
primaries, is, at first sight, a very different bird ; but, as Hume 
has pointed out, every intermediate gradation may be found in 
the Himalayas, Assam, and Burma. These intermediate forms 
have been described by Jerdon and other Indian ornithologists as 
G. macrurus. Such intermediate forms are rare in Peninsular 
India, though there is considerable variation : thus there is a 
Nilgiri skin in the Hume collection the size of 0. atripennis, but 
with the coloration of C. albonotatus. I therefore look upon this 
as one of the cases in which a large pale form inhabiting Northern 
India passes into a small dark variety to the southward on both 
sides of the Bay of Bengal. 

Distribution. The large pale form (C. albonotatus) is found 
throughout the Himalayas at low elevations, in the North-west 
Provinces, Bengal, Chutia Nagpur, and Eaipur, and in Burma. 
Intermediate forms between the large pale C. albonotatus and the 
small dark C. macrurus occur from the Eastern Himalayas to 
Tenasserim, Siam, and China. Typical C. macrurus ranges 
through the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago to Queensland and 
New G-uinea, and also (as 0. atripennis) inhabits Ceylon and 
Southern India as far north as the Godavari to the eastward and 
Belgaum to the west. 

Habits, $c. All the varieties are chiefly forest birds, though 
occurring in Northern India in wooded parts of cultivated country. 
The call of this species is compared by several observers to the 
sound made by striking a plank with a hammer ; a low chirp is 



190 CAPRIMULGIB^E. 

also uttered during flight. The breeding-season is from March to 
May, and two eggs are laid, varying in tint from pale salmon or 
buff to lilac-grey, with pale purplish blotches and a few brown 
spots. They measure 1-08-1-3 by -S5--95. 



1094. Caprimulgus andamanicus. The Andaman Nightjar. 

Caprimulgus andamanicus, Hume, S. F. i, p. 470 ; ii, pp. 162, 493 ; 

id. Cat. no. 110 bis ; Oates in Hume's JV. 8r E. 2nd ed. in, p. 46 ; 

Hartert, Cat. B. M. xvi, p. 543. 
Caprimulgus macrurus, apud Walden, Ibis, 1874, p. 131 ; nee Horsf. 

Coloration very similar to that of C. macrurus, but the black 
spots on the crown are broader, more numerous, and not confined 
to the middle ; the mottling of the feathers throughout is coarser, 
the buff edges of the scapulars narrower and less conspicuous. 
The upper plumage in general much resembles that of C. indicus. 
The white spots on the primaries are small and often rufous on 
the edges, and the white tips to the outer tail-feathers are shorter 
than in C. macrurus. In the female there are no larger rufous 
patches on the primaries, only narrow rufous bands and spots. 

Length about 11 ; wing 7 ; tail 5-2 ; tarsus, feathered through- 
out, -6. 

Distribution. The Andaman Islands. 

Habits, <$fc. So far as known, those of the genus. One of 
Mr.Davison's men obtained the eggs, two in number, on April 12th ; 
they were very regular ovals, a delicate salmon-pink, " mottled, 
streaked, and ornamented with zigzag and hieroglyphic lines of a 
darker and somewhat purplish pink. They measure 1*07 and 1*13 
in length and -85 in width." 

1095. Caprimulgus indicus. The Jungle Nightjar. 

Caprimulgus indicus, Latham, Ind. Orn. ii, p. 588 (1790) ; Gray in 
Hardw. Ill Ind. Zool. i, p. 34 ; Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 208 ; 
Jerdon, III. Ind. Orn. pi. 24 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 82 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. 
i, p. 113; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 192 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, 
pt. 2, p. 19 ; Butler, S. F. iii, p. 454 ; v, pp. 218, 227 ; ix, p. 380 ; 

is, 1875, 



Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 83 ; Morgan, Ibis, 1875, p. 313 ; Fairbank. 

S. F. iv, p. 254 ; Davidson $ Wend. S. F. vii, p. 77 ; Ball, ibid. 

p. 202 ; Hume, Cat. no. 107 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 48 ; Davidson, 

S. F. x, p. 294; C. H. T. Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 409 ; Barnes, 

Birds Bom. p. 89 ; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. i, p. 61 ; iv, p. 7, pi. 

fig. 107 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 40. 
Caprimulgus cinerascens, Vieill. Tali. Enc. Meth. p. 545 (1823) ; id. 

Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. x, p. 283. 
Caprimulgus jotaka, Temm. fy Schleg. Faun. Jap., Aves, p. 37, pi. 12 

(1847) ; Wold, in Blyttts Birds Burm. p. 83 ; Godw.-Aust. 

J.A.S. B. xliii, pt. 2, p. 153 ; xlv, pt. 2, p. 68 ; Hume # Dav. S. F. 

vi, p. 56; Hume, Cat. no. 107 bis; id. S. F. xi, p. 38; Scully, S. F. 

viii, p. 236 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 21 ; Hartert, Cat. B. M. xvi, p. 552. 
Caprimulgus kelaarti, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xx, p. 175 (1851) ; Jerdon, 

B. I. i, p. 193 ; Holdsworth, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 421 ; Morgan, Ibis, 

1875, p. 314 ; Hume # Bourdillon, S. F. iv, p. 381 ; Hume, S. F. 

vii, p. 203 ; id. Cat. no. 108 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 337 ; Butler, 



CAPKIMULGUS. 191 

S. F. ix, p. 380 ; Damson, S. F. x, p. 348 ; Terry, ibid. 5. 470 ; 
Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 41 ; Hartert (C. jotakae 
subsp.), Cat. B. M. xvi, p. 555. 

The Jungle Nightjar, The Ncilgherry Nightjar, Jerdon. 

Coloration. Male. General colour above dark brown, more 
spotted and blotched with black than other Indian species ; crown, 
nape, and back with black spots and streaks throughout ; a 
partial collar of buff spots, sometimes obsolete ; the black patches 
on the scapulars generally distinct, but the buff edgings broken 
up ; rounded, fulvous or whitish spots on the wing-coverts ; black 
cross-bands on tail generally well-marked ; first four primaries 
with a white spot, that on first primary very small ; all the tail- 
feathers except the middle pair with a subterminal white band, 
the extreme tip dusky or black; a large white spot forming a 
band across the throat, and a buff moustachial stripe ; chin to 
breast very dark, with a few buff or whitish spots ; abdomen and 
lower tail-coverts buff, banded with darker brown, closely in front, 
more distantly behind. 

Female. No white tips to tail-feathers ; spots on the primaries 
small and rufous ; throat-band buff. 

Bill vinous brown, paler at the gape, the tip black ; iris deep 
brown ; legs and feet vinous brown. 

Dimensions variable: in a large Assamese bird (C. jotakd), 
length 12'5, tail 5*6, wing 8'5, tarsus '65 ; in small Ceylon speci- 
mens (C. Tcelaarti), length about 10*5, tail 5'25, wing 7*25, tarsus *6. 
Tarsus feathered throughout. 

Hume and others have shown that although typical G. Jcelaarti 
from Ceylon is greyer and smaller than ordinary Indian speci- 
mens (C. indicus), it is impossible to distinguish them. Hima- 
layan and Assamese specimens are larger still, and Japanese 
typical C. jotaka largest of all, but there is a complete gradation, 
and all appear to belong to one species. According to Hume 
there is a difference in the call between C. jotaJca and C. indicus 
(C. Jcelaarti) ; but it is difficult to find any distinctive character in 
the birds. 

Distribution. From the Amur and Japan to Cochin China, 
Malacca, Java, Borneo, and New Quinea ; and locally throughout 
India and Ceylon, this Nightjar being found in the lower Hima- 
layas, the Punjab, Mount Abu, the forest tracts of the Indian 
Peninsula, and especially the hills of Southern India and Ceylon, 
and scattered sparingly throughout Burma. 

Habits, $c. In many places this bird is said to be migratory. 
It is especially a forest form, appearing at the edge of forest in 
the evening, and uttering its call in the twilight. The breeding- 
season in India appears to be generally from March to May, 
but eggs have been taken at Eaipur in August much like 
those of other Nightjars, salmon-coloured to creamy-white with 
pale purplish and darker brown markings, and they measure about 
1-15 by -86. 



192 CAPKIMULGLD^E. 

Genus LYNCORNIS, Gould, 1835. 

This genus is distinguished from Caprimulgus by the want of 
rictal bristles and the presence of ear-tufts or aigrettes, consisting 
of a few elongate feathers just above and behind the ear-coverts. 
Sexes alike. About six species are known, ranging from Southern 
India to New Guinea, but only one occurs within our area. 



1096. Lyncornis cerviniceps. The Great Eared Nightjar. 

Lyncornis cerviniceps, Gould, Icon. Av. pt. ii, pi. 14 (1838) ; Blyth, 

J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 209 ; Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, p. 356 ; Blyth $ 

Wald. Birds Burm. p. 82 ; Hume, 8. F. ii, pp. 102, 469 ; xi, p. 40 ; 

id. Cat. no. 114 bis ; Hume fy Inc/lis, S. F. v, p. 17 ; Davison, ibid. 

p. 454 ; Wardl. Ramsay, Ibis, 1877, p. 459 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. 

vi, p. 60 ; Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 151 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 22 ; id. 

in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 52 ; Hartert, Cat. B. M. xvi r 

p. 604. 

Eurostopodus cerviniceps, Blyth, Cat. p. 82. 
Lyncornis bourdilloni, Hume, 8. F. iii, p. 302: id. Cat. no. 114ter ; 

Hume 8f Bourd. S. F. iv, p. 382. 

Twun-dweng-nyat, Arakan ; Din-koo-nah, Assam. 




Fig. 55. Head of L. cerviniceps, f . 

Coloration. General colour above rich brown, the surface 
beautifully mottled; crown and nape buff, finely vermiculated 
with black, and with a few black oval spots in the middle ; sides 
of head and chin black, the feathers with rufous edges ; ear-tufts 
black, tipped the colour of the crown ; back and rump buff, mixed 
with black and chestnut ; scapulars buff and black mixed down 
the middle, with a band of black and chestnut in larger blotches 
on each side; wing-coverts black and chestnut mixed; quills 
black, with broken bands of rufous and black above, buff and 
black below; tail with alternating bars of buff and grey, each 
mottled with black ; a large white spot on the throat ; fore-neck, 
like chin, breast, and abdomen, buff, with black bars. 

Bill light horn-colour ; iris dark brown ; legs and feet brownish 
fleshy. 

Length about 16 ; tail 8 ; wing 12 ; tarsus 0-75. 

Distribution. Throughout Burma in evergreen forests near hills, 
extending south into the northern part of the Malay Peninsula, 



PODARGID^E. 193 

and north to Manipur, Upper Assam, and Cachar, where this 
bird is common in August and September only. A specimen is 
said by Jerdon to have been obtained in the Teesta Valley, Sikhim, 
and a large Nightjar, probably this species, has been noticed in 
the Andaman Islands. The only other locality is the Travancore 
hills, where specimens were shot by Mr. Bourdillon. The first 
obtained was regarded by Mr. Hume as distinct on account of its 
small size, but other skins show that there is no constant difference 
of importance. 

Habits, fyc. Very similar to those of Caprimulgus, except that 
L. cerviniceps has been found by Major Bingham roosting in caves 
in the daytime. Hume had suggested the probability of this 
being the case. This bird appears soon after sundown, according 
to Blyth and Davison, flying at a considerable height at first, 
then nearer the ground, and capturing the insects on which it 
feeds. The note is a characteristic full clear trisyllabic whistle, 
uttered on the wing or from a perch. A single egg, found by 
Davison on January 10th, was a long cylindrical oval, cream- 
coloured, with irregular blotches of pale lilac-grey, looking as if 
they were beneath the surface (a common character of Capri- 
mulgine eggs). It measured T65 by T18. It was laid on the 
ground in a slight depression, without any nest. 



Suborder PODAEGI. 

Athough these birds are distinguished from the Caprimulgl by 
having a desmognathous palate, no basipterygoid processes nor 
oil-gland, by the possession of a powder-down patch on each side 
of the rump, and by widely different nidification, the Frogmouths, 
as they are called, are generally regarded as much more nearly 
allied to Nightjars than Swifts are. The sternum has a low keel 
and a pair of deep incisions on each side of the posterior border. 
The stomach is muscular. The nest is either built of twigs, or 
else is a pad or cup of down, leaves, moss, &c. placed on a branch, 
and the eggs are one or two in number, white and glossless. Young 
hatched helpless and downy. Habits nocturnal and insectivorous. 

A single family. 



Family PODARGID^E. 

Bill large, depressed, extremely broad, much more solid than 
in Caprimulgidce, curved, and the tip hooked. Base of the bill 
overhung by large numbers of bristly feathers, concealing the 
nostrils, which are narrow slits protected by membrane. 

YOL. III. O 



194 PODARGIDjE. 

This family inhabits the Oriental and Australian regions ; one 
genus is Indian. 

Genus BATRACHOSTOMUS, Gould, 1838. 

Wings rounded, short, 4th and 5th quills longest. Tail long,, 
graduated. No rictal bristles, but ' there are conspicuous bristly 
feathers at the base of the bill ; tufts of the same in front of the 
eyes, and ear-tufts, with bristles at the ends of the feathers. Tarsus 
short ; feet small, middle toe elongate. Sexes in most species very 
different in plumage. 

This genus, which is nearly allied to the Australian Podargus, 
inhabits the greater part of the Oriental region, and comprises 
about nine species, of which three occur within Indian limits. 

Key to the Species. 

a. General colour speckled greyish brown. 

a'. Crown with irregular black blotches ; 

wing 5'3 B. hodgsoni c? , p. 194. 

b'. Crown without distinct black marks; 

wing 4-5 B. affinis rf, p. 196. 

c'. Crown with small black spots, each ter- 
minating behind in a whitish speck .... B. moniliger <$ , p. 196. 

b. General colour chestnut. 

d'. Scapulars with large white black-bordered 
patches ; no white on wing-coverts. 

a". Wing 5-3 ; colour bright B. hodgsoni , p. 194. 

b". Wing 4-5 ; colour dull B. affinis $ , p. 196. 

e'. Scapulars ending in small black and buff 

spots ; white spots on wing-coverts .... B. moniliger , p. 196, 

1097. Batrachostomus hodgsoni. Hodgson's Frogmouth. 

Batrachostomus affinis, apud Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviii, p. 806 (nee 
xvi, p. 1180); Walden, Ibis, 1876, p. 355; Tweeddale, Ibis. 

1877, p. 388, partim ; id. P. Z. 5.1877, p. 426, pt. ; Oates, B. B. ii, 
p. 15, pt. ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) vii, p. 382. 

Otothrix hodgsoni, G. R. Gray, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 101, pi. clii ; 

Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 190 ; id. Ibis, 1871, p. 356 ; Hume, S. F. iv, p. 377. 
Batrachostomus castaneus, Hume, 8. F. ii, p. 349 ; vii, p. 148 : 

Blanf. Ibis, 1877, p. 251 ; Tweeddale, ibid. p. 388 ; Hume, Ibis, 

1878, p. 120. 

Batrachostomus hodgsoni, Walden in BlyiKs Birds Burm. p. 83 ; 

Hume, S. F. vi, p. 53; xi, p. 34; id. Cat. no. 106; Oates in 

Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 39 ; Hartert, Cat. B. M. xvi, 

p. 642. 
Batrachostomus javensis, Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlvii, pt. 2, p. 13 ; 

Hume, S. F. vii, p. 147. 
Sumbong, Naga, Manipur. 

Coloration. Male. Upper surface brown, an intimate mixture 
of black and rufous or buff ; supercilia whitish ; crown and nape 



BATRACHOSTOMUS. 195- 

with irregular black blotches ; a few smaller black spots on the 
back ; a whitish collar produced by white feathers with black cross- 
bands round the hind-neck ; much white on the scapulars and 
whitish buff on the tertiaries ; quills brown, the outer webs and 
tips mottled and spotted with rufous-white ; tail banded, paler 
and darker, the cross-bands with imperfect blackish-brown edges; 
lower surface paler than upper, of rufous, white, and black mixed, 
white prevailing on the abdomen ; a more or less distinct white 
band across the lower throat. 

Female. Rich chestnut throughout ; supercilia white ; chin, 
vent, and lower tail-coverts whitish ; a nuchal collar of white 
feathers banded with dark brown ; some of the scapulars, a band 
of feathers across the throat, and a second across the breast white 
with black borders ; tail with darker mottled cross-bands. 

Young very imperfectly known, probably each resembles an 
adult of the same sex. 




Fig. 56. Head of B. hodgsoni, rf. \. 

Bill light madder ; irides marbled buff ; legs light madder tinged 
with violet ( W. Ramsay). 

Length about 10-5 ; tail 6 ; wing 5-3 ; tarsus -65 ; width \ of 
bill at gape 1*2. 

Distribution. Sikhim, at low elevations ; Naga hills ; Manipur ; 
Toungngoo in Burma ; Karennee. Probably throughout the 
country from Sikhim to Northern Tenasserim, but apparently very 
rare. 

Habits, fyc. Scarcely known at all, but doubtless similar to those 
of other species. The stomach of a female brought to Mr. Hume 
in Manipur contained beetles. The breeding-season appears to 
be from April to June ; the nests are either circular pads or deep 
cups composed of moss, roots, or leaves and twigs, lined with 
grass or down, placed on a branch or the stem of a tree. The 
eggs, one or two in number, are glossless white, and measure 
about 1-09 by -64. 



196 PODARGIDJE. 

1098. Batrachostoxmis affinis. Blyth's Frogmouih. 

Batrachostomus affinis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 1180 (1847); 
Tweeddale, P. Z. 8. 1877, p. 426 (pt.), pi. xlv; id. Ibis, 1877, 
p. 338 ; Hume, Ibis, 1878, p. 120; id. Cat. no. 105 ter ; Bwgham* 
S. F. ix, p. 149; Oates, JB. B. ii, p. 15, pt. ; Hartert, Cat. B. M. 
xvi, p. 643. 

Podargus affinis, Blyth, Cat. p. 81. 

Coloration of both sexes very similar to that of B. hodgsoni, but 
the male of the present species has on the crown no black spots, 
but usually some minute white or buff specks, and there is a 
reddish-brown collar above the whitish one, which is more 
distinct than in B. hodgsoni. The breast too is more rufous. 
The female is darker and duller chestnut. The size is smaller : 
length about 8'5 ; tail 4-4 ; wing 4-5 ; tarsus '55 ; breadth of 
gape 1-2. 

Distribution. The Malay Peninsula, Borneo, and probably 
Sumatra. A single specimen, apparently belonging to this species, 
was obtained by Major Bingham in the Meplay valley, south-east 
of Moulmein in Tenasserim. 

1099. Batrachostomus moniliger. The Ceylonese Frogmouih. 

Podargus javanicus, apud Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xi, p. 798. 

Podargus javanensis, apud Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. xiii, pt. 2, 

p. 143 ; Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 309 (nee Horsfeld). 
Batrachostomus moniliger, Layard, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviii, p. 806 ; 

Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) xii, p. 165; Jerdon, B. L i, p. 189; 

Holdsiv. P. Z. S. 1872, p. 420 ; Legge, Ibis, 1874, p. 12 ; id. 8. F. 

iii, p. 198 ; Hume # Bourd. S. F. iv, p. 376 ; Tioeeddale, P. Z. S. 

1877, p. 439, pis. xlviii, xlix ; Hume, Cat. no. 105 ; Legge, Birds 

Ceyl p. 331 ; Oates in Hume's N. Sf E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 38 ; Hartert, 

Cat. B. M. xvi, p. 644. 
Batrachostomus punctatus, Hume, S. F. i, p. 432 ; ii, p. 355 ; iii, 

p. 199; iv, p. 377; id. Cat. no. 105 bis; Stanford, Ibis, 1877, 

p. 252 ; Tweeddale, ibid. p. 391 ; Hume, Ibis, 1878, p. 122. 

The Wynaad Frogmouth, Jerdon. 

Coloration. Male. General tint mottled grey, with a more or less 
rufous ' tinge ; supercilia whitish ; black spots, each terminated 
by a buff speck, on the crown and back ; a white collar on the 
hind-neck; scapulars and tertiaries whitish, quills dark brown, 
with buff or rufous spots on the outer webs ; tail with pale and 
dark cross-bands ; lower parts much like the upper, with an 
imperfect white gorget, and much white on the abdomen. 

Female. Dull rufous, like B. affinis $ ; supercilia pale; an 
indistinct white collar on the hind-neck; scapulars with very 
small subterminal black spots tipped with minute white specks ; 
some white spots at the ends of the wing-coverts ; beneath, the 
abdomen is much paler ; there is a band across the throat of 
feathers white at the end with a somewhat irregular subterminal 
black bar ; similar feathers are scattered over the abdomen. The 



BATRACHOSTOMUS. 197 

upper parts are usually more or less mottled with blackish, and 
there are indications of cross-bars to the tail-feathers. Young 
birds are greatly mottled throughout. 

Bill olive-brown, the lower mandible paler ; irides yellow ; legs 
and feet fleshy grey (Legge). Tarsus feathered for the greater part 
of its length. 

Length about 9 ; tail 4'5 ; wing 4'75 ; tarsus *6 ; width of bill 
at gape 1*3. The type of B. punctatus was exceptionally small, 
tail 4, wing 4-3. 

Distribution. Throughout Ceylon, in Travancore, and doubtless 
in the Wynaad. 

Habits, <Sfc. A shy nocturnal bird, living in forest, and very 
seldom seen. Legge, in Ceylon, once found one sleeping perched 
across a bamboo in the daytime. When thus perched its bill was 
turned upwards and its eyes closed. Both Legge and Bourdillon 
noticed a loud chuckling cry, which they attributed to this bird, 
and both think this species less rare than it appears to be, 
Bourdillon obtained a young one and the nest in Travancore on 
February 24th ; the nest was a pad, 2| inches broad, of dead 
leaves, fragments of bark, dry wood, and lichen interwoven with 
vegetable down, in the fork of a sapling about 15 feet from the 
ground. Fragments of the egg showed that it was pure white, 
smooth, and glossless. 



Order VII. TROGONES. 

The Trogons differ from all other birds in the structure of the 
feet. The first and second digits are turned backwards, and are 
supplied by the flexor lonyus hallucis, and the third and fourth 
digits are directed forward and connected with the flexor perforans 
digitorum. The two flexor tendons are united by a vinculutn 
(fig. 58). 

Palate schizognathous (Forbes, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 833). Basi- 
pterygoid processes are present. Sternum with four notches on 
the posterior border ; manubriurn long, slightly forked ; coracoids 
in contact. Oil-gland nude. Cseca present. Spinal feather-tract 
well-defined from nape to oil-gland, not forked. Aftershaft of 
contour-feathers large. No median wing-coverts. Ambiens 
muscle wanting. Plumage of the young nearly resembling that of 
.the female. 

A single family. 





Fig. 57. Eight foot of Fig. 58. Deep plantar tendons 

Harpactes erythrocephcdus, \. of Trogon puella (Garrod, 

P. Z. S. 1875, p. 345). 



Family TROGONID^E. 

Bill short, strong, wide, the tip of the culmen hooked and 
toothed; nostrils and base of bill covered with well-developed 
bristles. Feet small, tarsi short. Tail-feathers 12 ; primaries 10. 
Plumage soft and dense ; skin very thin. 

This family is found in the Oriental and Ethiopian regions and 
in Tropical America. Only one genus, which is widely distributed 
in the Oriental region, is found within our limits. 



. HARPACTES. 199 

Genus HARPACTES, Swainson, 1837. 

Tail long, with broad feathers, squarely truncated in adults, 

pointed in young, the outer three pairs much graduated. Wing 

rounded, the inner primaries and secondaries very short. Tarsus 
half -feathered. Face naked at sides. 

Key to the Species. 

n. Head and neck black ; abdomen crimson. 

a'. A white band across breast H. fasciatus tf , p. 199. 

b'. No white band H. duvauceli <$ , p. 201. 

b. Head red ; abdomen crimson H. erythrocephalus 3 , p. 200. 

jc. Head yellowish olive ; abdomen orange. H. orescius 3 , p. 202. 
d. Head brown or brownish olive. 

c'. Abdomen brownish buff H. fasciatus $ , p. 199. 

d'. Abdomen red or pink. 

a". Crown concolorous with back ; 

wing 57 , H. erythrocephalus $ , p. 200. 

b" . Crown darker than back ; wing 

4-2 H. duvauceli $ , p. 201. 

e' ' . Abdomen yellow H. orescius $ , p. 202. 

The habits of all the species are similar. All inhabit forests, 
and perch on trees, frequently on a large horizontal branch, on 
which the Trogon remains motionless and, with its gaudy breast 
concealed, but little likely to be seen. It flies out from time to 
time in pursuit of insects, chiefly beetles, moths, or cicadas, but it 
occasionally feeds on insects on the ground. Indian Trogons 
have not been observed to eat fruit, as some of the gorgeous 
American forms do. They are generally silent birds, but have 
peculiar soft calls, and also utter a mewing sound. Holes or 
hollows generally in rotten stumps or branches of trees are 
excavated for nests and are not lined ; the eggs are creamy white 
and glossy, and generally broadly oval in shape. 

1100. Harpactes fasciatus. TJie Malabar Trogon. 

Trogon fasciatus, Pennant, Ind. Zool. pi. iv (1769). 

Trogon duvaucelii, Tickell, J. A. S. B. ii, p. 580 (nee Temm.). 

Trogon malabaricus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1834, p. 26. 

Harpactes malabaricus, Swains. Class. Birds, ii, p. 337 ; Jerdon, 

Madr. Jour. L. S. xi, p. 232. 
Harpactes fasciatus, Blyth, Cat. p. 80; Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) 

xii, p. 171 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 714; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 201 ; 

Holdsw. P. Z. S. 1872, p. 422 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 432 ; vii, p. 507 ; 

id. Cat. no. 115 ; Ball, S. F. iv, p. 231 ; v, p. 413 ;_vii, p. 203 ; 

Fairbank, 

vii, 

p. 

Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 93 ; bates in Hume's 'N. Sf E. 2nd ed. ii, 

p. 340 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 485. 

Ktifni churi, H. ; Kama, Mahr. ; Kakarne hakki, Can. ; Nawa nila 
kurulla, Rantcan kondea, Ginni kurulla, Cing. 

Coloration. Male. Head and neck all round with upper breast 




200 

dull black or blackish grey ; back, scapulars, and coverts along 
forearm yellowish brown, slightly paler on the rump and upper 
tail-coverts ; wings black, the coverts away from the forearm, 
except the greater primary-coverts, tertiaries, and outer webs 
of secondaries, finely and closely barred w r ith slightly undulating 
white lines ; the quills white at the base, and the outer webs of 
all primaries, except the first and a few of the last, with a white 
border ; middle tail-feathers chestnut with a black tip, the 
remainder black, generally some chestnut on second and third 
pairs from middle, three exterior pairs with long white tips : a 
white band between the black upper breast and the rest of the 
lower parts, which are pale crimson, the lower tail-coverts paler still, 

Female. Head, neck, and upper breast olive-brown, no white 
gorget ; rest of lower parts brownish buff ; bars on wing- coverts, 
tertiaries, and secondaries light brown, instead of white ; tail- 
feathers as in immature males. 

Young males have the lower parts mixed with buff and white, 
the bars on the wings are fulvous, and the head and neck 
brownish. The 2nd and 3rd pairs of tail-feathers from the 
middle have more chestnut than in adults, this colour extending 
along the shafts and both borders. 

Bill deep blue; orbital skin smalt- blue; irides dark brown;, 
feet light lavender-blue (Jerdon}. 

Length 12 ; tail 6 -75 ; wing 5 ; tarsus -6 ; bill from gape 1 : 
females rather less. Ceylonese birds are smaller than Indian. 

Distribution. Local and rare throughout the forest country east 
of about 80 long., extending from Hazaribagh and Midnapur to 
south of the Grodavari ; more common in the forests near the 
Malabar coast, from Western Khandesh (whence both Lord Tweed- 
dale and Mr. Hume obtained specimens) to Cape Comorin. This 
species does not occur in any part of the peninsula beyond the 
tracts mentioned, but is found generally distributed in Ceylon. 

Habits, <$fc. Those of the genus. The eggs have been taken in 
March, April, and May, and are usually three in number, ivory- 
white, and about 1*08 by *95 in dimensions. 

1101. Harpactes erythrocephalus. The Eed-headed Trogon. 

Trogon erythrocephalus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1834, p. 25. 
Harpactes erythrocephalus, Swains. Class. Birds, ii, p. 337 ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 116 ; id. S. F. xi, p. 41 ; Oates, & F. viii, p. 164 ; 
Binqham, S. F. ix, p. 152 ; Hume 4* Inglis, ibid. p. 246 ; Oates, 
B. B. ii, p. 99 ; id. in Hume's N. Sf E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 339 ; Ogilvie 
Grant, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 488. 

Harpactes hodgsoni, Gould, Mon. Trog. ed. i. pi. 34 (1838) ; Blyth, 
Cat. p. 80; Horsf. 8f M. Cat. ii, p. 713 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 202 ; 
Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 342; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, 
p. 95 ; xliii, pt. 2, p. 177 ; Hume fy Oates, S. F. iii, p. 47 ; Blyth 
Wald. Birds Burm. p. 82 ; Hume fy Inglis, S. F. v, p. 18 ; Bing- 
ham, ibid. p. 82 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 66. 

Suda-sohagin <$ , Cuchcuchia $ , Beng. ; Hamesha piyara <$ (" always 
beloved," not "always thirsty," as translated by Jerdon), H. ; Sakvor, 
Lepcha ; Htat-ta-yu, Burmese. 



HARPACTES. 201 

* 

Coloration. Male. Head and neck all round, and upper breast, 
deep crimson ; chin blackish ; remainder of lower parts bright 
crimson behind an ill-marked white gorget; back, scapulars, 
and wing-coverts along forearm ferruginous-brown, brighter and 
more rufous on rump and upper tail-coverts ; wings as in H. fas- 
ciatus ; middle tail-feathers rich chestnut, black-tipped, the next 
two pairs black, with usually part of the outer web chestnut ; 
outer three pairs black, with long white tips. 

Female. Head and neck all round, upper breast, back, and 
scapulars orange-brown, rump more rufous; coverts and second- 
aries barred light brown and black ; lower parts red as in the 
male. The young of both sexes have the lower parts from the 
breast white or buff, wholly or in part. 




Fig. 59. Head of H. erythrocephalus, \. 

Bill bluish, tips of both mandibles and culmen black; gape 
and orbital skin purplish blue ; iris dull red; legs pinkish (Oates). 

Length 13 ; tail 7'5 ; wing 5-8 ; tarsus *6 ; bill from gape 
I'l. Females rather less. 

Distribution. Himalayas as far west as Eastern Nepal, up to 
about 5000 feet elevation, also throughout Assam and the Burmese 
countries to the Malay Peninsula, in forest. 

Habits, fyc. Like those of other species. The eggs, generally four 
in number and creamy white, are laid from March to July ; they 
measure about 1/14 by *95. 

1102. Harpactes duvanceli. The Red-rumped Trogon. 

Trogon duvaucelii, Temm. PL Col. pi. 291 (1824). 

Harpactes rutilus, Gray, Gen. B. i, p. 71 (1845) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 80 ; 

Horsf. 8f M. Cat. ii, p. 712 (nee. Vieill.}. 
Harpactes duvauceli, Hume, S. F. iii, p. 318 ; id. Cat. no. 115 bis ; 

Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 63, 498 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 101 ; Ogilvie 

Grant, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 491. 

Coloration. Male. Whole head and neck jet-black ; back, 
scapulars, and coverts along forearm orange-brown; rump and 
upper tail-coverts and lower plumage from throat crimson ; wings 
as in H.fasdatus, but the white bars wider apart; middle tail- 
feathers bright chestnut tipped with black, the next two pairs 
black, the three outer pairs black with long white tips. 



202 

Female. Head above dark olive-brown; sides of head, chin, and 
throat rufous-brown ; back lighter rufous- brown, becoming orange- 
brown tinged with red on the rump and upper tail-coverts ; wing- 
coverts and secondaries barred with buff ; upper breast yellow- 
brown, passing into pink on the abdomen. In young birds the 
lower parts are chiefly buff. 

Tip and ridge of culmen and a narrow streak on each side 
horny black ; gape and sides of bill cobalt-blue ; irides dull 
brown ; orbital region smalt-blue ; legs and feet the same, varying 
in depth of hue (Davison). 

Length about 10 ; tail 5 ; wing 4-2 ; tarsus -4 ; bill from gape *9. 
Females a very little smaller than males. 

Distribution. Not uncommon in Southern Tenasserim, as far 
north as Tavoy, and throughout the Malay Peninsula to Sumatra 
and Borneo. 

1103. Harpactes orescius. The Yellow-breasted Trogon. 

Trogon oreskios, Temm. PI. Col. pi. 181 (1823). 

Harpactes oreskios, Blyth, Cat. p. 80 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 716 ; 

Walden, P. Z. S. 1866, p. 538; Hume $ Gates, S. F. iii, p. 47; 

Bingham, S. F. v, pp. 50, 82 ; ix, p. 152 ; Davison, S. F. v, 

p. 454; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 66, 498; Hume, Cat. no. 

116 bis ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 100 ; id. in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. 

ii, p. 342 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 494. 
Orescius gouldi, Cab. fy Heine, Mus. Hein. iv, pt. 1, p. 161 (1863) ; 

Salvadori, Ann. Mits. Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. 561. 
Harpactes orescius, Blyth, Ibis, 1865, p. 32 ; Beavan, Ibis, 1869, 

p. 407 ; Blyth $ Wold. Birds Burm. p. 82 ; Gates, S. F. x, p. 186. 

Coloration. Male. Crown, nape, and sides of head yellowish 
olive ; hind-neck, chin, throat, and fore-neck more yellow, passing 
into rich orange on the breast, and this again into yellow-orange 
on the abdomen and lower tail-coverts ; back, scapulars, rump, 
upper tail-coverts, and wing-coverts along the forearm chestnut ; 
wings as in the other species, except that the white bars on the 
wing-coverts, secondaries, and tertiaries are broader, straighter, 
and much farther apart ; tail as in H. duvauceli. 

Female. Head, neck, and upper breast olive-brown, passing on 
back into rufous-browri ; bars on wings buff; lower parts from 
breast deep yellow. In immature birds the abdomen is white or buff. 

Bill purplish blue, the culmen and tip blackish; orbital skin 
bright smalt-blue; iris dark brown ; legs plumbeous blue (Gates). 

Length 12 ; tail 6-4 ; wing 5 ; tarsus -55 ; bill from gape '9. 

Distribution. Arrakan, Pegu, and Tenasserim, Siam, Cochin 
China, the Malay ' Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo. Not 
recorded from Upper Burma, nor from any country north of 
Arrakan. 

Habits, $c. Those of the genus, but, according to Davison, this 
species keeps less exclusively to dense forest. The eggs have been 
taken by Bingham and Davison in February and March, and are 
two or three in number, glossy, pale cafe-au-lait in colour, and 
about 1'05 by *83 in dimensions. 



Order VIII. COCCYGES. 

This order is distinguished from all other zygodactyle groups, 
except the Parrots, by possessing the ambiens muscle, a character 
to which a very high importance was attached by Garrod, and by 
the deep plantar tendons being arranged as in Gallinaceous birds, 
and only differing in arrangement from the Passerine plan by 
being connected by a vinculum ; the flexor longus liallucis leads 
to the hallux alone, the flexor perforans digitorum serves the other 
three. digits. The palate is desmoguathous ; basipterygoid pro- 
cesses are wanting. 

Two families are included the Cuculidce and Musophagidce ; the 
latter, however, is entirely African, and the former alone requires 
notice here. 

By Garrod, Newton, and other recent writers, the Coccyges 
have been regarded as having Galline affinities. The aberrant 
type OpistJiocomus appears to be a link between Gallince and 
Musophagidce. 



Family CUCULIDCE. 

Feet zygodactyle, the first and fourth toes directed backward ; 
caeca present ; both carotids present ; contour-feathers without 
any aftershaft ; dorsal feather-tract divided between the shoulders, 
and enclosing a lanceolate naked space on the back ; an oil-gland 
present, but nude. Young hatched naked, and not passing 
through a downy stage before acquiring feathers. Tail-feathers 10 
in number (except in some American genera, which have only 8). 

The members of this family have almost a world- wide range, but 
are most numerous in tropical countries. They vary greatly in 
nidification and breeding-habits. 

The Cuculidce have been variously divided. The Indian forms 
have by different writers been classed sometimes in two, sometimes 
in three subfamilies. On the whole the first arrangement appears 
preferable, as there is no doubt that the Phoenicophaince and 
Centropodince are more closely allied to each other than either of 
them is to the true Cuckoos. I therefore class them thus : 

. Tarsus feathered anteriorly (only at the base 
in Coccystes) ; no accessory femoro-caudal 
muscle Cuculince. 

b. Tarsus naked ; accessory femoro-caudal 

present Phcenicophaince. 



204 CTTCULIILE. 



Subfamily CUCULIN^E. 

This comprises the true Cuckoos, almost all of which have 
parasitic breeding-habits. The most marked external characters 
are that the tarsus is more or less feathered in front (least in 
Ooccystes, which, however, may be easily recognized by being 
crested) and that the wing is more or less pointed. The tail 
(except in Coccystes) scarcely exceeds or does not exceed the wing 
in length. The plumage is firm but not spiny. 

Other characters of this subfamily are the absence of an 
accessory femoro-caudal muscle (Garrod, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 141), 
and the simple undivided band of feathers on each side of the 
naked pectoro-ventral tract (Beddard, P. Z. S. 1885, p. 174). 

It is possible that Coccystes may prove, when the anatomy and 
pterylosis are examined, to belong to the Phcenicophaince. It and 
Eudynamis are in some respects intermediate between the typical 
forms of the two subfamilies. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. No crest. 

a'. Secondaries in closed wing- scarcely 

exceeding half length of primaries .... CUCULUS, p. 204. 
b' '. Secondaries two-thirds length of primaries 

or more. 
a". Tail rounded and graduated. 

a 3 . Larger : plumage hawk-like ; tail 

with 3*or 4 black cross-bands . . HIEROCOCCYX, p. 211. 
b 3 . Smaller, not larger than a Thrush ; 
tail without cross-bands or with 
far more than 4. 
4 . Plumage without metallic 

colours. 

a 5 . Young and adult differently 
coloured ; bill compressed ; 
tail-feathers the same length 

throughout CACOMANTIS, p. 216. 

ft 5 . Young and adult similar; bill 
stout, not compressed ; tail- 
feathers narrower behind .... PENTHOCERYX, p. 219, 
b 4 . Plumage partly metallic green or 

violet. CHRYSOCOCCYX, p. 220. 

b". Tail square or forked ; plumage 

black SURNICULUS, p. 223. 

b. Head crested ; tarsi almost naked COCCYSTES, p. 224. 

Genus CUCULUS, Linn., 1766. 

Wing long and pointed, third quill longest and exceeding the 
secondaries in the closed wing by almost half the length of the 
wing. The first primary is about two-thirds the length of the 
wing. Tail shorter than wing, graduated, the outer feathers 
falling short of the middle pair by one-fourth to one-third the 



CUCULUS. 205 

length of the tail. Bill moderate. In adults the upper plumage 
is almost uniform dark ashy or brown, the chin and throat ashy, 
abdomen white barred with black ; the wings barred on the inner 
webs. The young undergo two or three changes, one phase being 
chestnut above barred with dark brown. 

The true Cuckoos have a wide range, being found in Europe, 
Asia, Africa, and Australia, and comprise about nine species, of 
which four inhabit the Indian area. 

Key to the Species. 

Wing 8 to 9 in., no subterminal black band on 

tail ; edge of wing mixed white and brown. C. canorus, p. 205. 

Wing 6'5 to 7'8 ; edge of wing white C. saturates, p. 207. 

Wing 57 to 6'1 ; edge of wing ashy C. poliocephalus, p. 208. 

W'ing 7'5 to 8'o ; a subterminal black hand on 

tail C. micropterus, p. 210. 

Cuckoos are birds of swift flight and peculiar habits. All have 
resonant call-notes, distinctive of the particular species. The true 
Cuckoos are more or less migratory ; they feed chiefly on cater- 
pillars and soft insects, and, as is well known, do not pair, but 
indulge in promiscuous intercourse, and the females deposit their 
eggs in the nests of other birds *. The female Cuckoo sometimes, 
at all events, perhaps always, lays her egg on the ground and 
conveys it in her mouth to the nest selected. Some of the eggs 
already in the nest are often broken, whether intentionally or by 
accident is not quite clear, but it is certain that the young Cuckoo 
when hatched ejects from the nest the callow young of its foster- 
parents, and is fed by the latter until full-grown. When two 
Cuckoo's eggs are laid in the same nest, the stronger young Cuckoo 
turns out the weaker. 

1104. Cuculus canorus. The Cuckoo. 

Cuculus canorus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 168 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 71 ; 
Horsf. 8f M. Cat. ii, p. 702; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 322; id. Ibis, 
1872, p. 12 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 22 ; Blanford, 
J. A. S. B. xxxviii, pt. 2, p. 168; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, 




Sadly, S. F. viii, p. 253; id. Ibis, 1881, p. 430; Legge, Birds 
Ceyl p. 221; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 49; Swinhoe, Ibis, 1882, 
p. 103 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 103 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 124 ; St. 
John, Ibis, 1889, p. 159 ; Oates, ibid. p. 355 ; id. in Hume's N. fy E. 
2nd ed. ii, p. 379 ; Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix, p. 245. 
The European Cuckoo, Jerdon; Phuphu, H., Dehra Diin ; Kupwah, 
Kumaun ; Kukku, Lepcha ; Akku, Bhot. 

Coloration. Adult male. Whole upper plumage dark ashy, the 
rump and upper tail-coverts rather paler ; wings browner, with a 

* A remarkable instance of a Cuckoo (C. canorus) hatching her own egg and 
feeding her young is related in the ' Ibis ' for 1889, p. 219. 



CUCULIDjE. 

gloss ; quills barred with white on the inner webs except near the 
tips ; chin, throat, sides of the neck, and upper breast pale ashy ; 
lower breast, abdomen, and flanks white, with narrow blackish 
cross-bars ; under tail-coverts the same, but more sparingly barred; 
edge of wing mixed white and black ; tail blackish brown, tipped 
with white, the inner webs notched with white, and some white 
spots along the shaft of each feather. 

The adult female only differs in having the upper breast, and 
sometimes the sides of the neck, rufous. 

The young pass through two well-defined stages of plumage 
before arriving at maturity. In the first or nestling stage, the 
colour is dark brown above, indistinctly barred with rufous, each 
feather margined with white ; a white nuchal spot is present from 
the earliest age ; the lower plumage is broadly barred brownish 
black and white, black preponderating on the throat and upper 
breast. When the bird is fully fledged, the white edges to the 




Fig. 60. Head of C. canorus, \. 

feathers wear off to some extent, and the rufous bars are lost on 
all parts except the wings ; the tail is very similar to that of the 
adult, but browner. 

In the second stage the black bars on the lower plumage become 
narrower ; the whole upper plumage, wings, and tail are barred 
with pale rufous, the white margins still remaining ; the nuchal 
spot is retained nearly to the end of the second stage, and 
disappears only when the birds begins to acquire ashy patches on 
the upper plumage. The transition from one stage of plumage to 
the other is gradual, and every intermediate form occurs. 

The chief distinctive character in the young of this species is 
the white nuchal spot, which is seldom wanting. In the nearly 
allied O. saturatus this spot very rarely if ever occurs ; and in the 
small G. polio cephalus a white nape-patch is only present in one 
stage, the second, and is often accompanied by a white half-collar 
extending round the hind-neck. 

The above changes are effected without any moult, by a change 
of colour in the feathers. The adult plumage is assumed in the 
spring of the year after birth, but apparently the birds do not 
moult till in their second autumn. The same is the case with the 
next two species. 



. CUCULUS. 207 

Bill dusky horn, yellowish at the base and edges ; gape orange- 
yellow ; iris and legs yellow : the young have the iris brown, and 
the lower mandible pale green. 

Length about 13; tail 67 to 7'3 ; wing 8 to 9, and occasionally 
longer ; tarsus -8 ; bill from gape 1*25. 

Distribution. A migratory bird found at one season or another 
throughout the greater part of the Old World and even in 
Australia. The Cuckoo, in the months from July to April, may be 
found in almost any part of India, Ceylon, or Burma, but to the 
southward is of rare occurrence. It is common throughout the 
Himalayas and the hills of Afghanistan and Baluchistan in the 
breeding-season, May and June, but it has been found at the same 
period, April, May, and June, by several observers, by myself 
amongst others, in the forest country between Chutia Nagpur and 
the Grodavari, so that it probably breeds there. Col. McMaster 
observed it at the same season near Saugor, Kamptee, and Chik- 
alda, and Mr. Adam at Sambhar. Captain Butler believes that it 
breeds on Mount Abu. Wardlaw Ramsay found this species 
common in Kareimee in March, and Gates shot a very young 
bird in Pegu on August 8th, so it probably breeds in the Burmese 
hills. 

Habits, fyc. The food of the Cuckoo consists of caterpillars, 
grubs, worms, and soft-bodied insects. The flight is swift and 
singularly like that of a Hawk. The bisyllabic call, from which 
the bird derives its name in many languages, is only heard in the 
breeding-season, and is peculiar to the male bird. At times the 
first half of the call is uttered by itself, occasionally a treble note 
is produced, but both are exceptional. 

The breeding-season, in India, is in May and June, and eggs of 
this bird have been found in the nests of Pipits (Oreocorys 
sylvanus and Anthus similis), Bush-Chats (Pratincola caprata, 
P. maura, Oreicola ferrea), and the Magpie-Robin (Gopsychus 
saularis). The eggs vary greatly in colour, some are much pinker 
than others ; the ground-colour varies from white to pink, spotted, 
streaked, and mottled with brownish or yellowish red and pale 
purple. The size is about -97 by '72. 

1105. Cuculus saturatus. The Himalayan Cuckoo. 

Cuculus saturatus, Hodgson, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 942 (1843) ; 

xv, p. 18 ; Blanf. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 319. 
Cuculus himalayanus, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 71 ; Horsf. Sf M. Cat. ii, 

p. 704 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 323 ; id. Ibis, 1872, p. 12 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 

1881, p. 50; Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 410 ; nee Vigors. 
Cuculus striatus, apud Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 359 ; Bulger, Ibis, 1869, 

p. 157 ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 190 ; iv, p. 288 ; xi, p. 70 ; id. Cat. 

no. 200 ; Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 79 ; Hume $ Dav. tf. F. vi, p. 156; 

Scully, S. F. viii, p. 254 ; Davism, S. F. x, p. 359 ; Oates, B. B. 

ii, p. 105 ; id. Ibis, 1889, p. 356 ; nee Drapiez. 
Cuculus intermedius, apud Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix, p. 252 ; Oates 

in Humes N. # E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 381 ; nee Vahl. 

Tony-ting vyang, Lepcha. 



208 CUCULID^E. 

When adult similar to C. canorus, except that the upper parts 
are much darker, pure blackish ashy ; the lower parts are generally 
pale buff with the black bands broader and more regular, and the 
edge of the wing is pure white. The size is always smaller and 
the bill a little stronger. The young pass through two stages, in 
neither of which is there a white nuchal spot. 

In the first stage the upper plumage is blackish brown, the 
feathers margined with white ; chin and throat almost entirely 
black ; rest of the lower parts white, broadly banded with black. 
In the second stage the whole upper plumage with the tail is 
blackish barred with chestnut, the lower banded white and black, 
throat and breast tinged with rufous. The transition from each 
stage to the next is gradual, and every intermediate plumage may 
be found. 

Upper mandible and tip of lower horny green, rest- of lower 
yellowish horny ; iris, feet, and gape yellow. Young birds have the 
iris brown. 

Length about 12 ; tail 6 ; wing 6-6 to 7'8 ; tarsus 75 ; bill 
from gape 1'15. 

Distribution. During the breeding -season this Cuckoo is found 
in various parts of Eastern Asia, from the Himalayas to Siberia. 
It has also been shot in the cold season at Lucknow and Jodhpur, 
and in May in Fatehgarh, but is rare in India south of the Hima- 
layas *. It is more common in Burma, the Andaman s and Nico- 
bars, and throughout the Malay Peninsula, ranging to New Guinea 
and Australia. 

Habits, #c. The ordinary call of this bird in the breeding season, 
which begins later than that of C. canorus, is of four syllables, and, 
according to Jerdon, resembles that of the Hoopoe repeated, hoot- 
hoot-hoot-hoot, with a higher note at the commencement, only 
heard when the bird is very near. Hume (S. F. xi, p. 70) gives a 
somewhat different account, but Jerdon's statement has been con- 
firmed by other observers. According to Swinhoe's observations 
in Formosa and Seebohm's in Siberia, C. saturatus also utters a 
monosyllabic note, but this has not been noticed in India. The 
breeding-season is in June, and the eggs, in the Himalaya, are 
commonly laid in the nest of Trochalopterum lineatum. An egg 
taken from a female shot in Kashmir is white, sparsely speckled 
with olive-brown and purplish grey, and measures -89 by -6. 
According to Captain Hutton, the young Cuckoo, after it leaves 
the nest, is fed by the adults, he having shot one of the latter in 
the act. 

1106. Cuculus poliocephalus. The Small Cuckoo. 

? Cuculus intermedius, Vahl, Skriv. Nat. Selsk. iv, p. 58 (1789). 
Cuculus poliocephalus, Latham, Ind. Orn. i, p. 214 (1790) ; 



* Davison (S. F. x, p. 359), states that it occurs in the Wynaad, but I have 
elsewhere (P. Z. S. 1893, p. 318) shown that there must, I think, have been a 
mistake. 



CUCDLUS. 209 

Cat. p. 71 ; Horsf. 8f M. Cat. ii, p. 704 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 324 ; 
id. Ibis, 1872, p. 13; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 23; 
Bulger, Ibis, 1869, p. 157 ; Godio.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. 2, 
p. 156 ; Fairbank, S. F. iv, p. 255 ; Davidson $ Wend. S. F. vii, 
p. 78 ; Hume Cat. no. 201 : id. S. F. xi, p. 71 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. 
p. 231 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 54 ; Davidson, S. F. x, p. 299 ; Barnes, 
Birds Bom. p. 124 ; Oates, Ibis, 1889, p. 357 ; id. in Humes N.SfE. 
2nd ed. ii, p. 382 ; Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix, p. 255. 
Cuculus bartletti, Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) xiii, p. 452 (1854). 

Dang-hlem, Lepcha ; Pichu-giapo, Bhotia. 

Adults similar to 0. canorus, but much smaller, with the lower 
plumage, and especially the lower tail-coverts, tinged with buff, 
and with broader black bars on the breast. 

The young pass through three stages before arriving at maturity. 
The first resembles the corresponding plumage of C. saturatus, 
and at this period the two can only be distinguished by size. The 
second stage resembles the first of C. canorus in many respects. 
The white margins on the upper plumage are reduced, a white 
nuchal spot and sometimes a half-collar are assumed, and the chin 
and throat are partially cross-barred with white and tinged with 
dark rufous. 

In the third stage the upper parts, wings, and tail are bright 
chestnut barred with black ; the black bars in the older birds 
disappear on the neck, rump, and upper tail-coverts, and nearly so 
on the head; the lower plumage is very regularly barred with 
black, and the throat and breast are tinged with chestnut ; there is 
no nuchal patch nor collar. 

From this stage the adult plumage is assumed gradually, ashy 
patches appearing on the upper parts and the rufous bars 
disappearing on the wing and tail. The throat and breast at the 
same time turn ashy. 

Bill blackish, base of lower mandible, gape, and eyelid yellow ; 
iris brown ; feet yellow (Legge). 

Length about 10 ; tail 4-9 to 5'4 ; wing 5'7 to 6-1 ; tarsus 0'68 ; 
bill from gape *95. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas from April till October, 
and farther north in China and Japan. In the cold season this 
Cuckoo is found in various parts of the Indian Peninsula and 
Ceylon, also in the Malay Peninsula, Java, and Borneo. It occurs 
in the hills south of the Assam valley, but has not been recorded 
from Burma. It also inhabits Madagascar and Africa south of 
6 N. lat. 

Habits, $c. This species begins to breed even later than C. satu- 
rate, being rarely heard at Darjiling, according to Jerdon, " before 
the end of May and continuing till the middle of July. It is a 
very noisy bird and has a loud peculiar unmusical call of several 
syllables, which it frequently utters. The Bhotias attempt to 
imitate this in their name for the species." The eggs are not known 
with certainty. 

VOL. III. P 



210 CUCULIDjE. 

1107. Cuculus micropterus. The Indian Cuckoo. 

Cuculus micropterus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1837, p. 137 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, 
p. 326; id. Ibis, 1872, p. 13; King, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, 
p. 214 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 267 ; Holdsworth, 
P. Z. S. 1872, p. 430 ; Walden, Ibis, 1873, p. 304 ; Hume, S. F. 
ii, p. 191 ; iii, p. 79 ; ix, p. 248 ; xi, p. 71 ; Blyth 8f Wold. Birds 
Burm. p. 79 ; Hume, Cat. no. 203 ; Fairbank, S. F. iv, p. 255 ; David- 
son fy Wend. S. F. vii, p. 79 ; Ball, ibid. p. 207 ; Cripps, ibid. p. 264 - r 
Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 55 ; Bingliam, ibid. p. 167 ; Butler, ibid. p. 388 ; 
Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 228 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 359 ; Oates, B. B. 
ii, p. 104 ; Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 411 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 125 ; 
Davidson, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. i, p. 180 ; Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix r 
p. 241. 

Cuculus affinis, Hay, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 18 (1846). 

Cuculus striatus, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 70 ; Horsf. 8f M. Cat. ii, 
p. 703 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 328. 

Boukotako, Beng. ; Takpo, Lepch. ; Kankatong, Bhot. ; Kyphulpakka f 
Mussooree ; Kupulpukki, Chamba. 

Bill stronger than in the other Indian species. 

Coloration. The head and neck above and at the sides dark ashy y 
remainder o tipper plumage rich brown ; the quills barred 
with white on their inner webs ; tail with a broad subterminal 
black band and white tip ; a series of alternating white and black 
marks along the shafts of the rectrices and white or rufous indenta- 
tions on both edges ; chin, throat, and upper breast pale ashy ; rest 
of lower parts creamy white, with black cross-bars about half as broad 
as the white interspaces ; under wing- and tail-coverts and vent with 
narrower and more distant cross-bars. The female only differs 
in having the throat and breast browner. 

The young bird has the head and neck above broadly barred with 
rufescent white (in some these parts are chiefly white) and each 
feather of the upper plumage tipped with rufescent ; the whole 
lower plumage buff, broadly barred with dark brown, and the tail 
more banded than in adults and with the spots more rufous. 
Immediately after this, the nestling garb, has been assumed, the 
white and rufous margins to the upper plumage commence to 
disappear, the throat and upper breast turn to ashy, and the bars 
on the lower plumage grow more defined. Birds that leave the 
nest in May are almost in adult plumage in October, retaining 
only the rufous tips to the upper wing-coverts and secondaries, 
and they acquird a rufous band across the upper breast, which is 
ultimately lost except by females. 

Upper mandible horny black, lower mandible and a patch under 
the nostrils dull green ; iris rich brown, eyelids greenish plum- 
beous, the edges deep yellow ; gape and legs yellow (Oates}. 

Length about 13 ; tail 6 to 6-5 ; wing 7'5 to 8-5 ; tarsus '8 ; 
bill from gape 1*3. 

Distribution. Common throughout the Himalayas and extending 
into China, Japan, and Eastern Siberia in summer. Found also 
generally distributed over the Peninsula of India and Ceylon, not 
in the Punjab, Sind, or Bajputana, rarer in the south, but not 



HIEBOCOCCYX. 211 

uncommon in the forests of the Eastern Central Provinces and 
Bengal, and extending through the hill countries south of Assam 
and the Burmese territories to Malacca, Java, Borneo, and the 
Moluccas. 

Habits, $c. Scarcely anything appears known about the migra- 
tion and breeding of this Cuckoo. It certainly breeds in the 
Himalayas and Assam hills and probably in other hill-ranges, 
perhaps in the plains also. Its call is a fine melodious whistle, 
represented by the names Boukotako and Kyphulpakka. In flight, 
habits, and food it resembles C. canorus. 



Genus HIEROCOCCYX, S. Miiller, 1842. 

Structurally this genus only differs from Cuculus in having 
rather shorter wings, with the primaries extending from one-fifth 
to one-third the length of the closed wing beyond the ends of the 
secondaries ; sometimes the third primary is longest, sometimes the 
fourth. The coloration is remarkable, even amongst Cuckoos, for 
its close imitation of Hawks and Falcons ; not only is the adult garb 
Accipitrine in character, but the plumage of the young resembles 
that of several immature birds of prey. The resemblance in 
plumage and flight to Hawks is quite unexplained, though, as it is 
sufficient to cause great alarm to small birds in general, it is 
probably connected with breeding-habits. 

In all species of Hierococcyx the tail is broad with distinct dark 
cross-bars ; the plumage above is uniform or nearly so in adults, 
mixed with rufous bars in the young ; below it is spotted in the 
young, but generally becomes nearly uniform or transversely 
banded in the adult stage. Sexes alike. 

This genus ranges throughout Eastern Asia from Siberia to India 
and the Malay Peninsula ; it is also found in all the Malay islands. 
Four species inhabit India or Burma. 

Key to the Species. 

a. No distinct dark cheek-band from the eye. 
a'. Abdomen transversely banded in adults. 

a". Back in adults brown : wing over 8'5. . H. sparverioides, p. 211. 

b". Back in adults ash-grey : wing 7 to 8. . H. varius, p. 213. 
b'. Abdomen never banded ; back in adults 

blackish grey : wing 67 to 7'4 H. nisicolor, p. 214. 

b. A distinct dark cheek-stripe H. nanus, p. 215. 

1108. Hierococcyx sparverioides. The Large Hawk-Cuckoo. 

Cuculus sparverioides, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 173 ; Blyth, J. A S. B. 

xi, p. 898 ; xii, p. 240 ; id. Cat. p. 70. 
Hierococcyx sparverioides, Bonap. Consp. Av. i. p. 104 ; Horsf. fyM. 

Cat. ii, p. 699 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 331 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 362 ; 

Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 23 ; Jerdon, Ibis, 1872, p. 14 ; 

Hume, S. F. in, p. 80; ix, p. 248; xi, p. 72 ; id. Cat. no. 207 ; 

Armstrong, S. F. iv, p. 311 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. 2, p. 70 - r 

P2 



212 

Hume # Dav. S. F. vi, p. 157 ; Ball, S. F. vii,p. 207 ; Scully, S. F. viii, 
p. 256 ; Damson, S. F. x, p. 359 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 108 ; Marshall, 
Ibis, 1884, p. 411 ; Salvador*, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) iv, p. 581 ; 
vii, p. 380 ; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii. p. 384 ; Shelley, 
Cat.J3.M.xix,p.232. 

Cuculus strenuus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1856, p. 96. 

Hierococcyx strenuus, Hume, P. A. S. B. 1872, p. 71. 

Bara Bharao, Nepal ; Nimbin-piyul, Lepch. 

Coloration. The adult has the lores whitish ; crown, nape, and 
sides of head and neck ashy, varying from rather pale to blackish, 
passing into the colour of the back, which with the remainder 
of the upper parts is rich brown with a purplish gloss ; quills 
barred with white on the inner webs ; tail brown above, pale 
brownish grey below, tipped with white or rufous white, and 
crossed outside the coverts generally by 3, sometimes by 4, black 
or dark brown bands, the last the broadest, and the last but one 
the narrowest and separated from the last by a narrow space ; 
beneath the chin is dark ashy, with a whitish moustachial stripe on 
each side ; throat white, more or less streaked with ashy and rufous 
and passing into the more rufous upper breast, which also has ashy 
shaft-stripes ; lower breast, flanks, and abdomen white, more or 
less suffused with rufous and transversely banded with brown ; vent, 
lower tail-coverts, and edge of wing white. 

The young is brown above, the feathers margined and faintly 
banded with rufous, and the lower parts are rufescent white, with 
large streaks and drops of dark brown, becoming arrowhead marks 
on the flanks ; the chin is blackish and there is a slight rufous 
collar. As the bird grows older the head becomes dark ashy, the 
markings on the flanks and abdomen assume the appearance of 
bands, and there is a gradual passage into the adult. 

Upper mandible dark brown, lower greenish ; gape and orbit 
yellow ; iris yellow or orange in the adults, brown in the young ; 
"legs deep yellow ; claws paler yellow. 

Length about 15 ; tail 8-25 to 9-25 ; wing 8-5 to 10 ; tarsus T05 ; 
bill from gape 1*4. Females are smaller than males, and Burmese 
specimens larger than Himalayan, which again exceed Nilgiri birds 
in size. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas as far west as Chamba, 
ascending in summer to elevations of 9000 ft. or more ; probably 
scattered here and there over the better wooded parts of the 
Indian Peninsula in the cold season, but only recorded from 
Raipur in the Central Provinces. Common on the Nilgiris in 
Southern India, but not observed on the Palnis, the Travancore 
rarges, nor the Ceylon hills. To the eastward this Cuckoo is 
found throughout the hills south of Assam and Burma, ranging to 
China, Japan, the Philippines, the Malay Peninsula, and Borneo. 

Habits, Sfc. Probably a resident in the Himalayas and Nilgiris 
and in Burma, though it may be found at higher elevations in the 
summer. It has a loud melodious call, similar to that of H. varius, 
.and heard about Darjiling from April to June. Its flight is swift 



HIEROCOCCTX. 213 

and graceful. Its food, partly at all events, consists of caterpillars. 
According to Mr. Hodgson's notes, the female lays her eggs in the 
nests of Trochalopterum niyrimentum and Ixops nepalensis amongst 
other birds ; but on the Nilgiris this bird is believed to have been 
observed by both Miss Cockburn and Mr. E. H. Morgan to build 
its own nest, of sticks, without lining, and to lay 3 or 4 nearly 
white slightly speckled eggs, measuring T39 by T05. 

1109. Hierococcyx varius. The Common Hawk-Cuckoo. 

Cuculus varius, Vahl, Skriv. Nat. Selsk. iv, p. 61 (1797) ; Blyth, 
Cat. p. 70 ; Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) xiii, p. 452. ^ 

Cuculus lathami, Gray in Hardwicke's III. Ind. Zool. ii, pi. 34, fig. 2. 

Hierococcyx varius, Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 700 ; Jerdon, B. 1. i, 
p. 329 ; Blyth, Ibis, 18(36, p. 361 ; Adam, S. F. i, p. 373 ; Butler, 
S. F. iii, p. 460 : Bourdillon, S. F. iv, p. 392 ; Fairbank, S. F. v, 
p. 397 ; Vidal, S. F. vii, p. 55 ; Ball, ibid. p. 207 ; Cripps, ibid. p. 264 ; 
Hume, Cat. no. 205; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 255; Legge, Birds Ceyl. 
p. 240 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 27 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 359 ; Barnes, Birds 
Bom. p. 126; Davidson, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. i, p. 182; Oates 
in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 383 ; Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix, 
p. 234. 

Hierococcyx nisoides, Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 362 ; Hume, S. F. vii r 

p. 371. 

Kupak or Upak, Pupiya, H. ; Chok-gallo, Beng. ; Bim-pi-yul, Lepcha ; 
Kutti-pitta, Tel. ; Zakkhat, Deccan ; Iro!an, Mai. This is the " Brain- 
fever bird '' of Anglo-Indians. 




Fig. 61. Head of H. varius, > r . 

Coloration. Upper plumage ash-grey ; quills browner, their inner 
webs broadly barred with white, some white on outer upper tail- 
coverts ; tail grey, tipped with rufescent and usually with 4 bars 
(occasionally 5) beyond the coverts, the terminal bar broadest, the 
others each with a pale or rufescenfc posterior border, and the 
penultimate much nearer to the last than to the antepenultimate ; 
occasionally the penultimate band is faint or wanting ; sides of 
head ashy, lores and cheeks whitish ; chin and throat white, more 
or less tinged with ashy ; fore-neck and breast rufous mixed with 
pale ashy, lower breast with bars ; abdomen white, anteriorly 
tinged rufous and with transverse grey bars, posteriorly like the 
under tail-coverts pure white ; edge of wing the same. 

The young above dark brown with rufous cross-bars ; lower parts 



214 CUCULIDJE. 

white, tinged with rufous in places and spotted with brown except 
on the lower abdomen and lower tail-coverts ; tail marked as in the 
adults, but more rufous. The sides of the neck soon become 
rufous and form a partial collar, the spots on the flanks change to 
arrowhead marks and interrupted bars, then the breast grows 
rufous and the cap grey. From this there is a gradual passage 
into the adult plumage. 

Culmen and tip of bill black, the rest greenish ; iris yellow or 
orange in adults, brownish in the young ; gape, orbit, feet, and 
claws yellow, pale or bright according to age. 

Length about 13-5 ; tail 7 ; wing 6'75 to 8 ; tarsus -95 ; bill 
from gape 1'25. 

Distribution. The whole of India and Ceylon, extending to 
Eastern Bengal (Dacca, Furreedpore), but not to Assam, the Garo 
hills, nor Cachar, and west to Mount Abu, Eajputana, but not to 
Sind nor the Punjab. This Cuckoo occurs along the base of the 
Himalayas from Kumaun to Bhutan, ascending the hills in summer 
to about 7000 feet. It is found to a similar elevation on the 
Nilgiris and on the Ceylon hills, but on the Palnis and Travan- 
core ranges it is said not to ascend beyond about 1000 feet. 
Reported occurrences of this bird in Assam and Burma are 
probably due to error. 

Habits, fyc. A resident throughout its range, except in Ceylon, 
where this Hawk-Cuckoo is described by Legge as arriving in 
November. It is more common in well- wooded country, but is 
generally distributed throughout the Indian Peninsula, and is well 
known by its call, or, as Jerdon terms them, " its loud crescendo 
notes," which, as he says, sound something like pipeeha, pipeeha, 
each repetition higher in the scale. In the breeding-season from 
April till June this is frequently heard by night as well as by day. 
H. varius feeds partly on caterpillars, but largely, it is said, on 
fruits and buds. Its eggs are chiefly laid in the nests of various 
Babblers and have been taken in those of Crateropus canorus, 
G. griseus, and Argya malcolmi ; they are blue and measure 1'05 
by -79. 

1110. Hierococcyx nisicolor. Hodgson's Hawk-Cuckoo. 

Cuculus nisicolor, Hodgson, Blyth, J. A. S. -frxii, p. 943 (1843). 
Hierococcyx nisicolor, Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 330; iii, p. 871 ; id. Ibis, 1872, 

p. 14; Blyth,IUs, 1866, p. 361 ; Hume, S. F. v, pp. 96, 347 ; xi, p. 72; 

id. Cat. no. 206 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F.v\, p. 167 ; Oates, B. B. ii, 

p. 109 ; id. in Hume's N. # E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 383. 
Hierococcyx fugax, apud Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix, p. 236, partim ; 

nee Ciiculus fugax, Horsf. 

Ding-pit, Lepcha. 

Coloration. Whole upper plumage, except the tail, uniform dark 
ashy ; quills browner, with white bars on the inner webs ; tail 
with alternating bands of brownish grey and black, the last black 
band broad, the last but one very narrow and close to the last one ; 
extreme tip of tail rufous ; sides of head and neck and the chin 



HIEEOCOCCYX. 215 

dark ashy ; throat and front of neck white, sparingly streaked with 
ashy ; breast, abdomen, and flanks ferruginous, streaked with pale 
ashy and frequently mixed with white ; vent and under tail -co verts 
white. 

In the young birds the upper plumage, sides of head and neck, 
chin, throat, and upper breast are very dark brown, with narrow 
rufous edges to the feathers, the quills are barred on both webs 
with rufous ; tail as in adults ; the breast, abdomen, and flanks 
white with broad black spots. The blackish brown of the throat 
and breast is soon lost, and the upper parts become barred with 
rufous, as in the young of H. varius and H. sparverioides, and there 
is the same gradual change to the adult plumage. At no time are 
there any cross-bands on the abdomen. 

Upper mandible horny black, lower mandible and around nostrils 
pale green, gape greenish yellow ; iris orange-red ; eyelids, legs, 
feet, and claws bright yellow. 

Length about 11-5 ; tail 5-6 ; wing 67 to 7'4 ; tarsus 75 ; bill 
from gape 1*2. 

Distribution. The Himalayas as far west as Nepal, and through- 
out Assam and Burma to the Malay Peninsula, but not apparently 
in the Malay Archipelago, where this species is replaced by 
H. fugax, a form with a larger bill and the bands on the tail as 
in H. varius. 

Habits, <$fc. Apparently a resident species. Nothing is known 
of its breeding except that an egg, extracted from the oviduct of a 
female by Mandelli on June 5th, was olive-brown and measured 
-89 by -64. 

