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BIOLOGY 
LIBRARY 

G 



THE FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA, 



INCLUDING 



CEYLON AND BURMA. 



PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE SECRETARY OF 
STATE FOR INDIA IN COUNCIL. 

EDITED BY W. T. BLAXFORD. 



BIRDS. -Vol. IV. 



BY 



W. T. BLANFORD, F.R.S. 



LONDON: 
TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



CALCUTTA : 
THACKEE, SPINK, & CO. 



BOMBAY : 

THACKER & CO., LIMITED. 



BERLIN : 
R. FRIEDLAXDER & SOHX, 11 CARLSTRASSE. 

1898. 



BIOLOG1 
.IBRAR1 

G 



ALERE 



FLA.MMAM. 




PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, 
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



PREFACE. 



THE Vertebrate animals of British India have now been 
described for the first time in a single uniform series, 
consisting of eight volumes, of which this is the last to 
appear. The work comprises two volumes on Fishes by 
the late Dr. P. Day. one on Reptiles and Batrachians by 
Mr. G. Boulenger, and two on Birds by Mr. E. W. Gates ; 
the remaining two volumes of Birds and one on Mammals, 
together with the editing of the whole, having been my own 
contribution to the undertaking. Five volumes on Inverte- 
brata four on the Moths of British India by Sir G. P. 
Hampson, and one on the Hymenoptera by Colonel C. T. 
Bingham have also been published on the same plan. The 
work has fully occupied me during the fifteen years that 
have now elapsed since my retirement from Indian service ; 
but the completion of the Vertebrate series would not have 
been practicable without the valuable cooperation of the 
able naturalists already mentioned. 

This volume contains the Pigeons, the Gallinaceous birds, 
and the numerous tribes commonly classed together as 
Waders and Swimming birds. It thus includes all the Game 
Birds, both of land and water an arrangement which may 
be found convenient, although good separate works on the 
subject exist, containing fuller details than are consistent 
with the limits of the present publication. One part of a 

358261 



IV PREFACE. 

work on the Game Birds of India by Mr. Gates, the author 
of the first two volumes of Birds in the present series, has 
just appeared, too late for references to it to be inserted in 
the appendix to this volume. 

The classification adopted for the Birds was explained in 
the Preface to the third volume. The sequence of the 
Orders is to some extent a matter of convenience, it would 
have been equally correct to have commenced this volume 
with the Steganopodes and Herodiones, as the nearest allies 
of the Accipitrine birds described at the end of the last. 
At the same time, it is natural to place the Pigeons as near 
to the Cuckoos and Owls as possible. The arrangement here 
employed has been preferred chiefly because it more nearly 
resembles Jerdon's, with whose work Indian naturalists have 
now been familiar for more than thirty years, and is there- 
fore likely to be found more convenient. 

The keys to genera and species in this and other volumes 
are intended solely to assist in the determination of specimens, 
and do not necessarily depend on the characters of the greatest 
importance, nor do the generic keys always serve for species 
not found in India. 

The English names used by Jerdon have been retained, 
except when they differ from those commonly used in 
England, or when they have been found to be no longer 
appropriate, owing either to improved knowledge of the 
bird's affinities or to the discovery of additional species. 
Thus such names as Shell Ibis and Pelican Ibis cannot be 
retained now that we find that the birds to which they are 
applied are not Ibises but Storks; and it is a mistake to employ 
any longer the term of " The Golden Plover " for Charadrivs 
fulvuSj when we know that the true Golden Plover of Europe, 
C. pluvialis, is sometimes a visitor to India. 

The number of Indian birds regarded as distinct species 
in the present work, including the nine added in the 



PREFACE. V 

Appendix, amounts to 1626. Jerdon, from a much smaller 
area, described 1016. Hume's Catalogue of 1879 contained 
1788 entries, of which he rejected 106 and regarded 74 as 
doubtful, leaving 1608, or nearly the same as the present 
enumeration. The precise number of species is naturally 
dependent on a personal factor, some writers being more 
liberal than others in admitting the claims to specific rank 
of races which are distinguished by small differences of 
plumage or measurement, or which are connected by inter- 
vening links with the typical form. Such races or sub- 
species, as they are called, have not, as a rule, been separately 
numbered and described in the present work, but they have 
received due notice and their characters have been explained. 

A very considerable part of the present work is founded 
on the Catalogue of Birds in the British Museum, and on 
the specimens preserved in the Museum Collections. It is 
difficult to exaggerate the obligations of both Mr. Gates 
and myself to Dr. R. Bowdler Sharpe and Mr. W. Ogilvie 
Grant, the officers in charge of the Bird Department. In 
several cases the labour of compiling this and other volumes 
has been lightened by access to unpublished parts of the 
Museum Catalogue. 

Prof. Newton's most useful ' Dictionary of Birds ' has 
often furnished valuable information, and has occasionally 
prevented mistakes from being made; whiUt for anatomical 
information I am greatly indebted to Dr. H. Gadow's con- 
tributions to the Dictionary and to his share of Bronn's great 
work. Some important details have also been personally 
communicated by Dr. Gadow and Mr. Beddard. 

In addition to the many friends in India who have 
contributed to the previous volumes, thanks are due to 
Mr. F. Finn and Mr. A. L. Butler, both of whom have sent 
valuable notes. In this volume, as in the last, Mr. Oates's 
notes have been of great service, and he has added important 
information on some of the Birds of Upper Burma. 



vi PREFACE. 

The woodcuts illustrating all four volumes are the work 
of Mr. P. J. Smit, except in a very few cases, when the 
origin of the cuts is acknowledged. 

Lastly, I would express a hope that the series of volumes 
on Indian Vertebrata now concluded may contribute to a 
fuller knowledge of the animals inhabiting the country and 
may facilitate the study of them, ancf by so doing fulfil the 
design with which this work was undertaken. 

W. T. BLANFORD. 

March 1st, 1898. 



LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL WORKS QUOTED IN 
THE SYNONYMY. 



IN this list, as in similar lists occurring in other parts of this series, 
no attempt is made to give a complete catalogue of all the works 
quoted, but all books frequently quoted or which are necessary 
for the study of the Ornithology of British India are enumerated, 
with the abbreviations used. 



A. M. N. H. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. London, 1838-98. 

Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves. Anatomical and Zoological Besearches. 
comprising an account of the Zoological Eesults of the two Expeditions to 
Western Yunnan in 1868 and 1875, &c. By John Anderson, M.D. 1 vol. 
text and 1 vol. atlas. London, 1879. 

Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di 
Geneva. Genoa, 1870-98. 

Ann. Sci. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie et Paleontologie, &c. 
Paris, 1824-98. 

As. Res. Asiatic Kesearches (Transactions of the (Asiatic) Society of Bengal). 
Calcutta : vol. xviii., 1829-33 ; xix., 1836-39. 

Barnes, Birds Bom. Handbook to the Birds of the Bombay Presidency. 
By Lieut. H. Edwin Barnes. Calcutta, 1885. 

Bechst. Naturg. Deutschl. Gemeinuiitzige Naturgeschichte Deutschlands 
nach alien drey Keichen. Von Johann Matthaus Bechstein. 4 vols. 
Leipzig, 1789-95. 2nd edition. 3 vols. 1801-7. 

Bechst. Naturg. Deutschl. Nachtr. Nachtrage von J. P. A. Leisler. 
2 Hefte. Hanau, 1812-15. 

Bechst. Orn. Taschenb. Ornithologisches Taschenbuch von und fur 
Deutschland, oder kurzgefasste Beschreibung aller Vogel Deutschlands. 
Von T. M. Bechstein. Leipzig, 1802-3. 

Beng. Sport. Mag. Bengal Sporting Magazine. Calcutta, 1832-45. 

Blanf. East. Pers. Eastern Persia : an account of the Journeys of the 
Persian Boundary Commission 1870-72. "Vol. II. The Zoology and 
Geology by W. T. Blanf ord. London, 1876. 

Blyth, Cat. Catalogue of the Birds in the Museum Asiatic Society. By 
Edward Blyth. Calcutta, 1849. 

Blyth, Birds Burma. Catalogue of Mammals and Birds of Burma (with 
notes by Lord Walden). By the late E. Blyth. Hertford, 1875. Extra 
Number to the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. xliv. 

Bodd. Tabl. PI. Enl. Table des Planches enlumineez d'Historie Naturelle 
de M. D'Aubenton. Par M. Boddaert. Utrecht, 1783. Eeprint edited 
by W. B. Tegetmeier. Loudon, 1874. 



Vlll WORKS QUOTED. 

Bonap. Comp. List B. Eur. & N. Amer. A Geographical and Com- 
parative List of the Birds of Europe arid North America. By Charles 
Lucien Bonaparte. London, 1838. 

Bonap. Consp. Av. Conspectus Generum Avium. Auctore Carolo Luciano 
Bonaparte. Lugduni-Batavorum : Vol. I., 1849-50 ; II., 1857. 

Bonap. Consp. Volucr. Zygod. Conspectus Volucrum Zygodactylorum. 
Auctore Carolo L. Bonaparte. Paris, 1854. 

Bonap. &, Schleg. Mon. Lox. Monographic cles Loxiens. Par C. L. 
Bonaparte et H. Schlegel. Leiden et Diisseidorf, 1850. 

Bonn. Tabl. Encycl. Meth. Tableau Encyclopedique et Methodique, &c.' 
Ornithologie, par I 1 Abbe Bonnaterre et continue par L. P. Vieillot. 3 vols. 
Paris, 1790-1823. 

Brehm, Vog Deutschl. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte aller Vogel 
Deutschlands. Von Christian Ludwig Brehm. llmenau, 1831. 

Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. Bulletin de PAcadeinie Imperiale des Sciences 
de St. Petersbourg. St. Petersburg, 1836-98. 

Bull. B. O. C. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club. Vols. i.-vii. 
London, 1892-98. 

Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou. Bulletin de la Societe Imperiale de 
Naturalistes de Moscou. Moscow, 1829-98. 

Cab. &/ H. Mus. Hein. Museum Heineanum. Verzeichniss der ornitho- 
logischen Sammlung des Oberamtmann Ferdinand Heine, &c. Von 
Dr. Jean Cabanis. Haberstadt, 1850-63. 

Cat. B. M. Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum. Vols. i.-xxvii. 
London, 1874-98. 

C. R. Comptes-Reudus hebdornadaires des Seances. Tomes i.-cxxvi. Paris, 
1835-98. 

Cuv. Regne An. Le Eegne Animal distribue d'apres son organisation, 
pour servir de base a 1'Histoire naturelle de Auimaux, &c. Par. M. le C'Lev. 
Cuvier. 4 vols. Paris, 1817. 

Cuv. Regne An., 2 e ed. Idem. 2nd edition. 5 vols. Paris, 1829. 

Daud. Traite. Traite elementaire et complet d'Ornithologie, &c. Par 
F. M. Daudin. 2 vols. Paris, 1800. 

Delessert, Voy, de 1'Inde. Souvenirs d'un Voyage dans 1'Inde execute de 
1834 a 1839, par M. Adolphe Delessert. Paris, 143. 

Diet. Sci. Nat. Dictionnaire cles Sciences Naturelles, &c. Text 60 Vole. 
Atlas 12 vols. Strasbourg et Paris, 1816-30. 

Dresser, Mon. Mer. A Monograph of the Meropidas or Family of the 
Bee-eaters. By H. E. Dresser. London, 1884-86. 

Encycl. Meth. Encyclopedic Methodique Ornithologie, par 1'Abbe 
Bonnaterre et contiuuee par L. P. Vieillot. Paris, 1790-1823. 

Eversm. Add. Pall. Zoogr. Ross.-Asiat. Addenda ad celeberrimi 
Pallasii Zoographiam Rosso- Asiaticam. Aves. Fasc. i.-iii. Auctore 
Doctore Eduardo Eversrnann. Kasani, 1835-42. 

Finsch., Papag. Die Papageien, monographisch. bearbeitet von Otto Finsch. 
Leiden, 1867-68. 

Fleming, Brit. An. A History of British Animals, &c. By John Fleming. 
Edinburgh, 1828. 

Forster, Ind. Zool. Indische Zoologie, oder systematische Beschreibungen 
seltener und unbekaunter Thieve aus Indien, &c. Von John Keinhold 
Forster. Halle, 1781. 



WORKS QUOTED. IX 

Forster, Faun. Ind. Faunula Indica, id est Catalogus Animalium India} 
Orientalis, &c., concinnatus a Joanne Latham et Hugone Davies. Ed. a 
J. R. Forster. Hala, 1795. 

Gadow, Bronn's Klass. Ordn. Thier-Reichs. Dr. H. G. Bronn's 

Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs, &c. Sechster Band. IV. Ab- 

theilung: Vogel. II. Systematischer Theil. Von Hans Gadow. Leipzig 
und Heidelberg, 1893. 

Georgi, Reise Russ. Reich. Bemerkungen einer Eeise im Russischen 
Reich in Jahre 1772. Von Job. Gtli. Georgi. St. Petersburg, 1775. 

Gleanings in Science. Gleanings in Science. Vols. i.-iii. Calcutta, 1829-31. 

Gm. Syst. Nat. Caroli a Linne, &c., Systema Nature, editio decima tertia. 
Lipsise, 1788. 

Gould, Birds Asia. The Birds of Asia. By John Gould. 7 vols. London, 
1850-83. 

Gould, Cent. A Century of Birds from the Himalaya Mountains. By John 
Gould. London, 1832. 

Gould, Icon. Av. Icones Avium, or figures and descriptions of new and 
interesting species of birds, &c. By John Gould. Parts I. & II. London, 

1837-38. 

G. R. Gray, Gen. B. Genera of Birds : comprising their generic characters, 
&c. (Illustrated by D. W. Mitchell.) By George Robert Gray. 3 vols. 
London, 1844-49. 

G. R. Gray, Hand-1. B. Hand-list of Genera and Species of Birds, 

distinguishing those contained in the British Museum. By George Robert 

Gray. 3 vols. London, 1869-71. 
G. R. Gray, List Gen. B. A List of the Genera of Birds, with an indication 

of the typical Species of each Genus, &c. By George Robert Gray. 

London, 1840. 2nd edition, 1841. 

G. R. Gray, List Sp. Birds B. M. List of the Specimens of Birds in the 
Collection of the Uritish Museum. By George Robert Gray. 9 Parts and 
Sections. London, 1848-68. 

Gray, Cat. Mamm. etc., Coll. Hodgs, Catalogue of Specimens and 
Drawings of Mammalia and Birds of Nepal and Thibet presented by 
B. H. Hodgson to the British Museum. By John Edward Gray. London, 
1846. 2nd edition, 1863. 

Gray in Griffith's An. Kingd., Aves. The Class Aves arranged by the 
Baron Cuvier, with specific descriptions by E. Griffith and E. Pidgeon. 
The additional species inserted in the text of Cuvier by John Edward Gray. 
3 vols. London, 1839. 

Gray in Hardw. 111. Ind. Zool. (Orn.). Illustrations of Indian Zoology, 
chiefly selected from the collection of Major-General Hardwicke, by John 
EdwaVd Gray. 2 vols. London, 1830-34. 

Gray, Zool. Misc. The Zoological Miscellany. By John Edward Gray. 
London, 1831-44. 

Hempr. et Ehr. Symb. Phys. Symboloe Physicse seu Icones et De- 
scriptioues corporum natnraiiurn novorum, &c. Friedr. Wilh. Hemprich 
et Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg. Berolini, 1828. 

Horsf. &/ M. Cat. A Catalogue of the Birds in the Museum of the Hon. 

East India Company. By Thomas Horsfield and F. Moore. London, 

1854-58. 
Horsf. Res. Java. Zoological Researches in Java and the neighbouring 

Islands. By Thomas Horsfield. London, 182 i. 

Hume, Cat. A Rough Tentative List of the Birds of India. By Allan 
Hume. Stray Feathers, vol. viii, pp. 73-150. 1879. 



X WORKS QUOTED. 

Hume, N. So E. Nests and Eggs of Indian Birds. Rough Draft. By Allan 
Hume. Calcutta, 1873-75. 

Hume, Rough Notes. My Scrap-Book : or, Bough Notes on Indian 
Zoology and Ornithology, edited by Allan Hume. Calcutta, 1869-70. 

Hume &, Henders. Lah. to Yark. Lahore to Yarkand : Incidents of 
the Route and Natural History of the Countries traversed by the Expe- 
dition of 1870 under T. D. Forsyth. By George Henderson and Allan 
O. Hume. London, 1873. 

Hume &/ Marsh. Game B. The Game Birds of India, Burmah, and 
Ceylon. By Allan O. Hume and C. H. T. Marshall. 3 vols. Calcutta, 
1879. 

Ibis. The Ibis, a Quarterly Journal of Ornithology. London, 1859-98. 

Illiger, Prod. Caroli Illigeri D., Prodroinus Systematis Mammalium et 
Avium. Berolini, 1811. 

Ind. Rev. The India Review. Calcutta, 1836-39. 

Isis. Isis, oder Encyclopadische Zeitung von Oken. Jena, 1817-48. 

Jacquem. Voy. Voyage dans PInde, par Victor Jacquemont, pendant los 
annees 1828 a 1832. 4 vols. & 2 vols. Atlas. Description des Collections : 
Oiseaux par Isidore Geoffroy St.-Hilaire. Paris, 1841-44. 

Jard. Cont. Orn. Contributions to Ornithology. By Sir William Jardine. 

London, 1848-52. 

Jard. &/ Selby, 111. Orn. Illustrations of Ornithology. By Sir William 
Jardine and Prideaux John Selby. 3 vols. Edinburgh, 1825-43. 

Jerdon, B. I. The Birds of India ; being a Natural History of all the Birds 
known to inhabit Continental India. By T. C. Jerdon. 3 vols. Calcutta, 
1862-64. 

Jerdon, 111. Ind. Orn. Illustrations of Indian Ornithology, containing 
fifty figures of new, unfigured, and interesting species of Birds, chiefly from 
the South of India. By Thomas Caverhill Jerdon. Madras, 1847. 

J. A. S. B. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Calcutta, 1831-98. 

Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 
Bombay, 1886-98. 

Jour. f. Orn. Journal fur Ornithologie. Cassel und Leipzig, 1853-98. 

Kaup, Natiirl. Syst. 8kizzirte Entwickelungs-Geschichte und naturliches 
System der Europiiischen Thierwelt. Von Jacob Kaup. Darmstadt und 
Leipzig, 1829. 

Kon. Svensk. Vet.-Ak. Handl. Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akade- 
miens Handlingar. Stockholm, 1813-54. 

Kuhl, Beitr. Beitrage zur Zoologie und vergleichenden Anatomie, von 
Heinrich Kuhl. Frankfurt-a.-M., 1820. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. Index Ornithologicus, sive Systema Ornithologise Johannis 
Latham. 2 vols. Londini, 1790. 

Leach, Syst. Cat. B. M. Systematic Catalogue of the Specimens of the Indi- 
genous Mammalia and Birds that are preserved in the British Museum, &c. 
By William Elford Leach. London, 1816. Reprint by Willughby Society, 
1882. 

Legge, Birds Ceyl. A History of the Birds of Ceylon. By Captain W. 
Vincent Legge. London, 1878-80. 

Less. Man. d'Orn. Manuel d'Ornithologie &c. Par R. P. Lesson. 2 vols. 
Paris, 1828. 



WORKS QUOTED. XI 

Less. Traite. Traite d'Ornithologie, ou Tableau method ique des Ordres, 
Sous-ordres, Families, Tribus, Genres, Sous-Genres et Races d'Oiseaux. 
Par E. P. Lesson. 1 vol. Text, and 1 vol. Atlas. Paris, 1831. 

Less. Voy. Belanger. Voyage aux Indes-Orientales par le Nord de 
1'Europe .... pendant les annees 1825-29. Par Charles Belanger. 
Zoologie : Oiseaux par K. P. Lesson. Paris, 1834. 

Licht. Verz. Doubl. Verzeichniss der Doubletten des zoologischen 
Museums der Konigl. Universtiit zu Berlin, nebst Beschreibung vieler 
bisher unbekannter Arten von Siiugethieren, Vogeln, &c. Von H. Lichten- 
stein. Berlin, 1823. 

Linn. Mantissa Plant. Car. a Linne, Mantissa Plantarum. Holmige, 1771. 

Linn. Syst. Nat. Caroli a Linne, Systema Naturse, editio duodecima refor- 
mata. Holmise, 17(>6. 

Madr. Jour. L. 8c S. Madras Journal of Literature and Science. Madras, 
1833-64. 

Main, Picidae. Monographic des Picidees, ou Histoire naturelle des Picides, 
Picurnnines, Yuncines ou Torcols, &c. Par Alf. Malherbe. 4 vols. 
Metz, 1801-62. 

Marshall, Mon. Cap. A Monograph of the Capitonidae or Scansorial 
Barbets. By C. H. T. Marshall and G. F. L. Marshall. London, 1871. 

Men^tr. Cat. Rais. Cauc. Catalogue raisonne des Objets de Zoologie 
recueillis dans un Voyage au Cauease et jusqu'aux frontieres actuelles de 
ia Perse. Par E. Menetries. St. Petersbourg, 1832. 

Mont. Orn. Diet. Ornithological Dictionary, or Alphabetical Synopsis of 
British Birds. By George Montagu. 2 vols. London, 1802. Supple- 
ment, 1813. 

Muller, Natursyst. Suppl. Des Eitters Carl von Linne vollstandigen 
Natursystems Supplements und Eegister-Band, &c. Von P. L. S. Muller. 
Niirnberg, 1775(1789?). 

Murray, Vert. Zool. Sind. The Vertebrate Zoology of Sind, &c. By 
James Murray. London and Bombay, 1884. 

Nat. Libr. The Naturalist's Library. Conducted by Sir William Jardine. 
40 vols. Edinburgh, 1833-43. 

Naum. Vbg. Deutschl. Naturgeschichte der Vogel Deutschlands, &c. 
Johann Friedrich Naumann. 13 vols. Leipzig, 1822-53. 

N. Arch. Mus. Nouvelles Archives du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle. 
Paris, 1865-97. 

Nouv. Diet. d.'Hist. Nat. Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle, 
appliquee aux arts, &c. 36 vols. Paris, 1803-19. 

Novara Rcise, Vog. Eeise der osterreichischen Fregatte Novara um die 
Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Vogel: von A. von Pelzelu. 
Wien, 1865. 

Nov. Com. Petrop. Novi Commentarii Acaderniaj Scientiarium Imperialis 
Petropolitanas. St. Petersburg, 1750-76. 

Oates, B. B. A Handbook to the Birds of British Burmah, including those 
found in the adjoining State of Karen nee. By Eugene William Oates. 

2 vols. London, 1883. 

Oates in Hume's N. &, E., 2nd ed. The Nests and Eggs of Indian 
Birds. By Allan O. Hume. 2nd edition, edited by Eugene William Oates. 

3 vols. London, 1889-90. 



Xll WORKS QUOTED. 

Osbeck, Voy. China. A Voyage to China and the East Indies, by Peter 
Osbeck, &c. ; together with a Voyage to Suratte by Olof Torren, &c. 
Translated from the German by J. R. Forster ; to which are added a 
Faunula and Flora Sinensis. 2 vols. London, 1771. 

Pall. Reis. Russ. Reichs. P. S. Pallas, Reise durch verschie:lene Pro- 
vinzen des Eussischeii Keichs. 3 vols. St. Petersburg, 1771-76. 

Pall. Zoogr. Rcsso-A siat. Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica, sistens omnium 
animalium in extenso Imperio Kossico et adjacentibus maribus obser- 
vatorum. Auctore P. S. Pallas. Petropoli, 1811-31. 

Pennant, Ind. Zool. Indian Zoology. By Thomas Pennant. London, 
1769. 

Physiogr. Sallskapets Tidsk. Physiographiska Sallskapets Tidskrift. 
Vol. 1. Lund, 1837-38. 

P. A. S. B. Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Calcutta, 

1865-98. 
P. Z. S. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. London, 

1830-98. 

II add e, Reis. S. O.-Sibir. Reisen im Siiden von Ost-Sibirien in den 
Jahren 1855-59 iucl. Von Gustav Radde. Ba. II, die FestlancU Ornis. 
St. Petersburg, 1862-63. 

Rev. et Mag, Zool. Revue et Magasin de Zoologie, pure ct appliqueo, 
Recueil mensuel. Paris, 1849-79. 

Rowley, Orn. Misc. Ornithological Miscellany. By George Dawsou 
Rowley. 3 vols. London, 1875-78. 

Royle, 111. Bot. Himal. &C. Illustrations of the Botany and other 
branches of the Natural History of the Himalayan Mountains, c. By 
John Forbes Royle. London, lb33-39. 

Rupp. Atlas. Atlas zu der Reise im norcl lichen Africa von Eduaid Riippell. 
Vogel: von P. J. Cretzschmar. Frankfurt-am-Main, 18^6. 

Riipp. Neue Wirb., Vbgel. Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von 
Abyssinieu gehorig, entdeckt und betchriebtn von Dr. Eduaid luippell. 
Vogel. Frankt'uri-am-Main, 1835. 

Schaeff. Mus. Orn. J. C. Schaeffer, Museum Ornithologicum,&c. Ratisfcon, 
1789. 

Scop. Ann. Hist. Nat. Johannis Antonii Scopoli, Annus I-V Hibtorico- 
jN'aturalis. Lipsiaa, 1769-72. 

Seep. Del. Flor. et Faun. Insubr. Delicite Florae et Faurae Insubrica?, 
c. Joannes Antonius Scopoli. 3 vols. Ticini, l r t 86-88. 

Seebohm, Charadr. The Geographical Distribution of the Family Cha- 
radriidaa, or the Ploveis, Sandpipers, Snipes, and their Allies. By Henry 
Seebohm. London, 1888. 

SevertZ. Turkest. Jevotn. Vertikalnoe i Gorizontanoe Rasprcdalenie 
Turkestanski Jevotni. [Vertical and Horizontal Distiibution of Turkestan 
Animals. Edited by A. P. Fedtschenko and L. P. Sabanaett.j JNikolai 
Aleksyewvich Sever tzoff'. Moscow, 1873. 

Sharpe, Yark. Miss., Aves. Scientific Results of the Second Yarkand 
Mission, based upon the Collections and Notes of the late Ferdinand 
Stoliczka. Aves. By Richard Bowdler Sharpe. 1891. 

Shaw, Gen. Zool. General Zoology, or Systematic Natural History, by 
George Shaw. Continued by James Francis Stephens. 14 vols. London, 
1800-26. 

Shelley, Mon. Nee. A Monograph of the Nectariniidae, or Family of Sun- 
birds. By Captain G. E. Shelley. London, 1876-80. 



WOEKS QUOTED. Xlll 

S. F. Stray Feathers, a Journal of Ornithology for India and its De- 
pendencies. Edited by Allan O. Hume. 11 vols. Calcutta, 1873-88. 

Swains. Class. Birds. On the Natural History and Classification of Birds. 
(Lardner's Cyclopaedia.) By W. Swainson. 2 vols. London, 1836-37. 

Swains. Nat. Lib. The Naturalist's Library. Conducted .by Sir W. 
Jardine. Vols. vii, viii, x. By William Swainson. 1837-38. 

Swains. Zool. 111. Zoological Illustrations, or Original Figures and De- 
scriptions of new, rare, or interesting Animals, &c. By William Swainson. 
6 vols. London, 1820-33. 

Temm. Man. d'Orn. Manuel d'Ornithologie, on tableau systematique des 
Oiseaux qui S3 trouvent en Europe. C. J. Teniminck. Amsterdam et Paris, 
1813-15. 

Temm. Man. d'Orn., ed. 2. Idem, 2 e edition. 4 vols. Amsterdam et 
Paris, 1820-40. 

Temm. Pig. et Gall. Histoire Natui-elle generale des Pigeons et des 
Gallinaces. Par C. J. Temrninck. 3 vols. Amsterdam et Paris, 1813-15. 

Temm. Pigeons. Les Pigeons par Madame Knip. Le Texte par C. J. 
Teniminck. 2 vols. Paris, 1808-43. 

Temm. PI. Col. Nouveau Eecueil de Planches coloriees d'Oiseaux, pour 
servir de suite et de complement aux Planches Enluminees de Buffon, 
public par C. J. Temminck. 5 vols. Paris, 1820-39. 

Temm. &/ Schleg. Faun. Jap., Aves. Fauna Japonica, sive descriptio 
Animalium qiue in itinere per Japoniam, &c., suscepto annis 1823-30 
collegit &c. Pb. Fr. de Siebold. Conjunctis studiis C. J. Temminck et 
H. Schlegel pro vertebratis : Aves. Lugduni-Batavorum, 1838-50. 

Tr. Linn. Soc, Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. London, 
1791-98. 

Tr. Z. S. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London. London, 

1835-98. 

Verhand. Nat. Gesch., Zool., Aves. Verhandelingen overdenatuurlijke 
Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche overzeesche bezittingen, &c. Zoologie. 
H. Schlegel u. S. Miiller. Leiden, 1839-44. 

Verhand. Land- en Volk. Idem. Land- en Volkenkunde, voor Salomon 
Miiller. Leiden, 1839-44. 

Wagler, Syst. Av. Systema Avium. Auctor Dr. Johannes Wagler. 

Stuttgartise et Tubingae, 1827. 
Zeitschr. ges. Orn. Zeitschrift fiir die gesammte Ornithologie, herausge- 

geben von Dr. Julius von Madarasz. 4 vols. Budapest, 1884-88. 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Order COLUMB^E 



Page 



Fain. COLUMBID M 3 

Subfam. Treroninte 3 

1. Crocopus, Bonap 4 

1. phoenicopterusCZetfA.) 5 

2. chlorogaster (Blyth) . 6 

2. Osmotreron, Bonap 7 

1. phayrei, Blyth 8 

2. atfinis (Jerdori) 8 

3. pompadora (Gm.) . . 9 

4. chloroptera (BlytK) . . 10 

5. fulvicollis ( Wagl.) . . 10 

6. bicincta (Jerdori) .... 11 

7. remans (Linn.) .... 13 

3. Butreron, Bonap 13 

1. capellii (Temm.) 13 

4. Treron, Vieill 14 

1. nepalensis (Hodgs.) . . 14 

5. Sphenocevcus, G.R.Gray. 15 

1. apicicauda (Hodgs.). . 16 

2, sphenurus ( Vigors) . . 16 

Subfam. Carpophagince 18 

1. Carpophaga, Selby .... 18 

1. senea (Linn.} 19 

2. insularis, Blyth 20 

2. Ducula, Hodgs 20 



1. insignis, Hodgs. . . . 

2. griseicapilla, Wald. . 

3. cuprea (Jerdon) . . . 
3. Myristicivora, Reichenb. 

l^bicolor (Scop.} 



21 
22 
22 
23 
23 



Subfam. Calcenadince 24 

1. Calcenas, G. R. Gray . . 24 
1. nicobarica (Linn.) . . 24 



Page 

Subfam. PhaUnce 16 

1. Chalcophaps, Gould 26 

1. indica (Linn.} 26 

Subfam. Columbines 28 

1. Columba, Linn 28 

1 . intermedia, Strickl. . . 29 

2. livia, Bonnaterre .... 30 

3. rupestris, Pall 30 

4. eversmanni, Bonap.. . 31 

5. leuconota, Vigors. ... 32 

2. Dendrotreron, Hodgs. . . 32 

1. hodgsoni ( Vigors) . , 33 

3. Palumbus, Kaup 34 

1. casiotis, Bonap 34 

4. Alsocomus, Tickell 35 

1. elphinstonii (Sykes). . 36 

2. torringtoniaB (Kelaart) 36 

3. pulchricollis (Hodgs.). 37 

4. puniceus, Tickell .... 38 

5. palumboides (Hume). 39 

5. Turtur, Selby 39 

1. orientalis (Lath.) 40 

2. ferrago (Eversm.) . . 41 

3. communis, Selby .... "42 

4. suratensis (Gm.) .... 43 

5. tigrinus (Temm.) .... 44 

6. cambayensis (Gm.) . . 45 

7. risorius (Linn.) .... 46 

6. (Enopopelia, Blanf. 47 

1. tranquebarica(7Zerw.) 47 

7. Macropygia, Swains 48 

1. tusalia (Hodgs.) 49 

2. rufipennis, Blyth .... 50 

3. run'ceps (Tenwi.) .... 51 

Subfam. Geopeliince 52 

1. Geopelia, Swains 52 

1. striata (Linn.) 52 



XVI 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Order PTEROCLETES .... 53 

Fam. PTEROCLID^ 53 

1. Pterocles, Temm . . 54 

1. arenarius (Pall.) .... 54 

2. fasciatus (Scop.} .... 55 

3. lichtensteini, Temm. . 57 

4. coronatus, Licht 57 

2. Pteroclurus, Bonap 58 

1. alchata (Linn.} 58 

2. exustus (Temm.} 60 

3. senegallus (Linn.} . . 61 

3. Syrrhaptes, Illiger 62 

1. tibetanus, Gould .... 63 



Order GALLING 64 



Suborder ALECTOBOPODES 66 



Fam. PHASIANIDJE 



1. Pavo, Linn 

1. cri status, Linn 

2. muticus, Linn 

2. Argusianus, Rafinesque . 

1. argus (Linn.} 

3. Poly plectrum, Temm. . . 

1. ehinquis (Milller) . . 

4. Gallus, Brisson 

1. ferrugineus (Gm.) . . 

2. lafayettii, Less 

3. sonnerati, Temm 

5. Phasiaims, Linn 

1. humiae (Hume} .... 

2. eleyans, Elliot 

6. Catreus, Cabanis 

1. walliclri (Hardiu.) . . 

7. Pucrasia, G. R. Gray . . 

1. macrolopha (Less.) . . 

8. Lophura, Fleming 

1. rufa (Raffles) 

9. Gennoeus, Wayler 

1. albicristatus (Vigors). 

2. leucomelanus (Lath.}. 

3. melanonotus (Blyth} . 

4. horsfieldi (Gray} .... 

5. lineatus ( Vigors) .... 

6. andersoni (Elliot) . . 

10. Lophophorus, Temm. . . 

1 . refulgens, Temm 

2. impeyanus (Lath.) . . 

11. Tragopan, C'uv 

1. satyra (Linn.) 



66 



68 
70 
71 
71 

72 
73 
74 
75 
77 
78 
80 
80 
81 
82 
82 
84 
84 
87 
87 
88 
89 
90 
91 
92 
92 
94 
95 
P6 
97 
98 
99 



12. 

13. 
14. 

1* 
16. 
17. 

18. 

19. 
20. 

21. 



22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 

26. 



27. 

28. 

29. 



Page 

2. melanocephalus(6rrf/) ItJO 

3. blythi (Jerdon) 102 

Ithagenes, Wagler .... 103 

1. cruentus (Hardw.) . . 103 

Ophrysia, Bonap 1 04 

1. superciliosa (Gray} . . 105 

Galloperdix, Blyth 106 

1. spadicea (Gm.) .... 106 

2. lunulata ( Valenc.) ..108 

3. bicalcarata (Penn.) . . 109 
Bambusicola, Gould .... 110 

1. fytchii, Anderson. . . . 110 

Roliiilus, Bon Ill 

1. roulroul (Scop.} 111 

Excalfactoria, Bonap. . . 112 

1. chineusis (Linn.} .... 112 

Coturnix, Bonnaterre . . 114 

1. commmus,Bonnaterre. 114 

2. coromandelica(rM.) . 116 
Perdicula, Hodys 117 

1. asiatica (Lath.} 118 

2. argunda (Sykes) .... 119 
Microperdix, Gould .... 120 

1. erythrorhynchus 

(Sykes) 121 

2. blewitti, Hume 122 

3. manipurensis (Hume) 122 
Arboricola, Hod(/s 123 

1. torqueola ( Valenc.} . . 125 

2. rufigularis, Blyth .... 126 

3. intermedia. Bli/th . . 127 

4. atrigularis, Blyth. ... 127 

5. mandellii, Hume .... 128 

6. brunneipectus, Tickell. 128 
Tropicoperdix, Blyth . . 129 

1. chloropus, Tickell . . 129 

Caloperdix, Blyth 130 

1. oculea (Temm.) 131 

Caccabis, Kaup 131 

1. chucar (Gray) 131 

Ammoperdix, Gould. . , . 133 

1. bonhami (Fraser) . . 133 

Francolinus, Steph 134 

1. vulgaris, Steph 135 

2. pictus (Jard. $ Selby} 137 

3. chinensis ( Osbeck} . . 138 

4. pondicerianus (Gm.) . 139 

5. gularis (Temm.) .... 141 
Perdix, Briss 142 

1. hodgsoniae (Hodas.) . 142 

Tetraogallus, Gray .... 143 

1. himalayensis, G. It. 

Gray * 143 

2. tibetanus, Gould .... 144 
Lerwa, Hodgs 1 45 

1. nivicola, Hodys 145 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



XV11 





Page 


Subord. PERISTEROPODES. 


147 


Fam, MEGAPODIIDJE 


147 


1. Megapodius, Qtioy 8f 




Gaim 


147 


1. nicobariensis, Blyth. . 


147 


Order HEMIPODII . . . 


149 


Fam. TURNICID^ 


149 


] . Turnix, Bonn 


149 


1. pugnax (Temm.} . . . . 


151 


2. dussumieri (Temm.) . 


152 


3. tanld, Blyth 


153 


4. albiventris, Hume . . 


154 


5. blanfordi, Blyth 


155 


Order GRALLyE 


156 


Suborder FULICART^R.... 


157 


Fam. RALLIDJE 


157 


1. Rallus, Linn 


158 


1. indicus, Blyth 


158 


2. aquaticus, Linn 


160 


2. Hypoteenidia, Reichenb. . 


160 


1. striata (Linn.) 


160 


2. obscurior, Hume .... 


162 


3. Crex, Bechst 


162 


1. pratensis, Bechst 


163 


4. Porzana, Vieill 


163 


1. parva (Scop.) 


164 


2. pusilla (Pall.} 


165 


3. maruetta (Leach) .... 


166 


5. Rallina, Reichenb 


167 


1. superciliaris (Eyton). . 


167 


2. fasciata, Raffles 
3. canning! ( Tyler} .... 


169 
169 


6. Amaurornis, Reichenb. . . 


170 


1. fuscus (Linn.} 


170 


2. bicolor ( Walden) .... 


171 


3. akool (Sykes) 


172 


4. phcenicurus (Penn.) . . 


173 


7. Gallinula (Brisson) .... 


175 


1. chloropus (Linn.). . . . 


175 


8. Gallicrex, Blyth 


176 


1. ciuerea (Gm.) ...... 


176 


9. Porphyrio, Brisson .... 
] . polioceplialtis (Lath.). 
10. Fulica, Linn 


178 
178 
180 


1. atra, Linn 


180 



Page 

Fam. HELIORNITHIDJE 181 

1. Heliopais, Sharpe 182 

1. personata (Gray) .... 182 

Suborder G R u E s 184 

Fam. GRUID^E 185 

1. Grus, Pall 18 

1. communis, Bechst. . . 186 

2. leucogerauus, Pall. . . 187 

3. antigone (Linn.) .... 188 

4. sharpii, Blanf. 189 

2. Anthropoides, Vieill. . . 190 

1. virgo (Linn.) 190 

Suborder OXIDES 191 

Fam. OTIDIDJE 192 

1. Otis, Linn 192 

1. tarda, Linn 193 

2. tetrax, Linn 193 

2. Eupodotis, Less 194 

1. edwardsi (Gray) .... 195 

3. Houbara, Bonap 196 

]. macqueeni (Gray) . . 196 

4. Sypheotis, Less 198 

1. aurita (Lath.) 198 

2. bengalensis (Gm.) . . 200 



Order LIMICOL^E 202 



Fam. (EDICNEMIDJE 



203 
203 



1. GEdicnemus, Temm. . 

1. scolopax (S. G. Gm.).- 204 

2. Esacus, Less 205 

1. recurvirostris (Cuv.). . 205 

2. magnirostris (Geoffr.). 207 

Fam. DROMADIDJE 207 

1. Dromas, Paykull 208 

1. ardeola, Paykull 208 

Fam. GLAREOLIDJE 209 

Subfam. Cursoriince 210 

1. Cursorius, Lath 210 

1. coromandelicus(6rw.). 210 

2. gallicus (Gm.) 211 

2. Rhinoptilus, Strickl. 212 

1 . bitorquatus (Jerdon) . 212 



YOL. IV, 



XV111 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

Subfani. Glareolina 214 

1. Glareola, Briss 214 

1. orientalis, Leach .... 214 

2. pratincola (Linn.) . . 216 

3. lactea, Temm 216 

Fam. PARRIDJE 217 

1. Metopidius, Wagler 218 

1. indicus (Lath.) 218 

2. Hydrophasianus, Wagler. 219 

1. chirurgus (Scop.) .... 219 

Fam. CHARADHIID^ 221 

Subfani. Charadriince 222 

1. Strepsilas, llliger 222 

1. interpres (Linn.) .... 223 

2. Sarcogrammus, Reichenb. 224 

1. indicus (Bodd.) 224 

2. atrinuchalis (Blyth). . 226 

3. Sarciophorus, Strickl. . . 226 
1. malabaricus (Bodd) . . 226 

4. Microsarcops, Sharpe . . 228 

1. cinereus (Blyth) 228 

5. Hoplopterus, Bonap 229 

1. ventralis (Wagl.) 229 

6. Vanellus, Briaa 230 

1. vulgaris, Bechst 230 

7. Chettusia, Bonap 231 

1. gregaria (Pall.) 231 

2. leucura (Licht.) 233 

8. Oharadrius, Linn 233 

1. fulvus, Gm 234 

2. pluvialis, Linn 235 

9. Squatarola, Leach 235 

1. helvetica (Linn.) 236 

10. vEgialitis, Boie 236 

1. geoffroyi ( Wagl.) .... 237 

2. mongolica (Pall.) 238 

3. asiatica (Pall.) 239 

4. vereda (Gould) 240 

5. alexandrina (Linn.) . . 240 

6. dubia (Scop.) 241 

7. hiaticula (Linn.) 243 

8. placida (Gray) 244 

Subfam. Hfematopodince .... 245 

1. Hsematopus, Linn 245 

1. ostralegus, Linn 245 

2. Himantopus, Briss 246 

1. candidus, Bonn 247 

3 Recur virostris, Linn. . . 248 
avocetta. Linn 248 



Page 

4. Ibidorhynchus, Vigors . . 249 
1. struthersi, Vigors. . . . 249 

Subfam. Totanince 250 

1. Numenius, Brias 251 

1. arquata (Linn.) .... 252 

2. pheeopus (Linn.) .... 253 

2. Limosa, Brisa 254 

1. belgica (Gm.) 254 

,-. lapponica (Linn.) .... 256 

3. Macrorliamplms, Leach . . 257 

1. semipalinatus, Jerdon. 257 

4. Terekia, Bonap 258 

1. cinerea (Giildemt.) . . 258 

5. Totanus, Bechst 259 

1. hypoleucu (Linn.) . . 260 

2. glareola (Gm.) 261 

3. ochropus (Linn.) .... 262 

4. stagnates, Bechst. . . 263 

5. calidris (Linn.) 264 

6. fuscus (Linn.) 265 

7. glottis (Linn.) 266 

8. guttifer, Nordman . . 267 

6. Pavoncella, Leach 268 

1. pugnax (Linn.) .... 268 

7. Calidris, Cuo 270 

1. arenaria (Linn.) .... 270 

8. Eurynorhynchus, Nilsson. 271 
1. pygniteus (Linn,) .... 271 

9. Tringa, Linn 272 

1. minuta, Leiakr 273 

2. ruticollis, Pall 274 

3. subminuta, Middend. 275 

4. temrnincki, Leisler . . 275 

5. acuminata (Horaf.) . . 276 

6. crassirostris, Temm. & 

Schl 277 

7. subarquata (Giildemt.) 278 

8. alpina, Linn 279 

9. platyrhyncha, Temm. 279 
10. Phalaropus, Briss 280 

1. hyperboreus (Linn.) . . 281 

2. fulicarius (Linn.) 282 

Subfam. Scolopacince 283 

1. Scolopax, Linn 283 

1. rusticula, Linn 283 

2. Gallinago, Leach 285 

1. nemorieola, Hodgs. . . 285 

2. coelestis (Frenzel) . . 286 

3. stenura (Kuhl) 289 

4. solitaria, Hodga 290 

5. gallinula (Linn.) 292 

3. Eostratula, Vieill 293 

1. capensis (Linn.) 293 



SYSTEMATIC IttDEX. 



XIX 



Order GAVI.E 



Page Page 

296 Order STEGANOPODES .. 331 



Fam. LARIDJE 297 

Subfam. Larince 298 

1. Lams, Linn 298 

1. ichthyaetus, Pall. . . 299 

2. ridibundus, Linn. . . 300 

3. brunneicephalus 7 

Jerdon 301 

4. hemprichi (Bruch) . . 302 

5. gelastes, Licht 303 

6. affinis, Reinhardt . . 304 

7. cachinnans, Pall 305 

Subfam. Sternince 306 

1. Hydrochelidon, Boie . . 307 

1. hybrida (Pall.) 307 

2. leucoptera (Meisner fy 

Schinz) 308 

2. Hydroprogne, Kaup. . . . 309 
1. caspia (Pall.) 309 

3. Sterna, Linn 310 

1. anglica, Mont 311 

2. cantiaca, Gm 312 

3. media, Horsf. 313 

4. bergii, Licht 314 

5. seena, Sykes 315 

6. melanogaster, Temm. 316 

7. albigena, Licht 317 

8. fluviatilis, Neum 318 

9. longipenms, Nordm. . 319 

10. dougalli, Mont 319 

11. sinensis, Gm 320 

12. minuta, Linn 321 

13. saundersi, Hume .... 321 

14. melanauchen, Temm. 322 

15. aneestheta, Scop 323 

16. fuliginosa, Gm 324 

4. Anous, Steph 325 

1. stolidus (Linn.) 325 

2. leucocapillus, Gould. . 326 

Subfam. Rhynchopince 327 

1. Rhynchops, Linn 327 

1. albicollis, Swains. . . 327 

Fam. STERCORARIID.S: 328 

1. Stercorarius, Briss 329 

1. crepidatus (Banks) . . 329 

2. pomatorhinus(rerwrt.) 330 



Fam. PELECANIDJE 332 

1. Pelecanus, Linn 332 

1. roseus, Gm 333 

2. onocrotalus, Linn. . . 334 

3. crisp us, Bruch 335 

4. philippensis, Gm 335 

Fam. FREGATIDJB 337 

1. Fregata, Briss 337 

1. aquila (Linn.) 338 

2. nel (Gould) 338 

Fam. PHALACROCORACIDJE . . 339 



Subfam. Phalacrocoracince 



340 



1. Phalacrocorax, Briss. . . 340 

1. carbo (Linn.) 340 

2. fuscicollis, Steph 341 

3. javanicus (Horsf.) . . 342 

Subfam. Plotince 343 

1. Plotus, Linn 343 

1. melanogaster (Pen- 
nant) 344 

Fam. SULID^: 345 

1. Sula, Briss 345 

1. leucogaster (Bodd.) . . 346 

2. piscatrix (Linn.) .... 347 

3. cyanops (Sundevall). . 347 

Fam. PHAETHONTID^J 348 

1. Phaethon, Linn 348 

1. indicus, Hume 349 

2. flavirostris, Brandt . . 350 

3. rubricauda, Bodd. . . 350 



Order TUBINARES 352 

Fam. PROG ELL ARIIDJE 353 

1. Oceanites, Keys, fy Bias. 353 

1. oceanicus (Kuhl) .... 354 

2. Cymodroma, Ridyway . . 354 
1. melanogaster (Gould). 355 

3. Puffinus, Briss 355 

1. chlororhynchus, Less. 356 

2. persicus, Hume .... 356 

4. Daption, Stephens 357 

1. capensis (Linn.) .... 357 



XX 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Order HERODIONES. 



Suborder P L A x A L E JE 360 

Fam. IBIDIDJE 361 

1. Ibis, Lacepede 361 

1. melanocephala (Lath.} 361 

2. Inocotis, Reichenb 362 

1. papillosus^eww.) . . 362 

2. davisoni (Hume) .... 364 

3. Plegadis, Kaup . 364 

1. falcinellus (Linn.} . . 364 



Fam. PLATALEIDJE 



366 



1 . Platalea, Linn 366 

1. leucorodia, Linn 366 



Suborder C i c o N i 



Fam. CICONIID^E 
1 . Ciconia, Briss. 



1. alba, Bechst ...... 

2. nigra (Linn.) ..... 

2. Dissura, Hume ....... 

1. episcopus (Bodd.) . 

3. Xenorhynchus, Bonap.. 

1. asiaticus (Lath.) . . . 

4. Leptoptilus, Less ...... 

1. dubius (Gmel.) ..... 

2. javanicus (Horsf.) . 
5. Pseudotantalus, Ridy- 



1. leucocephalus (Penn. 

6. Anastoinus, Bonn. . . . 

1. oscitans (Bodd.} . . . 



Suborder A n D E M 
Fam. 



368 

368 
369 
369 
370 
370 
371 
372 
373 
373 
374 

375 
376 
377 
377 



379 

379 

380 
380 
382 
383 
383 
384 



1. Ardea, Linn 

1. manillensis (^a/3 

2. cinerea, Linn 

3. sumatrana, Raffles 

4. insignis, Hodys 

5. goliath, Cretzschm. 

2. Herodias, Boie 385 

1. alba (Linn.) 385 

2. intermedia ( Wayler) . 386 

3. garzetta (Linn.) 387 

3. Bubulcus, Bonap 388 

1. coromandus (Bodd.) . 389 



10. 
11. 



Page 

Lepterodius, Hemp.fyEhr. 390 

1. asha (Sykes) 390 

2. aacer (Gm.) 391 

Ardeola, Boie 392 

1 . grayi (Sykes) 393 

2. bacchus (Bonap.) .... 394 
Butorides, Blyth 394 

1. javanica (Horsf.) 395 

Nyctlcorax, Rafin 396 

1. griseus (Linn.) 396 

Gorsachius, Bonap 398 

1. melanolophus (Raffles) 398 
Ardetta, Gray 399 

1. minuta (Linn.) 400 

2. sinensis (Gm.) 401 

3. cinnamomea (Gm.) . . 402 
~D\npetor,Heine fyReichenb. 403 

1. flavicollis (Lath.) 403 

Botaurus, Briss 405 

1. stellaris (Linn.) . 405 



Order PHCENICOPTERI .. 407 

Fam. PHCENICOPTERID^E 408 

1. Phcenicopterus, Linn. . . 408 

1. roseus, Pall 408 

2. minor, Geoffr 410 

Order ANSERES 411 

Fam. ANATIDJE 412 

Subfam. Cygnina 413 

1. Cygnus, Bechst 413 

1. olor (Gm.) 413 

2. musicus, Bechst 414 

Subfam. Anserince 415 

1. Anser, Briss 415 

1. ferus, Schaef. 416 

2. albifrons (Scop.) .... 417 

3. erythropus, Linn. . . 418 

4. brachyrhynchus, Bail- 

Ion 418 

5. indicus (Lath.) 419 

Subfam. Anatince 420 

1. Sarcidiornis, Eyton .... 422 
1. melanonotus (Penn.) . 423 

2. Asarcornis, Salvadori . . 424 
1. scutulatus (S. Milll.) . 424 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



XXI 



Page 

3. Rhodonessa, Reichenb. . . 425 

1. caryophyllacea (Lath.) 425 

4. Tadorna, Fleming 427 

1. coru\ita(S.G'.Gniel.) . 427 

5. Casarca, Bonap 428 

1. rutila (Pallas) 428 

6. Dendrocycna, Swains. . . 430 
1. javanica (Horsfeld) . 430 
S.fulva (Gm.) 432 

7. Nettopus, Brandt 433 

l.cororaandelianus^m.) 433 

8. Alias, Linn 435 

1. boscas, Linn 435 

2. pcecilorhyncha, Forst. 436 

9. Eunetta, Bonap 438 

1. falcata (Georgi) 438 

10. Chaulelasmus, Gray . . . . 440 

1. streperus (Linn.) .... 440 

11. Nettium, Kaup 441 

1. formosum (Georgi) . . 442 

2. crecca (Linn.) 443 

3. albigulare (Hume) . . 444 

12. Mareca, Stephens 445 

1. penelope (Linn.) .... 445 

13. Dafila, Leach 447 

1. acuta (Linn.) 447 

14. Querquedula, Stephens. . 449 

1. circia (Linn.) 449 

15. Spatula, Boie 451 

1. clypeata (Linn.) .... 452 

16. Marmaronetta, Reichenb. 454 

1. angustirostris( Menetr.) 454 



Page 

17. Netta, Kaup 455 

1. rufina (Pall.) 456 

18. Nyroca, Fleming 458 

1. ferina (Linn.) 458 

2. ferruginea (Gm.) 460 

3. baeri (Radde) 461 

4. marila (Linn.) 462 

5. fuligula (Linn.) .... 463 

19. Clangula, Leach 464 

1. glaucion (Linn.) .... 464 

20. Erismatura, Bonap 465 

1. leucocephala^cop.). . 466 



Subfam. Mergince 467 

1. Mergus, Linn 467 

1. aibellus, Linn 467 

2. Merganser, Briss 468 

1. castor (Linn.) 469 

2. serrator (Linn.) .... 470 



Order PYGOPODES 472 

Fam. PODICIPEDID^E 472 

1. Podicipes, Lath 473 

1. cristatus (Linn.) 473 

2. niaricollis, C. L.Brehm 474 

3. albipennis (Sharpe) . . 475 



VOL. IY. 




Fig. 1. Turtur suratcnsis. 



Order XII. COLUMB^E. 

There is no doubt that Pigeons and Doves must be regarded as 
forming an Order by themselves. That they are more nearly allied 
to the Sandgrouse than to any other birds is generally acknow- 
ledged, but the differences between the two groups are quite as 
great as those between spme of the other orders here admitted. 
In some recent classifications the Pigeons have been placed near 
the Passerine birds chiefly on account of the newly-hatched young 
being helpless and naked, but this character by itself is of secondary 
importance, and the anatomy* of the Coluinbce as a whole, as 
Huxley has shown, resembles that of Gallinaceous birds, tho'ugh 
differing in many respects and showing certain affinities to the 
Owls and Vultures (P. Z. S. 1867, p. 4(30). 

YOL. IT. 



,-, O > v 

. * ' * - " 



COIUMBjE. 



The principal external characters of the order are the follow- 
ing : The upper mandible consists of two parts ; the tip, which is 
swollen, hard, and convex, and the basal portion, which is soft, 
being covered by skin in which the longitudinal slit-like nostrils 
open. Toes always four in number, and on the same level ; no 
web between the toes, but the sole is considerably expanded in the 
more typically arboreal forms, and much narrower in those that 
seek their food on the ground. Aftershaft rudimentary or want- 
ing. Spinal feather-tract well defined on the neck and forked in 
the interscapular region. Primaries 11 ; fifth secondary wanting 
(aquincubital). The number of tail-feathers varies. 

The palate is schizognathous, the nasals schizorhinal ; basi- 
pterygoid processes present (except in the extinct Dodo). Cervical 
vertebras 15. The sternum has generally two deep notches on 
each side of the posterior margin. Furcula U-shaped. 

Deep plantar tendons as in Gallince. The ambiens muscle, as 
in Parrots, is sometimes present, sometimes absent; the fern oro- 
caudal, semitendinosus and accessory semitendinosus are always 
present, and the accessory f emoro-caudal in all except the Australian 
genus Lopholcemus. The oil-gland is nude or wanting ; ca?ca and 
gall-bladder are present in some genera, absent in others. Both 
carotids are present. 

All Pigeons are phytophagous, the majority living on fruit or 
seeds. They are monogamous and pair for life. The majority 
make a nest on trees, a few on rocks or in holes ; the nest is a 
platform of twigs or grass, without lining, simple in structure and 
very loosely put together. The eggs in the great majority of 
species are two in number. Some genera, as Carpophaga, Calaenas, 
and Alsocomus, lay a single egg. The eggs are white, oval, and 
usually glossy. The young emerge from the egg naked and unable 
to run, and they do not go through a downy stage ; they remain 
in the nest for a long time, and are fed by the parents with a 
secretion from the crop. 

An excellent Catalogue of the Pigeons by Count T. Salvadori 
has just been published by the British Museum; from this work 
the majority of the above details are taken. The classification of 
the order is, however, an extremely difficult subject ; the anatomical 
data are not satisfactory and often conflict with the external 
characters. The order is divided into two suborders, of which one 
(Did'i) is now extinct ; the other is divided by Salvadori, external 
characters only being regarded, into five families, three of which 
have Indian representatives. I am, however, unwilling to accord 
the rank of families to groups only distinguished by details of 
plumage and small differences in the shape of the foot ; and I shall 
accordingly leave all Indian Pigeons and Doves in a single family. 



COLUMBIDJS. 



Family COLUMBIDJE. 

Even the subfamilies of the Indian Pigeons are founded on 
distinctions several of which are usually regarded as not more than 
generic. It is rather in deference to the usual practice than from 
conviction of their real existence that some of the following sub- 
families are adopted. The characters given do not always apply 
to birds not found in India. 

No ambiens muscle, oil-gland, or intestinal 
caeca ; tarsus shorter than the middle 
toe without claw ; 14 tail-feathers ; 
general coloration light green, a con- 
spicuous yellow band on the greater 
wing-coverts Treroninw, p. 3. 

No ambiens muscle or intestinal caeca ; oil- 
gland present ; tarsus longer than middle 
toe ; 14 tail-feathers ; plumage dull, 
banded in parts. Size very small .... Geopdiino!, p. 51. 

Ambiens and oil-glnnd present, no caeca ; 
tarsus shorter than middle toe : 14 tail- 
feathers. Size large, exceeding that of [p. 18. 
common pigeon Carpophagince, 

Ambiens and oil-gland present, no caeca; 
tarsus longer than middle toe ; 12 tail- 
feathers ; plumage with highly metallic 
lustre ; long neck-hackles Caloewdincei, p. 24. 

Ambiens and oil-gland present, no caeca; 
tarsus moderate ; 12 tail-feathers ; wing- 
coverts and back only metallic green ; 
no neck-hackles Phabince, p. 26. 

Ambiens, oil-gland, and caeca present ; tarsus 
variable ; 12 tail-feathers ; no neck- 
hackles Columbine?, p. 28. 



Subfamily TRERONIN^E. 

These are the Green Pigeons of India, and may be at once 
recognized by their yellowish-green plumage, often with patches of 
lilac or chestnut on the mantle. There is always a bright yellow 
band, sometimes two, on the larger wing-coverts ; there are fourteen 
tail-feathers ; the tarsus is considerably shorter than the middle toe 
without claw, and has its upper portion covered with feathers. 
The soles of the toes are much expanded, being considerablv 
broader than the toes themselves. The short tarsus and broad 

B2 



4 COLUMBIDJE.) 

soles are adaptations for perching, and are found in Pigeons that 
live chiefly or wholly on trees. 

This subfamily inhabits the tropical and subtropical regions of 
the Old World. Five out of seven genera are Indian. All are 
purely fruit-eating birds, living on trees, and generally keeping in 
flocks ; and all are good birds for the table . , 

Key to tJie Genera. 

a. Tail square or slightly rounded j 3rd primary 

sinuate on inner web. 
'. Horny part of bill does not extend to 

frontal feathers. 
". Horny part of bill less than | of 

culmen. 
3 . First three primaries acuminate ; sexes 

alike CROCOPUS, p. 4. 

b s . First three primaries not acuminate; 

sexes dissimilar OSMOTRERON, p. 7. 

b". Horny part of bill more than of 

culmen ; bill very deep and thick .... BUTRERON, p. 13. 
b'. Horny part of bill extends back to frontal 

feathers , TRERON, p. 14. 

b. Tail graduated, much rounded or wedge- 

shaped j 3rd primary not sinuate SPHENOCERCUS, p. 15. 



Genus CROCOPUS, Bonap., 1854. 

This genus contains the common Green Pigeons of India and 
Burma. The bill is stout, the soft basal portion nearly as long as 
the rhamphotheca or horny terminal part ; tip well curved. "Wings 
long and pointed, the first three primaries acuminate, the third 




Fig. 2. Primaries of Crocopus chloroy aster. %. 

quill with the inner margin deeply sinuate about the middle of its 
length. Tail nearly square, or the middle feathers rather shorter 
than the outer ; under tail-coverts about three-quarters the length 
of the rectrices. Sexes alike, or nearly so. 
There are but two species, both Indian. 



CEOCOPUS. 5 

Key to the Species. 

a. Upper breast greenish yellow ; lower breast 

and abdomen ashy grey C. pkocnicopferus, p. 5. 

6. Whole breast and abdomen yellowish green . C. chlorogaster, p. 6. 

1271. Crocopus phcenicopterus. The Bengal Green Pigeon. 

Columba phoenicoptera, Lath. Ind. Orn. ii, p. 597 (1790). 
Columba militaris, Temm. Pigeons, pi. 1 (wee pi. 2) (1808). 
Columba hardwickii, Gray in Griff. An. Kingd. viii, pi. 291 (1829). 
Treron phoenicoptera, Bh/th, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 849 ; id. Cat. p. 229. 
Treron viridifrons, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 849 (1845) ; id. Cat. 

p. 228; Stanford, Ibis, 1870, p. 469. 
Crocopus phosnicopterus, Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 447 ; Beavan, Ibis, 

1868, p. 370; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 272; 

McMaster, J. A. S. B. xl,pt. 2, p. 214; Lloyd, Ibis, 1873, p. 414; 

Adam, S. F. i, p. 390; Ball, S. F. ii, p. 423; Hume, N. 8f E. 

p. 491 ; Hume, S. F. iv, p. 2 ; Cripps, S. F. vii, p. 29o ; Hume, 

Cat. no. 772 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 339 ; Oates in Humes N. $ E. 

2nd ed. ii, p. 370 ; Salvador*, Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 26. 
Crocopus viridifrons, Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 449; Hume, S. F. iii, 

p. 161 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. Ill ; xiv, pt. 2, 

p. 83 ; Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 143 ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. 

vi, p. 410 ; Anderson, Yunnan Exped., Ares, p. 664 : Hume, Cat. 

no. 773 bis ; Bingham, S. F. ix, p, 194 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 307 ; 

Hume, S. F. xi, p. 290 ; Sahadori, t. c. p. 28. 

Haridl, H. ; Haitha, Assamese ; Ngu, Bom-ma-di, Burm. 

Coloration. Occiput and nape, with ear-coverts, dark grey ; lores, 
forehead, cheeks, chin, throat, upper breast, and neck all round 
greenish yellow, becoming deeper on the upper breast and still 
darker and tinged with olive on the hind neck ; an ashy-grey collar 
round the base of the neck ; back, rump, scapulars, tertiaries, and 
most of the wing-coverts yellowish olive-green, growing grey in 
general, but not always, on the rump and upper tail-coverts ; smaller 
wing-coverts near the bend of the wing lilac; quills blackish, 
narrowly edged with yellow outside, greater coverts with broader 
yellow outer borders ; terminal halt' of tail dove-grey, basal half 
yellowish green above, black beneath ; lower breast, abdomen, and 
whole inner surface of wings light ashy grey, contrasting sharply 
with the yellow upper breast, but becoming tinged with yellow 
towards the vent; tibial plumes pure yellow; lower flanks dark 
green, with broad yellowish-white edges ; under tail-coverts dull 
chestnut, with buff tips. 

Females are slightly smaller, and the lilac patch on the wing is, 
as a rule, less extensive. 

Soft parts of bill greenish, hard parts bluish white ; iris blue, with 
an outer circle of pink; legs orange-yellow ; claws bluish (Oates). 

Length about 13 inches, tail 4-5, wing 7*5, tarsus 1, bill from 
gape 1 ; in females, length 12'5, wing 7*2. 

Distribution. Along the base of the Himalayas as far west as the 
Jumna, scattered over the Eastern Punjab and Northern India 
generally, but less commonly than the next species ; occurring 



COLUMBID.E. 

exclusively in Lower Bengal and to the eastward in Assam, and 
throughout Burma, Cochin China, and Siain. 

The Burmese bird is generally distinguished as O. viridifrons, but 
this is, I think, an incorrect interpretation of the facts. There are 
in the Indian Empire two perfectly well-marked species C.phoeni- 
copterus, as described by Latham, with an ashy-grey lower breast and 
abdomen and with green on the forehead and tail; and C. chlorogaster, 
with the lower breast and abdomen greenish yellow like the upper 
breast and throat, and with (normally) no green on the forehead or 
tail. But throughout Northern India both these birds occur and also 
numerous intermediate forms, and as these intermediate forms are 
well known from occurring in the best-explored region, they have 
come to be regarded as typical phoenicopterus, and the more cha- 
racteristic Burmese birds have been distinguished as viridifrons, on 
account of their having rather more yellowish green on the tail and 
forehead and a grey rump. Not one of the distinctions is constant, 
there being for instance specimens of green-rumped birds from 
Thayet Myo, Pegu, Toungoo, and Cochin China in the British 
Museum collection. 

Habits, cjir. The common Green Pigeons of India and Burma are 
usually seen in flocks, which feed on fruit (the figs of the banyan 
tree for instance), and may often be recognized by their peculiar, 
rather musical call. They always perch on trees, and resemble the 
foliage so closely in colour that it is often almost impossible to see 
them unless they move, and even then difficult to watch them. They 
are occasionally caged for the sake of their notes. The breeding 
season is from March to June, and they lay, like so many other 
pigeons, two oval white glossy eggs on a loosely-constructed plat- 
form of small sticks, without any lining, and placed on the branch 
of a tree. The eggs measure about 1*25 by '95. 

According to Jerdon the next species (the habits of both are 
identical) comes to the banks of rivers in flocks about 9 A.M. to 
drink, but Hume (S. F. x, p. 59) doubts whether they ever drink, 
and I cannot recollect seeing them do so. 

1272. Crocopns chlorogaster. The Southern Green Pigeon. 

Vinago chlorigaster, Blyth, J.A. S. B. xii, p. 167 note (1843). 

Treron jerdom, Strickland, A. M. N. H. xiii, p. 38 (1844). 

Treron chlorigaster, Blyth, Cat. p. 229; Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) 

xiv, p. 57. 
Crocopus chlorogaster, Bonap. Consp. Av. ii, p. 12; Salvadori, Cat. 

B. M. xxi, p. 30. 
Crocopus chlorigaster, Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 448 ; Blanford, J. A. S. B. 

xxxviii, pt. 2, p. 187 ; Adam, S. F. i, p. 390 ; Butler, S. F. iv, 

p. 2 ; ix, p. 419 ; Murray, S. F. vii, p. 113 ; Ball, ibid. p. 224 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 773 ; Tidal, S. F. ix, p. 73 ; Leyye, Birds Ceyl. 

p. 722 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 58 ; Davidson, ibid. p. 314 ; Davison, 

ibid. p. 406 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 285 ; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. 

Soc. v, p. 328 ; Gates in Hume's N. Sf E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 372. 

Haridl, H. ; Pacha yuwa, Tel. ; Pacha pora, Tam. 

Coloration as in C. phosnicopterus, except that the breast and 



OSMOTREROJf. 7 



abdomen are greenish yellow like the chin and throat, the lower 
abdomen becoming quite yellow, and there is a greenish wash on 
the wing-lining, in typical specimens, too, there is no green on the 
forehead or tail, both being grey, or there is a slight yellowish 
tinge on the forehead only. But, as already pointed out, many 
birds, especially in Northern India, are intermediate in coloration 
between this and the preceding species. 

Distribution. Throughout the Peninsula of India and Ceylon. 
To the northward this species extends through Eastern Itajputana, 
the Eastern Punjab, theJNT.W. Provinces, and Oudh, to the base of 
the Himalayas, but is not found in Sind (a reported occurrence at 
Jacobabad is open to doubt) nor the desert region generally. The 
measurements and habits are identical with those of 



Genus OSMOTRERON, Bonap., 1854. 

The Green Pigeons belonging to the present genus scarcely differ 
from Crocopus, except in having the sexes conspicuously distinct 
in coloration, and the first three primaries much less attenuated. 

The habits of all these Pigeons closely resemble those of Crocopus. 
They are found in Hocks, are fruit-eaters, and always perch on 
trees, rarely if ever descending to the ground. They have a 
peculiar, rather melodious whistle. Their flight is rapid, and they 
are generally wary birds, but when feeding on a favourite fruit 
they are easily approached and shot. The breeding habits, eggs, 
and nests are identical with those of other Green Pigeons. 

The genus is found in a great part of the Oriental region and in 
some of the Austro-Malayan islands. Seven species out of the 17 
known have been obtained within Indian limits. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Middle tail-feathers green ; mantle of males 

maroon. 

a'. Tibial plumes buff or yellowish ; head 
and neck of male green or grey, not red. 
a". Lower tail-coverts cinnamon or whitish. 
a 3 . Forehead and crown grey. 

# 4 . Grey nape distinct from green hind 

neck ........................ O. phayrei, p. 8. 

ft 4 . Grey of crown passing into green 

on the nape .................. O. affinis, p. 8. 

ft 3 . Forehead yellow .................. O. pompadora, p. 9. 

b" . Lower tail-coverts dark green, with 

yellowish tips .................... O. chloroptera, p. 10. 

b'. Tibial plumes bright yellow ; head and 

neck of male cinnamon-red .......... O. fuloicoliis, p. 10. 

b. Middle tail-feathers slaty grey ; mantle not 

maroon in either sex. 
c 1 . Outer tail-feathers with a grey tip exceed- 

ing 0-5 in length .................... O. hicincta, p. 11. 

d' . Outer tail-feathers with a narrow grey tip. O. vernans, p. 13. 



COLUMBIDJ. 



1273. Osmotreron phayrei. The Ashy-headed Green Pigeon. 

Osmotreron phayrei, Blytn, J. A. S. B. xxxi, p. 344 (1862) ; Jerdon, 
B. I. iii, p. 451 ; Godiv.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. Ill; 
xlv, pt. 2, p. 83 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 162 ; Bli/th $ Wall. Birds 
Burm. p. 144; Ing fa, S. F. v, p. 39; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, 
p. 412; Hume, Cat. no. 776 ; Binyham, S. F. ix, p. 194 ; Oates,B. 

D .:: o i n . 'j TLT. '_ TVT o. -n .. j _ J :: _ OT/J . tr,, 



B. ii, p. 310; id. in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 376; Hume, 
S. F. xi, p. 291 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2; 
id. Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 43. 



Coloration. Male. Crown and nape asj^y grey, forehead paler ; sides 
of head, including the area above the eyes, find sharply defined against 
the grey crown, greenish yellow, as are the chin, throat, and sides 
of the neck ; neck above green, also contrasting sharply with the 
grey nape; back, scapulars, and all the smaller wing-coverts chest- 
nut; median and greater wing-coverts black, the first olive-green 
in parts, both broadly edged with bright yellow ; quills black, the 
tertiaries partly green, the secondaries narrowly, the tertiaries 
broadly edged with yellow outside, the primaries with a linear 
whitish edge; lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts and middle 
tail-feathers yellowish green ; outer tail-leathers black with a broad 
ashy tip, and with more or less green towards the middle pair ; 
lower parts greenish olive, the upper breast strongly tinged with 
orange ; feathers of lower flanks dark green with broad buff tips, 
lower tail-coverts cinnamon ; wing-lining ashy grey, generally 
more or less smeared with green. 

Female. No chestnut on the mantle, which is green throughout, 
nor orange on the breast; lower tail-coverts chiefly buffy white, 
with more or less green about the base and along the shaft. 

Legs lake-red ; irides blue with an outer circle of pink, orbital 
skin plumbeous ; bill bluish, the base darker (Oates). 

Length about 11 ; tail 3*6 ; wing 6*1; tarsus -85 ; bill from gape 
85. Females are a little smaller. 

Distribution. Eare in Lower Bengal, found thence throughout 
Eastern Bengal, Assam, Cachar, Manipur, and Burma as far 
south as Tavoy in Tenasserim, but not farther. To the eastward 
this species is found in Cochin China. 

Habits, $c. In Burma this pigeon is found chiefly in the 
denser forests of the hill-tracts, but it does not ascend the higher 
ranges. It breeds about March. 

1274. Osmotreron affinis. The Grey-fronted Green Pigeon. 

Vinapro aromatica, pt., apud Jerdon, Madr. Jour, L. S. xii, p. 13 

^1840). nee Columba aromatica, Gm. 
Vinago affinis, Jerdon, 1. c. (1840). 

Vinago malabarica, Jerdon, III. Ind. Orn. letterpress to pi. 21 (1845). 
Treron xnalabarica, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 852 ; id. Cat. p. 229. 
Osmotreron malabariea, Bp. Consp. ii, p. 13 ; Jerdcn, B. 1. iii, 

p. 450 ; Hume, N. $ F. p. 493 ; Fairbank, S. F. iv, p. 261 ; v, 

p. 408 ; Hume $ Bourd. S. F. iv, p. 403 ; Hume, ibid. p. 424 ; id. 

Cat. no. 775; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 74: Butler, ibid. p. 419; 



OSMOTRERON. 9 

Davison, S. F. x, p. 406 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 286 ; Oates in 
Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 375 ; Davidson, Jour. Bom. N. H. 
Soc. v, p. 329 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 45. 
Osmotreron affinis (Jerdon}, Walden, Tr. Zool. Sue. ix, p. 212. 

Poda putsa guwa, Tel. 

Differs from 0. pJiayrei in having the crown lighter ashy, the 
area occupied by the colour being less extensive and ill-defined, 
blending gradually into the green of the sides of the head and back 
of the neck, especially at the nape. The male, too, wants the orange 
of the breast, and the mantle is duller and deeper red with a 
vinous or purplish tinge. 

Horny portion of bill bluish white ; rest of bill pale bluish 
green ; irides, outer ring pink, inner bright pale blue ; legs and feet 
lake-pink, claws bluish white (Davison). 

Length about 1O75 ; tail 3'6 ; wing 5'75 ; tarsus *8 ; bill from 
gape -9. 

Distribution. Forests of the Malabar coast from the neighbour- 
hood of Bombay to Cape Comorin. Jerdon states that he also 
obtained this pigeon in " Central India " and in the Eastern Ghats, 
but neither the late Dr. V. Ball nor I met with this species in the 
area specified; the name does not occur in either of the lists of 
Shevroy birds for which I am indebted to Mr. Daly and Dr. Warth, 
and no one, so far as I know, has obtained this bird away from the 
Malabar coast since J^rdon's time *. 

Habits, 6fc. Eggs, measuring about 1*08 by *85, have been taken 
from January to April. 

1275. Osmotreron pompadora. The Pompadour Green Pigeon. 

Columba pompadora, Gm. Syst. Nat. \, p. 775 (1788). 

Treron pompadora, JBlyth, J. A. S. B. xxi, p. 356. 

Treron tiavogularis, Blytli, J. A. S. B. xxvi, p. 225 (1857). 

Osmotreron tiavogularis, Blytli, J. A. S. B. xxxi, p. 344 ; Jerdon, B. I. 

iii, p. 452 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1865, p. 45 ; 1867, p. 148 ; Legge, Ibis, 

1874, p. 25. 
Osmotreron pompadora, Holdsworth, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 465; Hume, 

S. F iii, p. 162; vi, p. 414 ; id. Cat. no. 777; Legge. Birds Ccyl. 

p. 728; Parker, S. F. ix, p. 481; Layard, Ibis,' 1880, p. 283; 

Salvador^ Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 51. 

Batia-(/oya, Cing. ; Patcha-prdd, Alam-prad, Tamul in Ceylon. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, lores, and cheeks greenish yellow, 
becoming purer yellow on the chin and throat and ashy green on 
the vertex ; rest of the upper parts as in 0. phayrei, except that the 
mantle is of a duller red, as in 0. affinis. Lower parts from 
throat green ; lower flanks dark green tipped with yellowish ; 
lower tail-coverts buff. 

* It is a very rare thing for Jerdon to be mistaken, but it should be borne in 
mind that he depended chiefly on his memory, which was singularly good, 
for localities, and, as a rule, neither labelled his specimens nor kept them iii his 
own possession. 



10 COLUMBIA. 

The female has not the chestnut on the mantle, which is olive- 
green, and has more green on the basal part of the lower tail- 
coverts than the male. 

Bill glaucous-green, paling to bluish on the apical portion ; 
irides carmine-red, with a cobalt inner circle ; eyelids glaucous - 
green ; legs and feet purple red (Leyge). 

Length about 1O5; tail 3*6; wing 5-6; tarsus '8; bill from 
gape *9. 

Distribution. Ceylon, throughout the inland forests and well- 
wooded districts. Jerdon states that this pigeon occurs in Southern 
India, and he once described a bird tflat he shot in Malabar, and 
which possessed the characters of the present species, but no speci- 
men appears to have been obtained in Southern India by any 
other collector. 

Habits, fyc. Similar to those of other species. The eggs measure 
about 1*16 by *88, according to Mr. Parker. 

1276. Osmotreron chloroptera. The Andaman Green Pigeon. 

Treron chloroptera, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 852 (1845) ; id. Cat. 
p. 229. 

Osmotreron chloroptera, Blyth, Ibis, 1863, p. 465 ; Bf.avan 8f Tytler, 
Ibis, 1867, p. 331 ; Ball, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 286 : id. S. F. i, 
p. 78; Walden, Ibis, 1873, p. 313; Hume, S. F. ii,'p. 258; Hi, 
p. 162; vi. p. 4.14; id. Cat. no. 777 bis .; Salvadori, Cat. B. M. xxi, 
p. 49. 

Coloration. Male above very similar to 0. pliayrei, except that 
the grey of the crown and nape is lighter, french-grey rather than 
ashy ; the chestnut of the mantle is duller and does not extend on 
to the wings far beyond the scapulars, most of the smaller coverts 
being green ; the lower back and upper tail-coverts are a more 
yellow-green than the middle tail-feathers ; beneath there is no 
orange on the breast, all the lower parts are light yellowish green 
to the lower abdomen, the feathers of which and of the lower tail- 
coverts are dark green with yellowish-white tips edged with 
yellow. 

The female, as usual, lacks the maroon on the mantle ; the grey 
of the cap is generally ill-defined, and passes into green at the 
sides ; the under tail-coverts as in the male. 

Soft parts as in 0. phayrei. Size larger : length about 12'5 ; 
tail 4 ; wing 6'75 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape 1*05. 

Distribution. The Andaman and Mcobar Islands. 



1277. Osmotreron fulvicollis. The Cinnamon-headed Green 
Pigeon. 

Columba fulvicollis, Wagl. Syst. Av., Columba, sp. 8 (1827). 

Osmotreron fulvicollis, Bonap. Consp. Av. ii, p. 14; Hume, S. F. 
iv, p. 224 ; id. Cat. no. 776 bis ; Hume # Dav. S. F. vi, p. 413 
Gates, B. B. ii, p. 311 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 52. 



OSMOTRERON. 11 

Coloration. Male. Head and neck all round bright cinnamon- 
red, becoming maroon on the upper back and smaller wing-coverts ; 
middle wing-coverts partly olive, partly, like the greater coverts 
and quills, black ; scapulars and last tertiaries olive, median arid 
greater coverts and some tertiaries more broadly, secondaries more 
narrowly, bordered with yellow outside, primaries with a linear 
whitish edge ; rump greenish slaty ; upper tail-coverts, middle 
tail-feathers and part of next pair green-olive ; all the outer tail- 
feathers black with broad pale grey tips, over half an inch wide on 
the outer feathers ; breast ochreous with an olive tinge ; abdomen 
olive, the feathers tipped with yellow on the lower flanks and near 
the vent ; tibial coverts pure yellow ; flanks and wing-lining 
slaty grey, under tail-coverts pale cinnamon. 

In the female the crown is dark slaty grey, the rest of the upper 
plumage olive-green ; lower plumage lighter and yellower green ; 
feathers of the lower flanks dark green with whitish edges ; vent 
and tibial coverts bright yellow as in the male ; lower tail-coverts 
whitish, dark green towards the base. 

Upper mandible to just beyond nostril and lower mandible to 
angle of genys deep red in males, dull red in females, rest, of bill 
white in both sexes, tinged with greenish blue ; irides in the male 
buffy pink, in the female with an outer ring of pink and an inner 
one of ultramarine-blue ; orbital skin plumbeous-green, and edges 
of eyelids orange in both sexes ; legs and feet purplish pink in the 
male, lake-pink in the female ; claws dead white (Davison). 

Length about 10*5 ; tail 3*6 ; wing 6 ; tarsus -8 ; bill from 
gape -8. Females are rather smaller. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the extreme south of Tenasserim, 
where this pigeon was obtained by Mr. Davison near Bankasoon 
in December and January. It ranges through Cochin China, the 
Malay Peninsula and Archipelago to the Philippines and Celebes. 

1278. Osmotreron bicincta. The Orange-breasted Green Pigeon. 

Vinago bicincta, Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. xii, p. 13. $ (1840) : id. 

III. Ind. Orn. pi. 21. 

Vinago unicolor, Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. 8. xii, p. 14, . 
Treron hicincta, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 851 ; id. Cat. p. 229. 
Osmotreron bicincta, Bp. Consp. Av. ii, p. 12 ; Jerdon, B. I. p. 440 ; 

Beavan, Ibis, 1868, p. 371 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, 

p. 272 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 493 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 162, vi,p. 414 ; 

Blyth Sf Wald. Birds Burm. p. 144 ; Armstrong, S. F. iv, p. 337 ; 

Gates, S. F. v, p. 163 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 411 ; Ball, S. F. 

vii, p. 224 ; Hume, Cat. no. 774 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 725 ; 

Layard, Ibis, 1880, p. 283; Hume fy Inglis, S. F. ix, p. 257; 

Davison, S. F. x, p. 406 ; Taylor, ibid. p. 463 ; Oates, B. B. ii, 

p. 308; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 374; Hume, S. F. xi, 

p. 291 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) iv, p. 610 ; id. Cat. 

B. M. xxi, p. 57 ; Davidson, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. v, p. 328 ; 

ix, p. 489. 

Chitta putsa guwa, Tel. 



12 COLUMBID^. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead and crown, sides 'of head and neck, 
chin, and throat yellowish green, passing on the occiput into the 
bluish grey of the nape and hind neck ; back, scapulars, ter- 
tiaries, and wing-coverts green, passing into bronze-green on the 
rump and upper tail-coverts ; quills black, the greater coverts 




and tertiaries with broad yellow outer margins, the primaries 
and secondaries with linear yellowish outer edges; tail-feathers 
slaty grey, all except the middle pair with a black band more 
'than half an inch from the tip, this band broadest on the outer 
pair, occupying the greater part of the feathers ; beneath, the 
tail-feathers are black with a grey tip : a lilac band forming 
upper portion of breast, remainder of breast orange ; abdomen 
yellowish green, growing pure yellow on the thigh-coverts and 
round the vent; lower flanks green with yellow edges; under 
tail-coverts cinnamon; flanks and wing-lining slaty grey, tvith 
some green. 

The female has neither lilac nor orange on the breast (which is 
yellowish green like the abdomen), and has the yellow tail-coverts 
chiefly buff. 

Bill dull green ; iris blue, with an outer red ring ; legs pink 
(Oates). 

Length about 11-5; tail 3'7o ; wing 6'25 ; tarsus -85; bill 
from gape '95. Females rather less. Ceylon birds are smaller ; 
wing 5'75. 

Distraction. Ceylon, the forests near the Malabar coast as far 
north as Canara, and the forest country in South-western Bengal 
and Orissa, as far south as the Godavari. Jerdon states that he 
obtained this species once in the Carnatic and once east of IXellore, 
but it has not been recorded from any other parts of the Indian 
Peninsula except those named. It inhabits Lower Bengal and 
the base of the Himalayas as far west as Nepal, together with 
all the countries from Assam throughout Burma to Hainan, Cochin 
China, and the Malay Peninsula. 

Habits, fyc. The call, though different in tone from that of 
other species, is similar. This Green Pigeon breeds in Burma 
from Murch to May; the nest and eggs are of the usual type, and 
the eggs measure about 1*07 by '87, 



BUTREEON. 13 

1279. Osmotreron vernans. The Pink-necked Green Pigeon. 

Columba vernans, L. Mant. p. 526 (1771). 

Columba viridis, Miiller, Natursyst. Suppl. p. 132 (1789), nee Linn. 

Osmotreron vernans, Bp. Consp. Ay. ii, p. 12; Hume, S. F. iii, 



p. 323; Wald. in BlytVs Birds Burin, p. 144; Hume $ Dav. 
ri., pp. 411, 414; Hume, Cat. no. 774 bis: Oxtes, B. B. ii, 
p. 309; id. in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed ii, p. 375; Salvadori, Cat. 



B. M. xxi, p. 60. 

Osmotreron viridis, Hume, S. F. i, p. 461 ; iii, p. 162. 

Coloration. Male. Head, chin, and throat ashy, sometimes with 
a greenish wash, especially on the throat ; neck behind and at the 
sides, and a broad band across the upper breast, lilac ; back, rump, 
scapulars, tertiaries, and wing-coverts olive-green ; quills black ; 
the usual broad yellow borders to greater coverts and tertiaries, 
and linear edges to primaries and secondaries ; upper tail-coverts 
brownish olive ; tail-feathers slaty grey, a black subterminal band, 
very narrow on median, growing much broader on outer feathers, 
all rectrices black from base beneath, the pale grey tips above and 
below quite narrow, not above one-tenth of an inch in breadth ; 
breast orange ; abdomen green, growing yellow towards the vent ; 
lower flank-feathers dark green with yellow edges, lower tail-coverts 
deep cinnamon-red, flanks and inner surface of wings slaty grey. 

The female is green, the forehead, sides of head, and lower parts 
paler and brighter; no grey, lilac, nor orange on the head, neck, 
or breast ; lower tail-coverts very broadly edged with buff : other- 
wise like the male. 

Bill dull white or pale plumbeous ; irides with three rings, the 
outer buff or pink, the next prussian-blue, the inner ultramarine ; 
legs and feet pink (Davison). 

Length about 11 ; tail 4 ; wing 5'8 ; tarsus '8 ; bill from gape *8. 
The female is slightly smaller. 

Distribution. From Siam, Cochin China, and the Malay Peninsula, 
throughout the Malay Archipelago to the Philippines and Celebes. 
This Green Pigeon is found in Southern Tenasserim as far north 
as Mergui. 

Genus BUTRERON, Bouap., 1854. 

Bill thicker and higher than even in Treron, but the rhampho- 
theca, though occupying more than two-thirds of the culmen, does 
not extend back to the feathers of the forehead. Sexes differing 
slightly, but there is no red on the back of the male. Sinuatiou 
of third primary less than in Crocopus, but still well marked. Tail 
rounded, lower tail-coverts extending to the ends of the outer 
rectrices. A single species. 

1280. Butreron capellii. The large Thick-billed Green Pigeon. 

Columba capellei, Temm. PI. Col. pi. 143 (1823). 
Treron capellei, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 848; id. Cat. p. 228; 
Hume, S. F. viii, p. 67. 



14 COLUMBIDJE. 

Butreron capellii, Bonap. Consp. AD. ii, p. 9 ; Anderson, Jour. Linn. 
Soc., Zool xxi, p. 152 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 32. 

Coloration. Male. Olive-green above, with a greyish tint, fore- 
head paler; upper tail-coverts and middle tail-feathers brighter and 
yellower ; on the tertiary quills the olive passes into the blackish 
slaty of the primaries, secondaries, and greater coverts ; greater 
and median coverts and inner secondaries, not tertiaries, with 
bright yellow outer edges ; outer tail-feathers black with broad 
grey tips, some green appearing on those near the middle pair ; 
lower parts paler olive than upper ; .upper breast dull yellowish 
orange ; lower tail-coverts brownish maroon, lower flank-feathers 
with buff edges ; wing inside slaty grey. 

The female has a yellowish patch on the breast, much paler 
than in the male, and the under tail-coverts are olive with buff 
edges. 

Bill pale green ; irides dark brown : legs and feet yellow 
(Nicholson) ; irides golden yellow (Hartert). 

Length about 16 ; tail 5 ; wing 8 ; tarsus !! ; bill from 
gape 1-4. 

Distribution. Mergui Archipelago, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, 
Borneo, and Java. A single specimen was obtained on Elphinstone 
Island, near Mergui, by Dr. Anderson. 

Genus TRERON, Vieill., 1816. 

Two species, one of which is found in the Himalayas and Burma, 
differ from the other Green Pigeons in having the whole culmen 
of the upper mandible formed by the horny portion or rhampho- 
theca, no soft basal area intervening between the hard part and 
the frontal feathers. There is a small naked area round the eye. 
The tail is slightly rounded at the end, and the lower tail-coverts 
extend almost to the end of the tail. The inner web of the third 
primary is sinuate. The plumage closely resembles that of Osmo- 
treron phayrei, and there is the same difference between the sexes. 

1281, Treron nepalensis. The Thick-billed Green Pigeon. 

Toria nipalensis, Hoays. As. Res. xix, p. 164, pi. ix (head and foot), 
(1836) ; Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 143. 

Treron nipalensis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 847 ; id. Cat. p. 228 ; 
Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 445; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. 2, 
p. 371 ; Hume fy Oates, S. F. iii, p. 160; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, 
p. 410 ; Hume, Cat. no. 771 : Binyham, S. F. ix, p. 193 ; Hume 
$ Inglis, ibid. p. 257 ; Oates, B. B. ii. p. 306; Hume, S. F. xi, 
p. 289; Salcadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. 619; vii, p. 423; 
id. Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 34. 

Treron nepalensis, Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 370. 

Thoria, Nepalese. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead ashy grey, growing darker on the 



SPHENOCEF.CUS. 15 

crown, passing on the nape into the green of the neck all round, 
with the sides of the head, chin, and lower surface ; back, scapulars, 
and most of the lesser wing-coverts chestnut ; tertiaries, median 
coverts, and some of the outer smaller coverts olive ; greater 
coverts and primary and secondary quills black, median and greater 
coverts and tertiaries with broad, secondaries with narrow yellow 
borders ; rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail above green, generally 
brighter than the neck ; outer tail-feathers above grey, with a 
black band, below black, with a very broad grey tip ; flanks darker 
green, with white edges ; wing-lining slaty grey ; under tail-coverts 
pale cinnamon. 

Female green on the mantle instead of chestnut, and with the 
lower tail-coverts whitish with dark green bars. 

Base of upper mandible bright red, rest of bill pale yellowish to 
greenish white ; irides orange, with an inner deep blue ring ; 
orbital skin pea-green ; legs and feet lake-pink to coral-red. 

Length about 10'5; tail 3'3 ; wing 5'75 ; tarsus '8; bill from 
gape '95. 

Distribution. Rare in the Eastern Himalayas at low elevations 
as far west as Nepal, occasionally in Lower Bengal, in Eastern 
Bengal and Assam, throughout the Burmese countries in the 
hill-tracts, and sometimes in the better-wooded parts of the low 
country ; this species is also found in Siam and Cochin China, the 
Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, and the Philippines. 

Habits, &fc. Very similar to those of other Green Pigeons. This 
bird is equally gregarious and social : it has a hoarse note, uttered 
when feeding, and also a fine mellow 7 whistle. The nest and eggs 
resemble those of Crocopus, and the breeding-season in Tenasserim, 
where Bingham met with several nests, was at the end of February 
and in March. An egg measured 1*13 by '89. 

Genus SPHENOCERCUS, G. E. Gray, 1840. 

This genus much resembles Osmotreron in coloration, but is 
distinguished by having a much longer and graduated tail, and by 
wanting the sinuation on the inner web of the third primary. 
The under tail-coverts are as long as the outer tail-feathers or 
longer. The rhamphotheca, or hard horny part of the bill, is 
shorter than the soft basal portion. 

Eight species are enumerated in Salvadori's Catalogue ; of these 
two are Himalayan and Burmese, the others range through the 
greater part of the Oriental region east of India. 

Key to the Species. 

Middle tail-feathers acuminate and extending 

generally 2 to 3 in. beyond the next pair S. apicicauda, p. 16. 

Middle tail-feathers not acuminate, extending verv 

little beyond next pair 8. sphenurus, p. 16. 



16 COLUMBID.E. 

1282. Sphenocercus apicicauda. The Pin-tailed Green Pigeon. 

Treron apicauda, Hodf/s., Bli/th, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 854 (1845). 
Sphenocercus apicaudus, Blyth, Cat. p. 230 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, 

p. 454; Godw.-Amt. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. Ill; Wold, in 

Blyttts Birds Burin, p. 144 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 415 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 779 ; S. F. xi, p. 292 j Stuart Baker, Ibis, 1896, 

p. 356. 
Spheiiocercus apicicauda, Oates,B. B. ii, p. 305; Salvad. Ann. Mus. 

Civ. Gen. (2) vii, p. 424 ; id. Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 5. 

Sang-pong, Lepcha. 

Coloration. Male. General colour green, tinged with yellow on 
crown and sides of head, rump, and upper tail-coverts and under- 
parts; hind neck greyish; upper breast tinged with orange and 
slightly washed with pink ; lower flank-feathers with buffy-white 
edges ; under tail-coverts cinnamon, with more or less buffy white 
on the outer webs ; primaries and secondaries blackish grey, with 
very narrow yellow outer edges ; tertiaries green like the coverts ; 
both tertiaries and greater coverts more broadly bordered with 
yellow outside ; whole wing inside dove-grey ; tail-feathers grey, 
extreme base of all and tips of middle pair green ; outer feathers 
with a broad black band across the basal half. 

Female. The orange tinge on the breast is wanting ; there is 
generally much more buff on the edges of the under tail-coverts 
and some green about the shafts. 

Bill dull smalt-blue; irides with an inner ring of pale bright 
blue and an outer ring of buffy pink ; orbital skin blue : legs, feet, 
and claws crimson-pink (Davisoti). 

Length of male about 16'5 ; tail 8'5 ; wing 6-5 ; tarsus -85 ; 
bill from gape 1. Females have a shorter tail: length 14-5; 
tail 7. 

Distribution. The Himalayas, below 5000 or 6000 feet, as far 
west as Kumaun, the Assam and Manipur hills, and those of 
Northern Tenasserim from Karennee to Mooleyit. 

Habits, $c. The nest, according to JVlr. C. IStuart Baker, is a 
small stick platform on a sapling or a bush, and contains normally 
two eggs, measuring on an average T30 by '96. This bird is only 
known to occur in hill-forests ; it keeps in flocks and feeds on 
fruit, generally amongst high trees. The call-note is a melodious 
whistle similar to that of the next species, but less musical. This 
Green Pigeon breeds in Cachar throughout April, May, and June. 

1283. Sphenocercus sphenurus. The Kokla Green Pigeon. 

Vinago sphenura, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 173. 

Vinago cantillans, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 166 (1843) (caged 



variety). 




1868, p. 372 ; Stoltczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvn, pt. 2, p. 65; Godw.- 
Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. Ill ; xlv, pt. 2, p. 203 ; Hume $ 
Senders. Lah. to Yark. p. 270 ; Hume, N. E. p. 494 ; Hume $ 



SPHENOCERCUS. 17 

Gates, S. F. iii, p. 163 ; Wold, in BlytKs Birds Burm. p. 144 ; 
Hume $ Dav. S. F, vi, p. 415 ; Hume, Cat. no. 778 ; Scully, S. F. 
viii, p. 339 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 304 ; Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 421 ; 
Hume, S. F. xi, p. 292 ; Oates in Humes N. 8? E. 2nd ed. ii, 
p. 377; Sharpe, Yarkand Miss., Aves, p. 114; Saluadori, Cat. B. M. 
xxi, p. 8. 
Sphenocercus minor, Brooks, S. F. iii, p. 255 (1875). 

Kokla, Kokila, H. ; Kuhu, Lepcha. 

Coloration. Male. Head, neck, and lower plumage yellowish 
green, tinged with rufous on the crown, and with orange and a 
wash of pink on the upper breast ; upper back greyish, passing 
into maroon-red on middle of back and lesser wing-coverts ; rump, 
upper tail-coverts, median and larger wing-coverts and exposed 
portion of tertiaries olive-green ; primaries and secondaries blackish, 
both they and the greater wing-coverts narrowly bordered outside 
with yellow; upper surface of tail olive-green like rump, the outer 
feathers more and more grey ; lower surface of wings and tail 
dark grey ; lower flauks and thigh-coverts dark green with pale 
yellow edges ; lower tail-coverts varying from pale cinnamon to 
buff. 

The female lacks the orange on the crown and breast and the 
maroon on the back arid wings, the latter parts being dark green 
like the rump ; under tail-coverts dark green with broad buif 
borders. 

In birds that have moulted in confinement, the green is replaced 
by pearl-grey. A bird thus coloured was described by Blyth as 
Treron cantillans. 

Bill dull smalt-blue, horny portion pale blue ; orbital skin pale 
smalt ; hides with an inner ring of pale bright blue and an outer 
ring of buffy pink (Davison). 

Length about 13 ; tail 5 ; wing 7 ; tarsus -85 ; bill from gape '9. 

Distribution. The Himalayas as far west as Murree at elevations 
between 4000 and 7000 feet, west of Nepal only in summer; also 
the Assam and Manipur hills and the hill-1'orests of Pegu and 
Tenasserirn as far south as Mooleyit. 

Habits, $c. This is a somewhat less gregarious bird than most of 
the Green Pigeons, and is generally seen in pairs or small parties. 
It feeds on fruit, and has a peculiarly agreeable note, more pro- 
longed and melodious than that of Crocopus, and it is often kept 
caged by natives for the sake of its song, which though sweet 
is monotonous. It breeds from April to July, and lays two white 
eggs on the usual platform-nest in a tree. The eggs measure 
about 1'18 by *89. After the breeding-season, the bird leaves the 
Western Himalayas and apparently migrates eastward, for it 
remains throughout the year in Nepal and farther east. 



VOL. IY. 



18 COLUMBIDJE. 



Subfamily CARPOPHAGINJE. 

This subfamily contains the largest Indian species of the order, 
known in India as Imperial Pigeons. Like the Treronince, they 
are fruit-eaters and live entirely in trees, and they have similar 
feet; but they differ greatly from the Green Pigeons and approach 
the CoJumbince in plumage and also in anatomy, as they have an oil- 
gland and an ambiens muscle. They^ are also distinguished by 
laying in general only a single egg, a peculiarity repeated, as will 
be noticed presently, by a genus ot the Columbine subfamily. The 
tail-feathers are 14 in number. 

The bill is proportionately larger than in Treronince, and the 
gape very wide, enabling these pigeons to swallow fruits of con- 
siderable size. All are forest birds ; and the whole group, which 
ranges from India to Polynesia, is chiefly insular in its distribution. 
Even of the six species here included, two are found, within our 
area, only in the islands of the Bay of Bengal. 

Key to tlie Genera. 

a. Head, neck, and lower parts grey. 

a'. IVlantle green ; inner primaries normal . . OARPOPHAGA, p. 18. 
b 1 . Mantle not green ; inner primaries 

obliquely truncated DUCULA, p. 20. 

b. Plumage entirely white and black MYHISTICIVOBA, p. 23. 



Genus CARPOPHAGA, Selby, 1835. 

In Carpophaga the bill is long and slender, depressed and soft 
at the base, the horny tip being much shorter than the soft basal 
portion. "Wings long, primaries normal. Tail rather long, 




Fig. 4. Sole of foot of Carpophaga cenea. \. 

rounded at the end. Tarsus short, stout, feathered for hnlf its 
length; toes stout, very broad beneath. No yellow on the 
wings ; mantle metallic green ; head, neck, and lower parts grey. 
Sexes alike. 

A large genus, widely distributed in the Oriental and Australian 
regions. Two species occur within our limits. 



CAIIPOPHAGA. 19 

Key to the Species. 

Mantle bronze-green ; grey parts tinged with pink. . C. ccnea, p. 10. 
Mantle dark green, not bronzed ; no pink tinge .... C. insularis, p. 20. 

1284. Carpophaga aenea. The Green Imperial Pigeon. 

Golumba Eenea, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 283 (1760). 
Columba sylvatica, Tickell, J. A. S. B. ii, p. 581 (1833). 
Carpophaga renea, Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. xii, p. 11 ; Gould, 

P.Z. & 1859, p. 150; Walden, Ibis, 1873, p. 314; Hume, S. F. 

ii, p. 260 ; Sail, S. F. ii, p. 424 ; iv, p. 235 ; v, p. 418 ; vii, p. 224 ; 

Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 144 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 496 ; 

Armstrong, S. F. iv. p. 337 ; Inylis, S. F. v, p. 39 ; Hume $ Dav. 

S. F. vi, p. 416 ; Hume, Cat. no. 780 ; Binyham,, S. F. ix, p. 194 ; 

Parker, ibid. p. 481 ; Leyye, Birds Ceyl. p. 718 ; Oates, B. B. ii, 

p. 301 ; Anderson, Jour. Linn. Soc., Zool. xxi, p. 152 ; Hume, 

S. F. xi, p. 294; Oates in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 366 ; 

Davidson, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. v, p. 329 ; ix, p. 489 ; Saluadori, 

Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 190. 
Carpophaga sylvatica, Bli/th, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 856 ; xxvii, p. 270 ; 

id. Cat. p. 231 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 455 ; Myth, Ibis, 1867, 

p. 248 ; Beavan, ibid. p. 332 : Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxviii, pt. 2, 

p. 188. 
Carpophaga pusilla, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviii, p. 816 (1849) ; id. Cat. 

p. 232 ; Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) xiv, p. 58 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, 

p. 148 ; Hume, Cat. no. 780 ter. 

Dunked or Dumkal, Sona Kabutra, Barra harial. H. ; Poaonna, Mai. ; 
Kukurani guwa, Tel. ; Maratham prda, Tarn. (Ceylon) ; Maha nila yoya, 
Matabatayoya, Cing. 

Coloration. Head, neck, find lower parts to vent ashy grey with 
a pink tinge ; forehead and chin whitish ; back, rump, upper tail- 
coverts, and outer surface of wings bronze-green, often bluish or 
purplish in patches ; tail bluish green above ; primaries and 
secondaries blackish above, more or less grey on the outer webs ; 
rectrices and quills beneath dull brown with a yellowish tinge; 
under tail-coverts liver-coloured (dark dull maroon). 

Bill grey, the region of the nostrils dull red ; irides red ; edges 
of the eyelids, legs and feet purplish red (Gates'). 

Length 17 : tail 6-5 ; wing 9 ; tarsus 1-1 ; bill from gape 1'4. 
There is considerable variation in size, and specimens from Travan- 
core and Ceylon (C. pusilla) have the wings only 8 to 8'5 inches 
long. 

Distribution. In the Peninsula of India this Pigeon is found 
only in the forest-region east of long. 80 from the Ganges to a 
little south of the Godavari, and in the Malabar coast region as far 
north as Canara. It may occur near Bombay, but this is doubtful *. 

* There is in the British Museum a specimen labelled Bombay from Sykes's 
collection, but the species is not recorded in Sykes'a li. K t, and a specimen 
of the Himalayan Dendrotreron hodgsoni, also from Svkes's collection, occurs 
similarly labelled. Butler, in the ' Bombay Gazetteer,' says that Carpophaga 
tenea was included in Major Lloyd's Konkan list and that he may have seen it 
once himself at Khandala. But neither Fairbauk nor Vidal records it. 

C2 



~0 COLUMBIA. 

I can find no trustworthy record of the Imperial Pigeon's 
occurrence in the Carnatic, Mysore, the Central Provinces west 
of 80 E. long., the Bombay Presidency north of Canara, nor in any 
part of Northern India west of the Eajmehal hills and Sikhini. 
This species is, however, common in Ceylon, and is found from 
the base of the Eastern Himalayas in Sikhim and Bhutan through- 
out Assam, Burma, and the Malay countries and islands to the 
Philippines, Borneo, Java, and Flores. 

Habits, <$fc. A forest bird, chiefly found in hilly country at low 
elevations, sometimes associating in Hocks, but more often seen 
singly or in parties of two or three. Like all members of the 
family it is purely a fruit-eater, it keeps much to high trees, and 
it rarely descends to the ground except to drink, which it does in 
the morning and afternoon. I have myself seen it drinking at 
the latter time. Jerdon found it visiting the Malabar coast with 
Ducula cuprea. The call is a low guttural dissyllabic note. This 
bird is one of the best of all Indian pigeons for the table. The 
nest is the usual flimsy platform of straw and sticks, and one egg 
is usually laid, but two are said to have been observed. An egg 
measured 1-8 by 1'32. The breeding-season in Ceylon (Legne) and 
near the Godavari (Jerdon) is in April and May, in the Andamans 
July (Wimbeeley), in Tenasserim February and March (Bingham). 

1285. Carpophaga insularis. The Nicobar Imperial Pigeon. 

Carpophaga sylvatica (Tickell), var., Blyth, J.A.S. B. xv, p. 371. 
Carpophaga insularis, Bli/th, J.A.S.B. xxvii, p. 270 (1858); id. 

Ibis, 1868, p. 133: Ball, J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2. p. 32 : id. S. F. 

i, p. 79 ; Hume, S. F. ii', p. 262 ; iv, p. 291 ; id'. N. # E. p. 496 ; 

id. Cat. no. 780 his ; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 367 ; 

Salvadori, Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 185. 

Coloration. Similar to that of C. cenea, except that the grey of 
the head, neck, and lower parts is purer, without any pink or 
vinous tinge ; the back, rump, and wings are dark metallic bluish 
or purplish green, the tail being still darker and more purplish 
above ; the quills are nearly black above, and the lower tail-coverts 
dull rufous-brown. 

Bill pale plumbeous, paler at tip, darker at base ; irides red, 
varying in tint ; eyelids pale lavender ; legs and feet deep pink to 
livid purple (Hume). 

Length about 18-5 ; tail 6-5 ; wing 10 ; tarsus 1*2 ; bill from 
gape 1*6. 

Distribution. Peculiar to the Nicobar Islands. 

Habits, Sj'c. Similar to those of C. cenea : the breeding-season, 
according to Davidson, is in February and March. 

Genus DUCULA, Hodgson, 1836. 

This differs from Carpopliaga in having the inner primaries 
obliquely truncated at the end so that the outer web projects 



DUCULA 21 

beyond the shaft, in the tail being somewhat longer with a broad 
pale band at the end, and in the absence of any green on the back, 
wings, and tail, which are rufous-brown in the Indian species. 

Five species are known, of which three (perhaps four) occur 
within Indian limits. They are hill birds, Jiving in forests at 
considerable elevations, but otherwise they resemble Qarpophayci 
iii habits. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Breast and abdomen pale ashy grey. 

a'. Crown and hind neck lilac I), insignis, p. 21. 

b'. Crown french-grey, hind neck lilac .... I), yriseicapilla, p. '22. 

b. Breast and abdomen lilac 1). cuprea, p. 22. 

1286. Ducula insignia. Hodgson s Imperial Pigeon. 

Ducula insignia, Hodgs. As. Res. xix, p. 162, pi. ix (head and foot) 

(1836). 
Carpophaga insignis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 855 ; id. Cat. p. 232 ; 

Jerdon, B. /. p. 457 ; Godiv.-Aust. J. A. ti. B. xliii, pt. 2, p. 171 ; 

xlv, pt, 2, p. 83 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 496 ; id. S. F. iii, p. 328 ; xi, 

p. 29o ; id. Cat. no. 781 ; Gates in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, 

p. 368 j Salvadori, Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 216. 

Dukul, H. in Nepal ; Fomok, Lepcha. 

Coloration. Forehead ashy ; crown, sides of head, nape, and 
hind neck pale lilac, passing on the upper back into coppery 
brown, which passes into greyish olive-brown on the wings and 
scapulars ; lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts blackish grey ; 
tail above blackish grey at the base, becoming black beyond the 
coverts, terminal third or rather less light brownish grey, the 
feathers much paler beneath throughout and the terminal third 
light ashy; primary and secondary quills black above, blackish' 
brown beneath ; chin and throat white ; breast, abdomen, and 
wing-lining pale ashy grey ; under tail-coverts pale buff. 

Bill and legs intense sanguine, terminal hard portion of the 
former and the nails dusky brown ; orbital skin slaty, merging into 
purple ; iris hoary or blue-grey (Hodgson). 

Length about 20; tail 7*5; wing 9-5; tarsus 1-25; bill from 
gape 1-5. 

Distribution. Himalayas of Nepal, Sikhim, and Bhutan, at 
moderate elevations (about 2000-6000 feet) ; also Assam and the 
Hills south of the valley *. 

Habits, fyc. Very similar to those of Carpophaga cenea, the note of 
this Pigeon being even deeper. It is said to lay a single egg from 
May to July. An egg measures 1-72 by 1-28. 



* The bird from North Cachar described as C. insignis by Lieut. Beavan in 
Godwin-Austen's paper (J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. ill), I think, must have 
been C. cenea. It was only 16'5 inches long, had a slate-coloured head and 
dark red irides, and no mention is made of a pale terminal band on the tail. 



22 

1287. Ducula grissicapilla. The Grey-headed Imperial Pigeon. 

Carpophaga insiguis, apud Blytli, Cat. p. 232, part. ; id. J. A. S. B. 

xxviii, p. 416 ; Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 144, nee Ducula 

insignis, Hodys. 
? Carpophaga sp., Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, pp. Ill, 

Ducula p-riseicapilla, Wald, A. M. N. H. (4) xvi, p. 228 (1875) ; id. 

Ibis, 1875, p. 459 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 402 ; Wardl.-Rams. Ibis. 

1877, p. 467. 
Carpophaga griseicapilla, Davison, S. F. v, p. 460 ; Hume 8f Dav. 

S. F. vi, p. 418; Hume, Cat, n. 781 ter ; Gates, B. B. ii, 

p. 302 ; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 369 ; Hume, S. F. 

xi, p. 295; Hartert, J. f. O. 1889, p. 433; Salvadori, Cat. B. M. 

xxi, p. 217. 

Coloration. Very similar to that of D. insignis, from which the 
present species differs in having the crown and sides of the head 
pure french-grey, darker than the lower parts and contrasting 
strongly with the pinkish grey or reddish lilac of the hind neck. 
The upper back and smaller wing-coverts are more coppery and 
the rump darker and less grey than in D. insignis. 

Bill reddish plum-colour, pale at the tip ; irides greyish white, 
orbits grey-brown (Wardlaiv-Ramsay)-, legs and feet purplish 
lake; soles whity-brown (Hume}. Measurements as in D. in- 
signis. 

Distribution. Hill-ranges of Assam, Manipur, Arrakan, and 
Tenasserhn. In the Assam ranges some birds appear to be inter- 
mediate between this and D. insignis. Specimens (referred to 
insignis) from Arrakan were presented by Sir A. Phayre to the 
Asiatic Society in 1844. 

Habit*, dfc. Those of the genus. An egg obtained by Davison 
on Mooleyit, west of Moulmeiu, on January 27th measured 1-61 
by 1-15. 

This bird may, like the next species, visit the sea-coast at 
particular seasons, and if so is probably the pigeon seen by 
Davison at Mergui in August (S. 1\ vi, p. 417). Hume suggests 
that the species was the Malaccan D. badia, which may be known 
by its smaller size and coppery-red mantle. 

1288. Ducula cuprea. Jerdon's Imperial Pigeon. 

Columba cuprea, Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. xii, p. 12 (1840). 
Carpophaga insignis, apud Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 457 (partini) ; 

Davidson, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. v, p. 329. 
Carpophaga cuprea, Hume, S. F. iii, p. 3'28 ; Hume $ Bourd. S. F. 

iv, p. 403 ; Hume, Cat. no. 781 bis ; Bourd. S. F. ix, p. 303 ; 

Davisnn, S. F. x, p. 407 : Tat/lor, ibid, p. 464 ; Gates in Humes 

N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 368 : Davidson, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vi, 

1 >. 340 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 215. 

Coloration similar to that of D. insignis, except that the back 
and wings are dull olive-brown, without ruddy or coppery tinge ; 
the rump is dark grey more or less tinged with olive, and the 



MYRISTICIVOHA.. 23 

terminal fourth of the tail is brownish grey above ; the chin and 
throat are white, the rest of the head and neck, with the breast 
and abdomen are lilac ; the lower abdomen tinged with ochreous ; 
lower tail-coverts maize, and wing-lining dark slaty grey. 

Bill dull lake-red at the base, slaty at the tip ; orbits lake-red ; 
irides red-brown ; legs dull lake-red (Jerdon). 

Length about 17 ; tail 7 ; wing 9 ; tarsus 1-2 ; bill from gape 
1-3. 

Distribution. The hill-ranges near the Malabar coast from 
Canara to Cape Comorin. 

habits, fyc. Tho?e of the genus. Jerdon, the discoverer of this 
bird, found it visiting the coast near Cannanore in large numbers 
during the months of April and May for the purpose of feeding 
on the buds of Avicennia and other plants peculiar to salt-water 
swamps. At other times of the year it keeps to the hill-forests, 
in which it breeds, according to the observations of Messrs. F. W. 
Bourdillon and I. Macpherson, from March to May, at the same 
season that Jerdon found it visiting the coast. Davidson took an 
egg in Canara on February 13th. The nests are of the usutil 
kind, in small trees, 10 to 15 feet from the ground, and one egg 
is laid, measuring about 1-73 by 1'29. 



Genus MYEISTICIVORA, Keichenb., 1852. 

This genus is distinguished from all its allies by its extra- 
ordinary coloration ; white, with parts of the wing and tail 
black, or, in some species, grey. The tail is shorter than in 
Carpophaga. Five species are known, ranging from the Andanians 
and Nicobars to Australia, but only one comes within British 
Indian boundaries. 



1289. Myristicivora bicolor. The Pied Imperial Pigeon. 

Columba bicolor, Scop. Del. Flor. et Faun. Insubr. ii, p. 94 (1786). 
Carpophaga myristicivora, apud Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 371 ; 

Beacan, Ibis, 1867, p. 332 ; Ball, J. A. 3. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 32 ; 

nee Columba myristicivora, Scop. 
Carpophaga bicolor, Blyth, Cat. p. 232 ; Feheln, Norara Reue, 

Vd(j. p. 107; Ball, 8. F. i. p. 79; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 264; It/. 

N. $ E. p. 496; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1875, p. 108; Biyth, Birds 

urm. p. 145; Hume 3* Dav. S. F. \\, p. 418; Hume, Cat. 

no. 781 quint. : Oates, B. B. ii, p. 303 ; id. in Hume's N. $ 77. 

2nd ed. ii, p. 369. 
M\ ristieivora bicclor, Bonap. Consp. Av. ii. p. 36 ; Walden, 'Irans. 

Z. S. ix, p. 217 ; Salcadori, Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 227. 

Coloration. Creamy white, except the primaries and secondaries 
(the tertiaries are white), greater primary-coverts, winglet, the 
terminal half of the median tail-feathers and a gradually dimin- 
ishing proportion on the outer rectrices, which are black ; the 
white extends far down the shaft and middle of the outermost 



24 COLUMBIA. 

pair of tail-feathers, whilst the black runs up the outer margin 
sometimes for three-fourths of the length. 

Bill leaden-blue, the tip darkish horny or dark plumbeous: 
irides dark brown ; legs and feet pale smalt-blue (D(tvison). 

Length about 16 ; tail 5'5 ; wing 9 ; tarsus 1-2 ; bill from 
gape 1-4. 

Distribution. From the Andamans and Nicobars through the 
Malay Archipelago to New Guinea and Australia, where a local 
form (M. spilorrhoa) occurs. This Pigeon breeds on the Nicobars 
and is a seasonal visitant to the Andamans, Cocos, Narcondam, 
Barren Island, and according to BlythTto the Mergui Archipelago, 
but not, so far as is known, to the mainland of Tenasserim. 
According to Dr. Maingay, this species also visits the islands only 
on the coast of the Malay Peninsula. 

Habits, <Sfc. Though found in great numbers at the Nicobars, 
this bird, according to Davison, is irregularly distributed, being 
very common in some islands but absent in others. In some it 
keeps much to mangrove swamps. It lays a single egg iu January, 
February, or March, and makes the usual platform nest on man- 
groves. A single egg obtained by Captain Wimberley measured 
1*78 by 1'25. The bird is a fruit-eater, and in its general habits 
closely resembles Carpophaya. 



Subfamily CALCENADIN^E. 

The Nicobar Pigeon, which with an allied species forms the 
present subfamily, agrees with the Carpophagince in having an 
oil-gland and ambiens muscle, but no intestinal ca3ca ; it ditfers 
in having only 12 tail-feathers, long tarsi, elongate feathers on the 
neck, and metallic plumage. 



Genus CALCENAS, G. E. Gray, 1840. 

The genus Caloenas is distinguished by its long neck-hackles, 
longest and narrow on the back of the neck, disintegrated and 
hair-like on the occiput and fore neck. The bill is large and the 
apical portion curved ; it bears a fleshy protuberance, larger in 
males than in females, at the base of the culmen ; the wings are 
long and pointed ; tail of 12 feathers, short and rounded ; feet 
strong; tarsus naked, stout, longer than the mid-toe without claw. 

Only two species are known, of which one inhabits -the Nicobar 
Islands. 

1290. Caloenas nicobarica. The Nicobar Pyjeon. 

Columba nicobavica, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 283 (1766). 
Caloenas nicobarica, G. R. Gray, List Gen. B. p. 59 (1840) ; Blyih, 
Cat. p. 238 ; id. J. A. S. B. xxviii, p. 274 ; Ball, J. A. S. B. 



CAIXEXA8. 25 

xxxix, pt. 2, p. 32 ; id. S. F. i, p. 81 ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 271 ; Blyth, 
Birds Burm. p. 147 ; Hume Sf Dan. S. F. vi, p. 425 ; Hume, Cat. 
no. 798 bis ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 299 ; id. in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. 
ii, p. 365 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 615. 

Coloration. Head and neck dark slaty grey, most of the neck- 
hackles the same, but the longest hackles and the upper plumage 
generally rich metallic green, changing to coppery bronze; outer 
wing-coverts and outer borders of quills steel-blue ; primary and 
secondary quills, except on their outer upper borders, black ; tail 
with longer upper and lower coverts white ; lower parts dark 
metallic green, purplish on upper breast. 




Fig. 5. Head of C. nicobarica. . 

Young birds want the hackles, and the tail is bronzy green, 
while the plumage generally is duller. 

Bill and fleshy base deep blackish grey ; irides deep brown : 
feet pinkish lake to dull purplish lilac : claws yellow (Hume}. 

Length about 16; tail 3*5; wing 1O25 ; tarsus 1*7; bill from 
gape 1'5. 

Distribution. The Malay Archipelago from the Nicobars to the 
Solomon Islands. This bird apparently never visits the Continent ; 
it abounds on the Nicobars and breeds in numbers on the island of 
Batty Malve and perhaps on some of the other islands. It has 
been sent from the Cocos north of the Andamans, and a single 
individual was once seen by Davison near Aberdeen in South 
Andaman. It is also said to visit the Mergui Archipelago. 

Habits, tyc. This grand Pigeon roosts and builds its nest on 
trees, but feeds entirely on the ground on seeds. Its flight is 
heavy ; it is a silent bird, but occasionally utters a hoarse croak. 
It makes the usual nest, a platform of twigs on a tree, and lays a 
single pure white egg, minutely pitted throughout, not glossy, and 
measuring about 1'84 by 1'27. 



26 COLUMBIA. 

Subfamily PHABIN.E. 

This is a very ill-defined group, containing a number of African, 
Indian, and Australian Doves, agreeing in anatomy with Caloenas, 
and having like it 12 tail-feathers, but distinguished by the 
restriction of the feathers with a metallic lustre to the mantle, and 
by the absence of neck-hackles. 

Genus CHALCOPHAPS, Gould, 1843. 

One of the most beautiful of the Indian Columbidce, the Bronze- 
winged, or, as it is sometimes called, the Emerald Dove, easily 
recognized by its bronzed metallic green mantle, is the sole repre- 
sentative within our area of Chalcophap*, a genus containing about 
6 species and langing from the Himalayas and Malabar to Australia. 
The bill is slender; the wings moderately long, with the 2nd and 
3rd quills longest ; the tail, of 12 feathers, is considerably shorter 
than the wing, and slightly rounded ; the tarsus slender and bare, 
about equal to the middle toe in length, and the feet adapted for 
ground habits. Sexes differing in plumage. 

1291. Chalcophaps indica. The Bronze-winged Dove. 

Columba indica, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 284 (1766^. 

Chalcophaps indica, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 859 ; id. Cat. p. 237 ; 

Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 484; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 151; Beacun, 

ibid. p. 332; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 112; 

Ball, S. F. i, p. 80 ; Walden, Ibis, 1873, p. 315; Hume, N. $ E. 

p. 509 ; id. S. F. ii, p. 269 ; Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 147 ; 

Hume $ Bourd. S. F. iv, p. 404 ; Ii ylis. S. F. v, p. 40; Fairbank, 

ibid. p. 409 ; Butler, ibid. p. 503; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 424 ; 

Anders. Yunnan Exped., Ai:es, p. 667; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 225; 

Cripps, ibid. p. 298 ; Hume, Cat. no. 798 ; Leyye, Birds Ceyl. p. 714 ; 

Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 75; Binyham, ibid. p. 195 ; Butler, ibid. p. 421 ; 

Reid, ibid. p. 500 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 408 ; Taylor, ibid, p. 464 ; 

dates, B. B. ii, p. 297 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 293 ; Hume, S. F. 

xi, p. 300 ; Gates in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 363 ; Salcadori, 

Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 514. 
Chalcophaps au<nista, Bonap. Consp. Av. ii, p. 92 (1854) ; Blyth, 

Ibis, 1868, p. 133; Ball, S. F. i, p. 81. 

Ram yhuyu, Raj-yhuau, Beng. ; Andi-bella-yuwa, Tel. ; Pathaki prdu, 
Tarn., Ceylon; Nila Kobeya, Cing. ; Ka-er, Lepcha; Mati-Kupohu, 
Assamese ; Gyo-Sane, Burmese. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead and supercilia white, passing into 
the dark bluish grey of the crown and nape ; sides of head and 
neck all round deep vinous red ; a few grey feathers or sometimes 
a narrow grey band down the back of the neck ; upper back, wing- 
coverts, scapulars, tertiaries, and outer webs of secondaries metallic 
emerald-green changing to coppery bronze ; small wing-coverts 
near edge of wing vinous grey, separated by a narrow white bar 
from the green ; greater primary-coverts, primaries, and secon- 
daries dark brown, inner borders of quills near base and the wing- 
lining chestnut ; lower back coppery bronze with two pale grey 
cross-bands, the hinder bordering the rump, which is dark grey 



CHALCOPHAPS. 



97 



with blackish edges to the feathers ; tail blackish brown, outer two 
or three pairs of feathers grey, with a broad subterminal black 
band : lower parts deep vinous, paler on throat and abdomen, 
lower tail-coverts dark grey. 




Fig. 6. Head of C. indica. \. 

Female. Forehead and supercilia pale grey ; crown, nape, hind 
neck, and sides of neck brown tinged with vinous, smaller wing- 
coverts near edge of wing brown, the white bar absent or 
scarcely perceptible ; upper tail-coverts rufous-brown with dark 
edges, middle four rectrices blackish brown, next two pairs rufous 
near the base, outer two pairs grey near the base and at tips as in 
the male; lower surface brown with a vinous tinge; back and 
wings as in male. Young birds are at first dull brown above, with 
very little green, and are barred rufous and dark brown beneath. 

Bill red : iris dark brown ; eyelids plumbeous : legs dusky red, 
claws pale horn-colour (Oates}. 

Length about 10-5; tail 3'75 ; wing 5'75; tarsus 1 ; bill from 
gape '9. 

Distribution. Throughout the Lower Himalayas as far west as 
Mussooree, and probably Kashmir (Adams, P. Z. 8. 1859, p. 187) 
from the base to about 6000 feet elevation, also Lower and Eastern 
Bengal, the forest tracts between the Ganges and the Mahanadi 
(and probably as far south as the Godavari), east of lat. 80 E., 
and the forests near the Malabar coast from Cape Comorin to the 
neighbourhood of Bombay, but, so far as I can ascertain, nowhere 
else in India ; certainly not, as Jerclon states, throughout India. 
This dove is found in Ceylon, also in the Andamans and Nicobars, 
and is generally distributed from Assam, throughout the Burmese 
countries, Malay Peninsula and Archipelago to New Guinea, and 
through South China to the Philippines. 

Habits, $c. This beautiful Dove is found only in forests and 
damp thickly-wooded parts of the country, and is generally solitary. 
It is far from shy and may be seen feeding on forest paths, along 
which or along stream-beds it dashes with great swiftness when 
disturbed, but it usually flies only a shnrt distance and seldom or 
never rises far from the ground. It feeds on berries and seeds 
picked up from the ground, and its call is low, plaintive, and 
prolonged. It breeds from January or February to July, and has 
probably two broods ; the nest, more saucer-shaped than that of 
other doves, is a comparatively neat structure of roots, grass, or 
twigs without lining. The eggs are creamy white to very pale 
buff, two in number, and measure about 1-1 by '85. 



28 COLUMBID^. 



Subfamily COLUMBINE. 

The common Pigeons and Doves appear to be the least specialized 
anatomically of the whole order, for they retain the ambiens 
muscle, intestinal caBca, and oil-gland that so many of their allies 
have lost. All have 12 rectrices. They exhibit considerable 
differences and have been variously arranged, the true Doves of 
the genus Turtur being generally placed in a distinct subfamily 
from Columba, but there is no structural character of importance, 
internal or external, by which the two can be separated. 

Keif to the Genera. 

a. Tail less than wing in length. 

a 1 . Neck-feathers not acuminate, dark bars 

on secondaries COLUMBA, p. 28. 

b'. Neck-feathers acuminate, no dark bars 

on secondaries DENDROTRKRON, p. 32. 

b. Tail not longer than wing, but exceeding 

of it. 

c'. Larger, no white tips to tail-feathers ; 
tarsus shorter than mid-toe without 
claw. 
a". A white bar, conspicuous beneath, 

across tail PALUMBUS, p. 34. 

b''. No white bar across tail ALSOCOMUS, p. 35. 

a'. Smaller ; white or grey tips to tail : 
tarsus longer than mid-toe without 
claw. 
c". Sexes alike; 2nd and 3rd quills 

longest TURTUR, p. 39. 

d". Sexes different ; 1st and 2nd quills 

longest (ENOPOPELIA, p. 47. 

c. Tail longer than wing and much graduated. MACROPYGIA, p. 48. 

Genus COLUMBA, Linn., 1766. 

This is the typical genus of the Columbine order, and contains 
the Rock-Pigeons or Rock-Doves and their allies. The Wood- 
Pigeons have been alternately included in the genus, as in Salvadori's 
Catalogue, and classed apart ; but the latter plan is here followed, 
as according better with the generic arrangement adopted in other 
orders. The division of this group of Pigeons into genera of equal 
value is a difficult task, although simpler when only the Pigeons of 
a restricted area need arrangement than when all the known 
species require to be classified. 

In the genus as here defined the corneous portion of the bill is 
slender, the soft basal part swollen above the nostrils, which are 
linear and oblique ; the wings are long and pointed, 2nd quill 
longest (except in C. rupestris, in which the 1st exceeds the 2nd), 
1st much longer than 4th ; the tarsus is naked and longer than the 
bill from the gape, and the feet are formed for walking, the toes 



COLUMBA. 29 

being slender and the soles narrow. The tail is short, scarcely 
projecting beyond the ends of the closed wings, and measuring 
half as much as the wing in length or a little more. Sexes alike. 
Plumage chiefly grey, with distinct black or dusky cross-bars on 
the secondaries and their coverts. 

The Eock-Pigeous associate in large flocks and mostly make 
their nests on rocks or buildings. The Stock-Doves make nests in 
the hollows of trees or in rabbit-burrows. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Neck-feathers with metallic gloss; lower parts 

grey. 
a'. Bill blackish ; legs red. 

a" . No white band across tail. 

a 3 . Lower back grey like rump C. intermedia, p. 29. 

b 3 . Lower back white C. livia, p. 30. 

b". A white band across tail C. rupestris, p. 30. 

//. Bill and legs yellowish C. eversmanni, p. 31. 

b. Neck and lower parts white, no metallic gloss . C. leuconota, p. 32. 

1292. Columba intermedia. The Indian Slue Rock-Pigeon. 
Columba intermedia, Strickl. A. M. N. H. xiii. p. 39 (1844) j Blyth, 




Ball, S. F. ii, p. 425 ; iii, p. 203 ; vii, p. 224 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 499 ; 
Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 698 ; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 3 ; Hume $ Dav 
S. F, vi, p. 419 ; Cripps, 8. F. vii, p. 296 ; Hume, Cat. no. 788 ; 
Scully, S. F. viii, p. 339 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p 74 ; Butler, ibid. 
p. 419 ; Barnes, ibid. p. 457 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 91 Reid 
S. F. x, p. 59 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 288 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 289 
Hume, S. F. xi, p. 297 ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 173 ; Gates in 
Humes N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 344 ; Salvador}, Cat. B. M. xxi 
p. 259. 

Columba livia, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 233 ; id. Birds Burm. p. 145 
nee Bonn. 

Kabutar, H. ; Pdrawd, Mahr. ; Gudi pourai, Tel. ; Kovilpura, Tam. 
Mdda-prda, Tam., Ceylon. 

Coloration. Slaty grey, the neck glossed all round with metallic 
green, changing to purplish red, the latter prevailing on the upper 
breast ; back, scapulars, and wings more ashy, no white band on 
the lower back; ruinp, upper tail-coverts, and tail darker ; two bars 
of black across the wings, one on the greater coverts, the other 
formed by the tips of the secondaries, and a broad band on the 
tertiaries ; tail with the terminal fourth blackish and the basal 
three-quarters of the outer web in the outermost rectrices white ; 
axillaries, bases of quills, and inner part of wing-lining white or 
very pale grey. 

Bill black, with a white mealiness at the tumid base of its upper 
mandible ; irides brownish orange ; lids bluish white, and legs 
reddish pink (Blyth). 



30 COLUMBID-E. 

Length about 13 ; tail 5 ; wing 9 ; tarsus 1-2 ; bill from gape 1. 

Distribution. Throughout India and Ceylon, except in forest or 
on high hills, ranging west to Southern Persia and east to China 
and Japan ; rare in Burma, wanting in Tenasi-erira and probably 
in Pegu, but found in Upper Burma. 

Habits, $c. A bird haunting rocky cliffs, old buildings, walls, 
and, when encouraged, human habitations generally, nesting in all 
the places named and, in Western and North- western India espe- 
cially, in wells. Tim Indian Pigeon is most common in cultivated 
country, and feeds on grain and seed*. It is, as Blyth has shown, 
the wild species, from which the numerous breeds of domestic 
pigeons, peculiar to India, are derived. Pigeons are generally 
protected by natives of India, both Hindus and Mahomedans ; 
in Bajputana they are regarded as almost sacred birds and no one 
is allowed to kill them. They breed in Northern India from 
December to May, later in the south, and lay two eggs in a hole 
in a cliff, wall, temple, tomb, or \vell. Eggs measure 1-45 by 1*12. 

1293. Columba livia. The Blue Rock-Pigeon. 

Columba livia, Bonnaterre, Encycl. Meth. i, p. 227 (1790); Blyth, 
("at. p. 233 pt. ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 218 ; Cripps, S. F. vii, p. 296 ; 




Columba neg'lecta, Hume, Lah. to Yark. p. 272 (1873). 



Coloration. This, the Blue Bock-Pigeon or Eock-Dove of 
Europe, differs from the Indian C. intermedia only in having the 
lower back (not, as sometimes stated, the rump) white. Usually, 
too, the general tint is paler. 

Distribution. The Western Palacarctic region, with Afghanistan, 
Baluchistan, Sind, the Punjab, Kashmir, and occasionally other 
parts of Northern India. The birds found in North-western 
India are usually intermediate between the two races, and have a 
comparatively narrow white or whitish band on the lower back, 
riot a broad band like European birds. 

1294. Columba rupestris. The Blue Hill- Pigeon. 

Columba cenas, var. 8 rupestris, Pall. Zooyr. Rosso-Asiat. i, p, 560 

(1811). 
Columba rupestris, Bonap. Consp. Av. ii, p. 48 (]854) ; Moore. 

P. Z. S. 1859, p. 400 : Jcrdon, B. 1. iii, p. 470 ; Stoliczka, J. A. 8. B. 

xxxvii, pt. 2. p. 66 ; Hume, Cat. no. 789; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, 

p. 92 : Scully, ibid. p. 584 : C. H. T. Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 421 ; 

Sharpe, Yarkand Miss., Aves, p. 116; Salvadori, Cat. B. M. xxi. 

p. 250. 

Columba livia, var., Adams, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 497 ; 1859, p. 187. 
Columba rupicola, apud Hume fy Renders. Lah. to Yark. p. 273 ; 

Scully, S. F. iv, p. 1 76. 

Coloration very similar to that of C. livia ; but the upper 



COLUMBA. 31 

surface is slightly paler, and the lower breast, abdomen, and lower 
tail-coverts are pale ashy grey, the upper breast is tinged with 
lilac, and there is a broad white band across the middle of the 
tail. The lower back is white, as in C. livia; the rump and upper 
tail-coverts dark slaty grey. 

The wing is very pointed, the 1st quill being as long as the 
2nd or longer. 

Bill black; iricles golden red : feet lobster-red (Stoliczka). 

Length about 13 ; tail 5 ; wing 9 ; tarsus I'l ; bill from gape '95. 

Distribution. Central Asia from Gilgit to South Siberia and 
Corea: common in Tibet and in some of the drier valleys of the 
higher Himalayas. This Pigeon has been recorded from Gilgit, 
Dras, Leh, and the Upper Indus A 7 alley generally Lahaul, Upper 
Kumaun and Tibet north of Sikhim,but specimens labelled Kashmir, 
Sikhim, and Darjiling in the British Museum Collection probably 
come from more northern localities. 

Habits, $c. This Pigeon has generally been se*n associating in 
flocks with C. livia. Its habits are similar; Marshall found it 
breeding on cliffs in the Pangi Valley (Upper Chenab). 

1295. Columba eversmanni. The Eastern Stock-Pigeon. 

Oolumba eversmanni, Bonap. Compt. Rend, xliii, p. 838 (1856) ; 

Sharpe, Yarkand Miss., Aves, p. 116; Saloadori, Cat. B. M. xxi, 

p. 264. 
Palumboena eversmanni, Bli/th, J. A. S. B. xxvi, p. 219 ; Jerdon, 

B. 1. iii, p. 467 ; Beavan, Ibis, 1868, p. 374 : Ilitme, S. F. i, p. 217; 
id. fy If end. Lah. to Yark. p. 271, pi. xxxi ; id. Cat. no. 787 ; 

C. H. T. Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 421 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 288 : 
Reid, 8. F. x, p. 59. 

