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FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

FOUNDED BY MARSHALL FIELD, 1893 

PUBLICATION 308 



ZOOLOGICAL SERIES 



VOLUME XIX 



THE BIRDS OF CHILE 



BY 

CHARLES E. HELLMAYR 



ASSOCIATE CURATOR OF BIRDS 



WILFRED H. OSGOOD 

CURATOR, DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY 
EDITOR 




CHICAGO, U. S. A. 
JUNE 13, 1932 ., 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 
BY FIELD MUSEUM PRESS 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

FOUNDED BY MARSHALL FIELD, 1893 

PUBLICATION 308 
ZOOLOGICAL SERIES VOLUME XIX 



THE BIRDS OF CHILE 

BY 

CHARLES E. HELLMAYR 

ASSOCIATE CURATOR OF BIRDS 



WILFRED H. OSGOOD 

CURATOR, DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY 
EDITOR 




CHICAGO, U. S. A. 
JUNE 13, 1932 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Introduction 5 

Historical Sketch of Chilean Ornithology 6 

Expedition of Field Museum 12 

General Physiography of Chile 18 

Climatic Conditions, Rainfall, and Distribution of Forests 19 

The Life Zones of Chile 21 

Geographical Variation in Chilean Birds 23 

Bird Migration in Chile 25 

Distributional Last of the Birds of Chile 26 

Ornithological Bibliography of Chile 429 

Index.. . 459 



THE BIRDS OF CHILE 
INTRODUCTION 

When the collections of the Marshall Field Chilean Expedition 
of 1922-24 began to reach the Museum, it was my intention to 
prepare merely an account of the species contained therein, but with 
the progress of my studies I could not fail to realize how little was 
actually known regarding the exact distribution of the birds of Chile 
in spite of the fact that this country had attracted the attention of 
naturalists at a much earlier period than any of the other South 
American republics. Therefore, it was decided to give the work a 
wider scope by incorporating all the available information on Chilean 
ornithology, unusually scattered through numerous books and serials. 

In setting some limits to the area covered by this memoir, I have 
been guided partly by political boundaries, partly by faunal divisions. 
The ultimate settlement of the long-disputed question of the northern 
boundary has resulted in the division of Tacna Province between 
Peru and Chile, but the new frontier, having no faunal significance, 
could not possibly be accepted as a basis for delimiting the area in 
the north, and it has been deemed convenient to include the whole 
province of Tacna. In the south, the forty-eighth degree of southern 
latitude, which very nearly coincides with the southern limit of the 
"Valdivian" forest, is taken as the dividing line, the country beyond 
being, according to the meager data at hand, unquestionably Pata- 
gonian in its faunal affinities. To the eastward, the only practicable 
course was to follow the political boundary between Chile and 
Argentina, which roughly corresponds to the crest of the main 
Cordilleran chain except in the extreme south, where the Chilean 
territory stretches to a considerable extent down the eastern slope 
of the Andes. 

Chile, as understood in the present paper, thus comprises the 
area between 18 and 48 S. lat., extending from the summit of the 
Andes to the seacoast. Every species recorded from this area has 
been listed regardless of whether or not it is represented in Field 
Museum. I have, however, omitted the purely oceanic birds (petrels 
and albatrosses) with the exception of a few which by reason of the 
mode of their occurrence seemed to deserve a place among the 
Chilean land birds. While the material in Field Museum naturally 
formed the principal basis of this paper, the greater part of Chilean 
birds preserved in other institutions has likewise passed through my 
hands. Several trips to Europe enabled me to examine a good many 



6 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

critical species and types in the collections of the British Museum 
(Natural History), the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle at 
Paris, the Zoological Museum at Berlin, the Senckenbergian Natural 
History Museum at Frankfort, the Zoologische Staatssammlung at 
Munich, and the Naturhistorisches Museum at Vienna. Frequent 
loans from the principal museums in the United States have also 
supplied much pertinent material. 

For favors extended during the preparation of the report my 
thanks are due to Mr. Outram Bangs, M. Jacques Berlioz, Mr. D. S. 
Bullock, Professor E. Bourdelle, Dr. Frank M. Chapman, Mr. H. B. 
Conover, Mr. August Hemprich, Mr. N. B. Kinnear, Professor F. 
Lataste, Professor A. Laubmann, Dr. Percy R. Lowe, Dr. R. Mertens, 
Dr. C. W. Richmond, Mr. C. Rogers, Lord Rothschild, Dr. E. 
Stresemann, Mr. W. E. C. Todd, and Dr. A. Wetmore. To my 
colleague, Mr. Karl P. Schmidt, I am indebted for kindly comparing 
certain specimens with types in the Museo Nacional at Santiago. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH OF CHILEAN ORNITHOLOGY 

Our earliest knowledge concerning the bird-life of Chile dates 
from the latter part of the eighteenth century, when the Jesuit 
Father Juan Ignacio Molina, a native of the province of Maule, in 
his "Saggio sulla Storia Naturale del Chile," first published at 
Bologna in 1782, treated of thirty-three species found in that country, 
of which twenty-three, including the genus Phytotoma, were described 
as new. The descriptions are none too full and in some cases even 
utterly unidentifiable, doubtless owing to the fact that Molina, 
having been forced to leave his country, compiled their account 
from memory or incomplete notes. The species described by him 
were critically reviewed by R. A. Philippi and more recently 
by Deautier and Steullet. It is rather strange that no reference is 
made in his writings to the family Pteroptochidae, which forms such 
a striking feature among the birds of Chile. 

The next contribution to Chilean ornithology is due to the 
naturalists of the French corvette "La Coquille," R. P. Lesson and 
P. Garnot, who from January 23 to February 13, 1823, explored the 
shores of Conception Bay, and described a number of new birds 
from that region. 

A few years later, in March and April, 1827, F. H. von Kittlitz, 
naturalist aboard the Russian vessel "Seniavin" under the command 
of Captain Lutke, visited Chile, working in the vicinity of La Con- 
cepcion and Valparaiso, and to him we owe the discovery of various 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 7 

characteristic species of the Chilean fauna, including four representa- 
tives of the Pteroptochidae. 

At the same time, during the years 1827 and 1828, Eduard 
Poeppig also traveled in Chile. Being primarily interested in botany, 
this distinguished naturalist, beyond describing a new duck (Mareca 
sibilatrix), contributed but little to ornithology, though he was the 
first to tell us something about the bird-life of the Andean districts 
in Aconcagua and Biobio. 

Captain Parker King, commander of the surveying vessel 
"Adventure," while chiefly concerned with exploration of the Straits 
of Magellan, collected a few birds within the limits covered by the 
present paper, at Port Otway and on Chilo Island, his most note- 
worthy find being a new tapacola (Pteroptochos tarnii). 

Aldde d'Orbigny, in the course of his extensive South American 
journey in the years 1826 to 1832, did some collecting in the vicinity 
of Valparaiso and at Cobija, and then proceeded north to Arica, 
whence, by way of Tacna, Palca, and Tacora Pass, he crossed over 
the Andes into Bolivia. The results of d'Orbigny's researches were 
laid down in a preliminary "Synopsis" published jointly with A. de 
Lafresnaye, containing diagnoses of nine new species from northern 
Chile. Subsequently, the explorer gave a more comprehensive 
account of the ornithological collections with notes on habits and 
distribution in the fourth volume of his "Voyage dans TAme'rique 
MeYidionale." D'Orbigny was the first to supply information on 
the bird-life of the northern provinces and, for many years, remained 
the only authority for this part of the republic. 

Chilean ornithology gained very little advancement from the 
voyages round the world of the Russian sloop "Predpriatie," the 
French corvette "La Favorite," and the British ship the "Blonde," 
though a few (actual or supposed) novelties obtained on these 
occasions were made known to science byEschscholtz, Gervais, Eydoux 
and Gervais, Jardine and Selby, and J. E. Gray. 

Much more important were the results of the voyage of the 
"Beagle" (1832-36), in which Charles Darwin took part as naturalist. 
The expedition stopped at various ports between Chilo6 Island and 
Copiapo, and, besides discovering several new species described by 
John Gould, gathered many data on the distribution of Chilean 
birds. 

F. J. F. Meyen, who, in 1834, published an account of the birds 
obtained on a trip round the world, recorded and described sundry 



8 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

species from Copiapo and various localities in the central provinces, 
including three from the Puna Zone of Santiago (Volcan de Maipo). 

William Swainson, between 1832 and 1838, published descriptions 
of half-a-dozen Chilean birds. All are credited to W. Hooker's 
collection, but nothing is known of the source whence they came. 

Between 1831 and 1844, R. P. Lesson made numerous contri- 
butions to Chilean ornithology, describing various new species from 
specimens sent by Claudio Gay or by his brother Adolphe Lesson, 
surgeon of the brig "La Pylade," and others again from the private 
collection of Dr. Abeille", of Bordeaux. A number of Chilean species 
are also included in his report on the birds secured by Busseuil 
during the voyage of "La Thesis" and "L'Esperance" in 1824 
to 1826. 

Titian R. Peak, the naturalist of the United States Exploring 
Expedition during the years 1838 to 1842 under the command of 
Captain Charles Wilkes, lists some birds from Valparaiso. The 
supposed novelties prove, without exception, to have been described 
previously. 

Thomas Bridges made considerable collections in Chile in the 
early forties. According to his own report, he worked chiefly in 
Colchagua, between 34 and 35 S. lat., exploring that province up 
to the edge of the snow, though he must also have visited other 
parts of central Chile, as the lowlands of Valparaiso, localities in that 
section being referred to by Fraser in his final account of Bridges's 
collections. On his second trip to South America, Bridges landed 
at Cobija, Antofagasta, and by way of Calama and Tapaquilcha 
Pass reached the Bolivian highlands. 1 The collections made in 
Chile, Bolivia, and on an excursion to Mendoza were mixed up by 
his London agent H. Cuming, an unfortunate mishap that led to 
numerous erroneous records. 2 

Another period was inaugurated by Claudio Gay, who may justly 
be called the father of Chilean natural history. This energetic scientist 
spent twelve years (1830-42) in the country, founded the Museo 
Nacional at Santiago, and incorporated the results of his researches in 
the "Historia fisica y politica de Chile," of which eight volumes are 
devoted to zoology. The ornithological portion, published in 1847, 
was entrusted to 0. des Murs, who was responsible for classification 

*Cf. P. Z. S. Lend., 14, pp. 7-9, 1846; 15, p. 28, 1847. 

2 A complete set of Bridges's birds was acquired by Lord Derby and is now in 
the Free Public Museum at Liverpool. A smaller number passed into the British 
Museum. Specimens which we have seen in the latter institution bear no other 
locality than "Chile," and are, therefore, of little value other than historical. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 9 

and technical descriptions, while Gay merely contributed notes on 
distribution and habits. The author obviously was not very familiar 
with the subject, as he admitted many species without good reasons, 
entered some twice or three times under different names, and mis- 
identified others. As a whole, Des Murs's volume is rather unsatis- 
factory and cannot be taken as a trustworthy basis. Gay appears 
to have traveled a good deal, the extreme points mentioned in his 
book being Chiloe" and Copiapo. His most important discoveries 
were two seed-snipes, Attagis gayi and Thinocorus orbignyanus, and 
the remarkable spine-tail, Sylviorthorhynchus desmurii. The greater 
part of his collections has been deposited in the Paris Museum. 

Professor Behn, of the University of Kiel, landed at Cobija on 
February 23, 1847, stopped at Calama from February 27 to March 1, 
reached Ascotan on March 5, Tapaquilcha on March 6, and then 
proceeded to Potosi, Bolivia. His collection, which includes a small 
number of birds from Antofagasta, is now in the Berlin Museum. 

The United States Naval AstronomicalExpedition under Lieutenant 
J. M. Gilliss, between 1849 and 1852, crossed the Andes several times 
from Santiago to Mendoza and vice versa. The collections were 
worked out by Cassin. 

Ernst von Bibra, in 1853, reported on the results of a six months' 
trip to Chile, and gave a list of the species obtained during his travels. 
The points visited were the Bay of Corral in Valdivia, Valparaiso, 
Santiago, and the Cordillera of Santiago. 

In the late fifties, the Austrian frigate "Novara" called at Val- 
paraiso. Birds were collected by the naturalists of the expedition, 
G. von Frauenfeld and J. Zelebor, and additional material was secured 
from two local ornithologists, C. Segeth and Ph. Germain. Pelzeln 
gave a detailed account of the collections which, however, did 
not materially add to our knowledge of Chilean birds. 

With the arrival of L/adwig Landbeck (1852) and R. A. Philippi 
(1853) Chilean ornithology entered into another phase, which we 
may aptly call the scientific period. In a series of elaborate papers, 
these authors dealt with various groups, discussing the characters 
of the different species, their plumages, distribution, migratory move- 
ments, and habits. Although hampered by lack of literature and 
comparative material from other parts of the neotropical region, 
which caused them to consider certain previously described species 
as heretofore unknown, Philippi and Landbeck greatly advanced 
our knowledge of Chilean birds by their careful monographic studies, 
among which those on the genera Muscisaxicola, "Certhilauda" 



10 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

[ =Geositta], Fulica, and "Bernicla" [=Chloephaga] deserve particular 
notice. In addition to these exhaustive essays, they also described, 
either jointly or separately, many new species, including a number 
of Puna Zone birds from the Cordillera of Tacna contained in a 
collection bequeathed to the National Museum of Santiago by the 
late Senor Frobeen, of Arica. Landbeck 1 appears to have had a 
prominent share in the compilation of these various papers which, 
in style and expression, reveal unmistakable evidence of his able 
pen. In the "Zoologischer Garten" for 1877, he presented us with 
an account of the song-birds of his adopted country, which ranks 
among the very best that has been written on the life-history of 
Chilean birds. 

G. Hartlaub, in 1853, offered critical remarks on a collection from 
Valdivia received through Philippi, and was followed by E. vonBoeck, 
who wrote on the birds of the same district from a faunal point of 
view. 

R. 0. Cunningham, naturalist of the surveying vessel "Nassau" 
during 1866 to 1869, obtained sundry specimens on Chilo6 and at 
Coquimbo, which were reported upon by Sclater and Salvin. 

Two residents of Chile, Edwyn C. Reed and Friedrich Leybold 
(a native of Bozen, Tyrol) made ornithological collections, mostly 
in the central provinces and on Juan Fernandez, which, for the 
greater part, have been acquired by the British Museum and the 
Munich Museum. Leybold added a new humming bird, Rhodopis 
vesper atacamensis, to the Chilean fauna, while Reed contributed to 
literature an important paper on the birds of Colchagua. 

Neither the collections of Dr. Coppinger during the cruise of the 
"Alert" nor those of the "Challenger" expedition yielded much new 
information beyond a few records from points on the coast, and the 
same may be said of the material gathered by Captain A. H. Markham 
of the SS. "Triumph," of which Salvin published an annotated list. 

Noteworthy progress in the exploration of the somewhat neglected 
northern provinces was achieved through two expeditions to Tara- 
paca, in both of which Carlos Rahmer, subdirector of the Museo 
Nacional of Santiago, took part. The first of these expeditions, 
sponsored by the Chilean government, left Copiapo on December 27, 
1884, and reached Antofagasta de la Sierra (now belonging to the 
Argentine department of Los Andes) on January 16, 1885, whence 

J A sketch of the life and scientific activity of this excellent ornithologist is 
riven by W. Bacmeister in Jahreshefte Ver. Vaterl. Naturk. in Wiirttemberg, 70, 
pp. XXX-XLVI, 1914. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 11 

the party traversed the provinces of Antofagasta and Tarapaca in a 
northward direction, descending via Pica to Iquique. A nominal 
list of the birds collected on the trip, the itinerary of which was 
described by F. Philippi, has been published by R. A. Philippi. 
Early in 1886, Rahmer, on behalf of Mr. H. Berkeley James, 
returned to the Cordillera of Tarapaca. The collection of birds 
was studied by P. L. Sclater and contained a strikingly distinct new 
species of flamingo. 

Fernand Lataste, the distinguished French zoologist, while pro- 
fessor at the Medical School of Santiago (1889-96), on numerous 
excursions in the central provinces (Valparaiso, Santiago, Colchagua, 
Curico, Maule, Nuble) gathered considerable collections, upon which 
he wrote a series of well-annotated articles in the "Actes de la Socie"t 
Scientifique du Chile." It is much to be regretted that various 
adverse circumstances prevented M. Lataste from extending his 
researches into other parts of the country. Series of his specimens 
have been distributed to the British Museum and the Paris Museum, 
while a set of duplicates was presented by him to the Linnean Society 
of Bordeaux. 

The United States Fish Commission Steamer "Albatross," in 
1887-88, forwarded a small number of birds from Port Otway to the 
United States National Museum, which were listed by R. Ridgway. 

Ambrose Lane, in the interests of Mr. H. Berkeley James, went 
to Chile in December, 1889, for the purpose of ornithological collect- 
ing, which he kept up for about a year, until the outbreak of a revolu- 
tion forced him to leave the country. He first worked in Santiago 
Province, then undertook a trip to Tarapaca, and finally explored 
Arauco and Valdivia. P. L. Sclater reported on the collection from 
Tarapaca, while Lane himself published valuable field-notes on 
124 species met with during his travels. 

Ludmg Plate, a German zoologist, visited Chile and the Straits 
of Magellan from 1893 to 1895, collecting birds at various spots 
between Iquique and Puerto Montt. An annotated list of the species 
was prepared by Schalow. 

Gustav Hopke was engaged in bird collecting around Puerto 
Montt, Llanquihue, in the latter half of 1895. The bulk of his 
collection went to the late Count Berlepsch, but a set was acquired 
by the Vienna Museum. 

A professional collector by the name of A. von Lossberg, in 1896 
and 1897, sent many bird skins from Valdivia to Count Berlepsch, 
which are now in the Frankfort Museum. 



12 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

In the fall of 1902, OttoGarlepp made a short trip to Arica, Tacna, 
and Palca, also in the interest of Count Berlepsch. The birds 
obtained on that occasion were never reported upon, but I have 
examined most of the specimens, now in the Senckenbergian Museum 
at Frankfort. 

Captain R. Paessler, of the German merchant marine, published 
excellent observations on the breeding habits of the birds found in 
the vicinity of Coronel, and also notes on the occurrence of marine 
birds at various points of the Chilean coast. 

D. S. Bullock and A. C. Saldana forwarded interesting collections 
from the vicinity of Temuco, Cautin, to the British Museum, while 
more recently T. Hallinan secured a valuable series of birds at Tof o, 
north of Coquimbo, for the American Museum of Natural History, 
New York. No complete account has yet been published on any of 
these collections. 

Frank M. Chapman, accompanied by Lord William Percy and 
F. C. Walcott, explored the islands south and east of Chilce* Island 
and, after visiting the Straits of Magellan, proceeded northward to 
Santiago and crossed the Andes to Puente del Inca, a station on the 
Trans- Andean Railroad. A short account of the ornithological 
observations gathered on this occasion was published in the Bulletin 
of the British Ornithological Club. 

Within the last ten years, a number of faunal papers have 
appeared in Carlos Porter's "Revista Chilena de Historia Natural," 
which have thrown much light on the local distribution and migra- 
tion of Chilean birds. Among them may be mentioned Father 
Housse's articles on San Bernardo, Santiago, and the Isla La Mocha, 
Arauco; E. Gigoux's notes on the birds of Caldera, Atacama; D. 
Bullock's contributions to the ornithology of Malleco; Jaffuel and 
Pirion's avifauna of Marga-Marga; and especially Rafael Barros' 
excellent observations on the bird-life of the valley of Nilahue, 
Curico, and the Cordillera of Aconcagua, which have considerably 
advanced our knowledge of altitudinal distribution. 

EXPEDITION OF FIELD MUSEUM 

In the fall of 1922, Dr. Wilfred H. Osgood, Mr. H. B. Conover, 
and Mr. Colin C. Sanborn left Chicago for extensive zoological field 
work in Chile, which was conducted during nearly two years and 
resulted in the acquisition of more than fifteen hundred bird skins. 
The following notes on the localities visited have been prepared 
mainly by Mr. Sanborn. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 13 

Quellon, Chiloe Island, Province Chiloe. Dec. 21, 1922-Jan. 6, 
1923. Jan. 22-29, 1923. The coast here is made up of narrow sandy 
beaches with a large tidal flat at the east end of the town. Inland 
the country is very hilly and all forested except patches here and 
there which have been cleared or burnt over for farm and pasture 
land. Some woods are fairly open and mossy but most are heavy 
with tangles of bamboo grass. All is cut by ravines and gullies filled 
with bamboo ("quila") and fallen trees. Roads and trails are very 
poor and lead inland no more than a few miles. 

Mouth of the Rio Inio, Chiloe Island. Jan. 7-21, 1923. On one 
side of the river is a high, rocky, jungle-clad promontory behind which 
a trail runs to the coast on the other side where there is a sandy beach. 
On the other side of the river the coast is low, with a wide beach 
where there were many wild strawberries. A short distance inland 
is a tidal flat about two miles long about which the river curves. 
A short trip was made up the river where the country, like the 
coast, was found to be heavily forested and overrun with the 
quila. 

Melinka, Ascension Island, Guaitecas Islands. Jan. 30-Feb. 6, 
1923. Melinka lies on a point of the island, most of which near the 
town was rocky and moss-covered. During the winter rains it is 
not possible to go inland on account of the rain-soaked moss. There 
was very little heavy vegetation near the town and practically no 
quila. A trip was made with a guide to the Matuco Lagoon in the 
hills above the town and inland from the lighthouse. Another trip 
was made by boat to Port Lowe, past Clotilde and Guaiteca Islands, 
which have a heavier growth of trees. 

Puerto Aisen, Province Llanquihue. Feb. 8-10, 1923. A port 
for small steamers at the head of a long, narrow, and mountain- 
bordered inlet of the same name, about 45 24' S. lat. The little 
settlement is situated on the bank of the Rio Aisen near the upper 
limit of regular tides and nearly forty miles from the open inlet. 
The valley of the Rio Aisen stretches inland, never more than three 
or four miles in width, and bounded on each side by forested moun- 
tains some 3,000-4,000 feet in height. The conditions are those of 
heavy rainfall and dense forest. In the bottom of the valley are a 
few flat swampy areas and in slightly higher ground there are many 
trees of very large size. In general, the vegetation and bird-life 
resembles that observed farther north on Chiloe" Island. Aside from 
the port itself, the region is practically uninhabited. 



14 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Rio Coihaique, Province Llanquihue. Feb. 11-15, 1923. Head- 
quarters of a sheep and cattle company some forty miles inland 
from Puerto Aisen. The Rio Coihaique, a stream of no great size, 
is an affluent of the Rio Simpson, the southern and principal fork 
of the Rio Aisen. The country is rolling, with mountains of con- 
siderable height surrounding. Although the drainage is to the 
Pacific, conditions are plainly transitional between the heavily 
forested, humid coast and the drier pampas region to the eastward. 
There is much open pasture land; and forest, while still plentiful, 
is by no means continuous. Altitude about 1,500 feet. 

Rio Nirehuau, Province Llanquihue. Feb. 16-March 21, 1923. A 
long-occupied sheep station shown on some maps under the name 
Casa Richards. It is slightly north and east of Puerto Aisen and, 
although the river runs through deep canyons to join the Manuales 
or north branch of the Aisen, the point where collecting was done 
is east of the main mountain mass and conditions are essentially 
those prevailing east of the divide. The station is at the mouth of 
a small valley through which a rushing stream emerges from the 
mountains. Eastward are rolling low hills mostly treeless and 
alternating with open pampas connected by low passes with the 
great plains of central Argentina. The fauna and flora are mainly 
Argentinian rather than Chilean, although in some cases coast forms 
straggle through the mountains to reach this point. 

Mafil, Province Valdivia. Feb. 14-28, 1923. Mafil is a short 
distance from Valdivia and lies in the main valley of Chile, which 
here is rolling country, cut by rivers and ravines and largely cleared 
of forest. Collecting was done on a wheat and dairy ranch where 
there were but few woods. 

Lago Rinihue, Province Valdivia. March 4-19, 1923. Lago 
Rinihue is south of Valdivia and inland in the low mountains about 
140 meters above sea level. It is surrounded by heavy forest which 
is more open than that found farther south. Some of the forest 
has been cleared and burnt over. It rained eight out of the fifteen 
days spent there. The Trans-Andean-San Martin Railroad ends 
at Rinihue. 

Hacienda Gualpencillo, Concepcion, Province Concepcidn. March 
27- April 27, 1923. This hacienda was a large dairy farm situated 
in the open flat country between Concepcion and Talcaguano. It 
was made up of corn, wheat, and bean fields, and pasture land. 
There were brushy sand dunes next to the Biobio River and pasture 
land where "boldo" and "litre" were the common growth. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 15 

Quirihue and Cauquenes, Province Maule. April 27-May 4; 
May 9-13, 1923. The country about Quirihue and Cauquenes is very 
arid and sandy compared with that near Conception. The country 
is broken and hilly with but little vegetation besides the clumps 
of eucalyptus and the many vineyards. About Pilen Alto, some 
eight miles from Cauquenes, there is a woods of young second growth. 

Banos de Cauquenes, Province 0' Higgins. May 1-8, 1923. A 
resort on the bank of the Rio Cachapoal in the foothills of the Andes 
and nearly due east of the city of Rancagua. About 34 3' S. lat. 
The hillsides are brushy with patches and clumps of deciduous trees. 
In the dry season the ground is hard and baked and general con- 
ditions are much like those of central California. The high Andes 
rise immediately behind. 

Olmue, Province Valparaiso. May 22-June 3, 1923. Olmue' is a 
small town a few miles from San Francisco de Limache which is 
on the Valparaiso-Santiago Railroad. Olmue" is at the foot of the 
Cerro Campana, which Darwin visited in 1835. It lies in a small 
valley surrounded by high rocky hills which are covered with a 
scant growth of semi-arid vegetation. Some of the gullies between 
the hills are fairly well wooded. 

Paiguano, Province Coquimbo. June 13-July 2, 1923. This town 
is in a narrow valley which branches off from the Elqui Valley at 
Rivadavia. The country is rocky and semi-arid, but many fruits 
are raised by irrigation. 

Romero, Province Coquimbo. July 9- Aug. 3, 1923. Romero is 
but a few miles up the Elqui Valley from La Serena. It does not 
lie in the valley proper but a little to the north of it. Romero is 
a large dairy farm where the rocky hills and gullies leave room for 
pastures and "alfalfa" fields. The natural vegetation is cactus and 
scraggly bushes. 

Domeyko, Province Atacama. Aug. 9-17, 1923. Domeyko is a 
small stop on the railroad about 60 km. south of Vallenar. It 
lies in a broad, sandy valley surrounded by dry hills which have a 
sparse growth of "spinosa" and "algarroba" bushes. Cactus was 
much less plentiful here than at Coquimbo. Many of the birds 
taken were secured near a small water hole. A colony of parrots 
(Cyanolyseus p. byroni) is said to nest in a cliff near Domeyko in 
October. 

Ramadilla, Province Atacama. Aug. 23-26, 1923. This place is 
a large hacienda on the railroad between Copiapo and Caldera, It 



16 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

lies in a broad part of the well-watered valley bordered by very dry, 
sandy hills. Most of the collecting was done in some wet brushy 
pasture and swamp land where birds were plentiful. This is the 
only place where the black rail (Creciscus j. salinasi) was seen. 

Caldera, Province Atacama. Aug. 27-Sept. 1, 1923. Caldera 
itself is a veritable desert with the only life along the rocky coast. 
A trip was made up the coast to the Quebrada de Leon where there 
is a little water and some vegetation appears on the hills. Here 
there were numerous birds about. 

Rio Loa, Province Antofagasta. Sept. 11-17, 1923. The Du 
Pont-Nobelle powder plant is at Rio Loa, about seven miles from 
Calama. The surrounding country is bare desert, but along the 
gorge of the river Loa is vegetation and some swampy pastures in 
places where the gorge widens. 

Ojo de San Pedro-San Pablo and Kilometer 31. Sept. 17-19. 
Oct. 1-12, 1923. The city of Antofagasta gets its water through a 
pipe-line from the mountains close to the Bolivian border. The 
tanks are at San Pedro de Agua Potable up the railroad from Calama, 
and Kilometer 31 is 31 km. up the pipe-line from San Pedro. The 
Ojo de San Pedro-San Pablo is a large alkali swamp fed by fresh- 
water springs at the foot of the volcanoes of those names. There 
were many water birds about the Ojo. The country about the 
Ojo is rolling desert cut by gullies and surrounded by other volcanoes. 

La Compania, Province Coquimbo. Oct. 31, 1923. This is a small 
place just outside La Serena where one day was spent collecting on 
a brushy hillside. 

Banos del Toro, Province Coquimbo. Nov. 6-20, 1923. These 
banos are in a bare narrow valley about 11,000 feet above sea 
level in the mountains directly inland from Coquimbo. Other gulches 
branch out and one had a quantity of rough mountain pasture in it. 
Just before reaching the Banos there is a wide sandy plain, covered 
with heavy, coarse vegetation. The hills about were partly bare. 
There were many birds at this season, which was early spring. 

Papudo, Province Aconcagua. Dec. 1-10, 1923. Papudo is a 
small town on the coast north of Valparaiso. The coast north of 
the town is rocky while to the south it spreads out into a wide 
beach with sand dunes for a short distance inland. 

San Jose de Maipo, Province Santiago. Dec. 17-21, 1923. This 
locality is in the mountains inland from Santiago. There was plenty 
of water and vegetation but birds were scarce. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 17 

Curacautin, Province Malleco. Jan. 8-16, 1924. Curacautin is 
the end of the railroad which starts from the main line at Victoria. 
The region was at one time heavily forested but much of the land 
had been cleared for farms. 

Termas de Tolguaca, Province Malleco. Jan. 17-30, 1924- Tol- 
guaca lies to one side of Curacautin and about five hours' ride on 
horseback from it. The Termas or springs are in a low range of 
pine-covered hills. Lake Malleco is about an hour's ride from 
Tolguaca. The region is well forested. Tolguaca has a large hotel 
and baths and there are many people there during the season. 

Rio Colorado, Province Malleco; ViUa Portales, Rio Lolen, Logo 
Gualletue, Province Cautin; Neuquen District, Argentina. Feb. 2- 
March 3, 1 924. A road runs from Curacautin through the Lonquimai 
Valley to Sapalla, Argentina, which was used to take supplies into 
Argentina years ago. All the above localities are on this road. Rio 
Colorado is an easy day's ride from Curacautin among a forest of 
Araucaria pines. Just beyond Rio Colorado is a low range of hills, 
the other side of which is Villa Portales in the Lonquimai Valley. 
Rio Lolen is a large hacienda about ten miles down the valley from 
Villa Portales. Lago Gualletue* is a large lake in the hills near the 
valley. It is surrounded by pine-covered hills and flat swamp land. 
The next range of hills, which divides Chile from Argentina, is higher 
and more bare, reminding one of the country about Coquimbo. On 
the Argentine side the pines again appear. But little time was spent 
in Argentina as trouble arose over the baggage with the local outpost 
of the custom house at Pino Hachado Pass. The whole region is 
more or less forested and is in the Araucaria pine belt. 

Gatico, Province Antofagasta. April 8-11, 1924- Gatico is north 
of Antofagasta and but a mile or so from the old town Cobija, 
which as a settlement has ceased to exist. It is on the narrow, bare, 
rocky coast, backed by steep arid hills. 

Rio Loa, Province Antofagasta. April 19, 1924- 

Ojo deSan Pedro-San Pablo; Kilometers 31 and 40; Silala, Bolivia. 
April 23-May 5, 1924. Some time was spent at the end of the pipe- 
line on this visit and just across the border in Bolivia at an altitude 
of 14,200 feet. 

Pica, Province Tarapacd. May 15-26, 1924- The town of Pica 
is about three hours' ride on horseback inland from the railroad 
town of Pintados. Pica is an oasis in the desert hills and many 
tropical fruits are raised by irrigation. About two miles south of 



18 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Pica is the canon of Chintaguai through which a rivulet runs and 
where there are, in places, some small swamps. The canon is about 
three miles long. Birds were more plentiful here and more convenient 
to collect than in the gardens where people were working. 

Chacalluta, Province Tacna. June 12, 14, July 17,21, 1924. This 
place is on the coast, at the end of a watered valley, easy walking 
distance north of Arica. Four trips were made here from Arica 
and numerous species taken which had not been seen elsewhere in 
Chile. 

Putre and Choquelimpie, Province Tacna. June 17-July 10, 1924. 
Putre is a small mountain town, inland and north of Arica. It is 
reached by road from either the Puquios or AlceYreca stations on 
the Arica-La Paz Railroad, about an easy day's ride from either one. 
Putre is in a watered valley where a little alfalfa and some very small 
potatoes are raised by irrigation. There is a fair amount of vegeta- 
tion especially along the watercourses and birds are plentiful. A 
half day's ride beyond Putre in the mountains, at an elevation of 
15,000 feet, is the old silver mine called Choquelimpie. This is a 
region of bare rocky mountains. About two hours' ride from the 
mine is Lake Chungard where there are many water birds. 

GENERAL PHYSIOGRAPHY OF CHILE 

Compared to conditions in the neighboring republics, the physi- 
ography of Chile is fairly simple. The backbone of the country is 
formed by the Andes which stretch through the whole of its length 
in a nearly unbroken chain. In the central and southern provinces 
there is, besides, a fringe of mountains along the coast, these ranges 
being, however, not continuous ridges parallel to the Andes, but 
more or less irregular hill-masses. Inclosed between these two 
mountainous areas are the central valleys or intermontane basin 
plains which, according to Darwin, are "the bottoms of ancient 
inlets and deep bays, such as at the present day intersect every 
part of Tierra del Fuego and the western coast." The section of 
the country between Copiapo and Valdivia is crossed by numerous 
rivers, such as the Copiapo, Maipo, Maule, Biobio, and others. 
From Copiapo north as far as the Rio Loa, Antofagasta, the coast 
ranges approach close to the ocean, where, breaking off in steep 
cliffs and precipices, they leave but a narrow strip of beach. Inland 
they form a gradually ascending irregular plateau closed in on the 
eastern edge by a series of isolated cone-shaped volcanoes. North 
of the Rio Loa, in Tarapaca, the physical features are very similar 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 19 

with the exception that the coast range is bounded on the east by 
the deep depression of the nitrate desert, the Pampa del Tamarugal, 
beyond which the plateau region just mentioned stretches far into 
Bolivia. The whole section is of volcanic origin, has many salt lakes, 
but hardly any fresh-water rivers to speak of. 

CLIMATIC CONDITIONS, RAINFALL, AND 
DISTRIBUTION OF FORESTS 

Climatically Chile is divisible into three regions: the sterile north 
from Copiapo to the Peruvian boundary; the central section between 
31 and 38 S. lat., that is, from Coquimbo to Concepcion, connected 
with the north through the arid portion of Atacama; and the humid 
forested south. 

These conditions are governed by the influence of the Humboldt 
Current and the resulting amount of rainfall. The Humboldt 
Current, a northerly branch of the Pacific antarctic drift, strikes the 
Chilean coast in the vicinity of the Isla La Mocha (38 15' S. lat.), 
off Arauco, and from that point laves the western coast of South 
America as far north as Puerta Parifia, in the Peruvian department 
of Piura. South of La Mocha is the zone of the prevailing westerly 
winds with driving rains, while north of it increasing aridity charac- 
terizes the climate. 

The sterile north, beginning with the desert of Atacama, is an 
expanse of yellow sand and rock, almost bare of vegetation except 
along the scanty water courses. "At Iquique," we quote from Mark 
Jefferson, 1 "one millimeter of rain has fallen in the last five years 
(to the end of December, 1919). Of the last twenty years fourteen 
have had no drop of water from the sky, and the whole catch of the 
twenty years has been 28 millimeters (a little over an inch). 

"The drought does not begin to break until one reaches Copiapo, 
nearly 500 miles farther south. . . . Here rainfalls are infrequent, but 
the average fall is only 17 millimeters a year (about two-thirds of 
an inch). The total rainfall at Copiapo in the last twenty-four 
years has been 408 millimeters, about one-third of what falls in New 
York in a year. At Ligua [Aconcagua], less than 50 miles from San- 
tiago, it rains every year, on an average 269 millimeters (between 
10 and 11 inches). Though the country is still arid, the irrigated 
spots begin to attain significant size. 

'The Rainfall of Chile. American Geographical Society Research Series No. 7. 
New York, 1921. 



20 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

"In the north-and-south valleys between the Andes and coastal 
mountains, from latitudes 31 to 38 s., the rain increases from the 
scanty 269 millimeters at Ligua to an abundant 1,250 millimeters 
at Temuco. Along the coastal mountains the rainfall is always 
greater, and here too it increases southward from 500 millimeters 
at Valparaiso to 2,700 at Valdivia. From Valparaiso southward 
the landward or eastern side of the coast ranges is notably dry, but 
from the Andes . . . water rushes across the valley flats in increasing 
abundance as one goes farther south, until in Collipulli, in latitude 
38 s., there is a definite change from the landscape of central Chile. 
A deep valley with rich green meadows across the floor, with slopes 
of alternate green fields and expanses of well-tilled red soil, with 
real woods of broad-leaved trees above. The long trip down through 
the central valley to Puerto Montt is through an almost continuous 
forest. Here and there are dreary slashings like those of northern 
Michigan, but still the trees are abundant and tall fine growths." 1 
For 900 miles the woods are so wet that it is impossible to set a fire 
for clearing without constant relighting. 

It appears, however, that this extensive forest is not uniform in 
composition throughout its entire range. Skottsberg, 2 in fact, divides 
the south-Chilean rain forest into two subsections: the "Valdivian," 
richer in species and luxuriance, and the "Magellanic," characterized 
by the predominance of Patagonian trees, notably Nothofagus 
betuloides. The dividing line is drawn along 48 S. lat., which also coin- 
cides with the southern limit of the range of certain species of birds. 

Physiographically, Jefferson likens the Chilean coast to our Pacific 
states, British Columbia, and Alaska. "Nearest the Equator, the 
northern deserts match those of Lower California; the central valley 
of Chile between the coast ranges and the Andes matches the great 
valley of California between the coast ranges and the Sierra Nevada; 
the wooded valleys of Cautin, Valdivia, and Llanquihue end at the 
sea on the Gulf of Reloncavi, just short of the island of Chiloe', just 
as the wooded valleys of Oregon and Washington end at the sea in 
Puget Sound just short of the island of Vancouver. Finally, the 
Chilean sounds and fiords between the coastal Andes and the Chilean 
archipelago recall the Alaskan sounds and adjacent islands." 

The annual mean of rainfall in Chile and the distribution of dry 
farms, irrigated lands, and forests in the central section between La 

J Mark Jefferson, Recent Colonization in Chile. American Geographical 
Society Research Series No. 6. New York, 1921. 

*Svensk, Vetenskapsakad. Handl., 56, No. 5, 1916. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 21 

Serena (Coquimbo) and Malleco are well shown on the maps accom- 
panying Jefferson's instructive volume on "The Rainfall of Chile." 

THE LIFE ZONES OF CHILE 

Dr. Chapman's admirable monographs of the ornithology of 
Colombia and Ecuador have thrown much light on the distribution 
of bird-life in the northern Andes. Although our actual knowledge 
of Chilean birds is far too incomplete to allow such a detailed analysis, 
the available data nevertheless supply sufficient material for a general 
discussion of the problem. While in the neighboring republic of 
Peru, just as in Ecuador and Colombia, four well-defined zones of 
animal- and plant-life between sea level and snow line are plainly 
indicated, all of Chile's bird-life, except for a narrow strip along the 
coast of the extreme north where the Tropical Zone enters, pertains 
either to the Temperate or to the Puna Zone, the Subtropical Zone 
having been completely eliminated through the default of sufficient 
rainfall and the resulting absence of mountain rain forest. 

Tropical Zone. The arid section of the Tropical Zone known to 
extend in an almost unbroken stretch from Caraques Bay, Ecuador, 
all along the Peruvian coast obviously includes the narrow belt of 
sandy shore in the Chilean provinces of Tacna and Tarapaca as far 
south as the Rio Loa. This is evidenced by the presence in that 
area of such characteristic species as Anthus lutescens peruvianus, 
Sporophila telasco, Volatinia jacarina peruviensis, Pyrocephalus rubi- 
nns obscurus, Muscigralla brevicauda, Crotophaga s. sulcirostris, 
Glaucidium brasilianum brasilianum, Melopelia asiatica meloda, and 
Eupelia cruziana. All of these are widely distributed in the arid 
coast lands of Peru and Ecuador, but totally absent from the rest 
of Chile. Representatives of this life zone are doubtless also Xeno- 
spingus concolor, though its area of diffusion appears to be more 
restricted, and Rhodopis vesper vesper (Lima to Tarapaca) which 
has a closely allied relative in the arid tropical zone of northwestern 
Peru. Some of these species have not been taken south of Arica, 
but others have been traced as far south as Pica, and it is presumed 
that the Rio Loa will ultimately be found to mark the southern 
limit of the arid tropical zone on the western coast of South America. 
South of the Rio Loa the nitrate desert stretches through the entire 
length of Antofagasta, and the little we know about the coast belt 
of that province seems to indicate that its bird-life is merely a north- 
ward extension of the Temperate Zone of the more southern parts 



22 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

of Chile. As examples may be cited such species of undoubted 
South Temperate origin as Geositta cunicularia deserticolor, Geositta 
maritima, and Leptasthenura aegithaloides grisescens, although their 
ranges reach into the southern section of the arid tropical zone of 
Peru. On the other hand, Rhodopis vesper atacamensis, of the Copiapo 
Valley, is doubtless of northern derivation, though speculation on 
the significance of the occurrence of an arid tropical species in the 
Temperate Zone of Atacama seems futile until its breeding place has 
been ascertained. 

Temperate Zone. In Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru the Tem- 
perate Zone occupies theAndean region from an approximate altitude 
of 9,000 up to 11,000 or 12,000 feet. In Chile, practically all of the 
central and southern parts, excepting the elevated Cordilleras, belong 
to this zone. In the extreme north, owing to local conditions, it is 
reduced to a comparatively narrow belt between the arid tropical 
coast strip and the Puna Zone, and its division from the latter is 
less sharply defined than in the more southern districts. 

The South Temperate Zone, however, is by no means uniform 
throughout its extent, and there exists a certain difference between 
the bird population of the humid south and that of old colonial 
Chile whose climate is under the direct influence of the Humboldt 
Current. The humid section of the South Temperate Zone with 
its large expanse of tangled forest owns a number of characteristic 
species, among which Phrygilus patagonicus, Pteroptochos tarnii, 
Scelorchilus rubecula, Eugralla paradoxa, Scytalopus m. magettanicus, 
Sylviorthorhynchus desmurii, Aphrastura s. spinicauda (and A. 8. 
fulva), Pygarrhicus albogularis, and Megaceryle torquata stellata, etc., 
may be cited. Some of these birds, in suitable localities, have 
spread far beyond Concepcion, but there can be no doubt that the 
forested south is their original home, where they are much more 
numerous in individuals as well as more evenly distributed. 

Puna Zone. As in other Andean countries the Puna, correspond- 
ing to the Paramo Zone of Colombia and Ecuador, lies between the 
upper limit of arborescent vegetation and the lower limit of the 
eternal snow, but its altitudinal expansion, which varies according 
to latitude and local conditions in different parts of Chile, can hardly 
be defined at present with accuracy. In addition to certain data in 
Philippi's and Landbeck's writings, the results of our own expedition 
and the observations of Sefior Rafael Barros in the Cordillera of 
Aconcagua are the only sources of information concerning the bird- 
life of the elevated Andean region. Yet our knowledge is confined 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 23 

to the central and northern provinces, the section of the Andes south 
of Colchagua being wholly unexplored. 

Beginning with the extreme north, in the province of Tacna, we 
find that at Putre (alt. 11,600 feet), the Puna Zone inosculates with 
the upper border of the arid Temperate Zone, which creeps up 
through the bushy ravines, while at Las Cuevas (alt. 13,500 feet) 
we are already in the heart of the Puna. 

The Cordillera of Tarapaca, above 10,000 feet, and the rugged 
plateau of Antofagasta and of Atacama north of the Copiapo Valley 
must undoubtedly be assigned to the Puna Zone. Its fauna is charac- 
terized by the presence of a good many striking species of water 
birds, such asGallinula chloropus garmani,Fulica cornuta,F. ardesiaca, 
F. gigantea, Charadrius alticola, Recurvirostra andina, Phoenicoparrus 
andinus, P. jamesi, and others. 

As we advance in a southerly direction, the Puna Zone appears 
to descend to a considerably lower level than in the north. At least 
I am unable to explain otherwise the breeding records of such charac- 
teristic Puna Zone birds as Muscisaxicola albilora, M. flavinucha, and 
Geositta isabellina from altitudes of 5,000 to 7,000 feet in Colchagua 
Province. Unfortunately, our expedition did no work in the Puna 
Zone south of Coquimbo, and the data which was supplied by 
Rafael Barros is all we possess with respect to the provinces of 
Aconcagua and Santiago. How far the Puna Zone extends south 
from Colchagua through the Andean chain, we have no means of 
saying, although the taking of Erismatura ferruginea during the breed- 
ing period at Lake Malleco, Malleco, at an elevation of 3,500 feet is 
somewhat suggestive. We know, however, that in the southern part 
of Llanquihue the humid Temperate forest ranges in an unbroken 
stretch entirely across the Andes, thereby enabling certain forest- 
haunting birds like Pteroptochos tarnii, Scelorchilus rubecula, Scytalo- 
pus m. magellanicus, Cinclodes patagonicus rupestris, Aphrastura s. 
spinicauda, Pygarrhicus albogularis, Phytotoma rara, Phrygilus pata- 
gonicus, etc., to reach the eastern foot of the mountains. There 
may, therefore, be a break in the continuity of the Puna Zone some- 
where in that section of Chile, but the solution of the problem must 
be left to a thorough biological survey of the Andean regions of the 
country. 

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION IN CHILEAN BIRDS 

In a country extending over more than thirty-eight degrees of 
latitude and of such a diversified nature as Chile it is not surprising 



24 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

to find that its birds have responded to environmental influence. 
The increased amount of moisture in the south has resulted in the 
intensification of color-pigment, while, on the other hand, the arid 
climate of the northern parts, working in the opposite direction, has 
produced pale, often sand-colored types. This variation can be 
followed through the range of various species, such as Scelorchilus 
albicollis, Geositta cunicularia, Upucerthia dumetaria, Chilia melanura, 
Leptasthenura aegithaloides, Asthenes modesta, and others. 

In numerous cases racial distinction goes hand in hand with a 
change of zonal distribution. A good many species widely diffused 
in the Temperate Zone of central and southern Chile have geograph- 
ical representatives in the northern Puna Zone, but then we rarely 
meet with a member of the same group in the Temperate Zone of 
the same latitude. Exceptions to this rule are Geositta cunicularia, 
Leptasthenura aegithaloides, and Querquedula cyanoptera, all of which 
have a representative in the Temperate coast district, while the 
corresponding Puna section is tenanted by a closely allied race (see 
tabular list, p. 25). 

Geographic variation within the Puna Zone is rather unusual. 
Leaving aside Phrygilus erythronotus and P. dorsalis as well as Musci- 
saxicola albilora and M. juninensis, 1 whose specific interrelationship 
is suspected, but not established, we find the following undoubted 
geographical races occupying different sections of the Puna: Phry- 
gilus g. gayi and P. g. atriceps, Muscisaxicola r. rufivertex and M. r. 
palhdiceps, Capella p. andina and C. p. innotata. 

The bird population of the southern rain forest is even more 
uniform and the only noteworthy case of subspecific differentiation 
is the development of an insular race, Aphrastura spinicauda fulva, 
on Chiloe" Island. Pteroptochos castaneus, which appears to be 
derived from P. tarnii, a characteristic bird of the southern rain 
forest, should be mentioned in this connection, however. 

Of the nine or ten different kinds of land birds occurring in the 
Juan Fernandez Islands, three, Turdus falcklandii magellanicus, 
Sephanoides sephaniodes, and Asio flammeus breviauris are identical 
with the mainland forms; one, Cinclodes oustaleti baeckstroemii, is 
hardly separable; three, Spizitornis parulus fernandezianus, Cerchneis 
sparveria fernandensis, and Buteo polysoma exsul, are well-marked 
insular races. The two remaining ones, Aphrastura masafuerae and 
Thaumaste fernandensis (divisible into two races inhabiting different 
islands) have become specifically and even generically distinct. 

1 0reotrochilus estella and 0. leucopleurus probably belong here, too. 



1932 



BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 



25 



GEOGRAPHICAL RACES OCCUPYING DIFFERENT LIFE ZONES 



Temperate Zone 

Anthus correndera chilensis from Coquimbo 
south 

Lessonia rufa rufa from Atacama south 

Geositta cunicularia deserticolor from Caldera 
north 

Cinclodes fuscus fuscus from Atacama south 

Leptasthenura a. aegithaloides from Coquimbo 

south 
L. a. grisescens from Atacama north 

Asthenes modesta australis from Atacama south 

Patagona gigas gigas from Atacama south 

Capella paraguaiae magellanica from Copiapo 
south 

Nycticorax nycticorax obscurus from Coquimbo 
south 

Nettion flavirostre flaviroslre from Santiago 
south 

Querquedula versicolor versicolor from Santiago 
south 

Querquedula cyanoptera cyanoptera from Co- 
quimbo south 

Anas cristate cristata from Santiago south 

Colymbus occipitalis occipitalis from Atacama 
south 



Puna Zone 
A. c. catamarcae Antofagasta 

L. r. oreas from Atacama to 
Tacna 

G. c. frobeni Tacna 

C. /. albiventris from Antofa- 
gasta to Tacna 

L. a. berlepschi from Antofa- 
gasta north 

A. m. modesta from Antofa- 
gasta north 

P. g. peruviana Tacna 

C. p. andina Tarapac& 
C. p. innotata Antofagasta 

N. n. tayazu-guira Tarapaca 

N. f. oxypterum Antofagasta 
to Tacna 

Q. v. puna Antofagasta to 
Tacna 

Q. c. orinormis from Tarapaca 
north 

A. c. alticola from Atacama to 
Tacna 

C. o.juninensis from Tarapac 
north 



BIRD MIGRATION IN CHILE 

Bird migration in Chile is threefold. A good many species of the 
upper Temperate and Puna Zones disappear from their nesting 
grounds on the approach of the severe season. Some, like Cinclodes /. 
fuscus, C. o. oustaleti, and Asthenes modesta australis, merely descend 
to lower altitudes, and spend the winter in the valleys and along the 
coast. Certain Puna Zone birds of the central provinces, such as 
Muscisaxicola albilora, M. flavinucha, and M. alpina cinerea, migrate 
northwards after the breeding period, and hibernate in the Puna of 
Bolivia and Peru, where they invade the territory occupied by allied 
resident races. Another representative of the same genus, M. r. 
rufivertex, however, does not extend its peregrinations beyond 
Atacama and the littoral of Antofagasta. 

Various species of the forested south and the Magellanic region 
move northwards in the fall. Among these may be cited Aphrastura 
s. spinicauda, Sylviorthorhynchus desmurii, Phrygilus patagonicus, 



26 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

and the southern race of the Peregrine Falcon, Falco peregrinus 
cassini, which appears to be a fairly regular winter visitor in the 
central provinces. A flycatcher, Muscisaxicola macloviana mentalis, 
invades the northern parts of Chile in large flocks, said to consist 
sometimes of many thousands of individuals. Another member of 
this group, Muscisaxicola capistrata, which breeds in Tierra del 
Fuego and southern Patagonia, passes the winter in the Puna of 
extreme northern Chile and the neighboring countries. 

In the maritime fauna, too, some seasonal migratory movement 
takes place. This is particularly noticeable in the case of the two 
species (or races) of penguins (Spheniscus). The winter, further- 
more, brings a large number of North American shore birds, gulls, 
and terns to the Chilean coast, and in bygone times the Eskimo 
Curlew, Numenius borealis, was a not uncommon migratory visitor. 
The North American Duckhawk, Falco peregrinus anatum, also 
extends its winter flight as far south as Valdivia. 

DISTRIBUTIONAL LIST OF THE BIRDS OF CHILE 

The systematic account presented in the following pages purports 
to include every species recorded from Chile with the exception of 
the purely oceanic birds. 

For the sake of brevity, bibliographic references are cited in 
abbreviated form. The figure after the author's name refers to the 
same number under which the paper is listed in the bibliography 
given at the end of the list. References to original descriptions and 
extralimital papers not included in the bibliography are, however, 
quoted in extenso. 

The range of each form has been outlined as precisely as possible. 
Under the heading, "Material collected," the specimens secured by 
the members of the Field Museum Expedition or obtained by pur- 
chase or exchange have been listed, while the material examined in 
other collections is enumerated in a separate paragraph. Except in 
a very few cases where the reversed procedure seemed appropriate, 
the sequence of localities is from north to south. As to political 
boundaries, the limits and names of the provinces have been accepted 
as they are found on maps, although it is understood from Mr. 
D. S. Bullock that certain changes affecting the status and nomen- 
clature of Arauco, Biobio, Malleco, and Cautin are being considered 
by the Chilean legislature. Orthography of geographical names is 
in agreement with L. R. Patron's "Diccionario Jeografico de Chile," 
Santiago, 1924. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 27 

In the sequence of species we have followed, for the sake of con- 
venience, the latest and most complete catalogue of the birds of 
Chile, the "New List of Chilian Birds" by Harry Berkeley James, 
London, 1892. All measurements are in millimeters. Definite color- 
terms, whenever used, have been taken from Ridgway's "Color 
Standards and Color Nomenclature," Washington, 1912. 

1. Turdus falcklandii magellanicus King 

Turdus magellanicus King, Proc. Comm. Sci. Corresp. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1, 
p. 14, Jan., 1831 "in fretu Magellanico" ; Hartlaub (3), p. 212 
Valdivia; Bibra, p. 129 Valparaiso; Kittlitz (3), pp. 149, 164 near 
Valparaiso; Pelzeln (2), p. 71 Chile; Salvin (2), p. 419 Juan Fernandez; 
Johow, p. 237 Mas A Tierra; Schalow (2), pp. 731, 747 Ovalle (south of 
Coquimbo), Santiago, and Juan Fernandez (eggs descr.); Seebohm and 
Sharpe, Monog. Turd., 1, p. 295, 1899 Hacienda Mansel (near Hospital) 
and Coronel; E. Reed (4), p. 198 Chile, north to Atacama; Albert (1), 
100, p. 883 Chile (monog.)-; Passler (2), p. 28 Coronel (nest and eggs 
descr.); Lonnberg, p. 3 Mas A Tierra and Mas Afuera; Bullock (3), p. 
125 Cerro de Nahuelbuta, Malleco; idem (4), p. 184 Angol, Malleco. 

Turdus rufiventris (not of Vieillot) Meyen, p. 74 "Prov." Copiapo (juv. 
descr.; spec, in Berlin Museum examined). 

Turdus falcklandiae (not T. falklandii Quoy et Gaimard) 1 d'Orbigny, p. 202 
Valparaiso. 

Turdus falklandicus Darwin, p. 59 Chiloe Island; Fraser (1), p. Ill; Yarrell, 
p. 53 (eggs descr.); Peale, p. 85 Chile; Philippi and Landbeck (1), p. 284; 
idem (2), p. 33; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 320, 337 Chiloe" and Valdivia; 
Philippi (12), p. 259 Chile; Reed, Ibis, 1874, pp. 82, 83 Mas A Tierra and 
Mas Afuera; Salvin, Ibis, 1875, p. 376 Juan Fernandez and Mas Afuera; 
E. Reed (2), p. 541 Cauquenes, Colchagua; Sclater and Salvin (3), p. 
431 Juan Fernandez; Housse (1), p. 48 Isla La Mocha; Gigoux, p. 
84 Caldera, Atacama; Jafifuel and Pirion, p. 108 Marga-Marga Valley, 
Valparaiso. 

Turdus fuscater (not of Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) 1 Des Murs (2), p. 331 
Coquimbo to ChiloS; Germain, p. 311 Santiago; Lataste (1), p. CXIV 

l in Freycinet, Voyage Uranie et Physicienne, Zool., livr. 3, p. 104, Aug., 1824 
"aux iles Malouines." 

2 Des Murs's misidentification of the "Zorzal," pointed out long ago by Philippi 
and Landbeck (Arch. Naturg., 26, 1, p. 284; Anal. Univ. Chile, 18, p. 33), is 
responsible for Chilean records of "Turdus fuscater" auct. by various authors. 
As a matter of fact, only the data on distribution and habits supplied by C. Gay 
refer to T. f. magellanicus, while the characters of the Chilean Robin in the "Historia 
fisica y politica de Chile" are taken (and translated into Spanish) from d'Orbigny's 
description of the Bolivian T. fuscater, as given in his "Voyage dans I'Amerique 
Meridionale" (4, part 3, p. 200), which is quite a different species (see Hellmayr, 
Nov. Zool., 28, p. 230, 1921). Frauenfeld, Germain, and even Lataste were thus 
led into error. 

Albert (Anal. Univ. Chile, 100, p. 885) added still further to the confusion by 
associating Catharus fuscater (Lafr.) with Turdus fuscater Lafr. and d'Orb! 



28 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Bureo, ftuble; p. CXV Ninhue, Maule; idem (4), p. XXXIII Caillihue, 
Curic6; Waugh and Lataste (1), p. LXXXV Penaflor, Santiago; Lataste 
(9), p. 169 Santa Teresa (Requinoa). 

Merula fuscater Cassin, p. 184 Chile. 

Turdus fuscoater Frauenfeld, p. 637 near Santiago. 

Turdus falklandicus or T. magellanicus Landbeck (9), p. 245 Chile. 

Merula magellanica Ridgway (2), p. 131 Port Otway. 

Planesticus magellanicus Barros (4), p. 148 Nilahue, Curico; idem (5), p. 
187 Cordillera de Aconcagua; Housse (2), p. 146 San Bernardo, Santiago. 

Turdus falcklandii magellanicus Passler (3), p. 474 Coronel (habits). 

Range in Chile. From Atacama to the Straits of Magellan, 
including the Juan Fernandez Islands. 

Material collected. Coquimbo: Tambillos, 9 ad., July 8. 
Valparaiso: Los Maitenes, Limache, d" ad., Oct. 7. J. A. Wolff sohn. 
Maule: Pilen Alto, eight miles w. of Cauquenes, 9 ad., May 13. 
Malleco: Rio Colorado (alt. 3,000 feet), 9 ad., Feb. 3; Curacautin, 
9 juv., Jan. 11. Cautin: Lake Gualletue" (alt. 3,900 feet), d* juv., 
Feb. 20. Valdivia: Mafil, d* ad., cf juv., 9 juv., Feb. 14, 17, 19; 
Rinihue, 9 ad., 9 juv., March 8, 13. Chiloe" Island: Quellon, four 
cf cf ad., two d" cf (first annual), cf juv., Dec. 29, Jan. 2, 4, 5, 27; 
Melinka, Ascension Island, Guaitecas Group, two cf cf ad., Feb. 1. 
Llanquihue: Rio Nirehuau, 9 juv., March 17. 

Additional specimens. Atacama: Copiapo, juv. F. J. Meyen 
(Berlin Museum). Llanquihue: Fundo Esmeralda, near Rio Negro, 
Dept. Osorno, 9 ad., June 25, 1922. R. Bohnenberger (Munich 
Museum). 

Young birds in spotted plumage were obtained at Curacautin on 
January 11, near Lake Gualletue" on February 22, at Mafil on 
February 14, at Rinihue on March 13, and on Chiloe" Island on 
December 29. Two specimens, a male from Mafil, Valdivia, February 
19, and a female from Rio Nirehuau, Llanquihue, March 17, are in 
full juvenile molt. 

Adult birds in worn breeding plumage, taken between October 
and February, when compared to freshly molted specimens, as repre- 
sented by skins from Coquimbo (July 8) and Pilen Alto, Maule 
(May 13), are very much paler underneath, the chest and sides 
being pale grayish drab and the middle of the belly pinkish buff, 
and also more grayish above without brownish or olivaceous tone. 
A series of breeding birds collected by Dr. Adolf Lendl at Bariloche, 
Lake Nahuel Huapi, is precisely similar, while three females in 
exceedingly fresh plumage, secured by E. Budin in April, 1918, at 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 29 

Puesto Burro, Chubut, in their saturated coloration, match Chilean 
birds in corresponding livery. 

The juvenile plumage is likewise variable in intensity of coloring, 
the extremes being represented by No. 62,176, Lake Gualletue", 
Cautin, with cartridge buff, and No. 62,181, Quellon, Chiloe', with 
deep ochraceous-buff under parts, while the remaining examples 
exhibit intermediate shades of buff. The upper parts, too, vary to 
a certain extent, being either grayish or decidedly brownish with 
the light markings whitish and bright buff respectively. 

In view of the great seasonal and individual variation of the 
Chilean Robin, it seems to me that the characters claimed to distin- 
guish the recently separated T. magellanicus pembertoni Wetmore 1 
need further investigation. 2 

T. /. magellanicus is abundant throughout the central and south- 
ern parts of Chile, ranging north to Atacama. Meyen, in March, 
met with large numbers at Copiapo, while Sanborn found it common 
at Vallenar, early in August, 1923. According to Gigoux, it is an 
irregular winter visitor at Caldera. In the south, its breeding range 
extends to the Straits of Magellan and Tierra del Fuego, and on the 
eastern slope of the Andes at least as far north as Lake Nahuel 
Huapi. 

From typical T. /. fakklandii, its representative on the Falkland 
Islands, it merely differs by much smaller bill, less brownish back, 
and much paler under parts. 



[Turdus "leucomelas" [=T. amaurochalinus Cabanis], of which two 
specimens from "Chile" are listed by Seebohm (Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 
5, p. 214, 1881), does not occur in that country.] 

2. Turdus chiguanco chiguanco Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny 

Turdus chiguanco Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, 
cl. 2, p. 16, 1837 "Tacna, rep. Peruviana" (types in Paris Museum 
examined); d'Orbigny, p. 201, pi. 9, fig. 2, 1836 from Tacna up to Palca, 
Prov. Tacna; Sclater (4), 1886, p. 396 Sibaya, Tarapaca; E. Reed (4), 
p. 199 Chile; Albert (1), 100, p. 887 "central" and northern Chile. 

Turdus fuscoater (not Turdus fuscater Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Philippi and 
Landbeck, Arch. Naturg., 26, (1), p. 284 "Taena in Peru" [= Tacna]; 
idem, Anal. Univ. Chile, 18, p. 33 Tacna; Philippi (24), p. 20 Tacna. 

^niv. Calif. Pub. Zool., 21, p. 335, 1923 Cerro Anecon Grande, Rio Negro. 
1 Since writing the above, I have examined the typical series and found it 
inseparable from magellanicus. 



30 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Range in Chile. Extreme north, in provinces of Tarapaca and 
Tacna. 

Material collected. Tacna: Putre (alt. 11,600 feet), cf ad., 
June 18, 1924. 

Additional material. Tacna: Tacna, three unsexed adults (types 
of the species). D'Orbigny (Paris Museum). Tarapaca: Sibaya, 
(alt. 8,300 feet), 9 ad. (in worn breeding plumage), January 10, 
1886. Rahmer (British Museum). 

Since discussing this species in our "Review of the Birds Collected 
by Alcide d'Orbigny," 1 we have had an opportunity of examining 
much additional material, including the specimens in the British 
Museum. Birds from the coast region of southern Peru (Islay, 
Catarindos Valley, and Arequipa, Dept. Arequipa) are certainly 
inseparable from those of Chile, which typically represent T. chi- 
guanco; but whether the inhabitants of the more northern districts 
of Peru can be distinguished, is still an open question. When making 
comparisons, particular care must be taken in selecting specimens 
in corresponding plumage, since wear and seasonal changes materially 
affect coloration. Three skins from Islay agree, in small size, with 
the types from Tacna; an adult female in fresh plumage from Are- 
quipa, June 15, 1867, and another in worn breeding condition, from 
Sibaya, Tarapaca, Jan. 10, 1886, are slightly larger; but our adult 
male from Putre, Tacna, which has just completed its annual molt, 
has much longer wings and cannot be told, on this score, from 
numerous individuals taken in central and northern Peru. 

As far as coloration is concerned, most of the characters men- 
tioned in our former communication 1 as distinctive features of the 
Tacna birds, fail to hold in the series now available, and this view 
is also supported by Chapman 2 who mainly relies on size for dis- 
criminating two races of this thrush. The few specimens in fresh 
plumage which we have seen from the coast of southern Peru and 
Chile are perhaps more grayish (less tinged with olivaceous) and 
have less orange suffusion on the under wing coverts than birds 
from other parts of Peru, though in the latter respect they are closely 
approached by one from Matucana (above Lima) and another from 
Macate (Ancachs). 

For comparison with the table of measurements given by our- 
selves 1 and Chapman, 2 we append the figures of specimens examined 
in the present connection. 

'Nov. Zool., 28, p. 235, 1921. 

'Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 583, 1926. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 31 

MEASUREMENTS 

Adult males Wing Tail 

One from Putre, Tacna 138 115 

One from Catarindos Valley, Arequipa 124 99 

One from Islay, Arequipa 126 105 

Two from Matucana, Lima 135,135 112,115 

Four from Macate, Ancachs 129,130,133,136 108,112,116,116 

One from Huanuco, Huanuco 137 121 

One from Huanuco Mountains 139 120 

One from Huanuco Viejo, Huanuco 132 110 

Two from Hacienda Llagueda, Otuzco 130,142 115,120 

Adult females 

One from Sibaya, Tarapaca 130 108 

One from Islay, Arequipa 120 96 

One from Arequipa 133 112 

One from Matucana, Lima 132 107 

Five from Macate, Ancachs 130,130,131,134,134 110,113,114,115,118 

Unsexed adults 
Three from Tacna (types) 120,124,125 102^,103,110 

The Chilean range of T. c. chiguanco is restricted to the provinces 
of Tarapaca and Tacna in the extreme north of the republic. While 
Sanborn and Rahmer obtained their specimens at considerable 
altitudes, d'Orbigny met with this thrush even in the vicinity of 
Tacna at about 1,700 feet above sea level. 

3. Turdus chiguanco anthracinus Burmeister 

Turdus anthracinus Burmeister, Journ. Orn., 6, p. 159, 1858 Mendoza. 

Turdus fusco-ater (not T. fuscater Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Philippi (12), p. 
260 near Santiago; Landbeck (9), p. 246 Chile. 

Turdus fuscater E. Reed (4), p. 198 Chile. 

Range in Chile. Occasional straggler in the vicinity of Santiago. 

The only basis for the inclusion of this species in the Chilean 
fauna is Philippi's statement that in the spring of 1867 two speci- 
mens were caught alive in the vicinity of Santiago. Landbeck also 
says that it is rarely met with as an occasional straggler from Men- 
doza, where it is abundant. Seebohm (Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 5, p. 
243, 1881) lists a specimen alleged to have been taken by Bridges 
in Chile, but this locality is doubtless incorrect, since Bridges (Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 11, p. 120, 1843) expressly states that "T. fuscater" 
a name long misapplied for the thrush now known as T. c. anthra- 
cinus "inhabits the vicinity of Mendoza and is not found on the 
western side of the Andes." Reed (Ibis, 1893, p. 595) denies its 
occurrence in Chile, but later (Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 198) admits 
it in his catalogue of Chilean birds. 1 

J Passler (Journ. Orn., 70, p. 474, 1922) attributes some nests found at Coronel 
to "T. fuscater" but the identification of the species is altogether uncertain, the 
parent birds not having been secured. 



32 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

[Turdus pallidus Peale (U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, p. 86, 1848) from "Val- 
paraiso" and Turdus subcinereus Sclater (P. Z. S. Lond., 1866, p. 320) 
supposed to be Chilean turned out to have been based on two species 
of the Australian genus Collyriocichla.} 

4. Mimus thenca (Molina) 

Turdus Thenca Molina, Saggio Stor. Nat. Chile, pp. 250, 345, 1782 Chile; 
Meyen, p. 75 Santiago; Kittlitz (3), pp. 121, 135, 147 Concepcion and 
Valparaiso. 

Orpheus australis Lesson in Bougainville, Journ. Navig. Thesis, 2, p. 328, 1837 
Valparaiso (new name for Turdus thenca Molina). 

Orpheus thenca d'Orbigny, p. 209, pi. 10, fig. 3 Valparaiso. 

Mimus thenca Darwin, p. 61 part, northern and central Chile, south to the 
neighborhood of Concepcion; Fraser (1), p. Ill habits; Des Murs (2), 
p. 333 Chile; Cassin, p. 183 common in Chile; Frauenfeld, p. 637 
near Santiago; Germain, p. 311 Santiago (breeding notes); Sclater (2), 
1867, pp. 320, 337 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 260; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 
1870, p. 499 Coquimbo; Landbeck (9), p. 247 common in Cauquenes; 
E. Reed (2), p. 541 Cauquenes, Colchagua; Sharpe, p. 7 Coquimbo; 
Allen, p. 78 Valparaiso; Lataste (1), p. CXIV Bureo, Ruble; p. CXV 
Ninhue, Maule; idem (4), p. XXXIII Caillihue, Curico; Waugh and 
Lataste (1), p. LXXXV Penaflor, Santiago; idem (2), p. CLXXI San 
Alfonso (Quillota), Valparaiso; E. Reed (4), p. 199 Chile; Lane, p. 9 
Hacienda Mansel and Melipilla, Santiago; Albert (1), 100, p. 890 Chile 
(monog.); Schalow (2), p. 730 Ovalle, near Coquimbo, and Santiago 
(eggs descr.); C. Reed (1), p. 18 Chiguayante and Hualqui, Concepci&n; 
Barros (4), p. 148 Nilahue, Curic6; idem (5), p. 187 Los Andes, Los 
Leones, and Los Piuquenes, Aconcagua; Housse (2), p. 146 San Bernardo, 
Santiago; Passler (3), p. 473 Coronel (habits, nest, and eggs); Wetmore 
(3), p. 353 Concon; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 108 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso; 
Bullock (3), p. 125 Nahuelbuta, Malleco; idem (4), p. 184 Angol, 
Malleco. 

Mimus patagonicus (errore) Bibra, p. 129 Valparaiso. 

Mimus thenka Pelzeln (2), p. 73 Chile. 

Range. From southern Atacama to Cautin. 

Material collected. Atacama: Domeyko, cf ad., Aug. 14. 
Coquimbo: Romero, cf ad., July 17; Paiguano, cf ad., June 14. 
Aconcagua: Los Andes (alt. 830 meters), cf ad., two 9 9 ad., May 22, 
26, 1925, Oct. 12, 1924. R. Barros. Colchagua: Banos de Cau- 
quenes, cf ad., May 3. Maule: Quirihue, cf ad., April 29. Con- 
cepcion: near coast, 9 ad., April 4; Hacienda Gualpencillo, two cf cf 
ad., 9 ad., March 28, April 4. 

Additional specimens. Valparaiso: Valparaiso, five adults. 
D'Orbigny (Paris Museum). Cautin: Pelal, near Temuco, cf ad., 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 33 

three 9 9 ad., May 7, June 18, July 27. A. C. Saldana (British 
Museum); Cholchol, near Temuco, d* (molting), March 12, 1906. 
D. S. Bullock (British Museum); Maquehue, near Temuco, three 
9 9 ad., April 23, June 8, August 17. D. S. Bullock (British Museum) . 

Birds from Aconcagua, Coquimbo, and Atacama are somewhat 
paler, less brownish above, with hardly any cinnamomeous suffusion 
on the rump, and much less buffy underneath, the chest being 
strongly washed with grayish. However, this apparent difference 
may be seasonal, as the majority of our northern birds are in more 
worn plumage than those from the south. 

M . thenca is most nearly related to M. 1. longicaudatus Tschudi, 
of western Peru, but differs by smaller bill, much shorter tail, less 
spotted back, and mostly blackish, instead of for the greater part 
white, primary coverts. 

Its range is restricted to the central provinces of Chile, extending 
from extreme southern Atacama (Domeyko, near Algarrobal) south 
to about 39 S. latitude. 1 Sanborn observed it at Victoria, Malleco, 
and D. S. Bullock found it breeding in Malleco and Cautin. 

The "Trenca" is reported to be common from near sea level up 
to 6,000, rarely 7,000 feet elevation. 



[Mimus (Orpheus) leucospilos Pelzeln (Sitzungsber. math.-naturw. Cl. 
Ak. Wiss. Wien, 31, p. 323, 1858), erroneously credited to "Chile," 
is synonymous with M. I. longicaudatus Tschudi, which is confined 
to western Peru. The type in the Vienna Museum agrees with 
specimens from lea.] 

5. Mimus triurus (Vieillot) 

Turdus triurus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 20, p. 275, 1818 
based on Azara, No. 224, Paraguay. 

Mimus triurus Philippi (12), p. 260 Santiago and Valdivia; Landbeck (9), 
p. 247 Valdivia and Santiago; E. Reed (4), p. 199 Chile; Albert (1), 
100, p. 893 Chile (monog.). 

Range in Chile. Occasional visitor in the central and southern 
provinces. 

This mocking-bird, common on the Argentine side of the Andes, 
is evidently a rare straggler to Chile. Landbeck states having shot 

lf The Paris Museum has a skin, labeled "No. 72. Gobe-mouche gris. Port 
Famine, 215. Astrolabe," which agrees perfectly with specimens from Valparaiso. 
If the locality is correct, which we doubt, the bird must have been a straggler, for 
this mocking-bird has never been met with again in the Straits of Magellan. 



34 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

it once near Valdivia and several times in the vicinity of Santiago. 
Although its occurrence in Chile was denied by both Bridges 1 and 
E. Reed, 2 this latter author, in a subsequent communication, 3 admits 
it to the Chilean fauna. 

"Mimus albicaudus Philippi," quoted by Albert in the synonymy 
of M. triurus, appears to be an unpublished manuscript name. 

6. Troglodytes musculus chilensis Lesson 4 

Troglodytes chilensis Lesson, Voyage "Coquille," Zool., 1, (2), p. 665, April, 
1830 vicinity of La Concepci6n, Chile. 

Thriothorus rosaceus Lesson, Rev. Zool., 3, p. 262, 1840 part, Chile; Des 
Murs in Gay, p. 310 (ex Lesson). 

Troglodytes guarixa Des Murs in Gay, Hist. fis. pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 312, 
1847 based on Troglodytes chilensis Lesson, from La Concepcion. 

Troglodytes musculus acosmus Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 27, p. 204, 
1904 central Chile (type in U. S. National Museum examined). 

Troglodytes platensis (not Sylvia platensis Latham) d'Orbigny, p. 231 part, 
Valparaiso; Des Murs in Gay, p. 311 Chile; Boeck, p. 500 Valdivia; 
Germain, p. 310 Santiago (nest and eggs); Lataste (1), p. CXV Ninhue, 
Maule; Waugh and Lataste (1), p. LXXXV Penaflor, Santiago; idem 
(2), p. CLXXI San Alfonso, Quillota. 

Troglodytes magellanicus Darwin, p. 74 central Chile; Fraser (1), p. Ill 
Chile generally (eggs); Hartlaub (3), p. 211 Valdivia; Sclater (2), 1867, 
pp. 321, 337 Chile; Landbeck (9), p. 241 (habits); E. Reed (4), p. 199 
Chile; Bullock (4), p. 185 Angol, Malleco. 

Troglodytes furvus E. Reed (2), p. 542 Cauquenes, Colchagua. 
Troglodytes hornensis (not of Lesson) Albert (1), 103, p. 215 Chile (monog., 
part). 6 

Cistothorus platensis (errore) Barros (4), p. 148 Nilahue, Curico; idem (5), 
p. 187 Aconcagua, up to 2,200 meters alt.; Housse (1), p. 48 Isla La 
Mocha; idem (2), p. 146 San Bernardo; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 108 
Marga-Marga, Valparaiso. 

Troglodytes musculus chilensis Wetmore (3), p. 348 Concon; Chapman and 
Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 50, p. 299, 1924 part, Corral, Temuco 
(Cautin), near Santiago, and Valparaiso; Passler (3), p. 472 Coronel 
(nesting habits). 

Range in Chile. Central and southern parts, from Aconcagua 
to the Straits of Magellan; in winter accidental in Atacama. 

*P. Z. S. Lond., 13, p. 120, 1843. 
2 Ibis, 1893, p. 595. 
'Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 199, 1896. 
4 See Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 28, p. 275, note 3, 1921. 

8 Description only, the notes on habits being referable to Cistothorus platensis 
hornensis. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 35 

Material collected. Atacama: Caldera, 9 ad., June 4. E. Gigoux. 
Valparaiso: Olmue", d" 1 ad., 9 ad., June 1, 3. Colchagua: Banos 
de Cauquenes, two cf d* ad., 9 ad., May 2, 3. Concepcion: Hacienda 
Gualpencillo, o* ad., two 9 9 ad., April 6, 16. Malleco:Curacautin, 
two d'd* ad., Jan. 9, 10; Rio Colorado (alt. 3,000 feet), 9 juv., 
Feb. 3. Cautin: Villa Portales (alt. 3,300 feet), d 71 ad., Feb. 28; 
Lake GualletuS (alt. 3,800 feet), d" juv., Feb. 21. Valdivia: Mafil, 
two <? <? ad., two d" d 1 imm., three d" 1 d* juv., 9 juv., Feb. 15, 16, 
18, 20, 22, 24, 27, 28. Llanquihue: Puerto Montt, two <? <? ad., 
April 14, 17; Rio Nirehuau, 9 ad., d" 1 imm., Feb. 16, March 17. 
Chilo Island: Quellon, six d 51 d 1 ad., one d 1 juv., one 9 ad., Dec. 29, 
Jan. 1, 3, 5. Guaitecas Islands: Melinka, Ascension Island, one d 1 
ad., one d" imm., two d" d" juv., Jan. 31, Feb. 1. 

Additional specimens. Valparaiso: Concon, d 1 ad., 9 ad., April 
27, 28, 1921. A. Wetmore (U. S. National Museum). Valdivia: 
Valdivia, two d 1 d 1 ad., one (unsexed) adult, 1897. A. von Lossberg 
(Munich Museum). Chiloe": Ancud, two d 31 d 71 ad., one (unsexed) 
adult, April 10, May 4, June 17, 1914. R. H. Beck (American 
Museum of Natural History, New York). 

Study of this extensive material tends to show that there is but 
one race of House Wren in central and southern Chile, and that the 
distinction of T. m. magellanicus cannot be maintained. 

Topotypes from Concepcion are rather dark above, 1 and have 
the under tail coverts heavily marked with black and white, while 
their bills are of moderate length. Specimens from farther south, 
while agreeing in coloration of upper parts, as a rule have the under 
tail coverts either uniform or but slightly marked, and the bill slightly 
smaller, this being most noticeable in birds from the Straits of 
Magellan. The decrease in bill measurements, however, is very 
slight, at the same time obliterated by individual variation, and, 
besides, so gradual that it is impossible to draw a line. Even the 
coloration of the under tail coverts does not afford a reliable criterion 
for T. m. magellanicus. They are wholly unmarked in six skins 
from the Straits (False Cape Horn; Londonderry Island; Punta 
Arenas), one from Rio SJirehuau, one from Melinka, one from 
Puerto Montt, four from Chiloe" Island, one from Mafil, two from 
Valdivia, and one from Malleco (Curacautin) ; more or less spotted 
with black and white in three from the Cape Horn region, one 
from Puerto Montt, five from Chiloe" Island, two from Valdivia, 

'In making comparisons, care should be taken to use specimens in freshly 
molted plumage only. 



36 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

one from Malleco (Curacautin) and three from Conception. Birds 
from central Chile (Colchagua, Valparaiso) are on average paler, 
brighter brownish (less sooty) above, though several specimens from 
the south, particularly an adult male from Ancud, Chilce* (American 
Museum of Natural History, No. 166,299) match them exactly. 
The under tail coverts are always spotted in the northern birds, 
which, furthermore, by slightly longer bills, exhibit a certain tendency 
in the direction of T. m. atacamensis. The type of T. m. eucosmus 
collected by Edwyn Reed agrees perfectly with skins from Val- 
paraiso and Bafios de Cauquenes, but I do not see how they can be 
separated from chilensis. The only practicable course appears to me 
to refer the whole series (from Valparaiso to the Straits of Magellan) 
to one form, whose earliest name is T. chilensis, based on an example 
from Conception. Were we to express the trifling geographic varia- 
tion in nomenclature, 60 to 75 per cent of the specimens designated 
by different names would be indistinguishable. 

In Chile, T. m. chilensis ranges from sea level up to about 7,000 
feet, and breeds towards the end of the year. Birds taken in Decem- 
ber and January are in worn breeding plumage, and numerous 
juvenile specimens were secured in the months of January and 
February. This form is also widely diffused in southern Argentina, 
where its breeding area extends, in the west, as far north as Mendoza 
and Santa Fe\ In winter it spreads north and eastward into Buenos 
Aires. Similar migrations, at least occasionally, appear to take 
place in Chile, for an adult female (in fresh plumage), secured by 
Mr. Gigoux at Caldera, Atacama, on June 4, 1924, is essentially 
like specimens from Concepci6n, and very different from the breeding 
race of the region. 

MEASUREMENTS OF ADULT MALES 



Seven from Straits of Magellan 

One from Melinka.Guaitecas Islands 
Eight from Chiloe Island 


Wing 
52 (three), 
53 (four) 
52 
50(three),51,52 
(two), 53,54 


Tail 
42,42,44,45, 
45,45,46 
44 
43-47 


Bill 
11,11,11,11 
113412.12 
12 
ll,12(four) 
13(two), 



Two from Puerto Montt, 

Llanquihue 50^,52 45,47 

Two from Valdivia 52,54 47,50 12,12 

Two from Mafil, Valdivia 52 Y 2 45, 

One from Villa Portales, Cautin 53 46 12 

Two from Curacautin, Malleco 52,55 43,45 

One from Concepci6n 52 43 Yz 
Two from Bafios de Cauquenes, 

Colchagua 52^,54 47,47 13,13 

Two from Valparaiso 50,53 46,47 13,13 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 37 

7. Troglodytes musculus atacamensis Hellmayr 

Troglodytes musculus atacamensis Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 

12, p. 74, 1924 Rio Loa, Antofagasta, Chile. 
Troglodytes furvus (not Motacilla furva Gmelin) Salvin, 1883, p. 419 

Coquimbo. 

Troglodytes hornensis (not of Lesson) Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 158 Antofagasta. 
Troglodytes platensis (not Sylvia platensis Latham) Gigoux, p. 86 Caldera, 

Atacama. 
Troglodytes musculus chilensis Chapman and Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 

50, p. 299, 1924 part, Tofo, sixty miles north of Coquimbo. 

Range. Northern Chile, in provinces of Coquimbo, Atacama, 
and Antofagasta. 

Material collected. Atacama: Caldera, four cfcf ad., two 9 9 
ad., March 22, April 11, May 4, 25, Aug. 28, 31; Ramadilla, Copiapo 
Valley, three cTcf ad., Aug. 22, 24. Antofagasta: Rio Loa, two 
cf cf ad., Sept. 12, 13. 

Additional specimens. Coquimbo: Tofo, sixty miles north of 
Coquimbo, two cf c? ad., one 9 juv., Nov. 12, Dec. 17, 1916. Th. 
Hallinan (American Museum of Natural History, New York). 

This is a northern representative of T. m. chilensis, from which 
it differs by decidedly slenderer, also somewhat longer bill and paler 
coloration. The upper parts are (unbarred) pale grayish brown, 
much less sooty, very rarely with a slight rufescent tinge; the rump 
and tail coverts lighter rufous; wings and tail less rufescent; the under 
parts paler isabelline, with throat and middle of the abdomen 
more whitish, and the flanks and crissum lighter ochraceous. It 
approaches T. m. tecellatus, from Tacna, in grayish back and shape 
of bill, but may be distinguished by brighter rufous rump, more 
rufescent, less broadly barred tail, less whitish under parts, and 
by lacking all trace of blackish bars on either back or upper tail 
coverts. The under tail coverts are, as a rule, heavily marked with 
black and white, though in one or two specimens these markings 
are but faintly suggested. 

As stated under the preceding form, certain specimens from Val- 
paraiso come very close in length of bill and grayish dorsal surface, 
but, taken as a whole, the series from Atacama and Antofagasta 
is fairly separable by the characters given above. Two adults from 
Tofo, in exceedingly worn breeding plumage, are doubtless referable 
to T. m. atacamensis, one of the specimens, even in shade of grayish 
brown back, being closely similar to some of the Caldera birds. A 
juvenile (from Tofo) differs from the corresponding age of T. m. 



38 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

chilensis, as represented by fourteen specimens from Malleco to 
Ascension Island, by decidedly lighter, more rufescent upper parts. 

Wing of nine adult males 51-54, of one female 50; tail 43-47; 
bill 13 (three), 13^ (five), 14, 14^ mm. 

T. m. atacamensis is peculiar to the semi-arid littoral of northern 
Chile, from Coquimbo to Antofagasta. 

8. Troglodytes musculus tecellatus Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny 

Troglodytes tecellatus Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 
7, cl. 2, p. 25, 1837 Tacna, Peru (type in Paris Museum examined); 
d'Orbigny, p. 232 Tacna Valley. 

Range. Extreme northern Chile, in province of Tacna, thence 
extending into southwestern Peru (depts. Moquegua and Arequipa). 

Material collected. Tacna: Chacalluta, six miles north of Arica, 
two cf d" ad., June 12, 14. 

Additional specimens. Tacna: Tacna, adult (not sexed). D'Or- 
bigny (Paris Museum; the type); cf ad., Oct. 13, 1902. 0. Garlepp; 
Asapa, near Arica, d* ad., Nov. 2, 1902. 0. Garlepp (Berlepsch 
Collection). 

This is a well-marked race by reason of its conspicuously barred 
back and upper tail coverts, much less rufescent rump, grayish 
rufescent tail with wider blackish bars, and very pale isabelline under 
parts, when compared with its geographical neighbors, T. m. ata- 
camensis and T. m. audax, from the Peruvian littoral (lea to Trujillo). 
There is, however, no justification in separating it specifically from 
the T. musculus group. Birds from the coast of Arequipa and 
Moquegua, which we have seen in the collection of the American 
Museum of Natural History, are, indeed, more strongly barred with 
black above than any other race, but the series from Tacna shows 
considerable variation in this respect. An adult male from Asapa, 
particularly, runs very close to T. m. atacamensis by having the 
scapulars only distinctly barred, while in the middle of the back 
these markings are quite obsolete. The tail pattern is likewise 
subject to individual variation, and the under tail coverts some- 
times are hardly more spotted with black than in T. m. chilensis. 

Measurements of five adult males from Tacna: wing 53-55; tail 
40-44; bill 14-14^. 

9. Cistothorus platensis hornensis (Lesson) 

Troglodytes hornensis Lesson, L'Institut, 2, No. 72, p. 316, 1834 "pris en 
mer, le 7 Janvier 1831, a vingt lieues dans le sud-est du Cap Horn"; idem in 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 39 

Bougainville, Journ. Navig. The'tis, 2, p. 327, 1837 same locality; Philippi 
(12), p. 256 Valdivia, Santiago; Waugh and Lataste (1), p. LXXXV 
Penaflor, Santiago. 

Thryothorus eidouxi Bonaparte, Consp. Av., 1, p. 221, 1850 "Brasilia," 
errore based exclusively on "Troglodyte des Marais? Wils. fern.," 
Voyage au Pole Sud "Astrolabe" et "Z&ee," Atlas, ZooL, Ois., pi. 19, 
fig. 6, Oct., 1844 the type examined in the Paris Museum is from Tal- 
caguano, Concepcion. 

Troglodytes eydouxi Jacquinot and Pucheran, Voyage au P61e Sud "Astrolabe" 
et "Zelee," Zool., 3, p. 94, 1853 Talcaguano, Chile. 

CistothoriLS platensis (not Sylvia platensis Latham) Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 321, 
337 Chile; Landbeck (9), p. 241; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 6, p. 244, 
1881 Santiago; E. Reed (2), p. 542 Cauquenes; idem (4), p. 199 Chile; 
Albert (1), 103, p. 218 Chile (monog., part) -, 1 Bullock (4), p. 185 Angol, 
Malleco. 

Cistothorus platensis hornensis Passler (3), p. 471 Coronel (habits, nest, and 
eggs). 

Range in Chile. From Santiago to the Straits of Magellan. 

Material collected. Llanquihue: Rio Nirehuau, cf ad., 9 ad., 
March 1. Chiloe" Island: Quellon, d" imm., <? juv., Jan. 3, 27; 
Rio Inio, 9 imm., Jan. 11. Cautin: Villa Portales, Lonquimai 
Valley (alt. 3,300 feet), d* imm., Feb. 9. 

Additional specimens. Valdivia: Valdivia, 9 ad., Dec., 1924. 

Fernando Ohde (Munich Museum). Concepcion: Concepcion, adult 

(sex not determined). E. C. Reed (Tring Museum); Talcaguano, 

9 ad., 1841. Hombron and Jacquinot (type of T. eidouxi}. "Chile" 

(unspecified): three adults. E. C. Reed (Paris Museum). 

The adult birds from the Rio Nirehuau have the whole back, 
including the rump, broadly streaked with black and buffy white, 
the upper tail coverts distinctly barred with blackish, and the pileum 
mainly bright fulvous-brown (somewhat darker and browner than 
"Buckthorn brown") with narrow blackish streaks on posterior 
portion. The female has just completed its annual molt, while the 
male is changing the body plumage and flight-quills. Immature 
birds differ by more heavily striped pileum, narrower as well as deeper 
buff streaking of the back, and plain (unmarked) tawny-brown rump 
and upper tail coverts. 

The distribution of the Marsh Wren in Chile is very imperfectly 
known, though from the meager data at hand it would seem to be 
more abundant in the southern parts of the country. The most 
northerly locality on record is Santiago, where Landbeck obtained 

Description only, the notes on habits refer to Troglodytes musculus chilensis. 



40 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

specimens, one of which passed into the collection of the British 
Museum. Lataste also secured two at Penaflor, and E. C. Reed 
lists it from Colchagua (Cauquenes). Farther south it appears to 
be more frequently met with. There are various records from the 
Bay of Concepcion (Concepci6n, Talcaguano), 1 Valdivia, Straits of 
Magellan (Gregory Bay), Tierra del Fuego, and Falkland Islands. 
Passler found it breeding at Coronel, while Bullock lists it as an 
uncommon visitor in the Angol district of Malleco. On the Argentine 
side of the Andes it is known to occur at Bariloche, Lake Nahuel 
Huapi (Terr, del Neuquen), at Arroyo Los Bayas (Terr, del Rio 
Negro), and at Lago Blanco, in extreme western Chubut. 

Its nomenclature, range, and distinctive characters have been 
fully discussed in another place. 2 

10. Anthus correndera chilensis (Lesson) 

Corydalla chilensis Lesson, Rev. Zool., 2, p. 101, 1839 Chile; idem, Oeuvr. 
Compl. Buff on, 6d. LeVSque, 20 [ =Descr. Mammif. et Ois.j, p. 298, 1847 
Chile; Des Mure in Gay, p. 325 (ex Lesson). 

Anthus Chii (not of Vieillot) Kittlitz (3), pp. 163, 178 Lagunilla Valley and 

Quillota, Valparaiso. 
Anthus furcatus (not of Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Pelzeln (2), p. 69 Chile 

(spec, in Vienna Museum examined). 

Anthus correndera (not of Vieillot) Darwin, p. 85 part, Chile; Eraser (1), 
p. 112 Chile; Frauenfeld, p. 636 near Santiago; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 
321, 337 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 258; E. Reed (2), p. 542 Cauquenes, 
Colchagua; Landbeck (9), p. 244; Salvin (2), p. 419 Coquimbo; Waugh 
and Lataste (1), p. LXXXV Penaflor, Santiago; idem (2), p. CLXXI 
San Alfonso, Quillota; E. Reed (4), p. 199 Chile; Schalow (2), p. 728 
Tumbes, near Concepci6n; Albert (1), 101, p. 934 Chile (monog.); Barros 
(5), p. 187 Los Andes, Aconcagua; Housse (2), p. 145 San Bernardo; 
idem (3), p. 226 Isla La Mocha; Barros (8), p. 142 Nilahue, Curic6; 
Bullock (4), p. 185 Angol, Malleco; Barros (10), p. 362 Aconcagua. 

Anthus correndera chilensis Passler (3), p. 475 Coronel (nest and eggs); 
Wetmore (3), p. 363 near Concon. 

Range. From Atacama (Copiapo Valley) to the Straits of 
Magellan. 

Material collected. Atacama: Ramadilla, Copiapo Valley, three 
d" d" ad., Aug. 22, 25. Coquimbo: Romero, four d 1 d" ad., two 9 9 
ad., July 15, 19, 22, 30. Santiago: Batuco, d" ad., Aug. 3, 1924. 
C. S. Reed. Concepcion: Hacienda Gualpencillo, two d" cf ad., two 

1 "Troglodites parvus" (sic), listed by Housse (Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 29, p. 226) 
from the Isla La Mocha, may also refer to this species. 
'Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 28, p. 252, 1921. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 41 

9 9 ad., March 27, 31, April 3, 6; near coast, two d" d" ad., April 8, 
14. Cautin: Lake Gualletue' (alt. 3,800 feet), d* ad., two 9 9 ad., 
three d" cf juv., Feb. 15, 18, 20. Llanquihue: Casa Richards, Rio 
Rirehuau, 9 ad., Feb. 24. 

Additional specimens. Coquimbo: Ovalle, adult, Sept., 1893. 
L. Plate (Berlin Museum). Santiago: Santiago, three cf d" ad., 
one 9 ad., June, July, 1872. E. C. Reed (Frankfort Museum). 
Concepcion: Tumbes, d" ad., June, 1894. L. Plate (Berlin Mu- 
seum). Valdivia: Valdivia, two (unsexed) adults. A. von Lossberg 
(Frankfort Museum). 

Specimens collected in March and April at Concepcion are in 
freshly molted plumage. The series from Romero (Coquimbo) and 
the Copiapo Valley (Atacama) taken in July and August show 
marked traces of wear, while the adult birds secured in February 
at Lake Gualletue", Cautin, and on the Rio Nlrehuau, are in exceed- 
ingly worn breeding condition. Compared to the Concepcion skins, 
they are much less buffy throughout, the under parts especially 
being much whiter with less buffy suffusion on the chest, and the 
edges to the dorsal plumage being paler and more whitish. In pro- 
portions, shape, and length of hind claw as well as in pattern of lateral 
rectrices, however, specimens from different localities are perfectly 
alike, and the variation in color is doubtless merely seasonal. 

Three birds taken at Lake Gualletue" on February 15 and 20 are 
in the juvenile plumage, characterized by roundish, buffy white edges 
on the mantle and coarse, blackish markings on breast and sides. 

This pipit inhabits the plains and foothills, its altitudinal range 
not reaching much beyond 4,000 feet. 

A. correndera chilensis is closely related to the typical race, widely 
distributed throughout Argentina, Paraguay, and southern Brazil, 
but may be distinguished by its more buffy coloration. Its range 
extends south to the Straits of Magellan and Tierra del Fuego, 
since two birds from the pampas near Punta Arenas are inseparable 
from the Chilean series. 

On the Falkland Islands it is replaced by A. correndera grayi Bona- 
parte, 1 a larger form with stronger bill and smaller pectoral markings. 

1 Anthus grayi Bonaparte (Consp. Av., 1, p. 249, 1850) long antedates Anthits 
philippsi Brooks (Proc. New Engl. Zool. CL, 6, p. 26, 1916). Its sole basis is 
Alauda novae zecdandiae, yar. , of Latham (Ind. Orn., 2, p. 497, 1790), which, in 
its turn, is based on "Cinereous Lark" (of the Falkland Islands) in Portlock, 
"Voyage round the World," 1789, plate facing p. 38. Here we find a rather poor, 
but recognizable figure of the Falkland Island Pipit, which the author believed to 
be "a variety of the Lark found at New Zealand." The type locality is near 
Port Egmont. 



42 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

11. Anthus correndera catamarcae Hellmayr 

Anthus correndera catamarcae Hellmayr, El Hornero, 2, p. 186, 1921 Lago 
Colorado (alt. 3,400 meters), Catamarca, Argentina. 

Anthus chii (not of Vieillot) Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 159 Antofagasta. 

Anthus calcaratus (not of Taczanowski) Berlepsch and Leverkiihn, Ornis, 6, 
p. 8, 1890 Calama, Antofagasta (spec, examined). 

Range in Chile. Puna Zone of Antofagasta, from 7,000 to 12,000 
feet. 

Material collected. Antofagasta: Rio Loa (alt. 8,000 feet), five 
cfcf ad., one 9 ad., Sept. 11, 12, 13, 14; Ojo de San Pedro (alt. 
12,400 feet), & ad., May 2; twenty miles east of San Pedro (alt. 
12,600 feet), three d 1 c? ad., Oct. 6, 1923. 

Additional specimens. Antofagasta: Calama, 9 ad., March 1, 
1847. Professor Behn (Berlin Museum). 

This long-clawed pipit of northern Chile is easily distinguished 
from A. c. chilensis by slightly longer wings and tarsi; decidedly 
longer, slenderer bill; darker (ochraceous-buff rather than warm 
buff) edges to the dorsal plumage, particularly on pileum and hind 
neck; much more ochraceous (near buckthorn-brown) rump; and 
more extensive as well as purer white area on the lateral rectrices, 
the dusky inner margin on the outermost pair being restricted to 
the extreme base and wholly concealed by the under tail coverts. 
Even birds in worn plumage, as represented by the series from Rio 
Loa, are more ochraceous above than chilensis in freshly molted 
livery. A female (just completing its annual molt) collected by 
Professor Behn at Calama on March 1, 1847, which I had an oppor- 
tunity of examining through the good offices of Dr. E. Stresemann, 
of the Berlin Museum, agrees with our series which, in its turn, was 
directly compared to two examples from the Puna of Catamarca 
(Lago Colorado). 

The range of this form thus appears to comprise the Puna region 
of northern Chile (Antofagasta) and extreme northwestern Argentina 
(Los Andes and Catamarca). It is closely related to A. c. calcaratus 
Tacz., of the Puna of Peru (Junin and Cuzco), but somewhat larger 
and not so brightly colored, especially underneath. 

MEASUREMENTS 

A. c. calcaratus Adult males Wing Tail Bill 

Three from Ingapirca, Junin 76,78,78 54,55,57 14,13^, 
A, c. calcaratus Adult females 

Two from Anta, Cuzco 73^,75 55,55 13,13 M 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 43 

A. c. catamarcae Adult males Wing Tail Bill 

Three from Catamarca 80,83,83 59,62,63 12^,13,14 

Five from Rio Loa, Antofagasta 79,80,81,82,82 58-62 12%-13% 
Three from east of San Pedro, 

Antofagasta 79,80,80 59,59,62 13,14,14 

A. c. catamarcae Adult females 

Two from Catamarca 78,78 57,57 13,14 

One from Calama, Antofagasta 79 59 14 

One from Rio Loa, Antofagasta 77 57 13^ 

A. c. chilensis Adult males 
Three from Copiapo Valley, 

Atacama 78,78,79 58,59,61 12,12,12 

Five from Coquimbo 76,77,77,77,78 56,57,57,58,60 

Four from Conception 74,75,78,79 58,59,59,60 

One from Lake Gualletue, Cautin 76 58 12 

A. c. chilensis Adult females 

One from Coquimbo 73 56 12 

Two from Lake Gualletue, Cautin 73,74 52,53 12,12 % 

One from Rio Nirehuau, 

Llanquihue 76 56 12 

12. Anthus hellmayri dabbenei Hellmayr 

Anthus hellmayri dabbenei Hellmayr, El Hornero, 2, p. 191, 1921 Rio Traful, 
Gob. del Neuquen, Argentina. 

Range in Chile. Only recorded from Cautin (Lonquimai Valley). 

Material collected. Cautin: Rio Lolen (alt. 3,600 feet), Lon- 
quimai Valley, 9 juv., Feb. 11, 1924. Wing 73; tail 55; tars. 22; 
hind claw 10; bill 10. 

The taking in the Lonquimai Valley of a full-grown bird in juvenile 
plumage adds a hitherto unrecorded species to the Chilean fauna. 
In shape of bill and hind claw, pattern and color of lateral rectrices, 
and other features, it agrees perfectly with Argentine examples, but 
it is somewhat smaller, the bill and tail notably so, and more heavily 
streaked across the chest, variations doubtless due to immaturity. 

The Lonquimai Valley is in the extreme eastern section of Cautin 
and separated from Argentina by a comparatively low ridge, as I am 
informed by Mr. Sanborn. It will be recalled that the type, a female 
in worn breeding garb, was taken on the banks of the Rio Traful, 
Gob. del Neuquen, not far from the Chilean frontier, about two 
degrees farther south than the Lonquimai Valley, and lately I have 
examined in the British Museum an adult male in fresh plumage, 
obtained by J. Koslowsky in the Valle del Lago Blanco, western 
Chubut, on November 6, 1900. 

A. h. dabbenei thus appears to breed in the mountain valleys 
along the Chilean-Argentine boundary line between 38 and 46 



44 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

S. latitude. In winter it migrates northward. Numerous specimens 
have been taken by J. Mogensen between May and August, 1918, 
at Concepci6n, Tucumdn, and an adult male was shot by Robin 
Kemp on October 18, 1916, at Las Rosas, Prov. Santa F6 (Field 
Museum, No. 63,035). 

13. Anthus lutescens peruvianus Nicholson 

Anthus peruvianus Nicholson, P. Z. S. Lond., 1878, p. 390 Catarindos Valley, 
near Islay, Dept. Arequipa, Peru (type in British Museum examined). 

Range in Chile. Extreme north, in province of Tacna. 

Material collected. Tacna: Chacalluta, six miles north of Arica, 
three c? cf ad., two 9 9 ad., June 12, 14, 16, 21. Wing 67-68, 
(females) 65, 66; tail 43, 46, 49, (females) 43, 45; bill 11^-12. 

These specimens, which are in slightly worn plumage, agree in 
every respect with a series from the coast region of Arequipa, with 
which they were directly compared. In both series the light-colored 
area of the lateral tail feathers varies from buffy white to pale gray. 
There is also a certain variation in the amount of the buffy suffusion 
on the chest and sides, but this, too, appears to be purely individual. 
Birds from Lima and Trujillo are similar. 

A. lutescens peruvianus differs from the typical race by averaging 
larger; paler upper parts with more whitish (less buffy) markings 
on the wing coverts; broader as well as more whitish edges to the 
lateral interscapulars; whiter under parts with paler, if any, buff 
suffusion across chest and along flanks; and by having the dusky 
margin to the basal portion of the inner web of the lateral rectrices 
barely suggested. 

Its range is restricted to the littoral of western Peru and extreme 
northern Chile. It had not previously been recorded from the 
latter country. 

[Anthus furcatus Lafr. and d'Orb. included by Des Murs (in Gay, 
p. 324) does not occur in Chile.] 

14. Dendroica striata (Forster) 

Muscicapa striata Forster, Philos. Trans., 62, pp. 406, 428, 1772 Fort Severn 
(west coast of Hudson Bay). 

Dendroica atricapilla Landbeck, Arch. Naturg., 30, (1), p. 56, 1864 Collico, 
near Valdivia; idem, Anal. Univ. Chile, 24, p. 336, April, 1864 near 
Valdivia; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 321, 337 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 257 
near Valdivia; Landbeck (9), p. 242 near Valdivia; Philippi (24), p. 41, 
pi. 23, fig. 1 Chile. 

Dendroica striata E. Reed (4), p. 199 Chile; Albert (1), 103, p. 211 Valdivia. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYB 45 

Range in Chile. Casual winter visitor. 

A single adult male in nuptial plumage was shot by L. Landbeck 
at Collico, near Valdivia, on June 17, 1858, a very unusual date for 
this North American Warbler. The locality, moreover, is far outside 
its known winter range, and I cannot help thinking it might have 
been an escaped cage-bird. 

15. Progne elegans Baird 1 

Progne elegans Baird, Rev. Amer. Birds, 1, p. 275, 1865 Rio Vermejo, 

Argentina ( =juv.). 

Progne furcata Baird, Rev. Amer. Birds, 1, p. 278, 1865 Chile (=adult); 
Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 321, 337 Chile (ex Baird); Philippi, P. Z. S. Lond., 
1868, p. 531 Chile (crit.); E. Reed, Ibis, 1893, p. 595; idem (4), p. 199 
Paine, O'Higgins; Albert (1), 100, p. 879 (monog.). 

Range in Chile. Once recorded from Paine, O'Higgins. 

Although Philippi denies its occurrence, E. C. Reed states that 
P. furcata "has been shot several times in Chile," and, in his 
"Catalogo de las Aves Chilenas," definitely mentions Paine, 
O'Higgins, as the locality where various specimens of this Martin 
have been taken. 2 

We have not seen any Chilean material. 

P. elegans is widely distributed in Bolivia and Argentina, but 
the exact limits of its breeding range have yet to be worked out. 3 

16. Pygochelidon patagonica patagonica (Lafr. and d'Orb.) 

Hirundo patagonica Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 
7, d. 2, p. 69, 1837 Patagonia (type in Paris Museum examined). 

Hirundo cyanoleuca (not of Vieillot), 4 Darwin, p. 41 Valparaiso; Des Murs 
(2), p. 267; Sclater (2), 1867, p. 321; Philippi (12), p. 248; Landbeck (9), 
p. 235. 

1 For the substitution of P. elegans vs. P. furcata, see Todd, Auk, 42, p. 276, 
1925. 

2 Bridges (P. Z. S. Lond., 11, p. 120, 1843) also lists "P. purpurea" [=P. 
elegans] among the species found at Mendoza, but not on the Chilean side of the 
Andes. 

3 Laubmann's record of P. chalybea domestica from Valdivia, Chile (in Krieg, 
Ergeb. Deuts. Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 306, 1930), I am informed by the author, is 
due to a mistake. The specimen actually originated in Misiones, Argentina. 

4 As suggested by Wetmore (Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, pp. 343-344, 1926), 
it is quite possible that Azara's No. 303, on which Hirundo cyanoleuca Vieillot 
is based, may apply to the swallow universally called P. patagonica, but pending 
the receipt of a satisfactory series from Paraguay it seems best not to make any 
nomenclatorial change at present. 



46 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Atticora cyanoleuca Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 321, 337 Chile; E. C. Reed (2), 
p. 543 Hacienda de Cauquenes; Salvin (2), p. 420 Coquimbo; Sclater 
(4), 1886, p. 397 Huasco, Tarapaca; Lane, p. 15 Sacaya, Tarapaca; 
E. Reed (4), p. 199 Chile; Albert (1), 100, p. 870; Schalow (2), p. 728; 
Passler (3), p. 470 Coronel; Bullock (4), p. 183 Angol, Malleco (nest). 

Hirundo melampyga (not of Lichtenstein) Philippi (24), p. 24, pi. 20, fig. 3. 

Pygochelidon cyanoleuca patagonica Barros (4), p. 147 Nilahue, Curico; idem 
(5), p. 186 Los Andes and Rio Blanco, Aconcagua. 

Pygochelidon patagonica Bullock, El Hornero, 3, p. 93 Chile (nest). 

Pygochelidon patagonica patagonica Barros (11), p. 315 above Portillo, Prov. 
Santiago. 

Range in Chile. From Tarapaca south to the Straits of Magellan. 

Material collected. Coquimbo: Barios del Toro (alt. 10,600 feet), 
cf ad., Nov. 17. Aconcagua: Papudo, d" 1 ad., Dec. 8. Cautin: 
Lake Gualletue" (alt. 3,800 feet), <? juv., Feb. 21. 

Additional specimens. Tarapaca: Huasco, 9 ad. C. Rahmer 
(Princeton Museum of Zoology, ex British Museum). Antofagasta: 
Calama, d* juv., March 1, 1847. Professor Behn (Berlin Museum). 
Chile (unspecified): five adults. E. C. Reed (British and Munich 
Museums). 

It is now an established fact that the Black-rumped Swallow 
of Chile belongs to the larger species with pale mouse gray under 
wing, and white shorter under tail coverts, although various authors 
misidentified it with P. cyanoleuca, which is not found anywhere 
in Chile. 1 

It is reported to breed throughout the greater part of Chile from 
near sea level to about 10,000 feet in the Cordilleras. Landbeck 
states that it prefers the vicinity of rivers and lakes. Reed found it 
common around the hacienda de Cauquenes, Colchagua; Passler at 
Coronel; Barros at Nilahue, Curico, as well as in the Andes of Acon- 
cagua up to 10,000 feet. Lane mentions it as common at Huasco 
and Sacaya, Cordillera of Tarapaca, where it breeds in November 
or December, making its nest in a hole or the crevice of a cliff. 

This swallow is a migratory species, at least in southern and 
central Chile, where it stays from the end of August to the middle 
of March, and then migrates northwards. 

A single adult female (in rather poor condition) from Tarapaca 
appears to be referable to typical patagonica. Its wing measurement 

1 There can be no doubt that the specimen of Atticora cyanoleuca montana 
recorded by Allen (Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 2, p. 80, 1889) is incorrectly 
labeled "Valparaiso, June, 1885," and I strongly suspect its label has been inter- 
changed with that of Tachycineta meyeni (1. c., p. 79) said to be from "Falls of the 
Rio Madeira," Bolivia. See also Chapman, Amer. Mus. Novit., 30, p. 2, footnote. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 47 

of 106 mm. falls well within the range of this form, as represented 
by Chilean and Argentine (Tucuman) examples, whereas P. p. 
peruviana, from Arequipa and Lima, measures from 95 to 101 mm. 
The under wing coverts are perhaps slightly paler, and the shorter 
under tail coverts have less white than in the majority from more 
southern localities, but as certain typical patagonica are quite similar, 
I do not regard these divergencies as necessarily indicating geo- 
graphic intergradation to P. p. peruviana, although a larger series 
from Tarapaca might show this to be the case. 

17. Haplochelidon 1 andecola andecola (Lafr. and d'Orb.) 

Hirundo andecola Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, 
cl. 2, p. 69, 1837 La Paz, Bolivia (type in Paris Museum examined). 

Atticora cinerea (errore) Sclater (6), 1891, p. 132 Sacaya, Tarapaca; E. Reed 
(4), p. 199 Tarapaca; Albert (1), 100, p. 873 Tarapaca (ex Sclater). 

Range in Chile. Once recorded from Sacaya, Tarapaca. 

Material. Tarapaca: Sacaya, alt. 12,500 feet, 9 imm., April 2, 
1890. A. Lane (British Museum). Wing 111; tail 55; bill 6. 

This specimen is totally different from Orochelidon murina (Cassin) 
[= Atticora cinerea auct.], but agrees in all essential characters, viz. 
slightly emarginate tail, smoky brown throat and foreneck, dingy 
white under parts, and mostly white lower tail coverts, with skins 
of the Andean Cliff-Swallow from Bolivia, Arequipa, and Tinta 
(Cuzco). It is just in the process of molting from the juvenile 
plumage (with dark sooty brown upper parts and tawny-tinged 
rump) into the glossy-backed dress of the adults. 

The typical race of this Cliff-Swallow ranges from southern Peru 
to Bolivia and extreme northern Chile. 

18. Hirundo rustica erythrogaster Boddaert 

Hirundo erythrogaster Boddaert, Tabl. PL Enl., p. 45, 1783 based on Dau- 
benton, PI. Enl., 724, fig. 1, Cayenne. 

Hirundo americana Philippi, Zool. Garten, 39, p. 69, 1898 Santiago; idem 
(24), p. 25 Aculeo, Santiago. 

Hirundo rustica Albert (1), 100, p. 875 Laguna de Aculeo, Santiago (monog.). 
Range in Chile. Winter visitor. 

1 Haplochelidon Todd, Auk, 46, p. 245, 1929 type, by orig. desig., Hirundo 
andecola Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny. 



48 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Material collected. Atacama: Ramadilla, Copiap6 Valley, d" 1 
ad., 9 ad., March 23, 1924. 

Both specimens are molting the outermost primary, while the 
other wing-quills have already been renewed. 

The North American Barn-Swallow is a winter visitor to Chile. 
It has previously been recorded by Philippi from the vicinity of 
Santiago (Dec. 3, 1897) and Arica (date not stated). Albert (Rev. 
Chil. Hist. Nat., 3, p. 28, 1899) is certainly mistaken in assuming 
that it has established itself as a breeding bird near the Laguna de 
Aculeo. 

19. Iridoprocne leucopyga (Meyen) 1 

Hirundo leucopyga Meyen, Nov. Act. Ac. Leop. Carol., 16, Suppl., p. 73, pi. 

10, fig. 2, 1834 Santiago, Chile; Philippi (12), p. 249 Chile generally; 

Landbeck (9), p. 235; Gigoux, p. 87 Caldera, Atacama. 
Hirundo leucorrhoa (not of Vieillot) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, 

p. 69 Valparaiso. 
Hirundo leucopygia Darwin, p. 40 Valparaiso; Fraser (1), p. 110 Chile; 

Housse (2), p. 143 San Bernardo. 
Cypselus (!) leucopygius Des Murs (2), p. 266; Germain, p. 309 Santiago 

(nesting habits). 
Hirundo meyeni Pelzeln (2), p. 41; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 321, 337 Valparaiso; 

E. Reed (2), p. 543 Cauquenes, Colchagua. 
Tachycineta meyeni Salvin (2), p. 420 Coquimbo; E. Reed (4), p. 199 

Chile; Albert (1), 100, p. 866 Chile (monog.); Lane, p. 15 Corral, 

Valdivia, and Maquegua, Arauco; Passler (3), p. 470 Coronel (habits, 

nests and eggs); Bullock (3), p. 124 Cerro de Nahuelbuta, Malleco; 

idem (4), p. 182 Angol, Malleco; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 105 Marga- 

Marga, Valparaiso ( = juv.). 
Hirundo cyanoleuca (not of Vieillot) Frauenfeld, p. 637 near Santiago; 

Lataste (1), p. CXV Ninhue, Maule; idem (4), p. XXXIII Caillihue, 

Curic6; Waugh and Lataste (1), p. LXXXIV Penaflor, Santiago; idem 

(2), p. CLXX San Alfonso, Quillota. 

Hirundo leucopyga (meyeni) Philippi (24), p. 23, pi. 20, fig. 2 Chile generally. 
Iridoprocne meyeni Barros (4), p. 147 Nilahue, Curic6; idem (5), p. 186 

Cordillera of Aconcagua; Wetmore (3), p. 341 Concon. 
Hirundo leucoptera (not of Gmelin) Housse (1), p. 48 Isla La Mocha. 
Tachycineta leucopyga Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 105 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso. 

1 This species is currently called /. meyeni (Cabanis). There seems, however, 
no valid reason for rejecting Meyen's term, which was changed to Petrochelidon 
meyeni by Cabanis (Mus. Hein., 1, p. 48, 1850) merely on the ground that Lichten- 
stein, on labels in the Berlin Museum, had originally used the name H. leucopyga 
for some other species. Meyen's description and figure are clearly based on the 
example collected by himself at Santiago, while the Montevideo bird of the Berlin 
Museum, which is stated to differ by the more greenish gloss of the upper parts 
and turned out to belong to /. leucorrhoa, is only incidentally mentioned. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 49 

Range in Chile. From Atacama (Copiapo Valley) to the Straits 
of Magellan. 

Material collected. Atacama: Ramadilla (Copiapo Valley), cf 
ad., Aug. 22. Valdivia: Mafil, cf imm., Feb. 22. Chilce" Island: 
Rio Inio, cf ad., Jan. 11; Quellon, cf ad., 9 ad., Dec. 24, 25. 

Additional specimens. Coquimbo: Coquimbo, cf juv., Nov., 
1881. H. Markham (British Museum). Valparaiso: San Alfonso 
(Quillota), 1 cf ad., June 23, 1894. F. Lataste (British Museum). 
Santiago: Penaflor, 1 adult (not sexed), Jan. 17, 1894. F. Lataste 
(British Museum) ; Santiago, cf ad., June, 1874. E. C. Reed (British 
Museum). O'Higgins: Rancagua, 9 ad., Dec., 1903. C. S. Reed 
(Munich Museum). Curico: Caillihue (Vichuquen), 1 cf imm., Dec. 
23, 1894. F. Lataste (British Museum). Concepcion: Concepcion, 
cf juv., Jan. 21, 1903. C. S. Reed (Field Museum). Arauco: 
Maquegua, 9 ad., Aug. 10, 1890. A. Lane (British Museum). 
Valdivia: Corral, two cf cf, one 9 ad., Oct. 31, Nov. 1, 1890. A. 
Lane (British Museum); Valdivia, cf ad., Dec. 9, 1924. F. Ohde 
(Munich Museum). 

The White-rumped Swallow is a common resident throughout 
the central and southern parts of Chile, the most northerly record 
being from the Copiapo Valley. 2 It extends southward to the Straits 
of Magellan and, besides, it is also found over an extensive area in 
Argentina, where, however, the limits of its breeding range have 
yet to be worked out. It can hardly be more than subspecifically 
distinct from /. leucorrhoa, but it would be unwise to employ a 
trinomial designation until we know more about the distribution 
of these two closely allied swallows in Argentina and neighboring 
countries. 

[Diglossa carbonaria brunneiventris Lafresnaye. Des Murs (Iconog. 
Ornith., livr. 8, text to pi. 43, 1847) claims that this species was 
discovered by Claudio Gay in Chile. The type, which we have 
carefully compared in the Paris Museum, is indeed labeled: "Chili, 
par M. Gay, 1843," and agrees with specimens from southern Peru 
and Sorata, western Bolivia. However, as pointed out by Sclater 
(P. Z. S. Lond., 1867, p. 322), Gay's authority is by no means 
trustworthy, and until its occurrence in some part of Chile has been 
confirmed by reliable evidence, D. c. brunneiventris is better excluded 
from the Chilean fauna.] 

1 Named "Hirundo cyanoleuca" by Lataste. 

1 Allen's record (p. 79) from "Falls of the Rio Madeira," Bolivia, in his report 
on the Rusby collection doubtless refers to a wrongly labeled Chilean example. 



50 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

20. Conirostrum cinereum littorale Berlepsch and Stolzmann 

Conirostrum cinereum littorale Berlepsch and Stolzmann, P. Z. S. Lond., 1896, 
p. 336, footnote Lima (type) and Arequipa, Peru (spec, in Berlepsch 
Collection examined). 

Conirostrum cinereum Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 
8, cl. 2, p. 25, 1838 part, descr. of "female," Tacna; 1 d'Orbigny, p. 374 
part, Tacna; Cassin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 272 part, Tacna; 
Sclater (6), 1891, p. 133 Pica, Tarapaca; Lane, p. 15 Pica; E. Reed (4), 
p. 199 Tarapaca; Albert (1), 101, p. 939 northern Chile (monog.). 

Range in Chile. Extreme north, in provinces of Tarapaca and 
Tacna. 

Material collected. Tarapaca: Pica (alt. 4,000 feet), seven cf d" 
ad., two 9 9 ad., May 17, 20, 23. Tacna: Chacalluta, d" ad., 
July 16. 

Additional specimens. Tacna: Tacna, d* ad., Oct. 13, 1902. 
Otto Garlepp (Berlepsch Collection). 

Wing (male) 56-60, (female) 55; tail 46-50, (female) 43-45; bill 
9-10. 

These specimens all in fresh plumage agree in coloration and 
size with a series from the coast region of Peru, including four 
from the vicinity of Lima. 

There is considerable individual variation in the amount of 
olivaceous suffusion on the back and in the depth of the buff color 
on the under parts. The male from Chacalluta is particularly richly 
colored underneath, the tone approaching warm buff whereas the 
dullest examples two males from Pica in their grayish buff ventral 
surfaces, are exactly matched by one from Matucana, above Lima. 

C. c. littorale replaces typical C. c. cinereum on the Pacific coast 
of northern Chile and Peru as far north as Dept. Libertad, ranging 
east into the upper Maranon Valley. 2 



[Pheucticus chrysopeplus chrysogaster (Lesson), 3 erroneously credited 
to "Chile" in the original description, has never been found in that 
country, but is widely distributed in Ecuador and Peru.] 

Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, in their original description, confused the two 
recognizable southern races, regarding the differences as sexual. The characters 
of the male correspond to the dark form of Bolivia and southeastern Peru, and the 
type specimen at Paris, which no doubt served for the plate in d'Orbigny 's work, 
agrees in coloration with a series from Iquico, Illimani, Bolivia. An unsexed bird 
in the Lafresnaye Collection (No. 5,795, Mus. Comp. Zool., No. 76,710) is much 
paler above, with the crown by no means blackish, while the under parts are deep 
buff, instead of mainly grayish. It is precisely matched by some of our Chilean 
birds, and doubtless is one of the specimens taken at Tacna. 

'See Hellmayr, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 13, 1920. 

3 Pitylus chrysogaster Lesson, Cent. Zool., p. 204, pi. 67, 1832. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 51 

21. Xenospingus concolor (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) 

Sylvia concolor Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 

2, p. 20, 1837 Arica, Prov. Tacna (type in Paris Museum examined; = 

adult male); d'Orbigny, p. 216, pi. 18, fig. 1 Arica. 
Xenospingus concolor Sclater (6), 1891, p. 134 Pica, Tarapaca; Lane, p. 16 

Pica; E. Reed (4), p. 199 Tarapaca; Albert (1), 108, p. 236 Tarapaca 

and Tacna (monog.). 

Range in Chile. Extreme north, from Antofagasta to Tacna. 

Material collected. Tacna: Chacalluta, cf ad., 9 ad. (?), <? 
juv., three 9 9 juv., June 12, 14, July 16, 21. Tarapaca: Pica 
(alt. 4,000 feet), <? ad., 9 juv., May 20, 23. Antofagasta: Rio 
Loa (alt. 7,500 feet), d", April 19. 

Additional specimens. Tacna: Arica, cf ad. D'Orbigny (type 
of species; Paris Museum). 

The adult males are gray, paler below and nearly whitish along 
the middle line, and the bill is wholly yellow. The young birds 
(of both sexes) agree with Cabanis's description of that stage 1 in 
having the pileum and hind neck grayish olive; the back Saccardo's 
umber; the wings and tail feathers hair brown; edged with paler 
brown; the under parts olive-buff or deep olive-buff, heavily streaked 
with dark brown on breast and sides; the bill dusky brown. A 
female taken at Chacalluta on July 16, which has all the appearance 
of being adult, is very similar on the upper parts, but underneath 
it is much paler (about ivory yellow), with the dusky streaking 
narrower as well as less pronounced. According to Berlepsch and 
Stolzmann, 2 however, the adult female resembles the male, being 
but slightly duller gray in color. The single male from Rio Loa 
is much like the Chacalluta bird just mentioned, but has the bill 
yellow and a distinct sooty loral spot like the adult males, while 
the upper part of the head is partly gray. It is probably a bird of 
the year. 

All our specimens are in good plumage. 

This monotypic genus is peculiar to the Pacific slope of northern 
Chile and southern Peru, its altitudinal distribution ranging from 
near sea level to about 7,500 feet. It was discovered by d'Orbigny 
at Arica, and Ambrose Lane afterwards obtained five specimens at 
Pica, Tarapaca, in May, 1890. Outside of Chile, it has been reported 
from the upper Tambo Valley, Arequipa, 3 and from lea, 2 in the 
province of the same name. 

'Journ. Ornith., 15, p. 349, 1867. 
*P. Z. S. Lond., 1892, p. 376. 
P. Z. S. Lond., 1868, p. 173. 



52 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

22. Sporophila telasco (Lesson) 

Pyrrhula telasco Lesson, Voyage Coquille, Zool., 1, (2), p. 663, pi. 15, fig. 3, 
1828-30' "les environs de Lima, au Perou" (descr. of male). 

Pyrrhula alaudina Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, 
cl. 2, p. 88, 1837 Tacna, Chile (descr. of female). 

Range in Chile. Extreme northern section, in province of Tacna. 

Material examined. Tacna: Tacna, d" imm., Oct. 12, 1902; 
Asapa, near Arica, d" imm., Nov. 2, 1902. Otto Garlepp (Berlepsch 
Collection). 

Although the type cannot be found in the collection of the Paris 
Museum, the description leaves no doubt that P. alaudina had been 
based on a female without the usual rufous throat of the present 
species. Two immature males from Tacna, with brownish upper 
parts and some scattered whitish feathers in the otherwise rufous 
throat, agree with others in corresponding plumage from the Peruvian 
littoral, but have slightly longer wings (55-57, against 51-54 mm.) . 

S. telasco, which appears to be more nearly related to S. minuta 
than to any other member of the genus, ranges all over the Pacific 
littoral of Ecuador and Peru, reaching the southern limit of its 
distribution in the extreme north of Chile. 

23. Catamenia analis analis (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) 

Linaria analis Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, 
p. 83, 1837 Sicasica and Cochabamba, Bolivia (type in Paris Museum 
examined). 

Catamenia analis Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 159 Sibaya, Tarapaca. 

Range in Chile. Only once recorded from Sibaya, Cordillera of 
Tarapaca. 

We have not seen any Chilean material, but geographical con- 
siderations render it almost certain that the Tarapaca birds recorded 
by Philippi will prove to be typical C. a. analis, which is widely 
distributed throughout the Andes of Bolivia and western Argentina 
(Jujuy to Mendoza). 

24. Volatinia jacarina peruviensis (Peale) 

Geospiza peruviensis Peale, 2 U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, p. 115, 1848 between Callao 
and Lima (descr. of male and female). 

1 The plate, issued with livr. 8, was published on November 29, 1828, while 
the corresponding letter press, part of livr. 15, did not appear until April 3, 1830. 

J Geospiza peruviensis Peale long antedates Volatinia jacarini pacifica Chapman 
(Amer. Mus. Novit., 143, p. 11, 1924 Trujillo, Dept. Libertad, Peru). 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 53 

Range in Chile. Extreme northern section, in province of Tacna. 

Material collected. Tacna: Chacalluta, 9 ad., June 12. 

This is the first Chilean record of the Pacific Grassquit, which 
ranges all over the Pacific coast of Peru north to Ecuador, where 
it passes gradually into the northern V. jacarina atronitens Todd. 

25. Phrygilus 1 patagonicus Lowe 

Fringilla formosa (not of Latham, 1790) Gould in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, 
p. 93, Nov., 1839 Tierra del Fuego (the type examined in the British 
Museum is from Good Success Bay). 
Phrygilus gayi patagonicus Lowe, Ibis, (llth ser.), 5, p. 515, 1923 new name 

for Fringilla formosa Gould, preoccupied. 

Chlorospiza gayi (not Fringilla gayi Gervais) Des Murs (2), p. 355 part, 
descr. and hab. "sur de la Republica"; Philippi (12), p. 264 Valdivia; 
Landbeck (9), p. 255 restricted to the south, very rarely met with in the 
north; Lataste (1), p. CXV Ninhue, Maule. 

Phrygilus gayi Hartlaub (3), p. 214 Valdivia; E. Reed (4), p. 199 southern 
Chile; Lane, p. 16 Arauco to Chiloe; Albert (1), 108, p. 209 part, 
southern Chile; Bullock (3), p. 125 Nahuelbuta, Malleco; idem (4), p. 
190 Angol, Malleco. 

Phrygilus gay aldunatei (not of Des Murs) Housse (3), p. 226 Isla La Mocha. 
Phrygilus gayi gayi Barros (4), p. 149 Nilahue, Curico. 
Range in Chile. From Santiago to the Straits of Magellan. 
Material collected. Malleco: Rio Colorado (alt. 3,000 feet), three 
d" cT ad., 9 juv., Feb. 2, 4. Cautin: Lake Gualletue" (alt. 3,800 
feet), d" ad., Feb. 14. Chiloe": Quellon, nine cTc? ad., three 9 9 
ad., two cfcf juv., Dec. 25, 26, 28, 29, 31, Jan. 1, 2, 3, 4, 27; Rio 
Inio, cf ad., 9 ad., cf juv., Jan. 10, 15, 16. Guaitecas Islands: 
Melinka, Ascension Island, 9 ad., cf juv., Jan. 31. 

Additional specimens. Santiago: Santiago, 9 ad., Aug., 1862. 
R. A. Philippi (United States National Museum). Arauco: Maque- 
gua, 9 ad., Aug. 12, 1890. A. A. Lane. Cautin: Maquehue, 
Temuco, 9 ad., Aug. 13, 1904. D. S. Bullock. Valdivia: Corral, 
tf ad., Oct. 18, 1890. A. A. Lane (British Museum) ; Valdivia, two 
cf d" ad. ,1897. A. von Lossberg (Berlepsch Collection). Llanquihue: 
Lago Llanquihue, cf ad., Dec. 5, 1890. A. A. Lane (British Museum) ; 
Desague, near Puerto Montt, three d" cf ad., 9 ad., Aug. 20, 28, 
Sept. 8, 1895. G. Hopke (Berlepsch Collection). 

The full-plumaged males exhibit, regardless of locality, a great 
amount of individual variation in the color of the upper parts. The 

1 As to the limits of the genus, see Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 
405, 1926. 



54 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

most richly-colored specimens have the anterior and middle back 
plain orange chestnut or tawny (only the scapulars olive green), 
strongly contrasted with the yellow ocher rump. In others, the 
feathers of this rufous area are apically edged with greenish to a 
varying degree, and the rump is somewhat duller, nearer aniline 
yellow; in others again the back is mainly citrine, with slight touches 
of dull tawny here and there, and the rump still duller, approaching 
sulphine yellow. The intensity of the yellow underneath is likewise 
variable, ranging from aniline yellow in the darkest to amber yellow, 
laterally deepening into wax yellow, in the palest examples. The 
throat, foreneck, and cheeks are dark gull gray, the pileum decidedly 
darker, slate gray. 