1111. Hierococcyx nanus. The Small Hawk-Cuckoo. 

Hierococcyx nanus, Hume, S. F. v, p. 490 ; id. Cat. no. 205 bis ; 
Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 157, 502; A. Mull. J.f. Orn. 1882, 
p. 405 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 110; Sharpe, Ibis, 1890, p. 11 ; Shelley, 
Cat. B. M. xix, p. 238. 

Coloration. Head above and nape dark brown to blackish ashy. 
A well-marked dark grey stripe from the anterior lower border of 
the eye down the cheek, separated by the whitish lower ear- 
coverts from the dark grey side of the head behind the eye ; above 
this again, better marked in some specimens than in others, a line 
of white or rufous feathers forms a border to the crown ; a rufes- 
cent collar round the hind-neck ; rest of upper parts brown, more 
or less barred with rufous ; quills with large bars of buff on inner 
webs, the whole inner webs near the base rufescent buff. Tail 
greyish brown, tipped white and with equidistant black bands, the 
last the broadest, the others subequal. Lower surface rufescent 
white, with dark brown shaft-stripes. 

It is doubtful whether the adult is known, the plumage above 
described resembling the immature dress of other species. 

Upper mandible and tip of lower dull black ; lower mandible 
and base of upper greenish yellow ; irides brown ; eyelids, legs, 
feet, and claws orange-yellow (Davison). 



216 CUCULIDjE. 

Length about 11; tail 5*5; wing 5*7; tarsus *8 ; bill from 
gape 1-1. 

Distribution. Only known from South Tenasserim, the island of 
Salanga (Junk Ceylon) and Northern Borneo. 



Genus CACOMANTIS, S. Miiller, 1842. 

This is a genus of small-sized Cuckoos resembling Cuculus in 
the changes of plumage, and to some extent in the coloration of 
the young and adult ; but distinguished by much shorter wings,, 
with the primaries only extending about one-third the length of 
the wing beyond the end of the secondaries, and by having the tail 
as long as the wing or longer. 

About 10 species are known, ranging from India to Australia 
and the Fiji Islands ; two of these are Indian. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Upper parts dark ashy. 

a'. Abdomen white or grey C. passerinus, adult, p. 216. 

b'. Abdomen rufous C. merulinus, adult, p. 218. 

b. Upper parts brown and chestnut. 

c'. Crown and rump chiefly rufous, not 

regularly barred C. passerinus, juv., p. 216. 

d'. Upper parts barred throughout C. merulinus, juv., p. 218. 



1112. Cacomantis passerinus. The Indian Plaintive Cuckoo. 

Cuculus passerinus, Vahl, Skriv. Nat. Selsk. iv, p. 57 (1797) j Legge, 

Birds Ceyl. p. 235. 
Cuculus tenuirostris, J. E. Gray in Hardw. III. Ind. Zool. ii, pi. 34 r 

fig. 1 (1833-4) ; myth, J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 391 ; xviii, p. 805 ; id. 

Cat. p. 72, partim; Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) xiii, p. 453. 
Polyphasia tenuirostris, Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 698. 
Polyphasia nigra, apud Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 333 ; id. Ibis, 1872, p. 14 ; 

Simson, Ibis, 1882, p. 87 ; nee Cuculus niger, L. 
Cacomantis passerinus, Cab. 8f Heine, Mus. Hein. iv, p. 18 (1862) ; 

Ball, S. F. vii, p. 207 ; Cripps, ibid. p. 265 ; Hume, Cat. no. 208 ; 

Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 55 ; Butler, ibid. p. 388 ; Damson, S. F. x, p. 360; 

Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 127 ; Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii f 

p. 385 ; Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix, p. 277. 
Polyphasia passerina, Jerdon, Ibis, 1872, pi. 1 ; Holdsivorth, P. Z. S. 

1872, p. 431. 
Ololygon passerinus, Butler, S. F. iii, p. 461 ; Fairbank, S. F. iv, 

p. 255. 

Pousya, Mahr. ; Chinna katti pitta, Tel. ; Koha, Cing. 

Coloration. In the adult the upper parts are dark ashy ; the wings 
throughout brown, glossed outside with greenish bronze ; inner 
webs of the quills with a white patch near the base ; tail nearly 
black, tipped with white, the outer feathers obliquely banded with 
white on the inner webs, the white bands most developed on the- 



CACOMANT1S. 1' I 7 

outermost rectrices ; lower parts ashy, paling on the abdomen ; 
edge of wing, vent, and lower tail-coverts white. Occasionally 
there is no white and the bird is dark ashy throughout, as figured 
by Jerdon in the ' Ibis.' 

The young at first are dark glossy brown above, each feather 
with a rufous edging ; the lower parts are white with brown bars, 
and the throat and breast tinged with rufous ; the tail is black, 
with broad white and rufous bars and markings. 

In the second stage the whole upper plumage, with the sides of 
the head and neck, is bright chestnut, the back and wings broadly 
barred with black, the head, hind-neck, rump, and upper tail- 
coverts with merely a few black spots, and the tail with some 
irregular black shaft-marks, a larger subterminal black patch and a 
white tip to each feather. The lower plumage is white, narrowly 
banded with black ; the chin, throat, and upper breast more or less 
suffused with chestnut. 

In older birds of this stage, the head, hind-neck, back, rump, 
and tail-coverts become immaculate, the bars on the wings are 
resolved into spots; only the subterminal black patches remain on 
the tail-feathers, and many of the bars on the throat and breast fade 
away, these parts becoming bright chestnut. After this the adult 
plumage is rapidly assumed by the acquisition of ashy patches. 




Fig. 62. Head of C. passerin u, }. 

Bill dark brown ; mouth salmon-colour ; iris reddish brown or 
sometimes yellowish ; legs dingy yellow or brownish grey. 

Length about 9 ; tail 4'5 ; wing 4*5 ; tarsus *7 ; bill from gape 1. 

Distribution. The greater part of India from the Himalayas to 
Ceylon inclusive, rare in the north-west, and although found at 
Mount Abu, wanting elsewhere throughout Eajputana and the 
Indus plains. This Cuckoo occurs in the Himalayas from Simla 
to Sikhim, ascending the hills to the westward up to about 9000 
feet, according to Jerdon ; and its range extends to Eastern Bengal, 
where it meets the next species. In the peninsula of India it is 
chiefly found in forest-regions, and is most abundant in Bengal, 
Orissa, the wooded tracts west of the latter, and on the hills in the 
neighbourhood of the Malabar coast. 

Habits, fyc. Jerdon describes this Cuckoo as haunting forests, 
groves, gardens, and low bush-jungle, wandering much, and having 
a plaintive call, which was represented by Elliot as whe-whew, 
whe-wlie-e-w. In Ceylon and at Mount Abu this bird is said to be 
migratory, but elsewhere it is believed to be resident. The eggs 



218 CUCULID^E. 

have been taken in September by Miss Cockburn on the Nilgiris, 
in the nests of Prinia inornata. The young have been found in 
Dehra Dun by Mr. E/. Thompson in nests of Pyctorhis sinensis and 
Lanius erythronotus. C. passerinus also lays in the nest of Molpastes 
bengalensis. The eggs are pale blue, blotched and spotted towards 
the large end with reddish brown and purple, and measure about 
8 by -55. 

1113. Cacomantis merulinus. The Rufous-bellied Cuckoo. 

Cuculus merulinus, Scop. Del. Flor. et Faun. Insubr. ii, p. 89 (1786) ; 

Strickland, J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 391 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 72. 
Cuculus flavus, Gmel Syst. Nat. i. p. 421 (1788). 
Cuculus sepulchralis, S. Mull. Verhand. Land- en Volk. p. 177, note 

(1839-1844). 

Polyphasia merulina, Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 697. 
Cacomantis threnodes, Cab. fy Heine, Mus. Hcin. iv, p. 19 (1863) ; 

Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 158 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 207 ; xi, p. 72 ; 

id. Cat. no. 209 ; Cripps, S. F. vii, p. 265 ; Bingham, S. F. ix, p, 167 ; 

Oates, B. S. ii, p. Ill ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, 

p. 568 ; vii, p. 428. 
Cacomantis merulinus, Cab. fy Heine, Mus. Hein. iv, p. 21 ; Walden, 

Tr. Z. S. viii, p. 54 ; ix, p. 160 ; Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix, p. 268. 
Polyphasia tenuirostris, apud Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 335 ; Godw.-Aust. 

J.A.S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 98 ; Sirwan, Ibis, 1882, p. 87; nee Cuculus 

tenuirostris, Gray. 

Polyphasia rufiventris, Jerdon, Ibis, 1872, p. 15. 
Cacomantis passerinus, Blyth fy Wold. Birds Burm. p. 80 ; nee 

Cuculus passerinus, Vahl. 
Cacomantis rufiventris, Armstrong, S. F. iv, p. 312 ; Wardl. Rams. 

Ibis, 1877, p. 458 ; Anderson, Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 587. 

Chota bhrou, Beng. 

Coloration. In the adult the head and neck all round are ashy, 
rather darker above ; back, scapulars, and wings brown, slightly 
glossed with bronze ; inner webs of quills with a white patch near 
the base ; upper tail-coverts blackish and glossy, with ashy edges ; 
tail black, tipped white and with oblique white bars on the inner 
webs of the outer feathers, most marked on the outermost ; on the 
lower surface the pale ashy generally extends to the upper breast, 
but sometimes not so far ; rest of lower parts, including the wing- 
h'ning, varying from rufous buff to ferruginous red, edge of wing 
whitish. Some birds (C. threnodes} are much darker than others. 

The young bird is brown above, at first with a few rufous bars 
and tips to the feathers, but later with all the upper plumage and 
tail-feathers barred chestnut and black ; lower parts white or 
rufous, with narrow brown bars throughout. This changes gradu- 
ally into the adult plumage. In the last stage before the adult 
the whole under surface to the chin is rufous buff ; this is the form 
known as C. sepulchralis. As so frequently occurs in Cuckoos, 
the changes are gradual and intermediate forms common. 

Upper mandible and tip of lower dark horny, remainder of lower 
brownish orange ; iris pale yellow, sometimes brown and occasion- 
ally crimson ; feet brownish yellow or deep yellow. 



PENTHOCERYX. 219 

Length about 9; tail 4-2 to 5'5 ; wing 4-3; tarsus *75; bill 
from gape '95. 

Distribution. Two specimens were obtained by Hume from 
Raipur ; no other occurrences of this species have been recorded 
from the Indian Peninsula (one is labelled Madras in the British 
Museum, but evidently by mistake). This Cuckoo is found about 
Calcutta, throughout Eastern Bengal, Assam, and the hills to the 
southward, the Eastern Himalayas from Nepal, also in Burma, 
Southern China, and the Malay Peninsula and islands, including 
the Philippines. 

Habits, $c. The Rufous-bellied Cuckoo is found chiefly in brush- 
wood and about clearings. It has a less plaintive call than C. pas- 
serinus and is a very noisy bird. The eggs have not been identified 
with certainty ; Captain Feilden found what he took for them at 
Thayetmyo in the nests of Tailor-birds. 

Genus PENTHOCERYX, Cabanis, 1862. 

This genus resembles Cacomantis in structure and size, the only 
structural distinctions being that the bill is much stouter and 
broader up to the tip, which is blunt when seen from above, and 
that the tail-feathers become narrower behind instead of remaining 
of the same breadth. The wing is shaped as in Cacomantis, the 
primaries only exceeding the secondaries by one-third the length. 
But the present form is distinguished from all other true Cuckoos 
by undergoing no change of plumage and by retaining in the adult 
stage a barred livery that in the other genera is confined to the 
young. This appears to me a stronger reason for adopting Cabanis's 
genus than the slight structural distinctions mentioned ; but I 
think that the only species of the present group, if not classed 
separately, should be referred to Cacomantis rather than to Cuculus. 

1114. Penthoceryx sonnerati. The Banded Bay Cuckoo. 

Cuculus sonneratii, Latham, Ind. Om. i, p. 215 (1790) ; Blyth, Cat. 

p. 72; Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) xiii, p. 452; Jerdon, B. I. i, 

p. 325; Blyth, Ibis, 18(56, p. 360; Holdsworth, P. Z. S. 1872, 

p. 430 ; Walden, Tr. Z. S. viii, p. 65 ; Blyth fy Wald. Birds Burm. 

p. 80 ; Fairbank, S. F. iv, p. 255 ; Hume # Dav. S. F. vi, p. 156 ; 

Anderson, Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 587 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 207 ; 

id. Cat. no. 202 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 233 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 54 ; 

Butler, ibid. p. 388 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 107 ; id. in Hume's N. fy E. 

2nd ed. ii, p. 382 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 125 ; Shelley, Cat. B. M. 

xix, p. 262. 
Cuculus pravata, Horsf. Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 179 (1821) ; Strickland, 

J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 390. 

Cuculus venustus, Jerdon, Madr.Jour. L. S. xiii, pt. 2, p. 141 (1844). 
Polyphasia sonnerati, Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 699. 
Penthoceryx sonnerati, Cab. fy Heine, Mus. Hein. iv, p. 16 ; Walden, 

Ibis, 1872, p. 367. 
Ololygon tenuirostris, apud Hume, S. F. ii, p. 472 ; iii, p. 80 ; nee 

Cuculus tenuirostris, Gray. 
Basha katti pitta, Tel. ; Punchikoha, Cinghalese. 



CUCULIDJE. 

Coloration. Upper plumage throughout alternately barred with 
rufous and blackish brown, the latter glossed with green ; on the 
forehead the rufous is partly replaced by white ; wing-feathers 
dark brown, the outer webs narrowly, the inner broadly indented 
with rufous ; tail-feathers dark brown, tipped with white, margins 
indented with rufous, the rufous edges increasing on the outer 
feathers till the outermost are rufous with imperfect black bars 
and a subtermiual brown band ; lower plumage throughout buffy 
white, with numerous narrow dark brown cross-bars ; sides of head 
and neck the same, the ear-coverts rufous and brown. In very 
old birds the rufous on the upper parts is reduced and the colour 
becomes darker. The young differ in no important particular from 
adults. 

Upper mandible and tip of lower black, rest of lower greenish 
yellow ; iris brown of different shades ; legs and feet brownish slaty 
or greenish. 

Length about 9'5 ; tail 4'75 to 5'2 : wing 4-6 to 5 ; tarsus -7 ; 
bill from gape I'l. Malay specimens (P. pravatus) are smaller, the 
wing measuring 4 to 4-6 inches. 




Fig. 63. Head of P. sonnerati, }-. 

Distribution. A resident species, common in Ceylon and in the 
forests near the Malabar coast, rare in the Bombay Konkan, and 
very rare elsewhere in the Indian Peninsula and in the Western 
Himalayas, though recorded from Mussooree, Kumaun, Manbhoom, 
and Eaipur ; less rare in the Eastern Himalayas, but still far from 
common, and ranging throughout Burma and the Malay Peninsula 
to Sumatra, Borneo, and Java. 

Habits, <$fc. A shy bird with, according to Legge, a curious far- 
sounding whistle, syllabized as whi, ivhip-ivhiwhip, and a peculiar 
call-note, commencing in a low key, then suddenly changing to a 
higher, and then dying away. This Cuckoo feeds chiefly on cater- 
pillars. Eggs supposed to belong to it have been found in the nest 
of Otocompsa fuscicaudata, measuring -82 by '62. 



Genus CHRYSOCOCCYX, Boie, 1827. 

This is a genus of small Cuckoos distinguished by the sexes 
differing in plumage, and by the male exhibiting brilliant colours 
with a metallic lustre. The structure presents few peculiarities ; 



CHRYSOCOCCYX. 221 

the tail is short and slightly rounded, the wings long and pointed, 
the primaries exceeding the secondaries by more than one- third 
the length of the closed wing. The tarsus is feathered almost 
throughout. 

In the British Museum Catalogue the African forms are placed 
in a separate genus, but I do not think them entitled to distinction. 
The genus in the sense here accepted inhabits the Ethiopian, 
Oriental, and Australian regions and extends to New Zealand. 

Key to the Species. 

Upper parts green C. maculatus, $ ad., p. 222. 

Upper parts violet C. xanthorhynchus, tf ad., p. 221. 

Upper parts coppery bronze C. maculatus, $ & juv., p. 222. 

Head above light rufous, mantle green. C. xanthorhynchus, &juv., 

(p. 221 

1115. Chrysococcyx xanthorhynchus. The Violet Cuckoo. 

Cuculus xanthorhynchus, Horsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 179 

(1821) ; Walden, Ibis, 1876, p. 346. 
Chrysococcyx xanthorhynchus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi, p. 919; id. 

Cat. p. 73; Horsf. 8f M. Cat. ii, p. 706; Walden, Ibis, 1874, 

p. 137 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. 2, p. 155; Blyth, Birds 

Burm. p. 80; Wardl Ramsay, Ibis, 1877, p. 458; Hume, Cat. 

no. 211 bis ; id. S. F. ix, p. 248 ; xi, p. 75 ; Oates, S. F. x, p. 193 ; 

id. B. B. ii, p. 114; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. do. Gen. (2) vii 

p. 432. 
Chalcococcyx xanthorhynchus, Cab. $ Heine, Mus. Hein. iv, p. 15 ; 

Hume, S. F. ii, p. 191 ; iii, p. 81 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, 

pp. 161, 506 ; Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix, p. 289. 
Chrysococcyx limborgi, Tweeddale, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 366 ; id. S. F. 

vii, p. 319 ; Hume, Cat. no. 211 quat. ; Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 168 ; 

Oates, B. B. ii, p. 116. 

Lamprococcyx malayanus, Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 503. 
Chrysococcyx malayanus, Hume, Cat. no. 211 ter ; id. S. F. xi, 

p. 76. 

Coloration. Male. Head and neck all round and upper breast 
with all the upper parts glossy violet ; quills blackish brown ; outer 
tail-feathers tipped white and the outermost pair with about three 
interrupted white bars ; lower breast, abdomen, wing-liniijg, and 
under tail-coverts marked with alternating broad cross-bars of 
white and violet or green. 

Female. Above greenish bronze with a coppery tinge, a little 
white on the forehead; tips of wing and tail-feathers greener; 
quills brown, their inner edges chestnut except near the tips ; all 
tail-feathers except the middle pair banded green and chestnut 
and tipped white, on the outer pair the chestnut on the outer 
web is replaced by white ; lower parts with sides of the head and 
neck alternately banded white and bronze-green, the bands wider 
behind. 

The nestling is rufous except on the breast and abdomen ; the 
head and neck with broad dusky longitudinal streaks ; body above 



222 CUCULIDjE. 

and below and the tail barred with dark brown, but not the quills. 
This passes into a phase of plumage that is barred throughout 
rufous and glossy green above, white and green below ; in some 
male specimens the upper parts are chiefly green, but usually some 
violet feathers appear. The plumage of the young is never the 
the same as that of the adult female, but at one stage the two 
sexes only differ in the barring on the lower parts being broader 
in males. 

In males the bill is orange-yellow ; iris red ; eyelids green, the 
edges red ; mouth orange ; legs brownish green ; claws black. In 
females and young birds only the base of the bill is orange, 
terminal portion dark brown (Oates). 

Length about 6'5 ; tail 2-8 ; wing 4 ; tarsus '6 ; bill from gape *75. 

The type of C. limborgi, now in the British Museum, has 
a broad pure white nuchal collar. It is probably an accidental 
variety, but may possibly belong to a distinct form. It was 
obtained at the base of Muleyit, Tenasserim. 

Distribution. From Dibrugarh in Assam, Cachar and Tipperah, 
throughout Burma and the Malay Peninsula to Sumatra, Borneo, 
and Java, but nowhere common. Found also in the Andaman and 
Nicobar Islands. 

Habits, fyc. According to Oates this Cuckoo is found in dense 
groves, and lives mainly on caterpillars ; it is a silent bird and 
quiet in its movements. Its egg is unknown. 

1116. Chrysococcyx maculatus. The Emerald Cuckoo. 

Trogon maculatus, Gmel Syst. Nat. i, p. 404 (1788). 

Chrysococcyx lucidus, apud Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi ; p. 917 ; xiii t 

p. 390 ; nee Cuculus lucidus, Gfm. 

Chrysococcyx smaragdinus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 53 (1846). 
Chrysococcyx chalcites, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 73; nee Cuculus 

chalcites, Illiger. 
Chrysococcyx hodgsoni, Moore, Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 705 (1856-8) ; 

Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 338; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, 

p. 142 ; Davidson, S. F. x, p. 299. 
Lamprococcyx maculatus, Walden, Ibis, 1869, p. 334 ; Hume fy Dav. 

S. F. vi, pp. 161, 502 ; Salvadori, Ami. Mm. Civ. Gen. (2) iv ; p. 581. 
Chrysococcyx maculatus, Blyth fy Wald. Birds Burm. p. 80 ; 

Walden, Ibis, 1876, p. 345 ; Wardl. Ramsay, Ibis, 1877, p. 458 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 211 ; id. S. F. ix, p. 248; xi, p. 74 ; Bingham, S. F. 

ix, p. 167 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 113. 
Cuculus maculatus, Walden, Ibis, 1876, p. 345 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. 

p. 238. 
Chalcococcyx maculatus, Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix, p. 291 ; Oates in 

Hume's N. # E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 387. 

Ang-pha, Lepcha. 

Coloration. Male. Head and neck all round and upper breast 
with all the upper parts glossy green, tinged in parts with bronze ; 
tips of primaries bluish ; quills brown, inner webs with an elongate 
white patch, forming on all but the first three the basal part of 
the inner margin ; outer tail-feathers tipped white, outermost pair 
with three white bars; lower breast, abdomen, and wing-lining 



SURNICULUS. 

broadly banded alternately with white and metallic green or 
bronze ; under tail-coverts green, with a few white bars. 

Female and immature male. Crown and back of neck pale 
rufous, generally with white and dark brown bars ; back, wings, 
and tail metallic green, much tinged with yellow or coppery 
bronze ; quills brown, each with a rufous patch on the inner web ; 
median tail-feathers broadly tipped with coppery brown ; outer 
tail-feathers barred chestnut and black and tipped white, on the 
outermost pair the chestnut is partly replaced by white ; lower 
parts barred white and copper, more broadly on the abdomen. 

The young has the head and neck rufous all round, but barred 
below. 

Bill bright orange-yellow, tipped black ; irides red-brown ; legs 
and feet dark brownish green. 

Length 7 ; tail 2*9 ; wing 4-4 ; tarsus *6 ; bill from gape '85. 

Distribution. The Himalayas, below about 4000 feet, as far 
west as Kumaun, also Assam and the hills to the southward, 
Manipur, throughout Burma, Siam, and the Malay Peninsula to 
Sumatra and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands ; almost every- 
where rare. Although the species is said to have been originally 
brought from Ceylon, and is stated by Blyth and Jerdon to have 
been procured in Central India (probably Chutia Nagpur), its 
occurrence in the Indian Peninsula and Ceylon must be regarded 
as very doubtful. 

Habits, $~c. According to Davison this Cuckoo has a fine clear 
whistling call of three notes, rapidly uttered. It feeds entirely on 
insects (in Assam, according to Mr. Cripps, on ants), it keeps to 
high branches of trees in forests, and calls on moonlight nights as 
well as in the day. Hume attributes to the present species 
a nearly uniform pale pinkish chocolate egg, found in the nest of 
Stachyrhidopsis ruficeps, and measuring *S by "62. 

Genus SURNICULUS, Lesson, 1831. 

The present genus is remarkable for its extraordinary resem- 
blance in structure and coloration to a Drongo or King-Crow 
(Dicrurus). The plumage is almost entirely black, and the tail 
forked, owing to the lateral rectrices being turned outwards ; the 
extent to which they diverge is variable, and the median rectrices 
are straight. All the tail-feathers are nearly equal in length, except 
the outermost pair, which are much shorter. In other respects 
there is no important difference from Cacomantis, except that the 
young only differ from the adults in having a few white spots and 
less glossy plumage. 

The genus ranges throughout the greater part of the Oriental 
region, a single species occurring in India. 

1117. Surniculus lugubris. The Dronyo Cuckoo. 

Cuculus lugubris, Horsf. Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 179 (1821). 
Pseudonris dicruroides, Hodgs. J. A. 8. B. viii, p. 136 (1839). 
Cuculus dicruroides, Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. xi, p. 221 (1840) ; 



224 CUCULID.E. 

Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi, p. 915; xii, p. 244 ; Layard, A. M. N. H. 

(2) xiii, p. 453. 
Surniculus dicruroides, Blyth, Cat. p. 72; Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, 

p. 696 ; Jerdon, B. 1. i, p. 336; Holdsivorth, P. Z. 8. 1872, p.. 431 '; 

Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlvii, pt. 2, p. 14. 
Surniculus lugubris, Blyth, Cat. p. 72 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 695 ; 

Blyth fy Wald. Birds Burm. p. 80; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, 

pp. 159, 502; Anders. Yunnan Exped. Aves, p. 587; Ball, S. F. 

vii, p. 207 ; Hume, Cat. no. 210; id. S. F. ix, p. 248 : xi, p. 74; 

Legge, Birds Ceyl p. 243 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 128 ; Gates, 

B. B. ii, p. 112 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) vii, p. 380 ; 

Shettey, Cat. B. M. xix, p. 227. 

Kar-rio-vyem, Lepcha. 

Coloration. Black throughout, with a changeable green and 
purple gloss, brightest above ; usually, but not always, there are 
two or three white feathers on the nape, not unfrequently a few 
white spots remain on the upper tail-coverts ; there is always 
a white spot on the inner web of the first primary and an oblique 
band formed by patches on the inner webs of the other quills ; 
part of the thigh-coverts and markings on the lower tail-coverts 
are white, and there are white bars, generally imperfect, on the 
outermost tail-feathers and a few spots on the next pair. 

In the young there is less gloss on the feathers, and small 
terminal white spots are irregularly dispersed over the plumage ; 
the white markings are more developed on the tail-feathers, and 
the under wing-coverts are partly white. 

Bill black ; iris brown ; legs plumbeous ; claws blackish (Gates). 

Length about 10 ; tail 5-25 ; wing 5'5 ; tarsus '65 ; bill from 
gape 1-1. 

Distribution. Apparently very rare in the Peninsula of India, 
having been observed only near Eaipur, on the Godavari below 
Sironcha, and perhaps at another locality in the Southern Central 
Provinces (Jerdon's locality in "Central India"), also in the 
Wynaad and Malabar coast-land. This bird is more common in 
Ceylon, but is locally distributed. It is found at low elevations in 
the Himalayas as far west as Nipal, and from the Eastern 
Himalayas throughout Assam, Burma, and other countries east of 
the Bay of Bengal to Borneo and Java. Probably it is more 
widely distributed in India, but its extraordinary resemblance to a 
King-Crow causes it to be overlooked. 

Habits, fyc. According to Legge, this is a tame, quiet bird, with 
a straight flight, and a remarkably human whistle of six ascending 
notes, as if some one were practising a musical scale. Its food 
consists of caterpillars and beetles with various seeds. It is 
supposed to deposit its eggs in the nests of Dicruri ; and Davison 
has seen two King-Crows feeding a young Surniculus. 

Genus COCCYSTES, Gloger, 1834. 

Unlike any of the preceding genera of Cuckoos, the present is 
distinguished by possessing a pointed occipital crest of some 
length ; the tail is much longer than the wing, and the tail-feathers 



COCCYSTES. 225 

graduated; the wing is short and rounded, the primaries only 
extend one-fourth to one-fifth the length of the closed wing 
beyond the secondaries ; the tarsus is bare except at the base. 
Bill compressed, culmen much curved towards the tip. Sexes 
alike. No distinct plumage in the young. 

The six species belonging to this genus range throughout 
Africa, Southern Europe, and Southern Asia. Two are Indian. 

Key to the Species. 

Upper parts entirely black <?. jacobinus, p. 225. 

A white collar ; wings mostly chestnut C. coromandus, p. 226. 



1118. Coccystes jacobinus. The Pied Crested Cuckoo. 

Cuculus jacobinus, Bodd. Tabl PI Enl p. 53 (1783). 

Cuculus melanoleucus, Gm. Syst. Nat. \, p. 416 (1788). 

Oxylophus melanoleucus, Blyth, Cat. p. 74. 

Coccystes melanoleucus, Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 694 ; Jerdon, B. I. 
i, p. 339 ; id. Ibis, 1872, p. 15 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, 
pt. 2, p. 23 ; King, ibid. p. 214 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, 
pt. 2, p. 155 ; Cordeaux, Ibis, 1888, p. 224. 

Coccystes jacobinus, Holdsworth, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 432 ; Hume, S. F. 
i, p. 173 ; xi, p. 76 ; id. Cat. no. 212 ; Morgan, Ibis, 1875, p. 315 ; 
Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 81 ; Butler, S. F. v, p. 327 ; vii, 
p. 181 ; Davidson $ Wenden, ibid. p. 79 ; Ball,ibid. p. 207 ; Cripps, 
ibid. p. 265 ; Legge, Birds CeyL p. 246 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, 
p. 50 ; Damson, S. F. x, p. 360 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 118 ; id. in 
Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 388 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 129 ; 
Norman, Ibis, 1888, p. 402 ; Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix, p. 217. 

Pupiya, Chatak, H. : Kola bulbttl, Beng. ; Gola kokila, Tangada 
yorankah, Tel. 




Fig. 64. Head of C. jacobinus, \. 

Coloration. Upper plumage throughout and the sides of the 
head black glossed with green ; quills dark brown, with a broad 
white band near the base across the inner webs of all except the 
three innermost, and across the outer w^ebs of all primaries except 
the first ; tail-feathers with white tips, very broad on the outer, 
narrow on the middle pair ; lower parts white, sometimes grey- 
brown, the basal part of the feathers showing. Toung birds are 

VOL. III. Q 



226 CUCULIDJE. 

brown above, buff below, the chin and tbroat grey at first, wing- 
bar and spots at end of tail-feathers buff. 

Bill black, irides red-brown ; legs leaden blue (Jerdon). 

Length 13 ; tail 6*8 ; wing 6 ; tarsus 1*1 ; bill from gape 1*2. 

Distribution. Throughout India from the lower Himalayas, and 
in Ceylon, ranging from Sind, the Punjab, and Kashmir, to Assam, 
Cachar, Manipur, and Upper Burma, but not yet observed in 
Lower Pegu, nor east of the Irrawaddy valley. To the westward 
this Cuckoo is found almost throughout Africa south of the 
Sahara. 

Habits, 6fc. Although there is no reason to suppose that this 
bird migrates at any time of the year out of India, it moves about 
a good deal at different seasons, and in some parts, as in Sind, 
Indore, parts of the Deccan, around Calcutta, at Faridpur in 
Eastern Bengal, and at Shillong in the Khasi hills, it is either 
met with only during the rains or more abundantly at that period. 
It feeds on insects, which it not unfrequently takes on the 
ground. The breeding-season is in July, August, and September, 
and at this time G. jacobinus is very noisy, frequently uttering its 
peculiar call, which Jerdon terms a " high-pitched wild metallic 
note." The female lays in the nest of various species of Crateropus 
and Argya ; the eggs resemble those of the Babblers, being blue 
in colour and measuring about -94 by '73. 



1119. Coccystes coromandus. The Eed-ivinged Crested Cuckoo. 

Cuculus coromandus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 171 (1766). 

Oxylophus coromandus, Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. xi, p. 222 ; Blyth, 

J. A. S. S. xi, p. 920; id. Cat. p. 74; Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) 

xiii, p. 451. 
Coccystes coromandus, Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 693 ; Jerdon, S. I. i, 

p. 341 ; Holdsioorth, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 432 ; Godw.-Aust. J.A.S. B. 

xliii, pt. 2, p. 156 ; Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 81 ; Hume, 

S. F. iii, p. 82 ; xi, p. 76 : id. Cat. no. 213 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. 

vi, p. 162; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 249; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 257 ; 

Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 55 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 117 ; id. in Hume's N. 

fy JE. 2nd ed. ii, p. 391 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 130; Norman, 

Ibis, 1888, p. 400 ; Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix, p. 214. 

Yerra gola kokila, Tel. ; Tseben, Lepcha. 

Coloration. Crown, nape, and sides of head black, the crest- 
feathers brightly glossed with bluish green; a white half-collar 
round the back of the neck ; back, scapulars, lesser wing-coverts 
near the forearm, innermost greater coverts, and tertiaries black, 
richly glossed with green ; remainder of wings, both coverts and 
quills, chestnut, tips of quills dusky ; rump and upper tail-coverts 
black, with a bluish gloss ; tail more purple, the outer feathers 
slightly tipped white ; chin, throat, and fore-neck pale ferruginous ; 
breast white, abdomen and flanks ashy brown, under tail-coverts 
black, with violet gloss like the tail. 

The young has most of the feathers in the upper plumage 



PHCENICOPHAINJE. 227 

tipped with pale rufous, the chin and throat white, under tail- 
coverts and edges of tail-feathers buff. 

Bill black ; mouth inside salmon-colour ; iris pale reddish 
brown ; eyelids plumbeous ; legs plumbeous, claws horny. 

Length about 18'5 ; tail 9'5 ; wing 6*4 ; tarsus 1*1 ; bill from' 
gape 1'4. 

Distribution. This is a very rare bird in India. Jerdon states 
that he saw it in Malabar and the Carnatic, and that it has been 
found in Central India (? Chutia Nagpur). There are skins in 
the Hume collection from Madras, Trichinopoly, and the Nilgiris. 
The only other recorded occurrence I can find is at Sawant Wari, 
where Mr. Vidal obtained a specimen. The species appears to be 
rather more common in Ceylon. It is found at the base of the 
Himalayas in Nepal and farther east, in Assam, Eastern Bengal, 
Tipperah, the Graro hills, and throughout Burma, being common 
in Pegu, and its range extends to the Malay Peninsula, Southern 
China, the Philippines, Borneo, and Celebes. 

Habits, $c. In Ceylon this Cuckoo is migratory, according to 
Legge, arriving on the western coast (probably from India) about 
October, and leaving in April. Elsewhere it is believed to be 
resident. In Pegu, as observed by Gates, it is seen singly or in 
pairs in thick jungle, and is entirely arboreal, feeding on cater- 
pillars. An egg obtained from the oviduct of a female in Tip- 
perah was uniform greenish blue, and measured 1*05 by *92. 
The eggs are probably deposited in nests of Grateropus or Garrulcur, 
or their allies. 



Subfamily PHOENICOPHAIN^E. 

The present subfamily contains a group of Cuckoos of very 
inferior powers of flight, and for the most part inhabitants of 
thick bush. Many of them feed on the ground, a few are fru- 
givorous. Only one genus, Eudynamis, which is in other respects 
aberrant, has parasitic nesting-habits and lays coloured eggs ; all 
the others make nests and hatch their eggs like other birds, and 
have white eggs. 

The tarsus in this subfamily is always naked, the wing short 
and rounded, the tail generally long, well graduated, and broad. 
In many of the genera the plumage of the head and neck is spiny. 
The accessory femoro-caudal muscle is present, and the pectoral 
tract of feathers on each side divides, opposite the articulation of 
the humerus, into two branches, which terminate separately. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Tail and wing- subequal in length; head- 

feathers not spiny EUDYNAMIS, p. 228. 

b. Tail much longer than wing ; head-feathers 

spiny. 
a'. Claws of all toes similar. 

a". Feathers of back and breast not spiny. 



228 CUCULID^E. 

a 3 . Bill red throughout ; general colour 

above grey ZANCLOSTOMUS, p. 230. 

b 3 . Bill partly or wholly green. 

a*. Culmen much curved throughout : 

sexes alike in plumage. 
a 5 . Tail-feathers with white tips. 
a 6 . Naked sides of face not united 

across forehead RHOPODYTES, p. 230. 

b 6 . Naked sides efface united . . PHCENicopHAEs,p.234. 

b 5 . No white on tail-feathers KHAMPHOCOCCYX, 

b*. Culmen almost straight except at [p. 235. 

tip : sexes dissimilar RHINORTHA, p. 236. 

b". Breast and back-feathers spiny, colour 

brownish TACCOCUA, p. 237. 

b'. Claw of hallux much lengthened and 

nearly straight CENTROPUS, p. 239. 

Genus EUDYNAMIS, Vig. & Horsf., 1826. 

Sexes dissimilar ; the adult male being black, the adult female 
spotted or barred. The changes in the young are peculiar, the 
nestling, in the only species in which the various phases have been 
studied, having the coloration of the adult male, then changing 
into a garb resembling that of the female. 

The bill is stout, the culmen rounded and much curved ; the 
wing and tail subequal in length, the latter moderately graduated, 
the rectrices broad. No crest. Legs stout ; tarsus strongly 
scutellate in front, only plumed at the extreme base. 

The genus ranges throughout the Oriental region to New 
Guinea and Australia. About six species are known, only one of 
which inhabits India. 

1120. Eudynamis honorata. The Indian Koel. 

Cuculus honoratus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 169 (1766). 

Cuculus orientalis, apud Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi, p. 913, nee Linn. 

Eudynamis orientalis, Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. xi, p. 222 ; Pearson, 
J.A.S. B. x, p. 657 ; Blyih, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 245 ; xvi, p. 468 ; 
id. Cat. p. 73 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 707 ; Jerdon, B. L i, p. 342 ; 
Blyih, Ibis, 1866, p. 363 ; A. Anderson, Ibis, 1873, p. 74. 

Eudynamis honorata, Walden, Ibis, 1869, p. 338 ; Hume, N. $ E. 
p. 139; id. S. F. i, p. 173 ; Adam, ibid. p. 373; A. Anderson, 
Ibis, 1875, p. 142; Hume, S. F. iv, p. 463; Butler, S. F. vii, 
p. 182 ; Ball, ibid. p. 207 ; Hume, Cat. no. 214; Scully, S. F. viii, 
p. 257 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 251 ; Reid, 8. F. x, p. 27 ; Barnes, 
Birds Bom. p. 130 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 392 ; 
Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix, p. 316. 

Eudynamis malayana, Cab. 8f Heine, Mus. Hein. iv, p. 52 (1862) ; 
Walden, Ibis, 1869, p. 339 ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 192 ; xi, p. 77 ; id. 
Cat. no. 214 bis ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 162 ; Oates, B. B. ii, 
p. 119 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) iv, p. 581 ; v, p. 569. 

Eudvnamis chinensis, Cab. fy Hein, 1. c. note ; Blyth, Birds Burm. 
p/81. 

Koel, H. ; Kokil, Beng. ; Kokila, Nallak rf, Podak $, Tel.; Kusil, 
Koel, Tamul (Ceylon) ; Kaputa Koha 3 , Gomera Koha , Cing. ; Ou-au, 
Burmese. 



EUDYNAMIS. 229 

Coloration. Male black throughout with a bluish-green gloss. 

Female. Above brown with an olive gloss ; head and neck 
spotted with white all round, more closely below ; back and wing- 
coverts also spotted ; quills and tail-feathers barred with white ; 
the spots of the fore-neck pass gradually into equal bars of white 
and glossy brown, which cover the breast and abdomen. 

The nestling is black throughout at first, but it soon assumes a 
livery much like that of the adult female, but with the spots and 
bars rufous, the head with broad rufous shaft-stripes, the throat- 




Fig. 65. Head of E. honorata, ' <, j. 

with broad whitish streaks, the breast with large white spots, and 
the abdomen with dark arrowhead marks. From this both sexes 
appear to pass into the adult plumage without moulting. Some 
young males are found almost without rufous spots or bars. 
Probably the changes that take place vary. 

Bill dull green, dusky at the gape ; iris bright crimson ; legs 
plumbeous, claws dark horny. 

Length about 17 ; tail 7 to 8'5 ; wing 7 to 8-25 ; tarsus 1/3 ; 
bill from gape 1*6. 

Distribution. Throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma, except on 
the Himalayas above the tropical zone. This bird is rare in Sind 
and the Punjab, and not known to occur farther west ; to the 
eastward its range extends to China, and to the south-east 
throughout the Malay Archipelago to Flores. Mr. Hume found 
it in the Laccadive Islands, and it is common on the Andamans 
and Nicobars. The race from the countries east of the Bay of 
Bengal has been distinguished as E. malayana on account of 
rather larger size and a little stronger bill, the female, too, is said 
to be more rufous, but the differences are neither well marked nor 
constant. 

Habits, $c. The Koel is one of the familiar Indian birds, well 
known to every resident in the country. In the breeding-season, 
from March or April till July, its cry of ku-il, Jcu-il, repeated 
several times, increasing in intensity and ascending in the scale, 
is to be heard in almost every grove. It has another call, like 
7w-i/-o, uttered by the male alone. This Cuckoo keeps much to 
groves of trees in cultivated tracts, and is rare in large forests. 
In Pegu and Tenasserim, according to Gates and Davison, it 
makes its appearance in February and disappears about July, 



230 CUCULID^E. 

but it probably does not migrate to any great distance, and in 
India generally it is a resident. It feeds entirely on fruit. It 
lays in May and June in the nests of Crows, generally Corvus 
splendens, less frequently in those of C. macrorliynchus, and not 
unfrequently two or more Keel's eggs may be found in the same 
nest. The eggs much resemble those of Crows, but are smaller ; 
they are dark green, blotched and spotted with reddish brown, and 
measure about 1-19 by -92. The Crows bring up the Koel, which 
.at times, at all events, ejects the young Crows, after they are 
hatched. Koels are often kept caged by natives of India, who 
admire the bird's rich melodious call-notes. 



Genus ZANCLOSTOMUS, Swainson, 1837. 

Bill compressed, moderately deep ; culrnen much curved, red in 
colour ; nostril elongate, longitudinal, a small naked space round 
the orbit. Feathers of forehead and throat spiny. Wing short, 
rounded, primaries scarcely longer than secondaries ; tail very 
long, greatly graduated, the outer tail-feathers half or less than 
half the length of the median pair. Tarsus naked. 

Only one species is included in this genus. 

1121. Zanclostomus javanicus. The Lesser Red-billed Malkoha. 

Phcenicophaus javanicus, Horsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 178 (1821). 
Zanclostomus javanicus, Swains. Class. Birds, ii, p. 323 ; Blyth, 

J. A. S. B. xi, p. 1097 ; id. Cat. p. 76 j Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 688 ; 

Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 81 ; Hume # Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 167, 506 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 216 quint. ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 125 ; Shelley, Cat. 

B. M. xix, p. 380. 

Coloration. Upper parts, except the tail, ashy grey, strongly 
glossed with green on the wings, rump, and upper tail-coverts ; 
quills brownish grey ; tail blackish, glossed with purple, varying 
to green, the rectrices tipped white ; chin, lores, cheeks, throat, 
and fore-neck pale ochraceous ; breast grey washed with rufous ; 
abdomen rusty red. 

Bill in adults coral-red ; irides brown, naked space round eye 
blue ; legs and feet dark plumbeous. 

Length about 17 ; tail 10-75 ; wing 5-5 ; tarsus 1*4 ; bill from 
gape 1'6. 

Distribution. Java, Sumatra, Borneo, and the Malayan Penin- 
sula, extending into Tenasserim as far north as Tavoy, but very 
rare. 

Genus EHOPODYTES, Cab. & Heine, 1862. 

Bill deeper than in Zanclostomus and of a pale green colour ; 
nostril small, rounded or oval and oblique ; a large naked space 
round the orbit, separated from the bill by a narrow band of 
feathers. No eyelashes. Otherwise as in Zanclostomus , from 
which Rhopodytes is doubtfully separable. 



RHOPODYTES. 231 

This genus ranges almost throughout the Oriental region, and 
four species occur within our area. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Abdomen grey or blackish. 

a'. Orbital skin blue : length about 15*5 . . R. viridirostris, p. 231. 
b'. Orbital skin red. 

a". Length about 23 R. tristis, p. 232. 

b". Length about 15 to 16 R. diardi, p. 233. 

b. Abdomen ferruginous red R. sumatranus, p. 233. 

1122. B/hopodytes viridirostris. The Small Green-billed Malkoiha. 

Zanclostomus viridirostris, Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. xi, p. 223 

(1840) ; id. III. 2nd. Orn. pi. 3; id. B. I. i, p. 346 ; Blyth, Cat. 

p. 76'; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 690: Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) 

xiii, p. 453; Holdsworth, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 432; Legge, Birds 

Ceyl. p. 258. 

Phcenicophseus jerdoni, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi, p. 1095 (1842). 
Rhopodytes viridirostris, Cab. fy Heine, Mus. Hein. iv, p. 63 ; Dav. 

8f Wend. S. F. vii, p. 79 ; Ball, ibid. p. 207 ; Hume, Cat. no. 216 ; 

Tidal, S. F. ix, p. 55 ; Butler, ibid. p. 389 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 360 ; 

Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 131 ; Gates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, 

p. 399 ; Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix, p. 385. 

Kappra Popya, H. ; Wamana Kaki, Tel. ; Kusil, Tana. (Ceylon) ; 
Mal-kcendetta, Cing. 

Feathers of throat and fore-neck bifurcate, there being no web 
to the terminal portion of the shaft, and the plumage of those parts 
looking as if wet or partially stuck together. 

Coloration. Upper parts dark ashy with a green gloss, which 
becomes much stronger and metallic on the wings and tail ; the 
remiges and rectrices glossy above and below, and the latter 
broadly tipped with white ; underparts pale ashy, throat and 
fore-neck streaked, owing to the structure of the feathers ; breast 
whitish, more or less tinged with rufous. 

Bill bright apple-green ; naked skin around eyes cobalt-blue ; 
irides blood-red ; legs blackish green (Jerdon). 

Length about 15-5 ; tail 875 to 10 ; wing 5-1 to 5-4 ; tarsus 1'35 ; 
bill from gape 1*4. 

Distribution. The Peninsula of India as far north as Ratnagiri 
and Belgaum to the westward, Sironcha on the Godavari, Cuttack, 
and, according to Ball, Midnapore to the eastward; also Ceylon 
in the low country. This Cuckoo does not ascend the hills. 

Habits, <$fc. A haunter of bamboo- and bush-jungle, often found 
in hedges and other thickets about cultivation. This bird lives, 
according to Jerdon, on various large insects grasshoppers, man- 
tides, caterpillars, &c. In Ceylon, according to more than one 
observer, it feeds chiefly on fruit. Like its allies, it has a very 
weak flight. The nest has been taken on the 10th March by 
Mr. Cardew in North Arcot, and by Mr. H. Wenden in July at 



232 CUCULID^E. 



Nulwar Station (G. I. P. By.), and is cup-shaped, roughly con- 
structed of twigs and lined with green leaves. It contained in 
each case two chalky white eggs, measuring about 1-12 by -87. 



1123. Rhopodytes tristis. The Large Green-billed Malkolia. 

Meliastristis, Less. TraiU d'Ornith. p. 132 (1831) ; id. Voy. Belanger, 

Zool. p. 231, Ois. pi. i. 
Phcenicophaeus longicaudatus, Btyth, J.A.S. B. x, p. 923 (1841) ; xi, 

p. 1095; xii, p.246. 
Zanclostomus tristis, Blyth, Cat. p. 76; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, 

p. 691 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 345 ; Godiv.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix r 

pt. 2, p. 98; Blyth fy Wald. Birds Burm. p. 81. 
Rhopodytes tristis, Cab. Heine, Mus. Hein. iv, p. 64 ; Oates 8f 

Hume, S. F. v, p. 144 ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 162 ; Ball, S. F. 

vii, p. 207 ; Hume, Cat. no. 215 ; id. S. F. xi, p. 77 ; Scully, S. F. 

viii, p. 258 ; Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 168; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 121 ; 

Salvad&ri, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) iv, p. 582 ; v, p. 569 ; vii r 

p. 381 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 397 ; Shelley, Cat, 

B. M. xix, p. 386. 

Ban-kokil, Beng. ; Sanku, Lepcha ; Bamura, Assam ; Wapalai, 
Burmese. 

Coloration. Some black bristles scattered over the forehead and 
chin and around the gape ; lores black, a band above the lores and 
naked orbital area black and white mixed ; head and neck above 
ashy grey, with a greenish wash, which passes on the back into 
glossy green ; wings and tail black, richly glossed with green both 
above and below ; some blue gloss on the quills ; tail-feathers 
broadly tipped with white ; chin and cheeks whitish, feathers black- 
shafted, passing into colour of throat, which is pale brownish ashy, 
becoming darker on the breast and passing into dark ashy on the 
abdomen. 

Bill pale green, tinged at gape and about base with red ; irides 
brown or reddish brown ; orbital skin dull dark to bright crimson ; 
legs and feet dark greenish plumbeous (Davisori). 

Length about 23 ; tail about 15 ; wing 6-5 ; tarsus 1*6 ; bill from 
gape 1'6. 

Distribution. The outer Himalayas below about 8000 ft. 
elevation as far west as Kumaun ; also Bengal and, according to 
Jerdon, Chutia Nagpur and the Northern Circars (this needs 
confirmation) ; common in Assam, the hill-tracts to the south- 
ward, throughout Burma, except to the extreme south of Tenas- 
serim, and in Siam, Cambodia, and Cochin China. 

Habits, fyc. This bird, like others of the genus, keeps singly or in 
pairs to thick scrub, and is but rarely seen on the wing ; its flight is 
slow and heavy, and when flushed it escapes into bush or forest as 
quickly as it can, and makes its way with great rapidity through 
dense cover. It feeds on the ground upon insects of all kinds. 
It has a low clucking note, called by Davison a cat-like chuckle. 
It breeds in Sikhim about May, in Burma from March till 



BHOPODYTES. 233 

July; the nest is a loose platform of twigs, with two or three 
white chalky eggs, measuring about 1'46 to 1*05. 

1124. Rhopodytes diardi. Diard's Green-billed Malkoha. 

Melias diardi, Lesson, Traite cCOrnith. p. 132 (1831). 
Phcenicophaeus tristis, apud Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi, p. 928 ; xii, p. 246. 
Zanclostomus diardi, Blyth, Cat. p. 76 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 690 ; 

Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 81. 
Rhopodytes diardi, Cab. $ Heine, Mus. Hem. iv, p. 61 ; Sharpe, 

P. Z. S. 1873, p. 604, fig. 9 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 163 ; Hume, 

Cat. no. 215 bis ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 122 ; Shelley, Cat. B. M. 

xix, p. 390. 

Coloration. Almost the same as that of R. tristis. The narrow 
line of feathers on the lores black ; head and neck dark ashy 
grey ; lower hind-neck, back, rump, wings, and tail, the latter two 
both above and below, rich glossy metallic green, passing into 
blue ; all the tail-feathers tipped with white, less broadly than 
in R. tristis. Lower parts ashy, chin whitish, the rest dark, 
becoming blackish on the abdomen. 

Bill pale green ; irides dark brown ; bare orbital space crimson ; 
edges of eyelids black ; legs and feet dark plumbeous green 
(Davison). 

Length about 15; tail 9; wing 5; tarsus 1-25; bill from 
gape 1-4. 

Distribution. From the neighbourhood of Mergui throughout 
Southern Tenasserim and the Malay Peninsula to Sumatra. 

Habits, <$fc. Similar to those of R. tristis., which this species 
replaces south of Mergui. 

1125. Rhopodytes sumatranus. The Sumatran 
Green-billed Malkoha. 

Cuculus sumatranus, Raffi. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 287 (1822). 
Zanclostomus sumatranus, Blyth, Cat. p. 76 ; Horsf. 8f M. Cat. ii, 

p. 689. 
Rhopodytes sumatranus, Cab. fy Heine, Mus. Hein. iv, p. 62 ; Hume 

8f Dav. S. F. vi, p. 164; Hume, Cat. no. 215 ter; Shelley, Cat. 

B. M. xix, p. 391. 
Poliococcyx sumatranus, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 606, fig. 14 ; Oates, 

B. B. ii, p. 123. 

Nostrils long, oblique. 

Coloration. Narrow band of feathers on lores black, a few white 
feathers sometimes, not always, present above the bare orbital 
area; head above dark ashy grey, passing on the neck into 
metallic green, which covers the remainder of the upper surface ; 
quills and outer tail-feathers steel-blue above and below ; all the 
tail-feathers with moderate white tips. Chin and throat ashy; 
breast darker, with a wash of glossy green ; abdomen and lower 
tail-coverts deep bay. Shafts of head- and neck-feathers black, 
but not conspicuous. 



234 CUCULID^E. 

Bill pale green ; irides pale blue ; bare orbital space orange, 
palest round the eye, shading to blood-red at the posterior angle ; 
legs and feet plumbeous green (Davison). 

Length about 16; tail 9-5; wing 5-5; tarsus 1-4; biH from 
gape 1-5. 

Distribution. Tenasserim, south of Mergui (common on the 
island of Mergui), the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, and 
Borneo. 

Genus PHCENICOPHAES, Vieillot, 1816. 

Bill stout, wide at the base, compressed in front ; culmen 
curved throughout, upper mandible very high ; nostril a narrow- 
longitudinal slit, parallel to the commissure and close to it. Sides 
of the head naked and papillose, the bare skin extending across 
the forehead all round the base of the upper mandible ; no eye- 
lashes. Tail long, broad, and graduated ; wing rounded. Feathers 
of crown and throat with stiff projecting shafts. Sexes only 
differing in the colour of the iris. 

A single species. 




Fig. 66. Head of P. pyrrhocephalus, \. 

1126. Phcenicophaes pyrrhocephalus. The Red-faced Mdlkoha. 

Cuculus pyrrhocephalus, Forster, Ind. Zool p. 16, pi. yi (1781). 
Phcenicophaeus pyrrhocephalus, Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xi, p. 927 ; id. 
Cat. p. 75 ; Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) xiii, p. 453 ; Holdsworth, 
P. Z. S. 1872, p. 433 ; Legge, 8. F. i, p. 346. 

Phcenicophaes pyrrhocephalus, Walden, Tr. Z. 8. tiii, p. 52, fig. 8 ; 
Sharpe. P. Z. S. 1873, p. 605, fig. 11 ; Hume, Cat. no. 216 bis ; 
Legge, Birds Ceyl p. 255, pi. xii ; Parker, Ibis, 1886, p. 184 j 
Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix, p. 395. 

Mal-kcendetta, Warreliya, Cingalese. (The first-named appears to 
have been the origin of the term Malkoha, quoted by Forster, and 
applied to several Ground-Cuckoos by European ornithologists.) 

Coloration. Crown, hind neck, and sides of neck black, with 



RHAMPHOCOCCYX. 235 

a greenish gloss, narrowly streaked with white; rest of upper 
parts metallic bluish green; quills more blue; tail-feathers with 
long white tips, longest on the outer rectrices ; chin and cheeks 
white with black shaft-marks ; throat and fore-neck glossy black ; 
rest of lower parts white. 

Bill apple-green ; irides brown in males, white in females ; 
whole sides of face crimson ; legs and feet bluish slate (Legge). 

Length about 18; tail 11; wing 6'25; tarsus 1-4; bill from 
gape 1-6. 

Distribution. Peculiar to Ceylon, found in the forests of the 
lower tracts almost throughout the island. 

Habits, fyc. According to Legge this is a shy bird, generally 
keeping to forests with much undergrowth. It is often seen in 
small flocks. As a rule it is silent, but at times utters a low 
monosyllabic call when flying about. It lives chiefly on fruit, but 
occasionally eats small insects, and its flesh is said to be well- 
flavoured. 



Genus RHAMPHOCOCCYX, Cabanis, 1862. 

Bill similar to that of Phwnicophaes, the nostrils at the base 
varying in form. A large naked area round the eye, extending to 
the base of the bill, but not across the forehead ; small eyelashes 
present. No white on the plumage. Otherwise this genus closely 
resembles PTicenicopliaes. 

I do not regard Ithinococcycc, Dryococcyx, and Urococcyx as 
generically distinct] from Rliamphococcycc, the differences in the 
shape of the nostrils, on which these genera were founded, not 
being by themselves of sufficient importance. The genus Rhampho- 
coccyx, as here understood, comprises five known species, and 
ranges from Tenasserim to Celebes. One species only occurs in 
Burma. 

1127. Rhamphococcyx erythrognathus. 

Phcenicophaes erythrognathus, Hartlaub, Syst. Verz. Mus. Brem. 

p. 95 (1844) ; Walden, Tr. Z. S. viii, p. 53, fig. 7 ; Blyth, Birds 

Burm. p. 81 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 165, 506. 
Phcenicopnaus curvirostris, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 75 ; id. J. A. S. B. 

xxiv, p. 278 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 687 ; nee Cuculus curvirostris, 

Shaw. 
Khamphococcyx erythrognathus, Cab. fy Heine, Mus. Hein. iv, 

p. 67 ; Hume, Cat. no. 216 ter ; Oates, B. B. ii. p. 124. 
Urococcyx erythrognathus, Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix, p. 398. 

Coloration. Upper parts metallic green ; head greyer and less 
glossy; quills bluish green above, purple beneath ; terminal 3 or 4 
inches of each tail-feather almost always dark chestnut (very 
rarely green) ; in some specimens there is a narrow white super- 
ciliary line above the naked orbital area ; chin and cheeks ashy 
grey (whitish in some individuals); throat, breast, and lower 



236 

tail-coverts dull chestnut ; abdomen darker and duller ; flanks and 
thigh-coverts blackish with a green gloss. 

Bill pale green ; both mandibles maroon-red near the base ; 
irides blue in the male, yellow in the female ; legs and feet dark 
plumbeous. 

Length about 18'5; tail 11; wing 6-75; tarsus 1-6; bill from 
gape 1-9. 

Distribution. The Malayan Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo, 
ranging into Southern Tenasserim as far north as Yay. 

Habits, fyc. According to Tickell and Davison, very similar to 
those of its allies. Tickell observed that this species fed on 
" Coleoptera, Hemiptera, and very large caterpillars." 

Genus RHINORTHA, Vigors, 1830. 

Bill longer than in the preceding genera and compressed, the 
culmen almost straight till near the tip ; nostril oval, longitudinal ; 
naked area around the eye not separated from the bill by feathers 
on the lores. Wings and tail as in Zandostomus. Feathers of 
head spiny. Sexes different. 

A single species. 

1128. Rhinortha chlorophaea. Raffles' s Green-billed Matkoha. 

Cuculus chlorophaeus, Raffl. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 288 (1822). 
Rhinortha chlorophsea, Vig. App. Mem. Raffl. p. 671 ; Blyth, J. A. 

S. B. xi, p. 924 ; xii, p. 246 ; xiv, p. 199 ; xvi, p. 468 ; id. Cat. 

p. 76 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 692 ; Sharps, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 603, 

fig. 8 ; Walden, in Blyttis Birds Burm. p. 82 ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. 

vi, p. 166 ; Hume,Cat. no. 216 quat. ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 120 ; Shelley, 

Cat. B. M. xix, p. 393. 




Fig. 67. Head of R. chloropkaa, 

Coloration. Male. Head and neck above chestnut, back and 
wings rather darker, quills broadly tipped dusky ; rump and upper 
tail-coverts and tail dull black, with narrow grey cross-bars, not quite 
so close together on the tail ; ail tail-feathers broadly tipped white, 
the pale bars wanting near the white tip ; chin, throat, and sides of 
head and neck pale chestnut, growing paler on the breast and then 
passing into dull brown with close faint cross-bars on the abdomen, 
flanks, and lower tail-coverts. 

Female. Head and neck above and on the sides ashy grey ; back, 
rump, wings, and tail deep chestnut, the quills with dusky tips, the 



TACCOCUA. 237 

tail-feathers tipped with white and with a subterminal black band ; 
lower parts to the breast pale grey, sometimes washed with buff, 
becoming more rufous on the breast and abdomen ; flanks and lower 
tail-coverts chestnut. 

Bill apple-green ; orbital skin pale green, inclining to bluish ; 
irides dark brown ; legs and feet dark plumbeous (Davison). 

Length about 13; tail 7 ; wing 4-5; tarsus 1-05 ; bill from gape 
1-4. 

Distribution. In Tenasserim as far north as Lemyne, a little 
north of Yay, also throughout the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and 
Borneo. 

Habits, #c. According to Davison, this Ground- Cuckoo fre- 
quents the densest parts of evergreen forests and cane-brakes. In 
all its habits it resembles Rhopodytes, but has a different note, a 
peculiar cat-like mew, not a chuckle. It is almost invariably 
found in pairs and feeds on insects. 

Genus TACCOCUA, Lesson, 1831. 

Bill shorter and deeper than in Zanclostomus and Rhopodytes 
upper mandible distinctly festooned near the base. Wings short 
and rounded ; tail long, broad, and graduated, upper tail-coverts 
more than half as long as the tail. The plumage of the head, neck, 
upper back, and breast spinous, shafts of the frontal feathers pro- 
jecting. A row of coarse bristles nearly surrounds the eye except 
behind. Tarsus strong. Claws short and curved. Plumage above 
grey. 

A single species, peculiar to India and Ceylon. 

1129. Taccocua leschenaulti. The Sirkeer Cuckoo. 




Hume, Cat. no. 219 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 266; Vidal, S. F. ix, 
p^ 56 ; Butler, ibid. p. 389 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 361 ; Barnes, 
Birds Bom. p. 134 ; Oates in Hume's N. 8f JS. 2nd ed. ii, p. 408. 

Centropus sirkee, Gray in Hardw. III. 2nd. Zool. i, pi. 28 (1830-32). 

Taccocua infuscata, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 201 (1845) ; id. Cat 
p. 77 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 687 ; Jerdon. B. I. i, p. 353 : Hume 
Cat, no. 221 ; Scully S. F. viii, p. 258. 

Taccocua sirkee, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 201 ; id. Cat. p. 77 ; Horsf. 
Sf M. Cat. ii, p. 687 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 353 ; id. Ibis, 1872, p. 16 
McMaster, J. A. S. B. xl, pt. 2, p. 209 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli 
pt. 2, p. 234 ; Hume, Cat. no. 220 ; Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p 411 
Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 408 ; Shelley, Cat. B. M 
xix, p. 381. 

Taccocua affinis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 19 (1846) ; id. Cat. p. 77 ; 
Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 354 ; King, J. A. S. B. xxxviii, pt. 2. p. 214 ' 
Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxviii, pt. 2, p. 168 ; id. S. F. v, p. 246 ' 
Fairbank, S. F. iv, p. 255 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 208 ; Hume Cat 
no. 222. 

The Southern, Bengal, Northern, and Central Indian Sirkeers, Jerdon ; 
Jangli tola, II. ; Adavi chilluka, Potu chilluka, Tel. 



238 

Coloration. Upper parts light earthy brown, varying in tint 
from olive-grey to pale sandy or yellowish brown, always with 
more or less of a green satiny gloss on the wings and middle tail- 
feathers, and generally with some on the upper surface throughout ; 
quills hair-brown ; all tail-feathers except the middle pair black with 
broad white tips, middle tail-feathers narrowly and subobsoletely 
banded ; chin and throat pale buff, fore-neck and upper breast 
varying from greyish brown more or less tinged with rufous to 
buff like the throat ; lower breast and abdomen, with the wing- 
lining, rufous, varying in depth of tint ; shafts of head, neck, back, 
and upper breast-feathers shining black. 

Bill cherry-red, yellowish at the tip ; irides reddish brown ; feet 
plumbeous (Jerdon). 

Length 16-5 to 17*5 ; tail 8-5 to 10 ; wing 5 to 6'5 ; tarsus 1/7 ; 
bill from gape 1/4. 




Fig. 68. Head of T. leschenaulti, \. 

Distribution. The Peninsula of India and Ceylon. This species 
inhabits the lower Himalayas from the Bhutan Duars to Chamba, 
and is found, though very rarely, in Sind and the Punjab on the 
west, and throughout Bengal on the east, but not beyond ; it is 
generally distributed in the peninsula, but is not common ; and in 
Ceylon it is rare and local ; it ascends the hills in Southern India 
to 5000 or 6000 feet and those of Ceylon to about 4000. 

As with many other Indian birds there are three fairly marked 
races : (1) a large dark-coloured form (T. infuscata) inhabits the 
base of the Himalayas ; (2) a paler race, not quite so large (T. sirki), 
is found in Upper India, the NVW. Provinces, Punjab, &c. ; whilst 
(3) the birds of Southern India and Ceylon are smaller and darker 
(T. leschenaulti). Skins from Bengal and the Central Provinces 
(T. affinis) are intermediate in character. Hume has shown that of 
the four supposed species of Blyth and Jerdon only two can be 
distinguished at all, and these pass into each other, and Shelley has, 
I think, rightly united the whole. The English name "Sirkeer" 
was used by Latham, Hist. Birds, iii, p. 267. The origin of the 
term, a supposed Indian name " Surkool " or " Sircea," has not 
been traced. As it is impossible to say which of the specific 



CENTROPUS. 239 

names sirkee and leschenaulti was first published, I give the prefer- 
ence to the less barbarous of the two. 

Habits, Afc. This, like its allies, is a Ground-Cuckoo, found chiefly 
in thickets or long grass, very shy and rarely seen. It feeds on the 
ground, chiefly on grasshoppers and other insects, such as beetles 
and termites, occasionally on lizards. Its flight is very feeble. It 
breeds in Northern India from May to August, but on the Mlgiris 
and Malabar coast in March and April, and makes a loose cup- 
shaped nest of twigs lined with green leaves, in which are laid 
usually three chalky white eggs, measuring about T39 by 1'07. 



Genus CENTROPUS, Illiger, 1811. 

This genus is distinguished from all other members of the 
family by having on the hallux a long nearly straight hind claw, 
very much like a Lark's. The other claws are but little curved. 
The tarsus is strong and naked. The bill is deep, moderately large, 
with the culmen much curved ; the nostrils are partly covered by 
a membrane. There is a row of bristles above the eye. The wing 
is short and rounded, the primaries scarcely exceeding the second- 
aries in length ; the tail is graduated, long and broad. The feathers 
of the head, neck, and breast are harsh and spinous. Sexes alike. 

About 30 species, of which 4 occur within our area, are comprised 
in Centropus, which ranges almost throughout the Ethiopian and 
Oriental regions, Papua and Australia. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Under wing-coverts black or grey or 

mottled. 
a. Head and body black. 

a". Bill black C. sinensis, p. 239. 

b". Bill green or vellow C. chlororhynchus, p. 242. 

b'. Head and body brown or buff C. andamanensis, p. 242. 

b. Under wing-coverts chestnut C. bengalensis, p. 243. 

1130. Centropus sinensis. TJie Common Coucalor Q row-Pheasant. 
Pelophilua sinensis, Steph. Gen. Zool. ix, p. 51 (1815). 




p. 246 ; xiv, p. 202 ; id. Cat. p. 78 ; Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) xiii, 

p. 450, nee Cuvier. 
Centropus sinensis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 247 ; xiv, p. 202 ; id. Cat. 

Add. p. xix ; Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix, p. 343. 
Centropus rufipennis, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 321 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, 

p. 681 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 348 ; id. Ibis, 1872, p. 15 ; Hume,S. X\ 

i, p. 173 ; Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 81 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. 

p. 260; Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 411 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 132 ; 

Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 400 ; nee llliyer. 



240 CUCULIDjE. 

Centrococcyx rufipennis, Cab. 8f Heine, Mus. Hein. iv, p. 116 ; Hall, 
S. F. vii, p. 207 ; Hume, Cat. no. 217 ; Gates in Hume's N. fy E. 
2nd ed. ii, p. 400. 

Centropus eurycercus, apud Hume, S. F. ii, p. 196 ; nee Hay. 

Centrococcyx eurycercus, apud Hume fy Oates, S. F. iii, p. 83. 

Centrococcyx intermedius, Hume, S. F. i, p. 454 ; xi, p. 77 ; id. Cat. 
no. 217 quat. ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 168 ; Oates, B. B. ii, 
p. 126 ; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 404. 

Centrococcyx maximus, Hume, S. F. i, p. 454 ; id. Cat. no. 217 quint. ; 
Oates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 405. 

Mahoka, H. ; Kuka, Beng. ; Jemudu-kaki, Tel. ; Katti-kaka, Tain. ; 
Chembigum, Tarn. Ceylon ; .sEtti-kukkula, Cing. ; Bote, Burmese ; Crow- 
Pheasant of Europeans in India. 




Fig. 69. Foot of C. sinensis, |. 

Coloration. Whole plumage, except the wings, black with a 
green gloss, varying to seel-blue .and purple, especially on the 
upper back ; the tail generally dull green ; shafts of the feathers 
on the head, neck, and breast shining black ; wings with their 
coverts and scapulars chestnut, tips of quills dusky ; wing-lining 
black. 

In the young there is much variation ; the upper parts are 
black with rufous or white bars and spots ; the wings and coverts 
are barred chestnut and black ; tail dark brown, with narrow wavy 
whitish bars; lower parts dull black, with greyish-white bars. 
The change to the adult plumage is gradual. 

Bill black ; iris crimson ; legs black (Jerdori). 

Length about 19; tail 9 to 11 ; wing 7 to 9-4; tarsus 2; bill 
from gape 1-8. Females are larger than males. 

Distribution. Throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma, with the 
exception of the Himalayas, in which tjris species is rare and 



CENTEOPUS. 241 

confined to low elevations ; also China, Siam, and the Malay 
Peninsula and islands. 

Hume, who has been followed by several writers, has divided 
the Indian Coucals into three species thus distinguished : 

Interscapulars black ; wing 7 to 8. 1. C. rufipennis : Indian Peninsula 

and Ceylon. 
Interscapulars chestnut. 