Palumboena oenieapilla, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxvi, p. 219. 

The Indian Stock-Pigeon, Jerdon : Kamar-Kidar, H. 

Coloration ashy grey ; crown and hind neck and breast tinged 
with lilac ; sides and bark of lower neck glossed with metallic 
green, changing to reel lilac, but less distinctly than in C. livia ; 
back and scapulars with tips of quills brownish ; three imperfect 
black bars, often indistinct or interrupted, on the secondaries and 
their coverts; lower back white; rump and upper tail-coverts 
leaden grey, often with darker edges ; base of tail also leaden grey, 
terminal third blackish, crossed by a paler grey band on the outer 
feathers ; basal portion of outer web of outermost rectrices white ; 
axillaries and inner part of wing-lining white. 

Bill pale yellowish green, base of lower mandible and gape 
slaty ; irides dark yellow ; legs and feet yellowish fleshy (Hume}. 

Length about 12 ; tail 4; wing 8 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape '9. 

Distribution. A migratory bird, breeding and passing the summer 
in Central Asia, and visiting the Punjab, Sind, the North-western 
Provinces, and Oudh in winter. It is the E istern representative 
of C. cenas, the Stock-Pigeon or Stock-Dove of Europe, a much 
larger bird with a proportionally longer tail. 



32 COLUMBIA. 

Habits, fyc. The Eastern Stock-Dove is met with in India in 
considerable flocks, feeding in small parties in the fields by day, 
and roosting on trees at night. It arrives about November and 
leaves India in March. 



1296. Columba leuconota. The White-bellied Pigeon. 

Columba leuconota, Vigors, P. Z S. 1831, p. 23; Gould, Cent. 
pi. 59; myth, J. A. 8. B. xiv, p. 864 ; id. Cat. p. 234; Adams, 
P. Z. S. 1858, p. 497, 1859, p. J87 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 471 ; 
Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 66 ; Stanford, J. A. S. B. 
xli, pt. 2, p. 70; Elwes, P. Z. IS. 1873, p. 659 ; Hume 8f Benders. 
Lah. to Yark. p. 274 ; Brookes, S. F. iii, p. 256 ; Hume, Cat. 
DO. 790 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 340 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 92 ; 
Scully, ibid. p. 584 ; C. H. T. Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 421 ; Sharps, 
Yarkand Miss., Aves, p. 116; Salvadori, Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 249. 

" Snow pigeon " of Himalayan travellers ; Bvjul, Chamba ; Lho-peu- 
rintiep, Lepcha ; Bya-den, Bhot. 

Coloration. Head all round very dark slaty grey ; neck all round 
white, passing into the light earthy brown of the upper back, 
smaller \ving-coverts, scapulars, and tertiaries ; rest of outer 
surface of wing ashy grey, with three dark brown bands on the 
secondaries and their coverts ; quills brown at the ends ; lower 
back white ; rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail blackish brown, the 
tail with a broad whitish cross-band just beyond the upper coverts 
on the middle rectrices, but nearer the ends in the outer feathers, 
subterminal and oblique in the outermost pair ; lower parts from 
the throat white, tinged with greyish lilac on the Hanks, wing- 
lining, and lower abdomen ; under tail-coverts pale ashy. 

Bill and claws horny black ; irides yellow ; feet bright light red 
(Scully). 

Length about 13*5; tail 5; wing 9'5 ; tarsus 1-2; bill from 
gape 1. 

Distribution. Throughout the higher Himalayas from. Gilgit to 
Bhutan, at elevations of 10,000 to 14,000 feet in summer, but 
descending to lower elevations in winter. To the north-east the 
range of this bird extends to Kansu. 

Habits, <$fc. This Pigeon, in summer at all events, is usually to 
be seen in flocks about rocky hill-sides. I found it irregularly 
distributed in Upper Sikhim, common in places, rare in others at 
the same elevation. I never heard its call, nor apparently has any 
other observer, and its nidification appears not to have been 
noticed, except that Lieut. Cordeaux says that he found it breeding 
amongst inaccessible crags in the Ai Nullah, Kashmir, in August. 

Genus DENDROTRERON, Hodgson, 1844. 

This genus was proposed for a peculiarly-coloured Himalayan 
Pigeon which appears to stand apart from all other Asiatic species. 
An African form, D. arquatrix, is closely allied and congeneric, and 



DENDROTREROX. 33 

another well-known African bird, Columba guinea, may perha.ps 
be referred to the same genus, though it differs in some characters. 

The genus Dendrotreron has a longer tail, a shorter and more 
feathered tarsus, and broader soles than true Columba, and thus 
resembles the Tree-Pigeons. The plumage is very different from 
the latter ; there is no metallic gloss on any part of the plumage, 
the neck-feathers are acuminate, and the neck-patches and tail- 
bands of Paluinbus are wanting. 

The members of the present genus are not fruit-eaters like 
Alsocomus, but live on berries and seeds. The African bird makes 
a nest on trees in mountain ravines and is said to lay two eggs. 



1297. Dendrotreron hodgsoni. The Speckled Wood-Pigeon. 

Columba hodgsonii, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 16 ; Blyth, J. A. S. B. 

xiv, p. 867 ; Salvador}, Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 274. 
Columba nipalensi^, Hodgson, J. A. 8. B. v, p. 122 (1836). 
Deudrotreron hodgsoni, Hodys. in Gray's Zool. Mine. p. 85; Hume, 

N. $ E. p. 497. 
Alsocomus hodo-sonii, Blylh, Cat. p. 2-33 ; Irby, Ibis, 1861, p. 233 ; 

Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 463; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, 

p. 65 ; Blanford, J. A. S. B. xli, pt, 2, p. 70 ; Hume, Cat. no. 783 ; 

Scully, S. F. viii, p. 339 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 91 ; Scully, ibid. 

p. 583 ; Oates in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 346. 

Coloration. Male. Head and upper neck all round ashy grey ; 
feathers of lower neck lanceolate, the edges and tips grey, the 
basal and middle parts of each feather blackish ; the grey edges 
gradually disappearing., and the colour of the feathers passing on 
the base of the hind neck into the claret-red of the upper back 
and of most of the smaller wing-coverts, the red passing again 
into dark grey on the middle and greater coverts, the middle 
coverts speckled with white ; quills, primary-coverts, and scapulars 
dark brown ; rump and upper tail-coverts dark leaden grey ; tail 
blackish brown : on the lower parts the grey of the neck is also 
gradually replaced by claret, which appears first on the upper 
breast in the middle of each feather, then gradually overspreads 
the lower breast and part of the abdomen ; lower abdomen, lower 
tail-coverts, and wing-lining deep slaty grey. 

In the female the grey of the head is brownish and the red of 
the back and breast much browner and duller. Size rather 
smaller. 

Bill purplish black; irides hoary; orbital space livid ; legs and 
feet blackish green in front, yellow behind ; claws pale yellow 
(Jet'don). 

Length about 15 ; tail 5-75 ; wing 9'25 ; tarsus '9 ; bill from 
gape 1. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas from Kashmir to 
Moupin in Eastern Tibet at considerable elevations, from 10,000 
to 13,000 feet in summer, but at a lower level (6000-9000) in 
winter. 

VOL. IV. D 



34 COLUMBIDjE. 

Habits, cfv. A shy bird, usually seen in small flocks amongst the 
pine-forests and feeding on berries. The nidification is unknown. 
According to Irby, some nest on inaccessible cliffs in Kumaun. 



Genus PALUMBUS, Kaup, 1829. 

The Wood-Pigeons differ from the Rock-Pigeons in shape, 
having longer necks and tails, the latter two-thirds the length of 
the wing or more, and projecting some distance beyond the ends 
of the closed wimgs, whilst the tafsus is partly feathered and 
proportionally shorter than in Columba. The wing is more 
rounded than in Columba, the 1st quill scarcely exceeding or not 
exceeding the 4th. There are no dark bars on the wings, but 
there is a pale band on the outer tail-feathers. 

Typical Ring-Doves or Wood-Pigeons are more or less migratory 
birds that keep in flocks and feed on grain, acorns, buds, &c. 
They always lav two eggs and make their nests on high trees. 
One species is Indian. 

1298. Palumbus casiotis. The Eastern Wood-Pigeon, 
Hiny-Dove, or Cusliat. 

Palumbus torquatus, v&T.,Blyth, Cat. p. 233 ; Adams, P. Z. S. 1858, 
p. 497. 

Palumbus easiotis,- Bonap. Consp. AT. \\, p. 42 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, 
p. 464; Stolicska, J. A. S. 13. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 66 Cock $ Marsh, 
ti. F. i, p. 358 ; Hume, N. 8f E. p. 497 ; id. Cat. no. 784; Butler, 
S. F. viii, pp. 386, 500 ; ix, p. 298 ; Wardl. Rams. Ibis, 1879, 
p. 448 ; Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 421 ; Barnes, S. F. ix, pp. 218, 
457 ; Swinhue, ibid. p. 237 ; Gates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, 
p. 346. 

Columba casiotis, Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 91 ; Scully, ibid. p. 583 ; 
Swinhoe, Ibis, 1882, p. 117 ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 173; Salmdori, 
Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 302. 
The Himalayan Cushat, Jerdon ; Dhanud, H. (Charaba). 

Coloration. Head and neck dark ashy grey ; sides and back of 
lower neck glossed with metallic green, changing to purplish red, 
especially at the sides towards the shoulders ; a large buff spot on 
each side of the neck near the body ; back, scapulars, quills, and 
the wing-coverts near the back brownish grey; primaries with 
narrow white outer borders ; vvinglet and primary-coverts blackish ; 
a broad longitudinal white band from the angle of the wing over 
the outer secondary coverts ; lower back, rump, upper tail-coverts, 
and base of tail above dark ashy grey ; the tail beyond the upper 
coverts blackish ; beneath the tail is nearly black, with a broad 
whitish-grey band across the middle ; breast pale lilac or vinous 
grey, passing into ashy grey on the abdomen and lower tail- 
coverts ; wing-lining ashy. 

Bill orange at the tip, whitish at the base ; feet red (Jerdon). 
Irides yellowish white (Biddulph). 



ALSOCOMUS. 35 

Length about 17; tail 6'75; wing 10'25 ; tarsus 1'25; bill 
from gape !!. 

Distribution. This Wood-Pigeon replaces the European bird 
(P. torquatus), which only differs in having white instead of buff 
neck-spots, in Central Asia and North- western India. It breeds 
in the North-western Himalayas from the Afghan frontier to 
Kumaun and in the higher hills (wherever there are trees) of 
Afghanistan, Baluchistan, and Southern Persia, and it visits Kan- 
dahar, Quetta, the Punjab, and occasionally Sind in winter. 

Habits, $c. Wood-Pigeons are chiefly found about high trees, on 
which they perch at intervals and roost, but they teed on the 
ground on grain, seeds, acorns, young shoots, &c. They collect in 
large flocks and migrate extensively, and, in some countries, 
regularly. The call is of four syllables, low and moaning. This 
species breeds in May and June, and lays the usual two white 
eggs on a small loosely-constructed platform of small twigs in a 
bush or tree, often at no great height above the ground. Eggs 
measure about 1*6 by 1*1. 



Genus ALSOCOMUS, Tickell, 1842. 

There are several Indian non-migratory Pigeons that resemble 
Palumbus in structure, but that have the habits of Oarpophaga. 
They are forest-haunting, fruit-eating birds, and they lay a single 
egg in all cases in which the nidification is known. Some have 
been referred to Palumbus, others to lanthoenas, and one has 
generally in India been regarded as a Carpophaga, though its 
structure is that of the Columbines. All are distinguished by dark 
coloration and by the prevalence of changeable metallic gloss, 
usually green or amethystine, on a great part or the whole of the 
plumage. Although some differences of plumage exist and the 
group might be subdivided, there is sufficient agreement to justify 
the retention of the whole under Tickell's generic name Alsocomus, 
which would in this case comprise lanthcenas. Besides the species 
here enumerated several Pigeons of the Malay Archipelago, Japan, 
and even of Oceania belong to this genus. 

Key to the Species. 

a. A patch of black feathers with white tips 

at back of neck. 

'. Lower parts grey A. elphinstonii, p. 06. 

b' , Lower parts lilac A. torrinff tonics, p. 36. 

b. Glossy buff feathers, black at base, ex- 

tending round neck A. pulchricollis, p. 37. 

c. No patch of white- or buff-tipped feathers 

on neck. 

c'. Mantle chestnut A. piwiceu*, p. 38. 

d'. Mantle blackish A. palumboides, p. 39. 

D2 



36 OOLTJMBID^E. 

1299. Alsoconms elphinstonii. The Nilgiri Wood-P'ujeon. , 

Ptilinopus elphin-tonii, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 149; Jerdon, Madr. 

Jour. L. S. xii, p. 11. 
Columba elphinstonii, Blt/th, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 866; Jerdon, lit. 

Ind. Orn. pi. 48 ; Salva'dori, Cat. B. M. xxi, p 304. 
Palumbus elphinstonei, Blyth, Cat. p. 233 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, 

p. 405; Hume, N. 8f E. p. 498; Morgan, Ibis, 1875, p. 323; 

Fairbank, S. F. iv, p. 262 ; v, p. 408 ; Bourdillon, S. F. iv, p. 404 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 786 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 74 ; Butler, ibid. p. 419 ; 

Davtson, S. F. x, p. 407 ; Maegmgw t ibid. p. 440 ; Terry, ibid. 

p. 479; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 288 ; Oates in Hume's N. > E. 

2nd ed. ii, p. 347. 

Coloration. Crown, sides of head and neck, and nape prey, with 
a slight metallic gloss ; a large patch on the hind neck ot' black 
feathers, with glossy edges and white tips ; back reddish brown, 
glossed with reddish lilac changing to metallic green ; wings 
blackish, most of the lesser and median coverts with brown edges ; 
rump and tail blackish brown, feathers of the former with glossy 
edges ; lower parts grey ; chin and throat whitish ; breast ashy 
with a slight gloss, the abdomen slightly tinged with lilac ; lower 
tail-coverts slaty ; wing-lining dark slaty grey. 

Corneous part of bill and claws horny white ; fleshy part of bill, 
eyelids, legs, and feet pink ; irides pale yellowish red to red-brown 
(Davison). 

Length about 16*5; tail 6; wing 8*5 ; tarsus 1; bill from 
gape 1-1. 

Distribution. The higher parts of the Western Ghats or Syhadri 
hill-ranges near the Malabar coast from Mahableshwar to Cape 
Comorin, in forest. On the Nilgiris this Pigeon is only found 
above about 5000 feet in the sholas. 

Habits, &fc. This bird has very much the habits of Carpophaya ; 
it keeps to the woods singly or in small parties and feeds on frnit, 
buds, and, according to Jerdon, snails. It occasionally descends 
to the ground outside the forest to feed. It breeds from March 
to July, builds the usual loose platform of sticks on large trees in 
dense forest, and lays one egg measuring about 1-5 by 1-1. 

1300. Alsoconms torringtoniae. The Ceylon Wood-Pigeon. 

Palumbus elphinstonei, var., Blyth, J. A. S. B. xx, p. 178 (1851). 
Palumbus torringtonii, Kelaart, Prodrom. Faun. Zeyl. pp. 107, 130 

(1852), descr. nulla : Bonap. Consp. Av. ii, p. 42 (1854); Blyth, 

Ibis, 1867, p. 306 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 424 ; id. Cat. no. 786 bis ; 

Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 348. 
Palumbus torringtoniae, Holdsworth, P. Z. S. 1872 ; p. 466 ; Legge, 

Birds Ceyl. p. 693, pi. xxx. 
Columba torringtoniae, Salvadori, Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 303. 

Mila-goya, Cing. 

Coloration. Very similar to that of the last species, but the 
crown and lower parts are more lilac and the brown of the mantle 



ALSOCOMUS. 37 

is wanting. The head and neck are greyish lilac with a lilac gloss, 
changing to green ; the large nuchal patch is black with white 
spots ; the base of the neck and upper back are richly glossed 
with reddish lilac ; the rest of the upper plumage, including the 
interscapulary region with the wings and tail, blackish brown with 
a slight gloss ; the rump more leaden grey ; lower parts reddish 
grey ; chin whitish ; breast dark, glossed with reddish lilac, 
abdomen paler, under tail-coverts darker, and wing-lining blackish 
brown . 

Basal half of bill plumbeous ; apical or corneous portion bluish ; 
irides pale red; orbital skin pink ; tarsus red, paler behind; claws 
fleshy white (Leyye). 

Length about 14; tail 5-25 ; wing 7*5; tarsus *95 ; bill from 
gape I'l. 

Distribution. Peculiar to the hill forests of Ceylon. 

Habits, 6fc. This also is a fruit-eating bird rarely found away 
from, forests. It has, according to Legge, a fine deep note, but not 
so guttural as that of the Imperial Pigeon. It drinks in the 
morning about 9 A.M. It is said to breed both in spring and 
autumn, and to place its nest on high trees. 

1301. Alsocomus pulchricollis. The Ashy Wood-Pigeon. 

Columba pulchricollis, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 85 (1844), 
descr. nulla; Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 866 (1845); Salvadori, 
Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 305 ; Stuart Baker, Ibis, 1896, p. 355. 

Palumbus pulchricollis, Blyth, Cat. p. 233 ; Jerdon, B. 1. iii, p. 4G5 ; 
Hume, Cat. no. 785. 

The Darjiling Wood-Pigeon, Jerdon ; Ka-o, Lepcha. 

Coloration. Head above and at the sides ashy grey with a slight 
gloss ; round the neck a conspicuous collar of feathers, black at 
the base, largely tipped with glossy buff, whitish at the extreme 
end ; lower neck all round and upper back blackish, richly glossed 
with changeable metallic green and reddish lilac ; middle of back, 
wings, and tail blackish brown ; lower back and rump blackish 
leaden grey ; chin white, becoming buff on the throat and passing 
into the glossy collar ; breast dark slaty blue glossed with green 
and dull lilac, passing on the abdomen into the brownish buff of 
the vent and lower tail-coverts ; wing-lining blackish. 

Bill livid at the base, yellow at the tip ; irides yellow ; legs dull 
red, claws yellow. 

Length about 14 ; tail 5-25 ; wing 8'25 ; tarsus '9 ; bill from 
gape '95. 

Distribution. The Eastern Himalayas in Nepal and Sikhim at 
elevations from 7000 to 10,000 feet cr higher, and at a lower 
elevation in the Cachar hills. The only other known locality is 
the island of Formosa. A rare bird. 

Habits, 6fc. Two nests taken at Hungrum in Cachar on June 22nd 
by Mr. E. C. Stuart Baker were the usual rough platforms of 
sticks nearly 9 inches in diameter, sparsely lined with feathers 



38 COLUMMD.I:. 

a remarkable character. Each contained a single egg, one measuring 
1-55 by 1-15, the other 1-5 by 1-17. 

1302. Alsocomus pnniceus. The Purple Wood- Pigeon. 
Alsocomus puniceus, Tickell, Blyth, J.A. S. B. xi, p. 461 (1842) ; 

~ ' 




S. F. xi, p. 296. 

Coluroba pnnicea, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, pp. 867, 878 ; Salvador*, 
Cat. B. M. xxi,p. :jOfi. 




Fig. 7. Head of A. puniceus. }. 

Coloration. Male. Lores, forehead, crown, and nape greyish 
white ; neck, cheeks, and throat dull chestnut ; upper and lower 
back, wing-coverts, tertiaries, and scapulars rich chestnut ; rump 
and upper tail-coverts dark slaty grey ; quills and tail-feathers 
blackish brown, some of the quills grey on the outer webs ; lower 
parts, including under wing-coverts, vinous chestnut ; under tail- 
coverts dark slaty grey ; the whole plumage with a changeable 
metallic gloss, green and amethyst, which is peculiarly strong on 
the hind neck and upper back, and on the edges of the back and 
rump-feathers and of the upper wing-coverts. 

Female rather smaller and duller in plumage, the head above 
browner grey with a lilac gloss. 

Horny portion of bill bluish white ; rest of bill and gape lake- 
pink; irides orange; eyelids bright red; orbital skin purplish 
pink ; legs and feet pale purplish or lake-pink (Davison). Claws 
pale yellow (Jerdori). 

Length about 16 ; tail 6'5 ; wing 9 ; tarsus '9 ; bill from gape 
1-05. Tenasserim birds are slightly smaller, wing 8-5. 

Distribution. Sparingly distributed throughout Burma and the 
adjoining countries from Assam and Cachar to Cochin China and 
the Malay Peninsula, but not in the Himalayas, though this Pigeon 



TURTUR. 39 

is found in South-eastern Bengal, in Manbhum and Siughbhum, 
and as far west as Sirguja. A specimen appears to have been 
obtained by Layard in Ceylon, but it was probably an accidental 
straggler, as the species is unknown in Southern India. 

Habits, fyc. A fruit-eating Pigeon, generally seen singly or in 
small parties of not more than five or six in forest, especially on 
the banks of streams or in groves of trees in well-wooded cultivated 
country. The call, according to Bingham, is not unlike that of 
Carpophaga cenea, but not half so loud. Gates found a nest of a 
few twigs on a bamboo, 10 feet from the ground, and containing a 
single fresh egg, on July 27th. The male bird was sitting and the 
egg measured 1'47 by 1*15. 

1303. Alsoconms palumboides. The Andaman Wood-Pigeon. 

CarpophaQ-a palumboides, Hume, 8. F. i, p. 302 ; ii, pp. 263, 498 ; 

iii, p. 327 ; iv, p. 292 ; id. Cat. no. 781 quat. 
lanthoenas palumboides, Walden, Ibis, 1873, p. 315, pi. xiii. 
lanthcenas nicobarica, Walden, A. M. N. H. (4) xiv, p. 157. 
Columba palumboides, Salcadori, Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 308. 

Coloration. Male. Head and neck all round whitish grey, with 
slight metallic gloss, the neck rather darker and the lower hind 
neck with a metallic emerald-green gloss, remainder of upper parts 
blackish; quills blackish brown; rump and up per tail-coverts dark 
slaty grey ; borders of feathers on back, wing-coverts, rump, and 
upper tail-coverts with an amethystine gloss, changing to green ; 
lower parts from neck slaty grey, with slight metallic greenish and 
purplish gloss ; wing-lining dark slaty. 

In the \ female the head and neck are slightly darker grey than in 
the male. In the young (lantliosnas nicobarica} the head and neck 
are still darker and brownish, and the colour throughout duller. 

Bill pale whitish yellow, basal portion lake-red ; irides orange, 
externally light red ; naked orbital region pinkish lake ; legs and 
feet red, paler behind ; soles whitish ; claws white. 

Length about 16 ; tail 6-5 ; wing 9'5 ; tarsus I'l ; bill from 
gape 1-5. 

Distribution. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 

Habits, fyc. This is also a fruit-eating species, so closely re- 
sembling CarpopJiaga in appearance and habits that it was referred 
to that genus by Hume. It is found singly or in small parties on 
the Andamans and Mcobars, keeping much to high trees ; it has 
a loud, deep note. 

Genus TURTUR, Selby, 1835. 

Head small ; bill slender, the horny apex of the upper mandible 
much shorter than the soft basal portion. Wing long, pointed, 
2nd or 3rd quill longest. Tail rather long, but not exceeding the 
wing in length, rounded or somewhat graduated. Tarsus longer 
than middle toe ; foot formed for walking, soles of toes narrow. 
Sexes similar. 



40 COLTJMBID^E. 

The true Doves are represented by seven species in British India, 
and some of these are amongst the commonest and best-known 
birds of the country. They have the flight of Pigeons, but are 
less gregarious, and they feed on the ground almost entirely on 
grain and other seeds. As a rule they are chiefly found in open 
and cultivated country. They breed on low trees and bushes and 
make a slight nest of the usual type, consisting of thin twigs or 
grass, arranged in a kind of platform, so loose and disconnected 
that the eggs can generally be seen from below. The eggs are 
always two in number, white and glossy. 

This genus contains nearly 30 species spread over Europe, Asia, 
and Africa. 




Fig. 8. Sole of foot of T. surafensis. }. 

Keif to the Species. 

a. A patch of black feathers with white or grey 

tips on each side of the neck. 
a'. Tips to black neck-patch grey. 

a". No white on abdomen; under tail-coverts 

and tips of tail-feathers slaty grey . . T. orientalis, p. 40. 
b". Middle of abdomen, under tail-coverts, 

and tips of tail-feathers white or whitish. T.ferrago, p. 41. 
b'. Tips to black neck-patch white T. communis, p. 42. 

b. A collar of bUck feathers, each ending in two 

white spots, round back of neck. 

c'. Back distinctly spotted with rufou? T. suratensis, p. 4.'). 

d' . Back indistinctly or not spotted T. tiyrinws, p. 44. 

A collar of black feathers with ferruginous 

tips round front of neck T. cambnyetisis, p. 4-~>. 

. A black collar without white tips round back 

of neck T. risorms, p. 40. 

1304. Turtur orientalis. The llvfous Turtle-Dove. 

Colutnba orientalis, Lath. Ind. Orn. ii, p. COG (1790). 

Columba rupicola, Pall. Zooyr. Rosso-Asiat. i, p. 506 (1811). 

Columba meena, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 149. 

Columba agricola, Tickell, J. A. S. B. ii, p. 581 (1833). 

Columba gelastis, Temm. PI, Col. pi. 550 (1835). 

Turtur meena, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 875 ; Jcrdon, B. I. iii, 

p. 476; Beavan, Ibis, 1868, p. 375; Godw.-Anst. J. A. S. B. 

xxxix, pt. 2, p. 272; xlv, pt. 2, p. 83; Hume, Ibis, 1870, p. 438 ; 

id. Lah. to Yark. p. 277 ; id. N. $ E. p. 501 ; id. S. F. iii, p. 163 ; 

Bh th $ Wald. Birds Bunn. p. 146 ; Fairbank, S. F. iv, p. 262 ; 




Butler, ibid. p. 420; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 292 ; Swinh. $ Barnes, 



TUIITUR. 41 

Ibis, 1885, p. 130 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 290 ; Hume, S. F. xi, 
p. 298 ; Otdes in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd t- 1. ii, p. 3/50. 
Turtur orientalis, Bli/th, Cat. p. 236 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, 
p. 66b' ; &?M%, & ^. viii, p. 340 : Wardl. Rams. Ibis, 1880, p. 69 ; 
Salvadori, Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 40-3. 

Kala fakhta, Baskofakhta, II. ; Sam yhiigu, Beng. ; Yedru poda guwa, 
Tel. 

Coloration. Head, neck, and back brown, more or less suffused 
with vinous, the edges of the feathers sometimes rufous, the crown 
and forehead often tinged with bluish grey ; on each side of the 
neck a patch of black feathers tipped with bluish grey ; lesser 
and median coverts, scapulars, and tertiaries blackish with broad 
ferruginous borders : primary and larger coverts brown, tinged 
with grey ; quills brown, with linear pale outer edges ; lower back 
and rump slaty grey ; upper tail-coverts brown ; tail-feathers 
blackish brown, all except the median pair tipped with slaty grey, 
the border of the outer web on the outermost pair also grey ; 
lower parts vinous, chin and middle of throat paler ; vent, under 
tail-coverts, and wing-lining dark slaty grey. 

Young birds want the neck- patch ; they are browner and less 
rufous than adults, and have pale borders to the feathers of the 
back, wing-coverts, and breast. 

Bill brown, with a tinge of vinous on the basal half; irides 
orange ; eyelids pale blue ; edges of eyelids red ; legs vinous red ; 
claws black (Oates). 

Length about 13 ; tail 5; wing 7 ; tarsus '85 ; bill from gape 1. 

Distribution. A resident species, ranging from the Eastern 
Himalayas, through out Assam and Burma, to Northern Tenasserim ; 
found also in Bengal, Chutia Nagpur, Central India, and the 
Deccan north of about 15 N. lat., but not in the Himalayas west 
of Nepal, the N.W. Provinces, ncr Eaiputana, except as an 
occasional straggler. To the north-eastward this Dove ranges to 
Manchuria, Corea, and Japan. 

Habits, 6fc. Although it moves about to some extent, this is not 
a truly migratory bird like the next two species. It is more often 
seen in flocks than Indian doves generally are, but it is on the 
whole not a common bird. It has a very deep, thrice-repeated 
note. Hume thinks that the breeding-season is from December 
to April ; the eggs are of course two in number, white, glossy, and 
oval. 

1305. Turtur ferrago. The, Indian Turtle-Dove. 

Columba fervago, Evcrsm. Add. Pall. Zooar. Itoss.-Asiat. fasc. iii, 
p. 17 (1842). 

Columba pulchvara, Hodys. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 85 (1844), descr. 
nulla. 

Turtur rupicolus, ap\td Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 476 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, 
p. 149; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 66; Beavan, Ibis, 
1868, p. 374; Hume, Ibis, 1870, p. 438; Cock $ Marsh. S. F. i, 
p. 358 ; Adam, ibid. p. 390 ; Fairbank, S. F. iv, p. 262 ; C. H. T. 
Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 421 ; nee Columba rupicola, Pall. 



42 COLUMBIA. 

Turtur vitticollis, apud Hume Sf Renders. Lali. to Yark. p. 274, nee 

Hodys. 
Turtur pulchrata, Hume, N. $ E. p. 500 ; Butler, S.. F. iv, p. 3 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 792; Leave, Birds Cei/l. p. 711 ; Sutler, S. F. ix, 

p. 420 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 60 ; Davidson, ibid. p. 315 ; Davison, 

ibid. p. 407 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 290 ; Davidson, Jour. Bom. 

N. H. Soc. v, p. 330. 
Turtur ferrago, War dl. Rams. Ibis, 1880, p. 68; Scully, Ibis, 1881, 

p. 584 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1882, p. 286 ; Sakadori, Cat. B. M. xxi, 

p. 401. 
Turtur pulchrala (Hodus.}, Oates in Humes If. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, 

p. 349. 

The Ashy Turtle-Dove, Jerdon ; Koin, Chamba ; Hulaaud, Mahr. 

Coloration similar to that of T. orientalis, except that the middle 
of the abdomen is whitish and the vent, lower tail-coverts, tips of 
the tail-feathers, and outer webs of the outermost rectrices are 
white or very pale grey. The general coloration, as a rule, is slightly 
less rufous and the head greyer. The tips of the feathers of the 
neck -patches are grey, as in T. orientals. 

Bill blackish : legs dull purple-lake (Jerdon}. Irides light orange 
(Barnes}. 

Length 13 ; tail 5-25 ; wing 7'25 ; tarsus '85 ; bill from gape 1. 

Distribution. This Dove breeds in the Himalayas from Afghanistan 
to Sikhim, and also throughout a large area in Central Asia, in- 
cluding Turkestan and South-western Siberia ; it visits Northern 
India in the winter, avoiding the desert tracts, and is found as far 
south as the Deccan ; whilst rare stragglers have been obtained by 
Davidson in the Wynaad and by one or two observers in Ceylon. 
Some skins from Nepal and occasionally from the plains of India 
are intermediate between this and T. orientalis ; but generally the 
two forms are easily distinguished, though closely allied. 

Habits, fyc. Very similar to those of the last species, except that 
this is a distinctly migratory bird and is less social, though some- 
times seen in flocks. It breeds at elevations of 4000-8000 feet in 
the Himalayas from May to August, and lays the usual two oval, 
white, glossy eggs, measuring about 1-22 by -93, on a smnll plat- 
form of twigs on a tree. Davidson found a nest that he believed 
to belong to this species in the Satpuras, north of Khandesh, in 
March. 

1306. Turtur communis. The Turtle-Dove. 

Columba turtur, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 284 (1766). 

Turtur communis, Selby, Nat. Libr., Ornith. v, pp. 153, 171 (1835), 
descr. nulla ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 174. 

Turtur auritus, Ray, G. R. Gray, List Gen. B. p. 58 (1840) ; Hume # 
Henders. Lali. to Yark. p. 278 ; Scully, S. F. iv, p. 177; Biddulph, 
Ibis, 1881, p. 92 ; Scully, ibid. p. 585 ; Sivinhoc, Ibis, 1882, p. 117. 

Turtur turtur, Salvadori, Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 396. 

Coloration. Head and neck bluish grey above, and the tips of 
the black feathers forming the neck-patches white instead of grey; 
breast lilac rather than vinous ; abdomen white, the flanks ashy; 



TURTUR. 43 

whole outer webs of outermost pair of tail-feathers pure white 
like the tips ; lower tail-coverts also pure white. In other respects 
this species is identical with T. ferrago in colouring, but it is 
considerably smaller. 

Bill greyish black ; orbital skin purple ; iricles orange-yellow ; 
legs and feet purplish red ; claws black (Scull;/}. 

Length about 11; tail 4*5; wing 6'5 ; tarsus *85; bill from 
gape *85. 

Distribution. Migratory in the Western Palaearctic region, visiting 
Northern Africa, Southern Persia, &c., in winter. This Dove 
ranges to the eastward as far as Tarkand and Kashghar. A few 
stragglers have been obtained at Gilgit and at Quetta, at both 
places in summer. 

1307. Turtur suratensis. The Spotted Dove. (Fig. 1, p. 1.) 

Colurnba suratensis, Gm. Syst. Nat. i, p. 778 (1788). 
Turtur vitticollis, Hoays. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 85 (1844), descr. 
nulla. 



Turtur suratensis, Blyth, Cat. p. 236; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 479;' 

Beavan, Ibis, 1868, p. 376: Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, 

p. 67 ; Goclw.-Aust. J. A. S'. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 112 ; Hume, S. F. 

i, p. 218 ; Adam, ibid. p. 390 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 504 ; Butler $ 

Hume, S. F. iv. p. 3 ; v, p. 231 ; Fairbank, S. F. iv, p. 262 ; 

v, p. 409 ; Hume $ Bourd. S. F. vii, p. 39 ; Davids. 8f Wend. ibid. 

p. 86 ; Ball, ibid. p. 224 ; Cripps, ibid. p. 297 ; Hume, Cat. no. 795 ; 

Scully, S. F. viii, p. 341 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 75 ; Butler, ibid. 

p. 420; Legc/e, Birds Ceyl. p. 705; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 92; 

1882, p. 286; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 585; Reid, S. F. x, p. 60; 

Davison, ibid. p. 408 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 291 ; Hume, S. F. 

xi, p. 298; Gates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 353 ; Sharpe, 

Yarkand Miss., Aves, p. 119; Salvador!, Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 444. 

Chitroka fakhta, Perki, Chitla, Kanyskiri, Panduk, H. ; Chaval yhuyu, 

Telia yhuyu, Beng. ; Kawadd, Mahr. ; Bode, Gond; Poda-bella-yuwu, 

Tel. ; Puli-pora, Tarn. ; Mani-praa, Tarn. (Ceylon) ; Kobeya, Allu- 

kobeya, Cing. ; Kii-po-hu, Assamese. 

Coloration. Head above and at sides and nape vinous grey ; fore- 
head and around eye generally greyer ; a black spot in front of 
each eye ; back and sides of neck black, each feather bifurcate at 
the tip and terminating in two white spots ; upper back brown, 
each feather with two rufous terminal spots, the spots gradually 
fading out on the lower back and rump, becoming much larger on 
the scapulars and wing-coverts, in which the rufous end of each 
feather is divided into two by a blackish shaft-stripe, broadest at 
the end ; primary and greater secondary wing-coverts ashy ; quills 
brown ; the four middle tail-feathers brown, the next pair black 
with grey tips, the others with the basal half black, terminal half 
whitish or white ; lower surface vinous, whitish on the throat, 
vent, and lower tail-coverts ; wing-lining grey near the edge, 
further in and axillaries blackish. 

Young birds are duller and browner, and want the black white- 
tipped feathers of the neck, whilst the rufous spots on the back 
and wing-coverts are indistinct. 



44 COLUMBID J. 

Bill dull leaden-black ; i rides dark hazel, surrounded by a reddish 
sclerotic ; legs dark purplish red (Jerdon) : orbital skin red (Leyc/e). 

Length about 12 ; tail 5-5 ; wing 5'5 : tarsus '85 ; bill from 
gape -85. Females are a little less, and Ceylon birds are slightly 
smaller than North Indian. 

Distribution. Throughout the whole of India and Ceylon ; most 
common in well-wooded countries, rare in drier regions, and wanting 
in desert tracts. This Dove is found throughout the Himalayas 
up to 7UGO feet and in Gilgit and Ladtik (the statement in the 
British Museum Catalogue that it inhabits Yarkand is a mistake). 
To the eastward it is found in Assam. Cachar, and Manipur, but 
is replaced in Burma by T. tigrinus. 

Habits, tyc. A common familiar bird, coming frequently into 
gardens about houses and having a plaintive, trisyllabic call. It 
breeds almost throughout the year, having two or more broods ; 
but in Northern India the principal season for laying eggs is from 
October to May. The nest is the usual slight structure placed 
on a bush or low tree, and the two white glossy eggs measure 
about 1-06 by '82. 

1308. Turtur tigrinus. The Malay Spotted Dove. 

Columba tigrina, Temm. Pigeons, i, pi. 43 (1808-11). 
Turtur suratensis, apud Blylh, Cat. p. 230, part. 
Turtur tigrinus, Myth, J. A. S. B. xxiv, p. 480 ; id. Ibis, 1867, 
p. I/JO; Bali, S. F. i, p. 80; Hume, A'. # E. p. 50(5; id. S. F. ii, 
p. 269; Blyth $ Wald. Bird* Burm. p. 145; Hume, S. F. iii, 
p. ] 64 ; Armstrong, 8. F. iv, p. 337 ; Hume fy Dar. S. F. vi, p. 422 ; 
Anderson, Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 665 ; Hume, Cat. no. 795 bis ; 
Hume fy Intjlis, S. F. ix, p. 258; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 290; id. in 
Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 356; Salvadori, Cat. B. M. xxi, 
p. 440. 

Gyo, Burmese. 

Coloration similar to that of T. suratensis, except that there are 
no distinct rufous spots on the back, whilst those on the wing- 
coverts are much smaller and less distinct, and the shaft-stripes are 
not so well marked, the white tips to the tail-feathers also are much 
shorter. The difference is not great, and T. suratensis in worn 
plumage closely resembles T. tigrinus when freshy moulted ; in fact 
these are merely local races. 

Bill bluish black ; eyelids and skin of face plumbeous ; irides 
reddish ; legs deep red; claws dark horn (Oates). 

Length about 12 ; tail 5-5 ; wing 5'5 ; tarsus '9 ; bill from 
gape -9. 

Distribution. Throughout Burma, extending east to Cochin China 
and south through the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago as far as 
Celebes. Birds from Upper Burma are sometimes intermediate 
between this race and T. suratensis. 

Habits, 6fc. Similar to those of T. suratensis. The breeding- 
season extends throughout the year, but is especially from August 
to March. 



TURTUR. 45 

1309. Tartar cambayensis. The Little Brown Dove. 

Columba cambayensis, Gm. Syst. Nat. i, p. 779 (1788). 

Turtur senegalensis, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 237 ; JJavids. fy Wend. S. F. 
vii, p. 86 ; Hume. Cat. no. 794 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 74 ; Barnes, 
ibid. pp. 219, 458 ; Butler, ibid. p. 420 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 60 ; 
Davidson, ibid. p. 315 ; Daoison, ibid. p. 408 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 
p. 291 ; Gates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 351 ; Sharpe, 
Yarkand Miss., Aves, p. 118 (nee Brisson). 

Turtur cambayeusis*, Jerdon, B. 1. iii, p. 478 ; Stolivzka, J. A. 
S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 66; xli, pt. 2, p. 248; Hume, S. F. i, 
p. 218 ; Adam, ibid. p. 390 ; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 3 ; Fairbank, 
S. F. iv. p. 262 ; v, p. 408 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 224 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 
1881, p.' 92 ; 1882, p. 286; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 585 ; C. Swmhoe, 
Ibis, 18S2, p. 117; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 174; Salvadori, Cat. 
B. M. xxi,p. 451. 

Chota fakhta, Perki, Tortrufakhta, Paniuk, H. ; Hold, Mahr. ; Chitti 
bella (juiua, Sowata guwa, Tel. ; Touta-pora, Tarn. 

Coloration. Head, neck, and breast lilac, tinged with vinous, 
paler on the sides of the head ; chin whitish ; on the sides and 
front of the lower neck is a gorget of black feathers, bind at the 
end and broadly tipped with ferruginous ; back, wing-coverts near 
the back, tertiaries, scapulars, rump, upper tail-coverts, and middle 
tail-feathers light earthy brown; distal wing-coverts ashy; winglet 
and greater primary-coverts blackish brown ; quills dark brown ; 
outer tail-feathers with basal half blackish, terminal half white, 
outer margin of outermost pair white throughout, the two pairs 
next to the middle pair chiefly grey above ; the vinous breast passes 
into white on the abdomen ; lower tail-coverts white ; wing-Jining 
and flanks dark ashy grey. 

Bill blackish ; irides dark brown, with a whitish inner circle ; 
legs lake-red (Jerdon). 

Length about 10'5 ; tail 4'75 ; wing 5 ; tarsus '85 ; bill from 
gape *75. 

This Dove has been regarded as identical with the African 
T. senegalensis, which, however, is quite distinct and has the upper 
surface rufous. 

Distribution. Throughout almost the whole peninsula of India 
from the base of the Himalayas, rare on the Malabar coast, and 
unknown in Ceylon, also wanting in Lower Bengal and to the 
eastward. This Dove is found in North-western India and the 
Western Himalayas, in Sind, the Punjab, Kashmir, Turkestau, 
Afghanistan and Baluchistan, and in Arabia. 

J-labits, $c. This and the next species are the most familiar of all 
Indian doves, and are commonly found about houses ; they are 
also abundant in bush-jungle, and are two of the commonest birds 
everywhere. The call of T. cambayensis is "low, subdued, and 
musical, a dissyllabic sound, repeated four or five times successively" 
(Blytli). The present species breeds throughout the year and has 
several broods yearly ; the nest, a slight one, is placed indifferently 
on shrubs or low trees or in buildings, or occasionally on the 
ground. The white glossy eggs measure about 1 by '85. 



46 COLUMBIA. 

1310. Turtur risorius. The Indian Ring-Dove. 

Columba risoria, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. '285 (1766), partim. 

Turlur douraca, Hodys. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 85 (1844), descr. 
nullti ; Salvadori, Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 430. 

Turtur risorius, Blyth, Cat. p. 235; id. J. A. S. B. xxiv, p. 261; 
Jerdon, B. I. in, p. 481 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 151 ; Stoliczka, 
J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 67; xli, pt. 2, p. 248; Godw.-Aust. 
J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 272; Hume, S. F. i, p. 218 ; Adam, 
ibid. p. 390 ; Hume, N. fy E. p. 506 ; id. S. F. iii, p. 105 ; Walden 
in Bli/th's Birds Burin, p. 146; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 3 ; vii, p. 171 ; 
ix. p. '420; Fairbank, S. F. iv, p^262; v, p. 409; Ball, S. F. vii, 




). 458 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 60 ; Davison, ibid. p. 408 ; Swinhoe, Ibis, 
1882, p. 118 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 293 ; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. 
ii, p. 357 ; C. H. T. Marsh. Ibis, 1884, p. 421 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 
p. 291 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 299 ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 174. 
Turtur stoliczkse, Hume, S. F. ii, p. 519 (1874). 

The Common Ring-Dove, Jerdon : Dhorfakhta, Perki, Panduk, Guyi, H. ; 
Kalhak, Kahalaki, Pankf/hugu, Beng. ; Pitha Hola, Mahr. ; Pedda-bella 
guwa, Tel. ; Cally-prad, Tarn. (Ceylon). 

Coloration. Head and neck grey, tinged with lilac, paler on the 
forehead and sides of head, and whitish on the chin ; a black 
collar, narrowly bordered above and still more narrowly below with 
white, round the hind neck ; upper parts thence to the tail and 
middle tail-feathers light brown, passing into ashy grey on the 
outer wing-coverts, greater secondary coverts, and secondaries ; 
primary-quills dark brown ; outermost tail-feathers with the basal 
half grey above, black beneath, the black running some distance 
down the outer web, terminal half or rather less and narrow extreme 
outer edge throughout white ; other tail-feathers, except median 
pair, white at the ends, beneath partly white, partly greyish brown 
above ; breast pale lilac, passing into ashy grey on the abdomen and 
flanks and slaty grey on the lower tail-coverts ; wiog-lming white, 
grey near the edge of the wing. 

Bill black ; irides crimson ; orbitnl skin whitish ; feet dark pink- 
red (Jerdon); claws horn- colour (Oates). 

Length about 12'5 ; tail 5 ; wing 6'75 ; tarsus *9 ; bill from 
gape -9. 

Distribution. Throughout India and Ceylon, in open and culti- 
vated tracts and even in dry parts of the country, but not in 
forest ; rare on the Malabar coastland. This Dove occurs, but is 
not common, in Assam, Cachar, Upper Burma, and Pegu, but not 
in Tenasserim. It is found in the open "Western Himalayas, but 
not in the forest-clad ranges of Sikhim. It has been met with in 
China and throughout Central and South-western Asia, and as far 
west as Turkey in Europe. 

Habits, $c. As Jerdon observes, this Dove chiefly frequents 
hedges and trees about cultivation and also low bush- or reed- 
jungle. It is very common in many parts of the country, and is 
almost or quite as familiar as T. cambayensis. The voice is rather 



(ENOPOPELIA. 47 

deep ; the call trisyllabic. The breeding-season lasts throughout 
the year ; the nest, of the usual type, is generally in a bush or tree, 
often a thorny one, and not far from the ground, and the eggs 
measure about 1-16 by T92. 

Salvador!, following Schlegel, has adopted the name of T. douraca, 
Hodgson, for this Dove ; but Hodgson's term was published with- 
out any figure or description, and Lord Walden has shown that 
Liunaeus's name risurius does apply to the present species. 

Genus (ENOPOPELIA, nov. 

The little ruddy Bing-Dove is distinguished from all other 
species by its long wing, with the first primary nearly or quite 
equal to the second, and by having the sexes dissimilar in plumage. 
Two species are generally attributed to this group, but I cannot 
see that they are sufficiently distinct to deserve separation. 

1311. (Enopopelia tranquebarica. The Red Turtle-Dove. 

Columba tranquebarica, Herm. Obs. Zool. p. 200 (1804). 

Columba humilis, Temm. PI. Col. pi. 259 (1824). 

Turtur humilis, Blyth, Cat. p. 236 ; id. J. A. S. B. xxiv, p. 261 ; 
Lai/cird, A. M. N. H. (2) xiv, p. 60; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 482; 
Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 151 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, 
p. 67; xli, pt. 2, p. 249; Hume, Ibis, 1869, p. 19; Ball, J. A. 
S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 287; Hume, S. F. i, p. 218; Adam, ibid. 
p. 391 ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 269 ; id. N. fy E. p. 507; Godw.-Aust. 
J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. 2, p. 172 ; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 3 ; Fairbank, 
ibid. p. 262 : Hume, ibid. p. 292 ; Armstrong $ Hume, ibid. p. 338 ; 
Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 423 ; Hume, Cat. no. 797 bis ; Hume $ 
Inqlis, S. F. ix, p. 258 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 294 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 
1882, p. 286 ; C. H. T. Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 421 ; Hume, S. F. 
xi, p. 299; Salvadori, Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 434. 

Turtur tranquebaricus, Walden, Trans. Zool. Soc. ix, p. 219 ; 
Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 145 ; Hume, S. F. iv, p. 292 ; Davids. $ 
Wend. S. F. vii, p. 86; Butler, ibid. p. 186; Ball, ibid. p. 224; 
Cripps, ibid. p. 297 ; Hume, Cat. no. 797 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 342 ; 
Doicj, ibid. p. 371 ; Lef/ge, Birds Ceyl. p. 708 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, 
p. 75 ; Butler, ibid. p. 421 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 61 ; Barnes, Birds 
Bom. p. 292 ; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. i, p. 55 ; v, p. 332 ; Oates in 
Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 359 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 437. 

Turtur humilior, Hume, P. A. S. B. 1874, p. 241 ; id. S. F. iii, p. 279 ; 
iv, p. 292. 

Seroti fakhta, Ghirwi fakhta, Biki, H. ; Golabi yhitgu, lihuiya 
c/huyu, Tuma khuri, Beiig. ; Rah-yuwa, Peri-aripu guwa, Tel. 

Coloration. Male. Head and nape dark ashy grey ; a black 
collar round the hind neck ; below this collar the back, scapulars, 
tertiaries, and wing-coverts are vinous red, more or less tinged 
with ferruginous; primary-coverts and quills dark brown ; rump 
and upper tail-coverts dark slaty grey ; middle tail-feathers brown, 
often washed with grey, next two pairs dark grey at base, paler at 
the ends, the three outer pairs with the larger basal half blackish 
above, black below, the smaller terminal half and whole outer web 



48 COLUMB1DJE. 

of outermost pair white ; lower parts vinous red, whitish on chin 
and vent ; under tail-coverts white ; flanks and under wing-coverts 
grey. 

Females are brown above, greyish on head, rump, flanks, and 
edge of wing; breast light brown, sometimes with a vinous tinge ; 
a black nuchal collar and the tail as in males. 

Young birds are pale brown almost throughout, andhave no collar; 
the feathers of the back and wings are pale-edged. 

Bill black ; irides dark brown ; eyelids plumbeous ; legs vinaceous 
brown ; claws black ; the joints of he scales on the legs white 
(Oates}. 

Length about 9 ; tail 4 ; wing 5-5 ; tarsus '75 ; bill from 
gape '75. 

The Indian form (E. tranquebarica has of late years genernliy 
been regarded as specifically distinct from the Burmese and Chinese 
bird (E. humilis, on account of the coloration of the latter being 
deeper and the wing-lining dark grey instead of pale. Salvadori, 
however, has shown that the coloration of the upper parts is not 
constantly different, and although Burmese birds have very dark 
wing-linings, there is little if any distinction bet\ve?n Chinese and 
Indian birds, and the difference is in any case so small as scarcely 
to be of specific importance. 

Distribution. Throughout India, by no means scarce in the 
Punjab, Sind, and Bajputana, though not known farther west. 
This Dove was obtained at G-ilgit by Biddulph, and in Ceylon, where 
it appears to be very rare, by Layard. It ranges throughout Burma 
to the Andarnans and through Cochin China and China to the 
Philippines. 

Habits, fyc. This is less common in India than some other doves, 
but it is widely distributed, except in forest-tracts. Its call is 
short and deep. It is not unfrequently found in small flocks. 
Eggs have been taken from January to July and in November ; 
but Hume believes that this species has only two broods in the 
year. The eggs are slightly elongated, two in number, and waxy 
white or cream-coloured, and measure about T02 by -8. The nests 
are on trees and are of the usual type. 

Genus MACROPYGIA, Swainson, 1837. 

This genus contains several long-tailed Doves inhabiting the 
Oriental and Australian regions, and ranging from the Himalayas 
to the New Hebrides and Australia. Thev may at once be dis- 
tinguished from all other Indian Columbine by having a graduated 
1ail that equals or exceeds the wing in length. The bill is slender, 
the head small and Dove-like, the tarsus short and partly feathered, 
the feet adapted for perching, the toes being long and the soles 
broad ; the feathers of the rump are spinous, and the tail-coverts 
elongate. 

Twenty-seven species are described in Salvadori's Catalogue, 
and twenty-six in a paper by Major Wardlaw Bamsay published 



MACUOPYGIA. 

in the ' Ibis ' for 1890, but or these only three occur within our 
area. They are generally of a rufous-brown colour, partly or 
wholly. The habits are thus described by Wardlaw Ramsay, I. c. 
p. 215: 

" In habits M tcropyyia is a Ground-Dove of a tame nature, 
very partial to open glades and clearings in dense forest, especially 
when covered with a secondary growth of low scrubby jungle. It 
is generally found singly or in pairs, and on being flushed it only 
flies a short distance and alights on some convenient branch, 
spreading out its tail like a fan as it does so. Its food is composed 
of seeds and berries, one very favourite fruit being the chilli 
(Capsieum fastiyiatum}, of which it consumes an enormous 
quantity." 

Key to the Species. 

a. Tail black with rufous cross-bands ; quills brown 

throughout M. tusalia, p. 49. 

b. Tail brown, unbanded ; quills rufous on inner 

borders. 

a'. Larger, wing about 7'5 M. rnfipennis, p. 50. 

b'. Smaller, wing about 6 M. rujiceps, p. 51. 

1312. Macropygia tusalia. The Bar-tailed Cuckoo-Dove. 

Coccyzura tusalia, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. xii, p. 937 (1843). 
Macropygia tusalia, Blylh, J. A. S, B. xii, p. 936; Jerdon, B. I. iii, 

p. 473; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 112; Hume, 

N. $ E. p. 500 ; Wold, in BlytVs Bird* Burm. p. 146 ; Ward/. 

Hams, Ibis, 1877, p. 468 ; Humefy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 419; Hume, Cat. 

no. 791 ; id. S. F. xi, p. 297; Ward/, Rams. Ibis, 1890, p. 217 ; Gates 

in Hume's N. $E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 362 ; Saloadori, Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 338. 
Macropygia leptoGramraica, apud Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 869 ; id. 

Cat. p. 235 ; Walden, Ibis, 1875, p. 459 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 295 ; nee 

Temm. 

The Bar-tailed Tree-Dove, Jerdon ; Tusal, Nipal ; Ka-er, Lepch. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, lores, cheeks, chin, and throat 
buff, tinged with vinous ; crown, hind neck, and sides of head and 
neck lilac- grey, overlaid with a changeable metallic gloss, green 
and reddish lilac ; sides of lower neck, back, rump, and upper 
tail-coverts, wing-coverts, tertiaries, and scapulars black barred 
with rufous chestnut, the upper back and sides of neck with 
metallic gloss ; primary and secondary quills blackish brown ; 
middle rectrices black, with narrow slightly wavy rufous bars 
throughout, the next pair barred on the outer webs and tips, outer 
rectrices slaty grey, with a black band near the end, outermost 
pair usually with a basal chestnut patch ; brenst greyish or 
brownish lilac, with a metallic gloss ; abdomen and lower tail- 
coverts buff, flanks ashy. 

The upper plumage of females resembles that of males, hut the 
lower surface is buff barred with dark brown, the bars more or 
less obsolete on the chin, throat, middle of the abdomen, and lower 
tail-coverts. 

TOL. IV. E 



50 COLUMBIA. 

In the young the head is transversely barred above, with or 
Avithout indications of metallic colour, according to age ; the breast 
with dark bars in males. 

Bill blackish ; iris white, surrounded by a rim of pale lilac ; 
orbital skin grey, with an inner rim of purple ; legs purplish pink 
( Wardlaw Kumsay}. 

Length about 16; tail 8; wing 7'5 ; tarsus -85; bill from 
gape 1. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas as far west as Simla 
from 3000 to about 10,000 feet elevation, also in Assam and the 
hills to the southward, and on the hills of Karennee and Tenas- 
serim. M. leptogrammwa, from the Malay Peninsula, Java, and 
Sumatra, is scarcely distinct, but it is smaller, with broader cross- 
bars. 

Habits, fyc. Those of the genus. The voice, according to Jerdon, 
is a deep, repeated coo. This bird breeds in the Himalayas from 
May to July, but a nest was found in the Karen Hills on March 
18th by "Wardlaw Ramsay. The eggs, two in number, are creamy 
white, nearly equally pointed at both ends, moderately glossy, and 
measure about 1-35 by '97. They are laid in a large loose platform 
nest of sticks on a branch at no great height from the ground. 

1313. Macropygia rufipennis. The Andaman CucJcoo-Dove. 

Macrop.vgia rufipennis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 371 (1846) ; id. 
Cat'?. 234; Ball, S. F. i, p. 80; Waldm, Ibis, 1878, p. 314; 
Hume, S. F. ii, p. 266 ; id. Cat. no. 721 bis ; Wnrdl. Rams. Ibis, 
1890, p. 224 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 344. 

Coloration. Head all round chestnut, .darker and with a slight 
lilac gloss on the crown, whitish on the chin and throat; rest of 
upper parts dark brown, more rufous on the edges of the wing- 
coverts, and on the rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail ; hind neck 
and upper back minutely speckled and barred with black and 
rufous buff, and occasionally showing a slight amethystine gloss ; 
outer tail-feathers bright rufous at base and tips, blackish between ; 
fore neck, sides of lower neck, breast, and abdomen light brown 
with wavy black cross-bars, the breast and sides of the neck often 
with metallic gloss ; under tail-coverts, wing-lining, and inner 
webs of quills, except towards the end, ferruginous red. 

The female, according to Wardlaw Ramsay, resembles the male. 
Toung birds (formerly described as adults by Hume) have the 
feathers of the head light chestnut with black edges, the bars on 
the hind neck and back are broader than in adults, the upper 
wing-coverts and quills are broadly edged with rufous, and the 
lower parts are chestnut throughout, the edges of the feathers 
slightly darker, but cross-bars are wanting. 

Bill and legs purplish pink ; iris light blue, encircled by a ring 
of carmine ; orbital skin leaden blue (Wnrdl. Ramsay}. 

Length about 16; tail 8; wing 7'5; tarsus '95; bill from 
gape 1. 

Distribution. The Andaman and jXicobar Islands. 



GEOPELIINJS. 51 

1314. Macropygia ruficeps. The Little Malay CucJcoo-Dove. 

Columba ruficeps, Temm. PI. Col. pi. 561 (1835). 
Macropygia amboinensis, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 234, nee Linn. 
Macropygia ruficeps, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 331 ; 

myth, Birds Barm. p. 146 ; Wardl. Rams. Ibis, 1890, p. 225 ; 

Satoadori, Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 360. 
Macropygia assimilis, Hume, S. F. ii, p. 441 (1874) ; Walden in 

Blyttis Birds Sunn. p. 146 ; Wardl. Rams. Ibis, 1877, p. 468 ; 

Humefy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 420; Hume, Cat. no. 791 ter; Oates, 

B. B. ii, p. 296 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. 618. 

Coloration. Male. Head pale cinnamon, growing darker on the 
nape and sides o neck and passing into the dull purplish brown, 
richly glossed with metallic-green changing to lilac, of the lower 
neck and upper back ; rest of upper parts, wings, and tail brown, 
wing-coverts edged with ferruginous red ; rump and upper tail- 
coverts rusty brown, middle four rectrices the same, outer rectrices 
bright rufous with a broad, rather irregular black band near the 
end ; lower surface of body light cinnamon, whitish on the chin 
arid throat, and with broad white tips to some of the pectoral 
feathers ; wing-lining and inner edges of quills towards the base 
ferruginous red. 

Females are smaller and duller above, there is no metallic gloss 
on the upper back ; lower parts browner than in the male ; feathers 
of fore neck and breast black with rufous tips, appearing as if 
spotted with black. 

Young birds resemble females, but have dark edges to the feathers 
of the crown and pale edges on the upper back. 

Bill pale brown ; iris pearly white (purplish or brown in the 
young), orbital skin pale blue ; legs and feet brownish pink or 
red. 

Length of males about 13; tail 6'75 ; wing 6; tarsus '75'; 
bill from gape '9 : of females the tail is about 6 ; wing 5*5. 
Javan specimens are smaller than Burmese, but do not differ in 
any other way. 

Distribution. The higher hill-forests of Southern Burma, the 
Karen Hills near Toungoo, Kollidoo, and Mooleyit, east of Moul- 
mein ; also the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo. 

Habits. This is described by Davison as a shy bird, keeping to 
dense forest in small parties of five or six, and having a peculiar 
quadrisyllable call repeated several times. 



Subfamily GEOPELIINJE. 

The genus Geopelia is distinguished from all other Indian Doves 
by having 14 tail-feathers ; it has neither ambiens muscle nor 
intestinal caeca, and thus agrees with the Treronince, to which it 
was referred by Garrod ; but it possesses an oil-gland, and it has 
a bare elongate tarsus' and peculiar plumage entirely destitute of 
metallic lustre. 

E2 



52 COLUMBIDJE. 

Genus GEOPELIA, Swainson, 1837. 

A very small Teiiasserim dove, with part of the plumage closely 
banded, belongs io a genus containing five species, and ranging 
from Burma to Australia. All the species are small, with a 
slender bill, having the apical hcrny portion short and convex ; 
the wings are short and rounded, the 1st quill greatly attenuated 
near the tip, 2nd and 3rd quills longest. The tail, of 14 feathers, 
exceeds the wing in length and is much graduated. The tarsus is 
naked, and, in G. striata, is longer than the mid toe. Sexes 
alike. 




Fig. 0. Primaries of G. striata. \. 

1315. Geopelia striata. The Barred Ground-Dove. 

Columba striata, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 282 (1766). 

Geopelia striata, Blyth, Cat. p. 235 ; Hume, 8. F. iii, p. 323 : Hume 

fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 423 ; Hume, Cat. no. 797 ter ; Gates, B. B. ii, 

p. 298 j Sahadori, Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 458. 

Coloration. Anterior half of crown, cheeks, chin, and throat 
ashy grey ; occiput and nape light reddish brown ; hind neck, 
sides of neck and of breast, and flanks closely barred black and 
white ; back, wing-coverts, rump, and upper tail-coverts light 
brown, each feather with a terminal black bar ; quills darker brown, 
the inner webs chestnut towards the base ; middle tail-feathers 
brown, the others blackish brown, the four outer pairs with long 
white tips ; middle of breast pale vinous, passing into white on 
the abdomen ; lower tail-coverts white ; wing-lining chestnut, finely 
barred with black. 

In the young the whole plumnge is barred above and below. 

Bill bluish white; irides generally white, occasionally grey-brown 
or pale slaty blue ; orbital skin pale clear blue, tinged with green; 
legs and feet pink, claws dirty greenish blue (Davison). 

Length about 9 ; tail 4'3 ; wing 4 ; tarsus '75 ; bill from gape ! 7. 

Distribution. The Malay Peninsula and Archipelago to the 
Philippines and Celebes. This Dove ranges into the extreme 
south of Tenasserim, where it was found by Davison about the 
higher parts of the Pakchan. 

Habits. Very similar to those of Turtur. This little Dove is 
found singly or in pairs about cultivation, and keeps much to the 
ground, feeding on seeds. Its note is quite peculiar. 



Order XIII. PTEROCLETES. 

The Sand-Grouse, or Pigeon-Grouse as they were appropriately 
called by Huxley, form a well-marked and distinct group that has 
been referred by turns to the Colambce and to the Gallince ; but 
since Huxley (P. Z. S. 1808, p. 302) showed how completely 
intermediate between the two the Pteroclidce are, they have 
generally been classed in a separate order. They are birds 
ot: a yellowish-brown or buff colour as a rule, with somewhat the 
build of Pigeons and even swifter flight, but with very different 
bills and feet ; the bill, though of small size, resembling that of 
the Gallince. The characters of the young are quite Galline. 
Some are migratory, others resident. 

In the bill there is no soft base to the upper mandible. The 
toes are generally four in number, but the hallux is small, and in 
one genus wanting; all are on the same level; the anterior toes 
are short and rather broad. Oil-gland present and nude. The 
contour-feathers have aftershafts. The lateral bare tracts only 
extend on the shoulders to the base of the neck, not on to it ; 
the dorsal feather-tract has an interscapular fork. Primaries 11, 
fifth secondary wanting. Tail-feathers 14 to 16. 

Palate schizognathous ; basipterygoid processes present. Cer- 
vical vertebrae 15 or 16. There are usually two notches on each 
side of the posterior margin of the sternum, but the inner notch 
is sometimes reduced to a foramen ; keel of sternum very high. 

Deep plantar tendons Galline. Ambiens muscle present; other 
muscles of thigh as in Columbce, Caeca present and large. Gall- 
bladder present, and two carotids. 

Sand-Grouse live on hard seeds, and are, so far as is known, 
monogamous. They lay three eggs on the ground, generally with- 
out a vestige of nest. The eggs are peculiarly shaped, simply 
oval, nearly a prolate spheroid, equally rounded at both ends, grey 
or reddish grey and double-spotted. The young are covered with 
down, richly marked, and they are able to run on. leaving the 
egg- 

Family PTEROCLID^. 

Tarsus short and feathered. Wings long and pointed. The 
family is found throughout Africa and in Western and Central 
Asia, some forms migrating to parts of Southern Europe. Several 
species occur in India, but none extend to the east of the Bay of 
Bengal. 

Three genera are recognized, all occurring within the area to 
which the present work is restricted. 



54 PTEROCLID^E. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. A hallux present ; tarsi feathered in front 

only ; toes naked. 

a. Middle tail-feathers not produced PTEROCLES, p. 54. 

b'. Middle tail-feathers elongate and pointed. PTEROCLURUS, p. 58. 

b. No hallux ; tarsi feathered throughout, toes 

feathered ; middle tail-feathers elongate . . SYRRHAPTKS, p. 62. 

Many Sand-Grouse, especially the migratory forms, collect in 
large flocks. All drink twice a dav, morning and evening, at a 
regular time, and all have peculiar clucking notes, dissyllabic or 
trisyllabic, uttered especially during flight. The note of course 
varies in the different species. The sexes differ throughout the 
family. 

Genus PTEROCLES, Temm., 1815. 

Bill small, arched above ; nostrils elongate, basal, almost covered 
by frontal plumes ; wings long and pointed ; tail moderate, rounded 
or wedge-shaped, the middle pair of rectrices not produced or 
scarcely projecting beyond the others ; tarsi feathered in front, 
reticulate behind ; toes short, naked ; a hallux present. 

Ten species are known from Africa, S. Europe, S.W. and Central 
Asia ; of these four are Indian. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Abdomen black throughout P. arenarius <5 $ , p. 54. 

b. Abdomen banded black and white. 
a'. Double black pectoral gorget. 

a". Hind neck not banded P.fasciatus ^ , p. 55. 

b". Hind neck banded P. lichtensteini $ , p. 57. 

b' No black gorget. 

c". Chin unspotted ; tarsi speckled or 

barred , P. fasciatus 2 , p. 55. 

.d". Chin spotted; tarsi unspotted .... P. lichtensteini $, p. 57. 

c. Abdomen all buff in $ , spotted with black 

in ^ -P- coronatus, p. 57. 

1316. Pterocles arenarius. The Large or Black-bellied Sand-Grouse. 

Tetrao arenaria, Pallas, Nov. Cone. Petrop. xix, p. 418, pi. viii 

(1775). 
Pterocles arenarius, Temm. Man. d'Orn. p. 299 ; Blyth, Cat. 

p. 249 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 496 ; Bcavan, Ibis, 1868, p. 377 ; 

Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 249 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 219 ; 

Adam, ibid. p. 391 ; James, S. F. iii, p. 418 ; Butler, S. F. iv, 

p. 4; v, pp. 222, 231 ; Wise, S. F. iv, p. 230; Hume $ Marsh. 

Game B. i, p. 47, pi. ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 161 ; Butler, ibid. p. 186 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 799; Tufnell, S. F. ix, p. 200; Barnes, ibid. 

pp. 219, 458 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 61 ; Swinhoe, Ibis, 1882, p. 118 ; 

Biddulph, ibid. p. 287; Swinhoe $ Barnes, Ibis, 1885, p. 131; 

Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 294 ; id. Journ. Bom. N. H. Soc. v, p. 333 ; 

St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 174 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 18. 

Bhat-titar, Bakht, Bakht-titar, H. ; Banchur, Peshawar; Burra Bhatta, 

Jlariana; 



PTEEOCLES. 55 

Coloration. Male. Throat ferruginous chestnut, extending round 
sides of neck and disappearing behind nape, paler also on chin ; a 
triangular black patch on the throat, crown, and sides of the head ; 
nape, lower neck all round, and upper breast pale earthy brown ; 
back, rump, and upper tail-coverts, scapulars, tertiaries, and inner 
secondary-coverts blackish grey, each feather tipped with ochreous 
yellow and pale fawn-coloured towards the base ; greater secondary 
and primary coverts and edge of wing fawn-coloured, shaded darker ; 
quills slaty grey externally, the shafts, the outer web of the 1st quill, 
and the inner surface black ; tail-feathers buff barred with black, 
middle pair tipped with greyish black, the others tipped with white ; 
a, black gorget across the breast, which is buff not greyish brown 
behind the gorget ; abdomen and flanks black ; wing-lining white ; 
thighs, tarsi, and lower tail-coverts buffy white. 

female pale fawn, the head, neck, and upper breast spotted with 
black shaft-streaks ; chin and throat yellowish, bounded behind by 
a black line, beyond which the fore neck is ashy ; back and upper 
parts, including the middle tail-feathers, with curved black cross- 
bands irregular in direction ; the other reet rices, the quills, and 
lower parts from the black pectoral gorget as in the male. 

Tail-feathers 16. 

Bill bluish grey ; irides brown ; feet grey (Hume). 

Length about 14; tail 4; wing 9'5 ; tarsus I'l ; bill from 
gape -7. 

Distribution. From the Canary Islands and Spain on the west, 
through North Africa and South-western Asia to Turkestan and 
to North-western India, where this species is a cold-weather 
migrant, arriving about the end of September and leaving in 
March. It has been found as far east as Lucknow and, it is said, 
Allahabad; it has also been recorded from Neeinuch and even 
Khandesh, and it is found in Northern Gruxerat, all round the 
Kunn of Cutch, and in Sind ; but it is most common in the 
Punjab and the neighbouring tracts on the borders of the desert. 

Habits, fyc. InN.W. India this Sand-Grouse haunts great sandy 
plains, within access of water, in large flocks. It lives on small 
seeds, and drinks morning and evening. It does riot breed, so far 
as is known, in India ; but Barnes found its eggs in S. Afghanistan 
in May. 

1317. Pterocles fasciatus. The Painted Sand-Grouse. 

Tringa fasciata, Scop. Del. Flor. et Faun. Insub. ii, p. 92 (1786). 

Pterocles quadricinctus, apud Jerd. Madr. Jour. L. S. xii, p. 4 ; id. 
111. Ind. Orn. pis. 10, 36 ; Burgess, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 30. 

Pterocles fasciatus, Elyt h, Cat. p. 249 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 498 ; 
King, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 216; Beavan, Ibis, 1868, 
p. 378 ; Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxviii, pt. 2, p. 188 ; Hume, 
J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 121 ; McMaster, J.A.S. B. xl, pt. 2, 
p. 214 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 249 ; Hume, N. $ E. 
p. 511 ; Hayes Lloyd, Ibis, 1873, p. 415 ; Adam, S. F. i, p. 391 ; 
Ball, S. F. ii, p. 426 ; iii, p. 293 ; vii, p. 225 ; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 4 ; 
v, p. 231 ; ix, p. 421 ; Fail-bank, S. F. iv, p. 262 ; Davidson $ Wend. 



56 PTBROCLID.f:. 

S. F. vii, p. 86 ; Hume, ibid. p. 162 ; Hume $ Marsh. Game J3. i, 

,*rrfc _^1 . i i _ /^y.._. __ .. o/ \f\ i/r 7". ._ L* TS 'I* /tn^ f n .a* ^v 




B". 2nd ed. iii, p. 364 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 27. 

Pahdn bhat titar, Mat-ban, H. (N.W.P.) ; Palki, Belgaum ; Handeri, 
Southern India ; Kal gowjal haki, Can. (Mysore) ; Sonda polanka, 
Tamul. 

Coloration. Male. A narrow white frontal band followed by a 
broader black band, behind which is a second white band, a black 
spot over eye ; crown buff and black mixed ; hind neck buff, with 
an olive tiuge ; back, scapulars, inner quills, rump, and tail with 
broad buff and black cross-bauds, generally straight, but somewhat 
arrowhead-shaped on the rectrices ; scapulars, later secondaries, 
and tail tipped with yellowish buff; wing- coverts buff, olivaceous 
near the shoulder, the inner coverts banded black and white, with 
the tips ochreous buff ; winglet, primary-coverts, and quills dark 
brown ; chin, throat, and fore neck ochreous buff ; a broad deep 
ferruginous-chestnut gorget, then a pale buff band followed by a 
black band ; behind this the abdomen is banded white and blackish 
brown ; under tail-coverts buff and black like the tail ; wing-lining 
light brown. 

Female buffy pale fawn, banded with black above and below, the 
scapulars and tail tinged with chestnut ; head spotted with black, 
throat more finely spotted ; quills as in the male. 

Tail of 16 feathers. 

Bill red ; orbital skin lemon-yellow ; irides dark brown ; feet 
dull yellow, claws reddish (Jerdon). 

Length about 11; tail 3'5 ; wiug 6*5; tarsus -9; bill from 
gape -6. 

Distribution. Peculiar to India and resident. Found in suitable 
places throughout the greater part of the Peninsula, but not on the 
Malabar and Bombay coast nor in the forest region north of the 
Godavari and east of Haipur, Mandla, &c., nor in the low grounds of 
the Carnatic. This Sand-Grouse is found throughout the Deccan 
and the Central Provinces and as far south as Mysore, and is. 
common in parts of Guzerat,Cutch, Bajputana,the N.'VV. Provinces, 
and amongst the Sewalik hills of the N.W. Punjab, but does not 
occur west of the Indus nor on the Gangetic alluvium. It is not 
often found in thick forest or in alluvial plains, but is common 
in scrub-jungle, on small rocky hills arid barren broken ground. 

Habits, $c. This, perhaps the most beautifully marked of all 
Sand-Grouse, never occurs in large flocks, and is usually seen 
singly or in twos or threes that rise with a cackling note from 
amongst rocks and grass or bushes. It is crepuscular in its 
drinking-habits, flying to water before sunrise and after sunset in 
small parties, and often, in the hot weather, before dawn and after 
dark. Like other Sand-Grouse, it often utters its trisyllabic call 
on the wing. The eggs are similar in shape, gloss, and number to 
those of other species of Pterocles, but the ground-colour is pale 



PTEROCLES. 57 

salmon-pink with darker specks and blotches, and the average size 
1'42 by -98. The principal breeding-season is in April and May, 
but eggs have been taken in other months. 

1318. Pterocles lichtensteini. The Close-barred Sand-Grouse. 

Pterocles lichtensteini, Temm. PL Col. pis. 355, 361 (1825) ; Hume, 
S. F. i, p. 219 ; Wise, S. F. iv, p. 230 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 162 ; 
id. Cat. no. 800 bis ; Hume fy Marsh. Game B. i, p. 65, pi. ; 
Tufnell, S. F. ix, p. 202 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 296 ; Oyilvie 
Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 29. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead and sinciput white, with a broad 
black band across them ; upper parts pale buff or whitish barred 
with black ; wing-coverts barred with white ; scapulars, tertiaries, 
median wing-coverts, and tail-feathers broadly tipped with buff ; 
wiuglet and primary-coverts blackish brown; quills rather lighter 
brown ; chin and throat buff, more or less speckled with black ; 
breast buff, the upper part narrowly barred, the lower part with 
two broad black bars, the upper of which is tinged with ferruginous, 
the lower forms a border to the abdomen, which is barred black and 
whitish ; tarsi pale buff, not barred ; under wing-coverts pale 
earthy brown. 

Female light buff, narrowly barred with black throughout, except 
on the head, which is spotted, and on the tarsi and quills, which 
are like those of the male. 

This species resembles P. fasciatus, but both sexes are more closely 
and finely barred, and the upper breast of the male is unbarred in 
P. fasciatus but barred in the present form. The tail contains only 
14 feathers in P. lichtensteini. 

Bill lieshy brown ; irides brown, orbital skin yellow ; feet 
orange-yellow, claws dusky tipped yellowish (Hume). 

Length about 10'5 ; tail 3; wing 7; tarsus 1*05 ; bill from 
gape -65. 

Distribution. N.E. Africa, Arabia, Baluchistan, and Siiid west of 
the Indus. 

Habits, fyc. Very similar to those of P. fasciatus. This Sand- 
Grouse is found in rocky ground and bushes, and is thoroughly 
crepuscular, Hying to water before sunrise and after sunset. It is 
probably resident throughout its range, but is said to be a cold- 
weather visitor to Sind. 

1319. Pterocles coronatus. The Coronetted Sand-Grouse. 

Pterocles coronatus, Lie/it. Verz. Donbl. p. 65 (1823) ; Blyth, Ibis, 
1872, p. 89 ; Hume, ibid. p. 468 ; id. S. F. i. p. 224 ; Wise, S. F. iii, 
p. 267 ; iv. p. 230 ; Stanford, Eastern Persia, ii, p. 272 ; Hume $ 
Marsh. Game B. i, p. 57, pi. ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 161 ; id. Cat. 
no. 801 ter ; Tufnell, S. F. ix, p. 200 ; Barnes, ibid. pp. 219, 458 ; 
Lean, ibid. p. 296; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 174; Sanies, Birds 
Bom. p. 299 ; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. v, p. 336 ; Ogilvie Grant, 
Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 23. 

Coloration. Male. Chin and a streak on the middle of the 



58 

throat, a narrow band round the gape and lores, and a stripe 
running back on each side of the forehead black ; middle of fore- 
head and border to black on cheeks and chin whitish ; crown 
vinaeeous buff, surrounded except in front by a band of ashy grey ; 
around that, again, is a band of ochreous yellow expanding in front 
and covering the cheeks and throat ; upper parts isabelline fawn ; 
ends of the wing-coverts, scapulars, and some of the back-feathers 
pale, forming buff spots with dusky borders ; a tinge of vinaeeous 
on the scapulars and inner quills ; greater coverts, primaries, and 
outer secondaries brown, the outer primaries with white shafts, 
inner primaries with whitish tips ; middle tail-feathers isabelline 
like rump, the others vinaceous buff with a subterrninal black bar 
and white tip ; lower parts from throat pale buff, upper breast 
tinged with grey. 

The female wants the markings on the head and is buff throughout 
with crescentic black cross-bars ; lower parts paler, the throat 
yellowish speckled with black. 

Tail-feathers 16. Colours of soft parts not recorded. 

Length about 11; tail 3-5; wing 7 '2; tarsus -9; bill from 
gape -6. 

Distribution. N.E. Africa, Arabia, Southern Persia, Baluchistan, 
and !Sind west of the Indus. This Sand-Grouse has also been 
found in Afghanistan and on the western frontier of the Punjab 
as far north as the Khyber Pass. 

Habits. Similar to those of Pteroclurus exustus and P. seneyallus. 
This Sand-Grouse probably breeds in Sind,andthe eggs, measuring 
1*5 by 1-06, were taken by Barnes in South Afghanistan about 
May and June. 

Genus PTEROCLURUS, Bonap., 1854. 

This is, by many writers, united to Pterodes, from which it only 
differs in having the two middle tail-feathers elongate and pro- 
duced into a loug narrow point. 

There are always 16 tail-feathers. 

Of the four known species, ranging over Africa, S. Europe, 
S.W. and Central Asia, three are found within Indian limits. 

Key to the Species. 

Abdomen white throughout in both sexes P. alchata, p. 58. 

Abdomen dark brown throughout in males, barred 

brown and rufous in females ; a black gorget. P. exustus, p. 60. 
Middle of abdomen dark brown, sides buff in both 

sexes : no gorget P. seneyallus, p. 61. 

1320. Pteroclurus alchata. The Large Pin-tailed Sand-Grouse. 

Tetrao alchata, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 276 (1766). 

Pterocles alchata, Blyth, Cat. p. 249; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 500; 
Hume, S. F. i, p. 221 ; Bleivitt, S. F. iii, p. 268 ; Hume, S. F. vii, 
p. 161 ; id. Cat. no. 801 ; Hume $ Marsh. Game B..\, p. 77, pi. ; 



PTEROCLURUS. 59 

Barnes, S. F. ix, p. 458 ; id. Birds Bom. p. 297 ; St. John, Ibis, 
1889, p. 174. 
Pteroclurus alchata, Oyilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 7. 

Coloration. Male. Crown light brown tinged with yellow ; chin, 
throat, and a narrow line running back from the eye black ; rest 
of head orange or rufous buff, passing on the neck into olivaceous 
huff ; back and scapulars pale brown tinged with olive and marked 
with large subterininal pale ochreous-yellow spots, especially on 
the scapulars ; primary-coverts and small coverts brown, outer 
secondary median and greater coverts with a subterminal chestnut 
band bordered with white; innermost coverts brown washed with 
yellow and with broad terminal black borders ; quills brownish 
grey outside, the outer web of the first primary dark brown, 
.the. shafts and the inner surface of all quills black, inner webs of 
later primaries blackish externally towards the ends and bordered 
with white : secondaries white, with a broad outer band of brown 
extending to the tips of the inner webs ; rump and upper tail- 
coverts narrowly banded pale yellowish and black ; rectrices greyish 
brown tinged yellow and with partial bars of fawn-colour, the long 
tips of the middle pair black, the other feathers tipped with white ; 
two narrow black bars a considerable distance apart across the 
breast, the space between them pale rufous ; lower breast, abdomen 
and lower tail-coverts, axillaries and inner under wing-coverts 
white, larger coverts and the border of the wing brown. 

Female. Upper parts barred black and yellowish buff, on the 
back and scapulars each feather with a band, usually broad and 
conspicuous, of pearly to slaty grey ; outer secondary-coverts white 
with a black border ; on the inner coverts there is a ferruginous -red 
band inside the black; upper tail-coverts with V-shaped bars; chin 
and middle of throat white ; cheeks, sides of upper neck, and band 
across throat dull ochreous-buff, followed by a broad black gorget, 
then an ochreous and then a grey band, after which is a narrow 
black gorget (the anterior one of the male), so that there are three 
black bands altogether in the female. Remainder of lower parts, 
quills, and tail as in the male. 

In young birds the upper parts- and breast are all narrowly and 
irregularly barred. Immature males retain some of the bars ; 
immature females have black instead of pearly-grey bars on the 
back and coverts. 

Bill very stout, greenish brown to slate-colour ; irides brown ; 
feet dusky green (Hume). 

Length about 15 ; tail in males 5-7, in females 3'75-6 ; wing 8 ; 
tarsus 1 ; bill from gape '65. The middle tail-feathers are about 
2 inches longer than the others in both sexes. 

Distribution. South-western and Central Asia ; a cold-season 
visitor to the extreme North-west of India. This Sand-Grouse 
occurs abundantly from October till March in the Western Punjab 
and Northern Sind, and has been found as far as Delhi, Sambhar, 
and Karachi. In North Africa and Southern Europe a more richly, 
coloured race occurs. 



60 PTEEOCLID^E. 

Habits, <$fc. This handsome Sand-Grouse is usually seen in India 
in very large flocks ; it is shy and wary, flies swiftly, and frequently 
utters a loud clanging cry. It does not breed in India. 



1321. Pteroclurus exustus. The Common S'and-Grome. 

Pterocles exustus, Temm. PL Col. nos. 354, 360 (1825) ; Blyth, Cat. 
p. 249 ; Jerdon, B. 1. iii, p. 502 ; Stanford, J. A. ti. B. xxxviii, 




iv, p. 4; ix, p. 421 ; Hume 8f Marsh. Game B. i, p. 69, pi. ; Hume, 
S.F. vii, p. 161; Ball, ibid. p. 225; Hume, Cat. no. 802; Reid, 
S. F. x, p. 61 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 300 ; id. Jour. Bom. N. If. 
Soc. i, p. 55 ; v, p. 336 ; Oaten in Humes N. Sf E. 2nd ed. iii, 
p. 361. 

Pteroclurus exustus, Ball, S. F. ii, p. 426 ; Oyilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. 
xxii, p. 12. 

Bhat-titar, Bakht-titar, Kumartit, Kahar, H. ; Buiabur, Batibun, 
Sind ; Popandi, Bhil ; Pakorade, Mahr. ; Jam polanka, Tel. ; Kal aowjal 
haki, Can. (Mysore) ; Kal kondari, Tarn. 




Fig. 10. Head of P. exustus. 



Coloration. Male. Upper parts brownish buff to isabelline ; fore- 
head, lores, and sides of head, chin, and throat dull ochreous-buff ; 
ends of the scapulars and tertiaries and all the secondary-coverts 
pale buff, the scapulars and some of the median coverts tipped with 
reddish brown, a few of the coverts thus tipped with a white streak 
inside the tip ; primary-coverts, primaries, and most of the second- 
aries blackish brown, the later primaries obliquely tipped with 
white ; middle tail-feathers brown with long black tips, the other 
rectrices darker brown with white tips ; breast buff with a slight 
rufous tinge, crossed by a black gorget narrowly edged with white 
in front ; the buff passes into the dark brown of the abdomen and 
flanks, blackish in the middle of the abdomen ; tarsal feathers, 
vent, and under tail-coverts very pale buff; wing-lining dark 
brown. 

Female buff ; crown and neck all round spotted with black 
shaft-stripes, broader at the end ; rest of upper parts, except 
greater secondary-coverts, barred with black ; scapulars and some 
of the coverts with larger yellowish-buff ends tipped with brown ; 
quills as in male ; tail-feathers barred, the middle pair with black, 
the others with white tips ; chin, throat, and sides of head, 



PTEROCLmUS. 61 

including supercilia, yellowish buff unspotted ; upper breast spotted 
with dark brown down to a rather broken blackish gorget, behind 
this a broad band of plain buff; abdomen barred dark brown and 
rufous, darkest in the middle ; tarsi and lower tail-coverts buff ; 
wing-lining brown. 

Young birds are at first rufous with black markings, then barred 
rather irregularly and much like the adult female, but without a 
gorget ; the abdomen is dark from an early age. 

Bill and feet pale slaty grey to plumbeous or lavender-blue : 
irides dark brown ; orbital skin pale yellow to pale yellowish 
green. 

Length of male about 12-5 ; tail 4 '4-5-8 ; wing 7 ; tarsus 
85; bill from gape -65. Length of female about 11*5; tail 
4 to 4-8 ; wing 6*75. The middle tail-feathers are 1*5 to 2'5 
longer than the others in males, about an inch or less in females. 

Distribution. Resident throughout a large portion of Africa, 
South-western and Central Asia, and the Indian Peninsula, with 
the exception of the Bombay and Malabar coastland, the forest 
regions east of 80 E. long., and Bengal, in which only stragglers 
are occasionally found. I have seen this Sand-Grouse near 
Eaneegunje, and Dr. G. King once saw one in the Botanical 
Gardens, Calcutta. To the south I have seen many, and shot 
some a little north of the Cauvery near Trichinopoly. This bird 
is common in North-western India and the Deccan. 

Habits, $*c. The Common Sand-Grouse keeps to open country ; 
it is never found in forest, and but rarely amongst bush. It flies 
to water and drinks between 8 and 10 o'clock in the morning, 
earlier in summer than in winter, and from 4 to 6 in the evening. 
The birds feed before and after drinking, and keep in open sandy 
ground during the day. Hume, in the admirable account in 
' Game Birds,' says they feed in different ground after drinking. 
They rest about midday, each in a nook beside a clod of earth or 
tuft of grass, but they sleep at night in flocks huddled together, 
and but rarely fall a prey to foxes or jackals. They have a double 
clucking note, uttered on the wing when they are alarmed or when 
they are flying to or from water. The principal breeding-season 
in the North-west is from April to June, but earlier in the Deccan, 
and eggs have been found at all seasons. The eggs are grey 
or pinkish or pale olive-brown, double-spotted, and measure about 
1-45 by 1-03. 

1322. Pteroclurus senegallus. The Spotted Sand-Grouse. 

Tetrao senegallus, Linn. Mantissa, p. 526 (1767-71). 

Pterocles senegallus, Jerdon, B. 1 iii, p. 504 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 221 ; 
ii, p. 331 ; iv, p. 4 ; James, S. F. iii, p. 418 ; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 508 ; 
v, p. 2'2'2 ; Hayes Lloyd, Ibis, 1876, p. 280 ; Hume, S. F. v, p. 60 ; 
vii, p. 161 ; id. Cat. no. 801 bis ; Hume fy Marsh. Game B. i, 
p. 53, pi. ; iii, pi. 3 (eg?) ; Tufnell, S. F. ix, p. 200; Swinhoe, Ibi*, 
1882, p. 118; Barnes,' Birds Bom. p. 297 ; Oates in Hume's N. fy 
E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 366. 



62 PTEROCLIDjE. 

Pterocles guttatus, Licht. Verz. Doubl. p. 64 (1823) ; Blyt7i, Ibis, 1872, 

p. 89. 

Pteroclurus senegallus, Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 14. 
Nandu Katingo, Gutu, Sind. 

Coloration. Male. Crown, back, and rump Isabel! ine ; forehead, 
supercilia (with narrow band below eye), and nape, forming a band 
surrounding the crown, dull pale ashy ; lores whitish ; scapulars, 
tertiaries, median and greater secondary-coverts purplish brown, 
buif at the tips, the tips of the longer scapulars ochreous yellow ; 
lesser coverts, primary-coverts, and primaries buff, the latter brown 
towards the end, all except the first two or three with oblique pale 
tips ; greater coverts dark, except on the edge ; upper tail-coverts 
isabelline washed with yellow ; middle tail-feathers the same with 
long black points, the other tail-feathers dark brown with oblique 
white tips; chin, throat, cheeks, and sides of neck deep ochreous 
yellow ; lower parts from throat buff, greyish on the upper breast ; 
middle of abdomen to vent blackish brown. 

Female buff, the upper parts and upper breast spotted with 
black, the spots becoming bands on the scapulars, tertiaries, and 
middle tail-feathers ; tertiaries tinged with yellow towards the 
ends ; wings, outer tail-feathers, and lower parts except upper 
breast as in male. 

Bill bluish grey ; irides brown : orbits yellowish ; feet bluish 
white (Hume). 

Length of male about 14 ; tail 5'75 ; wing 7'75 ; tarsus -9 ; bill 
from gape '65. Length of female about 13 ; tail 4-25 : \ving 
7'75. The middle tail-feathers are about 2 inches longer than the 
others in males, 1 inch or less in females. 

Distribution. Northern Africa to south of the Sahara and South- 
western Asia. Common in Sind west of the Indus, rare to the east- 
ward, but recorded from the neighbourhood of the B/urm of Cutch, 
including Kattywar, and from Jamboghora, west of Ahmedabad ; 
also from Pokaran between Jeysuhnere and Jodhpore, and from 
Shahpur district in the Punjab. Mhow is given as a locality 
in the British Museum. Catalogue for a specimen received from 
Col. Swinhoe, but in error ; the specimen thus marked is really 
from Pirchoki, below the Bolan Pass. 

Habits. Similar to those of P. exustus. Generally resident, but 
not known to breed east of the Indus ; and it is said that even in 
Western Sind the majority are cold-weather visitors. I obtained an 
egg, fully formed and measuring 1'5 by 1*05, from a female I shot 
\\est of Shikarpur on March 20, 1875. 

Genus SYERHAPTES, Illiger, 1811. 

The present genus is distinguished by wanting the hallux and 
by having very short broad toes feathered above, the tarsus is 
thickly feathered throughout, the middle tail-feathers are long and 
/pointed, and the wings long. 

Only two species are known ; both inhabit Central Asia, and one 
just comes within our limits in Western Tibet. 



8YRRHAPTES. 63 

1323. Syrrhaptes tibetanus. The Tibetan Sand- Grouse. 

Syrrhaptes tibetanus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1850, p. 92 ; id. B. Asia, vi, 
p. 61 ; Stanford, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 71 ; Hume fy Henders. 
Lah. to Yark. p. 279: Hume, S. F. vii, pp. 162, 425; id. Cat. 
no. 802 bis ; Hume Sf Marsh, Game B. i, p. 43 ; hharpe, Yarkand 
Miss., Aves, p. 119 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 5. 
Kuk, Kaling, Ladak. 

Coloration. Forehead, lores, cheeks, and chin white, or whitish, 
sometimes speckled ; crown rather irregularly barred across, black 
and white ; sides of head, throat, and a band extending nearly or 
sometimes quite round the neck, deep ochreous yellow ; lower neck 
all round narrowly barred with whitish and black ; this passes into 




Fig. 11. Sole of foot of S. tibetamis. 

the pale fawn with fine dusky vermiculation of the back, scapulars, 
tertiaries, and wing-coverts ; inner webs of scapulars partly black, 
forming large black spots ; primary-coverts light brown, greater 
coverts and quills black, later primaries with oblique pale tips, later 
secondaries and tertiaries passing gradually into the colour of the 
back; rump and upper tail-coverts whitish, rather more coarse! v 
vermiculated with black ; middle tail-feathers the same but tinged 
with rufous, the loug tips black, outer tail-feathers light chesinut 
with a few distant black cross-bars and white tips ; upper breast 
finely barred ; lower breast uniform pale greyish brown, passing 
into white on abdomen ; wing-liuing brown, whitish near ed^e. 

In the females the markings on the upper parts, especially on 
the back and scapulars, are coarser, being irregular bars, not mere 
vermiculation ; and the whole breast is barred. 

Bill and nails bluish, soles whitish (Hume). 

Length of male 19 ; tail 7'5 to 9'5 ; wing 10'2o : tarsus 1-1 ; 
bill from gape '6. In females the length is about 17 ; tail 7-8-4; 
wing ( J'75. 

Distribution. Resident in Tibet and on the Pamir at elevations 
above 12,000 feet, perhaps lower in winter, extending to the 
country north of Sikhim and to Koko-nor. Common in Ladak 
and the Upper Sutlej valley. 

Habits, $c. The Tibetan Sand-Grouse is found on barren saudv 
plains near water, fresh or brackish. It is a very noisy bird, often 
repeating its clanging double note when on the. wing. Some caged 
birds that were given to me on the N. frontier of Sikhim constantly 
uttered this call. The flight is swift. This species drinks before 
sunrise and at dusk in the evening. The eggs have not been taken. 




'.'.i'V 



Fig. 12. Argusianus argits. (From the group in the British Museum.) 



Order XIV. GALLING. 

The true Game-birds, the Grouse, Fowls, Peacocks, Pheasants, 
Turkeys, Partridges, Quails, and Guinea-fowls, with Megapodes, 
Curassows, and Guans, form a well-defined and easily recognizable 
order. They have a stout bill, strong legs and feet, suited for 
progress on the ground, a plump body and rounded wings, in which 
the 5th secondary is present, and there are 10 primaries. There 
is frequently a spur, sometimes more than one, on the tarsus in 
males, and, in a few genera, in females also. The hallux is always 
present; the nails are short, blunt, and but slightly curved. An 
aftershaft is always developed to the body-feathers. The spinal 
feather-tract is well defined on the neck and not forked on the 
back. Oil-gland present, except in the genus Argusianus. 

The deep plantar tendons are joined by a fibrous vinciilum, but 



GALLING. 65 

their distribution is normal, the fle.vor perforans digitorum supply- 
ing the three anterior digits, whilst the flexor longus hallucis passes 
to the hallux or posterior digit alone (see Vol. I, p. 3). The ambiens 
muscle is present, as are also the accessory femoro-caudal, the 
semitendinosus, the accessory semitendinosus, and, except in Pea- 
fowl and Turkeys, the femoro-caudal, so that in general all the 
thigh-muscles are developed (see Vol. Ill, p. viii). Caeca of the 
intestines are large. Both carotids are present, except in Mega- 
podius, which has only the left one. 

The palate is schizognathous ; the nasals holorhinal. True 
hasipterygoid processes are wanting, but there are sessile facets 
situated far forward on the sphenoidal rostrum. Cervical ver- 
tebra 16. The sternum has two deep incisions in the posterior 
border on each side of the keel ; the inner xiphoid process be- 
tween the two is shorter than the outer, which is bent over the 
hinder ribs and expanded at the end. The episternal process of 
the rostrum is completely perforated to receive the inner ends of the 
coracoids. 




Fig. 13. The sternum of Lophophorus rrfulgem (Huxley, P. Z.S. 1868, p. 297): 
r, rostrum; c.p., costal process; pt.o., metosteon; e.x. } external xiphoid 
process; i.x., internal xiphoid process; l.o., lophosteon, bearing the carina, 
[or keel), aud ending behind in m.x., the middle xiphoid process. 

All members of the order nest on the ground (the nidification 
of the Meyapodiidce is peculiar) and lay numerous eggs. The young 
are hatched covered with down, usually coloured with a pattern, 
and are able to run very soon after leaving the egg. 

Gallince are generally distributed, but are divided into two sub- 
orders, one of which is essentially northern, the other southern, 
being almost confined to the Australian and Neotropical regions 
(see Huxley, P. Z. S. 18(38, p. 294). The former is well repre- 
sented in India ; of the latter a single species is found in th-3 
Nicobar Islands. The suborders are thus distinguished : - 

Hallux raised above the level of the other toes . ALECTOROPODES, 
Hallux on a level with the other toes PERISTEROPODESC 

TOL. IV. F 



66 



Suborder ALECTOEOPODES. 

The inner posterior notch on each side is more than half the 
length of the sternum. The hallux (hind toe) is raised above the 
level of the other toes and is short, its basal phalanx being shorter 
than that of the third or middle toe. 

In Mr. Grant's British Museum Catalogue, as in Prof. Huxley's 
paper already quoted, this suborder is divided into two families 
the Tetraonidce or Grouse, distinguished by having the nostrils 
and tarsi feathered and the toes feathered or pectinate; and the 
Phqsianidce, with those parts naked. The latter are well repre- 
sented in India, the Grouse being found only in the northern 
parts of both hemispheres. It is doubtful whether the differences 
between the two groups are sufficient to justify their distinction 
as families. 



Family PHASIAN1BJE. 

Nostrils naked. Tarsi naked (except in Leriva), and often 
armed with spurs, especially in males ; toes naked, not pectinate. 

It is very difficult to divide the Indian members of this family, 
for although Peafowl, Pheasants, Partridges, and Quails are easily 
distinguished, there are intermediate forms that are difficult to 
classify in distinct subfamilies. The generic distinctions are largely 
founded on characters peculiar to the males. 

Key to tJie Genera. 

a. First primary considerably shorter than 10th 

(except in Phasianus in which the wing is 

always much shorter than the tail) ; sexes 

generally very different. (Phasiunince.} 

a . Upper tail-coverts in males exceed tail in 

length : an erect occipital crest PAVO, p. C8. 

I'. Upper tail-coverts shorter than tail. 

a". Secondaries much longer than pri- 
maries ABGUSIANUS, p. 71. 

I". Secondaries not exceeding or only just 

exceeding primaries. 
a?. An elevated fleshy comb on head of 

male , . GALLUS, p. 74. 

Z 3 . No comb. 

4 . Tail longer than wing in both sexes, 
much longer in males and much 
graduated. 
*/ Tail-feathers 20-24, with round 

metallic ocelli POLYPLECTRUM, p. 72. 



PHASIANIDvfi. 67 

b\ No ocelli on tail ; 1C to 18 tail- 
feathers. 
. No occipital crest ; 1st primary 

longer than 10th PHASIANUS, p. 80. 

b. An occipital crest; 1st primary 

shorter than 10th CATREUS, p. 82. 

It' 1 . Tail graduated, a little longer than 
wing in males, subequal or shorter 
in females; 16 tail-feathers. 

r\ Sides of head feathered PUCRASIA, p. 84. 

d''. Sides of head naked. 

c. Crest an erect brush-like tuft 
of subequal feathers ; rump of 

male fiery red LOPHURA, p. 87. 

eft. Crest long, recumbent, of un- 
equal feathers; no red .... GENN^EUS, p. 88. 
c*. Tail rounded, not longer than wing 

in either sex. 
e 5 . Size large, wing 9 in. or more ; 

18 tail-leathers. 
e G . Bill strong, culmen longer than 

hind toe and claw LOPHOPHORUS, p. 95. 

/. Culmen shorter than hind toe 

and claw TRAGOPAN, p. 98. 

f 5 . Wing 7 to 8*5 in. ; breast tinged 
with apple-green in males; 14 

tail-feathers ITHAGENES, p. 103. 

g 5 . Winsr less than 7 in. ; r.o green 

on breast ; 14 tail-feathers. 
y 6 . Sexes different ; 2 or 3 spurs 
on each tarsus in males and 
sometimes 1 or 2 in females . GALLOPEHDIX, p. 106. 

7z c . Sexes alike, no spurs BAMBUSICOLA, p. 110. 

h 5 . Wino about 3-5 in. ; 10 tail- 
feathers OPHRYSIA, p. 104. 

/>. First primary not shorter than 10th (generally 
considerably longer) ; tail shorterthan wing; 
sexes, as a rule, though not always, similar. 
(Perdicince.} 
<'. Size small ; wing less than 4 in. [p. 112. 

c". Tail-feathers 8 EXCALFACTORIA, 

d". Tail-feathers 10 to 12. 

c 3 . 1st primary longer than 4th, and often 

as long as 2nd COTURNTX, p. 114. 

d 3 . 1st primary between 7th and 9th . . PERDICULA, p. 117. 

e 3 . 1st primary equal to 10th MICROPERDIX, p. 120. 

d' . Wing exceeding 5 in. 

e". Tail-feathers 12 ; wing about 5*5 in. 

/ J . Upper parts green ; male crested. . . . ROLLULUS, p. 111. 
ff. Upper parts grey or isabelline ; no 

crest AMMOPERDIX, p. 133. 

/". Tail-feathers 14; wing 55 to 7-5 in. 
A 3 . Tarsus naked. 

d*. Tail less than half length of wing. 

i 3 . Hind toe with a claw ; no spurs. 

/ ; . A supraorbital chain of bones; 

no white axillary tuft ARBORICOLA. p. 123. 

& 6 . No snpraovbital detached bones; [p. 129. 

a white axillary tuft TROPICOPERDIX, 



68 PHASIANIDJE. 

k*. Hind claw rudimentary ; tarsi of 

males spurred * CALOPERDIX, p. 130. 

e 4 . Tail more than half length of wing;. 
/;'. Flanks strongly barred with 

black CACCABIS, p. 131. 

/ 5 .. Flanks without conspicuous bars FRANCOLIXUS, p. 134. 

t 3 . Tarsus half clad with feathers LERWA, p. 145. 

g". Tail of 16 to 18 feathers ; wing about 

6 in. PERDIX, p. 142. 

h". Tail with 20-22 feathers; size large? 

wing 10 to 12 in TETRAOGALLUS, p. 143. 



Genus PAVO, Linn., 1766. 

Peafowl are distinguished by the peculiar erect occipital crest of 
elongate feathers in both sexes. The tail is long, wedge-shaped, 
and composed of 20 feathers, but it is far surpassed in length by 
the train of the male birds, which consists of the modified upper 
tail-coverts. Wings rounded, 1st quill much shorter than 10th. 
Tarsus very long, and in males armed with a spur. 

This genus inhabits India and the Indo-Chinese countries with 
part of the Malay Archipelago, and contains- two species, both found 
within our limits. 

Key to tlie Species. 

a ; Crest-feathers fully webbed at the end only .... P. cristatus, p. (58. 
b. Crest-feathers lanceolate, webbed throughout . . P. muticus, p. 70. 

1324. Pavo cristatus. The Common Peafowl. 

Pavo cristatus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i,p. 267 (1766) ; Blyth, ftrf.p.239; 
Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 506 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 151 ; Stoliczka, 
J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 67; xli, pt. 2, p. 249; Blanf. 
J. A. S. B. xxxviii, pt. 2, p. 189 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxi'x, 
pt. 2, p. 272 ; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 5 ; vii, p. 177 ; ix,p. 421 ; Ball, 
S. F. vii, p. 225; Hume fy Marsh. Game B. \, p. 81 ; Hume, Cat. 
no. 803 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 342 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 731 ; 
Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 75 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 302 ; Hume, 8. F. 
xi, p. 300; Gates in Hume's N. Sf E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 405; -Ogilvie 
Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 368. 
Mor, Martjur, H. &c>; Tans, P.; Landuri , Mahr. ; Manja J, 

Manir $ , Uriya ; Mabja, Bhot. ; Mong-yung, Lepcha : Moir, Assam ; 

Dodc, Garo ; Myl, Tamul ; Nimili t Tel. ; Nowl, Can. ; Monara, Cing. 

Coloration. Male. Crown of head covered with short curly 
feathers, metallic blue changing to green ; feathers on lores, super- 
cilia, chin, and throat similar but less curly and dull green ; crest 
of long almost naked shafts terminated by fan-shaped tips that are 
black at the base, bluish green at the ends ; neck all round rich 
blue ; back covered with scale-like bronze-green feathers with black 
borders, coppery inner areas, and green shaft-stripes, these pass on 
the rump into the bronze-green of the train, changing in the middle 
in certain lights into coppery bronze, each feather, except the outer- 
most at each side arid the longest plumes, ending iii an " eye " 
or ocellus, consisting of a purplish-black heart-shaped nucleus 



PAVO. 69 

surrounded by blue within a coppery disk, with an outer rim of 
alternating green and bronze ; scapulars and outer surface of wicig, 
including tertiaries, mostly barred black and buff, a few of the outer 
median secondary coverts blapk glossed with green and purple; 
primaries and their coverts pale chestnut, secondaries black ; tail 
dark brown ; breast and flanks dark glossy green ; thighs buff ; 
abdomen and downy lower tail-coverts blackish brown. 

Females have the head and nape rufous brown, tips of the crest- 
feathers chestnut edged with green ; lower neck metallic green ; 
the upper surface brown, faintty mottled paler in parts ; quills and 
tail-feathers dark brown, the latter with whitish tips ; breast and 
abdomen buffy white, inner portion of each breast-feather dark 
brown glossed with green ; vent and downy under tail-coverts dark 
brown. 

Young males resemble the females, but have the primaries partly 
or wholly chestnut. 

Bill brownish horny ; naked skin of face whitish ; irides dark 
brown ; legs and feet greyish brown. 

Length of male in full plumage 6| to 7-| feet, without train 
40 to 46 inches ; tail 20 ; wing 18; tarsus 575; bill from gape V9. 
Females measure : length about 38 ; tail 13; wing 16 ; tarsus 5. 

Distribution. Throughout India proper and Ceylon except in a 
few localities, such as parts of Lower Bengal, that appear too damp 
or otherwise unsuited. The Common Peafowl abounds at the base 
of the Himalayas, ascending the hills to about 2000 feet, and 
locally somewhat higher, and it inhabits the whole Assam valley 
up to Sadiya, but no Peafowl is found in Sylhet, Cachar, or Manipur, 
and P. muticus replaces the present species farther south. To the 
westward, Peafowl abound in Gruzerat, Cutch, and Kajputana, being 
protected and regarded as a sacred bird ; but they have probably 
been introduced in many places and certainly in Sind, as in all the 
countries named they are found about villages in a semi-domesti- 
cated state. In Southern India the Peafowl ascends the hills to 
an elevation of at least 5000 feet, but in Ceylon it is essentially a 
bird of the low dry country forming the northern part of the 
island. As is well known, it is found domesticated in many 
tropical and temperate countries. 

Habits, <Sfc. Where truly wild, Peafowl are generally found in 
small parties in forests, or bushy, broken ground near water. 
They are often met with in cultivation, especially where, as 
is the case in many parts of JN"orth-western and Western India, 
they are protected by particular castes of Hindus. They feed 
on grain, buds, shoots of grass, insects, small lizards and snakes. 
The call of the Peacock is a loud sonorous cry, having a distinct 
resemblance to a cat's mew and audible at a great distance. Pea- 
fowl roost on trees and they are in the habit, like most Pheasants, 
of returning to the same perch night after night. The males 
moult their long trains after the breeding-season, with the other 
feathers, about September in Northern India, and the new train 
is not fully grown till March or April. In the South of India the 
change of plumage and breeding-season are several months later. 



70 PHASIAN1DJE 

Peafowl are polygamous ; several males, with their tails and trains 
raised vertically and expanded, may be seen strutting about and 
" showing off " before the hens. The latter Jay usually 6 or 7 eggs, 
for the most part in the rainy season from June to September. 
The nest is a hollow scratched in the ground, lined with a fe\v 
twigs or leaves or a little grass, and the eggs are strong and 
glossy, closely pitted, whitish to reddish buff in colour, and they 
measure about 2-74 by 2-05. 

1325. Pavo muticus. The Burmese or Javan Peafowl. 

Pavo muticus, Linn. Si/st. Nat. i, p. 268 (1766) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 239 ; 
id. Ibis, 1867, p. 152 ; Hume $ Oates, S. F. iii, p. 165 ; Myth ^ 
Wald. Birds Bunn. p. 147 ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. \ i, pp. 425,' 520 ; 




Pavo spicifer, 8haw fy Nodd. Nat. Misc. xvi, pi. 641 (circa 1800). 
Pavo javairicus, Horsf. Tr. Linn. Sac. xiii, p. 185 (1821). 

Doun, Udoun, Burm. ; Marait, Talain ; Tuxia, Karen ; Bourony marcih, 
Malay. 

This Peafowl is distinguished from the preceding by the crest, 
which is composed of lanceolate feathers webbed throughout and 
green changing to blue in colour. The neck in both sexes is covered 
<vUh scale-like feathers, olive-bronze in colour, with purple and 
green centres and a narrow black border. In the male of P. muticvs 
all the outer surface of the wings is blackish brown, glossed with 
green and purple, without bars ; the primaries are rufous buff, 
paler than in P. criatatus ; all other quills and the tail-feathers 
blackish brown. The train is more tinged, especially in the middle, 
with copper, bronzy-violet in certain lights ; the thighs are coloured 
like the abdomen. 

The female has the head, neck, wings, and lower surface like the 
male, but the back, scapulars, and tertiaries are dark brown with 
paler mottled cross-bars ; the upper tail-coverts are as long as the 
tail, golden green with pale rufous mottled cross-bars ; there are 
similar cross-bars on the blackish-brown tail-feathers. 

Bill and legs horny brown ; irides brown ; facial skin blue on 
the upper, yellow on the lower and posterior parts. 

Length of males with full-grown train 6 to 7| feet, without 
train about 45 inches ; tail 22 ; wing 18-5; tarsus 6'25 ; bill from 
gape 2*25. Female : tail 16 ; wing 17'5; tarsus 5'5. 

Distribution. Chittagong and Arrakan, and thence locally and by 
no means abundantly throughout Burma to JSiam, Cochin China, 
and the Malay Peninsula, also in Java. The occurrence of this 
Peafowl in Sumatra is doubtful. 

Habits, Qc. Very similar to those of P. cristatus, but, probably 
owing to persecution, this species is a very shy bird. Little is 
known of the nidification, except that near Moulmein the breeding- 
season is in the monsoon, whereas in Pegu the eggs are laid about 
March. 



ARGUSIANUS. 71 

Genus ARGUSIANUS, Rafinesque, 1815. 

The true Argus Pheasants are large birds distinguished by the 
enormous development of the secondary quills, which are of great 
breadth, nearly twice as long as the primaries in males, and 
decidedly longer than the primaries in females, and by the long 
median tail-feathers of the males, more than twice the length of 
the next pair. There are 12 feathers in the tail, which is 
graduated ; the tarsus is long, without any spur ; and the sides 
of the face, the chin, throat, and fore parts of the neck are naked. 
The plumage is spotted with black, brown, buff, and white, 
forming singularly beautiful patterns. 

Two species are known one from South Tenasserim, the Malay 
Peninsula, and Sumatra, the other from Borneo ; a third is in- 
dicated by some feathers of unknown origin. An allied form, 
liheinardtius ocellatus, is found in Tonquin. 

1326. Argusianus argus. The Argus Pheasant. (Fig. 12, p. 64.) 

Phasianus argus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 272 (176fi). 

Argus giganteus, Tcmnt. Pit/, et Gall. ii. p. 410 (1813), iii, p. 678; 

Blylli, Cat. p. 242; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 481, iii, p. 324; Hume $ 

Dav. S. F. vi, p. 427 ; Hume $ Marsh. Game B. i, p. 99, pi. ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 803 ter; Sclater, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 115, pi. vii 

(chick), viii, tig. 1 (egg). 
Argus pavoninus, Gray in Hardw. III. Ind. Zool. i, pi. 36 $> (1830- 

32). 

Argusianus giganteus, Blyth, Birds Bnrm. p. 148. 
Argusianus argus, Oates, B. B. ii, p. 313; Ogiluie Grant, Cat. B. M. 

xxii, p. 363. 

Qou, Borong quou, Kwang, Malay ; Kyek-ioah, Siamese (Bankasoon). 

Coloration. Male. Middle of crown and shorb hairy occipital 
crest black; back of neck speckled grey; upper back, scapulars, 
and wing-coverts black with buff spots and streaks ; lower back 
and rump clear buff with scattered black spots ; quills buff or 
grey, varying in tint, and variously spotted and banded ; a band of 
rufous, minutely speckled with white, along the basal portion 
of the inner web of each primary near the shaft, and a row of 
peculiar ocelli, shaded like a ball in a socket *, along the shaft on 
the outer web of each secondary ; inner edges of most secondaries 
unspotted white ; large middle tail- feathers blackish, shading into 
slaty grey on the inner web and into chestnut on 'he onto;-, tipped 
with dirty white and speckled throughout with small black- 
bordered white spots; other rectrices the same, but blackish 
nearly throughout and much spotted ; lower parts rufous brown, 
with narrow undulating bars of black, rufous, and buff. 

Female. Crown and cresb-feathers buff with black edges, the 

* Darwin ('Descent of Man,' ii, pp. 141-151) has shown that there is 
on the secondaries of this Pheasant a complete gradation trom simple spots to 
these wonderful ocelli. 



t'2 PHASIAIS'IDJE. 

crest fuller than in the male ; lower neck all round chestnut, 
passing on the back into black veriniculated and mottled with 
chestnut and buff, which form mottled bars on the lower back, 
rump, and upper tail-coverts ; scapulars, wing-coverts, and second- 
aries black, more coarselv vermiculated with buff than the back ; 
primaries chestnut, speckled with black; tail-feathers black with 
chestnut vermiculation ; lower parts from neck chestnut, speckled 
with black, paler and greyer on the abdomen. 

Bill and claws \vhite with a bluish tiuge ; irides brown ; facial 
kin dull blue ; legs and feet red, bright in males, paler in females 
(Davison}. 

Length of male about 6 feet ; tail 50 inches ; wing (primaries) 
]8, to end of secondaries 34; tarsus 4-5; bill from gape 17. 
Length of female 29 ; tail 13 ; wing 12 ; tarsus 3'6. 

Distribution. The Malay Peninsula and Sumatra, with the Laos 
Mountains in Siam, and the extreme southern portion of Tenas- 
serim, around Bankasoon, Malewoon, and the Upper Pakchan. 

Habits, $c. Much of our knowledge of this remarkable Pheasant 
in the wild state is derived from Davison. The Argus is only 
found in evergreen forests, and both males and females are solitary. 
They feed on fruit, insects, &c., and both sexes have loud but 
different calls, repeated ten or a dozen times, that may be heard 
at a great distance. Each male clears a level open spot six or 
eight yards square, which he keeps scrupulously clean from dead 
leaves, weeds, &c., and here the bird remains all day, only roaming 
in the morning and evening in search of food, and roosting at 
night on a tree close by. These birds do not pair, and are said to 
have no regular breeding-season ; the hen lays, it is said, 7 or 8 
eggs in a rude nest on the ground- The eggs laid in confinement 
are of a rich coffee-colour, finely punctured throughout, and 
measure about 2-6 by 1-9. 



Genus POLYPLECTRUM, Temm., 1813. 

The Peacock Pheasants have a speckled plumage, and in typical 
forms the wings and tail are ornamented with glossy purple and 
green ocelli, especially in males. The sexes differ. The tail is of 
moderate length and much rounded ; it contains 20 to 24 feathers, 
the middle pair being twice as long as the outer in males, and 
about half as long again in females. The sides of the face are 
nearly or quite naked. The 1st primary is much the shortest of 
all, the 2nd is shorter than the 10th, and the 6th generally longest. 
The tarsus is much longer than the middle toe and claw, and there 
are two, sometimes three, spurs on each leg in males. 

Six species are known, rangingthrough the Indo-Chinese countries 
and the Malay Archipelago. None occurs west of the Bay of Bengal, 
and only a single species is known to be found wild within the 
Indian Empire. 



POLTPLECTRUM. 73 

1327. Polyplectrum chinquis. The Grey Peacock- Pheasant. 

Pavo chinquis, Midler, Natursyst. Suppl. p. 121 (1785). 
Pavo tibetanus, Gm, Syst. Xat. i, pt. 2, p. 731 (1788). 
Polyplectron chinquis, Temm. Pig. et Gall, ii, p. 363 ; Blyth, Cat. 

p. 241 ; Blyth # Wold. Birds Burin, p. 148 ; Hume $ In'glis, S. F. 

v, p. 40; Sdater, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 116, pi. viii, fig. 2 (egg) ; 

Salvador*, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. 019; Ogiloie Grant, Cat. 

B. M. xxii, p. 354. 
Polyplectron albocellatum ( Temm.), Cuv. Reg. An. ed. 2 e , i, p. 474 

(1829). 
Polyplectron cyclospilum, atelospilum, & enicospilum, G. R. Gray, 

List Sp. Birds B. M., Galling, pp. '23, 24 (1867). 
Polyplectron thibetanum, HumefyDav. S. F. vi, pp. 432, 521 ; Hume 

<$ Marsh. Game B. i, p. 105, pi. ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 315. 
Polyplectrum tibetanum, Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, 

p. 272 ; xlv, pt. 2, p. 83 ; JIume, Cat. no. 803 quat. ; Bimjham, S. F. 

ix, p. 195 ; Fasson, ibid. p. 203 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 300 j Waddell, 

Gazetteer, Sikhim, p. 229. 
Polyplectron helense, Oates, Ibis, 1883, p. 136, pi. v. 

Munnowur, Deyodahuk, Assam ; Deo-dwug, Deo-dirrik, Garo hills ; 
I\at-mor, Chittagong; Doun-kalah, Arrakan and Pegu ; Shwe-dony, 
Tenasserim. 




Fig. 14. Head of P. chinquis, tf . f. 

Coloration. Male. Coronal feathers lengthened, hair-like. Whole 
plumage, except the chin and throat which are white, dull greyish 
brown, with small white or whitish spots that unite to form 
broken bars on the neck and upper breast ; each feather of the 
upper back, scapulars, and later secondaries, and nearly all the 
wing-coverts, tipped by a large rounded ocellus of glossy violet 
changing to green, with a border of black and a broader outer 
rim of greyish white ; a pair of similar ocelli, but larger and oval 
and green changing to purple, near the end of each tail-feather 
and of each of the longer upper tail- coverts. 

Female. Dull dark brown, mottled and speckled with pale 
brown ; the ocelli of the male represented by blackish-brown 
spots or blotches, with a slight violet or green gloss, and by the 
tips of the feathers being thickly speckled with white, sometimes 
tinged with rufous on the scapulars and tertiaries ; these patches 
are most glossy on the secondaries and on some of the tail- 



74 PHASIANID.E. 

feathers, but are wanting on the middle rectrices, on several of the 
outer pairs, and on the longer tail-coverts ; chin and throat 
whitish. 

In males the upper inaudible and tip of the lower are black, 
rest of lower mandible and facial skin pale yellow ; irides white ; 
legs and feet blackish. In females the bill is brown, paler beneath ; 
facial skin pale dingy fleshy yellow ; irides deep grey ; legs plum- 
beous (Davison). 

Length of male about 25 ; tail 14 ; wing 8'5 ; tarsus 3 ; bill from 
gape 1'3. Length of female 19 ; tail U ; wing 7'5 ; tarsus 2'75. 

Distribution. Hill-ranges of Assam, extending along the base of 
the Himalayas west to Sikhim, where specimens were recently 
obtained by Dr. Waddell ; also south of the Assam valley and 
throughout the whole of Burma, except Pegu, as far south as 
Mergui and the Laos Mountains in Si;im. 

Habits, tyc. A shy bird, inhabiting dense hill-forest, and but 
rarely seen, though more often heard ; it has a harsh call, something 
like a bark often repeated, and generally uttered whenever the 
bird hears the report of a gun. The breeding-season is about 
April and May, but very little is known of the nidification. In 
captivity these birds pair ; the hen lays always two eggs and has 
two or three broods in the year, but in the wild state the number 
of eggs is said to be larger. The eggs are buff in colour, and 
measure about 2 by 1*45. The young when hatched run behind 
the hen, concealing themselves beneath her broad tail. 



P. bicalcaratum, L., distinguished by having the upper parts 
pale brown spotted with black, and by the male having a violet 
crest and only one ocellus on each of the outer tail-feathers, 
inhabits the Malay Peninsula, and may perhaps occur in Southern. 
Tenasserim, but its existence there is extremely doubtful. 

Some tail-feathers of a Polyplectrum, found in a Lushai village, 
were at first referred by Hume (S. F. i, p. 36) to a new species, 
P. intermedius, but were subsequently regarded by him (S. F. v, 
p. 118, vii, p. 426 ; Grame B. i, p. Ill) as belonging to P. germaini, 
Elliot, a Cochin-Chinese species. The small pale spots on these 
tail-feathers are less closely set than in P. chinquis, and are pale 
buff on a hair-brown ground, not greyish white on a grey-brown 
ground; the ocelli, too, are more elongate and etnerald-green. 
It, of course, remains to be seen whether a distinct form inhabits 
the Lushai country, for it is not very probable that these tail- 
feathers were brought from a great distance. 

Genus G-ALLUS, Brisson, 1760. 

This well-marked genus contains the Jungle-fowl, the typical 
species, G. ferrugineus, being clearly the form from which domestic 
fowls are derived. The Jungle - fowl are closely allied to 
Pheasants, and exhibit the same sexual difference of plumage. 
The males have a fleshy longitudinal coronal crest, known as the 



GALLUS. tO 

"comb," which is small or rudimentary in females; and males of 
all Indian species have a wattle or lappet on each side of the throat, 
whilst the sides of the face are mainly or wholly naked in both 
sexes. The tail is laterally compressed and composed of 14 or 16 
feathers (14 in all Indian species) ; the middle pair in the male 
are about twice as long as the next pair and nearly four times as 
long as the outer rectrices ; the ends of these long middle tail- 
feathers diverge and droop when the tail is raised. The feathers 
of the neck and of the sides of the rump form long hackles in the 
males. The 1st primary is considerably shorter than the 10th. 
Tarsus much longer than the middle toe and claw, and armed in 
males with a long sharp spur. 

Jungle-fowl are forest birds, found singly or in small parties 
in woods or bushy tracts or high grass, and especially in bamboo- 
jungle. Though essentially polygamous they are often found in 
pairs. They teed on grain and other seeds, fruit and insects, 
worms, snails, &c. Four distinct wild species, besides some 
doubtful forms, are known, ranging throughout the greater part 
of the Oriental region ; three occur within British limits. 

Key to the Species. 

A. Comb and spurs developed. 

a. Neck-hackles yellow or red, without spots. 

a'. Breast black .................... G. ferrugineus $ , p. 75. 

b'. Breast reddish orange ............ G. iafayettii tf , p. 77. 

b. Neck-hackles blackish, with glossy white 

and yellow spots .................. G. sonnerati <$ , p. 78. 

B. No spurs, and a rudimentary comb. 

a. Breast rufous, with narrow pale shaft- 

lines ............................ G. ferrugineus $ , p. 76. 

b. Breast mottled, with white shaft-stripes. G. Iafayettii $ , p. 78. 

c. Breast black, with broad white shaft- 

stripes .......................... G. sonnerati , p. 79. 

1328. Gallus ferrugineus. The lied Jungle-fowl. 

Phasianus gallus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p.. 270 (1766). 

Tetrao ferrugineus, Gm. tSyst. Nat. i, '2, p. 761 (1788). 

Gallus bankiva, Temm.Pig. etGall. ii.p. 87 (18 J 3) ; Gray in Hardw. 
III. 2nd. Zool. i, pi. 43, tig. 3 $ . 

Gallus ferrugineus, Blyth, Cat. p. 242 j Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 536 ; Blyth, 
Ibis, 1867, p. 154 ; Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxvi, pt. 2, p. 199 ; 
Beavan, Ibis, 1868, p. 381 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, 
p. 272 ; xlv, pt. 2, p. 83 ; Hume, N. Sf E. p. 528 ; Ball, 8. F. ii, 
p. 426 ; vii, p. 225 ; Blyth Sf Wald. Birds Burm. p. 148 ; Hume 



* Marsh. Game B. i, p. 217, pi. ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., 
p. 669 ; Hume $ Duv. S. F. vi, pp. 442, 521 ; Hume, Cat. no. 812 j 
Scully, S. F. viii, p. 348 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 322 ; Marshall, Ibis, 
1884, p. 423 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 304 j Oates in Humes N. % E. 
2nd ed. iii, p. 417. 
Gallus gallus, Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 344. 

Janyal-nwrgh $ , Jangli-murghi J , Ban murghi, H. ; Kuknr, Kukra 



76 PHA.SIANIDJE. 

Bankukar, Bengali, &c. ; Ganja tf , Uriya ; Tang-Ming, Lepcha ; Nay- 
t*e-ja, Bhot. ; J3ir-aim,Kol. ; 6rcra yo^or J, JTuru $, Goud. ; Tau-kyet, 
Burm. 

Coloration. Male. Crown and long hackles at back and sides 
of neck and on lower throat golden brown to orange-red, pale- 
fihafted, passing on the longer neck-hackles into straw-yellow, 
generally with lanceoJate dark brown shaft-stripes ; upper back 
with the smaller and greater secondary-coverts black, glossed green 
or purple : scapulars and median coverts glossy chestnut-red ; 
quills anel priinary-co verts blackish brown, with metallic gloss on 
the tertiaries ; narrow outer edges of primaries pale, and broad 
outer borders of secondaries and tertiaries dull cinnamon ; lower 
back and rump very dark chestnut, shading into golden red or 
orange on the ends of the long lanceolate feathers at the sides of 
the rump ; long upper tail-coverts and tail black with green or 
purple gloss ; lower parts from neck brownish black with little 
or no gloss. 

After the breeding-season, about June, the long hackles and 
tail-feathers are replaced by short black feathers, but are resumed 
by a second moult in September. 

Female. Crown dull rufous, dark-shafted ; forehead and super- 
cilia, continued as a band round the fore neck, bright chestnut; 
back and sides of neck blackish, the feathers edged with dirty 
yellow ; upper parts finely vermiculated black and brown, with 
narrow yellowish-white shaft-lines ; quills and tail dark brown, 
the outer webs of the secondaries and of the inner tail-feathers, 
and both webs pf the median rectrices, finely mottled with pale 
yellow ; lower plumage light rufous brown, with paler shaft-stripes ; 
chin and throat light brownish grey. 

Chicks have a fawn-coloured head, with a deep rufous black- 
edged triangular patch on the nape, pointed in front ; a black 
stripe from behind each eye ; a chestnut back, bordered by creamy 
and black stripes ; and grey wings, spotted with white. 

Bill dark brown, reddish towards the base in males, horny 
brown in females ; irides light red to orange-red ; comb arid wattles 
crimson ; sides of face paler red. There is in this species a second 
pair of lappets, one beneath each ear, white or pinky white in 
Indian, red like the comb in Burmese and Malayan birds. Legs 
and feet plumbeous or slaty. 

Length of male about 26; tail 11 to 13; wing 9 ; tarsus 3; 
bill from gape 1*25. Length of female about 17; tail 6; wing 
7'25 ; tarsus 2-4 ; bill from gape 1. 

Distribution. Throughout the Lower Himalayas from Assam to 
Kashmir, also throughout Bengal, Orissa, the Northern Circars, 
Assam, and the countries to the southward, all Burma and the Malay 
Peninsula, with Sumatra, Siam, and Cochin China. In the Penin- 
sula of India, south of the Gangetic plain, the limit of this species, 
as Capt. Porsyth showed, is approximately the same as that of the 
sal-tree (Slwrea robusta), the Ked Jungle-fowl being found as far 
west as Mandla, E-aipur, and Bastar, and south to the Godavari 



GALLUS. 7/ 

above Rajahmundry. An isolated wood of sal-trees in the Denwa 
valley, close to Pachraarhi, is inhabited by Gallus ferrugineus, 
though O. sonnerati occurs all around and for 150 miles to the 
eastward. G. ftrrugineus occurs in Java and in many of the 
other Malay islands besides Sumatra, but it has probably been 
introduced. No Jungle-fowl are known to occur on the Anda- 
raans or Nicobars, but some wild birds, doubtless descended from 
tame progenitors, are met with on the Great and Little Cocos. 

The Burmese race has a red ear-lappet, as have most domestic 
birds ; its crow, too, is more like that of tame cocks, and it is said 
to be more easily domesticated than the Indian form with a white 
ear-lappet. 

Habits, fyc. Though essentially a forest bird this Jungle-fowl is 
often found feeding in cultivated ground near forest in the 
mornings and evenings. It ascends the Himalayas and breeds up 
to an elevation of about 5000 feet, keeping much to the valleys. 
The calls of both sexes resemble those of tame birds, but the 
cock's crow is shorter, especially the concluding note. The cocks 
are highly pugnacious, especially in the breeding-season, which 
lasts from the end of March to July in the Himalayas, but com- 
mences rather earlier to the southward. The hens lay usually 
5 to 6 pale buff eggs, sometimes more (9 and even 11 have been 
found in one nest), in a hollow on the ground, sometimes well 
lined with grass and dead leaves, but often with little or no lining. 
The eggs measure about 1'78 by 1'36. Juugle-fowl afford fair 
shooting when they can be driven by men or elephants and made 
to fly, and young birds in the cold season are excellent to eat. 



1329. Gallus lafayettii. The Ceylon Junyle-fowl. 

Gallus lafayettii, Less. Traite, p. 491 (1831) ; Hume, N. fy E. p. 530 ; 
id. S. P. vii, p. 429 ; id. Cat. no. 812 bis ; Hume 8f Marsh. Game 
B. i, p. 241, pi. ; Lec/ye, Birds Ceyl. p. 736, pis. xxxi, xxxii ; Oate* 
in Humes N. $ E. L'rid ed. iii, p. 422 ; OyUvie Grant, Cat. B. M. 
xxii, p, 348. 

Gallus stanleyi. Gray in Hardw. 111. Ind. Zool. i, pi. 43, fig. 2 $ 
(1830-32); Blyth, Cat. p k 243; Laijard, A. M. N. H. (2) xiv, 
p. 62 ; JBlyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 307 ; Holdsworth, P. Z. S. 1872, 
p. 468. 

Weli-kukula rf, Weli-kikili $,Cing. ; Kdda Koli, Tarn. 

Coloration. Male. Hackles of neck and all small wing-coverts 
deep straw to golden yellow, dark-shafted, passing into dull 
brownish red on the crown and into bright ferruginous red on the 
back, scapulars, elongate median wing-coverts, and long feathers 
at the sides of the rump, all with blackish shaft-stripes ; lower 
back, middle of rump, and upper tail-coverts glossy violet, the 
two former with chestnut edges to the feathers ; greater vviii^- 
coverts black, part of the outer webs chestnut ; primaries dark 
brown ; secondaries black, slightly glossed with purple ; tail-feathers 
black, the middle pair and outer webs of the next three or fouj; 



.' O PHASIANIDJE. 

richly glossed with purple ; fore neck glossy violet ; breast ferru- 
ginous red with dusky shaft-stripes, passing on the abdomen into 
dark brown. 

Female. Crown dark brown, rufescent anteriorly ; feathers of 
neck mottled dark brown and buff and bordered with light brown ; 
back and wing-coverts finely mottled dark brown and buff, with 
narrow whitish shaft-stripes ; rump and tail the same, but more 
rufous and without the pale shafts ; primaries dark brown, with 
pale spots on the outer webs ; secondaries and greater coverts 
black, with mottled buff cross-bars, especially on the outer webs ; 
upper breast mottled black and bro*wn, with broad buff shaft- 
stripes that become broader on the lower breast, which, with the 
abdomen, is chiefly white with black or dark brown edges and 
submarginal bands, disappearing towards the vent; under tail- 
coverts like tail. 

Young males resemble females except that the upper parts are 
more rufous and the lower parts without any white. 

In males the bill is brownish red, lower mandible paler ; iris 
light golden yellow ; comb bright red, with a large interior yellow 
patch ; face, throat, and wattles livid or purplish red ; legs and 
feet wax-yellow, brownish anteriorly. Females have the upper 
mandible dark brown, the lower yellowish ; iris yellowish olive ; 
tarsi and feet brownish in front, yellow behind (Legge}. 

Length of males with fully-grown tails 26 to 28 ; tail 13 to 15 ; 
wing 9-5 ; tarsus 3 ; bill from pipe 1-3. Length of females 14 ; 
tail 5 ; wing 7'5 ; tarsus 2'5 ; bill from gape 1*1. 

Distribution. Throughout Ceylon, more common in the dry 
jungles of the North and in the hills of the Southern Province. 

Habits, Sfc. Very similar to those of G.ferrugincus. The crow 
of the cock is different, being commonly represented by " George 
Joyce " with a low preliminary cluck. Either the breeding-season 
in various parts of Ceylon varies greatly or these birds breed at all 
seasons. The eggs vary in number from two to four according to 
Legge, six to twelve teste Layard, and much resemble those of other 
species of Jungle-fowl. 

1330. Gallus sonnerati. The Grey Jungle-fowl. 

Gallus sonnerati, Temm. Pig. et Gall ii, p. 246 (1813) ; iii, p. 659 ; 
id. PI. Col nos. 232, 233; Blyth, Cat. p. 243; Jerdon, B. L iii, 
p. 539 ; Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxvi, pt. 2, p. 199; Hume, N. $ E. 
p. 531 ; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 5; v, p. 222 ; ix. p. 421 ; Hume $ 
Bourd. S. F. iv, p. 404 ; Hume 8f Marsh, Game B. i, p. 231, pi. ; 
Hume, Cat. no. 813 ; Vidal, & F. ix, p. 76; Butler, ibid pp. 205, 
421 ; Davidson, S. F. x, p. 316; Davison, ibid. p. 409; Barnes, 
Birds Bom. p. 304 ; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 420 j 
Offline Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 350. 

Janyli-murghi, H. ; Komri, Mt. Abu ; Pardah Komri, Gondhi, Chanda; 
Ran-kombadi, Mahr. ; Kattu kozhi or koli, Tana. ; Adavikode, Tel. ; 
Koli, Kad-koli, Can. 

