(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The birds of Africa, comprising all the species which occur in the Ethiopian region"

THE 



Q 

v 

■ 

BIRDS OF AFRICA, 



COMPRISING ALL THE SPECIES WHICH OCCUR 



ETHIOPIAN EEGION. 

BY 

G. E. SHELLEY, F.Z.S., F.R.G.S., &c. 

(LATE GRENADIER GUARDS), 

AUTHOR OF " A HANDBOOK TO THE BIRDS OP EGYPT," 
" A MONOGRAPH OF THE SUN-BIRDS," ETC. 



VOL. II. 



LONDON: 

PUBLISHED FOR THE ADTHOE BT 

R. H. PORTER, 7, PRINCES STREET, CAVENDISH SQUARE, W. 

1900. 






PREFACE. 



When I published the first volume of " The Birds of 
Africa " I had sketched out the classification down to the 
" Keys of the Species," and intended to bring this out as the 
second volume ; but the number of known Ethiopian forms 
increases so rapidly that I recognised how imperfect these 
" keys " would be by the time I came to write the history 
of the species, so decided to work out each family in a 
monographic form. 

The Classification is compiled mostly from Seebohm's 
"Classification of Birds" (1890), and that proposed by Dr. 
R. B. Sharpe at the Ornithological Congress, Buda-Pest, 
1891, and I have followed these authors in the use of the 
termination " formes " for the seventeen large divisions which 
I call Orders. 

I begin with the Passeriformes and follow on with the 
Piciformes. The two families of these separate orders which 
appear to me to be most nearly allied are the Swallows and 
the Swifts, so as I end the Passeriformes with the Hirundinidas 
it entails beginning the classification with the Oligomyodse. 

The Oligomyodse lead most naturally into the Oscinen 
through the Madagascar genera Philepitta and Neodrepanis ; 
therefore I commence the Oscines with the Nectariniidas. 

With regard to the synonymy of the species: I begin with 
what I consider to be the most correct name ; quote the 




ii. PREFACE. 

" Catalogue of the Birds of the British Museum," where full 
synonymy is given in detail, and add only such references 
which have not appeared in that great work. 

I follow on with a description of the plumage, taken, when 
possible, from the specimens in the British Museum, for these 
are the most available to the general public, and finish with 
all the details I can find regarding the distribution and habits 
of the species which I consider to be of interest, 

My thanks are therefore due to all the ornithologists whose 
works I quote. 



LIST OF PLATES. 



Plate I., fig. 1. 

„ 2. 

Plate II., fig. 1. 

2 
*i it ~* 

Plate III., fig. 1. 

9 

Plate IV., fig. 1. 

!> >> 2. 

Plate V., fig. 1. 

„ 2. 

Plate VI., fig. 1. 

M ii 2. 

Plate VII., fig. 1. 

2 

ii ii - 1 * 

II ii o. 

Plate VIII., fig. 1. 

i> ii 2. 

Plate IX., fig. 1. 

„ 2. 

Plate X., fig. 1. 

„ 2. 

Plate XL, fig. 1. 

n ii 2. 

Plate XII., fig. 1. 

2 

ii ii -*• 

Plate XIII., fig. 1. 

ii ii 2. 

Plate XIV., fig. 1. 

ii ii 2. 



Nectarinia kilimensis. 

,, melanogastra. 

Artamia comorensis. 
Cinnyris nesophilus. 
,, falkensteini. 
,, mediocris. 
,, fuelleborni. 
Anthothreptes orientalis. 
Cyanomitra uewtoni. 
Elasocerthia thomensis. 
Zosterops niodesta. 
semiflava. 
pallida, 
anderssoni. 
virens. 
fieedulina. 
Speirops leucophsea. 
Zosterops comorensis. 
Malacirops e-newtoni. 
Parus xanthostomus. 

,, albiventris. 
Alcippe abyssinieus. 
iEgitbalus ruusculus. 
Motacilla vidua. 

,, nigricotis. 
Anthus lineiventris. 
,, crenatus. 
,, calthorpse. 
,, brachyurus. 



CONTENTS. 



Preface 

List of Plates 

Key to the Orders . . . 

Order I. Passeriformes 

Suborder I. Oligomyod.e 

Family I. Pittid.£ ... 

1. Pitta angolensis 
Family II. Philepittidje 

2. Philepitta jala ... 

3. „ schlegeli 
Suborder II. Oscines 
Section I. Pari 
Family I. NECTARraiiDa: 
Subfamily I. Neodrepanin^: 

4. Neodrepanis coruscans 
Subfamily II. Nectariniinae ... 
Genus I. Hedydipna 

5. Hedydipna metallica . . . 

6. ,, platura 
Genus II. Nectarinia 

7. Nectarinia famosa 

8. ,, cupreonitens 



9. 


, jobnstoni ... 


10. 


, pulchella ... 


11. 


, melanogastra(Pl. 


12. 


, bocagii 


13. 


, tacazze 


14. 


, kilimensis... 


15. 


, reichenowi 


Genus III. 


Cinnyris 



16. Cinnyris cupreus 

17. ,, purpureiventris 

18. „ notatus 

19. „ nesopbilus ...(PL ii 



page 
i. 
ii. 
1 
2 
3 
3 
4 
5 
6 
6 
7 
9 

10 
12 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
19 
21 
22 
23 
25 
26 
26 
28 
29 
30 
36 
39 
39 
41 



20. Cinnyris superbus 


21. 


, jobannae 


22. 


, splendidus . . 


23. 


, habessinicus . . 


24. 


, nectarinioides 


25. 


, erythroeerius.. 


26. 


, shelleyi 


27. 


, mariquensis .. 


28. 


, osiris ... 


29. 


, bifasciatus 


30. 


, michrorbynehi 


31. 


, comorensis 


32. 


, bouvieri 


33. 


, leucogaster . 


34. 


, albiventris 


35. 


, oustaleti 


36. 


, venustus 


37. 


, affinis ... 


38. 


, falkensteini 


39. 


, coquereli 


40. 


, souimanga 


41. 


, aldabrensis 


42. 


, abbotti 


43. 


, afer ... 


44. 


, ludovicensis . 


45. 


, cbalybeus 


46. 


, mediocris 


47. 


, stublmanni . 


48. 


, fuelleborni 


49. 


, preussi 


50. 


, reicbenowi 


51. 


, cbloropygius . 


52. 


, regius... 


53. 


, violaceus 



(PL iii. 



(PL iv. 



PAGE 

41 
43 
45 
46 
48 
49 
50 
51 
53 
54 
55 
57 
. 57 
58 
60 
62 
62 
64 
66 
67 
68 
70 
72 
72 
74 
76 
79 
80 
80 
81 
82 
83 
86 
86 



CONTENTS. 



Genus IV. Chalcomitka 
54. Chalcomitra senegalensis 



55. 

56. 
57. 
58. 
59. 
60. 
61. 
62. 
63. 
64. 
65. 



acik 

gutturalis 

cruentatus 

hunteri . . . 

amethystina 

deminuta 

kirki 

fnliginosa 

angolensis 

adelberti... 

castaneiventris 



Genus V. Eljeocerthia 

66. Elseocerthia fusca 

67. ,, verreauxi 

68. „ thomensis (PI. v 
Genus VI. Cyanomitra . . 

69. Cyanomitra balfouri ... 



70. 
71. 
72. 
73. 
74. 
75. 
76. 
77. 
78. 



olivacea ... 

obscura . . . 

verticalis 

eyanolaBina 

dussumieri 

humbloti 

newfconi ... 

hartlaubi... 

reichenbachi 



Genus VII. Anthotheeptes 

79. Anthotbreptes fraseri... 

80. „ idia ... 



81. 
82. 
83. 
84. 
85. 
86. 
87. 
88. 
89. 
90. 



Family II. Promeropid^: 

91. Promerops cafer 

92. „ gurneyi 



axillaris 

longuimarii 

orientalis 

aurantia 

collaris 

hypodila 

rectirostris 

tephrolaema 

anchietse 

gabonica 



page 
88 
89 
90 
93 
100 
102 
103 
105 
107 
109 
111 
112 
114 
114 
115 
116 
119 
120 
122 
123 
125 
127 
130 
132 
133 
134 
135 
137 
139 
141 
142 
143 
144 
145 
147 
149 
151 
155 
156 
157 
158 
161 
161 
165 



Family III. Zosteropidsi ... 

Genus I. Zosterops 

93. Zosterops semiflava . . (PI. vi 
mayottensis 
senegalensis 
anderssoni (PI. vii 
kirki 



94. 

95. 

96. 

97. 

98. 

99. 
100. 
101. 
102. 
103. 
104. 
105. 
106. 
107. 
108. 
109. 
110. 
111. 
112. 
113. 
114. 
115. 
116. 
117. 



mouroniensis 

virens 

stenocricota 

eurycricota 

kikuyuensis 

jacksoni 

ficedulina (PI. viii 

griseovirescens 

pallida 

capensis 

poliogastra... 

abyssinica ... 

madagascariensis 

anjuanensis 

comorensis (PI. ix 

aldabrensis... 

olivacea 

cbloronota . . . 

modesta 

hovarum . . . 



Genus II. Speirops 

118. Speirops lugubris 

119. ,, melanocephala 

120. ,, leucophasa ... 
Genus III. Malacirops 

121. Malacirops borbonica... 

122. „ mauritiana 

123. „ e-newtoni... 
Family IV. Parisomid.3E 
Genus I. Alcippe 

124. Alcippe nigricapilla ... 

125. ,, abyssinica 

126. „ galinieri 
Genus II. Parisoma.. 

127. Parisoma subceeruleum 

128. ,, layardi 

129. „ plumbeum ... 



PAGE 

166 

168 
172 
172 
173 
177 
178 
179 
179 
181 
182 
183 
184 
185 
186 
187 
188 
190 
192 
194 
196 
196 
197 
198 
198 
199 
200 
201 
201 
202 
203 
203 
204 
205 
206 
206 
208 
209 
210 
211 
212 
213 
215 
217 









CONTENTS. 






vii. 






PAGE 








PAGE 


130. 


Parisoma orieutalis ... 


217 


Genus II. 


Salpoenis 


259 


131. 


,, catoleucum ... 


217 


163. 


Salpornis salvadorii 


260 


132. 


, boebmi 


220 


Subfa 


mily 


III. FALCULIINiE 


262 


Family V. Paeid.e ... 


221 


164. 


Falculia palliata 


262 


Genus I. Paeos 


222 


Section II. 


Alaudje ... 


263 


133. 


Paras leuconotus 


226 


Fa mil 


yVIl 


'. MOTACILLID.*: 


264 


134. 


,, funereus 


227 


Genus I. Motacilla... 


265 


135. 


,, leucomelas 


228 


165. 


Motacilla nigricotis (PI. xii.) 


266 


136. 


,, guineensis 


229 


166. 




, vidua 


268 


137. 


,, insignis... 


231 


167. 




, alba ... 


272 


138. 


,, niger 


232 


168. 




, forwoodi 


274 


139. 


„ fuelleborni 


235 


169. 




, longicauda ... 


274 


140. 


,, xanthostomus ...(PI. x.) 


236 


170. 




, capensis 


277 


141. 


„ albiventris 


236 


171. 




, flaviventris ... 


281 


142. 


,, fasciiventris 


237 


172. 




, melanope ... 


282 


143. 


,, rufiventris 


238 


173. 




, campestris ... 


283 


144. 


„ masukuensis ... 


238 


174. 




, flava 


286 


145. 


„ pallidiventris ... 


239 


175. 




, borealis 


286 


146. 


,, rovurna?... 


239 


176. 




, cinereicapilla 


287 


147. 


,, afer 


240 


177. 




, melanocephala 


291 


148. 


,, intermedius 


241 


Genus II. Anthus ... 


293 


149. 


,, parvirostris 


241 


178. 


Antbus chloris... 


295 


150. 


,, griseiventris 


243 


179. 




lineiventris (PI. xiii.) 


297 


151. 


,, tbruppi 


244 


180. 




crenatus 


298 


Genus II. .ZEgithalus 


245 


181. 




trivialis 


299 


152. 


iEgitbalus capensis ... 


246 


182. 




caltborpte (PL xiv.) 


301 


153. 


„ puuctifrons 


249 


183. 




bracbyurus 


303 


154. 




, parvulus ... 


250 


184. 




latistriatus 


304 


155. 




, flavifrons .. 


250 


185. 




rnelindaa 


305 


156. 




, camaroonensis 


251 


186. 




pallidiventris ... 


306 


157. 




, calotropiphilus 


252 


187. 




pyrrhonotus ... 


307 


158. 




, caroli 


253 


188. 




gouldi ... 


307 


159. 




, musculus (PI. xi.) 


254 


189. 




vaaleusis 


311 


160. 




, fringillinus 


255 


190. 




nicholsoni 


312 


Family VI. CBRTHiiDiE 


256 


191. 




sordidus 


314 


Subfamily I. Hyposittin^; ... 


257 


192. 




campestris 


317 


161. 


Hypossita corallirostris 


257 


193. 




rufulus 


319 


Subfamily II. Ceethiin.e ... 


258 


194. 




pratensis 


324 


Genus I. Tichodeoma 


258 


195. 




cervinus 


325 


162. 


Tich 


adroma muraria ... 


259 


196. 




tenellus 


326 



AYES. 



KEY TO THE ORDERS. 

a. Young born helpless, and not able to avail 
themselves of the instinct of self-preserva- 
tion for, at least, the first twenty-four hours. 
o 1 . Young do not pass through a downy 
stage before acquiring feathers, unless 
the species is nocturnal as in the 
Caprimulgidce. 
a 2 . Palate segithognathous, and the deep 

plantar tendons free 1. Passeeifoemes. 

b". Palate never aegithognathous when the 
deep plantar tendons are free. 
a 3 . Palate never schizognathous when 

the nasals are schizorhinal ... 2. Picifobmes. 
b s . Palate schizognathous, and the 

nasals schizorhinal 3. Columbifoemes. 

b 1 . Young pass through a downy stage before 
acquiring feather. 
c 2 . Not web-footed. 

c 3 . Dorsal vertebrae opistoccelous ; feet 
always zygodactyle ; young born 

naked 4. Psittacifoemes. 

d 3 . Dorsal vertebrae heteroccelous. 
a*. Feet generally zygodactyle ; young 

born covered with down ... 5. Accipiteifoemes. 
6 4 . Feet never zygodactyle ; young 

born nearly naked 6. Aedeifoemes. 

d 2 . Web-footed. 

e 3 . Palate desmognathous ; all four toes 
connected by a web ; young born 

nearly naked 7. Pelecanifoemes. 

f 3 . Palate schizognathous ; hind toe not 
connected to the other toes by a 
web; young born covered with down. 

[Juue, 1SSJ9. i 



2 PASSERIFORMES. 

c 4 . Wing with true feathers and adapted 
for powerful flight. 
a 5 . External nostrils ordinary . . 8. Lariforjies. 
b r >. External nostrils produced into 

tubes 9. Procellariiforsies. 

d*. Wing with no true feathers and 

fin-like 10. Spheniciformes. 

b. Young not born helpless and able at once, or 
in a few hours, to avail themselves of the 
instinct of self-preservation. 
c 1 . Sternum with a keel. 

e". Palate desmognathous ; web-footed. 
g 3 . Basipterygoid processes absent ; end 
half of bill abruptly bent down- 
wards 11. PHO3NIC0PTERIF0RMES 

h 3 . Basipterygoid processes articulate 
with the pterygoids as near to the 
palatines as possible ; end half of 
bill never abruptly bent downwards. 12. Anseriformes. 
f". Palate schizognathous. 

i 3 . Posterior processes of the ilium ap- 
proximated to such an extent that 
the sacrum is almost entirely con- 
cealed. 

e 4 . Web-footed 13. Colymbiformes. 

/*. Toes lobed 14. Podicipedidiformes. 

k 3 . Posterior processes of the ilium never 
approximated to such an extent 
that the sacrum is almost entirely 
concealed. 
g*. Dorsal vertebrae heteroccelous. . 15. Galliformes. 
h 1 . Dorsal vertebras opistoccelous . . 16. Charadriiformes. 
cl 1 . Sternum with no keel 17. Struthioniformes. 

Order I. PASSERIFORMES. 

Young born helpless, and do not pass through a downy stage before 
acquiring feathers. Palate segithognathous. Deep plantar tendons free ; 
the flexor perforans digitorum serving the three front toes and the flexor 
long us hallusis the hind toe. Ambiens and accessory femoro-caudal muscles 
absent. Oil-glands present and nude. Spinal feather-tract well defined on 
the neck. Dorsal vertebras heteroccelous. Only a left carotid artery. 

This Order comprises about three-fifths of the known species of birds, 
and is represented in the Ethiopian Eegion by some 1500 of them. 



OLIGOMYOD^. 



KEY TO THE SUBORDERS. 

a. Intrinsic muscles of the syrinx attached near 

the middle of the bronchial semi-ring * . . 1. Oligomyod^;. 

b. Intrinsic muscles of the syrinx attached to 

the ends of the bronchial semi-rings ... 2. Oscines. 
* Tail remarkably short in all Ethiopian species. 

Suborder I. OLIGOMYODJS. 

The species belonging to this Suborder are mostly American, only the 
following three families being found in the Old World : 

Xenicidce. Three species confined to New Zealand. 

Pittidce. Contains some 45 species, only represented in the Ethiopian 
Region by Pitta angolensis. 

Philepittidce. Two species confined to Madagascar. 



KEY. 

a. Terrestrial ; sexes similar ; no wattle on head ; 

rump and portion of upper wing-coverts 

bright pale blue ; abdomen scarlet .... Pitta angolensis. 

b. Arboreal ; sexes dissimilar ; adult males with 

bare wattles on the sides of the head ; some 
yellow and no blue or red on the feathers . Philepitta. 
a 1 . General plumage velvety black with 
yellow at the bend of the wing. 
a 2 . With no yellow margins to the feathers jala, <j ad. 
b". With yellow edges to many of the 

feathers jala, $ jiiv. 

b 1 . Wings, lower back and tail olive. 
c 2 . Above olive; beneath yellowish buff 
mottled with olive. 
a 3 . Above more uniform ; bill larger . jala, $. 
b 3 . Crown with yellow spots; bill smaller schlegeli, ?. 
d 2 . Upper back and entire under parts 

bright yellow schlegeli, <j ad. 

Family I. PITTID^J. 

Bill stout but somewhat Thrush-like. Temporal fossae extend across 
the occipital region of the skull and nearly meet in the middle line behind, 



4 PITTA ANGOLENSIS. 

— a character not known to occur in any other Passerine bird. Sternum 
with one extremely deep notch on each side. Wing of ten primaries, first 
reaching nearly to the tip of the wing. Tail of twelve feathers, very short. 
Tarsus elongated, the anterior covering entire and smooth. 
Sexes similar in plumage in the single Ethiopian species. 



Pitta angolensis. 

Pitta angolensis, Vieill., Reichen. and Liihder, J. f. 0. 1873, p. 214 
Accra; Reichen. J. f. O. 1875, p. 20 Camaroons ; Garrod, P. Z. S. 
1876, p. 513, pi. 53, figs. 1, 2, 3; Sharpe and Bouvier, Bull. 
S. Z. France, 1876, p. 45 Landana ; Reichen. J. f. 0. 1877, p. 21 
Loango; Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. 1885, p. 175; 1888, p. 75; 
1889, p. 122 Liberia; Reichen. J. f. 0. 1886, p. 396 Upemba ; 
Matsch. J. f. O. 1887, p. 152 Lufua B. ; Sclat. Cat. B. M. xiv. 
p. 422 (1888) Wassaiv ; Reichen. J. f. 0. 1890, p. 117 Camaroons ; 
Whitehead, Ibis, 1893, p. 496 ; Elliot, Monogr. Pitt. 2nd Ed. pi. — 
(1893); Reichen. J. f. O. 1896, p. 96 Togoland ; Neumann, t. c. 
p. 250, Usagara; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 1 (1896) ; Reichen. .1. f. O. 
1897, p. 25 Togoland. 

Adult Male. Crown and sides of head black, with a broad pale brown 
band from forehead to nape, fading beneath into a white eyebrow ; mantle 
olive-shaded green ; wings and tail black, the former washed with olive, 
and with broad glossy whitish blue ends to the coverts ; rump and upper 
tail-coverts pale glossy verditer blue. Throat white, partially washed with 
carmine ; chest buff washed on the flanks with olive ; abdomen and under 
tail-coverts deep carmine red. "Bill horny brown, legs flesh colour, iris 
dark brown" (Falkenstein). Total length 7 inches, culmen 0-8, wing 4-3, 
tail 1-7, tarsus 1'5. 

Adult Female. Like the male. 

Young Birds. Less brightly coloured and have the abdomen rosy pink. 

The Angola Pitta ranges from Sierra Leone to Angola 
and the Usagara Country nearly opposite to Zanzibar Island. 
The most uorthern range, at present known, for this species 
is Sierra Leone, from whence Fraser procured the type of 
his Pitta fuhil and wrote : " Mr. Thomson who originally 
procured the bird, observes in a note, that the Puhil or 
mocking-bird, is only found in the Timneh country ; that its 
note is exceedingly sweet, and when a Timneh would pay an 



PHILEPITTID^E. 5 

orator or poet the greatest compliment, they say, ' He is a 
perfect puhil.'" Mr. Biittikofer, however, informs us that 
he never heard their note, although he kept a pair for some 
weeks in confinement, feeding them on the larva? of Termes 
mordax, which are very abundant in the Liberian forests. 
Here he found them close to the sea shore as well as in the 
hilly regions of the interior, and like Ussher on the Gold 
Coast, procured his specimens by snaring them, for they 
naturally frequent thick covert and rarely take to the wing 
even for a short flight. 

In the British Museum there are specimens from Wassaw, 
Fantee, Ashantee and Old Calabar. Dr. Reichenow found it at 
Accra ; Riis in Aguapim and Herr E. Baumann in Togoland at 
Misohohe 7° N. lat. 

In Camaroons Dr. Reichenow procured the species at Wuri, 
and met with it on several occasions in the highlands. 

On the Loango coast specimens have been collected at 
Chinchonxo and Landana by Falkenstein and Petit. 

The type of the species formed part of Perrin's collection 
from Angola. Bohm procured specimens at the Lufua River 
to the west of Lake Moero and at Upemba, and Captain Storms 
likewise met with it to the west of Lake Tanganyika. 

Mr. Neumann informs us of two specimens from the Usagara 
country, and further remarks, that in the Paris Museum there 
is also a specimen from East Africa. 



Family II. PHILEPITTID^E. 

Head, in males only, with large bare fleshy wattles round the eyes. 
Bill moderate, shorter than the head. Tongue bifurcated at the tip. Wing 
of ten primaries, the first only slightly shorter than the second. Tail of 
twelve feathers and very short, not more than half the length of the wing. 
Tarsus scaled both in front and behind. Toes moderate ; claws curved 
and acute. Sexes dissimilar. Arboreal. 



PHILEPITTA JALA 



Philepitta jala. 

Philepitta jala (Bodd.) Sclat. Cat. B. M. xiv. p. 410 (1888); Sibree, 
Ibis, 1891, p. 412; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 2 (1896). 

Adult Male. Black with the bend of the wing yellow, and with fleshy 
caruncles about the eye green ; bill and legs greyish black. Total length 
6 inches; culmen G"65, wing 3-2, tail 1-5, tarsus - 9. 

Adult Female. Above olive green with a yellowish shade on the rump; 
beneath pale yellowish, with broad olive green edges to the feathers. Total 
length 5-7 inches, culmen 0-65, wing 3-2, tail 1-5, tarsus 0-9. 

Immature Male. Black, all the feathers margined with yellow, and with 
a bare patch round the eye. 

The Black velvet Asity is said to be confined to the forest 
regions of the eastern side of Madagascar. 

Here, according to M. Grandidier, they are to be met 
with generally in pairs running along or climbing up the 
branches in search of the buds and fruit on which they feed. 
They are graceful and active in their movements and are not 
shy. The flight is straight but not sustained for any great 
distance, and the males have a soft Thrush-like song. The 
eggs are pale bluish white and measure l - 2 inches by 0"85. 

Owing to the numerous native dialects spoken in Mada- 
gascar, the present species is not only known as " Asity," but 
according to the Rev. J. Sibree as, " Variamanangana " in the 
Betsileo country, and as " Tsoitsoy " by the Betsimisaraka 
people. 

Philepitta schlegeli. 

Philepitta schlegeli, Schleg., Sclat. Cat. B. M. xiv. p. 411 (1888); 
Sibree, Ibis, 1891, p. 442 ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 3 (1896). 

Adult Male. Upper half of head and the nape black ; upper back 
bright yellow passing into olive green on the remainder of the upper parts ; 
beneath uniform bright yellow ; a large bluish green eye-wattle. Bill 
black, feet slaty brown, iris pale brown. Total length 5 inches, culmen 05, 
wing 3, tail 1-5, tarsus 0'8. 



OSCINES. 7 

Adult Female. Above yellowish olive green, mottled on the front and 
sides of the head with yellowish ; beneath yellowish, with broad olive green 
edges to the feathers. Total length 5 inches, culrneu 0'5, wing 3, tail 1"5, 
tarsus 08. 

Immature Male. Very similar to the adult female, but with a large 
bluish green eye-wattle. 

The Yellow-breasted '' Asity " of the north Sakalava 
people is confined to the north-western portion of Madagascar. 
Here it replaces the last species, which appears to be much 
the commonest of the two, and in habits closely resembles 
that bird, but its note seems to differ as it is described, 
by M. Grandidier, as being a little cry of " chit-chit," but of 
course this may be only its alarm note and not its true 



Suborder II. OSCINES. 

The Oscines are well represented in the Ethiopian Eegion by nearly 1500 
known species, or more than half tbe Avifauna of that region. 

The difficulty of drilling the Oscines iuto a line does not arise, solely, 
from the large number of species, but also from tbe great affinities the species 
show to one another. 

To divide this mass of birds into apparently natural groups, I select a 
few of the characters of the Song Thrush, Turdus musicus, thus : 

1. Does not swallow food during flight: — excludes Hirundinidce and 
Artami. 

2. Euns and feeds on the ground : — excludes Nectariniidce, Promeropidtz, 
Zosteropidm, Parklce, Certhiidtz and Muscicapidm. 

3. Feeds both on the ground and in trees : — excludes Motacillida and 
Alaudidce. 

4. Bill not conical or Finch-like : — excludes Fringillidce and Ploceida. 
The style of plumage of the nestlings is the character upon which I 

have divided the great central mass of the Oscines into four divisions : Corvi, 
Lanii, Sylvia and Turdi. 



KEY TO THE SECTIONS. 

a. Do not feed entirely during flight, the wings 
being shorter and less powerful, the tarsi and 
feet generally stronger and the gape less 
wide. 



OSCINES. 

a 1 . Often feed with their backs downwards 
owing to the tarsi being rather short 
than long ; the feet graceful and power- 
fully constructed with the claws sharp 
and curved, which does not adapt them 
for feeding on the ground. Bill neither 
Finch-like nor Thrush-like, and nearly 
always the tongue is split at the end 
and the young similar in plumage to 

the adult females 1. Pari. 

6 1 . Never feed with their backs downwards 
(excepting some of the Fringillce and 
the Bu/phagince.) Tongue generally 
entire. 
a". Either the inner secondaries are ab- 
normally elongated and reach to the 
tip of the wing, or the back of the 
tarsus is scutellated. Terrestrial . . 2. Alaud.e. 
b". Never with the secondaries reaching 
to the tip of the wing, nor with the 
back of the tarsus scutellated. 
a 3 . Bill : Finch-like, stout and some- 
what conical 3. Fringillce. 

b 3 . Bill: never Finch-like, but often 
Thrush-like in form. 
a 4 . Nestling : never with any pale sub- 
terminal spots to any of the 
feathers, unless they are present 
in the adult. 
a 5 . Plumage of nestlings duller 
than that of the adults and 
may have streaks or blotches, 
but never transverse bars . . 4. Corvi. 
b 5 . Plumage of nestlings generally 
cross-barred ; but never with 

spots or blotches 5. Lanii. 

c 5 . Plumage of nestlings similar to 

that of the adults, but brighter. 6. Sylvle. 
b*. Nestlings often with pale sub- 
terminal spots on many of the 
feathers. 
d 5 . Run, and feed quite as much on 
the ground as in trees ; bill 
rarely broader than deep at the 
gape 7. Turdi. 



PARI. 

e 5 . Never run, but watch from a 
bough for the passing insects 
which form their entire food. 
Bill : generally broader than 
deep at the nostrils, and 
furnished with well developed 
rictal bristles. Nestlings with 
fine hairs setting flat over the 
bill. Legs rather weak ... 8. MusciCAPiE. 
b. Feed entirely during flight. Wings powerful 
and long ; legs weak. 

c 1 . Wing of only nine primaries. Bill, from 
gape to tip, viewed from above nearly 

an equilateral triangle 9. Hirundines. 

d 1 . Wing of ten primaries 10. Abtami. 



Section I. PARI. 

Bill variable but neither Finch-like nor Thrush-like. Wing with ten 
primaries. Tail of twelve feathers. Tarsi scutellated and short, with the 
feet graceful but powerful and the claws sharp and curved ; consequently 
they are not adapted for feeding on the ground, but probably all feed at 
times with their backs downwards. 

The eggs vary from two to ten in a nest. 

Generally but not always the members of this section have : — Tongue 
split at the end ; young similar in colouring to the adult female. 



KEY TO THE FAMILIES. 

Tarsus decidedly longer than the hind toe with 
claw ; foot not adapted for climbing up the 
trunks of trees. 

a 1 . Nostrils placed in a groove, covered by a 

membrane and opening in a slit. 

«'-. Bill longer, narrower, and more slender, 

generally not shorter than the tarsus. 

a 3 . Frontal feathers rounded; tongue 

extensile and split into two towards 

the end Nectariniid.e. 

b 3 . Frontal feathers lanceolate; tail of 
soft flexible feathers, very long and 
graduated Promeropim:. 



10 NECTARINIIDzIC. 

b". Bill shorter and stouter, much shorter 
than the tarsus ; tongue not extensile ; 
frontal feathers rounded. 
c 2 . Bastard primary absent or very small Zostekopid.e. 
d 3 . Bastard primary large, about half the 

length of the next one Parisomid.e. 

b 1 . Nostrils not placed in a groove . . . . Parid.e. 
b. Tarsus not longer than the hind toe with claw, 
aud the foot adapted for climbing up the 
trunks of trees Certhiid.e. 



Family I. NECTABINIIDJE. 

Tongue : long, extensile, with the end bifurcated. Bill long, slender, 
and sharply pointed. Nostril, placed in an oval groove, covered by a 
membrane and opens in a slit. Wing moderate, with the third and fourth 
primaries longest. Tail of twelve feathers. Tarsi scutellated. Toes armed 
with curved and acute claws. Feathers of the head short and rounded. 

This family is peculiar to the Old World and most of its 
members possess bright metallic colours which has caused them 
to be known as Sunbirds. They rival the Humming-birds, 
their representatives in the new world, in the brilliancy of 
their plumage, and like them are admirably adapted by nature 
to assist in the fertilisation of plants by diving their long 
slender bills into the calices of flowers in search of the honey 
and small insects on which they feed, and it is a curious 
fact that some members of both these families have the 
cutting edges of their mandibles very finely serrated. 

Unlike the Humming-birds their wings are too short for 
poising in the air before the flowers to feed, but with their 
strong feet they cling on to the clustered blossoms and dip 
their long extensile tongues into the nectar ; hanging often 
with their backs downwards, when feeding, like the Tits 
(Paridce). 

The Sunbirds are strongly represented throughout the 
Ethiopian Region, but none of the species found there extend 
into Asia beyond the shores of the Red Sea. 



NECTARINIID.E. 11 

They are all active and graceful birds with sweet little 
voices, are not strictly speaking migratory nor gregarious, 
yet frequently shift their quarters for more flowery localities 
according to the season, and consequently often assemble in 
considei'able numbers of many species together. 

The males are rather pugnacious during the nuptial season, 
at which time they are adorned in their most brilliant colours. 
After the breeding season the metallic colours are generally 
discarded for a plainer garb much resembling that of the 
female, but that is not the case with all the species. 

All the members of this family appear to construct very 
similar nests which they suspend from twigs or leaves, 
generally on the outside of bushes near the ground, and 
rarely at any great distance from water. The nest is of an 
oval form with a hole at the side towards the upper end, 
and is often overhung by a hood or portico. It is a neat 
structure generally composed of grass and root-fibres, often 
intermixed with dry leaves, lichen, shreds of bark and seed- 
down or feathers, and thickly lined with the softer materials. 
Spiders' webs are often much used in the structure, and fre- 
quently gives it the appearance of a mass of debris drifted 
together by the wind. They lay from two to five eggs in a 
nest. 

KEY TO THE SUBFAMILIES. 

a. Wing with the first long primary suloated ; 

tail short, rounded, less than half the length 
of the wing and not longer than the culmen ; 
bill long, slender, much curved and not 
serrated. Adult males have a large bare 
wattle round the eye Neodrepanin.e. 

b. Wing with the first long primary entire ; tail 

more than half the length of the wing, and 
longer than the culmen ; bill finely serrated 
along the cutting edges. No bare wattles 
on the head Nectariniin.i:. 



12 NEODREPANIN.<£. 



Subfamily. NEODREPANINiE. 

This subfamily is only represented by a single known species. It 
resembles the Nectariniidce in the very peculiar structure of the tongue ; 
in adult males the upper surface is adorned with rich metallic colours, and 
the form of the wind-pipe may be similar. 

It differs from the Nectariniida in the cutting edges of the bill not being 
serrated, the sides of the head wattled in adult males, and in the tail being 
abnormally short and less than half the length of the wing, in all of 
which characters it resembles the Philcpittida , as well as in the style 
of plumage of the females and all being confined to the island of 
Madagascar. 

These are reasons for my ending the Suborder Oligomyoda with the 
family Philepittidce and beginning the Oscines with the family Nectariniida. 



Neodrepanis coruscans. 

Neodrepanis coruscans, Sharpe ; Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 1, pi. 1 (1876) 
Madagascar ; Hartl. Vog. Madag. p. 94 (1877) ; Milne Edw. and 
Grand. Hist. Madag. Ois. I., p. 289, pis. 106 a , 107", 108 1 (1882) ; 
Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix., p. 2 (1884) ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 4 (1896). 

Adult Male. Above steel blue ; wings and tail black, the feathers of the 
former partially edged with yellow, those of the latter with steel blue. 
A large bare greyish blue eye wattle. Beneath yellow. Total length 
4-1 inches, culmen 1-15, wing 2, tail 1, tarsus 0-6. Ampasmanhave 
(Crossley). 

Adult Female. Above olive with a green gloss ; wings dark brown, the 
feathers broadly edged with yellowish olive. Beneath pale yellow passing 
into pale ashy olive on the throat. Total length 4 inches, culmen 1, 
wing l - 95, tail 1, tarsus 055. Ampasmanhave (Crossley). 

The Wattled Sunbird is a native of Madagascar. It is 
apparently nowhere common, for the natives seem to have no 
name for this species. The type was procured by Crossley in 
1874 near Antananarivo where Deans Cowan also collected 
specimens. 

According to M. Grandidier it inhabits the western and 
most elevated portion of the band of forest which extends 
over the eastern slope of the highland plateau, where he 
found it, in parties of three or four, round the flowers of the 



NECTARIXIIN.E. 13 

Impaticus humblotiana, which grows there in abundance, and 
for which their long curved bills are so well adapted. They 
prefer the deep forest to the less thickly wooded hill where 
Ginnyris notata is found, or the coast line and open country 
frequented by C. souimanga. 



Subfamily II. NECTARINIINiE. 

Bill less curved and less flexible towards the end than in Neodrepanina ; 
terminal third of the cutting edges of both mandibles very finely serrated ; 
never any wattles on the sides of the head ; first long primary entire ; tail 
more than half the length of the wing and considerably longer than the 
culmen. 

This subfamily is represented in the Ethiopian Eegion by about 86 
species, of which only two or three range as far eastward as Arabia. 

These Ethiopian species may be conveniently placed in seven genera, the 
characters of which are mostly based on the style of colouring of the males 
in full plumage. 



KEY TO THE GENERA. 

a. Tail of full plumaged males differs from that 

of the females in having the centre pair 

of feathers much elongated and narrower 

throughout their length than the next pair. 

a 1 . Culmen considerably shorter than the 

tarsus ; adult males with the centre 

tail-feathers rounded and widened at 

their tips Hedydipna. 

b 1 . Culmen not shorter than tarsus; adult 
males with the centre tail-feathers 
rather pointed and not widened at 
their tips Nectarinia. 

b. Tail nearly similar in form in both sexes. 

c 1 . Keel of lower mandible never perfectly 
straight. 

a 2 . Head, neck, and mantle of metallic 
colours in full plumaged males ; no 
metallic colours on the females . . . Cinnykis. 

b-. General colouring brown, with metallic 
colours (only in the males) confined 
to the crown, wing-coverts, rump and 
throat Chalcomitba. 



U HEDYDIPNA. 

c". Metallic colours confined to the edges 

of the feathers of the upper parts, 

throat and front of hreast, giving only 

a partial metallic appearance ; sexes 

sometimes similar El^oceethia. 

d 2 . General colouring olive or brown and 

white ; metallic colours, when present, 

confined to the head and neck ; females 

sometimes with metallic colours . . Cyanomitka. 
d 1 . Keel of lower mandible perfectly straight ; 

bill straighter with the culmen often 

not quite as long as the tarsus ; adult 

females of all the Ethiopian species 

have some metallic colours when they 

are present in their adult males. . . Anthotheeptes. / •? 



Genus I. HEDYDIPNA. 

Bill comparatively short, about two-thirds of the length of the tarsus. 
Adult males with the entire head, neck, and back of metallic colours — mostly 
green ; tail with the two centre feathers narrow, much lengthened, with 
their ends rounded and widened ; breast bright yellow. Total length about 
6-8 inches, culmen 0-4, wing 2-2, tail 4-3, tarsus 0-6. 

Adult females without metallic colours, ashy brown above, and white 
shaded with yellow beneath. Total length about 3 - 7 inches, tail 1*5, the 
other measurements are similar to those of the male. Young very similar 
in plumage to the adult females. 

The only two known species of this genus inhabit North Tropical Africa. 
One, H. metalUca, ranges eastward from the Nile Valley into Southern 
Arabia, and the other, H. platura, westward from the Nile Valley to the 
Atlantic coast. 



KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

a. Throat metallic green, terminating in a steel- 

blue collar. Eanges east from the Nile . . mctallica, g ad. 

b. Throat metallic green, not terminating in a 

steel-blue collar. Eanges west of the Nile . platura, <j ad. 

c. Above ashy brown ; beneath white shaded with 

yellow ; culmen 04, tarsus, 0-6 females. 



HEDYDIPNA. 15 



Hedydipna metallica. 

Hedydipna metallica (Licht.) Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 3, pi. 2 (1878); 
id. B. Afr. I. No. 5 (1896) ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 404 Somali ; 
Elliot, Field Columb. Mus. Orn. i. No. 2, p. 41 (1897) Somali. 

Nectarinia metallica, Heugl. Orn. N. 0. Afr. p. 224, pi. 43, fig. 3 (egg) ; 
Oust, in Eevoil, Faun et Flor. Comalis Ois. p. 8 (1882) ; Gadow, 
Cat. B. M. is. p. 8 (1884) ; Yerb'ury, Ibis, 1886, p. 15 ; 1896, p. 25 
Aden; Barnes, Ibis, 1893, p. 73 Aden; Kuschal, J. f. 0. 1895, 
p. 346 (egg). 

Adult Male. Head, neck, mantle and lesser wing-coverts deep metallic 
green ; lower back, upper tail-coverts and a somewhat broad collar at the 
base of the throat steel blue glossed with violet ; remainder of the wings 
and the tail blackish, the feathers of the latter edged with violet-shaded 
steel blue. Breast bright yellow. Total length 6-8 inches, culmen 0-4, 
wing 2-2, tail 4-3, tarsus 0-6. Korosko, $ 10. 4. 70 (Shelley). 

Adult Female. Above ashy brown, with a broad buff eyebrow. Wings 
and tail dark brown with pale edges to the feathers ; tail narrowly tipped 
with white. Beneath white shaded with pale yellow on the centre of the 
breast. Total length 3'7 inches, culmen 0-4, wing 2-1, tail 1-5, tarsus 0-6. 
Korosko, $ 10. 4. 70 (Shelley). 

The Eastern Yellow-breasted Long-tailed Sunbird ranges 
from tlie Nile and Kordofan into Southern Arabia, and north- 
ward of the Equator to the First Cataract of the Nile. 

The occurrence of this species in Somaliland was first 
recorded by Revoil. Mr. E. Lort Phillips writes : " This 
little Sunbird was very plentiful on the foot-hills of the Goolis 
and out on the Gooban towards the end of March. I think 
it must have been migrating northwards, as I had never 
previously noticed it in Somaliland." 

I do not find the species mentioned from Shoa, but it is 
apparently plentiful near Aden in Southern Arabia, and 
according to von Heuglin is a resident in Abyssinia, Takah, 
Sennaar and Kordofan, where it meets with its near ally 
H. platura, which otherwise appears entirely to replace this 
species to the west of the Nile Valley. 



16 HEDYDIFNA. 

In spring the present species wanders down the Nile to 
Phila?, the beautiful island which overlooks the First Cataract. 
Between this island and Korosko I met with the species daily 
towards the latter end of April, at which season they were in 
full breeding plumage. I frequently watched them as they 
flitted within a few yards of me round the sparsely scattered 
flowering plants which decorate the river banks, or as they 
perched, in pairs, on the mimosa bushes twittering in a sweet 
little duet apparently consulting as to the most suitable spot 
for the construction of their nest. The males apparently 
assume their full breeding plumage in March and lose it again 
in August, for near Koomalee, a small village not far from 
Anseba Bay, Jesse procured a male in breeding plumage 
in March, and on his return journey to the coast met with 
them in bad plumage. Mr. Blanford writes : " I saw one 
nest of cocoons, tree-cotton and fine grass. It was suspended 
from an acacia, and had the usual form, with an entrance at 
the side ; there were no eggs in it in the commencement of 
June. After the breeding season this bird probably loses its 
long tail-feathers, as they were wanting in a specimen I shot 
in the beginning of August. I also met with N. metallica in 
Samhar, the Libka valley, and very rarely on the Anseba." 

They are said to lay from two to four eggs in a nest, which 
eggs, according to von Heuglin, are much elongated, white 
with a rosy blush, a few pale rufous spots and some larger 
dark grey or violet-brown marks. Antinori and Beccari found 
the colour of the eggs to vary considerably. 

Hedydipna platura. 

Hedydipna platura (Vieill.) Shelley, Monogr. Nect. p. 7, pi. 3 (1879); 

id. B. Afr. i. No. 6 (1896). 
Nectarinia platura, Heugl. Orn. N. 0. Afr. p. 225 (1870) Djur and 

Kasanga rivers ; Hartl. Abhaud. Nat. Ver. Brem. 1881, p. 109, 



NECTARINIA. 17 

Lado ; Pelz. Verhandl. Wieu. xxxi. p. 114 (1881) Kiri ; Gadow, 
Cat. B. M. ix. p. 10 (1884) ; Sharpe, Linn. Soc. Journ. Zool. xvii. 
p. 427 (1884) Nyam-nyam; Eendall, Ibis, 1892, p. 219, Gambia. 

Adult Male. Similar to H. metallica but readily distinguished by the 
violet-shaded steel-blue of the upper tail-coverts not extending on to the 
back, and in its having no well-marked collar of that colour. Total length 
6 inches, culmen 0-4, wing 2T5, tail 3-5, tarsus 0-55. 

The Western Yellow-breasted Long-tailed Sunbird ranges 
over Africa to the west, from the Nile Valley, and south, 
from Kordofan and Senegambia into the Nyam-nyam country. 

This species is the western representative of H. metallica 
and is closely allied to that bird both in colouring and habits. 
It is apparently common on the West Coast from St. Louis 
at the mouth of the Senegal River to Sierra Leone ; but 
although I find no record of it from further south along this 
coast, specimens have been collected in the Nyam-nyam 
country by Bohndorff at Dem Suleiman and Monderich ; 
by Emm at Lado and Kiri and down the Nile Valley to 
Kordofan, where Petherick procured a specimen which is 
now in the Cambridge Museum. 

Antinori and Von Heuglin only met with this species in 
the Upper White Nile district between Djur aud Kosango, 
where it was in breeding plumage from April to October. 



Genus II. NECTARINIA. 

Bill long ; culmen not shorter, but about equal in length to the tarsus. 
Full plumaged males have the two centre tail-feathers narrow, much 
elongated, with their ends pointed and not widened ; entire head, neck and 
back of metallic colours, mostly green or bronze ; abdomen metallic green 
or black. The metallic colours and the elongated tail-feathers generally, if 
not always, disappear by a moult on the approach of the colder season. 
Females and nestlings are above uniform brown of an ashy or olive shade, 
and paler beneath. 

The genus is confined to the African continent, south of the Tropic of 
Cancer, and comprises nine known species. 

[June, 1S99. 2 



18 



NECTARINIA. 



KEY TO THE SPECIES. 



a. Head, neck and back of metallic colours ; 

two centre tail-feathers elongated .... 

b. No metallic colours and no elongated tail- 

feathers ; otherwise very similar in form 
and measurement to their males .... 

c. No yellow fringe to any feather of the wings 

or tail. 
a 1 . Metallic colouring green. 

a". Centre of chest metallic green like the 
remainder of the body. Larger. 
a 3 . Pectoral tufts yellow. 

a i . Larger; total length about 105 
inches ; culmen 1-3 ; bill longer and 
decidedly straighter. (South of 

Zambesi) 

6*. Smaller ; total length about 8 inches, 
culmen 1-2 ; bill shorter and de- 
cidedly more arched. (North of 

Zambesi) 

b 3 . Pectoral tufts scarlet 

b-. Centre of chest scarlet. Smaller ; culmen 
06, wing 2-2 or nearly so. 
c 3 . Abdomen metallic green. (North of 

Equator) 

d 3 . Abdomen black. (South of Equator) 
b 1 . Metallic colours bronze; breast blackish. 
c~. Metallic colouring mostly greenish blue 
d". Metallic colouring more coppery. 

e 3 . Head and neck coppery bronze; re 

mainder of metallic colours lilac . 
/ a . Head and neck greenish ; glossed with 
copper on the back, scapulars and 
upper tail-coverts, and with no lilac 
reflections 

d. Quills and tail-feathers broadly edged with 

chrome yellow. 
c 1 . Head, neck and back fiery copper ; breast 

black 

d 1 . No metallic colours 



full plumaged males, 
females. 



famosa, $ 



cupreonitens, J ad. £/ 
johnstoni, $ ad. 



pulchella, $ ad. 
melanogastra, <y ad. 2 

bocagii, $ ad. i 



tacazze, $ ad. 



kilimensis, $ ad. 



rcichenowi, g ad. 
reichenowi, J . 






NECTARINIA FAMOSA. 



Nectarinia famosa. 



19 



Nectarinia famosa (Linn.), Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 13, pi. 5 (1876) ; 
Sharpe in Oates' Matabele, p. 310 (1881) ; Butler, Feilden and 
Eeid, Zool. 1882, p. 246 Natal; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 5 (1884, 
pt. S. Air.) ; Symonds, Ibis, 1887, p. 330 Orange Free, State ; 
Distant, Naturalist in Transvaal, p. 167 (1892) ; Kusehel, J. f. 0. 
1895, p. 346 (egg) ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 7 (1896) ; Woodward, 
Ibis, 1897, p. 409 Zululand; Sharpe, t. c. p. 506 Zululand. 

Adult Male. Metallic green, with bright yellow pectoral tufts ; wings 
and tail black. Total length 92 inches, culmen 1*3, wing 3'15, tail 5, 
tarsus 0-7. Drakensberg, S 19. 12. 73 (T. E. Buckley). 

Adult Female. Above olive shaded brown, wings darker, tail black with 
narrow white ends to the feathers ; a broad eyebrow and cheek-band buff. 
Beneath very pale ashy brown slightly washed with yellow and whitish 
towards the abdomen. Total length 5-5 inches, culmen T2, wing 2-75, 
tail 2-05, tarsus 0-65. Cape Town, ? 13. 2. 74 (Shelley). 

The Southern Malachite Sunbird ranges over the 
southern portion of the African continent to as far north 
as Namaqualand and the Limpopo River. 

Throughout its range it is generally, but not evenly, 
distributed, for it prefers the more open ground to the forest 
districts. 

Andersson found the species abundant in Little Namaqua- 
land, but rare to the north of the Orange River, in Great 
Namaqualand. "It is," he informs us, " usually found per- 
manently established where it has once taken up its abode." 

Layard calls it common throughout Cape Colony, and 
during the month of February I had frequent opportunities 
of watching these bold and active birds, at Cape Town, 
Mossel Bay, and Port Elizabeth ; but all the males at that 
season had to some extent lost their breeding plumage, which 
apparently only lasts from about September to January. 

Messrs. Butler, Feilden and Reid found them by far the 
commonest species of Sunbirds in the Newcastle district, 



20 NECTARINIA FAMOSA. 

and met with them wintering in the Drakensberg kloofs in 
July, and scattered in pairs all over the country from October 
to November. 

Mr. T. Ayres writes from Natal: " This species is found 
more in the inland parts of the colony, frequenting the open 
country." He found it to be exceedingly scarce near 
Potchefstroom ; but Mr. Barratt calls it common at the 
Leydenburg Gold-fields and at Macamac, frequenting the 
aloes on the sides of the hills near Rustenberg, and Mr. 
Distant records it from Pretoria. It has also been procured 
in Zululand by Messrs. R. B. aud J. D. S. Woodward, at 
Eschowe. Here it " frequents the localities where sugar- 
bushes (Proten mellifera) grow, in the large flowers of 
which they find their favourite food. They make a whistling 
cry as they chase one another from bush to bush, and the 
male has a short song." 

Mr. Layard informs us that it builds a domed nest of 
cobwebs, lichen, dry leaves and odds and ends of all kinds, 
which is usually suspended on the outside of a bush or from 
the branches of a tree. The eggs, generally only two in 
number, are of a dull greyish-brown colour, minutely mottled 
all over, 0*9 by 05 inch. It has, he remarks, a shrill, not 
unpleasant, but short song. 

The males gradually lose their metallic colours after the 
breeding season for a plumage resembling that of the 
females. 

While I was in Cape Colony, in February, scarcely a day 
passed without my seeing these lovely birds, clinging on to 
the large flowers, generally of the aloes, fluttering and 
twitteriug with jfleasure as they sucked the sweet nectar, or 
captured the small insects imbedded in the blossoms. 

Although frequently assembled around the more attractive 
plants, they are not gregarious, but only meet from their 



NECTARINTA CUPREONITENS. 21 

mutual wants drawing tliem fco the same flowers, and beine: 
naturally pugnacious tussles often ensue, one bird chasing 
another with shrill cries from the flowering plant where they 
have met ; the pursued and pursuer fly swiftly and low, 
darting rapidly round the bushes, disappearing for a moment, 
then appearing again on the topmost shoots of two neigh- 
bouring shrubs, when after a brief rest they dart off again 
in their lively play, the rich green plumage flashing in the 
sunshine as they glance over the dull sandy soil. 

Nectarinia cupreonitens. 

Nectarinia cupreonitens, Shelley, Mon. Neet. p. 17, pi. 6, fig. 1 (1876) ; 

Gadow, Cat. B. M. is. p. 6 (1884) ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 8 (1896) ; 

id. Ibis, 1897, p. 523 Nyasa. 
Nectarinia famosa (nee Linn.), Kirk, Ibis, 1864, p. 320 Shirt R. ; Hartl. 

and Finsch, Vog. 0. Afr. p. 213, pt. Zambesi, Abyssinia, Senegal ; 

Salvad. Ann. Mus. Genova, 1884, p. 138 Shoa ; Shelley, P. Z. S. 

1885, p. 227 Kilimanjaro; Reichen. Vog. Deutsch 0. Afr. p. 212 

(1894). 
Nectarinia subfamosa, Salvad. Ann. Mus. Genova, 1884, p. 138 Shoa. 
Nectarinia aeneigularis, Sharpe, Ibis, 1891, pp. 444, 590 Sotik, Lwribwa : 

Neurn. J. f. 0. 1898, pp. 241, 289. 

Adult Male. Very similar to N. famosa but smaller, the bill being 
distinctly shorter and more curved, and with a rather well marked boundary 
between the more golden shade of the throat and the bluer green of the 
breast. Total length 7-9 inches, culmen 1-1, wing 3, tail 4-5, tarsus 065. 
Lumbwa, <? 6. 10. 89 (F. J. Jackson). 

Adult Female. Similar to N. famosa but distinguishable by its shorter 
and more curved bill. Total length 4"5 inches, culmen 095, wing 2-6, tail 
1-6, tarsus 0'65. Kilimanjaro (H. H. Johnston). 

The Northern Malachite Sunbird ranges over Eastern 
Africa from north of the Zambesi into Abyssinia and has 
apparently been procured in Senegambia, for in the Bremen 
Museum, we are informed by Drs. Hartlaub and Finsch, there 
is a specimen labelled " Casamanse (Schneider) " which in size 
agrees well with this species. To this species evidently 



22 NECTARINIA JOHNSTONI. 

belongs the bird referred to by Sir John Kirk thus (Ibis, 
1864, p. 320) : " Nectarinia formosa. In Dr. Dickinson's collec- 
tion. I have seen this bird but once, in a thick clump of 
trees near the river Shire, during the rainy season. It is rare 
in the region." In the same district Mr. Alexander Whyte 
has collected three full plumaged males in June and July on 
the Nyika Plateau and the Masuku Range, between 6,000 and 
7,000 feet. 

The next most southern locality, I find for this species, is 
Kilimanjaro where Sir Harry Johnston found it very abundant, 
between 5,000 and 7,000 feet. 

Mr. Jackson collected in October a full plumaged male 
at Sotik (0-35' S. lat., 35° 25' E. long.) which is the type of 
N. geneigularis, and other specimens on the same day at 
Lumbwa. In Shoa Antinori procured a full plumaged male 
at Antotto in December, 1881, for which bird Count Salvadori 
proposed the name of N. subfamosa. In the Abyssinian district 
Lefebvre obtained specimens at Adoa, and according to Ruppell 
it is plentiful in the province of Semien at an elevation of 
12,000 feet. You Heuglin also met with it here and in the 
province of Bergemeder at 10,000 to 14,000 feet, and heard it 
singing in the shrubs up to the line of perpetual snow. He 
found it generally in pairs or small parties in company 
with N. tacazze, and assumed that it acquired its breeding 
plumage a month or two later in May and June. 

The type of the species was killed in Abyssinia in August, 
1856. 

Nectarinia johnstoni. 

Nectarinia johnstoni, Shelley, P. Z. S. 1885, p. 227, pi. 14 Kilimanjaro ; 

Reichen. Vog. Deutseh O. Afr. p. 213 ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1894, p. 121 

ML Kenia; Selat. t. c. p. 452 Mt. Kenia; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 9 

(1896) ; Neum. J. f. o. 1898, pp. 241, 288. 
Nectarinia deckeni, v. Hohnel in Teleki's Exped. Lake Rudolph (English 

ed.) I. p. 374 Mt. Kenia. 



NECTARINIA PULCHELLA. 23 

Very similar in plumage to N. famosa, but with the pectoral tufts 
scarlet and the tail longer, in full pluuiaged males. Total length 106 
inches, culmen 1-25, wing 3-3, tail 6-6, tarsus 0-7. Kilimanjaro (Johnston). 

The Scarlet-tufted Malachite Sunbird inhabits the moun- 
tains of Kilimanjaro and Kenia. In the former locality Sir 
Harry Johnston discovered the type at an elevation of 11,000 
feet, and remarks : " Very abundant. Not seen lower than 
5,000 or 6,000 feet, but reaches higher up the mountain than 
any other bird with the exception of Gorvultur albicoUis and 
Pinarochroa hypospadia. Found very much round a curious 
teazle-like lobelia {Lobelia decheni). Also at lower levels it 
affects the tall aloe flower-shoots." 

Specimens have since been procured on Mount Kenia, 
which lies to the north of Masailand, by Count Teleki during 
his expedition to Lake Rudolph, and by Mr. Gregory, whose 
specimens, two adult males and a young bird, collected at an 
elevation of 14,000 feet, are now in the British Museum. 



Nectarinia pulchella. 

Nectarinia pulchella, Bouvier, Cat. Ois. Marche, &c., p. 14 (1875) 

Senegambia; id. Bull. S. Z. France, 1877, p. 451; Shelley, Mou. 

Nect. p. 9, pi. 4 (1878) ; Hartl. Abhandh. Nat. Ver. Brem. 1881, 

p. 107 Kiri ; Pelz. Verh. Wien. xxxi. p. 609 (1881) ; xxxii. p. 501 

(1882) Lado; Shelley, Ibis, 1883, p. 547 Niger; Gadow, Cat. B. M. 

ix. p. 7 (1884) ; Sharpe, Linn. Soc. Journ. Zool. xvii. p. 427 (1884) 

Nyamnyam ; Salvad. Ann. Mus. Genov. 1884, p. 137 ; 1888, p. 244 

Shoa; Hartert, J. f. O. 1886, p. 579 Niger; Shelley, P. Z. S. 1888, 

p. 38 Lado; Sharpe, Ibis, 1891, p. 592 Lake Baring o ; Bendall, 

Ibis, 1892, p. 219 Gambia; Shelley, B. Air. I. No. 10 (1896). 

Adult Male. Metallic green, with the wings and tail black. Centre of 

the chest bright scarlet with some yellow at the sides. Total length 6-5 

inches, culmen 0-6, wing 2'2, tail 4, tarsus 0-55. 

Adult Female. Above, ashy brown slightly shaded with olive; a partial 
buff eyebrow ; tail blackish with white ends to the feathers. Beneath, buff. 
Total length 4 inches, culmen 06, wing 2*1, tail 1-8, tarsus 0-6. 

Young Male. Similar in plumage to the female, excepting that the 
throat is dusky black, on which part the metallic colours first appear. 



24 NECTARINIA PULCIIELLA. 

The Northern Beautiful Sunbird is confined to North 
Tropical Africa from the Equator north to about 16° N. lat. 
This is the commonest species of the genus in collections. 

In Senegambia specimens have been collected by Marche 
at Dakar, Hann, Ponte, Daranka, Ruffisque and Bathurst. 
Near the latter place Dr. P. Rendall found it : " Common in 
the gardens. One nest with two eggs, which were like Black- 
headed Bunting's in miniature, was in a lime-tree." 

Beaudouin collected specimens at Casamanse and Bissao 
and Fergusson at Sierra Leone, yet I do not find it recoi'ded 
from Liberia although it is not uncommon on the Gold Coast, 
where I met with it in February in the thick bush, near a 
small brook, at Abrobonko some six miles from Cape Coast 
Castle, and saw several flitting around the flowering plants at 
the edge of the native plantations and clearing, but they did 
not appear to mix with the other Sunbirds which were then 
so abundant on the flowering trees. 

In the Niger district Forbes procured specimens in August 
at Lokoja and Rabba, in full plumage, and on the Benin River, 
at Loko, Mr. Hartert met with it in April, May and June, and 
found the species very plentiful in the latter mouth. 

It has apparently not been procured from further south 
along the West Coast. 

Eastward we find that Mr. Bohndorff, on his journey 
through the Nyam-nyam country, collected specimens at Dem 
Suleiman, Piaggia in Mtesa's country to the north of "Victoria 
Nyanza, and on the east side of that lake Mr. Jackson, while 
near Lake Baringo, found it " very plentiful among the ' red 
hot poker' plants." 

In the Upper "White Nile district Emin procured the species 
at Lado, Redjaf, Lahore and Mbero. 

Von Heuglin found it near Bongo and Wan on the Gazal 
River and remarks that in Nubia it occurs as a straggler as 



NECTARINIA MELANOGASTRA. 25 

far north as 16' N". lat. He found the species not uncommon 
in Bogos, in the lowlands of Abyssinia, in Taka, Sennaar and 
Kordofan where they remain in pairs throughout the year, 
frequenting the gardens, cotton fields and brushwood, but are 
rarely met with far from water. The males, he states, assume 
their full plumage in May and June and retain it until 
December. 

Antinori and Beccari collected specimens in Bogos on the 
Anseba River in May and at Keren in June and found it 
equally distributed from Samhar to Barker but most abundant 
during the flowering season of the tamarind. 

Jesse and Mr. Blanford met with it on the banks of the 
Anseba Biver at Waliko and Bejook during July and August, 
and according to the latter naturalist it has a fine song. 

Petherick obtained the species near Khartoum, and Antinori 
and Ragazzi have collected specimens in March, April, May, 
June and July in Shoa. 

Nectarinia melanogastra. (Pi. 1, fig- 2.) 

Nectarinia melanogastra, Fisch. and Reichen. J. f. 0. 1884, p. 181 
Masailand ; Fisch. Zeitsch. ges Orn. 1884, p. 337; Fisch. J. f. 0. 
1885, p. 139 Nguruman; Shelley, P. Z. S. 1889, p. 364 Teita 
Country; Sharpe, Ibis, 1891, p. 592 Ukambani ; Emin, J. f. O. 
1891, p. 340 ,S'. of Victoria Nyanza ; Reichen. Vog. Deutsch O. Afr. 
p. 212 (1894) ; Kuschel, J. f. 0. 1895, p. 346 {egg) ; Shelley, B. Afr. 
I. No. 11 (1896). 

Similar to N. pulchella, but the full plumaged male differs in having the 
abdomen black. Total length : $ ad. 60 inches ; ?, culmen 0'7, wing 2-3, 
tail (<? ad. 37, ? 1-8), tarsus 0-65. Nguruman, $ ad. (Fischer). 

The Black-bellied Beautiful Sunbird inhabits the coim tries 
which surround the Victoria Nyanza to the east and south, and 
replaces N. pulchella to the south of the Equator. 

The type of the species, a full plumaged male, was 
discovered by Fischer in April at Nguruman (2" S. lat., 26° 10' 



26 NECTARINIA BOOAGir. 

E. long.) feeding from the flowers of the Leonotis, and he 
considered the species to be not rare in Masailand. He 
describes the nest as like that of the generality of Sunbirds, 
and the eggs as being of a pale greyish colour freckled with 
violet-grey and with S-shaped streaks mostly towards the 
thick end and measuring - 65 inch by 045 inch. At Ndara, 
east of Kilimanjaro in the Teita country, Mr. Hunter procured 
three males on August 25th, all of which were in the moult. 
On January 7th, Mr. Jackson shot a male in full plumage at 
Ulu in Ukambani. 

Emin has recorded its presence in the country just south 
of Victoria Nyanza. From the above it would appear that 
the breeding plumage of the males is assumed in the beginning 
of the year and discarded again in August. 

Nectarinia bocagii. 

Nectarinia bocagii, Shelley, Mon. Nect. pp. 21, xviii. pi. 6, fig. 2 (1879) ; 

Bocage, Orn. Angola, p. 545 (1881); Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 12 

(189G). 
Nectarinia tacazze (nee Stanley) Bocage, Journ. Lisb. 1878, pp. 196, 269 

Caconda ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 4 (1884, pt. Angola). 

Adult Male. Black ; head, back and lesser wing-coverts steel blue with 
lilac and green reflections ; entire throat steel blue with a strong green 
shade. Total length 8 inches, culnien 1, wing 3 - l, tail 4-2, tarsus 0-7. 
Caconda (Anchieta). 

Bocage's Bronze Sunbird is a native of Benguela, and 
has only been recorded from Caconda where Anchieta procured 
several specimens, but considered it a very rare species. 

Nectarinia tacazze. 

Nectarinia tacazze (Stanley), Shelley, Mon. Nect., p. 19, pi. 7 (1877) ; 
Bouvier, Bull. S. Z. France, 1877, p. 451 Uganda ; Gadow. Cat. B. 
M. ix. p. 4 (1884, pt. N. E. Africa) ; Salvad. Arm. Mus. Genov. 1884, 
p. 138, 1888, p. 244 ; Gigl. 1. c. p. 40 Shoa ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1891, p. 
591 Kikuyu; Neumann, J. f. 0. 1896, p. 250 Masai; Shelley, B. 
Afr. I. No. 13 (1896), Neumann ; J. f. 0. 1898, p. 240. 



NECTARINIA TACAZZE. 27 

Nectarinia jacksoni, Neumann, Orn. Monatsb. 1899, p. 24, Man, Kikuyu. 

Adult Male. Head, neck, back and lesser wing-coverts metallic lilac, 
shaded with coppery bronze towards the head ; remainder of the plumage 
black. Total length 8-5 inches, culmen 1-15, wing 3"1, tail 4, tarsus 0"75. 
Facado, $ 8. 5. 68 (Jesse). 

Adult Female. Brownish olive, darker above than below ; sides of the 
head dark brown with a broad eyebrow and sides of the throat whitish, tail 
black edged and tipped with white. Total length 6 inches, culmen 1-1, 
wing 2-75, tail 2-2, tarsus 075. Adigrat, ? 3. 4. 68 (Blanford). 

The Tacazze Sunbird ranges over Masailand, Uganda, 
Shoa, and Abyssinia. 

Mr. Neumann records it from Masailand. Mr. Jackson 
collected a fine series of this species, in full plumage, at Man 
and Kikuyu in August, which Mr. Neumann has proposed to 
separate from N. tacazze (Stanley) under the title of N. jacksoni. 
The species has been met with further west, in Uganda, by 
Piaggia, in what was in his time known as Mtesa's country. 

In Shoa the Tacazze Sunbird is apparently very common, 
for Antinori and Ragazzi have collected in that country a 
very fine series, which proves that the adult males only retain 
their full breeding plumage from April to November, and that 
the young males resemble the females in plumage. 

According to Von Heuglin the species is resident in East, 
Central, and South Abyssinia, up to 13,000 feet in Semien and 
Bergemeder, and is to be found in the highlands in preference 
to the low country. It frequents wooded districts and lives 
in pairs, selecting the most flowery situations, where they 
conarresrate round the fresh blossoms. 

O O 

Mr. Blanford writes : " It was common about Senafe and 
Adigrat, and was still abundant at 10,500 feet on the Wandaj 
pass. The non-breeding plumage is dull ; it is only in the 
breeding season that the males acquire their rich purple colour. 
Iu May they were apparently breeding about Senafe." 

Jesse records the species from Rayrayguddy, Goongoona, 
Facado and Senafe ; Riippell from the Taranta mountains ; 



28 NECTARINIA KILIMENSIS. 

Antinori from Keren ; and Salt procured the type of the species 
in Tigre at the Tacazze river, a tributary of the Atbara. 

Nectarinia kilimensis. (Pi. 1, fig- 1.) 

Nectarinia kilimensis, Shelley, P. Z. S. 1884, p. 555, 1885, p. 227 1889, 
p. 3G5 Kilimanjaro ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1891, p. 591 Masai, Ml. Elgon ; 
Eeichen J. f. 0. 1892, p. 55 Bukoba Uganda ; id. Vog. Deutsch 0. 
A'fr. p. 212 (1894) ; Bocago, Journ. Lisb. 1893, p. 159 ; Scott Elliot, 
P. Z. S. 1895, p. 342 liu.iven.~ori ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 14 (1896) ; 
id. Ibis, 1897, p. 523 Ni/asa. 

Nectarinia filiola, Ilartl. J. f. 0. 1890, p. 154 Njangalo ; id. Abhandl. 
nat. Ver. Brem. xii. p. 27 (1891) ; Emin J. f. O. 1891, p. 346. 

Nectarinia gadowi, Bocage Journ. Lisb. 1893, p. 256 Gaianga. 

Adult male. Similar to N. tacazre but differs in the head and neck being 
more metallic green, glossed with copper and shading into fiery copper on 
the back; scapulars and upper tail-coverts with a greenish shade and no 
lilac reflections ; wings and tail with no shade of blue ; metallic edges of the 
tail-feathers lilac bronze. Chin and throat metallic coppery green not 
passing into lilac on the front of the chest, which with the remainder of 
the under parts is dull black. Total length 87 inches, culmen 1-15, wing 
2-9, tail 56, tarsus 0'75. Kilimanjaro (H. H. Johnston). 

A/1 n 1 1 female. Similar to that of N. tacazze but with the throat less 
olive. Total length 5 inches, culmen 095, wing 265, tail 2'15, tarsus 075. 
Kilimanjaro (II. II. Johnston). 

The Kilimanjaro Bronze Sunbird ranges over Central 
Africa from north of the Cunene and Zambesi rivers to about 
one degree north of the Equator. 

The extreme south-western range, yet known, for this 
species is Gaianga, where Anchicta procured the specimen 
which is the type of N. gadoid, and its extreme south-eastern 
range is the Nyika Plateau in Nyasaland where Mr. Alexander 
Whyte collected three specimens in June. 

Dr. Hartlaub records specimens sent by Emin from 
Njamgaba, Begucra, and Ruganda, and proposed to call these 
N. filiola, but Dr. R. B. Sharpe informs us that they are not 
distinct from N. Icilimensis, he having compared a typical 



NECTARINIA REICHENOWI. 29 

specimen iu the Berlin Museum with one of Mr. Jackson's 
birds. Emin has also procured specimens at Bukoba on the west 
shore of Victoria Nyanza, and Dr. Stuhlmann at Kahengere 
and at Mengo in Uganda. Sir Harry Johnston brought home 
seven adult males and a female, including the types of this 
species, from Kilimanjaro, and writes : " Found mostly near 
base of mountain, very common. Rarely if ever seen above 
5,600 feet." Mr. Hunter also procured the species on this 
mountain in August. 

Mr. Jackson's collections contained specimens from Macha- 
ko's in Ukamba, March ; Sotik (0° 35' S. hit., 35° 25' E. long.), 
October, and to the north-east of Victoria Nyanza at Save on 
Mount Elgon (1° N. kit., 34° 20' E. long.) up to 0,000 feet. 

The species has also been obtained by Mr. Scott Elliot 
iu the valleys along the mountain range of Ruwenzori from 
5,500 to 0,000 feet, feeding from the banana flowers. This 
meeting of two very nearly allied species in the country 
bordering their respective ranges is not less interesting because 
it is of common occurrence ; but we have not always the 
chance of determining this fact as plainly as in the case of 
X. tacazze and N. Mlimensis, which are both found abundantly 
in the country from Uganda to Masailand. 

Nectarinia reichenowi. 

Nectarinia reichenowi (Fischer), Shelley, P. Z. S. 1884, p. 556, pi. 51 
1885, p. 227, 1889, p. 365 Kilimanjaro ; id. B. Afr. I. No. 15 (1896). 

Drepanorhynchus reichenowi, Fischer, J. f. O. 1884, p. 56, id. Zeitschr. 
1884, p. 338, pi. 20, fig. 2 Naiwasha ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 291 
(1881); Sharpe, Ibis, 1891, p. 590 Kikuyu; Eeichen. Vog. Deutsch 
O. Afr. p. 213 (1894) Kilimanjaro; Neumann, J. f. O. 1898, p. 241 
Man. 

Adult Male. Head, neck, back and lesser wing-coverts fiery copper, 
glossed with reflections of lilac and green ; remainder of the plumage black 
with broad chrome yellow edges to the quills and tail-feathers. Total 



30 CINNYRIS. 

length 8-2 inches, culmen 1-2, wing 3-1, tail 5-4, tarsus 075. Kikuyu, 
3 28. 8. 89 (Jackson). 

Adult Female. Like that of N. tacazze but with broad chrome yellow 
edges to all the quills and tail-feathers. Total length 31 inches, culmen 
11, wing 2-6, tail 5-4, tarsus, 0-75. Kilimanjaro (H. H. Johnston). 



The Yellow fringed Sunbird inhabits the Masai District, 
from Kilimanjaro to the Kikuyu country. 

Fischer, who first discovered this species, found it, only 
on the eastern side of Lake Naiwasha, feeding among the 
acacia blossoms where the specimens were mostly in the moult 
in June. Mr. Jackson also found it near Naiwasha in the 
Kikuyu country on August 28th, and procured a full-plumaged 
male. 

To the south-east on Kilimanjaro, Sir Harry Johnston 
collected a male in full plumage and two females at 4,000 and 
5,000 feet and writes : " Never seen above 5,000 feet. Abun- 
dant in native plantations, being, in common with most of the 
Sunbirds, attracted there by the flowers of the sweet potato 
and various beans and peas." Mr. Hunter likewise met with 
it on this mountain at 5,000 feet in full plumage in August. 

The only character I can find for the genus Drejiauo- 
rhynchus is the yellow edges to the quills and tail-feathers, 
so I have united it to Nectarinia. 



Genus III. CINNYRIS. 

The members of this genus resemble those of Nectarinia in the full- 
plumaged males having the entire head, neck and mantle of metallic colours, 
and there being an entire absence of metallic colours on the females and 
nestling, but differ in the tail being similar in form in both sexes at all 
seasons, generally square but sometimes graduated. Tail considerably more 
than half the length of the wing. Culmen about as long as the tarsus, and 
the keel of the lower mandible slightly curved. 



CINNYRIS. 31 



KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

A. Entire head, neck and mantle of metallic 

colours full plumaged males. 

a. Abdomen black, or very dark brown. 

a 1 . Pectoral-tufts uniform, never mixed red 
and yellow. 
a 2 . Back coppery-bronze. 

a 5 . Smaller : wing 22 inches ; no purple 

gloss on the breast cupreus. 

b 3 . Larger : wing 2G5 ; breast glossed 

with purple purpureiventris. 

b 2 . Back golden green ; chin and middle of 
throat of one colour. 
c 3 . No red pectoral-band ; larger: culmen 
not less than 1 inch. 
a*. Chest black. 

ft 5 . Back and throat greener; cul- 
men 1-15 ; wing 2-7 ... . notatus. 
6 5 . Back and tbroat bluer ; culmen 

l - 35 ; wing 2-9 nesophilus. ' 

b 4 . Chest red. 

c 5 . Entire throat violet ; no yellow 

pectoral-tufts super bus. < 

rf 5 . Upper half of throat green; 

pectoral-tufts yellow .... Johanna, k j> 
d 3 . A red pectoral-band ; smaller. 
c 4 . Forehead violet ; pectoral-tufts sul- 
phur yellow. 
e 5 . Entire head and neck violet . . splendidus. 
/ 5 . Head and neck green with the 

front half of the crown violet . habcssinicus. 
ft 7 *. Entire head and neck green. 
r/ 5 . Tail graduated; pectoral-band 

scarlet. . "" c 

a°. Distinct pectoral-tufts. . . netarinioidcs. *> 
b'\ No marked pectoral-tufts . . erythrocerius. <_ 
/i 5 . Tail square. 

c 6 . No marked pectoral-tufts. 
ft 7 . Pectoral-band scarlet; ab- 
domen blackish-brown . . shcllciji . 
b 1 . Pectoral-band crimson ; ab- 
domen black. 



32 CINNYRIS. 

a s . Wing more than 25; 
throat more golden. 
a 9 . Wing 2-7; forehead 

more golden. . . . mariquensis. 
b->. Wing 26; forehead 

more emerald green . osiris. 
b 8 . Wing less than 2-5; 
throat greener. 
c ,J . Wing 2-4 ; oilmen 075 

(W. Africa) .... bifasciatus. P 
d a . Wing 2-1; culmen 0-6 

(E. Africa) .... microrhynclius. ( \ 
d a . Pectoral-tufts uniform scarlet comorcnsis. 
b 1 . Pectoral-tufts mixed red and yellow; 
chin blue ; middle of throat green ; 

abdomen blackish-brown bouvicvi. . 

b. Abdomen paler. 
c 1 . Tail square. 

c 3 . No broad scarlet pectoral -band. 

c 3 . Breast and under tail-coverts white. 
c 4 . Pectoral-tufts uniform pale yellow ; 

a narrow black collar Icucoij aster. J 

f i . Pectoral-tufts scarlet and yellow. 

i B . No trace of black or red collar . albiventris. La 
k 5 . A partial narrow red collar . . oustalcti. / -, 
f 3 . Breast and under tail-coverts mostly 
buff or yellow. 
g*. Head and neck not entirely green. 
I 5 . Slightly smaller, and paler be- 
neath; thighs mostly buff . . venwtus. 
m 5 . Slightly larger, and yellower 
beneath ; thighs mostly dark 
brown. 
c G . Mantle greener; green on 
sides of neck distinctly meets 
across the middle of throat . ajfinis. ■ 
f e . Mantle bluer ; throat nearly 
uniform violet, with a very 
faint green shade across the 

middle falkcnstaini. 

h 4 . Head and neck entirely green. 
m 5 . Breast bright yellow with a 
large scarlet patch down the 
chest coqucrclli. 



CINNYRIS. 33 

o 5 . Breast buff; a double pectoral- 
band of maroon brown and 
black. 
g e . Black pectoral-band confined 
to front half of chest (Mada- 
gascar) souimanga. C t 

h°. "Sooty breast-patch much 
more extensive, reaching 
medially, to middle of belly " 
(Aldabra Is.) aldabranns. 

i e . " Under parts posterior to 
maroon-bay pectoral - band 
almost entirely sooty black " 
(Assumption Is. and Gloriosa 

Is.) abbotti. ' 

2 . A broad scarlet pectoral-band. 
g 3 . Upper tail-coverts and a narrow 
metallic collar, blue. 
i l . Abdomen ashy stone-colour. 
p*. Larger; wing 2-5; scarlet pec- 
toral-band slightly paler and 
broader. 
k e . Culmen 1-1; metallic pectoral- 
band more violet .... afer. ?Z 
l G . Culmen 0-65 ; metallic pec- 
toral-band bluer ludovicensis. 

q 5 . Smaller; wing 2-25; scarlet 
pectoral-band darker and nar- 
rower ; culmen 0-9 .... chahjbeus. ? ( 
k 4 -. Abdomen not ashy stone-colour, 
either browner or yellower. 
r 5 . Abdomen shaded with yellow. 
m 6 . Quills with no yellow edges. 
c 7 . Smaller; wing 2-1; upper 

tail-coverts steel blue . . mediocris. 
d 7 . " Larger ; wing 25 ; upper 

tail-coverts lilac blue" . . stuhlmanni. 
n e . Quills edged with yellow . . fuelleborni. 
s 5 . Abdomen brown with no yellow 
shade. 
o 6 . Quills edged with yellow ; 

culmen 0-8 pretissi. 

p 6 . Quills with no yellow edges ; 

culmen shorter reichenowi. 



[9 June, 1899. 



34 CINNYRIS. 

h 3 . Upper tail-coverts green like the 
back ; no metallic blue collar ; cul- 
men 065 ; wing not more than two 

inches chloropygius. & 

d 1 . Tail graduated. 

e 2 . Throat uniform metallic green ending 
in a narrow blue collar ; breast scarlet 
fading into yellow on the sides ; upper 

tail-coverts violet blue regia. 

f 2 . Lower half of throat shading into bluish- 
lilac ; breast yellow washed with 
orange on front of chest and under 
tail-coverts ; upper tail-coverts olive 

yellow violaceus. 

B. No metallic colours adult females and nestlings. 



KEY TO THE FEMALES. 



a. Beneath uniform, with no dark markings. 

a 1 . Tail square. 

a". Above more olive. 

a 3 . Larger; culmen 1-15 inches; under 

tail-coverts orange yellow .... superbus. 

b 3 . Smaller; culmen not more than 08 ; 

no orange yellow under tail-coverts. 

a 4 . Smaller; culmen 06 ; wing 2 . . cupreus. 

b 4 . Larger purpureiventris . 

b 2 . Above less olive, but with an olive yellow 

shade. 

c 3 . Larger. 

c 4 . Paler; culmen 075 mediocris. ' 

d*. Darker; culmen 085. 

a 5 . Camaroons preussi. 

, . -,-, . r . (stuhlmanni. 

b s . E. Africa \ , „ , 

(fucllcborni. I 

ireicJienowt. 

chloropygius. 

vcnustus. t 2. 

affinis. ( 

falkensteini. 



d 3 . Smaller; culmen about 0.6 



CINNYRIS. 35 

c 2 . Above more ashy brown, beneath more 
ashy white. 
e 3 . More ashy above and below (S. Africa). 

e 4 . Culmen 1-1 ; wing 25 afer. 

/*. Culmen 0-75; wing 2-4 ludovicensis . 

</ 4 . Culmen 0-7; wing 2-1 chalybeus. ?c 

f 3 . Above browner ; beneath whiter. 

h*. S.Africa, culmen 0-75; wing 2-1 . (^S^Vl 
fc*. E. Africa, culmen 06; wing 1-95 . albiventris. i c 
b 1 . Tail graduated. 

d 2 . More ashy (E. Africa) regia. ^ 

e 2 . More olive (Cape Colony) violaceus.St, 

b. Under parts less uniform ; either striped or 
mottled with the dark bases to the feathers. 

C i. Tail graduated; culmen about 0-65 . . . {StcSnSs-l 

d 1 . Tail square. 
f 2 . Culmen not 1 inch; beneath more mot- 
tled than striped. 
g 3 . No eyebrow ; above dark olive, be- 
neath olive buff with very slight dark 
mottlings ; wing 2 inches. 

Z 4 . Anjuan Is comorensis. f 

m 4 . Madagascar souimanga. { 

?i 4 . Assumption Is abbotti. ?z 

o 4 . Aldabra Is aldabranus. 

h 3 . A whitish eyebrow, above more ashy 
brown, 
p 4 . W. Africa. 

c 5 . Larger; wing 2-5 ; culmen 0-85 . splendidus. *> 

d*. Smaller ; wing 2-0 ; culmen 0-7 . { j£^"\ 

g 4 . S.Africa: wing 2"5 ; culmen 0-8. . mariquensis. 
r 4 . Eastern Africa. 
c 5 . Larger ; wing about 2-4 ; culmen f habessinicus. 

about 0-7 1 osiris. 

/ 5 . Smaller; wing 2-1 ; culmen 0-6 . microrhynchus. ST 
g 2 . Culmen more than 1 inch. Beneath 
strongly striped. 
i 3 . A partial white eyebrow. 

s 4 . Madagascar notatus. 

t i . Great Comoro Is nesopUVus.H 

k 3 . Eyebrow well marked (W. Africa) . . Johanna, x 



36 CINNYRIS CUPREUS. 



Cinnyris cupreus. 

Cinnyris cupreus (Shaw), Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 191, pi. 58 (1879) ; id. 

Ibis, 1883, p. 547 Niger ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 55 (1884) ; 

Sharpe, Linn. Soc. Journ. Zool. xvii. p. 428 (1884) Nyam-nyam ; 

Dubois, Mus. E. Belg. 1886, p. 148 Tanganyika; Hartert, J. f. O. 

1886, p. 580 Niger ; Eeichen. J. f. 0. 1887, p. 306 Leopoldsville ; 

Shelley, P. S. Z. 1888, p. 38 Mundri ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1891, p. 593 

Kitosh; Eeichen. J. f. 0. 1891, p. 391 Togoland ; id. Vog. Deutsch 

0. Air., p. 212 (1893) ; Shelley, Ibis, 1893, p. 17, 1894, p. 14 

Nyasa ; Eeichen. J. f. O. 1894, p. 41 Camaroons ; Kuschel, J. f. O. 

1895, p. 347 (egg) ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 16 (1896) ; Eeichen. 

J. f. O. 1896, p. 37 Camaroons ; 1897, p. 47 Togoland, Dahomey ; 

Neum. J. f. 0. 1898, p. 237 Bukoba; Hartert, in Ansorge's "Under 

Afr. Sun," App. p. 350 (1899) Onyoro. 
Nectarinia cuprea, Bouvier, Bull. S. Z. France, 1877, p. 450 Uganda ; 

Bocage, Orn. Angola, p. 173 (1877) Congo; Pelz. Verh. Wien. xxxi. 

p. 609 (1881) ; Hartl. Abhandl. Brein. 1881, p. 108, 1882, p. 205, 

1891, p. 28 Upper White Nile. 
Nectarinia chalcea, Hartl., Sousa, Journ. Lisb. 1887, p. 94 Quissange ; 

1889, p. 45 Quiiidumbo. 
Cinnyris chalceus, Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. 1888, p. 231 Mossamedes. 

Adult Male. Entire head, neck, back and lesser wing-coverts copper 
colour with greenish gold and lilac reflections ; remainder of the plumage 
black. Total length 4 inches, culmen 06, wing 2-2, tail 1'85, tarsus 06. 

Adult Female. Above olive, wings and tail dark brown with olive edges 
to the feathers and with pale ends to a few of the outer tail-feathers ; cheeks 
and entire under parts pale olive shaded buff. Total length 4-25 inches, 
culmen 0-6, wing 2, tail 1-6, tarsus 06. 

The Common Copper - coloured Sunbird ranges over 
Tropical Africa generally, from Senegal and Abyssinia south 
to the Cunene and Zambesi rivers. 

This species is evidently abundant in Senegambia, from 
whence Swainson received the type of his Cinnyris erythronotus. 
Major Bulger procured the species on Bulama Island, one of 
the Bissagos group ; but it has not yet been recorded from 
Sierra Leone, and Mr. Biittikofer never met with it in 
Liberia. 



CINNYRIS CUPREUS. 37 

This is essentially a bird of the open country as is shown 
by its geographical distribution. On the Gold Coast specimens 
have been collected by Mr. Blissitt at Elmena, by Pel in 
Ashantee, and by Ussher at the Volta river. During my visit 
to this country with Mr. T. B. Buckley we frequently saw 
these Sunbirds perched on the leaves of the cocoanut-trees by 
the road-side near Cape Coast Castle. "We never met with 
them in the forests of Abrobonko and Aguapim, but Drs. 
Reichenow and Liihder procured a specimen at Abouri. We 
found the species, however, very abundant, at the same season, 
on the open plains of Accra which stretch from the base of the 
Aguapim mountains to the sea. Here in March the males 
had just attained their full plumage and were conspicuous 
objects, as they perched on the topmost twigs of a bush 
sparkling like jet ornaments, their rich metallic colouring 
not being distinguishable unless the sun was at our backs, 
when their bright fiery copper gloss at once flashed in the 
light. In Togoland specimens have been procured by Dr. 
Biittner in March, and by Mr. Baumann at Kratji in December, 
and the latter naturalist also met with it at Topli in Dahomey 
on August 3rd. In the Niger district the species inhabits 
the country inland of the forest district of the delta ; here the 
late Mr. W. B. Forbes collected specimens at Lokoja and 
Shonga, at which latter station he died on January 14th, 1883. 
Mr. Hartert took a nest of G. cupreus at Loko, it was sus- 
pended from a bough not two feet from the ground, was 
stronger built, and contained two eggs of a greenish grey 
colour shaded and freckled with brown at the thick end. Dr. 
Reichenow describes a nest he found in Camaroons as of the 
usual oval form constructed of grass and fine roots, lined with 
seed-down, and contained two glossy brown eggs. Mr. Zenker 
has procured the species at Jaunde in Camaroons. 

It is evidently plentiful in Gaboon, for Du Chaillu 



38 CINNYRIS CUPREUS. 

obtained many specimens on the Moonda and Camtna rivers, 
and also at Cape Lopez, while Marche met with it at Lope, on 
the River Ogowe. 

In the early days of the century, Perrein obtained the 
original examples of the Copper-coloured Sunbird at Malimbe, 
in the Congo district, and it has been more recently obtained 
there by Falkenstein near Chinchonxo, Petit at Landana, and 
by the late Captain Sperling at Kabinda. Mr. Bohndorff has 
also procured the species at Leopoldsville on the Lower Congo. 
In Angola it has been met with by Monteiro at Cabambe, 
and by Welwitsch at Galungo Alto, and it is one of the few 
truly West- African species which cross the Quanza River, for 
Anchieta has found it at Quissange and Quindumbo, and the 
Leyden Museum has received specimens collected by Mr. 
Van der Kellen at Humpata on the Cunene river. 

In an account of a collection made by Captain Storms 
during his journey to Lake Tanjanyika, Dr. Dubois records the 
present species. 

At Chia, where the Shire river runs into the Zambesi, 
Mr. Boyd Alexander collected four males, all in moult, in 
July, and writes : " This Sunbird is very partial to localities 
near the river where patches of flowering weed grow, from 
which it is hard to drive away, always returning to the same 
spot after a short circuitous flight which is even more jerky 
and erratic than in Chalcomitra guttv/ralis, the latter bird being 
often found in its company. It was close to the mouth of the 
Shire river, where we landed on July 21st for our mid-day 
meal, that we observed this species, frequenting a strip of red 
flowering plants, close to a cluster of native huts. After 
chasing the birds backward and forward for some time, they 
got to know our tactics and became very cunning, dropping 
down at our approach into the bottom of the weed where they 
crept about like mice. Towards evening they resorted to a 



CINNYRIS PURPUREIVENTRIS. 39 

belt of fish-cane through which they threaded their way like 
so many little Estreldas. Oar four specimens were on the 
moult and two of these were young males in the plumage of 
the adult female." 

Mr. Alexander "Whyte has met with the species at Zomba, 
in the Shire highlands in January and September. It is 
apparently not generally distributed over East Africa, for 
Dr. Reichenow (Vog. Beutsch 0. Afr. p. 212) only records it 
from Ugalla and Bukoba, and Mr. Jackson obtained the 
species only at Kitosh (0° 30' N. lat., 34° 40' B. long.). It must, 
however, be fairly abundant in the more open country to the 
north of Victoria Nyanza, for Piaggia met with the species in 
Uganda, Mr. Ansorge calls it common in Unyoro, and Bmin 
collected specimens at many places in the Upper White Nile 
district; but it apparently becomes rarer again as we descend 
the river, for Von Heuglin informs us that Paul of Wiirtemberg 
obtained a specimen in South Fasokl, and that he himself 
considered it scarce on the Upper "White Nile and Sobat 
rivers, but believed he saw the species in August near Keren 
in Bogos. 

Cinnyris purpnreiventris. 

Cinnyris purpureiventris, Eeichen. Orn. Monatsb. 1893 ; id. J. f. 0. 1894, 
p. 102, pi. 1, fig. 2 ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 17 (1896). 

Adult Male. Similar to G. cupreus but larger and with a purple gloss on 
the breast. Total length 5-2, culmen 0-8, wing 2-65, tail 2-2, tarsus 0-6. 

The Purple-breasted Copper Sunbird is known to me only 
by the description and figure of the type which formed part 
of Emin and Stuhlman's collection from Migere in "West 
Mporora. 

Cinnyris notatus. 

Cinnyris notatus (P. L. S. Mull.), Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 195, pi. 59 
(1876) ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p 54 (1884) ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 
18 (1896). 



40 CINNYRIS NOTATUS. 

Neetarinia notata, Milne Edw. and Grand. Hist. Madag. Ois. i., p. 283, 
pis. 106, 106 a , 107, 107 a (1882) ; Sibree, Ibis, 1891, pp. 428, 441. 

Adult Male. Entire head, neck, back and lesser wiug-coverts metallic 
green, with a narrow steel blue collar at the base of the green throat and 
with a steel blue edge to the bend of the wing ; remainder of the plumage 
black. Total length 56 inches, culmen 1-2, wing 2-75, tail 1-9, tarsus 07. 
Madagascar (Crossley). 

Adult Female. Above brown, wing and tail darker; a partial whitish 
eyebrow ; beneath buff with large triangular dusky black centres to most of 
the feathers. Total length 55 inches, culmen 1-1, wing 2-6, tail 1-9, tarsus 
0-7. Madagascar (Bewsher). 

The Madagascar Superb Sunbird is confined to the island 
of Madagascar. 

According to M. Grandidier this species is found along the 
northern and eastern coasts of Madagascar, where it is gener- 
ally met with in pairs or parties of four or five frequenting 
the large forests or their outskirts in preference to the scat- 
tered trees in the more open country, which is the home of 
G. souimanga, and is much shyer than that species. In searching 
the flowers they show a predilection for the spiders they find 
there, and often hunt for them suspended beneath the blossoms 
after the manner of Tits. They have a rapid irregular flight, 
and often betray their presence in the forest by their little 
cry, " dchip-dchip." Messrs. Roch and E. Newton remark : 
" Its chirp is exactly like a Tree-sparrow's, and when first 
heard it was taken for a bird of that genus ; its song is 
moderate." The nest is of the usual form, oval and pendent, 
with an entrance at the side, and is constructed of fine rootlets, 
dry leaves, grass and lichen, bound together with spiders'-web, 
and is generally placed close to some mountain stream, which 
is their favourite resort, and differs from the nest of G. soui- 
manga in being thickly lined with vegetable down. Their 
eggs vary, being sometimes pale greenish and sometimes darker 
and browner, and measure 0'75 inch by 0*5. 

This is a well-known bird to the native of Madagascar, 



CINNYRIS NESOPHILUS. 41 

where according to Dr. C. Miller it is called " Sushne." M. 
Grandidier gives " Soimangaladia " as its Malagasy, and 
" Soiangala " as its North Betsinisaraka names. To these 
Dr. Sibree adds "Soy" as the North Sakalava, " Dandiaua " 
as the Betsileo, and " Ramanjeona " as the Tanala names. 

Cinnyris nesophilus. (Pi. 2, fig. 2.) 

Cinnyris nesophilus, Shelley, Bull. B. 0. C. i. p. 5 (1892) ; id. Ibis, 1893, 
p. 118 ; id. B. Afr. I. No. 19 (1896) Great Comoro Is. 

Cinnyris notatus (nee Mull.), Shelley, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 676; Milne 
Edw. and Oust. N. Arch. Mus. (2) x. p. 243 (1887). 

Adult Male. Similar to C. notatus but larger and with the back and 
throat strongly washed with bluish violet. Total length 6 inches, culmen 
1-35, wing 2-9, tail 21, tarsus 0-8. Great Comoro Is. (Kirk). 

The Great Comoro Superb Sunbird is restricted to the 
island of Angazia, better known as Great Comoro. 

Sir John Kirk kindly presented me with two adult males 
of this species, which are now in the British Museum, one 
being the type of the species. In 1879 I referred them to 
the Madagascar G. notatus under the impression that the blue 
shade on the back and throat might be due to chemical 
causes. More recently Mr. Bi'ittikofer showed me a third 
specimen from Great Comoro Island which agreed perfectly, 
so I described the species, when MM. Milne Edwards and 
Oustalet likewise remarked on these differences between the 
Great Comoro and Madagascar forms as constant in a fine 
series collected by M. Humblot on this island, where it is said 
to be very abundant. 