Wing 7*3 to 8-25 2. C. intermedius : Eastern Bengal 

Assam, Burma, <fcc. 

Wing 9 to 9-5 3. C. maximus : Sind and Northern 

India. 

And unquestionably these are three well-marked races. The differ- 
ences between C. intermedius and C. maximus are, however, not so 
clear as was at first supposed. I find Delhi and Sikhim male speci- 
mens, referred to the latter by Hume, with wings of 8-3, whilst wings 
of Tenasserim males measure 7'75; and as Manipur birds are inter- 
mediate in size, I regard this as one of the numerous instances in 
which there is a diminution of size to the southward. The dis- 
tinction of the Peninsular and Ceylonese form I should accept, 
but that several South Indian and Ceylonese specimens in the 
British Museum have the interscapulary area chestnut as in 
Burmese birds. I therefore agree with Shelley in uniting all 
these races. I should add that the form called G. intermedium by 
Hume is identical with the Chinese bird C. sinensis, and that the 
name C. rufipennis, Illiger, does not belong to this species, but to 
the Philippine C. viridis : those who require a distinct term for 
the Indian Peninsular bird should call it C. castanopterus. C. eury- 
cercus, with a broad blue tail, 12-13 inches long, from the Malay 
Peninsula and Sumatra, appears to me distinct from C. sinensis, 
though Shelley has united them. 

Habits, fyc. This is one of the common birds of India. It is 
found in cultivated ground, waste land, or bush-jungle, less com- 
monly in forest ; it is frequently seen in bushes on the banks of 
stream-beds and in hedge-rows. Its flight is slow and laboured. 
It feeds on the ground on insects, and occasionally on lizards and 
small snakes. It may often be seen walking on the ground, and 
both on the ground and on trees it has a trick of raising its large 
tail over its back. It has a peculiar sonorous call like hoop, hoop, 
hoop, repeated slowly several times. It breeds chiefly in June, 
July, and August, earlier in Southern India, and makes a huge 
globular nest of twigs, green and dry leaves, and coarse grass, 
generally, but not invariably, with a lateral entrance, and placed 
in a thick and often thorny bush or tree. The eggs are broad 
regular ovals, white and covered with a chalky layer; they are 
usually three in number, and measure about 1-44 by 1*16. 

Coucals are regarded as a great delicacy by Indian Mahomedans 
and by some Hindoo castes. 



VOL. III. 



242 CUCULID-E. 

1131. Centropus chlororhynchus. The Ceylonese Coucal. 

Centropus chlororhynchus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviii, p. 805 (1849) 
id. Cat. p. 78; id. Ibis, 1867, p. 298 ; Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) 
xiii, p. 450 ; Holdsworth, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 433 ; Legge, Birds 
Ceyl p. 263, ul. xiii ; Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix, p. 342. 

Centrococcyx cnlororhynchus, Hume, S. F. vii, p. 372; id. Cat. 
no. 217 ter. 

JEtti-kukkula, Cingalese. 

Coloration. Head, body, and tail black, glossed with purple, 
passing on the neck, upper back, and breast into coppery bronze ; 
wings, coverts, scapulars, and interscapulars deep bay, tips of 
quills dusky ; wing-lining blackish. The young does not differ in 
colour. 

Bill pale apple-green ; inside of mouth black ; iris deep red or 
dull crimson ; legs and feet black ; claws dusky (Legge). 

Length about 17; tail 9-5; wing 6-4; tarsus 1-9; bill from 
gape 1-7. 

Distribution. Throughout the forests of the South-west hill 
region of Ceylon. 

Habits, <$fc. Very similar to those of C. sinensis, but this species 
appears, from Captain Legge's account, to frequent thicker and 
damper forest and to have a rather different note. The call of 
the male is a sonorous long-drawn hoo-whoop, whoop, which can 
be heard with distinctness for many miles around, and by which 
the presence of the bird is easily detected. There is also a peculiar 
monosyllabic sound made by both sexes. The breeding-season is 
from about April or May till July. 

1132. Centropus andamanensis. The Andaman Coucal. 

Centropus andamanensis, Tytler, ffleavan, Ibis, 1867, p. 321 ; Ball, 

S. F. i, p. 64 ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 194. 
Centrococcyx andamanensis, Walden, Ibis, 1873, p. 305, pi. xi ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 217 bis ; Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, 

p. 404. 

Coloration. When freshly moulted, the head and neck, upper 
back, rump and lower parts throughout, including the under wing- 
coverts, are greyish brown ; wings, scapulars, and a narrow band 
across the back between them deep bay ; tips of quills inf uscated ; 
tail dark greyish brown glossed with purple. The colours fade, 
the head and neck become light brown, almost buff, and the edges 
of the tail-feathers, especially towards the base, isabelline, whilst 
all gloss is lost. In some specimens, apparently young, traces of 
barring remain on the lower parts. 

Bill black ; irides crimson ; legs and feet black. 

Length about 19 ; tail 10 : wing 6*5 ; tarsus 2-1 ; bill from 
gape 1'7. 

Distribution. Only found in the Andaman Islands and Cocos. 

Habits, <$fc. A forest bird fond of coming into gardens, and 



CENTEOPUS. 243 

much resembling C. sinensis in its ways. It breeds about May 
and June ; a nest was found by Captain Wimberley in a high 
tree, and contained two white eggs measuring about 1'32 by 1*12. 

1133. Centropus bengalensis. The Lesser Coucal. 

Cuculus bengalensis, Gmel Syst. Nat. i, p. 412 (1788). 

Centropus bengalensis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi, p. 1104 ; Blyth $ 

Wald. Birds Burm. p. 82 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. 2, 

p. 70 ; Gammie, S. F. v, p. 385 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 171 ; 

Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 169; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 133; Shelley, 

Cat. B. M. xix, p. 352. 
Centropus viridis, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 78 ; Horsf. 8f M. Cat. ii, 

p. 685; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 350; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, 

pt. 2, p. 98 ; nee Cuculus viridis, Scop. 
Centrococcyx bengalensis, Hume Sf Oates, S. F. iii, p. 84 ; Hume, 

S. F. v, p. 28 ; xi, p. 78 ; id. Cat. no. 218 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 208 ; 

Cripps, ibid. p. 266 ; Damson, S. F. x, p. 361 ; Oates, B. B. ii, 

p. 127 ; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 406. 
Centropus javanicus, Shelley, Cat. B. M. xix, p. 354, partim. 

Nyong, Lepcha ; Kyok-Kyok, Bhot. ; Ulu Kukuha, Assam. 

Coloration. Head and neck all round, upper back, rump, and 
lower parts black with purplish gloss ; tail black with green gloss ; 
wings and their coverts both upper and under, scapulars, and 
interscapulary region deep chestnut ; tips of quills more or less 
infu seated. 

The nestling is dark brown, with large rufous spots on the head 
and neck, and rufous bars on the fcack, wings, and tail ; lower 
parts rufescent white, with dark spots on the throat and dusky 
bars on the lower abdomen and flanks. The bird then passes 
without a moult into a second plumage : the head and neck above 
and at the sides, the back, scapulars, and wing-coverts are brown, 
with pale shaft-stripes and white shafts ; the rump and upper tail- 
coverts, two of which extend nearly to the end of the tail, are 
narrowly barred black, glossed with green and rufous ; the wings 
and tail as in adults, but the wings more infuscated and the tail- 
feathers with rufous tips ; lower parts rufescent-white, throat 
speckled with dark brown ; flanks, lower abdomen, and lower tail- 
coverts with narrow dark bars. This plumage is assumed gradually, 
and the change to the adult plumage, partly at all events by a 
moult, generally takes place in March or April ; the white shafts 
to the scapulars and coverts being longer retained. 

The second garb is called the winter or seasonal plumage by 
most authors, but I can find no evidence that it is ever assumed 
by birds that have once attained adult coloration, and there are 
several winter birds in the British Museum collection with the 
adult dress. The long upper tail-coverts appear peculiar to the 
immature plumage. 

Bill and legs black, iris crimson in adults ; in the young the 
bill is yellowish, dark on the culmen, iris brown to yellow ; legs 
plumbeous. 

B2 



244 CUCULID^E. 

Length of males about 13 ; tail 7 ; wing 5-4 ; tarsus 1*6 ; bill 
from gape 1-1 : in females, length about 14-5 ; tail 8 ; wing 6-7 ; 
tarsus 1'75 ; bill from gape 1-25. 

Some specimens from Assam and Burma are referred by Shelley 
in the British Museum Catalogue to a distinct species C. javani- 
cus, but I am unable to separate them from C. benyalensis. 

Distribution. The Lesser Coucal has been found very sparingly 
in the Peninsula of India in Travancore, the Wynaad, Mysore, 
Orissa, and Singhbhoom ; not, so far as I can ascertain, in the 
Central Provinces, Bombay Presidency, North-west Provinces, nor 
Punjab, nor in Ceylon. Jerdon (Madr. Jour. L. S. xiii, pt. 1, 
p. 172) states that Elliot found it in the Southern Mahratta 
country ; but this was probably a mistake, as the locality was not 
mentioned in the * Birds of India.' It is more common in Bengal, 
and is found about Calcutta and up to about 5000 feet in Sikhim, 
and ranges from Assam through Burma to the Malay Peninsula 
and Southern China. 

Habits, fyc. Very similar to those of 0. sinensis, but this bird is 
chiefly found in high grass, not in forest nor scrub. The call of 
the female is said by Gamrnie to be double first a series of 
sounds like ivhoot, wJioot, whoot, &c., ventriloquistic, appearing to 
come from a distance; then, after an interval, kurook, Tcuroolc, <fcc., 
no longer ventriloquistic. Grammie did not observe the male 
calling. This species feeds on grasshoppers. It breeds from May 
to August, in different localities, making a domed nest of coarse 
grass, the living blades being bent over and incorporated. The 
eggs are two or three in number, white, chalky, and about 1-17 by 
101 inches. 



Order IX. PSITTACI. 

Whilst several of the groups here classed as orders, because 
ornithologists have not yet agreed how they are to be arranged in 
larger divisions, are really of subordinal rank, the Parrots by 
general consent stand apart from all other birds, and undoubtedly 
form an Order by themselves : distinguished by opisthocoelous 
dorsal vertebrae, combined with aygodactyle feet, and by the upper 
mandible being loosely articulated to the skull, so as to be move- 
able. The bill is short, stout, and strongly hooked. The palate 
is desmognathous. There is a distinct fleshy cere at the base of 
the bill, as in Birds of Prey. The tongue is thick and fleshy. 
The deep plantar tendons are galline, as in Coccyges. The ambiens 
muscle is variable, and so are the carotids. The f urcula is weak and 
sometimes incomplete. There are no caeca, and the gall-bladder is 
generally wanting. 

The feathers are furnished with an aftershaft ; the spinal 
feather-tract is well defined on the neck and forked on the upper 
back. The oil-gland is usually present and tufted, but is wanting 
in a few genera. There are twelve tail-feathers except in the 
Papuan Oreopsittacus, which has 14. Primaries 10. 

All Parrots lay white eggs in a hole, generally excavated by the 
parent birds, in the trunk or a branch of a tree. There is no nest, 
the eggs being laid on the wood. Some species, occasionally at 
all events, make use of hollows not excavated by themselves. The 
young are hatched naked, and the feathers. remain in the sheaths 
until the birds are nearly full-grown. 

The Parrots have been very variously divided by different 
ornithologists, and Garrod (P. Z. S. 1874, p. 594) made the 
common Indian genus Palceornis the type of a family. But 
generally Palceornis has been classed in the same family with 
Psittacus, and this is the arrangement adopted by Salvadori in the 
British Museum Catalogue. Only three genera are found within 
Indian limits, and these all belong to one family and subfamily. 



Family PSITTACID^E. 

Key to the Genera. 



Key to the Genera. 

a. Tail long and graduated, longer than wing .... PAL^ORNIS, p. 246. 

b. Tail much shorter than wing. 

a'. Bill swollen at sides, deeper than long .... PSITTINUS, p. 259. 
b'. Bill compressed, longer than deep LORICULUS, p. 260. 



246 PSITTACIDJE, 

Genus PAUEORtfIS, Vigors, 1825. 

Tail very long and graduated, the median feathers narrow, much 
exceeding the others in length : bill thick, deeper than long ; upper 
mandible swollen at the sides, culmen convex, much curved ; lower 
mandible short. 

Birds of this genus are common throughout India, Ceylon, and 
Burma. Their prevailing colour is green, except in a few species. 
They are usually seen in flocks, which feed sometimes on the 
fruit of trees, sometimes on seeds, which they not unfrequently 
pick up from the ground. All have a rather swift arrowy flight, 
and a more or less harsh screaming note. All are favourite cage- 
birds. Species of Palceornis are found throughout the Oriental 
region, in the Seychelles, Mauritius, and Rodriguez, and in parts 
of Tropical Africa. 

Key to the Species*. 

a. Head (except chin and mandibular stripe 

in males) and body green ; bill deep red ; a 
rose collar in males, wanting in females. 
a'. Large red patch on wing-coverts ; wing 

exceeding 7'5. 
a". Smaller: length 17-19'5 ; tarsus 

greenish grey P. eupatria, p. 247. 

V. Larger: length 20-22; tarsus dull 

orange. 
a 3 . Nape and sides of head suffused 

with glaucous grey P. nepalensis, p. 248. 

b 3 . Nape and sides of head without 

grey tinge. [p. 248. 

a\ Bill 0-85 high at base P. mdoburmanicus, 

b 4 -. Bill an inch high at base P. magnirostris, p. 249. 

b'. No red patch on wing-coverts ; wing less 

than 7 P. torquatus, p. 250. 

b. Head partly or wholly not green. 

c'. Head red in male, slaty in female ; back 
green : wing about 5'5. 

c". Under wing-coverts bluish green P. cyanocepkalus, p. 251, 

d". Under wing-coverts green, not bluish. P. rosa, p. 252. 
d'. Head dark slaty in both sexes; back 

green : wing 6-6'5. 

<?". Terminal portion of tail bright yellow. P. schisticeps, p. 253. 
/'. Terminal portion of tail dull pinkish. P.finschi, p. 254. 

c. Crown and upper back grey ; breast green. 

e'. An emerald-green collar p. calthropee, p. 256. 

/.No collar ... p. caniceps , p . 2 58. 

a. urown and upper back grey ; brest grey or 

greyish green p. cotomboute, p. 255. 

e. Crown and nape pinkish or bluish grey; 

breast red P.fasciatus, p. 256. 

L ?^1& Q & of L 8ey f al 'Secies, like P. torquatus , are green throughout, 
but the bill 18 black or brown or pale red, not deep red. These young birds 
are difficult to distinguish at first, but they soon acquire the distinctive 
coloration of adults. 



247 

/. Crown and nape green ; sides of head 

including ear-coverts brick-red. 
y'. Upper mandible red. 

g". Breast yellowish green P. erythrogenys <$ , p. 268. 

h". Breast green with a bluish tinge .... P. tytleri tf , p. 259. 
h'. Upper mandible black. 

". Mandibular band chiefly black P. erytkrogenys $ ,p. 258. 

k". Mandibular band dark green P. tytleri $ , p. 259. 

1134. Palaeornis eupatria. The Large Ceylonese P&roquet. 

Psittacus eupatria, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 140 (1766). 

Palseornis alexandri, apud Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) xiii, p. 262; nee 

Psittacus alexandri, Linn. 
Palaeornis eupatria, Hume, S. F. \, p. 433 ; ii, p. 9 ; id. Cat. no. 147 - r 

Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 168 ; Parker, Ibis, 1886, p. 183 ; Oates in 

Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 82 (partim) ; Salvadori, Cat. B. M. 

xx, p. 435. 
Labu girawa, Cing. 

Coloration. Male. Above grass-green, much brighter on the 
forehead and lores, and rather darker on the wings ; a dark line 
from nostril to eye ; a rose-pink collar round the back and sides of 
neck, nape just in front of collar more or less tinged bluish grey f 
chin (thinly feathered) and a stripe from the lower mandible to- 
the rose collar black ; a large deep red patch on the secondary 
wing-coverts ; rump rather brighter green than the back ; median 
tail-feathers passing from green at the base into verditer-blue, and 
then into yellowish at the tips ; throat and breast dull pale green ; 
abdomen brighter ; lower surface of quills and larger under wing- 
coverts greyish brown, lesser under wing-coverts bright green; tail- 
feathers below dull yellow. 

Female and young without either rose collar or black mandibular 
stripe. 

Bill deep red ; iris pale yellow, with a bluish-grey inner circle ; 
feet plumbeous. 

Length about 19 ; tail 11*5 ; wing 8 ; tarsus *8 ; bill from cere at 
gape to point 1 ; depth of upper mandible (culmen to gape) *75. 
Females a little less. 

Distribution. Throughout the greater part of Ceylon. Whether 
the Paroquets observed in the Carnatic by Jerdon, and in Mysore 
by Taylor, and the individual taken from a Shahin falcon by 
Jerdon in Malabar, belonged to this or the next species is 
uncertain. There is no specimen from Southern India in the 
British Museum (including the Hume) collection. The measure- 
ments given by Jerdon agree with P. nepalensis, the cinereous feet 
with P. eupatria. 

This and the following three species are merely races or sub- 
species of one well-marked form. P. eupatria is smaller than the 
others and has a smaller bill. 

Habits, $c. The habits of all four races are precisely similar. 
They keep to well-wooded tracts, and are social birds living in 
colonies and generally flying in flocks, often uttering a shrill call 



-248 PSITTACID^E. 

when flying. They feed on grain and fruit. They lay from 2 to 4 
white eggs in a hole made by themselves in the trunk of a tree or 
in a large branch. Average size of fifty eggs 1-2 by -95. These 
Parrots are less commonly kept tame than P. torquatus, and are 
less frequently taught to talk. 

1135. Palaeornis nepalensis. The Large Indian Paroquet. 

Palseornis nepalensis, Hodgs. As. Res. xix, p. 177 (1836) ; Rainey, 
S. F. iii, p. 382 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 458 ; id. Cat. no. 147 ter ; 
Scully, S. F. viii, p. 239 ; Salvador*, Cat. B. M. xx, p. 437. 

Palasornis alexandri, apud Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. xi, p. 208; 
Blyth, Cat. p. 4. partim ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 610, pt.; 
Adams, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 173 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 256, pt. ; Blyth, 
Ibis, 1863, p. 1, pt. ; McMaster, J. A. S. B. xl, pt. 2, p. 208; 
nee Psittacus alexandri, L. 

Paleeornis sivalensis, sacer, punjabi, and vindhiana, Hutton, S. F. i> 
pp. 335-338 (1873). 

Paleeornis sivalensis, Hume, S. F. ii, p. 9 ; vi, p. 117. 

Pateornis eupatrius, apud Ball, S. F. ii, p. 389 ; vii, p. 205 ; David- 
son, S. F. x, p. 296 ; Taylor, S. F. x, p. 457 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 
p. 108 : Oates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 82, partim ; nee Linn. 
The Alexandrine Parrakeet, Jerdon; Chandana, B.: Clianda-ban-i, 
H. (Mussooree) ; Karan-suga, Kararia, Nepal ; Ne-tso, Lepcha ; Rai Tota, 
H. ; Pedda ckilluka, Tel. ; Peria killi, Tarn. 

Coloration of both sexes the same as that of P. eupatria except 
that the black mandibular band is very broad, and that the occiput, 
nape, and cheeks are more or less washed with bluish grey. The 
size is considerably larger and the bill conspicuously more massive. 

Length about 21 ; tail 12*5 ; wing 8*5 ; tarsus *8 ; bill from 
cere 1 ; depth of upper mandible '8. Females rather smaller. 
The tarsus in Himalayan birds is dirty flesh-coloured or yellowish. 

Distribution. Northern and Central India, from the Lower 
Himalayas to the Central Provinces (Kamptee, Eaipur, Sambalpur) 
and the Northern Circars, and from Kangra, the Jhelum district 
of the Punjab, and Mount Abu to Bengal (Eajmehal hills and, 
according to some, Calcutta). Bare or wanting in the Bombay 
Presidency south of the Satpura range in Khandesh. It is 
uncertain whether the Sundarban rose-band Paroquets should be 
referred to this or the next form. 

Habits, $c. Those of P. eupatria. The breeding-season varies 
somewhat in different parts of the country, being usually from 
December, qr even earlier, till March ; but in Hume's ' Nests and 
Eggs/ 2nd ed., either this species or the next is said to breed in 
the Eastern Sundarbans from March to May. In the Kangra 
valley P. nepalensis breeds in April. An egg taken there by 
Major Cock measured 1-52 by -95. 

1136. Palseornis indoburmanicus. The Large Burmese Paroquet. 
Palseornis alexandri, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 4, partim ; Jerdon, B. I. 

i, p. 256, pt. ; Blyth, Birds Bnrm. p. 54 ; nee Linn. 
Palaeornis eupatrius, apud Wald. in BlytVs Birds Burm. p. 55; 

Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 567 ; nee Linn. 



PALjEOENIS. "2V.} 

Palaeornis magnirostris, apud Hume $ Gates, S. F. iii, p. 55 ; Hume 
Sf Armstr. S. F. iv, p. 307 ; Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis. 1877, p. 463 : 
Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 117 ; nee Jin II. 

Palaeornis indoburmanicus, Hume, S. F. vii, p. 459 (1878); xi, 
p. 54 ; id. Cat. no. 147 quat. ; Binyham, S. F. ix, p. 159 ; Oate*, 
B. B. ii, p. 139; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) iv, p. B78 
v, p. 559 ; id. Cat. B. M. xx, p. 438. 

Kyetrtau, Kyet-tu-yuay, Kyay-hpounkah, Burru. 

Coloration. Both sexes similar to those of P. euimtria, but 
considerably larger in size and more brightly coloured through- 
out. The throat is much yellower, sometimes pure yellow ; and 
the tarsi are yellow, not grey. From P. nepalensis the present 
species is distinguished by brighter coloration ; by having the 
occiput and sides of the head green like the forehead, not washed 
with bluish (there is sometimes a narrow bluish-grey band above 
the rose collar); and by the much narrower black mandibular 
stripe. 

Iris bright yellow ; cere yellow ; bill bright red, the tip yellow ; 
eyelids pale pink, the edges orange ; legs yellow-orange (dates). 

Length 22 ; tail 13 ; wing 8*5 ; tarsus '85 ; bill from cere 1*1 ; 
depth of upper mandible *85. Female rather smaller. 

Distribution. From the base of the Eastern Himalayas to the 
Salween valley, but not in Tenasserim south of the neighbour- 
hood of Moulmein and Kaukarit. This species is found also in 
Cambodia. Specimens from the Sikhim Terai and Bhutan Duars 
have the broad mandibular band of P. nepalensis, and are coloured 
like that species on the breast; they are clearly intermediate 
between P. nepalensis and P. indoburmanicus. 

Habits, fyc. Similar to those of P. eupatria and P. nepalensis. 
P. indoburmanicus keeps chiefly to the plains and the neighbour- 
hood of cultivation, it does not ascend the hills to any height, and 
never frequents dense forests. It breeds in December, January, 
and February, and the eggs measure about 1*35 by 1*02. 

1137. Palaeornis magnirostris. The Large Andaman Paroquet. 

Palaeornis alexandri, apud Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxviii, p. 413 ; id. 

Ibis, 1863, p. 369 ; Ball, S. F. i, p. CO ; nee Linn. 
Palseornis magnirostris, Ball, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 278 (1872) ; 

Hume, S. F. ii, pp. 9, 176; id. Cat. no. 147 bis; Salvador*, Cat. 

B. M. xx, p. 440. 
Palaeornis eupatrius, apud Walden, Ibis, 1873, p. 297 ; nee Linn. 

This race is distinguished from P. indoburmanicus by its enor- 
mous bill, and generally by having the red patch on the wing- 
coverts brighter red ; the narrow blue collar above the rose collar 
in males is very distinct as a rule. 

Length about 23; tail 14; wing 8-5; tarsus -85; bill from 
cere 1/2 ; height of upper mandible 1. 

Distribution. The Andaman Islands ; Cocos Islands. 

Habits, $c. Similar to those of the allied races. 



250 . PSITTACID JK. 

1138. Pafceornis tor^uatus. The Eose-ringed Paroquet. 

Psittacus torquatus, Bodd. Tab. PL Enl. p. 32 (1783). 
Palseornis torquatus, Blyth, Cat. p. 4; Layard, A.M.N.U..W 
xiii, p. 262 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 611 ; Jerd. B. L i, p. 257 j 
Stoliczka, J. A. 8. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 232; Hume, S. F. i, p. 170 ; 
ii, p. 13; xi, p. 54 ; id. Cat. no. 148 ; Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 55 ; 
Hne 8>'Dav.S. JF.'vi, p. 118 ; Z^, Birds Ceyl. p. 171 ; Oat*, 
B. B. ii, p. 141 ; id. in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. in, p. 85 ; Barnes, 
Birds Bom. p. 108 ; Newnham, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. iv, p. 54 ; 
Salvadori, Cat. B. M. xx, p. 433. 

Tata, Lybar Tota, H. ; Gallar, in N. W. P. ; Tiya, Tiyatota, Beng. ; 
Ragu, Mahr. ; Chilluka, Telegu ; Killi, Tarn. ; liana girawa, Cmg. ; Kyay- 
gyot, Burm. 




Pig. 70. Head of P. torquatus, \. 

Coloration. Male. Very similar to P. eupatria, except that there 
is no red wing-spot. General colour bright green ; a fine blackish 
line from nostril to eye ; occiput, nape, and cheeks tinged with 
pale greyish blue ; a rose collar round the neck except in front ; 
chin and a band from the mandible to each side of the rose collar 
black ; smaller and middle upper wing-coverts considerably paler 
green than the greater coverts and quills ; median tail-feathers 
green at the base, then bluish grey ; other tail-feathers green on 
the outer webs, yellow on the inner, all tipped with yellow and 
dull yellow beneath ; lower parts paler and yellower than upper 
surface ; wing-lining greenish yellow. 

Female. No black band nor rose collar, but an indistinct emerald- 
green ring round the neck. Young birds resembles females. 

Bill cherry-red ; irides pale yellow ; feet cinereous (Jerdori). 
Upper mandible red, lower varying from red to black in different 
localities (Hume). 

Length about 16-5 ; tail 10 ; wing 6-75 ; tarsus *65 ; bill from 
cere *85. 

Distribution. Throughout India and Ceylon, and from Assam to 
Pegu, but not in Tenasserim. This Paroquet is found to the east- 
ward in Cochin China, but statements of its occurrence in the 
Malay Peninsula and China are probably due to caged individuals 



PAL^ORNIS. 251 

having been taken thither. In India, P. torquatus extends to the 
wooded parts of the Punjab, Sind, and Cutch, and to the base of 
the Himalayas, where the country is open ; but it is not found 
as a rule on hills nor in large forests. It has been seenatQuetta. 
A closely allied form, a geographical race in fact, P. dodlis, 
inhabits tropical Africa. 

Habits, <$fc. This is by far the commonest and most familiar of 
Indian Parrots, abounding about towns and villages in most parts 
of the country, and keeping to open and cultivated land. It is 
often seen perched on houses and buildings of various kinds, such 
as temples or machans about fields, and it does much damage 
by pilfering grain and fruit. It occurs in large flocks at times, 
and these often collect in great numbers towards sunset and perch 
for the night on trees near towns and villages, with Crows and 
Mynas. Sometimes bamboos are selected for perching on. The 
cry of this Parrot, often uttered during the bird's swift arrowy 
flight, is shrill and rather harsh. 

The breeding-season extends from January to May ; the majority 
of the eggs, usually four in number, being laid in February to tlu> 
southward, and in March in Northern India. In Upper Assam this 
bird is said by Mr. Cripps to breed in June. The eggs are white 
and glossless, and measure about 1*2 by '95. 

This is the Parrot most commonly kept tame in India; it is 
a docile bird and imitates the human voice well. 

1139. Palaeornis cyanocephalus. The Western 
Blossom-headed Paroquet. 

Psittacus cyanocephalus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 141 (1766). 
Psittacus purpureus, Miill. Natursyst. Suppl. p. 74 (1776) ; Walden 

in Blyth's Birds Burm. p. 56. 

Paleeornis bengalensis, apud Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. xi, p. 208. 
Palseornis cyanocephalus, Wagl Mon. Psitt. (Abh. k. bayer. Ak. 

Wiss. i,) p. 517; Blyth, Cat. p. 5 (part.) ; Hor*f. $ M. Cat. ii, 

p. 61G (part.) ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 174 ; Salvador*, Cat. B. M. 

xx, p. 448. 
Palseornis rosa, apud Jerdon, B. 1. i, p. 259 ; Beavan, Ibis, 1865, 

p. 409 : Blyth, Ibis, 1870, p. 162 ; Gould, Birds of Asia, vi, pi. 2 

PalEeornis purpureus, Hume, N. % E. p. 116; id. Cat. no. 149; 
Scully, S. F. viii, p. 241 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 51 ; Butler, ibid. 
p. 384 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 109 ; Oates in Hume's N. Sf & 
2nd ed. iii, p. 87. 

The Hose-headed Parrakeet, Jerdon; Tuia lota, II. (in S. India); 
Faraida, Beng. ; Tui-suga, Nepal ; Kir, Mahr. ; Pama chiUuka, Tel. ; 
Batu girawa, Malitcht'a, Cing. ; Killi, Tarn. Ceylon. 

Coloration. Male. Head above and at the sides red, tinged with 
blue (like the bloom on a plum) on the lower cheeks, occiput, and 
nape, most strongly near the narrow black collar that includes the 
chin and extends from the lower mandible round the neck ; hind- 
neck and sides of neck, behind the collar, vrrdi-ris-green; rump 
the same ; back and scapulars yellowish green ; wings green ; 



252 .PSITTACIDJE. 

quills pale-edged ; coverts edged with verdigris ; a deep red patch 
on the middle secondary-coverts; median tail-feathers ^ blue, 
greener towards the base, broadly tipped white, the next pair with 
the outer webs blue, the others green on the outer, yellow on 
the inner webs, all except the median pair tipped with yellow, 
all yellowish below ; lower parts light yellowish green ; axillaries 
and under wing-coverts bluish green. Occasionally the wing- 
spot is orange, not red. 

Female. Head dull bluish grey (plum-blue), cheeks and chin 
greyer and paler ; no black nor verdigris collar, but a yellow ring 
roung the neck, broader on the side and covering the throat. 

Young birds are green throughout, and assume the cap 
gradually. 

Upper mandible orange -yellow, lower black or blackish; iris 
white or yellowish white ; feet dusky sap-green. 

Length about 14; tail 8-5; wing 5-25; tarsus '6; bill from 
cere to tip *6. Females rather less. 

Distribution. Throughout the Peninsula of India and Ceylon in 
suitable tracts, extending west to Mount Abu, Sambhar, and the 
Eastern Punjab, and throughout the lower Himalayas (according 
to Hume) to near Murree. This bird is found on the Western 
Himalayas up to about 5000 feet. This species and the next 
both occur in the Terai of Eastern Nepal, Sikhini, and the Bhutan 
Duars, and perhaps in parts of Bengal. The statement (S. F. vii, 
p. 261) that this species occurs in Dibrugarh, Assam, appears due 
to some mistake. Mr. Cripps's specimens in the Hume collection 
are all P. rosa. 

Habits, fyc. This is far more a forest-bird than P. torquatus, though 
it is found in well-wooded cultivated districts as well as in forest. 
It is somewhat migratory, retiring to the denser woods and often 
to hill-forests to breed, and visiting more open country in the 
rains. Its flight is even swifter than that of P. torquatus, and its 
cry is softer and more musical ; otherwise its habits are the same. 
The breeding-season is from February to May; and the eggs, 
which are usually four in number, are white when fresh, broader 
in proportion than those of P. torquatus, and much smaller, the 
average measurements being 1 by *81. This Paroquet is less 
frequently kept tame than P. nepalensis and P. torquatus. 

There can be no question that the Indian, not the Burmese, 
species was the Psittacus cyanocephalus of Linnaeus. There was 
a mistake, as Legge pointed out, in G-ould's ' Birds of Asia,' and 
the names of the two were exchanged. This was also noticed in 
Gould's letterpress under P. rosa. " Blossom-headed Parrakeet" 
is Latham's name, and more than 100 years old. 

1140. Palaeornis rosa. The Eastern Blossom-headed 
Paroquet. 

Psittacus rosa, Bodd. Tabl. PI. Enl p. 53 (1783). 
Psittacus bengalensis, Gmel Syst. Nat. i, p. 325 (1788). 



PAL/EOHNI8. 

Palaeorais cyanocephalus, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 5 (part.); 
Birds of Asia, i, pi. 3 ; Blyth $ Wald. />'////.% /;/////,. , 
Hume Sf Dav. S. F. vi, p. 118; Anders. Yunnan Exp., Aves, 
p. 568 ; Hume, Cat. no. 149 bis ; id. S. F. xi, p. 55 ; Ilingham, 
S. F. ix, p. 160 ; Oates,B. B. ii, p. 145 ; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 
2nd ed. iii, p. 88 ; nee Psittacus cyanocephalus, L. 

Palaeornis rosa, Jerd. B. I. i, p. 259 (part.) ; Salvador*, Cat. B. M. 
xx, p. 453. 

Palseornis bengalensis, Jerdon, Ibis, 1872, p. 6 ; Hume, S. F. ii, 
pp. 9, 16 ; iii, p. 56 ; v, p. 21 ; Armstrong, S. F. iv, p. 308 

Kyay-ta-ma, Burmese. 

Coloration very similar to that of P. cyanocephalus. In the 
male the forehead and cheeks are rosy pink, not red, passing on the 
occiput into greyish lilac ; the rump and hind-neck like the back ; 
the red spot on the wing-coverts darker ; the tail paler blue ; the 
tips of the middle tail-feathers yellowish. In the female the head 
is greyer and paler, the yellow collar less distinct, and the red 
spot on the wing-coverts is present as in the male, though smaller. 
In both sexes the plumage above and below is a purer green and 
less yellow, and the axillaries and under wing-coverts are green 
and not bluish green. 

Length about 13-5 ; tail 7 ; wing 5-5 ; tarsus -55 ; bill from 
cere to tip '65. In the female the tail is generally rather 
shorter. 

Distribution. From the base of the Himalayas in Eastern Nepal, 
Sikhim, and Assam to Tavoy, but not apparently further south. 
To the eastward this species ranges into Cochin China, Siam, and 
Southern China. 

Habits, $c. Similar to those of P. cyanocephalus. The eggs white, 
four in number, and measuring about -96 by -82, are laid in 
February and March. 

Psittacus rosa of Boddaert was founded on the " Perruche de 
Mahe" of the 'Planches Enluminees,' and this figure, like the 
Kose-headed King Parrakeet " of Edwards, the type of Gmelin's 
P. bengalensis, was clearly taken from the present species, not 
from the Western bird. 

1141. Palseomis schisticeps. TJie Slaty-headed Paroquet. 
Palseornis schisticeps, Hodgs. As. Res. xix, p. 178 (1836); Blyth* 



F. viii, p. 242; 
Sharpe, York. 
p. 456. 

Palseornis hodgsoni, Finsch, Papag. ii, p. 50 (1868). 
Pahdri tuiya, H. (Mussooree) ; Madana Suga, Nepal ; Gagi of 
Calcutta bird-dealers. 

Coloration. Male. Head dark lavender (bluish slaty) ; chin and 



254 PSITTAOIDjE. 

narrow ring round neck black ; hind-neck and sides of neck behind 
the black ring bright verdigris-green, passing into the green with 
a slight yellowish tinge of the back, scapulars, and coverts ; rump 
a little brighter; a dark red patch on median secondary-coverts; 
greater coverts and quills darker, the latter yellow at the edges ; 
bend of wing yellow; median tail-feathers blue in the middle, 
green at the base and along their edges, and clear yellow for the 
terminal quarter to half, the other rectrices green on outer webs, 
yellow on inner and at the tips, all deep yellow beneath ; lower 
parts from throat light green, lesser and median under wing- 
coverts bluish green. 

The female wants the red wing-patch. The young is green at 
first and assumes the cap gradually. 

Upper mandible yellow, tinged with coral-red ; tip and lower 
mandible yellow ; irides straw-yellow ; orbital skin slaty ; legs 
dusky green (Jerdon). 

Length about 16; tail 9-5; wing 6*5; tarsus - 6 ; bill from cere 
to tip 75. Females a little less. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas, below about 8000 feet, 
from Murree to Bhutan ; more common to the westward. Young 
specimens from the Khasi hills were referred to this species by 
Godwin-Austen, but after examining them I do not think they 
belong either to P. schisticeps or P. finschi. 

Habits, fyc. This is a mountain bird, ascending in summer as 
high as 10,000 feet, but descending to a low elevation in winter, 
and breeding in the last half of March, in April, and early in May. 
The nest is often in natural hollows in trees, but sometimes in 
holes cut by the bird. The eggs are white, four or five in number, 
and measure about 1-21 by *92. 

1142. Palaeornis finschi. The Burmese Slaty-headed Paroquet. 

Palseornis finschi, Hume,. 8. F. ii, p. 509; id. Cat. no. 150 bis: 
Wald. in Blyth's Birds Burnt, p. 55 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, 
p. 119; Bingham, 8. F. ix, p. 160; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 142; 
Hartert, J. f. Orn. 1889, p. 431 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. M. xx, p. 458. 

Coloration of both sexes similar to that of P. schisticeps, except 
that the head is paler, the mantle a much yellower green, and 
the terminal portion of the median tail-feathers dirty pinkish 
white instead of clear yellow. The middle tail-feathers are, much 
narrower, and duller in colour throughout. 

Length about 17, tail 11, wing 6 in males'; in females, tail 8, 
wing 5-8. 

Distribution. Eastern Pegu and Tenasserim ; Oates found what 
was doubtless this Paroquet abundant in the Pegu hills, it was 
also found in large numbers by Hartert near Sadiya in Assam. 
It is probably this species, and not the last, that occurs, according 
to Blyth (Birds Burm. p. 55), in the Arrakan hills. 

Habits, fyc. Nothing particular recorded. The eggs have not 
been observed. 



PALvEORNIS. 255 

1143. Palaeornis columboides. The Blue-winged Paroquet. 

Palaeornis columboides, Vigor*, Zool. Journ. v,p. 274 (1835) ; Jerdon 
Madr. Jour. L.^S. xi, p. 209, pi. iii ; id. III. Ind. Orn. pi. xviii ! 



8. F. iv, p. 388; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 52; Butler, ibid. 

Layard, Ibis, 1880, p. 284 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. &53 ; ^ u , 

Birds Bom. p. 110; Oates in Hume's N. Sf E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 

Davidson, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. \\, p. 334. 
Palaeornis inelanorhynchus, apud Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 96, 9 

(nee Wagl). 
Palaeornis peristerodes, Fimch, Papaa. ii, p. 74 (1868); Salvador?, 

Cat. B. M. xx, p. 460. 

Madangour tot a, H. 

Coloration. Male. Head, neck, upper back, and breast dove- 
grey (grey with a lilac tinge) ; forehead, lores, and sides of head 
around eyes bright bluish green; the frontal band passing upwards 
into blue ; chin and complete narrow collar black, with a bright 
bluish-green ring, broadest on the throat, behind the black one ; 
coverts and secondary-quills dark green, the former with pale 
edges; first primary black, the others blue with green e"dges; 
lower back and rump bluish green; middle tail-feathers blue, 
green at the base, tipped pale yellow, the next pair blue on the 
outer web, green near the base, the others green on the outer, 
yellow on the inner webs, all tipped with yellow, and all yellow 
beneath, dusky yellow on the median pair and on the outer webs 
of the others ; abdomen green or bluish green. Birds from 
Khandala are bluer throughout the green parts of the plumage 
than more Southern specimens. 

Females want the green collar and forehead, they have a bluish 
tinge on the lores and a little green round the eye, the back and 
breast are tinged with green. Young birds are green throughout. 

In adult males the upper mandible is red, whitish at the tip ; 
in females black ; lower mandible dusky in both sexes ; in young 
birds the bill is generally orange-brown (Hume} ; irides in adults 
creamy yellow ; legs and feet glaucous green (Davison). 

Length of males about 14-5 ; tail 8*5 ; wing 6 ; tarsus -63 ; bill 
from cere to point -8. Females are rather less. 

Distribution. Forests along the Malabar coast, from the extreme 
south to Khandala near Bombay, chiefly on the hills up to 5000 
feet elevation, sometimes higher on the Nilgiris. A supposed 
occurrence of this bird in Ceylon is on record, but must be regarded 
as doubtful. 

Habits, <Sfc. A forest bird, generally found on high trfcee. Its 
cry, according to Jerdon, is mellow, subdued, and agreeable. 1 1 
feeds chiefly on fruit. It breeds in January and February, and the 
eggs, two to four in number, are white, roundish, and slightly 
polished, and measure about 1-12 by -92. 



250 PSITTACIDJE. 

1144. Palaeornis calthropae. Layard's Paroquet. 

Palseornis calthrapae, Layard, apud Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviii, p. 800 
(1849) ; id. Cat. p. 340; id. Ibis, 1867, p. 294. 

Palseornis calthropte, Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) xiii, p. 263 (1854) ; 
HoldsiVorth, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 426 ; Hume, Cat. no. 151 bis ; Legge, 
Birds Ceyl. p. 177, pi. vi ; Layard, Ibis, 1880, p. 282 ; Oates in 
Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 90 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. M. xx r 
p. 461. 

Allu-girawa, Cingalese. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, lores, and area around each eye 
bright green ; crown, nape, and sides of head greyish blue ; back 
and scapulars the same, but paler, sometimes with a greenish wash ; 
a broad collar round the neck and the lower parts from the throat 
bright green ; vent and lower tail-coverts yellowish ; chin and a 
band to the side of the neck, not extending to the back of the neck, 
black ; the rump is much bluer than the back, and this colour 
passes gradually into the deep French-blue of the tail-feathers, 
which are all yellow at the tips and dusky yellow beneath ; outer 
tail-feathers with a narrow green exterior border; wings green 
outside, the smaller coverts to the secondaries paler and yellower. 

Female. The green on the face duller and less extended, other- 
wise like the male. The young is green throughout at first, 
except that the tail is blue above, then the rump takes a bluish 
tinge. 

Upper mandible in males coral-red, yellowish at tip, black in 
females, lower mandible dusky red ; irides yellow or greenish 
white or white ; legs and feet dusky greenish or plumbeous green 
or plumbeous (Legge). 

Length about 12 ; tail 6 ; wing 5-5 ; tarsus -6 ; bill from cere 
to point *7. 

Distribution. Peculiar to Southern and Central Ceylon up to 
5000 or 6000^ feet above the sea, keeping to the hills and to the 
forests adjoining them. 

Habits, fyc. Very similar to those of the last species, but the 
cry is said by Legge to be harsh. The breeding-season commences 
in January ; the eggs do not appear to have been described. 

1145. Palaeornis fasciatus. The Red-breasted Paroquet. 

Psittacus fasciatus, Mull. Natursyst. Suppl. p. 74 (1776). 
Psittacus vibrissa, Bodd. Tabl. PI. Enl. p. 30 (1783). 
Psittacus pondicerianus, Gm. Syst. Nat. i, p. 325 (1788). 
Psittacus mystaceus, Shaw, Gen. Zool. viii, 2, p. 436 (1811). 
Palseornis melanorhynchus, Wagler, Abh. k. bayer. Ak. Wiss. i, 

p. 511 (1832); Finsch, Papag. ii, p. 70; Walden, Ibis, 1873, 

p. 297; 1874, p. 290; 1875, p. 270; Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. 

p. 57 ; Armstrong, S. F. iv, p. 308 ; Hume, S. F. v, p. 21 ; Wardl. 

Rams. Ibis, 1877, p. 453 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 120; Anders. 

Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 568. 
Psittacus nigrirostris, Hodgs. Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 85 (1844), descr. 

nulla ; Calc. Jour. N. H. vii, p. 560. 



PALJEORNIS. 257 

Palaeornis barbatus, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 6 (partiin) ; id. J. A. S. B. 

xix, p. 233 (partiin) ; nee Psittacus barbatus, Gm. 
Pakeornis osbecki, apud Horxf. .V M. Cut. ii, p. 022 (partim) ; me 

Psittacus osbecki, Lath. 

Palseornis vibrisca, Blyth, Ibis, 1870, p. 163 ; id. Birds Burm. p. 56. 
Palaeovms javanicus, apudJerdon, B. I. i, p. 262 ; Blyth, Ibis, 186:3. 

p. 5; 1866, p. 353 (part); Godw.-Awt. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, 

p. 97 ; Ball, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 279 ; id. S. F. i, p. 60 ; 

Walden, Ibis, 1876, p. 343; nee Psittacus javanicus, Osbeck. 
Palaeornis fasciatua, G. R. Gray, Hand-list, ii, p. 143; Hume. N. & E. 

T. 1 1 Q . .V7 V V ;; , ~ OA ion ru>r ::: . , c\04 . : . 



2nd ed. Hi, p. 90 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. ' Civ. Gen. (2) iv, p. 574; 
v. p. 559 ; vii, p. 376 ; id. Cat'. B. M. xx, p. 464. 

Madna, Kdjla, Gour Tota, II. ; Imrit Bhela, Nepal. 

Coloration. Male. A narrow frontal band extending to each eye 
and a broad stripe from the base of the lower mandible to each 
side of the neck black, the latter not prolonged to form a collar ; 
chin sullied white; rest of head purplish grey, washed with 
greenish on the lores above the frontal band and round the eyes ; 
hind-neck and sides of neck bright green ; back, scapulars, and 
rump duller ; wings green ontside, with a large yellow patch on the 
median and greater secondary-coverts ; first primary black, the 
others green, all with narrow yellow borders on both sides ; 
middle tail-feathers blue, with broad green edges towards the base 
and yellowish-green extreme tips ; outer tail-feathers bluish green ; 
throat and breast vinaceous red, more or less tinged with blue 
anteriorly ; abdomen bluish green ; vent and lower tail-coverts 
yellowish green, tail dusky yellow beneath. 

The female has the head duller and more tinged with green 
and the breast is without any bluish wash. Young birds are green 
throughout. 

Upper mandible in males coral-red, the tip yellow ; in females 
and young birds black, lower mandible always brownish black, 
except, according to Hume, in very young (nestling) males, which 
have sometimes, at all events, both mandibles orange-red (perhaps 
a few very young females also have reddish bills). Irides light 
yellow ; legs dusky greenish yellow. 

Length about 15; tail 8-5; wing 6'5; tarsus *7; bill from 
cere "85. 

Distribution. Throughout the lower Himalayas up to about 
5000 feet, as far west as Kumaun, also in Assam and the ranges 
to the southward, Tipperah, Cachar, Manipur, the whole of Burma, 
the Andaman Islands (not the Nicobars), Cambodia, Cochin China, 
and parts of Southern China. This species is represented in Java by 
an allied form, the true P. alexandri, distinguish.-il chiefly by having 
the whole bill red in both sexes, and by smaller size. 

Habits, ^c. An inhabitant of well- wooded tracts of count r\. 
visiting clearings, rice-fields, &c. in quest of food. Its cry is 
much less harsh than that of P. i<>,'<jtmti'js or /'. eupatrius. Ii 

VOL. III. 8 




258 PSITTACIDJE. 

breeds in the sal-forests of the Sub-Himalayan ranges about 
March and April, and lays four white glossless eggs, measuring 
about 1'15 by *97. Major Bingham found this Paroquet breeding 
in Tenasserim in February. 

1146. PalsBornis caniceps. Blyitis Nicobar Paroquet. 

Palaeornis 
id. Cat. 
Hume, 
Cat.B. M. xx,p. 470. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead and a broad stripe to each eye, 
also chin and a wide mandibular band to each side of the neck, 
black ; remainder of head, with back and sides of neck, brownish 
grey (isabelline), slightly washed with bluish behind and passing 
gradually into the green of the upper parts, which is yellower on 
the coverts and darker on the quills ; primaries and their coverts 
black, only bordered with green on the outer webs, bluish towards 
tfye base ; middle tail-feathers greyish towards the tips, sometimes 
bluish near the base; lower plumage green like the back; tail- 
feathers dark dingy yellow below. 

The female has the grey of the cap tinged with bluish. 

Upper mandible red in the male, black in the female, lower 
mandible black in both ; iris orange-red ; feet plumbeous green. 

Length about 24 ; tail 14 ; wing 8-5 ; tarsus '8 : bill from 
cere I'l. 

Distribution. Nicobar Islands. A skin brought by Cantor from 
Penang was probably, like some other specimens of Cantor's, both 
of birds and mammals, derived from a caged individual. 

Habits, Sfc. Davison, the only naturalist who has had good oppor- 
tunities of observing this bird wild, says it is usually found singly 
or in very small parties, that keep much to high trees, and fre- 
quently utter a peculiar wild screeching note. The flight is very 
rapid. 

1147. Palaeornis erythrogenys. The Red-cheeked Nicobar Paroquet. 
Palaeornis erythrogenys, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, pp. 23, 51, 368 

(1846) ; id. Cat. p. 6 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 620 ; Blyth, Ibis, 

1863, pp. 5, 465 (partim) ; Ball, S. F. i, p. 60 (partim) ; Hume. 

N. $ E. p. 119 ; id. S. F. ii, pp. 23, 181. 
Palseornis'nicobaricus, Gould, B. of Asia, vi, pi. 6 (1857) ; Ball, 

J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 30 (partim) ; Hume, Cat. no. 152 bis ; 

Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 91 : Salvadori, Cat. B. M. 

xx, p. 472. 

Coloration. Male. Crown green; a black band, the feathers 
tipped with dark green, from nostril to eye ; lores and sides of 
head, including ear-coverts, light brick-red ; chin and broad man- 
dibular stripe to each side of neck black ; nape yellowish green, 
below the occiput slightly washed with lilac, sometimes so as to 
form an indistinct collar ; upper back pale greenish yellow, suffused 
with grey, becoming bluish on the interscapulary region ; wing- 
coverts yellow-green, except the greater primary-coverts, which, 
with the quills, are blue with green outer edges ; the inner webs 



PSITTINUS. 250 

of the quills black except at the tips, which are dark green ; rump 
and upper tail-coverts bright green ; middle tail-feathers blue, 
edged and tipped green, outer feathers green with some blue along 
the shafts, all dull yellow below ; lower parts green, the breast and 
throat yellower. 

Female. Head and body above nearly uniform green, the red 
cheeks duller than in the male, and the mandibular stripes in part 
tinged with green ; otherwise as in the male. 

Young birds resemble the female. 

In males the upper mandible vermilion, yellow at tip, lower 
horny black, yellowish horny, or dingy red; in females both mandibles 
are blackish, in very young birds of both sexes dull red. Irides 
yellow, creamy white, or pale brown ; orbital skin greenish brown; 
legs dull earthy or brownish green (Hume). 

Length about 19 ; tail 11 ; wing 7*5 ; tarsus *75 ; bill from 
gape -9. 

Distribution. The Nicobar Islands. 

Habits, $c. This Paroquet abounds throughout the Nicobar 
group, chiefly in small flocks. Young birds were found in the 
nest-holes by Davison in February and early in March. 



1148. PalaBOrnis tytleri. The Red-cheeJced Andaman Paroquet. 

Palseornis erythrogenys, apud Blyth, Ibis, 1860, p. 99 ; 1868, p. 132 
1873, p. 79, note ; Beavan, Ibis, 1867, p. 319 ; Ball, J. A. S. B. xli, 



pt. 2, p. 279 ; id. S. F. i, p. 60 (part.) ; Walden, Ibis, 1873, p. 298. 
Palseornis nicobaricus, apud Walden, P. Z. S. 1866, p. 555 ; Ball, 

J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 241 ; nee Gould. 
Palseornis affinis, Tytler, Beavan, Ibis, 1867, p. 320; Blyth, 7&w, 

1868, p. 132 ; Hume, S. F. ii, pp. 9, 24, 184 ; nee Gould, 1858. 
Palaeorms tytleri, Hume, Proc. A. S. B. 1874, p. 108 ; id. S. F. ii, 

p. 454 ; id. Cat. no. 152 ter ; Salvadori, Cat. B. M. xx, p. 474. 

The male only differs from that of P. erythrogenys in being of a 
less yellowish green ; the upper back and interscapulary tract are 
much bluer, and there is a bluish tinge on the breast. In females 
the mandibular stripe is green throughout. The size of P. tytleri 
is rather less. Length of males 15-5 to 18'5, tail 9 to 10-5, 
wing 7 ; of females, length 15, tail 7, wing 675. 

Distribution. The whole Andaman group, including Barren Island, 
Narcondam, the Cocos, and Preparis ; common everywhere. 

This and the last species are only just separable, but the 
distinctions, small as they are, appear to be quite constant. 

P. longicauda, from the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo, 
is an allied species ; and a still more nearly related form is 
P. modesta, from Engano, off the S.W. coast of Sumatra. 

Genus PSITTINUS, Blyth, 1842. 

Size small. Tail less than half as long as wing, and rounded 
at the end ; bill as in Palceornis. 

This genus consists of a single species found in the Malay 
Peninsula and islands, and ranging into Tenasserim. 

s 2 



260 PSITTACIDJE. 

1149. Psittinus incertus. The Little Malayan Parrot. 

Psittacus incertus, Shaw, Nat. Misc. xviii, pi. 769 (c. 1807^. 
Psittacus malaccensis, apud Lath. 2nd. Orn. i, p. 130 (1790) ; nee 

Psittinus malaccensis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi, p. 789 (1842) ; Horsf. 

Sf M. Cat. ii, p. 608; Blyth, Ibis, 1863, p. 6; id. $ Wold. {Birds 

Burm. p. 58. 

Tanygnathus malaccensis. Blyth, Cat. p. 3. 
Psittinus incertus, Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 121, 500: Hume, 

Cat. no. 153 ter ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 147 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. M. 

xx, p. 501. 

Coloration. Male. Head and neck bluish grey, becoming bright 
cobalt-blue on the forehead and vertex ; upper back and scapulars 
blackish brown with an olive tinge ; wings outside green, a large 
deep red patch on the smaller secondary-coverts, most of the other 
coverts and the quills conspicuously edged with greenish yellow : 
outer greater primary-coverts blue, edge of wing yellow, winglet- 
feathers with bluish edges ; first primary and inner webs of the 
others blackish brown ; lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts 
cobalt-blue; median tail-feathers dark green, the other feathers 
yellowish green above, yellow beneath ; chin whitish ; breast olive- 
grey, passing into blue on the middle of the abdomen and green 
round the vent ; wing-lining and axillaries crimson. 

Female. Head and neck ruddy brown, yellowish at the sides 
and below ; remainder of upper plumage green, washed with blue 
on the rump ; lower parts yellowish green ; wings, including wing- 
lining and axillaries, and tail as in males, but the red patch on the 
wing-coverts is smaller. 

Young birds are deep green above and below, with the exception 
of the crimson wing-lining and a blue patch on the lower back. 

In adult males the upper mandible is orange-vermilion, lower 
dusky or dull reddish brown, in females both are usually whitish ; 
irides creamy white, eyelids and cere greenish brown or dusky 
green ; legs and feet pale dirty green (Davisori). 

Length about 7*5 ; tail 1-9 ; wing 5 ; tarsus -55 ; bill from 
cere -7. 

Distribution. Throughout the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and 
Borneo, ranging into Southern Tenasserirn as far north as Tavoy 
and Nwalabo. 

Habits, fyc. To parts of Tenasserini this Paroquet is a seasonal 
visitant, arriving about April. It probably, however, only moves 
from one part of the country to another at" no great distance. It 
goes about in small flocks, and has a sharp whistling note. The 
nidification has not been observed. 

Oenua LORICULUS, Blyth, 1849. 

Bill much smaller and longer comparatively than in Palceornis, 
and much more compressed, the culmen less curved ; the depth of 
the two mandibles together less than the length from cere to 
point ; tail short, slightly rounded. 



LORICULUS. 261 

This genus ranges throughout the greater part of the Oriental 
region and into part of the Papuan. Two species out of about 
twenty that are known occur within our limits. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Crown green L. vernalis, p. 261. 

b. Crown red L. indicus, p. 262. 

1150. Loriculis vernalis. The Indian Loriquet. 

Psittacus vernalis, Sparrm. Mus. Carls, no. 29 (1787). 

Loriculus vernalis, Blyth, Cat. p. 10; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 627; 

Jerdon, B. 1. i, p. 265 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1863, p. 6 ; Walden, P. Z. 8. 

1866, p. 538; 1873, p. 298; Beavan, Ibis, 1867, p. 320; 1869, 

p. 412; Hume, S. F. ii, pp. 185, 471 ; iii, p. 57 ; iv, p. 388; v, p. 25 ; 

xi, p. 56 ; id. Cat. no. 153 ; Blyth 8f Wald. Birds Burm. p. 58 ; 

Hume Sf Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 120, 500; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 52; 

Bingham, ibid. p. 161 ; Butler, ibid. j>. 384 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 146 ; 

id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. in, p. 92 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 

p. Ill ; Salvation, Cat. B. M. xx, p. 517. 
Coryllis vernalis, Finsch, Papag. ii, p. 721 (1868). 

Bhora, Bho-ara, H. in S. India; Latkan, H. in Bengal; Kyay-thatah, 
Kyun-hto, Burm. 

Coloration. Male. Upper parts green, except the rump and 
upper tail-coverts, which are rich crimson ; crown rather lighter 
green, outer webs of quills above and upper 
surface of tail-feathers darker, back tinged 
with yellow ; lower parts also green, but paler 
and yellower, especially on the breast ; a patch 
of blue on the throat; inner webs of quills 
inside and larger under wing-coverts, also 
lower surface of tail-feathers, verditer-blue. 

The female is a little darker in colour, and 
Fig. 71. wants the blue on the throat partially or 

He&d of L. vernalis, j. wholly. In young birds the crimson of the 

rump is mixed with green. 

Bill dull coral-red, yellow at tip, cere red ; iris pale yellowish 
white; legs pale orange (Oates, Pegu): bill dark yellow; feet 
leaden (Jerdon, Malabar). 

Length about 5-5 ; tail 1'7 ; wing 3*7 ; tarsus -45 ; bill from 
cere *5. 

Distribution. The neighbourhood of the Malabar coast from 
Cape Comorin to the latitude of Bombay, also east of the Bay of 
Bengal. This bird is found on the Nilgiris up to about 6000 feet, 
also in Western Mysore, and in Dharwar, Belgaum, &c., but only 
near the Sahyadri ; it is unknown throughout the rest of India 
south of the Himalayas, and in the Himalayas it has not been 
recorded west of Sikhim and the Bhutan Duars, where it is found, 
also in Assam, Sylhet, Cachar, Khtisi hills, Manipur, and through- 
out Burma, extending to the Malay Peninsula, in the southern 
portion of which it is replaced by L. yaljulus. It is common in the 




262 PSITTACDXffi. 

Andaman Islands, but has not been observed in the Nicobars. It 
is replaced by the next species in Ceylon. 

Habits, fyc. In some parts of the Western Grhats this is said to 
be a cold-weather visitant, above the Ghats it is only found in 
the rains ; it probably, like other Parrots, shifts its quarters with 
the seasons, but to no great distance. It is swift of night, and 
utters a screaming call when flying. It is found chiefly in 
clearings amongst forest, in gardens, and especially in groves of 
fruit-trees. It feeds on fruit of various kinds and on flower-buds, 
and is said to be particularly fond of cocoanut-palm juice so- 
much so as often to be captured in a stupified state after indulging 
in the intoxicating liquid. In the case of the allied L. indicus the 
juice of the wild palm Caryota urens is said by Legge to intoxicate 
the birds. 

This Loriquet is often caged, and, like other species of the genus, 
becomes very tame, and has the habit of sleeping with its head 
downwards, hanging from its perch. It breeds from March to 
May, in Tenasserim in February, and lays 3 to 5 eggs in a hole 
or hollow in a tree without any nest. The eggs are white and 
measure about -74 by -6. 

1151. Loriculus indicus. The Ceylonese Loriquet. 

Psittacus indicus, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i, p. 349 (1788). 

Psittacus asiaticus, Lath. Ind. Orn. i, p. 130 (1790). 

Psittacula coulaci, pt., Less. Traite. p. 202 (1831). 

Loriculus phillipensis, Blyth, Cat. p. 10 ; nee Psittacus phillipensis,. 

Mull. 
Loriculus asiaticus, Blyth, Cat. p. 312 ; id. J. A. S. B. xviii, p. 801 ; 

xix, p. 236 ; Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) xiii. p. 261 ; Horsf. & M. 

Cat. ii, p. 628 ; Walden, Ibis, 1867, p. 468. 
Loriculus coulaci, Ittyth, Ibis, 1863, p. 7 ; 1866, p. 226. 
Loriculus edwardsi, Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 295. 
Loriculus indicus, Holdsworth, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 426 ; Hume, S. F. 

vii, p. 368 j id. Cat. no. 153 bis ; Legge, Birds Ceyl p. 180, pi. vi ; 

Salvadori, Cat. B. M. xx, p. 526. 

Gira-malitchia, Pol-girawa, Cing. 

Coloration. Precisely similar to that of L. vernalis, except that 
the crown is deep red like the uropygium ; this red passes into- 
orange on the nape, and the hind-neck and interscapulary region 
are tinged with orange-yellow. Sexes alike. In the young the 
colours are duller and the head is green above. 

Bill light orange-red; cere yellow; iris white; legs and feet 
dusky yellow (Legge}. 

Length about 5-5 ; tail 1-75 ; wing 3'7 ; tarsus -45 bill from 
cere -5. 

^ Distribution. Ceylon, generally distributed, up to about 3500 
feet, but much less common in the north part of the island. 

Habits, $c. Precisely similar to those of the last species. Nidi- 
fication not recorded. 



Order X. STRIGES. 

The Owls form almost as natural an order as the Parrots, and 
occupy, both in external characters and in their anatomy, a posi- 
tion between the Psittaci and the Accipitres. Although long 
regarded as a suborder of the Accipitrine or Eaptorial birds, they 
have of late years been generally placed in a distinct ordinal 
group. 

Amongst the more conspicuous characters are the reversible 
outer toe, the position of the eyes, which are always directed for- 
ward and are generally very large, and the short curved and 
hooked bill, the basal portion covered with a cere in which the 
nostrils are pierced, the cere being almost entirely concealed by 
the mass of bristly feathers on the lores and forehead. In most of 
the genera the head is large and the facial portion covered with 
feathers radiating from the eyes and forming the facial disk, the 
outer margin of which is surrounded by a ruff of close-textured 
feathers forming a conspicuous border. From the margin of the 
ruff above the eyes there arise in many Owls aigrettes of 
lengthened feathers, known also as horns or ear-tufts, the last 
term being incorrect. The plumage is soft, and the coloration 
generally brown or rufous, the feathers in some genera being deli- 
cately vermiculated or stippled as in the Caprimulgi. 

The feet are strong and furnished with short claws ; a hallux is 
always present. The oil-gland is nude. The spinal feather-tract 
is well defined on the neck. There is no aftershaft. There are 
always 11 primaries. The flexor longus Jialluds leads to the 
hallux, and the flexor perforans diyitorum to the remaining three 
digits, but the two tendons are united by a broad vinculunu 
There is no ambiens muscle ; the femoro-caudal is present, but the 
accessory femoro-caudal and the semitendinosus and accessory 
semitendinosus are wanting. Basipterygoid processes are present 
and the palate is desmognathous, or, according to Gadow, schizo- 
gnathous with a desmognathous tendency. Both carotids are 
present and the caeca are large. Cervical vertebra 14. 

All Owls lay white and very round eggs, and the majority, like 
Parrots and most Picarian birds, take possession of a hole or 
hollow in the trunk or a branch of a tree for the purpose of nidi- 
fication, and use little or no lining. A few lay their eggs in holes 
amongst rocks, or on the ground, or in abandoned nests of other 
birds, and some are said to build their own nests of sticks. The 
young are hatched helpless and covered with down. The female, 
in some Owls, exceeds the male in size, but not to the degree that 
prevails amongst Accipitrine birds, whilst in many cases there is- 
no difference in size between the sexes. 

Owls are nocturnal or crepuscular and carnivorous and live for 



264 STRIGIDJE. 

the most part on mammals, on other birds, or on reptiles ; a few 
subsist on fish, and many of the smaller kinds on insects. The 
indigestible portions of the food bones, hair, scales, &c. are 
disgorged as pellets. It is not an uncommon thing to find masses 
of small bones in a hollow tree, thus accumulated. 

The Owls comprise two families, both Indian. These families 
.are well distinguished by osteological characters, but present no 
external differences of any importance. 

Skull long and narrow, breadth much less than 

% of length ; furcula united to keel of ster- 

num . . T. . . ............................ Strigidae, p. 264. 

iSkull broad, generally about of length ; furcula 

not in contact with keel of sternum ........ Asionidae, p. 267. 



Family 

Hinder margin of sternum with a single shallow notch on each 
side ; furcula anchylosed to keel of sternum ; no manubrium sterni. 
Skull long and narrow. Second joint of third toe considerably 
longer than the basal joint. (Beddard, Ibis, 1888, p. 340.) 

Only two genera are known Btrix, which is almost cosmo- 
politan, and Heliodilus, peculiar to Madagascar. 

Genus STRIX, Linn., 1766 *. 

No aigrettes (ear-tufts). Facial disk well developed and large, 
and entirely surrounded by a ruff of stiff feathers. Bill straight 
at the base, compressed and weak ; nostrils oval. Legs long, the 
upper part of the tarsus clad with feathers, which pass into bristles 
on the lower tarsus and upper surface of the toes ; middle toe 
scarcely longer than the inner, middle claw expanded and pectinate 
on the inner side. Wings very long and pointed, exceeding the 
tail, 2nd quill longest, 1st subequal ; tail moderate. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Upper surface speckled ; tarsus less than 3 inches S.flaminea, p. 264. 

b. Upper surface with small spots but not speckled ; 

tarsus over 3 inches ...................... S. Candida, p. 266. 

1152. Strix flammea. The Barn-Owl or Screecli-Owl. 

Strix flammea, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 133 (1766) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 41 ; 
Sharps, Cat. B. M. ii, p. 291 j Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 164 ; Gates, 
B. B. ii, p. 167. 

* Newton has shown (Yarrell, ed. 4, i. p. 150, and Ibis, 1876, p. 94) that 
he type of the Linnaean genus Strix is clearly the Tawny Owl (S. stridula v. 
alueo), and that Fleming's generic name Aluco should be used for S. flammea and 
its allies ; but Sharpe (Ibis, 1875, p. 324) has given reasons, which, though nor, 
so strong as Prof. Newton's, serve as a sufficient excuse for adhering to the usual 
nomenclature. 



STRIX. 265 



Strix javanica, Gm. Syst. Nat, i, p. 295 (1788); Blyth, J. A. & /;. 
xix. p. 613 ; Horsf. $ M. i, Cat. p. 81 ; Jerdon, B. /. i, p. 1 17 ; Myth 



id. Jaunt. Bom. N. H. Soc. iii, p. 220; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 18 ; 

Gates, in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 93. 
Strix indica, JM/th, ll,i*, 1866, p. 250 ; 1870, p. 160; Hume, Rough 

Notes, p. 342 ; id. S. F. i, p. 163 ; iii, p. 37 ; Rainey, S. F. iii. 

p. 332 ; nee Omel. 
Strix dercepstorffi, Hume, S. F. iii, p. 390 ; iv, p. 283 ; id. Cat. no. 60 

bis. 

The Indian Screech-Owl, Jerdon ; Kuraya, Karail, Biiri churi, II. ; 
Bhutumpecha, B.; Ghubdd, Mahr. ; Chaao pitta, Tel. ; Chaaokuravi, Tarn. 




Fig. 72. Hend of S. flummea, .4. 

Coloration. Facial disk white (occasionally, but rarely, tinged 
with ferruginous), orbital feathers and a broader spot in front of 
the eye dark ferruginous ; ruff milky white, the ends of the outer 
feathers generally buff and the tips dark brown ; back and upper 
parts pale grey, tinted or mixed with ochreous, the feathers 
yellowish buff except at the ends, which are finely verraiculated 
with black and white, each feather tipped with a small elongate 
black and white spot or ocellus ; quills mottled buff and dark 
brown, with irregular dark cross-bands ; inner webs mostly white; 
tail buff, mottled, especially at the end, with dark brown and 
crossed by dark bands, the feathers white beneath ; lower parts 
white or buff, with scattered small dark spots on the breast, abdo- 
men, and wing-lining. 

Bill fleshy white, cere flesh-colour ; iris black ; bare portions of 
tarsi and feet fleshy brown, claws brown (Legge). 

Length about 14 inches ; tail 5 ; wing 11-5 ; tarsus 2' 5-2-8 ; bill 
from gape 1/5. 

I think Sharpe right in uniting tin- various races of Barn- 
Owls under one specific heading. At the same time the Indian 
form, S. javanica, is distinguished from that of Western Europe 
by having much more robust legs and ffit, and by beini; always 
spotted beneath. But specimens from intermediate localities tend 
to unite the two forms. 