Coloration. Male. Crown and neck-hackles blackish, the feathers 



GALLUS. 79 

with white shafts, a white spot near the eiid, and a glossy brownish- 
yellow spot at the 1ip, both resembling sealing-wax, and formed 
by the w r ebs of the feathers being soldered together ; back, rump, 
and lesser wing-coverts black, the feathers with \vhite shafts and 
grey edges, the long feathers at the side of the rump and some of 
the upper tail-coverts with yellowish wax-like spots along the shafts 
and with ferruginous edges ; scapulars and median wing-coverts 
black, with white shaft-stripes, which expand into long, lanceolate, 
brownish-orange, wax-like spots, fringed at the end with chestnut ; 
greater coverts black, with white shafts ; primaries dark brown, 
with pale shafts and outer borders ; secondaries black, slightly 
glossed ; upper and lower tail-coverts and tail black, the shorter 
upper coverts glossed with purple-bronze, the longer with purple, 
and the median rectrices and outer edges of the others with bluish 
green ; lower parts blackish grey, the feathers with broad white 
shaft-stripes and pale grey edges, passing into uniform brownish 
grey on the lower abdomen, the flanks tinged with ferruginous 
red. The neck-hackles are replaced by black feathers, and the 
long rectrices by shorter plumes after the breeding-season, as in 
G. ferrugineus. 

Female. Crown and neck speckled brown, with pale shafts and 
borders to the feathers ; upper parts finely mottled with blackish 
brown and buff, the upper back and wing-coverts with fine whitish 
shaft-lines ; quills and tail-feathers dark brown, mottled on the 
exposed portions of the secondaries and rectrices ; chin and throat 
whitish ; breast and abdomen white, the feathers with black borders, 
broad on the upper breast, gradually disappearing on the abdomen. 

Bill yellowish horny ; comb, face, and wattles red ; irides orange- 
brown ; legs and feet horny yellowish (Jerdon). Irides in male 
orange-red to wax-yellow (Davison}. 

Length of males 24 to 32 ; tail' 12 to 18 ; wing 9'5 ; tarsus 3 ; 
bill from gape. 1*3. Length of female 18; tail 6; wing 8; 
tarsus 2-4. 

Distribution. Throughout Southern and Western India in hilly 
and jungly ground. This Jungle-fowl is found near the eastern 
coast as far north as the Godavari, and in the Central Provinces 
its limit is some distance east of Sironcha, Chanda, and Seoni. 
It is found throughout the Nerbudda valley west of Jubbul- 
pore, and in parts of Central India and Eajputana, as far as the 
Aravalis and Mount Abu, but no farther to the northward or 
westward. It is met with near Baroda, but has not been observed 
in Kattywar. It is common throughout the Western Ghats and 
8atpuras, and it is found, though riot abundantly, on the tops of 
the Nilgiri and Puluey hills. 

Habits, $c. Except that the present is a more shy and wary bird, 
a characteristic probably due to greater persecution, there is but 
little difference between the habits of the Red and Grey Jungle- 
fowl. The crow of G. sonnerati, however, is quite distinct. It is 
difficult to convey an idea of the sound ; Davison represents it as 
resembling *' Icuck-lcaya-kya-lcuck" followed by a low double- 



80 PIIASIANID.E. 

syllable, like " kyukun, kyukun" repeated slowly and very softly, 
so as only to be heard at a short distance. The time of breeding 
varies : March and April on the eastern side of the Nilgiris, 
October to December on the western, but generally from March 
to July. From seven to thirteen buff eggs, measuring about 1-84 
by 1'3S, are laid on the ground, with a few dry leaves, as a rule, 
beneath them. 

Genus PHASIANUS, Linn., 1766. 

In the true Pheasants the tail is lyng in the males and greatly 
graduated, shorter in the females, but still longer than the wing, 
and composed in both sexes of 16 or 18 feathers. There is no 
crest, but there are small " ear-tut'ts " in the male, one on each 
side of the occiput. The area round the eye is naked. "Wing well 
rounded ; first primary about equal to the 8th and longer than the 
10th. 

Sexes very dissimilar; a spur on each tarsus in the male. 

This genus contains 20 species and ranges throughout temperate 
Asia from Eastern Europe to Japan. It is not represented in the 
Himalayas, but two species are found in Mauipur and Burma. 

Key to the Species. 

a. 16 tail-feathers ; cross-bars on middle rectrices 

about an inch apart in female, much more in male. P. humiee, p. 80. 

b. 18 tail-feathers; black cross-bars on middle rec- 

trices much less than an inch apart in both sexes. P. eleyans, p. 81. 

1331. Phasianus humiae. Mrs. Hume's Pheasant. 

Callophasis humiae, Hume, S. F. ix, p. 461 (1881) ; xi, p. 302. 
Phasianus humijc, Godwin- Austen, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 715, pi. li; 

W. Sclater, Ibis, 1&9I, p. 152; Offiloie Grant, Cat. B.M. xxii, 

p. 335 ; Gates, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. x, p. 112. 

Loe-nin-koi, Mauipur. 

Coloration. Male. Crown brown, tinged with olive and with 
traces of green metallic gloss : chin dark brown ; neck all round, 
upper back, and upper breast black, the feathers near their edges 
glossed with steely blue, the velvety-black centres only showing 
slightly ; smaller wing-coverts and interscapulars copper-coloured, 
shot with glowing fiery red ; a broad band of white feathers with 
black tips and bases across each wing and the scapulars ; parallel 
to this is a black band, glossed with bronze-green, formed by the 
tips of the chestnut median coverts ; greater coverts chestnut, 
tipped with white, forming a second white band ; quills dark brown, 
edged outside with chestnut, which grows broader on the second- 
aries and tertiaries, each of which has a subterminal black bar 
and white or buff tip ; lower back and rump black with metallic 
purplish gloss, each feather fringed with white ; upper tail- 
coverts and tail grey, the latter with bars, rather far apart, of 
black more or less mixed with chestnut, the outer feathers, 



PHASIANUS. 81 

beginning with about the third pair from the middle, having a 
subterminal black band that grows broader on each pair, until on 
the outermost pair it nearly covers the feathers ; lower parts from, 
middle of breast to vent chestnut, some breast-feathers with a 
black crescentic subterminal spot and both breast- and flank- 
feathers fringed with fiery red in some lights ; vent and lower 
tail-coverts black with a greenish gloss. 

Female. General colour greyish brown, blotched with black and 
mottled with pale sandy : crown rufous, with dark brown centres 
to the feathers ; hind neck and upper back blotched with black, 
the feathers with irregular arrowhead-shaped white shaft-spots ; 
lower back and rump speckled and mixed with black and pale 
rufous ; inner scapulars mostly black, and some large black blotches 
on the wing-coverts, some of which have pale shafts, and the 
median and greater coverts whitish tips ; primaries blackish brown 
slightly speckled rufous, with white spots on the outer webs and 
mottled tips ; secondaries black, mottled and banded with brown 
arid tipped with rufous ; middle tail-feathers brown, speckled black, 
with black and whitish cross-bands ; outer tail-feathers chestnut, 
with imperfect black bars, each with a subterminal black band and 
white tip ; lower parts pale brownish rufous, with whitish bars 
and edges to feathers of the breast, upper abdomen, and flanks ; 
lower abdomen whity brown ; under tail-coverts black, white, and 
chestnut mixed. 

Hectrices 16. Bill of male greenish horny ; naked sides of face 
intense crimson ; irides orange ; legs and feet pale drab (Hume). 

Length of a male 33 ; tail 20'5 ; wing 87 ; tarsus 2-75 ; bill 
from gape 13. Females smaller : wing 8-25 ; tail 7 ; tarsus 2-3. 

Distribution. Hill-forests of Manipur, both north and south of 
the valley, and a considerable area in Upper Burma, specimens 
having been obtained by Gates near the Euby Mines east of 
the Irrawaddv, and the occurrence of the species ascertained at 
Tounggyi in the southern Shan States. Only a very few skins of 
this species have hitherto been collected. 

1332. Phasianus elegans. Stone's Pheasant. 

Phasianus eleg-ans, Elliot, A. M. N. H. (4) vi, p. 312 (1870) ; id. 

Mon. Phas. ii, pi. 8 ; Offilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 329. 
Phasianus sltideni, Anderson, Elliot, P. Z. 8. 1870, pp. 404, 408 

(descr. nulia) ; Anderson, P. Z. 8. 1871, p. 214 ; id. Yunnan 

Exped., Aves, p. 671, pi. lii. 

Coloration. Male. Crown and nape bronze-green ; remainder of 
head, neck, and breast dark green, passing more or less into blue 
at the sides of the neck ; upper back and innermost wing-coverts 
chestnut, with wide paler tips ; scapulars the same, with black, 
buff-mottled centres ; the upper feathers of the mantis notched at 
the end ; lower back and rump-feathers dark green, broadly edged 
with greenish grey, their centres black with a concentric buff 
band; upper tail-coverts greenish grey, the outermost at each side 

VOL. IV. G 



S2 PITASIANIDJE. 

rusty red ; wing-coverts greenish grey, pale-shafted ; inner greater 
coverts brmdly edged outside with purplish chestnut; quills 
brown, with a few pale markings, the innermost with black centres 
and chestnut edges ; tail-feathers rufous brown, middle pair gene- 
rally greyer with purplish-red edges, all with broadish black cross- 
bars not far apart ; sides of breast chestnut, with black tips ; 
abdomen dark brown in the middle, green at the sides ; lower 
flanks dark chestnut. 

Female. Upper plumage mostly black, edged with whity brown ; 
feathers of the hind neck and upper neck with rufous centres and 
pale shafts, those of the rump wit!? buff cross-bars and broad light 
greyish-brown edges ; quills dark brown, with pale cross-bands ; 
tail with undulatiug narrow black and light greyish-brown cross- 
bars, that are broader on the middle pair of rectrices, and traversed 
by ill-denned narrow whitish bands ; chin and throat whitish, rest 
of lower parts whity brown, the feathers banded and speckled with 
blackish. 

Legs and feet of a male lead-colour, inclining to flesh-colour ; 
naked skin around eye scarlet (Elliot}. 

E-ectrices 18. Length of a male 27*5; tail 16; wing 9; 
tarsus 2-4 ; bill from gaj)e 1'25. Length of a female 21 ; tail 9-f> : 
wing 8 ; tarsus 2' 3. 

Distribution. Szechuen in China. This Pheasant was obtained 
also by Anderson in Yunnan, and by Gates from the Shan Sates 
of Burma, where a specimen was shot by Lieut. H. R. Wallis. 

Genus CATREUS, Cabanis, 1851. 

The Cheer Pheasant was formerly referred to Phasianus, but 
appears to deserve separation on account of being crested, and of 
its very different plumage. There is a simple occipital crest of 
considerable length in the male, shorter in the female. The tail, 
of 18 feathers, is in the male twice as long as the wing, and but 
little less in the female, the middle feathers four or five times as 
long as the outer pair. A large area on each side of the head is 
naked. The wing is rounded, and the male is armed with a strong 
spur on each tarsus. 

A single species. 

1333. Catreus wallichi. The Cheer Pheasant. 

Phasianus wallichii, Hardwickc, Tr. Linn. Soc. xv, p, 166 (1827) ; 

Blyth, Cat. p. 245 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 527 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. 

xxx vii. pt. 2, p. 68; Hume, N. $ E. p. 524; Hume $ Marsh. 

Game B. i, p. 169, pi ; Hume, Cat. no. 809 ; Scully, S. F. viii, 

p. 345 ; C. H. T. Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 423 j Gates in Humes 

N. 8f E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 412. 
Phasianus staceii, Gould, Cent. pi. 68. 
Catreus wallichii, Adams, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 499; Mitchell, ibid. 

p. 545, pis. 147 (young), 149, fig. 4 (eg-r) ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. 

B. M. xxii, p. 317. 

Chihir, Chir, Nepal, Kumaun, Garlnval, &c. ; Bunchil, Herril. hills 
north oiMussooiee; C'Mman, Kulu, Chamba. 



CATREUS. 83 

Coloration. Male. Crown and crest brown, each feather edged 
and tipped paler ; sides of head, where feathered, including the 




*/ 



Fig. 15.-Head of C. wallicki, rf. f 

ear-coverts, brown, slightly more rufous ; neck all round, except 
behind, chin, and throat sullied white ; back of neck and upper 
back black, the feathers barred and tipped with white ; wing- 
coverts pale-shafted and barred buffy white and black, the colours 
broken up and mottled on the greater coverts and scapulars ; lower 
back, rump, and upper tail-coverts dull rufous, each feather with 
a subterminal black band, glossed with green ; quills dark brown, 
irregularly edged and speckled with buff ; tail-feathers with alter- 
nating subequal broad cross-bars of white or buff and black mottled 
with grey, and replaced in parts by chestnut on the inner webs oi: 
the outer feathers, generally a narrow detached black stripe in 
front of each black bar, the white or buff bars often speckled with 
black ; breast and Hanks buff or buffy white, the feathers barred 
with black ; middle of abdomen blackish, lower abdomen grey 
tinged with rufous on lower flanks and under tail-coverts. s 

Female. Feathers of crown and crest dark brown, with buff 
edges ; supercilia and sides of head brown, with broader whitish 
edges to the feathers ; chin and throat white ; neck all round and 
upper breast black, with broad whitish edges ; feathers of the 
upper back barred black and chestnut, with whitish shaft-stripes 
and tips ; wing-coverts mixed black and buff, white-shafted, and 
with whitish edges ; scapulars and greater coverts with whitish 
ends ; quills black, barred with buff on the outer webs and with 
rufous on the inner ; lower back and rump greyish brown, mixed 
with black and buff ; tail brown, mottled and blotched with 
black, and with rather narrow, irregular, more or less black-edged 
whitish cross-bars ; lower breast rufous, the feathers pale-edged ; 
abdomen and lower tail-coverts isabelline, more or le.*s with black 
crescentic subterminal bars, especially on the lower flanks and 
tail-coverts. 

Bill pale horny ; nude sides of head bright red ; irides yellowish 
hazel ; legs and feet brown (Jerdon}. 

Length of males 34 to 40 (some are said to reach 46) ; tail 20 
to 23; wing 10; tarsus 2'9 ; bill from gape 1*4. Length of 
females 24 to 29-5 ; tail about 14-5 ; wing 9 : tarsus 2'6. 

Distribution. Prom the neighbourhood of IChatmandu in Nepal 
to Chamha, at elevations of from 4000 or 5000 to 10,000 feet in 
the outer Himalayas, not in the drier upper valleys. 

G2 



84 PHASIASID^. 

Habits, cj-c. The Cheer is found chiefly at elevations of about 
GOOO to 7000 feet on precipitous wooded hill-sides, but is 
capriciously and locally distributed. It generally, except in the 
breeding-season, associates in small parties and its presence is 
usually betrayed by the loud crowing of both sexes morning and 
evening, and sometimes during tue day. The crow is loud and 
peculiar, and is said by " Mountaineer" (Mr. F. "Wilson), in whose 
admirable accounts the habits of this and several other Himalayan 
Pheasants are fully described, to sound like chir-a-pir, chir-a-pir, 
chir, chir, chirwa, chirwa, but mifch varied. This Pheasant feeds 
on roots, which it digs up, grubs, insects, seeds, berries. &c., but is 
far inferior to the Koklas as food. It breeds from April to June, 
laying in a hollow scratched in the ground 9 to 14 pale stone- 
coloured eggs, almost devoid of markings, or slightly speckled, 
and measuring about 2-13 by 1-5. There is no nest. 

Genus PUCRASIA, G. E. Gray, 1841. 

This genus of Pheasants, of which the Himalayan Pukras or 
Koklas is the type, is readily distinguished by having the upper 
tail-coverts nearly as long as the tail, and the sides of the head 
feathered. The tail, equal to the wing in length in the female, 
and a little longer in the male, consists of 16 feathers, and is 
wedge-shaped, the middle pair of rectrices being twice the length 
of the outer pair. The male has an elongate occipital crest, con- 
sisting of a median anterior tuft, differing in colour from the very 
elongate lateral posterior tufts ; the crest in the female is short. 
The wings are much rounded. Tarsus about equal to the middle 
toe and claw in the female, longer and armed with a spur in 
males. 

Pucrasia ranges from Nepal to Afghanistan, and two species are 
found in China, but none in the Eastern Himalayas. The birds 
found within Indian limits appear to be varieties of one specific 
form. 

1384. Pucrasia macrolopha. The Koldas or Pukras Pheasant. 

Satyra macrolopha, Less. Diet. Sci. Nat. lix, p. 196 (1829). 

Phasianus pucrasia, Gray, in Hardw. 111. 2nd. Zool. i, pi. 40 (1830-32). 

Tra^opan pucrasia, Temm. PI. Col. text to pi. 545 ; Blyth, Ibis, 18(35, 
p. 28, note. 

Pucrasia macrolopha, Gray, Gen. B. iii, p. 503 ; Hutton, J. A. S. B. 
xvii, pt. 2, p. (594; Adams, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 500; ]859, p. 186 ; 
Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 524; Blyth, Ibis, 1*67, p. 152; Stoliczka, 
J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 68 ; Hume, fy Marsh. Game B. \, 
p. 159, pi. ; Hume, Cat. no. 808 ; C. H. T. Marsh. Ibis, 1884, 
p. 422 ; Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 411 : Ogilvie Grant, 
Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 311. 

Phasianus macrolopha, Blyth, Cat. p. 245. 

Pucrasia nipalensis, Gould, P. Z. S. 1854, p. ]00; Hume, S. F. vii, 
p. 428; Hume 8f Marsh. Game B. i, p. 165, pi. ; Hume, Cat. 
no. 808 ter ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 343. 

Pucrasia duvauceli,' Bonap. C. R. xlii ; p. 879 (1856); Elliot, Mon. 



PUCK ASIA. 85 

Phas. i, pi. 28 ; id. Ibis, 1878, p. 125 ; Hume, S. F. v. p. 138 ; vii, 
p. 124. 
Pucrasia biddulphi, G. F. L. Marsh. Ibis, 1879, p. 461 ; id. S. F. 

viii, p. 445. 

Plus, Kashmir ; Kukrola, Chamba ; Koak, Kulu, Mandi ; Koklds, 
Kokla, Simla to Almora ; Pokrds, Bhote Pergunnahs of Kumaun and 
Uarhwal and Western Nepal. 




Fig. 16. Head of P. macrolopha, J. \. 

Coloration. Male. Median occipital crest fawn-coloured, the 
very elongate lateral posterior tufts with the whole head, nape, 
and throat black, richly glossed with dark green ; a large oblong 
white spot at each side of the neck ; upper parts to the rump grey 
with a brownish tinge, browner on the wing-coverts and scapulars, 
each feather with a broad black lanceolate shaft-stripe, varying 
greatly in breadth, and confined, in old birds of the typical variety, 
to the basal half of the feathers on the sides of the lower back and 
rump ; scapulars and rump-feathers often with rufous shaft-stripes ; 
quills dark brown, with isabelline-buff outer borders ; later second- 
aries more or less mottled with rufous near the shafts ; long 
upper tail-coverts and middle tail-feathers varying from dull rufous 
to chestnut, with grey tips ; outer rect rices black, shading into 
chestnut on the outer webs towards the base, and narrowly tipped 
white ; fore neck, middle of breast and of upper abdomen chestnut ; 
sides of breast and flanks like back ; lower abdomen dull rufous, 
pale-shafted ; under tail-coverts mixed chestnut and black. 

Female. Crown black, mixed with rufous or buff; a short 
occipital crest, dark brown in front, buff with black spots behind ; 
supercilia buff; forehead and sides of head buff, with blackish 
borders to feathers ; ear-coverts black and rufous ; upper parts 
generally brown, the feathers with rufous-buff shaft-stripes, black 
lateral blotches, and the tips and edges much mottled with pale 
grey and buff, especially on the wings and rump ; tips of scapulars 
and of some wing-coverts whitish ; quills brown, mottled with 
buff on outer webs and tips ; longer tail-coverts and middle tail- 
feathers greyish brown speckled with black, and with irregular, 
black-edged, rufous-buff cross-bar?, sometimes indistinct ; outer 
tail-feathers black, more or less replaced by chestnut on outer 
webs, except near the ends, the tips white ; chin and throat white; 



86 



PHASIANID.E. 



feathers of fore neck and sides of throat black-edged ; breast 
rufous buff, the lanceolate feathers with lateral subrnarginal black 
streaks and pale tips ; flanks similar, but less rufous ; middle of 
abdomen white, the anterior feathers with dark brown centres ; 
vent-feathers and lower tail-coverts \vhite at the end, mixed 
chestnut and black near the base. 

Bill black or dusky in males, dark horny in females ; irides dark 
brown; legs and feet grey, tiuged purplish in some males. 

Length of male about 24 ; tail 9 to 11 ; wing 9-5 ; tarsus 2'6 ; 
bill from gape 1-4. Length of female about 21 ; tail 8 ; wing 8'5 ; 
tarsus 2-25. 

Distribution. On the Himalayas at elevations between about 
4000 feet and the upper limits of forest, from Jumla in Western 
Nepal to Kashmir. The supposed occurrence of this species in 
Bhutan is due to error. 

This species, as Hume and others have shown, is very variable. 
The chestnut on the breast and the black lanceolate stripes on the 
feathers of the back vary greatly in breadth. In typical P. macro- 
lopha, from the N.W. Himalayas, the chestnut of the lower throat 
does not extend round the neck, and the feathers of the back, 
wing-coverts, and sides of the breast have their black shaft-stripes 
narrow, very often narrower than the grey edges. 

In P. nipalensis, from Western Nepal, these feathers of the 
back, &c., are black, with narrow grey edges, and sometimes the 
shafts are whitish, there being even in some individuals a narrow 
pale shaft-stripe. Sometimes also the feathers at the back and 
sides of the neck are partly chestnut. There is a gradual passage 
from P. macroloplia to P. nipalensis, and both are highly variable. 
In the female of P. nipalensis there is often much chestnut on the 
tail-feathers. A skin with rather more chestnut than usual on 
the neck appears to have been figured in the ' Planches Coloriees,' 
no. 545, as Tragopan duvaucel. 

The variety from Western Kashmir, P. ?>iddulp7ii, has the 
chestnut of the breast mixed with black and extending round the 
neck; the middle tail-feathers are greyer. This race resembles 
P. nipalensis, but the black shaft-stripes on the back are narrow ; 
it leads to P. castanea. 

This last species, P. catttanea (Gould, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 90; 
Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 314), is only known by two skins said to 
have been obtained from Kafiristan, and now in the British 
Museum. The neck all round, upper back, breast, and flanks are 
chestnut, and the middle of the abdomen black. This form appears 
wjrthy of specific distinction, and it is said to occur in Tassin, 
Ohitral, and Swat ; but I cannot learn that any specimens from 
those countries have been clearly identified, so I do not for the 
present include P. castanea in the Indian fauna. 

Habits, Sfc. The Koklas is a forest bird, usually found in coveys 
throughout the autumn and winter, singly or in pairs at other 
times. Jt keeps much to well-wooded slopes, lies well, and w T hen 
flushed often rises with what "Mountaineer" calls a low screeching 



LOP nun A. 87 

chatter. The crow of the male, which is said to sound liko 
44 /cok-kok-pokrass," is often heard in wild parts of the hills in the 
morning and evening, and, as with several other Pheasants, is 
frequently uttered when a gun is fired in the neighbourhood or 
after a peal of thunder. This bird is swift and difficult to shoot, 
as it, like other Himalayan Pheasants, often flies with great rapidity 
down the steep hill-sides ; it is said to be the best of all for the 
table. It lives chiefly on leaves and buds, but it also feeds on seeds, 
berries, fruit, and insects. It breeds from April to June, and lays 
about 9 pale buff eggs, often speckled or thinly blotched with 
brownish red, and measuring on an average 2'Od by 1*47. They 
are laid in a hollow scraped in the ground without any nest. 

Genus LOPHURA, Fleming, 1822. 

The Fireback Pheasants, which form the present genus, only 
differ from Gennceus (1) in having a fuller crest, which occupies 
the greater part of the crown instead of being confined to the 
occiput, and forms a brush of bare shafted feathers ending in hair- 
like plumes ; (2) in the rump of the male being riery bronze-red. 
The male, too, is more richly metallic in colour, and the female is 
chestnut above, not brown. 

The tail, of 16 feathers, is laterally compressed, and in the male 
the median feathers diverge considerably at the ends, the third 
pair from the middle being slightly the longest ; outer pairs much 
shorter. 

Three species are known, ranging from South Tenasserim 
through the Malay Peninsula, Siam, and Cambodia to Sumatra and 
Borneo. Only one occurs in British Burma. 

1335. Lophura rafa. Vieillot's Fire-backed Pheasant. 

Phasianus rut us, Raffles, Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 321 (1822). 
Euplocamus iguitus, apud Gray, in Hai'dw. III. Ind. Zool. ii, p. 39 ; 

myth, Cat. p. 243; id. Birds Bunn. p. 140; nee Shaw $ Xodder. 
Euplocamus vieillotti, G. It. Gray, List Gen. B. 2nd ed, p. 77 (1841) ; 

Hume, S.F. v, p. 119 ; id. fy Uav. S. F. vi, p. 438; id. # Marsh. 

Game B. \, p. 213, pi.; Hume, Cat. no. 811 quint; Gates, B. B. 

ii, p. 320. 

Euplocamus rufus, Hume, & F. v, p. 121. 
Lophura rufia, Oyilcie Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p, 286. 

Coloration. Male. Plumage above and below deep metallic violet, 
except on the lower back, which is fiery metallic red, passing into 
chestnut on the rump ; the median two pairs of tail-feathers and 
the tips or inner webs of the next pair, which are white; the 
feathers of the sides of the breast and the flanks, which have 
fusiform white shaft-stripes ; and the quills, outer tail-feathers, 
middle of breast, and abdomen, which are black. 

Female. Upper plumage chestnut-rufous, finely vermiculatecl 
with black ; the head, hind neck, and upper back sometimes 
not. vermiculatecl ; quills and tail-feathers the same, inner webs 
of quills darker, the rufous mottling disappearing on the first 



88 THASIANIDJE. 

primaries ; chin and throat thinly clad with white feathers ; fore 
neck and upper breast chestnut, the feathers with narrow white 
edges, passing into the black feathers, with white borders all round, 
of the breast and flanks; abdomen white ; vent and under tail- 
coverts black and dull chestnut mixed. Young males resemble 
females. 

Bill whitish in males, upper mandible dark horny brown, lower 
horny white in females; irides red; facial skin smalt-blue; legs 
and t'eet vermilion-red (Davixon). 

Length of male about 28; tail J.1 ; wing 11-5; tarsus 4-7; 
bill from gape 1*7. Length of female 23; tail 8 ; wing 10; 
tarsus 3'6. 

Distribution. Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula, with the 
southernmost part of Tenasseritn, south of Tenasserim town. 

Habits, &fc. By Davison this Pheasant was found inhabiting the 
evergreen forests in parties of five or six, the males sometimes 
apart. The males make a whirring sound with their wings, but 
were not heard to crow. On one occasion Davison saw an Argus 
Pheasant (Argusianus argus) driven from its clearing by a Eire- 
back. An egg of this species laid by a captive hen in July was 
coloured pale ca/e-au-lait and measured 2*25 by 1'68. 

Crossoptilum, which approaches Loplmra and its allies, is a very 
remarkable genus, with the sexes alike in plumage, black or slate- 
blue and white in colour, with a large tail of 20 to 24 feathers, 
the extremities of the middle pairs much curved. Two or three 
species are said to have been obtained in Tibet, but none of these 
has hitherto been found in the Himalayas, although Surgeon- 
Major AVaddell was informed by Bhoteas that one species, probably 
C. tibetanum, inhabits some of the passes in Bhutan. 



Genus GENNJEUS, Wagler, 1832. 

The Kalij Pheasants of the Himalayas and the Silver Pheasants 
form a very natural genus. The head is crested in both sexes, the 
crest being formed of long narrow feathers, more loose-textured, 
hairy, and elongate in males. The sides of the head are naked in 
both sexes, arid crimson in colour ; the naked area ends beneath in 
a lappet in males. The tarsus is considerably longer than the 
middle toe and claw, and armed with a stout and long spur in cock 
birds. The tail, of 36 feathers, is lengthened, compressed, and 
much graduated, the middle pair of feathers usually the longest, 
and divergent in males. The 1st primary is shorter than the 10th. 
Young males assume the adult plumage in the first year. 

All are forest birds, and with a tropical or subtropical habitat, 
the Himalayan species being found lower down the hills than other 
Pheasants. The genus inhabits the Himalayas, Burma, China, 
and Formosa, and he majority of the species occur within Indian 
i mits. 



GENX.EUS. 



Key to the Species. 

a. Upper parts to rump glossy black. 

a'. Feathers of breast lanceolate, whitish. 
a". Lower back and rump with white 
edges to feathers. 

a 3 . Crest white G. albicristatus d , p. 89. 

b 3 . Crest black G. leucomelanvs J , p. 90. 

b". Lower back and rump without any 

white G. melanonotus $ , p. 91. 

b' . Feathers of breast black, not lanceolate, 

white bars on rump G, hortfieldi <3 , p. 92. 

b. Upper parts black and white. 

c'. Upper surface finely vermiculated .... G. lineatus tf , p. 92. 
d'. Upper surface with concentric bars 

on feathers G. andersoni <$ , p. 94. 

c. Upper parts brown. 

( G. albicristatus $ , p. 89. 

, , ) G. leucomelanus $ , p. 91 . 
e . No white V-shaped marks round neck. . -j Q melanonotus g f yl . 

( G. horsfteldi $ , p. 92. 
\ G. lineatus 9 , p. 93. 
/ . White V-shaped marks round neck . . j Q anderson i$ Jp. 94. 

1336. Gennaeus albicristatus. The White-vested Kalij Pheasant. 

Phasianus albocristatus, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1830, p. 9. 

Euplocomus albocristatus, Hutton, J. A. S. 11. xvii, pt. 2, p. 698 ; 

lyth, Cat. p. 244. 
Euplocamus albocristatus, Adams, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 499; Hume 8? 

Marsh. Game B. i, p. 177, pi.; Hume, Cat. no. 810 ; C. H. T. 

Marsh. Ibis, 1884, p. 423 ; Oates in Humes N. Sf E. 2nd ed. iii, 

p. 413. 
Gallophasis albocristatus, Mitchell, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 544, pi. 148, 

fig. 1 (young), & pi. 149, fig. 3 (egg) ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 532 ; 

Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii,' pt. 2, p. 68 ; Beavan, Ibis, 1868, 

p. 380 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 526. 
Gennaeus albocristatus, Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 298. 

Kdlij, Kukera, Mirghi Kdlij, Kaksur $ , Kalesi $ , H., in various parts 
of theN.W. Himalayas; Kolsa, Western Punjab and Chamba. 




Fig. 17. Head of G. albicristatus, <$ . ?. 

Coloration. Male. Long hairy crest white ; forehead, sides of 
crown, nape, sides and back of neck, upper back, and wing-coverts 
black glossed with purplish steel-blue, the feathers of the upper 
back with narrow whitish borders ;, lower back, rump, and upper 



90 PHAS1ANIDJE. 

tail-coverts black with broad white edges ; quills dark brown, 
secondaries with green gloss on the outer webs ; tail-feathers 
blackish brown with a slight greenish gloss ; chin, throat, abdomen, 
and lower tail-coverts dark brown, passing into sullied white on the 
lanceolate breast-feathers ; sometimes the whitish tint extends 
over part of the abdomen, bases of feathers brown throughout ; 
feathers with pure white shafts, especially on the upper back and 
the breast. 

Female. Upper parts, crest included, reddish brown ; shafts and 
edges of feathers whitish, and all feathers minutely subobsoletely 
vermiculated with black ; lower surface similar bub paler ; chin, 
throat, and middle of abdomen whitish ; middle pair of tail- 
feathers rufous brown with fine whitish or buff vermiculation ; 
other tail-feathers black with a slight bluish gloss. 

Bill greenish white ; irides orange-brown ; bare eye-patch 
scarlet to crimson : legs and feet livid white, with a purplish or 
brownish tinge (Hume). 

Length of male "24 to 29 ; tail about 11 ; wing 9'5 : tarsus 3 ; 
bill from gape I 1 4. Length of female 20 to 23 ; tail 8 ; wing 8 ; 
tarsus 2'7. 

Distribution. The Himalayas, from Kumaun to Hazara ; not 
west of the Indus, according to Biddulph, nor in Nepal, or only 
in the westermost part, ranging from about 2000 feet, close to 
the base of the hills, up to about 5000 or 6000 feet in winter and 
9000 or 10.000 in summer. 

Habits, fyc. This is the most familiar of the Himalayan Pheasants, 
being frequently seen about villages and cultivation in the lower 
Himalayas ; it has a preference for low coppice, bushes, or wooded 
ravines near water. It is not very gregarious ; its call is a loud 
whistling chuckle, which is generally uttered when the bird flies 
away. The males are very pugnacious, and make a drumming 
noise with their wings as a challenge. This species breeds from 
April till June, forming a slight nest of grass &c. on the ground, 
and laving usually about nine eggs, creamy white to reddish buff, 
and measuring about 1*94 by 1*44. 

1337. Gennaeus leucomelaims. The Nepal Kalij Pheasant. 

Phasianus leucomelanos, Lath. Ind. Orn. ii, p. 633 (1790). 
Gallophasis leucomelanus, Hutton, J. A, S. B. xvii ; pt. '2, p. 694 ; 

Scully, 8. F. viii, p. 345. 
Euplocamus leucomelanus, Hume, S. F. vii, p. 428 ; id. Cat. no. 810 

bis ; id. 8f Marsh. Game B. i, p. 185, pi. 
Gennaeus leucomelanus, OgilvieGrant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 300. 

Kdlij, H. ; Rechabo, Bhutia. 

The male is distinguished from that of the last species by having 
a black crest glossed with purplish blue, and the white terminal 
bars on the lower back and rump are, as a rule, narrower. The 
female shows no constant distinction from that of G. albicristatus, 
but is generally darker and the middle rectrices more rufous. 



GENNJ2US. 91 

Bill greenish horny; irides dark brown; orbital skin crimson ; 
feet brownish grey-horny (Scully). 

Dimensions less than those of G. albicHstatus : length of male 
23 to 26 ; tail about 11-5 ; wing 9 ; tarsus 2'9 ; bill from gape 
1*3 : length of female about 20 ; tail 8 ; wing 8. 

Distribution. Almost throughout Nepal, from the extreme or 
nearly the extreme west, to the Arun River, at all events, on the 
east, and from the base of the hills to 9000 feet near Khatmandu. 
Mandelli obtained specimens, now in the British Museum collec- 
tion, from " Dholaka," probably on the Arun River. 

Habits, c. Similar to those of the last. The eggs do not 
appear to have been described. Two young males brought up in 
confinement were found to assume the black plumage when about 
rive months old. 

This Kahj \vas regarded by Blyth and Jerdon as a hybrid 
between G. albicristatus and G. melanonotus ; but Scully has shown 
that G. leucomelanus is constant in plumage throughout the 
greater part of Nepal, where neither of the other two races is 
found. 



1338. Gennseus melanonotus. The Black -baclced Kalij Pheasant. 

Euplocomus melanotus, Blyth, Hutton,J. A. S. B. xvii, pt. 2, p. 694 

(1848) : Bhfth, Cat. p. 244 ; Hume, S. F. v, p. 42. 
Gallophasis melanotus, Mitchell, P. Z. S. ] 858, p. 545, pi. 149, fig. 2 

(egg) ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 534 ; Hume. N. $ E. p. 527. 
Euplocamus melanonotus, Hume fy Marsh. Game B. i, p. 191, 

pi. ; Hume, Cat. no. 811 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, 

p. 415. 
(irennseiis muthura, Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 301. 

Kar-rhyak, Lepcha. 

The male differs from the last species in wanting entirely the 
white bars on the lower back and rump, where the feathers have 
velvety-black edges. There are no whitish edges on the upper 
back. The whole upper plumage is black, richly glossed with 
violet, and on the wings and tail with greenish, and conspicuously 
white-shafted. The female is similar to that of G. levcomelanus. 

Bill yellowish or greenish horny ; irides brown ; orbital skin 
bright red ; legs and feet pale horny brown (Hume). 

Dimensions as in G. leucomelanus. 

The name G. muthura cannot, I think, be used for this species ; 
it was founded on Latham's " Chittvgong Pheasant," which, it' 
it was, as stated, an inhabitant of the Chittagong hills and known 
to the natives as " muthurau" should have been G. horsfieldi. 
But it was said to have a white breast, and to be as large as a 
Turkey, three feet eight inches in length, with an even tail. 
It is impossible to identify any species of Gennceus with this 
description. 

Distribution. Sikhim Himalayas, from about 1000 to 8000 feet 
elevation, chiefly from 2000 to 6000 feet. This species extends 



92 PHA.SIA.NID.E. 

into Eastern Nepal on the west, and into Bhutan on the east, but 
how far is not known. 

Habits, &fc. Similar to those of other species. This Kalij breeds 
at low elevations at the end of March, at higher levels later, up to 
July, and lays usually six to ten eggs, without any nest. The 
eggs vary from creamy pink to brownish, and measure about 
1-91 by 1-47. 

1339. Gennaeus horsfieldi. The ^lack-breasted Kalij Pheasant. 

Gallophasis horsfieldi, Gray, Gen. JX iii, p. 498, pi. cxxvi (1845) ; 
Mitchell, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 544, pis. 148 (young), 149 (erg) ; Godw.- 
Austen, J. A. 8. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 272 ; xlv, pt. 2, p. 83. 

Euplocomus horsfieldi, Blyth, Cat. p. 244. 

Euplocamus horstieldi, Hume # Inyli*, 6". F. v, p. 42 : Hume 8f Marsh. 
Game B. i, p. 197, pi. ; Hume, Cat. no. 810 ter ; Fasson, S. F. ix, 
pp. 203, 205; Saivadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) iv, p. 611; 
Hume, S. F. xi, p. 303 ; Oates in Humes N. fy E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 410. 

Gennaeus horsfieldi, Oyilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 302. 

Mathura, Chitlagong and Sylhet ; Duniy, Dirrik, Garo hills ; Dorik, 
Dibrugarh. 

Coloration. The upper parts in the male are similar to those of 
G. leucomelanus black, richly glossed with violet-purple, and the 
feathers of the lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts have 
terminal white bars ; the lower parts are black throughout, glossed 
with purple, except on the abdomen and lower tail-coverts ; there 
are no white shafts to the feathers above or below, and the breast- 
feathers are rounded at the end, not lanceolate. 

In old females the middle pair of tail-feathers are uniform dull 
rufous brown, not mottled, and the next pair are often tinged with 
rufous on the outer webs. The feathers of the breast have narrow 
buff shaft-lines ; otherwise there is no difference from, the hens of 
the other Kalij Pheasants. 

Soft parts and measurements as in the last species. 

Distribution. North of the Assam, valley in the lower hills of 
Eastern Bhutan and the Daphla country ; and throughout the 
ranges south of the Assam valley as far south as Chittagong and 
Northern Arrakan, Southern Manipur, and the neighbourhood of 
Bhamo in the Irrawaddy valley. 

Habits, c. The eggs have been taken twice towards the end of 
March by Mr. Cripps in Sylhet. They are precisely similar to 
those of G. melanonotas. 

1340. Gennaeus lineatus. The Burmese Silver Pheasant. 

Phasianus lineatus, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 24. 
Gennaeus lineatus, Wayl. Isis, 1832, p. 1228 ; Oyilvie Grant, Cat. 
B. M. xxii, p. 304. 




pi. 
S. F. ix, p. 195; Saivadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. 620; 



93 

vii, p. 425; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 316; id. in Hume's A T . # E. 
2nded. iii,p. 416. 
Nycthemerus lineatus, Blyth fy Wald. Birds Burm. p. 149. 

Arrakan race intermediate between G. lineatus and G. horsfieldi. 

Lophophorus cuvieri, Temm. PL Col v, pi. 10 [no. 1] (1820) ; Blyth, 

Ibis, 1867, p. 153 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 166, note. 
Enplocamus cuvieri, Oates, 8. F. iii, p. 343 ; Hume fy Marsh. Game 

B. i, p. 201, pi. ; Hume, Cat. no. 811 bis; Sanderson, S. F. viii, 

p. 493; Oaten, B. B. ii, p. 318. 
Gennaeus cuvieri (G. horsfieldi. subsp.), Ogilvie Grant. Cat. B. M. 

xxii, p. 303. 
Gennaeus oatesi (subsp.), Of/ilvie Grant, t. c. p. 306. 

Yit, Kayit, Burin. ; Rak, Arrakan ; Synklouk, Talain ; Phuyyk, Karen. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, and crest black, glossed 
with steely purple or green, remainder of upper surface finely 
vermiculated with alternating black and white lines, more or 
less transversely to the feathers, quills and tail-feathers similarly 
but more coarsely marked ; inner webs and tips of middle pair of 
tail-feathers entirely white ; lower parts black, with a slight purple 
gloss on the throat, breast, and flanks ; feathers of sides of breast 
and flanks, and sometimes the whole breast, with white shaft- 
stripes, broader and fusiform and mottled with black at the 
sides. 

Female. Above, including the crest, brown, all the feathers 
minutely stippled and vermiculated with yellow- buff ; the fore- 
head, supercilia, ear-coverts, cheeks, and sometimes the wing- 
coverts, with white shaft-stripes, which become y-sh^ped or arrow- 
head-shaped white marks on the back and sides of the neck and 
upper back ; quills brown, with buff vermiculation on the outer 
webs ; outer tail-feathers blackish, with narrow wavy white cross- 
bars, some chestnut or brown marks in the middle of each black 
interspace, the two or three middle pairs brownish buff, streaked 
and mottled with rufous brown, inner webs and tips of middle 
pair entirely buff ; chin and throat whitish ; rest of lower parts 
brownish rufous, with lanceolate white shaft-streaks. 

Bill greenish horny, dusky at the base ; irides reddish brown ; 
sides of head crimson ; legs plumbeous brown to pinkish fleshy. 

Length of males 25*5 to 30; tail about 12; wing 10; tarsus 
3-2 ; bill from gape 1/35. Length of females about 23 ; tail 9 ; 
wing 9'2o. 

Distribution. Throughout the greater part of Burma except 
Southern Tenasserirn, also in N.W. Siam. 

Varieties. G. cuvieri is found in the Arrakan ranges and in Pegu 
\vest of the Irrawaddy. The male is black with deep violet gloss, 
the upper parts sparingly and minutely speckled and vermiculated 
with white, the black greatly predominating ; lower back and rump 
with broad white bars ; the white speckling appears to be wanting 
on the outer tail-feathers. 

The female resembles that of G. horsfieldi, except that the outer 



94 PHASIA3TID.E. 

tail-feathers are more or less rufous and not entirely black. In 
the variety called G. oatesi they are rufous throughout. 

This race, which occupies the country between the areas 
inhabited by G. horsfieldi and G. lineatus, is not only perfectly 
intermediate between those two forms, but is, so far as the few 
skins in the British Museum show, excessively variable. It was 
regarded by Blyth (J. A. S. B. xviii, p. 8 17; "Cat. p. 244 ; Birds 
Burm. p. 149) as a hybrid between the two. He showed, and he 
was, I think, right, that there is a complete passage from one 
species to the other in Arrakan. Oat^ ascertained that G. cuvieri 
occurs throughout the Arrakan bills, buc his specimens vary so 
much that two of them are distinguished by Ogilvie Grant as a 
different subspecies, G. oatesi. Of the two males (one collected by 
Gates, the other received from the Indian Museum) referred to 
G. oatesi, one has white rump -bars and no white streaks on the 
breast, as in G. "horxficldi ; the other has no white bars on the 
rump, but it has white streaks on the breast as in G. lineatus. 

Habits, $c. " This Pheasant occurs abundantly wherever the 
ground is hilly or broken, and it is most numerous on the higher and 
wilder parts of the hills. It keeps to dense cover, seldom showing 
itself, runs with great speed, and takes wing unwillingly. The 
male during the breeding- season makes a curious drumming sound 
with his wings, as a challenge to other cocks. The breeding-season 
commences in March and is over by the end of April. The nest 
is merely a hollow in the ground, lined with a few dead leaves, 
under a shrub or at the foot of a tree. The eggs, which are seldom 
more than seven in number, are of a pale buff colour" (Oates). 
They measure about 1/85 by 1/45. 

1341. Gennaeus andersoni. Anderson's Silver Pheasant. 

Euplocamus andersoni, Elliot, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 137; Anders. 

Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. (570, pi. liii ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 319. 
Nycthemerus andersoni, Blyth fy Wald. Birds Burm. p. 149. 
Euplccamus crawfurdi, apud Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 437 ; Hume 

fy Marsh. Game B. i, p. 203, pi. ; id. Cat. no. 811 quat. ; nee Gray. 
Gennaeus andersoni, Oyilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 306; Gates, 

Journ. Bom. N. H. Soc. x, p. 112. 
Gennseus davisoni (G. hcrsfieldi, subsp.), Oyilvie Grant, t. c. p. 304. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, and crest black with 
purplish or green gloss ; leathers of the upper surface marked on 
each web with subequal curved concentric black and white bars ; 
quills and tail-feathers rather irregularly barred with black and 
white, the black bars disappearing on the inner webs and tips of the 
middle tail-feathers; lower parts black with bluish metallic gloss. 

Female of typical form unknown. That of a variety from Tenas- 
serim only differs from G. lineatus in being larger and in having 
much broader lanceolate white stripes on the lower surface. 

Bill pale green (Elliot}, pale bluish horny (Davison) ; facial 
skin crimson ; irides brown ; legs and feet greyish (Elliot), dark 
pinkish fleshy (Davison). 



LOPHOPHORUS. 95 

Length of male 30 to 36 ; tail 13-5-20 ; wing 10-5 ; tarsus 3-5 ; 
bill from gape 1*6. Length of female 24 ; tail 10 ; wing 9 ; tarsus 3. 

Distribution. This Pheasant was originally obtained by Anderson 
in Yunnan. It has since been found near Bhamo, around the 
Ruby Mines, and through the Shan States to Northern Tenas- 
serim, Davison having procured a male and three females that 
are referred to this species about Kollidoo and Dargwin, north of 
Pap won. 

But few specimens have been collected, and these show material 
differences. The male obtained by Davison at Dargwin has white 
stripes on the breast, and has the inner webs and tips of the 
middle tail-feathers nearly white, as in G. lincatus, and is clearly 
intermediate between that species and typical G. andersoni : the 
tail is about 14 inches long. Yet another link nearer to G. lineatus 
is furnished by a male collected by Wardlaw Ramsay in Karennee. 
The skin of another male, from the typical locality Yunnan, 
mentioned by Anderson as one of his original specimens, and sent 
by him to the British Museum, is intermediate between G. andersoni 
and G. horsfieldi, and is the type of Ogilvie Grant's subspecies 
G. davisoni. A skin from the Ruby Mines has coarser markings 
on the wings and a tail of nearly 20 inches. I strongly suspect 
G. andersoni to be merely an intermediate race between G. lineatus 
and the Chinese Silver Pheasant (G. nycthzmerus). 

Mr. Gates has sent to the British Museum a Pheasant from the 
Shan States, that forms yet another link between the Chinese and 
Burmese Silver Pheasants. In male G. nycthemerm from China 
the upper surface is white, with narrow wavy concentric black 
lines on the feathers ; the crown, crest, and lower parts black with 
a purple gloss. The female is light rufous brown ; the crown and 
crest darker, the lower parts paler, most of the feathers finely 
vermiculated with buff, more coarsely barred on the wing and tail- 
feathers. Bill greenish brown ; facial skin red ; legs and feet 
scarlet. The male is about 40 inches long ; tail 24 ; wing 10'5 ; 
tarsus 3*6 : female 20 inches long ; tail 10 ; wing 9. 

Genus LOPHOPHORUS, Temm., 1813. 

The Monal or Impeyan Pheasant is the type of this well-marked 
genus, distinguished by the richly metallic plumage of the males, 
which have either an elongate occipital crest or, in one species 
(L. sclateri), all the feathers of the crown short and curled. The 
bill is long and stout, with the culmen well curved, the tarsi 
stout, feathered above, and armed in the male with a stout spur. 
There is a naked space around each eye. The tail, of 18 feathers, 
is well rounded at the end and a little shorter than the wing ; the 
1st quill is considerably shorter than the 10th, and the 5th is 
usually longest. 

Four species are now known, ranging throughout the Himalayas 
from Afghanistan to beyond Assam, and thence to the provinces 
of China lying east of Tibet. 



96 PHASIANIDJE. 

Key to the Species. (Males only.) 

a. Lower back white, rump purple L. refulgens, p. 96. 

It. Xu white on back or rump L. impeyanns, p. 97. 

c. Lower back and rump white L. sclateri, p. 98. 

1342. Lophophorus refulgens. The Mondl. 

Lophophorus refulgens, Temm. Pig. et Gall, ii, p. 355 (1813) ; iii, 
p. 673 ; Ogilpie Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 278. 

Lophophorus impevamis, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 246 ; Adams. P. Z. S. 
1858, p. 500 ; Mitchell, ibid. p. 545, pis. 147 (young), 149, fig. 5 
(esg) ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 510 : moHctka t J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, 
p.e? ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 71 ; Hume, N. # E. p. 520 ; 
Hume # Marsh. Game B. i, p. 125, pi. ; Hume, Cat. no. 804 ; 
Scully, S. F. viii, p. 342 ; Fairbrother, S. F. ix, p. 203 ; Wardlaw 
Ramsay, Ibis, 1880, p. 70 ; Oaten in Hume's 3~. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, 
p. 407 ; nee Lath. 

The Monanl Pheasant, Jerdon ; Lont $ , Ham $ , Nil-mor, Janyli-mor, 
Kashmir ; Nilgur, Chamba ; Mnnal, Xil, tf , Karari , Kulu ; Mimal, 
Ghar-mundl, Ratia Kairun, Rat/iff/, Rathap, X.W.Himalayas; Datii/a, 
Kuniaun and Garhwal ; Dajia, Nepal ; Fo-donq, Lepcha ; Chamdony, 
Bhot. (Sikhim). 




Fig. 18. Head of L. rcfulyens, <$ . 

Coloration. Male. Head and crest of spade-shaped feathers, 
bend of wing, and upper tail-coverts brilliant metallic green : at 
the sides behind the ear-coverts is a purple patch ; back and sides 
of neck coppery bronze, passing into the bronze-green of the 
upper back; mterscapulars, scapulars, wing-coverts, and rump 
metallic purple, with the tips of the feathers blue or greenish 
blue ; lower back white ; quills black, secondaries glossed with 
green on the outer webs ; tail-feathers pale cinnamon, darker 
towards the ends ; lower parts dull black, glossed with metallic 
green on the throat and fore neck, along a stripe on each side of 
the upper breast, and on the lower tail-coverts. 

Female. Brown ; the feathers of the head and neck above and at 
the sides, upper back and wing-coverts black, with buff streaks 
and mottling on each side of the shaft or along it ; crest short, 
the feathers of equal breadth throughout ; lower back and rump 
buff, with black bars ; upper tail-coverts more or less tipped with 
white; quills blackish brown, secondaries with rufous-buff bars 
and whitish tips ; tail-feathers like secondaries, but the rufous- 



LOrHOPHORUS. 97 

buff bars are broader and more regular ; chin and throat white, 
remainder of lower parts blackish brown, speckled and streaked 
with buffy white and with more or less distinct white shaft-streaks. 

The young resemble the female except that young males have 
the throat more or less black and generally are darker throughout. 
The adult male plumage appears to be gradually assumed, some of 
the feathers changing in colour without a moult ; and the bird, 
according to Mr. Wilson, does not attain its full plumage until the 
second year, whilst the 7th primary remains brown for a year longer. 

Bill dark horny ; irides brown ; naked orbits blue ; legs and 
feet dull ashy green (Jerdoii). 

Length of males about 28 ; tail 9*5 ; wing 11-5 ; tarsus 3 ; bill 
from gape 2. Length of females about 25 ; tail 8'5 ; wing 1O5. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas, from Bhutan to 
Kashmir and even farther west, this Pheasant having been 
recorded from Chitral and from the Safed Koh in Afghanistan. 
In Sikhim in summer the range of the Mon t al is from 10,000 to 
15,000 feet ; in winter lower. In the "Western Himalayas the 
usual range is from 8000 to 12,000 feet, though the bird may be 
found in summer up to 15,000, and in winter as low as 4500. 

Habits, <$fc. In summer this gorgeous Pheasant is found near 
the upper limits of forests, and frequently on the hill-sides above 
the forests in small numbers ; it is not met with in flocks or 
coveys, but singly or in twos or threes, females keeping together 
more than males do ; it lives on insects, seeds, berries, leaves, &c. 
The call is a loud plaintive whistle. The breeding-season is in 
May and June, and four, five, or rarely six eggs are laid in a small 
depression beneath a bush or tuft of grass. The eggs are dull 
huffy white, speckled with reddish brown, and measure on an 
average 2-55 by 1/78. 

1343. Lophophorus impeyaniis. The Bronze-lacked Mondl. 

Phasianus impejanus, Lath. Ind. Orn. ii, p. 632 (1790). 
Lophophorus impeyanus, v. Pelz. Ibis, 1873, p. 120 ; Oyihie Grant, 

Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 280. 
Lophophorus chambanus, C. H. T. Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 421, pi. x. 

The male differs from that of the last species in having no 
white on the back, the lower back being greenish bronze, the 
feathers shot and edged with purple ; in the upper tail-coverts 
being brownish chestnut, tipped with metallic green; and in having 
the whole of the under surface more or less glossed with metallic 
green. The female is not known. 

Hitherto the only known locality is Chamba, south-east of 
Kashmir, where this species was obtained by Col. C. H. T. Marshall. 
I feel sceptical as to a bird of this rare form having come iuto 
Latham's hands instead of the Common Monal ; but after examining 
Latham's description and coloured figure, I am obliged to agree 
with Mr. Ogilvie Grant that they correspond with the present 
form and not with L. refulyens. 

YOL. IT. H 



98 PHASIANIDJE. 

LophopJiorus sclateri, Jerdon (Ibis, 1870, p. 147; id. P. A. S. B. 
1870, p. 60 ; Hume & Marsh. Game B. i, p. 135, pi. ; Godwin- 
Austen, P. 2. S. 1879, p. 681, pi. li, $ ; Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, 
p. 282), has hitherto only been obtained from the Mishmi hills, 
beyond British limits. It has DO crest, but the crown is covered 
with crisply curled metallic green feathers ; the hind neck and 
sides of the neck are coppery bronze ; upper back, median and 
greater coverts metallic green shot with purple ; smaller coverts 
coppery bronze shot with green ; lower back, rump, and upper 
tail-coverts white ; the rump-feathers black-shafted; tail chestnut 
tipped with white, lower parts black. The female, as described 
and figured by Godwin-Austen, is rich dark umber-brown, the 
feathers closely mottled ; lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts 
ochraceous white, mottled with dark brown ; tail black, with narrow 
whitish bars and a broad black tip. 

Genus TRAGOPAN, Cuv., 1829. 

The Horned Pheasants or Trngopans are amongst the most 
beautifully coloured of all game-birds, the males being more or 
less clad in red, with white or grey spots, and the females in 
brown, formed by a minute intermixture of black and buff. The 
bill is short and stout ; the tarsus equal to the mid-toe and claw, 
or slightly longer, and armed in the male with a stout spur. The 
tail, of 18 feathers, is nearly or quite equal to the wing in length, 
and the middle feathers are considerably longer than the outer ; 
the wing is rounded, the 1st primary shorter than the 10th, 4th 
or 5th longest. The male has an occipital crest of lengthened 
feathers and two elongate erectile subcylindrical fleshy horns one 
from above each eye: these usually lie concealed by the crest, and 
are only erected when the bird " shows off." There is also a 
brilliantly coloured apron-shaped gular wattle or lappet, that can 
be spread or withdrawn at pleasure. Both horns and wattle only 
reach their full development in the breeding-season. Sides of the 
head and throat naked in all species except T. satyra, in which 
they are thinly clad with feathers. 

ilve species are known, inhabiting the Himalayas and Assam 
hills and the greater part of China. Three are Himalayan or 
Assamese, and a fourth is said to occur at a short distance beyond 
the Assam frontier. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Sides of head rind throat thinly clad ; 

breast red, with white black-edged 

ocelli T. satyra rf, p. S9. 

b. Sides of head and throat naked. 

'. Breast chiefly black, with white 

spots T. melanocephalus $ , p. 100. 

b'. Breast smoky grey T. blythi <$ , p. 102. 

The females of all species closely resemble each other. 



TBAGOPAJ*. &9 

1344. Tragopan satyra. The Crimson Horned Pheasant. 

Meleagris satjra, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 269 (1760). 

Tragopan satvrus, Cuv. Reg. Ati. 2 e ed. i, p. 479. 

Ceriornis satyra, Bli/th, Cat. p. 240 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii. p. 516 ; Blanf. 

J. A. S.B. xli, pt. 2, p. 71 ; Murie, P. Z. 8. 1872, p. 7-30, pis. Ix, Ixi 

Hume, N. $ E. p. 521 ; Hume fy Marsh. Game B. i, p. 137, pi. ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 805 ; Scully, S. F, viii, p. 343 ; Gates in Hume's 

N. Sf E. 2nd ed, iii, p. 409. 
Tragopan satyra, Oyilme Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 271. 

The Sikim Horned Pheasant, Jerdon ; Lungi, H. Garhwal and 
Kuiuaun ; Mondl, H. (Nepal) ; Omo, Bap, Bhotia ; Tar-rhyak, Lepcha. 




Fig. 19. Head of T. satyra, tf. f. 

Coloration. Male. Head, sides of nape, throat, and forerneck black ; 
two streaks, one on each side of the occiput, meeting at the nape, 
the middle of the nape itself, the neck except in front, bat with 
broad bands running to behind the ear-coverts, upper back, bend of 
wing and coverts near it, and all the lower parts from the neck 
crimson ; the upper back and all the lower parts, except the upper- 
most breast, spotted over with white black-edged ocelli, small and 
sharply defined on the breast and back, larger, ill-defined, and 
grey instead of white on the abdomen ; wing-lining, except the 
larger coverts, buffy red ; interscapulars, scapulars, and the 
neighbouring wing-coverts, lower back and rurnp-t'eathers black 
with rufous-buff veriniculation, each feather with a subterminal 
white ocellus, broadly edged with black, and a large rounded brown 
spot on each side of the ocellus ; most of the wing-coverts and the 
sides of the rump the same, but with deep crimson patches ; quills 
black, with rufous-buff imperfect bars and vermiculations ; upper 
tail-coverts brown with black tips ; tail-feathers black, vermicu- 
lated with buff on the basal two-thirds. 

Female. General colour rich ochreous brown, paler below, above 
black in blotches or mixed with rufous buff, and in parts with 
greyish brown ; pale shaft-stripes on the crown and throat, passing 
into angular ill-defined buff shaft-spots on the body, much broken 
by mottling and generally larger below than above ; quills as in 
male ; tail-feathers barred, mottled, and vermiculated with buff 
throughout. 

n2 



100 PJ1ASIANID.E. 

Young birds of both sexes resemble females, but have distinct 
buff shaft-stripes above and below. The adult male plumage is 
gradually assumed, the feathers round the neck becoming red, and 
the pale shaft-spots changing to ocelli before the crimson garb is 
acquired by moult. 

Bill of male blackish brown, horns bright lazuline blue, orbits 
and uppar throat fine purplish blue, irides deep brown, legs and 
toes pale fleshy ; bill of female dusky horny, legs brownish grey, 
more or less fleshy (Hums). The gular apron-like wattle can be 
expanded during the breeding-season to a length of several inches ; 
it is usually blue with lateral bars, which, under excitement, become 
orange or scarlet ; but it is described by Hume as orange with 
lateral blue bars, and it probably varies in colour. The horns are 
larger in the breeding-season, and measure at times over 3 inches 
in length. 

Length of male about 27 ; tail 10-5; wing 10-5: tarsus 3*25 ; 
bill from gape 1*5. Length of female about 23 ; tail 8 ; wing 9. 

.Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas from the AUknanda 
valley in Garhwal to well into Bhutan, and perhaps somewhat 
farther east, between about 6000 and 12,000 feet ; in summer 
chiefly from 8000 to 10,000 feet. This Pheasant was formerly 
not rare near Dnrjiling. 

Habits, tyc. This is a thorough forest-bird, shy, and rarely seen, 
keeping to thick cover, and often found in " ringal," the small 
upland bamboo that covers the hill-sides in many parts of the 
Himalayas. The call, described by Jerdon as a deep bellowing, 
and by Hume as a loud bleating cry, is chiefly heard in spring. 
At this time the males show off by raising their horns and 
expanding their wattles, and in other wavs, as described by 
Mr. Bartlett in Dr. Murie's paper (/. c.). The eggs, laid in May, 
are like large hen's eggs, nearly white, slightly freckled here and 
there with pale dull lilac, and measuring about 2-6 by 1*8. 

T. temmineld, Gray, the Chinese Crimson Horned Pheasant, is 
found in South-western and Central China, and a specimen in the 
Hume Collection is said to have been brought from the Mishmi 
hills, just beyond the frontier of E. Assam (S. F. viii, p. 201 ; ix, 
pp. 198, 205). The male resembles that sex of T. satyra, but 
differs (1) in having the pale spots 011 the lower surface larger, 
pearly grey in colour throughout, and without black edges, and (2) 
in each feather of the back and of most of the upper parts being 
dark red at the end, with a small subterminal grey ocellus ; the 
red of the neck, too, is less rich and paler towards the head. The 
female is very similar to that of T. satyra. 

1345. Tragopan melanocephalns. The Western Horned Pheasant. 

Phasianus melanocephalus, Gray, Griffith's An. Kingd. } Aves, iii, p. 29 

(1829). 
Ceriornis melanocphala, Bli/th, Cat. p. 240 ; Ac/ams, P. Z. S. 1858, 

p. 498 : 1859 p. 185 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 517 ; Stoliczka, J. A, S. B. 



TRAGOPAN. 



xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 07 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 522 ; Hume 8? Marsh 
Game B. i, p. 143, pi. ; Hume, Cat. no. 800 ; C\ H. T. Marshall, 
Ibis, 1884, p. 422 : Gates in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 410. 
Tragopan melanocephalu?, Oyiloie Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 273. 

The Simla Horned Pheasant, Jerdon ; Jewar, Jowar, Garhwal ; Jaghi 
Jqjhi, Bashahr ; Sing-mortal, II. (N.W. Himalayas); Jigurana rf, 
Bvdal 5> Kulu, Mandi, Suket; Falyur, Chamba ; Art/us of European 
sportsmen. 

Coloration. Male. Head black ; occipital crest-feathers longer 
than in T. satyra, some of them tipped red ; no red streaks on the 
sides o the occiput ; nape and neck all round red, deep Indian red 
behind, brighter, almost scarlet in front ; upper parts from the 
neck black, ver mi culated with whitish buff and dotted over with 
white ocelli ; upper tail-coverts each with a black tip and a large 
subterminal white spot that passes into a brown patch on each 
side ; bend of wing Indian red : quills black, with buff vermicu- 
lations and irregular bars ; tail the same, the buff markings 
disappearing towards the end : lower surface from neck black 
with round white spots, larger behind, basal portion of feathers 
deep red on. breast and upper abdomen, mottled black and buff on 
lower abdomen and flanks. 

Females differ from those of T. satyra in being much greyer in 
colour, and in the pale elongate shaft-spots of the lower surface 
being white instead of buff, and well-defined with dark brown, 
borders. 

In the male, bill blackish, irides hazel-brown, naked orbits bright 
red, horns pale blue ; the gular wattle purple in the middle, 
spotted and edged with pale blue and fleshy on the sides ; legs 
and feet fleshy ( Wilson). In the female, the legs and feet are 
greyish ashy (Hume). The horns ai>d lappets shrivel up and 
almost disappear in winter. 

Length of male about 28 ; tail 10'5 ; wing 11 ; tarsus 3'1 ; 
bill from gape 1'5. Length of female about 24 ; tail 8 ; 
wing 9*5. 

Distribution. The Xorth-western Himalayas from Garhwal to 
Hazara. The Eastern limit, according to Hume, is between tin* 
Kattor and Billing Hirers in Native Garhwal, the Western is east 
of the Indus. 

Habits, 6fc. These have been admirably described at length by 
Wilson (" Mountaineer "), whose notes are quoted by Jerdon and 
Hume. They are very similar to those of T. satyra. This 
Horned Pheasant is a forest bird, feeding chiefly on leaves of 
trees and bamboos : it keeps at elevations near the snow in summer, 
descending lower in winter, and has a bleating call, which, how- 
ever, is very rarely uttered except in the breeding-season. Six 
eggs were found in a rough nest of grass and sticks on May 25th, 
by Capt. Lautour, when shooting in Hazara : the eggs were pale 
buff, finely and minutely freckled, and averaged 2-51 by 1*7. 



l-G'4 PHASIANID^E. 

1346. Tragopan "blythi. The Grey-bellied Horned Pheasant. 

Ceiiornis temmincki, apud Jerdon, Ibis, 1870, p. 147, nee Gray. 
Ceriornis blythii, Jerdon, P. A. S. B. .1870, p. 60 ; Sclater, P. Z. S. 

1870, p. 163, pi. xv ; Godw.-Aust. P. Z, S. 1872, p. 496; id. 

J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. 2, p. 172 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 472; id. Cat. 

no. 806 bis: Hume 8f Marsh. Game B. i, p. 151, pi. ; Godw.-Aitst. 

P. Z. S. 1879, p. 457, pi. xxxix ; Cran, S. F. x, p. 524 ; Hume, S. F. 

xi, p. 301. 
Tragopan blythi, Ogiloie Grant, Cat. JS. M. xxii, p. 276. 

Hiir-Mria, Sansaria, Assam ; Gnu, Angami Naga ; Chingtho, Kuki. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, vertex, lores, a band through the 
ear-coverts behind the naked side of the head continued across 
the throat, and joining another band that extends round the nape, 
black ; broad supercilia meeting behind across the occiput and 
neck all round, with upper breast and bend of wing, Indian red ; 
crest short ; feathers of upper parts black, streaked with buff, 
each with a subterminal white spot shading into brown all round, 
and on each side of it a much larger deep red spot; terminal 
portion of upper tail-coverts white, shading all round into chestnut 
and tinted with black ; quills and tail as in T. satyra breast and 
greater part of abdomen light epia to smoky grey, the edges of 
the feathers slightly darker ; flanks passing into the coloration of 
the back ; under tail-coverts smoky grey, edged with red and 
tipped with black. 

Female (as described by Hume) much less grey than that of 
T. melanocephahts, and distinguished from that of T. satyra by 
being blacker and less ferruginous on the upper surface and 
greyish creamy instead of ferruginous buff on the lower. I have 
not been able to examine a specimen, but young males are more 
finely vermiculated on the upper surface than either of the other 
species, and have no black blotches at all. Young males have at 
first the plumage of the female, nnd gradually assume the adult 
male plumage ; and on the whole it is most probable that the 
bird with a red neck figured by Godwin- Austen as a female must 
have been either a very old female assuming the male dress or a 
young male. 

Bill dusky ; skin of face and throat yellow, more or less mixed 
wdth orange and emerald-green at the lowest part ; it is bordered 
laterally by a very narrow black line ; legs fleshy (Jerdon). Irides 
deep brown, orbital skin orange, horns azure, lappets brimstone 
tinged with blue ; orbital skin in female light brown (Danuint). 

Wing of male 10-5; tail 8; tarsus 3-2; bill from gape 1-4; 
wing of female 8-5 to 9. The length of the male is said by 
Dr. Wood to be 30 inches, but this appears large. Skins ireasure 
only 21 to 24. 

Distribution. Throughout the Naga hills south of Assam from 
the neighbourhood of Paona Peak in the Burrail range on the 
west to the high ranges south-east of Sadiya, and as far south as 
Manipur, at elevations from 5000 to 10,000 t'eet and upwards in 
summer. Dr. B-. Cran wrote to i Stray Feathers ' that a specimen 
was sent to him from the Dafla hills north of Assam ; but the 



TTHAGENES. 103 

species was not found there by Godwin-Austen, and the occurrence 
of this Pheasant north of Assam requires confirmation. 

Habits, $c. Very similar to those of other species. A few 
details are given by Godwin-Austen (Z.c.) and by l)r. H. S. Wood 
in the 'Asian' (June 15th, 1894, p. 173). The food is said to 
consist chiefly of berries, and the bird inhabits high forests of 
oak and other trees. 

Genus ITHAGENES, Wagler, 1832. 

The Blood Pheasants are peculiar to the higher ranges of the 
Eastern Himalayas, Eastern Tibet and the neighbouring parts of 
China. They resemble the typical Pheasants in structure and 
in the difference of coloration between the sexes, the female 
being very modestly clad, as in most Pheasants, whilst the males 
are handsome birds, grey above and apple-green below. 

The tarsus is longer than the middle toe and claw, and bears two 
or more spurs (sometimes as many as 4 or 5) in males, not in 
females : the bill is stout, and there is a considerable naked area 
round the eye. The 1st primary is much shorter than the 10th, 
the 5th usually longest ; the tail, of 14 feathers and slightly 
rounded, is about - the length of the wing. The plumage is long 
and soft, and the feathers lanceolate, and there is a full but not 
long crest on the crown. 

Three species are known, but only one is Indian. 

1347. Ithagenes cruentus. The Blood Pheasant. 

Phasianus cruentus, Hardtcickc, TV. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 237(1822), . 
Ithaginis cruentus, Wat/I. Isis, 1832, p. 1228; JMyth, Cat. p. 241 ; 

Jet-don, J5. I. iii, p. 522 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 71. 
Ithagenes cruentus, Hume fy Marsh. Game B. i, p. loo, pi. ; Hume, 

Cat. no. 807 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 343 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. 

xxii, p. 268. 

The Green Blood PJieasanf, Jerdon ; ChiUmc, Xepal ; Semo, Bhot. ; 
Su-mong, Lepch. 




*"- /''--'' ?; r -/^^f^y 
Fig. 20. Head of Z cruentus, 



Coloration. Male. Forehead, lores, and a band above and below 
each eye black, these two bands often mixed with crimson where 
they meet behind the eye ; crown buffy white ; upper parts from the 



104 

nape slaty grey, with white shaft-stripes that become broader and 
black-edged behind, and are tinged with green on the rump and 
upper tail-coverts ; on most of the median and major wing-coverts, 
besides the pale shaft-stripe, the terminal portion of each feather 
is washed with green, and the upper tail-coverts have crimson 
lateral edges ; quills brown with white shafts, the secondaries 
with white shaft-stripes and buff edges ; tail-feathers white at the 
ends, shading into dusky brown with crimson borders towards the 
base ; chin, throat, and lower cheeks crimson ; fore neck and sides 
of neck whitish, the feathers black at the base ; breast and abdo- 
men to the thighs apple-green, the colour deepest on the edges of 
the feathers, a few irregular crimson spots on the upper breast; 
lower abdomen and flanks like the lower back; under tail-coverts 
crimson, tipped with greenish white. 

Female. Brown, finely vermiculated with black ; lower surface 
paler, pale-shafted and more rufous; occiput and nape dark slaty 
grey ; forehead, sides of head, chin, and throat brownish rufous ; 
quills dark brown, only mottled on outer webs of secondaries. 

Bill black; cere, gape, legs, feet, and spurs red; irides brown ; 
orbital skin scarlet to orange-red. 

Length of male about 18; tail 6*75; wing 8'5: tarsus 2'75 ; 
bill from gape '85. Female smaller : length 17 ; tail 5*7-5 ; wing 
7'6 ; tarsus 2'd. 

Distribution. The higher ranges of the Nepal, Sikhim, and Bhu- 
tan Himalayas, at elevations of 10.000 to 14,000 feet. Neither 
the Eastern nor Western limits of this Pheasant are correctly 
known, but the range does not extend to Kumaun. 

Habits, $-c. The Blood Pheasant in Sikhim inhabits pine-forests, 
and is found about September in small flocks, doubtless families, of 
10 to 15 birds, males and females in about equal numbers. It is 
said by Hooker to feed on the tops of pine and juniper, and the 
berries of the latter, but those killed by me in September had fed 
on various leaves, seeds, small fruits, &c., not on conifers. It has 
a peculiar long call, something like the squeal of a Kite, and also a 
shorter monosyllabic alarm-note. It is by no means shy and is very 
averse to flying. Nothing precise is known of the breeding-habits 
except that Hooker states that he sa\v the young in May. The 
spurs appear not to be assumed the first year ; they vary greatly in 
number. Hooker notices that he has seen as many as 5 on one 
leg, and 4 on the other. I found these Pheasants fair eating in 
September, but according to Hooker they have usually a strong 
flavour of turpentine derived from, their food. 

Genus OPHRYSIA, Bcuap., 1856. 

This little-known Himalayan bird, the only member of the 
genus, is difficult to classify. It has been placed with the Quails 
or with Rollulvs, but it does not show much resemblance to either. 
The sexes are quite dissimilar and the plumage is long and lax, 
with the feathers somewhat lanceolate. The tarsus is a little 



OPHRYSIA. 105 

shorter than the middle toe and claw ; the bill is stout. The tail 
contains 10 feathers, and is well developed, much rounded, and 
not much shorter than the wing ; the 1st primary is shorter than 
the 10th ; 5th or 6th longest. On the whole this bird conies 
as naturally as anywhere where Grant has placed it, with the Spur- 
fowls and Blood Pheasants, being neither partridge, quail, nor 
pheasant. 

1348. Ophrysia superciliosa. The Mountain Quail. 

Rollulus superciliosus, Gray, Knowsl. Menag., Aves, pi. xvi (1846). 
Ophrysia superciliosa, Bonap. C. R. xliii, p. 414 ; Hume, 8. F. vii, 

p. 434 ; id. Cat. no. 827 bis ; Hume fy Marsh. Game B. ii, p. 105, 

pi. j Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 266. 
Malacortyx'superciliaris, Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 313. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead and broad superciliary stripe white; 
sides of head, chin and throat, and a band above each white 
supercilium black, with a silky-white spot in front of the eye and 
another behind it, and a whitish band, more or less broken and 
sometimes indistinct, running back from beneath the eye ; crown 
pale brownish grey with black shaft-stripes ; nearly the whole 
upper and lower plumage dark brownish grey with black lateral 
margins to the feathers ; lower tail-coverts black, tipped and 
spotted on both webs with w^hite ; quills and tail-feathers uniform, 
brown. 

Younger males have buff mottling on the wings. 

Females are cinnamon-brown throughout, the sides of the head 
with a greyish tinge, a small white speck before and a larger one 
behind the eye ; chin and throat whitish ; some of the crown- and 
all the nape-feathers with black shaft-stripes that pass into trian- 
gular black spots bordered with buff on the back, scapulars, rump, 
and upper tail-coverts : wing-coverts, lower back, rump, and upper 
tail-coverts much mottled with buff ; quills brown mottled with buff, 
especially on the outer webs ; tail-feathers black, mottled with buff 
towards the edges, and with buff cross-bars near the shafts : breast, 
abdomen, and lower tail-coverts paler than the upper parts, with 
lanceolate black spots. 

Bill coral-red in the male, dusky red in the female : legs dull red 
(Huttori). 

Length about 10 ; tail 3 ; wing 3'5 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from 
gape -6. 

Distribution fy Halits. All that is known of this bird is that a 
few specimens were shot in 1865, 1867, and 1868 close to Mus- 
sooree, between 5000 and 6000 feet above the sea, and in 1876 a 
single specimen was shot, and another seen, close to Nairn Tal. 
The bird is extremely rare, and appears to be an occasional visitor 
to the North-west Himalayas. Whence it comes is unknown. 
The long soft plumage may indicate an inhabitant of a cold climate. 
Nothing was known as to the origin of the type in the Knowsley 
Menagerie, except that it was believed to be from India. 



106 PHASIAMDJE. 

The birds near Mussooree as observed by Hatton and others 
occurred in small coveys of six to ten, that kept to high grass and 
scrub, fed on seeds of grass, were difficult TO flush, and had a 
shrill whistling note when flushed. They appeared to arrive 
about November, but in one case stayed as late as June, after 
which they disappeared. 

Genus GALLOPERDIX, Blyth, 1844. 

The Spur-fowls, as they are commonly called in India, have some- 
what the appearance of Partridges, to which they approximate in 
size, but the longer tail, more rounded wings, and the wide differ- 
ence in the coloration between the sexes indicate relationship with 
the Pheasants and Jungle-fowls. 

In GaUoperdix the tarsus is longer than the middle toe and claw, 
and bears two or three spurs in the male (even four on one leg 
have been found in G. spadicea} ; it is frequently unarmed in the 
female, but sometimes bears one spur or occasionally two, there 
being generally in that case two spurs on one leg, one on the 
other. The 1st primary is shorter than the 1 Oth, 5th or 6th generally 
longest. The tail, of 14 feathers and considerably rounded at the 
end, is two-thirds or more than two-thirds as long as the wing. 
A large naked space around the eye. 

Three species are known, all confined to India and Ceylon. 
None occurs east of the Bay of Bengal or west of the Indus. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Two or three spurs on each tarsus. 

a . Breast chiefly chestnut or rufous G. spadicea c?, p. 107. 

b'. Breast buff with black spots G. lunulata <5 ? P- 108. 

c'. Breast chiefly white G. bicalcarata <5 , 

b. No spurs, or one on each leg, or two on [p. 101). 

one leg and one on the other. 
d'. Breast chestnut, with black tips and 

feathers G. spadicea , p. 107. 

e' . Breast ochreous brown G. lunulata $ , p. 1C8. 

/'. Breast chestnut without black tips .... G. bicalcarata $ , 

[p. 110. 

1349. GaUoperdix spadicea. The Red Spur-fowl. 

Tetrao spadiceus, Gmel. Syst. Nat. \, pt. 2, p. 759 (1788). 
Galloperdix epadiceue, Blyth) Cat. p. 241 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 541 ; 




p. 225 ; Hume $ Marsh. Game E. i, p. 247 ; Hume, Cat. no. 814 ; 
Vidal, S. F. ix p. 76 ; Damson, S. F. x, p. 410 : Taylor, ibid. p. 464 : 
Terry, ibid. p. 479 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 305 ; Gates in Hume's 
N. fy E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 423 ; Davidson, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vi, 
p. 340. 

Galloperdix spadicea, Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 157 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. 
xxxviii, pt. 2, p. 189 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 261. 



GALLOPERDIX. 107 

Choti janyli Murghi, IT. Central Prov., Belganm, c. ; Chakotri, 
Kokatri, Mahr. (Syhadri Range) ; Kastoor, Mahr. (Deccan) 5 tiarrava 
Koli, Tarn. ; Yerra-Kodi, Jitta-Kudi, Tel. 

Coloration. Male. Crown dark brown, paler and greyer on the 
forehead and sides of head and all round the neck ; chin whitish ; 
feathers of the upper back and sometimes of the whole back and 
rump light chestnut with grey edges, but generally all the upper 
parts except the upper back are closely vermiculated with black 
and rufous buff, varying occasionally to pale buff and even whitish 
in parts; middle tail-feathers and outer margins of the next two 




Fig. 21. Head of G. spadicea, 



or three pairs and of the secondary quills the same ; quills dark 
brown ; tail-feathers blackish brown ; breast and upper abdomen 
like the upper back ; lower abdomen and thighs brown ; under 
tail-coverts rufous brown, vermiculated like the lower back. 
There is frequently a patch of feathers in the middle of the 
breast with greyish-brown centres. 

The female differs in having the feathers of the upper parts 
black, edged and rather irregularly barred with buff, the buff some- 
times predominating; the feathers of the fore neck are black with 
buff tips: the rest of the lower parts as in the male, but with 
broken and irregular black tips on the breast. 

The race from Abu and the neighbourhood is much paler, there 
is less vermiculation on the upper parts of the male, and the female 
has no distinct black bars on the feathers of the back, wing-coverts, 
&c. ; these are all rufous or even greyish buff, with black vermicu- 
lation and broken intramarginal streaks to the feathers. Skins of 
females from Matheran and Mahableshwar, in the Hume Collection, 
though richly rufous, not pale and greyish like Abu specimens, 
have the same markings, whilst Belgaum and Goa skins are like 
those from the Nilgiris. It is evident that the Bombay Presidency 
bird is a well-marked and peculiar race, and might be called 
G. spadicea var. cav.rina. 

Bill dusky red at base, horny towards the tips ; iris dull yellow 
to brown ; orbits and legs red, varying in tint. 

Length of male about 14-5; tail 6; wing 6-5; tarsus 1*75 ; 
bill from gape 1. Females are rather less. 

Distribution. Here and there throughout the peninsula of India 
south of the great Indo-Gangetic alluvial plain, almost wherever 



108 PHASTANLD.E. 

there is fairly thick forest on hilly or broken ground, but not in. 
open or cultivated country nor in alluvial flats. This species also 
occurs at the foot of the Himalayas in Oudh throughout a con- 
siderable area. It is unknown except in India. 

Habits, $c. A shy bird, often solitary, keeping much to wooded 
ravines near water and to bamboo-jungle. It is rarely seen flying, 
except into a tree when disturbed on the ground, and it is said 
always to perch at night ; it runs very fast. Its food consists of 
small fruit, seeds, and insects ; it runs when disturbed or flies up 
with a harsh cackle ; the call of the i^ale is described by Davison 
as partridge-like, whilst Jerdou. says it is a sort of cro wing-cry 
imitated by the Mahratta name Xokatri, and he adds that the call 
of the female is quite fowl-like. It breeds between the end of 
February and June according to locality, and perhaps again in 
October and November, and lays from 4 to 7 eggs (according to 
Davidson always 3 in Kanara and Nasik), buff or greyish in colour 
and measuring about 1*67 by 1*28, in a slight nest of grass and 
leaves on the ground. At the proper season, the cold weather, 
Spur-fowl are excellent eating if they can be kept a few days 
before being cooked. 

1350. Galloperdix lunulata. The Painted Sjpur-fowl. 

Perdix lunulata, Valenc. Diet. Sci. Nat. xxxviii, p. 446 (1825). 
Galloperdix lunulosa, Blyth, Cat. p. 241 ; Jerdon, B. 1. iii, p. 543 ; 

Beavan, Ibis, 1868, p. 382; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xxxviii, pt. 2, 

p. 189. 
Galloperdix lunulatus, Hume, N. $ E. p. 33 ; Ball, S.F. vii, p. 225; 

Hume $ Marsh. Game B. i, p. 255, pi.; Hume, Cat. no. 815 ; Butler, 

S. F. ix, p. 422 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 410 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 

p. 306 ; Oatcs in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 425. 
Galloperdix lunulata, Oyilrie Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 263. 

Kainjer, Uriya; Askol, Oris.a and Sirghboom; Hut ka, Gond. (Chanda); 
Kul-koli, Tarn.*.; Jitta kodi, Tel. 


Coloration. Male. Forehead and crown black glossed with 
metallic green, each feather with an elongate white drop, that has 
sometimes a black centre ; sides of head and neck all round black 
with broader white subterminal spots; chin buffy white viith 
black tips to feathers; back, rump, and wing-coverts chestnut, the 
feathers tipped with white black-edged ocelli, smaller or replaced 
by small black tips or sometimes wanting on the lower back and 
rump : scapulars and some wing-coverts metallic green ; quills 
dark brown ; upper tail-coverts and tail blackish brown with a 
slight green gloss ; breast and upper abdomen buff, with triangular 
black tips to each feather ; lower abdomen and flanks chestnut, 
with white black-edged spots ; under tail-coverts chestnut mixed 
with black. 

Female. Crown black, with chestnut shaft-stripes ; forehead, 
supercilia, and sides of head dark chestnut ; chin and throat 
chestnut mixed with buff, the latter prevailing on the chin and 



GALLOPERDIX. 109 

on a moustachial stripe from the gape ; body and wings, including 
quills, dark brown with an olive tinge, paler and yellower or 
rufescent on the breast; tail blackish brown. 

Bill blackish; irides red- brown, orbits red; legs horny brown. 

Length of male about 12-5 ; tail 5 ; wing 6 ; tarsus 1'75 ; bill 
from gape *8. Females a little smaller. 

Distribution. This Spur-fowl occurs in parts of the area inhabited 
by G. spadicea, but does not range so far to the west or north. It 
is met with in Western and South-western Bengal, Orissa, Clmtia 
Nagpur, Chhattisgarh, and locally throughout the hills of Bundel- 
cund and the Central Provinces as far west as Jhansi, Lalitpur, 
and Ellichpur west of JX~agpur, and in many of the hilly and 
jungly tracts of the Madras Presidency, as on the eastern base of 
the Nilgiris; but it is not known to occur in the Bombay Presidency 
north of Belgaum, nor anywhere north of the Ganges, nor in 
North-western India (the localities Nepal and N.W. India in the 
British Museum Catalogue are probably due to some mistake). 
It does not appear to have been observed on the Malabar coast. 

Habits, fyc. Very similar to those of G. spadicea, except that the 
Painted Spur-fowl keeps more to rocky hills. As noticed by 
several writers, this bird is most generally seen when the hills of 
granitoid gneiss, so common in parts of India, are being beaten 
for large game. It breeds from March to May, laying not more 
than five eggs in a slight hollow in the ground. The eggs are glossy, 
pale greyish-brown in colour, and measure about 1-62 by I'll. 

1351. Galloperdix bicalcarata. The Ceylon Spur-fowl. 

Perdix bicalearatus, Penn. Ind. Zool. p. 40, pi. vii (1769). 

Perdix zeylonenais, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i, pt. 2, p. 759 (1788). 

Galloperdix zeylonensis, Blyth, Cat. p. 241 ; Hume, N. fy E. p. 53o. 

Galloperdix hicalcarata, Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) xiv, p. 105 ; Blyth, 
Ibis, 1867, p. 308 ; Holdsworth, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 469 ; Hume, S. F. 
vii, pis. 430, 453 ; id. Cat. no. 815 bis ; H^ume 8f Marsh. Game 
B. i, p. 261, pi. ; Leqqe, Birds Ceyl. p. 741, pi. xxxiii ; Oatvs in 
Hume's N. fy E. 2nd'ed. iii, p. 426; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. 
xxii, p. 264. 

Haban-Kukida, Saban-Kukula, Cing 1 . 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, nape, hind neck and sides 
of neck, upper back, sides of breast and flanks black with white 
shaft-stripes, narrow on the head, broad on the flanks ; inter- 
scapulars, scapulars, and wing-coverts the same, but with the sides 
of the feathers chestnut, vermiculated with black, and the white 
shaft-stripes represented on the wing-coverts by subterminal pear- 
shaped spots ; lower back and rump chestnut, finely vermiculated 
with black ; quills dark brown, secondaries mottled with chestnut on 
outer webs ; tertiaries throughout, upper tail-coverts, and tail black ; 
sides of head and throat white, feathers edged with black, chin pure 
white ; lower parts to mid-abdomen white ; feathers of fore neck 
and sometimes of breast with black edges, broader towards the sides 



110 PILYSIANID/E. 

of the breast ; lower abdomen and lower tail-coverts blackish brown 
with white or buff terminal spots. 

Female. Crown blackish brown, forehead and sides of head brown 
with pale centres to the feathers, chin whitish ; body above and 
below and outer surface of wings dull chestnut, vermiculated with 
black except on the breast ; quills and tail as in the male : upper 
tail-coverts like rump but darker. 

Bill, legs, feet, and naked skin round eyes red ; irides brownish 
yellow or brownish red (Legc/e}. 

Length of male about 13*5 ; tail 4-5 ; wing 6'5 ; tarsus 2-1 ; 
bill from gape 1. Females are smaller : \ving t>. 

Distribution. Peculiar to Ceylon, and not found in the dry 
northern portion of the island. 

Habits, <$fc. Very similar to those of the last two species. This 
also is a shy bird, rarely seen outside the forest except in the 
early morning, and generally making its presence known early and 
late by its cackling call. It breeds, according to Legge, from 
April to August, and lays usually about four cream-coloured eggs, 
measuring on an average 1*5 by 1*14. 

Genus BAMBUSICOLA, Gould, 1862. 

The relations of the present genus are not very clear. The only 
species that occurs within our area approaches Arboricola in 
coloration, but the structure is very different and resembles that 
of G alloperdix . The claws are of moderate length and curved ; 
the tarsus is considerably longer than the middle toe and claw. 
The tail, of 14 feathers, is more than three-quarters the length of 
the wing, and is distinctly graduated, the outer feathers being 
about two-thirds the length of the middle pair. The wing is of 
the pheasant type and greatly rounded, the 1st primary much 
shorter than the 10th, 5th usually longest. The males and some- 
times the females have a spur on each tarsus. Sexes alike. 

Three species are known one from Formosa, one from Southern 
China, and the third from the hills of Northern Burma and 
Assam. 

1352. Bamtmsicola fytchii. The Western Bamboo-Partridge, 

Bambusicola fytchii, Anderson, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 214, pi. xi; Blyth t 
Birds Burm. p. 151 ; Hume, S. F. v, p. 493 ; Anderson, Yunnan 
JZ.i'ped., Aves, p. 673, pi. liv ; Hume fy Marsh. Game B. ii, p. 97, 
pi. ; Hume, Cat. no. 825 quint. ; id. S. F. xi, p. 308 ; Ogilvie 
Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 257. 

Bambusicola hopkiusoni, Godw.-Avst. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 44 ; id. 
J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. 2, p. 172 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 399. 

Coloration. Lores arid sides of face, including a broad superciliary 
band, chin and throat rufous buff ; band from eye beneath the 
supercilium and including ear-coverts dark rufous brown or in 
some males black ; crown and 'nape dark rufous brown; hind neck 
and upper back greyish brown, each feather with a broad median 



KOLLULUS. Ill 

chestnut stripe ; scapulars, tertiaries, and most of the secondary 
coverts each having a large subterminal chestnut patch, becoming 
black towards the end, and a whitish-buff margin ; lower back, 
rump, and upper tail-coverts brown, vermiculated with buff and 
with a few black spots ; primaries and their coverts rufous, browner 
towards the tips ; secondary quills and tail-feathers rufous brown 
irregularly barred with buff, especially oh the outer webs ; upper 
breast dull chestnut, the sides of the feathers greyish brown with 
white spots ; rest of lower parts buff, the sides of the lower breast 
(and sometimes the middle also), the Hanks, and frequently the 
loxver tail-coverts with large black heart-shaped subtermiaal spots. 

Bill brown ; hides orange-hazel ; legs and feet grey or greenish 
grey (Hume). 

Length about 14 inches ; tail 4-8 ; wing 6 ; tarsus 1-8 : bill from 
gape '9. 

Distribution. Throughout the Garo, Khasi, Naga, and other parts 
of the Assam hills south of the Brahmaputra, ranging through 
Manipur to the Kakhyeng hills between Upper Burma and 
Yunnan. 

Habits, dfc. A shy bird, inhabiting forest jungle and high grass. 
The call is said to be loud and harsh, quite different from the soft 
whistle of Arboricola. Otherwise the habits are somewhat similar. 
The breeding-season, according to Captain Cock's note in Hume 
and Marshall's ' Game Birds,' is in May and June, but the eggs have 
not been found. 

Genus ROLLULUS, Bonn., 1790. 

This very peculiarly coloured genus contains but a single species, 
distinguished by its green coloration, which, however, is very 
different in the two sexes, by a thick occipital crest of red, very 
loose-textured hair-like feathers, covering the occiput in the male, 
and by a tuft of hair-like bristles from the middle of the forehead 
in both sexes. The tarsus is longer than the middle toe and claw, 
the claws are of moderate size, that of the hind toe rudimentary 
or wanting. The tail is of 12 soft feathers, rounded and less than 
half the length of the wing, in which the 1st primary is about equal 
to the loth and the 4th and 5th are longest. 

1353. Rollulus roulroul. The Green Wood-Quail. 
Phasianus roulroul, Scop. Del. Flor.et Faun. Insub. ii, p. 93 ("1786). 
Phasianus cristatus, Sparnn. Mus. Carls, fasc. iii, no. 64 (1788). 
Perdix coronata, Lath. Suppl. Ind. Orn. p. Ixii (1801). 
Rollulus cristatus, Bluth, Cat. p. 253 ; Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. 

p. 151. 
Rollulus roulroul, Walden, Ibis, 1872, p. 382 ; Hume Sf Dav. S. F. 

vi> p. 448; Hume, Cat. no. 831 ter ; Hume 8f Marsh. Game B. ii, 

p. 103, pi. ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 330 ; Offline Grant, Cat. B. M. 

xxii, p. 225. 

Coloration. Male. Crest coppery to purplish red ; a broad white 
band in front across the vertex ; remainder of head and neck, with 



112 PHASIANID^. 

the frontal tuft, black ; upper parts, except wings, deep green, 
changing to steel-blue ; smaller wing-coverts rufous brown, the 
greater coverts and quills dark brown, mottled with rufous on the 
outer webs ; tail black ; lower parts black with a dark bluish or 
green gloss. 

In the female the crest is rudimentary and slaty grey like the 
whole of the head and neck ; the body above and below grass-green, 
paler and tinged with grey on the abdomen ; scapulars and smaller 
wing-coverts chestnut ; median and greater coverts paler rufous 
with blackish cross-bars ; quills and tail as in the male. 

Bill black, the basal portion scarlef in the male ; hides slaty grey 
in males, deep brown in females ; facial skin, eyelids, legs and feet 
bright reel, scarlet in males (Davison). 

Length of a male about 11; tail 2-5; wing 5*5; tarsus 1'7 ; 
bill from gape -9. Females are a little smaller. 

Distribution. The Malay Peninsula, extending north into the 
southern parts of Tenasserim near the Pakchan river, also into 
ISiam, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo. 

Habits, fyc. A forest bird found in small parties of six or eight 
or more, males and females, and living on berries, seeds, tender 
shoots, leaves, and insects. The note is a s;>ft, low, mellow whistle. 
The eggs do not appear to have been described. 

Genus EXCALFACTOEIA, Bonap., 1856. 

This genus is scarcely separable from Coturniv, which the female 
closely resembles. The sexes, however, differ much in their 
lower plumage, and the cock is a much handsomer bird than the 
true Quails. The wing is slightly more rounded than in Coturnix, 
the 1st primary being, as a rule, rather shorter than the second, 
and there are only 8 short tail-feathers entirely hidden by the 
upper coverts. 

This genus inhabits the Oriental region, Australia and Africa. 
Of the three recorded species one is found in India. 

1354. Excalfactoria chinensis. The Blue-breasted Quail. 
Tetrao chinensis, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 277 (1766). 
Coturnix chinensis, Blyth, Cat. p. 255 ; Lee/ye, Birds Ceylon. 

p. 755. 
Excalfactoria chinensis, Bonap. C. It. xlii, p. 881 ; Jerdon, B. 1. iii, 

p. 591 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A.S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 273 ; xlv, pt. 2, 

p. 84 ; Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 151 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 226 ; iff. 

Cat. no. 831 ; Gates, S. F. viii, p. 167 ; Hume 8f Marsh. Game B. 

ii, p. 161 ; Laird # Bidie, S. F. ix, p. 208 ; Hume fy Inglis, ibid. 

p. 258 ; Sutler, ibid. p. 423 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 63 ; Wen'den, ibid. 

p. 165 ; Davison, ibid. p. 412 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 334 ; Hume, S. F. 

xi, p. 310 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 448 ; Oyilnie 

Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p, 250. 
Excalfactoria sinensis, Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 447 ; Binyham, S. F. 

ix, p. 196. 

Khair-butai, Kaneli, Nepal ; Gobal-lutai, Oudh ; Ngon, Burma ; Pan- 
dura-watuwa, Wenella-wutuwa, Cing. 



EXfc ALF AtTORI A . 113 

Coloration. Male. Upper parts brown, with vermiculations and 
blotches of black ; except in very old birds, there is a narrow 
whitish median streak on the crown and nape, and the feathers of 
the back and rump have conspicuous buff shaft-lines, broader on 
the latter, but all these pale markings disappear gradually with 
age, and the brown becomes tinged with dark bluish grey on the 
forehead, sides of the crown, wing-coverts, and upper tail-coverts ; 
some of the median and larger secondary coverts are broadly edged 
externally with chestnut, but this character appears sometimes 
wanting ; quills brown ; tail-feathers slaty blue, more or less 
broadly edged with chestnut, entirely chestnut in old birds ; 
sides of head slaty grey, browner in young birds ; lower cheeks, 




Fig. 22. Head of E. ckincnsia, <$ . \. 

chin, and throat black, enclosing on each side a white cheek-stripe, 
broader behind, from the base of the lower mandible ; fore neck 
white, edged behind with black running up on each side, growing 
narrow and terminating close to the ear-coverts ; upper breast, 
sides of breast, and flanks slaty bluish grey, remainder of lower 
parts chestnut. In old birds the chestnut area is larger and 
occupies the greater part of the breast and flanks. 

Females resemble young males above, but the scapulars and 
wing-coverts are more distinctly barred with black, and the whitish 
median crown-stripe and the shaft-stripes on the back are con- 
spicuous at all ages ; forehead, supercilia, and sides of head rufous 
buff ; ear-coverts browner ; chin and throat whitish ; rest of lower 
parts buff, rafous on the fore neck and barred with black on the 
breast and flanks, the bars growing fainter with age; tail brown, 
with black and buff markings. 

Bill black, plumbeous beneath; irides crimson in the male, 
brown in females and young ; legs bright yellow, claws brownish 
(Hume}. 

Length about 5-5 ; tail 1 ; wing 2-75 : tarsus '85 ; bill from 
gape '5. 

Distribution. In India this Quail is common in Bengal and ranges 
throughout the plains near the base of the Himalayas and in the 
lower ranges as far west as the neighbourhood of Simla. It also 
occurs sporadically throughout Orissa, Chutia Nagpur, and the 
Central Provinces east of about 80 E. long., and it has been met 
with occasionally in Bombay and Southern India (by Jerdon in the 
Carnatic, by Capt. Bidie in Chingleput, and by Mr. H. Wenden 

YOL. IT. I 



114 PHAfiUNID.C. 

near Poona and Bombay), but it appears not to have been observed 
on the Malabar coast south of Bombay, and it is unknown in the 
dry regions of North- western India. It is pretty common in 
Western and Southern Ceylon, and in Eastern Bengal, Assam, 
Sylhet, Cacbar, Manipur, and in parts of Burma, especially in the 
plains of Pegu, and it is found throughout Southern China and 
South-eastern Asia generally ; whilst a closely allied race inhabits 
the Malay Archipelago and Australia. In the Sub-Himalayan 
tracts and in. Pegu this species is said to occur chiefly in the 
rainy season, whilst in Lower Bengal it is found principally in 
the cold weather. 

Habits, $'c. This, like other Quails, is generally found in grass, 
singly or in pairs. It keeps to open, rather swampy ground, and 
is often to be met with around paddy fields. Its note is a low 
double whistle. Its food consists chiefly of grass-seeds. This 
species breeds in Northern India, Bengal, and Pegu from the latter 
end of June to the middle of August, and lavs from 4 to 6 
olivaceous drab eggs, generally minutely speckled, and measuring 
about -98 by '76, in a small hollow on the ground amidst short 
grass. 

Genus COTURNIX, Bonn., ITl'O. 

The true Quails are birds of small size and peculiar plumage, 
with conspicuous whitish longitudinal streaks on the back. Unlike 
the PJiasianidce in general, some of the Quails are migratory. The 
wing is much longer and more pointed than in Partridges, the 1st 
primary being as long as the 2nd or slightly longer. The tail is 
of 10 or 12 feathers, and less than half as long as the wing. The 
bill is small and rather slender ; the tarsus bears no spur in either 
sex, and is rather longer than the middle toe and claw ; the claws 
are all of moderate size. The sexes differ slightly in plumage. 

The genus Coturnix comprises six species, and is found through- 
out the Eastern hemisphere, including Australia and New Zealand. 
Two species are Indian. 



to the Species. 

ed with buff . . 
1. Primaries without bars C. coromandelica, p. 11G. 



a. Outer webs of primaries barred with buff . . C. communi*, p. 114. 

C. coromandelictt, p. 1 



1355. Cotnrnix communis. The Common or Grey Quail. 

Tetrao coturnix, Linn. Si/st. Nat. i, p. 278. 

Coturnix communis, Bonn. Tabl. Encijcl. Meth. \, p. 217, pi. 90 
(1790) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 254 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 586 ; Stoliczka, 
J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 69; xli, pt. 2, p. 250; Godwin- 
Austen, Hid. p. U2;Hume, N. $ E. p. 549; id. S. F. i, p. 227 ; 
Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 151; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 7; ix, 
p 423 ; Fairbank, S. F. iv, p. 262 ; Davidson fy Wend. S. F. vii, 
p. 87 ; BaU, ibid. p. 226 ; Cripps, ibid. p. 298 ; Hume $ Marsh. 
Gf'me B. ii, p. 133, pi. ; Hume, Cat. no. 829 ; Scully, 8. F. viii, 
p. 350; Vital, S. F. ix, p. 76; Davison, S. F. x, p. 41 Ij Oates, 



COTUEXIX. 115 

2?, B, i\, p. 331 ; Barnes, Birch Bom. p. 315; Hume, S. F. xi, 
p. 309; S(. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 175; Gates in Humes N. # E. 
'2nd ed. iii, p. 443. 
Coturnix coturnix, Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 231. 

The Large Grey Quail, Jerdon ; Bate.r, Bar a Bater, Gayus hater, H., 
Tipper India; Batairo, Sind ; Batri, Beng. ; Gundri, [Jriya; Soipol, 
Manipur ; Botah Surrai, Assam ; Ng<m, Burin. ; Bur-yanja, Gur-ganj, 
Poona, &c. ; Burli, Belgaimi ; Gogari-yellachi, Tel. ; Peria-ka-deh, Tarn.; 
Sipale haki, Can. (Mysore). 

Coloration. Male. Feathers of crown black with broad brown 
edges ; median coronal streak and broad supercilia pale buff ; a 
dark brown stripe from the gape ; ear-coverts brown, rest of sides 
of head white speckled with dark brown ; back, rump, and upper 
tail-coverts light brown, with fusiform buffy-white shaft-stripes 
and black blotches, the latter crossed by rufous bars : scapulars 
and wing-coverts also brown, with narrow pale shaft-lines and bun: 
transverse bars ; quills brown, the first primary with a whitish 
outer border, the other primaries and secondaries barred on the 
outer web with rufous ; the bars on the secondaries dark-edged ; 
tail blackish brown, with pale buff shaft-stripes and transverse 
bars; throat and fore neck whitish, with a blackish anchor-shaped 
mark consisting of a broad median band and a narrower cross stripe 
curving upwards on each side to the ear-coverts ; the median baud 
varies greatly in breadth, and sometimes covers the throat ; breast 
rufous-buff, paler or darker, with pale shaft-stripes, the anterior 
border with a broken gorget of blackish -brown spots ; the rufous 
passes on the lower breast into the whitish buff of the abdomen 
and lower tail-coverts ; flanks brown, with broad whitish shaft- 
stripes and blackish spots. 

The female wants the black marks on the throat, and the breast 
is more or less spotted with black, except in a few individuals, 
probably very old birds. In young birds of both sexes the breast 
is thickly spotted with black or blackish brown. 

Bill horny brown ; irides yellow-brown ; legs pale fleshy (Jerdon). 

Length about 8; tail l'7o ; wing 4-25; tarsus 1-1 ; bill from 
gape '6. 

Distribution. A migratory bird, visiting the greater part of our 
area, except Ceylon and Tenasserirn, in winter. It is more 
abundant in Northern than in Southern India, and is of rare 
occurrence in Burma. Beyond Indian limits, the Common Quail 
is found almost throughout Europe and Africa, and in Asia except 
in the south-eastern parts. 

Habits, $c. The Grey Quail arrive in Northern India from 
Central Asia in September, but are not usually seen in the Deccan 
or Bengal before October. Occasionally some, even large parties, 
arrive in Sind, Cutch, and Guzerat from the latter end of August till 
December, coming from the seaward, probably from Arabia. The 
majority, as a rule, leave the north of India in December and 
January for the south, returning and at times abounding in the 
ripening wheat- and barley-fields of the North-west Provinces, 

i2 



116 PHASIANID^E. 

Sind, and the Punjab in March and April, and finally migrating 
northward in the latter month or May. A few, however, remain 
and breed in India, and nests have been taken not only in Northern 
India but at Purneah in Bengal, Hoshangabad in the Central 
Provinces, and even Satara in the Bombay, Deccan. They lay 
from 6 or 7 to 10 buff eggs speckled with brown, in a hollow 
on the ground amongst grass. The eggs measure about 1'18 
by -89. 

The call of the male Quail, often heard, and especially in spring, 
is a long whistling note followed by two shorter notes ; hence the 
name dactylisonans, applied to the species by several writers. 
Except just after the breeding-season these birds are found singly 
or in twos or threes, not in bevies or coveys. Their food consists 
chiefly of grain and seeds. Their flight is rapid, close to the 
ground, and very straight. Quails are often found in large 
numbers in Northern India, and afford excellent sport for the 
gun. They are caught by natives in nets, and are kept alive, the 
males for fighting, and both sexes for food. They are, as is well 
known, delicious eating. 

C.japonica is an Eastern race of C. communis, inhabiting Japan 
and China. The adult male has the sides of the head, chin, and 
throat dull vinous-red without black marks ; the female and young 
male have the feathers of the throat and chin elongate and lanceo- 
late, especially those on the sides of the throat. In the British 
Museum Catalogue this form is, apparently with justice, classed as 
a separate species, and two skins of females one from Bhutan, 
the other from Karennee, are referred to it. Neither, however, 
is a characteristic Fpecimen, and as intermediate forms are not- 
uncommon, it may be well to await the discovery of males before 
including C.japonica in the Indian fauna. 

135G. Coturnix coromandelica. The Black-lreasted or 
Rain Quail. 




p. 550; id. IS. F. i, pp. 136, 227 ; Adam, ibid. p. 393; Gates, S. F. 
iii, p. 178 ; Blyth fy Wald. Birds Burm. p. 151 ; Butler, S. F. iv, 
p. 7 ; v, p. 231 ; ix, p. 423: Ball, S. F. vii, p. 226 ; Cripps, ibid. 
p. 298; Hume $ Marsh. Game B. iii, p. 151, pi.: Hume, Cat. 
no. 830 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 76 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 63; Darison, 
ibid. p. 411 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 333 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 316 ; 
Hume, S. F. xi, p. 310; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, 
p. 444 ; Offilvie Grant, ('at. B. M. xxii, p. 241. 

Most of the names used for C. communis are applied also to this species 
bv natives of India. The following are peculiar to the present form : 
Chinna Bater, H. ; Chdnac, Nepal : Kade, Tarn. ; Chinna Yellichi, Tel. 

Coloration. Very similar to that of C. communis, especially on 
the upper parts, but the present bird is distinguished by its smaller 



PERDICULA. 117 

size and by having no pale cross-bars on the primary quills. The 
male may be recognized by having the dark marks on the face and 
throat blacker, and by having broad median black stripes on the 
feathers of the breast and flanks, the amount of black on the 
breast increasing with age till, in old birds, nearly the whole breast 
is black, and there is even in less aged individuals a large black patch 
in the middle. The sides of the lower neck and upper breast are 
chiefly or wholly rufous-buff with a vinous tinge. 

Bill in the male bluish black to dusky, in the female brownish 
horny ; irides clear to dark brown ; legs pale Heshy (Hume}. 

Length about 7; tail 1-25; wing 3'5 ; tarsus 1; bill from 
gape -5. 

Distribution. A. resident or partially migratory bird, found 
throughout the greater part of India and in the Irrawaddy valley 
in Burma. It has not been recorded from other parts of Burma, 
but it has been found in Manipur, in Assam near Dibrugarh, in 
Sylhet, and around Chittagong; so it doubtless occurs throughout 
the countries between India and Burma in suitable places. It has 
not been observed in Ceylon nor in the extreme south of India, 
but with this exception it is met with at times in open grassy 
or cultivated ground throughout India up to the lower ranges 
of the Himalayas. It is common in Sind in the summer, but is 
not known to visit the Western or .North-western Punjab. It 
is not known to occur outside the empire. 

Habits, &fc. This, like the Grey Quail, is rarely, ir ever, met 
with in forest ; it keeps much to grass of no great height and to 
growing crops. Although resident in many parts of India, it 
shifts its ground with the seasons, and it only visits Northern 
Bengal, Oudh, Behar, the N.W. Provinces, the Punjab, and Sind 
in the monsoon. It is found in pairs from April to October, 
singly during the rest of the year. Its call is very different from 
that of the Grey Quail, being dissyllabic only. It breeds about June 
or July in Northern India, from August to October in the Deccan, 
and lays from 4 to 9 eggs, yellowish white to dark brownish buff in 
colour, much speckled with brown, and measuring about 1*09 by *83. 
The eggs are laid in a hollow on the ground, without any nest. 

Genus PERDICULA, Hodgson, 1837. 

The present generic type is peculiar to the Indian Peninsula, 
and comprises two species that resemble Quails in size, but differ 
widely from them, and, to some extent, agree better with Partridges 
in structure and habits. The sexes are very different in plumage. 
The bill is short and thick, and the culmen very convex. The 4th 
primary is the longest, the first being intermediate in length 
between the 7th and 9th. The tail consists of 12 feathers, and is 
about half as long as the wing. The tarsus is about as long as the 
middle toe and claw, and is armed in males with a blunt tubercular 
spur. 



118 PHASIANIDJE. 

Key to the >pe;irt. 

a. Breast barred black and white. (Adult males.) 

a'. Throat chestnut ; a distinct white supercilium. P. asiatica, p. 118. 
6'. Throat dull brick-red j no distinct white super- 
cilium P. argunda, p. 120. 

b. Breast not barred. (Females and young.) 

c. Inner webs of primaries brown throughout . . P. asiatica, p. 119. 
d '. Inner webs of primaries barred or mottled 

with buff P. argunda, p. 120. 

1357. Perdicula asiatica*. The Jungle Bush-Quail. 

Perdix asiatica, Lath. 2nd. Orn. ii, p. 649 (1700) ; id. Gen. Hist, viii, 

p. 281 (1823). 

Perdix cambayensis, Temm. PI. Col. pi. 447 (1828), nee Lath. 
Coturnix pentah, Sykes, P. Z. 8. 1832, p, 153; id. Trans. Z. S. ii, 

p. 19, pi. iii; Gray in Hardw. III. 2nd. Zool. pi. 45, fig. 3. 
Perdicula argoondah, Btyth, Cat. p. 254, nee Sykes. 
Perdicula asiatica, Adams, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 504 ; Hume, N. & E. 




Davidson, ibid. p. 317 : Davison, ibid. p. 4]1 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 
p. 312 ; Gates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 440 ; Offiloie Grant, 
Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 198. 

Perdicula cambavensis, apud Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 581 ; Blyth, Ibis, 
1867, p. 1GO; 'Butler, S. F. iv, p. (5; Fail-bank, ibid. p. 202 ; nr.c 
Lath. 

Loica, II. ; Juhar, Manbhum ; Auriconnai, Sonthali ; Girza-pitta, 
Telegu ; Kari-lowya, Can. 




"/:: 
Fig. 23. Head of P. asiatica, <$. }. 

Coloration. Male. Upper parts brown, the crown usually more 
rufous and bordered or blotched with blackish ; the back, rump, 
and upper tail-coverts with wavy black bars, a few narrow buff 
snaft-streaks (wanting in very old birds) on the back ; scapulars, 
tertiaries, and wing-coverts blotched with black, with broader buff 
shaft-stripes and, the coverts especially, with buff cross-bars; 
quills brown, with buff spots on the outer webs, inner webs plain, 
the inner secondaries becoming banded and vermiculated ; tail 
brown, with black-edged buff cross-bars ; forehead, supercilia, 

* I cannot recognize this bird by the original description in the 'Index 
Ornithologicus,' but I quite agree with Hume that the present is the species 
described in Latham's ' General History.' 



PEBDIOULA. Ill) 

cheeks, chin, and throat rufous-chestnut ; yelloxvish-white stripes 
speckled with rufous above the supercilia and cheeks ; ear-coverts 
brown ; breast and abdomen barred across with black and white 
or buffy white, the bars a little broader behind ; thighs, lower 
abdomen, and lower tail-coverts rufous, varying in tint. 

The adult female has the head and throat coloured as in the 
male ; the upper parts are more uniform ; the pale shaft-stripes 
are absent on the back, and narrow, or in old birds wanting, on 
the scapulars and wing-coverts ; the lower parts from the throat are 
uniform dull rufous with a vinaceous or lilac tinge. 

Immature birds want the chestnut on the head ; the upper parts 
are much as in the male, but with broader buff shaft-stripes 
throughout ; the lower surface is dull rufous or pale rufous-brown, 
with whitish shaft-stripes. The change to the adult plumage is 
gradual. 

Bill black or dusky, with a reddish tinge at the base, lower 
mandible usually paler ; irides brown ; legs yellowish red. 

Length about 6-5; tail 1*5; wing 3-25 ; tarsus -95; bill from 
gape '55. 

Distribution. The Indian Peninsula from the Lower Himalayas 
to Cape Comorin, in well- wooded tracts only. This bird is found 
in the lower ranges of Kashmir, on Mount Abu and the Kuchawan 
hills of Jodhpore, but not farther west, whilst it is of rare occur- 
rence in Lower Bengal east of Midnapur and the Eajmehal hills, 
and unknown farther east. It is common in parts of the X.W. 
Provinces, in Western Bengal, Orissa, the Central Provinces, 
throughout the Western Ghats, and in parts of the ^Malabar low- 
lands. It also occurs in the northern part of Ceylon. 

Habits, fyc. The Jungle Bush-Quail is an inhabitant of forests, 
hills, ravines, thick bush, and rich cultivation. As Jerdon says, 
" This Bush-Quail is found in coveys or bevies of from, six or eight, 
to a dozen or more, and generally all rise at once with a loud 
whirring sound, and after a short flight drop again into the 
jungle." It is an exception to meet with these birds except in 
little flocks, and when disturbed they generally fly in all directions, 
but quickly reassemble. They feed chiefly on grass seeds, partly 
on insects, and frequently utter a peculiar chirp or whistle. The 
breeding-season is from September to February ; five to seven 
creamy-white eggs, measuring about 1 by "83, are laid in a grass 
nest on the ground, usually under a bush or tuft of grass. 

1358. Perdicula argunda. The EocJc Bush-Quail. 

Coturnix argoondah, Sykcs, P. Z. 8. 1832, p. 153 ; id. Trans. Z. tf. 

ii, p. 17, pi. ii. 
Perdicula asiatica, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 254 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 080 ; 

Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 230 ; Adam, S. F. i, p. 392 ; 

Butler, S. F. iv, p. 7 ; Fairbank, ibid. p. 262 ; nee Lath. 
Perdicula argoondah, Hume, N. fy E. p. 545 : id. S. F. vii, p. 159: 

Hume & Marsh. Game B. ii, p. 117, pi. ; Hume, Cat. no. 827 ; 

Butler, S. F. ix, p. 423 ; Davidson, S. F. x, p. 317 ; Barnes, Birds 



120 

Bom. p. 313 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. iii, p. 441 ; Ogilvie Grant, 
Cat. . M. xxii, p. 200. 

Loiva, H. arid Mahr. ; Lawunka, Tel. ; Sinkadeh, Tarn. ; Kemp-lowyu, 
Can. (Mysore). 

Coloration. Adult males have the upper plumage brown with 
rather broad buff cross-bars, slightly edged with black ; forehead, 
sinciput, supercilia, cheeks, chin, and throat dull brick-red, around 
the eye whitish, but no white superciliary band ; tail and quills 
barred on outer web, and generally barred or mottled on inner 
web with buff ; breast and abdomeif barred black and white, the 
bars broader than in P. asiatica ; lower abdomen aud lower tail- 
coverts pale rufescent. 

Adult females have the upper parts nearly uniform vinaceous 
brown, finely vermiculated in parts, and often with some remains 
of buff bars posteriorly ; quills mottled with rufous and barred 
with the same on the outer webs ; lower parts brownish vinaceous ; 
chin, lower abdomen, and lower tail-coverts whitish. 

Younger birds of both sexes much resemble the young of 
P. asiatica ; above, the upper parts are brown tinged with rufous, 
much verniiculated with buff and blotched with black, especially 
on the scapulars and tertiaries ; there are a few white shaft-stripes 
on the back. 

Upper mandible black, lower paler ; irides brown to light red ; 
legs red (Hume). 

Length 7; tail 1-8 ; wing 3'3 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape -6. 

Distribution. The range of this species is less than that of the 
preceding, for though P. argunda extends from the base of the 
Himalayas in the JST.W. Provinces and the Punjab to near Cape 
Cornorin, and west as far as Lahore, Jodhpore, Kattiawar, and 
Cutch, it is not known to occur in the Eastern Central Provinces, 
Orissa, or Bengal, nor along the Western Ghats, nor on the low 
ground near the Malabar coast, nor yet in Ceylon. 

Habits, fyc. This Bush-Quail keeps to much more open and drier 
country than its congener; it avoids hills, forests, and dense 
vegetation, and is chiefly found in sandy or rocky ground with 
small scattered bushes. Otherwise its habits are the same as those 
of the last species. It breeds, according to Hurne, from August 
to September, and again in March ; and the nest and eggs are 
similar to those of P. asiatica. 



Genus MICROPERDIX, Gould, 1862. 

This is an ally of Perdicula, from which, however, it differs in 
several details of structure. There is no spur oti the tarsus in 
either sex ; the bill is much longer and less high ; the tail is of 10 
feathers only, and rather more than half as long as the wing ; and 
the wing is shorter and more rounded, the 4th, 5th, and 6th quills 
being longest and subequal, and the 1st equal to the 10th. 

The species resemble Perdicula in size and habits, and the typical 



MICROPERDIX. 121 

form was formerly referred to that genus. Three species are now 
known two inhabiting the Indian Peninsula, and the third 
Manipur and Assam. 

Key to tlie Species. 

a. Upper surface brown with black spots. 
'. Bill from gape O6 to O7 inch; a 

distinct black chin in males M. erythrorhynchus, p. 121. 

b'. Bill from gape O'o to 0'6 inch ; black 

chin indistinct or wanting M . blewitti, p. 122. 

h. Upper surface slaty grey with black bars 

and spots M. manipurensis, p. 122. 

1359. Microperdix erythrorhynchus. 'The Painted Bush-Quart. 

Coturnix erythrorhyncha, fykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 153 ; -Blyth, Cat. 

p. 255. 
Perdicula erythrorhyncha, Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 58-1; Blyth, Ibis, 

1867, p. 160; Davids. Sf Wend. 6'. F. vii, p. 87; Daly, Jour. Bom. 

N. H. Soc. ii, p. 149. 
Microperdix erythrorhyncha, Gould, Birds Asia, vii, pi. 3 ; Hume, 

N. $ E. p. '548; Fairbank. S. F. iv, p. 262; v, p. 409; Oyilvie 

Grant, Cat. B. M xxii, p. 203. 
Microperdix erythrorhynchus, Hume, Cat. no. 828 ; Hume $ Marsh. 

Game B. ii, p. 123, pi. ; Butler, S. F. ix, p. 423 ; Damson, S. F. 

x, p. 411 ; Jtarnes, Bird* Bom. p. 314 ; Oates in Humes N. Sf E. 

2nd ed. iii, p. 442. 

Kadai, Tarn. 




Fig. 24. Head of M. erythrorhynchus, tf . \. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, lores, all round the eyes and gape, 
and the chin black; a narrow white sincipital band running back 
above the eyes and brown ear-coverts on each side ; crown black, 
more or less replaced by brown in the middle of the occiput ; 
upper parts brown, back and rump with rounded or lens-shaped 
black spots ; scapulars, tertiaries, and wing-coverts with white 
shaft-stripes, distant buff cross-bars and subterminal black blotches, 
chiefly on the inner webs ; quills brown, the outer webs with 
rufous-buff cross-bars ; tail-feathers blackish brown, with narrow 
buff transverse bands ; throat and cheeks white, surrounded by n 
black gorget: rest of the lower parts light chestnut, the upper 
breast washed with greyish brown, and the feathers with small 
round subterminal black spots ; the flanks and lower tail- coverts 
with large oval black spots with white borders. 

The female differs in having no black or white on the forehead, 



122 

sides of the head or throat, which are dull rufous, and there is 
little or no black on the crown. Immature birds resemble females, 
but have black on the crown like males. 

Bill, legs, and feet fine red ; irides yellow-brown (Jerdori). 

Length of male 7; tail 2; wing 3-5; tarsus 1-1; bill from 
gape -6. Females are somewhat smaller. 

Distribution. The forest region on or near the Western Ghats 
from the neighbourhood of Bombay to' Travancore. Common on 
the Nilgiris. This bird has also been obtained on the Shevroy hills 
by Mr. Daly and Dr. Warth. 

Habits, fyc. Somewhat similar to those of Perdicula asiatica. The 
call is different, and the flight less noisy, the plumage being softer. 
The breeding-season is jsaid to extend from August till April, 
varying with the height and exposure; no nest is made, and about 
ten glossy spotless eggs are laid, of a pale creamy colour, and 
measuring about 1-22 by -91. 

1360. Microperdix blewitti. Bleivitfs Busli-Qua'd. 

Perdicula erythrorhyncha, apud Blanf. Ibis, 1867, p. 464; id. 
J.A.S.B. xxxviii* pt. 2, p. 190 ; Ball, 8. F. ii, p. 4^8 ; nee &//Av?,s. 

Microperdix blewitti, Hume, 8. F. ii, p. 512 ; Ball, S. F. iii, p. 294 ; 
vii. p. 22o; Hume, Cat.no. 8:28 bis; Hume fy Marsh. Game B. ii, 
p. 129, pi. ; Oyiloie Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 204. 

Sirsi-lawa, Central Prov. (Mandla, Balaghat. Chanda). 

This is merely a race of M. en/throrhyncJius, but is smaller and 
has a, much smaller bill. The male is distinguished by having the 
sincipital white band much broader and the black forehead 
narrower, whilst the black chin is either inconspicuous or wanting. 
The whole colour too is greyer in both sexes, and the greyish- 
brown wash comes much farther down the breast, whilst the 
abdomen is a duller and paler red. 

Bill, legs, and feet coral-red ; irides brown (Hume). 

Length of male 6-5; tail 1-7; wing 3-1; tarsus 1; bill from 
gape '5. Female smaller. 

Distribution. The forest region of the Eastern Central Provinces 
(Mandla, Balaghat, Seoni, Chanda, Kaipur, Sironcha, Bastar), and 
of Chutia Nagpur. 



1361. Microperdix manipurensis. Humes Bush-Quail. 



Perdicuja manipurensis, Hume, S. F. ix, p. 467 (1880) xi, p. 
Microperdix manipurensis, Oyilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 2 



309. 
L>04. 



Coloration. Male. Forehead, superciliary stripes, cheeks up to 
the eye, chin, and throat dark chestnut; lores and a patch in 
front of the eye and another behind it white ; ear-coverts brown ; 
upper plumage throughout dark slaty grey with a brownish tinge, 
the feathers edged with black throughout. and mostly barred with 
black, except near the tip, the black forming blotches on the 
scapulars, tertiaries, and wing-coverts ; quills dark brown, the 



AHBORICOLA.. 123 

later primaries and the secondaries with buff bars on the outer 
webs ; tail black, with grey bars or mottled ; fore neck ashy grey ; 
breast and abdomen rufous buff, with black shafts and cross-bars 
dividing the paler tint into round spots, which are larger behind; 
under tail-coverts black, tipped and spotted on both webs with white. 

Females have no chestnut on the head, which is grey throughout, 
the chin and throat albescent ; breast and abdomen paler buff and 
less rufous than in the male. 

Bill deep horny dusky ; irides reddish brown ; legs dull orange ; 
soles pale yellow (Hume}. 

Length about 7*5 : tail 2; wing 3-3; tarsus 1-05; bill from 
gape '57. 

Distribution. This species was found, by Mr. Hume, in small 
bevies of five or six, inhabiting high grass at the base of the Eastern 
Manipur hills. The series collected by him contains the only 
known specimens with one exception, a skin recently received at the 
British Museum and stated, apparently on good authority, to have 
been brought from Bhutan. It is probable that this Bush-Quail, 
which is likely to escape notice, because of its living in elephant 
grass, occurs in Assam, and it may very possibly also be found in 
Burma. 



Genus ARBOEJCOLA, Hodgson, 1844. 

The Hill-Partridges of the Himalayas and Burma form a well- 
marked generic group, easily distinguished by their long and 
straight claws on the anterior toes, by want of spurs on the tarsus, 




Fig. 25. Foot of A. torqueola. \. 

which is about equal in length to the middle toe and claw, by 
their short, rather soft and slightly rounded tail of 14 feathers, 
less than half as long as the wing, and by their rounded wings, 
the 3rd, 4th, and 5th primaries being generally longest, and the 
1st about equal to the 84;h, 9th, or 10th. The sexes are similar as 
a rule, but differ in A. torqueola. 

A remarkable peculiarity of this genus, first noticed by Mr. J. 
Wood-Mason ( J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. 2, p. 254, pi. ii), is the presence 
of a row of superorbital bones, extending from the lachrymal to 
the postorbital process. No similar bones are known in other 



124 



PUASIANIDJE. 



true Gallinae. but they were described by Kitchen Parker in the 
Tinamous anH in Psopliia. These bones were found by Mr. Wood- 
Mason in Arboi'icola torqueola, 
A. atriyularis, A. rujigularis, and 
A. intermedia, and from MS. notes 
in his handwriting on the labels 
of two specimens of A. brunnei- 
pectas collected by Mr. Limborg in 
Tenasserim, formerly in the Tweed- 
dale ^Collection, and now in the 
British Museum, I find that he 
ascertained the presence of the 
superorbital ossicles in that species 
and their absence in the Malayan 
A. cJiarltoni. The latter, with its 
ally A. chloropus, should conse- 
quently be plated in a distinct 
genus. 

About 15 species are known, 
ranging from the Himalayas to 




Fig. 2G. 

Skull of A. rvfgularis. 
s.o, superorbital bones. 



Borneo and Java, and probably to the Philippines. None are 
found in the Indian Peninsula or Ceylon, but six occur in the 
Himalayas, Assam lianges, and Burma. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Feathers of flanks with chestnut borders. 
a'. Breast g'rey. 

". Crown chestnut A. torqueola <$ , p. 125. 

a". Crown olive-brown with black spots. 
a 3 . Chin and throat rufous with black 

spots A. rvfigularis, p. 126. 

b\ Chin and throat black, fore neck 

rufous , A. intermedia, p. 127. 

b'. Breast brownish ; crown olive-brown 

with black spots A. torqueola , p. 12o. 

c' . Breast chestnut ; throat paler ; a white 

gorget A. mandellii, p. 128. 

b. No chestnut on flanks. 

d' . Breast grey A. atrigularis, p. 127. 

e'. Breast pale brown A. brunneipectusj p. 128. 

The habits of all the species are similar. They inhabit hill 
forests, are usually solitary or in pairs, but are mefc with in coveys 
at times ; probably, as with other partridges, the old and young 
associate for a time, after the latter are full grown. They keep 
much to thick undergrowth, especially near hill-streams, and are 
rarely flushed or even seen ; they feed on seeds and insects and 
drink daily. When flushed their flight is rapid but short ; they 
occasionally perch. Their call is a low soft whistle, single or 
double. But little is known of their nidification and eggs, except 
that the latter are generally white and 6 to 8 in number, placed 
in slight depressions on the ground under trees. 



ARBORICOLA. 125 

1362. Arboricola torqueola. The Common Hill- Par tridye. 

Perdix torqueola, Valenciennes, Diet. Sci. Nat. xxxviii, p. 435 (1825). 

Perdix megapodia, Temm. PL Col. pis. 462, 463 (1828). 

Perdix olivacea, Gray in Griffith's An. Kinyd.,Aves, iii, p. 54 (1829). 

Perdix torquata, Less. Trade, p. 506 (1831). 

Arboriphila torqueola, Gray, Cat. Mamm. fyc. Coll. Hodgs. p. 127 ; 
Hume, N. $ E. p. 544 ; id. S. F. ii, p. 449. 

Arboricola torqueola, Blt/th, J. A. S. B. xviii, p. 819; id. Cat. 
p. 252 ; Jerdon, B. 1. "iii, p. 577 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, 
pt. 2, p. 69 ; Godw-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. 2, p. 203 ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 824 ; Scully, IS. F. viii, p. 349 ; Hume $ Marsh. Game B. 
ii, p. 69, pi. ; C. H. T. Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 423 ; Ogilvie 
Grant, Ibis, 1892, p. 392 : id. Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 207. 

The Black-throated Hill-Partriclye, Jerdon ; Peunra, Ban-tit ar, H. 
(Kumaun, Nepal, &c.) ; Roli, Ram Chukru^ Chamba ; Kaindal, Kaugra ; 



Coloration. Male. Crown bright chestnut ; nape the same 
spotted with black ; ear-coverts paler rufous and with a rufous 
streak, mixed with black, running back from them ; sides of head, 
including lores and supercilia, and chin black; throat and sides 
of neck the same, except that the feathers are edged with white 
at the sides ; a white moustachial streak ; upper parts golden olive- 
brown ; feathers of the back tipped and barred with black, the 
subterminal bars on the lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts 
becoming triangular spots ; scapulars, tertiaries, and wing-coverts 
pale golden brown, broadly edged with chestnut, and all, except 
the outer wing-coverts, with large black subterminal spots ; quills 
dark brown; primaries narrowly bordered outside, and secondaries 
mottled on outer web with rufous ; tail-feathers olive-brown, 
irregularly barred and mottled with black ; a white gorget below 
the black throat ; breast slaty grey, the feathers with narrow 
golden-olive or rufous edges ; middle of abdomen white ; sides and 
flanks grey, each feather with an elongate white spot and broadly 
edged with chestnut ; lower flanks, thighs, and vent brown, with 
buff edges and black bars ; under tail-coverts black with white tips. 

Females differ from, males in having the crown and nape brown, 
streaked with black ; ear-coverts brown ; sides of head and the 
whole throat rufous, with black terminal spots on the feathers ; 
the wing-coverts are more spotted and barred with black ; a 
ferruginous gorget above the breast, which is tinted with golden 
buff ; the white spots on the flanks are larger and generally extend 
to the lower breast ; they, however, disappear from the breast 
with age, and are found there in young males also. 

Bill black ; irides brown ; orbital skin crimson in old males, 
purplish red in younger birds and in females ; legs grey tinged 
with reddish fleshy (Hume}. 

Length about 11; tail 3; wing 6; tarsus 1'75; bill from 
gape *9. Males average larger than females. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Chamba to east of Sikhim. 
Found also by Godwin-Austen in the Naga hills and the higher 



126 PHASIAXIDA, 

ranges north of Manipur*. This species is commonest between 
5000 and 8000 or 9000 feet, but is found occasionally at con- 
siderably higher elevations up to 14,000. 

1363. Arboricola rufigularis. Blytlis Hill-Partridge. 

Arboricola rufojrularis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviii, p. 819 (1849) ; id. 

Cat. p. 253 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 578 ; Beaoan, Ibis, 1868, p. 385 ; 

Hume, S. F. v, p. 114; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 444; Hume, 

Cat. no. 825 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 349 : Hume fy Marsh. Game B. 

ii, p. 75 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 328 ; alvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. 

(2) v, p. 620 ; vii, p. 426 ; Ogilme Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, 

p. 212. 

Arboriphila rufogularis, Hume, S. F. ii, p. 450. 
Arboricola rufigularis, Blyt.h $- Wald. Birds Sunn. p. 150 ; Godw.- 

Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. 2, p. 84 ; Gates in Humes N. $ E. 

2nd ed. iii, p. 439. 
Arboricola tickelli, Hume, Game B. ii, pp. 73, 78. 

The Rufous-throated Hill- Part ridge, Jerdon ; Peura, Kumaun ; Kohum- 
but, Lepcha ; Pokhu, Daphla. 

Coloration. Crown olive-brown, streaked with black, greyish 
and unstreaked on the forehead ; lores and long supercilia greyish 
white with black shafts ; sides of face white, speckled with black 
except on a stripe running back from the gape ; ear-coverts dark 
brown ; chin, throat, and sides of neck, united more or less behind 
the nape, rufous with black spots, largest behind the nape and 
diminishing in size towards the throat ; a band on the fore neck 
below the throat pure ferruginous red, generally, but not always, 
divided from the breast by a black border ; upper parts golden 
olivaceous brown, not barred with black, but with semi-oval black 
spots on the lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts ; scapulars 
and wing-coverts greyer, with large subterminal black spots and 
chestnut edges; quills dark brown, outer webs of secondaries 
mottled with rufous olive ; tail olive, with black markings and 
subterminal crescentic bars ; breast and flanks slaty grey, the latter 
with a white spot in the middle of each feather and' chestnut 
borders ; lower flanks brown, with black crescentic spots and buffy 
edges ; lower tail-coverts black, tipped white. Sexes alike. 

Bill black ; irides red-brown ; orbits dull lake-red ; legs red 
(Jerdon). 

Length about 10-5; tail 2-5 ; wing 5*25 ; tarsus 1'6; bill from 
gape -9. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from the western boundaries of 
Kumaun through Nepal, Sikhim, and Bhutan to the Daphla hills, 
where this species was found by Godwin-Austen, and probablv 
farther east. It also occurs in the hill-ranges of Karenuee and 
Tenasserim (A. tickelli), the variety there found generally wanting 

* Col. Godwin-Austen has lent his specimens to rr.e for examination, and 
they are undoubtedly A. torqueola. There are several specimens, both males 
and females. 



ARBORICOLA. 127 

the black band behind the rufous throat, but this is not a constant 
character. In the Himalayas this species inhabits a lower zone 
than A. torqueola, from the base of the hills to about 6000 feet. 

1361. Arboricola intermedia. The Arralcan Hill-Partridge. 

Arboricola intermedia, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiv, p. 277 (1855'); 
Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. 2, p. 174 ; Blyth 8f Wold. Birds 
Burin, p. 150 ; Hume fy Marsh. Game B. ii, p. 85, pi. ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 825 ter; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 327 ; id. in Hume's N. fy E. 
2nd ed. iii, p. 440 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 307 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. 
B. M. xxii, p. 211. 

Arboriphila intermedia, Hume, S. F. ii, p. 450 ; Oates, S. F. iii, 
p. 344. 

Touny-Kha, Burmese. 

This is only distinguished from A. rufiyularis by having the 
chin and throat entirely black, followed by an unspotted ferru- 
ginous-red gorget without any black lower border. In all other 
respects this species is identical with the last, of which it is merely 
a race. 

Distribution. The Arrakan hills between Arrakan and Pogu, 
ranging as far north as Eastern Manipur, where Hume found this 
bird common, and to North Cachar and the Naga hills, whence it 
was obtained by Godwin-Austen. 