Cinnyris superbus. 

Cinnyris superbus (Shaw), Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 197, pi. 60 (1876) ; 
Sharpe and Bouvier, Bull. S. Z. France, 1876, p. 41 Loango ; 
Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 48 (1884) ; Sharpe, Linn. Soc. Journ. Zool. 



42 CINNYRIS SUPERBUS. 

xvii. p. 428 (1884) Nyam-nyam ; Eeichen. J . f. 0. 1887, p. 306 
Leopoldsville ; Shelley, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 38 Bellima ; id. Ibis, 1890, 
p. 162 Yambuya; Eeichen. J. f. 0. 1890, p. 126, 1892, p. 190, 
1896, p. 38 Camaroons ; Sjost. Mitt. d. Schutzg. viii. 1895, p. 33 ; 
id. Sv. Vet. Ak. Handl. 1895, p. 103 Camaroons ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. 
No. 20 (1896) ; Eeichen. J. f. 0. 1896, 38, Camaroons, 1897, p. 47, 
Togoland. 

Nectarinia superba, Eeichen. J. f. 0. 1877, p. 25 Loango ; Hartl. Abhandl. 
Nat. Brem. 1891, p. 27 Njangabo. 

Chromatophora superba, Oust. N. Arch. Mus. (2) ii. Bull. p. 85 (1878) 
Gaboon. 

Adult Male. Crown metallic emerald green ; back of neck, back and 
lesser wing-coverts metallic golden green ; remainder of wings and tail 
black ; a black patch in front of the eye ; cheeks and ear-coverts bronzy green 
with copper and violet reflections ; throat violet shaded steel blue ; breast 
dark glossy red, abdomen and under tail-coverts black. Total length 
55 inches, culmen 1-2, wing 28, tail 2-0, tarsus 0-75. Abouri, 19. 2. 72 
(Shelley). 

Adult Female. Above deep olive ; eye-brows, cheeks and under parts 
pale olive shaded yellow ; under tail-coverts orange yellow. Total length 
5-5 inches, culmen 1-15, wing 2-8, tail 2-0, tarsus 0'75. Abouri, 21. 2. 72 
(Shelley). 

The Superb Sunbird ranges from the Gold Coast to 
Angola and eastward throughout the Congo district nearly to 
the sources of the Nile. 

Of its occurrence north of the Gold Coast the only mention 
I find is in M. Bouvier's Catalogue of Messrs. Marche and 
De Compiegne's collection, which was partly made in Sene- 
gambia and partly in Gaboon, so that the specimen registered 
" Cape Verde " possibly, if not probably, came from the 
Gaboon. 

The species is abundant on the Gold Coast. There is a 
specimen in the British Museum labelled " Ashantee." Blissett 
collected several at Wassaw and Enimil, and the greater 
number of Ussher's specimens came from the forests of Denkera 
and Abrobonko, the latter place about six miles from Cape 
Coast Castle. Mr. T. E. Buckley and myself met with the 
species only at Abouri in the Aguapim mountains where it 



CINNYRIS JOHANNiE. 43 

was abundant, but rarely in full plumage during the month 
of February when we were there. 

It specially frequents the large flowering trees of the real 
forest, and, I fancy, rarely comes actually to the coast, though 
it has been recorded by Dr. Reichenow from Accra. 

I do not find the species mentioned from the Niger, nor 
from any of the islands along the coast, but in Camaroons 
both Crossley and Dr. Reichenow met with it, Dr. Preuss has 
procured specimens at Buea in the mountains, and Mr. Sjosted 
at Bibundi. 

In Gaboon these Sunbirds have been found by Du Chaillu 
at the Moonda and Muni rivers, by Marche at Lope in the 
Ogowe district, where he informs us it is known to the natives 
as " Tschodi." According to Verreaux it occurs in Gaboon 
apparently during its migration, arriving early in Spring and 
leaving again in the Autumn, after the breeding season. Both 
sexes, he observes, have a sweet little song which may be heard 
in concert, morning and evening. 

On the Loango Coast it has been procured by Falkenstein 
and Petit near Chinchonxo, and in Angola, which is the most 
southern known range for this species, by Mr. Hamilton. 

This Sunbird ranges inland through the Congo district, 
having been procured at Yambuya on the Aruwimi river by 
Jameson, while waiting there with the rear guard of the 
Stanley Expedition ; by Bohndorff at Leopoldsville on the 
Congo and at Semmio in the Nyam-nyam country, and further 
still to the eastward Emin collected specimens at Bellima, 
Tangasi and Njamgabo. 

Cinnyris johannse. 

Cinnyris johannee, Verr. ; Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 199, pi. 61 (1876) ; 
Sharpe and Bouvier, Bull. S. Z. France, 1876, p. 305 Loango; Oust. 
N. Arch. Mus. (2) II. Bull. 1879, p. 84 Gaboon; Gadow, Cat. 
B. M. ix. p. 49 (1884); Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. 1886, p. 249, 
1889, p. 130, 1892, p. 22 Liberia; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 21 (1896). 



44 CINNYRIS JOHANNJE. 

Nectarinia johannse, Bocage Orn. Angola, p. 166 (1877) Loango. 

Adult Male. Head, neck, back and lesser wing-coverts metallic green ; 
wings and tail black ; a broad violet-shaded steel blue collar separates the 
green of the throat from the bright red breast ; abdomen and under tail- 
coverts black ; pectoral-tufts bright yellow. Total length 53 inches, culmen 
1*2, wing 2-5, tail 1-6, tarsus 0.65. Landana (Petit). 

Adult Female. Above deep olive brown ; a distinct buff eyebrow ; and 
pale ends to some of the outer tail-feathers ; beneath buff, with broadish 
dark central stripes to many of the feathers. Total length 4'5 inches, 
culmen 1-1, wing 2-5, tail 1-4, tarsus 0-65. Abouri, 21. 2. 72 (Shelley). 

The Scarlet-breasted Sunbird is confined to West Africa, 
where it ranges from Sierra Leone to the Congo. 

Specimens have been collected by Boucier at Sierra Leone, 
by the late Mr. A. T. Demery at the Sulamah river, and by 
Mr. Biittikofer on the Junk river in Liberia. la Fantee, 
Ussher considered these Sunbirds to be very rare, as all his 
specimens came from the forest of Denkera in the interior. In 
the Aguapim mountains, during my short stay at Abouri with 
Mr. T. B. Buckley, we shot six specimens out of the tall 
flowering trees of the forest ; this was towards the end of 
February, and like most of the Sunbirds they had not assumed 
their full breeding plumage, and were at that season on friendly 
terms with each other, assembling in large numbers around 
the same clusters of flowers. 

The type of Nectarinia fasciata, Jard., was procured by 
Fraser at Abomey in Dahomey, and Verreaux's type came 
from Gaboon, where specimens have since been collected by 
Du Chaillu near the Moonda river, and by Marche at Doume 
in the Ogowe district. Petit procured specimens at Landana 
on the Loango Coast, which is the most southern known limit 
for the range of this species. 

It is a scarce bird in collections, probably owing to its 
frequenting the forests, and rarely met with actually on the 
coast. 



CINNYRIS SPLENDIDUS. 45 



Cinnyris splendidus. 

Cinnyris splendidus (Shaw), Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 201, pi. 62 (1878) ; 

Nicholson, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 129 Abeokuta ; Oust. N. Arch. Mus. (2) 

II. Bull. p. 84 (1879) Gaboon; Shelley, Ibis, 1883, p. 548 Niger; 

Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 50 (1884) ; Sharpe, Linn. S. Journ. Zool. 

xvii. p. 428 (1884) Nyam-nyam ; Hartert, J. f. 0. 1886, p. 580 Niger; 

Beichen. 1891, p. 392 Togolancl; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 22 (1896) ; 

Beichen. J. f. O. 1897, p. 47 Togoland. 
Nectarinia splendida, Gordon, Contr. Orn. 1849, p. 6 Gold Coast ; Bocage, 

Orn. Angola, p. 167 (1877) ? Congo. 

Adult Male. Head and neck metallic violet, shading into green on the 
back and lesser wing-coverts ; wings and tail black ; the feathers at the 
base of the throat are metallic-violet edged with scarlet and form a broad 
collar ; pectoral-tufts pale yellow, remainder of the under parts black. 
Total length 5 inches, culmen 0-95, wing 2-7, tail 1-7, tarsus 065. Accra, 
12. 2. 72 (SheUey). 

Adult Female. Above ashy olive with an ill-defined broad buff eyebrow ; 
outer tail-feathers with whitish ends. Beneath yellowish buff, palest 
towards the chin ; front and sides of the chest obscurely mottled by the 
olive brown centres of the feathers. Total length 4-9 inches, culmen 0'85, 
wing 255, tail 17, tarsus 0-65. Cape Coast, 30. 1. 72 (Shelley). 

The West African Splendid Sunbird ranges from Senegal 
into the Gaboon and Nyam-nyam countries. 

This species is the type of the genus Cinnyris. It appears 
to be far more plentiful from the north than the south of the 
Equator, and frequents equally the wooded or more open 
country both near the coast and inland. 

In Senegambia it is a common bird; Laglaise procured 
specimens on Cape Verde and Marche at many places between 
that cape and the Gambia river. Sir A. Moloney met with 
it at Bathurst, Beaudouin at Casamanse and Bissao, and 
Fergusson, Fraser and Marche at Sierra Leone. It is curious, 
therefore, not to find it recorded by Mr. Biittikofer from 
Liberia, especially as it is a very abundant bird on the Gold 
Coast, where Mr. T. B. Buckley and I looked upon it as the 



46 CINNYRIS HABESSINICUS. 

commonest Sunbird at Cape Coast Castle, Accra, and in the 
Aguapim Mountains. 

There are specimens in the British Museum from Elmina, 
Ashantee, and Volta river. Dr. Buttner procured specimens 
in Togoland ; Robins at Abeokuta; Forbes at Lokoja and 
Shonga, on the Niger, and Mr. Hartert found it common near 
Loko, and observes that it has a very fine song. 

I find no record of the occurrence of this species in 
Camaroons, and according to Dohrn it has never been pro- 
cured on Princes Island. It however occurs, though apparently 
in no great numbers, in Gaboon, where it has been met with by 
both Du Chaillu and Marche, and at present the Ogowe river 
is the furthest known southern limit for the range of this 
Sunbird, for Prof. Barboza du Bocage informs us, that a 
specimen he once believed to have come from Loanda, is really 
from a doubtful locality. 

Of the eastern range of this species, all that I know is that 
Bohndorff collected several specimens at Semmio in the Nyam- 
nyam country, all in full plumage in February, and that the 
species has not been recorded in any of the large collections 
made by Bmin Pasha. 

Apparently the full breeding plumage lasts from February 
to August. 

Cinnyris habessinicus. 

Cinnyris habessinicus (Hempr. & Ehr.) Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 205, pi. 63 
(1878) ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 52 (1884) ; Salvad. Ann. Mus. 
Genov. 1884, p. 139, 1888, pp. 245, 533 Shoa ; Shelley, Ibis, 1885, 
p. 406 Somali; Salvad. E. Acad. S. Torino, 1894, p. 556 Somali; 
Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 474 Somali ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 23 
(1896) ; Cholmley, Ibis, 1897, pp. 200, 206 Bed Sea ; Lort Phillips, 
Ibis, 1896, p. 81 ; 1898, p. 402, 403 fig. Somali ; Hawker, Ibis, 
1899, p. 67 Somali. 

Adult Male. Similar to C. splendidus ; but differs in the head and neck 
being metallic green with only tbe forehead and crown metallic violet. 



CINNYRIS HABESSINICUS. 47 

Total length 5 inches, culnien - 85, wing 2-5, tail 1-9, tarsus 065. Ailet 
(Esler). 

Adult Female. Similar to C. splendidus ; but with the upper parts 
ashy-brown, and the under parts whiter with no yellow shade on the 
plumage. Total length 4>7 inches, culmen 0-8, wing 2-3, tail 1*7, tarsus 0'6. 
Ailet (Esler). 

The Abyssinian Splendid Sunbird is confined to North-east 
Africa ranging from Somaliland into Abyssinia and Kordofan. 
In Somali it has been met with apparently by every ornitho- 
logist who has visited that country. Mr. Lort Phillips writes : 
" This is the common Sunbird of Northern Somaliland, and 
is to be met with from the Maritime Plain to the top of the 
Wagga Mountain, the highest peak of the Ooolis range, where 
I found it breeding eai'ly in March. Its nest (see fig., p. 403) 
is hung from the extreme end of a branch, and is composed 
entirely of spiders' webs, decorated all over with minute 
cocoons. A little ' penthouse ' projects over the entrance, 
which must be a great protection from the rain in its exposed 
position." 

In Shoa it is likewise a common bird, and specimens have 
been collected there in full plumage from March to October. 

Mr. Blanford writes : "Very common," in Abyssinia, " near 
the coast, and, up to 4,000 feet above the sea, in the passes 
leading to the highlands. In January and February many 
birds were in the plumage described by Rlippell as N. gularis. 
Others, however, were in full plumage, and it is not clear 
whether the gularis plumage is assumed by all males after the 
breeding season, or whether it is only the livery of the first 
year. I am strongly inclined to the latter opinion." 

Mr. A. J. Cholmley writes : " This was the only Sunbird 
met with on the western coast of the Red Sea, and it was 
common everywhere." Von Heuglin found the species dis- 
tributed along the coast from Somaliland to Suakin, its most 
northern known range. Antinori believed that it shifts its 
quarters to the higher ground in July and August. 



48 CINNYRIS NECTARINIOIDES. 

The type of the species came from the neighbourhood of 
Masowa, and the type of Nectarinia gularis, Kupp., a bird in 
the moult, from Kordofan, which is the most western known 
locality for this species. 



Cinnyris nectarinioides. 

Cinnyris nectarinioides, Eichmond, Auk, xiv. p. 158 (1897) Kilimanjaro. 

" Entire head, neck, back, rump, and lesser wing-coverts metallic brassy 
green ; upper tail-coverts metallic steel-blue ; lower throat narrowly edged 
with metallic deep blue ; breast with a broad band of orange vermilion ; 
yellow pectoral-tufts present ; abdomen, under tail-coverts, wings and wing- 
coverts (except least), under wing-coverts, and tail, black, the latter with 
the feathers (central ones particularly) edged with purple basally, and with 
green on terminal half. Bill, feet and tarsi black in dried skin. Wing 2-03 
inches ; tail 1-47 ; narrow centre feathers 2-25 ; tarsus, '60, culmen, '70. 
Another adult male, obtained October 22, 1888, at Aruscha-wa-chini, south 
west of Kilimanjaro, measures : wing 2-07 inches ; tail 1-47 (central pair of 
feathers narrow but not fully grown) culmen -72. This specimen agrees 
very closely with the type, but the greater wing- coverts are narrowly edged 
with metallic green" (Eichmond). 

Richmond's Wedge-tailed Bifasciated Sunbird inhabits 
the Kilimanjaro district. 

The species is, I believe, only known by the two specimens 
collected by Dr. W. L. Abbott on the plains to the east of 
Mount Kilimanjaro, October 1, 1888, and now in the 
United States' National Museum, so I have quoted Mr. 
Richmond's original description, to which he adds : " This 
species seems to be related to G. mariquensis, or to one of its 
subspecies, but differs from all of them in the possession of 
moderate yellow pectoral-tufts, and in the very narrow long 
central tail-feathers, which project three quarters of an inch 
beyond the rest of the tail." 



C1NNYRIS ERYTIIROCERIUS. 19 



Cinnyris erythrocerius. 

Cinnyris erythrocerius (Heugl.) Shelley, Mon. Necfc. p. 209, pi. 64, tig. 2 
(1878) ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 44 (1884) ; Shelley, P. Z. S. 1888, 
p. 38 Wadelai ; Emin, J. f. 0. 1891, p. 340 ; Beichen. J. f. 0. 1892, 
p. 55, id. Vog. Deutsch 0. Afr. p. 211 (1894) Kagehi, Bokoba ; Shelley, 
B. Afr. I. No. 24 (1896); Neumann, J. f. 0. 1898, p. 235 
Baschuonjo. 

Nectarinia erythroceria, Keichen. J. f. 0. 1887, p. 75 Victoria Nyanza ; 
Hartl. Abhandl. Bremen, 1881, p. 108; Pelz. Verh. Wien. xxxi. 
p. 144 (1881) Upper White Nile. 

Adult male. Head, neck, back and lesser wing-coverts metallic green, 
slightly glossed with blue on the back ; upper tail-coverts steel blue ; wings 
and tail black. At the base of the metallic green throat is a narrow metallic 
violet collar followed by a broad scarlet pectoral-band, the feathers of which 
have narrow subterminal metallic violet bars ; remainder of the under parts 
black. Total length 5'2 inches, culmen 0-65, wing 2-4, tail 2, tarsus 0-6. 
Magungo, 26. 11. 79 (Emin). 

Adult female. Upper parts and sides of head ashy, with a faint olive 
shade on the scapulars and lower back ; tail blackish and graduated with 
partial whitish margins to the feathers. Beneath yellowish buff, throat 
blackish with narrow buff edges to the feathers, and a buff mustachial 
band ; chest and flanks mottled with olive. Total length 4-2 inches, 
culmen 0-7, wing 2-1, tail 1-7, tarsus 06. Magungo, 20. 11. 79 (Emin). 

Heuglin's "Wedg'e-tailed Sunbird inhabits the Victoria 
Nyanza and Upper White Nile districts, and possibly ranges 
further south ; but the correctness of the following two 
references may be fairly doubted : 

Nectarinia gonzenbachii, Antin. Bianconi, Spec. Zool. Mosamb. p. 320 
(1867). 

N. erythrocerca, Heugl. (?) Bohm. J. f. O. 1883, p. 193. 

The most southern positively known locality for this 
species is Kagehi in Usukuma at the south end of Victoria 
Nyanza. Mr. Neumann records it from Rashuonjo and. Emin 
has collected specimens at Bukoba, AVadelai and, in that latter 
district, also at Redjaf, Kiri, Muggi and Magungo. 

[June, 1699. 4 



50 CINNYRIS SHELLEYI. 

Towards its most nortliern range the first known specimens 
of this species were collected by Von Heuglin and Antinori in 
the Rek country, which is watered by the Gazal river, and 
the former naturalist informs us that it is generally distributed 
over this part of the country to the west of the Bahr-el-Jebel, 
frequenting the flowering trees in the damper parts of the 
highland forests, and in March was beginning to assume its 
breeding plumage. 

Cinnyris shelleyi. 

Cinnyris shelleyi, Boyd Alexander, Bull. B. 0. C. viii. p. 54 (1899) ; id. 
Ibis, 1899, p. 556, pi. 11, North Zambesia. 

Adult male. Entire head, neck, back and lesser wing-coverts metallic 
green with a golden gloss on back of head, neck and mantle ; wings and tail 
black. At the base of the metallic green throat is a narrow steel blue 
collar followed by a broad bright scarlet pectoral-band, the feathers of which 
are partially barred with steel blue, remainder of the under parts blackish 
brown. " Bill and legs black ; iris dark brown " (Boyd Alexander). Total 
length 4 - 65 inches, culmen 0-85, wing 2-5, tail 1*7, tarsus 0-65. 

Adult female. Similar in plumage to that of C. mariquensis. Above pale 
brown with a slight wash of olive yellow on the back and upper tail-coverts ; 
wings and tail darker brown with partial pale margins to the feathers ; an 
incomplete buff eyebrow. Beneath yellowish buff inclining to white on the 
chin ; chest slightly mottled with the dusky centres of the feathers. Total 
length 4-65 inches, culmen 085, wing 2-5, tail 1'7, tarsus 0'65. 

Shelley's Bifasciated Sunbird inhabits North Zambesia. 
My friend, Mr. Boyd Alexander, has done me the honour of 
naming this beautiful Sunbird after me. He discovered the 
species about sixty miles below where the Kafue river falls 
into the Zambesi, close to 31° E. long. The pair, both adults 
in full breeding plumage, were shot the latter end of December, 
being at the time in company with a number of Chalcomitra 
gutturalis, and like that species were busy in extracting the 
nectar from the acacia blossoms. The note of the male was 
a small flute-like whistle. 



CINNYRIS MAIUQUENSIS. 51 

This species is nearly allied to G. bifasciatus in size and 
measurements, but differs in having the bastard primary 
smaller and more pointed, in which character it resembles 
G. mariquensis, and is intermediate between these two species 
in the golden shade being confined to the back of the head, 
the neck and mantle. 

The most marked specific characters for G. shelleyi are : 
the sealing-wax scarlet pectoral-baud which is similar to that 
of G. erythroeerius, and the blackish brown breast which 
resembles that of G. bouvieri. 



Cinnyris mariquensis. 

Cinnyris mariquensis, Smith; Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 211, pi. 65 (1876) ; 

Sharpe in Oates' Matabeleland, p. 310 (1881) ; Shelley, Ibis, 1882, 

p. 256 Bamangwato ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 44, pt. A. (1884) ; 

Ayres, Ibis, 1884, p. 226, 1886, p. 286, Transvaal ; Fleck, J. f. O. 

1894, pp. 346, 362, 412 S. TV. Africa ; Shelley, B. Air. I. No. 25 

(1896) ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1897, p. 507 Zululand. 
Nectarinia bifasciata (nee Shaw) Buckley, Ibis, 1874, p. 374 Matabele. 

Adult male. Entire head, neck, back and lesser wing-coverts metallic 
green, with a strong coppery gloss ; wings and tail black. At the base of 
the metallic green throat is a narrow steel blue collar followed by a broad 
deep red pectoral-band, the feathers of which are partially edged with steel 
blue or green ; remainder of the under parts black. Total length 51 inches, 
culmen 0-85, wing 2-7, tail 2-1, tarsus 0'7. Bamangwato, 23. 11. 73 (T. E. 
Buckley). 

Adult female. Above ashy brown ; tail with white tips to the outer 
feathers ; a whitish eyebrow. Beneath whitish, washed with pale yellow 
down the centre of the breast and with large triangular dusky centres to the 
feathers of the lower throat, front of chest and under tail-coverts. Total 
length 4-8 inches, culmen p 8, wing 2-5, tail 2, tarsus 0'7. Bamangwato, 
23. 11. 73 (T. E. Buckley). 

The Southern Bifasciated Sunbird is confined to South 
Africa, south of the Cunene and Zambesi rivers, and has 
not been recorded from south of 29° S. lat. According to 
Andersson : " This species is very common in Ondonga, and 



52 CINNYRIS MARIQUENSIS. 

is not uncommon in Damaraland ; it is also found at Lake 
Ngami. It is usually seen in pairs, and frequents the banks 
of periodical streams." 

The type of the species was discovered by Smith at 
Kurrichaine. The most southern districts known for the 
species is Zululaud, where the Messrs. Woodwards collected 
six specimens at Uhmdi and Eschowe. 

Mr. T. E. Buckley writes : " Quite the commonest Sunbird 
from north of Pretoria into the Matabele country. They were 
generally to be seen in pairs, or perhaps two cocks chasing a 
hen. Like all the dark - coloured Sunbirds, the beautiful 
plumage of the male is only to be seen on a near approach. 
From the specimens I have in my collection it would appear 
that the male changes from the sober colours of the female 
into his own lovely hues in October." He further remarks: 
"The males are much shyer than the females. I did not 
observe this species in Natal." Mr. Buckley brought home 
specimens from the Towani river in Bamaugwato, and from 
Tati in Matabele. Mr. Barratt procured it at Macamac in the 
Transvaal. Mr. Ayres tells us that they are rare near the 
Limpopo during the South African winter months, feeding 
amongst the aloes, which grow plentifully on the dry stony 
ridges, and that even at that season the males fight. He also 
found them at a similar time of the year hunting for small 
insects among the dry seed-tops of high grass, flowers at that 
season being exceedingly scarce. While in company with Mr. 
Jameson they collected specimens at Matje Umschlope, in 
Matabele in November, at Mangwato in December, and at 
Palatswie Pan in Bamangwato in June ; at this last place 
meeting with the species and G. leueogaster in tolerable 
abundance assembled round a very pretty parasitic plant, the 
blossoms of which resemble the honeysuckle. 

Mr. Oates procured it in Matabele at the Makalapsie river 



CINNYRIS OSIRIS. 53 

near Shoshong, and there is a specimen in the British Museum 
labelled "Zambesi," but without any collector's name. 



Cinnyris osiris. 

Cinnyris osiris (Finseh), Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 215, pi. 64, fig. 1 (1876) ; 
Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 44 (1884); Salvad. Ann. Mus. Genov. 
1884, p. 140, 1888, 245 SJwa ; Reichen. J. f. 0. 1887, p. 75 Simiu 
Ii. ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1891, p. 593 Machako's; id. P. Z. S. 1895, p. 474 
Somali ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 26 (1896) ; Lorfc Phillips, Ibis, 1896, 
p. 81 Somali; Elliot, Field Columb. Mus. Orn. I. No. 2, p. 40 
(1897) ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 66 Somali. 

Nectarinia mariquensis (nee Smith), Hartl. Abhandl. Bremen, 1891, p. 30. 

Cinnyris jardinei (nee Verr.) Emin, J. f. 0. 1891, p. 60 Unianiembe. 

Cinnyris suaheliea, Reichen. J. f. O. 1891, p. 161 Unianiembe ; id. Vog. 
Deutsch 0. Afr. p. 210 (1894). 

Cinnyris mariquensis hawkeri, Neumann, Orn. Monatsb. 1899, p. 24 
Somali. 

Cinnyris osiris suahelicus, Hartert in Ansorge's " Under Afr. Sun," App. 
p. 350 Uganda. 

Adult male. Similar to G. mariquensis but with the forehead and crown 
slightly more emerald green and contrasting more strongly with the 
coppery shade of the throat. Total length 5'1 inches, culmen 0-05, wing 
2-6, tail 2, tarsus 0-65. Gasciane, Shoa, 29. 8. 78 (Antinori). 



The Abyssinian Bifasciated Sunbird ranges over Eastern 
Africa from Kakoma 5° S. lat. to Ailet 16° N. lat. 

Bohn procured the species as far south as Kakoma and 
Emin collected specimens at Karague, Kassni and Taboro. 
The specimens from the latter localities include the type of 
0. suaheliea, Reichen. Fischer has procured the species at the 
Simiu river, Jackson at Machako's in Ukambani in March, 
and Mr. Ansorge at Kampala in Uganda. This species is 
apparently not uncommon in Somaliland, for Mr. Lort Phillips 
met with it in the Groolis Mountains, in company with G. 
habessinicus ; Dr. Donaldson Smith collected specimens at 
Milmil in July and at Sheik Husein in September, and Mr. 



54 CINNYRIS BIFASCIATUS. 

Hawker a fine series, in full plumage, in January at Jifa Meclir 
and Ujawaji ; these latter have been named G. mariquensis 
hawlceri by Mr. Neumann. 

In Shoa, Antinori procured the species at Ambo-Karra in 
July, and at Grasiane in August, all in full plumage, and Dr. 
Ragazzi a specimen at the Gerba torrent. 

In Abyssinia Jesse obtained specimens at Undel Wells and 
Senafe, including the type of the species, and specimens have 
also been received from Mr. Esler, who chiefly collected near 
Ailet. Neither Von Heuglin nor Mr. Blanford appear to have 
met with this species during their travels, but Mr. Blanford 
mentions one that was shot by Captain Sturt at an elevation 
of 5,000 to 6,000 feet, just below Senafe. 

Cinnyris bifasciatus. 

Cinnyris bifasciatus (Shaw), Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 217, pi. 66 (1876) ; 

Sharpe and Bouvier, Bull. S. Z. France, 1876, p. 41 Loango ; Oust. 

N. Arch. Mus. (2) ii. Bull. 1879, p. 131 Gaboon ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. 

ix. p. 47 (1884) ; Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus., 1888, p. 211 Congo, 

1889, p. 231 Mossamedes; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 27 (1896). 
Nectarinia bifasciata, Sousa, Journ. Lisb. 1886, p. 160 Benguela, 1887, 

p. 94 Quissange. 

Adult male. Similar to C. mariquensis but smaller ; the bill slightly 
less arched, and the plumage generally not so strongly shaded with the 
copper gloss. Total length 4-6 inches, culmen 0'75, wing 2-4, tail 1-65, 
tarsus 0-65. Landana, 19. 1. 76 (Petit). 

Adult female. Similar to C. mariquensis but washed on the upper parts 
with olive and on the chest with yellow ; lower throat and chest more 
striped but with less distinct dusky mottling. Total length 4 inches, culmen 
0-7, wing 2-2, tail 1-4, tarsus 0-65. Landana, 6. 76 (Petit). 

Nestling. Similar to adult female but with the throat dusky with a band 
of buff down each side, and the chest feathers with broad black subterminal 
bars. Total length 3-5 inches, culmen 0*55, wing 2, tail 1, tarsus 0-6. 
Chinchonso, 5. 4. 76 (Petit). 

The Western Bifasciated Sunbird is the West African 
representative of the closely allied Bifasciated Sunbirds, and 



CINNYRIS MICRORHYNCHUS. 55 

is only known to range from the Gaboon to the Cunene river. 
Verreanx's type of N. jardinei came from the Gaboon, and 
the real type of this species was collected by Perrein at 
Malimbe. Falkenstein and Petit have since found it on the 
Loango Coast and Captain Sperling on the Lower Congo. 

Monteiro collected specimens at Ambriz in March and 
at Colombo, on the Quanza, in November, and writes : " Very 
abundant about Benguela even in comparatively barren places, 
where, I have observed, they eat little insects, particularly 
small spiders." 

Mr. Anchieta procured it at Dombe, Benguela and Quis- 
sange, and Mr. Van der Kellen in Mosamedes at Banana and 
Ango-Ango, so that the Cunene river appears to be the 
boundary between this species and its ally in South Africa. 



Cinnyris microrhynehus. 

Cinnyris microrhynehus, Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 219, pi. 67 (1876) ; 
Nicholson, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 355 Dar-es- Salaam ; Gurney, Ibis, 
1881, p. 125 Mombasa; Shelley, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 570 Dar-es-Salaam, 
Usambara ; 1882, p. 302 Bovttma B. ; Schal. J. f. 0. 1883, p. 360 
Kakoma, Zanzibar ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 47 (1884) ; Fisch. 
Zeitschr. 1884, p. 339 Pangani ; id. J. f. O. 1885, p. 139 ; Shelley, 
P. Z. S. 1889, p. 365 Tcita ; Keichen. J. f. 0. 1889, p. 285 Usegua; 
Sharpe, Ibis, 1891, p. 593 Masai; Kuschel. J. f. 0. 1895, p. 347 
(egg) ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 28 (1896) ; id. Ibis, 1897, p. 524 Nyasa. 

Nectarinia microrhyncha, Hartl. Abhandl. Bremen, 1891, p. 30 Usegua. 

Nectarinia jardinei (nee Verr.), Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 173 Mombasa; 
Fisch. J. f. 0. 1878, p. 280. 

Cinnyris jardinei, Cab. J. f. O. 1878, p. 227 Tcita; Fisch. and Beichen. 
J. f. 0. 1879, 347 Malindi. 

Adult viale. Similar to C. mariauensis, but very much smaller. Bill 
not so strongly arched, and with scarcely any copper gloss. Total length 
4-2 inches, culmen 06, wing 2-1, tail l - 6, tarsus 0-55. Lamu (Kirk). 

Adult female. Similar to C. mariquensis but more olive above and 
yellower beneath without the dusky mottling. Total length 4 inches, 
culmen 06, wing 19, tail 1-4, tarsus 0-55. Lamu (Kirk). 



56 CINNYRIS MICRORHYNCHUS. 

The Least Bifasciated Sunbird ranges over Eastern Africa 
from the Zambesi to the Equator. 

The most southern locality known for this species is the 
left bank of the Zambesi, where Mr. Boyd Alexander collected 
seven specimens between the Shire and Kufue rivers, and 
writes: "During our stay at Zumbo, on the Zambesi, con- 
siderable numbers of these Sunbirds suddenly appeared on 
December 13, amongst the acacia growth, which was then 
in full blossom." The six males he procured were at that 
season passing out of the breeding plumage into the dull dress. 
They were certainly adults, for according to his note book, 
" the sexual organs were too much developed to be those of 
immature birds." This species apparently breeds towards 
June, for in that month Mr. Alexander Whyte obtained a male 
in full breeding plumage at Songue. 

In about the same latitude on the Mozambique coast, 
Serpo Pinto found the species at Port Bocage and Ibo in 
12° 21' S. lat. 

Further north specimens have been collected by Thomson 
at the Rovuma river, by Bohn at Kakoma, and it is apparently 
also very common along the Zanzibar coast, at least as far 
north as Malindi, 3° 20' S. lat., where it was found by Fischer, 
and inland has been met with still further north by Mr. 
Jackson during his journey from the coast to Ukambani, so 
we may fairly take the Equator as the northern boundary of 
its known range. 

With regard to these last four species, they very closely re- 
semble each other in plumage, but with a little care they can be 
always recognised and they have each a well marked range thus : 

G. mariquensis, south of the Cunene and Zambesi rivers. 

G. osiris, Eastern Africa from 5° S. lat. to 16° N. lat. 

G. bifasciatus, Western Africa north of the Cunene into 
(iaboon. 

< '. microrhynchus, Eastern Africa from Zambesi to Equator. 



CINNYRIS COMORENSIS. 57 



Cinnyris comorensis. 

Cinnyris comorensis, Peters; Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 221, pi. 68 (1879) ; 
id. P. Z. S. 1879, p. 676 ; Cat. B. M. ix. p. 48 (1884) ; Milne Edw. 
& Oust. N. Arch. Mus. (2) x. p. 244 (1888) ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 29 
(1896). 

Adult male. Head, neck, back and lesser wing-coverts metallic green ; 
wing and tail black, a broad reddish brown pectoral-band dividing the 
uniform green throat from the black of the remainder of the under parts, 
which contrasts strongly with the bright scarlet pectoral-tufts. Total 
length 4-4 inches, culmen 0-75, wing 2'2, tail 1'65, tarsus, G"65. Johanna Is 
(Kirk). 

Adult female. Upper parts olive, as also the sides of the head ; tail with 
white tips to the feathers. Beneath, pale olive-shaded yellow, fading almost 
into white on the throat and under tail-coverts. Total length 4-1 inches, 
culmen 0-65, wing 2, tail 1-3, tarsus 065 Johanna Is. (Kirk). 

The Johanna Sunbird is confined to the small island of 
Johanna or Hinzouan, also sometimes called Anjuan, which is 
situated in the Mosambique Channel about half way between 
the African coast and the northern extremity of Madagascar. 

The species was discovered by Dr. Peters during a short 
visit to the Comoro Islands. More recently Mr. C. E. Bewsher 
collected six specimens on the island of Johanna, where it is, 
according to his notes, very common, and bears the native 
name of " Shetozee. " The nest," he states, " is similar to 
those of others of the genus. The egg is greyish white, spotted 
and blotched, especially at the larger end, with ashy brown." 



Cinnyris bouvieri. 

Cinnyris bouvieri, Shelley, Monogr. Nect. p. 227, pi. 70 (1877) ; Sharpe 
& Bouvier, Bull. S. Z. France, 1877, p. 475; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. 
p. 53 (1884) ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 30 (1896). 

Adult male. Head, neck, back and lesser wing-coverts metallic green, 
with a slight coppery gloss, strongest on the ear-coverts; forehead, front 
half of the crown and the lores steel blue shaded with violet towards the 



58 CINNYRIS LEUCOGASTER. 

bill ; wings dark brown, tail black. Chin dull black, remainder of the throat 
golden green margined towards the chest by a narrow belt of steel blue, 
followed by a rather broad one of metallic ruby violet mixed with deep 
maroon red; remainder of the under parts dark brown, with bright yellow 
and scarlet pectoral-tufts. Total length 4-1 inches, culmen 0-8, wing 2-05, 
tail 1-35, tarsus 0-65. Landana, 3. 6. 76 (Petit). 

Adult female. Above, ashy brown slightly tinted with olive ; with a 
partial buff eyebrow ; a few of the outer tail-feathers tipped with white ; 
beneath, pale buff; lower throat and sides of chest with very indistinct 
dusky central streaks to the feathers. Total length 4-15 inches, culmen 0'7, 
wing 2, tail 1-35, tarsus 06. Landana, 31. 1. 76 (Petit). 

Bouvier's Sunbird is only known from the Loango coast, 
which extends north from the mouth of the Congo ; here the 
type was collected by Petit at Landana as well as a female 
which I presume to belong to this species. The same collec- 
tion also contained a female probably of this species from 
Chinchonxo. 

It differs from the Bifasciated Sunbirds and approaches the 
Palestine 0. osea in having flame-coloured axillary-tufts and 
some steel blue colouring on the head, and differs from them 
all excepting G. shelleyi in having the abdomen brown. 

Cinnyris leucogaster. 

Cinnyris leucogaster, Vieill. Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. xxxix. (1880) ; 

Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 40 (1884); Biittik. Notes, Leyd. Mus. 

1889, p. 71 Upper Cunene ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 31 (1896). 
Cinnyris talatala, Smith, Kep. Exp. Centr. Afr. p. 53 (183G) ; Shelley, 

Mon. Nect. p. 229, pi. 71 (1876) ; Sharpe, ed. Layard's B. S. Afr. 

pp. 318, 832, pi. 7 (1876-84) ; Ayres, 1879, p. 294 Bustenburg ; 

Shelley, Ibis, 1882, p. 256, Bamangwato : Ayres, Ibis, 1887, p. 56 

Matabele, Transvaal; Eendall, Ibis, 1896, p. 171 Transvaal; Sharpe, 

Ibis, 1897, p. 506 Zululand. 
Nectarinia talatala, Buckley, Ibis, 1874, p. 375 Bamangwato ; Bocage, 

Oru. Angola, p. 172 (1877) Benguela ; Sousa, Journ. Lisb. 1887, p. 94 

Quissange. 

Adult male. Head, neck, back and lesser wing-coverts metallic green 
shaded with steel blue on the forehead, upper tail-coverts and throat ; wings 
brown ; tail black. Base of the throat edged with a narrow black collar ; 



CINNYRIS LEUCOGASTER. 59 

pectoral-tufts pale yellow ; remainder of the under parts white. Total 
length 4-4 inches, culmen 0-8, wing 2-3, tail 1-8, tarsus 065. 

Adult female. Upper parts and sides of head uniform brown ; tail 
blackish, with the tips of the outer feathers white. Beneath white, faintly 
shaded with ashy brown. Total length 445 inches, culmen 0-75, wing 2-1, 
tail 1-5, tarsus 065. 

The Southern White-breasted Sunbird ranges from the 
Quanza and Zambesi rivers into Damaraland and Natal. 

In Benguela and Mossamedes, according to Anchieta, it is 
rare near Capangombe, common at Humbe, and is called by 
the natives at Quissange " Mariapindo," but this name appears 
not to be restricted to one species of Sunbird, but to be 
rather a generic than a specific name. 

South of the Cunene Andersson found the species to be 
abundant in the neighbourhood of the Okavango river during 
the rainy season. He also found it very common, though 
exceedingly shy, on the edge of the bush in Ondongo, where 
he obtained a nest on February 19: "the nest was very 
large and strongly built, and resembled in form and material 
that of C. fuscus ; it contained five small, obtuse, and pure 
white eggs. Another nest taken on March 27 also contained 
five eggs. This Sunbird is exceedingly lively in its habits, 
and at the approach of the pairing season it becomes inspired 
with the most lovely and exquisite melodies." 

Sir Andrew Smith met with these birds in the country 
between the Orange river and Kurrichaine. 

The most southern range known for the species is Port 
Natal, where it has been procured by Verreaux, and in Natal, 
according to Captain Harford, " they keep company very often 
with the White-eyes (Zosterops) and utter a note similar to 
theirs." Two eggs of this species sent by him to Mr. 
Layard are described as resembling those of Nectarinia famosa 
but were paler and less densely speckled, 075 inch by 0'5 and 
rather obtuse. 



60 CINNYRIS ALBIVENTRIS. 

In Zululand the Messrs. Woodwards procured a fine series 
at Eschowe. 

In the Transvaal Mr. T. Ayres found the species common 
near Rustenburg in August where they were frequenting the 
same localities as G. afer, and during his journey up country 
with the late Mr. Jameson collected specimens at Palatswie 
Pan and Bamangwato in June, where they found them in 
company with G. mariquensis. Mr. T. E. Buckley while in 
Swaziland procured a male in imperfect plumage in June and 
another in full plumage in July. 

From the Zambesi, the most northern known locality for 
this species in East Africa, there is one of Sir John Kirk's 
specimens, now in the British Museum, and according to 
Mr. Boyd Alexander: "With the exception of Ghalcomitra 
gutturalis, this species was the most abundant of all the Sun- 
birds along the river, but at the same time its distribution 
was local. Wherever the thick woods gave way to open 
spots interspersed with acacia bushes, these little Sunbirds 
mustered in considerable numbers, full of activity, hardly 
heeding one's approach, but devoting all their attention to 
the acacia blossoms. After emerging from a forest silent and 
gloomy, it was a pleasant relief to come to such a spot, looking 
like a glimpse of fairy-land itself : the bright light playing 
upon the tender green of the acacias starred with innumerable 
yellow feathery blossoms, amongst which the Sunbirds were 
revelling, the sunlight catching the peacock blue of their backs 
as they travelled with jerky dancing flight from one bush to 
another, and at times burst forth into a chatteriug little song 
resembling that of our Siskin (Ghrysomitris spinus), which 
now and again would suddenly give place to the call note, a 
small plaintive whistle." 

Cinnyris albiventris. 

Cinnyris albiventris (Strickl.) Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 233, pi. 73 (187G) ; 
Gadow, Cat. B. M. is. p. 40 (1884) ; Shelley, Ibis, 1888, p. 300 



CINNYRIS ALBIVENTRIS. 61 

Manda Is. ; Salvad. E. Acad. Sc. Torino, 1894, p. 556 Somali ; 
Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 474 Somali ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 32 
(1896) ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1896, p. 82 ; 1898, p. 403 Somali ; Elliot 
Field Columb. Mus. Orn. I. No. 2, p. 41 (1897) Somali; Hawker, 
Ibis, 1899, p. 67, Somali: 

Adult male. Similar to C. leucogaster but with the throat violet shaded 
steel blue not separated by any pectoral-band from the white of the breast ; 
front half of the pectoral-tufts orange. Total length 36 inches, culmen 065, 
wing 2-1, tail 1-5, tarsus 0.65. 

Adult female. Similar to G. leucogaster but whiter beneath and with no 
pale ends to any of the tail feathers. 



The Somali White-breasted Sunbird inhabits Manda Island 
just north of Formosa Bay and Somaliland. 

Mr. F. J. Jackson collected specimens on Manda Island, 
and remarks : "Very common all over the island, especially in 
the dense bush on the sides of the sand-hills along the shore. 
I found several nests with eggs in May. The song is very 
much like the first few notes of our Common Wren." 

In Somaliland the type was obtained by Daubeny at Medudu, 
better known as Ras Hafoon, the extreme eastern promontory 
of Africa. 

. It appears to be a common species in Somaliland, and 
frequently to be met with around the flowering shrubs in 
company with G. habessinicus ; for according to Mr. Hawker: 
" This bird is common on the plains of Berbera," and Mr. 
Lort Phillips calls it " common both on the hills and on the 
plains, where it may be seen in company with its dowdy little 
mate wherever the mimosa is in blossom, or the aloe hangs its 
crimson and yellow bells. It is very fearless, and does not 
seem to mind being watched in the least ; " and later he 
remarks : " Fairly common from the Berbera Plain to the top 
of the Goolis Mountains." Mr. Elliot also collected specimens 
in Somaliland. 



62 CINNYRIS OUSTALETI. 

Cinnyris oustaleti. 

Cinnyris oustaleti (Bocage), Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 231, pi. 72, fig. 1 
(1880) ; Cat. B. M. ix. p. 43 (1884) ; Sharpe, ed. Layard's B. S. Afr. 
p. 832 (1884) ; Buttik. Notes Leyd. Mus. 1889, p. 231 Humpata ; 
Bocage, Journ. Lisb. 1893, p. 159; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 33 (1896). 

Nectarinia oustaleti, Bocage ; Orn. Angola, p. 545 (1881) Caconda. 

Adult male. Similar to C. leucogastcr, but differs in the metallic throat 
ending in a broadish metallic violet pectoral- band with the ends of the 
feathers maroon red, and the front half of the pectoral-tufts being orange 
red. Total length 4-5 inches, culmen 075, wing 2-2, tail 1-7, tarsus 06. 
Caconda (Anchieta). 

Oustalet's White-breasted Suubird is only known to occur 
in Benguela and Mossamedes. 

Anchieta discovered the species at Caconda, where he 
informs us that it is common. On one of his labels, attached 
to a specimen in the British Museum, is written " Xinjonjo " 
as its native name. 

Mr. Buttikofer refers to this species, a nearly full plumaged 
male, procured by Van der Kellen at Humpata on the Upper 
Cunene river in July. 

This is another instance of very closely allied species of 
Sunbrrds occurring in the same district, C. leucogaster having 
been recorded from Capangombe, Humbe and Quissange. 



Cinnyris venustus. 

Cinnyris venustus (Shaw), Mon. Nect. p. 235, pi. 74, figs. 1, 3 (1879) ; id. 

Ibis, 1883, p. 548 Niger; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 39 (1884); 

Buttik. Notes Leyd. Mus. 1885, p. 169 ; 1886, p. 250 ; 1888, p. 72 ; 

1889, p. 130 Liberia; Beiehen, J. f. 0. 1891, p. 391, 1897, p. 45 

Togoland; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 34 (1896) ; Beiehen, J. f. O. 1897, 

p. 45 Togoland. 
Nectarinia venusta, Bocage, Orn. Ongola, p. 173 (1877) Biballa. 

Adult male. Head, neck, back and lesser wing-coverts golden green, 
with the forehead and front half of crown and upper throat violet shaded 



CINNYRIS VENUSTUS. 63 

steel blue, the latter separated from the more violet lower throat by a few 
golden green feathers encroaching from the sides of the neck ; chin and a 
narrow pectoral-band black ; remainder of the under parts buff or pale 
yellow with bright yellow and orange red pectoral-tufts. Total length 3-6 
inches, culmen 065, wing 1-95, tail 1-45, tarsus 055. W. Africa (Verreaux). 
Adult female. Above ashy brown, wings, upper tail-coverts and tail 
darker ; cheeks and under parts bufflsh white slightly yellower down the 
centre of the body. Total length 3'8 inches, culmen 06, wing 1-85, tail 1-2, 
tarsus 0-55. 

The Western Buff-breasted Sunbird ranges over Western 
Africa from the Senegal to the Cunene and Zambesi rivers. 
The types of Gerthia quinticolor, Bechst., Ginnyris ■pusillus, 
Swains., and Nectarinia parvula, Jard., all came from Sene- 
gambia. 

Marche and De Compiegne have collected specimens at 
Dakar, Hann and Joal. Dr. Hartlaub records it from Galam 
and Casamanse on the authority of Verreaux; Beaudouin 
procured the species at Bissao, and Shaw's type of the species 
came from Sierra Leone. In Liberia Mr. Biittikofer found 
these Sunbirds abundant, at Monrovia and Sckieffelinsville 
and along the banks of the Marfa, Junk and Du Quah rivers, 
generally in manioc plantations. 

In the Gold Coast district the species is apparently rare, 
for I only find it recorded as having been procured there by 
Drs. Reichenow and Biittner from Aguapim and Togoland. 
An egg from the latter locality is described as of a pale greyish 
shade with freckles of darker grey and brown forming a zone 
at the thicker end, and measured 0*6 inch by 0*5. 

Robins collected specimens at Abeokuta, and at the Niger 
the species has been obtained by Thomson at Aboh and by 
Forbes at Lokoja and Shonga. 

G. venustus has not, to my knowledge, been recorded from 
Camaroons ; its occurrence in Gaboon rests on a specimen 
formerly in Verreaux' s collection and one of Gujon's (Hartl. 
Orn. W. Afr. p. 48 ; id. J. f. 0. 1861, p. 109). 



64 CINNYRIS AFFINIS. 

Prof. Barboza du Bocage refers two specimens from 
Biballa in Benguela to this species, so it is extremely 
interesting to find this Sunbird occurring at Zumbo on the 
Zambesi. 

Here Mr. Boyd Alexander has procured two specimens 
which agree with typical G. venustus both in measurements 
and colouration of plumage. Culmen 0*0 inches, wing 1'85 to 
1-9, tail 1-3. 

Specimens of this species differ considerably in the shade 
of colouring of the breast, the abdomen being generally of a 
pale buff, and the axillaries occasionally not shaded with 
orange red ; while in others the breast is of a bright pale 
yellow with fiery red and yellow pectoral-tufts. Forbes's 
specimens from the Niger are in the last-mentioned plumage, 
and I presume one of Marche's from Hann in Cape Verde to 
have been likewise a brightly coloured specimen, as M. Bouvier 
separated it from the others in his catalogue under the name 
of N. affinis. 

The characters by which this species may be most readily 
distinguished from its near allies, are : thighs buff, not dark 
brown as in G. affinis and G. falhensteini ; the under wing- 
coverts are whiter, not shaded with ash as in G. affinis or 
entirely brown as in G. falhensteini. 



Cinnyris affinis. 

Cinnyris afl'mis, Eiipp. Shelley, Hon. Neet. p. 239, pi. 74, tig. 2 (1879) ; 
Gaclow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 40 (1884) ; Salvad. Ann. Mus. Genov. 
1884, p. 140; 1888, pp. 246, 534 Shoa ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No 35 
(1896). 

Adult male. Similar to C. venustus. Above with less coppery gloss ; 
breast brighter yellow, often shaded with chrome yellow ; thighs dark brown ; 
under wing-coverts ashy grey. Total length 4-2 inches, culmen - 65, wing 
2-15, tail 1-6, tarsus 0-6. Bayrayguddy, 27. 5. 68 (Jesse). 



CINNYRIS AFFINIS. 65 

The Abyssinian Buff-breasted Sunbird represents G. 
venustus in Shoa, Abyssinia and Kordofan. 

Tn Shoa the species must be fairly abundant. Harris 
found it there and Antinori and Ragazzi collected eleven 
specimens ; of these, five of the males obtained in June and 
August were in full plumage, and the three males collected 
in November and December were in imperfect plumage. 

In Abyssinia, Mr. Blanford writes : " This replaces N. 
habessinica above 3,500 to 4,000 feet and extends upwards 
into the temperate region. It breeds about May, and I saw 
young birds with the parents in July. The extent of blue on 
the neck appears to vary slightly." 

Jesse found the species plentiful about Rayrayguddy and 
procured specimens on his journey from Undal "Wells to 
Facado in May, but did not meet with it on his return 
journey, although Lefebvre found it common throughout the 
year in Tigre. 

Von Heuglin met with this Sunbird at Takah and in 
Southern Kordofan where it appeared to be a resident, and 
was in full plumage during the rainy season. According to 
his observations, it does not appear to be very generally 
distributed, for he found it on the eastern side of the 
Abyssinian highland at no greater elevation than 6,000 or 
7,000 feet, only among the mountain valley and apparently 
it never descended actually to the coast. This may account 
for Mr. A. J. Cholmley not having met with the species along 
the west coast of the Red Sea. According to Riippell it is 
to be found plentifully in small parties along the road from 
Masowa to the Taranta Pass. 

With regard to its habits, it appears to breed in April and 
May, and Brehm informs us that a pair, although not in full 
plumage, had their nest almost completed. The latter was 
placed not more than three feet from the ground, between 

[June, 1SU9. 5 



66 C1NNYRIS FALKENSTEINI. 

the leaves of a bush and a creeping plant; both were partly 
interwoven in the structure, which consisted of scraps of bark 
and fibre, fine grass and down, lined inside with hair and wool. 
The nest was of an oval form with an entrance near the top, 
and was partially hidden by a large leaf. The birds were 
engaged eight clays in constructing this edifice. 



Cinnyris falkensteini. (Pi. 3, fig. l.) 

Cinnyns falkensteini, Fisch. and Eeichen. J. f. 0. 1884, p. 56 Masai ; 

Pisch. Zeitschr, 1884, p. 339 ; id. J. f. O. 1885, p. 139 Naiwasha ; 

Sharpe, Ibis, 1891, p. 591 Sotik ; Eeichen, J. f. 0. 1891, p. 161 ; id. 

Vog. Deutsch. S. Afr. p. 212 (1893) Karagive, Mpapwa, Taboro ; 

Shelley, Ibis, 1893, p. 16 ; 1894, p. 13 ; 1896, pp. 180, 233 ; 1897, 

p. 524 Nyasa ; id. B. Afr. I. No. 36 (1896) ; Hinde, Ibis, 1898, 

p. 580 Machako's ; Neumann, J. f. O. 1898, pp. 233, 234, 237. 
Nectarinia affinis (nee Hupp.) Bouv. Bull. S. Z. Prance, 1877, p. 450 

Uganda; Hartl. Abhandl. Nat. Ver. Brem. 1891, p. 29 Baguera. 
Cinnyris affinis, Cab. J. f. O. 1878, p. 227 Teita; Shelley, P. Z. S. 1885, 

p. 228 ; 1889, p. 365, Kilimanjaro; Emin, J. f. 0. 1890, p. 60. 

Adult male. Similar to C. venustus, but differs in having a shade of blue 
over the upper parts generally, and the throat more uniform violet and not 
divided in the middle by the green of the sides of the neck ; breast deep 
yellow tinged with orange; under wing-covert brown. Total length 3-8 
inches, culmen 0-75, wing 2-1, tail 1-65, tarsus 065. 



Falkenstein's Buff-breasted Sunbird ranges from the 
Zambesi to about 1° N. lat. in Central and East Africa. 

Mr. Alexander Whyte has collected specimens in Nyasaland 
in June, July, August and September at Zomba, the Nyika 
Plateau and Kombi between 6,000 and 7,000 feet, one of 
which is a nestling procured in June. 

In German East Africa specimens have been procured by 
Emin at Taboro in the Uniamwesi country, at Mpapwa, 
Karagwe, and Baguera. 

On Kilimanjaro Sir Harry Johnston met with it at 4,000 



CINNYRIS COQUERELI. G7 

and 5,000 feet and found the species abundant at low levels, 
and Mr. Hunter also procured others on this mountain in 
August. 

The type was discovered by the late Dr. Fischer at Nai- 
washa Lake, and the species has been collected at Machako's 
in Ukambani by both Mr. Hinde in May and September and 
Mr. Jackson in March ; the latter traveller also met with it at 
Sotik in October. 

There can, I think, be no doubt that the Nectarinia affiiiis 
of Bouvier's list of Piaggia's collection from Mtesa's country 
in Uganda refers to this species. 

There is possibly a fourth species of this group of Sunbirds 
to be found in the little known country between the Blue Nile 
and Victoria Nyanza, with the following synonyms : Nectarinia 
souimanga (nee 6m.) Heugl. J. f. 0. 1867, p. 300 ; Nectarinia 
sp. (?), Heugl. Orn. N. O. Afr. p. 233 (1871); Nectarinia 
fazoglensis, Finsch in Heugl. Orn. N. O. Afr. p. lxx. (1873) ; 
Cinnyris heuglini, Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 241 (1879). 

Cinnyris coquereli. 

Cinnyris coquereli (Verr.) Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 243, pi. 75 (1879) ; 
Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 39 (1884); Milne Edw. and Oust. N. 
Arch. Mus. (2) x. p. 245 (1888) ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 37 (1896). 

Adult Male. Head, neck, back and lesser wing-coverts metallic green ; 
wings and tail black. A partial black collar consisting of a few feathers at 
the base of the green throat ; breast bright yellow fading into buff on the 
under tail-coverts, with a broad patch of scarlet down the centre of the 
chest. Total length 3-8 inches, culmen 075, wing 1-95, tail 1-4, tarsus 06. 

The Mayotte Island Sunbird is confined to the island of 
Mayotte, one of the Comoro group, and has been named after 
its discoverer, Dr. Coquerel. 

Pollen and Van Dam found these birds perched on the 
fronds of the cocoanut trees or flitting actively around the 



68 CINNYRIS SOUIMANGA. 

acacias in search of the honey and small insects on which they 
feed, often hiding themselves in the chalice of the larger 
flowers. They were very active in their habits and constantly 
uttered a short song which resembled that of the Blue Tit but 
more feeble. They were generally seen singly or in company 
with Zosterops mayottensis. It is well known to the French 
colonists as the " Colibri." 



Cinnyris souimanga. 

Cinnyris souimanga (Gm.), Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 245, pi. 76 (1876) ; 

Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 43 (1884) ; Eidgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. 

Mus. 1895, p. 526 Gloriosa Is. ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 38 (1896). 
Nectarinia souimanga, Milne Edw. and Grand. Hist. Mad. Ois. i. p 

277, pis. 105, 106 a , 107, 107 a ; Scott Elliot, Ann. Botany, 1890, p 

261 ; Sibree, Ibis, 1891, pp. 429, 440. 

Adult Male. — Head, neck, mantle and lesser wing-coverts deep metallic 
green with lilac bronze reflections, lower back and upper tail-coverts olive, 
wings and tail blackish. The metallic green throat shades off into a narrow 
steel blue collar next to which is an irregular maroon brown chest-band, 
followed by a broader one of brownish black flanked by bright yellow 
pectoral-tufts ; remainder of under parts buff shaded with yellow down the 
centre of the body. Total length 4-5 inches, culmen 0'7, wing 2-2, tail 1-6, 
tarsus 0'6. Madagascar (Verreaux). 

Adult Female. — Upper parts and sides of the head olive with a slight 
indication of a buff eyebrow. Cheeks and under parts olive-shaded buff, 
with the dusky bases of the feathers showing as partial bars on the throat. 
Total length 4 inches, culmen 0'7, wing 2, tail 1-4, tarsus 06. Madagascar 
(Crossley). 

The Madagascar Buff-breasted Sunbird is confined to the 
islands of Madagascar and Gloriosa. 

These Sunbirds are bold, active and gregarious, generally to 
be met with in parties of fifteen to twenty together, in the 
bushy plains and along the slopes of the hills, constantly on the 
move, now diving their bill into the flowers to sip the honey, 
then capturing some tiny insect iu its flight, and follow up 



CINNYRIS SOUIMANGA. 69 

their pursuit of food into the village gardens. Their flight is 
rapid and irregular, but is only sustained for a short distance. 

M. Grandidier states that the males are most numerous, 
but this may be owing to the bright colours of the male 
catching the eye more readily than the dull plumage of the 
females. He further tells us that their little short cry of 
" tsouhi - tsouhi " is mostly to be heard in the morning. 
Mr. B. Newton calls "the song strong, loud, and very like 
a Willow Wren's." He found on October 1, while paddling 
up the Hivondrona river, " a nest of this bird, containing 
two eggs, on the bank, almost overhanging the water ; it 
was a domed one, and was very prettily placed in some tall 
grass, the blue flowers of a Lobelia bicolor almost closing 
the entrance. It is composed outwardly of broad leaves 
of grass, decayed, and a little moss; over the entrance it 
has a sort of projecting pouch of a finer grass, and inside it is 
lined with down of some plant. The eggs, which were hard- 
set, are greyish white thickly freckled with light hair brown, 
so as to show but little of the ground colour. They are "59 
inch in length by '44 inch in breadth." 

M. G-randidier describes the nest as small and oval, 
suspended from a bush, generally on the bank of a stream. It 
is composed of fine grass, leaves and moss, sometimes bound 
together with spiders' web ; in the interior there is little or 
no down ; the entrance is at the side. They lay three to four 
eggs of a dull greenish white, spotted and streaked with rufous 
and brown, mostly so towards the thicker end, where these 
markings often form a zone. They vary in size, but average 
0-6 by 0-44 inch. 

With regard to the great utility of this and all species of 
Sunbirds, I cannot do better than quote Mr. G. F. Scott 
Elliot : " The flowers are often visited by Sunbirds ; Nectarinia 
souimangu was the commonest near Fort Dauphin. The 



70 CINNYRIS ALDABRENSIS. 

correct position of the bird is to sit on the highest bract, and 
then to bend forwards and downwards to suck the sugary liquid 
by introducing its beak below the odd petal. Iu doing this it 
will explode a virgin flower, dusting its breast with pollen, 
while in older flowers it will touch the stigraatic surface, and 
so effect cross-fertilization. Sometimes it bops into the middle 
of a flower, however, and tries to reach the honey from the 
same bract by bending round the petals. Beetles and 
hymenoptera often visit the flowers to suck the sugary liquid 
which exudes over the edges of the bract. They will only 
produce fertilization by accident, however, while the narrow 
curved beak of the bird is excellently adapted to pass between 
the edges of the rigid bracts and suck the honey." 

Referring to the Sunbirds of Madagascar, the Rev. J. 
Sibree writes : " The native names for these little birds all 
consist wholly or in part of the word Soy, the meaning of 
which is at present unknown ; but we find Soikely, " Little 
Soy ; " Soimanga, " Beautiful Soy ; " Soiangaly, " Capricious 
Soy ; " and also Dandiana, possibly meaning " Stepper." The 
word Soy is also reduplicated in another name, " Soisby." 
He further tells us that the Hova or general names for 
C. souimanga are Soisoy and Soikely, and the provincial names 
Anatsdy, Soy and Anjoy. 

The name Soy is derived from the note of the bird, as has 
already been remarked by M. Grandidier. 

Dr. Abbott during his visit to Gloriosa Island, from 
January 18 to 29, collected four specimens, and remarks: 
" Common in Grloriosa. A very few were nesting at the time 
of our visit." 

Cinnyris aldabrensis. 

Cinnyris aldabrensis, Eidgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1894, p. 372; 
1895, p. 536 Aldabra Is. 



CTKNYRIS ALDABRENSIS. 71 

Adult Male. — " Similar to C. souimanga, but pectoral-band much broader 
and bright maroon bay instead of chestnut ; sooty breast-patch much more 
extensive, reaching, medially, to middle of belly; sides and flanks light 
yellowish grey, the lower belly very pale sulphur yellow (whole belly canary 
yellow in C. souimanga). Total length 4-36 inches, exposed culmen 0-70, 
wing 2-10, tail 1-50, tarsus 065 " (Eidgway). " Bill and feet black " 
(Abbott). 

Adult Female. — " Much greyer above and darker below, anteriorly, than 
that of C. souimanga " (Eidgway). 



The Aldabra Sunbird is confined to the island of Aldabra, 
which is situated in the Indian Ocean 9° 30' S. lat., 36° 30' E. 
long. 

The species was discovered by Dr. W. L. Abbott, and is 
known to me only by Mr. Ridgway's description, and the 
following notes by Dr. Abbott : " This, the commonest bird in 
Aldabra, is found in all localities. Like all other birds of the 
islands, it is extremely tame and unsuspicious, even alighting 
on one's arm. It breeds from September to January, possibly 
longer and at other seasons. More than one brood is raised, 
but I do not know how many. The female alone performs the 
labour of nest building and incubation ; the males, however, 
assist in feeding the young. The nest is suspended from a 
branch of a mangrove or of a ' buluchi ' bush near the shore ; 
a favourite situation being to fasten it to a stalk of grass or 
euphorbia hanging in one of the great pits or chasms so 
numerous in the coral rock of Aldabra. The nest is neatly 
constructed of fibres of bark, generally mangrove. The female 
selects a suitable hanging leaf or branch and attaches some 
fibres of bark firmly to it; other fibres are then attached to 
this until an oval mass is formed ; this is then opened out by 
the bird entering her head and then her body into the mass. 
More material is now added to the outside, the bird occasion- 
ally entering the cavity and enlarging it by kicking and 
fluttering ; finally the inside is lined with feathers. The 



72 CINNYRIS ABBOTTI. 

construction of the nest occupies about eight days. Two eggs 
are laid and the period of incubation is thirteen days. The 
young are born blind, but open their eyes on the seventh 
day. The male has a very sweet song, reminding one of 
the American house wren, Troglodytes aedon." 



Cinnyris abbotti. 

Cinnyris abbotti, Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1894, p. 372; 1895, 
p. 523 Assumption Is. 

Adult Male. — " Similar to C. aldabrensis, but with under parts posterior 
to maroon bay pectoral-band almost entirely sooty black, with flanks more 
or less extensively light yellowish grey ; upper tail-coverts glossy violet 
black tipped with metallic greenish blue. Total length 3 inches, culmeu 
0-70, wing 2-22, tail 162, tarsus 067." Type. Assumption Is., 18. 9. 92 
(W. L. Abbott). 

Adult Female. — " Similar to that of C. aldabrensis" (Ridgway). 

Abbott's Sunbird is apparently confined to the small island 
of Assumption in the Indian Ocean, about twenty miles south 
of Aldabra Island. 

Here four specimens, including the type, were collected 
September 18, by Dr. W. L. Abbott. 



Cinnyris afer. 

Cinnyris afer (Linn.), Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 249, pi. 77 (1876) ; Ayres, 
Ibis, 1879, p. 294 Bustenburg ; Sharpe, in Oates' Matabele, p. 310 
(1881) ; Butler, Feilden and Reid, Zool. 1882, p. 246 Natal; Gadow, 
Cat. B. M. ix. p. 35 (1884) ; Rendall, Ibis, 1896, p. 170 Transvaal ; 
Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 39 (1896). 

Adult Male. — Head, neck, back and lesser wing-coverts golden green ; 
upper tail-coverts and a narrow collar at the base of the green throat 
violet shaded steel blue ; wing brown ; tail black with a narrow white edge 
to the outermost feather ; a broad bright scarlet pectoral-band and yellow 
pectoral-tufts ; remainder of the under parts pale ashy brown. Total length 



CINNYRIS AFER. 73 

5-5 inches, culrnen 11, wing 26, tail 23, tarsus 075. Drakensberg, 27. 7. 81 
(A. E. Butler). 

Adult Female. — Above asby brown ; tail brownish black ; an obscure pale 
eyebrow ; cheeks and under parts very pale ashy brown. Total length 5 
inches, cuhnen 1-1, wing 2-5, tail 2-25, tarsus 075. Drakensberg, 27. 7. 81 
(A. E. Butler). 

The Greater Double-collared Sunbird is apparently con- 
fined to Africa south of the Orange river and the Limpopo. 

In Cape Colony the species has been recorded only from 
the southern portion, and is apparently local, for according 
to Mr. Layard it never visits the neighbourhood of Cape 
Town, yet it occurs at Stellenbosch, Swellendam and the 
Knysna. Frank Oates procured it at Mossel Bay ; Atmore 
found the species breeding in the Long Kloof in the George 
district in October. Captain Bulger collected specimens at 
Windvogelberg, Mr. Richard at Port Elizabeth and East 
London, and Atmore at Eland's Post. Mr. T. L. Ayres told 
me that around Durban in Natal the species was to be met 
with during the breeding season, from July to August, and 
gave me several specimens he had collected at Pinetown, some 
twelve miles inland. Messrs. Butler, Feilden and Reid 
considered it a resident in the Drakensberg kloofs, where they 
found it in the cold months of May and June and met with a 
nest there, near Newcastle, on August 21. It was "a pear- 
shaped ball of dry grass, vegetable fibres, cobwebs, &c, very 
neatly constructed, and suspended by the small end from the 
top of a good-sized green shrub about ten feet from the 
ground. The entrance was at one side, with a portico over 
it ; it was warmly lined with feathers. Unfortunately this 
nest was blown down in a snow-storm before the eggs were 
laid. One can hardly realise the fact of birds of this genus 
building with two feet of snow lying on the ground, but it is 
nevertheless a fact (B.)." 

In the Transvaal Mr. T. Ayres considered it to be a 



74 CINNYRIS LUDOVICENSIS. 

common bird in the Rustenburg district. Mr. Barratt collected 
specimens at Lydenburg and Macamac, and Mr. T. E. Buckley 
in Swaziland. There is a specimen in the British Museum 
labelled "Zambesi (Meller) " ; it was formerly in Dr. R. B. 
Sharpe's collection, and was purchased from a dealer, and 
this evidence is not, I consider, sufficiently conclusive of its 
occurrence to the north of the Limpopo river, and I may add 
that in Bradshaw's collection there was no specimen of G. afer. 

Mr. Chapman is said to have brought down with him a 
specimen from the Lake Ngami district, but he does not 
mention the species himself, and if the specimen really came 
from that country, it most probably belonged to the allied 
form, G. ludovicensis. 

Mr. Atmore found G. afer breeding in October. The nests, 
he writes, " Were well woven with the fibres of Asclepias, 
grass-bents, snake skins, and all sorts of odd things, and then 
filled up with feathers. My boys have taken three or four 
nests each with but two eggs, and I believe that to be the 
orthodox number." The eggs, according to Mr. Layard, " are 
similar in colour (clouded greyish brown) and size to those of 
the western species, C. chalybeus." 

Cinnyris ludovicensis. 

Cinnyris ludovicensis (Bocage), Sharpe ed. Layard's B. S. Afr. p. 830 

(1884); Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 40 (1896); id. Ibis, 1897, p. 524 

Nyasa. 
Nectarinia ludovicensis, Bocage, Jorn. Lisb. 1868, p. 41 ; id. Orn. 

Angola, p. 169 (1877) Biballa. 
Nectarinia intermedia, Bocage, Jorn. Lisb. 1880, p. 236 ; 1881, p. 65 ; 

id. Orn. Angola, p. 544 (1881) Gaconda. 
Cinnyris erikssoui, Trimen, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 451, pi. 32, Mossamedes ; 

Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 38 (1884). 

Adult Male. Similar to C. afer, but differs in measurements and has no 
violet sbade on the narrow steel blue pectoral- band. Total length 4' 7 



CINNYRIS LUDOVrCENSIS. 7fi 

inches, culmen 0-7, wing 2-5, tail 2, tarsus 07. Caconda, 1878 (Anchieta). 
Adult Female. Similar in plumage to G. afer. 

The BengueJa Double-collared Sunbird inhabits Benguela 
and North Zainbesia. 

Anchieta discovered the type of the species at Biballa, 
where, he informs us, it is called by the natives " Kanjoi," 
and at Caconda he obtained the type of Nectarinia intermedia. 
This species has been well figured from a very finely plumaged 
specimen and renamed G. erikssoni by my friend Mr. Trimen, 
who writes : " This handsome species was found by Mr. 
Eriksson to be not uncommon in the wooded ravines of the 
mountain-range called Sheila (' Serra de Chella ' of Keith 
Johnston's Library Map of Africa), rather over a hundred 
miles inland from the Port of Mossamedes at Little Fish Bay. 
He describes its habits to be precisely those of G. chalybeus 
and G. afer, both of which he had observed some years ago 
at Knysna in the Cape Colony, but which neither he nor the 
late Mr. Andersson ever met with to the north of the Orange 
river. Since seeing Mr. Eriksson's bird here described, it has 
occurred to me that the specimens of G. afer stated by Captain 
Shelley and Mr. Sharpe to be recorded by Prof. Barboza du 
Bocage from Biballa may possibly prove to be G. erikssoni, as 
the latter locality is only a few miles distant from the Sheila 
range." 

Mr. Trimen is certainly right in his last surmise, and this 
species must stand as G. ludovicensis. 

In the British Museum there is a typical specimen of 
Nectarinia intermedia, Bocage, from Caconda, which also be- 
longs to this species. It is not in full plumage, and its scarlet 
breast-band is not fully developed, but it may be distinguished 
from G. chalybeus by the scarlet of the breast-band being paler, 
of the same shade as in G. afer, and the narrow metallic belt 
above being bluer ; but its strongest specific character lies in 
the small size of the bill in proportion to the wing. 



76 CINNYRIS CHALYBEUS. 

On referring to C. chalybeus, Sharpe's ed. Layard's B. S. 
Afr. p. 315, will be found printed: "We also believe that 
we have rightly identified this species as occurring in Mr. 
Chapman's collection from Lake Ngami." 

This reference and the one in the same work, to G. afer 
having been collected in the Lake Ngami district by Mr. 
Chapman, must be both incorrect. As to their referring to 
G. ludouicensis, it is improbable, as there is no reference made 
to the specimens by Mr. Chapmau, although he gave a good 
list of the birds he collected in his " Travels, Interior, S. Afr. 
1868;" but it is highly probable that he added these Sun- 
birds to his collection while he was in Cape Colony. 

That G. ludovicensis may occur in the Lake Ngami district 
is not improbable, for Mr. Alexander Whyte has collected in 
Nyasaland, on the Nyika Plateau in June, four specimens in 
full adult male plumage. 

Cinnyris chalybeus. 

Cinnyris chalybeus (Linn.), Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 253, pi. 78 (1876) ; 
Ayres, Ibis, 1876, p. 425 ; Butler, Feilden & Reid, Zool. 1882, p. 247 
Natal; Shelley, Ibis, 1882, p. 256 Bustenburg, UmvuliB.; Gadow, 
Cat. B. M. ix. p. 37 (1884) ; Kuschel, J. f. 0. 1895 (egg); Rendall, 
Ibis, 1896, p. 171 Transvaal; Marshall, t. c. p. 243 Salisbury; 
Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 41 (1896) ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1897, p. 506 Zulu; 
Sowerby, Ibis, 1898, p. 569 Mashona. 

Adult Male. Similar to C. afer, but smaller and with the scarlet 
pectoral-band narrower and slightly darker. Total length 5 inches, culrnen 
0-8, wing 2-25, tail 1-9, tarsus 065. Durban (Gordge). 

Adult Female. Similar in plumage to C. afer. Ceres, Cape Colony, 
28. 1. 74 (Shelley). 

The culmen varies in length from 075 to 1-0. From Capetown 0'75 to 
0-85 ; Natal 08 to 1-0 ; Mashonaland 0-85. 

The Cape Lesser Double-Collared Sunbird is confined to 
South Africa, south of the Orange river and the Zambesi. 



CINNYRIS CHALYBEUS. 77 

It is the commonest and most generally distributed of the 
South African Sunbirds, yet it is in a manner local, being in 
certain spots partially replaced by G. afer, from which it differs 
somewhat in its habits, preferring the open country, where 
the low scattered bushes and tufts of grass afford a shelter 
more congenial to its tastes than the woodland country. 

Of its occurrence in the western districts Mr. Andersson 
writes : " I do not recollect having observed this bird north 
of the Orange river ; but I have not unfrequently met with 
it in Little Namaqua Land, and I am informed by Mr. Layard 
that it was brought by Mr. Chapman from the Lake-regions." 
It is improbable that Mr. Chapman really procured it in the 
Lake Ngami districts, as he does not mention it in his book of 
" Travels in South Africa," and any specimen in his collection 
not recorded in that work was more probably obtained near 
Cape Town. 

I found it very abundant at Cape Town, Ceres and Mossel 
Bay, Mr. Atmore has sent it from George, and in the Knysna 
district both Victorin and Andersson have procured it. Mr. 
Rickards collected specimens at Port Elizabeth and East 
London. 

To the eastward of Cape Colony in Natal I found it fairly 
plentiful, both at Durban and Pinetown. Messrs. Butler, 
Feilden and Reid write : " Very common in the Drakensberg 
near Newcastle, where we obtained examples in mid winter 
(May and June) and where it breeds. Seen in small flocks, 
or rather assemblies, on flowering trees in the ' Town Bush ' 
at Maritzburg on August 31." 

Mr. Ayres observed them most abundant in Natal in July 
and August, when the peach-trees were in full blossom. He 
says their song is very sweet though not loud. In the 
Leydenburg district he found them " plentiful in the spring 
and early autumn, when they congregate on the blossoming 



78 CJXNYRIS CHALYBEUS. 

trees and shrubs ; they are also found in winter, but not 
commonly." On his journey with Mr. Jameson, they collected 
specimens at Rustenburg in May and at the Umvuli river, in 
Matabele, in September. At the latter place they were scarce, 
and had probably just arrived, for none were seen in August. 
Mr. Barratt procured this species at Macomac, Lydenberg, 
Pretoria, Bloemfontein and in British Kaffraria where they 
were very abundant. 

I do not find any reference to this bird having been met 
with so far north as the Zambesi river ; but in Mashonaland 
Mr. Guy Marshall informs me : " This is the commonest of 
our Sunbirds ; like the others it is most abundant towards 
the close of the dry season, when the yet leafless Kaferbooms 
(Erythrina) are ablaze with their scarlet flowers, which seem 
to afford a special attraction to these birds. It is a familiar 
and fearless little bird, and is capable of singing very sweetly. 
The nests, although often suspended, are more often supported 
by twigs." 

"With regard to its habits, Mr. Layard writes : " It is one 
of the boldest and most familiar of all our Sunbirds, frequent- 
ing the flower-gardens in the midst of Cape Town, and even 
venturing into open windows to visit potted plants. Nests, 
reported to be of this species, have been brought to me, 
pendent, domed, and porticoed structures, like those of others 
of the family that I have seen. Eggs minutely mottled 
greyish brown ; " 065 by 05 inches. " I can confirm the 
statements of my correspondents, having myself taken nests 
of this species containing eggs and young birds. They are 
not, however, always pendent, being sometimes supported by 
twigs, interwoven with the structure. They are composed of 
cobwebs, stuck over with bits of dead leaves or chips of bark, 
and always placed on the outside of a bush, never among the 
branches. I have, however, seen one placed on the side of a 



CINNYRIS MEDIOCRIS 79 

busli close to a rock, so that the bird had to fly round the 
bush to get to it. In appearance they exactly resemble the 
masses made and collected by one of our commonest (South 
African) spiders ; and I have more than once seen an 
inhabited spider's web forming part and parcel of the nest. 
Whether the nest was built in the spider's web, or whether 
the spider found it a convenient place and selected it herself, 
or was brought with a bit of web by the bird, and then took 
up her abode and enlarged it, I cannot tell ; but there the 
incongruous allies lived; and each brought up her brood, or 
would have done so, had not I harried them both." 



Cinnyris mediocris. (PI. 3, fig. 2.) 

Cinnyris mediocris, Shelley, P. Z. S. 1885, p. 223 Kilimanjaro ; 1889, p. 
365 Useri B. ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1891, p. 593 Kikuyu, Sotik ; Beichen. 
Vog. Deutsch 0. Afr. p. 212 (1893); Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 43 
(1896) ; Neumann, J. f. 0. 1898, p. 241 Mau ; Hartert in Ansorge's 
" Under Afr. Sun," App. p. 250 (1899) Uganda. 

Adult Male. Similar to C. clialybeus, but differs in the bill being slightly 
more curved, and the abdomen pale olive shaded with yellow. It resembles 
C. chalybeus in having the head, neck, back and lesser wing-coverts golden 
green, but the upper tail-coverts and the narrow metallic collar are of a 
greenish rather than a violet shaded steel blue followed by a deep scarlet 
chest band flanked by yellow axillary tufts. Total length 46 inches, culmen 
0-7, wing 2-1, tail 2, tarsus 0-7. 

Adult Female. Above and sides of the head olive green. Beneath olive 
yellow, showing the dusky olive centres to the feathers, except on the 
centre of the abdomen which inclines to sulphur yellow ; axillaries sulphur 
yellow ; under wing-coverts white partially washed with yellow. Total 
length 39 inches, culmen 065, wing 2, tail 1-7, tarsus 065. 

The Masai Double-collared Sunbird ranges from Kiliman- 
jaro in Masai Land to Sotik (0° 35' S. lat., 35° 25', E. long.). 

The type of the species was discovered by Sir Harry 
Johnston on the Kilimanjaro Mountain at an elevation of 
12,000 feet, who writes : " Fairly abundant. Only remarked 



80 CINNYRIS STUHLMANNI. 

in upper regions." Mr. H. C. V. Hunter likewise met with 
the species on Kilimanjaro between 5,000 and 6,000 feet, and 
procured a specimen in imperfect plumage at the Useri river 
in July. Mr. Neumann met with the species in the Mau forest, 
Mr. J. F. Jackson collected two full plumaged males in 
Kikuyu in September, and at Sotik in October, and Mr. 
Ansorge shot an adult male in December at the Subugo forest 
in the Uganda Protectorate. 



'&' 



Cinnyris stuhlmanni. 

Cinnyris stuhlmanni, Eeichen. Orn. Monatsb. 1893, p. 61 Centr. Afr. 
? Cinnyris erikssoni (nee Trim.), Emin. J. f. O. 1891, p. 346 Monbuttu. 

Stuhlmann's Double- collared Sunbird inhabits Central 
Africa. This rather vague locality is the only one given for 
the type which was forwarded to Berlin in Emin and Stuhl- 
mann's collection. I presume this species, if not the type, is 
referred to from the Monbuttu country by Emin as C. erikssoni. 

Nothing further is known, I believe, of this species, and 
as it was not entered in Dr. Reichenow's work on the avifauna 
of German East Africa, I omitted it in my " List of African 
Birds " presuming that it was not a good species, but at my 
request Dr. Reichenow has very kindly sent the character I 
have used for it in my key to the species of the genus Cinnyris. 
The original description of the type is as follows : " Cinnyris 
afra simillima, sed rostro breviore, fascia? pectoralis colore 
rubro obscuriore, abdomine olivacenti-brunneo distinguenda. 
A Cinnyris erikssoni rostro longiore et fascia pectorali rubro 
angustiore diversa. L. t. ca. 130-140; a. im. 64; c. 60; r. 24; 
t. 19 mm." 

Cinnyris fuelleborni. 

Cinnyris fiilleborni, Eeichen. Orn. Monatsb. 1899, p. 7 Kalinga. 
Cinnyris preussi (nee Eeichen.) Shelley, Ibis, 1897, p. 524 Kombi. 



CINNYRIS PREUSSI. 81 

Adult Male. Similar to C. chalybeus, but with the abdomen uniform 
dark yellowish brown ; blue collar and upper tail-coverts of a violet shade ; 
quills with dark yellow on the outer edges, as in G. preussi ; under wing- 
coverts mostly white. Total length 4-7 inches, culmen 0'85, wing 2-2, tail 
1-8, tarsus 075. Kombe on Masuku range, Nyasaland, July (A. Whyte). 

Fiilleborn's Double-collared Sunbird inhabits the Nyasa 
Lake district. 

At Korabi on the Maruku Range Mr. Alexander "Whyte 
procured a specimen in full plumage at an elevation of 7,000 
feet in July, and Dr. F. Fiilleborn discovered the type at 
Kalinga in the southern part of German East Africa. 



Cinnyris preussi. 

Cinneris preusbi, Reichen. J. f. 0. 1892, p. 190 Camaroons ; Sjostedt, Mitt. 

d. Schutzg. viii. 1895, p. 33 ; id. Sv. Vet. Ak. Handl. 1895, p. 102 ; 

Eeichen. J. f. O. 1896, pp. 38, 64 ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 44 (1896). 
Cinnyris chalybeus (nee Linn.), Shelley, P. Z. S. 1887, p. 125 Camaroons. 

Adult Male. Very similar to C. fuelleborni, but with the dark brown 
breast only slightly tinted with yellow on the abdomen and under tail- 
coverts, under wing-coverts dusky ash with no white. Total length 4-2 
inches, culmen 0-85, wing 2-25, tail 165, tarsus 075. Camaroons Sept. 
(H. H. Johnston). 

Adult Female. Very similar to the hen of C. mediocris. Total length 
4 inches, culmen 0-8, wing 2, tail 1*7, tarsus 0-65. 

The Camaroons Double-collared Sunbird is only known 
to occur in Camaroons. 

The type was procured by Dr. Preuss at Buea in the 
highlands ; Sir Harry Johnston collected two full plumaged 
males and a female in the same district at 7,000 to 8,000 feet 
in September. According to Mr. Sjostedt they have a fine 
piping note which they pour forth from the top of a bush, and 
are often to be met with in company with Elminia longieauda. 

[June, 1899. 



CINNYRIS REICHENOWI. 



Cinnyris reichenowi. 

Cinnyris reichenowi, Sharps, Ibis, 1891, pp. 444, 593, pi. 12, fig. 1 

Sotik; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 45 (1896); Hartert in Angorge's 

" Under Afr. Sun," App. p. 350 Uganda. 
Nectarinia erickssoni (nee Trim.), Hartl. Abhandl. nat. Ver. Brem., 

1891, p. 28 Baguera. 
Cinnyris ansorgii, Hartert in Ansorge's " Under the African Sun," App. 

p. 350, pi. 2, fig. 1, ManiuTta 

Adult Male. Similar to C. preussi, but smaller and slightly bluer above 
and with scarcely any trace of yellow on the wings. Total length 4-4 
inches, culmen 0-63, wing 2-1, tail 1-55, tarsus 0-65. Sotik, Oct. (Jackson). 

The blue shade on the upper parts, and the shade of red of the breast- 
band are not very constant characters, but the short bill and violet blue 
colouring of the collar and upper tail-coverts readily distinguishes the 
species. 

Reichenow's Double -collared Sunbird inhabits the Victoria 
Nyanza district. 

The type of the species was discovered by Mr. Jackson at 
Sotik, near the north-east end of Victoria Nyanza. He has, 
further, procured at Nandi, at an elevation of 6,500 feet, an 
adult male with a rather pale breast-band, and a male in moult 
in May, and in the same locality a female, on July 8, 1898. 
Six days later he obtained an adult male in the ravine of Mau. 
All these specimens, as well as the type of G. ansorgii, I have 
carefully examined and consider to belong to one species. 
Of the latter Mr. Hartert writes : " An adult male, shot at 
Mandi Station in the Uganda Protectorate on March 16, 1898, 
differs from G. reichenowi, Sharpe, in the great extension of the 
somewhat deeper red colour of the breast, which occupies an 
area of about 23 mm. in length, while in G. reichenowi it extends 
for about 17 mm., tarsus 20 mm., culmen (from end of feathers 
of forehead) 18"3mm., against 20 mm. in G. reichenowi. The 
belly and abdomen seem to be a little darker than in 



CINNYRIS CHLOROPYGIUS. 83 

C. reichenowi. It is not without hesitation that I describe a 
third form in addition to G. mediocris and G. reichenowi from 
almost the same localities; yet, on the other hand, it seems 
to be as distinct from G. reichenowi as the latter is from 
C. mediocris ; and Prof. Reichenow and Mr. Neumann, both 
authorities in East African ornithology, pronounced it to be an 
undescribed species when they saw it at Tring." 

The group to which I have applied the name of Double- 
collared Sunbirds presents several extremely nearly allied 
forms. These are most readily distinguished by the brown, 
yellow or ashy shade of the breast below the red collar, and 
the steel or purple blue shade of the metallic collar and upper 
tail-coverts ; these characters, coupled with the measurements 
of the bill and wing, suffice to distinguish e,ach species ; and 
the females may be generally recognised by the shade of 
plumage being somewhat similar to that of the abdomen of the 
full plumaged males. 



Cinnyris chloropygius. 

Cinnyris chloropygius (Jard.) Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 257, pi. 79 (1876) ; 
Sharpe and Bouvier, Bull. S. Z. France, 1876, p. HLoango ; Gadow, 
Cat. B. M. ix. p. 34 (1884) ; Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. 1885, p. 169 ; 

1886, p. 250; 1888, p. 72; 1889, p. 118 Liberia; Eeichen. J. f. O. 

1887, p. 306 Leopoldsville; Shelley, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 38 Tingasi; 
id. Ibis, 1890, p. 162 Aruwimi; Beichen. J. f. 0. 1890, p. 126 
Camaroons ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1891, p. 593 Sotik; Beichen. J. f. O. 
1892, pp. 55 Uganda, 190 Camaroons; 1896, p. 38; Sjostedt, 
Sv. Vet. Ak. Handl. 1895, p. 101 Camaroons ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 
46 (1896) ; Eeichen. J. f. O. 1897, p. 46 Togoland. 

Nectarinia ehloropygia, Hartl. J. f. O. 1861, p. 109 Bissao, Gaboon; 
Shelley and Buckley, Ibis, 1872 p. 287 Gold Coast; Hartl. Abhandl. 
nat. Ver. Brem. 1891, p. 29 Djanda, Uvamba. 

Adult Male. Head, neck, back and lesser wing-coverts metallic golden 
green, with no portion steel blue ; a scarlet breast-band joins the green 
throat ; axillary-tufts bright yellow ; remainder of the under parts olive 



84 CJNNYRIS CHLOROPYGIUS. 

shaded brown. Total length 3-6 inches, culmen 0-65, wing 1-9, tail 1'4, 
tarsus 0-6. Abouri, 20. 2. 70 (T. E. Buckley). 

Adult Female. Above olive, as well as the cheeks and sides of the 
head ; tail black with pale tips broadest on the outer feathers. Under 
surface of body and a partial eyebrow pale yellow fading into white towards 
the chin. Total length 3-5 inches, culmen 06, wing 1-75, tail 1-1, tarsus 055. 
Abrobonko, 30. 1. 72 (Shelley). 

Tlie little Scarlet-collared Sunbird ranges throughout West 
Africa from Senegal to Angola, and oyer Central Africa to the 
eastern shores of Victoria Nyanza. 

Dr. Hartlaub records a specimen, in the Berlin Museum, 
from Senegal ; Verreaux's collectors sent others from Casa- 
manse. Mr. Biittikofer calls it the commonest Sunbird in 
Liberia, and in the British Museum there is an adult male from 
Cape Palmas. 

On the Cold Coast the species is abundant : Mr. Blissett 
collected specimens at Elmina, the late Governor Ussher 
in Fantee, in the neighbourhood of Cape Coast Castle and the 
inland forest of Denkera. He also met with it further along 
the coast at the Volta river and Lagos. 

Mr. T. E. Buckley and myself found these birds at 
Abrobonko, near Cape Coast Castle, and at Abouri in the 
Aguapim mountains, but never saw them in the open country 
round Accra. In Togoland Herr Baumann procured a specimen 
at Leglebi in July. 

The type of the species is in the British Museum ; it is an 
adult male from the Niger. Marche and De Compiegne 
collected specimens at Old Calabar and on the Island of 
Fernando Po, where, according to Fraser, these Sunbirds are 
to be met with in flocks of from twenty to fifty individuals near 
the houses, perched on the long grass and low shrubs, and 
they have a short but sweet note. " A female procured 
breeding ; the nest, made of grass, was pendent from the 
branches of a small bush ; she alone was the architect, both 



CINNYRIS CHLOROPYGIUS. 85 

carrying and weaving the materials ; the male was not observed 
to assist in any way." 

In Camaroons the species is said to be common throughout 
the country and is apparently equally abundant iu Gaboon, 
for there are fifteen skius from that country in the British 
Museum. 

Marcbe collected specimens at Lambarene, Lope, and 
Doume in the Ogowe district, and Du Chaillu at the Moonda, 
Muni and Oamma rivers. Petit procured specimens on the 
Loango Coast, at Landana and Chinchonxo, and it wanders 
as far south as the Lucale river in Angola, from whence there 
is one of Hamilton's collecting in the British Museum. 

The species evidently ranges over the whole northern half 
of the Congo district, for specimens have been collected by 
Bohndorff at Leopoldsville, by Jameson at the Aruwirai, by 
Bmin at Tingasi, Djanda, Uvamba and Bukoba. Along the 
northern portion of Victoria Nyanza the species has been 
procured by Dr. Stuhlmann on the islands of Sesse and Soweh, 
off the Uganda coast, and as far east, by Mr. Jackson, as 
Sotik, (0° 34' S. lat., 35° 25' B. long.). He has also collected 
two full plumaged males at Ntebi in March and September. 

With regard to the breeding of this species Mr. Biittikofer 
writes : " Its nest hangs at the end of a twig about three feet 
above the ground, generally in old farms, where grass and 
brushwood are growing up again. It is of a pouch-like, some- 
what oval shape, felted together with the soft fibres of plantain 
leaves and cotton, with which latter material it is very thickly 
lined, and outside decorated with interwoven pieces of lichen, 
which gives it a grey and white speckled appearance. The 
entrance, a round hole in the side near the top, is covered by 
a kind of jetty, built from the same material as the nest. 
Each nest contains commonly two, very seldom three, eggs of 
an oval form" (0'6 inch by 0'44) ; "colour, greyish white 



86 CINNYRIS REGIUS. 

with concentric dirty streaks at the thicker pole. Collected 
November 14" 



Cinnyris regius. 

Cinnyris regius, Reichen. Orn. Monatsb. 1893, p. 32; id. J. f. 0. 1894, 
pi. 1, fig. 1 ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 42 (1896). 

Adult Male. Head, neck, back, lesser and median wing-coverts metallic 
green ; upper tail-coverts violet blue ; a narrow steel blue collar at the base 
of the throat ; centre of breast and under tail-coverts scarlet shading into 
bright yellow on the sides of the body and into olive yellow on the vent ; 
quills and greater coverts blackish brown with olive edges, the former with 
white inner margins ; tail graduated and blue black ; under wing-coverts 
yellowish white. Bill black ; iris and legs dark brown. Total length 
5 inches, culmen 0-7, wing 2'15, tail 2"1, tarsus 06. 

The Red-brested Wedge-tailed Sunbird has been recorded 
only as a native of Central Africa. 

Probably to this species should be referred the specimens 
of Mr. Layard's Nectarinia violacea, B. S. Afr. pp, 78, 79, of 
which he writes : "I saw a fine pair building a pendent, domed 
nest, with a projecting portico over the entrance, at Cape 
Delgado, on the East Coast of Africa. The nest was hung at 
the extreme end of a drooping branch of a Camarina, close to 
the sea-beach ; not far off was the nest of N. senegalensis." 
The latter mentioned species was no doubt Ghalcomitra 
gutturalis. 



Cinnyris violaceus. 

Anthobaphes violacea (Linn.), Shelley Mon. Nect. p. 23, pi. 8 (1876) ; 
Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 11 (1884) ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 72 
(1896). 

Adult Male. Head, neck, upper half of the back and least wing-coverts 
deep metallic green partially glossed with lilac ; lower back and upper tail- 
coverts olive yellow ; remainder of the wings and the tail dark brown ; the 



CINNYRIS VIOLACEOUS. 87 

green of the throat passes into lilac and then into steel blue towards its base. 
Breast yellow, strongly washed with orange on the front of the chest and 
tail-coverts, and shades into olive yellow on the flanks ; pectoral-tufts bright 
yellow. Total length 6'5 inches, culmen 0-9, wing 2 - 3, tarsus 0'7. Cape 
(Brit. Mus.). 

Adult Female. Olive, with an ashy shade beneath, and washed with 
yellow down the centre of the breast and on the under tail-coverts. Total 
length 5 inches, culmen 085, wing 2, tail 2-2, tarsus 065. Cape (Brit. 
Mus.). 