S. dercepstorffii is founded on a very small tawny ^M-rimen from 



266 STBIGIDJE. 

the Andaman Islands with the wing only 9'8, the face suffused 
with ferruginous, and even the spots on the back dark tawny 
instead of white. No other skin of this race has been obtained, 
but all the points of difference are repeated in other insular races 
of S.flammea. 

Distribution. Almost all tropical and temperate regions. The 
Barn-Owl is found throughout the greater part of India and 
Burma, though it is rare in forest-regions, on the higher hills, and 
in desert tracts. It has not been observed in Tenasserim, and in 
Ceylon has been obtained only in the north of the island. 

Habits, $c. From its habit of haunting roofs of buildings, out- 
houses, wells, and ruins, the Barn-Owl, though thoroughly noc- 
turnal, is one of the most familiar species of the order. It lives 
almost entirely on rats and mice. Its cry, a peculiarly weird 
shriek or screech, chiefly uttered at the pairing-season, sometimes 
on the wing, has caused the Barn-Owl to be looked upon as a bird 
of evil omen in many countries. Several of the Indian names 
mean " bad bird " or " death-bird." The eggs are more oval and less 
spherical than those of other Owls, white with a creamy tinge, and 
measure about 1-69 by 1-28. The number varies from 3 to 6 ; and 
they are generally deposited in holes in buildings or trees, or 
occasionally in the ground, and are frequently laid and hatched 
at intervals of several days. The breeding-season in the Indian 
Peninsula and Burma is from November to January, in Northern 
India from February to June. 

1153. Strix Candida. The Grass-Owl. 

Strix Candida, TicMl, J. A. S. B. ii, p. 572 (1833) ; Jerdon, III. Ind. 
Orn. pi. 30; id. B. I. i, p. 118; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, 
pt. 2, p. 93 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ii. p. 308 ; Blyth $ Wald. Birds 
Burm. p. 68 ; Fairbank, S. F. iv, p. 253 ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, 
p. 27 ; Ball $ Hume, S. F. vii, p. 200; Hume, Cat. no. 61 ; Reid, 
S. F. x, p. 14 ; Davison, ibid. p. 341 ; Terry, ibid. p. 469; Oates, B. B. 
ii, p. 168 ; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 95 ; Hume, S. F. 
xi, p. 18. 

Strix longimembris, Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. x, p. 86 (1839). 

Glaux javanica, Blyth, Cat. p. 42 (1849) ; nee Strix javanica, Gmel. 

Glaux Candida, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xix, p. 513 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 60. 

Scelostrix Candida, Kaup, Tr. Z. S. iv, p. 248 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1866, 
p. 251 ; 1870, p. 160; Hume, Rough Notes, p. 345 ; A. Anderson, 
S. F. iii, p. 388. 

Coloration. Disk either white or suffused with pale pinkish 
ferruginous, a blackish-brown spot in front of each eye ; ruff dark 
brown above, white or buff at the sides of the head and below, 
some of the feathers often tipped with brown ; upper plumage 
dark brown, each feather with a minute white spot ; basal portion 
of feathers orange-buff, this colour is conspicuous in places, es- 
pecially on the neck ; smallest wing-coverts orange-buff, with small 
brown spots ; quills buff, tipped with brown, mottled above the tip 
and with some imperfect dark bars farther up, inner webs mostly 



ASIONIDJB. 267 

white ; tail-feathers white, the middle pair generally and the outer 
webs of the others often buff above, all, except sometimes the 
outermost, with brown cross-bars ; lower parts from chin white or 
buff, with several scattered brown spots that are seldom or never 
entirely wanting. 

The buff lower parts and the pink disk may be signs of youth 
(they are not so in S. Jlammea) ; they are certainly not sexual. 

Bill and cere pinky white ; irides deep brown ; legs and feet 
blackish brown; claws horny, tinged bluish (Davison). 

Length about 14 ; tail 5 ; wing 13 ; tarsus 3'2-3'S ; bill from 
gape 1-6. 

Distribution. The grassy plains near the base of the Himalayas 
as far west as Dehra Dun, also parts of Bengal, the Eastern Cen- 
tral Provinces (Balaghat, Raipur), and Southern India (Nellore, 
Carnatic, Nilgiris), but not Ceylon. Fairbank thought he saw 
this Owl in the Bombay Deccan, but I agree with Butler that pro- 
bably some other species may have been taken for it. To the east- 
ward it has been found in Assam, the Khasi hills, Manipur, and 
at Toungngoo in Burma, and as far as Formosa in one direction, 
and Queensland in another, but it appears to be rare as a rule and 
very locally distributed. 

Habits, <Sfc. This species has generally been found in long grass, 
but Davison says that on the Nilgiris he has flushed it from grass 
scarcely a foot high. Very little is known of its habits. The 
nest, a very slight one, if any, is made on the ground ; the eggs, 
4 or 5 in number, are white, and measure about 1-63 by 1*27. 
They have been taken from October to December. 



Family ASIONUXE. 

Hinder margin of sternum with two deep incisions on each 
side ; f urcula free, not attached to the keel of the sternum, imper- 
fect in some genera ; a small unforked manubrium (spina externa) 
is present. Skull broad. Basal and second joints of third (middle) 
toe subequal in length. 

The Asionidce may be divided into 3 subfamilies, thus distin- 
guished : 

a. Facial disk and ruff well-marked. 

a'. Ear-orifice smaller than eye ; no oper- 

culum ; middle claw pectinate Photodilina;, p. 268. 

I'. Ear-orifice larger than eye and fur- 
nished with an operculum ; middle 
claw simple Asionince, p. 270. 

b. Facial disk and ruff ill-marked or obsolete ; 

ear-orifice smaller than eye ; middle 

claw simple Bubonina, p. 280. 



268 ASIONID.E. 

Subfamily PHOTODILIN^E. 

The characters are given under the only genus. 

Genus PHOTODILUS, Geoffr., 1830. 

Size small. Disk very distinct, but ruff not complete above 
the eyes. Bill weak, compressed. Ear-orifice of moderate size, 
smaller than the eye ; no operculum. Wings rounded, 4th and 
5th quills longest ; tail short. Tarsus feathered throughout ; inner 
toe longer than middle toe ; middle claw pectinate on the inside 
as in Striae. 

Owing to its well-developed disk and pectinate middle claw, 
this genus was long placed with Strix. Schlegel first, then Blyth, 
and subsequently, from an examination of the skeleton, Milne- 
Edwards, showed that the present form should be assigned to the 
Asionidce, and this has been confirmed by Beddard's additional 
observations on the anatomy (Ibis, 1890, p. 293). He, however, 
shows that Photodilus is, in several respects, intermediate in 
structure between the Strigidce and the typical Asionidce *. 

There are two species of Photodilus, both found within our 
area. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Feathers of upper parts chestnut, spotted, but 

not speckled, with black; inner webs of 

primaries chestnut barred with black P. badius, p. 268. 

b. Feathers of upper parts speckled or mottled 

with black ; inner webs of primaries brown . . P. assimilis, p. 269. 

1154. Photodilus badius. The Bay Owl. 

Strix badia, Horsf. Res. Java, pi. 37 (1824). 

Phodilus badius, Is. Geoff. St.-Hil. Ann. Sci. xxi, p. 201 (1830) ; 
Blyth, Cat. p. 41 ; Horsf. Sf M. Cat. i, p. 80 : Jerdon, B. I. i, 
p. 119 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 251 ; Hume, Rough Notes, p. 346 ; 
Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, p. 344 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 37 ; Sharpe, Cat. 
B. M. ii, p. 309 ; Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 67 ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 62 ; Hume fy Inglis, 8. F. ix, p. 245 ; Gates, B. B. ii, 
p. 166 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 18 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) 
vii, pp. 376, 437. 

Phodilus nipalensis, Gray, apud Hume, S. F. i, p. 429 ; iii, p. 37 ; 
nee Gray. 

The Bay Screech-Owl, Jerdon. 

Coloration. Broad frontal tract and the facial disk vinous pink ; 

* Beddard (1. c. p. 294) and Sharpe (P. Z. S, 1879, p. 175) were under the 
impression that the middle claw in Photodilus was not pectinate. The absence 
of pectination in the single specimen examined by each was probably due to 
wear ; the serration or pectination in good specimens, of which there are now 
between 30 and 40 in the British Museum, is precisely similar to that of Strix. 



PHOTODILUS. 269 

feathers round eye chestnut ; ruff white, the feathers tipped 
chestnut and black ; crown and nape chestnut with, in the middle, 
a few (usually 3 to 5) buff feathers, each with a small black spot, 
remainder usually spotless, but sometimes with a small black spot 
on each feather ; sides of neck ochreous buff with black spots ; 
upper plumage slightly paler chestnut than the crown, and with a 
few black spots, the feathers yellowish buff except at the ends, 
and the buff showing especially on the neck, the scapulars, and 
some of the wing-coverts ; the black spots on the scapulars and 
some of the larger wing-coverts double, and with a white spot 
between, or bordered with white ; quills, winglet, and tail-feathers 
chestnut, with imperfect black bars, the first two or three quills, 
the outermost feather of each series of primary-coverts, and the 
terminal feather of the winglet with large white spots on the 
outer webs ; lower parts pale vinous pink, more or less tinged \\ ith 
buff from the base of the feathers showing ; some small brown spots, 
sometimes with white borders, on the breast and abdomen ; wing- 
lining whitish, with a chestnut patch at base of the primaries. 

Bill yellowish ; iris black ; toes brown, claws yellowish. 

Length 11*5 ; tail 3-8 ; wing 8'75 ; tarsus 2 ; bill from gape 1*5. 

Distribution. The Eastern Himalayas as far west as Nepal at 
low elevations (perhaps farther west, for Mr. E. Thompson told 
Mr. Hume he had shot this species in Dehra Dun), also Assam, 
Cachar, Manipur, Burma (where it is rare), and the Malay 
countries, including Java and Borneo. 

Habits, 6fc. A very nocturnal bird, living in forest, and conse- 
quently very rarely seen. Nothing is known of the nidification. 



1155. Photodilus assimilis. The Ceylon Bay Owl. 

Phodilus badius, Hume, S. F. i, p. 429 ; Whyte, S. F. v, p. 201 ; 

nee Strix badia, Horsf. 

Phodilus assimilis, Hume, S. F. v, p. 138; id. Cat. no. 62 bis ; 
Whyte, S. F. v, p. 353 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 101, pi. v. 

This is very similar to the last, but darker above, the chestnut 
colour not being uniform on the crown, but marked with black 
shaft-lines, enclosing pale rufous spots, and on the upper parts 
generally the chestnut is much mottled with black, the buff on the 
back and scapulars is more marked, and there is a large buff patch 
formed by the median wing-coverts ; the black bars on the quills 
and tail-feathers are more numerous and extend quite across the 
feathers, and are nearly or quite as broad as the chestnut bar- 
intervening ; the inner webs of the primaries are brown instead 
of chestnut; the patch on the wing-lining at the base of the 
primaries is dark brown, and the spots on the lower surface are 
double, one behind the other on the shaft of each I'l-uth.-r. 

Bill greenish white ; iris dark brown ; feet pale whitish green, 
claws pale ash (Whyte) ; cere probably divan-mis (Ltgge). 

Dimensions about the same as those of P. badius. 



270 ASIONIDJE. 

Distribution. Only found as yet in the Ceylon hills, near Kandy, 
where this bird appears rare, as very few specimens have hitherto 
been obtained. 

Habits, Sfc. Like P. badius this is a thoroughly nocturnal species, 
living in dense forest. It appears to breed about the end of the 
year ; makes a nest of dry twigs, moss, and feathers in a hollow 
tree, and lays, in the only instance yet recorded, 3 eggs. 



Subfamily ASIONIN^E. 

Ear-orifice large, exceeding the eye in size, lunate or ovoid in 
shape, and furnished with an operculum. Facial disk well-marked 
and nearly as high above the eyes as below them ; ruff distinct. 

The Owls of this subfamily are of moderate or large size, with 
feathered tarsi. Two genera are Indian. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Aigrettes present : 2nd quill longest ; iris yellow. Asio, p. 270. 

b. No aigrettes : 3rd, 4th, or 5th quill longest ; iris 

dark SYBNIUM, p. 273. 

Genus ASIO, Brisson, 1760. 

Aigrettes or ear-tufts present, but varying in size ; ear-orifice 
very large, furnished with an operculum. Bill short and strong, 
the part covered by the cere is longer than that beyond the cere 
measured in a straight line from base to front. Tarsus and upper 
surface of toes thickly covered with feathers. Euff complete or 
nearly so ; facial disk well-marked, and extending nearly as far 
above the eye as beneath it. Wings long and pointed, 2nd quill 
longest, 3rd subequal ; tail moderate, rounded. Iris yellow. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Transverse dark markings as well as longitu- 

dinal stripes on abdomen A. otus, p. 270. 

b. Only longitudinal shaft-stripes on abdomen . A. accipitrinus, p. 271. 

1156. Asio otus. The Long-eared Owl. 

Strix otus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 132 (1766). 

Otus vulgaris, Fleming, Brit. An. p. 56 (1828) ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. 

p. 79 ; Jerdon, B. 1. i, p. 125 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, 

p. 17 ; xli, p. 231 ; Hume, Rough Notes, p. 361 ; Jerdon, Ibis, 

1871, p. 345 ; 2)oi ff 8f Butler, S. F. vii, p. 503. 
Asio otus, Lesson, Man. oVOrn. i, 

Cat. B. M. ii 

p. 45 ; Scully, 

Ibis, 1889, p. 154. 




A8IO. 271 

Coloration. Lores and anterior portion of disk whitish, bristly 
ends of feathers black ; round eye and streak from front of eye to 
gape blackish brown ; posterior portion of disk tawny, tinged with 
brown ; ruff dark brown inside, speckled brown, white, and buff 
outside ; aigrettes blackish brown, with the basal outer border 
buff, the inner border white ; upper parts dark brown, mottled 
with white on the crown, back, rump, scapulars, wing-coverts, and 
tertiaries, the buff bases of the feathers showing here and there 
throughout ; the neck is buff, broadly streaked with dark brown, 
the dark streaks slightly mottled at their edges ; quills tawny buff, 
the terminal half greyish, mottled with brown, and barred with 
mottled dark brown ; tail-feathers buff, mottled with dark brown 
near the ends and with dark bars throughout ; lower parts buffy 
white, with broad brown shaft-stripes, and with imperfect, narrow, 
wavy and broken cross-bars on the abdomen only, some buff 
from the bases of the feathers showing ; tibial and tarsal feathers 
and under tail-coverts unstriped buff; wing-lining buffy white, 
with a brown patch at the base of the primaries. 

Bill blackish brown ; cere fleshy ; irides bright yellow to orange ; 
claws horny black, paler at base (Hume). 

Length 14'5 ; tail 6-5 ; wing 11*5 ; tarsus 1'6 ; bill from gape 1. 

Distribution. The Palaearctic region, visiting N. Africa, the 
Himalayas, and North-western India in winter. This Owl probably 
breeds in the higher Himalayan forests, and has been obtained 
from Kashmir to Sikhim. It is not rare in winter in the Punjab, 
and has been collected in Sind by Butler and Doig, in Cutch by 
Stoliczka. 

Habits, fyc. The Long-eared Owl is migratory in Northern India, 
but not throughout its range ; it is found in woods and feeds on 
mice, insects, and small birds. It breeds usually in the deserted 
nest of another bird, often a Buzzard's or Crow's, and lays about 
4 white eggs in March or April. 

1157. Asio accipitrinus. TJie Short-eared Owl. 

Strix accipitrina, Pall. Rets. Russ. Reich*, i, p. 455 (1771). 

Strix brachyotos, Forster, Phil. Trans. Ixii, p. 384 (1772). 

Asio brachyotus, Blyth, Cat. p. 35 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 425. 

Otus brachyotus, Horsf. Sf M. Cat. i, p. 79 ; Jerdon, B. I. i. p. 126 ; 
Hume, Rough Notes, p. 364; A. Anderson, P. Z. S. 1872, jx 81 ; 
Butler, S. F. iii, p. 449; v, p. 226; Hume $ Bourd. S. fc iv, 
p. 372. 

jfigolius brachyotus, Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 66. 

Asio accipitrinus, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ii, p. 234; Wardl. Ramsay, 
Ibis, 1877, p. 454 ; Hume Sf Dav. S. F. vi, p. 30 ; Davidson $ 
Wend. S. F. vii, p. 75 ; Hume, ibid. p. 162; Butler, ibid. p. 180 ; 
ix,p. 376; Ball, S. F. vii,_p. 200; Crij>ps, ibid. p. 263 ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 68; Davison, S. F. x, p. 343; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, 
p. 45 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 163 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 64 ; Hume, 
S. F. xi, p. 20. 

Coloration. Facial disk white, more or less tinged with tawny 



272 

buff, especially behind the eye ; orbital feathers and tips of loral 
shafts black; ruff rich buff, streaked and speckled with dark 
brown; upper plumage throughout buff, broadly streaked with 
dark brown, the colours somewhat intermixed and mottled on the 
scapulars, tertiaries, and wing-coverts ; some large buff or white 
spots on the scapulars, greater and median coverts; primaries 
buff, with the tips and two or three irregular cross-bands near the 
end dark brown, the brown bands occurring higher on the outer 
than on the inner webs; secondaries banded buff and brown, 
basal portion of inner webs of all quills white ; tail banded tawny 
buff and dark brown ; the buff in the middle feathers mixed with 




Fig. 73. Head ot A. accipitrinus, ^. 

brown ; lower parts buff, longitudinally streaked with brown shaft- 
stripes, broadest on the breast, growing narrow behind and dis- 
appearing on the legs, lower abdomen, under tail-coverts, and 
under wing-coverts ; a brown patch on the latter at the base of 
the primaries. 

In some skins from North-western Indian and the desert, 
the parts usually buff are nearly white, especially the lower 
surface. 

Bill and claws blackish ; irides deep yellow. 

Length 15 ; tail 5'75 ; wing 12 ; tarsus 1*6 ; bill from, gape 1*2. 

Distribution. Almost world-wide except in high latitudes. A 
migratory bird, that may be found during the cold season in all 
parts of the empire in suitable localities ; common in the grass- 
plains of Northern India, less common to the southward and, 
so far as is known, in Burma, and not hitherto recorded from 
Ceylon or Tenasserim. 

Habits, fyc. This Owl is usually in India found in long grass, 
and is often seen when grass-plains are beaten for game. Occa- 
sionally it haunts low bush or cultivation. It lives mainly on 
small mammals, which it hunts, chiefly by night, but sometimes by 
day. It flies well and strongly, and was formerly a favourite 
quarry for trained Falcons. It does not breed in India, but 
farther north lays about 4 eggs on the ground. 



STRNIUM. 273 

Genus SYRNIUM, Savigny, 1810. 

No aigrettes (ear-tufts) ; ear furnished with an operculum. Bill 
stout. Tarsus thickly feathered throughout ; toes feathered above 
in all Indian species to base of last phalanx ; claws strong. Buff 
narrow, incomplete above ; facial disk well developed, extending 
almost as far above the eyes as below. Wings rounded, 3rd, 4th, 
or 5th quill longest ; tail of moderate length, rounded. Irides 
always dark. 

The Owls of this genus are of moderate size, and are generally 
found in trees during the day : all are thoroughly nocturnal. In 
Sharpe's ' Catalogue ' 27 species were enumerated, scattered over 
the greater part of the world, and two or three have since been 
described ; six are Indian. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Lower surface with longitudinal as well as 

transverse markings. 
a'. All tail-feathers with pale cross-bands : 

wing 12 S. nivicola, p. 273. 

b'. Middle tail-feathers not banded : wing 

13-5 S. biddulphi, p. 274, 

b. Lower surface with transverse bars alone. 



c'. Bars on abdomen inch or more apart. 
a". Upper parts mottled with black and 

white S. ocdlatum, p. 277 

It TT 'j_l 1 *J_ 1 A 



ipp 

phi 
6". Upper parts with white spots, but not 

mottled S. seloputo, p. 278. 

d'. Bars on abdomen much less than inch 

apart S. indrani, p. 275. 

c. Lower surface with longitudinal shaft-stripes 

alone S. butleri, p. 279. 



1158. Syrnium nivicola. The Himalayan Wood-Owl. 

Mesomorpha nivicola, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 82 (descr. 

nulla). 
Syrnium nivicolum, Hodgs., Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, pp. 185, 550 

(1845) ; xv, p. 9 ; xvi, p. 464 ; id. Cat. p. 41 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. 

i, p. 84 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 124 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, 

p. 16 ; Hume, Rough Notes, p. 359 ; Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, p. 345 ; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ii, p. 250 ; Hume, Cat. no. 66 ; id. S. F. ix, 

p. 37 ; C. H. T. Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 407. 

Kashi-op tak-pum, Lepcha ; Uko, Bhot. 

Coloration. Loral feathers white or fulvous, with black bristly 
ends; facial disk greyish or fulvous, white-shafted, indistinctly 
barred with brown; a white or fulvous superi'ilimn ; ruff indis- 
tinct, dark brown, more or less banded and spotted \vith white or 
fulvous ; middle of crown dark brown, uniform in old birds ; upper 
parts dark brown, vermiculated and speckled with whitish or 

VOL. in. T 



274 ASIONTDJE. 

fulvous, with larger whitish or buff markings on the hind-neck, 
and large white or buff spots on the outer webs of the scapulars 
and of the median primary wing-coverts; quills brown, with 
mottled tips and broad whitish bars, more or less mottled, inter- 
rupted at the shafts, and closer together on the secondaries ; tail- 
feathers brown, mottled at the tips and sometimes on the outer 
edges, and all with pale mottled or clouded cross-bands ; lower 
parts 'white or yellowish fulvous, pure in the middle of the throat, 
elsewhere broken up by dark brown shaft-stripes and cross-bands, 
closer together on the chin and breast ; feathers on legs and toes 
with brown markings forming irregular bars. 

Young birds are somewhat indistinctly barred with brown and 
fulvous almost throughout. 

Bill pale fleshy yellow; cere brown, ill-marked; irides dark 
brown ; ends of toes dull plumbeous, claws brown (Hume}. 

Length about 17 ; tail 7 ; wing 12; tarsus 2; bill from gape 
1-35. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas fromMurree to Sikhim, 
and probably farther east at considerable elevations, 6000-14,000 
feet. This Owl is also found in China. Birds from Sikhim and 
Nepal are always fulvous and rufescent, those from the N.W. 
Himalayas greyish, the difference far exceeding that between 
S. newarense and S. indrani, and very like that between Capri- 
mulgus europceus and G. unwini. 

Habits, fyc. Very little known. The cry, according to Davison, 
is a double hoot. The nest and eggs have not been observed, but 
probably resemble those of the allied European species S. aluco, 
the Tawny Owl, which lays 3 or 4 eggs in the hollow of a tree, 
or sometimes amongst rocks or in an old rook's nest. Another 
allied form is S. davidi from Moupin (Sharpe, Ibis, 1875, p. 256). 



1159. Syrnium biddulphi. Scully's Wood-Owl. 

Syrnium biddulphi, Scully, Ibis, 1881. p. 423, pi. xiv: id. S. F. x, 
p. 95. 

Similar to the last, but rather larger, still greyer than the 
north-western variety of S. nivicola, and intermediate in markings 
between that species and S. aluco, there being a tendency to dark 
median bars on the hind-neck, back, and scapulars, though less 
than in the European form. The vermiculation or mottling of 
the upper parts is finer than in S. nivicola, and the present 
species may be immediately distinguished by having the middle 
tail-feathers and the outer webs of the next pair mottled through- 
out and almost or entirely destitute of cross-bands. 

Bill green, yellow at tip ; cere olive ; iris dark brown ; toe-scales 
pale green ; claws black, slaty at base (Scully}. 

Length about 18*5 : tail 8-5 ; wing 13-5 ; tarsus 2-5 ; bill from 
gape 1'45. 

Distribution. Two specimens were obtained by Scully at Gilgit 



SYBNIUM. 275 

in forest. I find two more in the Hume collection one from 
Peshawar, the other from Murdan, close to Peshawar. It was 
probably this bird that was seen in Afghanistan by Wardlaw 
Kamsay (Ibis, 1880, p. 48) and taken for S. nivicola. Nothing 
is known of the habits. 



1160. Symium indrani. The Brown Wood-Owl. 

Strix indranee, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 82. 

Ulula newarenis, Hodgson, As. Res. xix, p. 168 (1836). 

Bulaca newarensis, Hodgson, J. A. S. B. vi, p. 372 ; Blyth, Ibis. 

1866, p. 252; Hume, Rough Notes, p. 348 ; id. N. Of E. p. 60 : 

Stanford, S. F. v, p. 483. 

Bulaca monticola, Jerdon, Mad. Jour. L. S. xiii, p. 167 (1844). 
Syrniuin newarense, Gray, Gen. JS. i, p. 39, pi. 14 ; Jerdon, B. I. 

i, p. 122 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 16 ; Jerdon, Ibis, 

1871, p. 344 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ii, p. 281 ; Hume, Cat. no. 04 ; 

Scully, S. F. viii, p. 229 ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1887, pp. 434, 471 ; 

Hume, S. F. xi, p. 19; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, 

p. 116. 
Bulaca indranee, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 463; Hume, Rough 

Notes, p. 347. 
Syrnium indrani, Blyth, Cat. i, p. 40 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 83 ; Jerdon, 




$ Uav. IS. IT. vi, p. VI ; Jlume, L'at. no. 63 ; Yulal, S. Jb. ix,p. 35 ; 

Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 155, pi. v ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 342 ; Taylor, 

ibid. p. 455 ; Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 407 ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1887, 

p. 477 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 62. 
Syrnium ochrogenys, Hume, S. F. i, p. 431 (1873). 
Syrnium hodgsoni, Scutty, S. F. viii, p. 231 (1879). 

The Brown Wood-Owl, The Nepal Brown Wood-Oivl, Jerdon ; Bulaka, 
Nepal ; Mik-dab-bru, Lepcha ; Ulama, Cing. 

Coloration. Bristly loral feathers mixed black and white; 
feathers around orbits black or blackish brown, passing into 
whitish, whity brown, brownish buff, or even orange-buff, more or 
less barred with dusky, on the facial disk, a white or whitish super- 
ciliary band continuous across the forehead ; ruff proper and chin 
chocolate-brown, upper parts the same ; crown and nape often 
much darker than the back. Scapulars and wing-coverts more or 
less barred paler, some of the outer scapulars white with narrow 
brown bars ; rump and upper tail-coverts also barred with white 
or whitish in , some birds, and the back barred paler in young 
individuals ; quills with pale cross-bars, not always corresponding 
on the two webs, much closer together on the secondaries; tail- 
feathers brown, with narrow pale brown or white bars and white 
tips; throat pure white; remainder of lower parts, except chin, 
white or fulvous, closely barred with dark brown, most closely on 
the legs and toes ; the breast in some old birds (chiefly Hima- 
layan) nearly or quite uniformly brown. 

Young birds have broad whitish edges to the feathers, especially 

T2 



276 ASIONLDJE. 

on the crown and nape ; all the upper parts are barred ; the lower 
parts are white at first, and gradually assume the barring. 

Bill greenish horny, bluish near base ; cere plumbeous ; hides 
deep brown (yellow irides have twice been recorded) ; ends of toes 
pale leaden ; claws dusky plumbeous, paler at their bases. Toes- 
feathered above, except close to the claws. 

Length of Himalayan birds about 21 inches, tail 8-9-5, wing 
13-3 to 16-6, tarsus 2-3 to 2-75, bill from gape 1-45-1-6 ; length 
of South-Indian and Ceylon birds about 18-5, tail 6-5-8, wing 
11-75-13*5. Males average less than females. 

I do not think the Peninsular and Ceylon form, S. indrani, can 
be separated from the Himalayan S. neivarense, except as a race or 
subspecies. The Southern race is considerably smaller, as usual, 
and the facial disk is as a rule distinctly ochreous, whilst in the 
Himalayan bird it is whitish ; but the difference is not absolutely 
constant, as Hume has shown, and ochreous or rufous coloration 
is a common form of variation in Owls. Very often, too, the 
superciliary band is less pure white, and the crown and nape are 
darker and paler in the Southern than in the Northern variety. 
Birds from the Assam hills and Burma resemble those from 
Southern India in colour. The Malaccan $. maingayi (Hume, 
S. I\ vi, p. 27) is rather more distinct, but only entitled, I think, 
to subspecific separation. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas from near the base to 
a considerable elevation (13,000 feet in Sikhim), also on the 
Western Ghats from Mahableshwar southward and throughout 
Ceylon. Blyth received a specimen from Goomsur, and there is 
one from the Shevroy hills in the Madras Museum. To the 
eastward this bird has been found in the hills south of Assam, in 
Manipur, and, very rarely, in Burma, a specimen from the Thoung- 
gyen valley, east of Moulmein, having recently been sent to me 
by Mr. Hauxwell, and I find another from the same neighbourhood, 
collected by Mr. Limborg, in the Tweeddale collection. Swinhoe 
obtained this species in Formosa. 

Habits, fyc. A forest bird, keeping much to the higher hill- 
ranges, except in Ceylon. The ordinary call is, according to 
Davison, a quadruple hoot; according to Legge a sound like 
to-whood: the diabolical shrieks attributed to this species by 
Layard and others are probably produced by another Owl. Legge 
has given an excellent account of the bird in captivity. His 
captives devoured small birds, lizards, and fish with equal zest. 
The Owl grasped its food, just as a parrot does, in one foot, with, 
the inner toe turned backwards, and after nibbling at various 
parts, as if to taste, jerked the whole headforemost into its 
mouth and swallowed it. Hume found a nest of sticks belonging 
to this species on June 6th, in a precipitous valley near Simla, 
placed on a rocky shelf, and containing three very young birds ; 
and Mandelli obtained a white subspherical egg, measuring 2-07 
by 1-76, from a female on March 6th. No more is known of the 
breeding. 



SYENIUM. 277 

1161. Syrnmm ocellatum. The Mottled Wood-Owl. 
Syrnium ocellatum, Less. Rev. Zool. 1839, p. 289; Stanford, 

J. A S. B. xxxvin, pt. 2, p. 167 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. i. p. 263 ; 

Butler, 8. F. v, p. 208 ; vii, p. 179 ; ix, p. 376 ; Davidson $ Wend. 

S. F. vii, p. /5; Ball, ib. p. 200; Hume, Cat. no. 65; Vital 

S F ix, p. 35 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 14 ; Hume, ibid. p. 343 ; Barnes, 

birds Bom. p. 02; id. Journ. Bom. N. H. Soc. iii, p. 220; 

Littledale, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. i, p. 195; Gates in Hume'* 

N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 115. 

Bulaca sinensis, apud Jerdon, Mad. Jour. L. S. x, p. 88 ; nee Lath. 
feyrnmm smense, apud Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi,p. 162 ; id. Cat. p. 40 ; 

Horsf. M. Cat. i, p. 82; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 123; iii, p. 870; 

McMaster, J. A. S. B. xl, pt. 2, p. 207. 
Bulaca ocellata, Blyth, Ibis, 1865, p. 29; 1866, p. 253; King, 

J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 213 ; Hume, Rough Notes, p. 353 ; id. 

N. 8fE. p. 61 ; A. Anderson, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 80; Adam, S. F. 

i, p. 369 ; Fairbank, S. F. iv, p. 253. 




Fig. 74. Head of 8. ocellatum, $. 

Coloration. Loral feathers mixed black and white, a vertical 
ferruginous stripe behind the eye, remainder of facial disk greyish 
white, barred with dusky and white-shafted ; forehead and super- 
cilia white with black bars ; ruff chocolate-brown, narrow and 
inconspicuous ; feathers of upper parts ferruginous tawny except 
at the ends, those of the crown, nape, and sides of neck tipped 
black, spotted or barred with white, those of the rest of the upper 
surface finely mottled black and white, with broader wavy black 
bars and shaft-stripes ; terminal portion of quills dark brown, 
with numerous broad pale clouded and mottled cross-bands and 
mottled tips, basal portion buff, sometimes with dark cross-bars; 
upper surface of outer web much mottled ; middle tail-feathers 
mottled and with irregular cross-bands, buff towards the base, 
becoming dark near the end ; outer tail-feathers the same near the 
tip and on the outer web, but buff with dark bands inside 
towards the base ; point of chin greyish white, the feathers very 
bristly, followed by dark brown buff feathers with whitf edges and 
chestnut at the base ; middle of throat white ; lower parts from 



278 ASIONID^B. 

throat white, tinged with ochreous buff, and with narrow blackish 
cross-bars, which are much closer together on the legs and toes. 

Bill black ; eyelids orange ; irides dark brown ; claws dusky ; 
soles of the feet yellowish (Jerdon). 

Length about 18'5 ; tail 8 ; wing 14 ; tarsus 2-25 ; bill from 
gape 1'6. 

Distribution. Throughout the Peninsula of India as far south as 
the Carnatic and the base of the Nilgiris, at all events, but not in 
Ceylon. To the northward the range extends in places to the 
Sutlej, and perhaps to the Indus on the west, to the base of the 
Himalayas on the north, and to Lower Bengal on the east, but not 
beyond. 

Habits, $c. The Mottled Wood-Owl is chiefly found in well- 
wooded districts, but not in forests, and is especially partial to 
mango-topes and large trees about villages. It lives chiefly on 
small mammals, such as rats, mice, and squirrels, and its call is a 
loud harsh hoot. It breeds in the N.W. Provinces and Punjab in 
February and March, but in the Central Provinces from November 
till January, and lays usually 2 eggs, occasionally 3, in a cavity or 
hollow of some large tree, very often a mango, banyan, or peepul, 
there being little or no lining. According to Anderson it fre- 
quently builds a nest, but this is not confirmed by other observers. 
The eggs are very round ovals, white or slightly creamy, measuring 
about 1-99 by 1-67. 

1162. Syrnium seloputo. The Malayan Wood-Owl. 

? Strix sinensis, Lath. Gen. Syn., Supp. ii, p. 368 ; id. Ind. Orn. Suppl, 

p. xvi (1801). 

Strix seloputo, Horsf. Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 140 (1821). 
Strix pagodarum, Temm. PL Col. pi. 230 (1823). 
Syrnium seloputo, Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 84 ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 150 ; 

iii, p. 37 ; id. Cat. no. 65 bis ; Blyth Wald. Birds Burm. p. 67 f 

Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, p. 28. 
Bulaca sinensis, Blyth, Ibis, 3865, p. 29; 1866, p. 253; Hume, 

Rough Notes, p. 357. 
Syrnium sinense, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ii, p. 261 ; Oates, B. B. ii r 

p. 164 ; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 114. 

Coloration. Facial disk, including lores and forehead, dull ochreous 
buff ; ruff narrow, dark brown ; upper parts chocolate-brown, 
darker on the head and nape and spotted throughout with white 
spots and imperfect bars of irregular size and shape, more or less 
surrounded by black rims ; outer scapulars white, with brown cross- 
bars ; quills and tail-feathers brown, with pale cross-bands and 
tips, the cross-bands growing broader and becoming buff on the 
inner webs of the quills towards the base ; chin buff, middle of 
throat white ; lower surface from throat, with sides of neck and 
under wing-coverts, white, with dark brown cross-bars, narrow on 
the abdomen and close together on the legs. 

Young with the upper plumage mostly banded white and dark 
brown. 



SYRNIUM. 279 

Bill and cere greenish black ; irides dark brown ; claws and 
visible portion of toes horny (Davison). 

Length about 18-5 ; tail 7*5 ; wing 13-5 ; tarsus 2-25 ; bill from 
gape 1-5. 

Distribution. Pegu, Tenasserim, Siam, Cochin China, the Malay 
Peninsula, Java, and probably Sumatra and Borneo. The reported 
occurrence of this Owl in Assam and the Nicobar Islands is 
probably due to error. 

Habits, &fc. This is more of a forest bird than S. ocellatum, but 
keeps similarly to large trees, and the young birds were found on 
bare wood in the fork of a peepul tree by Gates in March and 
April. The hoot is said by Davison to be very peculiar, com- 
mencing with a sort of rolling 7ioo-hoo-hoo and ending with a pro- 
longed and deep-drawn hoo. A bird killed by this naturalist had 
fed upon beetles. 

This bird does not agree well with Latham's description of 
Strix sinensis, and as it is not known to occur in China the name 
is objectionable. 

1163. Syrnium butleri. Hume's Wood-Oivl. 

Asio butleri, Hume, S. F. vii, p. 316 ; id. Cat. no. 67 bis. 
Syrnium butleri, Tristram, S. F. viii, p. 417. 

Coloration. Facial disk white, tinged with tawny behind, some 
of the loral feathers black-tipped ; ruff greyish brown, the feathers 
tipped with cream-colour or buff ; upper plumage brown, banded 
irregularly, clouded, and intermixed with dull brownish buff, a few 
large white spots on the secondary, median, and greater coverts ; 
quills and tail-feathers banded brown and brownish buff above, 
brown and whity brown beneath, tips of the quills mottled greyish 
brown ; tips of tail-feathers white, the buff bars on the median 
tail-feathers replaced by irregularly-shaped spots; lower parts 
creamy white, the feathers edged with rufous brown, and with 
narrow brown shaft-stripes on the breast and upper abdomen ; 
wing-lining white, a brown patch at the base of the primaries. 

Length 14, or rather less ; tail 5-75 ; wing 10 ; tarsus 2 ; bill 
from gape 1'2. 

The tarsi, feet, and claws are very small. In the wing the 3rd 
quill is longest and the 4th very little shorter. 

Distribution. Only two specimens are known one, the type in 
the Hume collection, was obtained, there is every reason to believe, 
at Omara on the Mekran coast ; the other was procured by Canon 
Tristram from Mt. Sinai. This Owl is somewhat intermediate 
between Syrnium and Asio, but appears more allied to the former, 
as it has a rounded wing and no aigrei 



280 



Subfamily BUBONINJE. 

Ear-orifice not exceeding the eye in size; no operculum. Facial 
disk generally ill-marked, and never extending as far above the 
eye as below ; ruff nearly or quite obsolete. 

This subfamily is much larger than the last two, and contains 
several Indian forms, varying in size from the great Eagle-Owls 
to species scarcely larger than a Skylark. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Aigrettes well developed. 

a'. Size large ; wing exceeding 13. 

a". Tarsi partly or wholly naked KETUPA, p. 280. 

b". Tarsi feathered throughout. 

a 3 . 1st quill longer than 7th j irides yellow. BUBO, p. 283. 
b 3 . 1st quill shorter than 10th ; irides'brown. HUHUA, p. 287. 
b'. Size small ; wing under 8 SCOPS, p. 290. 

b. Aigrettes small or wanting. 

c'. Cere not inflated, colour mainly or wholly 

white : NYCTEA, p. 289. 

d'. Cere inflated ; colour brown or rufous, 
c". Plumage more or less spotted with white 

ahove ATHENE, p. 300. 

d". Plumage barred above (in Indian forms). GLAUCIDIUM, p. 304. 
e". Plumage uniformly brown above (in 

Indian forms) NINOX, p. 309. 

Genus KETITPA, Lesson, 1831. 

The Fish-Owls comprise three species, all occurring within Indian 
limits. They are large and powerful birds, with the tarsus partly 
or wholly naked and granular, much like that of the Osprey, and 
the soles of the feet covered with prickly scales. The claws are 
large, well curved, each with a sharp cutting-edge beneath, and the 
middle claw with a sharp keel on the inside also. 

Aigrettes are present, long and pointed. The bill is large and 
strong. The facial disk is ill-marked, especially above. The 
wings are rounded, and do not reach the end of the tail, 4th quill 
generally the longest, 3rd and 5th subequal ; tail moderate. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Tarsus naked behind and usually more than 

halfway up in front. 
a'. Lower surface with shaft-stripes and finely 

barred across throughout K zeylonensis, p. 281. 

6'. Lower surface with shaft-stripes, but without 

cross-barring x. javanensis, p. 283. 

b. Tarsus partly feathered behind, and usually more 

than halfway down in front K.flampes, p. 282. 



KETUPA. 281 

1164. Ketupa zeylonensis. The Brown Fish-Owl. 

Strix zeylonensis, Gmd. Syst. Nat. i, p. 287 (1788). 

Strix leschenaultii, Temm. PI. Col. pi. 20 (1824). 

Strix dumeticola, Tickett, J. A. S. B. ii, p. 571 (1833). 

Strix hardwickii. Gray in Hardw. III. Ind. Zool ii, pi. 31 (1833-4). 

Cultrunguis nigripes, Hodgson, J. A. S. B. v, p. 364 (1836). 

Ketupa ceylonensis, Gray, Gen. B. i, p. 38; Blyth, Cat. p. 37; 
Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 77 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. J 33 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1866, 
p. 254 ; Hume, Rough Notes, p. 379 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 431 ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ii, p. 4 ; Blyth Sf Wold. Birds Burm. p. 66 ; 
Armstrong, S. F. iv, p. 300 ; Blanford, S. F. v, p. 245 ; Fairbank, 
ibid. p. 392 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 33, 497 ; Ball, S. F. vii, 
p. 201 ; Cripps, ibid. p. 255 ; Hume, Cat. no. 72 ; Legge, Birds 
Ceyl.-p.l27; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 36 ; Butler, ibid. p. 376 ; Reid, S. F. 
x, p. 15 ; Davison, ibid. p. 343 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 148 ; id. in 
Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 96 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 68 ; 
Hume, S. F. xi, p. 21 ; Littledale, Journ. Bom. N. H. Soc. i, 
p. 195. 

Amraika ghughu, Ulu,II.-, Bhutum, Beng. ; Hudu, Assamese; Baka- 
muna, Cing. ; Tee-dote, Burm. 




Fig. 75. Left foot of K. zeylonensis, . 

Coloration. Lores white or fulvous, with black shafts ; cheeks 
and ear-coverts the same, but more fulvous ; upper plumage 
throughout rufescent brown to dull rufous, with broad black shaft- 
stripes ; lower back and rump with narrow shaft-lines ; the scapu- 
lars and tertiaries much mottled, and the neck-feathers very often 
marked with close and subobsolete cross-bars ; outer webs of outer 
scapulars white, and some white or buff spots on the larger and 
median wing-coverts ; quills and tail-feathers dark brown, with 



282 ASIONID^. 

paler mottled whity-brown bands and tips ; throat white; remainder 
of lower parts whitish, narrowly and closely transversely barred 
with brownish rufous, each feather, including those of the throat, 
with a fusiform dark brown shaft-line ; larger under wing-coverts 
white, with dark brown ends. 

Bill dusky yellow-green, dark brown on the culmen ; cere pale 
dusky green ; iris bright yellow ; legs dusky yellow (Oates). 

Length about 22 ; tail 8 ; wing 16 ; tarsus 2'75 ; bill from 
gape 2. 

Males are generally smaller than females, and Himalayan birds 
are considerably larger than those from Southern India, Ceylon, 
and Southern Burma. 

Distribution. A common bird throughout India, Ceylon, and 
Burma in well-wooded tracts near the sea, rivers, or large pieces 
of water. This Owl is rare in the Himalayas, where it is replaced 
by the next species ; but it has been found on the tops of the 
Nilgiri and Palni hills in Southern India. It is, of course, rare 
or wanting in the drier parts of Eajputana, the Punjab, Sind, &c. ; 
but I shot one by a stream in the Western Sind hills. It does 
not appear to range south of Tenasserim, though it occurs to the 
eastward in China and far to the west near Acre in Palestine. It 
has not yet been observed in Persia or Arabia. 

Habits, <$fc. The Common Indian Fish-Owl generally passes the 
day in a thick tree, and wings its way at sunset to the water's edge 
to search for food. It lives chiefly on fish and crabs, but also kills 
birds and small mammals at times. It has a loud dismal cry, like 
haw, haiu, haw, ho. It breeds from December to March, and lays 
usually two white broad oval eggs, measuring about 2-38 by 1-88, in 
a hollow tree, the deserted nest of a Fishing-Eagle, or occasionally on 
a ledge of rock, a small stick nest being made in the latter case. 



1165. Ketupa flavipes. The Tawny Fish-Owl. 

Cultrunguis flavipes, Hodgson, J. A. 8. B. v, p. 364, pi. 25 (1836). 
Ketupa flavipes, Gray, Gen. B. i, p. 38 ; Blytli, Cat. p. 37 ; Horsf. $ 

M. Cat. i, p. 76; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 135; id. Ibis, 1871, p. 346; 

Bulger, Ibis, 1869, p. 155 ; Hume, Hough Notes, p. 385 ; id. S. F. 

iii, pp. 327, 416; xi, p. 21; id. Cat. no. 73; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 

ii, p. 5 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. 8. B. xlvii, pt. 2, p. 12. 
Lak-kyo-o-mung (the Kyo-o-calling Devil), Lepcha. 

Coloration. Lores white ; cheeks and ear-coverts orange or 
brownish buff, all with black shafts ; feathers of the upper parts 
with broad blackish-brown median bands and rich orange-buff 
edges, the orange-buff in parts forming indentations or spots on 
the dark brown ; outer scapulars and some of the larger wing- 
coverts with the outer webs chiefly buff ; quills and tail-feathers 
dark brown, with buff bars and tips ; lower parts rich orange-buff, 
with dark brown shaft- stripes, broadest on the breast ; usually a 
white patch in the middle of the throat. 



BUBO. 283 

Bill horny black ; cere dirty greenish ; irides gamboge-yellow ; 
legs yellowish grey (Jerdon). Bill greenish horny (Chennell). 

Length about 24 ; tail 9 ; wing 18 ; tarsus 3 ; bill from gape 1*8. 
The tarsi covered with downy feathers for some distance below 
the upper end behind, and more than halfway down in front. 

Distribution. Throughout the lower Himalayas as far west as 
Kashmir, at elevations not exceeding about 5000 feet, also in the 
ranges immediately south of the Assam valley, and in China. 

Habits, $c. This fine Owl is found on the banks of Himalayan 
rivers, and like K. zeylonensis is said to subsist principally on fish 
and crabs. The nest and eggs do not appear to have been 
described. 



1166. Ketupa javanensis. Tlie Malay Fish-Owl. 

Strix ketupu, Horsf. Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 141 (1821). 

Ketupa javanensis, Less. Traitt, p. 114 (1831); Blyth, Cat. p. 37; 

Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 76 ; Hume, Rough Notes, p. 384 ; Sharpe, Cat. 

B. M. ii, p. 9 ; Blyth 8? Wald. Birds Burm. p. 66 ; Armstrong, S 

F. iv, p. 300 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 33, 497 ; Hume, Ca.. 

no. 73 bis ; Bingham, S. F. ix, pp. 146, 471 ; Gates, B. B. ii, 

p. 149 ; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 98. 

Coloration. Similar to that of K. flavipes, except that the 
present species is browner and less orange, especially above ; the 
buff borders to the upper plumage frequently wanting altogether 
in old birds, whilst white or buff spots on the dark parts of the 
feathers are more numerous. Chiefly, however, the species is dis- 
tinguished by having the tarsus entirely naked behind up to and 
including the joint, and not, as a rule, clad in front so much as half- 
way down, and by much smaller size. 

Bill dusky ; cere dark slate-colour ; irides light yellow ; legs and 
feet dusky yellowish brown. 

Length about 18-5 ; tail 6-5 ; wing 13-5 ; tarsus 2'75 ; bill from 
gape 1-75. 

Distribution. Arrakan, the Irrawaddy delta, and throughout Te- 
nasserim, the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, and Borneo. 

Habits, $c. Very similar to those of the other species, except 
that K. javanensis appears to feed largely on insects, but it probably 
eats fish and crabs as well. It sees well by day and has a low soft 
whistling note. Major Bingham found the nest, containing a 
single white egg, in a fork of a large peepul tree, on February 27th. 
The egg measured 2-21 by 1'17, and was, as usual, a broad oval. 

Genus BUBO, Dumeril, 1806. 

This and the next genus contain the Eagle-Owls, birds of large 
size, with aigrettes and with the tarsus fully feathered ; the claws 
are powerful and well curved, the inner (2nd) claw being the 
longest, much exceeding the hind (1st) claw in length. The wing 



284 ASIONID^E. 

is rounded, the 3rd primary longest, 4th subequal ; tail moderate, 
slightly rounded at the end. 

This is a large genus, found over the greater part of the world, 
except in Australia. Three species are Indian. 

Key to the Species. 

a. General colour buff and blackish brown. 

a'. Toes completely feathered: wing 17-20 . . B. iffnavus, p. 284. 
V. Last joint of toes naked : wing 1475-16 . . B. bengalensis, p. 285. 

b. General colour greyish brown, toes half naked. B. coromandus, p. 286. 

1167. Bubo ignavus. The Great Horned Owl or Eagle-Owl. 

Strix bubo, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 131 (1766). 

Bubo ignavus, Forster, Syn. Cat. Brit. Birds, p. 3 (1817) ; Sharpe, 

Cat. B. M. ii, p. 14 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 346 ; id. Cat. no. 68 ter ; 

id. S. F. ix, p. 311 note ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 425 ; St. John, Ibis, 

1889, p. 154. 
Bubo maximus, Fleming, Brit. An. p. 57 (1828) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 34 ; 

Sclater, P. Z. S. 1860, p. 99 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 870 ; Hume, 

Rough Notes, p. 374 ; id. 8. F. iii, p. 327 ; Scully, S. F. iv, p. 129. 
Strix turcomana, JSversm. Add. Pall. Zoog. p. 3 (1835). 
Strix sibirica, Licht. Susemihl, Abbild. Vog. Eur. pi. 44 (1846-52). 
Bubo hemachalana, Hume, S. F. i, p. 315 (1873). 
Bubo turcomanus, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ii, p. 17 (B. ignavi subsp.) ; 

Hume, S. F. vii, p. 348 ; id. Cat. no. ? 68 quat. ; Biddulph, Ibis, 

1881, p. 45 ; Menzbier, Ibis, 1885, p. 262. 

Coloration. Lores and anterior portion of cheeks white or pale 
fulvous, with black shafts; ear-coverts and hinder part of disk 
tawny, with indistinct brown cross-bars, the outermost disk- 
feathers sometimes black- tipped ; aigrettes black, the inner or 
both margins buff, especially towards the base ; upper plumage 
black, varied and mottled with buff, there being broad black shaft- 
stripes on the head and neck, the broad buff edges of the neck- 
feathers less mottled with black than elsewhere ; much buff on the 
outer scapulars ; upper tail-coverts tawny buff, with narrow wavy 
blackish cross-bars ; primaries orange-buff, barred and tipped with 
dark brown ; secondaries brown, with mottled buff bars, becoming 
entirely buff on the inner web and on both webs at the base ; 
tail barred buff and dark brown, both colours mottled on the middle 
feathers. Chin and below the throat pure white, remainder of 
lower surface buff ; the throat with black median stripes and cross- 
bars, and the breast with broad black median stripes ; abdomen 
and flanks with narrow dark brown shaft-lines and wavy cross-bars, 
the cross-bars alone remaining on the vent, legs, under tail- 
coverts, and wing-lining. 

Typical B. iynavus, from Europe, has more black on the back 
and the middle tail-feathers, the pale cross-bars on the latter being 
very narrow; but there is a complete passage into the Asiatic 
B. turcomanus, with broad mottled buff edges to the back-feathers, 
and the buff or white cross-bars on the median rectrices as wide 



BUBO. 285 

as the dark. Some Asiatic birds are very pale, especially beneath, 
others as rich an orange-buff as European skins ; the difference 
depends probably on the bleaching action of the sun in dry open 
tracts. Both races have been brought from the Himalayas. 

Bill dark slate-colour ; irides golden orange ; claws dusky at base, 
black at tips (Scully). The toes are completely covered and con- 
cealed above by feathers, which overhang the base of the claws. 

Length of female about 26 ; tail 10 ; wing 19 ; tarsus 3 ; bill 
from gape 1*9. Males run a little smaller. 

Distribution. Throughout the Palsearctic region. This noble 
Owl has occasionally been killed in Tibet and the higher Hima- 
layas as far east as the Ganges (Bhagirati). Both Biddulph and 
Scully obtained it in Gilgit, and St. John at Quetta and Candahar. 

Habits, fyc. The Great Eagle-Owl is bold and powerful, living 
on game birds, hares, rabbits, and even fawns of deer, and 
especially, it is said, on crows. The call is a loud, deep, dissyllabic 
hoot. The eggs have not been taken in India ; in Europe they 
are generally two or three in number, white, and rounded oval as 
usual, and are laid about March on a ledge of rock or in a hollow 
tree. 

1168. Bubo bengalensis. The Rock Horned Owl. 

Otus bengalensis, Frarikl P. Z. S. 1831, p. 115. 

Bubo cavearius, Hodgs. As. Res. xix, p. 169 (1836). 

Urrua cavearia, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. vi, p. 372. 

Urrua bengalensis, Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. x, p. 87 ; Jerdon, B. I. 

i, p. 128 ; Butler, S. F. iii, p. 450. 
Bubo bengalensis, Blyth, Cat. p. 35 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 73 ; 

Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 231 ; Hume, S. F. i. p. 163 ; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ii, p. 25 ; Davidson $ Wend. S. F. vii, p. 76 ; 

Ball, ibid. p. 200 ; Butler, ibid. p. 180 ; ix, p. 376 ; Hume, Cat. no. 69 ; 

Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 35 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 14 ; Damson, ibid. p. 343 ; 

Oates, B. B. ii, p. 150 ; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 99; 

Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 65 ; id. Journ. Bom. N. H. Soc. iii, p. 221. 
Ascalaphia bengalensis, Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 253; Hume, Rough 

Notes, p. 366 ; id. N. $ E. p. 62 ; A. Anderson, P. Z. S. 1872, 

p. 81 ; Hayes Lloyd, Ibis, 1873, p. 405 ; Batt, S. F. ii, p. 381 : 

Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 65. 

GMghu, H. ; Ghubdd, Mahr. ; Yerra gudla guba, Tel. ; Eotang, Tarn. 

Coloration. Lores whitish with black shafts ; cheeks and ear- 
coverts tawny with black streaks, and bordered behind by a black 
rim to the facial disk ; aigrettes black, with buff margins towards 
the base ; forehead buff, passing into the crown and nape, which 
are blackish brown, the feathers with buff spots on the edges ; 
hind-neck and sides of neck nearly pure buff, with broad black 
shaft-stripes; rest of upper parts blackish brown, spotted and 
mottled with buff and white ; the buff spots on the outer scapulars 
are very large, and the rump and upper tail-coverts are chiefly 
buff ; primaries rich orange-buff, barred and tipped with brown ; 
secondaries brown, with mottled buff bars, becoming entirely buff 
on the inner web and towards the base ; tail barred buff and brown, 



286 ASIONID^!. 

both colours mottled on the middle feathers ; chin and below the 
throat white, rest of lower surface buff ; upper throat with fusi- 
form black shafts ; breast with broad black stripes passing into the 
narrow dark shaft-lines and wavy cross-bars of the abdomen, 
shaft-lines disappearing and the cross-bars growing fainter or 
occasionally dying out on the legs, vent, and lower tail-coverts. 

Bill horny black ; irides orange-yellow : claws dusky (Hume). 

Length 22; tail 8; wing 15'5 ; tarsus 3 ; bill from gape 1*7. 

Distribution. The Rock Horned Owl is almost, if not entirely, 
confined to the Indian Peninsula, being one of the commonest 
Owls of Northern and Central India, except in desert tracts ; less 
common in the south, wanting in Ceylon. It is found, though not 
commonly, in Eajputana, Sind, and the Western Punjab, and has 
been reported to occur in Afghanistan ; it inhabits Kashmir and 
the lower Himalayas to the westward, though not Nepal or 
Sikhim ; it is very rare in Lower Bengal and apparently unknown 
to the eastward, though Blyth states that it occurs in Arrakan. 

Habits, <$fc. This fine Owl haunts rocky hills and ravines, 
alluvial cliffs, and brushwood, beside rivers and streams, and in 
flat country groves of trees. It is by no means exclusively noc- 
turnal, and it lives on rats and mice, birds, lizards, snakes, crabs, 
and large insects. Its cry is a loud dissyllabic hoot. The 
breeding-season is from December to April, and from two to four 
white oval eggs are laid on a rocky ledge or in a cave, or on the 
ground under a bush or tuft of grass. The eggs measure about 
2-1 by 1-73. 

1169. Bubo coromandus. The Dusky Horned Owl. 

Strix coromanda, Lath. Ind. Orn. i, p. 53 (1790). 

Urrua coromanda, Hodgs. J.A.S. B. vi, p. 373 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 130 ; 
id. Ibis, 1871, p. 345; Hume, N. $ E. p. 63; Butler, S. F. iii, 
p. 450 ; v, p. 217 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlvii, pt. 2, p. 12. 

Urrua umbrata, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 180 (1845). 

Bubo uinbratus, Blyth, Cat. p. 35. 

Bubo coromandus, Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 75 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 164 ; 
Adam, ibid. p. 369 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ii, p. 35 ; Butler, S. F. vii, 

_ 1 or\ . Tt ..77 ,1'j _ ctm yv T A^i **- ^. . 



C. H. T. Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 407 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 66. 
Ascalaphia coromanda, Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 253 ; Hume, Rough Notes, 
p. 371 ; A. Anderson, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 81 ; 1876, p. 316 ; Blyth. 
Birds Burm. p. 65. 

Coloration. Whole plumage above and below greyish brown 
with dark shaft-stripes, the feathers finely mottled and vermi- 
culated with whitish ; more white on the lower surface, which is 
paler than the upper in consequence ; a few white or buff spots 
on the outer webs of the outer scapulars and on some of the 
larger and median primary-coverts ; lores white, with black shafts ; 
aigrettes darker than crown ; quills and tail brown, with pale 
mottled cross-bands and tips. 



HUHUA. 287 

Bill greyish white or pale lavender, the tips and culmen pale 
yellowish horny; irides deep yellow (not orange); claws black 
(Hume). 

Length 23; tail 8; wing 16; tarsus 2-5 ; bill from gape 1-65. 

Distribution. The greater part of the Indian Peninsula. This 
Owl is common in the North-west Provinces and throughout the 
greater part of the Gangetic plain, being far from rare in Eastern 
Bengal. It has been obtained, though rarely, from the Punjab 
and Sind, but not farther west. To the eastward it has been 
recorded from the N. Khasi hills, Assam, Tipperah, and Arrakan, 
but not Manipur, nor farther south. Sharpe found a specimen in 
the Paris Museum from China. It occurs in the better watered 
parts of Eajputana, in Khandesh, Raipur, Chutia Nagpur, the 
Carnatic, and Mysore, but not in the Bombay Deccan or Concan, 
Western Ghats, Malabar coast, nor in Ceylon. 

Habits, <$fc. This dull-plumaged bird inhabits well-wooded and 
watered tracts, where it lives on small mammals, birds, frogs, 
lizards, &c. A. Anderson mentions seeing one pursue a heron. It 
also kills and eats crows. Like its congeners it is by no means 
exclusively nocturnal. The call is characteristic, resembling, ac- 
cording to Butler, wo, wo, wo, wo-o-o-o, and is chiefly heard in the 
rains. It breeds from December to February, depositing generally 
two eggs in a stick nest, more or less lined with green leaves and 
a few feathers or a little grass. Sometimes the deserted nest of 
an Eagle or some other bird is utilized, and occasionally the eggs 
are laid in a hollow tree. They are creamy white (Anderson once 
obtained a coloured pair), and measure about 2-33 by 1'89. 



Genus HUHUA, Hodgson, 1837. 

This genus is distinguished from Bubo by the important character 
of the young having a perfectly distinct plumage, an exceptional 
case amongst Owls. The birds moult from the immature into 
the adult garb. The present type is further distinguished by 
having the irides dark brown instead of yellow, and by the wing 
being more rounded, the 4th and 5th quills being longest. The 
inner claw is very large. 

Only two species are known ; both occur within our limits. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Back and scapulars unbarred, more or less edged 

and mottled with buff : wing 15-19 H. nepalensis, p. 287. 

b. Back and scapulars with wavy rufous cross- 

bars : wing about 13'5 H. orientate, p. 289. 

1170. Huhua nepalensis. The Forest Eagle-Owl. 

Bubo nipalensis, Hodgson, As. Ees. xix, p. 172 (1836) ; Sharpe, Cat. 
B. M. ii, p. 37 ; Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, p. 30 ; Hume, Cat. no. 71 ; 



288 ASIONIDJE. 

Scully. S. F. viii, p. 231 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 131 ; Davison, 
S. F. x, p. 343 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 152 ; Hume, S. F. xi. p. 20. 

Huhua nipalensis, Hodgson, J. A. S. B. vi, p. 362 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, 
p. 131 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 254 ; 1872, p. 89 ; Beavan, P. Z. S. 
1868, p. 400 ; Hume, Eough Notes, p. 378 ; Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, 
p. 346 ; Hume, 8. F. i. p. 431 ; Blanford, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, 
p. 154 ; Blyth # Wald. Birds Burm. p. 65; Qodw.-Aust. J.A.S. B. 
xlv, pt. 2, p. 68 ; xlvii, pt. 2, p. 12 ; Gurney fy Fitzgerald, Ibis, 
1878, p. 119 ; Gurney, P. Z. S. 1884, p. 558, pi. lii. 

Huhua pectoralis, Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. x, p. 89, pi. i ; Holds- 
worth, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 416. 

Bubo orientalis, Blyth, Cat. p. 34 ; Sclater, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 790 ; 
nee Strix orientalis, Horsf. 

Ptiloskelos amherstii, Tickell, J. A. S. B. xxviii, p. 448 (1859). 

Huhu, Huhu Chil, Nepal ; Migdori, Bliot. ; Uman, Malayalim ; Loho, 
Bakamuna, Cing. ; Peria-anda, Tarn. (Ceylon). 

Coloration. Lores, cheeks, and ear-coverts greyish or brownish 
white, shafts and tips of lores and ear-coverts blackish brown ; 
long-pointed aigrettes blackish brown, the inner webs or some- 
times the whole barred with white or buff; upper plumage 
throughout dark brown, the feathers barred, edged, and mottled 
witn buff, least, and frequently not at all, on the crown, back, and 
smaller wing-coverts, most on the neck, scapulars, and larger wing- 
coverts ; sides of neck, outer scapulars, and upper tail-coverts buff, 
barred with brown, the scapulars forming a distinct buff band on 
each side ; quills and tail-feathers dark brown, with pale bars and 
tips, more distinct on the secondaries than on the primaries, the 
pale bars on the inner webs near the base, except on the middle 
pair of tail-feathers, very broad and nearly or quite white ; lower 
plumage white, often tinged fulvous, the feathers broadly barred 
with dark brown, the subterminal bar on each feather forming a 
crescentic or heart-shaped spot. 

Young birds are white or buff, with crescentic dark brown bars 
on all feathers of both the upper and lower surface ; the quills 
and tail-feathers as in adults. Even after a change of plumage (by 
a moult) the aigrettes are barred throughout at first and the dosral 
feathers have more buffy bars and markings than those of older 
birds. 

Bill yellow : irides brown ; toes yellow ; claws dusky at the end, 
pale at base. 

Length about 24 inches (21-5-27) ; tail 9 ; wing 17 (15-3-19) ; 
tarsus 2-75 ; bill from gape 2. Females are generally larger than 
males and Himalayan birds than those from Southern India and 
Ceylon. 

Distribution. This Owl is found in the forests of the Himalayas as 
far west as Kumaun, and probably farther, at elevations not ex- 
ceeding 7000 feet, also in the hill-forests of the Nilgiris and Malabar 
and in the higher parts of Ceylon. To the eastward it has been 
obtained in the Assam hills, and in Burma near Toungngoo, in 
Karennee, and from Bilugyun Island opposite Moulmein. There can 
now be no question that Jerdon's Huhua pectoralis, from Malabar, 



NTCTEA. 289' 

is the same bird, as Davison found the present species on the 
Nilgiris. The description by Tickell of Ptiloskelos amherslii appears 
to me to agree better with the young of this bird than with that 
of B. orientalis, and Blyth (Ibis, 1872, p. 89), who saw Tickell's 
original specimen, identified it with B. nepalensis without hesi- 
tation. 

Habits, $c. A forest bird, shy and seldom seen. Very little is 
known of its food, though from its size and powerful claws it 
probably lives on birds or mammals, and it is said to kill pheasants, 
hares, young deer, &c. It is somewhat diurnal in its habits, and I 
heard one calling and saw it shot about 3 o'clock in the afternoon. 
The call is, as described by Jerdon, " a low deep and far-sounding 
moaning hoot." The nidification is unknown. 

1171. Huhua orientalis. The Malay Eagle- Owl. 

Strix orientalis, Horsf. Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 140 (1821). 

Strix sumatrana, Raffl. Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 279 (1822). 

Strix strepitans, Temm. PL Col. pis. 174, 229 (1823). 

Bubo orieutalis, Horsf. 8f M. Cat. i, p. 72, part ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ii, 

p. 39 ; Hume, S. F. iv, p. 223 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 31 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 71 bis ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 153. 
Huhua orientalis, Blyth, Ibis, 1863, p. 25, pt. ; Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, 

p. 346, pt. ; Holdsworth, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 416. 

Coloration. Lores, cheeks, and ear-coverts pale brown or 
brownish white, the lores black-shafted ; blackish supercilia ; 
aigrettes blackish brown, some barred on the inner webs or 
throughout with white or pale rufous; upper plumage dark 
brown, narrowly and irregularly ' barred with dull rufous ; outer 
webs of the outer scapulars partly or wholly white ; quills and 
tail-feathers dark brown with pale mottled bars and tips, the bars, 
except on the middle tail-feathers, broader and white on the inner 
webs towards the base ; lower parts white, more or less tinged 
fulvous, the feathers narrowly barred with dark brown, the bars 
much closer together as a rule on the upper breast. 

Young whitish, barred with brown above and below, the bars 
narrow, closer and paler than in the young of H. nepalensis. 

Bill, cere, eyelids, and feet yellow ; irides dark brown (Davison). 
The toes are almost naked above. 

Length about 18 ; tail 7 ; wing 13*75 ; tarsus 2 ; bill from gape 
1-75. 

Distribution. The Malay Peninsula and the islands of Sumatra, 
.lava, and Borneo. Very rare in Southern Tenasserim, where 
Davison obtained a single specimen. Nothing is known of the 
habits or nidification. 



Genus NYCTEA, Stephens, 1826. 

The Snowy Owl forms a genus differing from Bubo chiefly in 
plumage and in having aigrettes so small that they are not easily 

VOL. III. U 



290 ASIONIDJE. 

detected. The feathers of the facial disk and those of the legs are 
peculiarly dense and hairy, and so long that the bill and claws are 
almost concealed. Wings and tail as in Bubo-, the under tail- 
coverts extend nearly to the end of the tail. There is a single 
species, which has once been obtained within Indian limits. 

1172. Nyctea scandiaca. The Snoivy Owl. 
Strix scandiaca and S. nyctea, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 132 (1766). 
Strix nivea, Thunb. Kon. Svensk. Vet.-Ak. Handl. xix, p. 184 (1798). 
Nyctea nivea, Hume, Ibis, 1871, p. 410. 
Nyctea scandiaca, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ii, p. 125 ; Hume, S. F. vn, 

p. 345 ; id. Cat. no. 68 bis. 

Coloration. Pure white, a few brown bars remaining here 
and there, even in old males, more in old females. In young 
birds the facial disk, a narrow collar on the back of the neck, 
the chin and throat, wing-lining and axillaries, feathers on 
the legs and feet, vent and under tail-coverts are pure white ; the 
rest of the plumage, including the quills and tail, barred with 
brown, the bars being broad, rather distinct from each other, 
crescentic or subcrescentic in shape, and not continuous from 
feather to feather either above or below. 
Bill black ; irides golden yellow. 

Length about 23; tail 9-25; wing 17; tarsus 2-3; bill from 
gape 1-7. 

Distribution. The northern portion of both hemispheres, some 
birds migrating into the temperate zone in winter. A single 
specimen was once received by Mr. Hume from Mardan in the 
North-west Punjab, not far from Peshawur. The bird was obtained 
by Dr. Johnson on March 3rd, and other specimens were said to 
have been seen by the shikari. So far as is known this Owl has 
not since been observed within Indian limits. 

Genus SCOPS, Savigny, 1810. 

The Scops Owls are of small size and furnished with aigrettes 
usually of considerable length. The head is rather large, the 
nostrils round and pierced in the anterior margin of the cere, which 
is slightly prominent. The wings are long, but vary much in 
shape, being far more rounded in some species than in others ; the 
tail is moderate in length and rounded at the ends. The tarsus is 
feathered more or less completely. The plumage of the young 
differs from that of adults. 

The members of this genus generally have the plumage minutely 
vermiculated or stippled with delicate markings, and the distinction 
of the species is rather difficult, several of the forms showing con- 
siderable variation. The number of species has, however, certainly 
been overrated; only two were admitted by Jerdon, whilst in 
Hume's Catalogue no less than 18 names are enumerated, but of 
these three are regarded as not worthy of distinction, and one as 
of doubtful validity. Anyone, however, who reads Hume's notes 



SCOPS. 291 

will recognize how very doubtful many of the nominal species are, 
and I think the 14 remaining species may with advantage be 
reduced by one-half. 