1365. Arboricola atrigularis. The White-cheeked Hill -Par fridge. 

Arboricola atrogularis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviii, p. 819 (1849); id. 
Cat. p. 253 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 273; Hume, 
S. F. v, p. 44 ; Anderson, Yunnan JExped.< Aves, p. 673 ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 824 bis ; Hume 8f Marsh. Game B. ii, p. 79, pi. ; Hume, 
S. F. xi, p. 306; Oyilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 209. 

Arborophila atrogularis, Hume, S. F. ii, p. 449. 

Arboricola atrigularis, Oates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 439. 
Peura, Sylhet ; Duboy, Dubore, Assam ; San-batai, Chittagong. 

Coloration. Crown olive-brown, passing into grey on the fore- 
head and rufous on the nape and sides of neck ; all feathers, 
except on the forehead, with black shafts or terminal spots ; a long 
superciliuin from the lores, and area all round eye black ; a pale 
grey superciliary stripe, also from the lores, above the black ; 
cheeks white, passing into pale rufous on ear-coverts ; back, rump, 
and upper tail-coverts yellowish olive-brown, the feathers broadly 
tipped and barred with black ; scapulars and tertiaries greyer, with 
large subterminal black spots and ferruginous tips ; wing-coverts 
light greyish olive mixed with dark brown ; quills brown, secondaries 
edged and mottled on the outer webs with rufous ; tail-feathers 
mottled olive and black ; chin and throat black ; fore neck black 
above, with white edges to the feathers, below with grey, passing 
into the grey breast aud flanks, the latter with white spots ; middle 
of abdomen whitish ; lower tail-coverts rufous -olive, with white tips 
and subterminal black spots. Sexes alike. 



128 PHASIANIDJE. 

Bill black ; irides brown ; skin of head, chesks, and throat deep 
reddish pink ; legs lobster-red (Cripps). 

Length about 11; tail 2-5; wing 5'5 ; tarsus 1'75; bill from 
gape -9. 

Distribution. Assam south of the Brahmaputra ; the Kaga, 
Khasi, and Garo hills, Cachar, Sylhet, Tipperah, and Chittagong. 

1366. Arboricola mandellii. The Red-lreasted Hill- Partridge. 

Arboricola nmmlellii, Hume, P. A. S. B. 1874, p. 106; id. Cat. 
no. 825 bis ; Hume $ Marsh. Game B. ii, p. 83, pi. ; On'ilme Grant, 
Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 214 ; WaddeM, Gazetteer Sikhim, p. 230. 

Arboriphila mandellii, Hume, S. F. ii, p. 449 (1874), iii, p. 262, pi. i. 

Coloration. Crown and nape dull chestnut, forehead and lores 
brighter; a dark grey superciliary band commencing above 
each eye and carried back to meet that from the opposite side 
behind the nape ; sides of head and neck, and collar on hind neck 
deep ferruginous with black spots ; upper parts olive, the feathers 
of the upper back slightly fringed with blackish ; lower back, 
rump, and upper tail-coverfs with pointed, elongate, black spots ; 
scapulars, tertiaries, and wing-coverts \\ith chestnut edges and 
black subterminal spots, the latter smaller than in A. rufit/ularis : 
quills brown, outer webs of secondaries mottled with rufous; tail 
olive-brown ; chin and throat pale chestnut, followed by a white 
gorget with a black border behind; most of the breast deep 
chestnut ; lower breast and abdomen slaty grey, whitish towards 
the vent : sides and flanks grey, the feathers with central white 
spots and chestnut edges ; under tail-coverts olive, with white spots 
and tipped rufous. Sexes alike. 

The colours of the soft parts have not been recorded. 

Length about 11 ; tail 2*25; wing 5*5; tarsus 1*7; bill from 
gape -9. 

Distribution. The lower hills of Sikhim and Bhutan from 1000 
to 6000 feet above the sea. The first specimens obtained were 
from the Duars of Bhutan ; but the bird has since been pro- 
cured in Sikhim by the original discoverer Mr. Mandelli and by 
Dr. Waddell. 

1367. Arboricola brunneipectus. The Brown-breasted 
Hill-Part rid cje. 

Arboricola brunneopectus, Tickcll, Bli/th, J. A. S. B. xxiv, p. 270 

(1855) ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 443 : Hume, Cat. no. 824 ter ; 

Hume fy Marsh. Game B, ii, p. 87, pi. ; Binylmm, S. F. ix, p. 195 ; 

Of/ilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 216. 
Arborophila brunneopectus, Hume, S. F. ii, p. 449 ; Hume fy Gates, 

S. F. iii, p. 174; Walden, Ibis, 1875, p. 459. 
Arboricola brunneipectus, Bh/th &f Wald. Birds Burm. p. 150 ; Oat?*, 

B. B. ii, p. 325 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. 621 ; 

vii, p. 426 ; Gates, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. x, p. 112. 

Coloration, Forehead and broad supercilia running back to the 
sides of the neck, cheeks, ear-coverts, and chin buff ; lores, a line 



TROPlCOrERDIX. 129 

above and another beneath the eye, the two uniting and extending 
back above the ear-coverts to a large patch on the side of the neck, 
black ; crown olive-brown, the feathers tipped black, sometimes (in 
young birds ?) almost wholly black with brown bars ; nape and 
sides of neck chiefly or wholly black, but divided from each other 
by the superciliary stripe ; back olivaceous brown, with rather 
broad and nearly straight black cross-bars ; rump and upper 
tail-coverts the same, but the black bands are less numerous 
and have some pale bars intervening ; scapulars, tertiaries, and 
wing-coverts paler brown, with black subterminal spots and broad 
chestnut tips ; quills dark brown, outer webs with mottled buff 
tips, those of the secondaries broadly edged and mottled with 
chestnut ; tail olive with black mottling ; throat and fore neck 
thinly clad with black-tipped buff feathers, the skin conspicuous 
between them ; breast brownish rufescent buff ; middle of abdomen 
whitish, flanks greyer, each feather with a central round white 
spot and a black tip ; under tail-coverts buff with subterminal 
broad black spots. 

Bill black ; eyelids, patch behind the eye, and skin of the throat 
red ; iris dark brown ; legs lake-red ; claws orange (Gates). 

Length about 11; tail 2*4; wing 5-5; tarsus 1'7; bill from 
gape 1. 

Distribution. The eastern spurs of the Pegu hills in evergreen 
forest, the ranges east of the Sitangirom Karennee as far south as 
Tavoy, al*o the neighbourhood of the Ruby mines in Upper 
Burma. 

Genus TROPICOPERDIX, Blyth, 1859. 

Two Burmese and Malayan forest-haunting Partridges are 
distinguished from true Arboricola by wanting the peculiar chain 
of superorbital ossicles, aud by somewhat different plumage, much 
more mottled above, and with a patch of white downy leathers on 
each side behind the axilla. 

There are two species, of which one is Burmese. 

1368. Tropicoperdix chloropus. The Green-legged 
Hill-Par tridye. 

Tropicoperdix chloropus, Tickell, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxviii, p. 415 

(1859). 
Arboricola chloropus, Tickell, J. A. S. B. xxviii, p. 453 ; Blyth # 

Wald. Birds Burnt, p. 150; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 444; 

Hume, Cat. no. 824 quat. ; Hume fy Marsh. Game B. ii, p. 91, pi. ; 

Binglmm, S. F. ix, p. 195 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 326 ; Oyiloie Grant, 

Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 219. 
Phcenicoperdix chloropus, G. R. Grai/, Hand-l. B. ii ; p. 269 ; Hume, 

S. F. ii, p. 482 ; vi, p. 447 ; id, Cat. no. 831 bis. 
Arborophila chloropus, Hume, 8. F. ii, p. 449. 
Peloperdix chloropus, Hume, S. F. iii, p. 176. 

Coloration. Forehead, lores, and long supercilia dark brown, with 
white shaft-stripes, which become much broader posteriorly ; 

VOL. IT. K 



130 PHASIAXIDJE. 

sides of face, chin, and throat white, the feathers with blackish 
tips ; ear-coverts brown ; fore neck and sides of neck rufous with 
black spots ; crown and nape brown with an olive tinge ; upper 
parts from the neck and upper breast similar, but more rufous, 
with close narrow crescentic black bars, and the lower back, rump, 
scapulars, and wing-coverts mottled with rufous ; quills brown, 
outer webs of secondaries with mottled pale rufous bars ; tail 
rufous brown with irregular black cross-bars ; middle of lower 
breast ferruginous red; middle of abdomen buffy white ; sides rf 
both flanks and lower tail-coverts p^le ferruginous, with irregular 
black blotches and bars ; axillaries and a patch of downy feathers 
on the flanks behind them white. Sexes alike. 

Bill dusky red at base, the remainder greenish ; eyelids and 
orbital skin purplish ; legs greenish, claws yellow (Oates). 

Length about 11'5; tail 3; wing 6-25; tarsus 1-6; bill from 
gape -9. 

Distribution. Locally distributed in the evergreen forests on the 
eastern slopes of the Pegu Yoma and throughout Tenasserim, 
from the extreme north as far south as Tavoy. 

Habits, fyc. Like its allies, this is an inhabitant of forests, found 
sometimes in pairs, sometimes in small parties, feeding on seeds 
and insects, and but rarely seen to fly. Davison notices that, like 
the Arboricolas, these birds come about midday to forest streams to 
drink, and they may be seen on pathways early in the morning. 
The note is a low, soft, double whistle. The eggs have not been 
recorded. 

The other species, T. charltoni, inhabits the southern part of the 
Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and N. Borneo. Hume repeatedly 
refers to a story, which he discredits, of this species having been 
brought from Southern Tenasserim ; but I cannot find any trust- 
worthy record of a Burmese habitat *. T. charltoni may be recog- 
nized by having the back vermiculated and speckled throughout, the 
upper breast chestnut, and the legs red. 

Genus CALOPERDIX, Blyth, 1865. 

This genus has the tail, of 14 feathers, less than half the length 
of the rounded wing, as in Arboricola, but is distinguished by its 
shorter feet, by its much shorter though straight claws, that of the 
hallux being rudimentary, and by the tarsus, which is considerably 
longer than the middle toe and claw, being armed with one or 
two spurs in males. Sexes alike in coloration. 

Two or three species or races are known from the Malay 
Peninsula. Sumatra, Borneo, and Java ; one ranges into Southern 
Tenasserim. 



* Blyth, ' Ibis,' 1867, p. 160, gave " Tenasserim Mountains " as the locality of 
this and also of T. chlorous, but the insertion in the case of T. charltoni is a 
palpable misprint. 



CACCABIS. 131 



1369. Galop srdix oculea. The Ferruginous Wood-Partridge. 

Perdix oculea, Temm. Pig. et Gall, iii, pp. 408 & 732 (1815) ; Gray 
in Hardwicke 1 s III. 2nd. Zool. i, pi. 58. 

Cryptonyx ocellatus, Via. Zool. Journ. iv, p. 349 (1829). 

Roliulus ocellatus, Blyth, Cat. p. 253. 

Caloperdix oculea, Blytli, J. A. S. B. xxxiv, pt. 2, p. 289 ; id. Ibis, 
1867, p. 160 ; Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi. p. 449 ; Hume, Cat. no. 831 
quat. ; Hume 8f Marsh. Game P. ii, p. 101, pi. ; Gates, B. B. ii, 

^ p. 329 ; Or/ilrie Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 222. 

Caloperdix ocellata, Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burrn. p. 151. 

Coloration. Head, neck, and lower surface deep ferruginous red, 
deepest on the crown, pale and albescent on the supercilia, chin, 
and throat ; upper back black with two white bands on each 
feather, one intramarginal, and an inner parallel or subparallel to 
the outer ; interscapular region, rump, and tail-coverts black, with 
deep rufous V-shaped intramarginal bands ; scapulars and wing- 
coverts olive-brown, all except outer coverts with rounded black 
subterminal spots ; quills dark brown, secondaries tipped and 
mottled on the outer webs with rufous buff ; tail black, the two 
middle feathers with rufous submarginal bands ; flanks black with 
white bars ; lower flanks and under tail-coverts ferruginous with 
black spots ; lower abdomen white or whitish in middle. 

Bill black; irides deep brown; legs and feet pale dirty green 
(Davison). 

Length about 10-75; tail 2'75; wing 5*8; tarsus T85; bill 
from gape 1. 

Distribution. The Malay Peninsula, extending into the southern- 
most part of Tenasserim, near Bankasoon, in dense forest. A 
closely allied race inhabits Sumatra. 

Genus CACCABIS, Kaup, 1829. 

The Red-legged Partridges, of which the present genus consists, 
are chiefly Palaearctic, one species ranging into Northern India. 
They are birds of moderate size and almost uniform upper plumage, 
having the flanks conspicuously barred with black or chestnut. 
The sexes are alike, except that the male has a blunt spur on the 
tarsus. The tail, of 14 feathers, is slightly rounded, and about J 
to the length of the wing. Third primary generally slightly the 
longest, 1st about equal to 5th or 6th. 

1370. Caccabis chucar. The Chukor. 

Perdix chukar, Gray in Hardw. Ill Ind. Zool. i, pi. 54 (1830-32). 
Chacura pugnax, Hodgs. Madras Jour. L. S. v, p. 305 (1837). 
Caccabis chukar, Blyth, Cat. p. 251 ; Adapts, P. Z. &. 1858, p. 502 ; 

1859, p. 185; Hume, S. F. i, p. 226; id. Cat. no. 820; Scull}/, 

>V. F. viii, p. 348 ; Biddidph, Ibis, 1881, p. 93 ; Scully, ibid. p. 586 ; 

Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 309; St. John, Ibis. 1889, p. 175; Ogilme 

Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 113. 

Caccabis chukor, Jerclon, B. I. iii, p. 564 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, 

K2 



132 PHASIANID^. 

pt. 2, p. 69 ; Hume. # Marsh. Game B. ii, p. 33 ; C. H. T. Marshall, 
Ibis, 1884, p. 423 ; Gates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 431. 

Oaccabis pallescens, Hume, Lah. to York. p. 283. 

Caccabis pallidus, Hume, t. c. p. 284. 

Chukar, H. ; Kabk, P. ; Kau-kau, Kashmir ; CJiukru, Cliamba. 

Coloration. Upper parts varying from brownish olive to ashy, 
the upper back and scapulars, and sometimes the crown, tinged 
with vinous red ; outer scapulars pure ashy with broad rufous 
edges : sinciput and sides of crown always grey, supercilia buffy, 
ear-coverts dull chestnut ; a black band across the forehead to each 
eye, continued behind the e} r e round the throat and forming a 
gorget ; extreme tip of chin and a spot at each side of gape 
black ; lores, sides of head, and throat white or pale buff ; quills 
brown, all primaries except the first with the outer web buff near 
the tip, and a buffy patch on the outer edge of most secondaries 
near the end ; middle tail-feathers drab like the rump, terminal 
half of outer tail-feathers chestnut ; breast ashy tinged more or 
less with brown, and the sides with vinous; abdomen and lower 
tail-coverts light to dark buff ; feathers of the flanks grey at the 
base, each with two black bars, buff between the bars, and chestnut 
at the ends. 

Birds from the Himalayas are darker and browner, those from 
Ladak, the Western Punjab, Sind, and other dry open tracts are 
greyer and paler. The black gorget varies in breadth. 

Bill and legs red ; irides brown, yellowish, or orange. 

Length of male about 15 ; tail 4'25 ; wing 6'5 ; tarsus 1'8 ; bill 
from gape 1*1. Female rather smaller, length 14 ; wing t>. 

Distribution. Throughout the greater part of Western and 
Central Asia from the Levant to China. This species occurs in 
the Himalayas as far east as Nepal throughout a great range of 
elevation ; also in the hilly parts of the Punjab, and in the higher 
ranges of Sind west of the Indus. A closely-allied form, in fact 
only a race, C. saxatilis, distinguished by its black lores, inhabits 
the mountains of Southern Europe. 

Habits, $c. The Chukor keeps, as a rule, to open hillsides, 
amongst scattered bushes or grass, but it is also found in 
better wooded country and in cultivated fields. These birds 
keep in coveys throughout the winter, and sometimes the coveys 
associate in flocks. They are noisy, and often utter the loud 
chuckling double note from which their name is taken. In spring 
they break up into pairs, and they breed from April to August, 
later at higher elevations than at lower, from 5000 or 6000 feet up 
to 12,000, and higher, even at 16,000 in Tibet. The nest, a few 
leaves and fibres or a little grass on the ground, contains from 7 to 
14 eggs, generally 8 to 10 ; these are pale cafe-au-lait in colour, 
spotted and speckled with purplish pink or brown, and measure 
about 1-68 by 1-25. 

Chukor, where they are abundant, afford fair shooting ; but 
they are inferior for the table to partridges, in general being 
rather dry. 



AMMOPERDIX. 133 



Genus AMMOPERDIX, Gould, 1851. 

There are but two nearly allied species in the present genus. 
One, A. heyi, is found in Arabia, Egypt, and ISfubia ; the other 
ranges from the Euphrates to the Indus. Both are of small size, 
and the sexes differ considerably in plumage. The tail is short, 
about half as long as the wing, and slightly rounded, of 12 feathers. 
Wing rounded ; 3rd primary usually longest ; 1st but little 
shorter, and about equal to or between 5th and 6th. No spurs. 



1371. Ammoperdix bonhami. The Seesee. 

Perdix bonhami, Fraser, P. Z. S. 1843, p. 70. 

Ammoperdix bonhami, Gould, Birds Asia, vii, pi. 1 ; Adams, P. Z. S, 

1858, p. 503; Jerdon, B.I. iii, p. 567; Hume, S. F. i, p. 226; 

id. Cat. no. 821; Hume fy Marsh. Game B. ii, p. 45, pi.; 

Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 310 ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 175 ; Oates 

in Hume's N. Sf E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 433 ; Oyilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. 

xxii, p. 123. 

The Seesee Partridge, Jerdon ; Sist, Punjab, Sind ; Tihu, P. 




Fig. '27. Head of A. louhami. \. 

Coloration. Male. A black frontal band carried back above each 
eye and over the ear-coverts, succeeded below by a silky-white 
band through the eye, including the lores and ear-coverts, and 
terminating behind in a rufous patch ; below the white are traces 
of a black streak ; crown and nape dull ashy g:rey, sides of neck 
grey with white zigzag cross-bars ; hind neck and back similar, but 
the bars overlaid and partially concealed by vinous red ; lower 
back, wings, rump, upper tail-coverts, and middle tail-feathers 
sandy grey finely vermiculated with buff, especially on the scapulars 
and tertiaries, feathers of the lower back and rump with small 
blackish arrowhead-shaped spots along the shafts ; primaries 
brown, and, except the first, barred with buff on the outer web ; 
secondaries brown, mottled with buff on the outer web arid some- 
times on the inner near the shaft; outer tail-feathers brownish 
chestnut, more or less pale-tipped ; chin whitish, passing into ashy 
grey on the throat, cheeks, and fore neck ; breast vinous buff, 
passing into yellowish buff on the abdomen and lower tail-coverts, 
the feathers of the upper abdomen with rufous margins, those of 



134 PHASIATTID.E. 

the flanks whitish, with chestnut inner webs and black margins to 
each web. 

Females differ in wanting the black and white markings of the 
head, which is dull brownish grey irregularly barred with whitish ; 
the upper parts are more isabelliue than in the male, the wings 
more coarsely marked, and the scapulars blotched with brown ; 
there is no grey on the throat nor black and chestnut on the flanks, 
the lower parts are barred light brown and buff, the throat is 
whitish, the middle of the abdomen with the lower tail-coverts 
being entirely buff, and there are bioad but taint oblique streaks 
of whitish on the abdomen and flanks. 

Bill orange to chestnut ; irides yellow to orange-brown ; legs 
wax-yellow ; claws pale brown (Hume). 

Length of male about 10; tail 2*5.; wing 5-5; tarsus 1'25; bill 
from gape '7. Females are rather smaller : wing 5. 

Distribution. The Salt Range and Khariar hills of the Punjab; 
Hazara, and all the ranges of the Punjab and Sind west of the 
Indus. To the westward this bird ranges throughout Baluchistan, 
Afghanistan, and Persia, and is said to have been obtained in 
Arabia near Aden. 

Habits, Sfc. The Seesee is chiefly found on bare rocky and stony 
hillsides, and is commonly seen in ravines, never in forest or thick 
bush. It is a bird of hilly deserts. It is usually met with in pairs 
even in the winter. Thy call is a soft, clear, double note. The 
flight rather resembles a quail's, and the bird rises with a whistle. 
This species breeds from April till June, and lays 8 to 12 creamy- 
white eggs, measuring about 1*4 by 1'03, in a slight nest on the 
ground, often between stones or under a bush. Hume speaks of 
Seesee as poor eating, but my experience of them in Siud and 
Persia was much more favourable. 



Genus FRANCOLINUS, Stephens, 1819. 

Tail of 14 feathers, slightly rounded, rather more than half as 
long as the wing; the 3rd or 4th quill longest, 5th and 6th nearly 
as long. Tarsus usually spurred in males. Sexes similar or dis- 
similar. 

The Indian birds included in the present genus by Mr. Ogilvie 
Grant, whom I have followed, have been by most ornithologists 
divided between two genera, Francolinus and Ortyyornis, the Grey 
and Kyah Partridges being referred to the latter, which is distin- 
guished by having the sexes alike, by different plumage, voice, 
and habits. But the sexes are similar in Francolinus pictus, the 
habits of the two species referred to Ortygornis have nothing in 
common, and there are African forms that tend to connect all the 
Indian species with each other. The great majority of the 42 
species referred to Francolinus are African, but five species are 
found in India or Burma, and some of them range over a great part 
of Southern Asia, 



FRA.NCOLINUS. 135 

Key to the Species. 

a. Quills transversely barred or spotted with 

butt' on both web.?. 

a'. Scapulars with a conspicuous buff .sub- 
marginal band. 
a". A chestnut collar in males and nuchal 

patch in females F. vulyaris, p. 135. 

b". No chestnut on neck F. pictus, p. 137. 

b' . No submarginal buff band on scapulars. . F. chinensis, p. 138. 

b. Quills without transversely elongate spots 

or bars. 

c. Breast buff, with narrow black cross-bars. F. pondicerianus, p. 139. 
d' . Breast brown, with broad longitudinal 

white stripes F. t/ularis, p. 141. 

1372. Francolinus vulgaris. The Black Partridge or Common 
Francolin. 

Tetrao francolinus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 275 (1766). 

Francolinus vulgaris, Steph. in Shanes Gen. ZooL xi, p. 319 (1819) ; 

Blyth, Cat. p. 251 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 558 ; Blanford, J. A. S. B. 

xxxvi, pt. 2, p. 200; xxxviii, pt. 2, p. 190; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. 

xxx vii, pt. 2, p. 68; xli, pt. 2, p. 249; Hume, S. F. i, p. 226 ; 

Godiv.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. 2, p. 83 ; Butler $ Hume, & F. iv, 

p. 5; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 225; Hume, Cat. no. 818; Scully, S. I. 

viii, p. 348 ; Hume $ Marsh. Game B. ii, p. 9, pi. ; Reid, S. F. x, 

p. 62 ; Murdoch, ibid. p. 1C8 : Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 307 ; Humt, 

S. F. xi, p. 304 ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 175 ; Oates in Humes 

N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 428. 

Francolinus melanonotus, Hume, S. F. xi, p. 305. 
Francolinus francoliuus, Oyilvie Grant, Ibis, 1892, p. 38 ; id. Cat. 

B. M. xxii, p. 132. 

Kala-titar, H. : Kais-titar, $ , Nepal ; Tetra, Garhwal ; Vrembi, 
Manipur. 

Coloration. Male. Crown blackish brown, the feathers broadly 
edged with pale brown and on the nape with white ; sides of head, 
with the chin and throat, black, except an elongate white patuli 
running back from beneath each eye and including the ear-coverts ; 
a broad chestnut collar all round the neck; behind this the upper 
back and the sides of the breast are black, the feathers with a 
large white spot on each web ; scapulars, interscapulars, tertiaries, 
and wing-coverts brown ; each feather with a submarginal tawny 
or buff band, nearly or quite continuous, and pale edges ; pri- 
maries and secondaries dark brown, with tawny-buff transverse 
spots on both webs, forming imperfect bars ; lower back, rump, 
upper tail-coverts, and tail-feathers black with narrow white bars, 
terminal third of outer tail-feathers unbarred black ; breast and 
upper abdomen pure black in old birds ; flanks spotted white like 
sides of the breast, but the two- white spots on each feather 
coalesce posteriorly ; lower abdomen and thigh-coverts light 
chestnut tipped with white ; vent and under tail-coverts pure 
dark chestnut. 



136 



PHASIANIDJE. 



Female like the male above, hut paler and duller: the chestnut 
on the neck is confined to a patch at the back ; the rump and tail 
are brown, with dark-edged buff bars that are wider apart than the 
white bars of the male ; sides of head and supercilia buff, the ear- 
coverts dark brown ; lower parts buff, chin and throat whitish, the 
remainder irregularly barred with brown, the bars on the feathers 
waved or arrowhead-shaped and broadest on the flanks. In old 
female birds the bars on the lower surface are narrower, and they 
tend to disappear on the abdomen. 

In young males the black feathers. of the breast have a pair of 
subterniinal white spots like those of the sides, and the chm and 
throat are mixed with white. Young females have the breast 
similarly spotted, not barred. 

Bill black in the male, dusky brown in the female ; irides brown ; 
legs and feet brownish red to orange. 

Length of male about 13-5; tail 4 ; wing 6-i!5 ; tarsus 1-9 ; bill 
from gape 1*15. Females are rather smaller, but there is much 
variation in size in both sexes. The male has a spur on each 
tarsus. 

Distribution. The Black Partridge is found in suitable localities 
throughout Northern India from the Punjab and Sind to Assam, 
Sylhet, Cachar, and Manipur, the southern boundary in India 
running south of Cutch and north of Kattywar, thence approxi- 
mately through Dsa, Gwalior. and Sambalpur to the Chilka 
Lake in Orissa, whilst to the northward this bird ascends the 
outer ranges of the Himalayas, and is found along the river-valleys 
to about 5000 feet or occasionally higher. This Francolin is not 
known to range east or south beyond Manipur, but west of India 
it occurs throughout Persia, to Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, and 
Cyprus, and was formerly found in Greece, Italy, Sicily, and 
Spain, though it is now extinct in those countries. 

Habits, <jvj. The Black Partridge is most commonly found in the 
Indo-Gangetic plain and neighbouring parts of India, where high 
grass and tamarisk scrub occur in the neighbourhood of water on 
the borders of cultivation. It is found in cultivation away from 
jungle and in bush, but less abundantly, and it is always met with 
singly or in pairs, never in coveys, except immediately after the 
breeding-season. It feeds, like other partridges, on seeds and 
insects. The call of the male, especially uttered in the morning 
and evening, from an ant-hill or some similar slight elevation, is 
harsh, and resembles the crow of a pheasant or jungle-fowl more 
than the recapitulated double whistle of most partridges; it has 
been imitated in Hindustani by the pious " Subhdn, teri Jcudrat" 
(Omnipotent, thy power), and by the vulgar " lahsan,pidj, adrak " 
(garlic, onion, ginger), but "juk-julc, tee-tee-tur" or the English 
imitation " be quick, pay your debts" come nearer to the five notes 
of the cry. The breeding-season is from May to August, chiefly 
in June, and from 6 to 10 eggs of a drab or stone colour, 
measuring about 1'56 by 1-28, are laid on the ground in a more or 
less loosely-constructed nest of straw, grass, roots, or leaves. 



FRANCOLINUS. 137 

Where abundant the Black Partridge affords excellent shooting, 
especially from elephants, and the flesh is gamey and well- 
flavoured. 

1373. Francoliims pictus. The Painted Partridge. 

Perdix picta, Jard. $ Selby, 111. Orn. pi. 50 (1828). 

Perdix hepburnii, Gray in Hardw. III. Ind. Zool. \, pi. 55 (1830-32). 

Francolinus pictus, Blyth, Cat. p. 251 ; Jerdon, B. 1. iii, p. 561 ; 
Beavan, Ibis, 1868, p. 383 ; King, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 216 ; 
Lloyd, Ibis, 1873, p. 41 5 ; Butler $ Hume, S. F. iv, p. 6 ; v, p. 211 ; 
Fairbank, S. F. iv, p. 262 ; Ball, S. F. v, p. 419 ; vii, p. 225 ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 819; Hume fy Marsh. Game B. ii, p. 19, pi.; Leoge, 
Birds Ceyl. p. 744 ; Hume, 8. F. ix, p. 208 : Butler, ibid. p. 422 ; 
Vidal, S. F. x, p. 160; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 308; Oates in 
Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 430 ; Oailoie Grant, Ibis, 1892, 
p. 40 ; id. Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 133. 

Titar, Kala titar, Mahr. ; Kakhera kodi, Tel. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, Supercilia, lores, and sides of head 
dull ferruginous red ; crown black with buff edges to the feathers ; 
back and sides of neck the same, but the buff edges are broader and 
more rufous ; upper back black with white spots ; wing-coverts 
blackish brown, with large rufous-buff spots and bars ; scapulars 
the same, each with a submarginal buff band ; quills brown, with 
transversely broad rufous-buff spots on each web, becoming bars 
on the secondaries ; lower back, rump, upper tail-coverts, and 
middle tail-feathers narrowly barred black and white ; outer tail- 
feathers the same, but with black ends, which are broader on the 
outermost feathers ; chin and throat paler ferruginous than the 
cheeks and becoming streaked with black on the fore neck ; breast 
and flanks nearly covered with buffy-white spots separated from 
each other by black ; lower abdomen dull rufous, passing into 
chestnut on the lower tail-coverts. 

Females scarcely differ except that the pale bars on the lower 
back, rump, and tail are more distant, and buff instead of white; 
the throat too is whitish. 

Bill blackish ; irides dark brown ; legs yellowish red (Jerdon). 
No spurs in either sex. 

Length 12; tail 3 ; wing 5-5 ; tarsus 1'7; bill from gape 1*05. 

Distribution. The southern limit of Frannolinus vulc/aris is the 
northern boundary of the range of the Painted Partridge, which 
is common in Guzerat, Khandesh, the Nerbudda valley, and parts 
of the Deccan, less common in the Central Indian Agency, 
Bundelkhand, Jhansi, Saugor, the Central Provinces, and the 
northern parts of the Madras Presidency ; still rarer farther south, 
and wanting on the Malabar coast south of Bombay, in Mysore, 
and in the peninsula south of Coimbatore. It occurs in Ceylon, 
but only, so far as is known, on some of the lower hills of the 
Central Province west and south of Nuwara-Elia. 

Habits, $c. Similar to those of F. vulgaris, except that the present 
species is more commonly found in dry grassy tracts away from 
water ; it affects cultivation to a greater extent, and it much more 



138 

often perches in trees ; the male especially often utters its 
call-note, which resembles that of the Black Partridge, but is less 
harsh and has a very different tone, from a tree. The nest and 
eggs close!} 7 resemble those of the Black Partridge ; the breeding- 
season is from July to September (June to August according to 
Jerdon), and the eggs, usually 7 or 8 in number, are creamy white 
to drab in colour, and measure about 1*4 by 1*18. 

Where plentiful this Partridge affords good shooting, and it is, 
in the cold season, an excellent bird for the table. 

On the boundary between the areag inhabited by the Black and 
Painted Partridge respectively hybrids between the two have been 
found, as at Deesa by Capt. Butler (Hume & Marsh. ' Game Birds,' 
ii, p. 25, pi.), and, I think, in Cutch and Kattywar (J. A. S. B. 
xxxviii, pt. 2, p. 190 ; xxxix, pt. 2, p. 12 1 ). For the hybrid the name 
F. intermedium was suggested by Butler (S. E. v, p. 211), and the 
name was at one time accepted by Ogilvie Grant (Ibis, 1892, p. 40). 

1374. Francolinus chinensis. The Eastern or Chinese Francolin. 

Tetrao chinensis, Osbeck, Voy. China, ii, p. 326 (1771). 

Tetrao perlatus, Gm. Syst. Nat. i, 2, p. 758 (1788). 

Francolinus perlatus, Steph. in Shaitfs Gen. Zool. xi, p. 325 ; Ander- 
son, Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 672. 

Perdix phayrei, Blyth, J. A. IS. B. xii, p. 1011 (1843). 

Francolinus sinensis, Blyth, Cat. p. 251 ; Wardl.-Rams. Ibis, 1877, 
p. 468. 

Francolinus phayrei, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiv, p. 480 ; Bhjth $ Wald. 
Birds Burm. p. 149. 

Francolinus chinensis, Hume, N. $ E. p. 539 ; id. S. F. iii, p. 171 ; 
id. Cat. no. 819 bis ; JBume # Dav. S. F. vi, p. 443 ; Hume $ 
Marsh. Game B. ii, p. 27, pi. ; Dates, B. B. ii, p. 323 ; id. in 
Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 431 ; Ogilvie Grant, Ibis, 1892, p. 39 ; 
id. Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 136. 

Kkdj Burmese. 

Coloration. Male. Middle of crown dark brown, the feathers 
pale-edged, a dull rufous or rufous-brow^n band on each side ; fore- 
head and a band running back on each side above the eye black, a 
second black band from the gape beneath the ear-coverts ; between 
the two a white band from the lores beneath the eye and including 
the ear-coverts ; neck all round, upper back, and wing-coverts 
black with white spots ; scapulars and tertiaries black with buff 
spots, and broadly edged and tipped with dull chestnut; quills 
brown, with, on both webs, small buff or whitish spots that 
become bars on the outer webs of the secondaries ; lower back and 
rump black, narrowly and closely barred with white ; tail-coverts 
greyish brown, similarly barred ; tail-feathers black, with white 
bars on the basal two-thirds ; chin and throat white ; breast and 
abdomen with large white spots on a black ground, the spots 
increasing in size and becoming broad bars behind ; under tail- 
coverts pale chestnut. 

The female differs from the male in having the sides of the 
head buff, with broken brown superciliary and cheek stripes : the 



FEAXCOLINUS. 139 

upper plumage brown, with little or no chestnut on the scapulars 
and tertiaries, the upper back and scapulars with ill-defined pale 
spots and bars, and whitish shafts ; the lower back, rump, and 
upper tail-coverts vermiculated with buff and with narrow sub- 
distant buff and broad dark brown cross-bands ; chin and throat 
sullied white ; breast and abdomen buff, deeper posteriorly, barred 
with dark brown, the bars farther apart behind, middle of lower 
abdomen unbarred and passing into dull chestnut on the lower 
tail-coverts. 

Bill dark blackish brown; irides light reddish hazel; eyelids 
pale greenish: legs orange (Oates). The male has large spurs. 

Length 13; tail 3; wing 5'75 : tarsus 1-7; bill from gape 1. 
The female is a little smaller. 

Distribution. South China, Cochin China, Siam, and parts of 
Burma. This Partridge is common in parts of the Irrawaddy 
Valley, north of Prome, and was found in Karennee by Major 
"VVardlaw-Bamsay. Specimens are in the British Museum labelled 
Toungngoo and Thouuggyen valley. 

Habits, $r. Very similar to those of the last two species. This 
Erancolin is found in forest-clearings, bamboo jungle, and waste 
land. The breeding-season in Burma is in June and July ; the 
eggs, sometimes 8 in number, are pale buff, and are laid on the 
ground. They measure about 1-5 by 1-2. 

1375. Francolinus pondicerianus. The Grey Partridge. 

Tetrao pondicerianus, Gin. Syst. Nat, i, 2, p. 760 (1788). 
Francolinus pondicerianus, Steph. in Skaiv's Gen. Zool. xi, p. 321 ; 

Offilvie Grant, Ibis, 1892, p. 40 ; id. Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 141. 
Perdix orientalis, Gray in Hardw. 111. 2nd. Zool. i, pi. 56, fig. 2 

(1830-32). 

Perdix ponticeriana, JBli/th, Cat. p. 252. 
Ortvgornis ponticeriana, Jerdon, B. 1. iii, p. 569 ; Hume, S. F. i, 

p". 227 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 225. 
Ortvgornis pondicerianus, Hume, N. # E. p. 542 ; Hume fy Marsh. 

Game B. ii, p. 51, pi.: iii, p. 434; Hume, Cat. no. 822; Leyc/e, 

Birds Ceyl. p. 748 : Butler, 8. F. ix, p. 422 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 62 ; 

Daw'son, ibid. p. 410 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 311 ; Oates in Humes 

N. 8f E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 435. 

Titar, Ram-titar, Gora-titar, Safed-titar, H. ; Jirufti, P. ; Khyr, 
J5eng., Uriya ; Gowjal-huki, Can. ; Kondari, Tarn. ; Kawunzu, Tel. ; 
Oussa-watuwa, Cing. 

Coloration. Crown and nape brown, forehead rufous, super- 
ciliary band and sides of head pale rufous, speckled with black on 
the lores and below the eye ; ear-coverts darker and browner ; 
back, scapulars, and wing-coverts light greyish brown, mixed with 
chestnut, banded transversely, rather distantly, with buffy white, 
the borders of the white bands dark brown, shafts of the feathers 
whitish, especially on the scapulars and coverts; quills brown, 
outer webs frequently with whitish spots, secondaries banded with 
whitish ; upper tail-coverts and middle tail-feathers brown, finely 
vermiculated with buff, and with buffy-white cross-bars having 



140 PIIASIANIDJ?. 

blackish borders ; outer tail-coverts chestnut, shading towards the 
ends into dark brown, pale-tipped ; chin and throat whitish to 
rufous buff, surrounded by a broken blackish-brown band; re- 
mainder of lower parts buff with narrow, rather irregular, 




Fig. 28. Head of F. pondiccrianus. 



transverse bars, that are partly or wholly wanting on the middle 
of the abdomen, vent, and lower tail-coverts. 

Sexes alike in colour. 

Bill dusky plumbeous ; irides hazel-brown : legs dull red (Jer- 
don). 

Length of a male about 12*5; tail 3-5; wing 5'5; tarsus 1*6 ; 
bill from gape '9. Females are rather smaller. The male has 
a sharp, well-developed spur on the tarsus. 

Distribution. Common throughout India, except in thick forests, 
and ranging westward through Southern Afghanistan, Baluchistan, 
and Southern Persia to the Persian Gulf. The eastern limit of 
this Partridge's range is approximately the eastern border of the 
hilly country from Midnapur to B-ajmehal and a line thence north- 
wards to the Himalayas. The species is wanting in Lower Bengal 
and in all countries to the eastward, and is also unknown in the 
Malabar coastlands south o Bombay. It is found near the coast 
in Northern Ceylon, but not in the interior and southern parts of 
the island. It is seldom found, either in the peninsula or on the 
Himalayas, much more than 1500 feet above the sea. 

Habits, (${c. The common Grey Partridge of India is most abun- 
dant in tracts where the country is half cultivated, and patches of 
bush jungle are interspersed amongst fields and villages. It avoids 
forests and swampy grounds. It is often found in coveys at the 
commencement of the cold season, but pairs early. Its call, uttered 
in the mornings and evenings, is one of the familiar Indian bird- 
sounds, beginning with two or three single harsh notes, and 
continuing with a succession of trisyllabic, shrill, ringing cries. It 
feeds on seeds and insects, arid is probably at times a foul feeder, 
though, as Jerdon correctly says, it is often unjustly accused. On 
account of its running habits, it is held in poor account by sports- 
men, though its flight is very strong and steady. As a bird for 
the table, it is dry, but if killed early in the cold season, before 
pairing, it is by no means so deficient in flavour as it has by some 
writers been represented to be. The principal breeding-season is 



FEA.NCOLIXUS. 141 

from February to May or June, but many pairs lay a second time 
between September and November ; the eggs, six to nine in 
number, are spotless white, tinged with pale brownish, measure 
about 1'3 by 1*03, and are laid in a hollow in the ground, generally 
situated beside a bush or tuft of grass, and as a rule more or less 
lined with grass. 

This bird is often kept in cages by natives of India, either on 
account of its call, or, by Mahommedans especially, for fighting 
purposes. The cocks are very pugnacious, and the methods of 
capturing them are due to this circumstance, a tame cock being 
placed out as a decoy, often in a cage, and the wild birds captured in 
nooses or a net when they approach to fight it. 

1376. Francolinus gularis. The Kyali or Swamp-Partridye. 

Perdix gularis, Temm. Pig. et Gall, iii, pp. 401, 731 (1815) ; Gray in 
Hardw. 111. Ind. ZooJ. i, pi. 56, fig. 1 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 251. 

Francolinus gularis, G. _R. Gray, List Sp. B. iii, p. 34 ; Oyilvie 
Grant, Ibis, 1892, p. 46 ; id. Cat. 13. M. xxii, p. 158. 

Ortygornis gularis, Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 572 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. 
xxxix, pt. 2, p. 273 ; xlv. pt. 2, p. 83 ; Hume # Marsh. Game B. 
ii, p. 59, pi.; Hume, Cat. no. 823; Hume fy Inglis, S. F. ix, 
p. 258 ; Hume 8f Cripps, S. F. xi, p. 305 ; Gates in Hume's N. 
Sf E. iii, p. 437. 

Kyah, Khyr, Kaijah, Beng. ; Koi, Koera, Assam ; Bhil-titar, Cachar. 

Coloration. Crown and nape brown ; superciliary stripe and a 
broader baud below the eye and ear-coverts whitish buff; a brown 
band through the eye including the ear-coverts ; upper parts 
brown, more rufous in patches, marked throughout with transverse 
black-edged buff bars ; scapulars, tertiaries, and wing-coverts with 
whitish shafts ; primaries brown, passing into chestnut towards 
the base ; secondaries the same, but the inner quills becoming 
barred with buff like the upper parts ; middle tail-feathers 
brownish, mottled with black, and with traces of buff cross-bauds, 
outer tail-feathers dull brownish chestnut with pale tips ; chin, 
throat, and fore neck ferruginous red ; rest of lower parts brown 
with broad white streaks or dashes, edged with black, and increas- 
ing in breadth behind, occupying the middle of each feather ; lower 
tail-coverts pale rufous, feathers around vent still paler. Sexes 
alike, but the male is distinguished by having a spur on each 
tarsus. 

Bill blackish ; irides brown ; legs dull red (Jerdon}. 

Length about 15 ; tail 4-25 ; wing 7'25 ; tarsus 2-25 ; bill from 
gape 1. Females are rather less. 

Distribution. The alluvial plain of the Ganges and Brahmaputra, 
from the extremity of Assam and Cachar to the ]N.W. Provinces 
(Pilibhit), but not in the Sundarbans. Godwin-Austen notices the 
occasional occurrence of this Partridge on the Khasi plateau. 

Habits, $c. The Kyah is found in high-grass jungle and cane 
brakes, chiefly near the edges of rivers and j heels, and may be met 



142 PHASIAXID.E. 

with in cultivation on the borders of grass jungle when feeding 
in the mornings and evenings. The call of this fine Partridge 
resembles that of the last species. Very little is known of the 
breeding ; five pale creamy (cafe-au-lait), slightly speckled eggs 
were taken by Mr. Rainey in Jessore on April 13th on the ground 
in grass jungle, in a rather neatly constructed grass nest. These 
eggs measure about 1-47 by 1-2. Five eggs, half incubated, were 
also taken by Mr. Cripps in Assam on April 12th. 

This bird is usually shot from elephants, but I have shot it on 
foot in grass 3 or 4 feet high near Colgong. For the table it much 
resembles F. pondicerianus. 

Genus PEBDIX, Brisson, 1760. 

The common European Partridge is the type of this genus, 
in which are also included three Central Asiatic species; one of 
these inhabits Tibet and occurs just within Indian limits. 

The tail is of 16 or 18 feathers (16 in the Tibetan species), rather 
more than half the length of the wing and slightly rounded. The 
4th primary is usually the longest. There is no spur on the tarsus 
in either sex. 

1377. Perdix hodgsoniae. The Tibetan Partridge. 

Sacfa hodgsoniae, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. xxv, p. 165, pi. (1857). 

Perdix hodjrsoniae, Gould, Birds Asia, vi, pi. 74 ; Adams, P. Z. S. 
1858, p. 503 ; 1859, p. 185 ; Cock $ Marsh. S. F. i, p. 349 ; Hume, 
N. $ E. p. 544 ; id. S. F. vii, p. 432 ; id. Cat. no. 823 bis ; Hume 
Sf Marsh. Game B. ii, p. 65, pi. ; iii, p. 434, pi. iii (egg) ; Oates 
in Hume's N. $ K 2nd ed. iii, p. 438 ; Off il vie Grant, Cat. B. M. 
xxii, p. 193. 

Sakpha, Tibetan. 

Coloration. Sinciput chestnut ; occiput and nape brown, each 
feather with a triangular buff terminal spot ; forehead buffy white, 
edged with black in front and behind ; lores, supercilia, and cheeks 
also buffv white ; a large black spot below the eye, with a white 
band behind it that merges into the buff throat and chin ; the 
sides of head and throat bordered by a broken black band ; ear- 
coverts brown ; hind neck and sides of neck dull chestnut, forming 
a collar ; back and rump buffy grey, the upper back distinctly barred 
transversely with blackish brown, but farther back the bars are 
scattered and the feathers vermiculated with black; scapulars, 
wing-coverts, and tertiaries mixed grey and dark chestnut or black, 
with buff transverse bars and with conspicuous white or buff black- 
edged shaft-stripes ; quills brown, with rather irregular transverse 
buff bars, rufous buff on the inner webs, secondaries with buffy 
white shaft-stripes ; middle tail-feathers whitish with very wavy 
and irregular black cross-bands, outer tail-feathers chestnut wit'h 
the tips buff, spotted with black ; breast buffy white, each feather 
with a subterminal black bar, a patch of feathers in the middle of 
the lower surface black with whitish edges ; flanks buff, broadly 



TETRAOGALLUS. 143 

barred with dull chestnut, and with the tips of the feathers vermi- 
culated with black ; lower abdomen and under tail-coverts buff. 

Sexes alike. 

In a young bird the plumage is brown, blackish on the crown 
and scapulars, pale below 7 , the feathers with buffy-white bars and 
shaft-stripes almost throughout the upper parts and on the breast. 

Bill and legs horn-green ; orbital skin reddish (Hodgson). 

Length about 12; tail 3-6; wing 6*3; tarsus 1*7; bill from 
gape -8. 

Distribution. The Tibetan plateau north of Sikhim and Nepal 
and as far west as Hanle, but not so far as Ladak, at 14,000-18,000 
feet elevation. A specimen was once obtained by Mr. Wilson iii 
the Bbagirathi valley, just south of the Snowy Range, but the 
statement in the British Museum Catalogue that this bird has 
been found at Darjeeling is due to an erroneous label. The 
Partridge from Kansu, east of Tibet, distinguished by Prjevalski 
and Ogilvie Grant as P. sifanica, wants the black patch on the 
breast. 

Habits, fyc. Probably very similar to those of the common 
European Partridge, the call, according to Hume, being nearly 
the same. Ten fresh eggs of a pale drab colour were found by 
Major Barnes on July 12th near the Pangong Lake ; one of these 
measured 1-77 by 1'2. 

Genus TETRAOGALLUS, Gray, 1833. 

The Snow r -Cocks are fine birds, much exceeding all the true 
Partridges in size. Six species are known, all confined to the 
higher ranges of Central and Western Asia, and of these two are 
found in the Himalayas. The tarsus is not feathered except quite 
at the base ; that of the male is armed with a stout spur. A naked 
elongate space extends behind the eye. The tail, of 20 to 22 
feathers, is much rounded at the end and nearly J the length of 
the wing ; 2nd primary longest, 1st a little shorter. Sexes alike 
in plumage or differing slightly. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Lower breast and abdomen dark grey T. himalayemis, p. 143. 

b. Lower breast and abdomen white with black 

streaks , T. tibetanus, p. 144. 

1378. Tetraogallus himalayensis. The Himalayan Snow-Cock. 

Tetraogallns hima.layensis, G. R. Gray, P. Z. S. 1842, p. 105 ; BJyth, 
Cat. p. 248 ; Adams, P. Z. 8. 1858, p. 501 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 549 ; 
Stoliczka, J. A. 8. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 68 ; Hume 8f Marsh. Game 
B. i, p. *267, pi. ; iii, p. 433, pi. iii (egg; ; Hume, Cat. no. 816; 
Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 93 ; Scully, ibid. p. 586 ; C. H. T. Marshall, 
Ibis, 1884, p. 423; Marshall, Fairbrother, # Bruce, S. F ix. 
p. 207 ; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 426 ; Sharpe, 
Yarkand Miss., Arcs, p. 123, pi. xv ; Oyilrie Grant, Cat. B. M f 
xxii, p. 106. 



144 

Kullu, Lupu, Baera, Western Nepal : Huinwal, Kiimaun ; Jcr-monal, 
hills N. of Mussooree ; Leep, Kulu ; Galound, Chamba ; Gourkayu., 
Kubuk, Kashmir ; Kabk-i-dara, P. (Afghanistan) ; Snow-Pheasant of 
Himalayan sportsmen. 

Coloration. Forehead and supercilia buffy white ; crown and 
hind neck ashy grey, sides of head the same but paler ; sides of neck 
and the chin and throat white ; a chestnut streak from behind each 
eye expands into a broad patch on each side of the nape, and a 
deep-coloured chestnut gorget runs round the throat; upper 
back buffy grey, slightly mottled ; rest of upper plumage black, 
finely vermiculated with buff ; feathers of lower back, rump, and 
scapulars broadly edged on both sides with buff, and the median 
and greater secondary wing-coverts with chestnut ; primaries 
white, with long ashy-brown ends which increase in length on the 
secondaries, and are vermiculated with rufous buff towards the 
tips ; middle tail-feathers like the back, but without buff edges, 
outer tail-feathers chestnut towards the tips ; upper breast greyish 
white, with subterminal broad black bars (sometimes wanting) to 
the feathers, then a band of pure white ; lower breast and abdomen 
blackish grey, finely vermiculated with buff ; the sides of the chest 
and the flanks purer grey, the feathers edged \\ith chestnut inside 
and with black outside ; vent and lower tail-coverts white. 

Bill pale horny ; irides dark brown ; naked skin behind eye 
yellow ; legs yellowish red. 

Length of male about 28; tail 8; wing 12; tarsus 2-7; bill 
from gape 1*45 ; length of female about 22*5, tail 7, wing 11. 

Distribution. The Himalayas west from Kumaun at about 11,000 
to 18,000 feet in summer, lower in winter; also in Afghanistan 
and in various ranges north of the Himalayas to the Altai. 

Habits, $'c. An admirable account is given by Mr. Wilson 
(' Mountaineer '), who is quoted by both Jerclon and Hume. This 
bird keeps near to the snow-line, on rocks and bare ground, 
generally in flocks of from 5 or 6 to 30. It feeds on grass, herbs, 
small bulbs, and seeds. Its call is a soft whistle. It breeds at 
high elevations from May to July, and lays usually about 5, some- 
times more, eggs, which are long ovals, stone-coloured, thinly 
speckled with brown, and measure about 2-72 by 2-85. 

1379. Tetraogallus tibetanus. The Tibetan Snow-Code. 

Tetraogallus tibetanus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1853, p. 47 ; Stoliczka, 
J. A. S. B. xxxvii. pt. 2, p. 68 ; Stanford, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, 
p. 72 ; Hume fy Marsh. Game B. i, p. 275, pi. ; Hume, S. F. vii, 
p. 430 ; id. Cat. no. 816 his ; Sharpe, Yarkand Miss., Aves, p. 123 j 
Oyilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 104. 

Hrak-pa, Bhot. ( Sikh i in). 

Coloration. Sides of forehead, ear-coverts, chin, and throat 
white ; remainder of head and neck dark grey, slightly speckled 
with whitish, and passing into the paler, more buffy, finely vermi- 
culated upper back ; lower back, scapulars, tertiaries, and wing- 
coverts blackish grey, finely vermiculated with buff, and broadly 



LEKWA. 145 

streaked with buffy white or in some birds darker buff, from the 
feathers having broad buff edges ; rump, upper tail-coverts, and 
middle rail-feathers more rufous, more coarsely verrniculated, and 
without whitish spots ; primaries and secondaries greyish brown, 
without white at the base ; inner primaries and the secondaries 
white-tipped, and the white running up the outer web in the 
secondaries ; outer tail-feathers blackish brown with rufous tips ; 
upper breast white, like throat, but divided from the lower breast 
by a dark grey band ; remainder of lower parts white with broad 
black streaks, broadest on the flanks. 

It appears almost certain that the two sexes are alike when adult, 
except that the male has a thick spur. In immature birds the upper 
breast and sides of the neck are dark grey speckled and vermicular ed 
with pale buff, the white being restricted to the chin and middle 
of the throat ; the lower border of the upper breast is purer grey. 
Still younger birds have the upper plumage much spotted and 
mottled, and they want the black marks on the lower parts. 

Bill dull red ; irides brown ; orbits red ; legs red. The bill is 
said by Hume to be greenish horny in females, but they were 
perhaps immature. 

Length of male about 20 ; tail 7 ; wing 1O5 ; tarsus 2*4 ; bill 
from gape 1'3 : female rather less. 

Distribution. The higher Tibetan plateaus and some of the ranges 
around Yarkarid and Kashghar. Within Indian limits this species 
has been found in Ladak, at the head of the Spiti valley, and in 
very high tracts in Kurnaun and Sikhim. 

Habits, tyc. Similar to those of T. himalayensis ; but this species 
keeps to even higher elevations, rarely, if ever, descending below 
15,000 feet in summer. Nidification unknown. 



Genus LERWA, Hodgs., 1837. 

A single species, almost restricted to the higher Himalayas, 
constitutes this genus. The plumage is peculiar, barred above, and 
marked below with large elongate chestnut spots that coalesce 011 
the breast. The tarsus is feathered in front for half its length ; 
the tail, of 14 feathers, is rounded at the end, and is rather more 
than half the length of the wing ; the 1st primary is normally about 
equal to the 3rd and very little shorter than the 2nd, which is 
longest. Sexes alike in plumage ; the male has a blunt spur on 
the tarsus. 

1380. Lerwa nivicola. The Snow-Partridge. 

Perdix lerwa, Hodgs. P. Z. S. 1833, p. 107. 

Lerwa nivicola, Hodgs. Madr. Jour. L. S. v, p. 301 (1837) ; B.yth, 

Cat. p. 248 ; Jerdon, E. I. iii, p. 555 j Stoliczka, J. A. 8. B. xxxvii, 

pt. 2, p. 68 ; Blan/ord, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 72 ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 817 ; Hume fy Marsh. Game B. ii, p. 1, pi. ; Oates in Hume's 

N. 4 E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 428. 
Lerwa lerwa, Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 100. 

YOL. IV. L 



146 

Lerwa, Bhotia ; Jt.nguria. Kuraaun ; Quoir or Kur Monal, Garlnval, 
&c. ; Golabi, Uhair, Tcr Titar, Bashahr, &c. ; Barf-ka Titar, Kulu ; Jtiju, 
Chamba. 

Coloration. Head and neck all round and \vhole upper plumage 
closely barred with black and buffy white, the pale bauds broad 
and rufous on the tertiaries and scapulars ; primaries and second- 
aries brown, the inner primaries speckled with whitish on tho 
edges and tipped white, the secondaries broadly tipped and more 




Fig. 29. Head of L. nivicola. j. 

speckled with white, and the inner secondaries barred with white 
near the ends; tail black with mottled white bars; breast deep 
chestnut, the feathers towards the base dark brown with white 
edges ; abdomen similar, but the white margins are broader and 
much more conspicuous, and the feathers have subterminal black 
bars, the white edges are broadest on the flanks ; lower flanks and 
feathers around vent barred brown and rufous white ; under tail- 
coverts chestnut, with black shaft-stripes and buffy-white tips. 

In young birds the chestnut of the lower parts is mottled and 
tipped with black, and the barring is less distinct throughout. 

Bill bright red ; irides brown ; feet deep red. 

Length about 15; tail 4'5 ; wing 7*75; tarsus 1-5; bill from 
gape -9. 

Distribution. The higher ranges of the Himalayas from Kashmir 
to Bhutan and farther east, at elevations of 10,000 to 14,000 feet 
in summer, lower in winter, also in Moupin and West Se-chuen, 
China. 

Habits, $c. This bird somewhat resembles a Ptarmigan, and is 
found in coveys or small flocks in autumn and winter, and in pairs 
in spring, on rocky or stony slopes, amongst stunted herbage above 
the forest line, except when driven down by the winter's snow. 
It has a peculiar shrill whistle, by which its presence is often made 
known, for when unmolested it is a comparatively tame bird. The 
young are hatched about the end of June at elevations between 
12,000 and 15,000 feet, the eggs being large and white, freckled all 
over with reddish brown. There are usually six or seven young 
in each brood. This is one of the best Asiatic game birds lor the 
table. 



MEGAPOI>IID,E. 147 



Suborder PERISTEROPODES. 

The inner posterior notch on each side is less than half the 
length of the sternum. Hallux, or hind toe, on the same level as 
the other toes, and its basal phalanx as long as that of the third or 
middle toe. 

Two families, each sometimes classed as a suborder, are com- 
prised the Meyapodiidce,, with a nude oil-gland, and the Craddce, 
which are peculiar to South and Central America, and have a 
tufted oil-gland like other Grallinae ; only the first requires notice 
here. 



Family MEGAPODIID^E. 

Besides the nude oil-gland, the most remarkable character of this 
family is the mode of nidification described below. The young 
are hatched fully feathered and able to fly almost at once. 

There are several genera inhabiting Australia, New Guinea, 
Celebes, and the neighbouring islands ; only Meyapodius has a 
wider range. 

Genus MEGAPODIUS, Qnoy & Gairn., 1824. 

Bill moderate ; nostrils large, oval, longitudinally elongate ; 
legs and feet large, claws very long and nearly straight, claw of 
the middle toe as long as the culmen. Wings rounded, the 1st 
primary equal to the 10th or a little longer ; secondaries as long as 
primaries. Tail short and rounded, of 12 feathers. 

About fifteen species are known, ranging from the Friendly 
Islands and Australia to the Philippines and Celebes. One species 
is found far west of the other members of the genus in the JS T icobar 
Islands. 

1381. Megapodius nicobariensis. The Nicobar Megapode. 

Megapodius nicobariensis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, pp. 52, 372 (1846) ; 

'id. Cat.y. 239; Pelzeln, Novara Reise, Vocj. p. 110, pis. iv, vi, 

fig-. 12 (egpr) ; Sail, J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 32 ; id. 8. F. i, 

p. 82 ; Hume, S. F. i', p. 313 ; ii, pp. 276, 499 ; id. Cat. no. 803 oct. ; 

Hume fy Marsh. Game B. i, p. 119, pi, ; iii, p. 428, pi. ii (eg#); 

Oates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 449 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. 

B. M. xxii, p. 447. 
Megapodius trinkntensis, Sharpe, A. M. N. H. (4) xiii. p. 448 : 

Walden, A. M. A 7 . H. (4) xiv, p. 163. 

Coloration. Sides of the crown behind the eyes, sides of head 
behind ears, and the nape ashy grey ; upper parts, including wings 
and tail, rufescent brown with an olive tinge ; chin and throat pale 
grey, remainder of lower parts greyish brown. 

12 



148 

Younger birds are rufous brown beneath, only the chiu and 
throat being greyish. 

Bill light greenish to yellowish ; lores and sides of head red ; 
irides brown ; tarsus and toes dark horny, sometimes greenish in 
front ; back and sides of tarsi and tibio-tarsal joint dull red ; soles 
pale carneous, sometimes pale yellow (Hume). 

Length 16 ; tail 3; wing 9 ; tarsus 2'75 ; bill from ape 1-25. 




Fig. 30. Head of M. nicobaricnsis. 



Distribution. The Nicobar Islands. No Megapodes occur at the 
Andamans, but some are said to have been seen at Table Island iri 
the Cocos, where Hume found some hillocks that might have been 
old nest-mounds. 

Habits, $c. This Megapode keeps near the sea- shore in scrub 
and jungle, and is found in pairs, or in flocks that may contain at 
times 30 to 50 birds. It runs rapidly, and does not take flight 
till pressed, and it has a cackling call. It feeds on land-mollusca 
and insects, with vegetable substances. Like other members of the 
genus, these Megapodes lay their eggs in a large mound built by 
themselves of vegetable matter covered with sand, the heat pro- 
duced by the decay of dead leaves &c. apparently sufficing for 
incubation. The eggs are elongate ovals, very large for the size 
of the bird, ruddy pink when first laid, and they measure about 
3'25 by 3*07. These birds are delicious eating. 



Order XV. HEMIPODII. 

This order contains a group of birds resembling Quails in size 
and appearance, and to a considerable extent in plumage, but 
distinguished (so far, at least, as Indian forms are concerned) by 
wanting the hallux and by having only the three anterior toes. 
The Hemipodii differ in several important anatomical characters 
from the G-allinse (see Huxley, P. Z. 8. 1868, p. 303). The 
vertebrae are all free, whereas in both Grallinae and Pterocletes the 
last cervical and anterior dorsals are always anchylosed in adults, 
and the last dorsal is united with the lumbar vertebrae to form 
the sacrum. The sternum of Hemipodii has a single deep notch, 
about two-thirds of the whole length, on each side of the posterior 
border, and the episternal process is incompletely perforated to 
receive the inner ends of the coracoids. The palate is schizo- 
gnathous, but the palatines, pterygoids, and basipterygoids are 
Pluvialine rather than Gralline in form. The nasals are schizo- 
rhinal. 

As in other three-toed birds, the deep plantar tendons in Turnix 
unite and the combined tendon is divided to supply the three 
anterior digits. The anibiens is present, and so are the other 
muscles of the thigh, except the accessory femoro-caudal, which 
is wanting. The left carotid only occurs in the genus Turnix. 
In other characters members of this order resemble the Gallinae. 
They are quincubital and possess a tufted oil-gland and 14 to 15 
cervical vertebrae. The young are hatched covered with down, 
which is marked with a coloured pattern, and they run as soon as 
they leave the egg. 

This order contains two genera or generic groups Turnix, with 
three toes, found throughout the warmer parts of the Old World, 
including Australia ; and Pedionomus, with four toes, peculiar to 
Australia, and classed by many writers in a distinct family. 



Family TURNICID^E. 

Genus TURNIX, Bonn., 1790. 

Bill moderate, somewhat slender, straight, compressed. Nostrils 
elongate, horizontal, linear. Wings pointed, 1st quill generally 
longest in Indian species. Tarsus moderate ; no hind toe, the three 
anterior toes much longer in proportion in some species than in 
others. 

None of the species are truly migratory, though, as with many 
other resident birds, some species wander at particular seasons 
into localities which they do not inhabit throughout the year. 



150 TUKNICIDJE. 

Key to the /Species. 

a. Bill plumbeous or slaty. 

a'. Larger: breast barred black and white; 

throat and middle of breast black in 

adult females T. pugnax, p. 151. 

V. Smaller, wing never exceeding 3 : middle 

of breast buff without black T. dussumieri, p. 152. 

b. Bill partly or wholly yellow ; middle of breast 

buff without any black. 
<?'. Wing 3 to 3-o. 

a". Back in adults brown with slight black 
vermiculation ; rufous confined to 

collar T. tanki, p. 153. 

I". Back in adults with bold black and 

rufous markings , T. albiventris, p. 154. 

d'. Wing 3-5 to 4 T. blanfordi, p. 155. 

The habits of all the three-toed Quails are very similar. They 
live chiefly in grass or low bush, only emerging into bare places. 
such as roads, in the morning and evening ; they are solitary, as a 
rule, and although far from rare, are seldom seen, except when 
disturbed by men walking through the grass. The bird then rises 
at the man's feet, flies with much the flight of a Common Quail 
for a short distance, often not more than 10 or 15 yards, and then 
drops once more into the grass, whence it can very seldom be 
flushed a second time. Dogs may often catch these birds alive, as, 
after one flight, they lie still and allow themselves to be captured in 
preference to flying. The food of all species consists principally 
of small seeds ; small insects and tips of grass and leaves are also 
eaten. 

Throughout the genus the females are larger, and in several 
species they are more brilliantly coloured than the males. In the 
only species of which the breeding-habits are well known. T.pugnax, 
the birds pair, but still the ordinary conduct of the sexes during 
the period of incubation is reversed, for the male alone sits on the 
eggs and tends the young brood, whilst the females wander about, 
utter a purring call, that serves as a challenge, and fight each 
other. Jerdon has described how a hen is used as a decoy in the 
Carnatic, and other hens captured by means of a trap-cage when 
they approach to fight her. A similar device is employed in 
Bengal near Calcutta, as recently noticed by Mr. Munn. Only 
females are thus caught and only in the breeding- season, the birds, 
after they are taken, often laying their eggs in the basket or bag 
in which they are placed. 

The eggs appear to be usually four in number, occasionally 
more numerous, broad ovals, generally pointed towards one end, 
and double- spotted that is, they are stone-coloured, whitish, or 
yellowish, with two sets of coloured spots differing in tint and 
distribution. They are laid in a hollow on the ground, which is 
generally under a bush or beside a tuft of grass, and sometimes 
lined with grass. 



TURNIX. 151 

1382. Turnix pugnax. The Bustard-Quail. 

Ilemipodius pugnax, Temm. Pig. et Gall, iii, pp. 612, 754 (1815). 
Hemipodius pugnax et taigoor, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 155. 
Hemipodius plumbipes, Hodgs. Beng. Sport. Mag., May 1837, p. 346. 
Hemipodius atrogularis, Eyton, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 107. 
Turnix ocellatus, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 255; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 507 ; 

Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. 2, p. 174 (nee Scop.). 
Turnix taigoor, Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 595 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, 

pt. 2, p. 250 ; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 7 ; v, p. 231 ; ix, p. 424 ; Ball, 

S. F. vii, p. 226; Hume $ Marsh. Game B. ii, p. 169, pi.; 

Hume, Cat. no. 832 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 761 ; Vidal, S. F. ix 




B. M. XXll, p. 

Munn, Ibis, 1894, p. 74 (with figure of chick). 
Turnix puguax, Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 161 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxix, 

pt. 2, p. 333; Hume $ Gates, S. F. iii, p. 178; Hume, N. $ E. 

p. 553; Oyilvie Grant, Ibis, 1889, p. 458; id. (T. taigooris 

subsp.) Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 534. 
Turnix plumbipes, Blyth fy Wold. Birds Burm. p. 152; Hume fy 

Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 450, 521 ; Hume, Cat. no. 833 ; Scully, S. F. 

viii, p. 350 ; Gammie, ibid. p. 453 ; Hume fy Marsh. Game B. ii, 

p. 177, pi. : Oates, B. B. ii, p. 337 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 310. 

Gulu, Gundlu, Salui-gundru, H. ; Koladu <J , Pured 2 , Tel. ; Ankddeh J , 
Kurung Kadeh $ , Tarn. ; Dune a, liatnagiri : Kdre-haki, Can. (Mysore); 
Timok, Lepcha ; Ngon, Burm. 




Fig. 31. Head of T. pvgnax, $ . ^ 

Coloration. Male. Greneral colour of upper parts brown, varying 
from bright chestnufc to dark greyish ; a more or less distinct pale 
stripe down the middle of the crown ; supercilia, lores, and sides 
of head whitish, more or less speckled with black; feathers of 
crown black with brown or rufous edges, many of the dorsal 
feathers irregularly banded black and rufous and more or less 
edged on each side with white or whitish, generally having a black 
inner border, so as to form longitudinal bands or spots that are 
excessively variable ; wing-coverts in part broadly barred black 
and buffy white ; quills dark brown ; outer webs of primaries with 
buffy- white borders, outer webs of secondaries with rufous or buff 
indentations ; chin and throat whitish ; breast barred black and 
buff; rest of lower parts brownish buff. In immature birds the 
black bars on the breast are represented by broad subterminal spots 
on the feathers. 

Female. The chin, throat, and a variable area in the middle of 



TURXICID/E. 

the breast are black ; feathers of the sides of the head and of the 
median coronal band distinctly edged with black. Otherwise like 
the male. 

Young birds show more markings, and especially more buff 
longitudinal lines, on the upper surface. 

Bill dark slaty ; irides pale yellow ; legs plumbeous (Jerdon). 

Length of male 6; tail 1-1; wing 3-2; tarsus -9; bill from 
gape -65. Length of female 6-5 ; tail 1'3 ; wing 3'5. 

By Jerdon and Hume the Himalayan and Burmese race of this 
Hemipode was separated as T. oceUatus or T. plumbipes from the 
Indian form, T. taigoor. The latter" is much more rufous, the 
former greyer and darker. Birds from Sikhim are especially dark 
and rather large. The rufous birds, too, appear to retain the buff 
lines and spots on the back more than the dark Eastern specimens. 
Mr. Ogilvie Grant, who, like Blyth, unites the two, has shown 
that the dark birds are found in localities where the rainfall is 
heavy, but some rufous specimens are from the South Konkan. 
Undoubtedly, however, the two pass completely into each 
other some Burmese specimens are identical with Indian ; and 
although Mr. Grant keeps certain Japanese and Ceylonese skins as 
a distinct subspecies called T. pugnax, on account of a tendency to 
a rufous collar in the female, the difference appears of no specific 
importance, for the Ceyloneso birds are very similar to some from 
8. India. I follow Blyth and unite all these races. The true 
T. ocellata proves to be a Philippine species. 

Distribution. Throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma, except on 
the higher hills, in dense forests, and in deserts. This species has 
not been observed in Sind or the Punjab, though it occurs in 
Cutch and Rajputana. It ascends the Eastern Himalayas to 
about 7000 feet, but it has not been met with at so great an 
elevation to the westward, and in Southern India and Ceylon it 
keeps chiefly to the plains and lower hills. Beyond Indian limits 
it ranges to the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Siam, Southern 
China, Formosa, and the Loo-choo Islands. 

Habits, <Sfc. The principal habits have been described under the 
genus. The breeding-season in most parts of India and Burma is 
in the rainy season, but in Ceylon from February to May, according 
to Legge. The hollow in the ground used as a nest is sometimes 
without lining, sometimes lined and covered above with a slight 
dome of dry grass, and with a lateral entrance. The eggs, four 
(sometimes more) in number, are greyish striped with reddish, and 
usually blotched with brown, and measure about '94 by '78. 

1383. Turnix dussumieri. The Little Button-Quail. 

Hemipodius dussumieri, Temm. PL Col pi. 454, fig. 2 (1828). 
Uemipodius sykesi, Smith, III. Zool. S. Afr.ii, notes to pi, 10 (1838). 
Turnix dussumieri, Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 161 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 227 ; 




TURXIX. 153 

S. F. ix, p. 77 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 64 ; Oates, E. B. ii, p. 336 ; Barnes. 
Birds Bom. p. 319; Ogiloie Grant, Ibis, 1889, p. 462; id. Cat. 
B. M. xxii, p. 540; Oates in Humes N. ty E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 371. 
Turnix sykesi, Blyth, Cat. p. 256 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 600 ; King, 
J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 216; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, 
pt. 2, p. 174. 

Ghinwa Lawa, Chota Law a, Dabki, Tura, Chimndj CMuttra), Libbia 
(Purneah), H. ; Darwi, Ratnagiri ; Chinna (or Telia) dabbaywidlu, Tel. ; 
San yundlu, Uriya. 

Tail-feathers elongate and pointed. 

Coloration. Crown black and brown mixed, a buffy-white median 
line ; supercilia and sides of head bully white, more or less speckled 
with black ; back of neck ferruginous red to rufous brown, with 
buff edges to the feathers ; back-feathers closely but irregularly 
barred black and rufous with traces of whitish edges ; the rump 
and upper tail-coverts the same but darker ; scapulars and wing- 
coverts rufous and black with conspicuous broad buff edges ; 
quills brown, outer primaries with buff outer borders ; chin, throat, 
and abdomen almost white ; middle of breast brownish buff, sides 
of breast lighter buff, with heart-shaped black or black-and-chestnut 
spots. There is very little, if any, difference in the two sexes 
except in size. 

Bill plumbeous ; irides pale yellow ; legs fleshy whitish (Jerdon). 

Length of female 5'5 ; tail 1*3 ; wing2'9 ; tarsus '75 ; bill from 
gape '53. Males are a little smaller. 

Distribution. The greater part of India and Burma, becoming rarer 
to the southward, and not known to occur south of Mysore nor in 
Ceylon. This species is found in Sind and the Punjab to the Salt 
Eange, throughout the Indo-Grangetic plain and Lower Himalayas 
up to, in places, about 6000 feet elevation, and it has been recorded 
from the Khasi hills, Manipur, and Pegu, but not from Tenasserirn. 
To the eastward it is met with in Hainan and .Formosa. 

Habits, $c. Though generally a resident, the small Button-Quail 
is believed to visit Kajputana, Siud, and open parts of the Deccan 
only in the rains. It breeds from April to October, according to 
locality, and lays usually 4, sometimes 5 or 6, eggs in a small 
depression on the ground lined with grass. The eggs are stone- 
coloured, minutely speckled with brownish and with larger spots of 
darker brown, and they measure about '85 by *65. 

1384. Turnix tanki. The Indian Button-Quail. 

Turnix tanki (Buck. Ham.}, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 180* (1843) ; 

id. Ibis, 1867, p. 161; Ogiloie Grant, Ibis, 1889, p. 466; id. Cat. 

B. M. xxii, p. 544 ; Gates in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii^p. 370. 
llemipodius joudera, Hodys. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 85 (1844), 

descr. nulla. 
Turnix dussumieri, apud Blytli, Cat. p. 256 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 599 ; 

Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. 2, p. 174 ; nee Temm. 
Turnix joiidera, Butler, S. F. iv, p. 8 ; v, p. 231 ; ix, p. 424 ; Hume, 

S. F.\\, p. 225 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 226 ; Hume $ Marsh. Game B. 



154 TUBXICID^. 

ii, p. 187, pi. ; Hume, Cat. no. 834 ; Reid, S. I. x,p. 64 ; Damson, 
ibid. p. 412; Terry, ibid. p. 479; Taylor, ibid. p. 529; Barnes, 
Birds Bom. p. 318. 

Lawd, Lawd-butai, H. ; Pedda daba-gundlu, Tel. 

Coloration. Male. Sides of crown blackish, the feathers with 
light brown margins, mesial line of crown and forehead generally 
pale ; supercilia and sides of head buff, with, in most specimens, 
black tips to the feathers ; upper parts greyish brown, with irregular 
black cross-bars and vermiculation, almost disappearing in old 
birds, generally traces of buff tips and edgings remain ; most of 
the wing-coverts (except the primary-coverts) buff, each with a 
broad subterminal black spot ; quills and primary-coverts brown ; 
outer primaries with narrow buff outer margins ; chin and throat 
whitish, rest of lower parts buff, darker and brownish in the middle 
of the breast ; feathers of sides of breast with subtermiual round 
or crescentic black spots. 

Females have a broad ferruginous red collar on the back and 
sides of the neck. 

Immature birds of both sexes have the upper parts tinged with 
ferruginous red throughout ; there is no distinct collar in the young 
female ; the black markings on the back are more distinct and 
coarser, and the feathers have buff tips and edges, not to so great 
an extent, however, as in T. pugnax and T. blanfordi. 

Bill, legs, feet, and claws orange-}^ellow ; iricles white; in males 
the culmen and tip of the lower mandible are brown. 

Length of female 6-5 ; tail 1*25 ; wing 3'5 ; tarsus *9 ; bill 
from gape *7. Length of male 6 ; wing 3*^5. 

Distribution. Throughout India, from the Himalayas, at an 
elevation of about 4000 feet, to Travancore. To the eastward this 
bird has been found in the Bhutan Duars, Tipperah, and the Naga 
hills (I have examined Godwin-Austen's specimen from the latter), 
but is replaced in Assam, Manipur, and Burma by T. blanfordi. 
To the westward T. tanld is found, in the rainy season at all events, 
in Cutch, Sind, and llajputana. 

Habits, <$fc. A solitary, silent, skulking bird, found usually in 
grassy patches in jungle or on the borders of cultivation. It breeds 
in July and August in Upper India, about April in Mysore, and 
lays four eggs of the usual Turnix type, measuring about *8G 
by -75. 

1385. Turnix albiventris. The Nicobar Button-Quail. 

Turnix albiventris, Hume, S. F. i, p. 310 ; ii, p. 281 ; iv, pp. 279, 293 ; 
id. Cat. no. 834 ter ; Hume $ Marsh. Game B. ii, p. 199, pi. ; 
Ogilvie Grant, Ibis, 1889, p. 467 ; id. Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 545. 

Coloration. Similar to that of T. tanlci, except that adults retain 
much of the black and rufous barring and mottling on the dorsal 
feathers ; the feathers on the sides of the crown are black with 
rufous edges; and the collar in the female bird is much deeper 
ferruginous, chestnut in fact. Immature birds are undistinguishable 



TURNIX. 155 

from those of T. tanki, and the soft parts are similarly coloured in 
birds of all ages. 

Length of female 6*5 ; tail 1-3 ; wing 3*1 ; tarsus '9 ; bill from 
gape -7. Males rather smaller. 

Distribution. Common in the Nicobar Islands in long grass ; rare 
in the Andamans, which are mainly covered with forest. 

1386. Turnix blanfordi. The Burmese Button-Quail'. 

Turnix blanfordi, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxxii, p. 80 (1863) ; Blyth fy 
Wald. Birds Burm. p. 151 ; Ogiloie Grant, Ibis. 1889, p. 466 ; id. 

Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 542. 
Turnix maculosa, apud G. R. Gray, Hand-l. B. ii, p. 270 ; Hume fy 

Dav. S. f\ vi, p. 452 ; Hume, Cat. no. 834 bis ; Hume 8f Marsli. 

Game B. xii, p. 1 83, pi. ; Binyham, S. F. ix, p. 196 ; Hume, ibid. 

p. 208 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 335 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 312. 

Nffon, Burmese. 

This is but little more than a large race of T. tanki, but, besides 
their greater size, adults are distinguished by being darker and by 
retaining a larger amount of black barring on the back ; the sides 
of the crown, too, are darker. In immature birds the pale edgings 
to the dorsal feathers are conspicuous. 

Upper mandible and tip of lower brown, remainder of bill, legs, 
feet, and claws yellow ; irides white or yellowish white. 

Length of female 7 ; tail 1'4 ; wing 4 ; tarsus 1'05 ; bill from 
gape '75. Males are smaller length 6'5 ; tail 1-3 ; wing 3*6 ; 
tarsus '95. 

Distribution. Throughout Burma, China, and the adjoining 
countries, but not, so far as is known, south of Tenasserim. To 
the north-west this species has been obtained iu Assam, the Khasi 
hills, Hill Tipperah, and Chittagong. 

Habits, fyc. The present species, like its allies, is generally found 
in grass about clearings in forests, in gardens, &c. The eggs have 
not been obtained. 

The last three species, T. tanki, T. albiuentris, and T. blanfordi, 
are little more than races ; but adults can be easily recognized, 
though younger birds are very much alike in plumage. 



Order XVI. GRALL^E. 

In certain respects this order, consisting of the Bails, 
Fiufeet, Cranes, Bustards, and some other families of scbizo- 
gijathous birds, resembles the desmognathous Anisodactyli. Modern 
ornithologists differ greatly as to the affinities of these groups 
to each other and to birds belonging to other orders. By 
some writers the JRallidce and the Heliornithidce are placed in an 
ordinal group by themselves *, by others the Kails and Cranes 
with some other families are associated together and the Bustards 
transferred to the neighbourhood of the Plovers t. As in the case 
of the Anisodactyli, so in the present instance I adopt Gadow's 
classification J partly in order to avoid increasing the number of 
ordinal groups, for if the Rails are made an order distinct from the 
Cranes, the Bustards, and probably the Finfeet, would have equal 
claims to ordinal distinction. In using for the present order the 
Linnean term Grallse, the example set by Newton is followed, but 
he omitted the Bustards. 

In the Grallae the hind toe when present is slightly raised, the 
legs are generally long, and part of the tibia is bare. All are 
schizognathous and none possess basipterygoid processes. The 
vomer is always present and the angle of the mandible is truncated. 
There are two carotids. Nostrils pervious (except in Ithinochetus}. 
Ambiens muscle always present, and caeca generally well developed. 
The deep flexor tendons are, as a rule, Galline (peculiar in 
Heliornithidce and modified in Otididce}. The young of most of the 
families are hatched covered with down and able to run almost 
immediately, but in Heliornis the young are hatched helpless and 
nearly naked. All, so far as is known, lay double-spotted eggs that 
is, eggs with one set of spots distinct and deeply coloured and a 
second set often purplish or grey, less distinct, and apparently 
beneath the surface. To the Gralla3 belong several families ; but 
there are great differences of opinion as to their affinities, and it is 
sufficient to deal herewith the four represented in India. They 
may be referred to three suborders : 

a. Oil-gland tufted ; a hallux present. 

a. Holorhinal; sternum with a single 

notch on each side FuLiCARijE. 

V. Schizorhinal ; sternum without notches. GBUES. 
I. No oil-gland ; holorhinal ; sternum with 

two notches on each side ; no hallux . . OTIDES. 

* For instance, Sclater, ' Ibis,' 1880, p. 408 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vol. xxiii ; 
Fiirbringer, ' Untersuchungen,' p. 1566. 

t Newton, "Ornithology," Encycl. Brit. p. 46. 

J P.Z. S. 1892, p. 244 ; id. in Bronn, Kl. u. Ord. Thier-reichs, vi. 4, p. 178. 



BALL1D&. 



Suborder FULICASIM 

Schizognfltboufl and holorhinal birds vvitli heterocoelous vertebrae, 
and 14 or 15 cervical vertebrae. The sternum has a single notch 
on each side of the posterior margin. Oil-gland tufted. Caeca 
well-developed. Besides the ambiens, the femoro-caudal, accessory 
femoro-caudal, and subtendinosus muscles are always present ; the 
accessory subtendinosus is found in llallidcK, not in Heliornitlddce. 

Key to the Families. 

Rectrices 10 to 14, usually 12 ; an aftershaft present . Rallidae, p. 157. 

Rectrices 18 ; no aftershaft Heliornithidae, 

[p. 181. 

Tamily KALLID^E. 

The Rails, Crakes, and Coots constitute this family and have 
numerous representatives in India. They are marsh-birds in 
general, living amongst reeds or grass, and are such adepts in 
running through thick vegetation, a proceeding which is facilitated 
by their slender narrow build, and in hiding, that their presence is 
often unsuspected until they are betrayed by their voice. Owing 
to their skulking habits, the range of some of the Indian species is 
still imperfectly known. 

In this family the sternum much resembles in form that of 
Turnix, and has a similar deep notch on each side. There is a 
small aftershaft to the contour feathers, and the fifth secondary is 
absent. There are long lateral bare tracts on the neck. The deep 
flexor tendons are Gralline that is to say, the /. longus hallucig 
supplies the hallux and the /. perforans digitorum the other three 
digits, but the two are connected by a vincultim passing from the 
first-named to the second. 

The food is in most forms chiefly vegetable, consisting of various 
water-plants, seeds, &c., but in addition most of the species live on 
molluscs, on insects and their larvae, and on small crustaceans. 
Asa rule, the eggs are numerous and are laid in a coarse, roughly 
built nest of grass, rushes, and similar substances. The young are 
hatched covered with down, very often of a black colour, and are 
able to run or swim within a few hours. 

Key * to the Genera. 

a. Bill from gape as long as the tarsus or longer. 

a'. No white markings on back ; bill slender. RALLUS, p. 158. 

6'. Back with white bars or spots ; bill stouter. HYPOTJENIDIA, p. 160. 

* As in some other cases, this Key only applies to Indian specie?. 



158 RA.-LLWJE, 

b. Bill from gape much shorter than tarsus. 
c'. No frontal shield. 

a". 2nd quill longest, 1st between 6th and 

7th. 

a 3 . Tarsus longer than middle toe with- 
out claw CREX, p. 162. 

b 3 . Tarsus shorter than middle toe .... PORZANA, p. 163. 
b". 3rd to 6th quills longest, 1st shorter 

than 8th. 
c 3 . Tarsus longer than middle toe and 

claw ; plumage banded beneath . . RALLINA, p. 167. 
d*. Tarsus shorter than middle toe 

without claw ; plumage not banded. AMAURORNIS, p. 170. 
d'. Upper mandible prolonged on forehead to 

form a frontal shield. 
c". No lobate fringe to toes. 

e 3 . Plumage not blue ; frontal shield not 

truncated behind. 
4 . Toes with a narrow straight-edged 

lateral fringe ; sexes alike GALLINULA, p. 175. 

b*. No fringe to toes ; sexes differing . GALLICREX, p. 176. 
f. Plumage blue; frontal shield trun- 
cated behind PORPHYRIO, p. 178. 

d 1 '. To^s with a membranous fringe 
divided into convex lobes; plumage 
blackish grey FULICA, p. 180. 



Genus RALLUS, Linn., 1766. 

This genus contains the typical Water-Rails. The bill is as long 
as the tarsus or longer, straight or slightly curved, and compressed ; 
the nostrils are linear and placed in an elongate groove on each 
side of the mandible. Wings short, 2nd quill usually longest. 
1st between 6th and 8th. Tail short. Tarsus slender, shorter 
than the middle toe in typical species, and always shorter than 
the middle toe and claw ; toes long, slender, free. Feathers of 
forehead bristly. 

The genus is almost cosmopolitan. Two species are Indian. 

Key to the Species. 

A brown band from lores to ear-coverts J?. indicus, p. 168. 

No brown band running back behind eye R. aquations, p. ICO. 

1387. Eallus indicus. The Indian Water-Hail. 

Rallus indicus, Blyth, J. A, S. B. xviii, p. 820 (1849) ; id. Cat. p. 286 ; 
id. J. A. S. It. xxviii, p. 281 ; Adams, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 508 ; Jerdon, 
B. I. iii, p. 726 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 416 ; Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 162 ; 
JJvme, Cat. no. 914: Hume $ Marsh. Game B. ii, p. 257, pi. ; 
Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 778; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 342; Sioinh. # 
Barnes, Ibis, 1885, p. 135 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 373 ; Reid, 
8. F. x, p. 453 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiii, p. 24. 



RALLUS. 159 

Coloration. Feathers of upper surface, including scapulars, 
tertiaries, and tail-feathers, black, with broad olive-brown margins, 
black predominating on the head and brown on the rump; 
supercilia, cheeks, and sides of throat ashy grey, the supercilia 
paler or whitish anteriorly ; lores and a band beneath (or sur- 
rounding) the eye to the ear-coverts dark brown ; secondary wing- 
coverts olive-brown, usually with a few white cross-bars ; primary- 
coverts, primaries, and most of the secondaries dark brown ; chin 
and middle of throat white ; breast ashy, washed with brown ; 




Fig. 32. Head of R. inclicns. i. 

abdomen dingy rufescent in the middle ; flanks black with white 
cross-bars ; lower tail-coverts black, with white edges ; edge of 
wing white, wing-lining black mixed with white. 

Younger birds have more white bands, which are dark-edged, on 
the wing-coverts ; these bands disappear with age. 

Bill brown, the basal two-thirds of the lower mandible and a 
stripe on the upper along the commissure vermilion in adults, 
reddish yellow in the young ; irides red ; legs and feet dull dingy 
pink or brownish (flume). 

Length 11 ; tail 2; wing 5; tarsus 1/7; bill from gape 1*75. 
Females run smaller. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to parts of India, ranging west as 
far as Indore, according to Barnes, and Sind, whence a specimen, 
collected by Dr. Gould, is in the British Museum. Adams says 
this Rail is common in the Punjab, but when he wrote the species 
was not clearly distinguished. It is common in Bengal, especially 
about Calcutta, and has been obtained in Tipperah and Arrakan, 
but not elsewhere in Burma. It has been recorded from Ceylon, 
but there is no distinct evidence of its occurrence in Southern 
India. Outside Indian limits it has been found in China, Eastern 
Siberia, and Japan. 

Habits, c. The Indian Water-Eail is usually found in thick 
grass or rushes on the banks of marshes and wet cultivation. It 
is a skulking running bird, with a croaking call, seldom seen, and 
difficult to flush ; it feeds partly on small insects, mollusca, and 
worms, and partly on vegetables. It is not known to breed in 
India. 



160 RALLLD^E. 

1388. Rallus aquaticus. The Water-Rail. 

Rallus aquaticus, Linn. Sysf. Nat. i, p. 262 (17C6) ; Hume, S. F. 
iii, p. 416 ; id. Cat. no. 914 bis ; Hume fy Marsh. Game B. ii, 
p. 261 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 98; Scully, ibid. p. 591 ; George, 
Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. iv, p. 311 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiii, 
p. 20. 

Precisely like R. indicus, except that there is no brown band 
through the eye to the ear-coverts, the sides of the head being 
generally ashy throughout ; the lores are sometimes brownish, but 
there is no streak behind the eye ; .the breast is pure ashy grey, 
without any brow r nish wash, the middle of the abdomen is sullied 
buff, and the under tail-coverts are chiefly white. 

Upper mandible dark brown, basal half of upper mandible along 
commissure and basal two-thirds of lower orange-red, end of bill 
horny ; irides red ; legs and feet brownish pink to fleshy brown. 

Length 1 1 ; tail 2'25 ; wing 5 ; tarsus 1-6 ; bill from gape 1-7. 

Distribution. Throughout Europe and thePalaearctic region as far 
east as Yarkand and Cabul. A rare winter visitor to the 
Himalayas, obtained in Gilgit (Scully}; Kulu (Hay} ; and Dehra 
Dun (Hume}. A skin from Sind, included under this species in 
the British Museum Catalogue, is, 1 find (and Dr. Sharpe agrees), 
R. indicus, but Mr. R. George states that he killed a specimen 
near Shikarpur. There is also a skin of Hodgson's, labelled Nepal 
and perhaps collected there. 

Habits, Sec. Similar to those of R. indicus. The nest in Europe 
is placed in a swamp, and consists of dried leaves loosely put 
together. The eggs, 8 to 10 or more in number, are pale stone- 
colour, sparingly spotted with purple and dark red, and measure 
about 1-4 by I'Oo. 

Genus HYPOTJENIDIA, Eeichenb., 1852. 

The typical species of this genus, //. pliilippensis, has a much 
thicker and shorter bill than Rallus, with both tarsus and middle 
toe exceeding the bill in length. In the Indian representatives 
of the genus, however, the bill is as long as the tarsus and is only 
distinguished by its greater thickness and by the genys being 
distinctly angulate. There are 10 species, widely distributed in 
the Oriental and Australian regions ; of these two occur within 
Indian limits. 

Key to the Species. 

Wing 4'5 to 5 : breast ashy grey H. striata, p. 160 . 

Wing over 5 ; breast slaty grey H. obscurior, p. 162 

1389. Hypotaenidia striata. The Blue-breasted Banded Rail. 

Rallus striatus, Linn. St/st. Nat. i, p. 262 (1766) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 285 ; 
Adams, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 508 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 726 ; Godw.- 
Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. 2, p. 175. 



161 

If vpotaenidia striata, Hume, N. # E. p. 605 ; Hume Sf Oates, S. F. 
iii, p. 189; Armstrong, S. F. iv, p. 349; Oates, S. F. v, p. 165 ; 
Wardl.-Rams. Ibis, 1877, p. 471 ; Hume fy Dav. 8. F. vi, p. 468 ; 
Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 692 ; Leyge, Birds Ceyl. p. 775 ; 
Hume, Cat. no. 913 ; Hume $ Marsh. Game B. ii, p. 245, pi. ; iii, 
p. 435, pi. ii (egg) ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 87 ; Butler, ibid. p. 432 ; 
Davison, S. F. x, p. 415; Terry, ibid. p. 480; Oates, B. B. ii, 
p. 339 ; id. in Hume's N. E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 399 ; Hume, S. F. xi, 
p. 329 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 372 : id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vi, 
p. 141, pi. fig. 913 (egg) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiii, p. 33. 

ana-kolij Tarn. ; Wade-koli, Tel. ; Yay-gyet, Burin. 




Fig. 33. Head of H. striata. }. 

Coloration. Crown, nape, and sides of neck chestnut, more or 
less streaked with dark brown, that disappears in old birds ; 
upper parts, including the wing and tail-feathers, dark brown with 
narrow broken white cross-bars, forming spots rather than bars, 
on the back, all the feathers except the quills with lighter olive- 
brown edges ; chin and middle of throat white ; sides of head 
below eyes, whole fore neck and breast ashy grey ; abdomen, 
flanks, and under wing- and tail-coverts blackish, barred with 
white. 

Females are rather duller, especially on the crown and nape ; 
middle of abdomen sullied white. 

Young birds have the crown and nape brown, not rufous, and 
no white cross-bars on the back. 

Colours of soft parts very variable : upper mandible and tip of 
lower brown, basal portion of lower mandible and basal commissure 
of. upper various shades of red ; irides light yellowish brown to 
Indian-red : legs and feet olive-green to leaden grey or fleshy 
grey. 

Length 10-5 ; tail T9 ; wing 475 ; tarsus 1-5 ; bill from gape T6. 

Distribution. Probably the greater part of India, Burma, and 
Ceylon in marshy places ; a resident species. This Rail has 
not been recorded from North-western India north of 20 N. lat. 
except by Adams, who states that it is pretty common in the 
Punjab. It has, however, not been obtained either there or in 
the North-west Proviuces by later collectors. It is common in 
Lower Bengal and in Pegu. Outside Indian limits it is found 
in South-eastern Asia and the Malay Archipelago as far as the 
Philippines and Celebes. 

VOL. iv. M 



162 EALL1DA'. 

Habits, <$'c. Very similar to those of Eallus indicus, except that 
the present species is a very silent bird, and only occasionally 
utters a rather sharp though not loud whistled note. The 
breeding-season in Bengal and Pegu is from May to the end of 
October; the nests are pads of grass, varying in thickness, in 
swampy ground, and the eggs are usually from 5 to 7 in number, 
pinkish stone-colour, spotted or blotched, chiefly about the larger 
end, with reddish brown and greyish lilac. They measure about 
1-35 by 1-02. 

1390. Hypotaenidia obscurior. The Andamanese Banded Hail. 

Rallus striatus, apud Ball, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 288 ; id. S. F. i, 

p. 86 ; nee Linn. 
Hypolaemdia striata, apud Hume, S. F. ii, p. 302: Walden, Ibis, 

1874, p. 146. 
Hvpotsenidia obscuriora, Hume, S, F. ii, p. 302 (Jan. 1874) ; i\*, 

p. 294 ; id. Cat. no. 913 bis ; Hume $ Marsh. Game B. ii, p. 253, 

pi. : Oates in Hume's N. 8f K 2nd ed. iii, p. 400. 
Hypotasnidia ferrea, Walden, Ibis, 1874, p. 303 (April 1874). 
Hypotasnidia abnorinis, Hume, 8. F. iii, p. 147 (1875) ; id. Cat. 

no. 913 ter. 
Hypotaenidia obscurior (H. striatas subsp.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 

xxiii, p. 37. 

Like the last species, but larger and much darker in colour; the 
head and nape dark rufous brown ; upper parts generally blackish 
brown, with narrow pale edges to the feathers ; breast slaty grey. 

Bill Indian-red, tips of both mandibles and whole culmen deep 
horny brown ; irides deep brown ; legs and feet dark greenish 
horny (Daviton). 

Length 12 ; tail 2 ; wing 5'4 ; tarsus 1*6 ; bill from gape 1*75. 

Distribution. The Andaman Islands. 

Habits, $c. As in the last species. Nests with 4 and 6 eggs, 
resembling those of H. striata and measuring about 1'43 by 1, 
have been taken in May and July. 



Genus CREX, Bechstein, 1802. 

The Land-Kail stands apart from all other genera of the family. 
It has a comparatively short, stout bill, the depth at the base of 
the upper mandible being more than half the culmen ; the tarsus 
is about equal to the middle toe and claw. The wings are rather 
broad, the 2nd quill longest, the 1st about equal to the 5th or 
6th. 

There is but a single species, and that is a European bird, 
hitherto only recorded from the north-western extremity of the 
Indian area. It is easily recognized by its rufous wings, and is 
more of a land and less of a water bird than most of the liallidw. 



PORZAXA. 163 

1391. Crex pratensis. The Land-Rail or Com-Crahe. 

Rallus crex, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 201 (1768). 

Crex pratensis, Bvchst. Naturg. Deutschl. 2" Aufl. ii, p. 461 (1805) ; 




Crex 
p. 82. 

Coloration. In winter the feathers of the crown, hind neck, 
back, rinnp, and tail, with the scapulars and tertiaries, are black, 
with broad brown borders growing grey at the margins ; upper and 
under wing-coverts and axillaries bright chestnut ; wing-feathers 
and primary-coverts dark brown, the exposed portions rufous ; 
outer web of first primary and edge of wing buffy white ; sides of 
head, including supercilia, and of neck, and the whole of the 
breast light brown, a darker band through the eye ; chin, throat, 
and abdomen whitish ; flanks, thighs, and shorter under tail- 
coverts brown with white cross-bars, longer under tail-coverts 
white. 

In summer the supercilia, cheeks, and fore neck are ashy grey, 
a light brown band passing from the lores through the eye and 
ear-coverts to the side of the neck ; the breast is grey washed 
with light rufous brown, and the bands on the flanks are more 
distinct. 

Young birds have white barring on the wing-coverts. The 
nestling is clad with black down. 

Bill, feet, and claws pale brown ; iris hazel (Seebohm). 

Length 10 ; tail 2 ; wing 6 ; tarsus 1*5 ; bill from gape 1*05. 

Distribution. A migratory bird, found in the summer throughout 
the greater part of Europe and in Central Asia, and in winter in, 
Africa and Arabia. It is said to be found at that season near 
Cabul. Various reports of its occurrence in Northern India have 
been heard from time to time, but all are of doubtful authenticity, 
and the only trustworthy record is by Scully, who obtained a 
single specimen at Grilgit on Oct. 8th. 



Genus PORZANA, Vieill., 1816. 

The- little, short-billed, long-toed Water-Bails, with a brown 
back, grey or greyish breasts, and more or less white spotting, 
form a fairly natural genus. The bill is comparatively short and 
moderately stout. The tarsus, which is at least half as ong again 
as the bill, is considerably shorter than the middle toe and claw. 
The 2nd quill is longest, or 2nd and 3rd subequal ; the 1st is 
much shorter, and about equal to the 6th or 7th. The tail-coverts 
extend nearly or quite to the end of the tail. 

The Little Crake, Rallus parvus, has been separated from the 
Spotted Crake and its allies on account of having slightly shorter 
secondaries, and some difference in coloration between the sexes, and 
was referred to Leach's genus Zapornia by Sharpe ; but I cannot 

1C 2 



164 RALLIED. 

regard the Little Crake as generically distinct from its near ally, 
Bullion's Crake, which has the same relation between the secondaries 
and primaries as the Spotted Crake, the type of Porzana. 

The genus Porzana is almost cosmopolitan. Three species are 
Indian, all of which are migratory, though one breeds in India. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Breast not spotted with white. 

a'. Outer edge of 1st primary brown ; winjr 4 . . P. parva, p. 164. 
b'. Outer edge of 1st primary white ; .wing 3-5 . P. ptisillrt, p. 165. 

b. Breast spotted with white ; wing 475 P. maruetta, p. 166. 

1392. Porzana parva. The Little Crake. 

Rnllus parvus, Scop. Ann. i, p. 108 (1769). 

Gallinula minuta, Montagu, Orn. Diet. Suppl. cum fig. (1813) ; nee 
, Hallus minutus, Pall. 
Porzana minuta, Hvme, S. F. i, p. 251. 
Porzana parva, Hume, Cat. no. 910 bis ; Hume fy Marsh. Game E. 

ii, p. 209, pi. ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 98 : Scully, ibid. p. 500 ; 

Swinhoe, Ibis, 1882, p. 123 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 371 ; St. John. 

lbi8,I88d, p. 178. 
Zapornia parva, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiii, p. 89. 

Coloration. Male. Upper plumage light olive-brown, darker on 
the crown, rump, and tail-coverts, pale on the scapulars, and 
whitish on the inner borders of the tertiaries, back, rump, and tail- 
leathers ; scapulars and tertiaries with broad black shaft-stripes, 
interscapulary region speckled with white streaks ; quills and 
primary-coverts dark brown ; forehead, supercilia, and sides of 
head, with the whole low r er surface, light slaty grey, with white 
edgings on the lower abdomen and flanks, and especially on the 
lower tail-coverts. 

Female. Supercilia and part of the cheeks ashy, a light brown 
band from the lores through the eye to the ear-coverts ; chin, 
lower cheeks, and throat white ; rest of lower parts isabelline buff, 
with brown and white edgings to lower abdomen, thigh-coverts, 
and lower tail-coverts ; otherwise similar to the male. 

Young birds are whitish beneath, with brown tips and edges to 
the feathers of the breast and flanks, forming bars on the latter; 
they have fine w r hite bars on the scapulars, and white tips to the 
tertiaries and greater coverts. 

Bill, legs, and feet green with a yellow tinge : irides red. In 
summer the base of both mandibles is red, but Indian birds shot 
in winter do not show this. 

Length of males 8; tail 2-25 ; wing 4; tarsus 1-2; bill from 
gape '9. Females are rather less. 

Distribution. Throughout Europe, except in the north ; also in 
South-western and Central Asia. A winter visitor to parts of 
Africa and to Sind, where it is common on some of the dhands or 
marshes. It has been observed passing through Quetta and 
OHlgit when migrating. 



PORZANA. 165 

Habits, $-c. A thoroughly aquatic bird, often seen running over 
leaves of water-lilies and other floating plants, and living mainly 
on water-insects and larvae. It swims well and has even been 
seen to dive, and it has a fairly strong flight. It does not, in all 
probability, breed in India. The nest and eggs are very similar to 
those of the next species. 

1393. Porzana pusilla. The Eastern Baillon's Crake. 

Rallus pusillus, Pallas, Reis. Rus*. Reichs, iii, p. 700 (1776). 
Porzana pygmaea, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 284 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 723 ; 

Hume $ Renders. Lah. to Yark. p. 293 ; Blanf. S. F. v, p. 247 ; 

Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlvii, pt. 2, p. 21 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, 

p. 98 (nee Brehm, nee Naum.). 

Zapornia pygmaea, Hume, 3T. $ E. p. 603 ; Butler, S. F. v, p. 215. 
Ortygometra pygmaea, Hume, S. F. ii, p. 301. 
Porzana bailloni, apud Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, p. 467; Ball, S. F. 

vii, p. 229 ; Hume, Cat. no. 910 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 358 ; Legge, 

Birds Ceyl. p. 766 ; Hume fy Marsh. Game B. ii, p. 203, pi. ; 

iii, p. 435, pi. ii (egg) ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 87 ; Butler, ibid. p. 432 ; 

Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 590 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 73 ; Gates, B. B. ii, 

p. 344 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 370 ; Hume, S. F. x, p. 415 ; xi, 

p. 328; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 178 (nee VieilL). 
Porzana pusilla, Gates in Hume's N. Sf E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 395 ; Sharpe, 

Yark. Miss., Aves, p. 147 ; id. Cat. B. M. xxiii, p. 106. 

Jhitti, Nepal. 




Fig. 34. Head of P. pusilla. \ . 

Coloration. Upper parts rufescent olive-brown, all the feathers 
except the wing-coverts with broad black median stripes ; feathers 
of back and rump, with the scapulars and some of the wing-coverts, 
streaked with white in a peculiar way as if smeared with white 
paint ; edge of wing white ; quills dark brown ; first primary with 
a white outer border ; tail-feathers blackish brown ; an ochreous- 
brown streak from the lores, including orbit and ear-coverts, to 
side of neck, which is uniformly brown; superciliary stripes, cheeks, 
and lower parts to abdomen ashy grey ; abdomen brown with white 
cross-bars ; lower tail-coverts barred black and white. Sexes 
alike. 

Young birds have the lower parts whitish or white, not grey, 
but more or less tinged with brown. 

Bill green, dusky on culmen and at tip ; irides red in adults, 
reddish brown in young birds; legs and feet green with a 
yellowish tinge ; claws pale brown (Hume). 

Length 7*5 ; tail 1*75 ; wing 3'5 ; tarsus 1-1 ; bill from gape '7. 

Distribution. Eastern Asia generally, including all India, Ceylon, 



166 EALLID.C. 

and Burma, in suitable localities, and as far west as Afghanistan 
and Baluchistan. This Crake has been obtained at the Andaman 
Islands. Throughout Western Asia arid Europe it is replaced by 
the closely allied Baillon's Crake, P. intermedia (Herm.), dis- 
tinguished by having the sides of the head grey, without any brown 
stripe through the eye and ear-coverts. A specimen from Deesa 
is intermediate in character. 

Habits, $c. Though a large proportion of the birds found in 
India are probably migratory, some breed throughout the country 
and even in Tavoy. A large number breed in the Lower 
Himalayas, but many appear to go farther north. Like the last 
species, this Crake is sometimes found running on floating- water- 
plants and it swims well, but it is more often met with in reeds 
or swampy grassy thickets or wet cultivation. Tbe call is loud 
a single note repeated slowly at first, then more rapidly, ending 
with a sharper note. The breeding-season is July, August, and 
September in the plains of India, June and July in the Himalayas. 
The nest is of rush or similar material amidst water and grass or 
reeds, and the eggs, 6 to 8 in number and measuring about 1*16 
by -87, are pale olive, thickly freckled and indistinctly mottled 
with faint dusky clouds and streaks. 



1394. Porzana maruetta. The Spotted Crake. 
Eallus porzana, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 262 (1766). 




Butkr, S. F. v, p. 215; vii, p. 187: ix, p. 432; Hume, Cat. 
no. 909 ; Hume 8f Marsh. Game B. ii, p. 213, pi. ; Biddulph, 
Ibis, ;i881, p. 98; Scully, ibid. p. 590; Reid, S. F. x, p. 73; 
Davidson, ibid. p. 322 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 345 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 
p. 370 ; Sharpe, Yark. Miss., Aves, p. 147. 
Porzana porzana, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiii, p. 93. 

Gurguri-khairi, Beng. ; Venna mudi-kodi, Tel. 

Coloration. Upper plumage and tail rufescent olive-brown with 
white spots and streaks ; all the feathers, except the wing-coverts, 
with more or less concealed broad black central stripes ; inner 
borders of tertiaries pale brown ; the white markings on the back 
are longitudinal streaks, those on the tertiaries zigzag, on wing- 
coverts fewer and V-shaped, all black-edged; border of wing 
white; quills dark. brown, olive-brown on exposed margins: outer 
edge of first primary white ; broad and long supercilia, cheeks, 
chin, and throat dark grey, all speckled with white posteriorly ; 
lores black with a whitish streak above; a brown band from 
behind each eye, including the ear-coverts and extending to the 
side of the neck, which is of the same colour and sprinkled 
throughout with white spots, more or less dark-edged; breast 
grey, washed with brown and similarly spotted ; abdomen white, 
passing into buff on the vent and under tail-coverts; flanks and 



KALLINA. 167 

wing-lining, except near the edge of the wing, brown barred with 
white. Sexes alike. 

Young birds have a white throat and brown breast, and are 
much speckled with white. Nestling black. 

Bill yellow, orange at the base and shading into dusky olive at 
the tip and on the culmen ; irides red-brown ; legs and feet bright 
olive -green. 

Length 9 ; tail 1'9 ; wing 4'75 ; tarsus 1*3 ; bill from gape *8. 

Distribution. A migratory bird, found in summer in ^Europe 
and in Western and Central Asia, and visiting Northern Africa 
and India in the winter. At this season it is found not un- 
commonly throughout Northern India from Sind to Arrakan. It 
has been recorded from the Deccan as far sou^h as Belgaum, and 
Jerdon states that it is found all over India, though of late years 
it has not been observed to the southward nor in the Central 
Provinces, Chutia Nagpur, or Orissa, and it is not known to occur 
in Ceylon, in Assam, nor in Burma east of Arrakan. 
Habits, 6fc. The Spotted Crake arrives in Northern India in 
September and leaves about April. It keeps to thick reeds and 
cultivation in swampy ground aud is rarely seen. It is not known 
to breed in India. 



Genus RALLINA, Eeichenb., 1846. 

Bill much stouter than in Rallus, and considerably shorter than 
the middle toe, which is shorter than the tarsus. Wing rounded ; 
1st quill much shorter than 2nd, which is exceeded by the 3rd. 
Secondaries nearly as long as primaries or a little longer. 

To this genus in Sharpe's Catalogue five species are referred, 
ranging from India and Ceylon to Australia ; two are Indian or 
Burmese. I also leave in this genus the Andaman 11. canningi, 
separated by Sharpe as Castanolimnas because the secondaries 
slightly exceed the primaries, whilst in typical Rallina the former 
are a little shorter than the latter. The difference is small, and 
scarcely, I think, of .generic importance. 



Key to the Species. 

a. Back and wings brownish olive;; bill from 

gape 1-2 R. snperciliaris, p. 167. 

b. Back and winge rufous brown ; bill from 

gape 1 R.fasciata, p. 169. 

c. \Vhole upper surface deep ruddy chestnut ; 

bill from gape 1'4 R. canninyi, p. 169. 

1395. Rallina snperciliaris. The Banded Crake. 

Rallue nigrolineatus, G. R. Gray, List Gratia B. M. p. 117 (1844 : 

descr. nulla). 

llnllus superciliaris, Eyton, A. M. N. H. xvi, p. 230 (1845). 
Porzana ceylonica, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 285 ; Jerdon, B. L in, p. 72o ; 



168 HALLIDJE. 



Hume, S. F. i, p. 440 ; Hume $ Oaf eg, S. F. iii, p. 188 ; Hume fy 

Bourd. S. F. iv, p. 405 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 465 ; uec Hull us 

zeylanicus, Gm. 

Porzana superciliaris, Blyth, Cat. p. 339. 
Porzana zeylanica, apud Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxi, p. 353 ; id. Ibis, 

1867, pp. 171, 309 ; nee Gm. 

Porzana amauroptera, Blyth, Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 725. 
Rallina euryzonoides, apud Tu-eeddale, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 767 (partim); 

Hume, Cat. no. 912; Leyge, Birds Ceyl. p. 772 ; Hume fy Marsh. 

dnvttft Ti ii r 9517 -r>l finfaa 7? ff ii -i-v .^/lO- Tlniiifl&nrt .7iJI' 



, \^uv. iiu. i^ , j^eyye, j)trua \^cyi. p. / i& , Ji//tc 9 .IUM* 

_ ^. ii, p. 237, pi. ; Ort^s, ^. B. ii, p. 340 ; Davidson, Jour 
Bom. N. H. Soc. ix, p. 489 ; nee Lafresn. 
Rallina telmatophila, Hume, S. F. vii, pp. 142, 451. 
liallina superciliaris, Sharpe, Cat. . M. xxiii. p. 76. 




Fig. 35. Head of B. superciliaris. \. 

Coloration. Head and neck all round, with upper breast, chestnut ; 
chin and throat pale rufous to white ; upper parts from the neck 
dark brownish olive ; quills dark brown; lower parts from breast, 
including wing-lining and lower tail-coverts, barred across with 
white and dusky black ; the dusky bars becoming narrow 7 and 
partly disappearing in the middle. 

Old females appear to resemble the male, but this is not quite 
certain; generally in females the chestnut is confined to the fore- 
head, sides of face, fore neck, and breast, the crown and nape 
being brownish olive like the back. Young birds have the rufous 
on the head, neck, and breast entirely replaced by brown ; the 
inner webs of the quills are barred with white, and there are 
occasionally a few white bars with dusky edges on the upper 
wing-coverts. 

Base of upper mandible, and greater portion of the lower, green ; 
remainder of the bill dark brown ; irides blood-red ; legs black 
(Oates). Iris mottled closely on the exterior portion with red- 
brown on an olive ground; legs and feet plumbeous (Leyye). 

Length 10; tail 2'3; wing 5 ; tarsus 1'7 ; bill from gape 1'2. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to Ceylon, arriving about the end 
of October and leaving about February. Isolated specimens have 
been obtained in the North-west Provinces and Oudh, JN"epal, 
Sikhim, Bengal, Orissa, Gumsiir, Cauara, and Travancore, also at 
Thayet Myo in Pegu, at Malacca, and Singapore ; but. except in 
Ceylon, the occurrence of this species appears to be occasional, and 
its summer quarters and breeding-haunts are unknown. The 
Philippine species, the true 11. euryzonoidcs, is regarded by 
Dr. Sharpe as distinct. 

Habits, <$fc. The Banded Crake arrives on the west coast of 



EALLIXA. 169 

Ceyloa when the north wind sets in ; it is then in an exhausted 
condition as if from a long flight, and often seeks shelter in 
houses. After a few days all the birds leave for the hills, where 
they frequent sedgy places near streams and paddy-fields ; they 
are also found in drier ground. Nothing certain is known of the 
nidification. 

1396. Rallina fasciata. The Malayan Banded Crake. 

Rallus fasciatus, Raffi. TV. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 328 (1822). 

Porzana fasciata, Blyth, Cat. p. 285 ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 483 ; iii, 

p. 188. 
Rallina fasciata, Wald. in Blyth' s Birds Burm. p. 162 ; Hume Sf 

Dav. S. F. vi, p. 467 ; Hume, Cat. no. 912 bis ; Hume $ Marsh. 

Game B. ii, p. 235, pi. : Oates, B. B. ii, p. 341 ; Salcadori, Ann. 

Mm. Civ. Gen. (2) vii, p. 427 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiii, p. 76. 

Coloration. Head and neck all round, with the breast, dull 
chestnut, paler, sometimes whitish, on the chin and throat ; upper 
parts from the neck rufous brown; primary and some of the 
secondary wing-coverts with dark-edged white cross-bars; quills 
dark brown, all except the tertiaries with imperfect white bars on 
both webs ; abdomen barred black and white, the white bars 
becoming rufous on the lower tail-coverts. 

In some skins, probably females, the black bars on the abdomen 
are narrower and disappear more or less in the middle. Young 
birds are brown, not chestnut, on the head, neck, and breast. 

Bill blackish, plumbeous, or greenish slaty ; gape, chin, and 
orbital ring crimson ; irides brown to crimson ; legs and feet 
coral-red ; claws horny blue (Davison). 

Length 9 ; tail 2 ; wing 5 ; tarsus 1'7 ; bill from gape 1. 

Distribution. Erom Karennee to Celebes and the Moluccas, 
throughout the Malayan Peninsula and islands. Found by 
Davison at Moulmein, Amherst, and Tavoy, and by Eea in 
Karennee. 

Habits, fyc. Apparently a resident species, found in scrub and 
brushwood on the borders of wet cultivation. Nidification not 
known. 

1397. Rallina canning!. The Andamanese Banded Crake. 

Euryzona cauningi, Tytler, Blyth, Ibis, 1863, p. 119 ; Ball, J, A. S. B. 

xli, pt. 2, p. 288 ; id. S. F. i, p. 86 ; Hume, S. F.'ii, pp. 302, 500. 
Rallina canningi, Hume, Cat. no. 912 ter ; Hume Sf Marsh. Game 

B. ii, p. 241, pi. ; Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 393. 
Castanolimnas canning!, Sharpe, Bull. B. O. Club, vol. i, p. xxviii ; 

id. Ibis, 1893, p. 260 ; id. Cat. B. M. xxiii, p. 80. 

Coloration. Head and neck all round, upper breast, and whole 
upper plumage deep ruddy chestnut ; quills blackish brown 
externally, margined with chestnut, all except the tertiaries with 
rufous-white bars on the inner webs ; primaries more or less 
distinctly barred with rufous on the outer webs also ; lower parts 



RALLIED. 

from middle of breast, including the wing-lining, black with white 
cross-bars. 

Bill a delicate pale chrysoprase green ; irides red ; legs and feet 
olive-green ( Wimberley}. 

Length 13-5 ; tail 3-3 ; wing 6-25 ; tarsus 2'1 ; bill from gape 1-4. 

Distribution. The Andaman Islands. 

Habits , $c. A forest bird, haunting swampy ground and the 
neighbourhood of hill-streams, and feeding on insects and fresh- 
water Crustacea. A nest of grass loosely rolled together, with 6 
eggs, was taken on July 17th and brought to Mr. de Roepstorff. 
The eggs are pinkish, streaked and blotched, chiefly at the larger 
end, with chestnut and purple, and measure on an average 1/4 by 
1-09. 

Genus AMAURORNIS, Eeichenb., 1852. 

The members of this genus are distinguished from both Porzana 
and GaUinula by having a more rounded wing, with the 3rd quill 
longest, the 2nd equal to the oth or 6th, and the 1st much shorter. 
The species are also distinguished at once from Porzana by very 
different and much more uniform plumage. The bill is of moderate 
length, much shorter than the tarsus, which is shorter than the 
middle toe and claw. 

The type of the genus, A. olivaceus, a Philippine species, has the 
upper mandible slightly swollen at the base, and the same is the 
case in A. phwnicurus { but in coloration A. olivaceus is perfectly 
intermediate between A. phosnicurus and A. akool, which cannot be 
separated from A.fuscus and A. bicolor. The difference in the bill 
appears scarcely sufficient to justify generic separation, though, 
if a division is made, A. licolor and A. akool should, I think, be 
referred to Limnobcenus, of which A. fuscus is the type. 

The genus Amaurornis, as here accepted, ranges throughout the 
Oriental region to North Australia. Four species are Indian. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Breast grey or rufous ; bill not swollen at 

base. 
a'. Breast in adults vinous chestnut, in young 

dark olive , A.fuscus, p. 170. 

b'. Breast dark grey. 

a" . Back rufous "brown A. bicolor, p. 171. 

b". Back dark olive A. akool, p. 172. 

I. Breast white ; bill swollen at base A. pha-nicurus, p. 173. 



1398. Amaurornis fuscus. The Ruddy Crake. 

Baling fuecus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 262 (1766). 

Zapornia flammicepe, Hodgs. in Grays Zool. Misc. p. 86 (1844, 

descr. nulla). 
Porzana fusca, Blyth, Cat. p. 285 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 724; Slytk, 

Ibis, 1867, p. 171 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. 3, p. 175 ; 



AMAURORNIS. 171 

Stoliczka, S. F. ii, p. 461 ; Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 161 ; Hume, 
8. F. vii, p. 489 ; id. Cat. no. 911 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 769 j 
Hume $ Marsh. Game B. ii, p. 217, pi. ; Vidal, 8. F. ix, p. 87 ; 
Butler, ibid. p. 432 ; Damson, S. F. x, p. 415 ; . Reid, ibid. p. 453 ; 
Taylor, ibid. p. 466 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 346 ; id. in Hume's N. # E. 
2nd ed. iii, p. 390 ; Ba *nes, Birds Bom. p. 372 ; Hume fy Cripps, 
S. F. xi, p. 329; Sharpe, Yark. Miss., Aves, p. 146. 

Kallina fusca, Hume, N. fy E. p. 604 ; Oates # Hume, S. F. iii, 
p. 188 ; Hume, ibid. p. 500 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped.,Aves, p. 691. 

Limnobsenus fuse us, Sharps, Cat. B. M. xxiii, p. 146. 

Coloration. Upper parts dark brownish olive; rump, upper tail- 
coverts, and tertiaries browner ; auills and tail dark brown ; fore- 
head and sinciput, sides of head, including supercilia, and of neck, 
and lower parts to abdomen vinous chestnut; sides of body and 
abdomen brown tinged with olive, the latter streaked with white ; 
lower tail-coverts blackish with broader white fringes. In many 
skins, irrespective of sex, the chin and throat are whitish or 
white. 

Young birds are dusky olive throughout, except the chin, throat, 
and middle of abdomen, which are whitish. Apparently the rufous 
garb is gradually assumed, beginning on the head. 

Bill greenish brown ; iris crimson ; eyelids plumbeous, the edges 
red ; legs and toes red (Oates). 

Length 8'5 ; tail 2'1 ; wing 4 ; tarsus 1'4 ; bill from gape ]. 

Distribution. India, Ceylon, and Burma, ranging to Java, the 
Philippines, China, and Japan. This species is common in Lower 
Bengal and along the Lower Himalayas as far west as Kashmir, 
where it breeds, but is rare in the Upper Provinces and not known 
to occur in the Western Punjab, Sind, Rajputana, or Guzerat, 
whilst throughout the Peninsula it is only known to have been 
obtained in Mysore and the Wynaad, though Vidal saw \vhat he 
believed was this species near E-atnagiri. It is a winter visitor to 
Ceylon. It is common in Pegu, and has been found at Shillong 
and Dibrugarh in Assam, also in Arrakan and in Yunnan, but not 
in Tenasserim. 

Habits, fyc. Around Calcutta, as observed by Hume, this Rail is 
common on rushy ponds, where it seeks food on the floating leaves 
of water-lilies and other plants, and amongst reeds and grass in 
swamps. It swims jerkily like a Moorhen. It has a soft call, 
and feeds on insects and seeds. It breeds in Bengal from July to 
September, makes the usual Kail's nest of grass or rush, and lays 
about live eggs (perhaps more), creamy white with red and inky- 
purple spots, chiefly at the broad end, and measuring about 1-2 
by -84. 

1399. Amaurornis bicolor. Elwes's Crake. 

Porzana bicolor, Walden, A. M. N. H. (4) ix, p. 47 (1872) ; Godic.- 
Aust. J. A. 8. B. xliii, pt. 2, p. 174 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 283 ; id. 
Cat. no. 911 bis; id. $ Marsh Game B. ii, p. 223, pi. ; Hume, 

,p. 113. 



S. F. xi, p. 329 ; tifarpe, Cat. B. M. xxiii, p. 113. 
Porzana elwesi, Hume, S. F. iii, p. 283, note (1875). 



172 HALLID.E. 

Coloration. Head, neck, and lower parts dark slaty grey, darker 
on the crown and nape, paler and ashy on the sides of the head 
and throat ; upper parts from the neck rufous brown ; primaries 
and secondaries dark brown ; tail black. 

Bill glaucous green, with a slight tinge of red near base of 
mandibles and tipped grey ; irides crimson-red ; orbits red ; legs 
pale dullish vermilion (Godivin-Austen). 

Length 8-5; tail 2; wing 4-5 ; tarsus 1-5 ; bill from gape 1-1. 

Distribution. Elwes and Mandelli obtained this Rail in the valleys 
of Sikhim at from 4000 to 6000 fee^ and Godwin-Austen found 
it on the Khasi hills at a similar elevation. Hume saw what was 
probably this species in Manipur. 

Habits, $c. Grass around marshy pools and swamps and irrigated 
rice-fields are the places where this Rail has been found. It 
probably descends to lower levels than those above quoted in 
summer. An egg, presumably of this species, brought to Godwin- 
Austen, measured 1'4 by 1 and was creamy white, spotted, chiefly 
towards the larger end, with pale grey and light and dark sepia. 

1400. Amaurornis akool. The Brown Crake. 

Rail us akool, SyJces, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 1C4. 

Porzana akool, Blyth, Cat. p. 284 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, pp. 722, 875 ; 
Adam, S. F. i, p. 398 ; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 21 ; v, p. 224 ; ix, 
p. 431 ; Godiu.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlvii, pt. 2, p. 21 ; Ball, S. F. 
vii, p. 229 ; Hume, ibid. p. 489 ; id. Cat. no. 908 ; Hume $ Marsh. 
Game B. ii, p. 225, pi. ; iii, p. 435, pi. iii (egg) ; Davidson, S. F. 
x, p. 322 ; Macgregor, ibid. p. 441 ; Taylor, ibid. p. 466 ; Swinhoe 
Barnes, Ibis, 1885, p. 135; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 369; Hume, 
S. F. xi, p. 328 ; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 296 ; 
Barnes, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vi, p. 139, pi. at p. 129 (egg). 

Amaurornis akool, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiii, p. 155. 

Coloration. Upper parts uniform dark olive; quills and tail- 
feathers dark brown, olive on the exposed portions ; sides of head, 
including the supercilia, and the lower parts ashy grey, passing 
into white on the throat and chin and into brown on the flanks 
and lower tail-coverts. 

Young birds appear to moult into the adult plumage from the 
downy stage. Some young birds from. Saugor in the Hume 
collection, though nearly full-grown, retain some black down on 
the head ; one of these is figured in Hume and Marshall's ' Game 
Birds.' 

Bill greenish ; irides red-brown ; legs and feet fleshy brown or 
livid purple (Jerdon). 

Length of males 11; tail 2'5 : wing 5; tarsus 2; bill from 
gape 1*5. Females are rather smaller. 

Distribution. Resident throughout Northern India, commonest 
along the base of the Himalayas, rare in Bengal and the plains 
generally. This Rail has been recorded from several parts of 
Central India and the Central Provinces, S.E. Bengal, Rajputaua, 
the Deccan, and Mysore, but not from the Western Punjab or 



AMAUKOKNIS. 173 

Siud, nor from the Carnatic, the Malabar coast, or Ceylon. To 
the eastward it has been obtained in the North Khasi hills, 
but not elsewhere in Assam or Burma ; it occurs, however, in 
China. 

Habits, $c. This is rather a Moorhen than a Rail ; it is less 
aquatic than other Indian Crakes, and may often be seen running 
about in the early morning searching for food insects, small 
snails and slugs, worms and seeds on bare ground and even on 
rocks near water. It is found as often about rivers and ponds as 
about marshes, and it walks and swims like Gallinula. It breeds, 
according to Barnes, twice in the monsoon, in June or July and 
again in August and September. The nest of coarse grass 
resembles that of a Moorhen, but is smaller. The eggs, 4 to 8 
in number, are oval, pinkish white, with purplish and reddish- 
brown spots and underlying faint purple blotches. They measure 
about 1-49 by M. 



1401. Amaurornis phcenicuras. The White-breasted Water-lien. 

Gallinula phoenicurus, Penn. 2nd. Zool. p. 10, pi. ix (1769) ; Morgan, 

Ibis, 1875, p. -323 ; Newton, S. F. viii, p. 415. 
Porzana phcenicura, Bluth, Cat. p. 284; id. Ibis, 1867, p. 171; 

Hi/me, S. F. i, p. 251 ; Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 161 ; 

Butler, S. F. vii, p. 187. 
Gailinula phcenicura, Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 720; Godiu.-Aust. J. A. 

S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 274 ; Aitken. S. F. i, p. 424 ; Hume, 8. F. 

ii, p. 300 ; id. N. 8f E. p. 599 ; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 21 ; v, p. 224 ; 

Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 466 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 229. 
Erythra phcenicura, Reichenb. Natiirl. Syst. Vogel, p. xxi (1852) ; 

Gates, S. F. v, p. 165 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 691 ; 

Cripps, S. F. vii, p. 306 ; Hume, Cat. no. 907 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. 

p. 786 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 87 ; Butler, ibid. p. 431 ; Reid, S. F. 

x, p. 73; Davison, ibid. p. 415; Macgregor, ibid. p. 441 ; Parker, 

Ibis, 1883, p. 195 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 368 ; Hume, S. F. xi, 

p. 328 ; Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 391. 
Erythrura phcenicura, Oaten, B. B. ii, p. 348. 
Amaurornis phoenicura, Salvad. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) iv, p. 612 ; 

Barnes, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. i, p. 60 ; vi, p. 138, fig. 907 ; Shar^e, 

Cat. B. M. xxiii, p. 156. 
Amaurornis insularis (subsp.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiii, p. 162. 

Dawak, Dahak, Dauk, H. ; Kinati, Oudh ; Kurahi, Sind ; Kureyn, 
Gond ; Boli-Kadi, Tel. ; Tannin-Koli, Kanung-Koli, Tarn. (Ceylon) : 
Kdlu-ywet, Burm. 

Coloration. Broad forehead and sides of face, including the 
orbits and ear-coverts, chin, throat, fore neck, and breast white ; 
upper parts generally and sides of body dark slaty grey, more or 
less washed and concealed by olive ; rump and upper tail-coverts 
olive-brown ; quills blackish brown ; outer margin of first primary 
and edge of wing white ; tail dark brown ; abdomen buff in the 
middle ; lower flanks, sides of rump, vent, and lower tail-coverts 
pale dull chestnut. 



174 RALLID/E. 

In young birds the forehead, crown, and upper parts generally 
are olive-brown, and the white of the face and underparts obscured 
by dusky tips to the feathers. 

Bill green, the frontal portion red ; hides brown to red ; legs 
and feet yellow to yellowish olive. 

Length 12'5 ; tail 2-5 ; wing 6'5 ; tarsus 2*25 ; bill from gape 
1*5. Females are rather smaller than males, and skins from 
Ceylon appear to measure less than those from Northern India. 




Fig. 36. Head of A. phoenicurus. ^. 

The race inhabiting the Andamans and Nicobars forms the sub- 
species A. insularis of Sbarpe. It has the white of the forehead 
extended over the anterior part of the crown, whilst that of the 
breast is confined to a narrow strip in the middle. Undoubtedly 
the insular form is a well-marked race, but its peculiarities are 
sometimes found in mainland specimens. 

Distribution. Almost throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma, 
with the greater part of the Oriental region, to Celebes and 
Formosa. This Water-hen appears not to be found in the 
Himalayas above the swampy ground at the foot of the hills, and 
becomes rare in North -western India. 

Habits, <$f*c. This is the commonest and most familiar Indian 
bird of the whole family, and is often found about gardens and 
village cultivation, as well as near tanks and marshes. It feeds 
in the open, and when disturbed runs rapidly, with its tail raised, 
into cover. It feeds on insects, molluscs, grain, &c. It is an ex- 
cessively noisy bird : its loud, hoarse, reiterated call, predominating 
in the evening and morning over the cries of the other waders and 
the ducks in the village tank, must be familiar to most people in 
India. The breeding-season is from May to September, varying 
with the locality. The nest, sometimes 011 the ground, more often 
on reeds, bamboos, bushes, or trees standing in water, is the usual 
pad of grass, rushes, and leaves, often resting on twigs. The eggs, 
4 to 8 in number, measure about 1-57 by 1*18, and are buff with 
spots, streaks, and blotches of brownish red and pale purplish 
grey. 






GALLINULA. 175 



Genus GALLINULA, Brisson, 1760. 

Bill moderate, the basal portion of the culmen bent up on the 
forehead to form a frontal shield that is rounded behind ; nostrils 
elongate. Toes fringed with a membrane and extremely long, 
the mid-toe without claw exceeding the tarsus in length. In the 
wing the 2nd quill is longest, or the 2nd and 3rd equal ; the 1st 
is equal to the 5th or 6th. 

Of this genus, which is found throughout the greater part of 
the world, six species are enumerated in Sharpe's Catalogue, but 
onlv one occurs in India. 



1402. Gallinula chloropus. The Moorhen. 

Fulica chloropus, Linn. Si/sf. Nat. i, p. 258 (1766). 

Gallinula chloropus, Blyth, Cat. p. 286 ; Jerdon, B. 1. iii, p. 718 : 
Godw.-Anst. J. A. 8. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 274; xlv, pt. 2, p. 84 ; 
Hume, S. F. i, p. 250 ; Adam, ibid. p. 398 ; Stoliczka, S. F. ii, 
p. 461 ; Hume $ Oates, S. F. iii, p. 187 ; Blyth $ Wald. Birds 
Burin, p. 162; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 20; v, p. 224; ix, p. 431 ; 
Inglis, S. F. v, p. 46 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 466 ; Anders. 
Yunnan Exped., Aves p. 692; Ball $ Hume, S. F. vii, p. 229; 
Legae, Birds Ceyl. p. 781 ; Hume, Cat. no. 905 ; Doig, S. F. viii, 
p. 371 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 87 ; Parker, S. F. ix, p. 483 ; Biddulph, 
Ibis, 1881, p. 98; Scully, ibid. p. 590; Reid, S. F. x, p. 73; 
Davison, ibid. p. 415; Macgregor, ibid. p. 441; Oates, B. B. ii, 
p. 347 : Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 368 ; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. i, 
p. 62 ;' vi, p. 138 ; Parker, Ibis, 1886, p. 187 ; Hume, S. F. xi, 
p. 328; Oates in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 389; Sharpe, 
Yarkand Miss., Aves, p. 146 ; id. Cat. B. M. xxiii, p. 169. 

Gallinula parvifrons, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 180 (1843). 

Gallinula burnesii, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiii, p. 737 ; Jerdon, B. I. 
iii, p. 719 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 171 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 599 ; id. 
Cat. no. 906. 

Jal-Murghi, H. ; Dakah-paira, Beng. ; Jumbu-Kodi, Boli-Kodi, Tel. 




Fig. 37. Head of G. chloropus. \. 

Coloration. Head and neck blackish grey, passing into dark 
slaty grey on the breast arid flanks, the latter with a few broad 
white stripes; back and scapulars brownish olive; rump and 
tertiaries browner ; wing-coverts more olive ; quills and primary- 
coverts blackish brown ; edge of wing and generally the outer 



1 76 EALLID.E. 

border of the first primary white ; outer tail-feathers black : 
middle of abdomen, with rare exceptions, partly white ; under tail- 
coverts white, except a tuft of shorter coverts in the middle, which 
is black. 

Young birds have the head, neck, and lower parts brownish 
grey ; the latter much mixed with white. 

Frontal shield and basal half or two-thirds of bill red, remainder 
of bill greenish yellow ; irides red ; tibia and front of tarsus greenish 
yellow, hind part of tarsus and all toes slaty green ; an orange ring 
round the tibia just below the feathPred portion (Oates}. 

Length 12-5 ; tail 2-75 ; wing 6*5 ; tarsus 1'9 ; bill from gape I'l. 
Females run smaller. Indian birds are smaller than European. 

Distribution. The greater part of Europe, Asia, and Africa, 
including the whole of India, Ceylon, and Burma. This species 
is in India a resident or a partial migrant, leaving particular tracts 
in the season when swamps and streams are dry. In Gilgit the 
Moorhen is only found when passing in the spring and autumn. 

Habits, $c. In India the Moorhen is more commonly found 
about reedy tanks and marshes, especially those much covered 
with floating vegetation, than on the banks of rivers, though it 
also resorts to the latter at times. It swims well with a jerky 
movement, and it runs when on land with the tail erect and the 
white under tail -coverts conspicuous. Like other Bails, it feeds 
on various kinds of vegetable food and on insects. The breeding- 
season in India varies somewhat, but is generally in July, August, 
and September in the plains. In the hills this bird is believed to 
breed twice : in May and again about July. The nest is a bulky 
platform of straw, flags, or rushes, in the water or close to it, 
sometimes in a bush, and the eggs, 5 to 9 in number, are pale 
stone-colour, spotted and speckled with red, reddish brown, and 
purple, and measuring about 1-62 by 1-21. 