The adult female may be recognized by slightly smaller size; 
markedly paler gray head, with distinct blackish streaks on pileum 
and malar region; duller yellow under parts; and uniform citrine or 
dark citrine back, without trace of tawny suffusion, the rump being 
but little more yellowish than the mantle. 

The juvenile plumage represented in the series by both sexes 
is bright yellow (amber or wax yellow) underneath; the throat paler 
and sometimes variegated with grayish, laterally bordered by a 
distinct dusky malar stripe; the chest and sides tinged with aniline 
yellow; the foreneck streaked with blackish ; the cheeks and auriculars 
pale gray; the upper parts more brownish than in the adult female; 
the forepart of the pileum only dull slate gray. It is well figured 
on the plate facing p. 52 in Crawshay's "Birds of Tierra del Fuego" 
s. n. P. gayi, and differs widely from the young of the larger species, 
which I consider to be entitled to Gervais' name. 

Careful comparison of the Chilean material with thirty-five speci- 
mens, including the type, from the Straits of Magellan and Tierra 
del Fuego, demonstrates their absolute identity, the variation in the 
color of the upper parts in the adult male being exactly the same in 
the two series. 

It seems to be premature to treat P. patagonicus as a subspecies 
of P. gayi. Apart from the fundamental differences between the two 
birds in the coloration of the adult female and juvenile plumage, 
it is quite possible that their breeding ranges overlap on the Argen- 
tine slope of the southern section of the Andes, although in Chile 
they appear to represent each other geographically. A series of 
breeding birds, including two in juvenile plumage, from Bariloche, 
Lake Nahuel Huapi, typically represent P. patagonicus, being indis- 
tinguishable from South Chilean and Magellanic specimens; while 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 55 

six skins in worn breeding plumage from the Andes west of Mendoza 
(Puente del Inca, December) and a dozen from Huanuluan, Rio 
Negro, are as clearly referable to the larger, white-bellied species 
(P. gayi). The late J. Koslowsky secured series of both in the Valle 
del Lago Blanco, western Chubut, between September and November, 
though in this case no unquestionable breeding birds were obtained. 

In Chile, P. patagonicus as a breeding bird is evidently confined 
to the southern provinces, although the exact limits of its nesting 
range can hardly be defined at present. According to Landbeck, 
it is very common around Valdivia from April to October, though 
it was never found breeding, and appears but rarely in small numbers 
in the northern parts of Chile, probably as a winter visitor. The 
United States National Museum has an adult bird from Santiago, 
August, 1862, received from R. A. Philippi, and Lataste shot a 
specimen in the latter half of September, 1893, at Ninhue, Dept. 
Itata, Maule. Barros states that the "Chanchito," while fairly rare, 
may be seen in small flocks, chiefly in winter and spring, in the 
Nilahue Valley, Curico, where, however, a few pairs stay to breed. 
Bullock lists it as an irregular winter visitor for Angol, Malleco, 
while Sanborn obtained apparently breeding adults and a full-grown 
young bird at Rio Colorado, in the hills of the same province. It 
undoubtedly breeds on Chiloe" Island, whence we received a con- 
siderable series in various plumages, and thence down to the Straits 
of Magellan. 

According to Lane, the favorite haunts of these birds are the sides 
of ravines or abrupt hollows, covered with thick bush of seed-bearing 
nature, and small cliffs covered with creepers. They do not occur 
on open stretches, but are often numerous in partially cleared 
localities, where coppice has taken the place of the large timber 
previously cut down or burned. In call-note, song, and habits they 
are said to resemble their northern ally (P. g. gayi). 

MEASUREMENTS 

Adult males Wing Tail 

Seventeen from Chile proper 75-82 56-63 

Fourteen from Straits of Magellan 77-85 57-67 

Two from Tierra del Fuego 80, 84 63, 67 

Four from Nahuel Huapi 76-82 62 

Adult females 

Six from Chile proper 72-75 54-61 

Two from Straits of Magellan 74, 76 53, 59 

Three from Nahuel Huapi 72-76 55-57 



56 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

26. Phrygilus gayi gayi (Gervais) 

Fringilla Gayi [Eydoux and] Gervais, 1 Mag. ZooL, 4, cl. 2, pi. 23, 1834 
Chile; Eydoux and Gervais, Voyage Favorite, ZooL, 5, (2), p. 46, 1839 
Valparaiso; Bridges, p. 94 Chile, between 34 and 35, near the summit 
of the Andes; Fraser (1), 1843, p. 113 Chile, in winter on the coast. 

Chlorospiza aldunatei Des Murs in Gay, Hist. fis. pol. Chile, ZooL, 1, p. 356, 
1847 part, Chile; Philippi (12), p. 264 central and northern provinces; 
Landbeck (9), p. 256 vicinity of Santiago; Gigoux, p. 84 Caldera. 

Phrygilus gayi Bibra, p. 130 Valparaiso; Cassin, p. 180; Pelzeln (2), p. 93; 
Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 322, 337 Chile; Salvin (2), p. 421 Coquimbo; 
Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 10, p. 431, 1887 Santiago (monog.); 
Albert (1), 108, p. 209 part, northern Chile. 

Phrygilus aldonatii [sic] E. Reed (2), p. 543 Bafios de Cauquenes, Colchagua. 
Phrygilus gayi gayi Lowe, Ibis, 1923, p. 514 Chile and Patagonia (crit.). 

Phrygilus gayi aldunatei Barros (5), p. 189 Cordillera of Aconcagua; Mousse 
(2), p. 147 San Bernardo, Santiago. 

Phrygilus aldunatei E. Reed (4), p. 199 northern Chile; Jaffuel and Pirion, 
p. 109 Marga-Marga Valley, Valparaiso. 

Chlorospiza gayi Gigoux, p. 84 Caldera, Atacama. 

Range in Chile. From Atacama to Colchagua. 

Material collected. Atacama: Caldera, two cTcf ad., two cf cf 
imm., June 8, 1924. E. Gigoux; 9 ad., Aug. 29; Domeyko, two 
cTcT imm., Aug. 9, 16. Coquimbo: Paiguano, cf imm., 9 ad., 
June 14, 15; Balala, Rio Turbio (alt. 4,850 feet), <? ad., Nov. 7; 

1 There has been considerable controversy about the identification of F. gayi 
of Gervais. Sharpe (Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 781, 1888) referred it to the smaller 
southern species, in which the sexes differ but little inter se, and was followed in 
this course by Peters (Bull. Mus. Comp. ZooL, 65, p. 334, 1923), while other 
authors like Ridgway (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 10, p. 431, 1887) and Lowe (Ibis, 
1923, p. 514) unhesitatingly applied the name to the larger yellow-backed, white- 
vented species with striking sexual dimorphism, which breeds in the Temperate 
Zone of central Chile. Sclater and Salvin (Ibis, 1869, p. 285) pretend having 
examined the "type" of F. gayi, but as pointed out by Oustalet (Miss. Sci. Cap 
Horn, 6, ZooL, p. B 85, 1891) this specimen is not, and apparently never was, in 
the collection of the Paris Museum, and my own researches in the French National 
Museum fully corroborate his contention. The above-mentioned authors appear 
to have mistaken for the type one of the specimens presented by C. Gay posterior 
to the publication of Gervais' account. Both description and figure are rather 
ambiguous. The general coloration of the plate, which represents the dorsal and 
ventral surfaces of the bird about the same shade of yellow, and the absence of 
any allusion to a brighter rump-patch point to the larger (northern) species, 
whereas the restriction of the white to the under tail coverts speaks rather for the 
smaller form (P. patagonicus). The type was shot by Eydoux, naturalist of the 
"Favorite," in Chile, no locality being specified in the original description. Several 
years later, however, Eydoux and Gervais, in their report on the zoological collec- 
tions of the "Favorite," definitely state that "les individus proviennent de Val- 
paraiso," where the larger species is much more likely to be met with, and call 
the "ventre blanchStre," thus modifying the original account. In the face of 
these facts I am inclined to refer F. gayi, in agreement with Ridgway and Lowe, 
to the larger central Chilean form, afterwards named C. aldunatei by Des Murs. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 57 

Banos del Toro (alt. 10,600 feet), four 0*0? ad., Nov. 10, 19. 
Aconcagua: Los Andes (alt. 1,800 feet), <f ad., Aug. 19; Rio Blanco, 

9 ad., Oct. 18, 1924. R. Barros. 

Additional specimens. Coquimbo: Coquimbo, cf ad., Nov., 1881. 
A. H. Markham (British Museum). Santiago: Santiago, cf ad., 

9 ad., June and August, 1864. R. Philippi; cf imm., 9 ad., July, 
1872. E. C. Reed (United States National Museum and Paris 
Museum). Chile (unspecified): twelve cfc? ad., three (sex unde- 
termined). H. Berkeley James Coll. (British Museum). 

In opposition to what obtains in P. patagonicus, adult males of 
the present species exhibit very little variation, those in worn plumage 
being brighter and more yellowish above than immediately after 
the annual molt. Regardless of locality, the olive-green jugular 
band, separating the bluish gray head from the yellow breast, is 
either well developed or barely suggested. Birds from Atacama 
average somewhat smaller, but one from Coquimbo, collected by 
Sir Markham, is hardly larger. The female of this species is quite 
different from the male and cannot be confused with that of P. 
patagonicus, from which it is readily distinguished by its much 
paler, less bluish, though similarly streaked pileum; an indistinct 
whitish postocular streak; paler (less bluish) gray sides of the head; 
whitish throat, medially often variegated with dusky; dull orange 
breast, with slight grayish apical edges to the feathers; and brownish 
buff abdomen, more whitish along the middle line. Besides, the 
back is not so greenish, orange citrine rather than dark citrine, 
the ground color being obscured by grayish margins, and the larger 
upper wing coverts are hair brown, tipped with buffy or dingy 
whitish, instead of being uniform bluish gray. There are also a 
number of specimens marked as "male" in this plumage, which 
I take to be birds of the year. Two from Caldera, including one 
"male," and a female from central Chile are almost uniform grayish 
above, with just a faint greenish tinge in the middle of the back, 
and the orange pectoral area is but slightly suggested. 

P. g. gayi breeds in the Cordilleras of central Chile at altitudes 
from 4,800 to 11,000 feet. The specimens taken by Sanborn in 
November at Balala, Rio Turbio, and Banos del Toro, Coquimbo, 
are in worn breeding plumage. According to Landbeck, it breeds 
in the Cordillera of Santiago, and Barros reports it as nesting in 
the Andes of Aconcagua. After the nesting season, it starts on its 
downward migration and may then be met with in the foothills 
and even along the coast at Valparaiso, Coquimbo, and Caldera. 



58 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 



Birds from the Argentine slope of the Andes (Lara, Tucuman; 
Fuerte de Andalgala, Catamarca; Puente del Inca, Mendoza; 
Huanuluan, Rio Negro) are similar in coloration, but average larger 
and have, as a rule, a somewhat heavier, longer bill. 

If deemed worthy of separation, they have to be called P. gayi 
caniceps Burmeister. 1 The types which, thanks to the courtesy of 
Professor Briihl, I have been enabled to examine, are birds in female 
plumage and agree with a series from other Argentine localities. 
P. gayi koslowskii Lowe, 2 the original series of which I have carefully 
compared in the British Museum, proves to have been based upon 
freshly molted individuals of the same form. 

MEASUREMENTS OF ADULT MALES 



Two from Caldera, Atacama 
One from Balala, Coquimbo 
Four from Bafios del Toro, 
Coquimbo 

One from Coquimbo 

One from Los Andes, Aconcagua 

One from Santiago 

Six from "Central Chile" 

One from Lara, Tucuman 

One from Colalao del Valle, 

Tucuman 
One from Fuerte de Andalgala, 

Catamarca 

Two from near Mendoza 
Three from Inca, Mendoza 
Six from Huanuluan, Rio Negro 

Two from Maquinchao, Rio Negro 
Six from Valle del Lago Blanco, 
Chubut 



Wing 

82,84 
89 

88,90, 

91,92 

84 

85 

89 

85,87,87,88,* 

93 

92 

90 

90,95 

93,94,94^ 

91,95,96, 

96,97,98 

93,94 

91^,93,94, 
94,94,96 



Tail 


Bill 


60,62 


13,133^ 


64 


13 


64,67, 


12H.13, 


69,69 


13,13^ 


61 


12 J^ 


61 


14 


68^ 


12 


70 


15 


68 


14 


65 


14 


64,69 


13,13 


70,70,71 


13,133414 


64,70,70, 


12,13,13, 


70,71,72 


13,133^,14 


68,68 


14,15 


69(five), 


13^,14,14, 


70 


14,14,15 



27. Phrygilus gayi atriceps (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) 

Emberiza atriceps Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 
2, p. 76, 1837 "in Peruvia, in summis Andibus, prope Tacora," =Tacora, 
Prov. Tacna (type in Paris Museum examined) ; Philippi, Reise Atacama, 
pp. 81, 162 "Pugios" [=Puquios, alt. 10,800 feet, n. e. of Copiapo], 
Atacama. 

Phrygilus atriceps Sclater (4), 1886, p. 397 Sacaya and "Llalcalhuay," 
Tarapaca; idem (6), 1891, p. 133 Sacaya, Tarapaca; Lane, p. 17 Sacaya 
and Huasco, Cordillera of Tarapaca; E. Reed (4), p. 199 Chile; Albert 
(1), 108, p. 211 Tarapaca and Tacna (monog.). 

Chlorospiza atriceps Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 159, 1888 Antofagasta. 

1 Journ. Orn., 8, p. 256, 1860 Mendoza (types in Halle Museum examined). 
'Ibis, (llth ser.), 5, p. 515, 1923 Valle del Lago Blanco, western Chubut. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 59 

Range in Chile. Puna Zone of northern Chile, in provinces of 
Tacna, Tarapaca, Antofagasta, and Atacama (Puquios). 

Material collected. Tacna: Putre (alt. 11,600 feet), d* ad., 
July 8. Antofagasta: Ojo de San Pedro (alt. 12,400 feet), d" ad., 
May 2; twenty miles east of San Pedro (alt. 12,600 feet), d 1 ad., 
d" imm., d" juv., 9 ad., April 28, 30, Oct. 10; Rio Inacaliri (alt. 
12,800 feet), twenty-eight miles east of San Pedro, cf [?= 9 ad.], 
April 25. 

Additional specimens. Tacna: Tacora [labeled "Cordiltere du 
P4rou"j, cf ad. (type of species). D'Orbigny (Paris Museum). 
Tarapaca: Sacaya, d 1 ad., Feb. 8, 1886. C. Rahmer; two d" tf 1 ad., 
March 29, April 2, 1890. A. A. Lane; Huasco, d" ad., Jan. 20, 
1890. A. A. Lane; "Iquique," d" ad. H. Rowland (British Museum). 

Adult males are well characterized by their uniform deep black 
head. Females have the pileum from deep to dark mouse gray 
streaked with black, while the throat and sides of the head are 
blackish mouse gray, the feathers of the former being sometimes 
edged with pale grayish. Birds without any black on the head or 
bright yellow on the rump, with buffy edges to inner secondaries 
and upper wing coverts and buffy or brownish, more or less blackish 
streaked throat obviously represent an immature stage, possibly 
even the juvenile plumage. 

The Black-headed Phrygilus, while sharply separated from P. g. 
gayi, of central Chile, is connected with the plumbeous-headed group, 
through P. g. punensis, of northwestern Bolivia. 1 This form, of 
which I have seen a good series from La Paz, Iquico (Illimani), 
Tilotilo (type of P. saturatus Sharpe), and Lake Titicaca, has the 
head just a trifle darker than P. g. chloronotus, of central and northern 
Peru, but approaches P. g. atriceps by its bright orange brown or 
tawny upper back. 

P. gayi atriceps, originally based upon an adult male from Tacora, 
Tacna, ranges all over the Cordilleras of northern Chile south to 
Puquios, inland of Copiapo, Atacama, where it was met with by 
Philippi many years ago. Specimens from extreme southwestern 
Peru (Arequipa and Chihuata) in the British Museum and an adult 
male from Sajama, Oruro, Bolivia, in the Berlepsch Collection are 
precisely similar to the Chilean series. Birds from the central parts 
of Bolivia (Vacas, Prov. Mizque; El Cabrada, Chuquisaca; Potosi) 

1 Allen's record (Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 83, 1889) of this form from 
"Valparaiso" is, of course, based on a wrongly labeled specimen in the Rusby 
collection. 



60 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

and northwestern Argentina (Antofagasta, Los Andes; Maimara, 
Angosta Perchela, 1 and Tilcara, 1 Jujuy), on the other hand, have 
generally longer bills, though the various individuals are not 
distinguishable. 

In Argentina, the black-headed form is clearly restricted to the 
extreme northwestern section. L. Dinelli and E. Budin secured 
specimens at various places in Jujuy; Lonnberg 2 records it from 
Moreno in the Puna region of the same province; and J. Mogensen 
sent a female from Antofagasta, Los Andes, to Field Museum. It 
evidently does not go much farther south, for birds in breeding 
plumage taken by G. A. Baer at Lara, Tucuman, and others collected 
by E. W. White at Fuerte de Andalgala, Catamarca, belong to the 
gray-headed, olive-backed P. g. gayi (see p. 56). 

Like its northern allies, P. g. atriceps is only found in the Puna 
Zone, from 8,000 feet upwards. 

MEASUREMENTS OF ADULT MALES 

Wing Tail Bill 

One from Tacora, Tacna (the type) 98 70 15 

One from Putre, Tacna 92 68 14 

Two from near San Pedro, Antofagasta 94,99 67,74 

Four from Cordillera of Tarapacd 95,97, 67,69, 13,13 1 A 

97,98 70,73 13^,15 

One from Arequipa, Peru 90 67 13 

One from Sajama, Oruro, Bolivia 73 13 Y z 

One from Vacas, Mizque, Bolivia 96 1 A 72 ^ 15 

Two from El Cabrada, Chuquisaca 96,98 71,77 15^,16 

One from Maimara, Jujuy 90 67 16 

Two from Angosta Perchela, Jujuy 94,94 67,70 15,16 

One from Tilcara, Jujuy 95 72 16 

28. Phrygilus unicolor unicolor (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) 

Emberiza unicolor Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, 
cl. 2, p. 79, 1837 "La Cordilliere du Tacora (P6rou), pampa d'Oruro, 
Bolivie"; we accept Tacora, Prov. Tacna, as type locality (type lost, 
formerly in Paris Museum). 

Chlorospiza plumbea Philippi and Landbeck, Arch. Naturg., 30, (1), p. 47, 
1864 Cerro de San Cristobal, Las Aranas, Valle Larga, "Yceba" [ = Yerba] 
Loca, etc., Prov. Santiago and Cordillera de la Hacienda la Puerta, Prov. 
Colchagua; Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 24, p. 341, 1864 same localities; 
Philippi (12), p. 265 Santiago, Colchagua; Landbeck (9), p. 257 Prov. 
Santiago and Colchagua; Philippi (24), p. 59, pi. 25, figs. 1, 2. 

Phrygilus unicolor Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 322, 337 Cordillera of Santiago 
(crit.); E. Reed (2), p. 544 Cordillera of Colchagua; Sclater (4), 1886, 

Erroneously quoted as "Tucuman, 2,470 a 2,550 metr. (Dinelli)" by Hartert 
and Venturi (Nov. Zool., 16, p. 181, 1909). 

2 Ibis, 1903, p. 451. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 61 

p. 397 Huasco, Tarapaca; Lane, p. 18 Huasco; E. Reed (4), p. 199 
Chile; Albert (1), 108, p. 218 Cordilleras of Chile (monog.); Barros (5), 
p. 190 Cordillera of Aconcagua (alt. 1,570 to 3,300 meters); Housse 
(2), p. 147 San Bernardo, Santiago. 

Phrygilus unicolor plumbea Barros (8), p. 139 Cordillera of Aconcagua. 

Range in Chile. Puna Zone of the Andes from Tacna south 
to the Straits of Magellan. 

Material collected. Tacna: Choquelimpie (alt. 15,000 feet), cf 
ad., 9 ad., June 21. Antofagasta: twenty miles east of San Pedro 
(alt. 12,600 feet), six cf cf 1 ad., one 9 ad., three c? cf juv., one 9 
juv., April 26, 30; October 4, 5, 10. Coquimbo: Banos del Toro 
(alt. 10,600 feet), <? ad., two 9 9 juv., November 15, 17, 19. 

Additional specimens. Aconcagua: Cajon del Rio Blanco (alt. 
2,200 meters), two <? cf ad., Oct. 15, 1920; Valle de los Piuquenes, 
Vega Redonda (alt. 2,100 meters), 9 juv., Dec. 23, 1920. R. Barros 
(American Museum of Natural History, New York) ; Guardia Vieja 
(alt. 1,550 meters), d* juv., Nov. 7, 1924. R. Barros (Field Museum). 
Santiago: Cordillera de Santiago, c? ad. L. Landbeck (British 
Museum). 

Measurements. d 1 ad. wing 91-94; tail 66-70; bill 10^-11. 
9 ad. wing 90, 91; tail 64, 66; bill 10^, 11. 
tf juv. wing 87-92; tail 61-66; bill 10^-11. 
9 juv. wing 85-89; tail 62-65; bill 10-12. 

Chapman 1 and Wetmore, 2 when reviewing the geographic races 
of the Plumbeous Phrygilus, called the pale Chilean form P. u. 
plumbeus, using the name P. u. unicolor for the small deeply colored 
birds of the Peruvian highlands. 

E. unicolor, however, was originally based upon specimens from 
the Cordillera of Tacora, province of Tacna, and the plateau of 
Oruro, in the adjoining section of Bolivia. The types no longer 
exist in the Paris Museum nor are there any specimens in the Lafre- 
snaye Collection at Cambridge (Mass.) that could possibly be d'Or- 
bigny's originals. Although no material is available from Oruro, it 
may fairly be assumed that the birds found in that part of Bolivia 
are the same as those from the neighboring section of Tacna. On 
the other hand, there are amongst the series collected by Mr. Sanborn 
two adults from Choquelimpie, above Tacna, which are virtually 
topotypes of E. unicolor, if we accept d'Orbigny's first locality 
Cordillera of Tacora as terra typica. These agree in every detail 

1 Amer. Mus. Novit., 160, pp. 4-5, 1925. 
Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, pp. 460-461, 1926. 



62 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

with skins from other parts of Chile, including a number from 
Aconcagua and Santiago (C. plumbea). It thus results that E. 
unicolor is strictly referable to the pale Chilean form, C. plumbea 
becoming a synonym. The small, dark Peruvian representative has, 
accordingly, been separated by Mr. Zimmer as P. u. inca. 1 

The plumages of this finch do not appear to have been properly 
understood hitherto. The adult female is closely similar to the male, 
viz. light neutral gray above, somewhat paler below, and merely 
differs by having dusky centers to the feathers of the mantle and 
faint dusky streaks on the sides of the breast. The birds with 
pale brownish, black-spotted upper parts, buffy edges to wing 
coverts and quills, and whitish broadly dusky-striped ventral sur- 
face obviously represent the juvenile plumage. The same conditions 
prevail in the Peruvian race of which a series of nearly twenty 
properly sexed specimens has been examined. The subject will be 
more fully discussed by Mr. Zimmer in one of his forthcoming 
papers. Specimens taken from October to December are in more 
or less worn plumage, while those secured in April and June (in 
Antofagasta and Tacna) have just completed their annual molt. 

P. u. unicolor is the palest of the numerous races of this group 
and can hardly be confused with any other except P. u. tucumanus 
Chapman, 2 which, in addition to rather smaller size, differs by 
slightly darker coloration, less whitish abdomen, and narrower white 
edges to the under tail coverts in the gray (adult), and somewhat 
broader streaking below in the striped (juvenile) dress. A series 
from various localities in the Bolivian Department of Cochabamba, 
courteously loaned by the Carnegie Museum, agrees well with 
twenty skins from Las Pavas, Tucuman, in the collection of Field 
Museum. 

P. u. unicolor is an inhabitant of the Puna Zone. It nests in 
the Cordilleras between 6,000 and 15,000 feet, but descends to lower 
altitudes after the breeding season. Examples from the extreme 
south of its range, Tierra del Fuego and Straits of Magellan, average 
slightly larger than those from Chile proper. 

29. Phrygilus alaudinus alaudinus (Kittlitz) 

Fringilla alaudina Kittlitz, Kupfert. Naturg. Vog., Part 2, p. 18, pi. 23, fig. 2, 
1832 Chile = Valparaiso (see Chrostowski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. 
Nat., 1, p. 20, 1921 type in Leningrad Museum); Darwin, p. 94 Val- 

'Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 88, 1929 mountains near Huanuco, Peru. 
*Amer. Mus. Novit., 160, p. 4, 1925 above Tafi del Valle, Tucuman. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 63 

paraiso; Fraser (1), p. 112 Chile (breeding habits); Kittlitz (3), pp. 135, 
178 Valparaiso and Quillota. 

Emberiza guttata Meyen, Nov. Act. Acad. Leop. Carol., 16, Suppl., p. 85, pi. 
12, fig. 1, 1834 Santiago. 

Fringilla (Niphaea) laciniata Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, p. 121, 1848 Valpa- 
raiso, Chile. 

Chlorospiza alaudina Des Murs (2), p. 357; Germain, p. 312 Santiago (breed- 
ing habits); Philippi (12), p. 265 central provinces; Landbeck (9), p. 
257 on the seacoast mountains at Llico, Curic6; E. Reed (2), p. 544 
Cauquenes, Colchagua; Lataste (1), p. CXV Ninhue, Maule; idem (4), 
p. XXXIV Cerro de las Lajuelas, Curic6; idem (5), p. LXII Llohue, 
Maule; Waugh and Lataste (2), p. CLXXII San Alfonso, Quillota; 
Gigoux, p. 86 Caldera, Atacama. 

Phrygilus alaudinus Pelzeln (2), p. 93 Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 322, 337 
Chile; Salvin (2), p. 421 Coquimbo; E. Reed (2), p. 200 Chile; Lane, 
p. 18 Vina del Mar (Valparaiso) and Coronel (Arauco); Allen, p. 83 
Valparaiso; Albert (1), 108, p. 220 Chile (monog.); Barros (4), p. 149 
Nilahue, Curicd; idem (5), p. 190 Cordillera of Aconcagua; Housse (2), 
p. 148 San Bernardo; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 110 Marga-Marga, Valpa- 
raiso; Bullock (4), p. 190 Angol, Malleco. 

Phrygilus alaudinus alaudinus Wetmore (3), p. 407 Concon. 

Range in Chile. From Atacama to Cautin. 

Material collected. Atacama: Ramadilla, Copiapo Valley, 9 
ad., Aug. 22; Domeyko, c? ad., 9 ad., Aug. 10, 16. Coquimbo: 
La Compania, d" ad., Oct. 31; Tambillos, cf (first annual), July 8; 
Romero, 9 ad., July 30; Paiguano, two cf cf ad., 9 ad., June 19, 
25. Valparaiso: Olmue", c? (first annual), June 1. Cautin: Rio 
Lolen, Lonquimai Valley (alt. 3,600 feet), cf ad. (in worn breeding 
plumage), Feb. 12. 

Very little is known about the breeding range of this species, 
though from published records the center of its distribution would 
seem to lie between Coquimbo and Curico. Barros found it a 
common resident at Nilahue, in the last-named province, and San- 
born obtained a breeding male even farther south, near Rio Lolen, 
in the Lonquimai Valley, Cautin. In Aconcagua, according to 
Barros, it inhabits the Precordillera and the Cordillera up to 1,650 
meters, but descends in the fall to lower altitudes and the coastal 
plains. The male taken by Sanborn at La Compania, Coquimbo, 
being in worn breeding garb, tends to indicate that the species at 
least, occasionally breeds near the coast. 

It seems doubtful whether P. a. alaudinus is found anywhere 
outside of Chile, since birds from western Bolivia that have been 
referred to it are more likely to belong to the larger P. a. venturii 



64 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Hartert, 1 of western Argentina. In Peru and Ecuador it is repre- 
sented by the very distinct P. a. bipartitus Zimmer. 2 

30. Phrygilus plebejus plebejus Tschudi 

Phrygilus pkbejus Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 290, 1884 Peru. 

Phrygilus plebeius Sclater (4), 1886, p. 397 Huasco, Sitani, and "Lalcalhuay," 
Tarapaca; E. Reed (4), p. 200 Tarapaca; Albert (1), 108, p. 222 
Tarapaca and Tacna (monog.). 

Range in Chile. Northern provinces, from Antofagasta north- 
wards, at high elevations (Puna Zone). 

Material collected. Antofagasta: twenty miles east of San Pedro 
(alt. 12,600 feet), two <? cf ad., Oct. 9, 11. 

The specimens agree with a series from Peru and Argentina 
(Maimara, Jujuy; Laguna Blanca, Catamarca). 

This species has a wide range throughout the Puna Zone of Peru, 
Bolivia, and western Argentina, down to Mendoza. Within Chile, 
it has previously been found by Carlos Rahmer in the Cordillera 
of Tarapaca. It is apparently absent from the central and southern 
provinces. 

31. Phrygilus fruticeti fruticeti (Kittlitz) 

Fringilla fruticeti Kittlitz, Kupfert. Naturg. Vog., Part 2, p. 18, pi. 23, fig. 1, 
1832 Valparaiso, Chile; Darwin, p. 94 northern Chile [=Coquimbo] 
and Cordillera of central Chile; Eraser (1), p. 113= Chile; Kittlitz (3), 
p. 154 near Valparaiso. 

Fringilla erythrorhyncha Lesson, L'Institut, 2, No. 72, p. 317, 1834 Coquimbo; 
idem in Bougainville, Journ. Navig. Th6tis, 2, p. 324, 1837 Coquimbo. 

Emberiza luctuosa Eydoux et Gervais, Mag. Zool., 6, cl. 2, p. 24, pi. 71, 1836 
Chile; idem, Voyage Favorite, 5, (2), p. 50, pi. 19, 1839 Chile; Bridges, 
p. 94 Chile, lat. 34-35. 

Chlorospiza fruticeti Des Murs (2), p. 357; Philippi (12), p. 264; Landbeck 
(9), p. 256 Chile, up to 12,000 feet; E. Reed (2), p. 543 Cauquenes, 
Colchagua; Philippi (15), p. 159 Sibaya (Tarapaca) and Antofagasta; 
Lataste (1), p. CXV Ninhue, Maule; Waugh and Lataste (2), p. CLXXII 
San Alfonso, Quillota; Lataste (11), p. 170 Santa Teresa; Gigoux, 
p. 86 Caldera, Atacama. 

Emberiza carbonaria (not of Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Bibra, p. 130 
Cordillera [of Santiago]. 

Chlorospiza erythrorrhyncha Philippi (8), Reise, p. 162 Miguel Diaz, 
Antofagasta. 

Nov. Zool., 16, p. 180, 1909 Lagunita, Tucuman. 

1 Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Sen, 12, p. 61, 1924 Cajamarca, Peru. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 65 

Phrygilu* fruticeti Pelzeln (2), p. 93 Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 322, 337 
Chile; Sharpe, p. 7 Coquimbo; Sclater (4), p. 397 Sibaya, Tarapac&; 
Allen, p. 83 near Valparaiso; Albert (1), 108, p. 216 Chile (monog.); 
Schalow (2), p. 724 Ovalle, Coquimbo; Barros (4), p. 149 Nilahue, 
Curico; idem (5), p. 190 Cordillera of Aconcagua; Housse (2), p. 147 
San Bernardo; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 110 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso; 
Barros (10), p. 363 Aconcagua. 

Phrygiliis coracinus Sclater, P. Z. S. Lond., 1891, p. 133, pi. 13 eight leagues 
from Sacaya, Tarapacd; Lane, p. 18 near Sacaya; E. Reed (4), p. 200 
Tarapaca (ex Sclater). 

Range in Chile. From Tacna to Curico. 

Material collected. Tacna: Putre (alt. 11,600 feet), three cf cf 
ad., two 9 9 ad., June 19, July 3, 8. Atacama: Domeyko, cf ad., 
9 ad., Aug. 14, 15. Coquimbo: La Compaiiia, cf (first annual), 
Oct. 31; Romero, cf (first annual), two 9 9, July 11, 18, 30. 
Valparaiso: Olmue", four cf cf (first annual), two 9 9 , May 27, 28, 
31, June 1, 2, 3. Santiago: Lampa, cf ad., 9 ad., May 12. O'Hig- 
gins: near Sewell, cf (first annual), May 3. 

Additional specimens. Tarapaca: Estancia eight leagues north- 
east of Sacaya, two cf cf ad. (including the type of P. coracinus), 
March 20, 1890. A. Lane; Sibaya, cf ad., Jan. 9, 1886. C. Rahmer; 
"Iquique," cf ad. H. Rowland. Coquimbo: Coquimbo, cf ad., 
Aug. 25, 1879. R. W. Coppinger (all in the British Museum). 

I am unable to make out any geographic variation among Chilean 
birds, either in size or color. The two skins from the Cordillera of 
Tarapaca (eight leagues northeast of Sacaya) described by Sclater 
as P. coracinus turn out to be merely unusually dark males of 
P. /. fruticeti in exceedingly worn plumage. 1 While identical in 
dimensions and structure with males from other localities, they 
have more black on the under parts than any other specimen we 
have seen. The type, No. 201, A. A. Lane Collection, has the entire 
sides of the head and neck as well as the under parts down to the 
middle of the abdomen uniform black, the feathers of the flanks 
being broadly edged with slate gray; the anal region grayish white, 
with dark gray central spots; the under tail coverts black, broadly 
margined all around with white; the axillaries and under wing coverts 
black like the breast. A second specimen taken in the same locality 
on the same day (No. 200, A. A. Lane), however, shows some gray 
spots on the sides of the neck; the black underneath is less extensive, 
leaving a much larger abdominal area white, and is strongly inter- 

1 The figure in the P. Z. S. Lond., 1891, pi. 13, is utterly misleading. It conveys 
quite a wrong impression as to the bird's size and general appearance. 



66 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

mixed with slate gray on the flanks, while the under tail coverts 
are mostly white, as in fruticeti. Both specimens are worn to such 
a degree that the gray lateral edges on the mantle and the white 
apical spots of the wing coverts have almost completely disappeared. 
In the type the black color even predominates on the rump, which, 
in the other example, is mainly slate gray as in fruticeti, though 
slightly mottled with black. An adult male (in somewhat better 
plumage) collected by P. 0. Simons at Pampa Olliaga, Dept. Oruro, 
Bolivia, 67 W. 19 3' S. (alt. 3,700 meters), on October 19, 1901, is 
very similar to A. Lane's No. 200, but approaches the normal type 
of P. fruticeti by having brownish edges to the dorsal feathers and 
inner secondaries, and much more gray on rump and upper tail 
coverts. On the other hand, an adult male secured by Carlos Rahmer 
at Sibaya, Tarapaca, hence close to the type locality of P. coracinus, 
on January 9, 1886, as well as one from Potosi (alt. 4,400 meters), 
Bolivia, taken by P. O. Simons on September 27, 1901, and Sanborn's 
series from Putre, Tacna, all of which, on geographical grounds, 
ought to belong to P. coracinus, do not differ in the least from 
fruticeti, of central Chile. 

P. f. fruticeti thus appears to range from Tacna and western 
Bolivia (Oruro, Potosi) all over northern and central Chile south 
at least to Curico. It breeds in the Cordilleras, from 5,000 up to 
15,000 feet, descending during the cold season to lower altitudes 
and even to the seacoast. This finch is also widely distributed in 
the Argentine Andes, from Tucuman and Catamarca down to Pata- 
gonia. A series from western Neuquen (Sierra de la Angostura; 
Paso Limay; Rio Traful) and others from Patagonia (Chubut) 
agree with those from Chile. 

P. /. peruvianus Zimmer, 1 of Peru and extreme northern Bolivia 
(La Paz) is constantly smaller, and the adult males in fresh plumage 
are more broadly streaked with black above. 

MEASUREMENTS OF ADULT MALES 

P. fruticeti fruticeti Wing Tail 

Three from Putre, Tacna 98,101,101 84,86,87 

One from Oruro, Bolivia 105 82 

Two from near Sacaya, Tarapaca 2 102,105 83,87 

One from Sibaya, Tarapacd 98 81 

One from "Iquique," Tarapaca 103 84 

One from Potosi, Bolivia 105 82 

One from Domeyko, Atacama 101 84 

1 Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 63, 1924 Matucana, Dept. Lima, 
Peru. 

8 Including the type of P. coracinus Scl. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 67 

P. fruticeti fruticeti Wing Tail 

One from Coquimbo 101 85 

One from Lampa, Santiago 98 80 

One from Laguna Blanca, Catamarca 105 84 

One from Puente del Inca, Mendoza 102 85 
Six from western Neuquen 98,98,99,99, 79-83 

100,102 

One from Chubut 99 78 

One from Rio Negro 101 82 

P. fruticeti peruvianus 

Three from Cajamarca, Peru 92,94,95 74,76,78 

Four from Macate, Ancachs 90,94,95,95 76,78,78,79 

Two from Cullcui, Maranon River 94,94 76,78 

Four from Surco, Lima 92,95,96,98 78,80,80,84 

Three from above Lima 94,96,97 80,80,81 

Four from Matucana, Lima 94,94,96,98 73,74,76, 

Two from Arequipa 94,97 75,79 

One from Chihuata, Arequipa 99 81 

Two from La Paz, Bolivia 97,98 79,80 

32. Phrygilus erythronotus (Philippi and Landbeck) 

Chlorospiza erythronota Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 19, p. 610, 
1861 Putre or "Parunicota" [ =Parinacota], Tacna; idem, Arch. Naturg., 
29, (1), p. 121, 1863 same locality (descr. of immature). 

Diuca behni Reichenow, Ornith. Monatsber., 15, p. 201, 1907 Potosi, Bolivia 
(type in Berlin Museum examined; = adult male); Menegaux, Bull. Soc. 
Philom. Paris, (10), 1, p. 210, 1909 Pulacayo, Oruro, Bolivia (spec, 
examined). 

Range. Puna Zone of extreme northern Chile, in province of 
Tacna, and western Bolivia (Pulacayo, Oruro; Potosi and Livichuco, 
Potosi). 

Material collected. Tacna: Choquelimpie (alt. 15,000 feet), two 
cf <? ad., one 9 imm., June 22, 23, 26; Las Cuevas, near Putre 
(alt. 13,500 feet), 9 imm., June 20, 1924. 

On receiving this small series, it immediately occurred to me that 
C. erythronota, described from a single bird secured by Frobeen in 
June in the Cordillera of Tacna, either at Putre or Parinacota, might 
have been wrongly identified by authors, since our specimens, vir- 
tually topotypes of Philippi and Landbeck' s species, proved to be 
decidedly different from the rusty-backed Phrygilus of northwestern 
Argentina, to which that name had generally been applied. In the 
adult male I at once recognized the rare "Diuca" behni heretofore 
only known from a few Bolivian skins in the collections at Paris 
and Berlin. The immature females obtained by Sanborn correspond 
fairly well to the account of C. erythronota, except that the describers' 
term "rostroth" would seem to be ill-chosen for the bird's wood-brown 



68 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

(dusky-streaked) back. 1 In order to have the question definitely 
settled, my colleague Mr. Karl P. Schmidt on his recent visit to 
Chile very kindly took specimens from Tacna and Jujuy with him 
for comparison with the material in the Museo Nacional at Santiago, 
and reports as follows: "There are two specimens in the Chilean 
National Museum labeled 'P. erythronotus Ph. & Landb. Chile N.' 
One of these is plainly the Argentine bird, the other is as evidently 
'Diuca' behni. In spite of the statement that 'Riicken and Schul- 
tern sind rostroth/ the description agrees best with the specimen 
which resembles Field Museum, No. 62,017 ( 9 , Las Cuevas, near 
Putre,' June 20, 1924), because (1) the light tips of the cheek-feathers 
are very evident; (2) the dark gray streak on each dorsal feather 2 is 
clearly distinguishable; (3) the smaller wing-coverts are gray-edged; 
(4) the eyelid-feathers are white; (5) the gray (darker) mesial streak 
on each feather on the top of the head is very well marked. The 
specimen which is thus determined as the type bears the number 
458." 

To this I have only to add that I fully concur with Mr. Schmidt's 
disposition of the case, since the dusky centers of the dorsal feathers, 
expressly mentioned by the describers of C. erythronota, constitute 
a conspicuous feature in the immature plumage of "Diuca" behni, 
whereas both sexes of the allied Argentine Phrygilus have the back 
and scapulars wholly uniform rufous. Geographical considerations 
lead to the same conclusion. The specimens of "Diuca," behni are 
from the Quebrada de Putre (an affluent of the Rio Lluta), that is 
from the very same region, whence the type of C. erythronota also 
originated. The rufous-backed Phrygilus, on the other hand, was 
found way farther south on the border-line of Antofagasta and 
Bolivia, and in view of their close (perhaps subspecific) affinity it 
is altogether unlikely that they should occur side by side in the 
Cordillera of Tacna. 

Considering all facts, it seems pretty fair to assume that No. 
458, of the Museo Nacional de Chile, which Mr. Schmidt found 
identical with one of our Putre birds, is the actual type of C. ery- 
thronota. The second example so marked (No. 460, Museo Nacional 
de Chile) probably was subsequently received from a more southern 
locality. It is much to be regretted that so little care has been 

l lt is well to remember, however, that Philippi and Landbeck (Arch. Naturg., 
31, (1), p. 96, 1865) also use the term "rostroth for the buffy edges of the wing 
coverts and secondaries in the juvenile plumage of Musdsaxicola rufivertex. 

*"Jede Feder [des Riickens und der Schultern] in der Mitte mit grauem Langs- 
striche oder Flecke" (Philippi and Landbeck, 1. c.). 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 69 

exercised in properly labeling the many types in the Chilean National 
Museum. 

Through the good offices of Dr. E. Stresemann and Mons. J. 
Berlioz I have been enabled to directly compare our specimens with 
the type and three other males of "Diuca" behni, and quite recently 
Mr. N. B. Kinnear obligingly sent me five additional skins from the 
collection of the British Museum. All are from the highlands of 
Oruro and Potosi in Bolivia and, except for their slightly larger 
size and somewhat stouter bills, they agree with the males from 
northern Chile. Like the latter, one of the specimens, an adult 
male from the vicinity of Pulacayo, May 27, 1903 (Paris Museum, 
No. 1907. 765), is in perfectly fresh plumage, all three having the 
outer margins to the tertials pale wood-brown and the flanks tinged 
with buff. In worn plumage, as represented by the type of "D." 
behni taken by Professor Behn at Potosi on March 19, 1847, and by 
four adults secured by P. O. Simons at Potosi and Livichuco in 
August and September, 1901, the gray portions are somewhat darker 
and duller, while the brownish edging to the inner secondaries has 
disappeared through wear. A second specimen from Pulacayo (sex 
and date of capture not recorded on the label) is in full molt. Like 
one of our skins (June 23, 1924), it shows a faint brownish shade on 
the middle of the back, whereas in all of the eight other adults the 
entire dorsal surface, from forehead to tail coverts, is uniform gray 
(between light neutral and neutral gray). Two adult females in 
the British Museum are similar to the males in coloration, but have 
slightly shorter wings and tail. 

The immature females 1 differ by somewhat duller, more brownish 
gray, dusky-streaked pileum and hindneck; dingier (brownish gray 
rather than light neutral gray) pectoral band and sides of the head, 
the latter, however, similarly marked with whitish as in the adults; 
deeper buff flanks and under tail coverts; wider and brighter (avel- 
laneous) edges to the inner secondaries; and especially by having 
the back and scapulars wood-brown, each feather being largely 
centered with dusky. 

This species has no close relation to "Dmca," 2 but agrees in 
every structural detail with the members of the genus Phrygilus, 

'No males in this stage are available, but they are not likely to be different. 

*It bears a superficial resemblance to Diuca speculifera, but, in addition to 
its shorter wings and much shorter, slenderer bill, it may be easily separated by 
the paler gray pectoral band not extending along the flanks as well as by lacking 
the white outer web to the external rectrix and the white wing-speculum at the 
base of the second to the ninth primaries. 



70 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

particularly P. dorsalis, which it obviously replaces in western Bolivia 
and extreme northern Chile. While viewed from below the two forms 
are perfectly alike, P. erythronotus is easily distinguished by lacking 
the pecan brown dorsal area so characteristic of P. dorsalis, which 
is, however, suggested by the wood-brown mantle of its immature 
plumage. 

P. erythronotus is as yet only known from the Puna Zone of 
Tacna and the adjoining Bolivian provinces of Oruro and Potosi, 
but it will doubtless also be found to occur in the Cordillera of 
Tarapaca. 

MEASUREMENTS 

Adult males Wing Tail Bill 

Two from Choquelimpie, Tacna 97,101 68,71 

Three from Potosi, Bolivia 108,108,111 74,77,79 

Two from Livichuco, Bolivia 107,108 76,78 13,13 

One from Pulacayo, Bolivia 104 78 

Adult females 

One from Potosi, Bolivia 103 72 13 

One from Livichuco, Bolivia 105 75 14 

Immature females 
Two from Tacna 93,96 62,65 

33. Phrygilus dorsalis Cabanis 

Phrygilus dorsalis Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 31, p. 109, 1883 Cerro Vayo, near 
the snow line, Prov. Tucuman (type in Berlin Museum examined). 

Phrygilus erythronotus (not of Philippi and Landbeck) Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., 12, p. 796, 1888 Tucuman; Dabbene, Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. 
Buenos Aires, 18, p. 399, 1910 Tucuman. 

Range. Puna Zone of northern Chile (Antofagasta) and north- 
western Argentina (Maimara, Cerro de la Laguna, Jujuy; Cerro 
Munoz, Cumbre de Calchaquies, Laguna Alta, and Laguna de 
Pelado, Tucuman). 

Material collected. Antofagasta: Silala, Chile on Bolivia bound- 
ary (alt. 14,160 feet), two rf rf, April 26, 1924. 

Both of these specimens have an extensive area on the back, 
including the scapulars, plain pecan brown, and agree with a series 
from the Andes of Tucuman in the Tring Museum. One of the birds 
(No. 62,024) is slightly tinged with buffy brownish on the head and 
rump, the pectoral band is paler, and the sides are much deeper, 
almost cinnamon-buff. It is probably a bird of the year. 

The sexes are alike, male and female having the back except 
the lower rump and tail coverts which are neutral gray like the 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 71 

pileum and hind neck bright pecan brown, without the slightest 
trace of dusky central streaks. 

The range of P. dorsalis is evidently more southerly than that of 
P. eryihronotus, and comprises the Puna Zone of northwestern 
Argentina, from Tucuman north to Jujuy, whence it extends west to 
the Chilean Province of Antofagasta. 

C. erythronota turning out to refer to the foregoing species, the 
proper name of the present bird becomes P. dorsalis, based on speci- 
mens from the Cerro Vayo, Tucuman. 

MEASUREMENTS 

Adult males Wing Tail Bill 

One from Silala, Antofagasta 104 69 11 

Six from Andes of Tucuman 95,98,98,100, 65-68, 

100,103 once 73 12-12)4 

Adult females 

Two from Andes of Tucuman 96,98 64,66 12^,13 

One from Maimara, Jujuy 99 68 12 % 

34. Melanodera xanthogramma barrosi Chapman 

Melanodera xanthogramma barrosi Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 96, p. 12, 

1923 Rio Blanco, 9,500 feet alt., Prov. Aconcagua. 

Chlorospiza xanthogramma Bridges, 1841, p. 94 "in the valleys near the sum- 
mit of the Andes on the east and west sides" [between 34 and 35 S.] = 
Prov. Colchagua; Philippi (12), p. 264; Landbeck (9), 1877, p. 255 not 
rare on the highest passes over the Cordillera between Chile and Mendoza. 
Phrygilus xanthogrammus Albert (1), 108, p. 214 part, Cordilleras of San- 
tiago; Barros (5), p. 190 Salto de los Piuquenes up to Castro, Prov. 
Aconcagua. 

Phrygilus xanthogrammus barrosi Barros (10), p. 363 Cordillera of Aconcagua. 
Range. High Cordilleras of central Chile, in provinces of Acon- 
cagua, Santiago, and Colchagua. 

Material examined. Chile (unspecified) : one d* ad. T. Edmunds 
(British Museum). 

Very little is yet known about the distribution of this species, 
which, according to Barros, breeds in the Cordilleras of Aconcagua 
between elevations of 8,000 to 11,000 feet. It was first met with 
by Bridges near the summit of the Andes in Colchagua. Landbeck 
reports it as not uncommon on the highest passes over the Cordillera 
between Chile and Mendoza, and gives good descriptions of both 
sexes. Seiior R. Barros, in April, 1921, secured seven specimens in 
fresh winter plumage on the road from Salto de los Piuquenes to 
Cajon de Castro, Aconcagua, some of which passed into the hands 
of Dr. F. M. Chapman, who named them in honor of the collector, 



72 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

basing the subspecific separation on larger size and lesser amount 
of yellow in the male sex. The only Chilean example which we 
have seen an adult male in worn breeding plumage without speci- 
fied locality differs from several typical M. x. xanthogramma, from 
the Straits of Magellan, by greater dimensions, larger (both stouter 
and longer) bill, pure white (instead of canary yellow) tail-markings, 
and by having much more yellow on the breast. It measures: wing, 
110 (against 103-105); tail, 70 (against 60-65); bill, 13> (against 
11 Yi in M. x. xanthogramma). So far as is possible to judge from a 
single specimen, M. x. barrosi appears to be a valid race and probably 
represents in the Andes of central Chile the typical form known to 
range north to the Arroyo Las Bayas, in the vicinity of Lake Nahuel 
Huapi, western Rio Negro. 1 

35. Diuca diuca diuca (Molina) 

Fringilla diuca Molina, Saggio Stor. Nat. Chili, p. 249, 1782 Chile; Kittlitz 
(1), p. 192, pi. 11 Chile (habits, full description); Eydoux and Gervais 
(1), p. 18, pi. 69 Valparaiso; idem (3), p. 44, pi. 17 Valparaiso; Darwin, 
p. 93 part, humid forests of Chiloe and Valparaiso; Fraser (1), p. 113 
Chile (habits); Yarrell, p. 53 (eggs); Des Murs (2), p. 359 Chile in general; 
Boeck, p. 505 Valdivia; Kittlitz (3), pp. 114, 137, 147, 154 San-Tom6 
and near Valparaiso; Frauenfeld, p. 637 near Santiago; Philippi (12), 
p. 265 Chile, part; Landbeck (9), p. 258 Chile (habits, nest, and eggs); 
Lataste (1), pp. CXIV, CXV Bureo, Nuble, and Ninhue, Maule; idem 
(4), p. XXXIV Caillihue, Curic6; idem (5), p. LXII LlohuS, Itata; 
Waugh and Lataste (1), p. LXXXVII Penaflor, Santiago; idem (2), p. 
CLXXII San Alfonso, Quillota; Housse (2), p. 148 San Bernardo, 
Santiago. 

Dolichonyx griseus Lesson, L'Institut, 2, No. 72, p. 317, 1834 Valparaiso; 
idem in Bougainville, Journ. Navig. Th&is, 2, p. 324, 1837 Valparaiso. 

Emberiza diuca Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, p. 77, 1837 part, 
Valparaiso. 

Pipilo cinerea Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, p. 123, 1848 road from Valparaiso 
to Santiago. 

Diuca molinae (Reichenbach MS.) Bibra, Denks. math.-naturw. Kl. Akad. 
Wiss. Wien, 5, p. 130, 1853 Cordillera [of Santiago]. 

Hedyglossa diuca Hartlaub (3), p. 214 Valdivia; Pelzeln (2), p. 93 Chile 
(egg descr.). 

Phrygilus diuca Cassin, p. 180 Santa Lucia; Germain, p. 312 Santiago 
(nesting habits). 

Diuca grisea Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 322, 327 Chile; Sclater and Salvin (2), Ibis, 
1870, p. 499 Ancud, Chiloe"; Salvin (2), p. 421 part, Talcaguano; E. 
Reed (4), p. 200 Chile; Lane, p. 18 Hacienda Mansel (near Santiago) 

*See Wetmore, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 462, 1926. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 73 

and Coronel; Albert (1), 108, p. 231 Chile (monog.); C. S. Reed (1), 
p. 21 Concepci6n; Housse (1), p. 49 Isla La Mocha; Bullock (3), p. 
125 Cerro de Nahuelbuta, Malleco; idem (4), p. 191 Angol, Malleco. 

Diuca griseus E. Reed (2), p. 544 Cauquenes, Colchagua. 

Diuca diuea Allen, p. 84 Valparaiso; 1 Schalow (2), p. 723 Valparaiso and 
Santiago; Passler (2), p. 27 Coronel (nest and eggs); Barros (4), p. 150 
Nilahue, Curic6; idem (5), p. 191 Cordillera of Aconcagua, up to 2,000 
meters elev.; Wetmore (3), p. 408 Concon. 

Diuca diuca diuca Passler (3), p. 478 Coronel (habits, nest, and eggs). 

Diuca matutina [sic] Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 109 Marga-Marga Valley, 
Valparaiso. 

Range in Chile. From Aconcagua south to Llanquihue (Rio 
Stirehuau). 

Material collected. Santiago: Polpaico, <? ad., Sept. 1, 1925. 
C. S. Reed. Conception: Hacienda Gualpencillo, three cf cT ad., 
March 31, April 3, 12. Malleco: Curacautin, d" imm., Jan. 12. 
Valdivia: Mafil, d* ad., cT imm., two 9 9 ad., two cfcf juv., 
Feb. 10-28. Chiloe" Island: Quellon, three d" d* ad., two d" d* imm., 
two 9 9 ad., 9 imm., Dec. 29, Jan. 1-5. Llanquihue: Rio Nire- 
huau, cf imm., March 17. 

Additional specimens. Valparaiso: Concon, two d" cf ad., one 9 
ad., April 24-28, 1921. A. Wetmore (United States National Museum) ; 
Valparaiso, one (unsexed) adult. D'Orbigny (Paris Museum). Con- 
ception: Conception, d* imm., Aug. 7, 1903. C. S. Reed. Valdivia: 
Valdivia, d" ad., August, 1896. A. von Lossberg (Berlepsch Collec- 
tion). Llanquihue: Puerto Varas, d* ad., d 1 juv., Nov. 30, Dec. 1, 
1907. A. Lendl (Berlepsch Collection). 

Birds from Valdivia and Chilo generally have the rufous on the 
flanks and under tail coverts slightly deeper in tone, but the varia- 
tion is not quite constant. The single specimen from the Rio SJire- 
huau, according to size of bill and other dimensions (wing 90; tail 
73; bill 14), is typical diuca,, and does not at all approach D. d. minor. 

Adult females have the chest band deep gray like the males, but 
are somewhat smaller, and the back as well as the flanks is conspicu- 
ously washed with brown. Birds (of either sex) in first annual plum- 
age are similar to the female, but much more brownish above with 
rufescent brown edges to the remiges and wing coverts; the sides 
are buffy brown, and the gray pectoral band is overlaid with brown- 
ish. This plumage is apparently worn until the next molt when the 
definite adult dress is acquired. 

'Also erroneously recorded from "Reyes" and "Mapiri," Bolivia. 



74 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

D. d. diuca is a very common bird throughout the greater part 
of central and southern Chile. It prefers the plains and hills, but 
occurs also in the lower Cordilleras up to altitudes of 5,000, rarely 
6,000 feet. Outside of Chile, it is found all along the Argentine 
slope of the Andes from Mendoza to western Patagonia. Birds 
from Mendoza (four) and western Neuquen (Lake Nahuel Huapi 
and Rio Traful) are indistinguishable from Chilean specimens. A 
single adult male from Misionares, obtained in November, 1882, by 
the French Cap Horn Expedition, in the Paris Museum, also belongs 
here, its measurements (wing 93; tail 73; bill 13) being much too 
large for D. d. minor, which replaces the typical race in eastern 
Patagonia. The occurrence of D. d. diuca so far south and in the 
range of an allied form is no doubt exceptional. 1 

36. Diuca diuca crassirostris subsp. nov. 

Fringilla diuca (not of Molina) Darwin, p. 93 part, desert mountains of 
Copiapo; Philippi, Reise Atacama, p. 163 north as far as Miguel Diaz, 
Antofagasta; idem (12), p. 265 Chile, part; idem (15), p. 159 Atacama. 

Diuca grisea (not of Lesson) Sharpe, p. 7 Coquimbo; Salvin (2), p. 421 
part, Coquimbo; Gigoux, p. 86 Caldera. 

Range. Northern Chile, from southern Antofagasta (Miguel 
Diaz) to Coquimbo. 

Material collected. Atacama: Caldera, two "9 9 " ad., April 13, 
June 11, 1924. E. Gigoux; Ramadilla, Copiapo Valley, cf ad., 
Aug. 24; Domeyko, two 0*0* ad., one 9 ad., Aug. 11, 14. Co- 
quimbo: Romero, cf ad., July 11. 

Type from Ramadilla, Copiapo Valley, Atacama, Chile, in Field 
Museum of Natural History. No. 62,150. Adult male. Aug. 24, 
1923. C. C. Sanborn. 

Similar to D. d. diuca, of central and southern Chile, but bill 
much heavier, being both longer and considerably deeper, and outer 
web of outermost rectrix partly white. Wing (male) 88-93; tail 
72-76; culmen 16-18; depth of bill at base 12-13 mm. 

This is a large-billed race of the well-known D. d. diuca, repre- 
senting it in northern Chile from Coquimbo northward. The extent 
of the white on the lateral tail feathers is somewhat variable individ- 
ually. It is most extensive in one of the Caldera birds (No. 62,126), 
which has the entire outer web white except for a small dusky sub- 



(Zeits. Ool. Ornith., 16, p. 30, 1906), by mistake, includes Dinca [sic] 
minor among the breeding birds of Coronel, Conception. This record belongs, 
of course, to D. d. diuca, the only representative of the genus in that part of Chile. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 75 

apical streak (about 8 mm. long). In the second specimen from 
Caldera (No. 62,127) and another from Romero, Coquimbo (No. 
62,146) this streak is more blackish, about twice as long (from 17 
to 18 mm.), and occupies the whole width of the web, while the 
extreme base of the latter is likewise dusky. A female from Domeyko 
(No. 62,148) has the basal third and a short streak near the tip of 
the outer web dusky, while in two males from the same locality and 
another from Ramadilla (the type) the base and the apical third or 
fourth are of that color, the middle portion of the web being white 
for about 20 to 25 mm. In D. d. diuca the outer web of the lateral 
tail feathers is uniform dusky or blackish, sometimes with traces 
of a white marginal fringe in the middle; only a male from Polpaico, 
Santiago, approaches D. d. crassirostris, though the white area is 
still more restricted than in northern examples with the minimum 
of white. 

Other constant color differences do not seem to exist, although 
I notice that in certain specimens from northern Chile the rufous 
patch on the sides of the vent is very pale, while the ochraceous edges 
to the under tail coverts are much reduced in extent. 

The remarkably deep, heavy bill serves to distinguish this form 
without difficulty from its southern ally. 1 This feature is particularly 
striking in the two Caldera birds, which, though marked " 9 " by the 
collector, I take to be adult males judging from their nearly pure 
gray upper parts. The only other female in the collection has the 
dorsal surface washed with brownish, though less so than in the same 
sex of typical D. d. diuca. 

By the partly white outer web of the external rectrix and large 
bill, D. d. crassirostris diverges in the direction of D. speculifera 
(Lafr. & d'Orb.). This species, however, is larger (wing of eighteen 
Bolivian and Peruvian specimens 109-118), possesses an extensive 
alar speculum formed by the white basal portion of the outer web 
of the second to ninth primaries, and lacks the white tips to the 
rectrices as well as every trace of rufous on the abdomen. 

37. Diuca speculifera (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) 

Emberiza speculifera Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, 
cl. 2, p. 78, 1837 "in summis Andibus, Bolivia" (types in Paris Museum 
examined). 

Diuca speculifera Albert, Anal. Univ. Chile, 108, p. 233 Tarapaca. 

1 In D. d. diuca (twenty-seven specimens) the length of the culmen varies from 
12 J^ to 14, and the depth of the bill at the base measures from 8 to 10 mm. 



76 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Range in Chile. Extreme northern section, in provinces of 
Tarapacd and Tacna. 

The only authority for the inclusion of this species in the Chilean 
fauna is Albert's statement (1. c.) : "frecuenta las rejiones del norte de 
la republica desde Tarapaca hasta Arica . . . hasta alturas de 4,500 i 
mas metres." Albert gives detailed measurements and full descrip- 
tions which clearly apply to the present species, but unfortunately 
neglects to tell us when, where, and by whom the specimens, pre- 
sumably in the Chilean National Museum at Santiago, were col- 
lected. This information would have been the more welcome as 
neither Rahmer nor Lane nor Sanborn met with the species in Tara- 
paca or Tacna. 

Its occurrence there is not unlikely, however, as it has been found 
at Salinas (above Arequipa), Peru, and in various parts of High 
Bolivia. 

38. Zonotrichia 1 capensis peruviensis (Lesson) 

Pyrgita peruviensis Lesson, 2 L'Institut, 2, No. 72, p. 317, Sept. 27, 1834 
Callao, Peru; idem in Bougainville, Journ. Navig. Theiis, 2, p. 325, 1837 
Callao. 

Range in Chile. Extreme north, in province of Tacna. 

Material collected. Tacna: Chacalluta, cf ad., 9 ad., June 12, 
16; Putre (alt. 11,600 feet), two 9 9 ad., June 18. 

Additional specimens. Tacna: Arica, adult (unsexed), Jan., 1831. 
D'Orbigny (Paris Museum). 

These birds agree in every particular with a topotypical series 
from the coast region around Lima, and differ from Z. c. chilensis 
by much broader black lateral stripes on the pileum. Their measure- 
ments are about the same: wing 74, (females) 71-74; tail 63, (females) 
61, 65M, 68; bill 



39. Zonotrichia capensis pulacayensis (Me'ne'gaux) 

Brachyspiza capensis pulacayensis Menegaux, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 14, 
No. 7, "1908," p. 341, Jan., 1909 Pulacayo and Pampas de Pazna, 
Lake Poopo, Oruro, Bolivia (type from Pulacayo in Paris Museum 
examined). 

Zonotrichia pileata Sclater (6), 1891, p. 133 Pica, Tarapaca; Lane, p. 20 part, 
Pica and Canchones (east of Iquique), Tarapaca. 

1- Van Rossem (Auk, 46, pp. 548-549, 1929) has shown Brachyspiza to be 
inseparable from Zonotrichia. 

2 This name has several years' priority over Pyrgita peruviana Lesson (Rev. 
Zool., 2, p. 45, 1839 vicinity of Lima). 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 77 

Range in Chile. Northern section, in provinces of Tarapaca and 
Antofagasta. 

Material collected. Tarapaca: Pica (alt. 4,000 feet), two d"d" 
ad., May 23, 25; Canchones (east of Iquique), 9 ad., May 30. 
Antofagasta: Rio Loa (alt. 7,500 feet), three c? d* ad., two 9 9 ad., 
April 19, Sept. 11-13. 

The series from Tarapaca and Antofagasta, while agreeing with 
Z. c. peruviensis, of Tacna, in the broad black lateral head stripes, 
is much more rufous, the mantle being little paler than the nuchal 
collar; the edges to the greater upper wing coverts and inner secon- 
daries are much darker, tawny instead of from buff to ochraceous 
tawny; and the sides of the body are conspicuously more rufescent, 
varying from tawny-olive to mikado brown. Some of the specimens 
have been directly compared with the type of Z. c. pulacayensis, an 
unsexed adult bird in very fresh plumage, and, except for their slightly 
smaller size, were found to be identical with it. 

Although the palest specimen a female from Rio Loa is but 
slightly more rufescent above than certain examples of Z. c. perumen- 
sis, and others are hardly brighter on the flanks, the series as a whole 
clearly stands out by the rufescence of its plumage, and seems to 
require recognition under a separate subspecific name. The dimen- 
sions appear to be somewhat larger, too. Wing (type) 82, (Rio 
Loa) 80, 78, 77, (Pica) 76, 75, (females) 74, 74, 75; tail (type) 74, 
(Rio Loa) 72, 71, 70^, (Pica) 68, 64, (females) 68; bill 11-12. 

Z. c. pulacayensis is known to inhabit Tarapaca, Antofagasta, 
and the adjacent section of Oruro, but will doubtless be found to 
be more widely distributed in the highlands of western Bolivia. 

40. Zonotrichia capensis chilensis (Meyen) 

Fringitta chilensis Meyen, Nov. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol., 16, Suppl., p. 

88, 1834 Santiago de Chile. 
Fringilla mortonii Audubon, Orn. Biogr., 5, p. 312, 1839 "Upper California," 

errore; idem, Birds of America, 1st 8vo ed., 3, p. 151, pi. 190, 1841 

"Upper California." 1 
Zonotrichia matutina (not of Lichtenstein) Darwin, p. 91 part, Valparaiso; 

Fraser (1), p. 113 Chile; Hartlaub (3), p. 214 Valdivia; Germain, p. 

312 Santiago (nesting habits); Cassin, p. 180; Pelzeln (2), p. 93. 
Fringilla australis (not of Latham) Peale, p. 119 part, Valparaiso. 

l The type, which is in the collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia, was examined and pronounced by Sclater (P. Z. S. Lond., 25, p. 
7, 1857), to be "nothing more than a Chilian specimen of Zonotrichia pileata, sive 
matutina" [ =Z. capensis chilensis (Meyen)]. 



78 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Zonotrichia pileata Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 322, 337 Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 
544 Cauquenes, Colchagua; Salvin (2), p. 422 Coquimbo; Allen, p. 
83 part, Valparaiso; Lane, p. 20 part, Arauco, Hospital, Valdivia 
(habits); Nicoll, p. 50 Valparaiso; Passler (2), p. 28 Coronel (nest and 
eggs); Housse (1), p. 49 Isla La Mocha; idem (2), p. 147 San Bernardo; 
Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 109 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso; Bullock (3), p. 
125 Nahuelbuta, Malleco; idem (4), p. 190 Angol, Malleco. 

Fringilla matutina Lesson (10), p. 136 Valparaiso; Des Murs (2), p. 360 
Chile, part; Boeck, p. 505 Valdivia; Kittlitz (3), pp. 122, 135 San- 
Tome 1 , Concepci6n, and Valparaiso; Philippi (12), p. 265 Chile in general; 
Landbeck (9), p. 258 Chile in general; Lataste (1), p. CXV Ninhue, 
Maule; idem (4), p. XXXIV Caillihue, Curic6; idem (5), p. LXII 
Llohue, Maule; Waugh and Lataste (1), p. LXXXVII Penaflor, Santiago; 
idem (2), p. CLXXII San Alfonso, Quillota; Porter, Rev. Chil. Hist. 
Nat., 3, p. 179, 1899 Pabellon, Atacama; Gigoux, p. 86 Caldera. 

Brachyspiza capensis capensis (not of Miiller) Barros (4), p. 149 Nilahue, 
Curic6, and Melipilla, Santiago; idem (5), p. 189 Valley of Aconcagua. 

Brachyspiza capensis chilensis Passler (3), p. 477 Coronel (breeding habits); 
Wetmore (3), p. 419 Concon, Valparaiso. 

Range in Chile. From Atacama to the Guaitecas Islands. 1 

Material collected. Atacama: Ramadilla (Copiapo Valley), d" 
ad., two 9 9 ad., March 23, Aug. 22, 24. Coquimbo: La Compania, 
9 ad., Oct. 31; Romero, c? ad., 9 ad., July 17, 22; Paiguano (alt. 
3,300 feet), tfad., two 9 9 ad., June 16, 20. Valparaiso: Olmue", 9 ad., 
June 3. Santiago: San Jose" de Maipo (alt. 3,000 feet), cf ad., Dec. 18. 
Concepcion: Hacienda Gualpencillo, six d" cT ad., three 9 9 ad., 
March 30-April 21. Malleco: Rio Colorado (alt. 3,000 feet), 9 ad., 
March 3. Valdivia: Mafil, cf ad. (worn), cf (in juvenile molt), four 
c?c? juv., Feb. 15-27; Valdivia, cf juv., Dec. 18. Chiloe" Island: 
Quellon, three d" d"ad., 9 ad., d 1 juv., Jan. 1-31. Guaitecas Islands: 
Melinka, Ascension Island, three d 1 d 1 ad., one c? juv., Jan. 31, Feb. 1. 

Additional specimens. Aconcagua: Los Andes (alt. 3,000 feet), 
9 ad., May 9, 1925. R. Barros (Field Museum). Valparaiso: Val- 
paraiso, adult and juv. D'Orbigny (Paris Museum). Santiago: San- 
tiago, d" ad. (Munich Museum). Valdivia: Valdivia, d 1 ad., 9 
ad. (Munich Museum). 

Birds from Concepcion agree with topotypes from Valparaiso and 
Santiago, though one of the males, by the reduction of the black 
lateral stripes on the pileum 2 forms the transition to Z. c. australis. 

'The status of the "Chingolo" occurring on the shores of Lake Nahuel Huapi 
is in doubt. Two adult females from Bariloche the only ones we have seen 
are too badly worn to be of use in deciding whether they are referable to Z. c. 
chilensis or Z. c. choraules. 

2 A similar specimen probably induced Passler (Zeits. Ool. Orn., 16, p. 30, 
1906) to list Zonotrichia canicapilla as breeding near Coronel, Concepcion. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 79 

Those from Chiloe" and Melinka do not appear to be different either. 
Specimens from the coast of Coquimbo and Atacama average 
slightly smaller, and have the crown, as a rule, somewhat paler 
gray, but the variation is insignificant. Z. c. chilensis may be 
recognized from Z. c. pulacayensis and Z. c. perunensis by the much 
narrower, less compact black stripes along the sides of the pileum. 

The "Chincol" is widely distributed in central and southern 
Chile, its range extending from the seacoast up to an altitude of 
7,000 feet. R. Barros (p. 189) reports to have taken it once at Laguna 
de Castro, Aconcagua (about 10,000 feet), but there is a possibility 
that this record might be referable to the large, buffy-colored race 
treated under the next heading. An adult female taken by Sefior 
Barros in the Cordillera of Aconcagua at an elevation of about 840 
meters, however, is in every respect typical of Z. c. chilensis. 

41. Zonotrichia capensis sanborni subsp. nov. 

Brachyspiza capensis chilensis (not Fringilla chilensis Meyen) Barros (11), p. 
315 Juncal, Prov. Santiago. 

Range. High mountains in provinces of Coquimbo (Bafios del 
Toro), Aconcagua (?), and Santiago, extending into Argentina to 
the Cordilleras west of Mendoza (Potrerillos). 

Material collected. Coquimbo: Baiios del Toro (alt. 10,600 
feet), eight <? <? ad., four 9 9 ad., Nov. 9-14, 1923. 

Type from Bafios del Toro (alt. 10,600 feet), Coquimbo, Chile, 
in Field Museum of Natural History. No. 61,882. Adult male. Nov. 
12, 1923. C. C. Sanborn. 

Adult. Nearest to, and agreeing with, Z. c. chilensis in narrow- 
ness of the lateral black crown-stripes; but decidedly larger, with 
heavier bill, and coloration much paler and more buffy, the back 
being sandy brown, the edges to the wing coverts and secondaries 
cinnamon or tawny olive, and the sides of breast and abdomen pale 
sandy buff. The gray of the crown is even lighter than in Z. c. 
chilensis, from the coast of Atacama. 

Wing (male) 80 (two), 81, 82, 83 (two), 85, 87, (female) 79, 
80, 81, 81; tail 64 (two), 66, 67 (two), 68, 69, 72, (female) 64-67; 
bill 11-12^. 

The discovery of this seemingly well-marked form of the "Chin- 
golo" in the mountains of Coquimbo is quite surprising. The series 
secured by Mr. Sanborn is in somewhat worn plumage, indicating 
the approach of the breeding season. When compared with Z. c. 



80 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

chilensis in similar condition, it is easily separable by its much paler 
coloration and decidedly larger size. 1 Six specimens, including two 
adults, from Potrerillos, in the Cordillera west of Mendoza, alt. 
4,800 to 5,000 feet, agree in size (wing of adult males, 84-86 mm.) 
and large bill with the series from Bafios de Cauquenes. They are 
just in the process of finishing their annual molt, most of the body 
plumage having already been renewed, 2 and are therefore not com- 
parable as to coloration which is much more saturated throughout. 
In the Potrerillos birds the nuchal collar is much deeper in tone, 
varying from Kaiser brown to chestnut, instead of between hazel 
and cinnamon rufous; the back much more rufescent, decidedly 
more fawn than in the similar stage of Z. c. australis; the edging to 
the secondaries and greater upper wing coverts mikado brown; the 
buffy brown wash along the flanks considerably darker. These dif- 
ferences appear to be purely seasonal, and correspond to the amount 
of variation that may be observed between the fresh fall plumage 
and the worn breeding dress in the allied Z. c. attstralis. From 
Z. c. choraules Wetmore and Peters, 3 to which they had been referred 
by Peters, the Potrerillos birds differ by larger size, heavier bill, 
much more rufescent dorsal surface, and markedly narrower as 
well as less compact black lateral crown-stripes. I have little doubt 
that they should be assigned to Z. c. sanborni, although the examina- 
tion of a more satisfactory series seems desirable. 

Z. c. sanborni obviously is an altitudinal representative of Z. c. 
chilensis in the upper Temperate Zone of central Chile and adjacent 
parts of Argentina. 

42. Zonotrichia capensis australis (Latham) 

Fringilla australis Latham, Ind. Orn., 1, p. 466, 1790 based on "Rusty- 
collared Finch" Latham, Gen. Syn. Birds, Suppl., p. 170, Tierra del Fuego. 4 

Range in Chile. Province of Magallanes north to Llanquihue 
(Rio Nirehuau). 

Material collected. Llanquihue: Casa Richards, Rio Nirehuau, 
cf ad., March 17, 1923. 

1 Twenty adult males of Z. c. chilensis measure on the wing from 72-78, very 
rarely 79 or 80; fifteen females, from 70-75, one 77 mm. 

2 They were taken on March 16 and 17, 1921, by Mr. J. L. Peters. 

*Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 35, p. 44, 1922 General Roca, Gob. del Rio Negro. 

4 Although short, the description, "general colour brown, with a ferruginous 
collar," in conjunction with the locality, cannot apply to any bird but Zono- 
trichia canicapilla Gould. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 81 

This specimen agrees with a large series from Patagonia (Passo 
Ibaiiez, Dept. Santa Cruz; Huanuluan and Maquinchao, Gob. del 
Rio Negro) in general features, especially the nearly uniform light 
gray pileum, but displays a certain tendency toward Z. c. chilensis 
by deeper chestnut nuchal collar, somewhat more rufescent edging 
to secondaries and greater wing coverts, and the suggestion of a few 
blackish streaks above the superciliary region. It is very different 
from Z. c. choraules, of which specimens have been examined from 
Rio Colorado and Noetinger (Cordoba). 

This is the first actual record of Z. c. australis from Chile proper, 1 
although it has previously been found at various localities along the 
Straits of Magellan. 

43. Spinus crassirostris (Landbeck) 

Chrysomilris crassirostris Landbeck, Zool. Garten, 18, p. 254, 1877 "nahe 
der chilenischen Grenze, jenseits auf argentinischem Gebiete ... in der 
hohen Cordillere, in der Nahe der Passe von Uspallata und Portillo," 
Prov. Mendoza. 

Spinus ictericus magnirostris Barros (5), p. 187 El Penon and Ojos de Agua, 
Rio Aconcagua, and Valle de los Leones, Prov. Aconcagua. 

Range in Chile. Once recorded by R. Barros from the Puna 
Zone of Aconcagua. 

This siskin, though probably related to the S. magellanicus group, 
may be immediately recognized by larger size and the enormous bill, 
which is not only decidedly longer, but from two to three times as 
bulky as in the other representatives of the genus. The adult male, 
compared with S. m. urubambensis, is much duller both above and 
below; the lower abdomen is buffy, and the apical band to the 
greater upper wing coverts dull pyrite yellow instead of bright 
lemon yellow. The female, with which I am not acquainted, is 
stated by Todd 2 to be similar in coloration to that of "S. capitalis." 

S. crassirostris was described by Landbeck from a single male 
in the National Museum at Santiago. 3 The type had been taken 
beyond the Chilean frontier in the high Cordillera west of Mendoza, 

!Blaauw (Not. Leyd. Mus., 35, p. 29) refers birds seen at Casa Pangui, near 
Todos Santos Lake, Llanquihue, to "Zonotrichia eanicapitta," on account of their 
"very light gray heads." 

2 Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, p. 40, 1926. 

3 See Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 41, p. 102, 1872, where "Chsysomitris" 
[sic] crassiroslris is, however, a pure nomen nudum. It was not characterized until 
several years later in the same author's paper, "Bemerkungen iiber die Singvogel 
Chiles," quoted above. 



82 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

and remained unique until the species was redescribed by Dabbene 1 
as S. ictericus magnirostris from specimens obtained by J. Mogensen 
in the Andes of Salta and Catamarca. Comparison of an authentic 
example from Lago Helado, Catamarca, for which I am indebted 
to Dr. Dabbene, with four topotypes from Puente del Inca, Mendoza, 
in the collection of the American Museum of Natural History, 
revealed their absolute identity. 

Very little is known about the breeding range of this remarkable 
bird. It seems to inhabit the elevated Cordilleras of western Argen- 
tina from Salta south to Mendoza, at altitudes of 10,000 feet and 
upward. Its claim to be included in the Chilean fauna rests on R. 
Barros's record from the Cordillera of Aconcagua. Barros observed 
the birds in flocks in the upper Aconcagua Valley and in the Valle 
de los Leones in spring. They seemed to be on migration and disap- 
peared on the approach of summer. We have no Chilean material, 
but one of Barros's specimens was identified by Dr. Dabbene. 

44. Spinus magellanicus urubambensis Todd 

Spinus magellanicus urubambensis Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, p. 65, 1926 
Cuzco, Peru (type), and Palca, Tacna. 

Spinus capUalis (not of Cabanis) Todd, 1. c., pp. 37, 39 part, Putre, Tacna. 
Range in Chile. Extreme northern section, in province of Tacna. 

Material collected. Tacna: Putre (alt. 11,600 feet), c? ad., 9 
ad., July 3, 7, 1924. 

Additional specimens. Tacna: Palca (alt. 3,000 meters), cf ad., 
Oct. 17, 1902. Otto Garlepp, No. 26 (Berlepsch Collection, Frank- 
fort Museum). 

The Chilean specimens agree in size and coloration with the 
typical series from the Cuzco region. Mr. Todd, in his review of 
the genus Spinus, identified the pair from Putre as S. capitalis, 
but after careful comparison we have no hesitation whatever in 
referring them to S. m. urubambensis. The difference between the 
Putre male and the one from Palca in the Berlepsch Collection 
(identified by Todd as S. m. urubambensis) is merely seasonal, 
the former, taken in July, being in very abraded plumage, while 
the latter (October) has just finished its annual molt. Palca and 
Putre are in the same region, at very nearly the same altitude, 
and the occurrence of two closely allied forms in Tacna seems alto- 

sis, 4, No. 16, p. 105, May 15, 1918 Sierra del Cajon, Salta. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 83 

gether unlikely. Besides, the female from Putre is not separable 
from others obtained in the Cuzco region, so far as I can see. 

Measurements compare as follows. Peru, Cuzco: wing 74, 74, 
75, 78, (female) 72; tail 48, 48, 48, 52, (female) 48. Chile, Tacna: 
wing 73 (Putre), 75 (Palca), (female) 70; tail 48, 49, (female) 46 mm. 

S. m. urubambensis ranges from southern Peru to northern Chile 
(Tacna). It is closely allied to S. m. peruanus,* but is larger and 
slightly darker in coloration. 

45. Spinus barbatus (Molina) 

Fringilla barbata Molina, Saggio Stor. Nat. Chile, pp. 247, 345, 1782 Chile; 
Valparaiso suggested as type locality by Todd (Ann. Carnegie Mus., 17, 
p. 81, 1926) ; 2 Philippi (7), p. 27 Chile (crit.). 

Carduelis stanleyi Audubon, Syn. Bds. N. America, p. 118, 1839 "Upper 
California," errore, probably Valparaiso, Chile (see Cassin, Proc. Ac. Nat. 
Sci. Phil., 1865, p. 90). 

Chrysomitris marginalis Bonaparte, Consp. Av., 1, p. 517, 1850 Chile; Cassin, 
p. 181, pi. 17 Chile. 

Chrysomitris campestris (not Fringilla campestris Spix) Darwin, p. 89 Val- 
paraiso; Fraser (1), p. 112 Valparaiso; Des Murs (2), p. 352 Chile; 
Boeck, p. 504 Valdivia; Pelzeln (2), p. 92 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 
263 Chile; Landbeck (9), p. 253 foothills of the Andes, also Valdivia 
(habits); Lataste (1), p. CXV Ninhue, Maule; Waugh and Lataste (1), 
p. LXXXVII Penaflor, Santiago; idem (2), p. CLXXII San Alfonso, 
Quillota; Gigoux, p. 84 Caldera; Lataste (9), p. 170 Santa Teresa. 

Crithagra flavospecularis Hartlaub, Naumannia, 3, p. 213, 1853 Valdivia. 

Chrysomitris barbata Philippi (7), p. 28 Chile (syn., crit.); Sclater (2), 1867, 
pp. 322, 338 Chile; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1870, p. 499 Ancud, Chiloe'; 
E. Reed (2), p. 544 Cauquenes, Colchagua; Lane, p. 21 Corral, Coronel, 
Calle-Calle, and Maquegua; E. Reed (4), p. 200 Chile; Schalow (2), p. 
722 Tumbes; Albert (1), 108, p. 198 Chile (monog.); Housse (1), p. 
49 Isla La Mocha; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 109 Marga-Marga Valley, 
Valparaiso; Bullock (3), p. 125 Cerro de Nahuelbuta, Malleco; idem 
(4), p. 189 Angol, Malleco. 

Spinus barbata Allen, p. 83 Valparaiso. 

Spinus barbatus Barros (4), p. 148 Nilahue, Curic6; idem (5), p. 188 Los 
Andes and Rio Blanco, Aconcagua; Passler (3), p. 475 Coronel (habits); 
Housse (2), p. 147 San Bernardo; Wetmore (3), p. 434 Concon, Val- 
paraiso; Barros (10), p. 362 Rio Blanco, Aconcagua. 

Range in Chile. From southern Atacama (Copiapo Valley) 
to the Straits of Magellan. 

J The record of S. peruanus from Tacna, Chile (see Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
17, p. 48, 1926), is due to a pen-slip, as we are informed by the author. 

2 Molina's description is very poor, and appears to have been made from 
memory. 



84 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Material collected. Atacama: Ramadilla (Copiapo Valley), two 
c? cf ad., one 9 ad., Aug. 22, 23. Coquimbo: Romero, <? ad., 9 
ad., July 11, 18. Santiago: San Jos6 de Maipo (alt. 3,000 feet), 
cf ad., Dec. 18. Malleco: Curacautin, d" ad., Jan. 9; Rio Colorado, 
d" ad., Feb. 4. Chilo Island: Quellon, two cf d" ad., 9 ad., 9 
juv., Dec. 26, Jan. 3, 4. Guaitecas Islands: Melinka, Ascension 
Island, three d" d" ad., one 9 juv., Jan. 30, 31, Feb. 4. 

Additional specimens. Conception: Talcaguano, cf ad., May 7, 
1903. C. S. Reed (Field Museum). Valdi via: Valdivia, three d" d 1 
ad., two cf d" imm., one 9 ad., Sept., 1896. A. von Lossberg 
(Berlepsch Collection). 

The birds from Copiapo are duller in coloration, and the female 
(which is just completing its annual molt) is almost white beneath, 
with very little yellowish suffusion on foreneck and chest. This is, 
however, not likely to be a constant character, since a young female 
from Chilo6 Island has the posterior under parts likewise largely 
whitish. Moreover, one of the males from Ramadilla is closely 
matched by another from Talcaguano, and the specimens from 
Coquimbo are exactly similar to those from more southern localities. 

Adults taken from December to February are in more or less 
worn breeding plumage. Full-grown young birds were obtained 
from around Christmas up to early in February at Quellon and 
Melinka. 

The "Jilguero" is common throughout the central and southern 
parts of Chile. It is reported to prefer the plains and foothills 
(precordillera) and, according to Barros, is never found above 5,000 
feet. We are told by Gigoux that it is merely a winter visitor in 
the Copiapo Valley. 

In habits, song, and nidification, we are informed by Landbeck, it 
closely resembles the European Siskin (Spinus spinus). 

Outside of Chile, S. barbatus inhabits the eastern (Argentine) 
slopes of the Andes from the vicinity of Lake Nahuel Huapi 1 down to 
the Straits of Magellan and Tierra del Fuego. Specimens from Nahuel 
Huapi and western Chubut (Lago Blanco) agree with Chilean birds. 

46. Spinus atratus (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) 

Carduelis atratus Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. ZooL, 7, cl. 
2, p. 83, 1837 La Paz, Bolivia (type in Paris Museum examined); Philippi 
(8), Reise, p. 162. 

1 According to Burmeister (Reise La Plata Staaten, 2, p. 490, 1861: C. margin- 
alia), this bird ranges even to Mendoza, but this record may refer to some other 
species, as S. barbatus has never been found again so far north in Argentina. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 85 

Chrysomitris anthracina Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 91, p. 675, 1895 "in 
Andibus provinciae San Fernando," errore; idem, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, 
15, p. 56, pi. 17, fig. 1, 1902 "San Fernando." 

Chrysomitris atrata Pelzeln (2), p. 92 "Chile"; Sclater (4), 1886, p. 397 
Huasco and Sacaya, Tarapaca; Philippi, Omis, 4, p. 159 "Colarados ii," 
probably near Rio Loa, Antofagasta; Sclater (6), 1891, p. 134 Sacaya 
and Lake of Huasco, Tarapaca; E. Reed (4), p. 200 Tarapaca; Lane, 
p. 22 Huasco and Sacaya, Tarapac&j Albert (1), 108, p. 196 (crit.). 

Range in Chile. Northern provinces of Antofagasta, Tarapaca, 
and doubtless also Tacna. 

Material collected. Antofagasta: Ojo de San Pedro (alt. 12,400 
feet), cf ad., 9 ad., caught in January, 1924. 

Additional specimens. Tarapaca: Cueva Negra, cT ad., Feb. 10, 
1886. C. F. Rahmer; Huasco, d 1 ad., Jan. 18, 1889; Sacaya, <? ad., 
Jan. 22, 1890. A. A. Lane (British Museum). 

Specimens from northern Chile agree with a series from Bolivia 
and northwestern Argentina. Peruvian birds do not appear to 
be separable either. The yellow abdominal area varies a good 
deal in extent, but this seems to be purely individual, so far as I 
can see. 

In Chile, S. atratus is restricted to the three northernmost prov- 
inces, where it is found in the high Cordilleras at elevations of 
9,000 feet and upwards. Rahmer and Lane obtained it in the Andes 
of Tarapaca, and Sanborn bought two adults at Ojo de San Pedro, 
Antofagasta, which had been caught in the vicinity of that town 
a few months previously. 

Philippi described a single black Goldfinch from San Fernando, 
Colchagua, under the specific name anthracina, basing the distinction 
on the absence of yellow in the abdominal line. Several specimens 
in the series examined very closely approach Philippi's figure, al- 
though none has the yellow below restricted to the under tail coverts. 
Albert, who had access to the type, considers it synonymous with 
S. atratus, and I am inclined to agree with his dictum, as birds col- 
lected by Weisshaupt at Mendoza, in the British Museum, are 
nowise different from those taken in northern Chile and Bolivia. 
If not a cage-bird, the type of C. anthracina must have been a 
straggler from Argentina, which would not be surprising, as we are 
informed by Landbeck (Zool. Garten, 18, p. 254, 1877) that S. 
atratus is found, though rarely, near the Chilean boundary line in 
the vicinity of the Uspallata and Portillo Passes, Mendoza. 



86 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 
47. Spinus uropygialis (Sclater) 1 

Chrysomitris uropygialis Sclater, Cat. Coll. Amer. Birds, p. 125, 1861 Chile 
(type in British Museum examined); Pelzeln (2), p. 92 Chile; Sclater (2), 
1867, pp. 322, 338 Santiago, Chile (crit.); Philippi (12), p. 263 Cor- 
dilleras of central Chile; Landbeck (9), p. 254 in the high Cordillera at 
5,000 to 10,000 feet; E. Reed (2), p. 544 Valle de los Cipreses, Colchagua; 
idem, Ibis, 1893, p. 596 Chile (seasonal occurrence); idem (4), p. 200 
Chile; Albert (1), 108, p. 194 Chile (monog.); Barros (5), p. 188 
Cordillera of Aconcagua; Housse (2), p. 147 San Bernardo, Santiago; 
Gigoux, p. 84 Caldera, Atacama. 

Spinus urupygialis Barros (11), p. 315 Juncal to Portillo, Santiago. 

Chrysomitris magellanicus (not of Vieillot) Fraser (1), p. 113 valleys of the 
Andes on the east and west side (two of Bridges's specimens examined in 
British Museum). 

Chrysomitris xanthomelaena (Reichenbach MS.) Bibra, p. 130 Cordillera [of 
Santiago] (nom. nudum). 

Chrysomitris atratus Cassin, p. 181 "interior of Chile" (see Cassin, Proc. 
Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 91). 

Chrysomitris atrata Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 109 cerros of the Marga-Marga 
Valley, Valparaiso. 

Range in Chile. Central Chile, from Atacama to Colchagua. 

Material collected. Atacama: Caldera, d" ad., Oct. 23, 1924. 
E. Gigoux. Santiago: San Jose" de Maipo (alt. 3,000 feet), cf ad., 
Dec. 18. 

Additional specimens. Atacama: Huasco Alto, d" ad., no date. 
W. Goodfellow. Santiago: Prov. Santiago, cf ad., no date. F. 
Leybold. "Chile:" three cfcf ad., including the type (all in the 
British Museum). 

Our specimens have been compared and found identical with 
the type in the British Museum. The female differs only by broader 
greenish edges to the dorsal feathers, duller, more brownish black 
upper parts and throat, and duller yellow of the belly. 

This siskin, the "Jilguero de la cordillera" of the Chileans, is 
confined to the Cordilleras of the central provinces, from Atacama 
to Colchagua. During the breeding period it inhabits the mountain 
valleys between 5,000 and 10,000 feet (Landbeck). E. C. Reed 
found it common in the Andes of Colchagua, particularly in the 
Valle de los Cipreses, from an elevation of 1,800 meters up to the 
snow line. In the province of Aconcagua it is found chiefly between 

1 [Chrysomitris] icterioides (Schimper MS.) Bonaparte (Compt. Rend. Ac. Sci. 
Paris, 37, p. 915, 1853; Not. Orn. Coll. Delattre, p. 15, 1854 Chile) possibly 
refers to this species. However, the diagnosis "une espece a petit bee aiguise," 
together with the suggestion of its affinity to S. atratus, is not sufficient to identify 
the name. Unfortunately, the type cannot be found in the Strasbourg Museum. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 87 

1,700 and 2,000 meters, and disappears after the nesting season 
(Barros). On migration it drops to lower altitudes, and specimens 
have been taken or observed at San Bernardo (alt. about 1,700 
feet), San Jose* de Maipo (alt. 3,000 feet), and even near sea level 
at Tofo, Coquimbo, and Caldera. 

There is, however, not the least evidence to support E. C. Reed's 
surmise (Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 200, 1896) that S. uropygialis is a 
resident in Tarapaca, where its place is obviously taken by S. atratus. 

S. uropygialis is so closely related to the Black Siskin that one 
is tempted to associate it subspecifically. The only differences are 
its yellow rump, breast, and abdomen, and the yellowish oil-green 
margins to the back and upper tail coverts. The importance of at 
least one of these characters is lessened by the occasional presence 
of yellowish edges to the rump in certain individuals of S. atratus. 
Still I hesitate to propose any change in current nomenclature in 
view of the fact that P. Gosse, 1 while a member of Fitz Gerald's 
Aconcagua Expedition, secured five typical specimens of S. uropy- 
gialis in December, 1896, at Puente del Inca and Punta de las 
Vacas (alt. 7,546 to 9,170 feet), in the Mendoza region, which I 
am quite unable to distinguish from Chilean birds. Weisshaupt, 
on the other hand, took equally typical examples of S. atratus, in 
February, 1871, near Mendoza, two of which I have examined in 
the British Museum. Burmeister, 2 too, records S. atratus from the 
Sierra de Uspallata, and Landbeck, 3 who was well acquainted with 
S. uropygialis, states that S. atratus is sometimes found near the 
passes of Uspallata and Portillo. It is, of course, quite possible 
that one of the two species may be merely a migratory visitor to 
the Mendoza region, but until this point has been satisfactorily 
cleared up, it seems preferable to regard them provisionally as 
specifically distinct. 

48. Sicalis luteola 4 luteiventris (Meyen) 

Fringilla luteiventris Meyen, Nov. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol., 16, Suppl., 
p. 87, pi. 12, fig. 3, 1834 near Api, Alto de Toledo, southern Peru (type 
in Berlin Museum examined); Kittlitz (3), p. 172 Valley of Quillota. 

l Melanomitris uropygialis Gosse in Fitz Gerald, The Highest Andes, p. 347, 
1899. 

2 Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 490, 1861. The female appears to belong to some 
other species. 

3 Zool. Garten, 18, p. 254, 1877. 

*Emberiza luteola Sparrman (Mus. Carlson., fasc. 4, pi. 93, 1789 locality 
unknown) is an earlier name for Sycalis minor Cabanis (in Schomburgk, Reisen 
Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 679, "1848" British Guiana), as has been pointed out long 



88 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Fringilla arvensis Kittlitz, M6m. Acad. Sci. St. P&ersb., sav. 6tr., 2, p. 470, 
pi. 4, August, 1835 Valley of Quillota, Chile (type in Leningrad Museum; 
cf. Chrostowski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 1, p. 19, 1921). 
Crithagra (?) brevirostris Darwin, p. 88 part, Valparaiso; Fraser (1), p. 112 

Chile; Yarrell, p. 53 (egg). 

Grithagra brevirostris Des Murs (2), p. 361 Valparaiso (ex Darwin); Germain, 
p. 312 Santiago (nesting habits); Philippi (8), Reise, p. 163 Quebrada 
de La Encantada, Atacama; idem (12), p. 266 Chile in general; Landbeck 
(9), p. 258 (habits); Lataste (1), p. CXV Ninhue, Maule; idem (4), p. 
XXXIV Caillihue, Curic6; Waugh and Lataste (1), p. LXXXVII 
Penaflor, Santiago; idem (2), p. CLXXII San Alfonso, Quillota. 
Crithagra luteiventris Cassin, p. 181 "in the Andes" [of Chile]; Pelzeln (2), 

p. 95 Chile. 

Sycalis luteoventris Bibra, p. 130 Cordillera of Santiago. 
Sycalis arvensis Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 323, 338 Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 545 
Cauquenes, Colchagua; idem (4), p. 200 Chile; Lane, p. 24 Hacienda 
Mansel, Rio Bueno, Puerto Montt, and Laguna Llanquihue (habits); 
Schalow (2), p. 722 Tumbes; Albert (1), 108, p. 203 Chile (monog.); 
Passler (2), p. 29 Coronel (nest and eggs); Housse (2), p. 147 San Ber- 
nardo; idem (3), p. 226 Isla La Mocha; Gigoux, p. 84 Caldera, Atacama; 
Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 110 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso; Bullock (4), p. 
189 Angol, Malleco. 
Sycalis luteola (not Emberiza luteola Sparrman) Salvin (2), p. 422 Coquimbo 

and Talcaguano. 
Sicalis arvensis arvensis Barros (4), p. 148 Nilahue, Curic6; idem (5), p. 

188 Precordillera of Aconcagua; idem (10), p. 362 Aconcagua. 
Sycalis 1. luteiventris Passler (3), p. 476 Coronel (nesting habits). 
Range in Chile. From Atacama to Chilce* and the Guaitecas 
Islands. 

Material collected. Atacama: Ramadilla, Copiapo Valley, cf 
ad., Aug. 23; cf imm., Caldera, April 17. E. Gigoux. Concepcion: 
Hacienda Gualpencillo, two cf cf ad., March 28, April 3. Malleco: 
Curacautin, cf ad., 9 ad., Jan. 8, 11. Valdivia: Mafil, two cf cf 
ad., one 9 ad., one cf juv., Feb. 14-27. Chiloe" Island: Quellon, 
five cf cf ad., two cf cf juv., Dec. 26-Jan. 5. Guaitecas Islands: 
La Senda, Guaiteca Island, cf ad., Feb. 3. 

Additional specimens. Aconcagua: Los Andes (alt. 3,000 feet), 
cf ad., Aug. 20, 1924. R. Barros (Field Museum). Concepcion: 
Tumbes, 9 ad., June, 1894. L. Plate (Berlin Museum). Valdivia: 

ago by Sundevall (Vetenskaps Akad. Handl., 2, No. 3, p. 14, 1857). Professor E. 
Lonnberg, to whom specimens of the Guianan race and allied species were for- 
warded, on my request kindly re-examined the types in the Stockholm Museum 
and, under date of April 5, 1922, writes to the effect that Sundevall's identification 
is perfectly correct. The type is slightly smaller (wing 60; tail 40 mm.) than the 
average of S. a. minor auct., but its bill is of the same size and shape. S. luteola 
thus becomes the specific name for the striped-backed Sicalis of South America. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 89 

Desagiie, near Puerto Montt, d" ad., Aug. 21, 1895. G. Hopke 
(Berlepsch Collection) ; Valdivia, two 9 9 ad., Oct. 2, 1894. A. von 
Lossberg (Berlepsch Collection). "Chile" (unspecified) : six cf cf ad., 
two 9 9 ad. 

The name F. luteiventris, misapplied by Sharpe (Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., 12, p. 383, 1888) to the Sicalis form of the highlands of Colom- 
bia and Ecuador, has been shown by Reichenow 1 to refer to the larger 
southern race universally known as S. a. arvensis. Careful compari- 
son of the type from the Alto de Toledo (an elevated mountain 
range along the boundary line of the departments of Moquegua 
and Puno) and a series of adults from Puno City and the upper 
Urubamba Valley in southern Peru with twenty-five Chilean speci- 
mens fails to reveal any differences either in size 2 or in color. The 
under parts in the Peruvian birds are by no means brighter or deeper 
yellow, as has been claimed by Chapman, 3 nor can I discern any 
constant divergency in the coloring or streaking of the upper surface. 
Under these circumstances I have no alternative but to follow 
Reichenow in uniting luteiventris and arvensis, though I do so reluc- 
tantly as there exists an apparent gap in the range, no Sicalis of 
this type having been recorded from the northern section of Chile 
comprised between the valley of Copiapo and the Tacna frontier. 

Birds from western and northern Peru (Lima; Chinchao, 
Huanuco; Santiago, Cajamarca, Cajabamba, Chusgon, Huamachuco) 
merely differ by smaller size and by having frequently, though not 
always, a more or less distinct whitish spot on the inner web of the 
outermost rectrix. Their proper name is S. luteola raimondii 
Taczanowski. 4 

This whitish marking is of quite exceptional occurrence in S. 
luteiventris, for out of more than forty specimens from Chile and 
southern Peru I find it only on two adult males from Puno City. 

S. I. luteiventris is widely distributed in Chile, particularly in 
the central and southern provinces. It is chiefly found in the low- 
lands and foothills, and is hardly ever seen above 5,000 feet. Ac- 
cording to Landbeck and Barros, it is migratory to some extent, 
and after the breeding season congregates in large flocks. 

1 Journ. Orn., 65, p. 513, 1917. 

2 Sixteen adult males measure on the wing from 74 to 78; one (the type) from 
Alto de Toledo, 76; five from Puno City, 74-78; one from Urubamba, 75 mm. 

3 Amer. Mus. Novit., 143, pp. 13-14, 1924. 

*Sycalis raimondii (Jelski MS.) Taczanowski, P. Z. S. Lond., p. 133, 1874 
vicinity of Lima. 



90 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

In southern Peru, on the other hand, this bird lives at great 
altitudes, between 10,000 and 13,000 feet. 

49. Sicalis 1 uropygialis uropygialis (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) 

Emberiza uropygialis Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 
7, cl. 2, p. 75, 1837 "in summis Andibus, Bolivia" (type from an un- 
specified locality in Bolivia examined in Paris Museum). 

Sycalis uropygialis Sclater (4), 1886, p. 397 Huasco and Sitani, Tarapaca. 

Pseudochloris uropygialis Lane, p. 23 Sacaya and Cancosa, Tarapaca; E. 
Reed (4), p. 200 Tarapaca; Albert (1), 108, p. 228 Tarapaca and 
"Arica" (monog.). 

Range in Chile. Northern provinces of Antofagasta and 
Tarapaca. 

Material collected. Antofagasta: twenty miles east of San Pedro 
(alt. 12,600 feet), cf ad., Sept. 18. Tarapaca: Chintaguai, Quebrada 
de Quisma (alt. 4,000 feet), cT imm., May 24. 

Additional specimens. Tarapaca: Huasco, d" ad., Feb. 15, 1886; 
Sitani, cf ad., 9 ad., Jan. 17, 1886. C. F. Rahmer (British Museum). 

The intensity of the gray on the upper parts in this species is 
subject to much individual variation, while in worn plumage the 
dusky shaft-streaks of the dorsal feathers are much more prominent 
than in freshly molted birds. Comparison of a fair series from 
Bolivia, northern Chile, and northwestern Argentine (Cerro Munoz, 
Tucuman; Santa Catalina, Jujuy) fails to reveal any racial distinc- 
tion. The sides of the head are as a rule plain ash gray, as claimed 
by Chapman, though our bird from San Pedro and the type of 
Crithagra pentlandi Bonaparte 2 have the cheeks and anterior portion 
of the auriculars decidedly olive yellow, just a little duller than the 
crown, thus closely resembling S. u. connectens (Chapman). 3 Speci- 
mens from Puno City and Lake Titicaca (Chililaya), by reason of 
their gray sides of the head, seem more properly referable to typical 
uropygialis than to connectens, which I would restrict to the upper 
Urubamba Valley. S. u. sharpei (Berl. & Stolzm.), from Junin and 
Huanuco, differ by entirely olive yellow sides of the head and by 
lacking the pale gray area on the flanks. 

S. u. uropygialis is found in the valleys of the Cordilleras and on 
the surrounding slopes up to 13,000 feet. According to Lane, they 

1 It seems to me that neither Pseudochloris Sharpe nor Pseudosicalis Chubb are 
properly separable from Sicalis, 

2 Consp. Gen. Av., 1, p. 521, 1850 locality unknown, but presumably Bolivia. 

3 Pseudochloris uropygialis connectens Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
41, p. 329, 1919 La Raya, head of Urubamba Valley, Dept. Puno, Peru. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 91 

generally resort to altitudes of 8,000 feet and upwards. Sanborn, 
however, secured a specimen in juvenile molt as low as 4,000 feet 
in the foothills east of Pica. Birds taken by Rahmer in January 
and February in the Cordillera of Tarapaca are in worn breeding 
plumage. 

50. Sicalis auriventris Philippi and Landbeck 

Syealis auriventris Philippi and Landbeck, Arch. Naturg., 30, (1), p. 49, 1864 
Cordilleras of the province of Santiago; Landbeck (9), p. 255 Prov. 
Santiago (habits). 

Syealis aureiventris Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 24, p. 342, 1864 same 
locality; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 323, 338 (crit.); idem, Ibis, 1872, p. 47, 
pi. 3 Cordilleras of Santiago; Philippi (12), p. 264 Cordilleras of central 
provinces; E. Reed (2), p. 545 Valle de los Cipreses and Valle del Yeso, 
Colchagua; Philippi (24), p. 57, pi. 19, fig. 1 Cordilleras of central provinces. 

Pseudochloris aureiventris E. Reed (4), p. 200 Chile; Albert (1), 108, p. 226 
Cordilleras of Chile (monog.); Barros (5), p. 188 Cordillera of Aconcagua. 

Emberiza luteocephala (not of Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Bridges, p. 113 the 
elevated valleys of the Andes [of Colchagua], east and west sides. 

Range in Chile. High Cordilleras from Antofagasta to 
Colchagua. 

Material collected. Antofagasta: twenty miles east of San Pedro 
(alt. 12,600 feet), <? ad., Oct. 5. Coquimbo: Bafios del Toro (alt. 
10,600 feet), three d*d* ad., one 9 ad., Nov. 8-18. Santiago: San 
Jose" de Maipo (alt. 3,000 feet), rf 1 imm., Dec. 18. 

Additional specimens. Aconcagua: Cajon de Castro (alt. 3,500 
meters), 9 juv., Feb. 24, 1926. R. Barros (Field Museum). San- 
tiago: Cordilleras of Santiago, two c? cf ad., two 9 9 ad., one 9 
juv. L. Landbeck (British Museum). "Chile:" d" ad., 9 ad. 
Renault (Paris Museum); d" ad. E. C. Reed (Berlepsch Collection). 

Wing 95-98, (female) 93-95; tail 58-64, (female) 57-61; bill 
11-12^ mm. 

Aside from certain seasonal differences due to the freshness of 
the plumage, the Antofagasta bird agrees with adult males from 
more southern localities. The Banos del Toro specimens are in very 
worn condition, and were doubtless breeding, whereas the single 
male taken at San Jose" de Maipo shows traces of immaturity. 

S. auriventris is reported to be an inhabitant of the high Cordil- 
leras, from about 6,000 feet up to the snow line. It was discovered 
by Landbeck in February, 1861, near the Laguna de los Piuquenes, 
where the birds were nesting, and was afterwards found at various 
other localities (Yerba Loca, las Araucas, Valle Larga, Valle Ploma, 



92 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

etc.) in the Cordillera of Santiago. E. Reed lists it as a summer 
visitor for the mountain valleys of Colchagua, while Barros found 
it breeding in the Aconcagua Valley from 6,000 feet upwards. Dur- 
ing migration it is met with at lower altitudes, but at the end of 
April or early in May it disappears completely from the Aconcagua 
Valley, and does not return to its nesting grounds until October. 
The taking of a breeding series at Baiios del Toro, Coquimbo, by 
Mr. Sanborn considerably extends its range to the north. The 
single specimen secured near San Pedro, Antofagasta, which is in 
fairly fresh plumage, may have been a migrant from the south, 
however. 

Outside of Chile, S. auriventris is known to occur on the Argentine 
slope of the Andes from west of Mendoza 1 to the region south of 
Lake Nahuel Huapi. 2 Three adult males (in worn breeding plumage) 
from Puente del Inca, Mendoza, collected in December, 1896, by 
the Fitz Gerald Aconcagua Expedition, differ nowise from Chilean 
examples, their seemingly more "saturated" coloration being merely 
due to their greasy condition. P. a. incae, consequently, sinks as a 
pure synonym of S. auriventris. 

S. auriventris is a very distinct species, perhaps most nearly 
related to the Bolivian S. luteocephala (Lafr. and d'Orb.), and, in 
addition to color characters, is immediately recognizable by its large 
size. 

51. Sicalis olivascens chloris Tschudi 

Sycalis chloris (Cabanis MS.) Tschudi, Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 216, 1846 Peru 
(the type examined in the Berlin Museum was obtained by B. Philippi 
and is labeled "Cinchon forests of Peru"). 

Sycalis aureiventris (not of Philippi and Landbeck) Sclater (4), 1886, p. 397 
Chumisa, Tarapaca (spec, examined); Gigoux, p. 84 Caldera, Atacama. 

Pseudochloris aureiventris Sclater (6), 1891, p. 133 Sacaya, Tarapaca; Lane, 
p. 23 Andean Valleys of Tarapaca. 

Pseudochloris chloris Albert (1), 108, p. 225 Tarapaca and "Arica" (monog.). 
Range in Chile. Northern provinces, from Atacama to Tacna. 

Material collected. Antofagasta: twenty miles east of San Pedro 
(alt. 12,600 feet), four <? cf ad., three 9 9 ad., April 30, Oct. 3-5. 

1 Sycalis lutea (not Emberiza lutea Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Gosse in Fitz 
Gerald, The Highest Andes, p. 352, 1899 Puente del Inca. Pseudochloris aurei- 
ventris incae Chubb, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 39, p. 71, 1919 Puente del Inca, Acon- 
cagua Valley (types in British Museum examined). 

2 Pseudosicalis aureiventris Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 331, 1923 
Huanuluan, western Rio Negro. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 93 

Atacama: Domeyko (63 km. south of Vallenar), three 0*0" imm., 
two 9 9 ad., Aug. 11-16. 

Additional specimens. Tarapaca: Chumisa, cf ad., Jan. 2, 1886. 
C. F. Rahmer (British Museum). 

Wing 83-86, (female) 80-85; tail 52-56, (female) 51-55; bill 
10-11. 

This series has been carefully compared with the type courteously 
forwarded by Dr. Stresemann and with specimens from the western 
Andes of Peru both in Field Museum and in the British Museum. 
The type, an adult male in fresh plumage (Berlin Museum, No. 
6,163), agrees perfectly in size and coloration with birds from the 
Andes above Lima (Matucana and San Mateo), and was doubtless 
secured somewhere in the Temperate Zone of the Western Cordillera. 1 
Birds from southern Ayacucho (Pausa) and Arequipa as well as 
those from northern Chile appear to be inseparable, although their 
bills are on average, though by no means constantly, slightly smaller. 
The Chumisa specimen, identified by the late P. L. Sclater as S. 
auriventris, is quite different from that species and resembles in 
every particular adult males from Antofagasta. 

S. o. chloris would thus seem to range throughout the temperate 
region of the Western Andes from above Lima 2 south to Antofagasta. 3 
At Domeyko, Atacama, Mr. Sanborn tells me, these finches were 
congregated in flocks, and appeared to be on migration. 

S. o. chloris* belongs to a section of the genus Sicalis that spreads 
in a number of closely allied forms over an extensive area of the 

J The collector Bernhard Philippi (a brother of the Chilean naturalist) is 
known to have traveled from Lima to Maraynioc and thence down to the tropical 
forests. Some of his specimens in the Berlin Museum are definitely marked 
"Maraynioch." 

1 Farther north in the Dept. Libertad, at Otuzco, Chusgon, and Huamachuco, 
it is replaced by a smaller form with thicker, stouter bill, S. o. salrini (Chubb). 
Wing (six specimens) 73-76; tail 47-53. It was described as Pseudochloris salrini 
(Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 39, p. 70, 1919). 

'The specimen recorded as Pseudochloris lutea by Allen (Bull. Amer. Mus. N. 
H., 2, p. 83, 1889) proves, on re-examination, to pertain to S. o. olivascens. It is 
an adult male in good plumage, and compares well with Bolivian skins. It certainly 
never came from "Valparaiso," but was most probably obtained somewhere near 
La Paz, Bolivia. 

4 S. o. chloris has frequently been confused with S. lutea (Lafr. & d'Orb.), 
although the two birds are altogether different, as correctly pointed out by Berlepsch 
and Stolzmann (Ornis, 13, Part 2, p. 68, Sept., 1906). S. lutea, which is well- 
figured in Ibis, 1872, pi. 2, fig. 2, from a specimen obtained by H. Whitely, at 
Tinta, Peru, on June 23, 1868, may be readily distinguished from S. o. chloris and 
S. o. olivascens by bright olive yellow upper parts (without traces of dusky streaks), 
passing almost into canary yellow on the rump; bright yellow sides of the head 
and ventral surface, without any greenish tinge on the flanks; bright yellow margins 



94 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Andes from Peru south to Patagonia. With the comparatively 
limited material at present available it is hardly possible to more 
than outline their approximate ranges. 

S. o. olivascens (Lafr. & d'Orb.) 1 was originally based on a couple 
of adults from La Paz, Bolivia, of which the male has apparently 
been lost. There is, however, a series of adult birds from that 
locality in the Berlepsch Collection, and as the females agree with 
the female type in the Paris Museum, the proper pertinence of the 
name olivascens is established beyond doubt. This form is exceed- 
ingly similar to S. o. Moris, from western Peru and northern Chile, 
but has a slightly longer tail (56-62; female 53-58) and a rather 
slenderer bill, while the under parts are of a somewhat brighter 
yellow in the male sex. Birds from Tapacari, Cochabamba, in the 
British Museum and others in the Berlepsch Collection from the 
Cuzco region (Lucre; Urubamba) are similar to the series from 
La Paz. 

S. o. berlepschi (Me'ne'gaux) 2 from Pulacayo, Lake Poopo, Oruro, 
the types of which I have closely compared in the Paris Museum, 
is of doubtful standing. In coloration, the male does not differ 
from S. o. chloris, but it is even larger than S. o. olivascens, the wing 
measuring fully 90 (against 80-87, in twelve males from La Paz, 
Tapacari, and Cuzco), while the tail (60 mm.), in contradiction to 
Me'ne'gaux' statement, is not shorter. An adult male from Oruro 
(alt. 3,700 meters), August 15, 1901, P. 0. Simons coll., in the British 
Museum, even exceeds these measurements (wing 92; tail 63), but 
on the lower parts it is brighter yellowish, more like S. o. olivascens, 

to wing and tail feathers; shorter, proportionately deeper bill with more convex 
culmen, and blackish (instead of pale brown) legs. Of this species I have examined 
an adult male from Oruro and a young bird from Santiago, Bolivia, collected by 
d'Orbigny (the types), and an adult male from Rinconada (road from Arequipa 
to Cuzco), Peru, coll. Castelnau, at Paris; an adult male from Sajama (alt. 4,000 
meters), Bolivia, June 28, 1897, G. Garlepp, in the Berlepsch Collection; an adult 
male and an unsexed young bird taken by H. Whitely on June 23, 1868, at Tinta, 
Urubamba, Peru; a young male from Colca, Calalla River (alt. 3,500 meters), 
Arequipa, June 19, 1900, coll. P. O. Simons; and finally an adult male from an un- 
specified locality in Bolivia, coll. Bridges, the last four in the British Museum. 

What Sharpe (Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 775, 1888) considered as the "young 
male" of his P. lutea (spec, e, f, g, h) proves to be S. o. olivascens, but he also 
included an example (spec, a) of S. o. mendozae under the same heading. 

Chapman (Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. Ill, 1921) seems to have made the 
same mistake, and I have little doubt that the Tirapata specimens commented on 
under P. c. chloris are really referable to S. lutea. 

l Emberiza olivascens Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 
7, cl. 2, p. 75, 1837 La Paz, Bolivia (female type in Paris Museum examined). 

2 Pseudochloris olivascens berlepschi MSne'gaux, Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, (10), 
1, p. 212, 1909 Pulacayo, Lake Poopo, Oruro, Bolivia (types in Paris Museum 
examined). 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 95 

although one from San Mateo, Lima (S. o. ddoris), runs very close. 
A single female (from Pulacayo) can hardly be told from S. o. oli- 
mscens. Until a satisfactory series shall have become available, it 
is impossible to say whether S. o. berlepschi is really separable from 
S. o. olivascens, although the few specimens at hand point to the 
possible existence of a larger form on the Oruro plateau. 

In northwestern Argentina (provinces of Jujuy, Tucumdn, Los 
Andes, and Catamarca) another nearly allied race, S. o. sordida 
(Chapman) 1 is found. It is exceedingly close to S. o. olivascens, 
but perhaps separable in the male sex by somewhat duller upper 
and under parts with more olivaceous shading on the throat, chest, 
and sides. Dimensions about the same: wing 83-87, (female) 81-86; 
tail 54-60, (female) 52-56. Direct comparison of the types with 
Jujuy specimens proves Pseudochloris stewarti Chubb 2 to be an abso- 
lute synonym of S. o. sordida. Specimens have been examined from 
Jujuy (Tilcara 3, Maimara 2, Angusta Perchela 1), Tucuman (Lara 
2, Cerro Mufioz 1), Catamarca (Gualfin 1, Corral Quemado 1), and 
Los Andes (Antofagasta 2). 

S. o. mendozae (Sharpe), 3 from the Andes west of Mendoza, 4 is 
very similar to S. o. sordida, but much smaller, while the males 
appear to be of a somewhat brighter, more yellowish coloration. 
Six specimens measure as follows: wing 76-78; tail 51-53; bill 
10 mm. 

The last member of this group is S. lebruni (Oustalet), 5 which 
is again larger, being of about the same size as S. o. sordida, but 
differs from its allies by grayish (instead of olive yellow) outer 
margins to the remiges, nearly whitish tail edging, grayish flanks, 
largely white-tipped under tail coverts, etc. It ranges from 
western Rio Negro throughout Patagonia to the Gobernacion de 
Santa Cruz. In addition to the type, we have examined specimens 
from Huanuluan (two), Maquinchao (two), and Valle del Lago 
Blanco, Chubut (six). 

1 Pseudochloris olivascens sordida Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 41, p. 
330, 1919 Tilcara, Jujuy. 

*E1 Hornero, 3, No. 1, pp. 34, 35, pi. 1, figs. 1, 2, Feb., 1923 Gualfin, 
Catamarca. 

* Pseudochloris mendozae Sharpe, Cat.B. Brit. Mus., 12, p. 778, 1888 Mendoza. 

*Sicalis lutea Wetmore (Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 403, 1926), from near 
Potrerillos, Mendoza, likewise refers to S. o. mendozae, as I am informed by the 
author. 

* Pseudochloris lebruni Oustalet, Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, 6, p. B 98, 1891 
Misioneros, Patagonia (type in Paris Museum examined). 



96 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

52. Saltator aurantiirostris albociliaris (Philippi and Landbeck) 

Pitylus albociliaris Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 19, p. 611, 
1861 Socoroma (alt. 5,000 feet), "Peru"=Prov. Tacna; idem, Arch. 
Naturg., 29, (1), p. 122, 1863 Socoroma. 

Range in Chile. Extreme north, in province of Tacna. 

Unfortunately this species was not met with by Mr. Sanborn, 
and its claim to be included in the Chilean fauna rests exclusively 
on the taking by Frobeen of an adult male in July, 1853, at Socoroma, 
in the Cordillera of Tacna, at an elevation of 5,000 feet. 

The description seems to correspond to birds from southern Peru 
and, pending the receipt of topotypical material, we follow Dr. 
Chapman 1 in accepting the name albociliaris for the form later 
described as S. latidamus by Sclater and Salvin. 2 

53. Passer domesticus domesticus (Linnaeus) 

Fringilla domestica Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 183, 1758 Europe; 
restricted type locality Sweden. 

Passer domesticus Barros (2), Anal. Zool. Aplic., 4, pp. 10-15, 1917; Schneider, 
1. c., 7, p. 5, 1920 Chiguayante, Concepcion; Housse (2), p. 147 San 
Bernardo; Gigoux, p. 85 Caldera; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 110 Marga- 
Marga Valley, Valparaiso; Bullock (4), p. 192 Angol, Malleco. 

Passer domesticus domesticus Barros (5), p. 189 Aconcagua; idem (8), p. 
140 Rio Blanco, Aconcagua; idem (10), p. 363 Aconcagua. 

Range in Chile. From Antofagasta to Malleco. 

Material collected. Atacama: Caldera, two cfcf ad., two 9 9 
ad., April 16, 1924; Nov. 5, Dec. 5, 1923. E. Gigoux. 

From the investigation of R. Barros (2) it results that the 
English Sparrow was first introduced into Chile by Alberto Cousino 
in 1904. In 1917, Barros found it fairly common at Santiago and 
vicinity, and met with it also at Cutemo, on the coast of Curico. 
Schneider records a specimen taken in the spring of 1918 on the out- 
skirts of Chiguayante, Concepcion. Barros (5), in 1921, lists it as 
a resident for Los Andes and Rio Blanco, Aconcagua, where it had 
been introduced several years previously by a Frenchman. 

Since then, the English Sparrow has conquered additional terri- 
tory in Chile. Mr. Gigoux sent us specimens from Caldera, Atacama, 

'Amer. Mus. Novit., 261, pp. 13, 15, 19, 1927. 

"The specimen from "near Valparaiso, June, 1885" recorded by Allen (p. 82) 
was, of course, incorrectly labeled, and probably originated from Bolivia. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 97 

where it made its first appearance in September, 1919, and has since 
spread over the greater part of the Copiapo Valley. The members 
of the Museum expedition noticed it even at the port of Anto- 
fagasta, in the province of the same name. 

Housse mentions the species as being common in the vicinity of 
San Bernardo since 1922. Jaffuel and Pirion, in 1926, noticed it 
for the first time in the Marga-Marga Valley, Valparaiso, and 
Bullock gives January 5, 1929, as the date when the first specimens 
were seen at Angol, Malleco. 

54. Thraupis bonariensis darwinii (Bonaparte) 

Tanagra darwinii Bonaparte, P. Z. S. Lond., 5, "1837," p. 121, June, 1838 
"Chile." 1 

Tanagra striata (not of Gmelin) Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 159 Sibaya, Tarapaca. 
Range in Chile. Extreme north, in provinces of Tacna and 
Tarapaca. 

Material collected. Tacna: Putre (alt. 11,600 feet), one d" ad., 
three 9 9 ad., July 4-7. 

The specimens agree with others from western Peru. This 
tanager has not previously been mentioned from Chile, though 
Philippi's record of "T. striata" from Sibaya, Tarapaca, doubtless 
refers to the present species. 

T. bonariensis and T. darwinii are clearly conspecific. Females 
are hardly distinguishable, while the male of the western form merely 
differs by greenish (instead of black) mantle and bright yellow 
(instead of orange) rump and lower parts. Geographically they 
replace each other, T. bonariensis ranging from eastern Bolivia 
(Cochabamba) 2 through the northern half of Argentina east into 
Uruguay and Rio Grande do Sul, whereas T. darwinii* inhabits the 
Andean regions from Ecuador south to western Bolivia (La Paz) 
and the extreme north of Chile. 

Bonaparte's statement that the type "in the British Museum" was "brought 
to this country by the expedition under Capt. Fitzroy" appears to be incorrect. 
No specimen of this bird was collected by Captain Fitzroy, the commander of the 
"Beagle," of which Darwin was the naturalist; but in the Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 11, 
p. 164, male and female of T. bonariensis are listed from "Maldonado, Uruguay, 
Burnett and Fitzroy." Yet, Bonaparte's description corresponds so well to the 
characters of the western form that there is hardly any doubt as to what he had 
in mind. 

*I am now inclined to refer the single female (not in very good condition) 
from Palca, Ayapuya, mentioned by me (Nov. Zool., 30, p. 238, 1923) to T. b. 
bonariensis rather than T. 6. darwinii. 

*T. darwini laeta Berl. & Stolzm. seems to be inseparable. 



98 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

[Tangara chilensis (Vigors), 1 originally credited to "Chile," is known 
to be confined to the Amazonian slope of the Andes from Colombia 
to Bolivia. 

Cacicus (now Archiplanus) albirostris Vieillot included by Gay 
(p. 344) among the birds of Chile is restricted to the central table- 
land of Brazil and the adjacent districts of Bolivia, Argentina, and 
Paraguay.] 

55. Molothrus bonariensis bonariensis (Gmelin) 

Tanagra bonariensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 898, 1789 based on "Tan- 
gavio" Buffon and Daubenton, PL Enl. 710, Buenos Aires. 

Molothrus bonariensis Des Murs (2), p. 347 "Chile"; E. Reed (4), p. 200 
Chile; Albert (1), 101, p. 923 Chile (monog.); Rahmer, Bol. Mus. Nac. 
Chile, 4, p. 207 Machali (Rancagua), O'Higgins, and Banos de Cauquenes, 
Colchagua; C. Reed, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 17, p. 173 Coronel, Concep- 
ci6n, and Limache, Valparaiso; Passler (3), p. 479 Coronel (eggs descr.); 
Housse (2), p. 148 San Bernardo, Santiago; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 109 
Marga-Marga Valley, Valparaiso; Bullock (4), p. 188 Angol, Malleco. 

Molobrus bonariensis Philippi (12), p. 262 prov. of Santiago; Landbeck (9), 
p. 251 vicinity of Santiago. 

Molothrus bonariensis bonariensis Barros (5), p. 191 Los Andes (Aconcagua), 
Talagante (Santiago), Rauco, Cutemo, and Nilahue (Curico); idem (8), 
p. 142 Nilahue, Curico; idem (10), p. 364 Los Andes and Rio Blanco, 
Aconcagua. 

Range in Chile. Central provinces, from Coquimbo to Malleco. 

Material collected. Coquimbo: Romero, d" (first annual), July 
31, 1923. Valparaiso: Palmilla, La Cruz (alt. 150 meters), d" (first 
annual), 9 ad., Nov. 17, 1924. J. A. Wolffsohn. Santiago: Lampa, 
9 ad., June 1, 1924. C. S. Reed; San Jose" de Maipo (alt. 3,000 feet), 
cf juv., Dec. 19, 1923. Colchagua: Pelequen, two cf d 1 (first 
annual), 9 ad., July 12, 1923. C. S. Reed. 

The Chilean males, most of them unfortunately in first annual 
dress, are decidedly less purplish on head and hindneck than the few 
Argentine birds in corresponding plumage available for comparison. 
One would be tempted to attribute this difference to geographic 
variation, were it not an established fact that the Cowbird is a 
comparatively recent immigrant to Chile. 

Philippi, writing in 1868, knew of only two specimens, which had 
been found dead in the vicinity of Santiago. Landbeck, in 1877, 
states that it is of very rare occurrence in Chile, while Edwyn Reed 

1 Aglaia Chilensis Vigors, Proc. Comm. Sci. Corr. Zool. Soc. Lond., 2, p. 3, 
1832. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 99 

(2) does not include it in his avifauna of the Hacienda de Cauquenes 
published in the same year, nor did Lataste, on his numerous ex- 
cursions from 1889-95, ever meet with this bird. In 1905, C. Reed 

(3) took a single female on the hills of Coronel, near Concepcion. 
Since that time the species has been steadily increasing in numbers, 
and has spread over a large section of central Chile. According to 
Rahmer (3), considerable flocks were observed near Machali, east 
of Rancagua, O'Higgins, in the fall of 1910 and 1911, and at about 
the same period it was noticed near Baiios de Cauquenes. In the 
summer of 1912, C. Reed (3) found the species common at Limache, 
Valparaiso. In the vicinity of San Bernardo R. Housse met with the 
first specimens in 1912, and since 1921 it has established itself there 
in small numbers. Passler (3), who lived in Coronel from the end 
of August, 1914, to October, 1918, records its presence in that 
neighborhood, describing its eggs (eight taken) and parasitic habits. 
R. Barros (5) mentions it as a rare resident in the Precordillera of 
Aconcagua up to 5,000 feet, and adds that he also observed it at 
various localities in Curico, while one of his correspondents, Professor 
Prado, reported its occurrence, in 1916, at Talagante, Prov. Santiago. 
In the Angol Valley, Malleco, according to Bullock, it has become 
settled only during the past fifteen or twenty years. 

Sanborn shot a bird in juvenile plumage at San Jos de Maipo 
(alt. 3,000 feet), Prov. Santiago, and a nearly mature male at 
Romero, Coquimbo, which marks the northern limit of the actual 
range of the Cowbird in Chile. Other specimens have been received 
by the Museum, as listed above, from the provinces of Valparaiso, 
Santiago, and Colchagua. 

Both Carlos Reed and Rafael Barros believe it to be very unlikely 
that the Cowbird, avoiding, as it does, the higher mountain ranges, 
crossed the Andes unaided from Mendoza, where it is known to be 
abundant, and advance the theory that its present Chilean population 
may have originated from liberated cage-birds which are frequently 
imported from Argentina. 

56. Molothrus badius badius (Vieillot) 

Agelaius badius Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. &L, 34, p. 535, 1819 
based on Azara, No. 63; Paraguay and La Plata River. 

Agelaioides badius Friedmann, The Cowbirds, p. 5, 1929 Curic6, Chile. 

Range in Chile. Recently introduced in the central section 
(Curico). 



100 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Material examined. Curico: cT ad., Dec., 1923. Carlos S. Reed 
(Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.). 

The single specimen courteously loaned by Mr. Outram Bangs 
agrees in dimensions (wing 90; tail 78; bill 18) with a series from 
Paraguay, Uruguay, and Buenos Aires. 

So far as I know, this species has not otherwise been recorded 
from Chile. According to the collector's note on the label, it has 
but recently been introduced from Argentina. 

57. Agelaius thilius thilius (Molina) 

Turdus thilius Molina, Saggio Stor. Nat. Chile, pp. 250, 345, 1782 Chile 
(descr. of male); Kittlitz (3), p. 175 Quillota, Valparaiso. 

Xanthornus chrysocarpus Vigors, Proc. Comm. Sci. Corresp. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
2, p. 3, March, 1832 Chile (descr. of male and female); Kittlitz (3), p. 
177 Quillota. 

Agelaius xanthocarpus Bonaparte, Consp. Av., 1, p. 430, 1850 "Peru" = Chile 
(types in Paris Museum examined). 1 

Xanthornus chilensis (Reichenbach MS.) Bibra, Denks. math.-naturw. Kl. 
Ak. Wiss. Wien, 5, p. 130, 1853 twelve hours from Valparaiso in a low, 
swampy region. 

Xanthornus chrysopterus (not of Vieillot) Darwin, p. 106 Chile as far north 
as the valley of Copiap6. 

Icterus thilius Meyen, p. 84 northern Chile; Fraser (1), p. 113 Chile (habits); 
Yarrell, p. 53 (eggs). 

Cacicus chrysocarpus Des Murs (2), p. 345 Chile (ex Vigors); Waugh and 
Lataste (1), p. LXXXVI Penaflor, Santiago (plumages); idem (2), p. 
CLXXI San Alfonso, Quillota. 