The Cape Wedge-tailed Sunbird is probably confined to the 
western portion of Cape Colony south of the Orange river and 
west of the Gauritz river, which separates the provinces of 
Swellendam from George. 

It is equally improbable that Mr. Layard ever saw this 
species at Cape Delgado, as that the specimens said to have 
been in Mr. Chapman's collection came from the Lake Ngami 
district. 

Mr. Andersson writes : " I have found this species pretty 
abundant in Little Namaqualand ; but to the best of my 
knowledge it is not an inhabitant of Great Namaqua or Damara- 
land, though Mr. Layard informs us that Mr. Chapman 
brought specimens from the Lake country. It is found singly 
and in pairs, often also in flocks, frequenting the slopes of 
hills and mountains, whence it descends to the low grounds, 
but only during the flowering-season of the garden plants and 
trees, amongst which it is especially fond of the sweet-scented 
orange blossom. With the exception of such excursions, it 
is not migratory. The male bird has a brisk pleasant song." 

Mr. Layard found these Sunbirds plentiful on the top and 
about the sides of Table Mountain, and also abundant in the 
Knysna district among the uncultivated hill sides, away from 
timber. 

Mr. A. C. Stark has kindly sent me the following note: 
"Breeds in western Cape Colony in June and July — mid- 
winter — even on the higher mountains, sometimes a second 



88 CHALCOMITRA. 

time in September and October. Very common on Table 
Mountain. The nests are domed, but, unlike those of any other 
South African Sunbird, are never pendent, nor have they any 
projecting porch over the entrance. All I have seen (seven 
or eight) have been built in thick tufts of heath from a foot 
to eighteen inches off the ground, the sides of the nest attached 
to the twigs of heath. Nest constructed of small flexible twigs 
of heath, dry grass and narrow downy leaves, thickly lined 
with the soft white petals of a protea (usually). 

" Eggs two, white, dotted all over, but most thickly round 
the greater diameter with small spots and streaks of greyish 
brown. They measure 0*65 x O^S." 



Genus IV. CHALCOMITRA. 

Form very similar to that of Cinnyris ; tail always square, and the entire 
mantle brown, sometimes inclining to velvety black in adult males. 

Full plumaged males always have metallic colours on the forehead ; the 
other metallic coloured portions of the plumage are confined to the crown, 
wing-coverts, upper tail-coverts and throat. 

Females and young birds have no metallic colours, and sometimes the 
species to which specimens of these belong can only be determined by their 
measurements and habitat. 

The genus is confined to tropical and South Africa, and comprises about 
twelve known species. 



KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

a. Entire forehead of metallic colours . . . males in full plumage. 
a 1 . A broad scarlet chest-band. 
a 2 . Upper throat metallic green. 
a 3 . No metallic colours on the wing. 
a 4 . Metallic green mustachial-band 
much broader ; wings and tail 
paler, cinnamon brown . . . scnegalcusis. 
b i . Metallic green mustachial-band 
much narrower ; wings and 
tail bronzy brown ... . acik. 



CHALCOMITUA SENEGALENSIS. 89 

b 3 . Least series of wing-coverts metallic 

violet gutturalis. 

b'- . Chin and upper throat black. 

c 3 . No metallic colours ou back or 

upper tail-coverts cruentata. 

d 3 . Lower back and upper tail-coverts 

metallic lilac hunteri. 

b 1 . No broad red chest-band. 
c". Throat metallic lilac. 

e 3 . Forehead and crown green. 

C*. Upper tail-coverts metallic lilac. 

a 5 . Larger: culmen 1 - 15; wing 2-9 ameihystina. 
b 5 . Smaller : culmen 0-9 ; wing 2-8 deminuta. 
d*. No metallic coloured upper tail- 
coverts kirki. ■ 

f 3 . Forehead metallic lilac fuliginosa 

d". Throat metallic green angolensis. 

e 2 . Lower throat buff adelberti. 

g 3 . With bright chestnut on plumage . adelbert. 
h 3 . No bright chestnut on plumage . . castaneiventris. 
b. Forehead brown like the upper parts. 

c 1 . Mottled with some bright colours . . . males in imperfect plumage. 
d 1 . No bright colours females. 

Females and young males are similar in plumage and size in C. 
senegalensis , C. acik, and C. gutturalis, but may be distinguished from all 
the other members of this genus in having the primary coverts distinctly 
marked with white, instead of being uniform brown. 

Chalcomitra senegalensis. 

Chalcomitra senegalensis (Linn.), Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 47 (1896). 
Cinnyris senegalensis, Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 267, pi. 83 (1878) ; Gadow, 

Cat. B. M. ix. p. 94 (1884) ; Kendall, Ibis, 1892, p. 219 Gambia; 

Reichen, J. f. 0. 1897, p. 46 Togoland. 
Nectarinia senegalensis, Bocage, J. f. 0. 1876, p. 435 Sencgambia. 

Adult Male. Dark brown fading into cinnamon brown on the quills, 
greater wing-coverts, upper tail-coverts and tail ; crown and a broad 
mustaehial-band golden- green ; chin and upper throat metallic olive green; 
remainder of throat and front of chest bright vermilion with a narrow 
subterminal metallic bluish green bar to each feather. Total length 5 
inches, culmen 09, wing 26, tail 1-9, tarsus G"6. W. Africa (Brit. Mus.). 

Adult Female. Above brown ; some white on the outermost wing- 
coverts, especially the primary coverts ; outer tail-feathers with narrow pale 



00 CHALCOMITRA ACIK. 

ends. Beneath buff, strongly mottled by the brown centres of the feathers 
on the throat and chest, and washed with brown on the flanks. Total 
length 4-6 inches, culnien 085, wing 2-45, tail 17, tarsus 065. 

The Senegal Scarlet-chested Suubird is confined to the 
northern portion of "West Africa and is only known for certain 
from the coast-land between 10" and 15° N. lat. 

Swainson writes : " It is probably one of the most common 
birds of Senegal, as scarcely any collection imported from that 
country does not contain several specimens ; " and Dr. P. 
Rendall in his recent notes on the ornithology of the Gambia 
remarks : " Scarcely a flowering shrub in my garden yielded 
any flowers the corollas of which had not been pierced by 
individuals of this species or of Ginnyris cupreus." 

It has been recorded by Prof. Barboza du Bocage from 
Goree, a small island off Cape Verde. Marche collected 
specimens in Senegambia, at Hann, Daranka and Sedhion, and 
in the British Museum there are examples from the Gambia, 
Cassamanse and Bissao. Dr. Hartlaub records a specimen in 
the Bremen Museum from the Gold Coast, which locality I 
feel sure must be incorrect, as it has never since been procured 
from south of Bissao, and for the same reason I agree with 
Dohrn that it does not occur in Princes Island. 

Many erroneous localities have been given to species, owing 
to naturalists who have not labelled their specimens with the 
date and the name of the place where they were actually 
procured having often had their collections referred to one 
locality although they probably added to them during the 
whole time of their travels. 



Chalcomitra acik. 

Chalcomitra acik (Antin.), Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 48 (1896). 

Cinnyris acik, Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 265, pi. 82 (1878) ; Gadow, Cat. 



CHALCOMITRA ACIK. 01 

B. M. ix. p. 94 (1884) ; Sharpe, Linn. Soc. Journ. Zool. xvii. p. 428 

(1884) Nyam-nyam; Shelley, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 38, Tingasi ; Sharpe, 

Ibis, 1891, p. 592 Kikuyu, Busoga; Eeichen. J. f. O. 1892, p. 55, 

Bukoba, Sesse Is. ; id. Vog. Deutseh 0. Afr. p. 210 (1894) ; Neum. 

J. f. O. 1898, pp. 233, 234 Victoria Nyanza ; Hartert in Ansorge's 

" Under Afr. Sun " App. p. 351 (1899) Unyoro. 
Nectarinia acik, Pelz. Verb. Wien. xxxi., pp. 143, 609 (1881) ; Hartl. 

Abhandl. nat. Ver. Brem. 1881, p. 108 ; 1882, p. 206 ; 1891, p. 30 

Upper White Nile. 
Cinnyris senegalensis lamperti, Reichen. J. f. O. 1897, p. 196 Kilimanjaro ; 

Hartert in Ansorge's "Under Afr. Sun" App. p. 351 (1899) Mtoto 

Ndei. 

Adult Male. Similar to C. senegalensis ; bat differs in the darker brown 
colouring of the wings and tail, in the green mustachial-baud being much 



narrower and in the bluer shade of the metallic bars on the scarlet feathers. 
Total length 5 inches, culmen 0-85, wing 2-6, tail 2, tarsus - 65. N. E. Afr. 
(Autinori, in Brit. Mus.). 

Adult female and males in moult are similar to those of G. senegalensis. 

The Acik Scarlet-chested Sunbird ranges over the Victoria 
Nyanza, Upper White Nile and Shoa districts, between about 
6' S. lat. and 10' N. lat., and from 25° to 40° B. long. 

This species, as I understand it, varies in size to the same 
extent as G. gutturalis, thus : total length 5*0 to 5*7 inches, 
culmen 0"85 to l'l, wing 2"6 to o"0, tail l - 7 to 2*1, tarsus 
0"65 to 0*7. The specific characters are : entire absence of 
metallic colours on the wing-coverts, which allies it to G. 
senegalensis only, from which latter species it may be always 
distinguished by the much narrower metallic green mustachial- 
band, and perhaps most readily by the darker colour of the 
wings and tail. The metallic bars on the scarlet feathers of 
the crop are less green, but vary in certain lights from steel 
blue to bluish green. 

The most southern known range for the species is Moshi 
on the Kilimanjaro mountain, where Mr. Widemann procured 
a rather large pale specimen, the type of Cinnyris senegalensis 
lamperti, Reichen., which is described as similar in plumage to 



cT 






-a 






92 CHALCOMITRA ACIK. 

C. senegalensis, but larger: bill 1*12 inches, wing 30, tail 2 - 08, 
and differs from G. gutturalis in having no metallic coloured 
patch on the wing-coverts, the wings aDd tail paler, and the 
scarlet on the lower throat and crop lighter, and with green 
instead of blue metallic subterminal bars to these feathers. 

Mr. Hartert, in his list of the collection of birds made by 
Mr. Ansorge, writes : — 

" Ginnyris acih. A good series from Masindi in Unyora. 

" Cinnyris senegalensis lamperti (see J. f. 0. 1897, p. 186). A 
male from Mtoto Ndei in British East Africa belongs to this 
form, described as a subspecies of senegalensis, from which it 
differs in being much larger (wing 77 mm.) and more brownish 
on the back." 

I have examined Mr. Jackson's fine series of specimens 
from Machako's, Ntebi, Elgeyu, Bosoga and Kikuyu, and find 
they only differ in being slightly larger than the typical 
specimen I have described and those in the British Museum 
from Nyam-nyatn and Shoa. Emin and Dr. Stuhlmann have 
met with the species at Victoria Nyanza on the island of Sesse 
and at Bukoba. The former explorer also collected specimens 
at Langomeri, Redjaf, Magungo, Kiri, Mambero, Njangaba 
and as far west as Tingasi, in which latter neighbourhood 
Bohndorff procured specimens while in the Nyam - nyam 
country at Dem Suleiman and at Dem Bakir (6° 30' N. lat., 
27° E. long). 

Antinori, who discovered the type of G. acih in the Djur 
country, believed that the species arrived there from the 
Equator about the beginning of February, when he first saw 
a few pairs, and migrated again towards the middle of April, 
as he did not meet with it later than the 15th of that month. 
He further tells us that the natives call it " Acik" and look 
upon its arrival as a good omen, foretelling the approach of 
the rainy season. 



CHALCOMLTRA GUTTURALIS. 93 

The most northern known range for this species is the 
Gazal river, in the neighbourhood of which von Henglin 
found these Sunbirds plentiful, and records them from Wau, 
Bongo and the Kosanga river, meeting with them generally in 
pairs in the high trees around the blossoming creepers, and, 
with the exception of July and August, he found them there 
during the whole year. He believed he saw them throughout 
his journey from the Nile across the Belenia mountains. 



Chalcomitra gutturalis. 

Chalcomitra gutturalis (Linn.) Cab. J. f. O. 1878, p. 227 Zanzibar Is., 
Teita; Shelley, Ibis, 1893, p. 17; 1894, p. 14; 1897, p. 525; 1898, 
p. 553 ; 1899, p. 282 Nyasa ; id. B. Afr. I. No. 49 (1896). 

Cinnyris gutturalis, Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 261, pi. 81 (1876) ; Nicholson 
P. Z. S. 1878, p. 355 Dar-es-Salaam ; Fisch. and Eeichen. J. f. O. 
1879, p. 348 Zanzibar; Sharpe in Oates's Matabele, p. 310 (1881) ; 
Gurney, Ibis, 1881, p. 125 Mombasa; Shelley, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 570 
Pangani B. ; 1882, p. 202 Bovuma B. ; id. Ibis, 1882, p. 256 
Matabele ; Butler, Feilden and Beid, Zool. 1882, p. 247 Natal ; Schal. 
J. f. O. 1883, p. 359 Kakoma ; Sharpe, ed. Layard's B. S. Afr. 
pp. 311, 830 (1884) ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 91 (1884) ; Fisch. 
Zeitschr. 1884, p. 338 Gt. Arusha ; id. J. f. O. 1885, p. 138 Wapoko- 
moland, Baraiva ; Ayres, Ibis, 1887, p. 55 Transvaal ; Eeichen. 
J. f. 0. 1887, p. 75 Eagehi; Matsch. t. c. p. 155 Luvule B. ; Biittik. 
Notes Leyd. Mus. 1888, p. 230 ; 1889, p. 71 Mossamedes ; Eeichen. 
J. f. O. 1889, p. 285 Quilimane, Bufu B. ; 1891, p. 160 Mpapwa, 
Tabora; id. Vog. Deutsch. O. Afr. p. 210 (1894); Kuschel, J. f. 0. 
1895, p. 347 (egg); Marshall, Ibis, 1896, p. 243 Mashona; Wood- 
ward, Ibis, 1897, pp. 401, 410 Zulu ; Sharpe, t. c. p. 506 Zulu; 
Sowerby, Ibis, 1898, p. 569 Mashona ; Neum. J. f . 0. 1898, p. 229 
Zanzibar. 

Nectarinia gutturalis, Bocage, Orn. Angola, p. 164 (1877) Benguela ; 
Fisch. J. f. 0. 1877, pp. 178, 208 ; id. and Eeichen. J. f . 0. 1878, p. 260 ; 
Fisch, t. c. p. 280 ; 1879, p. 300 ; 1880, pp. 188, 191 ; Bohm, J. f. O. 
1883, p. 191 ; 1885, pp. 46, 71 E. Afr. ; Sousa, Jom. Lisb. 1887, 
p. 93 Quissange. 

Cinnyris cruentata (nee Eiipp.) Tristram, Ibis, 1889, p. 226 Ugogo. 

Cinnyris gutturalis incestimata, Hartert in Ansorge's " Under Afr. Sun," 
App. p. 351 (1899) E. Afr. 



94 CHALCOMITRA GUTTURALIS. 

Adult Male. Similar to C. acik, but of a more uniform darker velvety 
brown, and the least series of wing-coverts bright metallic violet, which 
latter character also readily distinguishes it from C. senegalensis. Total 
length 5'5 inches, culmen 1-1, wing 3, tail 2-2, tarsus 0-7. Pinetown, 30. 4. 
75 (T. L. Ayres). 

Adult Female. Similar to that of C. seneqalcnsis and C. acik. Total 
length 5 inches, culmen 1, wing 2-75, tail 2, tarsus 07. Pinetown, 3. 4. 75 
(T. L. Ayres). 



The Southern Scarlet-chested Sunbird ranges from Angola 
into Damaraland and from thence throughout eastern Africa, 
from Natal to 1° N. lat. on the Somali coast. 

In western Africa the species has been found by Welwitsch 
at Loanda, by Monteiro at Colombo on the Quanza, at Katom- 
bella and Benguela. Anchieta informs us that it is known to 
the natives of Rio Chimba and Capangombe as " Mariopinda," 
at Humbe and the Cunene as " Kanzola," and that it has a 
sweet and varied song. Mr. Chapman found the species 
common in the Okovango valley and in the Lake Ngami 
district, but did not see it in Damaraland proper, where, 
according to Andersson, they are not common, but in July, 
1866, he met with it at Objimbinque and remarks : " They seem 
chiefly to seek their food amongst the ' tobacco ' trees now 
growing so abundantly in the bed and on the banks of the 
Swakop. Can the increase of this tree of late years have 
brought more of these birds ? I hardly remember to have 
seen them at Objimbinque previously." 

Mr. T. L. Ayres has sent me several specimens collected by 
him at Durban and Pinetown, where he tells me it is migratory, 
only arriving in the summer season and is never very abundant 
there. According to Messrs. Butler, Feilden and Reid, it is 
said not to be uncommon in the hot months near Maritzburg. 
In Zululand Messrs. R. B. and J. D. S. Woodward collected 
specimens at Eschowe, Ulundi and Santa Lucia Lake, and 
found the species abundant amongst the aloe-blossoms. Mr. 



CHALCOMITRA GUTTURALTS. 95 

T. Ayres writes, with regard to a specimen he shot in tbe 
Transvaal, July, 1885 : " Whilst trying for a shot at Sea-cows 
one morning, along the Mahupan, I noticed several of these 
handsome little birds busily extracting honey from the flowers 
of a shrub in blossom ; there was only a patch of it a few yards 
in circumference, but this was all alive with Sunbirds, and, 
besides the present species, I noticed G. mariquensis and 
G. talatala. The next day I went with my shot-gun and 
obtained the specimen now sent ; I subsequently saw two 
others near Buffels, but was not able to secure them. This 
is the first time I have met with the Natal Sunbird since 
leaving the coast of Natal in 1870." 

In the British Museum there are eight specimens from 
Swaziland, and twenty-two full plumaged males from various 
localities between the Limpopo and Zambesi, collected from 
February to October. In Matabeleland Messrs. Jameson and 
Ayres inform us that the species is called by the natives 
" Icomo mazadoona." They collected specimens at the Umvuli 
river, August 16, and Quae Quae river, October 25, and 
write : " This species suddenly made its appearance in great 
numbers about this time, and remained plentiful for some- 
what less than a month, and then became scarce again, a pair 
here and there only remaining to breed. This was not for 
want of food, for the ' German-sausage trees,' on which they 
had been feeding, were still loaded with blossoms long after 
the Sunbirds had left ; so I presume they must have been 
passing to some more favourite locality." 

With regard to the species in Mashonaland, Mr. Sowerby 
writes : " Very common in bush- veldt and kopjes, but I never 
saw them before August 8. They are very pugnacious." 
From the same country Mr. Guy Marshall informs us : " This 
fine bird is not nearly so plentiful as G. chalybeus and G. kirki, 
and seems to absent itself from about January to June, though 



96 CHALCOMITRA GUTTURALIS. 

perhaps it may be that the male loses his fine plumage during 
this period. The nest is generally supported among small 
twigs 10 or 15 feet from the ground, and is somewhat untidy 
in appearance, being almost identical with that of C. chahjbeus ; 
it is domed and porched, and is composed of grass and fibres 
intermixed with down and a few dead leaves, the whole being 
bound together with spiders' web, and the inside lined with 
fine grass and dowu. The eggs (075 by - 55 inch) are two in 
number, of a pale olive ground colour, spotted, streaked and 
pencilled with dark Vandyke brown and with underlying 
splashes and blotches, some of the marking being collected 
in an irregular zone round the larger end, and occasionally a 
good deal suffused. I do not recollect hearing this species 
sing, but it possesses a very loud chirp, which is often uttered 
with almost monotonous iteration." 

Along the Zambesi Mr. Boyd Alexander " first met with 
this species near a little village called Chia. A narrow strip of 
tall orange red flowering plants, not far from the river, at- 
tracted a great number of these birds as well as large flocks of 
Weavers. We found it easy to obtain our specimens, in fact, 
it was difficult to drive the birds away from this clump of 
flowering weed, while from time to time they took refuge in 
a neighbouring thick-leaved tree. The flight is jerky and 
erratic, and the note, often uttered on the wing, loud for the 
size of the bird, resembling a rapid rendering of the Green- 
finch's call. We found these Sunbirds in colonies along the 
river; their distribution, however, depended to a great extent 
upon flowering plants and acacias, whose blossoms they are 
extremely fond of. The distribution was decidedly local, and 
from the time we left the locality of one colony till we came 
across another, hardly an individual was observed. 

" Regarding their habits : they are rarely found very far 
away from water, in fact, more than once we observed a party 



CHALCOMITRA GUTTAraLIS. 97 

of these Sunbirds hovering to and fro over the river itself, 
catching insects. When not breeding, the males generally 
travel from one spot to another without the company of the 
females. During the heat of the day, when all other birds 
have hidden themselves iu the depths of the wood, they are 
abroad, seeming to take a delight in the intense heat, always 
most active, while it is only in the early morning and evening 
that they take a rest from their labours and retire into the 
thick under- cover. 

" As the pairing season approaches, the male never leaves 
the side of his mate, and when courting her has a quaint way 
of swaying his body from side to side as if it was on a pivot 
right in front of her gaze. Moreover, he is constantly singing 
to her, uttering his song from the topmost twig of some tall 
acacia tree, while the notes both in tone and rendering are by 
no means unpleasant, and closely resemble those of the Lesser 
Redpole (Acantliis rufescens). "When feeding off the buds of a 
tree this Sunbird generally attacks the buds from some con- 
venient branch above, to which it hangs all the time by its feet, 
or it will give a great stretch forward in order to bring a bud 
within its reach. 

" Above Zumbo, near the river, we discovered a nest of this 
species on December 21. It was oval-shaped and attached to 
three slender branches of an acacia tree, and about twenty feet 
up. The structure was flimsy and untidy, made of fine grass 
interwoven with fragments of skeleton leaves, cobwebs and 
cocoons, and lined with the fluffy down of some weed. The 
depth of the nest was three inches, the circular entrance being 
about an inch from the top, the hole running perpendicularly 
down. Not a yard away from this nest was a nest of bees. 
We noticed that the pair of our birds constantly made use of 
these bees as guides to some rich flower store in the vicinity ; 
the male frequently followed the course of the bees, and more 

[June, 1899. 7 



u 

98 CHALCOMITRA GUTTArALIS. 

than once he attacked a bee returning, and carried it off. 
After we obtained the female the male bird became very shy, 
only to appear now and again above the high trees in the 
vicinity. The last locality where we found this bird in any 
great numbers was some sixty miles below the mouth of the 
Kafue river, which we reached on December 31. The land 
was low-lying and covered with groves of tall acacia trees. 
The birds were simply revelling amongst the freshly opened 
blossoms. 

" About the middle of December, the commencement of the 
rainy season in the Zambesi region, they begin to breed, and 
by the time the young are hatched the store of insect and 
flower life is abundant. At other times of the year partial 
migrations of this species occur, the birds following in the 
wake of rain clouds, and twice we observed after a local shower 
the locality was invaded soon by companies of these Suubirds. 

"All the male specimens, six in number, we obtained at Chia 
on July 31 were in full breeding dress. Further up the river, 
at Acuaza, the bird was again common. At Zumbo on 
November 10 and 13, and again on December 16, we collected 
for the first time five immature males which had only assumed 
the plumage of the adult as far as the chin, throat, foreneck 
and chest. A few metallic green feathers on the forehead 
were also visible. 

" On examining our series, and the dates on which the 
specimens were obtained, it would appear that the full plumage 
of the adult is not assumed till the second year." 

In North Zambesia the species is abundant ; Sir John Kirk 
procured a specimen at Shupanga, and Mr. Alexander Whyte at 
Zomba irj September and January, and on the Milanji plain in 
October at an elevation of 4,000 feet. Captain Sperling found 
these Sunbirds not at all rare at Mozambique and breeding 
there. Specimens have been collected by Dr. F. Stuhlmann 



CHALCOMITRA GUTTARALIS. 99 

at Quilimane in January, at the Rufu river and in Usegua in 
September and on Zanzibar island in October and November. 
I have been given specimens by the late Mr. Joseph Thomson 
from the Rovuma river and by Sir John Kirk from Dar-es- 
Salam and the Usambara country. 

That the species ranges right across the Continent there 
can be no doubt, for Dr. Bokm met with them throughout his 
travels in about 6° S. lat. from Zanzibar to the banks of the 
Lualaba to the west of Lake Tanjanyika, and collected speci- 
mens at the Luvule river, just north of Lake Moero, in October 
and at Qua Mpara in March, when he observed the young 
birds just able to fly. 

To the east of Lake Tanjanyika he increased his collection 
of this species at Kakoma, Ugalla river, Gondar close to 
Tabora, at Simbaveni in August and at Konko in Ugogo in 
September. Dr. Fischer also found the species abundant in 
the coast district and in Masailand, often frequenting the 
orange and banana groves planted by the natives near their 
huts, and adds the following localities to its range : Maurui on 
the Pangani, Arusha, Kagehi, Larnu, Wapokomoland on the 
left bank of the Tana river and Barawa on the Somali coast 
(1° N. lat.), the furthest northern limit yet known for this 
Sunbird. 

With regard to the breeding of this species, the nests found 
by Mr. Ayres were generally hung " on the outermost twigs of 
trees, at no great height from the earth and very frequently 
over water." 

Captain Sperling describes the nest as "hanging from a 
twig about six feet from the ground ; it was kidney-shaped, 
with the two lobes downwards and the circular entrance 
opening from the bottom of one lobe ; the material of which 
it was built was dry, hay-like fibres and grass intricately 
interwoven." 



100 CHALCOMITRA. CRUENTATA. 

The nests found by Dr. Fischer were hung from the outer 
boughs of the shrubs at from twelve to fourteen feet from the 
ground and composed of grass, roots, &c, and well lined with 
feathers. 

He informs us that this species is known to the Zanzibaris 
as " Tschosi katembo." The name Tschosi is apparently the 
generic name of the natives for all Sunbirds, as other travellers 
have applied it to G. microrhynchus and A. longuemarii, and it 
is curious to find apparently the same name, spelt " Tschodi " 
by Marche, applied by the natives of the Gaboon to C. 
superbus. 

The name of Cinnyris gutturalis inoestimata is proposed by 
Mr. Hartert for the birds of this form from the Bast African 
sub-region, and he writes : " Specimens of G. gutturalis from 
Bast Africa differ considerably from those of South Africa in 
being much smaller and must be separated subspecifically." 

In 1884 Dr. Gadow (Cat. B. M. ix. p. 92) wrote : " The 
smallest specimens of G. gutturalis occur in the Zanzibar 
district, the largest in Natal." G. gutturalis varies in size : 
culmen 09 to 1 - 15 ; wing 2'6 to 3 - 0. On comparing two fine 
specimens collected by Bradshaw in South Zambesia with two 
equally well-preserved specimens from Altoni (Emin) the result 
is that these specimens scarcely differ at all in size. 

South Zambesia : culmen 09, wing 2 - 85 to 2*9. 

Altoni : culmen 095, wing 2*8. 



Chalcomitra cruentata. 

Chalcomitra cruentata (Rupp.), Salvad. Aon. Mus. Genov. 1884, p. 141 

Shoa; Shelley B. Afr. I. No. 50 (1896). 
Cinnyris cruentatus, Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 259, pi. 80 (1878) ; Gadow, 

Cat. B. M. ix. p. 93 (1884). 
Nectarinia cruentata, Bouvier, Bull. S. Z. France, 1877, p. 449 Uganda. 
Chalcomitra scioana, Salvad. Ann. Mus. Genov. 1888, p. 247 Shoa. 



CHALCOMITRA CRUENTATA. 101 

Adult Mala. Blackish brown; -wings and tail coppery brown, with the 
least series of wing-coverts metallic violet : crown and mustachial-band 
metallic emerald green ; chin and upper throat black, often with a few 
metallic green feathers at the base next to the broad breast-plate of bright 
vermilion feathers, each of which has a narrow subterminal steel blue bar. 
Total length 5*7 inches, culmen 0-95, wing 2-85, tail 2-2, tarsus 0-7. Bogos 
(Baler). 

Adult females and young males very similar to those of C. gutturalis, 
but with less white on the outer wing-coverts, the primary-coverts being 
uniform brown. 

The Abyssinian Scarlet-chested Sunbird inhabits Shoa and 
Abyssinia. 

I do not admit G. scioana, Salvad., the Shoa bird, to be 
distinct from the Abyssinia G. cruentata, Riipp. 

Monsieur Bouvier records the species as occurring in 
Piaggia's collection from Uganda, but as this is the only 
indication of the species having been found south of Shoa, it 
is quite possible that the specimen referred to was procured 
by Piaggia during his journey to or from Uganda and not in 
that country. 

An immature specimen of G. gutturalis, collected by Sir 
John Kirk at Tete on the Zambesi, was referred by accident to 
this species (Cat. ix. p. 94). 

G. cruentata is evidently plentiful in Shoa, for Antinori and 
Ragazzi procured twelve specimens there in May, June, July 
and September. 

Von Heuglin knew of the species from Fasokl, Abyssinia 
and Bogos, generally to be met with along the water courses, 
and describes it as active but with a weak flight like that of 
a Chaffinch, and a pleasing but rather insignificant song. Mr. 
Blanford found these Sunbirds about Senafe in the higher 
parts of the pass and along the hill-side of the Anseba valley, 
but nowhere common. However the species appear to have 
been met with by all the naturalists who have explored this 
country. 



102 CHALCOMITRA HUNTERI. 

According to Antinori it arrives in Bogos in May and 
was most abundant at Keren from May to the end of July, 
but Brehru met with specimens in the same country during 
March and April. 

The males probably cast off their bright plumage about 
October, to assume it again in February or March, as I find no 
record of full plumaged males having been collected during the 
winter months. 

The only character which Count Salvadori proposes for his 
G. scioana is the appearance of a few metallic green feathers 
on the base of the black throat. I am, however, convinced 
that this is only an accidental occurrence, for I have seen 
specimens in the British Museum procured by Blanford and 
Jesse at Senafe, and again at Bogos by the same gentlemen, 
and others by Mr. Esler. They were found in each instance 
along with the true G. cruentata. 



Chalcomitra hunteri. 

Chalcomitra hunteri (Shelley), Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 475 Somali ; 

Shelley. B. Afr. I. No. 51 (1896) ; Elliot, Field Colomb. Mus. Orn. I. 

No. 2 (1897) Somali. 
Cinnyris hunteri, Shelley, P. Z. S. 1889, p. 365, pi. 41, fig. 2, Useri B; 

Sharpe, Ibis, 1891, p. 592, Teita; Eeicheu. Vog. Deutsch. O. Afr. 

p. 210 (1894) ; Salvad. E. Acad. Torin. 1894, p. 556 Somali; Hawker, 

Ibis, 1899, p. 67 Somali; Hartert in Ansorge's "Under Afr. Sun," 

App. p. 351 (1899) Kinani and Tsavo B. 

Adult Male. Velvety brownish black, the anterior three quarters of the 
crown metallic green, the hinder feathers glossed with violet ; least wing- 
coverts, rump and upper tail-coverts metallic violet ; a metallic green 
mustachial-band ; chin and upper throat black ; lower throat vermilion with 
a few metallic violet bands to the feathers, most numerous towards its 
junction with the black of the upper throat. Total length 5"6 inches, 
culmeu 1-1, wing 2-85, tail 2-1, tarsus 07. Useri E. 7. 89 (H. C. V. 
Hunter). 

Adult females and young males are similar to those of C. cruentata. 



CHALCOMITRA AMETHYSTINA. 103 

Hunter's Scarlet-cliested Sunbird ranges from the Teita 
country into Sornaliland. 

The types, a male and female in full plumage, were 
discovered by Mr. H. C. V. Hunter, in July, at the Useri river, 
which rises from the north-east flank of the Kilimanjaro 
mountain. 

Mr. Jackson has also procured the species in the Teita 
country at the Voi river, and Mr. Ansorge at the Kinani and 
Tsavo rivers. This Sunbird has not been, yet, recorded from 
German East Africa, but ranges northward into Somaliland, 
where Mr. Ruspoli has procured a specimen at Mandera in 
the Golis mountains ; Mr. Elliot at Hullier, where he found 
it not uncommon ; and Mr. Hawker shot the only specimen he 
saw at Ujawaji in January. 



Chalcomitra amethystina. 

Chalcoinitra amethystina (Shaw), Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 52 (1896). 

Cinnyris ainethystinus, Shelley, Mon. Neet. p. 269, pi. 84 (1878) ; Ayres, 
Ibis, 1879, p. 294 Transvaal ; Butler, Fielden and Beid, Zool. 1882, 
p. 247 Natal; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 96 (1884); Ayres, Ibis, 
1884, p. 226 Transvaal; Kuschel. J. f. 0. 1895, p. 346 (egg); 
Bendall, Ibis, 1896, p. 171 Transvaal; Sbarpe, Ibis, 1897, p. 506 
Zululand. 

Adult Male. Velvety black with a lilac bronze gloss, wings and tail of 
a more coppery shade ; crown metallic green ; least series of wing-coverts 
violet shaded steel blue ; upper tail-coverts and throat metallic lilac. Total 
length 5'3 inches, culmen 115, wing 2-9, tail 2, tarsus 0-7. Pinetown, 15. 5. 75 
(T. L. Ayres). 

Adult Female. Above ashy olive, wings and tail darker and browner, 
with the outer feathers of the latter tipped with white ; eyebrows and under 
parts buff, with the throat dusky black and the chest and under tail-coverts 
mottled by the dark centres of the feathers. Total length 4-9 inches, 
culmen PI, wing 2-6, tail 1-9, tarsus 0-7. Pinetown, 2. 2. 75 (T. L. Ayres). 

Adult Male in moult and Young. Similar to adult female, but with the 
throat jet black. Pinetown, 3. 5. 75 (T. L. Ayres). 



104 CHALCOMITRA AMETHYSTINA. 

The Greater Amethyst Sunbird inhabits South Zambesia, 
ranging south from the Limpopo, 22 s S. lat., and east from the 
Swellendam district of Cape Colony, 22° E. long. 

According to Mr. Layard the species, although abundant 
in the eastern provinces of Cape Colony, has never been seen 
near Capetown. He received specimens from Swellendam 
and considered it to be not very uncommon in the forest 
districts. Mr. Atmore writes : " I have not seen this species 
west of the Gouritz river ; on the other side they are plentiful, 
especially when the 'Wild dagga ' is in flower." Mr. Atmore 
also collected examples at Bland's Post and Grahamstown. 
Levaillant discovered the type at the Gamtoos river. Mr. 
Ricket found these Sunbirds near Port Elizabeth frequenting 
the flowers of the aloes, but not in the same abundance here 
as at East London during the flowering season of the Tecoma 
or Cape Honeysuckle. At Kingwilliamstown it has been met 
with by Lieut. Anstey. Mr. T. L. Ayres, who was living at 
Pinetown when I visited Natal, informed me that these Sun- 
birds remained there throughout the year, frequenting the 
more bushy country. Captain Harford found them breeding 
in November, and Messrs. Butler, Feilden and Reid remark : 
" Not uncommon from Durban as far up country as Ladysmith; 
at Colenso it was common in November, and at Durban in 
August and December." In Zululand, the Messrs. "Woodwards 
collected a series at Bschowe, and one full plumaged male in 
June at Santa Lucia Lake, and write : " Is very partial to the 
mistletoes and other flowering parasites that grow on the 
mimosa-trees. It is of a very pugnacious disposition. We 
have found several of their nests hanging from the low trees ; 
these are domed and loosely put together, composed of grass, 
dead leaves, and cobwebs; the eggs are yellowish white." 

From the Transvaal Mr. T. Ayres writes : " This Sunbird 
is very plentiful in some localities, notably about ' Oliphants 



CHALCOMITRA DEMINUTA. 105 

Nek,' a pass in the Magaliesbergen, about twelve miles from 
Rustenburg, where there is a good deal of bush and much 
parasite plant," and further remarks : " This species is common 
amongst the Magaliesbergen, especially during the winter 
months, June, July and August, when it is in its brightest 
plumage." 

Mr. Barratt met with the species between Potchefstroora 
and Rustenburg, and saw a few in the bush near Pretoria ; 
he also obtained it at East London in company with G. 
chalybeus, and found it to be much shyer than that bird. In 
the Barberton district Dr. P. Rendall procured a specimen in 
April in the Bonanza Valley. Mr. T. B. Buckley found the 
species to be abundant in Swaziland, but doubted its crossing 
the Limpopo into Matabele. Dr. Bradshaw, who made a large 
collection from north of the Limpopo, never, I believe, procured 
this species during his journey. 

With regard to the breeding of this Sunbird, Mr. Atmore 
writes : " The nest is a curious structure, hanging on the 
branch of an apple-tree, very rough outside, composed of short 
bits of stick, grass, and spiders'-web, arched, as are the nests 
of all the tribe. The number of eggs appears to be two, as we 
did not take these till they were incubated ; before they were 
blown they were of a soft, creamy yellow colour." 



Chalcomitra deminuta. 

Chalcornitra deminuta, Cab. J. f. 0. 1880, p. 419 Angola; Shelley, B. 

Afr. I. No. 53 (I.e. dimidiata, err. 1896). 
Nectarinia amethystina (nee Shaw), Bocage, Orn. Angola, p. 163 (1877) 

Caconda ; Sousa, Jorn. Lisb. 1888, p. 221 Qidndumbo. 
Cinnyris amethystina, Gadow, Cat. B. ix. p. 96 (pt. Zambesi and 

Angola) ; Dubois, Bull. Mus. E. Belg. 1886, p. 148 Tanganyika ; 

Matsch. J. f. O. 1887, p. 155 Lufuha B., Luvide B. 
Cinnyris bradshawi, Sharpe, Ibis, 1898, p. 137 Witu ; S. of Zambesi 

(Bradshaw). 



106 CHALCOMTTRA DEMINUTA. 

Adults. Similar to C. amethystina but smaller, browner and with a 
much shorter bill. Total length 5 6 inches, culmen 09, wing 2-8, tail 2-2, 
tarsus 0-65. Caconda (Anehieta). 

Adult females and young males are similar in plumage to those of 
C. amethystina. 

The Little Amethyst Sunbird inhabits South Tropical 
Africa between about 2° to 20° S. lat., ranging from north of 
the Limpopo or Orange rivers through Benguela, Angola and 
Central Africa to Witu near the mouth of the Tana river. 

The late Dr. Bradshaw during his collecting tour between 
the Orange river and Mashonaland procured a full plumaged 
male which I refer to the present species, the type of which 
was discovered by Schiitt in Angola. Anehieta collected 
specimens in Benguela at Caconda and Quindumbo, and to 
this species, no doubt, belong the specimens referred to G. 
amethystina which were brought to Europe by Captain Storms 
from his journey to Lake Tanjanyika, and those by Bohm 
from the Lufuka and Luvule rivers to the west of that 
lake. 

It is curious not to find the species recorded from German 
East Africa, for the type of Ginnyris bradshawi, which I do 
not consider should be separated from G. deminuta, was obtained 
by Mr. Jackson at Witu on June 16, 1891. and it is worthy of 
notice that he also procured a full plumaged male of G. hirki 
at the same place a few days previously, on March 4. 

The two specimens referred to G. bradshawi by Dr. R. B. 
Sharpe are too widely separated geographically to belong to a 
species distinct from both G. deminuta and C. hirki, the ranges 
of which would closely flank on each side that of G. bradshawi. 

If I am wrong in referring G. bradshaioi to G. deminuta, the 
only other alternative would be to consider the two specimens 
referred to G. bradshawi as abnormal varieties of G. hirki, 
tending to revert to the G. amethystina form. 



CHALCOMITRA KIRKI. 107 



Chalcomitra kirki. 



Chalcomitra kirki (Shelley), id. B. Afr. I. No. 54 (1896). 

Cinnyris kirki, Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 273, pi. 85 (1876) ; id. P. Z. S. 
1881, p. 571 Usambara ; Gumey, Ibis, 1881, p. 125 Mombasa; 
Gadow, Cat. B. M. is. p. 97 (1884) ; Fisch. J. f. 0. 1885, p. 139 
Mambrui, Gt. Arusha; Shelley, P. Z. S. 1885, p. 228 Kilimanjaro ; 
id. Ibis, 1888, p. 300, Manda Is.; id. P. Z. S. 1889, p. 366 Kiliman- 
jaro; Sharpe, Ibis, 1891, p. 592 Machako's ; Reichen. J. f. 0. 1891, 
p. 161, Taboro; id. Vog. Deutsch O. Afr. p. 210 (1894); Kuschel, 
J. f. 0. 1895, p. 346 (egg) ; Jackson, Ibis, 1898, p. 137 Witu ; Sowerby, 
t. c. p. 569 Mashona ; Hinde, t. c. p. 579 Machako's. 

Nectarinia kirki, Haiti. Abhandl. Brem. 1891, p. 27 Bagamoyo. 

Chalcomitra kalckreuthi, Cab. J. f. 0. 1878, pp. 205, 227 Ndi, Eitui ; 
Schal. J. f. 0. 1883, p. 359 Kakoma. 

Nectarinia kalckreuthi, Fisch. J. f. 0. 1878, p. 280 Mombasa. 

Cinnyris kalckreuthi, Fisch. and Beichen. J. f. O. 1879, p. 343 Tshara, 
Mambrui. 

Adult Male. Similar to C. amethystina, but smaller, with no metallic 
colour on the upper tail-coverts and with the lesser wing-coverts more lilac. 
Total length 4-8 inches, culmen 0'95, wing 2-55, tail 1-85, tarsus - 65. S. 
Zambesia (Bradshaw). 

Adult Female. Similar in plumage to C. crueutata. Total length 4-8 
inches, culmen 0-8, wing 2-45, tail 165, tarsus 0-65. Pangani (Kirk). 

Kirk's Amethyst Sunbird ranges over Eastern Africa 
between the Limpopo river and the Equator, eastward of 
about 30° E. long. The most southern known limit for this 
species is the Urnfuli river, a tributary of the Limpopo : here 
Messrs. Jameson and Ayres collected specimens in full 
plumage in September, and write : " These birds made their 
appearance much about the same time as G. gutturalis, but 
by no means so plentifully, feeding together with them on the 
flowers of the ' German sausage tree.' " In Mashonaland Mr. 
Sowei^by considered it to be uncommon, as he only saw three 
or four of them ; but according to Mr. Guy Marshall's 
observation in the same country, this little species is about as 



108 CHALCOMITRA KIRKI. 

plentiful as C. chalybeus, and " the nest, which is usually 
suspended from a twig, is made of much the same material 
but is neater, more compact and with less spiders' web 
interwoven in the structure. The eggs, 0"7 by 0*5 inch, are 
pale greenish grey, clouded streakily with very pale olive so 
as to almost obscure the ground colour." 

Dr. Bradshaw's collection contained several unlabelled 
specimens. To the north of the Zambesi Sir John Kirk 
procured the type of the species, an adult male, at Shupanga 
near where the Shire river joins the Zambesi. He informs us 
that it is there known to the natives as " Sungwe " and adds : 
" The Sunbirds are abundant in open ground covered with 
flower-bearing bushes, such as Poivreas, Dalbergias, Acacias, 
&c, and they frequent especially such plants as the Leonitis, 
searching iuside the corolla for insects, a,nd probably sucking 
the saccharine juices. Before the rains they lose the fine 
plumage, and become of a dull mixed colour. December is 
the breeding season ; nests have been observed among the 
grass, attached to its stalks, and in the bush. The young 
birds may be kept for some time on honey or sugar and water, 
which they lick up greedily from a straw or the corolla of a 
plant ; but the absence of insect food probably causes them 
to die." 

Mr. Boyd Alexander, during his travels up the Zambesi, 
remarks : " By no means abundant. We never met with any 
fully adult birds, obtaining our two immature males, having 
the metallic coloured throat of the adult, on November 12, at 
Zumbo, and then, later on, two females as we journeyed up 
the river." 

The late Dr. Bohm met with this species only to the east 
of Lake Tanjanyika at Kakoma, 32° 19' E. long., its furthest 
known western range, the species beiDg replaced to the west 
of that lake by the bird he called C. amethystina which no 



CHALCOMITRA FULIGINOSA. 109 

doubt refers to G. deminuta Cab., a small race of the former 
species. Specimens have been collected by Emin at Tabora 
and Bagamoyo; by Sir John Kirk on Zanzibar island and in 
the Usambara country ; by Fischer at Mambrui, Arusha, 
Tshara and Mombasa ; by Hildebrandt at Ndi, Kitui and on 
Mombasa island. 

On Kilimanjaro both Sir Harry Johnston and Mr. Hunter 
collected many specimens between 3,000 and 7,000 feet. Mr. 
Jackson procured several on Manda island in May, and nests 
from Merereni and writes : " Common, especially among the 
mango trees at Tangani. The nest was found suspended on the 
extreme end of a small branch of a mangrove bush, along the 
edge of a creek in July 1866." He also obtained an adult 
male, in March, at Machako's (1° 28' S. kit., 37° 7' B. long.), 
and in the same latitude, at Witu on the coast, an adult male 
in May. 



Chalcomitra fuliginosa. 

Chalcomitra fuliginosa (Shaw), Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 55 (1896). 

Cinnyris fuliginosus, Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 275, pi. 86 (1878) ; Nichol- 
son, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 129 Abeokuta ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 95 
(1884) ; Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. 1885, p. 168 ; 1886, p. 251 ; 1888, 
p. 72 ; 1889, p. 118 Liberia; Shelley, P. Z. S. 1887, p. 125 Cama- 
roons; Beiehen. J. f. O. 1887, p. 306 Leopoldsville ; 1890, p. 126 
Camaroons. 

Nectarinia fuliginosa, Bouvier, Cat. Ois. Marche, &c, p. 14 (1875) 
Gaboon ; Reichen. J. f. O. 1877, p. 25 Loango. 

Cinnyris scapulatus, Bochebrune, Bull. Soc. Phil. Paris, 1885, p. 89 
Gaboon. 

Adult Male. Chocolate brown, palest on the head, neck and mantle ; 
front half of crown steel blue shaded with violet ; upper tail-coverts and 
throat metallic lilac ; pectoral-tufts pale yellow. Total length 5-4 inches, 
culmen 095, wing 2-7, tail 1-9, tarsus 0-63. Chinchonxo, 22. 4. 76 (Petit). 

Adult Female. Very much paler than the male and with no metallic 
colours, tail-feathers with narrow whitish ends ; throat dusky brown ; a 



110 CHALCOMITRA FULIGINOSA. 

broad loral band, centre of breast and under tail-coverts buff. Total lengtb 
4-8 inches, culmen 085, wing 25, tail 1-6, tarsus 0-65. 

The Carmelite Sunbird is confined to West Africa, where 
it ranges from Senegambia to the Congo. 

I have seen specimens from Senegambia, but it appears to 
be far more plentiful towards the Equator. 

In Liberia, according to Mr. Biittikofer, it is not common, 
although he procured specimens at Robertsport, Monrovia, 
Junk river and Schieffelinsville, and the type of G. aureus, 
Less., was a Liberian specimen in the Wiirtemburg collection. 
On the Gold Coast, according to Ussher, it is moderately 
common, possibly appearing only at certain seasons, for Mr. 
T. E. Buckley and myself never met with it there in February 
and March. 

In the British Museum there are specimens from the Volta 
river, Abeokuta and Lagos. 

I find no mention of the species from the Niger, but in 
Camaroons it is abundant, according to Dr. Reichenow, and 
Crossley and Sir Harry Johnston both collected specimens 
there. 

Gaboon is possibly the metropolis of this species, for here 
specimens have been collected by Du Chaillu near the Moonda 
and Camma river, by Marche in the Ogowe district, and by 
Mr. Skertchley at Kavimba. Along the Loango coast at 
Malimba, Perrein procured the type of the species, and, close 
by, specimens have been collected by Falkenstein and Petit at 
Chinchonxo and Landana, and by Captain Sperling at Kabenda. 

Ascending the Congo river, Bohndorff collected specimens 
at Leopoldsville, just below Stanley Pool, which is the most 
eastern known range for this species. 

G. fuliginosa has apparently only one actual moult in the 
year, when the male passes out of the dull female-like plumage 
and abruptly assumes the dark brown feathers and metallic 



CHALCOMITRA ANGOLENSIS. Ill 

colours, and later the rich colours simply fade and get worn 
away, causing specimens to show great variation in colour. 
One of these adult males in faded plumage, from Gaboon, is 
the type of Ginnyris scapulatus, Rochebrune. 

The name " Carmelite " for this bird was first used by 
Vieillot as its French name in 1802, and Latham twenty years 
later called it the " Carmelite Creeper," and in 1854 Reichen- 
bach made it the type of his genus Garmelita. 



Chalcomitra angolensis. 

Chalcomitra angolensis (Less.), Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 56 (1896). 
Cinnyris angolensis, Sharpe and Bouvier, Bull. S. Z. France, 1876, p. 304 

Loango ; Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 279, pi. 87 (1879) ; Gadow, Cat. B. 

M. ix. p. 98 (1884) ; Sharpe, Linn. Soc. Journ. Zool. xvii. p. 428 

(1884) Semmio; Beichen. J. f. O. 1887, p. 306 Leopoldsville ; 1890, 

p. 126 Camaroons ; Shelley, Ibis, 1890, p. 162 Yambuya ; Beichen. 

J. f. O. 1892, pp. 55, 189 Camaroons ; id. Vog. Deutsch O. Afr. p. 

210 Buhoba; Neum. J. f. O. 1898, p. 237 Bukoba. 
Nectarinia angolensis, Hartl. Abhandl. Brem. 1891, p. 28 Msukali, 

Uvambo-Lager. 

Adult Male. Dark brown with a slight bronzy gloss ; forehead, feathers 
in front of the eyes and chin black ; front half of the crown and the throat 
metallic green, edged on the occiput and breast with metallic violet. Total 
length 4-8 inches, culmen 0-75, wing 2-6, tail 1-7, tarsus 06. W. Africa 
(McLeannan). 

Adult Female. Above brown, with a partial buff eyebrow ; outer tail- 
feathers with narrow pale ends. Beneath buff, mottled on the throat and 
sides of the breast with the brown centres of the feathers. Total length 
4-2 inches, culmen 0-7, wing 2-4, tail 1-6, tarsus 0-6. 



The Green -throated Brown Sunbird ranges from Camaroons 
and Fernando Po into Angola, eastward to the shores of 
Victoria Nyanza and into the Upper White Nile district. A 
specimen of this species obtained on Fernaudo Po during 
the Allen and Thomson expedition to that island is the type of 



112 CHALCOMITRA ADELBERTI. 

Nectarinia st ranger i, Jard., named after the doctor who accom- 
panied the party. This Sunbird ranges throughout Camaroons, 
for specimens have been collected by Crossley in the moun- 
tains and the Victoria forest, by Dr. Preuss at Buea, and by 
Dr. Reichenow near the coast. 

In Gaboon it is apparently equally abundant, and according 
to Verreaux frequents the forests. Du Chaillu collected speci- 
mens at the Muni, Moon da and Camma rivers, and Marche in 
the Ogowe district. 

On the Loango coast Petit met with the species at 
Landana, and from Malimba, some ten miles further south, 
Perrein procured the type of the species and also the type of 
0. rubescens, which latter was formerly in the Paris Museum, 
but has been lost, and it is now impossible, from the descrip- 
tion alone, to determine the species for which the name was 
intended. On the Congo river specimens have been collected 
by Bohudorff at Leopoldsville, and by Jameson at Yambuya. 

In Angola Monteiro procured this Sunbird at Bembe, the 
furthest southern range known for the species, and in the 
Paris Museum there is another specimen from Angola. 

In Central Africa specimens have been collected in the 
Nyam-nyam country, at Semmioby Bohndorff, and by Emin at 
Msukali, Uvambo-lager, Bukoba and Njonjo. Mr. Neumann 
likewise met with this species at Bukoba on June 8th. 



Chalcomitra adelberti. 

Chalcomitra adelberti (Gerv.), Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 57 (1896). 

Cinnyris adelberti, Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 281, pi. 88 (1878) ; Gadow, 
Cat. B. M. ix. p. 99 (1884) ; Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. 1886, 
p. 251 ; 1889, p. 118 Liberia ; Reichen. J. f. O. 1897, p. 46 Togoland. 

Adult Male. Above brownish black ; crown and rnustachial-band 
metallic green ; chin and upper throat black ; lower throat buff margined 



CHALCOMITRA ADELBERTI. 113 

by a black collar which shades off into the rich chestnut of the remainder 
of the body. Total length 4 inches, culmen 07, wing 2-3, tail 1-5, 
tarsus 0-55. Abouri, 23. 2. 72 (Shelley). 

Adult Female. Above, olive ; wings and tail dark bronzy brown ; beneath, 
buff shaded with olive on the lower throat and flanks, and partially striped 
with the indistinct olive brown centres of the feathers. Total length 4 inches, 
culmen 0-7, wing 2-25, tail 1-4, tarsus 0-55. Abouri, 23. 2. 72 (Shelley). 



The Senegal Buff-throated Sunbird is confined to the 
northern half of the West African Subregion, where it ranges 
from Senegambia to the Gold Coast. 

The type of the species was procured by Adelbert in 
Senegambia. Mr. Biittikofer collected three specimens in 
Liberia, near the Junk river. The species appear to be rare 
everywhere excepting in the forest region of the Gold Coast. 
Here Mr. Blissett found it at Elmina, and in the British 
Museum there is a specimen from " Ashantee." According 
to the late Governor Ussher : " This pi^etty Sunbird is not 
very common in Fantee, except at certain seasons of the year, 
when it frequents the large flowering-trees of the forest in 
company with many other species." I presume the " certain 
season" alluded to is the early springtime, for in February 
and March, while I was on the Gold Coast with Mr. T. B. 
Buckley, we found them plentiful in the wooded districts 
around the blossoms of the gigantic flowering forest trees at 
Abrobonko near Cape Coast Castle, and at Abouri in the 
Aguapim mountains, and they were at that season passing by 
a complete moult into the breeding dress, which none of 
the many specimens I saw had entirely assumed, there being 
always an odd feather or more of the winter plumage still to 
be shed. Drs. Reichenow and Luhder who visited Abouri in 
the autumn only met with a single specimen in that locality. 
In the neighbouring Togoland Dr. Biittner procured this 
species at Misahohe in March, September and October. 

[November, 1899. 8 



114 CHALC0M1TRA CASTANEIVENTRIS. 

Chalcomitra castaneiventris. 

Cinnyris castaneiventris, Madarasz, Ornis. 1889, p. 149, pi. 3 Yoruba. 

Adult Male. Similar to C. adelberti, but darker and duller, with no bright 
chestnut on the back or breast. Total length 4-7 inches, euhnen 075, wing 
2-4, tail 1-5, tarsus 0-55. Niger (Thomson, Brit. Mus.). 

The Niger Buff-throated Sunbircl inhabits the Niger district. 
The type of the species was obtained in the Yoruba country 
between Dahomey and the Niger, probably not one hundred 
miles from Ebo, where Thomson procured an adult male which 
is now in the British Museum. That the present form is en- 
titled to be regarded as a distinct species from its northern ally 
is proved by the Tring Museum having recently received a fine 
series from Warri, which agree in all details with Thomson's 
specimen from the Niger, and not with those from further north. 

Genus V. ELiEOCERTHIA. 

Form very similar to that of Cinnyris. Crown, hind neck, and mantle 
glossed with metallic colours which are confined to the extreme ends only 
of the feathers. 

Sexes often similar in plumage, in which case the bright pectoral-tufts 
which are always present in the males are likewise present in the females. 
Two out of the three species I refer to this genus have the tail square and 
are confined to the African continent south of the Equator ; the third, E. 
thomensis, has a graduated tail and inhabits the island of St. Thomas. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

a. Head, neck, and mantle very dark brown 

glossed with bronze. Abdomen white. 
Pectoral-tufts orange fusca, $ . 

b. Upper parts olive, glossed with metallic green. 

No metallic gloss on the under parts, which 

are pale ashy. Pectoral-tufts scarlet. . . verreauxi, £ , £ . 



EL^OCERTHIA FUSCA. 115 

c. Tail strongly graduated. General plumage 

black, with metallic steel blue gloss. Under 

tail-coverts pale greenish yellow .... thomensis, $ , $ . 

d. Upper surface and sides of head earthy brown 

with a whitish eyebrow ; under surface 
white shaded with ashy brown on the front 
and sides of the body. Culrnen 0'7, wing 
2*1, tail 1-7, tarsus 0'65 fusca, $ . 



Eleeocerthia fusca. 

Eleeocerthia fusca (Vieill.), Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 58 (1896). 
Cinnyris fuscus, Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 285, pi. 89 (1877) ; Sharpe, ed. 
Layard's B. S. Afr. pp. 317, 832 (1884) ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 

75 (1884). 

Adult Male. Head, neck, breast, back and lesser wing-coverts brownish 
black with metallic violet, green, or coppery bronze edges to the feathers ; 
wing and tail blackish ; pectoral-tufts bright orange ; abdomen and under 
tail-coverts white. Total length 4'4 inches, culmen - 85, wing 2-3, tail 
l - 65, tarsus 07. Damara (Andersson). 

Adult Female. Upper surface and sides of head light brown, with a 
pale eyebrow ; wings and tail darker brown, the outer feathers of the latter 
edged with white. Beneath, ashy white. Total length 4 - 3 inches, culmen 
0-7, wing 2-1, tail 1-7, tarsus 065. 

The White-vented Black Simbird inhabits the western 
portion of South Africa, south of 20° S. lat. and west of 
25° E. long. 

This species was discovered by Levaillant in Great 
Namaqualand, and Mr. Chapman calls it the common species 
of Sunbird in that country and Damaraland, remaining there 
throughout the year. Mr. Andersson found it especially 
abundant towards the sea coast and observes : " The scantier 
and more dreary the vegetation the more common is this bird, 
and though unattractive in dress, it helps to enliven the 
monotonous solitudes which it frequents by its activity and 
pleasant, subdued warbling chirp. The male assumes a some- 
what more attractive garb during the breeding season than 



116 EL^EOCERTHIA VERREAUXI. 

at other times of the year, when it resembles the female, 
whose colouring is of the most sombre description." He 
always found the nest suspended from the branch of some 
low acacia tree, and composed of soft grasses and the fine 
inner bark of trees and lined with a quantity of feathers, and 
he saw some young birds, just fledged, on April 3. The 
British Museum possesses a specimen labelled " Elephant river, 
Little Namaqualand (Andersson)." 

The late Dr. Bradshaw found these Sunbirds very common 
at the Orange river, and Mr. Atmore procured specimens 
near Hopetown. 

Mr. Layard informs us that, " Mr. Ortlopp found the 
species incubating near Colesberg in the usual domed nest 
suspended from a tree ; it was composed of wool and fibres, 
lined with feathers and goats' hair. The eggs were of the 
abnormal number of three, white, spotted with intensely dark 
purplish brown and pale purple, chiefly forming a close-set 
ring near the obtuse end." Axis 055 inch by - 35. 

Prof. Barboza du Bocage enters this species in his " Orn. 
Angola " on the authority of Dr. Hartlaub that there is a 
specimen in the Paris Museum, labelled Angola, but remarks 
that the species has never been met with by Anchieta to the 
north of the Cunene river. 

From the series of specimens in the British Museum it 
would appear that the males assume their breeding plumage 
in November and discard it again in the following June for 
a plumage similar to that of the female. 

Elseocerthia verreauxi. 

Elajocerthia verreauxi (Smith), Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 59 (1896). 
Cinnyris verreauxi, Shelley, Mon. Neet. p. 287, pi. 90 (1876) ; Butler, 

Feilden and Beid, Zool. 1882, p. 247 Natal; Gadow, Cat. B.M. 

ix. p. 74 (1884) : Shelley, Ibis, 1888, p. 300 Manda Is. ; Evans, 

Nature, li. p. 235 ; id. Ibis, 1895, p. 301 Natal ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1897, 

p. 506 Zulu. 



EL^OCERTHIA VERREATJXI. 117 

Cinnyris fischeri, Reichen. J. f. O. 1880, p. 142 Mozambique ; Fisch. 
J. f. O. 1885, p. 139 Pangani ; Reichen. Vog. Deutsch 0. Afr. p. 210 
(1894). 
Elteocerthia fischeri, B. Alexander, Ibis, 1899, p. 561 Zambesi. 

Adult Male. Above, olive shaded brown with broad metallic olive green 
edges to the feathers of the head, back, and lesser wing-coverts ; remainder 
of the wings and tail brown. Beneath, ashy white with scarlet axillary- 
tufts. Total length 5'2 inches, cnlmen 0-9, wing 2-45, tail 2, tarsus 0-7. 
Durban, 7. 4. 74 (Shelley). 

Adult Female. Like the male. Durban, 1. 4. 74 (Shelley). 

The Mouse-coloured Sunbird ranges over Eastern Africa 
south of the Equator. 

Sir Andrew Smith wrote : " Only a very few specimens of 
these birds have yet been found in South Africa, and none, 
as far as I know, within the limits of Cape Colony ; Kafirland 
and the country eastward of it, towards Port Natal, furnished 
the specimens we possess." 

This Sunbird appears to be more abundant near the coast 
than inland. Duriug my stay at Durban, in February and 
March, I had frequent opportunities of watching these birds, 
as, although rare, they were not shy and frequented the thick 
coverts which surround the town. In March a native informed 
me that he had just taken a nest of this species, which he called 
the Mouse-coloured Sunbird, by which name it appears to be 
best known to the colonists. The nest he told me was of the 
usual oval form and suspended from one of the outer twigs of 
a bush, and was similar in structure to that of Anthothreptes 
collaris which he brought me a few days later, that is, composed 
of dry grass and thickly lined with feathers and horse-hair. 
In its habit of frequenting the low thick bush it differed from 
C. olivacea, which I only met with in the large scattered trees 
of the more open country. 

I will here quote from the "Ibis," 1895, p. 301: "It 
appears that the fecundation of Loranthus kraussi is entirely 
due to the labours of two species of Sunbirds, Cinnyris olivaceus 



118 EL.EOCERTHIA VERREAUXI. 

and G. verreauxi, which frequent these flowers in great 
numbers. ' A little quiet watching ' says Mr. Evans, ' will 
show the birds at these flowers, splitting open flower after 
flower, and getting head and bill covered with pollen in moving 
about, undoubtedly fertilising the capitate receptive stigmas of 
other and older flowers.' In order to ascertain whether the 
flowers of the Loranthus would be fertilised without the aid 
of the Sunbirds, Mr. Evans covered a small branch of them 
containing from eighty to one hundred blossoms with a net, 
and found that not one of the blossoms so covered set seed. 
After careful watching he came to the conclusion that the 
Loranthus is quite sterile without the external aid supplied 
by the birds. After the fruit is ripe another bird, a Barbet, 
Barbatula pusilla, further assists the propagation of the 
Loranthus by eating the covering of the berry and rejecting 
the seeds and the viscid matter round them. To clear away 
these the Barbet wipes its bill upon a branch, to which the 
seeds of the Loranthus adhere by the viscid matter and 
germinate." 

In Zululand the Messrs. "Woodward collected specimens 
at Santa Lucia Lake and Eschowe. 

I find no record of the occurrence of this species between 
Natal and the Zambesi river, but in the latter district Mr. 
Boyd Alexander has obtained a specimen and writes : 

" By no means common. Our only specimen was obtained 
on August 1, in a grove of tall trees at the little village of 
Umquasi on the left bank of the river and about sixty miles 
below Tete. The bird appeared extremely shy, flitting from 
one tall tree top to another and never once descending to the 
undergrowth of acacia bushes which were frequented by 
numbers of Ghalcomitra gutturalis." 

Possibly the shyness of this bird was due to Mr. Boyd 
Alexander having shot its mate unknown to him, for with 



ELjEOCERTHIA THOMENSTS. 119 

regard to G. gutturalis he writes : " After we obtained the 
female, the male bird became very shy, only to appear now 
and again above the high trees in the vicinity." 

The type of Cinnyris fischeri was procured at Mozambique 
by the late Dr. Fischer, who also met with the species at 
Pangani. Mr. Jackson collected two males in May on Manda 
Island and one in Ukambani, which are the most northern 
localities known to me for this species, but it is said to be 
fairly plentiful in the acacia trees on Manda Island. 

Cinnyris fischeri, Reichen., if, as it should be, referred to the 
specimens found from the Zambesi northward, may possibly be 
recognised by the slightly whiter under surface, the more 
constant bluer upper surface and small bill, but I have only 
four examples to compare with a fairly good series of C. 
verreauxi, Smith, from Natal. The Natal birds show that the 
measurements vary considerably: culmen - 9 inch to 1:1, 
wing 2*35 to 2 - 45, and the shade of the metallic colours in 
Natal specimens from olive green to pale blue, so that the 
only character for separating G. fischeri, Reichen., from G. 
verreauxi, Smith, is the slightly paler shade of the under parts, 
and this appears to me such a poor character that I have here 
united the two forms as belonging to one species, believing 
that the intermediate links will be found to occur in the little- 
explored coast country between Zululand and the Zambesi. 
A specimen from the Zambesi and one from Manda Island 
have both: culmen # 9, wing 2*4 inches. 

Elseocertbia thomensis. (Pi. 5, fig. 2.) 

Elaeocerthia thomensis (Bocage), Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 60 (1896). 
Nectarinia thornensis, Bocage, Jorn. Lisb. 1889, p. 143 St. Thomas Is. 

Adult Male. Black, with broad metallic bronze blue edges to the 
feathers of the head, neck, back, lesser wing-coverts and breast ; tail much 
graduated, with broad white ends to some of the outer feathers ; quills with 



120 CYANOMITRA. 

partial narrow olive yellow edges. Abdomen strongly tinted with olive 
yellow ; under tail-coverts olive shaded bui'f. Bill and legs black, iris 
brown. Total length 7'6 inches, culmen 1-55, wing 3-3, tail 3, tarsus 1"15. 
St. Thomas Is. (P. Newton.) 

Adult Female. Like the male. Total length 7 inches, culmen 1-3, wing 
3-25, tail 3-2, tarsus 1-05. St. Thomas Is. (F. Newton.) 

The St. Thomas Island Sunbird is confined to the island 
of that name, which is situated almost on the Equator at a 
distance of some two hundred miles from the Gaboon coast. 

The species was discovered at St. Miguel, a forest district 
on the western slope of the island, by Mr. F. Newton, and 
described by Prof. Barboza du Bocage, to whose generosity 
the British Museum is indebted for a fine male and female, the 
only ones I have seen. 

I place the species in the genus Elseocerthia, of which E. 
■verreauxi is the type, on account of the metallic colours being 
confined to the extreme ends of the feathers only. It further 
resembles E. verreauxi in the plumage of the sexes being alike, 
but differs in the graduated tail, the feathers of which have 
pale ends, and in this character it nearly approaches many of 
the members of the genus Cyanomitra. 



Genus VI. CYANOMITEA. 

Form very similar to that of Cinnyris. Mantle sometimes dull brown, 
else olive of a green or yellow shade. Metallic colours, when present, 
confined to the head and neck. Young birds are not always similar in 
colouring to the adult females, and apparently never have metallic colours 
nor bright pectoral-tufts. 

This purely Ethiopian genus consists of about ten known species. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

a. No metallic colours. 

a 1 . Above earthy brown ; beneath white 
mottled with black ; pectoral-tufts yellow 
in adult males only (Socotra Is.) .... balfouri, $ 5 . 



CYAN0M1TRA. 121 

b 1 . Above dark brown; beneath olive shaded 
ashy brown ; tail with some broadish white 
ends to the feathers ; culmen 0-9 inch, 

wing 2'4 (Seychelles) dussumieri, j . 

c 1 . Above olive. 

a 2 . Tail nearly square. 

a 3 . Above greener ; no white near the eye. 
a*. Throat mottled with dark centres to 
the feathers ; culmen 0-65, wing 1-9, 
tarsus 0-6 (Gt. Comoro Is.) . . . humbloti, 2 . 
b i . Throat uniform. 

a 5 . Darker ; pectoral-tufts chrome 

yellow ; beneath pale olive. . . olivacea, $ 2 . 
Z) 5 . Paler; pectoral-tufts sulphur 
yellow in adults of both sexes, 
but absent in young birds ; be- 
neath olive shaded ashy white. . obscura, J 2 . 
b 3 . Above browner ; region of eye and 
throat whitish ; breast whitish with 
dark centres to the feathers ; culmen 

08, wing 2-55 cyanolcema, 2 . 

b 2 . Tail graduated ; outer feather falls short 

of tip of tail by not less than the length 

of the tarsus. 

c 3 . Breast buff: throat mottled with the 

black bases of the feathers ; culmen 

0-55, wing 1-9 nawtoni, 2 . 

d a . Breast and under tail-coverts olive 

buff; culmen 07, wing 2-3 .... hartlaubi, 2. 
e 3 . Centre of breast and under tail-coverts 

yellow reiclienbachi, young. 

b. With metallic colours confined to the head 
and throat. 
d 1 . Tail nearly square. 

c 2 . Back yellower ; entire upper half of the 
head metallic green. 
f 3 . Throat green, like the entire head and 

neck varticalis, $ ad. 

cj 3 . Throat white, slightly paler than the 

breast verticalis, 2 ad. 

d 2 . Back browner ; cheeks and ear-coverts 
brown. 
h 3 . Larger; wing 2-7 ; pectoral-tufts very 

pale yellow cyanolcema, $ ad. 

i 3 . Smaller; wing less than 2-5 ; pectoral- 
tufts yellow and orange red mixed. 



122 CYANOMITRA BALFOURI. 

c 4 . Chest ashy brown; throat deep 
metallic greenish blue; tail tipped 

with white (Seychelles) dussumieri, $ ad. 

d*. Chest maroon-red ; throat coppery 
bronze ; tail with no white tip (Gt. 

Comoro Is.) humbloti, $ ad. 

e 1 . Tail graduated and with pale ends to all 
but centre pair of feathers. 
e 2 . Cheeks and ear-coverts with no metallic 
colours. 

k 3 . Breast yellow newtoni, $ ad. 

I s . Breast olive hartlaubi, $ ad. 

f 2 . Cheeks and ear-coverts of metallic 

colours reichenbachi, $ ? ad. 



Cyanomitra balfouri. 

Cyanomitra balfouri (Sclat. and Hartl.), Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 61 (1896). 
Cinnyris balfouri, Sclat. and Hartl. P. Z. S. 1881, p. 169, pi. 15, fig. 2 
Socotra Is. ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 76 (1884). 

Adult Male. Above, dark brown with pale edges to the feathers of the 
crown, back of neck and back ; upper tail-coverts, and tail uniform blackish 
brown, the feathers of the latter edged with white ; the end half of the 
outer feather and a large terminal patch on the inner web of the next feather 
nearly white ; wings dark brown with very narrow pale edges to the feathers. 
Beneath, white and black with yellow pectoral-tufts ; lores, cheeks and lower 
portion of ear-coverts white ; chin and upper half of throat uniform ashy 
black, remainder of throat and the crop dusky black scaled with broad white 
edges to the feathers ; feathers of chest with the basal black centres more 
lanceolate and less exposed ; flanks slightly washed with dusky ash ; thighs 
mottled with dark centres to the feathers ; under wing-coverts and partial 
inner margins to the quills white. Bill and legs entirely black ; iris dark 
brown. Total length 5-2 inches, culrnen 0-85, wing 2-6, tail 20, tarsus 0-8. 
Socotra, 5. 1. 99 (0. Grant). 

Adidt Female. Similar in plumage to the male, but without the yellow 
pectoral-tufts. Total length 4-7, culrnen 0-8, wing 2'35, tail 1-9, tarsus 0-8. 
Socotra, 3. 1. 99 (O. Grant). 

The Socotra Sunbird is confined to the island of Socotra, 
the extreme north-eastern limit of the Ethiopian Region. 

Prof. J. B. Balfour, who discovered this species, writes : 



CYANOMITRA OLIVACEA. 123 

" Common in the interior of the island, on the hill-slopes and 
higher plains, where there are plenty of shrubs. The female 
is difficult to get. The male clings to the topmost branches, 
when he gives ont a very pretty note." 

Mr. W. R. Ogilvie Grant kindly informs me that during 
his visit to the island he met with these Sunbirds generally 
in pairs ; they were noisy and sprightly in their habits, and 
fairly abundant from the sea level up to 4,000 feet. He found 
a nest, from which the young birds had flown, on February 10. 
It was suspended from a small branch, so hidden by the thick 
bush and creepers that it was difficult to find. He also met 
with a family party consisting of the two adults and their 
three young, which, though well grown and able to fly, were 
still closely attended by their parents, who showed great 
concern for the safety of their offspring, at once hurrying 
them into the thick covert, and then the male appeared at 
intervals on an elevated position and uttered a shrill, rather 
harsh alarm note. 

The song of this species is loud, varied, and impressive, 
and is poured forth from the topmost twig of a bush in a flood 
of melodious notes. He is a capital mimic, imitating the calls 
of his neighbours with great accuracy, especially that of 
Cisticola incana. 



Cyanomitra olivacea. 

Cyanomitra olivacea (Smith), Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 62 (1896) ; id. Ibis, 
1896, p. 180 Nyasa. 

Cinnyris olivaceus, Shelley, Mon. Neet. p. 289, p. 91 (1876) ; Butler, 
Feilden and Eeid, Zool. 1882, p. 247; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 78 
(1884) ; Fisch. J. f. O. 1885, p. 139 Lindi ; Matsch. J. f. O. 1887, 
p. 155 Liialaba B. ; Evans, Nature, li. p. 235 ; id. Ibis, 1895, p. 301 
Natal; Sharpe, Ibis, 1897, p. 506 Zululand ; Neumann, J. f. O. 
1898, p. 229 Zanzibar. 

Nectarinia olivacea, Bohm, J. f. 0. 1883, p. 192 Zanzibar ; Schal. J. f. 0. 
1887, p. 243 Tanganyika. 



124 CYANOMITRA OLIVACEA. 

Cinnyris olivacina (Peters), Gadow. Cat. B. M. ix. p. 78 (1884). 

Adult Male. Above, deep olive. Beneath, pale yellowish olive, with 
bright yellow pectoral-tufts. Total length 5'5 inches, culmen 1-1, wing 2'7, 
tail 2-5, tarsus 0-65. Pinetown, 19. 3. 74 (Shelley). 

Adult Female. Like the male. Durban, 9. 4. 74 (Shelley). 

The Dark Olive Sunbircl ranges over Eastern Africa from 
Natal to Zanzibar and westward to the Lualaba branch of the 
Congo river. 

Sir Andrew Smith procured the type of the species in 
the same country in which he discovered E. verreauxi, on 
his way to Port Natal. Iu February and March I found 
these birds much rarer at Durban than some twelve miles 
further inland, at Pinetown, where they were generally in 
pairs frequenting the taller trees along the banks of the water- 
courses in preference to the low tangled brushwood. Out of 
the many specimens I carefully sexed I can detect no differ- 
ence whatever in the plumage. 

From Natal Mr. T. Ayres writes : " These birds are common 
on the coast for some distance inland ; they are particularly 
fond of shady banana groves, taking the nectar from the long 
drooping flowers of the plant, and chasing one another about 
with great pertinacity. The plumage of the females is not so 
bright as that of the males." Captain Reid procured the 
species at Durban in August, and according to Captain 
Harford it breeds there in November. Mr. Layard describes 
the eggs as being " light brown, so profusely mottled with 
purplish brown as almost to conceal the ground-colour." 
Messrs. R. B. and J. D. S. Woodward collected several 
specimens at Eschowe and Santa Lucia Lake in Zululand. 
The type of Nectarinia olivacina, Peters, from Inhambane 
was a rather small specimen of C. olivacea. This ends all 
I know regarding the species in South Zambesia. 

To the north of the Zambesi, between that river and Lake 
Nyasa, Mr. Alexander Whyte collected two specimens on 



CYANOMITRA OBSCURA. 125 

Mount Chiradzulu in the Shire highlands. Bohm met with 
the species in October at the Lualaba river, its most western 
known ran°'e, and informs us that it is not a rare bird to the 
west of Lake Tanjanyika. He also procured the species on 
Zanzibar Island in May. Fischer collected specimens at Lindi 
as well as at Zanzibar, which is the most northern known range 
for the Dark Olive Sunbird. 



Cyanomitra obscura. 

Oyanomitra obscura (Jard.), Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 63(1896). 

Cinnyris obscurus, Sharpe and Bouvier, Bull. S. Z. France, 1876, p. 304 
Loango; Shelley, Hon. Nect. p. 291, pi. 92 (1879); Gadow, Cat. 
B. H. is. p. 77 (1884) ; Buttik. Notes Leyd. Mus. 1886, p. 251 ; 
1888, p. 72; 1889, p. 118 Liberia,- Shelley, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 38 
Tingasi ; id. Ibis, 1890, p. 162 Yambuya ; Buttik. Notes, Leyd 
Mus. 1892, p. 22 Sulymah B. ; Sjostedt, Sv. Vet. Akad. Handl. 1895, 
p. 103 Camaroons; Beichen. J. f. 0. 1896, p. 38 Camaroons ; id. 
J. f. 0. 1897, p. 46 Togoland; Oberholser, Pr. U.S. Nat. Mus., 1899, 
p. 17 Cameroons. 

Adelinus obscurus, Oust. N. Arch. Mus. (2) ii. Bull. p. 88 (1879) Gaboon. 

Elseocerthia ragazzii, Salvad. Ann. Mus. Genov. 1888, p. 247 Shoa. 

Cyanomitra ragazzii, Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 64 (1896). 

Cinnyris ragazzii, Jackson, Ibis, 1898, p. 137 Witn ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1899, 
p. 636 Ntcbi. 

Adult Male. Above, olive ; sides of the head more ashy olive, with 
small white centres to the feathers of the cheeks, ear-coverts and eyebrows; 
feathers in front of the eye buff. Beneath, buffy white, shaded with olive on 
the sides of the body and under tail-coverts. Bill brownish black fading 
on the basal half of the lower mandible into buff or flesh colour. Total 
length 5-5 inches, culmen 0-9, wing 2-5, tail 2, tarsus 0-65. Prince's Is., 
2. 1. 76 (Petit). 

Adult Female. Similar to the male but without the yellow pectoral- 
tufts. Bonny, 23. 10. 75 (Petit). 

The Pale Olive Sunbird ranges from the Sulymah river near 

Sierra Leone into Angola, occurs on Fernando Po and Prince's 

Island, and crosses the continent to Witu near the coast, in 

about 3° 40 S. lat., and Shoa. 



126 CTANOMITRA. OBSCURA. 

In "West Africa the most northern known locality for this 
species is the Sulyinah river, where it was obtained by the 
late Mr. Demery, and according to Mr. Btittikofer who 
collected specimens at Schieffelinsville on the Junk river in 
Liberia, it is " very frequently found on the tulip-shaped 
flowers of the cotton-tree, from December to February." 

On the Gold Coast these birds are common, at least at 
some seasons, in the more wooded parts, as at Abrobonko and 
Denkera from whence Ussher collected numerous specimens, 
and there is one labelled " Ashantee " in the British Museum. 
I and Mr. T. E. Buckley only met with it in March at Abouri 
in the Aguapim mountains, always in company with other 
Sunbirds among the upper branches of the tall flowering 
forest trees, but they then appeared to be rare in comparison 
to the other species. In the German territory of Togoland 
specimens have been collected at Amedzoche in March and at 
Adame in July. There is a specimen from Bonny in the 
British Museum. 

In Camaroons Mr. Sjostedt mentions the species as not 
rare, and essentially a forest bird, and apparently breeding in 
August, and Mr. Zenker also collected specimens, adult birds 
in June and a young one in November. In the British 
Museum there are four specimens from Fernando Po and a 
similar number from Prince's Island, and six from Gaboon, in 
which latter country Du Ohaillu collected specimens at the 
Muni and Camma rivers, aud Marche at Lope in the Ogowe 
province. 

On the Loango coast Petit has obtained specimens at 
Landana, and the species extends south into Angola, where 
Verreaux and Hamilton both procured specimens. 

This Sunbird probably ranges over the Congo district 
generally, for Jameson's collection, from Yambuya on the 
Aruwhimi tributary, contained an adult male, and Emin met 
with it in October at Tingasi. 



CYANOMITRA VERTICALIS. 127 

The species apparently crosses the continent, for I cannot 
detect any character for separating from it Elseocerthia ragazzi, 
Salvad. The one example from Shoa in the British Museum 
does not differ in any of its measurements from some of the 
West African specimens. It has, however, the throat and 
breast slightly greener than the general run of specimens, 
but, to my eyes, the colouring is exactly matched by one of 
Hamilton's birds from Angola. 

Therefore I think I am right in referring to G. obscura 
the male procured in May at Witu by Mr. Jackson and the 
Shoa specimens collected by Dr. Ragazzi in the forest of 
Fekerie-ghem which includes the type of E. ragazzi, Salvadori. 

With regard to the habits of G. obscura, Mr. Keulemans 
writes : " When in Prince's Island I met with this species 
only in the dense forests, where, owing possibly to the thick- 
ness of the undergrowth and creepers, it was rarely to be 
seen. The high trees in the more retired parts of the forests 
are its favourite haunts ; and it is seldom observed near the 
ground, excepting when the aroma of the ripening fruits 
attract it towards the plantations, where it may at such times 
be occasionally met with around the banana and papaya 
plants. Its song, which it constantly utters, is totally unlike 
that of G. hartlaubi, being a more guttural sound, like ' hoo- 
hoo-hoo ' rapidly repeated ; but its call-note is a soft ' foo-cet,' 
and can hardly be distinguished from that of G. hartlaubi. It 
is known in the island by the name of ' Siwie-barbeiro- 
grande.' " 



Cyanomitra verticalis. 

Cyanornitra verticalis (Lath.), Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 65 (1896). 

Cinnyris verticalis, Shaipe and Bouvier, Bull. S. Z. France, 1876, 
p. 304 Loango ; Shelley, Mou. Nect. p. 301, pi. 97 (1879) ; Gadow, 
Cat. B. M. ix. p. 80 (1884) ; Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. 1885, p. 168 ; 
1886, p. 251 Liberia ; Beichen. J. f. 0. 1887, p. 306 Leopoldsville ; 



128 CYANOMITRA VERTICALIS. 

Shelley, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 38 Ting as i ; Reiehen. J. f. 0. 1892, p. 190 ; 

1894, p. 41 ; 1896, p. 38 Camaroons ; 1897, p. 46 Togoland. 
Cyanomitra cyanocephala, Oust. N. Arch. Mus. (2) ii. Bull, p 89 (1879) 

Ogoive. 
Neefcarinia verticalis, Hartl. Abhand. Brem. 1891, p. 28 Baguera. 
Nectarinia cyanocephala (Shaw), Hartl. Abhand. Brem. 1882, p. 206 

Upper White Nile. 
Cinnyris cyanocephalus, Hartert, J. f. O. 1886, p. 581 Niger. 
Cinnyris bohndorffi, Reiehen. J. f. 0. 1887, pp. 214, 301, 306 Congo. 
Cinnyris viridisplendens, Reiehen. J. f. O. 1892, pp. 54, 132 Bukoba ; 

Hartert in Ansorge's " Under Afr. Sun " App. p. 350 Unyoro. 

Adult Male. Head and neck deep metallic bluish green ; back and lesser 
wing-coverts olive yellow ; wings and tail dark brown ; remainder of the 
under parts leaden grey w T ith pale yellow pectoral-tufts. Total length 5 - 2 
inches, culmen 0'95, wing 2-6, tail 1-8, tarsus 0-65. Cape Coast, 2. 2. 72 
(Shelley). 

Adult Female. Upper surface as well as the sides of the head similar to 
the male. Beneath, very pale ashy grey, almost white on the chin ; pectoral- 
tufts white. Total length 4-9 inches, culmen 09, wing 2-3, tail 1-8, tarsus 
0-65. Abrobonko, 30. 1. 72 (Shelley). 

The Green-headed Olive Sunbird ranges from the Gambia 
river into Angola and through Equatorial Africa to Masailand. 

From the Gambia and Casamanse there are specimens of 
both sexes in the British Museum. Bulger met with the 
species on Bulama Island, one of the Bissagos group; Fergusson 
and Marche at Sierra Leone; and in Liberia Mr. Biittikofer 
collected specimens at Robertsport, Monrovia and Sckieflelins- 
ville on the Junk river. 

From the Gold Coast there are more than thirty skins of 
this species in the British Museum, including specimens from 
Blmina, Ashantee, Fantee and the Volta river. They show- 
conclusive evidence that G. bohndorffi and G. viridisplendens are 
only varieties of G. verticalis. 

While at Cape Coast Castle with Mr. T. E. Buckley we 
found the species common at Abrobonko around the large 
scarlet flowers of the Bombax trees in company with many 
other Sunbirds, and at other times perched upon the fronds of 



CYANOMITRA VERTICALIS. 129 

the cocoanufc palms in the vicinity of Cape Coast. It is a 
woodland species, which may account for our not meeting with 
it at Accra, but it is curious that we did not see these Sunbirds 
during our short excursion into the forest of the Aguapim 
mountains. In the neighbouring German territory of Togoland 
Mr. Baumann collected two specimens in May at Podji, and in 
the Niger district the species has been met with by Strange 
and Mr. Hartert. 

Dr. Reichenow procured a good series of carefully sexed 
specimens from Camaroons, and was the first to prove conclu- 
sively that Gerthia cyanocephala, Shaw, is nothing but the male 
of G. verticalis, Lath. 

In Gaboon Du Chaillu collected specimens on Cape Lopez 
and near the Muni, Moonda and Camma rivers, and Marche at 
Lope in the Ogowe district. From the Loango coast Perrein 
procured the type of Gerthia cyanocephala, Shaw, and in the 
same country Falkenstein collected specimens near Chinchonxo 
and Petit at Landana. 

In the British Museum there are nine specimens from 
Gaboon, two from Laudana and one of Monteiro's, an adult 
male, from Bembe in Angola, which is the extreme southern 
limit for the known range of the species, and Prof. Barboza du 
Bocage remarks that G. verticalis has never been procured from 
south of the Quanza river. 

Following the range of the species eastward we find 
Dr. Reichenow records it as occurring in Bohndorff's collection 
from Leopoldsville, and makes another of his specimens, an 
adult male from the same locality, the type of his Ginnyris 
bohndorffi, and refers another from Manyango, some miles 
nearer to the coast, to the same form. To the north-east of 
the Congo district Emin has collected specimens at Tingasi, 
Tomaja, Foda, Baguera, Langomere, and Bukoba on the 

[November, 1899. 9 



130 CYANOMITRA CYANOL.EMA. 

western shore of Victoria Nyanza ; from the latter locality 
came the types of Cinnyris viridisplendens, Beichenow. 

To the east of Victoria Nyanza Mr. Ansorge found the 
species at Masindi in Unyoro during May and June, and 
Mr. Jackson collected a fine series, which agree perfectly with 
those from the Gold Coast, at Mandi in May, June and July, 
up to an elevation of 6,500 feet, and at Ntebi in March and 
September, so apparently the species is nowhere migratory. 

In this species both sexes, when in full adult breeding 
plumage, have metallic colours on the head. In both sexes, 
immature birds appear to be very similar in plumage, and 
have no metallic colours. The full dress first begins to 
appear in the form of metallic feathers on the upper part 
of the head and neck, then the breast becomes mottled 
with clear ashy ; next metallic plumes appear on the throat 
of the male and ashy white ones on that of the female. 
The last portion of the immature plumage to be discarded is 
the yellow on the collar and down the centre of the breast. 



Cyanomitra cyanolsema. 

Cyanornitra cyanolaema (Jard.), Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 66 (1896). 
Cinnyris cyanolsema, Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 297, pi. 95 (1877) ; Gadow, 

Cat. B. M. ix. p. 78 (1884) ; Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. 1886, p. 251 ; 

1888, p. 72; 1889, p. 118; 1892, p. 22 Liberia; Reichen. J. f. 0. 

1887, pp. 301, 306 Congo ; Sjostedt, Sv. Vet. Ak. Handl. 1895, p. 102 

Camaroons ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1899, p. 635 Buganda ; Oberholser, 

Pr. U.S. Nat. Mus., 1899, p. 34 Liberia. 
Nectarinia cyanolasma, Bouvier, Cat. Ois. Marche, &c. p. 13 (1875) Sierra 

Leone; Bocage, Orn. Angola, p. 176 (1877) Angola. 
Adelinus cyanolsema, Oust. N. Arch. Mus. (2) ii. p. 132 (1879) Gaboon. 

Adult Male. Upper surface, including the sides of the head, brown ; 
crown and throat deep metallic green shaded with violet ; remainder of the 
under parts paler brown than the back and with pale yellow pectoral-tufts. 
Total length 57 inches, culmen 0-9, wing 2-7, tail 2'5, tarsus 0-7. Fantee 
(Aubin). 



CYANOMITRA CYANOL.EMA. 131 

Adult Female. Above, brown, the feathers broadly edged with olive 
yellow ; outer tail-feathers with pale ends ; sides of head brown with a 
white band above and below the eye. Beneath, white, the throat shaded 
with pale brown, the chest faintly mottled with brown; abdomen, sides of 
the body and under tail-coverts washed with olive yellow. Total length 
5-5 inches, culmen 0-8, wing 2-55, tail 2'2, tarsus 0'7. Pantee (Aubin). 

The Blue-throated Brown Sunbird ranges from Sierra 
Leone into Angola, the Island of Fernando Po and the Uganda 
Protectorate to as far east as Buganda. 

Specimens have been collected at Sierra Leone by Marche, 
along the banks of the Sulymah river by Demery, and at 
Schieffelinsville in Liberia by Mr. Buttikofer, who remarks 
that the first two specimens " differ somewhat from each 
other, one having chin and throat with a greenish, the other 
with an intense violet gloss." This variation in the shade of 
colouring of the metallic gloss is by no means confined to this 
species, and may be probably accounted for by the age and 
amount of exposure of the metallic coloured feathers since the 
last moult. 

On the Gold Coast, according to the late Governor Ussher, 
it is rare, though occasionally found in the vicinity of Cape 
Coast, and there is one of his specimens from Abrobonko in the 
British Museum, and the pair I described were collected for 
him by Aubin, probably in the forest of Denkera. Neither I 
nor Mr. T. E. Buckley met with the species, nor do I find any 
mention of it from Togoland or the Niger. 

The type of the species was discovered by Fraser on 
Fernando Po, and the only record I find of it in Camaroons is 
that Mr. Sjostedt shot a male in January out of a flock, which 
he believed to be mostly young birds. In Gaboon these 
Sunbirds appear to be more plentiful, for Du Chaillu collected 
specimens at the Moonda and Camma rivers and Marche in 
the Ogowe district. 

Along the Lower Congo, Bohndorff procured specimens 



132 CYANOMITRA DUSSUMIERI. 

at Manyango and Leopoldsville. In Angola, at Bembe, Mr. 
Monteiro obtained an adult male, and further inland Hamilton 
found the species in the Kasongo country, but it is not known 
to range further south. 

The full range of this species is very doubtful, for in one 
of Mr. Jackson's recent collections there is a female labelled 
" Buganda, 26. 11. 94," which is the first record of the 
species occurring in East Africa. 



Cyanomitra dussumieri. 

Cyanomitra dussumieri (Hartl.), Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 67 (1896). 
Cinnyris dussumieri, Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 293, pi. 93 (1877) ; Gadow, 

Cat. B. M. ix., p. 79 (1884) ; Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1895, 

p. 514 Seychelles. 

Adult Male. Above, dark browu, the feathers edged with olive ; tail 
tipped with white, broadest towards the outer feathers. Beneath, olive 
shaded ashy brown, with the entire throat deep metallic bottle green, 
and orange red and yellow pectoral-tufts. Total length 4'6 inches, culmen 
09, wing 2'4, tail 1-8, tarsus 0-7. Seychelles (F. Newton). 

Adult Female. Only differs from the male in the throat being of the 
same colour as the breast, and in having no bright pectoral-tufts. 

Male in moult. Like the female, or with the throat metallic, but with 
no pectoral-tufts. 

The Seychelles Blue-throated Sunbird is confined to the 
Seychelles Archipelago in the Indian Ocean about 800 miles 
from the African coast. 

Mr. F. Newton writes : " The ' Colibri ' (Nectarinia dus- 
sumieri) I found to be very common ; I saw it at Mahe, 
Praslin, Ladigue, Felicite, Marianne, and Silhouette. When I 
first arrived, the males I shot did not show any yellow under 
the wing ; but at Marianne on February 12th, I obtained two 
males which had the bright flame-coloured axillary-tufts fully 
developed. At first I thought these were of a different species; 



CYANOMITRA HUMBLOTI. 133 

but on my return to Praslin and Make, and shooting several 
specimens, I found that all the males had then assumed their 
full plumage, which they evidently had not done when I shot 
my first specimen on January 25th." 

He further adds : " The male constantly sings from the 
top of a tree or from a dead and exposed branch. The song 
is hurried, but not unlike that of a Goldfinch. The ordinary 
call is one note quickly repeated three or four times. Mr. 
Nevill had two nests brought to him, one containing a young 
one almost fully fledged, the other an egg ; the nests were 
exactly like others of the family which have been described 
("Ibis" 1865, p. 76). The egg is greenish-white, freckled, 
suffused and blotched with umber-brown chiefly at the larger 
end. It is 075 inch in length, and 0'41 in breadth." 

This species has been found by Professor Percival Wright 
on Aride and Fregates islands, and Dr. Abbott collected seven 
specimens in the same Archipelago at La Digue, Felicite, He 
Cousin and Mahe. 

Cyanomitra humbloti. 

Cyanomitra huinbloti (Milne Edw. and Oust.), Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 

68 (1896). 
Cinnyris humbloti, Milne Edw. and Oust. C. E. ci. p. 220 (1885) ; iid. 

Ann. Sc. Nat. Zool. 1887, p. 220 ; iid. N. Arch. Mus. (2) x. p. 245, 

pi. 4 (1888). Gt. Comoro Is. 

Adult Male. Above, olive yellow, with the forehead and crown metallic 
coppery lilac ; wing dark brown with olive-yellow edges to the feathers ; 
tail blue-black with distinctly paler dusky grey ends to the feathers ; head 
in front of the eyes, cheeks, chin and throat metallic coppery lilac ; ear- 
coverts and back of head and neck slightly more ashy olive than the back ; 
under surface of body olive yellow passing into a rich narrow red collar ; 
pectoral-tufts yellow ; under wing-coverts white partially washed with 
yellow ; quills dusky blackish with partial white inner edges. Bill and 
legs black ; iris dark brown. Total length 4 inches, culmen 0-75, wing 2-1, 
tail 1-5, tarsus - 65. Great Comoro Is. (Humblot). 