Genus GALLICREX, Blyth, 1849. 

Bill stout, of moderate length, about as long as the long hind- 
toe without the claw ; frontal shield pointed behind, much larger 
in males than in females, and in the breeding- season terminating 
on the vertex in a fleshy horn-like peak. All toes long, the middle 
toe, without claw, longer than the tarsus. The 2nd, 3rd, and 4th 
quills subequal, the 3rd generally slightly the longest, 1st between 
the 6th and 8th in length. Sexes dissimilar, males larger than 
females. 

A single species. 



1403. Gallicrex cinerea. The Kora or Water-Cod'. 

Fulica cinerea, Gm. Syst. Nat. i, p. 702 (1788). 

Gallinula cristata, Lath. Ind. Orn. ii, p. 773 (1790). 

Eallus rufescens, Jerdon. Mad. Jour. L. S. xii, p. 205 (1840). 



GALLICREX. 177 

Gallicrex cristata, Blyth, Cat. p. 283; Jcrdon, B. I. iii, p. 716; 

Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 171 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, 

p. 142 ; Adam, S. F. i, p. 397 ; Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. 

p. 161; Blanford, S. F. v, p. 247; Butler, S. F. vii, p. 187; 

Simson, Ibis, 18S2, p. 94 ; Littledale, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. v, 

p. 416; Lester, op. cit. xi, p. 321. 
Gallicrex cinerea, W olden, Ibis, 1873, p. 317 ; Hume, N. fy E. p. 596 ; 

Hume, S. F. ii, p. 300 ; Cripps, ibid. p. 531 ; Hume $ Oates, S. F. 

iii, p. 187; Oates, 8. F. v, p. 165; Wardl. Rams. Ibis 1877, 

p. 471 ; Hume fy Dav. 8. F. vi, p. 466; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 229 ; 

Cripps, ibid. p. 305 ; Hume, Cat. no. 904 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. 

p. 791 ; Barnes, S. F. x, p. 167 ; id. Birds Bom. p. 367 ; id. Jour. 

Bom. N. H. Soc. vi, p. 137, fig. 904 (egg) ; Oates, B. B. ii, 

p. 349; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 387; Hume fy 

Cripps, S. F. xi, p. 327 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiii, p. 183. 

Kora, Kongra, H. &c. ; Ktttala, Cing. in North Ceylon ; Willi- 
kukulu in South ; Tannir-koli, Tarn. (Ceylon) ; Boun-dote, Burm. 




Fig. 38. Head of Gr. cinereus. |. 

Coloration. Males in summer plumage have the head, neck, 
and lower parts black, more or less tinged with grey, and 
generally with some white mixed on the abdomen ; back, rump, 
scapulars, and upper surface of wings blackish brown with ashy- 
grey borders to the back-feathers, scapulars, and some of the 
coverts, and light brown borders elsewhere; quills and tail- 
feathers blackish brown ; white on the edge of the wing and on 
the outer web of the 1st primary; under tail-coverts buffy white 
with dark brown bars. In autumn the male moults into the 
female garb, which it wears in winter, the breeding-plumage being 
reassumed in spring, by change of colour in the feathers according 
to Blyth. 

Females are dark brown above, with pale brown edges to the 
feathers except on the crown ; sides of head and neck lighter 
brown ; lower parts light brown to pale buff, with rather wavy 
dark brown cross-bars ; the chin, throat, and middle of the 
abdomen generally unbarred ; wing- and tail-feathers as in male. 

Young birds resemble the female, but the bars on the lower 
plumage are often indistinct and sometimes wanting. 

YOL. IV. N 



ITS BALLIDJE.- 

In males the bill and shield are red, anterior portion of bill 
duller; irides red; eyelids plumbeous; legs and toes red (Gates). 
In females the bill is yellowish horny ; irides yellowish brown ; 
legs and feet dusky green. 

Length of male 17 ; tail 3 ; wing 8-5 ; tarsus 3 ; bill from gape 
1-7. Length of female 14 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 7 ; tarsus 2*6. 

Distribution. Common in the damp warm swampy plains of 
India, Ceylon, and Burma, especially in Bengal, Cachar, Assam, 
and Pegu, also in the Andamans, parts of Ceylon and of the 
Malabar coast ; rare in drier tractsf though specimens have been 
obtained in Sind, Cutch, Guzerat, and Kajputana; wanting in 
general in hilly regions. Outside of Indian limits this bird 
is found throughout the Malay countries to China, Japan, the 
Philippines, and Java. 

Habits, $c. The Water-cock hides in the thick vegetation of 
swamps, in grass or rice cultivation, and in brushwood, and is 
more often heard than seen, being crepuscular or nocturnal in 
habits. It has a loud booming cry, uttered especially during the 
breeding-season. It is often kept tame in Dacca, Sylhet, and 
Assam ; tame males, according to Mr. Cripps, being employed to 
capture wild birds of the same sex. The Water-ccck is said by all 
to be excellent eating : its food is mainly vegetable. The breeding- 
season is in July and August, the nest being a mass, varying in 
size, of rushes, grass, &c., amongst reeds or on floating leaves 
of lotus and singhara (Trapa\ and the eggs are stone-coloured 
with spots of brownish red and pale purple, and measure about T7 
by 1-27. 

Genus PORPHYRIO, Brisson, 1760. 

The Blue Moorhens are distinguished at once by coloration and 
by the thick, compressed, rather short and high bill, small rounded 
nostril not placed in a groove, and broad frontal shield covering 
all the anterior portion of the crown and squarely truncated 
behind. The wing is rounded, the first quill about equal to the 
6th or 7th ; 2nd, 3rd, and 4th subequal. Tarsus and toes very 
long. Sexes alike. 

About 13 species are known from Africa, Madagascar, the 
Mediteranean region, Southern Asia, the Malay Archipelago, 
Australia, Kew Zealand, and the Pacific islands. One species is 
Indian. 



1404. Porphyrio poliocephalus. The Purple Moorhen. 
Gallinula poliocephala, Lath. Ind. Orn. Suppl. p. Ixviii (1801). 




p. c>9 ; Ball, ibid. p. 229 ; Cripps, ibid. p. 305 ; Hume, Cat. no. 902 ; 



POIIPILYRIO. 179 

Doiq, S. F. viii, p. 371; Leyge, Birds CeyL p. 795 ; 'Binyham, 

F. ix, p. 197 ; Parker, ibid. p. 483 ; id. Ibis, 1883, p. 194 ; 1886, 

. 187 ; Barnes, S. F. ix, p. 459 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 72 ; Davidson, 




vi, p. 135, fig. 902 (egg) ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 326 ; St. John, 
Ibis, 1889, p. 177 ; Oates in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 384 ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiii, p. 197. 

Porphyrio neglectus, Schfeyel, Mus. Pays-Bas, v, Ralli, p. 53 (1865) ; 
Hume, N. $ E. p. 691 j id. S. F. i, pp. 125, 136, 249 ; Hume $ 
Oates, S. F. iii, p. 181 

Kaim, Kalim, Kharim, Khima, II.; Nila boli-kodi, Tel.; K'dtala, 
Cing. ; Indura-kukula, dp. (S. Province) ; Sanmiry, Tarn., Ceylon. 




Fig. 39. Head of P. poliocephalus (from above). }. 

Coloration. Head pale brownish grey, tinged with cobalt on 
cheeks and throat, and passing on the nape into the deep purplish 
lilac of the hind neck, back, rump, and upper tail-coverts ; wings 
outside, scapulars, and breast light greenish blue ; abdomen and 
flanks like the back; wing- and tail -leathers black, blue on the 
exposed portions ; under tail-coverts white. No immature plumage; 
nestlings on leaving the egg are clad in black down like other Rails 
and Water-hens. The grey of the head is due, partly at all events, 
to the wearing away of the feathers. 

Bill and casque deep red, tinged brown in places ; iricles deep 
red ; legs and feet pale rod, brown at joints (Davison}. 

Length 17; tail 3'75 ; wing 10; tarsus 3'2; bill from gape 
1*5. Females are rather smaller. 

Distribution. Throughout the plains of India, Ceylon, and 
Burma, in suitable localities. This bird is replaced in the Malay 
Peninsula and to the eastward by different species, but ranges 
throughout South-western Asia to the Caspian. 

Habits, $c. The Purple Moorhen or, as Jerdon calls it, the 
Purple Coot (but it is far more like a Moorhen than a Coot), 
is found on large pieces of water tanks, marshes, or rivers 
portions of which are thickly covered by high reeds or bushes ; 
amongst these the bird makes its way, clinging to the reeds and 
twigs with its huge feet like a gigantic Grass-Warbler. It has, 
according to Jerdon, a fowl-like call, and it cortainly is given to 
cackling. Its food is mainly vegetable, and it commits great havoc 

N 2 



180 BALLIDJE. 

in rice-fields by cutting down the growing rice. This Moorhen 
breeds from July to September, makes a large rush nest, some- 
times floating on water, sometimes in reeds, and lays 6 to 8 or even 
10 eggs, pale pinkish in colour with numerous red and pale 
purplish-grey spots and measuring about 1-93 by 1*39. 



Genus FULICA, Linn., 1766. 

The Coots, which constitute this, genus, are distinguished by 
having their long toes fringed by a broad membrane divided into 
convex lobes corresponding to the phalanges, and by the tarsus, 
which is considerably shorter than the mid-toe without claw, 
bearing a membranous fringe behind. The bill is of moderate 
length, compressed, and rather deep, terminating on the forehead 
in a frontal disk of varying form. The plumage of all species is 
dark grey or blackish. Sexes alike. 

This genus is nearly cosmopolitan and includes about 12 species, 
of which one is Indian. 



1405. Fulica atra. The Coot. 

Fulica atra, Linn. Sy*t. Nat.\,y. 257 (1766) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 286 ; 
Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 715 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 254 ; 
Hume $ Henderg. Lih. to Y*rk. p. 293 ; Hume, S. F.\, p. 249 ; 
Adam, ibid. p. 397 ; Sutler, S. F. iv, p. 20 ; v, p. 233 ; ix, p. 431 ; 
Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 465 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 229 ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 903 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 358 ; Tidal. S. F. ix, p. 86 ; 
Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 97; Scully, ibid. p. 590 ; Swinhoe, Ibi*, 
1882, p. 122 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 72 ; Damdson, ibid. p. 3:22 ; Taylor, 
ibid. p. 466 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 352; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 366 ; 
id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vi, p. 136; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 327 ; 
Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 386 ; Sharpe, Yark. Miss., 
Axes, p. 145 ; id. Cat. B. M. xxiii, p. 210. 

Dasari, Dasarni, Ari, Khuskul, Thekari, H. ; Barra Godan (Purneah) ; 
Boli-kodi, Tel. 

Coloration. Head, neck, and lower tail-coverts black; upper 
plumage from neck blackish grey with a steel-blue tinge ; lower 
plumage paler and more ashy ; edge of wing and outer web of first 
primary white or whitish. 

Young birds are brown with the lower plumage partly white 
and with white tips to the secondary quills. 

Bill and shield bluish white ; irides red; legs and toes liver- 
brown, tinged with green on the tarsus ; in summer there is a ring 
of yellow-green and red round the tibia (Oates}. 

Length 16 ; tail 2-25 ; wing 8-5 ; tarsus 2-25 ; bill from gape 1-4. 

Distribution. The greater part of Europe and Asia, with Japan, 
the Philippines, and the Ma^ay Archipelago as far as Java. The 
Coot has not been observed in Ceylon, but it is found in almost 
all parts of India and Burma where there are large pieces of water 



HELIORNITHIDjE. 181 

much covered with vegetation. It is a resident and breeds in 
many parts of India, but in some localities it is merely a cold- 
season visitor. 

Habits, $c. The Coot resembles a Duck rather than a Rail in 
many of its habits, it swims and dives well, and although it rises 
with difficulty from the water, flapping along the surface with 
wings and feet for many yards, it flies strongly and well, when 
once on the wing ; but though often occurring in great numbers, it 
never keeps in flocks as Ducks do. It is a noisy bird, especially 
in the breeding- season. Its food consists of water-plants, insects, 
mollusca, &c. The breeding-season in the Himalayas and Kashmir 
is May and June, in the plains of Northern India July and 
August. The nest is a huge mass of green rushes and weed, 
sometimes in shallow water, sometimes floating, amongst reeds ; 
the eggs, 7 to 10 or even 12 in number, are grey or pale brown, 
minutely speckled with black, with a few larger purplish-black 
spots, and measure about 1-98 by 1*4. 



Family HELIOKNITHID.E. 

This is a very small family, consisting of 3 genera, each con- 
taining one or two species only, and inhabiting the tropical parts 
of America, Africa, and South-eastern Asia, one genus in each. 
All are externally much like Rails; and the lobed membrane oil 
each side of the toes, on account of which the name of Finfoot 
was applied by Latham to ihe only form with \\hich he was 
acquainted, is very similar to that found in the Coots. 

In the Pinfeet the sternum is more massive than in the Rails, 
and is broader behind, with a shallow notch on each side. There 
is no aftershaft, but the wing is quincubital, the 5th secondary 
being present (Seebohm says that it is wanting in Heliornis, but 
present in Podica}. There are no bare tracts on the neck. Rec- 
trices 18. The deep flexor tendons are somewhat peculiar; the 
flexor loncjus hallucis gives off a slip to supply the hallux, and is 
then divided into three, each part uniting with a similar branch of 
the trih'd ft. perforans diyitorum in order to supply one of the 
other three digits. It is manifest that this is merely a modifica- 
tion of the ordinary Galline arrangement *. 

Very little is known of the food, which probably is similar to 
that of Rails. The eggs have not been described, but the young 
of Heliornis are said to be two in number and to be hatched naked 
and helpless. 

* The anatomy of Podica is described by Beddard (P. Z. S. 1890, p. 425), 
and that of Heliornis by the same author (Ibis, 181KJ, p. 30). 



182 



Genus HELIOPAIS, Sharpe, 1893. 



Bill from gape longer titan tarsus, stout ; culmen considerably 
curved ; no frontal shield ; nostril elongate, pervious, placed ii^ar 
the middle of the upper mandible : tarsus shorter than middle toe 
without claw ; toes broadly fringed with skin, which is lobed as in 
Coots. Wing rounded, 2nd quill or 2nd and 3rd longest, 1st 
between 5th and Gth. Tail of 18 feathers, about half as long as 
wing, slightly rounded, rectrices broad and stiff. Sexes slightly 
different. 

A single species. This bird has until recently been placed in 
the same genus as the African Podica ; but Dr. Sharpe has shown 
that the Asiatic bird is really quite as nearly related to the 
American Heliornis, and has rightly, I think, placed it in a distinct 
genus. 

1406. Heliopais personate. The Mashed Finfoot. 

Podica personata, Gray, P. Z. S. 1848, p. 90, Aves, pi. 4 ; Blyth, 
J. A. S. B. xxviii, p. 415 ; Tickcll, ibid. p. 455 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1862, 
p. 91 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xxxviii, pt. 2, p. 191 ; Hume $ Oat.es, 
S. F. iii, p. 185 ; Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 102 ; Hume 4" Dav. S. F. 



vi, p. 465; Godiv.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlvii, pt. 2, p. 21; 
Cat. no. 903 bis ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 353 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 327. 
Heliopais personata, Sharpe, Bull. B. O. Club, vol. i, p. xxxvii (1893) ; 
id. Ibis, 1893, p. 439 ; id. Cat. B. M. xxiii, p. 232. 




Fig. 40. Head of H. personata. f . 

Coloration. Male. Forehead and anterior part of crown with a 
streak running back on each side of the occiput, sides of head to 
back of eye, chin, throat, and fore neck, ending in a point behind, 
velvet-black, all the black area below the superciliary streaks 
narrowly bordered with white; occiput and hind neck bluish grey; 
sides of neck and lower fore neck light brownish olive; upper 
parts, wings, and tail rufescent brown washed with olive, except 
on the larger coverts; quills and rectrices, rump and upper 1ail- 
coverrs slightly paler : breast and abdomen white, passing into 
light brown on the sides of the body : flanks, vent, and lower 
tail-coverts more or less barred brown and white. 



HELIOPAIS. 183 

In females the chin, throat, and fore neck are white with a 
black border, broadest on the cheeks and edged outside with 
white as in the male ; the frontal black band is rather narrower ; 
otherwise the plumage resembles that of the male sex. Young 
birds are like females. 

Bill chrome -yellow in males, dull yellow in females ; irides dark 
brown in males, yellow in females ; legs and feet pale green, 
edges of the webs bright yellow in males, faintly tinged with 
yellow in females (Davisori). 

Length of male 22 ; tail 5 ; wing 10 ; tarsus 2 ; bill from 
gape 2-4. Length of female 20'5; tai!4'5; wing 9*25; tarsus 1*75. 

Distribution. From Assam and Cachar throughout Burma to 
Malacca and Sumatra, in suitable localities, but very rare. 

Habits, $c. This very curious bird has been found on the sea- 
coast, in swamps, and on rivers and mountain streams. 1 believe 
I once killed one on the Irrawaddy above Prome, but I did not 
know the bird and did not preserve it. According to Dcivison 
it swims deep in the water, with only the head and neck above 
the surface ; it runs quickly, holding its body in a peculiar way, 
at an angle to the ground of about 45. It is shy, and when 
disturbed takes refuge in cover or flies up, slowly at first, but 
strongly when fairly on the wing. The food consists of mollusca 
and insects, probably of vegetable substances also ; the flesh is 
said by Davison to be delicious. Nidification unknown. 




Fig. 41. Anthropoides virgo. 



Suborder GRUES. 

Schizognathous and schizorhinal birds with 17 to 20 cervical 
vertebrae and, as a rule, without notches on the posterior border 
of the sternum. Oil-gland tufted. Caeca present. Deep flexors 
Galline. Ambiens present, also the seniitendinosus and accessory 
semitendinosus ; the femoro- caudal and its accessory are wanting in 
one genus, Balearica, present in, others. The young are hatched 
clad in down, and run at once. 

Besides the true Cranes or Gruidce, the American Aramidce and 
Jce are referred to this suborder. 



GRUIDJE. 385 



Family GRUID^E. 

The true Cranes are birds of large size with long necks and legs, 
19 or 20 cervical vertebrae, the bill as long as the head or longer, 
and a depression which extends on each side halt' or more than half: 
the length of the upper mandible, and contains the nostril shut in by 
a large membrane on the posterior side. Tail-feathers 12, primaries 
11. Aftershaft present, but small ; no fifth secondary; the lateral 
bare tracts extend some distance up the neck. Trachea passing 
into a hollow space between the bony walls of the sternal keel, and 
more or less convoluted ; furcula anchylosed to keel of sternum. 

Cranes are generally grey or white in colour. They are in the 
main vegetable feeders, though they occasionally eat insects, 
reptiles, or fish. All have a loud trurnpet-like call, the production 
of which is probably connected with the tracheal convolutions. The 
majority are migratory and gregarious. They breed on the ground, 
usually in marshy places, and lay two eggs, as a rule, in a rough 
nest of grass and rushes. They generally appear to pair for life, and 
indulge in most extraordinary dances during the nuptial season. 

The Cranes have been divided into a large number of genera, 
some of which, distinguished solely by differences in the extent to 
which the head is feathered, are not here adopted. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Crown naked or scantily clad with black 

hairs; feathers of fore neck not lengthened. Gnus, p. 185. 

b. Head feathered throughout, feathers of fore 

neck lengthened ANTHROPOIDES, p. 190. 

Genus GRUS, Pallas, 1766. 

Head partly or wholly bare of feathers. Wings long, ample, 
3rd quill usually longest ; tertiary quills lengthened, exceeding the 
primaries considerably : tail short ; tibia naked for a considerable 
portion of its length. Toes short, stout; claws short, rather 
obtuse. Sexes alike in plumage. 

Cranes are widely distributed. Four species are Indian or 
Burmese. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Plumage grey. 

a'. Crown naked in adults ; sides of head and 

upper neck feathered ; tarsus less than 10. G. communis, p. 186. 
b 1 . ^VVhole head and upper neck without 
feathers; tarsus over ll. 

a". A white collar G. antigone, p. 188. 

b". No white collar G. sharpii, p. 189. 

b. Plumage white G. leucoyeranus, p. 187. 



186 

1407. Grus communis. The Common Crane. 

Ardea grus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 234 (1760]. 

Grus comnmnis, Bechst. Naturg. DeutscJiL iii, p. 60 (1793) : 

Cat. no. 865 ; Hume $ Marsh. Game B. iii, p. 21, pi. : Butler, S. F. 

iv, p. 15 ; ix, p. 427 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 68 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 341. 
Grus cinerea, Meyer $ Wolf, Taschenb. ii, p. 350 (1810) ; Blijth, 

Cat. p. 274; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 664 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1873, p. 81 ; 

Hnme, S. F. i, p. 235 ; Adam, ibid. p. 395 ; Butler, S F. iv, p. 15 ; 

Fairbank, ibM. p. 263 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 227 ; Scully, S. F. viii. 

p. 352 ; Simson, Ibis, 1882, p. 93. 
Grus grus et G. lilfordi, Sharpe, Cat*B. M. xxii, pp. 2oO, 2c2 (1894). 

Kunmch, Kurch, Kuhutg, H. ; Kutij, Sind ; Kallam, Deccan ; Kulangi, 
Tel. 

Coloration. Crown and lores nearly naked, with scattered black 
hnirs ; on the nape a blackish-slaty triangular patch, the point 
behind ; a white band down each side of the head from the eye, 
joining behind the nape and covering the hind neck ; cheek, chin, 
throat, fore neck, and sides of neck dark slaty like the nape ; rest 
of plumage above and below ashy grey, paler or darker, except the 
winglet, the primaries, the greater primary-coverts away from 
their bases, and the tips of the secondaries and tertiaries, which 
are black; ends of the tail-feathers blackish. 

Young birds are brownish owing to the grey feathers having 
isabelline edges, and the head is feathered throughout. The 
nestlings are covered with down of a yellowish-buff colour. In 
old birds the webs of the elongate tertiary quills are free, and the 
tertiaries form a loose- textured plume. 

Skin of crown blackish, with a broad band of dingy red across 
the occiput; bill dingy horny green, yellowish towards the tip; 
i rides orange-red to reddish brown; legs and feet black, soles 
brown to fleshy. 

Length about 45; tail 8; wing 22 to end of primaries; tarsus 9'5; 
bill from gape 4-6. 

Distribution. A migratory bird, breeding in Northern Europe 
and Northern Asia, and wintering in Southern Europe, Northern 
Africa, South-western Asia, Northern India, and China. In India 
this Crane is found as far south as the Mahanadi of Orissa to the 
eastward, and throughout the Bombay Deccan, and it is said to 
occur in Travancore (this requires confirmation) ; but it is unknown 
generally in Southern India and throughout Ceylon, Assam, and 
Burma, and is more common in Northern than in Central India. 

Dr. B. B. Sharpe in his Catalogue distinguished the Eastern 
Crane as G. lilfordi on account of its paler coloration. Mr. Blyth 
long ago pointed out some distinctions in the colour of the naked 
crown. But it is extremely doubtful whether any differences are 
constant, and I learn from Dr. Sharpe that he no longer looks 
upon the Eastern Crane as a distinct species. 

Habits, <$fc. The Common Crane arrives in Northern India in 
October and leaves about March, a few stragglers remaining 
Longer. It is usually seen in flocks, large or small, which pass the 



. .GRUS. 187 

middle of the day and the whole night in the sandy beds of rivers 
or on the borders of banks or marshes, feed in the grain-fields in 
the early morning and in the evening, and fly from one to the 
other in an extended line, frequently more or less V-shaped. The 
call of this bird is a fine clear note, often uttered during flight and 
not unfrequently heard when the birds are at so great a height in 
the air as to be almost out of sight. Cranes that have fed for a 
time on the grain and shoots of wheat, rice, gram, arhar, and other 
crops are delicious ; ill-fed birds are coarse. The Common Crane 
has not been known to breed in India. 

1403. Grus leucogeranus. The Great White or Siberian Crane. 

Grus leucogeranus, Pall. Reis. Russ. R?ichs, ii, p. 714 (1773); 

Irby, Ibis, 1861, p. 243; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 663; Blyth, Ibis, 

1867, p. 166 ; Hume, Ibin, 1868, p. 28 : Brooks, Ibis, 1869, p. 237; 

McMasterj J. A. 8. B. xl, pt. 2, p. 215 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 23n ; 

Butler, S. F. vii, p. 187; Hume, Cat. no. 864; Hume & Marsh. 

Game B. iii, p. 11, pi.; Reid, S. F. x, p. 67; Barnes, Birds 

Bom. p. 341. 
Sarcoo-eranus leucopreranus, SJtarpe, Bull. B. O. Club, vol. i, p. xxxvii 

(1893) ; id. Ibis, 1893, p. 439; id. Cat. B. M. xxiii, p. 2H1. 

Kdre-Khar (N. W. P.) ; Tunhi (Oudh); Chini Kulang (Hansi), H. 

Coloration. Fore part of crown and sides of head to behind the 
eyes bare of feathers. Plumage white throughout, except the 
primaries and their greater coverts with the winglet, which are 
black. Young birds have the head feathered throughout and the 
plumage tinged with buff. 

Naked skin of head dull reddish ; hill umber-brown ; irides 
bright pale yellow ; legs and feet pale reddish pink (Hume). 

Length of male about 54; tail 8: wing 24; tarsus 11; bill 
from gape 7*75. Females are rather smaller, wing 23. 
. Distribution. A rare winter visitor to parts of North-western 
India, chieflv the Eastern Punjab, Northern Smd, the North-west 
Provinces, and Oudh. Mr. Forsyth saw a flock at Dehri near 
Sasseram, and Col. McMaster shot a straggler near Nagpur. This 
Crane breeds in Siberia, and is found occasionally throughout 
Northern and Central Asia. 

habits, &fc. We are indebted to Hume for most of our know- 
ledge of this bird. It is found in India, either in family parries 
generally consisting of three (the two old birds and one young) 
or in small flocks, probably composed of birds in their second 
year that have not paired. They arrive in October and leave 
about the end of March, and during their residence remain 
constantly about particular large marshes (jhils), keeping in 
shallow water and feeding on water-plants. They are exceedingly 
wary. Their cry is described by Hume as a feeble repetition of a 
sound like Kdrtlchar, the native name, but it is said by Brooks to 
be merely a whistle. By all observers this Crane is described as a 
most beautiful and graceful bird, excelling even the Sarus in this 
respect. The nidification is unknown. 



188 GBUID,E. 



1409. Grns antigone. The Sams. 

Ardea antigone, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 235 (1766). 

Grus collaris, Bodd. Tabl. PI. EnL p. 52 (1783); Tec/etmewr, Ed. 
Blyth's Cranes, p. 45. 

Grus antigoue, Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. xii, p. 193; Blyth, Cat. 
p. 274; Irby, Ibis, 1861, p. 242 ; Jerdon, 11 . I. iii, p. 6(32 ; btoliczka, 
J. A. 8. B. xli, pt, 2, p. 252; Hayes Lloyd, Ibis, 1873, p. 416; 
Hume, N. $ E. p. 584 ; id. 8. F. \, p. 234 ; Adam, ibid. p. 395 ; 
Butler, S. F. iv, p. 14 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 227 ; Hume, Cat. 
no. 863 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 352^ Hume $ Marsh. Game B. iii, 
p. 1, pi., p. 435, pi. iv (egg) ; Teyetmeier, Ed. Blyth's Crane*, 
p. 47 : Reid, S. F. x, p. 67 ; JDavidson, ibid. p. 319; Simson, His, 
1882,' p. 93; Swinh. fy Barnes, Ibis, 1885, p. 133; Barnes, Birds 
Bom. p. 340 ; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Sue. i, p. 59 ; ii, p. 149 ; Oaies 
in Humes N. Sf E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 372 ; Bulkley, Jour. Bom. N. II. 
Soc. viii, p. 148. 

Antigone collaris, Sharpc, Cat. B. M. xxiii, p. 262. 

Saras, Sirhans, II. ; Khui'-sany, Assam. 

Coloration. Head and upper neck without feathers, except a 
grey patch of ear-coverts on each side, the throat and a ring round 
the nape rather thickly covered with black hairs. Neck pure 
white, passing at the base into the bluish ashy grey of the plumage 
generally ; the primaries, greater primary-coverts, and winglet are 
black or blackish brown ; secondaries towards their tips and the 
whole tertiaries varying from grey to white. 

Young birds have the head and upper neck clad with short 
rusty-buff feathers. The nestling is covered with down, rich 
deep brown above, rufous on the sides and head, whitish beneath. 

Bill pale greenish horny with dark tip ; skin of crown pale ashy 
green ; papillose skin of head and neck orange-red ; iris orange ; 
legs reddish or flesh-colour (TicJcell). The red of the face and 
neck becomes brighter about April, and the white neck-collar more 
denned and conspicuous. 

Length of male about 58 ; tail 10 ; wing to end of primaries 25 ; 
tarsus 12; bill from gape 6*5. Females are slightly smaller : 
wing 24 ; tarsus 11. 

Distribution. Eesident throughout the plains of Northern India 
in suitable places, from the base of the Himalayas to the Tapti or 
perhaps a little farther in Western India, and to the Godavari 
near the east coast. This Crane ranges west to the Indus and 
eastward as far as Lakhimpur in Assam (unless the Assam bird 
turns out to be the next species). Jerdon says the JSarus is 
common in Khaudesh, but Davidson and Major Probyn found it 
very rare there ; and it is unknown in the Bombay Deccan. The 
statement in some works that 6r. antiyone is found around the 
Caspian Sea is probably due to error, caused by Pallas having 
used the name for a different species. 

Habits, fyc. The ISarus is usually seen in pairs, each pair often 
accompanied by a young bird, or occasionally by two, in open 



GRUS. 189 

marshy ground, on the borders of swamps or large tanks. Some- 
times small flocks are met with. Though not regarded as sacred, 
except in a few localities, these birds are very rarely molested in 
India, and they are consequently tame and unwary. They have a 
loud trumpet-like call, uttered when they are disturbed, and 
especially on the wing. When they fly they only rise a few yards 
from the ground. The food of this Crane is varied ; vegetables, 
reptiles, insects, and mollusca contributing. The Sarus pairs for 
life, and if one of a pair is killed, the survivor is said not unfre- 
quently to pine and die. The breeding-season is in July, August, 
and September, though nests and eggs have been found in 
February and March. A huge nest is built of rushes, grass, &c., 
several feet in diameter at the base, and frequently 3 or 4 feet 
hio-h ; it is usually either in shallow water or surrounded by flooded 
ground, and in it two eggs are laid (three very rarely). The eggs 
are white or nearly white, blotched and clouded, thinly as a rule, 
with pale yellowish brown and purplish grey, and they measure 
on an average 3-96 by 2-56. 

1410. GTUS sharpii. The Burmese Sarus. 

Grus antigone, apud Jerdon, B. I. in, p. 662, pt. ; Beavan, P. Z. S. 
1867, p. 762; Blyth, Birds Burnt, p. 157 ; Gates, S. F. v, p. 164; 
Wardl. Ramsay, Ibis, 1877, p. 469 ; Hume Sf Dav. S. F, vi, 
p. 458 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 684 ; Gates, B. B. ii, 
p. 354 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 317 ; nee. Ardea antigone, L. 

Antigone antigone, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiii, p. 264. 

Grus (Antigone) sharpii, Blanf. Bull B. O. Club, vol. v, p. vii (1895) ; 
id. Ibis, 1896, p. 136. 

Gyo-gya, Burmese. 

Coloration. The plumage generally is darker and the back less 
pure grey than in G. antigone, and the secondaries and tertiaries 
are grey like the back ; but the most conspicuous distinction is the 
absence in the present species of any white ring round the neck at 
all seasons. 

Bill and coronal skin greenish glaucous, skin of the face and 
neck pale brick- red ; irides reddish orange ; legs fleshy pink, 
brownish in front ( Wardlaw Ramsay). Dimensions the same as 
those of G. antigone. 

Distribution. The plains of Burma, Siam, and Cochin China. 
There are skins in the British Museum sent by Cantor from 
Penang, but Hume doubts the occurrence of this bird wild in the 
Malay Peninsula. Anderson obtained specimens at Tsitkaw, north- 
west of Bhaino, and Hume saw several in Manipur, all probably of 
the present species, but the limits of this and of G. antigone are 
not ascertained. 

Habits the same as those of the last species. 

Hume once saw in Manipur (S. F. xi, p. 317) a flock of dark- 
coloured Cranes with white heads and necks, resembling G.monachus 



190 GRUIDJE. 

of Xorth-easfern'Asia. Anderson also at Ponsee, west of Bhtimo; 
saw flocks of Cranes flying towards Burma in March. He took 
them for G. antigone (6r. sharpii), but that species is not known to 
collect in flecks. Captain Couch man (Jour. Bom. N. H. 8oc. vii, 
p. 450) saw Cranes in the marshes near Myothit, like G. cinerevs 
in colour, shape, and call, but with a scarlet hood or crest. Our 
knowledge of the Cranes of Upper Burma is evidently still 
imperfect. 

Genus ANTHROPOIDES, Vieillot, 1816. 

The smallest Indian Crane, the Demoiselle, forms the type of n 
well-marked genus, having the bill and legs shorter in proportion 
than in Grus ; the head feathered throughout, with, on each side, 
from behind the ear-coverts, a white plume or aigrette of feathers 
with dissociated webs. The feathers of the lower fore neck 
lanceolate and elongate, projecting in front of the breast. 
Tertiary quills much lengthened. 

1411. Anthropoides virgo. The Demoiselle Crane. 
(Fig. 41, p. Ib4.) 

Ardea vlrgo, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 234 (1766). 

Grus vivgo, Full. Zooyr. Eos&o-Asiat . ii, p. 108; Scully, Ibis, 1881. 
p. 588. 




p. 263 ; Hume, Cat. no. 866; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 352 ; Hume 
Marsh. Game B. iii, p. 31, pi. : Bidtlulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 95; 
Butler, S. F. ix, p. 427 ; Reid, IS. F. x, p. 68 ; Davidson, ibid. p. 320; 
Barnes, Birds B^m. p. 342 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiii, p. 269. 

Karkarra, H. ; Ghanto, Nepal : Karkuchi, Mahr. ; Kallam, Deccaii ; 
Garara, Uriya ; Wada-Koruka, Tel. ; Karkoncha, Can. 

Coloration. Forehead, sides of crown, and sides of head, with 
the chin, throat, whole fore neck, and a broad ring round the nape 
black; feathers on lower eyelid, arid a streak from the back of the 
eye over the ear-coverts, ending behind in a long plume, white ; 
crown and the upper parts from a little behind the nape ashy 
grey ; breast and abdomen the same, slightly darker ; the sinciput 
streaked with black; winglet, larger primary-coverts, and pri- 
maries black, secondaries brownish grey tipped with blackish, and 
tertiaries, for the most part, with black tips ; tail-feathers dark 
grey above, blackish below. 

Young birds have the head grey, streaked with black, and the 
lengthened plumes are ill-developed. 

Bill greenish, reddish at the tip; irides red ; legs black. 

Length about 33 ; tail 6-5 ; wing 19 ; tarsus 7; bill from gape 3. 

Distribution. A migratory bird, breeding in Southern and Eastern 



OTTDES. 191 

Europe, Southern Siberia, and parts of Central and Western Asia, 
and spending the winter in North-eastern Africa, India, and 
China. In India it is most common in the Deccan, Guzerat, and 
Kattywar, occurring in immense flocks; less common, though far 
from rare, throughout North- western and Northern India, and in 
the Peninsula as far south as Mysore ; it is rare farther south, 
though it has been seen at Kollegal, Coimbatore district, by 
Mr. Theobald, and it is said to occur even at Tinnevelly ; but it is 
unknown on the Malabar coastlands, in Ceylon, in Lower Bengal', 
Assam, and Burma. 

Habits, $-e. The Demoiselle arrives in India early in October, 
and leaves, as a rule, in April. Hume says the birds apparently 
arrive in Guzerat and the Deccan earlier than they do in Northern 
India and remain later, and he suggests that the birds so numerous 
in the Bombay Presidency may come from Africa. The habits of 
this bird resemble those of the Common Crane, but it associates in 
much larger flocks, and its call-note is quite different and much 
harsher. The flocks often spend hours during the day flying and 
circling in the air at considerable heights. The name of viryo is 
said to have been derived from the bird's " elegant appearance and 
dancing propensity" (//. T. Wharton). When well fed the 
Demoiselle, like the Common Crane, is delicious eating. 



Suborder OTIDES. 

The Bustards appear, to form a link between Eails and Cranes 
on one side and Plovers on the other, but are nearest on the whole 
to the Cranes. They are sehizognathous and holorhinal, with 16 
or 17 cemcal vertebrae, and with two small notches on each side 
of the posterior border of the sternum. No oil-gland. Caeca long. 
There is no hallux, and the deep flexor tendons simply unite, and 
then the united tendon divides into three. Ambiens muscle, 
accessory femoro-caudal, semitendinosus, and accessory semitendi- 
nosus present; feinoro- caudal wanting. A single family. 



192 OTIDLDjE. 



Family OTIDID^E. 

Cervical vertebrae 16 or 17. Bill as a rule shorter than the head 
or equal to it in length. Tail-feathers 16 to 20: primaries 11. 
An aftershaft present ; no fifth secondary ; no bare tracts on the 
neck. Tarsus and bare portion of tibia covered with small scales ; 
the three toes short, stout, scutellated above ; soles very broad, 
claws short and blunt. Males of many species with a gular pouch 
opening beneath the tongue and serving to inflate the neck. 

Bustards are birds of stout build, with both neck and legs rather 
ong, and both carried, when the bird is walking, nearly at right 
angles to the body, giving a peculiar and characteristic appearance. 
They chiefly inhabit open ground or grass. A small depression 
in the ground, without lining or with very little, serves as a nest, 
and the eggs are olive in colour and double-spotted. The young 
birds when hatched are covered with down, and run almost 
immediately after leaving the egg. 

This family inhabits Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia. Six 
species are Indian, each referred by some naturalists to a distinct 
genus, but all are here classed in four genera. Only one of the 
species is found in Assam, none in Burma or the Malay countries. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. No ruff; sexes differing in size or breeding- 

plumage or both. 

'. No crest, at all events in females and in males 
not breeding. 

a". Tarsus about as long as wing OTIS, p. 192. 

I". Tarsus more than r * as long as wing; head, 
neck, and underparts black in breeding 

males SYPHEOTIS, p. 198. 

&'. A crest; size large EUPODOTIS, p. 194. 

b. A ruff on each side of neck ; sexes alike HOUBARA, p. 19(5. 

Genus OTIS. 

Bill shorter than head, and broader than high, stout ; legs of 
moderate length. Wings ample, rounded, third quill usually 
longest. No crest or ruff, though in the typical species the male 
has long bristly feathers with few and short webs on each side of 
the throat, and in another the plumes at the base of the neck are 
elongate in the breeding-plumage of the male bird. 

A Palsearctic genus. The two species here included are often 
referred to distinct genera, and show certainly some well-marked 
differences. They have only been found within Indian limits in 
the North-western Punjab. 



OTIS. 193 

Key to the Species. 

a. Very large ; wing 19-24 inches O. tarda, p. 193. 

b. Small ; wing about 10 inches O. tetrax, p. 193 

1412. Otis tarda. The Great Bustard. 

Otis tarda, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 264 (1766); Hume, Ibis, 1871, 
p. 404: id. S. I. vii, p. 434; Hume $ Marsh. Game-B. i, p. 1, 
pi. ; Hume, Cat. no. 836 bis ; Sharpe, Tr. Linn. Soc. (2) v, pt. 3, 
p. 87 ; id. Cat. B. M. xxiii, p. 284. 

Coloration. Male. Head and upper neck light ashy grey, chin 
and long bristly feathers on each side of the throat white ; the 
grey passes all round the base of the neck into dull rufous with a 
few black spots, which forms a band across the upper breast ; bark, 
scapulars, tertiaries, and smaller wing-coverts rufous-buff, closely 
and broadly but rather irregularly barred across with black ; lower 
back and rump deeper rufous with fewer bars ; median and greater 
wing-coverts greyish white ; primaries dark brown ; secondaries 
greyish white, with black tips that diminish gradually on the inner 
quills ; middle tail-feathers deep rufous like the rump with rather 
distant black cross-bars, outermost feathers greyish white with a 
subterminal black band, the other rectrices intermediate in colo- 
ration between the middle and outer pairs : lower parts from 
breast white. 

In females and young males the grey of the fore neck comes 
down to the upper breast, and there is no rufous gorget ; other- 
wise the sexes are similar in plumage. The whiskers are wanting 
in females, and the size is smaller. 

Bill dull lead-grey, blackish at the tip ; irides dark brown ; legs 
dirty earth-grev (Dresser). 

Length of male about 42 inches ; tail 11 ; wing 24 ; tarsus 6'5 ; 
bill from gape 3-25 : of a female, length 33 inches ; tail 10 ; wing 
19 ; tarsus 5 ; bill from gape 2-6. Large males have been shot 
weighing as much as 30 pounds, but they take several years to 
attain their full growth. 

Distribution. Southern and Central Europe and Northern Africa, 
with Central Asia as far east as China. A single specimen in the 
Hume Collection (now in the British Museum) was obtained near 
Mardan, in the extreme north-west of the Punjab, Dec. 23, 1870. 
The individual secured, a female, was one of a party of five or six 
in a field of mustard. 

1413. Otis tetrax. The Little Bustard. 

Otis tetrax, Linn. St/st. Nat. i, p. 264 (1766); Jerdon, B. /. Hi, 

p. 625 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 163 ; Beavan, Ibis, 1868, p. 388 ; 

Hume, S. F. vii, p. 435; Hume fy Marsh. Game B. i, p. 3, pi.; 

Hume, Cat. no. 836 ter; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 94 ; Scully, ibid. 

p. 586 ; Swinhoe, Ibis, 1882, p. 119; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 175 ; 

Sharve, Yark. Miss., Aves, p. 145. 

Tetrax 'campestris, Leach, Syst. Cat. B. M. p. 28 (1810). 
Tetrax tetrax, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiii, p. 287. 

Chnta tilur, Punjab. 
VOL. IV. O 



194 OTIDID^E. 

Coloration. Male in winter plumage. Whole upper surface buff, 
vermiculatecl with black and with some larger black blotches ; 
crown much blotched with black ; hind neck brownish, with fine 
black specks and pale mesial streaks to the feathers ; greater 
primary-coverts blackish brown with \vhite tips ; primaries dark 
brown, all tipped white except the first two or three, and all white 
at the base, the w r hite increasing on the inner feathers : second- 
aries with their greater and some of their median coverts white, 
often a few black spots on the quills : tertiaries like back ; middle 
tail-feathers mottled black and buff,*with narrow black cross-bars, 
outer feathers similar, but with white instead of buff and with 
white tips and bases, the white increasing on the outermost 
feathers ; chm and throat whitish ; sides of head and neck and 
fore neck streaked and mixed with black and buff ; breast and 
remainder of lower parts white. 

Females are more coarsely vermiculatecl as a rule on the back 
and more blotched with black ; the feathers of the upper breast 
are buff with subterminal, more or less crescentic black bars. 

Males in breeding-plumage have nob been noticed in India. 
They have the cheeks, chin, and throat dark bluish grey, neck all 
round blacls, except a U-shaped white band on the fore neck, and 
another white pectoral band followed by an equally broad black 
one on the upper breast. The feathers of the hind neck are 
elongate. 

Bill dusky, yellowish at base ; irides light brown ; legs dirty 
yellow (Scully}. 

Length 18 ; tail 4*75 ; wing 10 ; tarsus 2'5 ; bill from gape 1*5. 

Distribution. Southern Europe, Northern Africa, and Central 
Asia, including Afghanistan and Tarkand. A few birds occur in 
Gilgit, and this species is a regular winter visitant to the extreme 
North-western Punjab near Peshawar. A few stragglers are found 
occasionally east of the Indus, and the species has been recorded 
from Gurdaspur and even from Saharanpur. 

Habits, fyc. In the Punjab the Little Bustard keeps much to 
fields of mustard. This species has a different flight from other 
Bustards ; it rises to a great height in the air, and nutters and 
twists about in a peculiar way. It is sometimes shot but more 
frequently hawked, the Saker Falcon being trained to capture it. 



Genus EUPODOTIS, Lesson, 1839. 

This genus is distinguished from Otis by having a considerably 
longer bill, longer legs, tail, and wings, by the possession of an 
occipital crest in both sexes, and by the feathers of the throat and 
fore neck being lengthened. The size is large, but the male much 
exceeds the female in this respect. 

Four species are known, two of which are African, one Indian, 
and one, scarcely distinguishable from the Indian bird, Australian. 



EUPODOTIS. 195 

1414. Eupodotis edwardsi. TJte Great Indian Bustard. 

Otis edwardaii, Gray m Hardw. Ill Ind. Zool. i, pi. 59 (1830-32) ; 

Hume, S. F. i, p. 227 ; Adam, S. F. i, p. 393 : ii, p. 339. 
Otis nigriceps, Vigors, P.Z.S. 1831, p. 35; SykeSj P. Z. S. 1832, 

p. 155. 

Eupodotis edwardii, Bfyth, Cat. p. 258. 

Eupodotis edwardsii, Jerdon. B. I. iii, p. C07 ; Stoticzka, J. A. S. B. 
xli, pt. 2, p. 250 ; Hayes Lloyd, Ibis, 1873, p. 415 ; Hume, N. $ F. 
p. 557 ; Sutler, S. F. iv, p. 9 ; ix, p. 424 ; Hume $ Marsh. Game 
B. i, p. 7, pi. ; iii, p. 423, pi. i (eggs) ; Davids. Sf Wend. S. F. vii, 
p. 87 ; Ball, ibid. p. 226; Hume, Cat. no. 836 ; Wilson, S. F. viii, 
p. 490; F. W. Butler, ibid.-, id. S. F. x, p. 161; W. Elliott, 
P. Z. 8. 1880, p. 486 ; Tostems, S. F. x, p. 1(57 : Davidson, ibid. 
p. 318 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 320; id. Jour. Bom. N. If. Soc. i, 
p. 57; vi, p. 11 ; Oates in Humes N. 8f E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 375; 
Shai'pe, Cat. B. M. xxiii, p. 325 ; Rayment, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. 
ix, p. 107. 

Tugdar, Punjab ; Gurayin, Hariana ; Sohun, Gughunbher, Hukna. H. ; 
Serailu, H. (Nerbudda) ; Bhtrar, Saugor; Hum, Mahr. ; Mdrdhonk, 
Mdldhonk, Kdrndhonk, Karfunk, Deccan ; Tokdar of Mahomedan 
Falconers: Gurahna, Siiid ; Bat-meka, Bat-myaka, Tel.; Batta mekha, 
Yanadi ; Gunad, Pardi ; Kanal-Myle, Tarn. ; Heri-hukki, Ari-kujina- 
hukki, Yerc-iaddu, Can. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, and occipital crest black, 
rest of head and whole neck white in old birds, minutely barred 
with black in younger individuals ; back, scapulars, smaller coverts, 
tertiaries, and rump minutely and beautifully vermiculated with 
black and buff ; median wing-coverts blackish brown, more or less 
tipped with white : greater wing-coverts dark grey, black on outer 
edge and tipped white ; outer primaries dark brown, passing into 
dark grey on inner primaries and secondaries, the inner secondaries 
becoming vermiculated and passing into the coloration of the ter- 
tiaries, inner primaries and all secondaries tipped with white, basal 
portion of inner webs on the later primaries with white bands ; 
tail greyer than back, but similarly vermiculated, all feathers 
except the middle pair with a blackish -brown end and the outer- 
most tipped with white beyond the brown ; lower parts white 
except a black band across the breast, corresponding to the limit 
between the white neck and brown back, a few black feathers 
intervening round the hind neck ; feathers around vent, lower 
tail-coverts, and generally some of the thigh-coverts, blackish 
brown with white tips. 

The female is much smaller and has narrow blackish vermicu- 
lations on the neck, the black pectoral gorget is imperfect. Young 
birds have buff tips to the feathers of the crown and mantle, 
forming pale spots. 

The nestling is covered with down, buff above with black 
markings on the head and mantle, whitish below. 

Bill dusky above, yellowish beneath ; irides pale yellow with 
some brownish specks ; legs and feet dingy pale yellow (Jerdon). 

Length of male about 48; tail 12'5; wing 27: tarsus 7'8 ; bill 
from gape 4*5 : length of female 37 ; tail 9-5 ; wing 21 ; tarsus 

o2 



196 

6*25. Hens weigh 10 to 20 lb., cocks 25 to 35, and even 40 is 
recorded. The male possesses a large gular pouch opening under 
the tongue (Elliot, I.e.), as in Otis tarda. 

Distribution. The plains of the Punjab between the Indus and 
Junma, also Eastern Sind, Cutch, Kattywar, Kajputana, Guzerat, 
the Bombay Deccan, the greater part of the Central Provinces, 
'extending as far east as Sambalpur, the Hyderabad territories, and 
parts of the Madras Presidency, and the Mysore State as far south 
as Southern Mysore, and perhaps farther south. Stragglers may 
be found outside the area specified, as in Western Sind, Meerut, 
and Oudh ; but this Bustard is unknown in Behar, Chutia JNTagpur, 
Orissa, and Bengal, on the Malabar coast, and in Ceylon. 

Habits, <$'c. The Great Indian Bustard is usually found singly or 
in twos or threes, more rarely in flocks, and it keeps chiefly to open 
dry country, especially wastes covered with low grass and scattered 
cultivation, or sandy ground with small bushes ; it is never found 
in forests nor on hills, but it sometimes enters high grass or fields 
of millet (jowari), mustard, pulse, &c. It feeds on insects, 
especially grasshoppers, on small reptiles, on fruit, grain, shoots of 
grass, &c. Its flight is heavy but strong. It has a peculiar deep 
booming note, imitated in its Mahratta name, and also a call-note, 
described by some observers as a bark or a bellow, by others as a 
trumpet sound. These birds, when in open ground, are very difficult 
to approach, except on a cart or camel or on horseback, or by the 
aid of a bullock or buffalo, but they squat and rest at times, and 
are then much less wary. Th* males are magnificent birds, often 
standing four feet in height, and they have a peculiar method, 
in the breeding-season especially, of inflating their white throats, 
doubtless by the aid of the gular pouch, and strutting about to 
attract the hens. They are polygamous ; the hen between March 
and September, chiefly in July or August, lays in a hollow on the 
ground, unlined or thinly lined with grass, a single drab or olive 
egg, faintly marked as a rule with brownish clouds, streaks, and 
mottlings, and measuring about 3*11 by 2-24:. According to some 
writers 2 or even 3 eggs are laid. 

, Genus HOUBARA, Bonap., 1831. 

This genus is distinguished by having a ruff of black and 
white feathers descending along each side of the neck, and a 
small crest in the middle of the crown. The feathers of the 
fore neck are lengthened and overhang the breast. Sexes alike. 
In other characters Houbara resembles Otis. There are two 
closely allied species : one found around the Mediterranean, the 
other inhabiting a considerable tract in Western Asia aud 
visitin North-western India in winter. 






1415. Houbara macqueeni. The Houbara. 



J_-_L*J. ttvuinun niAuiJ[ucc/JLii. -t /te uuuvuru. 

Otis macqueenii, GVay m Hardw. III. Ind. Zool. ii, pi. 47 (1833-34) ; 

Hume, Ibis, 1868, p. 241. 
Houbara macqueenii, Hittton, J. A. 8. B. xvi, p. 786 ; Blyth Cat. 



HOUBABA. 197 

p, 258 ; Jerdou, B. I. iii, p. 612 ; StoticsJta, J. A. S. B. xll, pt. 2> 
p. 250; Hayes-Lloyd, Ibis, 1878, p. 415 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 227; 
Adam, ibid. p. 393 ; Le Mess. S. F. iii, p. 379 ; Butler fy Hume, 
S. F. iv, p. 9 ; Butler, 8. F. v, pp. 231, 286 ; Hume $ Marsh. 
Game B. i, p. 17, pi. ; Hume, Cat. no. 837 ; Doig, S. F. ix, p. 281 ; 
St. John, Ibi*, 189, p. 175 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 321 ; id. 
Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vi, p. 12, fig. 837 (egg) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 
xxiii, p. 318. 

Tilur, Punjabi ; Taltir, Sindhi ; Hobdra, P. 

Coloration. Crown and greater part of upper surface sandy 
buff minutely vermiculated with black ; in the middle of the crown 
a crest of lengthened leathers, white with long black tips ; nape 
greyish white with dusky speckling; feathers on hind neck buff, 
very downy ; back, scapulars, tertiaries, and lesser wing-coverts 
with blackish patches produced by bands of coarser black mottling 
on the feathers ; ruff of lengthened feathers on each side of the 
neck black near the head, white behind; median and greater 
wing-coverts albescent, but vermiculated ; some or all of the 
greater coverts in most birds with subterminal black bars and 
white tips ; winglet black ; greater primary-coverts black, creamy 
white at the base and generally white-tipped ; primaries and 
secondaries white at the base, becoming buff on the outer web, 
black near the end, the secondaries white-tipped ; upper tail- 
coverts and tail-feathers like back, but more rufous ; tail-feathers 
crossed by bluish-grey bars (black beneath), mottled with buff on 
the median rectrices only ; all the outer rectrices with white tips, 
the black vermiculation disappearing on the basal portion of the 
tail-feathers ; chin and throat white ; sides of head buff, with a 
few black streaks ; fore neck buff speckled with black, passing 
into bluish ashy-grey on the upper breast ; lower breast and 
remainder of lower parts white, generally a few black bars or 
spots on the flanks and lower tail-coverts, the latter in part bull. 
Sexes alike in plumage, but females run smaller. 

Bill blackish above, paler below ; irides yellow ; legs and feet 
dull yellow (flume). . 

Length of male 29 ; tail 9 ; wing 15-5 ; tarsus 3-8 ; bill from 
gape 2-25. Length of female 26; tail 8-5; wing 15; tarsus 3*6. 
Distribution. A cold- weather visitor to North-western India, 
common from early in September to the end of March in parts 
of the Punjab, Hind, and the desert portion of Kajputana north of 
the Aravallis, also in Cutch and Northern Guzerat. A few birds 
occur farther east, single individuals having been shot in Meerut 
and Bhurtpore. The Houbara breeds in the highlands of 
Afghanistan and Persia, and a few stragglers may do so occa- 
sionally in the Indian desert. 

Habits, c. This Bustard is generally found solitary or in small 
parties on open sandy semi-desert plains, very often in the neigh- 
bourhood of mustard-fields. It feeds on seeds, small fruits, shoots 
of plants, and insects. It runs quickly and is difficult to approach 
on foot, but it is generally shot from a camel. I have repeatedly 



198 

shot Houbara (from horseback) by circling round, never going 
directly towards the bird unt;l it squats down. Wheii thus 
lying down, even in bare ground, only a, trained eye can detect it, 
the resemblance to a stone or a small heap of sand is remarkable, 
and the transformation that takes place when a Houbara, or, as 
sometimes happens, two, three, or more, spring into flight from 
the apparently lifeless waste, is not easily forgotten by any one 
who has witnessed it. Houbara are excellent eating as a rule, 
but they contract a strong and unpleasant flavour at times from 
feeding on shoots of mustard and other allied plants grown as oil- 

i 



Genus SYPHEOTIS, Lesson, 1839. 

This is an Indian genus of small or moderately-sized Bustards 
without a ruff, and with longer bill and legs thau in the other 
genera found in India. The chief generic cnaracter, however, is 
that the male in the breeding-season assumes a peculiar plumage, 
with the head, neck, and lower surface black, and the wings partly 
white. In this stage there is a considerable difference between the 
males S. bengalensis being crested, with long feathers in front of 
the neck, whilst S. aurita has a tuft of peculiar elongate plumes 
from each side of the head and consequently the two have been 
placed by Sharpe in different genera. With the exception, how- 
ever, of the male ornamental plumes, the two species, which inhabit 
different parts of India, agree very well. An African genus 
(Lissotis) is very similar in coloration. 

Females are larger than males. The primary-quills are notched 
on the inner web and attenuate towards the end, much more so 
in S. aurita than in /S. benyalensis. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Wing 7'3 to 975; tarsus 3'5 to 4*5 inches . . S. aurita, p. 198, 

b. Wing 13-5 to 1475 ; tarsus 5-0 to 6*5 inches . S. benyatensis, p. 200. 

1416. Sypheotis aurita. The Lesser Florican or Likli. 

? Otis iudica, Gm. SysL Nat. i, p. 725 (1788). 

Otis aurita, Lath. 2nd. Orn. ii, p. 6(30 (1790). 

Sypheotides auritus, Lesson, Jiev. Zool. 1839, p. 47 ; Blyth, Cat. 
p. 259; Jerdon, B. 1. iii, p. 619 ; King, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, 
p. 216; McMaster, J. A. S. B. xi, pt, 2, p. 215; Stdiczka, 
J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 250; Hayes-Lloyd, Ibis, 1873, p. 415; 
Hume, S. F. i, p. 228 ; id. N. $ E. p. 561 ; Adam, tf. F. i, 
p. 393 ; ii, p. 339 ; Ball, S. F. ii, p. 42 ; vii, p. 220 ; Le Mess. 
S. F. iii, p. 380 ; Morgan, Ibis, 1875, p. 323 ; Biyth, Birds Burnt. 
p. 152 ; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 10 ; v, p. 231 ; ix, p. 424 ; x, p. HU ; 
Davidson fy Wend. S. F. vii, p. 87 ; Hume 8f Marsh. Game B. i r 
p. 33, pi. ; iii, p. 425, pi. i (eggs) ; Hume, Cat. no. 839 ; Mclnroy, 
S. F. viii, p. 491 ; Vidal, S. F\ ix, p. 77 ; Uavidson, 8. F. x, p. 318 ; 




Syph 

Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed'. iii, p. 380 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiii, 
p. 313. 



STPHEOTIS. 190 

Likh, Chota Charat, Barsdti or Kala, H. ; Ker mor, Guzerat ; Tan-mar, 
Mahr. ; Chini mor, Belgaum ; Khartitar, Bhil ; Charas, Chulla Charas, H. 
(S. India) ; Niala Nimili, Tel. ; Kannoul, Can. ; Warrayu Roli, Tain. 




Fig. 42. Head of 8. aurifa, - |. 

Coloration. Female and male in winter plumage. Crown black, 
more or less streaked with buff, and generally with a pale mesial 
band ; back of neck finely vermiculated or speckled buff and 
black ; sides of head and neck buff, with coarser black marks ; 
back, scapulars, and tertiaries black mottled with sandy buff, and 
with a V-shaped buff streak, more or less distinct, near the margin 
of each feather ; wing-coverts chiefly sandy buff, with irregular 
black bars ; first two or three primaries uniform dark brown, the 
other primaries becoming more and more banded with ochreous 
yellow, which is mottled with black towards the tips of the 
feathers ; secondaries dark brown, with broad mottled bands 
throughout ; tail yellow-buff with black bars, and mottled with 
black towards the tips, middle feathers mottled throughout ; chin 
and throat white ; fore neck and upper breast buff, with black 
streaks that become fainter on the latter ; lower breast, abdomen, 
and lower tail-coverts buffy white ; axillaries black. 

Male in breeding-plumage. A few (usunlly three on each side) 
narrow ribbon-like feathers about 4 inches long, spatulate towards 
the ends and curved upwards from behind the ear-coverts. Head, 
neck, and lower parts black, except the chin and a varying portion 
of the throat, which are white ; band across the hind neck at the 
base white ; back, scapulars, and tertiaries black, with fine whitish 
mottling and V-shaped marks, the black disappearing on the wing- 
coverts, which are mainly white ; the larger primary and the tips 
of the larger secondary coverts black ; quills as in the female : 
rump and upper tail-coverts black finely speckled with white ; 
tail pale, whitish and mottled with black at the end, buff towards 
base, with distant black bars throughout. 

The male, after the breeding-season, moults into the female 
plumage, but retains some white on the shoulder of the wing. 

Bill dusky above, the edges of the upper and all the lower 
mandible yellowish ; irides pale yellow, clouded with dusky in the 
male ; legs dirty whitish yellow (Jerdon). 

Length of male 18 ; tail 3'5 : wing 7'75 ; tarsus 3'5 ; bill from 
gape 2. Females are considerably larger : length 20 ; tail 4-5 ; 
wing 9*5 ; tarsus 3'75. 

Distribution. This Florican may be found at times in suitable 
places throughout India from the Himalayas to Cape Coraorin, but 



200 OTIDID.E. 

it chiefly inhabits the Peninsula ^outh of the Godavari in winter, 
whilst it breeds in the Deccan, Western Central Provinces, Central 
Indian Agency, Bajputana, South-eastern Punjab, Guzerat, Cutch, 
and even in Southern Sind. Some birds are permanent residents 
almost throughout the Peninsula. Stragglers have been met 
with near Gwadar in Biluchistan, and in Oudh and the N.W. 
Provinces, Nepal, Bengal, Chutia Nagpur, Orissa (I once shot a 
bird not far from C attack), and on the Malabar coast. One 
specimen is on record shot at Sandoway, Arrakan ; but the bird 
is not found in Ceylon, nor, with the exception mentioned, is it 
known to occur east of the Bay of Bengal. 

Habits, 6fc. The smaller Floxican or Likh is, as a rule, found 
solitary or in pairs in grass of moderate height, or occasionally in 
growing crops ; it keeps to plains and open country, and is very 
rarely met with on the hills. Although a migrant to a certain 
extent, its migrations are confined to India. It feeds, like other 
Bustards, on seeds and insects. It flies well, with a quicker 
flight than other Bustards, having, when flying, a slight but 
peculiar resemblance to a Duck. Floricans pair and breed in 
grass, their presence being betrayed in the breeding-season by the 
males jumping above the grass every now and then with a peculiar 
croak. The breeding-season is from August to November, chiefly 
in September and October to the northward ; but earlier, even in 
April or May, in parts of Southern India. The eggs, usually 3 or 4 
in number, deposited in a hollow in the ground, are light greenish 
olive to olive-brown in colour, variously mottled and blotched, and 
measure about 1*88 by 1*6. 

The numbers of this bird are being greatly reduced by the 
unsportsmanlike practice of shooting it in the breeding-season. 
It is excellent eating, though inferior to S. benyalensis. 

1417. Sypheotis foengalensis. The Bengal Florican. 

Otis bengalensia, Gm. Syst. Nat. i,p. 724 (1788) ; Hodgson, J. A. S. B. 

xvi, p. 883, pis. 37, 88. 

Sypheotides beng-alensis, Blylh, Cat. p. 258 ; Jerdon, B. 1. iii, p. 010 ; 
* Blythj Ibis, 1867, p. 162 ; Godw.-Anst. J. A. S. . xlv, pt. 2, p. 84 ; 

xlvii, pt. 2, p. 21 ; Sims&n, Ibis, 1882, p. 94. 
Sypheotis beniralensis, Bonap. C. R. xliii, p. 416 (18o6) : Ifwne t 

N. $ E. p. 659; Hume $ Marsh. Game B. i, p. 23; iii, p. 424; 

Hume, Cat. no. 838; id. S. F. ix, p. 199; Markham, ibid. ; Butler, 

S. F. x, p. 162 ; Hume # Cripps, S. F. xi, p. 312 j Gates in Hume's 

N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 378. 
Houbaropsis beng-alensis, Sharjte, Cat. B. M. xxiii, p. 315. 

Charas, Charf, Charat, H. ; Dahar, Ablak <5 , JBor $ , Terai ; Ulit 
Mora, Assamese. 

Coloration. Female (and, according to some r male in winter 
plumage). Upper parts sandy buff, mottled and blotched with 
blackish brown or black ; crown mostly black with a pale mesial 
streak ; hind neck finely speckled with black and with pale shaft- 
stripes ; back, scapulars, and tertiaries black, with buff V-shaped 
markings and mottling ; rump and upper tail-coverts more uniform, 



STPIJEOTJS. 201 

mixed buff and dark brown ; wing-coverts paler, pale buff pre- 
dominating ; primary coverts and quills brownish black with 
Avhite mottling, forming more or less distinct bars confined to 
inner webs of first primaries and to outer webs and tips of later 
secondaries, on which the mottling is buff; tail rufous-buff, with 
black mottling and cross-bars; chin and throat white; lores and 
sides of head and neck and lower parts from throat pale sandy 
buff, with a few black markings on sides of head, neck, and breast, 
on fore neck and upper breast ; under wing-coverts much blotched 
with black ; axillaries black. 

The male in breeding-plumage has a long median erectile crest- 
on the head and nape, and the feathers of the chin, throat, and 
fore neck are conspicuously elongated. Head, neck, and lower 
parts black : back and scapulars black, with mottlings and a few 
narrow V-shaped markings of buff; outer scapulars entirely black ; 
wing-coverts white ; primaries and secondaries white, except a 
progressively diminishing portion of the outer web on the first 
2 or 3 primaries and the tips of the first 6 or 7, which are black, 
as also an increasing portion, chiefly on the inner web, of the 
later secondaries ; tertiaries mottled black and buff like the back, 
and with black cross-bars ; rump and upper tail-coverts black 
speckled with buff; tail-feathers black, the middle two or three 
pairs with mottled buff bars, gradually disappearing on the outer 
leathers, which are all tipped white. 

The black plumage of the male is acquired by a moult, and is 
retained partly or wholly by some birds in the winter ; but in 
others, probably younger, it appears to be replaced by the ordinary 
garb of the female. Blyth noticed the latter change repeatedly in 
birds kept in confinement. 

Bill dusky above, yellowish beneath ; irides brown in males, 
dull yellow in females ; legs dingy pale yellowish (Jerdon). Irides 
pale yellow to golden in both sexes (Hume}. 

Length of male about 26 ; tail 6*5 ; wing 13*5 ; tarsus 5*6 ; bill 
from gape 2-5. Females are larger in general : wing 14 to 14-75. 
Distribution. The country between the base of the Himalayas 
and the Ganges River, together with the plain of Assam. Rare 
stragglers have occurred west of the'Ganges as far as the Jumna, 
but not farther west. This Bustard is most common in the grass 
of the Terai. 

Habits, fyc. Very similar to those of S. aurita, but the larger 
Plorican is resident in the high grass of the Gangetic plain (not, 
however, in thick cover), and does not migrate; it has also a slower 
and heavier flight. The cocks have the same habit of jumping up 
above the grass in the breeding-season, June and July. According 
to Hodgson, these birds do not pair, and the female lays two eggs 
beside a tuft of grass in deep cover, without any nest. The only 
egg of which the measurements are recorded was 2-6 by 1'76, 
dull pale green stone-colour, sparingly streaked and blotched with 
dull brown. This Elorican is one of the most delicious game- 
birds of India. 



Order XVII. LIMICOL^E. 

The bulk of the present order consists of the Plovers and Snipes 
with their allies ; with these are united the Stone-Curlews, 
Coursers, Pratincoles, and Jaganas, besides two Neotropical and 
Antarctic families ( Chionididm and Thinocoridce) not represented in 
India. The birds named form a fairly natural group, having 
distinct relations on one side with the Gulls, and being connected 
on the other by the Plovers with l\rodes and the Pigeons, and 
through (Edicnemus with the Bustards. 

In the Limicolce the bill varies greatly, but is generally slender, 
and the nostril is situated in a groove or depression at the side of 
the bill. The tibia, with but few exceptions, is naked for some 
distance above the tibio-tarsal joint. The wings as a rule are 
long, and most of the birds are strong flyers ; many are migratory. 
The spinal feather-tract is forked on the upper back except in 
(Edicnemidce, and the dorsal naked tract or aptcrium is well 
developed anteriorly. An aftershaft is always present, but varies 
in size. There are eleven primary quills ; the fifth secondary is 
wanting. There is a tufted oil-gland, and caeca are always 
present. 

The palate is schizognathous *, and the vomer well developed, 
pointed in front ; basipterygoid processes vary. The furcula is 
U-shaped, strong, and complete. The sternum has usually two 
notches on each side of the posterior border, but there are several 





Fig. 43. Skull of (Edicnemus 
scolopax (holorhinal). 



Fig. 44. Skull of Numcnius 
arquata (schizorbiual). 



The skull of Charadrius pluvialis, the Golden Plover, is figured, Vol. Ill, 



p. vn. 



(EDICNEMID^E. 203 

exceptions with only one pair o incisions. Two cai'otids are 
always present. 

The eggs vary, but are in general pale brown or olive, and 
double-spotted. The young are hatched covered with down and 
able to run. 

Indian families of Limicolce are thus distinguished. 

a. Holorhinal ; nostrils pervious CEdicnemidae, p. 203. 

b. Schizorhinal *. 

'. Nostrils impervious Glareolidae, p. 209. 

b'. Nostrils pervious. 

a". No hasipterygoid processes. . . Dromadidae, p. 207. 

b" . Basipterygoid processes present. 

a 3 . Toes and claws enormously long . . Parridae, p. 207. 

b 3 . Toes and claws moderate * Charadriidae, p. 220. 



Family CEDICNEMIDAE. 

Holorhinal ; nostrils pervious ; no basipterygoid processes. 
Cervical vertebrae 16. No hind toe. the three anterior toes united 
by a membrane at the base ; tarsus long, reticulated all round. 
Spinal feather-tract not forked on the upper back. Eyes very 
large, the birds being, to a considerable extent, nocturnal. They 
build no nest and lay on the ground two eggs, stone-coloured and 
double-spotted. The nestling is covered with down of a sandy 
colour with two black lines down the back. 

The Stone-Curlews or Stone-Plovers have a great resemblance 
to Bustards, and are associated with them by some naturalists. 
They are, however, far more nearly allied to the Plovers. Two 
genera occur in India. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Bill not longer than head, and not compressed . (EDICNEMUS, p. 20o. 

b. Bill much longer than head and compressed . . ESACUS, p. 205. 

Genus (EDICNEMUS, Temm., 1815. 

Bill shorter than the head, stout, straight, broader at the base 
than high ; nostrils elongate, in a shallow groove-like depression : 
eyes very large ; forehead high ; wing long, pointed, 2nd primary 



- Pluvianus is an exception, but it is not Indian. The figures on the opposite 
page are intended to show the difference between holorhinal and schizorhinal 
structure. In the former the external hiuder border of the osseous nares is 
simple and usually rounded ; in the latter the orifice is prolonged posteriorly, 
and terminates in a narrow fissure between the processes of the nasal boned. 
This fissure varies in length and direction in different birds. 



204 CEDICNEMIDJE. 

as a rule longest ; tail of 12 feathers, of moderate length, slightly 
rounded ; only 3 toes ; nail of middle toe broad, dilated on the 
inner side. 

This genus contains eight species found nearly throughout the 
temperate and tropical regions of the Old World and in Central 
and South America. A single species is Indian. 



1418. (Edicnemus scolopax. The Stone-Curlew. 

Charadrius cedicnemus, Linn. St/sf. Xat. i, p. 255 (1766). 

Charadrius scolopax, S. G. Gmel. lieis. Mussl, iii, p. 87, pi. 16 
(1774). 

(Edicnemus crepitans. Temm. Man. d'Orn. p. 322 (1815) ; JBlyt,h, 
Cat p. 260 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 654 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xxxviii, 
pt. 2, p. 190; id. Ibis, 1870, p. 470; Hume, S. F. i, p. 232; 
Adam, ibid. p. 395; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 14. 

(Edicnemus indicus, Salvadori, Atti Soc. Ital. Sc. Nat. viii, p. 380 
(18<'5); Hume, N. $ E. p. 581 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2. 
p. 251 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 227. 

(Edicnemus scolopax, Dresser, Birds Eur. vii, p. 401, pi. 512 ; Hume. 
fy Dan. S. F. vi, p. 458 ; Hume, Cat. no. 859 ; Doiy, V. F. viii, 
p. 371 ; Leffffe. Birds Ceyl p. 969 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 82 ; Butler, 
ibid. p. 427 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 67 ; Davison, ibid. p. 413 ; Gates, 
B. B. ii, p. 356 : Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 337 ; Gates in Hume's 
Hr.j2nded.iii,p.331. 

(Edicnemus cedicnemus, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 4. 

The Stone-Plover, Jerdon ; Karwanak, Barsiri, II. ; Lambiof Falconers ; 
Kharma, Beng. ; Kaledti, Tel. ; Kana mosid, Tam. ; Bastard Florican of 
some Anglo-Indians. 

Coloration. Upper parts ashy brown, varying to sandy buff, 
more or less rufescent towards the edges of the feathers, and with 
black shaft-stripes that are broadest on the back, narrow on the 
rump and upper tail- coverts ; hind neck often paler than crown ; 
lores and a streak from thence below the eye, with a superciliary 
stripe, creamy white ; remainder of sides of head pale brown with 
blackish streaks ; smaller wing-coverts rufous brown, streaked 
blackish, a white or whitish bar across them; median coverts ashy 
brown with whitish ends, blackish fusiform shaft-stripes, and 
brown patches near the tips ; larger coverts white, each with an 
oblique subterminal blackish bar ; primary-coverts and quills 
blackish brown, first two or three primaries with a white patch, 
by far largest on the first, later primaries with their tips and bases 
white, earlier secondaries white on basal portion of inner web ; 
tail ashy brown, all the feathers except the middle pair with 
blackish tips, each crossed by a subterminal white bar ; lower 
parts white, fore neck rufous, and, together with the upper breast, 
streaked with dark brown shaft-stripes ; under tail-coverts pale 
rufous. Birds from dry sandy tracts are very pale-coloured. 

The young have the wing-coverts and tail-feathers irregularly 
banded darker. The nestling is clad in dark sandy-grey down 
with a few black stripes, especially two down the back. 



ESACUS. 205 

The Indian bird is on an average smaller than the European, 
and has generally a white patch on the third primary ; this patch 
is usually wanting in skins from Europe, but neither distinction 
is constant. 

Bill black at the end, yellow at the base ; iricles bright yellow, 
orbits duller ; legs and feet yellow. 

Length about 16 ; tail 4-25 ; wing 87 (from 8-25 to 9-5) ; 
tarsus 3 ; bill from gape 2. 

Distribution. Central and Southern Europe, with North Africa, 
Central and South-western Asia, and throughout India, Ceylon, 
and Burma in suitable localities ; resident or nearly so. 

Habits, $c. This well-known species is chiefly found on dry 
stony plains, or undulating ground, bare or with scattered bush or 
scrub jungle, not as a rule on hills, rarely, if ever, in forest. It is 
a wary bird, and in many respects resembles a Bustard in its 
habits, having the same trick of hiding by lying down on the bare 
ground, when it becomes very difficult to detect. It has a 
peculiar long wild Curlew-like cry, and is somewhat nocturnal; 
its food consists of insects, worms, snails, &c. The flesh is said to 
be excellent. It breeds from February to August in India, chiefly 
about April, and lavs generally two, sometimes three eggs, pale 
buff to olive-green in colour, blotched with black, sometimes with 
purplish clouds and spots. The average size of Indian eggs is 
1-9 by 1-39. There is no nest. 

Genus ESACUS, Lesson, 1831. 

This genus is distinguished from (Edicnemus by its very large 
and massive compressed bill, much longer than the head, and 
measuring from the gape nearly twice the length of the middle toe 
without claw. In other respects the two genera are similar, but 
whilst (Edicnemus is a bird of dry open stony country, Esacus haunts 
the margins of rivers and the sea. 

Only two species are known, both found within our area. By' 
many ornithologists they are placed in distinct genera, on account of 
the shape of the bill differing ; but as there is no other distinction, 
I agree with Hume ($. F. v, p. 121) in regarding generic separa- 
tion as unnecessary. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Oulmen almost straight ; 6th primary brown, 

basal portion of inner web white E. recurvirostris, p. 205. 

b. Culmen curved, convex ; 6th primary white, 

except a brown spot on outer web near tip . . JE. magnirostris, p. 207. 

1419. Esacus recurvirostris. The Great Stone-Plover. 

(Edicneinus recurvirostris, Cuv. Eer/ne An. 2e ed. i, p. 500 (1829). 
Esacus recurvirostris, Lesson, Traite, p. 547 : Bliith, Cat. p. 260 ; 

Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 652; Hume, S. F. i,' p. 232; id. X. S> E. 

p. 579 ; id. S. F. iii. p. 182 ; Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 152 ; 



206 (EDICNEMJD.E. 

Butler, S. F iv, p. 14; v, p. 232; vii, p. 186 ; ix, pp. 299, 427 ; 
Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 458 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 227 ; Cripps, 
ibid. p. 301; Hume, Cat. no. 858; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 974; 
Reid, S. F. x, p. 67 ; Davidson, ibid. p. 319 ; Gates, B. B. ii, 
p. 357 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 336 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mm. Civ. 
Gen. (2) iv, p. 46 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 316 ; Oates in Hume's 
N. # E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 335 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 20. 
Carvanaca grisea, Hodgson, J. A. S. B. v, p. 776 (1836). 

Barra karwanak, H. ; Abi of Falconers ; Gang titai (Ganges lapwing), 
Bengal ; Mien-zain, Burmese. 

Coloration. Upper plumage light ash? brown with darker shaft- 
lines ; supercilia, orbits, forehead, lores, and a stripe on each side 
from them to the throat white ; above the white supercilium is 
a blackish stripe joined by a dark line running in front of the orbit 
and then beneath it to a broad black band including the ear-coverts ; 
a dark stripe from below the gape ; smaller wing-coverts like the 
back, this colour limited by a blackish-brown band, followed by a 
narrow whitish one ; median and greater coverts pearly grey ; 




Fig. 45. Head of E. recurvirostris. %. 

primary-coverts blackish brown ; edge of wing white ; quills chiefly 
blackish, the first three primaries crossed more or less completely 
by a white band, 6th primary with basal half of inner web white ; 
later primaries white at base and tip ; tail-feathers like back, 
all except middle pair blackish near the tip with a subterminal 
white band ; lower parts white ; fore neck and upper breast 
tinged isabelline ; under tail-coverts tinged rufous. 

Base of bill and nostrils yellow, remainder of bill black ; irides 
yellow ; legs plumbeous white {Oates) legs and feet pale yellowish 
green (Legge). 

Length 20 ; tail 4'5 ; wing 10'5 ; tarsus 3'25 ; bill from gape 3'4. 

Distribution. Plains of India, Ceylon, and Burma, on the banks 
of the larger rivers : resident. Found in Sind and the Punjab, 
but not known farther west. 

Habits, fyc. This bird is usually solitary or in pairs, and is 
seldom seen, in India or Burma, away from the sandy, stony, or 
rocky banks of rivers. In Ceylon, according to Legge, it frequently 
h aunts the sea-shore. It feeds on Crustacea, mollusks, and occa- 
sionally insects. It is partially nocturnal, and has a loud harsh 
croaking note. It lays two eggs between February and May in 
river-beds, on the sand or amongst stones ; the eggs are stone- 



DROMADID^. 207 

coloured, with dark blotches and secondary purplish markings, and 
measure about 2'15 by 1*6. 

1420. Esacus xnagnirostris. The Australian Stone-Plover. 

CEdicnemus magnirostris, Geoffr., Vieill. Nouv. Diet. tVHist. Nat. 

xxiii, p. 231 (1818) ; Seebohtn, Charadr. p. 89. 
Esacus magnirostris, Gray, Gen. B. iii, p. 535 ; Hume, S. F. ii, 

p. 290; iv, p. 293 ; v, p. 121 ; id. N. $ E. p. 581 ; Hume # Dav. 

S, F. vi, p. 458 ; Hume, Cat. no. 858 bis ; Oates in Humes N. $ 

E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 334. 
Orthorhamphus magnirostris, Salv. Ucc. Born. p. 312 ; Sharpe, Cat. 

B. M. xxiv, p. 22. 

This species is nearly allied to E. recurvirostris, but is larger, and 
may be at once recognized by its very differently shaped bill, the 
upper mandible being much higher and the culmen curved and 
convex, not straight. The differences in coloration are that in the 
present species the plumage is generally darker, the black bands 
at the side of the head are broader, and the white narrower than 
in E. recurvirostris, the lores being blackish almost throughout ; 
the smaller wing-coverts are much darker brown, the white 
baud succeeding them more distinct, the 6th and later primaries 
almost wholly white, except a few patches of brown near the end, 
the secondaries mostly grey ; the chin and throat are white, the 
breast light brownish grey; the fore neck the same with dark 
streaks ; the abdomen white, often tinged with rufous, and the 
under tail-coverts rufous buff. 

Bill blackish or greenish horny ; base of upper mandible and 
membrane covering the nostrils greenish yellow ; legs and feet 
yellow (Hume) ; iris pale yellow (J. Gould). 

Length 22-5 ; tail 4-5 ; wing 11 ; tarsus 3*25 ; bill from gape 3'5. 

Distribution. Shores of Australia and the Malay Archipelago to 
Borneo. Found on the sea-shore of the Andaman Islands and 
Cocos, but not hitherto observed at the Nicobars. Davison saw 
an Esacus in the Mergui Archipelago, but this might perhaps have 
been E. recurvirostris, which has been noticed by Legge in Ceylon 
on the shore, though it was more probably the present species. 

Habits, Sfc. Very similar to those of the preceding species, except 
that this is a bird of the sea-shore. Eggs have been taken on the 
Cocos and Andaman Islands, in March and April ; they resemble 
those of E. recurvirostris, but are larger, measuring 2'6 by 1'75, 
and are laid on the sand, a little above high-water mark. 



Family DROMADID.E. 

Schizorhinal ; nostrils pervious, perforated in the bill itself, 
without any membranous opercuium ; no basipterygoid processes ; 
cervical vertebrae 15. 

The nidification is peculiar. A single large white egg is laid in 
a hole dug in the sand. 



208 DBOMADID7E. 

This family consists of a single genus and species inhabiting the 
shores of the Indian Ocean. There has been much discussion, even 
before the peculiar nest and egg were known, as to the affinities of 
this bird ; Blyth, on account chiefly of the immature plumage, 
regarding it as an aberrant Tern, whilst Van der Hoeven, from 
an examination of the skeleton, placed it next to the Oyster- 
catcher (Hcematopus) ; and A. Milne-Edwards showed that although 
essentially related to the latter genus, Dromas exhibits certain 
resemblances to the Storks. Gadow * includes it in one family 
with Cursor'ms and Glareola, and this classification is adopted in 
the British Museum Catalogue, though Sharpef in his own system, 
like Milne-Edwards and Fiirbringer , makes Dromas the type of 
a peculiar family, a view which is here accepted, on account of the 
conflicting relationships exhibited. 

Genus DROMAS, Paykull, 1805. 

Bill strong, longer than head, compressed, smooth, not grooved ; 
cuhnen regularly curved ; angle of lower mandible prominent, 
situated near the base ; nostrils oval, near base of bill, situated 
in a small depression, not in a groove ; wings long, pointed, 1st 
quill longest ; tail nearly even ; half the tibia bare ; tarsi long, 
shielded in front and behind ; toes long, much webbed, especially 
between the 3rd and 4th, middle claw broad, dilated on the inner 
side, and notched or subpectinated. Eeathers of inters capulary 
tract much lengthened, covering the lower back. 

1421. Dromas ardeola. The Crab-Plover. 

Dromas ardeola, Paykull, K. Svensk. Vet.-Ak. Handl. xxvi, pp. 182, 
188, pi. 8 (1805) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 276 ; id. J. A. S. B. xxi, p. 352 ; 
Jerdon, B. I. iii. p. 058; Pelzeln, Novara Reise, Vb'r/. p. 124; 
Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 166 ; Beavan, ibid. p. 332; v. d. Hoev. Nova 
Acta Acad. C. L. xxxiii, no. 7 ; Ball, S. F. i, p. 85 ; Hume, S. F. 
ii, pp. 59, 293 ; Leage, S. F. iii, p. 220, iv, p. 246 ; Le Mess, S. F. 
iii, p. 378; Hume, S. F. iv, pp. 451, 464, 496; Butler, S. F. v, 
pp. 212,232, 236; vii, p. 186; Hume, Cat. no. 861 ; id. S. F. viii, 
p. 381 ; Parker, S. F. ix, p 482 ; Leaae, Birds Ceyl. p. 991 ; 
Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 339 ; Oates in Humes N. fy E. 2nd ed. 
iii, p. 327 ; Finny, Jour, Bom. N. H. Soc. viii, 1893, p. 320 ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 28. 

Coloration. White, except the upper back and elongate inter- 
scapulars, the greater coverts, and the outer webs and ends of the 
inner webs of the primary and secondary quills, which are black ; 
shafts of quills white ; a small speck in front of the eye and another 
behind also black. 

Young birds have the upper parts grey, the back darker and 
brownish, the nape and hind neck streaked with black. After 

* Bronn, Klass. Ordn. Thier-reichs, vi, pt. 4, p. 203. 
t Keview of Eecent Attempts to Classify Birds, p. 72. 
J Madagascar, vol. xii, Oiseaux, p. 614. Untersuchungen, p. 1228. 



GLABEOLID^E. 209 

the back has become black the upper parts often retain a pearly- 
grey tint. 

Bill black ; irides deep brown ; legs and feet pale glaucous blue 
(Hume). 

Length 16; tail 2-8; wing 8-25; tarsus 3'7 ; bill from gape 
2-75. 




Fig. 46. Head of D. ardeola. . 

Distribution. Asiatic and African shores of the Indian Ocean 
west of the Malay Peninsula, including the Persian Griilf and 
Red Sea. Local throughout the shores of India and Ceylon and 
on the islands of the Bay of Bengal, the Laccadives, &c. 

Habits, fyc. The Crab-Plover keeps to the sea-shore or the 
margin of salt lakes, and is found as a rule in small or large 
flocks, sometimes much scattered. It feeds chiefly on crabs. It 
runs actively and flies well, occasionally uttering a low, rather 
musical call. This bird breeds in the Persian Gulf and in Ceylon 
about May, and lays a single egg at the end of a hole in sand near 
the shore. The hole is dug by the bird obliquely in the form of 
a bow curving up towards the end, which is about 4 feet from the 
entrance ; there is no lining. The egg is pure white, much like 
that of a Shearwater, and remarkably large for the size of the 
bird, measuring 2-54 by T77. 



Family GLAREOLID^E. 

Schizorhinal (with the exception of Pluvianus) ; nostrils im- 
pervious, oval, more or less protected by membrane, situated in a 
basal depression, not a groove ; no basipterygoid processes ; cervical 
vertebra 15 ; middle toe pectinated ; tarsus transversely shielded 
in front and behind. 

Eggs coloured much like those of Plovers, buff or stone-coloured, 
spotted and blotched with black or brown, but more roundly oval 
in shape and less pointed at the smaller end. 

This family, which is confined to the Eastern hemisphere, com- 
prises the Coursers and Pratincoles, which form subfamilies thus 
distinguished : 

a. No hind toe ; tarsus long, about ^ wing . . Cursoriince, p. 210. 

b. A hind toe ; tarsus moderate, about 1 wing. Olareolince, p. 214. 
YOL. iv. p 



210 GLAREOLID^E. 



Subfamily CURSOKIIN^E. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Bill slightly curved ; breast without bands . . CTJRSOBIUS, p. 210. 

b. Bill straight ; breast transversely banded .... RHINOPTILUS, p. 212. 

Genus CURSORIUS, Latham, 1790. 

The Coursers or, as Jerdon calls 4hem, the Courier Ptovers, are 
birds about the size of a Lapwing, and, like the Stone-Curlews, 
show certain resemblances to Bustards both in structure and 
distribution. The genus occurs sparingly in Southern Europe, it 
is found throughout Africa, and all over South-western Asia with 
the Indian Peninsula and Ceylon, but not farther east. Of five 
known species two occur in India. 

The bill in Cursorius is moderately long, slender, and slightly 
arched. The wings are pointed, the 1st and 2nd quills subequal, 
the 1st generally the longer. Tail short, nearly even. Tarsus 
and bare tibia slender and shielded in front and behind; no 
hind toe, anterior toes short, middle toe much longer than the 
others, and its claw expanded on the inner side and slightly 
pectinated. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Crown chestnut throughout C. coromandelicus, p. 210. 

b. Crown rufous in front, ashy grey behind . . C. gallicus, p. 211. 

1422. Cursorius coromandelicus. The Indian Courser. 

Charadrius coromandelicus, Gm. Syst. Nat. i, p. 692 (1788). 
Cursorius coromandelicus, Blyth, Cat. p. 259 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, 

p. 626 ; Hayes-Lloyd, Ibis, 1873, p. 415 ; Adam. S. F. i, p. 393 ; 

James, ibid. p. 421 ; Parker, S. F. iii, p. 267 ; Sutler, S. F. iv, 

p. 10; v, pp. 232, 327 ; ix, p. 425; Sail, S. F. vii, p. 226; Hume, 

Cat. no. 840 ; Legye, Birds Ceyl p. 977 ; Vidal, 8. F. ix, p. 77 ; 

Reid, S. F. x, p. 64; Hume, 'ibid. p. 412'; Barnes, Birds Bom. 

p. 324 ; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. i. p. 57 ; vi, p. 15, fig. 840 ; 

Seebohm, Charadr. p. 241 ; Oates in Hume's A', fy E. 2nd ed. iii, 

p. 323 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 39. 

The Indian Courier Plover, Jerdon ; Nultri, H. ; Yerra chitawa, 
Durawayi, Tel. 

Coloration. Crown chestnut, darker behind, the long occipital 
feathers concealing a black nuchal spot ; long white supercilia 
meeting at the nape, bordered below by a black band that includes 
lores, orbits, and ear-coverts, and also extends round the nape ; 
behind the black there is a rufous collar; upper plumage sandy 
brown ; primary-coverts, primaries, and secondaries black, secon- 
daries grey towards the ends, with white tips, passing gradually 
into the colour of the tertiaries and back ; upper tail-coverts 
white ; middle tail-feathers like the back, the others greyish 



CUESORIUS. 211 

brown at the base, then black and tipped white, the white tips 
increasing on the outer feathers till the outermost pair are white 
throughout ; chin white ; throat passing into the rufous of the 
neck and breast, which deepens gradually into chestnut on the 




Fig. 47. Head of 6'. coromandelicus. -J. 

lower breast and into a black patch on the upper abdomen ; sides 
of breast and axillaries coloured like back ; lower abdomen with 
flanks and lower tail-coverts white. 

Young birds are buff above, irregularly barred with black, 
having a pale supercilium ; quills black ; breast dull rufous with 
black markings ; chin and abdomen white. 

Bill black ; irides dark brown ; tarsus creamy white (Jerdon}. 
The legs and feet have an enamelled or china- white aspect. 

Length 9 ; tail 2'25 ; wing 6 ; tarsus 2-1 ; bill from gape 1-1. 

Distribution. The Indian Peninsula from the base of the Hima- 
layas, also the extreme north of Ceylon, on open dry plains away 
from forest. Rare on the Malabar coast and in Lower Bengal, 
and replaced in most parts of Cutch and Sind, and in the north- 
west Punjab by the next species. 

Habits, fyc. This bird is generally seen running about quickly, 
singly or in small parties, on open sandy or stony ground; its 
movements being much like those of the Stone- Curlew or of 
Bustards, and it lives on insects. It breeds from March to July, 
and lays, on the bare ground, usually two, sometimes three eggs, 
broadly oval, stone-coloured, thickly spotted and blotched with 
black, and measuring about 1-19 by *97. 

1423. Cursorius gallicus. The Cream-coloured Courser. 

Charadrius gallicus, Gm. Syst. Nat. i, p. 692 (1788). 

Cursorius gallicus, Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 874 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, 

p. 163 ; Hume, Ibis, 1868, p. 239 ; id. S. F. i, p. 228 ; Adam, ibid. 

p. 393; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 11; v, p. 232; Hume, Cat. no. 840 
K bis : Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 324 ; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vi, 

p. 16 j Seebohm, Charadr. p. 235; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 175; 

Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 325 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 

xxiv, p. 34. 
Cursorius jamesoni, Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 875 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. 

xli, pt. 2, p. 250. 

The European Courier Plover, Jerdon. 

Coloration. Crown light rufous, in front ashy grev on the 

* 



212 GLAEEOLIDvE. 

occiput, the grey feathers partly concealing a nuchal black patch ; 
white supercilia, meeting behind the nape, and bordered throughout 
beneath by a black band running from one eye to the other ; lores 
and chin creamy white, sides of face buff ; upper parts generally 
rufous buff; primary-coverts and primaries black, secondaries 
blackish on the inner webs, tipped with white and bordered 
externally with rufous buff, which gradually grows broader on the 
inner feathers ; tail-feathers like back, all, except the median 
pair (which have sometimes a sub terminal black spot), with a sub- 
terminal black band and white tip ; lower parts buff, paler and 
less rufous than the back ; lower abdomen and under tail-coverts 
white ; wing-lining and axillaries black. 

Young birds sandy, with many black bauds throughout, paler 
below. 

Bill black ; legs yellowish white (Jei'don). Iris umber-brown 
(y. Heuglin}. 

Length 10 ; tail 2'5 ; wing 6*5 ; tarsus 2'25 ; bill from gape 
1-4. 

Distribution. Dry barren tracts of Southern Europe, Northern 
Africa, and South-western Asia, as far east as Baluchistan, 
Afghanistan, and North-western India. This species is found 
in the Punjab, Sind, Rajputaua as far east as Ajmir, Jodbpur, 
and Erinpura, and in Cutch. 

Habits, Sfc. Very similar to those of G. coromandelicus. The 
eggs resemble those of G. coromandelicus in number and size, but 
are much paler, light stone-coloured, thickly, rather finely spotted 
with brown and pale lilac. It is doubtful whether this bird breeds 
in India, there being evidently some mistake about the eggs found 
near Sirsa, and formerly attributed to this species by Hume. 



Genus RHINOPTILUS, Strickland, 1850. 

This is almost entirely an Ethiopian genus, no less than seven 
species being known from Tropical and Southern Africa, whilst a 
solitary species, of great rarity, is peculiar to a small portion of 
the Indian Peninsula. From Cursorius the present form is only 
distinguished, by having the bill shorter than the head, straight , 
and somewhat broader at the base, a rounder wing, with the 2nd 
and 3rd primaries longest, and a band across the breast; the 
differences being scarcely of generic value. The eyes are large, 
and the bird may perhaps have crepuscular habits. 

1424. Rhinoptilus bitorquatus. Jerdons Courser. 

Macrotarsius bitorquatus, Jerdon, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvii, pt. 1, 

p. 254(1848); id. Cat. p. 260. 
Rhinoptilus bitorquatus, Strickland, P. Z. S. 1850, p. 220 : Jerdon, 

B. I. iii, p. 628 ; Blanford, Ibi*, 1867, p. 462 ; id. J. A. S. B. 

xxxviii, pt. 2 ; p. 190 ; Hume, Cat. no. 841 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 

xxiv, p. 50. 



RHINOPTILUS. 213 

Cursorms bitorqtiatus, Seebohm, Ibis, 1880, p. 119 ; id. Charadr. 

p, 247, pi. xiii. 
The Double-banded Plover, Jerdon ; Adava-wuta-titti, Tel. 

Coloration. Crown dark brown, with a buff median band ; fore- 
head, lores, and long broad supercilia, passing completely round 
the nape, white ; a brown band streaked with black beneath the 
eye, extending over the ear-coverts ; upper parts brown ; wing- 
coverts slightly paler; across the wing is a broad white band 
formed of the outer median and the greater coverts ; primary- 
coverts, primaries, and most of the secondaries black, a broad 
white band crossing obliquely the first two primaries near the 
end, a large white spot on the 3rd primary and a small round spot 
on the 4th ; inner webs of secondaries chiefly white, and white 
edgings to the outer webs of the brown tertiaries ; upper tail- 
coverts white ; tail blackish brown, the feathers white at the base 
and with white spots at the tips, the amount of white increasing 
on the outer feathers ; chin and throat buffy white, passing on 
the fore neck into pale chestnut, followed by two narrow white 
bands, both dark-edged behind, the posterior in front also ; the 
two divided by a much broader brown gorget ; remainder of lower 
parts creamy white. 

Bill blackish at the tips of both mandibles, pale yellow at the 
base and as far as the nostrils ; gape yellow ; iris umber-brown ; 
legs pale yellowish white with a fleshy tinge, soles flesh-coloured, 
nails horny. 

Length 10-25 ; tail 2*5 ; wing 6*5; tarsus 2'7; bill from gape 
1-05. 

Distribution. Forest country from the Grodavari valley to the 
neighbourhood of Madras. Jerdon discovered this species near 
Nellore and Cuddapah, and I met with it close to Sironcha on the 
G-odavari and again near Bhadrachalam, where however it was 
very far from common. This bird must have a very restricted 
range, as no other observer is known to have met with it. Neither 
Jerdon nor Bail saw it in Bastar. 

Habits, fyc. I first saw three birds together in May 1867 ; 
afterwards, in March 1871, I twice found pairs, and I succeeded 
in each case in shooting one, a male. The birds did not appear 
on dissection to be breeding. They were in thin forest or 
high scrub, never in open ground, and I never saw any on hills. 
Their appearance on the ground is Courser-like, but the flight 
is more rapid, more like that of Sarciophorus. Jerdon states 
that this bird occasionally utters a plaintive cry. The eggs are 
unknown. 



214 



Subfamily GLAREOLIN^E. 

Genus GLAEEOLA, Brisson, 1760. 

This genus consists of a well-marked group of birds, commonly 
known as Pratincoles, but called Swallow-Plovers by Jerdon. 
The latter name is appropriate, for the species resemble Swallows 
both in some details of structure and in night. They keep much 
to river-beds and the borders of tanks and backwaters, they feed on 
insects, and lay from 2 to 4 eggs in. a small hollow in the sand, 
without, as a rule, any lining. They possess to a remarkable 
extent the habit, common to many Plovers, of feign ing inability to 
fly in order to distract the attention of men, and probably of 
animals, from their eggs and young, a favourite ruse with Glareola 
being to lie prone on the ground with wings extended. 

In this genus the bill is short, broad, and rather high at the 
base ; the culmen much arched and the gape wide ; the nostril is 
in a depression at the base of the bill ; wings long and narrow, 
generally when closed extending some distance beyond the tail ; 
1st primary longest ; tarsus short, scutulate before and behind ; 
hind toe well developed, raised above the anterior toes at the 
base ; lateral toes short, the outer and middle toe united by a 
short web ; claws long, that of the middle toe distinctly pectinated 
on the inner margin. 

Nine species of Glareola are known, inhabiting the greater part of 
the Eastern hemisphere : of these three occur in India, two of 
which belong to the typical section of the genus with forked tails ; 
the third, with the tail almost even, is by many placed with five 
other species in a distinct genus, Galaetoehrysea. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Tail deeply forked ; wing 7-8 inches. 

a'. Outer tail-leathers exceed median pair by 

0-75-1-25 inches .................... G. orientalis, p. 214. 

b'. Outer tail-feathers exceed median pair by 

1-5-2-5 inches ...................... G. pratincola, p. 216. 

b. Tail nearly even ; wing under 6 inches .... G. lactea, p. 216. 

1425. Glareola orientalis. The Large Indian Pratincole or 
Swallow-Plover. 

Glareola orientalis, Leach, Trans. Linn. Sac. xiii, p. 132, pi. xiii 
(1821) ; myth, Cat. p. 259; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p.. 631 ; Myth, Ibis, 
1867, p. 163 ; Ball, J, A. S. JB. xli, pt. 2, p. 287 ; Hume, 8. F. ii, 
p. 284; Field, ibid. p. 465; WardL-Rams. Ibis, 1877, p. 4b'9 
Hume Sf Dav. S. I. vi, p. 454 ; Oates, S. F. vii, p. 49 ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 842 ; Doia, S. F. viii, p. 375 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl p. 980 ; 
Butler, S. F. ix, p. 425; Davidson, S. F. x, p. 318 ; Oates, B. B. 
ii, p. 361 ; Seebohm, Charadr. p. 258 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 325 ; 
id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vi, p. 17; Oates in Hume's N. $ K 
2nd ed. iii, p. 319 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 58. 

The Large Swalloiv- Plover, Jerdon. 



GLAREOLA. 215 

Coloration. Upper plumage brown, with an olive tinge when 
freshly moulted, back of neck slightly rufous ; primaries and 
earlier secondaries blackish, the secondaries gradually passing into 
the brown of the tertiaries ; shaft of 1st primary whitish ; upper 
tail-coverts white ; tail-feathers white at the base, broadly tipped 
with blackish brown, most broadly on the median pair ; lores 
black ; chin and throat pale rufous, surrounded by a narrow black 
band running from above the gape on each side and slightly 
bordered by white inside ; upper breast brown, passing down- 
M-ards into rufous, which again passes into the white of the 
abdomen and lower tail-coverts ; axillaries and under wing-coverts, 
except near the edge of the wing, chestnut. 

Young birds in their first plumage have the feathers of the 
upper parts with blackish ends and buff terminal spots, no gorget, 
and the throat marked with brown longitudinal streaks ; the breast 
dark. The upper plumage becomes uniform before the gorget 
is assumed. 




Fig. 48. Head of G. orientalis. . 

Bill black ; gape red ; irides dark brown ; feet dusky black 
(Jerdon). 

Length 9'5 ; tail to end of outer feathers 3 ; wing 7'25 ; tarsus 
1-3; bill from gape 1. The outer rectrices are 0'75 to 1-25 
longer than the middle pair. 

Distribution. India, Ceylon, and Burma, locally distributed, 
keeping to the plains, also in the Andarnans and Nicobars, through 
China to Eastern Siberia, and through the Malay countries and 
Archipelago to Northern Australia. 

Habits, fyc. This Pratincole is generally found about the sandy 
beds of large rivers, around tanks or open marshes, or on sandy 
plains, as a rule in flocks that rest during the clay on the sand, 
and hunt in the air for insects in the mornings and evenings. In 
places this species is migratory, but it has been found breeding in 
Sind, near Calcutta, in Ceylon, and in Pegu. It feeds principally 
on moths, coleoptera, and hemiptera. The breeding-season in 
Pegu and Sind is in April and May, and two or three eggs are 
laid in a small hollow in the sand. The eggs are broad ovals, 
very like those of Cursorius, of a pale stone colour, densely 
blotched and spotted with blackish brown, and measuring about 
1-18 by -93. 



216 GLAREOLID^E. 

1426. Glareola pratincola. The Collared Pratincole. 

Hirundo pratincola, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 345 (1766). 

Glareola pratincola, Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 163; Blanf. S. F. iv, 

p. 507 ; Sutler, S. F. vii, p. 186 ; ix, p. 425 ; Hume, Cat. no. 

842 bis ; Doig, S. F. viii, p. 375 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 78 ; Swinhoe, 

Ibis, 1882, p. 120 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 326 ; Seebohm, Charadr. 

p. 256 ; Oates in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 318 ; Sharpe, Cat. 

B. M. xxiv, p. 53. 

This species is very similar to G. orientalis, but may be dis- 
tinguished by its longer, more deeply forked tail, the outer 
rectrices exceeding the middle pair'as a rule by 2 inches, and 
scarcely ever by less than 1|. Generally, too, the tips of the 
secondaries are white in the present species, and the throat and 
lower breast are less strongly tinged with rufous. 

Length 9 ; tail to end of outer feathers 4-3 ; wing 7*5 ; tarsus 
1*2 ; bill from gape 1. 

Distribution. A migratory bird, occurring in summer in Central 
and Southern Europe, and throughout a large area in Western 
and Central Asia, wintering in Africa. It has been met with 
breeding in Sind, in company with G. orientalis, by Mr. S. Doig, 
and stragglers have been recorded from Allahabad, the Deccan, 
and Ratnagiri. 

Habits similar to those of the last species. 

1427. Glareola lactea. The Small Indian Pratincole or 
Swallow-Plover. 

Glareola lactea, Temm. Man. d'Orn. ed. 2, ii, p. 503 (1820) ; 
Blyth, Cat. p. 259 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 632 ; Beavan, Ibis, 1868, 
p. 388; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 273 ; Hume, N. 
$ E. p. 568 ; id. S. F. iii, p. 179 ; Blyth fy Wald. Birds Burm. 
p. 154 ; Armstrong, S. F. iv, p. 338 ; Wardl.-Rams. Ibis, 1877, 
p. 469 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 454 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 226 ; 
Cripps, ibid. p. 299 ; Hume, Cat. no. 843 : Legge, Birds Ceyl. 
p. 984; Butler, S. F. ix, p. 425; Reid, S. F. x, p. 64; Barnes, 
ibid. p. 166 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 363 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 326 ; 
Hume fy Cripps, S. F. xi, p. 312 ; Seebohm, Charadr. p. 264 ; 
Littledale, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. i, p. 200 ; Oates in Hume's N. # 
E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 320 ; Barnes, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vi, p. 19, 
fig. 843. 

Galachrysea lactea, Bonap. C. R. xliii, p. 419. 

Galactochrysea lactea, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 65. 

Coloration. Upper plumage throughout pale sandy grey : fore- 
head brown, and a band from the eye along the lower edge of the 
lores black ; primary-coverts and primaries blackish, all the pri- 
maries except the first two with part of the inner web white, and 
some of the later primaries with part of the edge of the outer web 
also white : secondaries white, with blackish-brown ends that 
dimmish in breadth on the inner quills ; upper tail-coverts white ; 
tail white at base, blackish towards the end, the black ends much 
longer on the middle rectrices ; the tips, except on the outer pair 
of tail-feathers, pale brown and white ; chin white ; throat, fore 
neck, and upper breast more or less smoky brown, tinged with 



PAKRID^E. 217 

rufous, passing into white on the lower breast ; abdomen and 
under tail-coverts white : edge of wing whitish ; wing-lining and 
axillaries black. 

Terminal half of bill black, basal half red, changing to yellowish 
brown at the gape ; irides dark brown ; legs, feet, and claws 
black (Oates) ; legs and feet neutral brown or plumbeous brown 
(Legge). 

Length 6'5 ; tail 2'1 ; wing 5-75; tarsus *8 ; bill from gape '75. 

Distribution. Resident in suitable places throughout the plains 
of India, Ceylon, and Burma as far west as the Indus. Found in 
Kashmir, but not observed elsewhere in the Himalayas. Unknown 
outside our area. 

Habits, <$fc. This Pratincole also is mainly confined to the larger 
rivers, the beds of which it frequents in large flocks. It is the 
commonest Indian species, and has nearly the same habits as 
G. orientalis. It breeds generally in company with Terns, on 
sandbanks in rivers, in the months of March, April, and May. 
The eggs are two to four in number, stone-coloured, pale greenish 
grey or buff, sparingly speckled with brown and pale lilac. They 
differ greatly in colour from those of G. orientalis. The average 
measurement is I'Oo by '82. 



Family PAKRID.E. 

Schizorhinal ; nostrils pervious, and situated some distance from 
the base of the bill, but nearer to it than to the tip ; basiptery- 
goid processes present ; cervical vertebrae 16. A spur or tubercle 
on the carpal joint of the wing. Four toes, all greatly lengthened, 
and with very long and straight claws, that of the hallux or hind 
toe especially long. According to Gradow, despite the long hallux, 
the deep plantar tendons are of the same type as in three-toed 
birds, the two tendons uniting and the united tendon dividing 
into three to supply the three anterior toes, besides sending off a 
short branch to the hallux (Bronn's Klass. u. Ordu. vi, 4, p. 224). 
The eggs are exceedingly glossy, uniformly olive in HydropTiasianus, 
peculiarly marked all over in other genera with a confused tangle 
of black lines. 

The Ja9anas (properly the c is soft and the accent is on the 
last syllable) are a tropical family of marsh birds distinguished by 
their enormously long toes, which enable them to run over the 
floating leaves of water-lilies and similar plants. Two genera are 
Indian. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. A frontal lappet ; primaries not produced 

at the end METOPJDIUS, p. 218. 

b. No frontal lappet; ends of 1st and 4th 

primaries produced and attenuated . . HYDRGPHASIANUS, p. 219. 



218 PAREID-E. 

Genus METOPIDIUS, Wagler, 1832. 

Head small ; bill moderately long, straight, compressed, culrnen 
curved at the tip ; a lappet at the base of the bill, resting against 
the forehead and rounded behind ; tail short ; wing with a small 
tubercular spur at the bend ; 1st and 2nd quills longest ; middle toe 
without the claw longer than tarsus, hind claw excessively long ; 
tarsus transversely shielded before and behind. 

There is no distinct breeding-plumage, but the garb of the 
young differs widely from that of the adult, which appears to be 
assumed by a moult in the spring when the bird is a year (or 
according to some two years) old. 

A single species. Many naturalists place the African and 
Madagascar Jaganas in the same genus as the Indian, and it is ex- 
tremely questionable whether either the Ethiopian or the South- 
American forms (Parr a jacana and its allies) are entitled to generic 
separation, their differences being of a trivial character. 

1428. Metopidius indicus. The Bronze-winged Jacana. 

Parra indica, Lath. 2nd. Orn. ii, p. 765 (1790) ; Hume # Dav. S. F. 
vi, p. 464 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 2:29 ; Cripps, ibid. p. 304 : Hume, Cat. 
no. 900 ; Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 197 ; Butler, ibid. p. 430 : Reid, 
S. F. x, p. 72 ; Davison, ibid. p. 415 ; Maccjregor, ibid. p. 441 ; Hume, 
S. F. xi, p. 326 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 363 ; id. Jour. Bom. A. 
H. Soc. i, p. 221, vi, p. 133, fig. 900 (eggs, 2 figs.). 

Metopidius indicus, Blyth, Cat. p. 273 ; Jerdon. B. I. iii, p. 708 ; 
Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 170 ; Hume fy Gates, S. F. iii, p. 183 ; Bhfth 
$ Wald. Birds Burnt, p. 157 ; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 19 ; Armstrong, 
ibid. p. 348 ; Anderson, Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 683 ; Gates, B. B. 
ii, p. 358 ; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 356 ; Sharpe, Cat. 
B. M. xxiv, p. 72. 

Dal-pipi, Jal-pipi, Karatiya, Beng. ; Kattoi, Purneah ; Bi, Burmese. 

Coloration. In adults the head, neck, and lower parts to the 
abdomen, including the wing-lining, are black glossed with dark 
green, the lower hind neck with a purple gloss ; superciliary band 




Fig. 49. Foot of M. indicus. 



commencing above the eye and running back to the nape, with a 
spot beneath the eye, white ; back, scapulars, tertiaries, and wing- 
coverts olive-bronze ; primary-coverts and primary and secondary 
quills black, glossed with dark green ; lower back, rump, and 
upper tail-coverts dark chestnut ; tail and under tail-coverts 
brighter chestnut ; lower abdomen and thigh-coverts dull blackish 
brown. 



HYDROPHASIANUS. 219 

Young birds have the crown dull rufous, with a short pale 
supercilium from above the lores ; hind neck black glossed with 
dark green ; back and wings as in adults, but rather paler, and 
the feathers in very young birds fringed with rufous ; lower back 
and rump dull rufous barred with dusky ; tail concentrically barred 
with black and buff; sides of face, chin, throat, breast, abdomen, 
and lower tail-coverts white ; sides of neck, lower neck, and upper 
breast dull rufous ; ear-coverts grey. 

Bill greenish yellow, tinged with red at the base, and the frontal 
lappet livid ; irides brown ; legs dull green (Jerdon). 

Length of male 11 ; tail 1'75 ; wing6'25 ; tarsus 2*6 ; bill from 
gape 1-2. Length of female 12 ; tail 1-85 ; wing 7 ; tarsus 2'7. 

Distribution. The greater part of the Indian Peninsula and east 
through Assam, Sylhet, Manipur, and Burma to the Malay 
Peninsula, Siam, Sumatra, Java, and Celebes. This Jagana is 
wanting in Ceylon, though recorded from Travancore ; it is rare 
in the North-West Provinces, not known to occur in Kashmir, the 
Punjab, ISind, or Western Eajputana, and chiefly found in the 
damper parts of India, where there are permanent marshes or 
tanks overgrown with floating leaves of water-plants. 

Habits, tyc. A familiar bird, often seen on ponds close to houses, 
hiding amongst the weeds, or running actively over the leaves of 
water-lilies or Singhara, and feeding on insects, Crustacea, and, 
according to Jerdon, largely on vegetable matter, seeds, roots, &c. 
The cry is peculiar and harsh. This species breeds from June to 
September, and lays, as a rule, four eggs in a nest of weeds, 
roughly put together, placed on floating leaves or amongst rushes. 
The eggs are very glossy, buff or olive, marked with numerous 
black or dark brown lines, irregularly distributed in a confused 
network, and the average measurement is 1*47 by 1'03. 



Genus HYDROPHASIANUS, Wagler, 1832. 

This is distinguished by having a slenderer bill than Metopidiits, 
no lappet, and a shorter hind claw, and also by the 1st and 4th 
primaries being produced at the end, the first into a filamentous 
lanceolate appendage about an inch long, the 4th into an attenuated 
point. There is a strong sharp spur on the wing at the bend. 
An important character of this genus is that the breeding-plumage 
is quite distinct from that worn at other seasons, and that, in the 
nuptial garb, which is assumed by a change of colour in the 
feathers without any moult, the tail-feathers are greatly elongated. 
Sexes alike in plumage at all times, but the female larger thau the 
male. 

A single species. 

1429. Hydrophasianus chirurgus. The Pheasant-tailed Jacana. 

Tringa chirurgus, Scop. Del. Flor. et Faun. Insub. ii, p. 92 (1786). 
Parra luzoniensis et P. sinensis, Gm. Syst. Nat. i, p. 709 (1788). 



220 



Hydrophasianus sinensis, Gray, Gen. B. iii, p. 589 ; Blyth, Ibis, 
1867, p. 170 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, p. 254 ; Hume $ Renders. 
Lah. to Yark. p. 290 ; Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 157. 

Hydrophasianus chirurgus, Blyth, Cat. p. 273 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, 
p. 709 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 249 ; Adam, ibid. p. 397 ; Hayes Lloyd, 
Ibis, 1873, p. 418 ; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 20 ; ix, p. 431 j Hume $ 
Dav. S. F. vi, p. 464 ; Hume, S. F. vii, pp. 97, 489 ; Ball, ibid. 
p. 229 ; Cripps, ibid. p. 304 ; Legye, Birds Ceyl. p. 914 ; Hume, Cat. 
no. 901 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 86 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 72 ; Scully, Ibis, 
1881, p. 590 ; Davidson, S. F. x, p. 321 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 
p. 364 ; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vi, p. 134, fig. 901 (egg) ; 




Hydrophasis chirurgus, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 69. 

Piho, Pihuya, H., also Surdal or Sukdal, Miwa, Dal-kukra, Bhepi, 
Jal-manjor, Chittra-Billai, Bee gal and Behar ; Balal Saaru, Newiya, 
Ceylon. 

Coloration. In winter plumage the crown, hind neck, back, 
scapulars, tertiaries, rump, upper tail-coverts, and middle tail- 
feathers are brown, slightly mixed with white on the forehead and 
hind neck ; lores and supercilia white ; from the hinder extremity 
of each supercilium a pale brownish-yellow band runs down the 
side of the neck, bordered by a blackish band from the gape, in- 
cluding the orbit and ear-coverts, and expanding into a broad 
black gorget across the breast ; rest of lower parts and outer tail- 
feathers white; wing-coverts white, except the inner, median, and 
greater coverts, which are whity-brown barred with dark brown ; 
1st primary black, 2nd black with part of the inner web near the 
base white, the white increasing and black diminishing on the 
inner primaries until only the tips and edges near the tips remain 
dark ; secondaries white. 

In the breeding season the head, throat, and fore neck are 
white ; a patch on the occiput black ; back of neck pale shining 
golden-yellow, bordered on each side by a black line ; back, sca- 
pulars, tertiaries, sides of breast, and lower parts from neck choco- 
late-brown, blackish beneath, passing into black on the rump and 
upper tail-coverts ; tail black ; wing-coverts white, primary- 
coverts tipped with black, quills as in winter ; under wing-coverts 
and axillaries white. 

Young birds resemble adults in winter plumage, except that the 
crown is dull rufous and the feathers of the upper parts have 
rufous edges ; there is no yellow at the side of the neck, but the 
dark band remains ; the gorget, however, is replaced by brown 
spots and bars. 

The nestling is clad in black clown, with three bright brown 
streaks, one down the head and back and one down each side 
(Parker). 

Bill in summer bluish ; iris brown ; legs and feet pale plum- 
beous : in winter, bill dark brown, basal half of lower mandible 
bright yellow ; iris pale yellow ; legs dull greenish (Oates). 



CHARADBIID^. 221 

Length of male in winter plumage 12 ; tail 3'75 ; wing, in- 
cluding appendage to the 1st primary, 7*8 ; tarsus 2 ; bill from 
gape 1*3: in summer, length 18, tail 10. Females are larger: 
length in breeding-plumage 21 ; tail 12 ; wing 9. 

Distribution. Resident throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma, 
wherever suitable pieces of water with floating plants occur ; 
common on the lakes in Kashmir, and straggling individuals have 
been recorded from Gilgit and Pangi in the interior of the Hima- 
layas. This bird is not found west of India, but ranges to the 
eastward as far as South China, the Philippines, and Java. 

Habits, &fc. Very similar 1 o those of the last species, but this Jagana 
keeps much to larger and more open pieces of water, and hides 
less. Its cry resembles the mewing of a cat or kitten. It lays 
four eggs in a nest precisely similar to that of Metopidius, but the 
eggs are very different in shape and colour, being pegtop-like, 
short and broad, hemispherical at one end, conical at the other, 
exceedingly glossy, and deep rufous brown to greenish bronze in 
colour, without spots. They measure about 1*46 by 1*12. 



Family CHARADHIID^E. 

Schizorhinal ; nostrils pervious ; basipterygoid processes present. 
Cervical vertebra 15. Hind toe short or wanting. Eggs large for 
the size of the bird, always four in number and pegtop-shaped, 
with one end rounded, the other conical ; this enables the four eggs 
to lie with the pointed ends together in comparatively small space. 
The eggs are laid in a small hollow in the ground, sometimes 
slightly lined with grass, more often not. 

The Plovers, Sandpipers, and Snipes are so nearly allied that 
they must all be united into one family. There are clearly several 
subfamilies, and the arrangement here proposed adds to the number 
of attempts that have been made to arrange the group. 

a. Bill moderate, not longer than head ; 
nasal groove not extending more 
than half the length of the upper 
mandible ; tarsus reticulated behind 

and frequently in front also Charadriince, p. 222. 

&. Bill very long ; tarsus reticulated 

throughout Hcematopodince, p. 245. 

c. Bill variable ; nasal groove extending 
along greater part of upper man- 
dible ; tarsus shielded in front. 
a'. Eyes not placed far back ; a dis- 
tinct summer and winter plumage Totaninw, p. 250.' 
&'. Eyes placed far back ; no distinct 

summer and winter plumage . . Scolopacince, p. 283. 



222 CHARADRIIDJE. 



Subfamily CHARADRIIN^E. 

The present subfamily consists of Plovers and Lapwings, the 
only genus about which any doubt can arise being Strepsilas, the 
Turnstone, which has a differently shaped bill, though it resembles 
Plovers otherwise in structure. Plovers have the bill of moderate 
length, rarely exceeding the head, the dertrum or terminal por- 
tion of the upper mandible is distinctly swollen, and the culmen 
convex towards the end. There is considerable resemblance in 
form between a Plover's bill and a Pigeon's. The tarsus is always 
reticulated behind, but in front it is sometimes reticulated, some- 
times transversely shielded. 

The Plovers are birds of meadows and grassy or sandy tracts, 
rather than marsh birds. They are often found at the edge of 
water, but not as a rule actually in swamps. 

Key to tlie Genera. 

a. Bill conical, culmen flattened, no swelling 

near tip STREFSILAS, p. 222. 

b. Upper mandible swollen near tip. 
'. A wattle in front of the eye. 

a". A small hind toe. 

3 . Tarsus reticulated in front SARCOGRAMMUS, p. 224. 

b 3 . Tarsus transversely shielded in 

front MICROSARCOPS, p. 228. 

b". No hind toe ,. SARCIOPHORUS, p. 226. 

b'. No wattle. 

c". A sharp spur at bend of wing HOPLOPTERUS, p. 229. 

d". No spur. 
c 3 . A hind toe. 

4 . Head with a long crest VANELLUS, p. 230. 

b 4 . No crest. 

a 5 . 2nd or 3rd primary longest . . CHETTUSIA, p. 231. 

W. 1 st primary longest SQUATAROLA, p. 235. 

d 3 . No hind toe. 

c 4 . Plumage spotted with yellow 

above CHARADRIUS, p. 233. 

d*. Plumage brown above, not 

spotted yEoiALiTis, p. 236. 

Genus STREPSILAS, Illiger, 1811. 

Bill conical, pointed, the culmen flattened and straight ; nostrils 
linear, in a groove that extends nearly halfway down the bill ; 
wings long, pointed, 1st primary longest ; tarsus short, trans- 
versely shielded in front, reticulated behind ; hind toe well 
developed ; toes not connected by web. 

Generally distributed. Two species are known ; of these one is 
Indian. The name Arenaria of Brisson is used for the genus by 
some naturalists, but not by the majority, who reject this term for 



STRErSILAS. 223 

the same reason as that already assigned for the disuse of Mkropus 
as the generic name of the Common Swift : Arenaria, like 
Micropus, being a well-known Linnean genus of plants. 

1430. Strepsilas interpres. The Turnstone. 
Tringa interpres, Linn. Syst. Nat.i, p. 248 (1766). 




p. 376 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 452 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 338 j Sharpe, 

York. Miss., Aves, p. 139. 
Arenaria interpres, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxxiv, p. 345 ; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 92. 
Cinclus interpres, G. R. Gray, Gen. B. iii, p. 549 ; Hume, S. F. i, 

p. 233 ; ii, p. 292. 




Fig. 50. Head of S. interpres. \. 

Coloration. In winter the head above and at the sides is brown 
with darker streaks, the ear-coverts more uniform brown ; upper 
back, scapulars, tertiaries, and wing-coverts dark brown, the 
feathers with slight pale edges ; some of the under scapulars are 
partially or wholly white ; quills dark brown with white shafts and 
part of the inner web white, some of the inner secondaries entirely 
white ; lower back, rump, and longer upper tail-coverts white ; 
shorter upper tail-coverts dark brown ; tail dark brown, the 
feathers white at the base, and all except the median pair with 
buff or white tips, outermost pair almost wholly white ; chin, 
throat, and lower parts from breast white, fore neck and sides of 
breast brown. 

In summer plumage the head is white, with streaks of black on 
the crown and a black band from the forehead to the front of the 
eye, joined to a black patch below the eye; a band from the 
gape, a partial collar on the sides of the neck, the fore neck, and 
sides of the breast all black ; rest of lower parts white ; the back, 
scapulars, tertiaries, and wing-coverts are partly black, partly deep 
rufous. Intermediate stages between the summer and winter 
plumage are common. 

Bill black ; iris brown ; legs and feet orange-red ; claws black. 

Length 8*5 ; tail 2-35 ; wing 6 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape 1. 

Distribution. Almost world-wide, A winter visitor to the 
Indian coasts and islands, but generally rare or of occasional 



224 

occurrence. Common about Karachi, found abundantly by Hume 
at the Laccadives, and far from rare at the Andamans, Nicobars, 
and other islands of the Bay of Bengal. The Turnstone is not, as 
a rule, found away from the sea-coasts or estuaries except when 
migrating. It is generally met with, in India, in the cold season, 
but has been shot in Ceylon in June, and at Karachi in August ; 
it is, however, only known to breed in high northern latitudes. 

Habits, <Sfc. The Turnstone derives its name from its habit of 
turning over stones, shells, &c., on the sea-shore in order to feed 
on the crustaceans, mollusca, and worms that shelter beneath 
them. At the Laccadives Hume foTmd Turnstones swimming in 
the sea like Phalaropes. 

Genus SARCOGRAMMUS, Eeichenbach, 1852. 

Although, as Hume has shown, it is probable that Strickland 
intended the Indian Eed -wattled Lapwing to be the type of his 
genus Lobivanellus, still, as that genus comprises two fairly separ- 
able groups of species, we must class one or the other under a 
different generic heading, and the present is the first name pro- 
posed. It contains only two Indian species. 

The bill is of moderate length, the terminal portion of the 
upper mandible slightly swollen, the culm en flattened at the base ; 
nostrils linear, in a groove extending beyond the middle of the bill. 
There is a fleshy wattle or latchet in front of the eye. The wing 
is long and with a tubercle at the bend, developed into a short 
horny spur at the breeding season. Tail even. Tarsus long, 
reticulated throughout ; a small hind toe. 

Key to the Species. 

a. A white band down each side of neck to 

breast & indicus, p. 224. 

b. A white band from eye to ear-coverts only, 

lower neck black all round S. atrinuchalis, p. 226. 

1431. Sarcogrammus indicus. The Red-wattled Lapwing. 

Tringa indica, Bodd. Tabl. PI. Enl p. 50 (1783). 

Parra goensis, Gm. Syst, Nat. i, p. 706 (1788). 

Lobivanellus goensis, Strickland, P. Z. S. 1841, p. 33; Blyth, Cat. 

p. 261 ; Irby, Ibis, 1861, p. 237 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 648 ; Beavan, 

Ibis, 1868, p. 390; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 70; 

Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 273; C. H. T. Marshall, 

Ibis, 1884, p. 424. 
Lobivanellus indicus, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 251 ; Hume, 

N. fy E. p. 574 ; id. S. F. i, p. 232 ; Adam, ibid. p. 394 ; Ball, S. F. 

iii, p. 209 ; vii, p. 227 ; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 14 ; ix, p. 427 ; Hume, 




>. 66 : Damson, ibid. p. 413 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 334 ; id. Jour. 
3om.'N. H. Soc.\\, p. 22; Seebohm, Charadr. p. 184; St. John, 



SA.BCOGBAMM17S. 225 

Ibis, 1889, p. 170 ; Oates, in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 340; 
Skarpe, Yark, Mus., Aves, p. 139. 
Sarcogrammus indicus, Sharpc, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 149. 

Titiri, H., also Titaf, Titi, Tituri in various parts ; Titavi, Mahr.; 
Yennapa Chitawa, Tel. ; Al-kati, Tain. ; Kiralla, Kibulla, Cing. " Did- 
you-do-it " of Anglo-Indians. 




Fig. 51. Head of 8. indicus. f . 

Coloration. Head, neck, and upper breast- black, except a broad 
white band from each eye, including the ear-coverts and passing 
down the side of the neck to join the white of the lower parts ; 
this band expands below, and the black of the hind neck becomes 
narrow where it joins on to the light brown, glossed with green 
bronze and slightly washed with red, of the back, scapulars, and 
tertiaries ; lower back darker and duller ; wiug-coverts like the 
back but strongly washed with glossy lilac-red ; ends of greater 
secondary coverts, bases of most of the secondaries, and the whole 
of one of the later quills white, forming a wing-bar ; primary- 
coverts, primaries, and greater part of secondaries black ; sides of 
lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts white; tail white, with a 
broad black subterminal band ; tips of middle feathers brown, of 
the others white, the middle feathers have also a brown inner 
border to the black band ; lower parts from breast pure white. 

Young birds have the black replaced by brown, the chin, and 
throat white, and the white band down each side of the neck 
sullied. 

Bill red at the base, tip black ; eyelid and wattle lake-red ; irides 
red-brown ; legs bright yellow (Jerdon). 

Length 13 ; tail 4-5 ; wing 9 ; tarsus 3 ; bill from gape 1*5. 

Distribution. Resident throughout India and Ceylon in the 
plains, extending on the east to Sylhet and Cachar, but not 
recorded from Upper Assam. To the westward this Lapwing 
ranges to Southern Persia and to Muscat in Arabia, and it is 
found at low elevations within the North-western Himalayas, 
amongst other places in Kashmir, and as a rare straggler at 
G-ilgit. 

Habits, Sfc. The Eed-wattled Lapwing is a familiar and noisy 
bird, and most of its vernacular names are given in imitation of its 
cry, which is well expressed by the English " pity-to-do-it." It 
is met with in open ground, often near water, generally in pairs 
or single, more rarely in scattered nocks. It lays in a small 

YOL. IV. Q 



226 

hollow the usual four yellowish eggs blotched with brown, between 
JMarch and August, chiefly in April, May, or June. The eggs 
measure on an average 1'64 by 1'2. 

1432. Sarcogrammus atrinuchalis. The Burmese Wattled 
Lapwing. 

Sareogramina atrognlaris, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxxi, p. 345 (1862) (nee 
Charadrius atrogularis, Wagler), 

Lobivanellus atronuchalis, Blyth, Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 648 (1864) ; 
Hume $ Gates, S. F. iii, p. 181 - 9 Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 457 : 
Anders. Yunnan Exped.. Aves, p. 675 ; Hume, Cat. no. 855 bis ; 
Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 396; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 374; Salvador!, 
Ann. Mm. Civ. Gen. (2) iv, p. 613 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 316 ; Dates 
in Hume's JN 7 . 8f E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 344. 

? Sarciophorus bilobus, Blanf. Ibis, 1870, p. 470, nee auct. 

Sarcogramma atrinuchalis, Blyth fy Wald. Birds Burin, p. 152. 

Sarcogrammus atrinuchalis, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv ? p. 152. 

Titidit, Burmese. 

Similar to S. indlcus, except that the white baud from the eye 
only extends to the ear-coverts, and the neck is black all round, 
also that there is a white bar forming a border to the black on the 
upper back ; there is also less white on the secondaries. 

Terminal half of bill black, remainder of bill, the eyelids, and 
wattles red ; irides crimson ; legs and feet pale yellow ; claws black 
(Oates), 

Length 13 ; tail 4-3 ; wins 8'5; tarsus 3 ; bill from gape 1-3. 

Distribution. Throughout Burma, extending north to Bhamoaml 
Manipur, east to Cochin China, and south to the Malayan Peninsula 
and Sumatra. 

Habits, fyc,. Similar to those of S. indicus, and the eggs are not 
distinguishable. The breeding-season is in April and May in Pegu, 
March in Tenasserim. 

Genus SARCIOPHORUS, Strickland, 1841. 

Bill more slender than in the last genus, but otherwise similar. 
Head more or less crested ; a wattle in front of the eye, large in the 
Indian species, and furnished with a descending lappet. Second 
quill longest, first nearly as long. Tarsus long, slender, with 
transverse shields in front ; no hind toe. 

The single Indian species has been unnecessarily separated as 
Lobipluvia from its African allies, S. tectus, &c., from which it only 
differs in having a shorter and less-pointed crest, and a larger and 
differently-shaped wattle. 

1433. Sarciophorus malabaricus. The Yellow-wattled Lapwing. 

Oharadrius malabaricus, Bodd. Tall. PI. Enl. p. 53 (1783). 
Charadrius bilobus, Gin. Syst. Nat. i, p. 691 (1788). 
Sarciophorus bilobus, Strickland, P.Z.S. 1841, p. 33; Blyth, Cat. 
p. 261 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 649 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, 'p. 165 ; 



SAftCIOPHORUS. 227 

Bravan, Ibis, 1808, p. 390 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 251 ; 
Hayes Lloyd, Ibis, 1873, p. 416 ; Morgan, Ibis, 1875, p. 323. 
Lobipluvia malabarica, Hume, N. 8f E. p. 577 ; Le Messurier, S, F. 
iii, p. 418 ; Sutler, S. F. iv, p. 14 ; ix, p. 427 ; Bourdillon, S. F. 
vii, p. 39 ; Sail, ibid p. 227 ; Hume, Cat. no. 856 ; Lsyf/e, Birds 
Ceyl p. 966; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 82; Parker, ibid, p, 482; Reid, 
S. F. x, p. 06 ; Davison, ibid. p. 319 ; Hume, ibid. p. 413 ; Barnes, 
Birds Bom. p. 335 j Gates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 345 ; 
Barnes, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vi, p. 23 ; Sharps, Cat. B. M. xxiy, 
p. 130. 

Zirdi, II. : Jithiri, N.W. P. ; Chitawa, Tel. ; Al-kati, Tarn. 

Coloration. Crown and nape black, bordered by a white streak 
from one eye to the other round the nape ; chin black ; sides of 
head, neck all round, upper breast, back, scapulars, tertiaries, and 
wing-coverts light brown ; the brown of the upper breast with a 
blackish border ; greater secondary coverts tipped white, forming a 
wing-bar with the bases of the secondary quills, which increase on 
the later secondaries till the whole feather is white ; primaries also 
white on inner web near the base ; rest of primaries and secondaries, 
with primary-coverts, black ; upper tail-coverts and tail-feathers 
white, the middle rect rices with a broad subterminal black band 
which diminishes rapidly and disappears on the outer feathers, the 
median pair tipped brown, and brown on the inner portion of the 
black band, the others tipped white ; lower parts from breast 
white. 

Young birds have no black on the head, and the brown of the 
upper parts is banded jaler. 

Bill yellow at base, black at the tip ; lappet pale yellow ; irides 
silvery grey or pale yellow ; legs yellow. 

Length 10-5 ; tail 3 ; wing 8 ; tarsus 2-5 ; bill from gape 1. 
Distribution. Resident throughout India and Ceylon, ranging 
east as far as Calcutta and Dacca, and west to the Sutlej. This 
species occurs occasionally in Lower Bind, but is unknown in 
Upper Sind and the Western Punjab. The reported occurrence 
of this species in Burma is probably due to a mistake *. 

Habits, $c. The Yellow-wattled Lapwing is found on dry plains 
or in thin bush away from forest, sometimes in twos or threes, 
often in flocks. It feeds on insects, and has a plaintive cry, far 
less harsh than that of the Eed-wattled Lapwing. It breeds in 
Northern India in April and May, in Ceylon in June and J.uly, 
and lays four eggs of the usual Plover type on the bare ground. 
The eggs measure about 1-45 by 1-07, and are buff or pale stone- 
colour, blotched all over with dark brown and purplish grey. 



*" * For this mistake I am responsible, as I included the species in a list of 
Burmese birds with the locality Thayet Mjo (Ibis, 1870, p. 470). Nearly all 
the specimens collected by me in Burma are in the British Museum, but there 
is no skin of 8. mahibaricus amongst them. I wrote the paper when I was 
away from the specimens, and I think there must have been some error in the 
name. 



228 CHARADBIIDJ;. 

Genus MICROSARCOPS, Sharpe, 1896. 

The present genus has been proposed for a migratory Indian 
Lapwing hitherto referred to Chettusia, from which it is distin- 
guished by its transversely shielded tarsi and by having a lappet. 
It comes near to Sarciophorus, but it possesses a small hind claw, 
and is a more stoutly-built bird. 