Xanthornus cayennensis Des Mure (2), p. 346 Copiapo Valley; Boeck, p. 
503 near Valdivia; Philippi (2), p. 13 Chile (crit.); Frauenfeld, p. 637 
near Valparaiso; Philippi (12), p. 262 Chile (crit.); Landbeck (9), p. 
251 Chile (habits); Lataste (2), p. XXXIV Caillihue, Curic6; idem 
(5), p. LXII Llohue, Maule. 

Agelaius thilius Cassin, p. 170, pi. 16, fig. 1 Chile; Salvin (2), p. 422 Co- 
quimbo; Allen, p. 84 Valparaiso; Lane, p. 25 Hacienda Mansel (San- 
tiago), Arauco, and Rio Bueno (Valdivia); Schalow (2), p. 721 Ovalle 
(Coquimbo) and Santiago (egg descr.); Albert (1), 101, p. 919 Chile 
(monog.); Housse (1), p. 49 Isla La Mocha; idem (2), p. 148 San 
Bernardo. 

Agelaius theleus Germain, p. 311 Santiago (nesting habits). 

ir Fhe types, Nos. 6,166, 6,168, of the mounted collection in the Paris Museum, 
were collected by Claudio Gay in Chile in 1837 and 1843 respectively. They are 
both immature males, and measure as follows: wing 93; tail 78, 80; bill 20, 21. 
Bonaparte's description of the "female" appears to have been based upon a young 
A. cyanopus obtained by d'Orbigny in Chiquitos, Bolivia. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 101 

Agelasticus thilius Pelzeln (2), p. 89 Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 323, 338 

Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 545 Cauquenes, Colchagua; Gigoux, p. 83 

Caldera, Atacama. 
Agelaius thilius thilius Barros (4), p. 150 Nilahue and Quiahue, Curic6; idem 

(5), p. 192 Cordillera of Aconcagua; Passler (3), p. 480 Coronel (habits, 

nest, and eggs). 
Agelaeus thilius E. Reed (4), p. 200 central and southern Chile; Jaffuel and 

Pirion, p. 109 Marga-Marga Valley, Valparaiso; Bullock (4), p. 187 

Angol, Malleco. 

Range in Chile. From Atacama (Copiapo Valley) to Valdivia. 

Material collected. Atacama: Ramadilla (Copiapo Valley), d* 
ad., Aug. 23. Coquimbo: Romero, 9 ad., July 20. Concepcion: 
Hacienda Gualpencillo, two of c? ad., one c? (first annual), one 9 
ad., March 30 to April 4. 

Additional specimens. Talca: Talca, d" ad., Aug. 18, 1924. 
C. S. Reed (Field Museum). Concepcion: Talcaguano, 9 ad. 
Voyage of the "Astrolabe" (Paris Museum). "Chile" (unspecified): 
seven cfcf ad., two 9 9 ad. C. Gay and E. C. Reed (Paris Museum). 

The "Trile" is particularly abundant in the central provinces 
from Coquimbo to Concepcion. Farther south it becomes less plenti- 
ful, and, according to Boeck, it is rather rare around Valdivia. The 
most southerly point on record appears to be Rio Bueno, 1 where it 
was found by Lane, though this naturalist observes that south of 
Valdivia these birds may possibly be only summer migrants. It 
does not seem to occur on Chiloe" Island. In the north, a few have 
drifted into the Copiapo Valley where it is reported to be by no means 
very common. 

This bird lives about reed-beds, swamps, streams, lakes, and 
rivers, and its vertical distribution does not reach beyond 3,000 feet. 

Chilean birds do not exhibit any racial variation so far as I can 
see from the limited material on hand. They are of rather large size, 
the wings of adult males measuring from 92 to 96, those of females 
from 85 to 88 mm. Birds from the highlands of Bolivia and southern 
Peru average slightly larger (wing of males 95-101), and are of 
rather darker coloration in the female sex. To substantiate this 
divergency, a much larger series is, however, required than I have 
been able to examine. 

East of the Andes, in Argentina, Uruguay, and Rio Grande do Sul, 
the typical "Trile" is replaced by a decidedly smaller form, which 

1 1 have strong suspicions that a specimen said to have been obtained at Port 
Famine, Straits of Magellan, by the "Astrolabe" Expedition, in the collection of the 
Paris Museum, is erroneously labeled. 



102 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Peters 1 proposed to distinguish as A. thilius chrysopterus (VieilL). 
It seems, however, questionable if this name can be retained, since 
Agelaius chrysopterus VieilL, mainly based on Oriolus cayanensis 
Latham, is a hopeless composite of three different species, so far as 
the male is concerned, and only the description of the female drawn 
from Azara (No. 67) refers to the small eastern form of A. thilius. 



[Pseudoleistes guirahuro (Vieillot), which is included by Gay (p. 349) 
s. n. Leistes viridis in the Chilean fauna, does not occur anywhere 
in Chile, its range being restricted to southern Brazil and adjacent 
countries.] 

58. Notiopsar 2 curaeus (Molina) 

Turdus curaeus Molina, Saggio Stor. Nat. Chile, pp. 252, 345, 1782 Chile. 

Sturnus aterrimus Kittlitz, Me"m. Acad. Sci. St. Petersb., (sav. e"tr.), 2, p. 
467, pi. 2, Aug., 1835 near Valparaiso; idem (3), p. 153 Valley of Los 
Sorres, near Valparaiso (type from Valparaiso in Leningrad Museum; see 
Chrostowski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 1, p. 18, 1921). 

Leistes niger Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 304, Dec., 1837 Chile; Peale, p. 
1 12 Valparaiso. 

Quiscalus pilaris (Liechtenstein MS.) Bibra, Denks. math.-naturw. Kl. Ak. 
Wiss. Wien, 5, p. 129, 1853 new name for Sturnus aterrimus Kittl. and 
Leistes niger Swains.; Chile. 

Agelaius chopi (not of Vieillot) Darwin, p. 107 pasture grounds of Chile; 
Bridges, p. 94 Chile. 

Agelaius curaceus [sic] Fraser (1), p. 113 "intermediate provinces of Chile." 

Agelaius aterrimus Des Murs (2), p. 348 Chile (ex Kittlitz). 

Agelaius curaeus Des Murs (2), p. 348 Chile; Boeck, p. 503 Valdivia; 
Frauenfeld, p. 637 near Valparaiso; Philippi (12), p. 263 Chile; Lataste 
(1), p. CXIV Bureo, Nuble; 1. c., p. CXV Ninhue, Maule; idem (2), 
p. XXXIV Caillihue, Curic6; Waugh and Lataste (1), p. LXXXVI 
Penaflor, Santiago; idem (2), p. CLXXII San Alfonso, Quillota. 

Psarocolius curaeus Hartlaub (3), p. 213 Valdivia; Cassin, p. 178, pi. 15 
Chile; Germain, p. 312 Santiago (nesting habits). 

Leistes curaeus Pelzeln (2), p. 89 Chile. 

Agelaius caracus [sic] Landbeck (9), p. 252 Chile (habits, nest, and eggs). 

Curaeus aterrimus Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 323, 338 Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 545 
Cauquenes, Colchagua; Salvin (2), p. 423 Chile; Allen, p. 84 Valparaiso; 
E. Reed (4), p. 200 Chile; Lane, p. 27 Hacienda Mansel, Santiago, 
and Calle-Calle, Valdivia; Schalow (2), p. 720 La Serena, Coquimbo; 



l. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 337, 1923. 

1 Notiopsar Oberholser (Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 34, p. 136, 1921) replaces 
Curaeus Sclater (Cat. Coll. Amer. Birds, p. 139, 1862), which seems to be invali- 
dated by Cureus Boie (Isis, 1831, col. 541). 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 103 

Albert (1), 101, p. 916 Chile (monog.); Housse (1), p. 49 Isla La Mocha; 
Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 109 Marga-Marga Valley, Valparaiso; Bullock (3), 
p. 125 Cerro de Nahuelbuta, Malleco; idem (4), p. 187 Angol, Malleco. 
Curaeus curaeus Barros (4), p. 150 Nilahue, Curic6; idem (5), p. 192 
Cordillera of Aconcagua; Housse (2), p. 148 San Bernardo, Santiago; 
Passler (3), p. 480 Coronel (nest and eggs); Bullock, El Hornero, 3, p. 
94 Chile (nest). 

Notiopsar curaeus Wetmore (3), p. 378 Concon. 
Range. From Coquimbo to the Straits of Magellan. 
Material collected. Malleco: Curacautin, cf ad., Jan. 10. 
Valdivia: Mafil, d" ad., 9 ad., d* (in juvenile molt), 9 juv., Feb. 
14-28. Chiloe 1 Island: Rio Inio, cf ad., Jan. 16; Quellon, four cfcf 
ad., 9 juv., Dec. 22-Jan. 5. 

Additional specimens. Concepcion: Concepcion, cf ad., May 
2, 1903. C. S. Reed (Field Museum). 

The Chilean Blackbird is abundant throughout central and 
southern Chile, being mostly found in agricultural districts and on 
brushy hill slopes. In the mountains it is rarely seen above 4,500 
feet. After the breeding season the birds congregate in flocks, and 
are to a certain extent migratory. 

Along the Straits of Magellan and in Tierra del Fuego it is re- 
ported to be plentiful, and Wetmore 1 recorded specimens from the 
Rio Corcovado, in the vicinity of Lago General Paz, western Chubut. 
This may truly be termed a typical Chilean genus, its range being 
practically confined to that country, although it encroaches in places 
on Argentine territory. 

59. Pezites 2 militaris militaris (Linnaeus) 

Sturnus militaris Linnaeus, Mant. Plant. Altera, p. 527, 1771 based on 
Daubenton, PL EnL, 113, "in Terra Magellanica"; Poeppig (2), p. 280 
Rio Colorado, Santiago; Kittlitz (3), pp. 147, 177 Valparaiso and Quillota; 
Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 109 Marga-Marga Valley, Valparaiso. 

Sturnus loyca Molina, Saggio Stor. Nat. Chile, pp. 254, 345, 1782 Chile. 

Sturnella loica Bridges, p. 93 Chile; Fraser (1), p. 113 Chile; Yarrell, p. 
53 (egg); Pelzeln (2), p. 89 Chile. 

Icterus militaris Meyen, p. 83 Chile. 

Leistes americanus Des Murs (2), p. 350 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 263; Land- 
beck (9), p. 252 Chile (habits); Lataste (1), p. CXIV Bureo, Nuble; 

HJniv. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 457, 1926. 

1 Pezites Cabanis, 1851, is the proper generic name for the Red-breasted 
Ground-Starlings, since Trupialis Bonaparte, 1850, is invalidated by Trupialis 
Merrem (in Ersch and Gruber, Allg. Encycl. Wiss. & Kiinste, 15, p. 275, 1826), 
who proposed it as a substitute for Oriolus Illiger, a synonym of Icterus Brisson. 



104 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

1. c., p. CXV Ninhue, Maule; idem (2), p. XXXIV Caillihue, Curico; 
Waugh and Lataste (1), p. LXXXVI Penaflor, Santiago; idem (2), 
p. CLXXII San Alfonso, Quillota. 

Sturnus americamis Gay, Atlas, pi. 5; Boeck, p. 503 Valdivia, more common 
farther inland. 

Sturnella militaris Vigors, Zool. Capt. Beechey's Voy., p. 20 Concepcion; 
Fraser (2), p. 157 Chile; Peale, p. 113 Chile; Bibra, p. 129 Chile; 
Cassin, p. 179, pi. 16, fig. 2 abundant in Chile; Kittlitz (3), p. 121 San- 
Tom6, Concepcion; Germain, p. 312 Santiago (nesting habits); Frauen- 
feld, p. 637 near Valparaiso; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 323, 338 Chile; 
E. Reed (2), p. 546 plains of Cauquenes; Salvin (2), p. 422 Coquimbo. 

Trupialis militaris Allen, p. 84 Valparaiso; E. Reed (4), p. 200 part, Chile; 
Lane, p. 26 Hacienda Mansel (Santiago), Colico (Arauco), and Calle-Calle 
(Valdivia); Schalow (2), p. 721 Ovalle and La Serena (Coquimbo), and 
Santiago; Albert (1), 101, p. 911 Chile (in part); Barros (4), p. 150 
Nilahue, Curic6; idem (5), p. 192 Cordillera of Aconcagua; Housse (2), 
p. 148 San Bernardo; C. Reed (4), p. 57 Lampa, Santiago; Bullock, 
El Hornero, 3, p. 94 Chile (nest); idem (3), p. 125 Cerro de Nahuelbuta,, 
Malleco; idem (4), p. 186 Angol, Malleco. 

Leistes superdliaris (not of Bonaparte) Fuentes, p. 291 Easter Island (intro- 
duced); Lonnberg, p. 19 Easter Island (ex Fuentes). 

Trupialis militaris militaris Passler (3), p. 481 Coronel (habits, nest, and 
eggs); Wetmore (3), p. 373 Concon, Valparaiso. 

Range in Chile. From Coquimbo to the Straits of Magellan. 
Introduced on Easter Island. 

Material collected. Atacama: Ramadilla, Copiapo Valley, cf 
ad., Aug. 23; Caldera, two cf cf ad., one 9 ad., April 25, June 30, 
Aug. 2, 1924. E. Gigoux. Coquimbo: Romero, cf ad., July 11; 
Paiguano, cf ad., June 15. Valparaiso: Palmilla, La Cruz, cf ad., 
Nov. 10, 1924. J. A. Wolffsohn. Concepcion: Hacienda Gual- 
pencillo, cf ad., April 16. Valdivia: Rinihue, cf ad., March 16; 
Mafil, cf ad., two 9 9 ad., two 9 9 juv., Feb. 17-25. Llanquihue: 
Puerto Montt, cf ad., April 15; Rio Sfarehuau, cf, March 17. 

Compared with a small series from Tierra del Fuego and southern 
Patagonia (Chubut), Chilean birds are somewhat smaller (wing of 
adult males 115-124, against 129-134), but as equally small individ- 
uals occur also at Buenos Aires, I do not think there is sufficient 
ground for recognizing P. militaris loyca as a distinct race. 

The "Loica" is widely distributed all over Chile, extending in the 
north as far as Coquimbo. Its altitude range in the Cordillera of 
Aconcagua extends up to about 8,000 feet, as we learn from R. 
Barros's observations. It has been introduced on Easter Island, 
but does not thrive well. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 105 

60. Pezites militaris bellicosa (Filippi) 

Sturnella bellicosa Filippi, Mus. Mediol., Anim. Vertebr., cl. ii, Aves, pp. 
15, 32, 1847 "Amer. trop. occ.," type in Milan Museum; see Salvadori, 
Atti R. Accad. Sci. Torino, 3, pp. 274, 275, 1868 (crit.). 

Leistes albipes Philippi and Landbeck, An. Univ. Chile, 19, p. 616, 1861 
"Peru"; idem, Arch. Naturg., 29, (1), p. 128, 1863 Arica, "Peru." 

Sturnella militaris (not of Linnaeus) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, 
p. 8 Arica. 

Trupialis militaris Albert (1), 101, p. 911 Chile (in part). 

Range in Chile. Extreme north, in province of Tacna. 1 

Material collected. Tacna: Chacalluta, two 9 9 ad., July 21. 

Additional specimens. Tacna: Tacna, d* ad., Jan., 1831. 
D'Orbigny; Arica, juv., Jan., 1831. D'Orbigny (Paris Museum). 

The Tacna specimens agree in every particular with a series 
from western Peru, which we take for typical bellicosa, and differ 
from the common Chilean form by markedly shorter bill. They 
measure: cf , 26; 9 9 , 23-24 mm. 

The range of this form is entirely cut off from that of T. m. 
militaris by the intervening desert of Atacama, where no representa- 
tive of the genus occurs. 

[Psilorhinus chilensis Bonaparte (Consp. Gen. Av., 1, p. 381, 1850) 
supposed to be the same as Cyanocorax cyanomelas (Vieillot) 
was erroneously credited to "Chile." No representative of the Crow 
Family is known to occur in that country.] 

61. Agriornis livida livida (Kittlitz) 

Tamnophilus lividus Kittlitz, M6m. Acad. Sci. St. Petersb., (sav. e"tr.), 2, p. 
465, pi. 1, 1835 hills around Valparaiso; idem, Denkwiird., 1, pp. 121, 
147 San-Tom6, Concepci6n, and near Valparaiso (type from Valparaiso 
in Leningrad Museum, fide Chrostowski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. 
Nat., 1, p. 18, 1921). 

Tyrannus gutturalis Eydoux and Gervais, Mag. Zool., 6, cl. 2, pi. 63, 1836 
Chile; idem, Voy. Favorite, 5, (2), p. 32, pi. 11, 1839 Chile (part, descr. 
of type). 

Pitangus chiknsis Lesson in Bougainville, Journ. Navig. Thesis, 2, p. 323, 
1837 Valparaiso. 

Agriornis marginalis (Reichenbach MS.) Bibra, Denks. math.-naturw. Kl. 
Ak. Wiss. Wien, 5, p. 129, 1853 coast range near Valparaiso. 

1 The specimens from "Chile" recorded by Pelzeln (p. 89) as Sturnella brevirostris 
(supposed to be synonymous with S. bellicosa) are either not that form or else the 
locality is erroneous. 



106 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Agriornis gutturalis Darwin, p. 56 Valparaiso and as far north as Copiapo; 
Fraser (1), p. Ill central provinces. 

Pepoaza livida D'Orbigny, p. 351 Valparaiso. 

Dasycephala livida Des Murs (2), p. 327 Chile; Boeck, p. 502 Valdivia; 
Philippi and Landbeck, Arch. Naturg., 29, (1), p. 136, 1863 Valdivia 
(in the pampas), and central and northern Chile (on mountain slopes); 
Philippi (12), p. 259 Chile; Landbeck (9), p. 244 Chile (habits); Philippi, 
Ornis, 4, p. 159 Atacama; Lataste (5), p. LXI Llohu6 (Itata), Maule; 
Waugh and Lataste (1), p. LXXXV Penaflor, Santiago; idem (2), p. 
CLXXI San Alfonso (Quillota), Valparaiso. 

Agriornis livida (us) Cassin, p. 183 Chile; Germain, p. 311 Chile (nesting 
habits); Pelzeln (2), p. 78 Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 325, 338 Chile; 
E. Reed (2), p. 549 Cauquenes, Colchagua; Salvin (2), 1883, p. 423 
Talcaguano; E. Reed (4), p. 200 Chile; Lane, p. 28 below the town of 
Arauco; Schalow (2), p. 720 part, Quinquina, near Concepci6n; Albert 
(1), 104, p. 98 Chile (monog.); Barros (4), p. 145 Nilahue, Curico; 
idem (5), p. 182 Cordillera of Aconcagua; Housse (2), p. 145 San 
Bernardo, Santiago; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 107 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso; 
Bullock (4), p. 178 Angol, Malleco. 

Agriornis livida livida Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 328, 1925 Valparaiso 
(range); Wetmore (3), p. 295 Concon, Valparaiso. 

Range in Chile. From Atacama south to Valdivia. 

Material collected. Atacama: Ramadilla, Copiapo Valley, 9 
ad., Aug. 22. Coquimbo: Romero, two d" cf ad., July 11, 19. 
Valparaiso: Quillota, d* ad., June 6, 1923. C. S. Reed. Curico: 
Teno, <? ad., May 27, 1923. C. S. Reed. Cautin: Villa Portales 
(alt. 3,300 feet), Lonquimai Valley, c? ad., 9 juv., Feb. 9, 10; 
Rio Lolen (alt. 3,600 feet), Lonquimai Valley, d" juv., 9 juv., 
Feb. 9, 11; Pelal, Temuco, 9 ad., June 6, 1913. A. C. Saldana. 

Additional specimens. Valparaiso: Valparaiso, four adults. 
D'Orbigny (Paris Museum). Santiago: Penaflor, d* ad., Jan. 17, 
1894. F. Lataste (British Museum). Concepcion: Talcaguano, 
of ad. Voyage of the "Astrolabe" (Paris Museum). Arauco: below 
Arauco City, 9 ad., Aug. 27, 1890. A. A. Lane (British Museum). 
Also fourteen skins from "Chile" and "Central Chile" (British 
Museum). 

I am unable to perceive any constant difference in coloration 
between specimens from various parts of Chile. Those from the 
north (Coquimbo to Atacama) appear to be smaller, but the series 
of properly sexed birds is much too inadequate to make sure of this 
variation. Specimens with attenuated outer primaries are evidently 
rare exceptions in this species, for I found this character present in 
only four out of a total of thirty-three skins which I examined. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 107 

The "Zorzal mero comun" inhabits chiefly the central parts of 
the republic from Copiapo south to Curico. Its range extends from 
the seacoast to about 6,000 feet in the precordillera. It is reported 
to be common in Valparaiso and Santiago provinces, and several 
naturalists met with it in Coquimbo and in the Copiapo Valley, 
Atacama. According to Barros, it is rather uncommon in the foot- 
hills of Aconcagua, though less so in autumn and winter, and not very 
plentiful in the Nilahue Valley, Curico. Being a bird of the open 
country, the "Zorzal mero" is of somewhat local occurrence in 
southern Chile. Lataste found it at Llohue' (Itata), Maule. 
There are several records from Concepcion (San-Tome*, Quinquina, 
Talcaguano), but Passler does not include it among the birds of 
Coronel. Lane obtained a single example in the sand-dunes near the 
town of Arauco in August. Bullock lists it only as a winter visitor 
for the Angol Valley, Malleco. In the hills of Cautin, at elevations 
of 3,300 to 3,600 feet, Sanborn, however, in February secured an 
adult bird in worn plumage together with some full-grown young 
ones, which indicates that the birds had been breeding in the neigh- 
borhood. According to Boeck and Landbeck, it is exceedingly rare 
in the pampas of Valdivia, this province marking the southern limit 
of its range. 

In actions, this bird is said to resemble somewhat the thrushes. 
Its food consists of insects, lizards, frogs, and mice. Landbeck tells 
us that it builds its rather carelessly constructed nest in forks of 
trees, and lays four to six greenish-white, brown-spotted eggs. 

62. Agriornis livida fortis Berlepsch 

Agriornis livida fortis Berlepsch, Ornis, 14, pp. 352, 466, 1907 Valle del 
Lago Blanco, Chubut (type in Tring Museum examined); Hellmayr, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, Part 5, p. 2, 1927 Rio "Nireguao," 
Llanquihue. 

Range in Chile. From extreme southern Llanquihue (Rio Nire- 
huau) through western Patagonia to Tierra del Fuego. 

Material collected. Llanquihue: Casa Richards, Rio Nirehuau, 
d" ad., one (unsexed) adult, Feb. 26, March 1. 

These birds, both of which are in annual molt, agree with a series 
from Valle del Lago Blanco, Chubut. 

The only constant characters of this form are its longer wings and 
tail. There is no difference in color nor is the dusky tip to the lower 
mandible more extensive. Some of the Chilean birds have even 
larger, stronger bills than those from Chubut. This is a Patagonian 



108 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

form, whose range extends throughout the foothills of the Argentine 
Andes from the vicinity of Lake Nahuel Huapi to Tierra del Fuego. 

MEASUREMENTS 

A. I livida Adult males Wing Tail Bill 

Two from Coquimbo 125,127 103,107 29,29^ 

Five from Valparaiso 129,129,130, 1073^-116 28^-32^ 

133,134 

One from Curico 130 113 

One from Cautin 130 112 



A. L livida Adult females 

One from Copiapo 119 106 29 

One from Cautin (Temuco) 135 114 29 

A. I. fortis Adult males 

One from Rio Nirehuau 140 116 30 % 

Eight from Valle del Lago Blanco, 

Chubut 138,140,142, 118,120,120, 28_ 

142,142,144, 122,122,125, 30^,31 

148,149 126,126 

One from Puesto Burro, Chubut 144 122 30 ^ 

A. I. fortis Adult females 

Three from Valle del Lago Blanco, 

Chubut 135,141,142 120,120,125 29^,30,31 

Two from Nahuel Huapi 142,143 114,118^ 30,31 

63. Agriornis montana intermedia Hellmayr 

Agriornis montana intermedia Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
13, Part 5, p. 5, 1927 Putre, Prov. Tacna. 

Range in Chile. Extreme north, in province of Tacna. Also in 
western Bolivia (depts. of La Paz and Oruro). 

Material collected. Tacna: Putre (alt. 11,600 feet), three G? cf 
ad., one 9 ad., June 18, July 3-7. 

This is a connecting link between the Peruvian A. m. insolens 
with white outer half of tail and A. m. maritima with bicolored lateral 
rectrices. The black at the base is much less extended than in the 
latter, the two outermost pairs being sometimes even wholly white, 
whereas in A. m. insolens the four lateral pairs are white, with 
occasionally a narrow dusky inner margin on the fourth and very 
rarely also on the third (from without). While most of the speci- 
mens from Tacna Province and western Bolivia thus occupy an 
intermediate position, examples with the largest amount of black 
(a male from Putre, and two from La Paz) are hardly distinguishable 
from maritima, and those with a minimum of dusky markings (a 
female from Putre, a male from Chililaya, Lake Titicaca, and 
another male from Mauri, La Paz) closely approach insolens. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLM AYR 109 

Birds from Tacna are decidedly grayish above (like maritima), 
whereas those from Bolivia, in more brownish upper parts, resemble 
A. m. montana, of eastern Bolivia and northwestern Argentina. 

A. m. intermedia, like its allies, is an inhabitant of the Puna Zone. 

64. Agriornis montana maritima (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) 

Pepoaza maritima Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, 
cl. 2, p. 65, 1837 Cobija, "Bolivia" =Prov. Antofagasta, Chile (type in 
Paris Museum examined); d'Orbigny, p. 353 Cobija. 
Tyrannus gutturalis (not of Eydoux and Gervais, 1836) Eydoux and Gervais, 

Voy. Favorite, 5, (2), p. 33, 1839 part, spec, from Coquimbo. 
Agriornis maritimus Darwin, p. 57 part, Copiap6. 

Agriornis maritima Sclater and Salvin, P. Z. S. Lond., 1879, p. 609 Cobija 
and desert of Atacama; Sharpe, p. 8 Coquimbo; Sclater (6), 1891, p. 134 
Sacaya, Tarapaca; Lane, p. 29 about Sacaya (habits); Berlepsch, 
Ornis, 14, pp. 464, 467, 1907 part, Chile; Gigoux, p. 87 Caldera, 
Atacama. 

Dasycephala maritima Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 159 Antofagasta. 
Agriornis montana montana (not Pepoaza montana Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) 

Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 330, 1925 part, Cobija. 
Agriornis montana maritima Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, 

Part 5, p. 6, 1927 from Tarapaca to Coquimbo (crit.). 
Range. Temperate and Puna Zones of northern Chile, from 
Tarapaca to Coquimbo. 

Material collected. Antofagasta: San Pedro (alt. 10,500 feet), 
cf 1 juv., Oct. 1. Atacama: Caldera, cf ad., March 21; Domeyko, 
three 9 9 ad., Aug. 10-15. Coquimbo: Bafios del Toro (alt. 
10,600 feet), d" ad., 9 ad., Nov. 9, 15. 

Additional specimens. Antofagasta: Cobija, cf ad. (type of 
species). D'Orbigny; one unsexed bird (without attenuation of outer 
primaries). F. Eydoux, Voyage de la Bonite (Paris Museum). 
Tarapaca; Sacaya, cf (first annual), March 16, 1890. A. A. Lane 
(British Museum). Coquimbo: Coquimbo, 9 ad., June, 1879. 
Coppinger (British Museum). 

Some of our birds have been directly compared with the type from 
Cobija in the Paris Museum. The series from northern Chile tends 
to show that A. m. maritima, after all, is separable from A. m. 
montana, of eastern Bolivia (Cochabamba, Sucre, Santa Cruz) and 
northwestern Argentina (Tucuman, Jujuy) by much less brownish 
upper parts, duller (less buffy) breast, and more conspicuous, blackish 
rather than brownish, streaking on the throat. In tail pattern, viz. 
in having an extensive black area on the inner web of the lateral 
rectrices, the two races are practically identical. 



110 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

A single specimen from Sacaya, Tarapaea, is indistinguishable 
from our series, and must doubtless be referred to maritima. 

The nesting grounds of "d'Orbigny's Gaucho" are the elevated 
Cordilleras in the Puna Zone. The birds obtained by Sanborn in 
November at Baiios del Toro, Coquimbo, at an altitude of more 
than 10,000 feet, are in worn breeding plumage, and a fledgling, not 
yet able to fly, was taken at San Pedro (alt. 10,500 feet), Anto- 
fagasta. Lane found these birds at Sacaya and in other localities of 
the Andes of Tarapaca up to 10,000 feet, where they nested about 
November and December. It seems, therefore, almost certain 
that they visit the foothills and coast district only in winter time. 
Although Gigoux lists A. maritima as a resident for the vicinity of 
Caldera, all the specimens we have seen from the lowlands were 
taken outside of the breeding season, viz. Caldera (March), Domeyko 
(August), and Coquimbo (June). According to Lane, these birds 
frequent rocky slopes bordering the valleys, where they perch on the 
tops of bushes or boulders, and feed largely on small sand-lizards 
common in the region. The nest is composed of llama wool and rags 
picked up about Indian homesteads, and is clumsily constructed on 
ledges of rock in caves or on the sides of ravines. The eggs appear 
to be undescribed. 

65. Agriornis montana leucura Gould 

Agriornis leucurus Gould in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Part 6, pi. 13, Jan., 1839 
type from Port Desire, Patagonia, in British Museum examined; Bridges, 
p. 94 Chile, near the summit of the Andes, between 34 and 35 S. lat. 

Agriornis maritimus (not Pepoaza maritima Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) 
Darwin, p. 57 part, in the lofty and arid valleys on the eastern side of the 
Cordillera of central Chile; Fraser (1), p. Ill elevated valleys of the 
Andes of Chile on the east and west sides; Pelzeln (2), p. 78 Chile. 

Dasycephala maritima Des Murs (2), p. 328 Cordilleras of central provinces; 
Philippi and Landbeck, Arch. Naturg., 29, (1), p. 137, 1863 Cordilleras 
of Santiago (habits); Philippi (12), p. 259 central provinces; Landbeck 
(9), p. 245 Cordilleras of Chile. 

Agriornis maritima Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 325, 338 Andes of Chile; E. Reed (2), 
p. 550 Cordillera of Colchagua; idem (4), p. 200 Chile; Albert (1), 
104, p. 101 Chile (monog.); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 331, 1925 
part, spec, from "Chili" and "Chilean Andes"; Barros (5), p. 183 Cordil- 
lera of Aconcagua; Housse (2), p. 145 San Bernardo, Santiago (Septem- 
ber); Barros (10), p. 360 Cordillera of Aconcagua; idem (11), p. 315 
Cristo Redentor, Chilean side of Sierra de Mendoza. 

Agriornis montana leucura Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, 
Part 5, p. 7, 1927 Sewell, Prov. O'Higgins (crit.). 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 111 

Range in Chile. Cordilleras of the central provinces, from 
Aconcagua to Colchagua. 

Material collected. Aconcagua: Salto de los Piuquenes (alt. 
2,400 meters), Rio Blanco, 9 ad. (molting), Feb. 23, 1926. R. 
Barros O'Higgins: Sewell (alt. 6,000 feet), <? (first annual), 9 ad., 
May 7, 1923. W. H. Osgood. 

Additional specimens. Chile (unspecified): four adults. H. 
Berkeley James Collection (British Museum); two cfcf juv. F. 
Leybold (Munich Museum). "Chilean Andes:" d* ad., cf juv. 
E. C. Reed (Tring Museum). 

Central Chilean birds had generally been referred to A. ra. 
maritima, until the receipt of an adequate series from the northern 
provinces enabled us to show that the form described by Lafresnaye 
and d'Orbigny was much more closely related to A. m. montana, of 
Bolivia. Specimens from Aconcagua, Santiago, and O'Higgins differ 
from the preceding race by their very much darker coloration through- 
out. This is particularly noticeable on the under parts, the breast 
and sides being dark brown, between drab and hair-brown, some- 
times with a slaty cast, while the middle of the abdomen and the 
under tail coverts are a deep pinkish buff. The dorsal surface is 
likewise darker, sooty rather than brownish. In A. m. maritima, the 
lower parts are much paler, the breast and sides being light grayish 
brown, slightly tinged with buffy or light drab, and the under tail 
coverts cartridge buff or nearly white. 

While there is no question as to their distinctness from A. m. 
maritima, of northern Chile, I fail to see how the inhabitants of 
central Chile can be separated from the Patagonian A. m. leucura, 
which they resemble in the deeply colored under parts. Four skins 
from Puente del Inca, Prov. Mendoza, also belong to this race. 

A. m. leucura is found throughout the Cordilleras from Acon- 
cagua to Colchagua, where it is more or less resident. Philippi and 
Landbeck as well as Barros state that, while generally distributed 
from 4,000 up to 11,000 feet, the "Gaucho" is nowhere very common. 
In winter, some individuals descend to lower altitudes and even 
to the foothills. Barros encountered a single example in August 
on the Cerro de la Virgen, Los Andes, Aconcagua, at an elevation 
of about 1,000 feet, and Housse one in September in the vicinity of 
San Bernardo, Prov. Santiago. 

According to Philippi and Landbeck, the "Gaucho" breeds in 
crevices of rocks and abandoned mines. Its eggs are white, sparingly 
dotted with brown. 



112 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

66. Agriornis albicauda (Philippi and Landbeck) 

Dasycephala albicauda Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 19, No. 5, 
p. 618, Nov., 1861 in a valley of the Cordilleras of Peru =Prov. Tacna; 
idem, Arch. Naturg., 29, (1), p. 132, 1863 same locality. 

Agriornis albicauda Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, Part 5, p. 
9, 1927 Putre, Tacna (crit.). 

Range in Chile. Extreme north, in province of Tacna. 

Material collected. Tacna: Putre (alt. 11,600 feet), <? ad., July 4. 

This specimen an adult male in fresh plumage with the tips of 
the two outer primaries strongly attenuated is more grayish above 
and on the breast than three others from Peru, and the dimensions 
are not quite so large. These insignificant variations are probably 
individual. The identity of D. albicauda never having been satis- 
factorily established, Mr. K. P. Schmidt, on his visit to Chile in 
1926, very kindly took specimens of A. "pollens" and A. m. inter- 
media with him for comparison in the National Museum at Santiago. 
The Chilean collection contains but one specimen labeled "Agriornis 
albicauda Phil. & Landb., Arica." It answers well to the original 
description, and is without any question the type. Except for more 
brownish upper parts and a wider dusky margin on the inner web of 
the two outer tail feathers divergencies that are of no consequence 
the type was found to agree with the male from Putre in Field 
Museum, resembling it notably in general size, heavy bill with pale 
brownish lower mandible, and heavy streaking of the throat. D. 
albicauda is thus seen to be an earlier name for A. pollens, and has to 
be adopted in its stead. 

A. albicauda , in spite of its striking resemblance to A. montana, 
is evidently specifically distinct, for it lives side by side with members 
of that "formenkreis" in various parts of its range. The principal 
characters, whereby it may be readily distinguished, are the larger 
size, the much stronger bill with pale brownish (flesh color in life) 
lower mandible, and the heavier, blackish instead of brownish 
throat-streaking. 

Like the members of the A. montana group, it is peculiar to the 
Puna Zone. Within Chilean boundaries it has been recorded only 
from Tacna Province. 

MEASUREMENTS 

Adult males Wing Tail Bill 

One from Putre, Chile 135 110 26 

One from Iquico, Bolivia 143 120 28 

One from near Otuzco, Peru 139 116 27 

One from Tulpo, Peru 146 123 27 

One from Huamachuco, Peru 143 120 29 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 113 

67. Xolmis pyrope (Kittlitz) 1 

Muscicapa pyrope Kittlitz, Me"m. Ac. Sci. St. Petersb., (sav. e"tr.), 1, livr. 
2, p. 191, pi. 10, 1830 near San-Tome", Concepci6n, Chile; idem, Denkw., 
1, p. 121 San-Tome (type in Leningrad Museum, cf. Chrostowski, Ann. 
Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 1, p. 17, 1921). 

Pyrope Kittlitzi Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., 2, p. 45, 1859 new name for 
Muscicapa pyrope Kittlitz. 

Pepoaza pyrope Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, p. 63 Valparaiso; 
d'Orbigny, p. 348 Valparaiso. 

Xolmis pyrope Darwin, p. 55 Chilo6 Island and along the western coast as 
far north as Copiapo (egg descr.); Eraser (1), p. Ill Chile. 

Taenioptera pyrope Des Murs (2), p. 335 Chile; Hartlaub (3), p. 212 
Valdivia; Boeck, p. 503 Valdivia; Cassin, p. 185 Chile; Germain, p. 
311 Chile (breeding habits); Pelzeln (2), p. 76 Chile; Sclater (2), 
1867, pp. 326, 338 Chile north to Copiapo; Philippi (12), p. 260 Chile; 
Landbeck (9), p. 248 Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 550 Cauquenes, Colchagua, 
more common in the south and on the Isla La Mocha; Ridgway (2), 
p. 132 Port Otway; E. Reed (4), p. 200 Chile; Lane, p. 30 Corral, 
Calle-Calle, Valdivia, and Maquegua, Arauco (habits); Lataste (1), 
p. CXV Ninhue (Itata), Maule; idem (4), p. XXXIII Caillihue (Vichu- 
quen), Curico; idem (5), p. LXII Llohue (Itata), Maule; Waugh and 
Lataste (1), p. LXXXV Penaflor, Santiago; idem (2), p. CLXXI San 
Alfonso (Quillota), Valparaiso; Schalow (2), p. 719 Villarrica and Lake 
Llanquihue; Albert (1), 104, p. 104 Chile (monog.); Barros (4), p. 145 
Nilahue, Curic6; idem (5), p. 183 Cordillera of Aconcagua; Passler (3), 
p. 463 Coronel (nesting habits); Gigoux, p. 85 Caldera; Lataste (9), 
p. 169 Santa Teresa (Requinoa); Housse (1), p. 48 Isla La Mocha, 
Arauco; idem (2), p. 145 San Bernardo, Santiago; Barros (8), p. 141 
Aconcagua; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 107 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso; Bullock 
(3), p. 124 Nahuelbuta, Malleco; idem (4), p. 178 Angol, Malleco; 
Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 326, 1925 Valparaiso (range). 

Taenioptera pyrope pyrope Wetmore (3), p. 301 Concon (habits). 

Range in Chile. From Atacama (Copiapo) to the Straits of 
Magellan, breeding in the southern parts. 

Material collected. Coquimbo: Romero, cf ad., July 29. 
Aconcagua: Los Andes, cf ad., May 16, 1925. R. Barros. Santiago: 
Lampa, 9 ad., June 1, 1924. C. S. Reed. Maule: Pilen Alto, 9 ad., 
May 11. Conception: Hacienda Gualpencillo, two cf cf ad., one 9 
ad., March 27- April 13. Malleco: Curacautin, two cf cf ad. (breed- 
ing), Jan. 10, 13; Rio Colorado (alt. 3,000 feet), cf ad. (breeding), 
Feb. 4. Valdivia: Rinihue, cf ad., March 7; Mafil, four cf cf ad., 
two cfcf juv., one 9 ad., two 9 9 juv., Feb. 15-28. Chiles' 
Island: Rio Inio, 9 ad., Jan. 9; Quellon, three cf cf ad., two 9 9 ad., 

1 Allen's record (p. 85) of Taenioptera irupero from Valparaiso is doubtless 
due to a wrongly labeled specimen. 



114 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Dec. 22-Jan. 4. Guaitecas Islands: Melinka, Ascension Island, two 
9 9 ad., Feb. 1; Canal Lagreze, Ascension Island, d" juv., Feb. 3. 

I am unable to discover any racial variation in this species, and 
even Taenioptera pyrope ignea Wetmore/from Patagonia, appears to 
me inseparable. The olivaceous wash on the upper parts and the 
ochraceous-buff edges to the under wing coverts are characteristic 
of the fresh plumage, and completely vanish during the breeding 
period. It may be that birds from Tierra del Fuego and western 
Patagonia have the breast slightly less tinged with grayish, but even 
this divergency is too inconstant to warrant the recognition of a 
Magellanic race. In juvenile plumage the feathers of the breast and 
sides are obsoletely streaked with grayish brown in the middle and 
laterally edged with buffy or whitish. Adults taken in February (at 
Mafil, Valdivia) are in full molt. 

The "Diucon" or "Papamosco" is chiefly found in the southern 
provinces, where it breeds. It is reported to be plentiful on Chilo 
Island as well as in Llanquihue and Valdivia provinces. Bullock 
lists it as common throughout the year in the Angol Valley, Malleco, 
and Sanborn also obtained adults in worn breeding garb in the hills 
of the same province at Curacautin and Rio Colorado. In Arauco 
and around Concepcion, we are told by Lane and Passler, it nests in 
small numbers; but its breeding range stretches even into Curico, 
where Lataste shot specimens at Christmas time near Caillihue, 
while Barros records its nesting in the Nilahue Valley. Farther north, 
the "Diucon" merely occurs as a winter visitor. There are various 
winter records from the provinces of Valparaiso, Santiago, and 
Aconcagua, and it even extends its migrations as far north as 
Coquimbo and the Copiapo Valley. 2 

X. pyrope prefers the plains and low hills, although during migra- 
tion it is occasionally also met with in the mountains, for Barros 
reports having seen specimens as high as 7,000 feet in the Cordillera 
of Aconcagua. 

According to Lane, the nest is placed in the stem of a shrub from 
3 to 5 feet from the ground. At Rio Bueno, Valdivia, January seemed 
to be their proper nesting-season, or perhaps the end of December. 
Passler, however, claims that these birds have two broods in the 
vicinity of Coronel, Concepcion, the first taking place about the end 



iv. Calif. Pub. ZooL, 21, No. 12, p. 334, 1924 Laredo Bay, Straits of 
Magellan. 

2 1 cannot help thinking that Gigoux's statement of its being a summer visitant 
in the vicinity of Caldera is due to a pen-slip. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 115 

of September or early in October, the second around the middle of 
December. The eggs, two or three in number, are buff with a few 
rufous or dark brown streaks and dots often crowded round the 
larger end. 

[Lesson (Rev. Zool., 2, p. 100, 1839) described Pepoaza flavida from 
"Chili, in provincia Valparaiso." It was afterwards included by 
Gay (Hist. fis. pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 335, 1847) under the name of 
Taenioptera flavida, his account being merely a Spanish translation 
of the original description which reads as follows: "Corpore supra, alis, 
caudaque flavido-brunnescentibus; collo antici [sic] albido cum striis 
brunneis; gula et thorace griseis; lateribus ventre [sic], tectricibus 
inferioribus flavescentibus, pedibus incarnatis." The title of Lesson's 
paper would seem to indicate that the species had been previously 
described by him, but I have not been able to find any earlier reference. 
I know of no Chilean bird to which the above diagnosis could apply.] 

68. Muscisaxicola rufivertex rufivertex Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny 

Muscisaxicola rufivertex Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 
7, cl. 2, p. 66, 1837 part, type from Cobija, Antofagasta, examined in 
collection of Paris Museum; 1 d'Orbigny, p. 354, pi. 40, fig. 2 part, 
Cobija; Bridges, p. 94 Andes of Chile, S. lat. 34-35, on the east and 
west sides; Fraser (1), p. 112 elevated Andes [of Chile] under the snow; 
Bibra, p. 129 Santiago; Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 25, 
p. 432 Cordilleras of Santiago and Colchagua (monog.); idem, Arch. 
Naturg., 31, (1), p. 95 same localities (monog.); Pelzeln (2), p. 68 
Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 326, 338 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 258 part, 
central provinces of Chile; Landbeck (9), p. 243 Chile; E. Reed (2), 
p. 551 Cordillera of Colchagua; Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 159 Atacama; 
E. Reed (4), p. 201 Cordilleras of Chile; Albert (1), 104, p. 122 Chile 
(monog.); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 331, 1925 part, Cobija, Santiago, 
and Mendoza; Barros (5), p. 183 Cordillera of Aconcagua. 

Muscisaxicola rufivertex sanborni Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
12, p. 73, 1924 Romero, Prov. Coquimbo. 

Ptyonura rufivertex Cassin, p. 186 mountains of Chile. 
Muscisaxicola flavinucha (errore) Gigoux, p. 86 Caldera, Atacama. 

Range in Chile. Breeds in the Puna Zone of the Cordilleras 
from Coquimbo to Colchagua, winters in Atacama and Antofagasta. 

Material collected. Coquimbo: Romero, five d" c? ad., one 9 

imm., July 15-31; Bafios del Toro (alt. 10,600 feet), <? ad., two 

9 9 ad. (breeding), Nov. 13-18. Atacama: Domeyko (alt. 2,600 

*Cf. Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft IP, p. 47 (note 1), 1920, and Nov. Zool., 32, 
pp. 331, 332, 1925. 



116 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

feet), 9 ad., Aug. 16; Caldera, one d" ad., two d* d* (first annual), 
one 9 ad., March 22, June 8, 27, 1924. C. C. Sanborn and E. E. 
Gigoux. 1 Antofagasta: Gatico, four cTcf ad., two 9 9 ad., April 
8-10. 

Additional specimens. Antofagasta: Cobija, one adult (type), 
one immature (first annual). D'Orbigny, 1831 (Paris Museum) ; 6" ad., 
Feb. 24,1847. Professor Behn (Berlin Museum). Santiago: Cordillera 
of Santiago, two adults. F. Leybold (Munich Museum). "Chile" 
(unspecified): four adults (unsexed). E. C. Reed (Paris Museum and 
Tring Museum). 

When first receiving the series from Romero, Coquimbo, I had 
for comparison only eight specimens from Rio Loa and the vicinity 
of San Pedro, Antofagasta, which I naturally took for M. rufivertex 
based on birds from Cobija, on the coast of the same province, and 
noticing the marked difference in the color of the occipital patch 
I described the dark-crowned Coquimbo form as M. r. sanborni. 
A series subsequently secured by Sanborn at Gatico, a few miles 
from the type locality of M. rufivertex, however, proved to be refer- 
able to the same race, and re-examination of d'Orbigny's original 
examples in the Paris Museum together with the study of breeding 
specimens from the Cordilleras of central Chile (Coquimbo and 
Santiago) established the identity of M. r. sanborni with M. rufivertex 
Lafr. & d'Orb., the birds occurring in winter on the coast of Anto- 
fagasta being evidently migrants from the south. On the other 
hand, the pale-crowned birds found in the inner Cordilleras of 
Antofagasta, east of the Atacama desert, turned out to belong to a 
well-marked resident race, which I have named M. r. pallidiceps. 

Specimens from Antofagasta (Gatico, Cobija) and Atacama 
(Caldera) agree with those from farther south in the deep tawny to 
hazel occipital crest, but have generally shorter bills. 

Young birds lack the bright-colored occipital patch and have the 
upper wing coverts and inner secondaries margined with buffy. 
These edges persist even after the birds have acquired the rufous 
crest. 

M. r. rufivertex is known to breed in the elevated Cordilleras from 
Coquimbo to Colchagua. 2 Sanborn obtained worn breeding adults 
in November at Banos del Toro, Coquimbo, at an elevation of 

ir The two June birds collected by E. E. Gigoux are marked "M. flavinitcha." 

2 Allen's record (p. 85) from "Valparaiso" is erroneous. The specimen was 
doubtless secured either in northern Chile or Bolivia, and may be either M. r. 
pallidiceps or M. r. occipitalis. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 117 

10,600 feet, and Landbeck tells us that in the Andes of Santiago and 
Colchagua it ranges up to the edge of the eternal snow. In Acon- 
cagua, the "Dormilona nuca rojiza" of the Chileans, according to 
Barros, arrives in flocks at the end of August or early in September, 
but soon retires to its breeding grounds in the Cordilleras, being 
rarely seen below 5,000 feet. Towards the end of the summer the 
birds start on their northward migration, though a few may be seen 
as late as May. As shown by Sanborn's collections, they spend the 
winter on the coast of Coquimbo, Atacama, and Antofagasta. 

According to Philippi and Landbeck, this bird is a very active 
creature, running and flying with rapidity and constantly wagging 
its tail. Its food consists of insects and berries; in winter of small 
marine crustaceans. Like M. albilora, it builds its nest under stones 
or in holes of rocks. 

69. Muscisaxicola rufivertex pallidiceps Hellmayr 

Musdsaxicola rufivertex pallidiceps Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 

Ser., 13, Part 5, p. 21, 1927 twenty miles east of San Pedro, Antofagasta. 
Muscisaxicola rufivertex (not of Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Sclater (6), 1891, 

p. 134 San Pablo, Tarapaca (in part). 

Range in Chile. Puna Zone of Antofagasta, Tarapaca, and 
Tacna. Also in the adjacent Bolivian departments of Oruro and 
Potosi, and in northwestern Argentina. 

Material collected. Antofagasta: Rio Loa (alt. 7,500 feet), 
two d* cf ad., 9 ad. (first annual), April 19, Sept. 11, 13; San Pedro 
(alt. 10,500 feet), 9 (first annual), April 23; twenty miles east of 
San Pedro (alt. 12,600 feet), three d 1 d" ad., two 9 9 ad., one rf 1 
(first annual), one 9 (first annual), April 30, May 1, Oct. 3-11. 
Tarapaca: Canchones (alt. about 4,000 feet), tf [? 9 ] ad., May 30. 
Tacna: Alcerreca (alt. 10,000 feet), 9 ad., June 17. 

Additional specimens. Tarapaca: San Pablo, d" ad., Feb. 20, 
1890. A. A. Lane (British Museum). 

This series is very uniform, and differs at a glance from M. r. 
rufivertex by much paler, ochraceous-tawny or cinnamomeous occip- 
ital patch. The upper parts are as a rule of a lighter, purer gray, 
and the size is on average larger. Birds from Sajama (Oruro) and 
Potosi, Bolivia, and others from northwestern Argentina (Cerro 
Munoz, Tucuman, and Cachi, Salta) agree with the Chilean ones. 

Judging from the data, this form in opposition to its southern 
relative is more or less resident. Its altitudinal range stretches 
from 7,500 to nearly 13,000 feet. The taking of a specimen (in May) 



118 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 



at the foot of the Cordillera of Tarapaca suggests, however, that the 
birds probably descend to lower altitudes on the approach of the 
severe season. The territory inhabited by M. r. pallidiceps is wholly 
cut off from the coast of Antofagasta, the winter quarters of M. r. 
rufivertex, by the intervening lifeless desert of Atacama. 



M . r. rufivertex Adult males 
One from Cobija, Antofagasta 
Four from Gatico, Antofagasta 
One from Caldera, Atacama 
Five from Romero, Coquimbo 



MEASUREMENTS 

Wing 
100 

99,99,101,102 
100 

105,105,105, 
106,110 
103 
102 
105 



One from Banos del Toro, Coquimbo 
One from Cordillera of Santiago 
One from Mendoza 

M . r. rufivertex Adult females 
Two from Gatico, Antofagasta 94,96 

One from Caldera, Atacama 96 

One from Domeyko, Atacama 101 

Two from Banos del Toro, Coquimbo 99,99 

M, r. pallidiceps Adult males 

Two from Rio Loa, Antofagasta 110,110 

Three from near San Pedro, 

Antofagasta 109,110,113 

One (?) from Canchones, Tarapac 102 

One from San Pablo, Tarapaca 107 

Two from Sajama, Bolivia 110,112 

One from Cerro Munoz, Tucuman 106 

One from Cachi, Salta 107 

M. r. pallidiceps Adult females 
Two from near San Pedro, 

Antofagasta 100,106 

One from Sajama, Bolivia 103 

One from Alcerreca, Tacna 103 



Tail 
70 

68,68,72,74 
70 

73,75,76, 
77,77 
75 
72 
74 

64,68 
64 
71 
69,70 

76,78 

74,75,79 

67 

75 

76,78 

73 

73 



68,74 

72 

72 



Bill 
16 
15,15,15,16 



16,16^,17^, 

18*419 

17 

17 

16 



15,15 
15 



18,19 



17 
18 
16,17 
15 



16,16 

17 

17 



70. Muscisaxicola albilora Lafresnaye 



Muscisaxicola albilora Lafresnaye, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 7, p. 60, 1855 patria 
ignota 1 (type in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass., 
examined). 

Muscisaxicola rubricapilla Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 25, No. 3, 
p. 429, Sept., 1864 Cordillera de la Puerta, Prov. Colchagua, and Laguna 
de los Piuquenes, Cordillera of Santiago; idem, Arch. Naturg., 31, (1), 
p. 90, 1865 same localities (habits); Sclater, Ibis, 1866, p. 58 Cordilleras 
of Santiago and Colchagua; idem (2), 1867, pp. 326, 338 Chile; Philippi 
(12), p. 258 Cordilleras of Santiago and Colchagua; Landbeck (9), 
p. 243 Chile; E. C. Reed (2), p. 551 Cauquenes, Colchagua; idem 
(4), p. 201 Chile; Albert (1), 104, p. 124 central provinces (monog.); 
Philippi (24), p. 44, pi. 24, fig. 2 Chile; Barros (5), p. 184 Cordillera of 
Aconcagua; idem (10), p. 362 Precordillera of Aconcagua. 

1 Bangs and Penard (Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 63, p. 27, 1919) suggest "Santiago, 
Chile," as type locality. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 119 

Range in Chile. Breeds in the Cordilleras of Aconcagua, San- 
tiago, and Colchagua; winters in Bolivia, Peru, and southern Ecuador. 

Material examined. Santiago: Valle del Yeso, 9 juv., Jan., 
1866. R. A. Philippi; vicinity of Santiago, two cfcT ad., one 9 ad., 
Oct., 1865. R. A. Philippi (all in United States National Museum). 
"Chile" (unspecified): cf ad., 9 ad. R. A. Philippi (Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.); 9 ad., 1872. E. C. Reed (Field 
Museum). Locality unknown: No. 4604, Lafresnaye Collection, type 
of M. albilora Lafr. (Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 
Mass.). 

The type of M. albilora kindly submitted by Mr. Outram Bangs 
is undoubtedly referable to the present species. It appears to be a 
somewhat immature bird, as is indicated by the still perceptible 
traces of the buffy edges to the upper wing coverts and secondaries 
and the restriction of the rufous occipital patch. Lafresnaye's 
name having several years' priority replaces Philippi's later term. 

The "Dormilona cabeza rojiza," the only species of the genus that 
our expedition failed to meet, breeds in the Cordilleras of central 
Chile from Aconcagua to Colchagua at altitudes of from 5,000 to 
8,000 feet. Philippi and Landbeck first found it in fair numbers 
in December, 1860, in the Cordillera of the Hacienda de la Puerta, 
Colchagua, where the birds lived in pairs on bushy hillsides, and in 
February, 1861, the same naturalists came across some young birds 
among rocks on the cerros of the Laguna de los Piuquenes, not far 
from the mines of Las Aranas, in the Cordillera of Santiago. In 
Aconcagua Province they inhabit the lower mountain ranges between 
5,000 and 8,000 feet, as we are informed by R. Barros. On migration 
and during spells of bad weather the White-lored Ground-tyrant is 
frequently seen at lower altitudes. Barros mentions observing 
scattered individuals in September and October at Los Andes (alt. 
3,000 feet), while Philippi and Landbeck report its occurrence in 
October and November at Dehesa and Aculeo in the vicinity of 
Santiago. 

After the breeding season this species migrates northwards, and 
hibernates in the Andes of Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador. We have 
examined a good many Peruvian specimens, taken at Cajamarca 
(June 27), Hacienda Queta, near Tarma (July 28), Maraynioc, 
Pariayacu (July 23), and Anta, Cuzco (July 27), which appear to be 
perfectly identical with Chilean skins. 

Little is known of its habits. According to Philippi and Land- 
beck, the nest, well constructed of moss and grass-leaves and lined 



120 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

with feathers and hair, is placed in holes under rocks. The roundish 
eggs, three or four in number, have a smooth glossy shell, and are 
white, sparingly marked with minute reddish brown dots. 

71. Muscisaxicola juninensis Taczanowski 

Muscisaxicola juninensis Taczanowski, Orn. P6r., 2, p. 214, 1884 Junln, 

Peru; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, Part 5, p. 23, 1927 

Chungara and Choquelimpie, Tacna, Chile. 
Muscisaxicola rufivertex (not of Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Sclater (4), 1886, p. 

398 Huasco, Tarapaca; idem (6), 1891, p. 134 Sacaya and San Pablo, 

Tarapaca (in part). 

Range in Chile. Puna Zone of provinces of Tarapaca and Tacna. 

Material collected. Tacna: Choquelimpie (alt. 15,000 feet), 
two cf d 71 ad., three 9 9 ad., June 21-23; Chungard (alt. 15,150 
feet), cf ad., June 25. 

Additional specimens. Tarapaca: Huasco, 9 ad., Feb. 17, 1886. 
C. Rahmer; near San Pablo, two cf cf ad., one (unsexed) adult, 
May 31, June 2, 1890. A. A. Lane; Sacaya, cf ad., March 28, 1890. 
A. A. Lane (all in the British Museum). 

Chilean specimens agree with others from Peru including two 
topotypes, but are possibly on average smaller. Width and shape of 
the bill are extremely variable, regardless of locality. 

While Sanborn's material constitutes the first actual record of 
M. juninensis from Chile, the species had already been collected by 
Rahmer and Lane in Tarapacd, but was confused by Sclater with 
M. rufivertex pallidiceps, of which Lane had also secured a single 
example at San Pablo. The series in the British Museum is precisely 
similar to our own specimens. Rahmer's bird taken in February 
molts from the worn breeding garb into the fresh fall plumage. 

M. juninensis breeds in the Puna Zone of extreme northern Chile 
and southern Peru. It is apparently a representative of M. albilora, 
which it replaces from Tarapacd northwards, while no member of 
this group has yet been discovered either in Coquimbo or Antofa- 
gasta. It is, however, interesting to note that in winter M. albilora 
invades the territory occupied by its northern relative. 

In general style, M. juninensis resembles the central Chilean form, 
but differs by much more grayish back and much less rufous on the 
crown, the occipital patch being less extensive, not sharply cir- 
cumscribed, and duller in tone. Besides, the white loral streak is less 
distinct; the white supercilium, so conspicuous in M. albilora, is but 
faintly indicated by an evanescent grayish line; the bill is generally 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 121 

slenderer and shorter. These comparatively slight differences do not 
suggest specific distinctness, and I feel quite confident that some 
day the present form will be designated as M. albilora juninensis. 

MEASUREMENTS 

M . albilora Adult males Wing Tail Bill 

Three from Santiago 113,115,118 71,72,76 17,17,17J^ 

One from Cajamarca, Peru 119 77 16 

One from Queta, Tarma, Peru 119 80 

One from Maraynioc, Peru 116 76 16 

One from Cuzco, Peru 115 71 17^ 

M. albilora Adult females 

Three from Santiago 115,115,118 68,72,74 16,16,16^ 

One from Maraynioc, Peru 108 70 17 

M. juninensis Adult males 

Two from Junfn, Peru 116,121 74,79 14,15 

One from Lauramarca, Cuzco, Peru 115 74 14^ 

Two from Salinas, Arequipa, Peru 117,118 77,80 15,15 

Three from Tacna, Chile 112,114,114 73,73,76^ 15^,15}i,16 

Three from Tarapaca, Chile 114,115,117 75,76,78 14^,15,15 

M. juninensis Adult females 

Three from Tacna, Chile 110,111,114 71,71,72 15,15^,16 

72. Muscisaxicola flavinucha Lafresnaye 

Muscisaxicola flavinucha Lafresnaye, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 7, p. 59, pi. 3, 
1855 Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 326, 338 Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 551 
Cauquenes, Colchagua; idem (4), p. 201 Chile; Albert (1), 104, p. 119 
Cordilleras of Chile (monog.); Barros (5), p. 183 Cordillera of Aconcagua; 
idem (10), p. 362 Aconcagua and Santa Filomena, Santiago. 
Muscisaxicola flavivertex Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 25, No. 3, 
p. 434, Sept., 1864 Cordillera of Santiago; idem, Arch. Naturg., 31, 
(1), p. 98, 1865 same locality; Sclater, Ibis, 1866, p. 58 Chile (crit.); 
Philippi (12), p. 258 Cordillera of Santiago; Landbeck (9), p. 243 
Chile; Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 159 Pastos Largos, Atacama; idem (24), 
p. 47, pi. 17, fig. 2 Chile. 

Range in Chile. Cordilleras from Antofagasta to Colchagua. 
Material collected. Antofagasta: Rio Loa (alt. 7,500 feet), 
c? ad., Sept. 13; twenty miles east of San Pedro (alt. 12,600 feet), 
two cf cf ad., one 9 ad., Oct. 2-8. Coquimbo: Banos del Toro 
(alt. 10,600 feet), six d* <? ad., three 9 9 ad., Nov. 11-18. 

Aside from slight variation in the intensity of the occipital patch 
and in the extent of the grayish flammulation underneath, these 
specimens agree well together. A number of winter birds taken during 
June and July in Junin and Marcapata, Peru, are precisely similar. 
Two adults from Valle del Lago Blanco, western Chubut, are a little 
darker and more brownish above, but I consider this trifling diver- 
gency too insignificant for the recognition of a separate race, whose 
proper name would be M. f. hatcheri Scott, based on a young bird 



122 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

(without crown-patch) from the sources of the Rio Chico, western 
Santa Cruz. 

The "Fraile" breeds in the Andes of central Chile at elevations 
of from 7,000 to 12,000 feet. Philippi and Landbeck found it in 
various localities in the Cordillera of Santiago; Edwyn Reed above 
Cauquenes, Colchagua; and R. Barros in the Cordillera of Aconcagua ; 
while Sanborn secured a good series of apparently breeding adults, 
in November, at Bafios del Toro (alt. 10,600 feet). Whether the 
"Fraile" also breeds in Antofagasta remains to be ascertained. Birds 
obtained east of San Pedro in October are in fresh plumage, and may 
have been on migration, since on another visit to that place in April 
and May none were seen. Philippi records the taking of specimens 
at Pastos Largos, in the first range of the Cordilleras inland of 
Copiapo, Atacama. 

According to Philippi and Landbeck, the "Fraile" frequents rocky 
mountain slopes with scanty vegetation in the vicinity of water, 
often near the edge of the snow. In December it builds its nest under 
boulders or in crevices of rocks. After the breeding season the birds 
gather in flocks and repair to lower altitudes. In 1923, Housse 
and Gajardo obtained several examples at Santa Filomena, near 
the Banos de Jahuel, at not more than 3,000 feet above sea level. 
In February they start on their northward migration to hibernate 
in Bolivia and southern Peru, and return to their nesting grounds 
in September and October. 

73. Muscisaxicola capistrata (Burmeister) 

Ptyonura capistrata Burmeister, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 248, 1860 foot of the Sierra 

de Mendoza (type in Halle Museum examined). 
Muscisaxicola capistrata Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, 

Part 5, p. 25, 1927 Ramadilla, Atacama, and Rio Loa, Rio Inacaliri, and 

San Pedro, Antofagasta. 

Range in Chile. Winter visitor in Atacama, Antofagasta, and 
doubtless other parts of the republic. 

Material collected. Atacama: Ramadilla, Copiapo Valley, cf 
ad., Aug. 24. Antofagasta: Rio Loa (alt. 7,500 feet), 9 ad., Sept. 
12; Ojo de San Pedro (alt. 12,400 feet), three cf cf ad., May 2; 
twenty miles east of San Pedro (alt. 12,600 feet), 9 ad., 9 imm., 
April 30; Rio Inacaliri (alt. 12,800 feet), three cf cf ad., one 9 ad., 
April 25, 27. 

Although not previously recorded from Chile proper, Sanborn 
found this beautiful bird very common in April and May in the 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 123 

Puna Zone of Antofagasta. Quite recently, R. Barros (Rev. 
Chil. Hist. Nat., 34, 1930, p. 318) met with it in the vicinity of 
Puente del Inca, Prov. Mendoza, just beyond the Chilean boundary. 
M. capistrata breeds in Tierra del Fuego and Patagonia, north 
at least to Rio Negro Province. We learn from J. L. Peters 1 that at 
Huanuluan the birds arrive late in September and breed in October. 
In March, they start on their northward migration, which carries 
them as far north as western Bolivia (Sajama, Oruro) and southern 
Peru (Pichacani, Dept. Puno; July). While in winter quarters, they 
appear to prefer high elevations, though a single example was shot 
in the Copiapo Valley, near the coast of Atacama. We have also 
specimens from Tucuman (Aconquija; Sept. 17) and Catamarca 
(Laguna Blanca; Sept. 27). 

Females are decidedly smaller than the males, but do not differ 
in coloration. 

Seven adult males. Wing 114, 114, 115, 115, 116, 116, 117; 
tail 66, 67, 68, 71, 71, 72, 76; bill 15^, 16 (four), 17 (one). 

Five adult females. Wing 105, 107, 107, 108, 109; tail 63, 64, 65, 
66, 70; bill 15, 15, 15, 16, 16. 

74. Muscisaxicola frontalis (Burmeister) 

Ptyonura frontalis Burmeister, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 248, 1860 base of the Sierra 
de Uspallata, Prov. Mendoza (type in Halle Museum examined). 

Muscisaxicola nigrifrons Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 25, No. 3, 
p. 436, Sept., 1864 Laguna de los Piuquenes, Cordillera of Santiago, and 
Hacienda de la Dehesa, Prov. Santiago; idem, Arch. Naturg., 31, (1), 
p. 101, 1865 same localities; Sclater, Ibis, 1866, p. 58 Chile (crit.); 
idem (2), 1867, pp. 326, 338 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 258 Cordillera of 
Santiago; Landbeck (9), p. 243 Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 550 Cordillera 
of Colchagua; idem (4), p. 201 Cordilleras of Chile; Albert (1), 104, 
p. 112 Chile (monog.); Philippi (24), p. 43, pi. 14, fig. 1 Chile. 

Muscisaxicola frontalis nigrifrons Berlepsch, Ornis, 14, p. 468, 1907 Chile 
(crit.). 

Muscisaxicola frontalis Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, Part 5, 
p. 26, 1927 Banos del Toro, Coquimbo, and east of San Pedro, Anto- 
fagasta (crit.). 

Range in Chile. Cordilleras from Antofagasta to Colchagua. 

Material collected. Antofagasta: twenty miles east of San 
Pedro (alt. 12,600 feet), two d 1 c? ad., Oct. 6, 8. Coquimbo: Banos 
del Toro (alt. 10,600 feet), five d* <? ad., two 9 9 ad., Nov. 11-18. 

. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 323, 1923. 



124 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Additional specimens. Santiago: Cordillera of Santiago, two 
cf cT ad., one 9 ad. E. C. Reed and F. Leybold (Paris Museum and 
Munich Museum). "Andes of Chile:" 9 juv., Oct., 1872. E. Reed 
(Berlepsch Collection, Frankfort Museum). 

The Chilean series does not differ either in size or coloration from 
Argentine specimens. The chestnut patch at the base of the median 
crown feathers, which Berlepsch thought was absent in the Chilean 
form, is exceedingly well developed in five of our males, while two 
others (one each from Banos del Toro and Antofagasta) as well as 
the two females show merely traces of it. From the material at hand 
I can only conclude that M. nigrifrons is inseparable from P. frontalis. 

The Black-fronted Ground-tyrant frequents the elevated regions 
of the Cordilleras from 8,000 feet upwards. Philippi and Landbeck 
record it from the Laguna de los Piuquenes in the Cordillera of 
Santiago (alt. 8,000 feet), whence they secured adult and young 
birds in February and September. Cold weather and snowfall 
drive the birds to lower altitudes, and in October and November of 
1863 many were seen in the Hacienda de la Dehesa at the foot of the 
mountains. Barros did not meet with this species in Aconcagua, 
but Edwyn Reed includes it among the birds of the Cauquenes 
region, Colchagua, without giving further details. Sanborn obtained 
a good series in the Cordillera of Coquimbo at Banos del Toro (alt. 
10,600 feet). Judging from their somewhat worn plumage, I imagine 
they were breeding. The female taken east of San Pedro is in similar 
condition. This locality marks the northern limit of its recorded 
Chilean range. 

This species occurs also in the Argentine Andes from Jujuy south 
to western Rio Negro (Anecon Grande). Although doubts have been 
cast on the correctness of the type locality, R. Barros 1 has recently 
procured a specimen at Cajon de las Vacas, Prov. Mendoza, thus 
confirming Burmeister's statement. 

MEASUREMENTS 

Adult males Wing TaU Bill 

One from Mendoza (type) 121 78 19 

One from Jujuy (Cerro Laguna Colorada) 116 71 19 

Two from Tucuman (Cerro Mufioz) 114,118 73,75 18,19 

Two from Cordilleras of Santiago 120,121 72,78 20, 

Five from Banos del Toro, Coquimbo 115,118,119, 72,73,75, 18,18,19, 

119,120 76,76 19,19 

Two from Antofagasta (San Pedro) 121,124 77,79 19,19 

Adult females 

One from Cordillera of Santiago 116 75 19 

Two from Banos del Toro, Coquimbo 114,115 73,75 18,19 

'Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 34, p. 318, 1930. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYB 125 

75. M uscisaxicola albifrons (Tschudi) 

Ptyonura albifrons Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 276, 1844 Peru. 

Muscisaxicola albifrons Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 25, No. 3, 
p. 421, 1864 Parinacota Mediana, above Tacna, Prov. Tacna; idem, 
Arch. Naturg., 31, (1), p. 78 same locality; Sclater (4), 1886, p. 397 
Sacaya, Tarapaca; E. Reed (4), p. 201 Tarapaca; Albert (1), 104, p. 110 
part, Tarapaca (monog.). 

Range in Chile. Puna Zone of the extreme northern section, in 
provinces of Tarapaca and Tacna. 

Material collected. Tacna: Las Cuevas (alt. 13,500 feet), near 
Putre, two cf cf ad., June 20; Chungara (alt. 15,150 feet), c? ad., 
9 ad., June 25. 

Not different from Peruvian specimens. 

This species, which is immediately recognizable by its gigantic 
dimensions (wing 150-165 mm.), is characteristic of the Puna Zone 
of southern Peru and Bolivia, stretching its range into the extreme 
north of Chile. Frobeen shot a single example in June, 1853, 
at Parinacota Mediana, above Tacna, at an altitude of 14,000 
feet above sea level. Subsequently, C. Rahmer secured a female at 
Sacaya, in the Cordillera of Tarapaca. These were the only previous 
records from Chile. 

76. Muscisaxicola alpina cinerea Philippi and Landbeck 

Muscisaxicola cinerea Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 25, No. 3, p. 
422, Sept., 1864 Las Aranas, Valle Larga, and Las Chacarillas, Cordillera 
of Santiago; idem, Arch. Naturg., 31, (1), p. 80, 1865 same localities; 
Sclater, Ibis, 1866, p. 57 Cordilleras of Santiago; idem (2), 1867, pp. 326, 
338 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 258 Cordilleras of Santiago; Landbeck (9), 
p. 243 Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 551 Cordillera of Colchagua; idem (4), 
p. 201 Chile; Albert (1), 104, p. 115 from "southern Chile" to Peru 
(monog.); Philippi (24), p. 49, pi. 19, fig. 2 Chile; Barros (5), p. 184 
Portillo, Cordillera of Aconcagua. 

Range in Chile. Breeds in the Cordilleras of the central provinces 
from Coquimbo to Colchagua; 1 migrates to Peru. 

Material collected. Coquimbo: Banos del Toro (alt. 10,600 
feet), eight cf cf ad., one 9 ad., Nov. 12-18. 

The "Dormilona cenicienta" breeds exclusively in the Puna 
Zone of the central provinces. Philippi and Landbeck discovered 
it in the Valle Larga and at Las Aranas in the Cordillera of Santiago, 

*A specimen in the British Museum said to be from "Valdivia" is doubtless 
wrongly labeled. Nor can I believe that M. cinerea ever occurs on the forested 
Isla La Mocha, Arauco, as recorded by Housse (Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 28, p. 48, 1924). 



126 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

at altitudes of from 8,000 to 10,000 feet, while F. Leybold shot a 
specimen at Las Chacarillas, in the same province. Adults and 
full-grown young birds were secured in January and February. 
E. Reed lists them as rather uncommon in the Andes of Colchagua; 
Barros met with small numbers in November at Portillo (alt. 10,000 
feet) in the Cordillera of Aconcagua; and Sanborn collected a good 
series at Banos del Toro (alt. 10,600 feet), Coquimbo. 

According to Philippi and Landbeck, these birds inhabit rocky 
mountain slopes in the vicinity of water and on the edges of snow 
fields, are very active, and feed on berries and insects. The nest is 
placed in crevices of rocks, and contains four or five eggs, which are 
white dotted with brown around the larger end. 

Nothing appears to be known regarding the bird's migratory 
movements beyond the fact that specimens have been taken in 
winter (June) in Junin, Peru. 1 

'In my revision of the genus (Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, Part 5, 
p. 28, 1927) I kept M. cinerea as specifically distinct, and did not attempt to 
separate the birds from northwestern Argentina, only a single specimen in worn 
breeding plumage being available for comparison. A good series from the Andes 
of Tucuman since acquired by Field Museum shows, however, that the Argentine 
form, while to a certain extent intermediate, cannot be united to either M. a. 
grisea or M. a. cinerea, and I accordingly propose to name it 
Muscisaxicola alpina argentina subsp. nov. 

Type from Las Pavas, Prov. Tucuman, in Field Museum of Natural History, 
No. 57,934. Adult male. December 10, 1924. J. Mogensen. 

Characters. Similar to M. a. cinerea in small size and in having the wings 
brownish rather than blackish without any distinct pale markings, but upper 
parts less grayish, more like M. a. grisea, though rather lighter; throat and breast 
clouded or flammulated with pale grayish brown; inner margin to remiges more 
strongly tinged with pinkish buff. 

Wing (four adult males) 108-110, (three adult females) 100-105; tail (male) 
74-76, (female) 70-75; bill 15-16. 

Range. Puna Zone of northwestern Argentina, in provinces of Tucuman 
and Jujuy. 

Remarks. In coloration of the under parts this form is precisely similar to 
the Peruvian M. a. grisea, which it also closely approaches by the brownish gray 
tone of the dorsal surface in opposition to the clear ashy gray of M. a. cinerea, but 
it is much smaller and has the wings duller brown with hardly any of the whitish 
edges to the secondaries and greater wing coverts so conspicuous in M. a. grisea. 
The whitish superciliaries are as a rule narrow and restricted as in M. a. cinerea, 
though one or two examples exhibit an unmistakable tendency in the direction 
of M. a. grisea. The inner margin of the remiges is more strongly tinged with 
pinkish buff than in either of its allies. 

The range of this form appears to be confined to the mountainous region of 
northwestern Argentina (prov. Tucuman and Jujuy). We have five adults in 
worn breeding condition and two young birds (with pinkish buff under tail coverts 
and similar edges to wing coverts and secondaries) taken by Juan Mogensen in 
December, 1924, at Las Pavas, Tucuman, and a single adult female in fresh plumage 
obtained by the same collector on July 5, 1918, at Aconquija. Besides, we have 
examined in the Paris Museum a worn adult male shot by the late G. A. Baer, 
on February 26, 1903, at Laguna de Pelado (alt. 5,000 meters), Prov. Tucuman. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 127 

77. Muscisaxicola macloviana mentalis Lafr. and d'Orb. 

Muscisaxicola mentalis Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 
7, cl. 2, p. 66, 1837 Cobija, Arica, and Patagonia 1 (spec, in Paris 
Museum examined); d'Orbigny, p. 355, pi. 40, fig. 1 Rio Negro, Cobija, 
Arica; Darwin, p. 83 Chiloe', central and northern Chile; Fraser (1), 
p. 112 Chile; Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 25, p. 426 
Valdivia, Santiago, Arica (monog.); idem, Arch. Naturg., 31, (1), p. 85 
same localities (habits, migration) ; Sclater, Ibis, 1866, p. 58 Chile (crit.) ; 
idem (2), 1867, pp. 326, 338 Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 551 Cauquenes, 
Colchagua; Sharpe, p. 8 Coquimbo. 

Ochthoeca chiknsis Hartlaub, Naumannia, 3, p. 212, 1853 Valdivia (=juv.); 
Pelzeln (2), p. 76 Chile. 

Muscisaxicola albimentum Lafresnaye, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 7, p. 61, 1855 
habitat ignota ( = juv.). 

Ptyonura mentalis Cassin, p. 185 Chile. 

Muscisaxicola macloviana Philippi (12), p. 257 all of Chile to Straits of 
Magellan; Landbeck (9), p. 243 foothills of the Andes; E. Reed (4), 
p. 201 Chile; Schalow (2), p. 715 Cavancha (Iquique), Isla dos Pajaros, 
Totoralillo (Coquimbo), Tumbes (Conception), and Villarrica; Waugh 
and Lataste (2), p. CLXXI San Alfonso (Quillota), Valparaiso; Albert 
(1), 104, p. 117 Chile (monog.); Barros (4), p. 146 Nilahue, Curico; 
idem (5), p. 183 Cordillera of Aconcagua; Gigoux, p. 86 Caldera, 
Atacama; Lataste (9), p. 168 Santa Teresa (Requinoa) and San Alfonso; 
Housse (2), p. 146 San Bernardo, Santiago; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 107 
Marga-Marga, Valparaiso; Bullock (4), p. 180 Angol, Malleco; Barros 
(10), p. 360 Aconcagua (winter visitor). 

Muscisaxicola macloviana mentalis Passler (3), p. 466 Coronel, Conception 
(breeding habits [?]); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 333, 1925 Cobija and 
Arica (crit.). 

Range in Chile. From the Peruvian boundary to the Straits of 
Magellan, probably breeding on the wooded Andean slopes in the 
southern section. 

Material collected. Tacna: Chacalluta (six miles north of Arica), 
three 9 9 ad., one 9 juv., June 12-14, July 16. Antofagasta: 
Gatico, two c? cf ad., one cf juv., two 9 9 ad., April 8-10. 
Atacama: Ramadilla, Copiapo Valley, cf ad., Aug. 25; Caldera, 
three cf cf ad., two 9 9 ad., June 16, July 22, Aug. 31, Sept. 1-6. 
C. C. Sanborn and E. E. Gigoux. Coquimbo: Romero, two cf cf 
ad., one 9 ad., one 9 juv., July 15-19. Santiago: Santiago, cf 
imm., 9 imm., June 24, 1923. C. S. Reed. O'Higgins: near Sewell 
(alt. 6,000 feet), 9 ad., May 7. Concepcion: Concepcion, c? ad., 

'Carmen de Patagones, Rio Negro, designated as type locality by Peters 
(Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 322, 1923). 



128 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

May 28, 1903. C. S. Reed. Maule: Quirihue (alt. 8,000 feet), 
cf ad., three 9 9 ad., May 2, 3. Malleco: Rio Colorado (alt. 
3,000 feet), 9 juv., March 3. Cautin: Lake Gualletue" (alt. 3,800 
feet), of juv., Feb. 21. Llanquihue: Casa Richards, Rio ftirehuau, 
cf juv., Feb. 26. 

Additional specimens. Tacna: Arica, two adults, one juv. 
D'Orbigny. Antofagasta: Cobija, one adult, one juv. D'Orbigny 
(Paris Museum). Coquimbo: Isla dos Pajaros, Totoralillo, adult, 
Oct., 1893. L. Plate. Conception: Tumbes, d" 1 imm., 9 imm., 
June, 1894. L. Plate (Berlin Museum). 

Schalow took great pains in demonstrating the identity of M. 
mentalis, of the South American continent, and M. macloviana, 
from the Falkland Islands, but he had no topotypical material of the 
latter, as specimens from Tierra del Fuego and Straits of Magellan 
prove to be inseparable from the Chilean ones. Thanks to the 
courtesy of Mr. 0. Bangs I have been enabled to compare a good 
series from the Falklands, and these birds are so constantly larger 
that the recognition of M. m. mentalis, as advocated by Bangs and 
Penard, 1 seems perfectly justified. In M. m. macloviana, the length 
of the wing ranges from 112 (female) to 118 (male), against 95-105 
in M. m. mentalis. Among the large number of continental birds 
examined there is only one a male from Ushuwaia, Beagle Channel 
that approaches the island form in size (wing 109). 

As correctly pointed out long ago by Philippi and Landbeck, 
adult birds are characterized by dark brown pileum and a rufous 
brown chin-spot, the female differing only in smaller size and gen- 
erally less rufous on the chin. Young birds lack the chin-spot, the 
throat and foreneck being streaked with white and pale grayish; 
the upper wing coverts are edged with buff, and the pileum is almost 
the same color as the back. 

It is extremely doubtful whether the "Dormilona comun" breeds 
anywhere within the Chilean boundaries except in the southernmost 
parts. Philippi and Landbeck claim, it is true, that this species in 
summer inhabits the middle Cordilleras in the vicinity of creeks and 
marshes as well as the banks of rivers at the foot of the mountains, 
but they were apparently unacquainted with its nesting habits and 
eggs, and their surmise has not been corroborated by subsequent 
observers. In Aconcagua, according to Barros, it occurs only on 
passage, first in March and April and again on its southward migra- 
tion in September and October, and for its occurrence in the provinces 

. Mus. Comp. ZooL, 63, p. 26, 1919. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 129 

of Santiago and Valparaiso there are likewise only a number of 
winter records. In the north it extends its migration along the coast 
to Tacna Province and even to the Peruvian littoral (Islay, Lima). 
In Nilahue (Curico) and Angol (Malleco) Barros and Bullock know 
it merely as a winter visitor, arriving in May or June and departing 
again in September or early October. Passler attributes a nest with 
eggs found by a native at Coronel, Conception, to M. m. mentcdis, 
but there seems little doubt that it actually pertained to Lessonia 
r. rufa. 

The expedition of Field Museum did not secure any adults in 
breeding plumage, though the taking in February and March of 
full-grown young birds in the hills of Malleco and Cautin and on the 
Rio Nirehuau (Llanquihue) suggests their having been reared in 
that neighborhood. 

While on migration, these birds often gather in large flocks. 
Philippi and Landbeck report that from May 9 to May 11, 1859, 
enormous numbers totaling more than 100,000 individuals passed 
over Valdivia in northward direction. 

M. m. mentalis is known to breed in Tierra del Fuego and on the 
Argentine slope of the Andes as far north as Lake Nahuel Huapi. 

78. Muscisaxicola maculirostris maculirostris Lafr. and d'Orb. 

Muscisaxicola maculirostris Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. 
Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 66, 1837 La Paz, Bolivia (type in Paris Museum exam- 
ined); Bibra, p. 129 Cordillera [of Santiago] (habits); Philippi and 
Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 25, p. 424, 1864 Cerro de San Cristobal 
and Las Arafias, Cordillera of Santiago, and Hacienda de la Puerta, Prov. 
Colchagua; idem, Arch. Naturg., 31, (1), p. 82, 1865 same localities 
(monog.); Sclater, Ibis, 1866, p. 57 Cordilleras of Chile; idem (2), 1867, 
pp. 326, 338 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 258 central provinces; Landbeck 
(9), p. 243 Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 551 lower Cordillera of Cauquenes, 
Colchagua; idem (4), p. 201 Chile; Albert (1), 104, p. 127 Chile (monog.); 
Barros (5), p. 184 Rio Blanco, Aconcagua; idem (6), p. 35 San Ber- 
nardo, Santiago; Housse (2), p. 145 San Bernardo, Santiago; Bullock 
(4), p. 180 Angol, Malleco; Barros (10), p. 362 Aconcagua. 

Range in Chile. From Tacna to Cautin. 

Material collected. Tacna: Putre (alt. 11,600 feet), d" ad., 

9 ad., June 18, July 2. Antofagasta: Rio Loa (alt. 7,500 feet), 

two d* cf ad., two 9 9 ad., Sept. 12-14. Atacama: Ramadilla, 

Copiapo Valley, of ad., March 23; Caldera, two cf d 1 ad., three 

9 9 ad., Oct. 17-31, 1924. E. E. Gigoux. Coquimbo: Romero, 



130 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

d 1 ad., 9 ad., July 19, 30. Cautin: Villa Portales (3,000 to 3,300 
feet), Lonquimai Valley, c? ad., c? juv., Feb. 9. 

Chilean specimens appear to be inseparable from a Peruvian and 
Bolivian series. 

In the northern parts of its range the "Dormilona chica" in- 
habits the Temperate and Puna Zones of the Andes, but it breeds 
also in the Cordilleras of central Chile. Bibra was the first to record 
it from the Cordilleras of Santiago, where Philippi and Landbeck 
subsequently obtained adult and young birds in January and Febru- 
ary in "Las Araiias" at an elevation of 5,000 to 7,000 feet. Breeding 
pairs were met with by the same naturalists in December in the 
Cordillera of the Hacienda de la Puerta, Colchagua, at 5,000 to 
6,000 feet above sea level, and Barros found them at similar altitudes 
in the mountain ranges of Aconcagua. The most southerly breeding 
record is from Villa Portales (alt. 3,000 to 3,300 feet), in the Lon- 
quimai Valley, Prov. Cautin, where Sanborn, early in February, 
shot an adult male in annual molt and a full-grown young bird with 
incompletely developed, wholly blackish bill. 

During migration and in winter these birds descend to lower 
altitudes and even to the seacoast. Philippi and Landbeck once met 
with a small flock, on October 11, on the Cerro de San Cristobal, 
near Santiago, about 2,400 feet above the sea, and other specimens 
were secured in the same province by Rev. Housse and R. Barros, 
between August and October, in the vicinity of San Bernardo. 
Bullock obtained a single example in April at Angol, Malleco, and 
states that it is the only one he ever saw in that neighborhood. 
Sanborn sent us skins from the low hills of Coquimbo and from 
the Copiapo Valley, while to E. E. Gigoux we are indebted for five 
adults collected by him in October at Caldera, Atacama. 

According to Philippi and Landbeck, the "Dormilona chica" 
in the breeding season frequents brushy hill slopes, and builds its 
nest among rocks under low bushes. 

79. Lessonia ruf a rufa (Gmelin) 

Alauda rufa Gmelin, 1 Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 792, 1789 based on Daubenton, 
PI. Enl., 728, fig. "1" [ =2] and Buffon's "Alouette noire, a dos fauve," 
Buenos Aires, coll. Commerson; Meyen, p. 84 Tollo, Rio Maipo, Chile; 
Kittlitz, Denkw., 1, p. 159 Vina del Mar, Valparaiso. 

1 Alauda nigri (typ. error for nigra) Boddaert (Tabl. PL Enl., p. 46, 1783) is 
rendered invalid by another Alauda nigra of the same author on a preceding page 
(p. 40). 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 131 

Anthus sordidus Lesson, 1 Voyage Coquille, Zool., 1, (2), livr. 15, p. 664, 
April, 1830 Talcaguano, Concepci6n Bay ( =female). 

Anthus variegatus Eydoux and Gervais, Mag. Zool., 6, cl. 2, p. 12, pi. 67, 
1836 Chile; idem, Voy. Favorite, 5, (2), p. 38, pi. 15, 1839 Chile 
( = female). 

Anthus rufidorsis Kittlitz, Denkwiird. Reise, 1, p. 159, 1858 new name for 
Alauda rufa Gmelin. 

Muscisaxicola nigra Darwin, p. 84 Chile, north to Copiapo; Fraser (1), p. 
112 Chile; Des Murs (2), p. 321 Chile; Germain, p. 311 Chile (nesting 
habits); Philippi (12), p. 257 Chile; Landbeck (9), p. 243 river valleys 
of Chile; Waugh and Lataste (1), p. LXXXV Penaflor, Santiago; idem (2), 
p. CLXXI San Alfonso (Quillota), Valparaiso; Lataste (9), p. 168 
San Alfonso and Santa Teresa (Requinoa). 

Centrites rufus Bibra, p. 129 Santiago. 

Silvia dorsalis Boeck, p. 501 Valdivia and Rio Pudeto, Chilo6. 

Centrites niger Pelzeln (2), p. 76 Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 326, 338 
Chile, north to Copiapo; E. Reed (2), p. 552 Cauquenes, Colchagua; 
Salvin (2), p. 423 Coquimbo; E. Reed (4), p. 201 Chile; Schalow (2), 
p. 714 Coquimbo; Albert (1), 104, p. 130 Chile (part, monog.); Gigoux, 
p. 84 Caldera, Atacama; Bullock (4), p. 180 Angol, Malleco. 

Lessonia nigra Barros (4), p. 146 Nilahue, Curico; idem (5), p. 184 Cordil- 
lera of Aconcagua; Housse (2), p. 146 San Bernardo, Santiago; Jaffuel 
and Pirion, p. 107 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso. 

Lessonia rufa rufa Passler (3), p. 465 Coronel (breeding habits); Wetmore 
(3), p. 307 Concon, Valparaiso. 

Range in Chile. From the Copiapo Valley, Atacama, to the 
Straits of Magellan. 

Material collected. Atacama: Ramadilla, Copiapo Valley, two 
d"d" ad., Aug. 22, 25. Coquimbo: Romero, 9 ad., July 30. 
Conception: Hacienda Gualpencillo, cT ad., March 30. Cautin: 
Lake Gualletue" (alt. 3,800 feet), d 1 ad., Feb. 19. Chiloe" Island: 
Quellon, two o" cf ad., cf (first annual), two 9 9 ad., Dec. 24-28, 
Jan. 3; Rio Inio, two d* cf ad., two 9 9 ad., Jan. 7-10. Llanquihue: 
Casa Richards, Rio Nirehuau, 9 ad., Feb. 18. 

Chilean birds agree with a series from Argentina. The two adult 
males from the Copiapo Valley are not different from those of more 
southern origin and show no approach to L. r. oreas, from the Puna 
Zone of the northern provinces. 

The "Colejial" is widely distributed throughout Chile in the 
lowlands and foothills. It is reported to frequent the river valleys 
and also the dunes with scanty vegetation along the seashore. While 
all other authors agree that it does not ascend to any considerable 

1 Although faulty with respect to the posterior under parts, the description 
cannot well refer to any other Chilean bird. 



132 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

elevation in the mountains, R. Barros states that, in the Cordillera 
of Aconcagua, at the beginning of spring (end of September or early 
October) most of the birds retire to altitudes of from 6,000 to 10,000 
feet, while only a few stay all the year round in the precordillera. 

According to Bullock, it is resident in the Angol Valley, Malleco, 
though Barros lists it only as a winter visitant in Nilahue, Curico. 
Passler, on the other hand, says it is merely a summer visitor at 
Coronel, aggregating in flocks after the breeding season and migrat- 
ing northwards for the winter (May to September). According to 
the same observer, it makes two broods, the first in October, and 
the second in the latter part of December. The nest, made of grass- 
leaves and rootlets and fitted inside with feathers, is placed on the 
ground under small bushes, and contains two or three eggs, which 
are buff dotted with violet and reddish brown, these markings often 
being crowded round the larger end. 

80. Lessonia rufa oreas (Sclater and Salvin) 

Centrites oreas Sclater and Salvin, P. Z. S. Lond., 1869, p. 154 Tinta, Dept. 
Cuzco, Peru (types in British Museum examined); Sclater (4), 1886, p. 398 
Sacaya, Tarapaca; E. Reed (4), p. 201 Tarapaca. . 

Muscisaxicola nigra (errore) Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 158 Leoncito, Puna of 
Atacama. 

Centrites niger Albert (1), 104, p. 130 Chile (part, var. oreas). 

Lessonia rufa oreas Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, Part 5, 
p. 36, 1927 Rio Loa and east of San Pedro, Antofagasta. 

Range in Chile. Puna Zone of the northern provinces, from 
Atacama to Tacna. 

Material collected. Antofagasta: Rio Loa (alt. 7,500 feet), cf 
ad., Sept. 14; twenty miles east of San Pedro (alt. 12,600 feet), 
9 ad., Oct. 6. 

Additional specimens. Tarapaca: Sacaya, d* ad., Feb. 6, 1886. 
C. Rahmer (British Museum). 

Birds from northern Chile are identical with a Peruvian series. 
This form differs from L. r. rufa, in addition to its larger size, by 
the lighter, more cinnamon rufous back and grayish white (instead 
of deep black) inner web of the primaries in the male sex. The 
female is even more strongly differentiated, having the back but 
little duller rufous than the male, the under parts mostly sooty 
with dingy brownish edges, the under tail coverts blackish instead 
of buffy white, and the inner web of the primaries more whitish. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 133 

L. r. oreas represents the typical form in the northern provinces 
of the republic, but unlike its ally it is strictly confined to the Puna 
Zone, its altitudinal range extending from 7,500 to 14,000 feet. 
There can be little doubt that the bird recorded by Philippi s. n. 
Muscisaxicola nigra from Leoncito, in the Puna region of Atacama, 
refers to the present race and not to L. r. rufa. 

MEASUREMENTS 

Adult males Wing Tail Bill 

Three from Tinta, Cuzco, Peru 78,79,82 49,51,52 11,11,11 H 

One from Salinas, Arequipa 83 53 10 % 

One from Rio Loa, Antofagasta 78 48 10 M 

One from Sacaya, Tarapaca 80 49 11 K 

Adult females 

Three from Tinta, Cuzco, Peru 77,77,77 47,48,49 11,11, 

One from Antofagasta, Chile 76 48 10 

81. Ochthoeca oenanthoides oenanthoides (Lafr. and d'Orb.) 

Fluvicola oenanthoides Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 
7, cl. 2, p. 60, 1837 La Paz, Bolivia (type in Paris Museum examined). 

Ochthoeca oenanthoides oenanthoides Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 
Ser., 13, Part 5, p. 42, 1927 Putre, Tacna. 

Range in Chile. Extreme northern section, in province of Tacna. 

Material collected. Tacna: Putre (alt. 11,600 feet), cf ad., two 
9 9 ad., June 17, July 2, 4. 

Compared with two males from La Paz and a female from Cocha- 
bamba, these birds are somewhat darker above, thus betraying a 
certain tendency in the direction of 0. o. polionota Sclater and Salvin, 
from Peru, which is, however, much larger, of a much deeper rufous 
below, and lacks every trace of the ochraceous apical spots to the 
greater upper wing coverts. 

Three birds from Colalao del Valle, Tucuman, and an adult 
male (in worn plumage) from Potosi, Bolivia, differ by decidedly 
paler (less sepia) back, more fulvescent rump, grayish brown instead 
of sooty pileum, and by having a suggestion of a second wing-bar 
across the tips of the median wing coverts. If separable, the name 
Muscisaxicola morenoi Bruch 1 would be available for this southern 
race. 

0. o. oenanthoides is peculiar to the Puna Zone of western Bolivia 
and extreme northern Chile. 

'Rev. Mus. La Plata, 11, p. 258, 1904 Santa Catalina, Jujuy. 



134 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

82. Ochthoeca leucophrys leucometopa Sclater and Salvin 

Ochthoeca leucometopa Sclater and Salvin, P. Z. S. Lond., 1877, p. 19 "W. 

Peru, Prov. Cuzco (Whitely); district of Junin (Jelski)" (the type examined 

in the British Museum is from Chihuata, above Arequipa, southwestern 

Peru). 
Ochthoeca leucophrys leucometopa Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 

13, Part 5, p. 46, 1927 Putre, Tacna. 

Range in Chile. Extreme northern section, in province of Tacna. 

Material collected. Tacna: Putre (alt. 11,600 feet), c? 1 ad., two 
9 9 ad., June 19, July 3, 7. 

Additional specimens. Tacna: Palca (alt. 10,000 feet), 9 ad., 
Oct. 20, 1902. Otto Garlepp (Berlepsch Collection, Frankfort 
Museum). 

These specimens are identical with the type and a series from 
southern Peru. Like the preceding species, this is an inhabitant of 
the Temperate Zone. Closely allied races occur in Bolivia, north- 
western Argentina, and northern Peru. 



[Yetapa risora (Vieillot) included by Gay (Hist. fis. pol. Chile, 
Zool., 1, p. 339, 1847) under the name Alecturus guyrayetupa in 
the Chilean fauna ranges over northern Argentina, Uruguay, Para- 
guay, and the adjacent parts of Brazil. It has never been found 
in Chile.] 

83. Hymenops 1 perspicillata andina (Ridgway) 

Lichenops perspicillatus, /3 andinus Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, 
"1878," p. 483, May 22, 1879 Chile "to New Granada" (errore). 

Hymenops nyctitarius Lesson, 2 Voy. Coquille, Zool., 1, livr. 6, p. 239, 1828 
Conception. 

Lichenops perspicillata (us) Fraser (1), p. 110 Chile; Des Murs (2), p. 337 
Chile; Pelzeln (2), p. 77 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 260 Chile; Landbeck 
(9), p. 248 Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 550 Cauquenes, Colchagua; Salvin (2), 
1883, p. 423 Coquimbo; E. Reed (4), p. 201 Chile; Lane, p. 31 
Hacienda Mansel (Santiago), Rio Bueno and Rio Pilmaiquen, Valdivia 
(habits); Schalow (2), p. 719 Punta Teatinos, near La Serena, Coquimbo; 

1 Hymenops Lesson (Voyage Coquille, Zool., 1, livr. 6, p. 239, March 22, 1828) 
takes precedence over Lichenops Sundevall (Vetenskaps Akad. Handl. for 1835, 
p. 88, 1836), both having the same basis, viz. "Le Clignot," described by Buffon 
from Commerson's manuscript. Hymenops nyctitarius, quoted by Lesson from 
Commerson's unpublished drawings, becomes valid under the rules by his reference 
to "Le Clignot du Paraguay" [= Montevideo]. The name has been completely 
lost sight of, and is not even mentioned by Sherborn. 

'Being exclusively based on "Le Clignot" from Montevideo, this name is, of 
course, inapplicable to the Chilean form. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 135 

Waugh and Lataste (1), p. LXXXVI Rio Mapocho, Penaflor, Santiago; 
idem (3), p. LIX Penaflor, Santiago; Albert (1), 104, p. 107 Chile 
(monog.); Barros (4), p. 145 Nilahue, Curic6; Housse (2), p. 145 San 
Bernardo, Santiago; Bullock (4), p. 179 Angol, Malleco. 

Muscicapa nigricans (not of Vieillot) Bibra, p. 129 Valparaiso and Valdivia. 

Lichenops eryihropterus (not of Gould) Cassin, p. 185 Chile. 

Leichenops erythropierus Germain, p. 311 Chile (breeding habits). 

Lichenops perspicillata andina Passler (3), p. 464 Coronel and Talcaguano 
(Concepci6n), Los Vilos (Aconcagua), and La Serena, Coquimbo (breed- 
ing habits); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 315, 1925 Chile (crit.). 

Range in Chile. Lowlands of the central provinces, from 
Coquimbo to Valdivia. 

Material collected. Valparaiso: Limache (alt. 500 feet), d" ad., 
Dec. 2, 1924. J. A. Wolff sohn.Cautin: Lake GualletuS (alt. 3,800 
feet), c? ad., three cT d" juv., 9 ad., 9 juv., Feb. 18-20. 

Additional specimens. Chile (unspecified): seven cf cf ad., three 
9 9 ad., no dates. F. Leybold and E. C. Reed (Paris Museum, 
Munich Museum). 

When compared with a dozen from Uruguay and others from 
eastern Argentina (Corrientes and Buenos Aires), adult males from 
Chile are easily enough separated by larger size, by having the black 
at the basal portion of the five outer primaries extended on to the 
sinuation of the quills, resulting in a considerable restriction of 
the white area, and by the generally longer dusky apical spots of the 
wings. It must be admitted, however, that even in Uruguay certain 
individuals have very nearly as much black at the base of the outer 
primaries as the Chilean average. Birds from eastern Bolivia and 
western Argentina are so variously intermediate even in size 
between H. p. perspicillata and H. p. andina, that it is really a 
matter of personal preference whether to refer them to one form 
rather than to the other. 1 

The "Runrun" ranges over the lowlands of the greater part of 
central and southern Chile. The northern limit of its distribution 
is around Coquimbo, where specimens were obtained by Markham, 
Plate, and Passler, while in the south the Valdivia-Llanquihue 
boundary seems to mark the farthest point. Lane found it fairly 
common on the Rio Pilmaiquen, but did not hear of it in Chiloe" 
or at Puerto Montt. 

These birds frequent wet places in the vicinity of rivers and 
lagoons, but are said to be nowhere abundant. They are mostly 

!See Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 32, pp. 315-316, 1925, and Laubmann, Wiss. 
Ergebn. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, pp. 211-212, 1930. 



136 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

found in the plains and avoid the mountains, Lake Gualletue* in 
the hills of Cautin at an altitude of 3,800 feet being the highest 
point whence specimens have been examined. They feed on insects, 
which they frequently capture on the wing, making a clicking noise. 
Lane often observed them alight on the ground in adjacent fields 
or grass-banks to search for food. The nest is placed a short distance 
above the ground in bushes along the edge of the water and contains 
two or three eggs, which are white or buff sparingly flecked and 
dotted with rufous and blackish brown. In the vicinity of Coronel 
they have two broods, the first at the end of October or early in 
November, the second about the middle of January (Passler). 

84. Pyrocephalus rubinus obscurus Gould 

Pyrocephalus obscurus Gould in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Part 9, p. 45, 1839 

Lima, Peru ( =melanistic variety). 
Musdpeta coronata (not of Gmelin) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, 

1837, p. 47 Arica. 

Suiriri coronata d'Orbigny, p. 336 Tacna, Arica. 
Pyrocephalus rubineus (not Muscicapa rubinus Boddaert) Schalow (2), p. 

712 "Capillao, Chile." 1 

Range in Chile. Extreme northern section, in province of Tacna. 

Material collected. Tacna: Chacalluta, six miles north of Arica, 
three d" d* ad., 9 ad., June 12-14, July 16. 

All of the specimens are in the normal (heterurus) plumage, the 
males with red crests and under parts, the female with white throat, 
streaked breast, and rose-red abdomen. It would be interesting to 
know if the melanistic variant (obscurus), so common on the Peruvian 
coast between Lima and Arequipa, also occurs in Tacna Province. 

The Pacific Scarlet Flycatcher was first met with on Chilean 
territory by d'Orbigny at Tacna and Arica, where the natives call 
it "Saca-tu-real," and nearly a century later Sanborn found it again 
on the coast north of Arica. 

It is widely diffused on the Pacific side of northern South America, 
reaching the southern limit of its range in the extreme north of 
Chile. 

85. Muscigralla brevicauda Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny 

Muscigralla brevicauda Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 
7, cl. 2, p. 61, 1837 Tacna, Peru (type in Paris Museum examined); 

1 1 have not been able to find this locality. No place of that name is listed 
in L. R. Patron's "Diccionario Jeografico de Chile," Santiago, 1924. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 137 

d'Orbigny, p. 354, pi. 39, fig. 1 Tacna; Lesson, Oeuvr. Buffon, 6d. LeV- 
que, 20, (Descr. Mammif. & Ois.), p. 299, 1847 Chile; Des Murs (2), p. 
338 Tacna (ex d'Orbigny); Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 324, 1925 
Tacna (crit.). 

Range in Chile. Arid littoral of the extreme north, in province 
of Tacna. 

Material examined. Tacna: one (unsexed) adult, Peru [ = Tacna], 
Jan., 1831. D'Orbigny (type of species; Paris Museum). 

The type was compared and found identical with a series from 
Peru. The Short-tailed Ground-tyrant is characteristic of the Peru- 
vian littoral, ranging north to southern Ecuador and stretching into 
the extreme north of Chile, where a single example was secured by 
d'Orbigny, the discoverer of the species. The French naturalist 
tells us that he met with this peculiar bird in cultivated fields and 
hedges in the vicinity of Tacna. He describes it as a very active 
creature, moving around rapidly in search of its food, which consists 
exclusively of insects. 

86. Pseudocolopteryx flaviventris (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) 

Alecturus flaviventris Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 
7, cl. 2, p. 55, 1837 Corrientes (type in Paris Museum examined). 

Arundinicola citreola Landbeck, Arch. Naturg., 30, (1), p. 58, 1864 Mapocho 
Valley, above Santiago, and "Elalmahue," Colchagua (habits); idem, 
Anal. Univ. Chile, 24, No. 4, p. 338, April, 1864 same localities; Sclater 
(2), 1867, p. 326 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 262 Santiago; Landbeck (9), 
p. 249 Santiago and "Elmalmahue," Colchagua (nest and eggs); Philippi 
(24), p. 50, pi. 27, fig. 1 Chile. 

Hapalocercus citreolus Sclater (2), 1867, p. 338 Chile. 

Hapalocercus flaviventris E. Reed (2), p. 552 southern bank of Rio Cachapoal, 
Colchagua; idem (4), p. 201 central provinces; Albert (1), 104, p. 267 
Chile (monog.); Passler (2), p. 28 Coronel (nest and eggs descr.); Bullock 
(4), p. 180 Angol, Malleco. 

Range in Chile. From Santiago to Valdivia. 

Material collected. Valdivia: Rinihue, cf ad., March 5. 

Additional specimens. Santiago: Santiago, d* ad. L. Landbeck 
(authentic specimen of A. citreola; Tring Museum). "Chile" (un- 
specified): two (unsexed) adults, one immature. E. C. Reed (Tring 
Museum and Berlepsch Collection, Frankfort Museum). 

I fully agree with Wetmore 1 that the (on average) larger size 
of west Argentine and Chilean birds is too insignificant a variation 
to warrant the recognition of a separate race (P. flaviventris citreolus). 

'Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 317, 1926. 



138 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Very little is known regarding the Chilean range of this incon- 
spicuous bird. Landbeck first discovered it in the valley of the Rio 
Mapocho, Prov. Santiago, and afterwards secured specimens at 
"Elalmahue," in the coast district of Colchagua. Edwyn Reed says 
it is not uncommon on the south bank of the Rio Cachapoal, Col- 
chagua, and Passler found it nesting at Coronel, Conception, while 
Bullock recorded it from Angol, Malleco. Sanborn obtained a single 
example on the shore of Lake Rinihue, Valdivia. 1 

This bird lives in the reeds, frequently in company of Tachuris 
r. rubrigastra and Phleocryptes m. melanops, and owing to its retiring 
habits it is doubtless often overlooked. It breeds in December and 
builds a deep elaborate nest of fine dry grass, thistledown, webs, 
feathers, and other soft materials, usually in the fork of a weed or 
among reeds three or five feet above the ground. The cream-colored 
eggs are four in number. Its food is said to consist almost exclusively 
of Coccinella. 

The Reed-warbling Tyrant is also widely distributed in northern 
Argentina and Uruguay. 



[Pseudocolopteryx sclateri (Oustalet), though erroneously described 
from "Chile," is found only in eastern Argentina and other parts 
of eastern South America.! 

87. Tachuris rubrigastra rubrigastra (Vieillot) 

Sylvia rubigastra (typog. err.) Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 11, 
p. 277, 1817 based on Azara, No. 161, Paraguay and Buenos Aires. 

Regulus byronensis Pidgeon in Griffith, Anim. Kingd., 7, [ =Aves, 2], plate to 
p. 42, May, 1828 Chile. 

Tyrannulus vieilloti Leadbeater, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., 16, Part 1, p. 88, 
1829 Chile. 

Cyanotis omnicolor Darwin, p. 86 Santiago; Fraser (1), p. 112 Chile; 
Yarrell, p. 53 Chile (egg descr.); Cassin, p. 186 Chile; Germain, p. 310 
Santiago Province (nesting habits). 

Regulus omnicolor Des Murs (2), p. 319, pi. 4 Coquimbo, Santiago, Chiloe 
(habits); Boeck, p. 501 Las Cruces and Rio Calle-Calle, Valdivia; Philippi 
(12), p. 257 Chile; Landbeck (9), p. 242 Chile (habits); Lataste (5), 
p. LXII Junquillos, Nuble. 

Cyanotis azarae Pelzeln (2), p. 64 Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 327, 338 
Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 552 Cauquenes, Colchagua; Salvin (2), p. 423 
Coquimbo; Allen, p. 85 Valparaiso; E. Reed (4), p. 201 Chile; Lane, 
p. 33 Hospital (Santiago), Coronel, Valdivia, south to Chilo6; Schalow 

X E. Reed's surmise that it migrates to Bolivia in the fall is wholly unfounded. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 139 

(2), p. 713 Chile (eggs descr.); Albert (1), 104, p. 277 Chile; Gigoux, 
p. 83 Caldera, Atacama; Bullock (4), p. 182 Angol, Malleco. 

Cyanotis rubrigastra Housse (2), p. 146 San Bernardo, Santiago; Jaffuel and 
Pirion, p. 108 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso. 

Tachuris r. rubrigaster Passler (3), p. 467 Coronel (breeding habits). 

Tachuris r. rubrigastra Wetmore (3), p. 325 Concon, Valparaiso. 

Range in Chile. From Coquimbo to Puerto Montt, Llanquihue; 
accidental in Atacama (one record from Caldera). 

Material collected. Concepcion: Hacienda Gualpencillo, 9 ad., 
April 15. 

Additional specimens. Concepcion: Concepcion, 9 ad., cT juv., 
May 15, Jan. 16, 1903. C. S. Reed (Field Museum). Valdivia: 
Valdivia, two cfcf ad., 9 ad., 1897. A. von Lossberg (Munich 
Museum). Llanquihue: Desagiie, near Puerto Montt, two d* <? ad., 
Sept. 16-21, 1895. G. Hopke (Munich Museum). 

Chilean birds appear to be inseparable from an Argentine (Buenos 
Aires) series. 

The "Siete colores" ranges over the lowlands of central and 
southern Chile, and its breeding territory extends at least as far 
north as Santiago, where its nesting has been recorded long ago by 
Germain. Gigoux records the taking of a single specimen, doubtless 
a straggler, in a garden of Caldera, Atacama, and Salvin lists one 
shot by Markham at Coquimbo. According to Lane, it is fairly 
numerous throughout central Chile, though confined to suitable 
localities. While resident from Concepcion northwards, it is said 
to be a summer migrant farther south. Bullock lists it as common 
in the Angol Valley, Malleco, and Lane found it in Valdivia, where 
specimens were also procured by Boeck and A. von Lossberg. 

In Chilo Island it is stated to be scarce, but appears to be 
more plentiful in Llanquihue. The late Gustav Hopke collected a 
good many examples at Desagiie, not far from Puerto Montt, 
although Lane never saw it in that section. 

These birds live exclusively in the reed-belt along rivers and 
around lagoons, and are hardly ever seen in the open. They are 
insectivorous. Their usual call-note is a metallic clicking or a sharp 
chirping. The nest, "a marvel of skill and beauty, is as a rule 
attached to a single polished rush, two or three feet above the water 
and about the middle of the stem. It is cup-shaped inside, and 
about four inches long, circular at the top, but compressed at the 
lower extremity, and ending in a sharp point. It is composed entirely 
of soft bits of dry yellowish rush, cemented together with gum so 



140 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

smoothly that it looks as if made in a mould" (Hudson). In the 
province of Santiago they lay in September or October (Germain) ; 
in the vicinity of Coronel, according to Passler, the first brood 
takes place about mid-October, the second towards the end of 
December. The eggs, two or three in number, are dull creamy- 
white or buff, often with a ring of darker color around the larger end. 

88. Spizitornis 1 parulus parulus (Kittlitz) 

Muscicapa parulus Kittlitz, Mem. Ac. Sci. St. PStersb., (sav. 6tr.), 1, livr. 2, 
p. 190, pi. 9, 1830 Concepci6n and Valparaiso, Chile; idem, Denkwiird., 
1, pp. 122, 135 same localities (type from Valparaiso in Leningrad 
Museum, cf. Chrostowski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 1, p. 17, 
1921). 

Sylvia bloxami J. E. Gray, Zool. Misc., 1, p. 11, 1831 Chile. 

Vermivora elegans Lesson, L'Institut, 2, No. 72, p. 317, 1834 "le Chile 
meridional"; idem in Bougainville, Journ. Navig. Thesis, 2, p. 323, 1837 
southern Chile. 

Regulus plumulosus Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, p. 94, 1848 Valparaiso. 

Culicivora parulus Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, p. 57 Chile; 
d'Orbigny, p. 332 part, Valparaiso; Des Murs (2), p. 343 Chile; Boeck, 
p. 503 Valdivia; Germain, p. 311 Chile (nesting habits); Philippi (12), 
p. 261 Chile; Landbeck (9), p. 250 Chile (habits); Lataste (4), p. 
XXXIV Caillihue (Vichuquen), Curic6; Waugh and Lataste (1), p. 
LXXXVI Penaflor, Santiago; idem (2), p. CLXXI San Alfonso (Quil- 
lota), Valparaiso; idem (9), p. 169 Santa Teresa (Requinoa). 

Serpophaga parulus Darwin, p. 49 part, central Chile; Fraser (1), p. 110 
Chile. 

Muscicapa parula Bibra, p. 129 Valparaiso. 

Euscarthmus parulus Hartlaub (3), p. 213 Valdivia; Pelzeln (2), p. 79 
Chile. 

Anaeretes parulus Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 327, 338 Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 553 
Cauquenes, Colchagua; Salvin (2), 1883, p. 423 Talcaguano; Allen, p. 
85 Valparaiso; E. Reed (4), p. 201 central provinces; Lane, p. 32 
Hospital (Santiago), Coronel, and Maquegua (Arauco); Schalow (2), 
p. 713 Tumbes, Concepcidn (nest descr.); Albert (1), 104, p. 273 Chile 
(part, excl. Mas A Tierra); Barros (4), p. 146 Nilahue, Curic6; idem (5), 
p. 185 Cordillera of Aconcagua; Housse (1), p. 48 Isla La Mocha; 
idem (2), p. 146 San Bernardo, Santiago; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 108 
Marga-Marga, Valparaiso; Bullock (3), p. 124 Nahuelbuta, Malleco; 
idem (4), p. 181 Angol, Malleco. 

1 It has recently been claimed that Anaeretes Dejean (Cat. Coleopt., 3rd ed., 
p. 181, July, 1836) being a nomen nudum does not invalidate Anairetes Reichen- 
bach (for which Spizitornis Oberholser was proposed as a substitute). However, 
I am assured by entomologists that Anaeretes is perfectly identifiable as a synonym 
of Dichelonyx Harris (fam. Scarabaeidae) through Dej can's referring to it elongata 
Say and elongatula Schonh., two well-known species of beetle. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 141 

Anaeretes parulus parulus Passler (3), p. 466 Coronel (breeding habits). 
Spizitomis parulus Bullock, El Hornero, 3, p. 93 (nest). 

Spizitornis parulus parulus Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 192, 1925 Valparaiso; 
Wetmore (3), pp. 322, 324 Concon, Valparaiso. 

Range in Chile. Central and southern provinces from the 
Copiapo Valley, Atacama, to Valdivia and Chilo Island. 

Material collected. Atacama: Ramadilla (Copiapo Valley), 9 
ad., Aug. 23; Domeyko, cf ad., Aug. 12. Aconcagua: Rio Blanco 
(alt. 5,000 feet), d 1 ad., July 20, 1926. R. Barros. Santiago: San 
Jos de Maipo (alt. 3,000 feet), d" ad., Dec. 18. Concepcion: 
Hacienda Gualpencillo, two 9 9 ad., March 27, April 13. Valdivia: 
Rinihue, d" ad., March 5; Mafil, cf ad., d" juv., Feb. 15, 26. 
Chiloe* Island: Quellon, three cfd", two 9 9 ad., 9 juv., Dec. 20- 
Jan. 5. 

Additional specimens. Santiago: Santiago, d" ad., June, 1872. 
E. C. Reed (Field Museum). Valparaiso: Valparaiso, adult, 1830. 
D'Orbigny (Paris Museum). Valdivia: Valdivia, three d"d" ad., 
two (unsexed) adults, Sept., 1897. A. von Lossberg (Munich 
Museum and Berlepsch Collection, Frankfort Museum). 

Birds from Valdivia and Chilo6 appear to be inseparable from 
typical parulus as represented by a series from Concepcion and 
northwards, though they possibly have the chest more profusely 
streaked with blackish. In the Straits of Magellan and Tierra del 
Fuego the present form is replaced by a darker race, S. p. lippus 
Wetmore, which is autoptically unknown to me, and on the island 
of Mas A Tierra, Juan Fernandez group, by S. p. fernandezianus, 
distinguished by much larger dimensions, longer crest, darker, less 
olivaceous back, and white instead of yellowish under parts with 
much wider black streaks, etc. 

The "Torito" is widely diffused through the wooded parts of 
Chile. It is chiefly a lowland species, whose altitudinal range, accord- 
ing to Barros, does not reach beyond an elevation of 6,000 feet. 1 
Barros lists it as a resident in Aconcagua, and Jaffuel and Pirion 
found it throughout the year in Valparaiso Province. Sanborn 
collected two specimens in Atacama in August, but they might 
have been migratory visitors. It is reported to be more plentiful 
in the forested southern provinces, at Coronel, in Valdivia, and on 
Chilo4 Island. Lane describes its habits as similar to those of the 
tits. It is generally arboreal, though it often traverses the shrubs 

Albert's statement that it ascends in the mountains to 10,000 feet and more 
is clearly a mistake. 



142 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

very low down, and frequently descends to the ground to examine 
roots, fallen timber, etc., in search of its food, which consists largely 
of insects, but also includes various seeds, particularly in winter. 
Except when breeding, the birds keep in troops. Their nest, which 
they place in bushes and shrubs, is carefully made of dry grass- 
leaves, lichens, rootlets, and thistledown, and fitted inside with 
plenty of feathers. The eggs, three or four in number, are dull 
buffy white. Germain indicates September to November as its 
breeding season. According to Passler, they have two broods, one 
about mid-October, and the second in the latter half of December. 

89. Spizitornis flavirostris arequipae Chapman 

Spizitornis flavirostris arequipae Chapman, Amer. Mus. Novit., 231, p. 4, 

1926 Arequipa, Peru. 
Spizitornis flavirostris flavirostris Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 

13, Part 5, p. 374, 1927 Putre, Tacna. 

Range in Chile. Extreme northern section, in province of Tacna. 

Material collected. Tacna: Putre (alt. 11,600 feet), two cf cf ad., 
July 3, 1924. 

These skins agree with others from Arequipa and above Lima 
(Matucana and Surco). 

S. /. arequipae is a very poor form and hardly deserves recognition. 
Compared with a series of twelve from Bolivia 1 and Tucuman, seven 
specimens from the coast range of Peru and Tacna have the back 
on average more distinctly streaked, while the black stripes below 
are generally less pronounced. The wings are perhaps slightly 
shorter. The ground-color of the dorsal surface is too variable to be 
of taxonomic value, grayish-backed and brownish-backed specimens 
being represented in both series. 

The wing measures in S. /. flavirostris from Bolivia: 48, 49, 51, 
51, 52, 52, 53; in S. /. arequipae, 46, 46, 48, 48, 49, 49, 51^. 

This is a Temperate Zone species of wide distribution in the 
Andes of Peru and Bolivia, just stretching into the extreme north 
of Chile. 

90. Spizitornis reguloides reguloides (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) 

Culicivora reguloides Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 
7, cl. 2, p. 57, 1837 Tacna (type in Paris Museum examined); d'Orbigny, 
p. 332, pi. 37, fig. 1 near the city of Tacna. 

Spizitornis reguloides Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 194, 1925 Tacna (crit.). 

^ilotilo, Dept. La Paz (including the type of A. flavirostris) 2, Sucre 2, Cabrero 
1, Cochabamba 1, Tapacari 1. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 143 

Range in Chile. Extreme northern section, in province of Tacna. 

Material examined. Tacna: city of Tacna, c" ad., type of 
species. D'Orbigny (Paris Museum). 

The type agrees with specimens from Arequipa and Moquegua 
except that the color of the belly has faded until it is nearly white. 

In spite of its close similarity, S. reguloides apparently is specif- 
ically different from S. flavirostris, the very much larger bill with 
the wholly pale mandible being its principal character. Besides, 
the upper parts are black, streaked with white on the back, and the 
white in the crest is much more extensive, while adult males have 
the forehead, sides of the head, and throat uniform black. 

S. r. reguloides is peculiar to southwestern Peru and the adjacent 
province of Tacna, while farther north, from lea to Ancachs, it is 
replaced by the closely allied S. r. albiventris Chapman, with white 
instead of pale yellow abdomen. This species inhabits the littoral 
and arid lower slopes of the Andes, whereas S. flavirostris lives higher 
up in the Temperate Zone. We have, however, representatives 
of both species taken at Matucana, above Lima, at an altitude 
of 8,000 feet. 

D'Orbigny states that he found these birds in rather small 
numbers in the apple and olive orchards around the city of Tacna. 



[Miiscicapa dnereola (Cuvier MS.) Des Murs (in Gay, Hist. fis. 
pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 342, 1847), described from a specimen sent 
from Brazil by Freycinet (in command of the "Uranie" and "Phy- 
sicienne") to the Paris Museum, is obviously the same as Serpo- 
phaga nigricans (Vieillot). Although we have not been able to find 
the type in the French National Collection, the description fits that 
bird very well with the exception of the term "nigro-cinerea" for 
the color of the upper parts. Des Murs is, however, entirely mis- 
taken in asserting that the species has also been found by various 
travelers in Chile. 

In this connection it may also be mentioned that Strickland 
(Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 13, p. 414, 1844) erroneously recorded 
Serpophaga cinerea (Tschudi) from Chile, another species of the 
genus that has never been met with in that country.] 

91. Colorhamphus parvirostris (Darwin) 

Myiobius parvirostris Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Part 9, p. 48, July, 1839 Tierra 
del Fuego, "banks of the La Plata" (errore), and Valparaiso, Chile; Bridges, 
1841, p. 110 near Valparaiso. 



144 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Myobius parvirostris Des Murs (2), p. 341 Chile (ex Darwin); Philippi (12), 
p. 261 the whole of Chile to the Magellan Territory; Landbeck (9), 
p. 249 Cordilleras of Chile. 

Tyrannula parvirostris Hartlaub (3), 1853, p. 212 Valdivia. 

Serpophaga parvirostris Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 327, 338 Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 

552 Cauquenes, Colchagua; Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 105, 

1888 Santiago and Valparaiso; E. Reed (4), p. 201 Chile; Schalow (2), 

p. 714 Tumbes, Conception; Albert (1), 104, p. 270 Chile (monog.); 

Bullock (4), p. 181 Angol, Malleco. 
Elainea murina Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 91, p. 668, 1895 Santiago; idem 

(24), p. 54, pi. 26, fig. 2 Santiago (=adult); Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 108 

Marga-Marga, Valparaiso; (?) Passler (3), p. 469 Coronel (breeding [?]). 
Taenioptera flavida (not Pepoaza flavida Lesson) Lataste (5), p. LXII Llohue 

(Itata), Maule; Waugh and Lataste (2), p. CLXXI San Alfonso (Quil- 

lota), Valparaiso (spec, examined). 
Musdcapa parvirostris Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Santiago, Zool., 15, p. 55, 

pi. 24, figs. 1, la, 1902 Santiago and Valdivia ( =juv.). 
Colorhamphus parvirostris Barros (4), p. 146 Nilahue, Curico; idem (5), p. 

185 Cordillera of Aconcagua; Housse (2), 146 San Bernardo, Santiago; 

Wetmore (3), p. 321 near Concon, Valparaiso. 

Range in Chile. From Aconcagua to the Straits of Magellan. 

Material collected. O'Higgins: Baiios de Cauquenes, 9 ad., 
May 3. Chilce" Island: Quellon, cf juv., Dec. 24. 

Additional specimens. Aconcagua: Los Andes (alt. 1,550 
meters), c? 1 ad., July 13, 1925; Rio Blanco (alt. 1,540 meters), 
cf ad., Aug. 15, 1924. R. Barros (Field Museum). Valparaiso: 
San Alfonso (Quillota), 1 three <? d* ad., one 9 ad., June 21, 1894. 
F. Lataste (British Museum and Paris Museum). Colchagua: Santa 
Teresa (Requinoa), 1 d" ad., June 25, 1895. F. Lataste (British 
Museum). Cautin: Maquehue, Temuco, cf ad., June 21, 1907. 
D. S. Bullock (British Museum). "Chile" (unspecified): 9 ad., 
Sept., 1872. E. C. Reed (Field Museum); three adults (not sexed), 
1843. C. Gay (Paris Museum). 

Chilean specimens appear to be identical with others from 
Tierra del Fuego. Young birds are much more rufous above, lack 
the dusky or grayish cap, and are darker below with the abdomen 
more ochraceous. 

Philippi described the adult plumage as a new species under the 
name of Elainea murina, and figured the young bird as '^Muscicapa" 
parvirostris. Lataste identified this little flycatcher with Lesson's 
Pepoaza flavida, but the original description indicates quite a 
different bird, having the upper parts yellowish brown, the throat 

1 Marked "Taenioptera flavida" by F. Lataste. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYB 145 

and breast gray, and the foreneck white streaked with brown. 
None of these characters fits the present species or any other Chilean 
bird with which we are acquainted. 

The "Viudita" has a rather extensive range. It is known to breed 
in Tierra del Fuego, Hoste Island, and along the Straits of Magellan. 
Plate, as recorded by Schalow, secured specimens in March at Lapa- 
taia, Beagle Channel, and in the vicinity of the False Cape Horn, 
while the Princeton Patagonian Expedition, as we are told by Stone, 1 
collected adult and young birds in January and February at Punta 
Arenas. W. H. Osgood, of Field Museum, shot a full-grown young 
male on Christmas Eve at Quellon, which suggests its breeding on 
Chiloe" Island. In the central provinces the "Viudita" appears to 
breed only in the mountains, repairing to the lowlands on the 
approach of the cold season. According to Barros, it arrives in the 
Cordillera of Aconcagua in April and May, and leaves again for 
the south in the first half of September. Its altitudinal range during 
the nesting season extends up to over 6,000 feet. In winter it is 
frequently met with in the foothills and even near the coast. There 
are various winter records from Valparaiso (Marga-Marga, June; 
Concon, April; San Alfonso, June), Santiago (San Bernardo, May), 
O'Higgins (Bafios de Cauquenes, May), Curico (Nilahue, April to 
September), Maule (Itata, April), Concepcion (Tumbes, June), and 
Cautin (Temuco, June). At Angol, Malleco, it is rather rare, 
according to Bullock, who doubts that it breeds in the valley. It 
is also extremely unlikely that the bird found breeding by Passler 
at Coronel and identified from sight as E. murina pertained to the 
present species. 

Albert's supposition that the "Viudita" migrates northward and 
spends the winter in Bolivia is wholly unfounded. As a matter of 
fact, this flycatcher has not yet been encountered in that country. 

92. Elaenia albiceps chilensis Hellmayr 

Elaenia albiceps chilensis Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, 
Part 5, p. 413, 1927 Curacautin, Malleco, Chile. 

Myiobius albiceps (not Muscipeta albiceps Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Darwin, 
p. 47 Chonos Archipelago and near Valparaiso; Fraser (1), p. 110 Chile 
(habits); Des Murs (2), p. 340 Chile, south to Valdivia; Boeck, p. 503 
Valdivia; Germain, p. 311 Santiago (breeding habits); Philippi (12), p. 
261 Chile; Landbeck (9), p. 249 Chile (habits); Waugh and Lataste 
(1), p. LXXXVI Penaflor, Santiago; Gigoux, p. 85 Caldera, Atacama. 

. Princeton Univ. Exped. Patagonia, 2, (2), Part 5, p. 801, 1928. 



146 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Elainia modesta (not of Tschudi) Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 327, 338 Chile (crit.). 

Elania albiceps E. Reed (2), p. 552 Cauquenes, Colchagua. 

Elainea albiceps E. Reed (4), p. 201 Chile; Lane, p. 33 part, Hacienda 
Mansel (Santiago), Corral and Rio Bueno, Valdivia (habits); Schalow (2), 
p. 712 La Serena (Coquimbo), Santiago, and Llanquihue; Albert (1), 
104, p. 281 Chile (monog.); Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 108 Marga-Marga, 
Valparaiso; Bullock (4), p. 182 Angol, Malleco. 

Elaenia albiceps Berlepsch, Ornis, 14, p. 403, 1907 part, Chile; Barros (4), p. 
146 Nilahue, Curic6; idem (5), p. 185 Cordillera of Aconcagua; Housse 
(2), p. 146 San Bernardo, Santiago; Bullock (3), p. 124 Nahuelbuta, 
Malleco. 

Elaenia albiceps albiceps Passler (3), p. 468 Coronel (breeding habits). 

Range in Chile. From Atacama (Caldera) south to the Straits 
of Magellan. 

Material collected. Santiago: San Jose" de Maipo (alt. 3,000 
feet), two cf cf ad., Dec. 17, 18. Malleco: Curacautin, cf ad. 
(type), 9 ad., Jan. 9, 10; Tolguaca (alt. 3,500 feet), cf ad., Jan. 
19. Cautin: Villa Portales (alt. 3,300 feet), 9 juv., Feb. 28. 
Valdivia: Mafil, 9 ad., six cf cf juv., Feb. 15-27. Chilo< Island: 
Quellon, seven cf cf ad., three 9 9 ad., Dec. 24- Jan. 5. Llanquihue: 
Casa Richards, Rio Nirehuau, 9 juv., March 1. 

Additional specimens. Concepcion: Concepcion, two 9 9 ad., 
Jan. 21, Feb. 3, 1903. C. S. Reed (Tring Museum). 

Chilean specimens of this flycatcher, which had generally been 
referred to E. a. albiceps, prove, on comparison with an ample series 
from Bolivia, to be easily separable by smaller size, much slenderer 
bill, more extensive, pure white (not yellowish or buffy) vertical 
patch, and more greenish upper parts. They are much nearer E. a. 
modesta, from Peru, but have the white crown-patch more extensive 
with only the extreme tips (instead of the apical half) of the feathers 
dusky, and the back of a duller tone; besides, there are always two 
very distinct whitish bands across the wing formed by the tips of 
the median and greater wing coverts. We have, accordingly, distin- 
guished the Chilean race under the name of E. a. chilensis. 

Birds from various localities between Santiago and Chiloe" do 
not exhibit any racial variation. More adequate material may show 
that the inhabitants of Argentina, which we have provisionally 
referred to E. a. chilensis, are not exactly the same, but the question 
cannot be settled with the few specimens at present available. 