All species of Scops are thoroughly nocturnal, and generally 
make their presence known in the dusk of the evening or after 
nightfall by a peculiar monotonous, monosyllabic or dissyllabic call, 
repeated at regular and rather long intervals, generally from inside 
a bush or tree with thick foliage. 

These Owls are insectivorous as a rule, though they occasionally 
capture and eat small birds or mammals. They are found in most 
tropical and temperate regions, but are wanting in Australia. 

Key to the Species. 

a. 3rd quill longest, 1st longer than 8th. 

a'. Feathers on tarsus stop short at base of 

toes : spots on scapulars white 8. giu, p. 291. 

b' . Feathers extend on to base of toes ; spots 

on scapulars buff S. brucii, p. 294. 

b. 4th or 5th quill longest j 1st much shorter 

than 8th. 

c'. No distinct collar on hind-neck ; pale 
spots on upper surface ; no black shaft- 
stripes. 
a". Size moderate: wing about 5 - 5, tail 

about 3. 
a'". Tarsus feathered to base of toes. ... 8. spilocephalus, p. 295. 

b'". Lower third of tarsus bare 8. balli, p. 296. 

b". Size large : wing over 7, tail 4*8 S. sagittatus, p. 296. 

d'. A distinct pale collar on hind-neck ; black 
shaft-stripes usually distinct. 

c". Toes naked S. bakkamcena, p. 297. 

d". Toes feathered above S. semitorques, p. 300. 

1173. Scops giu. The Scops Owl. 

Strix scops, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 132 (1766). 
Strix giu, Scop. Ann. i, p. 19 (1/68). 
Strix zorca, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i, p. 289 (1788). 
Scops aldrovandi, Flem. Brit. An. p. 57 (1828) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 36. 
Scops sunia, Body*. As. lies, xix, p. 175 (1836) ; Blyth, J. A. S. B. 
xiv, 

P- 
no. 

p. 408; Davidson, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. i, p. 179. 
Sc )ps pennatus, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. vi, p. 369 (descr. nulla) ; 
myth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 183 (1845) ; Hume, N. $ E.v. 65; 
if/. S. F. iii, p. 38 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. J/. ii, p. 53 (subsp.) ; Hume $ 
Dav. S. F. vi, p. 34 ; Butler, S. F. vii, p. 180 ; ix, p. 376 ; Ball, 
S.F. vii, p. 201 ; Cripps, ibid. p. 255 ; Hume, Cat. no. 74 : Biddulph, 
Ibis, 1881, p. 46 ; Scully, ibid. p. 428; Biwjham, S. F. ix, p. 147 ; 
Hume $ Dav. S. F. x, p. 343 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 154 ; id. in 
I [nines N. 8f E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 103 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 70; 
Littledak, Jour. Bom. N. II. Soc. \, p. 196 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. 
Cir. Gen. (-2) iv, p. 573 ; v, p. 557 ; vii, p. 375 ; Hume, S. F. xi, 
p. 21. 

u2 




Scops gymnopodus, Gray, Cat. Accip. B. M. 1844, p. 44 (descr, 
nSlla); Sharpe, Cat, B. M. ii, p. 65, pi. iv, fig. 2; Hume, Cat. 



292 ASIOMTDJE 

sops gymnopc 
nulla) ; Shai 

Scops malayanus, Hay, Madr. Jour. L. S. xiii, pt. 2 p. 147 (1845) i ; 

Sharpe, Cat, B. M. ii, p. 58, pi. iv, fig. 1 (subsp.) ; Hume, S. 1. 

vii, p. 355 ; id. Cat. no. 74 sex. 
Ephialtes sunia, Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 70; A. Anderson, S. F. m, 

p. 388 ; id. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 25 ; 1876, p. 781. 
Ephialtes pennatus, Jerdon, B. L i, p. 136; Hume, Rough Notes, 

p 386 ; id. S. F. ii, p. 151 ; A. Anderson, P. Z. S. 1875, p. 25. 
Ephialtes bakkamoena, apud Blyth, Ibis, 1863, p. 27 ; 1866, p. 255 ;: 

Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, p. 347 ; Blyth # Wald. Birds Burm. p. 66 ; 

nee Otus bakkamoena, Penn. 
Ephialtes jerdoni, Walden, A. M. N. H. (4) v, p. 417 (1870); id. 

Ibis, 1871, p. 112. 
Scops giu, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ii, p. 47 ; Barnes, S. F. ix, p. 452 ; 

Bkinf. Ibis, 1894, p. 528. 
Scops rufipennis, Sharpe (subsp.), Cat. B. M. ii, p. 60 (1875) ; Hume, 

S. F. vi, p. 34 ; vii, p. 350 ; id. Cat. ? no. 74 B. 
Ephialtes nicobaricus, Hume, S. F. iv, p. 283. 
Scops nicobaricus, Hume, Cat. no. 74 quat.; Gurney, Ibis, 1884, 

p. 172. 
Scops minutus, Legge, A. M. N. H. (5) i, p. 175 (1878) ; id. S. F. vii. 

p. 145 ; id. Birds Ceyl p. 143, pi. iv ; Hume, Cat. no. 74 C. 
The Indian Scops Owl, Jerdon ; Choghad kusial, Sunya kusial, Nepal ; 
Dundul, Chamba; Chitta guba, Yerra chitta guba, Tel. 

. Coloration. Lores white or pale grey with some black tips, rest 
of facial disk greyish white with indistinct brown bars ; ruff white 
or pale rufous tipped with black ; whole upper plumage grey, more 
or less tinged with rufous, the feathers minutely speckled black 
and white, and generally with black median stripes, which vary 
much in definition ; some feathers are stippled at the end, white or 
buff further down with black shaft-stripes and cross-bars, and the 
white or buff spots thus formed are conspicuous in some skins, 
almost wanting in others ; outer scapulars white on the outer 
webs, with black ends and sometimes a black inner border to the 
white spots ; some white or buff spots on the wing-coverts ; quills 
brown, with paler mottled bars and tips, the bars forming white or 
buff patches on the outer webs of several primaries and on the 
inner webs of all wing-feathers ; tail brown, much mottled with 
whitish on the middle feathers and outer edges of the others, all 
with narrow pale bars dark-edged; lower parts paler than the 
upper, closely stippled with dark brown or black on a white ground, 
and more or less tinged with buff or rufous, the feathers with 
blackish shaft-stripes, usually broadest on the breast, and small 
dark wavy cross-bars, broken up into minute dots towards the ends 
of the feathers. 

Rufous phase (S. sunia). The upper parts are sometimes pale 
chestnut with some black shaft-stripes, especially on the bead, and 
with white black-tipped spots on the scapulars ; the lower surface 
varying, the usual markings generally remaining on the lower 
breast and abdomen. In one specimen from Carnorta in the 



scors. 293 

Nicobars, already described by Grurney as a form of S. nicobaricus, 
the wliole lower surface is chestnut and the upper surface darker 
red than usual, but still traces of the normal markings remain on 
the \viugs and tail. In other skins the markings have disappeared 
on the rectrices, but are retained on the wing-feathers and on the 
abdomen. Again, in others faint obsolete marks appear on the 
upper surface, and there is a complete gradation from these forms 
into the ordinary grey S. giu (/S. pennatus). Moreover, chestnut 
varieties of all the local forms occur, of the small dark S. minutus 
of Ceylon and the larger dark 8. malayanus of Malacca, as well as 
,of the large 8. pennatus of the Himalayas. It should be added 
that both Ely th and Jerdon unhesitatingly regarded S. sunia as a 
rufous phase of S. pennatus, though some later writers have thought 
differently. 

Young birds are greyish brown, speckled throughout, and with 
indistinct cross-barring on both upper and lower surface. 

Bill dusky greenish ; iris pale golden yellow ; feet fleshy grey 
(Jerdon). Third quill longest. Toes and extreme end of tarsus 
bare of feathers. 

Length about 7*5 ; tail 2*75 ; wing 5'75 ; tarsus *85 ; bill from 
gape '7. South Indian and Ceylon birds are smaller : wing 4*75 
to 5-25. 

In the present species no less than seven of the names of Hume's 
Catalogue are included, three of those names, however, being marked 
by Hume as doubtful and invalid. In Sharpens Catalogue, S. pen- 
natus and several other forms were classed as races or subspecies 
of the European Scops Owl, 8. giu, and I think that this is a 
correct view. Some of the birds found in North-western India 
are typical S. yiu, absolutely identical with grey European speci- 
mens. As a rule, however, the Indian form S. pennatus is slightly 
browner and darker and the aigrettes are generally rufous in part. 
A rufous form of S. <jiu occurs in Europe, but it never approaches 
the Indian S. sunia, which is a remarkable instance of a bird's 
assuming a rufous plumage locally. The following Indian named 
forms of S. <jiu besides S. pennatus and S. sunia require notice : 

Scops rufipennis is a small, rather uniformly-coloured bird from 
the Carnatic. 

Scops y>/mnopodus was a name given by Mr. G-. E. Gray to a skin 
in which the lower portions of both tarsi were naked. Dr. Sharpe 
tells me that, as no additional specimen has been found, he suspects 
the skin, which agrees with normal S. pennatus in plumage, had 
accidentally lost the feathers of the lower tarsus. 

Scops nicobaricus was founded on a very dark rufous skin, but 
with the brown markings of the dorsal surface still conspicuous. 
There are in the Hume collection precisely similar specimens from. 
the Malay Peninsula. 

N<y>/r nialtti/anus is a dark brownish form from Malacca, differing 
from typical S. pennatus precisely as that does from the Western 
S. i/iu. Wing 5*35. 

Scops minti.tus is the best marked of all these races and the 



294 

smallest. It is from Ceylon, and resembles S. malayanus in its 
dark brownish colour. Wing about 4-8. 

As in so many other cases, specimens from the South are smaller 
and darker, the smallest and darkest of all being the Ceylonese 



L/ 

Distribution. Central and Southern Europe and Asia, and the 
greater part of Africa. One form or another of this bird is found 
in all parts of India, Ceylon, and Burma, except perhaps the 
higher Himalayas. 

Habits, <$>c. This is a migratory species in Europe and probably 
to some extent in India. No nests appear to have been taken m 
the plains, but the small dark Southern forms certainly breed in 
the hills of Southern India and Ceylon, for there are nestlings 
from both localities in the British Museum, and Mr. Daly tells me 
he has taken the eggs on the Shevroys. There can be but little 
doubt that S. giu breeds in the Himalayas also, but it is doubtful 
whether the few supposed instances on record do not apply to 
another species. The habits are those of the genus; the call is a 
peculiar monotonous monosyllabic hoot, repeated at regular 
intervals, generally from a dense-foliaged tree. 

1174. Scops brucii. The Striated Scops Owl. 
Ephialtes brucei, Hume, S. F. i, p. 8 (1873) ; Fairbank, S. F. iv f 

Scops brucei, Sharpe, Cat. S. M. ii, p. 62 ; Blanford, S. F. v. p. 245 ; 
Doig, S. F. vii, p. 505 ; Hume, Cat. no. 74 sept. ; Vidal, S. F. ix, 
p. 36; Butler, ibid. p. 376; Barnes, ibid. p. 452 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 
1881, p. 47 ; Scully, ibid. p. 426 ; Davidson, S. F. x, p. 291 ; Barnes, 
Birds Bom. p. 71 ; Sharpe, Yark. Miss., Aves, p. 12, pi. ii ; Blanf* 
Ibis, 1894, p. 528. 

Subnet, Mahr. 

Coloration. Lores sullied white, with black tips, rest of the face 
grey, ruff tipped dark brown and without any ferruginous tint ; 
upper plumage sandy grey (dark isabelline), with narrow blackish 
shaft-stripes, the surface generally very finely and uniformly 
speckled with dark brown on buff ; spots on outer scapulars pale 
dull buff, not white ; wing and tail-feathers marked as in S. giu, 
but with dull dark brown and buff; lower plumage marked with 
dark shaft-stripes like the upper, and similarly coloured, but paler 
and less uniform, with some white on the abdomen. 

Bill horny ; irides brilliant yellow ; toes olivaceous grey {Doig}. 

Length about 8-5 ; tail 3'2 ; wing 6-3 ; tarsus 1'2 ; bill from. 
gape '7. Third quill longest ; feathering of tarsus extends on to 
the base of the toes. 

Distribution. Specimens have been obtained hi the Bombay 
Presidency at Ahmednagar and at Khed in Eatnagiri, and the 
bird has probably occurred in Western Khandesh ; it has alsa 
been met with several times in Sind, and Mr. Barnes found it 
breeding at Chaman in South Afghanistan. It has been recorded 



SCOPS. 295 

at Sultanpur in Oudh, and at Grilgit, and beyond Indian limits 
at Panjah in Wakhan, and at considerable elevations on the 
Kuen-luen range ; also near Bokhara, on the Murghab, and in 
Transcaspia, as I learn from Mr. Dresser, who has examined 
specimens. It is probably migratory, but nothing is known of 
its habits. 

1175. Scops spilocephalus. The Spotted Himalayan Scops Owl. 

Ephialtes spilocephalus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 8 (1846). 
Ephialtes scops (L.), apud Hutton, J. A. S. B. xvii, pt. 2, p. 4. 
Phodilus nipalensis, G. R. Gray, Hand-list, i, p. 5:3 (descr. nulla), 

teste Sharpe. 
Ephialtes gymnopodus, apud Hume, Rough Notes, p. 390 ; Jerdon, 

Ibis, 1871, p. 347 ; Cock fy Marsh. S. F. i, p. 349 ; nee Gray. 
Scops spilocephalus, Hume, N. $ E. p. 66 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ii, 

p. 63; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 352; id. Cat. no. 74ter; C. H. T. 

Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 408 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) 

iv, p. 573 ; vii, p. 376 ; Gates in Hume's Sf N. E. 2nd ed. iii, 

p. 104. 

Coloration. Face whity brown, indistinctly barred ; lores whitish, 
with black tips ; ruff buff, with broad tips of dark brown ; broad 
frontal area extending above the eyes lighter than the crown ; 
upper parts speckled greyish to rufous brown, and marked, 
especially on the crown and nape, with pale spots, each with a 
dark brown or black spot behind it ; there are the usual white 
spots, bordered with blackish inside and at the ends, on the outer 
webs of the outer scapulars, and a few white spots on the wing- 
coverts; quills and tail-feathers brown with pale bands as in 
S. giu, but the pale bands across the tail are generally much more 
numerous, and the white spots on both webs of the primaries are 
dull and inconspicuous; lower parts speckled brown on white, 
and with indistinct pale brown-tipped spots on the breast and 
abdomen. 

Both a greyish and a rufous phase are found, but the colour is 
never chestnut as in the sunia variety of S. </>''. 

Bill yellowish ; iris yellow ; feet fleshy brown. Tarsus not 
feathered quite to the distal extremity ; toes bare ; 4th or 5th 
quill longest. 

Length of males about 7-5 ; tail 3 ; wing 5-5 ; tarsus 1-15 ; 
bill from gape '7. Females are a little larger : wing 5*7 ; 
tail 3-25. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas as far west as Murree, 
at elevations between about 3000 and 6000 feet. There is in the 
British Museum a skin collected by God win- Austen at Asalu, Naga 
hills ; and Fea obtained specimens identified by Salvadori as this 
species at Bhamo and in Karennee. 

Habits, fyc. According to Hutton, this Scops utters a double 
whistle who-who. It lays 3 to 5 round oval white eggs on the 
bare wood in a hollow tree, or in a hole in the wood ; the eggs 
measure about 1-26 by 1*09. The breeding-season is from the 
middle of March to the middle of June. 



296 ASIONID^E. 

1176. Scops balli. The Andaman Scops Owl. 

Ephialtes spilocephalus, apud Ball, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 276 ; 

id. S. F. i, p. 53 ; nee Blyih. 

Ephialtes balli, Hume, S. F. i, p. 407 (1873) ; ii, pp. 151, 491. 
Scops modestus, Walden, A. M. N. H. (4) xiii, p. 123 (1874) ; 

id. Ibis, 1874, p. 129 ; Hume, Cat. no. 74 quint. 
Scops balli, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ii, p. 100 ; Hume, Cat. no. 74 oct. ; 

Sharpe, Yark. Miss., Aves, p. 151, pi. xx ; Blanford, Ibis, 1894, 

p. 526. 

Coloration. Face and lores fulvous brown to grey, barred with 
darker brown, loral plumes tipped black ; forehead and supercilia 
pale, upper surface rufous brown, paler or darker, finely freckled 
and mottled with black, and dotted over with subcruciform or 
polygonal whitish or buff spots nearly surrounded by black ; the 
larger white spots on the outer scapulars also bordered with 
black almost throughout, and sometimes crossed by brown or 
black lines ; quills brown, speckled at the ends and on the 
outer webs, with conspicuous white spots on the outer webs of the 
primaries and fulvous notches on the inner webs of all near the 
base; tail brown with paler cross-bars, sometimes indistinct or 
broken ; lower parts paler and greyer than the upper, speckled 
with dark brown or white, and spotted with whitish brown-tipped 
spots. 

The young (S. modestus} are dull brown, closely but indistinctly 
barred, especially on the head, neck, and wing-coverts ; the white 
or buff spots on the upper and lower surface are wanting, and the 
quills are barred throughout with pale rufous. 

Colours of soft parts not recorded. 

Length about 7'5; tail 3; wing 5'4 ; tarsus 1. Tarsus slender, 
lower third generally bare ; fifth quill longest. 

Distribution. The Andaman Islands. There can, I think, be no 
question but that S. modestus is merely the young, its small size 
(wing 4-75) being simply due to immaturity. As Hume has shown, 
other young specimens show a passage between 8. modestus and 
.$. balli. Some of them are more rufous than adults. 

1177. Scops sagittatus. The Large Malay Scops Owl. 

Ephialtes sagittatus. Cass. Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. iv, p. 121 

(1850). 
Scops sagittatus, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ii, p. 98; Gates, S. F. v, 

p. 247 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 35; Hume. Cat. no. 74 nov. ; 

Oates, B. B. ii, p. 156. 

Coloration. Feathers around eyes deep ferruginous red ; cheeks and 
lores whitish, the former faintly barred, the latter with brown ends ; 
behind the eye pale rufous, succeeded by a broad crescentic band 
of dark ferruginous brown on each side of the neck ; broad frontal 
band, extending above the eyes to the aigrettes, white with faint 
brown bars, sharply divided from the crown, which with the upper 
parts generally is dull chestnut without distinct speckling, but with 



SCOPS. :297 

small pointed, often subcruciform, white or fulvous spots, bordered 
with dark brown ; quills brown, rufescent and paler on the outer 
webs and at the tips, and with pale bars throughout ; tail-feathers 
like the back and indistinctly barred ; lower parts pale rufous- 
white, speckled with brown, especially on the breast ; all feathers 
with whitish shaft-stripes interrupted at short intervals by brown 
spots. 

Bill bluish white ; cere pale bluish green ; i rides deep brown ; 
feet and claws bluish white (Davison). Tarsus feathered nearly 
to the end. 

Length about 11; tail 4-8; wing 7*4; tarsus 1-1 ; bill from 
gape -9. 

Distribution. The Malay Peninsula. A specimen was obtained 
by Gates at Malewoon, Southern Tenasserim, and another by 
Davison at Meetan, S.E. of Moulmein. 



1178. Scops bakkamcena. The Collared Scops Owl. 

Otus bakkamcena, Pennant, Indian Zool. p. 3. pi. iii (1769) ; Newton, 

S. F. viii, p. 414. 

Strix indica, Gm. St/st. Nat. i, p. 289 (1788). 
Strix lempiji, Horsf. Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 140 (1821). 
Scops lettia, Hodgs. As. Res. xix, p. 176 (1836) ; Hume, N. $ E. 

p. 67 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ii, p. 85 ; Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. 

p. 65 ; Inc/lis, S. F. v, p. 86 ; Oates, S. F. vii, p. 45 ; Hume, ibid. 

P. 357 ; id. Cat. no. 75 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 232 ; Oates, B. B. 

11, p. 155; id. in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 104; Salvadori, 

Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) iv, p. 572 ; v,p. 558 ; vii, p. 375 ; Hume, 

S. F. xi, p. 22. 




lid. p. 377 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 343 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 74 ; 

Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 107. 

Scops griseus, Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. xiii, pt. 2, p. 119 (1845). 
Scops lettioides, Jerdon, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 182 (1845). 
Scops lempiji, Bh/th, Cat. p. 36; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 38 ; Sharpe, 

Cat. B. M. ii, p. 91 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 35, 497 ; Hume, 

Cat. no. 75 quint. ; Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 147 ; Hume, S. F. x, 

p. 183 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 156 ; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. 

iii, p. 107. 
Ephialtes lempiji, Horsf. Sf M. Cat. i, p. 71 ; Jerdon, B. 1. i, p. 138 ; 

Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 256 ; Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, p. 347. 
Ephialtes lettia, Hume, Rough Notes, p. 393. 
Ephialtes griseus, Hume, t. c. p. 398 ; Anderson, P. Z. S. 1875, p. :.V> : 

Rainey, S. F. iii, p. 333. 
Ephialtes malabaricus, Hume, t. c. p. 402. 
Ephialtes jerdoni, Walden, A. M. N. H. (4) v, p. 417 (1870) ; id. 

Ibis, 1871, p. 112. 




Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 

p. 105 ; Davidson, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. i, p. 179 ; Littledale, 

ibid. p. 196; Barnes, op. cit. iii, p. 2'2'2. 



298 

Ephialtes bakhamuna, Holdsworth, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 417; Hume, 

Scops indicus, Gutter, S. F. vii, p. 175 ; Hume, ibid. pp. 201, 359 
Scops bakkamcena, Reid, S. F. x, p. 16; Blanf. Ibis, 1894, p. 527. 
The Large Scops Owl, Jerdon; Tharkavi choghad, H. ; Lattya kusyal, 
Nepal ; Pedda chitta guba, Tel. 

Coloration. Lores sullied white, the longest black-tipped, rest of 
facial disk light brown or rufescent, generally banded darker; 
forehead, broad supercilia, and inner webs of the long aigrettes 
white or buff, speckled and barred with black ; ruff white or butt, 
with dark brown edges ; crown and upper parts generally closely 
vermiculated and speckled with black on a buff ground, many 
feathers with black shaft-stripes more or less dentate and irregular, 
or even broken up, generally broadest on the crown and nape ; a 
pale buff nuchal collar, formed by buff feathers with dark edges ; 
large buff spots tipped with black on the outer scapulars, forming 




Fig. 76. Head of S. bakkamcena, f. 

a distinct buff scapular band ; quills brown, with paler mottled 
bands and tips, the bands as usual forming white or buff spots on 
the outer webs of the primaries, but becoming faint and indistinct 
on their inner webs, better marked on the secondaries, and running 
into buff indentations on the inner borders, as also on the 
primaries near the base ; tail brown, with pale cross-bands, all the 
feathers more or less mottled, especially the middle pair and the 
outer webs and tips of the others ; chin white or buff, throat 
(part of the ruff-feathers) buff with shafts, tips, and sometimes 
bars dark brown ; rest of lower surface white or buff, somewhat 
irregularly black- shafted, and much stippled with fine wavy cross- 
bars more or less broken up ; legs, vent, and under tail-coverts 
nearly or quite uniform white or buff. 

Some birds are more rufous than others. Young birds are very 
indistinctly coloured, the prevalent markings being close, irregular, 
dusky cross-bars. 

Bill horny (yellowish or greenish), darker above ; irides varying 



SCOPS. 299 

from yellow to brown ; cere dusky ; feet fleshy grey to greenish 
yellow. Tarsi stout, feathered to the base of the toes, the 
feathering sometimes in Himalayan birds concealing the junction 
of the middle and inner toe, but generally stopping just short of 
it. 4th quill usually longest, 5th subequal, 1st shorter than 10th. 

Length of Himalayan birds about 10 inches ; tail 3-25 ; wing 
6-75 ; tarsus 1*25 ; bill from gape 1. South Indian, Ceylonese, and 
Malayan birds are considerably smaller : length about 8, wing 6. 

Distribution. Throughout the Oriental Region. This Owl is 
found in all parts of India, Ceylon, and Burma, except in absolute 
deserts and in the higher Himalayas. 

The Owls classed together in the present species were united 
by Blyth and, at one time, by Jerdon, but have since been divided 
into four by Hume. The four species are : 

Scops lettia j from the Himalayas, Assam, and Burma; large 
(wing 6-45-7*2), and " with the bases of the toes feathered." 

S. lempiji, Burma, Malay Peninsula and Archipelago ; smaller 
(wing 6-6-5), more rufous, " and with the bases of the toes 
exposed." 

S. malabaricus, west coast of India and Ceylon ; small (wing 
5-5-6-1), colour more rufous. 

S. bakkamcena v. gi*iseus, throughout India, except the west 
coast ; small (wing 5-6-6-6) and greyer. 

The last two are united by Sharpe under the name of S. mala- 
baricus, and made a subspecies of S. lempiji. Unless the grey and 
rufous phases of all Owls are to be regarded as distinct species, a 
proceeding which in this case would result in intermediate forms 
being more common than typical specimens, S. bakkamcena v. griseus 
and S. malabaricus must be regarded as varieties. The same 
remark applies to S. lempiji, which agrees in all respects with 
S. malabaricus. Blyth, it is true, at one time (Ibis, 1866, p. 256) 
thought that there were two forms (S. lettia and S. yriseus), one 
with dark and the other (S. lempiji =malabaricus) with yellow 
irides, but Hume in his 'Rough Notes' showed that the coloration 
was variable. 

The smaller size of the Southern forms is according to the 
usual rule, and cannot be regarded as a specific distinction. The 
only remaining difference is that the feathering in S. lettia is said 
to extend farther down the toes. Occasionally in Himalayan and 
North Indian examples the feathers do certainly run a little way 
down the middle and outer toes (such specimens may possibly be 
hybrids with the closely allied S. semitorques, inhabiting the same 
tracts), but the occurrence is exceptional, and in general the 
difference is the very trifling one shown in Sharpens figures (Cat. 
B. M. p. 96) ; while an examination of the large series in the 
British Museum has convinced me that even this difference is not 
constant, and that in very many cases Himalayan, Burmese, 
Malaccan, and S. Indian birds are precisely similar as regards the 
feathering at the base of the toes. 

Habits, $c. This is the commonest species of Scops in India ; 



300 ASIONIDJE. 

it is resident throughout, and breeds in the plains from January to 
April, and somewhat later in the Himalayas. It usually lays 4 
(sometimes 3 or 5) eggs in holes in trees, more or less lined with 
leaves and grass. The eggs are pure white, glossy, and very 
spherical as a rule, and measure about 1-25 by T05. This species 
is thoroughly nocturnal ; its call-note, written by Hume woo-oo, is 
double, but the syllables almost run into one. 

1179. Scops semitorques. The Plume-foot Scoj)s Owl. 

Otus semitorques, Schl. Faun. Jap., Aves, p. 25, pi. 8 (1845-50). 
Ephialtes plumipes, Hume, Rouah Notes, p. 397 (1870). 
Ephialtes semitorques, Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, p. 348. 
Scops plumipes, Hume, N. $ E. p. 68 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ii, p. 85 

(subsp.); Hume, S. F. vii, p. 358; id. Cat. no. 75 bis ; C. H. T. 

Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 408; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. 

iii, p. 105. 
Scops semitorques, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ii, p. 83 ; Slanf. Ibis, 1894, 

p. 527. 

Coloration similar to that of the greyer forms of S. bakJcamoena ; 
the markings, especially below, are as a rule more distinct and 
coarser, the shaft-stripes generally broader and better-marked, and 
the nuchal collar less distinct, and whitish rather than buff. The 
present species is rather larger than S. bakJcamoena, and may be 
at once distinguished by having the toes feathered above to the 
end of the subterminal phalanx, and sometimes rather farther. 

Length of Himalayan birds about 10 ; tail 3-4 ; wing 7 ; 
tarsus 1'4 : bill from gape *9. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas from Sikhim to Murree, 
also (the typical form) in Japan and Corea. The Himalayan bird 
(S. plumipes) is slightly smaller than the Japanese. 

Habits, fyc. Pour eggs were taken at Kotgarh, near Simla, on 
May 13th, from a hole in a tree ; they were very similar to those 
of S. bakJcamccna, and measured about 1*27 by 1*03. 

Genus ATHENE *, Boie, 1822. 

The members of this genus are of small size, the wing rarely if 
ever exceeding 7 inches in length, and all are more or less spotted 
with white on the upper surface, never barred. The cere is 
swollen, and the nostril is a round orifice near the anterior 
margin. There is no distinct ruff, and the facial disk is scarcely 
recognizable. The wings are rounded, the 3rd quill generally 

* The name Carine has been used by many ornithologists instead of Athene 
for this genus, because the name Athena was applied to a butterfly by Hiibner 
m his ' Verzeichniss bekannter Schmetterlinge,' a work with 1816 on the 
titlepage. I am, however, assured by entomologists that Hiibner's work was 
not really published until 1823 to 1824 ; consequently there appears no reason 
to reject Boie's peculiarly appropriate generic name for the owl of Minerva and 
its allies. 



ATHENE. 301 

longest (4th exceptionally), the 1st shorter than the 5th and not 
shorter than the 8th; tail moderate; tarsus feathered; toes clad 
above with feathers or bristles. 

I do not regard Heteroylaux as distinct. The wing is slightly 
more rounded and the nostril a little farther from the anterior 
border of the cere, but neither difference is of generic import- 
ance, and the plumage is precisely similar. 

The genus Athene is found in the warmer temperate regions of 
the Old World, in India, and Upper Burma. Three species are 
Indian. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Abdomen transversely barred. 

a'. Crown distinctly spotted ; 1st quill longer 

than 7th A . brama, p. 301. 

b'. Crown unspotted or indistinctly spotted ; 1st 

quill = 8th A. blewitti, p. 303. 

b. Abdomen longitudinally streaked A. bactriana, p. 303. 

1180. Athene brama. The Spotted Owlet. 

Strix brama, Temm. PL Col. pi. 68 (1823). 

Noctua indica, Frankl. P. Z. S. 1831, p. 115. 

Noctua tarayensis, Hodqs. As. Res. xix, p. 175 (1836). 

Athene brama, Blyth, Cat. p. 39 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 65 ; Jerdon, 
B. 1. i, p. 141 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 257 ; Hume, Rough Notes, 
p. 404 ; id. N. $ E. p. 69 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, 
p. 04 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 231 ; A. Anderson, P. Z. S. 
1872, p. 81 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 164 ; Adam, ibid. p. 369 ; Butler, 
S. F. iii, p. 450 ; Blanford, Eastern Persia, ii, p. 118 ; Hume, S. F. 
iv, p. 457 ; Hume & Inglis, S. F. v, p. 16. 

Athene pulchra, Hume, S. F. i, p. 469 (1873) ; Hume $ Oates, S. F. 
iii, p. 39. 

Carine brama, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ii, p. 138 ; Davidson fy Wend. 
S. F. vii, p. 76 ; Ball, ibid. p. 201 ; Cripps, ibid. p. 256 ; Hume, Cat. 
no. 76 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 232 ; Tidal, S. F. ix, p. 38 ; Butler, 
ib. p. 377; Swinhoe, Ibis, 1882, p. 100; Reid, S. F. x, p. 16; 
Damson, ibid. p. 344 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 75 ; Oates in Hume's 
N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 108. 

Carine pulchra, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ii, p. 140 (subsp.) ; Hume, Cat. 
no. 76 quat. ; Anderson, Yunnan E.rped., A ves, p. 576 ; Oates, 
B. B. ii, p. 157 ; Sharpe, York. Miss., Aves, p. 151, pi. xxi. 

Khukhusat, Khusattia, Ulu, Choyhad (in the South), II.; Katoria 
Pencha, B. ; Pingald, Mahr. ; Dany Tany-pum, Lepcha ; Paini gante, 
Tel. (gold eye) ; Andi, Tarn. ; Zee-ywet, Burin. 

Coloration. Lores white or pale buff, with some black tips, a 
brown spot in front of the eye and a white or whitish one beneath 
it ; ear-coverts barred brown and whitish ; forehead and super- 
cilia white ; upper parts, wings, and tail uniform brown, varying 
from greyish or earthy to rufescent, the crown and nape with 
numerous small white spots ; remainder of the upjx'r surfaiv with 
larger and more distant white spots, arranged, as are those on the 
crown, in pairs, and occasionally becoming bars, especially on the 



302 ASIONID^E. 

scapulars ; the spots are often wanting on the upper back, and are 
largest on the wing-coverts ; an indistinct half-collar on the hind 
neck formed by white feathers with brown edges quills with pale 
cross-bars, becoming white spots on the outer web and, except near 
the tips of the primaries, white indentations on the inner border ; 
tail with from 4 to 6 white cross-bars varying in breadth and 
continuity; chin, throat, and sides of neck behind ear-coverts 
white ; a broad brown band, narrower or interrupted in the middle, 
across the throat ; remainder of lower parts white, with broken 
brown cross-bars formed by subterminal bands and spots on the 
feathers ; these spots generally diminish in size or disappear on 
the lower abdomen, legs, and under tail-coverts. 

Bill greenish horny ; irides pale golden yellow ; feet dirty 
greenish yellow (Jerdori). Cere dusky (Hume). Tarsi feathered ; 
toes clad with long bristles above. 

Length 8 inches ; tail 2-9 ; wing 6 ; tarsus I'l ; bill from 
gape -8. 




Fig. 77. Head of A. brama, . 

Distribution. Throughout the Peninsula of India, from the 
Punjab, Baluchistan, and Sind to Assam and Cachar, and from the 
base of the Himalayas to the extreme South, but not in Ceylon, 
though this Owl was obtained by Hume on the island of Eames- 
waram. It is also common in the Irrawaddy valley from Prome 
upwards, and probably throughout the drier parts of Burma. 

The Burmese form was separated by Hume as A. pulchra on 
account of smaller size, darker colour, and some supposed dif- 
ferences in the markings ; but specimens from the west coast of 
India are equally small and dark, and the differences in markings 
are neither important nor constant. 

Habits, fyc. Owing to its semi-diurnal habits, its noisiness, and 
its fondness for human habitations, this is the best-known Owl in 
India. It does not as a rule ascend the hills, and it avoids 
forests ; it keeps to trees in cultivated tracts, especially in gardens, 
and is commonly found roosting and breeding in the roofs of 
houses. It lives chiefly on insects, partly on mice, shrews, lizards, 
or small birds. Its usual call is a double note, but it keeps up a 
continual chatter at times, especially in the evening, often before 
sunset, always long before dusk, when it issues from its hiding- 
place to perch on a pole or fence or telegraph-wire. As Hume 



ATHENE. 303 

says, it is one of the birds that seem to think that telegraph-wires 
were erected for their sole and especial benefit. Its flight is 
undulating, but peculiar and easily recognized. This Owlet breeds 
from February to April, and lays 3 to 5 white oval eggs in holes 
in trees or a building, or in a cleft in a rock, scantily lined with 
leaves, grass, or feathers. The average size of the eggs is 1-25 by 
1-04. 

1181. Athene blewitti. The Forest Owlet. 

Heteroglaux blewitti, Hume, S. F. i, p. 468 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ii, 
p. 141 ; Sail, S. F. v, p. 412 ; Hume, Cat. no. 76 quint. ; David- 
son, S. F. x, p. 292 ; Sharpe, Yark. Miss., Aves, p. 151, pi. xxii. 

Carine (Heteroglaux) blewitti, Sail, S. F. vii, p. 201. 

Coloration very like that of A. brama, but the brown spot in 
front of the eye is faint or wanting ; there are no white spots, 
or only traces of them, on the crown and nape, the nuchal semi- 
collar is less distinct; the back and lesser and median wing-coverts 
are uniform brown, the white spots being confined to the greater 
coverts ; there are four broad distinct white bars across the tail- 
feathers, one being terminal ; the brown band across the throat 
is dark, unbroken, and much broader, and there is a second and 
still broader band on the breast, partly broken by white edges ; 
farther back on the breast and flanks the brown bars are wider 
apart, and the middle of the abdomen, legs, and under tail-coverts 
are pure white. Colours of soft parts not recorded. 

Length about 9 ; tail 2-9 ; wing 5'7-6 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from 
gape -85. 

A heavier bird than A. brama, weighing 8*5 oz., or fully one- 
third more. The 3rd and 4th quills are longest, the 3rd gene- 
rally slightly exceeding the 4th, 1st quill about as long as 8th. 
Tarsus feathered ; upper surface of toes with soft feathers, the 
barbs of which wear away, leaving the shafts only in some 
specimens. 

Distribution. Of this rare Owl the type was obtained by 
Mr. Blewitt near Sambalpur, and a second specimen by Mr. Ball 
on the Udet river in Karial, 150 miles farther south. Some 
years later three specimens were collected by Mr. Davidson at 
the foot of the Satpuras in North-western Khandesh, where 
this species was not rare. All were found in thick forest. 



1182. Athene bactriana. Buttons Owlet. 

Athene bactriana, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 776 (1847) ; Scully, S. F. 

iv, p. 130. 

Athene persica, apud Hume, Rough Notes, p. 407 (nee Vieill.). 
Athene plumipes, 11. Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1870, p. 448. 
Carine plumipes, Sharpe (subsp.), Cat. B. M. ii, p. 137. 
Carine bactriana, Hume, S. F. v, p. ::".<) : vii, j>. :;itt ; id. Cat. no 76 

ter ; Barnes, S. F. ix, pp. 21/5, 452 ; C. Sivinhoe, Ibis, 1882, p. 100 ; 

Sharpe, Yark. Miss., Aves, p. 14, pi. iii. 



304 

Coloration. Facial disk mostly white, except the black tips to the 
loral bristles and the ear-coverts, which are pale brown, streaked 
longitudinally darker ; supercilia pure white ; upper parts, wings, 
and tail dark rufous brown spotted with white, the spots small 
and elongate on the crown, round and large elsewhere, an im- 
perfect concealed white collar on the hind-neck; wings and tail 
with broad white bands generally interrupted, sometimes for a 
considerable distance, at the shafts ; lower parts white, a pale 
brown band with darker spots across the throat, and light brown 
longitudinal streaks on the breast and upper abdomen. 

Bill greenish yellow ; cere pale greenish white ; iris pure sulphur- 
yellow; feet greenish, claws bluish horny black (Stolictka). Feet 
feathered above to ends of toes. 

Length 9 ; tail 3*5 ; wing 6-25 ; tarsus 1*1 ; bill from gape "85. 

Distribution. This form is not more than a local race of A. glaux, 
which again is merely the Eastern desert form of the South 
European A. noctua. One or the other of these is found through- 
out the warmer temperate portions of the Pataarctic region ; the 
race A. bactriana, distinguished solely by its well-plumed toes, 
occurring in China, Mongolia, Yarkand, and Afghanistan. It is 
common at Kandahar and has been obtained at Quetta, also in 
some of the valleys near Peshawar. Two specimens in the British 
Museum are labelled Tibet. 

Habits, Sfc. Very similar to those of A. brama, but the present 
form is generally found on rocks, not on trees, and is especially 
partial to deserted houses and ruins, particularly to the buildings 
of sun-dried bricks so common throughout Central Asia. 



Genus GLAUCIDIUM, Boie, 1826. 

This genus differs chiefly from Athene in having a more rounded 
wing, and the first quill much shorter, it being the shortest of all 
the primaries ; the 4th is generally longest, but is occasionally ex- 
ceeded by the 5th or the 3rd. All the Indian species, too, are well 
distinguished by having the upper surface barred instead of spotted. 
The cere is swollen and the nostrils tubular, the tarsus feathered 
and the toes provided above with bristles. 

This genus is widely distributed in the tropical and temperate 
regions of the Old World and in Southern and Central America, 
but not in Australia. 

Key to the Species. 

a. No collar : wing exceeding 4-5. 

a'. Abdomen longitudinally striated. 

a". Back and wings not chestnut G. cuculoides, p. 305. 

b". Back and wings chestnut G. castanonotum, p. 307, 

b'. Abdomen transversely barred G. radiatum, p. 306. 

b. A distinct "buff collar : wing under 4 G. brodiei, p. 307. 



GLA.UCIDIUM. 305- 

1183. Glaucidium cuculoides. The Large Barred Owlet. 

Noctua cuculoides, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1830, p. 8 ; Gould, Cent. pL 4. 
Athene cuculoides, Blyth, Cat. p. 38 ; Horsf. Sf M. Cat. i, p. 66 ; 

Jerdon, 7?. /. i, p. 145 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 17 ; 

Hume, Rouf/h Notes, p. 414 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2. 

p. 94; xlvii, pt. 2, p. 22; Hume, N. $ E. p. 71; id. S. F. iii, 

p. 39; v, p. 135 ; InyKs, S. F. v, p. 16: Wardl. Rams. Ibis, 1877. 

p. 454 ; C. H. T. Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 408. 
Athene whiteleyi, Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 313 ; Blyth $ Wald. Birds 

Burm. p. 66. 
Glaucidium cuculoides, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ii, p. 219 ; Hume $ Dav. 

S. F. vi, p. 37 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 201 ; Hume, Cat. no. 79 ; 

Scully, S. F. viii, p. 232 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 162 ; id. in Hume's 

N. fy E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 113 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) 

iv, p. 572 ; v, p. 558 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 23. 
Burra dundul, H. (Chamba) ; Tangpum, Lepcha. 

Coloration. Lores whitish with black tips ; a narrow band over 
the eye white ; sides of head, including ear-coverts, crown, and all 
the upper parts, olive-brown, sometimes rufous, with white, buff, or 
rufous cross-bars ; some white patches on the outer scapulars and 
larger wing-coverts ; quills brown, with pale bars, becoming whitish 
spots on the inner and outer webs, and growing whitish throughout 
on the secondaries, which are tipped with the same colour ; tail 
dark brown, with from 6 to 8 white bars, including the terminal 
one ; the bars are generally interrupted and broken at the shafts ; 
chin and moustachial stripe and the lower throat white ; remainder 
of throat, breast, flanks, and legs dark olive-brown, with white or 
pale rufous bars ; abdomen white, with rather irregular olive or 
rufous streaks. 

Young birds are rufescent brown, with small buff spots on the 
head and nape ; the back and breast not barred, the only bars 
being on the wings and tail. 

Bill pale green ; cere brown ; irides bright yellow ; legs greenish 
yellow (Oates). 

Length about 9 ; tail 3-4 ; wing 5-8 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape -8. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas as far west as Hazara, 
chiefly at elevations from 2000 to 6000 feet, also in Assam, 
Cachar, Manipur, and throughout Burma as far south as Tavoy, 
being very common in Northern Tenasserim. This Owl is occa- 
sionally met with in Bengal, and has been recorded at Calcutta 
and in the Kajmehal hills, whilst Hume received a specimen from 
the southern portion of the Mirzapur district. G. whiteleyi, which 
appears to be only a large variety, is found throughout Southern 
China. 

Habits, $-c. This is one of the least nocturnal of all Owls, and 
may often be seen in full sunlight, sometimes even at midday, sit- 
ting on trees or stumps, or moving about and feeding in shady 
gardens or jungle. It keeps to thin tree- or bamboo-jungle or 
gardens, and feeds partly on insects, but also on small birds and 
mammals. The cry is a peculiar cackle, like a laugh, called by 

VOL. III. X 



306 ASIONID^E. 



Hume a " chuckling vibrating call." The breeding-season is from 
March to May ; the eggs, 4 in number, are deposited in a hollow 
or hole in a tree without any nest, or with a few dead leaves or 
touchwood as lining. The eggs are round, pure white and glossy, 
.and measure about 1-41 by 1-19. 



1184. Glaucidium radiatum. The Jungle Owlet. 

Strix radiata, Tickell, J. A. S. B. ii, p. 572 (1833). 

Athene erythropterus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1837, p. 136. 

Athene radiata, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 281 ; id. Cat. p. 39 ; Rortf. 
$ M. Cat. i, p. 67 ; Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 262 ; Jerdon, B. 1. i, 
143; Hume, Rough Notes, p. 409 ; Butler, S. F. iii, p. 450; An- 
derson. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 27; 1876, p. 781. 

Athene malabarica, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 280; id. Cat. p. 39; 
Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 144 ; Hume, Rough Notes, p. 413. 

Glaucidium radiatum, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ii, p. 217 ; Ball. 8. F. vii, 
p. 201 ; Hume, Cat. no. 77 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 152 ; Reid, 
S. F. x, p. 17 ; Davidson, ibid. p. 292 ; Damson, ibid. p. 344 ; 
Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 76 ; Littledale, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. i, 
p. 196 ; Gates, in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 112. 

Glaucidium malabaricum, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ii, p. 218 (suhsp.) ; 
Legge, S. F. iv, p. 242 ; Hume 8f Bourd., ibid. p. 372 ; Hume, Cat. 
no. 78 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 38 ; Hume, ibid. p. 39 ; Butler, ibid. 
p. 377 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 76. 

Jangli Chogad, H. ; Kalakasut, Oude ; Chota kalpencha, Beng. ; Adam 
paini gante, Tel. ; Nattah, Mai. 

Coloration. Lores whitish with black tips ; sides of head and 
neck, crown, and whole upper surface dark olive-brown, more or 
less tinged with rufous and narrowly barred with pale rufous or 
white, the bars much closer than in G. cuculoides ; some white spots 
on outer scapulars and on greater coverts ; wings blackish brown, 
both webs indented with chestnut spots, becoming bars on the 
secondaries ; inner webs and sometimes the outer also becoming 
entirely rufous towards the base ; tail blackish, with narrow white 
cross-bars, interrupted and often broken at the shafts ; chin and 
a band on each side of the throat behind the ear-coverts, a large 
patch on the upper breast, middle of breast, and abdomen white ; 
rest of lower surface banded dark olive and white or pale rufous, 
the dark bars becoming wider apart behind on flanks and disap- 
pearing on the legs and lower tail-coverts. 

Bill greenish horny ; cere greenish ; irides yellow ; feet greenish 
yellow to green. 

Length 8 ; tail 2'9 ; wing 5-1 ; tarsus -9 ; bill from gape '75. 

G. malabaricum is a rufous race, found, together with typical 
G. radiatum and all intermediate varieties, on the Malabar coast. 

Distribution. Throughout the greater part of India in well- 
wooded jungly tracts, from the lower Himalayas to the extreme 
South, and also in Ceylon. This species is wanting in the Punjab, 
Sind, Eajputana (except at Mount Abu), rare or wanting in the 



GLAUCIDIUM. 307 

Bombay Deccan, Western Central Provinces, and Carnatic ; com- 
mon in the N.W. Provinces, parts of Guzerat, Khandesh, Chutia 
Nagpur, and throughout the Malabar coast, and also in Ceylon. 
It has been included in lists from Malacca, but probably in error. 
Habits, <$fc. Like other species of Glaucidium this is often seen 
and heard in daylight. It is bold and sagacious, feeding on small 
birds as well as on lizards and insects. Its flight is rapid and 
strong, and its call peculiar and protracted. It breeds from March 
to May, in holes in trees, unlined, laying 2 or 3 white smooth eggs 
without gloss, that measure about 1-25 by 1*06. 

1185. Glaucidium castanonotum. The Chestnut-backed Owlet. 

Athene castanopterus, apud Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 280 ; nee Horsf. 
Athene castanotus, Blyth, Cat. p. 39 (1849) ; Layard, A.M.N. H. 

(2) xii, p. 105. 
Athene castaneonotus, Hume, Rough Notes, p. 412 ; Holdsworth. 

P. Z. S. 1872, p. 418. 
Glaucidium castanonotum, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ii, p. 215 ; Hume, 

S. F. vii, p. 364 ; id. Cat. no. 78 bis ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 149, 

pi. iv ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 112. 

Coloration. Similar to G. radiatum, except in having the back, 
rump, scapulars, and whole upper surface of the wings overlaid 
with chestnut, so that the narrow cross-barring is seen more or 
less distinctly through it, and in having longitudinal olive streaks 
on the abdomen, and traces of them on the lower tail-coverts and 
legs instead of cross-bars. The rufous bars on the wing-feathers 
are narrower and more numerous, and they extend across all the 
feathers, whilst the basal portions of the inner webs are buff 
instead of rufous. The white spots on the wing-coverts and 
scapulars are often wanting, but occasionally well developed. 

Bill greenish horn-colour ; cere dusky greenish ; iris yellow ; 
feet olivaceous, soles yellowish ; claws brown (Legge). 

Length about 7*5 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 5-2 ; tarsus -85 ; bill from 
gape -75. 

Distribution. Peculiar to Ceylon, where this Owl is chiefly found 
in the hills. 

Habits, 6fc. These differ very little, if at all, from those of the 
last two species. The food consists chiefly of insects and lizards, 
occasionally of small mammals and birds. The cry is a repeated 
guttural sound often heard long after sunrise and before sunset. 
The eggs are laid in a hole in the trunk or branch of a tree from 
March to May ; they are (so far as is known) two in number, white, 
oval, and about 1-37 by I'll. 

1186. Glaucidium brodiei. TJie Collared Pigmy Owlet. 

Noctua brodiei, Burton, P. Z. S. 1835, p. 152. 
Noctua tubiger, Hodgs. As. He*. xix,j>. 175 (1836). 
Athene brodiei, Blyth, Cat. p. 40 ; Horsf. Sf M. Cat. i, p. 66. 
Glaucidium brodiei, Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 146 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 258 ; 

x2 



308 ASIONIIXffl. 

Stohczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 17 ; Hume, Rough Notes, 

p. 417 ; id. Ibis, 1871, p. 26 ; Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, p. 349 ; Stanford, 

J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 155 ; Cock fy Marsh. S. F. i, p. 349 ; 

Godw.-Aust. J.A.S. B. xliii, pt. 2, p. 152; xlv, pt. 2, p. 68; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ii, p. 212 ; Blyth fy Wald. Birds Burm. p. 67 ; 

Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, p. 39 ; Hume, Cat. no. 80 ; Bingham, 8. F. 

ix, p. 148 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 160 ; id. in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. 

hi, p. Ill ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1887, p. 434 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 23 ; 

Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. 558 ; vii, p. 375. 
Glaucidium immaculatus, Hume, Rough Notes, p. 420 (1870). 
Athene minutilla, Gould, Birds of Asia, i, pi. 15 (1870). 

Coloration. Lores white with black tips, a narrow white super- 
cilium ; cheeks, ear-coverts, and crown of head olive-brown (varying 
to blackish), with short transverse buff, white, or rufous bars and 
spots ; a black spot on each side of the nape, followed by a fulvous 
half-collar formed by deep buff feathers with brown borders ; re- 
mainder of upper parts olive or rufous-brown, often more rufous 
than the head, with narrow white, buff, or rufous cross-bars ; 
some large white spots on the outer scapulars ; quills dark brown, 
with buff, rufous, or white spots on the outer, and partial bars on 
the inner margins, the two united by subobsolete pale bands, the 
first two primaries and tips of the others unspotted ; secondaries 
tipped with buff ; tail dark brown, with white, buff, or rufous bars, 
interrupted at the shafts ; chin and sides of the neck behind the 
ear-coverts white, followed by a broad olive band barred with 
white or rufous across the throat ; upper breast and a stripe down 
the middle of breast and abdomen to lower tail-coverts white ; 
sides of breast barred dark olive and buff or rufous ; abdomen 
white, with large rufous or olive spots, dark at the edges; legs 
olive, with pale bars. 

Young birds are much more uniformly coloured above ; they 
have only a few buff streaks on the head, and no bars either there 
or on the mantle. This is the G. immaculatum of Hume, Athene 
minutilla of Gould. 

The birds of the Western Himalayas are browner, as a rule, 
those of the Eastern Himalayas more rufous, some Sikhim skins 
being tinged with ferruginous buff, but other Sikhim birds are 
blackish olive, not rufous at all. Assamese and Burmese birds 
also vary. 

Bill, cere, and feet yellowish green ; iris bright yellow ; claws 
horny (Bingham). 

Length about 6-5; tail 2-5; wing 3-6; tarsus '8; bill from 

,pe *7. Males are a little smaller than females, and Burmese 
irds are rather less in dimensions than Himalayan. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas as far west as Murree, 
being found in Sikhim from the base of the hills to a considerable 
elevation, but chiefly in the Western Himalayas between 5500 and 
7500 feet. This species occurs also in the hills south of the Assam 
valley, and in Karennee and the Tenasserim ranges, again at Perak 
in the Malay Peninsula, and in Southern China. 

Habits, $c. This is a bird of hill-forests, living partly on insects, 



parti)' on birds, small mammals, and, according to Stoliczka, lizards 
and frogs. Its call, first ascertained by Hutton, consists of four 
clear whistled notes, whoo-tvhoo wJioo-whoo, easily imitated. Like 
other species of Glautidium, this Owl is somewhat diurnal in its 
habits. It lays four round white eggs, generally about May or 
June, in holes in trees. 

Genus NINOX, Hodgson, 1837. 

Of all the genera of Owls this is, perhaps, the most Hawk-like 
in general appearance, owing to the ruff and facial disk being quite 
obsolete. The wings are longer and more pointed than in Athene 
or Glaucidium, the 3rd or 4th quill is longest and the 1st about 
as long as the 7th. The tail is slightly lengthened, and rounded 
at the end. The cere is swollen, with the nostril close to the 
anterior margin. Tarsus feathered, upper surface of toes thinly 
furnished \vith bristles. 

This genus is found throughout the Oriental region, the greater 
part of the Australian region, New Zealand, and Madagascar. 
Most of the species, including the two found within Indian limits, 
are almost uniform chocolate-brown above. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Lower parts partly white, partly brown or 

rufous ; quills barred N. scutulata, p. 309. 

b. Lower parts almost entirely brown ; quills not 

barred N. obscura, p. 311. 

1187. Ninox scutulata. The Brown Hawk-Owl. 

Strix scutulata, Raffl. Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 280 (1822). 

Strix hirsuta, Temm. PI. Col. p. 289 (1824). 

Strix lugubris, Tickell, J. A. S. B. ii, p. 572 (1833). 

Ninox nipalensis, Hodgs. Madr. Jour. L. S. v, p. 23, pi. 14 (1837) ; 
Godw.-Awt. J.A.S. B. xlv, pt. 2, p. 68. 

Ninox scutulata, Blyth, Cat. p. 38 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 147 ; Hume, 
Rough Notes, p. 420; Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, p. 350; A. Anderson, 
P. Z. S. 1875, p. 27 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ii, p. 156 ; Blyth $ 
WaU. Birds Burm. p. 67 ; Hume, S. F. iv, pp. 286, 373 ; Arm- 
strong, ibid. p. 303 ; Tweeddale, Ibis, 1877, p. 287 ; Hume, Cat. 
no. 81 bis ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 145 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 346 ; 
Oates, B. B. ii, p. 159 ; id. in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. Ill ; 
Gurney, Ibis, 1884, p. 169 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) 
iv, p. 572 ; v, p. 558. 

Athene scutulata, Horsf. 8f M. Cat. i, p. 68 ; Layard, A. M. N. H. 
(2) xii, p. 106. 

Ninox hirsuta, Holdsw. P. Z. S. 1872, p. 418 ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 151 ; 
Ball, ibid. p. 383 ; Hume % Oates, S. F. iii, p. 40 ; Fairbank, S. F. 
iv, p. 254. 

Is'inox lugubris, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ii, p. 154; Anderson, Yunnan 
Exped., Aves, p. 577 ; Davidson $ Wend. S. F. vii, p. 76; Sail, 
ibid. p. 201 ; Cripps, ibid. pp. 253, 256 ; Hume, Cat. no. 81 ; FWo/, 
& F. ix, p. 42 ; Butler, ibid. p. 377 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 17 ; Barney 
Birds Bom. p. 77. 



310 



Ninox burmanica, Hume, S. F. iv, p. 285 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, 
p. 40 ; Hume, Cat. no. 81 ter ; Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 148; Hume, 
ibid. p. 245 ; Cripps, S. F. xi, p. 24. 

Ninox innominata, Hume, S. F. iv, p. 286 ; v, p. 16. 



Ninox affinis, Tytler, Beavan, Ibis, 1867, p. 316; Hume, Rough 
Notes, p. 421 ; Walden, Ibis, 1874, p. 129, pi. v ; Sharpe, Cat. 
B. M. ii, p.. 155 ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 152; iv, p. 286; vii, p. 364; 
id. Cat. no. 81 quat. ; Gurney, Ibis, 1884, p. 170. 
Ninox hirsuta (Temm.), Ball, S. F. i, p. 54. 

Choghad besra, H. ; Kal pechak or pdncha, Beng. ; Moh chirai, Assa- 
mese ; Tang-kyi-per-chi-ok, Lepcha ; Paini (/ante vestam, Tel. 




Fig. 78. Head of N. scutulata, |. 

Coloration. Lores and feathers on anterior portion of forehead 
white with black ends ; upper parts with the sides of the head 
and neck chocolate-brown, varying in depth of tint, the head and 
neck very often greyer brown; some large concealed white patches 
or bars on the outer scapulars ; quills brown, with pale bands 
that disappear near the ends of the primaries, but become white 
bars on the inner webs of the secondaries and on both webs of the 
tertiaries; the tail alternately barred with blackish and pale 
greyish brown and tipped whitish or white, the alternating bars 
subequal in breadth, and those of each colour about 5 (from 4 to 6) 
in number ; ground-colour of lower parts white ; the chin, throat, 
and upper breast with broad brown median stripes, which pass 
into large heart-shaped spots on the abdomen and flanks, and these 
sometimes assume the form of bars on the thigh-coverts ; lower 
tail-coverts chiefly or wholly white ; axillaries barred white and 
brown or buff and brown, or sometimes orange-buff throughout. 

Bill bluish black ; cere dull green ; irides bright yellow ; feet 
dull yellow ; claws horny brown. 

Length about 12-5 ; tail 5*25 ; wing 8 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from 
gape -9. 

There is much variation in size, Northern specimens as usual 
being larger than Southern. In Himalayan and Burmese birds 
the wings measure 8 to 8*75, in Ceylonese and Malaccan 7'5 to 8, 
in the little Andaman variety only 6'6 to 7*6. 

As Hume has shown (S. F. iv, p. 285 ; ix, p. 42, &c.), N. lugu- 
bris cannot be distinguished from N. scutulata. The former is 



rather paler, with a greyer head, and is found in India and Burma 
generally, chiefly in the less damp parts of the country; the latter, 
of a deeper more uniform brown colour above, occurs in Malabar, 
Ceylon, parts of Burma, &c., where the rainfall is heavier! 
N. affinis, from the Andamans and Nicobars, is merely a small 
insular race, some supposed differences in colour, as Hume has 
also clearly shown, being individual. 

Distribution. Throughout the Oriental region. This Owl is 
common in the well-wooded parts of India, rare in the tracts less 
furnished with trees, such as the Bombay Deccan, and parts of 
the North-west Provinces, wanting, except at Mount Abu, in 
Eajputana, Sind, and the Punjab. It has not been observed in 
the Himalayas beyond the lower forests, but it is generally distri- 
buted in Burma and Ceylon. 

Habits, <Sfc. The Brown Hawk-Owl keeps much to thick trees 
during the day ; it is chiefly nocturnal, but is occasionally seen 
sitting on a stump or branch in the evening after sunset or in the 
morning. It lives chiefly on insects, which it not unfrequently 
captures in the air, but it also feeds on mice, lizards, Ac. The 
call is said by Captain Legge to be a not unmelodious hoot, which 
he writes ivhod-ivuk, and he doubts if this Owl utters cries like a 
strangling cat, or a hare when caught by hounds, as stated by 
Tickell, Buchanan Hamilton, and others. Mr. fieid, however, 
who wounded one, noticed that it cried like a hare. That peculiar 
strangled cries are not uncommon at night in the forests of 
India, I know from having heard them ; I never succeeded 
in detecting the bird by which they are made, though I have 
no doubt it is an Owl. Very little is known of the breeding 
of N. scutulata, except that it rears its young in holes in trees 
without any lining, and lays nearly spherical white 



1188. Ninox obscura. Hume's Brown Hawk-Owl. 

Ninox obscura, Hume, S. F. i, p. 11 (1873) ; Ball, ibid. p. 66 ; Hume, 
S. F. ii, p. 153 ; Walden, Ibis, 1874, p. 129, pi. iv ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. M. ii, p. 177 ; Hume, Cat. no. 81 quint. 

Coloration. Very dark chocolate-brown above and below, growing 
lighter and more rufous on the abdomen; a few small whitish 
spots or bars occur on the flanks and abdomen (often only to 
be seen by raising the overlying feathers), and the lower tail- 
coverts are barred with white ; feathers of the lores, forehead, 
and chin bristly, whitish, or white at the base, black at the ends ; 
quills uniform deep brown ; tail-feathers deep brown, with about 
four narrow pale greyish cross-bands and a whitish tip. The head 
above is often a little darker than the back. 

Bill blackish ; cere, ridge of upper mandible and tip of lower 
green ; irides yellow ; feet yellow ; claws black. 

Length 11*5 ; tail 5 ; wing 8-75 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape 1. 

Distribution. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The nearest 
ally is the Papuan N. theomacha. 




Fig. 79. Haliastur indus. 



Order XI. ACCIPITRES. 

The diurnal Birds of Prey, if only Indian genera are taken into 
consideration, form a very natural and well-marked group, about 
which the only doubt that can arise is whether the Osprey is 
'entitled to higher rank than that of forming a distinct family. 
The difficult questions as to the relationship of the American 
Vultures or Condors (Cathartidce) and of the African Secretary 
Bird (Serpentarius) do not concern us, and the Owls have now by 
general consent been placed in a distinct order. 

In the Accipitres the bill is strong, the upper mandible con- 
siderably longer than the lower, with the culmen much curved, so 
that the end is hooked and the tip perpendicular ; the basal 
portion is covered with a membrane or cere, in which the nostrils 
are pierced. The feet are strong and furnished with powerful 
-claws. A hallux is always present, and there is a tufted oil-gland. 
The spinal feather-tract is well-defined on the neck. There are 



:;]:', 

always 11 primaries. The Jlcxor low/us Jialluds leads to the hallux 
and the flexor perforans diyitorum to the other three digits, but 
the two tendons are united by a fibrous vinculum. The ambiens 
muscle and the femoro-caudal are present, the accessory femoro- 
caudal, semitendinosus, and accessory semitendinosus are absent. 
The posterior border of the sternum is not notched, but there is 
sometimes a foramen on each side within the border. There are 
no basipterygoid processes, and the palate is desmognathous. 
Both carotids are present, and there are caeca of the intestine. 
The nest is generally of sticks, and is placed on a tree or on 
rocks. The young are hatched helpless and covered with down ; 
they remain in the nest for a considerable time. The female 
throughout the order is almost always larger than the male. 

Accipitrine birds may be thus divided into three families : 

rt. No aftershaft to contour-feathers; outer toe 

reversible Pandionidae, p. 818. 

b. An aftershaft present; outer toe not or very 

slightly reversible. 

a'. Crown of head naked or covered with down. Vulturidae, p. 315. 
b'. Crown of head feathered Falconidae, p. 327. 



Family PANDIONID.E. 

The Osprey differs from all other Accipitrine birds in having the 
outer toe reversible, and in having no aftershaft to the feathers. 

The characters of the tibia and tarsus (tarso-metatarsus and 
tibio-tarsus) have been shown by Lydekker (Cat. Foss. Birds B. M. 
p. 18) to be Owl-like, as are the other distinctive peculiarities 

J'ust mentioned, and it is unquestionable that the Osprey forms a 
ink between Accipitrine birds and Owls, and that it differs from 
the FdlconidcK much more than the Vultures do. 

Genus PANDION. 

Bill moderate, with the tip produced and much hooked ; festoon 
variable; nostrils small, narrow, oblique. "Wings long and 
pointed ; third quill longest, extending beyond the end of the tail, 
which is nearly even. Tarsus short, stout, reticulated, without 
scutation ; toes with scutse above only near the ends, covered with 
prickly scales beneath; claws rounded beneath, much curved, 
subequal in size. 

A single species. 



314 PAKDIONIDJE. 

1189. Pandion haliaetus. The Osprey. 

Falco haliaetus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 129 (1766). 

Pandion haliaetus, Blyth, Cat. p. 29 ; Horsf. 8f M. Cat. i, p. 52 ; 

Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 80 ; Hume, 'Rough Notes, p. 234 ; id. S. F. 

i, p. 159; xi, p. 11 ; id. Cat. no. '40; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. i,p. 449; 

Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 16 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 199 ; Vidal, S. F. 

ix, p. 32 ; Butler, ibid. p. 373 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 122 ; Gurney, 

Ibis, 1882, p. 594 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 220 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 

p. 38. 

Machariya, Machmanga, H. ; Macharang, Nepal ; Machmoral, Bala,^ B. ; 
Koramin gedda, Tel. ; Hegguli, Yerkli ; Verali-addi-pong, Tarn. ; Pantiong, 
Lepcha ; Woon-let, Burm. 




Fig. 80. Left foot of P. haliaetus, 



Coloration. Head and neck white, the feathers along the middle 
of the crown and nape, and sometimes at the sides, with conspi- 
cuous brown shaft-lines and tips ; a broad dark brown band from 
each eye down the side of the neck ; upper parts glossy brown ; 
tail the same, the rectrices more or less distinctly barred with 
paler brown above, with white below, especially on the inner webs 
of all except the middle pair ; in old birds the bars tend to become 
obsolete ; quills blackish ; lower parts white, except on the upper 
breast, where the feathers are brown with dark shafts and white 
edges, that are sometimes very broad, but occasionally wanting ; 
wing-lining brown, mixed with white or fulvous. 

In the young the dark feathers of the dorsal surface are 
pale-edged, the tail is more closely and more distinctly barred, 
and the breast either unmarked or only slightly spotted with 
brown. 

Bill black; cere, gape, and eyelids dull greenish blue; irides 
bright yellow ; legs pale greenish or yellowish ; claws black. 



Length of females about 22 inches ; tail 9 ; wing 20 ; tarsus 2*3 
bill from gape 1-6. Male slightly small. -r. 

Distribution, Almost world-wide; found in suitable localiti.-s 
throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma. 

Habits, $c. Ospreys live on fish, and haunt, in India, the coast, 
backwaters, rivers, and large pieces of water of all kinds. They 
are generally seen perched on trees, occasionally on a stone, or 
else circling or flying over water in search of food. They capture 
fishes near the surface of the water by dropping on them from a 
height with a great splash, and often carry off prey of considerable 
size, but instances are on record of their being drowned by large 
fash, so that sometimes at all events they are unable to extricate 
their claws. Though nests have been seen in the Himalayas by 
Hume and others, and by Jerdon in an unrecorded part of the 
country, no eggs have been taken, and most Indian Ospreys are 
cold-weather visitants and do not breed in the country. They 
lay generally three eggs, white, much spotted and blotched with 
dull red, and measuring about 2-4 by 1*77, in a large nest of sticks 
mixed with various materials and placed on a tree or rock. 



Family VULTURID.E. 

Head and neck more or less bare or only clothed with short 
stubby down ; never any true feathers on crown of head (SJiarpe). 

The above appears the only really distinctive character by which 
Vultures are distinguished from Falcons, Eagles, and Hawks. 
Vultures have the crop covered with short feathers, and generally 
a more or less distinct elongate ruff round the neck at the end of 
the naked portion. The bill (except in Neophron) is strong, deep, 
and compressed, with the culmen much curved ; the tip is al\\a\ > 
hooked, and the cere large and horny. There are 15 cervical 
vertebrae, or one more than is usual in Fahonidw. The wings are 
long ; tail-feathers 12 or 14, with strong shafts, that, owing to 
wear, always project at the ends. The tarsi are partly feathered, 
the naked portions covered with granular scales, with larger 
transverse scutes on the distal phalanges of the toes; the inn.-r 
and outer toes are subequal, and the middle and outer united by 
membrane ; claws blunt, not much curved. 

Typical Vultures (the genus Neophron differs in some respects) 
resemble each other closely in habits. As is well-known, tli. \ 
feed on dead animals, and congregate in an extraordinary maiiii- r 
wherever a carcase is exposed. The way in which they assemble, 
apparently from all parts of the air, in a place whore a few minutes 
previously not one was in sight, is a wonderful spectacle. When 
in search of food, Vultures and some other Accipitrine birds soar 
and wheel slowly in large circles, very often at an elevation tar 



316 YULTURIDJE. 

beyond the reach of human vision, as was shown by the observa- 
tion of Colonel Tennant, who at Roorkee in 1875 (8. F. iii, p. 419) 
noticed that birds at a height of some miles often passed across 
the field of his telescope. As Jerdon and other writers have 
pointed out, the Vultures are dependent for the discovery of their 
food upon their eyesight, the more distant birds being attracted 
by seeing those nearer to the carcase flying in a manner that shows 
them to have found out its position. The actual discovery is 
doubtless generally made by Crows or Kites, and th6 Vultures 
obtain information from the movements of the smaller birds. 