1434. Microsarcops cinereits. The Grey -headed Lapiviny. 

Pluvianus cinereus, Blyth, J. A. S.*B. xi, p. 587 (1842). 
Lobivanellus inornatus, Temm. $ Schl. Faun. Jap., Aves, p. 10t 

pi. 6:3 (1847). 
Lobivanellus cinereiis, BIyth, Cat. p. 261 ; Irby, Ibis, 1861, p. 238 ; 

Seebohm, Charadr. p. 183. 
Chettusia inornata, Jerdon, B. I, iii, p. 646 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. 8. II. 

xxxix, pt. 2, p. 273. 

Chaetusia cinerea, tilyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 165. 
Chettusia cinerea, Stanford, Ibis, 1870, p. 470 ; Humefy Oatcs, R. F. 

iii, p. 180 ; Blyth 8f Wald. Birds Burm. p. 152 ; Hume, S. F. \, 

p. 347 ; Hume $ Dav. 8. F. vi, p. 456; Cripps, S. F vii, p. 300: 

Hume, ibid. p. 483 ; id. Cat. no. 854 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 333 ; 

Gates, B. B. ii, p. 372 ; id. Ibis, 1888, p. 73 ; Hume, >$'. F. xi, 

p. 315. 
Microsarcops ciuereus, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv ; p. 133. 

Coloration. Head, neck, and upper breast ashy grey, slightly 
washed with brown on crown and hind neck, the grey ending 
with a broad blackish border on the breast; back, scapulars, and 
tertiaries light brown, wing-coverts the same, but paler ; primary- 
coverts and primaries black, greater secondary coverts and second- 
aries white ; rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail white, middle tail- 
feathers with a broad black subterminal band, the tips and a space 
before the black band brown, the black baud diminishes in the outer 
feathers, which are white-tipped ; outermost feathers often pure 
white ; lower plumage from breast white. 

In young birds the head and neck are brown, the cbin white, 
and there is no black band across the breast. 

Terminal third of bill black ; base of bill, lappets, and edges of 
eyelids yellow ; irides red ; legs and toes dull yellow, claws black 
(Gates). 

Length 14'5 ; tail 4'5 ; wing 9'5 ; tarsus 3 ; bill from gape 1/6. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to Bengal, Assam, Manipur, and 
Burma, passing the summer and breeding in Mongolia, IS T . China, 
Corea, and Japan. This species has been obtained in the Aixla- 
rnans. Irby reported it from Oudh, but perhaps, as Reid has 
shown, may have mistaken Chettusia leucura for it. 

Habits, <$fc. This Lapwing is usually found in small or large 
flocks about marshes. It lives on various insects, and has a call 
somewhat like that of Vanellus cristatus. 



229 

Genus HOPLOPTERUS, Bonap., 1831. 

Head crested ; no lappet. Wing armed with a long, curved, 
black spur on the bend. Second quill longest. Tarsus long and 
slender, reticulated throughout ; no hind toe. 

This genus, easily distinguished amongst Indian Plovers by its 
wing-spur, comprises two African and one Indian species. One 
of the African forms ranges to Southern Europe and Syria. 

1435. Hoploptems ventralis. The Indian Spur-winged Plover. 

Charadrius ventralis, Wagl. Syst. Av., Charadrius, no. 11 (1827). 
Hoplopterus ventralis, Blyth, Cat. p. 260 ; Irbij, Ibis, 1861, p. 237 ; 

Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 650 ; Godw.-Aust. J, A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, 

p. 273; flume, N. fy E. p. 578; Hwm $ Gates, S. F. in, p. 181 ; 

Myth fy Wald. Birds Burm. p. 153; Hume $ Dav. & jF. vi, 

p. '457; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 227; Cripps, ibid. p. 300; Anders. 

Yunnan Exped., Aves, p, 675 ; Hume, Cat, no. 857; Scully, S. F. 

viii, p. 352 ; Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 196 ; Reid, S. F. x,* p. 66 ; 

Gates, B. B. ii, p. 373 ; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 347 ; 

Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 335; Hume Cripps, S. F. xi, p. 316 ; 

tihar-pe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 159. 
Hoplopterus malabaricus, apud Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 165; Blanf. 

J. A. S. B. xl, pt. 2, p. 276 ; nee Charadrius malabaricus, Bodd. 
The Spur-winyed Lapwing, Jerdon. 

Coloration. Crown and long occipital crest, lores, sides of face 
in front of the eyes, chin, and a band extending far down the 
throat black, the black everywhere surrounded by a white border, 




Fig. 52. Wing-spur of H. ventralis. \. 

passing into greyish brown on the ear-coverts and sides of the 
neck and into light brown on the breast; back, rump, scapulars, 
tertiaries, and inner wing-coverts light brown ; outer smaller coverts 
black, separated from the black primary-coverts and black quills 
by a broad white bar formed of the outer median and the greater 
coverts, with the bases of all the quills, the white increasing on the 
secondaries and including the whole or nearly the whole of the two 
inner secondaries ; upper tail-coverts and nearly two-thirds of the 
tail from the base white, terminal third of tail black, narrow white 
tips to outer rectrices ; underparts from breast white, except a 
broad black patch on the abdomen. 

Bill black ; irides deep brown ; legs reddish black (Jerdon). 



230 

Length 12 ; tail 375 ; wing 7'75 : tarsus 2-6 ; bill from 
gape 1'3. 

Distribution. Throughout the Ganges drainage, but not 0*1 the 
Indus or its tributaries nor within the Bombay Presidency ; 
this Plover is found on the Nerbudda as far west as the neigh- 
bourhood of Jridore, throughout the Central Provinces, in Bengal 
and Orissa, and as far south as the Godavari ; also in Assam, 
Manipur, and Burma, extending to JSiarn and Southern China. 

Habits, $~c. This bird keeps to the beds of the larger rivers, and 
has a noisy call, not unlike that of Sarcogrammus indicus. It is 
generally seen singly or in pairs, selcfom in small flocks. It breeds 
in Northern India in March or early in April, and lays four eggs, 
very much like those of the Red-v\attled Lapwing, but slightly 
smaller, measuring on an average T45 by 1-07. 

Genus VANELLUS, Brisson, 1760. 

The common Lapwing of Europe and Northern Asia forms a 
genus by itself, distinguished by the long recurved crest, the 
absence of either lappet or wing-spur, and peculiar coloration, 
without any white on the wing outside. 

The bill is of the usual type in Plovers, moderate in length and 
rather slender, with a flattened culinen and slightly swollen ter- 
mination or dertrum ; the linear nostril in a groove that extends 
more than half the length of the bill. The wings are slightly 
rounded, the 2nd or 3rd primary longest. Tarsus of moderate 
length, reticulated all round ; a small hind toe. 

1436. Vanellus vulgaris. The Lapwing or Peewit. 

Tringa vanellus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 248 (1766). 

Vanellus vulgaris, Beckst. Orn. Taschenb. ii, p. 313 (1803) ; Dresser, 

B. Eur. vii, p. 545, pi. 531 ; Hume, Cat. no. 851 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 

1881, p. 94; Scully, ibid. p. 587 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 65; Barney 

Birds Bom. p, 332 ; St. John, Ibis, 1881), p. 17(3. 
Vanellus cristatus, Wolf $ Meyer, Naturg. Voy, Deutschl. i, p. 110 

(1805) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 261 ; Irby, Ibis, 1861, p. 238 ; Jertloti, 

B. 1. iii, p. 643; Stoliczka, J. A. 8. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 70; 

Hume $ Henders. Lali. to Yark. p. 286; Hume, ti. F. i, p. 231 ; 

Adam, ibid. p. 394 ; Butler, S. F. vii, p. 186 ; C. H. T. Marshall, 

Ibis, 1884, p. 423 ; Seebohm, Charadr. p. 210. 
Vanellus vanellus, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 166. 

Coloration. In winter the crown is dark brown, passing into black 
on the crest ; sides of face and supercilia, sides of neck, chin, throat, 
and fore neck white, tinged with buff and more or less speckled 
and blotched with blackish ; back, rump, and tertiaries glossy 
olive-green, some of the feathers generally with fulvous edges ; 
scapulars brighter green, passing at their tips into bronze-red and 
lilac ; wing-coverts darker and bluer than back ; primaries and 
secondaries black or blackish, the tips of the first 4 or 5 primaries 
whitish, passing into ashy brown, bases of the secondaries white ; 
upper tail-coverts cinnamon ; tail white for more than the basal 



CHETTUS1A. 231 

half, then black, with narrow white tips ; upper breast black ; 
lower breast, abdomen, axillaries, and inner under wing-coverts 
white ; lower tail-coverts pale dull rufous. 

In spring the fulvous edges on the upper plumage disappear, 
and the crown, sides of face in front of the eye, and a patch be- 
neath the eye, with the chin, throat, fore neck, and upper breast, 
become black. 

Bill black ; irides hazel-brown ; legs orange-brown (Jerdon). 

Length 12 ; tail 4*1 ; wing 8'75 ; tarsus 2 ; bill from gape 1'2. 

Distribution. Throughout Europe and temperate Asia ; a winter 
visitor to both coasts of the Mediterranean, to many parts of 
South-western Asia, and to North-western India. The Lapwing 
occurs in winter in Gilgit, Kashmir, the Punjab, and as far east 
as Oudh, and throughout Bind, where however it is not common. 
It has been said to breed in the Punjab, but the accuracy of the 
statement is doubtful. 

Habits, fyc. The common Lapwing is a highly gregarious bird, 
collecting in winter in large flocks, which are chiefly found about 
marshy ground, and which feed in fields or meadows. It lives 
chiefly on worms, and on insects and their larvae, and is eatable in 
the cold season, though far inferior to Golden Plover. Its call 
of Pee-wit is well known, and also its habit of tumbling about in 
the air. The eggs are the well-known 4t Plover's eggs." 



Genus CHETTUSIA, Bonap., 1839. 

Two Indian migratory Plovers, though differing somewhat in 
pattern of coloration, and slightly in structure, are sufficiently 
nearly allied to be classed in one genus. They have been separated 
by Sharpe, but the new generic name proposed by him for C. leu- 
eura cannot be used, as it belongs to a well-known genus of fossil 
Crustacea. 

The present genus differs from Vandlus in wanting a crest, 
and in having much white on the wings inside and out. The 
tarsi are longer, but the two species differ in this respect, and also 
in the style of reticulation, C. leucura being almost scutellated. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Some black on the tail ; a broad white supercilium. C. gregaria, p. 231. 

b. Tail entirely white ; no superciliu in. C. leuciira, p. 233. 

1437. Chettusia gregaria. The Sociable Lapwing. 

Charadrius gregarius, Pall. Reis. Russ. Reicks, i, p. 456 (1771). 
Chettusia gregaria, Bonap. Iconogr. Faun. Ital., Introd. Cl. Ucc. p. 12 ; 

Irby, Ibis, 1861, p. 238 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 644 ; Bla*f. J. A. S. B. 

xxxviiL pt. 2, p. 190 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 250 ; 

-rr * -wi ,"*f-i A -i ! f c\f\ A TT T 7 - _7 TL.'~ 1O^7O 

Jiume, 
p. 416; 
Wend. 




232 



Biddulph. Ibis, 1881, p. 95 ; Scully, Unl. p. 587 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 65 ; 

Davidson, ibid. p. 319 ; Barnes, '.Birds Bom. p. 332. 
Vanellus gregarius, Blyth, Cat. p. 339 ; Seebohm, Charadr. p. 211. 
Chfttusia gregaria, Sharpe, Cat. B, M. xxiv, p. 174. 
The Black-sided Lapwing, Jerdon. 




Fig. 53. Head of C. gregaria. %. 

Coloration. Crown black ; forehead and broad supercilia, extend- 
ing entirely round the crown, white; lores, orbits, arid a narrow 
line extending to the ear-coverts black ; chin white, passing into buff 
on the throat and the sides of the face, and this passing into the 
light ashy brown of the neck, breast, back, scapulars, tertiaries, 
and most of the wing-coverts ; lower back rather darker ; greater 
secondary coverts grey at base and tipped white, secondaries pure 
white ; primary coverts black, primaries the same except at their 
bases and on the inner border of the last primary, which are white; 
upper tail-coverts and greater part of tail white ; a broad sub- 
terminal black band on median rectrices, becoming narrower on 
the other tail-feathers and disappearing on the outermost pair ; 
the greyish-brown breast passes into the black abdomen, bordered 
with chestnut behind; thigh-coverts, vent and lower tail-coverts, 
flanks and wing-lining white. 

In youny birds (or, according to some, in winter plumage) the 
crown is dark brown generally mixed with black ; forehead and 
superciliary band buff ; upper parts darker than in adults and the 
feathers pale-edged ; the black line from the lores and the black 
and chestnut of the abdomen are wanting, and the lower parts are 
white except the breast, which is mottled brown. Most Indian 
specimens are in this plumage, but the adult phase appears to be 
sometimes met with even in the cold season. 

Bill black ; irides dark brown ; legs dull black. 

Length 13 ; tail 3'4; wing 8 ; tarsus 2'4 ; bill from gape 1 % 2. 

Distribution. A migratory bird, breeding in Eastern Europe 
arid Central Asia, and visiting North-eastern Africa and North- 
western India in winter. In India it is common in parts of the 
Punjab, and ranges east to Ondh and Buudelkhand, and south to the 
Deccan (Nagpur, Jalna, Ahmednagar) and even E-atnagiri. 

Habits, $c. The Sociable Lapwing occurs in flocks from 4 or 5 
to 50 or 60 in number, that keep to open country, arrive in 
AV^.N. India in the beginning of October and leave about March. 



CIIARADRIUS. 233 



1438. Chettusia leucura. The White-tailed Lapwing. 

Charadrius leiicurus, Licht. in Eversman's Reise v. Orenb. nach 

Buchara. p. 137 (182.3). 
Vaneilus vi'llotaei, Kav. Descr. Eyypte, pi. vi, tig. 2 ; Audown, Expl. 

Som. p. 21)7 (1826). 

Vanellus fiavipes, Less. Traite, p. 542 (1831). 
Vaneilus leucurus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 387 ; Seebohm, Charadr. 

p. 213. 

Lobivanellus leucuru?, Blyth, Cat. p. 261. 
Chettusia leucura, Jerdon, B. I. ii'i, p. 646 ; Swinhoc, /&>, 1882, 

p. 120 ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 17(5. 
Chettuda flavipes, Hume, S. F. i, p. 232 ; Adam, ibid. p. 394 ; 

Butler, S. F. iv, p. 13 ; v, p. 232. 
Chettusia villotaei, Blanf. East. Pers. ii, p. 280 ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 853 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 65 ; Davidson, ibid. p. 319 ; Swinh. 

# /jW/^*, ZAw, 1885, p. 132 ; #mes, Birds Bom. p. 333. 
Eurypterus leuciirus, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv. p. 171. 

Coloration. Head and upper parts brown, with a pink gloss on 
the back and wings ; fort- head and lores whitish ; sides of head 
and neck slightly paler than crown ; a black bar across the median 
coverts and inner greater coverts, the tips of the barred coverts 
whire ; outer greater secondary coverts and secondary quills white ; 
the outer secondaries with large black spots at the end ; primaries 
and primary coverts black, both white towards the base : sides of 
back, upper tail-coverts, and tail white ; chin and throat white ; 
fore neck brown, passing into ashy grey on the breast ; abdomen 
rosy buff ; vent, under tail-coverts, axillaries, and wing-lining 
white. 

In young birds the pink gloss on the back is wanting, and the 
tail-feathers have brownish tips. 

Bill black ; irides brownish red ; legs pale yellow (Jerdon). 

Length of female 1 1 ; tail 3 ; wing 7 ; tarsus 3 ; bill from 
gape 1-4. 

Distribution. This Lapwing breeds in Persia and Turkestan, and 
visits N.E. Africa on one hand, and Northern India on the other, 
in winter. It is common in suitable parts of the Punjab, Upper 
Sind, and Eajputana, and ranges throughout Northern India, 
having been recorded from Calcutta, Sikhim, and Khandesh. 

Habits, Jj-c. The White-tailed Lapwing occurs in small flocks or 
singly near swamps and tanks. 



Genus CHARADRIUS, Linn., 1766. 

Bill slender and rather short, the dertrnm slightly swollen and 
rounded ; nostril linear, in a groove that extends about two-thirds 
the length of the bill. "Wings pointed, 1st quill longest; second^- 
aries short ; tertiaries lengthened and pointed. Tail moderate, 
rounded. Tarsi reticulated throughout with hexagonal scales ; 
no hind toe ; outer and middle toes connected by a short web at 



234 

the base. A distinct breeding-plumage, the whole under surface 
becoming black. Sexes alike. 
The restricted genus contains two species, both Indian. 

a. Axillaries greyish brown C. fulvus, p. 234. 

b. Axillaries pure white C. pluvialis, p. 235. 

1439. Charadrius fulvus. The Eastern Golden Plover. 

Charadrius fulvus, Gm. Syst. Nat. i, p. 687 (1788) ; Hume, S. F. 

i, p. 228; ii, p. 287; iii, p. 179; Blyth 8f Wald. Birds Bu.-m. 

p. 153 ; Butler $ Hume, S. F. iv, p* 11 ; Hume, ibid. p. 463 ; Blanf. 

S. F. v, p. 247; Anders. Yunnan Eocped., Aves, p. 675 ; Hume Sf 

Dav. S. F. vi, p. 455 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 226 ; Cripps, ibid. p. 299 ; 

Hume, ibid. p. 482 ; id. Cat. no. 845 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 350 

Leqge, Birds Ceyl. p. 934 ; Tidal, S. F. ix, p. 79 ; Bint/ham, ibid. 

p. 396 ; Butler, ibid. p. 425 ; Parker, ibid. p. 482 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, 

p. 586; lleid, S. F. x, p. 64; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 364; Barnes, 

Birds Bom. p. 328 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 313 ; Seebohm, Charadr. 

p. 99 ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 175. 
Charadrius dominicus, P. L. S. Mull. Natursyst. Sup2)l. p. 116 

(1789?) ; Sharpy Cat. B. M ; xxiv, p. 195. 
Charadrius virginicus, Licht. Terz. Doubl. p. 70 (1823) ; Blyth. Cat. 

p. 262. 
Charadrius longipes, Temm. MS., Jerdon. B. I. iii, p. 636; McM aster, 

J. A. S. B. xl, pt. 2, p. 215; Blanf. ibid. p. 269; Hume $ 

Henders. Lah. to Yark. p. 284. 

The Golden Plover, Jerdon ; Chata battan, II. ; Kotan, Tarn. (Ceylon) ; 
Hana watuwa, Oliya, Maha oliya, Cing. 

Coloration. In winter plumage the crown and upper parts are 
dark brown, sometimes almost black, the feathers edged with 
yellow spots, which become whitish or white on the wing-coverts ; 
forehead and supercilia sullied white ; sides of head and neck 
fulvous streaked with brown, ear-coverts brown; primary coverts 
and primary and secondary quills dark brown, more or less tipped 
with white, the inner primary coverts more broadly, distal halves of 
shafts of primaries white except at the ends j tail dark brown, the 
feathers sometimes distinctly pale- banded, more often indistinctly, 
but generally with a margin of white or yellow spots ; sometimes 
the lower parts are dull brown throughout, darker and streaked on 
the breast and banded on the flanks ; more often the chin, throat, 
lower breast, and abdomen are white ; the under wing-coverts and 
axillaries always greyish brown. 

In breeding-plumage assumed partly by moult, partly by 
change of colour all the lower parts are black except the 
wing-lining and axillaries, which remain brown ; the upper 
parts are blacker than in winter, and the yellow spots larger and 
brighter ; the forehead, supercilia, and a band from each side of 
the neck bounding the black area pure white. 

Bill black ; irides dark brown ; feet plumbeous black (Scully}. 

Length 9-5; tail 2'4 ; wing 6'5 ; tarsus T7; bill from gape 
1-1. 



SQUATAROLA. 235 

Distribution. This Golden Plover breeds in Siberia and the 
Boreal regions of America, and in winter visits Southern Asia, the 
Malay Archipelago, Australia, and the greater part of America 
north and south. The American variety is larger than the Asiatic, 
but there is no constant distinction. The Asiatic form is found 
in suitable places throughout the plains of India, Ceylon, and 
Burma, but avoids forest regions aud highlands ; it is rare in Sind, 
and only stragglers occur further west. It is common at the 
Andamans and ]S r icobars and also on the Laccadives, and is more 
abundant on flat swampy land near the coas.t and the larger rivers 
than elsewhere. 

Habits, $c. Golden Plovers are generally found in flocks, small 
or large, and feed on worms and insects. They have a rapid 
flight and a peculiar bisyllabic whistling call, not often uttered by 
the present species. Although Jerdon says that they breed in 
India, this is very doubtful : they arrive about September, and 
stay till the middle of May, when all have assumed full breeding- 
dress, but hitherto no one has detected them actually nesting. 
The hen lays four largish stone-coloured eggs, much blotched with 
blackish. This bird is excellent eating, though scarcely equal to 
0. pluvialis. 

1440. Charadrius pluvialis. The Golden leaver. 

Charadrius pluvialis, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 254(1766); Blanford, 
Eastern Persia, ii, p. 278 ; id. S. F. v, p. 247 ; Hume, Cat. 
no. 845 bis ; Brooks, S. F. viii, p. 4&D ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 452 ; 
Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 328 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 191. 

The European Golden Plover is distinguished from C. dominions 
by larger size, tibia3 feathered farther down, shorter tarsi, and by 
the axillaries and wing-lining being pure white instead of greyish 
brown. As a rule, in winter plumage this Golden Plover is more 
closely spotted and the spots are brighter yellow; but there is no 
constant distinction. Even in size the large American C. do- 
minicus is scarcely separable. 

Length 10-5 ; tail 2'8 ; wing 7'25; tarsus 1-6. 

Distribution. Europe, Northern and Tropical Africa, and Western 
Asia, breeding in the Northern Temperate zone and farther north- 
ward, and migrating south in winter. Stragglers only have 
occurred within Indian limits. I shot one at Gwadar in Baluch- 
istan in January 1872, I believe I saw another in 1876 close 
to Karachi, and a third was shot near Sehwan by Mr. Brooks a 
year or two later. A skin was also in Mr. Reid's collection made 
at Luckuow. The habits resemble those of C. fulvus, but the call 
is shriller. 

Genus SdUATAROLA, Leach, 1816. 

This genus, containing only the Grey Plover, precisely agrees 
with Charadrius in general coloration and structure, and only 
differs in having a minute hind toe. It undergoes precisely 



236 

similar changes of plumnge in summer and winter. The distinc- 
tion, which is accepted by almost all ornithologists, shows in fact 
how artificial many of the bird genera are. 

1441. Squatarola helvetica. The Grey Plover. 

Tringa helvetica, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 250 (1766). 

Squatarola helvetica, Blytn, Cat. p. 2(52 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 635 ; 
Jlitme, S. F. i, p. 228 ; ii, p. 287 ; Adam, S. F. ii, p. 338 ; Walden, 
Ibis, 1874, p. 146; Blyth fy Wald, Birds Burm. p. 153; Hume, 
S, F. iv, p. 11 ; Armstrong, ibid. p. 338 ; Blanf. East. Persia, ii, 




Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 327 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 182. 
Barra batan, H. 

Coloration. In winter the upper plumage of adults is dark brown, 
the feathers edged paler ; forehead, lores, and sides of head and neck 
white streaked with brown ; wing-coverts fringed and indented 
with white ; primary-coverts, primaries, and secondaries blackish 
brown, terminal half of shafts of primaries white except near the tip, 
and the adjoining portion of the outer web white in all quills after 
the first four, part of inner web in all quills white towards base ; 
upper tail-coverts white, with a few dark bars ; tail white, barred 
with dark brown, outer pair of rectrices generally unbarred ; lower 
parts white, fore neck and breast streaked and spotted with dark 
brown ; axillaries black. 

In summer the lower parts, from the chin to the middle of the 
abdomen, are black ; upper parts black, barred and spotted with 
white ; lower abdomen and under tail-coverts white. 

Young birds are spotted with pale golden-buff above. 

Bill black; irides dusky brown; legs and feet blackish grey 
(Jerdon) ; feet black (Armstrong). 

Length 12 ; tail 2-9 ; wing 8 ; tarsus 1*8 ; bill from gape 1'4. 

Distribution. Almost world-wide. The Grey Plover breeds in 
the far North and is a winter visitor to India, Ceylon, and Burma, 
chiefly occurring on and near sea-coasts, but sometimes inland 
about rivers and marshes. 

J/'tbits, <S)'c. Very "similar to those of Charadrius fulvus and 
C.pluvia-lis, except that the Grey Plover is more a bird of the sea- 
coast. 

Genus JEGIALITIS, Boie, 1822. 

It appears best to class together the Sand-Plovers, Dotterels, 
and Ringed Plovers. At first sight the Sand-Plovers and Dotterels 
appear to be distinguished by having a breeding- dress different 
from the winter plumage ; but there is so complete a passage from 
forms with a distinct nuptial garb to those which have none, 
through species like the Kentish Plover in which the change 
is slight, that it appears best to keep all in one genus. 



JEGIAL1T1S. 237 

Structurally there is no difference between the present genus 
and Charadrius. Like that genus, jEyialitis is 3-toed, with 
reticulated tarsi and the first quill longest. The only distinction, 
except in size (all members of the present genus baing smaller), is 
in plumage. The species of ^Ejlalitis have the upper plumage 
uniform brown, not spangled with yellow or white, and the lower 
parts are chiefly white in the breeding-season, the amount of 
black never exceeding a 'pectoral band. 

Key to the Species. 

a. No white ring round the neck. 

a'. Bill stout; shaft cf third primary partly 

white. 
a". Bill from gape more than an inch ; 

wing- 5'5 JE. geoffroui, p. 237. 

b". Bill from gape about 0'7o; wing 5 . . &. moityohca, p. '238. 
b'. Bill slender ; shaft of third primary dark 
throughout. 

c" . Axillaries white ; whig 5'5 A. asiatica, p. 239. 

d". Axillaries light brown ; wing 6-5 .... ^E. veredu, p. 240. 

b. A white ring round neck. 

c. No black or brown band across breast . . jE. alexandrina, p. 240. 
d'. A black or brown band across breast. 
&'. Shaft of 1st primary white throughout, 

of others dark ; wing 4 to 4'5 JE. dubia, p. 241. 

/''. Shafts of all primaries white near end ; 

wing 5 Ail. hiaticula, p. 243. 

y". Shafts of all primaries dark, or that of 

1st whitish near end ; wing 5'5 Ai.. placida, p. 244. 

1442. JEjialitis geoffroyi. The Large Sand-Plover. 

Charadrius geoffroyi, Wagl. Sy*t. Av., Charadrius, no. 19 (1827) ; 

Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 180 ; id. Ibis, 1865, p. 34 ; Seebohm, 

Charadr. p. 146. 

Charadrius leschenaulti, Lesson, Man. d'Orn. ii, p. 322 (1828). 
Hiaticula geoffroyi, Blyth, Cat. p. 262. 
^Egialitis geoffroyi, Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 638 ; Hartiny, Ibis, 1870, 

p. 378, pi. xi ; Ball. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 288 ; Walden, Ibis, 

1873, p. 316; Legge, S. F. i, p. 489; Armstrong, S. F. iv, p. 339 ; 

Hume, ibid. p. 463 ; Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, p. 4-55 ; Ball, S. F. vii, 

p. 226 ; Hume, Cat. no. 846 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 81 : Butler, ibid. 

p. 426 ; Leffffe, Birds Ceyl. p. 939 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 366 : Barnes, 

Birds Bom. p. 329. 
^Egialitis lescheuaultii, Godiv.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix. pt. 2, 

p. 273. 
Cirrepidesmus peoflfroyi, Hume, S. F. i, p. 229; ii, p. 288; Adam, 

S. F. ii, p. 338 ; Butler, S. F. iv. p. 12. 
Ochthodromus geoffroyi, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 217. 

Coloration. In winter plumage the forehead and supercilia are 
white, a band from the lores under the eye to the ear-coverts 
brown ; the whole upper plumage brown, the feathers slightly 
paler towards the edges and with traces of dark shaft-stripes; 



238 

greater wing-coverts tipped with white ; primary-coverts, pri- 
maries, and secondaries dark brown, shafts of first primary white 
except at the tip, of other primaries for a short distance near the 
end ; in the inner primaries part of the outer web is white ; 
secondaries tipped white and with white along the shafts ; lateral 
tail-coverts with white edges ; tail-feathers brown with white tips, 
outermost pair almost entirely white ; lower parts, with axillaries 
and under wing-coverts, white ; a brown band across the breast, 
generally but not always interrupted in the middle. 

In summer the upper plumage is paler brown, and tinged with 
rufous ; no pale supercilia ; fore head* black, enclosing an elongate 
white spot at each side, the two sometimes united across, but 
varying much ; lores themselves and a large space below the eye, 
from which a streak runs back to the upper ear- coverts, black ; 
crown, hind neck, sides of neck, and a broad band across the 
upper breast dull rufous. 

Bill black ; irides brown ; tibiae and feet slate-bluish or 
plumbeous, paling to yellowish olive or in some to fleshy-grey 
(Legge) ; legs greyish green, toes darker (Jerdon). 

Length 8*5 ; tail 2-2 ; wing 5'5 ; tarsus 1/5 ; bill from gape 1/1. 

Distribution. A migratory bird, breeding in Japan, Formosa, and 
Hainan, and perhaps on the Red Sea, and spending the winter on 
the shores of the Indian Ocean from South Africa to Australia. 
It is found in winter, though not very abundantly, on the sea- 
coasts of India, Ceylon, and Burma. 

Habits, fyc. The Large Sand-Plover haunts sandy coasts and the 
mouths of large rivers in small parties, often mixed with other 
Sarid-Piovers. It appears on the Indian coasts about September, 
and leaves in April or May, by which time it has assumed the 
breeding dress. 



1443. JEgialitis mongolica. The Lesser Sand-Plover. 

Charadrius mongolus, Pall. Reis. Russ. Reichs, iii, p. 700 (1776). 
Charadrius mongolicus, Pall. Zooyr. Rosso-Asiat. ii, p. 136; See- 

bohm, Charadr. p. 147. 

Charadrius pyrrhothorax, Temm., Gould, B. Eur. iv, pi. 299 (1837). 
Charadrius leschenaultii. upud Blyth, J.A. S. B. xii, p. 181 ; Adams, 

P. Z. S. 1859, p. 188 ; nee Lesson. 
Hiaticula leschenaultii, Blyth, Cat. p. 263. 
yEgialitis pyrrhothorax, Jerdon, B. 1. iii, p. 639. 
^Egialites mongolicus, Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 164 ; Hartinfj, Ibis, 1870, 

p. 384 ; Hume $ Henders. Lah. to Yark. p. 285 ; Hume, S. F. iv, 

pp. 293, 463; Armstrong, ibid. p. 339; Sharpe, Yark. Miss.. Aves, 

p. 137. 

Cirrepidesmus mongolicus, Hume, S. F. \, p. 230 ; ii, p. 289 ; iv,p. 12. 
yEgialitis mongolica, Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 153 ; Legye, Birds Ceyl. 

p. 943 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 368 : Hume, S. F. xi, p. 314. 
yEp-ialitis mougola, Walden, Ibis, 1873, p. 317 ; Hume 8f Dav. S. F. 

^i, p. 455; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 227; Cr'pps, ibid. p. 299; Hume, 

tat. no. 847 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 81 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 330. 



JF.GIALITI8. 239 

Ochthodromus mongolus & 0. pyrrhothorax, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, 
pp. 223, 220. 

Similar to JE. geojfroyi in both summer and winter plumage, but 
smaller, with a much shorter bill. As a rule, in the present species 
the upper surface in winter is darker ; in the breeding-plumage 
the black band is broader over the ear-coverts, but there is some 
variation ; the upper plumage appears to want the tinge of rufous 
so conspicuous in ^E. geoffroyi. By several naturalists this Sand- 
Plover is divided into two species or subspecies an Eastern race 
(sE. mongolica), with the pectoral gorget chestnut and bordered 
anteriorly by black specks forming an imperfect baud, and with a 
broad white frontal band only interrupted in the middle ; and 
a Western race (^. pyrrhoihorax), which visits India, and has the 
pectoral gorget duller red, and but little white, at times perhaps 
none, in the broad black frontal band. The differences appear to 
me not more than subspecific, and I am doubtful whether they are 
constant; whilst the two forms are quite undistinguishable in 
winter garb. 

Soft parts as in JE. geoffroyi. 

Length 7*5 ; tail 2 ; wing 5 ; tarsus 1-2 ; bill from gape '75. 

Distribution. The Lesser Sand- Plover passes the summer in 
Central and ]N"orthern Asia, Japan, and Alaska, and has been 
found breeding in the Upper Indus valley ; in winter it visits the 
shores of the Indian Ocean from Africa to Queensland. It is 
common on the Indian coasts from September to May, often 
consorting with geoffroyi* which is rarer. The present species 
is more often found inland, especially at times of migration. 
Before leaving in May, most of the birds assume the nuptial 
livery. A few individuals, both of this and of the last species, 
remain in India throughout the year, but do not breed so far as 
is known. Hume, however, received skins, apparently of nestlings, 
shot in the Andamans in May, July, and September. 

Habits, $c. Similar to those of JE. geoffroyi. This bird has been 
found breeding around the Tso-Morari and other Tibetan lakes. 
The eggs resemble those of other Plovers in colour and shape. 

1444. .ZEgialitis asiatica. The Caspian Sand-Plover. 

Charadrius asiaticus, Fall. Reis. Russ. Reichs, ii, p. 715 (1773) ; 

Seebohm, Charadr. p. 144. 

Eudromias asiaticus, Harting, Ibis, 1870, p. 202, pi. v. 
,/Egialitis asiatica, Hume, S. F. vii, p. 438 ; id. Cat. no. 845 quat. ; 

id. S. F. ix, p. 79 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 329. 
Ochthodromus asiaticus, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 230. 

Coloration. In winter plumage the upper parts are brown ; 
forehead, supercilia, lores, checks, chin, and throat buffy white ; 
area behind eye and ear-coverts light brown ; primary-coverts, 
primaries, and secondaries blackish brown, a little white on the 
outer webs of a few inner primaries near the base ; shafts of 1st 
primary and of subterminal portion of 2nd white, of the 3rd dark 



240 

throughout ; tail-feathers brown, darker near the end and tipped 
white (the dark subtermiual band is more distinct in summer 
plumage) ; fore neck and breast brown ; lower breast and abdomen 
white ; wing-lining brown and white mixed ; axillaries white. 

In summer plumage the fore neck and upper breast are chestnut, 
passing into blackish on the lower border. 

Young birds have dull rufous edges to the upper plumage. 

Bill black ; iris dusky hazel ; feet greenish olive (Emm Pacha). 

Length 7*5 ; tail 2 ; wing 5'5 ; tarsus 1*6 ; bill from gape '9. 

Distribution. This Sand-Plover breeds on the Caspian and Aral 
Seas and in Central Asia, and pass^ the winter in Africa, as far 
south as Cape Colony. It is also found in the Persian Gulf. 
The only specimen yet recorded in India was shot by Viclal near 
Eatnagiri. The present species is an inhabitant of sandy plains as 
much as of sea-coasts, or may even prefer the former. 

1445. JEgialitis vereda. The Eastern Dotterel. 

Charadrius veredus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1848, p. 38 j Seebohm, Charadr. 

p. 116. 
Eudromias veredus, Hat-tint/, 7/>/.s. 1870, p. 209, pi. vi ; Ball, 

J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 288 ; id. S. F. i, p. 83 ; Hume, S. F. ii, 

p. 288 ; id. Cat. no. 845 ter. 
Ochthodromus veredus, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 232. 

This Plover is much like JE. asiatica, but is larger, with less 
distinct supercilia and with the hind neck always paler than the 
crown or back ; the whole wing-lining and axillaries are light 
brown. 

In summer plumage the whole head and neck except the occiput 
and nape, which remain brown, become white ; this passes into 
rufons on the fore neck, and this again into chestnut on the 
breast and sides of the breast, there being again a passage from, 
the chestnut into the black band that terminates it posteriorly ; 
lower breast and abdomen white. 

In young birds there are rufous fringes to the upper plumage 
and dark centres to the brown feathers of the breast. 

Bill deep olive-brown ; legs light brownish flesh-colour ; feet 
washed with grey, blackish on joints (Swinhoe). 

Length 9*5; tail 2*4; wing6'5; tarsus 1*8 ; bill from gape 1-05. 

Distribution. This species breeds in Northern China and Mon- 
golia, and spends the winter in the Malay Peninsula and Australia. 
A solitary specimen was obtained at the Andamans by Dr. G. E. 
Dobson in 1872, and identified by Ball. 

1446. jEgialitis alexandrina. The Kentish Plover. 

Charadrius alexandrinus, Linn. Si/st. Nat. i, p. 253 (1766). 
Charadrius cantianus, Lath. Ind. Om. Suppl. p. Ixvi (1801) ; Seebohm, 

Charadr. p. 168. 

Hiaticula cantiana, Blyth, Cat. p. 263. 
jEgialitis cantianus, Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 640 ; Armstrong, S. F. iv, 

p. 340 ; Hume, ibid. p. 464 ; Butler. S. F. v, p. 290 ; Hume $ Dnr. 

S. F. vi, p. 456 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 227 ; id. Cat. no. 848 ; Vidal, 



^GIALITIS. 241 

S. F. ix, p. 81 ; Butler, ibid p. 426 ; Let/ye, Birds Cei/L p. 947 ; 

Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 94, 1882, p. 287; Reid, S. P. x, p. 65; 

Gates, B. B. ii, p. 368 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 330 ; id. Jour. 

Bom. N. H. Soc. ii, p. 167 ; vi, p, 21 ; Gate* in Hume's N. Sr E. 

2nd ed. iii, p. 337 ; Bulkley, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. viii, p. 325. 
yEgialophilus caiitianus, Hume, N. fy E. p. 571 ; id. S. F. i, p. 230 ; 

Adam, S. F. i, p. 394; Hume, S. f. iv, p. 12. 
JEgialitis alexandrina, Blyth 8f Wald. Birds Burin, p. 154 j Sharpe, 

Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 275. 

Coloration. In winter the forehead, supercilia, a ring round the 
neck, and the lower parts, including wing-lining and axillaries, 
are white : crown, a streak from the lores including the orbit 
and ear-coverts, but widest beneath the eye, a partial collar widely 
interrupted in front on the upper breast, and all the upper parts 
from the neck brown ; primaries blackish, the first with the shaft 
white throughout, the others with part of the shaft white some 
distance from the tip ; a patch in the middle of the outer web in 
the inner primaries, and all tips and borders of secondaries, white ; 
the four middle rectrices blackish brown, next pair with tips and 
outer webs white, the two outer pairs white throughout. 

In breeding-plumage the crown is more or less changed to pale 
rusty red, above the frontal white band is a broad black sinciput, 
the band from the lores beneath the eye also black, and so is a 
large patch on each side of the upper breast. 

Bill black ; irides brown ; bill dusky grey or blackish (Jerdori). 

Length 6-5 ; tail 1*9 ; wing 4*25 ; tarsus 1-1 ; bill from gape *8. 

Distribution. Europe, Africa, the greater part of Asia and 
Australia. Chiefly a winter visitor to India, occurring throughout 
the Empire ; a few birds remaining to breed in particular localities. 

Habits, $c. This Plover resembles the Sand-Plovers in habits, 
and, like them, is chiefly found on the sea-coast, though a few 
birds are occasionally seen inland. It has been found breeding 
by Legge near Hambanthota, Trincomati, and other places in. 
Ceylon in June aud July ; by Butler at Jashk, on the Makran 
coast, in May ; by Mr. Gumming in April and May near Karachi ; 
and by Mr. H. Bulkley at Kharaghora, in Guzerat, early in 
August. The eggs are normally four in number, of the usual shape 
and colour, but more scratchily blotched than usual. Ceylon eggs 
measured about 1'16 by *87. 

1447. JEgialitis dubia. The Little Ringed Plover. 

Charadrius dubius, Scop. Del. Faun, et Flor. Insubr. ii, p. 93 (1786). 
Charadrius curonicus, Gm. Syst. Nat. i, p. 692 (1788). 
Charadrius philippinus, Lath. Ind. Orn.ii, p. 745 (1790). 
Charadrius minor, Wolf fy Meyer, Natury. Vdg. Deutschl. p. 182 

(1805); Seebohm, Charadr. p. 130. 
Charadrius fluviatilis, Bechst. Nature/. Deutschl. ed. 2, iv, p. 322 

(1809). 

Charadrius minutus, Pall. Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat. ii, p. 145 (1811). 
Charadrius pusillus, Horsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 187 (1821). 
Hiaticula philippina & H. pusilla, Blyth, Cat. pp. 263, 264. 
YOL. IV. B 



242 CIIATlADRIID.f:. 

^Egialitis philippengi?, Jerdon, B. /. iii, p. 640 ; Biddulph, H)is, 

1881, p. 94. 
./Egialitis niinutus, Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 6-H ; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, 

p. 164: Bear an, Ibis, 1868, p. 389 ; Z^/f, S. F. iii, p. 372 ; Hume 

fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 45(3 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 227 ; Cripps, ibid. 

p. 300 ; Hume, Cat no. 850 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 331 ; id. 

Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. i, p. 57 j vi, p. 22; Littledale, Jour. Bom. 

N. H. Soc, i, p. 200. 
yEgialitis fluviatilis, Hume, N. $ E. p. 572 ; id. S. F. i, p. 230 ; 

Adam, ibid. p. 394 ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 289. 
^gialitis curonica, Wald. Ibis, 1873, p. 316 ; Ball, S. F. ii, p. 429 ; 

Butler, S. F. iv, p. 12; Armstrong, ibid. p. 340 ; Butler, S. F. v, 

p. 232; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 456; Ley ye. Birds Ceyl. 

p. 952 ; Scully Ibis, 1881, p. 587. 
yEgialitis philippinus, Hume, S. F. iii, p. 179. 
^gialitis dubia, Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 153 ; Ball, S. F. 




Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 330 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 315 ; Dates in 
Hume's N. # E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 338 ; Sharpc, Cat. B. M. xxiv, 
p.2T 




, p. 27 ; 
E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 340. 

The Indian Ringed Plover, Tie Lesser Ringed Plover, Jerdon ; 
/irrea, II. : Bt/fu ulanka, Rewa, Tel. 




Fig. 54. Head of M. dubia. \. 

Coloration. A white frontal band, surrounded by the black 
base of tbe forehead, broad sincipital band, lores, and a band from 
them chiefly beneath the eye, but including the orbit- and the ear- 
coverts, all black; occiput and nape brown, separated from the 
black sincipital area by a pale line, and by a broader white streak 
from the orbital band ; chin, throat, and a broad collar all round 
the neck white, followed by a black collar all round the base of 
the neck, broader in front ; upper parts from the neck brown ; 
quills dark brown ; first primiares blackish, secondaries and later 
primaries tipped white ; shaft of first primary white almost 
throughout, of all others dark; tail brown, darker towards the 
end ; all feathers, except the middle pair, tipped white, the white 
tips increasing in size and extending along the outer webs in the 



JEGIA.LITIS. 243 

outer rect rices ; lower parts from neck, including wing-lining, 
pure white. 

Young birds want the black marks on the head and nape. 
The black is replaced by brown and the white by buff. 

Bill black, yellowish at base ; irides deep brown ; orbits yellow ; 
legs yellow (Jerdon). Legs dusky greenish brown in winter, 
yellow in summer (Gates). 

Length 6-5 ; tail 2'35 ; wing 4*5 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape '6. 

Many Indian ornithologists are of opinion that there are two 
species of Ringed Plover throughout India, the smaller (dE. minuta 
v. jerdoni) distinguished by smaller size (wing 4, tarsus -8), by 
having more yellow at the base of the bill, and a more pro- 
minent and broader naked yellow ring round the eye. The 
colours of the legs, too, are said to differ. The smaller form is 
said to breed in India, while the larger bird is a cold weather 
visitor. I have never been able to distinguish the two forms in 
India, and I find Dr. Sharpe unites them. There is unquestionably 
much variation ; and I think it probable that many of the birds 
occurring in India in the cold season are migrants, and that, as 
with so many birds, the southern residents run smaller than the 
birds that breed farther north. 

Distribution. All Europe and Asia, with North Africa. 
Generally distributed throughout the Indian Empire. 

Habits, fyc. The Little Ringed Plover is most common in the 
beds of streams and rivers, where it keeps in small scattered 
flocks, each bird running about independently in search of insects, 
but all collecting to fly away when alarmed. Occasionally these 
little Plovers are seen in sandy plains or fields. They have a 
plaintive monosyllabic whistle. Many of those found in India are 
probably migrants and breed in the north, but numbers breed in 
India, from December to May in the Deccan, and probably else- 
where, and lay four eggs of the usual type, thinly speckled, and 
measuring 1*14 by *84. 

1448. JEgialitis hiaticula. The Ringed Plover. 

Charadrius hiaticula, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 253 (1766) ; Seebohm, 

Charadr. p. 125. 
JEgialitis hiaticula, Hume, S. F. viii, p. 197 ; Scully, Ibis. 1881, 

p. 587. 
^Egialitis hiaticola, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 256. 

Both young and adults of this Plover closely resemble &. clubia, 
but they are larger, the shafts of all the primaries have the basal 
half brown and the distal half white except near the tip; there 
is a white streak outside the shaft in the middle of the quill in 
all the inner primaries, the greater coverts are tipped white, and 
there is much white on the inner secondaries and on tho outer 
rec trices. 

Bill orange-yellow, the tip black ; irides brown ; feet orange. 

Length 7*5 ; tail 2-3 ; wing 5-2 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape -6. 

Distribution. Throughout Europe and Western and Central 



244 CHAEADRIID.i:. 

Asia as far as Lake Baikal, wintering chiefly in Africa. A 
migratory bird, and a rare and occasional visitor to N.W. India. 
One specimen was obtained at Sultanpur, south of Delhi, by 
Mr. Chill in November 1878, and a second at Gilgit by Dr. Scully 
in October 1879. 

1449. JEgialitis placida. The Long-billed Hinged Plover. 

Cliaradrius placidus, Gray, Cat. Mam. 8fc. Coll. Hodgs. 2nd ed. 
p. 70 (1863) ; Hurting, Ibis, 1873, p. 326 ; Seebohm, Charadr. 

P-. 1 ??' Jf. 

./Egialitis hiaticula, apud Bh/tli, Ibis, 1867, p. 165, nee Linn. 

Eudromias tenuirostris, Hume, S. F. i, pp. 17, 417. 495 ; Blanf. 
Ibis, 1873, p. 217. 

^Egialitis placida, Hume fy Dav. S. F. \\, p. 455; Hume, Cat. 
no. 848 bis; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 351; Hume $ Inglis, S. F. ix, 
p. 258 ; Hume, S. 'F. xi, p. 314 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 262. 

This species resembles the last two, but is larger than either, 
and has a much larger bill. The whole forehead is white, lores 
(in winter) brown, and some brown is intermixed with the black 
of the collar ; the shafts of all primaries are brown, even of the 
first primary ; only a small portion near the end is lighter in 
colour in some skins, not as a rule. 

Bill black, extreme base of lower mandible yellow ; irides dark 
brown, margin of eyelids yellow; feet yellow (Seullti). 

Length 8' 75 ; tail 3 ; wing 5*5 ; tarsus 1*3 ; bill from gape '9. 

Distribution. Eastern Asia : Manchuria, Corea, Japan, China, 
and North-eastern India. Specimens have been obtained from 
time to time in Nepal, Sikhim, Bhutan, Assam, and Cachar. 

Habits, $\ This is probably a migratory bird, and visits India 
in the winter only. It has been met with in river-beds. 

In June, 1839 or 1840, Jerdon obtained at the edge of the 
Pulicat Lake, near Madras, a Plover which he described as 
Charadrius russatus (Madr. Jour. L. S. xii, p. 213). This was 
subsequently identified by Blyth. with the Australian JE. nigri- 
frons, Cuv. (^E. melanops, Vieill.), and the skin is probably still 
in the Museum at Calcutta. No specimen has ever since been 
found in India, and the species was omitted by Jerdon from the 
4 Birds of India,' a circumstance not improbably clue to his 
suspecting that some mistake had been made. Blyth (Ibis, 1867, 
p. 165) called attention to the omission, and the name has been 
restored by Hume (S. F. vii, p. 438 ; Cat. no. 850 bis). I cannot 
but regard the occurrence of the specimen in India as fortuitous, 
and I do not think the species should be included in the list of 
Indian birds. 

JE. melanops may be recognized by its deep claret-red scapulars, 
by its having the forehead and middle of the sinciput, the lores, 
and a broad band from them extending round the back of the neck 
all black, and also a broad pectoral gorget with a pointed extension 
backwards. Length 5-8 ; tail 2-1 ; wing 4'3 ; tarsus 1. 



H^MATOPUS. 245 



Subfamily H/EMATOPODD^E, 

The four genera here brought together are not usually 
associated, and it is doubtful whether they are really allied. 
All are long-billed birds, aud all have the tarsus reticulated. All, 
too, show a certain similarity of coloration, black and white or 
grey. The eggs of Hctmatopug, Himantopus, aud Hecurvircstra 
are very similar ; those of Ibidorhynclms are unknown. None has 
a distinct summer plumage, thus differing from all the Totanina? 
and most of the Charadriince. At the same time, it must be 
remarked that the bill of the Oystercatcher differs considerably in 
structure from that of the other three genera. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Bill straight, no hind toe. 

a'. Bill compressed, stout, longer than tarsus. H2EMATOPU8, p. 245. 
b'. Bill slender, much shorter than tarsus . . HIMANTOPUS, p. 240. 

b. Bill curved upwards ; a hind toe RECURVIROSTRA, p. 248. 

c. Bill curved downwards ; no hind toe IBIDORHYNCHUS, p. 249. 

Genus HJEMATOPUS, Linn., 1766. 

Bill long, compressed, straight, often truncated at the end ; 
nostril linear, near the base of the bill, in a groove that extends 
more than halfway to the tip. Wings long, pointed, first quill 
longest ; tail moderate. Tarsus short, thick, reticulated through- 
out; no hind toe; anterior toes thick, edged with membrane, 
slightly webbed at the base, especially between the 3rd and 4th 
toes ; soles broad. 

The Oystercatchers are a cosmopolitan genus of about a dozen 
species, only one of which is Indian. 

1450. Haematopus ostralegus. The Sea-pie or Oystercatcher. 

Haematopus ostralegus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 257 (1766) ; Blyth, 

Cat. p. 264; Jerdon, 11. I. ii'i, p. 659; Hume, S. F. i, p. 234; 

Hayes Lloyd, Ibis, 1873, p. 416; Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 154; 

Butler, S. F. v, pp. 212, 232, 236 ; ix, p. 427 ; Hume, Cat. no. 862 ; 

Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 83 ; Legge, Birds Ccijl. p. 987 ; Gates, B. j?,ii, 

p. 377 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 339 ; Seebohm, Charadr. p. 301 ; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 107. 
Haematopus osculans, Swinh. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 405 ; Sharpe, Cat. 

B.M. xxiv, p. 111. 

Darya gojpaon, H. ; Yerri kali ulanka, Tel. 

Coloration. Head and neck all round, upper back, scapulars, 
and tertiaries black ; lower back, rump, upper tail-coverts, and 
lower parts from upper breast white ; edge of wing, terminal 
portions of median coverts, the greater secondary coverts, and the 



246 CHARADRTIDJE. 

inner secondary quills white, forming a wing-band; primary- 
coverts black ; primaries the same, except part of the inner web 
and a lanceolate white spot on the shaft and outer web, com- 
mencing as a streak on the first primary and increasing inwards ; 
tail white at base, black at end. 

Young birds are browner black, and have a broad band of white 
on the throat. 

Bill bright reddish orange, dingy and yellowish at the tip ; 
iricles red ; eyelids orange-red ; legs and feet brownish purple 
(Hume}. 

Length 16 ; tail 4 ; wing 10 ; tarsus 2-1 ; bill from gape 3-25-3. 




Fig. 55. Head of H. ostralegus (immature). |. 

Distribution. The greater part of Europe and Asia, chiefly on 
sea-coasts. A winter visitor to India, common on the coast of 
Sind, Catch, and Kattywar ; less common on the west coast of 
Indie and rare on the east coast, in Ceylon and in Burma. I do 
not regard the Chinese and Japanese H. osculans, to which an 
Arrakanese skin is referred by Sharpe, as worth specific distinction. 
It only differs in having a little less white on the earlier primaries, 
the difference in length of bill not being constant. It is probably 
to some extent intermediate between H. oslraleyus and H. lonyi- 
rostris. 

Habits, $c. The Oystercatcher is found singly or in parties, 
and keeps much to rocks between tide-marks, feeding on molluscs 
arid Crustacea ; it often visits fields or meadows near the sea, 
but is rarely seen far from the coast. It is a wary bird, utters 
a clear loud whistling note, and breeds in the North of Europe and 
on the Caspian. 



Genus HIMANTOPUS, Brisson, 1760. 

Bill long, straight, hard, slender, pointed ; nostrils linear, near 
the base of the bill, each situated in a groove that extends about 
half the length of the mandible. "Wings long and pointed, 
1st quill longest; tail short, even. Legs very long; tibia bare 
for a long distance, three-quarters the length of the long tarsi, 
which are reticulated throughout: no hind toe, outer joined to 



HIMANTOPTJS. 247 

middle toe by a broad web, a narrower web between the middle 
and inner toe. 

The Stilts are found in all temperate and tropical countries. 
One species occurs in India. 

1451. Himantopus candidus. The Black-winged Stilt. 

Charadrius himantopus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 255 (1766). 

Himantopus Candidas, Bonn. Tail. Fncyd. Meth. i, p. 24 (1790); 
Blyth, Cat. p. 264 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 704 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1807, 
p. 169 ; Godtc.-Autt. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 274; Hume, Ibis, 
1870, p. 145 ; Feilden, ibid. p. 295 ; Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, p. 464 ; 
Ball, S. F. vii, p. 229 ; Cripps, ibid. p. 304 ; Hume, Cat. no. 898 ; 
Doiy, S. F. viii, p. 371 ; Leyye, Birds Ceyl. p. 919 ; Vidal, S. F. 
ix, p. 86 ; Butler, ibid. p. 430 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 97 ; Scully, 
ibid. p. 590 ; Held, S. F.. x, p. 72 ; Taylor, ibid. p. 466 ; Gates, 
B. B. ii, p. 379 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 361 ; Hume, S. F. xi, 
p. 326; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 177; Gates in Hume's N. # E. 
2nd ed. iii, p. 353 ; Barms, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vi, p. 132, 
fig. 888 (egg). 

Hiinantopas melanopterus, Meyer, Ann. Wetter. Gesellsch. iii, 
p. 177 (1814) ; Seebvhm, Charadr. p. 277. 

Himantopus iutermedius, Blyth, Cat. p. 265 (1849, descr. nulla) ; 



Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 253 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 589 ; 

id. S. F. i, p. 248 ; Adam, 8. F. i, p. 397 ; ii, p. 339 ; Hume fy 

Gates, S. F. iii, p. 183 ; Leyye, ibid. p. 373 ; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 18. 
Himantopus autuinnalis, Hasselq., Holdsworth, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 475; 

Blyth I Wald. Birds Burm. p. 154. 
Himantopus himantopus, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 310. 

The Stilt or Long-leys, Jerdcn ; Gaj-paun, Tinyhur, H. ; Lal-gon, 
Lal-thenyi, Lam-yora, Beng. 




Fig. 56. Head of H. candidus (adult). . 

Coloration. Adult male. Whole head, neck and lower parts, 
lower bark and rump white; back, scapulars, and wings above 
and below black, glossed with metallic green ; upper tail-coverts 
brownish ; tail whity-brown. 

Females have the back, scapulars, tertiaries, and inner wing- 
coverts brown. 

Young birds have the occiput and nape black or blackish, and 
the hind neck grey. These dark marks are retained by many 
birds that sho\v no other signs of immaturity ; the pure white 
head is probably not attained for some years. Birds of the year 
have brown back, scapulars, and tertiaries, and the crown and 



248 CHAKADKIIDJ;. 

hind neck are light greyish brown, with white edges to the 
feathers. 

Bill black ; irides red ; legs lake-red ; claws black. 

Length 15 ; tail 3*25 ; wing 9'5; tarsus 5 ; bill from gape 2-8. 

Distribution. Southern Europe, the whole of Africa, and 
Central and Southern Asia. This Stilt is found throughout India, 
Ceylon, and Burma in the cold season, in suitable localities, and 
breeds in a few places. 

Habits, <$fc. This is a common bird in India wherever there are 
marshes or tanks with shallow margins and not too much over- 
grown with vegetation. It occurs'in large flocks and feeds on 
insects, small molluscs, and worms. It has been found breeding, 
from April to July, in large numbers about salt swamps, as at 
Sultan pur Salt-works, south of Delhi, at Sambhur Lake, and in 
several places in Ceylon. The eggs, usually 4 in number, some- 
times 3, are very like plovers' : light drab, much blotched with 
black; they measure about 1-64 by 1*21, and are laid in a hollow, 
often built of fragments of stone, and usually lined with a little 
grass. 

Genus RECURVIROSTRA, Linn., 1766. 

Bill very long, flexible, curved upwards towards the end, 
depressed ; both mandibles flattened ; nostrils linear, long, each in 
an ill-marked groove not half the length of the bill. Wings 
long, pointed, 1st quill slightly the longest in general ; tail short. 
Tarsus and bare tibia long; tarsus reticulated; hind toe very 
e-mail, but furnished with a claw; anterior toes deeply webbed, 
but webs notched in the middle. 

There are about four species of Avocet, widely distributed ; only 
one is Indian. 

1 152. Recurvirostra avocetta. The Avocet. 

Recurvi rostra avocetta, Linn. Syst. Nat. \, p. 256 (1766) ; Blyth, 
Cat. p. 265 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 706; Stoticzka, J. A. S. B. xli, 
pt. 2, p. 253 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 2-J8 ; Adam, ibid. p. 397 ; ii, 
p. 339; Hayes Lloyd, Ibis, 1873, p. 417 ; Sutler, S. F. iv, p. 18 ; 
Hume, S. F. vii, p. 489; id. Cat. no. 899; Legge, Sink Ceyl. 
p. 925; Reid, S. F. x, p. 453; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 362; 
Sfiarpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 326. 

Kusya chaha, II. (Behar). 

Coloration. The whole forehead and crown to below the eyes, 
nape and hind neck, inner scapulars, and a patch running out- 
wards from their base, median wing-coverts, some of the tertiaries, 
and the tips and greater part of the first seven or eight primaries 
black, or in winter dark brown ; ail other parts white, middle tail- 
feathers in winter tinged with brownish grey. 

Bill black ; irides red-brown ; legs pale bluish grey. 

Length 18 j tail 3'3 ; wing 9; tarsus 3-5 ; bill from gape to 
point 3-25. 



JB1DORHYNCHUS. 249. 

Distribution. Temperate Europe and Asia, the whole of Africa, 
South-western Asia, India, and Ceylon. A winter visitor to 
India, not uncommon in the north, rarer in the south, and in 
Ceylon ; not found in Assam or Burma. 

Habits, $c. The Avocet is generally found in small flocks, 
haunting the borders of marshes, tanks, rivers, salt lagoons, ancj 
similar places ; it feeds on small Crustacea, worms, and molluscs, 
and obtains its food by searching for it in the mud and sand \vith 
its bill, which it moves backwards and forwards with a semi- 
circular sweeping action. It swims well. 

; 

Genus IBIDORHYNCHUS, Vigors, 1831. 

A peculiar Central Asiatic species, of which the affinities are by 
no means clearly ascertained, is the type of the present genus. 
It has been referred by Jerdon and others to the neighbourhood of 
the Curlews, and has been associated by Seebohm with the Oyster- 
catchers. I do not think it is allied to the former, but it may have 
some relationship to ffasmatopus. 

The bill is hard, long, slender, and curved downwards; the 
nostril is linear, near the base of the bill and situated in a groove 
that extends more than half the length of the mandible. The first 
three quills are subequal, the 1st generally a little the longest : 
tail rather short. Tarsi short, stout, reticulated throughout ; there 
is no hind toe, the middle and outer toes are connected by a web, 
but there is scarcely any between the middle and inner toes. 



1453. Ibidorhynchus struthersi. The Ibis-bill. 

Ibidorhyncha struthersii, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 174 ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 879. 
Ibidorhynchus struthersi, Eli/th, Cat. p. 265 ; Adams, P. Z. S. 1859, 




Ibis, 1882, p. 287 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 323 ; Seebohm, Charadr. 
p. 314 ; 8karpc, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 335 ; W. W. Cordeam-, Ibis, 
1897, p. 563. 

The Red-billed Curlew, Jerdon. 




Fig. 57. Head of I. struthersi. 



Coloration. Head to the eyes including cheeks, chin, throat, and 
crown, terminating in a point on the nape, blackish brown, 



250 CHARADR1IDJE. 

browner and often mixed with grey on the forehead, and with a 
narrow white border except on the occiput ; neck all round and 
upper breast bluish ashy, separated from the broad black gorget 
across the breast by another narrow white border ; upper back, 
scapulars, and tertiaries light brownish grey, becoming more ashy 
on the wing-coverts ; winglet blackish ; quills ashy brown, tips of 
primaries darker, most of the primaries, and sometimes all, with a 
white spot on the inner web near the end, greatly increasing in 
size on the innermost primaries; all quills white at base, the outer 
secondaries to a large extent : lower back and rump grey, upper 
tail-coverts blackish ; tail-feathers *ashy brown, with dark wavy 
cross-bars, all except the middle pair with a subterminal black 
spot; outermost pair barred black and white on outer webs, and 
with the barring on the inner webs almost obsolete ; lower surface 
from middle of breast white. 

Young birds want the blackish brown of the head and the black 
gorget. 

Bill and irides crimson ; legs pinkish grey (Godwin- Austen) legs 
blood -red (Jerdon). 

Length 16 inches ; tail 4-5 ; wing 9-25 ; tarsus 1'9 ; bill from 
gape 3 to 3 a 5. 

Distribution. Throughout Central Asia from Western Turkestan 
to North China. r lhis bird inhabits the Himalayas from Kashmir 
to Upper Assam, keeping to stream-beds at high elevations in 
summer, and descending almost to the plains in winter. It has 
also been obtained by Godwin-Austen in the Naga hills at a low 
level in February and March. Quite recently a specimen has been 
shot by Capt. Barton in the Afridi country, Afghan frontier. 

Halits, $c. This remarkable wader keeps chiefly to the beds of 
n, ountain-st reams, and is found singly, in pairs, or in small flocks, 
probably families, of about five or six individuals. I met with 
scattered flocks of this kind in the interior of Sikhim, at 12,000 
feet, in September. The food consists of insects and, it is said, 
mollusca and Crustacea. Though .this species undoubtedly breeds 
in the Himalayas about May, and is said to make its nest in a 
hollow beside a stone or a stranded log, the eggs have never, so far 
as I can ascertain, been described except from native information. 



Subfamily TOTANIN^. 

The Curlews, Godwits, Sandpipers, and Stints agree in having a 
slender, generally rather lengthened bill, more or less richly 
provided with nerves, and consequently endowed with a delicate 
fcense of touch, an essential qualification when this organ is used 
to search in mud and \\et sand for the annelids and other small 
animals on which the bird feeds. This is far less the case with 
Curlews and Sandpipers than with the Stints. All the genera of 



EUMENIUS. 251 

this subfamily (except Nunieniu^ in which the back of the tarsus 
is reticulated) have the tarsus scutulate or transversely shielded 
both in front and behind, and all undergo a considerable change of 
plumage at the spring moult, and have a distinct summer and 
winter garb. In only one genus is there any decided difference in 
plumage between the sexes, and in that case it is confined to the 
breeding dress. 

All the birds of this subfamily are winter visitors to India, only 
one species being known to breed even in the Himalayas. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Toes not fringed by a lobed web like a Gout's. 
a'. Toes partially webbed at the base. 

a". Bill long, curved downwards NUMENIUS, p. 251. 

b". Bill straight or slightly curving upwards. 
3 . Bill longer than tail. 

a 1 . Bill not broader at end LIMOSA, p. 254. 

b 1 . Bill Snipe-like, broader at end and 

pitted MACRORHAMPHUS, 

Z> 3 . Bill not longer than tail. fp. 257. 

c l . Bill nearly twice as long as tarsus . . TEREKIA, p. 2~58. 
d\ Bill shorter than tarsus or not much 
longer. 

a\ Sexes alike TOTANUS, p. 259. 

b 5 . Sexes in breeding-season different . PAVONCELLA, p. 268. 
b'. Toes divided to base ; bill soft, flexible. 

c". No hind toe CALIDRIS, p. 270. 

d". A hind toe. 

c :! . Bill spoon-shaped, greatly expanded [p. 271. 

near tip EURYNORHYNCHUS, 

d 3 . Bill slender, not spoon-shaped TRINGA, p. 272. 

b. Anterior toes with a lobed web throughout . . PHALAROPUS, p. 280. 



Genus NUMENIUS, Brisson, 1760. 

Bill very long, slender, curved downwards, tip of the upper 
mandible obtuse, projecting beyond the lower; nostril in a groove 
that extends three-quarters the length of the bill or more. 
AYings long, pointed, 1st quill longest, tertiaries long ; tail short, 
rounded. Legs of moderate length ; tarsus reticulated except on 
the lower portion in front, where it is covered with transverse 
scutation ; hind toe well developed, anterior toes webbed at the 
base, claws dilated. 

About eight or nine species of Curlews and Whimbrels are 
known, very widely distributed. Two are Indian. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Crown streaked ; bill 5 to 7 inches long N. arqitata, p. 252. 

b. Crown brown with a pale median baud ; bill 

under 4 in N. phteopus, p. 253. 



252 CHABADRIIDJE. 

1454. Numenius arquata. The Curlew. 

Scolopax arquata, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 242 (1766). 

Numeuius arquata, Blytli, Cat. p. 268; Jvrdon, B.I. iii, p. 683; 
Le Messnrier, S. F. iii, p. 381 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 412 ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 341. 

Numenius lineatus, Cuv. Rec/ne An. ed. 2 e , i, p. 521 (1829) ; Blytli, 
Ibis, 1867, p. 167 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 237 ; Adam, ibid. p. 396 ; 
Hume, S. F. ii, p. 296; Butler $ Hume, S. F. iv, p. 16; Arm- 
strong, ibid. p. 341 ; Hume, ibid. p. 464 ; Butler, S. F. \, pp. 233, 




Numeniua arcuatus, Irly, Ibis, 1861, p. 240. 
Gear, Goungh. Barra Gulinda, H. ; Choppa, Sada Kastachura, Beng. 




Fig. 58. Head of N. arquata. 



Coloration. Crown and sides of head, and neck all round light 
brown with dark shaft-stripes, darkest on the crown; a whitish 
superciHum,not very distinct ; back and scapulars blackish brown, 
with light brown edges to the feathers, some of the longer 
scapulars obliquely barred near the edges ; wiug-coverts similar to 
back but the edges are paler ; bastard wing, primary-coverts, and 
primaries blackish brown, primary-coverts and inner primaries 
with white tips, all primaries notched or mottled on inner web and 
inner primaries notched on both webs with white ; secondaries 
brown barred with white, tertiaries dark brown barred with ashy 
brown, the pale bars not extending across in either case ; lower 
back and rump white, the feathers in the middle with blackish 
shaft-stripes, each ending in a broader pointed spot; upper tail- 
coverts white with larger spots ; tail-feathers ashy brown with 
dark brown cross-bars ; chin and throat white ; fore neck brownish 
white with dark shaft-lines ; rest of lower parts white, with dark 
shaft-lines on the breast and flanks. 

In breeding-plumage the whole bird is darker and the shaft- 
lines broader, both above and below, and they extend to the 
abdomen. 

Bill dark brown or blackish, basal half of lower mandible light 
brown to fleshy white; irides brown; legs and feet bluish grey. 

Length about 23; tail 4'5 ; wing 11*5; tarsus 4'4; bill from 
gape 5 to over 7, generally between 5 and 6. Females are larger 
than males. 



NUMENIUS. 253 

Distribution. A winter visitor to India, Ceylon, and Burma, also 
to the Andaman s, Nicobars, Laccadives, &c. Curlews pass the 
summer and breed in temperate Europe and Asia, and spend the 
winter in Africa and Southern Asia. 

Habits, Sfc. In India Curlews are most abundant on the sea-coast 
and on the banks of tidal rivers ; but some are found inland in 
well-watered countries near rivers, large tanks, and marshes. 
As a rule they are seen singly or in twos or threes, but flocks are 
not uncommon. The Curlew has a peculiar, very plaintive cry, 
not unlike that of the Golden Plover, but wilder. It is a very 
wary bird. 

The Indian Curlew, N. lineatus, was long regarded as distinct, 
but the differences have been shown to be chiefly due to winter 
plumage. The bill is somewhat longer on an average. 

1455. Numenius phaeopus. The Whimbrel. 

Scolopax phaeopus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 243 (1766). 

Numenius phaeopus, Blyth, Cat. p. 268; Jerdon, B. 1. iii. p. 684: 




Bi 

ibid. p. 341 ; 'Hume, ibid. p. 464 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 460 '; 
Butler, S. F. vii, p. 187 ; ix, p. 429 ; Hume, ibid. p. 487 ; id. Cat. 
no. 878; Leffffe, Birds Ceyl. p. 910; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 85; Reid, 
S. F. x, p. 70 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 411 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 352 ; 
Sliarpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 355. 

Chota Gounyh, Chota Gidinda, H. 

Coloration. Crown including forehead dark brown, with a broken 
median white band ; long supercilia from base of bill and sides of 
head whitish with dark streaks ; lores and a band through eve to 
ear-coverts dark brown ; upper parts generally brown, with whitish 
spots on the edges of the t'eathers, becoming larger on the wing- 
coverts ; bastard wing, primary-coverts and quills blackish brown, 
primary-coverts and inner primaries tipped white, inner webs of 
all quills and outer webs of the inner primaries and of the second- 
aries with white indentations ; lower back and rump white, some 
of the feathers as a rule with subterminal pointed brown spots ; 
upper tail-coverts, barred dark brown and whitish ; tail ashy 
brown, barred with dark brown ; chin, throat, and abdomen white ; 
fore neck and breast sullied white with dark brown shafts, flanks 
and axillaries barred. 

To the eastward this passes into N. variegatus, with the lower 
back and rump thickly mottled with bars and spots of brown. 
Some Burmese skins are referred to N. varieyatus by Sharpe, but 
it only ranks as a race or subspecies. 

Bill blackish brown, basal half of lower mandible pale and 
pinkish ; irides dark brown ; legs and feet bluish grey. 

Length of male 17; tail 3-75; wing 9-5; tarsus 2'3; bill 
from gape 3*2. Females on an average exceed males in size ; 
wing 10. 



254 

Distribution. Europe and Northern Asia in summer ; Africa, 
Southern Asia, the Malay Archipelago, and Australia in winter. 
This is a winter visitor to the sea-coasts of India, Ceylon, and 
Burma, and is occasionally found inland. 

Habits, fyc. As a rule, though there are local exceptions, the 
Whimbrel is a less common bird than the Curlew in India ; but 
it has very similar habits. It is good to eat, better than the 
Curlew. 

Genus LIMOSA, Brisson, 1760. 

The Godwits have a very long bill> straight or slightly recurved, 
with the apex obtuse, both mandibles grooved at the side ; nostrils 
linear, near the base of the bill. Wings long and pointed, 1st quill 
longest ; tail of moderate length, even. Tarsus moderate, trans- 
versely shielded in parts both before and behind ; hind toe well 
developed, a web between the outer and middle toes, but 
scarcely any between the middle and inner ; middle claw 
dilated, curved outwards and often pectinate outside. Winter 
plumage greyish brown ; breeding-plumage rufous in both sexes. 

The genus is almost cosmopolitan ; two species are Indian. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Basal half of tail white, terminal half mostly 

black, not barred * L. belgica, p. 254. 

b. Tail more or less barred L. lapponica, p. 25G. 

1456. Limosa belgica. The Black-tailed Godwit. 

Scolopax limosa, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 245 (1766). 
Scolopax belgica, Gm. Syst. Nat. i,'p. 063 (1788). 
Limosa melanura, Leisler, Nachtr. Bechst. Na^urg. pt. 2, p. 153 

(1813) ; Sefbohm, Charadr. p. 389. 
Limosa aegocephala, apud Pallas, Zooqr. llosso-Asiat. ii, p. 178 ; Blyth, 

Cat. p. 268: Irby, Ibis, 1861, p. '240; Jei'don, B. I. iii, p. 081 ; 

Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 252; Hume, 8. F. i, p. 235 ; 

Adam, ibid. p. 396 ; Oates, 8. F. iii, p. 346 ; Blyth, Birds Burm. 

p. 155 ; Butler Sf Hume, S. F. iv, p. 16 ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, 

p. 460 ; Wardl.-Rams. Ibis, 1877, p. 469 ; Cripps, S. F. vii, p. 302 ; 

Hume, ibid. p. 486; id. Cat. no. 875; Scnlh/, S. F. viii, p. 356; 




Swinh. $ Barnes, Ibis. 1885, p. 133 : Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 348; 

Hume, S. F. xi, p. 322 ; nee Sc. segocephala, L. 
Limosa melanuroides, Gould, P. Z. S. 1846, p. 84 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1865, 

p. 35 ; Hume, 8. F. viii, p. 157 ; xi, p. 322. 
Limosa limosa, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv. p. 381. 

The Small Godwit, Jerdon ; Gudera, Gairiya, Jdngral, Khdy, II. ; 
Malgujha, Nepal ; Jaurali, Beng. ; Tondu ulanka, Tel. 

Coloration in winter. Upper parts brown, head and neck 
rather paler, a tendency to dark centres on the back and wings ; 



LTMOSA. 255 

short supercilia and a spot under each eye white ; lesser wing- 
coverts, bastard wing, primary-coverts, primaries, and ends of 
secondaries blackish brown, tips of greater coverts and bases of 
quills white, the white extending farther down the inner webs 
of the first four primaries and the outer webs of the others ; whole 
outer webs of later secondaries white ; lower back and rump 
blackish brown ; upper tail-coverts and basal half of tail white ; 
terminal half of tail black, ashy brown at tip, the black diminishing 
on the outer feathers ; chin, throat, wing-lining, axillaries, and 
abdomen white ; fore neck and breast light greyish brown. 

In summer the head, neck, and lower parts are dull rufous, the 
crown is streaked with black; back, scapulars, and tertiaries black, 
the feathers with marginal rufous spots ; chin, throat, and lower 
abdomen white ; lower back black, and terminal spots on upper tail- 
coverts the same ; breast and flanks with brown cross-bars. 




Fig. 59.- Head of L. helyica. 



Bill dull orange reddish at the base, dusky at the tip ; irides 
dark brown ; legs dusky greyish green (Jerdon). 

Length 16 to 19-5 inches ; tail 2-6-3'l ; wing T'5-9'25 ; tarsus 
2*25-b'6 ; bill from gape 2-9-4'8. Females average much larger 
than males, but measurements of the two sexes overlap consider- 
ably. Dimensions vary to a remarkable extent. 

Distribution. A migratory bird, breeding in temperate Europe 
and Asia up to the Arctic circle, and passing the winter in 
Southern Europe, Northern Africa, Southern Asia, the Malay 
Archipelago, and Australia. The race found in Eastern Asia and 
Australia (L. melanuroides} runs smaller, but is not distinguished 
by any constant character. This God wit is common throughout 
the plains of Northern India from October to March, but rare 
south of lat. 20. It was, however, obtained by Jerdon in the 
south, and by Layard in Ceylon. It is rare in Assam and Burma. 

Habits, fyc. The Black-tailed Godwit is found on the edges of 
tanks and swamps, and occasionally of rivers, sometimes singly, 
but more often in flocks of from ten to over a hundred. It feeds 
partly, on insects, mollusca, and worms, partly, in India at all 
events, on rice and millet, and, especially when fed on grain, is a 
delicious bird. It is commonly sold in the Calcutta bazaar as 
Woodcock. 



256 CHABADRIIDJE. 

1457. Limosa lapponica. The Bar-tailed God wit. 

Soolopax lapponica & segocephala, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 246 (1766). 
Limosa rufa, Temm. Man. d'Orn. ed. 2, ii, p. 668 (1820); JBlytk, 

Ibis, 1865, p. 36 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 235 j Seebohm, Charadr. 

p. 384. 
Limosa lapponica, Hume, Cat. no. 875 bis; Butler, Cat. B. Sind fyc. 

p. 62; Hume fy Marsh. Game B. iii, p. 417, pi.; Murray, Vert. 

Zool. Sind, p. 244 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 349 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 

xxiv, p. 373. 

Coloration in winter. Upper parts ashy brown, dark-shafted, 
and the feathers pale-edged, the wing-coverts with whitish borders ; 
broad indistinct whitish supercilia ; bastard wing, primary-coverts, 
and primaries blackish brown, secondaries dark brown ; greater 
secondary-coverts, secondaries, and inner primaries with white 
margins, inner borders of primaries mottled with white ; lower 
back and rump white, with a few arrowhead- or heart-shaped brown 
spots ; upper tail-coverts white, with irregular brown bars ; middle 
tail-feathers ashy browD towards the end, tipped whitish, barred 
with white and brown towards the base, outer reetrices barred 
throughout ; lower parts white except the fore neck and upper 
breast, which are sullied and marked with brown streaks ; axillaries 
white, with brown arrowhead spots or bars. 

Young birds in autumn differ from adults in having the back 
dark brown with buff spots, the tertiaries with marginal buff 
indentations, the tail barred throughout, and the lower parts 
isabelline, growing white on the abdomen. They appear to moult 
i'uto the adult winter plumage about October or November. 

In breeding-plumage the crown is black with rufous edges to 
the feathers ; hind neck rufous, slightly streaked ; back, scapulars, 
and tertiaries blackish brown, with rufous spots ; quills and wing- 
lining as in winter; tail barred white and brown throughout ; 
lower parts deep dull rufous (dull chestnut), streaked with brown 
on the sides of the breast. 

Bill black or dusky near the tip, basal half pinkish ; irides 
brown ; legs and feet black or dusky plumbeous (Hume). 

Length of males 14'5 ; tail 2-5 ; wing 8 ; tarsus 2 bill from 
gape 3. Females are larger : wing 8'5, bill 3-6 to 4-4. 

Distribution. The Bar-tailed Godwit breeds in Northern Europe 
and North-western Asia, and migrates in winter to Africa north of 
the equator and South-western Asia. It is common at that 
season in Kaniclii Harbour, the only locality in the Indian Empire 
at which it has been found. In Eastern Asia an allied species or 
subspecies, L. novce-zealandice, occurs, distinguished by its dusky 
lower back and rump, of which the feathers are blackish with 
white edges, and by its longer bill. This bird breeds in Alaska 
and Eastern Siberia and ranges in winter through China, Japan, 
and the Malay Archipelago, to Australia, Polynesia, and New 
Zealand. One specimen was obtained at Singapore by Davison, 
but none has hitherto been procured in Burma. 

Habits, $c. Very similar to those of L. lelyica ; but the present 
bird does not collect in as large nocks, and is generally found in 



MACttORIIAMPHUS. 257 

winter associating with other waders. It is almost exclusively a 
coast bird, feeding on small Crustacea, annelida, and mollusca, and 
its flesh is inferior to that of the Black-tailed Godwit. 

Genus MACRORHAMPHITS, Leach, 1816. 

Bill like that of a Snipe, long, straight, slender ; both mandibles 
broader towards the end and pitted ; the upper mandible grooved 
above near the end, and both mandibles grooved at the side ; 
nostrils near the base. Wing long and pointed, 1st quill longest, 
2nd subequal ; tail of moderate length. Tarsus shorter than bill, 
lower part transversely shielded in front (and in one species, M. 
r/mcw-5, behind) ; hind toe well developed, anterior toes webbed 
near base, the web between the outer arid middle toes the larger. 
Summer plumage rufous, winter plumage grey as in Godwits. 

Two species are known, one American, the other an occasional 
winter visitor to India and Burma. 

1458. Macrorhamphus semipalmatus. The Sni-pe-billed Goduif. 

Macrorhamphus semipalmatus, Jerdon, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvii, p. 252 

(1848) ; id. Cat. p. 271 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 679 ; Hume, S. F. vii, 

p. 484. 
Pseudoscolopax semipalmatus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxviii, p. 280; id. 

Ibis, 1867, p. 167 ; Hume, Cat. no. 874 ; id. $ Marsh. Game B. 

iii, p. 395, pi. ; Oates, S. F. x, p. 239 ; id. B. B. ii, p. 408. 
Micropalama tackzanowskia, Verreaux, Rev. et Mag. ZooL. I860, 

p. 206, pi. xiv. 
Macrorhamphus taczanowskii, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 4CO. 

Coloration hi winter. Upper plumage brown, with whitish edges 
to feathers ; broad whitish supercilia ; forehead and lores dark ; 
quills dark brown, mottled with white on inner margin ; inner 
primaries and all secondaries more or less bordered with white ; 
rump and upper tail-coverts white, with irregular arrowhead-shaped 
bars of brown ; tail-feathers more regularly barred brown and 
white ; lower parts white ; sides of head, chin, throat, fore neck, 
and upper breast streaked with brown, sometimes forming wavy 
bands ; axillaries, flanks, and under tail-coverts irregularly spotted 
and barred with brown. 

In summer the upper parts are described as bright rufous with 
brown streaks and spots and the lower parts uniforui rufous. 

Bill black, plumbeous at the base; irides dark brown ; legs and 
feet dark plumbeous (Oates). 

Length 13*25 ; tail 2-5 ; wing 7 ; tarsus 2 ; bill from gape 2-9 to 
3-25. 

Distribution. This rare bird breeds somewhere in Siberia, its 
breeding-haunts being, however, unknown, and a very few indi- 
viduals have been obtained in Mongolia, China, and Japan. One 
specimen was procured by Jerdon in Madras, one by Blyth arid 
three by Hume in Calcutta, brought from the neighbourhood, two 
were shot by Oates at Kyeikpadein in Pegu, and one by Colonel 
McMaster at Rangoon, all in the cold season. Lately Captain 1\ 

VOL. IV. S 



253 

St. Leger Wood (Asian, 22nd Feb. 1895, p. 377) writes that he 
has killed an individual at Raipur. 

Habits, $c. !N"ot known, but the bird is doubtless a feeder on 
worms or small Crustacea burrowing in mud. So far as is known 
no Indian specimen, except perhaps Jerdon's, has been obtained 
on the sea-coast. 

Genus TEREKIA, Bonap., 1838. 

This generic type is in some respects intermediate between 
Limosa and Totanus, but differs from both in having the bill nearly 
twice as long as the tarsus. In its habits and eggs it is a Sand- 
piper, not a G-odwit, and its breeding-plumage differs but little 
from its winter dress. 

The bill is distinctly curved upwards, rather wide at the base ; 
the upper mandible slightly bent downwards at the tip ; lower 
mandible but slightly grooved. Wings long, 1st quill longest ; 
tail moderate, nearly even. Tarsus scutulated, short, but longer 
than the middle toe and claw ; anterior toes slightly webbed ; middle 
claw dilated, not pectinated. 

A single species. 

1459. Terekia cinerea. The Terek Sandpiper or Avocet Sandpiper . 

Scolopax cinerea. GiUdenstadt, Nov. Com. Petrop. xix, p. 473, pi. 19 

(1774). 

Scolopax terek, Lath. 2nd. Orn. ii, p. 724 (1790). 
Xenus cinereus, Kaup, Natilrl. Syst. p. 115; Bh/th $ Wold. Birds 

Burm. p. 156. 




J)av. S. F. v'i, p. 460; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 486 ; id. Cat. no. 876 ; 
Ler/ye, Birds Ceyl. p. 836 ; Simson, Ibis, 1882, p. 02 ; Gates, B. B. 
ii, p. 407 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 351 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, 
p. 474. 
Totanus terekius, Seebohm, Charadr. p. 3C9. 

Coloration. Forehead and supercilia, not extending behind the 
eyes, white; lores brown; whole upper plumage, including rump 
and upper tail-coverts, greyish brown, with dark shaft-stripes ; 
lesser coverts and all outer coverts, with the primaries, blackish ; 
secoudaries brown, broadly tipped and bordered with white ; tail- 
feathers coloured like the back, the outer rectrices more or less 
mottled with white ; lower parts white, cheeks, sides of neck, fore 
neck, and sides of breast more or less sullied and streaked with 
brown ; axillaries white. 

In summer broader black shaft-stripes are developed, especially 
on the scapulars ; the sides of head aud neck and the breast are 
distinctly striated with brown. 

Bill blackish brown, orange-yellow at base ; irides brown ; legs 
and feet orange-yellow (Legge). 

Length 9-5; tail 2-2; wing 5; tarsus 1-1; bill from gape about 2. 



TOTANUS. 259 

Distribution. The breeding home of this species is in North- 
eastern Europe and Northern Siberia; its winter quarters in 
Eastern Africa, Southern Asia, and Australia. It is found on the 
sea-coasts of the whole Indian Empire at that season, but is only 
common locally. 

Habits, fyc. In India the Avocet Sandpiper is almost confined to 
the sea-coast and the shores of backwaters and tidal estuaries, 
where it occurs in small parties. It swims well. Ball killed a 
male in winter garb on the Orissa coast in May, but Hume 
found that at Karachi in February a few birds had begun to assume 
the summer plumage. 

Genus TOTANUS, Bechstein, 1803. 

Bill long, slender, straight or slightly curved upwards ; both 
mandibles distinctly grooved at each side ; tip of upper mandible 
hard and bent down. Wings long, pointed; 1st quill longest; 
tertiaries long; tail moderate, slightly rounded. Legs and feet 
variable; the tarsus always scutulated in front and behind, generally 
of nearly the same length as the bill, but occasionally slightly- 
longer and more frequently a little shorter. Hind toe present ; 
anterior toes united by web, which is in some species rudimentary 
between the middle and inner toes. 

Owing to differences in the relative and absolute length of the 
bill and tarsi, and in the development of the web between the 2nd 
and 3rd toes, the species here brought together are often distributed 
into several genera. Amongst the more important distinctions 
are those of T. fuscus, which has a remarkable dark breeding- 
plumage, the other species not showing any great change in their 
summer garb ; T. stagnatilis, in which the tarsus is considerably 
longer than the bill ; T. glottis and T. ochropus, with a single emar- 
gination on each side of the sternum instead of two, the latter, 
moreover, having a peculiar parasitic nidifi cation ; and T. calidris 
and T. guttifer, in which the web between the 2nd and 3rd toes is 
well developed. As here regarded, the genus Totanus is generally 
distributed and contains eight Indian species. 

Eey to the Species. 

a. Bill straight, not curved upwards. 

a'. Small forms ; wing 1 not exceeding 5 ; legs 
olive or green. 

a". No white on rump T. liypoleucus, p. 260. 

b". Rump white T. glareola, p. 261. 

b'. Wing between 5 and 6 ; legs olive or green. 

c". Lower back brown ; tarsus shorter than bill. T. ochropus, p. 262. 

d'. Lower back white ; tarsus longer than bill. T. stagnatilis, p. 263. 
c'. Wing over 6 ; lep-s red. 

e". Secondary quills all white T. calidris, p. 264. 

/". Secondary quills barred brown and white T. fuscus, p. 265. 

b. Bill slightly curved upwards ; wing over 6. 

y". Tarsus 2'5 ; legs yellowish green T. fflottis, p. 266. 

/*". Tarsus 175 j legs" dull yellow T. 'guttifer, p. 267. 

s2 



260 CHAEADEIIDJE. 

1460. Totanns hypoleucus. The Common Sandpiper. 

Tring-a hypoleucos, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 250 (1766). 

Actitis hypoleucus, Illiyer, Prod. p. 262 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 267 ; Jerdon, 

B. 1, iii, p. 699 ; lyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 169 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. 

xli, pt. 2, p. 253 ; Hume fy Benders. Lah. to York. p. 289 ; Walden, 

Ibis, 1873, p. 317 ; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 18, v, p. 233 ; JBall, S. F. 

vii, p. 228. 
Totanus hypoleucus, Temm.Man. d'Orn. p. 424 ; Brooks, J. A. S. B. 

xli, pt. 2, p. 86 ; JBinyham, S. F. ix, p. 197 : tSeebohm, Charadr. 

p. 371. - 

Tringoides hypoleucus, Bonap. Sayyio Distr. Meth. p. 58; Hume, 

N. $ E. p. C88 ; id. S. F. i, p. 247 ; Adam, ibid. p. 397 ; Hume, 

S. F. ii, p. 299 ; Armstrong, 8. F. iv, p. 344 Hume, ibid. p. 4(55 ; 

JTwwze Sf Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 463, 521 ; Hume, Cat. no. 893 ; Scully, 

S. F. viii, p. 358 ; Ley ye, Birds Ceyl. p. 867 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 86 ; 

Doiff, ibid. p. 282 ; Butler, ibid. p. 430 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 97, 

1882, p. 289 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 589 ; Reirt, S. F. x, p. 71 ; 

Davison, ibid. p. 414 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 399 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 

p. 359; Hume,S.F. xi, p. 324; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 177; 

Oates in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 352 ; Sharpe, York. Miss., 

Arcs, p. 141 ; id. Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 456. 

Pottiulanka, Tel.; Kotan, Tarn. (Ceylon). 

Coloration in winter. Whole upper parts, including rump, upper 
tail-coverts and tail brown with a distinct olive tinge, slightly 
glossy, the feathers dark-shafted, and those of the lower back and 
rump, the scapulars, terliaries, wing-coverts, and middle tail- 
feathers with a subterminal dark bar and pale or whitish tip ; edges 
of tertiaries and middle rectrices in fresh plumage spotted with 
black and buff alternately towards the end; bastard wing, primary - 
coverts, and primaries dark brown, the two former and all greater 
coverts tipped white ; part of inner webs of all primaries except 
the first white ; secondaries white, with a broad subterminal brown 
band, disappearing partly or wholly on some of the inner quills ; 
outer tail-feathers banded dark brown and white; a broad but 
indistinct pale supercilium ; sides of head, of neck, and of breast 
ashy brown, streaked darker; lower parts including axillaries white; 
some narrow dark shaft-stripes on fore neck. 

In summer the upper parts are darker and less olive, with 
broader dark shaft-stripes and cross-bars, and the fore neck and 
breast are strongly striated with brown. 

Bill greyish brown, darker at tip and with a greenish tinge at 
base ; irides brown ; legs pale green (Oates). 

Length 8 ; tail 2'2 ; wing 4'25 ; tarsus -95 ; bill from gape I'l. 

Distribution. Throughout the greater part of the Eastern 
Hemisphere, breeding in temperate regions and migrating in winter 
to S. Africa, S. Asia, and Australia. This Sandpiper is common 
throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma in the cold season, less 
abundant in North India than T. ochropus, but much more so in 
Southern India, Ceylon, and Burma. It is very common around 
the Andaman Islands on the sea-shore. 

HabitSy $c< Usually a solitary bird, found chiefly on the banks 



TOT ANUS. 261 

of rivers and small streams, or of open ponds, or on the sea-shore, 
not generally in marshes. It breeds in Kashmir, and is said to 
have been found breeding on the Eastern Nara in Sind, but this 
requires confirmation. The eggs, four in number, are buff with 
blackish specks and spots ; they measure about 1*41 by 1*06, and 
have been taken in Kashmir in May and June. 

1461. Totanus glareola. The Wood Sandpiper. 

Tringa glareola, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i, p. 677 (1788). 

Totanus glareola, Temm. Man. cEQrn. p. 421 ; James, S. F. i, p. 421 ; 
Hume, S. F. ii, p. 298 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 678 ; 
Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 857; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 589 ; Biddulph, 
Ibis, 1882, p. 288 ; Swmhoe, Ibis, 1882, p. 121 ; Gates, B. B. ii, 
p. 401 ; Seebohm, Charadr. p. 365 ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 177. 




p. 86 ; Butler, S. F. ix, p. 429 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 70; Davidson, 
ibid. p. 321 ; Damson, ibid. p. 414; Hume, S. F.xi, p. 324; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 491. 

Actitis glm-eola, Bh/th, Cat. p, 267; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 697 ; Blyth, 
Ibis, 1867, p. 169; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, p. 273; 
Stolicska, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 252 ; Walden, Ibis, 1873, p. 317 ; 
Butler, S. F. iv, p. ] 7 ; v, p. 233 ; Armstrong, IS. F. iv, p. 344 ; 
Ball, S. F. vii, p. 228 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 96 ; Barnes, Birds 
Bom. p. 357. 

The Spotted Sandpiper, Jerdon; Chupka, Chobaha, Tutwan, II.; Chinna 
ulcuika, Tel. 




Fig. 60. Head of T. glareola. \. 

Coloration in winter. Upper parts brown, feathers of the crown 
and hind neck with pale greyish edges ; white supercilia from the 
bill ; lores brown ; sides of head and neck paler, with dark streaks ; 
back, rump, scapulars, tertiaries, and wing-coverts spotted with 
dark brown and white, forming a border of alternating dark and pale 
spots on the tertiaries ; smaller coverts, primary-coverts, primaries, 
and secondaries dark brown, later primaries and secondaries with 
narrow white borders terminally ; upper tail-coverts white ; median 
rectrices ashy brown with dark brown cross-bands, other rectrices 
barred brown and white, the brown bars disappearing on the outer 
tail-feathers ; fore neck and upper breast brownish streaked with 
dark brown, rest of lower parts white ; axillaries barred with 
brown. 



262 CHABADEITDJE. 

In summer the markings above and below are better defined, the 
crown and hind neck are broadly streaked, the tertiaries barred, 
and the breast spotted. 

Bill greenish at the base, dusky black at the tip ; irides deep 
brown ; legs pale greenish (Jerdon). 

Length 8-5; tail 2 ; wing 4*8; tarsus 1-5 ; bill from gape 1-3. 

Distribution. This Sandpiper breeds in Europe and Northern 
Asia, and passes the winter in Africa, Southern Asia, the Malay 
Archipelago, and Australia. It is common at that season throughout 
India, Ceylon, and Burma, arriving in August and leaving in May. 

Habits, $c. On the whole this *s the commonest and most 
abundant of the Sandpipers in India, and is found singly or in 
small flocks on the edges of marshes, around reedy tanks, or in 
paddy fields, as well as on the banks of rivers, but it is chiefly a 
marsh bird. This and T. ochropus are commonly called " Snippets " 
in India. 

1462. Tetanus ochropus. The Green Sandpiper. 

Tringa ochrophus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 250 (1766). 

Tetanus ochropus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. p. 420; Anders. Yunnan 
Exped., Aves, p. 679 ; Hume, Cat. no. 892 ; Scully, S. F. viii, 
p. 357 ; Legge, Birds Cet/l. p. 8(32 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 86 ; Sutler, 
ibid. p. 480 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 589 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 71 ; 
Damson, ibid. p. 414 ; Swinhoe, Ibis, 1882, p. 122 ; Barnes, Birds 
Bom. p. 358 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 324 ; Seebohm, Charadr. p. 368 ; 
Sharps, Yark. Miss., Aves, p. 141. 

Helodromas ochropus, Kaup, Natilrl. Syst. p. 144 j Oates, B. B. 
ii, p. 400 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 437. 

Actitis ochropus, Blyth, Cat. p. 267 : Jerdon, B. 1. iii, p. 698 ; 
Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 70 ; xli. pt. 2, p. 253 ; flutter, 
S. F. iv, p. 18 ; v, p. 233 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. L'28 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 
1881, p. 96. 

Totanus ochrophus, Hume, S. F. \, p. 247 ; Adam, ibid. p. 396 ; Hume 

$ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 462 ; Cripps, S. F. vii, p. 303. 
NeUa ulanka, Tel. 



Coloration in winter. Crown and hind neck brown with an ashy 
tinge, lores the same with a white band above them ; back, scapulars, 
tertiaries, and inner wing-coverts brown with an olive tinge, each 
feather edged with alternating whitish and dark spots ; outer wing- 
coverts, primaries, and secondaries darker brown, without markings ; 
rump brown ; upper tail-coverts and base of tail white ; remainder 
of tail broadly barred with dark brown, the bars disappearing on 
the outer rectrices ; lower parts white ; sides of neck, fore neck, 
and upper breast with narrow brown streaks, the upper breast 
sometimes brownish throughout; under wing-coverts and axiilaries 
brown, with narrow white bars. 

In summer the feathers of the crown and hind neck have white 
edges ; the back, scapulars, and tertiaries are spotted with buff or 
white ; and the brown streaks on the sides of the face, fore neck, 
and upper breast are very broad and distinct. 

Bill dusky green, blackish at the tip ; irides brown ; legs dingy 



TOTANUS. 2C3 

green (Jerdon). There is only one notch on each side in the 
posterior margin of the sternum. 

Length 9-5 ; tail 2-3 ; wing 5'75 ; tarsus 1*3 ; bill from gape 1-5. 

Distribution. Throughout Europe, Africa, and Asia, breeding in 
the North and migrating in winter to Africa, Southern Asia, and 
the Malay Archipelago. Common in the cold season throughout 
Northern India, but less abundant in the South, in Ceylon, and in 
Burma. 

Habits, $c. The Green Sandpiper is generally solitary in India, 
and in the North may be found by almost every marsh, tank, or 
river, even in rice-fields, and about pools in streams. It arrives 
in Northern India sometimes as early as the latter half of July 
and does not leave till the middle of May. It is a wary bird, and 
utters a shrill piping note when flying off on being disturbed. The 
nidification is peculiar, for this Sandpiper lays four eggs of the 
usual character in the deserted nest of a Thrush, Blackbird, Jay, 
or even of a Squirrel. 

1463. Totanus stagnatilis. The Marsh Sandpiper or Little 
Greenslianlc. 

Totanus stagnatilis, Bechst. Orn. Taschenb. pt. 2, p. 292, pi. (1803) ; 
Blyth, Cat. p. 2GO ; Irby, Ibis, 18G1, p. 239; Jerdon, B. I. iii, 
p. 701 ; Adam, S. F. ii, p. 338 ; Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 155 ; 
Butler, S. F. iv, p. 18 ; v, p. 233 ; Fairbank, ibid. p. 263 ; Armstrong, 
ibid. p. 348 ; Hume # Dav. S. F. vi, p. 463 ; Davidson $ Wenden, 
S. F. vii, p. 89 ; Hume, ibid. p. 488 ; id. Cat. no. 895 ; Legye, 
Birds Ccyl. p. 844 ; Butler, S. F. ix, p. 430; Reid, S. F. x, p. 71 ; 
Davidson, ibid. p. 321 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 403 j Barnes, Birds Bom. 
p. 359; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 325; tSeebohm, Charadr. p. 357; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 422. 

Chota ffotra, Beng. 

Coloration in winter. Forehead, lores, cheeks, and whole lower 
plumage, including axillaries, also lower back and rump, white ; 
sides of head behind eye and of neck streaked with brown ; crown 
and hind neck greyish brown, with darker centres to feathers ; 
upper back, scapulars, and tertiaries brown, with dark shafts and 
narrow whitish edges ; wing-coverts and primaries darker brown ; 
secondaries less dark ; greater coverts, secondaries, and later 
primaries with narrow white edges ; inner edges of quills mottled 
with white ; upper tail-coverts white, with a few brown bars ; 
tail-feathers white, middle pair and outer webs of others tinged 
with ashy brown, and all more or less irregularly barred with 
darker brown ; the bars disappearing in older birds. 

In summer the feathers of the upper parts have marked dark 
centres, which form conspicuous angulate spots on the back and 
" herring-bone " markings on the tertiaries ; the general colour of 
the upper parts is sandy grey ; the fore neck and upper breast are 
spotted with brown, and the flanks irregularly barred. 

Bill dark brown, greenish at the base beneath ; irides hazel- 
brown ; legs and feet bluish green (Legye). 



264 CHARADEIID.'E. 

Length 10 ; tail 2-3 ; wing 5-5 ; tarsus 2 ; bill from gape 1-7. 

Distribution. The breeding area of this species extends from 
South-eastern France, through South Russia and Central Asia, to 
Southern Siberia. In winter T. staynatilis ranges throughout 
Africa, Southern Asia, the Malay Archipelago, and Australia. 
It is locally distributed in India and Burma at that season, but is 
abundant in Ceylon. 

Habits, #c. The Marsh Sandpiper, as its name implies, is rather 
a bird of inland marshes and freshwater pools than of the mud- 
flats and sandbanks of estuaries and the sea-coast, though it is 
found in all. It is generally met with in small flocks, sometimes 
singly, and is an active, vivacious, noisy little bird. 

1464. Totanus calidris. The Redshank. 
Scolopax calidris, Linn. Syst. Nat. i,p. 245 (1766). 




i. A. , (. xli, pt. 2, p. 203 ; Jlume, 8. . i, p. iT4 ; Adam, ibid. 
p. 397 ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 299 ; Adam, ibid. p. 339 ; Blyth fy WaU. 
Birds Burm. p. 155 ; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 18 ; v, p. 233 ; Armstrong, 
ibid.-p. 348 ; Hume $ Dav, S. F. vi, p. 464; Cripps, S. F.\\\, p. 304 ; 
Hume, ibid. p. 488 ; id. Cat. no. 897 ; Leqge* Birds Cei/l. p. 852 ; 

Vidal, 8. F. ix, p. SQ ; Butler, ibid, p.' 430; Scully, Ibis, 1881, 
p. 589 ; Reid. S. F. x, p. 71 ; Davids, ibid. p. 321 ; Taylor, ibid. 
p. 466 ; Biddulph, His, 1882, p. 289 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 404 ; 
Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 360; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 325; Seebohm, 

Charadr. p. 353 ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 177 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 
xxiv, p. 414. 

Cnota batdn, H. ; Mali kotan, Tarn. ; Maha watuwct, Cing". 

Coloration in winter. Upper parts brown, more or less tinged 
with ashy ; scapulars and tertiaries pale, edged with small blackish 
spots at regular intervals ; wing-coverts with white edges broken 
by blackish spots ; lores brown like the forehead ; supercilia from 
the bill white ; sides of face white, streaked with brown ; bastard 
wing, primary-coverts, and primaries dark brown ; inner margin 
of primaries mottled with white ; inner primaries largely, and 
secondaries entirely white ; lower back and rump white ; upper 
tail-coverts and tail barred brown and white ; middle tail-feathers 
barred dark and light brown ; lower parts white ; sides of neck, 
fore neck, and upper breast streaked with brown ; a few streaks 
on the flanks and lower tail-coverts. 

Young birds have reddish -brown edges to the feathers of the 
upper parts and fulvous markings on the wing-coverta and tertiaries ; 
there are also brown spots on the fore neck and breast, and bars 
on the flanks. 

In summer the upper plumage becomes brown mixed with 
rufous, and with dark brown streaks, that become shaft-stripes 
with oblique bars on each side on the scapulars and tertiaries ; 
the lower plumage is spotted with brown, especially on the breast. 

Bill black ; base of upper mandible reddish ; irides brown ; legs 
and feet orange-red. 



TOT ANUS. 265 

Length 11 ; tail 2*4; wing 6*25 ; tarsus 1'9 ; bill from gape 1/9. 

Distribution. The Redshank breeds throughout the greater part 
of Europe and in Central Asia from Asia Minor to S.E. Siberia, 
and in winter migrates to Africa, Southern Asia, and the Malayan 
Archipelago. It is found commonly in the cold season in suitable 
parts of India, Ceylon, and Burma, especially near the sea-coast 
and in marshy parts of the plains traversed by the great rivers. 

Habits, Sfc. This species is found singly or in small or large 
flocks ; it is very wary, and may be recognized by its loud call 
and by the white on its wings. 

1465. Totanus fuscus. The Spotted Rcdikarik. 

S.:olopax fusca, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 243 (1766). 

Totanus fuscus, Bechst. Orn. Taschenb. pt. 2, p. 286; myth, Cat. 

p. 266 ; Jet-don, B. I. iii, p. 702 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, 

p. 253; Hume, S. F. i, p. 248 ; Adam, ibid. p. 397 ; Butler, S. F. 

iv, p. 18; v, p. 233; Cockburn, S. F. iv, p. 509; Hume fy Dav. 

>S'. F. vi, p. 463 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 229 ; Hume, Cat. no. 896 ; 

Le'jc/e, Birds Ceyl. p. 848; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 97; Reid, 

S. F. x, p. 71 ; Macyreyor, ibid. p. 441 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 405 ; 

Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 360; Seebohm, Charadr. p. 351; Sharpe, 

Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 409. 

Batdn, Gatni, Surma, H. ; Yerra kal ttlanka, Tel. 

Coloration in winter. Narrow forehead, crown, hind neck, and 
back ashy brown ; lores darker ; a small black spot in front of the 
eye ; supercilia from base of bill white ; wing-coverts, scapulars, 
and tertiaries like back, but bordered with black and white, the 
latter outside ; on the greater coverts, scapulars, and tertiaries 
the white border is broken and alternates with black spots at 
regular intervals : bastard wing, primary-coverts, and primaries 
dark brown ; inner borders of primaries mottled with white ; later 
primaries and secondaries imperfectly barred white and brown ; 
lower back and rump white ; upper tail-coverts barred black and 
white; tail ashy brown, incompletely barred with white and dark 
brown on both edges ; lower plumage white ; fore neck, sides of 
neck, and upper breast indistinctly spotted and mottled with 
brown, and flanks tinged with dusky and barred. 

Young birds have more white edges and spots on the upper 
parts, and the lower parts are broadly barred with dull brown. 

In summer the whole plumage becomes partly by a moult, partly 
by change of colour, dusky, and white spots appear on the edges of 
the blackish back-feathers ; the head, neck, and lower parts are 
dark sooty-grey. 

Bill very dark brown ; basal half of lower mandible dusky red ; 
irides brown; legs and feet orange-red (Oates). Legs dark red in 
breeding-plumage. 

Length 13 ; tail 2-5 ; wing 6'75 ; tarsus 2-3 ; bill from gape 2-5. 

Distribution. The Spotted Redshank breeds north of the Arctic 
circle in Europe and Asia, and in winter migrates to the countries 
around the Mediterranean and to Southern Asia. It is common 



266 CHARADEIIDjE. 

from September till May in well-watered parts of Northern India ; 
rare in Southern India, Ceylon, and Burma. 

Habits, fyc. This bird occurs singly or in flocks, sometimes large, 
about marshes, tanks, and rivers, wading in shallow open water. 
It swims well. Before leaving India it assumes the breeding- 
plumage. 

1466. Totanus glottis. The Greenslianlc. 

Scolopax glottis and S. totanus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 245 (1766). 

Scolopax canescens, GineL Syst. NqJ,. i, p. 668 (1788). 

Totanus glottis, Bechst. Orn. Taschenb. pt. 2, p. 287 (1803) ; Blyth, 

Cat. p. 265; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 700; Blyth, His, 1867, p. 169; 

King, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 217 ; Godiv.-Aust. J. A. S. B. 

xxxix, pt. 2, p. 274; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 253 j 

Butler, S. F. iv, p. 18 ; v, p. 233 ; Hume, $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 463 ; 

Ball, S. F. vii, p. 229 ; Crippsj ibid. p. 304 ; Hume, Cat. no. 894 ; 

Scully, S. F. viii, p. 358 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 840 ; Vidal, S. F. 

ix, p. 86; Butler, ibid. p. 430; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 97 ; Scully, 

ibid. p. 589 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 71 ; Davidson, ibid. p. 321 ; Hume, 

ibid. p. 414 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 359 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 325 ; 

Seebohm, Charadr. p. 355. 
Totanus canescens, Hume, S. F. i, p. 247 ; Adam, ibid. p. 397 ; 

Hume, S. F. ii, p. 299 ; Armstrong, S. F. iv, p. 344 ; Hume, ib.d. 

p. 4(55 ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 177 ; Anders. Yunnan JZxped., Aves, 

p. 677 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p, 402. 
Glottis nebularius (Gunner.}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 481. 

Tantanna, Timtimma, II.; Gotra, Beng. ; Pcria kotan, Tarn. ; Malia 
oliya, Cing. 

Coloration in winter. Forehead, supercilia, sides of head before 
eye, cheeks, and whole lower plumage white ; the axillaries spar- 
ingly barred with brown ; a few dark brown spots on the lores 
in front ; crown, hind neck, and sides of neck, including the ear- 
coverts and postorbital area, blackish brown, with broad white 
edges, broadest on the sinciput ; back, scapulars and tertiaries, 
median and greater coverts ashy brown, edged with black and 
white and dark-shafted ; on the back and coverts there is a more 
or less distinct inside blackish and outside whitish border; on the 
scapulars, tertiaries, and under wing-coverts the border consists 
of alternating dark and light spots ; smaller and outer coverts 
darker and more uniform ; wiuglet, primary-coverts, and primaries 
blackish, the later primaries narrowly edged with white ; secondaries 
ashy brown, with dark brown inside and white outside border ; 
lower back, rump, and tail white ; middle rectrices irregularly 
banded with dark brown, outer rectrices with traces of cross-bands. 
Many birds, in winter plumage, have the middle tail-feathers partly 
or wholly ashy brown. 

In summer the head throughout, sometimes even including the 
chin, is streaked with brown ; the feathers of the back and the 
scapulars have broad black centres ; the fore neck and sides of 
the breast are spotted with dark brown, and there are a few spots 
on the middle of the breast. 



TOTAXUS. 267 

Bill dark olive-brown, darker at the tip ; iricles brown ; legs 
yellowish green (Oates). 

Length 14; tail 3-25 ; wing7'5; tarsus 2'5 ; bill from gape 2'5. 

Distribution. Throughout the Eastern Hemisphere, breeding in 
Northern Europe and Northern Asia, and wintering in China, 
S. Asia, and Australia. Common in well-watered parts of Northern 
India in winter, and generally distributed throughout India, Ceylon, 
and Burma at that season in suitable localities. 

Habits, $c. The Greenshank frequents the edges of rivers and 
tanks, of estuaries and the sea, and sometimes of marshes, in small 
or large flocks. It has a shrill trisyllabic call, usually uttered 
when it rises. Eor the table the Greenshank is the best of the 
Sandpipers. 

1467. Tetanus guttifer. Armstrong's Sandpiper. 

Totauus guttifer, Nordman in Ermans Reise u. d. Erde, Natur/i. 

Atlas, p. 17 (1835) ; Seebohm, Charadr. p. 354. 
Totanus haughtoni, Armstrong, S. F. iv, p. 344 (1876) ; Hume, ibid. 

p. 344 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 463 ; Harting, Ibis, 18S3, p. 133, 

pi. iv ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 406. 
Pseudototanus haughtoni, Hume, S. F. vii, p. 488 ; id. Cat. no. 894 

bis ; Hume fy Marsh. Game B. iii, p. 403, pi. 
Pseudog'lottis guttifer, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 479. 

Coloration in winter. Forehead, sides of head as far back as eyes, 
supercilia, and lower parts, with axillaries and wing-lining, white ; 
lores finely speckled brown ; sides of face behind eyes and of neck 
streaked; upper parts almost uniform ashy brown, with faint 
shaft-streaks ; wing-coverts darker ; bastard wing, primary-coverts, 
and primaries blackish ; secondaries ashy grey on outer webs, 
chiefly white on inner ; lower back and rump white ; upper tail- 
coverts the same, but with a few scattered brown angulate bars ; 
tail pale ashy, mixed with white on outer feathers, all bordered 
with white. 

The summer plumage is much darker above, chiefly blackish 
brown, with a few white spots on the edges of the scapulars ; 
scattered dark spots occur on the fore neck and breast. 

Bill dusky, tipped black, yellow near the base ; irides dark 
brown ; legs and feet dull ochreous yellow or greenish ochreous 
(Armstrong). 

Length 13 ; tail 2'6 ; wing 7 ; tarsus 1'75; bill from gape 2-4. 

Distribution. This Sandpiper breeds in North-eastern Asia, and 
has been obtained in winter at the mouth of the Kangoon river by 
Armstrong, in the Calcutta bazaar by Hume, and in Hainan by 
Styan. 

Habits, tyc. Armstrong found this species in small parties of from 
three to h've on sand and mud flats near the sea, associating with 
other waders. 



268 CHARADRITD.E. 



Genus PAVONCELLA, Leach, 1816. 

Bill moderately long, flexible, almost straight ; both mandibles 
grooved, the upper almost to the tip ; nostrils linear, close to the 
base. Wing long, pointed, 1st quill longest ; tertiaries elongate ; 
tail moderate, rounded. Tarsus longer than the bill from gape, 
transversely shielded in front and behind ; hind toe moderate, 
outer and middle toes connected by a short web. 

The above characters are insufficient for generic distinction, bat 
the circumstances that the male is always larger than the female, 
and that at the breeding- season he assumes an entirely distinct 
plumage from that worn by the hen, varying in coloration to an 
extent unequalled in any other species of bird, with a ruff of long 
feathers extending from the nape down each side of the neck to 
the breast, afford ample grounds for placing the Ruff in a peculiar 
genus. He is polygamous, and some of his habits at the breeding- 
season resemble those of polygamous Gallince. 

1468. Pavoncella pngnax. The Huff and Reeve. 

Tringa pugnax, Linn. Sy*t. Nat. i, p. 247 (1766). 

Pavoncella pugnax, Leach, Syst. Cat. B. M. p. 29 (1816) ; SJiarpe, 

Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 500. 
Machetes pugnax, Cuv. Rcgne An. i, p. 490 (1817); Hume 8f Dav. 

S. F. vi, p. 460 ; Davids. $ Wend. S. F. vii, p. 89 ; Hume, ibid. 

pp. 97, 487 ; id. Cat. no. 880 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 357 ; Lef/t/t; 

Birds Ceyl'v- 8<3; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 85; Butler, ibid. p. 429; 

Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 96 ; Scully, ibid. p. 588 ; Reid, S. F. x, 

p. 70 ; Davidson, ibid. p. 821 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1882, p. 287 ; Oates, 

B. B. ii, p. 396 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 323 ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, 

p. 177. 
Philomachus pugnax, G. R. Gray, List Gen. Birds, 2nd ed. 1841, 




BlytA # Wald. Birds Burm. p. 156 ; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 17 ; v, 
pp. 224, 233 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 352. 

Geh-ivala, II. 




Fig. 6f. Head of P. pugnax. }. 

Coloration. Both sexes in winter generally have the forehead, 
lores, and the cheeks white or whitish, often speckled ; sides of 
head and neck indistinctly speckled with brown ; upper parts, 



PAYONCELLA. 269 

including the rump and upper tail-coverts, greyish brown; the 
feathers with dark centres and pale edges ; greater wing-coverts 
tipped white ; primary-coverts, primaries, and secondaries very 
dark greyish brown, the secondaries with white borders and some 
white on the inner webs ; sides of rump white ; tail brown like 
the back ; lower parts, including axiilaries, white ; the fore neck 
and upper breast tinged with brown, to a varying extent, from the 
feathers having ashy-brown bases. 

Very often birds in winter retain traces of the summer plumage, 
and the feathers, especially the tertiaries, commence to change 
colour and assume the variegated tints of the nuptial season at 
times as early as January. 

In breeding-dress, acquired partially by moult, the male has the 
sides of the face and part of the crown covered with yellow 
tubercles, and develops a ruff of long feathers and occipital tufts. 
Scarcely any two birds are coloured alike : the head, throat, and 
breast, with the ruff, are either white, black with a purple or green 
gloss, chestnut or orange-buff, or any combination of these colours 
in the form of patches, spots, or bars. The back, scapulars, and 
inner wing-coverts are variegated with the same tints, and the 
tertiaries are barred or mottled towards the ends. 

Females in summer have the feathers of the upper parts blackish 
with sandy-buff borders, the tertiaries usually with mottled buff 
and black bars ; feathers of the fore neck and upper neck with 
buff edges and blackish centres, giving a patchy appearance to the 
region. 

Young birds in autumn closely resemble females in summer 
dress, except that the tertiaries are not barred and that the lower 
parts are mostly isabelline-buff, only the abdomen and under tail- 
coverts being white. 

There appear to be two moults of the body- feathers in the year, 
but it is not quite clear that the quills are renewed, except at the 
autumn moult. Birds have been taken in North India at the end 
of June that had already almost dropped their summer plumage 
and partly assumed the winter dress. 

Bill dark brown, paler at the gape ; irides brown ; legs and feet 
fleshy yellow to yellowish brown in adults, olive-green to leaden 
grey in the young. 

Length of male about 12; tail 275; wing 7'3 ; tarsus 1-9; 
bill from gape 1/5. Length of female 10 ; tail 2'25 ; wing 6 ; 
tarsus 1-75; bill 1/4. 

Distribution. This bird breeds in the northern temperate zone 
throughout Europe and Asia, and migrates in winter to Africa and 
Southern Asia, but is rare east of India. In the cold season it is 
common in Northern India, but rare in the South, in Ceylon, and 
generally in Assam and Burma, though Gates found it tolerably 
abundant about the mouth of the Sittang River. 

Habits, dfc. In India the Ruff is chiefly met with inland in 
flocks on the borders of tanks and marshes, and in damp grass- 
land, but it is also found about creeks and estuaries in places. 



270 CHAKADRIIDyE. 

These birds feed on insects, Crustacea, worms, &c., and also on rice 
and other grain, and when in good condition are excellent eating. 
They arrive in India as a rule about September, but some come 
much earlier, and they leave in. April, having partially assumed 
the summer garb. They breed in June, and at this time the males 
assemble on small selected dry spots in a marsh, where they fight 
and show off. The eggs, usually four in number, resemble those 
of a Snipe, but are larger. 

Genus CALIDRIS, CJuvier, 1800. 

The Sanderling resembles Trinr/a in almost all respects, but is 
generically distinguished by the absence of a hind toe. There is 
a single species only. 



1469. Calidris arenaria. The Sanderling. 
renaria, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 251 (1766) ; Seebol 

Calidris arenaria, Illiger, Prod. p. 249 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 270 ; Jr.rdon, 
B. I. iii, p. 694 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 244 ; Le Messurier, S. F. iii, 



Trinpra arenaria, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 251 (1766) ; Seebohm, Cliaradr. 
p. 431. 




Birds Bom. p. 356 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 526. 

Coloration in winter. Forehead, lores, face, and whole under 
plumage, including axillaries, white ; upper plumage light brownish 
grey, the feathers with dark shafts and pale edges ; greater coverts 
blackish brown, with broad white ends ; smaller coverts and all 
onter coverts, primaries, and secondaries blackish brown ; inner 
webs of all quills towards base and basal portion of outer web of 
inner primaries white ; all shafts of quills pure white ; rump 
coloured like back in the middle, white at the sides ; middle upper 
tail-coverts dark brown ; tail-feathers greyish brown, middle pair 
blackish near tips, all more or less edged with white, and the outer 
rectrices with white inner webs except at the end. 

In summer the upper parts become blackish with rufous edges 
to the feathers and rufous spots ; fore neck and breast rufous buff, 
with spots and imperfect bars of brown. 

Young birds have the upper parts blackish, the feathers of the 
crown and back with pale grey edges ; scapulars, tertiaries, and 
wing-coverts with whitish broken borders, forming spots ; lower 
parts pure white. 

Bill black ; irides deep brown ; legs black (Jerdon) legs dusky 
grey ( Vidal). 

Length 7*5 ; tail 2 ; wing 4'75 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape I'l. 

Distribution. Nearly cosmopolitan, breeding in the Arctic regions, 
and migrating to the South in winter : at which season this bird 
is common on the coast of Sind and Baluchistan. It has also 
been recorded from, several scattered localities in India and Burma, 



EURTNOKnYNCIIUS. 271 

always from the sea-shore, and once in each case from Ceylon and 
the Laccadives. 

Habits, fyc. The Sanderling has been found in India usually in 
small flocks, associating with other waders, especially species of 
^Egialitis and Trinya. 

Genus EURYNORHYNCHUS, Nilsson, 1821. 

This curious little genus is easily recognized by its remarkable 
bill, which is depressed throughout, and for nearly two-thirds of 
its length is not much broader than high, but the terminal third of 
both mandibles is expanded into a flat quadrilateral disk, bluntly 
angulate at each side and at the end. The nostrils small and 
basal. In other respects this genus resembles Tringa. 

A single migratory species, found in Eastern Asia and Alaska. 

1470. Eurynorhynchus pygmaeus. The Spoon-billed Stint. 

Platalea pygmaea, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 231 (1766). 
Eurynorhynchus griseus, NUBS. Orn. Suec. ii. p. 29 (1821) ; Pearson, 

As. Res. xix, p. 69, pi. ix ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 693. 
Eurynorhynchus pygmaeus, Boie, Isis, 1826, p. 979; Blyth, Cat. 

p. 270; id. Ibis, 1867, p. 169; Harting, Ibis, 1869, p. 427, 

pi. xii ; Armstrong, 8. F. iv, p. 343 ; Hume $ Dai). S. F. vi, p. 462 ; 

Hume, S. F. vii, p. 487 ; id. Cat. no. 887 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 395 ; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 535. 
Tringa pygnisea, Seebohm, Charadr. p. 440. 




Fig. 62. Bill of E. pygmants. }. 

Coloration in winter. Forehead, supercilia, lores, cheeks, and 
whole lower plumage, including axillaries, white ; upper surface 
light brown with dark shaft-stripes ; wing-coverts darker, the 
greater coverts white-tipped ; bastard wing, primary-coverts, 
primaries, and secondaries dark brown, inner webs of secondaries 
chiefly white; rump and upper tail-coverts dark brown in the 
middle, white at the sides ; middle rectrices dark brown, outer 
paler, with edges and shaft-stripes white. 

In summer the upper parts are blackish, and the feathers 
fringed with rufous ; fore neck and upper breast deep ferruginous, 
and the whole breast spotted with dark brown. 



272 CHAKADI11ID.T!. 

Bill black ; irides deep brown ; legs and feet black (Jerdoii). 

Length 6'5 ; tail 1'5 ; wing 4 ; tarsus '8 ; bill from gape 1. 

Distribution. A very rare bird, resorting to North-east Siberia in 
summer and found in winter on the coasts of China, Bengal, and 
Burma. The only recorded localities in the Bay of Bengal are 
Saugor Island at the mouth of the Hoogly (a specimen has also 
once been obtained in the Calcutta bazaar), Chittagong, Akyab, 
mouth of Rangoon river, and Amherst. 

Habits, $c. Scarcely anything is known except that the few 
specimens obtained have been shot on mud and sand flats, in 
company with Tringas and other small waders. 



Genus TEJNGA, Linn., 1766. 

Bill slender, flexible, varying in length, straight or slightly 
curved downwards, both mandibles grooved ; nostril small, near 
.the base of the mandible. Wing long, pointed, 1st quill longest, 
tertiaries nearly as long as primaries; tail nearly square, the 
median rectrices pointed and projecting slightly in some species. 
Tarsus rather short, scutulated ; hind toe present ; anterior toes 
divided to the base, not webbed. 

This genus comprises the Stints, which are distinguished from 
the Sandpipers (Totanus} by having a softer, more flexible bill, 
and by the almost entire absence of any web between the anterior 
toes. The species, about 20 in number, are often distributed 
amongst a number of genera on account of slight differences in 
the length or form of the bill ; but it is evident that all are closely 
allied, more so than the species here referred to Totanus. No less 
than 9 forms of Stint have been recorded from India, Ceylon, and 
Burma ; all are migratory birds, breeding in Northern Asia, and 
the majority are found in India in flocks, feeding on worms, small 
Crustacea, and insects and their Iarva3, which are obtained either 
from sand or mud banks on the coast or in estuaries, or from 
marshy ground inland. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Bill straight. 

a'. Bill from gape not exceeding O8, wing 

under 4. 

a*. All shafts of primaries white in part. 
3 . Wing under 4 ; tarsus 0*8, leaden 

grey T. minuta, p. 273. 

Z 3 . Wing not under 4 ; tarsus 0'75, 

black T. rnjicollis, p. 274. 

b 2 . Shaft of 1st primary white; of 

others brown. 
c 3 . All tail-feathers brown; mid-toe 

and claw 0'9 T. subminuta, p. 275. 

d 3 . Outer tail-feathers white ; mid-toe 

and claw 0'75 T. temmincki, p. 275. 



THIXGA. 273 

b'. Bill about 1, wing 5 to 5'5 ; tail-feathers 

acuminate T. acuminata, p. 276. 

c'. Bill about 1-9, wing over 7 T. crassirostris, p. 277. 

b. Bill curved downwards near the tip. 

d'. Upper tail-coverts chiefly white T. subarquata, p. 278, 

e. Upper tail-coverts blackish brown. 
c 2 . Bill slender, higher than broad ; 

middle tail-feathers projecting .... T. alpina, p. 279. 
d 2 . Bill stout, as broad as high ; middle 
tail-feathers scarcely longer than 
others T. platyrkyncJia, p. 279. 



1471. Tringa minuta. The Little Stint. 

Trinjra minuta, Leisler, in Bechst. Naturg. Deutschl., Nachtr. i, p. 74 
(1812) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 270 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 690 ; Hume, S. F. 
i, p. 242 ; Adam, ibid. p. 396 ; Legge, ibid. p. 491 ; Hume, S. F. iv, 
p. 17 ; Hume $ Da. S. F. vi, p. 46 1 ; Hume, S. F. vii, pp. 228, 487, 
497 ; id. Cat. no. 884 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl p. 884 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, 
p. 85 ; Butler, ibid. p. 429 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 088 ; Reid, S. F. 
x, p. 70 ; Davidson, ibid. p. 321 ; Hume. ibid. p. 414 ; Oates, B. B. 
ii, p. 389 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 365 ; Seebohm, Charadr. p. 435. 

Limonites minuta, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 538. 

Chota pau-loka, II. 




Fig. 63. Head of T. minuta. \. 

Coloration in winter. Forehead, supercilia, lower cheeks, and. 
underparts generally, with axillaries, white, sides of breast as a 
rule brownish and striated ; a brown streak across the lores ; sides 
of head below and behind eye and sides of neck brownish, with 
dark streaks ; upper plumage brown, more or less tinged with 
grey, the feathers with broad blackish shaft-stripes ; tertiaries and 
whig-coverts darker brown with pale edges, the greater coverts 
tipped broadly with white ; quills blackish brown with white 
shafts, secondaries white at base, the white extending over the 
greater part of the inner secondaries ; middle of lower back, rump, 
and upper tail-coverts blackish brown, the sides white : middle 
tail-feathers also dark brown, outer rectrices light smoky brown. 

In summer the feathers of the upper parts are black with broad 
rufous edges : the fore neck and upper breast are indistinctly 
spotted with dark brown and tinged with dull rufous. 

Young birds are blackish above, with rufous borders and some 
whitish edges to the feathers ; lower surface without spots, but 
tinged with isabelline buff. 

VOL. iv. x 



274 CIIAIIADRIID.*:. 

Bill black ; irides brown ; legs and feet deep leaden, in some with 
the middle of the tarsus pale and greenish (Legye). 

Length 6 ; tail 1-5 ; wing 3'75 ; tarsus -8 ; middle toe and claw 
75 ; bill to gape -7. 

Distribution. The Little Stint breeds in Northern Europe and 
Siberia, and migrates in winter to Africa and Southern Asia. At 
that season it abounds in all well-watered parts of India, and it is 
equally abundant in Ceylon ; but it appears to be replaced by the 
next species east of the Bay of Bengal. 

Habits, fyc. This little wader is usually found in India in flocks 
and feeds in marshy ground, in rice-fields, and on the edges of tanks, 
rivers, estuaries, &c., or on the sea-shore. It arrives in India in 
August or September, and leaves usually in May. 



1472. Tringa ruficollis. The Eastern Little Stint. 

Trynga ruficollis, Pall, Reis. Russ. Reichs, iii, p. 700 (1776). 
Trynga salina, Pall. Zoogr. Rosso- Asiat. ii, p. 199 (1811). 
Totanus damacensis, pt., Horsf. Tr. Linn. &ov. xiii, p. 192 (1821). 
Tringa albescens, Temm. Pt. Col. pi. 41, fig. 2 (182.,) ; R. Swinhoe, 

Ibis, 1864, p. 420; Walden, Ibis, 1878, p. 317 ; Lerjge, S. F. iii, 

p. 265 ; Hume, Cat. no. 884 ter. 
Tringa minuta, apud Hume, S. F. ii. p. 298 ; Armstrong, S. F. iv, 

p. 342 ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 461 : nee Linn. 
Tringa ruficollis, Gates, B. S. ii, p. 390. 
Tringa minuta ruficollis, Seebohm, Charadr. p. 437, pi. xv. 
Limonites ruficollis, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 545. 

In winter this Stint cannot be distinguished from the preceding 
by its plumage. It is, however, a larger bird, with a shorter, 
stouter, and blacker tarsus. The \\ing is generally more than 
3'9 long, and the tarsus rarely exceeds *75. Some Burmese birds 
appear to be of intermediate si/e. 

In summer the sides of the face, the throat, sides, and front of 
the neck and upper breast are rich ferruginous red, the chin alone 
remaining whita. The plumage elsewhere resembles that of 
T. minuia. 

Bill, legs, and feet black ; irides dark bro\vn (Armstrong). 

Length 6-25 ; tail 1'7 ; wing 4 ; tarsus '75 ; bill from gape '8. 

Distribution. Eastern Siberia in summer, Japan, China, and S.E. 
Asia, the Malayan Archipelago, and Australia in winter. This is 
the species common in suitable localities throughout Burma and in 
the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, but only occasional specimens 
appear to be found in India, west of the Bay of Bengal. 

Dr. Sharpe has examined the two type-specimens of Horsfield's 
Totanus damaqensis, and finds that one belongs to the present 
species and one to T. subminuta ; but the words in Horsfield's 
brief description, " rachidibus primorum albis " (shafts of the 
primaries white), are applicable to T. riificollis only. 



TRINGA. 275 

1473. Tringa subminuta. The Long -toed Stint. 

Tringa subminuta, Middendorff, Reis. Sibir., Zool., Sauqth. Voq. $c. 

p. 222, pi. xix, fig. G (foot) (1851) ; Jet-don, B. I. iii, p. 875 ; Legge, 

Birds Ceyl p. 889 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 391 ; Seebohm, Charadr. p. 438. 
Tringa damacensis, Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 168 ; Hume, 8. F. i, p. 242. 
Tringa salina, apud Holdsworth, P. Z. 8. 1872, p. 474; Leqge, S. F. 

i, p. 491 ; Blylh $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 156. 
Tringa ruficollis, apud Hume fy Dav. 8. F. vi, p. 461 ; Ball, 8. F. vii, 

p. 228 ; Hume, ibid. p. 487 ; id. Cat. no. 884 bis ; id. 6'. F. xi, p. 323. 
Limonites damacensis, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 553. 

Coloration in winter. Upper parts dark brown, the feathers 
with light brown edges, a dark streak through the lores to the 
eye, and a pale greyish superciliary band ; sides of head arid neck 
light greyish brown, streaked darker ; quills dark brown, scarcely 
any white on the secondaries and narrow tips on the greater 
coverts; shafts of 1st primary whitish in parts, those of other 
primaries brown ; lower back, middle of rump and of upper tail- 
coverts, and middle tail-feathers blackish ; sides of rump and lateral 
tail-coverts white, outer tail-feathers greyish brown ; chin, throat, 
abdomen, and lower tail-coverts white ; fore neck and breast pale 
greyish brown with dark shaft-stripes. 

In summer the feathers of the upper parts are broadly edged 
with rufous, and there is a slight rufous tinge on the fore neck and 
breast, as in T. minuta. 

Bill olive-brown ; iris brown ; legs and toes pale brown (Oates} ; 
legs and feet yellowish olivaceous (Lfgge). 

Length 6 ; tail 1-5 ; wing 3'7 ; tarsus -8 ; mid-toe and claw -9 
to 1 ; bill from gape '75. 

Distribution. Eastern Siberia in summer, S.E. Asia to Australia 
in winter. Common at that season in Burma, Bengal, and Ceylon, 
and prrobably occurring throughout ths Eastern halt of the Indian 
Peninsula. 

.Habits, $c. The Long-toed Stint occurs, like T. minuta, in flocks 
during the winter, but is, according to both Legge and Gates, even 
more of a marsh-loving bird than that species, its long toes 
evidently enabling it to run over soft mud. Hume found these 
two Stints to be brought in about equal numbers to the bazaar in 
Calcutta. 

1474. Tringa temmincki. Temminclc's Stint. 




p. 233 ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 461 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 228 ; 
Hume, ibid. p. 487 ; Anders. Yunnan E^ped., Aves, p. 680 ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 885 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 357 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 892 ; 
Hume fy Inylis, S. F. ix, p. 258 ; Butler, ibid. p. 429 ; Bidaulph 
Ibis, 1881, p. 96; 1882, p. 288; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 589; Ibid 
S. F. x, p. 70 ; Davidson, ibid. p. 321 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 392 ; 
Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 355 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 323 ; Seebohm, 
Charadr. p. 434; Sharj^e, Yark. Miss., Aves, p. 143. 

T 2 



276 

Actodromas temminckii, Cripps, S. F. vii, p. 303. 
Limonites temmincki, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv ; p. 555. 

The White-tailed Stint, Jerdon. 

Coloration in winter. Lores brown, with a white streak above 
them, not continued above the eye : whole upper plumage almost 
uniform greyish brown, with slightly darker shaft-stripes ; greater 
coverts and quills dark brown, greater coverts and secondaries 
tipped white, shaft of 1st primary white, those of other primaries 
brown; lower back, rutnp, and middle tail-coverts dark brown, 
sides of rump white ; middle taif- feathers dark brown, outer 
feathers paler, outer two pairs white ; chin, throat, abdomen, and 
lower tail-coverts white, breast light brownish grey. 

In summer the upper plumage is darker, and the edges of the 
feathers slightly rufous ; the breast is light sandy brown, with 
small dark spots. 

Bill black ; irides brown ; legs and feet olivaceous greenish 
(Legge). 

Length 6 ; tail l'7o ; wing 3'75 ; tarsus '(55 ; middle toe and 
claw *75 : bill from gape *65. 

Distribution. Throughout Europe and Asia and North Africa, 
breeding in the extreme North of Europe and Asia, and migrating 
to the South in winter. This Stint is very common at that season 
throughout suitable parts of Northern India, but is less frequently 
seen to the southward and in Burma, and is rare in Ceylon. 