The "Fio-fio" is generally distributed throughout Chile from the 
Straits of Magellan to Caldera, which marks the northern limit of 
its range. It prefers the plains and lowlands, and does not penetrate 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 147 

the mountains much beyond an altitude of 6,500 or 7,000 feet. The 
"Fio-fio" is a migratory bird, which arrives on its breeding grounds 
in the latter half of September or in October, and departs again 
in February and March. Such has been found to be the case in 
Aconcagua (Barros), San Bernardo, Santiago (Housse), Curic6 
(Barros), Malleco (Bullock), and Valdivia (Lane). Where the birds 
spend the winter is a matter of conjecture. The supposition that 
they migrate northwards does not seem to be well-founded, since 
E. a. chilensis has not been met with north of Caldera, while Bolivia 
and Peru are tenanted by nearly related apparently resident forms. 

These flycatchers frequent forests, gardens, bushes, and shrubs 
of any sort, and are said to possess a very characteristic whistling 
call-note. The song is a somewhat variable ditty, more amusing 
than harmonious, being a series of whistles and squeaking sounds 
uttered promiscuously, though with energy. 

Their food consists mostly of insects which they often capture 
on the wing, but they also eat berries and seeds. The bird is held 
in bad repute by the gardeners on account of its picking off the buds 
of fruit trees. The breeding period lasts from November to February. 
The nest is made of dry grass-stems, leaves, moss, and lichens, and 
lined inside with thistledown and feathers. It is placed in a low 
thick bush or shrub, two to four feet from the ground. The two 
or three eggs are white or buff, sparingly marked with rufous and 
reddish brown dots and spots. 

93. Elaenia albiceps niodesta Tschudi 

Elaenia modesta Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 274, 1844 Peru; idem, 

Unters. Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 159, 1846 coast region of Peru, viz. Lima 

(type in Neuchatel Museum examined). 
Muscipeta albiceps Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, p. 47, 1837 part, 

Tacna; d'Orbigny, p. 319 part, Tacna. 
Elainea albiceps Sclater (6), 1891, p. 134 Pica, Tarapaca; Lane, p. 33 part, 

Pica. 
Elaenia albiceps albiceps Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 28, 1925 part, No. 4, 

Tacna. 

Range in Chile. Extreme northern provinces, in Tarapaca and 
Tacna. 

Material examined. Tacna: Tacna, juv., Jan., 1831. D'Orbigny 
(Paris Museum). Tarapaca: Pica, 9 ad., one (unsexed) adult, Feb. 
28, 1890. A. A. Lane (British Museum). 

Although one of the specimens is young and the two others are 
in excessively worn breeding plumage, I have little doubt that they 



148 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

are referable to the Peruvian race, such a distribution being well 
in keeping with what we know about the ranges of many other 
species of the Peruvian littoral. The adult birds have the wing- 
bands very nearly as evanescent and the dusky tips to the white 
occipital crest quite as extensive as others from Lima in comparable 
plumage. The examination of a series of freshly molted specimens 
is, however, required to establish their identity beyond question. 

94. Phytotoma rara Molina 

Phytotoma rara Molina, Saggio Stor. Nat. Chile, p. 254, 1782 Chile; Lafres- 
naye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, p. 37 Chile (male and female descr.); 
d'Orbigny, p. 293 Valparaiso; Eydoux and Gervais, Mag. Zool., 8, cl. 2, 
pi. 86, 1838 (anatomy); idem, Voy. Favorite, 5, Zool., Part 2, p. 64 bis, pi. 
25, 1839 (anatomy); Eydoux and Souleyet, Voy. Bonite, Zool., 1, p. 92, 
1841 (anatomy); Darwin, p. 106 central Chile; Eyton, Zool. Beagle, 3, 
p. 153, 1841 (anatomy); Fraser (1), p. 113 Chile (habits); Yarrell, p. 53 
Chile (eggs descr.); Des Murs (2), p. 363 Coquimbo to Chiloe; Bibra, 
p. 130 lowlands, less common in the Cordilleras, of central Chile; Hart- 
laub (3), p. 214 Valdivia; Boeck, p. 505 Valdivia; Cassin, p. 183 
Valparaiso-Santiago Road; Germain, p. 312 Chile (breeding habits); 
Pelzeln (2), p. 95, pi. 6, fig. 11 (egg) Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 327, 
338 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 266 Chile; Landbeck (9), p. 260 Chile 
(habits); E. Reed (2), p. 553 Cauquenes, Colchagua; Waugh and Lataste 
(1), p. LXXXVI Penaflor, Santiago; idem (2), p. CLXXII San Alfonso 
(Quillota), Valparaiso; Lataste (4), p. XXXIV Caillihue (Vichuquen), 
Curico; E. Reed (4), p. 201 Chile; Lane, p. 35 Hacienda Mansel (San- 
tiago), Corral and Calle-Calle, Valdivia; Schalow (2), p. 711 Santiago 
(nest and eggs descr.); Albert (1), 101, p. 254 Chile (monog.); Passler 
(2), p. 28 Coronel (nest and eggs descr.); Barros, Anal. Zool. Aplic., 
Santiago, 6, p. 11, pi. 2, 1919 Chile (habits, food); idem (4), p. 147 
Nilahue, Curic6; idem (5), p. 186 Los Andes, Aconcagua; Passler (3), 
p. 469 Coronel (habits); Housse (1), p. 49 Isla La Mocha, Arauco; 
idem (2), p. 146 San Bernardo, Santiago; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 10, 
1925 Valparaiso; Barros (8), p. 141 Los Andes, Aconcagua; Jaffuel and 
Pirion, p. 107 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso; Bullock (4), p. 177 Angol, 
Malleco. 

Phytotoma bloxamii Jardine and Selby, Illust. Orn., 1, Part 1, pi. 4, Feb., 
1827 Valparaiso; Pidgeon in Griffith, Anim. Kingd., 7, pi. facing p. 319 
"South America" =Valparaiso; Vigors, Proc. Comm. Sci. Corresp. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 2, p. 3, 1832 Chile (note on female); Meyen, p. 89 Chile, 
particularly common ... in the vicinity of Tacna (errore); Lesson (10), 
1842, p. 136 Valparaiso (crit.). 

Phytotoma silens Kittlitz, Mem. Ac. Sci. St. Ptersb., (sav. etr.), 1, livr. 2, 
p. 175, pi. 1, 1830 near Valparaiso; idem, Denkw., 1, p. 148 near Val- 
paraiso (type in Leningrad Museum; cf. Chrostowski, Ann. Zool. Mus. 
Pol. Hist. Nat., 1, p. 13, 1921). 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 149 

Phyiotoma rutila (not of Vieillot) Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., 2, cl. 2, pi. 5, 1832 
Valparaiso and Santiago, Chile, and "Peru" (errore). 

Phytotoma molina Lesson, L'Institut, 2, No. 72, p. 317, Sept., 1834 vicinity 
of Valparaiso (male and female descr.). 

Range in Chile. Central and southern provinces, from Coquimbo 
to Llanquihue. 

Material collected. Coquimbo: Paiguano (alt. 3,300 feet), d* 
ad., June 19. Conception: Hacienda Gualpencillo, cf ad., April 1. 
Malleco: Curacautin, three cf <? ad., two 9 9 ad., two d" d" juv. 
(pulli), Jan. 8-13. Valdivia: Mafil, d 1 ad., d 1 juv., Feb. 17, 27; 
Rinihue, 9 juv., March 12. Chilo6 Island: Quellon, cf ad., 9 ad., 
Dec. 31, Jan. 31. Llanquihue: Casa Richards, Rio Nirehuau, d 1 
juv., Feb. 16. 

Additional specimens. Santiago: Santiago, d" ad., Nov., 1872. 
E. C. Reed (Field Museum). Valparaiso: Valparaiso, 9 ad. 
D'Orbigny (Paris Museum). 

The "Rara" is generally distributed throughout Chile, but more 
plentiful in the southern provinces. The northern limit of its range 
seems to coincide with the latitude of Coquimbo. Mr. Sanborn 
shot an example at Paiguano, east of that city, in the hills at an 
elevation of 3,300 feet. Meyen's assertion that this bird is partic- 
ularly common in the vicinity of Tacna must be a mistake. 1 
According to Landbeck, it is migratory in the south (vicinity of Val- 
divia), where it occurs only in the summer months (from October 
to April). Farther north it is seen throughout the year, such being 
the case in Malleco (Bullock), Curico (Barros), and Santiago (Land- 
beck). While chiefly a bird of the lowlands and foothills, it pene- 
trates the mountains to certain altitudes (not much beyond 6,000 
feet), where it is, however, merely a summer visitor, departing for 
the coast in March and April and returning to its breeding haunts 
early in August, as we gather from Barros's observations made in 
Aconcagua. 

The "Rara" frequents the vicinity of cultivated fields, orchards, 
and gardens, where these birds do an enormous amount of damage 
by biting off buds and destroying fruits. The note of the male is 
a rasping or grating noise, more remarkable than harmonious, and 
uttered after the manner of a song by the bird, while seated on the 
top of a bush, in spring or summer. 

l lf a representative of the genus really occurs near Tacna, it is more likely 
to be the Peruvian P. raimondii than the Chilean P. rara. 



150 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

The nest, made of dry sticks and lined with rootlets, is placed 
in a thick bush several feet above the ground. The clutch consists 
of two to four eggs, which are glossy light blue or green with small 
blackish markings and some larger spots of the same color around 
the upper end. The laying takes place from October to January. 
Passler claims that the "Rara" breeds twice in the region about 
Coronel, first early in October and again in the latter half of 
December. 

For more particulars about the life-history of this bird, R. 
Barros's paper in Porter's Anales de Zoologia Aplicada for 1919 
should be consulted. 



[Neither Phytotoma rutila angustirostris Lafr. & d'Orb., of which the 
Munich Museum has a specimen supposed to be Chilean, 1 nor Phy- 
totoma raimondii, erroneously recorded from "Valparaiso" by Allen, 2 
occurs in Chile. 

Grallaria varia Boddaert, erroneously included by Des Murs (in 
Gay, 1, p. 329) in the Chilean fauna, is restricted to the Guianas.] 

95. Geositta cunicularia fissirostris (Kittlitz) 

Alauda fissirostris Kittlitz, Mem. Ac. Sci. St. PStersb., (sav. 6tr.), 2, p. 468, 
pi. 3, Aug., 1835 Valparaiso, Chile; idem, Denkwiird., 1, p. 146 Val- 
paraiso (type in Leningrad Museum; cf. Chrostowski, Ann. Zool. Mus. 
Pol. Hist. Nat., 1, p. 19, 1921). 

Alauda nigro-fasciata Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., 6, cl. 2, text to pll. 58-59 [p. 6], 
1836 Chile (type in Paris Museum examined). 

Geositta anthoides Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 323, Dec., 1837 Chile. 
Furnarius cunicularius Darwin, p. 65 part, central Chile south to Conception. 

Geositta canicularia Bridges, p. 94 Chile, between 34 and 35 S. lat.; Yarrell, 
p. 53 Chile (eggs descr.). 

Geositta (Furnarius) canicularia Fraser (1), p. Ill central provinces. 

Certhilauda cunicularia Des Murs (2), p. 286 Chile; Frauenfeld, p. 636 
Valparaiso; Philippi and Landbeck (15), p. 409 prov. Colchagua, Santiago, 
and Aconcagua (habits); idem (16), p. 59 same localities (habits); Philippi 
(12), p. 251 central and northern provinces; Landbeck (9), p. 236 Chile 
(habits); Lataste (5), p. LXI Llohu (Itata), Maule; Waugh and Lataste 
(2), p. CLXX San Alfonso (Quillota), Valparaiso. 

Certhilauda nigrofasciata Des Murs (2), p. 287 "provincias del sur de Chile"; 
Philippi (12), p. 252 Chile (ex Gay); Sclater (2), 1867, p. 324 (crit.). 

See Laubmann, Wiss. Erg. Deut. Gran Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 237, 1930. 
'Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 2, p. 88, 1889. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 151 

Geositta cunicularia Pelzeln (2), p. 59 Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 323, 338 
Chile; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1870, p. 499 Coquimbo; E. Reed (2), p. 
546 Cauquenes, Colchagua; Sharpe, p. 8 Coquimbo; Salvin (2), p. 
424 Coquimbo; Allen, p. 88 Valparaiso; E. Reed (4), p. 201 Chile; 
Albert (1), 101, p. 26 Chile (part); Housse (1), p. 48 Isla La Mocha, 
Arauco; idem (2), p. 145 San Bernardo, Santiago; Jaffuel and Pirion, 
p. 107 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso; Bullock (4), p. 177 Angol, Malleco. 

Geositta cunicularia cunicularia Barros (4), p. 143 Nilahue, Curic6; Passler 
(3), p. 456 Coronel (nesting habits). 

Geositta cunicularia fissirostris Wetmore (3), p. 244 Concon, Valparaiso. 
Range in Chile. From southern Atacama to Cautin. 

Material collected. Atacama: Domeyko (63 km. south of Val- 
lenar), two c? cf ad., Aug. 9, 10. Coquimbo: Romero, five cf cf ad., 
two 9 9 ad., July 14-19. Maule: Quirihue, two d*c? ad., May 2- 
3. Concepcion: Hacienda Gualpencillo, 9 ad., March 28; near 
coast, two cf d" ad., two 9 9 ad., April 14. 

Additional specimens. Valparaiso: San Alfonso (Quillota), <? 
ad., two 9 9 ad., June, 1894. F. Lataste (Paris Museum). Con- 
cepcion: Coronel, one (unsexed) adult. R. Passler (Berlin Museum). 
Cautin: Maquehue, 9 ad., April 29, 1908. D. S. Bullock; Pelal, 
Temuco, cT ad., Dec. 3; Boroa, Temuco, <? ad., Dec. 3, 1909. 
A. C. Saldana (British Museum). 

G. c. fissirostris is rather a poor race, though in a series it may 
be distinguished from the typical Argentine form by somewhat more 
grayish upper parts, less buffy lower surface with heavier, more 
blackish pectoral spots, and wider, more abruptly defined black 
subterminal band on the inner remiges. All of these characters 
are, however, variable, and single specimens cannot be told apart. 

Birds from Domeyko (Atacama) appear to be inseparable from 
those of central Chile, while specimens from Concepcion and Cautin 
are as a rule, but not always, somewhat darker, less brownish above. 

The "Caminero" is widely distributed in the central parts of 
Chile. According to Philippi and Landbeck, who met with it in 
the provinces of Aconcagua, Santiago, and Colchagua, it inhabits 
the slopes of the lower ranges of the foothills, the extensive plains 
at the base of the Andes, as well as the bare, arid stretches along 
the seacoast, from Llico (Curico) to Illapel. Barros found it com- 
mon in the Nilahue Valley, Curico; Passler in the vicinity of Coronel; 
and Bullock in the valley of Angol, Malleco. The most southerly 
record is from Temuco, whence there are three specimens in the 
British Museum, while northward it ranges into the extreme south 



152 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

of Atacama, where Sanborn, in August, secured two examples at 
Domeyko. 

The "Caminero" is said to be resident and breeds from October 
to January. According to Passler, it has two broods, one early 
in October and the second about mid-December. As nesting-sites 
it chooses deep burrows in the ground, which it often uses for 
several consecutive years. The three or four eggs are glossy white. 

MEASUREMENTS 

Adult males Wing Tail Bill 

Two from Domeyko, Atacama 90,93 50J453H 17^,18 

Five from Romero, Coquimbo 88,88,91, 52,52,53, 17,173^,18, 

91,92 54,54 18,19 

Two from Quirihue, Maule 89,96 50,56 18,20 

Two from Conception 903^,92 50,55 17,18 

96. Geositta cunicularia deserticolor Hellmayr 

Geositta cunicularia deserticolor Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
12, p. 72, 1924 Caldera, Atacama. 

Geositta cunicularia Gigoux, p. 86 Caldera. 

Range. Arid littoral of Atacama (Caldera) and southwestern 
Peru (Arequipa), but doubtless also occurring in the intervening 
region. 

Material collected. Atacama: Caldera, seven c? cf ad., two 9 9 
ad., April 16, 18; May 25, Aug. 29. E. E. Gigoux and C. C. Sanborn. 

This strongly marked form, which in coloration reflects the arid 
soil of the environment, is easily distinguished from the "Caminero" 
of central and southern Chile by the paleness of its plumage. The 
upper parts are light sandy or drab gray with the edges to the 
wing and tail feathers paler buff or whitish and the cinnamomeous 
wing band decidedly paler; the superciliaries and the sides of the 
head and neck creamy rather than bright buff; the lower parts 
nearly pure white with just a touch of creamy across chest and 
along flanks; the dusky markings on the breast less conspicuous, 
the under wing coverts, quill-lining, and basal half of tail less rufes- 
cent; the base of the upper tail coverts buffy white instead of pinkish 
buff or light pinkish cinnamon. In dimensions, G. c. deserticolor is 
practically identical with G. c. fissirostris. 

Seven adult males measure as follows. Wing 87, 87, 88, 88, 88, 
92, 92; tail 49, 49, 49, 49, 49, 51, 52; bill 17, 17, 17, 18, 18, 18, 

Two adult females. Wing 89, 92; tail 49, 50; bill 17>, 

In Chile, this representative of the "Caminero" has as yet been 
found only in the vicinity of Caldera, where it is reported to be fairly 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 153 

common in the plains near the seacoast; but it doubtless also occurs 
in the adjacent provinces to the north, since birds from the arid 
littoral of Arequipa prove to be referable to this form. We have 
examined half a dozen specimens from Islay, Tambo, Catarindos 
Valley, and Cocachacra in the collections of the American Museum 
of Natural History, the Vienna Museum, and the British Museum. 

97. Geositta cunicularia frobeni (Philippi and Landbeck) 

Certhilauda frobeni Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 25, p. 411, 
Sept., 1864 Putre (alt. 10,000 feet), Tacna; idem, Arch. Naturg., 31, (1), 
p. 62, 1865 Putre. 

Geositta (Certhilauda) frobeni Philippi (24), p. 29, pi. 21, fig. 1 Putre. 

Geositta cunicularia Albert (1), 101, p. 26 (part, var. frobeeni). 

Range in Chile. Once recorded from Tacna (Putre). 

The type of this form was obtained by Frobeen in July, 1853, 
at Putre at an elevation of about 10,000 feet. We have not been 
able to examine any Chilean material, and as Field Museum received 
two specimens of G. punensis from near Putre, the question arose 
as to whether C. frobeni might not have been based upon an example 
of the last-named species. Certain details of the description, such 
as the white longer upper tail coverts and basal half of the rectrices, 
the presence of brown pectoral spots, and the shape of the bill, how- 
ever, seemed to indicate a bird of the kind we used to call by Philippics 
name. Mr. Karl P. Schmidt, provided with specimens of the two 
species and notes on their distinctive characters, very obligingly 
compared the type in the National Museum at Santiago, when 
visiting that city several years ago, and reports that it unquestion- 
ably belongs to the species with spotted breast. The type, labeled 
"G. cunicularia, var. frobeni, Arica, 1 1853," was found to agree with 
F. M. N. H. No. 53,115 (rf 1 ad., Puno, Peru, Jan. 23, 1915. Geo. K. 
Cherrie) except for its whiter under parts, fainter brown breast spots, 
and paler, more whitish, basal half of the tail; differences which are 
of no account and well within the individual and seasonal variation 
in these birds. Mr. Schmidt adds that it is plainly not G. punensis, 
its bill being much longer, stouter, and less curved apically than in 
the latter species. 

The coexistence at Putre of G. c. frobeni and G. punensis is not 
surprising since they live side by side in other parts of their range, 

1 "Arica," the residence of Frobeen, the discoverer of this miner, is no doubt 
a pen-slip for "Putre." The year of acquisition (1853) marked on the label makes 
it reasonably certain that this specimen is the one described by Philippi and 
Landbeck in 1864. 



154 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

too. The Carnegie Museum has specimens of both collected by 
Jos Steinbach at Oruro, Bolivia, in December, 1921, while Miller 
and Boyle secured an adult male of each on January 3, 1916, at 
La Quiaca, Jujuy, for the American Museum of Natural History. 1 

98. Geositta punensis Dabbene 

Geositta punensis Dabbene, Physis, 3, p. 54, March, 1917 La Quiaca, Jujuy, 
Argentina; Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, Part 4, p. 7, 
1925 twenty miles east of San Pedro, Ojo de San Pedro, and Rio Inacaliri, 
Antofagasta, and Las Cuevas, Tacna. 

Geositta cunicularia Sclater (4), 1886, p. 398 Sacaya and Sitani, Tarapaca. 

Geositta frobeni (not of Philippi and Landbeck) Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 
15, p. 6, 1890 part, spec, a, b, Tarapaca; idem (6), 1891, p. 134 Sacaya; 
E. Reed (4), p. 202 Tarapaca; Lane, p. 36 Sacaya. 

Geositta cunicularia frobeni Men6gaux, Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, (10th ser.), 1, 
p. 215 part, Tacora, Tacna. 

Range in Chile. Puna Zone, in the provinces of Tacna, Tarapaca, 
and Antofagasta. 

Material collected. Tacna: Las Cuevas, near Putre (alt. 13,500 
feet), cf ad., 9 ad., June 20. Antofagasta: Rio Inacaliri (alt. 
12,800 feet), two 9 9 ad., April 27; Ojo de San Pedro (alt. 12,400 
feet), 9 ad., May 2; twenty miles east of San Pedro (alt. 12,600 
feet), four cf cf, four 9 9 ad. and imm., April 25-30, Sept. 18, 
Oct. 2-5. 

Additional specimens. Tacna: Tacora, one (unsexed) adult. 
Stuebel (Berlin Museum). Tarapaca: Sacaya, three cf cf ad., one 
9 ad., Feb. 8, March 6-9. C. Rahmer and A. A. Lane; Cordillera 
of Tarapaca, three 9 9 , Jan. 17, 1886. C. Rahmer (British Mu- 
seum). Antofagasta: Tapaquilcha, cf ad., March 6, 1847. Behn 
(Berlin Museum). 

In spite of its superficial resemblance, G. punensis appears to be 
perfectly distinct from G. c. frobeni by shorter, slenderer, apically 
more curved bill, paler upper parts, and uniform creamy white 
ventral surface without the slightest trace of dusky markings on 
the chest. The upper tail coverts are pinkish cinnamon like the 
basal half of the tail, not buffy white as in G. c. frobeni. 

Philippi (Ornis, 4, p. 158, 1888) records G. cunicularia from Pastes Largos, 
n. of Maricunga, Puna of Atacama, and G. frobeni from Brea [ =Breas, at western 
base of Antofallo Volcano], in the Argentine province of Los Andes. The latter 
may be correctly identified, but the other is more likely to be G. punensis, although 
it is difficult to see how this plain-breasted species could possibly have been mis- 
taken for G. cunicularia (or one of its races) with heavily pronounced pectoral 
markings. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 155 

Birds from Antofagasta and Oruro are exactly alike, while a 
single topotype from La Quiaca, Jujuy, is just a shade more buffy 
above. Our two specimens from Tacna are more grayish above, 
but this is hardly noticeable in the Tacora bird of the Berlin Museum. 
Comparison of a small series from Tarapaca with a single example 
from Jujuy (Santa Catalina) also failed to reveal any constant dif- 
ference. A specimen in the British Museum labeled "Feb. 2, 1886. 
Central Chile" is one of Rahmer's skins from Tarapaca. 

G. punensis is peculiar to the Puna Zone of northern Chile, western 
Bolivia (Oruro), and northwestern Argentina, being hardly ever 
found below 10,000 feet. According to Lane, these birds are resident 
and breed in the mountain districts, as a rule frequenting dry open 
ground near the valleys. They are strictly insectivorous and ter- 
restrial, not perching at all. When disturbed they are more inclined 
to run than to fly, which they do with great rapidity and in a peculiar 
way, keeping the tail spread and the head and body thrown back. 
They have a shrill, remarkable cry, which may be frequently heard, 
and appear to prefer bare sandy spots to places where a little vegeta- 
tion occurs. 

99. Geositta antarctica Landbeck 

Geositta antarctica Landbeck, Arch. Naturg., 46, (1), p. 274, pi. 12, 1880 
Tierra del Fuego; Albert (1), 101, p. 28 Tierra del Fuego. 

Geositta brevirostris Scott, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 10, p. LXIII, 1900 Mount 
Tigre, Patagonia, and "Central Chile." 

Range in Chile. Occasional winter visitor, once recorded from 
"Central Chile." 

Material examined. "Central Chile:" one (unsexed) adult. H. 
Berkeley James Collection (British Museum). 

The Short-billed Miner, which is supposed to breed in Tierra 
del Fuego and southern Patagonia, may be expected to occur in 
Chile as a winter visitor. The specimen in the British Museum 
with no other data than "Central Chile," the only one we have 
seen from the territory covered by this paper, agrees with others 
from the southern extremity of South America. The species has 
variously been taken in the winter months (April, June, July) in 
the province of Mendoza, just across the Andes. The birds observed 
by R. Barros (Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 25, p. 180, 1921) on October 
15, 1920, at Vega Redonda (Valle de los Piuquenes), Aconcagua, 
which he thought might have been G. antarctica, very likely pertained 
to G. isabettina. 



156 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Since writing on this bird, 1 we have examined another example, 
an adult male secured by J. Koslowsky in the Valle del Lago Blanco, 
Chubut, on August 29, 1900, and preserved in the collection of the 
British Museum. 

G. antarctica, while not unlike G. cunicularia in general appearance, 
may be immediately recognized by much longer wings and tail; 
straighter as well as shorter bill with the light-colored base to the 
lower mandible less sharply defined; by having very little, if any, 
brownish markings on the chest; and by the different coloration 
of the remiges. The tawny area on the base of the quills, so con- 
spicuous a feature in G. cunicularia, is but slightly suggested by a 
dull isabelline tinge on the inner web of the second to the fifth 
or sixth primaries, while the remaining primaries as well as the 
secondaries are nearly uniform drab brown, without a distinct 
dusky subterminal band. Besides, the wing is more pointed, the 
first primary falling between the third and fourth, instead of between 
the fourth and fifth as is invariably the case in G. cunicularia. 

MEASUREMENTS 

Adult males Wing Tail Bill 

One from Lago Blanco, Chubut 106 60 13 Yi 

Adult females 

One from Tierra del Fuego (Punta Anegada) 108 61 14 ^ 

Two from Mendoza 103,103 57,60 13^,14 

Unsexed 

Two from Elizabeth Island, Straits of Magellan 108,108^ 61,62 14, 
One adult from "Central Chile" 106 58 13 

100. Geositta isabellina (Philippi and Landbeck) 

Certhilauda isabellina Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 25, p. 412, 
Sept., 1864 Valle Larga and Los Piuquenes, Cordillera of Santiago; 
idem, Arch. Naturg., 31, (1), p. 63, 1865 same localities; Philippi (12), 
p. 252 Cordillera of Santiago; Landbeck (9), p. 236 Cordilleras of Chile. 

Geositta isabellina Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 323, 338 Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 
546 Valle de los Cipreses, Colchagua; idem (4), p. 202 Chile. 

Geositta (Certhilauda) isabellina Philippi (24), p. 31, pi. 22, fig. 1 Chile. 

(?) Geositta antarctica Barros (5), p. 180 Vega Redonda (Valle de los Piu- 
quenes), Aconcagua. 

Range in Chile. Cordilleras of central provinces, from Coquimbo 
to Colchagua. 

Material collected. Coquimbo: Bafios del Toro (alt. 10,600 feet), 
d* ad. (in worn plumage), Nov. 19, 1923. 

1 Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, Part 4, p. 7, 1925. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 157 

Additional specimens. Santiago: Cordillera of Santiago, three 
<? <? ad., two 9 9 ad., Dec., 1865, Oct., 1872. R. A. Philippi and 
E. Reed (U. S. National Museum and Paris Museum). 

This fine species is immediately recognizable among its congeners 
by its large size (wing 120-124; tail 63-67; bill 20-21), the absence of 
dusky edges on the chest and of the rufous area on the basal portion 
of the outer web of the remiges, and by the extensive white uropygial 
area. 

Very little is known regarding its distribution. Philippi and 
Landbeck, its discoverers, found it in the Cordilleras of Santiago 
Province at elevations of from 7,000 to 10,000 feet, where it lives 
on stony slopes and among rocks. Edwyn Reed met with it in the 
Valle de los Cipreses, Colchagua, and Sanborn, by taking a speci- 
men at Banos del Toro, extended its range to Coquimbo Province. 
There seems little doubt that the birds seen by R. Barros at Vega 
Redonda, Aconcagua, belonged to this species rather than G. 
antarctica. 

These birds, according to Philippi and Landbeck, are very active, 
continually running and flying around, and resemble in habits and 
song certain European larks. They build their nests in holes among 
rocks; the eggs are similar to those of G. c. fissirostris, but larger. 
In February, full-grown young were obtained, while the adults were 
in the process of molting. 

Outside of Chile, this species has been found in the high Andes 
west of Mendoza and other parts of western Argentina. 1 Three 
specimens from Puente del Inca in the British Museum are identical 
with Chilean birds. 

101. Geositta maritima (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) 

Certhilauda maritima Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 
7, cl. 2, p. 72, 1837 "Cobija, in Bolivia" [=Prov. Antofagasta, Chile] 
(type in Paris Museum examined) ; d'Orbigny, Voy., p. 360, pi. 44, fig. 1 
Cobija. 

Geositta maritima Menegaux and Hellmayr, Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Autun, 19, 
p. 47 Cobija (crit.); Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, 
Part 4, p. 10, 1925 Domeyko, Caldera, and Ramadilla, Atacama, and 
Chintaguai, Tarapaca. 

Range in Chile. Arid coast region of Atacama, Antofagasta, 
and Tarapaca, extending into western Peru (Lima region). 

!. Reed (Anal. Univ. Chile, 93, p. 202, 1896), when asserting that this species 
migrates in winter northwards to Bolivia, must have confused some notes relating 
to G. rufipennis fasciata. 



158 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Material collected. Tarapacd: Chintaguai, Quebrada de Quisma 
(alt. 4,000 feet), four d* <? ad., two 9 9 ad., May 22-24. Atacama: 
Caldera, d* ad., 9 ad., July 20, 1924. E. E. Gigoux; Ramadilla, 
Copiapo Valley, two cfcf ad., one 9 ad., March 23; Domeyko 
(63 km. south of Vallenar), o* ad., cf imm., Aug. 15, 16. 

Additional specimens. Antofagasta: Cobija, one (unsexed) imm. 
D'Orbigny (type of species; Paris Museum). 

The rediscovery by Mr. Sanborn of this long lost species is one 
of the most interesting results of our explorations in Chile. While 
superficially resembling G. peruviana, the present species is easily 
distinguished by the following characters. The bill is more slender 
with the basal two-thirds of the lower mandible yellow (flesh-color 
in life), abruptly defined against the blackish tip; the dorsal surface 
is much darker and grayer; the superciliaries and auriculars darker, 
light pinkish cinnamon rather than buffy whitish; the axillars, 
under wing coverts, and an extensive area on the flanks strongly 
rufescent, varying from light pinkish-cinnamon to vinaceous-cin- 
namon; the remiges uniform mouse-gray without trace of the large 
cinnamon basal area, so conspicuous in G. peruviana, there being 
but a narrow light pinkish-cinnamon inner margin; the outer web 
of the outermost rectrix is light ochraceous-buff instead of white, 
but there is no light-colored zone at the base of the remaining 
rectrices or on the inner web of the external pair. The coloration 
of the upper parts is nearest to light drab, but often inclines to a 
light grayish hair-brown. 1 Apart from this and the intensity of 
the rufescent area underneath the series shows very little variation. 

An immature bird has distinct cinnamomeous apical edges to the 
inner primaries and a slight rufescent tinge on the inner web of the 
remiges, while the margins on the greater upper wing coverts are 
more decidedly buffy. 

Seven adult males measure as follows. Wing 85 (four), 86^, 
87, 89; tail 50, 52, 52, 53, 53, 54, 57; bill 13J4 14 (five), 15. 

Four adult females. Wing 82, 82, 83, 86; tail 49, 50, 52, 54; 
bill 14. 

Birds from Lima are above somewhat darker, less grayish, and 
have the rufescent area on the sides of the belly slightly deeper in 
tone. They may prove to be separable when a larger series becomes 
available. 

ir The expression "smoke gray" used in Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, 
Part 4, p. 10 is altogether misleading. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 159 

In Chile, G. maritime, is restricted to the arid districts between 
the seashore and the foothills of the Andes. Sanborn first met with 
it at Domeyko, in southern Atacama, and again at Ramadilla, in 
the Copiapo Valley. Later, it was found in larger flocks at El 
Salto and Chintaguai, two miles south of Pica, in the foothills at 
an elevation of 4,000 feet. 

102. Geositta rufipennis fasciata (Philippi and Landbeck) 

Geobamon fasciatus Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 25, No. 3, p. 

415, Sept., 1864 lower Cordilleras of Santiago and Colchagua Provinces; 

idem, Arch. Naturg., 31, (1), p. 68, 1865 same localities. 
Geositta fasciata Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 323, 338 Chile (crit.); E. Reed (2), p. 

546 Cauquenes, Colchagua; Gigoux, p. 86 Caldera, Atacama. 

Geobamon nigrofasdaticus (sic) Philippi (12), p. 252 Cordilleras of Santiago. 
Geobamon nigrofasciata Landbeck (9), p. 236 Cordilleras of Chile (habits). 

Geositta rufipennis Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 15, p. 7, 1890 part, Santiago; 

E. Reed (4), p. 202 Chile; Schalow (2), p. 710 part, spec, a, b, Ovalle 

and Totoralillo, Coquimbo; Albert (1), 101, p. 31 Chile (part, var. 

fasciata); Housse (2), p. 144 San Bernardo, Santiago. 
Geositta (Geobamon) rufipennis Philippi (24), p. 30, pi. 21, fig. 2 Chile. 
? Geositta isabellina Barros (4), p. 143 Nilahue, Curic6 (June). 
Geositta rufipennis rufipennis Barros (5), p. 179 Cordilleras of Aconcagua and 

Cerro de Renca, Prov. Santiago; idem (11), p. 315 Juncal to Portillo 

(alt. 9,000 feet), Prov. Santiago. 

Range in Chile. From Atacama to Colchagua and Curico. 1 
Material collected. Atacama: Caldera (Quebrada del Leon), 
six d* c? ad., seven 9 9 ad., May 18-25, Sept. 24, 1924. E. E. 
Gigoux; two 9 9 ad., March 26, 1924. C. C. Sanborn; Domeyko 
(63 km. south of Vallenar), <? ad., Aug. 16. Coquimbo: Romero, 
d* ad., July 31; Baiios del Toro (alt. 10,600 feet), three d" d" ad., 
two 9 9 ad., Nov. 9-18. Santiago: Maipo, 9 ad., June, 1923. 
C. S. Reed; San Bernardo, d" ad., Aug. 26, 1923. C. S. Reed. 

We have not been able to compare an adequate series from the 
type locality, most of the Santiago specimens examined in European 
collections being old and faded. The two skins collected by Carlos 
S. Reed are very dark, being nearly hair-brown above, while the 
under parts are heavily washed with buffy or (in the San Bernardo 
bird) even with light drab. There are only two in the whole series, 
a male from Romero (Coquimbo) and another from Domeyko 
(Atacama), which are as deeply buffy underneath as the Maipo 

^assler's record of G. rufipennis (Journ. Orn., 70, p. 457, 1922) from Coronel, 
Conception, must refer to some other species. No specimen was preserved. 



160 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

specimen, and the Romero bird approaches it also in the dark colora- 
tion of the upper parts. The series from Caldera (in fresh plumage) 
and Banos del Toro (in worn breeding garb) vary from light buff 
to nearly white below, and the dorsal surface is much paler gray, 
often tinged with sandy, particularly on the crown. Some of these 
birds are not distinguishable from what I consider typical G. r. 
rufipennis, although the latter generally is somewhat larger. It is 
quite possible that a more satisfactory series from northwestern 
Argentina might show the inhabitants of northern Chile (Coquimbo 
and Atacama) to be referable to rufipennis, whereby the range of 
G. r. fasciata would be restricted to the central provinces (Colchagua 
to Curico) and the adjacent Mendoza region. 1 In other words, it 
may turn out that there is a northern and a southern form instead 
of a western and an eastern one as had been heretofore admitted. 

During the breeding period G. r. fasciata inhabits the Cordilleras 
from 4,000 up to 10,000 feet, but on the approach of cold weather 
it repairs to lower altitudes, descending even to the vicinity of the 
seacoast. In summer, we are told by Landbeck, these birds feed on 
insects almost exclusively, while seeds are their principal food in 
the winter months. They appear to be particularly fond of the 
fruits of a certain Euphorbiacea (Coliguaya odorifera Mol.), and under 
these bushes large flocks may be seen eagerly picking up its seeds. 
Landbeck describes the call-note as being similar to that of the Euro- 
pean Greenfinch (Chloris chloris). Its song is loud, rather variable, 
and is frequently uttered by the male. The "Agachadera," as it 
is called by the natives, breeds in holes and crevices of rocks. The 
nest is carefully built of grass and other soft material, lined inside 
with hair and feathers, and contains four or five rather large, glossy 
white eggs. 

MEASUREMENTS 

G. rufipennis fasciata Adult males Wing Tail Bill 

Six from Caldera, Atacama 94,95,95, 55,56,56, 14,15,15, 

95,97,100 57,57,59 16,16,16 

One from Domeyko, Atacama 103 57 16 

One from Romero, Coquimbo 105 63 16^ 

Three from Banos del Toro, Coquimbo 103,103,104 62,62,63 15,16,16^ 
One from San Bernardo, Santiago 101 60 17 

One from Puente del Inca, Mendoza 103 58 17 

G. rufipennis fasciata Adult females 

Nine from Caldera, Atacama 92,93,94, 54,54,56, 15-16 

94,94,95, 57,57,57, 

95,96,97 58,59, 

1 Three adults from Puente del Inca in the British Museum collection seem 
to be inseparable from Santiago specimens, but are much darker both above and 
below than a single male from Santa Catalina, Jujuy (rufipennis). 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 161 

G. rufipennis fasciata Adult females Wing Tail Bill 

Two from Banos del Toro, Coquimbo 100,104 61,62 15,16K 

One from Maipo, Santiago 104 61 16 

One from Puente del Inca, Mendoza 104 60 16 

G. r. rufipennis Adult males 

Two from Tucuman (Lara and Cerro 

Munoz) 106,107^ 67,69 

G. r. rufipennis Adult females 

One from Tucuman (Cerro Munoz) 107 69 17 

G. r. rufipennis Unsexed 

Type of G. rufipennis from "Parana" 113 69 

103. Upucerthia dumetaria hallinani Chapman 

Upucerthia dumetaria hallinani Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 41, 
p. 324, 1919 Tofo, sixty miles north of Coquimbo, Prov. Atacama (type 
in American Museum of Natural History examined). 

Upucerthia dumetoria (not of Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire) Darwin, p. 66 part, 
Coquimbo; Philippi, Reise Wuste Atacama, p. 161 banks of the Rio 
Atacama; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 324, 338 Coquimbo; Philippi (12), p. 
251 part, Atacama; Sharpe, p. 9 Coquimbo; Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 158 
"Atacama, Copacolla" [=Copacoya, n. of San Pedro de Atacama, Anto- 
fagasta]; Schalow (2), p. 709 La Serena, Coquimbo; Albert (1), 101, p. 
36 part, Atacama; Passler (3), p. 457 part, Antofagasta and Coloso, 
Antofagasta (nesting habits). 

Upurcethia dumoteria (sic) Gigoux, p. 87 Caldera, Atacama. 
Range in Chile. In northern provinces, from Coquimbo to 
Antofagasta. 1 

Material collected. Coquimbo: Romero, three cf cf ad., one 9 
ad., July 11-29; Banos del Toro (alt. 10,600 feet), rf 1 ad., two 9 9 
ad., Nov. 13-15. Atacama: Monte Amargo (41 km. southeast of 
Caldera, alt. 500 feet), cf pull., Oct. 10, 1923. E. E. Gigoux; Rama- 
dilla, Copiapo Valley, cf ad., Aug. 24; Domeyko (63 km. south of 
Vallenar), two cfcf ad., one 9 ad., Aug. 13-14. Antofagasta: Rio 
Loa (alt. 7,500 feet), two rf c? ad., one 9 ad., Sept. 12-14. 

Additional specimens. Coquimbo: Punta Alatina, near La 
Serena, one adult, one juv., November, 1893. L. Plate (Berlin 
Museum). Atacama: Tofo, cf ad., June 3, 1917. T. Hallinan 
(type of subspecies; American Museum of Natural History). 

This form is exceedingly close to U. d. hypoleuca, but the upper 
parts are on average somewhat paler and more sandy; the lower 
surface is more whitish, only the chest and flanks being washed with 
buff, and the tips to the lateral rectrices are of a brighter cinnamome- 

1 According to Passler (Journ. Orn., 70, p. 458, 1922) "U. dumetoria" ranges 
as far north as Mollendo, Peru. 



162 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

ous. A good many specimens are indistinguishable, however, and 
it is not at all unlikely that with more comprehensive material the 
North Chilean form will prove to be inseparable from U. d. hypoleuca. 

Birds from Domeyko are practically identical with a male from 
Ramadilla, which, in its turn, is an exact duplicate of the type. 
Specimens from Rio Loa (Antofagasta) and Banos del Toro (Co- 
quimbo), all in more or less worn condition, are browner above, but 
seem better referred to U. d. hallinani than to U. d. hypoleuca. 

Four skins from Romero (Coquimbo), in coloration of under 
parts, closely approach the southern 7. d. saturatior, but in other 
respects agree with birds from Atacama and northward. 

U. d. hallinani represents this group of earth-creepers in the 
arid districts of northern Chile. Its altitudinal range seems to 
extend from the seacoast up to the elevated Cordilleras. 

Passler reports to have found nests in November at Coloso 
and on a small island near Antofagasta. That this species does 
breed in low country is proved by a nestling partly in down secured 
by E. E. Gigoux, on October 10, 1923, at Monte Amargo, southeast 
of Caldera, at an altitude of about 500 feet above sea level. Plate 
also obtained, in November, a worn adult and a young bird at Punta 
Alatina, Coquimbo Bay. Judging from the condition of their plum- 
age, the birds taken by Sanborn in September at Rio Loa (alt. 7,500 
feet) and in November at Banos del Toro (alt. 10,600 feet) were 
breeding. 

MEASUREMENTS 

Adult males Wing Tail Bill 

Two from Rio Loa, Antofagasta 104,106 87,87 36,38 

One from Copiapo Valley, Atacama 105 83 36 

Two from Domeyko, Atacama 100,100 81,84 35,36^ 

One from Tofo, Atacama 101 83 33% 

Three from Romero, Coquimbo 99,101,105 80,83,84 33,36,37 

One from Banos del Toro, Coquimbo 105 82 33 

Adult females 

One from Rio Loa, Antofagasta 100 88 37 

One from Domeyko, Atacama 84 37 H 

One from Romero, Coquimbo 96 77 34 

Two from Banos del Toro, Coquimbo 95,99 79,83 36,37 

104. Upucerthia dumetaria hypoleuca Reichenbach 

Upercerthia hypoleuca Reichenbach, Handb. Spez. Orn., Scansoriae, A. Sit- 
tinae, livr. 4, p. 214, pi. 562b [=607, fig. 4072], 1853 Chile (type in 
Dresden Museum examined). 

Ochetorhynchus dumetoria Bridges, p. 94 eastern side of Chilean Andes, 
34-35 S. lat. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 163 

Uppucerthia dumetoria Eraser (1), p. Ill eastern side of Chilean Andes, 
34-35 S. lat. 

Upucerthia dumetoria Des Murs (2), p. 284 Chile (in part); Philippi (12), 
p. 251 central provinces (in part); Ridgway, p. 135 (in text) Valle del 
Yeso, Prov. Santiago; E. Reed (4), p. 202 Chile (in part); Albert (1), 
101, p. 36 Chile (in part); Barros (5), p. 180 Cordillera of Aconcagua; 
Housse (2), p. 144 San Bernardo, Santiago. 

Upucerthia dumetoria saturatior (not of Scott) Barros (10), p. 359 Cordillera 
of Aconcagua. 

Range in Chile. Puna Zone of the central provinces, from Acon- 
cagua to Colchagua. 

Material examined. Aconcagua: Villa de los Piuquenes (alt. 
6,500 feet), & juv., Dec. 23, 1920. R. Barros (American Museum 
of Natural History); Cajon de Castro (alt. 11,000 feet), 9 juv., 
Feb. 25, 1926. R. Barros (Field Museum). Santiago: Valle del 
Yeso, cf imm., 9 imm., January, 1866. R. A. Philippi (U. S. 
National Museum). "Central Chile:" one (unsexed) juv. H. 
Berkeley James Collection (British Museum). 

As pointed out in another connection, 1 birds from the Cordilleras 
of Aconcagua and Santiago appear to be referable to the West 
Argentine form ( U. d. darwini}, and other specimens since examined 
serve to strengthen this identification. My theory that these birds 
might be stragglers from Argentina, however, cannot be upheld 
in the face of R. Barros' observations. This excellent naturalist 
tells us that the "Bandurrilla comun" breeds in the Cordilleras of 
Aconcagua at altitudes of from 6,500 to 10,000 feet and stays on 
its nesting grounds until the end of August, when it repairs for the 
winter to the lower ranges and the Precordillera (Los Andes). 
Similar observations were made by Father Housse in the vicinity 
of San Bernardo in Santiago Province. 

This race cannot be confused with U. d. saturatior, the common 
form of southern Chile, being much paler throughout with the 
cinnamomeous areas on wings and tail decidedly clearer, and having 
a longer, slenderer bill. It is much nearer to U. d. dumetaria, of 
Patagonia, from which it merely differs by its more brownish or 
rufescent coloration. 

Thanks to the good offices of Dr. W. Meise I have been enabled 
to compare the type of U. hypoleuca Reich., recently unearthed in 
the collection at Dresden, with the large series in the British Museum. 
The specimen, labeled " Upucerthia jelskii (Cab.) No. 13,102. Peru 
oder Bolivien," agrees in every detail with Reichenbaeh's descrip- 

1 Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, Part 4, p. 42, 1925. 



164 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

tion, and I have little doubt that Dr. Meise is right in taking it for 
the bird from which diagnosis and figure in the "Handbuch" were 
drawn up. Although in rather poor condition, it plainly shows that 
U. hypoleuca has no affinity to U. jelskii. The markings of the tail, 
while totally different from those of the latter species, exhibit the same 
pattern as in the U. dumetaria group, the second and third rectrix 
(from without) being blackish with an oblique, cinnamomeous apical 
spot, the central pair brownish like the back. 1 Underneath, the type 
specimen is indeed nearly white, with just a faint shade of buff 
laterally and without dusky squamulations on the chest, exactly 
like a young bird from "Central Chile" in the British Museum (Reg. 
No. 92.2.10.790). 

U. hypoleuca thus turns out to have been based upon an example 
of U. darwini, and Reichenbach's name having priority by many 
years will have to replace Scott's later term. 

105. Upucerthia dumetaria saturatior Scott 

Upucerthia saturatior Scott, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 10, p. LXIII, 1900 "Central 
Chile," we suggest Valparaiso (type in British Museum examined). 

Upucerthia tamucoensis Chubb, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 27, p. 101, 1911 "Tam- 
uco" [ =Pelal, Temuco, Prov. Cautin] (type in British Museum examined). 

Upucerthia dumetoria (not of Geoffrey Saint-Hilaire) Des Murs (2), p. 284 
Chile (in part); Philippi (12), p. 251 central provinces (in part); Allen, 
p. 88 Valparaiso; E. Reed (4), p. 202 Chile (in part); Albert (1), 101, 
p. 36 Chile (in part); C. Reed, Av. Prov. Concepcion, p. 39 Concepcion; 
Barros (4), p. 143 Nilahue, Curico; Passler (3), p. 457 part, between 
Coronel and Lota, Concepci6n; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 106 Marga-Marga 
Valley, Valparaiso; Bullock (4), p. 177 Angol, Malleco. 

Uppucerthia dumetoria Cassin, p. 188 Chile; Pelzeln (2), p. 58 Chile (crit.; 
spec, in Vienna Museum examined). 

Upucerthia dumetaria saturatior Wetmore (3), p. 249 Concon, Valparaiso 
(April). 

Range in Chile. Central provinces, from Valparaiso and San- 
tiago south to Cautin. 

Material collected. Valparaiso: Olmue, 9 ad., June 3. Curico: 
Teno, c? ad., March 28, 1923. C. S. Reed. Maule: Quirihue (alt. 
800 feet), cf ad., May 2. Concepcion: Hacienda Gualpencillo, two 
cfcf ad., five 9 9 ad., April 4-20. Cautin: Villa Portales (alt. 
3,300 feet), <? ad., March 1; Rio Lolen (alt. 3,600 feet), Lonquimai 

1 What is left of the outermost rectrix the basal half is colored as in U. 
dumetaria, viz. blackish, with a narrow buffy external edge. The other tail-feathers 
are missing. Reichenbach correctly describes the tail as having the "Enden der 
drei Aussenschwanzfedern jederseits rothlichgrau." 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 165 

Valley, rf 1 , 9 (in juvenile molt), Feb. 11-13; Lake Gualletue' (alt. 
3,800 feet), 9 juv., Feb. 18. 

Additional specimens. Santiago: Santiago, one (unsexed) adult. 
Heidrich (Berlin Museum). Conception: Coronel, one (unsexed) 
adult. R. Passler (Berlin Museum). Cautin: Pelal, Temuco, two 
c? cf ad., two 9 9 ad. (including the type of U. tamucoensis), June 
7-17, 1910. A. C. Saldafia (British Museum); Maquehue, Temuco, 
9 ad., June 11, 1910. D. S. Bullock (American Museum of Natural 
History). "Central Chile:" two (unsexed) adults (including the 
type of 7. saturatior}. H. Berkeley James Collection (British 
Museum). 

U. d. saturatior differs at a glance from the other races by very much 
darker, olive or sepia brown, upper parts and middle tail feathers 
without paler tips to the wing coverts; tawny rather than cinnamome- 
ous basal portion of remiges; generally wider, deeper cinnamon rufous 
tips to lateral rectrices; much duller, avellaneous rather than buffy, 
under parts with the blackish margins on foreneck and chest much 
more pronounced, and the flanks dark buffy brown or olive-brown. 
Besides, the bill is shorter, stouter, and more blackish. 

The series examined exhibits a certain amount of variation, which 
appears to be of a purely individual nature. Darkest of all is the 
bird from Quirihue (Maule), in which the upper parts are very dark 
olive-brown, while, below, the deep (nearly cinnamon) buff color of 
the foreneck extends in a somewhat duller tone over the remaining 
under parts, deepening into brownish on the flanks and lower tail 
coverts. Several examples from Conception and the majority from 
Cautin are but slightly paler, while all the others have a more or 
less conspicuous area of light buff in the middle of the belly, con- 
trasted with the brown sides. I fail to see any constant difference, 
either in size or color, between the series from Cautin ( U. tamuco- 
ensis) and the type of U. saturatior from "Central Chile." The 
latter is not an extremely dark specimen and agrees in every respect 
with ours from Olmue', Valparaiso, but they are exactly matched 
by some of the Conception birds. When describing U. tamucoensis, 
Chubb must have overlooked Scott's separation of the Chilean form, 
since no reference is made to U. saturatior. 

A young bird from Lake Gualletue", Cautin, is in general similar 
to a specimen in corresponding plumage of U. d. hypoleuca, from 
Cajon de Castro, Aconcagua, but has a much shorter, less curved 
bill, deeper rufous wing-area and tail-tips, and the dorsal surface, 
including the central rectrices, is sepia instead of buffy brown. 



166 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Our knowledge of the breeding range of this form is quite unsatis- 
factory. Passler observed a bird carrying food to its brood on a 
steep cliff of the shore between Coronel and Lota, Concepcion. It 
apparently also nests in the mountainous parts of Cautin, for among 
the specimens collected by Sanborn in that province at altitudes of 
3,300 to 3,800 feet in February and March there are, in addition to 
an adult just finishing its annual molt, one bird in juvenile dress 
and two others in the process of molting from the juvenile into the 
first annual plumage. In the Valley of Angol, however, Bullock 
found the "Bandurrilla" only as a winter visitor, and Barros reports 
the same for the Nilahue Valley, Curico. Whether it really breeds 
in the vicinity of Valparaiso, where specimens have been obtained 
in April and June, remains in doubt. According to Jaffuel and Pirion, 
it is merely a visitor in the Marga-Marga Valley, in that province. 
A single adult bird (in fresh plumage) sent by Heidrich from San- 
tiago to the Berlin Museum is typical of saturatior in coloration, 
but in shape and length of bill approaches U. d. hypoleuca, to which 
specimens from the Cordilleras of Santiago actually belong. It is 
probable that neither breeds in the vicinity of the Chilean capital, 
where both forms may, however, occur as winter visitors. 

MEASUREMENTS 

Adult males Wing Tail Bill 

One from Teno, Curico 100 78 30 

One from Quirihue, Maule 97 79 30 

Two from Concepcion 103,104 81,84 28,29 

One from Villa Portales, Cautin 102 80 31 

Two from Temuco, Cautin 100,105 80,81 28,29 

Adult females 

One from OlmuS, Valparaiso 96 77 29 

Five from Concepcion 95,95,98, 77,78,81, 28,28,29, 

98,100 83,83 29,29 

Three from Temuco, Cautin 97,99,106 77,77,82 28,30,30 

Unsexed 
Type of U. saturatior 98 81 29 

106. Upucerthia validirostris pallida Taczanowski 

Upucerthia pallida Taczanowski, P. Z. S. Lond., 1883, p. 71 Junfn, Peru. 1 
Upucerthia jelskii (not Coprotretis jelskii Cabanis) Sclater (6), 1891, p. 134 

Sacaya, Tarapaca; E. Reed (4), p. 202 Tarapaca; Lane, p. 37 Sacaya 

and Huasco, Tarapaca (habits). 

1 Aa pointed out in another connection (Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, 
Part 4, pp. 45-46, 1925), it is with considerable misgivings that we adopt Tac- 
zanowski's name for the present form; but pending the examination of the type 
supposedly in the Raimondi Collection at Lima we deemed it advisable not 
to depart from current nomenclature. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 167 

Upucerthia validirostris (not Ochetorhynchus validirostris Burmeister) Menegaux 
and Hellmayr, Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Autun, 19, p. 55, 1906 "Chile." 

Upucerthia validirostris pallida Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, 
Part 4, p. 45, 1925 Putre, Tacna (in part). 

Range in Chile. Puna Zone of Tarapaca and Tacna. 

Material collected. Tacna: Putre (alt. 11,600 feet), four <? <? 
ad., one 9 ad., June 18, July 3, 7. 

Additional specimens. Tarapaca: Sacaya, three 9 9 ad., March 
28, April 2, 6, 1890. A. A. Lane (British Museum). "Chile:" one 
adult, 1843. C. Gay (Paris Museum). 

The Chilean series agrees perfectly with another from southern 
Peru (Titicaca region and Sumbay, Dept. Arequipa). There is the 
usual variation in the buffy tone of the under parts, which ranges 
from pinkish buff to nearly pale pinkish buff, with a varying amount 
of grayish apical margins to the feathers of the lower throat and 
foreneck. The rufous wing-area is always very extensive, sharply 
denned from the dusky tips, and of a deep orange-cinnamon; the 
median rectrices are dark brown (bister or sepia), strongly contrasted 
with the bright orange-cinnamon or Mikado brown three lateral 
pairs. 

This race is very close to U. v. validirostris, of northwestern 
Argentina, and merely differs by shorter wings and tail, generally 
more slender bill, and decidedly paler, pinkish buff instead of light 
pinkish cinnamon under parts and superciliaries. In size, it stands 
somewhat between U. v. validirostris and U. v. jelskii, of central 
Peru, but the latter may be distinguished by having less, sometimes 
hardly any, rufous on wings and outer tail feathers. 

Within Chilean boundaries, this earth-creeper is restricted to 
the Puna Zone of the two northernmost provinces, its altitudinal 
range extending from 9,000 to 12,000 feet. 

According to Lane, these birds are invariably found on the slopes 
bordering a valley or marsh, where there is a scattered growth of 
scrub affording scanty covert. They are altogether terrestrial and 
fly very little. When disturbed in the open they make for the 
nearest covert, if hard pressed flying a short distance with quick 
strokes and apparent difficulty. The tail is carried erect when 
running. The note is a shrill cackling sound, with more or less 
variation. The bird feeds on worms and grubs, and seems to be 
altogether insectivorous. It nests in a hole which it excavates at 
the base of some bush on the hillside. The eggs are unknown. 



168 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

MEASUREMENTS 

U. v. validirostris Immature Wing Tail Bill 

One male from "Mendoza" (type of species) 93 84 37 % 

U. v. validirostris Adult males 

Three from Cerro Mufioz, Tucuman 95,97^,98 87,91,91 38,38,39 

One from Tan del Valle, Tucuman 99 90 36 

U. v. validirostris Adult females 

Two from Tafi del Valle, Tucuman 90,94 83,84 34,37 

U. v. pallida Adult males 

Two from Tirapata, Peru 89,90 77,77 31^.32 

Two from Esperanza, Oruro, Bolivia 85,88 74,78 37,37^ 

Four from Putre, Tacna 88,88, 75,78, 31*434, 

90,91 79,80 35,35 

U. v. pallida Adult females 

Two from Tirapata, Peru 85,86 71,72 31,33 

Two from Lake Titicaca 86,89 70,77 33,35 

One from Putre, Tacna 88 78 35 

Three from Sacaya, Tarapaca 86,86,90 77,77,78 37,37,37 

107. Upucerthia albigula n. sp. 

Upucerthia ruficauda (not of Meyen) Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 88, 

1889 "Valparaiso" (errore). 
Upucerthia validirostris pallida (not of Taczanowski) Hellmayr, Field Mus. 

Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, Part 4, p. 45, 1925 Putre, Tacna (in part). 

Range. Extreme northern Chile in Puna Zone of province of 
Tacna. 

Material collected. Tacna: Putre (alt. 11,600 feet), <? ad., 9 
ad., June 15, July 7. 

Additional specimens. Tacna: Palca (alt. 10,000 feet), above 
Tacna, 9 ad., Oct. 18, 1902. 0. Garlepp (Berlepsch Collection, 
Frankfort Museum). Chile: "Valparaiso," one adult. H. H. Rusby 
(American Museum of Natural History, New York). 

Type from Putre (alt. 11,600 feet), Prov. Tacna, Chile, in Field 
Museum of Natural History, No. 61,094. Adult male. July 7, 
1924. C. C. Sanborn. 

Characters. Upper parts deep snuff brown, passing into sepia 
on pileum; upper wing coverts cinnamon-brown; alula and primary 
coverts fuscous, the latter cinnamon-brown at base and along outer 
web; outer primary fuscous, remaining primaries and secondaries 
bright orange-cinnamon or Mikado brown tipped with fuscous, this 
color extending down the inner web of the second and third primaries 
(from without) for a considerable distance; tertials strongly washed 
with cinnamon-brown; tail decidedly rufous and nearly uniform, the 
median rectrices being just a little darker, more cinnamon-brown 
than the orange-cinnamon lateral feathers; broad superciliaries, 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 169 

widening behind the eye, pinkish buff; auriculars dusky, streaked 
with buff; cheeks and malar region buff, freckled with dusky; throat 
white, tinged with light buff posteriorly; feathers of lower throat 
and foreneck with very distinct, though narrow apical margins of 
dusky brown, producing a scaly appearance; foreneck and chest 
deep buff (between pinkish buff and cinnamon-buff), deepening into 
clay color on sides and under tail coverts and passing into pale 
pinkish buff in the middle of the breast and abdomen; axillars and 
under wing coverts pinkish cinnamon. Bill and feet dark horn color. 
Wing (male), 96, (female), 90; tail 83, (female), 78; bill, 33 mm. 

Remarks. This species bears such a striking superficial resem- 
blance to U. v. pallida that, when compiling the "Catalogue of the 
Birds of the Americas" several years ago, I did not attempt to sepa- 
rate it. More careful study of the material in American and Euro- 
pean collections, however, convinced me that the differences cannot 
possibly be attributed to individual variation, and as U. v. pallida 
and the bird here described occur side by side in northern Chile, 
the only plausible conclusion is to admit their specific distinctness. 

On comparing them with a large series of U. v. pallida from 
southern Peru (Titicaca region) and Tacna (Putre), the two speci- 
mens have decidedly stouter, thicker, more arched bills and differ, 
besides, by their much darker as well as more rufescent coloration. 
The back is warm snuff brown, passing into sepia on the pileum; 
the upper wing coverts and the outer margins of the primary coverts 
are cinnamon-brown and so are the tertials, though slightly duller; 
the median rectrices are very nearly as rufous (only somewhat darker) 
as the orange-cinnamon or Mikado brown lateral feathers. In U. v. 
pallida the upper parts are very much paler between Saccardo's 
umber and wood brown and the crown, instead of being darker 
than the back, is slightly more grayish, while the wing coverts are 
by no means rufous, but of the same pale brown as the back; the 
median tail feathers are more or less dusky contrasting with the 
rest of the tail. 

The supercilium, which in pallida is rather indistinct and narrow 
behind the eye, is much wider in the new species, and its color more 
yellowish, pinkish buff rather than light pinkish cinnamon. On the 
under parts the differences are even more pronounced. Whereas in 
U. v. pallida the whole ventral surface is nearly uniform pale pinkish 
buff, U. albigula has the throat clear white and the foreneck and 
chest deep buff (between pinkish buff and cinnamon-buff), deepen- 
ing into clay color on the sides and lower tail coverts, while the 



170 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

feathers of the lower throat and foreneck, which in pallida show 
mere suggestions of grayish edges, are marked with well-defined, 
scaly apical margins of dusky brown. Wings and tail appear to be 
a little longer in the white-throated species. 

In addition to our own specimens, I have examined two others 
that are referable to the new bird. One, sexed " 9 ," but probably 
a male, was collected by Otto Garlepp on October 18, 1902, at Palca 
(alt. 10,000 feet), above Tacna, hence in the same region, 1 and the 
second example was secured by Dr. H. H. Rusby somewhere in Chile. 
It is labeled "Valparaiso, June, 1885," and was listed by the late 
J. A. Allen as U. ruficauda. The locality is undoubtedly incorrect. 
The specimen is much more likely to have originated from the Andes 
of Tacna, which Dr. Rusby crossed when traveling from Arica to 
Bolivia. 

All of the four specimens of U. albigula have the base of the outer 
web of the third to the fifth primaries just as bright rufous as the 
inner web, while there is a distinct dusky streak in every one of the 
numerous skins of U. v. pallida we have examined. U. albigula 
also lacks the sooty blackish margin to the middle remiges just 
beyond the tips of the wing coverts, the whole outer web being bright 
rufous. This blackish margin is as a rule well developed in U. v. 
pallida, though we have seen two specimens from Sacaya, Tarapaca, 
in which it was missing. 

More information about the range of U. albigula, which may also 
be expected to occur in the neighboring section of Bolivia, is greatly 
desired. 

108. Upucerthia ruficauda (Meyen) 

Ochetorhynchus ruficaudus Meyen, Nov. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol., 16, 
Suppl., p. 81, pi. 11, 1834 "Chile, am Fusse des Vulcans von Maipu, auf 
etwa 10,000 Fuss Hohe," Prov. Santiago (type in Berlin Museum) ; Sclater 
(2), 1867, pp. 324, 338 Maipo (ex Meyen). 

Uppucerthia montana Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 
8, cl. 2, p. 22, 1838 Palca, rep. Peruviana=Prov. Tacna (type in Paris 
Museum examined). 2 

1 Its measurements are as follows: wing 94; tail 83; bill 33 J^ mm. 

2 If d'Orbigny, in the "Voyage" (p. 371), states having met with the species 
"sur les crgtes et sur les plateaux de la Cordillere de Bolivie et du Pe>ou, princi- 
palement aux environs de La Paz," the last-named locality probably refers to the 
nearly allied U. andaecola, which is the only species of the group occurring in 
the vicinity of the Bolivian capital. The type (and only specimen) of U. montana 
from d'Orbigny's collection in the Paris Museum has no exact data, being merely 
labeled "Bolivie," but it agrees in small size and slender bill so closely with a 
bird from Putre, Tacna, that I believe the original locality as given in the "Synopsis 
Avium" to be the correct one. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 171 

Enicornis striaia AUen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 2, p. 89, 1889 "Chile, 
probably Valparaiso" (type in the American Museum of Natural History, 
New York, examined). 

Upucerthia ruficauda Des Murs (2), p. 285 Volcano "San Pedro" [ =Maipo], 
Prov. Santiago (ex Meyen); Philippi (12), p. 251 high Cordilleras of Chile; 
Sclater (4), 1886, p. 398 Lalcalhuay, Tarapaca; E. Reed (4), p. 202 
Tarapaca; Albert (1), 101, p. 45 Tarapaca and Tacna (in part). 

Range in Chile. Puna Zone of the Andes from Tacna to Santiago. 

Material collected. Tacna: Putre (alt. 11,600 feet), d" ad., July 
4. Antofagasta: twenty miles east of San Pedro (alt. 12,600 feet), 
three d" 1 d 71 ad., one cf imm., April 30, May 1, Oct. 5, 9. Coquimbo: 
Baiios del Toro (alt. 11,600 feet), four d'd" ad., two 9 9 ad., 
Nov. 10-19. 

Additional specimens. Chile: "Valparaiso," one adult (the type 
of E. striata). H. H. Rusby (American Museum of Natural History, 
New York). "Bolivia" (probably Palca, Tacna): adult. Type of 
U. montana. D'Orbigny (Paris Museum). Antofagasta: Ascotan, 
cf ad., March 5, 1847. Behn; Puquios, d* ad., March 9, 1847. Behn 
(Berlin Museum). 

For comparison we had a good series from various localities in 
Bolivia (Mauri River, Dept. La Paz; Oruro; Potosi) and Argentina 
(Santa Catalina, Jujuy; Lara, Tucuman; Puente del Inca and Hor- 
cones Valley, Mendoza) and two specimens from Arequipa, Peru, 
kindly lent by Mr. N. B. Kinnear and Dr. E. Stresemann from the 
collections of the British Museum and Berlin Museum. In spite 
of this fairly large material I am not prepared to say at present if 
the inhabitants of the Andes from Arequipa in the north to Mendoza 
in the south are all exactly the same. The discrimination of possible 
local races is greatly complicated by the seasonal change to which 
the plumage of this species is subject through wear and bleaching, 
and it is very hard to assemble a sufficient number of specimens in 
strictly comparable condition from any part of its range. Taking 
birds from the Andes west of Mendoza to represent 0. ruficaudus 
(described from Volcano de Maipo, Santiago), there seems little 
doubt that E. striaia is a pure synonym of Meyen's name, since the 
type, an adult in fairly fresh plumage, agrees in every particular of 
coloration as well as in dimensions. The locality "Valparaiso" is 
doubtless erroneous, this bird being rarely, if ever, found below an 
altitude of 7,000 feet. Several specimens from Antofagasta (March 
to May) are evidently inseparable from four Mendoza skins. Two 
others in worn condition (shot at San Pedro in October) are much 
paler above and have the posterior under parts much less distinctly 



172 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

streaked with fulvous; except for the somewhat darker stripes on 
the flanks, they are identical with a series collected from late August 
to early October by P. 0. Simons at Oruro and Potosi, western Bolivia. 
Three freshly molted adults from Potosi (early April), however, are 
very nearly as dark above and as heavily streaked below as those 
from Mendoza. Six specimens from Bafios del Toro, Coquimbo, are 
in so excessively worn breeding plumage that mere traces remain 
of the original coloration. 

The type of U. montana, an adult male from Putre, and a couple 
of adults from Arequipa are smaller with slenderer bills, and have 
the stripes underneath of a darker and more rufous brown tone. 
Although certain other specimens approach them in size, additional 
material might show these northern birds to be separable, in which 
case the name montanus would become available. 

U. ruficauda seems to be restricted to the highest regions of the 
Andes, most of the birds examined having been obtained at elevations 
of 10,000 feet and upwards. P. 0. Simons, however, secured two at 
Arequipa, a little over 7,000 feet. 

It is closely related to U. andaecola Lafr. & d'Orb., from which 
it mainly differs by straighter bill, whitish superciliaries, ochraceous 
or tawny rather than dark brown streaking underneath, and by 
having the inner web of the five lateral rectrices partly or wholly 
black. The latter character is somewhat variable, and one of the 
specimens from Banos del Toro, Coquimbo, has an entirely rufous 
tail, while, on the other hand, certain individuals of U. andaecola 
show slight suggestions of dusky markings. In distribution, they 
appear to replace each other geographically. U. ruficauda inhabits 
the Andes of Chile, western Argentina, and extreme western Bolivia, 
particularly the departments of Oruro and Potosi, whereas U. 
andaecola is found in the Cordillera of Cochabamba. In the depart- 
ment of La Paz both seem to occur. From La Paz and Sicasica we have 
seen numerous typical specimens of U. andaecola, and from the Rio 
Mauri, on the confines of Peru, an adult male (secured by Stocker 
on Nov. 12, 1912; Berlin Museum), which is just as typical U. 
ruficauda. 

MEASUREMENTS 

Adult males Wing Tail Bill 

One from Arequipa, Peru 79 70 25 

One from Putre, Tacna 75 67 24 % 
Type of U. montana, "Bolivia" = 

Palca, Tacna 77 68 25 

One from Rio Mauri, La Paz, Bolivia 79 70 25 

Two from Oruro, Bolivia 84,84 74,74 24^,26 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 173 

Adult males Wing Tail Bill 

Six from Potosi, Bolivia 83,84,85, 73,74,76, 25,25,25^, 

87,87,87 77,78,79 26,27,28 

One from Ascotan, Antofagasta 82 25 

One from Puquios, Antofagasta 84 74 25 

Four from S. Pedro, Antofagasta 80,81, 71,72, 26*427, 

81,83 72, 27,28 

Four from Banos del Toro, Coquimbo 79,80, 25^,26, 

80,82 27, 

One from Sierra de Mendoza 84 78 26 

Adult females 

One from Arequipa, Peru 77 69 25 

Two from Potosi, Bolivia 79,81 68,73 25,26 

Two from Banos del Toro, Coquimbo 78,78 26,26 

Type of Enicornis striata, "Chile" 83 73 26 

109. Cinclodes nigro-fumosus nigro-fumosus (Lafr. and d'Orb.) 

Uppucerthia nigro-fumosa Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. 
Zool., 8, cl. 2, p. 23, 1838 Cobija, "Bolivia" =Prov. Antofagasta, Chile 
(type in Paris Museum examined); d'Orbigny, Voyage, p. 372, pi. 57, 
fig. 2 Valparaiso, Cobija, and Arica, Chile. 

Upucerthia nigro-fumosa Des Murs (2), p. 283 from Coquimbo "to Chiloe" 
(in part); Albert (1), 101, p. 38 Chile (monog.). 

Opetiorhynchus nigrofumosus Darwin, p. 68 Coquimbo; Fraser (1), p. Ill 
seashore of Chile. 

Opetiorhynchus lanceolatus Gould in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, pi. 20, 1839 
figure of Darwin's specimen from Coquimbo. 

Cinclodes inornatus Lesson, Rev. Zool., 3, p. 267, 1840 Chile; Hartlaub, 1. c., 
9, p. 1, 1846 (crit.). 

Cinclodes nigrofumosus 1 Cassin, p. 187 coast of Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, 
pp. 324, 338 Coquimbo; Menegaux and Hellmayr, Me"m. Soc. Hist. Nat. 
Autun, 19, p. 58, 1906 Cobija and Valparaiso (crit.); Gigoux, p. 87 
Caldera; Housse (3), p. 226 Isla La Mocha, Arauco. 

Upucerthia chilensis (not Furnarius chilensis Lesson) Philippi (12), p. 250 
coast of Chile (excl. Peru); Landbeck (9), p. 235 sea-cliffs of Chile 
(habits). 

Cinclodes patagonicus (not Motacilla patagonica Gmelin) Schalow (2), p. 708 
Iquique, Tarapaca, and Isla dos Pajaros, Totoralillo, Coquimbo (spec, 
examined). 

Range in Chile. Littoral of the northern and central provinces 
from Arica to Conception and Arauco (Isla La Mocha). 

Material collected. Antofagasta: Gatico, two cf <? ad., April 
9, 10. Atacama: Caldera, five cf cf ad., three 9 9 ad., one cf juv., 
March 21, 27, April 18, May 4, June 8, Sept. 1. C. C. Sanborn and 

1 Often spelt "nigrifumosus." 



174 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

E. E. Gigoux. Aconcagua: Papudo, 9 ad., Dec. 10. Concepcion: 
Concepci6n, near coast, & ad., 9 ad., April 4-8. 

Additional specimens. Tarapaca: Iquique, adult, Aug., 1893. 
L. Plate (Berlin Museum). Antofagasta: Cobija, d" ad., Feb. 24, 
1847. Professor Behn (Berlin Museum) ; adult, Jan., 1831. D'Orbigny 
(type of species; Paris Museum). Coquimbo: Isla dos Pajaros, 
Totoralillo, adult, Oct., 1893. L. Plate (Berlin Museum) .Val- 
paraiso: Valparaiso, two adults, one juv., 1830. D'Orbigny (Paris 
Museum). 1 

There is no local variation in this species so far as I can see, 
specimens from Concepcion being identical with those from the 
extreme north of the range (Iquique, Cobija, Gatico). Young birds 
are smaller in all proportions and have the under parts of a more 
rufescent brown tinge with the pale shaft-streaks less pronounced. 

Birds taken in December (at Papudo) and February (at Cobija) 
are in very worn (breeding) plumage. An adult male shot on March 
27 (at Caldera) is in full annual molt, while birds obtained early in 
April (at Concepcion and Gatico, Antofagasta) are just finishing 
that process. 

C. nigro-fumosus, a very distinct species, is immediately recog- 
nizable among its congeners by its large size, heavy feet and claws, 
extremely dark, mummy brown dorsal surface, narrow and incon- 
spicuous (light buff or pale ochraceous-buff) superciliaries, and fus- 
cous under parts with abruptly defined whitish shaft-streaks on breast 
and upper abdomen. The axillaries and under wing coverts are dark 
brown like the sides, only the carpal edge being light pinkish 
cinnamon. 

The "Churrete" or "Molinero Grande," as this bird is called by 
the Chileans, ranges from Arica south to Concepcion. According to 
Father Housse, it is even found on the Isla La Mocha, off Arauco. 2 
It inhabits exclusively the cliffs along the seashore, where it is a 
resident. In spite of its pronounced specific characters it has fre- 
quently been confused with other species, to which in fact all records 
of "C. nigro-fumosus" from inland localities pertain. 

Landbeck, who misnamed it U. chilensis, writes of its habits as 
follows: "This, the largest species, called Churrete by the natives, 

Besides, the Paris Museum has a fifth d'Orbignyan skin without original 
label. This may be the specimen from Arica. 

2 If Gay extends the range of U. nigro-fumosa to Chilce", this locality most 
probably refers to C. p. chilensis, a species which is there extremely common, 
whereas C. nigro-fumosus has not been found so far south by any of the subsequent 
collectors. 



1932 



BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 



175 



lives on the cliffs of the Pacific Ocean, where it may be seen single or in 
pairs sitting on the rocks or searching for food, which consists of 
small crabs, shrimps, marine worms, and the like. Its song is a loud 
warble reminding one of the European Dipper (Cinclus cinclus)." 
Gay, although part of his notes evidently refers to C. p. chilensis, 
had no doubt the present species in mind when describing the 
nesting habits of U. nigro-fumosa. According to his observations, 
these birds mate in October and place the very carelessly made nest 
among the rocks and steep cliffs. The eggs, three in number, are 
pure white. 

On the Peruvian coast, from Islay to Lima, the present form is 
replaced by C. n. taczanowskii 1 which, notwithstanding its striking 
characters, appears to be nothing more than a strongly marked 
geographical race. 

MEASUREMENTS 
Adult males 

Three from Antofagasta (Gobi j a, Gatico) 
Five from Caldera, Atacama 



One from Concepci6n 

Immature male 
One from Caldera 

Adult females 
Three from Caldera 
One from Papudo, Aconcagua 
One from Concepcion 

Unsexed 

One adult from Iquique, TarapacS 
Two adults from Valparaiso 



Wing 

116,117,117 
113,114,116, 
117,122 
116 

110 



113,113,118 
114 



115 

114,118 



Tail 

86,88,88 
81,85,85, 
88,91 
91 

82 



83,85,86 

88 

87 



89 
82,83 



Bill 

24,24,25 
23,24,24, 
24,25 
24 

22 



23,23^,- 

23 y 2 



23 

24,24 



110. Cinclodes patagonicus chilensis (Lesson) 

Furnarius chilensis Lesson, Man. d'Orn., 2, p. 17, June, 1828 "dans les 
alentours du port Saint- Vincent, au Chile" = Bay of Concepcion; idem, 
Voy. Coquille, Zool., 1, p. 671, April, 1830 St. Vincent, Chile; idem, 
TraitS d'Orn., livr. 4, p. 307, pi. 75, fig. 1, Sept., 1830 Chile. 

Certhia chiliensis Garnot, Voy. Coquille, Zool., 1, p. 599, Nov., 1829 "environs 
de Talcaguana" [ =Talcaguano], Chile. 

Opetiorhynchos rupestris Kittlitz, Mem. Ac. Sci. St. Petersb., (sav. 6tr.), 
1, livr. 2, p. 188, pi. 8, 1830 Chile =San-Tom6, Concepcion (type in 
Leningrad Museum examined); idem, Denkwiird. Reise, 1, p. 117 
El Tome, near Concepcion, and Valparaiso. 

Cinclodes molitor Scott, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 10, p. XLII, 1900 Chile (type in 
British Museum examined); see Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 21, p. 175, 1921 
(crit.). 



'Berlepsch and Stolzmann, P. Z. S. Lond., 1892, p. 381 Chorillos, Dept. Lima. 



176 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Opetiorhynchus patagonicus (not Motacilla patagonica Gmelin) Darwin, p. 
67 part, Chiloe" Island; Tschudi, p. 6 Punta Arena, Chiloe; Hartlaub (3), 
p. 211 Valdivia; Pelzeln (2), p. 58 Chile. 

Upucerthia chilensis Des Murs (2), p. 281 Chile, also Chiloe Archipelago. 

Cinclodes nigrofumosus (not of Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) Bibra, p. 129 
Santiago, Quillota; Germain, p. 310 Chile (breeding habits); E. Reed (2), 
p. 546 Cauquenes, Colchagua; idem (4), p. 202 Chile; Sclater, Ibis, 
1897, p. 38 Hacienda Mansel, s. of Santiago (spec, in British Museum 
examined); Housse (2), p. 144 San Bernardo, Santiago (nesting); Passler 
(3), p. 458 Coronel (breeding habits). 

Cinclodes patagonicus Lesson, Rev. Zool., 3, p. 267, 1840 Chile; Sclater and 
Salvin, Ibis, 1869, p. 283 Ancud, Chiloe"; Ridgway (2), p. 132 Port 
Otway, Gulf of Penas; Lane, p. 37 Hacienda Mansel (Santiago), Corral 
and Rio Bueno (Valdivia); Passler (3), p. 459 south Chile to Valparaiso; 
Bullock (4), p. 177 Angol, Malleco; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 106 Marga- 
Marga, Valparaiso. 

Cinclodes patachonicus Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 324, 338 ChilcS and central 
Chile; idem and Salvin, P. Z. S. Lond., 1878, p. 433 Port Otway. 

Upucerthia nigro-fumosa Des Murs (2), p. 283 part, Chilo6; Philippi (12), 
p. 251 Chile; Landbeck (9), p. 235 Chile (habits); Lataste (1), p. CXV 
Ninhue (Itata), Maule; idem (4), p. XXXIII Caillihue (Vichuquen), 
Curico (spec, in British Museum examined); idem (5), p. LXI Llohue, 
Maule; Waugh and Lataste (1), p. LXXXIV Penaflor, Santiago (spec, 
examined); idem (2), p. CLXX San Alfonso (Quillota), Valparaiso 
(spec, examined). 

Upucerthia patagonica Albert (1), 101, p. 40 part, Chile. 

Cinclodes patagonicus molitor Menegaux and Hellmayr, M4m. Soc. Hist. Nat. 
Autun, 19, p. 60 part, spec, a, d, e, Santiago, Penaflor, San Alfonso, Chile 
(crit.). 

Cinclodes chilensis Reichenow, Journ. Orn., 68, p. 239, 1920 Chile (crit.). 

Cinclodes rupestris Barros (4), p. 144 Nilahue, Curico; idem (5), p. 180 
Cordilleras of Aconcagua. 

Range in Chile. Central and southern provinces, from Acon- 
cagua south to the Gulf of Penas. 

Material collected. Aconcagua: Rio Blanco (alt. circa 5,000 
feet), c? ad., April 17, 1926. R. Barros. Valparaiso: Palmilla, 
La Cruz (alt. 500 feet), two 9 9 ad., Nov. 20, 21, 1924. J. A. Wolff - 
sohn. Linares: Linares, 9 ad., June 26, 1923. C. S. Reed. Con- 
ception: Conception, near coast, c? ad., 9 ad., April 8. Malleco: 
Tolguaca (alt. 3,500 feet), 9 ad., Jan. 19; Lake Malleco (alt. 3,500 
feet), d* ad., 9 ad., Jan. 20. Cautin: Rio Lolen (alt. 3,600 feet), 
Lonquimai Valley, cf ad., Feb. 12; Lake Gualletu6 (alt. 3,800 feet), 
two cf cf juv., Feb. 15, 18. Valdivia: Mafil, <? ad., Feb. 23; Ririi- 
hue, one d" ad., four 9 9 ad., March 9-23. Chilo6 Island: Rio 
Inio, two d" cf imm., Jan. 14, 16; Quellon, three d 1 cf ad., one cf 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 177 

juv., two 9 9 ad., one 9 juv., Dec. 25-Jan. 3. Guaitecas Islands: 
San Pedro Island, d" juv., Jan. 22; Melinka, Ascension Island, three 
cfcf imm., Jan. 30-Feb. 1. Llanquihue: Casa de Richards, Rio 
Nirehuau, 9 ad., Feb. 22. 

Additional specimens. Santiago: Penaflor, cf ad., one (unsexed) 
adult, Jan. 23, March 7, 1894. F. Lataste (Paris and British Museums) ; 
Hacienda Mansel, near Hospital, cf ad., three 9 9 ad., Dec., 1889. 
A. A. Lane (British Museum). Valparaiso: San Alfonso, Quil- 
lota, two 9 9 ad., June 23, 26, 1894. F. Lataste (Paris and British 
Museums). Curico: Caillihue, cf, 9 , Dec. 22-23, 1894. F. Lataste 
(British Museum). Concepcion: San-Tome", adult. H. von Kittlitz 
(type of 0. rupestris; Leningrad Museum). Valdivia: Corral, 9 
ad., Oct. 7, 1890. A. A. Lane (British Museum); Valdivia, <? ad., 
A. von Lossberg (Tring Museum). Llanquihue: Port Otway, d* , 9 , 
adult (unsexed), Jan., Feb., Albatross and Challenger Expeditions 
(U. S. National and British Museums). Chilo6 Island: Ancud, 
9 ad., May 4, 1914. R. H. Beck (American Museum of Natural 
History). "Chile:" d" ad. F. Leybold (type of C. molitor; British 
Museum). 

As we have pointed out in another connection, 1 the earliest name 
of the Chilean "Molinero" is Lesson's F. chilensis based on a speci- 
men collected by the describer at San Vicente, in the Bay of Con- 
cepcion, during the voyage of the "Coquille." Birds from Aconcagua 
south to Concepcion agree very well together, and the type of C. 
molitor, presumably from Santiago Province, likewise belongs to that 
series, which may be regarded as typically representing C. p. chilensis. 
Compared with a fair number from the Straits of Magellan and Cape 
Horn region, they are smaller, darker above, and slightly more 
brownish beneath with the whitish streaks narrower and less ex- 
tended abdominally, while the tips to the lateral rectrices are more 
strongly tinged with cinnamomeous. Birds from Valdivia, Chilce", 
and the Guaitecas Islands, however, are variously intermediate, and 
certain specimens hardly differ in coloration from typical patagonicus. 
A single adult from Port Otway I had actually referred to the latter, 
but two additional examples since examined tend to show that the 
inhabitants of that region are nearer to the northern form, whose 
range would thus seem to extend to the Gulf of Penas, restricting 
that of C. p. patagonicus to the Straits of Magellan and Tierra del 
Fuego. 

1 Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, Part 4, p. 31, footnote b, 1925. 



178 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

The "Molinero" has a wide altitudinal distribution from the 
seacoast up to an elevation of 10,000 feet in the Cordilleras. In 
the lowlands and foothills the bird is a resident, whereas in the 
Andes, according to Barros, it repairs to lower altitudes on the 
approach of the cold season. In the Cordillera of Aconcagua Barros 
found it during the breeding period at various localities (La Lagu- 
nita, Cajon de Castro, etc.) around 10,000 feet above sea level. 
Passler, who mistook it for C. nigro-fumosus, met with it in the river 
valleys and hilly country in the vicinity of Coronel. Sanborn 
obtained both adults in worn breeding plumage and full-grown young 
birds in January and February in the mountainous interior of Mal- 
leco, while Bullock lists it as a resident for the Angol Valley in the 
same province. Germain's notes on the nidification of C. nigrofumosus 
clearly apply to the present species. Various other authors, such 
as Bibra, Edwyn Reed, Sclater, Lataste, Landbeck, and Housse, also 
confused the two birds, and all their records of C. nigro-fumosus from 
inland localities really pertain to C. p. chilensis. 

The "Molinero" prefers the vicinity of water, being found equally 
on the seashore, on river banks, and on the edges of lagoons. It 
breeds from October to January. Its nest, a rather loose structure 
of rootlets and grass, is placed in burrows on steep banks or in holes 
under trees, and contains two or three oval, slightly glossy, white 
eggs. 

MEASUREMENTS 

C. p. chiknsis Adult males Wing Tail Bill 

One from Rio Blanco, Aconcagua 99 80 21 

One [from Santiago?] (type of C. molitor) 1 02 81 22 

One from Concepci6n 100 80 21 

One from Malleco 99 81 21 \i 

One from Cautin 100 78 22 

Three from Valdivia 98,99,102 78,81,82 21,21,22 

Three from Chiloe Island 100,101,102 77,78,78 22,22,22^ 

One from Bariloche, Neuquen 100 80 22 

C. p. chilensis Adult females 

Two from Palmilla, Valparaiso 97,98 79,80 19,21 

One from Linares 99 80 21 

One from Conception 99 82 20 1 A 

Two from Malleco 96,98 77,80 20,22 

Four from Valdivia 95,95,96,101 76,76,77,81 20,20^,21,21 

Three from Chiloe' Island 96,99,101 74,75,80 21,21,22 

One from Bariloche, Neuquen 97 80 21 

C. p. chilensis Unsexed 
One adult from Conception 

(type of O. rupestris) 100 82 21 

C. p. patagonicus Adult males 

Three from Straits of Magellan 104,107,108 81,83,83 22,22,22 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 179 

C. p. patagonicus Adult males Wing Tail Bill 

One from False Cape Horn 105 [76 +x] 23 

Two from Tierra del Fuego 107,108 82,85 23,23 

C. p. patagonicus Adult females 

One from Tierra del Fuego 108 83 23 

C. p. patagonicus Unsexed 

One adult from Port Famine 105 78 22 

111. Cinclodes oustaleti oustaleti Scott 

Cinclodes oustaleti Scott, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 10, p. LXII, 1900 "Central 

Chile," we suggest Valparaiso (type in British Museum examined); 

Menegaux and Hellmayr, Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Autun, 19, p. 61, 1906 

Valparaiso and Santiago (crit.); Barros (4), p. 144 Nilahue, Curico 

(winter); idem (5), p. 181 Cordillera of Aconcagua (breeding) and Llico, 

Curico; idem (11), p. 315 Ojos de Aguila, Prov. Santiago. 

Uppucerthia rupestris (not Opetiorhynchos rupestris Kittlitz) Lafresnaye and 

d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, 1838, p. 21 Valparaiso and Cobija (spec, in Paris 

Museum examined). 

Cillurus patagonicus (not Motacilla patagonica Gmelin) Burmeister, Journ. 

Orn., 8, p. 248, 1860 Caldera, on the seashore (spec, examined). 
Cinclodes fuscus (not Anthus fuscus Vieillot) Salvin (2), 1883, p. 424 part, 
Chilean Cordillera (spec, in British Museum examined); Schalow (2), 
p. 708 part, spec, a, Talcaguano (spec, in Berlin Museum examined). 
Cinclodes patagonicus Oustalet, p. B 65, in text Chile (crit.). 
Range in Chile. From Antofagasta (Cobija) to Chiloe". 
Material collected. Atacama: Caldera, four cfcf ad., six 9 9 
ad., March 21-22, May 4, June 8, Aug. 29, 31. E. E. Gigoux and C. 
C. Sanborn. Coquimbo: Banos del Toro (alt. 10,600 feet), two 
cfcf ad., two 9 9 ad., Nov. 12-17. Concepcion: Concepcion, near 
coast, cf ad., two 9 9 ad., one 9 imm., April 4-8. 

Additional specimens. Atacama: Tofo (60 miles north of 
Coquimbo), 9 ad., May 1, 1917. T. Hallinan (American Museum of 
Natural History). Aconcagua: Cajon del Rio Blanco (alt. 7,000 
feet), c? ad., Oct. 15, 1920. R. Barros (American Museum of 
Natural History). Valparaiso: Valparaiso, two adults, 1830. D'Or- 
bigny (Paris Museum). Santiago: Santiago, 9 ad., 1877. E. C. 
Reed (Paris Museum). Concepcion: Talcaguano, adult, May, 1894. 
L. Plate (Berlin Museum). Cautin: Maquehue, Temuco, cf ad., 
June 5, 1907. D. S. Bullock (American Museum of Natural History). 
Chilo6 Island: Ancud, three cf cf ad., April 1, May 4-7, 1914. 
R. H. Beck (American Museum of Natural History). "Central 
Chile:" four adults and one juv., including the type of C. oustaleti. 
H. Berkeley James Collection (British Museum). "Chilean Cordil- 
lera:" one adult. H. Markham (British Museum). 



180 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

C. oustaleti, while resembling C. p. chilensis in general appearance, 
is nevertheless readily distinguished by its decidedly smaller size, 
slenderer (though not always shorter) bill, silky or buffy white, rarely 
pale grayish-tinged (instead of mostly deep brown) axillaries, less 
distinctly streaked breast, plain buffy or whitish middle of the 
abdomen, and by having the under tail coverts merely apically edged 
or tipped, but never centrally streaked with buffy or whitish. The 
two birds appear to be specifically distinct, R. Barros having found 
them breeding side by side at the same altitude in the Cordilleras of 
Aconcagua. 

On comparing a large series of skins, it cannot be denied that 
birds from the northern provinces (Atacama, Coquimbo, Aconcagua, 
Valparaiso, Santiago) have the upper parts decidedly brown (varying 
from warm sepia to bister) and the sides and under tail coverts 
strongly tinged with rufescent brown, although there is some seasonal 
variation, specimens in breeding plumage being duller and less rufes- 
cent. Birds from Concepcion, Temuco, and Chiloe", on the other 
hand, are much duller, more sooty above, and have less brownish 
suffusion on the flanks. Some of these southern individuals are not 
separable from C. o. hornensis, 1 of the Cape Horn region. An adult 
from Talcaguano, Concepcion (May), however, is as brown-backed 
and rufous-sided as any in our northern series. While there is an 
undeniable tendency to duller coloration in the southern part of the 
range, the distinction does not seem to be constant enough to warrant 
the splitting of C. oustaleti into two races within Chile proper. I 
must even confess that I am a little doubtful as to the validity of 
C. o. hornensis. Two of the four specimens examined are admittedly 
larger than any C. oustaleti from Atacama to Chiloe", but the two 
others differ in neither size nor color from the sooty-backed southern 
birds. Of course, coloration may turn out to be a more important 
factor than size for the discrimination of local races, and in that 
event it may develop that the dull-colored examples from Con- 
cepcion, Temuco, and Chiloe", all of which were taken in winter- 
time, were migrants from the Straits of Magellan and should be 
referred to C. o. hornensis. Without more complete information 
about the migratory movements and a satisfactory series from the 
southern extremity of South America it is useless to attempt 
the solution of the problem. Whatever the status of the southern 
form may be, there is, however, no doubt as to the proper 
applicability of Scott's name, since the type in the British Museuir 

^abbene, Physis, 3, p. 58, March, 1917 Hermit Island, Cape Horn region 



1932 



BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 



181 



agrees precisely with the brown-backed birds from Caldera and 
Coquimbo. 

C. o. oustaleti breeds, according to our present knowledge, in the 
Cordilleras of Coquimbo, Aconcagua, Santiago, and doubtless other 
provinces of central Chile. From the observations of R. Barros it 
results that in spring and summer the birds live at considerable 
altitudes, from 6,500 to 11,000 feet, in the Andes. Early in April 
they descend to the foothills and plains, and do not return to their 
breeding grounds until late in August or early in September. The 
specimens collected by Sanborn in November at Bafios del Toro 
(alt. 10,600 feet), Coquimbo, are in worn plumage and were evidently 
breeding. Birds taken in the lowlands and near the coast from April 
to June are all newly molted. In the Nilahue Valley, Curico, this 
species occurs only as a rather uncommon winter visitor, but it pos- 
sibly breeds on the seashore, for several individuals were noticed 
by Barros at Llico in February. Quite recently, C. o. oustaleti has 
been met with by Wetmore 1 as a regular winter visitant in the 
vicinity of Mendoza, Argentina. 

In the Juan Fernandez Islands occurs a closely allied race, C. o. 
baeckstroemii,* which merely differs by brighter rufous-brown flanks 
and under tail coverts. 



MEASUREMENTS 

C. o. oustaleti Adult males Wing 

Four from Caldera, Atacama 91,92,94,94 

Two from Banos del Toro, Coquimbo 94,95 

One from Aconcagua (Rio Blanco) 88 

One from Conception 92 

One from Maquehue, Cautin 90 

Three from Ancud, Chilo6 89,90,90 

C. o. oustaleti Adult females 
Six from Caldera 

One from Tofo, Atacama 
Two from Banos del Toro 
One from Santiago 
Two from Conception 

C. o. oustaleti Adults unsexed 

Two from Valparaiso 

One (type of C. oustaleti) 

One from Talcaguano, Conception 

C. o. hornensis Adult males 
One from Cape Horn 
One from London Island 



Tail 

66,70,70,73 
68,70 
65 
65 
67 
63,63,64 



Bill 

16,17^,17^,18 
18,20 (!) 

16 ^ 

18 

17 

16,16^,17 



89,90,92, 
92,92,92 
91)4 
90,92 
92 M 
90,90 


67,68,70, 
70,70,72 
69 
65,68 
68 
66,67^ 


17,17,17 J& 
18,18,18 
17K 
18,18 
18 
17,17 



88^,89 
93 



100 
97 



67, 

65 

69 



70 
67 



16,17 
17 



20 



l. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 252, 1926. 
2 L6nnberg in Skottsberg, Nat. Hist. Juan Fernandez and Easter Island, 3, 
p. 4, 1921. 



182 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

C. o. hornensis Adult females Wing Tail Bill 

One from Cape Horn 93 68 19 

C. o. hornensis Adults unsexed 

One from Desolation Island 1 92 68 15^0) 

C. o. baeckstroemii Adults unsexed 

Three from Mas Afuera 85,89,93 64,66,67 17,19, 

1 Type of C. schistaceus Reich. 

112. Ginclodes fuscus fuscus (Vieillot) 

Anthus fuscus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 26, p. 490, 1818 

based on Azara, No. 147, plains of Montevideo and Buenos Aires, also 

"Paraguay." 
Cillurus minor Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., 2, p. 24, 1859 Araucana, 

Chile (type in Heine collection, Halberstadt, examined). 
Opetiorhynchos (us) vulgaris Fraser (1), p. Ill Chile; Hartlaub (3), p. 211 

Valdivia; Pelzeln (2), p. 58 Chile. 

Opetiorhynchus rupestris (not of Kittlitz) Bibra, p. 129 Valparaiso. 
Upucerthia vulgaris Des Murs (2), p. 282 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 251 Chile; 

Landbeck (9), p. 236 part, Chile (habits); Waugh and Lataste (1), p. 

LXXXIV Penaflor, Santiago: idem (2), p. CLXX San Alfonso (Quil- 

lota), Valparaiso; Albert (1), 101, p. 34 Chile. 
Cinclodes vulgaris Cassin, p. 187 Chile. 
Cinclodes minor Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 324, 338 Chile; Reichenow, Journ. 

Orn., 68, p. 240, 1920 Chile (crit.). 
Cinclodes fuscus E. Reed (2), p. 546 Cauquenes, Colchagua; Sharpe, p. 8 

Coquimbo; Salvin (2), p. 424 part, Coquimbo; Oustalet, p. B 63 Tal- 

caguano; E. Reed (4), p. 202 Chile; M&iegaux and Hellmayr, Mem. 

Soc. Hist. Nat. Autun, 19, p. 62 San Alfonso (Quillota) and Talcaguano 

(crit.); Passler (3), p. 459 Coronel; Housse (1), p. 49 Isla La Mocha, 

Arauco; idem (2), p. 144 San Bernardo, Santiago; Bullock (4), p. 176 

Angol, Malleco. 
Cinclodes fuscus fuscus Barros (4), p. 143 Nilahue, Curico; idem (5), p. 180 

Cordillera of Aconcagua; idem (11), p. 315 Ojos de Aguila, Prov. Santiago. 

Range in Chile. From Atacama (Caldera) to the Straits of 
Magellan. 

Material collected. Atacama: Caldera, cf ad., May 21, 1924. 
E. E. Gigoux. Coquimbo: Romero, 9 ad., July 24, 1923. O'Hig- 
gins: San Francisco, 9 ad., May, 1923. E. C. Reed. Concepcion: 
Hacienda Gualpencillo, cf ad., 9 ad., April 3, 6; near coast, 9 ad., 
April 4. C. C. Sanborn; Concepcion, 9 ad., May 17, 1905. C. S. 
Reed. Cautin: Lake Gualletue* (alt. 3,800 feet), four cfcf ad., 
one c? imm., four 9 9 ad. and imm., Feb. 4-20. Llanquihue: 
Casa de Richards, Rio 5firehuau, two cf cf ad., two 9 9 ad., Feb. 
28, March 17. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 183 

Additional specimens. Atacama: Tofo (sixty miles north of 
Coquimbo), 9 ad., Sept. 17, 1916. T. Hallinan (American Museum 
of Natural History). Santiago: vicinity of Santiago, two cfc? 1 ad., 
one 9 ad., July, 1864. R. A. Philippi (U. S. National Museum). 
Concepcion: Talcaguano, two adults. Voyage of the "Astrolabe" 
and "ZeleV (Paris Museum). "Araucana:" cf ad., type of C. 
minor (Heine Collection, Halberstadt). Valdivia: Valdivia, cf ad. 
A. von Lossberg (Berlepsch Collection, Frankfort Museum). 
Llanquihue: Casapangue, cf ad., 9 ad., Nov. 25, 1907. Adolph 
Lendl (Berlepsch Collection, Frankfort Museum). "Chile:" one 
adult. Segeth (Berlin Museum). 

Comparison of this series with fifty Argentine skins seems to 
indicate that C. minor, based on a single bird from Arauco, is in- 
separable. The type is indeed more rufescent brown above, and has 
the rump and upper tail coverts more brownish, less ashy, than the 
general run of C. /. fuscus, while the under parts are unusually bright 
brownish buff, approaching clay-color. One of our Concepcion birds 
(No. 61,189, 9 ad., April 4, 1923) is essentially similar, and two from 
Lake Gualletue", Cautin, come very close, as far as the intensity of 
the ventral surface is concerned. Certain specimens from Argentina, 
notably one from Tucuman (Concepcion) and another from Conchitas 
(Buenos Aires) are, however, just as deeply colored underneath. 
Two other examples from Concepcion and the majority from Cautin 
are a slight shade more rufescent above than Argentine birds, while 
below there is complete agreement between the two series. The 
variation appears too insignificant to maintain the distinctness of the 
Chilean form. It may be mentioned that the birds from Llanquihue 
(Casapangue and Rio Nirehuau) are wholly typical of fuscus, even 
if C. /. minor be deemed worthy of recognition. The three skins 
from the extreme northern part of the range (Coquimbo and Ata- 
cama) show no approach to C. /. albiventris, of Antofagasta and 
northwards. An adult bird from an unknown Chilean locality in the 
Berlin Museum, described by Reichenow as C. minor, is an exact 
intermediate between the two forms, combining the rufous-brown 
upper parts of albiventris with the wholly cinnamomeous wing-band 
and the brownish buff under side of fuscus. 

The "Churrete" is widely diffused throughout Chile from Atacama 
to the Straits of Magellan. In the northern parts of this extensive 
range it apparently breeds only in the mountains. Barros found it in 
the valley of Nilahue, Curico, only as a winter visitor from May to 
October, and the same is the case in Angol, Malleco, according to 



184 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Bullock. 1 In the Cordillera of Aconcagua the birds arrive on their 
nesting grounds, which lie between 6,000 and 11,000 feet of elevation, 
in October and stay there until the end of April, when they repair 
to the foothills and coastal plains for the winter. From the vicinity 
of Lake Gualletue" (alt. 3,800 feet), we received a series of adults just 
finishing their annual molt and several young birds in fresh plumage, 
a fact which, together with the date of capture (February), speaks 
for their nesting in the region. Waugh and Lataste collected speci- 
mens in January and February at Penaflor, on the Rio Mapocho, 
Prov. Santiago, which may have been breeding. 

113. Cinclodes f uscus albiventris (Philippi and Landbeck) 

Upucerthia albiventris Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 18, (1), p. 

731, June, 1861 "vicinity of Arica," i. e. Cordillera of Tacna; idem, Arch. 

Naturg., 27, (1), p. 290, 1861 same locality; Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 158 

"Atacama, Copacolla" [=Copacoya, Antof agasta] ; idem (24), p. 27, 

pi. 14, fig. 2 "vicinity of Arica." 
Cinclodes fuscus (not Anthusfuscus Vieillot) Sclater (4), 1886, p. 398 Chumisa, 

Cueva Negra, and Sacaya, Tarapaca; idem (6), 1891, p. 134 Sacaya; 

idem, Ibis, 1897, p. 38 Sacaya. 
Upucerthia bifasciata (!) Albert (1), 101, p. 43 "Atacama" to Tarapaca (part, 

var. albiventris). 
Cinclodes rivularis (not of Cabanis) Allen, p. 88 "Valparaiso," probably 

northern Chile. 

Range in Chile. Puna Zone of Antof agasta, Tarapaca, and 
Tacna. 

Material collected. Tacna: AlceYreca (alt. 10,000 feet), 9 ad., 
June 17; Putre (alt. 11,600 feet), two o* d* ad., two 9 9 ad., June 
18, 19, July 8; Choquelimpie (alt. 15,000 feet), d 1 ad., 9 ad., June 21, 
23; Chungara (alt. 15,150 feet), d" ad., June 25. Antofagasta: 
Rio Loa (alt. 7,500 feet), d 1 ad., Sept. 11; San Pedro (alt. 10,500 
feet), 9 ad., April 23; Ojo de San Pedro (alt. 12,400 feet), 9 ad., 
May 2; twenty miles east of San Pedro (alt. 12,600 feet), 9 ad., 
Oct. 2; Silala (alt. 14,160 feet), Bolivian (Potosi) boundary, 9 ad., 
April 26. 

Further study of this group leads to the conclusion that the 
arrangement as set forth in our "Catalogue of Birds of the Ameri- 
cas" 2 needs considerable modification. There are indeed two races 

Gassier (Journ. Orn., 70, p. 459, 1922) claims to have found the nest of the 
present species at Coronel, Bay of Conception, but he probably made a mistake 
in identifying the parent birds. He seems to be pretty confused regarding the 
various species of Cinclodes. His notes on the nesting habits of C. nigro-fumosus, 
for instance, unquestionably refer to C. p. chilensis. 

3 Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, Part 4, pp. 36-38, 1925. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 185 

of the bird long known under the name of C. rivularis, but their 
limits and ranges have to be readjusted in accordance with the new 
material now available. Comparison of fifteen specimens from 
northwestern Argentina (C. /. tucumanus) with our fine topotypical 
series of albiventris shows conclusively that there is no difference 
whatever between these two alleged forms. The upper parts are 
the same shade, varying from cinnamon-brown to Prout's brown; 
the wing band is buffy white (nearly pure white in worn plumage), 
deepening into ochraceous-buff on the secondaries; the sides are 
strongly washed with fulvous, sometimes approaching clay-color. 

A single bird from Potosi is an exact duplicate of the Putre 
series, and it would thus seem that C. f. albiventris ranges from 
northern Chile all over western and southern Bolivia to northwestern 
Argentina (Salta and Tucuman). 

Birds from southern Peru (Junin and Puno) are somewhat darker, 
less rufescent above with the wing band whiter, and have the sides 
of the body less extensively washed with a paler buffy brown. They 
may be distinguished as C. f. rivularis (Cabanis). The variation in 
the color of the dorsal surface is carried to the extreme in birds from 
northern Peru, which Zimmer 1 separates under the name of C. /. 
longipennis. 

C. f. albiventris differs at a glance from C. f. fuscus, of the more 
southern parts of Chile, by decidedly rufescent brown upper parts, 
brightest on the rump (grayish in fuscus), dark brown (not grayish 
brown) central tail feathers, much paler and more or less bicolored 
(instead of uniform cinnamomeous) wing band, and much more 
whitish lower surface. 

It replaces the typical race in the Puna Zone of the three northern 
provinces of Chile, its altitudinal range extending from 7,500 to 

15,000 feet. 

MEASUREMENTS 

Adult males Wing Tail Bill 

Four from Tacna 94,94,98,100 66,70,73,75 17,17,17,17% 

Two from Antofagasta 92+x,96 68,70 17,19 

One from Potosi, Bolivia 96 67 17 

Two from Tan, Tucuman 98,101 73,73 17 

Two from Las Pavas, Tucuman 96,98 66,71 18,18 

Adult females 

Four from Tacna 90,93,95,98 68,70,72,76 

Two from Antofagasta 91,94 70,71 16,16 

One from Tan, Tucuman 95 75 11 Y 2 

One from Las Pavas, Tucuman 95 70 18 

Three from Cachi, Salta 95,96,98 69,72,72 16,16,16^ 

1 Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 17, p. 339, 1930. 



186 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 
114. Cinclodes atacamensis atacamensis (Philippi) 

Upucerthia atacamensis Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 14, p. 181, 1857 near 
San Pedro de Atacama, Antofagasta; idem, Arch. Naturg., 23, (1), p. 
263, 1857 same locality; idem, Reise Wiiste Atacama, p. 162, Zool., pi. 3, 
1860 same locality; idem (12), p. 251 same locality; idem, Ornis, 4, p. 
158 "Atacama, Copacolla" [=Copacoya, Antofagasta]; idem (24), p. 26, 
pi. 13, fig. 1 "Atacama." 

Cinclodes bifasciatus Pelzeln (2), p. 58 "Chile"; Sclater (4), 1886, p. 398 
Chumisa, Sacaya, and Sibaya, Tarapaca; idem (6), 1891, p. 134 Sacaya; 
Lane, p. 38 Sacaya; E. Reed (4), p. 202 "Atacama" and Tarapaca; 
Reichenow, Journ. Orn., 68, p. 238, 1920 Calama, Chile. 

Upucerthia bifasciata Albert (1), 101, p. 43 "Atacama" to Tarapacd (in part). 

Range in Chile. Puna Zone, in provinces of Antofagdsta, Tara- 
paca, and Tacna. 

Material collected. Tacna: Putre (alt. 11,600 feet), 9 ad., June 
18. Antofagasta: Rio Loa (alt. 7,500 feet), 9 ad., April 19; San 
Pedro (alt. 10,500 feet), d 1 ad., Oct. 1; twenty miles east of San 
Pedro (alt. 12,600 feet), d" ad., Oct. 6; Silala (alt. 14,160 feet), 
Bolivian (Potosi) boundary, d" ad., 9 ad., April 26. 

Additional specimens. Antofagasta: Calama (alt. circa 7,000 
feet), d 1 ad. (in annual molt), March 1, 1847. Professor Behn (Berlin 
Museum). 

This fine species is easily distinguished from C. /. albiventris, 
which has the same range in northern Chile, by its much larger size, 
much heavier bill, entirely white wing band, white (instead of buff) 
superciliaries, shorter white (not cinnamon-rufous) tips to the lateral 
rectrices, and by having a conspicuous white patch on the primary 
coverts. It is hard to understand how Albert could treat it as a 
mere variety of C. /. albiventris. 

The specimens from Antofagasta (topotypical of U. atacamensis) 
are nowise different from others taken in Bolivia and Argentina 
(Mendoza and Jujuy). C. bifasciatus Sclater, thus, becomes a 
synonym of Philippi's earlier term. 

Like the preceding species, C. atacamensis is an inhabitant of the 
Puna Zone, from 7,000 feet upwards. Lane found it plentiful 
throughout the valley of Sacaya, Tarapaca, especially on rocky 
slopes bordering water. Its note is very peculiar, being a loud 
screech, followed by a repeated chatter on a lower key. It feeds 
on insects on the banks and margins of streams and is seldom found 
very far from water. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 187 

MEASUREMENTS 

Adult males Wing Tail Bill 

Four from Antofagasta 108,110,112,115 80,80,82,86 21J^,23,23, 

Two from Antofagasta 107,109 82,84 22,22 

One from Putre, Tacna 110 83 23 

115. Chilia melanura melanura (G. R. Gray) 

Enicornis melanura G. R. Gray in Gray and Mitchell, Genera of Birds, 1, 

p. 133, pi. 41, 1846 locality not stated (the type examined in the British 

Museum is from Chile); Menegaux and Hellmayr, Me'm. Soc. Hist. Nat. 

Autun, 19, p. 64, 1906 Santiago. 
Upucerthia phoenicura (not Eremobius phoenicurus Gould) Des Murs (2), 

p. 280 "eastern slope of the Cordilleras between Santiago and Mendoza" 

(descr. and range in part); Philippi (12), p. 250 high Cordillera of the 

central provinces (excl. Patagonia). 
Ericornis melanura Cassin, p. 88, pi. 21, fig. 1 Chile. 1 
Henicornis gouldi Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., 2, p. 24, 1859 "Patagonia" 

(the type examined in the Heine Collection at Halberstadt is a Chilean 

trade-skin); Pelzeln (2), p. 59 Chile. 
Henicornis melanura Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 15, p. 27, 1890 Cordillera 

of Santiago; E. Reed (4), p. 202 "southern Chile" (excl. Patagonia). 
Henicornis phaenicura Albert (1), 101, p. 48 part, "southern" and central 

Chile. 

Chilia melanura Salvador!, Ibis, 1908, p. 454 Chile (crit., synon.). 
Henicornis (Chilia) melanura Barros (5), p. 181 Cordillera of Aconcagua 

(habits). 
Chilia melanura melanura Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, 

Part 4, p. 52, 1925 Lliu-Lliu, above Limache, Valparaiso (monog.). 

Range in Chile. Confined to the Cordilleras of the central 
provinces (Valparaiso, Santiago, and Aconcagua). 

Material collected. Valparaiso: Lliu-Lliu (alt. 4,800 feet), above 
Limache, c? ad., Oct. 29, 1924. J. A. Wolffsohn. 

Additional specimens. Santiago: vicinity of Santiago (Cordil- 
lera), d" ad., 9 ad., June, July, 1865. R. A. Philippi (U. S. National 
Museum); Cordillera of Santiago, adult. E. C. Reed (British 
Museum); Santiago, d" imm., 9 ad. (Paris Museum). "Chile:" 
five adults (unsexed), including the type of E. melanura (British 
Museum). "Central Chile:" three adults. H. Berkeley James 
Collection (British Museum). "Patagonia:" d" juv., type of H. 
gouldi (Heine Collection, Halberstadt). 

The series shows but little variation in coloration. The bird 
from Lliu-Lliu is much the darkest, having the crown and mantle 



plate looks almost like C. m. atacamae, but the specimen in the U. S. 
National Museum, though much soiled and bleached, seems to belong to the 
typical race. 



188 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

bister, and the rump, tail coverts, and base of the rectrices nearly 
chestnut. Only one specimen (from the Cordillera of Santiago) 
approaches C. m. atacamae in the grayish tinge of the breast. Young 
birds are paler throughout, have the breast-feathers obsoletely 
spotted with whitish and apically edged with dusky, and the bill 
shorter with the lower mandible for the greater part wax yellow. 

The "Garganta blanca" is one of the least-known Chilean birds. 
The earlier authors confused it with Enicornis phoenicura, which is 
restricted to the plains of Patagonia, until its characters were clearly 
set forth by Cassin. Its range appears to be limited to the Cordilleras 
of central Chile. A good many specimens have been secured in the 
Cordilleras of Santiago, and J. A. Wolffsohn shot an adult female 
(in very fresh plumage) at Lliu-Lliu, in a mountain range southeast 
of Limache, Prov. Valparaiso, at an altitude of 4,800 feet above 
sea level. R. Barros found it fairly common in the Cordilleras of 
Aconcagua on brushy hill slopes from 1,600 to 2,000 meters, espe- 
ciajly in winter. It is more or less resident, though some individuals 
descend to the pre-cordillera on the approach of the severe season; 
around Los Andes (alt. 830 meters) they may be seen throughout 
the year. Gay's statement apparently based on Darwin's record l 
of E. phoenicura that it occurs on the eastern slope of the Andes 
between Santiago and Mendoza certainly refers to some other 
species, while Edwyn Reed's and Albert's habitat "southern Chile" 
is an obvious error. 

According to Barros, this bird inhabits the declivities and slopes 
of the mountains, preferring the drier and stony parts. It is of a 
secretive nature, searching its food among the bushes and thickets. 
Its flight is short, low, and tardy. The stomachs examined by 
R. Barros contained (besides a quantity of small stones) seeds, 
insects, and vegetable matter. Nothing definite is known about its 
nidification, though Barros remarks that it resembles Cinclodes in 
selecting crevices and holes for its nest. 

116. Ghilia melanura atacamae Hellmayr 

Chilia melanura atacamae Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, 
Part 4, p. 53, 1925 Domeyko, Atacama. 

Range in Chile. Only known from Domeyko, Prov. Atacama. 

Material collected. Atacama: Domeyko (63 km. south of Valle- 
nar), three cf cf ad., one 9 ad., Aug. 11-15, 1923. 

1 Zool. Beagle, 3, p. 70. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 189 

This very interesting form, which by its characters reflects the 
arid nature of its habitat, differs from the typical race at a glance 
by much paler coloration. The pileum and back are drab (instead 
of varying from snuff brown to bister), the former with a grayish 
cast; the rump, upper and under tail coverts, the base of the tail, 
the outer web of the outermost rectrix, and the wing band hazel 
rather than chestnut; the upper wing coverts mostly drab, edged 
with cinnamon-drab, instead of dusky, margined with snuff -brown; 
the superciliaries more purely white and better defined; the breast 
decidedly paler and more grayish, though similarly marked with 
whitish. Besides, the bill is slenderer and slightly shorter. 

Four specimens in slightly worn plumage were taken by Sanborn 
on brushy hill slopes just outside the village of Domeyko at an ele- 
vation of about 2,500 feet. 

This strongly-marked race replaces C. m. melanura in the moun- 
tains of Atacama, and will doubtless also be found in the adjacent 
province of Coquimbo. More information about its distribution 
is much desired. 

MEASUREMENTS 

C. melanura melanura Wing Tail Bill 

One adult male from Santiago 80 80 23 

One adult female from Santiago 79 79 25 

One adult female from Lliu-Lliu (Valparaiso) 81 77 24 

Type of C. melanura 82 81 23 Yz 

C. melanura atacamae 

Three adult males from Domeyko, Atacama 81,82,85 77,79,84 22,23, 

One adult female from Domeyko, Atacama 80 77 22 

117. Sylviorthorhynchus desmurii Gay 

Sylviorthorhynchus desmurii 1 Gay, Hist. fis. pol. Chile, Atlas Zool., Orn., pi. 
3, 1847 Chile; 2 Des Murs (2), p. 316 Province of Valdivia, particularly 
in the vicinity of Corral; idem, Icon. Orn., livr. 8, 1. 6, 1847 Chile; 
Pelzeln (2), pp. 59, 163 Chiloe' Island; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 324, 338 
Chile; Philippi (12), p. 256 Valdivia to Colchagua; E. Reed (2), p. 547 
Cauquenes, Colchagua; Landbeck (9), p. 241 Chilo6 to Colchagua 
(habits); E. Reed (4), p. 202 Chiloe", also near Valparaiso; Lane, p. 39 
southern Chile (habits); Albert (1), 101, p. 54 Patagonia to Colchagua; 
Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 46 Gray's Harbor, Mesier Channel; Me'ne'gaux and 
Hellmayr, Me"m. Soc. Hist. Nat. Autun, 19, p. 65, 1906 Chile (type in 
Paris Museum); Housse (1), p. 48 Isla La Mocha, Arauco; Passler (3), 

1 Variously spelt desmurii, desmursi, and desmursii. 

2 The plate published in the Zoological Atlas of the "Histqria flsica y politica 
de Chile" appears to have slight priority over Des Murs's description and figure in 
the "Iconographie Ornithologique." Generic and specific name should, therefore, 
be credited to Gay. 



190 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

p. 460 Coronel (breeding habits); Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 106 Marga- 
Marga, Valparaiso; Bullock (4), p. 176 Angol, Malleco; Barros (9b), 
p. 161 Llico, coast of Curico (April). 

Sylviorthorhynchus maluroides Des Murs, Icon. Orn., livr. 8, pi. 45, 1847 
Chile; Hartlaub (3), p. 211 Valdivia (crit.). 

Silviorthrorhynchus desmurii Boeck, p. 501 Valdivia. 

Range in Chile. From Valparaiso to the Magellan Territory 
(Gray's Harbor, Mesier Channel, and Smyth's Channel). 

Material collected. Concepcion: Hacienda Gualpencillo, three 
<?<? ad., March 27, April 20, 21. Malleco: Curacautin, cf ad., 
9 ad., d* juv., Jan. 13-14. Valdivia: Mafil, one d" ad., four cf cf 
juv., Feb. 17-26. Chiloe" Island: Quellon, two 9 9 ad. (in full 
molt), Dec. 20, Jan. 1. Guaitecas Islands: Melinka, Ascension 
Island, cf juv., Feb. 4. Llanquihue: Rio Aisen, d 31 ad., 9 ad., 
April 2. 

I cannot discover any constant difference between specimens from 
Concepcion and those from more southern localities. There is much 
individual variation in the coloration of the under parts, some being 
bright fulvous buff, while others are much duller, a brownish dark 
olive-buff. Many have a distinct white area in the middle of the 
abdomen, which is altogether missing in others. 

Birds in juvenile plumage lack the bright rufous frontal patch 
and have the feathers of the anterior under parts more or less freckled 
and margined with dusky. 

The "Colilarga" is chiefly a denizen of the southern provinces, 
being particularly abundant in Valdivia Province and on Chilce* 
Island. Bullock lists it as a fairly common resident in the Angol 
Valley, Malleco. The most northerly breeding record is from 
Coronel, Concepcion, where, according to Passler, it is rather rare. 
Farther north, it is merely a winter visitor. Landbeck gives its 
range as extending north to Colchagua, but Edwyn Reed states that 
the "Colilarga" is far from being plentiful around Cauquenes in that 
province. The same naturalist tells us that it sometimes occurs even 
in the ravines near Valparaiso, a statement that has recently been 
corroborated by Jaffuel and Pirion, who include it as a rare visitant 
in the fauna of the valley of Marga-Marga. Barros recently shot a 
specimen near Llico, Curico, in April, 1927. 

According to Landbeck, these peculiar birds are particularly fond 
of beech woods, but other observers mention the quila thickets as their 
favorite haunts. As we are told by Lane, they frequent the densest 
undergrowth and are rarely seen, as they are very retiring by nature. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 191 

They have a somewhat shrill piping note, heard more frequently 
at sunset and kept up continuously in the same key. Their food 
mostly consists of small insects. They breed from October to Janu- 
ary. The roundish nest is made of dry leaves, lined inside with soft 
grasses and feathers, and provided with a lateral entrance-hole. It 
is usually placed in bushes from three to six feet above the ground, 
and contains two to four dull white eggs with smooth shell. 



[Sylmorthorhynchus fasciolatus F. Philippi (Bol. Mus. Nac. Chile, 
1, No. 3, p. 65, 1909 Valdivia) was shown by Gigoux and Looser 
(Bol. Mus. Nac. Santiago, 13, p. 15, 1930) to have been based on 
an artifact, made up from the body of the Chilean Marsh-wren 
(Cistothorus platensis hornensis) and the tail of Sylmorthorhynchus 
desmurii Gay.] 

118. Aphrastura spinicauda spinicauda (Gmelin) 

Moiacilla spinicauda Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 978, 1789 based on 

"Thorn-tailed Warbler" Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., 2, (2), p. 463, No. 71, 

pi. 52, Tierra del Fuego. 
Synallaxis tupinieri Lesson, Man. d'Orn., 1, p. 281, 1828 Prov. Conception, 

Chile; idem, Voy. Coquille, Zool., 1, livr. 10, pi. 29, fig. 1, April, 1829; 

livr. 15, p. 665, April, 1830 Concepci6n. 

Oxyurus ornatus Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 324, Dec., 1837 Chile. 
Oxiurus patagonicus Lesson, Rev. Zool., 5, p. 135 Chiloe Island (new name 

for Motacilla spinicauda Gmelin). 
Oxyurus tupinieri Darwin, p. 81 part, west coast as far north as a degree 

south of Valparaiso. 
Synallaxis spinicauda Fraser (1), p. 112 Chile; Des Murs (2), p. 292 Chile; 

Philippi (12), p. 253 Chile; Landbeck (9), p. 237 Chile (habits); Lataste 

(1), p. CXV Ninhue (Itata), Maule; Waugh and Lataste (2), p. CLXX 

San Alfonso (Quillota), Valparaiso. 
Oxyurus spinicauda (us) Hartlaub (3), p. 211 Valdivia; Sclater (2), 1867, 

pp. 324, 338 Chile; Pelzeln (2), p. 59 Chile; Sclater and Salvin (3), 

1878, p. 433 Port Otway; E. Reed (2), p. 547 Cauquenes, Colchagua; 

Ridgway (2), p. 132 Port Otway; E. Reed (4), p. 202 central provinces; 

Lane, p. 38 Maquegua, Arauco; Albert (1), 101, p. 50 part, Chile; 

Housse (1), p. 48 Isla La Mocha, Arauco; idem (2), p. 144 Dept. 

Maipo and San Bernardo, Santiago; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 106 Marga- 

Marga, Valparaiso; Bullock (3), p. 124 Nahuelbuta, Malleco; idem (4), 

p. 176 Angol, Malleco. 
Aphrastura spinicauda Passler (2), p. 29 Coronel (nest and egg descr.); 

idem (3), p. 459 Coronel, Conception (habits); Barros (4), p. 144 

Nilahue, Curico; idem (6), p. 34 hacienda de Huelquen, near Paine, 

Prov. O'Higgins (October); idem (10), p. 357 Aconcagua. 



192 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Range in Chile. From Aconcagua to the Straits of Magellan, 
including the Guaitecas Islands, but not on Chiloe" Island. 

Material collected. Maule: Pilen Alto (eight miles west of 
Cauquenes), 9 ad., May 10. Malleco: Curacautin, two cf rf 1 ad., 
one 9 ad., one 9 juv., Jan. 10-13. Cautin: Villa Portales (alt. 
3,300 feet), three d* cf ad., Feb. 29, March 1; Rio Lolen (alt. 3,600 
feet), Lonquimai Valley, d* ad. (in full molt), Feb. 11. Valdivia: 
Mafil, five rfcf, two 9 9 ad., Feb. 16-28. Guaitecas Islands: 
Melinka, Ascension Island, d" ad., Jan. 31. Llanquihue: Casa 
de Richards, Rio Nirehuau, three d 1 d 1 ad., Feb. 18, March 1, 8. 

Having had the opportunity of examining a fair series from Tierra 
del Fuego, I am unable to maintain the tentatively suggested Chilean 
race as distinct. Neither of the characters claimed by Oustalet 1 
for the southern birds holds good, when specimens in corresponding 
plumage are compared. The single example from Ascension Island 
in the Guaitecas group is perfectly similar to mainland birds, and does 
not show any approach to the ochreous-bellied Chiloe" form. 

A. masafuerae (Philippi), of Mas Afuera, seems too different to be 
subspecifically associated. 

The "Rayadito" is a characteristic bird of the southern forests. 
Bullock lists it as a common resident for the Angol Valley, Malleco, 
and its breeding range extends at least to Conception, where several 
nests were found by Passler. Whether the records from farther 
north refer to breeding birds or migratory individuals is uncertain. 
In the Nilahue Valley, Curico, Barros tells us, it is merely a winter 
visitor, arriving from the south in April and departing again in 
August and September. Lataste shot specimens in the third week 
of the latter month at Ninhue, Maule, and others in June at San 
Alfonso, Valparaiso, all of which might have been on migration. 
Other records from Colchagua (Edwyn Reed), O'Higgins (Barros), 
Santiago (Housse), and Valparaiso (Jaffuel and Pirion) are not 
conclusive either. In Aconcagua, Barros tells us, it is a very rare 
migratory visitant. 

These birds are said to feed like tits, and to have a piping call- 
note, also some chattering and twittering utterances, which are 
frequently heard. Sometimes large flocks are seen in the forest 
feeding low down and often on the ground, searching amongst dead 
leaves or decayed wood for insects; as a rule, the birds are, however, 
arboreal. According to Passler, they have two broods, one about 
mid-October, the second two months later. Nests were found in 

1 Miss. Scient. Cap Horn, Zool., 6, p. B 69, 1891. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 193 

holes of trees, more frequently in thickets where dead leaves had 
accumulated. The nest is a loose structure of roundish or cylindric 
shape, and contains two or three 1 smooth, dull white eggs. 

119. Aphrastura spinicauda f ulva Angelini 

Aphrastura fulva Angelini, Boll. Soc. Zool. Ital., (2), 6, p. 277, 1905 Ancud, 
Chiloe" Island; idem, 1. c., (2), 7, p. 96, 1906 Chilo6 (crit.). 

Oxyurus tupinierl (not Synallaxis tupinieri Lesson) Darwin, p. 81 part, 
ChiloS Island. 

Range. Confined to Chiloe" Island. 

Material collected. Chiloe" Island: Quellon, four cfcf ad., one 
d" juv., six 9 9 ad., Dec. 20-Jan. 5. 

The series differs from A. s. spinicauda, by having the entire under 
parts, including the cheeks and malar region, deep ochraceous, only 
the chin and upper throat being sometimes buffy whitish. The 
wide superciliaries are, as a rule, somewhat deeper ochraceous than 
in the typical race, and the back is on average more rufescent. 

The juvenile plumage, like the corresponding stage of spinicauda, 
has a number of narrow dusky cross-bars on the back and a few 
similar, though more obsolete, markings on the foreneck and sides; 
the under parts are, however, just as deeply ochraceous as in the 
adults. 

All of our specimens are molting, and, while some have already 
renewed the flight-quills, others still wear part of the abraded 
breeding plumage. 

A.s. fulva is the only endemic form of Chiloe" Island. Its peculiarly 
restricted range offers a singular problem in distribution. 

MEASUREMENTS 

A. s. spinicauda Adult males Wing Tail Bill 

One from Ascension, Guaitecas Islands 59 % 76 13 

Three from Llanquihue 59,62,62 73,78,79 11*412,12 

Five from Valdivia 54,56,58, 70,70,75, 

58^,60 76, 12,12 
A. s. spinicauda Adult females 

One from Valdivia 57 69 

One from Malleco 56 77 11 H 

One from Maule 58 80 11 

A . s. fulva Adult males 

Two from ChiloS 59,59 74,74 11,11 

A. s. fulva Adult females 

Two from Chiloe 56,57 71,76 11,12 

According to Bullock, the clutch consists of from four to six eggs. 



194 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

120. Phleocryptes melanops melanops (Vieillot) 

Sylvia melanops Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 11, p. 232, 1817 
based on Azara, No. 232, Paraguay; Housse (2), p. 144 San Bernardo, 
Santiago. 

Oxyurus melanops Fraser (1), p. 112 Chile. 

Synallaxis melanops Des Murs (2), p. 293 Chile (ex Bridges); Pelzeln (2), p. 
59 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 253 Chile; Landbeck (9), p. 238 Chile 
(habits). 
Synallaxis dorsomaculata Cassin, p. 188 interior of Chile; Germain, p. 310 

Prov. Santiago (breeding habits). 

Phleocryptes 1 melanops Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 324, 338 Chile; E. Reed (2), 
p. 547 Cauquenes, Colchagua; idem (4), p. 202 central provinces; 
Schalow (2), p. 706 Lake Llanquihue (eggs descr.); Albert (1), 101, 
p. 231 Chile (monog.); Barros (4), p. 144 Nilahue, Curico; Jaffuel and 
Pirion, p. 107 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso. 
Synallaxis (Phloeocryptes) melanops Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 91, p. 669 

Chile; idem (24), p. 34, pi. 15, fig. 2 Chile. 
Synallaxis montana Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 91, for Dec., 1895, p. 673, 1896 

Chile; idem (24), p. 33, pi. 15, fig. 1 Chile. 