134 CYANOMITRA NEWTONI. 

Adult Female. Differs from the full-plumaged male in having the sides 
and upper half of head ashy olive ; chin, throat and under tail-coverts 
yellowish white, mottled with the dusky centres to the feathers ; under 
surface of body pale yellow, shaded on the flanks with olive and partially 
striped on the sides of the chest by the dusky bases to the feathers. Total 
length 3-9 inches, culmen 07, wing 1-95, tail 1-3, tarsus 0-65. $ Great 
Comoro Is. (Humblot). 



Humblot's Sunbird is confined to the island of Great 
Comoro. 

Monsieur Humblot during his expedition to Great Comoro 
Island discovered this and several other species of birds hitherto 
unknown to science. 

The Mascarene Archipelago, and the island of Socotra to the 
north, muster ten local forms of Sunbirds, none of which ever 
range on to the African continent, and are all referred by me 
to the two genera Cinnyris and Gyanomitra, and consist of the 
following species : — 

Cinnyris notatus, Madagascar ; replaced by G. nesophilus in 
Great Comoro. 

G. comorensis, Johanna Island. 

C. coquereli, Mayotte Island. 

C. souimanga, Madagascar and Gloriosa Island ; represented 
by C. aldabranus on Aldabra Island and by C. abbotti on the 
Island of Assumption. 

The genus Gyanomitra is represented by : — 

G. humbloti, in Great Comoro. 

C. dussumieri, in the Seychelles Archipelago. 

C. balfouri, in Socotra Island. 



Cyanomitra newtoni. (Pi. 5, fig. 1.) 

Cyanomitra newtoni (Bocage), Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 69 (1896). 
Cinnyris newtoni, Bocage, Jorn. Lisb. 1887, p. 250; 1888, pp. 154, 
157, 211 St. Thomas Is, 



CYANOMITRA HARTLAUBI. 135 

Adult Male. Above, dusky olive, wings dark brown, tail black, strongly 
graduated, with white ends to all but the centre pair of feathers. Entire throat 
deep metallic bluish green ; chest bright sulphur yellow, fading into yellowish 
white on the remainder of the body. Total length 4-2 inches, culmen 0-65, 
wing 2-15, tail 1*7, tarsus 0-7. St. Thomas Is. (P. Newton). 

Adult Female. Similar to the male, but differs in having the throat 
dusky black with the edges of the feathers yellowish buff, in the chest being 
buff like the abdomen, and in the base of the lower mandible being pale. 
Total length 3*5 inches, culmen 055, wing 19, tail 1-4, tarsus 0-65. 
St. Thomas Is. (F. Newton). 

The Saint Thomas Yellow-breasted Sunbird is confined to 
the Island of St. Thomas, which is situated almost on the 
Equator at about 150 miles from the West African coast. 

Mr. F. Newton who discovered the species informs us that 
it is known to the natives as " Xele-Xele," so we may infer 
that it is fairly abundant on the island. 

I only know the species from the two specimens in the 
British Museum labelled male and female, so have described 
them as such, but in the latter specimen the basal portion of 
the lower mandible is pale as if from immaturity, and the dusky 
colouring of the throat suggests the possibility of its being 
a young male. 

This is one of the three species which are probably confined 
to the islands off the coast of West Africa, comprising, besides 
the present species, Elmoeerthia thomensis, from the same island, 
and Cyanomitra hartlaubi from Prince's Island. 



Cyanomitra hartlaubi. 

Cyanomitra hartlaubi (Verr.), Shelley, B. Air. I. No. 70 (1896). 
Cinnyris hartlaubi, Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 295, pi. 94 (1879) ; Gadow, 
Cat. B. M. ix. p. 79 (1884). 

Adult Male. Upper surface and sides of the head olive with a few 
feathers on the sides of the forehead tipped with metallic blue ; tail with 
pale ends to the feathers broadest on the outer ones. Beneath olive yellow 



136 CYANOMITRA HARTLAUBI. 

fading almost into white on the sides of the body ; entire throat deep 
metallic violet shaded blue. Total length 56 inches, culmen 0-8, wing 25, 
tail 23, tarsus 85. Prince's Is. (Ingall). 

Adult Female. Similar to the male, only with no metallic colours, the 
throat being olive yellow like the breast. Total length 4-7 inches, culmen 
0-7, wing 2 3, tail 2, tarsus 0-8. 

The Prince's Island Sunbird is confined to the island of 
that name. 

The only trustworthy information respecting this Sunbird 
is given by Mr. Keulemans and Dr. Dohrn. The former 
gentleman found it tolerably abundant throughout Prince's 
Island with the exception of the dense woods, where it is 
replaced by G. dbscura. He found it very plentiful near plan- 
tations, usually in small groups of from four to six individuals, 
in which the males were by far the most numerous. " They 
have no special breeding season," he writes, " for I have found 
young birds in every month of the year ; but I find in my 
journal, under the date of August 30th, that during that month 
I procured nineteen males but not a single female ; so I 
suppose at that season all the hens were breeding. I collected 
three nests, all of which were very similar. They are of an 
oval form, and are suspended from one or more twigs at an 
elevation of from four to twelve feet from the ground and 
generally well concealed amongst the foliage. They were con- 
structed of the hairy appendages that are found on the bark 
of palm trees, rather loosely woven together and lined with 
the soft filaments of flowers, cotton, and other fine materials, 
with the opening on the side most exposed to the light. I 
never found any of the eggs, but one was brought me by a 
native boy supposed to belong to this species ; it was a nearly 
perfect oval, pure white, and with a very thin shell. 

" It appears to me that there is only one in each brood, for 
I never saw the parents feed more than a single young bird. It 
takes a long time before the young bird becomes independent ; 



CYANOMITRA KEICHENBACHI. 137 

for I have seen the old birds feeding their offspring after it 
has been perfectly able to fly, and when it was already begin- 
ning to assume its adult male plumage. 

"The song of the male resembles that of our Hedge- 
sparrow, added to which are some notes similar to those of the 
Wren ; it is, in fact, somewhat between the two songs, a little 
fuller and in a lower key, while the call-note is like that of the 
Bed-start. By imitating this note they can be brought very 
close, and can be easily captured, as they ai'e naturally very 
tame. 

" They feed chiefly upon insects, but will also eat small 
berries and fruit, and are very partial to sipping the juice 
emitted by the banana-flower before the fruit has set. 

" I kept many alive, and fed them upon Papaya, Banana, and 
bread soaked in sugar and water, with occasionally ants' eggs. 
Two males which I tried to bring to Europe died from cold 
after having lived in confinement more than three months. 
The natives call them c Siwie-bai'beiro ' or ' Siwie baca-longe,' 
and the Portuguese ' Besha-flore ' (flower-kissers)." 

The type of the species was in Verreaux's collection and 
supposed by him to have come from Angola, but I believe 
Dohrn to be more correct when he observes : " I doubt if this 
species has been found in Angola, mistakes in localities in these 
parts being very common ; for cruisers and merchant vessels 
usually touch at several places of the coast and adjacent 
islands, and if special care be not taken, collections from 
different places are easily mixed up together." 

For the above reason I have discarded from the range of 
the present species Angola for Verreaux's type, and Gaboon 
for one of Gujon's specimens. 

Cyanomitra reichenbachi. 

Cyanomitra reichenbachi (Hartl.) Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 71 (1896). 
Cinnyris reichenbachi, Sharpe and Bouvier, Bull S. Z. France, 1876, 



138 CYANOMITRA REICHENBACHI. 

p. 304 Loango ; Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 299, pi. 96 (1877) ; Gadow, 
Cat. B. M. ix. p. 81 (1884) ; Reichen. J. f. 0. 1887, pp. 301, 306 
Congo; 1890, p. 126 Camaroons ; Sjostedt, Sv. Vet. Ak. Hand, 
p. 102 Camaroons. 

Nectarinia reicheubachi, Reichen. J. f. 0. 1875, p. 31 Camaroons. 

? Cinnyris oritis, Reichen. J. f. O. 1892, pp. 190, 225 Camaroons. 

Adult Male. Above, olive-yellow ; head and entire throat metallic violet, 
shaded with indigo bronze ; tail graduated, with pale ends to the feathers. 
Breast pale ash colour with bright yellow pectoral-tufts ; abdomen and 
under tail-coverts yellow. Total length 4-7 inches, culmen 065, wing 2-35, 
tail 2-15, tarsus 0-7. 

Adult Female. Similar in plumage to the male. Total length 4-6 inches, 
culmen 065, wing 2-2, tail 1*5, tarsus 07. Gaboon, 5. 1. 76 (Marche). 

Young Male. Similar to the adult but with no metallic colours ; head 
and neck deep olive brown inclining almost to black on the chin ; remainder 
of the under parts bright yellow, washed with olive on the side of the breast. 
Landana (Petit). 

Reichenbach's Sunbird ranges over West Africa from the 
Volta river to the Congo. 

At the river Volta, which waters the eastern portion 
of the British Possession of the Gold Coast, two nearly 
full pluinaged specimens, probably a pair, were collected by 
my friend the late Governor TJssher, who writes : " They 
frequented low shrubs near the river bank, and, I should 
fancy, were tolerably plentiful. The habits of most of 
these Sunbirds appear to be identical ; and their flight 
and method of feeding offered nothing noteworthy to the 
collector." In Camaroons, according to Dr. Reichenow, the 
species is abundant, and he found from his own observations 
that the female assumed metallic colours similar to that of the 
male, and that in young birds the crown was olive like the 
back, and the throat greenish yellow. Mr. Sjostedt procured a 
specimen in August at Bibundi. 

From Gaboon Verreaux obtained the type of the species. 
Marche met with this Sunbird at Lope in the Ogowe district, 
and Du Chaillu at the Camma river. Further south Petit 



ANTHOTHREPTES 139 

collected many specimens at Landana on the Loango coast, 
and Bohndorff up the Congo, at Manyango and Leopoldsville. 

Owing to Mr. Cassin's remark, that "the young male is 
like the female, but with the throat, abdomen and under tail- 
coverts yellow, the former with a few lustrous metallic green 
feathers," I expected to find that the female would be an 
olive-shaded bird with no metallic colours, so, in my Mono- 
graph of this family, I described as the female one of G. 
cupreus in Petit's collection from Landana. I have since seen 
one of Petit's specimens in a similar plumage to that of the 
male labelled " female," thus confirming the correctness of Dr. 
Reichenow's observation, that the plumages of the sexes in 
adult birds are alike. 

With regard to Ginnyris oritis, Reichenow, I believe this 
species is only known by the type specimen, procured by Dr. 
Preuss in the highlands of Camaroons on June 16, 1891, and 
described as very similar to G. reichenbachi, but differing in 
having the entire abdomen yellowish olive, a slight tinge of 
violet on the throat, and the occiput greenish. The bill is 
recorded as more than an inch in length, but I presume 
"r. 27—28" is a misprint for r. 17—18. Otherwise the 
description of the type of G. oritis suggests to me a young 
specimen of G. reichenbachi which has nearly assumed the full 
breeding plumage. For that reason I intentionally omitted 
the name from my list of African species, and see no reason 
for altering that opinion now. Whether I am right or wrong 
in so doing can only be decided by further information on the 
subject. 

Genus VII. ANTHOTHEEPTES. 

Form very similar to that of Cinnyris, but with the bill comparatively 
shorter and straighter with no downward curve to the keel of the lower 
mandible. Culmen often not quite so long as the tarsus ; tail square ; style 
of plumage very variable. 



140 ANTHOTHREPTES. 

Females often with metallic colours ; less often they are like their males 
in plumage, and the nestlings of A. collaris and A. hypodila, unlike any other 
species of Sunbird known to me, have a metallic green colouring like the 
adult females. 

All the members of this genus, once they have assumed the full plumage, 
apparently never discard their bright colours. 

The range of the genus extends over Southern and Tropical Africa, and 
through Southern Asia to the Philippines, Borneo and Celebes. 

In Africa it is represented by eleven known species, all of which are 
confined to the Ethiopian region. 



KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

a. Mostly olive ; bright scarlet pectoral-tufts in 

adult males. 
ft 1 . Head and neck olive like remainder of jfraseri, $ % . 

plumage I idia (Liberia). 

b 1 . Upper half of head and neck ashy grey 

fading into white on the throat .... axillaris, $ ? . 

b. Upper tail-coverts metallic violet ; chest white. 
c 1 . Upper parts and upper throat metallic 

violet. f 

ft 2 . Least series of wing-coverts mostly 
metallic violet ; no patch of green on 
lower back ; no pale edges to any of the 
tail-feathers longnemarii, 3 . 

b 2 . Least series of wing-coverts mostly 
metallic green ; a distinct patch of 
metallic green feathers on the lower 
back ; several of the outer tail-feathers 

with partial whitish edges oricntalis, 3 ■ 

d 1 . Crown and mantle brown ; throat and 
eyebrows white. 

c 2 . No pale edges to the tail-feathers ; 
abdomen and under tail-coverts pale 
yellow ; rump more lilac longnemarii, ? . 

d 2 . Partial pale edges to several of the outer 
tail-feathers ; abdomen and under tail- 
coverts white like the chest ; rump bluer orientalis, ? . 

c. Upper parts metallic green shaded with blue. 
c 1 . Throat metallic bluish green ; breast buff 

with orange pectoral-tufts aurantia, $ ad. 



ANTHOTHREPTES FRASERI. 141 

f 1 . Throat, cheeks and eyebrows white ; 
remainder of under surface of body pale 
yellow aurantia, 2 . 

d. Upper parts golden green. 

g 1 . Under parts yellow, with the throat golden 
green only in adult males. 
c". With metallic edges to most of the quills, collar is. 
f 2 . With olive edges to the quills .... hypodila. — 
h 1 . Chest ashy with a double collar of golden 
green and orange 
g-. Chin and upper throat yellow .... rectirostris. 
h". Chin and upper throat ashy grey . . . tephrolama. 

e. Upper parts brown. Sexes alike in plumage. 
i 1 . Forehead and throat metallic blue ; breast 

yellow with the centre and the under tail- 
coverts scarlet anchietce. 

k 1 . Above ashy olive ; eyebrow and under 

parts whitish gabonica. 



Anthothreptes fraseri. 

Anthothreptes fraseri (Jard. and Selby), Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 113 

(1884) ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 73 (1896). 
Anthreptes fraseri, Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 307, pi. 99 (1879) ; Oberholser, 

Pr. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1899, p. 16 Camaroons. 

Adult Male. Olive, paler beneath, wings and tail more golden olive ; 
eyelids sulphur yellow ; pectoral tufts orange red. Bill brown fading into 
olive yellow towards the base of the lower mandible ; legs olive green ; iris 
hazel. Total length 5-3 inches, eulmen 0-65, wing 2-8, tail 2-4, tarsus 0-65. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male, but with no bright pectoral-tufts. 

Fraser's Scarlet-tufted Olive Sunbird inhabits Camaroons, 
Fernando Po and Gaboon. 

Mr. GL L. Bates has recently met with the species in 
Camaroons. The type was procured on Fernando Po by 
Fraser, according to whose notes " two other specimens only 
were seen, but could not be obtained. They had a straight 
dart-like flight, appeared of a long slender form, and ran 
actively up the small branches in search of insects. Bill 



142 ANTHOTHREPTES IDIA. 

olive-yellow at the base of the lower mandible, legs olive- 
green, irides hazel." 

In Gaboon, Du Cliaillu collected specimens on Cape Lope 
and the banks of the Camma and Ogowe rivers, and Mr. Cassin 
writes : " The female is smaller than the male, but very similar 
in colours. The young male is like the female, but with 
the colours duller, and of a darker green in all the plumage, 
no axillary tufts." 

This Sunbird is extremely rare in collections and the 
next two species are, I believe, known only by the type 
specimens. 

Anthothreptes idia. 

Anthreptes idius, Oberholser, Pr. U. S. Nat. Mus. xxii. p. 33 (1899) 
Liberia. 

Type. — " Upper parts dark olive green, rather duller on the head ; wings 
fuscous, the lesser coverts, edgings of the others and of the quills, like the 
back ; tail-feathers greenish olive, with broad olive green exterior margins. 
Sides of head and neck olive green ; eye ring olive yellow ; entire under 
surface deep olive yellow, almost uniform, but rather paler on chin, and 
shaded with olive green on sides and flanks ; lining of wing olive yellow. 
Bill dark horn, paler beneath ; feet olive green." Total length 488 inches, 
wing 216, tail 1-52, tarsus 0-56. 

The Liberian Olive Sunbird inhabits Liberia. 

Mr. R. P. Currie, who discovered the type, states that 
" this species was not uncommon in the bush about Mount 
Coffee, and that its Golah name is ' Zemeh.' " 

Besides the above description of the species Mr. Harry C. 
Oberholser further writes : " Similar to Anthreptes fraseri, but 
decidedly smaller ; the outermost primary scarcely more than 
half as long ; rather darker, and much less yellowish green 
throughout. This most noticeable on wings and tail. 

" In details of structure and in pattern of coloration this 



ANTHOTHREPTES AXILLARIS. 14.1 

new species is identical with Anthreptes fraseri, and does not 
need comparison with any of the other species of the genus. 
There is a possibility that idius may eventually turn out to be 
merely a geographical race of fraseri, but until such shall be 
proved to be the case it may stand as a species. The single 
specimen procured by Mr. Currie is sexed male, and if this be 
correct the absence of pectoral-tufts, notwithstanding the lack 
of any other evidence, would seem to indicate immaturity ; for 
it is quite probable, though of course not certain, that the 
adult male would, like that of fraseri, possess these orna- 
ments." With the following exceptions : " tail-feathers 
greenish olive ; eye ring olive yellow ; feet olive green," the 
description of A. idia agrees well in colouring and measure- 
ments with the females and young males of Cinnyris cupreus. 



Anthothreptes axillaris. 

Camaroptera axillaris, Reichen. Orn. Monatsb. 1893, p. 32 Uvamba; id. 
J. f. 0. 1894, p. 102, pi. 1, fig. 3; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 964 (1896). 

Very similar to A. fraseri but differs in having the upper half of the head 
grey shading into white on the chin and throat. Axillary tufts vermilion, 
but present only in adult males. Total length 5 inches, culmen - 65, wing 
2-7, tail 1-8, tarsus 0-6. 



The Grey-crowned Scarlet-tufted Olive Sunbird inhabits 
Central Africa. I believe this species to be known only by 
the type, which was in the Emin and Stuhlmann's collection, 
from Uvamba, and that the description and figure of the type 
is all that has as yet appeared in print, but this was sufficient 
to raise my suspicions that it was an Anthothreptes with the 
cutting edges of the bill finely serrated, and not a Gamaroptera, 
so I wrote to Dr. Reichenow who has kindly informed me that 
its nearest ally is A. fraseri. 



144 ANTHOTHREPTES LONGUEMARII. 



Anthothreptes longuemarii. 

Anthothreptes longuemarii (Less.), Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 115 (1884) ; 
Matsch. J. f. O. 1887, p. 155 Lufuku B. ; Reichen. J. f. 0. 1892, 
p. 236 Togoland; Shelley, Ibis, 1893, p. 17; 1894, p. 14; 1899, 
p. 282 Nyasaland; id. B. Afr. I. No. 74 (1896); Reichen. J. f. 0. 
1897, p. 45 Togoland. 

Anthreptes longuemarii, Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 335, pi. 108 (1879); 
Oust. N. Arch. Mus. (2) ii. Bull. p. 152 (1879) Loss Is. ; Bocage, 
Orn. Angola, p. 545 (1881) Caconda ; Shelley, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 39 
Bongerch. 

Anthothreptes orientalis (nee Hartl.) Sharpe, Linn. Soc. Journ. Zool. 
xvii. p. 429 (1884) Nyam-nijam. 

Adult Male. Above, metallic violet ; wings dark brown, with the least 
series of wing-coverts metallic violet, passing into green on the outermost 
feathers only ; tail-feathers blackish with no trace of pale ends but washed 
and edged with metallic violet ; sides of head and sides of neck dark brown ; 
upper half of throat metallic violet ; remainder of the under surface white 
with pale yellow pectoral-tufts. Bill dark brown ; iris brown ; legs black. 
Total length 4-9 inches, culmen 0-65, wing 2-9, tail 2-1, tarsus 07. Casa- 
manse (Brit. Mus.). 

Adult Female. Upper parts, as well as the sides of head, ashy brown 
with a broad white eyebrow ; upper tail-coverts metallic violet ; wings and 
tail dark brown, the latter with the feathers washed and edged with 
metallic violet. Beneath white, shaded with sulphur yellow on the 
abdomen and under tail-coverts. Total length 4-7 inches, culmen 0-6, wing 
2-6, tail 2-1, tarsus 07. Casamanse (Brit. Mus.) 

Immature Male. Similar to the adult female in having the white throat 
and eyebrow, but the crown, mantle and least series of wing-coverts are 
partially metallic violet, and the abdomen and under tail-coverts bright 
sulphur yellow. Sassa (Bohndorff). 

The Western Violet-backed Sunbird ranges from Sene- 
gambia into Benguela, Nyasaland and the Nyam-nyam district. 

The type of the species came from Senegal and that of 
Anthreptes leucosoma, Swainson, from the Gambia, and speci- 
mens have been collected by Marche at Ponte, by Beaudouin 
at Casamanse, and M. Oustalet records it from the Loss 
Islands. 

Mr. Blittikofer did not procure the species in Liberia, nor 



ANTHOTHREPTES ORIENTALIS. 145 

has it been recorded from our British possessions of the Gold 
Coast, yet in Togoland, our German neighbours, have collected 
specimens there in .April, May and July. From the Niger 
district it has not been procured since Allen and Thomson's 
time, when the species was obtained at Abor, and from 
Camaroons, Gaboon and Congo it has not yet been recorded 
at all. 

In Benguela, however, Anchieta has found the species as far 
south as Caconda, where it is probably not rare, for Prof. 
Barboza du Bocage gave me a fine full plumaged male out of 
his duplicates from that locality, which specimen is now in the 
British Museum, along with five full plumaged males and two 
females of this species collected by Mr. Alexander Whyte and 
Lieut.-Col. Manning at Zomba in the Shire highlands in 
January, February, June, July and September, so it is 
evidently a resident there and not a rare straggler. 

The range of this species eastward probably extends as far 
as the watersheds of the Congo and Zambesi rivers, so not 
having seen the specimens, I should refer those collected by 
Bohm only at the Lufuku river to the west of Tanjanyika 
to this species, and those procm*ed by him, Fischer and Emin 
east of that line to A. orientalis, as the latter certainly replaces 
A. longuemarii at Altoni near Zanzibar and in the Nile water- 
shed. 

Close to the latter district Emin obtained in July an 
immature male of A. longuemarii at Bongereh in Monbuttu, 
and Bohndorff an adult and young male at Sassa in the 
Nyam-nyam country in November, which specimens are now 
in the British Museum. 

Anthothreptes orientalis. (Pi. 4, fig. 2.) 

Anthothreptes orientalis, Hartl., Fisch. Zeitschr. 1884, p. 339; id. 
J. f. O. 1885, p. 138 Osegua, Maunti, Pare, Arusha, Wapoko?nola?id, 

[December, 1899, 10 



146 ANTHOTHREPTES ORIENTALIS. 

Barawa; Reichen. J. f. O. 1887, p. 75 Loeru, Ossure ; 1889, p. 285 

Usegua; 1891, p. 161 Mpapwa, Ugogo ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 475 

Somali; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 75 (1896); Elliot, Field Columb. 

Mus. I. No. 2, p. 41 (1897) ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 404 ; 

Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 67 Somali; Jackson, t. c. p. 636 Njemps. 
Anthreptes orientalis, Hartl. J. f. O. 1880, p. 213 Lado ; id. Abhand. 

Brem. 1881, p. 109 ; 1882, p. 205 ; Pelz. Verh. Wien. xxxi. p. 609 

(1881) ; xxxii. p. 501 (1882) ; Emin, J. f. O. 1891, p. 60 Upper 

White Nile. 
Anthothreptes longuemarii (nee Less.) Cab. J. f. O. 1878, p. 227 Teita ; 

Sharpe, Ibis, 1891, p. 594 Teita, Suk ; Reichen. Vog. Deutsch. O. 

Afr. p. 209 (1894). 
Anthreptes longuemarii, Schal. J. f. O. 1883, p. 360 Ugogo; Shelley, 

P. Z. S. 1889, p. 366 Useri B. 
Cinnyris longuemarii, Fisch. and Reichen. J. f. 0. 1879, p. 347 Massa. 
Nectarinia longuemarii, Antin. Cat. p. 34 (1864) ; Bohm J. f. O. 1883, p. 

194 Eakoma; Schal. J. f. O. 1886, p. 417 Ugalla, Gonda; 1887, 

p. 242. 

Adult Male. Similar to A. longuemarii, but differs in having a broad 
band across the lower back and the whole of the least series of wing-coverts 
metallic green ; tail more glossed with blue, and with partial white margins 
to some of the outer feathers. Total length 4 - 9 inches, culmen 055, wing 
2-55, tail 21, tarsus 07. Laga in Somaliland, 29. 11. 94 (F. Gillett). 

Adult Female. Like that of A. longuemarii, but the metallic shade of 
the upper tail-coverts and tail is more blue than lilac ; the whitish edges to 
the tail-feathers distinct, and the abdomen and under tail-coverts white like 
the chest. Total length 4-6 inches, culmen 0-55, wing 2-4, tail 1-75, tarsus 
0-7. Lado, 18. 4. 79 (Emin). 

Other adult males show that the green on the lower back is somewhat 
variable in amount, and a few have a slight trace of violet on the innermost 
least series of wing-coverts ; the partial whitish edges to several of the 
outer tail-feathers is constant, regardless of sex or age, and is entirely 
absent in A. longuemarii. 



The Eastern Violet-backed Sunbird probably ranges over 
German East Africa generally, northward into Somaliland 
and the Upper White Nile district. 

The most southern locality from whence I have seen this 
species is Altoni, south-west of Zanzibar, where Emin pro- 
cured an adult male which is now in the British Museum. To 



ANTHOTHREPTES AURANTIA. 147 

this form should belong the specimens collected by Bohm at 
Kakoma, Ugalla, Gonda, and Ugogo, and those of Fischer's 
consignments from Usegua, Ussure, Maurui, Pare, Arusha, 
Masailand, "Wapokomoland and Barawa in Somali. 

In this latter country these Sunbirds are apparently 
common, for Mr. Elliot met with the species at Le Gud and 
Hullier, Mr. Lort Phillips at the Rugga Pass in March, Mr. 
Hawker at Laferu in November, when be saw several but 
did not notice them elsewhere. Mr. Donaldson Smith also 
obtained several specimens during September in Somaliland. 

Mr. Hunter procured the species near the Useri river 
which flows eastward from the Kilimanjaro mountain. Dr. 
Hildebrandt met with these birds in the Teita country, where 
specimens have likewise been collected by Mr. Jackson in 
December and in January, at Ngoboto in the Suk country, 
about 100 miles to the north-east of Victoria Nyanza. 

In the Upper White Nile district Emin discovered the type 
of the species at Lado, and collected additional specimens at 
Wadelai, Mabero and Wakala. Von Heuglin met with these 
Sunbirds during his journey through the Wau district, 
frequenting the underwood and forests in the neighbourhood 
of water. Antinori, likewise, found them near the Gazal river 
in the Djur and Dor provinces. 



Anthothreptes aurantia. 

Anthothreptes aurantia, Verr., Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix., p. 116 (1884); 

Biehen. J. f. 0. 1887, pp. 301 Congo; 1890, p. 127 Camaroons ; 

Sjostedt, Sv. Vet. Ak. Handl. 1895, p. 104 Camarooons ; Shelley, 

B. Afr. I. No. 76 (1896). 
Anthreptes aurantia, Oust. Bull. Soc. Philom. (7) I. p. 106 (1877) ; id. 

Nouv. Arch. Mus. (2) II. Bull. p. 94 (1879) Gaboon; Shelley, Mon. 

Nect., p. 337, pi. 109 (1879) ; id. Ibis, 1890, p. 163 Yambuya. 



148 ANTHOTHREPTES AURANTIA. 

Adult Male. Upper surface as well as the sides of the head and the least 
series of wing-coverts metallic green glossed with steel-blue, mostly so on 
the neck, sides of the head, throat and upper tail-coverts ; wings and tail 
dark brown, the latter washed with metallic violet, and the feathers edged 
with metallic bluish green ; remainder of the under parts buffy white with 
reddish orange pectoral-tufts. Total length 4-6 inches, culmen O'S, wing 
2-65, tail 2-1, tarsus 0-7. Gaboon (Brit. Mus.). 

Adult Female. Above, similar to the adult male, but with the forehead 
more golden and less blue shade on the back of the neck. Ear-coverts like 
the crown, from which they are separated by a broad white eyebrow extend- 
ing forward to the nostril ; cheeks and throat white ; the remainder of the 
under surface of the body pale yellow. Total length 5 inches, culmen 0-65, 
wing 2-4, tail 1-8, tarsus 07. Gaboon (Brit. Mus.). 

Immature. Above, brown, mottled on the hind neck, mantle and upper 
tail-coverts with metallic golden green ; tail blackish glossed with greenish 
blue ; a broad eyebrow and the cheek buffy white ; feathers in front of the 
eye and the ear-coverts brown ; chin and throat white ; remainder of the 
under surface whitish yellow. Total length 4-2 inches, culmen 0'65, 
wing 2-4, tail 1-6, tarsus 065. Gaboon (Brit. Mus.). 

The Violet-tailed Sunbird is apparently confined to the 
forest region of the Camaroons, Gaboon and Congo districts. 

In Camaroons, Crossley met with the species at the 
Victoria Forest in January, and Mr. Sjostedt found a nest 
toward the end of March with two eggs. It was at the edge 
of a canal through a mangrove marsh, and was suspended 
from a twig about five feet above the surface of the water. 

The type of the species came from Gaboon, where Du 
Chaillu also collected specimens at the Camma and Ogowe 
rivers, in which latter district Marche found it at Sile Lake 
and Lambarene in December, and procured a young bird in 
May at Lope. In the Congo district Bohndorff obtained 
specimens at Manyango and Leopoldsville, and the late Mr. 
Jameson found it at Yambuya on the Aruwhimi. 

By following an error I made in 1S79, an immature 
specimen of A. fraseri from Fernando Po has been by accident 
entered (in Cat. B. M. ix. p. 116) as belonging to this species, 
which is not a native of Fernando Po. 



ANTHOTHREPTES COLLARIS. 149 



Anthothreptes collaris. 

Anthothreptes collaris (Vieill.), Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 116 (1884, 
pt. A., S. Afr.) Gamtoos E., Buffalo B., Grahamstown, Uiten- 
hage, KingwilUamstown, Natal; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 77 (1896). 

Anthodiaeta collaris, Shelley, Mori. Nect. p. 339, pi. 110 (1876) ; Sharpe 
ed. Layard's B. S. Afr. p. 320 (1876) ; Ayres, Ibis, 1887, p. 56 
Transvaal ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1897, p. 507 Ztduland. 

Anthreptes collaris, Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. slviii. (1880); Butler, Feilden 
and Eeid, Zool. 1882, p. 247 Natal. 

Adult Male. Head, neck, back and lesser wing-coverts metallic golden 
green ; wings and tail dark brown, most of the feathers edged with metallic 
golden green. Beneath yellow, that colour separated from the green 
throat by a narrow collar of metallic violet. Total length 3'8 inches, 
culmen 0-5, wing 2-1, tail 1-5, tarsus 065. Durban, 11. 4. 74 (Shelley). 

Adult Female. Similar to the male, only with the entire throat yellow 
like the breast. Total length 36 inches, culmen 0'5, wing 1-9, tail T5, 
tarsus 0-6. Durban (Gordge). 

Nestling. Similar to the adult female, with the same parts metallic 
green. Durban, 28. 3. 74 (Shelley). 



The Southern Collared- Simbird inhabits South Zambesia 
to as far west as the G-amtoos river in about 24" B. long. ; 
but in Tropical South Africa is known to me only by a 
specimen in the British Museum labelled " Zambesi (Meller)." 

With regard to the species in Cape Colony Mr. Layard 
writes : " Entirely a bird of the Eastern districts, not 
approaching nearer than the province of TJitenhage, whence 
we have received specimens. Le Vaillant states that he 
procured it near the Gamtoos river, and although M. Atmore, 
who knows this locality thoroughly, informs us that he has 
never come across it, it is possible that the above-named 
river forms the western boundary of its range. The reported 
abundance of the species, of which Le Vaillant speaks, may 
well be doubted after Mr. Atmore's evidence. Mrs. Barber 
forwarded specimens to us from the 'New Year's River,' and 



150 ANTHOTHREPTES COLLARTS. 

Dr. Edwin Atkerstone from the mouth of the Kleinemont 
river (eight miles distant from the Kowie), where he shot 
three individuals ; it has also been found near Grahamstown, 
and Mr. Rickard records it from Port Elizabeth." Captain 
Trevelyan procured the species at Kingwilliamstown. 

In Natal, according to Mr. T. Ayres, " these birds are 
decidedly scarce, though found throughout Natal." I found 
them fairly abundant in March near Durban, and Captain 
Reid obtained specimens in the bush near the mouth of the 
Urngfeni river in December. In Zululand the Messrs. Wood- 
ward collected three specimens at Eschowe. 

All I can find regarding the occurrence of this species in 
the Transvaal is that Mr. T. Ayres procured an adult female 
in July and writes : " I met with a few of these tiny Sun- 
birds in the dense bush along the Mashupan, where they find 
flowering creepers to their taste." The occurrence of this 
species further north yet requires confirmation. 

With regard to the habits of the species : during my short 
stay at Durban I frequently met with these birds in pairs or 
small parties among the low thick bushes, busily searching for 
insects between the twigs and leaves, and not, like most 
other Sunbirds, only frequenting the flowering plants for food. 
In their movements they reminded me of our Willow-warblers, 
as they climbed and hopped among the boughs ; but as they 
flitted round the mimosa bushes or tangled creepers they 
dispelled this illusion by displaying, to the greatest advantage, 
their brilliant metallic colours. Mr. T. Ayres remarks : 
" They build a penduline nest, generally in some thick bush, 
hanging it from the leaves and outermost twigs. They are 
very fond of building in orange-trees and others of equally 
dense foliage." At Durban, March 28th, a portion of a 
nest of this Sunbird was brought to me ; it was composed of 
fine grass, thickly lined with feathers and horsehair, and con- 



ANTHOTHREPTES HYPODILA. 151 

tained two young birds, one of which is now in the 
British Museum. 

The colours of the nestling are the same as those of the 
adult female, which shows that the metallic edges to the quills 
in this species are always present, and proves conclusively that 
it is specifically distinct from its nearest ally, A. hypodila, 
which no doubt has otherwise a perfectly similar nestling, for 
in the very large series of A. hypodila in the British Museum, 
although there is not a single nestling, all the specimens have 
the entire back metallic green. In this latter character they 
are readily distinguished from their near allies A. rectirostris 
and A. tephvolsema, in which, apparently, the nestlings have 
the upper parts entirely olive. 

Anthothreptes hypodila. 

Anthothreptes hypodila (Jard.), Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 117 (1884) ; 

Shelley, P. Z. S. 1889, p. 366 Taveta; Eeichen. J. f. 0. 1890, p. 

126; 1892, p. 191 Camaroons ; id. Vog. Deutsch 0. Afr. p. 210 

(1894) Ugalla, Bukoba ; Shelley, Ibis, 1894, p. 14 Nyasa ; Eeichen. 

J. f. O. 1894, p. 41 ; 1896, p. 38 Camaroons; Sjostedt, Sv. Vet. Ak. 

Handl. 1895, p. 103 Camaroons ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 78 (1896) ; 

Jackson, Ibis, 1898, p. 137 Witu ; Neumann, J. f. O. 1898, p. 237 

Bukoba ; Hartert in Ansorge's Under Afr. Sun, p. 252 Manburu, 

Masongoleni, Taru; Boyd Alexander, Ibis, 1899, p. 561 Zambesi; 

Jackson ; t.c.p. 636 Nandi. 
Anthreptes hypodila, Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. xlviii. (1880) ; id. Ibis, 1883 

p. 548 Niger ; Buttik. Notes, Leyd. Mus. 1885, p. 170 ; 1886, p 

251 ; 1892, p. 22 Liberia ; Shelley, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 39 Lado 

Tingasi; id. Ibis, 1888, p. 300 Manda Is.; 1890, p. 162 Yambuya. 
Anthodiaeta hypodila, Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 345, pi. Ill (1876) 

Oust. N. Arch. Mus. (2) II. p. 85 (1879) Gaboon. 
Nectarinia hypodila, Bocage, Orn. Angola, p. 176 (1877) Loanda 

Eeichen. J. f. O. 1877, p. 25 Loango. 
Anthreptes collaris hypodilus, Oberholser, Pr. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1899, p. 

33 Liberia. 
Anthothreptes subcollaris (Eeichb.) Eeichen. J. f. O. 1887, pp. 301, 

306 Congo. 
Anthodiaeta zambesiana, Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 343, pi. Ill, fig. 3 

(1876) ; Gurney, Ibis, 1881, p. 125 Mombasa; Fisch. Zeitschr. 1884, 



152 ANTHOTHREPTES HYPODILA. 

p. 339 Arusha; id. J. f. 0. 1885, p. 138 Zanzibar, Pangani, Maurui, 

Lamu, Wapokomoland ; Eeichen. J. f. 0. 1889, p. 285 Zanzibar. 
Anthreptes zambesiana, Shelley, Mou. Nect. p. xlviii. (1880) ; id. P. Z. S. 

1881, p. 571 Dar-es- Salaam, Pangani; Schal. J. f. O. 1883, p. 360 

Ugogo. 
Anthothreptes zambesiana, Eeichen. J. f. O. 1891, p. 161 Uniamivesi. 
Nectarinia zambesiana, Hartl. Abhand. Breui. 1891, p. 29 Bagamoyo. 
Nectarinia collaris (nee V.) Fisch. J. f. 0. 1877, p. 178 ; id. k Eeichen. 

1878, p. 260 Zanzibar; Fisch. J. f. 0. 1879, p. 300 ; 1880, pp. 188, 

191 ; Bohm, J. f. O. 1883, p. 192 ; 1885, pp. 46, 67 ; Schal. J. f. 0. 

1886, p. 417 ; 1887, p. 242 E. Afr. 
Anthodiseta collaris, Cat. in Decken's Eeis. III. p. 28 (1869) ; Matsch. 

J. f. O. 1887, p. 143 Karema; p. 155 Lufuku, Lualaba, Likulwe. 

Adults. Similar to A. collaris but differing in the greater series of wing- 
coverts and the quills being edged with olive yellow instead of metallic 
greenish gold. 

The Tropical Collared-Sunbird ranges from the Gambia to 
Loanda in Angola in West Africa, and from the Zambesi 
through Central and East Africa to Lado on the White Nile 
and the Equator on the coast. 

The Bremen Museum contains specimens from the Gambia, 
the British Museum one from Casamanse. Lieut. Bulger 
found the species inhabiting Bulama Island, one of the Bessagos 
group. Specimens have been collected by Demery along the 
Sulyrnah river which runs into the ocean at Sierra Leone, and 
Biittikofer found the species abundant in Liberia. 

From the Gold Coast there are two dozen specimens in the 
British Museum, including one labelled Ashantee and another 
Volta river, but I do not find the species recorded from Togo- 
land, and from Lagos it is known to me by a single specimen 
in the Stuttgart Museum. Forbes collected specimens in the 
forest region of the lower Niger at Onitsa. 

The type of the species was procured by Fraser on 
Fernando Po. In Camaroons these Sunbirds have been met 
with by Mr. Crossley, Dr. Reichenow, Dr. Preuss and Mr. 
Sjostedt, and are well represented in that woodland district. 



ANTHOTHREPTES HYPODILA. 153 

In Gaboon, Dn Chaillu met with them at the Camma river, 
and Marche near the Ogowe. 

It ranges over the whole area of the Congo Free State, 
having been found on the Loango Coast at Landana by 
Falkenstein and Petit, at the mouth of the Congo by Captain 
Sperling, at Manyango by Bohndorff, and by Jameson at 
Yambuya on the Aruwhimi branch. Erain has procured 
specimens at Tingasi, Foda, Lado in 5° N. lat. — its most northern 
range known in this direction — and at Bukoba on Victoria 
Nyanza. Southward specimens have been collected on the 
Lualaba tributory of the Congo by Bohm, and in Angola by 
Toulson at Loanda, the extreme southern known range for 
the species in West Africa. 

In the Zambesi district these Sunbirds range further south, 
for Mr. Boyd Alexander obtained, in the densely wooded 
country near Chiramba on the right bank of the Zambesi, an 
adult male, apparently breeding there, on July 30th. To the 
north of this grand river Sir John Kirk collected specimens, 
including the type of Anthodiceta zambesiana, Shelley, at 
Shupanga, and writes : — " Found near Shupanga and Lena, 
but not very common. Its nest has been seen suspended to 
grass-stalks." Mr. Alexander Whyte obtained the species 
at Zomba in July, and in the British Museum there is a 
specimen from the Rovuma river. 

The late Dr. Bohm records these birds as being abundant 
from Zanzibar to the Lualaba river. On his way inland from 
the coast he collected specimens at Seke in Ugogo, at Gronda 
near Taboro, and to the west of Lake Tanjanyika in the 
Kasongo country at Likulwe, also at the Lufuku and Lualaba 
rivers. He took a nest with two young ones on March 11th, 
near Tanjanyika lake. 

Years ago, when I kept a collection, Sir John Kirk sent 
me specimens of this species from Mamboyo, Dar-es- Salaam, 



154 ANTHOTHREPTES HYPODILA. 

Zanzibar Island and the Pangani river. The late Dr. Fischer 
informs us that the Zanzibari name for this bird is " Chosi- 
mhogo," and his collections contained specimens from Maurui, 
Arusha, Mombasa Island, Lamu and Wapokomoland, which 
is on the left bank of the Tana river and the most northern 
known range for the species in this direction. 

Dr. Hildebrandt remarks that in the Teita country these 
birds are to be found abundantly everywhere, frequenting the 
acacia blossoms. Mr. Jackson met with the species near the 
coast on Manda Island and at Tangani, Mr. Hunter at Taveta, 
and Mr. Ansorge at Manburu, Masongoleni and Taru desert 
in British East Africa. 

With regard to their habits, while I was on the Gold 
Coast in company with my friend, Mr. T. E. Buckley, during 
February and March we had frequent opportunities of watching 
these Sunbirds as they threaded in and out through the 
tangled creepers, which hung down from the lofty forest trees, 
in their steady search for the small insects which form their 
principal food, and they rarely appeared to resort to the high 
trees for the bright red blossoms which were, at that season, 
such an attraction to hosts of various other species of Sunbirds. 
This modification of their habits agrees well with the shortness 
of their bills, which are more adapted for catching insects than 
for probing into the chalices of the flowers. 

We first saw them flitting across the rippling brook which 
runs through the dense forest at Abrobonko, to perch on some 
more sunny bough, accompanied by their mates in almost every 
movement, and exhibiting none of that quarrelsome disposi- 
tion which is rather characteristic of most species of Sunbirds, 
but often disturbing a bright butterfly, apparently of their 
own size, from the blossoms in which they wished to search 
for the smaller insects and honey. 

While we were at Abouri in the Aguapim mountains the 



ANTHOTHREPTES RECTIROSTRIS. 155 

natives used to bring us cages full of these charming little 
birds, showing how abundant and confiding they must be. 

Although so plentiful in the wooded districts, some thirty 
miles from the coast we did not find them among the bushes 
which are scattered over the wide plains of Accra. 



Anthothreptes rectirostris. 

Anthothreptes rectirostris (Shaw), Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix., p. 119 (1884, 

nee $ ) Gambia, Ashantee, Wasa, Fantee, Volta B. ; Shelley, 

B. Afr. No. 79 (1896). 
Authodiseta rectirostris, Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 331, pi. 107, figs. 2, 3, 

(1876). 
Anthreptes rectirostris, Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. xlv. (1880) ; Biittik. Notes 

Leyd. Mus. 1886, p. 251; 1888, p. 73; 1889, p. 118 Liberia; 

Oberholser, Pr. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1899, p. 32 Liberia. 

Adult Male. Upper parts metallic golden green, also the least and 
median wing-coverts ; lower back, upper tail-coverts and edges of quills 
and tail-feathers olive yellow ; remainder of wings and tail dark brown ; 
sides of head and neck and a broad collar covering the lower throat green 
like the mantle ; a black patch in front of eye ; chin and upper throat 
yellow ; an orange belt separates the green of the lower throat from the 
ashy breast which is shaded with yellow on the abdomen and under tail- 
coverts ; pectoral-tufts sulphur yellow ; under surface of wings brown, with 
the coverts and inner margins of quills white. "Iris brown, bill and feet 
black" (Biittikofer). Total length 4 inches, culmen - 5, wing 2-2, tail 1-4, 
tarsus - 6. 

Adult Female. Probably similar to adult male in plumage. 

Immature. Above olive mottled with a few metallic green feathers ; 
beneath pale yellow slightly tinted with olive ; a partial yellow eyebrow 
and a few yellow feathers beneath the eye ; bill brown and pale towards 
the base of lower mandible. 

The Yellow-chin Collared- Sunbird ranges from the Gambia 
to the Volta river. 

The most northern locality I can assign to this Sunbird 
is the Gambia, from whence Dr. R. B. Sharpe received a 
specimen which is now in the British Museum. In Liberia 



156 ANTHOTHREPTES TEPHROLJEMA. 

it appears to be fairly abundant, for Mr. Biittikofer collected 
specimens at Schieffelinsville on the Junk river, and at Hill 
Town. 

From the Gold Coast there are, in the British Museum, 
nine full plumaged birds, none of which have been sexed by 
the collectors, so probably they represent adults of both sexes, 
although perfectly similar in plumage ; they were procured in 
the Takwa district, in Ashantee, from whence came the type 
of Nectarinia phseothorax, Hartl., in Fantee, where the type of 
Nectarinia fantensis, Sharpe, was obtained, and from the Volta 
river. I met with the species on one occasion in the Aguapim 
mountains while returning to Abouri from a neighbouring 
village where the monkeys were held " fetish" or sacred. 

In a flowering creeper which overhung the path, and 
caught the rays of the sun as it gleamed through the thick 
forest, I saw a tiny bird actively searching beneath the leaves ; 
and from its habits, had I not shot the specimen, I should have 
mistaken it for A. hypodila. 

1 find no mention of the occurrence of this species further 
along the coast, and from the Niger district southward it is 
replaced by A. tephrolcema. 



Anthothreptes tephrolaema. 

Anthothreptes tephrolaema (Jard. and Fraser), Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. 

p. 120 (1884, nee ?) Gaboon, Angola; Keichen. J. f. O. 1887, p. 306 

Leopold sville ; id. 1892, p. 191; 1896, p. 39 Camaroons ; Shelley, 

B. Afr. I. No. 80(1896). 
Anthodiaeta tephrolaema, Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 333, pi. 72, fig 2 (1876). 
Anthreptes tephrokema, Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. xlvi. (1888) ; id. P. Z. S. 

1888, p. 39 Tingasi; id. Ibis, 1890, p. 163 Yambuya. 

Adults. Very similar to A. rectirostris, but readily distinguished by 
having the chin and upper throat ashy grey instead of yellow. Total 
length 33 inches, culmeu 05, wing 2-2, tail 1'3, tarsus - 6. 



ANTHOTHREPTES ANCHIETJE. 157 

Immature. Above, olive with no trace of metallic colours ; sides of head 
olive like the back with scarcely any trace of yellow ; beneath, nearly 
uniform yellowish buff ; bill dark brown with a large basal portion of the 
under mandible pale. Fernando Po (Fraser). 

This latter specimen is very like the adult female of Cinnyris chloropygius, 
from which it chiefly differs in its slightly stouter, shorter and straighter 
bill, its stouter tarsi and feet, and in the smaller and more pointed bastard 
primary. 

The Grey-chin Collared-Sunbircl ranges from the Niger 
district and Fernando Po into Angola, and eastward to Tingasi, 
about 3° N. lat., 27° 40' E. long. 

Fraser met with the species during his journey from 
Dahomey to Old Calabar, and procured the type at Fernando 
Po. In Camaroons Mr. Zenker obtained a specimen in 
December and Dr. Preuss one at Buea in September. About a 
thousand miles to the east Erain found this Sunbird at Tingasi. 
It appears to be more abundant further south, for it has been 
recorded in Du Chaillu's collections from the Moonda, Camma 
and Ogowe rivers, and in Marche's from the Lambarene iu 
the Ogowe province. 

Along the course of the Congo it has been met with by 
Bohndoff at Leopoldsville and by Jameson at Yambuya. In 
the British Museum there is one of Monteiro's specimens from 
Angola, which is the most southern known locality for the 
species. 



Anthothreptes anchietse. 

Anthothreptes anchietse (Bocage), Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix., p. 115 (1884) ; 

Sharpe, ed. Layard's B. S. Afr. p. 832 (1881) ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. 

No. 81 (1896) ; id. Ibis, 1899, p. 365 Tanganyika plateau. 
Anthreptes anchietse, Shelley, Mon. Nect., p. 329, pi. 106 (1879) ; 

Bocage, Orn. Angola, p. 545 (1881) Caconda. 

Adult Male. Upper surface dusky brown as well as the sides of the 
head ; front of the crown and the throat metallic steel blue with a greenish 



158 ANTHOTHREPTES GABONICA. 

shade ; breast sulphur yellow with a broad baud down the chest and the 
under tail-coverts scarlet. Total length 4-6 inches, culmen 0-5, wing 2-4, 
tail 1-6, tarsus 0-7. Caconda, 7. 77 (Anchieta). 
Adult Female. Exactly like the male. 



Anchieta's Red and Yellow-breasted Sunbird ranges from 
Benguela to Lake Nyasa. 

This striking species has been named by Prof. Barboza du 
Bocage after the energetic naturalist, the late Mr. Anchieta, 
who discovered this Sunbird at Caconda, where, he informs us, 
it is common and known to the natives as " Xinjonjo," a name 
I also find on a label of Ginnyris oustaleti. 

This is one of the few species of Sunbirds in which the 
sexes are identical in plumage, and in this instance both are 
adorned with metallic colours. 

The most eastern known range for the species is Fort Hill, 
situated on the Songwe river which flows into the northern 
end of Lake Nyasa. Here a full plumaged specimen was shot 
by the hunters who accompanied the Commission for the 
Delimitation of the Anglo-German Boundary between the 
Nyasa and Tanjanyika lakes, and brought to England by 
Lieut.-Col. W. H. Manning. In recording this specimen in the 
" Ibis," I mentioned the supposed occurrence of the species 
in Mashonaland by Mr. Guy Marshall. That gentleman has 
kindly forwarded to me two of these specimens, which I find 
are young males of Ghalcomitra gutturalis, with the lower 
throat red and a fair amount of yellowish buff on the breast 
and no metallic colours. 



Anthothreptes gabonica. 

Anthothreptes gabonica (Hartl.), Reichen. J. f. 0. 1894, p. 42 Camaroons ; 
Sjostedt, Sv. Vet. Ak. Handl. 1895, p. 104 Camaroons; Shelley, 
B. Afr. I. No. 82 (1896). 



ANTHOTHREPTES GABONICA. 159 

Anthreptes gabonica, Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. 1889, p. 118 Liberia ; 

Kuschel, J. f. 0. 1895, p. 347 (egg). 
Nectarinia gabonica, Hartl. J. f. O. 1861, pp. 13, 109 Gaboon ; Sharpe, 

Ibis, 1872, p. 70 Fantee, Volta B. 
Stipbrornis alboterminata, Eeichen. J. f. O. 1874, p. 103 ; 1875, p. 43 

Camaroons ; 1877, p. 30 Loango ; Sharpe, J. f. O. 1882, p. 345 ; id. 

Cat. B. M. vii. p. 174 (1883); Reicben. J. f. O. 1890, p. 127 

Camaroons; 1891, p. 68. 
Anthreptes rectirostris (nee Shaw), Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. xlv. pi. 107 

upper fig. 1 (1880, pt. ? ) ; Biittik. Notes, Leyd. Mus. 1888, p. 212 

Liberia. 
Anthreptes tephrolaema (nee Jard. and Fras.) Shelley, t. c. p. xlvi. 

(1880 pt. ? ) ; Biittik. Notes, Leyd. Mus. 1888, p. 211 Congo. 
Cinnyris venustus (nee Shaw) Biittik. Notes, Leyd. Mus. 1885, p. 170 

(pt. 2 , nest and eggs.) 

Adult. Upper surface, as well as a broad band through the eye, ear- 
coverts and sides of neck ashy brown, with a slight olive shade on the 
wings and tail ; remainder of the plumage, the ends of the tail-feathers, 
under wing-coverts and inner margins of quills white, with a faint ashy 
shade on the lower throat and sides of body. " Bill black, iris brownish 
red, feet sooty brown " (Buttikofer). Total length 4-1 inches, culmen 0-5, 
wing 2-3, tail 1-5, tarsus 0'6. Fantee (Dssher). 



The Little Brown and White Sunbird ranges from the 
Gambia to the Congo. 

The most northern known locality for this species is 
Bathnrst on the Gambia, where Marche procured a specimen 
which is now in the British Museum. In Liberia Mr. 
Biittikofer met with the species along the banks of the Marfa 
river and near Monrovia, and found a nest with two eggs, 
December 20. On the Gold Coast Ussher collected specimens 
in Fantee, at Accra and by the Volta river. 

From Camaroons the species has been recorded, under the 
title of Stiphromis alboterminata, as abundant along the bushy 
banks of the streams which flow through the coast country. 
Dr. Preuss obtained a specimen in May in the Victoria dis- 
trict, and Mr. Sjostedt found the species breeding in January 



160 ANTHOTHREPTES GABONICA. 

and February. From Fernando Po there is one of Fraser's 
specimens in the British Museum. 

The type of the species, which was in Verreaux's collection, 
came from Gaboon. Here the species has since been met with 
by Marche at the Ogowe river. On the Loango coast 
specimens have been collected by Falkenstein at Chinchonxo 
and by Lucan and Petit at Landana. From Banana at the 
mouth of the Congo Mr. Buttikofer received from Mr. van der 
Kellen a nest, one egg, and a bird in spirits, dated September 
28. By dissecting this specimen he proved from the form of 
the tongue that the Stiphrornis alboterminata, Reichen., is an 
Anthothreptes. The nest and egg were, he informs us, exactly 
similar to those he found in Liberia, and by mistake referred 
to Cinnyris venustus, of which he wrote : " The nests of this 
species are found along rivers, fixed to the end of overhanging 
boughs. They are not different in size and structure from 
those of G. chloropygia, but have a grey appearance. The eggs, 
generally two in number, are ashy grey, slightly washed with 
violet, and irregularly varied with dark lines and spots." 
They measured 0-64 by 0-8. " Collected 20th of December." 
Mr. Sjostedt found these birds frequenting the mangrove 
swamps in Camaroons, and the nests he met with were 
suspended by twigs close to the surface of the water. One 
of these nests contained a single young bird, which was similar 
in plumage to its parents but with the abdomen yellow, the 
base of the bill paler, feet black, and iris brown, not deep red 
or reddish brown as in adult birds. 

When I published my Monograph of the Nectariniidse I 
was struck with the similarity of the style of plumage of this 
bird and the females of A. longuemarii, and knowing of no 
specimen of this form sexed as male, I referred those from 
the north to A. rectirostris and the others from the south to 
A. tephrol&ma, thinking it probable that the females of the 
two species would be very similar in plumage. 



PROMEROPIDiE. 161 

Since then Dr. Reiclienow has compared specimens of this 
form collected by Mr. Btittikofer in Liberia, and found them 
to agree specifically with his Stvpkrornis alboterminata from 
Camaroons, of which he records the males and females as 
alike in plumage. From Mr. Biittikofer's examination of the 
tongue there can be no doubt that it is a Sunbird, and must 
stand as Anthothreptes gabonica (Hartl.). 

I believe that the specimens described in Cat. B. M. ix. as 
females of A. rectirostris and A. tephrolasma do not belong to 
the genus Anthothreptes, but are females of Ginmjris venustus 
or G. chloropygms, as evidently the " Bill of Anthothreptes 
rectirostris," figured page 120, is taken from a specimen of one 
of the latter two species. 

Family II. PROMEROPIDiE. 

Somewhat similar in form and habits to the Nectariniince ; but, nostrils 
placed in a more elongated groove, bill not serrated, frontal feathers 
lanceolate, tail extremely long and graduated, of somewhat broad, soft, 
and lax feathers, no metallic colours, and construct a cup-shaped nest. 

This family is represented by only two very closely allied species, 
both confined in their range to South Africa, south of the Tropics. 

As the structure of the tongue and internal anatomy is unknown to 
me, I hesitate to refer the genus Promcrops to either the Nectariniida or 
the Meliphagida, so place it in a family by itself. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

a. Forehead, crown and front of chest not chestnut . . cafer. 

b. Forehead, crown and front of chest chestnut gumeyi. 

Promerops cafer. 

Promerops cafer (Linn.), Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 377, pi. 121 (1876) ; 
Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 283 (1884) ; Sharpe ed. Layard's B. S. 
Afr. p. 305 (1884); Kuschel, J. f. 0. 1895, p. 345 (egg) ; Shelley, 
B. Afr. I. No. 83 (1896) : Stark, Faun. S. Afr. i. p. 269, figs. (1900). 

[March, 1900. 11 



162 PROMEROPS CAFER. 

Adult Male. Above, brown, slightly more rufous on the lanceolate 
feathers of the crown, which are edged or tipped with brownish buff; 
lower back and upper tail-coverts washed with olive-yellow. Cheeks and 
upper throat white with a narrow blackish mustachial band extending 
halfway down the sides of the throat ; lower throat and chest rufous 
brown with broad white tips to the feathers ; abdomen paler, passing into 
bright yellow on the vent and under tail-coverts, the latter with large 
brown centres. Total length 19 - 5 inches, culmen 1-3, wing 4, tail 14, 
tarsus 0-95. Cape Town, 7. 2. 74 (Shelley). 

Adult Female. Like the male. Total length 15 - 7 inches, culmen 1-25, 
wing 3-8, tail 11, tarsus 095. Cape Town, 7. 2. 74 (Shelley). 

The Cape Promerops, as this species was first called by 
Latham in 1782, is confined to Cape Colony. 

Dr. Arthur C. Stark, our best authority upon South 
African birds, remarks that this bird is most abundant 
towards the south-western extremity of the Colony, becoming 
rare to the east of Grahamstown, its range apparently 
coinciding with that of certain sugar bushes (Proteas). 

During my short stay in the Colony I found the present 
species common in the gardens of Cape Town, and at Mossell 
Bay, generally in small parties, frequenting the scattered 
bushes, into which they quickly dived if alarmed, though at 
other times they preferred the outer twigs, especially those 
towards the summits of the bushes. In February the Protect 
bushes were out of bloom, and the most attractive flowers 
were those of the tall aloes, round which these birds clustered, 
often in company with Nectarinia famosa, their long silky 
tails fluttering like ribands to the slightest breeze, while they 
clung to the flowers and probed them with their long beaks 
in search of the sweet nectar and small insects. On my 
disturbing them they flew directly to the nearest covert to 
hide, in long regular undulations at a few feet from the 
ground, their long tails closed and appearing to consist of 
a single feather. 

At this season, unlike the many Sunbirds I met with in 



PROMEROPS CAFER. 163 

their company, they alone kept in small troops which 
"followed their leader" from bush to bush, after the manner 
of the Colies, or of our European Long-tailed Tits. At such 
times their note is frequently heard; this assembly call has 
nothing musical in it, but is quaint, if not actually pleasing. 

Dr. Stark writes : " The Cape Long-tailed Sugar-bird is 
rarely found at any great distance from its favourite protea- 
bushes, but in districts where these shrubs grow luxuriantly 
these birds are frequently very numerous, and generally 
resident. When not resting they are usually met with in 
flocks of a dozen or more, busily engaged in hunting through 
a thicket of proteas in search of nectar and various small 
insects. 

" When sucking up the nectar of one of the larger protea- 
blossoms, the bird perches on the edge of the flower, plunges 
its long bill and the greater part of its head downwards 
among the petals, and retains it in this position until satisfied. 
As a result the narrow, shaft-like feathers of the forehead 
frequently become saturated and stained with juice, and dusted 
over with pollen, and it is probable that this bird plays an 
important part in the cross-fertilisation of several species of 
Protea. At times these Sugar-birds feed on the saccharine 
juices of the aloe, the Cape honeysuckle, and several of the 
larger heaths, as well as on spiders, small beetles, and a 
variety of smaller insects. They are expert fly-catchers, 
darting upon passing insects from their perch, and rarely 
missing their mark. 

" Towards the end of April, or beginning of May, the males, 
when not feeding, fighting, or chasing one another with shrill 
cries, may be usually seen perched on the summit of some 
prominent bush or young pine tree, their long, flexible, and 
curved central tail-feathers blowing about in the wind, often 
in a reversed curve over the bird's head. At intervals one of 



164 PROMEROPS CAFER. 

them will mount twenty or thirty feet in the air, incline his 
body backwards, violently jerk his tail up and down, and at 
the same time rustle the feathers together, and bring his wings 
with sharp, resounding ' claps ' against his sides, before 
returning to his perch to indulge in an outburst of song. 
Occasionally a male may be seen to throw the longer tail- 
feathers into a double curve. 

" At the same season the hens amuse themselves by flying 
round and round in a small circle. 

" This Sugar-bird breeds in winter, in May, June, and July, 
the flowering season of one of the larger white proteas. The 
nest, usually completed towards the end of May, is somewhat 
large, deeply cup-shaped, and strongly built of small sticks and 
twigs of heath, fibrous rootlets, dry grass, and the spines of 
pine trees, lined with pine leaves and the red downy seeds of 
a protea. It is carefully concealed, sometimes in a tuft of 
heath near the ground, at others in the crotch of a protea- 
bush four or five feet above it, but more generally, in the 
neighbourhood of Cape Town, in a thick young pine tree from 
four to ten feet above the ground. On one occasion I found 
a nest built on some broken-down sedge in a swampy hollow. 
Two eggs are laid, and these are incubated, as far as I have 
observed, by the female only. She sits very closely, with her 
long tail projecting at an angle over the edge of the nest. 
The eggs are hatched at the end of fifteen or sixteen days, 
and the young remain in the nest for about five weeks. The 
eggs, usually laid about the end of May or early in June, 
vary considerably in size, shape, and colour ; some are much 
elongated, others rounded ovates. As a rule the ground 
colour varies from light buff to reddish-brown ; this may 
be more or less covered with blotches, scrawls, and zig-zag 
markings of deep purplish black, or with finer spots and 
lines of brown. Many eggs resemble those of the European 



PROMEROPS GURNEYI. 165 

Bunting (Emberim miliaria) ; others, as far as colour goes, 
those of many of the Sunbirds (Nectariniidse). They average 
1-00 by 072." 



Promerops gurneyi. 

Promerops gurneyi, J. Verr., Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 381 (1876) ; Ayres, 
Ibis, 1876, p. 425 Transvaal; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 284; 
Sharpe ed. Layard's B. S. Afr. p. 306 (1884) ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. 
No. 84 (1896) ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1897, p. 506 Zululand ; Stark, Faun. 
S. Afr. i. p. 273 (1900). 

Adult. Similar to P. cafer, but differs in having no mustachial streak, 
and in the crown, lower throat, and front of breast being chestnut. Total 
length 10-1 inches, culmen 1-1, wing 3 - 75, tail 66, tarsus 0-9. Lydenburg 
district (Barratt). 



Gurney's Promerops is only known from Natal and the 
Transvaal. The type, labelled, "Natal," was procured by Mr. 
T. Ayres, who writes : "In habits this bird much resembles 
Nectarinia natalensis, its food also being the same, viz., nectar 
and small insects, especially spiders. It is very rare in this 
locality, and is besides more shy than most other species. I 
believe it is only to be found here during the winter months." 
At a later date he observed it in the Lydenburg distinct, and 
writes : " Promerops gurneyi is tolerably common, feeding on 
the nectar of the flowers of a scrubby tree common on the 
sides and summits of the mountains," and often in company 
with N.famosa. 

Mr. Barratt also found it in the Transvaal between Lyden- 
burg and Pretoria, and Messrs. R. B. and J. D. S. Woodward 
procured a specimen at Ulundi in Zululand. 

No doubt the habits of this species are similar to those of 
its close ally, P. cafer. 



166 ZOSTEROPID^E. 



Family III. ZOSTEROPIDJE. 

Bill shorter than the head, widened at the gape, and with a prominent, 
slightly arched culmen. Nostril placed in a short oval groove, which 
reaches halfway down the bill from the gape to the tip, is covered by a 
membrane, and opens in a slit. Tongue in Zostcrops split near the end 
into two short filaments somewhat brush-like in appearance. Wing with 
the bastard primary excessively small or absent. Tail square, considerably 
shorter than the wing, of twelve feathers which have angular tips. Tarsi 
with a few scales in front. 

They construct a neat cup- shaped nest, which is generally 
placed near the extremity of a branch and apparently more 
generally hung to, than supported by, the fork to which it is 
attached. The eggs are unspotted, apparently always of a pale 
bluish green colour and do not exceed five in a clutch. 

This family ranges over the Ethiopian region eastward to 
New Guinea, Australia and New Zealand. 

It is represented in the Ethiopian region by about thirty 
known species, all of which, with the exception of Z. Senegal- 
ensis, are apparently confined to the sub-region in which the 
type was discovered. Twelve inhabit the African continent 
and island of Socotra, and the remaining eighteen are confined 
to the islands. 

Z. senegalensis inhabits the west, east, and north-east 
sub-regions, for it ranges over Central and Eastern Africa 
from 7° S. lat. to 16° N. lat., and westward into the Senegam- 
bian district, as I find, in the British Museum, a typical 
example from Bathurst agrees exactly with one from Manda 
Island. Many ornithologists, however, still divide this species 
into three or four sub-species, but I am not aware that anyone 
can define their distinctive ranges, and there are no less than 
nine distinct names to be divided amongst them. 

Z. anderssoni is only a large form representing Z. senega- 
lensis in southern tropical Africa, south of about 10° S. lat. 



ZOSTEROPID^E. 167 

North-east Africa between 5° and 16" N. lat. is inhabited by 
two nearly allied species, Z. abyssinica and Z. poliogastra, the 
former ranging eastward into Socotra Island. 

In Equatorial Africa there is an olive group comprising 
Z. ewycricota, Z. Mkv/yuensis, Z. jacksoni and Z. stenocricota, the 
latter known only from Camaroons, which is also the home of 
Speirops m elanocephala. 

Z. virens represents this olive group in eastern South 
Africa, south of 10° S. lat. 

The white-breasted group, to which Z. abyssinica and 
Z. poliogastra belong, is represented in South Africa by 
Z. capensis south of 27° S. lat., and by Z. pallida from Swellen- 
dam to Rustenberg. 

The remaining eighteen species are confined to the following 
islands : — 

Prince's Is., Z. Jicedulina and Speirops leucophsea. 

St. Thomas Is., Speirops lugubris. 

Annobon Is., Z. griseovirescens. 

Mauritius Is., Z. chloronota, Malacirops mauritiana. 

Reunion Is., Z. olivacea, and Malacirops borbonica, and 
M. e-newtoni. 

Madagascar, including Gloriosa Is., Z. madagascariensis and 
Z. hovariim. 

Mayotte Is., Z. mayottensis. 

Johanna Is., Z. anjuanensis. 

Great Comoro Is., Z. hirlri, Z. mowroniensis and Z. comorensis. 

Aldrabra Is., Z. aldabrensis. 

Seychelles Archipelago, Z. semijiava and Z. modesta. 

KEY TO THE GENERA AND SUBGENERA. 

a. Upper tail-covert never white but nearly 
uniform with the back. 
a 1 . Lores never white ; white on head 



168 ZOSTEROPS. 

almost or entirely confined to a well 
marked silky white ring round the eye . Zosterops. 
a 2 . Some green or yellow on the back or 
under parts. 
a 3 . Throat and breast yellowish and 

never contrasting strongly . . . Subgen. Zosteropisylvia. 
b 3 . Breast whitish and often contrast- 
ing strongly with the throat . . . Subgen. Zosterops. 
b 2 . No green or yellow on the plumage . Subgen. Cyclopterops. 
b 1 . Lores, as well as the whole or portion 
of sides of head, white ; bill uniform 
brown ; no yellow on the plumage . . Speirops. 
b. Upper tail-coverts white ; no white on sides 

of head ; no yellow on the plumage . . . Malacirops. 



Genus I. ZOSTEROPS. 

All the members of the genus Zosterops may be most readily distin- 
guished by their having a well marked ring of silky white feathers encircling 
the eye, which has suggested the English name of White-eye, given to them 
by Latham in 1783. 

These active little birds are usually to be met with in 
groups of six to a dozen together frequenting the sunny edges 
of the glades or outskirts of the forests. They feed upon soft 
fruits, buds and insects, and much resemble the Tit in their call 
notes, their peculiar attitudes, and the apparent dislike they 
show to alighting on the ground. 

It is curious that in the genus Zosterops there should be 
so many groups of very closely allied species, and that these 
groups are decidedly limited iu their range. This leads me to 
fancy that some of supposed good species may be only local 
forms or mere varieties, the plumage possibly being very 
sensitive to atmospheric action, as it is known that spirits 
affect their colouring more than that of most other birds. 

The British Museum contains a fine series of Z. virens, 

from which I make the following notes : 

$ ad. August 7, Newcastle. Wing 2-6, tail 2-0, tarsus 0-75. 
<? ad. July 30, Pinetown. Wing 2'35, tail L75, tarsus 0'65. 



ZOSTEROPS. 169 

A male and female shot at Pinetown in July are slightly 
yellower than a male and female shot at Newcastle in August. 

The yellow on the forehead is occasionally, though rarely, 
entirely confined to the sides. The breadth of the white eye- 
ring varies but slightly, excepting in one apparently immature 
bird which has this ring very narrow. 

In the group of which Z. madagascariensis is the oldest 
name, there are many nearly allied species, if indeed they 
really deserve to be treated as such. Believing them all to 
have come from a fairly recent common stock, it would appear 
that their colonisation might have proceeded in the following 
manner, starting from Madagascar as the mother country. 

A party took possession of Africa south of about 27° S. lat. 
and although scarcely differing in appearance beyond the 
occasional adoption of a few yellow feathers on the forehead 
are known as Z. capensis, and one of its members, the type of 
Z. atmori, Sharpe, has nearly the whole of the forehead yellow. 
Another, Z. pallida, put on a rather paler dress with sandy 
rufous flanks and is more readily distinguishable. 

Others on leaving Madagascar by a more northern route, 
settled in Johanna and Great Comoro Island and became 
Z. anjuanensis and Z. comorensis, in which the distinguishing 
character is the yellow sides to the forehead, and some stopped 
in Aldabra Island, and assuming a yellow shade down the 
centre of the breast became recognised as Z. aldabrensis ; while 
those which extended their range into north-east Africa 
founded a rather large race Z. poliogastra, with the entire 
forehead bright yellow in adult specimens, and which, with 
the exception of its slightly larger dimensions agrees exactly 
in colouring with the type of Z. atmori from Grahamstown. 
A much better marked, distinct, allied form in north-east 
Africa is Z. abyssinica, which ranges over the same country 
as Z. poliogastra. 



"> 



170 



ZOSTEROPS. 



KEY TO THE SPECIES. 



Under tail-coverts yellow. 
a 1 . Throat yellow ; upper parts yellowish green. 
a 2 . Breast not contrasting strongly with the 
throat. 
a 3 . No olive shade on the flanks, which 
are golden yellow or chestnut. 
ft 4 . Some chestnut on the flanks. 

a 5 . Forehead olive like the crown . . scmiflava. 
b 5 . Forehead bright yellow .... mayottcnsis. i 
b*. No chestnut on the flanks. 

c 5 . Paler, sides of forehead lemon 
yellow (Africa). 
ft . Smaller; wing about 2-2 inches, senegalensis. 
b e . Larger; wing 2-3 to 2-4 (S. 

Africa) andcrssoni. I y 

d 5 . Darker, sides of forehead tinged 
with orange (Gt. Comoro Is.). 
c 6 . Smaller; wing 2-0 to 2-1 ; white 

eye-ring broader kirki. ' 7 

d a . Larger; wing 26; white eye- 
ring narrower motcroniensis. 1 7 f 

b 3 . Sides of body shaded with olive. 
c 4 . White eye-ring narrower. 

c 5 . Larger; wing 2-3; darker and 
greener ; not more than the sides 
and front of the forehead yellow, virens. 
f 5 . Smaller ; wing 2-1 ; paler and 
yellower ; a partial eyebrow of 
yellow reaching back to as far as 

posterior edge of eye stenocricota. 

d*. White eye-ring broader. 

g 5 . Forehead with no yellow, but a 

faint chestnut shade on the sides, curycricota. 
h s . Forehead yellow. 
e 6 . Yellow extends back as far as 
posterior margin of eye ; front 
half of crown yellow .... kikmjuensis. I I 
J' 6 . Yellow extends back as far as 



ZOSTEROPS. 171 

anterior margin of eye ; yellow 
confined to the entire forehead, jacksoni. 
c 3 . Under parts uniform whitish yellow. 

c 4 . Smaller; wing 20 (Prince's Is.) . . ficedulina. ' 
/*. Larger; wing 2-5 (Annobon Is.) . . griseovirescens. I 
b • . Breast not yellow and contrasting strongly 
with the throat. 
d 3 . Sides of breast strongly shaded with 

sandy rufous and no grey pallida. I 

e 3 . Sides of breast greyer. 
g i . Duller (Africa). 

i 5 . Above bright yellowish green ; 
general plumage darker. 
g a . Smaller; wing 2-3 ; less yellow 



on forehead (S. Africa) . . . capensis. 






li 6 . Larger ; wing 2-5 ; forehead 

bright yellow (N. E. Africa) . poliogastra. | 
k 5 . Above more ashy olive ; general 
plumage paler and duller (N. B. 

Africa) abyssinica. 

/i 4 . Brighter. 
Z 5 . No yellow on the breast. 

i 6 . No yellow on the forehead . . madagascaricnsis. 
k 6 . Sides of forehead yellow. 
a 7 . Larger ; wing 2-2 ; throat 
and under tail-coverts deep 

yellow anjuancnsis. 

b 1 . Smaller; wing 2-05; throat 
and under tail-coverts very 

pale yellow comormsis. 

m 6 . Some yellow on chest and centre 

of abdomen aldabrensis. 

b 1 . Throat not yellow; some yellowish green 
on the upper parts. 
c-. Back of neck and mantle yellowish green ; 

crown black olivacea. 

d 2 . Crown, back of neck and mantle slaty 

grey chloronota. 

b. No yellow on the plumage ; crown like the 
back. 
c 1 . Above brown, a white line from the nostril 

to the eye (Seychelles) modesta. 

d 1 . Above grey ; no white line from the nostril 

to the eye (Madagascar) hovarum. 



172 ZOSTEROPS SEMIFLAVA. 



Zosterops semiflava. (Pi. 6, fig. 2. 

Zosterops semiflava, E. Newton, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 190 (1884) ; 
Eidgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1895, p. 514 Seychelles; Shelley, 
B. Afr. I. No. 85 (189G). 

Adult. Above, including the wing-coverts and edges of quills and tail- 
feathers, olive yellow, yellower towards the upper tail-coverts, remainder 
of quills and the tail dusky brown ; under wing-coverts white washed with 
yellow ; sides of forehead bright yellow ; a moderately broad white ring 
round the eye ; lores and a margin beneath the white eye-ring black. 
Beneath bright yellow strongly washed with chestnut on the flanks. Bill 
black, with a pale portion at base of lower mandible ; iris brown ; tarsi and 
feet grey. Total length 4-5 inches, culmen 0-45, wing 2-35, tail 1-8, tarsus 
0-7. Seychelles (E. Newton). 

The Seychelles Chestnut-flanked White-eye is confined to 
the Seychelles Archipelago. 

This species was discovered on Marianne Island by Mr. 
Nevill, who " saw a flock of some dozen or so, from which he 
killed a couple." Mr. H. L. Warry and Dr. Abbott also 
collected specimens here ; others have been met with by Mr. 
Wrio-ht on Prasliu Island, and Mr. B. Newton was told that the 
birds inhabit Ladigue and Silhouette, and believed he saw 
them, on one occasion, at Mahe. 



Zosterops mayottensis. 

Zosterops mayottensis, Schl. Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 191 (1884) 
Mayotte Is.; Tristr. Ibis, 1887, p. 370; Milne Edw. and Oust. N. 
Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris (2), x. p. 246 (1888) ; Shelley, B. Afr. 
I. No. 86 (1896). 

Adult. Similar to Z. semiflava, but differs in having the forehead bright 
yellow. Total length 3-9 inches, culmen 0-4, wing 2-15, tail 1-2, tarsus 07. 

The Mayotte Chestnut-flanked White-eye is confined to the 
island of Mayotte, one of the Comoro group, situated about 



ZOSTEROPS SENEGALENSIS. 173 

halfway between the northern extremity of Madagascar and 
the African coast. 

According to Pollen, who discovered the species, it lives 
in small flocks of six to twelve individuals, and is generally to 
be met with along the outskirts of the bush or by the sides of 
the footpaths, feeding on the small insects and honey from 
the flowers. It is not shy in its habits, and he likens its song 
to that of a female Canary. M. Hutnblot collected four 
specimens, and often found them in company with Ginnyris 
coquereli. 



Zosterops senegalensis. 

Zosterops senegalensis, Bp. Bouvier, Cat. Ois. Marche, &c, p. 14 
(1875) Bathurst ; id. Bull. S. Z. France, 1887, p. 252 Uganda ; Petr. 
Verhandl. Wien. xxxi., p. 144 (1881) ; Hartl. Abhand. Brem. 1881, 
p. 99 ; 1882, p. 199 Upper White Nile ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 
181 (1884) ; id. Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. xvii. p. 426 (1884) Nyam- 
Nyam ; Fisch. Zeitsehr. 1884, p. 337 ; id. J. f. O. 1885, p. 138 
Arusha ; Beichen. J. f. O. 1887, p. 75 Ussure ; Emin, J. f. O. 

1891, p. 60 ; Beichen. t. c. p. 160 Mpapwa, Tabora ; Bendall, Ibis, 

1892, p. 219 Gambia; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 87 (1896). 
Zosterops tenella, Hartl. Fisch. J. f. 0. 1885, p. 138 Kipini, Ishara ; 

Oust. Bibl. Ecole Hautes Etudes, xxxi. (10), p. 8 (1886). 
Zosterops kirki (nee Shelley) Shelley, Ibis, 1888, p. 300 Handa Is. ; 

Sharpe, Ibis, 1891, p. 594 Makaruiuju ; Hinde, Ibis, 1898, p. 580 

Machako's. 
Zosterops demeryi, Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. 1890, p. 202 Liberia. 
Zosterops obsoleta, Biittik. t. c. p. 203 Liberia. 
Zosterops stuhlmanni, Beichen. J. f. O. 1892, p. 54 Bukoba, Sesse Is. ; 

Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 93 (1896) ; Neum. J. f. O. 1898, pp. 236, 237 

C. Afr. ; Hartert in Ansorge's " Under Afr. Sun," p. 149 (1899) 

Unyoro. 
Zosterops flavilateralis, Beichen. J. f. O. 1892, p. 193 E. Afr. ; Sharpe, 

P. Z. S. 1895, p. 475 Somali; Salvad. Ann. Mus. Genov. 1896, p. 

44 Somali. 
Zosterops superciliosa, Beichen. J. f. O. 1892, p. 193 Wadelai. 

Adult. Above, including the wing-coverts and edges of the quills and 
tail-feathers, olive yellow, slightly more yellow on the rump ; remainder of 



174 ZOSTEROPS SENEGALENSIS. 

the wings and tail brown ; sides of the head and neck like the mantle, but 
shading into bright pale yellow on the forehead, throat, under surface of 
body and under tail-coverts ; a silky white ring round the eye, with a black 
loral patch in front of and below this ring ; under wing-coverts and inner edges 
of quills white, the former partially washed with yellow. Bill black with 
the base of the lower mandible leaden grey ; iris reddish brown ; legs leaden 
grey. Total length 36 inches, culmen 0*4, wing 2-2, tail 1-5, tarsus 06. 
Bathurst (Brit. Mus.). 

This species differ chiefly from Z. kirki, of Great Comoro Island, in the 
general paler yellow shade of the plumage, and from Z. flava, of Borneo, in 
having a black loral band extending above the gape to half way along the 
under edge of the white eye-ring. 

The Senegal Yellow White -eye ranges through Senegambia 
into Liberia, eastward across the continent to Keren on the 
Anseba river (17° N. lat.), and south to Ugogo (7° S. lat.). 

The type of the species was procured by Swainson 
from Senegal, Marche's collection contained specimens from 
Bathurst, Verreaux's from Casamanse and Beaudouin's from 
Bissao. In the British Museum there are five specimens from 
Senegambia ; here, according to Dr. P. Rendall, it is a rare 
bird. From Liberia the types of Z. demeryi and Z. obsolete/,, 
Biittik. were sent to the Leyden Museum in spirits by the late 
Mr. A. T. Demery, and were brought over by Mr. Biittikofer 
for comparison with the Zosteropidce in the British Museum, 
where we agreed together that they were really specimens of 
Z. senegalensis, with their true colours completely obliterated 
by the spirits in which they had been preserved ; the latter 
specimen, apparently a younger bird, had suffered the most. 
A very similar case is Z. prsetermissa, Tristram, which was 
described from a specimen of Z. anjuanensis similarly pre- 
served. This is a warning to all ornithologists against an 
improper use of strong spirits. 

It is strange that this species has not been recorded from 
any other part of the West African coast, for Dr. R. B. Sharpe 
mentions a " male from Dem Suleiman, November," and there 



ZOSTEROPS SENEGALENSIS. 175 

is another specimen from the Nyam-Nyam country, also 
obtained in November by Bohndorff at Monderick, which is in 
the British Museum, along with one labelled " Albert Edward 
Nyanza (Scott Elliott)" and another " Fadjulli, 3 10. 5. 81 
(Emin)." Emin has besides collected sjoecimens to the east 
of Lake Tanjanyika at Tabora and Mpapwa. According to 
Dr. S. T. Pruen, at Kakoma in the Usagara country the natives 
call it " Vimlyelye." The late Dr. Fischer met with the 
species in Arusha, Ussure, Kipini, Ishara and Kau, and found 
it plentiful, during his explorations through Masailand, in the 
high trees, hunting for insects, in pairs or groups up to ten in 
number. Dr. Hildebrandt found them in the mountains of 
Ndi in the Teita country around the flowering acacia bushes 
in company with colonies of Sunbirds. Two of his specimens 
are in British Museum, which also contains the following : — 
" Lamu (Kirk)," " Manda Is. (Jackson)," " Machako's, <?, ?, 
8. 96 (Hinde)." In Somali, specimens have been collected 
at Sillu in August by Dr. A. Donaldson Smith, and Don 
Eugento del Principe Ruspoli also met with the species in this 
country. 

Towards Victoria Nyanza Mr. Jackson has procured ex- 
amples at Makarungu, Mr. W. J. Ansorge a fine series from 
Masindi and Fajao in Unyoro, and a specimen from Kiwalo- 
goma in Uganda, in which country the species was also met 
with by Piaggio, in what was in his time known as Mtesa's 
country. 

According to Dr. Reichenow's views with regard to the 
division of this species into subspecies, as I understand them, 
his Z. flavilateralis ranges over E. Africa generally east of 
Lake Tanjanyika and Uganda, and his Z. stuhlmanni and 
Z. superciliosa reign jointly over Emin's "happy hunting 
ground" of the Upper White Nile district of Central Africa, 
where Dr. Stuhlmann and Emin have met with these forms on 



176 ZOSTEROPS SENEGALENSIS. 

Sesse Island, Bukoba, Fadjulli, Wandi, Kiri and Wadelai. At 
this latter place Emin procured the type of Z. super ciliosa, and 
remarked tliat tliey were not rare in this district and generally 
seen in pairs frequenting the thickly foliaged trees. 

I find no mention of these White-eyes to the north of 
Wadelai and Somaliland until we reach Abyssinia. Here 
again the species has been broken up into three subspecies 
by von Heuglin, who is the only naturalist giving us any 
information on them from this country. Their apparent rarity 
here, he suggests, is possibly owing to their quiet habits, the 
call-note being a low piping "schi," and the song much re- 
sembles that of our Willow Warbler, but is not so loud. They 
feed on small insects, and are usually to be met with in pairs, 
but in the late autumn often assemble in parties of six to 
twelve individuals. 

Von Heuglin, while at Keren in the Anseba valley, between 
3,500 and 4,000 feet, discovered the type of his Zosterops 
aurifrons, and at Bongo the type of his Zosterops pallescens. 
In Sennaar Prince P. of Wurtemburg procured a specimen 
which was first described by von Heuglin as Zosteropsyhia 
icterovirens. 

If we divide Z. senegalensis, as I understand it, into three 
subspecies they would probably have the following synonyms : 

1. Z. senegalensis, Bp. (1850), Senegambia. 
Z. demeryi, Biittik. (1890), Liberia. 

Z. obsoleta, Biittik. (1890), Liberia. 

2. Z. pallescens, Heugl. (1862), Bongo. 
Z. heuglini, Hartl. (1865), Bongo. 

Z. flavilateralis, Reichen. (1892), E. Africa. 

3. Z. tenella, Hartl. (1865), Keren. 

? Zosteropsylvia icterovirens, Heugl. (1867), Sennaar. 

Z. stuhlmanni, Reichen. (1S92), Bukoba and Sesse Island. 

?Z. superciliosa, Reichen. (1892), Wadelai. 



ZOSTEROPS ANDERSSONI. 177 



Zosterops anderssoni. (Pi. 7, fig. 1.) 

Zosterops anderssoni, Shelley, B.O.C. I.p. 5 (1892) ; id. Ibis, 1893, p 

118 Damara; 1896, p. 180 Nyasa ; Marshall, t. c. p. 244 Salisbury ; 

Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 88 (1896) ; id. Ibis, 1897, p. 525 ; 1898, p. 379 

Nyasa ; Stark, Faun. S. Afr. i. p. 300 (1900). 
Zosterops senegalensis (nee Bp.) Gurney in Anderss. B. Darnara, p. 76 

(1872); Bocage, Orn. Angola, p. 288 (1877) Caconda, Biballa; 

Sharpe, ed. Layard's B. S. Afr. pp. 325, 834 (1884) ; id. Cat. B. 

Mus. ix. p. 181 (1884, pt. S. Afr.) ; Bocage, Jorn. Lisb. 1893, 

p. 162 Galanga. 
Zosterops tenella (nee Hartl.) Eeichen. J. f. O. 1889, p. 285 Quilimane. 

Adult. Similar in plumage to Z. senegalensis, but larger. "Bill black, 
iris hazel ; legs dark slate colour " (Guy Marshall). Total length 4-3 inches, 
culmen 0-45, wing 2-35, tail 1-85, tarsus 0-65. 



Andersson's Yellow White-eye ranges from Benguela and 
the Ovampo country into Mashonaland and Mozambique. 

This species is the South African representative of Z. sene- 
galensis. Anchieta has procured specimens at Caconda, where 
it is known to the natives as " Hoio," and at Biballa. South 
of the Cunene at Elephant Vley Mr. Andersson collected 
the types, two specimens, and writes : " It was only as I 
approached the Okavango that I became aware of its existence. 
In the thornless forests bordering upon the stream it is not 
uncommon, but it migrates northward during the dry season. 
It is found in small flocks, and diligently explores, in search 
of insects, the branches of the smaller trees, and especially 
the buds and flowers, suspending itself in a variety of positions 
while it is thus employed." 

In Nyasaland Mr. Alexander Whyte has collected specimens 
on Mount Chiradzulu and on the Nyika Plateau where it is 
probably abundant, for in Mashonaland Mr. Guy Marshall 
procured a male and female at Salisbury, April 14, which had 

[March, 1900. 12 



178 ZOSTEROPS KIRKI. 

been feeding on figs and small insects, and further remarks : 
" Common at all seasons, busily searching the trees for insects 
either in pairs or family parties of 5 or 6." 

No doubt to this species belongs a female obtained by Dr. 
Stuhlmann at Quilimane, January 29, where it was known to 
the natives as " Tschiliko." 

Dr. R. B. Sharpe in Layard's " B. S. Afr." has evidently 
described a typical specimen of Z. senegalensis, and not a 
South African example, for his measurements of the wing and 
tail are much too small. The " Distribution " given for this 
species in the " Fauna of South Africa " is far from being 
correct. 



Zosterops kirki. 

Zosterops kirki, Shelley, P. Z. S. 1879, p. G76 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ix. 

p. 182 (1884) Great. Comoro Is. ; Tristr. Ibis, 1887, p. 370 ; Milne 

Edw. and Oust. Ann. Sc. Nat. Zool. 1887, p. 223 ; iid. N. Arch. Mus. 

Hist. Nat. Paris (2), x. p. 248, pi. 8, fig. 1 (1888) ; Shelley, B. Afr. 

I. No. 89 (1896). 
Zosterops angazizse, Milne Edw. and Oust. C. E. Acad. Sc. ci. p. 221 

(1885). 

Adult. Above, including the wing-coverts and edges of the tail-feathers, 
deep olive yellow, slightly yellower on the rump ; remainder of the wings 
and tail brown ; sides of the head and neck like the mantle, but shading into 
deep yellow on the sides of the forehead, the throat, breast and under tail- 
coverts ; a silky white ring round the eye, with a black loral patch in front 
and below this ring ; under wing-coverts and inner edges of quills white, 
the former partially washed with yellow. Total length 4 inches, culmen 
0-4, wing 2-05, tail 1-5, tarsus 0.5. Gt. Comoro Is. (G. A. Frank). 

Kirk's White-eye is confined to Great Comoro, otherwise 
known as Angaziza Island. 

The type specimens, probably male and female, were col- 
lected by Sir John Kirk ; they are similar in plumage, but 
the probable female is slightly duller in its colouring. It has 
since been procured by M. Humblot, who discovered another 



ZOSTEROPS MOURONIENSIS. 179 

much larger species, Z. mouroniensis, on the same island, and 
by Mr. Gr. A. Frank. 



Zosterops mouroniensis. 

Zosterops mouroniensis, Milne Edw. and Oust. C. E. Acad. Sc. ci. p. 121 
(1885) ; iid. Ann. Sc. Nat. Zool. 1887, p. 222 ; iid. N. Arch. Mus. 
H. N. Paris (2), x. p. 247, pi. 5, fig. 2 (1888) Gt. Comoro Is. ; Shelley, 
B. Afr. I. No. 90 (1896). 

Adult Male. Similar to Z. kirki, but larger, and with the white round 
the eye very much narrower, scarcely extending beyond the eyelids. Total 
length 4-6 inches, culmen 0-5, wing 2-6, tail 2-25, tarsus 075. 

The Larger Great Comoro White-eye is restricted to the 
Great Comoro Island. 

The name for the species is derived from that of a small 
village where M. Humblot discovered the type. 

Not having seen a specimen I have taken my description 
from Mr. Keulemans' figure of the species instead of following 
MM. Milne Edwards and Oustalet in their comparison of it 
with several more or less allied forms. 



Zosterops virens. (PI. 7, fig. 3.) 

Zosterops virens, Bp. Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 182 (1884) ; Sharpe, 
ed. Layard's B. S. Afr. pp. 325, 834 (1884) ; Distant, Naturalist in 
Transvaal, p. 167 (1892) ; Kendall Ibis, 1896, p. 171 Transvaal; 
Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 91 (1896) ; id. Ibis, 1897, p. 525 Nyasaland; 
Sharpe, t. c. p. 507 Ziduland; Stark, Faun. S. Afr. i. p. 301 (1900). 

Zosterops capensis (nee Sundev.) Butler, Peilden and Eeid, Zool. 1882, 
p. 247 Natal ; Sharpe, ed. Layard's B. S. Afr. p. 834 (1884). 

Adult Male. Upper parts, including the wing-coverts and edges of the 
quills and tail-feathers, yellowish green ; remainder of wings and tail dark 
brown, with the inner edges of the quills and the under wing-coverts white, 
the latter shading into bright pale yellow at the edge of the wing ; sides of 



180 ZOSTEROPS VIRENS. 

forehead yellow, which colour just crosses the base of the forehead ; a ring 
of white feathers round the eye. with a black loral patch in front of eye and 
edging the white ring beneath ; ear-coverts and sides of neck green like the 
back ; throat, centre of breast, thighs and under tail-coverts bright yellow 
shading into yellowish green on the sides of the body. " Bill black ; iris 
light brown; tarsi and feet ash colour" (T. Ayres). Total length 4-3 inches, 
culmen 0-4, wing 2-3, tail 1-8, tarsus 06. Pinetown, 30. 7. 75 (T. L. Ayres). 
Adult Female. Like the male. Total length 4-3 inches, culrnen 0-45, 
wing 2-3, tail 1-8, tarsus 0-7. Pinetown, 30. 7. 75 (T. L. Ayres). 



The Natal Grreen White-eye ranges over South-eastern 
Africa from Kingwilliamstown to Lake Nyasa. 

The most southern and western range known to me for 
this species is Kingwilliamstown, where Captain Trevelyan 
collected several specimens. Some little distance inland the 
type of the species was discovered by Wahlberg in " Upper 
Kaffraria." 

In Natal the species is common, and probably some of the 
White-eyes I met with at Durban belonged to this form, for 
shortly after I left my friend Mr. T. L. Ayres sent me several 
specimens from Pinetown, and his father, Mr. T. Ayres, writes 
from Natal : " These birds are gregarious, and very plentiful in 
the spring of the year (September and October). They do 
considerable damage to soft fruit, such as the loquat and 
mulberry ; but also do much good in clearing the trees of 
insects, climbing and hunting amongst the buds and leaves in 
search of them. They almost constantly utter a loud, mono- 
tonous, weeping note, which somewhat resembles that of the 
Nectarinice, and especially of Nectarinia amethystina." 

Messrs. Butler, Feilden and Eeid write : " A common 
species, universally distributed throughout the colony. Many 
specimens were obtained in the kloofs of the Drakensberg, near 
Newcastle, and it was also shot near Durban. It was usually 
found in small parties." 