Habits, &fc. Temminck's Stint arrives in India early, having been 
recorded about Deesa in Guzerat by Butler as early as August 5th, 
and it remains till the middle of May, assuming breeding-plumage 
before leaving. Its habits resemble those of its allies. 



1475. Tringa acuminata. Tlie Asiatic Pectoral Sandpiper. 

Totanus acuminatus, Horsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 192 (1821). 
Tringa acuminata, Biddulph, Ibis, 1382, p. 287 ; id. S. F. x, p. 270 ; 

Seebohm, Charadr. p. 441. 
Heteropygia acuminata, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv ? p. 566. 

Tail-feathers lanceolate and pointed, the outer pairs less 
distinctly so. 

Coloration in winter. Supercilia and sides of head and of neck 
white, with brown streaks ; lores and ear-coverts brown ; hind 
neck, back, and scapulars light greyish brown, with broad dark shaft- 
stripes ; crown similar, but more rufous ; wing-coverts and tertiaries 
dark brown with whitish edges ; greater coverts white-tipped; 
primaries and secondaries dark brown, later secondaries edged 
with white near their tips ; lower back, rump, middle and upper 
tail-coverts, and median rectrices blackish brown, outer rectrices 
lighter brown ; all tail-feathers with whitish edges ; chin, throat, 
and abdomen white ; fore neck and breast pale brownish grey, with 
small dark streaks : lower and lateral upper tail-coverts and lower 
flanks white, with blackish shaft-stripes. 



TRI-XGA, : 277 

In summer the feathers of the .crown, hind neck, and back, with 
the scapulars and some tertiaries, are black with dull rufous 
edges, and the upper breast is slightly tinged with rufous ; the 
dark spots ori the breast are broader and often take the form of 
angulate bars, extending to the flanks. 

Young birds resemble adults in summer plumage above, but 
have the breast almost uniform sandy buff. 

Bill black : irides chocolate ; legs and toes yellowish ochre 
(Whiteley). 

Length 8*5 ; tail 2-25 ; wing 5'4 ; tarsus 1*2 ; culmen I'l. 

Distribution. This bird, a near ally of the American Pectoral 
Sandpiper, T. maculata, breeds in North-eastern vSiberia and Alaska, 
and migrates by China and Japan to the Malayan Archipelago, 
Australia, and New Zealand. A single specimen was shot by 
Biddulph at Gilgit, flying about with a number of Pavoncella 
]_><jnax, on August 1st. 

1476. Tringa crassirostris. The Eastern Knot. 

Tringa crassirostris, Temm. fy Schl. Faun. Jap., Aves, p. 107, pi. 64 
(3847) ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 240 ; Walden, Ibis, 1874, p. H7; Arm- 
strong, S. F. iv, p. 341; Hume, ibid. pp. 433, 464; Hume, Cat. 
no. 881 bis ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 393 ; Murray, Vert. Zool. Sind, 
p. 249 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 353 ; Seebohm, Charadr. p. 421 ; 
Sharpe, Cat B. M. xxiv, p. 600. 

? Tringa canutus, apud Btyth, Cat. p. 268, partim ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, 
p. 688 ; nee Linn. 

Coloration in winter. Upper parts light brownish grey, with black 
shaft-stripes which are broadest on the crown ; sides of head and 
neck whitish, with dark streaks, supercilia and cheeks paler; 
wing-coverts with pale edges, greater coverts with white tips ; 
bastard wing, primary-coverts, and primaries blackish brown; 
secondaries brownish grey like back, but with white borders out- 
side and at the end ; lower back and rump dark brown, with white 
edges to the feathers ; upper tail-coverts the same, but the white 
borders are much wider, the white sometimes occupying the greater 
part or the whole of the feathers ; tail ashy brown ; lower plumage 
white, fore neck and upper breast streaked or spotted with dark 
brown. 

In summer the plumage is blackish above, with whitish edges to 
the feathers, the scapulars with large chestnut spots ; upper and 
lower tail-coverts white, with dark brown spots and bars; chin, 
throat, breast, and flanks so thickly spotted as to be almost 
covered in the middle of the breast with blackish brown. There 
is no rufous on the lower plumage. 

Bill dusky black ; irides dark brown ; legs and feet greenish 
dusky (Armstrong). 

Length 11*5 ; tail 2'5 ; wing 7*25 ; tarsus 1'4 ; bill from 
gape 1-9. 

Distribution. This large Knot , passes the summer in Siberia and 
the winter in South-eastern Asia, the Malay Archipelago, and 



278 CHA.RAD11HD /E. 

Australia. In India and Burma it has only been observed in 
winter on or near the sea-coast at Gwadar in Baluchistan, Karachi, 
and the Laccadive Islands by Hume, at Akyab by Gates, at the 
mouth of the Hangoon river by Armstrong, and on South Andaman 
by Wardlaw Ramsay ; but if. as is almost certain, this was the 
bird identified by Jerdon and Blyth with T. canutus, it has also 
been obtained at Madras and in Calcutta. 

1477. Tringa subarquata. The Curlew Stint or Pigmy Curlew. 

Scolopax subarquata, G'tildenst. Nov. Com. Petroj). xix, p. 471 (1775). 

Tringa subarquata, Blyth, Cat. p. 209; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 689; 
Hume $ Headers. Lah to Yark. p. 288 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 242 ; 
ii, p. 297 ; Adam, S. F. i, p. 396 ; ii, p. 339 ; Blyth, Birds Burm. 
p. 156 ; Armstrong, S. F. iv, p. 342 ; Cockburn, ibid. p. 510 : Hume 
$ Dar. S. F. vi, p. 460 ; Davids. # Wend. S. F. vii,p. 89 ;' Hume, 
ibid. p. 487 ; id. Cat. no. 882 ; Leaye, Birch Guy 1. p. 879 ; Vidal, 
8. F. ix, p. 85 ; Butler, ibid. p. 429 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 96 ; 
1882, p. 288 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 70 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 354 ; 
Seebohm, Charadr. p. 419. 

Pelidna subarquata, Gates, B. B. ii, p. 394. 

Aucylochilus subavquatus, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 586. 




Fig. 64. Head of T. subarquata. ]. 

Coloration in winter. Broad supercilia, generally meeting across 
forehead, white ; lores, sides of head and neck brownish, streaked 
darker ; upper plumage ashy brown, with more or less distinct 
dark shaft-stripes ; wing-coverts with light edges, greater coverts 
tipped with white ; bastard wing, primary-coverts, primaries, and 
secondaries dark brown ; outer webs of later primaries and of all 
secondaries with a white border; secondaries white at the base, the 
amount of white increasing on the inner secondaries ; lower back 
and middle of rump dark brown, the feathers \vith a pale or white 
edge ; sides of rump and upper tail-coverts white ; tail ashy brown ; 
lower parts and axillaries white; fore neck and upper breast 
brownish, streaked with dark brown. 

In summer the crown, neck, back, and scapulars are rich rufous, 
with black centres to the feathers ; both upper and lower tail- 
coverts with large black spots ; the lower parts chestnut with hoary 
edges to the feathers, especially on the abdomen. 

Younrr birds have the feathers of the upper plumage fringed 
with butt or whitish, the lower surface nearly uniform buff. 

Bill black ; irides brown : legs dusky grey (Jerdon). 

Length 8*5 : tail 1-75 ; wing 5 ; tarsus 1*2 ; bill from gape 1'5. 



TRINGA. 279 

Distribution. This Stint breeds in the far North, but the nest and 
eggs were almost unknown before the present year ; it migrates in 
winter to Africa, Southern Asia, and A ustralia. It is common in 
the cold season on many parts of the Indian and Burmese coasts ; 
but, except at the period of migration, is rare inland. It arrives 
in India as early as August, and leaves in Mav, most of the birds 
being in rufous breeding-plumage before leaving. 

Habits, 6fc. In India the Curlew Stint generally occurs in flocks, 
large or small, often associated with other small waders, and fre- 
quents for the most part sand-banks or muddy flats on the 
sea-shore or on the estuaries of large rivers. It is, like most of 
the genus, excellent eating. 

1478. Tringa alpina. The Dunlin. 

Triuga alpina, Linn, tiyst. Nat. i, p. 249 (1766) ; Hume, S. F. vii, 
pp.' 228, 487 ; id. Cat. no. 883 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 70 ; Barnes, Birds 
Bom. p. 354 ; Seebohm, Charadr. p. 425. 

Tringa cinclus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 251 (1766) ; Bhjth, Cat. p. 269 ; 
Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 690 ; Irby, Ibis, 1861, p. 240; Hume, S. F. i, 
p. 242 ; Adam, ibid. p. 396 ; Hayes Lloyd, Ibis, 1873, p. 417 ; 
Butler, S. F. v, pp. 233, 236. 

Pelidna alpina, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 602. 

Coloration. In winter plumage this closely resembles the last 
species, T. subarquata : it is smaller, with a shorter bill, and differs 
in having the rump and upper tail-coverts very dark brown, and 
the middle rectrices, which project considerably beyond the others 
at the end, much darker than the rest. There is also more white 
on the secondaries, and the shaft- lines on the upper surface are 
less defined. 

The summer plumage is very different. The crown, back, and 
scapulars are bright rufous with black centres ; hind neck and sides 
of neck hoary white with black streaks ; and all the lower breast 
and upper abdomen occupied by a large sooty-black patch. 

Bill and legs black ; iris dark brown. 

Length 7*5 ; tail 2 ; wing 4*5 ; tarsus '95 ; bill from gape 1*3. 

Distribution. The Dunlin breeds in Northern Europe and Asia, 
and migrates in winter to Southern Europe, Northern Africa, and 
South-western Asia. It is found commonly in the cold season 
throughout Northern India as far east as Calcutta, and stragglers 
have been obtained as far south as Raipur ; but it has not been 
observed in Southern India, in Ceylon, nor east of the Bay of 
Bengal. 

Habits, $c. The Dunlin in India is as common inland as on the 
coast, and is found along the larger rivers, on the edges of marshes, 
arid in similar places, in flocks. According to Hume it is far more 
abundant inland than T. subarqiiata. 

1479. Tringa platyrhyncha. The Broad-billed Stint. 

Tringa platyrincha, Temm. Man. tfOrn. p. 398 (1815). 
Limicola pygmaea, Koch, Baier. Zool. i, p. 316 (1816). 
Tringa platyrhyncha, Blyth, Cat. p. 269 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 69J ; 



280 CHAHADIUIDJE. 

Hume, S. F. \, p. 244 ; ii, p. 298 ; Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 156 ; 

Armstrong, S. F. iv, p. 343 ; Seebohm, Charadr. p. 433. 
Tringa pygmaea, Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 168. 
Limicola sibirica, Dresser, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 674 ; Hume, S. F. v, 

p. 344 ; id. Cat. no. 886 bis. 
Limicola platyrhyncha, Hnme $ Dav. S, F. vi, p. 461 ; Hume, S. F. 

vii, p. 487 ; id" Cat. no. 886 ; Legge, Birds Ceijl. p. 89d ; Oatei, 

B. B. ii, p. 387; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 356; toharpe, Cat. B. M. 

xxiv, p. 612. 

Coloration in winter very similar to that of T. subaryuata and 
T. alpina; as in the latter, the rmp, upper tail-coverts, and 
middle tail-feathers are blackish brown ; the dark shaft-stripes 
on the upper plumage are broad and ill-defined, and there is not 
much white on the secondaries. The white stipercilia do not meet 
across the forehead. The lower parts are white throughout, and 
only a few narrow dark streaks occur on the fore neck and upper 
breast. 

In summer the upper parts are black, Avith narrow dull rufous 
or \vhitish fringes to the feathers ; crown nearly all black or with 
a few buff spots towards each side ; tertiaries with narrow rufous 
borders ; middle pair of rectrices each with a rufous margin to 
1he outer web; throat, fore neck, sides of neck, and upper breast 
tinged with rufescent and thickly spotted with dark brown. 

Bill brow r n, tinged with olive ; irides dark brown ; legs olive- 
brown (Oates). 

Length 7 ; tail 1'5 ; wing 4*1 ; tarsus '9 ; bill from gape 1*3. 

Distribution. The breeding quarters of this Stint are in the north 
of Europe and Asia ; but in winter it migrates to the shores of 
the Mediterranean and of Southern Asia. It is found on many 
parts of the Indian, Ceylonese, and Burmese coasts, but is locally 
distributed, the only places where it has been found to be common 
being Smd and Pegu, near the mouths of the Indus and the 
Irrawaddy. An Eastern race has been separated by Dresser as 
Limicola sibirica (P. Z. S. 1876, p. 674), on account of the feathers 
of the crown and upper parts having broad rufous edges in summer ; 
but there is no difference in winter, and it appears doubtful 
whether the distinction is sufficient. 

Habits, fyc. The Broad-billed Stint appears to be even more 
restricted to the sea-coast and salt-water inlets and estuaries than 
other members of the genus. It is found in small parties, usually 
associating with other Stints, &c. 

Genus PHALAROPUS, Brisson, 1760. 

Anterior toes bordered throughout by a web cut into lobes, as 
in Coots and Grebes. In other respects the present genus does 
not differ materially from Tringa and its allies. By many natu- 
ralists the Phalaropes are made into a separate subfamily, and 
they have some claim to the distinction ; but they are after all 
only modified Sandpipers, although, unlike those shore-birds, they 
are found swimming in the open sea, sometimes even out of sight 



PHALAROPUS. 281 

of land. They breed in high northern latitudes, on the shores of 
the sea or of lakes, and lay four ochreous eggs, spotted and 
blotched as usual in the family. The males incubate, aud, as so 
frequently happens in such cases, are inferior in size and in the 
completeness of the nuptial plumage to the females. 

Three species are known, differing considerably in structure, so 
that each has been made the type of a separate genus. Two have 
occurred in India. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Bill slender, subcylindrical, anteriorly narrower 

than the tarsus ; wing about 4'25 P. hyperboreus, p. 281. 

b. Bill flat, broader than high, or than the tarsus ; 

wing 5 to 5-5 P. fulicarius, p. 282. 

1480. Phalaropus hyperboreus. The Red-necked Phalarope. 

Tringa hyperborea & T. lobata, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 249 (1766). 
Lobipes hyperboreus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiii, p. 214 ; xxviii, p. 417 ; 

id. Ibis, 1859, p. 464 ; Hume, 8. F. i, p. 246 ; Adam, S. F. ii, 

p. 388 ; Sutler, S. F. v, p. 290 ; Hume, S. F. vii, pp. 150, 487 ; 

id. Cat. no. 890: Barnes, S. F. ix, p. 4-59; id. Birds Bom. p. 357. 
Phalaropus hyperboreus, Jerdon, B. 1. iii, p. 696 ; Blanford, Eastern 

Persia, ii, p. 284 ; tieebohm, Charadr. p. 340 ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, 

p. 177; Sclater, Ibis, 1896, p. 156; Blanf. ibid. p. 288; Sharps, 

Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 698. 
Phalaropus fulicarius, apud Hume, Ibis, 1872, p. 469; id.S.F.i, 

p. 245 : nee Tringa fulicaria, L. 
Phalaropus asiaticus & Lobipes tropicus, Hume, S. F. i, pp. 246, 247. 




Fig. 65. Head of P. hyperboreus. \ . 

Coloration in winter. Broad forehead, more or less of the crown, 
lores, supercilia, cheeks, sides of neck, and all lower parts white ; 
a black band surrounds the eye, except above, and extends for 
some distance behind it ; nape and hind neck dusky brown ; mantle 
blackish brown, with white or buffy-white streaks formed by the 
edges of the feathers ; a broad white bar on the wing composed 
of the white tips of the greater secondary-coverts ; inner second- 
aries mostly white ; middle of rump, upper tail-coverts, and the 
tail-feathers black, with white edges. 

In summer the crown, sides of head, hind neck and sides of 
the breast, back, scapulars, and tertiaries are blackish grey ; down 
each side of the back are buff streaks formed by the edges of the 
scapulars ; wings and tail browner ; sides of neck ferruginous- 
red, united across the fore neck in females, but not in males, which 



282 CHAEADIUID^E. 

have the ferruginous patches divided in front by a dark slaty-grey 
area. 

Bill blackish ; irides brownish black ; legs and feet lavender- 
blue (Butler). 

Length 7'5 ; tail 1'85 ; wing 4-25 ; tarsus - 8 ; bill from gape '94. 

Distribution. This Phalarope breeds in the North of Europe, 
Asia, and America, amongst other places in the Orkneys and 
Hebrides, and in autumn migrates to the southward. Its principal 
winter abode in the Eastern Hemisphere is on the coasts of Arabia, 
Baluchistan, and Sind, where it abounds. It also occurs on the 
west coast of India and on the east coast as far north as Madras, 
where, at times, it is not uncommon ; but it has not been observed 
farther east within Indian or Burmese limits, though it is known 
to visit Japan, China, and the Malay Archipelago. Inland in India 
it only occurs when migrating, but it has been several times shot 
in the Punjab and Eajputana, as far east as the neighbourhood 
of Delhi, about September and May. 

Jlabits, fyc. On the coasts of Baluchistan and Sind this Phalarope 
is found in flocks sitting on the sea, often several miles from land. 
I have seen what is doubtless the same species off Aden, where 
specimens were obtained by Barnes. When swimming thus 
Ked-necked Phalaropes are very wary, and do not allow a boat to 
come near ; whereas on the pools of fresh water occasionally 
haunted by them on laud they are remarkably tame. 

1481. Phalaropus fulicarius. The Grey Plialarope. 

Tringa fulicaria, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 249 (1766). 

Phalaropus lobatus, Tunst. Orn. Brit. p. 3 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1859, p. 464 ; 

nee Tringa lobata, Linn. 
Phalaropus fulicarius, Blyth, Cat. p. 271 ; id. J. A. S. B. xxiii, p. 214 ; 

xxviii, p. 417 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 695 ; Hunte, 8. F. vii, p, 487 ; 

id. Cat. no. 889 ; Seebohm, Charadr. p. 338. 
Crymophilua fulicarius, Sharps, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 693. 

Coloration in winter. Forehead, supercilia, lores, cheeks, sides of 
neck, and lower parts white ; crown chiefly white, but mixed with 
blackish ; a blackish streak, including the eye, continued back 
over the ear-coverts ; nape and hind neck blackish : back, scapulars, 
and tertiaries ashy grey ; wing-coverts and quills blackish grey, 
more or less white-edged; greater secondary-coverts broadly tipped 
with white; bases of later primaries and of secondaries and greater 
part of inner secondaries white ; middle of rump and upper tail- 
coverts and all tail-feathers black, with white or buff edges. 

Females in summer have the crown, lores, and nape black ; a 
large patch on each side of the head, including the orbit and ear- 
coverts, white ; feathers of back, scapulars, and tertiaries black, 
with broad buff edges ; lower parts and sides of body dark vinous 
chestnut; chin dusky grey. In males the crown is like the back, 
and there is much white on the throat and breast. 

Bill in summer yellowish, black at the tip, in winter dark olive 
throughout; irides dark brown; legs and ftet dull olive (Dresser) . 



SCOLOPAX. 283 

Length of male 7'5 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 5 ; tarsus '85 ; culmen *8f>. 
Females are larger ; wing 5*4. Bill flat and rather wide, much 
broader than tarsus. 

Distribution. The Grey Phalarope breeds in high northern 
latitudes all round the Pole, and ranges south in winter even to 
Chili and New Zealand. It has once been obtained by Blyth, on 
May llth, 1846, in the Calcutta Bazaar; no other occurrence in 
India is known. Hume thought he obtained this species between 
Gwadar and Muscat, and as the specimen was mislaid, he was 
unable to re-examine it (S. F. vii, p. 487) : but his dimensions 
show that the bird obtained by him could not be P.fulicarius, and 
the skin has now been found in his collection, and proves to be 
that of P. hyperboreus. 



Subfamily SCOLOPACIN^E. 

The Woodcocks and Snipes have the toes free like Tringa, but 
they are distinguished by a very different style of plumage, which 
does not change with the seasons, and by their large eyes placed 
far backward in the head, the ear-orifice being just beneath the 
hinder edge of the orbit. The bill is long, slender, and largely 
provided with nerves ; whilst the tarsus is short, not exceeding the 
middle toe and claw in length. 

All the members of this subfamily have crepuscular or nocturnal 
habits. Rostratula (Rhynclicea) is an aberrant form. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Sexes similar in plumage ; bill straight. 

a'. Tibia feathered throughout : no longitudinal 

pale stripes ; occiput and nape transversely 

striped , SCOLOPAX, p. 283. 

V. Tibia partly naked; longitudinal pale stripes 

on crown and scapulars GALLINAGO, p. 285. 

b. Sexes different ; bill curved downwards at tip HOSTRATULA, p. 293. 

Genus SCOLOPAX, Linn., 1766. 

Bill long, straight, slender, rather soft and swollen at the tip : 
both mandibles grooved at the side ; nostrils linear, basal, the 
gape in front of the base of the culmen. Wings long, 1st quill 
longest. Tail short, of 12 feathers. Legs short, feathered to the 
joint at the base of the tarsus. 

Two or, including the North American form, sometimes separated 
generically, three species are known. Only the typical one is 
Indian. 

1482. Scolopax rusticula. The Woodcock. 

Scolopax rusticola, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 243 (1766) ; Blyth, Cat. 
p. 271; Jerdon, B. 1. iii, p. 670; Stoliczka, J. A, S. B. xxxvii, 



284: 

pt. 2, p. 70 ; Beavan, Ibis, 18C8,p. 391 ; Brooks, J. A. S. B. xliii, 
pt. 2, p. 253 ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 482 ; A. Anderson, S. F. iii, p. 356 ; 
Godw.-Aust. J.A.S. B. xlv, pt. 2, p. 200 ; Fairbank, S. F. v, p. 409 ; 
Butler, ibid. p. 504 ; Hume $ Dai\ S. F. vi, p. 458 ; Ball, S. F. vii, 
p. 228 ; Laird, ibid. p. 470 ; Hume, ibid. p. 483 ; id. Cat. no. 867 ; 
Bingham, S. F. viii, p. 196 ; Scully, ibid. p. 353 ; Hume $ Marsh. 
Game B. iii, p. 309, pi. ; Williamson, S. F. x, p. 517 ; Barnes, 
Birds Bom. p. 343 ; Seebohm, Charadr. p. 502 ; Hume, S. F. xi, 
p. 318. 

Scolopax rusticula, Wharton, Ibis, 1879, p. 453 ; id. S. F. viii, 
p. 500 ; Legye, Birds Ceyl. p. 806 ; Butler, S. F. ix, p. 428 ; 
Biddulpb, Ibis, 1881, p. 95; Scully, ibid. p. 588; C. H. T. Mar- 
shall, Ibis, 1884, p. 424; Dtrmson, S. F. x, p. 413 ; Gates, B. B. ii, 
p. 380; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 176; Oates in Hume's N.fyE. 
2nd ed. iii, p. 349; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 671. 

Chinjarole (Chamba), Sim Kukra (Kiimaun), Simtitar, Tutitar, II. 

Coloration. Upper plumage a mixture of brownish grey with 
imperfect bars of rufous and black blotches ; forehead and sinciput 
greyish, occiput and nape black with narrow cross-bands ; dark 
loral and cheek bands ; rest of sides of head and of neck buff, with 
black spots ; some large black blotches on the scapulars ; on the 
wing-coverts and tertiaries the colour passes into dark brown with 
rufous cross-bands ; the primary-coverts, primaries, and secondaries 
are blackish brown, indented with rufous on both edges; rump 
and upper tail-coverts barred rufous arid black ; tail-feathers 
black, with their tips dark grey above, silvery white below, and 
with rufous spots on their edges; lower parts brownish white, 
with dark-brown cross-bars, which become black and coalesce to 
some extent on the throat ; chin whitish or white. 

Bill dusky brown, livid at base of lower mandible ; iris blackish 
brown; feet greyish, plumbeous, or drab. 

Length 14; tail 3-25; wing 7'75 ; tarsus 1-5 ; bill from gape 3. 
There is no constant difference in size between the sexes. Indian 
birds are smaller than those of Western Europe. 

Distribution. Throughout Europe and Asia, breeding in the 
North, and wintering in the South. The Woodcock breeds through- 
out the Himalayas above 10,000 feet, and in winter migrates lo 
the lower valleys, and also to the hills of Southern India and 
Burma, being occasionally met with on migration throughout the 
Empire, thus at intervals of years specimens are brought to the 
Calcutta bazaar. Woodcocks are of rare occurrence in Ceylon. 
On the Nilgiris Woodcock shooting is one of the principal sports. 

Habits, tyc. The Woodcock, as its name implies, is usually found 
in cover, often in forest, and as a rule in the Himalayas near 
running water; it is a solitary bird, resting in the day and feeding 
chiefly at night, on worms, grubs, and insects. The presence of 
the bird may often be inferred from the holes made by its bill in 
soft ground when it is searching for worms. It breeds in the 
Himalayas about June, and lays four eggs in a hollow in moss or 
dead leaves. The eggs vary from pale buff to reddish drab, speckled 
and spotted with rufous brown and purplish grey, and measure 



GALLIXAGO. 285 

about 1*65 by 1*4. Woodcocks sometimes carry their young 
between their feet; Mr. Littledale recently saw this done in 
Chamba, and Mr. Davidson in Kashmir. 

Genus GALLINAGO, Leach, 1816. 

The Snipes are distinguished from the Woodcocks by a different 
kind of plumage, and especially by having longitudinal pale bands 
on the head and scapulars, instead of the transverse head-markings 
and blotched scapulars of Scolopax. The lower part of the tibia 
is bare; but in this respect there is a gradual passage into the 
feathered tibia of the Woodcock. The number of tail-feathers 
varies from 12 to 28. 

The Jack-Snipe, G. gdllinula, with only 12 tail-feathers and 
4 ernarginations instead of 2 in the sternum, is by many regarded 
as forming a distinct genus, Limnocryptes. 

About 20 species of Snipes are known, of these 5 are Indian. 

Key to the Species. 

a. A pale median band on crown ; bill exceeding- 

2-5. 

a'. Distance between tip of shortest second- 
ary and that of longest primary not ex- 
ceeding 2 in. ; abdomen barred throughout. G. nemoricola, p. 285. 
b'. Tip of shortest secondary short of longest 
primary by more than 2 in.: abdomen, 
with rare exceptions, not barred. 
a". Wing 5 to 5-5 ; borders of scapulars buff. 
a 3 . Tail-feathers 14-16 ; broad white tips 

to secondaries G. c&lestis, p. 286. 

b*. Tail-feathers about 26 ; narrow white 

tips to secondaries or none G. stenura, p. 289. 

b". Wing 6'25 to 675 ; borders of scapulars 

white G. solitaria, p. 290. 

b. No pale median band on crown ; bill about 

1-75 G. gallinula, p. 292. 

1483. Gallinago nemoricola. The Wood-Snipe. 

Scolopax gallinago, Hodys. Gleanings in Science, iii, p. 240 (1831) ; 
nee Linn. 

Gallina{ro nemoricola, Hodgs. P. Z. S. 1836, p. 8 ; id. J. A. S. B. vi, 
p. 490 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 272 ; Adams, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 506 ; Irbi/, 
Ibis, 1861, p. 241; Jerdim, B. I. iii, p. 672 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, 
p. 166 ; Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, p. 459 ; Hume, Cat. no. 868 ; 
Scully, S. F. viii, p. 353 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 814 ; Hume $ 
Marshall, Game B. iii, p. 325, pi. ; Butler, & F. ix, p. 428 ; Reid, 
S. F. x, p. 68 ; Ditmas, ibid. p. 173 ; Davison, ibid, p. 413 ; Gates, 
B. B. ii, p. 385 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 344 ; C. H. T. Marshall, 
Ibis, 1884, p. 424; Hume, 8. F. xi, p. 318; Oates in Humes 
N. fy E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 350 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 657. 

Scolopax nemoricola, Jerdon, III. Ind. Orn. pi. ix ; Nevill, J. A. S. B. 
Ceylon, 1867-70, p. 138; Seebohm, Charadr. p. 474. 

Coloration generally much duller than that of G. ccelestis. 
Upper parts black; a narrow median coror.al stripe and superciliary 



286 CHABADRIID.E. 

bands, broad edges of scapulars, and bars and spots on wing- 
coverts dull tawny buff ; a dark loral band to the eye and a 
second band on the cheek below the eye ; sides of head, and the 
neck all round dull brownish buff, with broad blackish shaft- 
stripes ; primary-coverts, primaries, and secondaries dark brown ; 
lower back and rump irregularly barred, whitish in front, then 
brownish buff, the bars becoming rufous on the tipper tail-coverts ; 
tail black, with a broad subterminal rufous bar and buff tips to the 
broader median feathers ; outer rectrices brown with whitish tips ; 
breast and abdomen white with dark brown cross-bars, less distinct 
in the middle ; lower wing-covertf and axillaries banded dark 
brown and white, the dark bars on the axillaries oblique, broader 
than the white. 

Length 12; tail 2*2 ; wing 5*5; tarsus 1*4; bill from gape 2-5. 

Bill reddish brown, paler at the base beneath ; irides dusky 
brown ; legs plumbeous green (Jerdon). Tail-feathers 18 normally, 
4 on each side very narrow, the next two intermediate, the six in 
the middle broad; quills broad and soft, the longest primary 
exceeding the shortest secondary by less than 2 inches. 

Distribution. In the Himalayas as far as Dalhousie to the west- 
ward and Sikhim to the east, probnbly farther in the latter 
direction ; also in the hills south of Assam and in Manipur, 
occasionally in Burma, even as far south as Tenasserim, and, as a 
winter visitor only, in the hills of Southern India Coorg, Wynaad, 
Nilgiris, Anaimalais, Shevroys, and probably others. In one case 
this species is said to have been recognized in Ceylon. A very- 
few specimens have been obtained whilst migrating, one at Calcutta 
by Blyth, two at Eussellkonda by McMaster, one in Sirguja by 
Ball, and probable occurrences have been recorded at Nasik and 
Dharwar. 

Habits, tyc. In the Himalayas the Wood-Snipe is found through- 
out the year, breeding at 7000 to 12,000 feet, and descending to 
the lower hills and the Tarai in winter. It is a shy, solitary bird, 
seldom seen, lying very close, usually in small isolated swampy 
spots on the outskirts of forests, and flying slowly and heavily, 
like a woodcock, when flushed. Grubs and insects have been 
found in its stomach. The eggs have been taken by Mr. Mandelli's 
men in Sikhim at about 11,000 feet ; they resemble those of 
other Snipes in colour, and measure about 1*7 by 1*25. 

1484. Gallinago coelestis. The Common Snipe, Full or 
Fantail Snipe. 

Scolopax gallinaoro, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 244 (1766); Anderson, 
Yunnan Expf-d., Aves, p. 681 ; Keebohm, Charadr. p. 484. 

? Scolopax pallinaria, O. F. Miiller, Zool. Dan. Prodr. p. 23 (3776). 

Scolopax coelestis, Frenzel, Beschr. Voy. u. JEier Geg. Wittenb. p. 58 
(1801). 

Gatlinago media, Leach, Syst. Cat. Mam. $c. B. M. p. 30 (1816). 

Gallinago scolopaciims, Bonap. Comp. List B. Eur. fy N. Amer. 
p. 52 (1838) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 272 ; Irly, Ibis, 1861, p. 241 ; Jerdw, 



GALLINAGO. 287 




p. 395 ; Jiume, IS. *. 11, p. ^Uo ; Utttler, , ^. iv, p. 
v, pp. 214, 232 ; Hume $ Dew. S. F. vi, p. 459 ; Ball, S. F. vii, 
p. 228 ; Leffffe, Birds Ceyl. pp. 821, 1218 ; Biddidph, Ibis, 1881, 
p. 95 ; Scully, ibid. p. 588 ; Snarpe, Yark. Miss., Aves, p. 144. 

Gallinago gallinaria, Cripps, S. F. vii, p. 302 ; Hume, ibid. p. 483 ; 
id. Cat. no. 871 ; Bine/ham, S. F. viii, p. 196 ; Scully, ibid. p. 355 ; 
Vidal, S. F. ix ; p. 84 j Reid, S. F. x, p. 68 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 
p. 345. 

Gallinago cceleatis, Dresser, B. Ettr. vii, p. 641 ; Hume 8f Marsh. 
Game B. Hi, pp. 359, 437, pi. (also pi. opp. p. 438) ; Butler, S. F. ix, 
p. 428 ; Davidson, S. F. x, p. 320 ; Hume, ibid. p. 413 : Taylor, 
ibid. p. 405 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 381 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 321. 

Gallinago gallinago, Sharps, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 633. 

Chdha (N.W.P. &c.), Bharak, (Nepal) H.; Chegga, Khada-Kuchi, 
Beng. ; Cheryga, Assam ; Chck lonbi, Manipur ; Myuy-woot, Burm. ; 
Clidha-charai, Uriva ; Tibud, Pan-ldwa, Mahr. ; Mor-ulan, Tarn. ; Muhu- 
puredi, Tel. ; Kceswatmca, Cingalese. 

Coloration. Crown black, with a broad median buff or whitish 
longitudinal band, and a whitish superciliary stripe on each side ; 
a dark brown band on lores from bill to eye ; sides of head whitish, 
streaked with brown ; chin white ; neck all round and upper breast 
buff with dark brown streaks, broadest above; upper back and 
scapulars velvety black, the broad rufous-buff edges of the scapulars 
forming two longitudinal bands on each side; tertiaries irregularly 
barred black and rufous buff; secondary-coverts dark brown with 
whitish spots ; all primary-coverts, most of the larger secondary- 
coverts, primaries, and secondaries blackish brown; all, except the 
outer primaries, white-tipped ; secondaries mottled with white on 
inner webs ; lower back black, with white fringes and bars to the 
feathers; rump and upper tail-coverts rufous buff, broken up by 
black bars and shaft-lines ; tail-feathers black, with near the ends 
rufous cross-bands more or less mottled with black, tips buff; 
lower breast and abdomen white, barred with brow T n on the flanks ; 
lower tail-coverts banded buff and blackish ; under wing-coverts 
and axillaries white, more or less barred with brown, but never 
evenly. The median secondary lower coverts are never barred, and 
the white on the axillaries in Indian birds always exceeds the 
brown in amount. It is probable, as Sharpe suggests, that the 
amount of white on the axillnries increases with the age of the 
bird, but certainly the dark bars are broader and more prevalent 
in European than in Indian skins. 

Bill rufous brown, paler at the base ; irides deep brown; legs 
olive-green. Tail-feathers 14 or 16 in number. 

Length 10*5: tail 2'25 ; wing 5 ; tarsus 1'25 ; bill from gape 
2'6. Females average a little larger than males and have longer 
bills (2-4 to 2-7 in males, 2'5 to 2-9 in females ). Average weight 
of males 4'15 oz., of females 4-27. 

Distribution. The Common Snipe breeds throughout the greater 
part of Europe, Central and Northern Asia, but chiefly between 



288 CHAK.YDIUIDJE. 

latitudes 50 and 70 N., and passes the winter in Southern Europe, 
N. Africa, and Southern Asia. Though found in winter in all 
parts of India, Ceylon, and Burma, at times it is by no means evenly 
distributed. It is the Snipe of the Upper Indo-Gaugetic Plain, 
of Sind, the Punjab, Kajputana, Guzerat, the N.W. Provinces, 
Oudh, and Northern Bengal, and it predominates in the Peninsula 
north of the Godavari, and in some places farther south, at all 
events from October till February, but it is rare in Southern 
India and Ceylon, and to the eastward in Assam, Burma, &c. 

Habits, fyc. The Common Snipe arrives in Northern India as a 
rule in September or the beginning of October, and leaves in 
March. A few stragglers may be met with before the end of 
August and after the 1st of April, and in certain favourite localities 
some birds may remain till May. There can be no doubt that a 
few Snipe breed in Kashmir and perhaps in other parts of the 
Himalayas, though it is extraordinary that no instances appear 
to have been recorded, for it is asserted on apparently good 
authority that birds of this species do occasionally breed in the 
plains of India. In the 'Asian' for 1891 (Nov. 13th and 27th, 
and Dec. l&th) Lieut. G. de H. Smith states that he found a nest 
with three young in Gvvalior territory on Oct. 31st, whilst 
Mr. E. C. Stuart Baker records the breeding of Snipe near Dumka, 
Sonthal Pergunnahs, in July and August, and both Mr. Baker and 
Mr. Hole state that Snipe (whether G. coelestis or G. stenura is not 
mentioned) breed regularly in Cachar. 

Snipe keep to marshy ground, and feed chiefly on worms, which 
they obtain by thrusting their bills into soft mud and feeling for 
their food with the sensitive dilated tip. They also eat larva? of 
aquatic insects, small Crustacea, and mollusca. They move about a 
good deal in the early morning and late evening, and are to some 
extent nocturnal feeders, and they rest during the day amongst 
grass and reeds, or sometimes amongst weeds, where these form a 
thick floating mass, even on comparatively deep water, but Snipe 
never actually sit in water ; as Eeid points out, they are careful to 
keep their breasts dry. "When flushed they generally rise with 
a peculiar sibilant cry, not badly represented by ' psip/ They 
are gregarious, but, except when migrating, seldom fly in flocks. 
Their flight is swift from the beginning, and very often eccentric at 
first, though far less so in calm air under a hot sun than on a cold 
day when a stiff breeze is blowing. As Snipe afford by far the 
best bird-shooting to be had in India, much has been written on 
their habits, and an excellent account is given by Hurne in the 
' Game Birds/ 

In its breeding haunts, the Snipe makes whilst flying a peculiar 
drumming or bleating sound, the cause of which is still somewhat 
obscure, although Legge's explanation that it is due to the puffs of 
air from the rapidly vibrating wing on the expanded tail-feathers 
(Birds Ceyl. p. 1218) seems most probable. The sound is only pro- 
duced whilst the bird is descending obliquely in the air. The nest is 
a cup-shaped hollow in moss, turf, or rushes, sparingly lined with 
grass ; in this four eggs are deposited, round at one end, conoidal 



GA.LLINAGO. 289 

at the other, dull graen to olive in colour, and double-spotted as 
usual. The eggs are very large for the size of the bird, measuring 
about 1-6 by M. 

1485. Gallinago stenura. The Pintail Snipe. 

Scolopax stenura, Kuhl, Bonap. Ann. Stor. Nat. Bologna, iv, 
p. 335 (1830) ; Seebohm, Charadr. p. 477. 

Scolopax horsfieldii, J. E. Gray in Hardw. III. Ind. Zool. ii, pi. 54 
(1833-34). 

Gallinago horsfieldii, G. R. Gray, List Sp. B. Brit. Mas. pt. iii, 
p. 110 (1844) ; Hume # Gates, S. F. iii, p. 182. 

Gallinago stenura *, Gray, Gen. B. iii, p. 583 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 272 ; 
Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 674 ; Beavan, Ibis, 1868, p. 392 ; Blanfurd, 
J.A.S.B. xxxviii, pt. 2, p. 191 ; Godw. -Austen, J. A. S. B. xxxix, 
pt. 2, p. 273; xlv, pt. 2, p. 84; Walden, Ibis, 1873, p. 318; 
G. F. L. Marshall, S. l.i,y. 423; Cripps, ibid. p. 496 ; Hume, 
S. F. ii, p. 294; Parker, ibid. p. 335; Le Messurier, S. F. iii, 
p. 380 ; Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burnt, p. 156 ; Armstrong, S. F. iv, 
p. 340 ; Butler, S. F. v, pp. 212, 232 ; Hume. ibid. pp. 214, 329; 
Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 459 ; Hume 8f Bourd. S. F. vii, p. 39 ; 
Davids. $ Wenden, ibid. p. 88; Ball, ibid. p. 228; Cripps, ibid. 
p. 301 ; Hume, ibid. p. 483 ; id. Cat. no. 870 ; Bingham, S. F. viii, 
p. 196 ; Scully, ibid. p. 354 ; Butler, ibid. p. 501 ; Leqge, Birds 
Ceylon, p. 816; Hume $ Marsh. Game B. iii, p. 339, pi. ; Vidal, 
S. F. ix, p. 83 ; Butler, ibid. p. 428 ; Reid, S. F. x, p, 68 ; 
Rayment, ibid. p. 172 ; Davidson, ibid. p. 320 ; Davison, ibid. 
p. 413; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 383; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 344; 
Hume Sf Cripps, S. F. xi, p. 319; 8harpe > Yark. Miss., Aves, 
p. 144 ; id. Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 619. 

This species is distinguished from the preceding (1) by having 
normally 26 tail-feathers (10 soft broad feathers in the middle, and 8 
narrow stiff feathers, shorter than the others, on each side) instead of 
the 14 in G. codestis. (Occasionally there are, in G. stenura, according 
to Hume and other good authorities, as many as 9 lateral feathers 
on one side or on both, and on the other hand some of the feathers 
are often wanting. These feathers as a rule can only be seen by 
turning back the tail-coverts.) (2) By the wing-lining and axillaries 
in G. stenura being regularly arid evenly barred throughout with 
blackish-brown and white, the bars of the two colours about equally 
broad : (3) by the bill in G. stenura being scarcely broader towards 
the point and furnished with few pores ; that of G. coelestis being 
considerably dilated and broader for the terminal inch and pitted 
with numerous pores, which are best seen in the dried skin : (4) 
by the outer web of the 1st primary being brown in G. stenura, 
white or whitish in G. coelestis : (5) by G. coelestis having broad 
white tips to the secondaries, whilst G. sttnura has narrow white 
edges or none. 

* Often printed sthenura,, which however is incorrect. As Oates has 
shown, the name was originally printed stenura by Bonaparte. Hume, it is 
true, in ' Game Birds,' p. 33'J note, writes under the belief that sthenura was 
the original spelling, but he is mistaken. The .-pelling sthenura appears to have 
originated in a misprint or mistake (Boie, Isis, 1833, p. 1077). 

VOL. IV. U 



290 CIIARADRIID^E. 

As a rule the colour of G. stenura is slightly duller than that of 
G. coelestis throughout the upper parts, and the two may often be 
distinguished by this alone. 

Length 10*5 ; tail 1*8 ; wing 2-25 ; tarsus 1/3 ; bill from gape 
2-4 (males 2-12 to 2-5; females 2-38 to 2-62). The weight 
according to Hume, from whom most of these details are taken, 
averages 3*91 oz. in males, 4-2 in females. 

Distribution. The Pintail Snipe breeds, so far as is known, in 
Eastern Siberia as far west as the Teuesei Valley, and migrates 
in summer to South-eastern Asia an 4 the Malay Archipelago. It is 
very rare in the Punjab, Sind, and N.W. Provinces, Sajputana, and 
Guzerat; but increases in number to the southward and eastward, 
and is found throughout the Peninsula in winter, predominating 
in Mysore and Southern India, whilst on the highlands of the 
Deccan, in Bombay, and the Central Provinces, and even somewhat 
farther south, the Common Snipe is more abundant. In Ceylon 
the Pintail is very common, and whilst in Orissa and Bengal the 
two species are on the whole equally distributed, everywhere 
farther east, in Assam, Sylhet, Cachar, and throughout Burma, 
G. stenura is the Snipe of the country, and only stragglers of 
G. coelestis are found. As the Pintail arrives earlier in the year and 
leaves later than the Faiitail, it is the more common species before 
tiiG middle of October and after the end of February in some 
places, for instance the neighbourhood of Calcutta, where the two 
species are on the whole equally abundant. 

Habits, $c. The habits of the Pintail Snipe are so similar to those 
of the Fantail, that only a few differences need be noted. The 
present species arrives in India fully a fortnight or three weeks 
earlier and leaves later, but up to the present time no information 
has been obtained of its breeding within our limits. Both species 
are usually found in similar localities, but the Pintail feeds to a 
much greater extent on grubs, caterpillars, insects, Crustacea, arid 
mollusca, and much less on worms, its bill being far less sensitive 
and consequently not so well adapted for searching for food in 
mud. Doubtless because of the difference in foods, the present 
species is much more frequently found in dry grass or stubble, or 
low jungle, than its ally is. The cry is slightly different, but I have 
never been able to clearly recognize the distinction; Hume says 
the note of the Pintail is sharper and more screechy ; Legge that 
it is less harsh. The flight of this Snipe is certainly heavier and 
less swift. 

1486. Gallinago solitaria. The Himalayan Solitary Snipe. 

Galliuago solitaria, Hodgs. Gleaning* in Science, iii, p. 238 (1831) ; 
Bhjtli, Cat. p. 272; Adams, P. Z.'S. 1859, p. 189; Jerdon, B, I. 
iii, p. 673; Stdiczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 70; eavan, 
Ibis, 1868, p. 892 ; Hume $ Henders. Lah. to Yark. p. 286 ; 
Hume, Cat. 110. 8b9 ; ScMlly, S. F. viii, p. 353 ; Hume Sf Marsh. 
Game B. iii, p. 333, pi. ; Hume, S. F. ix, p. 283 ; JBiddulph, 
Ibis, 1881, p. 95 ; Scully, ibid. p. 588; -Swinhoe, Ibis, 1882, p. 121 ; 



GAELIN-AGX). 291 

Marshall, -Ibis, 188J, p. 424 ; Hume, $. F. xi, p. 319; Sharpe, York. 

Miss., Aces, p. 144 ; id. Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 654. 
Scolopax hyemalis, Eoersmann, Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 1845, 

pt. i, p. 255, pi. vi. 
Scolopax solitaria, Seebohm, Charadr. p. 475. 

Coloration. The colours of the upper parts much broken up and 
mixed, and with white not buff streaks ; crown black spotted with 
rufous, median band narrow, white ; supercilia and sides of head 
white, speckled with black ; loral band and cheek-band below the 
eye mixed black and rufous ; back and scapulars black, spotted with 
rufous, scapulars with white or whitish borders ; wing-coverts 
much barred with rufous and tipped white ; primary-coverts, 
larger secondary-coverts, primaries and secondaries dark brown, 
with narrow white tips ; lower back with white bars, becoming 
buff spots on the rump; upper tail-coverts nearly uniform olive- 
brown with white tips ; median tail-feathers black, with a broad 
rufous subtermhial band, then a black bar and whitish tip ; outer 
tail-feathers black at the base, white towards the end, with 
irregular dark cross-bars ; chin and throat white, often speckled 
dusky ; breast brown, more or less speckled and spotted with 
white ; abdomen generally white in the middle, barred dark brown 
on the flanks, sometimes barred throughout ; under wing-coverts 
and axillaries banded dark brown and white, the white bands 
slightly the broader. 

Bill plumbeous, black at tip, base of lower mandible yellowish 
b'rO\vn ; irides dark brown ; feet dull olive or pale yellowish green, 
soles yellowish (Scully). 

The tail-feathers vary in number from 1 6 to 24, 8 broader in 
the middle and normally 5 (but the number varies from 4 to 8) 
narrower lateral rectrices on each side. 

Length 12-25 ; tail 2'75 ; wing 6-5 ; tarsus 1*3 ; bill from gape 
2-75. , : 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas from Afghanistan to 
Assam, also in JNorth-eastern and Eastern Central Asia as far as 
Japan and Eastern Siberia. In the winter individuals have been 
shot at Kelat in Baluchistan, at several places along the base of 
the Himalayas, on the Garo and Khasi hills, and near Dibrugarh 
in Assam, and one straggler was once obtained at Benares, but this 
Snipe has not been seen farther south. 

Habits, tyc. This large Solitary Snipe is a widely different bird, 
both in structure and habits, from G. nemoricola ; it is found as 
often in marshes in open country as ; near forest. It is even met 
with not infrequently in the treeless Upper Indus valley and Tibet. 
It feeds chiefly on insects and grubs, and has very much the flight 
and habits of G. stenurai. It is undoubtedly found in the Hima- 
layas at from 9000 to 15,000 feet or higher in the breeding season, 
but the nest and eggs have not been described. 



u2 



292 CHARA.DRIIDJE. 

1487. Gallinago gallinula. The Jack Snipe. 

Scolopax gallinula, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 244 (1706) ; SeeloJim, 

Charadr. p. 480. 
Gallinago gallinula, Blyth, Cat. p. 272 : Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 67G ; 

Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix. pt. 2, p. 273 ; Hume, 8. F. i, 

p. 235 ; Adam, ibid. p. 395 ; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 15 ; Fail-bank, ibid. 

p. 263 ; v, p. 410 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 459 ; Davids. $ Wend. 

S. F. Tii, p. 88 ; Ball, ibid. p. 228 ; Cripps, ibid. p. 302 ; Hume, 

ibid. p. 484 ; id. Cat. no. 872 ; Scully. S. F. viii, p. 356 ; Leyt/c, 

Birds Ceyl. p. 828 ; Hume 6r Marsh. Game B. iii, p. 373, pi. ; 

Vital, S. F. ix, p. 84 ; Butler, find. p. 428 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 69 ; 

Eden, ibid. p. 165 ; Davidson, ibid. p. 320; Dainson, ibid. p. 414 ; 

Taylor, ibid. p. 465; Oatcs, B. B. ii, p. 384 ; Barnes, Birds Jioni. 

p. 346 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 321. 
Limnocryptes gallinula, Kuup, Naturl. Syst. p. 118: St. John, 

Ibis, 1889, p. 176; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 665. 




Fig. 66. Head of G. gallinula. \. 

Coloration. Crown and nape black, with rufous specks, very 
narrow on forehead between the broad buff superciliary stripes 
which rnn from the bill to the nape; no median pale band on crown ; 
sides of head whitish speckled ; a broad dark loral band from the bill 
to the eye, and a distinct dark cheek-stripe from just behind the gape 
to beneath the eye and ear-coverts ; hind neck and sides of neck 
fulvous-brown, with fine black bars and traces of white fringes ; 
back and scapulars black, glossed with metallic green and purple, 
spotted with rufous ; outer webs of scapulars chiefly rich buff, 
forming a broad band down each side of the back ; outer webs of 
tertiaries rufous and black, with buff outer edges ; lesser and 
median wing-coverts black with buff edges ; larger secondary- 
coverts and primary-coverts, primaries and secondaries brownish 
black, tips of the coverts and secondaries white ; rump black, with 
purple and green gloss; upper tail coverts and tail-feathers dark 
brown with butt borders ; chin whitish ; fore neck and upper 
breast brown mixed with white and with dark streaks ; lower 
breast and abdomen white ; under tail-coverts white, with brownish 
shaft-stripes. 

Bill blackish brown at tip, darkish brown on nostrils and along 
commissure, the rest paler ; irides deep brown ; legs pale greenish 
(Hume). Tail of 12 soft, pointed feathers. 

Length 8-5 ; tail 2 ; wing 4-25 ; tarsus -95 ; bill from gape 

I'd. 

Distribution. This bird breeds in the North of Europe and Asia, 



ROSTRATULA. 293 

chiefly north of the Arctic circle, and passes the winter in the 
southern countries of Europe and Asia and in N. Africa. It 
occurs throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma at that season, but is 
rare in the two latter, and most common in .Northern India. 

Habits, fyc. The Jack Snipe generally arrives in India in Sep- 
tember and leaves in April. It is found in similar haunts to those 
of other Snipes, but generally in thicker cover, amongst thick 
grass or weeds or rushes, in damp rather than wet places ; it lies 
very close and rises silently with a peculiar fluttering flight, and it 
never flies far. As a rule it is a solitary bird and has an especial 
predilection for particular spots. Its food resembles that of other 
Snipes, and it is, according to many good authorities, the most 
delicately flavoured in a particularly delicious genus. Of course it 
never breeds in India : its eggs are remarkable for their large size ; 
the four eggs that it usually lays are said to weigh more than an 
ounce and a half, whilst the bird itself weighs but two. 

Genus ROSTRATULA, Vieill., 1816. 

Bill slender and long, but shorter than in Gallinago generally; 
the tip slightly swollen and bent downward, not pitted; both 
mandibles grooved at the side ; nostrils basal. Legs of moderate 
length ; toes long, tibia naked for a considerable distance. Wings 
ample, rather short and broad, first and second quills subequal and 
longest. Tail of 14 feathers. Sexes different in plumage. 

A non-migratory genus of weak flight, with the sexes differing 
in plumage when adult. Three species are known, one peculiar to 
Australia, a second found in South America, whilst the third 
inhabits India and Africa. 

1488. Rostratula capensis. The Painted Snipe. 

Scolopax capensis, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 246 (1766). 

Kail us benghalensis, Linn. t. c. p. 263 (1766). 

Kostratula capensis, Vieill. Noui\ Lict. d'Hist. Nat. vii, p. 1 (1817) ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 683. 

Ehynchaea capensis, Cttv. Reyne An. i. p. 488 (1817) ; Walden, 
Tr. Z. S. ix, p. 235 ; Wood- M ason, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 74o ; Wardl 
Rams. Ibis, 1880, p. 71 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 800; Hume # 




p. 322 ; Seebohm, Ckaradr. p. 456 ; Oates in Hume's N. Sf E> 2nd ed. 
iii, p. 3.50. 




pt. 2, p. 21 ; Butler, S. F. vii, p. 187 ; Ball fy Hume, ibid. p. 228 ; 
Cripps, ibid. p. 302 : Hume, ibid. p. 484 ; id. Cat. no. 873 ; Doig, S. F. 
viii, p. 371 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 84 ; Bingham, ibid. p. 197 ; David- 
son, ibid. p. 236; Davison, &. F x p. 414; Barnes Birds Bom. 



294 

p. 347; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. i ; p. 59 ; vi, p. 130, fig. 873 



Ohari, Nepal. ; Kone, Konchatta, Kol. (Singlibhoom) ; Tihud, Patt- 
laiva, Mahr. (Ratnagiri) ; Mail ulan, Tam. ; Baggarji, Berig. ; Itfiju- 
kfeswatuwa, Cing. 




Fig. 67. Head of E. capensls, $ . \ . 

Coloration. Male. Crown blackish olivaceous, with a broad 
median buff band, narrow ring round the eye and a short stripe 
running back from it also buff: lores brown, sides of head white 
with brown streaks ; hind neck ashy brown, more or less tinged 
with olive and indistinctly barred with blackish ; mantle similar 
but more olive, with rather distant narrow white bars and broad 
patches of dark green fringing them ; outer borders of scapulars 
buff, forming a band down each side of the back ; on the tertiaries 
and wing-coverts broad buff black-edged bands come in and pass 
externally into spots ; quills bluish grey, with fine wavy black lines 
and with oval buff spots on the outer webs, which are black 
towards the base ; rump, upper tail -coverts, and tail-feathers 
bluish grey with black bars ; some buff spots on the coverts and 
tail ; chin whitish ; sides of neck, fore neck and upper breast 
brown, streaked with white on the neck, and ending posteriorly in 
a blackish gorget ; lower breast and abdomen, flanks and lower 
tail-coverts white, a white band passing up on each shoulder 
behind the gorget to join the buff scapular baud ; sides of breast 
behind the white band olive-brown and black. 

In the adult female the lores and cheeks are rufous, passing, on 
the throat, into dull chestnut that extends around the neck and is 
bounded posteriorly by the broad blackish pec.toral gorget ; mantle 
grey washed with olive, with narrow blackish bars, but without 
any buff or white bars or spots (buff spots on the quills, as in 
males) ; a tuft of pure white lanceolate feathers beneath the 
scapulars : otherwise the plumage resembles that of the male. 

Young of both sexes resemble adult males. It is supposed by 
some observers that the female after breeding resumes the male 
plumage, but this has never been clearly ascertained. 

Bill and legs olive-brown ; irides olive-brown (Oates). The 
trachea is convoluted in the female only (see Wood-Mason, I. c.), 
but much less so than in the Australian species R. australis. 



BO8TRATULA.. 295 

Length of males 10 ; tail 1-6 ; wing 5 ; tarsus 1-75 ; bill at front 
1*75. Females are larger : wing about 5*4, bill nearly 2. 

Distribution. Throughout the greater part of Africa, Madagascar, 
and Southern Asia. This bird is common in the Nile valley in 
Egvpt, and has been reported from Asia Minor, but has not been 
observed in Arabia, Persia, or Baluchistan. It is, however, said by 
Hutton to occur at Kandahar, and it was obtained by Captain 
Cook in the Kuram valley, and by Stoliczka on the Wular Lake, 
Kashmir. As a rule it seldom occurs in the Himalayas, but is 
found all over India, Ceylon, and Burma, and, though it is rare in 
Tenasserim and the Malay Peninsula, it ranges east to Sumatra, 
Java, Borneo and the Philippines, the southern and eastern parts 
of China, and Southern Japan. 

Habits, fyc. The Painted Snipe is resident, though it moves 
about the country as its haunts dry or are inundated, and iri some 
parts of India it is only found in the monsoon. It keeps to moist, 
not flooded, ground and thick rushes or grass, often mixed with 
bushes. It has much the skulking running habits and somewhat 
the flight of Kails, and is usually difficult to flush. It swims well. 
The female has a guttural croaking note, that of the male is 
shriller, the difference being due to the construction of the trachea. 
Painted Snipes feed mainly on insect grubs and mollusca, but also 
eat grain, seeds of grass, &c. They afford no sport in shooting 
and are very inferior eating, coarse and muddy in taste. They 
breed probably twice in the year or even oftener, and nests have 
been found at all seasons. The nest is the usual hollow, often 
with a pad of grass or rushes, and the eggs are four in number, 
yellowish stone-colour as a rule, with very large irregular blackish- 
brown blotches, and measure about 1-39 bv 1. 





Fig. 68. Khynchops ulbicollis. 



Order XVIII. 



It is now generally recognized that the Gulls and Terns with 
their allies, constituting the Order Gavice, are nearly related to 
the Limicoke. The resemblance between the two groups is shown 
in almost every detail of their anatomy, and it is even a question 
whether they should not, as has been proposed by some writers, be 
united into one order. Some, points of similarity are well known ; 
for instance, the fact that the eggs of Gulls and Terns so closely 
resemble those of Plovers that a not inconsiderable proportion of 
the eggs sold in Europe as " Plovers' eggs " have been laid by Terns. 
Even as regards the webbed feet, to which the Gavim owe their 
inclusion in the Cm ierian Rotator es, it may be observed that some 
Liuiicoline types, like the Avocet, have webs developed between 
the toes to very nearly the same extent as Hydroclielidon amongst 
the Terns. 



297 

In the present order the bill is generally of moderate length, the 
feet webbed, the hind toe small (occasionally wanting), raised above 
the plane of the anterior toes and riot united with them by web. 
The wings are long, and there are 11 primaries, but the terminal 
one is very short and inconspicuous ; fifth secondary wanting. 
Tail-feathers 12. Oil-gland tufted. Spinal feather-tract well 
defined on the neck by lateral bare tracts, and forked on the upper 
back ; th? dorsal apterium well developed. An aftershaft present. 

The skull is schizognathous and schizorhinal ; vomer well 
developed ; no basipterygoid processes ; nostrils pervious. Cervical 
vertebrae 15. Furcula U-shaped. Two carotids ; caeca present, 
but small and functionless in Gulls. The ambiens is found 
in all except Rhynchops the f em oro- caudal, semitendinosus, and 
accessory semitendinosus are always present; the accessory 
femoro-caudal is present in Sterna and Ithynchojps, wanting in 
Larus and Stercorarim. 

Eggs double-spotted. Nest none or a scantv structure of grass. 
The young are covered with down when hatched, and able to run, 
but they are fed by the parents for some days. 

Scarcely any two writers agree as to the classification of the 
members composing the present order. Apart from the question 
as to whether the Auks and their allies (Alcidcp} should be placed 
here or should form a separate group, a question that does not 
affect the present work, for no species of the Auk family is Indian, 
it is doubtful whether the Skimmers (llhynchopt) and the Skuas 
(Stercprarius) should be regarded as subfamilies of Laridce or 
distinct families, and the separation of the Terns as a subfamily 
from the Gulls has more weight of authority than evidence of 
structural distinction in its favour*. 

The two families of Gaviae are thus distinguished : 

Bill without a cere ; claws moderately curved, not 

sharp ; caeca rudimentary Laridae, p. 297. 

Bill with a cere ; claws strong, much curved and [p. 328. 

sharp ; cseca long Stercorariidae, 



Family LARID.E. 

No cere to the bill. Caeca smail and functionless. Sternum 
with two notches on each side of the posterior margin. 

* In adopting the arrangement of Mr. Howard Saunders, whose valuable 
work of many years on this order has recently been crowned by his British 
Museum Catalogue, I accept his decision without feeling quite satisfied that a 
different classification may not ultimately have to be adopted, as indeed he 
himself suggests. There is much to be said in favour of making the Skuas a 
subfamily of Laridce, uniting Larince and Sternince ae a single subfamily, and 
raising the Skimmers to the rank of a separate family, Rhynchopidce ; or else, as 
recently proposed by Mr. Beddard (P. Z. S. 1896, p. 303), classing all four 
groups, Gulls, Terns, Skimmers and Skuas, as subfamilies of Laridce. 



298 LA.RID.E. 

The Laridce may be divided into three subfamilies, thus dis- 
tinguished : 

a. The upper mandible longer than the 

lower LarincE, p. 293. 

b. The mandibles of equal length Sternince, p. 306. 

c. Bill excessively compressed, the lower 

mandible much longer than the 

upper Khynckopinat, p. 327. 

Subfamily TARING. 

Bill stout, compressed, of moderate length, the upper mandible 
the longer, much curved at the end and usually bent down over 
the tip of the lower, angle of the lower mandible prominent and 
near the end of the bill ; nostrils oblong, some distance from the 
base of the mandible. Tarsus of moderate length, scutulated in 
front; feet large, toes fully webbed, hind toe small and in one 
genus (not Indian) wanting. Wings long, exceeding the tail. 

The Gulls are sea-birds as a rule, though many of them are 
found about rivers and marshes, and even inland far from water. 
They are active and noisy, of powerful flight, and many of them 
are migratory, only two of the species that visit the Indian coasts 
having been found breeding there. They feed but little on living 
fish, chiefly on dead fish, Crustacea, and garbage of all kinds floating 
or on the shore ; and inland they eat insects, worms, eggs, weakly 
or young birds. They habitually rest on the water of sea, lake, or 
river, though they may often be seen sitting on land, and they 
walk and swim well. 

There is but a single Indian genus. 

Genus LARUS, Linn., 1766. 

Characters of the subfamily. Tail of moderate length, square 
at the end. Wing long, 1st primary longest. 

This genus is cosmopolitan or nearly so, but a majority of the 
44 species (several of which are geographical races or subspecies) 
enumerated in Mr. Howard Saunders's British Museum Catalogue 
inhabit the temperate regions of the Northern or Southern Hemi- 
sphere. Seven species have been recorded on Indian coasts and 
rivers, but whilst all of these occur to the westward in Sind, only four 
have been observed in the Bay of Bengal and but two in Ceylon. 

Key to the Species. 

a. A black or dark brown head in summer, traces 

of which usually remain in winter. 
a'. Mantle pale grey in adults. 

a" Size large ; wing- 19 L. ichthyaetus, p. 29.). 

b". Size moderate. 
a 3 . Wing 11-75 ; first quill white in adults, 

with black edges and tip L. ridibundus, p. '300. 



LARUS. 299 

P. Wing 13; first quill in adults black, [p. 301, 

with a white subtermiual band .... L. brunneicephalus, 

b'. Mantle dark brown at all ages L. hemprichii, p. 302. 

b. No black or brown head ; mantle grey. 

c'. Wing 12 ; bill and legs red " L. nelastes, p. 303. 

d'. Wing 18 ; bill yellow in adults, legs 
yellowish. 

c'\ Mantle dark slaty grey L. affinis, p. 304. 

d". Mantle light bluish grey L. cachinnans, p. 305. 

This key applies to adults, young birds are difficult to diagnose 
except by dimensions. 

1489. Lams ichthyaetus. The Great Blade -headed Gull. 

Larus ichthyaetus, Pall. Rsis. Russ. Reichs, ii, p. 713 (1773) ; Blyth, 
Cat. p. 288 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 276 ; Le Messurier, 8. F. iii, 
p. 382 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 233 ; Hume, ibid. p. 497 ; id. Cat. no. 979 ; 
Leqge, Birds Cei/l. p. 1046 ; Tidal, S. F. ix, p. 94: Butler, Hid. 
p. 489 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1882, p. 289 ; Reid, 8. F. x, p. 453 ; Gates, 
B. B. ii, p. 414; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 424; Hume, S. F. xi, 
p. 348 ; Saunders, Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 176. 

Kroikocephalus ichthyaetus, Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 831. 

Larus innominatus, Hume, S. F. viii, p. 394 (1879) ; Gates, B. B. ii, 
p. 416. 

Coloration. In summer the \vhole head and upper neck are 
black except two small patches of white feathers on the eyelids, 
one above, one below; neck all round, lower parts, tail, and tail- 
coverts white; mantle (back, rump, scapulars, tertiaries, and wing- 
coverts) pale grey with a slaty tinge ; first five primaries and 
their coverts white ; outer web of 1st primary except near the end 
and a patch of varying extent on the inner web black, and a broad 
black subterminal bar of varying form on the next 4 or 5 quills ; the 
remaining primaries grey on the inner web, the grey extending on 
the secondaries to both webs, only a border of white remaining. 

In winter the head is white, more or Jess mixed arid streaked 
with brownish black. The black hood is assumed about February . 

Young birds are brown above, the feathers with pale edges ; 
head mostly white ; lower parts white, spotted and mottled with 
pale brown on the sides of the neck and upper breast; quills 
dark brown, the secondaries edged white; upper tail-coverts and 
basal two-thirds of tail white, terminal third of tail blackish brown, 
tipped white. There is a gradual change to grey in the mantle, 
and the amount of black on the earlier primaries decreases with 
age. 

Bill wax-yellow, with a transverse subterminal black band, gape 
and tip dull crimson; bill in young birds dark brown; irides deep 
brown ; legs arid feet dull Indian yellow (Anderson). 

Length 26; tail 7'5 : wing 19; tarsus 3; bill from gape 3 
to 3-8. 

Distribution. This large Gull breeds in Central Asia from the 
Caspian Sea to Eastern Turkestan, and migrates in winter to 
Southern Asia and North-eastern Africa. It has not been obtained 



300 

farther east than Burma, and in Tenasserim has only been observed 
at Amhersfc, but it is not rare in Northern India and in Pegu in 
well-watered tracts, and it is occasionally found, though it is by no 
means common, throughout the Peninsula and in Ceylon. A 
remarkably small female (wing 16-5) from Gopalpur near Ganjam, 
with much black on the primaries, was separated by Hume as 
L. innominatus, but is not regarded as distinct by Saunders, nor 
does the difference appear to me to be of specific importance. 

Habits, $*c. The Great Black-headed Gull is found inland 
about large rivers and large pieces of water, as well as on the 
coast. It is a bird of graceful and powerful flight. 

1490. Larus ridibundus. The Laughing Gall. 
Larus ridibundus, Linn. St/st. Nat. i, p. 225 (1766) ; Blyth, Cat. 




p. 94 ; Butler, ibid. p. 439 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 594; Oates, B. B. 
ii, p. 418; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 425; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 349; 
St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 180; Sharpe, Yark. Miss., Aves, p. 134; 
Saunders, Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 207. 

Xeraa ridibunda, Jerdon, B. 1. iii, p. 832 ; Hume fy Henders. Lah. to 
Yark. p. 301. 

Coloration. In summer the whole head and upper neck are deep 
brown, varying from sepia to chocolate-brown; neck all round, 
lower parts, rump, and tail white ; mantle pearl-grey ; the first 
live primaries and their coverts white except that the tip, greater 
part of outer web and inner border of the 1st primary are black ; 
the 2nd is similar except that there is less black on the outer 
border ; the 3rd has the tip, broad inner border, and a fringe 
running some distance up the outer border black ; the black at the 
end increases on the 4th and 5th quills, but grey begins to replace 
the white; in the inner primaries the black disappears and the 
feathers become grey ; the secondaries are pale grey like the mantle. 
In winter the head is white, generally slightly mixed with 
brown on the nape, and with brown patches in front of each eye 
and behind the ear-coverts. The brown hood is assumed about 
February. 

Young birds are at first brown above, but soon become white on 
the head and grey on the mantle, some of the wing-coverts and 
the tertiaries remaining brown longest ; the end of the tail is 
black, the black bar diminishing on the outer rectrices ; the 
primaries have the borders and the ends black and a white band 
running down the middle. 

Bill and legs deep red, irides dark brown (Jerdon) ; edge of 
orbit deep carmine (Dresser). In young birds the bill is dull 
yellow, legs and feet dull reddish yellow. 

Length 16; tail 4'75; wing 12; tarsus T75 ; bill from 
gape 1'8. 

Distribution. This Gull breeds in temperate Europe and Asia 



LARUS. 301 

and passes the winter in Africa and Southern Asia, ranging to the 
Philippines. It is common at that season in Kashmir and 
Northern India and is found on the west coast as far south as 
Travancore, but to the eastward it has only been observed about 
the head of the Bay of Bengal. Godwin-Austen obtained it in 
Assam, and Hume in Manipur, but it does not appear to have 
been observed in Burma. 

Habits, fyc. The Laughing Gull in India is found alike on the 
sea-coast and about large rivers, marshes, and the larger tanks. It 
breeds inland, but has not been recorded as nesting within our 
area. Dr. Leith Adams, it is true (P. Z. S. 1858, p. 509), states 
that- it breeds on the fresh and salt-water lakes of Laclak, but he 
omits all reference to the species in his subsequent account 
(P. Z. S. 1859) of the birds of that area. 

1491. Larus bnmneicephalus. The Brown-headed Gull. 

Larus brunnicephalus*, Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. xii, p. 25 (1840); 
Blyth, Cat. p. 289; Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) xiv, p. 270; Leith 
Adams, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 509; 1859, p. 190; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. 
xli, pt. 2, p. 256 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 278 ,-- Adam, ibid. p. 402 ; 
Gates, S. F. iii, p. 347; Armstrong, S. F. iv, p. 350; Hume, 
ibid. pp. 413, 456, 459 ; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 31 ; v. p. 235 ; Hume 
8f Dav. S. F. vi, p. 491 ; Hume, S. F. vii. p. 98 ; Oripps, ibid. p. 313 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 980 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 1049 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, 
p. 94: Butler, ibid. p. 439 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 86; Gates, B. B. ii, 
p. 417; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 425; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 349; 
Gates in Hume's N.fy E. 2nd. ed. iii, p. 293; Sharpe, Yark. Miss., 
Aves, p. 134; Sounders, Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 215. 

Xema brunm'cephala, Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 832; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. 
xxxix, pt. 2, p. 275 ; Lloyd, Ibis, 1873, p. 420 ; Hume $ Hendars. 
Lah. to Yark. p. 300, pi. xxxii; WardL Ramsay, Ibis, 1877, 
p. 472. 

Dhomra, H. (Reid], probably a name used for all Gulls. 

Coloration. Very like that of L. ridibundus, both in summer and 
winter ; but the present species is larger, the brown of the head is 
paler in front and becomes darker where it meets the white of the 
neck, and the first five primaries are differently marked, all being 
white at the base with long black ends which rapidly dimmish in 
length from the 1st ; the first two have a large rounded white spot 
near the end, and occasionally there is a much smaller white spot 
on the 3rd. 

Young birds differ from young L. ridibundus in having the 
greater part of the primaries uniform brownish black, white 
commencing to appear beyond the coverts on the 4th and increasing 
on the inner primaries, which have white tips ; there is also a 
more distinct white tip beyond the black band on the tail. 

Bill, inside of mouth, edges of eyelids, and legs deep red ; irides 

* The name brumriceps, proposed by Cabanis (J. f. O. 1853, p. 105), is 
preferable, but has not been adopted by ornithologists. 



302 LAHID.E. 

white, often yellow or brownish in adults : in the young the iris is 
brown, bill yellowish orange, dusky at the tip, legs and feet 
orange, the web duller. 

Length about 17 ; tail 5'25 ; wing 13'5 ; tarsus 2 ; bill from 
gape 2-4. 

Distribution. In winter this Gull is found commonly about the 
coasts of India, Ceylon, and Burma, also on the larger rivers and 
large marshes, tanks, &c. Though common in Assam, Mauipur, 
and Burma, it has not been met with farther east ; and it has not 
been often recorded west of Sind, though Barnes found it plenti- 
fully at Aden. It breeds in Central Asia. 




Fig. 69. Head of L. brunndcephalus in breeding-plumage, f . 

Habits, $c. Like other Gulls this species occurs more or less 
gregariously, and may be seen resting on the water, or ilying about 
and feeding on fish or offal. It has been observed breeding by 
Dr. Leith Adams about lakes in Ladak, and Dr. Henderson found 
it abundant in the breeding-season (July) on a stream running 
into the Paugong Lake at 15,000 feet, but the nest and eggs have 
not been described. 

Larus minutus is said by Irby (Ibis, 1861, p. 246) to have been 
once shot by him in January 1859 near Jehaugerabad, Oudh, but 
as neither Jerdon nor Hume has admitted the bird as Indian, the 
latter suspecting some mistake*, and as no other instance of this 
Gull's occurrence in India is known, I do not enumerate it amongst 
Indian species. It is one of the Gulls with head black in summer 
and white in winter, and if found it may be recognized by its small 
size (wing 8*75 only) and by all the quills in adults being grey 
\i ith white tips. 

1492. Larus hemprichi. The Scoty Gull. 

Adelarus hemprichii, Bruch, Jour. f. Orn. 1853, p. 106. 

Larus hemprichii, Hume, 8. F. i, pp. 45, 279; iv, p. 414; Blanf. 
Eastern Persia, ii, p. 292 ; Butler 8f Hume, S. F. v, p. 296 ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 981 ter ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 46 ; Gates in Hume's 
N. 8f E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 293 j Saunders, Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 221. 

Coloration. In the breeding-season the head all round is dark 

* I am assured by Col. Irby that he knew the species well and identified 
it without doubt. 



LA BUS. 303 

brown, darker behind and blackish at the nape, where the hood 
terminates abruptly against a narrow white collar running round 
the back and sides of the neck, but the blackish-brown area is 
carried far down the fore neck till it meets the paler greyish-brown 
of the lower neck, upper breast, and sides of breast, the white 
collar also fading into the same; mantle, including rump, dark 
brown ; quills blackish, all except the first 3 or 4 primaries white- 
tipped; some white on the edge of the wing, but wing-lining brown 
like the mantle ; middle of breast, abdomen, tail-coverts above and 
below, and tail white. 

In winter the white collar is wanting, the head paler and 
mottled whitish, chin white, throat and fore neck mottled white 
and brown. Generally some traces of a dark subterminal bar are 
seen on the tail. 

Young birds have the upper plumage lighter brown, with broad 
\vhity-bro\vn fringes to the scapulars, tertiaries, and wing-coverts, 
and the tail is dark brown. The brown on the tail diminishes 
gradually and becomes a subterminal band in birds with adult 
plumage otherwise. 

Bill pale greenish drab, the tip red, divided from the green by a 
black bar ; irides brown ; legs and feet pale yellowish drab (Butler). 
In younger birds the bill is dusky, tipped with orange, and the legs 
brownish plumbeous. 

Length of males 19 ; tail 5 ; wing 14 ; tarsus 2 ; bill from gape 
2-6. Females are rather smaller. 

Distribution. Common on the coasts of the Lower Red Sea, of 
East Africa as far south as Zanzibar, and of Southern Arabia, 
Baluchistan, and Sind. A single individual was seen by Hume at 
Bombay, but this Gull, though very abundant on the Makran coast, 
becomes scarce east of the mouths of the Indus. 

Habits, #c. This is a marine species and has not been noticed 
inland. It is in many places very tame and collects around fishing- 
boats to feed on fish offal, even coming when the fishermen call 
and make a sign of throwing something out. Large flocks are 
often seen resting on the sea. It breeds on small rocky islands, 
and Butler obtained many eggs in August from Astola near Pasni, 
Makrau. The eggs are whitish stone to brownish buff in colour, 
freely but not very thickly spotted with dark brown and pale lilac, 
and measure about 2 - 27 by 1*58. 

1493. Lams gelastes. The Slender-billed Gull. 

Larus gelastes, Licht., Thienem. Fortpjlanz. Vog. Eur. pt. v, p. 22 
(1838) ; Blanf. Eastern Persia, ii, p. 291 ; Hume, Cat. no. 981 
quat. ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 426 ; Gates in Hume's N. fy E. 
2nd ed. iii, p. 294 ; Saunders, Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 230. 

Xema lambruschini, Bonap. Icon. Faun. Ital., Ucc. pp. 135, 136 *, 
pi. 45 (1840). 

Larus lambruschini, Hume, 8. F. i, p. 274 ; Butler, S. F. v, p. 286. 

Coloration. Head, neck, under surface, upper tail-coverts, and 
tail white; all, .except the head, suffused with a roseate tinge that 



304 

disappears generally in dried skins ; mantle pearl-grey, coverts 
and quills a little darker; outer primary -co verts and greater part 
of first four primaries white ; on 1st primary the outer web, tip and 
edge of inner web, on the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th the tip, a broad inner 
border and a small portion, varying in amount, of the outer border 
are black ; the 4th is grey on the inner web near the shaft, the 
5th and 6th on both webs, they also having black ends ; 7th and 
later primaries grey like secondaries. 

There is apparently no change in winter. Young birds have 
some brown on the mantle, retained longest on the wing-coverts 
and tertiaries ; the black portions of the primaries occupy more of 
the feathers than in adults, and there is a dark brown terminal 
band to the tail. 

Bill deep red ; eyelids bright red, irides pale yellow ; lesjs and 
feet deep red (Hume). Immature birds have bill, legs, and feet 
pale orange. 

Length of males 18; tail 4-6; wing 12 ; tarsus 2 ; bill from 
gape 2-5. Females are rather smaller, wing 11. 

Distribution. Mediterranean, Black Sea, Caspian, Red Sea, and 
Persian Gulf; west coast of Africa as far south as Senegambia, 
and in winter the coasts of Baluchistan and Sind, where this Gull 
is very common at that season. 

Habits, <Sfc. A sea-bird, not usually found on fresh waters. At 
Karachi and along the Makran coast, in winter, it occurs in vast 
flocks, that generally rest on shore in the middle of the day, but 
Butler found that it had almost disappeared in May. He, how- 
ever, found this species breeding in a salt swamp nearHormara, on 
the Makran coast, and he obtained eggs at the end of July. They 
were laid, usually three in each nest, on pads of seaweed, were as a 
rule dull whitish, with numerous spots and blotches of dark brown 
and greyish lilac, and measured about 2-18 by 1'52.. 

1494. Lams affinis. The Dark-backed Herring-Gull. 

Lams fuscus. apud Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 792 ; id. Cat., p. 288, 

pt. ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 830 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, pp. 176, 314 ; 

Blanf. Eastern Persia, ii, p. 290 ; nee Linn, (cotif. Hume, S. F. iv, 

p. 603). 
Larus affinis, Reinhardt, Vidensk. Meddel. 1853, p. 78 ; Saundera, 

P.Z.S. 1878, p. 171 : Hume, S. F. vii, p. 403; id. Cat. no. 978 

ter ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 94 ; Butler, ibid. p. 439 ; Barnes, Birds 

Bom. p. 424 ; Saunders, Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 254. 
Larus fuscescens, Hayes Lloyd, Ibis, 1873, p. 420. 
Larus occidentalis, apud Hume, 8. F. i, p. 273 ; ii, p. 50 ; iv ; pp. 414, 

418. 

Coloration. Head and neck all round, rump, tail, and whole 
under surface, with wing-lining, white; mantle slate-grey; all 
quills and longer scapulars with w r hite tips, and the first 6 to 8 
primaries partly black ; on the first primary the black extends 
from the coverts, with the exception of a grey wedge on the inner 
\veb, to within about 2-5 in. of the tip, then comes a broad white 



LARtJS. 305 

band, and then a subterminal black bar and white tip ; on the 
second the grey wedge comes farther down the inner web, the rest 
is black, except the white tip about half an inch long, and in some 
birds a white spot near the tip ; in the third and subsequent 
primaries the grey base comes farther and farther down both webs, 
the black is reduced to a subterminal band and finally disappears. 

The only difference in winter is that there are almost always a 
few brown spots on the crown and hind neck. 

Young birds are brown above with broad whitish edges to the 
feathers ; quills blackish brown ; rump and upper tail-coverts 
white, with large brown spots : rectriees dark brown, mottled with 
white towards the base and tipped white ; lower surface brownish 
at first, then white, blotched with brown at the sides. In the 
next phase the back-feathers and scapulars are irregularly banded 
with light brown, which afterwards becomes grey, and there is a 
gradual passage to the adult- plumage, which is said only to be 
attained after the fourth autumnal moult. 

Bill in adults yellow, with a bright red patch on lower mandible 
near the tip ; gape and eyelids orange-red ; irides pale yellow to 
white ; legs and feet pale yellow : young birds have the bill black 
at the end, fleshy white at the base ; irides brown ; legs greyish 
fleshy (Hume). 

Length of males 24 ; tail 7 ; wing 17 ; tarsus 2'75 ; middle toe 
and claw 2-4 ; bill from gape 3. Females are slightly smaller. 

Distribution. This Gull breeds in N.E. Europe and Siberia, and 
visits the coast of Somaliland, Southern Arabia, Baluchistan, and 
Western India in winter, extending south on the Malabar coast as 
far as Ratnagiri or farther, but not occurring, so far as is known, 
on the east coast of the Peninsula. It is particularly abundant at 
Karachi. 

Habits, fyc. A comparatively familiar bird, often haunting towns 
and villages near the sea-shore. Hume found it abundant about 
the fishermen's houses at Karachi. The mantle does not appear 
to become darker in the breeding-season as that of L. fuscus 
does. 

1495. Larus cachinnans. The Yellow-legged Herring-Gull. 

Lama cachinnans, Pallas, Zooqr. Rosso-Asiat. ii, p. 318 (1811) ; 

Sounders, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 169 ; Hume, Cat. no. 978 bis ; Sanies, 

Birds Bom. p. 423 : Saunders, Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 206. 
Larus argentatus, apnd Hume 8f Hcnders. Lah. to Yark. p. 299 ; 

Hume, S. F. i, p. 270 ; ii, p. 50 ; vii, p. 463 j Blanf. Eastern 

Persia, p. 290. 

This species only differs from L. ciffmis in having the mantle in 
adults much paler, light bluish grey instead of slate-grey. Young 
birds are absolutely undistinguishable. The soft parts and the 
dimensions are similar. The present species is merely a climatic 
or geographical race of the Common Herring-Gull, L. argentatus^ 
distinguished by slight differences in the colours of the i'eet and 

VOL. IV. X 



806 LABILE. 

bill, and, it is said, by the mantle being a shade darker. The 
eastern Asiatic bird L. vegce is another closely allied race. 

Distribution. L. cachinnans inhabits Southern Europe, Northern 
Africa, and South-western Asia, ranging in winter as far east as 
the head of the Bay of Bengal. It is common at that season 
about some of the large jheels of Northern India, and is found in 
Kashmir, whilst it abounds on the coast of Baluchistan and Sind. 
The habits are precisely the same as those of L. affinis, except that 
the present species occurs inland in winter. 



Subfamily STERNIN.E. 

The Terns, which constitute this subfamily, are more lightly 
built birds than the Gulls and have a different flight ; moreover 
they are to a far less degree swimming birds, for they rarely 
settle on the water; when they alight, it is generally on land 
(Anous is an exception). They subsist chiefly on living prey, 
especially fishes, which they capture by darting upon them ; many 
Terns also feed on Crustacea or various floating animals that 
they scoop up from the sea, and others live to a great extent on 
insects. 

The bill is straight, generally slender, the mandibles of about 
equal length, with acute tips ; nostrils linear ; tail as a rule distinctly 
forked, often exceeding the closed wings, which are long ; legs and 
feet, with but few exceptions, small. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Outermost tail-feathers longest. 

a'. Tail scarcely forked, short, less than 
half as long as wing ; webs between 
toes deeply emarginate HYDRO CHE LID ON, p. 307. 

b'. Tail distinctly forked but short, scarcely 
more than ^ wing ; bill and legs stout 
and strong ; bill half as long as tail or 
more; webs between toes fully de- 
veloped " HYDROPROGNE, p. 309. 

c. Tail distinctly forked, with the outer 
rectrices more or less prolonged, and 
generally more than half as long as 
wing ; bill moderate ; webs well de- 
veloped STERNA, p. 310. 

b. Outer tail-feathers short, 3rd or 4th from 

outside longest ; plumage dark ANGUS, p. 325. 

Terns are known as Tthari, Ganga-cldl, and Mach-loulca in 
Hindi ; liamadasu and Samdrapukaha in Telugu ; Kivi by the 
Gonds; Liniya and MutJieru Kerella by the Cingalese; Kadal 
Kuruvi by Ceylon Tauiuls ; and as Zin-yan and Myit-htway in 
Burmese. 



HTDROCHELIDOtf. 307 

Genus HYDRQCHELIDON, Bole, 1822. 

Bill short and slight, moderately compressed ; legs and feet 
small ; webs between the tor s deeply emarginate, so that the feet 
appear only half-webbed ; claws long and curved. Wings long, 
exceeding the tail when closed ; tail short, scarcely forked. All 
are black or dark grey below in breeding-plumage. 

This genus is widely distributed and comprises four species, of 
which two are Indian. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Bill from gape about 1 '6 ; only crown and nape 

are black in summer H. hybrida, p. 807. 

b. Bill from pape 1'3 ; head, neck, and lower 

parts black in summer H. leucoptera, p. 308. 

1496. Hydrochelidon hybrida. The Whiskered Tern. 

Sterna hybrida, Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso- Asiat. ii, p. 338 (1811); Hu me 
S. F. i, p. 281 ; Adam, ibid. p. 403 ; Oates, S. F. iii, p. 348 ; id 
in Hum's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 305. 

Sterna leucopareia, Natt. in Temm. Man. d'Orn. ed. 2 e , ii, p. 746 
(1820) ; A. Anderson, Ibis, J872, p. 81. 

Viral va indica, Steph. in Shaw's Gen. Zool. xiii, pt. 1, p. 169 (1825). 

Hydrochelidon indica, Blyth, Cat. p. 290 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 837 ; 
King, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 218 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. 
xxxix, pt. 2, p. 275 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 256 ; Hume 
$ Senders. Lah. to Yark. p. 301 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 648 ; Butler, 
S. F. iv, p. 32 ; v, p. 235 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 233. 

Hydrochelidon hybrida, Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 491 ; Davids, fy 
Wend. S. F. vii, p. 93 ; Cripps, ibid. p. 313 ; Hume, Cat. no. 984 ; 
Lefff/e, Birds Ceyl. p. 996 ; Butler, S. F. ix, p. 440 ; Biddulph, 
Ibis, 1881, p. 102 ; Scully, ibid. p. 594 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 86 ; Oates, 
B. B. ii, p. 419 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 427 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 350 ; 
Sharpe, Yark. Miss., Aves, p. 135 ; Saunders, Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 10. 

Sterna innotata, Beacon, Ibis, 1868, p. 404 ; Hume, S. F. iv, p. 224. 

The Small Marsh-Tern, Jerdon. 




Fig. 70. Head of H. hybrida. 



Coloration in winter. Forehead, sides of head below eyes, sides 
of neck, and all lower parts including wing-lining white; crown 
greyish white, with black centres to the feathers, the black increasing 
on the nape and sometimes almost covering it, and forming a 
band behind the eye ; a black spot in front of the eye and some 
black specks on the lores ; behind the nape is more or less of a 
\vhite collar ; all the upper parts from the neck, including the 



308 

rump and tail, light ashy grey ; primaries darker and brown, 
except on the outer webs in fresh plumage. 

In summer the forehead, crown, and nape, with the sides of the 
head down to the lower edge of each orbit, are black ; gape and a 
streak from it to the nape white ; upper parts ashy, darker than 
in winter ; chin, throat, vent, and under tail-coverts white ; fore- 
neck and breast dark grey, passing into sooty black on the 
abdomen. 

Young birds have the crown and mantle partly or wholly 
blackish brown, with rufous edges 4o the feathers. 

Bill red ; irides brown ; legs and toes dull red (Oates). The 
bill and legs are a darker red in winter than in summer. 

Length 10; tail 3vl. ; wing 9 ; tarsus -9 ; bill from gape 1-6. 

Distribution. Temperate parts of Europe, the whole of Africa, 
Southern Asia, the Malay Archipelago, and Australia. In India, 
Ceylon, and Burma this is one of the commonest Terns, especially 
in Northern India, where it is resident and breeds, but many of 
the birds seen in India in the cold season probably breed farther 
north. Great numbers make their n sts on the lakes of Kashmir. 

Habits, $c. The Whiskered Tern in India abounds about 
marshes, tanks, rivers, and paddy fields, it is also found about 
estuaries in Burma. It breeds not on churs, as Jerdon thought, 
but amongst rushes or on floating water-plants in large marsh}'- 
lakes. The nest is large, roughly made of reeds or si raw, and the 
eggs, usually three in number, measure about 1-51 by 1-09, and are 
pale olive or greenish, doubly spotted with purplish grey and 
brown. The eggs have been taken in Kashmir and the N.W. 
Provinces in the months of June, July, and August. 

1497. Hydrochelidon leucoptera. The White-winged Black Tern. 

Sterna leucoptera, Meisner fy Schinz, Voy. Schweiz, p. 204 (1815). 
Hydrochelidon leucoptera, Boie, Isis, 1822, p. 503 ; Hume, Ibis, 

1870, p. 436 ; id. S. F. vii, p. 445 ; id. Cat. no. 984 bis ; id. S. F. 

viii, p. 495; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 1000 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 420 ; 

Saimders, Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 6. 
Hydrochelidon nigra, apud Jerdon, B. I. in, App. p. 875 ; nee Sterna 

nigra, L. 
Sterna nigra, apud Holds worth, P. Z. 8. 1872, p. 481. 

Coloration. In winter plumage this Tern is scarcely dis- 
tinguishable from H. hyltrida, except by size. Young individuals 
of the present species may generally be recognized by th^ir white 
upper tail-coverts, and adults by their smaller and darker bills. 

In breeding-plumage the whole head and neck, the back and 
lower parts to the vent, including the wing-lining, are black ; 
scapulars blackish grey ; tertiaries dark grey ; coverts and quills 
paler grey (the first two or three primaries generally brownish 
black), and the smaller coverts on the edge of the wing white ; 
rump, upper and lower tail-coverts, and tail white. In many 
birds, probably immature, the tail-feathers are ashy or pearly grey, 
especially towards the tips. 



HYDROPROtKN'E. 309 

Bill livid red in summer, reddish black in winter and in young 
birds ; irides dark brown ; legs vermilion. 

Length 9*5 ; tail 2*8 ; wing 8 25 ; tarsus '75 ; bill from gape 1*3. 

Distribution. Temperate Europe and Asia, south of lat. 55 N., 
in summer, Africa to Australia in winter. This Tern has not 
been clearly identified from any part of India west of Tipperah, 
whence a specimen was sent to Mr. Hume, but it has been several 
times shot in Ceylon ; Gates found it common at the mouth of 
the Sittang, in Burma, and a skin was sent from South Andaman 
by Mr. de Koepstorff. 

Genus HYDROPROGNE, Kaup, 1829. 

This is a genus of Terns distinguished by its stout and long 
beak and legs, and by its very short tail, only about one-third the 
length of the wing. 

There is only a single species, which is the largest Tern known. 

1498. Hydroprcgne caspia. The Caspian Tern. 
Sterna caspia. Pall. Nov. Comm. Petrop. xiv, i, p. 582, tab. xxii, 




B. B. p. 427 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 428 ; Oates in Humes N. $ E. 

2nd ed. iii, p. 295. 
Hydroprogne caspia, Kaup, Nat'drl. Syst. pp. 91, 196; Saunders, 

Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 32. 
Sylochelidon caspius, Brehm, Vb'g. Deutschl. p. 770 ; Blytli, Cat. 

p. 290 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 835 ; King, J. A. 8. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, 

p. 218 ; Holdsworth, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 480 ; Hume, S. F. iv, 

p. 414. 

The Largest Tern, Jerdon ; Kekra, Sind. 




Fig. 71. Head of H. caspia. \. 

Coloration. In summer plumage the forehead, crown, nape, and 
sides of head to below the eye black glossed with dark green ; 
remainder of upper plumage, with wings, pearl-grey ; the inner 
webs of the primaries (and the outer webs, when the frosted 
surface has worn off) darker ; rump and tail still paler ; lower 
plumage with sides, and sometimes back, of neck, cheeks, and 
lower iores pure white. 



310 LAKID^E. ; 

In winter the upper part of the head is white broadly streaked 
with black, and there is a white collar behind the head all round. 

Young birds resemble adults in winter plumage, but have more 
black round the orbit : at an early stage the scapulars, tertiaries, 
wing-coverts, and tail-feathers are dark brown or barred with 
brown and have whitish edges ; the primaries are blackish. 

Bill coral-red in summer, duller in winter, with the terminal 
portion dusky ; irides dark brown ; legs and feet black. 

Length 20 ; tail 5*75, depth of fork 1'25 ; wing 15'5 ; tarsus 
1-75 ; bill from gape 3-8. 

Distribution. JNorth America soufh of the Arctic circle, Europe 
as far north as 60 N. lat., all Africa, temperate and tropical 
Asia, the Malay Archipelago, Australia, and New Zealand. This 
Tern occurs in many parts of India, Ceylon, and Burma, but is by 
no means generally distributed. It is particularly common in 
Sind. 

Habits, $'c. The Caspian Tern occurs singly or in pairs about 
rivers and large pieces of water, fresh or salt, and also on the sea- 
coast, and it may be recognized at a considerable distance by its 
habit, when looking for food, of flying over the water with its bill 
directed downwards. It has a harsh cry, which it always utters, 
according to Hume, when hit by a shot, and it lives on fish and 
prawns. The majority of the Caspian Terns visiting India 
probably breed elsewhere one great breeding-place is on an island 
at the head of the Persian Gulf but this species is not truly 
migratory ; and a small colony was found by Mr. H. Parker, in 
June, breeding on one of the sand-banks at Adam's Bridge, North 
Ceylon. One or two eargs, greyish white or buff, and double- 
spotted, each measuring about 2'43 by 1*70, were found in each 
case in a small hollow in the sand. 

Genus STERNA, Linn., 1766. 

Bill varying, but as a rule long, slender, and straight, or very 
slightly curved, more or less compressed ; feet as a rule small, but 
the toes completely webbed ; the tarsus a Jittle shorter than the 
middle toe and claw, except in S. anglica, in which it is slightly 
lengthened. "Wings long, first primary longest. Tail varying in 
length, always distinctly forked, the outer pair of rectrices con- 
siderably longer than the others. 

In the British Museum Catalogue S. anglica and S. seena are 
regarded as generically distinct, each being placed in a genus by 
itself, whilst S. ancestheta and S. fuliginosa, which form a link 
with Anous, and appear to have better claims to separation than 
S. seena., are left in the genus. On the whole it is most convenient 
to group all under Sterna. 

Terns are of world-wide distribution, and the genus Sterna 
includes about 35 species, of which sixteen are Indian. All the 
species have a peculiar flight, and capture their food by pouncing 
on it or by scooping it up from the water, and they very rarely 
are seen swimming. 



STERNA. 311 

Key to the Species. 

a. Mantle grey. 

'. Crown black in the breeding-season. 
a". Large Terns, wing above 11 ; tarsi black 

or blackish. 
a 3 . Bill black throughout ; tarsus longer 

than mid-toe and claw S. anglica, p. 311. 

b 3 . Bill black, the tip yellow ; tarsus not 

longer than mid-toe and claw .... S. cantiaca, p. 312. 
c 3 . Bill yellow ; a distinct nuchal crest. 
# 4 . No white forehead in breeding- 
plumage ; wing 12 S. media, p. 313. 

# 4 . A white forehead always; wing 14. S. bergii, p. 314. 
b". Middle-sized Terns ; wing 8 to ll'o. 
d 3 . Tarsi yellow or red. 
t' 4 . Bill orange-yellow. 

a 5 . Bill stout; wing 11; abdomen 

white S. seena, p. 31 5. 

b 5 . Bill slender ; wing 9 ; abdomen 

black in breeding-season S. meZawypster, p. 310. 

d 4 . Bill red or dusky. 

c 5 . Lower parts dark vinaceous grey. S. albigena, p. 317. 
d*. Lower parts pale grey or white, 
outermost rectrices with dark 

grey outer webs S. flumatilis, p. 318. 

e 5 . Lower parts white or roseate, 
outermost rectrices almost white 

throughout , S. dougalli, p. 319. 

e 3 . Tarsi blackish ; wing 1O5 S. lonyipennis, p. 319. 

c". Small Terns ; wing less than 8. 

y 3 . Shafts of primaries white in adults. . S. sinensis, p. 320. 
ff 3 . Shafts of first two primaries brown 

or brownish S. minuta, p. 321. 

h 3 . Shafts of first three primaries 

blackish S. saundersi, p. 321. 

b'. Crown always white, nape and band 
through eyes black ; bill black ; tarsi dark 

brown ; wing 8'5 S. melanauchen, p. 322. 

b. Mantle dark brown. 

c'. Wing 9-5 S. ancestheta, p. 323. 

d'. Wing 11-5 S.fuliyinosa, p. 324. 

1499. Sterna anglica. The Gull-billed Tern. 

Sterna anglica, Mont. Orn. Diet. Suppl. (1813) ; Hume, Cat. no. 983 ; 

Leffffe, Birds Ceyl. p. 1011; Tidal, S. F. ix, p. 94; Butler, ibid. 

p. 440 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 86 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 422 ; Barnes, 

Birds Bom. p. 428 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 349 ; Oates in Hume's 

N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 304. 
Gelochelidon anglica, Bonap. Comp. List B. Eur. 8f N. Amer. p. 61 ; 

Blyth, Cat. p. 290 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 836 ; Hayes Lloyd, Ibis, 

3878, p. 421 ; Ball, S. F. iv, p. 237 ; Hume, ibid. pp. 294, 414 ; 

Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 491 ; Davids. $ Wend. S. F. vii, p. 93; 

Cripps, ibid. p. 313 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 102, 1882, p. 290 ; 

Sounders, Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 25. 
Gelichelidon nilotica, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 2-56. 



312 LARIDE. 

Sterna nilotica, apud Hume, S. F. i, p. 281 ; Adam, ibid. p. 403 ; 
, S. F. iv, p. 31 ; v, p. 235 ; Armstrong, S. F. iv, p. 351. 



Coloration. In summer plumage the forehead, crown, and nape, 
with the upper lores and the sides of the head as far down as the 
lower edge of the orbit, are jet-black ; upper parts from nape 
pale pearl-grey, inner webs of primaries darker; lower lores, 
cheeks, and the lower parts throughout, including the wing-lining, 
white. 

In winter the upper part of the head is white streaked with 
black, the remainder as in summer.. Young birds have the crown 
grey or white mixed with grey, primaries dark ; and in very young 
birds the feathers of the upper plumage, especially the scapulars 
and tertiaries, are brown in part with buff edges. 

Bill, legs, and feet black ; iricles brown. In summer the bill 
and legs are tinged with red. 

Length 15 ; tail 5 to 5'5, depth of fork 1-5 ; wing 12'5 ; 
tarsus 1*4 ; bill from gape 2. Females are rather smaller. 

Distribution. Europe as far north as lat. 55 in summer, Northern 
Africa, Atlantic coast of America, temperate and tropical Asia, 
Malay Archipelago, and Australia. Chiefly a winter visitor to 
India and Ceylon, where it is common in suitable localities ; it is 
apparently restricted to estuaries and the coast in Burma. 

Habits, 6fc. In India and Ceylon this Tern is found about all large 
rivers and extensive marshes or tanks ; it also occurs on the sea- 
coast. It feeds both on aquatic food and on insects. The great 
majority of birds of this species leave India to breed, but Hume 
took an egg on the Chenab, in the N.W. Punjab, on April 28th. 
Numbers were found breeding at the head of the Persian Gulf 
early in April. The eggs, three in number, are of the usual type, 
and measure about 2 by 1*46. 

1500. Sterna cantiaca. The Sandwich Te.rn. 

Sterna cantiaca, Gm. Syst. Nat. i, p. 606 (1788) ; Hume, S. F. i, 
p. 285 ; id. Cat. no. 990 bis : Blcmford, Eastern Persia, ii, p. 294 ; 
Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 432 ; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vi, p. 300 ; 
Saunders, Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 75. 

Coloration. In breeding plumage the forehead, upper lores, 
crown, nape, and sides of head as far down as the lower edge of 
the orbits are black ; back and wings pearl-grey ; lower lores, 
cheeks, a collar round neck, all the lower parts, upper and lower 
tail-coverts, and tail white ; inner webs of primaries dark grey 
near the shafts, white inside, the inner white border extending to 
the tip of each feather, outer web of 1st primary blackish near 
base. In fresh plumage there is a slight and evanescent pink 
tinge to the underparts. The black head is only assumed from 
April till about June. 

In non-breeding plumage the forehead and crown are white 
with black streaks, which are confluent on the nape and before 
and behind the eye. Immature birds resemble adults in winter 



STERNA. 31 3 

plumage, but have a dark band on the smaller wing-coverts, 
and brown submarginal concentric bars on the tertiaries and tail ; 
the primaries are dark grey, with sharply contrasting white inner 
borders. Still younger birds have most of the upper parts marked 
with concentric brown bands, and the crown-feathers blackish 
with white edges. 

Bill black, with the tips of both mandibles pale horny yellow ; 
irides brown ; legs and feet black (Hume). 

Length 17 ; tail 6, depth of fork 3 ; wing 12 ; tarsus 1-1 ; bill 
from gape 2-8. Females are a little smaller than males. 

Distribution. Coasts of North Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean, 
Black Sea, and Caspian in summer ; in winter, African coasts as 
far as the Cape and Natal, Red Sea, Persian Gulf, and Baluchistan. 
This bird is a winter visitor to the coast of Makran and Sind. 

Habits, fyc. This is a Sea-Tern often seen at sea several miles 
from the shore, and but rarely straying inland, though it has been 
found in Europe breeding on lakes near the coast. 

1501. Sterna media. The Smaller Crested Tern. 

Sterna media, Horsf. Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 199 (1821) ; Hume, S. F. 

v, p. 301 ; Hume # Dav. S. F. vi, p. 493 ; Hume, Cat. no. 990 ; 

Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 1030; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 95; Butler, ibid. 

p. 441 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 426 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 432 ; id. 

Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vi, p. 299, fig. 990; Oates in Hume's 

N. 8f E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 299 note ; Saunders, Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 86. 
Sterna amnis, Cretzschm. in Hiipp. Atlas, p. 23, t. 14 (1826). 
Sterna bengalensis, Lesson, Traite, p. 621 (1831) ; Hume, S. F. i, 

p. 284 ; ii, p. 318 ; iv, p. 474. 
Thalasseus bengalensis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 373 ; id. Cat. p. 291 ; 

Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 843. 

The Smaller Sea- Tern, Jerdon. 

Coloration. Crown with forehead, sides of head to below the 
orbit (but not including a spot immediately beneath the eye), nape, 
and distinct nuchal crest black ; lores, cheeks, neck all round, and 
lower parts white ; upper parts from neck pale ashy grey, with a 
slight pinkish tinge on the mantle ; outer rectrices sometimes 
whitish or white ; primaries blackish, frosted on the outer web 
near the tip in fresh plumage, inner border whitish, a very narrow- 
extension of this border to the tip of the feather soon disappears 
with wear, most of the inner web and terminal edge of outer web 
in secondaries -white. 

In winter the nape and a band from the nape to the front of 
the eye are black, the forehead and lores white; crown black, with 
white edges to feathers. Young birds resemble adults in winter, 
but have much brown on the smaller coverts, tertiaries, and tail- 
feathers. 

Bill orange-yellow ; irides brown ; legs and feet black ; soles 
yellowish (Legge). 

Length 16'5 ; tail 5 to 6-75, depth of fork 2 to 3 ; wing 12 ; 
tarsus 1 ; bill from gape 2'8. 



314 LA.BIDYE. 

Distribution. Coasts o? the Indian Ocean, with the Persian Gulf, 
Bed Sea, and Mediterranean. A common bird locally on the 
coasts of India and Ceylon, less often seen in Burma. 

Habits, #c. This is another Sea-Tern found often in large flocks, 
about bays, harbours, shallow banks, and even several miles out 
at sea, and never met with far inland. Like the other Sea-Terns 
and unlike the Gulls, it always captures living fish by dashing 
down on them from some height, and it appears very rarely, it' 
ever, to settle on the sea. Its eggs have not been found within 
Indian limits, but it breeds in colonies on sandbanks and low 
coral islands in the Persian Gulf 'and Bed Sea. The eggs are 
generally white sparingly spotted. 

1502. Sterna bergii. The Large Crested Tern. 

Sterna bergii, Licht. Verz. Doubl. p. 80 (1823) ; Hume, S. F. i, 

p. 283 ; ii, p. 50 ; iv, p. 470 ; Sutler, S. F. v, p. 298 ; Hume $ Dtiv. 

S. F. vi, p. 493 ; Hume, Cat. no. 989 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 1026 ; 

Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 95 ; Butler, ibid. p. 441 ; Parker, ibid. p. 490 ; 

Gates, B. B. ii, p. 428 ; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 297 ; 

Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 431 ; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vi, p. 298, 

fig. 989 : Saunders, Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 89. 
Sterna cristata, Steph. in Skate's Gen. Zool xiii, pt. 1, p. 146 (1825) ; 

nee Swainson. 

Sterna velox, Cretzsc.hm. in Rilpp. Atlas, p. 21, t. 13 (1826). 
Thalasseus cristatus, Blyth, Cat. p. 291 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 842 ; 

Hume, Ibis, 1870, p. 437. 

The Large Sea-Tern, Jerdon. 

The coloration resembles that of S. media, except that the 
present species has a white frontal band and broader white lores, 
that the black only descends to the level of the lower edge of the 
orbit, that the crest is rather more distinct, and above all that the 
mantle is much darker at all seasons, being grey with a lilac tinge. 
In the young the quills are greyish brown with white inner 
borders, and the upper parts much mixed with brown. 

Bill pale yellow ; irides deep brown ; legs and feet black ; soles 
yellowish. 

Length 21 ; tail 6'5 to 7'5, depth of fork 3 to 3'5 ; wing 15 ; 
tarsus 1'25 ; bill from gape 3-6. 

Distribution. The coasts of the Indian Ocean and Polynesia, 
also the west coast of S. Africa, the Bed Sea, and the China 
Sea. Abundant on the Makra'n coast and at the Laccadives. and 
generally distributed, often in considerable numbers, throughout 
the coasts of India and Ceylon, less common on the Burmese coast. 

Habits, fyc. This large Tern has very similar habits to those of 
S. media, and is thoroughly marine, often fishing far from the 
shore. It has been found breeding in Ceylon and, in large 
numbers, in May and June on the island of Astola, off the 
Makran coast, where the nests, as described by Butler, are small 
holes scratched in the sand, several close together, each containing 
one to three eggs, which are generally pinkish buff varying to 



STERNA. 315 

greenish grey, very beautifully blotched, spotted, or streaked with 
blackish, red-brown, and inky purple, and measuring on an average 
2-45 by 1-71. 

1503. Sterna seena. The Indian River-Tern. 

Sterna seena, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 171 ; Hume $ Oates, S. F. 
iii, p. 193 ; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 32 ; Fairbank, ibid. p. 264 ; Inglis, 
S. F. v, p. 47; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 492; Anders. Yunnan 
Exped., Aves, p. 693 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 233 ; Cripps, ibid. p. 314 ; 
Hume, Cat. no. 985 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 364 ; Leyge, Birds Ceyl. 
p. ]003 ; Butler, S. F. ix, p. 440 ; Reid, 8. F. x, p. 86 ; Davidson, 
ibid. p. 326; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 423; Barnes, Birds Bom. 
p. 429 ; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. i, p. 61 ; vi. p. 294 ; Hume, 
S. F. xi, p. 350 ; Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 308. 

Sterna aurantia., Gray, in Hardw. III. 2nd. Zool. i, pi. 69, fig. 2 
(1832) ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 281. 

Seeua aurantia, Blyth, Cat. p. 291 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 838 ; Godw.- 
Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 275 ; Hayes Lloyd, Ibi*, 1S73, 
p. 421 ; Blyth # Wald. Birds Burm. p. 163 ; Wardl.-Rams. Ibis, 
1877, p. 472 ; Saunders, Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 37. 
The Large River- Tern, Jerdon. 




Fig. 72. Head of S. seena. 

Coloration. The whole head to considerably below the eyes and 
including 1he nape black glossed with dark green, a white spot 
under each eye; rest of upper parts French grey, paling to pearl- 
grey on the rump and tail ; chin and a streak on each cheek 
bordering the black cap, together with the under tail-coverts, 
white ; remainder of lower surface, inclusive of wing-lining, delicate 
pale grey. 

After the moult, which does not occur till about December, the 
forehead is white and the crown dull grey, then black streaks appear 
and the black cap is generally assumed by February. Young birds 
have the feathers of the upper parts dull grey, with an inner 
brown and an outer buff margin. 

Bill bright deep yellow ; irides brown ; legs red (Jerdon\ The 
bill and legs are duller coloured and the tip of the bill dusky in 
autumn. 

Length 15 to 18 ; tail 6 to 9-5, depth of fork 5 to 6 ; wing 11 ; 
tarsus '8 ; bill from gape 2-3. 

Distribution. Throughout India and Burma on all large rivers, 



316 LARID.E. 

less common in the south of the Peninsula, and of doubtful occur- 
rence in Ceylon. This Tern is also found throughout the Malay 
Peninsula as far as Singapore. 

Habits, c. Though essentially a river Tern, occurring singly or 
in small parties about rivers and estuaries, this handsome Indian 
Tern is often met with beating over tanks and even marshes, 
especially if they are in the neighbourhood of rivers. It breeds in 
March, April, and May, and lays 3 (sometimes 4) eggs in a small 
unlined depression on a sandbank. Hundreds of nests sometimes 
occurs on one sandbank, and other Terns, Skimmers, and Glareola 
breed about the same time in siiniluY places. The eggs vary from 
pale greenish grey to butf, spotted and blotched in the usual 
manner with dark broxvn and pale inky purple, and they measure 
on an average 1'65 by 1'25. The place where these or any Terns 
are breeding may generally be recognized by the way in which the 
birds wheel about overhead with their peculiar cry when anyone 
is near their nests. 

1504. Sterna melanogaster. The Black-bellied Tern. 

Sterna melanogaster, Temm. PL Col pi. 434 (1832) ; Blyt.h $ Wald. 
Birds Burm. p. 163 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. 2, p. 85 ; 
xlvii, pt. 2, p. '2'2 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 492 ; Dav. 8f Wend. 
S. F. vii, p. 93 ; Ball, ibid. p. 233 ; Cripps, ibid. p. 314 ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 987 ; Doiff, S. F. viii, p. 372 ; Leyge, Birds Ce.yl. p. 1006 ; 
Butter, S. F. ix, p. 440; Reid, S. F. x, 'p. 87; Gates, B. B. ii, 
p. 424 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 429; Hume, S. F. x, p. 419; xi, 
p. 350 ; Gates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 310 ; Saunders, 
Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 43. 

Sterna javanica, Horsf. Res. Java (1824) (deser. nulla), nee Tr.Linn. 
Soc. "xiii, p. 198 (1821) ; Bh/th, Cat. p. 292 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, 
p. 840 ; Bulger, Ibis, 1869, p. 170 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xl, pt. 2, 
p. 277 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 2^2 ; Adam, S. F. ii, p. 339 ; Wardl.- 
Rams. Ibis, 1877, p. 472. 

Sternula minuta et S. jerdoni, Beavan, Ibis, 1868, p. 403. 

Pelodes javanica, Ball, S. F. ii, p. 440 ; Hume, 8. F. iii, p. 193. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape, with the sides of the 
head down to the lower edge of the orbit, black ; very often the 
extreme base of the forehead is white like the lores, cheeks, chin, 
and throat ; upper parts from nape ashy grey, slightly tinged with 
brown on the tertiaries, tips and parts of inner webs of primaries 
generally dusky, outer webs frosted and whitish ; tail paler grey 
than the back, outer webs of outermost rectrices white ; fore neck 
pale grey, gradually passing into chocolate, then into black on the 
breast ; abdomen and lower tail-coverts black ; wing-lining white. 

In winter the cap is white, streaked with black, aud the lower 
parts white. According to Hume the winter plumage is not 
assumed till December, and is only retained for about two months. 
Very young birds have broad buff outer and blackish inner borders 
to the feathers of the upper parts. 

Bill orange-yellow ; irides blackish brown ; legs and feet orange- 
red. 



STERNA. 317 

Length 13 ; tail 5 to 6'5, depth of fork 3-5 ; wing 9 ; tarsus 
55 ; bill from gape 1'8. 

Distribution. Common about rivers and tanks throughout India 
and Burma, but less abundant in Southern than in Northern India, 
and not known with certainty to occur in Ceylon, though reported 
to be found in the island by more than one observer. It is prob- 
able in these cases that another species has been mistaken for the 
present. 

Habits, $c. This is one of the commonest of Indian river-birds, 
and is generally seen flying and fishing singly or in small parties. 
It frequents tanks and marshes as well as rivers, and though 
perhaps less numerous than S. seena, is more widely distributed. 
It breeds chiefly in March and April, though Doig records taking 
eggs in Eastern Sind in June and July, and it lays in the same 
situations as the Indian K,iver- Tern, and frequently in company 
with it. The mode of deposition and colouring of the eggs is 
similar, but those of 8. melanogaster are smaller and more elongate, 
measuring on an average 1*25 by 0-95. 

1505. Sterna albigena. The White-cheeked Tern. 

Sterna albigeua, Licht. Nomencl. Av. p. 98 (1854) (descr. nulla) ; 
Walden, Ibis, 1876, p. 384 ; Hume, S. F. iv, p. 467 ; Butler, S. F. 
v, pp. 298, 323 ; Hume, Cat. no. 987 bis ; Vital, S. F. ix, p. 94 ; 
Sutler, ibid. p. 440 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 430 ; id. Jour. Bom. 
N. H. Soc. vi, p. 296 j Oates in Hume's N. Sf E. 2nd ed. iii, 
p. 311 note ; Saunders, Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 69. 

Coloration. Forehead and upper lores, crown, nape, and sides of 
the head to the lower edge of the orbit black ; chin, gape, lower 
lores, and a streak along the edge of the black cap to the nape, 
white ; all the rest of the plumage grey, dark ashy above, vinaceous 
on the breast and abdomen ; upper and lower tail-coverts and tail 
lighter ashy, except the outer webs of the outermost tail-feathers 
which are dark ; outer web of first primary black except towards 
the end, inner web blackish grey near shafts, white near the inner 
border, the white not extending to the tip ; secondaries with white 
tips and inner borders ; wing-lining pale grey. 

In winter the lores and cheeks are white, forehead and anterior 
portion of crown mixed white and black, wing-lining white, and 
white is mixed with the grey of the lower parts. Young birds 
resemble adults in winter plumage, but have a dark band on the 
smaller wing-coverts and the underparts white throughout. 

Bill black, red at base ; irides brown ; legs orange ( Vidal) ; 
legs and feet bright red in adults, dull red in young (Butler). 

Length 13-5 ; tail 6, depth of fork 3*25; wing9 - 5; tarsus -75; 
bill from gape 2. 

Distribution. Sea-coasts from the Red Sea to the Laccadive 
Islands. 

Habits, 6fc. This is a sea-tern, often seen some miles out at sea 
but returning to the shore at night. Vidal observed that large 
flocks of this species appear on the Malabar coast at intervals, and 



318 LARID.*:. 

although none were observed by Hume or myself on the Makran 
coast in December and February, Butler found this Tern common 
there and in Karachi Harbour in the latter part of the spring and 
in summer. Probably it migrates to the southward in winter, for 
Vidal observes that flocks reach the neighbourhood of Eatnagiri 
about September and February in an exhausted condition. S. albi- 
r/ena has been found to breed on low islands in the Eed Sea and 
Persian Gulf. 

1506. Sterna fluviatilis. *The Common Tern. 

Sterna fluviatilis, Neum. Isis, 1819, p. 1848; Hume fy Henders. 

Lah. to York. p. 303 ; Hume, S. F. iv, p. 472 ; id. Cat. no. 986 ; 

Letjf/e, Birds Ceyl. p. 1015 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 418 ; Saunders, 

Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 54. 
Sterna hirundo, L. Syst. Nat. i, p. 227, pt. ; Blyth, Cat. p. 292 ; 

Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 839; v. Pelzeln, Ibis, 1868, p. 321; Hume. 

S.F.i, p. 282; C. H. T. Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 425. 
Sterna tibetana, Saunders, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 649 ; Stanford, S. F. v, 

p. 485. 

The European Tern, Jerdon. 

Coloration. Forehead and upper lores, crown, nape and sides of 
the head as far down as the lower edge of the orbit, black ; back 
and wings ashy grey, 1st primary with the outer web black and a 
strip of the inner web near the shaft blackish, remainder of inner 
web white ; 2nd primary less black, and with less white on the 
inner web, secondaries edged with white ; rump, upper tail- 
coverts, and inner webs of tail-feathers white, outer webs of the 
same grey, darkest on the long outermost pair ; lower lores, cheeks, 
chin, throat, wing-lining, and under tail-coverts white; breast 
and abdomen very pale grey, with a vinous tinge. 

In winter the forehead is white, or mottled with white, the 
crown streaked with black, and the lower parts whitish. Young 
birds have a broad white forehead, the hind head sooty black, a 
white collar, a dark band along the smaller wing-coverts, and white 
underparts. Very young birds have the usual broad buff outer 
and brown inner margins to the feathers of the upper parts. 

Bill, legs, and feet in the breeding-season coral-red, much duller 
in winter, and blackish in young birds. The tip of both mandibles 
is always blackish. 

Length 14; tail 5 to 7'5, depth of fork 3 to 5; wing lO'o ; 
tarsus -8 ; bill from gape 2. 

Distribution. Temperate regions of Asia, Europe, and North 
America, ranging into Ladak and the higher Himalayan valleys, 
and occasionally in winter visiting parts of India and Ceylon. 
Most of the birds obtained on the coasts of Southern India, 
Ceylon, and the Malay Peninsula are immature. 

Habits, fyc. The common Tern of Europe is found equally on 
rivers,- ' lakes, and the sea-coast ; it is essentially a fish-eating 
species, and breeds in May and June, on sandy or pebbly tracts 



STEBNA. 319 

near the shore, laying three eggs of: the usual character. The nest 
is often on shingle above high-water mark. 

The true S. hirundo, L. (S. macrura, auct.) breeds in north 
temperate and arctic regions, but has been found migrating in 
winter as far as South Africa and South America. Stragglers 
might be met with in India. The coloration is very similar to 
that of S. fluviatilis, but adults may be recognized by having the 
bill entirely red, and birds of all ages by the tarsus being shorter 
than the middle toe without the claw. 

1507. Sterna longipennis. Nordmann's Tern. 

Sterna longipennis, Nordmann in Ermans Reise, p. 17 (1835) ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 986 bis ; Sounders, Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 67. 
Sterna tibetana, apud Hume, S. F. viii, p. 158, nee Saunders. 

Coloration. Similar to that of S. jluviatilis, except that the bill 
is always black and the feet are blackish. Adults are darker in 
colour, both above and below, but the difference is not great. All 
the measurements appear identical, or nearly so, except those of 
the bill, which is altogether smaller, and measures about 1-75 from 
the gape. 

Distribution. The Eastern coasts of Asia and the neighbouring 
islands from Kamtchatka to New Guinea. Immature specimens 
identified by H. Saunders have been obtained in the Malay Penin- 
sula by Davidson and others ; and one example, now in the British 
Museum, was collected by Legge in Ceylon, in June. 

1508. Sterna dougalli. The Roseate Tern. 

Sterna dougalli, Mont. Orn. Diet. Suppl (1813) ; Legge, S. F. iii 

p. 376 ; Hume, S. F. iv, p. 294 : Sutler, S. F. v, p. 327 ; vii, 

p. 188 ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 492 ; Hume, Cat. no. 985 bis ; 

Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 1033 ; Parker, S. F. ix, p. 488 ; Oates, B. B. 

ii, p. 425 ; id. in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 301 ; Saunders, 

Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 70. 
Sterna paradisea, apud Keys. 8f Bias. Wirb. Eur. p. 247 (1840), nee 

Briinn. ; Blyth, Cat. p. 292 ; id. Ibis, 1867, p. 177 ; Walden, Ibis, 

1874, p. 149. 
Sterna gracilis, Gould, P. Z. S. 1845, p. 76 ; Hume, S. F. ii, pp. 317, 

501. 
Sternula korustes, Hume, S. F. ii, p. 318. 

Coloration. In breeding-plumage the crown, with the forehead, 
upper lores, sides of head to lower edge of orbit, and upper part 
of hind neck black ; lower lores, cheeks, sides of neck, and a collar 
round the hind neck white ; back and wings pale pearl-grey ; 
rump and tail paler, outer tail-feathers white ; outer web of 1st 
primary black, except near tip ; inner web blackish near shafts, 
inner border of all primaries and secondaries to the tips white, 
and also the outer border of the secondaries near the end ; lower 
parts throughout white, suffused with delicate pink, evanescent in 
dried skins. 



320 LARIDyE. 

In winter the forehead is spotted with white, and the lower 
parts are nearly white. Young birds have the upper parts white 
with dark brown interinarginal bands on the feathers, and all the 
primaries dark grey, the first almost black, with conspicuous white 
inner borders. 

Bill black, red at base ; irides dark brown ; legs and feet scarlet. 

Length 15 ; tail 5*5 to 7'5, depth of fork 4 to 5 ; wiog 9 ; 
tarsus '75 ; bill from gape 2. 

Distribution. Coasts of the temperate and tropical Atlantic and of 
the Indian Ocean. This Tern has not hitherto been recorded with 
certainty on the west coast of India? though it is said to have been 
seen in Sind, but it is far from rare in Ceylon and at the Andamans, 
and\vas obtained by Davison on the coast of Southern Tenasseriin. 

Habits, $c. A sea-tern, usually seen near the coasts. Mr. Parker 
found a colony breeding on a sandbank near Adam's Bridge, North- 
west Ceylon, in June. Each clutch contained one or two eggs, 
laid in a small hollow in the sand very little above high-water 
mark ; the eggs were brownish or greenish grey, spotted and 
blotched as usual, and measured about 1-58 by 1-12. 

1509. Sterna sinensis. TJie White-shafted Ternlet. 

Sterna sinensi?, Gm. Si/st. Nat. i, p. f>03 (1788); Hume, S. F. v, 
p. 325; ill. Cat. no. 988 bis: Ley ye, Birds Ceyl. p. 1019; Parker, 
S. F. ix, p. 490 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 430 ; Gates in Hume's N. 8f E. 
'2nd ed. iii, p. 312, parti m ; Suimders, Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 113. 
ternula sinensis, Holdsivorth, P. Z. S. 1872 ; p. 481 ; Leyge, S. F. 
iii, p. 377 ; iv, p. 246. 

Sternula nrinuta, apud Oates, S. F. iii, p. 349 ; Wardl.-Rams. Ibis. 
1877, p. 472. 

Coloration. A broad arrowhead-shaped white patcli on the 
forehead, the posterior angles running back above the eyes ; crown, 
nape, and broad loral band from crown to base of culmen black, 
including the orbit, and extending above but not beneath it, and 
separated beneath by a narrow white stripe from the upper man- 
dible; back, rump, and wings pale pearl-grey; shafts of all 
primaries white ; outer web of outer primary and inner web near 
the shaft dark grey or blackish, both primaries and secondaries 
with much of the inner web white, and the outer web of the second- 
aries near the end also bordered with white ; upper tail-coverts and 
tail, wdth the whole of the lower parts and the cheeks, white. 

In winter the white forehead is broader and the tail shorter. 
Young birds have the crown greyish, lores mostly white, primaries 
dark grey, the shaft of 1st primary white, of others brownish, 
tail-feathers greyish. In very young birds the back-feathers, 
scapulars, and tertiaries are brown, with huffy- white borders and 
csntres, the crown mixed white and black, the nape blackish with 
white edges. 

Bill in summer yellow, broadly tipped with black; in winter 
dark brown ; iridos brown ; legs and feet orange-yellow in summer, 
reddish brown in winter (Oates}. 



STERNA. 321 

Length 10 ; tail 3-5 to 5'5, depth of fork 175 to 3-4 ; wing 7 ; 
tarsus "65 ; bill from gape 1*7. 

Distribution. Cevlon, Burma, probably the east coast of India, 
and throughout South-eastern Asia and its islands to Japan in one 
direction, and Australia in another. 

Habits, $c. The habits of the three small Terns found in India are 
similar. They are found on large rivers and tidal estuaries, on salt 
lagoons, and sometimes on the open coast, feeding chiefly on fish. 
They breed on sandbanks in rivers and on the coast, in March and 
April in Pegu, and from June to August in Ceylon, and lay two or 
three eggs, varying in colour from pale drab to brownish buff, 
broadly spotted and streaked, and measuring about 1/24 by "94. 

151 0. Sterna miimta. The Little Tern. 

Sterna minuta, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 228 (1766); Name, Cat. 

no. 988 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 86; Saunders, Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 116. 
Sternula minuta, Blyth, Cat. p. 292 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 840 ; Hume 

Henders. Lah. to Yark. p. 303 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 654 ; id. S. F. 

ii, p. 49. 
Sterna gouldi, Hume, S. F. v, p. 326; C,'ipps, S. F. vii, p. 314; 

Hume, Cat, no. 988 quat. ; id. S. F. ix, p. 131 ; xi, p. 350. 
Sternula gouldi, Sail, S. F. vii, p. 233. 

This closely resembles S. sinensis, but is smaller, with consider- 
ably shorter outer rectrices ; the two outer primaries, as a rule, 
with dark webs and sullied brownish shafts, the shaft of the second 
very often much browner than that of the first ; the upper tail- 
coverts and tail generallv tinged with grey ; bill shorter. 

Length 9 ; tail 3 to 3'7, depth of fork 1/5 ; wing 6'75 ; tarsus 
65 ; bill from gape 1-5. 

Distribution. Europe, the greater part of Africa in winter, and 
Western and Central Asia with Northern India, as far south as the 
G-odiivari. Specimens have been obtained in Burma, and even in Java. 
The form breeding in India was distinguished by Hume as 
S. gouldi, chiefly because of its greyish rump and of the shafts of 
the first primary being whiter than that of the second, but these 
differences are not constant. 

Habits, fyc. Similar to the last. In Northern India this Tern 
breeds on sandbanks in rivers from March to the beginning of 
May, in the same localities as those selected by Sterna seena, 
8. melanorj aster, Ehynchops albicollis, and Glareola lactea, all of 
which lay earlier than S. minuta, or in similar places. 

1511. Sterna saundersi. The Slack-shafted Ternlet. 

Sternula minuta, Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 840, pt. ; Hume, S. F. iv, 

p. 469; Sutler, S. F. v, p. 324. 
Sterna saundersi, Hume, S. F. v, p. 325 ; id. Cat. no. 988 ter ; Vidal; 

8. F. ix, p. 95 ; Hume, ibid. p. 131 ; Sutler, ibid. p. 441 ; Leyye, 

Birds Ceyl. p. 1023 : Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 430 ; id. Jour. Bom. 

N. II. Soc. vi, p. 297 ; Saunders, Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 120. 

TOL. IV. Y 



322 

This is very closely allied to S. sinensis and S. tninuta, but it 
has a paler mantle ; the upper tail-coverts and tail are grey like 
the back, only the long outermost rectrices being white, and the 
first three primaries have the shafts and outer webs and the inner 
webs near the shafts blackish, strongly contrasting with the pure 
white inner borders of the feathers. The bill too is straighter 
and slenderer. 

Length 9; tail 3, depth of fork 1-1; wing 675; tarsus -6; 
bill from gape 1*6. 

Distribution. Coasts of the Indian Ocean from South Africa to 
Burma, with the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, &c. This species has 
been found at Karachi, Eatnagiri, Ceylon, the Laccadives, Madras, 
and Lower Pegu. 

Habits, fyc. Very similar to those of the last two species, but 
apparently this is even more of a sea-coast bird. The eggs were 
taken at Karachi by Butler in May and June, and Legge found 
birds breeding in Ceylon from June to August. 

1512. Sterna melanauchen. TJte Black-naped Tern. 

Sterna melanauchen, Temm. PI. Col. pi. 427 (1827); Blytk, J. A. S. B. 

xv, p. 373 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 429 ; id. in Humes N. # E. 2nd ed. 

iii, p. 302; Saunders, Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 126. 
Hydrochelidon margiuata, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 373 ; id. Ibis, 

1865, p. 40. 
Onvchoprion melanauchen, Blyth, Cat., p. 293; Jerdon, B. I. iii, 

p. 844; Blair, Ibis, 1866, p. 221 ; Ball, J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, 

pp. 34, 243 ; WaWen, Ibis, 1874, p. 149. 
Stern ula melanauchen, Hume, S. F. ii, p. 319. 
Sterna sumatrana?, Raffl., Hume, S. F. v, p. 325; Hume <Sr Dav. 

S. F. vi, p. 493; Hume, Cat. no. 991. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and most of the lores w r hite ; a 
broad black nuchal band, forming a slight crest at the nape, is 
continued forward to the eyes, and in front of each of these is a 
narrow black band terminating in a point and not reaching the 
bill ; a broad white collar behind the nape : remainder of upper 
parts very pale pearl-grey ; outer rectrices white ; inner borders of 
quills the same, outer web of 1st primary blackish ; cheeks and 
lower parts white with a roseate tinge. 

In winter plumage there is rather less black on the nuchal and 
ocular band. In young birds the black of the nape is brownish, 
there is a dark band on the smaller wing-coverts, and the outer 
primaries are dark grey on both sides of the shafts. In still 
younger birds there are concentric brown bars on the mantle and 
tail-feathers, and brown tips to the feathers of the crown. 

Bill black, the extreme points of both mandibles pale yellowish 
horny ; irides wood- brown ; feet black (Hume). 

Length 13-5, tail 6 ; depth of fork 3 ; wing 8-5 ; tarsus '7 ; 
bill from gape 2. 

Distribution. Chiefly insular, throughout the tropical parts of 
the Indian Ocean, the Malay Archipelago, and North Australia ; 



STERNA. 323 

north to the Loo-choo Islands, and east to' the Friendly and 
Navigator Groups. This Tern is common at the Andamans and 
Nicobars, and is occasionally obtained on the Burmese coast. 

Habits, tyc. An oceanic Tern, keeping much to the high seas 
near tropical islands. It breeds at both the Andamans and 
Mcobars, on little rocky islets, between the middle of May and the 
beginning of August, and lays two eggs yellowish, pinkish, or 
greenish, and double-spotted on coral or sand ; the eggs measure 
1*56 by 1'12 on an average. 

1513. Sterna anaestheta. The Panayan Tern. 

Sterna ausestheta *, Scopoli, Del. Faun, et Flor. Insubr. ii, p. 92 (1783) ; 

Legge, S. F. iii, p. 377 ; Hume, S. F. iv, p. 474 ; Butler, S. F. v, 

p. 301 ; Hume $ Dav. S. I. vi, p. 493 ; Butler, S. F. vii, p. 178 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 992 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 1040 ; Butler, S. F. ix, 

p. 441 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 431 ; Bat-net, Birds Bom. p. 433 ; id. 

Jour. Bom. N. H. Sac. vi, p. 300 ; Gates in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. 

iii, p. 300 ; Aitken, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. ix, p. 496 ; Sounders, 

Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 101. 

Sterna panayensis, Gm. Syst. Nat. i, p. 607 (1788). 
Onychoprion auasthsetus, Blyth, Cat. p. 293 ; Jerdon, B. I. tii, p. 844; 

Ball, S. F. i, p. 90 ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 320. 
The Brown-winged Tern, Jerdon. 

Coloration. Forehead and superciliary stripe extending beyond 
orbit white : crown, nape, and loral stripe, extending to the bill 
and just including the orbit, black ; hind neck light grey ; back, 
wings, rump, and tail dark greyish brown, basal three-fourths of 
long outer pair of rectrices and their outer edges to the tip white ; 
primaries blackish brown, portions of inner webs whitish ; cheeks 
and lower parts white ; breast, abdomen, and flanks more or less 
suffused with grey, often tinged pinkish. 

In winter the upper plumage is browner and less grey, and the 
feathers of the crown and lores are dark brown with pale edges. 
This phase apparently lasts but a short time. Young birds have 
the crown-feathers white with dark' shaft-streaks, the nape 
blackish, the lores white with black specks, and the feathers of the 
upper parts with rufous or whitish edges. 

Bill, legs, and feet black ; irides deep brown (Hume). 

Length 14-5 ; tail 6 to 7'5, depth of fork 3 to 4 ; wing 9'5 ; 
tarsus -8 ; bill from gape 2. 

Distribution. Tropical and subtropical seas. This Tern is 
generally distributed on the Indian, Ceylonese, and Burmese 
coasts, abounding at times on the reefs of the Laccadives, and 
breeding at Vingorla Rocks and in the Persian Gulf. 

Habits, <$fc. This and the next species approach the Noddies in 
colour and habits, and are Oceanic Terns, being often seen far 
from land, especially around oceanic islands. Frequently flocks 

* This name is variously spelt anaeihetus, anaetheta, anosthcetus, an- 
ctsthetus, &c. 

Y2 



324 LARID.E. 

of this bird make their appearance on shore after high winds, and 
this is the Tern, as Hume notices, that commonly alights on 
ships to roost at night. It feeds on vAhatever can be picked up 
from the sea, chiefly small fish and crustaceans. Hume, in 
February, found numerous rotten and addled eggs and dried 
carcases of this bird on the Yingorla Rocks, showing that it must 
have bred there in great numbers in the monsoon. It lays 
usually a single whitish, rather finely spotted egg, sometimes two, 
measuring about T72 by 1'2, and makes a small hollow for its 
nest amongst grass. 



151 4. Sterna fuliginosa. The Sooty Tern. 

Sterna fuliginosa, Gm. Syst. Nat. i p. 605 (1788) ; Legye< S. F. iii, 
p. 378 ; Hume, S. F. iv, p. 477 ; id. Cat. no. 992 bis ; Legye, Birds 
Ceyl. p. 1036 ; Butler, S. F. ix, p. 441 ; Oates, S. F. x, p. 247 ; id. 
B. B. ii, p. 432 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 433 ; Oates in Hume's N. 
$ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 303 ; Sounders, Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 106. 

Onychoprion fuliginosa, Hume, S. F. i, p. 440. 