On the ground Vultures are clumsy, heavy, and ungainly, as 
foul in aspect as in smell ; but on the wing no bird has a grander 
or more powerful flight, and none affords a better opportunity of 
studying the position and movements of a bird when flying. 
Amongst the rocky crags to which Vultures resort to roost and, 
in many cases, to breed, it is often easy to stand on the edge of a 
cliff where they pass by within a few feet, and as each great bird 
sweeps past, regulating its course by its tail, and occasionally 
moving its head slightly as it investigates the different objects 
that present themselves, to notice how steady and unchanging is 
the position of the extended wings and flight-feathers, and to 
observe how entirely the support of the bird is due to the resist- 
ance of the air. 

Vultures are confined to the tropical and warm temperate regions 
of Asia, Europe, and Africa ; their American representatives, the 
Condors and their allies, being now placed in a distinct order by 
most ornithologists. The family is represented in India by species 
of all known genera except Lophogyps. By some writers Neophron 
is regarded as forming a distinct subfamily, but the difference is 
scarcely more than generic. 



Key to the Genera. 

a. Bill stout ; height of upper mandible approxi- 

mately the same as length of cere on culmen. 
a'. Nostril round or oval ; tail-feathers 12. 

a". No neck-wattle VULTUR, p. 316. 

b". A fleshy wattle on each side of the neck. OTOGYPS, p. 318. 
b'. Nostril a vertical narrow slit. 

c". Tail-feathers 14 GYPS, p. 319. 

d". Tail-feathers 12 PSEUDOGYPS, p. 324. 

b. Bill slender ; nostril elongate, horizontal .... NEOPHRON, p. 325. 



Genus VULTUR, Linn., 1766. 

Bill short, strong, and deep, curving from the end of the cere ; 
nostrils round or slightly curved ; head broad, covered with down, 
which is longer on the nape; neck naked, ruff very small, 
ascending on the back of the neck. 

A single species. 



VULTUIt. 317 

1190. Vultur monachus. The Cinereous Vulture. 

Vultur inonachus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 122 (1766) ; Blyth, Cat. 
p. 32 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 1 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 6 ; id. Ibis, 
1871, p. 234 ; Hume, Rough Notes, p. 1 ; A. Anderson, P. Z. S. 
1871, p. 675 ; Adam, S. F. i, p. 367 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. i, p. 3 ; 
Butler, S. F. iii, p. 441 ; v, p. 226 ; Blanford, S. F. v, p. 245 ; 
Hume, S. F. vii, p. 321; id. Cat. no. 1 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 217 ; 
Barnes, S. F. ix, pp. 214, 450 ; C. H. T. Marshall, Ibis, 1884, 
p. 405 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 2 ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 149. 

Great Brown Vulture, Jerdon ; Kdla-yidh, H. ; Gut panom, Lepcha. 




Fig. 81. Head of V. monachus, -J-. 



Coloration. Blackish brown throughout, with, in freshly moulted 
plumage, a ruddy gloss on the mantle ; under surface sometimes 
darker than upper ; quills and tail almost black, occiput and lower 
tail-coverts paler. Young birds are paler and browner. 

Bill blackish brown; cere pale mauve; irides brown; naked 
skin of neck livid flesh-colour ; legs and feet creamy or pearl- 
white. 

Length about 42 inches ; tail 17 ; wing 30 ; tarsus 5. 

Distribution. Southern Europe, Northern Africa, and eastward 
through South-western Asia and parts of Central Asia to India 
and China. In India this bird is resident in Afghanistan and the 
Himalayas, and visits North-western India in the cold season, 
having been observed in the Punjab, Sind, North-west Provinces, 
and Oude, Guzerat near Ahmedabad, Mhow, and Saugor. It 
ranges in the Himalayas as far east as Bhutan. 

Habits, Sfc. Those of the family. The nesting does not appear 
to have been recorded within Indian limits, though there can be 
no doubt that this bird breeds in the Himalayas. In Europe it 
breeds about February or March, sometimes on cliffs, more often 
in trees ; builds a huge nest of sticks, and lays a single egg (very 
rarely two) richly marked with dark red, and measuring about 
3-7 by 2-6. 



318 YTJLTUEID^E. 

Genus OTOGYPS, Gray, 1841. 

Head and neck bare, without any down in adults ; a wattle of 
skin on each side of the neck behind the ear ; ruff very small ; 
bare neck extending farther down than in Vultur, to which genus 
the present is very similar. 

Two species, one African, the other Indian. 

1191. Otogyps calvus. The Black Vulture or 
Pondicherry Vulture. 

Vultur calvus, Scop. Del. Flor. et Faun. Insub. ii, p. 85 (1786) ; 

Hume, Rough Notes, p. 8 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 232 ; Adam, S. F. 

i, p. 367 ; A. Anderson, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 676 ; 1875, p. 17 ; Blyth, 

Birds Burm. p. 64. 
Vultur ponticerianus, Lath. Ind. Orn. i, p. 7 (1790) ; Sykes, P. Z. S. 

1832, p. 77 ; Jerdon, Mad. Jour. L. S. x, p. 63 ; Gray in Hardw. 

III. Ind. Zool. i, pi. 15, fig. 1. 
Otogyps calvus, G. R. Gray, Gen. B. i, p. 6 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 32 ; 

Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 2 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 7 ; Stoliczka, J.A.S. B. 

xli, pt. 2, p. 230 ; Hume, N.^E.^.l; Davidson, S. F. ii, p. 336 ; 

Sharps, Cat. B. M. i, p. 14 ; Brooks, 8. F. iii, p. 228 ; Butler, 

S. F. iii, p. 441 ; vii, p. 179 ; ix, p. 369 ; Blanford, S. F. v, p. 245 ; 

Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, p. 1 ; Davidson fy Wend. S. F. vii, p. 72 ; 

Gurney, ibid. p. 170; Ball, ibid. p. 196; Cripps, ibid. p. 240; 

Hume, Cat. no. 2; Bingham, S. F. viii, p. 190; ix, p. 142; Scully, 

S. F. viii, p. 217 ; Doig, ibid. p. 370 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 29 ; 

Davison, S. F. x, p. 331 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 2 ; Oates, B. B. ii, 

p. 171 ; id. in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed'. iii, p. 209 ; Barnes, Birds 

Bom. p. 3 ; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. i, p. 38 ; iii, p. 206. 
Rdj-gidh, Mulla-gidh, Bhaonra, H. ; Lung-nong-loong, Lepcha ; Raj 
Sagun, Beng. ; Nella Boraiva, Tel. ; Rannapanta, Yerkli. 




Fig. 82. Head of 0. calvus,^. 

Coloration. Adult. Scattered black hairs on the nape and sides 
of the head and on the throat, more closely set around the ear- 
orifice: head above and neck bare; plumage generally glossy 



GYPS. 319 

black, brownish on the scapulars, lower back, and rump ; secondary 
quills brown with black tips ; ruff inconspicuous, black, the 
feathers white at the base ; crop-patch dark brown, surrounded, 
except anteriorly, by white down ; upper thighs and anterior part 
of flanks white and downy. 

The young are brown above and below ; feathers of the breast 
and abdomen with paler edges ; under tail-coverts whitish ; the 
ruff of rather longer brown feathers. The crown of the head is 
covered with white down. 

Bill dark brown ; cere, skin of head and neck deep yellowish 
red, a conspicuous naked patch on each side of the crop and a 
large naked oval area in front of each thigh the same ; irjules red- 
brown or yellow ; legs dull red (legs china-white, Oates). 

Length about 32 ; tail 10*5 ; wing 23 ; tarsus 4*5 ; mid toe 
without claw 3'5 ; bill from gape to tip 2-75. 

Distribution. Throughout India and Burma, but not in Ceylon, 
ranging to the south-east into the Malay Peninsula, Siam, and 
Cochin China. Rare in the Punjab and Sind, but found in the 
lower Himalayas. 

Habits, $c. This fine Vulture is nowhere very abundant, usually 
one or two come to feed on a carcase with scores of Gyps indicus, 
G. tenuirostris, or Pseudogyps benyalensis ; these, being smaller and 
weaker, give way before the present species, which is consequently 
known as the King Vulture. It breeds on trees from the latter 
end of January to the middle of April, making a large platform of 
sticks, and laying a pure white egg (spots and streaks are of very 
rare occurrence in this species) that measures about 3-34 by 2-6. 



Genus GYPS, Savigny, 1810. 

This genus contains several species, and includes several of the 
common Indian Vultures. The head is narrower and the bill 
longer than in the two preceding genera ; the naked neck is 
longer, and there is a well-marked ruff at the base of the naked 
portion. The nostril is very narrow and vertically (transversely) 
or obliquely elongate. This genus, too, is distinguished from the 
other Vultures by having 14 tail-feathers. 

Species of Gyps are found throughout Africa, Southern and 
South-eastern Europe, South-western and Central Asia. India and 
Burma. Four species occur within our limits. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Larger : wing 27-31 inches. 

a 1 . Third primary longest; lower plumage 

with narrow shaft-stripes G. fulws, p. 320. 

b'. Fourth primary longest ; shaft-stripes on 

lower plumage very broad G. himalayensis, p. 321. 

b. Smaller : wing 22-26'5 ; bill more slender. 

c'. Crown of head with scattered hairs .... G. indicus, p. 322. 

d'. Crown of head quite naked G. tenuirostris, p. 323, 



320 VULTURIIXffi. 

1192. Gyps fulvus. The Griffon Vulture. 

Vultur fulvus, Gm. Si/st. Nat. i, p. 249 (1788). 

Gyps fulvus, Slyth, Cat. p. 32, partim ; id. His, 1866, p. 232 ; Jerdon, 

. I. i, p. 8, pt. ; id. Ibis, 1871, p. 235 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. i, p. 5 ; 

Gurney, Ibis, 1875, p. 88; Blanf. East. Pers. ii, p. 99; Butler, 

S F iii, p. 441 ; v, p. 217 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 196; Hume, Cat. 

no. 3 ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 149. 
Gyps fulvescens, Hiime, Ibis, 1869, p. 356 ; id. Rough Notes, p. 19 ; 

id. S. F. i, p. 148 ; id. N. $ E. p. 5 ; id. S. F. vii, p. 322 ; id. Cat. 

no. 3 bis ; Adam, S. F. i, p. 367 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 2l8;Eutler, 

S. F. ix, p. 369 ; Barnes, ibid. p. 450 ; Davidson, S. F. x, p. 285 ; 

Swinhoe, Ibis, 1882, p. 98 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 4 ; id. Jour. Bom. 

N. H. Soc. iii, p. 207 ; Gates in Hume's N. fy . 2nd ed. iii, p. 203. 

Coloration. Head thickly covered all round with short white hair- 
like feathers, passing into white down on the neck ; feathers of ruff 
elongate, lanceolate, whitish, with rufous-brown or fawn-coloured 
edges, in very old birds dingy white throughout and disintegrated 
back and wiDg-coverts varying from brown with a pinkish tinge, 
through fawn-colour to pale brown, often particoloured, some 
feathers darker than others, but all with narrow pale shafts, more 
or less distinct : rump and upper tail-coverts paler fawn, especially 
along the shafts and edges ; major coverts, scapulars, and tertiaries 
dark brown with pale edges ; quills and tail black or blackish 
brown ; lower parts throughout, including wing-lining, pinkish 
brown to ochreous buff, with narrow white shaft-stripes, the short 
crop-feathers generally rather browner. 

Younger birds are deeper coloured when freshly moulted, and 
are distinguished by having the feathers of the back, scapulars, 
and coverts pointed and the ruff-feathers dark and elongate. The 
buff -coloured birds appear to be either young or old in worn and 
faded plumage. 

Bill horny brown or dusky yellowish, paler on the culmen in 
adults, greenish horny in younger birds ; cere black ; iris brownish 
yellow ; legs and feet dirty yellow to greenish grey ; 3rd primary 
longest. 

Length 41 to 47 ; tail 13 ; wing 26-29 ; tarsus 4-5 ; mid toe 
without claw 4*25 ; bill from gape to point 8*1. 

Amongst the series of G. fulvescens in the Hume collection I 
can match all European specimens of G. fulvus available for 
comparison. It should be remembered that many specimens of 
Vulture skins in European museums are faded and bleached by 
exposure : but, so far as I can see, the Indian bird is absolutely 
identical with the European. 

Distribution. Southern and South-western Europe, Northern 
Africa, and South-western Asia ; common in Afghanistan, Balu- 
chistan, the Punjab, Sind, and Bajputana, the range in India 
extending east as far as Nepal and Sikhim, and south to Khandesh 
and the Deccan. Ball records the species from Manbhooin, and I 
once saw a large Vulture, that must, I think, have been this species, 
on the banks of the Glodavari near Dumagudern. 



GYPS. 321 

Habits, <$fc. The Griffon generally breeds on rocky cliffs in 
colonies, and lays a single white egg, about February, in a loosely 
constructed nest of sticks. Occasionally, but very rarely, the egg 
is slightly spotted ; the average measurement is 3'65 by 2'7. 
Solitary nests on trees have been observed in North-western 
India ; but in Sind I have no doubt these Vultures breed on the 
cliffs of the Khirthar and other ranges, for I saw a pair in copuld 
on January 3rd on the crags, roaring in the most extraordinary 
way at the time, after the manner of Vultures. 

1193. Gyps himalayensis. The Himalayan Griffon. 

Gyps fulvus, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 32, partim ; id. J. A. S. B. xxiv, 
p. 253, note ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 3 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 8, pt. ; 
nee Vultur fulvus, Gmel. 

Gyps himalayensis, Hume, Rough Notes, p. 12 (1869) ; id. N. $ E. 

S3; Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, p. 235; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. i, p 8 ; 
rooks, S. F. iii, p. 228 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 323 ; id. Cat. no. 
3ter; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 218; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 38 
Scully, ibid. p. 416 ; C. H. T. Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 405 ; Oates in 
Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 200. 
Gyps nivicola, Servertzov, Turkest. Jevotn.^. Ill, pi. vii (1873). 

Coloration. Adult. Hair-like feathers on the head and down on 
neck white or yellowish white ; feathers of ruff loose-textured, 
whitish along the shafts, pale brown on the sides ; back and wing- 
coverts whity brown, rather unevenly coloured, with traces of pale 
shaft-stripes ; lower back whitish or white ; rump and upper tail- 
coverts buff ; scapulars and greater wing-coverts dark brown with 
pale tips ; quills and tail-feathers blackish brown, the inner quills 
with pale ends ; crop brown, streaked paler ; rest of lower parts 
light brown or buff with broad whitish shaft-stripes ; under tail- 
coverts pale buff. 

Young birds are dark brown above and below, with strongly 
marked whitish shaft-stripes on all body-feathers and wing-coverts, 
the shaft-stripes being very broad on the ruff and the lower parts; 
wing- and tail-feathers nearly black. 

Bill pale horny green ; cere pale brown ; irides brownish yellow ; 
legs and feet dingy greenish grey or white (Hume). The 4th 
primary is the longest. 

Length about 48 ; tail 16 ; wing 30 ; tarsus 4-6 ; mid-toe 
without claw 4*3 ; bill from gape 3'3. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas from Cabul to Bhutan,, 
but only observed on the mountains. This species is also found 
farther north in Turkestan and Northern Tibet, and probably in 
other ranges of Central Asia. 

Habits, 6fc. This is distinctly a mountain Vulture, and breeds 
from the end of December to the first week in March. It makes 
the usual platform of sticks, or sometimes occupies an old Eagle's 
nest, on the face of a cliff, and lays a single egg, sometimes greyish 
white, more often blotched and streaked with red-brown, and 
measuring about 3'76 by 2-75. 

YOL. III. T 



1194. Gyps indicus. The Indian Long-billed Vulture 

Vultur indicus, Scop. Del. Flor. et Faun. Insub. ii, p. 85 (1786) ; 
Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 77. 

Gyps bengalensis, apud J. E. Gray in Hardw. III. Ind. ZooL i, pi. 15 ; 
nee Gin. 

Gyps indicus, Blyth, Cat. p. 33, partim ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 4, pt. ; 
Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 9, pt. ; id. Ibis, 1871, p. 235 ; Hume, Rough 
Notes, p. 21 ; id. N. $ E. p. 5; id. Cat. no. 4 ; Adam, S. F. i, 
p. 367 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. i, p. 10, pt. ; Davidson # Wend. 
S. F. vii, p. 72 ; Tidal, S. F. ix, p. 29 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 332. 

Gyps pallescens, Hume, S. F. i, p. 150 (1873) ; vii, pp. 165, 325 ; id. 
Cat. no. 4 bis; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. i, p. 11; Butler, S. F. iii, 
p. 442 ; ix, p. 369 ; Bingham, S. F. viii, p. 190 ; Davidson, S. F. 
x, p. 285 : Swinhoe fy Barnes, Ibis, 1885, p. 54 ; Barnes, Birds 
Bom. p. 5 ; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. iii, p. 207 ; Oates in Hume's 
N. 8f E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 203. 

Gidh, H. ; Gidad, Maha-dho, Mahr. 

Coloration. Adult. Short brownish-white hair- like feathers 
thinly sprinkled all round the head and on the nape ; upper half 
of back and sides of neck, and all the front, with small tufts of 
white down scattered over them; ruff disintegrated, soft and 
white; back pale brown, upper wing-coverts still paler, all the 
feathers palest on their edges ; lower back and rump brown, with 
broad white borders to the feathers, sometimes whitish throughout; 
upper tail-coverts darker brown, pale-edged ; larger wing-coverts 
and scapulars the same ; quills and tail-feathers blackish brown ; 
crop generally uniform dark brown, but sometimes light brown or 
even white ; lower parts whity brown, with indistinct broad pale 
shaft-stripes. 

Young very like that of G. himalayensis; the head and nape 
more thickly clad than in the adult; a ruff of long lanceolate 
feathers, whitish, with brown edges at each side ; upper back, 
smaller scapulars, and wing-coverts dark brown, with narrow 
whitish shaft-stripes ; lower back and rump whitish ; quills and 
tail nearly black ; crop brown ; abdomen and under wing-coverts 
light brown, with broad whitish shaft-stripes. 

Bill and cere pale greenish, yellowish horny on culmen ; irides 
brown ; bare skin of head and face dusky ashy leaden ; legs and 
feet the same ; claws creamy horny (Hume). 

Length about 38 ; tail 11 ; wing 23 ; tarsus 3' 75 ; mid-toe with- 
out claw 3'9 ; bill from gape 2-8. 

Distribution. Throughout the greater part of the Peninsula of 
India, south of the Indo-Gangetic plain not in Sind nor in 
Ceylon. 

Habits, $c. The Long-billed Vulture breeds from December to 
February in colonies on precipitous cliffs, laying a single egg, 
greenish white, generally unspotted, sometimes spotted or blotched 
with reddish brown, and measuring about 3*61 by 2-72. 



GYPS. 323 

1195. Gyps tenuirostris. The Himalayan Long-billed Vulture. 

Vultur tenuiceps, Hodgson in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 81 (1844), descr 

nulla. 
Gyps tenuirostris, Hodgson MS., Gray, Gen. B. i, p. 6 (1844), deter 

nulla ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 326 (18/8) ; id. Cat. no. 4ter ; Scully, 

S. F. viii, p. 219. 
Gyps indicus, apud Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 9, partim ; Blyth, Ibis, 1866, 

p. 232 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. i, p. 10, pt. ; Blyth $ Walden, Birds 

Burm. p. 64 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 1 ; Hume, Cat. no. 4 ; 

id. S. F. xi, p. 2 j Oates, B. B. ii, p. 169 ; id. in Hume's N. 8c E. 

2nd ed. iii, p. 202. 

Sdgun, Beng. ; Gut, Lepcha. 




Fig. 83. Head of G. tenuirostris, 



Very similar to the last, but distinguished by having no feathers 
at all on the head and scarcely any down on the neck, by the 
general coloration of the plumage being darker, the legs and feet 
somewhat longer, the bill more slender, the nostril apparently less 
elongate and broader, and the colours of the soft parts different. 

BUI brownish dusky horny, the culmen yellowish horny ; cere 
horny black ; irides deep brown ; skin of head and neck dark 
muddy ; tarsi and toes black ; claws dusky or horny black (Hume). 

Length about 38-5 ; tail 10-5 ; wing 24 ; tarsus 4 ; middle toe 
without claw 4-3 ; bill from gape 2-85. 

The Indian Peninsular form, and not the present species, must 
retain the name indicus, for Sonnerat in his original description 
of " Le Grand Vautour des Indes " (to which the specific name 
indicus was applied by Scopoli) wrote that the head is covered 
with fine down resembling hair (la tete est couverte d'un petit duvet 
qui ressemble a du poil). Hume has distinguished the Himalayan 
Vulture, G. tenuirostris, from that of Bengal, Assam, and Burma, 
on account of the slender bill and head of the former ; but I feel 
doubtful whether the difference is constant. 

Distribution. Throughout the lower Himalayas and near their 
base as far west as Kashmir, also in Bengal, As-am, and Burma, 

T2 



324 VULTUBIDJE. 

as far south as Moulmem ; and according to Blyth in the Malay 
Peninsula also. The limits of this and the last species are not 
clearly known. 

Habits, 6fc. This Vulture breeds on trees in Bengal in January and 
February, making the usual large nests of boughs freshly broken 
off. The single egg is nearly pure white, and measures about 3*5 
by 2-73. 

Genus PSEUDOGYPS, Sharpe, 1873. 

This genus is only distinguished from Gyps by having 12 tail- 
feathers like other Vultures, instead of 14. There are two species 
very similar to each other, one is African, the other Indian. 

1196. Pseudogyps bengalensis. The IndianWhite-bacJced Vulture. 

Vultur bengalensis, Gm. Syst. Nat. i, p. 245 (1788). 

Vultur leuconota, J. E. Gray in Hardw. III. Ind. Zool. i, pi. 14 
(1830-32). 

Gyps bengalensis, Blyth, Cat. p. 33 ; Horsf.fyM. Cat. i, p. 4 ; Jerdon, 
B. I. i, p. 10 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 233 ; King, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, 
pt. 2, p. 210; Hume, Rough Notes, p. 26; Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, 
p. 235 ; A. Anderson, P. Z. IS. 1871, p. 676 ; 1875, p. 17 ; Stoliczka, 
J.A.S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 230 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 7 ; Adam, S. F, 
i, p. 367; Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 65; Butler, S. F. iii, 
p. 442 ; v, p. 322 ; vii, p. 179 ; Blanford, S. F. v, p. 245 ; Davids. 
fy Wend. S. F. vii, p. 72; Cripps, ibid. p. 240; Marshall, Ibis, 
1884, p. 406. 

Pseudogyps bengalensis, Sharpe, A. M. N. H. (4) xi, p. 133; id. 
Cat. B. M. i, p. 11 ; Hume 8? Dav. S. F. vi, p. 1 ; Ball, S. F. vii, 
p. 196 ; Hume, Cat. no. 5 ; Bingham, S. F. viii, p. 190 ; Scully, 
ibid. p. 219 ; Vidal, 8. F. ix, p. 29 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 2 ; Davidson, 
ibid. p. 286 ; Davison, ibid. p. 332 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 1 ; Oates, B. 
B. ii, p. 170 ; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 205 ; Barnes, 
Birds Bom. p. 6 ; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. i, p. 38 ; iii, p. 207 ; 
St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 149. 

Gidh, H. & Mahr. ; Sdgun, Changoun, Beng. ; Guligadu, Matu pudum 
gudu, Tel. ; Walhorya, Yerkli ; Karru, Tarn. ; Lin-tah, Burmese. 

Coloration. Adult. Head and fore-neck with sparse brownish 
hairs, thicker on the nape ; back of neck with white downy tufts ; 
ruff of short pure white down ; wings, interscapulary region, 
upper tail-coverts, and tail black or brownish black ; secondaries 
brownish grey ; lower back, rump, upper part of flanks, lower 
wing-coverts except near the edge of the wing, axillaries, and 
thigh-coverts white ; crop-patch black, bordered on each side by 
white down; breast and abdomen brownish black, with narrow 
whitish shaft-stripes. 

Young. Head and neck much covered with down, whitish above, 
brownish and thinner below ; ruff of whitish lanceolate feathers 
with brown edges ; plumage generally dark brown, primaries and 
tail-feathers blackish ; wing-coverts with narrow, breast and abdo- 
men with broad whitish shaft-stripes ; no white on back, flanks, or 
wing-lining ; a white down border to the brown crop-patch. 



NEOPHRON. 325 

Bill dark plumbeous, except the upper part of the upper man- 
dible, which in adults is greyish white ; cere horny black, polished ; 
irides brown ; naked skin of head and neck dusky plumbeous : 
legs and feet nearly black (Hume). 

Length about 35 ; tail 10 ; wing 23 ; tarsus 3-75 ; mid-toe with- 
out claw 3*5 ; bill from gape to point 2'75. 

At all ages this is a darker as well as a smaller bird than Gyps 
indicus, and may be at once recognized by its dark lower parts 
with narrow whitish shaft-stripes. 

Distribution. The commonest Vulture throughout India and 
Burma, but not found in Ceylon nor above moderate elevations in 
the Himalayas. Earer in the Punjab and Sind, and in the desert 
parts of Eajputana. According to St. John, large numbers ac- 
companied the army engaged in S. Afghanistan in 1878-9, and 
fed on the dead camels. 

Habits, fyc. Very similar to those of other true Vultures. This 
bird and Gyps indicus are commonly found about towns and 
villages, and they assemble in large numbers to feed on carcases of 
all kinds. The nest is an irregular platform of sticks, always on a 
large tree, often banyan or pipal, sometimes on palms, not unfre- 
quently tamarind, nim (Melia azadirachta), or Terminalia, and 
there are often several nests on one tree. The middle of the plat- 
form is lined with green leaves, and a single egg is laid, generally 
dull white, sometimes speckled or blotched with reddish brown, 
and measuring on an average 3-26 by 2*42. This bird breeds from 
October till March, the majority about December or January, rather 
earlier, as is usual, to the southward than in Northern India. 
When pairing these Vultures, like Gyps fulvus, make an extra- 
ordinary roaring. 

Genus NEOPHRON, Savigny, 1810. 

Bill slender, lengthened, the culmen straight at first, greatly 
hooked at the tip ; cere very long ; nostrils elongate, horizontal ; 
crown and sides of head, chin, throat, and upper fore-neck naked ; 
neck surrounded by a ruff of hackles, which extend up to the nape 
and round all the lower part of the neck ; crop naked ; wings 
long, pointed, the third quill longest ; tail wedge-shaped. Third 
and fourth toes much united at the base by membrane ; claws 
sharper than in other Vultures. 

The habits and flight of these birds differ much from those of 
the preceding Vulturine genera. Neophron inhabits Africa, 
Southern Europe, and South-western Asia, including the Indian 
Peninsula. Two species are known, both Indian. The African 
Vultur pileatus, often referred to Neophron, belongs to a distinct 
genus, Necrosyrtes, Gloger. 

Key to the Species. 

/i. Bill yellow in adults N. ginginianus, p. 326. 

J). Bill dark homy at all ages A r . percnopterus, p. -)-7. 



326 VULTUEID^E. 

1197. Neophron ginginiaims. The Smaller White 
Scavenger Vulture. 

Vultur ginginianus, Lath. Ind. Orn. p. 7 (1790). 

Neophron percnopterus, Blyth, Cat. p. 33, pt. ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. 
i, p. 6, pt. ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 12 ; nee L. 

Neophron ginginianus, Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 233; Hume, Rough 
Notes, p. 31 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 12 ; xli, pt. 2, 
p. 230 ; Stanford, J. A. 8. B. xxxviii, pt. 2, p. 165 ; Hume, N. 
& E. p. 9 ; id. S. F. i. p. 150 ; id. Cat. no. 6 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. i, 
p. 18 ; Leffffe, S. F. iii, p. 195 ; id. Birds CeyL p. 2 ; Ball, S. F. 
vii, p. 196 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 29 ; Butler, ibid. p. 369 ; Damson, 
S. F. x, p. 333 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 7 ; Oates in Hume's N. 
fy E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 213. 

Sufed Gidh, Kol Murgh, H. ; Telia borawa, Tel. ; Manju Tiridi, 
Pittri Gedda, Papa, Pdpdparundu, Tarn. 




Fig. 84. Head of N. ginginianus, %. 

Coloration. Adult. Plumage almost throughout white ; winglet 
and primaries black, the latter grey outside, brown inside towards 
the base; secondaries whity brown or grey on the outer web 
outside, blackish brown elsewhere ; tertiaries pale brown through- 
out. A brownish or greyish tinge on the scapulars and wing- 
coverts, and sometimes elsewhere, is a sign of immaturity. The 
neck-hackles are often stained rusty. 

Young birds are at first blackish brown, the scattered down on 
the head and throat black, then pale tips appear on some of the 
neck-hackles and breast-feathers and on the smaller wing-coverts, 
giving a speckled appearance ; the back, breast, and greater wing- 
coverts are mottled with whitish blotches. The change to the 
adult plumage is gradual. 

Bill in adults horny yellow ; cere and sides of head and throat 
yellow ; irides dark brown ; legs dirty yellow ; claws pale horny. 
Jn young birds the bill is dark ; naked parts of head and throat 
grey ; legs and feet cinereous. 

Length about 24; tail 9-5 ; wing 18'25; tarsus 3-1 ; mid-toe 
without claw 2-5 ; bill from gape to tip 2-4. 



FALCONID/E. 327 

Distribution. India generally, from the Himalayas to Cape 
Coinorin, only found as a straggler in Ceylon ; wanting in Lower 
Bengal and to the eastward, replaced in the north-west by the 
next species ; found in the Western Himalayas up to 7000 or 
8000 feet. 

Habits, &c. This bird, in India, haunts towns and villages, and 
lives largely on human excrement. It also eats carrion, but is not 
commonly seen feeding on dead animals. It breeds from February 
to May, making a nest on rocky or earthy cliffs, on buildings or 
on large trees, and lays usually two eggs, generally richly spotted 
and blotched with brownish red and measuring about 2'6 by 1*98, 
The nest is a loose pile of sticks, generally rudely lined with rags, 
sometimes with straw, cotton, or hair, or green leaves. 

1198. Neophron percnopterus. The Egyptian Vulture, or 
Large White Scavenger Vulture. 

Vultur percnopterus, L. Syst. Nat. i, p. 123 (1766). 



Neophron percnopterus, Blyth, Cat. p. 33, partim; Horsf. $ M. 
Cat. i, p. 6, pt. ; Sharps, Cat. B. M. i, p. 17 ; Brooks, Ibis, 1869, 
p. 43 ; 1870, p. 290 ; Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, p. 236 ; Barnes, S. F. ix, 
pp. 214,450; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 38; St. John, Ibis, 1889, 
p. 150. 

This is precisely similar to the last, except that it is rather 
larger, with much larger feet and toes, and it always has the bill 
dusky, never yellow ; the cere is reddish yellow, darker than the 
cheeks, and the claws blackish horny. 

Length about 26 ; tail 10 ; wing 19 ; tarsus 3'3 ; mid-toe with- 
out claw 2- 6. 

Distribution. This replaces the last species in the extreme 
North-west of India, and is the common bird of the Punjab, Sind, 
and Cutch, extending east to Delhi ; farther east than this yellow- 
billed birds prevail. N. percnopterus ranges through Baluchistan, 
Afghanistan, and Persia to Egypt and Southern Europe, and has 
an extensive range in Africa. The occurrence of a single bird was 
observed by Biddulph at Gilgit. Of course, there is some passage 
between the two Neophrons, which are mere geographical races 
scarcely deserving specific distinction. 



Family FALCONID^l. 

The great majority of Eaptorial birds belong to the present 
family, which comprises Eagles, Buzzards, Kites, Hawks, Harriers, 
Falcons, and a number of intermediate forms. They are distin- 
guished from the Osprey by having the body-feathers provided 
with an aftershaft, and from" the Vultures by having the head and 
neck feathered. In virtue of the last character Oypaetus (the 



.328 FAXCONID^E. 

Lammergeyer), which is intermediate in characters between the 
Vultures and Eagles, is here assigned to the neighbourhood of the 
latter. 

Throughout the family there are 12 tail-feathers and 14 cervical 
vertebrae. Nearly all are carnivorous, a few of the smaller species 
being insectivorous partly or wholly, and the majority capture 
living prey. The hair and feathers of the prey, if not removed 
before eating, are cast up, with the bones, in the form of pellets. 
As a rule, birds of this family are solitary, and all are monogamous. 

Scarcely any two authors agree as to the division of the 
Falconidae into subfamilies. Sharpe in the ' Catalogue ' admits 
five : Potyborince, Accipitrince, Buteonince^ Aquilince, and Falconince ; 
but the result is unsatisfactory and artificial. Blyth and Gurney 
employed far more divisions ; the former (' Ibis,' 1863) arranged 
these birds in 10 subfamilies, the latter in his last work ('A List 
of the Diurnal Birds of Prey 7 ) in no less than 11. If the Fal- 
conidae are to be arranged in natural subfamilies at all, this number 
must, I believe, be increased rather than diminished ; and as I can 
find no satisfactory system, I think it best to leave the family 
undivided with the exception of the Lammergeyer, which appears 
entitled to rank as a subfamily apart. 

a. Claws blunt ; bill lengthened ; a tuft of 

long bristles on the chin Gypaetince, p. 328. 

I. Claws sharp ; bill not lengthened ; no 

bristles on chin Falconince, p. 330. 



Subfamily GYPAETI1SLE. 

Genus GYPAETUS, Storr, 1784. 

Bill moderately high, compressed, much hooked at end, culmen 
curved throughout ; nostrils oval, longitudinal, concealed by long 
bristles directed forwards from the lores and cere, another tuft 
of long bristles descending perpendicularly from the chin ; tarsi 
feathered ; feet stout ; claws of moderate size, well curved, blunt ; 
wings long, very pointed, 3rd quill longest ; tail of 12 feathers, 
long, wedge-shaped, very pointed. 

This genus inhabits mountainous regions in Southern Europe, 
Central Asia, and Africa. One species is found in the Himalayas, 
the Punjab, and Sind. 

119c <ypaetus barbatus. The Bearded Vulture 
or Lammergeyer. 

Vultur barbatus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 123 (1766). 

Gypaetus barbatus, Storr, Alpenreise, p. 69 ; Hutton, J. A. S. B. 

hi, p. 522 ; Hodgson, J. A. S. B. iv, p. 454 ; Blyth, Cat,, p. 33 ; 

Horsf. 8f M. Cat. i, p. 9; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 13 ; id. Ibis, 1871, 



GYPAfilTs. ;> (1 j<) 

p. 236; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 12; Hums, Rouah 

A7_j- OK. T\,l.~l -n^J-l'jr 11 -i^A-i wy 




, p. V& 

99 ^Scully, S. F. viii, p. 221 ; Barnes, S. F. ix, pp. 214, 461 
Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 39 ; Scully, ibid. p. 41(5 ; Barnes, Birds Bom 
p. 8; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 150; Gates in Hume's N. $ K 
2nd ed. iii, p. 127 ; Sharpe, Yarkand Miss., Aves, p. 6. 
Gypaetus hemachalanus, Hutton, J. A. S. B. vii, p. 22 (1838). 
Argul, H., Mussooree ; Okhdb, Chamba. 




Fig. 85. Head of <V. barbatus, %. 

Coloration. Adult. Bristles on lores, cere, and chin, supercilia 
more or less united across the occiput, and narrow stripe below 
ear-coverts black ; remainder of head all round and throat white, 
speckled with black, more in younger, less in older birds ; nape, 
neck all round, and lower parts white, tinged to a varying extent 
with ferruginous, and, except in very old birds, with an imperfect 
blackish-brown gorget, the feathers pale-shafted ; upper back and 
smaller wing-coverts black with narrow white shaft-stripes, that 
are broader at the tip ; rest of upper plumage deep silvery grey, 
the shafts white and the edges of the feathers blackish, the black 
edges disappearing in old birds on the quills and tail ; some brown 
feathers on the lower back and rump; under wing-coverts 
blackish with white shaft-stripes, which are very broad on the 
axillaries. 

The above is the fully adult plumage, but most birds have brown 
and whitish patches on the upper parts and blackish marks on the 
neck and breast. Young birds of the year have the head and neck 
black, the upper parts blackish brown, lower parts brownish grey ; 
usually there is some white on the back and often on the base of 
the tail. 

Bill horny, the tip darker; irides pale orange, the sclerotic 
membrane blood-red ; feet plumbeous grey. Irides in the young 
pale yellowish brown. 



330 FALCONIDjE. 

Length about 4 feet ; tail 22 inches ; wing 32 ; tarsus 4 ; bill 
from gape to point 4 (all these are average measurements, and 
there is much variation). 

Distribution. Mountainous parts of Southern Europe, Northern 
Africa, Western and Central Asia. This bird is common in 
Persia and Afghanistan, in the Khirthar range of Sind, the 
Suliman and Salt ranges of the Punjab, and throughout the 
Himalayas, as far east as Sikhim at all events, but not in forest. 

Habits, $c. The Bearded Vulture keeps to rocky hills and 
mountains, and is usually seen beating regularly over precipices 
and slopes with a steady sailing flight very like that of a 
Vulture. It occasionally soars also, and may be recognized at a 
great elevation by its pointed wings and long wedge-shaped tail. 
The stories, chiefly Alpine, of its carrying off lambs (whence its 
name of " Lammergeyer" or Lamb Vulture) and even children, and 
pushing goats and other animals over precipices, are now generally 
discredited. It is somewhat doubtful whether this great bird ever 
attacks living prey, its food consisting chiefly of bones and offal. 
It but rarely descends on a carcase ; but Hume found one feeding 
on human ordure, like Neophron, to which it has a great resem- 
blance in its gait when walking, and in its appearance on the 
wing. The Bearded Eagle has been known from, antiquity for its 
habit of carrying up large bones and letting them fall from a height 
in order to break them, and it is said in the Levant to treat 
tortoises in the same manner ; hence is supposed to have arisen 
the story of the death of .^Eschylus. This bird breeds on rocky 
precipices in the Himalayas and elsewhere from November to 
March, and lays generally two eggs, varying much in markings, 
but often richly coloured, and measuring about 3'24 by 2-66. The 
nest is a great pile of sticks, mixed with wool or hair or frequently 
old rags. 



Subfamily FALCONING. 

As already pointed out, this subfamily contains the bulk of the 
Accipitrine birds. The following key to Indian Genera is not so 
satisfactory as could be wished, but many of the most important 
generic characters are not easily expressed in a few words. 

Key to the Genera. 

A. Bill without any pointed tooth on upper 
mandible opposite end of lower mandible ; 
a festoon commonly present farther back. 
a. Lores with bristles or feathers termi- 
nating in bristles. 
a'. Tarsus feathered throughout : size 

^mostly large. (Eayles.} 
a". Claws much curved, hind claw 
longer than inner. 



FALCONINJE. 331 

rt n . Primaries exceeding secondaries by 

more than length of tarsus. 
a 1 . No elongate occipital crest. 
a\ Culmen straight at base, then 

curving AQUILA, p. 332. 

b\ Culmen curving from cere *. . HIERAETUS, p. 342. 
b\ An elongate occipital crest ; ab- [p. 345. 

domen chestnut in adults LOPHOTBIORCHIS, 

//'. Primaries exceeding secondaries by 

less than length of tarsus SPIZAETUS, p. 348. 

6". Claws but little curved, inner longer 

than hind claw ICTINAETUS, p. 346. 

b'. Tarsus not feathered throughout. 
c". Tarsus reticulated throughout, no 

scutellse broader than high. 
c 3 . Tarsus long, more than 1| times 

length of bill from gape to point. 
c 4 . Scales on tarsus subequal 
throughout : size of bird large. 
(Serpent-Eagks.) 

c\ Head not crested CIRCAETUS, p. 355. 

d?. Feathers of nape and sides of 
neck lengthened to form a 

crest SPILORNIS, p. 357. 

r/ 4 . Scales in front of tarsus larger 
than behind : size small. (Buz- 
zard Eagles.) BUTASTUB, p. 362. 

d 3 . Tarsus short, less than 1 times 

length of bill from gape , . ELANUS, p. 379. 

d". Tarsus with some scutellae broader 

than high. 

e 3 . Size large: tarsi very long and thick, 
scutellated in front and either 
reticulated behind or irregularly 
scutellated ; scales beneath toes 
rough and pointed. (Sea-Eagks.) 

e*. Claws grooved beneath HALIAETUS, p. 366. 

/ 4 . Claws rounded beneath POLIO AETUS, p. 369. 

f* t Size moderate : tarsus scutellated 

in front but not behind. 
ff*. Tarsus short; bill from gape 
more than half tarsus. (Kites.) 
e 5 . Tail slightly rounded at the 

end HALIASTUB, p. 372. 

/ 5 . Tail forked MILVTJS, p. 374. 

h\ Tarsus long ; bill from gape less 

than half tarsus. (Hamers.) CIRCUS, p. 380. 
g 3 . Size moderate or small : tarsus 

scutellated behind. 
i 4 . Bill from gape half length of 
tarsus or less. (Hcncks.) 

* This distinction is very unsatisfactory. Generally Hieraetus may be 
distinguished by having the middle toe longer than the bill from gape, whereas 
in Aquila the latter is the longer, but this does not hold good with Aquila 
maculata and A. chrysaetm. 



332 FALCONIDjE. 

(f. Bill from gane f to f length 

of mid-toe without claw. 
6 . No crest ................ ASTUB, p. 396. 

b*. A small occipital crest .... LOPHOSPIZIAS, p. 400. 

h 5 . Bill from gape about half mid- 

toe without claw .......... ACCIPITER, p. 402. 

k*. Bill from gape more than half 

tarsus. (Buzzards.) 
i\ Lower part of tarsus naked all 

round .................. BUTEO, p. 389. 

k\ Tarsus feathered in front to 
base of -toes, naked and scu- 
tellate behind ............ AKCHIBUTEO, p.. 395. 

b. Lores very broad, densely feathered, with- 

out bristles *. (Honey-Buzzards.) 
c'. Loral feathers scale-like ; bill not much 

compressed ...................... PERNIS, p. 405. 

d'. Loral feathers not scale-like ; bill ex- [p. 408. 

cessively compressed, culmen sharp . . MACH^BHAMPHUS, 

B. Bill with two teeth on each side of upper 

mandible, opposite end of lower ........ BAZA, p. 408. 

C. Bill with one tooth on each side of upper 

mandible. 

c. Tail half to two-thirds as long as wing. 

e'. Size moderate ; wing never under 6. 

(Falcons.) 
e". Tail rounded, not graduated. 

h 3 . 2nd quill longest, 1st much longer 

than 4th. 
/ 4 . Sexes alike ; foot long, mid-toe 

1-25-2-25 .................. FALCO, p. 412. 

m*. Sexes dissimilar; foot small, 

mid-toe about 1 ............ EBYTHBOPUS, p. 424. 

i 3 . 2nd and 3rd quills subequal, also 

1st and 4th .................. ^ESALON, p. 426. 

f". Tail graduated, middle tail-feathers 
exceeding outer by an inch or more ; 



upper parts largely brick-red : sexes 
dissimilar 



TINNUNCULUS, p. 428. 
/'. Size very small, wing under 5 ........ MICBOHIEBAX, p. 432. 

d. Tail nearly as long as wing : sexes dis- 

similar ............................ POLIOHIEBAX, p. 434. 



Genus AQUILA, Brisson, 1760. 

The typical Eagles, constituting the present genus, are large 
and powerful birds, and, from their grand appearance, have 
acquired a reputation for courage which they scarcely deserve, as 
they are much less courageous than the comparatively small 
Hawks and Falcons. 

The bill is strong and slightly lengthened, curved from the 



* This only applies to Indian species. In the African Machcerhamphus 
(M. anderssoni) the feathers on the lores have some bristles intermixed. 



AQUILA. :',:>,;>, 

cere, the margin of the upper mandible straight or with a very slight 
festoon ; wings long, the 4th or 5th quill longest ; tail moderate, 
slightly rounded or nearly even ; tarsus feathered to the toes ; 
claws curved, strong and sharp, the hind toe and claw powerful. 

The coloration is dark, and in adults as a rule nearly uniform 
throughout. Eagles prey on mammals, birds, and sometimes 
on reptiles, frogs, &c., and all or nearly all feed on carrion as 
well. The genus is found throughout Europe and Asia and North 
America, and seven species occur in India. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Nostril elliptical or ear-shaped, higher than 

broad, 
a'. Claws very large, hind claw 2*5-4 in . round 

curve A. chrysaetus, p. 333. 

b'. Claws moderate, hind claw veiy rarely 

exceeding 2 in. round curve. 
a". Wing in <$ 21-23, in % 23-24-5. 
a 3 . Plumage deep blackish brown, crown 

and nape tawny A. heliaca ad., p. 334. 

ft 3 . Plumage deep umber-brown through- 
out, or a pale patch on the nape [p. 336. 

only A. bifasciata ad., 

c 3 . Lower plumage striated A. heliaca juv., p. 334. 

d 3 . Lower plumage not striated, pale 

tips to larger wing-coverts and to [p. 336. 

secondaries A. bifasciata juv., 

b". Wing in tf under 21, in <J> under 22 .. A. vindhiana, p. 337. 

b. Nostril round, as broad as high. 

c'. Whole head and lower parts uniformly 

pale tawny or rufous A. fulvescens, p. 339. 

d'. Head and lower parts dark brown, or not 
uniformly coloured. 

c". Wing d 19-20, $ 2O-5-21-5 A. maculata, p. 340. 

d". Wing c? about 18, $ 19 A. hastata, p. 341. 

1200. Aquila chrysaetus. The Golden Eagle. 

Falco chrysaetus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 125 (1766). 

Aquila chrysaetus, Blyth, Cat. p. 26 ; Horsf. Sf M. Cat. i, p. 47 ; 




It, &tJ*J \J ilWVlVj J. fJ *-/ *WI Tj p. ** \J\J 9 ^VC*C-lUj IV! A *VJ !' A*-'' . 

Gurney,Ibis, 1877, p. 210; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 41; Scully, 
ibid. p. 419 ; C. H. T. Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 406 ; Barnes, Birds 
Bom. p. 25 ; Oat.es in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 130 ; Sharjn>. 
Yarkand Miss., Aves, p. 7. 

Muriari, H., Chamba. 

Coloration. Adult. Feathers of lores whitish, with black hair- 
like tips ; crown and sides of head dark brown ; feathers of nape, 
hind-neck, and sides of neck lanceolate, rufous tawny, dark brown 
at the base and black-shafted ; rest of plumage blackish brown ; 
the feathers of the upper parts white or mottled with white towards 



334 PALCONIDJE. 

the base, the pale mottling being conspicuous on the inner second- 
aries and scapulars ; tail with more or less distinct mottled bands 
of pale brownish grey except near the end ; upper tail-coverts, 
bend of wing, thigh-coverts, and under tail-coverts generally 
rufous-brown. 

Young birds are glossy brownish black ; the crown and nape 
more tawny; the basal two-thirds of the tail greyish white, all 
body-feathers white at the base. The general tint varies from 
black to brownish black, blotched in places with brown and whity 
brown. There is, as usual in raptorial birds, a gradual change from 
the young or ring-tail plumage to that of the adult. 

Bill dark horny ; irides hazel- brown ; cere and feet yellow. 

Length of male about 35 inches ; tail 13 ; wing 24-5. Length 
of a female about 40 inches ; tail 14 ; wing 27'5 ; tarsus 4 ; bill 
from gape to point straight 2'75. The toes and claws are very 
large, the hind claw (not including the toe) measures from 2-5 to 
3-5 round the curve. 

Distribution. Throughout Europe, Northern Africa, Northern 
and Central Asia, and North America, chiefly about mountainous 
districts. This Eagle breeds in the higher Himalayas, and 
Mr. Hume thought he recognized it in the Sind hills and on the 
Makran coast. Other reported Indian localities are probably due 
to error. 

Habits, <$fc. The Grolden Eagle, though by no means the largest, 
is one of the most powerful of predatory birds. It lives on 
gallinaceous birds and on mammals, such as hares, lambs, kids, 
fawns, &c., and it is said occasionally to attack even wolves, but 
it does not disdain carrion. It is kept tame in Central Asia, and 
employed to capture gazelles. It makes a large nest of dried 
sticks, lined with grass, moss, or other plants, sometimes on rocks, 
often on a tree, and lays usually two eggs, occasionally pure white, 
more often blotched with rufous-brown, measuring about 2-87 
by 2-25. 

1201. Aquila heliaca. The Imperial Eagle. 

Aquila heliaca, Sav. Descr. Egypte, p. 259, pi. 12 (1810) ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. M. i, p. 238; Stanford, Ibis, 1894, p. 283. 

Falco imperialis, Bechst. Orn. Taschenb. v. & f. Deutschl. iii, p. 553 
(1812). 

Aquila imperialis, J. E. Gray, in Hardw. III. Ind. Zool. ii, pi. 28 ; 
Blyth, Cat. p. 26 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 48 ; Jerdon, B. I. i. p. 57, 
partim ; id. Ibis, 1871, p. 244; Brooks, Ibis, 1868, p. 349; Hume, 
Rough Notes, p. 142; Anderson, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 682; Hume, 
S. F. i, p. 157 ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 152. 

Aquila crassipes, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 81 (1844), descr. 
nulla ; Brooks, P. A. S. B. 1872, p. 64 ; id. P. Z. S. 1872, p. 503 ; 
Anderson, ibid. p. 620. 

Aquila mogilnik *, apud Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 5 ; Gurney, Ibis, 

* I cannot identify the Imperial Eagle at any stage with S. GK Gmelin's 
figure and description of Falco mogilnik (see ' Ibis,' 1894, p. 283). 



AQUILA. 335 

1873, p. 99 ; Dresser, Bir<k Eur. pi. 344 ; Hume, N. & p 27 
Brooks, S. F. i, p. 290; Anderson, P. Z. S. 1875, p. 20; Gurneu 
Ibis, 1877, p. 215 ; Davison Sf Wend. S. F. vii, p. 73 ; BaU, ibid. 
p. 197 ; Cripps, ibid. p. 244 ; Hume, ibid. p. 335 ; id. Cat. no. 27 
Butler, S. F. ix, p. 372 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 6 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 
p. 26; Littledale, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. i, p. 194; nee Falco 
mogilnik, Gmel. 

Aquila bifasciata, Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 131 ; nee 
Gray. 

Jumiz, Jumbiz, Barra Jumiz, Satanyal, H. ; Frus, Beng. 

Coloration. Adult. Lanceolate feathers of head and neck above 
and at the sides tawny buff ; forehead and sinciput blackish, or 
streaked with blackish, neck-feathers sometimes black-shafted; 
rest of plumage above and below glossy blackish brown ;* the 
smaller wing-coverts and upper and lower tail-coverts with butt' 
margins ; vent and lower tail-coverts whity brown ; tail-feathers 
tipped buff, the last 2 to 3 inches almost black, and the basal 
portion indistinctly marked with numerous irregular mottled 
brownish-grey transverse bands ; in most adults also some 
scapulars are pure white, but the white feathers vary in number 
and position. 

Many birds are particoloured, some of the feathers above and 
below having pale borders, or being wholly pale brown. These 
are probably immature birds. 

The young have the feathers of the head, neck, back, wing- 
coverts, breast, and part of the abdomen dark brown with whitish 
shaft-stripes, very broad on the lower surface ; upper and under 
tail-coverts, lower abdomen and thigh-coverts, chin, throat, and 
cheeks buff ; secondary quills and major coverts and tail broadly 
tipped with fulvous white, remainder of tail uniform dull brown. 
This is the lineated stage. There is much variation in this 
plumage also. 

Bill bluish horny ; cere yellow with a greenish tinge ; irides in 
adults brownish yellow, in the young dusky brown ; feet yellow. 

Length of male about 29; tail 11-5; wing 22; tarsus 3-6; bill 
from gape to point 2-4 ; of females length about 31 ; tail 13 ; 
wing 24. 

Distribution. From Central and South-eastern Europe to China, 
ranging north to Southern Siberia. The Imperial Eagle is chiefly 
a winter visitor to India, but breeds in the extreme North-west 
and perhaps occasionally in the North-west Provinces, or even, 
according to Jerdon, in the Deccan. Except locally it is a rare 
bird, being most common on the Indo-G-angetic plain. It has not 
been recorded in Ceylon or Burma, nor farther east in India than 
Furreedpore in Bengal. 

Habits, <$fc. A sluggish heavy bird, often seen sitting on trees, 
sometimes on the ground in open country. It feeds much on 
carrion, though it also kills small mammals, birds, and lizards for 
food. It lays, as a rule, two eggs in the usual large nest of sticks 
lined with a few green leaves, and generally placed on a 



336 FALCONID^E. 

The eggs vary from unspotted greyish white to white greatly 
blotched with rufous, bat are generally either white or but faintly 
coloured ; they measure about 3 by 2-2, Indian examples about 
2-7 by 2-09. 

1202. Aquila bifasciata. The Steppe Eagle. 

Aquila bifasciata *, J. E. Gray in Hardw. III. Ind. Zool. i, pi. 17 
(1830-32) j Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 5 ; Brooks, P. A. S. B. 1872, 
p. 65 : id. P. Z. S. 1872, p. 503 ; id. J. A. S. B. xlii, pt. 2, p. 145 ; 
xliii, pt. 2, p. 239 ; id. S. F. i, pp. 290, 325 ; id. Ibis, 1874, p. 86 : 
Anderson, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 621 ; 1875, p. 21 ; 1876, p. 311 ; 
Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 230 ; Gurney, Ibis, 1873, p. 99 ; 
Dresser, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 514 ; Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 63 ; Oates, 
B. B. ii, p. 185. 

Aquila nipalensis, Hodgson, As. Res. xviii, pt. 2, p. 13, pi. 1 (1833) ; 
Dresser, Birds of Europe, v, p. 507, pi. 340 ; Gurney, Ibis, 1877, 
p. 222 ; Hume, S. F. vii, pp. 197, 338 ; x, p. 443 ; xi, p. 8 ; 'id. Cat. 
no. 27 bis ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 223 ; Reid, 8. F. x, p. 7 ; Oates, 
ibid. p. 179 ; Davison, ibid. p. 287 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. 
(2) v, p. 556; vii, p. 374. 

Aquila orientals, Cab. J.f. Orn. 1854, p. 369. 

Aquila imperialis, Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 57, partim ; Hume, Rough Notes, 
p. 142, pt. ; nee Bechstein. 

Aquila amurensis, Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 338. 

Aquila mogilnik, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. i, p. 240 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 25 j 

Hume Sf Dav. S. F. vi, p. 11 ; nee Gmel. 
Jumiz, H. ; Woon-lo, Burmese ; Ony yau, Lepcha. 

Coloration. Adult. Almost uniform brown, varying from pale 
greyish brown to deep umber-brown ; there is often a rufous-buff 
patch on the nape, varying much in size ; quills and larger scapu- 
lars blackish brown ; tail blackish brown, with traces of greyish 
cross-bars. This plumage is rare, most birds retaining some im- 
mature characteristics, such as buff upper tail-coverts or whitish 
mottling on the quills. 

Young birds also vary in colour, but are paler than adults, some 
being almost whity brown, more often umber-brown ; no nape- 
patch ; broad white or buff or rufous-buff ends to the secondary 
quills and to the greater coverts, forming two conspicuous wing- 
bars ; the primary-coverts and some of the under wing-coverts 
also with pale tips ; all the quills are mottled with grey or whitish 
towards the base and the secondaries are more or less barred ; 
upper and under tail-coverts buff; tail tipped whitish or buff, 
sometimes, except the pale tip, uniform brown, in other specimens 
mottled with grey, so as to be more or less distinctly banded. In 
some birds there are darker cross-bands and pale tips on the 
feathers of the back and on the wing-coverts, and sometimes the 



* This name has been rejected by several ornithologists because of A. bifas- 
ciata, Brehm (1831), a name given to the Spotted Eagle. It is, however, 
doubtful whether Brehm's name is older than Gray's. 



AQUILA. 337 

abdominal feathers have whitish transverse or arrow-head-shaped 
bands and pale tips. 

Bill and claws black; gape, cere, and feet yellow; iris dark 
brown ; eyelids greenish (Oates). The nostrils are rounder than 
in A. heliaca, but still oval. 

Length of a male 30 inches; tail 11'5 ; wing 22; tarsus 4; mid- 
toe without claw 2-5 ; bill from gape 2-8. Females are rather 
larger : tail 12'5 ; wing 23'5. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to Northern India, ranging south 
as far as Khandesh, Seoni, and B/aipur ; also found at the same 
season throughout Assam and Burma. Beyond Indian limit* this 
Eagle is found in Eastern Europe, North-eastern Africa, and in 
parts of Central Asia, including Mongolia, Southern and Eastern 
Siberia, and China. 

For a long time the two plumages of this Eagle were supposed 
to be phases of A. heliaca (A. imperialist and were described as 
such by Jerdon and Hume. The recognition and separation of 
A. bifasciata is due to Messrs. Brooks and Anderson. 

Habits, &fc. Very similar to those of A. lieliaca, except that the 
nest, which has not been observed within Indian limits, is generally 
placed on the ground. 

1203. Aquila vindhiana. The Indian Tawny Eagle. 

Aquila vindhiana, Franklin, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 114 ; Jerdon, Madr. 

Jour. L. S. x, p. 67 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 29 ; Brooks, P. A. S. B. 

1873, p. 174; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. i, p. 243; Anderson, P. Z. S. 

1875, p. 22 ; Butler, S. F. iii, p. 446 ; ix, p. 372 ; Gurney, Ibis, 

1877, pp. 225, 234 ; Davidson 8f Wend. S. F. vii, p. 74 ; Ball, ibid. 

p. 197 ; Hume, Cat. no. 29 ; Doig, S. F. viii, p. 370; Reid, S. F. 

x, p. 7 ; Davidson, ibid. p. 287 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 29 ; id. Jour. 

Bom. N. H. Soc. i, p. 40 ; Oates in Hume's N. Sf E. 2nd ed. iii, 

p. 132. 
Aquilla punctata, J. E. Gray in Hardw. III. Ind. Zool. i. pi. 16 

(1830-32). 

Aquila fusca, J. E. Gray, op. cit. ii, pi. 27 (1833-34). 
Aquila nsevioides, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 27 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 44 ; 

nee Cuv. 
Aquila fulvescens, apud Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 60; Blyth, Ibis, 1866, 

p. 241 ; Hume, Rough Notes, p. 173 ; Blanford, J. A. S. B. 

xxxviii, pt. 2, p. 166 ; Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, p. 245 ; Hume, S. F. i, 

p. 158 ; nee Gray. 

The Tawny Eagle, Jerdon; Wokhdb, Ragar, H. ; Dholwa, Wagri; 
Bursawul, Yerkli ; Alawa or Salwa, Tel. ; AH, Tarn. 

Coloration very variable. Adults are almost uniform brown, 
varying from dark umber to pale brown, sometimes whity brown 
or whitish on the head and body. Very pale birds are generally 
in worn plumage, and the light tint is probably caused by bleaching. 
The quills are dark brown or nearly black at the end, mottled and 
barred towards the base ; the tail is dark grey, with more or less 
distinct cross-bars. Occasionally the head is greyer or paler than 

VOL. III. Z 



338 FALCONIDjE. 

the back, and in some birds (not, I think, fully adult) the head is 
almost black and the nape pale. 

A nestling, obtained by Mr. Brooks from the nest, has the 
eathers brown, without shaft-stripes, but with broad rufous-buff 
edges, and pale tips to the quills and tail-feathers ; but, according 
to Hume, in the nestling (N. & E. p. 30) " the whole plumage is 
rufous-brown, purer on the head, more earthy on the mantle, and 
paler below, each feather with a narrow black central stripe or line." 
Hume (Eough Notes, p. 176) says that the paler-coloured birds 
are young, and the plumage grows darker with age ; but Brooks 
(P. A. S. B. 1873, p. 174) declares that the pale plumage is that 
of adult birds, and is due to fading from exposure. I am disposed 
to think Brooks right. Apparently there are two young plumages 
one tawny, with dark shaft-stripes below and on the upper tail- 
coverts; the other darker brown, without shaft-stripes: but whether 
these plumages are successive or alternative it is difficult to say. 




Fig. 86. Head of A. vindhiana, f. 

Many specimens have the breast dark brown, and the abdomen 
paler greyish brown with dark shaft- stripes. In the dark plumage 
many of the feathers have pale tips ; in some cases, even in 
freshly-moulted adult birds, there are pale buffy terminal spots to 
the nape and breast-feathers (as in Gray's figure of A. punctata). 
In the nestling plumage the tail appears to be unbarred, but in the 
next plumage, probably after the first moult, it becomes closely 
barred, the barring becoming less marked again in the adult. 

There are other variations still. Some birds have a brownish- 
rufous head, some a pale whitish one, some a black one with a 
whitish nape ; some have particoloured feathers on the lower 
breast and abdomen. In this, as in other Eagles, the changes are 
probably irregular and vary in different individuals. 

Cere deep yellow; irides hazel- brown ; feet yellow (Jerdori). 
Bill pale bluish grey near the cere, tip black ; cere dirty cream- 
colour ; legs and feet dirty greenish white (Hume). Nostrils 
elliptical or ear-shaped ; plumage harsh. 

Length of male about 25'5 ; tail 10 ; wing 20 ; tarsus 2-75 ; 
mid- toe 2 ; bill from gape 2-25 : in females length 28 ; tail 11 ; 
wing 21 '5. 

Distribution. Throughout the greater part of India, chiefly in 



AQUILA. 339 

the drier districts, where this is by far the commonest "Ragle ; 
wanting on the Malabar coast and in Ceylon, and apparently in 
Lower Bengal and Assam, but occurring in Upper Burma near 
Thayet Myo, as there are specimens collected by Gates in the 
British Museum. This species is not known to occur outside of 
India and Upper Burma, but is represented by a nearly allied 
form, A. albicans, in N.E. Africa. 

Habits, #c. This common Eagle is usually seen either seated on 
a tree or beating over fields and woods. It is, like most Eagles, 
not particular about its food, and will pounce on a small mammal, 
bird, lizard, snake, or frog, or share the carcase of a dead bullock 
with vultures ; but it also subsists to a great extent by robbing 
smaller Accipitrine birds, such as kites and falcons, of their cap- 
tures ; and Elliot long since called attention to its troublesome 
habit of pursuing tame falcons, owing to its mistaking the jesses 
for prey. It breeds from November to June, chiefly in January 
in Northern India, rather earlier in the Central Provinces; it 
builds a nest of sticks, usually lined with green leaves, generally 
on the top of a high tree, but often, where no high trees are at 
hand, on a low babul (Acacia arabica), and lays usually two eggs, 
greyish white, more or less spotted or blotched with yellowish 
brown, and measuring about 2-63 by 2*11. 

1204. Aquila fulvescens. Brooke's Eagle. 

Aquila fulvescens, J. E. Gray in Hardw. 111. 2nd. Zool. ii, pi. 29 

(1833-34) ; Brooks, P. A. S. B. 1873, p. 173 ; id. J. A. S. B. xliii, 

pt. 2, p. 241 ; id. Ibis, 1874, p. 85 ; Anderson, P. Z. S. 1875, p. 22; 

Gurney, Ibis, 1877, p. 325 ; Hume, 8. F. vii, p. 339 ; id. Cat. no. 28 

bis ; Reid, 8. F. x, p. 450. 
Aquila nae via, j uv., apud Brooks, Ibis, 1868, p. 351; 1870, p. 290; 

Hume, Rough Notes, p. 168 ; nee Gmel. 
Aquila naevioides, Tristram, P. Z. S. 1870, p. 4 ; id. Ibis, 1870, 

p. 290; Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, p. 245; Anderson, P. Z. S. 1871, 

p. 687. 

Coloration. Head, neck, and lower plumage varying from yel- 
lowish buff to brownish rufous, the head-feathers, as a rule, and 
occasionally those of the lower parts with dark shafts ; a narrow 
blackish supercilium; upper back and wing-coverts brown, the 
feathers broadly edged with huffy white ; lower back buff ; rump- 
feathers brown, with broad buff margins ; upper tail-coverts buffy 
white ; primary-quills and larger scapulars blackish brown, without 
buff edges, first primaries white at extreme base; secondaries 
dark brown, with whitish edges, especially on the outer webs ; 
tail blackish brown, the feathers growing paler brown towards the 
end and with a whitish tip ; in one specimen the tail shows traces 
of barring. 

The pale buff plumage is evidently that of the young; what 
appears to be the adult has the head, neck, and lower parts 
brownish rufous ; the feathers of the abdomen with darker centres, 
and the breast-feathers tipped darker; the upper back dark brown; 

z2 



340 FALCONID.E. 

lower back paler and buffy ; upper tail-coverts white. Only one 
specimen, now in the British Museum, is known in this stage, and 
it is uncertain whether the fully adult plumage has been observed. 

Bill pale bluish grey, with dark tip; cere and gape cream-colour; 
iris light brown ; feet yellowish (Brooks). Nostril round; plumage 
soft. 

Length of female about 27'5; tail 11-5; wing 21; tarsus 4; 
bill from gape 2'3 : of a male tail 10-5 ; wing 19-25. 

Distribution. This rare Eagle has only been obtained by Messrs. 
Brooks and Anderson, to whom we are indebted for all we know 
concerning it, in the North-west Provinces, chiefly about Etawah. 
It is a cold-weather visitant, and is believed to have been also met 
with in Southern Russia and Eastern Prussia (Gurney, I. c.). 

Habits, 6fc. Like the Spotted Eagles, this species is met with 
near rivers and marshes, and feeds, partly at all events, on frogs. 
Nidification unknown. 



1205. Aquila maculata. The Large Spotted Eagle. 

Falco maculatus, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i, p. 258 (1788). 

Aquila clanga, Pall. Zoogr. Rosso- Asiat. i, p. 351 (1811) ; Sharpe 
(A. maculatae subsp.}, Cat. B. M. i, p. 248; Gurney, Ibis, 1877, 
p. 329 ; Davids, fy Wend. S. F. vii, p. 74 ; Ball, ibid. p. 197 ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 28 ; Bingham, S. F. viii, p. 190 ; Doig, ibid. p. 370 ; Butler, 
S. F. ix, p. 372 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 7 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 186 ; id. in 
Hume's N. Sf E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 138 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 28 ; id. 
Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. iii, p. 212 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 8. 

Aquila vittata, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 81 (1844), descr. 
nulla. 

Aquila nsevia, Blyth, Cat. p. 27 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 45 ; Jerdon, 
B. I. i, p. 59 ; Hume, Rough Notes, p. 162 ; id. S. F. i, p. 158 ; 
Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, p. 244 ; Anderson, P. Z. S. 1871, pp. 686, 689 ; 
1875, p. 22 ; Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 63 ; Butler, S. F. iii, p. 445 ; 
Walden, Ibis, 1876, p. 339. 

Aquila maculata, Brooks, S. F. iv, p. 268 ; Blanford, Ibis, 1894, 
p. 287. 

The Spotted Eagle, Jerdon ; Kaljanga, H. ; Bukayari Jiyadha, Beng. ; 
Nella gedha, Tel. 

Coloration. Adult. Dark, almost blackish brown, with a slight 
purplish gloss on the mantle ; primary-quills black ; tail unbarred, 
but washed with grey towards the end above ; head and neck all 
round paler, the tips, and sometimes broad shaft-stripes to the 
lanceolate feathers of the crown and nape, lighter brown; feathers 
on tarsus and upper and lower tail-coverts mixed with whitish, 
and sometimes chiefly white ; base of all feathers, including wing- 
and tail-feathers, white. 

Young birds are also dark brown, and differ chiefly from adults 
in having the upper back and smaller wing-coverts marked with 
elongate paler greyish-brown spots, these spots are largest and 
whitish on the smaller scapulars and median coverts ; longer 
scapulars, larger coverts, and secondaries with large buff tips; 



AQUILA. 341 

lower back and rump pale brown, with dark edges to the feathers ; 
upper tail-coverts whitish ; tail black, grey, or mottled towards 
the end and pale-tipped ; lower plumage with light brown shaft- 
stripes varying in breadth and tint ; vent and lower tail-coverts 
buff. Some birds are pale brown beneath. 

Bill bluish grey, dusky at tip ; cere, gape, and feet orange-yellow. 
Irides brown (Hume). Nostrils round and large ; plumage soft. 

Length of a male about 26 inches ; tail 10-5 ; wing 19'5 ; 
tarsus 4 ; bill from gape 2-5 : of a female length 27'5 ; tail 11-5 ; 
wing 2O5. 

Distribution. Throughout the greater part of the Palaearctic 
region. Common throughout India and Northern Burma in damp 
tracts near water ; not found in Ceylon, and rare in Tenasserim. 

Habits, $c. A sluggish bird, living chiefly on frogs in India, but 
occasionally preying on small mammals, lizards, &c. It breeds on 
trees from April to June in Northern India, and as far south as 
the Tapti, and appears to lay a single greyish-white egg, profusely 
spotted and blotched with yellowish brown, and measuring about 
2*65 by 1*98. Elsewhere two to three eggs are said to be laid. 