In Zululand the Messrs. Woodwards collected two specimens 



ZOSTEROPS STENOCRICOTA. 181 

at Eschowe, which are in the British Museum along with three 
from Kingwilliamstown, fourteen from Natal, nine from the 
Transvaal and two from Nyasaland. 

To the north of the Vaal river Mr. Barratt shot a specimen 
at Macamac, " a naturalist in the Transvaal," Mr. W. L. 
Distant, records it from the neighbourhood of Pretoria, and 
Dr. P. Rendall from the Barberton district. Mr. T. Ayres 
found the species " common about the wooded parts of the 
Rustenberg district," and also in the Lydenburg district " this 
bird is extremely plentiful, both in the forest of the kloofs and 
among the jungle on the slopes. It builds a neat, open cup- 
shaped nest in some low shrub ; the eggs are white and, as 
far as I can remember, without spots." I believe Mr. T. Ayres 
is not quite accurate is calling the eggs white, as all the eggs 
belonging to members of the genus Zoster ops are probably 
uniform pale blue or greenish blue, and according to Stark 
these birds lay four pale blue unspotted eggs, measuring 064 
inch by 048. The only recorded instance of the occurrence 
of this species to the north of the Limpopo river is that 
Mr. Alexander Whyte has collected a pair at Mayawa village 
on the Nyika Mountain, 6,000 feet, in June. This is to the 
west of the northern end of Nyasa lake in about 10° 80' S. lat., 
and 13° north of the Tropic of Capricorn, which was previously 
the most northern known range for Z. virens. 



Zosterops stenocricota. 

Zosterops stenocricota, Eeichen. J. f. O. 1892, p. 191 ; 1894, p. 41 
Camaroons ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 94 (1896). 

Type. Similar to Z. virens but paler and yellower, with the yellow sides 
of the forehead extending in a band back to the posterior edge of the eye. 
Total length 4-6 inches, bill 0-36, wing 2-08, tail 1-43, tarsus 0-64. 



182 ZOSTEROPS EURYCRICOTA. 

The Camaroons Olive White-eye inhabits Camaroons. 

Dr. Preuss discovered the type in the mountains at an 
elevation of 950 metres on September 6, 1891. This is all I 
know regarding the species, for the type appears to be the only 
specimen yet procured. 



Zosterops eurycricota. 

Zosterops eurycricota, Fisch. and Eeichen. J. f. O. 1884, p. 55 Massai 
Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 292 (1884) ; Fisch. Zeitschr. 1884, p. 337 
id. J. f. 0. 1885, p. 138 Arusha ; Eeichen. J. f. 0. 1892, pp. 54, 192 
Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 92 (1896). 

Zosterops perspicillata, Shelley, P. Z. S. 1889, p. 366, pi. 41, fig. 1 
Kilimanjaro. 

Adult Male. Above, including the wing-coverts and edges of the quills 
and tail-feathers, bright yellowish green with a slight chestnut shade on the 
forehead ; lores black ; a very broad circle of white feathers round the eye 
015 inch wide ; remainder of wings and tail slaty black. Beneath bright 
yellow passing into yellowish green on the sides of the neck and body. Bill 
black ; legs slaty grey. Total length 4'4 inches, culrnen - 45, wing 2 - 55, 
tail 2-1, tarsus 075. Kilimanjaro, 8. 81 (Hunter). 

Adult Female. Exactly like the male. Total length 4-2 inches, culmen 
4 45, wing 2*5, tail 2, tarsus 075. Kilimanjaro, 8. 81 (Hunter , i 

Fischer's Green "White-eye inhabits Bast Africa. 

This species is known to me only by the description of the 
type, a female procured by the late Dr. Fischer at the base 
of the Maeru Mountains in Great Arusha on July 17, and 
by a pair now in the British Museum, the types of my Z. per- 
spicillata, obtained by Mr. Hunter on Kilimanjaro in August 
at an elevation of 5,000 feet. 

Dr. Reichenow informs us that my Z. perspicillata is the 
same as his Z. erycricotus, which I did not recognise from his 
short description of that species. My descriptions are taken 
from Mr. Hunter's specimens, in which the black lores are 
scarcely visible. 



ZOSTEROPS KIKUYUENSIS. 183 



Zosterops kikuyuensis. 

Zosterops kikuyuensis, Sharpe, Ibis, 1891, pp. 444, 594, pi. 12, fig. 1 
Kikuyu, Mt. Elgon ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 95 (1896) ; Neum. 
J. f. 0. 1898, p. 239 Mait; Hartert in Ansorge's " Under Afr. Sun," 
p. 350 (1899) Uganda. 

Adult Female : type of the species. Above, yellowish green ; wings and tail 
dusky brown with the outer edges of the feathers green like the back ; entire 
forehead, as well as the front half of the crown, bright yellow ; eye-ring white 
and fairly broad, but not preventing the black in front of the eye from 
reaching to the eye ; throat, centre of breast, thighs and under tail-coverts 
bright yellow passing into yellowish green on sides of neck and sides of 
breast ; under wing-coverts and inner margins of quills white. Bill black, 
"irides brown, feet horn-blue." Total length 4-5 inches, culmen 0-45, 
wing 2-3, tail 1 8, tarsus 07. 

The Kikuyu Green White-eye inhabits eastern Equatorial 
Africa. Mr. Jackson discovered the type, an adult female, in 
the Kikuyu forest, August 15, 1889, which specimen is now in 
the British Museum. Mr. Hartert records it in Mr. Ansorge's 
collection from the Eldoma Ravine in the Uganda Protectorate. 
This is all that is yet known, I believe, regarding this species, 
if Z. jacJcsoni, Neumann, is really distinct. 

I think it is quite possible that Z. jacJcsoni, Neum., may 
prove to be the more normal form, and that the type of 
Z. Mkuyuensis, which only differs in the yellow frontal patch 
extending - 2 inch further back on to the middle of the crown, 
a variety. 

The difference between the type of Z. hihuyuensis and 
Z.jacksoni, Neum., is much the same as the difference between 
the unique specimen of Z. atmori, Sharpe, and Z. ca/pensis, 
which I unite as mere varieties, feeling confident that the 
more perfect our series of specimens the more evident their 
affinities will be shown. 



184 ZOSTEROPS JACKSONI. 



Zosterops jacksoni. 

Zosterops jacksoni, Neumann, Orn. Monatsb. 1899, p. 23 Mau, Massed, 
Nandi, Mt. Elgon ; Jackson, Ibis, 1899, p. 636 Bavine, Nandi. 

Zosterops scotti, Neumann, Orn. Monatsb. 1899, p. 24 Buenzori. 

Zosterops kikuyueusis, Sharpe (?) Hartert in Ansorge's " Under Afr. 
Sun," p. 350 (1899) Eldoma Bavine. 

Adult Male. Above, yellowish green with the entire forehead bright 
yellow ; wings and tail dusky brown with the outer edges of the feathers 
green like the back ; a fairly broad ring of white feathers round the eye, 
broken through in front by the black loral feathers which extend from the 
bill to the eye ; throat, centre of breast, thighs and under tail-coverts bright 
yellow, with the sides of the body yellowish green ; under wing-coverts and 
inner margins of quills white. Total length 4-8 inches, culmen 0-45, wing 
2-4, tail 1-8, tarsus 0-7. Mau, 3 25. 2. 97 (Jackson). 

Adult Female. Exactly like the male. " Bill black, iris hazel, feet 
horny blue " (Jackson). Total length 4-9 inches, culmen 0-5, wing 2-45, 
tail 1-9, tarsus 0-7. Mau, ? 25. 2. 97 (Jackson). 



Jackson's Yellow-fronted Olive White-eye inhabits eastern 
Equatorial Africa. 

The type is a specimen from Mau in the Berlin Museum. 
Mr. Neumann, when he described the species, knew of, 
besides the type, four of Mr. Jackson's specimens, and one 
in Mr. Ansorge's collection from the Eldoma Ravine. I have 
examined in Mr. Jackson's collection the following eight 
specimens: Mt. Elgon, 11,500 feet, 3 , February 16; Mau, 
$ ? , February 25, 3 , April 3 ; Ravine, $ ? , June 24, 
3 , June 29 ; Nandi, 6,500 feet, ? , June 4. 

All these specimens are exactly alike and agree well with 
the type of Z. scotti, which is in the British Museum, from 
the forest of Yeria on Mount Ruenzori, where Mr. Scott 
Elliot obtained the specimen out of a flock which he met 
with at an elevation of 8,000 feet. 



ZOSTEROPS FICEDULINA. 185 

According to Mr. Jackson, the species is very plentiful in 
this part of Africa and he " found a nest on the 21st " 
(February ?) " in the drooping branches of a tree with small 
leaves. It was suspended between a small fork to which it 
was woven by the outer edges. Built entirely of grey hard 
moss, and lined with the finest of fibre. It contained two eggs 
of a palish blue." He further remarks : " This little bird is 
the most diligent that it is possible to imagine in its search for 
caterpillars and other insects, and after the breeding-season, 
when two or more family parties congregate in a flock, the 
amount of insects they destroy must be very great. Except 
towards evening, when they have filled themselves to repletion, 
they are rarely if ever still, but keep darting about among the 
foliage of both bushes and the taller trees, twisting and turning 
their heads in all directions and getting into all sorts of 
fantastic positions like a Tit, all the time keeping up an 
incessant chirrup not unlike that of our Goldcrest. As soon 
as the apparent leader of the flock leaves a tree, perhaps 
thinking there is little or nothing left worth looking for in 
the way of food, it darts off to another tree with a chirrup, 
when it is followed by the rest, one after the other, all of 
which keep up the same soft little chirrup. These birds will 
be invaluable when fruit-trees are introduced into the country, 
and orchards are established." 



Zosterops ficedulina. (Pi. 8, fig. 1.) 

Zosterops ficedulina, Hartl. P. Z. S. 1866, p. 327 Prince's Is. ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. M. ix. p. 203 (1884) ; ? Sousa, Jorn. Lisb. 1888, p. 157 
? St. Thomas Is. ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 96 (1896). 

Adult. Above, yellowish olive, slightly browner on the crown and 
yellower on the rump ; edges of the wing and tail-feathers olive like the 
mantle ; a circle of glossy white feathers round the eye ; ear-coverts ashy 



186 ZOSTEROPS GRISEOVIRESCENS. 

white ; lores and sides of forehead yellowish white, of the same colour as 
the entire under parts ; under wing-coverts and inner margins of quills 
white. Bill brown with the under mandible pale; iris brownish yellow; 
tarsi and feet brown. Total length 4-5 inches, culmen 04, wing 2, tail 1"5. 
Prince's Is. (Dohrn). 

The Prince's Island White-eye is probably confined to the 
island of that name, which is separated from the Gaboon coast 
by about 180 miles of Atlantic Ocean. 

Here Dr. Dohrn found the species frequenting the hilly 
parts of the interior, and remarks that it much resembles our 
Willow Warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus), not only in its colour- 
ing but also in its song. 

Signor Sousa informs us that the Lisbon Museum con- 
tains a specimen labelled " St. Thomas Island, 1880." A 
collector of St. Thomas Island birds would probably visit 
Prince's Island, and most likely obtained the bird at the latter 
place, for there is no other record of the species being found 
elsewhere than on Prince's Island. Or can the bird be really 
a specimen of the nearly allied, but larger, form Z. griseo- 
virescens from Annobon Island ? 



Zosterops griseovirescens. 

Zosterops griseovirescens, Bocage Jorn. Lisb. 1893, p. 18 Annobon 
Is. ; Shelley, B. Air. I. No. 97 (1896). 

Type. According to the original description it is compared to Z. ficedu- 
Una, but is a larger bird, with a longer and stronger bill. Upper parts grey 
slightly washed with green, most strongly so on the head, and of a more 
yellow shade on the upper tail-coverts ; under parts white tinted with 
sulphur yellow on the throat and middle of the abdomen ; breast and flanks 
shaded with yellow and pale brown ; under tail-coverts washed with bright 
sulphur yellow ; least and median wing-coverts like the back ; greater 
coverts brown edged with greenish yellow ; quills brown with white inner 
margins and narrow greenish yellow outer edges ; bend of wing and under 
wing-coverts pure white ; tail feathers brown narrowly edged with green. 



ZOSTEROPS PALLIDA. 187 

Bill blackish with the edges and base of lower mandible of a paler shade ; 
feet brown ; iris pale chestnut. Total length 4-8 inches, culmen 052, 
wing 2-5, tail 2, tarsus 0-84. 



The Annobon White-eye inhabits the small island of that 
name in the Atlantic in about 1° 30' S. lat. by 6° E. long. 

The species was discovered by Mr. F. Newton, who informs 
us that it is common in Annobon ; remarkable by its very 
melodious song, and is called by the inhabitants of the island 
" Bichili." It appears to me to be quite possible that the 
specimen referred to by Sousa in 1888 as Zosterops ficedulina, 
supposed to have come from St. Thomas Island, really belongs 
to this species. 



Zosterops pallida. (Pi. 7, fig. 2.) 

Zosterops pallida, Swains. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 160 (1884) ; Sharpe, 
ed. Layard's B. S. Afr. pp. 324, 834 (1884) ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 
98 (1896) ; Stark, Faun. S. Afr. i. p. 302 (1900). 

Malacirops pallida, Hartl. J. f. O. 1865, p. 28. 

Adult Male. Upper parts, including the ear-coverts, sides of neck and 
edges of the feathers of the wings and tail, yellowish green ; remainder of 
wings and tail dark brown, with the under wing-coverts and inner edges of 
the quills buffy white ; a yellow band ou each side of the forehead just 
reaching across the base of the forehead ; a ring of white feathers encircles 
the eye, margined beneath by the continuation of the black loral band ; 
chin, throat and under tail-coverts very pale yellow ; breast white with 
sandy rufous on the body, crop and thighs. Bill hoary black, with the basal 
part of the lower mandible ashy blue ; iris light brown. Total length 
4-6 inches, culmen 0-35, wing 2-5, tail 21, tarsus 0-7. Orange B. (Atmore). 

Adult Female. Like the male ; tarsi and feet brownish ash. Total 
length 4-3 inches, culmen 0-35, wing 2-25, tail 1-9, tarsus 0-7. Orange B. 
(Atmore). 

BurchelPs Pallid White-eye ranges over South Africa from 
Swellendam to Rustenberg. 



188 ZOSTEROPS CAPENSIS. 

Burchell procured the type of the species during his 
wanderings in South Africa. Mr. Layard tells us that an 
example in the South African Museum "was probably sent 
from Swellendam by Mr. Cairncross, as it bears traces of his 
stuffing." I find no other evidence for its ranging so far west. 
In the British Museum there are three specimens from the 
Orange river, where it has been met with by Dr. Bradshaw 
and Mr. Atinore ; one from Colesberg of Mr. Ortlepp's 
collecting, and three from the Transvaal. From the Rusten- 
berg neighbourhood Mr. T. Ayres writes : " Occasionally seen 
in small companies hopping and climbing about the hedges 
and trees during the winter months." 

The type of Z. lateralis, Sundev., which was re-christened 
Z. swidevalli by Dr. Hartlaub, was procured by Wahlberg 
in " Upper Kaffraria," probably between Colesberg and 
Rustenberg. 



Zosterops capensis. 

Zosterops capensis, Sundev. Shelley, Ibis, 1875, pp. 60, 70 Cape Col. ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 171 (1884) ; Kuschel, J. f. 0. 1895, p. 345 
(egg) ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 99 (1896) ; Stark, Faun. S. Afr. i. 
p. 302 (1900). 

Zosterops atmori, Sharpe in Layard's B. S. Afr. pp. 326, 834 (1884). 

Adult Male. Upper parts, including the wing-coverts and edges of the 
quills and tail-feathers, as well as sides of head and neck, deep yellowish 
green, shading into pale yellow on the throat ; a white ring round the eye, 
with the feathers in front black ; breast white, washed on the chest and 
sides with soft ashy brown ; under tail-coverts pale yellow ; under wing- 
coverts and inner margins of the quills white ; remainder of quills and tail 
dusky brown. " Bill bluish black, lighter on the under mandible ; legs and 
feet lead colour, with sometimes a tinge of brown ; iris yellowish brown " 
(Andersson). Total length 4-8 inches, culmen 0-45, wing 2-3, tail 1-9, 
tarsus 07. Knysna, January 6 (Andersson). 

Adult Female. Similar to the male, but with a yellow patch on each 
side of the forehead. Table Mountain, November 30 (Andersson). 



ZOSTEROPS CAPENSIS. 189 

Type of Z. atmori, Sharpe. Similar, but with yellow of the head cross- 
ing the base of the forehead. Total length 4'6 inches, culmen 0-4, wing 2-3, 
tail 1-9, tarsus 0-7. 

The Cape White-eye is apparently confined to Africa south 
of about 27° S. lat. 

Andersson writes : — " I have only once or twice observed 
this species in the southernmost parts of great Namaqualand, 
along the periodical watercourses bordered by mimosas ; but 
from thence southwards it becomes more numerous, and at the 
Cape and in many parts of the Colony it is abundant : a pair 
or two may be seen any day in most of the gardens in the im- 
mediate environs of the Cape." He met with these White-eyes 
in small parties searching diligently amongst low bushes and 
trees for insects and their larvae, and found their nests placed 
at the extreme end of a branch. " The nest is very prettily 
shaped, and is composed of loose tendrils interlaced, covered 
with moss outside, and lined internally with hair, &c. The 
eggs are four or five in number, and are said to be incubated 
by both parents." 

Andersson collected specimens on Table Mountain in 
November, at the Knysna in January. Victorin found the 
species in Karroo. Mr. Kickard notes its occurrence at Port 
Elizabeth and East London ; Mr. Atmore procured the type 
of Z. atmori, Sharpe, at Grahamstown ; Captain Trevelyan 
found them some sixty miles eastward at Kingwilliamstown, 
and Mr. Gordge procured me a specimen at Durban in Natal, 
which is the furthest known eastern range for the species. 
Most of these specimens are now in the British Museum, and 
on comparing them I have come to the conclusion that the 
type of Z. atmori is only an abnormally coloured specimen of 
Z. capensis. 

I met with the Cape White-eye in small pleasure parties in 
the pine forests around the base of Table Mountain, where they 



190 ZOSTEROPS POLIOGASTRA. 

much reminded me of groups of Goldcrests I had previously 
seen at home, at Avington, where they have greatly decreased 
of late years. The White-eyes appeared to me to be equally 
abundant near Durban, but probably I confounded Z. virens 
with the present species, as they closely resemble one another 
at a little distance, their backs being the part most exposed 
to view as they cling on, or flutter round, the sunny edges of 
the woodlands. 

Mr. Layard writes : — " The White-eye is common through- 
out the whole of the Colony, roaming about in small families 
of from five to twenty in number. During the fruit season 
they do great damage to the apricots, peaches, plums, &c. ; 
they also destroy the buds to get at the insects that lurk 
therein. While on the wing, or feeding, they utter incessantly 
a stridulous chirp, which is generally the first thing that 
reveals their presence. We never saw them on the ground, 
but they sometimes creep about low bushes. They place 
their nests, which they conceal with great care, in a fork 
caused by the union of several small twigs. It is composed 
of moss and fibres, covered with cobweb and lichens, and 
lined with hair, and is shaped like a cup about three inches 
across by two and a half deep. The eggs, five in number, 
are of a beautiful spotless blue, rather sharp at the ends." 
According to Stark :—" The eggs, four or five in number, are 
unspotted pale blue. They measure - 66 X - 50. Both 
parents incubate the eggs, which are hatched at the end of 
ten days. The nestlings are fed on soft larva?, small cater- 
pillars and the saccharine juices of flowers by both male and 
female." 

Zosterops poliogastra. 

Zosterops poliogastra, Heugl. Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 169 (1884) ; 
Salvad. Ann. Mus. Genov. 1884, p. 141 ; 1888, p. 249 ; Gigl. t. c. 



ZOSTEROPS POLIOGASTRA. 191 

p. 40 Shoa; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 101 (1896); Elliot, Field 
Colurnb. Mus. Orn. i. No. 2, p. 41 (1897) Somali; Grant, Ibis, 1900, 
p. 145 Abyssinia. 
Zosterops flavigula (uec Swains.) Blanf. Geol. and Zool. Abyss, p. 354 
(1870). 

Adult. Similar in plumage to Z. capensis, but with the upper parts 
slightly yellower and with a broad bright yellow forehead. " Bill black ; 
iris brown; tarsi and feet ashy grey" (Antinori). Total length 5 inches, 
culmen 0-45, wing 2-5, tail 2-0, tarsus 0-7. Shoa, $ , 11. 6. 78 (Antinori). 

Immature. Slightly duller and browner above ; the yellow forehead less 
strongly marked. Shoa, <? 30. 1. 82 (Antinori). 

Heuglin's White-breasted White-eye ranges over North- 
east Africa between 5° and 16° N. lat. 

Mr. Elliot informs us that daring his travels in Somali- 
land he collected three specimens at Bohoigashan but did not 
meet with it elsewhere, so it is apparently not so abundant in 
that country as Z. abyssinica. This is the only record of 
the species having been found further south than Shoa, for I 
cannot agree with Dr. R. B. Sharpe in referring a bird from 
Grahamstown, the type of his Z. atmori, to this species 
(Cat. B. M. ix. p. 169). About half way betweeu Somali and 
Shoa, Lord Lovat obtained a specimen at Warabill. In Shoa, 
where Z. abyssinica has not yet been recorded, the present 
species is abundant and a resident, for Antinori has collected 
specimens at Let Marefia, January and March ; forest of 
Fekerie-Ghem, April; Mahal-Uonz, April and August; Kolla 
di Mantek, August; Dr. Ragazzi at the forest of Fekerie- 
Ghem, January and May ; Sciotalit and Cure, December. 

A nest found by Antinori was of a deep cup-shape, con- 
structed entirely of grass, and contained two unspotted pale 
sky-blue eggs, 0*65 by 0*5 inch. 

In Abyssinia, according to von Heuglin, the species is 
resident in the eastern and central highlands from 3,000 to 
12,000 feet, where he met with it at Telent, Semien and 



192 ZOSTEROPS ABYSSINICA. 

Begemeder, frequenting the upper branches of the olive and 
euphorbia trees, and feeding on the fruit of the sycamore 
and upon small insects. He likens their song to that of the 
Willow- Warbler, and informs us that their call note is a soft 
little chirp. 

Mr. Blanford obtained a single female specimen at Don- 
gola in Tigre in May, and not feeling quite certain of its 
identity suggests the name of Z. flavigula for his specimen. 



Zosterops abyssinica. 

Zosterops abyssinica, Guer. Ferr. et Gal. Voy. Abyss. Zool. p. 209, 
pi. 9, fig. 2 (1847) ; Hartl. J. f. 0. 1865, p. 9; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 
ix. p. 168 (1884) ; Sbelley, B. Afr. I. No. 100 (1896) ; Tristr. Ibis, 
1898, p. 248 Socotra Is.; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 67 Somali; Grant, 
Ibis, 1900, p. 144 Abyssinia. 

Adult. Similar in plumage to Z. capensis, but paler, back slightly more 
ashy and always with a yellow patch confined to the sides of the forehead. 
" Bill and legs greyish brown with a whitish mark at the base of the keel ; 
iris brown " (O. Grant). Total length 4 inches, culmen 0-45, wing 2-15, 
tail 1-7, tarsus - 7. Abyssinia (Blanford). 



The Abyssinian White-breasted White-eye ranges over 
North-east Africa, between 5° and 16° N. lat., and extends 
eastward to the island of Socotra. 

On Socotra, the extreme north-eastern limit of the Ethio- 
pian region, this White-eye has been procured by Professor 
J. B. Balfour, Dr. Riebeck, Mr. E. N. Bennett and by Messrs. 
Forbes and O. Grant, and the latter naturalist informs us 
that it is " fairly plentiful on all parts of Socotra, being 
equally common in the low bush-clad valleys near the sea, 
and at an elevation of at least 4,500 feet, where the bush 
ceases. It was generally met with in small parties of two or 
more, and its habits remind one strongly of the Cole-tit ; 



ZOSTEROPS ABYSSINICA. 193 

its call note, uttered when feeding and on the wing, is more- 
over so exactly like that of the latter bird, that when first 
heard on Mankaradia, to the south of the Hadibu plain, 
imagination pictured some unknown species of Tit. It is 
an active, lively little bird, seldom still for a minute, and 
constantly searching for small insects among the branches 
of the bushes and trees. The nesting season must have been 
practically over when we arrived on December 9. On the 
17th of that month I fell in with a family party of five, 
including three young birds. Though able to fly well, they 
were still being fed by their parents, and it was a pretty 
sight to watch these beautiful little birds portioning out the 
dainties they collected with such amazing rapidity. They 
were so tame that one could observe them from a distance of 
a few yards." 

He further tells us that : " "When alarmed they keep up 
a constant scolding note, ' Chu-e, Chu-e, Chu-e, ' which at 
once puts all the birds in the neighbourhood on the look out 
for danger. 

This species is apparently equally abundant in Somali- 
land and throughout the watershed of the Blue Nile, for 
in the former country specimens have been collected 
by Mr. Gillett, Mr. Hawker, and by Mr. Lort Phillips in the 
Darro mountains, at Jifa Meder and "Wagga. Lord Lovat 
procured a specimen at Laga Hardim, about 40° E. long., 
during his journey westward from Berbera, and states : 
" This active little bird swarms all over the thick woods 
of the Abyssinian valleys. Like Zosterops poliogastra, it is 
widely distributed throughout the low country." Yet it 
never appears to have been met with by either Antinori 
or Ragazzi in Shoa, where, from their observations, Z. polio- 
gastra is the only common White-eye. According to von 
Heuglin the species is to be met with in pairs in most 

[March, 1900. 13 



194 ZOSTEROPS MADAGASCARIENSIS. 

parts of Abyssinia between 3,000 and 10,000 feet, and 
ranges southward to Wadla and Talanta and northward into 
Bogos, and he describes a variety procured in May at Djenda 
in Amhara. Mr. Jesse also found the species in Bogos 
and Mr. Blauford in the Komalee pass at May en, 3,500 
feet above the sea. 

From what I have written regarding Z. abyssinica and 
Z. poliogastra I am led to think that the former is the more 
eastern or coast-loving bird of the two, and that Z. poliogastra 
belongs rather to the interior of the continent. 



Zosterops madagascariensis. 

Zosterops madagascariensis (Linn.), Milne Bdw. and Grand. Hist. Madag. 

Ois. i. p. 291, pi. 113, fig. 2 (1882) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 170 

(1884) ; Deans Cowan, Ibis, 1885, p. 101 ; Sibree, Ibis, 1891, pp. 

426, 439 ; Shelley, B. Air. I. No. 102 (1896). 
Zosterops madagascariensis gloriosae, Bidgway, Pr. U. S. Nat. Mus. 

1894, p. 372 ; 1895, p. 526 Gloriosa Is. 

Adult. Very similar to Z. capensis, but brighter and paler, with no trace 
of yellow on the forehead. Upper parts, as well as sides of head and neck, 
wing-coverts and outer edges of quills and tail-feathers bright yellowish 
green ; remainder of wing and tail dark brown ; under wing-coverts and 
inner edges of quills white, with a bright yellow edge to the bend of the 
wing ; a clear white ring round the eye ; in front of eye and a margin 
beneath the eye-ring black ; throat and under tail-coverts bright yellow ; 
breast white, washed on front and sides with ash ; thighs yellowish white. 
Bill slaty black with a pale patch at the base of the keel ; legs leaden grey ; 
iris brown. Total length 4-5 inches, culmen 045, wing 2-15, tail 1-65, 
tarsus 0-65. Madagascar (Crossley). 



The Madagascar Green-backed White-eye is a native of 
the islands of Madagascar and Gloriosa. 

According to M. Grandidier, this species is common through- 
out the wooded parts of Madagascar. They live in parties of 



ZOSTEROPS MADAGASCARIENSIS. 195 

eight or ten, often keeping company with Eroessa tenella, 
Newtonia brunneicavda, and sometimes with Cinnyris souimanga; 
are active and lively, always on the move, assuming all kinds 
of positions, now flitting from branch to branch, then dipping 
their little brush-tipped tongues into the chalice of a flower 
to sip the honey or to feed on the small insects and pollen ; 
they are also partial to fruit. Their flight is short, rapid and 
irregular, and consists mostly in flitting and chasing each 
other, with the constant little cry of " tseri-tseri." They are 
not shy, and their flesh is delicate eating. The nest, which 
is generally placed in a low bush, is constructed of grass and 
fine roots, is small, deeper than wide, and in the form of a 
purse. The eggs are oval, of a delicate green, and measure 
- 68 by 052 inch. The Eev. J. Sibree informs us that Z. 
inadagascariensis " builds a very pretty open nest on the end 
of some hanging branch. Its eggs are very pale blue." Its 
Hova or general name is Pariamaso, and the provincial 
Malagasy names are — Siparomaso, Sias, Ramanjereky, Tsara- 
maso, and Mangirike. In the British Museum there is a 
specimen of this species which was obtained by Dr. Coppinger, 
during the voyage of the Alert, on Gloriosa Island. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott, during his visit to that island from 
January 18 to 25, 1893, collected four specimens, and remarks: 
" Is the commonest land-bird upon G-loriosa." Mr. Ridgway, 
after describing one of these specimens, an adult female, as 
Zosterops madagascariensis gloriosas, writes : " Having only one 
specimen of true Z. madagascariensis for comparison, I am 
not quite satisfied of the propriety of separating the Gloriosa 
bird, which I do more in deference to Professor Newton's 
views than from my own convictions. 

" I may remark that the next commonest species of land- 
bird met with by Dr. Abbott on G-loriosa was Cinnyris 
souimanga, formerly known only from Madagascar." 



196 ZOSTEROPS ANJUANENSIS. 



Zosterops anjuanensis. 

Zosterops anjuanensis, E. Newton ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 170 (1884) ; 

Milne Edw. and Oust. N. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris (2), x. p. 247 

(1888) ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 103 (1896). 
Zosterops praetermissa, Tristr. Ibis, 1887, p. 370, pi. 11, fig. 1 ; A. and 

E. Newton, Ibis, 1888, p. 474. 

Adult. Very similar in plumage to Z. madagascariensis and Z. capensis, 
but most readily distinguished by the upper parts being decidedly paler 
and of a brighter and yellower shade, with clear yellow sides to the forehead, 
forming partial eyebrows ; breast more uniform isabelline white. Total 
length 4-3 inches, culmen 0-45, wing 2-2, tail 1-5, tarsus 0'7. Johanna Is. 
(G. A. Frank). 

The Anjuan White-eye inhabits Johanna, otherwise called 
Anjuan Island. 

Mr. C. B. Bewsher collected the type, four other specimens, 
a nest and eggs of this species, and informs us that it is 
called by the natives of the island " Nean Teughnan." He 
considered it to be not very common, but Sir John Kirk has 
since sent me six specimens from Johanna. 

The nest is cup-shaped, made of grass, and the eggs are 
pale blue, similar to those of other members of the genus. 
With regard to Z. prsetermissa, the type of which I have care- 
fully examined, there can be no doubt — as Messrs. A. and E. 
Newton have already pointed out — that it is a specimen of 
Z. anjuanensis. It is, however, interesting, as showing how 
soluble in spirit are the yellow and green colours of the 
Zosteropidas. 



Zosterops comorensis, sp. nov. (PI. 9, fig- 1.) 

Type. Similar to Z. anjuanensis, but smaller and with the yellow of the 
throat and under tail-coverts paler. Total length 3'9 inches, culmen 0'45, 
wing 2-05, tail 1-4, tarsus 0'6. Great Comoro Is. (Kirk). 



ZOSTEROPS ALDABRENSIS. 197 

The White-breasted Great Comoro White-eye inhabits the 
island of that name, which is situated in the Mozambique 
Channel in 11° 30' S. lat, 

The type was presented to me some years ago by Sir John 
Kirk, who procured the specimen from Great Comoro Island, 
and it is now in the British Museum. 

Z. comorensis is the third known species of the genus which 
is confined to this island. As it is extremely rare to meet with 
the same species inhabiting any two islands of the Mascarene 
Archipelago, one cannot be surprised to find the present a 
distinct representative form of the Z. madagascariensis group, 
most nearly allied to Z. anjuanensis. 



Zosterops aldabrensis. 

Zosterops aldabrensis, Eidgway, Pr. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1894, p. 371 
Aldabra. 

Adult Male. " Similar to Z. palpebrosa (Temm.) but supraloral region 
(sides of bead) distinctly orange yellowish, under parts with yellow on chest 
extending further backward and tingeing the median line of the belly ; chest 
and sides less tinged with grey (some specimens having instead a faint 
brownish wash), and under tail-coverts very different in colour from chest 
(varying from maize to chrome yellow, the throat being canary yellow). 
' Upper mandible black ; lower one leaden ; feet leaden ; iris light brown ' 
(Abbott). Total length 4-25, culmen 0-35, wing 2-12, tail 1-62, tarsus 0-7, 
mid. toe 0-37 " (Eidgway). 



The Aldabra White-eye inhabits the island of Aldabra in 
the Indian Ocean, in about 9°30' S. lat. by 57° E. long. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott, who discovered the species, writes : 
" A very common, active little bird, generally keeping in the 
thick jungle and constantly hopping about the branches. 
Found in flocks of twenty to thirty, and very fond of the 
seeds of the casuarina tree. One nest was taken in October, 



198 ZOSTEROPS OL1VACEA. 

but it breeds plentifully in December. The nest is neatly 
constructed of bark fibre and casuarine needles, usually placed 
in a bush six feet from the ground in thick jungle. Two pale 
eggs are laid." 



Zosterops olivacea. 

Zosterops olivacea (Linn.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 192 (1884) ; Shelley, 
B. Afr. I. No. 104 (1896). 

Adult. Upper parts, including the edges of the feathers of the wings 
and tail, yellowish green, brighter and yellower on the rump and upper tail- 
coverts, and more ashy towards the hind neck ; lores, forehead and crown 
blackish ; cheeks and ear-coverts grey ; a white ring round the eye ; chin 
white, passing into pale ashy grey on the throat ; breast ashy white, slightly 
browner on sides of body ; under tail-coverts pale yellow ; under surface 
of wings brown, with the coverts white and the inner edges of the quills 
buff. "Bill black; iris yellow; feet brown" (Pollen). Total length 4-6 
inches, culmen 0-55, wing 2-2, tail T85, tarsus 07. Bourbon (Bewsher). 

The Bourbon Olive White-eye is confiued to the island of 
Reunion or Bourbon, one of the Mascarene group. 

The type is one of Leclancher's two specimens in the Paris 
Museum. It is apparently not an uncommon species within 
its very restricted range, and Mr. E. Newton certainly referred 
to this species when he wrote : " At Bourbon (Reunion) there 
is a bird called ' Tectec.' " 

This White-eye resembles Z. chloronota in having an 
exceptionally long and slender bill, and like that species has 
the yellow of the under parts confined to the tail-coverts, but 
is readily distinguished by the uniform greenish yellow of the 
upper parts, the crown only being strongly washed with black. 



Zosterops chloronota. 

Zosterops chloronota (Vieill.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 193 (1884) ; 
Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 105 (1896). 



ZOSTEROPS MODESTA. 199 

Adult. Above, ashy grey, with the lower back, upper tail-coverts and 
edges of the greater wing-coverts, quills and tail-feathers olive yellow, and 
with a very faint yellowish shade on the crown ; sides of the head and neck 
ashy grey ; a circle of white feathers round the eye, margined in front and 
below with dusky black. Chin white, passing into pale ashy grey on the 
throat ; breast ashy white shaded with isabelline-brown on the flanks ; 
under tail-coverts bright yellow. Bill dark brown, with a pale basal half to 
the lower mandible ; legs reddish brown ; iris light brown. Total length 
4-1 inches, culmen 0-55, wing 2, tail 1-4, tarsus - 7. Mauritius (Bewsher). 

The Mauritius Olive White-eye is confined to the island 
of that name. 

Mr. E. Newton writes : " I saw a pair on the hills at 
St. Martin, and two more pairs very near Souillac. They 
therefore do not, as I once supposed, remain only on the very 
high land. The only note I have heard them utter is a 
short, impatient ' tic-tic' " 

According to Dr. Hartlaub it constructs a strong, warm, 
cup-shaped nest of fibres bound together with spider's web, 
which is placed in the fork of a low bush, and usually contains 
two eggs, of a pale blue colour and roundish in form, 0'65 
inch by 0*5. 



Zosterops modesta. (PI. 6, fig. 1.) 

Zosterops modesta, E. Newton ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. is. p. 194 (1884) ; 
Eidgway, Proe. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1895, p. 514 Seychelles; Shelley, 
B. Afr. I. No. 107 (1896). 

Adult. Above, uniform brown with a very faint olive shade on the lower 
back ; quills and tail darker brown, with pale olive buff outer edges to the 
feathers ; a circle of white feathers round the eye and a white band extend- 
ing forward to the nostril, below which is a black loral mark extending back 
to the gape ; beneath whitish shaded with pale brown, most strongly so on 
the sides of the body ; outside of thighs dark brown ; under wing-coverts 
and inner margins of quills white ; bill dark brown with the base of the 
lower mandible greyish ; legs dusky grey ; iris light brown. Total length 
4-4 inches, culmen 0-45, wing 2-35, tail 1-7, tarsus 0-7. Seychelles (E. 
Newton). 



200 ZOSTEROPS HOVARUM. 

The Seychelles Brown White-eye is confined to the Sey- 
chelles Archipelago. Here it was discovered on Mahe, the 
largest and most central island of this group, by Mr. E. 
Newton, who found a flock of them on a sort of plateau 500 
feet above the sea, and writes : " They were tolerably plentiful 
in a grove of clove trees, incessantly in motion, following one 
another from tree to tree, as restless as Titmice. Their only 
note was a sharp one, and though from their appearance on 
dissection they would soon have bred, they did not sing." 
Dr. Abbott has collected three specimens on Mahe in March, 
and it is quite possible that the species is confined to that 
island. 



Zosterops hovarum. 

Zosterops hovarum, Tristr. Ibis, 1887, p. 235, pi. 11, fig. 2 ; A. and E. 
Newton, Ibis, 1888, p. 475 Madagascar; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 
108 (1896). 

Type. Above, as well as the cheeks and ear-coverts, uniform slaty-grey, 
faintly washed with brown towards the forehead ; quills and tail dark brown, 
partially edged with grey on the outer webs of the feathers ; a clear white 
ring round the eye ; lores dusky black. Beneath, white, shaded with ashy 
grey on the sides of the throat and with ashy brown on the sides of the 
body ; under wing-coverts and inner margins of the quills white. Bill 
blackish, legs grey. Total length 4-3 inches, culmen 04, wing 2-2, tail 1/7, 
tarsus 0-65. Type, Madagascar. 

The Hova Grey-backed "White-eye inhabits Madagascar. 
The Rev. Canon Tristram, who has kindly lent me the type 
to describe, writes : " I purchased a small parcel of bird- 
skins from Madagascar." That they really came from tins 
island there is no reason to doubt, as all the other skins 
were known to him as belonging to Madagascar species. 
It is a well-marked species, apparently most nearly allied 
to Z. modesta from the Seychelles. 



SPEIROPS. 201 



Genus II. SPEIROPS. 

This genus is extremely nearly allied to Zosterops, but the bill is rather 
stouter and the culrnen much curved. Its members may be most readily 
distinguished by the white on the head not being confined to an eye-ring. 



KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

a. Above brown ; crown black. 

a 1 . A ring round the eye, and a baud above 

the black lores, white. St. Thomas Is. . lugubris. 

b 1 . No white ring round the eye ; forehead, 

cheeks and throat white. Camaroons . . melanocephala. 

b. Above brownish ash with the head and neck 

white leucophcea. 



Speirops lugubris. 

Zosterops lugubris, Hartl. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 199 (1884) 
St. Thomas Is. ; Sousa, Jorn. Lisb. 1888, p. 152 ; Bocage, t. c. 
p. 231 ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 106 (1896). 

Adult Male. Above, olive brown, with the crown black ; wings and tail 
dark brown, the feathers edged with the same colour as the back ; sides of 
forehead, lores and a ring round the eye white ; chin white, throat ashy 
grey ; breast pale olive tinted ashy brown ; under tail-coverts slightly more 
rufous ; thighs, axillaries, under wing-coverts and narrow inner margins to 
the quills white. Bill and legs pale brown ; iris pale chestnut. Total length 
5-2 inches, culmen 0-55, wing 2-9, tail 2"1, tarsus 09. St. Thomas Is. 
27. 6. 88 (F. Newton). 

The St. Thomas Brown White-eye is confined to the 
island of that name, which is situated on the Equator in 
5° E. long., or about 150 miles due west of the mouth of 
the Gaboon river. 

The species was discovered by Weiss, two of whose speci- 
mens are in the Hamburg Museum. In the British Museum 



202 SPEIROPS MELANOCEPHALA. 

there are now four specimens : one procured by Mr. Monteiro 
during his Angola expedition, the others by Mr. F. Newton, 
who informs us that it is known to the colonists as " Otho- 
branco," and by the natives as " Ue-glosso," so we may 
presume that it is fairly abundant on the island. 



Speirops melanocephala. 



Zosterops melanocephala, Gray ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 200 (1884) 
Camaroons ; Shelley, P. Z. S. 1887, p. 125, pi. 14, fig. 1 ; Beichen. 
J. f. 0. 1890, p. 127 ; Sjostedt, K. Sv. Vet. Ak. Handl. 1895, p. 100. 

Malacirops melanocephala, Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. Ill (1896). 



Adult Female. Above, ashy brown, with the crown brownish black; a 
dusky shade on the ear-coverts and sides of the neck ; sides and front of 
forehead, cheeks, chin and upper throat white ; remainder of the under 
parts pale ashy brown, fading into white down the centre of the breast ; 
under tail-coverts nearly white ; under wing-coverts and inner margins of 
quills ashy white. Bill and legs pale brown. Total length 4*5 inches, 
culmen 0'4, wing 2-5, tail 1-8, tarsus 0-85. Camaroons (H. H. Johnston). 



The Camaroons Black-capped Speirops inhabits the forest 
mountains of Camaroons. 

This species is apparently confined to the highlands, where 
the type, which is now in the British Museum, was discovered 
by Burton at an elevation of 7,000 feet, and was unique in 
collections until Sir Harry Johnston procured two more 
specimens in the same district, at 7,000 to 8,000 feet, both 
females. It is interesting, therefore, to be informed by Mr. 
Yngve Sjostedt that the Messrs. Knutson and Valdau procured 
a pair at 7,500 feet, and that the male has the under surface 
paler than the female, and more white on the throat. A good 
figure of the female will be found, P. Z. S. 1887, pi. 14, 



SPEIItOPS LEUCOPII.E V. 203 



Speirops leucophaea. (Pi. 8, fig. 2.) 

Parinia leucophaea, Hartl. ; id. J. f. O 1861, p. 161 Gaboon. 

Zosterops leucophaea, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 200 (1831) Prince's Is. 

Gaboon. 
Malacirops leucophaea, Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 112 (1896). 

Adult. Mantle and back pale brownish ash ; wings and tail more 
uniform clear brown ; head, neck and under parts white with a slight ashy 
shade on the crown, nape, breast and under tail-coverts. Bill uniform 
dark grey; iris dark brown, tarsi and feet greyish brown. Total length 
5*2 inches, culmen 0-45, wing 2-6, tail 2, tarsus 0-8. 

The White-headed Speirops is, I believe, confined to 
Prince's Island, which is situated about 130 miles from the 
Gaboon coast. 

The species was described and made the type of the genus 
Parinia, by Dr. Hartlaub, from a specimen in the Bremen 
Museum labelled " Gaboon (Verreaux)," and a few years later, 
in 1861, he records possibly the same specimen as having been 
procured by Du Chaillu in Gaboon. 

I can find no other evidence of the species ever having 
been seen in a wild state elsewhere than in Prince's Island, 
which travellers to Gaboon would very likely visit during their 
journey; I therefore believe the range to be confined to that 
island, where Dr. Dohrn and Mr. Keulemans met with them 
in small flocks, found the sexes similar in plumage, and 
describe one of their nests as " composed of fine grasses and 
attached to two branches with the silk of moths," compara- 
tively small: diameter 3 - 6 inches, depth 2 - 4 Eggs 076 by 
0'64 ; two in number, white, and hatched in June and July. 

Genus III. MALACIROPS. 

The members of this genus, three in number, are similar in form to those 
of Zosterops, but differ in the style of colouring, they all having the upper 



204 MALACIROPS BORBONICA. 

tail-coverts white and no white eye-ring. They are only known to occur 
in the islands of Eeunion and Mauritius. 



KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

a. Crown and mantle brown, the former some- 

what tinted with grey. Biunion Is. . . ■ borbonica. 

b. Crown and mantle grey. 

a 1 . Smaller; upper parts leaden grey; bill 

slightly larger mauritiana. 

b x . Larger; upper parts slaty grey; bill 

slighter e-newtoni. 



Malacirops borbonica. 

Malacirops borbonica (Gm.), Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 109 (1896). 
Zosterops borbonica, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 195 (1884) Bourbon Is. ; 
Tristram, Ibis, 1887, p. 371 ; A. and E. Newton, Ibis, 1888, p. 475. 

Adult. Above, brown, with the upper tail-coverts white ; wings and 
tail darker, the feathers of the former, partially washed with grey, inclining 
to ashy white on edges of outermost quills ; chin, upper throat, thighs and 
under tail-coverts pure white, remainder of tbroat and breast greyish white, 
passing into chestnut shaded brown on the sides of the neck and body ; 
axillaries, under wing-coverts and inner edges of quills white. Bill and legs 
leaden grey. Total length 4-6 inches, culmen 0-4, wing 2-15, tail 1-75, 
tarsus 0-75. Bourbon (Bewsher). 



The Brown-backed Bourbon Malacirops is confined to the 
Island of Reunion, or Bourbon, in the Indian Ocean (21° S. 
lat. by 56° E. long.). 

In habits these birds apparently closely resemble the 
members of the genus Zosterops, for, according to Pollen, they 
frequent the more elevated parts of the island, and are met 
with in small flocks of six to twelve individuals. They 
rarely descend to the shore level, but are occasionally met with 
in the garden of St. Denis, searching the flowers for the insects 
and nectar on which they feed. 



MALACIROPS MAURITIANA. 205 



Malacirops mauritiana. 

Malacirops mauritiana (Gm.), Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 110 (1896). 
Zosterops mauritiana, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 194 (1884) Mauritius 

Is.; Tristram, Ibis, 1887, p. 371. 
Zosterops borbonica (nee Gm.), E. Newton, Ibis, 1861, p. 277 Mauritius. 

Adult. Above, bluish grey with the upper tail-coverts white ; quills and 
tail darker and browner. Beneath, white, washed on the sides of the body 
with pale chestnut shaded brown. Bill and legs dull lead colour, soles 
yellowish ; iris bright hazel. Total length 4-4 inches, culmen 0*45, wing 
21, tail 1-6, tarsus 075. Mauritius (Bewsher). 

Young. Similar to the adult, but differs in having the crown and back 
of the neck washed with brown, and no brown on the sides of the breast. 
Mauritius (Bewsher). 



The Mauritius Malacirops is confined to the island of 
Mauritius, which is the extreme eastern limit of the Ethio- 
pian region. 

It is nearly allied to M. borbonica, with which species it has 
been occasionally confounded, and is still more nearly allied to 
M. e-netvtoni, which inhabits the same island of Reunion. 

According to Dr. Hartlaub, Mr. B. Newton found the nest 
of this species on a bough about sixteen feet from the ground. 
It was constructed of dry grass, wool and spider's web, and 
lined with soft fibres mixed with horsehair, and although 
neatly and strongly constructed was so slight that the eggs 
could be seen through the texture ; but in general appearance 
it resembled that of our G-oldcrest. The eggs, - 68 by 046 
inch, generally two in number, sometimes three, were of a pale 
blue colour. 

This species must be common in most parts of Mauritius, 
for Mr. E. Newton mentions his surprise at not meeting with 
it during his ten days' sojourn in Savanne, the southernmost 
district of the island. 



206 MALACIROPS E-NEWTONI. 



Malacirops e-newtoni. (Pi. 9, fig. 2.) 

Zosterops e-newtoni, Hartl. Vog. Madag. p. 97 (1877), Bourbon; 
E. Newton, Ibis, 1888, p. 475. 

Adult. Similar to M. mauritiaiia, but larger and darker; above, slaty 
grey, with the upper tail-coverts white ; chin, centre of breast, thighs and 
under tail-coverts white, remainder of the throat and breast grey, darkest 
on the sides of the body, where there is scarcely any trace of brown. 
Total length 4-7 inches, culmen 0'45, wing 22, tail 1-8, tarsus 0'8. Bour- 
bon (Bewsher). 



Edward Newton's Malacirops is a native of the island of 
Reunion. 

This is a well-marked species. The only specimen in the 
British Museum was given to me by Mr. Bewsher, along 
with other birds from both Reunion and Mauritius, and 
agrees perfectly with Dr. Hartlaub's very accurate descrip- 
tion of what he took to be the male ; but I feel sure he 
was wrong in the determination of the female, which is 
evidently a specimen of M. borbonica, for it is too improbable 
that the female of this species should be very different in 
plumage from the male, when in all the other members of 
the family Zosteropidse the sexes are practically alike. 

Family IV. PAEISOMIDJE. 

Bill shorter than the head, widened at the base; culmen arched. Nostril 
placed in a short oval groove, which reaches half way down the bill from 
the gape to the tip, is covered by a membrane, and opens in a slit. Wing 
rounded, of ten primaries, bastard primary very large. Tail square or 
rounded, about the same length as the wing, of twelve feathers which have 
rounded tips. Tarsi scaled in front ; feet and claws fairly strong, the latter- 
much curved. Sexes alike in plumage. Nest cup-shaped ; eggs spotted, 
and two to five in a clutch. They have a powerful and melodious 
song. 



PARISOMIDjE. 207 

The family Parisomidae should include Dr. R. B. Sharpe's 
" Group ix. Liotriches," Cat. B. M. vii. pp. 596-647, of which 
he writes: "The Hill Tits, as these birds are popularly 
called, are universally recognised by writers ou Indian orni- 
thology as representing a distinct family of birds. I believe, 
however, that they are more correctly placed as aberrant 
Timeliine forms, showing great affinities with the Paridse, the 
true Timeliidse, and even with the Wrens (Troglodytidx) ; in 
a less degree they are also allied to the Flycatchers." Both 
Dr. Sharpe's and my name for this group are taken from 
Swainson's genera Parisoma and Leiothrix, Faun. Bor-Amer. 
B. p. 490 (1831), showing that Swainson recognised the close 
affinities which exist between these two genera, so I have 
selected the first of them for the family title. 

For a key to the genera of this family I may refer my 
readers to Cat. B. M. vii. p. 596, as I place the few Ethiopian 
species in Parisoma and Alcippe, two nearly allied genera, 
so need not here enter further into the relationship of the 
other species, which are eastern forms, mostly inhabiting the 
Himalayas. 

I followed Dr. Sharpe in placing Alcippe in the family 
Timeliidce, B. Afr. I. p. 66; but when I discovered that 
Alcippe Jcilimensis was the same species as Drymophila 
abyssinica, Riipp., I compared the type of Lioptilus and 
Alcippe and found them not to be generically distinct and 
very nearly allied to Parisoma. 

The next two species on my list of the members of 
the genus " Lioptilus," B. Afr. p. 92, : Parisoma olivascens, 
Cass., and Muscicapa chocolatina, Riipp., belong to the 
Muscicajiidx. Two other birds, Sylvia lugens, Riipp., and its 
near ally Parisoma jacksoni, Sharpe, I place in the Sylviidse 
close to Sylvia blanfordi, Seebohm ; they differ from Parisoma 
in having the nostrils exposed. In the British Museum there 



208 ALCIPPE. 

are two specimens of Parisoma subcsendeum with a few 
feathers, evidently the remains of the last moult, which are 
barred with black and white. 

In the nostrils being placed in a groove, and in the form 
and structure of the nest as well as in the manner in which 
it is attached to boughs, these birds resemble the Zosteropidse ; 
but they differ in the form of the wing and in laying spotted 
eggs, and in these characters resemble the Paridee. The wings 
in the types of Parus, Parisoma and Alcippe are alike in form. 
The Parisomida3 build a cup-shaped nest, which is placed at 
the end of a bough near the ground, and, as with the 
Zosteropidse, it is suspended from rather than resting on the 
fork or twigs to which it is attached. It is constructed of dry 
leaves, fine grass rootlets, moss, &c, bound together and 
attached to the branch often with spider's web. 

The genus Alcippe ranges over South Africa and Tropical 
East Africa through the highlands of India, Ceylon, Malay 
Peninsula and Southern China to Borneo and Formosa. It 
comprises some fifteen known species, of which three only 
occur in the Ethiopian region and these are confined to the 
African continent, and the genus Parisoma is purely 
African. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

a. Nostrils exposed ; tail entirely brown . . . Alcippe. 

b. Nostrils covered by hair-like feathers; a dis- 

tinct white pattern on the tail Parisoma. 



Genus I. ALCIPPE. 

Bill rather stout and wide, nostrils exposed; wing rounded, secondaries 
fall short of tip of wing by about half the length of the first primary; 
bastard primary nearly half the leugth of the fifth, which latter reaches 



ALCIPPE NIGRICAPILLA. 209 

to the end of the wing ; second primary does not reach beyond the end 
of the secondaries. Tail of one colour, rounded and nearly of the same 
length as the wing. Tarsus scaled in front. 



KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

a. Under tail-coverts not chestnut ; back yel- 

lowish brown, contrasting with the crown. 

a 1 . Crown and nape black nigricapilla. 

b 1 . Crown and head slaty grey abyssinica. 

b. Under tail-coverts chestnut ; above ashy brown 

with a whitish forehead galinieri. 



Alcippe nigricapilla. 

Lioptilus nigricapillus (Vieill.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv. p. 262 (1879); 
Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 1292 (1896). 

Adult. Forehead, crown and back of neck jet black ; back and edges 
of the feathers of the wings and tail yellowish brown ; remainder of wings 
and tail dark brown ; lores, eyelids and chin black ; cheeks, ear-coverts, 
sides of neck, throat and centre of chest pale grey, centre of abdomen white, 
sides of body and thighs pale brown ; under tail-coverts buff ; axillaries and 
under wing-coverts buff; inner margins of quills white. " Bill pinkish flesh 
colour, iris dark lake red, tarsi and feet flesh colour" (T. Ayres). Total 
length 7 inches, culmen 06, wing 3 - 2, tail 3-9, tarsus 0-9. Macamac, 
$ 2. 7. 74 (T. Ayres). 



The Natal Black-capped Hill Tit inhabits South Africa 
south of the Orange and Limpopo rivers. 

All that I know regarding this species is summed up by 
Mr. Layard as follows : " Levaillant found this bird only in the 
forests of Bruintjes Hoogte, and even there sparingly. Major 
Bulger procured it in the neighbourhood of Windvogelberg. 
We ourselves saw it near the summit of the Kat-berg, and 
Mr. T. C. Atmore has sent us several specimens from Eland's 
Post ; Mr. H. Bowker has also forwarded it from the Trans- 

[March, 1900. 14 



210 ALCIPPE ABYSSINICA. 

keian region. Mr. Thomas Ayres writes from Natal : ' I have 
at different periods met with several solitary individuals of 
this species, always either amongst dense underwood or thick 
creeping plants. They appeared to be sluggish in their habits, 
and to feed on small fruits and berries. Their stomachs 
contained no insects.' Mr. F. A. Barratt fell in with the 
species near Lydenburg and Pilgrim's Rest gold-fields, but 
Mr. T. Ayres observes that in the former district it is decidedly 
scarce, and adds that he cannot remember ever having seen 
more than a pair together." 

Alcippe abyssinica. (Pi. 11, fig- 1.) 

Dryrnophila abyssinica, Riipp. N. Wirb. Vog. p. 108, pi. 40, fig. 2 

(1835-40) Abyssinia. 
Curruca abyssinica, Riipp. Syst. Uebers. p. 57 (1845). 
Aedon abyssinica, Heugl. Syst. Uebers. p. 25 (1856). 
Sylvia abyssinica, Heugl. Orn. N. 0. Afr. p. 313 (1870). 
Lioptilus abyssinicus, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1884, p. 231 ; Salvad. Ann. Mus. 

Genov. 1884, p. 128; 1888, p. 238 Shoa ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 

1293 ; Grant, Ibis, 1900, p. 173 Abyssinia. 
Bradyornis abyssinica, Hartert, Kat. Mus. Senck. p. 97 (1891). 
Alcippe kilimensis, Shelley, P. S. Z. 1889, p. 364, Kilimanjaro ; Eeichen. 

Vog. Deutsch O. Afr. p. 227 (1894) ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 921 

(1896) ; Neum. J. f. O. 1898, pp. 241, 288 Man. 

Adult. Upper half of head and back of neck deep grey ; back, upper 
tail-coverts and edges of the feathers of the wings and tail yellowish brown ; 
remainder of wings and tail dark brown with the under wing-coverts and 
inner margins of the quills buffy white ; throat, breast and under tail-coverts 
ashy white shading into pale grey on the crop and sides of the neck and 
chest; flanks and thighs washed with yellowish brown. " Bill dark ; iris 
light brown ; legs grey " (Lord Lovat). Total length 5-2 to 6'0 inches, 
culmen - 55, wing 2-75, tail 2-5, tarsus - 95. Kilimanjaro (Hunter). 

A specimen from Abyssinia, apparently not quite adult, has a patch 
of brown on the crown and is labelled " Burka, 6. 1. 99 (Lord Lovat)." 

Ruppell's Grey-headed Hill Tit ranges from Mossamedes 
into Abyssinia. 



ALCIPPE GALINIERI. 211 

In Mossaraedes Mr. A. W. Eriksson procured a specimen 
in the Sheila range of mountains in 1882, which was lent to 
me to name, and is now in the South African Museum. This 
greatly extends the known range of the species, as it had not 
hitherto been recorded from further south than the Kili- 
manjaro mountain, where Mr. Hunter procured the type of 
Alcippe hilimensis in August, 1888, at an elevation of 6,000 
feet. In this latter district the species has also been met with 
by Mr. Neumann in the forests of Mau. Lord Lovat, while 
on his way from Berbera to the Blue Nile, shot a specimen 
at Burka in about 8° N. lat., 41° 30' E. long., and writes : 
" This bird is very common all through the wooded valleys 
of Southern Abyssinia." In Shoa Antinori and Ragazzi record 
it from the forests of Sciotalit and Fekerie-ghem, where its 
presence is most readily known by its loud song, which some- 
what resembles that of the Nightingale. The type was 
discovered by Riippell in Abyssinia. Here, according to von 
Heuglin, the species is very rare, for he met with it once only 
in the Begermeder district between 8,000 and 9,000 feet. 



Alcippe galinieri. 

Parisoma galinieri, Guer. Rev. Zool. 1843, p. 162 ; id. in. Ferr. and Gal. 

Vog. Abyss. Ois. iii. p. 223, pi. 13 (1847) Abyssinia; Grant, Ibis, 

1900, p. 153 Abyssinia. 
^Egithalopsis galinieri, Heine, J. f. O. 1859, p. 431 ; Heugl. Orn. N. O. 

Afr. p. 395 (1870). 
Lioptilus galinieri, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1884, p. 232 ; Salvad. Ann. Mus. 

Genov. 1884, p. 126 ; 1888, p. 236 ; Gigl. t. c. p. 44 Shoa ; Shelley, 

B. Afr. I. No. 1296 (1896). 
Parisoma frontalis (uec Heugl.) Eiipp. Syst. Uebers. pp. 43, 59, pi. 22 

(1845) Slwa. 
Crateropus melodus, Heugl. J. f. O. 1862, p. 299. 

Adult. Forehead white shading into whitish brown on the crown and 
then into earthy brown on the back of the head, neck and back ; wings and 



212 PARISOMA.. 

tail uniform darker brown ; a few of the primaries with very partial ashy 
white edges ; feathers in front of the eyes jet black ; remainder of the head, 
throat, chest and thighs brown, scarcely paler than the back ; chin and front 
of cheeks slightly whiter, and a shade of grey on the centre of the chest ; 
abdomen and under tail-coverts chestnut ; under surface of wings dark 
brown with the under wing-coverts paler and partially mottled with rufous 
and black, inner edges of the quills white. " Iris reddish brown, bill black, 
legs dark brown " (Lord Lovat). Total length 7'1 inches, culmen 0-6, 
wing 3-5, tail 3-5, tarsus 1-05. $ Shoa (Antinori). 

G-aliuier's White-fronted Hill Tit inhabits the Abyssinian 
district. 

Between Somaliland and Shoa Lord Lovat collected a male 
and female at Chelunco and Baroma in about 9° N. lat. and 
east of 40° B. long. 

In Shoa Riippell obtained the type of his Parisoma frontale, 
and in the British Museum there are one of his specimens 
and one of Harris's from this same country. According to 
Antinori and Ragazzi the species is not rare in this part 
of Africa, where its loud clear voice, which somewhat 
resembles that of our Nightingale, betrays its presence while 
hidden in the thick foliage of the large forests. 

From Abyssinia came the type of the species, as well as 
the type of Grateropus melodus, Heugl. According to von 
Heuglin it frequents, in pairs, the thick bush and forests 
of Semien, Bergemeder, Wogara, AVadla, Gala country, and 
Shoa, at elevations varying from 8,000 to 12,000 feet. It is a 
resident species, inhabiting the valleys and mountains, where 
the ring of its loud metallic voice may be heard, morning and 
night, at a considerable distance, its " dui-dui-dui-di-di-di " 
being answered back by the female's Reed- Warbler-like note. 
They feed mostly upon berries. 

Genus II. PABISOMA. 

Bill moderate, slightly widened at the base ; nostril-groove entirely 
hidden by the stiff bristly feathers of the forehead, which are directed 



PARISOMA SUBC.ERULEUM. 213 

forward. Wing rounded and similar to that of Alcippe. Tail rounded, 
about the same length as the wing, and with a strongly marked white 
pattern. Tarsi scutellated ; feet and claws moderate, the latter sharp and 
much curved. Forehead, crown and back uniform grey in all the known 
species. 



KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

a. No black crop band. 

a 1 . Throat streaked ; no white edges to the 
quills. 
a 2 . Abdomen and under tail-coverts chest- 
nut subcaruleum. 

b 2 . Centre of abdomen and under tail- 
coverts white layardi. 

b 1 . Throat not streaked ; some broad white 
edges to the quills. 
c 2 . Under tail-coverts faintly but distinctly 

shaded with rufous buff plumbeum. 

d". Under tail-coverts white, with or without 
a very faint tinge of rufous buff. 

a 3 . Slightly darker, subsp orien talis. 

b 3 . Slightly paler, subsp catoleucum. 

b. A black pectoral band ; abdomen and under 

tail-coverts pale chestnut boehmi. 



Parisoma subcaeruleum. 

Parisoma subcaeruleum (Vieill.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv. p. 268 (1879) ; 
Ayres, Ibis, 1880, p. 103 Transvaal ; Shelley, Ibis, 1882, p. 257 
Mangwato; Butler, Feilden and Eeid, Zool. 1882, p. 248 Natal; 
Sharpe ed. Layard's B. S. Afr. pp. 332, 836 (1884) ; Fleck, 
J. f. 0. 1894, pp. 340, 346, 413, Damara, Namaqua, Kalahari ; 
Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 134 (1896). 

Parisoma rufiventer, Swains. ; Chapman, Trav. S. Afr. ii. p. 397 (1868). 

Adult Male. Above, ashy grey with the upper tail-coverts dusky ; wings 
dusky brown with most of the coverts and outer edges of quills grey like the 
back, and some white on the ends of the outer coverts, pinion, and tip of 
bastard primary ; tail black, with white ends to the four outer pairs of 
feathers, decreasing in size towards the inner ones; sides of head, neck, and 



214 PARISOMA SUBCjERULEUM. 

body ashy grey, slightly paler and greyer than the mantle ; sides of forehead 
and the cheek mottled with white ; throat white with broad blackish central 
stripes to the feathers ; centre of breast white shading into grey on the crop 
and sides of body ; lower abdomen and under tail-coverts bright chestnut ; 
under surface of wings dusky brown with white on the coverts and whitish 
inner edges to the quills. "Bill, tarsi and feet black; iris bluish white" 
(T. Ayres). Total length 5'6 inches, culmen 045, wing 2'55, tail 2-8, tarsus 
0-8. Eland's Post, 7. 70 (T. Atmore). 

Adult Female. Like the male but slightly greyer above, owing 
apparently to the season. Colesberg, 4. 71 (T. Atmore). 



The Red-vented Grey Hill Tit inhabits South Africa south 
from the Cunene river and Rhodesia. 

The most northern limit known for this species is Humbe 
in the Upper Cunene district, where, from the number of 
specimens collected by Anchieta, Professor Barboza du Bocage 
suggests that it must be common, and according to Anchieta it 
is known to the native as " Mudiankeno " and " Tubike," and 
feeds entirely upon insects and spiders. 

In Damara and Great Namaqualand it has been recorded as 
common by Chapman, Andersson, and Dr. E. Fleck, and the 
last-named naturalist also obtained the species at Ukui in 
Kalahari. With regard to its habits Andersson writes : " It 
is rather a pretty songster, and utters, at times, varied and 
singular notes, and occasionally also a clear ringing call, 
rapidly repeated. It is very familiar, active, but not rapid in 
its movements, and careful in its examination of the branches 
of trees and bushes in search of insects ; it is found singly or 
in pairs. A nest of these birds, taken on September 21, was 
situated in a hedge and composed outside of grass, fine twigs, 
and tendrils ; internally it was lined with hair and contained 
two eggs. A second nest, obtained on October 1, was similarly 
composed externally, but was lined with the softer tendrils of 
flexible roots; it contained two eggs, hard sat upon. A third 
nest, taken on November 29, also contained two eggs." 



PARISOMA LAYARDI. 215 

In Cape Colony Levaillant discovered the type and records 
the species as frequenting the mimosas in small flocks, inces- 
santly on the move in search of their insect food. Mr. Layard 
mentions the species from Malmesbury, Swellendam, Coles- 
berg and Kuruman, and " saw it in great abundance in the 
Karroo, as far as Nel's Poort ; also on New Year's and Great 
Fish rivers." Captain Trevelyan has procured the species at 
Kingwilliamstosvn. In the British Museum there are speci- 
mens from the Orange river, Zululand, and as far north as 
Matabeleland. 

Mr. T. B. Buckley writes : " A very common species from 
Natal to Matabeleland. It creeps and hops about the bushes, 
never flying far at a time." Messrs. Butler, Feilden and Beid 
did not meet with it in Natal, but were given a specimen 
at Ladysmith. 

Mr. T. Ayres writes : " This species is not uncommon 
about Bustenburg," and he found it in the Mariqua district and 
along the Limpopo creeping about the low bushes and amongst 
the grass at the roots of trees in search of insects, and during 
his expedition with the late Mr. Jameson obtained a specimen 
at Maugwato, and records the species as : " Now and again to 
be seen in Matabeleland, but decidedly more plentiful to the 
south of that country." 

The furthest known northern range for the species on this 
side of the continent is Tati, where the late Mr. Frank Oates 
obtained a specimen which is now in the British Museum. 



Parisoma layardi. 

Parisoina layardi, Hartl. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv. p. 270 (1879) ; Sharpe, 
ed. Layard's B. S. Afr. pp. 334, 836 (1884) ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. 
No. 135 (1896). 

Sylvia— (?) Chapman, Trav. S. Afr. ii. p. 397 (1868). 



216 PARISOMA LAYARDI. 

Adult Male. Upper parts as well as the wings and tail as in P. 
subcaruleum ; under parts paler, the throat-stripes less strongly marked 
and the abdomen and under tail-coverts white, the latter with obscure 
brownish centres. "Bill and legs dark; iris yellowish white " (Bradshaw, 
<? 19. 3. 81, Orange B.). Total length 5-4, cultnen 0-4, wing 2-6, tail 2-5, 
tarsus 0'8. 

Adult Female. Like the male. " Iris bluish white " Colesberg (Atmore). 
Another specimen, 5 10. 11. 68, Colesberg (Ortlepp) has the upper parts, 
thighs and under tail-coverts very much browner. 



Layard's Hill Tit inhabits South. Africa south of the 
Cunene river, and west of 30° B. longitude. 

In western South Africa Chapman records the species as 
" scarce but rather widely distributed," and that it resembles 
P. subcseruleum in habits and manners. Andersson writes : 
" I have observed it, though very sparingly, in Damara aud 
Great Namaqualand, and near the west coast of Cape Colony. 
I have also obtained specimens from the Okavango, which are 
of a darker and richer hue than those from Damara and 
Great Namaqualand ; this is also the case with specimens 
from the western part of the colony." 

According to the late Dr. Bradshaw : " It is scarce on the 
Orange river, and not found so near water as P. subcasruleum." 
In Cape Colony the species would appear to be restricted to 
the northern aud eastern provinces, for I do not find any 
mention of it from the immediate neighbourhood of the Cape. 
Mr. Layard writes : " We procured this species at Nel's 
Poort about the mountains ; in its habits it resembles P. 
subcseruleum, for which we at first mistook it. It is difficult 
to shoot, as it creeps about dense bushes, and on being 
hunted conceals itself in the thickest parts and remains 
perfectly still. My friend, Mr. Henry Jackson, calls it the 
' Mocking Bird ' from its habits of imitation, and informs 
me that it makes a cup-shaped nest in a bush, and lays 
three eggs, which are pure white, blotched chiefly at the 



PARISOMA PLUMBEUM. 217 

obtuse end with greenish-brown and faded purple spots," 
0'75 inch by 0'6. "We have received it from Mr. Russouw, 
who obtained it in Swartland, in the Malmesbury division." 
This last-mentioned specimen is the type of the species. 



Parisoma plumbeum. 

Parisoma plumbeum (Hartl.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv. p. 269 (1879) ; 
id. ed. Layard's B. S. Afr. p. 836 (1884) ; Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. 
1886, p. 256 ; Sousa, Jorn. Lisb. 1887, p. 95 Quissange ; 1888, p. 223 
Quindumbo; Sbelley, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 27 Wadelai ; id. B. Afr. I. 
No. 137 (1896) ; Eeichen. J. f. 0. 1897, p. 26 Togoland ; Sbelley, 
Ibis, 1898, p. 379 Zomba ; Alexander, Ibis, 1899, p. 562 Zam- 
besi. 

Stenostira plumbea, Hartl. Abhand. Brem. 1882, p. 197 Wakkala ; 
Eeicben. J. f. 0. 1887, p. 300 Manyango, 305 Leopoldsville. 

Parisoma layardi (nee Hartl.) Butler, Feilden and Eeid, Zool. 1882, 
p. 248 Natal 

Subspecies a. 

Parisoma orientalis, Eeichen. and Neum. Orn. Monatsbl. 1895, p. 74 
Kibwesi ; Eeichen. Werth. Mittl. N. D. 0. Afr. p. 279 (1898) 
S. Uhamba. 

Subspecies b. 
Parisoma catoleucum, Eeichen. Orn. Monatsbl. 1900, p. 5 Chamba. 

Adult. Above, grey with the tail black and white ; beneath, greyish 
white. Crown, back and sides of neck, back and lesser wing-coverts bluish 
grey ; remainder of wings mostly dusky brown with the greater series of 
wing-coverts and the quills edged with white, most broadly so on the inner 
feathers ; upper tail-coverts partially dusky black ; tail black tipped with 
white, and with the white increasing in extent towards the outer feather on 
each side, which is almost entirely white. A dusky black patch in front of 
the eye is surmounted by a broad white band from the nostril to above the 
front of the eye ; eyelids white ; under parts uniform very pale grey fading 
into white on the chin, centre of breast and under tail- coverts, the latter 
faintly tinted with cinnamon. " Bill horny blue ; iris hazel; feet grey" 
(Emin). Total length 5-7 inches, culmen - 45, wing 2-6, tail 2-5, tarsus 0-7. 
Gambia (Brit. Mus.). 



218 PAR1S0MA PLUMBEUM. 



a. P. oriental/is. 

Adult Male. Like P. plumbeum but slightly darker above and whiter 
beneath ; under tail-coverts white with an extremely slight partial buff 
shade. Total length 5-6 inches, culmen 0'5, wing 2-6, tail 2-5, tarsus 07. 
3 , 11. 3. 92, Kibwezi (Jackson). 

Adult Female. Like the male, only with the under tail-coverts entirely 
pure white. Total length 53 inches, culmen 045, wing 2-5, tail 2-5, 
tarsus 0-7. ? , 11. 3. 92, Kibwezi (Jackson). 

b. P. catolcucum. 

Type. Very similar to P. plumbeum (Hartl.) but with the upper parts 
paler and the under parts pure white, only washed with grey on the flanks ; 
also smaller. Wing 2-5 inches (Reichenow). 

The Plumbeous Hill Tit ranges southward from the Gambia, 
Gazal river, and Equatorial Bast Africa into Benguela and 
Natal. 

In the British Museum there are specimens from the 
Gambia and Casamanse. From the latter place the type was 
procured. In Liberia, Mr. Buttikofer obtained two specimens 
in the bush near Monrovia and Oldfield, and Dr. Reichenow 
records specimens from Misahohe and Kratji in Togoland. 

I do not find any mention of the species from the Niger, 
nor from Camaroons, but in Gaboon Du Chaillu collected the 
types of P. melanurum at the Camma river ; these no doubt 
belong to the present species, for there is a specimen from 
Landana in the British Museum, and other specimens of 
P. plumbeum have been collected by Bohndorff on the Congo, 
at Manyango and Leopoldsville, and by Anchieta in Benguela, 
at Quissange and Quindnmbo, which is the furthest southern 
known range for the species in Western Africa, although it has 
been met with as far south as Durban, in Natal. 

The only specimen known to me from Natal is one that was 
shot by Captain Reid in the thick bush between Durban and 
the Umgani river, December 26. Mr. T. E. Buckley, during 



PARISOMA PLUMBEUM. 219 

his travels in South Africa, met with the species in Swaziland, 
and shot a male and female in July, which are now in the 
British Museum. In the Zambesi district Mr. Boyd Alexander 
obtained a specimen in the vicinity of the Kafue river, and 
Mr. Alexander Whyte one on the Zomba plateau of the Shire 
highlands. 

A very doubtfully good subspecies, P. catoleucum, Reichen., 
has been described from one of Dr. Fiilleborn's specimens from 
Undis to the north of Lake Nyasa, and apparently a rather 
better marked subspecies, P. orientalis, Reichen., inhabits 
Kibwezi in South Ukamba. From the description of P. cato- 
leucum, it resembles P. orientalis in having the under tail- 
coverts white, and P. plumbeum (Hartl.) in the pale colouring 
of the upper parts. It is stretching a point in the original 
description when it is said to be smaller than P. plumbeum. I 
much doubt if these subspecific forms will be recognisable 
when our series of specimens are more complete. In my key 
I have entered P. catoleucum and P. orientalis as subspecies of 
P. plumbeum, because they all apparently agree both in their 
measurements and style of colouring, and differ only in a mere 
shade. Not having seen a typical specimen of P. catoleucum 
I cannot say which of the other two it most resembles, but 
judging by the description it comes remarkably near to P. 
orientalis, so it may have the chance of being called P. plum- 
beum orientalis catoleucum. The type of P. orientalis which is 
in the Berlin Museum was procured by Mr. Oskar Neumann at 
Kibwezi, in South Ukamba. The only other specimens known 
to me are three males and two females collected at the same 
locality by Mr. Jackson, in March, 1892. 

At first sight Mr. Jackson's examples appear to be very 
clean, freshly moulted specimens of P. plumbeum (Hartl.) ; but 
their chief character lies in the under tail-coverts being white 
with scarcely any trace of colour. P. orientalis, Reichen., is so 



220 PARISOMA BOEHMI. 

similar to P. phimbeitm (Hartl.) that one may expect to find 
the intermediate links in Uganda, as there are specimens of 
P. plumbeum (Hartl.) in the British Museum from Wakkala 
and Wadelai collected by Emin, and von Heuglin records it 
from further north towards the Gazal river in the Wau and 
Bongo district, where he met with them generally in pairs 
frequenting the forests. 



Parisoma boehmi. 

Parisoma boehmi, Eeichen. J. f. 0. 1882, p. 209, pi. 2, fig. 2 Ogogo ; 
Schalow, J. f. 0. 1883, p. 359; Fisch. Zeitschr. 1884, p. 340; id. J. f. O. 
1885, p. 139 Pare, Matiom; Reichen. J. f. O. 1887, p. 75 Serian, 
Loeru, Wembaere plateau; Emin, J. f. 0. 1891, p. 60 Ugogo ; 
Eeichen. t. c. p. 162 Mpapwa, Msanga; id. Vog. Deutsch. 0. Afr. 
p. 215 (1894) ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 136 (1896) : Elliot, Field 
Columb. Mus. i. No. 2, p. 48 (1897) Somali; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, 
p. 74 Somali. 

Adult Male. Above, grey ; some of the frontal feathers white and some 
of the upper tail-coverts blackish ; tail brownish black with nearly the whole 
of the outer web and a broad end to the outer feather white; the white is 
confined on the remainder of the feathers to the ends and decreases towards 
the centre ones ; wings dark brown with broad white ends to greater and 
some of the median coverts, and white edges to the quills, broadest on the 
secondaries ; inner edges of the quills white ; under wing-coverts white with 
a dusky patch ; sides of head and the throat white mottled with dusky 
black; a black collar across the crop; breast white shading into cinnamon 
on the flanks and under tail- coverts. "Bill horny grey with the lower 
mandible buff; iris yellowish white; tarsi and feet horny grey" (Bohm). 
Total length 5 - 4 inches, culmen 045, wing 2-5, tail 2-6, tarsus 0-8. Massai, 
3 , 13. 4. 83 (Fischer). 

The Black-collared Hill Tit ranges over Eastern Africa 
from Ugogo into Somaliland. 

The type of the species was discovered by Bohm at Seke 
in Ugogo, and Emin has also collected specimens in that 



PARID.E. 221 

country. Fischer dui'ing his travels in Bast Africa obtained 
these birds at Pare, Matiom, Serian, Loeru and on the 
Werabaere plateau, so it appears to be common throughout 
German East Africa, and ranges northward into the Somali 
country, where Mr. Elliot has met with it at Hullier and 
Daboya, and Mr. Hawker collected specimens in November at 
Daboloe and Sheikh Wufli, in December at Ujawaji, and in 
January at Jifa Meder, and writes : " The habits of this bird 
are very similar to those of the Tits in the way it hunts for 
its food. It has a very pretty song, which it utters as it is 
feeding." 



Family V. PARIDiE. 

Bill shorter than the head, generally conical without a notch, with the 
keel inclining upwards, and as deep as broad at the nostrils. Tongue 
obtuse and beset at the tip with horny bristles. Nostrils rounded, not 
placed in a groove, but somewhat hidden by plumes. Eictal bristles few 
and short or obsolete. Wing short and rounded, of ten primaries ; first 
or bastard primary, in Ethiopian species, about half the length of the 
second; fourth, fifth and sixth primaries about equal and the longest. Tail 
of twelve feathers, square and shorter than the wing in all the Ethiopian 
species. Tarsus scaled, rather short and strong, not twice the length of the 
hind toe without claw. Sexes generally similar in plumage at all ages. 
Nest covered in so that the eggs in it are never exposed to the light. Eggs 
white, generally spotted with brownish red. 



KEY TO THE GENERA AND SUBGENERA. 

a. Bill stout and rather blunt, culmen arched ; 

crown and most of the head black. . . . Parus. 

a 1 . Entire head black or nearly so. Subgenus. Penthekes. 

b 1 . A pale patch on the head. Subgenus. . Parus. 

b. Bill wedge-shaped and very sharply pointed, 

with the culmen nearly straight ; little or no 

black on the head jEgithalus. 



222 PARUS. 

c 1 . Bastard primary small, not extending to 

the end of the primary coverts (not j u( 

Ethiopian). Subgenus ^Egithalus. *" 

d 1 . Bastard primary large, extending beyond 

the end of the primary coverts. Subgenus Anthoscopus. 



Genus I. PARUS. 

Bill rather blunt, with the culmen curved downwards and the keel 
upwards. Breed in holes, generally of trees ; construct a solid, rather 
bulky, nest lined with feathers and lay numerous eggs, up to as many as 
twelve, which are white spotted or blotched with rufous. They frequent 
wooded districts mostly, and feed upon insects, buds and fruits, and, at 
times, do damage to the gardens. They have little or no song, but a loud 
call-note. 

The genus is represented in the Ethiopian region by about 14 forms, 
all of which are confined to the African continent ; these are neither 
migratory nor gregarious, and include 5 subspecies or local races, to which 
I have given names in the following key. 



KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

a. Head entirely black. 
a 1 . Breast black or grey. 

a 2 . Little or no white on the wings. 

ft 3 . Mantle buff leuconotus. ' 

b 3 . Mantle blackish funereus. ^ . 

b 2 . Upper and under wing-coverts mostly 
white. 
c 3 . Body blue black with no white on the 
under tail-coverts. 
ft 4 . No white on the tail; wing less 

than 3-5 leucomelas. 

a 5 . Wing 3-15 to 3-4 ; Abyssinia to 

Angola, typical. 
6 5 . Wing 3-0 to 3-1 ; .Gambia to Niger, 

subsp guincnsis. 

b*. Tail partially edged with white; 

wing 3 - 5 insignia. 



PARUS. 



223 



d 3 . Body never blue black, unless there is 
white on the under tail-coverts. 
c 4 . Crown glossed with blue ; inside of 
mouth black ; some white edges to 
feathers of abdomen, thighs and 
under tail-coverts. 
c 5 . Scapulars not tipped with white . 
d 5 . Scapulars tipped with white 
d*. Crown glossed with green ; inside 
of mouth bright yellow ; breast to 
the tail uniform dusky grey . . 
b 1 . Breast never black or grey. 

c 2 . Entire plumage black and white . 
d". Mantle grey. 

e 3 . Breast white, with a central mottled 

black band 

/ 3 . No black on centre of breast. 

e*. Larger; wing about 3-3; breast 
darker. 

e 5 . Breast cinnamon 

a 6 . Breast darker ; less white on 
wings and tail. Congo to 
Benguela, typical. 
b e . Breast paler; more white on 
the wings and tail. Masuku 
range in Nyasaland, subsp. 

f 5 . Breast rufous buff 

f i . Smaller; wing 3-05; breast buffy 

white, subsp 

. Head and neck black with a large pale patch. 
c 1 . Pale patch on sides of head extends down 
the whole length of the neck. 
e 2 . Pale portion of head white. S. Afr. . 
g s . Bill larger. Western S. Afr., typical. 
h 3 . Bill moderate. Vaal B. to Matabele, 

subsp 

i 3 . Bill small. Mashona to Nyasa, subsp. 

f". Pale patch on sides of head grey . . . 

d 1 . Pale patch on sides of head rounded and 

surrounded by the black of the neck . . 



niger. -' 
fuellebomi. 2. 



xanthostomus. 2 j 



albiventris. 






fasciiventris. 



rufiventris. 



masulcuensis. 
pallidiventris. 



rovuma 



afer. 



intermedins. - 
parvirostris. 

griseiventris. ■ 



thruppi. 



With regard to the subspecies : P. leucomelas, Riipp., is 
represented in "West Africa by a very slightly smaller form, 



224 PAR US. 

which is apparently confined to the country from Senegainbia 
to the Niger, and the typical race seems to increase in size 
towards its southern range, and gives way to P. insignia in the 
country to the north of the Cunene and Zambesi. 

In like manner this group runs into group d s of my key, 
which consists of P. niger, P. fuelleborni and P. xanthostomus. 
The specimens of P. niger from the west are generally darker 
than those from the east of its range. The Damaraland ex- 
amples generally have a dark blue-black plumage very similar 
to that of the P. leucomelas group, but may be most readily 
distinguished by the white edges of the feathers in the region 
of the thighs and under tail-coverts, and in having rather less 
white on the wing and more white on the tail. The females 
are generally distinguishable by the dusky grey shade on the 
under parts. The plumage of P. fuelleborni closely resembles 
that of the female of P. niger, but is distinguished by having 
white ends to the scapulars. In the large series of P. niger 
in the British Museum there is a specimen from the Natal 
district which has a white terminal spot on a single feather 
of each shoulder, showing a tendency in the species to assume 
the character which distinguishes P. fuelleborni from P. niger. 

P. icanthostomus also much resembles the female of P. niger, 
from which it is most readily distinguished by the bright 
yellow inside of the mouth, the green instead of blue shade 
on the crown, and the slight olive yellow tinge on the pale 
margins of the quills. 

Group / of my key comprises what I look upon as two 
species, to each of which I assign a subspecific form. They 
are all similar in style of plumage, and differ chiefly in the 
shade of colour of the breast. 

P. rvfiventris, Bocage, inhabits West Africa from the Congo 
to Benguela. It has the breast deep cinnamon, and the wing 
measures 3*3 inches. 



PARUS. 225 

P. masukuensis, n. subsp., inhabits the Mambwe country to 
the west of Lake Nyasa. It differs from the last form only 
in having the breast pale cinnamon, and broader white edges 
to the feathers of the wings and tail. 

P. pallidiventris, Reichen., inhabits Central Africa from 
Mashonaland to the Usegna country. It differs from the last 
form only in having the breast cinnamon, shaded buffy white. 

P. rovumae, Shelley, inhabits the Rovuma river district of 
the East Coast. It differs in its smaller size — wing 3"05 — and 
in having the breast buffy white. 

Further research may fill up the gaps still closer between 
these forms, as they would probably interbreed in the countries 
where they meet, but at the same time I do not believe that 
P. rufiventris, Bocage, will ever be found on the East Coast or 
P. pallidiventris on the "West Coast. 

The African Cole Tits, distinguished by having a pale 
patch on the sides of their black heads, form a very well 
marked group. They are represented in Cerman East Africa 
by P. griseiventris, and in South Africa by P. afer, Cm. ; this 
latter includes three local races or subspecies, differing only in 
the size of the bill. The typical form has a large strong bill 
and inhabits western South Africa. P. afer intermedins, n. 
subsp., a bird with a medium sized bill, ranges from Durban 
into Rhodesia, while a very small billed race, P. afer parvirostris, 
n. subsp., inhabits Mashonaland and Nyasaland. 

In Equatorial East Africa this group is represented by 
P. thruppi, to which species I refer P. baralese, Sharpe. The 
former is a native of Somaliland, and the latter, which is 
distinguished by having less white on the nape, is known from 
Somaliland and the adjoining country. I cannot regard the 
extent of the white on the nape in skins as even of subspecific 
value. The only two specimens of P. baralcx I have seen 
were killed in September, and I find a similar partial absence 

[April, 1000. 15 



226 PARUS LEUCONOTUS. 

of white on the nape in the following specimens of P. afer, 
Gm. in the British Museum : 2 24. 9. 64 Benguela, s Modeler 
R., s 27. 9. 73 Inyati, S 28. 9. 73 Matabele, S 12. 4. 95 
Mashonaland. It is striking how often this character occurs in 
specimens shot in September, for I believe it is chiefly due to 
the making up of the skins ; but in many specimens, notably 
in the type of P. baralcse, the white feathers on the back of the 
head have hair-like black appendages as if the original black 
ends to these feathers were gradually wearing away. So it is 
not improbable that the season may have something to do with 
the amount of white on the nape ; unfortuuately that can be 
determined only by resident field naturalists who have the 
chance of studying the gradual change of plumage throughout 
the year. 



Parus leuconotus. 

Parus leuconotus, Guerin, Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii. p. 10 (1883) 
Abyssinia; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 113 (1896); Grant, Ibis, 1900, 
p. 145 Burka. 

Melaniparus leuconotus, Salvad. Ann. Mus. Genov. 1881, p. 137 ; 1888, 
p. 243 ; Gigl. t. c. p. 11 Shoa. 

Adult. General plumage black with a slight blue gloss; mantle buff; 
wings slightly more dusky with the inner edges of the quills white ; outer 
tail-feather with a very narrow partial white outer edge. " Bill black ; 
iris brown; legs slaty grey." Total length 52 inches, culmen 0-45, wing 2-6, 
tail 2-4, tarsus 075. Agula, <?, 16. 5. 6S (Blanford). 



The Buff-mantled Black Tit inhabits Abyssinia. 

This well-marked species is apparently confined to the 
mountainous regions of North-east Africa. In Shoa it is 
certainly a resident, for Antinori and Dr. Ragazzi have 
collected specimens there at all seasons in the forest of 
Fecheri-Gem, Sciotalit, Denz, Falle and Antoto, and it is 



PARUS FUNEREUS. 227 

evidently abundant in that country, where Riippell procured 
the type of his Par us dorsatus. Lord Lovat obtained a speci- 
men at Burka, 9° N. lat. 

Von Heuglin mentions the species as inhabiting Shoa, the 
mountains of Galaland, Bergemeder, Wogara and Semien, and 
abundant in northern Abyssinia upwards from 6,000 feet, 
generally in pairs on the plateaus and mountain slopes. Its 
note he likens to that of the Great Tit, and lie found it feeding 
on insects and seeds of all kinds. Mr. Blanford writes : 
" Occasionally seen about Senafe and Adigrat, but not very 
common." He ]3rocured a specimen at Agula in Tigre, and 
Mr. Jesse one at Goon-Goona. 



Parus funereus. 

Parus funereus (Verr.), Sharpe, Ibis, 1870, p. 480 Gold Coast; Bouvier, 

Cat. Ois. Marche, &c, p. 16 (1875) Gaboon ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. 

viii. p. 9 (1883) ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 114 (1896) ; Beichen. J. f. O. 

1896, p. 39 Camaroons. 
Parus nigricinereus, Jackson, Bull. B. O. C. viii. p. 22 (1898) Nandi ; id. 

Ibis, 1899, p. 638, pi. 13. 

Adidt Male. General plumage black, washed with grey on back of neck, 
back, and edges of the feathers of the wings and tail ; throat, front and 
centre of chest jet black ; remainder of the under parts, including the under 
wing-coverts, slaty grey; inner margins of quills ashy white. " Bill black; 
iris crimson orange; feet horn blue " (Jackson). Total length 5'4 inches, 
culmen 0'45, wing 335, tail 2-35, tarsus 0'75. Gaboon (type). 

Adult Female. Differs from the adult male in having the throat and 
entire under surface of the body uniform deep grey, and two of the median 
wing-coverts with white terminal spots. Iris crimson brown. Nandi, 
10. 4. 98 (Jackson). 

Immature. Differs from the adults in having the edges of the feathers of 
crown, back of neck, cheek and throat strongly mottled with deep grey ; 
crop and centre of breast dusky black ; white terminal spots to most of the 
outer median and greater coverts. Bill black, gape pale yellow ; iris brown. 
Nandi, ? <?, 10. 4. 98 (Jackson). 



228 PARUS LEUCOMELAS. 

The Dusky Black Tit inhabits the Gold Coast, Gaboon and 
British Bast Africa. 

Dr. R. B. Sharpe has referred to this species a specimen 
in the Leyden Museum obtained at Elmina, on the Gold Coast, 
by the late Governor Nagtglas, in September, 1861. Mr. 
Zenker has procured the species in Camaroons. 

The type, which is now in the British Museum, came from 
Gaboon, where, according to Verreaux, the species arrives in 
the beginning of September and seeks its insect food in the 
woods, where rarely more than a pair are to be seen together, 
and the sexes are similar in plumage. It has also been 
recorded from Gaboon in the list of Marche and De Com- 
piegne's collection. 

In Equatorial Africa Mr. Jackson collected at Mandi, on 
April 10, 1898, an adult male similar to the type of the species, 
an apparently adult female and two full grown young birds, 
a male and female. On account of the white spots on the 
wing-coverts of the immature birds and the adult female, 
he distinguished the eastern bird as Poms vigricinereus. 



Parns leucomelas. 

Parus leucomelas, Eiipp. N. Wirb. V6g. p. 100, pi. 37, fig. 2 (1838) ; 
Heugl. Orn. N. 0. Afr. p. 407 (1870) ; Pelz. Verb.. Zool.-bot. Wien. 
xxsi. pp. 145, 609 (1881) Mabero, Muggi ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1891, p. 595 
Kitosh; Jackson, Ibis, 1899, p. 638 Ntabi ; Grant, Ibis, 1900, p. 145 
Abyssinia. 

Melaniparus leucomelas, Salvad. Ann. Mus. Genov. 1888, p. 243 Slwa. 

Parus leucopterus (nee Swains.), Hartl. Orn. W. Afr. p. 70 (1857) ; id. 
J. f. O. 1861, p. 161 Bissao, Cape Lopez; Monteiro, Ibis, 1862, 
p. 338 Angola; Blanf. Geol. and Zool. Abyss. 1870, p. 356; Sharpe, 
Ibis, 1870, p. 480 Volta B. ; id. and Bouvier, Bull. S. Z. France, 
1877, p. 476 Congo ; Eeichen. J. f. O. 1891, p. 392 Togo ; 1892, p. 55 
Uganda; Eendall, Ibis, 1892, p. 216 Gambia; Shelley, B. Afr. I. 
No. 115 (1896); Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1899, p. 415 Gambaga. 

Melaniparus leucopterus, Hartert, J. f. O. 1886, p. 579 Niger. 



PARUS LEUCOMELAS. 229 

Parus niger (nee Vieill), Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii. p. 7, pt. A (1883) ; 
Reicheu. J. f. 0. 1887, pp. 301, 306 Congo; Shelley, P. Z. S. 1888, 
p. 29 Eiri; Gigl. Ann. Mus. Genov. 1888, p. 41 Shoa ; Hartert in 
Ansorge's "Under Afr. Sun," p. 352 Unyoro ; id. Nov. Zool. vii. 
p. 51 (1900) Karimia. 

Adult. General plumage jet black with a bluish gloss ; most of the 
median and greater wing-coverts white, forming a large uniform white 
patch ; quills and primary-coverts partially edged with white, under surface 
of quills dusky ash with their inner edges white ; under wing-coverts 
white. "Bill and feet black; iris straw colour" (Jackson). Total length 
5-6 inches, culmen 0'45, wing 3-15, tail 2-8, tarsus 0-75. Anseba B. £ , 
17. 7. 68 (Blanford). 