Coloration very similar to that of S. ancestheta, but much darker ; 
the white frontal band is broader, but the superciliary portion of 
it only extends to just above the eye; the dark loral stripe is more 
oblique it reaches the bill nearer to the gape, and extends above 
the eye. The upper surface is sooty black, breast and throat 
white, abdomen aud lower tail-coverts more or less suffused with 
grey. 

In winter the crown and lores are speckled with white. Young 
birds are sooty brown throughout, paler below ; lower abdomen 
whitish ; feathers of the upper parts with white tips, which are 
broadest on the scapulars and tertiaries. 

Bill, legs, and feet black, or blackish with a dull purplish tinge ; 
irides deep brown (Hume). 

Length 17 ; tail 6-5 to 7'5, depth of fork 3'5 to 4-5 ; wing 11-5 ; 
tarsus *9 ; bill from gape 2-3. 

Distribution. Tropical and subtropical seas. This Tern is 
: met with occasionally on the Indian coasts, and breeds on the 
Laccadives. 

Habits, <$fc. This is perhaps even more an ocean-bird than S. an- 
cestheta, and is known to sailors as the " Wide-awake." It feeds on 
fish, cephalopods, and Crustacea picked up from the sea, and it breeds 
on oceanic islands, one of its most famous breeding-places being that 
known as " Wide-awake Fair," on the island of Ascension. It is 
said by some observers to lay a single egg, but Hume found two 
or three in each nest on Cherbaniani Reef, in the Laccadives, where 
the Sooty Terns were breeding in great numbers in February, and 
were found to feed their young entirely on small cephalopods of 
the genus Sepiola. The eggs vary much, but are usually whitish 
with numerous red-brown spots, and measure about 1-94 by T34. 



325 



G-enus ANGUS, Stephens, 1826. 

Bill long and slender, culmen considerably curved towards the 
tip ; nostril in a groove, much farther from the base of the bill 
than in Sterna ; tarsus short, ranch shorter than the middle toe 
without claw ; feet large, toes fully webbed. Wing long, first 
quill longest ; tail long, cuneate, the third or fourth pair of feathers 
from the outside longest, considerably exceeding the outer feathers. 
The whole plumage is very dark. 

The Noddies, as they are called, are a group of tropical oceanic 
birds allied to the Terns, but having a much slower, heavier flight 
and very different habits. They live in the open sea and settle on 
the water to feed on floating mollusca or dead fish, or offal. In 
the British Museum Catalogue they are divided into two genera, 
Anous and Micranous ; but the differences are not great, and it is 
more convenient to class the two species found in Indian seas in 
one generic group. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Fourth pair of rectrices from outside longest ; 

bill stout, angle of lower mandible nearer 

to tip than to gape; crown grey ........ A. ttoKdus, p. 325. 

b. Third pair of rectrices from outside longest ; 

bill slender, angle of lower mandible equi- 

distant from tip and gape ; crown white . . A. leucocapillus, p. 320. 



1515. Anous stolidus. The Noddy. 

Sterna stolida, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 227 (1766). 

Anous stoiidus, Blyth, Cat. p. 293 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 845 ; Ball, 
S. F. i, p. 90 ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 320; iv, pp. 429, 478 ; Legge, 
S. F. iv, p. 247 ; Butler, S. F. v, p. 301 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, 
p. 493; Hume, Cat. no. 993 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 1043 ; Hume, 
S. F. x, p. 247; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 434; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 
2nd ed. iii, p. 315; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 433; Saunders, Cat. 
B. M. xxv, p. 130. 




Fig. 73. Head of A. stolidus. . 

Coloration. Forehead and crown pale grey, passing on the nape 
into greyish brown, and this again into the dark smoky or choco- 
late-brown of the upper and lower surface generally ; lores black 
above, passing into the dark leaden brown of the cheeks and 



326 LAIUD.E. 

throat ; primaries and secondaries blackish ; tail-feathers very 
dark ; wing-lining slaty grey. 

Young birds are browner and paler, and have the forehead and 
crown greyish brown. 

Bill black, orange at the angle of the gape ; irides deep brown ; 
legs and feet dusky vinous purple (Hume}. 

Length 16 : tail 6 ; wing 10*5 : tarsus 1 ; bill from gape 2-3. 

Distribution. Tropical and subtropical seas. This bird is found 
occasionally on the Indian coasts, and has been recorded from 
Makran, the Laccadives (where if breeds), Ceylon, and several 
parts of the Bay of Bengal, especially the Nicobar Islands. 

Habits, <$fc. Those of the genus. Hume found Noddies of this 
species in large numbers breeding on Cherbaniani Reef, one of 
the Laccadives, and just beginning to lay in the second week in 
February. Only one egg is laid by each bird ; it is whitish as a 
rule, very sparingly spotted with dark brown and pale purple, and 
measures about 2-08 by T38. 

1516. Anous leucocapillus. The White-headed Noddy. 

Anous leucocapillus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1845, p. 10:3; Sounders, P. Z. S. 

1876, p. 670, pi. Ixi, fig. 3; Hume, S. F. iv, p. 480; id, Cat. 

no. 994 bis ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 435. 

Anous melanogenys, Gray, Gen. B. iii, p. 661, pi. 182 (1846). 
Anous tenuirosiris, apud Btyth, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 373; id. Cat. 

p. 293; id. Ibis, 1865, p. 40; 1867, p. 178; Jerdon, B. I. iii, 

p. 846 ; Beavan, Ibis, 1867, p. 334 ; 18C8, p. 405 ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 994 ; Oates, B. B. ii ; p. 435 ; nee Sterna tenuirostris, Temm. 
Anous senex, apud Hume, $. :F. ii, p. 321 ; iv, p. 480 ; ncc Leach. 
Micranous leucocapillus, Saundcrs, Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 145. 

Coloration. Forehead and crown white, passing into a*hy grey 
and then into dark brown on the nape ; lores and chin jet-black ; 
sidas of neck, throat, and fore neck black with a grey wash ; rest 
of plumage blackish brown. 

Younger birds are dark brown ; but the lores are black and the 
forehead and crown white at all ages. 

Bill black ; iris brown ; tarsi and toes blackish brown (Layard). 

Length 13 ; tail 4*75 ; wing 9 ; tarsus '9 ; bill from gape 2-1. 

Distribution. Tropical seas generally. This species has been 
repeatedly seen and occasionally obtained in the Bay of Bengal. 
Blyth received a specimen from the mouth of the Ganges, and 
there is a skin in the Hume collection from Minicoy. The habits 
resemble those of A. stolidus. 

Gygis Candida (Gm.) is probably found at times in Indian seas. 
There is a skin in the Leyden Museum, collected by Dussumier 
and labelled Bengal, and Hume believes he has twice seen this. 
bird (S. F. vii, p. 447) ; but before including the species in the 
Indian list further evidence is desirable. If found, the White 
Noddy, as it is called, may be easily recognized by its pure white 
plumage, black bill, and blue irides. The tail resembles that of 
Anous in shape. Wing 9*5 ; tarsus very short, '6. 



RHYNCHOPS. 327 



Subfamily RHYNCHOPIN^. 

Both mandibles greatly compressed, the upper considerably 
shorter than the lower, convex on both sides towards the base. 
General form slight, Tern-like. 

The bill of a young llhynchops, when the bird is hatched, 
resembles that of a Tern. 



Genus RHYNCHOPS, Linn., 1766. 

Culmen curved ; low^er mandible knife-like, flexible, truncated 
at the end and closely marked on the side with minute oblique 
ridges ; nostrils elongate, near base of upper inaudible and near 
commissure, and opening in an irregular hollow. Wings very 
long, 1st long quill longest ; tail short, slightly forked. Feet small ; 
webs between toes with concave edges ; tarsus longer than middle 
toe and claw. 

Five species are known, of which three are American, one is 
African, one Indian. 

1517. Khynchops albicollis. The Indian Skimmer or 
Scissors-bill. (Fig. 68, p. 296.) 4 




S. F. iv, p. 32; v, pp. ^25, 235; A. Anderson, P. Z. S. 1877, 
p. 807; Wardl. Rams. Ibis, 1877, p. 472; Hume $ Dav. & F. vi, 

A*-\f\ T\ * . O TTr 7 O T7T _ ** _. r\O T7. . -"7, * .1 C\i \ . 




Hume, S. F. xi, p. 351 ; Oates in Hume's N. fy K 2nd ed. iii, p. 310 ; 
launders, Cat. 13. M. xxv, p. 159. 

Panchira, H. 

Coloration. Forehead, lores, cheeks, neck all round, and all lower 
parts white: crown, nape, back, and wings blackish brown ; secon- 
daries broadly tipped white, tertiaries and scapulars narrowly edged 
with white near the tip ; middle of rump, middle tail-coverts, and 
iuDer webs of median rectrices blackish brown ; sides of rump and 
of upper tail-coverts and remainder of tail white. 

Bill deep orange, yellowish at the tip of both mandibles ; irides 
brown ; legs bright vermilion-red. 

Length 16-5 ; tail 4'5 ; wing 16 ; tarsus 1-1 ; lower mandible 
from gape 3'5 to 4, upper inaudible half an inch to an inch 
shorter. 

Distribution. The larger rivers of India and Burma. This bird 
is unknown in Ceylon. 

Habits, $c. The Indian Skimmer is usually seen on broad and 



328 

smooth rivers down to the tideway, not in torrents nor, so far as 
is known, on the sea, though occasionally a few birds may haunt 
large open tanks, and even jheels. They are usually found 
in the morning and evening flying, often in scattered flocks, rather 
slowly close to the water, now and then dipping their bills in the 
stream, as shown in the vignette on p. 296. During the day the 
flocks generally rest on sandbanks. They certainly catch fish at 
times ; I once found a fish in the stomach of a Skimmer on the 
Nerbudda, and others have done the same, but as a rule nothing 
but a yellowish oily fluid is found, apd the use of the very peculiar 
beak that this bird possesses is still unknown. This species breeds 
on sandbanks in rivers about March and April, and lays four eggs 
in a small depression in the sand. The eggs vary in tint, pale buft' 
or stone-colour, greenish or greyish white, blotched and streaked 
with dark brown and pale inkv purple, and they measure about 
1-63 by 1-18. 



Family STEECORARIID^]. 

The Skuas are an interesting group of Gull-like birds that live 
mainly by robbing Gulls, Terns, and Petrels of their food. Bold, 
active, and armed with a strong bill and sharp claws, a Skua 
pounces on other sea-birds and forces them to drop any fish or 
other food they may have secured, and this food is seized by the 
robber often before it reaches the water. At times Skuas feed on 
eggs, on young or sickly birds, or on small mammals. They are 
dark-coloured birds, and breed in high latitudes, laying as a rule 
two olive eggs sported with brown. 

The bill somewhat resembles that of Gulls in shape, but is con- 
siderably broader at the base ; the culrnen is greatly curved at the 
tip, and the upper mandible bent over the end of the lower; but 
there is a well-developed horny cere extending more than half the 
length of the bill, and with the anterior part of its lower border 
overhanging the nostrils. The lower mandible is straight, and the 
angle very near the end. The claws are greatly curved and very 
sharp, the anterior toes long and fully webbed, hind toe small, 
and the tarsus strong and shielded in front. Wings long and 
pointed, 1st long quill longest; tail long and rounded, with the 
two middle feathers projecting beyond the others, sometimes for 
several inches. Skuas are distinguished from Gulls by having 
well-developed functional caeca, and by having only one notch on 
each side of the posterior margin of the sternum. 

The Skuas have been divided into two genera on account of 
slight differences in the bill and tail ; but the oulv two species 
satisfactorily identified as occurring within Indian limits belong to 
the same genus. 



STERC011A.RIUS. 329 

Genus STERCORARIUS, Brisson, 1760. 
Characters of the family. 

Key to tlie Species. 

ft. Wing about 13: median rectrices pointed . 8. crepidatus, p. 329. 
b. Wing 14 ; median rectrices rounded at end. pomatorhinus, p. 330. 

1518. Stercorarius crepidatus. Richardson's Skua. 

Larus crepidatus, Banks in Cook's Voy. (Hawkesivorth's ed.) ii, p. 15 

(1773) (descr. nulla) ; Gmel. S. N. i, p. 602 (1788). 
Stercorarius parasiticus, apud Schaejfer, Mm. Orn. p. 62, pi. 37 

(1789) ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 268 ; nee Linn. 
Stercorarius crepidatus, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxxii, p. 155 ; 

Saunders, Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 327. 
Stercorarius asiaticus, Hume, S. F. i, p. 270 ; Butler Sf flume, S. F. 

\, p, 294 ; Hume, Cat. no. 977 ter ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 422. 




Fig. 74. Head of S. crepidatus, immature, f . 

Coloration. Crown, nape, lores, and sides of head to beneath 
the orbit, with a patch at the side of the lower mandible below the 
gape, dark brown, darker behind, but passing into whitish at the 
base of the bill ; cheeks, ear -coverts and their neighbourhood, 
lower parts to vent, and a narrow collar round the neck (sharply 
defined in front, but not behind) white ; throat and collar more or 
less tinged with glossy straw-colour, and very often a pale brown 
gorget across the upper breast ; all upper parts from the neck, 
the wings above and below, tail, lower tail-coverts, feathers around 
vent, thigh-coverts, flanks, and axillaries dark brown ; all shafts of 
primaries white. 

There is also a dark variety, which is dark brown throughout, 
generally rather paler below than above, and tinged with yellow 
round the neck. Intermediate forms, with more or less of the 
lower surface brown, also occur. 

Young birds are dark brown above, the edges of many feathers 
mottled with rufous ; lower parts brown, chin to fore neck streaked 
with paler brown ; rest of lower plumage irregularly barred with 
brown and white or rufous. In a further stage (as in the type of 
&. asiaticus) the upper parts are blackish brown, the crown streaked 
whitish, hind neck and back more or less barred and fringed with 
the same, and some of the upper, tail-coverts broadly banded 



330 STEBCOKARIIDJE. 

brown and rufescent white ; lower parts white, with brown, rather 
irregular crossbars on sides of neck, fore neck, breast, flanks, and 
lower tail-coverts. 

Bill brown ; cere pale greenish brown ; irides brown ; legs and 
feet dull black (Hume). 

Length about 20 ; tail without middle pair of feathers 5, the 
middle feathers 1 to 3 inches longer; wing 13 ; tarsus 1'75 ; bill 
from gape 2. 

Distribution. This Skua breeds in Arctic and Subarctic regions, 
down to lat. 55, and is found in winter in many parts of the world, 
ranging as far south as New Zealand, tbe Cape of Good Hope, and 
Bio Janeiro. It is by no means rare at that season on the Makran 
and Sind coasts, and some were seen by Captain Butler as late 
in the year as June. There can, I think, be no doubt that Mr. 
Howard Saunders was right in identifying S. asiaticus with 
Richardson's Skua. 

1519. Stercorarius pomatorhinns. The PomatorTiine Slcua. 

Lestris pomarhinus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. p. 514 (1815) ; Jerdon, 

B. I. iii, p. 8'28. 

Catarracta pomarina, Blyih, J. A. S. B. xxviii, p. 416. 
Lestris pomatorhinus, Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 163. 
Stercorarius pomatorhinus, Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 4ftO ; Hume, 

Cat. no. 977 bis; Oates, B. L. ii, p. 413; Saunders, Cat. B. M. 

xxv, p. 322. 

This is a larger species than S. crepidatus, but similar in 
plumage, except that the cap is blackish and without any whitish 
frontal margin, and that the throat and collar are more strongly 
tinged with glossy brownish yellow ; there is some white barring 
on the hind neck behind the collar, and the lower fore neck, upper 
breast, and lower abdomen are dark brown, more or less barred 
and mottled with white. The middle tail-feathers, too, are blunt 
and rounded at the end, not pointed. Dark forms also occur, as 
in S. crepidatus. 

Bill horn-brown, bluish on the cere ; irides brown ; legs and 
feet black. 

Length 21 ; tail 5-25, the middle tail-feathers 2 to 4 inches 
longer ; wing 14 ; tarsus 2-2 ; bill from gape 2. 

Distribution. The Pomatorhine Skua breeds north of the Arctic 
circle, but ranges widely in winter, and has been shot in Australia, 
South Africa, and South America. A single specimen was once 
obtained by Col. Tickell at Moulmein. 

A single specimen of the Antarctic Skua, Stercorarius (or 
Megalestris) antarcticus, was brought alive to Major Legge at 
Colombo, in Ceylon, but under circumstances which made it 
doubtful whether it had been captured in the island (Birds Ceyl. 
p. 1050, footnote). This Skua is a large bird, with a wing of about 
16 inches, dark brown above and paler brown be]ow, inhabiting 
the Southern Ocean. 







Fig. 75. Pelecanus crispus. 



Order XIX. STEGANOPODES. 

This order contains the Pelicnns, Frigate-birds, Cormorants, 
Gannets or Boobies, and Tropic-birds all distinguished by having 
the four toes united by a web (fig. 76). There is a great difference 
between the preceding order the schizognathous Gaviae and that 
now under consideration. The Steganopodes are desmognathous 
birds, distinctly connected with the Accipitres, and might have 
followed the diurnal Birds of Prey in the classification. The 
orders to be hereafter discussed have more or less connexion with 
the Stegnnopodes. 

The principal characters of the present order are the following : 
All four toss united by web, the hsillux well developed and turned 
inwards. Skull desinognathous and holorhinal ; basipterygoid pro- 
cesses absent ; angle of mandible truncnted. Furcula generally 
anchylosed to keel of sternum, least in Sula nnd Phaethon. Oil- 
gland tufted ; caeca variable ; tongue rudimentary. Deep plantar 
tandons united by a strong vinculum, and only a slender portion 



332 PEL SCAN IDvE. 

of the Jtexar longus hallucis reaches the hallux. Aquincubital ; 
affrershaft rudimentary or wanting; plumage of the neck con- 
tinuous, without apteria. The eggs are somewhat variable ; the 




Fig. 76. Foot of Phalacrocorax juvanicus. 



young are hatched blind, either naked or covered with down, but 
in all cases undergo a protracted downy stage, during which they 
are helpless and fed by the parent birds. 

Families of Steganopodes. 

a. Web between toes deeply emarginate ; tail 

forked Fregatidae. 

b. Web between toes not em arginate; tail rounded 

or cuneate. 
'. Middle tail-feathers not greatly produced ; 

nostrils not pervious. 

a". Size very large : bill long, flattened. . . . Pelecanidae. 
b" . Size moderate : bill compressed. 

a 3 . Bill slender, subcylindrical, or very 

elongate and pointed ; nostrils small . Phalacrocoracidas. 
b 3 . Bill stout, conical ; no external nostrils. Sulidae. 
b'. Middle tail-feathers greatly produced ; nos- 
trils pervious Phaethontidae. 



Family PELECANIDAE. 

This family, like PhaetJwntidce, Sulidce, and Freyatidce, consists of 
a single living genus, which is distributed throughout the warm 
and temperate regions of the earth. There are 17 cervical ver- 
tebrae. The ambiens and all other of the characteristic thigh- 
muscles are absent, except the femoro-caudal. No syringeal 
muscles. 

Genus PELECANUS, Linn., 1766. 

Upper mandible depressed, narrower and higher at the base, 
broader and flattened towards the end, composed of a median bar, 
convex externally, continuing the whole length of the bill, and 
terminating in a strongly hooked nail, and of two lateral portions, 



PELECANUS. 333 

, each separated from the median bar by a very narrow but distinct 
groove, in the basal part of which the small nostril opens. Lower 
, mandible thin, of two flexible arches supporting a large pouch of 
naked membrane. Sides of head, including the eyes, without 
feat hers. Wings ample ; tail short ; tarsus compressed, reticulate 
in front. 

Pelicans are found in all the warmer regions of the world. 
Four species occur in India. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Feathers of forehead terminate in a point. 
a'. Tail-feathers 22 : bill from gape in female 

10-12, in male 14-16 in P. rosem, p. 333. 

V. Tail-feathers 24: bill in both sexes 17- 

18 in P. onocrotalus, p. 334. 

b. Feathers of forehead end in front in a trans- 

verse concave line ; 22 rectrices. 

c'. Wing- 25-20 ; hill from <rape 14-18 in. . . P. crispus, p. 335. 
d 1 . Wing 22-24 ; bill 13-14 in P. philippensis, p. 335. 

The habits of all Pelicans, so far as is "known, are similar. These 
birds are found on marshes, rivers, backwaters, or the sea, some- 
times singly or in small numbers, but often in large flocks. They 
fly well, with the neck bent and the head close to the shoulders, 
and often ascend to great heights in the air. They walk badly, 
and are seldom seen on land ; they swim well and strongly, but 
they never dive. They live on fish, and when in flocks often 
capture their prey by forming in single, double, or even triple 
lines across a piece of water, and driving the fish before them by 
beating the water with their wings. When the fish are driven 
into shallow water, the Pelicans scoop them up into their pouches. 

The following are some of ihe Indian names for Pelicans : 
Hawasil, Guyun bher, Gany yoya, Penr, Jalasind, H. ; Bellua, Birua 
or Bherua, Behar ; Gara-polo or Gora-pallo, Beng. ; Chinka-batu, 
Tel. ; Madde-pora, Tain. ; Kulukedai, Ceylonese Tamils ; Kula 
Kidar, Singh. Sdchawct (P. ruseus), Woon-boh (P. philippensis), 
Burm. 

1520. Pelecanus roseus. The Eastern White Pelican. 

Pelecanus roseus, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i, p. 570 (1788) ; Walden, Tr. Z. S. 

ix, p. 245 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 239. 
Pelecanus javanicus, Horsf. Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 197 (1821); 

Blyth, Cat. p. 297 ; id. J. A. S. B. xviii, p. 821 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, 

p. 857 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 179 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 494 ; 

Cripps, S. F. vii, p. 314 ; Hume, Cat. no. 1003 ; Reid, S. F. x, 

p. 87 ; Hume, ibid. p. 496 ; Barnes, Birch Bom. p. 437 ; Hume, 

S. F. xi, p. 351. 
Pelecanus mitratus, apud Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 856, pt. ; Sclater, 

P. Z. S. 1868, p. 266, tier. 3 ; nee Licht. 
Pelecanus minor, apud Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 180; Elliot, P. Z. S. 

1869, p. 580 ; Oates, S. F. x, p. 247 ; nee Riipp. 
Pelecanus onocrotalus, apud Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 854 ; Hume, S. F. i, 



Ball, S. F. vii, p. 233 ; 



334 PELECAXID.E. 

pp. 128, 288, pt.; Adam, ibid. p. 403; 
Hume, S. F. x, p. 502 ; Doig, ibid. p. 510. 

The European Pelican, Crested Pelican, and Lesser White Pelican, 
Jerdon. 

Coloration. Adults are white, deeply suffused with rosy pink 
when in full breeding-plumage ; all primaries and primary-coverts 
black ; secondaries black, with white outer borders that become 
broader on the inner feathers, some of which and some scapulars 
generally have a narrow outer blackish edge ; a patch of elongate 
feathers on top of breast yellow or chreous. 

Young birds have the scapulars, the wing-feathers, quills and 
coverts above and below, and the tail-feathers brown ; primaries 
black ; head, neck, and lower parts more or less mixed or tinged 
with dull ferruginous red. 

There is no true crest in the male ; the feathers, in a line or inane 
along the back of the neck, are slightly lengthened, and it is only 
in old females that a crest about 4 inches long occurs. Tail- 
feathers 22. 

In adults the upper mandible is blue, slightly mottled with 
white on the median rib, red at the sides, nail coral-red ; basal half 
of lower mandible blue, red at the margins, terminal half yellow ; 
pouch gamboge-yellow ; face yellow ; iris lake-red ; tarsus and toes 
pink, webs yellow. In young birds the bill is blue faintly margined 
with black, nail pale chestnut, pouch ochre-yellow, face violet, iris 
orange, legs yellowish white, the front of the tarsus and toes 
blackish (Gates). 

Length of male about 62 ; tail 8 ; wing 27 ; tarsus 5 ; bill from 
gape 14 to 16. Females are smaller : length 54 ; tail 7 ; wing 24 ; 
tarsus 4-5; bill 10 to 12. 

Distribution. Eastern Asia and the Malay Archipelago. A 
winter visitor to Burma and to many parts of India, where, how- 
ever, it passes gradually into the next species. 

1521. Pelecanus onocrotalus. The White or Roseate Pelican. 

Pelecanus onocrotalus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 215 (1766) ; Blyth, Cat. 

p. 297 : Salater, P. Z. S. 1868, p. 264, figs. 1, 2 ; Hume, S. F, \, 

pp. 128, 288, pt. ; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 32 ; Hume, Cat. no. 1001 ; 

id. S. F. x, p. 488 ; Barnes, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vi, p. 303 *. 
Pelecanus niitratus, Licht. Abh. Ak. Berl. 1838, p. 436, pi. iii, fig. 2 ; 

Jerdon, B. I. iii, j). 856, pt. ; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 179. 
Pelecanus longirostris, Hume, S. F. v, p. 491 ; id. Cat. no. 1001 bis. 

This only differs from P. roseus in its larger size and longer bill, 
in having Ihe frontal region much swollen, and in possessing 
24 rectrices instead of 22. There is also apparently less difference 
in size and in the length of bill between the sexes. 

Length of male about 72 ; tail 8 ; wing 28 ; tarsus 5'5 ; bill 
from gape 18. Females are smaller. 

* Some of the?e references probably belong to P. roseus, but as (he two forms 
pass into each other in India, it is impossible to disentangle the synonymy. 



PELECANUS. 335 

Distribution. Southern Europe, Northern Africa, and South- 
western Asia. Some of the White Pelicans found in Northern 
India in the cold season belong apparently to this species, but the 
greater number are intermediate in size and other characters 
between P. onocrotalus and P. roseus. 

1522. Pelecanus crispus. The Dalmatian Pelican. 
(Fig. 75, p. 331.) 

Pelecanus crispus, Bruch, Isis, 1832, p. 1109; Sclater, P. Z.S. 1868, 
p. 267 ; Hume, Ibis, 1868, p. 235 ; Elliot, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 582 ; 
Hume, S. F. i, p. 288 ; iv, pp. 33, 40 ; vii, pp. 98. 448 ; id. Cat. 
no. 1004 bis ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 87 ; Hume. ibid. p. 494 ; Doig, ibid. 
p. 503 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 436. 

Coloration. Silvery white ; the back-feathers, scapulars, greater 
and median wing-coverts, tertiaries, and upper tail-coverts with 
black shafts ; primaries and primary-coverts black, ends of secondary 
quills ashy brown, whitish on edges ; tail pure white in old birds. 
Feathers of head and neck soft and curly, without any dark bases ; 
crest broad and thick, but not long. There appears to be no change 
of plumage at the breeding-season, except the assumption of a yellow 
breast-patch of lengthened feathers. 

Young birds are more or less brown on the upper parts, wings, 
arid tail, and the neck-feathers have dark bases. The adult plumage 
is gradually assumed, and in this and other Pelicans requires three 
or four years for completion. 

Bill in adults dusky plumbeous ; edges of upper and lower 
mandibles for the terminal two-thirds yellowish ; nail orange ; 
pouch light primrose to pale fleshy, but in the breeding-season 
deep orange-red ; cheeks and orbits yellow ; irides white ; legs and 
feet pale plumbeous. In young birds the bill is horny brown or 
grey, lower mandible and pouch creamy white, cheeks and orbits 
the same, irides pale yellow (Hume). 

Length of male 72 ; tail 9 ; wing 28 ; tarsus 4*5 ; bill from 
gape 17. Females are smaller : wing 26 ; bill 14. 

Distribution. South-eastern Europe, Northern Africa, and South- 
western Asia as far east as India. This Pelican is a winter visitor 
to Oudh, the North-west Provinces, the Punjab, Sind, and Baluch- 
istan, and abounds at the season nam^d in the dhundhs or marshes 
of Siud, on the Indus, and on the Makran coast. Either this or 
P. onocrotalus breeds near Fao, at the head of the Persian Gulf. 

1523. Pelecanus philippensis. The Spotted-billed Pelican. 




p. 324 ; Butler 8f Hume, S. F. iv, p. 33; Oates, S. F. v, p. 16 
Hume $ D(w. S. F. vi, p. 495 ; Oates, S. F. vii, p. 41 ; Dav. 
Wend. ibid. p. 93; Hume, Cat, no. 1004; Butler, S. F. ix,p.442; 
Reid, S. F. x, p. 87 ; Oates, ibid. p. 247 ; Hume, ibid. pp. 499, 501 ' 
id. S. F. xi, p. 3-51 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 438. 



336 

Pelecanus philippinensis, Wafden, Tr. Z. S. ix } p. 246 ; Legt/f, Birds 

Ceyl. p. 1 198. 
Peleeanus manillensis, apud Oates, B. B ii, p. 236 : id. in Humes 

N. 8f E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 276 ; nee Gmel. 

The Grey Pelican, Jerdon. 

Coloration. In breeding-plumage (September to February) the 
greater part of the plumage is white : the lower back, upper 
rump, flanks, vent- feathers, and lower tail -co verts vinaceous pink ; 
crown and neck-feathers short, curly, white, dark brown at the 
base ; a slight crest and a ridge *>r mane of longer brownish 
feathers down the back of the neck : scapulars, median and greater 
wing-coverts, and upper tail-coverts with black shafts ; lesser and 
median secondary-coverts elongate and pointed ; primaries and 
primary-coverts black or dark brown, terminal halves of secondaries 
blackish or brown : tail light ashy brown. 

Young birds and old birds from March to August have the head 
and neck white, with black bases to the feathers; back white; 
rump, upper tail-coverts, and flanks white, with brown shai't- 
stripes ; wings and tail brown ; lower plumage whity brown ; 
wing-coverts short, not lanceolate. Both breeding and non- 
breeding plumages are assumed by a moult. The full breeding-dress 
is not assumed till the fourth year ; in the second and third years 
the assumption is only partial. Mr. Oates, who kept Pelicans for 
several years and studied the changes of plumage, has given a full 
account of them. 

Bill pinkish yellow, the lateral portions of the upper mandible 
with large bluish-black spots; the nail and terminal halves of both 
mandibles orange-yellow 7 , the central portions of the sides of the 
lower mandible smeared with bluish black; pouch dull purple, 
blotched and spotted with bluish black ; eyelids and skin round 
the eye orange-yellow, skin in front of the eye livid ; irides stone- 
white, varying to pale yellow clouded with brown ; legs and feet 
very dark brown (Oales}. Tail-feathers 22. 

Length 57 ; tail 7'5 ; wing 22 ; tarsus 3'5 ; bill from gape 14. 
Females are a little smaller. 

Distribution. Throughout the better-watered tracts of India, 
Ceylon, and Burma, and the whole Oriental Region. 

Habits, tyc. This is the only Pelican that has been observed to 
breed within Indian limits. Several breeding-places have been 
noticed in Ceylon, where the breeding-season is between December 
and March. Jerdon states that he visited one breeding-place in 
the Carnatic, but the birds were absent, and of late years no 
authentic account of Pelicans breeding in India has appeared. In 
Burma, however, Oates visited a forest near Shwe-gyen, on the 
Sittang, where this bird breeds in enormous numbers in November, 
making its nests of sticks on high trees, there being from three to 
fifteen nests in one tree. The area in which these birds breed 
is about 20 miles long by 5 broad. The eggs, three in number, 
are white and. chalky, always greatly soiled during incubation, and 
they measure about 3 by 2'15. 



FREGATIDjE. 337 

Family FREGATID^E. 

This family is formed by a single genus containing the Frigate- 
birds rather large dark-coloured oceanic birds, which far surpass 
all other Steganopodes in expanse of wing, and greatly resemble 
Accipitrine birds in their mode of flight. Although, as in other 
families of the present order, all four toes are united by a mem- 
brane, the web is much less developed than in the allied forms. 
The tarsus is broad and very short. Furcula arichylosed to keel of 
sternum ; nostrils not pervious. Cervical vertebrae 15 ; syringeal 
muscles present ; ambiens and femoro-caudal developed, the other 
characteristic thigh-muscles wanting. 

Frigate-birds breed on oceanic islands. The nest of sticks 
is placed ou rocks or on bushes, and a single \vhite e^g is laid. 

Genus FREGrATA, Brisson, 1760. 

Bill long, straight, and strongly hooked at the end, both man- 
dibles being curved downward at the tip; culmen flattened, lateral 
grooves deep, bifurcating at the dertrum or nail, and the lower 
branch terminating in a notch in the rnargiu; nostrils in the 
groove, basal and linear. A large naked gular pouch. Wings 
very long and pointed : 1st quill considerably the longest. Tail 
of 12 feathers, deeply forked. Tarsus very short, feathered ; middle 
toe longest ; web between toes deeply emargiiiate ; claws long, 
curved, tliat of middle toe pectinated inside. 

Two or three species are known and range throughout tropical 
seas; two have been taken within Indian limits. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Bin from gape about 5 inches F. aquila, p. 338. 

b. Bill from gape about 375 inches . F* ariel, p. 338. 




Fig. 77. Head of F. arid. 



Frigate or Man-o'-war Birds are well known to seamen from 
their remarkably powerful flight, and from the use they make of 
their speed in pursuing Ganuets, Gulls, and Terns in order to rob 
them of their prey. The Frigate-birds live by piracy in tropical 
seas, just as the Skuas do in colder latitudes ; but the species 
of Frujata do not confine themselves to nsh takeu by other birds : 

YOL. IT. 2 



they ofteu capture flying-fishes, cuttle-fishes, crabs, or even young 
turtles. 

1524. Fregata aquila. The Frigate-bird or Man-of-war Bird. 

Pelecanus aquilus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 216 (1766). 
Attagen aquilus, Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 853. 

Fregata aquila, Hume, Cat.no. 1000; Lcgge, Birds Ceyl. p. 1204; 
Oates, B. B. ii, p. 227. 

Coloration. Male black throughout, richly glossed with metallic 
purple and green on the head, nfck, back, and scapulars, less 
richly on the wings and tail. 

Females have the whole breast white, this colour extending back 
laterally on to the flanks, the back brownish black, and all the 
smaller wing-coverts and the inner median coverts with pale 
brown or whitish edges. 

Young birds have *-he head, neck, breast, and middle of abdomen 
white, the head and neck often tinged with ferruginous, and the 
lower breast sometimes blackish brown ; wing-coverts as in the 
adult female. In worn plumage the back and quills are brown. 

Bill bluish grey ; irides red (sometimes black) ; gular skin, legs, 
and feet red. 

Length about 40; tail 15-19; wing 22-25; bill from gape 
4-5-5-25. 

Distribution. All tropical seas and oceans. This bird has 
been occasionally obtained on the coast of India. Jerdon mentions 
receiving a specimen that had been shot near Mangalore, and there 
is a skin from Ceylon in the British Museum. 

1525. Fregata ariel. The Smaller Frigate-bird. 

Attagen ariel, Gould, Gray, Gen. B. iii, p. 669 (1845) (descr. nulla) ; 
Gould, Biids Australia, vii, pi. 72 (1848) ; Layard, A. M. A 7 . H. 
(2) xiv, p. 271. 

Attagen minor, apud Holds/worth, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 482; nee -Pele- 
canus minor, Gm. 

Fregata minor, apud Hume, S. F. vii, p. 447 ; id. Cat. no. 1000 bis; 
Leffye, Birds Ceyl. p. 1203 ; Hume, S. F. ix, p. 119 ; Oates, B. B. 
ii/p.228. 

Coloration similar to that of F. aquila, except that the adult 
male has a large white patch on each tiank, and the female a white 
or whitish collar round the base of the neck. This species is, how- 
ever, much smaller, with a shorter and more slender bill. Young 
birds have the breast blackish brown, and only the head, neck, 
and abdomen white. 

Bill grey ; irides red ; gular skin red ; eyelids, legs, and feet 
black in males; red in females. In the your.g the irides are 
black; bill and feet blackish white ('Challenger' Keports). 
Tail about 13 ; wing 20 ; bill from gape 3*5-4. 
Distribution. Tropical parts of the Indian and Pacific Oceans as 
far east as the Society Islands. This Frigate-bird appears not to 
be rare on the coast of Ceylon, where several examples have been 
obtained. 



PIIAL A.CKOCOR ACI D /E. 



339 




Fig. 78. Plotus melanogaster. 



Family PHALACROCOEACID.E. 

The Cormorants and Darters are diving fishers with black or 
blackish plumage on the upper parts, and very often on the lower 
also. They have a longish neck, a somewhat slender and elongate 
bill, and stiff tail-feathers. The nostrils are small and not per- 
vious. Cervical vertebrae 20. Ambiens, feinoro-caudal, and serm- 
tendinosus muscles present, the two accessory thigh-muscles 
wanting. Syringeal muscles present. 

There are two subfamilies thus distinguished; each contains a 
single genus : 

Bill hooked at tips, margins of com- 
missure smooth Phalacrocoracince, p. 340. 

Bill straight, pointed, margins toothed. Plotinos, p. 343. 

z2 



340 PHALACKOCORACID^:. 



Subfamily PHALACROCORACIN^E. 

4 

Genus PHALACROCORAX, Brisson, 1760. 

Bill of moderate length, rather slender, compressed ; culmen 
rounded, sharply hooked at the end, a long narrow groove on each 
side, bifurcating afe the dertrum or nail, and the lower branch run- 
ning to the commissure. A gular pouch, naked auterioriy. Wings 
of moderate length ; 2nd quill usually longest. Tail rounded or 
cuneate, of 12 or 14 stiff feathers. Tarsus short and compressed ; 
toes flattened; claws much curved. 

This genus contains about M7 species, which are of almost world- 
wide distribution. Three are Indian. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Tail of 14 feathers ; wing about 13 in. long . . P. carbo, p. 340. 
I). Tail of 12 feathers. 

G', Wing about 10-5 in. P.fuscicollis, p. 341. 

V. Wing about 8 in P.javanicus, p. 342. 

All Cormorants live on fish, which they capture by diving, and 
all are extremely voracious. They swim much immersed in the 
water. When resting after fishing, they sit on rocks, on stumps 
or branches, and often remain motionless with their wings partially 
expanded. They have a powerful sustained flight ; but rise from 
the water heavily and with difficulty, flapping for some distance 
along the surface. They make their nests of twigs, lined with 
grass or seaweed, and placed on trees or rocks, and the eggs are 
elongate-oval with a chalky-white superficial layer, beneath which 
the shell is bluish green. 

1526. Phalacrocorax carbo. The Large Cormorant. 

Pelecanus carbo, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 216 (1766). 

Phalacrocorax carbo, Pallas, Zooar. Rosso- Asiat. ii, p 297 ; Hume fy 
Dav. S. F. vi, p. 496; gall, S. F. vii, p. 234 ; Doty, ibid. p. 409; 
Hume, Cat. no. 1005 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 364 ; Le</(/e, Birds 
Ceyl. pp. 1182, 1223; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 594; Reid, S. F. x, 
p. 87 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 231 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 438 ; 
Hume 8f Cripps, S. F. xi, p. 352 ; Oates in Humes N. $ E. 2nd 
ed. iii, p. 270 ; Barnes, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vi, p. 304 ; Bulkley, 
op. cit. vii, p. 544. 

Graculus albiventer, Tickell, J. A. S. B. xi, p. 463 (1842). 

Graculus carbo, Blyth, Cat. p. 298 ; Jcrdon, B. I. iii, p. 861 ; Hume, 
S. F. i, p. 289 ; Adam, ibid. p. 403 ; Oates, S. F. iii, p. 349 ; v, 
p. 169 ; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 33 ; Doiy, S. F. viii, p. 377. 

Ghogur, Pan-koioa, Jal-koioa, H. ; Tin-gyi, Burm. These names are 
used for all species of Cormorants. Wadda Silli, Sind ; Bonta-kaki, Tel. 

Coloration, Adults are black, glossed with dull purplish or 
green : a white band from eye to eye across the throat, forming a 
broad border to the naked gular pouch ; a small longitudinal 



PIIALACftOCORAX. 341 

pointed nuchal crest ; feathers of the upper back, scapulars, and 
wing-coverts with broad brownish bronze centres and black 
margins, the quills brownish black ; tail-feathers dull black. 

In the breeding-season a large patch of snowy-white appears on 
each fl.ink, and the plumage of the head and upper neck, with the 
exception of the crest, is interspersed with a mass of long silky, 
almost hair-like white plumes, which often conceal the shorter 
black feathers. These white feathers are shed after the breeding- 
season. 

Young birds of the year are dull brown above, with blackish 
margins to the feathers of the upper back, the scapulars, and 
wing-coverts ; the middle of the throat, the whole breast, and the 
middle of the abdomen white. There is a gradual passage from 
this to the adult plumage, which is only assumed in. the fourth 
year, the upper parts, at a period when there is still much white 
or whitish on the lower plumage, resembling those in adult birds. 

Upper mandible and tip of lower dark brown, remainder of lower 
mandible white or pinkish ; irides green ; eyelids and lores dusky 
yellow ; skin of throat bright yellow, or black spotted with yellow ; 
skin under eye orange ; legs and claws black. Tail-feathers 14. 

Length 32; tail 7 ; wing 13 ; tarsus 2'3 ; bill from gape 
3-75. There is considerable variation, and males as a rule are 
larger than females. 

Distribution. Almost throughout Asia, Europe, Africa, and Aus- 
tralia, and on the A tlantic coast of North Americ a. This Cormorant 
occurs on the coasts, large rivers, and larger pieces of fresh w r ater 
throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma. 

Habits, cf*c. The Common Cormorant, though often seen fishing 
singly, generally roosts in companies, and often associates in. large 
flocks. It breeds in colonies, and the nests and eggs have been 
taken in October by Gates in Lower Pegu, in January by Captain 
Horace Terry near Eellary, Madras Presidency, and by Scrope 
Doig on the Eastern JSTara, Siud, in November. The nests are, 
in India, generally on trees growing in water, sometimes on rocks, 
elsewhere on sea-cliffs. The eggs, 4 to 6. or even 7 in number, 
are very elongated ovals, measuring about 2*5 by 1*6. 

1527. Phalacrocorax fuscicollis. The Indian Shag. 
Phalacrccorax fuscicollis, Stc-ph. in Shaw's Gen. Zool. xiii, pt. 1. p. 91 

(1825) ; Hwne $ bav. S. F. vi, p. 406 ; Dav. $ Wend. S. F. vii, 

p. 93 ; Butler, ibid. pp. 178, 189, 467 ; Ball, ibid. p. 234 ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 1006; Doig, S. F. viii, p. 372; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 1182; 

Butler, S. F. ix, p. 442 ; Davidson, 8. F. x, p. 327 ; Gates, B. B. 

ii, p. 233 ; Barnes, Birds Bow. p. 439 ; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Sac. 

vi, p. 305; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 352 ; Gates in Hume's N. 8r E. 2nd 

ed. iii, p. 272. 
Graculus sinensis, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 298 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 862 ; 

King, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 218 ; Gates, S. F. iii, p 350; 

Butler, S. F. iv, p. 33. 
Graculus fuscicollis, Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 181; Bulger, 7^1869, 

p. 170 ; Blyth Sf Wald. Birds Burm. p. 164 ; Gates, S. F. v, p. 170. 

The Lesser Cormorant, Jerdon. 



342 PHALACROCOftACIDJE. 

Coloration. Black, glossed with purplish or greenish ; feathers 
of upper back, scapulars, and wing-coverts dull brownish bronze, 
with broad black margins. There are a few white specks on the 
sides of the head, and, in breeding-plumage only, a pure white 
tuft on each side of the neck behind the ear-coverts. 

In non-breeding plumage, the throat is more or less speckled 
with white. 

Young birds are brown above, with black margins to the 
feathers of the upper back, to the scapulars, and wing-coverts ; 
throat white ; breast and abdomen partly or wholly white. 

Bill dusky brown, reddish beneath ; irides verdigris-blue; nude 
orbits black; gular skin yellow; feet black (Jtrdon). Irides 
green ; naked skin of head yellow (Oates). 

Length 25; tail (of 12 feathers) 6*5; wing 10*5; tarsus 1-8; 
bill from gape 3-25. 

Distribution. This species is rare or wanting in Northern India, 
except in Sind, where it is a permanent resident, and about Delhi. 
It has been found sparingly in Central India, the Deccan, the 
Carnatic, and Orissa, and has been seen occasionally in Ceylon, 
but appears not to have been observed on the Malabar coast. It 
is more common to the eastward in Burma, and was found by 
Hume in Manipur. It is probable that in some cases small 
females of P. carbo have been mistaken for P.fuscicollis. 

Habits, fyc. The Indian Shag is a bird of rivers, lakes, and 
estuaries, rather than of the sea-coasts. It is resident in India, and 
has been found breeding by Gates in July amongst reeds in the 
Myitkyo Swamp, Pegu, and by Doig and Butler on tamarisk trees 
in the Eastern Nara, Sind, from July to December. The eggs 
are like those of P. carbo, and measure about 2-1 by 1-4. 

1528. Phalacrocorax javanicus. The Little Cormorant. 

PHydrocorax niger, Vieill N. Dirt. d'Hist. Nat. viii, p. 88 (1817). 
Carbo javanicus, Horsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 197 (1821). 
Carbo melauognathus, Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. iii, p. 57 

(1837). 
Graculus pygmaeus, amid Bhjth, Cat. p. 293 ; BlytJi $ Wald. Birds 

Burm. p. 164 ; Fairbank, S. F. iv, p. 264 ; Gates, S. F. v, p. 170 ; 

nee Pallas. 
Graculus javanicus. Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 863 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 181 ; 

Butler $ Hume, 'S. F. iv, p. 34. 
Graculus melanognathus, Hume, N. $ E. p. 660 ; id. S. F. i, p. 289 ; 

Adam, ibid. p. 403. 
1'halacroccrax pygmaeus, apud Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, p. 496 ; 

Ball, AS'. F. vii, p. 234; Cripps, ibid. p. 315 ; Hume, ibid. p. 497 ; 

id. Cat. no. 1007 ; Doig, S. F. viii, p. 372 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl 

p. 1191 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 96 ; Butler, ibid. p. 442 ; Reid, S. F. 

x, p. 88 ; Davison, ibid. p. 419 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 234 ; id. in 

Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 273 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 439 ; 

id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vi, p. 305 : Hume, S. F. xi, p. 352. 
Pan-kowa, Jograbi, H. ; Pan-kowri, Pan-kouti, Beng. ; Niru-kahi, 
Tel. ; Kadal Kagam, Jttr Kakam, Tarn. (Ceylon) ; Diya Kawa, Cing. 

Coloration. Black, with a slight green gloss ; scapulars and 



PHALACROCORAX. 343 

wing-coverts dark silvery grey, with a broad black border to each 
feather. In the breeding-season some scattered while feathers 
are developed on the crown and sides of the head, and a few long 
white hair-like plumes grow on the sides of the neck ; the feathers 
uf the occiput and nape are slightly lengthened. 

In non-breeding plumage there is a white throat bordering the 
gular pouch. 

Young birds are brown with a white throat, the coloration is 
darker above; the back, rump, tail, and wing-feathers blackish; 
scapulars and wing-coverts grey with brown borders ; middle of 
breast and abdomen whitish. 




Fig. 79. Head of P. javanicus. 



Bill brown, livid purple in the height of the breeding-season ; 
gular skin and orbits blackish, livid in summer ; legs blackish, 
dusky livid at the same season (Jerdon). 

Length 20 ; tail (of 12 feathers) 5*75 ; wing 8 ; tarsus 1-4 ; 
bill from gape 2'3. 

Distribution. Throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma in all lovr, 
well-watered areas, also in the Malay Peninsula, {Sumatra, Java, 
and Borneo. 

Habits, fyc. This is by far the commonest Indian Cormorant ; 
it is found in rivers, marshes, and large tanks, but not on the sea- 
coast, at all events commonly. It is usually found singly or in 
small parties, but collects into flocks to roost, and breeds in 
enormous numbers on trees about water in July, August, or 
September in ^Northern India and in Burma, but in February and 
March in Ceylon. The eggs are 3 to 5 in number, and measure 
about 1-76 by 1-16. 

Subfamily PLOTINJS. 
Genus PLOTUS, Linn., 1760. 

Bill slender, straight, very sharp-pointed, both margins of com- 
missure toothed near the tip ; no lateral groove ; nostrils small, 
basal, linear ; neck very slender, with a bend at the 8th and 9th 
vertebrae which, as Garrod has shown (P. Z. S. 1876, p. 337), 
enables the bird, by suddenly straightening the neck, to transfix 
with its bill the lishes it captures. Wing pointed, 3rd quill 
longest ; scapulars elongate and lanceolate. Tail long, cuneate, of 
12 rigid feathers. 

Four species inhabit the tropical regions of different con- 
tinents ; one is Indiau. 



344 PHALACKOCORACTDJE. 

1529. Plotus melanogaster. The Indian Darter or Snake-lird. 
(Fig. 78, p. 339.) 

AnMnga melanogaster, Pennant, Indian Zool. p. 13, pi. xiii (1709). 
Plotus melanogaster, Gmel. Syat. Nat. i, p. 68') (1788) : Blyth, Cat. 

p. 299 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. '865 ; Hume, N. fy E. p. 661 ; id. S. F. 

i. p. 289 ; Adam, ibid. p. 403 ; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 34 ; Fairbanfr, 




Birds Bom. p. 440 ; Hume, S. F. \\, p. 353 ; Gates in Hume's 
N. fy E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 274 ; Barnes, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vi, 
p. 306 ; Sinclair, op. cit. viii, p. 434. 

Banwa, Pan Diibbi, H. ; Sili, Sind; Goyar, Benr. ; KaUaki-pitta, Tel.; 
Chakuri, Southern Gonds ; Pambuttara, Tarn. (Ceylon) ; Diya Kawa, 
Belli Eawa, Cing. 

Coloration. Crown and neck brown, all the feathers with pale 
edges, back of neck blackish ; chin, throat, and a line commencing 
above Ihe gape, and continued about halfway down each side of 
the neck, white ; a minute white streak also above the eye ; upper 
back black, the feathers with brown edges ; lower back, rump, 
tail-coverts, tail-feathers, primary and secondary quills, and lower 
parts from the neek glossy black ; scapulars, wing-coverts, and 
tertiaries black, with conspicuous silvery-white shaft-stripes ; last 
tertiary in each wing arid two middle pairs of tail-feathers with 
the outer web ribbed. Sexes alike. 

In immature birds the neck is pale brown, whitish beneath, 
with the lateral stripes indistinct. The black on the lower back, 
rump, breast, and abdomen is sooty or brownish, and the silvery 
stripes on the upper plumage tinged with yellow. 

Bill with the upper mandible brown or blackish, the lower 
yellowish; irides yellow; legs black (Oates). Iris pearly white, 
with an inner and outer ring of yellow (Legye). 

Length 36; tail 9; wing 14; 'tarsus 1*7 ; bill from gape 3\8. 

Distribution. Throughout the Oriental Region in suitable 
localities. In India, Ceylon, and Burma this bird is found 
wherever there are extensive pieces of fresh water or large rivers 
with a slow current. 

Habits, fyc. The Snake-bird haunts fresh water, not the sea, but 
it may be found on tidal estuaries and creeks. It swims with 
only its snake-like head and neck out of water, and dives very 
rapidly, either from the surface of the water or from a perch above it. 
Its food consists of fish, and it captures them when diving either by 
impaling them, with one of its mandibles or securing them between 
the two; it then emerges from the water, throws up the captured 
fish, catches it again, and swallows it head foremost. After 
feeding, the Darter perches on a branch or stump of a tree, and 
sits cormorant-like with extended wings. The voice of this Darter, 



8ULIDJE. 345 

according to Legge, is a harsh dissyllabic croak. The nest and 
eggs are like those of Cormorants: 1 he breeding-season is July 
and August in Northern India and Burma, January and February 
in Madras and Ceylon. The birds breed in colonies, and generally 
in company with Cormorants and Herons, on trees in or near 
water, and the es:gs are three or four in number and measure 
about 2-13 by 1'37. 



Family SULID^E. 

The Gannets or Boobies are black and white or brown and 
white birds of considerable size, inhabiting the open sea, and 
living on fish. They have a powerful pointed bill, and the outer 
nostrils in adults are completely closed. Cervical vertebrae 18. 
Ambiens, femoro-caudal, and semitendinosus muscles present, the 
two accessory thigh-muscles absent. No syringeal muscles. 

There is only one genus. 

Genus SULA, Brisson, 1760. 

Bill strong, straight, compressed, pointed ; the culmen flattened, 
broad at the base, curved at the end but not hooked ; upper 
mandible with a linear groove on each side near the culmen ; 
nostrils completely closed in adults, minute and basal in young 
birds ; inner margins of both mandibles serrated, especially towards 
the tip. Sides of head to behind the orbit, chin, and part 
of throat naked, the feathered area ending on the throat, in all 
Indian species, in a transverse line. Wings long, pointed ; tail 
long, wedge-shaped. Tarsus short ; outer and middle toes equal ; 
claw of middle toe broad and pectinated. 

About six species are known, including the Gannets, which 
inhabit temperate regions and have a narrow naked strip running 
down the middle of the throat, and the Boobies, which are tropical. 
Three of the latter are said to be found in Indian seas. 

Key io the Species. 

a. Tail-feathers 14. 

a'. Head, neck, and upper parts brown in adults ; 

feet pale yellow & leucoy aster, p. 346. 

//. Head, neck, body, and tail white in adults ; 

feet red ....." S. pitcatrixj p. 347. 

b. Tail-feathers 16. 

c'. Head, neck, and body white in adults ; tail 

blackish ; feet slaty S. cyanops, p. 347. 

The members of this genus are said to be oceanic birds, but 
they are more commonly found singly or in flocks about reefs and 
islands, and they breed chiefly on isolated rocks in the sea, some- 



346 

times near continents, laving a single egg, which is externally chalky 
white, but bluish green when the outer layer is removed. All have a 
steady, rather powerful flight, generally to be recognized by the bird's 
habit of alternately making a few rapid beats with the wings and 
then sailing for some distance with wings extended. They feed 
upon fish, the tropical species very generally on flying-fish, but 
remains of cuttlefishes have also been found in their stomachs. 
The Gaunets, or Solan Geese, as they are often called, dash into 
the sea after their prey from a considerable height and with great 
force, but Boobies appear less addicted to this style of fishing. 
The name Booby appears to be derived partly from the stolid 
appearance of the birds, partly from their frequently settling on 
vessels and allowing themselves to be easily captured, 



3530. Sula leucogaster. The Booby or Broivn Gamut. 

Pelecanus sula, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 218 (1766). 

Pelecanus leucogaster, Bodd. Tabl PL Enl. p. 57 (1783). 

Sula fiber, apud Blj/th, Cat. p. 296; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 851 ; Hume, 

S. F. ii, pp. 51, 324 ; iv, p. 483. 
Sula australis, Steph. apud Hume, 8. F. v, p. 318; Hume Sr Lai:. 

S. F. vi, p. 493 : Hume, Cat. no. 998. 
Sula leucogastra, Sclat. fy Sale. P. Z. S. 1878, p. 601 ; Legye, Birds 

Ceyl. p. 1177. 
Dysporus sula, Oates, B. B. ii, p. 229. 




Fig. 80. Head of S. Icucoy aster, i. 

Coloration. In adults the head, neck, and upper breast, with 
the whole upper surface, dark chocolate-brown : wing and tail- 
feathers bluish brown; lower breast and belly white; wing-lining 
almost wholly brown. 

Young birds have the upper parts, wings, tail, head, and neck 
all round down to the middle of the breast uniform sepia-brown, 
lower breast and abdomen pale brow ; nish, the limits of the two 
colours well defined. 

Bill creamy white, with a bluish tinge in veins ; pouch, gape, lores, 
and orbital spaces pale hoary greenish yellow ; irides white ; legs 
and feet pale yellow (Hume). Tail-feathers 14. 

Length 32; tail 8; wiug 15; tarsus 1'7; bill from gape 4'7. 



SULA. 347^ 

Distribution. Tropical seas throughout the world. The Booby 
has frequently been seen and occasionally shot on the coasts of 
India, Ceylon, and Burma-. 

]531. Sula piscatrix. The Red-legged Booby. 

Pelecanus piscator, Linn. Syst. Nut. i, p. 217 (1766). 

Dysporus piscator, Sundevall, Physioyr. Sdllskapets Tidsk. i, p. 217 ; 

Vrf. A. M. N. H. xix, p. 235 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 230. 
Sula piscator, Blyth, Cat. p. 297 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 852 ; Hume, 

Cat. no. 999. 
Sula piscatrix, Hume, S. F. iv, p. 483 ; v, p. 312. 

The White Booby, Jerdon. 

Coloration. Adults are white with the exception of the 
primaries, secondaries, and greater coverts, which are dark brown 
tinged with silvery grey; the head, neck, and back sometimes 
washed with buff. 

Young birds are sepia-brown throughout, lower parts paler ; in 
the next plumage the abdomen becomes whitish or white, then 
the head, neck, and body. The quills are always more or less 
tinged with hoary grey. 

Bill, facial skin, legs and feet red (Sundevall); i rides grey, bill 
in young bluish pink, orbital area plumbeous, pouch flesh-coloured 
(McOillivray}. Tail-feathers 14. 

Length about 26; tail 8-5; wing 15; tarsus 1-3; bill from 
gape 4. 

Distribution. Tropical seas. Blyth states that this bird is 
common in the Bay of Bengal, and Jerdon that it is occasionally 
seen there ; Sundevall says it is common in the Indian Ocean 
between 10 N. and 10 8., and that he saw one bird in May on 
the coast of Bengal. It is, however, possible that S. cyanops, 
which was not recorded from Indian seas by Sundevall, Blyth, or 
Jerdon, has been at times mistaken for S. piscatrix. Hume saw 
a large flock, apparently of the present species, close to one of the 
Laccadive Islands ; and Blyth identified with S. piscatrix a young 
bird obtained by Layard from the Maldives. No other specimen 
has been obtained in the neighbourhood, and although, as the Bed- 
legged Booby is common in the Malay Archipelago, it must, I 
think, inhabit Indian seas, its claim to a place in the list of Indian 
birds cannot be regarded as quite certain. 

1532. Sula cyanops. The Masked Booby. 

Dysporus cyanops, Sundevall, Physioqr. Sdllskapets Tidsk. i, p. 218 

'(1837) ; id. A. M. N. H. xix, p. 236; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 231. 
Sula cyanops, Butler, S. F. v, p. 303 ; Hume, ibid. p. 307 ; id. Cat. 

no. 999 bis ; Butler, S. F. viii, p. 383 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 1180; 

Murray, S. F. x, p. 165 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 436 ; Sinclair, 

Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. v, p. 303. 
Sula melanops, Heugl. Ibis, 1859, p. 351, pi. x, fig. 2. 

Coloration in adults white, except the quills, greater coverts, 
and tail-feathers, which are blackish brown. 



348 PHAfiTHONTIDJE. 

Birds of the year are said to be greyish brown throughout. At 
a later stage the upper parts and neck all round are dark brown, 
the breast and abdomen white. This plumage is probably replaced 
by that of the adult, some skins with the upper surface mostly 
white retaining dark spots on the wing-coverts and lower back. 
S. cynnops in the dark plumage is distinguished from S. Uuc.oc/aster 
by having only the neck, not the breast, brown, and by its white 
wing-lining. 

Bill yellow or greenish yellow; loral and facial skin dark slate- 
colour ; i rides yellow, reddish, 01^ greenish yellow; legs and toes 
dark slaty or plumbeous ; webs darker (Legge). Tail-feathers 
16 or 18. 

Length 32; tail 7; wing 16-5; tarsus 2*2 : bill from gape 5*1. 
Birds from the South Pacific are larger. 

Distribution. Tropical seas. This Booby is of occasional occur- 
rence on the Indian coasts both east and west of India. Specimens 
have been obtained by Butler off Mekran, by Murray at Karachi, 
aud by Sinclair close to Bombay. 



Family PHAETHONTID^E. 

The members of this family are about the size of the smaller 
Gulls, and combine the structure of Gannets or Cormorants with 
the habits and appearance of Terns. They have a satiny white 
plumage, with a few black markings. The bill is pointed, not 
hooked, the nostrils are narrowly pervious, and the palate is im- 
perfectly desmognathous, the maxillo-palatines being separate 
behind, though united with the nasal septum anteriorly, and the 
vomer being well-developed and conspicuous. Cervical vertebroe 
15. Ambiens absent, femoro-caudal, semitendinosus, and accessory 
semitendinosus present, the last-named muscle not occurring in 
other Steganopodous birds. Syringeal muscles present. Members 
of the present family are also distinguished by laying spotted eggs. 

A single genus. 



Genus PHAETHON, Linn., 1766. 

Bill stout, slightly curved throughout, the margins finely ser- 
rated. Wings very long, 1st primary longest. Middle pair of 
tail-feathers excessively elongated and attenuated. Tarsus very 
short. 

Four or five species are known, of which three have been recorded 
from Indian seas. 



349 



Key to the Species. 

a. Outer web of first primary black. 

'. Back barred in adults; white tips to iirst 

primary very narrow. Tail-feathers 14 . P. indicus, p. 349. 
b' . Back quite white in adults; white tip to 

first primary more than 0'5 in. long-. 

Tail-feathers 12 P.Jlavirostris, p. 350. 

b. Outer web of tirst primary white. Tail- 

leathers 1C . P, rubricauda, p. 350. 

The Tropic-birds, called by sailors Boatswain (Bosun) Birds, 
because, it is said, the long median tail-feathers recall the Boat- 
swain's marling- spike, are truly oceanic, and are commonly seen 
at a distance from land, where they attract attention by their 
habit of flying up to ships, hovering round the masts, and some- 
times resting on the masthead. They have a swift and elegant 
night, and are often seen with their bills pointed downward, but 
they turn their heads in various directions, sideways and even 
backward when flying. Their visits to ships appear due to 
curiosity, anything serves to attract them, and the firing of a gun 
will often bring them from a considerable distance. They feed on 
fish captured on the surface. They breed on oceanic islands, 
chiefly in holes of rocks, laying a single egg, pinkish-white in 
colour, mottled, spotted, and smeared with brownish purple. 



1533. Phaethon indicus. The Short-tailed Tropic-bird. 

Phaeton rubricauda, apud Holdsiuorth, P.Z.S. 1872, p. 482 

Blanford, ZooL Geol. Abyssinia, p. 441 ; nee Bodd. 
Phaeton <etherius, apud Hume, S. F. i. pp. 286, 441 ; nee Linn. 
Phaeton indicus, Hume, S. F. iv, p. '481 (1876); Butler, S. F. v, 

p. 302 ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. . vi, p. 493; Hume, Cat. no. 996 bis ; 

Butler, S. F. viii. p. 388 ; Let/ye, Birds CeyL p. 1173 ; Hume, S. F. 

x, p. 146 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p.' 226 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 434. 




Fig. 81 .Head of P. indicus. $. 

Coloration white, with a satiny gloss, barred with black on the 
hind neck, back, scapulars, rump, and upper tail-coverts, -the bars 
more or less crescentic ; a single broadly crescentic black patch 
in front of the eye extending to the gape, and a black streak, 
more or less broken, running back from each eye to the nape and 



350 PHAETHONTIDyE. 

forming a band round the crown ; outer webs, shafts, and portions 
of inner webs near shafts of first five primaries black except the 
narrow extreme w T hite tips of the feathers ; tertiaries, primary 
coverts, greater tertiary coverts, and long flank-feathers black 
with white borders ; shafts of rectrices black except at the ends. 

Young birds have a few black spots on the head. 

Bill dull orange-red, inner margins of both mandibles dusky ; 
irides blackish brown ; legs, hallux, and base of other toes and of 
their webs yellowish white ; rest of feet black. Tail-feathers 14. 

Length (including long tail-feathers) about 21 ; tail 7'5-12 ; 
tail without median rectrices 4; wing 11-5; tarsus 1; bill from 
gape 3-25. 

Distribution. All seas around India from the Straits of Malacca 
to the Persian Gulf, also the lied Sea. 

This species is probably found throughout the Northern Indian 
Ocean ; it represents the Atlantic P. cetherius, but is considerably 
smaller, and has a much shorter tail. 



1534. Phaethon flavirostris. The White Tropic-bird. 

Phaeton Candidas (Bnss.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 296; Jevdon, B. I. iii, 

p. 850. 
Phaeton flavirostris, Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. ii, p. 349 

(1837) ; Beavan $ Tytl. Ibis, 1867, p. 334 ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 323 ; 

id. S. F. v, p. 498 ; Hume, Cat. no. 997 ; Legyc, Birds Ceyl. p. 1172; 

Gates, B. B. ii, p. 225. 

Coloration white and satiny ; a crescentic patch in front of each 
eye, and a broad stripe behind it to the ear-coverts black, as are 
the outer webs, shafts, and inner webs near the shafts of the first 
five or six primaries, with the exception of the white tips, -75 to 
1-5 inches long, in Indian Ocean birds ; greater portion of each 
tertiary and a band along the smaller secondary coverts some 
distance from the edge of the wing also black. 

Young birds as usual are barred above with black. 

Bill pale yellow ; legs and base of toes olive-yellow ; feet black. 
Tail-feathers 12. 

Length 20 ; tail 18 ; wing 10*75 ; tarsus -9 ; bill from gape 
2-8. 

Distribution. Tropical seas all round the world. Several speci- 
mens have been recorded within Indian limits, amongst them one 
on the Ceylon coast identified by Legge, one at the Andamans 
obtained by Col. Tytler, and one inland in Cachar recorded by 
Hume. 



1535. Phaethon rubricauda. The Red-tailed Tropic-bird. 

Phaeton rubricauda, Bodd. Tabl. PL Enl. p. 57 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, 
p. 849 ; Hume, S. F, ii, p. 322 ; Hume, Cat. no. 996 ; Gates, B. B. 
ii, p. 224. 



PHAETHOff. 351 

? Phaeton setherius, apud Jllyth, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 374 ; id. Cat. 
p. 296 ; id. Ibis, 1867, p. 178. 

Coloration. White, often tinged with rosy ; a patch in front of 
the eye and a small streak behind, the shafts of the primaries and 
tail-feathers, except at the ends, broad shaft-stripes to the later 
secondaries and tertiaries, black ; there are broad grey shaft - 
stripes on the long flank-feathers ; the long middle tail-feathers 
have black shafts and red webs. 

Young birds have the upper parts barred with black. 

Bill yellow ; legs and basal portions of feet yellow ; rest of feet 
black. Tail-feathers 16. 

Length 33 ; tail 19 ; wing 13 ; tarsus 1*25 ; bill from gape 
3-25. 

Distribution. Tropical portions of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. 
This species is said to have been repeatedly obtained or seen in the 
Bay of Bengal, and as Hume described an undoubted specimen 
which he said came from the area, I include the species. There is 
no specimen from Indian seas in the British Museum, and it is 
certain that P. indicus has been on several occasions taken for the 
young of the present form. 



Order XX. TUBINARES. 

The Petrels were formerly classed with the Grulls, to which they 
have a considerable external resemblance, although they differ in 
many important characters, and they appear, on the whole, to be 
as nearly allied to the Steganopodes as to any other order. They 
may be at once distinguished from all other birds by the nostrils 
terminating externally in tubes, separate or united. The rham- 
photheca or horny covering of the bill is divided into several 
pieces by deep grooves, as in some Steganopodes, and the upper 
mandible is generally much hooked at the end. The anterior toes 
are webbed throughout, the hallux is small, rudimentary or absent, 
being frequently represented by the claw-phalanx alone. The 
wings are long in the typical forms, the primaries 11, the filth 
secondary wanting. Oil-gland tufted. Spinal feather-tract well- 
defined on the neck by lateral bare tracts ; forked on the upper 
back. 

Petrels are schizognathous and holorhinal. The vomer is large, 
broad, depressed, and pointed. Nostrils impervious. Cervical 
vertebra? 15. Large supraorbital glands ; two carotids ; caeca rudi- 
mentary or wanting. Femoro-caudal and semitendinosus muscles 
always present, ambiens and accessory fernoro-caudal generally, 
but wanting in a few genera. 

The majority of the species lay a single egg in a burrow or 
under stones, without any nest. Some, as the Albatrosses, make 
a nest in the open. The egg is either entirely white or has a 
faint zone of reddish spots near the larger end. The young are 
helpless, and clad with down till fully grown. Sexes alike in 
coloration. 

The Petrels are birds of the ocean, passing the greater part of 
their life far from land, resting on the water at times, and only 
visiting the shore, as a ride, for breeding purposes. They feed on 
floating Crustacea, mollusca, small n'sh, alive or dead, and similar 
aliment. Some of them, as the Fulmars and Dapt'wn, follow 
ships and feed on any refuse, especially fat, that may be thrown 
overboard. Most of the Petrels are swift and powerful flyers, 
and may be seen skimming over the waves, almost without moving 
their wings, whilst some of them, and especially the small Stormy 
Petrels, appear to aid their flight by striking the water with their 
feet. Hence, as Newton points out in his * Dictionary of Birds,' 
their name of Petrel was derived, for they were supposed to be 
walking on the sea as St. Peter is recorded to have done. 

Many Petrels are crepuscular or nocturnal, especially during the 
breeding-season. The majority of them, on being captured, vomit 
a small quantity of clear oil with a disagreeable smell. 

The classification of the Petrels, like their systematic position, 
is still unsettled. By many the Albatrosses are placed in a 



PROCJSLLA.RIIDJ;. 353 

separate family, whilst Forbes*, to whom we owe by far the best 
account hitherto published of their anatomy, only assigned distinct 
family rank to Oceanites and its allies. Seebohmt and Salving 
do not recognize this distinction, but attach weight to the presence 
or absence of basipterygoid processes, and the last-named divides 
the order into four families, of which Procellariidce and Diomedeidce 
(Stormy Petrels and Albatrosses) want the processes, whilst Puf- 
finidm and Pdeca noidece possess them, the other distinctions being 
founded on characters of the nostrils, sternum, furcula, coracoids, 
and primaries. These families may be worthy of distinction, but 
there is so much doubt that, in arranging the few species of which, 
in each case, from one to three specimens have been obtained in 
the seas around India, the simple plan of leaving all the Indian 
genera in one family is most convenient. 



Family PROCELLAHIID^l. 

To this family, as above stated, all known Indian genera of 
Petrels are here referred. They are four in number. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Tarsus much longer than middle toe ; Indian 

species small, wing 1 not exceeding 7 in. ; 

nostrils with a single anterior orifice. 

a'. Basal phalanx not half length of mid-toe . . OCEANITKS,P. 353. 
l> . Basal phalanx of mid-toe flattened, more 

than half length CYMODROMA, 

b. Tarsus shorter than middle toe ; wing in Indian [p. 354. 

species exceeding 7 in. 
c'. Nostrils separated at orifice by a broad 

septum PUFFINUS, p. 355. 

d' Nostrils not separate at orifice, but divided 

inside DAPTION, p. 357. 

Genus OCEANITES, Keys. & Bias., 1840. 

The small birds commonly called Stormy Petrels or Mother 
Carey's Chickens, of which the Atlantic Procellaria pelagica is 
the best known, have been divided into several genera, the present 
being one. In it the bill is slight and shorter than the head, the 
orifice of the combined nostrils single ; wings very long, with the 
2nd quill longest ; the tail moderate, the outer rectrices slightly 



* ' Challenger' Reports, Zool. iv, pt. xi, p. 1. 
t Classification of Birds, p. 34 ; Suppl. p. 15. 
J Cat. B. M. xxr, p. 342. 
VOL. IV. 2 A. 



354 

longer than the middle pair; tibia partly nude, tarsi smooth, not 
scutellated, much longer than the toes ; the hind toe only repre- 
sented by a minute claw ; basal phalanx of middle toe not 
flattened and shorter than the other phalanges and the claw 
together ; claws sharp, spatulate, but little flattened. 

This genus ranges throughout the Southern Oceans and into the 
North Temperate zone. Two species are known, of which one is 
probably the common small Petrel of the Indian seas, 

1530. Oceanites oceanicus. Wilson's Stormy Petrel. 

Frocellaria oceaniea, Kuhl, Beitr. p. 136, pi. x, fig. 1 (1820). 

Procellaria wilsonii, Bonap. Jour. A<-. Phil, iii, p. 231, pi. 9 (1823). 

? Thalassidroma sp., Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 827; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 317; 
Leffffe, S. F. iii, p. 375. 

Thalassidroma wilsoni, Butler, S. F. v, p. 291. 

Oceanites oceanicus, .Bonap. Consp. Av. ii, p. 199 (1857); Hume, 
S. F. v,p. 291 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 490; Butler, S. F. vii, 
)\ 178; Hume, Cat. no. 976; Le'/ye, Birds Ceyl. p. 1050; Oate*, 
B. B. ii, p. 437 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 421 ; Salvin, Cat. B. M. 
xxv, p. 358. 




Fig. 82. Head of 0. oceanicus. |. 

Coloration. Sooty-black, rather paler and browner beneath and 
oh the forehead ; greater secondary wing-coverts greyish brown ; 
upper tail-coverts and lower flanks, together with the shafts and 
extreme bases of the lateral rectrices, white. 

Irides blackish ; bill, legs, and feet black ; centres of webs 
between toes pale yellow (Butler). 

Length 7'5 ; tail 2'6 ; wing 6-25 ; tarsus 1-4 ; bill from gape -65. 

Distribution. Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Not rare in the 
seas around India. Specimens have, however, so far only been 
identified from, the Mekran coast. 

Habits, $c. Like the other Stormy Petrels, this bird is generally 
seen far from laud, singly or in scattered flocks, skimming over 
the waves or resting on the sea. It breeds on stony or rocky 
islands. 

Genus CYMODROMA, Eidgway, 1884. 

A near ally of Oceanites, distinguished principally by having 
the basal phalanx of the middle toe greatly flattened, and 
equalling or exceeding the other phalanges and the claw in 



PUFFIN us. 355 

length ; claws flattened and broad, spade-shaped, pointed at the 
end. 

This genus of Petrels is chiefly found in the Southern Oceans, 
but one species appears to have been obtained in the Bay of 
Bengal. 

1537. Cymodroma melanogaster. The Dusky-vented Petrel. 

Thalassidroma melanogaster, Gould, A. M. N. H. xiii, p. 367 

(1844). 

Cymodroma melanogaster, Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, p. 72 ; 
'Sttlvin, Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 364. 

Coloration. Upper parts blackish brown, head, quills, and tail 
blacker, back and wing-coverts browner; upper tail-co\erts and 
bases of all rectrices, except the middle pair, white ; lower parts 
to abdomen, middle of lower abdomen, and long under tail-coverts 
dark sooty-brown; greater part of abdomen, flanks, and wiiig- 
lining, except near the edge of the wing, white ; base of feathers 
of throat and sometimes the ends also white. 

Bill and legs black. 

Length 8; tail 3; wing 6-5 ; tarsus 1-6; hill from gape '83. 

Distribution. Southern Oceans, the range extending in the 
Atlantic as far north as the tropic of Cancer. A single specimen 
from the Tweeddale Collection, labelled " Bay of. Bengal " in the 
Marquis of Tweeddale's handwriting, is in the British Museum, 
and is the only authority for the occurrence of this species m 
Indian JSeas. There appears, however no reason to doubt the 
accuracy of the label. 



Genus PUFFINUS, Brisson, 1760. 

The Shearwaters, as they are generally termed, are birds of 
moderate size, with a long, slender, compressed bill much hooked 
at the tip, and with both mandibles curving downward at the 
end. The tubular nostrils terminate in two distinct oblique 
oritices, directed forward and upward, with a broad division 
between them. Wings long, 1st quill longest. Tail of 12 feathers, 
moderately long, graduated, rounded at the end. Tarsus com- 
pressed, sharp in iront, reticulated, shorter than the middle and 
outer toes, which are subequal ; hind claw distinct. 

The genus is distributed throughout the Oceans, and 20 species 
are recognized in the British Museum Catalogue ; of these two have 
been obtained in Indian seas. 



Key to the Species. 

a. Plumage dark brown throughout P. chlcrorhynchus, p. 356. 

b. Lo\\er suriace white P. persicus, p. 006. 

2 A 2 



356 PROCELLAIIIID.E. 

1538. Puffinus chlororhynclius. The Green-billed Shearwater. 

Puffinus chlororhynchus, Less. Traite, p. 613 (1831); Legge, Birds 
Ceyl. p. 1054 ; id. S. F. ix, p. 264 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 439 j 
Salvin, Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 372. 

Puffinus sphenurus, Gould, A. M. N. H. xiii, p. 365 (1844). 

Puffinus ?, Leyge, S. F. iii, p. 374 ; Hume, Cat. no. 976 ter. 




Fig. 83. Head of /'. chlororhynchus. j. 

Coloration. Dark smoke-brown, slightly paler and greyer beneath, 
especially on the throat, which has an ashy tinge. 

Bill dusky greenish ; iris dusky ; legs and feet fleshy white 
(Legge}. 

Length 17; tail 5; wing 11 : tarsus 1-8; bill from gape T75. 
The median rectrices exceed the outer by about 1*5 inches. 

Distribution. Indian Ocean, seas of Australia and New Zealand, 
and Southern Pacific. This Shearwater is common about the 
Seychelles, Rodriguez,, and Mauritius, and has been found breeding 
at Round Island, near the latter. It has been obtained more than 
once on the coast of Ceylon, and is very probably, as Legge 
pointed out, the bird of which a specimen was once obtained at 
Madras by Jerdon, but lost before a complete description was 
taken (B. I. iii, p. 826). The coloration of this was identical 
with that of P. ctdororhynchus, but some of the measurements 
(length 18, wing 124, tail 5, bill at gape 1|) were large and 
agreed better with those of (Estrelata macroptera, to which Jerdon 
noticed the resemblance. The latter is easily recognized by its 
tarsi not being compressed, and by its stouter bill ; bill and feet 
black in colour. 

I have seen off Bombay a dark-coloured Petrel that looked to 
me larger than P. persicus, but it was at a considerable distance. 

1539. Puffinus persicus. The Persian Shearwater. 

Puffinus persicus, Hume, S. F. i, p. 5 (1873): v, p. 293; id. Cat. 
no. 976 bis; Blanf. Ibis, 1873, p. 215; Butler, S. F. v, p. 292; 
Barney Birds Bom. p. 421 ; id. Ibis, 1893, p. 175 ; Salvin, 
Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 381, pi. iv. 

Coloration. Whole upper surface uniform blackish brown, the 
dark colour extending on the head to a little beneath the eye ; 
feathers around eye whitish; lower surface pure white; flanks, 



DAPTION. 357 

axillaries, and under wing-coverts near edge of wing dark brown ; 
remainder of wing-lining white. 

Bill dusky brown, bluish at base, and on three-fourths of lower 
mandible ; irides brown ; legs and feet white, tinged with pink and 
lavender ; claws, margin of web, outer toe, and part of ridge of mid- 
toe black (Hume). The amount of black on the foot varies slightly. 

Length 13; tail 2-8 (median feathers about '5 longer than 
outer) ; wing 7'9 ; tarsus 1*5 ; bill from gape 1*75. 

Distribution. The Arabian 8ea, from the neighbourhood of 
Bombay to Aden. Not rare off the Sind and Baluchistan coasts. 

This bird is scarcely separable from ^he widely spread 
P. obscurus, of all tropical and subtropical oceans. It differs in 
having the axillaries dark brown instead of white or mottled, and 
is perhaps rather larger, but the difference is very slight. As 
Mr. Salvin has kept P. persicus distinct, I admit the species, but 
I am inclined to regard it as only a geographical race. 

Genus DAPTION, Stephens, 1826. 

Bill short, stout, gonys angulate near the end, and the extremity 
inclined upward ; nostrils terminating in a single orifice, but 
divided within. Wings long, 1st quill longest, secondaries short. 
Tail rather short, slightly rounded at the end ; rectrices 14. 
Tarsus slender, reticulate, somewhat compressed and shorter than 
the middle or outer toe ; hind claw stout. 

There is only one species. 

1540. Daption capensis. The Cape Petrel. 

Procellaria capensis, Linn. yst. Nat. i, p. 213 (1766). 

Daption capensis, Steph. in Shaw's Gen. Zool. xiii, pt. 1, p. 241, 

pi. 28 ; Hume, Ibis, 1870, p. 438 ; id. S. F. vii, pp. 442, 463 ; id. 

Cat. no. 975 ter ; Leyge, Birds Ceyl. p. 1056 ; Oates, B. B. ii, 

p. 438; Salvin, Cat. B. M. xxv, p. 428. 

Coloration, Head all round and hind neck brownish black; 
upper parts white, each feather broadly tipped with black, except 
the smaller wing-coverts and the primary-coverts, which are 
blackish throughout ; quills and tail-feathers white with long 
black tips, the outer webs of the earlier primaries also blackish ; 
lower parts from the throat white, the feathers of the throat and 
lower tail-coverts more or less spotted with dusky. 

Bill black ; irides brown ; legs and feet deep brown, the toes 
spotted at the side with whitish (Leyge). 

Length about 16; tail 4; wing 10-25; tarsus 1-7; bill from 
gape 1-6. 

Distribution. This Petrel, known to sailors as the " Cape 
Pigeon," is common throughout the Southern Oceans, but is of 
rare occurrence north of the Equator. A single individual,, of 
v\hichthe skin is preserved in the Hume Collection, was shot by 
Mr. Theobald in the Gulf of Manaar, between Ceylon and the 
mainland. 



35S 

It is certain that the Petrels above described are not the only 
species that frequent Ihe seas of India. Reference has already 
been made in the account of Puffinu* chlororJii/nchus to a doubtful 
species once obtained by Jerdon at Madras. Then Hume (S. P. ii, 
p. 317) saw, near Preparis and the Cocos, on the 4th March, 1873, 
several blue and white Petrels, probably a species of Prion. They 
were known to the officers of the ship as " Whale Birds." A bird 
known by the same name is said by Butler to occur on the Baluch- 
istan coast (8. F. v, p. 304). Again it is extremely doubtful whether 
all the small " Stormy Petrels " so "frequently seen in the upper 
part of the Bay of Bengal (S. F. ii, p. 317) are Gceanites oceanicns 
or Cymodroma melanogaster. I have a distinct recollection, when 
on my way from Calcutta to Madras by steamer on one occasion, 
about 1867., of seeing,- only a few yards away from the vessel, 
several small Petrels that appeared to want the conspicuous white 
rump of those two species, and my recollection is confirmed by a 
note in pencil on the margin of my copy of Jerdon. It is far 
from improbable that some kind of Oceanodroma, of which several 
species occur in the North Pacific, may be found in the Bay of 
Bengal. 

Lastly, there is the bird seen by Sundevall and identified by him 
as Hctlodroma or Pdlecanoides urinatricc *. Jerdon (B. I. iii, p. 827), 
who has been followed by Hume (Cat. no. 977) and Gates (B. B. ii, 
p. 440), admits the species as Indian. The locality was also 
given in Blyth's Catalogue, p. 295. The following is Sundevall's 
account : 

" In the southern parts of the Bay of Bengal I saw several times 
in December and January a bird which could hardly be anything 
else than the above-mentioned (P. winatrue). The colour and form 
were clearly distinguished through the telescope at less than 100 
ells distance. It was blackish grey, beneath and under the wings 
white, with projecting nostrils, and was but little larger than Alca 
alle (the Little Auk), which it resembled in its exterior. T>vo or 
three were commonly seen together resting on the water, from 
which they occasionally arose and flapped with their wings like 
ducks. They dived remarkably well and long, like Alca and Uria, 
and flew heavily with a rapid motion of the wings for a short 
distance close over the surface." 

That some bird not yet identified, probably a Petrel, was seen is 
evident, but as no specimen was obtained it is premature to 
identify this with a species of very weak powers of flight, and only 
found, so far as is known, in latitudes considerably south of the 
Equator. 



* Physiogr. Sallskapets Tidsk. i, p. 222 (1837) ; A. M. K. II. xix, p. 238. 




Fig. 84, Ardea cinerea and young. ('From the group in the British Museum. 



Order XXI. HERODIONES. 

The Ibises, Spoonbills, Storks, and Herons have long been 
classed together, though their relations to each other, and to the 
Phrenicopteri on one side and the Steganopodes on the other, give 
rise to a great variety of opinions. 

All are marsh birds, and resemble Cranes and Limicola3 in having 
lengthened bills, necks, arid legs, and all formed, with those types, 
part of the old order Grallatores or Waders the Gralla) of 
Linnaeus. But the Ibises, Storks, and Herons differ widely from 
Cranes, Rails, Plovers, &c. in anatomy and in their young being 
helpless when hatched. In this respect and in the characters of 
the palate, the Herodiones resemble the Steganopodes and the 
-Accipitrine birds, to which they are more nearly allied than to the 
schizoguathous Limicolae and Grallae. 



360 PLATALE^. 

In the Herocliones the skull is desmognathous, and basipterygoid 
processes are wanting. The nostrils are pervious. There are 
two carotids ; the caeca are rudimentary ; the oil-gland is tufted ; 
and the wing aquincubital. Plantar tendons galline as a rule, 
but the vineuluin in some Herons and Bitterns is weak or 
absent, so that the flexor longus hallacis passes freely to the 
hallux, as in Passeres. Other anatomical characters vary in the 
different suborders. An aftershaft is generally present, but is 
wanting in some Storks. 

The tibia, except in a few Herons, is partially bare, the toes 
long, the hind-toe well-developed and not raised above the other 
toes. Almost all the genera make nests of sticks in trees, 
and the young remain in the nest for a time and are fed by the 
parents. 

The Indian Herodiones may be arranged in three suborders thus 
distinguished : 

a. Schizorhinal; accessory femoro-caudal present ; 

sternum with four posterior incisions ; 

syririgeal muscles present PLATALE^. 

b. Holorhinal; no accessory femoro-caudal; 

sternum with two posterior incisions. 
a. No intrinsic muscles to syrinx ; dorsal 

apterium not extending to neck CICONI^E. 

6'. A pair of intrinsic muscles to syrinx : 

dorsal apterium extending up back of 

neck . 



Suborder PLATALE^E. 

The members of this suborder are schizorhinal (see p. 202), an 
exceptional character amongst desmognathous birds, and the 
posterior portion of the mandible is prolonged behind the quadrate, 
as in Anseres, and recurved. In the sternum there are two 
incisions on each side of the posterior border. Cervical vertebrie 
17. All the muscles of the thigh present, including the accessory 
femoro-caudal, which is wanting in Storks and Herons. A pair of 
intrinsic syringeal (tracheo-bronchial) muscles present as in 
Ardese*. 

This suborder comprises tw r o families : 

a. Bill curved downwards Ibididae, p. 361. 

b. Bill straight, flattened, dilated at the end Plataleidae, p. 366. 

* 1 am indebted to Mr. F. E. Beddard for this information. The muscles 
are usually stated to be wanting in the Ibises and Spoonbills, but were observed 
by Garrod in Platalea ajaja (P. Z. S. 1875, p. 299). 



361 



Family IBIDIDJE. 

The members of this family were long confounded with Curlews. 
The bill is long, curved downwards and compressed at the sides, 
and there is, on each side of the culmen, a longitudinal groove, in 
the basal portion of which the nostril is pierced. 

The four species of this family known to occur in India are 
referred to three genera. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Tarsus covered with hexagonal scales. 

a'. Head and neck naked in adults ; plumage 

white Ims, p. 361. 

b'. Head naked in adults, neck feathered ; plumage 

blackish INOCOTIS, p. 362. 

b. Tarsus with transverse scutellae in front. 

c'. Head feathered in adults, only the lores naked. PLEGADIS, p. 364. 

Genus IBIS, Lacepede, 1801. 

The head and neck naked ; bill stout, blunt, the nostril linear ; 
tibia half -naked ; tarsus reticulate ; toes long, bordered by a 
membrane that forms a web towards the base, especially between 
the 3rd and 4th toes. Tail moderate, of 12 feathers. Tertiaries 
in the breeding- season with elongate plumules forming ornamental 
plumes. 

This genus, of which the Sacred Ibis is the type, ranges from 
Africa through India and the Malay countries to Australia. One 
species is Indian. 

1541. Ibis melanocephala. The White Ibis. 

Tantalus melanocephalus, Lath. Ind. Orn. ii, p. 709 (1790). 

Ibis melanocephalus, VieilL Nouv. Diet, d' Hist. Nat. xvi, p. 23 ; 

Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 158; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 484; 

Cripps, S. F. vii, p. 310 ; Leyge, Birds Ceyl. p. 1106 ; Hume, Cat. 

p. 941 ; Doia, S. F. viii, pp. 372, 377 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 91 ; 

Butler, ibid. p. 43-5 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 77 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 268 ; 

Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 390 ; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vi, p. 151 ; 

Hume, S. F. xi, p. 338 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, 

p. 226 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxvi, p. 7. 
Threskiornis melanocephalus, Gray, Cat. Mamm. etc. Coll. Hodys. 

p. 137; Blyth, Cat. p. 275 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 768 ; Stoliczka, J. A. 

S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 255 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. (332 ; id. S. F.\, p. 257 ; 

Adam, ibid. p. 400 ; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 25 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 231. 
Thresciornis melanocephalus, Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 174 ; Beavan, Ibis, 

1868, p. 399. 

Munda, Safed Baza, Didhar, H. ; Kacha-tor, Purneah ; Sabut-btiza, 
Do-chora, Beng. ; Tatu-koka, Cing. ; Kayusoti, Burm. 



362 IIJIDID/E. 

Coloration. Plumage white, the ends of the tertiaries slaty grey, 
and generally the tips of the first primaries edged or mottled with 
brown. In breeding-plumage there are elongate white feathers 
round the base of the neck and plumes on the upper breast, and 
the grey tertiaries are elongate and loose-textured. 

Young birds have the head and neck feathered as far forward 
as the eyes ; the head, except beneath, blackish grey, which passes 
gradually into white on the hind neck. 

Bill black ; irides red-brown ; head and neck dark bluish black ; 
legs glossy black ; skin of wing blooc^-red. 

Length 30 ; tail 5 ; wing 14 ; tarsus 4 ; bill from gape 6*o. 

Distribution. Throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma in suitable 
localities, also in China and Southern .Japan. 

Habits, <$fc. The White Ibis is a resident, most common in those 
parts of the plains of India where there are large marshes with 
high reeds and trees growing in them, but it may be found 
wherever there are rivers or large tanks ; generally in flocks, 
except in the breeding-season. It feeds on mollusca, Crustacea, 
insects, worms, &c. The breeding-season is from June to August 
in Northern India, November to February in Ceylon, and the 
nest is of sticks on a large tree, several pairs of birds often 
nesting together. The eggs are from 2 to 4 in number, generally 
3, bluish or greenish white, as a rule without markings, but 
occasionally delicately spotted with yellowish brown, and they 
measure on an average 2-54 by 1*7. 



Genus INOCOTIS, Reichenb., 1852. 

Two Indian species of Ibis are distinguished by having the head 
naked in adults but not the neck ; the bill is more slender than 
in the genus lb-is; the feet shorter, and the plumage nearly black 
instead of white. 

One of the species, /. davisoni, has been unnecessarily made the 
type of a distinct genus, the differences between the two being 
very small indeed. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Crown of the head with red granular papillae . . I. papillo&H# t p. 362, 

b. No red papilla3 on the head, crown smooth . . . t /. ftarisoni, p. 364. 



1542. Inocotis papillosus. The Blnck Ibis. 

Ibis papillosa, Ternm. PL Col. pi. 304 (1824). 

Geronticus papillosus, Gray, Cat. Mamm. etc. Coll. Hodys. p. 137 ; 

Blyth, Cat. p. 275 ; Jer'don, B. I. iii. p. 769 ; Blytlt, 'ibis, 1867, 

p. 174 ; King, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, p. 217 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. 8. B. 

xxxix, pt. 2, p. 275; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt, 2, p. 255; 

Hume, N. fy E. p. 633 ; id. S. F. i, p. 257 ; Adam. ibid. p. 400; 

Blyth, Birds Burin, p. 158 ; Butler fy Hume, 8. F. iv. p. 25 ; 

Fail-bank, 8. F. iv, p. 264 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 231. 
Inocotis papillosus, Bonap. Consf). ii, p. 154 ; Davids, fy Wend. S. F. 



INOCOTIS. 3G3 

vii, p. 92; Hume. Cat. no. 942; Doig, S. F. riii, pp. 372, 377 ; 
Butler, S. F. ix, p. 435 ; Reid, S. P. x, p. 77 ; JJavison, ibid. 
p. 417 ; McGregor, ibid. p. 442 ; Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. 
iii, p. 228 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 390 ; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. 
Soc. vi, p. 152; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxvi, p. 12. 

Buza, Kola Buza, Kardnkal, H. ; Nella kankanum, Tel. ; Black Curlew, 
King- Curlew of Anglo-Indians. 




Fig. 85. Head of /. papillosits. . 

Coloration. Neck and body above arid below dark olive-brown, 
with slight greenish gloss on the back, a large white patch on the 
inner lesser and marginal coverts of each wing ; rest of the wing 
above and below and tail black, glossed with purplish and green. 

The young have the head feathered on the crown and throat, 
the feathered area above and below ending in a point, the fore- 
head, area round the eye, and the chin bare. Feathers of the 
neck and body with rufous edges. 

Crown of adults nearly covered with red papiike, the area thus 
ornamented cut off transversely behind and pointed in front, 
remainder of naked skin of head black; bill greenish-leaden; 
irides dull orange-red ; legs and feet brick -red. 

Length 27 ; tail 7'5 ; wing 15'5 ; tarsus 3 ; bill from gape 5-5. 

Distribution. The plains of Northern India (not the Himalayas) 
and the Peninsula as far south as Mysore, except on the Western 
coast. This bird is not found in Lower Bengal and is apparently 
wanting to the eastward, but Godwin-Austen got it at Mymen 
singh, and according to Blyth it has been obtained in Arrakan. 

Habits, fyc. The Black Ibis is far less of a marsh bird than the 
White Ibis, and is generally found on dry cultivation or open 
ground in pairs or small parties. It is said to feed partly on 
grain, but chiefly on insects, Crustacea, &c. It often perches on 
large trees and it has a peculiar harsh cry, not very frequently 
uttered except in the breeding-season. It breeds at various seasons; 
March and April, and again in August and September, in Northern 
India, about December in the Deccan. It makes nests of sticks 
on trees, and lays 3 or 4 sea-green eggs, unspotted as a rule, and 
measuring about 2-43 by 1'7. Occasionally the Black Ibis lays in 
a nest that has been used by a vulture, eagle, or o\vl. The 
flesh of this species is at times very good eating, far superior to 
that of Ibis 



364 IBIDIDvE. 

1543. Inocotis davisoni. Davisons Blade Ibis. 

Geronticus davisoni, Hume, S. F. iii, p. 300 (1875). 

Geronticua papillosus, ap-ud Oates, #. F. iii, p. 347 ; nee Temm. 

Inocotis papillosus, apud Gates, S. F. v, p. It58. 

Graptocephalus davisoni, Elliot, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 490 ; Hume fy Dav. 

S. F. vi, p. 485 ; Hume, Cat. no. 942 bis ; Oates, S. F. ix, p. 300 ; 

x, p. 244 ; id. B. B. ii, p. 269 ; id. in Hume's N. Sf E. 2nd ed. 

iii, p. 231. 

The plumage is coloured as in the last species, but this bird is 
rather larger arid the naked skin of the head is very differently 
coloured. There is no red area on the crown, the occiput is smooth, 
the frontal area more rugose, the skin of the head is blackish 
brown, with a broad white ring tinged with blue at the nape just 
above the feathered neck. 

Bill bluish; irides orange-red : feet pale coral-red (Oates). 

Length 30 ; tail 8 ; wing 16'5 ; tarsus 3'5 ; bill from gape 7. 

Distribution. Pegu ; Southern Tenasserim ; Cochin China and 
Siam. 

Habits, Sfc. This Ibis is a resident on the plains of the Irrawaddy, 
occurring singly or in pairs, with very similar habits to those 
of /. papillosus. In Southern Tenasserim it has only been 
observed at particular seasons. It haunts open plains or marshy 
flats or the banks of rivers, and perches on high trees, audit has a 
harsh weird cry. Gates found on the 13th Eebruary a nest be- 
longing to this bird, containing two pale blue eggs, one of \vhich 
measured 2'55 by 1*8. The nest was of sticks on a tree. 

Genus PLEGADIS, Kaup, 1829. 

This genus is distinguished by having the head feathered except 
on the lores and area in front of the eye. The tarsi are lengthened, 
and scutellate in front ; toes long and slender. The bill is much 
more slender than in the genus Ibis. 

A single species of wide range is found in India ; two other 
reputed species are American. 

1544. Plegadis falcinellus. The Glossy Ibis. 

Tantalus falcinellus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 241 (1766). 

Numenius igneus & N. viridis, 6'. G. Gm. Reise d. Russl. \, pp. 166, 

167 (1770). 
Ibis falcinellus, Vieill. Nouv. Diet, d Hist. Nat. xvi, p. 23 ; 

Oates Sf Hume, S. F. iii, p. 192. 
Plegadis falcinellus, Kaup, Natiirl. Syst. p. 82 ; Legqe, Birds Ceyl. 

p. 1109; Parker, Ibis, 1883, p. 194; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 281 ; 

id. in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 231 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxvi, 

p. 29. 
Falcinellus igneus, Gray, Cat. Mamm, etc. Coll. Hoclgs. p. 136; 

Blyth, Cat. p. 274; Irby, Ibis, 1861, p. 243; Jenlon, B. I. iii, 

p. 770; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 275; Hume, 

N. $ E. p. 635 ; id. S. F. i, p. 257 ; Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 158 ; 



PLEGADIS. 365 

Butler Sf Hume, 8. F. iv, p. 25 : Davidson # Wenden, S. F. vii, 
p. 92; Sutler, ibid. p. 188: Ball, ibid. pp. 231, 234; Cripps, ibid. 
p. 310; Hume, ibid. p. 491 ; id. Cat. no. 943; Doig, S. F. viii, 
p. 377; Hume $ Inylis, S.' F. ix, p. 259; Butler, ibid. p. 436; 
Swinhoe, Ibis, 1882, p. 123; Btddulph, ibid. p. 289; Reid, S. F. 
x, p. 78 ; Davidson, ibid. p. 325; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 339; Barnes, 
Birds Bom. p. 391 ; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vi, p. 153. 

Kaivdri, Kowar, Chota buza, H. ; Kala Kachiatora, Beng. ; Tati 
Krmkaram, Tel.; Karupu Kotan, Tarn. (Cevlon) ; Rattu datuduwa, 
Cing. 

Coloration. In breeding-plumage the crown is glossy purplish 
red, changing to green ; remainder of the head brown, with purple 
gloss ; neck all round, upper back, scapulars, and smaller wing- 
coverts dark chestnut, breast and abdomen lighter chestnut ; rest 
of plumage, including wings, tail, and under tail-coverts, black or 
deep brown, richly glossed with bronze-green and purple or steel- 
blue. 

In winter plumage the smaller wing-coverts and scapulars 
resemble the rest of the upper plumage, and the head and neck 
are blackish brown, streaked with white. 

Young birds resemble old birds in winter plumage, but have the 
base of the neck and lower parts blackish brown. 

Bill dark livid brown ; facial skin livid, extending round the 
eye ; irides brown, in some mottled with grey ; legs and feet 
bronzed brown, bluish above the knee (Legge). 

Length 25 ; tail 4 : wing 11 ; tarsus 4; bill from gape 5' 25. 

Distribution. Widely spread through the warmer parts of the 
world. Found in India, Ceylon, and Burma, but rare or unknown 
throughout the drier hilly regions, and common only in well- 
watered parts, especially where there are large marshes or tanks, 
liare in Burma, though abundant in Manipur. In most parts of 
India this Ibis is a cold-weather visitor only, but it breeds in Sind, 
on the Eastern Nara, in large numbers, also in Ceylon, and 
probably in other suitable places. 

Habits, &fc. The Grlossy Ibis is usually seen in India in large 
flocks, frequenting marshes, tanks, paddy fields, the borders of 
rivers, tidal creeks, or the sea-coast. Its food consists of insects, 
Crustacea, mollusca, worms, &c. Mr. Doig found it breeding in Sind 
in June, whilst in Ceylon Col. Legge and Mr. Parker took its nests 
between November and February. The nest is the usual platform 
of sticks on a tree, and the eggs are generally three in number, 
and of a beautiful blue colour, and they measure about 2-01 by 
1-40. This bird has a low call, and is said to be excellent eating. 



366 PLATALEID.*:. 



Family PLATALEID^E. 

The Spoonbills are so nearly related to the Ibises, that by many 
naturalists the two are united in the same family. But the 
Spoonbills are less conspicuously schizorhinal, and their bill is 
very different in form, dilated at the tip and not curved. A single 
genus is Indian. 



Genus PLATALEA, Linn,, 1766. 

Both mandibles greatly flattened, especially anteriorly, where 
they become broader, spoon-shaped, and slightly curved down at 
the tip ; nostrils near base, elongately oval, each in a groove that 
extends from the base, the two grooves parallel at first and 
diverging at the nostrils, and running thence to the tip just inside 
the curved border of the mandible. Sides of head in front of eye 
naked. Legs long, tibia half-naked, tarsus reticulated throughout ; 
toes long, bordered by membrane and webbed at the base. One 
species is Indian. 

1545. Platalea leucorodia. The Spoonbill. 

Platalea leucorodia, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 231 (1766) ; Blyth, Cat. 
p. 276 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 763 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 173 ; King, 
J. A. 8. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 217 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, 
p. 255; Hayes-Lloyd, Ibis, 1873, p. 419 ; Hume, N. # E. p. 628 ; 
id. 6'. F. i, p. 256; Adam, ibid. p. 399; Butler $ Hume, S. F. 
iv, p. 24; Davids. $ Wend. S. F. vii, p. 91 ; Ball, ibid. p. 231 ; 
Hume, ibid. p. 491 ; id. Cat. no. 939 ; Doiy, S. F. viii, p. 372 ; 
Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 1096; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 91 ; Butler, ibid. 
p. 435 ; Heidj 8. F. x, p. 77 ; Damson, ibid. p. 324 ; Simson, Ibis, 
1882, p. 93 ; Parker, Ibis, 1883, p. 194 ; Swinh. $ Barnes, Ibis, 
1885, p. 136; Ogilme Grant, Ibis, 1889, p. 35; St. John, ibid. 
p. 178 ; Gates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 217 ; Barnes, 
Birds Bom. p. 388 ; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vi, p. 150. 

Platalea leucerodia, Reichenb. Jour. f. Orn. 1877, p. 159; Sharve, 
Cat. B. M. xxvi, p. 44. 

Chamach buza (Spoon Ibis), H. ; Chinta, Beng. ; Gentu muku kont/a, 
Tel.; C'hapij Chttndim, Tarn. (Ceylon). 

Coloration. Pure white ; on the lower fore neck a patch of 
cinnamon-buff or tawny in adults. A large nuchal crest of 
pointed and drooping plumes is assumed in the breeding-season. 

Young birds have no crest, and the primaries and primary- 
coverts, and sometimes the secondaries, have black shafts ; the 
outer primaries have blackish edges and tips. 

Bill black, more or less yellow at the tip; loral space yellow; 
gular skin extending 2% to 3 inches down the throat reddish 



PL AT A LEA. 



yellow; legs and feet black (Legge). Bill in young birds yellow, 
later dark ashy. 




Fig. 80. Bill of P. Itucorotlia. $. 

Length of male .33 inches : tail 4 g 75 ; wing 15 ; tarsus 6 ; bill 
from gape 8. Females rather less. Eastern specimens run larger 
than Western, and the Japanese race has been separated as 
P. major. 

Distribution. Central and Southern Europe, Eastern Africa, 
South-western Asia, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, and Central Asia 
to China and India. Spoonbills occur locally in well-watered 
tracts throughout the Indian Peninsula and Ceylon, but are rare 
or wanting in drier and hilly regions. They are not common in 
Lower Bengal, though some have been observed near Calcutta and 
Dacca, but the species has not been met with in Assam, Manipur, 
or Burma. 

Habits, tf*c. Spoonbills are resident in India; they are known to 
breed in the Deccan, Sind, and the North-west Provinces, and also 
in Ceylon. In Northern India, in the cold season, they are found 
about large rivers, tanks, and marshes in small flocks, sometimes 
in larger numbers, and they feed in shallow water on insects, 
crustacea, worms, mollusca, and on \\ater-plants, occasionally alto 
on small fish or frogs. They fly well, with the neck straight. 
Several pairs breed together, making nests of sticks on trees near 
water, and they lay usually four eggs, chalky white, with ill-defined 
brown spots, and measuring about 2'7 by 1*81. The breeding- 
season varies : August in the North-west Provinces, October and 
November in Sind, April and May in the Deccan, March in Ceylon. 
Spoonbills are good to eat. 



368 



Suborder CICONIA. 

The Storks, which constitute the present suborder, are holo- 
rhinal ; the mandible is not produced behind its articulation with 
the quadrate, and there is a single incision on each side in the 
posterior border of the sternum. Cervical vertebra) 17. Ambiens 
generally present but small, occasionally wanting ; accessory 
femoro-caudal absent, and the femoro-caudal is sometimes wanting. 
No tracheo -bronchial muscles to the syrinx, hence all Storks are 
absolutely destitute of voice ; they make sounds by snapping their 
bills, and some are said to emit a grunting noise. The dorsal bare 
tract does not extend to the neck. There are no powder-down 
patches, and the middle claw is not pectinated. 



Family CICONIID^. 

Bill stout and long, without any distinct groove at the sides of 
the upper mandible; genys long. Wings long; tail short. Legs 
very long, tibia half-naked, tarsus reticulated with hexagonal scales. 
Toes of moderate length, the three anterior toes united by web 
at the base ; hind-toe on same plane ; claws generally short, broad, 
and blunt. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Mandibles in contact ; no open space be- 

tween them. 
a'. Bill straight. 

a". Forehead, crown, and cheeks 

feathered CICONIA, p. 368. 

b". Crown feathered; forehead and 

cheeks naked DISSURA, p. 370. 

c". Crown naked; whole head and neck 

nearly naked LEPTOPTILUS, p. 373. 

b'. Bill slightly curved upward at end ; 

head feathered XKNORH^NCHUS, p. 371. 

c'. Bill curved downward at end ; head 

naked PSKUDOTANTALUS, p. :37f>. 

b. An open space between mandibles ANASTOMUS, p. 377. 

Genus CICONIA, Brisson, 1760. 

The typical Storks have a long, stout, tapering, and pointed 
bill, the lower mandible slightly inclined upward towards the end ; 
nostrils almost linear, basal, pervious ; orbits naked, sides of head 



CICONIA. 369 1 

feathered around them : lower half of tibiae bare ; tarsi long r 
reticulated ; feet short, toes broad ; claws very short, broad, 
depressed. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Head, neck, and back white C. alba, p. 369. 

b. Head, neck, and back black or dark brown C. nigra, p. 369. 

1546. Ciconia alba. The White Stork. 

Ardea ciconia, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 235 (1766). 

Ciconia alba, Bechst. Naturg. Deutscnl iii, p. 48 (1793) ; Bhjth, Cat. 
p. 276; Irby, Ibis, 1861, 'p. 244; Jerdon, B. 7. iii, p. 736; Blyth, 
Ibis, 1867, p. 172 ; Hume, 8. F. i, p. 252 ; Butler $ Hume, S. F. 
iv, p. 22 ; Fairbank, ibid. p. 263 ; Davidson fy Wenden, S. F. vii, 
p. 90 ; Ball, ibid. p. 230 ; Cripps, ibid. p. 306 ; Hume, Cat. no. 919 ; 
Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 1119 ; Butler, 8. F. ix, p. 433 ; Parker, ibid. 
p. 485 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 74 ; Davidson, ibid. p. 323 ; Davison, 
ibid. p. 415 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 376 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 331. 

Ciconia ciconia, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxvi, p. 299. 

Lag-lag, Haji Lag-lag, Ujli, Dhak, Ghybur, H. ; Wadume Konga, Tel. 

Coloration. White, except the quills, primary-coverts, larger 
secondary-coverts, and longer scapulars, which are black, slightly 
glossed with purple and green ; outer webs of secondaries more or 
less frosted with white. 

Bill fine blood-red, irides brown, naked orbits black ; legs red 
(Jerdon). 

Length 3| feet ; tail 9-5 inches ; wing 24 ; tarsus 8 (7-9) ; bill 
from gape 8. 

Distribution. The greater part of Europe and Africa, Western 
and Central Asia, breeding in the north temperate region, and 
migrating southward in winter. Storks are fairly common in 
many parts of Northern India, and they occur in the Deccan, but 
they are rare to the southward and in Ceylon, where, however,. 
Mr. Parker states that he found some breeding in December. 
Hume saw in Manipur birds probably of this species, but perhaps 
of the Eastern C. boyciana*, which replaces C. alba in Eastern Asia. 
No white Stork is known to occur in Burma. 

Habits, Sfc. A migratory bird, breeding on trees, and where 
protected by the inhabitants, as in many parts of Europe and Asia, 
on houses. In India, where this Stork arrives in October and 
leaves in March, it is generally seen in flocks on open plains, and 
it feeds on insects, reptiles, and fish. It builds a huge nest of 
sticks, and lays 3 to 5 white eggs measuring about 3'2 by 2-15. 

1547. Ciconia nigra. The Black tilorlc. 

Ardea nigra, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 235 (1766). 

Ciconia nigra, Blyth, Cat. p. 277 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 735 ; Butler 
$ Hume, S. F. iv, p. 22; Fairbank, ibid. p. 263; Davidson $ 

* C. boyciana (Swinh. P. Z. S. 1873, p. 513 ; 1874, pi. i) i* a, larger bird 
resembling C. alba in plumage, but with a black bill. 

YOL. IT. 2 B 



-370 CICONIIDJE. 

Wend. S. F. vii, p. 90 ; Hume, Cat. no. 918 ; Scully, S. F. viii, 
p. 359 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 98 ; Scully, ibid. p. 591 ; Butler, 
S. F. ix, p. 433 ; Davidson, S. F. x, p. 323 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 
p. 376. 
Melanopelargus nigra, Hume, S. F. i, p. 252 j Ball, S. F. ii, p. 433 ; 

v, p. 420; \ii, p.230. 
Surmai, H. 

Coloration. Deep blackish brown, glossed with purple, green, 
and bronze ; sides of head glossed bronze ; fore neck bronzy green, 
followed by a purple gorget ; uppe breast glossed green ; lower 
breast, abdomen, flanks, and under tail-coverts white. 

Beak, naked skin round the eye, and legs red, with an orange 
tinge ; irides reddish brown (Dresser). 

Length 40; tail 10 ; wing 21 ; tarsus 8 : bill from gape 8. 

Distribution. The greater part of Europe, Africa, and Asia. This 
Stork breeds in temperate Europe and Asia and migrates south- 
ward in winter. Large numbers visit the Punjab and Northern 
Sind at that season, and smaller numbers occur throughout 
Northern India, Assam, and the Deccan, but the species has not 
been observed in Southern India, Ceylon, or Burma. 

Habits, <$fc. In India Black Storks usually occur in flocks, which 
are frequently of large size. This bird much resembles the White 
Stork in habits, but does not breed about human dwellings. 



Genus DISSURA, Hume, 1879. 

This is distinguished from Ciconia by having the forehead and 
the sides of the head to behind the eyes nude, and the upper tail- 
coverts stiff and bifurcating, the exterior coverts longest, nearly 
reaching the tip of the tail. A single species. 

1548. Dissura episcopus. The White-necked Stork. 

Ardea episcopus, Bodd. Tabl. PL Enl. p. 54 (1783). 

Ardea leucocephala, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i, p. 642 (1788). 

Ciconia leucocephala, Blyth, Cat. p. 277 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 737 ; 

Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. 2, p. 175 ; Butler fy Hume, S. F. 

iv, p. 22. 
Melanopelargus episcopus, Hume Sf Henders. Lah. to Yark. p. 294 ; 

Hume, N. $ E. p. 609; Adam, S. F. i, p. 398; Ball, S. F. ii, 

p. 433 : Hume fy Gates, S. F. iii, p. 189 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, 

p. 469 ; Davidson $ Wend. S. F. vii, p. 90. 
Ciconia episcopus, Blyth 8f Wold. Birds Burm. p. 158 ; Fairbarik, 

S. F. iv, p. 263 ; Wardl. Rams. Ibis, 1877, p. 470. 
Dissura episcopus, Ball, S. F. vii, p. 230 ; Cripps, ibid. p. 307 ; Hume, 

Cat. no. 920 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 359 ; Butler, ibid. p. 387 ; Legge, 

Birds Ceyl. p. 1119 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 88 ; Butler, ibid. p. 433 ; 

T?nisJ ,V T? -v r\ 1 'A. 7}//juV7m thirl r .^9^ J^miisnn ihid, rv 41 7 



Oates, 

Barnes, 

p. 142 ; Hume fy Crippl, S. F. xi, p. 331 ; Beddard, P. Z. S. 1896, 

p. 231 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxvi, p. 294. 



XENORHY^CHUS. 371 

Manik-jor, Lay-lay, H. ; Bcic/ald, Mar. ; Sanku-budi-konga, Tel. ; 
Mdna koku, Vanalay koku, Padre koku, Cing. ; Chi-gyin-sut, Burm. 
Beef-steak Bird of some Anglo-Indians. 




Fig. 87. Head of Dissura episcopus. f . 

Coloration. Crown black glossed with green ; neck, lower 
abdomen, under tail-coverts, and tail white ; remainder of plumage 
black, glossed with green on the lower back and rump, lesser 
and greater coverts and quills, and upper abdomen, purple on the 
upper back, median coverts, and breast. 

In young birds the white neck-feathers are more fluffy and the 
dark parts brown. 

Bill black, tinged with red on the culmen, tips and margins of 
the mandibles ; eyelids and facial skin plumbeous ; irides crimson ; 
legs and toes red (Oates). 

Length 36 ; tail 8 ; wing 20 ; tarsus 6'5 ; bill from gape 6'5. 

Distribution. Except in the Punjab and Sind (where, however, 
a solitary specimen was once obtained,) this Stork appears to occur 
almost throughout the well-watered plains of India, Ceylon, 
and Burma ; also in the Malay Peninsula, Cochin China, Sumatra, 
Java, Borneo, and Celebes. 

Habits, <$fc. The White-necked Stork is found singly or in small 
flocks on open plains and cultivation or on the banks of rivers, 
marshes, and tanks, especially about ponds that are nearly dry ; 
it feeds on insects, reptiles, frogs, mollusks, crabs, fish, &c. It 
flies strongly and well, and may be occasionally seen circling high 
in the air without moving its wings. It breeds in June, July, and 
August in Upper India, but in the Deccan about December and 
January; makes a large nest of sticks, thinly lined with down and 
feathers, or thickly covered with straw, leaves, and feathers mixed, 
and lays normally four bluish-white eggs measuring about 2*5 
by 1-83. 

Genus XENORHYNCHUS, Bonap., 1857. 

Bill very long, ascending slightly towards the tip ; tarsus ver 
long. Head and neck completely feathered. 

The only species of this genus is a large and handsome bird. 



CICONIID^E. 

1549. Xenorhynchus asiaticus. The Black-necked Stork. 

Mycteria asiatica, Lath. 2nd. Orn. ii, p. 670 (1790). 

Ardea indica, Lath. t. c. p. 701 (1790). 

Mycteria australis, Shaw, Trans. Linn. Soc. v, p. 34 (1800) ; Blyth, 

Cat. p. 276; Irby, Ibis, 1861, p. 244; Jerdon, B. 1. iii, p. 734; 

Gurney, Ibis, 1865, p. 276; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 172; Godw.- 

Aust. J.A.S. B. xliii, pt. 2, p. 175. 
Mycteria indica, Hume, S. F. i, p. 252 ; id. N. $ E. p. 607 ; Adam. 

S. F. i, p. 398 ; Hume $ Oates, 8. F. iii, p. 189. 
Xenorhynchus asiaticus, Walden in Blyth' s Birds Burm. p. 158; 

Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 469 ; Gates, S. F. vii, p. 51 ; Ball, ibid. 

p. 230; Hume, Cat. no. 917; Doig, S. F. viii, p. 371; Legge, 

Birds Ccyl. p. 1116 ; Butler, S. F. ix, p. 432 ; Parker, ibid. p. 484 ; 

Reid, S. F. x, p. 74 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 264 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 

p. 375 ; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vi, p. 141 ; Hume fy Cripps, 

S. F. xi, p. 330; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 265 ; 

Sha?-pe, Cat. B. M. xxvi, p. 310. 
Mycteria asiatica, Godiv.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. 2, p. 84; Hume 

8? Butler, S. F. iv, p. 22. 

Banaras, Loharjung, Loha sarang, H. ; JRam salik, Beng. ; Peria Uoku, 
Tarn. (Ceylon) ; Al-koka, Cing. ; Telia-herenga, Assam ; Hnet-kalah, 
Burm. 




Fig. 88. Head of X. asiaticus. 



Coloration. Head and neck black, richly glossed with bluish 
green, except the occiput which is coppery brown, passing into 1 
purple on the edges ; scapulars, tertiaries, greater secondary- 
coverts, greater under wing-coverts, and tail black, richly glossed 
with metallic green ; rest of plumage white. 

In young birds the head, neck, back, and wings are brown, 
many of the feathers with pale edges ; the scapulars and wing- 
feathers darker and glossed with green ; the quills whitish towards 
the base ; lower back and rump whitish, middle upper tail-coverts 
brown; tail-feathers brown, whitish for some distance at the base and 
white-tipped ; sides of breast brown ; lower parts from neck white. 

Bill black ; gular skin and eyelids dusky purple ; irides bluish 
brown ; legs and toes coral-red {Oates) ; irides dark brown in the 
male, bright yellow in the female (Gurney}. 

Length 52; tail 9; wing 24: tarsus 12 to 13-5; bill from 
gape 12. 

Distribution. The Black-necked Stork is resident in suitable 
localities throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma, and through the 
Malay countries and archipelago to Australia. It is in India far 
from generally distributed, not being found in dry sandy tracts, 
nor as a rule in forests, but keeping chiefly to the plains of the 
great rivers. 



LEPTOPTILUS. 



373 



Habits, fyc. The banks of large rivers, tanks and marshes are 
the usual resort o this great bird, which is generally seen singly 
or in pairs. Like other Storks it feeds on fish, reptiles, frogs, 
crabs/mollusks, &c. It breeds from October to December, makes 
a huge pile of sticks, lined with rushes, grass, &c., on a tree, and 
lays usually four white eggs measuring about 2'91 by 2'12. 

Genus LEPTOPTILUS, Less., 1831. 

Bill very large, high at the base, tapering gradually, culmen and 
commissure nearly straight, culineu as long as the tarsus or longer ; 
nostrils small, narrow, near the culmen. Head and neck nearly 
naked, having only a few scattered hair-like feathers ; crown 
absolutely nude. 

There are three species of this genus, inhabiting Africa and 
Southern Asia. All are very large birds. Two are Indian. 

Key to the Species. 

a. A gular pouch ; larger, wing 32 in., tarsus 13 .. L. dubius, p. 373. 

b. No gular pouch ; smaller, wing 26 in., tarsus 10'5. L.javanicus, p. 374. 

1550. Leptoptilus dubius. The Adjutant. 

Ardea dubia, Gmel Syst. Nat. i, p. 624 (1788). 

Ardea argala, Lath. 2nd. Orn. ii, p. 6/6 (1790). 

Ardea gigantea, Forster, Faun. Ind. p. 11 (1795), descr. nulla. 

Leptoptilus argala, Blyth, Cat. p. 277; id. J. A. S. B. xxiv, p. 279 ; 

id. Ibis, 1861, p, 268 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 730 ; Beavan,Ibis, 1868, 

p. 396 j Hayes Lloyd, Ibis, 1873, p. 418 ; Blyth fy Wald. Birds 

Burin, p. 158; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 21 ; Fan-bank, ibid. p. 263; 

Wardl Rams. Ibis, 1877, p. 470 ; Hume Sf Dav. S. F. vi, p. 468 ; 

Bingham, S. F. vii, p. 25 ; Butler, ibid. p. 187 ; Ball, ibid. p. 229; 

Cripps, ibid. p. 306 ; Hume, Cat. no. 915 ; Butler, S. F. ix, p. 432 ; 

Reid, 8. F. x, p. 73 ; Davidson, ibid. p. 323 ; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. 

Soc. i, p. 176 ; Gates, B. B. ii, p. 262 ; id. in Hume's N. $ JE. 2nd 

ed. iii, p. 260 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 374 ; Hume $ Cripps, S. F. 

xi, p. 330. 
Leptoptilus dubius, Hume, S. F. i, p. 252 ; Adam, ibid. p. 398 ; Ball, 

S. F. ii, p. 432 ; Oates, 8. F. iii, p. 346 ; Shar-pe, Cat. B. M. xxvi, 

p. 315. 
Leptoptilus giganteus, Oates, S. F. vii, p. 50. 

Hargila, Garur, Peda-dhauk, H. ; Dusta, Dakhani ; Chaniari dhauk, 
Beng. ; Pinigala-konya, Tel. ; Don-zat, Burm. 

Coloration. Adult in breeding-plumage. Head, neck, and pouch 
nearly naked, a few scattered dark brown feathers only occurring ; 
a ruff of white feathers round the base of the neck ; upper plumage, 
wings, and tail black with a slight green gloss, greater wing-coverts 
and tertiaries silvery grey ; lower parts white, the under tail- 
coverts soft and downy. In non-breeding plumage the tertiaries 
und greater coverts are black like the rest of the wing. 

Young birds have the greater wing-coverts and tertiaries brown. 

Bill pinkish flesh-colour; skin of head and chin pale reddish 
brown, rough and blackish on the forehead ; neck saffron-yellow, 



374 

turning to pink at the end of the pouch, which is spotted with 
black ; loose skin at back of neck brick-red ; irides yellowish white ; 
legs and toes brown, the edge of the reticulations white (Gates). 
Bill pale dirty greenish ; legs greyish white (Jerdori). The pouch 
is sometimes 12 to 16 inches or more in length, but is capable of 
extension and retraction to a considerable extent. 

Length 60 ; tail 13 ; wing 32 ; tarsus 13 ; bill from gape 13. 

Distribution. Throughout the greater part of India in summer, 
very common in Bengal and Northern India, rare or wanting in 
the South, unknown in Ceylon ; vary abundant and breeding in 
parts of Burma in winter, and occasionally met with throughout 
the year. This Stork ranges into the Malay Peninsula, Siam, 
Cochin China, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo. 

Habits, 6fc. This is a Stork that has taken to the ways of vultures, 
feeding with them on carcases and offal, and visiting piles of 
refuse in and around large towns, in company with kites and 
crows, to search for food. In Calcutta throughout the hot season 
and rains Adjutants swarm, and formerly, before the sanitary 
arrangements of the city were improved, numbers haunted the 
river ghats in the daytime and perched on Government House 
and other conspicuous buildings at night. Adjutants as useful 
scavengers are in many places protected by law. Their food, 
however, is not confined to carcases and offal, they live also at 
times on fish, reptiles, and frogs like other Storks. Their flight 
is heavy and noisy, but they soar like vultures ; when on the ground 
they often rest on the whole tarsus, and they frequently sit with 
the head drawn in between the shoulders. The pouch is uncon- 
nected with the gullet, and the common idea that it serves to 
r338ive food is quite erroneous. Adjutants breed on large trees 
in. November and December ; immense numbers were found by 
Gates breeding in company with Pelicans near Shwegyin in Burma, 
and the nests and eggs of colonies near Moulmein have been 
described by Tickell, Bingham, and others. A few cases of 
nidification have been observed in India in the north of the 
Gorakhpur district (Beavan\ in the Sundarbuns (Frith, Morell), and 
in Manbhoom (Ball). The nest is a huge structure of sticks; the 
eggs, usually three in number, are white and measure about 3 by 
2'28. Both Gates and Bingham describe a peculiar grunting 
pound, like the lowing of a cow, made by Adjutants in the 
breeding-season. These birds are completely destitute of voice- 
muscles, and it is a question how the noise is produced. Usually, 
like other Storks, the only sound they make is produced by 
snapping their huge bills. 

1551. Leptoptilus javanicus. The Smaller Adjutant. 

Ciconia javanica, Horsf. Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 188 (1821). 

Leptoptilus javanicus, Blyth, Cat. p. 277 ; Jerdon, B. I. Hi, p. 732 ; 
Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burin, p. 159 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, 
p. 469; Oates, S. F. vii, p. 51; Davids. $ Wend. ibid. p. 90; 
Ball, ibid. p. 230; Hume, Cat. no. 916; Leyge, Birds Ceyl. 



PSEUDOTANTALUS. 375- 

p. 1113; Butler, 8. F. ix, p. 432; Parker, ibid. p. 483; Reid, 

S. F. x, p. 73 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 263 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 374 ; 

Cripps, S. F. xi, p. 330 ; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. Hi, 

p. 264 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxvi, p. 317. 

The Hair-crested Stork, Jerdon; Chinjara, Chandana, Chandiari, 
Bang-gor, Chota ganir, II. ; Madan-chur, Modun-tiki, Beng. ; Tokla- 
moora, Assam. ; Dodal-konga , Dodal gatti-gadu, Tel. Mdna, Ceylon ; 
Don-mi-gwet, Burni. 

Coloration. Scattered hair- like feathers and down on neck and 
on sides of head, much thicker about the nape, dark brown ; upper 
plumage, wings, and tail black, glossed with metallic green ; 
feathers of the back, scapulars, and wing-coverts closely barred 
across, a coppery spot in some skins (breeding-plumage ?) close- 
to the tip of each larger secondary-covert ; longer scapulars 
and tertiaries edged laterally with white; lower parts white, 
except the wing-lining which is black ; under tail-coverts longer 
than in L. dubius, very soft. 

Young birds have more feathers about the nape. 

Bill dirty yellowish ; bare top of head dirty green ; nude face 
and neck much tinged with yellow and at seasons with red ; irides 
whitish ; legs dusky black (Jerdon}. 

Length 54 ; tail 11 ; wing 26 ; tarsus 10-5 ; bill from gape 12. 
Females appear to be considerably smaller. 

Distribution. The greater part of India but nowhere common, 
rare or wanting to the westward, not observed in Rajputana, 
Sind, or the Punjab, and of doubtful occurrence in the Bombay 
Presidency. This Adjutant has been observed on the Malabar 
coast, and it occurs and breeds in Ceylon. It is found throughout 
Burma and the Malay Peninsula, Eastern China, Sumatra, Java, 
and Borneo. 

Habits, $c. This is by no means so familiar a bird as its larger 
relative, nor is it, as a rule at all events, a feeder on carrion. It 
keeps to well-wooded and watered tracts, living on fish, reptiles, 
locusts, crabs, &c. It breeds in Pegu and the neighbourhood 
of Moulmein later than L. dubius, and in Ceylon from February 
to April. The details of niditication are similar to those of the 
larger Adjutant. The eggs measure about 2'84 by 2'09. 

Genus PSEUDOTANTALUS, Eidgway, 1883. 

Bill long, scarcely compressed, broad at the base, bent down 
towards the tip ; lower mandible slightly concave beneath \ 
culmen rounded throughout ; both mandibles subcylindrical an- 
teriorly ; nostrils near the culmen, basal, oval ; head aud throat 
naked, nape and neck feathered ; legs long, tibia half-nude, toes 
long. Lower tail-coverts extending beyond the tail. 

This genus and Tantalus, which is an American form, chiefly 
distinguished by its naked neck, were long classed with the Ibises 
or in a family apart, but they are true Storks. One species is- 
Indian. 



-376 CICOXTIDJE. 

1552. Pseudotantalus leucocephalus. The Painted Stork. 

Tantalus leucocephalus, Pennant, Ind. Zool. p. 11, pi. x (1769) ; 
Blyth, Cat. p. 275 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 761 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, 
p. 173 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 274 ; Stoliczka, 
J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 255 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 626; Adam, 
S. F. i, p. 899 ; Butler $ Hume, S. F. iv, p. 24 ; Fairbank, ibid. 
p. 263 ; Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, p. 484 : Davids. $ Wend. S. F. 
\ii, p. 91 ; Murray, ibid. pp. 110, 113 ; Butler, ibid. p. 188 ; Ball, 
ibid. p. 231 ; Cripps, ibid. p. 309 ; Hwne, ibid. p. 507 ; id. Cat. 
no. 938 ; Doiff, S. F. viii, pp. 372, 374 ; Newton, ibid. p. 415 ; 
Leffffe, Birds Ceyl. p. 1100; Butle*, S. F. ix, p. 435; Reid, S. F. 
x, p. 76 ; Davidson, ibid. p. 324 ; Simson, Ibis, 1882, p. 93; Oates, 
B. B. ii, p. 267 ; Swinkoe 8f Barnes, Ibis, 1885, p. 136 ; Barnes, Birds 
Bom. p. 387 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 338 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 
2nd ed. iii, p. 220 ; Barnes, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc.'i, p. 60 ; vi. p. 149. 

Pseudotantalus leucocephalus, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxvi, p. 323. 

The Pelican Ibis, Jerdon ; Janghil, Dokh, II. ; Kat-Sarunga, Ram- 
jhankar, Sona-janga, Beng. ; Lungduk, Sind ; Yerri Kali-konga, Tel. ; 
Singa nareli, Tarn. ; Changa vella nary, Tarn. (Ceylon) ; Datuduwa, 
Cing. ; Hnet-kya, Burm. 




Fig. 89. Head of P. leucocephalus. 

Coloration. White, except the primaries, secondaries, and tail, 
which are black glossed with green ; lesser and median, but not the 
greater, coverts the same with broad white margins ; the under 
wing-coverts and a broad band across the lower breast black 
glossed with green, with white edges to the feathers ; tertiaries 
pink with white borders ; scapulars and greater wing-coverts white 
tinged with rosy. 

In young birds the neck and back are light brown, the neck- 
feathers scale-like, with dark edges which are broader behind than 
in front, lesser and median wing-coverts dark brown, greater 
coverts paler, quills and tail as in adults ; the rump, breast, and 
abdomen sullied white. 

Bill and facial skin orange-yellow, plumbeous at the base of the 
bill ; irides pale yellow ; legs, toes, and claws brown. In the young 
the iris is brown (Oates); legs fleshy red (Jerdon, Cripps). 

Length 40 ; tail 6'5; wing 20; tarsus 9*5 ; bill from gape 10. 

Distribution. Resident throughout India, except in the Punjab, 
in tracts w'here there are large rivers, tanks, and marshes ; also in 
Ceylon and Burma, and in Southern China and Cochin China ; but 
P. leucocephalus is very common in the Deccan. It is replaced 
l>y an allied species P. lacteus in the Malay Peninsula and 
Islands. 



ANASTOMUS. 377 

Habits, $c. This bird, well known as the Pelican Ibis, a name 
involving error, is common in well- watered parts of the country, 
solitary or in flocks, frequenting the larger pieces of water, and 
with the usual habits of Storks. It breeds on large trees, often 
about villages, several birds nesting together : it makes a rather 
small nest of sticks, and lays usually 4, but sometimes as many 
as 8, white eggs, measuring 2-77 by 1-88. The breeding-season 
is September and October in Northern India, February in the 
Deccan. This bird is easily tamed and becomes very sociable. 

Genus ANASTOMUS, Bonnaterre, 1790. 

This genus may be recognized at once by its remarkable bill, in 
which, when adult, an open space is left between the mandibles. 
These are in contact for a distance from the gape and again at 
the tip. The bill is strong and stout and the genys considerably 
curved ; the anterior half of the upper mandible is furnished with 
lamellae along the commissure. Face in front of the eyes and 
around them, with the area below the eyes, and the chin and 
throat naked in adults, only the lores naked in young birds. 
Tarsus moderate, about as long as the culmen, reticulate ; toes and 
claws considerably longer in proportion than in Storks generally. 

The open space between the mandibles is said to be the result 
of wear *, caused by the shells of the mollusca, on which the 
bird feeds ; in the nestling, and up to the age of 4 or 5 months, 
the commissure is straight and the two mandibles in contact 
throughout. 

Three species are known ; one inhabits Africa, another Mada- 
gascar, the third India. 

1553. Anastomus oscitans. T7ie Open-bill. 

Ardea oscitans, Bodd. Tabl PL Enl. p. 55 (1783). 

Anastomus oscitans, Blyth, Cat. p. 276 ; Irby, Ibis, 1861, p. 244 ; 
Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 765; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 173 5 Hume, N. 8f 
E. p. 630 ; id. S. F. i, pp. 107, 133 ; Ball, S. F. ii, p. 435 ; Blyth, 
Birds Burm. p. 158; Butler fy Hume, S. F. iv, p. 25 ; Binyham, 
ibid. p. 211 ; Fairbank, ibid. p. 264 ; Murray, S. F. vii, p. 110 ; 
Butler, ibid. pp. 188, 189 ; Ball $ Hume, ibid. p. 231 ; Cripps, ibid. 
p. 310 ; Doiff, ibid. p. 467 ; Hume, Cat. no. 940 ; Leyc/e, Birds 
Ceyl. p. 1103; Butler, S. F. ix, p. 435; Reid, 8. F. x, p. 77; 
Davidson, ibid. p. 324 ; Damson, ibid. p. 417 ; Oates, B. B. ii, 
p. 266 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 389 ; Hume $ Cripps, S. F. xi, 
p. 338 ; Oates in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 224 ; Barnes, 
Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vi, p. 151 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxvi, p. 306. 

The Shell-Ibis, Jerdon ; Gunyla, Ghonyal, Ghonyhila, H. ; Dokar, H. 
(Bekar) : Tonte-bhanya, Shamakh-bhanya, Samak-khol, Hammak-kas, 
Beng. ; Pauna konya, Southern Gonds ; Gain Konya, Tel. ; Natte kuti 
nareh, Tarn. ; Karunary, Tarn. (Ceylon) ; Gombelle-koka, Cing. ; Kha-ru- 
tsoke, Burm. (Arrakan). 

* As Legge has pointed out, signs of wear are confined to the lower 
mandible, the thick rhainphotheca of the upper mandible and the lamellae 
show no signs of attrition ; moreover the space does not exist near the gape, 
where the greatest crushing-power can be exerted. 



378 

Coloration. In breeding-plumage the longer scapulars, ail th 
quills, the winglet, primary and greater secondary coverts, ane 
the tail are black, glossed with dark green and purple ; remainder 
of plumage white. 




Fig. 90. Head of A. oscitans. 



At the moult after the breeding-season the white is replaced 
by smoky grey, darkest on the occiput and upper back. This 
becomes white by a change of colour in the feathers at the 
breeding- season. The black