1206. Aquila hastata. The Small Indian Spotted Eagle. 

Morphnus hastatus, Less. Toy. Belanger, p. 217 (1834). 

Lhnnaetus unicolor, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xh, p. 128 (1843). 

Spizaetus punctatus, Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. xiii, p. 164 (1844). 

Aquila hastata, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 7 ; id. Cat. p. 27 ; Jerdon, 
B. I. i, p. 62 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 241 ; Hume, Rough Notes, 
p. 180 ; Godio.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 265 ; Jerdon, 
Ibis, 1871, p. 245; A. Anderson, P. Z. S. 1872, pp. 69, 622 ; 1875, 
p. 23, pi. iii ; id. Ibis, 1875, p. 199 ; Brooks, S. F. i, pp. 293, 327; 
id. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. 2, p. 240; Sharpe (A. maculatSB subsp.}, 
Cat. B. M. i, p. 248; Ball, S. F. ii, p. 378; vii, p. 198; Gurney, 
Ibis, 1877, p. 329; Cripps, S. F. vii, p. 244; Hume, Cat. no. 30; 
Reid, S. F. x, p. 450 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 188 ; id. in Hume's 
N. 8f E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 136 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 9 ; Davidson, Jour. 
Bom. N. H. Soc. iii, p. 213. 

Spizaetus hastatus, Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 34. 

Aquila fusca, Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 63 ; nee Gray. 

Jiyadar, Gutimar, Phari-tisa, H. 

Coloration. Adult. Very dark brown, often with a purple gloss ; 
lanceolate feathers of crown and nape often pale-tipped, but 
with dark rather than pale shaft-stripes ; feathers of back, rump, 
wing-coverts, and breast also with rather darker shafts in general ; 
primaries black; tail-feathers dark brown, often with traces of 
narrow bars. 

Young birds have small buff or whitish spots on the nape, upper 
back, and smaller coverts, a few larger white spots on the median 
coverts, and there are narrow white tips to the larger coverts ; 
the secondaries and tail-feathers are rather closely barred with 
grey ; upper tail-coverts barred white and light brown ; the breast 
.and sometimes the abdomen, thigh-coverts, and lower wing-coverts 



342 FALCONTDJE. 

have buff shaft-stripes ; abdomen generally paler ; lower tail- 
coverts buff ; thigh-coverts, if not striped, whitish. The striation 
on the underparts is lost after the first moult, but the spots of 
the upper plumage do not entirely disappear till the bird is three 
or four years old. 

Bill plumbeous blue at base, black at tip : cere, gape, and feet 
yellow ; irides hazel-brown. 

Length of male about 24 ; tail 9-5 ; wing 18 ; tarsus 3-8 ; bill 
from gape 2'3 : the female very little larger. 

Distribution. This species is only known to occur in India, 
where it is a permanent resident. It is common in parts of the 
Grange tic plain, but rare to the westward, unknown in Sind, more 
common in the Gangetic delta, and especially in Eastern Bengal. 
A specimen was obtained by Blyth from Arrakan ; Jerdon states 
that he met with this species once or twice in Southern India ; and 
it has been observed breeding in Raipur, Sambalpur, and Mysore. 

Habits, fyc. Very similar to those of A. maculata. The present 
species was observed by Mr. Frith in Mymensingh to plunder the 
nests of Sturnopastor contra. It breeds in April and May, and 
lays generally a single egg, sometimes two, in the usual stick-nest 
on a high tree. An egg measures 2-6 by 1-95. 



Genus HIERAETUS, Kaup, 1844. 

"With this genus commences the series of Hawk-Eagles as they 
have very appropriately been termed. They are birds of more 
slender build, with smaller bills, longer and more slender tarsi, and 
longer tail than the true Eagles, and most of them are, in some 
phase of plumage, partly or wholly white beneath. 

This genus has a moderately strong bill, much hooked at the 
end, and with a prominent festoon to the upper mandible ; the 
nostrils are elliptical and oblique ; wing long, 4th quill longest, 
primaries exceeding secondaries by far more than the length of 
the tarsus ; tail nearly square, more than half the length of the 
wing ; tarsi feathered ; toes long, outer toe (without claw) a little 
longer than inner ; claws large, sharp, well curved ; inner and 
hind claw both large, the latter the larger. 

The type of Nisaetus, Hodgs., the name used by Jerdon, Sharpe, 
and others for this genus, was Spizaetus nipalensis, and the generic 
description does not apply to the present group, although Bonelli's 
Eagle was included by Hodgson (Ibis, 1894, p. 288). The type of 
Hieraetus is H. pennatus, the Booted Eagle ; but I follow Sharpe 
in placing the Booted and Bonelli's Eagles in the same genus. 
Four species are known, of which two are Palsearctic and Indian, 
one African, and one Australian. 

Key to the Species. 

a, Larger : wing 19-21 H.fasciatus, p. 343. 

b. Smaller : wing 14-16-5 H. pennatus, p. 344, 



HIEEAETUS. 34$ 

1207. Hieraetus fasciatus. Bonelli's Eayle. 

Aquila fasciata, Vieill. Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris, ii, 1822. p. 162. 

Falco bonelli, Temm. PL Col. i, pi. 288 (1824). 

Aquila bonellii, Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) xii, p. 98; Horsf. $ M, 

Cat. i, p. 46. 
Nisaetus grandis, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. v, p. 230 (1836) ; Jerdon, 11L 

2nd. Orn. pi. 1, text. 
Nisaetus niveus, apud Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. x, p. 69 ; Elliot, 

ibid. p. 234 (1839) ; nee Falco niveus, Temm. 
Spizaetus grandis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 301. 
Eutolmaetus bonellii, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 174 ; xix, p. 335 : id. 

Cat. p. 26 ; id. Ibis, 1866, p. 241 ; Hume, Rough Notes, p. 189 ; 

A. Anderson, P. Z. S. 1872, pp. 75, 273. 

Nisaetus bonellii, Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 67 ; Brooks, Ibis, 1869, p. 44. 
Nisaetus fasciatus, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. i, p. 250 ; Fairbank, S. F. iv, 

p. 253 j Gurney, Ibis, 1877, p. 419; Davidson $ Wend. S. F. vii, 

p. 74 ; Ball, ibid. p. 198 ; Hume, Cat. no. 33 ; Scully, S. F. viii, 

p. 224; Butler, S. F. ix, p. 372; Davidson, S. F. x, p. 288; 

Davison, ibid. p. 336 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 32 ; id. Jour. Bom, 

N. H. Soc. iii, p. 213 ; Oates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 139. 
Pseudaetus bonellii, Hume, S. F. i, p. 158 ; iii, p. 446 ; Adam, S. F. 

ii, p. 338. 

TJie Crestless Hawk-Eagle, Jerdon; Morangi, H. ; Kundeli Salawa T 
Tel. ; Rajali, Tarn. 

Coloration. Adult. Upper parts dark umber-brown, bases of 
feathers white ; feathers of head and mantle inconspicuously 
dark-shafted ; lores whitish, eyebrow streaked with white ; sides 
of face white, the cheeks and ear-coverts streaked with brown ; 
quills black, mottled with white on inner webs towards the base ; 
upper tail-coverts with whitish margins ; tail-feathers dark grey 
above, whitish below, with imperfect black cross-bands and a 
broad black terminal one, the inner webs mottled with white, the 
extreme tip whitish ; lower parts white, with black shaft-stripes 
varying in breadth ; wing-lining blackish brown, except near the 
edge of the wing all round, where the feathers are partly white ; 
thigh-coverts and lower abdomen whity brown or pale brown, 
still with black streaks ; under tail-coverts with pale rufous- 
brown cross-bars. Some old birds are buff or tawny beneath in- 
stead of white, and not unfrequently the thighs and abdomen are 
darker brown. 

Young birds are paler above and have pale edges to the crown 
and nape-feathers, and the latter are sometimes rufous ; the sides 
of the head and neck and the lower parts, including the wing- 
lining, light rufous or rufous-buff, with narrow dark stripes ; the 
quills and tail banded almost throughout, the latter white at the 
base ; no broad terminal band to the tail. 

Bill bluish grey, black towards the tip ; cere and gape dingy 
yellow ; irides bright yellow or brownish yellow ; feet pale dingy 
whitish brown with a yellow tinge (Hume). 

Length of male 27; tail 10; wing 19; tarsus 3'7; bill from 
gape 2-15 : of a female length 29 ; tail 11 ; wing 20. 



'344 PALCONID^E. 

Distribution. Southern Europe, Northern Africa, and South- 
western Asia, ranging throughout the Indian Peninsula but not 
farther East. This bird has been only once obtained in Ceylon, 
but is not rare in the more hilly and jungly districts of Southern 
India. In the Punjab and NYW. Provinces, including the Hima- 
layas, and in Sincl it is generally distributed. 

Habits, <$fc. This splendid Eagle lives on mammals and birds of 
its own killing, and is never known to touch carrion. Jerdon 
mentions that it is particularly destructive to pigeons. It is much 
seen on the wing sailing at a considerable height, at other times it 
perches on a high tree or rock. It breeds on cliffs and on trees, 
the former perhaps by preference, makes a large nest of sticks, 
.and lays two eggs on a lining of green leaves. The eggs are 
greenish white, unspotted or faintly blotched and streaked with 
brown ; they measure about 2'78 by 2*1, and are usually laid in 
the latter half of December, in January or in February. 

1208. Hieraetus pennatus. The Booted Eagle. 

Falco pennatus, Gmel Syst. Nat. i, p. 272 (1788). 

Spizaetus milvoides, Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L, S. x, p. 75 (1839). 

Hieraetus pennatus, Blyth, Cat. p. 28 ; id. Ibis, 1866, p. 241 ; Hume, 
Rough Notes, p. 182 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 11 ; Davidson $ 
Wend. S. F. vii, p. 74 ; Hume, ibid. p. 198 ; id. Cat. no. 31 ; id. S. 
F. x, p. 335 ; xi, p. 9 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 30 ; Butler, 8. F. ix, 
p. 372 ; Siuinhoe, Ibis, 1882, p. 99 ; Davidson, S. F. x, p. 287 ; 
Reid, ibid. p. 450 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 30. 



Cat. i, p. 43 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 63 ; id. Ibis, 1871, p. 246 ; A. An- 
derson, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 74 ; 1875, p. 24 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 387 ; 
Butler, S. F. vii, p. 174 ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 152. 
Nisaetus pennatus, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. i, p. 253 ; Hume, S. F. iii, 



Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 41 ; Scully, ibid. p. 420 ; Oates, B. B. ii, 
p. 189 ; id. in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 144. 

The Dwarf Eagle, Jerdon ; Bayhati Jumiz, Gilheri Mar, H. ; Udatal 
Gedda, T. ; Punja prandu, Tarn. ; Rajaluja, Cing. 

Coloration. Adult. Forehead and lores whitish ; a narrow black 
superciliary streak ; head and neck above and on sides fawn- 
colour or tawny, feathers with black shaft-stripes that are broader 
on the nape and broader still on the crown ; cheeks and ear- 
coverts darker ; upper parts brown ; upper back, larger scapulars, 
and rump dark umber-brown ; tertiaries, smaller scapulars, and 
wing-coverts brown, with broad whity-brown edges and darker 
shafts; larger coverts darker but pale-edged; quills blackish, 
-secondaries with pale ends ; upper tail-coverts fawn or rufous- 
brown ; tail-feathers greyish brown above, greyish white beneath, 
with traces of dark bars, the last one much broader, and pale tips ; 
lower parts, including wing-lining, buffy white, with black longi- 
tudinal streaks often fringed with ferruginous, these are thickly 
marked on the chin, more thinly on the throat and breast, 



LOPUOTEioncnis. 345 

generally disappearing on the abdomen, and replaced by faint 
rufous bars on the thigh-coverts and vent in very old birds ; a few 
black spots beneath the wings. 

Some birds are dark brown throughout, and although these may 
be young in general, the dark plumage appears in some cases to be 
retained for a long time, as individuals certainly breed in it. 

Young birds usually have the head and neck rufous-brown or 
dull rufous, sometimes dark brown ; the upper plumage brown as 
in adults, but with dark shaft-stripes ; tail-coverts whitish ; lower 
parts either dark brown or pale rufous with blackish streaks, 
except on the lower abdomen ; tail greyish brown above, paler 
below, more or less distinctly banded and pale-tipped. 

Bill pale blue at base, blackish at tip ; irides pale brown ; cere, 
gape, and feet yellow (Hume}. Blyth says that Indian birds have 
sometimes a rudimentary crest. 

Length of male about 29 ; tail 8-5 ; wing 15 ; tarsus 2-4 ; bill 
from gape 1-4 : of a female length 21-5 ; tail 9 ; wing 15-75. 

Distribution. Southern Europe, great part of Africa, Western 
and Central Asia, and throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma, 
though rare in the two latter. 

Habits, fyc. This is a highly predatory species, living on squirrels, 
rats, and other small mammals, doves, pigeons, &c. It frequently 
carries away fowls, and Jerdon remarks that Kites are often un- 
justly credited with the depredations of this little Eagle on 
pigeons and poultry. It frequents both woods and cultivated 
ground, and is often found about towns and villages. As a rule 
the Booted Eagle is a winter visitor to India, and breeds farther 
north ; but a nest was taken on a banyan tree by Mr. Theobald, 
in 1869, near Salem. The nest in Europe is, as usual, of sticks, 
with a lining of green leaves under the eggs, which are two in 
number, greenish white, with in general but few coloured markings. 

Genus LOPHOTRIORCHIS, Sharpe, 1874. 

This genus, although resembling Spizaetus in the plumage of 
the young and in the crest, is distinguished by its longer wings, 
with the primaries projecting beyond the secondaries by more 
than the length of the tarsus, by its shorter tail, and its much 
longer toes and more powerful claws, the claw of the third toe 
being longer than the culmen beyond the cere. The adult colo- 
ration too is peculiar, black above, and the abdomen chestnut. 

The typical species is Indian ; another species referred to the 
genus is American. No others are known. 

1209. Lophotriorchis kieneri. The Rufous-bellied Hawk-Eagle. 

Astur kieneri, Sparre, Mag. Zool. 1835, Aves,ioL 35. 

Spizaetus albogularis, Tickell, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi, p. 456 (1842). 

Spizaetus kieneri, Blyth, Cat. p. 26 ; Horsf. Sf M. Cat. i, p. 34 ; Hume, 
Itnuah Notes, p. 216; id. S. F. i, p. 311 ; Hume $ Inylu, S. F. v, 
p. 9 ; Blanf. ibid. p. 483; Hartert, J.f. Orn. 1889, p. 374. 



346 

Limnaetus kienerii, Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 74; Godw.-Aust. J. A. 8. B. 

xliii, pt. 2, p. 152 ; Legge, S. F. iii, p. 198 ; Gttrney, Ibis, 1877, 

p. 432 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 35. 
Lophotriorchis kieneri, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. i, pp. 255, 458 ; Hume fy 

Bourdillon, S. F. vii, p. 33 ; Ball, ibid. p. 198; Hume, Cat. no. 37 ; 

Legge, Birds Ceyl p. 42 : Hume, S. F. ix, p. 273 ; xi, p. 30 ; Bligh, 

Ibis, 1886, p. 299. 

Coloration. Adult. Upper parts and sides of head and neck 
black and glossy ; quills dark brown ; tail-feathers brownish, barred 
darker ; the quills and tail-feathers are light ashy grey beneath 
with dark bars except at the ends of the quills, the tail has a 
broad e subterminal black band ; chin, throat, and breast white, with 
a few'lanceolate black shaft-stripes on the breast, the white passes 
into the ferruginous chestnut with black shaft-lines of the abdo- 
men, lower tail-coverts, thigh-coverts, and wing-lining. Sometimes 
the chin, throat, and breast are tinged with ferruginous red. 

Toung birds are brown above, some of the feathers darker 
than others, and many of them with pale edges ; pure white 
below ; the tail barred throughout. This plumage has apparently 
not been observed in Himalayan birds; but I described one 
obtained by Mr. Mandelli some years since, with the upper parts 
brownish and the lower buff, a little ferruginous only on the 
thigh-coverts and lower tail-coverts. In young birds the ear- 
coverts are rufous-brown with black streaks. 

Bill black, plumbeous at base ; cere and feet yellow ; irides dark 
brown (Legge). The crest is about 2*5 long, not pointed. 

Length of male about 21 ; tail 8-25 ; wing 14 ; tarsus 2'8 ; bill 
from gape 1*4 : length of female about 24 ; tail 9'5 ; wing 16 ; 
tarsus 3 ; bill from gape 1*5. Himalayan birds appear larger than 
Malayan. 

Distribution. A rare bird. The recorded localities are Eastern 
Himalayas, Assam ranges, Cachar, Manipur, Singhbhoom, Travan- 
core, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, and some of the Malay Islands. 
JSTo specimen is known to have been obtained as yet in Burma. 

Habits, fyc. According to the very few recorded observations, 
especially those of Hume and Hartert, this is a bold courageous 
bird, with a flight and mode of attack somewhat resembling a 
falcon's, and much exceeding in power and dash the movements 
of the Spizaeti. It lives in forests. Nidification unknown. 



Genus ICTINAETUS, Jerdon (1843). 

Bill rather small, the edge of the upper mandible almost or 
quite straight ; nostrils oval, nearly round, oblique ; wing long, 
5th quill longest, the feathers broad ; tail long, slightly rounded ; 
tarsus feathered. The foot is very remarkable : the toes are short, 
the inner toe thicker than the middle toe and nearly as long; 
outer toe very short ; all the claws much less curved than in other 
Eagles, and the inner claw longest, longer even than the hind 
claw. Plumage in adults black throughout. 



ICTINAETUS. 347 

The generic name Neopus, used generally for this Eagle, was 
published in 1844 (Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 81), whilst Jerdon's name 
Ictinaetus dates from a year earlier, having been published by 
Blyth (J. A. S. B. xii, p. 128) in a note to the paper in which 
Hodgson gave the name Heteropus, which had to be discarded on 
account of previous use (Ibis, 1894, p. 289). 

A single species. 

1210. Ictinaetus malayensis. The Black Eagle. 

Falco malayensis, Reinw., Temm. PI. Col. pi. 117 (1824). 

Aquila pernigra, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. v, p. 227 (1836). 

Heteropus perniger, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. xii, p. 127. 

Ictinaetus ovivorus, Jerdon, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 128 (1843). 

Nisaetus ovivorus, Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. xiii, p. 157 (1844). 

Ictinaetus malaiensis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 7; id. Cat. p. 28; 

Irby, Ibis, 1861, p. 221. 
Neopus malayensis, Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 381 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 65 ; 

Beavan, P. Z. S. 1868, p. 396, pi. 34 ; Hume, Rough Notes, p. 187 ; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. i, p. 257 ; Fairbank, S. F. iv, p. 253 ; Hume 

Sf Bourd. ibid. p. 355 ; Gurney, Ibis, 1877, p. 423 ; Hume 8f Dav. 

S. F. vi, p. 11 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 198 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 47 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 32 ; Butler, S. F. ix, p. 372 ; Davison, S. F. x, 

j). 335; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 190; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. 

iii, p. 145 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 9 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 31. 
Neopus malaccensis, C. H. T. Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 407. 

Laknongbong, Lepcha ; Hiigong, Bhotia ; Adam nalla gedda, Tel. 




Fig. 87. Left foot of /. malayensis, 

Coloration. Adult. Brownish black or black almost throughout ; 
lores whitish ; tail-feathers, except near the tips, and inner webs 
of quills towards the base, with mottled bars of grey above and of 
white below ; lower parts sometimes browner. 

Young birds are browner, and some have the head more or less 
buff or pale tawny, especially on the sides ; the feathers of the 
crown, hind-neck, and sides of neck, in some, with tawny terminal 
spots; and the feathers of the lower parts with long drops or 
broad median stripes of pale ochreous brown ; in one specimen 
they are ochreous with black shaft-stripes and edges. These 



348 FALCOKEDjE. 

specimens, however, appear strangely rare : out of 20 Himalayan 
specimens in the British Museum only one has a spotted head and 
none are striated beneath, though one from the Nilgiris shows both 
markings. Probably the young are often similar to adults, or else 
the immature plumage is quickly lost. 

Bill greenish horny, black at the tip ; cere, gape, and feet deep 
yellow ; irides dark brown (Jerdon). 

Length of a male 27 ; tail 13 ; wing 21-5 : of a female length 
31 ; tail 14 ; wing 24 tarsus 3*5 ; bill from gape 2. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas as far west as Chamba, 
and along the "Western Ghats as far as Cape Comorin ; also in 
Ceylon ; very rare in the peninsula away from the Sahyadri, 
though Jerdon says he saw this species in the Eastern Ghats and 
in Central India (? Bastar), and Ball thought he saw it in Chutia 
Nagpur. It is found in the ranges south of Assam, and is very rare 
in Burma, but is not met with in the Malay Peninsula and islands. 

Habits, fyc. The Black Eagle is usually seen on the wing, soaring 
over forests with a steady graceful flight, which both Jerdon and 
Hume compare to that of a Harrier. It lives largely on the 
young and eggs of birds, and was observed by Mr. Bourdillon to 
carry off nests and examine their contents. It also occasionally 
feeds on reptiles. The eggs were obtained by Hume from Kulu 
and Bashahr, and were said to have been taken early in January 
from nests on cliffs. They were greyish white, more or less 
speckled or blotched, and measured about 2-6 by 1-95. Three eggs 
were obtained in one nest. 



Genus SPIZAETUS, Vieillot, 1816. 

Bill short, high at the base ; culmen compressed, much curved, 
a prominent festoon to the margin of the upper mandible ; nostril 
rounded ; wings short and rounded, 5th quill longest, the primaries 
exceeding the secondaries by less than the length of the tarsus in 
the closed wing. Tail rather long, nearly square. Tarsus long, 
slender, feathered throughout ; toes large but not long, unequal, 
outer toe without claw longer than inner toe similarly measured ; 
claws strong, unequal, well curved, hind claw largest. A crest 
generally present. 

This is a forest genus found in America and Africa as well as 
throughout the Oriental region. The Oriental forms are distin- 
guished by some writers as Limnaetus, but they only differ from 
the African and American species in having slightly longer wings. 
Several Indian kinds have been described, of which I distinguish 
five. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Feathering of tarsus does not extend to divi- 
sion of toes. 

a'. A distinct crest, 4-6 long, always present. . . S. cirrhatus, p. 349. 
b'. No crest, or a rudimentary one & limnaetus, p. 351. 



SPIZAKTUS. 349 

b. Feathers extend on to basal portion of middle 

toe. 
c'. Large : wing 17-18'5. 

a". White bands on abdominal feathers in- 
terrupted at shafts S. nepalewis, p. 352. 

b" . White bands go completely across abdo- 
minal feathers S. kelaarti, p. 354. 

d'. Small : wing about 9*5 S. albiniger, p. 354. 



1211. Spizaetus cirrhatus. The Crested Hawk-Eagle. 

Falco cirrhatus, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i, p. 274 (1788). 

Falco ceylanensis, Gmel. t. c. p. 275 (1788). 

Falco cristatellus, Temm. PL Col pi. 282 (1824). 

Nisaetus cristatellus, Elliot, Madr. Jour. L. S. x, p. 234 ; Jerdon, III. 

Ind. Orn. text to pi. 1, p. 7. 
Spizaetus cristatellus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 306; Horsf. M. 

Cat. i, p. 33. 




Spizaetus cirrhatus, Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 242 ; Hume, Rough Notes, 
p. 206 ; id. S. F. iii, p. 446 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. i, p. 269 ; Fair- 
bank, S. F. iv, p. 253; Hume fy Bourd. ibid. p. 356; Oates in 
Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 147. 

Spizaetus sphynx, Hume, S. F. i, p. 321. 

Limnaetus cirrhatus, Gurney, Ibis, 1877, p. 429; Ball, S. F. vii, 
p. 198 ; Hume, Cat. no. 35 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 30 ; Butler, ibid. 
p. 373; Davidson, S. F. x, p. 288; Hume, ibid. p. 336; Barnes, 
Birds Bom. p. 33 ; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. iii. p. 214. 

Limnaetus ce3 f lonensis, Gurney, Ibis, 1877, p. 430 ; 1878, p. 85 ; 
Hume, S. F. vii, p. 511 ; id. Cat. no. 35 bis. 

Spizaetus ceylonensis, Legye, Birds Ceyl. p. 65, pi. ii ; Parker, S. F. 
ix, p. 476. 

Limnaetus sphynx, Hume, Cat. no. 34 quat. 

Shah Baz, II. ; Jutu Bhyri, Tel. ; Rajaliya, Cing. 




Fig. 88. Head of S. cirrhatus, J. 



Coloration. Adult. Feathers of head and neck above and at the 
sides blackish brown, with pale or rufous edges ; occipital crest 
4 to 6 inches long, black, and, except in very old birds, 



350 FALCONIDJE. 

white ; upper parts generally umber-brown, not uniform, some 
feathers having darker centres or shafts and paler border ; quills 
brown above, light grey or white below 7 , with blackish bars and 
tips, inner webs white towards the base ; tail brown above, light 
grey beneath, usually with 5 blackish cross-bars, more rarely 4, 
the first concealed by the coverts, the last broadest, followed by 
a whitish tip ; pale interspaces as a rule broader than dark bars, 
and last pale interspace much broader than the others ; chin and 
throat white, streaked with black, the black streaks generally 
forming three longitudinal stripes, one median and two lateral ; 
breast white with large spots, elongate, black, and generally fringed 
with rufous ; abdomen and lower tail-coverts umber- brown, thighs 
generally more rufous, and tarsus whitish, the feathers dark- 
shafted as a rule throughout, especially on the legs ; smaller under 
wing-coverts dull rufous, brow*n-shafted; greater lower wing-coverts 
white with brown cross-bands ; axillaries greyish brown with dark 
shafts. 

Young birds have the head and neck rufous-buff to buffy white, 
generally but not always with dark centres or shaft-stripes to the 
feathers, which in some very young birds have white tips ; feathers 
of upper plumage brown, generally pale-edged; quills and tail 
with more dark bands than in adults, there being 7 on the tail 
including the subterminal one ; lower parts white or buff or pale 
rufous, generally with a few rufous-brown spots, darker at the 
shafts ; as a rule the flanks, lower abdomen, thigh-coverts, lower 
tail-coverts, and tarsal feathers are banded with pale rufous and 
white ; traces of this banding are often found in older birds. 

Bill dark plumbeous, black at the tip ; cere dark leaden in adult, 
yellow in young birds ; irides leaden grey, pale straw-colour, or 
golden yellow ; feet yellow. The feathers of the tarsus do not 
extend quite to the base of the toes. 

Length of a male about 26 inches ; tail 11 ; wing 16 : of a 
female length 29 ; tail 12 ; wing 17 ; tarsus 4 ; bill from gape 1'8. 
Ceylonese and some South Indian birds are considerably smaller 
and measure : tail 9 to 1O5, wing 13-5 to 15-2. They have been 
distinguished as Spizaetus ceylonensis, and form a well-marked race, 
but differing only, like so many animals from the e'xtreme south 
of India and Ceylon, in size, and therefore I think not to be 
separated as a distinct species. S. sphynoc of Hume, from Travan- 
core, is an old bird of this Southern variety with, as often happens 
in old birds, no white on the crest. 

Distribution. The Peninsula of India and Ceylon in well-wooded 
tracts. Only an occasional straggler is found on the great Indo- 
Gangetic plain of Northern India, as in the case of a specimen 
obtained by Hume at Etawah ; as a rule the northern limit of this 
bird from Mount Abu to Midnapore in Bengal is the edge of the 
hilly country. 

Habits, 6fc. Very similar to those of other Indian Spizaeti. This 
is a forest bird, usually seen on trees, often, as Jerdon says, " on 
the top of a high tree, where it watches for hares, partridges, 



SPIZAETUS. 361 

young pea-fowl, jungle-fowl, &c., on which it pounces." It also 
feeds on squirrels, lizards, &c. It but rarely soars, and is more 
often seen flying through the trees than hovering above them. It 
has a peculiar prolonged note, like other species of the genus. 
The habits of the Ceylon race in captivity have been well described 
by Legge. The nest, placed on a high tree, is a huge structure 
of sticks, and is lined with green leaves, on which a single egg is 
laid at some time from December to April. The egg is dull 
greenish white, unspotted, or faintly streaked at the larger end 
with reddish brown, and measures on an average 2*67 by 2*03. 

1212. Spizaetus limnaetus. The Changeable Hawk-Eagle. 

Falco limnseetus, Horsfeld, Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 138 (1821) : Temm. 

PL Col. pi. 134. 

Falco caligatus, Raffles, Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 278 (1822). 
Falco niveus, Temm. PL Col. pi. 127 (1823). 
Limnaetus horsfieldi, Vigors, Mem. Raffi. p. 649 (1830) ; Gurney, 

Ibis, 1877, p. 428 ; Hume, S. F. vi, p. 11, note ; id. Cat. no. 34 A ; 

Cripps, S. F. vii, p. 246. 

Nisaetus pallidus, Hodf/s. J.A.S. B. vi, p. 361 (1837), descr. nulla. 
Spizaetus limnaetus, Blyth, Cat. p. 24 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 32 ; 

Sharps, Cat. B. M. i, p. 272 ; Blyth, f Wald. Birds Burm. p. 63 ; 

Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 11 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 192 ; id. in Hume's 

N. 8f E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 149. 
Spizaetus caligatus, Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 33 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1866, 

p. 241 ; Hume, Rough Notes, p. 198 ; Hume 8f Oates, S. F. iii, 

p. 26 ; Armstrong, S. F. iv, p. 297 ; Hume $ Inglis, S. F. v, p. 9. 
Falco limnaetus, Bernstein, J.f. Orn. 1860, p. 419. 
Limnaetus niveus, Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 70 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. 

xxxix, pt. 2, p. 93. 
Spizaetus andamanensis, Tytler, P. A. S. B. 1865, p. 112 ; Beavan, 

Ibis, 1867, p. 315 ; Hume, Rough Notes, p. 203 ; Ball, S. F. i, 

p. 52 ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 142 ; iv, p. 280. 
Limnaetus caligatus, Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, p. 246 ; Gurney, Ibis, 1877, 

p. 425 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 198; id. Cat. no. 34 j Bingham, S. F. 

ix, p. 143 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 10. 
Limnaetus andamanensis, Walden, Ibis, 1874, p. 127 ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 34 bis. 
Sadal, H., Bengal ; Morhaita, Garhwal. 

Coloration. Very similar to that of S. cirrhatus, from which the 
present bird differs in having no crest or only a rudimentary one ; 
the plumage is generally paler, the lower parts in young birds 
much more commonly pure white, and the head white with brown 
shaft-stripes ; whilst even in the oldest birds some traces of white 
bars remain on the brown feathers of the thighs, vent, and lower 
tail-coverts ; and the gular and moustachial stripes and the dark 
spots on the breast are better defined. Soft parts and measure- 
ments as in S. cirrhatus., and the feathers of the tarsus, as in that 
species, terminate at or above the division of the toes, and do not 
cover the base of the middle toe as in S. nepalemis. 

Besides the ordinary form, there is a dark or melanistic variety, 
the original Falco limnaetus (or Limnaetus horsfieldi}. This is 



352 FALCONJDJE. 

blackish brown throughout, the basal half of the inner webs of the 
quills and the lower surface of the rectrices near their base being 
grey. Some specimens are chocolate-brown, not blackish, and in 
these the three black gular stripes one median, and one at each 
side can be recognized. The bill and cere are black. This dark 
form, at first supposed to be distinct, has for many years by most 
writers been regarded as identical with the ordinary variety 
(S. caligatus v. niveus], and has been by several naturalists described 
as the old bird. But in several cases blackish nestlings, the pro- 
duce of dark-coloured parents, have been observed, in Java by 
Schlegel and Bernstein, and in Bengal by Cripps ; and whilst it is 
certain that the dark coloration is not due to age, the question 
has again arisen whether this dark S. limnaetus is not a distinct 
species. Both Gurney and Hume are doubtful as to whether the 
two phases belong to the same species ; but until further evidence 
is forthcoming I prefer to keep the two together, as in Buzzards 
a similar melanistic phase is common. Whitehead, in Labuan, 
shot from the nest a female in ordinary plumage, paired with a 
black male (Ibis, 1889, p. 71). 

A small insular form (S. andamanensis, Tytler) occurs in the 
Andaman Islands, precisely resembling ordinary S. limnaetus in 
everything except size (length in a female 25*5 ; tail 1O25 ; wing 
14-25 ; tarsus 3-6). 

Distribution. Throughout the sub-Himalayan forests as far west 
as Kumaun and probably to Kashmir; throughout Lower and 
Eastern Bengal, Assam, and the Burmese countries, the Malay 
Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, Java, and Flores. The dark variety 
has been found in Lower Bengal, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, 
Borneo, and Java. The supposed occurrence of S. limnaetus in 
the Indian Peninsula is doubtless due to specimens of S. cirrhatus 
in moult having been mistaken for it. 

Habits, tyc. Precisely similar to those of S. cirrhatus, except 
that the breeding-season is from February to June, chiefly in 
April and May. 

1213. Spizaetus nepalensis. Hodgson's Hawk-Eagle. 

Nisaetus nipalensis, Hodgson, J. A. S. B. v, p. 229, pi. 7 (1836) . 
Nisaetus nipalensis & pulcher, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. vi, p. 361 (1837). 
Spizaetus pulcher, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 305 ; xiv, p. 175. 
Spizaetus nipalensis, Blyth, Cat. p. 24 ; Horsf. 8c M. Cat. i, p. 381 ; 

Hume, Rough Notes, p. 210 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. i, p. 267 ; Hume, 

S. F. ii\, p. 446 ; v, p. 125 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, 

p. 145. 
Limnaetus nipalensis, Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 73 ; id. Ibis, 1871, p. 246 ; 

Gurney, Ibis, 1877, p. 431 ; Hume, Cat. no. 36 ; Davison, S. F. 

x, p. 336. 

The Spotted Hawk-Eagle, Jerdon ; Kanda-panthiong, Lepcha. 

Coloration. Adult. Above dark brown, the scapulars and some 
other feathers with a coppery gloss ; crown and crest-feathers 
black, the latter 3 to 4 inches long and tipped white ; sides of head 



spizAfirus. 353 

also black, especially the broad cheek-stripes ; ear-coverts streaked 
with brown; feathers of hind-neck dark brown with very pale 
edges ; median and larger wing-coverts lighter brown than small 
coverts ; quills brown above, pale grey below, with distant dark 
bars ; inner webs mottled with white near the base ; traces of 
dark bars are found on the scapulars and of white on the larger 
and median coverts ; rump and upper tail-coverts barred brown 
and white. Tail-feathers alternately barred black and brownish 
grey above, pale grey beneath, the black bands the broader and 
usually 5 in number, one being concealed by the coverts, extreme 
narrow tips whitish ; chin and throat white, with a broad black 
band down the middle, and bordered by black on each side ; fore- 
neck light brown with large black drops ; rest of lower plumage 
brown, generally chocolate-brown not very dark, with white spots 
or imperfect bars interrupted at the shaft on each feather. 

Young birds have the head and neck above and at the sides 
buff or whitish, with larger or smaller brown centres to the 
feathers, white tips on the mantle and quills ; tail with 6 or 7 dark 
bars ; lower parts white or rufous-buff, sometimes with a few 
blackish-brown spots, chiefly on the breast. The crest is often 
small or wanting. In a further stage the buff and whitish edges 
to the upper plumage diminish, and there are large black-brown 
drops on the lower parts ; the thigh-coverts and vent sometimes 
pale rufous, sometimes brown, and more or less barred with white. 
Occasionally the tail is without bars. There is a gradual passage 
to the adult plumage. 

The feathering of the tarsus extends to part of the basal 
phalanx of the middle toe. Bill black ; cere hoary black ; irides 
yellow ; feet dirty yellowish white (Hume}. 

Length of a male 27'5 ; tail 12-5 ; wing 17 ; tarsus 4'2 : of a 
female length 29 ; tail 13-5; wing 18-5 ; bill from gape 1-9. 

Distribution. The Himalayas, from Kashmir to Bhutan. This 
bird visits the plains of Northern India in the cold season, and has 
been found as far south as Seoni and Pachmarhi, but reports of its 
occurrence in Southern India and Ceylon probably all refer to the 
next species. Blyth described a specimen (as S. pulcher) received 
from the Khasi hills ; but this species has not since been observed 
in the hills south of Assam, nor in Burma. It occurs, however, 
in China and Japan. 

Habits, fyc. A forest Eagle, feeding on pheasants and other game- 
birds, and on hares and other small mammals. It breeds in India 
only, so far as is known, in the Himalayas, from January to early in 
May. The nest, a coarse structure of sticks, is placed in a large 
tree in dense forest or growing from a cliff ; and the eggs, two in 
number, are greenish white, sparingly spotted and streaked with 
reddish brown and pale purple, and measuring about 2*7 by 2-2. 



VOL. m. 2 A 



1354 FALCONIDjE. 

1214. Spizaetus kelaarti. Legye's HawTc-Eagle. 

Spizaetus nipalensis, apud Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) xii, p. 98 ; Blyth, 

Ibis, 1866, p. 242, pt. ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 33. 
Spizaetus kelaarti, Legge, Ibis, 1878, p. 202 ; id. Birds Ceyl. p. 51, 

pi. 1. 
Limnaetus kelaarti, Hume, S. F. vii, p. 511 ; id. Cat. no. 36 bis. 

This species is very closely allied to S. nepalensis, but adults are 
distinguished by being less dark, the feathers of the head having 
pale edges, by the malar and gular black stripes being much less 
developed, by the lower parts from the breast being paler brown, 
and especially by the white cross-bars on the feathers of the 
breast and abdomen extending right across the feathers and 
including the shafts. The feathering of the tarsus extends to the 
base of the middle toe. The feet are said by Legge to be more 
robust and the claws larger, the hind claw measuring in a straight 
line from base to point 2*1, whilst in S. nepalensis it never exceeds 
1-9. 

Young plumage imperfectly known : an immature male is brown 
above, the feathers with white edges, crown-feathers with broad 
buff margins; chin white unstriped, throat and fore-neck white 
with a few brown drops ; breast and abdomen light brown with 
white cross-bars. 

Length of female 31 ; tail 12'5 ; wing 19 ; tarsus 4*5 ; bill 
from gape 2. 

Distribution. Mountains of Ceylon and Southern India. I find 
in the British Museum two skins, collected by Mr. Bourdillon at 
Mynall in Travancore, that agree perfectly with Legge's descrip- 
tion, except that the claws are not larger than in Himalayan birds, 
and Hume has already suggested (S. F. x, p. 336) that a skin from 
the Nilgiris may also have belonged to S. Kelaarti. 

Habits, $c. Similar to those of S. nepalensis. Nidification 
unknown. 

1215. Spizaetus albiniger. Blyttis Hawk-Eagle. 

Nisaetus alboniger, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 178 (1845). 
Spizaetus alboniger, Blyth, Cat. p. 26; id. J. A. S. B. xix, p. 335; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. i, p. 271 ; Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 63 ; Hume 

$ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 12 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 191. 
Limnaetus alboniger, Hume, Cat. no. 34 ter. 

Coloration. Adult. Above black, growing browner on the lower 
back and wings, black crest 2 to 2-75 inches long ; quills brown 
above, whitish below, with a few distant blackish bars and broad 
black tips, inner webs paler towards the base ; tail blackish brown 
above, with one very broad pale band about 2 inches from the end, 
and the tip pale ; chin and throat white, with black stripes forming 
a median gular band ; breast white, with very large black spots ; 
abdomen, flanks, and rest of lower parts banded black and white, 
the bands narrower on the legs. 

At an earlier age, the sides of the head and the neck all round 



CIBCAETUS. 355 

are rufous-brown, black-shafted, the breast rufous with smaller 
black spots; the abdomen banded rufous-brown and white; the 
tail with 4 blackish cross-bars, the basal one concealed by the 
coverts, the last subterminal. 

In young birds the upper parts are pale brown ; the head and 
neck pale fawn-coloured, all feathers with whitish edges ; the crest 
alone black, tipped with white ; quills as in adults ; tail with 4 
blackish cross-bands, but narrower than in adults and less defined; 
lower parts buff. 

Bill dull black, base plumbeous; irides yellow; feet yellow 
(Davisori). The feathers of the tarsus come down to the basal 
portion of the toes, farthest on the middle toe as in S. nepalensis. 

Length of a male 21-8 ; tail 9-5 ; wing 12*5 ; tarsus 3 ; bill 
from gape 1'4. 

Distribution. Malay Peninsula, ranging into the extreme south 
of Tenasserini and to Borneo. Nothing particular is known of the 
habits. 

Genus CIRCAETUS, VieiUot, 1816. 

Head large; bill moderate, much hooked, culmen rounded; 
nostril oval, oblique, overhung by bristles from the lores ; wings 
long, 3rd or 4th quill longest ; primaries much exceeding second- 
aries ; tail rather long ; tarsi naked, except near their upper 
extremities, clad with small rounded or subhexagonal imbricate 
scales all round. Toes short ; mid-toe without its claw about 
half the length of the tarsus, inner and outer toes without claws 
subequal; claws short, not much curved, subequal. 

This genus comprises five species, four exclusively African and 
one ranging to Europe and Asia and occurring in India. 

1216. Circaetns gallicus. The Short-toed Eagle. 

Falco gallicus, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i, p. 259 (1788). 

Circaetus gallicus, Blyih, Cat. i, p. 19 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 51 ; Jerdon, 
B. I. i, p. 76 ; Hume, Rough Notes, p. 217 ; id. N. $ E. p. 39 ; 
McMaster, J. A. S. B. xl, pt. 2, p. 207; A. Anderson, P. Z. S. 
1872, p. 77; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. i, p. 280; Dresser, Birds Eur. 
v, p. 563, pis. 349, 350; Butler, S. F. iii, p. 446; v, p. 217; ix, 
p. 373 ; Fairbank, S. F. iv. p. 253 ; Gurney, Ibis, 1878, p. 146 ; 
Davidson # Wenden, S. F. vii, p. 74 ; Ball, ibid. p. 199 ; Doig, 
ibid. p. 503; Hume, Cat. no. 38; Reid, S. F. x, p. 8 ; Davidson, 
ibid. p. 288; Taylor, ibid. p. 455; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 86; 
Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 150. 

The Common Serpent Eayle, Jerdon ; Sampmar, H. ; Sapmaril, Beng. ; 
Malpatar, Can. ; Pamula gedda, Tel. ; Pambu prandu, Tarn. ; Rawal, 
Wagri ; Kondatele, Yerkli. 

Coloration. Adult. Forehead, lores, cheeks, and chin whitish, 
with black bristles ; eyelids covered with white down ; ear-coverts 
brown with fine black lines ; upper parts generally brown ; shafts 
on head, back, and wing-coverts blackish; longer scapulars, 
primary and some secondary quills blackish brown outside, the 

2A2 



356 



quills white inside except at the tip and the primaries for some 
distance up each border ; all quills except first primaries with dark 
cross-bands ; tail brown above, white-tipped, whitish below, with 
dark cross-bands, generally 4 in number, the first concealed by the 
coverts ; the inner webs of all rectrices except the middle pair 




Pig. 89. Left foot of C. 



partly white ; chin, throat, and upper breast brown like the back r 
with dark shafts, some white at the base of the feathers generally 
showing ; lower breast, abdomen, and lower tail-coverts white, with 
a few brown subdistant spots or bars ; lower wing-coverts and 
axillaries barred brown and white. 

In young birds the upper parts are paler; the head whitish 
with dark shafts, and the white bases of the feathers conspicuous ;. 
lower parts white, with brown shaft-streaks on chin, throat, and 
upper breast, and a few scattered spots of light brown or rufous on 
the lower breast and abdomen. Birds of the second year have 
the upper parts like adults, broad brown stripes on the throat 
and breast, and more numerous brown spots than the nestlings on 
the abdomen. 

Bill pale greyish blue, tip blackish ; cere whitish ; irides bright 
orange-yellow ; legs and feet pale earthy greyish brown (Hume). 

Length of a male 26 ; tail 1 1'5 ; wing 21 : of a female length 
28 ; tail 13 ; wing 22 ; tarsus 375 ; bill from gape 2-3. 

Distribution. Central and Southern Europe, Northern Africa, 
Central and South-western Asia, extending east to Northern 



SPILOBNIS. 357 

.China, and all over India in suitable tracts from the base of the 
Himalayas and from Sind to Lower Bengal, but not in Ceylon 
nor the countries east of the Bay of Bengal. A resident species. 

Habits, $c. The Short -toed Eagle is chiefly found in open 
country and cultivated ground, and is sometimes seen perched on 
a tree, but more frequently circling in the air or beating over the 
ground and bushes like a Harrier. Both Jerdon and Hume notice 
its habit of hovering like a Kestrel, and dropping softly on its 
prey, not with a rush. It feeds chiefly on snakes, lizards, and 
frogs, but will eat rats, crabs, or large insects. It breeds on trees 
(very rarely on cliffs), and lays a single egg between January and 
May, in a loosely constructed nest of sticks, sometimes lined with 
grass or green leaves. The egg is a broad oval, bluish white, 
'without spots, and measures about 2*9 by 2*3. 

Genus SPILORNIS, G. E. Gray, 1840. 

This genus is distinguished from Circaetu* by having a broad 
nuchal crest covering the whole nape, and by peculiar coloration, 
brown above and below in adults, with numerous rounded white 
spots or ocelli on the lower parts. The bill is rather elongate 
and well hooked at the end, the festoon on the edge of the upper 
mandible small or wanting; nostrils oval, oblique; lores nearly 
naked. The wings are short and rounded, the 4th or 5th quill 
longest ; tarsus, toes, and claws as in Circaetus. 

Spilornis ranges throughout the Oriental region and comprises 
6 or 7 species, of which three are found within our limits. 

Key to the Species. 

*#. Pale wing-bar near tips of quills broader than 

adjoining dark interspace. 
a'. Dark brown on back, with metallic gloss; 

wing 15-21 S. cheela, p. 367. 

b'. Earthy brown on back, little or no gloss; 

wing 11-12 S. minimus, p. 361. 

b. Last pale wing-bar narrower than dark inter- 
space in front of it S. efyini, p. 361. 

1217. Spilornis cheela. The Crested Serpent-Eagle. 

Falco cheela, Latham, Ind. Orn. i, p. 14 (1790). 

Hgematornis undulatus, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 170. 

Circseetus nipalensis, Hodgson, As. Res. xviii, pt. 2, pi. p. 17 (1833). 

Hzematornis cheela, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 180; id. Cat. p. 19; 



ume, iwuqn notes, p. z.^ ; u-wu-/.-^x-i*t,. /. -n.. ^. .**. A^AIA. 
pt. 2, p. 93 i A. Anderson, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 77 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 

c\an . in. .11. S. Jir^M J) ti.fi a /.',,,, T ftfi ffum/> fr Oat PA. 



. Birds Burm. p. 60 ; Hume $ Ofttes, 




358 



Ibis, 1884, p. 407 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 193 ; id. in Hume's N. #:.;#.- 

2nd ed. iii, p. 153 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 37 ; Salvadori, Ann. 

Mm. Civ. Gen. (2) iv, p. 571 j Littledale, Jour. Bom. N. If. Soc. i, 

p. 195. 

Spilornis undulatus, Gurney, Ibis, 1878, p. 90. 
Spilornis rutherfordi, Swinhoe, Ibis, 1870, p. 85; Blyth 8f Wald. 

Birds Burm. p. 60; Hume, 8. F. iii, p. 28 ; v, p. 10 ; Hume $ Dav. 

S. F. vi, p. 14 ; id. Cat. no. 39 ter ; Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 144 ; 

Oates, B. B. ii, p. 194 ; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 156 ; 

Crippsj S. F. xi, p. 11. 

South-Indian and Ceylonese Race. 

Falco albidus, Cuv. Temm. PL Col. pi. 19 (1824). 

Buteo melanotis, Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. xiii, p. 166 (1844). 

Hajmatornis spilogaster, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxi, p. 351 (1852);. 

Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) xii, p. 100. 
Spilornis spilogaster, Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 243 ; Blanford, J. A. S. B. 

xl, pt. 2, p. 270 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 512 ; id. Cat. 39 bis A ; Legge, 

Birds Ceylon, p. 61 ; Parker, Ibis, 1886, p. 182 ; Oates in Hume's 

N. # E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 157. 
Spilornis bacha, apud Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, p. 335 ; Holdsivorth, P. Z. S. 

1872, p. 412. 

Spilornis minor, Hume, N. $ E. p. 42 (1873). 
Spilornis melanotis, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. i, p. 289 ; Hume 8f Bourd. 

S. F. iv, p. 358 ; Fairbank, S. F. v, p. 392 ; Gurney, Ibis, 1878, 

p. 97 ; Davidson 8f Wenden, S. F. vii, p. 74; Ball, ibid. p. 199; 

Hume, ibid. p. 340; id. Cat. no. 39 bis; Tidal, S. F. ix, p. 32; 

Butler, ibid. p. 373 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 337 ; Oates in Hume's N. 

$ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 156 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 37. 

Andaman Race. 

Hsematornis cheela, Beavan, Ibis, 1867, p. 314; Ball, J. A. S. B r 

xxxix, pt. 2, p. 240. 

Spilornis bacha, apud Hume, Rough Notes, p. 230, pt. 
Spilornis davisoni, Hume, 8. F. i, p. 307 (1873) ; ii, pp. 147, 491 ; 

iv, p. 281; Gurney, Ibis, 1878, p. 98 ; Hume, Cat. no. 39quat. 
Spilornis rutherfordi, apud Walden, Ibis, 1873, p. 298. 

Furj baj, Dogra Chil, H. (Saharanpur) ; Tilai baj, Sabchur, B. ; Nalla 



pamula gedda, Tel ; Botta Genda, Gond ; Goom, Can. ; Murayala, Mahr. ; 
Rajaliya, Cing. ; Kadumbien, Tarn. (Ceylon) ; jDoun-zoon, Burmese. 

Coloration. Adult. Crown and nape with full crest black, basal 
half or more of the feathers white ; nape-feathers generally tipped 
with brown ; lores nearly naked, bearing a few black bristles only; 
ear-coverts blackish ashy ; upper parts dark brown with a rich 
purple or ruddy gloss; smaller wing-coverts blackish, generally 
with small white spots ; quills blackish, with three bars brown 
above, whitish below, that farthest from the base of the feathers is 
by far the broadest, and is 3 or 4 inches from the tips, the basal 
two are sometimes confluent ; upper tail-coverts tipped white, 
as are sometimes the back-feathers, scapulars, and secondary 
quills ; tail brown at the base, thence almost black, with one broad 
white or whity-brown bar, tip pale; lower parts brown, some- 
times dark umber, sometimes pale and tawny, sometimes rufous ; 



359 

chin and throat more or less tinged or streaked with black or ashy ; 
fore-neck and upper breast, as a rule, closely barred with pale 
brown ; lower breast and abdomen, flanks, under wing-coverts, 
and axillaries ornamented with ocelli that are white surrounded 
with dark brown, these spots passing into dark-edged cross-bars, 
more or less broken, on the vent, thigh-coverts, and lower tail- 
coverts. The variation in the coloration of the lower parts and 
in size is unusually great in this Eagle. 

In young birds the crown and nape-feathers are white, with 
black and brown tips ; the upper plumage of various shades of 
brown, the ends of the feathers generally darker, and the base 
white, many feathers with white tips ; lower parts, including the 
wing-lining, white with dark shafts or shaft-stripes on the breast ; 
the whitish bars on the wings and tail are more numerous than in 
adults, generally there are "2 well-marked pale bands on the tail 
beyond the coverts. 




Fig. 90. Head of S. cheela, f. 

As the bird grows older bars and ocelli appear on the lower 
parts. When nearly adult, there is still much white on the wing- 
lining, and remains of the second pale tail-bar may often be traced 
even in full-grown birds. In the intermediate stage the chin is 
very black, there are still dark shaft-stripes to the barred breast- 
feathers, and sometimes a few small white ocelli on the upper 
breast. 

Bill plumbeous, bluish black at tip and on culmen ; cere, skin of 
lores, and gape bright, or in some dingy lemon-yellow ; irides 
intense yellow ; legs and feet pale dingy yellow. 

Distribution. Throughout the Oriental region in suitable places, 
ascending the Himalayas to 4000 or 5000 feet. Very rare in the 
north-west of India, but I have seen this bird even in the Sind 
hills. There are several well-marked races so different in size and 
coloration as to have been generally kept distinct ; these are : 

(1) Typical S. cheela. This is the largest form length about 
29 inches ; tail 13 ; wing 20 ; tarsus 4 ; bill from gape 1/9 : male 
rather smaller than female in general, but there is no constant 
difference. The breast and fore-neck are closely and distinctly 
barred, sometimes the throat also, the chin and throat are often 
black, and in adults there is a single broad whitish band on the 
tail. This form is found in Northern India from Sind and Kashmir 



360 FALCONID^E. 

to Bengal, especially at the base of the Himalayas, and stragglers 
have been met with throughout the Peninsula, there being one 
from Mysore in the Hume collection. 

(2) The race found in Assam, Cachar, and Burma is by Hume, 
rightly, I think, identified with the Hainan S. rutherfordi. The 
breast is generally barred, though less distinctly than in typical 
S. cheela, and the barring becomes less distinct in many Southern 
specimens. The chin and throat are dark ashy grey. As a rule, 
there is a second pale tail-bar, less distinct than the posterior one, 
just beyond the coverts; wings 17 to 18 inches long in Assamese and 
North-Burmese birds, in Tenasserim specimens the whole length 
is 23 to 28, tail 9-5 to 11, wing 15-25 to 18, tarsus 3'5 to 3'62. 

(3) The Andaman race S. davisoni, specimens of which have 
also been obtained in the Mcobars. This is simply a miniature of 
.S. rutherfordi. Length 22 to 24, tail 10, wing 15, tarsus 3'7, bill 
from gape 1*7. Some Tenasserim specimens seem undistinguishable. 

Further south, in the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, and 
Borneo, is another small form, S. pallidus, Walden (Ibis, 1872, 
p. 363 ; Cat. B. M. i. p. 290, pi. ix), without any bars on the 
breast ; wing about 14. 

(4) The common form throughout the Indian Peninsula differs 
from typical S. cheela in wanting the barring on the breast, or 
only exhibiting the merest trace of it, in rarely having any black 
on the chin, and in often having two bands on the tail, the upper 
band being more or less indistinct. To the northward this race 
is but little smaller than S. cheela, and has a wing of about 18, 
but to the southward and in Ceylon the wing varies from 14'5 
to 17. This form is S. melanotis; the Ceylon race has been 
distinguished as S. spilogaster. If we had only this race and 
typical S. cheela to consider they might well be separated, but 
some small South-Indian and Ceylonese birds are, as Grurney has 
shown, not distinguishable from specimens from the Malay 
Peninsula and Sumatra, and these pass gradually into the large 
northern S. cheela through S. rutherfordi. This case is therefore 
similar to that of Caprimulgus macrurus (p. 189). Probably 
Spilornis cheela offers the most remarkable instance in Indian 
birds of the diminution of size to the southward. 

Habits, fyc. This Eagle is usually found on trees near water, 
especially the fine trees along irrigation-channels and canals in 
Upper India, and along stream-beds in the lower Himalayas and 
in the Central Provinces and Southern India. It may also be 
seen soaring and may be at once recognized by the strongly 
marked bars on its wings and tail, and by its loud plaintive cry, 
which it frequently utters on the wing. It feeds on snakes, 
lizards, and frogs, occasionally on small mammals, on birds, and 
on insects. It breeds on trees in March, April, and May, making 
a nest of sticks about 2 feet in diameter, lined with a pad of green 
leaves. It lays usually one egg, sometimes two, more or less 
densely streaked and spotted with brownish red and purple, and 
measuring about 2-78 by 2-2. 



SPILOENIS. 361 

1218. Spilornis minimus. The Little Nicobar Serpent-Eagle. 

Spilorais minimus, Hume, S. F. i, p. 464 ; ii, p. 149 ; iv, p. 282 ; id. 
Cat. no. 39 sept. ; Gurney, Ibis, 1878, p. 101. 

Coloration. Adult. Crown and nape black, the feathers white at 
the base and for more than half their length ; upper parts dull 
umber-brown, with little or no metallic gloss ; quills blackish at 
the end, then a broad bar pale brown below, brown above, next a 
blackish bar narrower than the pale one, then another pale band, 
inner webs above this mostly white ; tail blackish brown, with two 
paler brown bars ; ear-coverts and lower parts brown, but paler 
than back ; upper breast without bars ; lower breast, abdomen, 
and thigh-coverts with broad white spots, the borders of the spots 
scarcely darker than the spaces between ; inner wing-coverts 
chiefly white. 

Young very similar to that of S. clieela. 

Bill light blue, dark horny at tip ; cere, gape, orbital skin, and 
irides bright yellow ; legs and feet also yellow (Hume). 

Length about 19; tail 8; wing 11-5; tarsus 3; bill from 
gape 1*6. 

Distribution. The Nicobar Islands, whence several specimens 
were obtained by Mr. Hume. 



1219. Spilornis elgini. The Andaman Serpent-Eagle. 

Haematornis elgini, Tytler, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxxii, p. 87 (1863) ; id. 

Ibis, 1863, p. 118 ; Beavan, Ibis, 1867, p. 314. 
Spilornis bacha, apud Hume, Rough Notes, p. 230, pt. ; Ball, J.A.S. B. 

xli, pt. 2, p. 275 ; id. S. F. i, p. 52 ; nee Daudin. 
Spilornis elgini, Walden, Ibis, 1873, p. 299 ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 144 ; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. i, p. 291 ; Gurney, Ibis, 1878, p. 101 ; Hume, 

Cat. no. 39 sex. 

Coloration. Lores and space round eye naked, more so than in 
jS. cheela, only bearing a few scattered whitish hairs ; crown and 
nape black, the feathers more or less fringed with brown and 
their basal two-thirds white ; plumage above and below dark 
chocolate-brown, with a slight ruddy gloss above ; a few minute 
white specks of irregular form on the upper wing-coverts and 
upper tail-coverts, and frequently on the back and scapulars, and 
larger round white spots on the breast (in many cases extending 
to the upper breast), abdomen, under tail- and wing-coverts, 
flanks and axillaries ; no barring on the breast ; moustachial band 
and ear-coverts blackish ; quills blackish brown, with from 3 to 5 
narrow broken cross-bars, pale brown above, whitish below, some- 
times almost obsolete ; tail black, with two pale cross-bars, whity 
brown above, whitish below, the posterior the broader, but less 
than an inch wide. 

Young birds appear only to differ in being rather paler, with 
the feathers of the head, above and below, mostly white ; the 
crown and nape with brown subterminal bands, and the chin with 



362 FALCONIDjE. 

brown streaks. There are three pale cross-bands on the tail, that 
in front the narrowest. In a very large series now in the British 
Museum, not one has white underparts like the young of S. cheela. 

Bill pale horny, bluish horny, or fleshy, darker on the culmen ; 
cere, lores, and orbital region bright or lemon yellow ; irides bright 
yellow ; feet and legs yellow (Hume). 

Length about 22 ; tail 9-25 ; wing 14 ; tarsus 3-25 ; bill from 
gape 1-6. 

Distribution. The Andaman Islands ; there is also one specimen 
in the British Museum from the Nicobars. 



Genus BUTASTUR, Hodgson, 1843. 

This is a genus that was at one time placed amongst the 
Buzzards, but, despite some resemblance in habits, the differences 
in the characters of the tarsus and in the eggs show that the 
alliance is not real. In the two characters named, the members 
of the present genus, or Buzzard-Eagles, as they have been termed, 
come nearest to Circaetus, from which, however, they differ in size 
and plumage, shape of wing, and proportions of toes. 

In Butastur (Poliornis of Kaup) the size is small, scarcely ex- 
ceeding that of a Crow. The bill is compressed and the culmen 
curved from the base; the commissure generally has a festoon, 
sometimes a well-marked one ; the nostrils are oval and oblique. 
The wings are long, reaching nearly to the end of the tail, which 
is slightly rounded ; the 3rd quill is longest, the 4th nearly equal 
to it, the 2nd and 5th considerably shorter and not very different 
in length, the first four emarginate inside. Tarsus naked, without 
transverse shields, covered with imbricate scales that are rather 
larger in front ; toes short. There is no difference in size between 
the sexes. 

Tour species are known, one of which is African, the other three 
occur in India or Burma. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Tail more or less rufous, with narrow dark cross- 

bars or none. 

a'. Quills chiefly brown above J5. teesa, p. 362. 

V. Quills chiefly rufous above B. liventer, p. 364. 

b. Tail not tinged with rufous, and with broad dark 

cross-bands broader than the interspaces in 

adults B. indicus, p. 365. 

1220. Butastur teesa. The White-eyed Buzzard-Eagle. 

Circa teesa, Franklin, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 115. 
Astur hyder, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 79. 

Buteo teesa, J. E. Gray in Hardw. III. 2nd. Zool. ii, pi. 30 ; Jerdon, 
Madr. Jour. L. S. x, p. 76. 



BUTASTUE. 



363 



Butastur teesa, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. xii, p. 311 ; Sharpe, Cat B. M. i, 
p. 295 ; B lanf. Eastern Persia, ii, p. 113 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, 
p. 19 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 199 ; Doig, S. F. viii, p. 370 ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 48 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 33 ; Butler, ibid. p. 374 ; Reid, S. F. 
x, p. 10 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 195 ; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. 
"ii, p. 158; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 44; St. John, Ibis, 1889, 
). 153. 



in, 
P- 



Poliornis teesa, Kaup, Class. Sdugth. Vog. p. 122 (1844) ; Blyth, 
Cat. p. 21 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 40 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 92 ; Hume, 
Rough Notes, p. 286 ; A. Anderson, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 78 ; 1875, 
p. 25 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 159 ; iii, p. 31 ; Butler, S. F. iii, p. 447. 

The White-eyed Buzzard, Jerdon ; Tisa, II. ; Buda-mali gedda, Tel. ; 
Yellur, Yerkli. 



Coloration. Adult. 
rufous, the feathers 



Upper parts brown, often tinged with 
with dark shafts; a white nuchal patch 
formed by the bases of the feathers; 
narrow forehead and lores white ; median 
wing-coverts much mottled and some- 
times barred with white ; quills brown 
above, whitish beneath, pure white to- 
wards the base, generally with dark bars 
towards the tips ; the primaries with 
blackish ends ; upper tail-coverts usually 
more rufous than back; tail-feathers 
either rufous or brown, with a rufous 
tinge above, whity brown below, each 
with a subterminal blackish patch, and in 
most birds with narrow subch'stant black- 
ish bands, which apparently grow indis- 
tinct with age and disappear in old birds ; 
chin and throat white, with three dark 
brown stripes, one median, two others 
forming a border to the white on each 
side; sides of head and neck and breast 
brown; the breast-feathers dark-shafted, 
becoming spotted and banded with white 
on the lower breast and abdomen, and passing into white, more or 
less banded with pale rufous, on the lower abdomen, thigh-coverts, 
and lower tail-coverts. 

In the young the feathers of the crown and nape have rufous or 
buff edges, or the head is buff or white with dark shaft-stripes on 
the crown ; there is a broad buff or white supercilium ; the ear- 
coverts are partly or wholly brown; wing-coverts much mixed 
with white ; and the lower parts are white or buff, with dark shaft- 
stripes on the throat, breast, and upper abdomen. Gular stripes 
wanting or very narrow. The passage into the adult plumage is 
gradual, in one stage arrow-head markings replace the stripes on 
the lower plumage. 

Cere, gape, and base of lower mandible orange, terminal portion 
of both mandibles black ; irides pale yellowish white in adults, 
brown in young birds ; legs and feet dingy orange-yellow. 




Fig. 91. Left foot of 
B. teesa, |. 



364 

Length about 17 ; tail 7 ; wing 11 '5 ; tarsus 2-3 ; mid toe without 
claw 1-3 ; bill from gape 1/3. 

Distribution. Common throughout the greater part of India, in 
open plains and cultivated country, in low scrub and occasionally 
in high jungle, but not in hill-forest ; rare in Malabar and Lower 
Bengal and in Southern India generally, and wanting in Ceylon 
and in the Himalayas ; not rare in the desert regions of Western 
India and in Baluchistan ; to the eastward this species is found 
throughout Pegu and probably Northern Burma generally, extend- 
ing to Northern Tenasserim. 

Habits, $c. This is a bird with a quick flight, compared by 
Jerdon to that of the Kestrel. It may generally be seen seated 
on trees or bushes or the ground, and it feeds on small mammals 
and reptiles, frogs, crabs, and insects. It has a peculiar plaintive 
cry. The nest is of sticks, without lining, and placed in a thick 
tree, very often a mango : 3 eggs, or sometimes 4, are laid about 
April ; they are, as a rule, nearly white, but spotted eggs have 
occasionally been found. The eggs measure about 1*83 by 1*53. 

1221. Butastur liventer. The Rufous-iuinged Buzzard-Eagle. 

Falco liventer, Temm. PL Col. pi. 438 (1827). 

Poliornis liventer, Walden, Tr. Z. S. viii, p. 37 ; Hume, N. fy K 

p. 50 ; id. S. F. i, p. 319 ; iii, p. 31 ; Blyth fy Wald. Birds Burm. 

p. 61 ; Armstrong S. F. iv, p. 299. 
Butastur liventer, Sharps, Cat. B. M. i, p. 296 ; Oates, S. F. v, 

p. 142 ; vii, p. 40 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 21 ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 48 ter ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 196 ; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd 

ed. iii, p. 161. 

Coloration. Adult. Head and neck all round ashy brown ; chin 
and throat more or less white ; back and wing-coverts rufescent 
brown ; a variable amount of white or pale rufous mottling and 
barring on the wing-coverts ; rump and upper tail-coverts dull 
rufous-brown ; all the feathers of the upper surface dark-shafted ; 
quills bright rufous outside, the tips and the outer web towards 
the end brown, white inside, whity brown near the end, with 
narrow dark bars on the secondaries and the terminal portion of 
the primaries ; tail bright rufous above, whitish below, crossed by 
4 or 5 narrow dark bars, the last broader and subterminal ; these 
bars disappear with age ; lower parts greyish brown, the breast 
dark-shafted ; abdomen with spots and bars of white increasing 
posteriorly ; vent, lower tail-coverts, and wing-lining pure white. 
Axillaries light rufous-brown barred with white. 

Young birds are browner, without grey on the head, neck, or 
breast ; there is a whitish supercilium, and the white bases of the 
feathers show on the nape ; the crown is light brown or rufous 
with dark shaft-stripes ; indeed the shaft-stripes are conspicuous 
throughout the plumage ; the upper tail-coverts show sometimes 
pale bands ; the chin and throat are white, with dark median and 
lateral stripes ; and the brown of the breast is often barred with 
white or buff. 



BUTASTUR. ;>,;;, 

Bill and cere orange, the tips of both mandibles brown ; iris 
yellow ; legs yellow ; claws dark horny (Oates). 

Length 15-5; tail 5-75; wing 11; tarsus 2-4; bill from 
gape 1-35. 

Distribution. Probably throughout Burma ; common in Pegu, 
rare or wanting in Southern Tenasserim, found also in Siain 
Borneo, Java, and Celebes. 

Habits, fyc. Very similar to those of B. teesa, this species in- 
habiting open country and the banks of rivers, and feeding on 
snakes and crabs (freshwater). The nest has been described by 
Oates and Eeilden, who found it on trees in March ; both nest and 
eggs precisely like those of B. teesa. 

1222. Butastur indicus. The Grey -faced Buzzard-Eagle. 

Falco indicus, Gm. Syst. Nat. i, p. 264 (1788). 

Fcilco poliogenys, Temm. PL Col pi. 325 (1825). 

Buteo pygmaeus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 177 (1845) ; id. Cat. p. 29. 

Poliornis poliogenys, Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 245 { Hume, Rough Notes, 

p. 290. 
Butastur indicus, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. i, p. 297 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. 

vi, p. 19 ; Hume, Cat. no. 48 bis ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 197. 
Poliornis indicus, Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 61. 

Coloration. Above brown, dark-shafted; the head, neck, and 
back greyish; sides of forehead and lores white, with black 
bristles ; sides of head more ashy, the white bases of the feathers 
showing slightly on the nape ; wing-coverts and outer webs of 
secondaries tinged and mottled with rufous to a varying extent ; 
quills brown above, the inner webs rufous-brown, whitish below, 
white towards the base, subdistantly barred with dark brown; 
tips of primaries blackish; upper tail-feathers tipped and barred 
white ; tail brown above, whity brown below, with usually 4 
(rarely 3 or 5) distinct broad blackish cross-bars, nearly or quite 
as broad as the interspaces, the first bar partly concealed by the 
tail-coverts, the last not quite at the tip ; the bars are indistinct 
or wanting on the outer pair of tail-feathers ; throat white, with 
three dark stripes, one median, two lateral, sometimes indistinct ; 
breast and abdomen rufescent ashy brown, a few white spots on 
the upper breast, which become irregular bars on the lower breast 
and abdomen, the brown bars growing narrower on the lower 
abdomen and thigh-coverts ; under tail-coverts white. 