Small race. Total length 5-1 inches, culmen 0-15, wing 3-0, tail 2'7, 
tarsus 0-7. Volta B. (Ussher). 

The Northern Black Tit ranges southward from 16° N. lat., 
over North Tropical Africa generally, and through the Congo 
district into Angola. 

In the northern portion of the range of this species the 
specimens are generally small, and there appears to be a con- 
stant dwarfed race confined to West Africa, from Senegambia 
to the Niger. This race I have called in my key P. lemomelas 
guineensis ; the only character I can find for it is its smaller 
size — wing 3"0 to 3*1 inches, tarsus 0'7. 

Swainson, who first recorded the species from Senegal, 
believed it not to be distinct from its South African ally, and 
only proposed the name of Parus leucojpterus as an amendment 
for P. niger, so it does not apply to this species. 

Dr. P. Rendall met with these Tits at the Gambia and 
remarked : " "When the bird flies, the contrast of black and 
white is very striking." In this district Mr. Budgett procured 
a pair at Kunchow Creek, and specimens have also been 
collected by Verreaux at Casamanse, and by Beudouin at 
Bissao. In Liberia Mr. Biittikofer met with the species at 
the Kasinga river. Inland from the Gold Coast Captain W. 
Giffard found it at Gambaga, and a pair from the same district 



230 PARUS LEUCOMELAS. 

were collected by Col. H. P. Northcott, and are now in the 
British Museum along with two of Ussher's from the Volta 
river. Dr. Buthner has found the species in Togoland, and 
Mr. Hartert at Loko on the Niger, where the birds were 
in small parties. This is the furthest southern limit known 
to me for the small race. 

P. leucomelas has not yet been recorded from Camaroous, 
but Dr. Hartlaub mentions a specimen in Verreaux's collection 
from Cape Lopez in Gaboon, and in the Congo district it 
appears to be fairly plentiful, for Lucan and Petit collected 
specimens at Conde and San Antonio, and Bohndorff at 
Manyango and Leopoldsville. 

Monteiro shot a full pluraaged adult specimen of this species 
near the river Mucozo in Cambambe, and writes : " Never 
observed another specimen of this bird anywhere in Angola." 
This specimen is now in the British Museum, and is specially 
interesting as coming from the most southern known locality 
for this species ; the countries in which P. leucomelas and 
P. niger reside are separated by the " Buffer state" inhabited 
by P. insignis. 

P. leucomelas probably ranges through the forest region of 
the Congo, and is apparently plentiful all over the White Nile 
district, for Emin has collected specimens at Kiri in May, at 
Mabero in August, at Muggi in October, and also on the island 
of Someh off the Uganda coast of Victoria Nyanza, and Dr. 
Ausorge at Fajao in Unyoro. Mr. Jackson procured the 
species at Kitosh in March, aud saw a pair at the foot of Mount 
Elgon. Lord Lovat brought home a specimen from Telegubaie, 
in about 11° N. lat., 40° B. long. In Shoa Dr. Ragazzi also 
obtained a specimen at Goro in November. Further north 
Ruppell procured the types of the species at Halei in the 
Taranto mountaius in the Province of Temben. Mr. Blan- 
ford during his visit to Abyssinia only saw it in the Anseba 



PARUS INSIGNIS. 231 

valley, but was given a specimen shot by Captain Stuart near 
Senafe. In the British Museum there are specimens collected 
by Mr. Jesse at Kohai, and by Esler at Bab-el-Mandel. 

According' to von Heusflin it remains in North-east Africa 
throughout the year, and is plentifully distributed over the 
country south from Kordofan and Bogos. He met with it at 
elevations from 3,000 to 8,000 in the Beni Amer mountains and 
along the banks of the Blue and White Niles, where he informs 
us that they live singly or in pairs, frequenting the shrubs and 
trees in the open country as well as the forests, usually in the 
neighbourhood of water courses, and he likens their note to 
that of the Marsh Tit. 



Parus insignis. 

Parus insignis, Cab. J. f. O. 1880, p. 419 Angola ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 

116 (1896) ; id. Ibis, 1897, p. 126 Nyasa; 1898, p. 553 Tanjanyika 

plateau and Songive B. ; 1899, p. 366 Nyasa. 
Parus niger (nee Vieill.), Bocage, Oru. Angola, p. 285 (1881) Biballa, 

Kiulo, Gunene ; Shelley, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 302 Bovuma B. ; Fisch. 

J. f. O. 1885, p. 139 Uscgua; Eeichen. Vog. Deutseh O. Afr. p. 213 

(1893) ; Sousa, Join. Lisb. 1887, p. 99 Quissange ; Biittik. Notes 

Leyd. Mus. 1888, p. 231, 1889, p. 71 Mossamedes ; Bocage, Jorn. 

Lisb. 1893, p. 162 Galanga. 

Adult. Similar to P. leueonotus, but larger ; some white on the tail and 
more white on both webs of the quills than in P. niger. White on tail 
confined to a narrow partial margin almost surrounding the end half of 
the tail. Total length 6-2 inches, culmen 0-5, wing 3-5, tail 3, tarsus 0-8. 
Masuku, July (A. Whyte). 

Cabanis's Black Tit ranges from Angola and Benguela into 
the Shire highlands and Usegua. 

This species is rather a southern representative of P. 
leucomelas than a northern form of P. niger. It is not a 
strongly marked species, and has been so generally confounded 



232 PARUS NIGER. 

with P. niger that its actual range is difficult to define with 
certainty. 

The type of the species was discovered by Schlitt in 
Angola. It is clear from the description of the P. niger, 
Bocage, " Orn. Angola," p. 285, that Anchieta's specimens 
from Biballa, Kiulo, near the banks of the Cunene, and from 
Galanga and Quissange belong to this species, so I have little 
doubt that Mr. Biittikofer made a similar error, and that the 
specimens collected by Van der Kellen at the Kasango river in 
February, 1887, and at Humpata in 1888, in the Upper Cunene 
district, likewise belong to this species. 

Apparently the range of P. insignis meets that of P. 
leucomelas in Angola, and of P. niger near the Cunene and 
Zambesi rivers, for Sir John Kirk and Mr. Boyd Alexander 
met with only P. niger on both banks of the Zambesi, and in 
Mr. Alfred Sharpe's last collection from Nyasaland there are 
two typical specimens of P. niger from Liwonde, while the 
fine series collected by Mr. Whyte and Col. Manning in 
the Shire highlands all belong to P. insignis, and comprise 
examples from Kombi on the Masuku range " 7,000 feet, 
July," Tanjanyika Plateau, Songwe and Ikawa — in all seven 
specimens. 

From Dr. Reichenow's description of his P. niger, Vog. 
D. 0. Afr. p. 213, it is evident that Fischer's specimen from 
the Usegua country, like that of the late Mr. Joseph 
Thomson from the Rovuma river, belong to Parus insignis. 



Parus niger. 

Parus niger, Bonn, et Vieill. Enc. Meth. p. 508 (1823) ; Chapman, Trav. 

S. Afr. ii. p. 398 (1848) Lake Ngami, Damara ; Gurney, Ibis, 1862, 

pp. 28, 155 Natal ; id. in Anderss. B. Damara, p. 81 (1872) ; Buckley, 



PARUS NIGER. 233 

Ibis, 1874, p. 373 Bamangwato ; Shelley, Ibis, 1875, p. 73 Durban: 
Ayres, Ibis, 3 880, p. 103 Transvaal; Sharpe, in Oates's Matabele, 
p. 310 (1881); Sbelley, Ibis, 1882, p. 257 Limpopo, Umvuli U. 
Mashona; Butler, Feilden and Reid, Zool. 1882, p. 248 Natal; 
Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii. p. 7 (1883), pt. south of Cunene and 
Zambesi ; Sharpe, ed. Layard's B. S. Afr. pp. 331, 835 (1884) ; 
Fleck, J. f. 0. 1894, p. 412 Damara ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 117 
(1896); Kendall, Ibis, 189G, p. 171 Transvaal; Boyd Alexander, 
Ibis, 1899, p. 562 Zambesi; Marshall, Ibis, 1900, p. 233 Mashona; 
Stark, Faun. S. Afr. I. p. 307 (1900). 
Parus leucopterus, Swains. B. W. Afr. ii. p. 42 (1837) ; Layard, B. S. 
Afr. p. 113 (1867). 

Adult Male (dark form). Similar to P. insignis, but smaller, and with 
the white margins of the greater series of wing-coverts and quills narrower ; 
more white on the tail, and some white edges to the under tail-coverts. 
Objimbinque, <? 29. 9. 66 (Andersson). (Ordinary form) : Upper parts 
blue black ; wing with nearly the entire median series of coverts white and 
with partial white edges to the remainder of the feathers ; tail with clear 
white bands on the outer edges, and with white terminal margins to all the 
feathers ; under parts more dusky, with a slaty grey shade on the flanks ; 
feathers of the thighs and the under tail-coverts broadly tipped with white, 
under wing-coverts and inner margins of quills mostly white. " Bill black ; 
iris brown; legs slaty grey." Total length 5 - 6 inches, culmen 0-45, 
wing 345, tail 2-6, tarsus 0'8. Swaziland, $, 22. 7. 76 (T. E. Buckley). 

Adult Female. Similar to the male but with the throat and breast 
nearly uniform slaty grey, with the feathers of the abdomen, thighs, and 
under tail-coverts edged with white. Total length 6-5 inches, culmen 0-45, 
wing 3-3, tail 3, tarsus 0-75. Bamaqueban R., ? , 4. 9. 73 (F. Oates). 

Immature. Similar in plumage to the adults only with the under surface 
tinted with rufous and mottled with dull black ; inside of the mouth black. 
Durban, 7. 3. 74 (Shelley). 

Levaillant's Black Tit ranges over South Africa south from 
the Cunene river and Nyasaland. 

Chapman records the species as scarce in the Lake Ngami 
district. Andersson met with it more frequently near the 
Okavango river and Lake Ngami than in Damaraland proper, 
and procured specimens at Elephant Vley and at Objimbinque, 
but never observed it in Great Namaqualand. He writes : 
" It is generally found in pairs, searching amongst the larger 
trees for insects and their larva? ; it also feeds on seeds." 



234 PARUS NIGER. 

Dr. Fleck found them in the above neighbourhood in small 
groups. 

In Cape Colony the type of the species was procured by 
Levaillant in the eastern district. Mr. Layard met with it at 
Grahamstown and received specimens from Beaufort, Kuru- 
man and East London. Mr. Atmore found these Tits to be 
plentiful at Elands Post, and Captain Trevelyan procured 
specimens at Kingwilliamstown and the Chalumna river. 

In Natal I shot an immature bird at Durban in March, and 
have since received specimens from Pinetown. The late Dr. 
Stark writes : "Everywhere confined to the bush and forest 
districts, and preferring the larger growth of trees as a 
hunting ground. In the Natal bush it is a common bird, and 
is constantly met with in small bands of five or six individuals 
busily hunting about the tree-tops for insects. Its contrasting 
colours of black and white render it rather a conspicuous bird, 
aud it frequently attracts attention by its harsh call-note. 
Eggs of this Tit are white sparingly spotted with pale red, and 
measure 0*67 x 0"53." 

Messrs. Butler, Feilden and Reid met with a small party in 
the bushy " donga " near Pietermaritzburg in December. Mr. 
T. Ayres found them in pairs seeking their food in the upper 
branches of the trees, and " discovered a nest of these birds 
containing one egg and four callow young. The old bird had 
evidently taken possession of a deserted Woodpecker's nest. 
The hole was in a perpendicular and decayed bough of a large 
tree, about twenty feet from the ground ; it was about a foot 
in depth, and there was a very little fine dry grass at the 
bottom, on which the egg and young birds were placed. I 
was obliged to cut and break the front of the bough to get 
at the contents of the nest; and the old birds showed their 
dislike to my proceedings by their chattering cries and uneasy 
manner. On leaving the nest I repaired the hole as well as I 



PARUS FUELLEBORNI. 235 

could, and left the little ones safe inside ; but passing the place 
in about a week, I again climbed the tree and found the nest 
cold and deserted." To the north of the Vaal river he calls 
the species common in the Rustenburg district, and while in 
company with the late Mr. Jameson collected specimens near 
the Limpopo in May, and found the species tolerably common 
throughout the bushy country and equally plentiful in 
Mashonaland in September and October. In the latter 
month Mr. T. E. Buckley met with it in Bumaugwato, and 
his companion, my friend, the late Mr. Frank Oates, collected 
specimens in Matabele, at Tati, and the Ramaqueban river. 

Dr. Bradshaw procured several specimens in the country 
between the Orange river and the Zambesi, and along the 
course of the latter river specimens have been procured by 
Sir John Kirk at Tete, and by Mr. Boyd Alexander at the 
Kafue river, and the latter naturalist writes : " Locally distri- 
buted, and found either in pairs or in small parties threading 
their way through the undergrowth. The plumage of the males 
shot in August was very fresh, the feathers of the wings, under 
tail-coverts and tail being conspicuously edged with white, 
while in those obtained near the Kafue river in January the 
white edgings, especially on the primaries, under tail-coverts, 
and tail had almost disappeared." 

The most northern range known to me for this species is 
Liwonde in Nyasaland, where Mr. Alfred Sharpe has recently 
procured a pair in full plumage. 



Parus fuelleborni. 

Parus fiilleborni, Reichen. Orn. Monatsb. 1900, p. 5 Ondis. 

Type. Very similar to P. niger, but with the under parts slaty grey, 
darker on the throat and paler on the abdomen ; scapulars tipped with 



236 PARUS XANTHOSTOMUS. 

white ; under tail-coverts dark slaty grey with clear white terminal edges. 
Total length 5-8 inches, culmen 0-45, wing 3'2, tail 2-8 ; tarsus 0-7. 

Fulleborn's Black Tit inhabits German East Africa, 
The type was discovered by Dr. FuTleborn at Undis, in the 
country to the north of Nyasa Lake, and that is all that is 
known to me regarding this recently described species. 



Parus xanthostomus. (PL 10, tig. 2.) 

Parus xanthostomus, Shelley, Bull. B. O. C. 1892, i. p. 6 Zambcsia ; id. Ibis, 
1893, pp. 17, 18, Upper Shire, Grahamstown ; id. B. Afr. I. No. 118 
(1896). 

Parus niger xanthostomus, Stark, Faun. S. Afr. I. p. 308 (1900). 

Adult. Similar to P. niger, but differs in the upper parts being dusky 
black with a green instead of a blue gloss on the crown ; wings with the pale 
edges of the quills partially shaded with olive yellow ; throat and under 
surface of the body ashy grey, with pale, but no clear white ends to the 
feathers of the thighs and under tail-coverts ; bill black with the inside of 
the mouth bright yellow ; legs olive shaded grey. Total length 6 inches, 
culmen 0-15, whig 3-15, tail 2-7, tarsus 0-75. S. Zambesia (Bradshaw). 

The Yellow-mouthed Tit inhabits South-eastern Africa. 

The type was procured by Bradshaw during his travels 
between the Limpopo and Zambesi rivers, and when it passed 
into my collection I noted it as coming from the Zambesi on 
account of the number on the label attached to that specimen. 
In the British Museum there is a specimen from Grahams- 
town in Cape Colony, one of Atmore's collecting. The species 
has since been found by Mr. Alexander Whyte at Mpimbe in 
the Upper Shire. 



Parus albiventris. (PL 10, fig. 1.) 

Parus albiventris, Shelley; Gadow. Cat. B. M. viii. p. 10 (1883) Ugogo ; 
Schal. J. f. 0. 1883, p. 358 ; Fisch. Zeitschr. 1881, p. 310 ; id. J. f. O. 



PARUS FASC'IIVENTRIS. 237 

1885, p. 139 Nahvasha ; Reichen. J. f. O. 1887, pp. 40, 75 Salanda, 
Kagchi : 1891, p. 162 Mpa/pwa, Uniamwesi; Emm, t. c. p. 60 Ugogo; 
Sharpe, Ibis, 1891, p. 595 Kikumbuliu ; Reichen. Vog. Deutseh. 
0. Afr. p. 214 (1893) ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 119 (1896) ; Jackson, 
Ibis, 1899, p. 639 Ravine, Elgeyu, Nandi ; Hartert in Ansorge'a 
" Under Afr. Sun," p. 352 (1899) Taru. 

Adult Male. Entirely black and white. Head, neck, back, wings, and tail 
as in P. niger ; breast, thighs, and under tail-coverts white, with the sides 
of the chest black. Total length 6 inches, culmen 045, wing 345, tail 2-9, 
tarsus 0-8 " Bill black ; iris brown ; feet horn blue. Ravine, S , 15. 7. 97 " 
(Jackson). 

Adult Female. Plumage similar to that of the male, but slightly duller. 
Total length 5-4, culmen 0-4, wing 3, tail 2-5, tarsus 0-75. Nandi, ? , 8. 6. 98 
(Jackson). 

The White-breasted Tit ranges in East Africa from about 
7° S. lat. to the Equator. 

The first two specimens known of this species were sent to 
me by Sir John Kirk from Ugogo in 1880, and it has not since 
been recorded from further south, but these Tits have been 
met with by Emm at Mpapwa and Mkigwa, Bohm found them 
to be not uncommon at Kakoma, and Fischer at Kagehi on 
Speke's Gulf, at Salanda, and Naiwasha Lake. 

Mr. Jackson collected specimens in British East Africa at 
Ravine, Elgeyu, Kikumbuliu and Nandi, and informs us that 
in habits it much resembles our Great Tit (Parus major), and 
is generally to be met with in pairs and " is very plentiful in 
the open as well as in belts of forest." 



Parus fasciiventris. 



Parus fasciiventrer, Reichen. Orn. Monatsb. 1893, p. 31 Euansori. ; 
Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 122 (1896). 

Type. Head and throat black ; nape, back and least wing - coverts 
brownish grey ; abdomen white with black spots down the centre ; flanks 
greyish ; upper tail-coverts and tail black, the latter edged with white ; quills, 
greater and median wing-coverts with white edges ; the quills also have white 



238 PARUS RUFIVENTRIS. 

inner margins ; under wing-covert and under tail-coverts white. Total 
length 5-6 inches, bill 0-4, wing 3-12, tail 2-5, tarsus 07 (Eeichenow). 

The Grey-backed White-breasted Tit inhabits Central 
Africa. 

The type formed part of Emin and Stnhbnann's collection 
from Ruansori, and is, I believe, the only specimen known of 
this species. 



Parus rufiventris. 

Parus rufiventris, Bocage, Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii. p. 40 (1883) ; Sharpe, 
ed. Layard's B. S. Afr. p. 835 (1884) ; Eeichen. J. f. 0. 1887, p. 306 
Leopoldsville ; Shelley, B. Afr. I., No. 122 (1896). 

Subspecies a. P. masukuensis, Subsp. nov. 

Parus pallidiventris (nee Eeichen.), Shelley, Ibis, 1897, p. 526 Masuku 
range, and Nyika plateau. 

Adult. Entire head and upper neck glossy bluish black passing into deep 
grey on the lower neck, back, and lesser wing-coverts ; remainder o£ the 
wing, tail and a few of the upper tail-coverts blackish, the former with broad 
white edges and the tail-feathers narrowly tipped with white, which colour 
also extends down the outer web of the tail ; breast deep cinnamon passing 
into slaty grey towards the crop ; under wing-coverts and partial inner 
margins to the quills white ; remainder of the under surface of the quills 
ashy brown. Bill black ; legs slate colour; iris brown. Total length 6'4 
inches, culmen 0'45, wing 3-35, tail 3, tarsus 0'85. Caconda, 12. 77 
(Anchieta). 

Types of P. masukuensis. Differ from the above only in having the 
breast paler cinnamon, and broader white edges to the feathers of the wings 
and tail. They are intermediate in colouring between P. rufiventris, Bocage, 
and P. pallidiventris, Eeichen. Total length 63 inches, culmen 0-45, wing 3 - 3, 
tail 2-7, tarsus 0-8. Nyika plateau, and Masuku range (A. Whyte). 

The Cinnamon-breasted Tit ranges from the Congo into 
Benguela, and is i-epresented by a slightly paler breasted race 
to the west of the northern portion of Lake Nyasa. 



PARUS PALLIDIVENTRIS. 239 

The most northern known range for the species is Leopolds- 
ville on the Congo, from whence it extends southward into 
Benguela, where Anchieta discovered the type at Caconda and 
informs us that it is called by the natives " Caxito," also 
apparently " Quitiaguenene," as that name is the one inscribed 
on the label of the specimen figured in Bocage's Orn. Angola, 
which was presented to me after Mr. Keulemans had finished 
his sketch. 

The pale race for which I propose the name of P. 
masukuensis is possibly very local, as it is known only from 
the Masuku mountains of North Nyasaland in about 10° S. lat. 
It is represented in the British Museum by specimens labelled, 
Nyika plateau, June, and Masuku range, July ; the latter 
I make the type, as it is in very good condition. These two 
specimens agree perfectly in colouring and measurements, and 
are so nearly intermediate between typical P. rufiventris and 
P. pallidiventris that I formerly referred them to the latter 
species ; but in looking more closely into the matter I con- 
sider they represent rather a pale race of P. rufiventris than 
a dark form of P. pallidiventris. 



Parus pallidiventris. 

Parus pallidiventris, Eeichen. J. f. 0. 1885, p. 217 Kakoma; 1889, p. 285 
Quilimane, Usegua ; id. Vog. Deutsch 0. Afr. p. 214 (1893) ; Shelley, 
Ibis, 1894, p. 469 Nyasa; id. B. Afr. I. No. 121 (1896) ; Stark, Faun. 
S. Afr. i. p. 307 (1900) ; Marshall, Ibis, 1900, p. 233 Mashona. 

Parus rufiventris (nee Bocage) Schal. J. f. O. 1883, p. 358 Kakoma. 

Subspecies a. 

Parus rovumaj, Shelley, B. 0. C. i. p. 6 (1892) ; id. Ibis, 1893, p. 118 
Bovuma B. 

Adult. Similar in size and very nearly so in colouring to P. masukuensis, 
but differs in the paler rufous buff of the breast, and is intermediate in 



240 PARUS AFER. 

colouring between that species and P. rovumce. Total length 6-2 inches, 
culmen 045, wing 3-3, tail 2-8, tarsus 08. Mashona, 2, 16. 8. 9S (Guy 
Marshall). 

Type of P. rovumce. Similar in general colouring to P. pallidiventris, 
but differs in the paler buffy white breast and in being slightly smaller. 
Total length 5'3 inches, culmen 04, wing 305, tail 2-4, tarsus 0-75. 

The Buff-breasted Tit ranges over East Africa from 
Maslionalaud into the Usegua country. 

The most southern known locality for this Tit is Masliona- 
laud ; here Mr. Guy Marshall met with the species, and has 
kindly forwarded to me a fine specimen for the British Museum, 
labelled " 3 , 16. 8. 98, Glen Lome, 4,500 feet, Salisbury 
district," and writes : " This species is very fond of searching 
the young leaves of the mimosa trees, which are generally 
teeming with phytophagous coleoptera. At the time the 
example was shot Anaplectes rubriceps and the Pyromelanse 
had not donned their wedding garments." 

The Mashona bird agrees perfectly with three specimens 
from the Shire district collected by Mr. Alexander Whyte at 
Fort Lister, which stands on the north slope of the Milanji 
mountains, twelve miles due south of Lake Shirwa. 

To this species Dr. Reichenow refers the specimens 
collected by Dr. Stuhlmann at Quilimane and in the Usegua 
country at Pungue and Mesere. 

The type of the species was discovered by Bohm at Kakoma. 

My friend the late Mr. Joseph Thomson gave me the type 
of P. rovumse, which he procured during his exploration of the 
Rovuma river in about 10° S. lat. This specimen differs quite 
as much from P. pallidiventris, as P. pallidiventris does from 
P. masukuensis, and rather more than the latter does from 
P. rufiventris. 

Parus afer. 

Paras afer, 6m. Sharpe in Oates' Matabele, p. 311 (1881) Samoukwe B. s ; 
Shelley, Ibis, 1882, p. 257 Umvuli B. s ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii. 



PARUS AFER. 241 

p. 39 (1883) ; Sharpe, eel. Layard's B. S. Afr. pp. 329, 835 (1884) ; 

Sousa, Jorn. Lisb. 1888, p. 226 Quindumbo 1 ; Fleck, J. f. 0. 1894, 

p. 412 Damara 1 ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 124 (1896) ; Marshall, Ibis, 

1896, p. 244 Salisbury 3 ; Stark, Faun. S. Afr. I. p. 305, figs. (1900) ; 

Marshall, Ibis, 1900, p. 233 Mashona 3 . 
Paras cinerascens, Vieill. Layard, Ibis, 1869, p. 73 Colesberg 1 ; Ayres, 

Ibis, 1871, 154 Transvaal 2 . 
Parus cinereus (nee Vieill), Layard B. S. Afr. p. 112 (1867) ; id. Ibis, 

1869, p. 72 Swellendam 1 . 

Adult. Lores, cheeks, ear-coverts, sides of neck and nape white ; 
remainder of the head and neck, the upper tail-coverts and a central band 
down the chest bluish black ; back and least series of wing-coverts ashy 
grey ; remainder of the wings dark brown with w T hite edges to the feathers, 
broadest on the coverts and inner secondaries ; tail black with narrow white 
ends to the feathers, which colour extends down the exterior web of the outer 
feather ; remainder of the breast, ashy grey, paler towards the black parts. 
Bill black, iris dark brown, tarsi and feet leaden grey. Total length 5-5 
inches, culmen 0-5, wing 3-15, tail 2-5, tarsus 0-85. $ , 15. 4. 66 Damara. 

Type of P. afer intermedins. Similar in plumage. Total length 5'3, 
culmen 0-45, wing 2-9, tail 21, tarsus 0-8. ? , 7. 6. 77 Potchefstroom. 

Type of P. afer parvirostris. Similar in plumage. Total length 5-3, 
culmen 0-4, wing 3-05, tail 2-25, tarsus 0-8. g, 12. 4. 95 Salisbury (Guy 
Marshall). 

The South African Cole Tifc, including its local races, ranges 
over South Africa generally south of about 10° S. lat. 

I have divided it, in my key, into three : a large billed race 
inhabiting: South-western Africa to the west of a line drawn 
from the Upper Quanza river to Bast London, while a line 
drawn from Durban to Nyasa Lake would pass through the 
centre of the range of the other two subspecies, and the 
southern boundary of Mashonaland maybe accepted as dividing 
the form with a medium sized bill from its northern little billed 
race. These races are alike in colouring and size with the 
exception of the bill, which decreases as we follow a line from 
Cape Town to Nyasa Lake. As these forms have never pre- 
viously been recognised I have placed a number nest to the 
localities quoted to indicate to which race the references 
specially refer. 

[April, 1900. 16 



242 PARUS AFER. 

In Benguela Anchieta has collected specimens at Caconda 
and Quindumbo, and informs us that it is known respectively 
at these two places as " Caxitico " and " Calncondonjobe " ; 
there is one of Monteiro's collection from Benguela in the 
British Museum. 

To the south of the Cunene Chapman found it scarce in the 
Lake region and Damaraland, and Andersson also mentions it 
as found sparingly distributed throughout the country from 
the Okavango river and Lake Ngami southward into Cape 
Colony. 

In this last district specimens have been collected by 
Mr. Butler near Cape Town. Layard received it from Beaufort 
"West, and frequently saw the species during his journey from 
Nel's Poort to the Swartzberg. Atmorehas collected specimens 
at Swellendam and near Hopetown. Ortlepp has sent others 
from Colesberg, where it is called " Slangwyte " by the Dutch 
colonists, and Layard records it from Kuruman and writes : 
" At Nel's Poort we obtained several nests in the crevices of 
an old brick tank or bath, which was constantly used by 
members of the household. The entrances to these nests were 
very small and tortuous, leading to the back of the brickwork, 
which we had to remove before we could secure the ees's. 
The nests were large masses of dried bents of grass and 
feathers. At the Berg river we found them breeding in 
September in holes of trees. The eggs were pure white with 
red specks, principally at the obtuse end." These last- 
mentioned nests were composed of hair, wool and feathers. 
Atmore found the species at Swellendam nesting in hollow 
trees, and he took twelve eggs out of one nest. With regard 
to their habits, Stark writes : " Although, like most of the 
family, this Tit shows a certain partiality for trees and bushes, 
when they are present, it frequently inhabits very arid and 
desolate localities, covered only by a thin growth of Karroo 
scrub. Here they hunt over the stones and rocks in search 



PARUS GRISEIVENTRIS. 243 

of insects, and build their nests in holes in the ground. On 
one occasion I met with a family party of these Tits climbing 
about a paling round the grave of a shipwrecked sailor on the 
sandy coast of Namaqua Land, at a distance of quite forty 
miles from the nearest tree." 

I now come to the race with the medium sized bill which 
I call in my key P. intermedins ; it is represented in the British 
Museum by the following specimens : a, the type, 2 7. G. 77 
Potchefstroom ; b, <? , Modder R. ; e, 10. 8. 78 Rustenberg ; 
d, ?, 14. 10. 73 Bamangwato; e, S, 28. 9. 73 Matabele ; /, <?, 
27. 9. 73 Inyati. According to Mr. T. Ayres, these birds are 
"sparsely scattered along the rivers, frequenting shrubs and 
low bushes, feeding upon insects and creeping about the roots 
and low branches in search of their food ; their flight is not 
prolonged and their note is harsh." In the most northern 
known range for this race, it is recorded by Mr. T. E. Buckley 
as "a very common species throughout the Matabele and 
Bamano'wato district." 

O 

The small billed race, P. parvirostris, which has the bill 
scarcely half the size of the typical P. afer from western South 
Africa, is represented in the British Museum by the following 
three specimens : a, the type, 3, 12. 4 95 Mashonaland (Guy 
Marshall) ; b, Samoukwe R. 10. 73 (F. Oates) ; c, KatuDgo, on 
Shire R. (Sharpe). According to Mr. Marshall, these birds are 
not uncommon in the mimosa-bush, and closely resemble the 
European Great Tit in general habits. 

The white nuchal patch is almost or entirely absent in 
every specimen I have examined which has been killed in 
September. 

Parus griseiventris. 

Parus griseiventris, Reichen. J. f. 0. 1882, pp. 210, 235 Kakoma ; 1886, 
pi. 2, fig. 1 ; id. Vog. Deutsch. O. Afr. p. 214 (1893) ; Gadow, Cat, 
B. M. viii. p. 40 (1883) ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 125 (1896). 



244 PARUS THRUPPI. 

Adult. Similar to P. afer, but differs in having the pale sides of the head 
grey, uniform in colour to the back and breast, and in having the black of 
the head extending back to the grey mantle, with no white on the nape ; 
thighs, as well as the under tail-coverts and under wing-coverts white. Bill 
black; iris brown; legs grey. Total length 5-2 inches, wing, 3-15, tail 2-35. 

The Grey-cheeked Cole Tit inhabits East Africa. 

All that is known to me with regard to the occurrence of 
this species is that Bohm procured two specimens in February 
at Kakoma during his travels between Zanzibar and Lake 
Tanjanyika. 



Parus thruppi. 

Parus thruppi, Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 406, pi. 11, fig. 2 Somali ; James, 
Unkn. Horn. Afr. p. 295, pi. 6, fig. 2 ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 476 
Somali; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 126 (1896); Elliot, Field Columb. 
Mus. Orn. i. No. 2, p. 41 (1897) ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 67 Somali. 

Parus barakae, Jackson, Ibis, 1899, p. 639 Njenvps. 

Adult. Forehead, lores, cheeks, ear-coverts, and back of neck white ; 
crown, sides of neck, throat, and centre of breast glossy black ; chin mottled 
with white ; back, scapulars, and least series of wing-coverts ashy grey ; 
remainder of wings black, with broad white edges to the feathers, broadest 
on the inner secondaries, median and greater wing-coverts ; upper tail-coverts 
and tail black, the latter with white margins to some of the outer feathers, 
and narrow white tips to the remainder ; breast, thighs, and under tail- 
coverts sandy buff shading into ashy grey on the sides of the body ; under 
surface of quill brown with pale inner margins ; under wing-coverts white. 
Bill black ; iris dark brown ; legs slate colour. Total length 4-65 and 4-3 
inches, culmen 0-4, wing 2-45, tail 2 and 1-9, tarsus CV7. Male and female 
alike in plumage. Somali (L. Phillips) ; wing 2-65, <?, 17. 11. 97 Haragogara 
(Hawker). 

Type of P. barakce. Similar to the type of P. thruppi, but with only a 
narrow partial white margin separating the black of the head from the 
mantle. Total length 4-9, culmen 0-4, wing 2-7, tail 2, tarsus 0-7. <7 , 26. 9. 90 
(Jackson). 

The Somali Cole Tit is a native of Somaliland and British 
East Africa. 



.EGITHALUS. 245 

The types, an adult pair, were shot out of a small flock of 
six by Mr. Lort Phillips during his first journey into Somali- 
land, in company with Mr. James and Dr. Thrupp, and was 
named, at his request, after the latter gentleman. 

Mr. Elliot collected four males at Le Gud and Hullier, and 
writes : " We met with this Tit as soon as we entered upon 
the plateau, the localities given being near the Golis range, 
the last one a short march from Hargeisa." Dr. A. Donaldson 
Smith procured a specimen at Milmil, and Mr. Hawker at 
Haragogara and Jifa Medir, and writes : " I was first attracted 
by the note of this bird, which was somewhat harsher than 
that of Parus major. Its habits seem to be identical with 
those of the latter." The occurrence of this species in the 
adjoining British East Africa rests on the type of P. baralcse, 
which was shot at Njemps in September, and differs from the 
type of P. thruppi only in the same characters as examples 
of South African Cole Tits procured in September do from 
nearly all the other specimens. 



Genus II. ^GITHALUS. 

Bill straight, conical, and sharply pointed. All the members of this 
genus construct very peculiar pendent nests, from which they derive the 
name of Penduline Tits. The nests are strongly constructed of soft materials 
closely felted together. The eggs, six to twelve in number, are uniform pure 
white. They feed like the members of the genus Parus, but are probably 
more given to frequent marshy localities, and apparently they are better 
songsters. They are also all of very diminutive size. 

This genus is represented in the Ethiopian region by certainly seven well- 
marked known species, all of which are confined to Tropical and Southern 
Africa, and all have a comparatively long first primary. 

The key to the species of this genus (Cat. viii. p. 66) might be corrected 
thus : — 

(a) First primary very short. Subgeneric group .ZEgithalus. 

(b) First primary long (= about half the length of the second primary). 
Subgeneric group Anthoscopus. 



246 jEGITHALUS CAPENSIS. 



KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

. Forehead mottled with black. 
a 1 . Forehead white with black bases to the 
feathers ; upper throat white ; breast 

sulphur yellow capensis. ty ( 

b 1 . Forehead yellow with black tips to the 
feathers. 

a 2 . Throat and breast whitish puncti/rons. z-Kf 

b 2 . Throat and breast bright yellow . . . parvulus. zic 
, Forehead with no black markings. 
c 1 . Above olive green ; throat yellow. 

c 3 . Forehead pale yellow flavifrons. - J~c 

cl 2 . Forehead medium yellow camaroonensis . ^ s~ / 

c 2 . Forehead orange yellow calotropiphilus. 2 _ 

d 1 . Above ashy brown. 
f 2 . Throat white. 

a 3 . Forehead whitish contrasting with the 

crown ; abdomen rufous buff . . . caroli. ■ 
b 3 . Forehead brown like the upper parts 
generally, abdomen white or slightly 

shaded with buff musculus. 

g 2 . Forehead, neck and chest isabelline 

rufous fring Minus . .- 



iEgithalus capensis. 

iEgithalus capensis (Gm.), Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii. p. 70, pi. 1, fig. 2 
(1883, pt. S. Afr.), Sclater, Ibis, 1887, p. 462 ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. 
No. 127 (1896) ; Stark, Faun. S. Afr. I. p. 310, fig. (1900). 

yEgithalus smithi, Jard. and Selby, Hartl. Zool. Jahrb. ii. p. 344 (1887) 
S. Afr. 

Anthoscopus capensis, Ayres, Ibis, 1878, p. 286; 1880, p. 103 Trans- 
vaal; Shelley, Ibis, 1882, p. 257 Spalding s ; Sharpe, ed. Layard's 
B. S. Afr. pp. 327, 834 (1884) ; Eeichen. J. f. O. 1886, p. 118 
Damara; Fleck, J. f. O. 1894, p. 412 Damara ; Kuschel, J. f. 0. 
1895, p. 347 (egg). 

Paroides capensis, Ayres, Ibis, 1871, p. 154 Limpopo. 



.EG1THALUS CAPENSIS. 247 

Adult. Forehead black with broad white edges to the feathers ; crown 
and back of neck ashy brown ; back yellow shaded ashy brown, more yellow 
on the lower back and upper tail-coverts ; wing and tail brown with paler 
edges to the feathers which incline to ashy white on the primaries ; sides of 
head, chin, and upper throat white ; remainder of throat, breast and under 
tail-coverts pale yellow ; thighs and under wing-coverts and inner margins of 
quills buffy white. Bill slaty blue ; iris dark brown ; tarsi and feet bluish 
ash. Total length 3-5 inches, culmen 035, wing 2, tail 1-6, tarsus 0-55. 
Eustenburg, 8. 6. 78 (W. Lucas). 

Adults of both sexes and young birds are similar in plumage. 



The Cape Penduline Tit inhabits South Africa south of the 
Cunene and Limpopo rivers. 

Dr. Fleck found the species abundant throughout German 
South-west Africa to as far north as the Okavango river, which 
discharges its water into Lake Ngami. There are seven 
adults and one nestling of Andersson's collecting in the British 
Museum, showing no variation in the plumages. In Cape 
Colony they are called by the Dutch " Cappoc Vogel," which 
means Cotton Birds, on account of their peculiarly constructed 
nest, formed of wool woven into a structure like felt. Stark 
informs us that they are to be met with in pairs or small 
family parties, and are abundant among the scrub on the sandy 
west coast of Cape Colony, and equally common among the 
low bushes and mimosas of the Karroo, but he never met with 
them in the forest districts. " It is an active little bird, 
constantly in motion, climbing over and carefully examining the 
twigs and leaves of bushes for small insects and their eggs. 
Its ordinary call-note is a weak and almost inaudible ' chirp,' 
but occasionally as it takes wing it utters a sharper cry. Its 
flight is weak and seldom protracted for any great distance, 
but usually only from bush to bush. If one of the party flies 
off it is followed by the others in a regular string. Towards 
the end of August, in Cape Colony, these Tits separate in 
pairs and soon after commence building their elaborately 



24R ^GITHALUS CAPENSIS. 

woven nests. A somewhat open bush is usually chosen as a 
site, after a careful inspection lasting several days. In sheep - 
farming districts wool is nearly always used as a building 
material, elsewhere the cotton down of plants ; but whatever 
the substance made use of, it is carefully woven and felted 
together in several distinct layers until the walls of the domed 
nest consist of a tough cloth-like material impervious to rain. 
The nest is usually about four feet off the ground and is 
attached by its sides to several nearly parallel twigs. It varies 
in size and shape, but is generally about seven inches high by 
four inches wide, and more or less oval in form. The entrance 
is on one side near the top of the nest, through a short sleeve- 
like tube just wide enough to admit the bird. Immediately 
below it is a larger pocket or blind opening, in which, accord- 
ing to the Hottentots and Kaffirs, the male roosts. I once had 
an opportunity of watching a pair of Cotton Birds during the 
construction of their nest and for some time subsequently. 
As soon as the nest was completed the female laid an egg 
and added one every morning until seven were deposited. On 
leaving the nest after laying, and sometimes when inside, she 
generally carefully closed the entrance by pinching the upper 
and lower lips of the entrauce-tube together with her bill 
until no visible aperture was apparent ; on one occasion, 
before leaving the nest for the day, she stitched the upper lip 
to the lower so effectively that on her return it was some time 
before she herself could effect an entrance ; but on other 
occasions no attempt was made to close the opening during the 
day. It appeared to me at the time that the temperature of 
the interior of the nest was probably regulated by opening or 
closing the entrance tube ; at the same time the nest with 
entrance closed would be comparatively secure against the 
assaults of egg-eating snakes and lizards, reptiles which are 
common enough in most of the localities frequented by the 



^GITHALUS PUNCTIFRONS. 249 

' Cappoc Vogel.' " The eggs, six to twelve in a nest, are 
uniform pure white, and average - 56 inch by 0"38. 

In the British Museum there are specimens from Port 
Elizabeth, Kingwilliamstown, Rustenburg and Potchefstroom. 
Mr. T. Ayres found the species frequenting the scrub along 
the hill sides and the bush by the banks of the Limpopo. 
During his journey with Jameson they procured a pair at 
Spaldings, on the Hart river, and met with small flocks busily 
feeding amongst the low " Vaal bosch," a grey bush which is 
very common all over this part of the country. In Bamang- 
wato they met with a couple of deserted nests of this species 
on December 29, and at Boatlanami Pan found a nest con- 
taining one pure white egg. 



iEgithalus punctifrons. 

.Egithalus punctifrons, Sundev. (Efv. Vet. Ak. Handl. 1850, p. 129; 

Heugl. Orn. N. 0. CEfr. p. 410 (1869) Abyssinia, Sennaar ; Hartl. 

Zool. Jahrb. ii. p. 345 (1887) : Sclater, Ibis, 1887, p. 462 ; Shelley, 

B. Afr. I. No. 128 (1896). 
iEgithalus capensis (nee 6m.), Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 71, pt. Abyssinia. 

Adult. Above, pale dull ashy green washed with yellow on the lower 
back and upper tail-coverts ; wings brown with paler edges inclining to 
white on the primaries ; forehead pale yellow with tiny black spots ; beneath 
white with a greyish shade on the flank ; under wing-coverts and inner edges 
of quills white. Bill dusky horn colour ; iris brown ; legs grey. Total 
length 3'4 inches, culmen 0/3, wing 2, tail 1*25, tarsus - 5. 

The Abyssinian Penduline Tit is a native of Abyssinia. 
All the information I can find regarding this species is that 
von Heuglin considered it a very rare bird as he never met 
with it himself, and it was known to him only by a specimen 
Hedenberg shot in Sennaar and one in Prince Paul of Wurtem- 
berg's collection from the highlands of western Abyssinia. 



250 jEGITHALUS PARVULUS. 



^Igithalus parvulus. 

/Egithalus parvulus, Heugl. J. f. 0. 1864, p. 260; id. Orn. N. 0. Afr. 

p. 409 (I860) ; id. Peterm. Geogr. Muttheil. 1869, p. 414, Hartl. 

Abhand. Brem. 1881, p. 99 Redjaf ; id. Zool. Jahrb. ii. p. 347, pi. 

12, fig. 3 (1887) Bongo; Shelley, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 29 Kiri ; id. B. 

Afr. I. No. 129 (1896). 
JEgithalus capensis (nee Gm.), Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 71 pt. 

Adult Male. Forehead and front of crown sulphur yellow with minute 
black spots at the tips of the feathers, remainder of the upper parts greenish- 
yellow ; greater series of wing-coverts, quills and tail-feathers brown, 
broadly edged with yellowish-white ; sides of the head and the entire under 
parts uniform sulphur yellow ; under wing-coverts and inner margins of the 
quills white, the former slightly washed with yellow. Bill blackish ; iris 
brown ; legs grey. Total length 3 - 35 inches, culmen 0-35, wing T95, tail 
1-2, tarsus 0-5. Kiri, 3 , 24. 5. 84 (Bmin). 

Heuglin's Pencluline Tit inhabits Central Africa from the 
Albert Nyanza to the Gazal river. 

Bmin has collected specimens to the north of Albert 
Nyanza at Redjaf and Kiri. According to von Heuglin it is 
found, as a rare bird, in the forest of Bongo and along the 
banks of the Gazal river in flocks of three to six individuals. 
It is silent but active, constantly flitting with outstretched 
wings from bough to bough in the manner of our warblers, 
and is often to be met with in company with such birds as well 
as with the White-eyes hunting, like them, for insects especially 
caterpillars, and he once found a party of them huddled 
together on a horizontal bough, sheltering themselves from 
the cold. 



JEgithalus flavifrons. 

iEgithalus flavifrons, Cass., Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 72 (1883) ; Bocage, 
Jorn. Lisb. 1880, pp. 14, 242; id. Orn. Angola, p. 555 (1881) 



.EGITHALUS CAMAROONENSIS. 251 

Caconda ; Hartl. Zool. Jahrb. ii. p. 345 (1887) ; Bocage, Jorn. 
Lisb, 1893, p. 162 Galanga; Shelley, B. Afr. I. p. 130 (1896). 
Anthoscopus flavifrons, Sharpe, ed. Layard's B. S. Afr. p. 834 (1884). 

Type. Above, yellowish olive, paler and yellower towards the upper tail- 
coverts ; forehead uniform bright yellow ; quills and tail-feathers dark brown 
edged with yellowish olive ; beneath, pale yellow tinted with green ; under 
wing-coverts white. Bill blackish ; legs dusky flesh colour. Total length 
3"52 inches, culrnen 0-32, wing 2-4, tail 1-56, tarsus 0-52. 



The Gaboon Yellow-fronted Penduline Tit inhabits West 
Africa from Gaboon to Benguela. 

This species was discovered by Du Chaillu at the Moonda 
river in Gaboon, and Prof. Barboza dn Bocage has since 
recorded it from Caconda in Benguela, where it is called 
" Canopo." 

It is known to me only by the description and figure of 
the type specimen. 

The members of the genus are apparently not wide-ranging 
species, so I should doubt if this one inhabited the whole of 
West Africa from Senegambia to Benguela. I have accepted 
Prof. Barboza du Bocage' s determination of the Caconda bird 
as correct without having seen it or the type of this species, 
so have given the range of A. flavifrons as from Gaboon to 
Benguela. The Camaroons bird has apparently a much longer 
bill and the feet are of a different colour, and the Senegambian 
bird is a paler and smaller form, so I have divided this group 
into three species. 



iEgithalus camarooneusis. 

Bhaphidornis flavifrons (nee Cass.), Reichen. Orn. Monatsb. 1897, p. 123 

Camaroons. 
Anthoscopus flavifrons ? Reichen. J. f. 0. 1894, p. 42 Jaunde. 



252 iEGITHALUS CALOTROPIPHILUS. 

Type. Above, olive green ; forehead chrome yellow ; wings and tail 
dark brown, the feathers narrowly edged with olive yellow; beneath, buff; 
under wing-coverts and broad inner margins of quills white. Bill black ; 
iris ochre yellow ; feet bluish grey. Total length 3 - 6 inches, culmen 0-5, 
wing 2-2, tail 1-2. 



The Camaroons Yellow-fronted Penduline Tit inhabits 
Camaroons. 

The type of the species was discovered by Mr. Zenker at 
Bipinde in Camaroons, and through the kindness of Dr. 
Reichenow I have been able to examine it carefully and have 
taken my description from that specimen, and I may add that 
it is the only bird belonging to this West African group I have 
as yet seen, so they are apparently very rare, at least in 
collections. Mr. Zenker has found a nest of this species at 
Jaunde Station. 



iEgithalus calotropiphilus. 

/Egithalus calotropiphilus, Eochebrune, Bull. Soc. Pbilorn. (7) vii. p. 166 
(1883) ; id. Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, 1884, p. 271, pi. 16 ; Eeichen. 
J. f. 0. 1886, p. 438 ; Hartl. Zool. Jahrb. ii. p. 346 (1887) Senegambia. 

Type. Above, olive green, paler and yellower on the upper tail-coverts ; 
a narrow orange yellow forehead ; lesser wing-coverts ashy brown, with 
yellow edges ; quills and tail-feathers dusky olive with yellow margins ; 
beneath pale yellow ; under wing-coverts yellowish. Bill yellowish with a 
dusky tip ; feet flesh colour. Total length 2-8 inches, culmen 0-24, wing 
1-56, tail 0-72, tarsus 0-44. 



The Senegal Yellow-fronted Penduline Tit inhabits Sene- 
gambia. 

According to Monsieur Rochebrune this species inhabits 
the interior of Senegambia, but is rare. The species has 
been badly figured in company with the nest and egg, and 



.EGITHALUS CAHOLI. 253 

as I have not examined a specimen I feel I know nothing 
about it. 



iEgithalus caroli. 

iEgithalus caroli, Sharps, Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii. p. 71, pi. 1, fig. 1 (1883) ; 

Hartl. Zool. Jahrb. ii. p. 345 (1887) ; id. Abhand. Brem. 1891, p. 18 

Usambiro ; Shelley B. Afr. I. No. 132 (1896) ; id. Ibis, 1897, p. 527 

Nyasa; Stark, Faun. S. Afr. i. p. 312 (1900); Marshall, Ibis, 1900, 

p. 233 Mashona. 
Anthoscopus caroli (Sharpe), Shelley, Ibis, 1882, p. 257 Matabcle ; Sharpe, 

ed. Layard's B. S. Afr. pp. 327, 834 (1884) ; Marshall, Ibis, 1896, 

p. 244 Mashona. 
iEgithalus capensis (nee 6m.) Beichen. Vog. Deutsch. O. Afr. p. 214 

(1894) Usambiro. 

Adult. Upper parts pale ashy brown ; a broad forehead and sides of 
head whitish ; wings and tail brown with paler edges to the feathers ; throat 
and front of chest white, shading into rufous buff on the abdomen, thighs 
and under tail-coverts ; under wing-coverts and inner edges of quills buffy 
white. Bill dusky grey ; iris brown ; legs leaden grey. Total length 
3 inches, culmen 0*35, wing 2, tail 1'15, tarsus 0'55. Swaziland, $ ,1.1. 76 
(T. E. Buckley). 

Andersson's Penduline Tit inhabits Damaraland and eastern 
Africa from Swaziland about 27° S. lat. to Usambiro, south 
of Victoria Nyanza in about 3° S. lat. 

Charles Andersson discovered the species at Ovaquenyama 
in Damaraland and collected specimens there in May, June 
and August, and others at Elephant Vley in October. 

The most southern known range for this species in eastern 
Africa is Swaziland, where Mr. T. B. Buckley shot two 
specimens in July, which were formerly iu my collection. In 
the neighbouring Lydenberg district Mr. H. F. Francis caught 
a pair taking shelter together in a deserted Wax-bill's nest. 
In Matabele, Messrs. Jameson and Ayres procured a specimen 
at the G-anyani river in September, where it was known to 



254 jEGITHALUS MUSCULUS. 

tlie natives as " Nkilo," and they further inform us that it 
was shot while hunting among the buds and young leaves of 
the forest trees in company with others of the same species. 
Mr. Guy Marshall obtained the species in November near 
Salisbury in Mashonaland, and writes : " This little bird is 
not uncommon, but seems to be more in evidence during the 
winter months. Three or four individuals are usually found 
together assiduously investigating low trees and bushes, but 
they are especially fond of several kinds of very tall flowers, 
on which they find an abundance of minute insects. I have 
heard only a faint chirping note uttered." To the north of the 
Zambesi Mr. Whyte procured a specimen in Karonga in 
Nyasaland, which is now in the British Museum. 

Dr. Hartlaub records a specimen of this species as forming 
part of Bmin's collection from Usambiro, 3° S. lat., 38° E. long. 
This is the most northern known range for the species. Dr. 
Reichenow, by an oversight, refers this specimen to 2E. 
capensis (Vog. Deutsch. 0. Afr. p. 214), a species which has, I 
believe, never been met with anywhere to the north of the 
Zambesi. 

The habits of this species, no doubt, are very similar to 
those of JE. capensis, which Stark has described with great 
accuracy. 



JUgithalus musculus. (PI. 11, fig. 2.) 

iEgithalus musculus, Hartl. Orn. Centralbl. 1882, p. 91 ; id. J. f. 0. 1882, 
p. 326; id. Abhand. Brern. 1882, p. 198; id. Zool. Jahrb. ii. p. 347 
(1887) Laclo; Shelley, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 29 Lado ; id. B. Afr. I. 
No. 133 (1896); Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 476 Somali; Elliot, Field 
Columb. Mus. Orn. i. No. 2, p. 41 (1897) Somali; Grant, Ibis, 1900, 
p. 145 Abyssinia. 

Anthoscopus musculus (Hartl.), Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 68 Somali. 

.ZEgithalus capensis (nee Gm.), Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix. p. 71, pt. (1883). 



iEGITHALUS FRINGILLINUS. 255 

Adult. Upper parts pale ashy brown with a faint olive tinge ; wings and 
tail darker brown with paler edges to the feathers ; cheek and under parts 
white with a very faint shade of buff on the abdomen ; under wing-coverts 
aud inner edges of quills buffy white. Bill and legs slaty grey ; iris brown. 
Total length 3 - l inches, culmen 0-35, wing 1-9, tail l - 2, tarsus - 5. Lado, 
$, 9. 3. 81 (Emin). 



The Mouse-coloured Penduline Tit ranges through northern 
Equatorial Africa from the Upper White Nile into Somaliland. 

This is the northern representative of A. enroll, from which 
it differs chiefly in its paler colouring. It was discovered by 
Emin at Lado on the Upper White Nile where it is apparently 
abundant, for there are four of Emin's specimens from that 
locality in the British Museum. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott has obtained the species at Taveta, to 
the east of the Kilimanjaro Mountain, in August, 1888, aud 
the occurrence of this bird in Somaliland was first made 
known by Dr. A. Donaldson Smith procuring a specimen at 
Okoto in September, 1894. Mr. Elliot shot one at Hand and 
writes : " Seldom seen, but probably it easily escapes recogni- 
tion on account of its very small size," and Mr. Hawker met 
with the species at Ujawaji in January, but did not notice it 
elsewhere. Lord Lovat, during his journey from Somaliland 
to the Blue Nile, shot a specimen at Hawash in about 9° N. lat. 



iEgithalus fringillinus. 

Parus fringillinus, Fiseh. and Eeichen. J. f. O. 1884, p. 56 Maeru Mt. ; 
Fisch. Zeitschr. 1884, p. 340, pi. 19, fig. 1 ; id. J. f. 0. 1885, p. 139 ; 
Eeichen. Vog. Deutsch. O. Air. p. 213 (1893) ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. 
No. 123 (1896). 

Adult. Forehead, sides of head, neck, throat, and chest isabelline 
rufous, remainder of the under parts greyish brown washed with rufous ; 
crown grey mottled with black ; upper parts of the body grey shaded with 



256 CERTHIID.E. 

brown ; wings black, witb white edges to the feathers ; tail feathers black 
with small white ends and with white edges to the outermost pair ; bill, 
upper mandible horny brown, lower mandible and legs leaden grey ; iris 
brown. Total length 51 inches, culmen 0'45, wing 2-95, tail 2-2, tarsus 0-75. 



The Rufous-throated Penduline Tit inhabits Masailand in 
East Africa. 

On the Maeru mountain the late Dr. Fischer collected a 
male and two females, and I cannot find any additional in- 
formation regarding this species. 



Family VI. CEKTHIIDiE. 

Bill either short and stout or slender and long ; wing of ten primaries, 
with the first or bastard primary well developed ; tarsus short, not longer 
than either the middle or hind toe with claws ; claws sharply pointed and 
curved, that of the hind toe the longest ; tail of twelve feathers (nearly square 
in all the Ethiopian species). Sexes similar in style of plumage; nest cup- 
shaped and either hidden in a crevice or exposed on a bough ; eggs spotted. 



KEY TO THE SUBFAMILIES. 

a. Bill stout and rather wide, coral red, shorter 

than the head or tarsus, and with the keel 
slightly curved upwards ; rictal bristles well 
developed Hi/posittiim. 

b. Bill slender, compressed at the sides, longer 

than the head or tarsus and with the keel 
curved downwards ; no rictal bristles. 
a 1 . Nostril opening elongated, placed in a 
groove covered in above by a bare mem- 
brane GerthiincB. 

b 1 . Nostril opening round and not placed in a 

groove FalculiincB. 



HYPOSITTA CORALLIROSTRIS. 257 



Subfamily HYPOSITTIN2E and Genus HYPOSITTA. 

These divisions are represented by a single known Madagascar species, 
Hypositta corallirostris. 

Bill coral red, shorter than the head or tarsus, rather stout and wide, with 
the keel slightly inclining upwards ; no nasal groove, nostril round and 
partially hidden by nasal bristles ; rictal bristles strongly developed ; wing 
formula : 4, 5, 3 = 6, 7, 8 ; 2 = 9, 10 ; 1 = half of 2 ; tail slightly rounded, with 
the centre pair of feathers a trifle elongated ; hind claw half as long as the 
hind toe and much curved. 

Professor A. Newton first distinguished this genus under the name of 
Hypherpcs, but finding that Baron Chaudoir had previously employed that 
title in entomology he altered the name to Hypositta, by which it is now 
known. 



Hypositta corallirostris. 

Hypositta corallirostris, A. Newton, Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii. p. 366 (1883) 
Madagascar; Sibree, Ibis, 1891, p. 440; Shelley, B. Air. I. No. 139 
(1896). 

Hypherpes corallirostris, Milne Edw. and Grand. Hist. Mad. Ois. i. p. 319, 
pis. 121, 121% 121", 121 c (1882). 

Adult Male. General plumage bright blue with a band of black feathers 
entirely encircling the bill and black loral bristles ; under surface of the 
quills and tail black ; bill vermilion ; iris dark red ; legs leaden grey. Total 
length 5'5 inches, culmen 0'45, wing 315, tail 2-5, tarsus 065. 

Adult Female. Differs from the adult male in having the head and entire 
under parts yellowish brown with a strong wash of blue on the crown ; a 
broadish white band from the eye to the nostril and no black feathers next 
to the bill ; under wing-coverts yellowish-brown like the breast, under 
surface of the quills and tail dark brown, the former with broad rufous buff 
edges to the basal half of the inner webs. Total length 5*5 inches, culmen 
0-45, wing 3, tail 2-5, tarsus - 65. 

The Coral-billed Creeper is confined to Madagascar, where 
it is known only from the eastern side of the island. 

Mr. E. Newton first discovered the species at Chasmanna, 
and the type has been well figured. It was, I presume, an 

[April, 1000. 17 



258 CERTHIIN.E. 

adult female, for I had in my own collection a perfectly similar 
specimen, as well as a bright blue one, both procured by Cross- 
ley at Saralalan. Monsieur Grandidier's illustration of the 
female does not appear to me so accurate and the colouring is 
certainly too pale. He informs us that this bird inhabits the 
large forests, especially frequenting the damp ravines, where, 
after creeping up the trunk of one tree, it flies down to the 
base of the next to search that one in a like careful manner. 
They live silently and singly or in pah's, so that in habits they 
must much resemble our Common Tree-creeper. 
Its native name is " Sakody." 



Subfamily II. CEKTHIIN^. 

Bill long, slender and slightly curved ; tongue split at the tip ; nostril 
placed in a groove, opens in a slit and is overhung by a bare membrane ; no 
nasal nor rictal bristles ; tarsus shorter than the bill and scutellated in front. 
Adult and young birds of both sexes similar in plumage. 



KEY TO THE GENERA AND SPECIES. 

a. Hind claw much longer than the hind toe; 

back grey, portion of wings bright crimson . Ticliodroma muraria. 

b. Hind claw much shorter than the hind toe ; 

plumage brown and white ; upper parts 

brown with white spots and bars .... Salpornis salvadorii. 



Genus I. TICHODEOMA. 

T. muraria, the only species known of this genus, has the bill long, 
slender, nearly straight and black. Tongue split at the tip (Ibis, 1895, 
p. 256, fig. 2). Wing formula : 4 = 5; 6 = 3, 7, 2, 8, 1, 9; 1 = more than 
half of 2 and less than half of 4. Breeds generally in crevices in steep 
rocks and lays two or three eggs which are white spotted with reddish 
brown. 



TICHODROMA MURARIA. 259 



Tichodroma muraria. 

Tichodroma muraria (Linn.), Eiipp. Sysfc. Uebers, p. 23 (1845) Egypt, 
Abyssinia; Heugl. Orn. N. O. Afr. p. 236 (1869) Abyssinia; Gadow, 
Cat. B. M. viii. p. 331 (1883) ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 140 (1896). 

Adult. Above pale bluish grey slightly washed with brown on the crown 
and passing into dusky black on the tail-coverts ; lesser and median wing- 
coverts and the basal portion of the outer webs of the primary coverts and 
of many of the quills bright carmine red ; remainder of the wings brownish 
black slightly washed with grey on the innermost quills, and mostly with 
whitish ends ; the four outer long primaries have large white spots on their 
inner webs, and some of the secondaries have fawn colour spots similarly 
placed ; tail brownish black with broad pale ends ; chin and throat white ; 
breast and under tail-coverts dusky grey ; under wing-coverts dusky black 
partially washed with bright carmine. Bill black ; iris dark brown ; legs 
greyish black. Total length 6-4 inches, culmen 1*05, wing 3-9, tail 2-3, 
tarsus 0-9. 

The throat changes into grey or jet black at certain seasons. 



The Wall-creeper ranges from the Alps to the Himalayas 
and China, and is included in Ruppell's list of birds from 
north-east Africa, as a native of Egypt and Abyssinia. 

The only mention, I know of, of this bird occurring in 
north-east Africa is Ruppell's including it in his list in 1845, 
and as no one appears since then to have met with it, either in 
Egypt or Abyssinia, its right to be included in the birds of the 
Ethiopian region is very doubtful. 



Genus II. SALPOENIS. 

Bill longer than the head, slender and curved ; nostrils elongated, 
opening in a groove and overhung by a bare membrane ; tongue slender and 
smooth to the tip, which is divided into about five bristles (Ibis, 1895, 
p. 257, fig. 5) ; wing fairly long and pointed : 3, 4, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 ; 
1 not one quarter the length of 2, and not reaching to the end of the primary 
coverts. Nest, a neat cup-shaped structure, exposed on a bough. 



260 SALPORNIS SALVADORII. 

General plumage brown and white ; upper parts dark brown, spotted and 
barred on the wings and tail with white. 

Only two very nearly allied species are known : the type S. spilonotus 
a native of Central India, and S. salvadorii from Africa. The Indian bird 
has the bill slightly longer and more compressed, and the throat of a purer 
white. S. salvadorii, bill never more than 08 ; S. spilonotus, bill never less 
than 09, measured in a straight line from the frontal feathers to the tip. 



Salpornis salvadorii. 

Salpornis salvadorii (Bocage), Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii. p. 330 (1883) 
Bcngucla, Mashonaland ; Sharpe, ed. Layard's B. S. Afr. p. 835 
(1884) ; Shelley, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 37 Tobbo ; Biittik. Notes Leyd. 
Mus. 1888, p. 232 Kasinga B. ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1891, p. 590 ML Elgon ; 
Shelley, Ibis, 1894, p. 14 Nyasaland ; id. B. Afr. I. No. 141 (1896) ; 
Marshall, Ibis, 1896, p. 244 Salisbury ; Shelley, Ibis, 1899, p, 366 
Tanganyika plateau ; Marshall, Ibis, 1900, p. 235 Mashona. 

Salpornis emini, Hartl. P. Z. S. 1884, p. 415, pi. 37 Langomeri ; id. Zool. 
Jahrb. ii. p. 312 (1887) ; id. J. f. O. 1889, p. 115. 

Salpornis spilonotus salvadorii, Stark, Faun. S. Afr. i. p. 266 (1900). 

Adult. Above dark brown with white markings on each feather, 
diminishing in size towards the forehead, these marks inclining to shaft 
stripes on the crown and to bars and large terminal spots on the back and 
upper tail-coverts ; wing and tail-feathers with partial white bars and 
narrower white ends ; sides of the head white with the upper half of the 
ear- coverts brown ; under parts white, slightly washed with rufous buff on 
the breast, with brownish edges to the feathers of the sides and lower throat, 
and with partial brown bars on the feathers of the breast ; under tail-coverts 
broadly barred with blackish brown ; under surface of the wings brown, 
mottled with buffish-white on the coverts and with large white spots along 
the inner webs of the quills ; bill dusky brown, paler beneath ; legs ashy 
brown ; iris brown. Total length 5-75 inches, culmen - 8, wing 3-7, tail 2-5, 
tarsus 0-65. Ganyani B. (J. S. Jameson). 

Salvadori's Tree-creeper ranges over Central Africa from 
the Cunene and Limpopo rivers northward to about 6° N. lat. 

In Benguela the type of the species and several other 
specimens were collected by Anchieta at Caconda, and Prof. 
Barboza du Bocage, believing it to belong to an undescribed 



SALPORNIS SALVADORII. 261 

genus, named it Hylypsornis salvadori. Not far from where the 
type was discovered at the Kasinga river Mr. Van der Kellen 
procured a specimen, so it does not appear to be very rare in 
these countries. 

To the eastward in Mashonaland Messrs. Jameson and 
Ayres obtained a female specimen at the Ganyani river on 
September 17, and wrote : " A pair were seen creeping about 
the trunks and branches of the large trees. From the state 
of the ovary it was evidently about to lay." Mr. Guy Marshall 
has also met with the species in Mashonaland near Salisbury 
in October, and informs us that it is here called by the natives 
" Mangwidso," and writes : " Distinctly scarce, and I have 
seen only single individuals at some intervals. It searches the 
bark of trees for insects, much like the European Tree- 
creepers, commencing at the foot and rapidly working its 
way up, then flying on to the next tree." To the north of the 
Zambesi in Nyasaland specimens have been collected at Zomba, 
Fort Hill, and Ikarwa. The species has not been recorded 
from German Bast Africa, but has been obtained by Mr. 
Jackson at Save, on Mount Blgon, in February, at an elevation 
of 6,000 feet amongst acacia trees, and Emin procured speci- 
mens in the Upper White Nile district at Tobbo, Langomeri 
and Wadelai, its most northern range being South Macrara 
(5° 4' N. lat., 29° 31' E. long.). 

The type of 8. emini was obtained at Langomeri by Emin, 
who writes : " During a walk through the ripe eleusine-fields, 
a small bird met my attention climbing up and down the 
haulms, and flying in short whips from one haulm to another. 
What could it be ? Not a Nectarinia to be sure. The little 
unknown was very silent. But how great was my pleasure 
and surprise as my shot brought down a Gerthia, certainly the 
first bird of this group met with in Central Africa. All my 
efforts to procure more specimens were fruitless." 



262 FALCULfA PALLIATA. 

The nest and eggs of this bird have not yet been described, 
but they probably are very similar to those of its near Indian 
ally, S. spilonotus, of which Mr. Blanford writes (Faun. Brit. 
Ind. i. p. 333) : " Mr. Cleveland found the nest in Gurgaon on 
April 16. It was placed on a horizontal bough of a tree and 
attached to a vertical shoot. It was cup-shaped, and composed 
of bits of leaf-stalk and leaves, chips of bark, and the dung of 
caterpillars, bound together by cobwebs : it was very firm and 
elastic, the nest containing two young birds and one egg. 
The latter was greenish white, with a ring of blackish-brown 
specks round the large end, and a few specks over the 
remainder of the shell. It measured 068 by 0*53." 

Subfamily III. FALCULIINiE and Genus FALCULIA. 

These divisions are represented by a single known Madagascar species, 
Falculia palliata. 

Bill pearl grey, long, curved, and much compressed at the sides ; no 
nasal groove ; nostrils round and exposed ; no nasal nor rictal bristles ; wing 
formula : 4, 5, 3, 6, 7, 2, 8, 9, 10, 1 ; 1 = more than half the length of 4 ; 
tarsus, hind toe with claw, and middle toe with claw, all equal in length. 
Nest cup-shaped and placed in the fork of a bough. 



Falculia palliata. 

Falculia palliata, Geoff. St. Hilaire, Bull. Soc. Sc. Nat. 1835, p. 115 
Madagascar ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. hi. p. 145 (1877) ; Hartl. Vog. 
Madag. p. 86 (1877) ; Milne Edw. and Grand. Hist. Mad. Ois. i. 
p. 304, pis. 117, 117', 119, 120 (1879) ; Sibree, Ibis, 1891, p. 442 ; 
Shelley, B. Air. I. No. 142 (1896). 

Adult. Snow white, with the back wings and tail black with a green 
gloss. Bill and legs pearl grey ; iris deep brown. Total length 12-8 inches, 
culmen 2-4, wing 6-0, tail 8-0, tarsus 1-24. 

The Baby-bird inhabits the woods which grow on the dry 
sandy plains of west and south Madagascar. 



ALAUDiE. 263 

Here, according to M. Grandidier, it is to be seen climbing 
up the thick trunks of the trees or flitting from branch to 
branch in search of insects and tbeir larva?, which it picks out 
from the crevices of the bark with its long slender bill; but it is 
absent from the damper forests which clothe the eastern flanks 
of the great central mountain range. They live together in 
flocks of ten to fifteen, and have a heavy, slow flight. These 
forests to the west of the island resound with their strong 
plaintive cry which resembles that of a child, and has suggested 
the Sakalavas name " Voron-zaza" and the Antankaras name 
of " Fitilintsaiky," both of which signify Baby-bird, which, 
I think, may be well retained as an English name for this 
species. 

According to M. Grandidier, the nest is flat, with a slight 
depression in the middle, and consists of a rough mass of dry 
small branches lined with shreds of grass, and is generally 
placed in the fork of a bough at a considerable distance from 
the ground, and there the parents bring up a brood of three 
or four young ones, which are tended to by them for some 
time after leaving the nest. 



Section II. ALATJDJE. 

Bill variable in shape, rarely longer than the head ; tongue entire. 
"Wing with nine or ten primaries ; secondaries generally abnormally 
elongated, so as to extend nearly, or quite, to the end of the wing. Tail 
of twelve feathers and square at the end. Tarsus always with the hinder 
portion scaled when the wing has a bastard primary ; legs rather long and 
slender and well adapted for their terrestrial pursuits. They feed upon 
insects and seeds. Nest cup-shaped and placed on or near the ground and 
occasionally in holes. Eggs from two to five in number, spotted, whitish 
with brown or dusky markings, most numerous at the thicker end, near 
which they often form a zone. They are mostly gregarious after the 
breeding season and some are migratory. Generally, the plumage is alike 
in both sexes, varies somewhat according to the season, and the young 
distinctly marked. 



264 MOTACILLIDyE. 



KEY TO THE FAMILIES. 

a. Back of the tarsus plain ; wing of only nine 

primaries, bastard primary absent .... Motacillida. 

b. Back of tarsus scaled ; wing nearly always 

with a distinct bastard primary Alaudidce. 



Family VII. MOTACILLIDJE. 

Bill shorter than the head. Wing with only nine primaries, no bastard 
primary, the three outer primaries nearly equal and the longest ; larger 
secondaries reach almost or quite to tip of wing. Tail nearly square, of 
twelve feathers. Tarsi rather long and slender, bilaminated behind and in 
front somewhat scutellated. Generally the plumage is alike in both sexes 
and very similar in the nestling ; but sometimes the colouring is considerably 
altered by the autumn and spring moults. 

They frequent the ground mostly, especially near water, and feed almost 
entirely upon insects. About thirty-two species are known to occur in the 
Ethiopian region, and of these a third frequent it only during migration. 



KEY TO THE GENERA AND SUB-GENERA. 

a. Plumage of upper parts uniform and never 

brown in adults ; profile of culmen nearly 
straight from the base to the tip, and about 
equal in length to the outer toe with claw ; 

feet dark Motacilla. t-L^~ 

a 1 . Tail longer than the wing ; hind claw 

shorter than the hind toe. 
a 2 . Under tail-coverts white, subgen. . . . Motacilla, Linn. 1766. 
b 2 . Under tail-coverts bright yellow, subgen. Calobates, Kaup. 1829. 
b 1 . Tail shorter than the wing; hind claw 

longer than the hind toe ; lower throat, 

breast and under tail-coverts uniform 

bright yellow in full plumage, subgen. . . Budytes, Cuv. 1817. 

b. Plumage of upper parts brown and lark-like ; 

profile of culmen curved from the centre to 
the tip ; feet pale. 



MOTACILLA. 265 

c 1 . Outstretched feet not reaching beyond the 

tail Anthus. 

c 2 . Thighs almost entirely feathered ; little or 

no yellow on the wings or tail, subgen. Anthus, Bechst. 1807. 
d 2 . Thighs mostly naked ; under parts and 
more than half of the wings and tail 

bright yellow in adults, subgen. . . . Tmetothylacus, Cab. 
d 1 . Outstretched feet reaching beyond the tail ; [1879. 

feet extremely large ; hind toe with claw 
exceeding the length of the tarsus ; some 
bright colours on the under surface . . . Macronyx. 



Genus I. MOTACILLA. 

Upper surface uniform and never brown in adults ; bill fairly long and 
slender, with the culrnen nearly straight ; tail often longer than the wing 
and the outer feathers mostly pure white ; under tail-coverts white or bright 
yellow ; tarsi and feet dark. 

They all have a peculiar habit of raising and lowering the tail which has 
suggested for them the appropriate name of Wagtails ; feed entirely upon 
insects, which they mostly capture close to the ground, often darting after 
them with quick short runs. They breed in holes or dark corners, construct 
a cup-shaped nest, and lay about five eggs, which are white spotted or 
mottled with grey or brown. Of the thirteen forms I recognise as Ethiopian, 
six are confined to that region and the others occur there, generally in flocks, 
only during their winter migration from September to April. 



KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

, Under tail-coverts pure white. 
a 1 . Forehead, ear-coverts and a band through 
the eye to the gape black ; a broad white 
eyebrow extends forward to the bill. 

a". Planks black or dusky grey nigricotis. ~ 

b 2 . Flanks white or nearly so vidua. ^ c j 

b 1 . No black on forehead or ear-coverts. 

c 2 . No grey on ear-coverts ; forehead and 
ear-coverts white, except in very young 

birds alba. 2 j j. 

d 2 . Forehead and ear-coverts grey. 



266 MOTACJLLA NIGRTCOTIS. 

rt 3 . Mantle bluish grey. 

a 4 . None of the tail-feathers entirely 

white forivoodi. 

b*. Three outer pairs of tail-feathers 

entirely white longicauda. 

b 3 . Mantle ashy olive; chest yellowish 
white ; a rather broad dusky black 

crop-baud capensis. 

b. Under tail-coverts bright yellow. 

c 1 . Throat and front of chest white with a 

broad black collar fiaviventris. 2 % ( 

d 1 . No black collar. 

e 2 . Outer tail-feather entirely white. Wing 

shorter than tail mclanope. 2 

f 2 . Outer tail-feather not entirely white. 
Wing longer than tail. 
c 3 . Upper half of head not jet black. 
c 4 . Upper half of head yellow or par- 
tially so in adults ; crown never- 
grey campesiris. 2 

d*. Upper half of head mostly grey, 
with no yellow. 
« 5 . Throat yellow or with only the 
chin white. 
a . A complete broad, and distinct, 

white eyebrow flava. ?- 

b°. No pale eyebrow ; ear-coverts 

blackish, subsp borealis. I 

b 5 . Throat white ; generally an imper- 
fect white eyebrow, subsp. . . cinereicapilla. 
d 3 . Upper half of head entirely jet black 
in adults. Some black on the crown 
at all ages melanocephala. 



Motacilla nigricotis, sp. nov. (PI. 12, fig. 2.) 

Adult Male. Above, black ; a broad white eye-brow from the nostrils to 
above the ear-coverts separates the crown from the black sides of the head ; 
sides of neck black with a large white patch ; exposed portion of all but the 
innermost greater and median-coverts white, with black shaft-stripes to the 
latter ; base of all but the outer primaries white ; broad outer edges and 
narrow ends to the secondaries white as well as narrow terminal margins 



MOTACILLA NIGRICOTIS. 267 

to the inner primaries ; outer tail-coverts with broad white outer edges ; tail 
with the two outer pairs of feathers white with boldly marked partial black 
inner margins, next pair with a small basal portion of the outer web white, 
and an obsolete white outer edge to the centre pair of feathers. Beneath 
white, with a black collar extending in two bands from the ear-coverts and 
base of the neck, joining and widening out over the crop ; sides of body and 
thighs black ; under surface of the wing, with the under wing-coverts and a 
basal portion of most of quills wbite, remainder of the quills black. Bill 
and legs black; iris dark brown. Total length 7 - 6 inches, culmen 0-7, 
wing 3-7, tail 3-8, tarsus 1-0. North of Limpopo (Bradshaw). 

The Black-flanked Pied Wagtail inhabits the central South 
African watersheds of the Orange river and Limpopo. 

In 1885 when Dr. R. B. Sharpe published his article upon 
M. vidua (Cat. x. p. 488) there were only three specimens of 
M. nigricotis in the British Museum, and referring to them he 
wrote: "I cannot believe that they belong to a different species, 
and at present consider them to be the winter plumage of very 
old males." 

Against Dr. Sharpe's theory and in support of this being a 
good species I may remark that this form is known to occur 
only within a limited portion of central South Africa, and is 
now represented in the British Museum by the following six 
specimens : Hopetown, s , May (T. Atmore) ; De Wet's Drift, 
on the Vaal river, $ , 8. 5. 79 (T. Ayres); Transvaal (T. Ayres); 
and three specimens, including the type formerly in my own 
collection, obtained by the late Dr. Bradshaw during his travels 
from the Orange river through Matabele, which might have 
been labelled South Zambesia, but not Zambesi. 

As in ill. vidua the back assumes a slaty grey colour after 
the breeding season, and in this species the sides of the breast 
also fade in a like manner. The habits are no doubt similar 
to those of M. vidua, and as its range is included in that of 
its near ally, from which I am here separating it, as a distinct 
species, for the first time, I can find no special information 
regarding its economy. 



2G8 MOTACILLA VIDUA. 

The Wagtails generally are not shy birds, and frequent the 
neighbourhood of man ; are to be met with both in the fields 
and by the edges of water, constantly jerking their heads and 
tails, or run swiftly, with head depressed, catching at intervals 
the insects as they rise from the ground. They have two 
broods in the year and normally lay five eggs, which are white 
minutely freckled or blotched with brown. The nest is usually 
placed in a hole of a bank or wall and is constructed of grass, 
moss and fine roots, and warmly lined with hair and wool. 



Motacilla vidua. (PI. 12, fig. 1.) 

Motacilla vidua, Sundev. ; Eeichen. J. f. 0. 1875, p. 47 Camaroons ; 
Sharpe and Bouvier, Bull. S. Z. France, 1877, p. 477 Loango ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x. p. 488 (1885) Niger, Gaboon, Angola, Natal, 
Zambesi, Abyssinia; Fisch. Zeitschr. 1884, p. 307 Maurui, Pagani 
B.; id. J. f. 0. 1885, p. 137, Tana B., Barawa ; Biittik. Notes, 
Leyden Mus. 1885, p. 173; 1888, p. 74; 1889, p. 122 Liberia; 
Sousa, Jorn. Lisb., 1886, p. 164 dice ; 1889, p. 115 Catumbella ; 
Eeichen. J. f. O. 1887, p. 73 Irangi Kagehi ; Matschie, t. c. p. 143 
Karema, p. 156 Liifuku, Lagoma ; Schalow, t. c. p. 242; Shelley, 
Ibis, 1888, p. 292 Taveita ; Eeichen. J. f. 0. 1890, p. 124 Camaroons; 
id. 1891, p. 160 Taboro; p. 390 Togoland ; Shelley, Ibis, 1894, p. 
23 Upper Shire. ; Fleck, J. f. 0. 1894, p. 411 Okovango ; Eeichen. 
Vog. Deutsch. 0. Afr. p. 200 (1894) Bovuma B., Ugogo, Kakoma, 
Igonda, Speke's Gulf; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 473 Somali; 
Kuschel, J. f. O. 1895, p. 343 {egg) ; Sjostedt, K. Vet. Ak. Handl. 
Stockholm xxvii. No. 1, p. 93 Camaroons ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 
143 (1896) ; Kendall, Ibis, 1896, p. 174 Transvaal; Reichen. J. f. 0. 
1897, p. 42 Togoland ; Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1898, p. 72 Shird ; Boyd 
Alexander, Ibis, 1899, p. 562 Zambesi; Jackson, t. c. p. 626, 
Uganda; Oberholser, Pi\ U. S. Nat. Mus. 1899, p. 30 Liberia; 
Hartert in Ansorge's " Under Afr. Sun," p. 348 (1899) Unyoro, 
Uganda; id. Nov. Zool. 1899, p. 415 Gambaga ; Grant, Ibis, 1900, 
p. 139 Abyssinia ; Stark, Faun. S. Afr. i. p. 255 (1900) ; Marshall, 
Ibis, 1900, p. 238 Mashona. 

Motacilla lichtensteini, Cab. ; Hartert, J. f. O. 1886, p. 582 Niger. 

Motacilla vaillantii, Bp. ; Bouvier, Cat. Ois. Marche, &c, p. 16 (1875) 
Gaboon. 



MOTACILLA VIDUA. 269 

Motacilla alba (nee Linn.) Bohm. J. f. 0. 1885, p. 45. 

Adult Male. Entirely black and white. Above as well as the sides of 
the head and neck black, with the following parts white : — a broad eyebrow 
from the nostrils to above the ear-coverts, a patch on the side of the crop, 
most of the outer webs of the greater series of wing-coverts, basal portion 
of the quills with the exception of the outer one, outer margins of the 
secondaries, and the two outer pairs of tail-feathers with the exception of 
portion of inner margins. Beneath white, with a broad black crop belt ; 
flanks faintly mottled with grey ; thighs slightly mottled with black ; under 
wing-coverts and basal half of the inner webs of the quills white, with the 
remainder blackish brown ; bill and legs black ; iris dark brown. Total 
length 7-6 inches, culmen 0-65, wing 3'7, tail 3-8, tarsus 1-05. Umgeni 
Biver,<? 2. 6. 41 (Wahlberg). 

Adult (winter plumage). Similar to the adult male above described, 
but with the back blackish grey shading into black on the forehead and 
upper tail-coverts. 

The African Pied "Wagtail ranges over Africa generally, 
south from Liberia and Assouan on the Nile, and also inhabits 
St. Thomas Island and southern Palestine. This species 
appears to be common and generally distributed along the 
water-courses throughout its wide range, except in the Upper 
White Nile district from Victoria Nyanza to the Gazal river 
and Shoa, from which countries alone it has not yet been 
recorded. 

In Liberia, Mr. Biittikofer found the species plentiful on 
the sandbanks and rocks, specially frequenting the rapids and 
falls which occur along the rivers, and Mr. Hartert mentions 
it as apparently common along the banks of the Benue 
tributary of the Niger. 

Dr. Hartlaub in 1857 referred to M. lugubris a specimen of 
this species in the Hamburg Museum obtained by Weiss on 
St. Thomas Island. Mr. Monteiro calls these Wagtails 
common along the Quanza river and on the marshy plains of 
Cambambe. In Benguela, according to Anchieta, it is gene- 
rally distributed throughout the country, and is called by the 



270 MOTACILLA VIDUA. 

natives " Congombo." In the country between the Cunene 
and Orange rivers I find the species recorded by Mr. 
Fleck from Okovango, and along the banks of the latter 
stream, according to Andersson : " It is generally to be seen 
either singly or in pairs, and usually settles on stones or on 
the ground, along which it runs with great celerity in pursuit 
of small insects, which constitute its chief food, and it also 
skims the surface of the water for the same purpose." 
Levaillant discovered the type of the species at the Orange 
river, and according to Bradshaw it is very common along 
that stream, but scarce in Cape Colony. 

While I was in Natal I met with a pair at the mouth of 
the Umgeni river, and another pair at a small brook near 
Pinetown, which runs through a thickly wooded ravine. 
According to Mr. T. Ayres, the species is more abundant 
on the Vaal river than along the Limpopo, where M. ca/pensis 
predominates, but is the only species of Wagtail he met with 
on the Urnfuli river. With regard to the habits of this 
species, Stark writes : " It is most frequently met with on the 
borders of large rivers and vleis, almost invariably in pairs. 
It is also partial to pasture land, where it follows the cattle 
and horses for the sake of the flies and other insects which 
infest them. It feeds also on small beetles, the larvae of 
various water insects and mosquitoes. The latter it catches 
on the wing whilst skimming over the surface of the water. 
The ordinary note of this Wagtail is a sharp ' chirrup ' 
resembling that of the other species ; in spring and summer 
it has a low-pitched but pleasant and melodious song. It 
runs with great celerity, and its long tail is incessantly in 
motion, vibrating up and down. Its nest, built in September 
in inland districts, but about the beginning of August on the 
coast of Natal, is placed in a hole, on a ledge of rock, or 
against the bank of a stream. It is rather large, with thick 



MOTACILLA VIDUA. 271 

walls, and is cup-shaped, constructed outwardly of dead leaves, 
tendrils and dry grass, and lined with fine grass, rootlets and 
hair. The eggs, from three to five in number, are larger than 
those of the Cape Wagtail, of a pale brown ground-colour, 
thickly freckled and spotted all over with dark brown and 
grey. Tbey measure 0*90 x O60." 

The species is common along the whole course of the 
Zambesi, where in the neighbourhood of Tete Sir John Kirk 
informs us that it is called " Droindwi " and is never injured 
by the natives, who have some superstitious belief connected 
with it. In the Shire highlands specimens have been collected 
by Mr. Alexander Whyte, who writes : " This is the common 
"Wagtail at Fort Johnston on the Upper Shire. It is quite 
tamo about the station, where it is the only familiar bird; it 
has a sweet note." Specimens have also been collected by the 
late Mr. Joseph Thomson at the Rovuma river, by Sir John 
Kirk in Ugogo, and by Bohm and Fischer throughout German 
Bast Africa, and to as far north as the Tana river and Barawa 
on the Somali coast. In Equatorial Africa Mr. Jackson met 
with the species on Manda Island and inside his camp at 
Taveita, Mr. Ansorge at Fajao and Masindi in Unyoro, and at 
Kampala in Uganda, yet I do not find the species recorded 
from the Upper White Nile between Victoria Nyanza and the 
Grazal river, nor from Shoa ; but in north-east Africa, accord- 
ing to von Heuglin, the species occurs on the Lower White 
Nile and its tributary streams, at Azrag, the Atbara, and at 
Berber in Nubia. Riippell found it in Abyssinia, and at its 
most northern range on the Nile, the First Cataract, it has 
probably been remarked by most tourists, boldly wagging its 
tail as it rests on the large water-worn granite boulders within 
a few yards of the passing boat. It was here I first became 
acquainted with this graceful and confiding species, and being 
an ornithologist and a lover of birds I shot the first specimen 



272 MOTACILLA ALBA. 

I saw, and its mummied form is now in the British Museum, 
which is the only proper place in England for interesting 
specimens of birds ; and if others would follow my example by 
placing their collections in our National Museum it would be 
a great boon to science, and do away with the useless slaughter 
of the innocents. 



Motacilla alba. 

Motacilla alba, Linn. ; Hartl. J. f. 0. 1861, p. 161 Gasamansc ; Sclat. and 
Hartl. P. Z. S. 1881, p. 167 Socotra ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x. p. 464 
(1885) Gambia, Socotra, Abyssinia ; Yerbury, Ibis, 1886, p. 17 
Aden; Hartert, J. f. 0. 1886, p. 583 Niger ; Kendall, Ibis, 1892, 
p. 216 Gambia; Barnes, Ibis, 1893, p. 78 Aden; Shelley, B. Afr. I. 
No. 144 (1896) ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 66 Somali ; Jackson, t. c. 
p. 625 Mumias and Ravine ; Hartert, in Ansorge's " Under Afr. 
Sun," p. 348 (1899) Unyoro ; Grant, Ibis, 1900, p. 139 Abyssinia. 

Motacilla gularis, Swains.; Bouvier, Cat. Ois. Marche, &c, p. 16 (1875) 
Dakar. 

Adult (winter plumage). Head white, with the hinder half of the 
crown and the nape jet black ; back of neck, back and lesser wing-coverts 
grey, shading into dusky black on the upper tail-coverts, remainder of the 
wings black with broad white ends to the median coverts and white edges 
to the greater coverts and secondaries, and very narrow ashy white edges to 
the primaries ; under wing-coverts and inner margins to the quills white ; 
tail with the four centre pairs of feathers entirely black, the outer two pairs 
white with oblique broad black edges to their inner webs and a similar 
shaped black mark on the basal portion of the outer web of the penultimate 
feather ; under parts white, shading into ashy grey on the sides of the body, 
and with a broad black crop-band. Total length 7'4 inches, culmen 0-55, 
wing 3-5, tail 3'6, tarsus 0'9. $, 3. 12. 97, Somali (Hawker). 

The White Wagtail breeds in Europe and Asia and 
migrates into Africa, from October to May, to as far south as 
the Equator. 

In the British Museum there are four specimens from 
Senegambia, and Dr. P. Kendall, who met with it near 
Bathurst, writes : " During the autumn months there were a 



MOTACILLA ALBA. 273 

few pairs generally on the islands." In the Niger district 
Thomson procured the species at Idda, and Mr. Hartert found 
it, on two occasions, in the province of Sokoto during the 
month of December. 

In Central Equatorial Africa, between the Victoria Nyanza 
and Albert Nyanza, Mr. Ansorge found the species common 
from November to January, at Fajao and Masindi in Unyoro, 
and Mr. Jackson collected four specimens, in February, at 
Mumias and Eavine, which is the most southern known range 
for the species. 

To the east of the Nile water-shed, Lord Lovat remarks : 
" This "Wagtail takes the place of M. vidua on all the rivers not 
in the Nile basin, Kassin river, Gibbek, and Turgu." In 
Somaliland Mr. Hawker shot one at Gebili, and writes : " This 
bird often came into camp in the early morning and walked 
about for a short time and then flew off after satisfying its 
curiosity." On Socotra island, in February and March, Prof. 
Balfour found the species "common on all the perennial streams, 
where they reach the lower plains," and according to Messrs. 
Grant and Forbes : " This Wagtail was fairly common in 
Socotra both on the Hadibu plain and about the Dinichirs 
river in the Goahal valley. A few were also met with on the 
higher ground at Hornhill." At Aden, according to Major 
Yerbury, it is " a regular cold-weather visitant, appearing, too, 
at odd times of the year." 

In Abyssinia Mr. Blanford calls it : " Common both on the 
highland and near the coast." He further remarks : " On the 
1st of May there were still specimens on the highlands around 
Lake Ashangi, but only very few remained. A month earlier 
they had been numerous." Von Heuglin found the species in 
winter along the White Nile, in Abyssinia, at Req Lake, and 
believed it to be resident in Egypt. 

[April, 1900. 18 



274 MOTACILLA FORWOODI. 

The name of White Wagtail was given to this species by 
Latham in 1783. 



Motacilla forwoodi. 

Motacilla forwoodi, Grant and Forbes, Bull. Liverpool Mus. ii. p. 3 (1899) 
Socotra. 

Similar to M. alba in form and colouring, with the exception of the head. 
Total length 7 inches, culmen 0-5, wing 3-3, tail 3-5, tarsus 0-9. ? , 23. 2. 99, 
Abd-el-Kuri ; forehead grey like the back ; sides of head white with the 
cheeks and ear-coverts ashy grey or washed with dusky blackish ; centre 
and sides of hinder half of crown strongly washed with black ; chin and 
entire throat jet black. ? , 4. 12. 98, Abd-el-Kuri ; forehead and crown 
uniform grey like the back ; sides of head, chin, and throat white, with the 
cheeks and ear-coverts washed with ashy grey ; a black crop-band. 

The Socotra Pied Wagtail inhabits the island of that name 
and the adjacent islets. 

Mr. Ogilvie Grant kindly informs me : " This species was 
only met with on the island of Abd-el-Kuri, where it was 
common enough on the stony plain outside the Arab village. 
Unfortunately I did not at the time distinguish it from M. alba, 
and only secured two examples, an adult and an immature, 
both females." 

The species has been named after Sir William Forwood, of 
Bromborough Hall, Cheshire. 



Motacilla longicauda. 

Motacilla longicauda, Eiipp. ; Shelley, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 306 Ugogo; 
Sharpe, C. B. M. x. p. 495 (1885) Natal ; Shelley, P. Z. S. 1885, p. 
228 Kilimanjaro ; Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. 1889, p. 122 Liberia ; 
Shelley, Ibis, 1893, p. 27 ; 1894, p. 23 Zomba, p. 472 Milanji ; 
Eeichen. J. f. 0. 1894, p. 40 Camaroons ; id. Yog. Deutsch O. Afr. 
p. 201 (1894) ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 146 (1896) ; Eeichen. J. f. O. 
1896, p. 35 Camaroons; Sharpe, Ibis, 1897, p. 515 Zululand; 
Shelley t. c. p. 527 Eombi ; 1898, p. 553, Mtondwe ; Stark, Faun. 
S. Afr. i. p. 257 (1900). 



MOTACILLA LONGrCAUDA. 275 

Motacilla sp. Bocage, Jorn. Lisb., 1881, p. 292 Biballa. 

Adult. Above, uniform leaden grey ; sides of head grey inclining to 
black in front of the eye and separated by a broad white eyebrow from the 
forehead and crown ; wings black with the least coverts grey, and with 
white terminal edges to some of the other wing-coverts and white edges to 
the secondaries, most strongly developed on the innermost feathers ; tail 
with the four outer pairs of feathers entirely white, the two centre pairs 
black with narrow white edges ; under surface pure white with a narrow 
dusky black crop- belt. "Bill black; iris brown ; legs grey." Total length 
7-3 inches, culrnen 0-6, wing 3-1, tail 3-9, tarsus 0-85. $ , 8. 5. 75, Pinetown 
(T. L. Ayres). Sexes exactly alike in plumage, g ? , 9. 6. 75, Pinetown 
(T. L. Ayres). 

The Long-tailed Pied Wagtail ranges over Africa south 
from Liberia and Abyssinia. 

Although this species has a wide range it cannot be re- 
garded as common anywhere, and appears to occur in western 
Africa only as a straggler. From Liberia Mr. Biittikofer 
writes : " A single specimen was collected by me at the falls 
of the Du Queah river, where it was found together with 
M. vidua ; this is the first statement of the occurrence of this 
species in West Africa." 

In Camaroons, as yet, this species is known by a single 
specimen procured by Dr. Preuss at Victoria in May, and its 
occurrence in Benguela rests on one specimen mentioned by 
Prof. Barboza du Bocage from Biballa, procured there by 
Anchieta. 