Phloeocryptes m. melanops Passler (3), p. 460 Coronel (nesting habits). 
Range in Chile. Central and southern provinces, from Val- 
paraiso to Llanquihue. 

Material examined. Santiago: Vicinity of Santiago, 9 ad., 
July, 1865. R. A. Philippi (U. S. National Museum); cf ad., no 
date. R. A. Philippi (Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge). 
Valdivia: Valdivia, rf 1 ad., Dec., 1924. F. Ohde (Munich Mu- 
seum). Chile (unspecified): 9 ad., two (unsexed) adults. J. M. 
Gilliss and E. C. Reed (U. S. National Museum). 

The few Chilean specimens, which we have been able to examine, 
are not different from a large series of Argentine and Uruguayan 
skins. S. montana was evidently based on worn examples lacking 
the median rectrices. 

The "Trabajador" is a widely distributed resident in central 
and southern Chile, but owing to its secretive habits is often over- 
looked. There are various breeding records from Santiago, Col- 
chagua, Curico, Conception, and Llanquihue. It inhabits the 
reed-thickets and rush-beds around the borders of lagoons, marshy 
meadows, and similar wet places. According to Hudson, its language 
is peculiar, this being a long cicada-like note, followed by a series of 
sounds like smart taps on a piece of dry wood. It is often found in 
company of the Many-colored Tyrant (Tachuris r. rubrigastra), and, 

1 Frequently spelt "Phloeocryptes." 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 195 

like this little neighbor, it is an expert nest-builder. The nest is a won- 
derful structure, and is usually attached to three upright stems; it 
is domed, oval-shaped, about nine inches deep, and the small circular 
aperture, which is close to the top, is protected by a sloping tile-like 
projection. It is built of tough grass-leaves, which are first daubed 
with wet clay and then ingeniously woven in, and the interior is 
thickly lined with feathers. The three (seldom four) eggs are pear- 
shaped, and bright blue or greenish blue. Passler, who found many 
nests at Coronel, states that the birds have two broods, the first 
taking place between the end of September and mid-October, the 
second in the latter part of December. 

Outside of Chile, the "Trabajador" occurs in southern Brazil, 
Paraguay, Uruguay, and throughout the greater part of Argentina, 
and reappears again on the littoral of Peru. 

121. Phleocryptes melanops schoenobaenus Cabanis and Heine 

Phleocryptes schoenobaenus Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., 2, p. 26, 1859 

Lake Titicaca, Peru (type in Heine Collection, Halberstadt, examined). 
Phleocryptes melanops schoenobaenus Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 

Ser., 13, Part 4, p. 59, 1925 Chintaguai, Tarapaca. 
Range in Chile. Extreme northern section, in province of 
Tarapaca. 

Material collected. Tarapaca: Chintaguai, Quebrada de Quisma 
(alt. 4,000 feet), two tf d" ad., May 24. Wing 59, 60; tail 55; bill 



Although no topotypical material in fresh plumage is available, 
there can be little doubt that these birds should be referred to the 
little-known Titicacan race of the "Trabajador." Compared with 
four worn breeding adults from Lake Titicaca, the two specimens 
agree in the long slender bill, and the under parts are deep isabella 
color with very little whitish suffusion on the throat and middle 
of the abdomen. Remains of this color are still discernible in the 
type and one of the other Peruvian examples. In the type the 
superciliaries are worn down to the grayish basis, but birds in better 
plumage have them very nearly as bright buffy as in P. m. melanops. 

The Tarapaca birds are smaller and the dull isabella color 
superciliaries are less pronounced than in Peruvian specimens, but 
these slight divergencies are likely to disappear in a larger series of 
this notoriously variable form. 

P. m. schoenobaenus is an altitudinal representative of the typical 
race in the highlands of southern Peru, extreme northern Chile, 
and Bolivia. 



196 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

122. Leptasthenura aegithaloides aegithaloides (Kittlitz) 

Synnalaxis [sic] aegithaloides Kittlitz, M6m. Ac. Sci. St. Pe"tersb., (sav. e"tr.), 
1, livr. 2, p. 187, pi. 7, 1830 on the hills near Valparaiso (type in Leningrad 
Museum; cf. Chrostowski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 1, p. 16, 
1921); idem, Denkwiird., 1, pp. 135, 147 near Valparaiso. 

Synallaxis thelotii Lesson, Rev. Zool., 3, p. 99, 1840 "PAme'rique me"ridionale." 

Leptasthenura fuscescens Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 90, 1889 
"Falls of the Rio Madeira, Bolivia," errore= Valparaiso, Chile (type in 
American Museum of Natural History, New York, examined). 

Synallaxis (Leptasthenura) stenoptila Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 91, for Dec., 
1895, p. 673, 1896 Andes of Santiago Province; idem (24), p. 38, pi. 18, 
fig. 2 same locality. 

Synallaxis aegithaloides Eydoux and Gervais (1), text to pll. 62-76, p. 32 
Chile; idem (3), Voy. Favorite, Zool., 5, (2), p. 58 Chile; Darwin, p. 79 
part, central Chile; Fraser (1), p. 112 Chile; Bibra, p. 129 near Val- 
paraiso; Pelzeln (2), p. 59 Chile. 

Synallaxis aegythaloides d'Orbigny, p. 243 part, Valparaiso; Des Murs (2), 
p. 289 Valparaiso and Cordillera of Santiago; Germain, p. 310 Chile 
(habits); Philippi and Landbeck (11), p. 120 Chile (diag.); Philippi 
(12), p. 252 Chile generally; Landbeck (9), p. 237 Chile (habits); 
Waugh and Lataste (1), p. LXXXIV Penaflor, Santiago; idem (2), p. 
CLXX San Alfonso (Quillota), Valparaiso. 

Leptasthenura aegithaloides Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 324, 338 Chile; Salvin (2), 
p. 424 Coquimbo; E. Reed (2), p. 547 Cauquenes, Colchagua; idem 
(4), p. 202 Chile; Lane, p. 39 part, Hacienda Mansel (Santiago) and 
Arauco (habits); Albert (1), 101, p. 235 Chile (monog.); Mene"gaux and 
Hellmayr, Me"m. Soc. Hist. Nat. Autun, 19, p. 66 part, spec, a-c, f, i-m, 
Coquimbo, San Alfonso, "Chile"; Porter (4), p. 30 (f ood) ; Barros (4), p. 145 
Nilahue, Curico; Housse (2), p. 143 San Bernardo, Santiago; Bullock 
(3), p. 124 Nahuelbuta, Malleco; idem (4), p. 176 Angol, Malleco; 
Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 106 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso. 

Leptasthenura aegithaloides aegithaloides Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 27, p. 261, 
1921 part, Coquimbo, Valparaiso, Quillota, Concepcion, Valdivia; 
Passler (3), p. 462 Coronel (breeding habits); Barros (5), p. 182 Cor- 
dillera of Aconcagua; Wetmore (3), p. 257 Concon, Valparaiso. 

Range in Chile. Central and southern provinces, from Coquimbo 
to about 45 S. latitude. 

Material collected. Coquimbo: Romero, 9 ad., July 18. 
Valparaiso: Olmue', cf ad., 9 ad., May 31, June 3. Concepcion: 
Hacienda Gualpencillo, two cf cf ad., three 9 9 ad., April 6-18. 
Malleco: Rio Colorado (alt. 3,000 feet), cf ad. (breeding), Feb. 3. 
Chilo4 Island: Quellon, cf juv., 9 ad., Jan. 4. Llanquihue: Casa 
de Richards, Rio Nirehuau, cf ad., 9 ad., 9 juv., Feb. 16, March 17. 

Additional specimens. Valdivia: Valdivia, three cf cf ad., 1897. 
A. von Lossberg (Munich Museum and Berlepsch Collection, Frank- 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 197 

fort Museum). Chile: "Valparaiso," one (unsexed) adult. "June, 
1885." H. H. Rusby (type of L. fuscescens; American Museum of 
Natural History, New York). 

With the available material I do not see any possibility of further 
subdividing this form. L. fuscescens, originally supposed to have 
come from the "falls of the Rio Madeira" in the Amazonian lowlands 
of northern Bolivia, a most unlikely locality for a Temperate Zone 
species, seems to be an absolute synonym of L. aegithaloides. One 
of the types, 1 A. M. N. H. No. 30,735, which was courteously sub- 
mitted to my inspection, agrees closely with two typotypical examples 
from Valparaiso, and I have little doubt that it actually came from 
that vicinity. Another obvious synonym is L. stenoptila, based on 
two birds from near Santiago. The description, "Supra omnino 
nigro-cinerea, capite albo striato," is clearly erroneous, as results 
from the published figure which shows a bird of the ordinary type, 
viz. with brown back and rufescent crown-stripes. Both specimens 
were in molt, according to Philippi, and- from his remarks it is evident 
that the male still wore the old, abraded rectrices, while the tail 
was only half-grown in the female. 

Birds from southern Chile (Concepcion to Chilce") appear to be 
slightly darker brown above with the crown-stripes deeper rufous, 
and the fulvous suffusion on the flanks is as a rule darker as well as 
more extensive. Our single specimen from Romero, at the northern 
limit of the range, however, hardly differs from some of the 
Concepcion birds save for its lighter crown-streaks. In the extreme 
south of its distributional area this form grades intoL. a. pattida. 
The specimens from Rio Nirehuau are noticeably paler than those 
from farther north, and approach the Patagonian race by more 
grayish brown back as well as by lighter crown and wing-margins, 
but taken as a whole they seem better referred to aegithaloides than 
to pattida. 

The "Tijerita" is widely diffused in Chile, ranging from the sea- 
coast up to an elevation of 6,000 to 7,000 feet in the Cordilleras. It 
is said to resemble the tits in habits. Its note is a mere twit, 
but sometimes a querulous chattering, somewhat like that of Parus 
major but shriller, is uttered. It feeds on insects and builds its 
nest in the tangle of vines. The nest is a roundish structure, made 
of dry grass-leaves lined inside with soft grass and feathers, and has a 
lateral aperture. The clutch consists of three or four smooth, gloss- 

1 The wing measurement is misprinted in Allen's description. It should read 
59 instead of 83 mm. 



198 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

less, white eggs. According to Passler, there are two broods, one 
about mid-October, the second towards the end of December. 

123. Leptasthenura aegithaloides grisescens Hellmayr 

Leptasthenura aegithaloides grisescens Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 

Ser., 13, Part 4, p. 61, 1925 Gatico, coast of Antofagasta, Chile. 
Synallaxis aegythaloides (not of Kittlitz) Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. 
Av., 1, p. 23 part, Cobija; d'Orbigny, p. 243 part, Cobija (spec, in Paris 
Museum examined). 

Leptasthenura aegithaloides Sclater and Salvin, P. Z. S. Lond., 1879, p. 620 
part, Cobija; Menegaux and Hellmayr, Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Autun, 19, 
p. 66 part, spec, d, e, Cobija. 
Leptasthenura aegithaloides aegithaloides Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 28, p. 261, 1921 

part, spec, a, b, Cobija. 

Leptasthenura aegitaloides Gigoux, p. 86 Caldera, Atacama. 
Range in Chile. Littoral and foothills of northern provinces, 
from Atacama to the Peruvian boundary; in winter occasionally in 
Coquimbo Province. 

Material collected. Coquimbo: Paiguano (alt. 3,300 feet), 9 ad., 
June 19. Atacama: Ramadilla, Copiapo Valley, cf ad., 9 ad., 
Aug. 22-23; Caldera, six d" d" ad., four 9 9 ad., March 21-27, 
April 4-21, June 4-6, Sept. 16, 1924. C. C. Sanborn and E. E. 
Gigoux; Domeyko (63 km. south of Vallenar), cf ad., Aug. 15. 
Antofagasta: Gatico, cf ad., April 10. Tarapaca: Chintaguai, 
Quebrada de Quisma (alt. 4,000 feet), cf ad., May 24. 

Additional specimens. Antofagasta: Cobija, two (unsexed) 
adults. D'Orbigny (Paris Museum). 

This northern race differs from the typical one by its paler colora- 
tion throughout. The crown-stripes are broader and lighter, cin- 
namomeous rather than hazel; the back is grayish brown instead 
of dusky brown with the rump buffy brown rather than wood 
brown; the edges to the wing coverts and quills are markedly lighter 
rufous; the breast and abdomen are paler grayish, and the flanks 
less strongly washed with buffy. 

A single specimen (in very fresh plumage) from Paiguano, in the 
interior of Coquimbo Province, while slightly browner above, other- 
wise agrees so well that I cannot but refer it to the present form, 
while a bird from Romero, near the coast, undoubtedly belongs to 
typical aegithaloides. The Paiguano bird, taken in mid-winter, may 
have been a migrant from the north. 

L. a. grisescens evidently replaces aegithaloides in the arid northern 
provinces of Chile. Its range extends into southern Peru, as is shown 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 199 

by two skins from Islay, Dept. Arequipa, in the British Museum. 
It is strictly a lowland bird, whose altitudinal distribution does not 
reach much beyond 4,000 feet. The Chintaguai bird is precisely 
similar to others from the coast. 

124. Leptasthenura aegithaloides berlepschi Hartert 

Leptasthenura aegithaloides berlepschi Hartert, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 210, 1909 

Augusto Pericheli, Jujuy, Argentina. 

Synallaxis aegythaloides (not of Kittlitz) Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 158 Antofagasta. 
Leptasthenura aegithaloides Sclater (4), 1886, p. 398 Huasco, Tarapaca; idem 

(6), 1891, p. 135 Sacaya, Tarapaca; Lane, p. 39 part, Sacaya. 

Range in Chile. Puna Zone of Antofagasta, Tarapaca, and 
Tacna. 

Material collected. Tacna: Choquelimpie (alt. 15,000 feet), 
9 ad., June 24. Antofagasta: Rio Loa (alt. 7,500 feet), cf ad., 
9 ad., Sept. 12; Ojo de San Pedro (alt. 12,400 feet), d" ad., May 2. 

Additional specimens. Tarapaca: Sacaya, two <? d" ad., April 
2, 18, 1890. A. A. Lane; Huasco, d" ad., d 1 juv., Feb. 17, 1886. 
C. Rahmer (all in the British Museum). 

This well-marked form is easily recognizable from L. a. grisescens 
by its much more buffy coloration, the back being sandy brown, the 
edges to the wing coverts and secondaries avellaneous rather than 
cinnamon, the wing-speculum paler, less tawny, the tips to the 
lateral rectrices tinged with buffy, and the entire under parts 
(posterior to the foreneck) deep buffy without any grayish on the 
chest. The crown-stripes are even brighter cinnamomeous than in 
grisescens and at the same time broader, under simultaneous reduc- 
tion of the lateral blackish borders. Wing and tail measurements 
are on average larger. 

Birds from the Cordillera of Tarapaca in the British Museum 
are similar to our series. 

L. a. berlepschi is an altitudinal representative of the preceding 
form, and replaces it in the Puna Zone of the Andes. We have seen 
that at Chintaguai (4,000 feet), in the foothills of the Andes near 
Pica, Tarapaca, Sanborn secured a specimen of L. a. grisescens, 
but at Sacaya (alt. 12,000 feet), in the Cordillera of Tarapaca, Lane 
met with L. a. berlepschi. Again, in Antofagasta, at Gatico on the 
coast we find L. a. grisescens, higher up at Rio Loa (7,500 feet) 
L. a. berlepschi. 

According to Lane, this species is resident in the Andes of 
Tarapacd. 



200 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

MEASUREMENTS 

L. a. grisescens Adult males Wing Tail Bill 

One from Islay, Peru 63 .95 9 

One from Chintaguai, Tarapaca 58 86 9^ 

One from Gatico, Antofagasta 62 98 

Three from Caldera, Atacama 57,58,61 89,90,95 9J49K 

One from Copiapo Valley 57 89 8% 

One from Domeyko, Atacama 61 89 9 

L. a. grisescens Adult females 

One from Copiap6 Valley 54 85 8^ 

One from Paiguano, Coquimbo 57 94 9 

L. a. berlepschi Adult males 

Three from Cordillera of Tarapaca 62,65,71 89,99, 8,9,9^ 

Two from Antofagasta 64,66 89,92 8^,' 

L. a. berlepschi Adult females 

One from Antofagasta 60 90 

One from Choquelimpie, Tacna 63 9 

125. Leptasthenura striata striata (Philippi and Landbeck) 

Synallaxis striata Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 19, p. 609, Nov., 
1861 probably Cordillera near Tacna, coll. Frobeen; idem, Arch. Naturg., 
29, (1), p. 119, 1863 "Cordillera of Arica, Peru" =Prov. Tacna. 

Leptasthenura aegithaloides (errore) Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 35, 
1890 part, spec, r, "Iquique," Tarapaca (spec, examined). 

Leptasthenura striata striata Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, 
Part 4, p. 67, 1925 Chintaguai, Tarapaca, and Putre, Tacna. 

Range in Chile. Extreme northern section, in provinces of 
Tarapaca and Tacna. 

Material collected. Tacna: Putre (alt. 11,600 feet), three d* cf 
ad., two 9 9 ad., June 17, July 3, 7. Tarapaca: Chintaguai, 
Quebrada de Quisma (alt. 4,000 feet), two cf c? ad., May 24. 

Additional specimens. Tacna: Palca (alt. 10,000 feet), cf ad., 
Oct. 17, 1902. 0. Garlepp (Berlepsch Collection; Frankfort Mu- 
seum). Tarapaca: Abricoya, above Iquique, juv. H. Rowland 
(British Museum). 

This spine-tail, while somewhat related to L. pileata Sclater, 1 of 
western Peru, may readily be distinguished by much paler (cin- 
namon to Mikado brown rather than deep hazel) pileum which, 
besides, is heavily streaked with black; paler brown ground color of 
the back with more buffy longitudinal stripes; much more extensive 
and wholly tawny or hazel wing-speculum; smaller as well as less 
numerous blackish spots on throat and foreneck, and much paler, 
less grayish under parts. The grayish apical zone of the lateral 

*P. Z. S. Lond., 1881, p. 487 west side of Coast Cordillera above Lima, 
8,000 feet, Peru. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 201 

rectrices, less abruptly defined against the dusky basal portion than 
in the allied species, is conspicuously tinged with buffy, especially 
on the outer web, and obscured by numerous irregular dusky streaks 
and dots. The base of the lower mandible is distinctly yellow, as 
in L. pileata. 

The series exhibits some individual variation in the ground color 
of the pileum, which, regardless of locality, ranges from orange- 
cinnamon or Mikado brown to pinkish cinnamon, being, however, 
always heavily streaked with blackish. The under parts, excepting 
the white, black-spotted throat and foreneck, are very pale grayish, 
sometimes faintly shaded with buff, and the breast is coarsely, 
though indistinctly spotted or streaked with whitish. The edges to 
the upper wing coverts and inner secondaries are bright avellaneous 
or light pinkish cinnamon. An immature bird from Abricoya, 
inland of Iquique, differs from the adults by having the buffy dorsal 
stripes as well as their dusky lateral margins less marked, while 
the blackish spots on throat and foreneck are barely suggested. 

Six adult males measure as follows: wing 63, 64, 65, 65, 67, 67; 
tail (central rectrix) 96-98; graduation of tail 59-64; bill 10-11. 
Two females: wing 60, 63; tail 91-96; bill 9^-10 mm. 

L. s. striata, according to our present knowledge, seems to be 
restricted to the Andes of northern Chile, 1 its altitudinal range 
extending from 4,000 to nearly 12,000 feet. 

1 Birds from western Peru, heretofore united to L. striata, prove to be different 
and may be separated as: 

Leptasthenura striata superciliaris subsp. nov. 

Type from Surco (alt. 2,050 meters), Dept. Lima, Peru, in British Museum 
(Natural History), Reg. No. 1902.3.13.1072. Adult female. February 13, 1900. 
Percy O. Simons. 

Adult. Similar toL. s. striata, from northern Chile, but ground-color of pileum 
brighter, cinnamon-rufous; dorsal streaks wider and nearly white; super ciliaries 
much more distinct and pure white, instead of evanescent and buffy; breast and 
abdomen paler, less tinged with grayish; apical zone of rectrices pale gray (not 
buffy) without dusky markings and sharply defined from the blackish basal zone. 

Wing Bl^i, (female) 61; tail (central rectrix) 96, (female) 95; graduation of 
tail 60-66; bill 10 mm. 

Range. Western slope of Coast Cordillera of Peru in Dept. of Lima. 

Remarks. In addition to the type, we have examined an adult male taken by 
R. H. Beck on May 30, 1913, at Lima in the collection of the American Museum 
of Natural History, New York. It merely differs by darker (hazel instead of tawny) 
alar speculum and brighter, cinnamon rather than avellaneous, edges to the upper 
wing coverts, divergencies that are apparently due to its being in fresher plumage. 

Through the courtesy of Mr. N. B. Kinnear I have been enabled to compare 
five specimens of the rare L. pileata, hitherto only known from the type. The study 
of this series in conjunction with the available material of the allied forms clearly 
shows that the arrangement proposed in our "Catalogue of Birds of the Amer- 
icas" does not correctly express the natural relationship of these spine-tails. The 
plain hazel pileum of L. pileata is evidently a character of secondary importance, 



202 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 
126. Asthenes pyrrholeuca sordida (Lesson) 

Synallaxis sordidus Lesson, Rev. Zool., 2, p. 105, 1839 Chile. 1 

Synallaxis sordida Des Murs (2), p. 291 Chile; (?) Germain, p. 310 Chile 
(nesting habits); Pelzeln (2), p. 59 Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 324, 338 
Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 547 Cauquenes, Colchagua. 

Synallaxis flavogularis (not of Gould) Philippi (12), p. 252 Cordilleras of 
central provinces. 

Synallaxis rufogularis (lapsu) Landbeck (9), p. 234 middle Cordilleras. 

Siptornis sordida Sclater, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 15, p. 68, 1890 part, Chile; 
E. Reed (4), p. 202 Chile. 

Siptornis modesta (errore) Albert (1), 101, p. 241 central and southern Chile. 

Siptornis sordida sordida Barros (5), p. 182 Cordillera of Aconcagua; idem 
(6), p. 34 San Bernardo; Housse (2), p. 145 San Bernardo, Santiago. 

Range in Chile. Central and southern provinces, from Acon- 
cagua to Llanquihue (Rio Aisen). 

Material collected .--Cautin: Rio Lolen (alt. 3,600 feet), Lon- 
quimai Valley, cf ad., 9 ad., cf juv., 9 juv., Feb. 11; Lake Gual- 

since careful scrutiny discloses traces of dusky marginal edges in more than one 
example. Apart from the presence of heavy streaks on the crown, L. "striata" 
cajabambae Chapm. is an exact duplicate of L. pileata, both agreeing in the de- 
cidedly gray under parts with more or less pronounced whitish pectoral stripes, 
the coarse black marginal spots on throat and foreneck, and in the small cinnamon 
alar speculum being wholly concealed on the secondaries and inner primaries 
by the overlying wing coverts and passing into white or buffy white at the base 
of the third to the sixth primaries. Color and markings of the dorsal surface and 
the pattern of the tail are also the same. The two forms replace each other geo- 
graphically, and it seems pretty certain that cajabambae is merely a race of Sclater's 
species and should accordingly be classified as L. pileata cajabambae. The speci- 
mens of L. p. pileata were all collected by P. O. Simons in February, 1900, at San 
Mateo (alt. 3,200 meters), Dept. of Lima. 

The fact that L. s. superciliaris occurs in the same range, though at a lower 
altitude, would seem to indicate that L. striata and L. pileata are specifically 
distinct, inasmuch as the vertical distribution of L. s. striata in northern Chile 
at least extends from 4,000 to 12,000 feet. However, the resemblance of L. s. 
superciliaris to L. p. pileata in tail pattern and its brighter rufous (though un- 
streaked) pileum mark such obvious steps in the direction of the pileata group that 
more ample material from western Peru may yet show the two "species" to be 
members of a single "formenkreis." 

x ln another connection (Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, Part 4, p. 135, 
footnote a, 1925) I have already called attention to the unsatisfactory nature of 
the diagnosis. Since the above was written, I have discovered that a much fuller 
description of S. sordidus was subsequently given by Lesson in Oeuvr. de Buffon, 
ed. Levgque, 20, (Descr. Mamm. et Ois.), 1847, p. 290. Here the tail is stated to 
be "roux vif, chaque penne largement fiammee de brun d'un cote," which clearly 
excludes the members of the A. pyrrholeuca group, and seems to point to A. modesta, 
with the inner web of all the rectrices largely black. The description of the upper 
parts, "entierement roux-brun sale, a partir du front jusqu'au croupion," however, 
does not fit the latter species, and unless the type can be found, S. sordidus will 
always remain in doubt. At all events, it cannot possibly apply to the species with 
wholly rufous lateral and dusky brown central rectrices, and the bird designated 
above as A. p. sordida requires a new name. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 203 

letuS (alt. 3,800 feet), two d* <? juv., Feb. 18, 19. Llanquihue: 
Casa de Richards, Rio Nirehuau, two c? d" ad., Feb. 16, March 1. 

Additional specimens. Santiago: Valle del Yeso, 9 ad., Jan., 
1866. R. A. Philippi (U. S. National Museum); Santiago, 9 ad. 
R. A. Philippi 1 (Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge). 
"Chile" (unspecified): two adults. E. C. Reed (Field Museum and 
U. S. National Museum). 

This species is immediately recognizable from A. modesta by 
having the three lateral pairs of rectrices wholly rufous 2 and the two 
median ones blackish brown, dusky in worn plumage. 

This spine-tail having frequently been confused by authors with 
related species, it is nearly impossible to outline its distribution. 
The few reliable records and the material at hand, however, seem 
to indicate that it is chiefly, if not exclusively, a bird of the moun- 
tains. In Aconcagua Province, R. Barros tells us, it lives from 
October to April, that is, in the breeding season, in the Cordilleras 
at 6,000 to 10,000 feet, but is not seen there during the rest of the 
year. It then probably descends to lower altitudes, for Barros and 
Father Housse report to have obtained specimens in April and May 
on the hills in the neighborhood of San Bernardo. Farther south 
in Cautin, Sanborn, in February, collected a small series of breeding 
adults and full-grown young at altitudes of 3,600 and 3,800 feet, and 
the birds obtained by W. H. Osgood at Rio Nirehuau, on the eastern 
side of the Andes in Llanquihue, doubtless were also nesting. 

Nothing is on record regarding its habits and nidification. 

127. Asthenes modesta modesta (Eyton) 

Synallaxis modestus Eyton, Contrib. Ornith., 1851, p. 159, pi. 81,* fig. 2 
"I believe it was from Bolivia" (type in British Museum examined). 

Synallaxis humicola (errore) Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 158 "Copacolla" [ = 
Copacoya, Antofagasta]. 

Synallaxis modesta Sclater (4), 1886, p. 398 Sacaya and Sitani, Tarapaca. 
Siptornis modesta Sclater (6), 1891, p. 135 Sacaya, Tarapaca. 

Asthenes modesta modesta Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, 
Part 4, p. 139, 1925 Putre and Choquelimpie, Tacna, and Rio Inacaliri, 
Antofagasta. 

Range in Chile. Puna Zone of Antofagasta, Tarapaca, and 
Tacna. 

1 Named "Syn. flavigularis" by Philippi on the original label. 

2 The third feather (from without) occasionally has an obsolete dusky margin 
on the basal portion of the inner web. 



204 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Material collected. Antofagasta: Rio Inacaliri (alt. 12,800 feet), 
cf imm., 9 ad., April 27; Silala (alt. 14,000 feet), Bolivian boundary, 
<f ad., April 27. Tacna: Putre (alt. 11,600 feet), d" ad., two 9 9 
ad., June 18, 19; Choquelimpie (alt. 15,000 feet), three cfcf ad., 
one 9 ad., June 21-24. 

Additional specimens. Tarapaca: Cordillera of Tarapaca, cf ad., 
Jan. 21, 1886. C. Rahmer; Sacaya, cf ad., March 17, 1890. A. A. Lane 
(British Museum). 

There has been considerable uncertainty regarding the proper 
application of Eyton's name. Fortunately, the two original speci- 
mens are preserved in the British Museum, where I have carefully 
compared them with our material of this and the next form taken 
for that purpose to London. One of the skins, labeled "Ex Mus. 
T. C. Eyton, No. 1752. Synallaxis modestus Eyt., Bolivia?" (Brit. 
Mus. Reg. No. 81.2.18.177), clearly pertains to the race separated by 
Berlepsch 1 as Siptornis modesta sajamae and agrees with a series 
from Tacna and Tarapaca. The upper parts of the type are even 
more decidedly sandy brown than in the other specimens, and the 
chin-spot is slightly deeper rufous than even in the Silala bird, which 
represents the darkest extreme in that respect. In the rufescence of 
the wings and the deep, nearly pinkish buff color of the under 
parts it exactly matches some of our Tacna birds. This specimen is 
apparently the one with "gula macula castaneo-aurantiaca" and a 
slight tinge of "castanous" [ = cinnamon-buff] on the under tail coverts 
described and figured by Eyton, and may be regarded as the type. 
The second example, with a similar label, but the number 1759 
(Brit. Mus. Reg. No. 81.2.18.139), has a lighter chin-spot, darker 
brown upper parts, and the throat heavily freckled with whitish and 
dusky, and is clearly referable to A. ra. rostrata (Berl.). 2 

Both of Eyton's specimens appear to be skins of Bridges, who 
probably secured them during his trip from Cobija across Antofagasta 
to Potosi and Cochabamba, Bolivia. 3 The example of A. m. rostrata 
was no doubt collected somewhere in Cochabamba, while No. 1752, 
which, as shown above, must be regarded as the type, probably 
originated from either Antofagasta or Potosi. We herewith suggest 
the Pass of Tapaquilcha, on the boundary of the two provinces, as an 
appropriate type locality for S. modestus. 



. Orn., 49, p. 94, 1901 Esperanza, Sajama, Dept. Oruro, Bolivia. 

*Siptornis modesta rostrata Berlepsch, 1. c., 49, p. 94, 1901 Vacas, Dept. 
Cochabamba, Bolivia. 

3 For the localities visited on that journey, Bridges's two papers (in the P. Z. S. 
Lond., 14, pp. 7-10, 1846; 15, pp. 28-30, 1847) should be consulted. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 205 

A. m. modesta, while exceedingly variable in tone of plumage, 
may be distinguished from the central Chilean form by generally 
larger size, more buffy coloration throughout, and much more rufes- 
cent outer aspect of the wings. 

As in other races of this species, the chin-spot varies, irrespective 
of sex and locality, from nearly white to tawny. Certain specimens 
are conspicuous for their intense buffy under parts, but others from 
the same locality are much paler. 

A. m. modesta is an exclusive inhabitant of the Puna Zone, at 
elevations of 11,000 feet and upwards. Its range comprises northern 
Chile, the adjacent parts of southern Peru, western Bolivia, and 
northwestern Argentina. 

128. Asthenes modesta australis Hellmayr 

Asthenes modesta australis Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, 

Part 4, p. 138, 1925 Bafios del Toro, Prov. Coquimbo. 
Synallaxis modesta (not of Eyton) Sclater (2), 1867, p. 324 Chile; E. Reed 

(2), p. 547 Yeso, near Cauquenes, Colchagua. 
Synallaxis humicola (not of Kittlitz) Philippi (12), p. 252 Chile; Landbeck 

(9), p. 237 middle Cordilleras. 
Siptornis humicola Albert (1), 101, p. 238 Chile. 
Siptornis modesta E. Reed (4), p. 202 Chile. 
Siptornis modesta modesta Barros (5), p. 182 Cerro de la Virgen (Los Andes) 

and Rio Blanco, Aconcagua. 

Range in Chile. Central provinces, from southern Atacama to 
Colchagua. 

Material collected. Atacama: Domeyko (63 km. south of Val- 
lenar), two d"d" ad., Aug. 10, 13. Coquimbo: Bafios del Toro 
(alt. 10,600 feet), three <? cf ad., Nov. 12-14. 

Additional specimens. Santiago: vicinity of Santiago, two d" c? 
ad., one 9 ad., 1 June and July, 1865. R. A. Philippi (U. S. National 
Museum). 

Central Chilean birds differ from typical modesta by smaller size, 
paler buffy, often nearly whitish under parts, much duller, less 
brownish dorsal surface, which is brownish gray with a slight tinge 
of drab, and much less rufescent wings. 

From A. pyrrholeuca sordida auct., which also occurs in the Andes 
of central Chile, this spine-tail is easily distinguished by the parti- 
colored lateral rectrices, whose basal portion is blackish-brown, 
strongly contrasted with the oblique cinnamon apical spot. 

1 All three specimens are named "S. humicola" by Philippi on the original labels. 



206 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

It is the bird which Philippi, Landbeck, and Albert erroneously 
identified as A. humicola, a very distinct species with much shorter, 
stouter bill and broader, bluntly rounded (instead of acutely pointed), 
almost wholly blackish rectrices. 

Like A. pyrrholeuca sordida, this spine-tail is an inhabitant of the 
mountains. In Aconcagua R. Barros met with it in July and 
August on the Cerro de la Virgen (Los Andes), and in August at 
Rio Blanco, towards the Valle de los Leones, at an elevation of 
6,000 feet. We have examined specimens in fresh plumage taken in 
June and July in the vicinity of Santiago. Birds collected in Novem- 
ber at Baiios del Toro (alt. 10,600 feet), Coquimbo, are in very 
worn plumage, while those shot in August at Domeyko, Atacama, 
show but traces of wear. These facts suggest that these birds breed 
at high elevations, and migrate to the valleys and foothills in 
winter. Edwyn Reed states indeed that they live in summer in the 
high Cordillera of Colchagua. Yeso, the locality mentioned by him, 
appears to be the most southerly locality recorded for this species 
in Chile. 

Whether birds from western and southern Argentina are exactly 
the same as the Chilean cannot be decided at present. 

MEASUREMENTS 

A. m. modesta Adult males Wing Tail Bill 

Four from Tacna 69,70,70,71 72,74,76,76 13^,15,15,15^ 

One from Antofagasta 70 67 14 ^ 

Two from Oruro, Bolivia 69,70 74,74 14,14 

A. m. modesta Adult females 

Three from Tacna 65,66,68 68,69,70 13^,14,14 

One from Antofagasta 67 68 

One from Oruro, Bolivia 67 70 13 J^ 

A. m. modesta 

Type of S. modestus Eyton 70 78 14^ 

A. TO. australis Adult males 

Two from Domeyko, Atacama 63,65 65,66 14, 

Three from Coquimbo 65,67,68 65^,67,71 14,15,16 

Two from Santiago 63,65 66,67 

A. m. australis Adult females 

One from Santiago 64 y 2 66 

129. Asthenes d'orbignyi arequipae (Sclater and Salvin) 

Synallaxis arequipae Sclater and Salvin, P. Z. S. Lond., 1869, p. 417 Arequipa, 
Peru (type in British Museum examined). 

Asthenes d'orbignyi arequipae Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, 
Part 4, p. 141, 1925 Putre, Tacna. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 207 

Range in Chile. Extreme northern section, in province of Tacna. 

Material collected. Tacna: Putre (alt. 11,600 feet), three cfcf 
ad., July 5-7. 

These specimens differ from two Arequipa birds merely by lacking 
the black margin to the inner web of the outermost rectrix. This 
is probably an individual variation, since of two examples from 
Sajama, Oruro, Bolivia, one agrees with the Chilean, the other with 
the Arequipa skins. 

This spine-tail, which is closely related to other forms occurring 
in the northern and eastern parts of Bolivia, is an inhabitant of the 
Temperate and Puna Zones of the Andes, its vertical range extending 
from 7,000 to 13,000 feet. Its distributional area is rather limited, 
comprising, as it does, the extreme southwest of Peru (Arequipa) 
and the adjacent parts of northern Chile (Tacna) and western 
Bolivia (Sajama, Oruro). 

The present is the first record from Chile. 

MEASUREMENTS 

Adult males Wing Tail Bill 

One from Arequipa (type) 69 74 13 

Three from Putre, Tacna 68,70,71 73,74,77 14,14,14 

Two from Sajama, Bolivia 71,74 79,79 13,14 

Adult female 
One from Arequipa, Peru 71 70 14 

130. Asthenes humicola humicola (Kittlitz) 

Synnalaxis (sic) humicola Kittlitz, M6m. Ac. Sci. St. Pe"tersb., (sav. e"tr.), 
1, livr. 2, p. 185, 1830 near Valparaiso (type in Leningrad Museum; cf. 
Chrostowski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat, 1, p. 15, 1921); idem, 
Denkw., 1, p. 135 near Valparaiso. 

Synallaxis cinerea Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 91, p. 674, 1895 Andes of San 
Fernando, Colchagua; idem (24), p. 36, pi. 18, fig. 1 San Fernando. 

Synallaxis humicola d'Orbigny, p. 245 part, Valparaiso; Darwin, p. 75 
Valparaiso; Des Murs (2), p. 288 Chile (habits); Frauenfeld, p. 636 
road Valparaiso Santiago; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 324, 338 Chile; Sclater, 
P. Z. S. Lond., 1874, p. 22 near Valparaiso; E. Reed (2), p. 548 Cau- 
quenes, Colchagua; Allen, p. 92 Valparaiso; E. Reed (4), p. 202 central 
provinces. 

Synallaxis pumicola Fraser (1), p. 112 Chile (habits); Bibra, p. 129 near 
Valparaiso. 

Siptornis humicola MSnegaux and Hellmayr, Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Autun, 19, 
p. 79 Valparaiso; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 28, p. 263, 1921 Valparaiso; 
Barros (5), p. 182 Precordillera of Aconcagua; Gigoux, p. 87 Caldera, 
Atacama; Housse (2), p. 143 San Bernardo, Santiago; Wetmore (3), p. 
272 Concon, Valparaiso. 



208 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Siptornis sordida (not of Lesson) Philippi (12), p. 253 Chile; Landbeck (9), 
p. 238 Chile (nesting habits); Albert (1), 101, p. 243 Chile (monog.); 
Barros (4), p. 145 Nilahue, Curico; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 106 Marga- 
Marga, Valparaiso. 

Pteroptochus rubecula (errore) Waugh and Lataste (2), p. CLXX San Alfonso 
(Quillota), Valparaiso; idem (3), p. LX Peiiaflor, Prov. Santiago. 

Range in Chile. Northern and central provinces, from Atacama 
to Curico. 

Material collected. Atacama: Caldera, 9 ad., Aug. 29. 
Coquimbo: La Compania, cf ad., cf juv., Oct. 31; Romero, cf ad., 

9 ad., July 29, 31. Valparaiso: Glume", d" ad., May 25; Hacienda 
Limache, cf ad., Dec. 8, 1924. J. A. Wolffsohn. Santiago: San 
Jose" de Maipo (alt. 3,000 feet), d 1 ad., 9 ad., Dec. 17, 19; Penalole'n, 
cf ad., Nov. 1, 1923. C. S. Reed. O'Higgins: San Francisco, 

9 ad., May, 1923. C. S. Reed. Colchagua: Banos de Cauquenes, 

9 ad., May 3, 1923. 

Additional specimens. Valparaiso: Valparaiso, adult. D'Orbigny 
(Paris Museum). 

Birds from various localities in central Chile agree very well 
together, while those from Coquimbo and Atacama, as a rule, are 
slightly less streaked on the chest. S. cinerea seems to have been 
based on specimens in which the streaking underneath has nearly 
disappeared through abrasion. A worn breeding male from Co- 
quimbo (F. M. No. 61,755) closely resembles Philippi's figure. Further- 
more, an adult female (in fresh plumage) from Banos de Cauquenes, 
hence practically a topotype of S. cinerea, does not differ in any way 
from Valparaiso skins. Albert, who, following Philippi and Landbeck, 
misapplied to the present species the name of S. sordida, claims that 
birds from the plains (var. crassirostris Philippi) are more brownish 
than those from the mountains (var. cinerea), but our series shows 
this variation to be seasonal and independent of locality. 

The juvenile plumage resembles the adults, but the rump is more 
rufous, the dusky markings below are less distinct, and the outer- 
most as well as the outer web of the penultimate rectrix are strongly 
rufescent. 

By some unexplainable oversight, the present species was listed 
by Waugh and Lataste under the name of Pteroptochus rubecula, 
as is shown by two specimens from San Alfonso (one in the Paris 
Museum, the other in the collection of the Linnean Society of 
Bordeaux), which were kindly re-examined on my request by M. 
J. Berlioz. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 209 

The "Canastero" is widely diffused in the northern and central 
provinces of Chile from Caldera south to Curico, being resident 
throughout its range. It is chiefly found in the plains and foothills 
(pre-Cordillera), and more sparingly in the Andes, where according to 
Barros it does not ascend beyond an altitude of 6,000 feet. 1 The 
birds are stated to frequent dense thickets of low brush, where they 
work slowly about among the limbs or occasionally on the ground. 
Their clear, trilled song is compared by Wetmore to that of some 
wren. They build a voluminous nest of cylindrical shape in small 
trees several feet above the ground, and in September the female 
lays three dull white eggs. 

131. Asthenes humicola polysticta Hellmayr 

Asthenes humicola polysticta Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, 
Part 4, p. 144, 1925 Hacienda Gualpencillo, Concepci6n. 

Synallaxis humicola (not of Kittlitz) Lesson, Echo du Mond. Sav., 11, 2nd 
sem., No. 15, col. 347, Aug. 22, 1844 Chile (crit.). 

Siptornis humicola Passler (3), p. 462 Coronel (habits). 

Range in Chile. Southern Chile, in provinces of Concepcion 
and Maule. 

Material collected. Concepcion: Hacienda Gualpencillo, four 
cf & ad., five 9 9 ad., April 11-20. Maule: Pilen Alto, eight miles 
west of Cauquenes, d" ad., 9 ad., May 10, 13. 

This race differs from A. h. humicola by much more heavily 
marked under parts, the foreneck and breast down to the middle of 
the abdomen showing very distinct, blackish marginal spots or 
edges to the feathers, while the flanks and under tail coverts are 
much duller, varying from cinnamon-brown to snuff-brown instead 
of being bright tawny. The markings produce a regular black-and- 
whitish longitudinal streaking which, becoming slightly narrower, 
extends down to the anal region. In A. h. humicola, the lateral edges 
of the feathers on the foreneck and breast are much paler, a dull 
grayish brown, much less contrasted with the buffy white central 
streaks, and but rarely intermixed with a few isolated dusky or 
blackish marginal dots; the middle of the belly is plain (unspotted) 
buffy. 

Our series of eleven is very constant in its characters, though the 
two birds from Maule, by brighter ruf escent flanks, form the transi- 
tion to A. h. humicola. 

^hilippi's record of Synallaxis humicola (Ornis, 4, p. 158) from "Copacolla" 
[=Copacoya, north of San Pedro de Atacama] in the Puna Zone of Antofagasta 
refers to A. m. modesta. 



210 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 



A. h. polysticta replaces the typical form south of the Rio Maule. 
Passler found it breeding at Coronel, Concepcion. In habits it 
apparently resembles its northern relative. Around Coronel it has 
two broods, the first at the end of September or early in October, 
the second in December. The clutch consists of three, rarely two 
eggs. 

MEASUREMENTS 



A. h. humicola Adult males 
Two from Coquimbo 
One from Valparaiso 
One from Santiago 

A. h. humicola Adult females 
One from Caldera, Atacama 
One from Coquimbo 
One from O'Higgins 
One from Colchagua 

A. h. polysticta Adult males 
One from Maule 
Four from Concepcion 

A. h. polysticta Adult females 
One from Maule 
Five from Concepcion 



Wing 
61,61 
64 
64 



58 
62 
65 
63 

64 
63,64,66,66 

65 
62,63,64,64,64 



Tail 

77,70 



80 

72,75,78,80 

77 
72,73,75,76,78 



132. Asthenes anthoides (King) 

Synallaxis anthoides King, Proc. Comm. Sci. Corresp. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1, 
p. 30, March, 1831 no locality specified, presumably Straits of Magellan; 
Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 324, 338 Chile; idem, P. Z. S. Lond., 1874, p. 25 
near Valparaiso; E. Reed (2), p. 548 Cauquenes, Colchagua; Housse 
(2), p. 144 San Bernardo, Santiago. 

Synallaxis rufogularis Gould in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, p. 77, pi. 23, 1839 
near Valparaiso; Fraser (1), p. 112 Chile; Des Murs (2), p. 290 near 
Valparaiso; Philippi (12), p. 252 Chile; Landbeck (9), p. 238 Chile 
(habits). 

Siptornis anthoides E. Reed (4), p. 202 Chile; Albert (1), 101, p. 245 Chile 
(monog.); Barros (6), p. 34 San Bernardo, Santiago; Passler (3), p. 463 
Coronel, Concepcion (nesting habits); Bullock (4), p. 175 Angol, Malleco. 

Range in Chile. Central and southern Chile, from Valparaiso 
to the Straits of Magellan. (Also along the foot of the Argentine 
Andes as far north as Lake Nahuel Huapi.) 

Material collected. Cautin: Rio Lolen (alt. 3,600 feet), Lon- 
quimai Valley, d" ad., 9 ad., three cT d" juv., one 9 juv., Feb. 
11-13; Lake Gualletue" (alt. 3,800 feet), d* ad., 9 juv., Feb. 18. 
Llanquihue: Casa de Richards, Rio Nirehuau, 9 ad., March 1. 

Additional specimens. Santiago: San Bernardo, 9 ad., Aug. 20, 
1923. Carlos S. Reed (Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cam- 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 211 

bridge, Mass.); vicinity of Santiago, c? ad., 9 ad., July, 1865. 
R. A. Philippi (U. S. National Museum). 

King's Spine-tail is immediately distinguished from the other 
Chilean species of the genus by the heavily black-spotted upper 
parts. The juvenile plumage lacks the orange (or yellow) gular 
spot, and the chest and sides are transversely barred with sooty. 

I fail to find any constant difference between birds from the 
south and those from Santiago, though there is much individual 
variation. 

The breeding range of this species cannot be properly defined 
at present, but seems to be restricted to the southern provinces. 
Sanborn secured full-grown young birds in February in the low 
Cordilleras (3,600 to 3,800 feet) of Cautin Province, and Passler 
records its breeding in the vicinity of Coronel, Concepcion. In the 
Angol Valley, Malleco, Bullock observed it merely from April to 
September, and doubts that it nests in the region. Edwyn Reed 
lists it as common for Cauquenes, Colchagua, without stating the 
time of its occurrence. In Santiago Province it appears to be only 
a winter visitor. At San Bernardo Barros shot specimens in May 
and September, Carlos S. Reed in August. Housse states that it 
stays there all winter. The United States National Museum has 
two adults collected by Philippi in July near the city of Santiago. 

According to Landbeck, this spine-tail frequents open pastures, 
wet meadows, and hill slopes, but does not penetrate the mountains 
to any considerable altitude. Passler describes the nest as being 
similar to that of A. humicola polysticta, but smaller, more roundish, 
and lacking the entrance-tunnel. The aperture, placed in the upper 
portion of the structure, is often protected by small, thorny sticks, 
and the inside of the nest is profusely fitted with plant-wool, dried 
lichens, and flowers.. The eggs are dull white, sometimes tinged 
with yellowish. 

[Two other species of the subfamily Synallaxinae have been errone- 
ously credited to Chile. 

(1) Synallaxis stissitura Lesson, Echo du Monde Sav., 11, 2nd 
sem., No. 13, col. 303, Aug. 15, 1844 "Chile"; S. stipitura Lesson, 
Oeuvr. Buffon, 6d. LeVeque, 20, (Descr. Mamm. et Ois.), p. 288, 
1847 "Chile"; Des Murs (2), p. 294 Chile (ex Lesson). 

An unidentifiable member of the rufous-crowned section of Syn- 
allaxis, perhaps an earlier name for S. azarae elegantior Scl. The 
habitat "Chile" is doubtless erroneous. 



212 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

(2) Synallaxis striaticeps Des Murs in Gay, p. 291 "Chile"; 
E. Reed (4), p. 202; Siptornis striaticeps Albert (1), 101, p. 248 Chile. 

Claudio Gay claims to have met with the Striped-crowned Spine- 
tail, whose actual name is Cranioleuca pyrrhophia striaticeps, some- 
where in Chile, without giving any details. As no representative of 
the genus Cranioleuca has ever been found within the boundaries of 
the republic, Gay's record must be rejected as untrustworthy. 
Philippi (Anal. Univ. Chile, 13, p. 253, 1868) also denies its occurrence 
in Chile.] 

133. Pygarrhicus albo-gularis (King) 

Dendrocolaptes albo-gularis King, Proc. Comm. Sci. Corresp. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1, p. 30, March, 1831 locality not specified, presumably Straits of Magel- 
lan; Des Murs (2), p. 297 southern provinces of Chile; Philippi (12), p. 
254 from Colchagua southward; Landbeck (9), p. 238 from the central 
provinces south (habits). 

Dendrodramus leucosternus Gould in Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, p. 82, pi. 27, 

1839 Chiloe Island and near Rancagua, O'Higgins. 
Dendrodramus leucosternon Fraser (1), p. 112 Colchagua Province. 
Pygarhicus albogularis Hartlaub (3), p. 210 Valdivia. 
Pygarrhichus albogularis Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 324, 338 southern Chile; 

Bullock (3), p. 124 Nahuelbuta, Malleco. 

Pygarrhicus albigularis E. Reed (2), p. 548 Piedra Rajada, Colchagua; idem 
(4), p. 202 central and southern Chile; Lane, p. 39 Maquegua, Arauco 
(habits); Albert (1), 101, p. 250 Chile, north to Colchagua (monog.); 
Barros (6), p. 32 Hacienda de Huelquen, near Paine, Prov. O'Higgins. 

Pigarrhicus albigularis Bullock (5), p. 175 Angol, Malleco. 

Range in Chile. Central and southern provinces, from O'Hig- 
gins to the Straits of Magellan. (Also along the foot of the Andes 
on the Argentine side as far north as Mendoza.) 

Material collected. Maule: Pilen Alto (eight miles west of Cau- 

quenes), cf ad., May 10. Malleco: Curacautin, cf ad., 9 ad., 9 

juv., Jan. 8-15. Cautin: Lake Gualletu6 (alt. 3,800 feet), two cf cf 

juv., Feb. 21. Valdivia: Rinihue, cf juv., March 14; Mafil, two 

9 9 ad., one cf juv., Feb. 18-24. Chilo6 Island: Rio Inio, cf ad., 

9 juv., Jan. 15, 19; Quellon, cf ad., two 9 9 ad., Dec. 23-28. 

Llanquihue: Rio Aisen, 9 ad., April 2; Rio Nirehuau, cf juv., 9 

juv., March 6. 

The juvenile plumage is heavily spotted with tawny above, these 
spots often verging into ochraceous-buff or warm buff on the back; 
the posterior under parts are also washed with buff, the blackish 
margins to the feathers of the sides being broken and less pronounced. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 213 

The "Comecebo Grande" is a characteristic species of the beech 
and oak woods, with the distribution of which its range very nearly 
coincides in Chile and adjacent countries. In the southern provinces 
it is widely diffused throughout the lowlands and hills from the sea- 
coast up to an elevation of about 4,000 feet. The Museum Expedi- 
tion found it common on Chiloe" Island and in Valdivia Province as 
well as at Curacautin (alt. about 1,700 feet), Malleco, and at Lake 
Gualletue' (alt. 3,800 feet), Cautin. Lane met with it in fair numbers 
at Maquegua, Arauco, not far from the coast. In Malleco, accord- 
ing to Bullock, it chiefly occurs on the hills, where there are still 
native trees, and he notes it as particularly abundant on the Cerro 
de Nahuelbuta. There are no definite records from Concepcion, 
though Sanborn secured a single male at Pilen Alto in the neigh- 
boring province of Maule, nor has the species been listed from 
either Linares, Talca, or Curico. However, it is known to inhabit 
the mountainous parts of Colchagua, where it was found by Bridges, 
Landbeck, and Edwyn Reed. The last-named naturalist specifically 
mentions Piedra Rajada as locality, without stating its altitude. 
The "Comecebo Grande" even ranges into O'Higgins, which at 
present marks the northern limit of its distributional area. Darwin 
met with it in some woods near Rancagua (alt. about 1,600 feet), 
and quite recently R. Barros obtained specimens at Huelquen (alt. 
4,500 feet), near Paine, in the month of October. 

The habits of these birds, as regards feeding and movement, are 
described as being the same as those of woodpeckers and tree-creepers. 
They usually creep about the tops of high forest trees, but now and 
then come lower down, and at times even to the ground. They peck 
with considerable force, like a woodpecker. The note is a loud, 
somewhat sharp chirruping, and is frequently uttered. According 
to Albert, they nest in hollow trees, and the clutch consists of three 
or four white eggs. 

' 

[Two other species of the Philydorinae have been erroneously credited 
to the Chilean fauna. 

Claudio Gay (Hist. fis. pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 296) believed that 
Anabates cristatus Spix might occur in Chile. This surmise is alto- 
gether unfounded, Pseudoseisura c. cristata and P. c. unirufa, its 
close ally, being restricted to the plains of Brazil and eastern Bolivia. 

Anabates turdoides Lesson (Echo du Monde Sav., 11, 2nd sem., 
No. 14, col. 325, Aug. 18, 1844; idem, Oeuvr. Buff on, ed. Le"vque, 
20, p. 279; Gay, Hist. fis. pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 296) was described 



214 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

as a new species from "Chile." This bird, which I have not yet 
succeeded in identifying, seems to be allied to Automolus or Thripo- 
phaga. Neither genus has any representative in Chile.] 

134. Pteroptochos tarnii (King) 1 

Hylactes tarnii King, Proc. Comm. Sci. Corresp. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1, p. 15, Jan., 
1831 Chiloe Island and Port Otway, Gulf of Penas; Sclater (2), 1867, 
pp. 325, 338 southern Chile; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1869, p. 283 
Halt Bay, Mesier Channel; Ridgway (2), p. 135 Port Otway, Gulf of 
Penas; E. Reed (4), p. 203 Valdivia; Lane, p. 42 Arauco, Corral and 
Rio Bueno (Valdivia), Puerto Montt, Llanquihue; Albert (1), 100, p. 606 
southern Chile; Passler (3), p. 455 Coronel (habits); Housse (1), p. 
49 Isla La Mocha, Arauco; Bullock (3), p. 124 Cerro de Nahuelbuta, 
Malleco; idem (4), p. 175 Angol, Malleco. 

Megalonyx ruficeps Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, 
cl. 2, p. 15, 1837 Valdivia. 

Leptonyx tarnii d'Orbigny, p. 138, pi. 8, fig. 1 Valdivia. 

Pteroptochos tarnii Darwin, p. 70 from the neighborhood of Concepcion to 
south of the peninsula of Tres Montes; Des Murs (2), p. 304 Concepcion 
to Magellania; Boeck, p. 499 Valdivia; Philippi (12), p. 254 Concepcion 
to Straits of Magellan; Cunningham (2), p. 347 common in Chiloe and 
in the Chonos Archipelago and even as far south as Halt Bay, Mesier 
Channel; Landbeck (9), p. 240 Chiloe" to Concepcion (habits); C. Reed 
(1), p. 38 Concepcion. 

Megalonyx tarnii Lesson (11), p. 209 Chiloe"; idem (12), col. 253 Chiloe". 

Range in Chile. From Concepcion to Mesier Channel in the 
Straits of Magellan. 

Material collected. Malleco: Curacautin, 9 juv., Jan. 13. 
Valdivia: Rinihue, c? imm., March 11; Mafil, cf juv., 9 ad., Feb. 
16, 28. Chiloe" Island: Quellon, three cf d" ad., 9 ad., <? juv., 
Dec. 20-Jan. 27; Rio Inio, 9 ad., one adult (unsexed), two d" 6" 
juv., Jan. 8-15. Llanquihue: Casa de Richards, Rio Nirehuau, cf 
imm., March 1. 

1 Lesson (Rev. Zool., 5, p. 209, "July," 1842; Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, 12, 
No. 41, p. 197, Sept., 1842) describes a new species, Megalonyx rufocapillus, from 
Chilo6, collected by his brother Adolphe Lesson, surgeon of the "Pylade." The 
diagnosis "Sincipite rufo; corpore supra brunneo, rufo^tincto; genis griseis; 
collo antici griseo sordidp rufuloque tincto; thorace albo et nigro-lineato; abdomine 
griseo; alis runs; rectricibus nifis, lateralibus atro et albo ocellatis"^ does not 
fit any Chilean bird. Des Murs (in Gay, 1, p. 306) merely gives a Spanish version 
of Lesson's description, without adding anything. Philippi (Anal. Univ. Chile, 
31, p. 255, 1868), the only author who has quoted the name since, considers it a 
synonym of P. tarnii. That species, however, has neither black and white bars on 
the throat nor a rufous tail with black and white spots on the lateral rectrices. 
I am quite unable to make it out, and strongly doubt the locality "ChiloeV 1 M. 
Berlioz's efforts, on my behalf, to locate the type in the Rochefort Museum, where, 
according to Lesson's own statement (Rev. Zool., 5, p. 130, 1842), the greater 
part of his brother's collection was deposited, unfortunately were unsuccessful. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYB 215 

Birds in juvenile plumage are much duller underneath, auburn 
rather than bright chestnut, and lack the concentric black abdominal 
markings, which are replaced by faint dusky vermiculations; besides, 
the rufous cap is much duller, a good many of the crown-feathers 
being apically edged with sooty, and the lower mandible is pale 
brownish. 

The "Hued-hued" is a common bird in southern Chile, from 
the vicinity of Concepcion south to Mesier Channel (Halt Bay), 
and ranges across the Andes to the extreme western section of Rio 
Negro and Chubut. It is reported to be plentiful in pieces of old 
forest where "quila" and other undergrowths abound, but occurs 
also in the more cultivated parts wherever there is sufficient cover, 
such as ravines, banks of rivers, and similar places. Landbeck, 
Lane, and Passler have described at length its manners and various 
call-notes. The last-named observer found its nest at the bottom 
of a deep burrow in the steep bank of a river. It was made of dry 
grass and contained, about the middle of November, two broadly 
oval, slightly glossy, white eggs. 

135. Pteroptochos castaneus Philippi and Landbeck 

Pteroptochus castaneus Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 25, No. 3, 
p. 408, Sept., 1864 Hacienda de la Puerta, Colchagua; Philippi (12), 
p. 254 Colchagua; idem (24), p. 38, pi. 16 Hacienda de la Puerta, 
Colchagua. 

Pteroptochos tarnii (not of King) Bridges, p. 94 Andes of Chile, 34-35 S. lat. 

= Colchagua. 
Pteroptochos castaneus Philippi and Landbeck, Arch. Naturg., 31, (1), p. 56, 

1865 Hacienda de la Puerta, Prov. Colchagua; idem, 1. c., 32, (1), p. 

121, 1866 Hacienda de la Puerta and "Talcarcguc" [=Talcaregua], 

Colchagua (descr. juv., crit.); Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 325, 338 Colchagua. 

Hylactes castaneus Sclater and Salvin, Exotic Ornith., p. 58, pi. 29 Col- 
chagua; Landbeck (9), p. 240 Colchagua (habits); E. Reed (2), p. 549 
Cauquenes, Colchagua; idem (4), p. 203 "provincias del centre i del 
sur"; Allen, p. 99 "Valparaiso" (?); Albert (1), 100, p. 607 "centre i sur 
del Chile." 

Range in Chile. Only known from Colchagua. 1 

Material examined. Colchagua: Talcaregua, 9 ad., Nov., 1865. 

R. A. Philippi (Mus. Comp. Zool., Cambridge); Colchagua, <? ad., 

9 ad., adult (unsexed). Landbeck and E. C. Reed (British Museum). 

"Chile" (locality not specified): fifteen specimens, collected by 

1 C. S. Reed (Av. Prov. Concepcion, p. 38) is certainly mistaken in including 
this species among the birds found in Concepcion Province. 



216 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

F. Leybold, T. Bridges, Renault, and others (British Museum and 
Paris Museum). 

The "Turco castana" is as yet only known from Colchagua Prov- 
ince. It was first met with by Philippi and Landbeck in December, 
1860, in the Hacienda de la Puerta, at an elevation of about 5,000 
feet above sea level. Here it was observed in small companies, 
frequenting the deep ravines traversed by the streams which descend 
from the neighboring snow fields. Subsequently, additional speci- 
mens were obtained, in November, 1865, from Talcaregua, in a 
more northern part of Colchagua. Two young birds taken in the 
first third of November being full-grown, the species would appear 
to breed early in the Antarctic summer. Edwyn Reed lists it as 
rare in the vicinity of Cauquenes. 1 Its favorite resorts are the 
bottoms of the deepest and dampest ravines, which are densely 
clothed with a coarse grass called "quila" and thickets formed by 
a kind of beech, thus localities similar to those affected by P. tarnii, 
which it is also said to resemble in actions and call-note. 

P. castaneus, while probably a northern representative of P. 
tarnii, differs strikingly from its ally by rufous (instead of slaty) 
throat and foreneck, lesser amount of rufous on the crown, this 
color being restricted to the forehead and a superciliary stripe; 
paler, more olivaceous dorsal surface, with distinct buff or ochraceous 
apical spots to the greater upper wing coverts and inner secondaries, 
etc. Until we acquire a better knowledge of its distribution, it seems 
advisable to keep the two birds specifically different. 

136. Pteroptochos megapodius Kittlitz 

Pteroptochos (us) megapodius Kittlitz, M6m. Acad. Sci. St. Pe'tersb., (sav. 

e"tr.), 1, livr. 2, p. 182, pi. 4, 1830 Valparaiso (type in Leningrad Museum; 

cf. Chrostowski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 1, p. 15, 1921); Darwin, 

p. 71 northern and central Chile; Lesson (10), p. 135 Valparaiso; Fraser 

(1), p. Ill near Valparaiso; Des Murs (2), p. 302 Chile (monog.); 

Bibra, p. 129 Valparaiso (habits); Cassin, p. 184 Chile; Kittlitz, Denkw., 

1, p. 137 near Valparaiso; Pelzeln (2), p. 60 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 

254 central and northern provinces; Landbeck (9), p. 239 Chile (habits); 

Waugh and Lataste (2), p. CLXX San Alfonso (Quillota), Valparaiso; 

idem (3), p. LIX Penaflor, Santiago. 
Pteroptochus paradoxtis (errore) Frauenfeld, p. 636 near Valparaiso (spec, in 

Vienna Museum examined). 
Hylactes megapodius Pelzeln (2), p. 60 Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 325, 

338 Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 549 Cauquenes, Colchagua; idem (4), p. 

1 His remark that it is more common in the south is doubtless due to confusion 
with the southern species, P. tarnii. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 217 

203 central provinces; Lane, p. 44 Hacienda Mansel, Santiago; Sclater, 
Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 7, p. XXIII, 1897 Chile (egg descr.); Schalow (2), 
p. 704 La Serena, Coquimbo; Albert (1), 100, p. 609 Chile (monog.); 
C. Reed (1), p. 38 Conception; Barros (4), p. 143 Nilahue, Curico; 
idem (5), p. 179 Cordillera of Aconcagua; C. Reed (4), p. 145 Cerros 
de Lampa, Santiago (food); Passler (3), p. 456 Coronel, Conception 
(habits); Housse (2), p. 143 San Bernardo, Santiago; Jaffuel and Pirion, 
p. 110 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso. 

Megalonyx rufus Lesson, Cent. Zool., p. 200, pi. 66, May, 1832 "le sud du 
Chile, dans le pays des Araucans et des Puelches"; Lafresnaye and 
d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, p. 15 Chile; Lesson, Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, 
12, p. 196 Valparaiso. 

Leptonyx macropus Swainson, Zool. Illust., 2nd ser., 3, p. 117, pi. 117, 1833 
Chile; d'Orbigny, p. 197 Valparaiso. 

Range in Chile. Central provinces, ranging from Coquimbo to 
Concepcion. 

Material collected. Coquimbo: La Compania, 9 juv., Oct. 31. 
Valparaiso: Limache, c? ad., 9 ad., June, 1922. C. S. Reed. San- 
tiago: Lampa, 9 ad., June 2, 1923. C. S. Reed; Batuco, 9 ad., 
July 22, 1923. C. S. Reed; San Jose" de Maipo (alt. 3,000 feet), 
c? juv., two 9 9 juv., Dec. 17-19. Colchagua: Tinguiririca, cf 
ad., July 5, 1924; Pelequen, d 1 ad., July 10, 1923. C. S. Reed. 

The two specimens from Colchagua have the foreneck and chest 
of a deeper as well as more uniform rufous than the others, but 
are closely approached by a female from Batuco. Young birds are 
much more buffy underneath with the blackish cross-bands less 
pronounced; superciliaries, chin, and sides of throat are buff instead 
of white; the lower mandible is yellowish. 

The range of the "Turco" is restricted to the central provinces. 
A few specimens have been taken as far north as Coquimbo, but 
it appears to be most abundant in Aconcagua, Valparaiso, Santiago, 
and Colchagua. Barros found it in small numbers in the valley 
of Nilahue, Curico, and Passler in the hills inland of Coronel, 
Concepcion, the latter locality marking the southern limit of its 
recorded distributional area. 

The "Turco" lives amongst the hills and mountains up to 8,000 
feet, descending to lower regions only where snow falls. Like P. 
tarnii, it digs a deep burrow in the hillside or in the river bank, 
and lays two broadly oval, white eggs. Passler found the eggs near 
Coronel early in October. A figure of the nesting-hole is given by 
Lane (Ibis, 1897, p. 44). 



218 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 
137. Scelorchilus rubecula (Kittlitz) 

Pteroptochos rubecula Kittlitz, Mem. Ac. Sci. St. Pe"tersb., (sav. etr.), 1, livr. 
2, p. 179, pi. 2, 1830 Conception, Chile (type in Leningrad Museum; 
cf. Chrostowski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 1, p. 14, 1921); Darwin, 
p. 73 from Conception to 47 S. lat.; Des Murs (2), p. 304 Conception, 
Valdivia, Chiloe"; Kittlitz, Denkwiird. Reise, 1, p. 123 San-Tome, near 
Conception; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 325, 338 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 225 
Chiloe to Colchagua; Landbeck (9), p. 240 Chiloe to Colchagua (habits); 
Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 28, p. 213, 1921 Valdivia. 

Megalonyx rubecula Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, p. 16 Chile. 

Leptonyx rubecula d'Orbigny, p. 196 Valdivia. 

Megalonyx rufogularis d'Orbigny, pi. 7, fig. 3; Lesson (10), p. 135 Valdivia 
and Chiloe. 

Pteroptochus rubecula Tschudi, p. 18 Chiloe; Boeck, p. 500 Valdivia; Pelzeln 
(2), pp. 60, 163 Chiloe; Ridgway (2), p. 135 Port Otway, Gulf of Penas; 
E. Reed (4), p. 203 Valdivia and south, rare north of the Rio Maule; 
Lane, p. 40 Puerto Varas (Llanquihue), Rio Bueno and Calle-Calle 
(Valdivia), Chiloe (habits); Albert (1), 100, p. 602 from Colchagua south- 
ward; Blaauw (1), pp. 28, 32, 64 Lake Todos Santos and near Puerto 
Montt, Llanquihue, and Hoppner Sound, Gulf of Penas; Passler (3), p. 
454 Coronel (habits); Housse (1), p. 49 Isla La Mocha, Arauco; Bullock 
(3), p. 123 Cerro de Nahuelbuta, Malleco; idem (4), p. 175 Angol, 
Malleco. 

Pteroptochus rubicula E. Reed (2), p. 549 Talhuen, Cauquenes, Colchagua. 

Pteroptochos rubecula nemorivaga Wetmore, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 21, p. 
333, June 16, 1923 Port Otway, "Straits of Magellan" = Gulf of Penas. 

Range in Chile. From the Gulf of Penas to southern Colchagua. 1 

Material collected. Malleco: Curacautin, three cf cf ad., two 

9 9 ad., one cf juv., Jan. 9-13. Valdivia: Mafil, cf ad., two 9 9 

ad., Feb. 17; Rinihue, 9 ad., March 6. Chilo Island: Quellon, 

four cf cf, four 9 9, one cf juv., Dec. 20-Jan. 1; Rio Inio, eight 

cf cf, one 9 ad., two cf cf juv., Jan. 11-16. Llanquihue: Rio 

Aisen, 9 ad., April 2; Rio Nirehuau, one unsexed, Feb. 21. 

As we have pointed out elsewhere, 2 birds from the extreme south 
(Llanquihue) are nowise different from a series collected at Curacau- 
tin, Malleco. P. r. nemorivaga, from Port Otway, appears to have 
been based on specimens whose coloration has been altered through 
preservation in alcohol. Young birds differ from the adults merely 
by having the middle of the belly suffused with orange-rufous, and 
the throat and foreneck are frequently, though not always, paler 
rufous. 

Waugh and Lataste's (Act. Soc. Sclent. Chili, 4, p. CLXX; 1. c., 5, p. LX) 
records of this species from San Alfonso (Quillota), Valparaiso, and Penan 1 or, 
Santiago, prove to be referable to Asthenes h. humicola! 

2 Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, Part 3, p. 6, 1924. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 219 

The "Chucao" is chiefly found in the forested section of southern 
Chile, from Concepcion to the Gulf of Perias, and is particularly 
plentiful in Valdivia, Llanquihue, and on Chilo Island. Blaauw 
and the naturalists of the "Albatross" met with it in the Tres Montes 
Peninsula, so far the most southerly recorded locality. According 
to Sanborn's and Bullock's observations, the "Chucao" is fairly 
numerous in Malleco, while Passler found it not uncommon near 
Coronel, in the Bay of Concepcion. While Darwin states that this 
bird does not occur north of Concepcion, both Philippi and Land- 
beck give its range as extending north to Colchagua, and Edwyn 
Reed tells us that, although rare north of the Rio Maule, it is some- 
times met with in the Talhuen district, in the southern part of the 
hacienda de Cauquenes. 

The "Chucao" inhabits thick undergrowth in the forest, being 
generally found in the vicinity of streams. "The birds are rather 
wary, come out now and then into view, when unconscious of obser- 
vation, but on perceiving anybody near, they are so hasty in their 
retreat that they seem to vanish into nothing. Their movements 
can only be compared to the flight of an arrow or such-like missile 
that is, when they make a dart across an open space or retreat from 
observation. Otherwise they hop or run along in an easy-going 
way, and will come quite close under cover of bushes. Their note 
is very loud and is uttered in almost the same tone as the gobbling 
of a turkey. The male emits a note something like the crow of 
a cock; this it utters at intervals while threading its way through 
the labyrinths of the forest undergrowth" (A. A. Lane). The nest, 
we are told by Passler, is placed in holes on steep river banks, and 
contains in October or November two broadly oval, smooth, slightly 
glossy white eggs. 

138. Scelorchilus albicollis albicollis (Kittlitz) 

Pteroptochos (us) albicollis Kittlitz, Mem. Acad. Sci. St. Pe"tersb., (sav. etr.), 
1, livr. 2, p. 180, pi. 3, 1830 Valparaiso; Darwin, p. 72 part, central 
Chile; Fraser (1), p. Ill central provinces; Des Murs (2), p. 303 Chile 
(monog.); Bibra, p. 129 Chile (habits); Cassin, p. 184 Chile; Kittlitz, 
Denkw., 1, p. 136 near Valparaiso; Germain, p. 311 Santiago (breeding 
habits); Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 325, 338 central Chile; Philippi (12), 
p. 254 part, central provinces; E. Reed (2), p. 549 Cauquenes, Col- 
chagua; Landbeck (9), p. 239 Chile (habits); Waugh and Lataste (2), p. 
CLXX San Alfonso (Quillota), Valparaiso; idem (3), p. LIX Penaflor, 
Santiago; E. Reed (4), p. 203 central provinces; Barros (4), p. 142 
Nilahue, Curic6; idem (5), p. 179 Cordillera of Aconcagua; Jaffuel and 
Pirion, p. 110 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso; Chrostowski, Ann. Zool. Mus. 



220 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Pol. Hist. Nat., 1, p. 14, 1921 (type in Leningrad Museum, erroneously 

stated to be from El Tom6, Concepci6n). 
Myiothera albicollis Meyen, p. 77 Casa Blanca, Valparaiso. 
Megalonyx medius Lesson, L'Institut, 2, No. 72, p. 316, Sept. 27, 1834 

Valparaiso; idem, Illust. Zool., pi. 60, 1835 Valparaiso. 
Megalonyx albicollis Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, p. 15 Chile. 
Leptonyx albicollis d'Orbigny, p. 196, pi. 8, fig. 2 "Concepci6n, Valdivia" 

(errore; cf. Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 28, p. 213, 1921). 
Scelorchilus albicollis albicollis Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 

13, Part 3, p. 7, pi. 3, 1924 Olmu6, San Jos6 de Maipo, and Lampa. 

Range in Chile. Central provinces, from Aconcagua to Curico. 

Material collected. Valparaiso: Olmue", two cf cf ad., three 9 9 

ad., May 24, 27, June 3; Las Rojas, Quillota, cf ad., Aug. 22. J. A. 

Wolffsohn,' Limache, 9 ad., Oct. 19. J. A. Wolffsohn. Santiago: 

San Jos de Maipo (alt. 3,000 feet), 9 ad., Dec. 21; Lampa, cf ad., 

9 ad., June 2. C. S. Reed. 

The series is very uniform except that birds in worn plumage 
(October to December) are less buffy below and not so deeply 
colored above. 

The "Tapaculo" is common in the heart of central Chile, from 
Aconcagua to Colchagua, ranging southwards into Curico, where 
R. Barros found it in small numbers in the valley of Nilahue. The 
localities "Conception and Valdivia" mentioned by d'Orbigny on 
the authority of a M. Fontaine are erroneous. The exact northern 
limit of its distribution cannot be given at present, though it possibly 
extends into the southern parts of Coquimbo Province. 1 

This bird is reported to be resident in bushy ravines and river 
banks, ascending in the hills to an approximate altitude of 5,000 feet. 
In October or November, Germain tells us, it lays two eggs in a 
badly constructed nest, which it places in the holes of cliffs or oftener 
in the empty galleries of Octodon cumingii. 

139. Scelorchilus albicollis atacamae Hellmayr 

Scelorchilus albicollis atacamae Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
12, p. 71, 1924 Caldera, Atacama; idem, 1. c., 13, Part 3, p. 7, pi. 3, 
1924 Caldera, Quebrada del Leon, and La Compania. 

Pteroptochos (its) albicollis (not of Kittlitz) Darwin, p. 72 part, Copiapo 
Valley; Philippi, Reise Wiiste Atacama, p. 162 Quebrada de La Encantada, 
Atacama; idem (12), p. 254 part, northern provinces; Sharpe, p. 8 
Coquimbo; Salvin (2), p. 425 Coquimbo; Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 159 
Quebrada de La Encantada; Schalow (2), p. 705 Totoralillo, Coquimbo 
Bay; Gigoux, p. 86 Caldera. 

'The bird seen by Darwin near Illapel probably belonged to typical albicollis. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 221 

Range in Chile. Northern provinces, from Coquimbo to 
Atacama. 

Material collected. Atacama: Caldera, 9 ad., Aug. 29 (type of 
subspecies); Quebrada del Leon, near Caldera, two cf d* ad., March 
26. C. C. Sanborn; d 1 ad., two 9 9 ad., Sept. 19, May 18. 
E. Gigoux. Coquimbo: La Compafiia, 9 ad., Oct. 31. 

Additional specimens. Coquimbo: Las Cardas, d" ad., July, 
1879. Coppinger; Coquimbo, two adults, Aug. 25, 1879, Nov., 1881. 
Coppinger and A. H. Markham (British Museum). 

This form differs from the typical one by slenderer bill and much 
paler coloration throughout, which reflects the dry nature of the 
country it inhabits. The dorsal surface is pale (brownish) gray 
instead of warm brown; the rufous of the pileum less intense and 
more restricted to the fore-crown; the barring of the rump buffy- 
white instead of ochraceous-buff; the rufous of the wings and tail 
lighter, cinnamon-rufous rather than hazel; the upper wing coverts 
less rufescent; the under parts nearly white instead of buffy; 
the flanks but faintly tinged with buffy instead of being strongly 
washed with tawny-olive or clay-color. 

The series from Caldera and Coquimbo is strikingly different 
from S. a. albicollis, as represented by specimens from Valparaiso 
and Santiago. Even a bird in worn breeding plumage (from Co- 
quimbo), when compared with another in corresponding condition 
from San Jos de Maipo, can readily be told apart. 

S. a. atacamae replaces the typical form in the semi-arid dis- 
tricts of Coquimbo and Atacama. 

MEASUREMENTS 

S. a. albicollis Adult males Wing Tail Bill 

Three from Valparaiso 81,81,82 76,76,80 19J^,20,21 

One from Santiago 80 75 20 

S. a. albicollis Adult females 

Four from Valparaiso 73,77,78,81 74,74,74,77 18^,18^,19,20 

Two from Santiago 77,79 72,76 20,20 

S. a, atacamae 

Five adult males 74,76,76, 68,71,75, 17^,17^,19, 

76, 78 76, 20,21 

Four adult females 72,74,76,76 65,68,71,73 19,19,19,20 

140. Scytalopus magellanicus magellanicus (Gmelin) 

Motacilla magellanica Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 979, 1789 based on 
"Magellanic Warbler" Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., 2, (2), p. 464, Tierra del 
Fuego (descr. juv.). 



222 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Sylvia obscura King, Zool. Journ., 3, No. 11, p. 429, 1828 Port Famine, 

Straits of Magellan (type in British Museum examined). 
Scytalopus fuscus Gould, P. Z. S. Lond., 4, "1836," p. 89, Feb., 1837 part, 

"in fretu Magellanico" ; Jardine and Selby, Illust. Orn., (n. s.), 4, pi. 

19, 1838 part, right figure; Jardine, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 116, pi. 

77 part, right figure. 

Pteroptochos albifrons Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 14, p. 182, 1857 vicinity 
of Valdivia; idem, Arch. Naturg., 23, (1), p. 273, 1857 Valdi via; Allen, 
p. 99 Chile (crit.). 

Scytalopus magellanicus Darwin, p. 74 Port Famine (Tierra del Fuego), 
thickly wooded islets of the Chonos Archipelago, and Chiloe Island; Des 
Murs (2), p. 307 Chiloe", "Conception"; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 325, 338 
part, Straits of Magellan to Valdivia (crit.); E. Reed (4), p. 202 Maga- 
llanes; Blaauw (1), p. 32 near Puerto Montt, Llanquihue; Bullock (3), 
p. 122 Cerro de Nahuelbuta, Malleco; idem (4), p. 174 Angol, Malleco 
(breeding). 

Scytalopus albifrons Philippi (12), p. 255 part, Chiloe; Landbeck (9), p. 240 
part, Chiloe'; Ridgway (2), p. 135 Port Otway, Gulf of Pefias; Albert 
(1), 100, p. 599 Chile (monog.); Philippi (24), p. 40, pi. 20, fig. 4 
Valdivia. 

(?) Scitalopus obscurus Housse (3), p. 226 Isla La Mocha, Arauco. 

Range in Chile. From Malleco to the Straits of Magellan. 

Material collected. Malleco: Curacautin, cf ad., 9 (first annual), 
Jan. 13, 14; Rio Colorado, cf (first annual), two cf cf juv., Feb. 3- 
7. Valdivia: Rinihue, cf juv., 9 juv., March 11, 15. Chilce* 
Island: Quellon, two cfcf ad., 9 ad., 9 (first annual), 9 (in juvenile 
molt), juv., Dec. 20-Jan. 27; Rio Inio, cf , 9 (first annual), cf juv., 
Jan. 7-16. Llanquihue: Rio Aisen, 9 (first annual), April 4; Casa 
de Richards, Rio Nirehuau, cf juv., March 13. 

Additional specimens. Cautin: Maquehue, Temuco, cf ad., cf 
(first annual), 9 (first annual), Aug., Sept. D. S. Bullock (Tring 
and British Museums) ; Pelal, Temuco, 9 (first annual), July 7, 1910. 
A. C. Saldana. Valdivia: near Valdivia, four cf cf (first annual). 
L. Landbeck, F. Ohde, and A. von Lossberg (British and Frankfort 
Museums). Llanquihue: Port Otway, Tres Montes Peninsula, 9 
(first annual), 9 juv., Feb. 10. "Albatross" Exp. (U. S. National 
Museum). 

Specimens from southern Chile (Malleco to Llanquihue) seem 
to be inseparable from a series taken along the Straits of Magellan, 
although their measurements are perhaps, on average, slightly 
smaller. There has been much controversy regarding the validity of 
P. albifrons, and Philippi maintained its distinctness to the very 
last. He and Landbeck, the describer of that species, however, 
never intended to separate the South Chilean birds from those found 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 223 

in the Straits of Magellan; they merely insisted on the specific 
distinctness of the small, slender-billed Scytalopus from the "Churrin" 
of the central provinces (S. obscurus auct. =S. fuscus}, having mis- 
identified Eugralla paradoxa (Kittl.) with M. magellanica of Gmelin, 
as is shown by their marked specimens transmitted to the British 
Museum. There is, however, no doubt whatever that Gmelin's 
description refers to the juvenile plumage of the Scytalopus, and 
not to Eugralla paradoxa, the latter not being found in Tierra del 
Fuego. P. albifrons thus becomes a synonym of S. magellanicus. 
Another synonym is Sylvia obscura King, the type of which has 
recently been rediscovered in the collection of the British Museum, 
where I had the privilege of examining it. 

Study of over sixty specimens tends to show that birds with 
cinnamon-brown upper parts, black-and-buf! markings on the wings, 
and ochraceous-barred rump and tail represent an immature stage, 
evidently the first annual plumage. In fully adult dress this babbler 
is entirely sooty gray, with but a few, more or less obsolete, black- 
and-ochraceous crescentic markings to the tips of the tertials and 
a number of narrow, ochraceous or buff cross-bands on the rump, 
while the ochraceous or tawny barring of the flanks is much reduced. 
Certain specimens, e.g. the type of S. obscura, an adult male from 
Curacautin (Malleco), and another from Lago Blanco, Chubut, 
have mere traces of dull ochraceous barring on rump and flanks, 
and an adult bird collected by Darwin at Port Famine, except 
for an ochraceous-and-black apical spot on the innermost tertial, is 
even wholly sooty gray. These individuals closely resemble S. fuscus, 
of central Chile, in coloration, but are markedly smaller in all pro- 
portions. The presence of silvery white edges to the crown-feathers 
is a purely individual character, for we have seen both males and 
females in adult and first annual plumage with and without white. 
When present, it is exceedingly variable, and may form isolated 
spots or extend in a nearly unbroken area right across the middle 
of the crown. 

Birds from Malleco (Curacautin) are in every particular similar 
to those from more southern localities. A series (thirteen) from 
Lago Blanco, Chubut, and two adults from Nahuel Huapi are not 
different either. 

The Magellanic Babbler ranges from the Straits all over southern 
Chile north to Malleco, where Bullock found it breeding in the 
vicinity of Angol. There is no definite record from Concepcion, 
but as two birds from Talcaguano pertain to the large-billed north- 



224 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

era S. m. fuscus, it must be expected that the ranges of the two 
forms meet somewhere in that vicinity. 

According to Landbeck, this bird is by no means rare in the 
dense undergrowth of damp and shady woods. It is, however, of 
very secretive habits, and seldom seen except during the mating 
season in September, when the male may be observed sitting on a 
bush and uttering its loud call-note, sometimes consecutively for 
half-an-hour or more. It is very active and alert and, when fright- 
ened, runs rapidly through the thicket, with the tail upright and 
the wings spread out. Its large nest, well constructed of rootlets 
and moss, lined inside with hair and feathers, is placed in holes on 
steep rocky slopes, more rarely under the roots of trees, and contains 
from three to four rather large, roundish, white eggs. 

141. Scytalopus magellanicus fuscus Gould 

Scytalopus fuscus Gould, P. Z. S. Lond., 4, "1836," p. 89, Feb., 1837 part, 
Chile; Jardine and Selby, Illust. Orn., (n. s.), 4, pi. 19, 1838 part, left 
figure; Jardine, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 116, pi. 77 part, left figure; 
Bridges, p. 94 Chile, 34 and 35 S. lat.; Cassin, p. 188, pi. 21, fig. 
2 vicinity of Santiago (spec, in U. S. National Museum examined); 
Germain, p. 310 Chile (nesting habits); Pelzeln (2), p. 60 Chile; Wet- 
more (3), p. 289 Concon, Valparaiso (spec, examined). 

Platyurus niger Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 323, Dec., 1837 Chile (type in 
Liverpool Museum); Jacquinot and Pucheran, Voy. au P61e Sud, Zool., 
3, p. 91, pi. 19, fig. 1, 1853 Talcaguano (spec, in Paris Museum examined). 

Conirostrum fuliginosum Lesson, Echo du Monde Sav., 11, 2nd sem., No. 2, 
'col. 30, July 7, 1844 interior of Chile. 

Merulaxis fuscoides Lafresnaye, Contrib. Orn., 4, p. 149, 1851 Chile (type 
in Mus. Comp. Zool., Cambridge, Mass., examined). 

Conirostrum fuscum Lesson, Compl. Oeuvr. Buffon, ed. LeVgque, 20, (Descr. 
Mamm. et Ois.), p. 274, 1847 interior of Chile. 1 

Scytalopus obscurus (not Sylvia obscura King) Des Murs (2), p. 308 Chile; 
Philippi (12), p. 255 central provinces; Landbeck (9), p. 239 Chile 
(vertical range); Sclater, Ibis, 1874, p. 194 central provinces (crit.); 
idem, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 15, p. 340, 1890 Santiago; E. Reed (4), p. 202 
Chile; Waugh and Lataste (2), p. CLXXI San Alfonso (Quillota), 
Valparaiso; Albert (1), 100, p. 598 Chile (monog.); Jaffuel and Pirion, 
p. 110 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso. 

Scytalopus fuscoides Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 325, 338 Santiago (crit.); E. Reed 
(2), p. 548 Valle de los Cipreses, Colchagua. 

x This is the bird previously described as C. fuliginosum, whose identity with 
Scytalopus fuscus of Gould the author, in the meantime, had apparently discovered. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 225 

Scytalopus magellanicus 1 (not of Motacilla magellanica Gmelin) Sclater (2), 
1867, p. 325 part, Colchagua; idem, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 15, p. 338, 
1890 part, spec, n, p-w, Colchagua, Santiago, Chile (spec, in British 
Museum examined). 

Scytalopus albifrons (not of Landbeck) Philippi (12), p. 255 part, Colchagua; 
E. Reed (2), p. 548 Valle de los Cipreses, Colchagua; Landbeck (9), 
p. 240 part, Colchagua. 

Scytalopus niger Menegaux and Hellmayr, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 11, 
p. 379, 1905 part, Talcaguano, Chile (crit.); Chapman, Auk, 32, p. 411, 
1915 part, Valparaiso; Barros (4), p. 142 Nilahue Valley, Curico; 
Housse (2), p. 143 San Bernardo, Santiago; Barros (11), p. 315 Ojos 
de Agua, near Juncal, Prov. Santiago. 

Range in Chile. From Coquimbo (Tofo) to Concepcion 
(Talcaguano). 

Material collected. Valparaiso: Olmue", two cfcf ad., May 26, 
June 2. Maule: Pilen Alto, eight miles west of Cauquenes, 9 imm., 
May 12. 

Additional specimens. Coquimbo: Tofo, sixty miles north of 
Coquimbo, cf juv., May 6, 1917. T. Hallinan (American Museum 
of Natural History, New York). Valparaiso: Concon, cf ad., April 
27, 1921. A. Wetmore (U. S. National Museum); Valparaiso, <? 
ad., Nov. 6, 1913. R. H. Beck (American Museum of Natural 
History, New York). Santiago: Vicinity of Santiago, two d" cf ad., 
one 9 ad., July, 1865, Aug., 1864. Philippi and Landbeck (British 
Museum); d" ad., 9 imm., 1870. F. Leybold (British Museum). 
Colchagua: Talcaregua, near San Fernando, cf ad., 9 ad., Nov., 
1866. L. Landbeck (Berlin Museum) ; Cordillera de Cauquenes, 9 
juv. E. C. Reed (Tring Museum) ; "Colchagua," <? ad., Nov., 1865. 
L. Landbeck (British Museum). Concepcion: Talcaguano, two 
adults. Voyage of the "Astrolabe" (Paris Museum). "Chile:" 
thirteen adults and young (British, Tring, and Frankfort Museums). 

When compiling the account of this genus for the "Catalogue of 
Birds of the Americas," 2 we placed the Dusky Babbler far away 
from S. magellanicus. Since that time, we have had an opportunity 
of examining a large amount of additional material, and careful 
investigation of the case led us to the conclusion that the two birds 
were closely related. As a matter of fact, the only absolutely con- 
stant characters of distinction are the longer tail, the stronger legs, 
and the larger bill of the northern form. The wing measurements, 

l lt is hard to say what S. magellaniciis Fraser (P. Z. S. Lond., 11, p. Ill, 
1843 "various parts of Chile") may be. The vernacular name, "Chircan negro," 
is often used by the natives of Chile to designate Eugralla paradoxa (Kittlitz). 

2 Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, Part 3, p. 10, 1924. 



226 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

while generally greater in S. fuscus, are somewhat variable, and do 
not constitute a thoroughly reliable criterion. As far as coloration 
is concerned, it must be admitted that S. fuscus (niger), as a rule, 
is more uniform, the buffy barring, if present, being rather obsolete 
and restricted to the lower flanks, under tail coverts, and some of 
the uropygial feathers. Similar examples, however, occasionally 
occur in the range of S. magellanicus, as has been demonstrated 
under that species. 

Adult birds exhibit much variation, not only in the amount of 
buffy-and-dusky barring, which, though narrow, is fairly pronounced 
on the flanks and under tail coverts in some, barely suggested by 
slight traces in others, but also in the intensity of the general coloring 
of the body plumage, which varies from dark mouse-gray to blackish 
slate, the ventral surface being always somewhat lighter than the 
upper parts. This color usually passes into black with a faint silky 
gloss on forehead and anterior crown; but in some specimens from 
Santiago and an adult male from Mendoza (Horcones Valley, 11,500 
feet, April 20, 1897. P. H. Gosse) the anterior portion of the pileum 
is silky gray, paler than the hind-crown, thus more like S. magel- 
lanicus. The wings are as a rule unmarked, though sometimes a 
few indistinct, pale brownish apical, and dusky subterminal bars 
may be present. What I take to be the first-annual plumage is 
washed with cinnamon-brown above, faintly cross-marked with 
dusky. The juvenile plumage is similar to that of S. magellanicus, 
but paler, less rufous throughout, with the markings less distinct. 

Three adult birds in gray plumage from Colchagua agree with 
the series from Santiago and Valparaiso in size and general colora- 
tion, but form the transition to S. magellanicus by having the crown- 
feathers broadly edged with silvery-white. Such a specimen was 
already recorded from the Valle de los Cipreses, Colchagua, by 
Edwyn Reed, 1 who felt inclined to regard it as a mere variety of 
the ordinary "Churrin" of the region. If Landbeck gives the range 
of S. albifrons as extending to Colchagua, he was no doubt influenced 
by the occasional occurrence of white-crowned birds in that prov- 
ince. On the other hand, a female (first annual) collected by San- 
born at Pilen Alto, Maule, and two adults from Talcaguano in the 
Paris Museum have no trace of white on the crown, and seem to 
be typical of S. m. fuscus. 

The geographical distribution of S. m. fuscus thus appears to 
comprise the whole of central Chile, from Conception north to the 

'Anal. Univ. Chile, 49, p. 548, 1877. 



1932 



BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 



227 



confines of Atacama, the most northerly locality on record being 
Tofo, sixty miles north of Coquimbo, whence T. Hallinan obtained 
a specimen for the American Museum of Natural History. 

According to Landbeck, the "Churrin" is by no means uncommon 
in damp ravines, along creeks, and in dense brushwoods. Its habits 
are said to be similar to those of S. magellanicus. Germain reports 
that it lays in October or November two eggs in a nest rather badly 
made, which it conceals under brushwood in the vegetable detritus, 
and which it approaches through a gallery or corridor, made of the 
same material in which the nest is placed; but it is perhaps a little 
doubtful if these notes really refer to the present species. 

About its vertical distribution, little definite information is 
available. All the specimens we have seen are from near the sea- 
coast or from the foothills of the Andes. Landbeck states that it 
ranges up to an elevation of 10,000 feet. A single example in juvenile 
plumage obtained by R. Barros 1 on the Rio de Castro, Aconcagua, 
at an altitude of 2,650 meters on February 21, 1923, however, seems 
too different to be referred to S. m. fuscus. On the other hand, 
an adult male from the Horcones Valley (alt. 11,500 feet), west of 
Mendoza, in the collection of the British Museum I am unable to 
separate from Santiago specimens. More material is needed to 
ascertain whether there is more than one species in the Andes of 
central Chile. 

MEASUREMENTS OF ADULTS 



S. magellanicus magellanicus Wing 

Unsexed type of S. obscura 51 
Two from Hermit Island, 

Magellan Straits 52,54 
One from Port Famine, 

Tierra del Fuego 52 

Males 

One from Chilo6 Island 50 

One from Valdivia 50 

One from Temuco, Cautin 52 

Two from Malleco (Curacautin) 50,50 

Four from Lago Blanco, Chubut 48,49,50, 

51 

One from Nahuel Huapi, Neuquen 47 

Females 

Two from Chiloe Island 47,49 

Three from Lago Blanco, Chubut 47,49,49 

One from Nahuel Huapi, Neuquen 47 J^ 



Tail 
30 



Tarsus 



Bill 



35,36 


18,19 


32 





32 


19 


32 


19 


32 


20 


32,32 


18,18 


30,30,31, 


17-18^ 


31 




31 


18}/ 



11 



12 
11 



29,31 

28,29,30 17,17,18 

29 18 



11 



10,11 

9^,10, 

10 



l Scytalopus niger Barros, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 25, p. 179, 1923 Cajon 
de Castro, Rio Blanco, Guardia Vieja, Ojos de Agua, and Valle de los Piuquenes, 
Cordillera of Aconcagua. 



228 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

S. magellanicus fuscus Wing Tail Tarsus Bill 

Males 

Four from Valparaiso 51,51, 39^,40, 17,18, 12-13 Y z 

52H.52H 42,44 19,19 

Three from Santiago 52,54,56 39,40,41 18,18,19 12,12,13 

One from Colchagua 55 39 20 12 

One from Talcaregua, Colchagua 57 20 12 

One from Horcones Valley, Mendoza 58 19 12 % 

Females 

Two from Santiago 49,55 40, 19,19 12,12 

One from Talcaregua, Colchagua 55 38 20 

Type of S. fuscoides 50 40 11 H 

142. Eugralla 1 paradoxa (Kittlitz) 

Troglodytes paradoxus Kittlitz, Mem. Ac. Sci. St. P6tersb., (sav. 6tr.), 1, livr. 

2, p. 184, pi. 5, 1830 La Conception, Chile (descr. of young female); 

Chrostowski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 1, p. 15, 1921 "El Tome," 

near Conception (type in Leningrad Museum). 
Malacorhynchus chilensis "Kittlitz," Menetries, Mem. Ac. Sci. St. Pe'tersb., 

6th ser., 3, Part 2, (Sci. Nat.), p. 527, 1835 near Conception. 
Mer[ulaxis] analis Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 3, p. 104, 1840 Paraguay or Chile; 

idem, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 149; Des Murs (2), p. 309 Chile (ex 

Lafresnaye). 
Megalonyx nanus Lesson, 2 Rev. Zool., 5, p. 135, May, 1842 Chiloe Island 

(descr. of adult and young); idem, Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, 12, p. 197, 

Sept., 1842 Chiloe Island; Lafresnaye, Contrib. Orn., 1851, p. 150 

Chiloe (ex Lesson). 
Pteroptochos (us) paradoxus Darwin, p. 73 Valdivia and Chilo6; Des Murs 

(2), p. 305 Valdivia and Chiloe; Philippi (12), p. 255 "Valdivia" (ex 

Kittlitz). 

Pteroptochos nanus Des Murs (2), p. 306 Chiloe (ex Lesson). 
Triptorhinus paradoxus Hartlaub (3), p. 211 Valdivia (crit.); Sclater (2), 

1867, pp. 325, 338 Valdivia; idem, Ibis, 1874, p. 205 Valdivia (crit.); 

E. Reed (4), p. 203 Isla La Mocha, Arauco; Lane, p. 45 Coronel, 

Conception, and Calle-Calle, Valdivia, and Chiloe (habits); Passler (3), 

p. 453 Coronel (habits, nest, and eggs); Housse (1), p. 49 Isla La Mocha, 

Arauco. 
Malacorhamphus araucanus Kittlitz, Denkw., 1, p. 124, 1858 San-Tome, 

Conception. 
Scytalopus magellanicus (errore) Philippi (12), p. 255 Conception to "Magel- 

lania" (cf. Sclater, P. Z. S. Lond., 1867, p. 325); Albert (1), 101, p. 594 

Chile (monog.); idem (2), 2, p. 94 Chile (crit.). 

1 Eugralla Lesson (Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, 12, No. 41, p. 197, Sept. 15, 1842), 
proposed as a subgenus for Troglodytes paradoxus Kittlitz and Megalonyx nanus 
Lesson, takes precedence over Triptorhinus Cabanis (Arch. Naturg., 13, (1), p. 
219, 1847). The name, though listed by Sherborn, has been completely overlooked. 

"Included in the synonymy of Scytalopus magellanicus in Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Zool. Ser., 13, Part 3, p. 18, 1924. The fuller account in the Act. Soc. Linn. Bord. 
since consulted leaves, however, no doubt as to M . nanus being Kittlitz's Babbler, 
as was pointed out long ago by Hartlaub (Naumannia, 1853, p. 212). 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 229 

Scytalopus paradoxus Landbeck (9), p. 240 from ChiloS to "Colchagua." 
Scytalopus obscurus (errore) 1 Bullock (3), p. 122 Cerro de Nahuelbuta, Mal- 
leco; idem (4), p. 174 Angol, Malleco (breeding). 

Range in Chile. Southern provinces, from Maule to Chiloe". 

Material collected. Maule: Pilen Alto, eight miles west of 
Cauquenes, 9 ad., May 11. Concepcion: Hacienda Gualpencillo, 
four cTc? 1 ad., four 9 9 ad., April 11-29. Malleco: Curacautin, 
three d* <? ad., Jan. 9-12. Valdivia: Mafil, 9 juv., Feb. 16. Chilo( 
Island: Quellon, two cf cf ad., one 9 ad., one cf juv., one 9 juv., 
Dec. 22-Jan. 27. 

Adult birds do not show any sexual difference either in size or 
coloration. Regardless of sex, the gray color below is subject to 
some variation in intensity; in a good many specimens it passes 
into whitish along the middle of the abdomen, but in others it is 
nearly uniform. The juvenile plumage is barred above with black 
and rufescent brown; the rump extensively tawny brown; the sides 
of the head buffy, edged with dusky; the lower surface dingy whitish, 
with transverse bars of dusky on the breast, and the flanks bright 
ochraceous tawny, strongly banded with black; the lower mandible 
yellowish. A specimen in change of plumage formed the basis 
of Troglodytes paradoxus, while Lesson, twelve years later, described 
both adult and young birds as Megalonyx nanus, attributing the 
differences to sex and failing to recognize its identity with Kittlitz's 
species. Merulaxis analis Lafresnaye, long misapplied to a species of 
the genus Scytalopus, turned out to have been founded on an adult of 
Kittlitz's Babbler, as was first pointed out by Chapman (Auk, 32, 
p. 418, 1915). Philippi and Albert inconceivably mistook the present 
species for Scytalopus magellanicus, although the two birds have 
very little in common. Birds from Isla La Mocha are said to be 
somewhat different in proportions. 

The "Churrin de la Mocha" of the Chileans is widely distributed 
in southern Chile, particularly from Concepcion to Chiloe". Its 
southward range does not extend beyond this island, while the most 
northerly locality on record is Pilen Alto, in the vicinity of Cauquenes, 
Maule, where C. Sanborn secured an adult female in fresh plumage 
on May 11. That it ever occurs as far north as Colchagua, as 
claimed by Landbeck, appears to be open to doubt. According to 
Edwyn Reed and Housse, it is plentiful on the Isla La Mocha. 

These birds prefer "quila"-thickets along rivers, but are also found 
in thick bushy pastures. According to Lane and Passler, they keep 

1 Mr. Bullock, on a recent visit to Chicago, found out that the bird recorded 
by him under the above name is actually the present species. 



230 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

mostly to the ground or to the bottom of the thickets, creeping 
along twigs and branches in a peculiar way, "which is neither hopping 
nor running, but more like the motion of tree-creepers than any- 
thing." On the ground they hop and take little runs, like the species 
of Pteroptochos, but they hardly ever fly. As we are told by Passler, 
they have two broods, one around the end of September, and the 
second in the latter half of November. The nest, composed of dry 
grass and sticks, is placed one to five feet above the ground among 
leaves and twigs in a thick bush. The two eggs are broadly oval 
to nearly elliptic and white, with a smooth, slightly glossy shell. 

143. Patagona gigas gigas (Vieillot) 

Trochilus gigas Vieillot [and Oudart], Galerie Ois., 1, (2), p. 296, pi. 180, 
1824 "Bre'sil," errore, we suggest Valparaiso, Chile; Poeppig (1), p. 153 
Valparaiso; Darwin, p. Ill Valparaiso (habits and nest); Fraser (1), p. 
114 Valparaiso; Lesson, Echo du Monde Sav., 10, 2nd sem., No. 11, 
col. 255, 1843 "Valdivia" (.nest descr.); Des Murs (2), p. 273; Bibra, 
p. 128 the whole of Chile except the extreme south, common around 
Valparaiso (habits, anatomy); Cassin, p. 186 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 
249 central provinces; Landbeck, Zool. Garten, 17, p. 228, 1876 San- 
tiago (habits); Lataste (1), p. CXV Cordillera of Aculeo, Santiago; 
Waugh and Lataste (1), p. LXXXIV Penaflor, Santiago. 

Ornismya tristis Lesson, Hist. Nat. Ois.-Mouch., p. 43, pi. 3, 1829 'Tinte'rieur 
du Chile, et s'avance dans le pays des Araucanos, et jusque dans les pampas 
sauvages des Puelches, au sud du Vieux Chili, et au pied des Andes." 

Ornismya gigantea Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 
8, cl. 2, p. 26, 1838 Valparaiso. 

Patagona gigas Pelzeln (2), p. 54 Santiago; Sclater and Salvin (2), Ibis, 1870, 
p. 499 La Compania, Coquimbo; Allen, p. 100 Valparaiso; Sclater (2), 
1867, pp. 328, 338; Sharpe, p. 9 Coquimbo; E. Reed (4), p. 203 Chile; 
Albert (1), 100, p. 622 part, southern Chile; idem, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 
2, p. 141 part, southern Chile; Schalow (2), p. 703 Punta Teatinos, La 
Serena, Coquimbo; Barros (4), p. 141 Nilahue, Curic6; idem (5), p. 178 
Cordillera of Aconcagua; Passler (3), p. 452 Coronel and Smyth's 
Channel (habits); Housse (2), p. 143 San Bernardo; Gigoux, p. 85 
Caldera; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 105 Marga-Marga Valley, Valparaiso. 
Patagonas gigas E. Reed (2), p. 554 Cauquenes, Colchagua. 
Patagona gigas gigas Dabbene, p. 495 Chile (monog.). 
Range in Chile. Central provinces, from Atacama to Concep- 
ci6n, occasionally straggling as far south as Valdivia and Smyth's 
Channel. 

Material collected. Atacama: Caldera, three cf d" ad., one <f 
imm., two 9 9 ad., Sept. 23-29, Dec. 7. E. Gigoux. Coquimbo: 
La Compania, rf 1 ad., Oct. 31. Aconcagua: Papudo, "9" [=cf?] 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 231 

ad., Sept. 15. J. Wolff sohn. Valparaiso: Maitenes, Limache, cf 
ad., 9 ad., Oct. 7, Dec. 2. J. Wolffsohn. Santiago: San Jose" de 
Maipo (alt. 3,000 feet), <? ad., Dec. 19. "Chile" (unspecified): 
d" ad. E. C. Reed. 

Although the late Eugene Simon (Hist. Nat. Troch., p. 157) 
questioned the possibility of discriminating any geographic races 
of the Giant Humming bird, the study of between fifty and sixty 
properly labeled specimens from the whole range clearly indicates 
the existence of two forms. 

Birds from central Chile (Atacama to Santiago) are characterized 
by small size, short, slender bill, and mainly grayish under parts, 
without any chestnut on the lower throat and with rather indistinct 
dusky streaks on the chin. Specimens from Bolivia, Peru, and 
Ecuador are decidedly larger, with stouter, longer bill, and the 
ventral surface is much more suffused with rufescent, the abdomen 
being often bright cinnamon-rufous. The throat is much more heavily 
streaked with black and strongly washed or edged with cinnamon- 
rufous on the lower portion. There is a certain amount of variation 
in the extent and intensity of the rufous color underneath, but this 
seems to be purely individual and not to depend on either sex or 
age. While the palest examples of the northern form can be closely 
matched by one or two unusually rufous-bellied birds from central 
Chile, the general run of the two series is easily told apart. 

Oudart's plate of T. gigas, based on an evidently immature bird 
from "Bre'sil" in the collection of "M. Portier, attache" au ministre 
de la marine," while none too good, corresponds fairly well to certain 
bright-colored Chilean specimens, such as No. 61,676, Caldera, and 
accordingly I propose to restrict Vieillot's term to the small southern 
form suggesting Valparaiso as type locality. 

The larger northern race is entitled to the name P. gigas peru- 
viana, 1 tentatively proposed by Boucard for a specimen from Peru 
in his collection. The type, a male obtained by H. Whitely on June 
15, 1868, at Tinta, Dept. Cuzco, agrees with the average of our 
Peruvian series, while P. boliviano, was based on an individual 
variant with wholly cinnamon-rufous under parts, represented in 
our material by a female from Huanuco Viejo and a male from 
Macate, Peru. 

Simon's statement (1. c., p. 356, note 2) that P. peruviana and P. boliviano, 
are nomina nuda is a mistake, since both are characterized in the preceding para- 
graphs, although several of the characters claimed by Boucard prove to be 
individual. 



232 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

According to Landbeck, Reed, and Barros, P. g. gigas inhabits in 
summer the Cordilleras of Aconcagua, Santiago, Colchagua, and 
Curico from the foothills up to about 6,000 feet. After the breeding 
season, around the end of February, it disappears from its nesting 
haunts, and does not return until August. Passler, however, found 
it also breeding at Coronel (near Conception), though he did not 
see any in that neighborhood from June to August. 1 The birds 
probably migrate northwards, but a few, at least, cross the Andes 
on their migration, as is shown by specimens obtained by E. W. 
White on September 20, 1880, at Fuerte de Andalgala, Catamarca 
(Tring Museum), and by L. Dinelli on August 14, 1916, at Colalao 
del Valle, Tucuman (Field Museum), both of which clearly pertain 
to the Chilean race. 

144. Patagona gigas peruviana Boucard 

Patagonia peruviana Boucard, Gen. Humming Birds, p. 61, 1893 "Peru" 
(the type examined in the Paris Museum was obtained by H. Whitely, 
Jr., on June 15, 1868, at Tinta, Dept. Cuzco). 

Patagona gigas Albert (1), 100, p. 622 part, northern Chile; idem, Rev. 
Chil. Hist. Nat., 2, p. 141 part, northern Chile. 

Range in Chile. Extreme north, in province of Tacna. 

Material collected. Tacna: Putre (alt. 11,600 feet), three cf d 71 
ad., July 3, 1924. 

These birds cannot be separated from our Peruvian series, but 
are much larger and more rufous below than P. g. gigas of central 
Chile. Like one of our specimens from Huanuco Viejo, Peru, all 
three have the throat nearly entirely rufous, with but a few blackish 
spots, and the whole under parts strongly rufescent. 

P. g. peruviana, whose distinguishing features have been dis- 
cussed under the preceding heading, replaces the typical form in 
the Andes of Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and extreme northern Chile. 
It is probably also this race that nests in northwestern Argentina, 
although I have not been able to examine undoubted breeding 
specimens. An adult male from Tilcara, Jujuy (Nov. 24, 1905; 
L. Dinelli), and a couple from Lara, Tucuman (Feb. 12, 1903; G. A. 
Baer), all in the Tring Museum, are in every particular typical of 
the large northern form. 

1 Lesson (Echo du Monde Sav., 10, 2nd sem., No. 11, col. 255, 1843) describes 
the nest of the Giant Humming bird received by his brother from the environs of 
Valdivia, but I venture to question the correctness of the locality. 



1932 



BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 



233 



MEASUREMENTS OF ADULTS 

P. gigas gigas Males Wing Tail 

Three from Caldera, Atacama 123,127,129 80,82,83 

One from La Compania, Coquimbo 127 80 

One from Papudo, Aconcagua 80 

One from Limache, Valparaiso 122 79 
One from San Jose de Maipo, 

Santiago 128 79 
One from Fuerte de Andalgala, 

Catamarca 120 81 

P. gigas gigas Females 

Two from Caldera, Atacama 118,118 77,77 

One from Limache, Valparaiso 121 70 
One from Colalao del Valle, 

Tucuman 118 76 

P. gigas peruviana Males 

Two from Ecuador 133,134 83,83 

Twelve from Macate, Ancachs, 

Peru 133,134,135,135, 83,83,85,85, 

135,137,137,138, 86,87,87,87, 
138,138,138,139 88,88,90,90 

One from near Otuzco, Peru 135 85 

One from Cajamarca, Peru 85 

One from Matucana, Lima, Peru 134 84 

Two from Tinta, Cuzco, Peru 135,138 83,83 

Three from Tacna, Chile 138,139,140 85,85,88 

One from Bolivia 138 90 

One from Tilcara, Jujuy 136 86 

One from Lara, Tucuman 135 88 

P. gigas peruviana Females 

Four from Macate, Ancachs, Peru 129,130,130,134 78,83,87,87 

One from Huanuco, Peru 131 85 

One from Cullcui, Peru 130 84 

One from Tinta, Cuzco, Peru 126 81 

One from Lara, Tucuman 137 87 



Bill 

34,34,35 
33 
34 
35 

33 
34 



35, 
34 

34 



37,37 

38,38,38,39, 

39,39,39,39, 

39^,40,41,42 

38 

38 

36 

37,39 

39, 

36 

36 Yz 

37 



39,39^,40,41 

38 

40 

38 

39 



145. Sephanoides 1 sephaniodes (Lesson and Garnot) 

Orthorynchus sephaniodes Lesson and Garnot, Voy. Coquille, Zool., livr. 4, 
pi. 31, fig. 2, July 25, 1827 no locality given; the type came from the 
vicinity of Talcaguano, Conception (see Lesson, Voy. Coquille, Zool., 
1, (2), p. 681, 1830). 

Mellisuga kingii Vigors, Zool. Journ., 3, No. 11, p. 432, Dec., 1827 (or later) 
Port Gallant, Straits of Magellan. 

Ornismya sephaniodes Lesson, Man. d'Orn., 2, p. 80, 1828 Talcaguano, 
Conception. 

Ornismya sephanoides Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, p. 29, 1838 
Valparaiso. 

Trochilus forficaius (not of Linnaeus) Darwin, p. 110 Chiloe and Chonos 
Islands (breeding) and Valparaiso. 

1 Sephanoides having been introduced by Gray (List Gen. Birds, p. 14, 1840) 
as a latin generic name with Mellisuga kingii Vigors as type takes priority over 
Eustephanus Reichenbach, 1849. 



234 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Trochilus galeritus (not of Molina) 1 Fraser (1), p. 115 Valparaiso, south to 
ChiloS; Cassin, p. 187 Chile. 

Trochilus sephanoides Des Murs (2), p. 275 Copiap6 to Valdivia and Straits 
of Magellan; Boeck, p. 499 Valdivia and Chiloe; Kittlitz (3), p. 117 
near San-Tome', Concepcion; Frauenfeld, p. 637 Valparaiso; Philippi (12), 
p. 249 Chile and Juan Fernandez; Landbeck, Zool. Garten, 17, p. 228, 
1876 Chile, north to Atacama; Waugh and Lataste (1), p. LXXXIV 
Penaflor, Santiago; idem (2), p. CLXX San Alfonso, Valparaiso; idem 
(3), p. LIX Penaflor, Santiago. 

Stephanoides galeritus Hartlaub (3), p. 210 Valdivia. 

Trochilus verreauxii (not of Bourcier) Bibra, p. 129 Canyons around 
Valparaiso. 

Eustephanus galeritus Pelzeln (2), p. 54 near Santiago; Sclater (2), 1867, 
pp. 328, 338 Chile, south to Tierra del Fuego; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 
1869, p. 283 ChiloS; Sclater, Ibis, 1871, p. 181 Mas A Tierra; E. Reed, 
Ibis, 1874, pp. 82, 83 Mas A Tierra; idem (2), p. 554 Cauquenes, Col- 
chagua; Sclater and Salvin (3), p. 433 Juan Fernandez and Puerto 
Bueno; Sharpe, p. 9 Cockle Cove, Straits of Magellan; Salvin (2), p. 
425 Juan Fernandez; Ridgway (2), p. 135 Port Otway; MacFarlane, 
Ibis, 1887, p. 215 Juan Fernandez; Johow, p. 237 Mas A Tierra; E. Reed 
(4), p. 203 Chile and Juan Fernandez; Lane, p. 46 Corral (Valdivia) 
and Arauco; Albert, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 2, p. 139 Chile and Juan 
Fernandez; idem (1), 100, p. 613 Juan Fernandez and Chile, north to 
Copiap6; Schalow (2), pp. 703, 745 Tumbes (Concepcion) and Mas A 
Tierra; C. Reed, Av. Prov. Concepci6n, p. 20 Cerro del Caracol, Concep- 
cion; Barros (4), p. 141 Nilahue, Curico; idem (5), p. 178 Cordillera 
of Aconcagua; Housse (1), p. 49 Isla La Mocha; idem (2), p. 143 San 
Bernardo; Lonnberg, p. 7 Mas A Tierra; Passler (3), p. 453 Coronel 
(nest); Gigoux, p. 85 Caldera; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 105 Marga-Marga 
Valley, Valparaiso. 

Sephanoides galeritus Wetmore (3), p. 230 Concon, Valparaiso; Dabbene, 
p. 497 Chile (monog.). 

Eustephanus burtoni Boucard, The Humming Bird, 1, p. 18, 1891 Chile (type 
in Paris Museum examined). 

Oreotrochilus leucopleurus (errore) Bullock (3), p. 122 Cerro de Nahuelbuta, 
Malleco; idem (4), p. 174 Angol, Malleco (breeding). 

Range in Chile. From Atacama to the Straits of Magellan, and 
Mas A Tierra Island. 

Material collected. Atacama: Caldera, four cfcf ad., May 11, 
June 10-18, 1924. E. Gigoux. Aconcagua: Los Andes, two cf 1 cf ad., 
May 15, 16, 1925. R. Barros. Valdivia: Mafil, two d"cf ad., 
Feb. 14, 26; Rinihue, cf ad., March 6. Chiles': Quellon, one cT 

1 Trochilus galeritus Molina (Saggio Hist. Nat. Chile, pp. 247, 343, 1782) seems 
to me a fictitious bird. Anyhow, I do not see how the description, "il suo becco 
e curvo, . . . tutta la parte inferiore del suo corpo e di un colore di aurora cangiante," 
can possibly apply to the Fire-crested Humming bird of Chile. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 235 

ad., five cfcf 1 imm., one 9 imm., Dec. 27-Jan. 31. Guaitecas 
Islands: San Pedro Island, c? vix ad., Jan. 22. 

Additional specimens. Santiago: Peiiaflor, three 0*6" ad., 
March, April, 1894. F. Lataste. "Chile" (unspecified): d" ad. 
(type of E. burtoni Bouc.) (Paris Museum). Mas A Tierra: cf ad., 
9 ad., Jan., 1894. L. Plate (Berlin Museum). 

So far as I can see, there is no local variation in this species, speci- 
mens from the extreme northern part of the range being exactly 
similar to others from Chiloe*. The type of E. burtoni, an adult male 
in good condition, differs by having the pileum glittering golden 
orange instead of orange red, and the back of a slightly purer, less 
bronzy green. There can be little doubt that it is merely an individual 
variant of the ordinary form, an opinion in which Count Berlepsch 
and E. Simon, both of whom had seen the type, also concurred. 

S. sephaniodes is widely distributed in Chile, ranging from sea 
level up to about 6,000 feet. While not truly migratory, this hum- 
ming bird is stated by various observers to have certain seasonal 
displacements. Outside of Chile proper, it is known to occur on 
Mas A Tierra and in the western districts of Neuquen, Rio Negro, 
and Chubut, Argentina. The few examples seen from Mas A Tierra 
appear to me inseparable from mainland birds. 1 

146. Oreotrochilus leucopleurus Gould 

Oreotrochilus leucopleurus Gould, P. Z. S. Lond., 15, p. 10, March, 1847 "the 
Chilian Cordilleras"; 2 Pelzeln (2), p. 54; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 328, 338 
vertical range; E. Reed (2), p. 553 Colchagua; idem (4), p. 203 central 
provinces; Albert (1), 100, p. 619 central Chile to Atacama; idem (2), 
Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 2, p. 141 Cordilleras up to 10,000 feet; Barros (5), 
p. 178 Rio Blanco, Aconcagua; idem (8), p. 141 Aconcagua; Jaffuel 
and Pirion, p. 105 cerros of Marga-Marga Valley, Valparaiso; Dabbene, 
p. 496 Chile (monog.); Barros (10), p. 359 Aconcagua. 

Trochilus millerii (not of Bourcier) Fraser (1), p. 114 Los Ojos de Agua 
(alt. 6,000 to 8,000 feet), Aconcagua. 

Trochilus leucopleurus Des Murs and Gay, p. 277 type stated to have been 
secured in the Cordillera of Copiapo, Atacama; Bibra, p. 129 Cordillera 
[of Santiago]; Cassin, p. 187 Andes [of Chile]; Philippi, Reise Wiiste 
Atacama, p. 161 Hueso Parado (alt. 1,000 feet), southern Antofagasta; 
Philippi (12), p. 250 Cordilleras of central Chile north to Atacama; 
Landbeck, Zool. Garten, 17, p. 227, 1876 Chile (ecology); Philippi, 
Ornis, 4, p. 158 Hueso Parado, Antofagasta. 

1 On Mas A Tierra, furthermore, Thaumaste f. fernandensis (King) is found, re- 
placed on Mas Afuera by T. fernandensis leyboldi (Gould). 

2 The type specimen was collected by Gay in the Cordillera of Copiapo (see 
Gay, p. 277). 



236 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Range in Chile. Cordilleras of the central provinces, from Col- 
chagua (Banos de Cauquenes) to southern Antofagasta (Hueso 
Parado, near Taltal). 

Material examined. Santiago: Andes of Santiago, cT ad., cf 
juv. L. Landbeck (British Museum). Aconcagua: Los Ojos de 
Agua, three d" cf ad., two 9 9 ad. T. Bridges (British Museum). 
"Andes of Chile;" five d* d 1 ad., two 9 9 ad. E. C. Reed (Munich, 
Paris, and Field Museums). 

The "Picaflor de la Cordillera," as its name implies, inhabits the 
higher slopes of the Andes from 5,000 feet up to the edge of the 
perpetual snow. According to Landbeck, who describes its breeding 
habits, it disappears from the nesting grounds at the end of the 
summer, and returns again in September. Similar observations were 
made by R. Barros in Aconcagua, where it arrives late in Septem- 
ber or early in October, repairing to higher altitudes in December, 
and leaves for the north in March and April. Philippi obtained 
the species, in mid-summer, not far from the coast at Hueso Parado, 
Antofagasta, at an elevation of hardly more than 1,000 feet. This 
locality marks not only the most northerly point of its geographical 
distribution, but also the lower limit of its altitudinal range. 

Birds from Puente del Inca, west of Mendoza, are inseparable 
from Chilean specimens, while others from Tucuman (Colalao del 
Valle, alt. 2,500 meters) and Jujuy (Abra Pampa, alt. 3,500 meters) 
are slightly larger and paler above, with the median rectrices more 
decidedly green. 

147. Oreotrochilus estella (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) 

Trochilus estella Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, in Mag. Zool., 8, cl. 2, 
p. 32, 1838 La Paz and Potosi, Bolivia (type in Paris Museum examined). 

Oreotrochiliis leuxopleurus (not of Gould) Sclater (4), 1886, p. 398 Chumisa 
and "Lalcalhuay," Tarapaca (spec, examined). 

Range in Chile. Extreme north, in provinces of Tarapaca and 
Tacna. 

Material collected. Tacna: Putre (alt. 11,600 feet), two cTc? 1 
ad., one d" vix ad., two 9 9 ad., one 9 imm., June 8-July 4, 1924. 

Additional specimens. Tarapaca: Chumisa, 9 ad., Jan. 11, 
1886; "Lalcalhuay," 9 ad., Jan. 30, 1886. C. F. Rahmer (British 
Museum). 

Compared with Bolivian specimens, the adults have the outer- 
most rectrix somewhat narrower and slightly incurved apically, thus 
diverging in the direction of 0. leucopleurus. The dusky area on this 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 237 

feather is also more extensive, though not quite so much, nor so deeply 
bluish black, as in 0. leucopleurus. This variation, together with the 
intermediate character of the unique type of 0. bolivianus Boucard, 
which I have recently re-examined in the Paris Museum, appears to 
indicate subspecific relationship of the two "species." Both are, 
however, listed by Lillo 1 for the Tucuman region, and, until more 
definite information about their breeding ranges in Argentina be- 
comes available, it seems unwise to reduce them to subspecific rank. 

The two females from Tarapaca, one taken with nest and two eggs, 
agree with ours, and are undoubtedly referable to 0. estetta. 

An immature female (from Putre) is much darker, washed with 
avellaneous, underneath. 

Within the Chilean boundaries, 0. estella has been recorded only 
from the elevated parts of the Cordilleras of Tarapaca and Tacna, 
where it evidently replaces 0. leucopleurus. 

148. Metallura phoebe (Lesson and Delattre) 

0[rnysmia] phoebe Lesson and Delattre, Rev. Zool, 2, p. 17, 1839 "Cordiliere 
des Andes au Perou." 

Trochilus ( ?) cupricauda Gould, P. Z. S. Lond., 14, p. 87, Nov., 1846 
"Bolivia." 

Metallura cupreicavda Gould, Monog. Troch., 3, text to pi. 191, 1859 "Valley 
of Palea [sic], near Tacna." 

Range in Chile. Extreme northern section, in province of Tacna. 

Gould states that the typical specimens of his T. cupricauda, an 
obvious synonym of M. phoebe, were secured by T. Bridges in the 
valley of Palca [misspelled "Palea"], above Tacna, in the province 
of the same name. Although the species has not been found again 
in that district, its occurrence there is very likely, since it is known 
to inhabit the neighboring Peruvian Department of Arequipa, where 
H. Whitely collected specimens at Chihuata. 

149. Rhodopis vesper vesper (Lesson) 

Ornismya vesper Lesson, Hist. Nat. Ois.-Mouch., pp. XV, 85, pi. 29, 1829 
"le Chili, non loin de Valparaiso," errore (type in Paris Museum examined) ; 
Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 2, p. 28, 1838 Tacna; Des Murs 
(2), p. 274 "Valparaiso" (ex Lesson). 

Liidfer vesper Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Ac. Sci. Paris, 38, p. 660, 1854; idem, 
Not. Orn. Coll. Delattre, p. 89, 1854 Arica. 

x Rev. Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, p. 57, 1905. 



238 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Trochilus vesper Philippi (12), p. 250 (crit.); idem, Ornis, 4, p. 158 Chiapa, 
Tarapaca. 

Rhodopis vesper Albert (1), 100, p. 624 ". . . la provincia de Aconcagua i 
...en la provincia de Valparaiso," errore (part); idem (2), Rev. Chil. 
Hist. Nat., 2, p. 143 "Aconcagua," errore. 

Rhodopsis atacamensis (not of Leybold) E. Reed (4), p. 203 part, Tarapaca. 

Range in Chile. Extreme north, in provinces of Tarapacd and 
Tacna. 

Material collected. Tarapaca: Pica (alt. 4,000 feet), twocT cf ad., 
two 9 9 ad., May 17-23, 1924. 

Additional specimens. Tacna: Palca (alt. 3,000 meters), two 
cf cf ad., one 9 ad., Oct. 10-20, 1902. Otto Garlepp (Coll. Berlepsch 
and Munich Museum). "Chile:" cT ad., type of the species (Paris 
Museum). 

Birds from the Chilean localities listed above agree precisely with 
a series from western Peru (Arequipa to Lima) . The type of 0. vesper, 
in coloration and length of bill, is identical with one of our males 
from Pica (May 20, 1924). It was received in exchange from F. 
PreVost in 1827, and bears no other locality than "Chile." As has 
been pointed out by Simon (Hist. Nat. Troch., p. 394, 1921), there is 
no foundation for Lesson's statement that it came from near 
Valparaiso. 

R. v. vesper ranges from Tarapaca through western Peru as far 
north as Lima. 1 Records from central Chile are evidently erroneous. 
Frauenfeld (p. 637) claims to have seen T. vesper on the road from 
Valparaiso to Santiago, but it will be remembered that the "Novara" 
Expedition, to which he was attached as naturalist, did not obtain 
this species. Albert's statement that it sometimes appears in 
summer in the province of Aconcagua does not deserve more credit 
either. Philippi (Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 250, 1868) emphatically 
denies its occurrence in the neighborhood of Valparaiso. Its alti- 
tudinal area extends from near sea level up to 10,000 feet. Whitley 
obtained specimens at Islay (near the coast), Arequipa (7,800 feet), 
and Chihuata (9,000 feet), in Arequipa; Kalinowski at Pauza (7,300 
feet), Ayacucho; Sanborn at Pica (4,000 feet), Tarapaca; Otto 
Garlepp at Palca (alt. 10,000 feet), above Tacna, in the province of 
the same name. 

1 Simon (1. c., p. 394, note 4) questions its occurrence at Lima, but, according 
to Berlepsch and Stolzmann (P. Z. S. Lond., 1892, p. 384), it was found by Kali- 
nowski at Chorillos, and Field Museum also has specimens obtained by J. T. 
Zimmer at Santa Eulalia (alt. 3,500 feet). 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 239 

150. Rhodopis vesper atacamensis (Leybold) 

Trochilus atacamensis Leybold, Anal. Univ. Chile, 32, p. 43, 1869 estate 
Sapulen, near Copiapo, Chile; idem, Leopoldina, 8, p. 52, 1873 near 
Copiapo; Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 158 Copiap6; idem (24), p. 25 Copiapo. 

Trochilus vesper (not of Lesson) Landbeck, Zool. Garten, 17, p. 227 "Cop- 
dapo" =Copiap6. 

Rhodopsis atacamensis E. Reed (4), p. 203 part, Atacama and (?) Valparaiso; 
Dabbene, p. 501 northern Chile (monog.). 

Rhodopis vesper Albert (1), 100, p. 624 Chile (part). 

Range. Only known from the Copiapo Valley and Caldera, 
Prov. Atacama, northern Chile. 

Material collected. Atacama: Caldera, seven cfcf ad., Aug. 
20, 22, Sept. 1, 2, 7, 12, 16, 20, 1924. E. Gigoux. 

These birds differ from a good series of males of R. v. vesper by 
much shorter and at the same time decidedly slenderer bill. In 
coloration they appear to agree. The upper tail coverts are mainly 
cinnamomeous with half-concealed bronze green central spots, 
exactly as in typical vesper. 

R. v. atacamensis appears to have a peculiarly restricted range. 
It was discovered at Sapulen, near Copiapo, in June, 1867, by Adolfo 
Paulsen, who sent Dr. Leybold a single male, which subsequently 
passed with the Gould Collection into the British Museum. Philippi 
recorded a couple taken at Copiapo in July, and Dr. H. Dernedde 
(in litt., Feb. 25, 1917), of Hanover (Germany), writes that he 
received between 1890 and 1907 from his correspondent, Fernando 
Paulsen (probably a descendant of the original collector), about ten 
specimens, all shot around Copiapo in July and August. E. Gigoux, 
to whom Field Museum is indebted for its series, 1 reports that these 
humming birds appear in the gardens of Caldera in late June or 
July, and stay until the latter part of September. None are seen 
during the rest of the year, and it is presumed that they repair 
to certain mountain valleys in the Cordillera of Atacama. 

No representative of this genus has yet been found either in 
Antofagasta or Coquimbo, and if one really occurs occasionally in 
the central provinces, as claimed by Albert, it is much more likely 
to be R. v. atacamensis than R. v. vesper. 

*It is possibly the present species which is referred to by Gigoux (p. 85) s. n. 
"Oreotrochilus leucopleurus" as a winter visitor at Caldera. He does not mention 
R. v. atacamensis at all. 