In the young the feathers of the crown and nape have rufous 
edges and conspicuous white bases, there is no grey on the head 
or back, and the lower parts are buffy white with rufous-brown 
longitudinal streaks ; the dark marks on the tail are much nar- 
rower than the spaces between and often indistinct. 

End of both mandibles black ; base of bill, cere, and gape orange- 
yellow ; irides bright yellow ; legs and feet the same. 

Length about 17; tail 7'5; wing 13; tarsus 2-1; bill from 
gape 1*3. 

Distribution. Eastern Asia from Japan and China to the 



366 FALCONIDjE. 

Malayan Peninsula and islands as far as the Philippines, Celebes, 
and New Guinea. In Tenasserim this bird has been found, 
though not common, as far north as Amherst. Very little is 
known of the habits, which apparently are similar to those of 
other species of Butastur. 



Genus HALIAETUS, Savigny, 1810. 

Bill stout ; culmen straight at the base, then greatly curved ; 
festoon generally well marked but variable. Nostrils rounded. 
Wings long ; 3rd quill generally longest, 4th and 5th but little 
shorter. Tail rounded or cuneate at the end. Tarsus stout, of 
moderate length, its upper third feathered in front, middle third 
or more scutate in front. Toes scutate above ; claws moderate in 
size, not very unequal, grooved beneath. 

This genus contains the Sea-Eagles proper, and is found on most 
tropical and temperate sea-coasts, except those of South America. 
Three species are Indian, and they differ somewhat in structure, 
so that each has been made the type of a distinct genus. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Wing less than 24 inches long. 

a'. A well-marked ruff of lanceolate feathers ; 

tail slightly rounded ; a white band across 

middle of tail in adults H. leucoryphus, p. 366. 

b\ No distinct ruff; outer tail -feathers at least 

1 inch shorter than middle pair ; head, 

lower parts, and end of tail white in adults. H. leucogaster, p. 368. 

b. Wing 24-26 inches ; tail wedge-shaped, white 

in adults H. albicilla, p. 369. 

1223. Haliaetus leucoryphus. Pallas' s Fishing-Eagle. 

Aquila leucorypha, Pall. Reis. Russ. Reichs, i, p. 454 (1771). 
Halisetus fulviventer, Vieill Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxviii, p. 283 

(1819). 

Falco macei, Temm. PL Col. pis. 8, 223 (1824). 
Haliaetus macei, Blyth, Cat. i, p. 30 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i,p. 55 ; Irby, 

Ibis, 1861, p. 222 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 45 ; id. S. F. i, p. 159 ; Adam. 

8. F. i, p. 368 ; Butler, S. F. iii, p. 447. 
Haliaetus unicolor, J. E. Gray in Hardw. III. Ind. Zool. i, pi. 19 (1830- 

32) ; Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, p. 336. 

Haliaeetus albipes, Hodgson, J. A. S. B. v, p. 228 (1836). 
Cuncuma albipes, Hodgson, J. A. S. B. vi, p. 367. 
Haliaetus fulviventer, Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 82 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. 

xxxix, pt. 2, p. 265. 
Haliaetus leucoryphus, Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 244; Hume, Rough Notes, 

p. 242 ; id. Cat. no. 42 : A. Anderson, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 77 ; Sharpe, 

Cat. B. M. i, p. 308 ; Gurney, Ibis, 1878, p. 454 ; Hume $ Dav. 

S. F. vi, p. 17 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 199 ; Cripps, ibid. p. 249 ; Scully, 

S F. viii, p. 224 ; Doig, ibid. p. 370 ; Reid, 8. F. x, p. 9 ; Oates, 

B. B. 11. p. 200 ; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd. ed. iii, p. 163 ; Barnes, 



HALIAETUS. 367 

Birds Bom. p. 40 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 12 ; Sharpe, Yarkand Miss., 
Aves, p. 8. 

The Ring-tailed Sea-Eagle, Jerdon ; Machurang, Machmanga, Dhenk, 
Patras, H. ; Koral, Machkoral, Bala, Beng. ; Kankam, Nepal ; Kokna, 
Ugus, Kol. 




Fig. 92. Head of H. leucoryphu*, . 

Coloration. Forehead whitish ; crown, nape, and hind-neck fulvous, 
passing on the upper back into the dark brown of the back, wings 
above and below, rump, base and end of tail ; the brown with a 
slight purplish gloss in fresh plumage ; sides of head and neck with 
the chin and throat whitish, rest of lower parts brown, darker on 
the lower abdomen and flanks ; a white band about 4 inches wide 
across the tail, about 3 inches from the end. 

Young almost uniformly brown above, quills and tail-feathers 
very dark brown ; ear-coverts dark ; lower parts paler and greyer 
than upper. 

Bill dark plumbeous, cere and gape light plumbeous ; irides 
greyish yellow; legs and feet dull white ; claws black (Oates). 

There is a distinct ruff of long lanceolate feathers around the 
neck, the outer tail-feathers are not much shorter than the middle 
pair, and the wings nearly or quite reach the end of the tail. 
Lower fourth of the tarsus not scutate in front. 

Length of a female about 33 ; tail 12 ; wing 23 ; tarsus 4-2 ; 
bill from gape 2-9. In males the wing is 1 to 2 inches 
shorter. 

This bird is the type of Cuncuma of Hodgson, a name wrongly 
applied by some writers to H. leucogaster. It is a question whether 
the present form is not entitled to generic distinction. 

Distribution. Probably throughout Southern and Central Asia 
as far west as the Persian Gulf, the Caspian and the Black Sea. 
Common in Northern India and in Burma, but wanting in Southern 
India and Ceylon. 

Habits, $c. This is a river and marsh haunter in India, and does 
not appear to have been observed on the coast in Northern India 
and Burma ; it is common about large rivers, tidal creeks, lakes, and 
the large marshes or jheels of the alluvial plains through which the 
Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, and other rivers flow. 
It kas a loud shrieking call-note, and it feeds principally on fish, 
but also on water-birds, snakes, frogs, &c. The breeding-season 
extends from November to February; the nest, a huge platform of 



368 

sticks, is placed in the fork of a tree ; and the eggs, usually 3 but 
sometimes 2 or 4 in number, are greyish white and unspotted, very 
dark green when looked through against a light, and about 2-77 long 
by 2-17 broad. 

1224. Haliaetus leucogaster. The White-bellied Sea-Eagle. 

Falco leucogaster, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i, p. 257 (1788). 
Falco blagrus, Daudin, Traite, ii, p. 70 (1800). 
Halieeetus blagrus, Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. x, p. 65. 
Ichthyaetus cultrunguis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi, p. 110 (1842). 
BlagTus leucogaster, Blyth, Cat. p. 30 ; id. Birds Burma, p. 64. 
Haliaetus leucogaster, Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 56 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 84 ; 

Ball, J. A. S. B. xli, pt.' 2, p. 276 ; id. S. F. i, p. 53 ; vii, p. 199 ; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. i, p. 307 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 17 ; Gurney, 

Ibis, 1878, p. 45.3 ; Hume, Cat. no. 43 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 32 ; Legge, 

Birds Ceyl. p. 67 ; Simson, Ibis, 1882, p. 90 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 199 ; 

id. in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 161 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 

p. 42. 
Cuncuma leucogaster, Hume, Rough Notes, p. 259; id. N. fy E. 

p. 48 ; id. S. F. ii, p. 149 ; iv, pp. 423, 461 ; Armstrong, S. F. iv, 

p. 298. 

The Grey-backed Sea-Eagle, Jerdon ; Kohassa, H. ; Samp-mar, in Orissa ; 
Ala, Tarn, and Tel.; Loko-rajaliya, Cing. ; Kadal-Ala, Tarn, in Ceylon. 

Coloration. Head and neck all round, lower parts, and terminal 
third of tail white, sometimes with narrow dark shafts on the neck 
and breast ; back and wings dark ashy tinged with brown, quills 
and basal two-thirds of tail blackish. 

The young are brown above, many of the feathers with fulvous 
edges, broadest and whitish on the head ; ear-coverts dark ; lower 
parts fulvous or rufous white, more or less mixed with brown, the 
upper breast all brown ; tail white or whitish, with the terminal 
portion brown but pale tipped. 

Bill dark leaden ; cere paler ; irides hazel-brown ; legs and feet 
whitish (Legge). There is no ruff around the neck; the wings 
extend to (or according to Jerdon beyond) the wedge-shaped 
extremity of the tail. Tarsus scutate in front almost to base of 
toes, and a patch of irregular broad scutes behind. 

Length of female about 28, tail 11, wing 22-5, tarsus 3*7, 
bill from gape 2*3 ; male smaller, wing 21. 

Distribution. Coasts of India, Ceylon, and Burma, from near 
Bombay to the Malay Peninsula, and throughout the Malay 
Archipelago to Australia, Tasmania, and "Western Polynesia. 
Reports of the occurrence of this species in Africa have not been 
confirmed. 

Habits, $c. This is the Sea-Eagle of the Indian Seas, very 
common on the coasts and especially on islands, rare inland, though 
it occasionally appears to stray up the rivers and has been found 
breeding at Dacca by Simson, whilst Ball records it from Chutia 
Nagpur. It lives chiefly on fish and sea-snakes, which it captures 
from the water, but it will also eat dead fish or crabs, and it not 



POLIOAETUS. 

unfrequently robs the Osprey of its prey. It has a loud clanging 
cry, chiefly uttered in the breeding-season from October to February. 
It lays two whitish eggs, deep green when held before a light, 
and measuring about 2-81 by 2-07, in the usual large nest of sticks, 
placed on a tree and lined with green leaves, the same nest being 
used for many years in succession. 

1225. Haliaetus albicilla. The White-tailed Sea-Eagle. 

Vultur albicilla (errore albiulla), Linn. St/st. Nat. p. 123 (1766). 

Haliaetus albicilla, Leach, Syst. Cat. Mamm. $c. B. M. (1816) p. 9 ; 
Hume, Ibis, 1870, p. 438 ; 1871, p. 404 : 8. F. i, p. 159 ; vii, p. 341 ; 
id. Cat. no. 42 bis ; Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, p. 336; Blyth, Ibis, 1872, 
p. 87 ; A. Anderson, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 78; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. i, 
p. 302 ; Murray, Vert. Zool. Sind, p. 83 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 40. 

Haliaetus pelagicus, Hume, Rough Notes, p. 253 ; nee Pallas. 

Haliaetus brooksi, Hume, Bough Notes, p. 255 (1870) ; id. Ibis, 1870,. 
p. 438. 

Coloration. Upper plumage brown ; the head, neck, and smaller 
coverts paler, sometimes almost whity brown, with narrow dark 
shaft-stripes ; quills blackish ; lower parts paler than upper, palest 
on the chin, throat, and fore-neck, many feathers with pale tips ; 
tail white except at the extreme base. 

The young are brown, sometimes very dark, sometimes pale ; the 
basal portion of all feathers fulvous or white, and usually exposed, 
on the lower parts especially ; tail-feathers white, more or less 
mottled and edged with brown. 

Cere and bill yellow in adults ; cere yellowish brown, bill black in 
young birds ; iris yellow (brown in the young) ; feet yellow. 
There is a slight ruff of lanceolate feathers, far less distinct than 
in H. leucoryplms, and the end of the tail is wedge-shaped, the 
middle feathers being considerably longer than the outer. 

Length of a female 34 inches ; tail 13 ; wing 26 ; tarsus 4*5 ; bill 
from gape 3. Males are rather less, wing 24-5. 

Distribution. All Europe and Northern Asia, also Greenland. 
In India this bird appears to be a cold-weather visitant to the 
Punjab, North-west Provinces, and Sind. 

Habits, <Sfc. Very similar to those of other fishing Eagles. In India 
this species has been observed to haunt large marshes. It feeds 
mainly on fish. 

Genus POLIOAETUS, Kaup, 1847. 

Bill shorter than in Haliaetus, culmen arched from the cere, fes- 
toon prominent, nostrils oval ; wings rounded, 4th and 5th quills 
longest ; tail moderate, slightly rounded. Tarsus feathered in front 
for one third of its length or rather more, the rest covered in 
front and behind with large rectangular scutse, the sides reticu- 
lated ; the toes with broad scales above and pointed scales beneath : 
the outer toe partially reversible, but not completely, as in the 
Osprey ; claws strong, much curved, rounded beneath. 

VOL. III. 2 B 



370 FALCONIDJS. 

This genus has been classed with the Ospreys, but it agrees with 
other Eagles in anatomy, and the feathers have an aftershaft. There 
are two species, both Indian. They are inland birds, and prefer 
rivers to the sea. 

Key to tlie Species. 

a. Basal three-fourths of all tail-feathers white 

in adults, mottled in younpr P. ichthyaetus, p. 370. 

b. Middle tail-feathers brown throughout P. humilis, p. 371. 

1226. Polioaetus ichthyaetus. The Large Grey-headed 
Fishing-Eagle. 

Falco ichthyeetus, Horsf. Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 136 (1821). 
Ichthyaetus horsfieldi, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi, p. 110 (1842). 
Pontoaetns ichthyaetus, Blyth, Cat. p. 30 ; Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) 

xii, p. 101. 

Pandion ichthyaetus, Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 52. 
Polioaetus ichthyaetus, Kaup in Jardine's Cont. Orn. 1850, p. 73 ; 

Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 81 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 243 ; 1872, p. 88 ; 

Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 265 ; Hume, Rough 

Notes, p. 239; Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, p. 336 ; Hume, N. *# E. p. 43; 

8. F. iil, p. 28 ; v, pp. 10, 129 : xi, p. 11 ; id. Cat. no. 41 ; Sharpe, 

Cat. B. M. p. 452 ; Legge, 8. F. iii, p. 362 ; id. Birds Ceyl. p. 72 ; 

Armstrong, S. F. iv, p. 298 ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 16 ; 

Ball, S. F. vii, p. 199 ; Cripps, 8. F. vii, p. 248 ; xi. p. 11, note ; 

Gurney, Ibis, 1878, p. 456 ; Bingham, S. F. viii, p. 191 ; ix, p. 144 ; 

Reid, S. F. x, p. 8 ; Gates, B. B. p. 221 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 39 ; 

Parker, Ibis, 1886, p. 183 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, 

p. 167. 

The White-tailed Sea-Eagle, Jerdon ; Madhuya, H. ; Machmoral t 
Beng. ; Rajaliya, Cing. 

Coloration. Head and neck all round ashy grey, with more or 
less distinct whitish shaft-stripes, crown of head and nape brownish ; 
back and wings, rump, upper tail-coverts, and terminal 2 to 3 
inches of tail dark brown, the upper back a little paler ; breast 
rather lighter brown than back, abdomen and basal two-thirds of 
all tail-feathers white. 

Young birds are light brown, with pale edges to the feathers, 
those of the head, neck, upper back, and lower parts with whitish 
shaft-stripes ; the quills are barred, and the basal portion of the 
tail mottled brown and white. 

Bill dark brown, basal two-thirds of lower mandible bright 
plumbeous ; cere and iris brown ; legs and feet china white ; claws 
black (Oates). Iris clear yellow, sometimes tinged with reddish and 
mottled with brown (Legge}. 

Length about 29 ; tail 11 ; wing 19 ; tarsus 3-7 ; bill from gape 
2 : males rather less. Ceylon and Malacca birds are rather smaller 
than those from Northern India and Burma. 

Distribution. Throughout the greater part of the Peninsula of 
India, in suitable localities, from the base of the Himalayas, but 



POLIOAfiTUS. 371 

not west of Delhi, nor in Sind, and rare to the southward. This 
species occurs also in Ceylon, throughout Burma, and in the Malay 
Peninsula and Islands as far as Java, Celebes, and the Philippines. 
Habits, $c. This Fishing-Eagle haunts wooded rivers, large 
lakes, and backwaters, but is seldom found on the sea-coast. It 
has a peculiar deep resounding call, repeated three or four times. 
It lives chiefly on fish, which it swoops upon in its flight, not 
pouncing down on them like an Osprey, but it will, Jerdon says, 
occasionally carry off a wounded bird. Legge says that it seldom 
soars or takes long flights ; it is commonly seen perched on a tree 
near water. It breeds from December to March, builds an 
immense nest of sticks, and lays two or three greyish-white eggs, 
measuring about 2*68 by 2'09. 

1227. Polioaetus humilis. Hodgson's Fishing-Eagle. 

Haliaetus plumbeus, Hodys. J. A. S. B. vi, p. 367 (1837), descr. 

nulla. 
Falco humilis, Mutter # Sclileg. Verhandl, Aves, p. 47, pi. 6 (1839- 

44). 

Ichthyaetus nanus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi, p. 202 (1842) ; xii, p. 304. 
Pontoaetus nanus, Blyth, Cat. p. 30. 
Pandion humilis, Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 54. 
Polioaetus plumbeus, Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, p. 336 ; Hume, N. 8? E. 

p. 43; A. Anderson, S. F. iii, p. 385; id. P.Z.8. 1876, p. 777, 

pi. Ixxxii ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. 2, p. 192 ; Brooks, 




Yarkand Miss., Aves, p. 8. 
Polioaetus humilis, Brooks, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 73 ; Sharpe, Cat. 

B. M. i, p. 454; Hume, S. F. v, p. 130 ; ix, p. 244 ; xi, p. 11 ; 

id. Cat. no. 41 ter; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 223. 
Haliaetus humilis, Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 17. 

Coloration. Head and neck all round ashy, browner on the 
crown and nape ; remainder of upper parts dark brown, the quills 
blackish; the middle tail-feathers brown throughout, generally 
darker on the last third and with pale tips ; of the other tail- 
feathers the basal two-thirds are mottled brown and white, 
especially on the inner webs, and lighter beneath ; breast ashy 
brown, more ashy in older birds ; the feathers of the head, neck, 
upper back, and breast more or less distinctly dark-shafted; 
abdomen and lower tail-coverts white. 

Young birds are paler brown ; they want the grey on the head, 
and the breast-feathers have white shafts and ends. 

Upper mandible blue-black; cere, gape, and lower mandible 
leaden blue ; irides bright yellow ; legs and feet white, washed with 
leaden blue ; claws black (A. Anderson). 

Length of a Himalayan female 24-5 ; tail 9*2; wing 17-5; tarsus 
3-1 ; bill from gape 1/7. Males very little smaller. Specimens 
from Assam and Cachar have generally a wing of 16 to 17 inches ; 
Malay birds are much smaller. 



372 

Distribution. Along the base of the Himalayas from Kashmir to 
Assam, ranging into the plains as far as Delhi and Etawah in 
winter ; in Assam and Cachar, probably throughout Burma, but 
rare there ; in the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, and Celebes^ 

The Himalayan race, the wing of which sometimes measures 
19 inches, but generally 17 to 18, has been distinguished as 
P.plumbeus from the Malay race P. humilis, with a wing from 
13-5 to 15-5 ; but there is no difference except size, and Cachar 
birds have intermediate dimensions. 

Habits, $c. Similar to those of P. ichthyaetus. The nest is a 
huge structure of sticks in a high tree ; the eggs, two or three in 
number, are white and unspotted, measuring about 2-75 by 2-12. 
The birds breed in the Himalayas between January and May. 

y 

Genus HALIASTUR, Selby, 1840. 

Bill rather large, compressed, slightly curved towards the base, 
but sharply bent over near the tip : festoon distinct ; nostril a 
broad rounded oval, the longer axis oblique. Wings very long, 
extending beyond the end of the tail, 4th primary longest ; tail 
of moderate length, slightly rounded at the end. Tarsi short, 
feathered above, the naked portion with broad transverse scutes in 
front, and hexagonal scales behind and at the sides ; toes covered 
with transverse scutes above, rough and pointed scales beneath, 
lateral toes unequal ; claws well developed and curved. 

The well-known Brahminy Kite is the sole Indian repre- 
sentative and the type of this genus, which inhabits the Oriental 
and Australian regions. Haliastur has been classed alternately 
with the Sea-Eagles and with the Kites, and is allied to both. 

1228. Haliastur Indus. The Brahminy Kite. (Eig. 79, p. 312.) 

Ealco indus, Bodd. Tabl PL Enl. p. 25 (1783). 

Falco pondicerianus, Gm. Syst. Nat. i, p. 265 (1788). 

Haliastur indus, Blyth, Cat. p. 31 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat, i, p. 57 ; Jerdon, 
B. I. i, p. 101 ; Hume, Rough Notes, p. 316 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. 
xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 16 ; xli, pt. 2, p. 230 ; King, J.A.S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, 
pp. 210, 213; Godiv.-Aust. J.A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 93 ; Hume. 
N. 8f E. p. 51 j id. S. F. i, p. 160 ; Rainey, ibid. p. 496 ; A. Anderson, 
P. Z. S. 1872, p. 79 ; Hayes Lloyd, Ibis, 1873, p. 405 ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. M. i, p. 313 ; Butler, S. F. iii, p. 448 ; ix, p. 374; Fair- 
bank, S. F. v, p. 392 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 22 ; Davidson 
$ Wend. S. F. vii, p. 75 ; Ball, ibid. p. 200 ; Cripps, ibid. p. 251 ; 
Gurney, Ibis, 1878, p. 460 ; Hume, Cat. no. 55 ; Scully, S. F. viii, 
p. 227 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 76 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 34 ; Bingham, 
ibid. p. 145 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 12 ; Damson, ibid. p. 340 ; Oates, 
B. B. ii, p. 201 ; Murray, Vert. Zool. Sind, p. 90; Barnes, Birds 
Bom. p. 54 ; Hume, S. F. xi. p. 15 ; Oates, in Hume's N. fy E. 
2nd ed. iii, p. 170. 

The Maroon-backed Kite, Jerdon; Brahmani Chll, Sankar Chil,. 
Dhobia-Chll, Ru-mubdrik, H. ; Khemankari, Sansc. ; Garuda, Can..;. 



HALIASTUB. 373 

Garud-alawa, Garuda mantaru, Tel.; Clem Prandu, Tarn (Ceylon); 
Shemberrid, Yerkli ; Pis Genda, Gond. ; Zoon-koun-byoo, Burm. 

Coloration. Adult. Whole head, neck, and lower parts down to 
the middle of the abdomen white, each feather with a dark brown 
shaft-line ; primaries black, except the basal portions of the inner 
webs, which, like the rest of the plumage above and below, are 
chestnut, paler and duller on the lower surface of the quills, 
greater under wing-coverts, and tail-feathers ; the shafts of the body- 
feathers and upper and lower wing-coverts sometimes, not always, 
dark brown or black ; end of tail whitish. There are sometimes 
indistinct narrow black cross-bars on the inner webs of some of the 
tail-feathers and secondary quills. 

Young birds are brown above, the crown and hind-neck paler 
.and with pale tawny shaft-stripes near the ends, and pale ends to 
the back-feathers and wing-coverts ; ear-coverts dark brown ; 
primaries black, secondaries and tail-feathers very dark brown; 
lower parts rufous-brown, throat and abdomen paler ; breast- 
feathers with tawny shaft-stripes, abdomen and lower tail-coverts 
with black shafts. 

In the next plumage, assumed in autumn apparently without 
any complete moult, the head, neck, and breast are pale brown, 
tinted rufous and black-shafted ; the rest of the upper plumage 
brown, mixed with some white on the wing-coverts and secondary 
quills ; lower abdomen dull rufous. From this plumage the birds 
moult into the adult dress in winter. 

Bill bluish horn ; cere yellowish ; iris brown ; legs and feet 
greenish yellow (Leyge). 

Length of female about 19 ; tail 8-5 ; wing 15 ; tarsus 2 ; mid- 
toe without claw 1-5 ; bill from gape 1'4. Males very little less. 

Distribution. Throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma, common on 
the sea-coast, and near rivers, marshes, and large tanks, rare in the 
drier parts of the country and in hill forest. This bird does not 
range further to the westward ; eastward it is found in China, 
Cochin-China, Siam, and the Malay Peninsula ; and closely allied 
forms or subspecies known as //. intermedius and H. gerrenera 
with the dark stripes very narrow in the first and wanting 
in the second, are found throughout the Malay Archipelago and 
Northern Australia. 

Habits, fyc. The Brahminy Kite shows considerable resemblance 
to the Common Kite in its flight and habits, especially in seizing 
its food in its claws during a swoop, but it is rarely seen away 
from water. It abounds in Calcutta and many other ports, 
perching on the rigging of ships and feeding on refuse thrown 
overboard. It also picks small fish off the surface of the water 
with its claws, and captures frogs or crabs in paddy-fields and 
marshes. At other times it feeds on insects, or robs Crows or 
Kites. Small birds are seldom assailed by it unless sickly or 
weak, but Mr. Eainey saw a Brahminy Kite kill and eat a King- 
fisher (Alcedo ispida) that had carried off a small fish on which 
the Kite was in the act of stooping. The cry is Kite-like, & 



374 

peculiar squealing sound, uttered on the wing. The breeding- 
season is from December to February to the southward, later in 
Northern India, and two eggs, or occasionally three, are laid in a 
stick-nest placed on a tree and sometimes lined with leaves or 
other material. The eggs are greyish white, unspotted or scantily 
speckled or blotched with reddish brown, and measure about 2-02 
by 1-65. 

The name of Brahminy Kite is due to the association of this 
bird with Vishnu. 

Genus MILVUS, Cuvier, 1800. 

The true Kites belong to the present genus, and are all birds of 
moderate size, with a long forked tail. The bill is rather weak, 
the culmen straight at the base, then curved, the festoon generally 
small, the cere well developed, and the nostril oval and oblique. 
Wings long and pointed, but not extending quite to the end of 
the tail ; 3rd and 4th quills longest. Tarsus short, feathered for 
about half its length, the naked lower portion with broad shields 
in front, reticulated behind and at the sides ; toes short, scuteilate 
above, lateral toes uneven ; claws moderate, middle claw dilated on 
the inside. 

Five or six species are known, inhabiting Europe, Africa, Asia, 
and Australia : one of these is amongst the commonest of Indian 
birds, a second has a wide range in India, but is rare, whilst the 
third just comes within the empire to the westward. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Head tawny or rufous with black streaks in 

adults. 
a'. Wing rf 1675 to 18'5 inches ; $ 17 to 

19-5 M. govinda, p. 374. 

V. Wing tf 19-20-5 ; 19-25-21-5 M. melanotis,^. 377. 

b. Head whitish with black streaks in adults . . M. miyrans, p. 378. 

1229. Milvus govinda. The Common Pariah Kite. 

Milvus govinda, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 81 ; Layard, A. M. N. H. 
(2) xii, p. 103; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 30; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 104 ; 
Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 248 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 16 : 
xli, pt. 2, p. 231; Hume, Hough Notes, p. 320; Godw.-Aust. 
J.A.S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 93 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 43 ; 
A. Anderson, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 79 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 160 ; ii, p. 150 ; 
iv, pp. 282, 462 ; Sharpe, Cat, B. M. i, p. 325 ; Blyth, Birds Burm. 
p. 64 ; Brooks, 8. F. iii, p. 275 ; iv, p. 272 ; id. Ibis, 1885, p. 385 ; 
Butler, 8. F. iii, p. 448; ix, p. 374; Wardl. Hams. Ibis, 1877, 
p. 454; Oates, 8. F. vii, p. 44; Ball, 8. F. vii, p. 200; Hume, 
Cat. no. 56 ; Gurney, Ibis, 1879, p. 76 ; Bingham, S. F. viii, 
p. 191 ; Scully, ibid. p. 227 ; id. Ibis, 1881, p. 422 ; Legge, Birds 
Ceyl. p. 80; Vidal, 8. F. ix, p. 34; Damson, S. F. x, p. 340; 
Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 54; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. 8oc. i, p. 41 ;. 
St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 153 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii,. 
p. 173. 



MILVUS. 



Milvus cheela, apud Jcrdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. x, p. 71 (1839) ; nee 

Falco cheela, Lath. 

Milvus ater, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 31 ; nee Falco ater, Gm. 
. S. 



Milvus affinis, Gould, P. Z. S. 1837, p. 140 ; Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, 




p. 400 ; uingnam, at. f. ix, p. 140 ; uates, tf. 4. x, p. J 
B. B. ii, p. 202 ; id. in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 176. 



Milvus palustris, Anderson, P. A. S. B. 1873, p. 143 ; id. P. Z. S. 
1875, p. 25. 

Chil, H. ; //, at Chamba ; Malta gedda, Tel. ; Paria prandu, Kalu 
pi'andu, Tarn. ; Genda, Mhari ; Rajaliya, Cing. ; Zoon, Burm. 




Fig. 93. Head of M. govinda, f . 



Coloration. Adult. Above brown, median wing-coverts lighter 
and dark-shafted, the crown and hind-neck paler, tawny or rufous, 
not whitish, with blackish shaft-stripes ; a patch behind the eye, 
including the ear-coverts, uniform dark brown ; first five primaries 
and larger primary-coverts blackish, later primaries and second- 
aries coloured like back; all the quills more or less mottled with 
whitish on the inner webs towards the base, and banded with 
blackish-brown cross-bars ; tail brown above, whity brown below, 
with numerous darker cross-bands, faint and obsolete in some 
(probably old) birds ; lower parts rather paler than upper, whitish 
at the chin, and generally, but not always, becoming tinged with 
nifous on the abdomen and lower tail-coverts, and always dark- 
shafted throughout, with pale or rufous stripes on each side of the 
dark shaft-lines ; lower wing-coverts like breast, except the larger 
coverts, which are ashy brown with pale bands. 

Young birds have broad buff or white shaft- stripes to the 
feathers of the head (except the ear-coverts), neck, and lower 
surface, and buff or whitish tips to the feathers of the back, wing- 
coverts, scapulars, secondaries, and tail-feathers. 

Bill black ; cere and gape yellow in old birds, greenish grey in 
the young ; irides brown ; legs and feet yellow, pale greenish grey 
in young birds ; claws black (Hume). 

Length of females about 24 : tail 12 ; wing 18-5 ; tarsus 2*1 ; 
mid-toe without claw 1*6 ; bill from gape 1*7 : males are smaller 
length about 12-5 ; wing 17'5. But birds from Southern India, 



.376 FALCONIDJS. 

Ceylon, and Burma run smaller (wing in females about 16*5 to 
17*5), and those from Australia are smaller still. 

It will be seen from the synonymy that I do not separate 
M. affiniS) the Australian bird, found also in India, and distin- 
guished by smaller size and by the absence of any white mottling 
at the base of the inner webs of the primaries. Every gradation 
may be found in India between birds with a large white patch 
beneath the wing (M. palmtris, Anderson) and those without any 
white, and the latter, if of small size, are identical with Australian 
specimens. Burmese birds are, as a rule, darker than Indian, 
both above and below, but the character is not constant, and 
Australian birds resemble those of India, not those of Burma, 
in colour. 

Distribution. Throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma, chiefly near 
human habitations, and throughout the Oriental region to Australia. 
On the Himalayas this Kite may be found to an elevation of about 
12,000 feet, but is uncommon above about 8000. 

Habits, fyc. In this case, as with the other familiar birds of India, 
it is very difficult to improve upon Jerdon's admirable description 
of the habits. He writes : " It is one of the most abundant and 
common birds in India, found at all elevations up to 8000 feet at 
least, especially near large towns and cantonments, and its vast 
numbers and fearlessness are among the first objects that strike 
the stranger from England, where birds of prey are so rare. 
Every large town, cantonment, and even village has its colony of 
Kites, which ply their busy vocation from before sunrise to some 
time after sunset. Every large camp, too, is followed by these 
useful scavengers, and the tent even of the single traveller is 
daily visited by one or more, according to the numbers in the 
neighbourhood. As is well known, Kites pick up garbage of all 
kinds, fragments of meat and fish, and generally the refuse of 
man's food. When a basket of refuse or offal is thrown out in 
the streets to be carted away, the Kites of the immediate 
neighbourhood, who appear to be quite cognizant of the usual 
time at which this is done, are all on the look-out, and dash down 
on it impetuously, some of them seizing the most tempting 
morsels by a rapid swoop, others deliberately sitting down on the 
heaps along with crows and dogs, and selecting their scraps. 
On such an occasion, too, there is many a struggle to retain a 
larger fragment than usual, for the possessor no sooner emerges 
from its swoop than several empty-clawed spectators instantly 
pursue it eagerly, till the owner finds the chase too hot, and drops 
the bone of contention, which is generally picked up long before 
it reaches the ground, again and again to change owners, and 
perhaps finally revert to its original proprietor. On such occasions 
there is a considerable amount of squealing going on. 

" The vast numbers of these Kites in large towns can hardly 
be realized by strangers. They are excessively bold and fearless, 
often snatching morsels off a dish en route from kitchen to hall. 
At our seaports many Kites find their daily sustenance among 



MILVUS. ;J77 

the shipping, perching freely on the rigging, and in company with 
the Brahminy Kite, which rarely enters towns, snatching scraps 
of refuse from the surface of the waters. The food of the Kite 
is usually devoured on the wing, or, if too large, carried to the 
nearest house or tree. 

" The flight of the Indian Kite is bold, easy, and graceful when 
once mounted aloft, though somewhat heavy on first taking wing, 
and it soars slowly about, in greater or less numbers, in large circles. 

" Mr. Blyth notices their collecting in numbers without any 
apparent object, especially towards evening. This I have fre- 
quently observed at all large stations, where the whole Kites 
of the neighbourhood, before retiring to roost, appear to hold 
conclave. They are said to leave Calcutta almost entirely for 
three or four months during the rains " [this is perfectly correct]. 
"I have not noticed this at other places. As remarked by 
Buchanan Hamilton, they may often be seen seated on the 
entablatures of buildings, with their breast to the wall and wings 
spread out, exactly as represented in Egyptian monuments." 

In various parts of India Kites have been found breeding by 
Mr. B. Aitken and others at all times of the year, but the 
principal breeding-season is from January to March or April. 
The pairing is accompanied by much squealing, and the common 
Indian name, " Chil " or " Cheel," is derived from the bird's cry. 
The nest, a clumsy mass of sticks and twigs, mixed or lined with 
rags, grass, &c., is generally on a tree, more rarely on a building. 
The eggs are generally 2, sometimes 3 or 4, in number, pale 
greenish white, variously spotted or blotched with brown or red 
and measure about 2-19 by 1'77. 

1230. Milvus melanotis. The Large Indian Kite. 

Milvus melanotis, Temm. fy Schleg. Faun. Jap., Aves, p. 14, pis. v, v b 
(1846-50); Hume, J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 114; Blanf. 
J. A. S. E. xli, pt. 2, p. 153 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii,pt. 2, 
p. 152; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. i, p. 324; A. Anderson, S. F. iii. 
p. 387 ; Ball, S. F. v, p. 412 ; vii, p. 200 ; Anders. Yunnan 
Exped., Aves, p. 574 ; Hume, Cat. no. 56 bis ; Scully, S. F. viii, 
p. 228; Gurnet/, Ibis, 1879, p. 80; Butler, S. F. ix, p. 375; 
Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 422; Oates, B. B.n,v. 203; id. in Hume'* 
N. S( E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 176; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 57; Hume, 
S. F. xi, p. 15 ; Sharpe, Yarkand Miss., Aves, p. 8. 

Milvus, sp., Blanf. J. A. S. B. xxxviii, pt. 2, p. 167. 

Milvus major, Hume, Rough Notes, p. 326 (1870) ; id. Ibis, 1870, 
p. 439 ; Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, p. 342 ; A. Anderson, P. Z. S. 1872, 
p. 79 ; 1875, p. 25 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 54 ; id. S. F. \, p. 160 ; iii. 
pp. 35, 229, 448 ; iv, p. 414; Fairbank, S. F. iv, p. 253. 

Mflvus govinda, apud Brooks, S. F. iii, pp. 229, 275 ; iv, p. iTi* : 
viii, p. 406; id. Ibis, 1884, p. 238; 1885, p. 3rf6; Biddulph 
G. F. L. Marshall, Ibis, 1881, p. 44. 

This Kite is chiefly distinguished from M. yovinda by larger 
size, the coloration being almost identical ; but the present species 
may generally be recognized by the amount of white on the inner 



378 

webs of the quills near the base, forming a conspicuous white 
patch below the wing, as in Buzzards. As a rule, too, the lower 
abdomen and under tail-coverts are much paler in M. melanotis 
than in M. govinda. Some birds, however, appear almost to form 
a passage between the two. 

Bill bluish ; cere yellowish white ; irides hazel-brown ; legs dull 
china white ; claws blackish (Oates). 

Length of male about 25 ; tail 13 ; wing 19 to 2O5 ; tarsus 2-2 ; 
mid-toe without claw 1*6 ; bill from gape 1*75 : females are larger 
length 27 ; wings 19-25 to 21 '5 ; tail 13'5. 

Distribution. A migratory bird in India, appearing in the 
Peninsula as far south as Bombay and the Grodavari valley, and in 
Burma as far as Eangoon, in the cold season. I obtained one near 
Badrachellam on the Grodavari as late as April. This Kite is 
found in the Himalayas and throughout Eastern and Central 
Asia, ranging as far north as Japan and Southern Siberia in 
summer. 

Habits, $c. Generally a shyer bird, keeping more to jungles 
and marshes, than the common Indian Kite, though I have seen 
and killed the large kind from my tent-door, and I shot another 
sitting on a tree in a small village. The flight is heavier, but 
otherwise the habits are similar. M. melanotis breeds in the 
Himalayas from January to May the nest and eggs being 
precisely similar to those of M. govinda, except that the eggs are 
slightly larger, averaging about 2*31 by 1*8. 

1231. Milvus migrans. The Black. Kite. 

Falco migrans, Bodd. Tabl. PL Enl p. 28 (1783). 

Falco ater, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i, p. 262 (1788). 

Milvus migrans, Strickl. Orn. Syn. p. 133 ; Blanf. East. Pers. ii, 
p. 114 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 344 ; id. Cat. no. 56 quat. ; Barnes, 
S. F. ix, pp. 215, 452 ; C. Swinhoe, Ibis, 1882, p. 100 ; St. John, 
Ibis, 1889, p. 153. 

This is distinguished from M. govinda by having the edges of 
the feathers on the crown and nape whitish instead of light brown 
or rufous, and by the more distinctly ferruginous colour of the 
abdomen. As a rule, too, there is in the present form little or no 
mottling or banding on the basal portion of the quills in adults. 

Length of female about 23 ; tail 11 ; wing 17 ; tarsus 2-1 ; bill 
from gape 1-65. Males are rather smaller. 

Distribution. Africa, Southern Europe, and South-western Asia. 
The Black Kite only comes within our area, so far as is known, in 
Southern Afghanistan around Quetta. Capt. Barnes found it 
breeding about the [Khojak, between Quetta and Kandahar, in 
March and April. 

Habits, fyc. Similar to those of M. govinda, and this bird haunts 
towns in the Levant as M. govinda does in India. Similarly in. 
former times M. ictinus acted as scavenger in London and other 
European cities. 



ELANUS. 



Genus EL ANUS, Savigny, 1810. 

Bill small, wide at the base, compressed towards the end ; 
culinen curved sharply from the cere ; festoon distinct ; 
nostrils oval, nearly horizontal, protected by long loral bristles. 
Wings long and pointed, exceeding the tail when closed; 2nd 
quill longest; tail moderately long, square at the end. Tarsi 
short and stout, feathered in front for more than half their length ; 
naked parts reticulated throughout. Toes strong, reticulated above, 
except close to the claws, lateral toes subequal in length ; middle 
claw keeled, the others rounded beneath. 

This is a genus of small birds allied to the Kites and comprising 
five species, distributed throughout the tropics and subtropical 
countries of the world. One species is Indian. 

1232. Elanus caeruleus. The Black-winged Kite. 

Falco cseruleus, Desf. Mem. Acad. Sc. 1787, p. 503, pi. 15. 

Falco melanopterus, Daud. Traite, ii, p. 152 (1800). 

Elanus melanopterus, Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. x, p. 71 ; Blyth, Cat, 

p. 18 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 28 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 112 ; Hume. 

Rough Notes, p. 338 ; id. S. F. i, pp. 21, 163 : id. N. $ E. p. 56 ; 

A. Anderson, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 80 ; Adam, S. F. i, p. 369 ; Sutler, 

S. F. iii, p. 449 ; Blyih $ Wald, Birds Burm. p. 60 ; Hume, S. *. 

iv, p. 462 ; Inglis, S. F. v, p. 16. 
Elanus cseruleus, Strickland, Orn. Syn. p. 137 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 

i, p. 336 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 26 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 200 ; 

Cripps, ibid. p. 252 ; Hume, Cat. no. 59 ; Davidson, S. F. viii, p. 415 : 



. . . 

p. 59 ; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. iii, p. 219 ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, 
p. 154. 

Kapassi, H. ; Masunwa, in Oude ; Chanwa, Nepal. ; Adam Ramadaw, 
Tel. ; Argellur, Yerkli ; Ukussa, Cing. 




Fig. 94. Head of E. ceruleus, \. 

Coloration. Adult. Forehead, anterior lores, a streak over the 
eye, sides of the head, the whole of the lower parts, and all tail- 
feathers, except the middle pair and the outer webs of the next two 
pairs, white ; upper parts light ashy grey, the tail-feathers paler ; 
median and smaller upper wing-coverts, a narrow superciliunu 



380 FALCONIDJE. 

and the posterior lores black ; primaries grey above, blackish 
beneath. In many specimens the fore-neck and flanks, and some- 
times more of the lower parts, are pearly grey. 

Young birds are brownish ashy above, with pale edges to the 
feathers ; the quills and tail-feathers are tipped white ; breast 
tinged or streaked with fulvous. 

Bill black ; cere and gape pale yellow ; irides crimson in adults, 
yellow in the young ; legs and feet deep yellow ; claws black. 

Length about 13 ; tail 5 ; wing 10-5 ; tarsus 1-3 ; mid-toe 
without claw 1 ; bill from gape 1*1. 

Distribution. Throughout Africa, locally in Southern Europe 
and in South-western Asia, and in India, Ceylon, and Burma, but 
not, so far as is known, farther east, nor in Southern Tenasserim. 
Hume obtained specimens at the Laccadive Islands. In India, 
from the base of the Himalayas to the extreme South, in Ceylon, 
and in Arrakan and Pegu, this Kite is pretty generally distributed, 
but is not often abundant. 

Habits, <$[c. Locally this is a migratory bird, wandering from one 
place to another with the seasons. It occurs most commonly in 
well-wooded cultivated districts and in thin jungle, avoiding both 
open plains and dense forests. It lives chiefly on insects and 
small mammals, and either watches for its prey from a perch or 
beats over grass or bushes, sometimes hovering like a Kestrel. It 
varies much in its time of breeding, eggs having been taken, at one 
place or another, at all seasons, and it appears sometimes to breed 
twice in the year. The nest, a loose structure of twigs, as a rule 
unlined, sometimes lined with grass, is placed on a tree, and 
contains 3 or 4 eggs, usually densely blotched with brownish red 
and measuring about 1*53 by 1*21. 

Genus CIRCUS, Lacepede, 1801. 

General form slender. Bill moderate or weak, compressed, the 
culmen curving from the margin of the cere to the hooked tip ; the 
margin of the upper mandible slightly festooned ; nostril large, 
oval, in the anterior part of the cere, overhung and partly con- 
cealed by the bristles of the lores. A ruff of small, soft, closely- 
set feathers, much more conspicuous in some species than in others, 
extends across the throat and up each side of the neck behind the 
ear-coverts. Wings long and pointed ; tail long, even at the tip or 
rounded. Tarsi long and slender, feathered at the base only, with 
transverse shields in front and smaller polygonal scales behind ; 
toes moderate ; claws much curved and sharp. 

The Harriers are a well-defined group of Hawks, easily recog- 
nized by their flight and appearance. All Indian species are 
migratory, and, with rare exceptions, cold-weather visitants, though 
one kind doubtless breeds in Northern India, and another may do 
so occasionally. They make nests on the ground or amongst reeds 
in marshes, and lay bluish-white eggs, generally unspotted, but 
-occasionally with a few brownish-red spots. 



CIRCUS. 381 

Species of Circus are found in almost all tropical and temperate 
countries. Six are met with in India and Burma. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Outer web of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quills, 

but not of 5th, notched. 

a'. Tarsus more than 2*5 long- C. macrurus, p. 381. 

b' . Tarsus less than 2*5 long C. cineraceus, p. 383. 

b. Outer web of 5th quill notched. 

c'. Straight from end of cere on culmen to 
tip of bill measures less than 075. 

a". Upper parts ashy C. cyancus, tf ad., p. 384. 

b". Upper parts to rump black C. melanoleucus, tf ad., 

c". Upper parts brown, more or less [p. 385. 

edged with buft' or rufous. 

a 3 . Upper tail-coverts pure white . . C. cyaneus, ad., p. 384. 
6 3 . Upper tail-coverts not entirely 

white. 
o 4 . Coverts along forearm white or 

buff C. melanoleucus, $ ad., 

b*. Coverts along forearm brown. [p. 38o. 

a 5 . Abdomen buff, with darker 

shaft-stripes C. cyaneus, young, p. 384. 

b 5 . Abdomen rufous-brown . . C. melanoleucus, young,i 
d'. From cere on culmen to tip of bill [p. 385. 

is more than 075. 
d". Abdomen white unstriped or buff 

with dark shaft-stripes C. spilonotus, p. 388. 

e". Abdomen dark or rufous-brown, or 

rufous with dark stripes C. ceruginosus, p. 387. 

1233. Circus macrurus. The Pale Han-ier. 

Accipiter macro urus, S. G. Gmel. N. Comm. Petrop. xv, p. 1:5- >. 
pis. viii, ix (1771). 

Circus swainsoni, Smith, S. Afr. Quart. Jour, i, p. 384 (1830) ; Blyth, 
Cat. p. 20 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 25 ; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 96 ; Godw.- 
Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 265 ; Hume, Rough Notes, 
p. 298; id. S. F. i, p. 408; Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 61 ; Butler, 
S. F. iii, p. 447; v, p. 226; Hume % Bourd. S. F. iv, p. 372 ; 
A. Anderson, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 78 ; 1876, p. 314. 

Circus pallidus, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 80; Hume, S. F. i, p. 160. 

Falco herbfficola, Tickell, J. A. S. B. b, p. 570 (1833) ; Walden, Ibis, 
1876, p. 342. 

Circus macrurus, SJiarpe, Cat. B. M. i, p. 67 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 199 ; 
Cripps, ibid. p. 249 ; Scully, S. F. viii. p. 226 ; Hume, Cat. no. 51 ; 
Leffge, Birds Ceyl. p. 17 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 33; Biddulph, Ibis r 
1881, p. 43 ; Scully, ibid. p. 421 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 10 ; IMf*, 
ibid. p. 338 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 175 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 13 ; Barnes, 
Birds Bom. p. 45. 

Dastmal, Girgit Mor, Pattai, II. ; Pandoum, Beng. ; TeI/ rhappu 
gedda, Pilli gedda, Tel. ; Puna prandu, Tarn. ; Kurrulu-goya, Uktusa, 
Cing. 

Coloration. Adult male. Upper parts pah- ashy grey, generally, 
except in very old birds, more or less tinged with brown on tin- 



382 FALCONID^E. 

crown, back, scapulars, and quills ; lores whitish ; forehead and 
above and beneath the eye white ; ear-coverts pale grey streaked 
with white ; the ruff behind the ear-coverts differing in texture, 
but scarcely in colour ; primaries ashy grey, 3rd, 4th, and 5th 
black or blackish brown on part of the terminal half, some black 
on the 2nd and 6th, the basal portion of all quills white ; upper 
tail-coverts banded grey and white, middle tail-feathers grey 
unbarred, the others white with grey bars ; lower parts white, 
throat and upper breast with a faint grey tinge. 




Fig. 95. Head of C. macrums, $ , f . 

Adult female. Above brown, feathers of head and hind-neck 
broadly margined with rufous or buff, and the smaller wing- 
coverts with broad pale rufous borders ; forehead whitish, a buffy 
white supercilium and patch below the eye ; moustachial stripe 
and ear-coverts brown ; a well-marked ruff of small white or buff 
feathers with broad brown shaft-stripes all round the neck, behind 
the ear-coverts, and across the throat ; quills brown above, buff or 
whitish below, with blackish-brown cross-bands on both sides; 
upper tail-coverts white, with brown shaft-stripes or other 
markings; middle tail-feathers brown, outer feathers buff or 
rufous-white, all with dark-brown cross-bands. Lower parts 
white, with rufous-brown shaft-stripes, broadest on the breast ; 
in old birds these stripes become very narrow, especially on the 
abdomen and lower tail-coverts. 

Young birds resemble the female above, except that the feathers 
have, at first, rufous edges throughout, there is a white nuchal 
patch with brown shaft-stripes, and the ruff is unstreaked or 
almost unstreaked buff and very conspicuous ; the upper tail- 
coverts are white, the lower parts throughout are rufous-buff with 
faint shaft-stripes. There is a gradual passage from this plumage 
into that of the adult ; nearly adult males are often found with 
patches of brown on the crown and brown shaft-stripes on the 
breast. 

Bill black ; cere greenish ; iris yellow in adults, brown in the 
young ; legs yellow. 

Length of females about 19-5 inches ; tail 10 ; wing 14-5 ; 
tarsus 2-9 : length of males 18 ; tail 8-75 ; wing 13'75 ; tarsus 27. 



CIRCUS. 333 

Distribution. A migratory bird, found throughout the greater 
part of India, Ceylon, and Burma in suitable localities from Sep- 
tember till April, and ranging over Eastern Europe, nearly all 
Asia and Africa. It has not been observed in Tenasserim nor 
further south, and it is very rarely seen amongst hills or in forests, 
but is common on stony plains, grassy or bushy undulating tracts' 
and on cultivated ground ; it is also found near water. 

Habits, $"c. This and the next three species are usually seen 
flying slowly over the ground just above the surface, now and 
then dropping noiselessly on their prey, which consists of lizards 
and insects, and occasionally of mice and young or sickly 
birds. Harriers usually sit on the ground, rarely on trees ; 
and Jerdon notices that they are sometimes surprised and killed 
at night by foxes and jackals. This Harrier does not breed in 
India. 



1234. Circus cineraceus. Montagu's Harrier. 

Falco cineraceus, Montagu, Orn. Diet, i, sheet K 2 (1802). 
Falco cinerareus, Montagu, Trans. Linn. Son. ix, p. 188 (1808). 
Circus cinerascens, Steph. Gen. Zool. xiii, pt. 2, p. 41 (1826) ; Bluth, 

Cat. p. 20; Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) xii, p. 105; Horsf. $ M. 

Cat. i, p. 27. 
Circus cineraceus, Jerdon, B. 1. i, p. 97 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. 

xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 16; Hume, Rough Notes, p. 303; Blyth, Birds 

Burm. p. 61 ; Wardl. Ratnsay, Ibis, 1875, p. 351 ; A. Anderson, 

P. Z. S. 1876, p. 314 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 199 ; Cripps, ibid. p. 249 ; 

Doig, ibid. p. 503 ; Hume, Cat. no. 52 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 12 ; 

Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 43 ; Scully, ibid. p. 421 ; Cripps, S. F. xi, 

p. 13 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 49. 
Circus pygargus, apud Sharpe, Cat. B. M. i, p. 64 ; Oates, B. B. ii, 

p. 173 ; nee Falco pygargus, L. 

Dastmal, Grirgit Mor, Pattai, H. ; Pandouvi, Beng. ; Telia chappa 
gedda, Pilli gedda, Tel. ; Puna prandu, Tarn. ; Kunda-goya, Ukussa, 
Cing. 

Coloration. Adult tnale. Upper plumage, sides of head and 
neck, chin, throat, and breast ashy grey, much darker than in 
C. macrurus, and more or less tinged, except in very old birds, 
with brown on the back, scapulars, and tertiaries; upper tail- 
coverts white, barred or shaded with ashy ; first 5 or 6 primaries 
black, the tips grey, and the amount of grey gradually increasing 
on the inner feathers ; secondaries grey above, with a blackish 
transverse band, beneath white, with grey tips; middle tail- 
feathers grey, outer white, with transverse rufous and grey bars ; 
lower parts from breast white, with chestnut shaft-stripes ; 
axillaries white, with chestnut bars and drops. 

Females resemble those of C. macrurus, but the ruff is very 
indistinct, the upper parts are rather darker, and the edges of the 
head- and neck-feathers and of tke wing-coverts more rufous ; the 
general colour of the lower parts is buff or dull rufous, with 
rufous-brown shaft-stripes. 



384 FALCONIDjE. 

The young of C. cineraceus are distinguished by the ruff being 
indistinct and streaked throughout in place of the conspicuous 
buff ruff of C. macrurus ; the lower surface, too, is darker and more 
distinctly streaked. At all ages C. cineraceus may be recognized by 
its short tarsus, and by the notch or emargination on the outer 
web of the second primary being about an inch beyond the ends 
of the greater coverts, whilst in C. macrurus the notch is close to 
them. 

Bill black ; cere greenish yellow ; iris yellow, brownish yellow 
in the female ; legs and feet yellow. 

Length of females about 19 ; tail 9'25 ; w r ing 15-5 ; tarsus 2*4 : 
length of males about 17 ; tail 9 ; wing 15 ; tarsus 2'3. 

Distribution. The greater part of Europe, Asia, and Africa. 
Montagu's Harrier is migratory, and is found locally throughout 
India and Ceylon from October to April. It occurs in Assam, 
but is very rare in Burma, though it is said to be found there. It 
is not known in Tenasserim, but has been doubtfully recorded from 
the Malay Peninsula (Ibis, 1881, p. 368). 

Habits, fyc. Very similar to those of C. macrurus, but this bird 
is more local and avoids the dry stony plains and scrub-jungle 
more than the Pale Harrier does. 



1235. Circus cyaneus. The Hen-Harrier. 

Falco cyaneus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 126 (1766). 

Circus cyaneus, Blyth, Cat. p. 20; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 95; King, 
J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 213 ; Blanford, J.A.S. B. xxxviii, pt. 2, 
p. 166 ; Hume, Rough Notes, p. 293 ; id. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, 
p. 114 ; Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, p. 341 ; Sharps, Cat. B. M. \. p. 52 ; 
Hume, Cat. no. 50; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 226; Biddulph, Ibis, 
1881, p. 42 ; Scully, ibid. p. 421. 

Coloration. Adult male. Similar to that of C. macrurus, except 
that the ashy grey of the upper plumage is somewhat darker and 
extends over the chin, throat, and upper breast, there is a 
distinct white nuchal patch with brown shaft- stripes, the terminal 
half of the first six primaries is black, and the upper tail-coverts 
are pure white. 

The adult female is distinguished from that of C. macrurus by 
having the margins of the head- and neck-feathers more rufous, by 
the rufous markings on the wing-coverts and scapulars being 
larger and more in the form of spots, by the white around the eye 
being more sullied, and the moustachial stripe and ear-coverts 
being rufous with dark streaks instead of nearly uniform brown, 
and by the upper tail-coverts being pure white. The ruff is 
well marked. 

Young birds have the lower parts buff or pale rufous, with 
distinct broad shaft-stripes, and the ruff, though distinct, is always 
striated. 

At all ages this species is distinguished from C. macrurus and 
C. cineraceus by having the 5th primary notched on the outer web, 



CIRCUS. 385 

and generally by having the 4th primary longest, and the 2nd 
shorter than the 5th. 

Bill black ; cere yellow ; iris yellow, brown in the young, and 
according to some observers in females ; legs and feet yellow. 

Length of male about 18 inches ; tail 9 ; wing 13 ; tarsus 275 : 
length of female 21 ; tail 1O5 ; wing 15 ; tarsus 3. 

Distribution. Europe, Northern and Central Asia, and Northern 
Africa. In India this species is fairly common in the Himalayas 
and in winter along their base, a few stragglers being found in 
Northern India as far south as the Central Provinces at that season. 

Habits, fyc. Very similar to those of the last two Harriers. This 
species is not known to breed in the Himalayas, but has been 
observed to do so at Tso Morari in Tibet. 

1236. Circus melanoleucus. The Pied Harrier. 

Falco melanoleucus, Forster, 2nd. Zool. p. 12, pi. ii (1781). 
Circus melanoleucus, Bli/th, Cat. p. 21 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 26 ; 
Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 93 ; iii, p. 870 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 246; King, 
J. A. S. B. xxx vii, pt. 2, p. 213 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xxxviii, p. 167 ; 
Hume, J. A. S. B. xxxix, p. 114 ; id. Rough Notes, p. 307 ; Godw.- 
Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, p. 266 ; xlv, p. 67 ; Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, 
p. 341 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. i, p. 61 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 33; v, 
p. 11 ; vii, p. 34; xi, p. 13 ; id. Cat. no. 53 ; Blyth $ Wold. Birds 
Burm. p. 61; Gurney, Ibis, 1875, p. 225; 1876, p. 130; A. An- 
derson, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 315 ; Armstrong, S. F. iv, p. 299 ; Hume 
fy Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 21, 497 ; Anderson, Yunnan JExped., Aves, 
p. 572, pis. xlv, xlvi; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 199; Cripps, S. F. vii, 
p. 250 ; x, p. 327 ; xi, p. 13 ; Bingham, S. F. viii, p. 191 ; ix, 
p. 145 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 226 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 9 ; Reid r 
S. F. x, p. 11'; Davison, S. F. x, p. 339 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 172; 
Salvadoriy Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) vii, pp. 375, 428. 
Pahatai, II. ; Ablak Petaha, Nepal; Thane-Kya, Burmese. 

Coloration. Adult male. Head and neck all round, breast, back, 
median upper wing-coverts, and a band from them to the bend of 
the wing, with the first six primaries, glossy black ; a nuchal patch 
where the white bases of the feathers show; scapulars partly 
black, partly grey ; smaller wing-coverts white, larger coverts, 
later primaries, and secondaries silver-grey, the latter tipped and 
bordered inside with white, tertiaries black ; rump white ; upper 
tail-coverts white, with broad lunate grey bands ; tail grey, white 
at the tips and inner edges of the outer feathers ; lower parts 
from the breast pure white. 

Adult female. Above dark brown, the feathers of the crown and 
neck with rufous edges, those of the nape broadly bordered with 
white ; a well-marked ruff of small white or buffy-white feathers 
with brown shaft-stripes ; around eyes whitish ; cheeks and ear- 
coverts dirty white or pale rufous with brown streaks ; smaller 
coverts along the forearm white (in younger birds rufous) with 
blackish-brown shaft-stripes, median coverts brown with grey or- 
white spots and bars, larger coverts dusky grey with a broad 
subterminal blackish band and another near the base ; primaries- 

VOL. in. 2 c 



386 FALCONIDJE. 

outside blackish brown ; secondaries grey, with blackish cross- 
bands, beneath all are greyish or whitish with dark bands ; upper 
tail-coverts white, sometimes with rufous-brown drops or bands ; 
tail grey, with dark brown cross-bands ; lower parts white, with 
dark brown shaft-stripes, broad on the throat and breast, narrower 
and sometimes disappearing on the abdomen. 

Young birds are more uniformly brown above than the adult 
female, and have no grey on the wings or tail, which are brown 
with darker bands ; the ruff is ill-marked at the sides, but there is 
a large white brown-streaked nuchal patch and another patch of 
buff-edged brown feathers on the throat ; the lower parts generally 
are rufous-brown, faintly streaked darker. The change from this 
plumage to that of the adult male appears to take place by moult. 

For a long time it was supposed that both sexes in this bird 
were pied and similar, but the true facts were gradually traced out 
by Mr. Hume. Still one undoubted case *is recorded by Mr. Cripps 
in which a female assumed the pied livery of the adult male, and 
other probable cases are indicated by the measurements of pied 
specimens. 

Base of bill bluish, remainder black ; cere dusky yellow ; iris 
bright yellow; legs orange-yellow (Oates). Legs in female pale 
yellow (Cripps). 

Length of male 17 ; tail 8-5 ; wing 13-75 ; tarsus 3 : length of 
female 18'5 ; tail 9 ; wing 14*5 ; tarsus 3-2 ; bill from gape 1*2. 

Distribuion. A winter visitor to the Eastern half of the Indian 
Peninsula and to Burma. Common in Bengal, Cachar, Assam, 
and Pegu, and along the base of the Himalayas as far west as 
Oude, also along the eastern coast of the Peninsula and for a 
considerable distance inland, and in Malabar ; but rare in Ceylon, 
and in the N.W. Provinces of India, and, I believe, unknown in 
the Bombay Presidency *, the Central Provinces west of Jubbul- 
poor and Nagpur, and in North-western India generally. Beyond 
Indian limits this species is found throughout a large part of 
Eastern Asia, China, Japan, Amurland and Mongolia, Philippines, 
Siam, Cochin China, Malacca, &c. 

Habits, Sfc. This is essentially a bird of the plains, and especially 
of swampy grass and of rice-fields, over which the conspicuous 
black and white plumage of the male bird makes it a familiar 
feature of the landscape. Its food consists chiefly of snakes, 
lizards, frogs, and insects, with birds and mice. Some Pied Harriers 
breed in Northern India ; Jerdon noticed several in Purneah in 
July, and Cripps twice in April found an egg laid on an apology 
for a nest amongst "Ulu" grass (Saccharum cylindricum) close 
to the Brahmaputra in the Dibrugarh district of Upper Assam. 

* It is included in Barnes's ' Birds of Bombay,' but in this, as in several 
other cases, the author has been misled by Jerdon's statement that the species is 
found in Central India, by which Jerdon understood South-western Bengal or 
Chutia Nagpur. Jerdon also says that C. melanoleucus is rare in the Deccan, 
.by which he may mean some part of the Hyderabad territory. 



CIRCUS. 387 

1237. Circus aeruginosus. The Marsh-Harrier. 

Falco seruginosus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 130 (1766). 

Circus seruginosus, Blyth, Cat. p. 19 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 27 ; 
Jcrdon, B. I. i, p. 99; Hume, Rough Notes, p. 314; id. S. F. i, 
p. 160 ; ii, p. 150 ; xi, p. 14 ; id. Cat. n. 54 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 
i, p. 69 ; Gurney, Ibis, 1875, p. 223 ; Blyth Sf Wald. Birds Burm. 
p. 61 ; Butler, S. F. iii, p. 447 ; v, p. 226 ; ix, p. 374 ; Hume 8f 
Dav. S. F. vi, p. 22 ; Ball, S. F. vii. p. 200 ; Cripps, ibid. p. 250 : 

O 17.. Or f _il: Ciao . T _ _ . TV -i x> i . ^TI?T -r-, 



Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 52. 

Kutar, Kulesir, H. ; Mat-chil, B. ; Safed Sira, Tika Bauri, Mussal- 
mans of Bengal ; Kuralayoya, Cing. ; Prandu, Tarn. (Ceylon). 

Coloration. Adult male. Head, neck, and breast buff or pale 
rufous, with dark brown shaft-stripes, broader on the breast ; back 
and most of the wing-coverts dark brown : scapulars still darker, 
sometimes grey towards the base ; smallest coverts along the fore- 
arm whitish, with dark brown shafts ; outer greater coverts, 
primary-coverts, and all quills except first 6 primaries dark silvery 
grey, remaining coverts and very often the tertiaries dark brown"; 
first 6 primaries black with the basal portion white : upper tail- 
coverts white, with rufous and brown mixed in various ways ; tail 
grey above, isabelline below ; abdomen and lower tail-coverts 
ferruginous brown, more or less striped darker. 

Females are dark brown except the crown, nape, chin, and more 
or less of the throat, which are buff with brown stripes. There is 
sometimes a patch of buff on the breast, the wing-coverts and back 
have buff edges, and the upper tail-coverts are rufous. 

The young of both sexes resemble the female, except that the 
buff on the head is sometimes unstreaked and more limited in 
extent, being confined in some cases to a nuchal patch or even 
wanting altogether. 

Bill black ; cere and base of bill greenish yellow ; iris yellow, 
brownish yellow in females and young ; legs and feet rich yellow 
(Hume). 

Length of males 21 ; tail 9-5 ; wing 16 ; tarsus 3-4 : length of 
females 22'5 ; tail 975 ; wing 16-5 ; tarsus 3'5. 

Distribution. Common in suitable localities throughout India, 
Ceylon, and Burma from September or sometimes earlier, till April 
or May. Beyond Indian limits the Marsh-Harrier ranges over the 
greater part of Asia, Europe, and Africa. 

Habits, fyc. The Marsh-Harrier is commonly found about 
swampy plains or on the edges of large pieces of water, sometimes 
it may be met with hunting over dry grass plains. Though a more 
powerful bird its movements are very similar to those of the 
smaller Harriers, but it occasionally flies at considerable elevations 
like a Buzzard. It lives on frogs, fish, insects, small or weakly 
birds, and eggs, and often carries off wounded snipe or teal, or 
makes a meal off a wounded duck that is too heavy for it to carry 

2c2 



388 

away. This bird, though migratory as a rule, appears occasionally 
to breed in India : eggs believed to belong to this species were 
obtained by Mr. Ehodes Morgan in the Kurnool district, and 
other writers have noticed the bird in Northern India in the hot 
season and rains. Like other Harriers, it makes its nest of grass 
or straw on the ground or amongst reeds, and lays 4 or 5 eggs, 
which are either pure white or slightly spotted and measure about 
2 by 1-5 inches. 

1238. Circus spilonotus. The Eastern Marsh-Harrier. 

Circus spilonotus, Kaup in Jardine's Conti\ Orn. 1850, p. 59 ; 
Swinhoe, Ibis, 1863, p. 213, pi. v ; Skarpe, Cat. B. M. i, p. 58 ; 
id. Ibis, 1876, p. 30 ; Gurney, Ibis, 1875, p. 225 ; Hume, S. F. xi, 
p. 14. 

Coloration. Adult male. Very like old females of C. melano- 
leucus ; above blackish brown, the feathers of the head and neck 
with broad white or rufous edges ; ruff indistinct ; back-feathers 
and wing-coverts with irregular grey or rufescent white spots and 
patches ; the smaller coverts along the forearm white, sometimes 
with dark shaft-stripes ; primary- coverts and outer surface of 
secondaries grey, terminal portion of primaries blackish, bases of 
all quills white ; upper tail-coverts white, with grey or brown bars ; 
tail grey above, whitish below, unbarred ; lower parts white with 
blackish shaft-stripes, broad on the throat and upper breast, narrow 
or wanting on the abdomen. 

Adult female. Brown above, the feathers throughout with pale 
rufous edges ; tail-coverts white and rufous ; tail with about six 
dark cross-bands, which disappear in old individuals ; lower parts 
buff, with broad rufous-brown shaft-stripes. The quills are dark 
brown but become greyish in old birds. 

Young birds so closely resemble those of C. ceruginosus as to be 
indistinguishable at times. The pale head and neck-feathers are 
always striated in C. spilonotus, but the body, wings, and tail are 
uniformly brown or variegated with buff on the wing-coverts, back, 
and breast. Generally, though not invariably, traces of bars will 
be found on some of the tail-feathers of C. spilonotus, but this 
occasionally happens in 0. ceruginosus also. 

Length of male 20 ; tail 9-25 ; wing 15-5 ; tarsus 3'5 : tail of 
female 10 ; wing 16'5 ; tarsus 3'7. 

Distribution. Southern China, extending far inland, it is said, 
even to Dauria, also the Philippines, Malay Peninsula, and Borneo. 
A young bird obtained by Capt. Wardlaw Earn say at Toungngoo 
was referred to this species by Mr. Gurney, but on comparing it 
with young birds of both this Harrier and C. melanoleucus, I am 
inclined to assign it to the latter. Hume was convinced he saw 
C. spilonotus in Manipur, and I have very little doubt he was 
right. Latterly Mr. T. A. Hauxwell has shot a fine adult male 
near Moulmein on the Attaran, and has been so good as to send it 
to me for examination. 

Habits, fyc. Similar to those of C. ceruginosus, but more kite-like. 



BUTEO. 389 

Genus BUTEO, Cuvier, 1800. 

The true Buzzards, to which the next two genera belong, are, as 
Blyth and Jerdon long ago pointed out, closely allied to Eagles, 
from which, indeed, they chiefly differ structurally by their less 
powerful bills and claws. By far their most distinctive character 
is one on which very little stress had been laid by ornithologists, 
though it has not escaped Prof. A. Newton, and consists in the 
want of any distinct immature garb ; all Buzzards, so far as is 
known, assuming the adult plumage at once from the downy 
stage. It is true that a slight change is believed to be produced 
by a g e > the bars on the tail gradually disappear, and in some 
species there is a tendency to barring on the lower surface in old 
birds. The coloration, despite the want of a distinct immature 
phase, is exceedingly variable pale, rufous, and melanistic forms 
being found in several species. These colour variations were, 
until recently, attributed to age, but, so far as I can ascertain, 
wrongly. A series of moulting specimens*, for instance of 
B. ferox, would afford valuable information, it being borne in 
mind that the plumage which is being shed is always faded. 

In the genus Buteo the bill is small or moderate, the culmen is 
curved from the cere, the commissure nearly straight, the festoon 
being only slightly developed ; the nostrils are o