In Cape Colony, according to Layard, it is rare ; but he 
records it from Grahamstown, Buffalo river and Kingwilliams- 
town. In Natal these Wagtails are probably fairly abundant, 
for although I did not meet with them, a friend of mine, Mr. 
T. L. Ayres, has sent me several from Pinetown, where he then 
lived, and the Messrs. Woodward have procured a specimen 
at Eschowe in Zululand. Mr. T. Ayres found these Wagtails 
in Natal frequenting the rocky streams generally in pairs, and 



276 MOTACILLA LONGICAUDA. 

was struck with their particularly graceful movements as they 
glided over the stones in search of insects, their favourite food 
being a soft small dragon-fly, and further remarks that they 
warble very prettily though not loudly. According to Stark : 
'' This peculiarly beautiful and graceful Wagtail is not un- 
common on such of the rocky streams of Natal and Zululand 
as are broken by numerous rapids and waterfalls, and I have 
myself never met with it elsewhere. Unless the young have 
lately left the nest, seldom more than a pair are seen together, 
and these monopolise a certain range of stream, which they 
appear never to leave. In their habits they closely resemble 
the Grey Wagtail of Europe. A newly completed nest, found 
near Pinetown in Natal on August 5, was built on the ledge 
of a rock by the side of a waterfall ; it was rather bulky, con- 
structed outwardly of dead leaves, moss and dry grass, the 
cup-shaped hollow lined with fine rootlets and hair." 

To the north of the Zambesi these Wagtails are distributed 
over the Shire highlands and along the streams which flow 
from the mountains into Lake Nyasa, for Mr. Wkyte has 
collected specimens on the Milanji plateau, along the Mtondwe 
river, at Zomba and at Kombi on the Masuku mountains at 
7,000 feet. 

All that I can find regarding its occurrence in German 
East Africa is that Sir John Kirk sent me a specimen from 
Ugogo, which is now in the British Museum, and that Sir 
Harry Johnston collected two specimens on Kilimanjaro at an 
elevation of 6,000 feet, so it is strange to note the absence of 
this species in the large collections made by Bohm, Fischer, 
Emin, Mr. Jackson and Dr. Ragazzi. 

Antinori sent five specimens from Shoa collected in May, 
June and August, and in Abyssinia Riippell discovered the 
type of the species in the Semien district. Von Heuglin met 
with it in the provinces of Adet and Telent and along the 



MOTACILLA. CAPENSIS. 277 

Takazze river, and remarks that its note much resembles that 
of our Grey Wagtail. 



Motacilla capensis. 

Motacilla capensis, Linn. ; Shelley, Ibis, 1875, pp. 60, 73 Cape, Natal; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x. p. 493 (1885) ; Distant, Naturalist in Transv. 
pp. 49, 70, 164, 168 (1892) Pretoria; Bocage, Jorn. Lisb. 1893, p. 
162 Galanga; Fleck, J. f. 0. 1894, p. 411 Damara, Namaqua ; 
Eeichen. Vog. Deutsch O. Afr. p. 201 (1894) Karagwe ; Kuschel, 
J. f. 0. 1895, p. 343 (egg) ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 145 (1896) ; 
Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1898, p. 72 SMre ; Jackson, Ibis, 1899, p. 626 
Nandi; Stark, Faun. S. Afr. i. p. 259 (1900); Marshall, Ibis, 1900, 
p. 238 Mashona. 

Adult Male. Above, dusky grey with an olive yellow shade on the back 
and lesser wing-coverts ; sides of head dusky grey like the crown, and 
separated from it by a somewhat ill-defined whitish eyebrow ; wings dark 
brown with pale edges of olive yellow passing into white along the tips of 
the greater coverts and the outer edge of the first primary ; tail with the 
two outer pairs of feathers white with black oblique marks on the basal 
half of their inner webs, and a similar shaped black mark on the outer web 
of the penultimate feather ; the remainder of the tail-feathers dusky brown 
with very narrow pale edges. Under parts white with a slight yellow 
shade on the breast, which is separated from the throat by a dusky brown 
crop-band much increased in breadth at the centre ; flanks and thighs 
yellowish ashy; under surface of wings dusky brown, mottled with white 
on the under wing-coverts, and with partial broad white inner edges to the 
quills. Bill and legs very dark brown ; iris brown. Total length 6-8 inches, 
culmen 0-55, wing 3"3, tail 3-4, tarsus 09. S , 22. 6. 75, Pinetown (T. L. 
Ay res). 

The Cape Wagtail inhabits Africa to the south of the 
Quanza river on the west and the Equator in central and 
eastern Africa. 

On the western side of the oontinent Anchieta has collected 
specimens at Caconda, where it is called by the natives 
" Oquicecenebanene," and he considered it rare at Galanga. 
To the south of the Gunene, according to Andersson : " This 



278 MOTACILLA CAPENSIS. 

is rather a local bird in Damara and Great Namaqualand, but 
is found somewhat numerously in moist and humid localities, 
and is also at times pretty freely met with on the sea-shore. 
It occurs sometimes in small flocks. It captures its prey both 
on the wing and by running along the ground, frequently 
following in the wake of cattle and picking up such small 
insects as may chance to be thus disturbed. The nest of this 
Wagtail is found in a variety of situations, and is composed 
of tendrils and soft pliable plants. The eggs are three or 
four in number, and are generally of a yellow-drab tint, 
profusely speckled with obscure spots of pale brown, especially 
towards the larger end." The species is also recorded from 
German South-western Africa by Mr. Fleck. 

Stark informs us that these Wagtails are resident on the 
barren and waterless guano islands off the west coast, and 
with regard to their breeding habits writes : " The nest, 
usually commenced in September, is a somewhat bulky cup- 
shaped structure, built of dry grass and dead leaves and lined 
with short hairs and fur. It is often placed against the bank 
of a river or stream, under a stone, or among the exposed 
roots of a tree or bush, sometimes in the hole of a wall or 
rock, and at others on a heap of driftwood. The eggs, three or 
four in number, are buff-coloured, thickly spotted and mottled 
all over with brown. They average about 0'84 x 0"56." 

Bradshaw found them very common along the Orange 
river. Layard writes : " The ' Quick Stertje ' as it is called 
by the colonists, is abundant throughout the colony, frequent- 
ing the crowded cities equally with the outlying farmsteads," 
and adds : " In the country, each farm-house and ' pondok ' 
(mud-dwelling of Hottentot labourer) has its well-known pairs 
of this engaging bird; and woe to the unlucky urchin who 
dares to meddle with them or their nests ! To say that ' the 
angels won't love them,' would be a blessing compared to the 



MOTACILLA CAPENSIS. 279 

fate that would be prophesied for the wicked child. "We have 
often seen the master of the house sitting in his chair in the 
cool of the evening, and, perhaps, while one bird perched on 
the rail of his chair, another would jump at the flies on his 
soil-stained shoes, while two or three more stood pecking at 
those that plagued the old dog lying at his master's feet. 
Perhaps one or two would have found their way into the 
voorhuis, or entrance hall, where a rich harvest awaited them 
in the bodies of those flies slain by the attendant dark urchins, 
who, often ignorant of breeches or petticoats, guard their 
master's viands with a plume of dirty ostrich-feathers or leafy 
bough torn from the nearest tree. 

" These birds consort much with cattle, and jump up 
against their sides as they stand lazily chewing the cud, to 
catch the small flies that keep about them ; they also con- 
gregate in considerable number on the sea-beach, to feed on 
the flies bred in the putrefying sea- weed ; they run along the 
sand with great agility, or walk with a stately, swaggering 
gait, which is very amusing. They also congregate in flocks 
upon favourite trees for the purpose of roosting ; and this 
may chiefly be observed in towns. 

" The nest is generally constructed in a bank if in the 
fields ; but when in the town they select a hole in the wall, 
or a dense mass of leaves in some plants creeping up the wall 
or tree. The nest is composed of leaves, small roots, and 
horse-hair, with which the structure is lined. The eggs are 
four or five in number, greyish white, minutely freckled with 
brown, chiefly at the obtuse end." With regard to these 
Wagtails in Natal Messrs. Butler, Feilden and Reid write : 
" Everywhere abundant inland but not so numerous, appar- 
ently, in the neighbourhood of the coast. A graceful, lively 
bird, with an extremely pretty little song, not often heard. 
Nests were found in September, October and November, built 



280 MOTACILLA CAPENSIS. 

on the banks of streams or dry ' dongas,' among overhanging 
roots, or under projecting stones ; they are cup-shaped, neatly 
and massively constructed of dry grass, lined with fur and 
cows'-hair. The eggs, three in number usually, are brownish 
cream colour, very indistinctly freckled with brown, and very 
slightly glossed : 0'85 inch by 0'55." 

Between the Vaal and Limpopo rivers Mr. T. Ayres found 
them breeding, and Mr. Distant records them from Pretoria 
where he remarks they are as common as the sparrow in 
England, but from their tameness and partiality for the 
habitations of man they reminded him of our Robin, and like 
that bird they are as little molested. No winged insect 
apparently comes amiss as food for these birds ; he saw one 
kill an Arctiid moth (Binun madagascariensis) and another 
pursuing a butterfly belonging to the genus Acrsea, which is 
generally exempt from the attack of birds. He also records 
seeing a swarm of winged ants (Tennes angustatus) largely 
destroyed by the Cape Wagtails. 

The late Mr. Frank Oates procured a specimen at Inyati 
and Mr. T. Ayres records the species from Mashonaland, and 
from this country Mr. Guy Marshall writes : " Everywhere 
abundant, occurring near water in flocks varying from 
three or four up to twenty individuals." He found both this 
species and M. vidua nesting in tussocks of grass in the middle 
of the dry bed of the Umfuli, and remarks : " There must have 
been a considerable destruction of young birds when the river 
came down with a 4-foot wall of water a week later. Although 
a resident, it appears to be considerably more numerous 
during the summer months." 

The species apparently becomes rare to the north of the 
Zambesi, for it has not yet been recorded from Nyasaland and 
only from Karagwe in G-erman East Africa, although it ranges 
to as far north as Naudi near the Equator, at which latter 



MOTACILLA FLAVIVENTRIS. 281 

place Mr. Jackson shot an adult male in May at an elevation 
of 6,500 feet. 



Motacilla flaviventris. 

Motacilla flaviventris, Verr. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x. p. 496 (1885) 
Madagascar; Sibree, Ibis, 1891, p. 441; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 147 
(1896). 

Adult. Above, deep grey with a slight yellow shade on the lower back 
and scapulars ; sides of the head deep grey inclining to black in front of the 
eye, and separated from the crown by a white eyebrow ; wing brownish 
black with the least coverts grey, the other feathers with partial pale edges, 
the quills have a large white patch towards the base confined to the inner 
webs of the primaries and crossing both webs of the secondaries ; under 
wing-coverts white ; upper tail-coverts and four pairs of centre tail-feathers 
black, and the outer two pairs of tail-feathers white, with broad oblique 
black inner edges ; throat and front of chest white with a black crop-band, 
remainder of the breast and the under tail-coverfcs bright yellow ; thighs 
white. Iris brown ; bill and legs blackish. Total length 6 - 8 inches, culinen 
0-55, wing 3-3, tail 3-4, tarsus 0-9. 



The Madagascar Wagtail is confined to the island of that 
name. 

This is the only species of the family Motacillidx which has 
yet been met with in the Madagascar subregion. According 
to M. Grandidier, who has devoted so much energy in study- 
ing the birds of Madagascar, the females and young differ 
from the adult males in being of a duller colouring, with the 
rump less green and the abdomen paler. Their habits are 
like those of the other better-known Wagtails : they frequent 
the banks of streams and lakes and damp districts, always on 
the move, walking step by step, or running swiftly after some 
insect, and constantly flitting their tails up and down. Their 
flight is undulating and generally close to the ground. They 
are mostly found singly or in pairs, like other Wagtails, when 
not on migration, and feed on the insects and their larva? 



282 MOTACILLA MEL AN OPE. 

which they find near the water, and are tame and confiding. 
Their eggs are greenish, covered with dots and streaks of 
pale brown, and measure - 8 inch by 0"6. 

The Antanosis call them " Salaly," and the Betsimisarakas 
give them the name of "Seritra" (= jokers) on account of 
their way of wagging their tails at the passer-by. "Tsitsio," 
another of their names, is derived from their note, which is 
very similar to that of others of the genus. The Rev. J. 
Sibree adds " Fandiafasika " as their Hova and general name, 
and " Triotriotsa," "Triotrio" and " Seritse " as other pro- 
vincial names. 



Motacilla melanope. 

Motacilla melanope, Pall. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x.p. 497 (1885) Bogos ; id. 
Ibis, 1891, p. 588 Man, Mt. Elgon; Kendall, Ibis, 1892, p. 217 
Gambia ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 148 (1896) ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 
1898, p. 401 Somali; Jackson, Ibis, 1899, p. 627 Ravine; Grant, 
Ibis, 1900, p. 140 Abyssinia. 

Motacilla sulphurea, Bechst. ; Salvad. Ann. Mus. Genov. 1888, pp. 263, 
536 Shoa. 

Motacilla boarula, Linn. ; Salvad. Mem. R. Ace. Torino (2) xliv. p. 557 
(1894) Somali. 

Adult (winter). Tail longer than the wing, breast yellow. Above, grey, 
with the rump, upper tail-coverts and partial edges to the tail-feathers 
olive shaded yellow ; sides of head grey, darker in front of the eye, and 
separated from the crown by a fairly distinct white eyebrow ; wing brownish 
black with the least series of coverts grey, and the other feathers with 
partial pale edges, broadest and slightly shaded with yellow on the innermost 
feathers ; sides of body and under wing-coverts grey ; quills with a white 
patch towards the base, confined to the inner webs of the primaries and 
crossing both webs of the secondaries ; tail with the centre three pairs of 
feathers black, and the three outer pairs white with partial black outer 
edges, excepting the outer pair which are entirely white ; breast and under 
tail-coverts bright yellow. Bill, iris and legs brown. Total length 7 - 8 
inches, culmen 0*5, wing 3-4, tail 5-2, tarsus 0-8. 

Immature. Less yellow on the breast, and throat shaded with rufous buff. 



MOTACILLA CAMPESTRIS. 283 

The Grey Wagtail migrates into Northern Africa in winter, 
to as far south as the Equator, and ranges over the greater 
part of Europe and Asia. 

The most southern known range for the species in West 
Africa is the Gambia river, where Dr. P. Rendall records it as 
a rare visitant. In eastern Africa Mr. Jackson has collected 
specimens from the neighbourhood of the Equator, from Mau 
and Ravine in September and March, and on Mount Elgon in 
February. In Somaliland the Grey Wagtail has certainly 
been met with on two occasions, one of which was by Mr. 
Lort Phillips in February, at the Hankadeely wells on the 
Wagga mountain, at 7,000 feet. Lord Lovat, while on his way 
from Berbera to the Blue Nile, collected specimens at Baroma 
and Gedda, and writes : " I shot one specimen of the Grey 
Wagtail in the middle of the Kuni forest, several miles from 
water." In Shoa it is said to be common by Antinori and 
Dr. Ragazzi, who have procured specimens in October, 
November, January and March. In the British Museum there 
is an immature specimen shot by Mr. Blanford on the 10th of 
August in the Lebka Valley, and Brehm records the species 
from Mensa in April, and von Heuglin suggests that it 
possibly remains throughout the year in the mountainous 
districts of Abyssinia, along the streams of which he found 
it common during the autumn and spring months. 

The name of Grey Water Wagtail was given to this species 
by Edwards in 1758, and it was made the type of the genus 
Calobates, Kaup, in 1829. It is much nearer allied to Motacilla, 
Linn., than to Budytes, Cuv. 



Motacilla campestris. 

Motacilla campestris, Pall. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x. p. 510, pi. 6, figs. 1, 2 
(1885) Senegambia, Gold Coast, Gaboon, Natal, Zambesi, Tigre ; 



284 MOTACILLA CAMPESTRIS. 

Shelley, Ibis, 1890, p. 164 Yambuya; Kendall, Ibis, 1892, p. 216 
Gambia ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 149 (1896) ; Hartert, Nov. Zool. 
1898, p. 72 Shird; Shelley, Ibis, 1898, p. 379 ML Mlosa, Zomba ; 
Jackson, Ibis, 1899, p. 626 Ravine; Hartert in Ansorge's "Under 
Afr. Sun," p. 247 (1899) Uganda, Unijoro ; Grant, Ibis, 1900, p. 140 
Abyssinia; Marshall, Ibis, 1900, p. 238 Mashona ; Stark, Faun. S. 
Afr. i. p. 260 (1900). 

Budytes carnpestris, Reichen. J. f. O. 1889, p. 284 Quilimane ; 1892, 
p. 52 ; id. Vog. Deutsch O. Afr. p. 200 (1894) Bukoba. 

Budytes rayi, Bp. ; Reichen. and Liihder, J. f. O. 1873, p. 217 Accra ; 
Oust. N. Arch. Mus. (2) ii. Bull. p. 104 (1879) Ogowe ; Hartert, 
J. f. O. 1886, p. 583 Niger ; Emin, 1891, p. 346 Bukoba. 

Motacilla flava var. rayi, Reichen. J. f. O. 1875, p. 47 Camaroons ; 
Sjostedt, K. Sv. Vet. Ak. Handl. Stockholm, 1895, p. 93 Camaroons. 

Adult. With some yellow on the upper half of the head. Upper parts 
olive yellow ; eyebrow, sides of head and entire under surface bright yellow, 
mottled on the sides of the head with olive ; wing with the least coverts olive 
like the back, remainder of the feathers dark brown with pale edges, 
broadest and approaching to white at the ends of the median and greater 
coverts and the edges of the secondaries ; under wing-coverts yellowish 
white and the basal half of the inner webs of the quills with ill-defined 
whitish edges ; tail with the four pairs of centre feathers brownish black 
with partial narrow yellowish white edges ; two outer pairs of feathers white 
with oblique black marks on the inner edges and a smaller similarly shaped 
mark on the outer web, next to the shaft, of the penultimate feather. Bill 
blackish brown fading into dull yellow at the base of the lower mandible ; 
iris brown ; legs pale brown. Total length 5-8 inches, culmen 0-5, wing 3-25, 
tail 2-8, tarsus 09. 

Immature. Differs in the less amount of yellow, which is confined to a 
wash of that colour on the lower breast and under tail-coverts, entire crown, 
back and scapulars being earthy brown ; eyebrow buff like the throat, and 
an indication of a dusky collar round the basal half of the throat. 



The Yellow-browed Wagtail ranges over the whole of 
Africa and Western Europe and through south-eastern Russia 
into Turkestan. 

Specimens have been collected by Marche and De Com- 
piegne at Dakar and Ruffisque on Cape Verde. At the Gambia 
Dr. P. Rendall occasionally met with it, and Verreaux has 
procured the species from Casamanse. Mr. Bi'ittikofer does 



MOTACILLA CAMPESTRIS. 285 

not mention it from Liberia; but from the Gold Coast there 
are specimens in the British Museum collected by Col. 
Strachan in that country, and one of Mr. Godfrey Lagden's 
from Ashantee, and Drs. Reichenow and Liihder met with them 
in flocks along the Accra coast. Mr. Hartert records meeting 
with this species twice at Loko on the Benue tributary of the 
Niger, and in the highlands to the north found it throughout 
the winter in full breeding plumage. In Caraaroons the 
species has been found by both Dr. Reichenow and Mr. 
Sjostedt. From Gaboon there is one of Verreaux's specimens 
in the British Museum, and Marche met with it in the Ogowe 
district. On the Congo at Yambuya, Jameson procured the 
species while waiting with the ill-fated rear-guard of the 
Stanley expedition. 

The most southern known range for this Wagtail is the 
country between the Limpopo and Vaal rivers, from whence Mr. 
T. Ayres, in a paper on the ornithology of the Transvaal, 
writes: "Male and female, shot January 3." In the British 
Museum there are two specimens collected by Sir John Kirk 
at Tete on the Zambesi and specimens of Mr. A. Whyte's 
collecting from Zomba and Mount Mlosa in the Shire highlands, 
where the species has also been procured by Dr. P. Rendall. 
To the eastward at Quilimane Dr. Stuhlmann obtained a 
specimen in March, and informs us that it is there called by the 
native " Djiriko." In German East Africa, on the western 
shores of Victoria Nyanza, Emin found the species at Bukoba 
in November and December. In British East Africa, Mr. 
Ansorge frequently met with it in Unyoro and Uganda from 
October to March, and Mr. Jackson at Bavine in March, when 
they were in company with M. flava. In like manner Mr. 
Elliot, when he shot a specimen at Berbera in Somaliland, 
found it in company with the nearly allied species M. borealis 
and M. cinereicajpilla. At Harrar Meyer Lake, about 100 miles 



286 MOTACILLA FLAVA. 

south-west, Lord Lovat also met with the species, and in 
Shoa Antinori procured a specimen in March at Mahal- Uonz. 
Further north Mr. Blanford shot one at Adigrat in Tigre. 
Von Heuglin in his work on the birds of north-east Africa 
does not mention the species, regarding it possibly as only a 
variety of M. flava. 



Motacilla flava. 

Motacilla flava, Linn. ; Eeichen. J. f. 0. 1877, p. 30 Loan-go ; Fisch. and 
Eeichen. J. f. O. 1878, p. 268 Lamu ; Fisch. J. f. 0. 1879, pp. 294, 
303 Bagamoyo ; Shelley, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 573 Pangani; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. M. x. p. 516, pi. 6, figs. 3—5 (1885) Gold Coast, Niger, 
Damara, Transvaal, Zambesi, Socotra, Abyssinia ; Buttik. Notes 
Leyd. Mus. 1885, p. 174 ; 1886, p. 253 ; 1888, p. 74 ; 1892, p. 23 
Liberia; Shelley, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 27 Lado ; Bendall, Ibis, 1892 
p. 216 Gambia, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 473 Somali; Shelley, 
B. Afr. I. No. 150 (1896); Hinde, Ibis, 1898, p. 579 Machako's; 
Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 66 Somali; Boyd Alexander, t. c. p. 562 
Zambesi ; Jackson, t. c. p. 626 Ntebi, Bavine ; Hartert in Ansorge's 
"Under Afr. Sun," p. 347 Uganda, Unyoro ; Stark, Faun. S. Afr. i. 
p. 261 (1900). 

Budytes flavus, Shelley and Buckley, Ibis, 1872, pp. 282 Sierra Leone, 
290, 292 Gold Coast; Bouvier, Cat. Ois. Marche, &c. p. 16 (1875) 
Gaboon; Fisch. J. f. O. 1878, p. 279 Lamu, Osi B.; Sclat. and 
Hartl. P. Z. S. 1881, p. 168 Socotra ; Pelz. Verhandl. Wien. xxx. 
p. 145 (1881) Lado, Bedjaf, Eiri ; Fisch. Zeitschr. 1884, p. 307; id. 
J. f. 0. 1885, p. 137 Bagamoyo to Barawa, Wapokomo ; Eeichen. 
J. f. 0. 1887, p. 73 Magu, Kagehi ; Matschie, t. c. pp. 143 
Tanjanyika, 156 Likulwe, Katapana ; Eeichen. t. c. p. 307 Stanley- 
Falls ; 1891, p. 390 Togo ; 1892, p. 52 Sesse Is., Eiandibua, Bukoma; 
id. Vog. Deutsch O. Afr. p. 200 Ualaba B., Bonga B., Igonda, 
Ugalla, Massai, Bokoba ; Eeichen. J. f. 0. 1897, p. 43 Togo. 

Subspecies a. 

Motacilla borealis. 

Motacilla borealis, Sundev. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. p. 522, pi. 7, figs. 1—3 
(1885) ; Salvad. Mus. E. A. Torino, 1894, p. 557 Somali; Shelley, 
B. Afr. I. No. 151 (1896) ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1896, p. 81 Somali; 



MOTACILLA CINEREICAPILLA. 287 

Elliot, Field Coluinb. Mus. I. No. 2, p. 40 (1897) Berbera. 
Motacilla flava borealis, Stark, Faun. S. Afr. i. p. 263 (1900). 

Subspecies b. 

Motacilla cinereicapilla. 

Motacilla cinereicapilla, Savi ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x. p. 526, pi. 7, figs. 

4—6 (1885); Dubois, Bull. Mus. Belg. 1886, p. 148 Tanganyika; 

Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 152 (1896) ; Elliot, Field Columb. Mus. i. 

No. 2, p. 40 (1897) Somali; Shelley, Ibis, 1899, p. 282 Zomba. 
Motacilla flava var. cinereicapilla, Reichen. J. f. 0. 1875, p. 47 

Camaroons. 

Adult. Upper half of the head and the nape blue grey with a white 
eyebrow ; chin and some of the upper throat white ; remainder like 
M. campestris. 

Subspecies a. 

Adult. Differ from M. flava only in having no white on the upper half 
of the head, which is generally darker. 

Subspecies b. 

Adult. Differs in plumage from M. flava and M. borealis in the greater 
extent of white on the throat, which extends over more than the entire 
upper half of the throat, and there is a trace of white on the sides of the 
upper half of the head. 

M. flava, the Common Yellow AVagtail, ranges all over Africa 
during the winter months; breeds in Europe, Siberia and 
China, and migrates eastward into the Moluccas. 

M. borealis, the Dusky-headed Yellow Wagtail, likewise 
migrates throughout Africa in winter and ranges over Europe 
and Asia generally. 

M. chxereica-pilla, the White-throated Yellow Wagtail, is 
known to breed in the countries surrounding the Mediterranean, 
and to wander southward through Africa to at least as far 
south as 15° S. lat. and northward into Belgium. 

With regard to these Yellow Wagtails, I, like Dr. E. B. 
Sharpe in 1885 (Cat. B. M. x. p. 457), do not feel confident 



288 MOTACILLA CINEREICAPILLA. 

in the specific value of their characters, and some of the 
synonyms may prove to be referred to the wrong forms. I 
have therefore treated M. borealis and M. cinereicapilla as 
subspecies of ill. flava. 

Layard procured a specimen which lighted on his vessel 
while ninety miles off the coast of Senegambia, and according 
to Dr. Kendall these "Wagtails are common at the Gambia 
throughout the winter months. When I stopped at Sierra 
Leone, on my way to the Gold Coast, Yellow Wagtails were 
feeding: on the mud-banks in Free Town harbour. In Liberia 
specimens have been collected by Demery along the Sulymah 
river, and Mr. Biittikofer found them common on the farms, 
sometimes close to the native villages, and often in the same 
localities as M. vidua. 

Gordon, who was the first to record the species from the 
Gold Coast, writes : " In considerable numbers during the dry 
season, disappearing on the setting in of the rains and return- 
ing early in November." I and Mr. T. B. Buckley found them 
abundant on this coast in February and March, about a month 
before the rainy season. In Togoland it has been met with 
by Mr. Baumann. In the Niger district Forbes collected 
three specimens at Shongo in December, Mr. Hartert procured 
a specimen at Loko in May, and remarked it there only on two 
occasions, but found it more abundant in the highlands to the 
north, where they retained their bright plumage throughout 
the winter. 

Marche and De Compiegne collected specimens in Gaboon, 
and Dr. Reickenow records it as having been procured by 
Falkenstein on the Loango coast, and by Bohndorff at Stanley 
Falls on the Congo. 

From the West African subregion I find no record of 
M. borealis; but M. cinereicajnUa is represented in the British 
Museum by a specimen labelled " Senegal (Laglaize)." Dr. 



MOTACILLA ClNEREICAPILLA. 289 

Reiclieuow records it from Caraaroons, and Mr. Dubois mentions 
a specimen as forming part of the collection made by Storms 
during bis journey through the Congo district to Lake 
Tanganyika, and this subspecies has been more recently pro- 
cured by Lieut. -Col. Manning at Zomba to the south of Lake 
Nyasa. 

Drs. Finsch and Hartlaub refer to M. borealis one of 
Andersson's skins from Damaraland, and Seebohm's collection 
contained a specimen obtained by Mr. T. Ay res in the Transvaal. 
To the north of Nyasaland in eastern Africa all three forms 
appear to be fairly represented. 

From South Africa there are three specimens in the British 
Museum collected by Andersson, who writes : " I had been 
fifteen years in Damaraland before I became aware of the 
existence of this Wagtail, which I first observed at Objim- 
bincpie in 1865." He further adds : " It is a migratory bird, 
and appears only in or about the rainy season." Layard, in 
his first work on the birds of South Africa, records a specimen 
from Swellendam, and in his more recent edition informs us 
that a specimen was shot by Mr. F. Dumbleton about fifteen 
miles from Cape Town, and observes, " he had previously told 
us that he had seen a specimen about the same farm many 
years before, and as he was a close observer of birds we feel 
sure that his observations may be trusted, and we may con- 
clude from the fact that only two specimens were met with by 
him in sixteen years, that this Yellow Wagtail is a very rare 
and accidental visitor to this part of South Africa. Mr. T. C. 
Rickard mentions the fact of a specimen having been killed 
once near East London." Wahlberg procured the species at 
Port Natal. 

From the Transvaal Mr. T. Ayres writes : " This Wagtail 
appears here in our spring in considerable numbers, and leaves 
again about the latter end of April ; they do not appear to 

[April, 1900. 10 



290 MOTACILLA. CINEREICAPILLA. 

nest here, neither are they in good plumage ; the best-plumaged 
birds are to be got just as they are leaving. During their stay 
here they are common on our market-square early every 
morning, where they find abundant food amongst the short 
grass, and the cow-dung, which attracts many insects, on 
which they are often to be seen feeding in company with 
Motacilla capensis." 

Along the banks of the Zambesi, Mr. Boyd Alexander 
remarks : " Considerable numbers of immature birds put in an 
appearance for the first time at Zumbo on December 10," and 
Sir John Kirk collected two specimens lower down the river at 
Likoja, in March, which are now in the British Museum. 

Bohm collected specimens along the banks of the Ualaba 
river and Lake Tanganyika, at Likulwe in November, and at 
Katapana in March. Sir John Kirk sent me a specimen from 
the Pangani river, where the species has been likewise met with 
by Fischer in November and December. Fischer also collected 
specimens at the Eonga river in March, and along the east 
coast from Bamangwato to Barawa on the Somali coast, in 
Masailand, Wapokomoland, and by the shores of Victoria 
Nyanza, at Magu and Kagehi in the Uniamwesi country, where 
the species had been previously met with by Speke. At the 
opposite, north-west, side of this great inland sea, Dr. Stuhl- 
mann found these Wagtails at Bukoba in October, and in 
December at Kiandibua and on Sesse island. Emin has 
collected specimens at Redjaf and Kiri in December, and at 
Lado on the Upper White Nile in October and February. Mr. 
Ansorge met with these Wagtails frequently in Unyoro and 
Uganda from October to March, and Mr. Jackson likewise 
records them as abundant from October 7 to March 21 at 
Ntebi and Ravine. Dr. Hinde found the species very common 
at Machako's, and near the coast Fischer procured a specimen 
on Lamu island, and found them in October in large flocks at 
Kau on the Osi river. 



MOTACILLA MELANOCEPHALA. 291 

In Somaliland Dr. A. Donaldson Smith shot a specimen at 
Sheik Husein in September, and Mr. Hawker one at Jifa Medir 
in January. At Berbera Mr. Elliot obtained specimens of 
M. campestris, M. borealis and M. cinereicapilla, and writes : 
" A large flock of these birds had come to drink at a rill 
escaping from a cistern close by, and I fired at them and 
procured these three species. It was the only time I saw 
them. The different species were all mingled together, 
maintaining no distinctive organisation, and I supposed there 
was but one, until I picked them up." Mr. Lort Phillips 
records M. borealis as " fairly common, and seen hunting for 
insects among the feet of the feeding cattle." 

Off the Somali coast in the island of Socotra, Prof. Balfour 
saw them on the mud-flats extending inland a short distance 
from the head of Grhor Gharrich. Two of his specimens now in 
the British Museum belong to the typical subspecies M. flava. 

Antinori records the Yellow Wagtail as found in Shoa from 
November to May. Mr. Blanford met with both M. flava and 
M. cinereicapilla in Abyssinia, and von Heuglin remarks that 
they pass on migration along the shores of the Red Sea and 
from the Upper White Nile to the Delta, in which latter district 
he believed they remain to breed. 

Motacilla melanocephala. 

Motacilla melanocephala, Licht. ; Haiti. Abhand. Brem. 1881, p. 99 

Lado ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 153 (1896) ; Stark, Faun. S. Afr. i. 

p. 263 (1900). 
Motacilla feldeggi, Michahj Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x. p. 527, pi. 8, figs. 

1-4 (1885) Transvaal, Abyssinia; Yerbury, Ibis, 1886, p. 17 Aden; 

Barnes, Ibis, 1893, p. 79 Aden ; Jackson, Ibis, 1899, p. 626 

Berkeley Bay ; Grant, Ibis, 1900, Abyssinia. 

Adults. Differ from M. flava only in having the entire upper half of 
the head jet black, and the immature birds may be recognised by their 
always having some black feathers on the upper half of the head. 



292 MOTACILLA MELANOCEPHALA. 

The Black-lieacled Yellow "Wagtail ranges from the Trans- 
vaal through Eastern Africa into South-eastern Europe, India 
and Central Asia. 

With the exception of the one specimen in the British 
Museum from the Transvaal, this species has never been 
recorded from south of the Equator. Regarding this specimen 
the late Mr. J. H. Gurney writes (Ibis, 1871, p. 155): "A 
male with a fully developed black head was sent by Mr. Ayres 
with seven specimens of B. flava. In common with many other 
naturalists, he does not appear to consider this form as 
specifically distinct." 

The most western range known to me for this species is 
Lado, on the Upper White Nile, 5" V 33" N. lat., 31° 49' 35" 
E. long., where Emin has met with it. Along the northern 
shores of Victoria Nyanza Mr. Jackson shot a specimen at 
Berkeley Bay and writes : " Two or three others seen running 
about on water-lilies and other aquatic plants in a secluded 
nook in Berkeley Bay. First individual of this species seen. 
In company with M. melanope." To the north-east Lord 
Lovat shot a specimen at Lake Harrar Meyer. Along the 
shores of the Red Sea the species has been procured at Aden, 
and on the western side at Assus in Samhar in April. 
Here Antinori met with an extraordinary flight of this, and 
probably the allied species of Yellow Wagtails, which lasted 
for some days, after which time only a few isolated pairs 
remained. These pairs, I should fancy, breed in north-east 
Africa, for according to Riippell, they remain in Egypt and 
the Abyssinian highlands throughout the year. Mr. Blanford 
writes from Abyssinia : " Common everywhere during the 
winter, and I suspect many remain and breed in the highlands 
of Abyssinia, for birds of this species were still abundant 
around Lake Ashangi at the beginning of May, although they 
had then assumed the nuptial plumage more than a month." 



ANTHUS. 293 

From the above, and from my own experience of this 
species in Egypt, it appears that these Black-headed Wagtails, 
like their nearest allies, migrate northward in April, and that 
some stop by the way at localities suited to their tastes for 
breeding, and that, although their places may be filled to some 
extent by recruits, the large flocks gradually dwindle down 
and leave but a few stragglers for the frontier of their range. 
In like manner when southward bound, a few more energetic 
than the rest overreach the normal range and may account for 
the species having been found in South Africa, where it appears 
to be very rare. 

I cannot agree with Dr. R. B. Sharpe in rejecting the name 
of Motacilla melanocephala, Licht., 1823, for this Wagtail, 
because Gmelin described a Warbler, Sylvia melanocephala 
(Gm.) Seebohm Cat. B. M. v. p. 29, under the name of Motacilla 
melanocephala. 

Genus II. ANTHUS. 

Plumage generally mostly brown with the back mottled with black, 
giving to these birds a very Lark-like appearance. Sexes alike in colouring. 
Bill rather slender, with the culmen slightly arched. Wing longer than the 
tail, and of only nine primaries. Tarsi and feet pale. The immature birds 
generally differ from the adults in having the upper parts darker with the 
pale edges to the feathers narrow, and the flanks are more streaked. 

To this genus I refer nineteen Ethiopian species and subspecies, of 
which five range into Europe and sis into Asia, but none have been found 
in the Madagascar subregion. It would be inconsistent to place one species 
in the genus Tmetothylacus and not recognise Calobates and Budytes 
as distinct from Motacilla. The character of absence of feathers on the 
lower portion of the thighs is well-marked in A. pallidiventris, which in this 
respect is somewhat intermediate between A. pyrrfionotus and A. tenellus. 



KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Pale portion of tail never bright yellow ; bare 
portion of legs never extends half way up the 
thighs. 



294 ANTHUS. 

a 1 . Under wing-coverts near the bend of the 
wing bright yellow. 
rt 2 . Some yellow on centre of chest . . . chloris. 
b 2 . No yellow on the chest. 

ft 3 . Upper parts mottled ; body strongly 

streaked lineiventris. z 5 

b 3 . Upper parts and flanks uniform. . . crenatus. i? 
b 1 . No bright yellow on the plumage. 

e 2 . Hind claw shorter than the hind toe 
(except in some specimens which have 
no white pattern on the tail). 
c 3 . Planks streaked. 

ft 4 . Tail with half the outer feather and 

an angular tip to the next pure 

white. 

a 5 . Larger: wing more than three 

inches ; upper parts shaded with 

olive trivialis. i?j 

b 5 . Smaller : wing less than three 
inches ; upper parts shaded with 

rufous caltliorpm. 

b 4 . Tail with no distinct pure white 

pattern. 

c 5 . Smaller : wing about 2-6 inches . brachyurus. ?»;> 

ft" 5 . Larger : wing more than 3 inches. 

a°. Upper parts mostly blackish 

brown ; no white on the breast ; 

flank stripes broad and black . latistriatus (type). J" 
b G . Upper parts ashy brown ; under 
parts mostly white ; flank- 
stripes narrow and brown . . melindce (type). 
d 3 . Flanks uniform. 

c 4 . Mantle uniform in adults. 

c 5 . Hind claw less curved and rarely 
shorter than the hind toe ; upper 
parts dull brown. 
c°. Tarsi and feet longer; tarsus 
1-25 inches; middle toe and 
claw 1-1 ; breast mostly white, pallidiventris . ■' 
d a . Tarsi and feet shorter. . . . pyrrhonotus f 
a 7 . Hind claw generally longer 
than the hind toe. S. Afr. 

subsp pyrrhonotus, Vieill. 

b 1 . Hind claw equal to, or shorter 
than the hind toe. Not S. 
Afr. subsp goiddi. 






ANTHUS CHLORIS. 295 

f 5 . Hind claw more curved ; mantle 
more rufous and generally paler ; 
very rarely with any angular pale 
tip to the penultimate tail-feather ; 
rather large, wing, 3-8 to 4-2 inches vaalensis. 
d 4 . Mantle mottled, with dark centres 
to the feathers ; penultimate tail- 
feather generally with an angular 
pale terminal patch not extending 
down the feather in adults by more 
than the breadth of the feather. 
<7 5 . Bill shorter ; general colouring 

more rufous nicholsoni. 

/t 5 . Bill longer; general colouring of 

upper parts ashy sordidus. .? /t _ 

d 2 . Hind claw longer than the hind toe, also 
a pure white pattern on the two outer 
pairs of tail-feathers, and the shaft of 
the outer one generally pure white. 
e s . Flanks uniform ; no olive shade on the 
upper parts. 
e 4 . Throat uniform or only slightly 
mottled with dark shaft- stripes ; 
dark centres to the inner secondaries 
narrower and lanceolate, .... campestris. 5 
/ 4 . Throat strongly mottled with dark 
shaft-stripes ; dark centres to the 
inner secondaries broader and less 

lanceolate rufulus. •? / r , 

/ 3 . Flanks strongly streaked ; an olive 
shade on the upper parts. 
g 4 . Bump and upper tail-coverts uni- 
form ; no vinous rufous on the 

throat pratensis. 

h 4 . Bump and upper tail-coverts mottled 
like the back ; often with the throat 

vinous rufous cervinns. 

b. Entire lower half of the thighs bare ; pale pattern 

of the tail bright yellow tensllus. ■?; 

Anthus chloris. 

Anthus chloris, Licht. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x. p. 539 (1885) Natal ; 
Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 151 (1896) ; Stark, Faun. S. Afr. i. p. 243 
(1900). 



296 ANTHUS CHLORIS. 

Anthus icterinus, Hartl. Ibis, 1862, p. 147 Swellendam. 

Adult (summer). Upper parts blackish brown with broad pale edges 
to the feathers, the latter almost hiding the dark centres on the hind neck 
and lower back ; the outer wing-coverts and most of the primaries edged 
with yellow ; axillaries and a large portion of the under wing-coverts next 
to the bend of the wing bright yellow ; tail-feathers blackish brown, with 
narrow pale edges slightly tinted with yellow, and some white on the outer 
wo pairs ; outer tail-feather white with a patch on the basal portion of the 
inner web blackish, penultimate feather with an angular white end ; sides 
of head brown mottled with black and white and tinted with yellow on the 
sides of the forehead and behind the eye ; chin, throat, breast and centre 
of abdomen bright yellow with black shaft-stripes to the feathers of the 
lower throat and sides of fore-chest ; remainder of the under surface of 
the body buff washed with a more tawny shade on the flanks and with 
blackish lanceolate centres to the greater under tail coverts. Total length 
7-1 inches, culmen 0-5, wing 335, tail 2-9, tarsus 095. Newcastle, <? , 
9. 11. 81 (Butler). 

Adult (winter). Differs only from the summer plumage in having the 
sides of the head white with no trace of yellow, the yellow of the under 
parts confined to the centre of the chest, the remainder of the throat and 
chest being tawny buff fading into white towards the chin, and the dark 
shaft-stripes of the lower throat less strongly marked. Newcastle, $ , 6. 7. 81 
(Butler). 

The Smaller Yellow-tufted Pipit inhabits South. Africa, 
south of the Orange and Limpopo rivers. 

The most western range known for this species is Swel- 
lendam ; here Mr. Cairncross procured a specimen which Dx\ 
Hartlaub described, and proposed for it the name of A. 
icterinus, if it should prove to be distinct from the present 
species which he by error calls A. limonellus, Licht. The type 
came from " Kaffraria," and in the same district, at Grahams- 
town, the species has been procured by Mr. Granville. Stark 
writes : " I met with this Pipit in numbers on the veldt near 
Nottingham Road, in Natal, in October and November, 1893. 
They were in pairs, but had apparently not commenced nesting. 
A male had its stomach filled with the remains of mantides 
and small beetles. At this season the cocks were frequently 



ANTHUS LINEIVENTKIS. 297 

to be heard singing from the tops of the ant-hills, or occasion- 
ally as they flew from one resting place to another. Their 
notes reminded me of those of the English Meadow Pipit. 
They resemble the latter bird also in their habit of creeping 
through the grass and running quickly across the more open 
spaces." All the specimens I have seen that have been shot 
in May, June and July are in the winter dress. In the latter 
month Captain Savile Reid met with the species at the 
Ingagani river : " very local and only to be found on one 
particular open flat near the main drift." In breeding 
plumage, the whole throat and front of chest is bright yellow, 
as shown in the front figure (P. Z. S. 1882, p. 336, pi. 
18), taken from a specimen shot by Major B. A. Butler at 
Newcastle on November 9, and which I made the type of 
A. butleri. This specimen, with the rest of my collection, is 
now in the British Museum. 



Anthus lineiventris. (PI. 13, fig. 1.) 

Anthus lineiventris, Sundev. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x. p. 540 (1885) Natal, 
Transvaal; Shelley, Ibis, 1894, p. 23 Zomba ; id. B. Afr. I. No. 
155 (1896); Bendall, Ibis, 1896, p. 174 Transvaal; Sharpe, Ibis, 
1897, p. 515 Zulu; Shelley, Ibis, 1898, p. 379 Zomba; Stark, 
Faun. S. Afr. i. p. 245 (1900). 

Adult. Upper parts dusky brown with paler ashy brown edges to the 
feathers ; upper wing-coverts and edges of the primaries partially washed 
with yellow ; axillaries and under wing-coverts near the bend of the wing- 
bright yellow ; tail-feathers blackish brown with very narrow partial yellow 
edges and angular white ends to the outer four pairs, largest on the outer- 
most one and deepest on the inner webs next to the shafts ; sides of head 
brown mottled with buff, and with a broad, not very clearly defined buff 
eyebrow ; under parts buff with black shaft-stripes on the sides and base of 
throat, chest and flanks. " Bill pale brown, with the culmen and end 
blackish ; irides light brown ; tarsi and feet pale " (T. Ayres). Total length 
6-9 inches, culmen 0-65, wing 3-3, tail 2-8, tarsus 1-1. Bustenberg, ? , 
29. 7. 78 (T. Ayres.) 



298 AN THUS CRENATUS. 

The Striped Yellow-tufted Pipit inhabits Africa south of 
about 9° S. lat. Iu West Africa a single specimen has been 
procured at Pungo Ndongo, just north of the Quanza river, 
where, according to Anchieta, it is called by the natives 
" Kaparala," apparently a local name for all Pipits. This 
is the type of A. angolensis, Bocage, and I find no further 
record of its occurrence in any other part of the western half 
of Africa. 

In Natal, my friends Mr. T. L. Ayres collected two speci- 
mens for me at Pinetowu in January and June, and Mr. 
Glordge one in Zululand. In the latter country the Messrs. 
Woodward met with the species at Eschowe and at the Ivuna 
river below the Nongoma range. Near Rustenberg Mr. T. 
Ayres procured a specimen in July, and writes : " It is a 
"very uncommon species, frequenting rocky hill-sides, especially 
where the stream issues from the rock." In the Barberton 
district a specimen was shot by Dr. P. Rendall, and the type 
of the species was discovered by Wahlberg at the Limpopo 
river. To the north of the Zambesi two specimens have been 
collected at Zomba in the Shire highlands, and are now in 
the British Museum. The species extends into German East 
Africa, for I have examined a specimen in the Berlin Museum, 
dated December 3, 1897, which was obtained by Dr. Flilleborn 
to the north of Lake Nyasa. 



Anthus crenatus. (Pi. 13, fig. 2.) 

Anthus crenatus, Finsch and Hartl. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x. p. 541 (1885) 
Cape Col. ; Shelley, B. Air. I. No. 156 (1896) ; Stark, Faun. S. Afr. i. 
p. 245 (1900). 

Adult. Upper parts uniform earthy brown with obsolete dark centres 
to the feathers of the crown and mantle ; wings dark brown with the 
edges of the feathers pale and shaded with yellow towards the outer margin 



ANTHUS TRIVIALTS. 299 

of the wing ; under wing-coverts bright yellow near the edge of the wing ; 
tail brown with partial narrow yellow edges, pale pattern of tail brownish 
white, and almost confined to the ends of the inner webs of the two onter 
pairs of feathers ; sides of head mottled brown and white, with a dusky 
patch in front of the eye and a broad buffy white eyebrow ; under surface 
rufous shaded buff, inclining to white on the chin and upper throat, and 
obsoletely mottled with dusky shaft-stripes on the sides and base of the 
throat. Bill brown, paler beneath ; iris dark brown ; legs pale brown. 
Total length 7-2 inches, culmen 0'6, wing 3*5, tail 3, tarsus l'l. Bur- 
ghersdorp, $ (Atmore). 

The Larger Yellow-tufted Pipit inhabits Cape Colony. Very 
little is known regarding this species. The type, a male, was 
sent by Layard to the Bremen Museum ; it was obtained at 
Cape Town, where Andersson also procured a male specimen, 
November 16, 1865, which is now in the British Museum, in 
company with two others from Colesberg, and one from Bur- 
ghersdorp. Stark obtained a male on the Cape Flats, which 
attracted his attention by its song, uttered while hovering in 
the air. Its stomach contained a spider, three small grass- 
hoppers and a few grass- seeds. 



Anthus trivialis. 

Anthus trivialis (Linn.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x. p. 543 (1885) Dakar, 
■Shonga B., Bogos ; id. Ibis, 1891, p. 588 Mt. Elgon ; Beichen, J. f. O. 
1891, p. 390 Togo; id. Vog. Deutsch 0. Afr. p. 199 Kakoma; 
Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 473 Somali; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 157 
(1896); Beichen. J. f. O. 1897, p. 42 Togo; Jackson, Ibis, 1899, 
p. 627 Bavine; Hartert in Ansorge's "Under Afr. Sun." p. 348 
(1899) Unyoro ; Grant, Ibis, 1900, p. 140 Abyssinia; Stark, Faun. 
S. Afr. i. p. 247 (1900). 

Pipastes plumatus (P. L. S. Mull.) Bouvier, Cat. Ois. March. &c, p. 16 
(1875) Dakar. 

Anthus arboreus (Gm.) Hartl. Zool. Jahrb. 1887, p. 327 Kudurma ; id. 
Abhand. Brem. 1891, p. 17 Baguera. 

Adult. Upper parts ashy brown with a faint olive tinge ; feathers of 
the crown and mantle with blackish shaft-stripes occupying about one- 
third of each feather ; wing with the ends of many of the median and greater 



300 ANTHUS TRIVIAL IS. 

coverts pale buff, forming two indistinct partial bars on the wing ; axillaries 
and part of the under wing-coverts white ; quills with very indistinct, 
broad, pale inner margins ; tail with the white pattern confined to the 
outer end half of the exterior feather, and a white angular end to the next ; 
sides of head mottled brown and buff ; under surface buff, inclining to white 
on the upper throat and centre of the abdomen ; sides and base of throat, 
the chest and flanks, washed with brownish buff, and with blackish brown 
shaft-stripes. Iris brown ; upper mandible dusky ; lower mandible and legs 
pale brown. Total length 5-8 inches, culmen 045, wing 325, tail 23, tarsus 
0-85, hind claw 3. Avington, ?, 10. 4. 72 (Shelley), and Tatin R, $ 
10. 12. 80 (Jameson). 

The Tree Pipit ranges over Africa and Em-ope generally, 
and extends eastward into India. 

From West Africa there are two specimens in the British 
Museum, one from Dakar on Cape Verde and the other from 
Shongo on the Niger. In the intervening Togoland specimens 
have been collected in December and March. In South Africa, 
Wahlberg procured a specimen at the Limpopo between 25° 
and 26° S. lat., and Jameson one a little further north at the 
Tatin l-iver. From German East Africa it has been recorded 
by Dr. Reichenow from Kakoma. 

In the Upper White Nile district Emin has collected 
specimens at Kudurma and Baguera, and in British East 
Africa Mr. Ansorge met with the species at Masindi in Unyoro 
in January. Mr. Jackson found the Tree Pipits plentiful in 
December at Ravine, where he also collected specimens in 
March and April, and another one on Mount Elgon in 
February. Some 500 miles nearly due north, in the water- 
shed of the Blue Nile, Lord Lovat shot a specimen at Ganti 
in Southern Abyssinia. 

Dr. A. Donaldson Smith procured the Tree Pipit in 
Somaliland, at Sheik Husein in September, and in the same 
month of the year Lefebure met with the species at Shirie in 
Eastern Abyssinia. In the British Museum there are adult 
and immature specimens collected by Esler at Eylet, and 



ANTHUS CALTHORPiE. 301 

Hemprich and Ehrenberg met with it on both sides of the 
Red Sea. 

The Tree Pipits apparently arrive in the Ethiopian Region 
early in September, to leave again about the end of April for 
their favourite breeding haunts iu Europe. 



Anthus calthorpse. (PI. 14, fig. 1.) 

Anfchus cathropse (err.) Layard, B. S. Afr. p. 121 (1867) Sivaziland. 
Anthus brachyurus (nee Sundev.) Ayres, Ibis, 1884, p. 231 Bustenberg ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x. p. 551 (1885) pt. Transvaal. 

Adult Male. Very similar to A. trivialis in structure and pattern but 
with the general shade of the upper parts pale rufous and the dark centres 
to the feathers of the crown and mantle broader. Upper parts pale rufous 
brown ; feathers of the crown and mantle with broadish black shaft-stripes ; 
wings with the ends of many of the median and greater coverts pale rufous 
buff, forming two indistinct partial bars on the wing ; axillaries and part 
of the under wing-coverts white ; quills with indistinct broad pale inner 
margins ; tail with a pure white pattern confined to the outer half of the 
exterior feather and an angular end to the next ; sides of head mottled with 
brown and buff; under surface buff inclining to white on the upper throat 
and centre of the abdomen ; sides and base of throat and front of chest 
strongly marked with blackish shaft-stripe and the flanks more obscurely 
so. "Iris dark brown ; upper mandible dusky, lower one and legs pale 
brown." Total length 5-3 inches, culmen 0-45, wing 2-9, tail 2-2, tarsus - 7. 
Bustenberg, S, 22. 4. 81 (W. Lucas). 

Adult Female. Exactly like the male in plumage. Wing 2-8, tail 2-0. 
Bustenberg, ? , 10. 10. 82 (T. Ayres). 



The Tawny Little Pipit inhabits the Transvaal and 
Swaziland. 

The original description of this species was, Mr. Layard 
writes, "taken from a little pet — the only specimen I have 
seen — of a small Anthus that is merrily hopping about in my 
aviary, and known to the household by the familiar name of 
' Brownie.' ' Brownie,' from his engaging ways and sprightly 



302 ANTHUS CALTHORPiE. 

song, is a general favourite. He came into my possession 
more than six years ago. and was brought from Swartland. 
He usually commences his song the earliest, but one, of all 
my birds : the ' early bird ' is a Java sparrow, who with the 
faintest dawn begins a low guttural gobbling, ending in a 
mellow but short pipe. As soon as I remove the cover from 
the cage, 'Brownie,' who roosts on the ground, sometimes in 
a corner, at other times behind the seed-box, mounts a large 
stone, placed in the cage for his special benefit, and pours 
out his voluble song, short, certainly, but oft-repeated. Occa- 
sionally he will hop on the edge of the cage or mayhap on a 
perch, and then treat us to a stave ; but his favourite singing 
place is the stone. Sometimes, when I am going to bed, 
without any warning, ' Brownie ' will start off in full tide of 
song : he is then usually on the ground. ' Brownie,' however, 
has more than once been in disgrace. Among the many birds 
confined with him are a pair of doves from Java ; these he 
almost stripped of their feathers for the sake of nibbling the 
quill-ends, which are rapidly passed through his little sharp 
bill, like canes through a sugar-crusher, and with the same 
results. From this propensity I fancy 'Brownie' must like 
a meat diet — worms and insects, perhaps ; he, however, feeds 
upon canary-seed, and will eat groundsel and chickweed, and 
all that the canaries that are inhabitants of the same large 
cage feed upon. I dedicate this, to me, new species to 
perpetuate the name of the faithful companion of my labours 
for upwards of twenty years, who has aided me with pen and 
pencil, and shared the pleasures I have experienced in the 
study of the works of Nature." This species should be called 
A. calthorpae, as it was dedicated to Layard's wife, who was a 
Miss Calthorpe. 

I have quoted the above as it gives a vivid picture of both 
the bird and its friend the author. 



ANTHUS BRACHYURUS. 303 

AVhen Dr. R. B. Sharpe united this species with A. 
brachyurus (Cat. B. M. x. p. 551) there were in the British 
Museum only two specimens from the Transvaal, and although 
he had some hesitation in referring them to the Natal bird, he 
described them as the " young " and " winter plumage " of 
A. brachyurus. There are now in the Museum three 
specimens from the Transvaal and three from Swaziland, 
which all appear to me to be adults, collected in the months 
of April, July, October and November. A. brachyurus from 
Natal — January, February, September. 

Regarding its occurrence in the Rustenberg district, Mr. 
T. Ayres writes : " The Pipits seem to be very locally 
distributed on the sloping sides of mountains and the neigh- 
bouring valley, where bush and trees are pretty thickly 
scattered ; they are frequently to be found close to some 
scrubby bush, and on being approached they often quietly 
move round out of sight, or squat close, and then rise almost 
under one's feet if the cover is at all good. Though generally 
alighting on the ground, they occasionally settle on a bush or 
tree ; they have a quicker and more eccentric flight than most 
of the Pipits, and alight very suddenly." In Swaziland the 
species is apparently plentiful, for Mr. T. B. Buckley collected 
three while passing through that country in July. 



Anthus brachyurus. (Pi. 14, fig. 2.) 

Anthus brachyurus, Sundev. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x. p. 551 (1885) pt, 
Natal ; Shelley, B. Air. I. No. 158 (1896) ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1897, 
p. 515 Zululand; Stark, Faun. S. Afr. i. p. 248 (1900) pt. Natal. 

Adult Male. Upper parts dull brown, with distinct broad blackish 
centres to the feathers of the crown, back of neck and mantle, the rump and 
upper tail coverts being nearly uniform ; wings dark brown with the outer 
web of the first primary white, and the edge of the other feathers pale 
brown of a slightly more rufous shade than the back ; axillaries and under 



304 ANTHUS LATISTRIATUS. 

wing-coverts white shading into buff towards the edges of the wing, quills 
with broad buff inner edges ; tail blackish brown with paler edges to the 
feathers, and the pale portion which is buff is confined to the outer end half 
of the outermost feather, and is separated from the dark portion by a line 
drawn from the base of the outer web of the feather to near the end of the 
inner web ; under surface buff, inclining to white on the upper throat and 
centre of abdomen, the sides and base of throat, chest and flanks washed 
with yellowish buff and with broadish black shaft-stripes. " Iris brown ; 
upper mandible dark brown, lower mandible and legs flesh colour." Total 
length 44 inches, culmen 04, wing 2-6, tail 1-7, tarsus 065. Pinetown, 
3,1. 9. 75 (T. L. Ayres). 

Adult Female. Exactly like the male in plumage. Wing 2-4, tail 1*6. 
Umlas, 2, 22. 1. 40 (Wahlberg). 

The Dusky Little Pipit inhabits Natal and Zululand. 
There are now eight specimens in the British Museum from 
Natal ; one is labelled " Umlas R. 2. 1, 1840, Wahlberg," the 
others are elated February and September, and I think we 
may safely call it a resident, although Mr. T. Ayres writes 
from Natal : " This species is only plentiful during the summer 
months ; it is quite a terrestrial bird, never, to my know- 
ledge, alighting on any twig or stem of grass, but always on 
the ground. The birds generally rise from the grass close to 
one's feet ; and it is no easy matter to shoot them, as their 
flight is both strong and very eccentric. They build their 
nests (I am tolerably certain) similar to the Lark's on the 
ground, with a few dry leaves of grass ; they are generally 
either single or in pairs." 

In Zululand Messrs. R. B. and J. D. S. Woodward pro- 
cured three specimens at Eschowe. 

Anthus latistriatus. 

Anthus latistriatus, Jackson, Ibis, 1899, p. 628 Kavirondo. 

? Anthus pyrrhonotus (nee Vieill.), Grant, Ibis, 1900, p. 140 Mendi. 

Type. Upper parts blackish brown with brownish buff edges to the 
feathers ; these edges are slightly narrower and paler on the wings and tail ; 
lores blackish ; ear-coverts mostly "brown ; eyebrows, cheeks and throat 



ANTHUS MELIND.E. 305 

pale buff, breast deeper buff, under tail-coverts slightly more rufous ; an ill- 
defined blackish band down the sides of the throat, crop and entire sides 
of the body with blackish centres to the feathers ; under surface of wing 
dusky brown, with the coverts rather more rufous, and with an almost 
obsolete rufous shade towards the inner margins of the quills. Iris brown, 
bill dark brown, with the base of the lower mandible whitish brown. Total 
length 6'5 inches, culmen 055, wing 3-5, tail 2-7, tarsus l - 05, hind toe 04, 
hind claw 035. Kavirondo, ?, 12. 11. 94 (Jackson). This specimen is 
probably immature. 

Nearly Adult. Upper parts nearly uniform sepia brown ; wing-feathers 
mostly narrowly edged with tawny buff; tail like that of A. pyrrhonotus, 
dark brown fading into tawny buff on the outermost web ; lores black ; ear- 
coverts dark brown ; a broad eyebrow, cheek and throat buff mottled with 
black, passing into cinnamon on the body and under wing-coverts, thighs and 
under tail-coverts, and the crop and side of the fore chest with blackish 
shaft- stripes ; under surface of the quills dark brown obscurely washed with 
rufous on the edges of the inner webs. Total length 7*3 inches, wing 4-0, 
tail 3-0, tarsus 1-05, hind toe 0-4, hind claw 0-6. Mendi, <?, 2. 4. 99 (Lovat). 

Young. Differs from the last bird described in having the upper parts 
slightly blacker, with narrow rufous buff edges to all the feathers, which 
edges are rather broader on the wings and tail ; under parts paler and more 
rufous buff ; the crop and entire sides of the body mottled with brownish 
black centres to the feathers. Total length 6-8 inches, culmen 0-55, wing 3'7, 
tail 3-0, tarsus 1-0, hind toe 0-35, hind claw 0-35. Mendi, 8. 4. 99 (Lovat). 

Jackson's Pipit probably inhabits Southern Abyssinia as 
well as Kavirondo. 

With the exception of A. melindse, this is the only Pipit of 
the A. pyrrhonotus group which has the flanks boldly streaked 
at any period of its life. If I am right in referring Lord 
Lovat's two specimens from Mendi to this form it would 
shoWj as is highly probable, that the type is an immature 
bird, and that the adults not only lose the stripes on the 
flanks, but that the hind claw becomes greatly elongated as 
in typical A. pyrrhonotus from South Africa. 



Anthus melindse, sp. nov. 

Anthus pyrrhonotus (nee Vieill.), Shelley, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 573 Melinda. 

Above, dark ashy brown with large dusky centres to the feathers ; 
greater and median wing-coverts with broad rufous shaded buff edges ; 

(April, 1900. 30 



306 ANTHUS PALLIDIVENTRIS. 

primary coverts and quills dark brown with narrow pale edges ; tail dark 
brown with pale edges to the feathers and fading into pale ashy brown on 
the outer feathers ; the two outer pairs of feathers are marked alike, with a 
narrow whitish edging to their outer webs and ends ; eyebrow and eyelids 
white, sides of head mostly ashy brown slightly mottled with white. 
Beneath, white tinted with rufous buff on the lower throat and sides of the 
body and under tail-coverts ; lower throat and front of chest strongly spotted 
with dark brown ; centre of chest, sides of body and a few of the larger tail- 
coverts with distinct brown shaft-stripes ; under wing-coverts dusky ash, 
like the under surface of the quills. Bill : upper mandible horny brown, 
lower one pale, inclining to dark brown at the tip ; tarsi and feet flesh colour. 
Total length 67, culmen 06, wing 3-4, tail 26, tarsus 1-0, hind toe 0-45, 
hind claw scarcely 0-4. Melinda (Kirk). 

The Melinda Pipit is represented in the British Museum 
by a single specimen procured for me by Sir John Kirk 
at Melinda, one of the British Bast African ports situated in 
about 3° 30', S. lat. It much resembles in the pattern of the 
plumage the type of A. latistriatus, but while the latter is an 
unusually dark bird, the present one is unusually pale, and 
the streaks on the flanks are longer and narrower. The 
plumage shows no signs of immaturity. 

Anthus pallidiventris. 

Anthus pallidiventris, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x. p. 560 (1885) Gaboon ; 
Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 162 (1896). 

Adult. Upper parts uniform brown ; the feathers of the wings and tail 
with pale edges inclining to white on the first primary ; tail with no sharply 
defined pale pattern, but the outer feather gradually fades into ashy buff on 
the end half and the whole of the outer web, penultimate feather likewise 
fades into ashy white at the end ; eyebrow and cheeks buff ; ear-coverts 
brown ; under parts mostly dull white with obscure dusky shaft-stripes on 
the crop and front of the chest ; basal portion of thighs bare; tarsi, toes and 
hind claw long. Total length 7-3 inches, culmen 0-65, wing 3'85, tail 2-9, 
tarsus 1-25, middle toe with claw 1-1, hind toe with claw 1-0. Landana, 
<?, 11. 5. 76 (Brit. Mus.). 

The Long-toed Plain-backed Pipit inhabits Gaboon and 
the Loango Coast. 



ANTHUS PYRRHONOTUS. 307 

The type of the species was procured by Mr. H. T. Ansell 
at the Danger or Muni river, and for all I know it may 
entirely replace its nearest ally, A. pyrrhonotus gouldi in 
Gaboon and also on the Loango Coast, as I have not seen a 
specimen of the latter from either of these countries, where 
the present bird appears to be plentiful. 



Anthus pyrrhonotus. 

Anthus pyrrhonotus (VieilL), Sharps, Cat. B. M. x. p. 555 (1885) pt. 
S. Afr. ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 160 (1896) ; id. Ibis, 1899, p. 367 
Tanjaiujiha plateau,; Marshall, Ibis, 1896, p. 246; 1900, p. 238 
Mashona. 

Alauda erythronotos, Steph. Gen. Zool. xiv. p. 24 (1826). 

Subspecies a. 
Anthus gouldi. 

Anthus gouldi, Fraser, P. Z. S. 1843, p. 27 Cape Palmas ; Hartl. and 

Monteiro, P. Z. S. 1860, p. 110 Angola; Fisch. J. f. O. 1885, 

p. 137 Naiwasha; Hartl. Zool. Jahrb. 1887, p. 337; Beichen. 

J. f. O. 1891, p. 390 Togo ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 161 (1896). 
Anthus pyrrhonotus (nee VieilL), Shelley, id. Ibis, 1883, p. 543 Niger; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x. p. 555 (1885) pt. W. Afr. ; Biittik. Notes Leyd. 

M. 1885, p. 174 ; 1886, p. 253 ; 1888, p. 75 ; 1889, p. 122 ; 1892, 

p. 23 Liberia; Beichen. J. f. 0. 1887, p. 308 Kasongo; Shelley, P. Z. S. 

1888, p. 27 Bedjaf; Sharpe, Ibis, 1891, p. 588 Kikuyu ; Beichen. 

J. f. 0. 1892, p. 51 Buhoba; id. Vog. Deutsch O. Afr. p. 198 (1894) ; 

Neum. J. f. 0. 1898, p. 233 ; Jackson, Ibis, 1899, p. 627 Kikuyu, 

Eavirondo, Ntebi, Semia, Nandi. 

Adult. Upper parts uniform brown with obsolete dark shaft-stripes to 
the feathers of the crown and mantle ; feathers of the wings and tail with 
pale rufous buff edges inclining to white on the first primary ; tail with no 
sharply defined pale pattern, but the outer feather on each side gradually 
fades into ashy buff on the outer web and terminal half, the penultimate 
feather likewise fades into ashy buff at the end ; eyebrow and cheeks buff ; 
ear-coverts brown ; under parts rufous buff with obscure dusky shaft-stripes 
on the crop and front of the chest ; chin nearly white. Bill with the upper 



308 ANTHUS PYRRHONOTUS 

mandible dusky and the lower one pale brown ; iris dark brown ; legs pale 
brown. Total length 6-6 inches, culmen 0'55, wing 3-55 and 3-8, tail 2-5 
and 2-7, tarsus 1-15 and T05, hind toe 0-4, hind claw - 55 and 0-45. 
Pinetown, $ , 25. 4. 72 and ? , 30. 6. 72 (T. L. Ayres). 

Immature. Differs in the upper parts being blacker with narrow buff 
edges to all the feathers ; crop more strongly spotted with black ; pale 
pattern of the tail more strongly marked and very variable. The last 
feathers of the immature plumage to be discarded are those of the lower 
back. 

Subspecies a. 

Type of A. cjouldi. Exactly like the specimens of A. pyrrlionotus above 
described in colouring, but differs in the hind claw being much shorter. 
Total length 6'7 inches, culmen 0-55, wing 3-7, tail 2-8, tarsus 1-0, hind 
toe 0-4, hind claw 0-35. Cape Palmas (Fraser). 

Immature. Differs in plumage from the adult only in having all the 
feathers of the crown and back rather blacker and narrowly edged with 
buff. " Iris crimson orange, bill brown, lower mandible pinky white, feet 
dusky white." Nandi, 9. 4. 98 (Jackson). 

Anthus pyrrlwnotus, the Cape Plain-backed Pipit, inhabits 
South Africa south from Damaraland and Nyasaland. 

To the south of the Cunene river Andersson found them 
widely distributed over both Damaraland and Great Namaqua- 
land. Layard writes : " This Pipit, the ' Bnkelde Leecuwerk ' 
of the Dutch colonists, is by far the commonest of the South 
African species. It is found all over the colony." There are 
specimens in the British Museum from Damaraland, Cape 
Town, Swellendam, Knysua, Colesberg, Port Elizabeth, 
Grahamstown, Kingwilliamstown, Pine Town, Mashonaland 
and Nyasaland. This is all I know with regard to its range, 
and it is strange to find this form apparently entirely replaced 
by A. vaalensis from Bushman's river in central Natal to the 
Limpopo. 

According to Stark : " Its flight is low and undulating. 
Its call-note is a weak chirp. In summer the cock sings 
prettily from the top of a bush or ant-hill. These Pipits 
feed almost entirely on insects. They build about the end 



ANTHUS GOULD I. 309 

of September. The nest is cup-shaped, constructed of dry 
grass lined with finer grass and a few hairs, and is usually 
concealed in a slight hollow overhung by grass. The eggs, 
almost invariably three in number, are dull white or cream 
colour, thickly marked with spots and mottlings of grey, 
brown and reddish-purple. They measure about 0"85 X - 60." 
"While I was at Pine Town, in March, I met with these Pipits 
in large numbers scattered over a considerable tract of open 
country. From the fine series of specimens collected there 
by my friend, Mr. T. L. Ayres, it appears to be a resident and 
to have no marked seasonal change in its plumage. 

Levaillant, who was the first to recognise these Pipits in 
South Africa, called it by the somewhat inappropriate name 
of "Alouette a dos roux." His illustration of the species is 
very bad, and he roughly describes, first a specimen of 
apparently the more rufous form, my A. vaalensis, and then 
one of the duller Cape Colony birds, but certainly makes the 
latter the type by remarking : " This is the ' Inkelde-liwerk ' 
of the colonist." 

In Mashonaland, according to Mr. T. Ayres's notes, they 
were " in pairs, both in August and October, but not common. 
They frequent the lower parts of the rocky hills, and on being 
disturbed, at once fly on to the nearest tree." Those he saw 
were always in well-wooded parts. In the same country 
Mr. Guy Marshall records them as " everywhere abundant 
in the open veldt, but also to be found frequenting trees in 
open bush." In Nyasaland specimens have been found as 
far north as the Tanjanyika plateau. 

Anthus gouldi, Gould's Plain-backed Pipit, ranges south- 
ward from the Gambia and North Abyssinia into Angola. 

Specimens have been procured from the Gambia by Sir A. 
Moloney, from Casamanse by Verreaux, from Sierra Leone 
by Sabine, and from the Sulymah river by Demery. Mr. 



310 ANTHUS GOULDI. 

Btittikofer informs us that he met with it throughout Liberia 
from Grand Cape Mount to Cape Palmas, frequenting the 
open country where the grass had been recently burnt. The 
type of A. gouldi which is in the British Museum came from 
Cape Palmas. The species is also abundant on the Gold 
Coast, where Mr. T. E. Buckley and I met with it in February 
and March distributed over the Accra plains, and it has been 
found in Togoland by Dr. Biithner. In the Niger district 
Forbes procured a specimen at Shonga, and Mr. Hartert met 
with flocks of them along the Kasia valley in September, 
frequenting the open country. 

This species, I believe, has not been met with in Came- 
roous, for the Pipit procured there by Sir Harry Johnstone, 
which I referred to A. pyrrhonotus (P. Z. S. 1887, p. 125), is 
a variety or subspecies of A. rufulus. It is also doubtful if it 
occurs in Gaboon and Loango, for all the specimens I have 
examined from these countries belong to the long-toed A. 
pallidiventris. 

In the British Museum there is a specimen from Angola, 
procured by Mr. Monteiro, who found these Pipits very 
common on the grassy plains near Bembe. From this locality 
I can trace the range of A. gouldi across the continent to 
Mount Kilimanjaro, for I have seen specimens in the Tring 
Museum collected by Bohndorff on the Upper Congo at 
Kasongo, and Mr. Neumann found them frequenting the open 
country to the west of Kilimanjaro. In British Bast Africa 
Mr. Jackson has collected a fine series from Nandi, Samia, 
Ntebi, Kakamera in Kavirondo, and in Kikuyu. This col- 
lection contains a young bird exactly like the immature speci- 
men of A. pyrrhonotus I have above described from South 
Africa, with the same uniform flanks, in which character 
these birds differ strongly from A. latistriatus. Emin has 
collected specimens at Bukoba on the western shores of Vic- 



ANTHUS VAALENSIS. 311 

toria Nyanza, and at Redjaf and Lado in the Upper White 
Nile district. Further north A. gouldi has been met with by 
von Heuglin at the Gazal river and by Mr. Jesse in Bogosland, 
where he also procured a specimen of A. sordidus, and both 
of these are now in the British Museum. 

According to Mr. Jackson : " This Pipit has a curious 
habit of fluttering up into the air, and then flying round in 
wide circles and constantly darting upward with a rapid 
quivering of the wings, making a loud drumming noise like a 
toy police rattle." He found it plentiful in British Bast 
Africa, but confined to a very restricted area. The habits, 
as described by Mr. Jackson, appear to be very similar to 
those of A. trivialis and other Pipits. 



Anthus vaalensis, sp. nov. 

Anthus pyrrhonotus (nee Vieill.), Ayres, Ibis, 1871, p. 156 Transvaal ; 
Buckley, Ibis, 1874, p. 384 Bushman's B. ; Ayres, Ibis, 1876, 
p. 426 Lydcnburg ; Sharpe in Oates's Matabele, p. 317 (1881) 
Pietermaritzburg ; Butler, Feilden and Reid, Zool. 1882, p. 336. 

Types of A. vaalejisis. Very similar in size, form, and colouring to A. 
nicholsoni, but differ in the crown and back being uniform, with no dark 
centres to the feathers. Total length 7 - 6 and 70 inches, culmen 055, wing 
4-2 and 3-9, tail 3-2 and 30, tarsus 1T5 and 1-1, hind claw 0-35. New- 
castle, $, 26. 6. 81 (Butler), Ingagani B. 5 , 27. 6. 81 (Beid). 

The Tawny Plain-backed Pipit inhabits northern Natal 
and the Transvaal. 

It is well represented in the British Museum by Mr. T. E. 
Buckley's specimens from Bushman's river, by Messrs. Butler, 
Feilden and Reid's from the Ingagani river and Newcastle, and 
to the north of the Vaal river by Mr. T. Ayres's and Oates's 
specimens from Potchefstrooin, Rustenberg and the Lyden- 
burg districts. Amongst these there is an interesting variety 



312 ANTHUS NICHOLSONI. 

shot at Pothefstroom, June 15, 1870, which has the pen- 
ultimate tail-feather with a clear pale triangular end as in 
A. sordidus, a character I have never met with in the true 
A. pyrrhonotus, but which is not uncommon in A. nicholsoni. 

Messrs. Butler, Feilden and Reid write : ''It is an exceed- 
ingly common bird on the veldt in the upper portion of the 
colony, and we obtained many specimens. Several nests were 
taken near Newcastle and Ladysmith. From Butler's notes 
we extract the following : — ' Found a nest near Newcastle, 
on the 1st October, under a tussock of grass. It was well 
concealed and composed of dry grass, lined with finer material 
of the same description, cow-hair, horse-hair, &c, with a run 
up to it on one side, so that it was necessary to stoop down 
very low to see into it. Eggs three in number, fresh, white, 
spotted all over with grey. Another nest, precisely similar 
in composition and situation, at Sunday's river, on the 12th 
October, contained three eggs slightly incubated.' " In the 
Transvaal, according to Mr. Ayres : " This Pipit is distributed 
during the winter months over the whole country, but more 
plentifully on the high bare lands than in the bush or along 
the Limpopo. It feeds on insects, has a low dipping flight, 
and occasionally alights on low trees." He later on records 
it as common in the Lydenburg district. 

The Tawny Plain-backed Pipit forms a good connecting 
link between Nicholson's Pipit and the Cape Plain-backed 
Pipit. On the other side A. nicholsoni connects this group of 
African Pipits with A. sordidus and A. jerdoni. 



Anthus nicholsoni. 

Anthus nicholsoni, Sharpe, id. Cat. B. M. x. p. 553 (1885) Ondonga, 
Gape Town, Sigonell, Eland's Post, King williams town, Neivcastle, 
Bustenberg ; Bocage, Jorn. Lisb. 1893, p. 10 Ambaca, Caconda ; 
Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 159 (1896) ; Stark, Faun. S. Afr. i. p. 249 
(1900). 



ANTHUS NICHOLSONI. 313 

Anthus erythroDotus (nee Steph.) Bocage, J. f. 0. 1876, p. 43 Ambaca ; 

Sousa, Jorn. Lisb. 1886, p. 165 Caconda. 
? A. sordidus (nee Eiipp.) Fisch. Zeitschr. 1884, p. 307 ; id. J. f. 0. 1885, 

137 Naiwasha ; Eeichen. J. f. O. 1887, p. 73 Shashi ; Hartl. 

Abhand. Brein. 1891, p. 17 Baguera; Eeichen. Vog. Deutsch O. 

Afr. p. 199 (1894) ; Neuni. J. f. 0. 1898, p. 233. 

Type. Upper parts brown with a slight rufous shade and tolerably dis- 
tinct dark centres to most of the feathers of the crown and back ; wings and 
tail dark brown with the edges of the feathers rufous buff inclining to white 
on the first primary ; tail with the outer feather gradually fading into buff on 
the outer web, and the end of the penultimate feather fringed with rufous buff 
(generally increased to an angular patch in other specimens) ; eyebrow and 
cheeks buff, ear-coverts brown ; under parts rufous shaded buff with dusky 
shaft-stripes on the crop and front of chest ; chin nearly white ; under 
surface of quills brown, broadly washed with tawny buff on the inner edges ; 
under wing-coverts tawny buff. Bill dusky brown fading into pale brown 
on the lower mandible ; iris dark brown ; legs pale brown. Total length 7 - 4 
inches, culmen 06, wing 3-9, tail 3-4, tarsus 105, hind toe 04, hind claw 
curved 035. Sigonell on Vaal E. S (Atmore). 

Nicholson's Pipit, I believe, is confined to the African 
continent. It ranges over South Africa generally and north- 
ward into Angola and Abyssinia. 

Anchieta procured specimens in Angola at Ambaca to the 
north of the Quanza river, and in Benguela at Caconda, and 
informs us that it is called by the natives " Karapala " at the 
former place, and " Catemdebipanga " at the latter. 

From South Africa there are specimens in the British 
Museum labelled Ondonga in Damaraland, Cape Town, King- 
williamstown, Newcastle, Eland's Post, Vaal river, Potchef- 
stroom, Rustenberg and the Hungani river in Mashonaland, 
and this is all I know regarding it in South Africa. 

I cannot find anything more satisfactory regarding this 
Pipit as we approach Abyssinia ; specimens from this portion 
of the continent have been invariably referred to A. sordidus, 
from which the present species differs in having a shorter and 
stouter bill and a more rufous shade on the plumage. There- 
fore it is as likely as not that Emin procured this Pipit at 



314 ANTHUS SORDIDUS. 

Baguera, that Fischer found it in the Shashi mountains to the 
north-east of Speke's Gulf and also at Naiwasha lake, and 
that Mr. Neumann may find it amongst his specimens from 
the plains to the south-west of Kilimanjaro. 

From Somaliland there are two specimens in the British 
Museum, collected by Mr. Hawker, January 6, at Jifa Medir, 
where he also collected a pair of A. sordidus on December 31. 
Lord Lovat also met with these two species during his journey 
from Berbera to the Blue Nile : A. nicholsoni at Staboolo and 
Feyambiro in December, at Gadaburka on January 21, and at 
Arriro, February 19, while at Hirna, January 9, he shot a 
specimen of A. sordidus. It is therefore probable that 
Antinori and Dr. Ragazzi likewise procured the two species 
in Shoa. 



Anthus sordidus. 

Anthus sordidus, Riipp. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x. p. 560 (1885) ; Salvad. 

Ann. Mus. Genov. 1884, p. 167 ; 1888, p. 264 Shoa ; Shelley, B. 

Afr. I. No. 163 (1896) ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1896, p. 81 ; 1898, p. 402 

Somali; Elliot, Field Colurnb. Mus. i. No. 2, p. 40 (1897) Somali; 

Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 66 Somali ; Grant, Ibis, 1900, p. 141, pt. 

Abyssinia. 
Anthus eockburnioe, Oates, Faun. Brit. Ind. ii. p. 305 (1890) Nilghiri hills. 

Adult. Upper parts dusky brown with broad isabelline buff edges to 
the feathers, of a slightly more ashy shade on the mantle and partially 
tinged with rufous on the median wing-coverts ; pale pattern of the tail 
extends over half of the outer feather, the larger portion of the outer web 
being buffy white with a narrow brown shaft-stripe ; the penultimate 
feather with an angular pale end almost confined to the inner web ; sides 
of head brown mottled with buff, and with a well marked broad buffy 
white eyebrow ; cheeks almost white ; chin and upper throat white, with a 
line of dusky spots down the sides ; under surface of body buffy white with 
a slightly more rufous shade on the crop, sides of body and under tail- 
coverts ; feathers of the crop, sides of lower throat and sides of chest with 
fairly broad brownish black shaft-stripes ; a very slight trace of narrow 
brown shaft- stripes on the flanks ; axillaries and under wing-coverts very 
pale tawny buff, the latter slightly mottled with dark bases to the feathers ; 



ANTHUS SORDIDUS. 315 

under surface of quills ashy brown with broad indistinct buff inner edges. 
Bill dusky blackish with the basal portion of the lower mandible buff ; iris 
brown ; legs ashy buff. Total length 6-6 inches, culmen 0"7, wing 3-4, 
tail 2-7, tarsus 1-0, hind toe 0'5, hind claw 0-3. Socotra, 3, 2. 2. 99 (O. 
Grant). 

Young. Differ from the adults only in the pale edges of the feathers of 
the upper parts being slightly broader and a little more tinged with rufous, 
and the dark markings of the crop slightly broader. 

Adults in winter plumage. Browner above, and the streaks on the crop 
brown and narrow. Socotra, December (Balfour). 

Through the kindness of Mr. Hartert I have been able to compare the 
type of A. sordidus labelled " 524a, Shoa." It agrees well with Buppell's 
illustration. It is in extremely worn plumage, which no doubt accounts 
for the mottling of the back being scarcely perceptible, but the bill, which 
is likewise much worn, is too long for A. pyrrhonotus or A. nicholsoni, so 
I have no hesitation in following Dr. E. B. Sharpe in retaining the name 
A. sordidus for this species. 

The Long-billed Pipit ranges from Palestine and north- 
western India into Somaliland and Abyssinia. 

It is the most abundant of the Pipits on Socotra island, 
and according to Prof. Balfour is there known as " Degasa- 
cus." Mr. Ogilvie Grant found them very common in all 
the parts of the island he visited, from 4,000 feet down to the 
sea level, and extremely tame. On December 11 he caught 
in his butterfly net some young birds just able to fly, and on 
the 16th of that month found a nest containing four slightly 
incubated eggs, and writes : " The nest, a slight structure 
of fine grass, was placed at the foot of a thick plant of bush- 
grass, and so well hidden that it would certainly have been 
passed unnoticed had not the female left the eggs. At Adha 
Demellus, 3,500 feet, I found another nest with perfectly 
fresh eo-ofs on the 8th of Februarv. The male bird sing's a 
sweet song while perched on the top of a bush or rock, 
and like other members of the genus frequently rises, with 
quivering wings, to a considerable height in the air, singing 
as it flies, and descending after some minutes to his former 
perch." 



316 ANTHUS SORDIDUS. 

In Somaliland, specimens have been collected at Hullier, 
Durra Surri, Sheikh Pass, Wagga, G-oolis foot-hills, Ujawaji 
and Jifa Medir, at which latter place Mr. Hawker also shot 
two specimens of A. nicholsoni, which are now in the British 
Museum, from which it would appear that A. sordidus and A. 
nicholsoni live in company with each other, as is a common 
habit with Motacilla flava and its allies. In Abyssinia, Lord 
Lovat obtained one specimen at Hirna. The type of the 
species I have examined, is labelled Shoa. In this district 
Antinori and Ragazzi have collected a large series of Pipits, 
two of which I have seen in the British Museum from Falle 
and Mahal-Uong, belong to this species. In northern Abys- 
sinia Mr. Jesse procured a specimen of A. sordidus at Bejook 
in July. That this is not the most northern range for the 
species is proved by there being an example from Palestine 
in the British Museum. 

With regard to its eastern range : the British Museum 
contains three specimens from Coonoor and two collected by 
Miss Cockburn at Kotagerry, one of which is the type of 
Antkus coclcburnix, Oates. 

I have not seen a specimen of A. sordidus from anywhere 
south of the Equator, so have taken Somaliland as the most 
southern known range for this species, and the references thus 
excluded I have added to those of A, nicholsoni. 

To show the affinities of this species to the seven last- 
mentioned forms I shall take the following four characters. 

1. Bill rather long and slender, and much compressed 
beyond the nostrils. This character being always present 
in true A. sordidus is constant in Pipits of this group from 
Socotra, but on the African continent gradually disappears, 
being present or absent in Somali birds collected by Mr. 
Hawker at Jifa Medir, in Lord Lovat's specimens from South 
Abyssinia, between the coast and the Blue Nile, and in Jesse's 



ANTHUS CAMPESTRIS. 317 

from Bogosland, and is absent in all I have examined from 
the countries "west and south. 

2. An angular pale tip to the penultimate feather. This 
is always present in A. sordidus, generally so in A. nicholsoni, 
very rarely present in A. vaalensis, and never to be met with 
in any of the other species. 

3. The mottled plumage of the crown and back is most 
strongly marked in A. sordidus and A. nicholsoni, and is 
present in the young of all the other species, but disappears 
in them, or becomes obsolete, after the first moult. 

4. Hind claw more curved and also shorter than the hind 
toe. This character is present in A. sordidus, A. nicholsoni, 
A. melindse and A. vaalensis. In the others the hind claw is 
less curved, and is longer than the hind toe in adult birds of 
A. pyrrhonotus from South Africa and in what I believe to 
be the adult of A. latistriatus. 



Anthus campestris. 

Anthus campestris (Linn.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x. p. 569 (1885) Abyssinia ; 

Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 164 (1896) ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 401 

Somali ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 66 Somali. 
Agrodroma campestris, Bouvier, Cat. Ois. Marche, &c, p. 16 (1875) 

Bathurst. 

Adult. Upper parts saudy buff and nearly uniform, owing to the broad 
pale edges of the feathers almost hiding their dark centres ; wings dark 
brown, with the outer edges of the feathers sandy buff inclining to white 
on the first primary; axillaries and under wing-coverts buff; tail blackish 
brown, the centre pair of feathers with broad pale edges, and a strongly 
marked white pattern extending over the outer feather generally with the 
exception of a dusky wedge-shaped patch on the basal two-thirds of the 
inner web ; penultimate feather also mostly white, but with the shaft and 
a large wedge-shaped patch black ; eyebrow and sides of head buff with a 
black mustachial band down each side of the throat ; under parts buff, slightly 
paler towards the chin and centre of the breast ; crop uniform buff, or 
with a few rather indistinct dark shaft-stripes. Bill blackish brown fading 



318 ANTHUS CAMPESTRIS. 

into buff at the base of the lower mandible ; iris brown ; legs pale yellowish 
brown. Total length 7 inches, cultnen 06, wing 3 - 75, tail 3, tarsus 1-05. 
Egypt, S , 7. 3. 68 ; J , 6. 3. 68 (Shelley). 

Immature. Like the adult in the colouring and pattern of the wings 
and tail, but the remainder of the upper parts are dark brown with narrow 
pale edges to all the feathers, including those of the lower back ; under 
parts differ in being strongly marked with black pear-shaped spots on the 
crop and a few dark shaft-stripes on the flanks. Total length 6-1 inches, 
culmen 055, wing 3 - 3, tail 2-6, tarsus 1-0. 



The Tawny Pipit ranges southward to the Gambia river 
and Somaliland, breeds in Europe, and occurs in Siberia, China 
and north-western India. 

At Bathurst on the Gambia the species has been procured 
by Marche and De Compiegne and by Verreaux from Casa- 
manse. The most southern known range for the Tawny 
Pipit is Somaliland ; here the species was first met with by 
Mr. Lort Phillips on the open plateau country at Sheikh, 
January 30, 1897, and Mr. Hawker has collected specimens 
at Jifa Medir, Makanis and Berbera in January and February. 
Mr. Ogilvie Grant informs me that during his visit to the 
island of Socotra this species was only met with on Abdul 
Kuri, where a pair were seen during his second visit on 
February 23 ; they were extremely wary, and after some 
trouble the male was shot. I do not find it recorded by 
Count Salvadori from Shoa, but Lord Lovat procured a 
specimen during his journey from Berbera to the Blue Nile. 
In the British Museum there are specimens collected by Mr. 
Blanford in February and March at Senafe and in April at 
Lake Ashangi and Adigrat. He found it to be very abundant 
in grassy meadows throughout the highlands, but appeared to 
be replaced on the cultivated land by A. ceroimts. According 
to von Heuglin it migrates regularly each winter into Abys- 
sinia, Kordofan, Sennaar, Nubia and Egypt, and more rarely 
occurs in the White Nile valley and Arabia. 



ANTHUS RUFULUS. 319 



Anthus rufulus. 

Anthus rufulus, Vieill. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x. p. 574 (1885) Damara, 
Cape Col., Natal, Transvaal, Zambesi, Zanzibar ; Sousa, Jorn. Lisb. 
1886, p. 3 Ibo Is. ; Shelley, Ibis, 1888, p. 301 Manda Is. ; Sharpe, 
Ibis, 1891, p. 589 Masai; Bocage, Jorn. Lisb. 1893, p. 11 Humbe, 
Caconda; Shelley, Ibis, 1893, p. 27; 1894, p. 23; 1896, p. 238 
Nyasa ; id. B. Afr. No. 165 (1896) ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1896, p. 81 
Somali; Sharpe, Ibis, 1897, p. 515 Zulu; Shelley, t. c. p. 527; 
1898, pp. 379, 553 Nyasa ; Hinde, t. e. p. 579 Machako's ; Alexander, 
Ibis, 1899, p. 563 Zambesi; Jackson, t. c. p. 629 Ntebi, Bavine, 
Mau, Nandi ; Stark, Faun. S. Afr. i. p. 251 (1900) ; Grant, Ibis, 
1900, p. 141 Abyssinia. 

Anthus cinnamomeus, Bupp. ; Salvad. Ann. Mus. Genov. 1888, p. 
264 Shoa ; Beichen. Vog. Deutsch O. Afr. p. 198 (1894) Pangani, 
Ungu, Bufu B., Kakoma, Lindi, Igonda, Taboro, Ugalla, Bukoba; 
Neum. J. f. O. 1898, p. 232 Gurui Mt. 

Anthus caffer, Sundev. ; Salvad. Ann. Mus. Genov. 1884, p. 168 Shoa. 

Anthus raalteni, Bp. ; Bohm, J. f. 0. 1883, p. 206 Zanzibar ; Sehal. t. c. 
p. 367 Kakoma ; Fisch. Zeitschr. 1884, p. 307 ; 1885, p. 137 Lindi to 
Barawa; Beichen. J. f. 0. 1887, p. 73 Ungu ; 1889, p. 284 Bufu B.; 
1891, p. 160 Tabora; 1892, p. 51 Bukoba, Bale; Fleck, J. f. O. 
1894, p. 411 Bastardland; Kuschel, J. f. 0. 1895, p. 343 {egg). 

Anthus bocagii, Nicholson ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x. p. 579 (1885) 
Angola, Damara; Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. 1888, p. 241 Mos- 
samedes ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 166 (1896) ; Stark, Faun. S. Afr 
I. p. 252 (1900). 

Anthus canipestris (necBechst.), Sperling, Ibis, 1868, p. 290 Mosambique ; 
Sousa, Jorn. Lisb. 1886, p. 165 Benguela. 

Anthus pyrrhonotus (nee Vieill.), Shelley, P. Z. S. 1887, p. 125 
Camaroons. 

Anthus gouldi (nee Fraser), Beichen. J. f. 0. 1890, p. 124 Camaroons. 

Adult Male. Upper parts buffy brown with dark centres to the feathers 
of the crown, mantle, and upper tail-coverts ; wings blackish brown with 
their outer edges rufous buff inclining to white on the first primary ; 
axillaries and under wing-coverts rufous buff; tail blackish brown with 
narrow pale edges to the feathers and a strongly marked white pattern, 
extending over the outer feather generally, with the exception of a dusky 
wedge-shaped patch on the basal two-thirds of the inner web, penultimate 
feather also mostly white but with the shaft and a larger wedge-shaped patch 
black ; sides of head and neck brown mottled with buff and with a broad 






320 ANTHUS RUFULUS. 

buff eyebrow ; a black mustachial band down each side of the throat ; under 
parts buff, slightly paler towards the chin and centre of the breast and 
strongly mottled with black shaft-stripes on the crop. " Bill brown with 
the basal portion of the lower mandible flesh-colour ; iris brown ; legs 
yellowish clay-colour" (Eeid). Total length 6 inches, culmen 0-5, wing 35, 
tail 2-6, tarsus 1-1, hind toe 045, hind claw 0-5. Pinetown, $ , 19. 7. 72 
(T. L. Ayres). 

Adult Female. Exactly like the male. Total length 6-3, culmen 0-5, 
wing 34, tail 2-6, tarsus 1-05, hind toe 0-4, hind claw 0-5. Shoa, ? , 7. 12. 85 
(Antinori). 

Var. a (A. bocagii ?). Similar to the above but paler and more ashy 
both on the upper and under parts, and differs also in the colouring of the 
penultimate feathers, which are not alike ; the one on the left side is dusky 
brown with a wedge of white from the tip, while the one on the right side 
is white with a broad wedge of black rising from the base of the inner web, 
and on the outer web a black band separated from the black shaft reaches 
nearly to the tip of the feather. Kinsembo, $ (Watkins). This specimen 
is extremely nearly matched by one in the British Museum labelled 
" Assensole, <?, 8. 1. 73 (W. Davison)." 

Var. b. Similar to the adult, here first described, but with the upper 
parts very much blacker and with the lower back mottled with dark centres 
to the feathers to about the same extent as the mantle and the pale edges 
of the wing-feathers are narrower. No streaks on the flanks. Total length 
6-5, culmen 055, wing 3-45, tail 2-6, tarsus 1-1. Camaroons Mt. 10,000 ft., 
$, 8. 10. 86 (H. H. Johnston). As this is, I believe, the only specimen 
known from Camaroons it may very possibly be a distinct form for which I 
here propose the name of A. rufulus camarooncnsis. 