240 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 



More information on the distribution and migratory movements 
of R. v. atacamensis is much desired. 1 



Adult males 
R. vesper tertius 
Twenty-two from Tembladera 



MEASUREMENTS 
Wing 



50-52^ 

R. vesper vesper 

One from Santa Eulalia, Lima 53 

One from Pauza, Ayacucho 58 

Two from Islay, Arequipa 56,57 

One from Arequipa 58 

One from Chihuata, Arequipa 56 

One from Palca, Tacna 56 

Two from Pica, Tarapaca 54,56 

One from "Chile" (type of species) 55 

R. vesper atacamensis 

Seven from Caldera, Atacama 53-55 

Five from Copiapo (fide Dernedde) 52-53 

Adult females 
R. vesper tertius 

Ten from Tembladera 50 ^-53 1 A 
Three from Trujillo 

One from Pacasmayo 52 % 
R, vesper vesper 

One from Santa Eulalia, Lima 56 

One from Arequipa 57 ^ 

One from Chihuata, Arequipa 57 

One from Palca, Tacna 55 

Two from Pica, Tarapaca 57,58 
R. vesper atacamensis 

One from Copiapo (fide Dernedde) 52 



Tail 
47-53 



53 

52 
50,53 

53 y 2 

51 
48 

52,53 
51 

49-51 
47-50 



31^-35 
33%-35 
33^ 



Bill 

21-24, 
twice 25 

30 
30 
30,31 

29M 
31 
29 

28 
28 

22,23 (three), 
24 (three) 



22-25 

25,26,26 

25 

31 



36 

36 y 2 

41,41^ 
35 



33 
29 
30, 



1 Birds collected by O. T. Baron in the arid Tropical zone of northwestern Peru 
have been referred by Salvin, Hartert, and Simon to R. v. atacamensis, as no 
topotypical Chilean material was available at the time for comparison, the type in 
the British Museum being in too poor condition to be of any use. Although closely 
allied to the Atacama form, twenty-two males from northern Peru, when compared 
with our seven skins from Caldera, nevertheless differ by certain constant char- 
acters, and I propose to separate them as 

Rhodopis vesper tertius n. subsp. 

Adult. Similar to R. v. atacamensis, but wing very slightly shorter, bill 
decidedly stronger, and under parts paler, more whitish, only the sides of the 
chest slightly tinged with grayish. Wing 50-52 J^, (female) 50J^-54^; tail 47-53, 
(female) 311^-35; bill 21^-25. 

Type in Munich Museum, No. 15.510. Adult male. Tembladera, Dept. 
Cajamarca, Peru, June 6, 1894. O. T. Baron. 

Range. Northern Peru, in Depts. of Libertad (Trujillo, Pacasmayo), Caja- 
marca (Tembladera), and Piura (Payta), from sea level up to 1,500 feet. 

Remarks. The North Peruvian form, although occupying the northern end 
of the range, is somewhat intermediate between the two hitherto recognized races. 
While agreeing with R. v. atacamensis in small size and in shortness of bill, it has 
the bill stronger, about as thick as R. v. vesper, and the under parts are whiter than 
in either of its allies. The coloration of the upper tail coverts, however, does not 
seem to afford a reliable criterion. Although the majority from North Peru have 
a greater amount of green spotting, a good many examples are indistinguishable 
on this score from R. v. atacamensis. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 241 

151. Myrtis yarrellii (Bourcier) 

Trochilus yarrellii Bourcier, 1 P. Z. S. Lond., 18, p. 45, 1847 "Montevideo," 
errore; we substitute Arica, Chile. 

Calothorax yarelli Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Ac. Sci. Paris, 38, p. 660, 1854; 
idem, Not. Orn. Coll. Delattre, p. 90, 1854 Cobija, "Bolivia." 

Myrtis yarrelli Salvin, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 16, p. 418, 1892 Arica, "Peru." 

Range in Chile. Coast of Antofagasta (Cobija) and Tacna 
(Arica). 

Material examined. Tacna: Arica, & ad., 9 ad. Gould Collection, 
British Museum. 

This species is nearly related to M. fanny (Lesson), but has a 
much slenderer, shorter bill, which is little more than half as long. 
The three lateral rectrices, in the male sex, are much more attenu- 
ated, the first and second especially so, being nearly filiform and only 
about one-third of the width of the outer web of the corresponding 
rectrices in M. fanny, and of slightly different proportions, the third 
(from without) instead of the second being the longest. The throat 
is purplish red, the feathers of the lower portion apically edged with 
bluish green (in M. fanny greenish blue, bordered below by violet). 
The female may be distinguished, in addition to its much smaller 
bill, by much narrower (about half as wide) and more pointed lateral 
rectrices, and less rufescent, more buffy white under parts. As in 
M . fanny, the female has considerably longer wings than the male. 

Measurements. Wing (male) 32, (female) 38; tail (male) 30,. 
(female) 27; bill 12, 12. 

M. yarrellii is one of the rarest humming birds in collections. 
Its range appears to be restricted to the coast of northern Chile. 2 
Adolphe Delattre obtained it at Cobija, and specimens in the British 
Museum are from Arica. Mr. Sanborn, on June 14, 1924, watched 
the bird on the plaza of that town, but was unable to shoot it. 



[Three other species of humming birds have been credited to Chile. 
Gay (Hist. fis. pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 278, 1847) claims to have dis- 

1 Elliot's statement repeated by Simon that the type specimen is in the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York, is erroneous. Bourcier described 
the species from two examples, male and female, in the Loddiges Collection 
(London), where they still are. Mr. A. L. Butler kindly examined them for me, 
and under date of April 6, 1928, reports that they are identical with the Arica 
birds in the British Museum. 

2 In southern Peru sometimes included in its range it is replaced by M. fanny, 
as is shown by specimens from Islay, Arequipa, collected by H. Whitely, in the 
British Museum. The record of M. yarreli from Huasampilla (see Whitely, 
P. Z. S. Lond., 1873, p. 187) clearly refers to Acestrura mulsanli. 



242 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

covered Trochilus [=Lafresnaya] gayi Bourc. in the Cordilleras of 
Copiapo, Atacama. This is clearly an error, as no representative of 
this genus is known from anywhere south of central Peru. 

Trochilus forficatus (Gay, 1. c., p. 274), which Dabbene (Rev. Chil. 
Hist. Nat., 33, p. 503) identifies with Eupetomena macroura hirundo 
Gould, has no place in the Chilean fauna either. E. m. hirundo is 
restricted to the Amazonian slope of the Andes of southern Peru and 
northern Bolivia, while the other members of the genus inhabit 
Brazil and Guiana. 

The Sappho Humming bird, Sappho sapho (Lesson), has been 
included by Dabbene (1. c., p. 500) on the basis of some specimens 
said to have been collected by Leybold in the "Chilian Andes" (cf. 
Salvin, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 16, p. 143, 1892), but there is absolutely no 
proof of their having been taken on Chilean territory, and they are 
much more likely to have come from the Argentine slope of the 
Andes in the vicinity of Mendoza, where S. sapho is rather common. 

Amazilia amazilia dumerilii (Lesson), though originally described 
from "les provinces septentrionales du Chili," is now known to be 
confined to the Pacific coast region of Ecuador and extreme north- 
western Peru.] 

152. Micropus andecolus parvulus Berlepsch and Stolzmann 

Micropus andecolus parvulus Berlepsch and Stolzmann, P. Z. S. Lond., 1892, 
p. 384, note 1 lea, western Peru. 

Range in Chile. Extreme northern section, in province of Tacna. 

Material collected. Tacna: Chacalluta (six miles north of Arica), 
two c? cf ad., one 9 ad., June 14, July 16, 21. 

These birds, which constitute the first record of a swift from 
Chile, agree in every particular with a series from Arequipa and a 
single adult female from Matucana, above Lima, in western Peru. 

In the light of this material M. a. parvulus turns out to be an 
exceedingly well-marked race, which differs from both M. a. ande- 
colus 1 and M. a. peruvianus* in having the sides and flanks exten- 
sively brownish black, this dusky area being abruptly defined from 
the pure white middle of the abdomen. Besides, the white nuchal 
collar runs all around the nape, instead of being broken in the middle 

*Cypselus andecolus Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1, in Mag. Zool., 7, 
cl. 2, p. 70, 1837 La Paz, Bolivia (type in Paris Museum examined). 

^Micropus peruvianus Chapman, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 32, p. 253, 1919 
Ollantaytambo, Urubamba, Peru (type in American Museum of Natural History 
examined). 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 243 

by a dusky brown band connecting the color of the pileum with that 
of the back; the crown and back are of a darker, more blackish hue; 
the tertials are more distinctly edged with white at the tip; the post- 
ocular region is white or but slightly tinged with grayish brown; 
the under tail coverts are wholly white except for the grayish brown 
apical half of the longest series. In the short, less deeply forked tail 
and white (not buffy) rump band, collar, and under parts M. a. 
parvulus closely resembles M. a. peruvianus, but lacks the dusky 
mottling on the throat, while the subocular region is paler, grayish 
brown rather than sooty, and the feathers of the anterior crown are 
margined with pale brownish as in typical M. a. andecolus. Although 
the solid blackish area on the sides of the under parts generally serves 
to distinguish M. a. parvulus, I find this character also well pro- 
nounced in one specimen (from Tinta) of M. a. peruvianus, while 
certain individuals from Arequipa approach the latter in the mottling 
of the throat. The tail varies a good deal in shape, yet it must be 
admitted that it is more deeply forked in M. a. andecolus than in the 
two other races, though the difference is bridged over by individual 
variation. 

There are thus three forms of the Andean Swift, which may be 
characterized as follows: 

(a) Micropus andecolus andecolus (Lafr. and d'Orb.). Nuchal 
collar interrupted in the middle and, like the uropygial band and the 
under parts, more or less tinged with buff; the inner sides of breast 
and abdomen faintly shaded with smoke gray; longest under tail 
coverts wholly sooty, the median series largely tipped with dusky, 
the shortest only buffy white; feathers of forehead edged with 
grayish brown; crown and back less blackish, tail longer, deeply 
forked. 

Range. Andes of Bolivia (Depts. of La Paz and Cochabamba) 
and western Argentina (Jujuy to Mendoza). 1 

Material examined. Bolivia: La Paz (the type), 1; Consata, La 
Paz, 1; Vinto, Cochabamba, 2; Parotani, Cochabamba, 1; unspeci- 

1 M. andecolus dinellii Hartert (Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 23, p. 43, Dec., 1908 
Angosta Perchela, Jujuy) is synonymous with M. a. andecolus, since Argentine 
birds are inseparable from those of Bolivia. Inspection of the material in the 
British Museum discloses the fact that Hartert had mistaken the western form, 
represented in that collection by six skins from Arequipa and one from Matucana, 
for typical andecolus, and redescribed the latter under a new name. The type in 
the Paris Museum, being in very poor condition, is almost useless for comparative 
purposes, but a specimen from Consata (in the type region) marked by Hartert 
himself M. a. dinellii shows that La Paz birds are the same as those from other 
parts of Bolivia. 



244 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

fied (T. Bridges coll.), 1. Argentina: Maimara, Jujuy, 1; Amaicha, 
Tucuman, 1; Cumbre Calchaquies, Tucuman, 1; west of Mendoza, 2. 

(b) Micropus andecolus peruvianus Chapman. Nuchal collar 
incomplete as in M. a. andecolus; tail shorter and less deeply forked; 
margin of the forehead paler hue; uropygial band, sides of neck, 
and under parts less buffy, sometimes nearly pure white; dusky 
bases of chin and throat feathers showing through, producing an 
indistinct mottling; sides of body as a rule slightly tinged with 
smoke gray, rarely dark sooty; shorter under tail coverts generally 
with less white. 

Range. Andes of southeastern Peru, in Dept, of Cuzco (Uru- 
bamba and Marcapata Valleys). 1 

Material examined. Peru: Ollantaytambo (the type), 1; Huara- 
cando Canyon, Urubamba, 1; Tinta, 2; Quiquijona, Marcapata, 2. 

(c) Micropus andecolus parvulus Berlepsch and Stolzmann. 
Nuchal collar complete and like uropygial band, sides of head, and 
under parts pure white; sides of breast and abdomen brownish black, 
forming a sharply defined dusky area; under tail coverts white, only 
apical portion of longest series grayish brown; crown and back 
darker, more blackish; forehead edged with hoary brownish; fur- 
cation of tail shallow as in M. a. peruvianus. 

Range. Andes of western Peru, north to Matucana (above 
Lima), and extreme northern Chile (Tacna). 

Material examined. Peru: Matucana (Oct. 11, 1884, 9 ad. 
Nation), 1; lea, 1; Arequipa, 6. Chile: Chacalluta, Tacna, 3. 

MEASUREMENTS OF ADULTS 
M . a. andecolus Wing Tail o ?furca 

One unsexed from La Paz (type) 141 66 19 

One unsexed from Consata, Bolivia 135 65 18 

Two males from Vinto, Cochabamba 141,144 70,72 19,22 

One male from Parotani, Cochabamba 142 65 18 

One unsexed from Bolivia (T. Bridges) 144 71 22 

Two males from Tucuman 137,144 67,72 22,22 

One male from Jujuy 146 71 16 

Two females from Mendoza 138,140 65,66 20, 

M. a. peruvianus 
One female from Ollantaytambo, 

Urubamba (type) 139 58 14 

One male from Huaracando 135 60 13 

One male from Tinta 144 63 15 

One female from Tinta 143 62 14 

One male from Quiquijona, Marcapata 144 63 13 

One female from Quiquijona 136 Y^ 60 13 

1 An adult bird in the British Museum, said to be from "Quito," also belongs to 
M . a. peruvianus. The locality is doubtless erroneous. 



1932 



BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 



245 



M . a. parvulus 

One female from Matucana 
One female from lea 
Two males from Arequipa 
Three females from Arequipa 
Two males from Chacalluta, Tacna 
One female from Chacalluta, Tacna 



Wing 


Tail 


Depth 
of furca 


143 


64 


18 


135 


57 


14 


137, 


63,64 


14,15 


135,140, 


58,59,60 


14,15,15 


136,137 


57,59 


14,17 


142 


61 


18 



153. Systellura longirostris 1 bifasciata (Gould) 

Caprimulgus bifasciatus Gould, P. Z. S. Lond., 5, p. 22, Nov., 1837 "from 
Mr. Darwin's collection," no locality specified; Darwin, p. 36 type stated 
to be from Valparaiso; Bridges, p. 94 Colchagua; Fraser (1), p. 110 
east and west sides of the Andes of Chile; Des Murs (2), p. 261 central 
provinces; Koenig-Warthausen, Journ. Orn., 16, p. 382, 1868 Santiago 
(eggs descr.); Philippi (12), p. 248 Chile; Waugh and Lataste (2), p. 
CLXX San Alfonso, Quillota; idem (3), p. LIX Penaflor, Santiago; 
Albert (1), 101, p. 499 Chile (crit.); idem, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 3, p. 25, 
1899 Chile (crit.); Lataste (9), p. 167 Peumo. 

Caprimulgus conterminus Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, p. 169, 1848 Valparaiso. 

Stenopsis parvulus (not Caprimulgus parvulus Gould) Cassin, p. 186 Chile, 
near the foot of the mountains; Germain, p. 309 Santiago (nesting habits). 

Stenopsis bifasciata Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 328, 338 Chile (crit.); E. Reed 
(2), p. 554 Cauquenes (Colchagua) and Valparaiso; Sharpe, p. 9 
Coquimbo. 

Caprimulgus andinus Philippi and Landbeck, Arch. Naturg., 26, (1), p. 279, 
1860 Cordillera of Santiago (=juv.); idem, Anal. Univ. Chile, 18, p. 31, 
1861; Philippi (12), p. 248 central provinces; idem (24), p. 18, pi. 12, 
figs. 5, 6. 

Caprimulgus obscurus (Philippi MS.) Albert, Anal. Univ. Chile, 101, p. 502, 
1898 Chile; Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, 15, p. 20, pll. 11, 12, fig. 4, 
1902 Concepci6n. 

Caprimulgus bifasciatus var. gularis Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, 15, p. 21, 
pi. 12, fig. 3, 1902 Chile. 

Stenopsis longirostris (not Caprimulgus longirostris Bonaparte) E. Reed (4), p. 
203 Chile; C. Reed (1), Aves Prov. Conception, p. 38 Conception; 
Barros (4), p. 141 Nilahue, Curico; idem (5), p. 177 Cordillera of 
Aconcagua; Passler (3), p. 451 Coronel (egg descr.); Housse (1), p. 48 
Isla La Mocha; idem (2), p. 143 San Bernardo, Santiago; C. Reed (4), 
p. 189, 1925 Cautin; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 105 Marga-Marga Valley, 
Valparaiso; Bullock (4), p. 174 Angol, Malleco. 

Stenopsis exilis (not Caprimulgus exilis Lesson) Housse (2), p. 143 San Ber- 
nardo, Santiago. 

1 Whatever Caprimulgus longirostris Bonaparte (Journ. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
4, p. 384, 1825) may ultimately turn out to be, the Chilean Goatsucker seems to 
be different from the Argentine birds designated by authors under that name. 
Specimens from Buenos Aires and Tucuman, when compared with others from 
Chile, are much more spotted with rufous above, and have the under parts less 
rufescent as well as more narrowly barred with dusky. 



246 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Systellura longirostris Chapman, Amer. Mus. Nov., 67, p. 2, 1923 Temuco 
and Tofo. 

Range in Chile. From Coquimbo (Tofo) to the Guaitecas 
Islands. 

Material collected. Coquimbo: Tambillos, cf ad., cf imm., 
July 8; Paiguano (alt. 3,300 feet), d" ad., June 26. Colchagua: 
Banos de Cauquenes, d" ad., May 4. Concepcion: Hacienda Gual- 
pencillo, 9 ad., April 5. Cautin: Chapod, Temuco, 9 ad., April 
19, 1910. A. C. Saldana. Guaitecas Islands: Melinka, Ascension 
Island, 9 ad., Jan. 30. 

Additional specimens. Coquimbo: Coquimbo, d" imm., 9 ad., 
June. Coppinger. Santiago: Santiago, one <? ad., one <? imm. 
(type of C. andinus, June, 1864), two 9 9 ad. F. Leybold and 
L. Landbeck. Valparaiso: Valparaiso, d" 1 ad. C. Darwin (type of 
C. bifasciatus). Cautin: Maquehue, Temuco, 9 ad., Sept. 28, 
1904; Pitrufquen, Temuco, 9 ad., June 18, 1906. D. S. Bullock 
(all in the British Museum). 

The available material is insufficient to make out whether there 
is any racial variation in this goatsucker. The three specimens in 
Field Museum from Concepcion, Temuco, and Melinka are some- 
what darker above and more rufescent on the under parts than those 
from farther north; but two Temuco birds in the British Museum 
hardly differ from the latter by very slightly darker dorsal surface, 
while underneath one is just as pale as others from Coquimbo. C. 
obscurus, based on a single immature from Concepcion and first 
introduced into literature by Albert, will eventually come into use, 
if southern birds prove to be separable. 

C. andinus was founded on a male molting from the juvenile into 
the first annual plumage. The extent of the white apical spots on the 
lateral rectrices, upon which Philippi lays so much stress, varies 
considerably in the male sex, it being much more restricted in imma- 
ture individuals. The female has no white in the tail. The wing- 
band and the light collar across the foreneck are pure white in adult 
males, whereas in immature males the former is white more or less 
tinged with ochraceous tawny, in females deep tawny; the collar is 
buff, more deeply so in females. 

The "Plastilla" is generally distributed throughout central and 
southern Chile, its vertical range extending from the plains up to 
about 7,000 feet. The most northerly locality on record is Tofo, 
north of Coquimbo, whence Chapman lists a single female secured 
by Hallinan. According to Germain, it lays in November two eggs, 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 247 

which it deposits on the ground, choosing for that purpose solitary 
and waste places covered with scanty vegetation. 

154. Systellura longirostris atripunctata Chapman 

Systellura ruficervix atripunctata Chapman, Amer. Mus. Novit., 67, p. 2, 
1923 Acobamba, Junin, Peru. 

Stenopsis longirostris (not Caprimulgiis longirostris Bonaparte) Lane, Ibis, 
1897, p. 47 San Pablo, Tarapaca. 

Range in Chile. Northern provinces of Antofagasta and Tarapaca. 

Material collected. Antofagasta: Rio Loa (alt. 7,500 feet), 
<f ad., Sept. 13. 

On the upper parts, this bird is practically identical with a male 
from Matucana, above Lima, Peru. Both have the lateral portion 
of the pileum hoary gray, variegated with black, and the center 
largely black spotted with ochraceous tawny, and also resemble each 
other in having on the back and scapulars rounded ochraceous spots 
with black centers. The Rio Loa specimen, while more distinctly 
barred with blackish on the belly, can be matched in that respect by 
other Peruvian examples. 

S. I. atripunctata differs from the Chilean S. I. bifasciata by much 
wider, deeper rufous nuchal collar, the presence of ochraceous- 
tawny spots on the black middle crown, and more numerous as well as 
differently shaped ochraceous markings on the back and scapulars. 
It forms, in fact, the transition from bifasciata to ruficervix, and 
consequently all the goatsuckers of this group should be treated as 
races of S. longirostris. 

S. I. atripunctata evidently ranges all over the Andes of Peru and 
Bolivia, and stretches south into the north of Chile. We have 
examined specimens from Cajamarca (d* ad., juv.), Cajabamba 
(cf ad., 9 ad.), near Otuzco (cf ad.), Arequipa (cf imm., 9 ad.), 
Matucana (cf ad.), Peru, and Tilotilo (<? ad.) and Challapata 
(cf imm.), Bolivia. 

On the arid coast of Peru, from Islay north to Trujillo, it is 
replaced by the much smaller and paler S. I. decussata (Tschudi), of 
which Stenopsis macrorrhyncha Salvador! 1 is clearly a synonym. 



[Caprimulgus exilis Lesson (Rev. Zool., 2, p. 44, 1839), described 
from "Chile," was included on this authority by Gay (Hist. fis. 

!Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat., 11, p. 447, 1868 "America meridionale." 



248 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 262, 1847). Lesson himself (Oeuvr. compl. 
Buff on, e"d. Le've'que, 20, p. 258, 1844), however, had corrected the 
original locality to Callao, Peru. This detailed description leaves 
no doubt that it is an earlier name for C. pruinosus Tschudi, and this 
nighthawk should, accordingly, be called Chordeiles acutipennis exilis 
(Lesson). It is only known from the littoral of Peru and has never 
been found in Chile, although Gigoux (a, p. 40) claims its occurrence 
in Atacama.] 

155. Golaptes pitius pitius (Molina) 

Picus pitius Molina, Saggio Stor. Nat. Chile, pp. 236, 343, 1782 Chile (descr. 

pessima). 
Picus chilensis Lesson, Voy. Coquille, Zool., 1, (1), livr. 3, pi. 32, April, 1827 

"Conception, au Chile." 

Colaptes chiUnsis Vigors, Zool. Beechey's Voy., p. 24, 1839 Concepci6n; 
Darwin, p. 114 central Chile, on the western side of the Cordillera; 
Bridges, p. 94 Colchagua; Pelzeln (2), p. 101 Chile. 
Colaptes pitiguus Fraser (1), p. 114 southern provinces of Chile; Des Murs 
(2), p. 373 central and southern Chile; Philippi (12), p. 267 Chile; 
Albert (1), 100, p. 319 range; Lataste (1), p. CXV Bureo (Chilian), 
Nuble; idem (5), p. LXII Llohue (Itata), Maule. 

Colaptes pitius Hartlaub (3), p. 215 Valdivia; Cassin, p. 190 southern Chile; 
Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 328, 338 Chile; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1869, 
p. 283 "Lata" [=Lota], Concepci6n; idem, Ibis, 1870, p. 499 Ancud, 
ChiloS; E. Reed (2), p. 555 Cauquenes, Colchagua; idem (4), p. 204 
Chile; Lane, p. 47 Arauco, Valdivia (Calle-Calle, Corral), Puerto Montt, 
Chilo4; Schalow (2), p. 703 Quinquina Island (Bay of Talcaguano) and 
Tumbes, Concepci6n; C. Reed, Av. Prov. Concepcion, p. 21 Cabrero 
and Cerros de Quilacoya, Concepci6n; Barros (4), p. 142 Nilahue, 
Curico; idem (5), p. 178 Cordillera of Aconcagua; Passler (3), p. 451 
Coronel; C. Reed (4), p. 56 Hualqui, Concepcion (food); Bullock (3), 
p. 122 Cerro de Nahuelbuta, Malleco; idem (4), p. 173 Angol, Malleco. 
Polaptes Citiquus (sic) Boeck, p. 508 Valdivia. 
Colaptes pitius pitius Wetmore (3), p. 224 Concon, Valparaiso. 
Colaptes pitiue Jaffuel and Pirion, p. Ill Marga-Marga, Valparaiso. 
Range in Chile. Central and southern provinces, from Acon- 
cagua to the Guaitecas Islands. 

Material collected. O'Higgins: Rancagua, cf ad., Dec., 1903. 
C. S. Reed. Malleco: Curacautin, 9 ad., Jan. 12. Valdivia: 
Mafil, c? (molting), two <? & juv., Feb. 16, 18, 24. Chilo Island: 
Quellon, 9 ad., cf juv., Dec. 22, 27. Guaitecas Islands: Melinka, 
Ascension Island, 9 ad., Feb. 1. 

Birds from Chilo and the Guaitecas have the black bars on the 
chest and sides somewhat wider, but in length of bill (37-38 mm.) 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 249 

they agree with more northern examples, and I do not see my way 
clear to separate them from typical pitius. Two adults from Lago 
Nahuel Huapi, Neuquen, differ by slightly shorter bills (34-35 
mm.) and the greater amount of blackish barring underneath, which 
leaves hardly a trace of the plain (unmarked) area in the middle of 
the abdomen. However, they are closely approached in that respect 
by the Melinka bird, and it is possible that the receipt of further 
material from Argentina may show C. pitius cachinnans Wetmore 
and Peters 1 to be not properly separable. 

C. p. pitius is particularly common in the southern parts of Chile 
from Conception onwards. Farther north it decreases in numbers, 
and its range apparently does not extend into Coquimbo, the most 
northerly locality on record being Aconcagua. It is reported to prefer 
valleys and hill slopes up to about 6,500 feet, but is not found in the 
higher parts of the Cordilleras. 

156. Colaptes rupicola rupicola d'Orbigny 

Colaptes rupicola d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. M6rid., Ois., pi. 62, fig. 1, pub. 
before 1844 ; 2 idem, p. 377, 1847 Bolivia (type from Sicasica; see M6ne- 
gaux, Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, (10), 1, pp. 207-208, 1909); Sclater (6), 1891, 
p. 135 Yrpa, near "UzUugo" [ =Vilugo], Tarapaca; E. Reed (4), p. 204 
Chile; Lane, p. 47 Tarapaca. 

Range in Chile. Extreme northern section, in province of 
Tarapaca. 3 

Material examined. Tarapaca: Yrpa (near Vilugo), 9 ad., 
April 11, 1890. A. Lane (British Museum). 

This specimen, without any trace of red on the nape, agrees in 
every respect with Bolivian females. 

Ambrose Lane, the only naturalist who ever obtained it in Chile, 
tells us that this woodpecker is occasionally met with on the eastern 
side of the Cordillera of Tarapaca up to 10,000 feet, but he is not 
quite certain whether it is a permanent resident or merely a visitor 
from Bolivia. 

1 Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 35, p. 43, 1922 Bariloche, Lago Nahuel Huapi, 
Rio Negro. 

2 Although the letterpress of C. rupicola was not published until 1847 (see 
Sherborn, Ind. Anim., Sect. 2, Part 1, p. XCVII, 1922), plate 62 must have been 
issued far in advance, since it is quoted as early as 1844 by Tschudi (Arch. Naturg., 
10, (1), p. 303) with the remark "sine descriptione." 

'The "Valparaiso" specimen recorded by Allen (p. 101) is doubtless incorrectly 
labeled and probably originated from Bolivia. 



250 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

The general range of C. r. rupicola comprises the Andean dis- 
tricts of Bolivia and northwestern Argentina. In southern Peru 
it is replaced by C. rupicola puna Cabanis. 1 

157. Ipocrantor magellanicus (King) 

Picus magellanicus King, Zool. Journ., 3, No. 11, "Sept. to Dec. 1827," p. 430, 

pub. early in 1828 Port Famine, Straits of Magellan; Des Murs (2), 

p. 372 southern Chile, north to Colchagua; Boeck, p. 507 near Valdivia; 

Philippi (12), p. 267 from Magellania to Colchagua. 
Picus jubatus Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 4, p. 242, 1841 no locality stated 

(= female). 

Picus magellicanus (sic) Bridges, p. 94 Colchagua. 
Campephilus magellanicus Sclater (2), 1867, pp.' 328, 338 Chile; Sclater and 

Salvin, Ibis, 1868, p. 187 Sandy-Point; idem, P. Z. S. Lond., 1878, p. 

434 Puerto Bueno; E. Reed (2), p. 555 Cauquenes, Colchagua; Ridgway 

(2), p. 135 Laredo Bay and Sandy-Point. 
Ipocrantor magellanicus E. Reed (4), p. 204 from Chilian to Magellania; 

Lane, p. 48 Valdivia (habits); Bullock (4), p. 173 Angol, Malleco. 

Range in Chile. From the Straits of Magellan north to Colchagua. 

Material collected. Malleco: Rio Colorado, <? ad., Feb. 4. 
Valdivia: Rinihue, cT ad., March 7; Mafil, 9 ad., Feb. 27. Chilo< 
Island: Quellon, d" imm., 9 ad., Dec. 22, 23; Rio Inio, 9 ad., 
Jan. 12. 

The majority of our specimens have the inner web of the secon- 
daries (excepting the tip) uniform white, but an immature male and 
one of the females show a few blackish spots in the apical portion of 
this light-colored area. 

The Chilean series appears to be inseparable from the few Pata- 
gonian specimens with which we have been able to compare them. 

This woodpecker, characterized by the peculiar sexual dimorphism 
in the development of the crest carried much farther in the female, 
is evidently of Patagonian origin. It inhabits Tierra del Fuego and 
southern Patagonia, ranging along the eastern slope of the Andes as 
far north as the vicinity of Lake Nahuel Huapi. In Chile it is 
fairly common up to Valdivia, but north of this point it decreases in 
numbers, and reaches the limit of its range in Colchagua, where it is 
stated to be rather rare. 

Philippi (Ornis, 4, p. 159, 1888) lists "Picus cactorum Tsch." from Cana, 
Antofagasta. If this is intended for Trichopicus cactorum (d'Orbigny), the iden- 
tification can hardly be correct. Albert (Anal. Univ. Chile, 100, pp. 315-325, 
1898), who had access to the collections of the Museo Nacional, does not mention 
the species even in synonymy. Colaptes rupicola is admitted to the Chilean fauna 
solely on Sclater's authority. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 251 

158. Dyctiopicus lignarius (Molina) 

Picus lignarius Molina, Saggio Stor. Nat. Chile, pp. 236, 343, 1782 Chile 
(descr. pessima); Fraser (1), p. 114 Chile; Cassin, p. 190 mountainous 
districts [of Chile]; Germain, p. 312 Santiago (nesting habits) ; Pelzeln (2), 
p. 101; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 328, 338 Chile; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1869, 
p. 283 Chilo6; E. Reed (2), p. 555 Cauquenes, Colchagua; Salvin (2), 
p. 425 Coquimbo; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. Ill Marga-Marga Valley, 
Valparaiso. 

Picus melanocephalus King, Proc. Comm. Sci. Corresp. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1, 
p. 14, Jan., 1831 "in fretu Magellanico et insula Chilo6"; Des Murs 
(2), p. 372 Chilo4 Island and peninsula of Tres Montes; Boeck, p. 507 
Valdivia; Philippi (12), p. 267 Chile generally; Lataste (5), p. LXII 
LlohuS (Itata), Maule; Waugh and Lataste (1), p. LXXXVII Penaflor, 
Santiago; idem (2), p. CLXXII San Alfonso (Quillota), Valparaiso. 

Picus kingii 1 (Gray MS.) Darwin, Zool. Beagle, 3, Birds, Part 15, p. 113, 
March, 1841 Valparaiso and peninsula of Tres Montes. 

Picus kaupii Hartlaub, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 4, p. 6, 1852 "Chile" (types 
in Bremen Museum); idem (3), p. 215 Valdivia (crit.). 

Centurus gradatus Reichenbach, Handb. Spez. Orn., Picinae, p. 411, pi. 
DCLXV, figs. 4417-18, 1854 Chile (ex Lichtenstein, Nomencl. Av. Mus. 
Berol., p. 75, 1854; nomen nudum). 

Picus puncticeps et P. aureocapillus* (not of Vigors) Lataste (1), p. CXV 
Cerro de Coroney, Maule. 

Dendrocopus lignarius E. Reed (4), p. 204 Chile; Lane, p. 48 Hacienda 
Mansel (Santiago), Coronel (Conception), Laraquete (Arauco), and Rio 
Bueno (Valdivia); Schalow (2), p. 702 La Serena, Coquimbo; Bullock 
(3), p. 122 Cerro de Nahuelbuta, Malleco; idem (4), p. 173 Angol, 
Malleco. 

Dryobates lignarius Barros (4), p. 142 Nilahue, Curico; idem (5), p. 179 
Cordillera of Aconcagua (up to 1,800 meters elev.); Passler (3), p. 451 
Coronel. 

Dyctiopicus lignarius Wetmore (3), p. 213 Con con, Valparaiso. 

Range in Chile. From Coquimbo to peninsula of Tres Montes, 
and sparingly even to the Straits of Magellan. 3 

Material collected. Valparaiso: Olmue", d* ad., May 23. Col- 
chagua: Baiios de Cauquenes, d" ad., May 3. Malleco: Rio Colo- 
rado, d" ad., 9 ad., Feb. 6, March 3; Curacautin, 9 ad., Feb. 1. 

1 Proposed as a substitute name for Picus melanocephalus King. 

2 In a subsequent communication (Act. Soc. Sci. Chili, 4, p. CLXXII, 1894) 
Lataste identified the two birds as male and female of P. melanocephalus. 

3 Oustalet (Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, 6, Ois., p. 255, 1891) questions its occurrence 
in the Straits. Even if we discard King's locality "in fretu Magellanico" as too 
indefinite, there are two other records which seem to indicate that the species 
is found, at least occasionally, in southern Patagonia. Cunningham (Not. Nat. 
Hist. Strait of Magellan, p. 138, 1871) shot a specimen at Sandy-Point [=Punta 
Arenas], and Ridgway (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, "1889," p. 135, Feb., 1890) 
lists another obtained by the naturalists of the "Albatross" at Laredo Bay. 



252 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Cautin: Villa Portales (alt. 3,300 feet), d" ad., Feb. 29. Guaitecas 
Islands: Clotilde Island, cf ad., Feb. 3, 1923. 

Additional specimens. Valdivia: Valdivia, two d" cf ad., one 
cf imm., three 9 9 ad. A. von Lossberg, 1897 (Berlepsch Collection, 
Frankfort Museum). "Southern Chile:" three cfcf ad. (Ber- 
lepsch Collection, Frankfort Museum). "Chile" (unspecified): three 
cfcf ad., one 9 ad. (Boucard Collection, Paris Museum). 

It is possible that specimens from Valdivia and south are more 
heavily streaked underneath, and the Guaitecas bird, besides having 
a stronger bill, certainly is more coarsely marked than any other 
example seen by me. However, the series from central Chile, which 
shows some variation in this respect, is too inadequate to justify 
any subdivision. 

Although widely distributed over the wooded parts of central 
and southern Chile, this woodpecker is stated to be nowhere com- 
mon. Its altitudinal range extends, according to Barros, up to 
about 6,000 feet. 

Outside of Chile, it has been met with along the eastern slope of 
the Andes, on Argentine territory in Neuquen, Rio Negro, and 
Chubut. Hargitt 1 records specimens even from Cosquin, Cordoba. 
It apparently also ranges into certain parts of Bolivia (Cochabamba; 
Rio Chaluani, Mizque), whence d'Orbigny redescribed it as Picus 
puncticeps. The types, which I have carefully compared in the 
Paris Museum, appear to me inseparable from Chilean birds; still 
the examination of a series of Bolivian skins is required to make sure 
of their identity. 

The relationship of the present species to D. mixtus* likewise 
needs further investigation. 



[Picus aurocapillus Vigors (Proc. Comm. Sci. Corresp. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 2, p. 4, 1832), said to be from "Chile," has never been identi- 
fied. No woodpecker with golden yellow markings on the pileum 
has ever been found in Chile, and the locality, like that of several 
other species in Cuming's collection of which it formed part, was 
doubtless incorrect. 

Capita aurifrons Vigors (Proc. Comm. Sci. Corresp. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 2, p. 3, 1832) was erroneously described from "Chile." No 

'Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 18, p. 258, 1890. 

2 Neither Dyctiopicus mixtus mixtus (Boddaert) nor Chrysoptilus cristatus 
melanolaimus (Malherbe), which are listed by Gigoux (a, pp. 38, 39) among the 
birds of Atacama, has ever been found on Chilean territory. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 253 

member of the Barbet family is found on the Pacific side of South 
America south of Ecuador, all the species being peculiar to the 
tropical forests.] 

159. Crotophaga sulcirostris sulcirostris Swainson 

Crotophaga sulcirostris Swainson, Philos. Journ., (n. s.), 1, p. 440, 1827 
Mexico. 

Crotophaga major (not of Gmelin) Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 159, 1888 Tarapaca. 

Range in Chile. Extreme northern section of Tarapaca and 
doubtless also Tacna. 

Material collected. Tarapaca: Chintaguai, Quebrada de Quisma 
(alt. 4,000 feet), <? ad., May 22, 1924. 

This seems to be the first record of C. s. sidcirostris from Chile, 
but there can be little doubt that Philippi's "C. major" from Tarapaca 
also belongs here and not to C. major. 

The specimen is similar to others from the coast of Peru (Chosica, 
Menocucho), which, in agreement with Chapman, 1 I consider in- 
separable from Central American birds. 



[Guira guira (Gmelin), mentioned by Gigoux (a, p. 49) as a possible 
visitor, has never been found in Chile. The two specimens in the 
British Museum are no doubt incorrectly labeled.] 

160. Megaceryle torquata stellata (Meyen) 

Alcedo stellata Meyen, Nov. Act. Acad. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur., 16, Suppl., 
1, p. 98, pi. 14, 1834 on the banks of the Rio "Clado" [=Claro], Prov. 
San Fernando [=Colchagua]. 

Alcedo stellaris (lapsu) Kittlitz (3), p. 120 San-Tome, Conception. 

Alcedo torquata (not of Linnaeus) Bridges, p. 94 Chile; Des Murs (2), p. 270; 
Boeck, p. 498 on the banks of the Calle-Calle River, Valdivia; Philippi 
(12), p. 249 Chile, much more common in the south. 

Ceryle torquata Darwin, p. 42 southern part of Chile, Chiloe, Chonos Archi- 
pelago, and down to Tierra del Fuego; Fraser (1), p. 110 southern Chile; 
Pelzeln (2), p. 50. 

Ceryle stellata Hartlaub (3), p. 210 Valdivia (crit.); Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 
327, 338 Chile (crit.); Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1869, p. 283 Port Otway; 
E. Reed (2), p. 555 Cauquenes, Colchagua (rare); Sclater and Salvin 
(3), p. 434 Port Otway; Ridgway (2), p. 136 Port Otway; E. Reed 
(4), p. 204 common in southern Chile, rare along the Rio Cachapoal, 
Colchagua; Lane, p. 49 Valdivia, not beyond Arauco; C. Reed, Av. Prov. 
Concepci6n, p. 39 Concepci6n; Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 46 Smyth's Channel. 

Ceryle torquata stellata Schalow (2), p. 702 Villarrica and Concepci6n. 

>Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 341, 1926. 



254 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Range in Chile. Southern provinces, north to Conception, very 
rarely as far north as Colchagua. 

Material collected. Chiloe" Island: Rio Inio, d" ad., 9 ad., 
Jan. 8, 1923. 

Five additional specimens from Chile (locality not specified) 
and a series from the Straits of Magellan have been examined in the 
collection of the British Museum and at Paris. 

While admitting that in the range of M. t. torquata occasionally 
specimens may occur that are not distinguishable by color characters, 
I think there can be no doubt that the white spotting on the wings 
and upper tail coverts as well as the plumbeous barring on the 
crissum are perfectly constant features in the South Chilean race. 
Besides, M. t. stellata may be separated by its shorter bill, which 
rarely exceeds 70 mm. in length, and the duller, more slaty (less 
bluish) gray of the upper parts. Among twenty examples of this 
form, I found only one or two in which the white spotting of the 
wings showed a tendency to reduction, and none without plumbeous 
barring on the lower tail coverts. 

The distributional area of M. t. stellata is evidently restricted to 
Tierra del Fuego, the Straits of Magellan, and southern Patagonia, 
north to Chubut. In Chile, this kingfisher is fairly common through 
the southern parts as far north as Conception, and it is doubtful 
whether it breeds anywhere beyond that point. There are, however, 
two records from Colchagua, perhaps based on migratory individuals 
from the south. Meyen claims to have shot the type on the banks of 
the Rio "Clado" [ = Claro], in the province of San Fernando (nowa- 
days Colchagua), and Edwyn Reed lists it as rare among the birds 
found in the Hacienda de Cauquenes. No kingfisher occurs in the 
central and northern parts of Chile. 

Peru and Bolivia 1 are erroneously included by authors in the 
range of the present form. Laubmann 2 identifies a single male from 
Villa Montes, Tarija, Bolivia, as M. t. stellata, though the bill- 
measurement (83 mm.) alone tends to show that it does not belong 
to that race, whose reappearance in Bolivia, furthermore, is more 
than unlikely. A series from the vicinity of Tucuman in Field 
Museum is unquestionably referable to M. t. torquata. 

1 Allen (Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 2, p. 101, 1889), in recording Ceryle stellata 
from Reyes and Lower Beni, plains of northern Bolivia, was doubtless misled by 
wrongly labeled Chilean specimens. 

*Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay., 18, p. 219, 1929. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 255 

161. Cyanoliseus patagonus byroni (J. E. Gray) 

Psittacus (Aratinga) byroni J. E. Gray, Zool. Misc., 1, p. 12, 1831 Chile. 
Psittacara patagonica (not Psittacus patagonus Vieillot) Lesson, Voy. Coquille, 

Zool., 1, pp. 241, 625, pi. 35 bis very common around "Talcaguana," 

Concepci6n. 
Psittacus cyanolyseos 1 Poeppig (2), p. 280 Rio Colorado, Santiago; idem (3), 

p. 8 Los Loros and Puente de Vizcachas, Andes of Santa Rosa [=Los 

Andes], Aconcagua; idem (4), Reise, p. 451 Andes of Antuco, Biobio; 

idem (5), p. 87 Antuco (habits); idem (6), p. 24 Antuco (habits); 

Thienemann, Einhund. Taf. Col. Abb. Vogelei., livr. 2, p. 77, pi. 14, fig. 

15 (egg), 1846 Chile. 

Conurus patachonicus Darwin, p. 113 part, Concepcion, Chile. 
Conurus cyanolysios 2 Fraser (1), p. 114 Chile (nesting habits); Des Murs 

(2), p. 367 Chile (habits); Cassin, p. 189 central provinces; Boeck, p. 

506 Valdivia; Pelzeln (2), p. 98 Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 328, 338; 

Philippi (12), p. 266 from the Rio Tolten northwards (crit.); Landbeck 

(6), p. 517 Chile (crit.); idem (7), p. 114 Chile (crit.); idem (9), p. 261 

from the Rio Tolten, Arauco, northwards; E. Reed (2), p. 556 Rio 

Cachapoal, Colchagua. 
Conurus byroni Albert, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 2, p. 40, 1898 central and 

southern Chile (crit.); Lane, p. 50 inland of San Antonio, Santiago; 

C. Reed, Av. Prov. Concepci6n, p. 39 Concepci6n; Barros (9a), p. 41 

Rancagua, O'Higgins. 

Cyanolysens (sic) patagonus Barros (4), p. 140 formerly in Nilahue, Curico. 
Cyanolyseus byroni E. Reed (4), p. 204 central and southern Chile; Barros 

(5), p. 177 Prov. Aconcagua (extinct). 

Range in Chile. Formerly common from Aconcagua to Valdivia; 
at present only in a few spots in the Cordilleras of the central 
provinces. 

Material examined. Colchagua: Hacienda de Cauquenes, 9 
ad., Dec., 1903. C. S. Reed (Tring Museum). Concepcion: Lirquen 
(Penco), <? ad., June, 1905. C. S. Reed (Tring Museum). "Chile" 
(unspecified): one "c?" ad., two unsexed adults, including the type 
(British, Tring and Munich Museums). 

The Chilean "Loro," though nearly allied to, may be distin- 
guished from, C. p. patagonus (Vieill.) by somewhat larger size (wing 
250-263, against 235-247 mm.), both heavier and longer bill, and 
by the creamy white patches on the sides of the chest being extended 
toward the middle so as to suggest or even actually form a complete 

*It is quite possible, as has been intimated by Barros (Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 
24, p. 151), that Molina (Saggio Stor. Nat. Chile, pp. 256, 343, 1782), when naming 
Psittacus cyanalysios, had the present species in mind. His description, however, 
is so faulty that I hesitate to accept the name in place of Gray's term, which is of 
unquestionable pertinence. 

2 Variously spelt cyanolysios, cyanalysios, cyanolisios, or cyanolyseos. 



256 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

transverse band across the breast. C. p. byroni apparently never 
occurred outside of Chile. 1 

In southern Argentina, north at least to Buenos Aires and Lake 
Nahuel Huapi, 2 it is represented by the small-billed C. p. patagonus, 
while the northwestern provinces (Catamarca, Tucuman, Salta) are 
tenanted byC.p.andinus Dabb.and Lillo, 3 which agrees with the typi- 
cal form in dimensions and size of bill, but differs by much darker 
brown throat and breast without trace of the creamy white patch on 
the sides of the chest, duller, more greenish (instead of bright yellow) 
rump, and by lacking the bright yellow ventral area. We have 
examined specimens of this well-characterized race from Guapichas 
(Salta) and Valle del Rio Santa Maria, Tucuman, in the collection 
of the Munich Museum. Of C. p. patagonus specimens have been 
available from Chubut, Bahia Blanca (Buenos Aires), Roca (Rio 
Negro), and Casa de Lata (Neuquen). 

C. p. byroni used to be very common in Chile. According to Lesson 
and Darwin, it was abundant around the Bay of Concepcion at the 
time of their visits. Poeppig, in 1829, found it breeding in large 
numbers near Los Andes, Aconcagua, where, as we are told by 
Barros, it became extinct some thirty years ago. Boeck, writing 
in 1855, reports to have seen large flocks of this paroquet in the 
vicinity of Valdivia, ,and Gilliss, leader of the United States 
Astronomical Expedition during the years 1849-52, calls it one of 
the most numerous of all birds in the central provinces of Chile. In 
1875-76, the elder Reed states that many paroquets were nesting in 
the ravines of the Rio Cachapoal, Colchagua. 

Ambrose Lane, at the beginning of December, 1889, observed a 
large flock about ten miles inland of San Antonio, Santiago. From 
the valley of Nilahue, Curico, the "Loro" disappeared, according 
to Barros, some forty years ago, and its old breeding grounds at 
Caillihue, near Vichuquen, in the same province, were found deserted 
by Lataste, when visiting the place in December, 1894. As shown 
by the specimens in the Tring Museum, it still existed at Cauquenes 
and Concepcion as late as 1902 and 1905. Since that time, its 
extermination appears to have made rapid progress, and not a single 

1 A specimen in the Tring Museum from "Mendoza" (Weisshaupt) is doubtless 
incorrectly labeled. 

2 The bird from Sandy-Point, Straits of Magellan, listed by Sclater and Salyin 
(Ibis, 1868, p. 187) as Conurus cyanolyseus can hardly belong to that species. 
Perhaps this record refers to Microsittace /. ferruginea. 

'Cyanolyseus andinus Dabbene and Lillo, Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos 
Aires, 24, p. 188, pi. 10, 1913 Colalao del Valle, Tucuman. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 257 

bird was seen in a wild state by the members of the Field Museum 
Expedition. Mr. Sanborn, however, saw at Vallenar, southern 
Atacama, a live specimen, of which photographs have been taken, 
and was told that a small breeding colony survived in the cliffs near 
Domeyko, south of Vallenar. Barros thinks that the "Loro" may still 
exist in small numbers in the Cordilleras near Rancagua, O'Higgins. 
The ruthless persecution by the plantation owners and the destruction 
of the young birds used for food are no doubt responsible for the 
disappearance of this fine paroquet, and unless serious protective 
measures are taken, we may soon have to include it in the ever 
growing list of extinct species. 

162. Enicognathus leptorhynchus (King) 1 

Psittacara leptorhyncha King, Proc. Comm. Sci. Corresp. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1, 
"1830-31," p. 14, Jan. 6, 1831 Chiloe Island; Cassin, p. 189 "interior 
of Chile." 

(?) Psittacus Jaquilma (not of Molina?) Poeppig (2), p. 280 Rio Colorado, 
Santiago. 

Psittacaria rectirostris Meyen, Nov. Act. Ac. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur., 16, 
Suppl., 1, p. 95, pi. 25, 1834 Chile. 

Psittacara cheroyeus Fraser (1), p. 114 Prov. Colchagua. 

Ara erythrofrons Lesson, Rev. Zool., 5, p. 135, 1842 Valdivia (diag.). 

Stylorhynchus erythrofrons Lesson, Echo du Monde Sav., 11, 1st sem., col. 184, 
1844 Valdivia (full descr.). 

Conurus erithrofrons (sic) Des Murs (2), p. 369 (ex Lesson). 

Enicognathus leptorhynchus Des Mure (2), p. 370 "desde la provincia de 
Santiago & la de Chilo6"; Bibra, p. 130 Santiago and Valdivia; Hartlaub 
(3), p. 214 Valdivia; Boeck, p. 506 Valdivia; Pelzeln (2), p. 98 Chile; 
Philippi (12), p. 267 Chile generally; Lataste (5), p. LXIII Junquillos 
(San Carlos de Chilian), Nuble; Barros (10), p. 357 Cuesta de Chaca- 
buco, Aconcagua. 

Henicognathus leptorhynchus Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 328, 338 Chile; E. Reed 
(2), p. 556 very common in Arauco and Valdivia, rare in Cauquenes, 
Colchagua; Lane, p. 50 Rio Bueno, Valdivia; Albert, Rev. Chil. Hist. 
Nat., 2, p. 39 southern Chile, north to Aconcagua; Barros (4), p. 141 
Nilahue, Curic6; Housse (1), p. 50 Isla La Mocha; C. Reed (4), p. 56 
Curacautin, Malleco; Blaauw (1), pp. 25, 33 Osorno and Puerto Octai, 
Llanquihue; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 110 Marga-Marga Valley, Valparaiso; 
Bullock (4), p. 172 Angol, Malleco (winter visitor); Barros (9a), p. 41 
(actual range). 

Garros (Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 24, p. 151, 1920) uses the name Henicognathus 
Choraeus. While admitting that Psittacus choraeus of Molina (Saggio Stor. Nat. 
Chile, pp. 257, 343, 1782) might have been intended for the present species, I do 
not see how the description, "Brachyurus viridis, subtus cinereus, orbitis incar- 
natis," can be reconciled with its characters. Compare also the remarks on this 
subject by Deautier and Steullet (Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 33, p. 479, 1929). 



258 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Enicognothus (sic) leptorhynchus Landbeck (9), p. 261 beech woods of Chile. 
Conurus erythrofrons Lataste (1), p. CXV Bureo (Chilian), Ruble, and Cerros 

de Aculeo, Santiago. 
Henicognattrus (sic) leptorhynchus E. Reed (4), p. 204 common in Valdivia, 

rarer in the north. 

Range in Chile. From Aconcagua to Llanquihue. 

Material collected. Chiloe": Quellon, c? ad., 9 ad., Dec. 26, 
Jan. 2. Conception: Cabrero, three d" cf ad., July 29, Aug. 9, 1904. 
C. S. Reed; Quilacoya, d* ad., June 17, 1904. C. S. Reed. 

The exact limits of the breeding range of the "Choroy" are hard 
to define with any degree of accuracy owing to the scarcity of proper 
data. It doubtless breeds in Llanquihue, Chiloe", and Valdivia, 
and probably in Arauco and Concepci6n. Father Housse mentions 
it as inhabiting the inaccessible cumbres of the Isla La Mocha, off 
Arauco. In the Angol Valley, Malleco, this paroquet, according to 
Bullock, is merely a winter visitor (from April to October), and 
the same is the case in the Nilahue district, Curico (fide Barros). 
In Colchagua an enormous nesting colony exists at a point called 
"Las Penas" above the Rio Claro, and smaller numbers occur on 
the Rio Tinguiririca. It is an uncommon resident in the Andean 
valleys of O'Higgins, and a few were found nesting by Barros 
in January, 1926, near Chacabuco, Aconcagua. 

None have been seen for many years in the Santiago region, 
where Lataste, in January, 1893, found them breeding in holes of 
trees on the summit of the Cerro de Aculeo. 

From Lane's observations we learn that "they feed on certain 
trees in the forests, to which they appear to be restricted, as they do 
not resort much to cultivated fields"; but he was told at Rio Bueno 
"that in some years they make incessant raids on the gardens and 
orchards, doing great havoc when the fruit begins to ripen." 

E. leptorhynchus appears to be a strictly Chilean species and has 
not yet been found anywhere outside the boundaries of the republic. 

163. Microsittace ferruginea minor Chapman 1 

Microsittace ferrugineus minor Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 41, p. 323, 
1919 Corral [Valdivia], Chile. 

According to Barros (Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 24, p. 151, 1920), this is the bird 
designated as Psittacus jaguilma by Molina (Saggio Stor. Nat. Chile, pp. 257, 343, 
1782), whereas Deautier and Steullet (Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 33, p. 479, 1929) are 
inclined to refer Molina's species to Psilopsiagon aurifrons. The diagnosis, 
"macrurus viridis, remigibus apice fuscis, orbitis fulvis," is too indefinite to permit 
of final conclusion, and the name is better dropped as undeterminable. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 259 

Conurus pyrrhurus (Reichenbach MS.) Bibra, Denks. math.-naturw. Kl. Ak. 

Wiss. Wien, 5, p. 130, 1853 "bei Santiago (?) und im nordlichen Chile," 

error e; nomen nudum. 
Psittacara smaragdina (not Psittacus smaragdinus Gmelin) Cassin, p. 189 

Chile. 
Conurus smaragdineus Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 328, 338 Chile; E. Reed (2), 

p. 556 rare in Cauquenes, Colchagua. 

Conurus erythrorons [sic] (not Ara erythrofrons Lesson) Philippi (12), p. 266 

common in Valdivia. 
Conurus erythrofrons Landbeck (9), p. 261 beech woods of Chile (in part). 

Microsittace ferruginea E. Reed (4), p. 204 Chile, rare in the north; Lane, p. 
50 Calle-Calle, Valdivia, and Maquequa, Arauco; Albert, Rev. Chil. 
Hist. Nat., 2, p. 42 central and southern Chile; Barros (4), p. 141 
Nilahue, Curico (winter); Bullock (3), p. 121; idem (4), p. 173 Cerros 
de Nahuelbuta, Malleco (nesting). 

Range in Chile. From Colchagua to the Guaitecas Islands. 

Material collected. Biobio: tf ad., May, 1904. C. S. Reed. 
Malleco: Rio Colorado (alt. 3,000 feet), 9 ad., Feb. 5; Lake Malleco 
(alt. 3,500 feet), tf ad., Jan. 20. Cautin: Maquehue, d" ad., July 
15, 1912. A. C. Saldana. Valdivia: Gorbea, 9 ad., Aug. 6, 1924. 
C. S. Reed; Mafil, one d 1 ad., three 9 9, Feb. 15, 22; Rinihue, d" 
ad., 9 ad., March 12, 16. Guaitecas Islands: Melinka, Ascension 
Island, cf ad., 9 ad., Feb. 2. 

Additional specimens. Llanquihue: Fundo Esmeralda, Dept. 
Osorno, cf ad., 9 ad. (molting), March 6, 12, 1923. R. Bohnenberger 
(Munich Museum). 

The Chilean series differs from typical M. f. ferruginea, 1 of the 
Straits of Magellan, by smaller size, slightly darker (less yellowish) 
green coloration, and less extensive, also somewhat darker red 
abdominal area. I do not see any constant difference in the coloring 
of the reddish loral space, although it is frequently of a darker tone 
in Chilean birds, which, as a rule, also have slightly stouter bills. 
Most of our specimens have wings from 173 to 180 mm., except two 
from Malleco, which measure 183 and 185 mm. respectively. 

An adult male from Lago Blanco, Chubut, in Field Museum is 
more yellowish green, with a larger, paler red patch on the lower 
abdomen, and larger in all its dimensions (wing 191 mm.). Although 
its wings are a bit shorter than in Magellanic specimens, it 
must doubtless be referred to M. f. ferruginea, which would thus 
appear to range along the eastern slope of the Andes as far north 

1 Psittacus ferrugineus P. L. S. Miiller, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 75, 1776 based 
on "Perruche des terres Magellaniques" Daubenton, PI. Enl., 85. 



260 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

as Chubut in western Patagonia, 1 while M. f. minor is restricted to 
Chile proper. 

This paroquet is reported to be common in the southern parts of 
the republic as far north as Conception. Farther north it becomes 
less numerous, and it is even doubtful whether it breeds there. 
According to Edwyn Reed, it is rather rare in the southern part of 
the Hacienda de Cauquenes, Colchagua. In Nilahue, Curico, R. 
Barros noticed it merely as a winter visitor. Bibra is certainly mis- 
taken in assigning its habitat to "northern Chile," and there appears 
to be no authentic record for its occurrence either in the vicinity of 
Santiago or in Aconcagua. 2 

In habits and its preference for forests it is said to resemble 
E. leptorhynchus. 

164. Psilopsiagon 3 aurifrons orbignesius (Souance") 

Myiopsitta orbignesia* Souance, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 8, pp. 63-64, 1856 

Bolivia. 8 
Bolborrhynchus andicola (not of Finsch) Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 159 Colana, 

Antofagasta. 
Bolborhynchus orbignesius Sclater (4), 1886, p. 399 "Lalcalhuay," Tarapaca; 

idem (6), 1891, p. 135 Sacaya, Tarapaca. 
Bolborhynchus orbignyi Lane, p. 51 Sacaya, Yabricoya, etc., Tarapaca 

(habits); Albert, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 2, p. 42, 1898 Tarapaca. 
Bolborynchus orbigneji (sic) E. Reed (4), p. 204 Tarapaca. 
Range in Chile. Extreme north, in provinces of Antofagasta and 
Tarapaca. 

Material collected. Antofagasta: twenty miles east of San 
Pedro, d 1 ad., 9 ad., Sept. 19, 1923. 

This little paroquet was first obtained on Chilean territory by 
Carlos Rahmer in the Cordillera of Tarapaca, where Ambrose Lane 
later met with it between November and March at various localities 
up to an elevation of 11,000 feet. According to Albert, specimens 
were also secured in that province by Doctor Pohlmann. On the 

1 The most northerly locality is evidently Lago General Paz, whence Lynch 
Arribalzaga (Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 162, 1902) recorded 
two specimens taken by G. F. Gerling. 

s See Barros, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 25, p. 177, 1921. 

3 Psilopsiagon Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 25, p. 100, 1912; type, by 
orig. desig., Trichoglossus aurifrons Wagler = Psittacus (Lathamus) aurifrons Lesson. 

4 Myiopsitta orbygnesia Bonaparte (Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 6, p. 151, 1854) is 
a nomen nudum. 

6 "Yungaz" is given as a more definite locality by Souance in the (unpaged) 
text to pi. 24 of his "Iconographie des Perroquets." 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 261 

occasion of the second expedition to the desert of Atacama under 
the leadership of Federico Philippi this species was taken at Colana, 
a military post in the vicinity of the Rio Inacaliri, Antofagasta, 
hence in the same region where our specimens come from, and was 
recorded by R. A. Philippi under the erroneous name of B. andicola. 

Chilean examples agree with others from Bolivia and southern 
Peru. In western Argentina the typical form is replaced by the 
barely separable P. o. rubrirostris. 1 Both are conspecific with 
P. aurifrons (Lesson). 

[Several other species of paroquets have been included in the Chilean 
fauna on unsatisfactory evidence. 

Myiopsitta monachus (Boddaert). Against Des Murs (in Gay, 1, 
p. 368), who states that "esta especie se encuentra en Chile hasta el 
estrecho de Magallanes," Philippi (Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 266, 
1868) points out that it does not occur in Chile anywhere in a wild 
state, being, however, frequently kept in cages. Boeck (Naumannia, 
1855, p. 507) also mentions a live bird brought by the Indians from 
the Mission of San Jose" to Valdivia. 

Aratinga jandaya (Gmelin). The specimen seen in the vicinity 
of San Bernardo, Santiago, by R. Housse (Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 
29, p. 143, 1925) undoubtedly was an escaped cage-bird. The 
range of this paroquet is restricted to extreme northeastern Brazil. 

Amoropsitta aymara (d'Orbigny). D'Orbigny 2 claims to have dis- 
covered this species in the "Quebrada de Palca, above Tacna," 
but this appears to be erroneous. M. Berlioz, of the Paris Museum, 
kindly informs us that one of the types is marked "Sicasica, Bolivia, 
1834," 3 while no paroquet is entered on the Museum registers among 
the birds received through d'Orbigny from Tacna Province in 1831. 
We may, therefore, take Sicasica, south of La Paz, as type locality. 4 
Salvadori 5 lists a specimen from the "Chilian Andes," but as Ley- 
bold's birds were not always properly labeled, it might have been 
obtained on the Argentine side in Mendoza, where this naturalist 
also did a good deal of collecting. In Sclater and James's "New List 

1 Conunis rubrirostris Burmeister, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 243, 1860 Sierra de 
Mendoza and Sierra de Cordoba (the type examined in the Halle Museum is from 
the Sierra de Uspallata, Mendoza). 

1 Voyage Amer. M6rid., 2, p. 376, circa 1841. 

3 The second specimen lacks all data beyond the collector's number (417). 

4 Souanc6 (Iconog. Perr., text to pi. 23, 1857) likewise states that d'Orbigny's 
original examples are from "La Paz, Bolivie." 

'Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 20, p. 234, 1891. 



262 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

of Chilian Birds," 1892, Bolborhynchus aymara is given as a "resi- 
dent"! E. Reed (4) (p. 204) states that it is "sometimes" found 
in Chile. 

Psilopsiagon aurifrons rubrirostris (Burmeister). The specimen 
from the "Chilian Andes, F. Leybold" in the British Museum has no 
original label, and is more likely to have come from the vicinity of 
Mendoza. Sclater and James (New List of Chil. Birds, p. 6) and 
E. Reed (4) (p. 204) call B. rubrirostris an "occasional visitor," 
but it does not appear ever to have been taken on Chilean territory.] 

165. Tyto alba tuidara (J. E. Gray) 

Strix tuidara J. E. Gray in Griffith and Pidgeon, The Animal Kingdom by 
Cuvier, 6, p. 75, circa 1828 new name for Strix perlata (not of Vieillot, 
1816) Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 59, 1823, Brazil. 

Strix perlata (not of Vieillot) Fraser (1), p. 110 rare in Chile; Des Murs (2), 
p. 257; Cassin, p. 177 Chile (uncommon); Germain, p. 309 Santiago 
(nesting habits); Philippi (12), p. 247 the whole of Chile; idem, Ornis, 
4, p. 158 Pica, Tarapaca; Lataste (2), pp. 165-176 Chile (habits, crit.); 
idem (3), pp. 63-72 (habits) ; idem (4), pi. XXXIII Caillihue (Vichuquen), 
Curico; idem (8), p. 112 (call-note of female). 

Strix flammea (not of Linnaeus) Des Murs (2), p. 255 Chile generally; Bibra, 
p. 128 around Valparaiso; Pelzeln (2), p. 29 Chile (crit.); Sclater (2), 
1867, p. 339 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 247 Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 556 
Cauquenes, Colchagua; idem (4), p. 204 Chile; Schalow (2), p. 70 
La Serena, Coquimbo; Housse (2), p. 143 San Bernardo, Santiago; idem 
(3), p. 225 Isla La Mocha; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 104 Marga-Marga 
Valley, Valparaiso; Bullock (3), p. 127 Cerro de Nahuelbuta, Malleco; 
idem (4), p. 200 Angol, Malleco (breeding). 

Strix pratincola (not of Bonaparte) Yarrell, p. 53 Chile (eggs descr.). 

Tyto flammea perlata Barros (4), p. 140 Nilahue, Curico (breeding); idem 
(5), p. 177 Cordillera of Aconcagua. 

Tyto alba tuidara Passler (3), p. 450 Coronel. 

Range in Chile. Generally distributed from Tarapaca south at 
least to Valdivia. 

Material collected. Coquimbo: Romero, 9 ad., Nov. 6, 1923. 

Other Chilean examples have been examined in the collections 
at London and Paris. 

Philippi had referred the Chilean barn-owls to two species, but 
Lataste (2), on comparing the five specimens four from Santiago, 
one from Osorno in the National Museum, found them all alike and 
differing from the European form in their considerably longer tarsi. 
According to Raspail (Act. Soc. Sci. Chili, 5, pp. 55-62, 1895), the 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 263 

eggs also may be distinguished by their larger size, more regularly 
ovate shape, and more glossy shell. 

The Barn-Owl, although distributed over the greater part of Chile, 
is nowhere common. Germain, who observed it in the environs of 
Santiago, tells us that it lays during November from three to five 
eggs in a hollow tree, or in the cavities of the cliffs bordering the 
rivers. Lataste found it breeding around Christmas time at Cailli- 
hue, Dept. Vichuquen, Curico. Barros met with it at Nilahue as well 
as in the province of Aconcagua, where it inhabits the foothills and 
the Cordilleras up to an altitude of 1,900 meters. R. Housse records 
it as nesting in the monastery at San Bernardo, Santiago. Bullock 
lists it as fairly common at Angol, Malleco, nesting from November 
to February. According to Boeck (p. 498), it is extremely rare near 
Valdivia. Lataste has published a very interesting account of its 
habits, call-notes, and nidification. 

166. Bubo virginianus nacurutu (Vieillot) 

Strix nacurutu Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 7, p. 44, 1817 

based on Azara, No. 42, Paraguay. 
Bubo virginianus (not Strix virginiana Gmelin) Fraser (1), p. 110 Chile; 

Sclater (2), 1867, p. 339 Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 557 Cordillera of Cau- 

quenes, Colchagua; Sclater (6), 1891, p. 135 Vilugo, Tarapaca; E. Reed 

(4), p. 205 Chile (crit.); Albert (1), 101, p. 658 Chile (monog.). 
Ulula crassirostris (not Strix crassirostris Vieillot) Des Murs (2), p. 254 

Chile (ex Bridges). 
Bubo magellanicus Des Murs (2), p. 248 the whole of Chile; Pelzeln (2), p. 

26 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 246 at the foot of the Chilean Andes (crit.); 

idem, Ornis, 4, p. 158 Ascotan, Antofagasta; Waugh and Lataste (2), 

p. CLXX San Alfonso, Quillota, Prov. Valparaiso; Lane, p. 177 

Vilugo, Tarapaca; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 104 Marga-Marga Valley, 

Valparaiso. 
Bubo crassirostris Cassin, p. 177 rare in the mountains of Chile; Sclater (2), 

1867, p. 339 Chile. 
Bubo virginianus nacurutu Barros (4), p. 139 rare in Nilahue, Curico; idem, 

(5), p. 176 Valle de los Leones and Juncal, Cordillera of Aconcagua; 

Laubmann, Wiss. Erg. Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 158, 1930 Lago de San 

Rafael, Taytao Peninsula, Llanquihue. 

Range in Chile. From Tarapaca to the Straits of Magellan. 

Material collected. Atacama: Ramadilla, Copiapo Valley, two 
9 9 ad., March 23. Llanquihue: Rio Nirehuau, d* imm., Feb. 
26, 1923. 

The two species, B. "magellanicus" and B. virginianus (crassi- 
rostris}, cited by the earlier authors, are now ascertained to refer to a 



264 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

single form, whose correct name is the one given above, and whose 
range comprises a large sector of southern South America. 

The Horned Owl is widely diffused throughout Chile, but like the 
allied races is nowhere very abundant. There are records for its 
occurrence in Tarapaca (Vilugo), Antofagasta (Ascotan), Atacama 
(Copiapo Valley), Aconcagua, Santiago, Colchagua (Cauquenes), 
Valparaiso (San Alfonso, Quillota), Curic6 (Nilahue), and Llanquihue 
(Lago San Rafael, Rio Nirehuau). In the Straits of Magellan it is 
reported to be more numerous. It principally inhabits the moun- 
tain valleys, ascending to an altitude of 2,300 meters. 

167. Speotyto cunicularia cunicularia (Molina) 

Strix cunicularia Molina, Saggio Stor. Nat. Chile, pp. 263, 343, 1782 Chile; 
Meyen, p. 70 Ramadilla, Atacama; Kittlitz (3), p. 135 near Val- 
paraiso; Housse (2), p. 142 San Bernardo, Santiago. 

Strix coquimbana "Mol." Poeppig (2), p. 280 Rio Colorado, Santiago. 

Noctua cunicularia Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny, Syn. Av., 1 , p. 8 Chile; d'Orbigny, 
p. 128 Chile; Des Murs (2), p. 245; Philippi (12), p. 246 from the Rio 
Imperial northwards; Lataste (1), p. CXV Ninhue, Maule; idem (4), 
p. XXXIII Caillihue (Vichuquen), Curic6; idem (5), p. LXI Itata, 
Maule; Waugh and Lataste (1), p. LXXXIV Penaflor, Santiago; idem 
(2), p. CLXIX San Alfonso, Quillota; idem (3), p. LIX Penaflor. 

Athene cunicularia Darwin, p. 31 Chile; Fraser (1), p. 109 Chile; Cassin, 
p. 178 Chile; Pelzeln (2), p. 25; Sclater (2), 1867, p. 339 Chile. 

Pholeoptynx cunicularia E. Reed (2), p. 557 Cauquenes, Colchagua; Salvin 
(2), p. 426 Coquimbo. 

Speotyto cunicularia Sharpe, p. 10 Coquimbo; Sclater (6), 1891, p. 135 
"Canchosa" and "Sacaya," Tarapaca; E. Reed (4), p. 205; Lane, p. 
178 Hacienda Mansel (Santiago), Laraquete (Arauco), and Tarapaca; 
Schalow (2), p. 69 Las Cardas and La Serena, Coquimbo; Albert (1), 
101, p. 671 Chile (habits); Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 104 Marga-Marga 
Valley, Valparaiso; Bullock (4), p. 199 Angol, Malleco. 

Speotyto cunicularia cunicularia Barros (4), p. 140 common in Nilahue, 
Curic6; idem (5), p. 176 Precordillera of Aconcagua; Passler (3), p. 
449 near Coronel; Wetmore (3), p. 201 Concon, Valparaiso; Barros 
(10), p. 358 Cordillera of Aconcagua. 

Range in Chile. From Cautin (Rio Imperial, Temuco) north 
to Tarapaca (Canchones). 

Material collected. Conception: near coast, d" ad., April 14. 
Coquimbo: Paiguano (alt. 3,300 feet), d* ad., June 28; Romero, 
d* ad., 9 ad., July 15, 18. Atacama: Ramadilla, Copiapo Valley, 
cf ad., March 23. 

Additional specimens. Cautin: Maquehue, Temuco, three <? <? 
ad. D. S. Bullock; Pelal, Temuco, three cf d" ad., one 9 ad. A. C. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 265 

Saldana. Santiago: Hacienda Mansel, near Hospital, two d*d" ad., 
two 9 9 ad. A. Lane; Santiago, one 9 ad. L. Landbeck. Tara- 
paca: Canchones, d" ad., 9 ad., Jan. 27, 1890. A. Lane (all in the 
British Museum). 

Excepting a slight increase in size in the south, there is apparently 
no racial variation in the Chilean Burrowing Owl, although indi- 
viduals, regardless of locality, show notable differences. The darkest 
specimen we have seen is the bird from Paiguano, conspicuous by 
its deep (blackish) brown upper, and strongly buffy under parts. 
I had expected the Tarapaca specimens would turn out to be referable 
to S. c. nanodes, but close comparison of ample material in the 
British Museum showed this to be not the case. The two birds 
obtained by Ambrose Lane at Canchones, in size and coloration, 
are precisely similar to others from central Chile, being markedly 
larger than a series from the Peruvian littoral. There does not appear 
to be any appreciable difference in color between S. c. cunicidaria 
and S. c. nanodes, while S. c. juninensis, from the highlands of Peru 
and Bolivia, besides being still larger than the first-named, may be 
distinguished by its paler, more reddish brown dorsal surface. 

Wing measurements 1 of the various races are as follows: 

S. c. cunicularia. Canchones, Tarapaca, 178, 182; Ramadilla, 
Atacama, 180; Coquimbo (Romero, Paiguano), 175, 176, 178; San- 
tiago, 183; Hacienda Mansel (Santiago), 180, 185, 185, 185; Concep- 
cion, 185; Temuco, Cautin, 180, 183, 187, 188, 190, 190, 197. 

S. c. nanodes. Littoral of western Peru (Trujillo, Chosica, 
Chorillos, Lima), 165, 165, 167, 168, 170, 172; Tambo Valley, 
Arequipa, 169, 170, 175; Catarindos Valley, Arequipa, 170. 

S. c. juninensis. Lake Junin, 195; Tinta, Dept. Cuzco, 205; 
Puno, Lake Titicaca, 200; Challapata, Bolivia, 205. 

The Burrowing Owl is said to be locally common in Chile, where 
it inhabits sandy stretches along the seacoast as well as the bare 
hillsides and open slopes of the precordillera. In the central prov- 
inces its altitudinal range does not extend much beyond 5,000 
feet, 2 and this probably obtains throughout the whole of its distri- 
butional area. At any rate I have not been able to find any authentic 
record for its alleged occurrence at high elevations. Lane, it is 

1 No constant sexual differences in size exist in this species. 

1 Barros (Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 33, p. 358, 1930), in corroboration of what 
is said above, states that the Burrowing Owl is very rare in the Cordillera of 
Aconcagua, a few pairs breeding as high as Rio Blanco (alt. 1,500 meters). A 
single specimen, probably a straggler, was shot at Piedra de la Vizcacha (alt. 
1,750 meters). 



266 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

true, tells us that it is said to ascend up to 10,000 feet in the Cordillera 
of Tarapaca, and Sclater, in his second list of birds from that prov- 
ince, actually cites "Canchosa" and "Sacaya" as localities. This, 
however, is obviously a mistake, for Lane's specimens in the British 
Museum are from Canchones, a farming district not far from Pica, 
in the foothills. At all events, this locality marks the northern 
limit of the bird's range in Chile. Sanborn found it in the Copiapo 
Valley and at several places in Coquimbo, 1 whence it is diffused 
through the central provinces as far south as Temuco, Cautin. It 
is obviously absent from the wooded districts of southern Chile, 
but reappears in parts of western and southern Argentina. 

168. Glaucidium nanum (King) 

Strix nana King, Zool. Journ., 3, No. 11, Sept. to Dec. 31, 1827, p. 427, 1828 
Port Famine, Straits of Magellan (type in British Museum examined). 

Athene ferox (not Strix ferox Vieillot) Eraser (1), p. 109 Chile. 

Noctua pumila (not Strix pumila Lichtenstein) Des Murs (2), p. 244 Chile 
generally; Lataste (1), p. CXV Ninhue (Itata), Maule; Waugh and 
Lataste (2), p. CLXIX San Alfonso (Quillota), Valparaiso; idem (3), 
p. LIX Penaflor, Santiago; Lataste (9), p. 167 Santa Teresa (Requinoa). 

Glaucidium nanum Hartlaub (3), p. 209 Valdivia; Cassin, p. 178 Chile; 
Germain, p. 309 Santiago (breeding habits); Sclater (2), 1867, p. 338 
Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 557 Cauquenes, Colchagua; Salvin (2), p. 426 
Chile; Allen, p. 104 Valparaiso; E. Reed (4), p. 205 Chile generally; 
Lane, p. 177 Rio Bueno, Valdivia (habits); Schalow (2), p. 698, pi. 38, 
fig. 2 part, Villarrica, Concepci6n (crit., eggs descr.); Albert (1), 101, 
p. 675 Chile (habits); Barros (4), p. 140 Nilahue, Curic6; idem (5), 
p. 177 Rio Blanco, Aconcagua; Housse (2), p. 142 San Bernardo, San- 
tiago; Passler (3), p. 449 Coronel; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 104 Marga- 
Marga Valley, Valparaiso; Bullock (3), p. 127 Cerro de Nahuelbuta, 
Malleeo; idem (4), p. 200 Angol, Malleco. 

Noctua nana Boeck, p. 498 Valdivia; Philippi (12), p. 246 Chile generally. 

Athene nana Pelzeln (2), p. 25 Chile. 

Glaucidium nanum vafrum Wetmore, Journ. Wash. Ac. Sci., 12, p. 323, 1922 
Concon, Valparaiso (type), Rio Blanco (Aconcagua), and Tofo (Co- 
quimbo); idem (3), p. 200 Concon. 

Range in Chile. From the Straits of Magellan north to Coquimbo 
(Tofo). 

Material collected. Aconcagua: Rio Blanco (alt. 1,540 meters), 

9 ad., March 29, 1926. R. Barros. Valparaiso: Limache, two 9 9 

ad., May, 1921. C. S. Reed. Malleco: Pua, 9 ad., July 22, 1923. 

C. S. Reed; Curacautin, 9 ad., <? juv., Jan. 10, 15. Cautin: Pelal, 

According to Mathew (Zoologist, 1873, p. 3578), the sandy slopes surrounding 
the Bay of Coquimbo are the home of innumerable Burrowing Owls. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 267 

near Temuco, cf ad., 9 ad., April 16, 1913, and Dec. 30, 1919. 
A. C. Saldana. Valdivia: Mafil, cf imm., 9 ad., 9 imm., 9 juv., 
Feb. 17, 18, 27; Rinihue, cf, March 9. Chiloe" Island: Quellon, 
one cf ad., three cf cf imm., Jan. 1. Llanquihue: Rio Nirehuau, 
cf ad., March 1, 1923. 

Additional specimens. Santiago: Santiago, cf ad., 9 ad., cf juv., 
Sept., 1864. Philippi and Landbeck; Hacienda Mansel, Hospital, 
cf ad., Nov. 25, 1889. A. A. Lane. Colchagua: Cauquenes, 9 
ad., July, 1870. E. C. Reed. Cautin: Maquehue, Temuco, fourcf cf 
ad., five 9 9 ad., May 9-20, Aug. 7-15, Sept. 11-21. D. S. Bullock; 
Pelal, Temuco, two cf cf ad., July 2, Sept. 14. A. C. Saldana. 
Valdivia: Rio Bueno, cf ad., Jan. 4, 1890. A. A. Lane (all in the 
British Museum). 

After carefully comparing more than fifty specimens from the 
whole range, I am unable to split the "Chuncho" into two races. 
It is just possible that birds from central Chile (vafrum) have the 
dark tail bands on average slightly broader, but there are so many 
exceptions to this rule that hardly more than 40 per cent are 
distinguishable on this score. Size, too, varies a good deal, as the 
measurements given below tend to show. 

G. nanum is stated to be common throughout Chile. According 
to Barros, its altitudinal range extends up to about 6,000 feet. It 
breeds from September into November. Outside of Chile, it is found 
in Tierra del Fuego and Patagonia, stretching along the eastern 
side of the Andes as far north as Lake Nahuel Huapi. 

MEASUREMENTS OF ADULT BIRDS 

Wing Tail 

One from Port Famine (type of Strix nana) 100 62 

Three males from Tierra del Fuego 91,93,94 62,64,64 

One female from Tierra del Fuego 102 68 

One female from Lago Blanco, Chubut 102 69 

One male from Rio Negro 102 73 

One female from Rio Negro 113 79 

Four males from Sierra de Cordoba 97,97,99,108 69,70,72,75 

One male from Rio Bueno, Valdivia 92 62 

Seven males from Temuco, Cautin 91,93,93,94, 64,66,66,66, 

96,100,104 67,69,72 

Six females from Temuco, Cautin 101,103,103, 68,71,71, 

103,103,104 72,73,73 

One female from Pua, Malleco 113 80 

One female from Colchagua 103 75 

Two males from Santiago 100,103 70,73 

One female from Santiago 115 80 

One male from Limache, Valparaiso 112 76 

One female from Limache, Valparaiso 115 79 

One female from Rio Blanco, Aconcagua 116 82 



268 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

169. Glaucidium brasilianum brasilianum (Gmelin) 1 

Strix brasiliana Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (1), p. 289, 1788 based on "Cabure" 
[Brisson ex] Marcgrave, Hist. Nat. Bras., p. 212, n. e. Brazil =Ceara 
(auct. Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, No. 18, p. 407, 1929). 

Noctua pumila (not Strix pumila Lichtenstein) Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 158 
Canchones, Tarapaca. 

Glaucidium nanum (not Strix nana King) Schalow (2), p. 698, pi. 38, fig. 1 
part, No. 64, Pica, Tarapaca. 

Range in Chile. Extreme northern section (Pica and Canchones, 
Tarapaca). 

Material examined. Tarapacd: Pampa del Tamarugal, Pica, 
adult (not sexed), end of August, 1893. L. Plate (Berlin Museum). 
Wing 100; tail 71. 

This specimen differs at a glance from the large series of G. nanum 
in having the tail banded with white instead of with rufous. It 
agrees particularly well with a female from Chosica, Lima, collected 
by Percy 0. Simons, in the British Museum. Both have six white 
tail bands (about 2 mm. wide) and the upper parts decidedly grayish 
brown, while the posterior lower parts are broadly streaked with 
dark brown. In the markings of the pileum, the Pica bird is more 
like one from Trujillo, the forehead only being streaked and the 
remainder spotted with buffy white, whereas in the Chosica speci- 
men the whole upper part of the head is longitudinally striped with 
white. Examples of this owl from the Peruvian and North Chilean 
coast appear to be inseparable from typical brasilianum, although 
Lima birds have been tentatively referred to G. b. phalaenoides by 
Berlepsch and Stolzmann. 2 

The relationships of G. brasilianum and G. nanum need further 
investigation. Wetmore 3 thinks it highly probable that they will 
prove to be conspecific, and such is my impression, too. It is well 
to recall, however, that Chapman 4 records a specimen of G. n. vafrum 
from Moquegua, s. Peru, while Plate's bird discussed above traces 
the range of G. 6. brasilianum down to the Chilean province of 
Tarapaca. Thus, the ranges of the two species would seem to over- 
lap, unless the Moquegua bird was a straggler from the south. 

*A specimen of G. jardinei from "Central Chile, Landbeck" in the H. Berkeley 
James Collection, British Museum, is no doubt incorrectly labeled. 

*P. Z. S. Lond., 1892, p. 388. 

"Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, pp. 200-201, 1926. 

4 Amer. Mus. Novit., 380, p. 10, 1929. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 269 

170. Asio flammeus breviauris (Schlegel) 

Otus breviauris Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Oti, p. 4, 1863 Brazil. 

Otus brachyotos d'Orbigny, p. 134 mountains of Chile. 

Otus palustris Fraser (1), p. 110 rare in the province of Colchagua. 

Ulula otus (errore) Des Mure (2), p. 251 Chile. 

Otus brachyotus Cassin, p. 177 Chile; Pelzeln (2), p. 27 Chile (crit.); Sclater 
(2), 1867, p. 339 Chile; E. Reed, Ibis, 1874, pp. 82, 83 Mas A Tierra 
(breeding); idem (2), p. 557 Cauquenes, Colchagua; Streets, p. 15 
Talcaguano, Concepci6n. 

Ulula brachyotus Philippi (12), p. 246 not rare in the central provinces. 

Asio brachyotus E. Reed (4), p. 205 Chile; Albert (1), 101, p. 663 Chile 
(habits, crit.); Bullock (4), P- 198 Angol, Malleco. 

Strix flammea (errore) Johow, Est. Fl. Isl. Juan Fernandez, p. 237 Mas A 
Tierra. 

Asio accipitrinus cassini Schalow (2), p. 743 Mas A Tierra. 

Asio flammeus breviauris Bangs, Proc. New Eng. Zool. Cl., 6, p. 96, 1919 
Mas A Tierra (crit.); Laubmann, Wiss. Ergeb. Deuts. Chaco Exp., Vogel, 
p. 156, 1930 Valdivia (crit.). 

Asio flammeus Lonnberg, p. 8 Mas A Tierra. 

Asio flammeus flammeus Passler (3), p. 449 Coronel, Concepci6n. 

Asio accipitrinus Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 104 Marga-Marga Valley, Valparaiso. 

Range in Chile. Locally in the central and southern provinces 
(Santiago, Valparaiso, Colchagua, Talcaguano, Concepcion, Angol, 
Valdivia), on Mas A Tierra Island, and in Magellania. 

Material examined. Chile: Valdivia, two (unsexed) adults. F. 
Ohde (Munich Museum). 

Very little is known about the distribution of the Short-eared 
Owl in Chile. According to Philippi, who lists adults, young birds, 
and eggs in the collection of the Museo Nacional at Santiago, the 
"Nuco" is not rare in the central provinces, but no definite localities 
are given. Both Bridges and Edwyn Reed found it in Colchagua, 
whence the British Museum has a specimen obtained by the latter 
naturalist. Jaffuel and Pirion list the "Nuco" as breeding in the 
Marga-Marga Valley, Valparaiso. Streets records it from Talca- 
guano, and Passler shot specimens at Coronel, Concepcion. Bullock 
mentions it as fairly common around Angol, Malleco, and F. Ohde 
forwarded two skins from Valdivia to the Munich Museum. It is 
also stated to breed, in some years very abundantly, on Mas A Tierra, 
and it is reported to be not uncommon along the Straits of Magellan. 

For geographical reasons we have provisionally adopted SchlegeFs 
subspecific term for the form of southern South America, although 
the two Chilean specimens examined hardly differ from North 



270 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

American birds. Mr. Bangs, who has seen much more material, 
considers them, however, separable. 



[Asio otus (Linnaeus) is erroneously included among the birds of 
Chile by Des Murs s. n. Ulula vulgaris (in Gay, 1, p. 250). Needless 
to say, no race of the Long-eared Owl has ever been found in South 
America.] 

171. Strix rufipes rufipes King 

Strix rufipes King, Zool. Journ., 3, No. 11, Sept. to Dec. 31, 1827, p. 426, 
pub. early in 1828 Port Famine, Straits of Magellan. 

Ulula rufipes Darwin, p. 34 Chonos Archipelago; Des Murs (2), p. 251 (ex 
King); Boeck, p. 498 Valdivia; Philippi (12), p. 247 Valdivia and 
Aculeo, Santiago. 

Ulula fasciata Des Murs, Icon. Ornith., livr. 7, pi. 37, Jan., 1847 Chile, coll. 
Gay (type in Paris Museum); idem in Gay, Hist. fis. pol. Chile, Zool., 
1, p. 252, 1847 Chile. 

Syrnium hylophilum (not of Temminck) Hartlaub (3), 1853, p. 209 Valdivia; 
Sclater (2), 1867, p. 339 Chile. 

Syrnium rufipes E. Reed (2), p. 557 Cordillera de Cauquenes, Colchagua; 
idem (4), p. 205 central provinces (rare); Schalow (2), p. 697 Puerto 
Montt; Albert (1), 101, p. 667 central and southern Chile (habits, crit.); 
C. Reed, Av. Prov. Concepci6n, 1904, p. 41 Conception; Cherrie and 
Reichenberger, Amer. Mus. Nov., 27, p. 1, 1921 Maquehue, Temuco, 
Cautin; Bullock (4), p. 199 Angol, Malleco. 

Asio americanus (not of Stephens) Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 104 Marga-Marga 
Valley, Valparaiso. 

Range in Chile. From the Straits of Magellan north to Colchagua 
and Santiago. 

Material collected. Chilo6 Island: Quellon, adult, Dec. 23. 
Valdivia: Mafil, 9 (in juvenile molt), Feb. 26. Malleco: Curacautin, 
9 juv., Jan. 12. 

Additional specimens. Straits of Magellan: Port Famine, one 
adult, type of species. Captain King (British Museum). Chile: 
adult, type of Ulula fasciata. C. Gay (Paris Museum). 

This owl is reported as not uncommon on both slopes of the Andes 
from the Straits of Magellan north to Valdivia and Lake Nahuel 
Huapi. According to Boeck, it is not rare in the vicinity of Valdivia, 
whence it has also been recorded by Hartlaub and Philippi. The 
American Museum of Natural History has skins from near Temuco, 
Cautin, and Mr. Sanborn secured one at Curacautin, Malleco. 
Bullock found it common around Angol. Farther north this species 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 271 

appears to be rather scarce. Edwyn Reed states that he shot one 
specimen in the Cordillera near Cauquenes, Colchagua, and Philippi 
lists others from Aculeo, Santiago. 

A nearly allied form, S. rufipes chacoensis Cherrie and Reichen- 
berger 1 inhabits western Paraguay and the plains of Argentina, from 
eastern Salta to La Pampa. 2 

172. Circus cinereus Vieillot 

Circus cinereus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. &L, 4, p. 454, 1816 
based on Azara, No. 32, Paraguay and near the La Plata River; d'Orbigny, 
p. 110 "au Chili"; Darwin, p. 30 Conception; Fraser (1), p. 109 
Chile; Des Murs (2), p. 239 Chile (not common); Cassin, p. 175 Chile 
(common); Pelzeln (2), p. 13 Chile (spec, examined); Sclater (2), 1867, 
pp. 330, 338 Chile (crit.); Philippi (12), p. 245 common in the central 
provinces, rare in the south; E. Reed (2), p. 558 Cauquenes, Colchagua 
(common); Sharpe, p. 10 Coquimbo; Salvin (2), p. 426 Coquimbo; 
E. Reed (4), p. 205 common; Albert (1), 108, p. 247 Chile (monog.); 
Barros (5), p. 175 Rio Blanco, Aconcagua (?); idem (6), p. 32 San 
Bernardo, Santiago; Housse (2), p. 142 San Bernardo; Barros (8), p. 142 
Nilahue, Curic6; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 103 Marga-Marga Valley, 
Valparaiso; Bullock (4), p. 195 Angol (nesting). 

Circus histrionicus Bibra, 3 p. 128 near Santiago (common). 

Circus poliopterus Pelzeln (2), p. 13 Chile (crit.; spec, in Vienna Museum 
examined); Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 330, 338 Chile (ex Pelzeln); E. Reed 
(4), p. 205 (ex Pelzeln). 

Range in Chile. From Copiapo to the Straits of Magellan, 
locally common, rare in the south. 

Material collected. Atacama: Ramadilla, Copiapo Valley, cf 
ad., Aug. 25. Curico: Cordillera de Curico, d" juv., June 4, 1923. 
C. S. Reed. Valdivia: Mafil, c? juv., Feb. 27. 

Additional specimens. Chile (not specified) : one d" ad., one <? 
(in transitional plumage), two 9 9 ad., two juv. "Novara" Expedi- 
tion, collected by Segeth and Zelebor. Llanquihue: Desagiie, near 
Puerto Montt, d* juv. G. Hopke (all in the Vienna Museum). 

Chilean birds agree with others from Peru and Brazil. No 
topotypical material is available for comparison. Pelzeln lists this 
species under two different names. Dr. Segeth's specimen, referred 
to C. poliopterus, is an adult female with rufous- and white-barred 
under parts and white, basally cinnamon-banded upper tail coverts. 

J Amer. Mus. Novit., 27, p. 1, 1921 Fort Wheeler, Paraguayan Chaco. 
*Cf. Dabbene, El Hornero, 3, pp. 405-407, 1926. 

*Accipiter pileatus Bibra (p. 128 twelve hours from Valparaiso in the vicinity 
of a lagoon) probably refers to young birds of this harrier. 



272 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

It appears to me indistinguishable from another example in similar 
plumage identified by Pelzeln as C. cinereus. The second individual 
stated to be from "Barril in Chile" (Cuming) does not differ from 
the birds in juvenile plumage of the latter species. 

The "Vari" is reported to be common in the central provinces 
(Santiago and Colchagua). At various times it has also been found 
at Coquimbo, and one of Sanborn's specimens extends its Chilean 
range north to the Copiapo Valley. According to Bullock, this 
harrier is common around Angol, where it breeds in marshes and 
meadows from October to January. Although the species is not 
included in Hartlaub's and Boeck's lists of Valdivian birds, Sanborn 
shot a young male at Mdfil in that province. Hopke obtained it 
even farther south at Desagiie, Llanquihue. 

C. cinereus is widely diffused in Argentina south to Tierra del 
Fuego, and occurs also in Peru and Ecuador. 

173. Circus buffoni (Gmelin) 

Falco buffoni Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (1), p. 277, 1788 based on "Cayenne 
Ringtail" Latham, Gen. Syn. Birds, 1, (1), p. 91, Cayenne. 

Circus macropierus Cassin, p. 175 rare in Chile; Philippi (2), p. 14 Chile 
(one adult male); idem (12), p. 246 rare in the central provinces; Sclater 
(2), 1867, pp. 330, 338 Chile (ex Philippi); Salvin, Ibis, 1875, p. 372 
Mas Afuera (?); E. Reed (2), p. 558 Cauquenes, Colchagua; idem (4), 
p. 205 Chile (rare); Albert (1), 108, p. 251 Chile (monog.); Philippi 
(24), p. 5 not rare in Chile; (?) Lataste (9), p. 167 Penaflor, Santiago. 

Circus megaspilus Pelzeln (2), p. 14 Chile (spec, in Vienna Museum examined). 
Range in Chile. In central provinces of Santiago and Colchagua. 

Material examined. Chile (locality not specified): one juv. 
"Novara" Expedition (Vienna Museum). 

The example in the Vienna Museum is a bird in juvenile plumage, 
as figured by Gray and Mitchell (Gen. Birds, 1, pi. 11). It generally 
agrees with another from Brazil, collected by Natterer, but has the 
foreneck much more deeply washed with buff and the markings 
below more streak-like, less guttate. 

The "Peuco huevetaro" is listed by Philippi and Edwyn Reed 
as a rare inhabitant of the central provinces. According to Albert, 
it is much less common than C. cinereus, but ranges from the Cordil- 
leras down to the coast. Gilliss and the "Novara" Expedition like- 
wise obtained specimens of this harrier somewhere in central Chile. 

C. buffoni is diffused over the greater part of South America. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 273 

174. Buteo polyosoma polyosoma (Quoy and Gaimard) 

Falco polyosoma Quoy and Gaimard in Freycinet, Voy. Uranie et Physicienne, 

Zool., livr. 3, p. 92, pi. 14, Aug., 1824 Falkland Islands (descr. of mela- 

nistic phase of adult male). 
Aquila braccata Meyen, Nov. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop. -Carol. Nat. Curios., 

16, Suppl., 1, p. 65, pi. 18, 1834 "Desierta de Copiap6," Atacama (descr. 

of normal phase of adult male). 
Buteo tricolor d'Orbigny, p. 106 vicinity of Santiago. 

Buteo erythronotus Darwin, p. 26 Chiloe Island;. Fraser (1), p. 109 Chile 
(habits); Des Murs (2), p. 215 the whole of Chile, Conception being 
specifically mentioned; Bibra, p. 128 Cordillera [of Santiago]; Boeck, 
p. 497 Valdivia; Cassin, p. 175 Chile (not common); Germain, p. 309 
Santiago (nesting habits); Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 329, 338 Chile; Philippi 
(12), p. 243 the whole of Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 558 Cauquenes, Col- 
chagua; Salvin (2), p. 426 Coquimbo; Sclater (4), 1886, p. 399 "Lalcal- 
huay," Tarapaca; idem (6), 1891, p. 135 Sacaya and "Canchosa," Tara- 
paca; Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 158 Cebollar, Antofagasta; Lataste (5), 
p. LX Llohue (Itata), Maule; E. Reed (4), p. 205 Cordilleras of central 
provinces; Lane, p. 179 Cancosa and near Sacaya, Tarapaca; Schalow (2), 
p. 695 Pampa del Tamarugal, Iquique, Tarapaca; Albert (1), 108, p. 255 
Chile (crit.); idem (3), p. 648 (crit.); idem (4), p. 442 (crit.); Philippi 
(24), p. 13 Chile (crit.); Barros (5), p. 176 Rio Blanco, Aconcagua; 
Housse (2), p. 141 San Bernardo, Santiago; idem (3), p. 225 Isla 
La Mocha; Barros (8), p. 142 Nilahue, Curico; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 
103 Marga-Marga Valley, Valparaiso; Bullock (3), p. 126 Nahuelbuta, 
Malleco; idem (4), p. 196 Angol; Housse (6), p. 243 Chile (crit.). 

Buteo braccatus Pelzeln (2), p. 6 Chile. 

Buteo poliosoma Philippi (12), p. 243 Santiago; E. Reed (4), p. 205 Chile 
(rare). 

Buteo ventralis Philippi (12), p. 243 southern provinces; E. Reed (4), p. 
205 Chile; Housse (2), p. 142 San Bernardo, Santiago. 

Buteo melanostethus (os) Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 103, pp. 663, 665, 1899 
Chile; idem, Arch. Naturg., 65, (1), p. 167, 1899 Prov. Santiago; idem 
(24), p. 5, pi. 2 central provinces (=melanistic phase of adult female). 

Buteo poecilogaster 1 Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 103, pp. 663, 666, 1899 

Chile; idem, Arch. Naturg., 65, (1), p. 167, 1899 Chile; idem (24), p. 6, 

pi. 3 (based on a single unsexed specimen; = juvenile plumage); Housse 

(1), p. 48 Isla La Mocha. 
Buteo macronychus* Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 103, pp. 664, 667, 1899 

Chile; idem, Arch. Naturg., 65, (1), p. 168, 1899 Valdivia; idem (24), 

p. 8, pi. 4 Valdivia (= juvenile plumage). 
Buteo ater Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 103, pp. 664, 667, 1899 Chile; idem, 

Arch. Naturg., 65, (1), p. 168, 1899 Valdivia; idem (24), p. 9, pi. 5 

Valdivia ( =melanistic phase of juvenile plumage). 

1 Misspelled "poceilogaster" in the "Anales de la Universidad" on p. 663. 

2 Misspelled "machronychus" in the "Anales de la Universidad." 



274 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Buteo albigula Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 103, p. 664, 1899 Valdivia; idem, 
Arch. Naturg., 65, (1), p. 170, 1899 Valdivia; idem (24), p. 9, pi. 6 
Valdivia ( = juvenile plumage). 

Buteo aethiops Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 103, pp. 665, 668, 1899 Chile; 
idem, Arch. Naturg., 65, (1), p. 168, 1899 Chile. 

Asturina (?) aethiops Philippi (24), p. 16, pi. 8 central provinces ( =melanistic 

phase of juvenile plumage). 
Buteo pictus Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 103, pp. 665, 668, 1899 Chile; idem, 

Arch. Naturg., 65, (1), p. 169, 1899 Chile ( = juvenile plumage). 
Asturina (?) picta Philippi (24), p. 17, pi. 9 Valdivia. 
Buteo elegans Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 103, pp. 665, 669, 1899 Chile; 

idem, Arch. Naturg., 65, (1), p. 169, 1899 Chile; idem (24), p. 10, pi. 7 

Santiago ( = juvenile plumage). 

Buteo obsoletus (errore) Albert (1), 108, p. 260 Chile; idem (3), p. 644 (crit.). 
Buteo albicaudatus (errore) Albert (1), 108, p. 263 Chile (crit.); idem (3), 

p. 646 (crit.); idem (4), p. 440 (crit.). 
Buteo swainsoni (errore) Albert (4), p. 438 Chile (crit.). 

Buteo poecilochrous Stresemann, Journ. Orn., 73, p. 316, 1925 Macaya, 
"Iquique," Tarapaca. 

Range in Chile. From Tarapaca south to the Straits of Magellan. 

Material collected. Atacama: Domeyko, 9 ad., Aug. 15. 
Llanquihue: Casa de Richards, Rio Nirehuau, 9 ad., March 6. 

Additional specimens. Tarapaca: Cancosa, cf ad., April 12, 
1890. A. A. Lane; three leagues s. w. of Sacaya, 9 ad., April 6, 
1890. A. A. Lane; Cordillera of Tarapaca, 9 ad., Jan. 27, 1886. 
C. Rahmer; Macaya (near Mamina), 9 ad., no date. H. Rowland. 
"Cordillera of Chile:" 9 ad. T. Bridges (all in the British Museum). 

Lafresnaye 1 apparently was the first to recognize the specific 
identity of B. polyosoma, B. erythronotus, and Aquila braccata, and 
to suggest the possibility of B. unicolor being merely a melanistic 
variant of the same species. His error in associating with them 
also Spizaetus leucurus Vieill. and Falco pterocles Temm., both of 
which undoubtedly pertain to B. albicaudatus, probably accounts 
for his conclusions having been ignored by subsequent writers, until 
the problem was reinvestigated by Stresemann, 2 whose results fully 
substantiate Lafresnaye's contention. 

The status of the White-tailed Buzzard in Chile has been partic- 
ularly confused by Philippi, who added seven more supposed new 
species, and by Albert's subsequent attempts to disentangle the 
resulting chaos. As far as I can see, this group of hawks is repre- 

'Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 1, pp. 385-389, 1849. 

2 Journ. Orn., 72, p. 439, 1924; 1. c., 73, pp. 309-319, 1925. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 275 

sented in Chile by a single species, B. p. polyosoma, as defined by 
Stresemann. B. ventralis Gould, admitted by K. Swann 1 as a resident 
form of Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego, and southern Chile, nearly allied 
to the North American B. borealis, was clearly based upon the juvenile 
plumage of B. p. polyosoma. This is shown by a male example from 
Porvenir, Tierra del Fuego, May 3, 1916, J. Mogensen, in Field 
Museum (No. 65,337), which agrees very well with Gould's and 
Swann's descriptions, and at the same time is an exact duplicate 
of Philippi's plate of B. poecilogaster. Needless to say, beyond a 
superficial resemblance it has nothing in common with the North 
American bird. 2 

As to Philippi's other supposed novelties, which Albert attempted 
to assign to three species, the North American B. obsoletus (name 
changed to B. swainsoni in the "Ornis"), B. erythronotus and B. 
albicaudatus, it seems pretty certain that B. macronychus, B. albi- 
gula, B. elegans, andB. pictus also refer to variations of the immature 
plumage. B. melanostethus obviously represents the melanistic phase 
of the female with rufous belly, while B. ater and B. aethiops appear 
to have been based on juvenile specimens in the dark brown stage 
similar to the type of B. unicolor. 3 

The females from Rio Sfrrehuau and near Sacaya as well as 
Bridges's specimen from the "Cordilleras of Chile," all normally 
colored, viz. rufous-backed and white-bellied, are exactly like 
others from Tierra del Fuego and Argentina (Chubut), and the 
adult male from Cancosa, Tarapaca, cannot be told from southern 
examples either. Their dimensions fall well within the figures of 
B. p. polyosoma, and the third primary is from 5 to 12 mm. longer 
than the fifth. Another female (in normal plumage) from Macaya 
has the third and fifth primaries of equal length, a somewhat longer 
tail (230 mm.), and the under parts wholly white with the exception 
of a few narrow dusky bars on the abdomen. This is evidently 
No. 2 of the specimens listed by Stresemann 4 under "B. poecilochrous." 
He gives the wing as 465, but I measure it to be 410 mm. (The female 
collected by Rahmer in the Cordillera of Tarapaca is a very peculiar 
bird. Above, it resembles the ordinary female type, having the 

1 Monog. Birds of Prey, Part 7, p. 397, 1928. 

2 In this connection it may be recalled that Stone (Rep. Princeton Univ. Exp. 
Patag., 2, [Ornith.], Part 4, p. 636, 1915) also found the Tierra del Fuego bird 
mentioned by Cassin (U. S. Expl. Exp., p. 94, pi. 3, fig. 2, 1858) as B. ventralis to 
be undoubtedly a young "B. erythronotus" [ B. p. polyosoma]. 

Cf. Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., 28, p. 186, 1921. 
4 Journ. Orn., 73, p. 316, 1925. 



276 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

whole of the upper and middle back bright rufous; but underneath, 
the throat is white, the foreneck and breast slaty black, mixed with 
white, the lower breast even barred with black and white; the 
abdomen is barred with blackish and ruf escent on a white ground, the 
under tail coverts are white. In addition to its aberrant coloration, 
it is remarkably large [wing 440; tail 235] 1 and agrees with Strese- 
mann's measurements of B. poecilochrous.) 

The bird from Domeyko, an adult female in the melanistic 
phase, is uniform slate black below and somewhat more grayish 
posteriorly, with obsolete grayish bars on the tibial feathers. It lacks 
every trace of rufous brown on the abdomen, and thus resembles 
the corresponding phase of B. poecilochrous, as characterized by 
Stresemann (p. 312). Still I have no doubt as to its being referable 
toB. p. polyosoma, since it agrees with it in size (wing 367; tail 185) 
and proportions of primaries (third about 20 mm. longer than fifth). 
Except for possessing some marginal edges of rufous on the upper 
back, the Domeyko bird is an absolute duplicate of a female of 
"B. poecilochrous" (in the British Museum) from Choquecamate, 
Cochabamba, Bolivia, collected by P. 0. Simons on July 29, 1901. 2 
The Bolivian specimen is rather larger (wing 415; tail 210) and has 
a shorter wing- tip, the third primary being but 5 mm. longer than 
the fifth. That these slight divergencies denote specific difference 
seems altogether unlikely, and I am inclined to agree with Chap- 
man 3 that the status of B. poecilochrous cannot be regarded as satis- 
factorily established. The fact that a color-phase supposed to be 
characteristic of B. poecilochrous now turns out to occur likewise 
in the range of B. p. polyosoma makes the need of further informa- 
tion on the subject even more strongly felt. For the present, I 
am not disposed to separate the two large Tarapaca birds (from 
Macaya and Cordillera of Tarapaca) from the rest of the Chilean 
series. 

B. p. polyosoma ranges all over Chile, from the coast up to an 
elevation of 10,000 feet, and is reported to be common in suitable 
localities. In the northern section of the republic it was taken in the 
Andes of Tarapaca by Rahmer and Lane; in the Pampa del Tama- 
rugal, near Iquique, by Plate; at Cebollar, Antofagasta, by Philippi; 
in Atacama, by Meyen at Copiapo, by Sanborn at Domeyko; at 



1 The skin being distorted, the wing-formula cannot be ascertained. 

1 Listed by Stresemann (Journ. Orn., 73, p. 316, 
Kleid"! 

3 Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, pp. 229-230, 1926. 



2 Listed by Stresemann (Journ. Orn., 73, p. 316, 1925) as "Chaquecamata, cf , 
mel. Kleid"! 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 277 

Tofo, sixty miles north of Coquimbo, by Hallinan, 1 etc. Its range 
extends even into southern Peru and Bolivia. 

A closely allied form, B. p. exsul Salvin, breeds on Mas Afuera. 

175. Parabuteo unicinctus unicinctus (Temminck) 

Falco unicinctus Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 53, pi. 313, 1824 
"dans les environs du Rio Grande, pres Boa-Vista, 2 Bresil," coll. A. de 
Saint-Hilaire (type in Paris Museum). 

Astur unicinctus Fraser (1), p. 109 woody parts of [central] Chile. 

Buteo unicinctus Des Murs (2), p. 216 Chile (habits); Boeck, p. 497 Valdivia; 
Philippi (12), p. 243 central provinces; (?) idem, Ornis, 4, p. 158 Cana, 
Antofagasta; idem (24), p. 14 Chile (crit.); Housse (2), p. 142 San 
Bernardo, Santiago; idem (6), p. 243 Chile (crit.). 

Morphnus unicinctus Cassin, p. 174 Chile. 

Craxirex unicinctus Germain, p. 309 Santiago (nesting habits, eggs). 

Urubitinga unicincta Pelzeln (2), p. 6 Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 329, 338 
Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 558 Cauquenes, Colchagua. 

Antenor unicinctus E. Reed (4), p. 205 Chile; Lane, p. 179 central and 
southern Chile; Albert (1), 108, p. 269 Chile (descr., habits). 

Parabuteo unicinctus Barros (4), p. 48 Nilahue, Curic6; Jaffuel and Pirion, 
p. 103 Marga-Marga Valley, Valparaiso. 

Range in Chile. Central and southern provinces, ranging from 
Santiago to Valdivia. 

Material examined. Santiago: Santiago, one cf ad., one 9 juv. 
E. C. Reed (British Museum). 

According to the Chilean naturalists, this hawk is fairly common 
in the central provinces near Santiago (Philippi, Germain), San 
Bernardo (Housse), Cauquenes, Colchagua (E. Reed), and Curic6 
(Barros). Boeck likewise records it as abundant in the vicinity 
of Valdivia. Ambrose Lane writes: "This species occurs on the 
low-lying stretches of swampy or sandy plain which occur in the 
vicinity of the coast of Central and Southern Chile, as well as in 
similar localities inland, and also on open stretches of country. 
It occurs in places about Valdivia, and probably on Chiloe", and I 
heard that its range extends for some distance further south." I 
am strongly inclined to believe that Philippi's record from Cana, 
Cordillera of Antofagasta, refers to some other species. 

1 Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 57, 1921. 

2 B6a Vista is an Indian village south of the Rio Paranahyba in western Minas 
Geraes, Comarca Desemboque (cf. A. de Saint-Hilaire, Voy. Inte>. Bresil, Trois. 
Partie, 2, p. 266, 1848). 



278 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

176. Geranoaetus melanoleucus australis Swarm 

Geranoaetus melanoleucus australis Swann, Syn. Accip., 2nd ed., Part 2, p. 67, 
1922 Valle del Lago Blanco, Chubut. 

Halioetus melanoleucus d'Orbigny, p. 76 on the west side to the foot of the 
Chilean Cordilleras. 

Haliaetus aguia Fraser (1), p. 108 woody and mountainous parts of Chile 
(habits); Yarrell, p. 52 Chile (eggs descr.); Bibra, p. 128 common in 
the lowlands and on the hills around Valparaiso. 

Pontoaetus melanoleucus Des Murs (2), p. 221 Chile generally (habits); 
Boeck, p. 497 Valdivia; Cassin, p. 175 mountains of Chile; Germain, 
p. 309 Santiago (nesting habits); Philippi (12), p. 244 the whole of 
Chile, rare in the south; Lataste (9), p. 167 Cerro de San Cristobal. 

Geranoaetus melanoleucus Pelzeln (2), p. 7 Chile (crit.); Sclater (2), 1867, 
pp. 329, 338 Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 558 Banos de Cauquenes, Colchagua; 
idem (4), p. 205 Chile; Schalow (2), p. 695 Ovalle and La Serena, 
Coquimbo; Albert (1), 108, p. 273 Cordilleras of Chile and Magellania; 
Barros (4), p. 48 Nilahue, Curico (rare); idem (5), p. 176 Los Andes 
and Valle de los Leones, Aconcagua; idem (6), p. 32 Cerros de San 
Bernardo, Santiago; Housse (2), p. 141 San Bernardo; E. Reed (4), 
29, p. 189 Donihue, O'Higgins; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 103 Marga- 
Marga Valley, Valparaiso. 

Range in Chile. From Coquimbo to the Straits of Magellan. 

Material collected. Llanquihue; Rio Nirehuau, cf ad., March 8. 
W. H. Osgood. Valparaiso: Limache, d" juv., July, 1923. C. S. 
Reed. 

The adult bird has the belly even more strongly barred with black 
than specimens from Aconquija, Tucumdn, showing the Chilean 
form to be G. ra. australis, as distinguished by Swann from the plain 
white-bellied typical race, which seems to be restricted to Paraguay, 
southern Brazil, and northeastern Argentina. 

G. m. australis is reported as not uncommon in the wooded and 
mountainous parts of central Chile, but as rather rare in the south. 
The most northerly locality on record is Coquimbo, where speci- 
mens were obtained by Plate. 



[ Harpyhaliaetus coronatus (Vieillot) is included amongst the birds 
of Chile by Albert (Anal. Univ. Chile, 108, p. 277, 1901) with the 
caption "fairly rare in our country, frequenting the vicinity of water 
and the sea-coast." Sharpe (Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 1, p. 222, 1874) 
lists a specimen said to be from "Chile," which Gurney (Ibis, 1876, 
p. 491) recognized as a nearly adult bird of H . ( Urubitornis) sol- 
itarius (Tschudi) . Swann (Monog. Birds of Prey, Part 8, pp. 475, 477, 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYB 279 

Jan., 1930) credits both Harpyhaliaetus coronatus and Urubitornis 
solitarius to "Chile/' but fails to give any further details. 

There does not seem to exist a single authentic record for the 
occurrence of either species in Chile.] 

177. Accipiter chilensis Philippi and Landbeck 

Accipiter chilensis Philippi and Landbeck, Arch. Naturg., 30, (1), p. 43, 1864 
Chile; Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 24, p. 346, 1864 "desde la provincia 
de Aconcagua hasta Chiloe", . . . mui commun en los alrededores de Val- 
divia"; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 329, 338 Chile (crit.); Philippi (12), p. 245 
the whole of Chile; Sclater and Salvin, Exot. Orn., p. 73, pi. 37, 1867 
Chile and Straits of Magellan; E. Reed (2>, p. 558 Cauquenes, Col- 
chagua; idem (4), p. 206 Chile; Allen, p. 105 Valparaiso; Lane, p. 180 
Maquegua, Arauco; Philippi (24), p. 2, pi. 1 Chile (descr., crit.). 

Accipiter cooperi (not of Bonaparte) Des Murs (2), p. 237 Chile south to the 
Straits of Magellan; Pelzeln (2), p. 13 Chile (crit.); Housse (2), p. 142 
San Bernardo, Santiago. 

(?) Accipiter palumbarius americanus (errore) Bibra, p. 128 near Santiago. 

Accipiter pileatus (not of Temminck) Des Murs (2), p. 236 Chile (part, excl. 
description); Albert (1), 108, p. 280 Chile (crit.). 

Nisus pikatus Hartlaub (3), p. 209 Valdivia. 

Accipiter magnirostris (errore) Des Mure (2), p. 235 Chile (part, excl. descrip- 
tion) ; Boeck, p. 498 Valdivia. 

Cooperastur chilensis Housse (3), p. 225 Isla La Mocha; Jaffuel and Pirion, 
p. 103 Marga-Marga Valley, Valparaiso. 

Range in Chile. From Aconcagua to the Straits of Magellan. 

Material collected. Cautin: Maquehue, Temuco, 9 juv., Aug. 
21, 1905. D. S. Bullock. Valdivia: Rinihue, tf juv., March 14, 
1923. C. C. Sanborn. 

Besides, we have examined a number of specimens (both adult 
and young) from "Chile," and an adult male from Santiago. E. C. 
Reed coll., in European collections. 

The Chilean Sparrow-hawk, which is probably subspecifically 
related to A. bicolor (Vieill.), appears to be rather widely diffused 
in Chile. According to Philippi and Landbeck, it ranges from Acon- 
cagua south to Chiloe*, being particularly common in the vicinity 
of Valdivia. Albert mentions having seen it in Chiloe", while other 
collectors met with it in Colchagua, Arauco, and Cautin. In the 
central provinces it is found on the lower outliers of the Cordilleras 
and among the bushy woods intermixed with larger trees. Females 
were shot by Landbeck in the act of robbing the hen-roosts. 



280 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

In the south its range extends to the Straits of Magellan, where 
specimens have been secured by Cunningham at Punta Arenas; 1 by 
the naturalists of the "Mission du Cap Horn" at the same locality 
as well as in Orange Bay and on Gable Island; 2 and by Dabbene at 
Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego. 3 It has also been recorded from the Rio 
Fetaleufu, in northwestern Chubut. 4 



[Accipiter erythronemius (Kaup), sometimes credited to Chile, is a 
nearly allied species, which inhabits Brazil, Bolivia, and northern 
Argentina.] 

178. Falco peregrinus anatum Bonaparte 

Falco anatum Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List Birds Eur. and N. America, p. 
4, 1838 based on Falco peregrinus Wilson, Amer. Orn., 9, p. 120, pi. 76, 
1814, Egg Harbor, New Jersey; Fraser (1), p. 109 Chile. 

Falco pelegrinus Des Murs (2), p. 224 Chile (part); (?) Boeck, p. 498 
Valdivia. 

Falco nigriceps Cassin, p. 176, pi. 14 Chile (spec, in U. S. National Museum 
examined). 

Falco communis Pelzeln (2), p. 8 Santiago (spec, in Vienna Museum 
examined). 

Falco peregrinus Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 330, 338 Chile (crit.); Philippi (12), 
p. 244 Chile (part); Albert (1), 108, p. 284 Chile (part); (?) Barros 
(4), p. 49 Nilahue, Curico; (?) Housse (2), p. 142 San Bernardo, San- 
tiago; idem (3), p. 226 Isla La Mocha (February); (?) Jaffuel and Pirion, 
p. 104 Marga-Marga Valley, Prov. Valparaiso. 

(?) Falco pegrerinus [sic] cassini Barros (5), p. 176 Los Andes, Aconcagua 
(November). 

"Falco peregrinus prope anatum" Kleinschmidt, Berajah, Falco Peregrinus, p. 
112, 1927 Valdivia (crit.). 

Range in Chile. Winter visitor from North America. Recorded 
from Aconcagua (November), Santiago, Isla La Mocha (February), 
Cautin (March), and Valdivia. 

Material examined. Santiago: Santiago, cf ad., 9 ad. 
Zelebor. "Novara" Expedition (Vienna Museum). Cautin: Ranco, 
Temuco, cf ad., March 15, 1913. A. C. Saldana (Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.). "Chile" (unspecified): cf 
ad. J. M. Gilliss. U. S. N. Astron. Expedition (U. S. National 
Museum). 

1 Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1868, p. 188. 
2 Oustalet, Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, 6, Zool., Ois., p. 21, 1891. 
3 Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 355, 1902. 
4 Wetmore, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 423, 1926. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 281 

No Peregrine Falcon breeds in Chile proper, but as both the North 
American Duckhawk and Cassin's Falcon, which nests on the Falk- 
land Islands and along the Straits of Magellan, visit that country 
in the course of their winter migrations, individuals of the "Gavilan" 
may be encountered there throughout the year. As local ornitholo- 
gists do not discriminate between the two forms, it is impossible 
to properly allocate any bibliographical reference without examining 
the particular specimen upon which it was based. 

The two specimens from Santiago obtained by the "Novara" 
Expedition and the male from Ranco, adult birds in fresh plumage, 
are doubtless migrants from the north, and agree with North Ameri- 
can examples in having a broad whitish frontal band, the auriculars 
mostly whitish or buffy, and the under parts whitish, more or less 
tinged with pinkish on the breast and narrowly banded with 
black laterally. The Ranco bird is remarkably pale neutral gray 
above, though certain specimens from the United States come 
very close. 

The bird figured by Cassin as F. nigriceps in the Report of the 
U. S. N. Astronomical Expedition is much deeper pinkish on chest 
and breast; the entire sides of the head including the malar region 
are uniform black like the head, and this color also spreads over 
the anterior mantle. Similar individuals occur also in North America, 
and Field Museum has one from the Kissimmee River, Florida. 
This specimen, in coloration, is an exact match of the bird figured 
by Cassin. 

The four Chilean specimens are all rather smaller, the bill partic- 
ularly so, than duckhawks from eastern North America. Klein- 
schmidt also mentions a young male from Valdivia in the Berlepsch 
Collection, which, together with breeding birds from Mexico and 
Texas (Cameron), he is inclined to separate from F. p. anatum on 
account of lesser dimensions. 

Cassin's term F. nigriceps 1 would seem to be the earliest available 
name 2 for this supposed western race, if it should prove to be separa- 
ble. In Chile it is certainly but a winter visitant. 

J It was first introduced into literature in the "Illustrations of the Birds of 
California, Texas," etc., 1853, p. 87, where Cassin refers to specimens from Bear 
Creek, California (E. M. Kern), the coast of Lower California (Hermann), and 
Chile (Lieut. Gilliss). While it is not quite evident from the text which of the 
specimens formed the principal basis of Cassin's description, Stone (Proc. Ac. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1899, p. 29) claims the one from Bear Creek to be the type of F. nigriceps. 

2 Falco communis amcricanus [sic] Schlegel (Abhandl. Geb. Zool. Vergl. Anat., 
Heft 3, p. 19, 1844) is merely a substitute for F. anatum Bonaparte. 



282 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

MEASUREMENTS OF ADULTS 

Wing Tail Bill 1 

One male from Santiago 290 140 22 

One female from Santiago 335 170 24 J^ 

One male from Ranco, Cautin 305 157 22 

One male from Chile (J. M. Gilliss) 288 150 22 

1 Measured with chord from anterior margin of cere to tip. 

179. Falco peregrinus cassini Sharpe 

Falco cassini Sharpe, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (4), 11, p. 221, 1873 Chile and 
Magellan Straits (spec, in British Museum examined). 

Falco pelegrinus Des Murs (2), p. 224 Chile (part). 

Falco peregrinus Philippi (12), p. 244 Chile (part); E. Reed (2), p. 558 
Chile (spec, in Brit. Museum examined); idem (4), p. 206 Chile; Albert 
(1), 108, p. 284 Chile (part); Bullock (4), p. 198 Angol, Malleco (July). 

"Falco Peregrinus cassini" Kleinschmidt, Berajah, Falco Peregrinus, p. 116, 
1927 Straits of Magellan and Collico (near Valdivia), Chile (crit.). 

Range in Chile. Winter visitor from the south. Recorded from 
Santiago (May), Cautin (July), and Valdivia (April). 

Material examined. Santiago: Santiago, <f juv., May, 1869. 
R. A. Philippi (Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 
Mass.). Cautin: Pelal, Temuco, 9 juv., July 29, 1912. A. C. 
Saldana (Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge). "Chile" 
(unspecified): 9 ad., cf juv. E. C. Reed (British Museum). 

These four specimens I cannot but refer to F. p. cassini, of which 
I have examined a good series, including several breeding birds, 
from Tierra del Fuego and the Falkland Islands. 

The only adult Chilean bird collected by Edwyn Reed in 1870 
(exact locality not stated) agrees in every particular, notably in 
the extremely wide black barring above, the bright pinkish cinnamon 
chest, and the broadly barred posterior under parts, with females 
from the southern extremity of South America. The young female 
from Pelal, Temuco, merely differs from two Falkland Island birds 
in similar stage by having the foreneck and chest decidedly paler, 
pinkish buff rather than tawny. Two other birds in juvenile plumage, 
one from Santiago, the other from an unspecified locality in Chile, 
while not extremely dark below, are much nearer to cassini than to 
any young North American duckhawk I have seen. 

Mr. Bullock, when shown specimens of the North American and 
Magellanic duckhawks, unhesitatingly declared that the single bird 
he had shot in July at Angol, Malleco, was of the latter form. 

In adult plumage F. p. cassini may be distinguished from F. p. 
anatum by much more densely and broadly barred under parts; 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 283 

darker gray back with wider black bars; entirely black sides of the 
head without any whitish in the auricular region; and by lacking 
the buffy white frontal band. The under parts are strongly washed 
with mouse-gray in the male, and much more cinnamomeous in the 
female. The juvenile plumage is not unlike that of its northern 
ally, but lacks the buffy frontal band, the buffy edges to the pileum, 
and the extensive buffy auricular patch, while the buff or ochraceous 
nuchal band is merely suggested by a few deep tawny edges to some 
of the feathers. Besides, the under parts are much darker, tawny 
or Mikado brown, instead of buff or ochraceous, and much more 
heavily marked with dark brown. 

F. p. cassini is apparently a rather uncommon visitor to central 
and southern Chile during the Antarctic winter (April to September). 
Kleinschmidt records an adult male taken by Landbeck on April 16, 
1856, at Collico, near Valdivia. 

MEASUREMENTS OF ADULTS 

Wing Tail 

One male from Port Stanley, Falkland Islands (Dec.) 292 165 

One male from Falkland Islands 300 147 

One male from Straits of Magellan (type) 303 148 

One female from Port Stanley (Dec.) 338 174 

One female from Falkland Islands 345 170 

Two females from Tierra del Fuego 1 340, 175,180 

One female from "Chile" 325 175 

1 Taken by P. W. Reynolds at Estancia Viamonte Rio Grande on April 7, 1927, 
and Cape Penas on March 24, 1929, respectively. Both are in the British Museum. 

180. Falco fusco-coerulescens fusco-coerulescens Vieillot 

Falco fusco-coerukscens Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. &L, 4, p. 454, 
1816 based on Azara, No. 32, Paraguay and Rio de La Plata; Sclater 
(6), 1891, p. 135 Vilugo, Tarapaca; E. Reed (4), p. 206 Chile (not 
common); Lane, p. 180 Vilugo (two days south of Sacaya), Tarapaca; 
Albert (1), 108, p. 287 Chile (descr., habits); Barros (10), p. 358 
Cordillera of Aconcagua. 

Falco femoralis Eraser (1), p. 109 Chile (habits); Philippi (12), p. 244 
Santiago and the whole of Chile, rare in the south. 

Harpagus bidentatus (errore) Des Murs (2), p. 230 Chile (habits). 

Hypotriorchis femoralis Cassin, p. 177 Chile; Pelzeln (2), p. 8 Chile; 
Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 330, 338 Chile. 

Hypotriorchis fusco-caerulescens Barros (4), p. 48 Nilahue, Curic6; Housse 
(3), p. 226 Isla La Mocha, Arauco; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 104 Marga- 
Marga Valley, Valparaiso. 

Range in Chile. From Tarapaca south to the Straits of Magellan. 
Material collected. Coquimbo: Banos del Toro (alt. 10,600 feet), 
c? ad., Nov. 15, 1923. 



284 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

The Orange-chested Hobby is stated to be rather uncommon in 
Chile, only a few scattered localities being on record. In the southern 
provinces it seems to be even rarer, Crawshay 1 being apparently the 
first naturalist to take it in Tierra del Fuego. Ambrose Lane shot 
a single bird at Vilugo, Tarapaca, but was told that these falcons 
visit Sacaya frequently at certain times and occur at elevations up 
to 11,000 feet. Barros observed the "Halcon" in the Cordilleras 
of Aconcagua, and lists it as a rare resident for the Nilahue Valley, 
Curico. According to Jaffuel and Pirion, it breeds in Marga-Marga, 
Valparaiso. 

F. j. fiLSco-coerulescens is widely distributed in South America. 

181. Cerchneis sparveria cinnamomina (Swainson) 

Falco cinnamominus Swainson, Anim. Menag., p. 281, Dec. 31, 1837 Chile 
(type in Liverpool Museum); Des Murs (2), p. 226 Valparaiso. 

Falco sparverius (not of Linnaeus) d'Orbigny, p. 119 Chile; Des Murs (2), 
p. 227 the whole of Chile; Boeck, p. 498 Valdivia; Germain, p. 309 
Santiago (breeding habits); Frauenfeld, p. 636 road from Valparaiso to 
Santiago; Philippi (12), p. 244 part, Santiago, Valdivia; E. Reed (2), 
p. 558 Cauquenes, Colchagua; Lataste (1), p. CXIV Bureo (Chilian), 
Nuble; 1. c., p. CXV Ninhue (Itata), Maule; idem (2), p. XXXIII 
Caillihue (Vichuquen), Curic6; idem (5), p. LXI San Carlos, Maule; 
Waugh and Lataste (1), p. LXXXIII Penaflor, Santiago; idem (2), p. 
CLXIX San Alfonso, Valparaiso; Housse (2), p. 142 San Bernardo, 
Santiago. 

Tinnunculus sparverius Fraser (1), p. 109 Chile; Hartlaub (3), p. 209 
Valdivia; Cassin, p. 176 Chile; Pelzeln (2), p. 8 Chile; Sclater (2), 
1867, pp. 330, 338 Chile; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1870, p. 499 
Coquimbo; Housse (3), p. 226 Isla La Mocha, Arauco; Jaffuel and Pirion, 
p. 103 Marga-Marga Valley, Valparaiso. 

Cerchneis cinnamomina Sharpe, p. 10 Coquimbo. 

Tinnunculus cinnamominns Salvin (2), p. 427 Chile; E. Reed (4), p. 206 
part, Chile; Lane, p. 180 Arauco, Rio Bueno (Valdivia), and Llanquihue; 
Albert (1), 108, p. 290 Chile (monog.); Bullock (3), p. 127 Nahuelbuta, 
Malleco; idem (4), p. 198 Angol, Malleco. 

Cerchneis sparveria cinnamomina Schalow (2), p. 694 Santiago; Barros (4), 
p. 49 Nilahue, Curico; idem (5), p. 176 Cordillera of Aconcagua; 
Passler (3), p. 448 Coronel; C. Reed (4), p. 189 Curacautin (food); 
Barros (10), p. 358 Cordillera of Aconcagua. 

Cerchneis sparverius cinnamominus Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 34, 
p. 378, 1915 Corral, Santiago, Valdivia, Ancud (crit.). 

Range in Chile. From Atacama to the Straits of Magellan. 
1 Birds of Tierra del Fuego, p. 17, 1907. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 285 

Material collected. Atacama: Caldera, d" ad., June 25, 1924. 
E Gigoux; Ramadilla, Copiapo Valley, 9 ad., Aug. 25. Coquimbo: 
Romero, two 9 9 ad., July 11, 27. Santiago: Volcan de Maipo (alt. 
4,600 feet), 9 ad., Dec. 20. Cautin: Lake Gualletue* (alt. 3,800 
feet), of ad., Feb. 20. Valdivia: Rinihue, cf ad., March 4; Mafil, 
cf ad., cf 1 imm., 9 ad., Feb. 14, 20, 28. Llanquihue: Puerto Montt, 
cf ad., April 15; Casa de Richards, Rio Nirehuau, d* ad., March 1. 

Birds from the north (Atacama, Coquimbo) appear to be similar 
to those from more southern localities. 

The Chilean Kestrel is generally distributed over the whole 
country excepting the extreme north. According to Rafael Barros, 
its altitudinal range extends up to 7,000 and 10,000 feet. Outside 
of Chile, this form inhabits Tierra del Fuego and Patagonia north 
to the Rio Negro. 

On Mas A Tierra it is replaced by C. s. fernandensis Chapman. 

182. Cerchneis sparveria peruviana Cory 

Cerchneis sparverius peruviana Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., 1, No. 8, 
p. 296, 1915 Chachapoyas, Peru. 

Range in Chile. Extreme northern section, in province of Tacna. 

Material collected. Tacna: Chacalluta, six miles north of Arica, 
9 ad., June 14, 1924. 

In comparison to the females of C. s. cinnamomina, this bird is 
much brighter rufous above and has more white on the forehead. 
It agrees in both respects with a series from Peru, and should doubt- 
less be referred to C. s. peruviana, although it has a duller, less rufous 
tail, probably an individual character. 

This is another of the many instances where the Peruvian form 
extends into Tacna, while the remainder of Chile is tenanted by a 
different race. 

[Spiziapteryx circumtincttis (Kaup), though supposed to have been 
sent by T. Bridges from "Chile," is now known to inhabit exclusively 
certain parts of northern Argentina.] 

183. Elanus leucurus leucurus (Vieillot) 

Milvus leucurus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 20, p. 563 (errore 
556), 1818 based on Azara, No. 36, near San Ignazio, Santa Rosa, and 
Bobi, also on the banks of the Paraguay between Neembucu and Remolinos, 
etc., Paraguay; d'Orbigny, p. 98 not rare in Chile. 



286 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Elanus dispar Fraser (1), p. 109 Chile; Des Murs (2), p. 233, pi. 2 Chile; 
Philippi (12), p. 245 central provinces, rare in the south; Waugh and 
Lataste (1), p. LXXXIV Penaflor, Santiago; Housse (2), p. 142 San 
Bernardo, Santiago; Lataste (9), p. 167 Malleco. 

Elanus leucurus Cassin, p. 175 Chile; Pelzeln (2), p. 8 Chile; Sclater (2), 
1867, pp. 330, 338 vicinity of Santiago; E. Reed (2), p. 559 Cauquenes, 
Colchagua; idem (4), p. 206 Chile (not common); Lane, p. 181 Lara- 
quete, Arauco; Albert (1), 108, p. 294 Chile (monog.); Housse (1), p. 
48 Isla La Mocha, Arauco; C. Reed (4), p. 190 Cerro de Quillota, 
Teno, Rengo, Camarico, Machali, Curacautin, Casa Blanca, Malleco, 
La Ligua, Cordillera de Maule (food); Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 103 Marga- 
Marga, Valparaiso; Bullock (4), p. 198 Angol, Malleco (winter). 
Fako fusco-caerulescens (lapsu) Barros (4), p. 48 Nilahue, Curico. 
Range in Chile. Central and southern provinces, from Santiago 
to Cautin. 

Material collected. Valparaiso: Casa Blanca, cf imm., July 31, 
1923. Colchagua: Rengo, cf juv., July 2, 1923. Talca: Camarico, 
9 juv., July 6, 1923. Carlos S. Reed. 

The White-tailed Kite, widely diffused in South America, is said 
to be common in the plains, but rather rare in the Cordilleras of 
central Chile. It appears to be absent from the southern provinces. 

184. Milvago chimango chimango (Vieillot) 

Polyborus chimango Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 5, p. 260, 
1816 based on Azara, No. 5, rare in Paraguay, but common on the La 
Plata River; d'Orbigny, p. 60 "c6te du Chile" = Valparaiso; Philippi, 
Reise Wtiste Atacama, p. 161 Quebrada de La Encantada, Atacama; 
idem, Ornis, 4, p. 158 Quebrada de La Encantada. 

Aquila pezopora Meyen, Nov. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur., 16, 
Suppl., p. 62, pi. 16, 1834 plains of Mapocho, particularly in the vicinity 
of Santiago. 

Milvago pezoporos Fraser (1), p. 109 Chile [= Colchagua]; Yarrell, p. 52 
Chile (egg descr.). 

Caracara chimango Des Murs (2), p. 211 part, northern Chile; Philippi 
(12), p. 243 Chile (in part); Lataste (1), p. CXIV Bureo (Chilian), 
Nuble; p. CXV Ninhue (Itata), Maule; idem (5), p. LX Itata, Maule; 
Waugh and Lataste (1), p. LXXXIII Penaflor, Santiago; idem (2), 
p. CLXIX San Alfonso (Quillota), Valparaiso. 

Milvago chimango Peale, p. 61 Chile; Bibra, p. 128 road from Valparaiso 
to Santiago; Cassin, p. 174 Chile; Germain, p. 309 Santiago (breeding 
habits); Pelzeln (2), p. 6 Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 329, 338 Chile 
(in part); E. Reed (2), p. 559 Cauquenes, Colchagua; idem (4), p. 206 
Chile (in part); Lane, p. 181 part, southern Chile and Chiloe'; Albert (1), 
108, p. 296 in part; Barros (4), p. 48 Nilahue, Curic6; idem (5), p. 
175 Precordillera of Aconcagua; Housse (2), p. 142 San Bernardo, 
Santiago; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 103 Marga-Marga Valley, Valparaiso. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 287 

Ibycter chimango Sharpe, p. 10 part, Talcaguano; Schalow (2), p. 693 

Coquimbo, La Serena, and Santiago. 
Milvago chimango chimango Passler (3), p. 448 Coronel (breeding habits); 

Wetmore (3), p. 92 Concon, Valparaiso. 

Range in Chile. From Atacama to Conception. 

Material collected. Conception: Hacienda Gualpencillo, two 
c? d* ad., March 31, April 6, 1923. 

Additional specimens. Santiago: Hacienda Mansel, near San- 
tiago, one (unsexed) adult, Dec. 20, 1889. A. A. Lane; Santiago, 
d" ad. F. Leybold. Conception: Talcaguano, cf ad., Sept., 1879. 
Coppinger. "Central Chile:" five adults. H. Berkeley James 
Collection (all in the British Museum). 

The two specimens from Gualpencillo as well as one from Talca- 
guano in the British Museum agree in every particular with a series 
from central Chile. So far as I can see they are inseparable from 
Uruguayan and Argentine skins, which may be taken to represent 
typical chimango. 

The "Tiuque" is reported to be very common in the plains and 
foothills of central Chile, but appears to be absent from the moun- 
tains. In the north it stretches into Atacama, specimens having 
been taken by R. A. Philippi in the Quebrada de La Encantada, 
northeast of Copiapo, and ranges southwards as far as Conception. 

185. Milvago chimango temucoensis W. L. Sclater 

Milvago chimango temwoensis W. L. Sclater, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 38, p. 43, 
March 4, 1918 Pelal, near Temuco, Cautin, Chile (type in British Mu- 
seum examined) ; Laubmann, Wiss. Erg. Deuts. Chaco Exp., Vogel, p. 94, 
1930 Fundo Esmeralda, Osorno, Llanquihue (crit.). 

Milvago chimango (not of Vieillot) Darwin, p. 14 part, Chiloe Island; Hart- 
laub (3), p. 209 Valdivia; Boeck, p. 496 ChiloS; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 
329, 338 Chile (in part); Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1868, p. 187 Sandy- 
Point; idem (3), 1878, p. 435 Puerto Bueno and Sandy-Point; Ridgway 
(2), p. 136 Laredo Bay, Magellan Straits; E. Reed (2), p. 206 Chile 
(in part); Lane, p. 181 part, central Chile; Albert (1), 108, p. 296 in 
part; Bullock (3), p. 126 Nahuelbuta, Malleco; idem (4), p. 195 Angol, 
Malleco. 

Polyborus chimango Tschudi, p. 6 Bay of San Carlos [ =Ancud], Chiloe". 

Caracara chimango Des Murs (2), p. 211 part, southern Chile to Straits of 
Magellan; Philippi (12), p. 243 Chile (in part). 

Ibycter chimango Sharpe, p. 10 part, Cockle Cove. 

Range in Chile. From Conception south to the Straits of 
Magellan. 



288 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Material collected. Conception: Conception, adult, June 28, 
1903. C. S. Reed. Malleco: Curacautin, cT ad., Jan. 14. Chilo 
Island: Rio Inio, d* ad., Jan. 15; Quellon, 9 juv., Jan. 27, 1923. 

Additional specimens. Arauco: Maquegua, 9 ad., July 15, 
1890. A. A. Lane. Cautin: Maquehue, Temuco, cf ad., three 
9 9 ad., April 23, Aug. 17, 24, Sept. 21. D. S. Bullock and A. C. 
Saldana; Pelal, Temuco, 9 ad., Nov. 18, 1909. A. C. Saldana. 
Valdivia: Corral, 9 ad., Oct. 19, 1890. A. A. Lane (all in the British 
Museum). 

This southern race of the "Tiuque" may be recognized by its 
richer, more saturated coloration, the brown of the back being darker, 
and the chest of a deeper ruf escent brown, while the transverse barring 
underneath is much more strongly marked and extends down to the 
tibial feathers. In typical chimango, the upper parts are duller brown 
with a grayish cast, the chest is much paler and less rufous, and the 
barring on the lower breast and sides paler and not so regular. 
The series from Temuco in the British Museum is very uniform and 
shows but little variation. A single adult from Valdivia (Corral), 
one from Chilo Island, and six from various localities in the Straits 
of Magellan are precisely similar. Birds from Arauco (Maquegua) 
and Malleco (Curacautin) are likewise typical of this form, to which 
I must also refer a specimen taken by C. S. Reed at Conception. 
Other specimens of this hawk secured by Sanborn in this vicinity 
are, however, unquestionably referable to M. c. chimango. I expect 
that further material will show the two races to intergrade in the 
region around Conception. 

186. Phalcoboenus megalopterus (Meyen) 

Aquila megaloptera Meyen, Nov. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur., 
16, SuppL, p. 64, pi. 17, 1834 Chile, in the highest Cordilleras near the 
edge of the perpetual snow (descr. of juvenile plumage). 

Phalcoboenus montanus d'Orbigny, 1 Voy. Amei. Me'rid., Ois., p. 51, pi. 2, 
figs. 1, 2, 1834-35 road from Tacna to La Paz, Cordilleras and plateaus 
of Bolivia (descr. of adult and young); Fraser (1), p. 108 valleys of the 
Andes [of Colchagua] at 5,000 to 8,000 feet elevation. 

Milvago megalopterus Darwin, p. 21 Despoblado, a branch of the Copiapo 
Valley, Atacama; Fraser (2), p. 157 [Colchagua] Chile; Sclater (2), 
1867, pp. 329, 338 Cordillera of Santiago (crit.); E. Reed (2), p. 559 
Cordillera of Colchagua; Sclater (4), 1886, p. 399 Sitani, Tarapaca; 
idem (6), 1891, p. 135 Sacaya, Tarapaca; Lane, p. 182 Sacaya and 

ir The plate was issued with livr. 2 in 1834, and it is quite possible that P. 
montanus has priority over A. megaloptera published in the same year. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 289 

Cancosa, Tarapaca; E. Reed (4), p. 206 Cordilleras of central Chile; 
Albert (1), 108, p. 296 Chile (monog.). 

Caracara montanus Des Murs (2), p. 210 Prov. Santiago (habits); Philippi 
(12), p. 242 Cordilleras of Santiago and Atacama. 

Polyborus montanus Philippi, Reise Wtiste Atacama, p. 161 Desert of 
Atacama, from the Cordillera down to the coast; idem, Ornis, 4, p. 158 
Antofagasta. 

Milvago crassirostris Pelzeln, Sitzungsber. Ak. Wiss. Wien, math.-naturw. 
KL, 44, (1), p. 9, 1861 Chile (descr. of adult; type in Vienna Museum 
examined); idem, Vog. Novara, p. 3, pi. 1, 1865 Chile (crit., juv.). 

Phalcoboenus negalopterm [sic] Barros (5), p. 175 Cordillera of Aconcagua. 
Range in Chile. Cordilleras from Tacna to Colchagua. 

Material examined. Tarapaca: Sitani, cf ad., Jan. 15, 1886. 
C. Rahmer; Sacaya, 9 ad., April 22, 1890. A. A. Lane; Cancosa, 
juv., Jan. 28, 1890. A. A. Lane (all in the British Museum). 
Central Chile: three adults, three in transitional plumage, and two 
juv. "Novara" Expedition, Zelebor and Segeth. "Chile:" adult, 
type of M. crassirostris Pelzeln (all in the Vienna Museum). 

I am unable to discover any constant difference between birds 
from central Chile (megalopterus, crassirostris), Tarapaca, and Bolivia 
(montanus). When in adult plumage, all have along the scapular 
edge of the wing a distinct white stripe, which Pelzeln erroneously 
thought was absent in the Peruvian bird. As to the shape of the 
bill, I find much individual variation, and do not see how this 
character can be used for distinguishing two races. The adult bird 
from Peru in the Vienna Museum has a remarkably slender, 
compressed bill, but this divergency is not corroborated by other 
material from that country. 

The altitudinal range of P. megalopterus varies according to 
latitude. While in Peru and Bolivia almost if not wholly con- 
fined to the Puna Zone, viz. to elevations of 10,000 feet and upwards, 
we find it in Chile descending to much lower altitudes, its habitat 
in the provinces of Aconcagua, Santiago, and Colchagua being given 
as reaching down to 5,000 feet. Philippi, furthermore, states that 
in the desert of Atacama it may be seen even near the seacoast. 

Its geographical distribution evidently does not extend much 
beyond Colchagua, which is the most southerly Chilean locality on 
record. In Argentina it is restricted to the northwestern provinces 
of Tucuman, Salta, and Jujuy. Its reported occurrence in Patagonia 
and Tierra del Fuego is doubtless due to the misidentification of 
young specimens of the nearly allied P. albogularis (Gould), which, 



290 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

as correctly pointed out by Wetmore, 1 in the brown juvenile plumage 
is exceedingly similar to the corresponding stage of P. megalopterus. 
The specimens collected by the members of the Princeton University 
Expedition on the Rio Gallegos and at Arroyo Eke, at the head- 
waters of the Rio Deseado in Patagonia, and listed by Stone 2 as 
/. megalopterus are clearly referable to P. albogularis, of which adult 
birds were secured in the same localities, and whose range has since 
been traced by Wetmore 1 and Peters 3 as far north as the Goberna- 
cion del Rio Negro. 

I expect that a better knowledge of their characters and distri- 
bution will show P. carunculatus, P. megalopterus, and P. albogularis 
(of which I. circumcinctus Scott appears to be an individual variant) 
to be representatives of one "formenkreis." 

187. Polyborus plancus plancus (Miller) 

Falco plancus Miller, Var. Subj. Nat. Hist., Part 3, pi. 17, 1777 Tierra del 

Fuego. 
Falco tharus Molina, Saggio Stor. Nat. Chile, pp. 264, 343, 1782 Chile; 

Poeppig (2), p. 281 Rio Colorado, Santiago. 

Aquila cheriway (not of Jacquin) Meyen, p. 66 east of Copiapo, Chile. 

Polyborus vulgaris d'Orbigny, p. 55 "mountainous" and wooded parts of 

Chile; Boeck, p. 496 "Aemd" [ =Ancud] and Laguna of "Clanquihue" 

[ =Llanquihue]. 
Polyborus brasiliensis (not of Gmelin) Fraser (1), p. 108 Chile (habits); 

Yarrell, p. 52 Chile (egg descr.); Hartlaub (3), p. 108 Valdivia; Pelzeln 

(2), p. 6 Chile. 
Polyborus braziliensis Peale, p. 60 Chile. 

Caracara vulgaris Des Murs (2), p. 207, pi. 1 the whole of Chile (habits); 
Philippi (12), p. 242 Chile; Lataste (1), p. CXIV Bureo (Chilian), 
Nuble; Waugh and Lataste (1), p. LXXXIV Penaflor, Santiago; Housse 
(2), p. 142 San Bernardo, Santiago. 

Polyborus tharus Cassin, p. 173 central and southern Chile; Germain, p. 
309 Santiago (nesting habits); Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 329, 338 Chile; 
Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1870, p. 499 Island of Quehui, ChiloS; E. Reed 
(2), p. 559 Cauquenes, Colchagua; idem (4), p. 206 Chile; Lane, p. 
183 Rio Bueno, Valdivia (habits); Schalow (2), p. 692 Puerto Rosales, 
Llanquihue; Albert (1), 108, p. 303 Chile (monog.); Jaffuel and Pirion, 
p. 103 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso; Bullock (3), p. 126 Nahuelbuta, 
Malleco; idem (4), p. 195 Angol, Malleco. 

Polyborus plancus Barros (4), p. 48 Nilahue, Curico. 



. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 420, 1926. 
2 Rep. Princeton Univ. Exp., 2, (2), Part 4, p. 566, 1915. 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 304, 1922. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 291 

Range in Chile. From Copiapo to the Straits of Magellan, rare 
in the north. 

Material collected. Valparaiso: Hacienda Limache, 9 ad., <? 
juv., Dec. 9, 15. J. A. Wolffsohn. Guaitecas Islands: Melinka, 
Ascension Island, 9 ad., Jan. 31. 

The "Traro" is reported as very common in southern Chile down 
to the Straits of Magellan. In the central provinces it exists only 
in limited numbers, increasing southwards and becoming plentiful 
about Valdivia and on the Laguna of Llanquihue. Meyen claims 
to have shot his specimens in March east of Copiapo, which is much 
farther to the north than any other recorded locality. The bird is 
rather uncommon in the provinces of Valparaiso and Santiago, and 
even in Curico Barros found it somewhat scarce. 

The "Traro" frequents the plains and low hills, and it is certainly 
by mistake that Albert gives its altitudinal range as extending up to 
an elevation of 4,000 meters. 

Besides in Chile, it also occurs in Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia, 
and in part of Argentina, while closely allied races are found in the 
more northern section of South America. 

188. Pandion haliaetus carolinensis (Gmelin) 

Falco carolinensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (1), p. 263, 1788 based on Brisson, 
Buffon, and Catesby; restricted type locality Carolina (ex Catesby). 

Pandion haliaetus (not of Linnaeus) Philippi (24), p. 4 "Peine" [=Paine], 
south of Santiago. 

Range in Chile. Occasional straggler (one record). 
Philippi lists a single specimen shot at Paine, Prov. O'Higgins, 
as being in the collection of the Museo Nacional, Santiago. 

189. Cathartes aura jot a (Molina) 

Vultur 1 jota Molina, Saggio Stor. Nat. Chile, pp. 265, 343, 1782 Chile. 2 

Vultur aura (not of Linnaeus) Poeppig (2), p. 281 Rio Colorado, Santiago. 

Cathartes aura d'Orbigny, p. 38 Pacific coast from Chiloe northwards; 

Darwin, p. 8 Chile; Des Murs (2), p. 202 from Copiapo to Chilo6; 

Boeck, p. 495 "Aemd" [=Ancud], Chilo6 Island; Pelzeln (2), p. 3 

Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 328, 338 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 242 

common along the coast; E. Reed (2), p. 559 Hacienda de Cauquenes, 

Colchagua (not common); idem (4), p. 206 Chile; Lataste (1), p. CXV 

Bureo (Chilian), Nuble, and Ninhue (Itata), Maule; Waugh and Lataste 

1 Misprinted "Vulcur" on p. 265. 

2 Swann (Syn. Accip., 2nd ed., p. 4, 1921) suggests Concepci6n as type locality. 



292 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

(1), p. LXXXIV Penaflor, Santiago; Lane, p. 184 Corral (Valdivia), 
and Tarapaca; Schalow (2), p. 691 Iquique, Tarapaca; Albert (1), 101, 
p. 507 Chile (monog.); Blaauw (1), p. 24 range in Chile; Housse (2), 
p. 141 San Bernardo, Santiago; Bullock (3), p. 126 Nahuelbuta, Mal- 
leco; idem (4), p. 195 Angol, Malleco. 

Cathartes Iota Fraser (1), p. 108 abundant along the coast of Chile, also 
in the interior; Yarrell, p. 52 Chile (egg descr.); Cassin, p. 172 com- 
mon along the seacoast of Chile. 

Cathartes aura aura Barros (4), p. 47 Nilahue, Curico; idem (5), p. 175 
Precordillera of Aconcagua (Los Andes); Housse (1), p. 48 Isla La 
Mocha, Arauco. 

Chatartes aura jota Passler (3), p. 448 Coronel (breeding habits). 

Cathartes aura jota Wetmore (3), p. 91 Concon, Valparaiso. 

Rhinogryphus aura Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 102 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso. 

Range in Chile. From Tarapaca to the Straits of Magellan. 

Material collected. Valparaiso: Palmilla, La Cruz, 9 imm., 
Jan. 9, 1925. J. A. Wolffsohn. 

Birds from the Straits of Magellan that we have seen appear to 
be similar to those from central Chile. C. a. jota, as pointed out by 
Wetmore, 1 is very similar to C. a. ruficollis, the Turkey Vulture of 
eastern South America, but may be distinguished by its larger size. 
Whether the Falkland Island race, C. a. falklandica (Sharpe), can 
be maintained, I am unable to decide owing to lack of material. 

C. a. jota is said to be common in the northern parts of Chile, 
from Tarapaca to Valparaiso. Farther south it decreases in numbers, 
although it is sparingly found all throughout Chile to the Straits 
of Magellan. According to various observers, the "Jote" keeps to 
the plains and the pre-Cordillera, and hardly ever occurs above 5,000 
feet of elevation. 

190. Coragyps atratus 2 f oetens (Lichtenstein) 

Cathartes foetens Lichtenstein, Verz. Ausgest. Saug. und Vogel, p. 30, 1818 
based on Azara's "Iribu," Paraguay; Pelzeln (2), p. 3 Santiago. 

Cathartes atratus 2 (not of Meyer) Fraser (1), p. 108 occasionally in the 
province of Colchagua; Bibra, p. 128 Santiago and northwards; Cassin, 
p. 173 rare in Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 328, 338 Colchagua (ex 
Fraser); E. Reed (2), p. 559 Cauquenes, Colchagua; idem (4), p. 206 

'Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 90, 1926. 

2 About the use of the specific name proposed in a binomial sense by F. A. A. 
Meyer (Zool. Ann., 1, p. 290, 1794) see Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 
415, 1929. As has been pointed out to me by Dr. Richmond (in litt.), an even 
earlier reference is Vultur atratus Bechstein (Anhang z. 1 sten Bande von Latham's 
Allg. Uebers. Vogel, p. 655, 1793), likewise based on Bartram's "Black Vulture 
or Carrion Crow." 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 293 

Chile; Lane, p. 184 Laraquete (Arauco) and Ancud (Chilo6); Albert 

(1), 101, p. 510 Chile (monog.); Blaauw (1), p. 24 Osorno, Llanquihue; 

Bullock (3), p. 126 Cerro de Nahuelbuta, Malleco; idem (4), p. 194 

Angol, Malleco. 
Cathartes urubu Des Mure (2), p. 200 Coquimbo, Valparaiso, Conception, 

and Chilo6; Boeck, p. 494 near Valdivia (in winter); Philippi (12), p. 

242 Chile (common). 
Catharistes atratus Schalow (2), p. 691 Coquimbo and Calbuco Island, near 

Puerto Montt. 
Catharista urubu Barros (4), p. 47 Nilahue, Curic6. 

Catharista atrata Housse (3), p. 225 Isla La Mocha, Arauco; Jaffuel and 
Pirion, p. 103 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso. 

Coragyps atratus brasiliensis Passler (3), p. 447 Coronel and Corral, Valdivia 

(habits). 

Coragyps urubu foetens Wetmore (3), p. 91 Concon, Valparaiso. 
Range in Chile. From Coquimbo to Chiloe" Island. 

The "Gallinazo" is stated to be abundant in the southern parts 
of Chile, but does not occur beyond Chiloe" and Llanquihue. In 
the northern provinces it seems to be rather rare, although there 
are several records from Colchagua, Valparaiso, Santiago, and even 
Coquimbo. 

191. Vultur gryphus Linnaeus 

Vultur gryphus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 86, 1758 based on 
Vultur gryps Klein, Hist. Av. Prodr., 1750, p. 45, Chile; Molina, p. 266 
Chile. 

Sarcorhamphus magellanicus Sharpe, 1 Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 1, p. 20, 1874 
Chile and Straits of Magellan. 

Sarcorhamphus gryphus d'Orbigny, p. 17 Arica; Darwin, p. 3 Chile (breed- 
ing in the inaccessible parts of the Cordilleras); Fraser (1), p. 108 in all 
the provinces of Chile, abundant in the elevated valleys of the Andes; 
Bibra, p. 128 high Cordillera [of Santiago]; Cassin, p. 172 Chile; Pelzeln 
(2), p. 3 Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 328, 338 Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 
560 Banos de Cauquenes, Colchagua; Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 158 Tres 
Puntas, Atacama; E. Reed (4), p. 206 Cordilleras of Chile; Lane, p. 
184 Tarapaca; Schalow (2), p. 690 Punta Teatinos, Coquimbo; Albert 
(1), 101, p. 514 the whole of Chile (monog.); Barros (4), p. 47 Nilahue, 
Curic6 (now extinct); idem (5), p. 175 Cordillera of Aconcagua; idem 
(6), p. 32 Parral, Linares; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 102 Cerros del Valle 
Marga-Marga, Valparaiso. 

Sarcoramphus condor Des Murs (2), p. 194, pi. (osteology) the whole of 
Chile (habits); Boeck, p. 494 near Valdivia; Philippi, Reise Wuste 
Atacama, p. 161 between Tres Puntas and Copiapo, Atacama, and near 



tentatively proposed name is a pure synonym of Vultur gryphus, origi- 
nally based on the Chilean bird. 



294 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Paposo, Antofagasta; idem (12), p. 242 from Atacama to the Straits of 
Magellan. 

Range in Chile. The whole of Chile, from Tarapaca to the 
Straits of Magellan. 

The condor, while locally exterminated, is still plentiful in the 
less frequented Andean districts. It breeds on inaccessible cliffs in 
the mountains, but extends its excursions in search of food to the 
plains and even to the seacoast. 

192. Pelecanus thagus Molina 

Pelecanus thagus Molina, 1 Saggio Stor. Nat. Chile, pp. 240, 344, 1782 Chile; 
Des Murs (2), p. 494 Chile (ex Molina); Cassin, p. 206 Chile; Sclater 
(2), 1867, pp. 336, 340 Chile (crit.); Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 52 Valparaiso 
Bay; Passler (1), p. 103 from Coquimbo northward, in winter at Corral, 
Valdivia. 

Pelecanus fuscus (not of Gmelin) Des Murs (2), p. 494 Chile; Boeck, p. 
513 Valdivia; Philippi, Reise Wiiste Atacama, p. 165 coast of Atacama; 
idem, Ornis, 4, p. 160 Atacama; Albert (1), 103, p. 228 central provinces. 

Pelecanus molinae (G. R. Gray MS.) 2 Sclater, P. Z. S. Lond., 1868, p. 269 
based on Onocrotalus thagus Bonaparte, Consp. Av., 2, p. 164, Chile; 
Pelzeln (2), p. 158 Chile; Albert (1), 103, p. 224 Chile (monog.); Lane, 
p. 185 Coronel and Corral, Valdivia; Schalow (2), p. 690 Iquique, 
Tarapaca; E. Reed (4), p. 206 Bay of Valparaiso. 

Pelecanus thygus (sic) Philippi (12), p. 291 coast of Chile and Peru. 

Pelecanus nigricollis (Philippi MS.) Albert, Anal. Univ. Chile, 103, p. 226, 
1899 Chile (orig. descr.;=juv.). 

Pelecanus landbecki F. Philippi, Bol. Mus. Nac. Chile, 1, No. 3, p. 63, 1909 
Chile (=juv.); Housse (1), p. 53 Isla la Mocha, Arauco. 

Range in Chile. From the Peruvian boundary south to Valdivia. 

The pelican is stated to be fairly common along the coast, in 
the estuaries of the rivers, and on the islands of Chile. It is less 
frequent and probably does not breed in the southern parts of the 
republic. Edwyn Reed tells us that in some years it is seen in large 
numbers in Valparaiso Bay. Lane and Passler met with it at 
Coronel and Corral, Valdivia, during the winter season. 

The young bird was described as P. nigricollis by Albert, although 
he correctly recognized that the specimen so designated by Philippi 
was merely the immature plumage of P. molinae. In ignorance of 

1 Molina's description, as usual, is rather poor, but cannot well refer to any other 
species, this being the only pelican found in Chile. 

*Pelicanus molinae Gray (List Spec. Bds. Brit. Mus., 3, p. 189, 1844; Genera 
of Birds, 3, p. 668, 1845) is a nomen nudum. Pelzeln does not give any description 
either. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 295 

Albert's action, F. Philippi (son) created another synonym by de- 
scribing the very same example as a new species under the name 
P. landbecki. 

P. molinae ranges northwards along the coast of Peru to the 
extreme south of Ecuador. Its plumages and habits have been well 
described by H. 0. Forbes in "Ibis," 1914, pp. 403-420, pi. 13. 
The Brown Pelican of North America is probably conspecific. 



[Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin, listed by Gay (p. 493) s. n. 
P. cristatus, does not occur in Chile. It breeds in North America, 
migrating in winter south to Mexico and Costa Rica.] 

193. Phaethon aethereus Linnaeus 

Phaethon aethereus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 134, 1758 "in pelago 
inter tropicos"; Philippi, Reise Wiiste Atacama, p. 165 Bay of "Tarta!" 
[ =Taltal], Antofagasta; idem (12), p. 290 Taltal; idem, Ornis, 4, p. 160 
Taltal; Albert (1), 103, p. 233 Chile. 
Phaeton aetherius Philippi (24), p. 89 Taltal. 

Range in Chile. Accidental visitor. Once recorded from Taltal, 
Antofagasta. 

As recorded by Philippi, a single specimen of the Tropik-bird 
was shot in 1853 in the Bay of Taltal, southern Antofagasta. 

194. Sula variegata (Tschudi) 

Dysporus variegatus Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 9, (1), p. 390, 1843 "in littoribus 
et insulis Oceani Pacifici" =islands off Peru (cf. Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 
313, 1846). 

Sula ( ?) Eraser (1), p. 120 coast of Chile from the island of Chiloe to 
Copiapo; Boeck, p. 512 Valdivia. 

Sula fusca Des Murs (2), p. 488 Chilo4 (excl. descr.); Philippi, Reise 
Wiiste Atacama, p. 165 coast of Atacama; idem, Ornis, 4, p. 160 coast 
of northern Chile. 

Sula variegata Hartlaub (3), p. 219 Corral, Valdivia; Pelzeln (2), p. 156 
Chile (crit.); Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 336, 340 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 
290 coast of Chile to Peru; E. Reed (4), p. 206 coast of Chile; Lane, 
p. 185 outside Coquimbo, south to Arauco; Schalow (2), p. 689 Isla 
dos Pajaros, Coquimbo; Albert (1), 101, p. 929 Chile (monog.); Passler 
(1), p. 102 from Coquimbo northward, common at Antofagasta; Housse 
(1), p. 54 Isla La Mocha, Arauco. 

Range in Chile. Seacoast from the Peruvian boundary to Chilce" 
Island. 

Material collected. Concepcion: Concepcion, near coast, one c", 
April 8. 



296 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Although the "Piquero" is stated to be very common at times 
on the coast, no breeding place in Chile has yet been recorded. 
Lane saw large quantities of these birds outside Coquimbo; he did 
not notice them south of Arauco, but believes that they occur at 
Valdivia in summer time, and even farther south. He did not hear 
of a Chilean breeding-place. Albert at length describes their breeding 
habits, but it is not evident that the account is based on the author's 
own observations. Passler found them at Coquimbo and, north- 
ward, very abundant at Antofagasta. 

S. variegata, one of the principal "guano" birds, is known to 
breed on numerous islands off the Peruvian coast. 

195. Phalacrocorax gaimardi (Lesson and Garnot) 

Carbo gaimardi Lesson and Garnot, 1 Voy. Coquille, Zool., Atlas, livr. 7, pi. 
48, June 21, 1828 "Lima, au Perou"=San Lorenzo Island, off Callao 
(see Gaimard, Voy. Coquille, Zool., 1, (2), livr. 14, p. 602, Jan., 1830); 
Kittlitz, Denkwiird., 1, p. 133 Valparaiso. 

Phalacrocorax gaimardii Fraser (1), p. 119 Valparaiso Bay; Bibra, p. 
132 Algodon Bay; Hartlaub (3), p. 219 Corral Bay, Valdivia; Cassin, 
p. 206 Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, p. 340 Chile; Cunningham (2), p. 365 
near ChiloS Island; E. Reed (4), p. 207 Chile; Lane, p. 187 Corral, 
Valdivia; Schalow (2), p. 688 Cavancha and Iquique, Tarapaca, and 
Tumbes, Concepcion; Albert (1), 103, p. 839 from ChiloS northward 
(monog.); Philippi (23), p. 172 Chiloe and Algarrobo; Passler (1), p. 
103 Arica (Tacna), Caleta Buena (Tarapaca), Taltal (Antofagasta); 
Housse (1), p. 53 Isla La Mocha, Arauco. 

Graculus gaimardi Des Murs (2), p. 489 southern Chile; Boeck, p. 513 
Valdivia; Philippi, Reise Wuste Atacama, p. 165 between Coquimbo 
and Caldera, Atacama; Pelzeln (2), pp. 158, 163 Chiloe Island; Philippi 
(12), p. 290 Chilo6 to central provinces; idem, Ornis, 4, p. 160 coast 
near Caldera, Atacama. 

Graculus gainsardii (sic) Germain, p. 315 Chilo (breeding habits). 
Range in Chile. From the Straits of Magellan north to the 
Peruvian boundary. 

Material collected. Concepcion: coast near Concepcion, two 
cf cf ad., April 8. 

The Gray Cormorant, called "Lile" by the natives, occurs all 
along the Chilean coast, but is said to be more common in the central 
and northern provinces than in the south. Lane found it plentiful 
off Corral (Valdivia), though not nearly so numerous as P. o. oliva- 
ceus, and states that it did not come into the harbors or up the 
rivers, but kept outside a few miles off the land. Passler found it 
breeding on the sea-cliffs at various points in Antofagasta, Tarapaca, 

ir This name has apparently slight priority over Phalacrocorax cirriger King 
(Zool. Journ., 4, No. 3 [April-July], p. 103, after July, 1828 Straits of Magellan). 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 297 

and Tacna. According to Germain, it chooses for its nest the 
crevices of rocks which rise perpendicularly from the sea, at the foot 
of which the waves dash; the nests are made of marine and decaying 
plants, and contain three or four eggs in November. 

South of Chilo4 this species appears to be of rather rare occur- 
rence. Cunningham (Not. Nat. Hist. St. Magellan, p. 365) mentions 
a single instance of two examples being seen in Mesier Channel. 
There are, however, several records from southeastern Patagonia 
(San Julian; Puerto Deseado) - 1 In the north the range of P. gaimardi 
extends to the islands off the Peruvian coast. 

196. Phalacrocorax olivaceus olivaceus (Humboldt) 

Pelecanus olivaceus Humboldt, Rec. Obs. Zool. et Anat. Comp., 1, p. 47, 

1805 near Banco, Rio Magdalena, Colombia. 
Halieus gracilis Meycn, 2 Nov. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Curios., 

16, Suppl., p. 113, pi. 23, 1834 San Fernando, Colchagua (=juv.); 

Philippi (12), p. 323 (crit.). 

Phalacrocorax brasiliensis Fraser (1), p. 119 Los Guauros, Valdivia Bay. 
Graculus brasilianus Des Murs (2), p. 490 Chile; Boeck, p. 513 Valdivia; 

Germain, p. 315 Chile (breeding habits); Philippi (12), p. 291 Chile; 

Streets, p. 24 Concepcion Bay. 

Phalacrocorax gracilis Bibra, p. 132 common in all harbors of Chile. 
Phalacrocorax brasilianus Hartlaub (3), p. 219 Corral Bay, Valdivia; Cassin, 

p. 205, pi. 28 Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 336, 340 Chile; E. Reed (4), 

p. 206 Corral, Valdivia, and the whole coast of Chile; Lane, p. 186 

Laraquete, Arauco, and Corral, Valdivia (habits); Schalow (2), p. 688 

Isla dos Pajaros (Coquinibo), Villarrica, and Lago Llanquihue; Albert 

(1), 103, p. 842, 1899 Chile (monog.) ; Bullock (4), p. 207 Angol, Malleco. 
Graculus brasiliensis Pelzeln (2), p. 158 Chile; Waugh and Lataste (2), p. 

CLXXIII San Alfonso (Quillota), Valparaiso; idem (3), p. LX Penaflor, 

Santiago. 
Phalacrocorax vigua Ridgway (2), p. 138 Port Otway; Passler (1), p. 102 

Corral, Valdivia; Housse (1), p. 54 Isla La Mocha, Arauco; Jaffuel and 

Pirion, p. 114 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso. 
Phalacrocorax vigua vigua Barros (4), p. 46 Nilahue, Curic6 (visitor); idem 

(5), p. 174 Rio Aconcagua, Aconcagua. 

Range in Chile. Central and southern provinces, from Acon- 
cagua to the Straits of Magellan. 

Material collected. Guaitecas Islands: Melinka, Ascension 
Island, cf ad. (non-breeding), Feb. 1. 

l Cf. Oustalet, Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, Zool., 6, p. B 156, 1891. 

2 This reference is erroneously included by Ogilvie-Grant (Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 
26, p. 343, 1898) in the synonymy of Phalacrocorax carbo (Linnaeus), an Old World 
species! Stresemann (in litt.) writes that the type is a young individual of P. 
olivaceus. 



298 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Although the material at hand is insufficient to make out whether 
the Black Cormorant of South America is divisible into local races, 
it appears that the length of the tail alluded to by Ogilvie-Grant as 
a possible character for the birds of the Pacific coast is of little impor- 
tance. Their proper name, however, cannot be determined without 
examining an adequate series from the type locality (Magdalena 
River, Colombia), whence no specimens are available. Halieus 
gracilis Meyen 1 unquestionably refers to the juvenile plumage of 
the "Pato Yeco," this being the only species of cormorant found in 
the interior of Chile. 

The "Pato Yeco" is reported as exceedingly common in the 
central and southern provinces of Chile. T. Bridges, as recorded 
by Fraser, speaks of a colony of thousands of cormorants near a 
place called Los Guauros, south of the island of Mansera, in the Bay 
of Valdivia, where the birds nested on the summits of the loftiest 
trees. Germain tells us that they choose the rocks on the seacoast 
or trees which border certain lakes or pools to build their nests, and 
lay three or four eggs in October and November. While preferring 
the seacoast, they penetrate up the rivers, so as to be often found 
almost at the base of the Andes and on comparatively small streams; 
when on the rivers, they usually occur singly, flying up and allowing 
themselves to drift downstream while fishing (A. Lane). Edwyn 
Reed (Anal. Univ. Chile, 49, 1877, p. 560) also met with this species 
far inland on the Rio Cachapoal and on the Laguna de Cauquenes, 
Colchagua. R. Barros noticed it on the Rio Aconcagua, at Los Andes 
(alt. 3,000 feet), Prov. Aconcagua, and F. Meyen obtained the type 
of H. gracilis in the interior at San Fernando. Albert even claims 
that this cormorant breeds on the lagoons of the Cordilleras up to 
an elevation of 2,000 meters and more. 

I do not find any record from the arid districts of northern Chile 
beyond Coquimbo, where L. Plate secured several examples in 
October, 1893, on the Islas dos Pajaros. 

P. o. olivaceus is distributed over the greater part of South 
America, while a nearly related, smaller race is found in Central 
America and the southern United States. 

'Philippi (Anal. Univ. Chile, 103, pp. 674-675, 1899) takes great pains in 
pointing out the distinctness of Meyen's bird from P. gaimardi, which is, of course, 
quite different. I cannot make out P. promaucanus Philippi (Anal. Univ. Chile, 
103, p. 674, 1899 central provinces; idem, Arch. Naturg., 65, (1), p. 173, 1899; 
idem, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, 15, p. 107, pi. 51, 1902 type stated to be from 
Matanzas, coast of Colchagua). It is based on a single juvenile specimen, and 
may be referable to P. o. olivaceus. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYB 299 

197. Phalacrocorax bougainvillii (Lesson) 

Carbo bougainvillii Lesson, Journ. Navig. Thetis et Esperance, 2, p. 331, 
1837 Valparaiso. 

Carbo albigula Brandt, Bull. Scient. Ac. Sci. St. Petersb., 3, p. 57, 1837 
Chile. 

Phalacrocorax ventralis Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, 15, p. 106, pi. 50, 
1902 Prov. Santiago (=juv.). 

Phalacrocorax albigula Gray, List Spec. Bds. Brit. Mus., 3, p. 187, 1844 
Valparaiso; Fraser (2), p. 157 coast of Chile. 

Graculus bougainvillii Des Mure (2), p. 491 Valparaiso (ex Lesson); Philippi 
(12), p. 291 Valparaiso (ex Lesson). 

Graculus albigula Des Mure (2), p. 491 Chile (ex Brandt); Philippi (12), p. 
291 Chile (ex Brandt). 

Phalacrocorax bougainvillii Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 336, 340 Chile (crit.); E. 
Reed (4), p. 207 Chile; Murphy, Bird Islands of Peru, p. 73 Corral, 
Valdivia; Barros (8), p. 138 San Felipe and Los Andes, Aconcagua. 

Phalacrocorax albigula Albert (1), 103, p. 845 Prov. Santiago, Sept., 1861 
(monog., crit.). 

(?) Graculus imperialis Housse (1), p. 53 Isla La Mocha, Arauco. 

Range in Chile. Recorded from Aconcagua, Valparaiso, San- 
tiago Province, Talcaguano (Concepcion), and Corral, Valdivia. 1 

Very little is known regarding the occurrence of Bougainville's 
Cormorant in Chile. It was described from a specimen taken in 
the Bay of Valparaiso, and two skins from this locality are preserved 
in the collection of the British Museum. Bridges, according to 
Fraser, calls it "a very scarce bird, found along the shores of Chile 
in rocky places." Two young birds, apparently of this species, 
obtained on the coast of Santiago in September, 1861, are recorded 
by Albert as being in the Museo Nacional. The very same examples 
formed the basis of Philippi's alleged new species named and figured 
as P. ventralis. Barros reports that in the first days of May, 1925, 
after a strong gale, many specimens were seen at San Felipe and 
Los Andes, Prov. Aconcagua. Murphy (1. c.) states that this cor- 
morant in the non-breeding season ranges as far south as the vicinity 
of Corral, Valdivia. No Chilean breeding-place seems to exist. 2 

The "Guanay" breeds on the islands along the Peruvian coast 
from Mollendo north to Punta Parina, Piura. 

1 The reported occurrence in Tierra del Fuego is doubtless erroneous. 

2 Dr. Murphy (in litt.) suggests, however, that possibly it nests on the little 
islands of Alecran, off Arica. 



300 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

198. Phalacrocorax magellanicus (Gmelin) 

Pelecanus magellanicus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 576, 1789 based on 

"Magellanic Shag" Latham, Gen. Syn. Birds, 3, (2), p. 604, Tierra del 

Fuego, and also Staaten Island. 
Phalacrocorax eumegetkes Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 103, p. 673, 1899 

Reloncavi Bay, Llanquihue; idem, Arch. Naturg., 65, (1), p. 173, 1899 

Calbuco, Reloncavi Bay. 
Graculus magellanicus Boeck, p. 513 Valdivia; Germain, p. 315 Chilo6 

Archipelago (breeding habits); Pelzeln (2), pp. 159, 163 Chilo6; Philippi 

(12), p. 291 Chiloe*. 
Phalacrocorax magellanicus E. Reed (4), p. 207 Chile; Schalow (2), p. 681, 

pi. 37 Valparaiso and Isla Lagartija (Calbuco), Llanquihue; Albert (1), 

103, p. 836 Llanquihue and Chilo6 (monog.); Philippi (23), p. 173 

ChiloS; idem (24), p. 105 Chiloe". 
Phalacrocorax gracilis (not of Meyen) Philippi (24), p. 105, pi. 49 Calbuco 

(Llanquihue) and Valdivia. 

Range in Chile. From Valdivia to the Straits of Magellan; 
accidental at Valparaiso (one record). 

Material collected. Guaitecas Islands: Melinka, Ascension Is- 
land, cf ad. (intermediate plumage), <? imm., Jan. 30, Feb. 2. 

The adult bird has the throat largely white in the middle, but 
no white on the sides of the head; the other example is molting from 
the brown juvenile into the black plumage. 

P. eumegethes from Calbuco, Reloncavi Bay, near Puerto Montt, 
appears to have been based on an immature individual with unde- 
veloped bill of the present species. In a later communication 1 
Philippi, ignoring his own name, describes and figures the same 
specimen as G. gracilis (not of Meyen), and Albert (1. c., p. 838) 
claims that G. gracilis Ph. refers to the juvenile plumage of P. 
magellanicus. 

This cormorant is restricted to the southern parts of Chile, breed- 
ing on islands from Llanquihue southwards. In the Chiloe" Archi- 
pelago, according to Germain, it collects in flocks in December, 
laying from two to four eggs. It chooses the perpendicular 
rocks of the islands, and in the steepest part it builds a nest of 
marine and decaying plants. It does not seem to breed in Valdivia, 
though specimens have been recorded from that province, and it 
very rarely strays farther north. Its occurrence at Valparaiso, whence 
Schalow lists a single bird, is evidently quite exceptional. 

On the other hand, this species is abundant in the Straits of 
Magellan, Tierra del Fuego, and on the Falkland Islands. 

!Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile, 15, p. 105, 1902. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 301 

199. Phalacrocorax atriceps atriceps King 

Phalacrocorax atriceps King, Zool. Journ., 4, p. 102, 1828 Straits of Magellan 
(= adult). 

Graculus elegant Philippi, Arch. Naturg., 24, (1), p. 305, 1858 Chiloe" Island 
(= adult). 

Graculus albiventer (not Carbo albiventer Lesson) Des Murs (2), p. 491 Chile; 
Boeck, p. 513 Valdivia; Philippi (12), p. 291 Corral, Valdivia, 

Graculus cirrhatus (not Pelecanus cirrhatus Gmelin) Boeck, p. 513 Valdivia; 
Philippi (12), p. 291 Chiloe" and Corral, Valdivia. 

Graculus cristatus (lapsu) Germain, p. 315 Chiloe Archipelago (breeding 
habits). 

Graculus carunculatus (not Pelecanus carunculatus Gmelin) Pelzeln (2), pp. 
159, 163, pi. VI, fig. 16 (egg) Chiloe\ 

Phalacrocorax cirrhatus Skater (2), 1867, pp. 336, 340 Chile; Schalow (2), 
p. 683 Calbuco (near Puerto Montt), Llanquihue (crit.); Albert (1), 
103, p. 833 Chiloe" and s. Chile (monog.); Philippi (23), p. 172 Chiloe; 
idem (24), p. 104, pi. 48 Chiloe. 

Phalacrocorax imperialis E. Reed (4), p. 207 Chile. 

Range in Chile. From Valdivia to the Straits of Magellan. 

Material collected. Guaitecas Islands: Melinka, Ascension 
Island, cf ad., Feb. 2. 

The Imperial Cormorant also is a southern species, whose north- 
ward range does not extend beyond Valdivia Province. As we are told 
by Germain, it breeds in colonies on the inaccessible rocks of the 
Chilce" Archipelago, upon the summits of which, surrounded by water, 
the birds place all their nests near together, constructed of marine 
and decaying plants; they lay from two to four eggs in December. 
Nicoll (Ibis, 1904, p. 48) calls them the most abundant of all cor- 
morants in Magellan Straits and Smyth's Channel. P. albiventer 
(Lesson), with black auriculars and more largely developed frontal 
caruncles, is evidently but a race of the Imperial Cormorant. It breeds 
on the Falkland Islands, but is also said to occur at the southern 
extremity of South America, hence in the range of P. atriceps. Both 
may eventually turn out to be conspecific with P. carunctdatus 
(Gmelin), of New Zealand. 1 



. Z.S. Lond., 1867, pp. 336, 340) includes Phalacrocorax purpurascens 
"Brandt" (ex Bonaparte, Consp. Av., 2, p. 177, 1857) among the birds of Chile. 
Brandt (Bull. Sci. Ac. Imp. Sci. St. Pe"tersb., 3, No. 4, col. 56, 1837), when describ- 
ing the species, states "ex patria ignota," and it is now assumed that C. purpuras- 
cens is identical with P. carunculatus, of New Zealand. 

Another unidentifiable record is P. pelagicus, which Passler (Ornith. Monats- 
ber., 17, p. 102, 1909) claims to have shot in winter at Coronel! 



302 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

200. Ardea cocoi Linnaeus 

Ardea cocoi Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 237, 1766 based on "Le 
Heron hupp6 de Cayenne," Brisson, Orn., 5, p. 400, 1760, Cayenne; Des 
Murs (2), p. 409 Laguna de Campeche, Quillota; Philippi, Arch. Naturg., 
21, (1), p. 13, 1855 Cordillera and Lake Aculeo; Boeck, p. 509 Valdivia; 
Cassin, p. 192 interior of Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 334, 339 Chile; 
Philippi (12), p. 273 Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 560 Cauquenes, Colchagua; 
idem (4), p. 207 Chile; Lane, p. 188 Rio Bueno, Pilmaiquen, Valdivia, 
and Laguna Llanquihue; Schalow (2), p. 680 Sotaqui, Coquimbo; Albert 
(1), 103, p. 239 Chile (monog.); Bullock (4), p. 200 Rio Malleco, 
Malleco. 

Ardea major Fraser (1), p. 116 southern provinces of Chile. 

Range in Chile. Central provinces, from Coquimbo to Chilce*. 

Material collected. Chilce* Island: Quellon, 9 ad., Jan. 6, 1923. 

The "Cuca" has been recorded from various points in central 
Chile, but is reported to be nowhere common. In Valdivia and 
Llanquihue it is a regular winter visitant (Lane). It seems doubtful 
whether it breeds in Chile. 

The species is widely distributed throughout South America. 1 

201. Casmerodius albus egretta (Gmelin) 

Ardea egretta Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 629, 1789 based on Buffon's 
"Grande Egrette": Cayenne, Santo Domingo, and Louisiana; Des Murs 
(2), p. 410 Chile; Boeck, p. 509 Valdivia; Germain, p. 313 Santiago 
(breeding habits); Frauenfeld, p. 639 Lake Aculeo, Santiago; Sclater 
(2), 1867, pp. 334, 339 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 273 Chile; Sclater and 
Salvin, Ibis, 1869, p. 284 Port Otway; E. Reed (2), p. 560 Cauquenes, 
Colchagua; Sclater (6), 1891, p. 135 Sacaya, Tarapaca; Lataste (5), 
p. LXII Llohue' (Itata), Maule; Waugh and Lataste (1), p. LXXXVIII 
Rio Mapocho, Santiago; idem (2), p. CLXXIII San Alfonso (Quillota), 
Valparaiso; E. Reed (4), p. 207 Chile; Lane, p. 188 central Chile and 
Tarapaca; Schalow (2), p. 680 Sotaqui (Coquimbo) and Calbuco (Puerto 
Montt); Albert (1), 103, p. 242 Chile (monog.). 

Ardea ohula* Poeppig (3), p. 8 southern Chile. 
Herodias galatea Fraser (1), p. 116 Chile. 
Herodias alba Bibra, p. 131 Santiago, Quillota. 
Ardea galatea Hartlaub (3), p. 215 Valdivia. 
Egretta galatea Cassin, p. 193 Chile. 
Ardea leuce Pelzeln (2), p. 118 Chile. 

Herodias egretta Barros (4), p. 45 Nilahue, Curico (now extinct); Jaffuel 
and Pirion, p. 112 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso. 

'Another heron, Ardea erytrocephala, described by Molina (Saggio Stor. Nat. 
Chile, pp. 235, 344, 1782) as white with a long rufous crest is unidentifiable. 

2 Poeppig's Ardea ohula (probably a pen-slip for thula Molina) seems to refer 
to the present species; cf. "pennis interscapularibus longissimis, setaceo-barbatis, 
ultra caudam propendentibus; occipite ecristato; rostro croceo . . ." 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYB 303 

Range in Chile. From Tarapaca to the Straits of Magellan. 

The "Garza" is said to be numerous in the central provinces, less 
common in the south. According to Germain, "it unites in com- 
munities to lay, sometimes upon rocks at the sea-shore, sometimes 
on the trees in woody ravines, where it builds large nests with 
branches and grasses; it lays from four to eight eggs from October 
to November." In Tarapaca Lane is inclined to believe this heron 
to be merely a chance migrant. 

202. Egretta thula thula (Molina) 

Ardea thula Molina, Saggio Stor. Nat. Chile, pp. 235, 344, 1782 Chile; 

Fraser (1), p. 116 Chile. 

Ardea leuce (errore) Poeppig (2), p. 279 Rio Colorado, Santiago. 
Ardea candidissima Des Murs (2), p. 411 Chile; Pelzeln (2), p. 118 Chile; 
Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 334, 339 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 273 Chile; E. 
Reed (2), p. 560 Cauquenes, Colchagua; Sclater (4), 1886, p. 399 
Sitani, Tarapaca; idem (6), 1891, p. 135 Sacaya, Tarapaca; Lataste 
(2), p. XXXIV Caillihue (Vichuquen), Curico; idem (5), p. LXII 
Llohue (Itata), Maule, and San Carlos, Nuble; Waugh and Lataste (1), 
p. LXXXVIII Penaflor, Santiago; idem (2), p. CLXXIII San Alfonso 
(Quillota), Valparaiso; E. Reed (4), p. 207 Chile; Lane, p. 188 central 
Chile and Tarapaca; Schalow (2), p. 680 Coquimbo; Albert (1), 103, 
p. 244 Chile (monog.); Bullock (4), p. 201 Angol, Malleco. 
Herodias candidissima Bibra, p. 131 Santiago and Quillota; Jaffuel and Pirion, 

p. 112 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso. 
Egretta thula Cassin, p. 193 Chile; Barros (8), p. 263 Tilicura and Torca, 

Curic6. 

Egretta candidissima Barros (4), p. 45 Nilahue, Curico (now extinct). 
Range in Chile. Northern and central provinces, from Tarapaca 
to Nuble. 

The "Garceta" is stated to be numerous on rivers and swamps in 
central Chile, where it breeds. The most southerly record is San 
Carlos, Ruble, where Lataste secured two specimens in April, 1895. 
It seems to be absent from southern Chile, and Lane did not see any 
in Arauco. According to the same observer, this heron is only an 
occasional migratory visitor in Tarapaca. 

203. Ixobrychus involucris (Vieillot) 

Ardea involucris Vieillot, Tabl. Enc. Meth., Orn., 3, livr. 93, p. 1127, 1823 

based on Azara, No. 361, Paraguay. 
Ardea exilis (not of Gmelin) Des Murs (2), p. 411 Chile (excl. descr.); 1 

J The description was obviously taken from specimens of the North American 
species (/. exilis). 



304 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Boeck, p. 510 Valdivia; Philippi (12), p. 273 Chile; Lataste (5), p. 

LXII Junquillos (San Carlos), Nuble. 
Ardeola exilis Fraser (3), p. 1 Chile. 
Botaurus exilis Cassin, p. 194 Chile (rare). 

Ardea erythromelas (not of Vieillot) Pelzeln (2), p. 124 part, Chile. 
Ardetta exilis Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 334, 339 Chile; E. Reed (4), p. 207 

Chile; Schalow (2), p. 679 Chile; James (2), p. 8 Chile; Albert (1), 

103, p. 247 Chile (monog.). 

Ardetta involucris E. Reed (2), p. 560 Laguna de Cauquenes, Colchagua. 
Ardetta erythromelas Schalow (2), p. 679 Puerto Montt (eggs descr.). 
Ixobrychus involucris Passler (3), p. 446 Coronel (breeding habits). 
Egretta involucris Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 112 Valley of Marga-Marga, 

Valparaiso. 

Range in Chile. From Santiago to Llanquihue. 

Material examined. "Central Chile:" c? ad. (nuptial). J. Zele- 
bor, "Novara" Expedition (Vienna Museum). 

The "Huaravillo" is reported to be a scarce resident in Chile, 
but owing to its retiring habits is doubtless often overlooked. Edwyn 
Reed states that several pairs nest every year around the lagoon of 
Cauquenes, Colchagua. Boeck shot a single specimen near Valdivia, 
where it is said to be very rare, and Lataste secured a couple at 
Junquillos (San Carlos), Ruble, on May 22 and 23, 1895, while 
Schalow describes eggs taken by G. Hopke at Puerto Montt, Llanqui- 
hue. According to Passler, the Least Bittern is found among the 
reeds of ponds and marshes near Coronel, but is exceedingly shy and 
rarely seen. The nesting season begins about the middle of October. 
The funnel-shaped nest is made of short, dry reed-grass, and con- 
tains three elliptical, dull grass green or yellowish green eggs. 

/. involucris ranges over Chile, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, 
and extreme southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul to Sao Paulo). 

204. Nycticorax nycticorax obscurus Bonaparte 1 

Nycticorax obscurus Bonaparte, Consp. Av., 2, p. 141, 1857 Chile; 2 Pelzeln 
(2), p. 124 Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 334, 339 Chile; E. Reed (2), 
p. 561 Cauquenes, Colchagua; Ridgway (2), p. 137 Port Otway; Lane, 

1 Ardea cyanocephala Molina (Saggio Stor. Nat. Chile, pp. 235, 344, 1782) has 
been referred to the Chilean Night-heron by Sharpe and others. However, the 
description, "Ha la testa, e il dprso turchini, le ali nere orlate di bianco, il venire 
giallo verdiccio, la coda verde, il becco nero, e le gambe gialle," hardly fits the 
species. It appears to be one of those fictitious birds Molina described from hear- 
say or memory. 

2 Although Bonaparte includes Falkland Island birds sent to the Paris Museum 
by Quoy and Gaimard, the diagnosis is obviously based on Gay's specimens from 
Chile. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 305 

p. 188 part, central and southern Chile; Lataste (6), p. LXVII Chile 
(plumages); E. Reed (4), p. 207 Chile; Schalow (2), p. 679 Coquimbo 
and Calbuco (Puerto Montt); Bullock (4), p. 201 Angol, Malleco. 

Ardea nycticorax Kittlitz, Kupfert. Naturg. Vog., Part 3, p. 26, pi. 35, fig. 
1, 1833 Chile; Peale, p. 215 Chile (crit.); Kittlitz, Denkw., 1, p. 122 
San-Tome, Concepcion. 

Nycticorax americanus Darwin, p. 128 Valparaiso. 

Nycticorax cyanocephalus Fraser (1), p. 116 Chile; Barros (4), p. 45 Nilahue, 
Curico; idem (5), p. 173 Precordillera of Aconcagua; Housse (1), p. 52 
Isla La Mocha, Arauco; idem (2), p. 149 San Bernardo, Santiago; 
Passler (3), p. 445 Coronel; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 112 Marga-Marga, 
Valparaiso. 

Nycticorax naeviws Des Murs (2), p. 412 Chile; Boeck, p. 510 Valdivia; 

Philippi (12), p. 273 Chile; Waugh and Lataste (1), p. LXXXVIII 

Penaflor, Santiago; idem (2), p. CLXXIII San Alfonso (Quillota), 

Valparaiso. 

Nycticorax gardeni Bibra, p. 131 Santiago; Hartlaub (3), p. 216 Valdivia; 

Cassin, p. 193 Chile; Germain, p. 313 Santiago (nesting habits). 
Nycticorax griseus Albert (1), 103, p. 251 Chile (part). 
Nicticorax cyanocephalus Gigoux, p. 87 Caldera, Atacama. 
Range in Chile. From Atacama (Caldera) to the Straits of 
Magellan. 

Material collected. Concepcion: Concepcion (near coast), cf 
juv., April 4, 1923. 

Additional specimens. Cautin: Finfin, Temuco, cf ad., April 
30, 1910. A. C. Saldana; Maquehue, Temuco, <? ad., Sept. 8, 1905. 
D. S. Bullock; Pelal, Temuco, d" juv., two 9 9 juv., Nov. 6-24, 
1909. A. C. Saldana. Valdivia: Rio Contra, d" juv., Jan. 13, 1891. 
A. A. Lane. Llanquihue: Frutillar, near Lago Llanquihue, d* ad., 
Dec. 6, 1890. A. A. Lane (all in the British Museum). 

Although the series is not so large as could be desired, the avail- 
able material clearly shows that in spite of Hartert's contrary asser- 
tion the night-herons of southern Chile and the Straits of Magellan 
are not the same as those from Argentina and Paraguay, to which the 
name tayazu-guira had been applied by Sharpe and others. They 
differ, when adult, in having the whole under surface including 
the sides of the head nearly uniform sooty or dark smoke brown, only 
the chin and the middle of the upper throat being white, whitish, or 
brownish white. In juvenile plumage they are very dark above with 
large deep buff spots; the sides of the head are densely streaked with 
blackish brown and buff or rufescent, and the lower parts strongly 
suffused with buff, the dark stripes very broad and blackish. A 
series from the Straits of Magellan (Cockle Cove, Puerto Bueno, 



306 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Mesier Channel, Trinidad Channel) and two young birds from 
Tierra del Fuego (Estancia Viamonte, Rio Grande) in the British 
Museum collection are similar to the Chilean examples. It is quite 
possible that in response to the greater amount of humidity the racial 
characters of obscurus are more strongly developed in the southern 
part of its range, since two adults from Cockle Cove and Frutillar 
(Llanquihue) are decidedly darker below than two from Temuco. 
In central Chile, whence unfortunately no material whatever is 
accessible, the dark form may eventually be found to merge into 
tayazu-guira, to which birds from Tarapaca must be referred. 

The "Huairavo" is reported to be locally common. According to 
Germain, it nests in colonies on reeds or bushes surrounding the 
marshes, and lays from three to five eggs in October or November. 
It only occurs in the plains and foothills, being rarely seen above 
4,000 feet. 

205. Nycticorax nycticorax tayazu-guira (Vieillot) 

Ardea tayazu-guira Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 14, p. 437, 

1817 based on Azara, No. 357, Paraguay. 
Nycticorax naevius (not of Boddaert) Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 159 Empexa, 

Tarapaca. 

Nycticorax griseus Albert (1), 103, p. 251 Chile (part). 
Nycticorax obscurus (not of Bonaparte) Sclater (6), 1891, p. 136 Sacaya, 

Tarapaca; Lane, p. 188 part, Sacaya. 

Range in Chile. Extreme northern section, in province of 
Tarapaca. 

Material examined. Tarapaca: Sacaya, two cT cf ad., one 9 
ad., three cf d* juv., Jan. 24, March 7, April 21-30, 1890. A. A. 
Lane (British Museum). 

This series is unquestionably different from the south Chilean 
form (N. n. obscurus). The adult birds are pale gray underneath 
with the throat extensively white and a strong white suffusion along 
the middle of breast and abdomen. The juvenile plumage is much 
paler brown above with smaller, sometimes hardly any, whitish spots 
on the back; the sides of the head are much more narrowly streaked 
with blackish brown and whitish; the lower parts white, rarely slightly 
tinged with pale buff on foreneck and chest, and the dusky streaks 
narrower and not so dark, often pale brown. The Tarapaca birds 
agree with others from southern Chubut (Valle del Lago Blanco), 1 

1 From northern Chubut and western Rio Negro Wetmore (Univ. Calif. Pub. 
Zool., 24, p. 412, 1926) and Peters (Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 299, 1923) 
record N. "cyanocephalus" [ = N. n. obscurus]. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYB 307 

Bolivia, and southern Peru (Tinta), though those in juvenile 
plumage, doubtless owing to their excessively worn and bleached 
condition, are extremely pale brown (nearly unspotted) above. 

As far as my material goes, the distribution of the two races of 
night-heron in southern South America seems quite clear. From 
Chapman's remarks 1 it appears, however, that in parts of Peru 
certain specimens are met with that cannot be distinguished from 
the dark Chilean form (obscurus). This also obtains in the Falkland 
Islands, whence the British Museum has a series of ten birds in 
adult and juvenile plumage. While the majority fit very well in 
with the pale race from Argentina, Tarapaca, and Peru, one adult 
is just as dark as, and cannot be told from, two Temuco examples. 
The occasional occurrence of dark-colored individuals in the range 
of the light form I look upon as a reversion to ancestral characters 
rather than as a case of dichromatism. 

1 quite agree with Dr. Chapman that the Falkland Island Night- 
heron, named N. cyanocephalus falklandicus by Hartert, 2 cannot 
be separated from the mainland birds east of the Andes, unless it 
be on account of its smaller size. 

As to the proper name of the light-colored eastern race, I prefer 
for the present to use Vieillot's term tayazu-guira, which is of un- 
doubted applicability, since a juvenile bird from Villa Rica, Para- 
guay, collected on Oct. 18, 1905, by Lord Brabourne, is in every 
respect similar to those from Argentina, etc., whereas its absolute 
identity with the night-heron of North and northern South America 
(N. n. hoactli (Gmelin)) has yet to be proved. 3 

WING MEASUREMENTS OF ADULTS 
N. n. tayazu-guira 

Two males from Tinta, Cuzco, Peru 337,350 

One unsexed from "High Peru" 355 

One unsexed from Bolivia 335 

One male from Sacaya, Tarapaca 340 

One female from Sacaya, Tarapaca 336 

Two males from Lago Blanco, Chubut 330,345 

N. n. falklandicus 

One male from the Falkland Islands 320 

One female from the Falkland Islands 307 

Four unsexed from the Falkland Islands 313,318,320,322 

N. n. obscurus 

Two males from Temuco, Chile 337,340 

One male from Llanquihue, Chile 328 

One female from Cockle Cove, Straits of Magellan 332 

'Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 117, pp. 51-54, 1921. 

2 Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 35, p. 15, 1914. 

8 See, however, Peters, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 39, pp. 265-267, 1930. 



308 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

206. Euxenura maguari (Gmelin) 1 

Ardea maguari Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 623, 1789 based on "Maguari" 

Marcgrave, Hist. Nat. Bras., p. 204, northeastern Brazil. 
Ciconia pillus Fraser (1), p. 116 marshes of Colchagua (habits); Cassin, p. 

156 Chile. 
Ciconia maguaria Des Murs (2), p. 415 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 274 

Colchagua. 
Ciconia maguari Poeppig (3), p. 9 Chile; Pelzeln (2), p. 125 Chile; Sclater 

(2), 1867, pp. 334, 339 Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 561 Cauquenes, Colchagua. 
Euxenura maguari E. Reed, Ibis, 1893, p. 596 Chile (resident); idem (4), 

p. 207 Chile; Albert (1), 104, p. 991 Chile (rare). 

Range in Chile. Central provinces. 

Very little information is available on the distribution of the 
"Pillo" in Chile, where it is reported to be rather rare. Both 
Bridges and Philippi claim, however, that it is fairly common in the 
province of Colchagua, and the first named naturalist (P. Z. S. 
Lond., 11, 1843, p. 116) tells us that it "feeds on a species of lobster, 
called by the natives 'Cangrejo/ which is abundant in the marshes 
and moist meadows. The habitat of the Cangrejo may be known 
by the extraordinary cylinders which it makes with the mud taken 
from its caves; sometimes they are elevated a foot above the surface 
of the soil, looking like so many little columns. The Pillo whilst 
stalking amongst them catches the Cangrejo on the top depositing its 
load brought from the bottom of the cave." 

We have not seen any Chilean material. 

207. Plegadis falcinellus guarauna (Linnaeus) 

Scolopax guarauna Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 242, 1766 based on 

"Guarauna" (Brisson ex) Marcgrave, Hist. Nat. Bras., p. 204, northeastern 

Brazil. 
"Harpiprion cayanensis (Ibis (Falcinellus) ordi, Bonap.)" [sic] Fraser (1), p. 

117 marshy places [in Chile]. 
Ibis falcinellus Des Murs (2), p. 416 Chile (descr. of nuptial plumage); 

Pelzeln (2), p. 125 Chile (crit.); Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 334, 339 Chile; 

Philippi (12), p. 274 Chile; idem, Ornis, 4, p. 160 Antofagasta; Lataste 

(1), p. CXVI road to Chilian, Nuble. 
Falcinellus guarauna Des Murs (2), p. 418 vicinity of Valparaiso (descr. of 

winter and juvenile plumage); Germain, p. 313 Santiago (breeding 

habits). 



Ardea galatea Molina (Saggio Stor. Nat. Chile, pp. 235, 344, 1782) 
and Tantalus pillus Molina (1. c., pp. 243, 344) refer in part to the South American 
Stork, in part to the Egret. Characters of the two species are, however, so badly 
mixed up in the descriptions that both names should be discarded as undetermina- 
ble. See, however, Deautier and Steullet, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 33, pp. 475, 476, 
1929. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYE 309 

Ibis guarauna Bibra, p. 131 northern Chile; Cassin, p. 197 Chile. 

Falcinellus igneus E. Reed (2), p. 561 Laguna de Cauquenes, Colchagua 
(breeding). 

Pkgadis guarauna E. Reed (4), p. 207 Chile; Albert (1), 104, p. 996 Chile 
(breeding); C. Reed (4), p. 56 Pudahuel, Santiago (food). 

Plegadis falcinellus Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 112 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso. 

Range in Chile. From Antofagasta to Colchagua. 

Very little is known about the distribution of the Glossy Ibis in 
Chile. According to Germain, "they assemble [in the vicinity of 
Santiago] in numerous flocks for nesting, and lay from November to 
December four to six eggs in a nest of rushes, placed in the midst of 
reeds," and Edwyn Reed reports to have found hundreds of couples 
nesting in the month of January around the Laguna de Cauquenes, 
Colchagua. In winter they congregate in large flocks and are, to a 
certain extent, migratory. 

The few Chilean specimens (none with locality specified) which 
we have seen appear to be inseparable from Brazilian birds. 

208. Theristicus caudatus melanopis (Gmelin) 1 . 

Tantalus melanopis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 653, 1789 based on "Black- 
faced Ibis" Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., 3, (1), p. 108, pi. 79, 1785, New Year's 
Island, near Staten Land (ex Forster); Poeppig (2), p. 279 Rio Colorado, 
Santiago. 

Ibis albicollis (errore) Meyen, p. 105 southern Chile. 

Theristicus melanops Fraser (1), p. 117 interior of Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 
561 Cauquenes, Colchagua (rare). 

Ibis melanopis Des Murs (2), p. 417 Chile to the Straits of Magellan; Hart- 
laub (3), p. 216 Valdivia; Cassin, p. 197 mountains of Chile; Germain, 
p. 313 Cordillera of Santiago (breeding habits); Philippi, Reise Wuste 
Atacama, p. 163 Cachinal de la Costa, Atacama; Sclater (2), 1867, p. 
339 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 274 Chile; idem, Ornis, 4, p. 159 Cachinal 
de la Costa; Lataste (1), p. CXV Bureo (Chilian), Nuble. 

Ibis melanopsis Lesson (11), p. 209 Valparaiso; Bibra, p. 131 northern 
Chile; Boeck, p. 510 Pampa de Negron, Rio Bueno, Arique, etc., Valdivia; 
Gigoux, p. 87 Caldera, Atacama. 

Theristicus melanopis Pelzeln (2), p. 127 Chile; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 112 
Quebrada de la Madera, Marga-Marga, Valparaiso; Barros (10), p. 356 
Aconcagua. 

Therislicus caudatus E. Reed (4), p. 207 Chile; Schalow (2), p. 678 Villa- 
rrica; Albert (1), 104, p. 1001 Chile; Bullock (3), p. 127; idem (4), p. 
200 Cerro de Nahuelbuta, Biobio. 

Ibis menalops (sic) Housse (1), p. 52 Isla La Mocha, Arauco. 

ir The three "species" of this genus are clearly members of one "formenkreis." 



310 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Range in Chile. From Atacama (Cachinal de la Costa) to the 
Straits of Magellan. 

Material collected. Guaitecas Islands: La Senda, Guaiteca 
Island, c? ad., Feb. 3. Cautin: Rio Pehuenco (alt. 4,680 feet), 
d" ad., Feb. 26. Chiloe" Island: Rio Inio, 9 ad., Jan. 9; Quellon, 
9 ad., Dec. 23. 

Additional specimens. Cautin: Finfin, Temuco, 9 ad., March 
31, 1910. A. C. Saldana. Chilo Island: d" ad., July, 1905. C. S. 
Reed (both in Field Museum collection). 

The Chilean series agrees with specimens from the Rio Gallegos, 
southern Patagonia. 

The "Bandurria" is stated to be fairly common throughout Chile, 
though more plentiful in the southern provinces. According to 
Germain, it "builds in the month of October a rude nest in steep 
and rugged rocks, in which it deposits from three to five eggs; in the 
provinces of the south it chooses for its nest the summits of dead, 
high, and inaccessible trees, while in the north it retires often for this 
purpose to the Cordilleras, to the height of seven or eight thousand 
feet." Barros, however, states that this ibis, while a regular winter 
visitor to the foothills, is never seen in the Cordilleras of Aconcagua. 
The most northerly record from Chile is Cachinal de la Costa, Ata- 
cama, where this ibis was met with by R. A. Philippi. Sanborn 
observed it a little to the south, at Ramadilla, in the Copiapo Valley. 
No representative of this group has been found in either Antofagasta, 
Tarapaca, or Tacna. T. c. melanopis is said, however, to reappear on 
the Peruvian coast, at lea, Lima, and Chorillos. 1 Besides, it breeds 
in southern Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, migrating northwards 
in winter. 

209. Ajaia ajaja (Linnaeus) 

Platalea Ajaja Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 140, 1758 based on 
"Platea incarnata" Sloane (Voy. Jam., 2, p. 316 salt ponds of Jamaica) 
and "Aiaia" Marcgrave (Hist. Nat. Bras., p. 204); Rio Sao Francisco, 
eastern Brazil (ex Marcgrave) may be accepted as type locality; Fraser (1), 
p. 117 south of Valparaiso; Des Murs (2), p. 414 Chile; Bibra, p. 131 
Chile; Cassin, p. 197 Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, p. 339 Chile; Philippi 
(12), p. 274 provinces of Santiago and Colchagua (Hacienda de 
Larmahue). 

Platelea (sic) ajuja (sic) E. Reed (2), p. 561 Cauquenes, Colchagua. 

Ajaja rosea E. Reed (4), p. 207 Chile; Albert (1), 104, p. 1006 Chile 
(monog.); idem (2), 4, p. 7, pi. Chile. 

*Cf. Berlepsch and Stolzmann, P. Z. S. Lond., 1892, pp. 389-392; Salvadori, 
Ibis, 1900, pp. 511-515. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 311 

Range in Chile. Central provinces of Valparaiso, Santiago and 
Colchagua. 

The Roseate Spoon-bill, widely distributed in South and southern 
North America, is stated to be very rare in Chile. Bridges, as 
reported by Fraser, tells us that "it is found in small flocks of five or 
six along the margins of rivers south of Valparaiso," while Philippi 
records its occurrence in Santiago and Colchagua and its nesting 
in the Hacienda de Larmahue, in the latter province. 

210. Phoenicopterus ruber chilensis Molina 

Phoenicopterus chilensis Molina, 1 Saggio Stor. Nat. Chile, pp. 242, 344, 1782 
Chile; Poeppig (3), p. 8 Andes of Chile; Fraser (1), p. 117 especially 
the southern provinces of Chile; Bibra, p. 131 northern Chile. 

Phoenicopterus ignipalliatus Des Murs (2), p. 441 Chile; Cassin, p. 198 
Rio Maule; Frauenfeld, p. 638 Lake Aculeo, Santiago; Pelzeln (2), p. 136 
Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 334, 339 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 279 
Cordilleras of Chile; idem (14), p. 160 source of the Rio Maule (eggs 
descr.); idem, Ornis, 4, p. 160 Antofagasta; E. Reed (2), p. 561 Cau- 
quenes, Colchagua; idem (4), p. 207 southern Chile; James (2), p. 9 
Chile; Albert (1), 108, p. 557 Chile (monog.). 

Range in Chile. From Antofagasta to the Straits of Magellan. 

Material collected. Antofagasta: twenty miles east of San Pedro, 
c? ad., Sept. 18, 1923. 

The "Flamenco" is generally distributed over the Chilean Andes, 
where it seems to nest in the small fresh-water lagoons of the high 
Cordilleras. Philippi, through T. Medina, received an egg taken 
in a breeding colony on a lagoon at the source of the Rio Maule, 
Talca. Bridges found these birds abundant in the lakes and rivers, 
but has never been able to ascertain where they build their 
nests. Gilliss states that they are quite common on the interior 
fresh-water lakes, and encountered a large flock of them on the 
shores of the Rio Maule. Philippi was the first to record this species 
from Antofagasta, and, although his identification has been questioned, 
its occurrence so far north is confirmed by the specimen in our 
collection. 

This flamingo is immediately recognizable from the other Chilean 
species by more elevated (less depressed) upper mandible, the absence 
of red at the base of the bill, naked chin, the presence of a distinct, 
though small hind toe, and various differences in coloration. 

ir The description is erroneous in so far as the remiges are called "white" 
instead of black, doubtless a pen-slip. 



312 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

P. r. chilensis is widely diffused in Argentina, extending into 
Uruguay and extreme southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul), and has 
also been found in southern Peru (Puno and Lake Junin). In the 
late Count Berlepsch's collection I have seen specimens shot by 
Otto Garlepp at Esperanza (Sajama), Oruro, Bolivia. 

211. Phoenicoparrus andinus (Philippi) 

Phoenicopterus andinus Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, Aug., 1854, p. 337 
salt-lake below Altos de Pingo Pingo, Antofagasta; idem, Arch. Naturg., 
21, (1), p. 12, 1855 same locality; Cassin, p. 198 Antofagasta (ex Phil- 
ippi) ; Philippi, Reise Wiiste Atacama, pp. 57, 164, pll. 4, 5 near Tilopozo, 
Antofagasta; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 334, 339 part, "Cordilleras of Copi- 
ap6"; Philippi (12), p. 279 Atacama; idem, Arch. Naturg., 45, (1), p. 
160, 1879 Atacama (eggs descr.); Sclater (4), 1886, p. 399 Huasco, 
Tarapaca (eggs descr.) ; Rahmer, Journ. Orn., 35, p. 161, 1887 Maricunga, 
east of Copiap6 (Atacama) to Cancosa, Tarapaca; Philippi, Onus, 4, p. 
160 Antofagasta; Sclater (6), 1891, p. 136 salt-marshes of "Canchosa" 
[=Cancosa], Tarapaca; E. Reed (4), p. 207 Atacama; Lane, p. 189 
Huasco and Cancosa, Tarapaca; Philippi (24), p. 74, pi. 23, fig. 3 (bill), 
pi. 24 Bolivia to Copiap6. 

Phoenicoparrus andinus Albert (1), 108, p. 506 northern Chile (monog.). 
Range in Chile. Puna Zone of northern Chile, from central 
Tarapaca (Cancosa, Sacaya Valley) south to Atacama. 

The "Parrina" was originally discovered by R. A. Philippi near 
Tilopozo, on the south shore of the Salar de Atacama, in Antofagasta. 
Carlos Rahmer, thirty years later, met with it at Cancosa, in the 
Sacaya Valley, in central Tarapaca, and thence found it in all 
suitable localities as far south as Maricunga in the Cordillera of 
Copiapo. On the Salar de Huasco the birds were counted by the 
thousands. Lane also observed them at Huasco and Cancosa. 
They inhabit the salt-lagoons at elevations of from 10,000 to 15,000 
feet and appear to be resident. Their eggs have been described by 
Philippi and Sclater. 

Outside of Chile, this flamingo is known to occur in northwestern 
Argentina (Lagunas de Calchaquies, Tucuman). In the Berlepsch 
Collection are specimens secured by Otto Garlepp in April, 1901, 
at Esperanza (Sajama), Oruro, Bolivia. 

212. Phoenicoparrus jamesi (Sclater) 

Phoenicopterus jamesi Sclater, P. Z. S. Lond., for June, 1886, p. 399, pi. 36 
Sitani, at the foot of the Volcano "Tsluga" [ =Isluga], Tarapaca; Rahmer, 
Anal. Univ. Chile, 69, la secc., p. 753, 1886 foot of Volcano Isluga; 
idem, Journ. Orn., 35, p. 160, pi. 2, 1887 salt-lake at the foot of Isluga; 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 313 

Cabanis, 1. c., 37, p. 76, 1889 "Arica"; James (2), p. 9 Tarapaca; E. Reed 

(4), p. 207 Tarapaca; Philippi (24), p. 74, pi. 33, figs. 1, 2 Tarapaca. 
Phoenicoparrus jamesi Albert (1), 108, p. 563 Tarapaca (monog.). 
Phoenicopterus andinus Philippi (1), p. 338; idem (2), p. 12 part, Tarapaca 

(coll. Bollaert); Sclater (2), 1867, p. 334 part, Tarapaca (coll. Bollaert); 

Gray, Ibis, 1869, p. 443, pi. 15, figs. 9, 10 "Peruvian Andes" 

[=Bollaert's specimen]. 

Range in Chile. Puna Zone of northern Tarapaca (Laguna de 
Parinacota; Sitani, base of Isluga). 

The discovery of a second three-toed species of flamingo is due 
to the interest of the late H. Berkeley James, who organized 
Rahmer's expedition to the Cordilleras of Tarapaca. It was made 
known to science almost simultaneously by Sclater and Rahmer, 
who very appropriately named this striking bird in honor of Mr. 
James, Sclater's description apparently having several months' 
priority. 

P. jamesi is nearly related to P. andinus, but decidedly smaller, 
the bill particularly so, and may be readily distinguished by the 
differently colored bill. In P. jamesi the black terminal portion is 
much less extensive, and is succeeded by an orange yellow area 
occupying the whole basal portion, while the narrow rim at the base 
of the forehead, the lores, and the naked skin round the eye are 
carmine red. There is, besides, a red spot terminating the orange 
yellow at the front of the upper mandible. The external secondaries 
and scapulars are bright rosy-red and elongated into filiform plumes, 
extending about two inches beyond the tips of the primaries; the legs 
and feet are dark brick red instead of pale yellowish; the naked loral 
space is wider and differently shaped. 

The heads of the three Chilean flamingos are well depicted on the 
plate accompanying Rahmer's paper in the "Journal fur Orni- 
thologie" for 1887. 

The first specimen of James's Flamingo was secured around 1850 
on the Laguna de Parinacota, southwest of Isluga, by W. Bollaert 
and, although it passed into the collection of the British Museum, its 
distinctness from P. andinus was not recognized. 

In Tarapaca P. jamesi, according to Rahmer, does not range 
beyond the Isluga region in the south, and seems to be restricted to 
the department of Pisagua in the northern section of the province, 
while farther south, around Cancosa, Sacaya, and Huasco, its place 
is taken by P. andinus. It has been recorded, however, by Me"n- 
gaux 1 from Abrapampa, Jujuy, where six specimens were secured by 

'Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, (10th ser.), 1, p. 222, 1909. 



314 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

the expedition of Cre'qui-Montfort and Se'ne'chal de la Grange. 
Northwards the range of P. jamesi stretches through western 
Bolivia to extreme southern Peru (Puno). 1 We have seen in the 
Berlepsch Collection a splendid series of thirty specimens, adults 
and young, obtained by Otto Garlepp in April and May, 1901, 
at Esperanza and Sajama (alt. 4,000 meters), Oruro, Bolivia. 
In the same locality (Esperanza) the collector also shot specimens 
of P. andimis, a fact which seems to indicate their specific difference. 
Like its ally, P. jamesi inhabits the salt-lakes in the Puna Zone 
upwards of 12,000 feet. The example in the Berlin Museum said to 
be from "Arica" is doubtless incorrectly labeled. 

213. Cygnus melancoryphus (Molina) 

Anas melancorypha* Molina, Saggio Stor. Nat. Chile, pp. 234, 344, 1782 

Chile. 

Cygnus nigricollis Fraser (1), p. 118 lakes near the coast of Chile; Tschudi, 

p. 35 Valparaiso; Yarrell, p. 54 Chile (egg); Des Murs (2), p. 445, pi. 

[11] Laguna de Taguatagua, Valdivia (breeding); Bibra, p. 131 lakes of 

Chile; Cassin, p. 200 small mountain lakes [of Chile]; Germain, p. 315 

Chile (breeding habits); Frauenfeld, p. 638 Lake Aculeo, Santiago; 

Pelzeln (2), p. 137 Santiago; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 334, 339 Chile; 

Philippi (12), p. 281 Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 562 Cauquenes, Colchagua 

(rare), more common in the south; idem (4), p. 207 Chiloe and lagunas 

of central provinces; Lane, p. 191 Rio Pilmaiquen, Valdivia; Lataste 

(10), p. 192 Lake Aculeo, Santiago; Bullock (4), p. 205 Angol, Malleco. 

Cygnus melanocoryphus Barros (9b), p. 160 Tilicura, Curic6. 

Range in Chile. Central and southern provinces to Straits of 

Magellan. 

Material collected. Llanquihue: Casa de Richards, RioNirehuau, 
cf ad., two 9 9 ad., one d" juv., one 9 juv., Feb. 21-March 6 
(Conover Collection). 

The Black-necked Swan is reported to be common in southern 
Chile. According to Gay, it used to breed on floating islands in the 
Laguna de Taguatagua, Valdivia, 3 and Lataste describes its breeding 
under similar conditions on Lake Aculeo, Santiago. Gilliss observed 
it frequently in the small mountain lakes, on the shores of which 
it builds its nest, and Germain tells us that the female lays 
between June and August from four to six eggs in a rather large nest 
placed among the reeds of marshes and lakes. Edwyn Reed found 

Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 13, p. 131, 1906. 
z Melancoripha on p. 234, correctly spelt on p. 344. 

3 This lagoon was drained in 1841, and its former location is now used for 
agricultural purposes. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 315 

this swan abundant on the coast of Chile, probably in winter. 
According to Barros, it breeds in the swamp of Tilicura, Curico. 
Bullock lists it as a very rare visitor to Angol. 

214. Coscoroba coscoroba (Molina) 

Anas coscoroba Molina, Saggio Stor. Nat. Chile, pp. 234, 344, 1782 Chile. 
Cygnus coscoroba Des Murs (2), p. 446 Chile; Pelzeln (2), p. 137 Chile; 
Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 334, 339 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 281 Chile (rare); 
E. Reed (2), p. 562 central provinces (rare). 
Coscoroba Candida E. Reed (4), p. 208 Chile (rare). 
Range in Chile. Central and southern provinces. Winter 
visitor from the south. 

The Coscoroba Swan is listed as a rare winter visitor to Chile. 
No definite locality or any other data are on record. 



[Anas iopareia Philippi 

Anas iopareia Philippi, Arch. Naturg., 26, (1), p. 24, 1860 Chile; Sclater (2), 
1867, pp. 335, 340 Chile (ex Philippi); Philippi, P. Z. S. Lond., 1868, p. 
531 Chile (crit.). 

Cairina moschata ? Pelzeln (2), p. 139 Chile. 

This alleged species turned out to be a hybrid between the 
Muscovy Duck (Cairina moschata) and some domesticated race. 
The specimens, shot in a wild state in the Andes by Segeth and 
mentioned by Pelzeln, probably were of similar origin. 

Neither Cairina moschata (Linnaeus), described by Molina (Saggio 
Stor. Nat. Chile, pp. 234, 344, 1782) as Anas regia, nor Sarkidiornis 
sylvicola Jhering and Jhering, admitted by Sclater (P. Z. S. Lond., 

1867, p. 339) s. n. Sarcidiornis regia, but rejected by Philippi (1. c., 

1868, p. 532) as not Chilean, occur in Chile in a wild state.] 

215. Chloephaga melanoptera (Eyton) 1 

Anser melanopterus Eyton, Monog. Anat., p. 93, 1838 Lake Titicaca; Darwin, 
p. 134, pi. 50 "bought at Valparaiso"; Fraser (1), p. 119 on plains near 
the Andes, in the province of Colchagua (winter). 

Bernicla melanoptera Des Murs (2), p. 443 near Quintero, Valparaiso; Bibra, 
p. 131 Chile; Cassin, p. 201 lakes of the Chilean Andes, Valle de los 
Piuquenes near Portillo Pass; Philippi and Landbeck (8), p. 428 Andes 
of Chile north to Peru (habits) ; idem (11), p. 185 Andes of Chile (monog.) ; 
Pelzeln (2), p. 137 Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 334, 339 Chile; Philippi 

1 As indicated by the vernacular name, Otis chilensis Molina (Saggio Stor. Nat. 
Chile, pp. 260, 344, 1782) was intended for the Andean Goose, but the description 
is so utterly wrong that I do not see how the name can be accepted. 



316 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

(12), p. 280 central provinces to Peru; E. Reed (2), p. 562 lagoons of 
Cauquenes, Colchagua; Sclater (4), 1886, p. 401 Sacaya, Tarapaca; 
Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 160 Brea, Atacama; Sclater (6), 1891, p. 136 
Sacaya, Tarapaca; E. Reed (4), p. 207 lagoons of the Cordilleras; Bullock 
(4), p. 205 Angol, Malleco. 

Chloephaga melanoptera Lane, p. 190 Cueva Negra, Huasco, and Sacaya, 
Tarapaca (breeding habits); Blaauw, Ibis, 1916, p. 485 between Los 
Sauces and Puren, Malleco; Barros (5), p. 173 Cordillera of Aconcagua. 

Range in Chile. Cordilleras of northern and central Chile, 
south to Malleco. 

The Andean Goose is an inhabitant of the Cordilleras, its range 
extending from Peru and Bolivia south to Malleco and Mendoza. 1 
In the breeding season these birds live at altitudes of 10,000 feet and 
upwards, but on the approach of the severe weather they resort, 
congregating in flocks, to the marshy plains at the foot of the Andes. 

According to Philippi and Landbeck, the "Piuque'n," as it is 
called by the Chileans, is very common in the Cordillera of Santiago. 
In November or December the female lays eight to ten eggs in a 
slight hollow on the rocky shore of one of the many lakes near the 
edge of the eternal snow. Lane, on the other hand, reports having 
found, on January 29, at Cancosa, Tarapaca, a nest of this goose 
in a hole in a low sandy cliff. In the Andes of Aconcagua, R. Barros 
tells us, the "Piuque'n" arrives in August, and after raising its brood 
departs again in March. In Colchagua Edwyn Reed found it not 
uncommon around the lagoons of the Cordilleras, while T. Bridges 
met with it during winter on plains near the Andes. The most 
southerly Chilean record is from Malleco, where Blaauw saw a 
flock between Los Sauces and Puren, while riding through a plain 
at the foot of the Maritime Andes. Bullock states that it occurs 
at Angol only during migration. 

A single adult from Colchagua examined in the British Museum 
apparently does not differ from a series collected in Tarapacd and 
Peru. 

216. Chloephaga hybrida hybrida (Molina) 

Anas hybrida Molina, Saggio Stor. Nat. Chile, pp. 241, 344, 1782 ChiloS 
Island. 

Bernicla antarctica Darwin, p. 134 western coast as far north as Chilo6; 
Des Murs (2), p. 442; Bibra, p. 131 "northern Chile" (errore); Cassin, 
p. 20, pi. 23 coast of Chile; Philippi and Landbeck (8), p. 437; idem (11), 

1 There is no reliable record for its occurrence in the Straits of Magellan. The 
birds seen by Giglioli at Punta Arenas and attributed to the Andean Goose doubt- 
less belonged to some other species, probably C. hybrida. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 317 

p. 199 Corral, Arique, and Collico, Calle-Calle River, Valdivia; Pelzeln 
(2), p. 136 Guaitecas Islands; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 334, 339 Chile; 
Philippi (12), p. 280 Straits of Magellan to Chiloe and Valdivia; E. Reed 
(4), p. 207 Chiloe' Island and Chonos Archipelago. 

Chloephaga antarctica Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1869, p. 284 Port Otway; 
Blaauw, Ibis, 1916, p. 480 Slight Harbor, Hoppner Sound, Gulf of 
Pefias, and Melinka, Ascension Island. 

Range in Chile. From the Straits of Magellan north to Valdivia. 

Material collected. Chiloe" Island: Rio Inio, two cfcf ad., two 
9 9 ad., three d" cf juv., three 9 9 juv., Jan. 12-18 (Collection 
of H. B. Conover). 

In juvenile plumage the sexes are much alike, resembling 
except for the dusky bill the adult female, but the male has a lighter 
head, always with more or less white on the throat, lores, cheeks, and 
forehead, and the black pectoral bars are narrower and do not extend 
so far down the belly, leaving the middle of the lower breast plain 
white. 

The Kelp Goose, called "Cague" or "Caranca" (Chiloe") by the 
Chileans, breeds from the Straits of Magellan all along the western 
coast of South America as far north as Chilce* Island. Osgood and 
Conover found it very common at Rio Inio, especially about the 
small rocky islands, and on the island of Guapiquilan. "About the 
middle of January, these geese had young about one-half to two-thirds 
grown. Many pairs, however, had no young, and as the natives say, 
I believe, they do not nest their first year at least. The birds with 
young seemed to keep to the islands more than the others, avoiding 
the mainland. On Jan. 18, a white male was killed which had molted 
all its primaries, and several others were seen, which refused to fly 
and appeared to be in the same condition. No females, however, 
seemed to have molted their primaries at this time. The natives 
say that the juvenile males get their white plumage a couple of 
months after becoming full-grown." (Conover, MS.) 

Edwyn Reed lists the Kelp Goose as abundant in the Chonos 
Archipelago, and Germain, as reported by Pelzeln, secured it in 
the Guaitecas Islands in January during the breeding season. Blaauw 
also noticed it as plentiful on the north coast of Ascension Island. 

According to Philippi and Landbeck, this goose, in winter, visits 
Valdivia Province, and has been observed at Arique and in the 
harbor of Corral. In 1857, these authors watched a small flock 
from June 6 up to the end of August, on the Calle-Calle River near 
Collico, inland of Valdivia City. 



318 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

On the Falkland Islands the Kelp Goose is replaced by a large- 
billed race, C. h. malvinarum Phillips. 1 

217. Chloephaga poliocephala Sclater 

Chloephaga poliocephala (Gray, MS.) Sclater, 2 P. Z. S. Lond., 25, p. 128, 
1857 based on Bernicla inornata (not of King) Gray and Mitchell, Gen. 
of Birds, 3, pi. 165, 1844 (the type in the British Museum is from Chilo6 
Island) ; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 335, 339 Chile; Blaauw, Ibis, 1916, p. 484 
Chiloe Island. 

Bernicla chiloensis Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 21, p. 434, 1862 
Chiloe Island and Valdivia; idem, Arch. Naturg., 29, (1), p. 195, 1863 
Chiloe and Valdivia; Philippi (12), p. 280 Chiloe, in winter as far north 
as Curic6. 

Bernicla inornata Des Murs (2), p. 444 Chile (part, female). 

Bernicla poliocephala Pelzeln (2), pp. 136, 163 ChiloS; E. Reed (2), p. 562 
Cauquenes, Colchagua (rare); idem (4), p. 207 Curico. 

Range in Chile. From the Straits of Magellan to Colchagua. 

Material collected. Cautin: Lake Gualletue" (alt. 3,800 feet), 
<? vix ad., 9 imm., Feb. 16, 17. Chilo Island: Rio Inio, 9 ad., 
Jan. 8. Llanquihue: Casa de Richards, Rio Rirehuau, three cf cT ad., 
three 9 9 ad., Feb. 24-March 6 (Collection of H. B. Conover). 

An immature female (from Lake Gualletue") has the pectoral area 
much duller, sayal brown rather than hazel, and closely barred with 
blackish; the flanks are washed with buffy, and the dark bands 
narrower as well as less blackish. Adult birds generally have the 
rufous breast plain or with but a few scattered blackish spots or 
bands, mostly near the lower end. In a female (from Casa de 
Richards), however, the entire pectoral area is barred with blackish, 
though much more narrowly so than in the bird from Malleco. 

The Ashy-headed Goose, "Canquen" of the natives, is widely 
distributed in southern Chile, though little definite is known about 
its breeding range. Philippi and Landbeck, who describe the eggs, 
without stating, however, where they have been taken, assume that 
it breeds on Chilo Island, and Blaauw also reports that it is said 
to be abundant in some seasons and to breed there. According to 
information gathered by Conover, the breeding grounds of this 
goose are the lakes in the interior of Chiloe". It is known to nest 
along the Straits of Magellan and in southern Patagonia. 

'Auk, 33, p. 423, 1916 Port Stephen, West Falkland. 

^Chloephaga poliocephala G. R. Gray (List B. Brit. Mus., 3, p. 127, 1844) 
is a nomen nudum. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 319 

In winter, the "Canquen" spreads over the central parts of the 
republic. Philippi and Landbeck record it from Valdivia Province, 
and small numbers are said to go as far north as Curico and Col- 
chagua. Sanborn secured two immatures in February on Lake 
Gualletue", Malleco. 

218. Chloephaga picta (Gmelin) 

Anas picta Gmelin, 1 Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 504, 1789 based on "Painted Duck" 
Latham, Gen. Syn. Bds., 3, (2), p. 443, "Staaten-Land" =Staten Island 
(descr. of male with plain white under parts). 

Bernicla dispar Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 21, p. 431, 1862 
Chile; idem, Arch. Naturg., 29, (1), p. 190, 1863 Laguna de Cauquenes, 
Colchagua; Pelzeln (2), p. 137 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 280 central 
provinces; idem (24), p. 76, pi. 35 Chile (reprint of original account). 
Chloephaga magellanica Fraser (1), p. 118 Chile (in winter on the plains). 
Bernicla inornata Des Murs (2), p. 444 Chile (part, male). 
Bernicla magellanica Des Murs (2), p. 443 Chile (excl. ethology); Cassin, p. 
201, pi. 24 Chile; Boeck, p. 511 Valdivia; Pelzeln (2), p. 136 Chile 
(eggs descr.); E. Reed (2), p. 562 Colchagua. 
Chloephaga dispar Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 334, 339 Chile. 
Bernicla dispar E. Reed (4), p. 207 lagoons of the Cordilleras. 
Range in Chile. From the Straits of Magellan to Colchagua. 
Material collected. Llanquihue: Casa de Richards, Rio Nirehuau, 
two d 1 d" ad., one cf (imm.?), two 9 9 ad., two 9 9 imm., Feb. 
24-March 9 (Collection of H. B. Conover). 

There can be little doubt in my mind that the two recognized 
"species" of Upland Goose, C. "magellanica" and C. "inornata" 
(or dispar), are either merely individual mutants or ill-segregated 
local races. 

Philippi and Landbeck separated the form with black-and-white 
barred under parts in the male, and grayish crown in the female sex 
as B. dispar. While basing their descriptions on winter birds from 
central Chile, they claim that this goose breeds on the lagoons of the 
Cordilleras and specifically mention the Laguna de Cauquenes, Col- 
chagua, as one of its nesting places. The authors admit, however, 
that they are not acquainted with its nuptial plumage, and as the 
breeding of the Upland Goose in central Chile has not been con- 
firmed subsequently, I cannot help thinking that the statement was 

ir This is the earliest name for the Upland Goose. Latham's description is 
quite unmistakable and refers to the phase with plain white (unbarred) under 
parts. Anas picta Gmelin has page-priority over the same author's A. magellanica 
(1. c., p. 505), which is, besides, preoccupied by A. magellanica Sparrman (Mus. 
Carls., fasc. 2, pi. 37, 1787) = Chloephaga hybrida, female, as well as over A. 
leucoptera Gmelin (p. 505). 



320 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

based on hearsay rather than on actual observations. So far as we 
know, the Upland Goose is merely a rather unusual winter visitor 
to the central provinces, and its breeding grounds lie much farther 
south in Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego. 

1 may say at the outset that I have not been able to discriminate 
the two types of coloration in the female sex. Newly molted speci- 
mens have the top of the head decidedly washed with rufescent, but 
as the breeding season advances, this tone, which is restricted to the 
edges of the feathers, is gradually worn off, and the crown assumes a 
grayish appearance. 

As to the extent of black bars on the under parts of the males, 
there appears to be much individual variation, white-breasted as 
well as heavily barred birds having been taken or observed together 
in the same locality, while intermediates are frequent. J. B. Hatcher, 
when with the Princeton University Expedition to Patagonia, shot 
both varieties on November 12, 1896, at Coy Inlet, Santa Cruz. 1 

Oustalet 2 found plain-breasted, barred, and intermediate speci- 
mens among his series from the Straits of Magellan (Elizabeth Island 
and Orange Bay). Blaauw (Ibis, 1916, p. 483) reports to have seen 
some white-breasted birds associated with flocks of the banded-bellied 
form (C. "inornata") in Tierra del Fuego, where Crawshay 3 made 
similar observations. 

There is, however, the possibility that the variation to some 
degree at least might be connected with different areas, and that in 
certain districts one type of coloration predominates over the other. 
For instance, four males from Rivadavia, s. e. Chubut, are all heavily 
barred below, though the width of the bars and their extension 
towards the abdomen vary considerably, while four others from the 
Lago Argentine, western Santa Cruz, belong to the plain-breasted 
type, the black bars being confined to the flanks. From Rio Nire- 
huau, farther north on the eastern slope of the Andes, we have one 
white-breasted specimen; another example taken a few days later 
shows scattered black-barred feathers on the foreneck, chest, and 
middle of the belly; a third individual, an immature male with dusky 
rump and upper tail coverts, has a limited zone on the upper chest 
narrowly barred with dark brown, while all the sides of the breast 

'Scott and Sharpe, Rep. Prince. Univ. Exp. Patagonia, Orn., 2, (1), pp. 
424, 433. 

2 Miss. Scient. Cap Horn, 6, Ois., pp. B 189, 191, 1891. 

3 Birds of Tierra del Fuego, pp. 94, 95, 1907. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 321 

and flanks are marked with broader, darker brown bands, being thus 
halfway between picta and dispar. 

The coloration of the tail, which has been used as a criterion for the 
discrimination of two species, does not hold good, for we have of both 
the plain-breasted and barred phase specimens with white and others 
with black lateral rectrices. 

Blaauw, 1 who still maintains two species of Upland Goose, has 
clearly shown the type of Anas inornate, King 2 to be a young (in 
fresh plumage) of C. "magellanica" [ = picta]. 3 Should the barred 
form against my expectations prove to be different, its proper 
name would be C. picta dispar (Philippi and Landbeck). 

The breeding range of the Upland Goose comprises the southern 
section of Chile and Argentina, north to the Rio Negro. Peters 4 
found it a permanent resident in western Rio Negro, but in other parts 
it is probably migratory. Philippi and Landbeck tell us that it is a 
winter visitor to the central provinces of Chile. Its nesting there, 
however, has never been corroborated, as we have stated above. 

219. Dendrocygna bicolor (Vieillot) 

Anas bicolor Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 5, p. 136, 1816 
based on Azara, No. 436, Paraguay and Buenos Aires. 

Dendrocygna fulva E. Reed (2), p. 562 "Velluco," O'Higgins, and Cauquenes, 
Colchagua; idem (4), p. 208 near Paine, O'Higgins; Salvadori, Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus., 27, p. 149, 1895 "Central Chile." 

Range in Chile. Accidental in the central provinces of O'Higgins 
and Colchagua. 

The Fulvous Tree-duck appears to be an occasional visitor to 
Chile. Edwyn Reed reports that a single specimen killed by 
Salinas at "Velluco" in October was presented to the Museo Nacional 
at Santiago. A flock of strange ducks seen in November at Cau- 
quenes, Colchagua, he believes to have been of the same species. 
In a later publication the same observer states that several examples 
were shot near Paine, in the province of O'Higgins. A single bird 
from "Central Chile" is in the H. Berkeley James Collection (British 
Museum). 

'Ibis, 1920, pp. 497-498. 

'Proc. Comm. Sci. Corresp. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1, "1830-31," p. 15, Jan. 6, 
1831 "in Fretu Magellanico." 

'Crawshay (Birds of Tierra del Fuego, pp. 95-96, 1907) refers it to C. hybrida, 
but this can hardly be correct. 

4 Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 300, 1923. 



322 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

220. Heteronetta atricapilla (Merrem) 

Anas atricapilla Merrem, in Ersch and Gruber, Allg. Encycl. Wissens. und 

Kiinste, 35, p. 26, 1841 based on Azara, No. 438, Buenos Aires. 
Anas melanocephala Cassin, p. 202, pi. 25 interior of Chile; Pelzeln (2), p. 

138 Chile; Germain, p. 315 central provinces; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 

335, 340 Chile (note on female); Philippi (12), p. 282 Paine, Santiago; 

idem (24), p. 80 Santiago Province. 
Heteronetta melanocephala E. Reed (2), p. 563 Cauquenes, Colchagua; idem 

(4), p. 208 Chile; Lane, p. 192 Rio Pilmaiquen, Valdivia; Lataste (9), 

p. 172 Lake Aculeo, Santiago. 

Range in Chile. Central and southern provinces, from Santiago 
to Valdivia. 

Very little is known regarding the distribution of the Black-headed 
Duck in Chile. Although it is included by Germain among ducks 
"breeding from September to October in the central provinces," 
Philippi states that the "Pato rinconero," as it is called by the 
natives, is very rare in Chile, and at the time of his writing he knew 
it only from the province of Santiago, specimens having been taken 
near Paine. Edwyn Reed lists it as uncommon for the Hacienda de 
Cauquenes, Colchagua. Lataste shot a single female on Lake 
Aculeo (Jan. 28, 1896), and the British Museum received a pair from 
near Santiago through F. Leybold, while A. Lane, on February 19, 
1890, secured one on the Rio Pilmaiquen, Valdivia, where he believes 
this duck to be merely a visitor. Lord William Percy 1 purchased at 
Concepcion a skin of this duck taken many years ago in that vicinity. 
Its parasitic nesting habits have but recently been discovered. 2 

Outside of Chile, H. atricapilla inhabits the northern parts of 
Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and extreme southern Brazil (Rio 
Grande do Sul). 

221. Anas specularis King 3 

Anas specularis King, Zool. Journ., 4, p. 98, 1828 Straits of Magellan; Des 
Murs (2), p. 450 estuaries of rivers of Chile; Hartlaub (3), p. 217 
Valdivia; Cassin, p. 202 Chile; Pelzeln (2), p. 138 Chile; Sclater (2), 
1867, pp. 335, 340 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 282 Straits of Magellan to 
Valdivia, rare farther north; E. Reed (2), p. 563 Cauquenes, Colchagua 
(common); idem (4), p. 208 common in the south, rare in the lagoons of 
the Cordilleras of the central provinces; Lane, p. 192 Rio Pilmaiquen, 

J Cf. Phillips, Nat. Hist. Ducks, 3, p. 96, 1925. 

2 Cf. Daguerre, El Hornero, 3, pp. 194, 252; Wilson, 1. c., 3, p. 355. 

3 Boetticher (Anz. Orn. Ges. Bay., 2, No. 1, p. 14, 1929) proposed the genus 
Speculanas for this species, but I agree with Wetmore (Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 
24, p. 416, 1926) that both A. specularis and A. cristata may well be retained in 
the genus Anas. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 323 

Valdivia; Barros (4), p. 46 Nilahue, Curico (winter visitor); Blaauw (1), 
p. 28 Peulla, Lake Todos Los Santos, Llanquihue; idem, Ibis, 1916, p. 
485 near Lake Todos Los Santos. 

Anas chalcoptera Kittlitz, Mem. Ac. Sci. St. P6tersb., (sav. 6tr.), 2, p. 471, 
pi. 5, 1835 Valparaiso; Fraser (1), p. 119 rivers and lakes of Colchagua 
Province (rare); Kittlitz, Denkwiird., 1, p. 164 near Hacienda de Lagu- 
nilla, Valparaiso; Chrostowski, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 1, p. 20, 
1921 Valparaiso (note on type in Leningrad Museum). 

Range in Chile. From Valparaiso to the Straits of Magellan. 

Material collected. Llanquihue: Balseo, junction of Rios Simp- 
son and Mafiiuales (alt. 200 feet), d* ad., 9 ad., April 2; Estancia 
Aisen, Rio Coihaique, four cf cf , two 9 9 ad., Feb. 12-14; Casa 
de Richards, Rio Nirehuau, two cf cf, one 9 ad., Feb. 19-21 (Col- 
lection of H. B. Conover). 

Additional specimens. Cautin: Huilio, Temuco, cf ad., July 
26, 1916. A. C. Saldana (Collection of H. B. Conover). 

The "Pato antiojillo" or "Pato perro" of the natives is a common 
bird in the southern parts of Chile, from the Straits of Magellan north 
to Valdivia, where Ambrose Lane met with it along the Rio Bueno 
and its tributary, the Rio Pilmaiquen. Farther north it is reported 
to be much less common, and probably merely a winter visitor. 
A. C. Saldana obtained specimens in April and July in the neigh- 
borhood of Temuco, Cautin. In the Nilahue Valley, Curico, Barros 
found it wintering in small numbers. Both Bridges and Edwyn Reed 
mention the Spectacled Duck as occurring on the lagoons and rivers 
of the Cordilleras of Cauquenes, Colchagua, and from the observa- 
tions of the first-named naturalist, who noticed these ducks always in 
pairs, their breeding in that district might be inferred. The most 
northerly record is from Valparaiso, where Kittlitz shot the type of 
A. chalcoptera early in April, doubtless a migrant from the south. 

The members of the Field Museum Expedition found this duck 
fairly common in southern Llanquihue on the Rio Aisen and its 
affluents. Mr. Conover supplies the following note: "These ducks 
seem to like wooded swift-running streams, where they feed in the 
eddies and along the banks. It is a common thing to see them 
resting on the gravel bars or sitting on stones projecting out of the 
water. They also seem to like wooded brushy ponds and swamps, 
and go into open ponds near their favorite resorts, but apparently 
they do not like the open country. They are undoubtedly birds of 
the mountains, probably descending in winter to the coast of Chile, 
though I do not think that they ever go far into the pampa country. 
Their call is a very peculiar barking quack." 



324 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

The breeding range of A. specularis apparently extends over 
both the Chilean and Argentine slopes of the Andes from 40 S. lat. 
to the Straits of Magellan. 

222. Anas cristata cristata Gmelin 

Anas cristata Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 540, 1789 based on "Crested Duck" 
Latham, Gen. Syn. Birds, 3, (2), p. 543, Staten Island; Des Murs (2), p. 
449 central provinces; Germain, p. 314 Cordilleras of Santiago (nesting 
habits); Pelzeln (2), p. 138 Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 335, 340 Chile; 
Philippi (12), p. 281 Cordilleras of Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 563 Cordillera 
of Cauquenes, Colchagua; idem (4), p. 208 Chile. 

Anas pyrrhogastra Meyen, Nov. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur., 
16, Suppl., p. 119, pi. 25, 1834 Maipo, Santiago. 

Dafila pyrogaster Fraser (2), p. 157 Chile. 

Range in Chile. From Santiago to the Straits of Magellan. 

Material collected. Argentina, Terr, del Chubut (near Chilean 
boundary) : Arroyo Verde, four cf cf ad., two 9 9 , March 17 
(Collection of H. B. Conover). 

The Crested Duck, "Pato Juarjual" of the Chileans, is stated to 
be not uncommon in the central and southern parts of Chile. In 
the central provinces (Santiago, Colchagua) it breeds in the elevated 
Cordilleras, but repairs to lower altitudes in winter. Farther south, 
however, it is found nearly down to sea level in the breeding season. 

The Field Museum Expedition did not meet with this duck in 
Chile proper, but obtained a small series east of Casa de Richards 
on Argentine territory, where, according to Conover's observations, 
they were fairly plentiful on the ponds on the road to Arroyo Verde 
and in the Arroyo Verde itself. Mr. Conover believes that he saw 
this bird also at Rio Nirehuau. 

The specimens collected agree with others from the Rio Gallegos, 
Patagonia (wing 260-270 mm.). 

A. c. cristata inhabits the southern part of the Andes from Santi- 
ago and Lake Nahuel Huapi south to the Cape Horn region and the 
Falkland Islands. 

223. Anas cristata alticola Me'ne'gaux 

Anas cristata alticola Men6gaux, Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, (10th ser.), 1, p. 224, 
1909 Lake Poopo, Oruro, Bolivia. 

Anas cristata Sclater (4), 1886, p. 401 Sitani, Sacaya, and Huasco, Tarapaca 
(eggs descr.); Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 160 Pastos Largos, Atacama; Lane, 
p. 192 Sacaya, Sitani, and Lake Huasco, Tarapaca. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 325 

Range in Chile. In northern provinces, from Atacama to 
Tarapac. 

Material collected. Antofagasta: twenty miles east of San 
Pedro (alt. 12,600 feet), one d" ad., two <? cf , two 9 9 (downy) 
juv., Oct. 6, 1923. 

The adult bird differs from the preceding form by larger size 
(wing 310 mm.), heavier bill, and whiter, less spotted under parts, 
and agrees closely with a male from Laguna de Taxara, Tarija, 
Bolivia. 

Birds from Tarapacd examined in the British Museum appear to 
be similar, while others from Peru are again more brownish below. 

A. c. alticola is an inhabitant of the Puna Zone. Lane found it 
common in the Andes of Tarapaca; it nested at Huasco and Sacaya 
from January to March in rushes and sedge, preferring little islands 
in the midst of ponds; the clutch consisted usually of five or six eggs. 
Sanborn, on October 6, secured downy young east of San Pedro, which 
indicates an earlier breeding season for Antofagasta. Philippi's 
record of A. cristata from Pastes Largos is doubtless referable to the 
present form. 

224. Mareca sibilatrix (Poeppig) 

Anas sibilatrix Poeppig in Froriep's Notiz. Geb. Natur- und Heilkunde, No. 

529 [ =25, No. 1], p. 10, July, 1829 Talcaguano, Concepci6n. 
Anas chiloensis King, Proc. Comm. Sci. Corresp. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1, p. 15, 

Jan. 6, 1831 "in insuia ChiloeV' 
Mareca chiloensis Fraser (1), p. 119 Chile; Des Murs (2), p. 447 provinces 

of Santiago, Chilo4, etc.; Bibra, p. 131 Chile; Cassin, p. 201 Chile; 

Germain, p. 315 central provinces; Pelzeln (2), p. 138 Chile; Sclater (2), 

1867, pp. 335, 339 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 281 rare in Chiloe" and 

Valdivia, "more common" in the central provinces. 
Mareca chilensis Frauenfeld, p. 638 Lake Aculeo, Santiago; Lataste (1), p. 

CXV Cauquenes, Colchagua; idem (5), p. LXII San Carlos, Nuble. 
Mareca sibilatrix E. Reed (2), p. 564 Cauquenes, Colchagua; Sharpe, p. 13 

Coquimbo; E. Reed (4), p. 208 Chilo (common), rarer farther north; 

Lane, p. 194 Rio Pilmaiquen, Valdivia, and Chiloe Archipelago; Schalow 

(2), p. 674 Conception; Bullock (4), p. 205 Angol, Malleco. 

Range in Chile. From Coquimbo to the Straits of Magellan. 

Material collected. Chilo Island: Cucao, three c? cf ad., one 
9 ad., one 9 imm., three (downy) juv., Dec. 22-27. Llanquihue: 
Casa de Richards, Rio Nirehuau, cf ad., 9 ad., cf juv., 9 juv., Feb. 
21 to March 6 (Collection of H. B. Conover). 

The Chilean Widgeon, the "Pato Real" of the natives, is very 
common in the southern provinces. The Field Museum party found 



326 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

it plentiful on Chiloe" Island, where it was breeding and several 
downy young were taken. Ambrose Lane did not meet with any of 
these ducks north of Valdivia, and even about the Rio Bueno they 
were seen in flocks, as if they had come from some breeding-haunt. 
They are also reported to breed in the central provinces, but in much 
smaller numbers than in the south (Edwyn Reed). The most 
northerly locality on record is Coquimbo, where Coppinger shot a 
single specimen in June, probably a migrant. 

The range of M. sibilatrix, outside of Chile, comprises the greater 
part of Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and the extreme south of 
Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul). 

225. Nettion flavirostre flavirostre (Vieillot) 

Anas flavirostris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 5, p. 107, 1816 

based on Azara, No. 439, Buenos Aires. 
Querquedula creccotdes Fraser (1), p. 118 Chile; Des Murs (2), p. 453 Chile 

to Straits of Magellan; Cassin, p. 203, pi. 26 abundant in Chile; Germain, 

p. 315 central provinces; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 335, 340 Chile; Philippi 

(12), p. 282 Chile; Lataste (5), p. LXII San Carlos, Nuble. 
Querquedula oxyptera (not of Meyen) Hartlaub (3), p. 217 Rio de Valdivia; 

Bibra, p. 131 Santiago; Pelzeln (2), p. 138 Chile. 
Querquedula flavirostris E. Reed (2), p. 562 Cauquenes, Colchagua; idem (4), 

p. 208 Chile; Housse (1), p. 54 Isla La Mocha, Arauco; Bullock (4), 

p. 206 Angol, Malleco. 
Nettion flavirostre Blaauw, Ibis, 1916, p. 487 Lake Todos Los Santos, 

Llanquihue. 

Range in Chile. From Santiago to the Straits of Magellan. 

Material collected. Chiloe" Island: Lago Huillinco, cf ad., 
Dec. 21; Cucao, two cf d", three 9 9, Dec. 23-Jan. 14; Rio Inio, 
two cf cf ad., three (downy) juv., Jan. 7-10. Llanquihue: Casa 
de Richards, Rio Stirehuau, cf ad., 9 ad., Feb. 17, 21 (Collection 
of H. B. Conover). 

The "Pato jergon chico," as it is called by the Chileans, appears 
to be most abundant in the southern parts of the republic. The Field 
Museum party found it common on Chilo Island. Mr. Conover 
supplies the following note: "Fairly common at Rio Inio. On 
January 10, in the mouth of a small fresh water creek where it emptied 
onto the beach, we found a brood of about six or eight downy young 
accompanied by both old birds. The female took up the bank into 
the bush, the young attempting to follow. Broods of fully grown 
young were also seen at this time perfectly able to fly, but apparently 
loath to unless absolutely necessary. When pursued by a boat, 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 327 

they would run along the edge of the mud flats like shore-birds. 
Like all teals these birds seem partial to mud flats. Also seen at 
the Puerto Aisen and common around the Rio Nirehuau. Found 
in the lagoons, still running rivers and also in parts of the swift 
streams with the Spectacled Duck." Its range evidently extends 
throughout the republic as far north at least as Santiago, where 
Bibra reports to have met with it on all the lakes in the vicinity of 
the capital. 

It is also widely distributed in Argentina and Uruguay, and 
stretches into extreme southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul). 

226. Nettion flavirostre oxypterum (Meyen) 

Anas oxyptera Meyen, Nov. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur., 16, 
Suppl., p. 121, pi. 26, 1834 eastern slope of the South Peruvian Andes 
toward Lake Titicaca. 

Querquedula angustirostris Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 21, p. 
439, Nov., 1862 Laguna "Cucullata," Tacna; idem, Arch. Naturg., 
29, (1), p. 202, 1863 Laguna "Cucullata," Tacna; Philippi, Ornis, 4, 
p. 160 "Calalaste," Antofagasta; idem (24), p. 78 Laguna "Cucullata" 
(crit.). 

Querquedula oxyptera Sclater (4), p. 401 Sitani, Huasco, and "Lalcalhuay," 
Tarapadi (eggs descr.); idem (6), p. 136 Sacaya, Tarapaca; Lane, p. 
193 Sacaya; E. Reed (4), p. 208 Tarapaca. 

Range in Chile. Puna Zone of northern Chile, from Tacna to 
Antofagasta. 

Material collected. Tacna: Chungara (alt. 15,150 feet), cf ad., 
June 25. Antofagasta: Rio Loa (alt. 9,000 feet), <? ad., Sept. 11. 

Chilean birds are obviously not different from Peruvian examples. 
The male from Chungara is practically a topotype of Q. angustirostris. 
While correctly recognizing the distinctness of the northern form, 
Philippi and Landbeck erred in referring Meyen's term to the 
Yellow-billed Teal of central and southern Chile, and, by describing 
Q. angustirostris, merely renamed Anas oxyptera. 

Meyen's Teal is clearly but a northern race of N. flavirostre. The 
principal points of difference are larger size, stronger bill with the two 
colors more abruptly contrasted, paler dorsal surface, and less 
spotted under parts. It replaces the typical race in northwestern 
Argentina, northern Chile, Bolivia, and the greater part of Peru. 

Another member of this group is N. f. andium (Sclater and 
Salvin), of Ecuador, Colombia, and western Venezuela. In dark 
coloration and heavy spotting below, it shows a reversion to the 
characters of N. f. flavirostre, but the edgings to the scapulars are 



328 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

grayish buff instead of rufescent, while the wholly black bill serves 
to distinguish it from either of its allies. 

In opposition to its southern representative, N. f. oxypterum is 
restricted to the Puna Zone. In northern Chile its vertical range 
extends from 9,000 to 15,000 feet. 



[Nettion brasiliense (Gmelin), included in the Chilean fauna by Gay 
(p. 451) s. n. Querquedula ipecutiri, though widely distributed in 
South America, has never been taken in Chile proper.] 

227. Paecilonitta bahamensis rubrirostris (Vieillot) 

Anas rubrirostris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. &L, 5, p. 108, 1816 

based on Azara, No. 433, pampas of Buenos Aires. 
Dafila urophasianus Bridges, p. 95 valleys on the eastern side of the Andes; 

Fraser (2), p. 157 Chile. 

Dafila bahamensis Des Murs (2), p. 448 Chile; Cassin, p. 203 Chile; Philippi 
and Landbeck (1), p. 284; idem (2), p. 33 Chile (crit.); Sclater (2), 1867, 
pp. 335, 340 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 281 Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 563 
Colchagua (rare); idem (4), p. 208 Chile (rare). 
Poecilonetta bahamensis Barros (4), p. 46 Nilahue, Curico. 
Range in Chile. Central provinces, from Santiago to Curico. 
The Bahaman Pintail is of very irregular occurrence in Chile. 
According to Philippi and Landbeck, it is quite common in some years 
in winter and practically absent in others. They quote Dr. Carlos 
Segeth, a local naturalist, as saying that during his long residence 
in Chile he had seen only eight specimens. Edwyn Reed mentions 
it as very rare for Colchagua, while R. Barros states that sometimes 
a few pairs breed in the Nilahue Valley, Curico. 

A single specimen from Chile (locality not specified) agrees in 
size with the large southern race distinguished by Bangs 1 under 
Vieillot's name. 

228. Paecilonitta spinicauda (Vieillot) 2 

Anas spinicauda Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. &L, 5, p. 135, 1816 

based on Azara, No. 429, Buenos Aires. 
Anas oxyura Meyen, Nov. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur., 16, Suppl., 

p. 122, 1834 Chile; Des Murs (2), p. 449 Chile; Cassin, p. 202 Chile; 

Frauenfeld, p. 638 Lake Aculeo, Santiago; Philippi (12), p. 281 Chile; 

'Proc. New Engl. Zool. CL, 6, p. 89, 1918. 

2 1 quite agree with Mr. Bangs (Proc. New Engl. Zool. CL, 6, p. 88, 1918) 
that, as long as the two genera are separated, the Chilean Pintail should be referred 
to Paecilonitta rather than Dafila. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 329 

idem, Ornis, 4, p. 160 Antofagasta; Lataste (1), p. CXV Cauquenes, 
Colchagua; idem (5), pp. LXII, LXIII San Carlos, Stable; Waugh and 
Lataste (1), p. LXXXIX Penaflor, Santiago. 

Anas bahamensis ? (errore) Fraser (1), p. 119 Chile (common); Yarrell, p. 
54 Chile (eggs descr.). 

(?) Dafila bahamensis Germain, p. 314 Santiago (breeding habits); Pelzeln 
(2), p. 138 Chile (eggs descr.); MacFarlane, Ibis, 1887, p. 203 Arica. 

Dafila oxyura Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 335, 340 Chile. 

Dafila spinicauda E. Reed (2), p. 563 Rio Cachapoal, Colchagua; Sharpe, p. 
14 Talcaguano; Sclater (4), 1886, p. 402 Sitani, Tarapaca; idem (6), 
1891, p. 136 Sacaya, Tarapaca; E. Reed (4), p. 208 central provinces; 
Lane, p. 194 Rio Pilmaiquen, Corral, and Rio Bueno (Valdivia), and 
Sacaya, Tarapaca (habits); Schalow (2), p. 674 Ovalle, Coquimbo; 
Barros (4), p. 46 Nilahue Valley, Curico; C. Reed (4), p. 56 Rio Cacha- 
poal, Colchagua (food); Housse (2), p. 150 San Bernardo, Santiago; 
Passler (3), p. 446 Coronel (breeding habits); Blaauw, Ibis, 1916, p. 487 
Lake Todos Los Santos, Llanquihue; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 113 Marga- 
Marga, Valparaiso; Bullock (4), p. 206 Angol; Barros (10), p. 357 
Aconcagua. 

Range in Chile. From Tarapaca to the Straits of Magellan. 

Material collected. Antofagasta: Rio Loa, cf ad., Sept. 12. 
Llanquihue: Casa Richards, Rio Nirehuau, two cTc? ad., two 9 9 
ad., one cT imm., two 9 9 imm., Feb. 17-March 9 (Collection of 
H. B. Conover). 

The "Pato jergon grande" is the commonest duck in Chile, and 
occurs in suitable places throughout the republic from the northern 
boundary south to the Straits of Magellan. In the Cordillera of 
Tarapacd, in the extreme north of Chile, it ascends as high as 
12,000 feet, and breeds from October to February. The nest is placed 
amongst sedge or bushes and contains from four to six eggs, which 
are described as being closely similar to those of the Bahaman 
Pintail, with which the present species has been frequently con- 
fused by the earlier writers on Chilean ornithology. Fraser's and 
Yarrell's records of A. bahamensis, based on Bridges's collections, 
unquestionably refer to P. spinicauda, and so do probably Ger- 
main's, Pelzeln's and MacFarlane's. 

Birds from Antofagasta and Bolivia (Tarija) appear to be some- 
what whiter underneath than the series from southern Chile, which 
agrees with topotypes from Buenos Aires. 

P. spinicauda is widely diffused in southern South America, 
ranging in the west north to Ecuador. 



330 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 
229. Querquedula versicolor versicolor (Vieillot) 

Anas versicolor Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 5, p. 109, 1816 based 
on Azara, No. 440, Paraguay. 

Cyanopterus fretensis Fraser (2), p. 157 Chile. 

Querquedula maculirostris Des Murs (2), p. 452 Chile to Straits of Magellan; 
Philippi (12), p. 282 Chile. 

Petrocyanea maculirostris Bibra, p. 132 Chile; Pelzeln (2), p. 139 Chile. 

Querquedula versicolor Cassin, p. 203 vicinity of Santiago; Germain, p. 315 
central provinces; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 335, 340 Chile; E. Reed (2), 
p. 563 Cauquenes, Colchagua (rare); idem (4), p. 208 Chile; Lane, 
p. 193 junction of Rio Pilmaiquen and Rio Bueno, Valdivia; Schalow 
(2), p. 675 Concepcion. 

Range in Chile. Central and southern provinces, from Santiago 
to the Straits of Magellan. 

Material collected. Llanquihue: Casa de Richards, Rio Nirehuau, 
eight cf d 1 , three 9 9 ad., Feb. 19-March 6 (Collection of H. B. 
Conover). 

These specimens are identical with others from Argentina. 

Very little precise information is available regarding the dis- 
tribution of the "Pato capuchino" in Chile, where it is said to be very 
rare. The United States Astronomical Expedition obtained several 
specimens near Santiago. Ambrose Lane shot a single adult male on 
the Rio Pilmaiquen, Valdivia, on January 4, 1890, and L. Plate secured 
one at Concepcion in September, 1894. According to Edwyn Reed, it 
is extremely rare at Cauquenes, Colchagua, though Germain lists it 
among the species breeding in the central provinces. About Rio 
Nirehuau Mr. Conover found the Gray Teal very common in the 
marshes. He noted that the male has an enlargement of the wind- 
pipe very similar to that of Barrow's Golden-eye. 

Q. v. versicolor is widely diffused throughout Argentina, Paraguay, 
Uruguay, and southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul). 

230. Querquedula versicolor puna (Tschudi) 

Anas puna (Lichtenstein MS.) Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 10, (1), p. 315, 1844 

Peru. 
Querquedula puna Sclater (4), 1886, p. 401 Sitani and Sacaya, Tarapaca 

(eggs descr.); Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 160 Antofagasta; Sclater (6), 1891, 

p. 136 Sacaya, Tarapaca; E. Reed (4), p. 208 Tarapaca; Lane, p. 193 

Sacaya and Cancosa, Tarapaca. 

Range in Chile. Puna Zone of northern Chile, from Tacna to 
Antofagasta. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HBLLMAYR 331 

Material collected. Antofagasta: twenty miles east of San 
Pedro, cf ad., Sept. 17. 

This northern representative differs from the Gray Teal by larger 
size; stronger bill with the basal spot to the upper mandible light 
blue instead of orange; more deeply black pileum ; less heavily marked 
back; plain brownish (unmarked) rump; narrower and much less 
distinct barring on both upper tail coverts and abdomen, etc. 

Chilean specimens, of which some additional ones from Tarapaca 
have been examined in the British Museum, appear to agree with a 
Peruvian series. 

Within Chile, this teal is found only at high elevations of the 
Cordilleras from Antofagasta northwards. 1 

231. Querquedula cyanoptera cyanoptera (Vieillot) 

Anas cyanoptera Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 5, p. 104, 1816 

based on Azara, No. 434, La Plata River and Buenos Aires. 
Querquedula caerulata Eraser (1), p. 118 lakes and rivers of Chile; Yarrell, p. 