Var. c. Similar to the last but slightly less black, with the dark mottling 
on the lower back ; the pale edges of the feathers much narrower and more 
sharply defined. Flanks slightly streaked. Total length 6-5, culmen 0-55, 
wing 33, tail 26, tarsus 1, hind toe 0-45, hind claw 0-45. Immature, 
E. Timor (Wallace). 

Var. d. Very like var. c. Total length 5-5, culmen 0-55, wing 3-1, 
tail 2-5, tarsus 1-05, hind toe 0-45, hind claw 04. Immature, Pangani B. 
(Kirk). 

The Rufous Pipit ranges over Africa to as far north as 
Camaroons on the West Coast and the Mediterranean on the 
east side, and extends through southern Asia to the Philip- 
pines and Timor. 

The species, as I understand it, inhabits Camaroons, where 
its occurrence is known only by a very strangely marked 



ANTHUS RUFULUS. 321 

specimen procured by Sir Harry Johnston in the mountains 
at an elevation of 10,000 feet, in October, 1886. As the species 
has never otherwise been recorded from within a radius of 
1,000 miles I have named this specimen A. rufulus camaroon- 
ensis, as it possibly belongs to a local race embodying all the 
characters of A. rufulus excepting the colouring. On following 
the West Coast southward, the species is next represented by 
an extremely pale form in the British Museum from Kinsembo 
in Angola. In Benguela the species is known to the natives 
as "Tioco" according to Anchieta, who has collected specimens 
at Humbe and Huilla. A specimen from the former locality is 
the type of A. jpallescens (nee Vig. and Horsf.) Bocage, the 
figure of which (Orn. Angola, p. 294, pi. 7, fig. 1) represents 
a very typical example of A. rufulus, Vieill., nevertheless it 
was rechristened A. bocagii, Nicholson, Ibis, 1884, p. 469. 
The species has also been met with by van der Kellen in 
Mossamedes. 

From south of the Cunene there are specimens in the 
British Museum collected at Objimbinque, in February, March, 
and June, by Andersson, who writes : " I have found these 
Pipits common at Objimbinque. Their favourite resorts are 
open places near moist situations ; a great number are some- 
times found together, yet not in flocks ; they mix much with 
the "Wagtails. These birds offer considerable variety in 
plumage ; sometimes they are very light-coloured, and at 
others their tints are very deep." Mr. Layard writes : " We 
have shot it ourselves near a vley on the Cape flats, and have 
received it from Colesberg, Swellendam and Kuruman. Mr. 
Ortleep and Mr. Bickard have both met with it near Port 
Elizabeth." Other specimens, now in the British Museum, 
have been collected at Elands Post, Grahamstown and King- 
williamstown, Pinetown, Pietermaritzburg, Potchefstroom and 
Rustenberg, and there is a specimen from Santa Lucia Lake, 

[April, 1900. 21 



322 ANTHUS RUFULUS. 

procured there by the Messrs. "Woodward in June. In Natal 
Messrs. Butler, Feilden and Reid met with the species, and 
write : " Common at the Ingagane River, near Newcastle, 
where Reid obtained four specimens in June and July, feeding 
on the bare patches round the stone cattle ' kraals.' He also 
met with it near Ladysmith in November, and obtained the 
esrsrs from two nests on the 18th and 19th of that month. 
The nests were cup-shaped, well concealed among the growing 
herbage, and resembled those of our common European 
Meadow Pipit. The eggs in the first nest, three in number, 
are white, with distinct freckles and small blotches of 
chocolate brown, and a more obscure series of ashy grey 
markings, most numerous towards the larger end, measuring 
•8 in. by *6 in. In the second nest the two eggs have the 
markings smaller, but more numerous and of a slightly duller 
brown." According to Stark, these Pipits are usually found 
in pairs. They have a rough chirping call-note and a rather 
sweet and pleasant song, which is generally uttered from the 
branch of a tree or the top of an ant-hill or stone. The 
nest is cup-shaped, built of dry grass, lined with finer grass 
and hairs, by the side of a grass-tuft. The eggs, usually three 
in number, are pale stone colour, thickly mottled with 
purplish brown and red. They measure about O80 x - 60. 

To the north of the Vaal river, according to Mr. T. Ayres : 
" This species is very common in open glades. I have 
obtained it in both the Rustenberg and Pretoria districts." 
At the Tatin river in December, while in company with 
Jameson, he found these Pipits : " Pretty generally distributed 
but not common anywhere, almost always in pairs, frequenting 
the trees." Along the course of the Zambesi Sir John Kirk 
obtained a specimen at Tete which is now in the British 
Museum, and Mr. Boyd Alexander writes : " This Pipit 
frequents waste pieces of land. In the pairing-season the 



ANTHUS RUFULUS. 323 

male will now and again rise up into the air vertically to a 
height of about 40 feet, and give out notes similar to those 
of the Meadow-Pipit. It breeds towards the end of July." 

In Nyasaland it is the commonest species of Pipit, for I 
have met with it in nearly all the collections from Mounts 
Zomba and Mlosa, the Nyika and Milanji plateaus in the 
Shire highlands, and from west of the lake up to the 
Tanjanyika plateau, at Buwa, Karonga and Songwe. To the 
eastward it is probably " plentiful at Mosambique," as 
Sperling remarks of a Pipit he calls A. campestris (Ibis, 1868, 
p. 290). Along the coast in about 12° S. lat. Serpa Pinto 
informs us that A. rufulus is called by the native on Ibo 
island " Esse," and " Malanche " on the main land at 
Quissango (otherwise spelt Kisango). Fischer found the 
species generally distributed from Lindi, 10° S. lat., to Barawa, 
1° N. lat. on the Somali coast. 

In Central Africa the species has been met with at Bukoba 
on the western shores of Victoria Nyanza, and at Redjaf in 
the Upper White Nile district. Mr. Jackson found these 
Pipits very plentiful on the plains of Masailand, and equally 
common on Manda Island where they were breeding in May, 
and also collected specimens at Ntebi, Ravine, Mau and Nandi. 
A nest he found at Ravine in May contained three eggs, and 
was placed " in a tuft of grass, built entirely of dry grass, with 
a lining of finer grass." At Nandi he remarks: "This is the 
commonest Pipit in the country, and is found almost every- 
where on the open grassy downs. It is a tame and confiding 
bird, allows a near approach, and rarely flies far when dis- 
turbed. It often settles on trees and bushes during the heat 
of the day. It nests on the ground, under the shade of a 
small bush or tuft of grass or other herbage. From Somali- 
land there are four specimens in the British Museum ; Lord 
Lovat collected six during his journey from Berbera to the 



324 ANTHUS PRATENSIS. 

Blue Nile, and Antinori and Dr. Ragazzi eleven others in this 
district from February to December, showing it to be a 
resident here. Further north Riippell procured the type of 
his A. cinnamomeus at Simen, and von Heuglin found the 
species in pairs in the highlands of Central Abyssinia. There 
is a specimen in the British Museum from Malta, which is the 
furthest northern range known to me for this species. 



Anthus pratensis. 

Anthus pratensis (Linn.), Sharpe, Cat. M. B. x. p. 580 (1835) ; Shelley, 
B. Afr. I. No. 167 (1896). 

Adult Male. Hind claw not shorter than the hind toe but about equal 
to it. This coupled with the rather broader dark centres to the feathers of 
the crown and mantle, are the only characters I can find for distinguishing 
the species from A. trivialis. Total length 5-7 inches, culmen 0'45, wing 3'0, 
tail 2-3, tarsus 0-8, hind claw 045. Avington, $, 7. 1. 87 (Shelley). 

The Meadow-Pipit ranges from Abyssinia over the whole 
of Europe and eastward into Turkestan. 

The only authority I find for admitting the Meadow Pipit 
into the Ethiopian fauna rests on a specimen procured by 
Lefebvre at Adowa in April, and on von Heuglin's statement 
that he met with it at Grondar in February, and that it occurs 
in Egypt and Abyssinia during the winter months singly or 
in small flocks, frequenting the clover fields, moist ground 
and swamps. That he never met with it in large flocks is 
probably due to its occurring merely as a straggler in tropical 
north-east Africa. 

It is by no means improbable that the specimens referred 
to this species by Lefebvre and Heuglin were really examples 
of A. cervinus in winter plumage, for as yet I have not seen a 
specimen from Africa of our Meadow Pipit. 



ANTHUS CERVINUS. 325 



Anthus cervinus. 



Anthus cervinus (Pall.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x. p. 585 (1885) 5th Cataract 
of Nile, Tigre; Salvad. Ann. Mus. Genov. 1888, pp. 265, 536 Shoa ; 
Shelley, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 28, Bedjaf ; Hartl. Abhand. Brem. 1891, 
p. 17 Bagamoyo, Tunguru ; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 168 (1896) ; 
Lorfc Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 402 Somali; Hinde, t. c. p. 579 
Macliako's ; Jackson, Ibis, 1899, p. 628 Nandi ; Grant, Ibis, 1900, 
p. 142 Abyssinia. 

Adult Male (summer). Like A. trivialis in the colouring of the wings 
and tail, and the mantle similar but with the dark centres of the feathers 
broader as in A. pratensis. It differs from them both in having large dark 
centres to the rump feathers and upper tail-coverts ; sides of the head and 
entire throat vinous red with the ear-coverts brown ; breast and under tail- 
coverts buff; crop and sides of body with brownish black shaft-stripes, most 
strongly marked on the flanks. Total length 6-2 inches, culrnen 0'45, wing 
3-4, tail 2-5, tarsus 0-85, hind claw 0-5. <?, 26. 6. 76. 

Adult (winter). Differs from the summer plumage in the almost, or 
entire, absence of red on the head and throat, and in this plumage closely 
resembles A. pratensis, from which it may be most readily distinguished by 
its having large dark centres to the feathers of the rump and upper tail- 
coverts, which parts in A. pratensis are uniform. 



The Red-throated Pipit ranges northward from Bagamoyo 
on the coast opposite Zanzibar, in about 6° 30' S. lat., through 
Eastern and Central Africa to North Europe, and eastward 
through China and Borneo into California. 

Dr. G. Hartlaub, in 1891, records a male and female of 
this species collected by Emin on February 25 at Bagamoyo, 
and also a specimen from Tunguru, on the western shores of 
the Albert Nyanza, 2° N. lat. Emin has also procured a 
specimen at Redjaf, 4° 44' 25" N. lat., 31° 42' E. long. This 
specimen, as well as one from the 5th Cataract of the Nile 
and another from Senafe in Tigre, are in the British Museum, 
clearly showing that the Nile Valley forms one of its migration 
routes. In British East Africa Mr. Jackson found the species 



326 ANTHUS TENELLUS. 

abundant at Nandi in April just before its migrating north- 
ward. Dr. Hinde obtained a specimen at Machako's in 
March, and Mr. Lort Phillips one at Sogsoda, February 6, in 
Somaliland. 

Count Salvadori records from Shoa an adult in full 
plumage procured by Dr. Traversi at Cialalaka in December, 
and Lord Lovat collected four specimens during his expedition 
from Berbera to the Blue Nile, at Lake Harrar Meyer, 
Baroma, Balti, and Damai Damash, in January and February. 
According to von Heuglin the Red-throated Pipit is abundant 
throughout Abyssinia and Nubia, in pairs or small flocks, mostly 
frequenting the cultivated fields and pasture land, and more 
rarely to be met with along the edges of the deserts and the 
sandy dunes by the sea shore, and breeds in May as far south 
as Egypt. 



Anthus tenellus. 

Anthus tenellus, Sbarpe, Cat. B. M. x. p. 618 (1885) Lamu. 

Tmetothylacus tenellus (Cab.), Cab. J. f. 0. 1897, p. 438 ; Salvad. Mem. 
E. Acad. Sc. Torino (2) xliv. p. 557 (1894) Somali; Sbarpe, P. Z. S. 
1895, p. 474 Somali; Shelley, B. Afr. I. No. 169 (1896); Elliot, 
Field Columb. Mus. i. No. 2, p. 40 (1897) Somali; Jackson, Ibis, 
1898, p. 136 Witu. 

Macronyx tenellus, Fiscb. Zeitschr. 1884, p. 308; id. J. f. 0. 1885, 
p. 137 Pare, Lamu, Barawa, WapoJcomo, Gala ; Oust. Bibl. Ecole 
Hautes Etudes, xxxi. art. 10, p. 8 (1886) ; Eeichen. Vog. Deutsch 
0. Afr. p. 200 (1894); Hartert in Ansorge's "Under Afr. Sun," 
p. 348 (1899J Taru. 

Adxdt. Crown, back and sides of neck, upper back and upper tail- 
coverts dark brown with yellow edges to the feathers ; lower back more 
uniform yellowish ash ; wings bright golden yellow, the primaries and outer 
secondaries with black shafts and ends, the latter increasing in size towards 
the outer primary, wing-coverts mottled with brownish black, inner feathers 
of the wing brown ; tail bright yellow with the centre pair of feathers dark 
brown, the next three pairs with brownish black patterns confined mostly 



ANTHUS TENELLUS. 327 

to the margins of the end third of these feathers, outer two pairs entirely 
uniform yellow ; sides of head and the under parts uniform bright yellow 
with a broad black crop-band and broad black ends to the primaries. Bill 
dark brown with the end half of the lower mandible pale, iris dark brown. 
Total length 5-7 inches, culmen 0-5, wing 3-25, tail 2-4, tarsus 1-05. Lamu 
(Kirk). 

Immature. Upper parts brown with broad brownish buff edges to 
the feathers shading into yellow on the outer wing-coverts and most of the 
quills and tail-feathers ; under surface of the wing with the coverts and 
broad inner margins to the quills bright golden yellow ; pale pattern of the 
tail yellow and confined to the two outer pairs of feathers ; sides of head, 
throat, breast and under tail-coverts pale rufous shaded buff, inclining to 
rufous brown on the crop and partially mottled with yellow on the centre 
of the breast and the under tail-coverts. Hind toe 045 inch, hind claw 0"55. 
The pattern of the tail in young birds is yellow, but otherwise is similar to 
that of A. campestris, which is probably its nearest ally, and the partially 
bare tarsus appears to me to be hardly of generic value. 

The Golden Pipit inhabits eastern Africa between 5° S. lat. 
and 5° N. lat. 

The most southern and western range known to me for 
this species is the Pangani river, near the Pare mountains ; here 
Fischer collected specimens in August. He also records the 
species from Lamu and Barawa, on the coast, and inland from 
Wapokomoland, Galaland. At Kiparadga, on the Tana river, 
he met with them in small flocks of four to ten individuals in 
October, and likens them in habits and voice to Anthus mfulus. 
Sir John Kirk collected three specimens for me at Lamu 
which are now in the British Museum along with one of Mr. 
H. C. V. Hunter's from Kilimanjaro. Mr. Jackson procured 
an immature bird at Witu in June, and Mr. Ansorge has met 
with the species at Taru. The type was obtained in the Teita 
country by Hildebrandt, who found these Pipits in small 
flocks amongst the scattered acacia bushes. A good figure of 
the adult (J. f. 0. 1875, pi. 2, fig. 3) shows the bare basal half 
of the thighs which characterises the sub-genus Tmetothijlacus, 
and the remarkable amount of bright yellow on the wings and 
tail. 



328 ANTHUS TENELLUS. 

In Somaliland Mr. West found the species not uncommon 
at Hersi Barri in the Ogaden district, and specimens have 
been collected at Darar by Mr. Donaldson Smith, and in the 
Lido mountains by Mr. Ruspoli. 



INDEX I. 

Latin Names. 



abbotti, Cinnyris, 33, 35, 72 
abyssinica, Aedon, 210 

Alcippe, 209, 210 
,, Bradyornis, 210 

,, Curruca, 210 

,, Drymophila, 210 

Sylvia, 210 
Zosterops, 171, 192 
abyssinicus, Lioptilus, 210 
Accipitriformes, 1 
acik, Cbalcomitra, 88, 90 
,, Cinnyris, 90 
,, Nectarinia, 91 
adelberti, Cbalcomitra, 89, 112 

,, Cinnyris, 112 
iEgithalus, 221, 222, 245 
aeneigularis, Nectarinia, 21 
afer, Cinnyris, 33, 35, 72 

„ Parus, 223, 240 
affinis, Cinnyris, 32, 34, 64, 66 

,, Nectarinia, 66 
Alaudas, 8, 263 
Alaudidae, 264 

alba, Motacilla, 265, 269, 272 
albiventris, Cinnyris, 32, 35, 60 

Parus, 223, 236 
alboterminata, Stiphrornis, 159 
Alcippe, 208 
aldabranus, Cinnyris, 33, 35 (err.) 

,, Zosterops, 171 

aldabrensis, Cinnyris, 70 

,, Zosterops, 197 

amethystina, Chalcomitra, 89, 103 

,, Nectarinia, 105 

ametbystinus, Cinnyris, 103, 105 
Anchietse, Anthothreptes, 141, 157 
,, Anthreptes, 157 



anderssoni, Zosterops, 170, 177 
angazizas, Zosterops, 178 
angolensis, Anthus, 298 

,, Chalcomitra, 89, 111 

,, Cinnyris, 111 

,, Nectarinia, 111 

Pitta, 3, 4 
anjuanensis, Zosterops, 171, 196 
Anseriformes, 2 
ansorgii, Cinnyris, 82 
Anthobaphes violacea, 86 
Anthoscopus, 222 
Anthothreptes, 14, 139 
Antbus, 265, 293 
arboreus, Antbus, 299 
Ardeiformes, 1 
Artami, 9 

atmori, Zosterops, 188 
aurantia, Anthothreptes, 140, 141, 147 

,, Anthreptes, 147 
axillaris, Anthothreptes, 140, 143 
,, Camaroptera, 143 

balfouri, Cinnyris, 122 

Cyanomitra, 120, 122 
barakas, Parus, 244 
bifasciatus, Cinnyris, 32, 35, 54 

,, Nectarinia, 51, 54 

boarula, Motacilla, 282 
bocagii, Anthus, 319 

,, Nectarinia, 18, 26 
boehmi Parisoma, 213, 220 
bohndorffi, Cinnyris, 128 
borbonica, Malacirops, 204 

Zosterops, 204, 205 
borealis, Motacilla, 266, 286 
bouvieri, Cinnyris, 32, 35, 57 

22 



330 



INDEX 



brachyurus, Anthus, 294, 301, 303 
bradshawi, Cinnyris, 105 
Budytes, 264 
butleri, Anthus, 297 

cafer, Prornerops, 161 
eaffer, Anthus, 319 
Calobates, 264 

calotropiphilus, iEgithalus, 246, 252 
calthorpic, Anthus, 294, 301 
camaroonensis, iEgithalus, 246, 251 
,, Anthus rufulus, 320 

carapestris, Anthus, 295, 317, 319 

,, Agrodroma, 317 

Budytes, 284 
Motacilla, 266, 283 
capensis, JEgithalus, 246, 249, 250, 253, 
254 

,, Anthoscopus, 246 
Motacillae, 266, 277 

,, Paroides, 246 

Zosterops, 171, 179, 188 
caroli, -ffigithalus, 246, 253 

,, Anthoscopus, 253 
castaneiventris, Chalcomitra, 89, 114 

,, Cinnyris, 114 

cathropce, Anthus, 301 
catoleucum, Parisoma, 213, 217, 218 
Certhiidae, 10, 256 
Certhiinse, 256, 258 
cervinus, Anthus, 295, 325 
chalcea, Nectarinia, 36 
chalceus, Cinnyris, 36 
Chalcomitra, 13, 88 
chalybeus, Cinnyris, 33, 35, 76, 81 
Charadriiformes, 2 
chloris, Anthus, 294, 295 
chloronota, Zosterops, 171, 198 
chloropygia, Nectarinia, 83 
chloropygius, Cinnyris, 34, 83 
cinerascens, Parus, 241 
cinereus, Parus, 241 
cinereicapilla, Motacilla, 266, 287 
cinnamomeus, Anthus, 319 
Cinnyris, 13, 30 



cockburuiae Anthus, 314 
collaris, Anthodiaeta, 149, 152 
,, Anthothreptes, 141, 149 
„ Anthreptes, 149 
,, Nectarinia, 152 
collaris hypodilus, Anthreptes, 151 
Columbiformes, 1 
Colymbiformes, 2 
cornorensis, Cinnyris, 32, 35, 57 
Zosterops, 171, 196 
coquerelli, Cinnyris, 32, 67 
corallirostris, Hypherpes, 257 

Hypositta, 257 
coruscans, Neodrepanis, 12 
Corvi, 8 

crenatus, Anthus, 294, 298 
cruentata, Chalcomitra, 89, 100 

,, Nectarinia, 100 

cruentatus, Cinnyris, 93, 100 
cupreonitens, Nectarinia, 18, 21 
cuprea, Nectarinia, 36 
cupreus, Cinnyris, 31, 34, 36 
cyanocephala, Cyanomitra, 128 

,, Nectarinia, 128 

cyanocephalus, Cinnyris, 128 
cyanolasma, Adelinus, 130 
,, Cinnyris, 130 

Cyanomitra, 121, 130 
,, Nectarinia, 130 

Cyanomitra, 14, 120 
Cyclopterops, 168 

deckeni, Nectarinia, 22 
demeryi, Zosterops, 173 
deminuta, Chalcomitra, 89, 105 
dussumieri, Cinnyris, 132 

Cyanomitra, 121, 122, 132 

Elteocerthia, 14, 114 
emini, Salpornis, 260 
e-newtoni, Malacirops, 204, 206 

,, Zosterops, 206 
erikssoni, Cinnyris, 74, 80 

,, Nectarinia, 82 
erythroceria, Nectarinia, 49 



INDEX. 



331 



erythrocerius, Cinnyris, 31, 35, 49 
erythronotos, Alauda, 307 
erythronotus, Anthus, 313 
eurycricota, Zo6terops, 170, 182 

faciiventris, Parus, 223, 237 
Falculia, 262 
Falculiinae, 256, 262 
falkensteini, Cinnyris, 32, 34, 66 
famosa, Neotarinia, 18, 19, 2L 
fasciiventer, Parus, 237 
feldeggi, Motacilla, 291 
ficedulina, Zosterops, 171, 185 
tiliola, Nectariuia, 28 
rischeri, Cinnyris, 117 

,, Elaeocerthia, 117 
flava, Motacilla, 266, 286 
flavifrons, jEgithalus, 246, 250 

,, Anthoscopus, 251 

,, Khaphidornis, 251 

flavigula, Zosterops, 191 
rlavilateralis, Zosterops, 173 
flaviventris, Motacilla, 266, 281 
iiavus, Budytes, 286 
forwoodi, Motacilla, 266, 274 
fraseri, ADthothreptes, 140, 141 

,, Anthreptes, 141 
Fringillae, 8 
fringillinus, iEgithalus, 246, 255 

,, Parus, 255 

frontalis, Parisoma, 211 
fuelleborni, Cinnyris, 33, 34, 80 

Parus, 223, 235 
fuliginosa, Chalcomitra, 89, 109 

,, Nectarinia, 109 
fuliginosus, Cinnyris, 109 
fiilleborni, Cinnyris, 80 

Parus, 235 
funereus, Parus, 222, 227 
fusca, Elaeocerthia, 114, 115 
fuscus, Cinnyris, 115 

gabonica, Anthothreptes, 141, 158 
,, Anthreptes, 159 

,, Nectarinia, 159 



gadowi, Nectarinia, 28 
galinieri, iEgithalopsis, 211 
Alcippe, 209, 211 

,, Lioptilus, 211 

,, Parisoma, 211 
Galliformes, 2 
gloriosae, Zosterops madagascarieusis, 

194 
gonzenbachii, Nectarinia, 49 
gouldi, Anthus, 294, 307, 309, 319 
griseiventris, Parus, 223, 243 
griseovirescens, Zosterops, 171, 186 
guineensis, Parus, 222, 229 
gularis, Motacilla, 272 
gurneyi, Promerops, 161, 165 
gutturalis, Chalcomitra, 89, 93 

,, Cinnyris, 93 

,, Nectarinia, 93 

habessinicus, Cinnyris, 31, 35, 46 
hartlaubi, Cinnyris, 135 

Cyanomitra, 121, 122, 135 
hawkeri, Cinnyris mariquensis, 53 
Hedydipna, 13, 14 
heuglini, Zosterops, 176 
Hirundines, 9 

hovarum, Zosterops, 171, 200 
humbloti, Cinnyris, 133 

Cyanomitra, 121, 122, 133 
hunteri, Chalcomitra, 89, 102 

Cinnyris, 102 
hypodila, Anthodiaeta, 151 

,, Anthothreptes, 141, 151 

,, Anthreptes, 151 

,, Nectarinia, 151 
hypodilus, Anthreptes collaris, 151 
Hyposittinas, 256 

icterinus, Anthus, 296 
icterovirens, Zosteropsylvia, 176 
idia, Anthothreptes, 140, 142 

,, Anthreptes, 142 
inaestimata, Cinnyris gutturalis, 93 
intermedins, Nectarinia, 74 
„ Parus, 223 



332 



INDEX. 



intermedius, Parus afer, 241 
insignis, Parus, 222, 231 

jacksoni, Nectarinia, 27 

„ Zosterops, 171, 184 
jala, Philepitta, 3, 6 
jardinei, Cinnyris, 53, 55 

,, Nectarinia, 55 
jerdoni, Anthus, 312 
johaniiiB, Cinnyris, 31, 35, 43 

,, Nectarinia, 44 
johnstoni, Nectarinia, 18, 22 

kalckreuthi, Chalcomitra, 107 
,, Cinnyris, 107 

,, Nectarinia, 107 

kikuyuensis, Zosterops, 170, 183, 184 
kilirnensis, Alcippe, 210 

,, Nectarinia, 18, 28 
kirki, Chalcomitra, 89, 107 
,, Cinnyris, 107 
,, Nectarinia, 107 
,, Zosterops, 170, 173, 178 

lamperti, Cinnyris senegalensis, 91 

Lanii, 8 

Lariformes, 2 

latistriatus, Anthus, 294, 304 

layardi, Parisoma, 213, 215, 217 

leucogaster, Cinnyris, 32, 35, 58 

leucomelas, Melaniparus, 228 
Parus, 222, 228 

leuconotus, Melaniparus, 226 
Parus, 222, 226 

.leueophaea Malacirops, 203 
Prinia, 203 
Speirops, 201, 203 
,, Zosterops, 203 

leucopterus, Melaniparus, 228 
Parus, 228, 233 

lichtensteini, Motacilla, 268 

limonellus, Anthus, 296 

lineiventris, Anthus, 294, 297 

longicauda, Motacilla, 266, 274 

longuemarii, Anthothreptes, 140, 144,146 



longuemarii, Anthreptes, 144, 146 
,, Cinnyris, 146 

,, Nectarinia, 146 

ludovicensis, Cinnyris, 33, 35, 74 

,, Nectarinia, 74 

lugubris, Speirops, 201 
,, Zosterops, 201 

Macronyx, 265 

madagascariensis, Zosterops, 171, 194 

Malacirops, 168, 203 

mariquensis, Cinnyris, 32, 35, 51 

,, Nectarinia, 53 

rnasukuensis, Parus, 223, 238 
rnauritiana, Malacirops, 204, 205 

,, Zosterops, 205 

mayottensis, Zosterops, 170, 172 
mediocris, Cinnyris, 33, 34, 79 
melanocephala, Malacirops, 202 

Motacilla, 266, 291 
Speirops, 201, 202 
,, Zosterops, 202 

melanogastra, Nectarinia, 18, 25 
melanope, Motacilla, 266, 282 
rnelindaj, Anthus, 294, 305 
melodus, Crateropus, 211 
metallica Hedydipna, 14, 15 

,, Nectarinia, 15 
mierorhyncha, Nectaria, 55 
microrhynchus, Cinnyris, 32, 35, 55 
modesta, Zosterops, 171, 199 
Motacilla, 264, 265 
Motacillidae, 264 

rnouroniensis, Zosterops, 170, 179 
Muscicapse, 9 
rnusculus, iEgithalus, 246, 254 

,, Anthoscopus, 254 
muraria, Tichodroma, 258, 259 

Nectarinia, 13, 17 
Nectariniidte, 9, 10 
Nectariniinas, 11, 13 
nectarinioides, Cinnyris, 31, 35, 48 
Neodrepaninse, 11, 12 
nesophilus, Cinnyris, 31, 35, 41 



INDEX. 



333 



newtoni, Cinnyris, 134 

Cyanomitra, 121, 122, 134 
nicholsoni, Anthus, 295, 312 
niger, Parus, 223, 229, 231, 232 
nigricapilla, Alcippe, 209 
nigricapillus, Lioptilus, 209 
nigricinereus, Parus, 227 
nigricotis, Motacilla, 265, 266 
notata, Nectarinia, 40 
notatus, Cinnyris, 31, 35, 39, 41 

obscura, Cyanomitra, 121, 125 
obscurus, Adelinus, 125 
,, Cinnyris, 125 
obsoleta, Zosterops, 173 
Oligomyodse, 3 

olivacea, Cyanomitra, 121, 123 
,, Nectarinia, 123 

Zosterops, 171, 198 
olivaceus, Cinnyris, 123 
olivacina, Cinnyris, 124 
orientalis, Anthothreptes, 140, 144, 145 
,, Anthreptes, 146 

Parisoma, 213, 217, 218 
Oscines, 3, 7 

osiris, Cinnyris, 32, 35, 53 
oustaleti, Cinnyris, 32, 35, 62 
,, Nectarinia, 62 

pallescens, Anthus, 321 

,, Zosterops, 176 

palliata, Falculia, 262 
pallida, Malacirops, 187 

„ Zosterops, 171, 187 
pallidiventris, Anthus, 294, 306 

Parus, 223, 238, 239 
Pari, 8, 9, 
Paridse, 10, 221 
Parisoma, 208, 212 
Parisomidae, 10, 206 
Parus, 221, 222 

parvirostris, Parus afer, 223, 241 
parvulus, ^githalus, 246, 250 
Passeriformes, 1, 2 
Pelecaniformes, 1 



Pentheres, 221 

perspicillata, Zosterops, 182 

Philepitta, 3 

Philepittidae, 5 

Phoenicopteriformes, 2 

Piciformes, 1 

Pitta angolensis, 3, 4 

Pittidae, 3 

platura, Hedydipna, 14, 16 

,, Nectarinia, 16 
plumatus, Pipastes, 299 
plumbea, Stenostira, 217 
plumbeum, Parisoma, 213, 217 
Podicipedidiformes, 2 
poliogastra, Zosterops, 171, 190 
praeterrnissa, Zosterops, 196 
pratensis, Anthus, 295, 324 
preussi, Cinnyris, 33, 34, 80, 81 
Procellariiformes, 2 
Promeropidaa, 9, 161 
Psittaciformes, 1 
pulchella, Nectarinia, 18, 23 
punctifrons iEgithalus, 246, 249 
purpureiventris, Cinnyris, 31, 34, 39 
pyrrhonotus, Anthus, 294, 304, 305, 307, 
308, 319 

raalteni, Anthus, 319 
ragazzi, Cinnyris, 125 
,, Cyanomitra, 125 
,, Elasocerthia, 125 
rayi, Budytes, 284 

„ Motacilla flava var., 284 
rectirostris, Anthodiseta, 155 

,, Anthothreptes, 141, 155 

,, Anthreptes, 155, 159 

regius, Cinnyris, 34, 35, 86 
reichenbacbi, Cinnyris, 137 

Cyanomitra, 121, 122, 137 
reicbenowi, Cinnyris, 33, 34, 82 
,, Drepanorhyncbus, 29 

,, Nectarinia, 18, 29 

rovumas, Parus, 223, 239 
rufiventer, Parisoma, 213 
rufiventris, Parus, 223, 238, 239 



334 



INDEX. 



rufulus, Anthus, 295, 319 

Salpornis, 259 

salvadorii, Salporais, 258, 260 

,, Salpornis spilonotus, 260 

scapulatus, Cinnyris, 109 
schlegeli, Philepitta, 3, 6 
scioana, Chalcomitra, 100 
scotti, Zosterops, 181 
semiflava, Zosterops, 170, 172 
senegalensis, Chalcomitra, 88, 89 

,, Cinnyris, 89 

,, Nectarinia, 89 

Zosterops, 170, 173, 177 
shelleyi, Cinnyris, 31, 50 
smithi, .Egithalus, 216 
sordidus, Anthus, 295, 313, 314 
souimanga, Cinnyris, 33, 35, 68 

,, Nectarinia, 68 

Speirops, 168, 201 
Spheniciformes, 2 
splendida, Nectarinia, 45 
splendidus, Cinnyris, 31, 35, 45 
stenocricota, Zosterops, 170, 181 
Struthioniformes, 2 
stuhlmanni, Cinnyris, 33, 34, 80 

,, Zosterops, 173 

suahelica, Cinnyris, 53 
suahelicus, Cinnyris osiris, 53 
subcaeruleurn, Parisoma, 213 
subcollaris, Anthothreptes, 151 
subfamosa, Nectarinia, 21 
sulphurea, Motacilla, 282 
superba, Chromatophora, 42 

,, Nectarinia, 42 
superbus, Cinnyris, 31, 34, 41 
superciliosus, Zosterops, 173 
Sylvioe, 8 

tacazze, Nectarinia, 18, 26 
talatala, Cinnyris, 58 



talatala, Nectarinia, 58 

tenella, Zosterops, 173, 177 

tenellus, Anthus, 295, 326 
,, Macronyx, 326 
,, Tmetothylacus, 326 

tephrolsema, Anthodiaeta, 156 

,, Anthothreptes, 141, 156 

,, Anthreptes, 156, 159 

thomensis, Elseoeerthia, 115, 119 
,, Nectarinia, 119 

thruppi, Parus, 223, 244 

Tichodroma, 258 

Tmetothylacus, 265 

trivialis, Anthus, 294, 299 

Turdi, 8 

vaalensis, Anthus, 295, 311 
vaillantii, Motacilla, 268 
venusta, Nectarinia, 62 
venustus, Cinnyris, 32, 34, 62, 159 
verreauxi, Cinnyris, 116 

,, Elasocerthia, 114, 116 
verticalis, Cinnyris, 127 

Cyanomitra, 121, 127 

,, Nectarinia, 128 
vidua, Motacilla, 265, 268 
violacea, Anthobaphes, 86 

,, Cinnyris, 34, 35, 86 
virens, Zosterops, 170, 179 
viridisplendens, Cinnyris, 128 

xanthostomus, Parus, 223, 236 
,, Parus niger, 236 

zambesiana, Anthodista, 151 

„ Anthothreptes, 152 

„ Anthreptes, 152 

,, Nectarinia, 152 

Zosteropidae, 10, 166 

Zosteropisylvia, 168 

Zosterops, 168 



INDEX II. 

English Names. 



Asity, Black-velvet, 6 
„ Yellow-breasted, 7 

Baby-bird, 262 

Creeper, Coral-billed, 257 

Hill-Tit, Black-collared, 220 

Galinier's White-fronted, 212 
Layard's, 216 
Natal Black-capped, 209 
Plumbeus, 218 
Bed-vented Grey, 214 
Ruppell's Grey-headed, 210 

Malacirops, Brown-Backed Bourbon, 
204 
,, Edward Newton's, 206 

Mauritius, 205 

Pipit, Cape Plain-backed, 308 

„ Dusky, Little, 304 

„ Golden, 327 

„ Gould's Plain-backed, 309 

„ Jackson's, 305 

„ Larger Yellow-tufted, 299 

); Long-billed, 315 

,, Long-toed Plain-backed, 306 

„ Meadow, 324 

„ Melinda, 306 

,, Nicholson's, 313 

,, Bed-throated, 325 

„ Rufous, 320 

,, Smaller Yellow-tufted, 296 

„ Striped Yellow-tufted, 298 

,, Tawny, 318 

„ Tawny Little, 301 



Pipit, Tawny Plain-backed, 311 

„ Tree, 300 
Pitta, Angola, 4 
Prornerops, Cape, 162 

,, Gurney's, 165 

Speirops, Camaroons Black-capped, 202 
White-headed, 203 

Sunbird, Abbott's, 72 

Abyssinian Bifasciated, 53 
Abyssinian Buff-breasted, 65 
Abyssinian Scarlet-chested, 101 
Abyssinian Splendid, 47 
Acik Scarlet-chested, 91 
Aldabra, 71 

Anchieta's Bed and yellow- 
breasted, 158 
Benguela Double-collared, 75 
Black-bellied Beautiful, 25 
Blue-throated Brown, 131 
Bocage's Bronze, 26 
Bouvier's, 58 

Cape Lesser Double-collared, 76 
Cape Wedge-tailed, 87 
Camaroons Double-collared, 81 
Carmelite, 110 

Common Copper-coloured, 36 
Dark Olive, 124 
Eastern Violet-backed, 146 
Eastern Yellow-breasted Long- 
tailed, 15 
Palkenstein's Buff-breasted, 66 
Fraser's Scarlet-tufted Olive, 

141 
Piilleborn's Double-collared, 81 
Great Comorora Superb, 41 
Greater Amethyst, 104 



336 



INDEX. 



Sunbird, Greater Double-collared, 73 

,, Green-beaded Olive, 128 

,, Green-throated Brown, 111 

,, Grey-chin Collared, 157 

„ Grey-crowned Scarlet-tufted 

Olive, 143 

,, Heuglin's Wedge-tailed, 49 

Humblot's, 134 

,, Hunter's Scarlet-chested, 103 

,, Johanna, 57 

,, Kilimanjaro Bronze, 28 

,, Kirk's Amethyst, 107 

,, Least Bifasciated, 56 

,, Liberian Olive, 142 

,, Little Amethyst, 106 

,, Little Brown and white, 159 

,, Little Scarlet-collared, 84 

,, Madagascar Buff-breasted, 68 

,, Madagascar Superb, 40 

,, Masai Double-collared, 79 

,, Mayotte Island, 67 

,, Mouse-coloured, 117 

,, Niger Buff-throated, 114 

,, Northern Beautiful, 24 

„ Northern Malachite, 21 

,, Oustalet's White-breasted, 62 

Pale Olive, 125 

,, Prince's Island, 136 

,, Purple -breasted Copper, 39 

,, Bed-breasted Wedge-tailed, 86 

,, Eeichenbach's, 138 

,, Beichenow's Double-collared, 

82 

,, Richmond's Wedge-tailed, 48 

,, Saint Thomas Island, 120 

,, Saint Thomas Yellow-breasted, 

135 

,, Scarlet-breasted, 44 

,, Scarlet-tufted Malachite, 23 

,, Senegal Buff- throated, 113 

,, Senegal Scarlet-chested, 90 

,, Seychelles Blue-throated, 132 

„ Shelley's Bifasciated, 50 

,, Socotra, 122 

„ Somali White-breasted, 61 



Sunbird, Southern Bifasciated, 51 
Southern Collared, 149 
Southern Malachite, 19 
Southern Scarlet-chested, 94 
Southern White-breasted, 59 
Stuhlmann's Double-collared, 

80 
Superb, 42 
Tacazze, 27 
Tropical Collared, 152 
Violet-tailed, 148 
Wattled, 12 

West African Splendid, 45 
Western Bifasciated, 54 
Western Buff-breasted, 63 
Western Violet-backed, 144 
Western Yellow-breasted Long- 
tailed, 17 
White-vented Black, 115 
Yellow-chin Collared, 155 
Yellow-fringed, 30 

Tit, Abyssinian Penduline, 249 

Andersson's Penduline, 253 

Buff-breasted, 940 

Buff-mantled Black, 226 

Cabanis's Black, 231 

Camaroons Yellow-fronted Pendu- 
line, 252 

Cape Penduline, 247 

Cinnamon-breasted, 238 

Dusky Black, 228 

Fiilleborn's Black, 236 

Gaboon Yellow-fronted Penduline, 
251 

Grey-backed White-breasted, 238 

Grey-cheeked Cole, 244 

Heuglin's Penduline, 250 

Levaillant's Black, 233 

Mouse-coloured Penduline, 255 

Northern Black, 229 

Rufous-throated Penduline, 256 

Senegal Yellow-fronted Penduline, 
252 

Somali Cole, 244 



INDEX. 



337 



Tit, South African Cole, 241 

„ White-breasted, 237 

,, Yellow-mouthed, 236 
Tree-creeper, Salvador's, 260 

Wagtail, African Pied, 269 

Black-flanked Pied, 267 
Black-headed Yellow, 292 
Cape, 277 
,, Common Yellow, 287 

Dusky-headed Yellow, 287 
„ Grey, 283 
,, Long-tailed Pied, 275 
,, Madagascar, 281 
,, Socotra Pied, 274 
White, 272 

White-throated Yellow, 287 
Yellow-browed, 284 
Wall-creeper, 259 

White-eye, Abyssinian White-breasted, 
192 
Aldabra, 197 
Andersson's Yellow, 177 
Anjuan, 196 
Annobon, 187 
Bourbon Olive, 198 



White-eye, Burchell's Pallid, 187 
Camaroons Olive, 182 
Cape, 189 

Fischer's Green, 182 
Heuglin's White-breasted, 

191 
Hova Grey-backed, 200 
Jackson's Yellow - fronted, 

184 
Kikuyu Green, 183 
Kirk's, 178 

Larger Great Comoro, 179 
Madagascar, Green-backed, 

194 
Mauritius Olive, 199 
Mayotte Chestnut-flanked, 

172 
Natal Green, 180 
Prince's Island, 186 
Saint Thomas Brown, 201 
Senegal Yellow, 174 
Seychelles Brown, 200 
SeychellesChestnut-flanked, 

172 
White-breasted Great Co- 
moro, 197 



NOTES FOR VOLUME I. 



5. p. 8, not p. 10.— 8. pi. 6, not pi. 16.— 11. Shelley, B. Afr. II. p. 25, 
pi. 1, fig. 2 (1899).— 13. Shelley, Mon. Nect. p. 19, pi. 7 (1877) ; Cat. ix. 
p. 4.— 13-5. unisplendens, Neum. J. F. 0., 1900, p. 300.— 14. Shelley, B. Afr. 
II. p. 28, pi. 1, fig. 1 (1899).— 19. Shelley, B. Afr. II. p. 41, pi. 2, fig. 2 
(1899).— 24-5. nectarinioides, Eichtnond, Auk. xiv. p. 158 (1897).— 25-5. 
shelleyi, Alexander, B. O. C. viii. p. 54 (1899) ; id. Ibis, 1899, p. 556, 
pi. 11. — 33. Cat. ix. p. 43. — 35-2, 4 and 6. stierlingi, niassae and ango- 
lensis, Eeichen. O. M. 1899, p. 171.— 36. Shelley, B. Afr. II. p. 66, pi. 3, 
fig. 1 (1899). — 36-3 and 6. cyanescens and igneiventris, Eeiehen. 0. M. 
1899, p. 171.— 38-4 and 7. aldabrensis and abbotti, Eidgway, Pr. U. S. Nat. 
Mus. 1894, p. 372.— 4L-5. subalaris, Eeicben. O. M. 1899, p. 170.-43. Shelley, 
B. Afr. II. p. 79, pi. 3, fig. 2 (1899).— 43-4. stuhlmanni, Eeichen. O. M. 1893, 
p. 61.— 438. fuelleborni, Eeichen. O. M. 1899, p. 7 ; Shelley, B. Afr. II. 
p. 80, pi. 4, fig. 1 (1899). — 46-2, 4 and 6. orphogaster, luhderi and minul- 
lus, Eeichen. O. M. 1899, pp. 169, 170. — 49-0. saturatus, and damarensis 
(Eeichen.) O. M. 1899, p. 171.— 52. p. 96, not p. 97.-53. deminuta, not 
dimidiata. — 57-5. eboensis (Jard.) Nat. Libr. v. xvi. Sunbirds, p. 244, pi. 30 
(1842) = Cinnyris castaueiventris, Madarasz, 1889 (err. B. Afr. II. p. 114). — 
60. Shelley, B. Afr. II. p. 119, pi. 5, fig. 2 (1899).— 62. 111. S. Afr. pi. 57 
(1839) not (1843).— 63-5. neglecta, Neum. J. f. O. 1900, p. 297.-65. p. 198, 
not p. 298.-69. Shelley, B. Afr. II. p. 134, pi. 5, fig. 1 (1899).— 71-5. oritis 
(Eeichen.) J. f. O. 1892, pp. 190, 225 (added by error to C. reichenbachi, 
B. Afr. II. p. 138).— 73-5. idia, Oberholser, Pr. U. S. Nat. Mus. xxii. p. 33 
(1899).— 73-8, not 964. axillaris (Eeichen.) O. M. 1893, p. 32.-75. p. 292, 
not p. 284 ; Shelley, B. Afr. II. p. 145, pi. 4, fig. 2 (1899).— 76. p. 337, not 
p. 331.— 85. Sbelley, B. Afr. II. p. 172, pi. 6, fig. 2 (1900).— 86. pi. 19, fig. 2 
(1868).— 88. Shelley, B. Afr. II. p. 177, pi. 7, fig. 2 (1900).— 91. Shelley, 
B. Afr. II. p. 179, pi. 7, fig. 3 (1900).— 93 and 94 = 87.-95-5. jacksoni, 
Neurn. O. M. 1899, p. 23.-96. Shelley, B. Afr. II. p. 185, pi. 8, fig. 1 (1900). 
—98. Shelley, B. Afr. II. p. 187, pi. 7, fig. 1 (1900).— 100. Ferr. et Gall. Voy. 
Abyss, iii. p. 209, pi. 9, fig. 2.-103-3. cornorensis, Shelley, B. Afr. II. p. 196, 
pi. 9, fig. 1 (1900).— 103-6. aldabrensis, Eidgway, Pr. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1894, 
p. 371.— 107. Shelley, B. Afr. II. p. 199, pi. 6, fig. 1 (1900).— 1105. e-new- 
toni (Hartl.), Vog. Madag. p. 97 (1887) ; Shelley, B. Afr. II. p. 206, pi. 9, fig. 
2 (1900).— 112. Shelley, B. Afr. II. p. 203, pi. 8, fig. 2 (1900).— 114. Jack- 
son, Ibis, 1899, p. 638, pi. 13.— 115. leucomelas, Eiipp. N. Wirb. Vog. p. 100, 
pi. 36, fig. 2 (1838) not leucopterus, Swains. — 115-5. guineensis, Shelley 






340 NOTES. 

B. Afr. II. p. 229 (1900).— 117-5. fuelleborni, Eeichen. 0. M. 1900, p. 5.— 
118. Shelley, B. Afr. II. p. 236, pi. 10, fig. 1 (1900).— 119. Shelley, B. Afr. 
II. p. 236, pi. 10, fig. 2 (1900).— 121-5. rovuma;, Shelley, B. 0. C. I. p. 6 
(1892).— 122-5. masukuensis, Shelley, B. Afr. II. p. 238 (1900).— 123 = 
133-5. Fisch. Zeitschr. 1884, p. 340, pi. 19, fig. 1. This is an .Egithalus.— 
124-3 and 6. intermedins and parvirostris, Shelley, B. Afr. II. p. 241 (1900). — 
Bhapidornis, Beichen. 0. M. 1897, p. 123, type iEgithalus camaroonensis. — 
130-5. camaroonensis, Shelley, B. Afr. II. p. 251 (1900).— 133. Shelley, 
B. Afr. II. p. 254, pi. 11, fig. 2 (1900).— Family Parisomidte, Shelley, B. 
Afr. II. p. 206 (1900).— Genus I. Alcippe, Blyth J. A. S. Beng. xiii. p. 384 
(1884) type A. cinerea = Lioptilus, Cab. Mus. Hein. I. p. 88 (1850), type A. 
nigricapillus. This genus comprises : 1292, 921 = 1293, and 1296. — 138-5. 
catoleucum, Beichen. O. M. 1900, p. 5.— 141. pp. 198, 211, not pp. 195, 
211.— 142-8. nigricotis, Shelley, B. Afr. II. p. 266, pi. 12, fig. 2 (1900).— 143. 
Shelley, B. Afr. II. p. 268, pi. 12, fig. 1 (1900).— 144-5. forwoordi, Grant & 
Forbes, Bull. Liverpool Mus. II. p. 3 (1900).— 153. Erase : ? Gm. S. N. i. 
p. 970 (1788). -155. Shelley, B. Afr. II. p. 297, pi. 13, fig. 1 (1900).— 156. 
Shelley, B. Afr. II. p. 298, pi. 13, fig. 2 (1900).— 157. trivialis (Linn.) not 
trivialis, Linn.— 157-5. Calthorpse, Layard, B. S. Afr. p. 121 (1867) ; Shelley, 
B. Afr. II. p. 301, pi. 14, fig. 1 (1900). -158. Shelley, B. Afr. II. p. 303, 
pi. 14, fig. 1 (1900) ; Cat. x. p. 551, not p. 55.— 158-5. latistriatus, Jackson, 
Ibis, 1899, p. 628.— 158-7. melindse, Shelley, B. Afr. II. p. 305 (1900).— 
159-5. vaalensis, Shelley, B. Afr. II. p. 311 (1900).— 166 = 165.— 170-5. 
fuelleborni, Eeichen. O. M. 1900, p. 39.— 172. p. 222, not p. 444.— 176. p. 45, 
not p. 48.— Pseudalaemou, Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 400, type 182-5. 
fremantlii, (Lort Phillips), B. O. C. vi. p. 46 (1897).— 182-7. delamerei, Sharpe, 
B. O. C. x. p. 102 (1900).— 183. Hartert, Ibis, 1892, p. 523, pi. 13.— 189-5. 
athensis, Sharpe, B. O. C. x. p. 101 (1900).— 192-5. razas, Alexander, Ibis, 
1898, p. 107, pi. 3.— 201-5. marginata, Hawker, B. O. C. vii. p. 55 (1898). 
205-5. sharpii, Elliot, Field Columb. Mus. (17, orn.) i., No. 2, p. 37 (1897).— 
206-2, 4 and 6. transvaalens, tropicalis and athi, Hartert, Nov. Zool. vii. 
pp. 45, 46 (1900).— 215-5. intercedens, Eeichen. O. M. 1895, p. 96.— 
216. pi. 8, fig. 1, not pi. 3.— 216-5. nigrescens, Eeichen. O. M. 1900, 
p. 39.— 217. p. 619, not p. 620.— 221-5. ellioti, Hartert, Nov. Zool. iv. 
p. 144 (1897).— 222-5. giffardi, Hartert, B. O. C. p. 5 (1899).— 223. p. 639, 
not p. 369.-225-5. akeleyi, Elliot, Field Columb. Mus. (17. Orn.) i. No. 2, 
p. 39 (1897).— 231-5. nigriceps, Gould, Voy. Beagle, Birds, p. 87 (1841).— 
238. Swains, B. W. Afr. i. p. 20, pi. 18 (1837).— 2465. insularis, Grant & 
Forbes, Bull. Liverpool Mus. ii. p. 2 (1900).— 247-5. socohtrana, Grant & 
Forbes, Bull. Liverpool Mus. ii. p. 2 (1900).— 251. p. 954, not p. 594.— 
251-5. louisse, Lort Phillips, B. O. C. vi. p. 49 (1897) ; id. Ibis, 1898, p. 398, 
pi. 8. — 257-5 hermileucus, Grant & Forbes, Bull. Liverpool Mus. ii. p. 3 
(1900).— 265. p. '302, not p. 202.— 268-5. thierryi Eeichen. O. M. 1899, 
p. 190.— 271. p. 340, not p. 341.— 276. = 274.-282. pi. 109, fig. 1 (1830) 
not pi. 100.— 282-5. sharpii, Neum. J. f. O. 1900, p. 287.-284. pi. 9, not 



NOTES. 341 

pi. 11.— 293. p. 98, not p. 94.-293-5. whytii, Shelley, Ibis, 1897, p. 528, 
pi. 11.— 294-5. affinis (Eichmond) Auk. xiv. p. 156 (1897).— 295. p. 364, 
not p. 365.-296-5. kilimensis (Eichmond) Auk. xiv. p. 155 (1897).— 
301-5. punctigula, Eeichen. O. M. 1898, p. 23.— 303-5. fagani, Sharpe, 
B. 0. C vi. p. 7 (1896). — Hypantospiza, Eeichen. Ber. Allg. Deutsch Orn. 
Ges. xi. p. 6 (1892) type Linurgus olivaceus. — 304. kilimensis (Eeichen. 
& Neum.) O. M. 1895, p. 74.— 309. p. 180, not p. 120.— 311. amauropteryx, 
not amauroptera. — Genus iii. Coliopasser, not Coliipasser. — 318. Daud. PI. 
Enl. iv. pi. 647, not pi. 75.— 3205. psanimacromia (Eeichen.) O. M. 1900, 
p. 39.— 321. (1849) not (1841).— 33-5 nigronotata, Sharpe, B. O. C. vii. p. 7 
(1897).— 340. J. f. O. 1880, not 1886.— 343-5. wertheri, Eeichen. O. M. 
1897, p. 160. — 351 and 353 = 350.— Atopornis, Eeichen. & Neum. O. M. 
1895, type 1331 = 367. N. schistacea. — 3655. kretschmeri, Eeichen. 
O. M. 1895, p. 187.— 366. p. 316, not p. 317.— Genus vi. Philetaerus, not 
PhiliBterus.— 379-5. australis, Shelley, Ibis, 1896, p. 184.— 388. p. 52, not 
p. 50.— 396-5. hawkeri, Sharpe, B. O. C. viii. p. 23 (1898).— 397-5. cyano- 
cephala (Richmond) Auk. xiv. p. 157 (1897).— 398. B. W. Afr. i. p. 192, 
pi. 14, not p. 196, pi. 16.— 399-0 jagoensis, Alexander, Ibis, 1898, p. 85.— 
3995. cavendisbi, Sharpe, Ibis, 1900, p. 110.— 406. p. 166, not p. 163.— 
407-5. ocbrogaster, Salvad. Boll. Mus. Z. & Anat. Torino xii. No. 287, p. 4 
(1897) ; Grant, Ibis, 1900, p. 130, pi. 3, fig. 1.— 407-7. marwitzi, Eeichen. 
O. M. 1900, p. 40.— 409. J. f. O. 1883, not 1886.— 410-5. delamerei, Sharpe 
B. O. C. x. p. 102 (1900). — 411. charmosyna, not charmosina.— 419-5. 
ansorgi, Hartert, B. O. C. x. p. 26 (1900).— 422. p. 141, not p. 131.— 427-5. 
rendalli, Hartert, Nov. Zool. v. p. 72 (1898). — 428. minima, not minuta. — 436 
(1837) not (1887).— 441. p. 296, not p. 297.— 441-5. affinis, Elliot, Field Columb. 
Mus. (17, Orn.) i. No. 2, p. 34 (1897).— 444. p. 588, not p. 558.— 450. 
p. 500, not p. 50.— 461. p. 372, not p. 370.— 462. p. 350, not p. 351.— 
464. p. 32, pi. 11, not p. 3, pi. 2.— 471-5. donaldsoni, Sharpe, B. O. C. V. 
p. 14 (1895)— 475. p. 109, not p. 100. 

476'3. Anaplectes rufigena, sp. nov. 

Type. — -Very like the adult male of A. melanotis, from which it differs 
only in the less amount of black on the head, which colour is confined 
to the feathers in front and behind the eye, and does not extend on to 
either the cheeks or the chin, which are red like the throat, neck and 
upper part of the head. Total length 5-4 inches, culmen 0-6, wing 3-3, 
tail 2-3, tarsus 0-8, Chuta (Alfred Sharpe). 

4766. blundelli, Grant, Ibis, 1900, p. 132.— 479-5. rubricollis, Sharpe, 
B. O. C. vi. p. 48 (1897).— 487. Eeichen. J. f. O. 1896, p. 30, pi. 4, figs. S ? .— 
488. p. 185, pi. 23, fig. 3, not pi. 3 ; Sjostedt, Sv. Ak. Handl. (27, no. 1) p. 83, 
pi. 7 5 (1895). — 498. p. 446, not p. 449. — Genus xvii. Nesyphantes, not 
Neshyphantes. — 505-5. nandensis (Jackson) Ibis, 1899, p. 615. — Genus xix. 
Otyphantes, not Othyphantes.— 511-5. sharpii, Shelley, Ibis, 1898, p. 557. — 
513. fig. 2 5 .—517 and 518 = 513. Sjostedt, Sv. Ak. Handl. (27, no. 1) p. 88, 
pi. 9 $ (1895).— 519. Eeichen. J. f. O. 1896, p. 31, pi. 4, upper fig.— 528-5. 






342 NOTES. 

dichrocephala (Salvad.) Ann. Mus. Genov. 1896, p. 45.-529. p. 399, not 
p. 392.— 531-5. auricomus (Sjostedt) O. M. 1893, p. 28 ; id. Sv. Ak. Handl. 
(27, no. 1) p. 86, pi. 8 (1895).— 532-5. olivaceiceps (Keichen.) 0. M. 1899, p. 7. 
—536. Cat. xiii. p. 448, pi. 13, fig. 6 (head).— 538, p. 447, not p. 477.-538-5. 
camburni (Sharpe) B. O. C. x. p. 35 (1900).— 541-5. uluensis, Neum. J. f. O. 
1900, p. 283.— 551-5. dicrocephala, Salvad. Ann. Mus. Genov. 1896, p. 45.— 
554. Ibis 1887, not 1867.— 557-5. fuelleborni, Beichen. O. M. 1900, p. 99.— 
563, p. 69, not p. 66.-564. Beichen. J. f. O. 1887, p. 214, not Dubois.— 
571-5. meneliki, Weld-Blundell & Lovat, B. O. C. x. p. 19 (1899) ; Grant, 
Ibis, 1900, p. 122, pi. 2.-573-5. ketior, Sharpe, B. 0. C. vii. p. 17 (1897).— 
575 5. chlorocephalus, Shelley, Ibis, 1896, p. 183, pi. 4. — 582-5. sharpii. 
Jackson, B. O. C. viii. p. 22 (1898).— 583. Cat. xiii. p. 189, not pp. 198, 667, 
— 583-5. femoralis, Bichmond, Auk. xiv. p. 160 (1897). — 588-5. brevicaudus, 
Sharpe, B. O. C. vi. p. 48 (1897).— 593. pi. 80, not pi. 8.— 600-5. massaicus, 
Neum. J. f. O. 1900, p. 280.— 609. xxiv. not xxxiv.— 6145. nyasae, Shelley, 
Ibis, 1898, p. 557.— 616-5. canolimbatus, Beichen. O. M. 1900, p. 99.— 
622 = 620.— 627-0. dubius (Bichmond) Auk. 1897, p. 158.— 627-5. greyi, 
Jackson, B. O. C. viii. p. 50 (1899).— 630. Levaill (1799) not (1880).— 
631. pi. 8, not pi. 10. — Genus xx. Necrospa, Sclater, Phil. Trans, clxviii. 
p. 427 (1879).— 631-5. rodericanus, Giinther & B. Newton, t. c. p. 427, 
pi. 42, figs. A— G ; Cat. xiii. p. 195.— 6317. leguati, Forbes, Bull, Liverpool 
Mus. I. p. 34, pi. 3 (1898).— 639. p. 20 not p. 30.— 642. Cat. hi. not xiii. 
— 642-5. oreas, Beichen. O. M. 1899, p. 40.— 647-5. atactus, Oberholser, 
Pr. U. S. Nat. Mus. xxii. p. 35 (1899).— 650. p. 107, not p. 106.— Abbot- 
tornis, Bichmond, Pr. U. S. Nat. Mus. xix. p. 692 (1897) type A. chabert.— 
656. comorensis, Shelley, B. Afr. II. pi. 2, fig. 1 (1900).— 665. = 664.— 
666-5. vinaceigularis, Bichmond, Auk. xiv. p. 162 (1897).— 671-3. and 6. 
nigricans and intermedius, Beichen. O. M. 1899, p. 90. — 675. Levaill. iv. 
(1805) not II. (1799).— 678-5. preussi, Beichen. O. M. 1899, p. 40.— 687. 
(Poll.) not (Pall.).— 698. (Des Murs) not (De Murs).— 702. pis. 6, 7, 8 
(1883).— 714. p. 479, not p. 471.— 719. p. 479, not p. 471.— 722-5. hybridus, 
Neum. J. f. O. 1899, p. 407.— 730. 2nd series, not 3rd series.— 734-5. fuelle- 
borni, Beichen. O. M. 1900, p. 39.-742-3. occidentalis, Neum. J. f. O. 1899, 
p. 413.— 742-5. Neum. t. c. p. 414.— 747-2. malzacii (Heftgl.) Syst Uebers. 
p. 34 (1855).— 747-4. and 6. nyausae, and erythrese, Neum. J. f. O. 1899, 
p. 412.— 753. p. 128, not p. 138.— 760. p. 152, not p. 153.— 761. p. 63, 
not p. 62.-765-5. bocagii (Beichen.) Orn. Mitteil. 1875, p. 125 ; id. J. f. O. 
1896, p. 26, pi. 2, fig. 2.-768-5. catharoxanthus (Neum.) J. f. O. 1899, 
p. 391. — Cosmophoneus, Neum. J. f. O. 1899, p. 392, type M. multicolor. — 
769-3. suahelicus (Neum.) J. f. O. 1899, p. 395.-769-6. modesta (Neum.) 
t. c. p. 396.— 7700. zosterops, Buttik, Notes Leyd. Mus. 1889, p. 98 — 
770-2. liberianus (Neum.) J. f. O. 1899, p. 393.— 770-5. manningi, Shelley, 
B. O. C. x. p. 35 (1899).— 770-7. abbotti (Bichmond) Auk. 1897, p. 161. — 
771-5. pre^si (Neum.) J. f. O. 1899, p. 393.— 7718. reichenowi (Neum.) 
1. c. — 774-5. haematothorax, Neum. t. c. p. 390. — 775-5. nigrifrons 



a 



NOTES. 343 

(Eeichen.) 0. M. 1896, p. 95.— Necator, not Nicator.— 785. p. 19, not p. 10. 
—803. Reichen. J. f. 0. 1897, p. 48, pi. 2, fig. 2.— 816 and 817 = 815.— 
818. p. 46, not p. 45.— 819. pi. 148, not p. 148.— Eurillas, Oberholser, 
Pr. U. S. Nat. Mus. xxii. p. 15 (1899) type 840. virens.— 836-5. congener, 
Eeichen. J. f. O. 1897, p. 45.-838-5. masukuensis, Shelley, Ibis, 1897, 
p. 534.— 840-5. morwitzi, Eeichen. O. M. 1895, p. 188.— 856. Sjostedt, Sv. 
Vet. Ak. Handl. (27, No. 1) p. 97, pi. 10 (1895).— Stelgidilhis, Oberholser, 
Pr. U. S. Nat. Mus. xxii. p. 30, type 867. gracilirostris.— 860 5 shelleyi 
(Neum.) J. f. O. 1900, p. 292.— 861-5. pallidigula (Sharpe) B. O. C. vii. 
p. 7 (1897).— 863. p. 356, not p. 350.-866 = 865.-865-4. marchei (Oust.) 
N. Arch. Mus. Sc. (2) ii. pt. 1, p. 100 (1879).— 865-8. debilis (W. L. 
Sclater) Ibis, 1899, p. 284.—867'5. liberieusis (Eeichen.) Nov. Zool. ii. 
p. 160 (1895).— 880-5. chlorigula (Eeichen.) O. M. 1899, p. 8.-884 and 
885 = 886.-887-5. olivaceiceps, Shelley, Ibis, 1896, p. 179.— 893-5. 
baumanni (Eeichen.) O. M. 1895, p. 96 ; id. J. f. O. 1897, p. 44, pi. 2, fig. 1. 
—898 = 897.-899 = 1100.— 9145. sterlingi, Eeichen. O. M. 1898, p. 82. 
—917. Eeichen. J. f. O. 1896, p. 43, pi. 3, fig. 2.— 921. = 1293.— 938-5. 
helenors, Alexander, B. O. C. viii. p. 48 (1899). — 941-5. atricollis, Bocage, 
Jorn. Lisb. 1893, p. 153. — 947. (1881) not (1882). — 958-5. chloronota, 
Eeichen. O. M. 1895, p. 96.-964 = 738.-965. Eeichen. J. f. O. 1896, 
p. 100, pi. 5, fig. 3.-967-3. jacksoni, Sharpe, B. O. C. vii. p. 7 (1897).— 
9676. brachyura, Lafr. Eev. Zool. 1835, p. 258. — 967 8. canope, Eeichen. 
O. M. 1900, p. 22.-968-2. pallida, Alexander, B. O. C. viii. p. 48 (1899); 
id. Ibis, 1900, p. 75, pi. 1, fig. 1.— 968-3. flecki, Eeichen. O. M. 1900, 
p. 22.-968-4. finschi, Eeichen. 1. c— 968-5. isabellina, Elliot, Field Colunib. 
Mus. (17, Orn.) i. No. 2, p. 44 (1897). -968-6. minima, Grant, Ibis, 1900, p. 
156 ; Alexander, Ibis, 1900, p. 75, pi. 1, fig. 2.-968-8. major, Neum. J. f. 
O. 1900, p. 305.— 984. p. 114, not p. 120.— 988 = 1016.— 997. Eeichen. J. f. 
O. 1896, p. 40, pi. 5, fig. 1.— 999-5. florisuga, Licht, (Eeichen.) J. f. O. 1898, 
p. 314 + neglecta, Alexander, B. O. C. x. p. 17 (1899).— 999-7. golzi (Fisch. 
& Eichen.) J. f . 0. 1884, p. 182.— 1000-5. viridiceps (Hawker) B. O. C. vii. p. 55 
(1898).— 1003. Eeichen. J. f. O. 1896, p. 41, pi. 5, fig. 2.— 1004-5. major, 
Weld-Blundell & Lovat, B. O. C. x. p. 20 (1899).— 1005. + zenkeri, Eeichen. 
O. M. 1898, p. 23 = 847.— 10130. ugandse, Sharpe, B. O. C. vii. p. 6 (1897).— 
1013-5. somalica, Elliot, Field Columb. Mus. (17, Orn.) i. No. 2, p. 45 (1897). 
—1015. p. 178, not p. 179 = 1010.— 1028-5. hindi, Sharpe, B. O. C. vi. p. 7 
(1896) ; id. Ibis, 1898, p. 580, pi. 12, fig. 2.— 1036. (1882) not (1822).— 
1039-5. prinioides, Neum. J. f. O. 1900, p. 304. — 10405. muelleri, 
Alexander, B. O. C. viii. p. 63 (1899).— 1042-5. lovati, Grant, Ibis, 1900, 
p. 161.— 1043. p. 34, pi. 12, not p. 32, pi. 11.— 1045. p. 35, pi. 13, not p. 34. 
—1049-5. alticola, Shelley, B. O. O, viii. p. 35 (1899).— 10505. nigriloris, 
Shelley, Ibis, 1897, p. 536, pi. 12, fig. 2.— 1053. P. Z. S. 1843, not 1841.— 
1057-5. rufidorsalis, Sharpe, B. O. C. vi. p. 48 (1897).— 1064. p. 245, not 
p. 243.— 1065. p. 243, not p. 245.— 1081. 1895, not 1875.— 1082-5. castaneus, 
Eeichen. O. M. 1900, p. 6.— 1084-5. abyssinica (Weld-Blundell & Lovat) 






344 NOTES. 

B. 0. C. s. p. 19 (1899).— 1104 = 1103.— 1109 = 1107 and erase 1108.— 
1111 and 1113. Sym. Phys. (1828) not (1833).— 1119. rufus, not rufa.— 
Sylvia, Scop. (1769) not (1869).— 1121-0 gularis, Alexander, Ibis, 1898, 
p. 81.— 1126-5. lugeus, Riipp. N. Wirb. Vog. p. 113, pi. 44, fig. 2 (1835).— 
1126-7. jacksoni (Sharpe) B. O. C. x. p. 28 (1899).— 1130. Symb. Phys. 
(1828) not (1833).— 1149-5. inexpectus, Richmond, Pr. U. S. Nat. Mus. xix. 
S. 678, p. 688 (1897).— 1151-5. prosphora, Oberholser, Pr. U. S. Nat. Mus. 
xxii. p. 37 (1899).— 1159-3. poliothorax, Reichen. O. M. 1900, p. 6.— 1159-6. 
fuelleborni, Reichen. O. M. 1900, p. 99.— 11655. isokema, Reichen O. M. 
1900, p. 5.— 1165-7. mawensis, Neum. J. f. O. 1900, p. 309.— 1177-5. 
giffardi, Hartert, B. O. C. x. p. 5 (1899).— 1182-4. modesta, Shelley, Ibis, 
1897, p. 539, pi. 12, fig. 1.— 1182-8. gambagse, Hartert, B. O. C. x. p. 5 
(1899).— 1185-5. albigularis, Reichen. O. M. 1895, p. 96.— 1194 = 1191. 
—11985. ernesti, Sharpe, B. O. C. x. p. 36 (1900).— 11995. johnstoni, 
Shelley, Ibis, 1893, p. 18.— 1200. p. 57, not 571.— 1201 = 1200.— 1200-5. 
olivaceus, Reichen. O. M. 1900, p. 100.— 1215-5. stierlingi (Reichen.) O. M. 
1900, p. 5.— 1217 = 1212.— 1218-5. kiliinensis (Neum.) J. f. O. 1900, 
p. 310.— 1224. p. 292, not p. 285, and p. 191, not p. 192.— 1225. stormsi, 
not stormi.— 1227. L. Phillips, Ibis, 1896, p. 78, pi. 2.— 1234-5. cinerascens, 
Reichen. O. M. 1898, p. 82.— 1243. Contr. Orn. 1852, not 1854.— 1254. 
pileata (Gm.) not pileata, Gm. — 1255-5. albinotata, Neum. J. f. O. 1900, 
p. 313.— 1277. Sym. Phy. (1828) not (1833) ; Yerbery, Ibis, 1896, p. 24, 
pi. 1, fig. 1. + dubia (Weld-Blundell & Lovat) B. O. C. x. p. 22 (1899).— 
1279. p. 355, not p. 361.— 1285-5. argentata, Reichen. O. M. 1900, p. 100.— 
1295. pp. 37, 49, pis. 14, 20.— 1298-5. schistaceus, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, 
p. 481.— 1306-5. kavirondensis, Neum. J. f. O. 1900, p. 257.— 1307. p. 473, 
not p. 472.— 1308-5. sibirica, Neum. J. f. O. 1900, p. 259.— 1311 = 1120.— 
1314-5. nyikensis, Shelley, B. O. C. viii. p. 35 (1899).— 1315-5. trothaj, 
Reichen. O. M. 1900, p. 5.— 1317. p. 96, not p. 90.— 1321-5. subadusta, 
Shelley, Ibis, 1897, p. 542.— 1327-5. obscura, Sjostedt. O. M. 1893, p. 43; 
id., Sv. Vet. Ak. Handl. (27, No. 1) p. 73, pi. 5 (1895).— 1328-5. pumilus, 
Reichen. J. f. O. 1892, p. 32.— 1330 = 1319.— 1331 = 367.-1336-5. 
olivacea, Buttik. Notes Leyd. Mus. 1897, p. 199.— Erase 1338 = Tricho- 
lestes criniger (Blyth) Cat. vi. p. 89. — 1342-5. similis, Richmond, Auk. 
xiv. p. 163 (1897).— 1344 = 1343.— 1345-0. marginalis, Reichen. O. M. 
1900, p. 6. — Pholia, Reichen. type 1347-5. hirundinea, Reichen. O. M. 
1900, p. 99. — 1352. figs 1, <?, 2, ?.— 1353-5. jamesoni, Sharpe in 
Jameson's " Story of Rear Column," p. 414 (1890). — 1354-5. chalybea, 
Reichen. O. M. 1897, p. 46.— 1356. Ibis, 1873, not 1875.— 1368. orientalis 
(Heisigl.) p. 449, not orientalis, Hetigl. p. 440.^1369-5. bella, Elliot, Field 
Columb. Mus. Orn. ser. 1, No. 2, p. 47 (1897).— 1371-0. francisi, W.L. Sclater, 
B. O. C. vii. p. 60 (1898).— 1377. Orn. Centralbl. 1879, p. 120.— 1380. p. 71, 
pi. 6. — 1390-3 and 6. suahelica and plumbeiceps, Reichen. in Werth. Mittl, 
Hochl. nordl. Deutsch O. Afr. p. 275 (1898).— 1433. Contr. Orn. 1851, p. 141. 
not 1849, p. 4. — Lecythoplastes, Reichen. type 1438-5. preussi, Reichen. 



NOTES. 345 

O. M. 1898, p. 115.— 1444-5. percivali, Grant, B. O. C. viii. p. 55 (1899).— 
1447-5. blanfordi, Weld-Blundell & Lovat, B. O. C. x. p. 20 (1899).— 1453-5. 
thomensis, Hartert, B. O. C. x. p. 53 (1900).— 1455. p. 114, not p. 120.— 
1459. murinus, Brehm. Vogelf. p. 46 (1854).— 1460. p. 227, not p. 47. 
14635. Cypselus alfredi sp. nov. 

Nearly allied to cypselus ceqidtorialis, but slightly larger and darker. 
General plumage blackish brown, with a slight greenish gloss, fading into 
white on the chin and upper throat ; feathers of the back with almost 
obsolete pale edges ; crop and under surface of body with indistinct narrow 
white edges to the feathers, inclining to spots on the abdomen and sides 
of the body ; axillaries and some of the larger under wing-coverts with 
narrow white terminal edges ; outer under wing-coverts edged with buff 
giving them a regular scaled appearance. Total length 102 inches, cul- 
men 0-4, wing 7-9, tail, outer feathers 3-5, centre feathers 2-4, tarsus 6. 
Mbara (Alfred Sharpe). 

1468-5. willsi, Hartert, Nov. Zool. iii. p. 231 (1896).— 1470. p. 418, not 
p. 416.— 1473. p. 463, not p. 464.— 1474. p. 189, not 187.— 1484-3. jonesi, 
Grant & Forbes, Bull Liverpool Mus. ii. p. 3 (1900).— 1484-6. torridus, Lort 
Phillips, B. O. C. viii. p. 22 (1898).— 1487-5. fuelleborni, Beichen. O. M. 
1900, p. 89.— 1492-5. stellatus, Weld-Blundell & Lovat, B. O. C. x. p. 21 
(1899) ; Grant, Ibis, 1900, p. 311, pi. 4.— 1499. Cat. xvii., not xvi.— 1499-5. 
rufiventra, Dubois, P. Z. S. 1896, p. 999.— 1507. pi. 103, not pi. 108.— 
1523-5. sharpii, Hartert, B. O. C. x. p. 27 (1899); Cat. xvii. p. 48, pi. 1, 
fig. 3.— 1524 = 1525.— 1528. p. 105, pi. 23, not p. 123, pis. 28, 29.— 
1529-5. Australis, Eeichen. J. f. O. 1885, p. 222.— 15353. batesiana, Sharpe 
B. O. C. x. p. 48 (1900).— 1535-6. northcotti, Sharpe, t. c. p. 49.— 1542. 
p. 233, not p. 232.— 1557. notatus, Salvin. Cat. xvi. p. 22 (1892).— 1559-5. 
schalowi, Neum. J. f. O. 1900, p. 221.— 1569-5. kethullii (Dubois) O. M. 
1900, p. 69.— 1572. J. f. O. 1880, p. 350, pi. 1, not fig. 1.— Horizocerus, 
Oberholser, Pr. U. S. Nat. Mus. xxii. p. 28 (1899) type 1595. L. hartlaubi.— 
1587 = 1585.-1589. medianus, not mediana.— 1600. pi. 20, not pi. 2.— 
1605. p. 33, not p. 23.— 1608. p. 191, not p. 190.— 1613. p. 149, not 
p. 140. — 1616. swainsoni, Smith, S. Afr. Quart. Journ. 1834, p. 143. — 
—1616-5. hyacinthinus, Eeichen. J. f. O. 1900, p. 216.— 1617. p. 90, not 
p. 9.— 1619. (1814) not (1834).— 1626. p. 247, not p. 246.— 1631. Sclater, 
P. Z. S. 1884, p. 475. pi. 45, fig. 1.— 1634, p. 341, not 321.— 16355. ber- 
lepschi, Hartert in Ansorge's "Under Afr. Sun," p. 333 (1899).— 1637-5. 
pulcher, Neum. J. f. O. 1900, p. 190. — 16383 and 6. pallidus, and mossam- 
bicus, Eeichen. O. M. 1896, p. 4.— 1641-5. zenkeri, Eeichen. J. f. O. 1896, 
p. 9. — 1643. livingstonii, not livinstoni. — 16435. hybridus, Beichen. J. f. O. 
1898, p. 314.— 1646-5. finschi, Eeichen. O. M. 1899, p. 190.— 1648-5. 
sharpii, Eeichen. O. M. 1898, p. 182.— 1650-5. ruspoli, Salvad. Ann. Mus. 
Genov. 1896, p. 44.— 1665. p. 708, not p. 704.— 1682-5. insularis, Eidgway, 
Pr. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1894, p. 373.— 1683. pi. 220, not pi. 22.— 1683-5. 
thierryi, Eeichen. O. M. 1899, p. 190.— 1688-5. cupreicauda, Eeichen. O. M. 

23 



34G NOTES. 

1896, p. 53.— 1689. p. 397, not p. 395.— 1689-5. fasciipygialis, Keichen. 
O. M. 1898. p. 23.— 1690. burchelli, Swains. An. in Menag. p. 321 
(1838).— 1699. Notes Leyd. Mus. 1879, not 1870.— 1701. p. 178, not 
p. 148.— 1707. p. 47, pi. 3.— 1708. Reichen. J. f. O. 1897, p. 14, pi. 1, 
fig. 1.— Melignomon, Reichen. O. M. 1898, p. 22, type 1716-5. zenkeri, 
Reichen. O. M. 1898, p. 22.— 1718. fig. 1 (1832), not fig. 2 (1822).— 
1718-4. lovati, Grant, B. O. C. x. p. 39 (1900).— 1718-8. teitensis, Neum. 
J. f. O. 1900, p. 195. — Melanobucco, Shelley, 1889, not 1882. — 1730. 
N. Diet. iii. (1816) not (1813).— 1730-5. macclounii, Shelley, B. O. C. viii. 
p. 35 (1899).— 17325. abbotti, Richmond, Auk. xiv. p. 164 (1897).— 1739-5. 
congicus, Reichen. Westl. mittl. Hochl. nordl. Deutsch. O. Afr. p. 273 
(1898).— 1741-5 leucogenys, Weld-Blundell & Lovat, B. O. C. x. p. 21 
(1899).— 1744 = flavipunctata, J. & E. Verr. J. f. O. 1855, p. 103.— 
1745-5 blandi, Lort Phillips, B. O. C. vi. p. 47 (1897) ; id. Ibis, 1898, 
p. 415, pi. 9, fig. 1.— 1767. pi. 536, fig. 2 (1832), not pi. 530 (1823).— 
1767-5. centralis, Reichen. O. M. 1900, p. 40.— 1768-5. xanthosticta, Weld- 
Blundell & Lovat, B. O. C. x. p. 21 (1899) ; Grant, Ibis, 1900, p. 308, pi. 3, 
fig. 2.— 1770-5. jacksoni, Sharpe, B. O. C. vii. p. 7 (1897).— 1777 = 1801. 
Reichen. J. f. O. 1896, p. 13, pi. 3, fig. 1.— 1778. P. Z. S. 1869, not 1863.— 
1778-5. sowerbyi, Sharpe, B. O. C. vii. p. 36 (1898) ; id. Ibis, 1898, p. 572, 
pi. 12, fig. 1.— 1780. Woodward, Ibis, 1897, p. 404, pi. 10.— 1796. Reichen. 
J. f. O. 1897, p. 16, pi. 1, fig. 2.— 1803-5. neumanni (Reichen.) O. M. 1896, 
p. 132.— 1805-5. nyanste, Neum. J. f. O. 1900, p. 204.— 1808. figs. 4, 5, not 
4, 6.— 18155. hausbergi, Sharpe, B. O. C. x. p. 36 (1900).— 1817-5. arizelus, 
Oberholser, Pr. U. S. Nat. Mus. xxii. p. 29 (1899).— 1819. p. 55, pi. 4, 
fig. 1. — 1820-3 and 6. massaicus and centralis, Neum. J. f. O. 1900, p. 206. 
—1821-5. simoni, Grant, B. O. C. x. p. 38 (1900).— 1826. p. 57, pi. 4, fig. 2. 
—1835-5. ingens. Hartert. Nov. Zool. vii. p. 33 (1900).— 1836-2, 4 and 6. 
poicephalus, abyssinicus, Reichen. O. M. 1900, p. 58 and centralis, p. 59. — 
1858. p. 226, not p. 236.— 1859-5. uhehensis, Reichen. O. M. 1898, p. 82.— 
1861-3. thomensis, Bocage Jorn. Lisb. 1888, p. 230.— 1861-6. sjostedti, 
Reichen. J. f. O. 1898, p. 138.— 18665. harterti, Neum. J. f. O. 1898, p. 287, 
pi. 2.— 1867. Forbes, Bull. Liverpool Mus. ii. p. 135, pis. 2, 3 (1900).— 
1871-5. kilimensis, Neum. J. f. O. 1898, p. 289.— 1876. p. 216, not p. 215.— 
1888-5. abbotti, Ridgway, Pr. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1895, p. 513.— 1890. como- 
rensis (E. Newton) P. Z. S. 1877, pp. 300, 302.— 1900. (1859) not (1862).— 
1901-3. suahelicus, Reichen. J. f. O. 1898, p. 314.— 1901-6. rubricapilla, 
Forbes & Robinson, Bull Liverpool, Mus. i. p. 15 (1899).— 19131 and 2. 
erytbreee and transvaalensis, Neum. O. M. 1899, p. 25. — 1916. p. 102, not 
p. 110.— 1918. pi. 3, not pi. 1.— 1934. N. Diet. xxv. not xxxv. and p. 512, not 
p. 522.— 1936. Reichen. J. f. O. 1896, p. 8, pi. 2, fig. 1.— 1939. Quart. Journ. 
1834, p. 317, not p. 307, and pi. 45, not pi. 65.— 19452. nigricantius, Sharpe, 
B. O. C. vi. p. 47 (1897).— 1945. 4, 6 and 8, suahelicum, umboriuin, Heifcgl. 
zanzibarieum, Reichen. in Werth. Mittl. Hochl. Nordl. Deutsch. N. O. Afr. 
p. 272 (1898).— 1952. p. 42, pi. 2 (1895).— 1956-5. socotranus, Grant & Forbes, 



NOTES. 347 

Bull. Liverpool, Mils. ii. p. 2 (1900).— 19585. ugandse, Neum. J. f. O. 1899, 
p. 56.— 1962-5. letii (Butik.) Notes, Leyd. Mus. 1889, p. 34.— 1984, Neum. 
J. f. O. 1899, p. 51, pi. 1.— 1989. p. 248, not p. 240.— 1990. p. 112, not 
p. 122.— 1998-5. deserticola (Reichen.) O. M. 1899, p. 190.— 2014. p. 65, 
not p. 66. — 2043. p. 35, not p. 351.— 2049-5. somaliensis, Neum. O. M. 
1897, p. 192.— 2057. Sclater, Ibis, 1864, not 1875.— 2059. p. 38, not p. 88.— 
2062-5. sparsimfasciatus, Reichen. O. M. 1895, p. 97.— 2068-5. tropicalis, 
Reichen. J. f. O. 1898, p. 139.— 2070. Reichen. J. f. O. 1896, p. 5, pi. 1.— 
2090. Bree B. Eur. 2nd ed. i. pi. 1 (1875).— 2093. p. 47, not p. 27.— Bostri- 
chia, Reichenb. not Reichen. — Lophotibis, Reichenb. not Reichen. — 2108. 
p. 319, pi. 407, not p. 329, pi. 408.-2112. fig. 1, not fig. 2.— 2116 = 2115.— 
2119. (Sharpe) B. O. C. v. p. 13 (1895) ; id. Cat. xxvi. p. 105, pi. la.— 
Tigriornis, not Tigrornis. — 2130. capensis, Sehleg. Mus. Pays, Ardese, 
p. 48 (1863); Cat. xxvi. p. 257, not stellaris (Linn.)— 2131. Cat. xxvi. 
p. 222.— 2132. Cat. xxvi. p. 225.— 2133. Cat. xxvi. p. 244.— 2134. Cat. 
xxvi. p. 287.— 2135. Cat. xxvi. p. 288.— 2136. p. 297, not p. 295, Cat. 
xxvi. p. 299.— 2137. Cat. xxvi. p. 303.— 2138. Cat. xxvi. p. 292.— 2139. 
Cat. xxvi. p. 294.— 2140. Cat. xxvi. p. 312.— 2141. crurnenifera (Less.) 
Traite p. 583 (1831) ; Cat. xxvi. p. 319.— 2144 = 2143. Cat. xxvi. p. 308.— 
2145. p. 241, not p. 240.— 2147 = 2146. Cat. xxvi. p. 443.— 2148. Cat. xxvi. 
p. 340.— 2150 = 2149. Cat. xxvi. p. 351.— 2150. nigrogularis, Grant & 
Forbes, Bull, Liverpool. Mus. ii. p. 3 (1900).— 2152. Cat. xxvi. p. 374.— 
2153. Cat. xxvi. p. 407.— 2154. rufus, Lacep. & Daud. in Buff. H. Nat. 
(18 Didot) Quadr. xiv. p. 319, Ois. xvii. p. 81 (1799) ; Cat. xxvi. p. 412.— 
2155. Cat. xxvi. p. 414.— 2156. Cat. xxvi. p. 425.— 2157. Cat. xxvi. 
p. 429.— 2158. Cat. xxvi. p. 432.— 2159. Sundev. Physiogr. Siillskapets^ 
Tidsk. i. p. 218., pi. 5 (1837); Cat. xxvi. p. 420.— 2160. Cat. xxvi. p. 462. 
—2161. roseus, Gm. S. N. i., pt. ii. p. 570 (1788); Cat. xxvi. p. 466. 
—2162. Cat. xxvi. p. 462.— 2163. Cat. xxvi. p. 468.— 2164. Cat. xxvi. 
p. 474. — 2165. Cat. xxvi. p. 457.— 2165-5. lepturus, Lacep. and Daud. 
in Buff. H. Nat. (18 Didot) Quadr. xiv. p. 319, Ois. xvi. p. 280 
(1799); Cat. xxvi. p. 453.— 2166. Cat. xxvi. p. 451.— 2169. p. 227, not 
p. 137.— 2219-5. edwardsi, Oust. Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 6, xvi. art. v. p. 1 
(1883).— 2220. pi. 444, not pis. 442, 444.-2226. p. 304, pi. 29, fig. 1 
—2230. fese, Salvad. Ann. Mus. Genov. 1899, p. 305; Dresser, B. Eur. 
Suppl. p. 411, pi. 721, not Mollis (Gould).— 2243. Cat. xxv. p. 451.— 
2244. Cat. xxv. p. 451. — 2245. Cat. xxv. p. 453.-2242-5. layardi, 
Salvin Cat. B. M. xxv. p. 450 (1896).— 2254. p. 239, not p. 229.— 
2280. p. 345, not p. 435.-2284-5. insularis, Richmond, Pr. U. S. 
Nat. Mus. xix. S. 678 (1897).— 2287. Cat. xxvi. p. 544.-2288. 
capensis, Licht. Nomencl. p. 104 (1854) ; Cat. xxvi. p. 513, pis. 7, 
8.-2289. pelzelni, Hartl. Orn. Madag. p. 83 (1861) ; Cat. xxvi. p. 518.— 
2293. p. 29, pi. 1, not pi. 29.— 2305-5. batesi, Sharpe, B. O. C. x. 
p. 56 (1900).— 2310-5. obscura, Neum. O. M. 1897, p. 191.-2322 = 
2321.— 2335. Neum. J. f. O. 1898, p. 300 pi. 3, fig. 4.— 2330. Neum. 



5 



348 NOTES. 

J. f. O. 1898, p. 300, pi. 3, fig. 2.-2336-5. melanogaster, Neum. J. f. O. 
1803, p. 299, p. 3, fig. 1.— 2337-5. bengueblensis, Bocage, Jorn. Lisb. 1893, 
p. 54.-2339 = 2338.-2342. leueoscepus, Gray, List Gall. Brit. Mus. 
p. 4 (1867).— 2351-5. crawshayi, Grant, Ibis, 1896, p. 482, pi. 12.— 
2.358-5. lorti, Sharpe, Bull. B. o'. C. vi. p. 47 (1897) ; id. Ibis, 1898, p. 425, 
pi. 10.— 2363-5. kikuyuensis, Grant B. O. G. vi. p. 23 (1897).— 2374-5. 
harwoodi, Weld-Blundell & Lovat B. O. C. x. p. 22 (1899); Grant, Ibis, 
1900, p. 335, pi. 6.— 2380 = 2378.-2382-5. tetraoninus, Weld-Blundell & 
Lovat B. O. C. x. p. 22 (1899) ; Grant, Ibis, 1900, p. 336, pi. 5.-2385-5. 
bottegi, Salvad. Ann. Mus. Genov. 1898, p. 652.-2386-5. florentiae, Grant 
B. O. C. x. p. 107 (1900).— 2390-2. reichenowi, Grant, Ibis, 1894, p. 535.— 
2390-4. zechi, Beiehen. O. M. 1896, p. 76.— 2390-6. transvaalensis, Neum. 
O. M. 1899, p. 26.— 2390-8. rikvra, Reichen. O. M. 1900, p. 40.— 23922. 
palpillosa, Beiehen. O. M. 1894, p. 145. — 2392-4. maxima, Neum. O. M. 
1898, p. 21.— 2392-6. intermedius, Neum. O. M. 1898, p. 21.— 2393 = 2390. 
—2396-5. granti, Elliot, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 584.-2399-5. sclateri, Beiehen. 
O.M. 1898, p. 115.— 2402-5. somalicus, Hartert, Nov. Zool. vii. p. 28 
(1900). — 2403. senegalus, not senegalensis. — 2407. Erase, Temm. PI. 
Col. v. pis. 23, 24 and Gld. B. A. vi. pi. 63 (1851). They both belong to 
2406.— 2407-5. saturatior, Hartert, Nov. Zool. vii. p. 29 (1900).— 2425. 
lovati, Grant, B. O. C. x. p. 39 (1900).— 2429. J. f. O. 1882, not 1852.— 
2460. Cat. xxiv. p. 182.— 2467-5. thoracica (Richmond) Pr. Biol. Soc. 
Washington, x. p. 53 (1896).— 2477. Cat. xxiv. p. 586.-2478. Cat. xxiv. 
p. 593.-2479. Cat xxiv. p. 602.— 2480. Cat. xxiv. p. 578.— 2481. Cat. 
xxiv. p. 538.-2482. Cat. xxiv. p. 570.— 2483. arenaria (Linn.) Cat. xxiv. 
p. 526.— Gallinago, p. 30 (1816), not p. 31.— 2497. Cat. xxiv. p. 626.— 
2498. Cat. xxiv. p. 631.— 2499. Cat. xxiv. p. 649.— 2500. Cat. xxiv. p. 633. 
Rostratula, Vieill. Analys. 56 (1816) = Rhynchaea, Cuv. 1817.— 2501. Cat. 
xxiv. p. 683. — Chionarchus, Kidder & Coues, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. no. 3, 
p. 116 (1876) type C. minor. — 2506. crozettensis (Sharpe) B. O. C. v. p. 44 
(1896); Cat. xxiv. p. 713, not alba (Gm.).— 2509-5. buttikoferi, Reichen. 
O.M. 1898, p. 182.— 2532. p. 354, pi. 67 (1862), not p. 353.— 3533 5. 
massaicus, Neum. J. f. O. 1898, p. 243.-2534. p. 575, not p. 574. 



End of Vol. II. 



THE BIRDS OF AFF.I ZA PL. I. 




l.Nectarmia kihmensis.J 
2. " melanogastra.s. 



THE BIRDS OF AFRICA, PL II. 




l.Artamia comorensi: 
2.Cmrvyris nesophilu 



THE BIRDS OF AFRICA. PL IH 




/ 



1. Ci: kensteini. s . 

2. me I 



THE BIRDS OF AFRICA, PL. IV. 




1. Cmrtyris fuelleborni.a . 
2.Anthothreptes orientalis . 1 



THE BIRDS OF AFRICA.PL.V 




1 . Cyanoimtrsi newt oni . s 
2Elaeocerthia thomensis.8 



THE BIRDS OF AT 




1. Zosterops modesta.i . 

2. " semiflava.-& 



j 

P-. 

u 

I — 1 

PH 

o 
p 

in 

FP 

K 
E-i 






(U 




^ 










cd 


[ 1 


t3 






;o 


r 1 




cd 




p- 




to 




Ph 


c 


o 




f. 


■ 1— I 


OJ 


p; 


-+-> 


o 


CO 


to 


o 


CO 


OJ 


^ 




CD 


1 ■" 


■-d 




£ 




erf 




Ni 







'■W 



Pi 
<j 

o 

s 

< 

o 

CO 

q 

5 
w 




M/W 



'■ 



N> 



J 

o 

CD 



CO 

O 

P-, 

a) 
. ^ 






CD 
O 

<-H 
CO 

o 

fn 
CD 

-P 
W 

o 
N 



;o 






THE BIRDS OF AFRICA . PL. IX. 




l.Zosterops comorensis. 
ps e-newtoru. 









V*. 



7 




l.Par 

2. " biventri 



Z BIRDS OF AFRICA.FL.XI. 




1. Alcippe aJbyssiraca. . "s. 
2.^{5rth&lus irmsculus. t. 



: : 

»-i 
< 

u 

s 

<! 
o 






oo 




u 




CO 

pi 



0] 

pj 

-P 

I 

csi 



raw 

CO 

H 

-P 

£ 

|> 

<u 

■ i-H 

I 

-p 



THE BIRDS 07 AT RICA, PL. XIV. 




1. Arvthus calthrope. 

2. " brachyurus. 



THE 



BIRDS OF AFRICA. 



BY 



G. E. SHELLEY, F.Z.S., F.R.G.S. 




VOL. II. PART I. 



LONDON: 

E. H. POETEE, 7 PEINCES STEEET, CAVENDISH SQUAEE, W. 

1900. 



Price 21s. net. 






MAH 















THE 



BIRDS OF AFRICA 



BY 



G. E. SHELLEY, F.Z.S., F.R.G.S. 




VOL. II. PART II. 



LONDON : 
E. H. PORTER, 7 PRINCES STREET, CAVENDISH SQUARE, W. 

1900. 



Price 21s. net.