54 Chile (eggs descr.). 
Querquedula caeruleata Des Murs (2), p. 452 Chile; Hartlaub (3), p. 217 

Valdivia; Boeck, p. 511 Valdivia; Germain, p. 315 central provinces; 

Frauenfeld, p. 638 Lake Aculeo, Santiago; Philippi (12), p. 282 Chile; 

Lataste (5), pp. LXII, LXIII San Carlos, Nuble. 
Anas caerulata Bibra, p. 131 lakes near Santiago (common). 
Querquedula cyanoptera Cassin, p. 202 Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 335, 340 

Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 563 Cauquenes, Colchagua; Sharpe, p. 14 

Talcaguano; E. Reed (4), p. 208 central provinces; Lane, p. 193 part, 

southern provinces; Schalow (2), p. 676 Ovalle and La Serena, Coquimbo; 

Housse (3), p. 227 Isla La Mocha, Arauco; Passler (3), p. 447 Coronel; 

Barros (8), p. 142 Nilahue, Curico; Bros, p. 381 Marga-Marga, 

Valparaiso. 

Pterocyanea coerukata Pelzeln (2), p. 139 Chile. 
Querquedula discors (errore) Schalow (2), p. 675 Ovalle, Coquimbo. 

Range in Chile. From Coquimbo to the Straits of Magellan. 

Material collected. Llanquihue: Casa de Richards, Rio Nirehuau, 
two cf cf ad., one 9 , March 1-6 (Collection of H. B. Conover). 

Additional specimens. Santiago: vicinity of Santiago, cf ad. 
F. Leybold. Colchagua: Cauquenes, cf (eclipse), 9 ad. E. C. 
Reed. Conception: Talcaguano, 9 ad., Sept. 22, 1879. Coppinger. 
"Central Chile:" two cf cf ad., one cf (eclipse). H. Berkeley 
James Collection (all in the British Museum). 

1 A specimen in the Paris Museum said to be from "Santiago" (C. Gay) is no 
doubt incorrectly labeled. 



332 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Specimens from central and southern Chile appear to me in- 
separable from a North American series. Their wings range from 
180 to 195 mm. 

According to Edwyn Reed, the Cinnamon Teal is one of the 
commonest ducks in the central provinces. Bibra noted it as abun- 
dant on the lakes in the vicinity of Santiago, and Reed has the same 
remark with respect to its occurrence at Cauquenes, Colchagua. 
Frauenfeld observed it on Lake Aculeo, Santiago. Lataste found it 
breeding at San Carlos, Ruble, and Barros in Nilahue, Curico, while 
Schalow lists specimens from Coquimbo. Dr. Stresemann informs 
me that the female taken by Plate at Ovalle, which Schalow refers 
to Q. discors, belongs likewise here. Lane, who found it in the 
southern provinces, was told that at certain seasons it is numerous 
in Chiloe". 

The Cinnamon Teal is also widely distributed in Argentina, 
Uruguay, Paraguay, and southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul). 

232. Querquedula cyanoptera orinomus Oberholser 

Querquedula orinomus Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 19, p. 93, 1906 
"Puna" [ =Puno], Lake Titicaca, alt. 12,250 feet, Peru. 

Querquedula caeruleata Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 160 Antofagasta. 

Querquedula cyanoptera Sclater (4), 1886, p. 401 Sitani and Sacaya, Tara- 
paca; idem (6), 1891, p. 136 Sacaya, Tarapaca; Lane, p. 193 part, 
Tarapaca. 

Range in Chile. Puna Zone of Antofagasta, Tarapaca, and 
Tacna. 

Material examined. Tarapaca: Sacaya, cf ad., cf (eclipse), 
three 9 9 ad., one 9 imm., Jan. 25, Feb. 8, March 13. C. Rahmer 
and A. A. Lane; Sitani, two cf d" 1 ad., Jan. 15, 20, 1886. C. Rahmer 
(all in the British Museum). 

Re-examination of the material in the British Museum shows 
the Cinnamon Teal breeding in the highlands of Tarapaca to be 
referable to Q. c. orinomus, originally based upon a single adult male 
from Lake Titicaca. When compared with typical cyanoptera, the 
wings are considerably longer: 215-223 in males, 205-223 in females 
(against 180-195 in cyanoptera of central Chile), and the tarsi are 
also longer as well as stouter. The bill is sometimes, though not 
always, larger. Females are deeper buffy brown on the chest and 
sides of the head, the latter being generally more heavily marked with 
dusky. Males, however, do not seem to, differ in coloration, rump 
and upper tail coverts being by no means more banded with buff 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 333 

than in cyanoptera. Three adult males from Tarapaca, it is true, have 
no trace of black on the chin, but similar specimens also occur in the 
range of the typical race. 

According to Ambrose Lane, this species is not quite so numerous 
in the Andes of Tarapaca as the other ducks and more local. It 
nests at Sacaya about January in sedge or rushes. 

The development of an altitudinal representative of the Cin- 
namon Teal in a comparatively restricted area of southern Peru 
and northern Chile is of unusual interest. We have seen that birds 
of the more southern parts of Chile and adjacent countries, where 
they are usually found at low elevations, are nowise different from 
North American examples. 

233. Spatula platalea (Vieillot) 

Anas platalea Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 5, p. 157, 1816 
based on Azara, No. 431, Buenos Aires and Paraguay. 

Dafila caesioscapula Reichenbach, Vollst. Naturg. Schwimmvog., Natatores, 
pi. 51, fig. 180, between 1845 and 1848 no locality. 

Dafila caesioscapulata Bibra, p. 131 lakes round Santiago. 

Rhynchaspis maculatus Fraser (1), p. 118 Chile; Yarrell, p. 54 Chile (eggs 
descr.); Des Murs (2), p. 454 Chile (ex Fraser); Germain, p. 315 
central provinces; Philippi (12), p. 283 rare in the south, common in 
the central provinces; Lataste (1), p. CXV Cauquenes, Colchagua; idem 
(5), p. LXII San Carlos, Nuble; Waugh and Lataste (1), p. LXXXIX 
Penaflor, Santiago. 

Spatula (Rhynchaspis) maculata Pelzeln (2), p. 139 Chile. 

Spatula platalea Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 335, 340 Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 564 
Cauquenes, Colchagua (rare); idem (4), p. 208 Chile; Lane, p. 195 
Rio Pilmaiquen and Rio Bueno, Valdivia; Bullock (4), p. 207 Angol, 
Malleco. 

Range in Chile. Central and southern provinces, from Santiago 
to the Straits of Magellan; accidental in Tarapaca. 

Material collected. Llanquihue: Casa de Richards, Rio Nirehuau, 
one cf ad., two 9 9 ad., March 10 (Collection of H. B. Conover). 

These specimens agree with others from Buenos Aires. 

The "Pato cuchara" is reported to be fairly common in the 
central provinces, though rare in the south. Lataste and Waugh 
record it as not uncommon at Penaflor (Santiago) and Cauquenes 
(Colchagua), while Bibra lists it as fairly plentiful on the lakes near 
Santiago. Lane found these ducks numerous near Valdivia from 
December to March, where they probably breed. Mr. Conover 
(MS.) noted them in some numbers on certain ponds on the Rio 



334 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Nirehuau. In Tarapaca, whence the British Museum has a young 
female, if correctly labeled, the species would seem to be merely of 
accidental occurrence, though it is known to inhabit the highlands of 
Bolivia and southern Peru. Besides, it is widely diffused in Argen- 
tina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. 

234. Metopiana peposaca (Vieillot) 

Anas peposaca Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 5, p. 132, 1816 

based on Azara, No. 430, Paraguay and Buenos Aires. 
Anas metopias Poeppig in Froriep's Notiz. Geb. Natur- und Heilkunde, No. 

529 [ = 25, No. 1], p. 9, 1829 "rarissima in Chile." 

Fuligula metopias Des Murs (2), p. 456 Chile (ex Poeppig); Hartlaub (3), 
p. 217 Rio de Valdivia; Cassin, p. 204, pi. 27 Chile; Germain, p. 315 
central provinces; Philippi (12), p. 283 common in the central provinces, 
rare in the south. 

Fuligula albipennis Bibra, p. 132 Chile; Pelzeln (2), p. 139 Chile. 
Fuligula peposaca Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 335, 340 Chile. 
Metopiana peposaca E. Reed (2), p. 564 Cauquenes, Colchagua (not com- 
mon); idem (4), p. 208 Chile; Schalow (2), p. 674 Concepcion; Salvadori, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 27, p. 332, 1895 Santiago and Rio Pilmaiquen, 
Valdivia. 

Range in Chile. From Santiago to Valdivia. 
The "Pato negro" is stated to be fairly common in the central 
provinces, where it is supposed to breed. Various specimens have 
been taken in the vicinity of Santiago. According to Edwyn Reed, 
it is by no means plentiful in Colchagua. Schalow records a single 
example taken by Plate in September at Concepcion. Lane shot 
a young male in February on the Rio Pilmaiquen, Valdivia, and 
Hartlaub lists the species from the Rio de Valdivia, which marks the 
southern limit of its range in Chile. 

Its extralimital area comprises the northern parts of Argentina, 
Uruguay, Paraguay, and the extreme south of Brazil (Rio Grande 
doSul). 

235. Nyroca erythrophthalma (Wied) 

Anas erythrophthalma Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 4, (1), p. 929, 1832 
Villa Belmonte, southern Bahia, Brazil. 

Fuligula nationi MacFarlane, Ibis, 1887, p. 203 Arica. 

Range in Chile. Extreme northern section (once recorded from 
Arica, Tacna). 

MacFarlane shot specimens in a marsh about five miles inland of 
Arica in October, 1883, this being the only record of this pochard 
from Chile. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 335 

Although the correctness of the identification has been questioned, 
the occurrence of this duck around Arica is not at all unlikely, since 
the late Professor Nation obtained it near Lima. 

There seems to be hardly any doubt that A. erythrophthalma is the 
earliest name for this species, long known as Fuligula nationi. No 
fresh material from eastern Brazil is available, but birds from that 
part of South America are not likely to be different, since specimens 
from Venezuela (Lagunillas) and various localities in Africa (Upper 
Luapula, Katanga, Belgian Congo; Marsabit, Kenya; Ruanda, 
Uganda) prove to be inseparable one from another. 

236. Tachyeres brachypterus (Latham) 1 

Anas brachyptera Latham, Ind. Orn., 2, p. 834, 1790 new name for Anas 
cinerea Gmelin, 1789 (not of S. G. Gmelin, 1774), 2 Falkland Islands. 

Micropterus cinereus Des Murs (2), p. 457 Chiloe to Straits of Magellan; 
Boeck, p. 511 Bay of "Arend" [=Ancud], Chiloe; Germain, p. 315 
archipelago of Chiloe (nesting habits); Pelzeln (2), pp. 139, 163 Chiloe; 
Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 335, 340 Chile (ex Pelzeln); Philippi (12), p. 283 
Straits of Magellan to Valdivia. 

Tachyeres cinereus E. Reed (4), p. 208 Straits of Magellan to Valdivia; Lane, 
p. 195 Corral, Valdivia; Schalow (2), p. 672 Calbuco, near Puerto 
Montt, Llanquihue (in part); Passler (1), p. 103 Ancud, Chiloe; Strese- 
mann, Ornith. Monatsber., 35, p. 47, 1927 Calbuco (crit.); Chapman, 
Bull. B. O. C., 46, p. 120, 1926 between Puerto Montt and the Guaitecas 
Islands. 

Range in Chile. Southern provinces, from the Straits of Magel- 
lan north to Valdivia. 

Material collected. Chilo4 Island: Rio Inio, one cf ad., three 
9 9 ad., Jan. 12-16. Guaitecas Islands: Canal Lagreze, Ascension 
Island, one d" (in down), Feb. 4; Melinka, Ascension Island, cf 
(downy) juv., Jan. 20 (Collection of H. B. Conover). 

The adults from the Rio Inio, non-flying birds, are conspicuous 
for their light grayish head and enormous bill which is for the greater 
part yellow (orange at base in life) in both sexes. The male weighed 
twelve, the females eight and a half pounds. They thus correspond 
to what Oustalet, Blaauw and others call T. cinereus, i.e. the heavily 
built, short- winged, non-flying "species." 

1 A.s pointed out by Philippi (Zeits. Ges. Naturwiss., Neue Folge, 7 [ =41], p. 
125, 1873), it seems very probable that the Steamer-Duck was intended by Molina, 
when he described Diomedea chiloensis (Saggio Stor. Nat. Chile, pp. 239, 344, 1782) 
from the Archipelago of Chiloe, though beyond the native name "Quethu" 
[ = Quetru] the description contains hardly anything to permit the identification 
of the bird. 

2 See Collin, Ornith. Monatsber., 35, p. 54, 1927. 



336 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Two specimens are molting their wings. Those with fully 
developed remiges measure 260 (male) and 240 (female) respectively. 
All have a distinct vinaceous tinge along the middle of the throat. 

According to Mr. Conover, no flying birds were seen at Chilo6 
or Melinka at the time of his visit (January and February). "At 
Rio Inio, these ducks were very numerous, sitting on the rocks and 
along the beaches. Only one pair with young were seen, these on 
January 21st. The young were not over a couple of weeks old, but 
very fine divers. On being pursued, the ducklings scattered and 
dove, while the old birds hung off about 150 yards, grunting anx- 
iously." Chapman also states that among the hundreds of Steamer- 
Ducks, many accompanied by recently hatched young, observed 
by him in January, 1924, in the Guaitecas, not one was seen to fly. 
Rollo H. Beck, however, while collecting for the American Museum 
of Natural History, saw large numbers of flying individuals off 
Chilo in May and June, 1914. Of three specimens collected by L. 
Plate in December, 1894, at Calbuco, near Puerto Montt, Strese- 
mann refers one, a male, to the present species, and the two others to 
the flying T. patachonicus. 

Ambrose Lane noticed some of these ducks in the Bay of Corral 
about October and November, and Philippi also lists the species from 
Valdivia, which obviously forms the northern limit of its range. 
The "Quetru" is reported as exceedingly common in the Straits of 
Magellan. 

237. Tachyeres patachonicus (King) 

Oidemia paiachonica King, Zool. Journ., 4, p. 100, 1828 Straits of Magellan = 
western part of the Straits (cf. King, Proc. Comm. Sci. Corresp. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1, p. 15, 1831). 1 
Tachyeres cinereus Schalow (2), p. 672 Calbuco, near Puerto Montt (in part); 

Stresemann, Ornith. Monatsber., 35, p. 47, 1927 Calbuco (crit.). 
Micropterus cinereus Philippi (24), p. 81 Cordillera of Villarrica, Valdivia. 
Range in Chile. Southern provinces, from the Straits of Magel- 
lan north to Chilo Island; occasionally in Valdivia (Villarrica). 

Material collected. Llanquihue: Balseo, junction of Rios Simp- 
son and Maniuales, near Puerto Aisen (alt. 200 feet), one cf , April 
2. Chubut: Arroyo Verde, near Chilean boundary, two cf cf, two 
9 9 , March 18 (Collection of H. B. Conover). 

These birds, when compared with the series from Chilo4 Island, 
have much smaller (shorter as well as slenderer) bills, a darker, 

x The type is supposed to be in the Edinburgh Museum (cf. Gibson, Proc. 
Roy. Phys. Soc. Edin., 4, pp. 185-186, 1877). 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 337 

decidedly brownish head, and are also darker on the back; the 
vinaceous tinge on the throat is deeper in tone and more extensive. 
Except for their darker bills and the absence of rufous on the chest, 
they correspond to the plate of M. patachonicus in Oustalet's report. 1 
The color of the bills appears to be due to post-mortem change, for 
Mr. Conover noted it on the fresh specimens as "yellowish orange" 
or "greenish yellow, bluish about nostrils." 

Much has been written about the Steamer-Ducks, and the ques- 
tion whether the flying individuals really constitute a different 
species is far from being settled. This problem, I believe, can only 
be satisfactorily solved by continued observations in the field. 
Cunningham, it will be recalled, considered them all to belong to one 
species, and attributed the loss of the power of flight to age. Oustalet, 
however, took the opposite stand, and endeavored to prove the spe- 
cific distinctness of the flying and flightless birds. More recently, 
Blaauw (Ibis, 1916, pp. 488-492) and Bennett (Ibis, 1920, pp. 327- 
328) have expressed similar views, and Mr. Conover, who observed 
the flying bird at various points from inland of Puerto Aisen to the 
Chilean-Chubut boundary, also is inclined to admit two species. 

The flying birds are said to be partial to fresh-water lakes and 
ponds, and the Andean lakes Nahuel Huapi, Todos Los Santos, Lago 
Argentine, etc., are reported to harbor exclusively the flying 
"species." 

In Chile T. patachonicus was observed by the Field Museum 
party only on the Rio Aisen; but, as stated under the preceding 
heading, flying birds have been met with by R. H. Beck in May and 
June, 1914, off Chiloe", and Stresemann refers two specimens secured 
by L. Plate in December, 1894, at Calbuco, near Puerto Montt, to 
the present "species." Philippi records an example from the Cor- 
dillera of Villarrica, Valdivia, which no doubt belongs here rather 
than to T. brachypterus. 

238. Erismatura ferruginea Eyton 2 

Erismatura ferruginea Eyton, Monog. Anat., p. 170, 1838 Chile (types in 
British Museum examined); (?) Fraser (1), p. 119 Lake of Quintero, 
Valparaiso; Des Murs (2), p. 458 lakes of central Chile; (?) Bibra, p. 132 
lakes around Santiago; Cassin, p. 204 Chile; Pelzeln (2), p. 139 Chile; 
Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 335, 340 Chile (part); Philippi (12), p. 283 lakes 

1 Miss. Scient. Cap Horn, 6, Ois., pi. 5. 

2 The two Chilean lake-ducks haying frequently been confused, it is impossible 
to properly allocate any reference without re-examination of the respective speci- 
mens. Some of the quotations included here in the synonymy of E. ferruginea 
may actually belong to E. vittata. 



338 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

of central Chile (part); (?) E. Reed (2), p. 564 Laguna de Cauquenes, 
Colchagua; Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 160 Antofagasta; E. Reed (4), p. 208 
Chile (part); (?) Housse (2), p. 150 San Bernardo, Santiago. 
Nomonyx dominicus (errore) Schalow (2), p. 672 part, No. 208, Concepcion 
(June). 

Range in Chile. From Antofagasta to Llanquihue. Breeding 
range unknown. 

Material collected. Malleco: Lake Malleco (alt. 3,500 feet), 
cf ad. (nuptial), Jan. 20, 1924. Llanquihue: Casa de Richards, Rio 
Nirehuau, cf juv., three 9 9 juv., Feb. 24-March 6, 1923. 

Additional specimens. "Chile" (unspecified): d" ad., juv. C. 
Crawley. Types of species (British Museum). Concepcion: Penco, 
9 ad., June, 1905. C. S. Reed (Tring Museum). 

Very little is known about the distribution of the lake-ducks in 
Chile. Salvadori 1 refers all Chilean birds to E. vittata, restricting 
the range of E. ferruginea to Peru and Bolivia. The adult male (in 
full nuptial plumage) taken by Sanborn on the shore of Lake Mal- 
leco, however, is in every particular typical of E. ferruginea, agreeing, 
as it does, in size and coloration with the type in the British Museum 
and a series from the Andes of Peru (Lake Titicaca and Laguna de 
Tambo, Arequipa) and Ecuador. 2 Its date of capture (January 20) 
would seem to indicate that the bird was breeding, and if the records 
of the nesting of the Ruddy-Ducks on the lakes of the central prov- 
inces belong here, it may turn out that the breeding range of E. 
ferruginea extends all over the Andes from Ecuador down to southern 
Chile. 

Four birds in female and immature plumage, secured by Conover 
on the Rio Nirehuau in March and late February, are likewise refer- 
able to the large-billed form, as is also an apparently adult female 
from Penco, Concepcion, taken by C. S. Reed in winter (June). 
I am informed by Dr. Stresemann that one of Plate's specimens from 
the same locality (June, 1894) is a female of E. ferruginea, while the 
September bird pertains to E. vittata. Both were erroneously identi- 
fied by Schalow as Nomonyx dominicus, a species not known to 
occur in Chile. 

In the plains around Concepcion, this species doubtless is merely 
a winter visitor, its nesting grounds being in the Temperate and Puna 
Zones of the Andes. 

'Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 27, p. 450, 1895. 

2 Three adult males and three females from Ecuador (Colta, Riobamba; Anti- 
sana; Sical; Lake Yaguarcocha, Imbabura) are inseparable from more southern 
specimens, thus showing E. aequatorialis to be invalid. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 339 

239. Erismatura vittata Philippi 

Erismatura vittata Philippi, Arch. Naturg., 26, (1), p. 26, 1860 Chile (descr. 
of juv.); Philippi and Landbeck (1), p. 284 (crit.); Philippi (11), 1868, p. 
531 (crit.); Bros, p. 380 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso (September). 

Erismatura ferruginea (not of Eyton) Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 335, 340 Chile 
(part); Philippi (12), p. 283 central provinces (part); E. Reed (4), p. 208 
Chile (part); Lataste (4), p. LXIII Junquillos (San Carlos), ftuble 
(spec, in Paris Museum examined); Lane, p. 195 Rio Pilmaiquen, 
Valdivia (spec, examined): Lataste (9), p. 172 Aculeo and Junquillos; 
Bullock (4), p. 207 Angol, Malleco. 

Nomonyx dominions (errore) Schalow (2), p. 672 part, No. 247, Concepcion 
(September). 

Range in Chile. Central and southern provinces, from Val- 
paraiso to Valdivia. 

Material examined. Santiago: Santiago, one o" ad., one 9 juv. 
F. Leybold (British Museum). Nuble: Junquillos (San Carlos), 
cf juv., Sept., 1895. F. Lataste (Paris Museum). Concepcion: 
Cabrero, two <? <f juv., one 9 , June 6, 1904. C. S. Reed (Tring 
Museum). Valdivia: Rio Pilmaiquen, one d" (eclipse), four 9 9 
juv., Feb. 1&-19, March 1, 1891. A. A. Lane (British Museum). 
"Central Chile:" four cf cf ad., two (unsexed) juv. H. Berkeley 
James Collection. "Tarapaca:" one cf (eclipse). H. Berkeley 
James Collection (all in the British Museum). 

Information on the distribution of the Small-billed Ruddy Duck 
in Chile is even scantier than for the preceding species. Although a 
good many specimens have been taken at various times in the 
southern part of the country, not a single definite breeding record 
exists. It appears to be fairly common in winter around Santiago, 
and quite recently Father R. Bros records the taking of a specimen 
in September at Los Quillayes in the Marga-Marga Valley, Prov. 
Valparaiso. Lataste shot two birds at Junquillos, Nuble, toward the 
end of September, while C. S. Reed secured some at Cabrero, Con- 
cepcion, early in June. After inspecting the material in Field Mu- 
seum, Mr. Bullock assures me that the lake-duck visiting Angol in 
winter is the present species and not E. ferruginea. Farther south, 
in Valdivia Province on the Rio Pilmaiquen, Lane collected a series 
in February and March. There being among them a male just 
molting from the extremely worn nuptial dress into the winter 
plumage, one is tempted to assume that the birds might have been 
breeding in the neighborhood, but, according to Lane, they did not 
appear there before the beginning of February. A male (in eclipse 
plumage) in the collection of the British Museum said to be from 



340 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

"Tarapaca" is no doubt incorrectly labeled like many other skins in 
the H. Berkeley James Collection. 

Although the characters separating E. ferruginea and E. vittata 
are not so striking as to suggest specific difference, yet it appears that 
these two ducks coexist in certain parts of their ranges. Peters 1 
reports to have collected both late in December (supposed nesting 
season!) at Neluan, western Rio Negro, Argentina, and P. W. Rey- 
nolds sent to the British Museum specimens of both shot on March 
4, 1928, at Cape Pefias, Tierra del Fuego. On the other hand, an 
example (in female plumage) from Los Yngleses, A jo, Buenos Aires, 
Oct. 3, 1908, C. H. B. Grant coll., in the British Museum seems to 
be intermediate between the two species! 

More exact information about their ranges during the breeding 
season is urgently required for the proper understanding of their 
relationship. 

240. Merganetta armata armata Gould 

Merganetta armata Gould, P. Z. S. Lond., 9, "1841," p. 95, March, 1842 
"Andes of Chile, lat. 34-35" =Colchagua (types in British Museum 
examined); Fraser (1), p. 119 Chile; Gray and Mitchell, Gen. Birds, 3, 
pi. 170, 1844 (figure of male type); Des Murs, Icon. Orn., livr. 8, pi. 48 
(=female), 1847 Chile; Bibra, p. 132 torrents of the high Cordillera 
[of Santiago]; Cassin, p. 204 rivers of the Andes; Pelzeln (2), p. 140 
Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, p. 340 Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 564 Rio Cachapoal, 
Colchagua; idem (4), p. 208 Chile; Barros (4), p. 173 Cordillera of 
Aconcagua; C. Reed (4), p. 55 Rio Claro, Colchagua. 

Rhaphipterus chilensis Gay, Hist. fis. pol. Chile, Atlas, Zool., pi. [12], 1844 
Chile; Des Murs (2), p. 459 Maipo, Chile; Philippi (12), p. 283 high 
Cordilleras of central provinces. 

Merganetta chilensis Des Murs, Icon. Orn., livr. 1, pi. 5 ( =male), 1845 Chile. 

Merganetta fraenata Salvadori, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 27, p. 458, pi. 5, fig. 1, 
1895 "Central Chili" (type in British Museum examined). 

Merganetta andina Blaauw (1), p. 26 between Puerto Varas and Lake Todos 
Los Santos, Llanquihue. 

Range in Chile. Cordilleras from Coquimbo to Llanquihue. 

Material collected. Coquimbo: Balala, Rio Turbio (alt. 4,850 
feet), cf ad., 9 juv. (in down), Nov. 7; Guanta, Rio Turbio (alt. 
4,250 feet), 9 ad., Nov. 7. Llanquihue: Casa de Richards, Rio Nire- 
huau, cf ad., 9 ad., March 3 (Field Museum and Collection of H. 
B. Conover). 

Additional specimens. Colchagua: Colchagua, cT ad., June, 
1864. Weisshaupt (British Museum) ; three young birds. E. Reed 

'Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 303, 1923. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 341 

(Tring Museum). "Central Chile:" four cfcf ad., including the 
type of M. fraenata. H. Berkeley James Collection. "Andes" 
[of Chile] : two cf c? ad., including the type of M. armata. T. Bridges 
(all in the British Museum). 

Although the available material of Chilean torrent-ducks leaves 
much to desire, I have little doubt that there is but one form in Chile, 
and that the characters used for the separation of M. fraenata are of 
individual rather than racial value. M. fraenata was based on a 
single male from "Central Chile" in the Berkeley James Collection 
(now in the British Museum), which differs from the ordinary type 
by having the lower parts (below the black foreneck) paler rufescent 
with broader, deeper black shaft-streaks, and by the black of the 
pileum being connected with the black around the eye by a vertical 
streak in front of the eye. However, this type of coloration does not 
seem to be restricted to any particular area, for an example obtained 
by Ferrua in February, 1897, at Valle Hermoso, Mendoza 
(British Museum), and a male shot by H. B. Conover at Casa de 
Richards, Rio Nirehuau, far down in southern Llanquihue, are 
essentially similar. Both have the heavily marked belly, but vary 
somewhat in other details. While the Valle Hermoso bird has the 
black connecting streak in front of the eye just as well pronounced 
as the type, this feature is but slightly suggested by dusky edges to 
the supra-ocular feathers in Mr. Conover's specimen. The posterior 
under parts are strikingly pale, light pinkish cinnamon, in the birds 
from Valle Hermoso and Casa de Richards, while the type of M. 
fraenata is somewhat darker, between light vinaceous-cinnamon and 
pinkish cinnamon, thus forming the transition to M. armata (from 
Coquimbo and Colchagua), in which the color falls between sayal 
brown and tawny. 

The male from the Rio Turbio, Coquimbo, agrees in the absence of 
the vertical black streak above the eye and in the pale rufescent, 
faintly striped under parts with two of Bridges' original examples 
(of M. armata) 1 and others from "Central Chile" in the British 
Museum. A male from Colchagua (Weisshaupt) by paler, light 
vinaceous-cinnamon belly closely approaches "fraenata." Another 
male, secured by G. H. Dawson at Traful, Lake Nahuel Huapi, 
again is among the darkest, being even less streaked below than the 
majority of "armata." 

1 The type is in full molt with many of the breast feathers just emerging from 
the sheaths and the whitish bases showing through in places. 



342 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Females from such widely separated localities as Rio Turbio 
(Coquimbo) and Casa de Richards (Llanquihue) are indistinguishable 
one from another. 

This, together with the great amount of variation observable 
in other members of the genus, 1 clearly points to the conclusion that 
M. armata and M. fraenata are merely individual variants of a single 
taxonomic unit. 

M. a. armata inhabits the rivers in the Cordilleras from Coquimbo 
south to western Patagonia (Chubut). 2 

According to Barros, it breeds at elevations of from 5,000 to 
10,000 feet, but descends to lower regions in the severe season, being, 
however, rarely seen below 3,000 feet. 

241. Columba araucana Lesson 

Columba araucana Lesson, Voyage Coquille, Zool., 1, (2), livr. 4, pi. 40, July, 
1827; livr. 6, p. 706, May, 1830 Talcaguano, Bay of Conception; Des 
Murs (2), p. 376 Chile (monog.); Peale, p. 186 Chile; Hartlaub (3), 
p. 215 Valdivia; Bibra, p. 130 Valdivia; Boeck, p. 508 Valdivia 
(habits); Cassin, p. 190 Chile; Pelzeln (2), p. 108 Santiago; Sclater (2), 
1867, pp. 330, 339 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 267 the whole of Chile, par- 
ticularly in the south; E. Reed (2), p. 564 Cauquenes, Colchagua; Lataste 
(1), p. CXV Cordillera of Aculeo, Santiago, and Ninhue (Itata), Maule; 
Waugh and Lataste (1), p. LXXXVII Penaflor, Santiago; idem (2), p. 
CLXXII San Alfonso (Quillota), Valparaiso; E. Reed (4), p. 208 Chile; 
Lane, p. 297 near Hospital (Santiago), Arauco, Calle-Calle and Rio 
Bueno (Valdivia); Schalow (2), p. 671 Chile (egg descr.); Costes, p. 161 
Valle de Marga-Marga, Valparaiso (habits); Barros (4), p. 16 Nilahue, 
Curico; idem (5), p. 170 Cordillera of Aconcagua; Housse (1), p. 51 
Isla La Mocha, Arauco; idem (2), p. 148 San Bernardo, Santiago; 
Passler (3), p. 432 Coronel (habits, nest, and eggs); Jaffuel and Pirion, 
p. Ill Marga-Marga, Valparaiso (migratory visitor); Bullock (3), p. 
126 Cerro de Nahuelbuta, Malleco; idem (4), p. 192 Angol, Malleco 
(common). 

Columba denisea Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PL Col., livr. 86, pi. 502, Sept., 1830 
Chile; Lesson, Rev. Zool., 5, p. 209, 1842 Valdivia; idem, Echo du Monde 
Sav., 9, 2nd sem., col. 253, 1842 Valdivia. 



Dabbene's paper (in El Hornero, 4, pp. 34-38, pis. 3, 4, 1927) on M. 
berlepschi [ =M. a. garleppi], of northwestern Argentina. 

2 An adult male lately received by the British Museum extends the range of the 
Chilean Torrent-duck even to Tierra del Fuego. The bird was shot by P. W. 
Reynolds on Dec. 22, 1928, eight miles south of Lago Fagnano in the southern part 
of the island. It is the darkest specimen we have yet seen; below it is as heavily 
streaked with blackish as the type of M. fraenata, but the ground color is much 
deeper, about cinnamon-drab. The vertical connecting line above the eye is 
suggested by dusky edges. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 343 

Columba fitfroyii King, Proc. Comm. Sci. Corresp. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1, 
"1830-31," p. 15, Jan., 1831 ChiloS Island; Darwin, p. 114 peninsula 
of Tres Montes and Valparaiso; Fraser (1), p. 115 southern provinces, 
in winter near Santiago. 

Chloroenas araucana Bullock, El Hornero, 3, p. 91 (nest). 

Columba (Chloroenas) araucana Barros (10), p. 357 Aconcagua (breeding). 

Range in Chile. Central and southern provinces, from Coquimbo 
to peninsula of Tres Montes. 

Material collected. Aconcagua: Papudo, one (downy) young, 

Dec. 4, 1923. Concepcion: Cabrero, cf ad., Sept. 8, 1904. Carlos 

S. Reed. Malleco: Curacautin, 9 ad., July 19, 1923. C. S. Reed. 

-Valdivia: Mafil, <? ad., Feb. 20. Chiloe" Island: Quellon, two 

9 9 ad., Jan. 1, 1923. 

The "Torcaza" is widely distributed throughout the lowlands 
of Chile. Mr. Sanborn writes: "Common from Chiloe" to near 
Concepcion, less common in central Chile, although many were 
seen at Papudo, coast of Aconcagua, in December, 1923, where a 
nest, made of sticks, was found in thick, brushy woods about twelve 
feet above the ground, containing one downy young. The species 
was observed as far north as Tambillos, Province of Coquimbo." 
H. B. Conover and Wilfred H. Osgood found it very common on 
Chilo Island. Ambrose Lane states that he found this pigeon 
plentiful in the south, especially about Valdivia and Rio Bueno, less 
so in Arauco, but only once in a wooded and secluded glade on the 
hills near Hospital, where he was told a pair nested. Barros found it 
in the Aconcagua Valley only in winter time, though never in great 
abundance; small flocks were seen as high as 1,600 meters above 
sea level. In November, 1924, a pair nested, however, in the vicinity 
of the Estacion de Piscicultura. 

I cannot help thinking that the specimens said to be from "Tara- 
paca" in the British Museum (H. Berkeley James Collection) have 
been incorrectly labeled, since the arid nature of that country 
hardly affords suitable haunts for this woodland species. The most 
southerly recorded locality on the Chilean side of the Andes is the 
peninsula of Tres Montes, where Darwin obtained specimens during 
the voyage of the "Beagle." It also occurs on the Argentine side 
from Neuquen to Lago General Paz, western Chubut. Specimens 
from San Martin de los Andes, Neuquen, in the collection of H. B. 
Conover, are in every respect similar to the Chilean ones. 

This pigeon has never been taken in Patagonia proper, in the 
Straits of Magellan, or in Tierra del Fuego, although these districts 
are sometimes included in its range. 



344 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

242. Zenaida auriculata auriculata (Des Murs) 1 

Peristera auriculata Des Murs in Gay, Hist. fis. pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 381, pi. 
6, 1847 central provinces of Chile; Germain, p. 312 Santiago (breeding 
habits). 

Columba aurita (not of Temminck) Meyen, p. 99 Chile. 

Zenaida aurita Darwin, p. 115 Valparaiso; Fraser (1), p. 115 Chile (very 
common); Yarrell, p. 53 Chile (egg); Des Murs (2), p. 378 Chile; 
Cassin, p. 191 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 268 the whole of Chile; idem, 
Ornis, 4, p. 159 Atacama; MacFarlane, Ibis, 1887, p. 202 near La 
Serena, Coquimbo; Lataste (1), p. CXV Bureo (Chilian), -Ruble, and 
Ninhue (Itata), Maule; idem (4), p. XXXIV Caillihue (Vichuquen), 
Curic6; idem (5), p. LXII Maule; Waugh and Lataste (1), p. LXXXVII 
Pefiaflor, Santiago; idem (2), p. CLXXII San Alfonso (Quillota), 
Valparaiso. 

Zenaida auriculata Pelzeln (2), p. 109 Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 330, 339 
Chile; Schalow (2), p. 671 Santiago; Costes, p. 164 Marga-Marga, 
Valparaiso; Housse (1), p. 50 Isla La Mocha, Arauco; idem (2), p. 148 
San Bernardo, Santiago; Gigoux, p. 85 Caldera, Atacama. 

Columba meridionalis (not of Latham) Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 330, 339 Chile. 

Zenaida maculata E. Reed (2), p. 565 Cauquenes, Colchagua; Sharpe, p. 9 
Coquimbo; E. Reed (4), p. 208 Chile; Lane, p. 298 Hacienda Mansel 
(near Hospital), Santiago, Rio Pilmaiquen and Rio Bueno, Valdivia 
(habits); Jaffuel and Pirion, p. Ill Marga-Marga, Valparaiso; Bullock 
(4), p. 192 Angol, Malleco (nesting). 

Zenaida auriculata auriculata Passler (3), p. 432 Coronel (habits, eggs); 
Barros (4), p. 16 Nilahue, Curic6; idem (5), p. 171 Los Leones and Rio 
Blanco, Aconcagua; Wetmore (3), p. 180 Concon, Valparaiso. 

Range in Chile. From Atacama (Caldera) to Llanquihue; acci- 
dental in the Straits of Magellan. 

Material collected. Coquimbo: Romero, d" ad., July 11. San- 
tiago: Cajon de Maipo, d" juv., May, 1923. C. S. Reed. Colcha- 
gua: Banos de Cauquenes, d" ad., May 5; Hacienda de Cauquenes, 
two 9 9 ad., c? imm., 9 imm., May 3. Conception: Hacienda 
Gualpencillo, <? ad., April 8. Llanquihue: Rio Coihaique, Estancia 
Aisen, d 1 ad., Feb. 12; Casa de Richards, Rio SJirehuau, two 9 9 
ad., <f imm., 9 juv., Feb. 17-21. 

The "Tortolita" is the commonest species of the family, being 
found in abundance throughout the whole of the republic from 
Coquimbo to Llanquihue. In Atacama, at Caldera, Gigoux records 
it as a rare winter visitant. 

It is reported to be to some extent migratory, and to occur in 
certain parts only as a summer visitor. While chiefly found in the 

*A specimen of Nesopelia galapagoensis (Gould) in the British Museum said 
to have been obtained by Lord Byron in Chile is doubtless incorrectly labeled. 



1932 . BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 345 

plains and lower hills, it ascends the mountains, according to Barros, 
to an elevation of more than 6,000 feet. In central Chile, Ambrose 
Lane tells us, it breeds from November to December, and around 
Valdivia from Christmas till March. 

Its nest is described as resembling that of the European Turtle- 
Dove (Streptopelia turtur}. It is usually placed in a thick bush or 
the fork of a tree, often overhanging the water. 

Birds from Mendoza (Tunuyan) and Neuquen (Lake Nahuel 
Huapi) appear to be identical with the Chilean form, while a series 
from eastern Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay (Z. virgata Bertoni) 
average smaller and paler below. 

243. Metriopelia melanoptera melanoptera (Molina) 1 

Columba melanoptera Molina, Saggio Stor. Nat. Chile, pp. 236, 345, 1782 
Chile (descr. mala). 2 

Columba boliviana (d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye MS.) Eydoux and Gervais, 
Mag. ZooL, 6, cl. 2, p. 33, pi. 75, 1836 "Boliviae montes"; idem, Voy. 
Favorite, 5, (2), p. 59, pi. 23, 1839 "Boliviae montes"; Bridges, p. 95 
valleys of the Andes [of Colchagua]; Fraser (1), p. 115 Andes of Chile. 

Zenaida boliviana Darwin, p. 116 Valparaiso; Des Murs (2), p. 379 Chile; 
Philippi, Reise Wiiste Atacama, p. 163 Miguel Diaz, Antofagasta; 
MacFarlane, Ibis, 1887, p. 202 Coquimbo; Philippi (12), p. 268 central 
provinces; idem, Ornis, 4, p. 159 "Pacpote," Atacama. 

Zenaida innotata Hartlaub, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 3, p. 74, 1851 Chile. 

Chamaepelia melanura (Reichenbach MS.) Bibra, p. 130 Cordillera [of 
Santiago]. 

Metriopelia melanoptera Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 330, 339 Chile; E. Reed (2), 
p. 565 Cordillera of Cauquenes, Colchagua; Sclater (4), 1886, p. 402 
"Lalcalhuay," Tarapaca; E. Reed (4), p. 208 Chile; Lane, p. 298 "Lalcal- 
huay," Huasco, and Sacaya, Tarapaca; Schalow (2), p. 670 PuntaTeatinos, 
Coquimbo; Costes, p. 163 Valle de Marga-Marga, Valparaiso; Barros 
(4), p. 151 Nilahue, Curic6; idem (5), p. 171 Cordillera of Aconcagua; 
Housse (2), p. 149 San Bernardo, Santiago; Gigoux, p. 85 Caldera, 
Atacama; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. Ill Marga-Marga, Valparaiso. 

Range in Chile. From Tacna to Colchagua. 

Material collected. Santiago: Las Condes (18 km. northeast 
of Santiago), three rf 1 d* ad., Nov. 6, 11, 1923. Carlos S. Reed. 

Additional specimens. Tarapaca: "Llalcalhuay," d 71 ad., Feb. 1, 
1886. C. Rahmer (British Museum). "Central Chile:" three (un- 
sexed) adults and one young. Coll. Landbeck (British Museum). 

1 About the generic affinities of the species, see Wetmore, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 133, p. 178, 1926. 

2 Cf. Deautier and Steullet, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 33, p. 474, 1929. 



346 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

The "Tortolita cordillerana" ranges over the greater part of 
the northern and central provinces, and is reported to be locally 
common. During breeding time it keeps to the higher valleys and 
wooded slopes of the Cordilleras at elevations of from 6,000 to 12,000 
feet; on the approach of winter in Aconcagua early in April (fide 
R. Barros) the birds repair to the foothills and plains, and descend 
even to the coast. 

Specimens from central Chile agree with a single male from 
Tarapaca and a series from Bolivia (Parotani) and southern Peru 
(Tinta, Cuzco). This pigeon is widely diffused in the Puna Zone 
of these countries and western Argentina, while a nearly allied 
form, M. m. saturatior Chubb, replaces it in the Andes of Ecuador. 

244. Leptophaps 1 aymara (Knip and PreVost) 

Columba aymara Knip and Prevost, Les Pigeons, 2, p. 62, pi. 32, circa 1840 

"Tacora," Bolivia (type in Paris Museum examined). 
Metriopelia aymara Sclater (4), 1886, p. 402 Huasco and Sitani, Tarapaca; 

E. Reed (4), p. 208 Tarapaca; Salvadori, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 21, p. 499, 

1893 "Iquique" and Lake Huasco, Tarapaca. 
Zenaida aurisquamata Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 159 Brea, Atacama. 

Range in Chile. Cordilleras of northern Chile, in provinces of 
Atacama, Antofagasta, and Tarapaca. 

Material collected. Antofagasta: twenty miles east of San Pedro 
(alt. 12,600 feet), d" ad., 9 ad., May 1, 1924, Oct. 4, 1923. 

In Chile this dove appears to be restricted to the northern prov- 
inces. Rahmer obtained it at several localities in Tarapaca, while 
Philippi records specimens from Brea, Cordillera of Atacama. It 
is apparently absent from the central parts of the republic, although 
Maximilian Landbeck, according to Philippi (Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, 
p. 268, 1868, s. n. Columbina aurisquamata), met with it in January, 
1866, just across the Chilean frontier in the vicinity of Uspallata 
Pass, Mendoza. 

This dove inhabits the Puna Zone 2 of western Argentina (south 
to the Andes of Mendoza), northern Chile, Bolivia, and southern 
Peru. Birds from Argentina (Columbina aurisquamata Leybold) 3 
which Chubb (Ibis, 1919, p. 44) proposed to distinguish under 

l Leptophaps Reichenow, Journ. Orn., 61, p. 401, 1913 type Columba aymara 
Knip and Prevost. 

2 The specimen from "Iquique" (H. Rowland) in the British Museum is 
doubtless incorrectly labeled. 

3 Leopoldina, 8, No. 7, p. 53, March, 1873 Los Paramillos, near Uspallata, 
Prov. Mendoza. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 347 

Leybold's name, appear to me inseparable. They are by no means 
smaller, but perhaps on average slightly paler, especially below. 

245. Melopelia asiatica meloda (Tschudi) 

Columba meloda Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 9, (1), p. 385, 1843 "frequenter in 

regionibus calidris praecipue declivitatis Antium occidentalis," Peru; 

Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 159 Suca [Rio Camarones, Tarapaca). 
Zenaida souleyetiana Des Murs in Gay, Hist. fis. pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 380, 

pi. 6, 1846 Chile (type in Paris Museum examined). 
Melopelia meloda Sclater (2), pp. 330, 338 Chile; idem (4), 1886, p. 402 

Pica, Tarapaca; E. Reed (4), p. 209 Tarapaca; Lane, p. 11 Pica. 

Range in Chile. Extreme northern section, in provinces of 
Tarapaca and Tacna. 

Specimens examined. Tarapaca: Pica, d" ad., Feb. 22, 1886. 
Carlos Rahmer. Wing 166; tail 128; bill 22 (British Museum). 
"Chile:" adult. Type of Z. souleyetiana. M. Eydoux. Voyage of 
the "Bonite," 1838. Wing 162; tail 126; bill 21 (Paris Museum). 

Except for slightly larger size, the Pica bird agrees with others 
from the Peruvian littoral (Chepen; Trujillo). 

This dove is clearly but a race of M. asiatica, from which it merely 
differs by somewhat stronger bill and decidedly gray (instead of pure 
white) tips to the rectrices. Its range extends all along the Pacific 
littoral from extreme northern Chile to southwestern Ecuador (Santa 
Elena and Puna Island), while M. asiatica is found from western 
Panama northwards. No representative of the genus appears to 
exist in the intervening region. 

M. a. meloda has been twice recorded from Chile. Philippi lists 
it from Suca, on the Rio Camarones, which forms the boundary line 
between the provinces of Tarapaca and Tacna, and Lane shot a 
single male at Pica, in the first-named province. The exact locality, 
where the type of Z. souleyetiana came from, is not known. It was 
obtained by Eydoux and Souleyet during the voyage of the "Bonite" 
in 1838, and may have originated either in northern Chile or in 
Peru. 

246. Columbina picui picui (Temminck) 

Columba picui Temminck, Hist. Nat. Pig. et Gall., 1, pp. 435, 498, 1813 

based on Azara, No. 324, Paraguay; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. Ill Marga- 

Marga, Valparaiso. 
Columbina strepitans (not of Spix) Fraser (1), p. 115 Valley of Aconcagua; 

Yarrell, p. 53 Chile (egg descr.); Cassin, p. 191 "in the mountains" 

[of Chile]; Pelzeln (2), p. 109 Chile (egg descr.). 



348 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Colunibina picui Des Mure (2), p. 377 "en las provincias centrales"; Germain, 
p. 312 Santiago (breeding habits); Philippi (12), p. 268 central prov- 
inces; Waugh and Lataste (1), p. LXXXVII Penaflor, Santiago; 
Housse (2), p. 149 San Bernardo, Santiago. 

Chamaepelia cyanostigma Bibra, p. 130 near Casa Blanca, Valparaiso; Philippi 

(12), p. 325 (crit.). 
Columbula strepitans Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 330, 339 Chile (ex Pelzeln). 

Columbula picui E. Reed (2), p. 565 Colchagua; idem (4), p. 209 valleys of 
the Cordilleras; Schalow (2), p. 669 Santiago; Costes, p. 166 Valle 
de Marga-Marga, Valparaiso; Bullock (4), p. 192 Angol, Malleco. 

Columbula picui picni Barros (4), p. 16 Nilahue, Curic6 (rare). 

Columbina picui picui Barros (5), p. 171 Precordillera of Aconcagua. 

Range in Chile. Central provinces, from Aconcagua to Malleco. 

Material collected. Valparaiso: Olmue*, two d"cf ad., May 24, 
June 2. C. C. Sanborn; Palmilla, La Cruz (alt. 500 feet), 9 imm., 
Nov. 20, 1924. J. A. Wolffsohn. Santiago: Lampa, 9 ad., June 19, 
1924. C. S. Reed. 

The "Tortolita cuyana" has a very limited range in Chile, being 
restricted to some of the central provinces. It has been recorded 
by various observers from a number of localities in Valparaiso and 
Santiago, such as Olmue", Casa Blanca, Santiago, Penaflor, San 
Bernardo, and Marga-Marga. In the foothills and mountain valleys 
of Aconcagua it is reported by Bridges and Barros to be tolerably 
common. Farther south, it apparently decreases in numbers. R. 
Barros lists it as rare in the Valley of Nilahue, Curico, and Bullock 
records a single occurrence, in July, 1928, for Angol, Malleco. It 
lives in the plains and hills, and is hardly ever found above an 
elevation of 1,100 meters. 

Chilean birds are seemingly inseparable from typical picui, of 
which a large series has been examined including several topotypes 
from Paraguay. While C. p. picui thus occupies a wide area, com- 
prising central Chile, the northern parts of Argentina, Bolivia, 
Paraguay, Uruguay, and southern Brazil, without undergoing any 
noticeable change, a smaller, decidedly paler race, C. p. strepitans, 
has developed in northeastern Brazil (Bahia to Ceara and Piauhy). 1 

247. Chamaepelia talpacoti talpacoti (Temminck) 

Columba talpacoti Temminck (and Knip), Les Pigeons, 1, Colombigallines, p. 
22, pi. 12, 1811 "l'Ame>ique meridionale" = Brazil. 

Range in Chile. Accidental in Malleco (one record from Angol). 
>Cf. Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 466, 1929. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 349 

Material examined. Malleco: Angol, d 1 ad., Sept. 5, 1926. D. 
S. Bullock (Field Museum). 

A flock of about fifty individuals of this dove appeared in the 
vicinity of Angol on September 5, 1926, and one specimen was shot 
by Mr. Bullock, who very kindly presented it to Field Museum of 
Natural History. The bird agrees with our large series from Brazil. 

This is the unidentified species referred to by Mr. Bullock under 
No. 54 in his "Aves observadas en los alrededores de Angol" (Rev. 
Chil. Hist. Nat., 33, p. 192), where, by a pen-slip, the year of the 
occurrence is given as 1927. 

This dove is certainly but an accidental visitor in Chile. 

248. Eupelia 1 cruziana (Knip and PreVost) 

Columba cruziana Knip and Prevost, Les Pigeons, 2, p. 89, pi. 48, 1842 (?)* 
"Bolivia, in the vicinity of Santa Cruz," errore; we suggest coast of Tacna 
(types in Paris Museum examined). 

Chamaepelia cruziana Sclater (4), 1886, p. 402 Pica, Tarapaca; idem (6), 
1891, p. 136 Pica; E. Reed (4), p. 209 Tarapaca; Lane, p. 299 Pica 
(nesting habits). 

Columba gracilis Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 159 Canchones, Tarapaca. 
Range in Chile. Extreme northern section, in province of 
Tarapaca. 

Material collected. Tarapaca: Pica (alt. 4,000 feet), two 9 9 
imm., May 24, 1924. 

Additional specimens. "Peru" (locality not specified): d* ad., 

9 ad. D'Orbigny, 1831. Types of the species (Paris Museum). 

These skins are similar to the types, but owing to their immaturity 

they are not so bright on the breast and have a number of brownish 

feathers in the gray crown. Although the describers indicate "Santa 

Cruz, Bolivia" as habitat, the two examples in the Paris Museum, 

according to both labels and registers, were obtained by d'Orbigny 

in 1831 in "Peru," viz. in the province of Tacna. 

This handsome little dove is reported by Lane to be common at 
Pica in gardens, streets, and corrals. Philippi records it from Can- 
chones, in the same district. Lane "found a nest on top of a post 
supporting the wall of a shed in a garden; as the whole structure was 

l Eupelia Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 8, p. 512, 1913 type Columba cruziana 
Knip and PreVost. 

1 Although no definite information is available concerning the dates of pub- 
lication and contents of the various livraisons of this work, it is generally conceded 
that C. cruziana has priority over Columba gracilis Tschudi (Arch. Naturg., 9, 
(1), p. 385, 1843 Peru). 



350 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

a mere wicker-work arrangement, intended only as a shelter from 
the sun, the birds found no difficulty of passage through the inter- 
stices of the roof. The nest was a mere platform of stalks of grass, 
and contained two newly hatched young. I believe that this dove 
nests more commonly in the forks of trees or shrubs." 

E. cruziana ranges from northern Chile to western Ecuador, its 
habitat being restricted to the arid and semi-arid Tropical Zone. 

249. Gymnopelia ceciliae gymnops Chubb 

Gymnopelia ceciliae gymnops (Gray MS.) Chubb, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 38, 
p. 18, 1917 Challapata [Oruro], Bolivia. 

Gymnopelia erythrothorax Sclater (4), 1886, p. 402 Sibaya, Tarapaca; E. Reed 
(4), p. 209 Tarapaca. 

Range in Chile. Extreme northern section, in provinces of 
Tarapaca and Tacna. 

Material collected. Tacna: Putre (alt. 11,600 feet), d" ad., July 
2, 1924. 

The specimen is identical with others from the Bolivian province 
of Cochabamba (Tiraque, Vacas), which may be taken to represent 
G. c. gymnops. 

This race differs from G. c. ceciliae (Lesson), 1 of western Peru 
(Santa Eulalia and Matucana, above Lima), by much paler 2 and 
more brownish upper parts with the tail coverts buffy brown or 
buckthorn brown; lighter brown central rectrices; much deeper vinous 
foreneck and chest; and deeper buff abdomen. It has long been 
known as G. erythrothorax, a name that cannot be retained, since 
Columba erythrothorax Meyen 3 is antedated by C. erythrothorax 
Temminck. 4 

Its range comprises the extreme south of Peru (Arequipa, Puno), 
Bolivia, and the most northerly parts of Chile. In the latter country 
it was taken only once before, Carlos Rahmer having shot a single 
young male at Sibaya, in the Cordillera of Tarapaca. Its habitat 
is restricted to the arid Temperate and Puna Zones. 

l Columba (Chamoepelia) ceciliae Lesson, Echo du Monde Sav., 12, 1st sem., 
No. 1, col. 8, 1845 Peru. Syn. Columba (Chamoepelia) anais Lesson, Oeuvr. 
Buffon (e"d. LeVgque), 20, [ =Descr. Mammif. et Ois.], p. 210, 1847 Peru. 

2 Not darker, as stated in the original description. 

3 Nov. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur., 16, Suppl., p. 92, pi. 26, 
1834 Pisacoma (alt. 14,000-15,000 feet), Arequipa, Peru. 

4 Temminck and Knip, Les Pigeons, Colombigallines, p. 15, pi. 7, 1811 
"Surinam" (?). 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 351 

250. Rallus limicola antarcticus King 

Rallus antarcticus King, Zool. Journ., 4, p. 95, 1828 Straits of Magellan; 
Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 333, 339 Chile (crit.); E. Reed (2), p. 565; idem 
(4), p. 209 Chile; Philippi (24), p. 70, pi. 28 Santiago. 

Rallus uliginosus Philippi, Arch. Naturg., 14, (1), p. 83, 1858 plain of San- 
tiago; idem (12), p. 278 Santiago. 

Range in Chile. Only recorded from the province of Santiago, 
but also occurring in the Straits of Magellan and in Argentina. 

Specimens examined. Santiago Province: adult, 1866. R. A. 
Philippi. "Chile" (unspecified) : five adults. Collected by T. Bridges, 
F. Leybold, and L. Landbeck (all in the British Museum). 

Birds from central Chile (R. uliginosus) appear to be inseparable 
from others taken at Punta Arenas and Valle del Lago Blanco, 
western Chubut. 

This little-known rail is nearly related to R. limicola aequatorialis 
Sharpe, but differs by generally smaller size; 1 paler, sandy (buffy) 
instead of brownish edges to the dorsal plumage; dark gray throat, 
breast, and upper abdomen (instead of isabelline passing into white 
along middle of throat, as in aequatorialis) ; and by having the flanks 
much more broadly and more regularly barred with black and white. 

Nothing is known about its distribution in Chile beyond its having 
been obtained by several collectors in the central section, particularly 
in Santiago Province. 

251. Rallus sanguinolentus landbecki n. subsp. 

Adult. Nearest to R. s. luridus Peale, from the Straits of 
Magellan, but with slenderer, though not always shorter bill, and 
upper parts decidedly paler and more olivaceous, less rufous brown. 

Type in Field Museum of Natural History, No. 66,400. 9 ad., 
Conception, Chile, June 20, 1903. Carlos S. Reed. 

Range. The whole of Chile from Tarapaca south to Llanquihue 
(Rio Aisen). 

Remarks. The form here described is properly speaking not 
a new bird, but has been known for nearly a century under the name 
Rallus (or Limnopardalus) sanguinolentus as the Chilean race of R. 
rytirhynchus. Recent investigation of the case, however, reveals 

1 Eight specimens from Chile, Chubut, and Punta Arenas measure: wing 89-95; 
bill 29-32; seven from Ecuador and Lima: wing 100-107, once 95 mm. An adult 
female from Buenos Aires (Lomas de Zamora) with a wing of 99 mm. is, however, 
hardly smaller than R. L aequatorialis. 



352 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

the fact that no name is available for this rail, and that the nomen- 
clature of the whole group needs readjustment. 

The earliest name to be considered is Rallus rytirhynchos Vieillot, 1 
exclusively based on the "Ypecaha pardo" of Azara (No. 372), who 
claims to have seen three specimens of it presumably from Paraguay 
or the adjacent section of Argentina, although no definite locality 
is mentioned. The description, which appears to have been taken 
from immature individuals, indicates a bird with blackish brown 
top and sides of the head, pale brown occiput and nape; a whitish 
band along the middle of the under parts from the foreneck to the 
lower abdomen; and tarsi which are black anteriorly and coral-red 
laterally, while the bill is stated to be remarkably long, measuring 35^ 
French lines ( = 80 mm.). These characters certainly do not agree 
with any plumage of the species designated by authors as R. rytir- 
hynchos, and I am of the opinion that Vieillot's name should be 
dropped as unidentifiable. 

Rallus setosus King 2 cannot at present be accepted either. The 
original account does not mention any specific locality, although 
from the title of the paper 3 one is led to assume that the bird came 
from the Straits of Magellan. However, King expressly states that 
"the feathers of the lower part of the back" and "the secondary quill- 
feathers are marked with black in the centre," which is in utter dis- 
agreement with the plain-backed Magellanic race, whereas this 
feature is plainly shown in the Argentine and Brazilian forms. King's 
letter being dated "Adventure, Rio de Janeiro, July 8, 1827" (see 
Zool. Journ., 3, p. 422, 1827), I am wondering if R. setosiLS might 
not have been secured in the vicinity of the Brazilian capital, where 
a form with black-spotted back and secondaries, R. s. zelebori, is 
known to occur. Until the type, whose whereabouts are unknown, 
is found, it seems unadvisable to bring King's name into use. 

Rallies sanguinolentits Swainson 4 obviously is the first term of 
unquestionable applicability. The description, "Bill green, with a 
red spot at the base of the under mandible; plumage, above, olive 
brown; beneath, cinereous and unspotted; tail brown; the under 
coverts black. Inhabits Brazil and Chile," not containing any 
reference to the black spotting above, has been referred to the Chilean 

'Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 28, p. 549, 1819. 

2 Zool. Journ., 4, p. 94, 1828. 

3 "Extracts from a letter addressed by Capt. Philip Parker King to N. A. 
Vigors, on the Animals of the Straits of Magellan." 

4 Anim. Menag., p. 335, Dec. 31, 1837. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 353 

form. An inspection of the type courteously lent from the Cambridge 
(Eng.) Museum by the late Dr. Hans Gadow, however, shows this 
surmise to be fallacious. The type, 1 an adult bird in good condition, 
is a perfectly typical example of the eastern (Argentine-Paraguayan) 
race with heavily black-spotted middle and lower back and second- 
aries. The reddish color at the base of the mandible and on the 
lower half of the maxilla is still discernible. In the rather pale 
olivaceous tinge of the upper parts it agrees particularly well with 
certain specimens from Uruguay in the British Museum. Swain- 
son's 2 name R. sanguinolentus must, therefore, replace rytirhynchus 
auct., and becomes the specific term of the whole group. 

In 1847, Des Murs 3 described the Chilean form as Rallus bicolor, 
but this name is preoccupied by Rallus bicolor Blackwall, 4 a synonym 
of R. nigricans Vieillot. 6 

A year later, Peale 6 named Rattus luridus from Tierra del Fuego, 
which is the same as the bird separated long afterwards by Sharpe 7 
as Limnopardalus vigilantis. 

Thus, no valid name is available for the "Piden" of the Chileans, 
and we, accordingly, propose to call it R. sanguinolentus landbecki 
in commemoration of Ludwig Landbeck, who did more for the ad- 
vancement of Chilean ornithology than anybody else. 

After saying so much about their nomenclature, it seems appro- 
priate to add a few lines on the characters of the various races and 
their distribution. At the outset, I want to state that I am quite 
unable to agree with Sharpe 8 and Lowe 9 in splitting the group into 
several specific entities. In the light of our present knowledge it is 
evident that nowhere do two of them occur side by side, and their 
distinguishing features, while fairly constant in series, are not of a 
nature to suggest specific difference. Rallus nigricans, on the other 

x lt still bears Swainson's original label with the inscription: "Rallus san- 
guinolentiis Sw. Cent. No. 161 and Mus. Brazil." Besides, there is a Museum 
label: "E Mus. Acad. Cantabrigiae. Rallus rythirhynchus. Type of R. sanguino- 
lentus, Sw. Swainson Collection." 

2 Swainson may have seen Chilean birds in W. J. Hooker's collection or in the 
Zoological Society's Museum. In view of their general similarity it is not sur- 
prising that he should have regarded them as identical with his own specimen. 

3 In Gay, Hist. fis. pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 434, 1847 Chile. 

4 Edinb. Journ. Sci. (ed. Brewster), new ser., 6, No. 11, p. 78, Oct., 1832 
Brazil. 

6 Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. e<L, 28, p. 560, 1819 based on Azara, No. 371, 
Paraguay and La Plata River. 

U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, p. 223, 1848 Orange Harbour, Tierra del Fuego. 

7 Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 23, p. 31, pi. 4, 1894 Tom Bay, Straits of Magellan. 

8 Rep. Prince. Univ. Exp. Patagonia, 2, (1), p. 48, 1904. 
'Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 46, p. 37, 1925. 



354 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

hand, is obviously specifically distinct (its principal character being 
the nearly straight, greenish or yellowish bill) and is found, alongside 
with representatives of R. sanguinolentus, over a wide area of South 
America. I do not see any practical advantage in the recognition 
of such generic groups as Pardirallus or Ortygonax that have been 
advocated by certain authors, and prefer to include these neotropical 
rails in Rallus. 

(a) Rallus sanguinolentus sanguinolentus Swainson. 

Middle and lower back more or less distinctly spotted with black- 
ish; inner secondaries extensively black in the center, margined with 
brown; bill with a conspicuous red basal spot, involving the whole 
depth of the mandible and the lower half of the maxilla. 

Range. Northern Argentina, south to the Rio Negro; Paraguay; 
Uruguay; extreme southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul). 

The blackish central spots to the dorsal feathers and secondaries, 
together with the prominent red mark at the base of the bill, render 
this form readily recognizable. The ground color of the upper parts 
is subject to certain individual variation, being sometimes more 
rufescent, sometimes duller and more olivaceous. 

Among the many adults examined there was not one that lacked 
the red basal spot to the bill. The range appears to comprise the 
greater part of Argentina, from the Rio Negro northwards, as well 
as the adjoining republics of Paraguay and Uruguay, and stretches 
into the extreme south of Brazil. A specimen from Rio Grande, 
Rio Grande do Sul, agrees in color and size with the average from 
Argentina. 

Specimens have been examined from the following localities. 
Argentina, Prov. Buenos Aires: Isla Ella, Delta del Parana, d 31 ad., 
Jan. 18, 1917. R. Kemp; Barracas al Sud, two cf d" ad., one 9 ad., 
May, July, Sept. F. M. Rodriguez and S. Venturi; Avellaneda, 9 
ad., Sept. 22, 1904. F. M. Rodriguez; Belgrano, d" ad., Aug. 10, 
1876. H. Durnford;LomasdeZamora, cTad., Nov. 8, 1886. W. W. 
Withington; Alvear, adult (unsexed), Aug. 13, 1876. H. Durnford; 
Conchitas, 9 ad., Oct., 1869. W. H. Hudson; Ajo, one c? ad., 
three 9 9 ad., March, June, Sept., Oct. E. Gibson; Los Yngleses, 
Ajo, 9 ad., May 30, 1909. C. B. Grant; Del Carril, Dept. Saladillo, 
adult, Oct. 11, 1896. Cordoba: Cosquin, <? ad., Aug. 2, 1882. 
E. W. White. Entrerios: La Soledad, 9 ad., Feb. 25, 1902. C. B. 
Britton. Mendoza: Tunuyan, d" imm., 9 ad., May 25-30, 1923. 
H. B. Conover. Tucuman: San Felipe, d* imm., June 19, 1904. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 355 

L. Dinelli; Rio Colorado, cf ad., June 24, 1904. L. Dinelli; Bur- 
ruyain, 9 ad., Aug., 1926. E. Budin. Paraguay: Sapucay, cf ad., 
Nov. 18, 1902. W. Foster. Uruguay: Montevideo, adult, Burnett 
and Fitzroy; Santa Elena, Soriano, <? ad., Oct. 29, 1892. 0. V. 
Aplin. Brazil: Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, cf ad., June. H. von 
Ihering; unspecified, adult (unsexed), type of R. sanguinolentus Sw. 

(b) Rallus sanguinolentus zelebori (Pelzeln). 

Aramides zelebori Pelzeln, Reise Novara, Zool., 1, Vogel, p. 133, 1865 Lake 
Paratininga (type) and Sapitiba, Rio de Janeiro. 

Two adults from the vicinity of Rio de Janeiro, both in the Vienna 
Museum, are so much smaller and have so much slenderer, paler 
(yellowish green) bills that I cannot but maintain A. zelebori as 
subspecifically different. Both have the secondaries extensively 
black, the middle and lower back coarsely spotted with black, 1 
and a very conspicuous bright red basal spot to the bill, thus agreeing 
in coloration with R. s. sanguinolentus. The dorsal surface is decid- 
edly rufescent brown. 

Wing 110, 114; tars. 55; bill 41, 45 mm. 

Range. Southeastern Brazil, in State of Rio de Janeiro (Lake 
Paratininga and Sapitiba). 2 

Specimens examined. Lake Paratininga, adult, Aug., 1857. J. 
Zelebor ("Novara" Expedition), type; Sapitiba, 9 ad., Feb. 11, 1818. 
J. Natterer. 

(c) Rallus sanguinolentus luridus Peale. 

Rallus luridus Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 8, p. 223, 1848 Orange Harbour, 

Tierra del Fuego. 
Limnopardalus vigilantis Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 23, p. 31, pi. 4, 1894 

Tom Bay, Straits of Magellan. 

This form differs from the two preceding ones by its unspotted 
rufous brown upper parts, much larger feet and bill, and generally 
larger dimensions. The red basal spot to the bill is as a rule more 
or less obsolete or even absent, though sometimes hardly less con- 
spicuous than in sanguinolentus, but apparently always lacking on 
the upper mandible. 3 

1 In the Sapitiba bird the lower back and rump are nearly uniform black, hence 
darker than in any of the numerous specimens of typical sanguinolentus. 

2 The bird from Ypiranga, Sao Paulo, recorded by Ihering (Cat. Faun. Braz., 
1, p. 27, 1907) s. n. Limnopardalus rytirhynchus, probably belongs to R. s. zelebori. 

3 The coloration of the plate (2) in Oustalet's "Oiseaux de la Mission Scient. 
du Cap Horn" is obviously incorrect. In the text (p. 133), the bill in fresh speci- 
mens from the Cape Horn region is described as follows: "Les deux mandibules 
sont vertes sur la plus grande partie de leur longueur, mais la superieure tourne 
au bleu violac6 du c6te" du front, tandis que 1'inferieure est marquee a la base d'une 
tache rouge tres apparente." 



356 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Wing 150-163; bill 61 (once), 63-69 mm. 

Range. Straits of Magellan, Tierra del Fuego, and Cape Horn 
region. 

This rail is evidently restricted to the southern extremity of the 
South American continent and neighboring islands, where it appears 
to be resident, since birds have been taken in January, February, 
March, April, June, and December. 

We have examined specimens from the following localities. 
Magallanes: Tom Bay, Madre de Dios Island, Trinidad Channel, 
9 ad., April 13, 1879. R. W. Coppinger (type of L. vigilantis); 
Mayne Harbor, d* ad., March, 1880. R. W. Coppinger; Puerto 
Bueno, West Smyth's Channel, rf ad., Feb. 6, 1903. M. J. Nicoll; 
Port Fleury, Straits of Magellan, d" ad., Jan. 29, 1879. R. W. 
Coppinger; Isla Afio Nuevo, Tierra del Fuego, cf ad., Dec., 1918. 
E. Barcelo; Hermit Island, adult. Antarctic Expedition; Bay Gret- 
ton, Wollaston Island, cf ad., two 9 9 ad., Dec. 25, June 21-22; 
Maxwell Island, 9 ad., June 26, 1883; M. Hahn (French Cape Horn 
Expedition). 

(d) Rallus sanguinolentus landbecki Hellmayr. 

Rallus sanguinolentus (not of Swainson) Darwin, p. 133 Valparaiso; Fraser 

(1), p. 108 Chile; Yarrell, p. 54 Chile (egg descr.); Sclater (2), 1867, 

pp. 333, 339 Chile; Lane, p. 299 Pica, central and southern Chile, 

Chiloe\ 
Rallus bicolor (not of Blackwall) Des Murs (2), p. 434 Chile; Boeck, p. 510 

Valdivia; Germain, p. 314 Santiago (breeding habits); Frauenfeld, p. 639 

Lake Aculeo, Santiago; Philippi (12), p. 278 the whole of Chile; 

Lataste (1), p. CXV Bureo (Chilian), Ruble; idem (4), p. XXXIV 

Caillihue (Vichuquen), Curic6; idem (5), p. LXIII Junquillos, ftuble; 

Waugh and Lataste (1), p. LXXXIX Penaflor, Santiago; idem (2), p. 

CLXXIII San Alfonso, Valparaiso. 
Rallus caesius (not of Spix) Cassin, p. 195 interior of Chile; Schlegel, Mus. 

Pays-Bas, Ralli, p. 8, 1865 Santiago. 

Aramides bicolor and Aramides sanguinolentus Pelzeln (2), pp. 133, 134 Chile. 
Rallus rythrhynchus (sic) E. Reed (2), p. 565 Cauquenes, Colchagua; Gigoux, 

p. 83 Caldera, Atacama. 

Rallus rhytorhynchus Sclater (6), 1891, p. 136 Pica, Tarapaca. 
Rallus erythyrhynchus (sic) E. Reed (4), p. 209 Chile. 
Limnopardalus rytirhynchus sanguinolentus Schalow (2), p. 669 Punta Tea- 

tinos, Coquimbo; Passler (3), p. 438 Coronel (breeding habits). 
Pardirallus rityrhynchus sanguinolentus Chubb, Ibis, 1919, p. 51 Maquehue 

and Pelal, Temuco; Bullock, El Hornero, 3, p. 91 (nest). 
Pardirallus rytirhynchus subsp. sanguinolentus Barros (4), p. 16 Nilahue, 

Curico. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 357 

Pardiralltis ryiirhynchus sanguinolentus Barros (5), p. 171 Cordillera of 
Aconcagua. 

Rallus rytirhynchus Housse (1), p. 52 Isla La Mocha, Arauco; idem (2), p. 
150 San Bernardo, Santiago; Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 113 Marga-Marga, 
Valparaiso; Bullock (4), p. 203 Angol, Malleco (breeding). 

Range. Chile, from Tarapaca to Llanquihue (Rio Aisen), and 
the adjacent section of southwestern Argentina (western Chubut 
and western Santa Cruz). 

Material collected. Atacama: Ramadilla, Copiapo Valley, 9 
ad., Aug. 24. Cautin: Rio Lolen (alt. 3,600 feet), Lonquimai Valley, 
9 imm., cf juv., Feb. 11. Valdivia: Mafil, cf vix ad., cf imm., 
9 juv., Feb. 21. Chiloe" Island: Quellon, two cf cf ad., one 9 ad., 
Jan. 17-19; Rio Inio, cf ad., 9 ad., Dec. 22, Jan. 5. Llanquihue: 
Casa de Richards, Rio Rirehuau, cf ad., cf vix ad., Feb. 21-27; 
Balseo, junction of Rios Simpson and Maniuales, near Puerto 
Aisen, cf imm., April 12. 

Additional specimens. Tarapaca: Pica, 9 ad., May 24, 1890. 
A. Lane. 1 Coquimbo: Vicuna, adult, July 1, 1886. R. H. Powell. 3 
Santiago (not specified): cf ad., 1871. F. Leybold; 1 cf ad., June 14, 
1924. C. S. Reed; 2 two cf cf ad., Sept., 1872. E. C. Reed. 3 
O'Higgins: Raricagua, cf ad., June 22, 1924. C. S. Reed.* Curic6: 
Teno, cf ad., May 23, 1923. C. S. Reed. 2 Concepcion: Vegas de 
Talcaguano, cf ad., June 12, 1924. C. S. Reed; 2 Concepcion, 9 
ad., June 20, 1903. C. S. Reed (Field Museum); Penco, cf ad., 
June 20, 1904. C. S. Reed; 3 Cabrero, 9 ad., June 8, 1903. C. S. 
Reed. 3 Ruble: Junquillos (San Carlos de Chilian), 9 ad., May 23, 
1895. F. Lataste (Paris Museum). Arauco: Maquegua, two cf cf 
ad., July 19, Aug. 10, 1890. A. A. Lane. 1 Malleco: cf ad., June 8, 
1924. C. S. Reed. 2 Cautin: Maquehue, one cf ad., two 9 9 ad., 
one 9 imm., March 5, 28, Jan. 19, Sept. 9. D. S. Bullock; 1 Pelal, 
Temuco, two 9 9 ad., Nov. 20, 1909. A. C. Saldana; 1 Chapod, 
Temuco, 9 ad., April 19, 1910. A. C. Saldana. 1 Valdivia: Rio 
Bueno, cf ad., Jan. 9, 1890. A. A. Lane. 1 

The Chilean race is closely allied to R. s. luridus and resembles 
it in the uniform (unspotted) upper parts, but feet and bill are 
decidedly weaker, while the coloration above is lighter, more oliva- 
ceous (less rufous) brown. Some of the Chilean birds have the bills 
quite as long as luridus, and a few approach it also in the saturated 

British Museum (Natural History), London. 

1 Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 

1 Tring Museum, Herts., England. 



358 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

tone of the dorsal plumage; but in series the two forms are clearly 
separable. 

There does not seem to be any local variation, birds from Copiapo 
and Santiago being identical with others from southern Chile. A 
single female from Pica, Tarapaca, however, is smaller and has a 
remarkably short bill. 

The red spot at the base of the bill is very rarely so well-marked 
as in R. s. sanguinolentus. In most cases it is rather obsolete or even 
absent as in R. s. luridus, although the red color sometimes encroaches 
on the extreme lower portion of the upper mandible. 

The "Piden" is reported to be common in suitable places through- 
out the republic. According to Barros, it is found in the Cordilleras 
up to about 6,000 feet elevation. It appears to be also this form 
that occurs on the eastern side of the Andes in the western districts 
of Chubut and Santa Cruz. An immature female from Puesto 
Burro, Chubut (Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, No. 9395. 
April 22, 1918. E. Budin) I am unable to distinguish from Chilean 
specimens in corresponding plumage, and Wetmore 1 likewise refers 
an adult bird from Caracoles, Santa Cruz, to the present race. 

MEASUREMENTS 

Adult males Wing Bill 

Three from Santiago 138,140,150 59,63, 

One from Rancagua 150 68 

One from Curico 147 67 

Two from Conception 150,150 65,69 

Two from Arauco 144,146 67,68 

One from Malleco 148 64 

One from Cautin 150 67 

Two from Valdivia 145,150 67,68 

Three from Chiloe Island 140,150,152 62,66,68 

One from Rio Nirehuau 150 60 

Adult females 

One from Pica, Tarapaca 130 43 

One from Copiapd, Atacama 135 

Two from Conception 140,140 59,59 

One from Ruble 142 56 

Five from Cautin 137,137,138,141,149 54,56,57,57,65 

Two from ChiloS Island 141,144 55,57 

Two additional races, R. s. tschudii (Chubb) and R. s. simonsi 
(Chubb), inhabit Peru. They are closely related to R. s. sanguino- 
lentus, and need not be discussed any farther in the present connection. 

252. Creciscus jamaicensis salinasi (Philippi) 

Rallus salinasi Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile, 14, p. 180, 1857 Chile; idem, 
Arch. Naturg., 23, (1), p. 262, 1857 Chile. 

l Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 424, 1926. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 359 

Gallinula salinasi Philippi (12), p. 278 only in the province of Santiago. 
Porzo.no, jamaicensis (not of Gmelin) Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 333, 339 Chile; 

E. Reed (2), p. 565 Colchagua (?); idem (4), p. 209 Chile. 
EaMtts (Porzana) salinasi Philippi (24), p. 69, pi. 23, fig. 2 Chile. 

Range in Chile. Definitely recorded only from the province of 
Santiago, but doubtless more widely distributed. 

Specimens examined. Santiago: Vicinity of Santiago, 9 ad., 
9 imm., Sept., 1865. R. A. Philippi (U. S. National Museum); 
cf imm., 9 juv., 1866. F. Leybold (Munich Museum). 

This little rail, originally discovered by Eulojio Salinas near 
Santiago, was afterwards obtained in the same district by R. A. 
Philippi and F. Leybold. Nothing is known about its habits, though 
it is not likely to differ from its congeners. Mr. Sanborn believes 
that he saw it in the Copiapo Valley, near Ramadilla, Atacama. 
All the specimens preserved in collections are from Santiago. 

C. j. salinasi is closely related to the Black Rail of North America, 
but may be distinguished by the much more extensive as well as 
brighter (russet instead of carob or chestnut brown) nuchal area 
and slightly longer toes. As far as the blackish ground color and the 
restricted white marginal spots of the dorsal plumage are concerned, 
the two birds are very much alike. Another close ally, C. j. muri- 
vagans Riley, 1 inhabits the littoral of Peru. It is very similar to 
C. j. salinasi, but has the back more of a brownish hue with the white 
markings forming regular bars across the whole width of the feathers 
instead of being broken into isolated spots. There can be no question 
in my mind that these South American "species" are merely slightly 
differentiated races of the northern Black Rail. 

253. Porphyriops melanops crassirostris (J. E. Gray) 

Fulica crassirostris J. E. Gray in Griffith's Anim. Kingd., Birds, 3, p. 542 
and plate, 1829 "South America" (type in British Museum examined). 

Gallinula crassirostris Darwin, p. 133 Valparaiso; Fraser (1), p. 118 
[Colchagua] Chile (egg descr.); Yarrell, p. 54 Chile (egg descr.); Des 
Murs (2), p. 436, pi. 9 Chile (monog.); Boeck, p. 510 Valdivia; Cassin, 
p. 196 Chile; Germain, p. 314 Santiago; Frauenfeld, p. 639 Lake 
Aculeo, Santiago; Pelzeln (2), p. 135 Chile (egg descr.); Schlegel, Mus. 
Pays-Bas, Ralli, p. 49, 1865 Santiago and Valdivia; Philippi (12), p. 278 
the whole of Chile; Lataste (5), p. LXII San Carlos (Junquillos), 
ftuble (spec, examined); Waugh and Lataste (1), p. LXXXVIII Penaflor, 
Santiago; Housse (2), p. 150 San Bernardo, Santiago. 

Ortygomet ra femoralis Hartlaub (3), p. 216 Valdivia. 

Hydrocicca melanops Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 333, 339 Santiago. 

l Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 29, p. 104, 1916 Lima, Peru. 



360 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Porphyriops crassirostris Sclater and Salvin, P. Z. S. Lond., 1868, p. 461 
Chile (crit.). 

Porphyriops melanops E. Reed (2), p. 565 Cauquenes, Colchagua; Salvin (2), 
p. 428 Coquimbo Lagoon; E. Reed (4), p. 209 Chile; Lane, p. 300 
Valdivia; Schalow (2), p. 668 Villarrica; Barros (4), p. 17 Nilahue, 
Curic6; Housse (1), p. 52 Isla La Mocha, Arauco; Jaffuel and Pirion, 
p. 113 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso (breeding); Bullock (4), p. 203 Angol, 
Malleco. 

Porphyriops melanops melanops Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 33, p. 159, 
1914 Temuco, Cautin; Passler (3), p. 434 Coronel (breeding habits). 

Range in Chile. From Coquimbo to Llanquihue. 

Specimens examined. Coquimbo: Coquimbo, 9 ad., Nov., 1881. 
A. H. Markham Santiago: Penaflor, <? ad., Feb. 26, 1895. F. 
Lataste; Santiago, d" ad., 1872. F. Leybold (British Museum). 
Ruble: Junquillos (San Carlos de Chilian), <? ad., May 23, 1895. 

F. Lataste (Berlepsch Collection, Frankfort Museum). Cautin: 
Finfin, Temuco, three d"d* ad., April 30, 1910. A. C. Saldana; 
Maquehue, Temuco, rf 1 ad., Sept. 23, 1904. D. S. Bullock. Val- 
divia: Rio Contra, <? juv., Feb. 19, 1891. A. A. Lane (all in the 
British Museum). Llanquihue: Desagiie, 9 ad., April 12, 1895. 

G. Hopke (Frankfort Museum). Chile (unspecified): five adults. 
H. Berkeley James Collection (British Museum). 

Comparison with a fair series from eastern Argentina (Buenos 
Aires region) and Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul and Bahia) tends to 
show that Chilean birds may be separated on account of their 
generally longer wings and stouter, more elevated bills. While it 
must be admitted that measurements slightly overlap and that the 
bill in some Chilean examples is by no means larger than in the general 
run from Argentina, certain birds from the east are remarkably 
small-billed, and their wings never attain the high figures frequently 
reached by specimens from the Pacific side. The type of Fulica 
crassirostris, from an unknown locality, presented by W. Hennah 
to the British Museum, according to dimensions of wing and bill, 
is a typical example of the Chilean form. 

MEASUREMENTS 

P. m. melanops Wing Tail Bill 

Four adult males from Aj6, Buenos Aires 123,125, 54,55, 29,31, 

128,128 56,59 32,32 
One adult male from Dept. Saladillo, 

Prov. Buenos Aires 117 52 24 

One adult from Espartillar, Buenos Aires 119 52 25 

One adult male from Buenos Aires 125H 54 29^ 

Two adults from near Colonia, Rio de la Plata 115,125 56,58 27,28 
One adult from Sao Lourenco, Rio Grande 

do Sul, Brazil 128 52 27M 

One adult female from Joazeiro, Bahia 120 49 30 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 361 

P. TO. crassirostris Wing Tail Bill 

Two adult males from Santiago Province 130,134 57,59 28,30 

One adult male from Junquillos, Nuble 135 64 30^ 

Four adult males from Temuco, Cautin 126,134, 57,60, 28,29, 

134,141 60,62 29,30 

One adult female from Coquimbo 126 55 27 

One adult female from Llanquihue 127 62 29 

Type of Fulica crassirostris Gray 135 58 32 

So far as coloration is concerned, I am unable to discover any 
constant difference between the two races. The presence of white 
at the tips of the shorter secondaries is evidently a purely individual 
character, and has no geographic significance. 

The "Tagiiita" is reported as common around lakes and marshes 
in the southern and central provinces. In the north it ranges as 
far as Coquimbo, where specimens have been taken by Markham 
and Plate. 

254. Gallinula chloropus garmani Allen 

Gallinula garmani Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. ZooL, 3, p. 357, 1876 Lake 
Titicaca, Peru. 

Gallinula galeata (not of Lichtenstein) Sclater (4), 1886, p. 402 Sitani, 
Tarapaca; idem (6), 1891, p. 136 Sacaya, Tarapaca; E. Reed (4), p. 
209 Chile; Lane, p. 300 Sacaya, Tarapacd (habits). 

Range in Chile. Cordilleras of Tarapaca. 

Specimens examined. Tarapaca: Sacaya, three c? 1 rf 1 ad., one 
d 1 imm., one 9 ad., Jan. 25, March 13, 16, 29, April 30, 1890. A. A. 
Lane; Sitani, 9 ad., Jan. 20, 1886. C. Rahmer (British Museum). 

The series agrees with another from Peru and Bolivia, including 
a number of topotypes. The large size, the nearly uniform dark 
slaty coloration (at best with a slight dull brownish olive tinge on 
lower back and rump), and the slaty blackish head and neck readily 
distinguish G. c. garmani from the other South American races of the 
moorhen. 

It is apparently a high Andean representative of the group, which 
lives in the Temperate and Puna Zones (from 10,000 feet upwards) 
of Peru, Bolivia, northern Chile, and northwestern Argentina. In 
addition to the Tarapaca series, we have examined specimens from 
the following localities: Lake Junin (three); Puno, west shore of 
Lake Titicaca (three); Chililaya, Lake Titicaca, Bolivia (three); 
Laguna de Tambo, Arequipa, Peru (one); Vacas, Cochabamba, 
Bolivia (one); Puna de Jujuy, Argentina (one). 

The wing ranges in males from 212 to 228, in females from 190 
to 210 mm. ; the specimens from Junin being on average slightly larger 
(220 and more) than the others. 



362 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Birds from the littoral of northwestern Peru (Reque and Eten, 
Lambayeque; Trujillo, Libertad) 1 are much smaller (wing 157-165 
mm.), paler, and extensively olive brown on the dorsal surface. They 
appear to be very near to G. g. pauxilla Bangs, but differ by much 
shorter bill with much less expanded frontal plate. 

According to Lane, Garman's Moorhen is by no means uncom- 
mon in the marshes of Sacaya, Tarapaca. It is locally known as 
"Llagareto," nests in rushes, sedges, etc., laying about five eggs in 
January or February, and occurs up to 11,000 feet. 



[Gallinula chloropus galeata (Lichtenstein) does not occur in Chile, 
as has been pointed out long ago by Philippi (P. Z. S. Lond., 1868, 
p. 532). Des Murs's statement (in Gay, p. 437) that G. galeata is 
"comun en los lagos de la Republica" refers without doubt to some 
species of Ftdica, and so does Frauenfeld's sight-record (p. 639) from 
Lake Aculeo, Santiago.] 

255. Fulica cornuta Bonaparte 

Fulica cornuta Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Ac. Sci. Paris, 37, p. 925, Dec., 1853 
Bolivia (type from Potosi, coll. Castelnau, in Paris Museum examined) ; 
Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 160 Lake Ascotan, Antofagasta. 

Range in Chile. Puna of Antofagasta (one record from Lake 
Ascotan). 

Philippi records this species from Lake Ascotan, at an altitude 
of about 15,000 feet, in the Cordillera of northeastern Antofagasta. 

This coot, immediately recognizable by the caruncles on the 
frontal shield, is only known from a few localities, all above 13,000 
feet, in northwestern Argentina, Bolivia, and northern Chile. Dis- 
covered by Castelnau and Deville near Potosi, Bolivia, in 1845, the 
type remained unique in the French National collection until the 
late G. Baer 2 secured specimens at the Laguna de Cerro Pelado (alt. 
16,000-17,000 feet), in the Aconquija Range, Tucuman. Additional 
specimens have since been obtained on the Laguna de las Cumbres 
Calchaquies (alt. 15,000 feet), Tucuman, 3 and on Lake Poopo, 
Oruro, Bolivia. 4 

*We have not seen birds from Lima. 

2 Cf. Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 14, p. 38, 1904; Baer, Ornis, 12, p. 232, 
1904. 

3 Lillo, Rev. Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, p. 70, 1905; Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., 
16, p. 260, 1909. 

4 Menegaux, Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, (10), 1, p. 220, 1909. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 363 

256. Fulica gigantea Eydoux and Souleyet 

Fulcia (sic) giganlea Eydoux and Souleyet, Voy. Bonite, Zool., 1, p. 102, pi. 
8, 1841 Peru. 

Fulica gigantea Sclater (4), 1886, p. 402 Cueva Negra, near Sacaya, Tarapaca 
(eggs descr.); idem (6), 1891, p. 136 Sacaya, Tarapaca; Lane, p. 301 
Sacaya, Tarapaca; Blaauw (1), p. 14 "Laguna Huachiri," Chile. 

Range in Chile. Cordilleras of Tarapaca and Tacna. 

Specimens examined. Tarapaca: Cueva Negra, two 9 9 ad., 
Feb. 10, 1886. C. Rahmer; Sacaya, rf 1 ad., March 18, 1890. A. 
Lane (British Museum). 

These birds are identical with others from Peru (Junin). 

Within Chilean limits the Gigantic Coot has only been found in 
Tarapaca, where it is said to be far from common. In fact, Lane 
writes that in the district visited by him it was very local, being 
confined to certain pools. There was a small piece of marsh at 
Sacaya in the upper part of the valley with a few acres of water and 
a fair amount of sedgy grass about it. On this Lane found a colony 
of F. gigantea and F. ardesiaca, but never saw them anywhere else 
but in this one spot, from which they appeared never to stray. The 
altitude of this marsh was nearly 11,000 feet. 

Blaauw states that the Museo Nacional at Santiago has two 
specimens of this coot taken in 1870 on the Laguna Huachiri, a 
place that I have not been able to locate on any map. 

F. gigantea inhabits the Puna Zone of Peru, Bolivia, and northern 
Chile. 

257. Fulica ardesiaca Tschudi 

Fulica ardesiaca Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 9, (1), p. 389, 1843 Peru, sc. Lake 
Junin (see Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 303); Sclater (4), 1886, p. 402 Huasco, 
Tarapaca; idem (6), 1891, p. 136 Sacaya, Tarapaca; Philippi, Ornis, 4, 
p. 160 Antofagasta; Lane, p. 203 Sacaya, Tarapaca. 

Range in Chile. Cordilleras of Tarapaca and Antofagasta. 

Specimens examined. Tarapaca: Sitani, d" ad., 9 ad., Jan. 20, 
1886. C. Rahmer (British Museum). 

These examples agree with others from Peru (Lake Junin; Laguna 
de Tungasuca). 

Lane found this coot in company with F. gigantea on a marsh 
in the upper part of the Sacaya Valley. Carlos Rahmer obtained 
it at Sitani, Tarapaca, and Philippi lists it from Antofagasta. 

F. ardesiaca is widely distributed in the Puna and Temperate 
Zones of the Andes from Ecuador south to Bolivia and northern 
Chile. 



364 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

258. Fulica rufifrons Philippi and Landbeck 

Fulica (misprinted Tulica) rufifrons Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. 
Chile, 19, No. 4, p. 507, Oct., 1861 Chile; Landbeck, Arch. Naturg., 
28, (1), pp. 223, 225, 226, 1862 Chile, sc. Santiago; Philippi (24), p. .71 
Chile; Housse (2), p. 150 San Bernardo, Santiago; idem (3), p. 227 
Isla La Mocha, Arauco; Passler (3), p. 436 Coronel (breeding habits); 
Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 113 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso. 

Fulica leucopyga (not of Wagler, 1831) Hartlaub, Journ. Orn., 1, "1853," 
Extraheft, p. 84, 1854 Talcaguano; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Ralli, 
p. 64, 1865 Santiago (crit.); Pelzeln (2), p. 135 Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, 
pp. 333, 339 Chile; Schalow (2), p. 667 Villarrica and La Serena, 
Coquimbo. 

Fulica ruifrons (sic) Philippi (12), p. 279 central provinces. 

Fulica lecopygia (sic) E. Reed (2), p. 566 Cauquenes, Colchagua. 

Fulica lencopyga (sic) E. Reed (4), p. 209 Chile. 

Range in Chile. Central provinces, from Coquimbo to Arauco. 

Material collected. Talca: Camarico, 9 ad., Aug. 14, 1924. 
C. S. Reed. Conception: Penco, & ad., Sept. 10, 1904. C. S. 
Reed. Malleco: 9 ad., June 8, 1924. C. S. Reed. 

In addition, I have examined a number of Chilean specimens from 
unspecified localities in European collections. 

This coot is easily distinguishable from the two other species 
found in the central provinces by the dark red frontal shield ending 
posteriorly in a narrow acute point and the proportionately longer 
tail ; the first (outermost) primary lacks every trace of a white margin. 
Landbeck and Wetmore 1 have accurately described the characters 
of this bird. 

Very little definite information is available about the exact limits 
of its breeding range in Chile. From the data at hand it seems to 
extend from Coquimbo (where L. Plate secured eggs) at least 
to Coronel, where Passler found it nesting in October. According to 
Landbeck (1. c., p. 226) and Passler, the eggs are readily distinguished 
from those of F.armillata by more elongated shape, smoother surface, 
and greenish color with dusky markings which are more evenly 
distributed. 

F. rufifrons occurs also in Argentina, Uruguay, and Sao Paulo 
(Iguape"). 

Specimens from the Falkland Islands, which we have not seen, 
are said to be somewhat smaller. 

'Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 133, p. 119, 1926. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 365 

259. Fulica armillata Vieillot 

Fulica armillata Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. &L, 12, p. 47, 1817 
based on Azara, No. 448, Paraguay; Lesson (11), p. 209 Valparaiso; 
idem (12), p. 253 Valparaiso; Hartlaub (3), p. 217 Rio de Valdivia; 
idem, Journ. Orn., 1, "1853," Extraheft, p. 83, 1854 Valdivia and Val- 
paraiso (monog.); Pelzeln (2), p. 136 Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 334, 
339 Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 566 Cauquenes, Colchagua; idem (4), p. 
209 Chile; Schalow (2), p. 668 La Serena, Coquimbo, and El Pozo, 
Lago Llanquihue; Barros (4), p. 17 Nilahue, Curico; Passler (3), p. 435 
Coronel (breeding habits); Wetmore (3), p. 118 Concon, Valparaiso; 
Bullock (4), p. 204 Angol, Malleco (breeding); Barros (10), p. 355 
Cordillera of Aconcagua. 

Fulica galeata (lapsu) Darwin, p. 133 Concepcion; Fraser (1), p. 118 lakes 
of Quintero and Santo Domingo (spec, examined in British Museum); 
Yarrell, p. 54 Chile (eggs descr.). 

Fulica frontata Gray, List Spec. Birds Brit. Mus., 3, p. 124, 1844 Valparaiso 
(nom. mid.; spec, examined in British Museum). 

Fulica chiknsis Gay, Hist. fis. pol. Chile, Atlas, pi. 10, 1848; Des Murs, 1. c., 
8, p. 474, 1854 Chile; Cassin, p. 196 vicinity of Santiago; Germain, 
p. 314 Santiago (breeding habits); Frauenfeld, p. 638 Lake Aculeo, 
Santiago; Philippi and Landbeck (6), p. 506 Chile; Landbeck (3), pp. 
221, 224, 226 Chile (monog.); Philippi (12), p. 279 Valdivia to central 
provinces. 

Fulica chlorop[oides] Boeck, p. 510 Calle-Calle River, Valdivia; Lataste (5), 
pp. LXII, LXIII Junquillos (San Carlos), Nuble; Waugh and Lataste 
(1), p. LXXXIX Penaflor, Santiago; idem (2), p. CLXXIII San 
Alfonso (Quillota), Valparaiso (spec, in British Museum examined). 

(?) Fulica americana (errore) Bibra, p. 131 lakes near Santiago. 

Fulica leucopygia (errore) Sharpe, p. 14 Talcaguano (spec, in British Museum 
examined). 

Range in Chile. From Coquimbo to the Straits of Magellan. 

Material collected. Temuco: Puyehue, d" 1 ad., Jan. 27, 1912. 
A. C. Saldana. Valdivia: Rinihue, 9 ad., March 9. Llanquihue: 
Casa de Richards, Rio Sfarehuau, cf ad., c? imm., 9 imm., March 1. 

Additional specimens. Valparaiso: San Alfonso, Quillota, d" 
ad., June 23, 1894. F. Lataste; Valparaiso, adult (not sexed). 
Burnett and Fitzroy (Fulica frontata Gray). Santiago: Hacienda 
de Convento, near San Antonio, d" ad., Dec. 5, 1889. A. Lane. 
Ruble: San Carlos de Chilian, <? juv., April 13, 1895. F. Lataste. 
Concepcion: Talcaguano, d* ad., Sept. 18, 1879. R. W. Coppinger 
(SS. "Alert"). 

This is the commonest coot in Chile, especially in the central 
and southern provinces, where it is reported to breed in large numbers. 
The large feet, the reddish tarsi, and the absence of prominent white 
tips to the secondaries serve to distinguish it from F. leucoptera. 



366 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

The eggs are described by Landbeck as being similar to those of F. 
rufifrons, but more roundish with rougher shell and of a more olive 
brownish color with more numerous dusky spots of unequal size. 
Passler tells us that around Coronel this coot breeds in October 
and early November. It was clearly the same species that Bridges 1 
found in abundance on the lakes of Quintero and Santo Domingo 
in central Chile. Plate secured specimens in the breeding season 
at La Serena, Coquimbo (October), as well as on the shores of Lake 
Llanquihue (November). R. Barros met with this coot in the lagoons 
of the Cordilleras of Aconcagua up to an elevation of 10,000 feet. 
In the south it leaves the nesting grounds at the approach of the 
rainy season, and repairs to the lagoons along the seacoast. 

Sclater, in a footnote to Lane's paper (Ibis, 1897, p. 302), claims 
that this collector obtained F. armillata in Tarapaca, but this appears 
to be a mistake, since no authentic examples from this province are 
in the British Museum collection. 

Outside of Chile, F. armillata is widely diffused in Argentina, 
Paraguay, Uruguay, and southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul to 
Sao Paulo). 

260. Fulica leucoptera Vieillot 

Fulica leucoptera Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 12, p. 48, 1817 
based on Azara, No. 447, Paraguay and Buenos Aires; Sclater (4), 1886, 
p. 403 Huasco, Tarapaca; Lane, p. 302 Sacaya, Tarapaca; E. Reed 
(4), p. 209 Chile; Schalow (2), p. 667 Lago Llanquihue; Passler (3), 
p. 436 Coronel (breeding habits); Wetmore (3), p. 120 Rio Aconcagua, 
near Concon, Valparaiso. 

Fulica chloropoides Philippi and Landbeck (6), p. 503 Chile and Arica, 
"Peru" (monog.); Landbeck (3), pp. 218, 224, 227 Magellan, Valdivia, 
Santiago, Arica (crit.); Philippi (12), p. 279 Chile to Straits of Magellan; 
Gigoux, p. 84 Caldera, Atacama. 
Fulica stricklandi Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 334, 339 Chile. 
Range in Chile. From Tacna to the Straits of Magellan. 
Material collected. Conception: Penco, two cf c? ad., July 20, 
Aug. 26, 1904. C. S. Reed. 

Additional specimens. Tarapaca: Huasco, 9 ad., Feb. 17, 1886. 
C. Rahmer; Sacaya, 9 ad., Jan. 24, 1890. A. Lane. Temuco: 
Pelal, 9 ad., May 11, 1910. A. C. Saldana; Maquehue, d" ad., 9 
ad., Sept. 14, 23. D. S. Bullock (British Museum). 

Birds from Tarapaca are precisely similar to others from Con- 
cepcion and Temuco, all having the secondaries widely tipped with 

J The identity results from the note "legs reddish brown" (Fraser, 1. c., p. 118) 
and from one of his specimens in the British Museum. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 367 

white, a very prominent white margin along the outer web of the 
first primary, and the posteriorly rounded frontal plate scarcely 
darker than the yellowish bill. 

This species has the widest range in Chile. It extends north 
to the Peruvian border, specimens having been taken in the Andes 
of Tarapaca by both Rahmer and Lane. Landbeck records a young 
bird even from so far north as Arica, where, according to Frobeen, 
it is, however, of rather unusual occurrence. It is stated to breed 
on the lakes around Santiago, Valdivia, and in Llanquihue. Passler 
found it breeding in October near Coronel. Its eggs are described 
by Landbeck as being smaller, paler, and more thickly spotted than 
those of the other species occurring in central Chile. In the south 
it ranges to the Straits of Magellan and Tierra del Fuego, and is 
also found throughout Argentina, eastern Bolivia (San Miguel, 
Chiquitos), Uruguay, and extreme southern Brazil (Rio Grande 
do Sul). 

261. Jacana spinosa jacana (Linnaeus) 

Parrajacana Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 259, 1766 based on Marc- 
grave, Edwards, and Brisson, restr. type locality, Surinam; Philippi (24), 
p. 71 Quillota, Valparaiso. 

Range in Chile. Once recorded from Quillota, Valparaiso. 

Philippi states that a single specimen of the Jacana was caught 
in the vicinity of Quillota in 1895. Its occurrence in Chile is doubtless 
accidental. 

262. Belonopterus cayennensis occidentalis (Harting) 1 

Vanellus occidentalis Harting, P. Z. S. Lond., 1874, p. 450 Chile, Patagonia, 
and (?) Falkland Islands; Sharpe, p. 14 Talcaguano. 

Vanellus grisescens Prazak, Orn. Monatsber., 4, p. 23, 1896 northern Chile. 

Belonopterus cayennensis molina Lowe, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 41, p. Ill, 1921 
new name iorB, chilensis auct. nee Molina. 

Charadrius cayanus (errore) Meyen, p. 106 Chile. 

Philomachus cayanus Darwin, p. 127 Chile. 

Vanellus cayennensis Bridges, p. 94 Colchagua; Des Murs (2), p. 400 Chile; 
Bibra, p. 131 Quillota and Santiago; Hartlaub (3), p. 215 Valdivia; 
Boeck, p. 509 Valdivia; Cassin, p. 195 interior of Chile; Germain, 
p. 313 Santiago (nesting habits); Frauenfeld, p. 639 Lake Aculeo, 

l Parra chilensis Molina (Saggio Stor. Nat. Chile, pp. 258, 344, 1782) I consider 
an unidentifiable mixtum compositum of B. c. occidentalis and Jacana j. jacana, 
although some of the characters were doubtless taken from the Lapwing. In 
addition to what is said about the two-lobed frontal shield, the passage: "il collo, 
il doreo e la parte anteriore delle ali di color violetto" is so utterly in disagreement 
with its characters that the name had better be dropped altogether. 



368 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Santiago; Pelzeln (2), p. 115 Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 331, 339 

Chile; Philippi (12), p. 271 Chile; Lataste (1), p. CXV Bureo (Chilian), 

Ruble; 1. c., p. CXVI Ninhue (Itata), Maule; idem (5), p. LXII 

Maule; Waugh and Lataste (1), p. LXXXVIII Penaflor, Santiago; 

idem (2), p. CLXXII San Alfonso (Quillota), Valparaiso; Johow, p. 

238 Mas A Tierra. 

Philomachus chilensis Fraser (1), p. 117 on the plains near the Andes [of Chile]. 
Vanellus chiliensis Yarrell, p. 54 Chile (egg descr.). 
Vanellus chilensis E. Reed (2), p. 566 Cauquenes, Colchagua; idem (4), 

p. 209 Chile; Schalow (2), p. 666 Ovalle, Coquimbo; Gigoux, p. 84 

Caldera, Atacama. 
Belonopterus chilensis Lane, p. 302 San Pedro (Concepci6n) and San Antonio 

(Valparaiso); Barros (4), p. 44 Nilahue, Curico; Passler (3), p. 444 

(breeding habits). 
Belonopterus cayennensis chilensis Barros (5), p. 172 Cordillera of Aconcagua; 

C. Reed (4), p. 146 Teno; Bullock, El Hornero, 3, p. 91 (nest). 
Belonopterus cayennensis Housse (1), p. 51 Isla La Mocha, Arauco; idem (2), 

p. 149 San Bernardo, Santiago; Bullock (4), p. 201 Angol, Malleco. 
Belonopterus chilensis chilensis Wetmore (3), p. 169 Concon (habits; crit.). 
Belonopterus cayamensis (sic) Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 113 Marga-Marga, 

Valparaiso. 

Range in Chile. From Atacama (Caldera) to the Straits of 
Magellan. 

Material collected. Concepcion: near coast of Concepcion, two 

9 9 ad., April 4. Malleco: Curacautin, cf ad., Jan. 8. Cautin: 

Pelal, Temuco, d" ad., Aug. 21, 1912. A. C. Saldana. Chilo< 

Island :Cucao, 9 ad., Dec. 23;Quellon, 9 ad., Jan. 28. Llanquihue: 

Casa de Richards, Rio Nirehuau (alt. 2,000 feet), cf ad., March 4. 

This form is closely similar to B. c. lampronotus (Wagler), of 
eastern Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil, and agrees with it in the 
possession of a distinct gular stripe connecting the black of the throat 
with that of the breast; but it differs by more purely gray coloration 
of the head, more extensive black pectoral area, and generally broader 
as well as more compact gular stripe. 

B. c. occidentalis apparently is not restricted to the western side 
of the Andes, since birds from Concepcion (Tucuman), Tunuyan 
(Mendoza), and Chubut (Valle del Lago Blanco) are perfectly identi- 
cal with the Chilean ones. 

The "Queltrehue" is common in Chile, reaching the northern limit 
of its range at Caldera, where Gigoux shot a specimen on March 25, 
1901. It is mostly confined to the plains and foothills, being rarely 
found above 3,000 feet elevation. Johow records it from Mas A Tierra 
(straggler ?). 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 369 

263. Ptiloscelys resplendens (Tschudi) 

Charadrius resplendens Tschudi, Arch. Naturg., 9, (1), p. 388, 1843 Andes 
of Peru. 

Vanellus resplendens Sclater (4), 1886, p. 403 Sitani and Sacaya, Tarapaca; 
Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 159, 1888 Cana, Antofagasta; Sclater (6), 1891, p. 
136 Tarapaca; E. Reed (4), p. 209 Tarapaca; Lane, p. 303 Sacaya 
and Sitani, Tarapaca. 

Range in Chile. Puna Zone of Antofagasta and Tarapaca. 

Specimens examined. Tarapaca: Sitani, two cf o* ad., Jan. C. 
Rahmer; Sacaya, three cf cf 1 ad., one 9 ad., Feb. and March. A. A. 
Lane (British Museum). 

Chilean specimens agree with a series from Peru. 

In Chile this lapwing is found only in the Cordilleras of the 
northern provinces from Antofagasta northwards. According to 
Lane, it closely resembles the preceding species in habits, and utters 
similar discordant cries when approached. It was observed from 
8,000 to 12,000 feet in Tarapaca at Huasco, Sacaya, and Cancosa, 
where it appeared to be resident. Lane was told that it nests on 
the open ground about December, laying four eggs. 

P. resplendens is widely diffused throughout the Temperate and 
Puna Zones of the Andes from northern Chile and northwestern 
Argentina to Ecuador. 

264. Squatarola squatarola cynosurae Thayer and Bangs 

Squatarola squatarola cynosurae Thayer and Bangs, Proc. New Eng. Zool. Cl., 
5, p. 23, 1914 Baillie Island, Arctic America. 

Range in Chile. Once recorded from Caldera, Atacama. Winter 
visitor. 

Material collected. Atacama: Caldera, cf (in winter plumage), 
Dec. 2, 1923. E. Gigoux. 

The Black-bellied Plover does not appear to have been listed 
previously from Chile, though it had been known as a winter visitor 
to Peru and Ecuador. 

265. Pluvialis dominicus dominicus (Miiller) 

Charadrius dominicus P. L. S. Miiller, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 116, 1776 based 
on "Pluvier dore de S. Domingue" Brisson, Orn., 5, p. 48, pi. 6, fig. 1, 
1760; Santo Domingo. 

Charadrius pluvialis (errore) Peale, p. 239 coast of Chile. 
Charadrius virginianus Fraser (1), p. 148 Chile. 



370 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Charadrius marmoratus Des Murs (2), p. 403; Housse (1), p. 51 Isla La 

Mocha, Arauco. 
Charadrius virginicus Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 331, 339 Chile; Philippi (12), 

p. 272 "Cordilleras" of central provinces; E. Reed (4), p. 209 Chile. 

Range in Chile. Recorded from the central provinces and Arauco 
(Isla La Mocha). 

The American Golden Plover is an uncommon winter visitant 
to Chile. The only specimen we have seen appears to be referable 
to the eastern form, not to P. d. julvus (Gmelin). 

266. Zonibyx modestus (Lichtenstein) 

Charadrius modestus Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berliner Mus., p. 71, 1823 

Montevideo. 

Squatarola cincta Darwin, p. 126 Chilo6 Island. 
Squatarola urvillii (ei) Fraser (1), p. 118 Chile; Des Murs (2), p. 401 

Chile; Hartlaub (3), p. 215 Valdivia; Philippi (12), p. 271 common on 

the coast of Chile. 

Squatarola modesta Pelzeln (2), p. 115 Chile. 
Eudromias modesta Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 331, 339 Chile; Lane, p. 303 on 

the beach near Arauco; E. Reed (4), p. 209 Chile (winter visitor from the 

south); Bullock (4), p. 202 Angol, Malleco (winter). 
Zonibyx modesta Ridgway (2), p. 137 Port Otway; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 

24, p. 238, 1896 "Tarapaca" =Arauco. 

Range. Central and southern provinces. Winter visitor from 
the south. 

Material collected. Atacama: Caldera, cf ad. (winter plumage), 
May 11, 1924. E. Gigoux. Llanquihue: Casa de Richards, Rio Nire- 
huau, 9 ad. (winter plumage), 9 imm., March 15, 1923. H. B. 
Conover. Guaitecas Islands: Melinka, Ascension Island, 9 juv., 
Feb. 1, 1923. C. C. Sanborn. 

Additional specimens. Valparaiso: coast near Valparaiso, one 
adult (nuptial plumage), no date. G. F. Mathew. Arauco: Maque- 
gua, 9 ad. (winter plumage), July 27, 1890. A. A. Lane; near 
Arauco City, Aug. 10, 1890. A. A. Lane. Cautin: Nige, Tolten 
Viejo, 9 (winter plumage), Feb. 28, 1905. D. S. Bullock; Almagro, 
c? 1 , 9 (winter plumage), April 7, 1910. A. C. Saldana (all in the British 
Museum). 

This plover breeds in the Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego, 
along the Straits of Magellan, and in southern Patagonia. It is 
very doubtful if it nests anywhere within the region covered by this 
paper, although it may do so on the Guaitecas Islands, where San- 
born shot a full-grown bird in juvenile plumage on February 1. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 371 

Farther north in Chile it certainly is merely a winter visitor. Accord- 
ing to Abbott (Ibis, 1861, p. 155), the birds disappear in April from 
their breeding grounds in the Falkland Islands, and start on their 
northward migration. In winter they are met with in large numbers 
in northern Argentina along the La Plata River, in Uruguay, and 
on the Chilean coast, specimens having been taken by Darwin on 
Chilo Island, by Philippi around Valdivia, and by Lane on the beach 
near Arauco. The most northerly record is from Caldera, Atacama, 
where Gigoux secured a male in winter plumage on May 11. 

267. Charadrius falklandicus Latham 

Charadrius falklandicus Latham, Ind. Orn., 2, p. 747, 1790 based on "Rusty- 
crowned Plover" Portlock, Voyage round the World, p. 36 (with plate), 
1789, Port Egmont, Falkland Islands; Wetmore (3), p. 165 Concon, 
Valparaiso. 

Hiaticula bifasciata Eraser (1), p. 118 "shores and margins of lakes in Chile." 
Hiaticula trifasciata Cassin, p. 195 vicinity of Santiago. 

Charadrius trifasciatus Pelzeln (2), p. 116 Valparaiso; Philippi (12), p. 271 
coast of Santiago "to Peru." 

Aegialiies falklandicus Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 331, 339 Chile. 
Aegialitis faklandica (sic) E. Reed (4), p. 209 Chile. 

Charadrius pyrrhocephalus Philippi (12), p. 271 from the Straits of Magellan 
"to Peru"; (?) idem, Ornis, 4, p. 159 Brea, s. Antofagasta. 

Oegialitis (sic) falklandica Housse (1), p. 51 Isla La Mocha, Arauco. 

Range in Chile. Breeding from the Straits of Magellan north 
to the Island of Chilo6, migrating in winter as far north as Coquimbo 
(?) and Antofagasta (Brea). 

Material collected. Chile: Cucao, c" ad., 9 ad., Dec. 24. 
Llanquihue: Casa de Richards, Rio Stirehuau, one cT juv., seven 
9 9 juv., March 10-15, 1923 (Coll. H. B. Conover). 

Additional specimens. Coquimbo: Coquimbo, juv., March, 1873. 
G. Mathew (British Museum). Santiago: 9 imm. F. Leybold 
(British Museum). 

The Falklandic Plover breeds on the Falkland Islands, in Tierra 
del Fuego, Patagonia, and southern Chile, north to Chilo4 Island. 
In winter it migrates northwards, and is said to be not uncommon 
on the seashore of central Chile. We have examined in the collec- 
tion of the British Museum a bird in juvenile plumage, taken by 
G. Mathew in March, 1873, at Coquimbo. Philippi records the 
species even from Brea in southern Antofagasta, but the identification 
is perhaps questionable. 



372 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

268. Charadrius alticola (Berlepsch and Stolzmann) 

Aegialitis alticola Berlepsch and Stolzmann, P. Z. S. Lond., 1902, 2, p. 51 

Ingapirca, Junin, Peru. 
Aegialitis occidentalis (not of Cabanis) Sclater/(4), 1886, p. 403 Sitani, 

Huasco, and Cueva Negra, Tarapaca; idem (6), 1891, p. 137 Sacaya, 

Tarapaca; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 295, 1896 part, spec, a-g, 

Tarapaca; Lane, p. 303 part, Sacaya, Tarapaca. 

Range in Chile. Puna Zone of Tarapaca and Antofagasta. 

Material collected. Antofagasta: Ojo de San Pedro (alt. 12,400 
feet), cf ad., May 2; twenty miles east of San Pedro (alt. 12,600 
feet), three cf cf ad., three 9 9 ad., Sept. 18, Oct. 6-8. 

Additional specimens. Tarapaca: Huasco, 9 ad., cf juv., Feb. 
17, 1886; Cueva Negra, cf ad., Feb. 10, 1886; Sitani, cf ad., 9 ad., 
Jan. 17, 1886. C. Rahmer; Sacaya, cf ad., 9 imm., April 18-24, 
1890; Cancosa, cf ad., Jan. 28, 1890. A. A. Lane (all in the British 
Museum). 

We have no topotypical material for comparison, but the Chilean 
series as well as specimens from the highlands of western Bolivia 
(Oruro and Challapata, Prov. Oruro) correspond precisely to the 
original description. C. alticola is indeed a near ally of C. falklandicus 
Lath., but is much smaller in all its dimensions, the bill in particular 
being much shorter and weaker. In coloration, too, it shows several 
striking differences, being much paler, more grayish brown above 
with the rufescent tinge on pileum and hind neck light pinkish 
cinnamon to pinkish cinnamon instead of orange cinnamon, while 
the lower parts lack the two broad black cross bands, so conspicuous 
in the southern species. 

The series exhibits a certain amount of individual variation in the 
extent and intensity of the rufescent suffusion on the head. In some 
specimens (cf ad., Cancosa, Tarapaca; cf ad., Ojo de San Pedro, 
Antofagasta; two cf cf ad., one 9 ad., Challapata, Bolivia) the 
crown immediately behind the black post-frontal band is strongly 
washed with pinkish cinnamon, and the hind neck as well as the sides 
of the neck are largely cinnamon. This color, in one of the Challapata 
males, extends over the hind crown so as to conceal the grayish 
ground color. Other examples, notably a female from near San 
Pedro, Antofagasta, and one or two adults from Tarapaca, merely 
have the sides of the neck shaded with light pinkish cinnamon and a 
pale pinkish buff collar across the hind neck. The remaining indi- 
viduals connect these two stages in various degrees. On each 
side of the foreneck there is a grayish brown patch, often tinged 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYB 373 

with cinnamomeous and intermixed with a number of blackish 
spots. A good many specimens have a distinct pinkish cinnamon 
band across the breast; it is, however, frequently evanescent and 
sometimes barely suggested by a number of half-concealed pale 
grayish brown subterminal spots. In an adult female from Sitani, 
Tarapaca, this pectoral crescent, grayish brown mixed with dusky, 
is fully as wide as in the juvenile plumage of C. falklandicus, suggesting 
the close interrelation of the two species. 

Adults taken from January to April are in worn breeding dress. 
A full-grown male in juvenile plumage, secured by C. Rahmer at 
Huasco, Tarapaca, on February 17, 1886, differs by lacking the 
black post-frontal band and by having just a faint buff tinge below 
the eye, while the grayish brown patch on the sides of the foreneck 
and the pectoral band are but slightly indicated. 

In spite of superficial resemblance C. alticola is totally different 
from C. a. occidentalis, although Sharpe confused the two species, 
and Chubb (Ibis, 1919, p. 264) misidentified the highland bird of 
Bolivia with the South American race of the Snowy Plover. C. 
alticola may be readily separated from the latter by larger size; 
much stronger and longer, deep black (instead of light-colored) tarsi 
and toes; longer, slenderer bill; much more buffy or cinnamomeous 
suffusion on the head; grayish brown (instead of black) patch on the 
sides of the foreneck; finally, by the presence of a more or less distinct 
cinnamon or grayish brown pectoral band. 

C. alticola is restricted in its range to the Puna Zone of southern 
Peru (Ingapirca, Junin; Puno), western Bolivia (Oruro), and 
northern Chile (south to Antofagasta). According to Lane, it lives 
in wet salt-marshes and brackish lagoons. 

MEASUREMENTS 

Adult males Wing Tail Bill 

Two from Challapata, Bolivia 119,123 53,54 15,15 

Four from Tarapaca, Chile 119,120,121,122 55,55,56,57 15,15,16, 

Four from Antofagasta, Chile 120,121,121,123 54,55,55,55 16,16,, 

Adult females 

Two from Oruro, Bolivia 115,120 51,54 143416 

Two from Tarapaca, Chile 118,120 52,54 15,15 

Three from Antofagasta, Chile 120,122,123 51,55,55 15,15,15 

269. Charadrius alexandrinus occidentalis (Cabanis) 

Aegialitis occidentalis Cabanis, Journ. Orn., 20, p. 158, 1872 no locality t = 
Chile]; cf. idem, 1. c., 32, p. VI, pi. 6, fig. 1, 1885 (type in Berlin Museum 
examined); Lane, Ibis, 1897, p. 303 part, Laraquete, Arauco (spec. 



374 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

examined); Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 295, 1896 part, spec, h, i, 
Laraquete, "Tarapaca." 

Hiaticula azarae (not of Temminck) Darwin, p. 127 part, spec, ex Valparaiso 
(crit.; spec, examined); Cassin, p. 195 Chile. 

Charadrius collaris (not of Vieillot) Des Murs (2), p. 402 Chile. 

Charadrius azarae Pelzeln (2), p. 116 Chile. 

Aegialites nivosus (not of Cassin) Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 331, 339 Chile. 

Aegialitis nivosa Sharpe, p. 15 Coquimbo; Salvin (2), p. 428 Chile; E. Reed 
(4), p. 209 Chile; Schalow (2), p. 665 Cavancha, near Iquique, and 
Totoralillo, Coquimbo 1 (spec, examined). 

Charadrius cantianus (errore) Housse, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 28, p. 51, 1923 

Isla La Mocha, Arauco. 
Charadrius alexandrinus occidentalis Neumann, Nov. Zool., 35, p. 215, 1929 

(crit.). 

Range in Chile. From Arauco to Tarapaca (and along the 
Peruvian coast north to Ancon). 

Material collected. Atacama: Caldera, cf ad., Aug. 28, 1923. 
C. C. Sanborn; 9 ad., June 8, 1924. E. Gigoux. Aconcagua: 
Papudo, tf ad., Dec. 8, 1923. 

Additional specimens. Peru: Ancon, Lima, 9 ad., Nov. 2, 1912. 
H. O. Forbes; 2 Lurin, Lima, cf ad., July 29, 1903. Lord Brabourne; 2 
Mollendo, Arequipa, adult. Aug., 1878. H. Saunders; 2 Tambo 
Valley, Arequipa, three cTcf ad., Oct. 20, 28, Nov. 4, 1867. H. 
Whitely. 2 Chile, Tarapaca: Cavancha (Iquique), adult and imma- 
ture. May, 1893. L. Plate. 3 Coquimbo: Totoralillo, immature. 
Oct., 1893. L. Plate. 3 Valparaiso: Valparaiso, adult. G. F. Mathew; 2 
"Patagonia" [= Valparaiso], adult. Jan. 4, 1837. C. Darwin. 2 
Arauco: Laraquete, cf ad., 9 ad., Aug. 20, 1890. A. Lane. 2 
"Chile" (unspecified): seven adults. T. Bridges, 2 A. H. Markham, 2 
L. Landbeck, 2 Segeth (type of A. occidentalis), 3 and ex Verreaux. 2 

The occurrence of a Snowy Plover on the coast of Peru and Chile 4 
has been known for many years, but it was assumed that the birds 
were migrants from North America. On receiving the Chilean 
collection of the Marshall Field Expedition, I was struck by the 
fact that two of the specimens, both in nuptial plumage with 

1 Schalow also lists a male from Calbuco Island, near Puerto Montt, Llanquihue. 
This specimen being no longer in the Berlin Museum, its identification is open to 
doubt. 

2 In collection of British Museum (Natural History). 
In collection of Berlin Museum. 

4 Des Murs (in Gay, Hist. fis. pol. Chile, Zool., 1, p. 402) probably had the 
present bird in mind when listing C. collaris from Chile, though his description 
was evidently drawn up from a specimen of the latter species. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 375 

black post-frontal band, auriculars, and patch on the sides of the 
neck, had been taken in June and August, hence at a time when the 
Snowy Plover might be expected to be on its breeding grounds in 
the western United States. Moreover, Californian birds secured 
between August and December were found to be in winter plumage, 
the black markings on the head being replaced by grayish brown. 
Researches in literature then revealed that there was no reliable 
winter record for the North American C. nivosus from farther south 
than Mexico, and that no representative of this group occurred any- 
where in Central America, 1 Colombia, or Ecuador. These facts 
pointed to the probability of the Chilean and Peruvian birds belong- 
ing to an endemic race, and this surmise was fully corroborated by 
the study of ample material in European collections. 

Altogether twenty-three specimens, representing nearly every 
month of the year, have been examined from Chile and Peru, and 
notes on eleven additional ones in the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York, have been supplied by my former associate, 
Mr. J. T. Zimmer. Compared with some thirty skins from California 
and Lower California, the adults from the Pacific coast of South 
America have the occiput and hind crown more heavily washed with 
buff; the black post-frontal band generally wider; the back of a darker 
grayish brown; and the wings on average slightly longer. The 
amount of buffy suffusion is subject to some individual variation. 
It is most strongly pronounced in a bird from Mollendo (Peru), 
which has the whole crown (behind the black band) tinged with 
warm buff, passing into light ochraceous buff on the nape. Two 
specimens from unspecified localities in Chile are very similar, while 
the June bird from Caldera and one from Lurin, near Lima, have 
hardly less buffy on the head. When the buff tips are worn off and 
the crown becomes more grayish, C. a. ocddentalis closely resembles 
its North American relative. The type of A. ocddentalis, kindly lent 
by Dr. Stresemann, is an adult bird in somewhat worn plumage, 
and agrees perfectly with other Chilean examples. It was collected 
in 1872 by Dr. Segeth, a physician practising in Santiago, and 
probably came from the vicinity of that city. 

All of the Chilean and Peruvian adults seen by me, regardless of 
season, wear the nuptial plumage, i.e., the post-frontal band, the 
auriculars, and the patch on the sides of the neck are black. It 
would appear that C. a. ocddentalis does not assume a winter plumage. 

ir The inclusion of "Costa Rica" by certain authors in its range goes back to 
Zeledon (Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, p. 129, 1887), who does not appear to have 
seen any specimens, however. 



376 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Females are not always distinguishable, though the post-frontal 
band is, as a rule, not quite so extensive. An unsexed adult from 
Cavancha (Iquique), May, 1893, L. Plate coll., Berlin Museum, has 
the auricular patch somewhat duller, less blackish, than all the 
others. Two other (unsexed) birds taken by the same collector at 
Cavancha (May) and Totoralillo, Coquimbo (October), respectively 
while possessing a narrow black post-frontal band across the crown, 
are conspicuous for the neck patch and auriculars being grayish 
brown or dusky brown as in C. a. niwsus. Judging from the fluffy 
texture of the body plumage and the presence of pale fringes to the 
dorsal feathers and wing coverts I take them to be immature. 

We have no definite record of eggs having been taken in Chile; 
but Mr. Sanborn tells me that this plover was doubtless nesting on 
the coast of Aconcagua, and the specimen obtained by him in 
December at Papudo is in worn breeding plumage. It probably 
breeds all along the sandy seacoast of Chile from Tarapaca to 
Arauco, the most southerly locality being Laraquete, where A. Lane 
secured a couple of adults on August 20 and 22 respectively. The 
American Museum of Natural History, New York, has three speci- 
mens (one cf ad., two 9 9 ad.) taken by T. Hallinan in June 
and July, 1917, at Tofo, north of Coquimbo, as I am informed by 
Mr. Zimmer. On the coast of Peru this bird was for the first time 
found by H. Whitely, Jr., in the Tambo Valley, Arequipa, 1 and then 
again by C. Jelski at Chorillos, Lima. 2 Dr. C. R. Murphy secured 
breeding birds (of both sexes) in October and November, 1919, at 
Paracas, Pisca Bay, lea, and R. H. Beck met with it in the same 
locality about the end of June. Besides, the American Museum has 
specimens, including an immature male, from Chorillos, collected by 
Beck in February, 1913. These data, supplemented by those of the 
British Museum material, clearly indicate that C. a. occidentalis is a 
permanent resident on the Peruvian littoral, at least as far north 
as Ancon. 

The case of the Snowy Plover, represented by a breeding race on 
the Pacific coast of South America, offers an interesting parallel to 
the Killdeer which was recently shown by Chapman 3 to be replaced 
in northwestern Peru by a closely allied resident form (Oxyechus 
vociferus peruvianus). 

l Aegialiies nivosus Sclater and Salvin, P. Z. S. Lond., 1868, pp. 176, 570. 
*Aegialitis nivosa Taczanowski, P. Z. S. Lond., 1874, p. 559. 
3 Auk, 37, p. 106, 1920 Paletillas, n. e. of Payta, Piura, Peru. 



1932 



BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 



377 



Wing 


Tail 


BUI 


100 


47 


16 


104 


48 


15 


102,104,108 


42,48,48 


15,15,15 


102 


48 


15 


109 


53 


14 


109 


50 


U l /2 


110 


50 


14 


110 


49 


14 


107 


52 


HM 


110 


49 


uy 2 


111 


50 


15 


105,106,106, 


45,45,46, 


14,14,14^, 


106,109,111 


47,49,49 


15,15,15 



There is no question to my mind that both C. nivosus and C. 
occidentalis are merely geographical races of the European C. 

alexandrinus. 

MEASUREMENTS 



One adult male from Lurin, Lima 

One female from Ancon, Lima 

Three adult males from Tambo, Arequipa 

One (unsexed) adult from Iquique 

One adult male from Caldera, Atacama 

One female from Caldera 

One adult male from Papudo, Aconcagua 

One adult male from Valparaiso 

One adult male from Laraquete, Arauco 

One adult female from Laraquete 

Type of A. occidentalis, adult (unsexed) 

Six (unsexed) adults from "Chile" 



In ten adult males of C. a. nivosus from California the wing 
ranges from 99 to 106, in fourteen females, from 101 to 108 mm. 

270. Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte 1 

Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 5, p. 98, 
1825 based on Tringa hiaticula Wilson (Amer. Orn., 7, p. 65, 1813) and 
Charadrius hiaticula Ord (Wilson's Amer. Orn., 7, p. 69, 1824), coast of 
New Jersey. 

Aegialitis semipalmata Salvin (2), p. 428 Coquimbo Lagoon. 

Aegialitis senupalmata (sic) E. Reed (4), p. 209 Chile. 

Aegialeus semipalmata Schalow (2), p. 665 Punta Teatinos (Coquimbo) and 
Calbuco, near Puerto Montt. 

Range in Chile. From Coquimbo to Llanquihue. Winter visitor. 

The Semipalmated Plover is a rather uncommon winter visitant 
to Chile. Admiral (then Captain) Markham secured a single bird in 
November, 1881, in the Coquimbo Lagoon, while Plate shot one in 
November, 1893, at Punta Teatinos, north of Coquimbo, and another 
on Calbuco Island, near Puerto Montt, Llanquihue (date not 
recorded). _ 

[Aegialites cdbidipectus Ridgway (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 5, "1882," 
p. 526, March, 1883), supposed to be from "Chile," apparently refers 
to an African species, C. marginatus Vieillot.l 



(Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 260, 1896) claims that Charadrius hiaticula 
Linn, is an accidental visitor to Chile. Although the species has been admitted 
to the Chilean fauna by Ridgway, the A. O. U. Check List, and Hartert (who, in 
Vog. Pal. Fauna, 2, p. 1534, suggests it might be C. h. tundrae Lowe rather than 
the typical form), there is no evidence that the Ringed Plover ever occurred in 
that country. 



378 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

271. Oxyechus vociferus peruvianus Chapman 

Oxyechus vociferus peruvianus Chapman, Auk, 37, p. 106, 1920 Paletillas, 
near Payta, Piura, Peru. 

Oxyechus vociferus Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 24, pp. 242, 247, 1896 Chile. 

Range in Chile. Once recorded from an indefinite locality. 

Sharpe lists a single specimen from "Chile" in the H. Berkeley 
James Collection. This bird is much more likely to be referable to 
the South American race of the Killdeer recently described by 
Chapman, which is known to breed on the Peruvian coast from Piura 
to Arequipa. Unfortunately, I could not find it in the collection of 
the British Museum. 

272. Oreopholus ruficollis (Wagler) 

Charadrius ruficollis Wagler, Isis, 1829, p. 653 Canelones, Uruguay. 

Oreopholus totanirostris Jardine andSelby, Illust. Orn., 3, Part 10, pi. 151, Dec., 
1835 Andes of Chile. 

Dromicus lessonii Lesson, Echo du Monde Savant, 11, No. 26, col. 616, April, 
1 844 Valparaiso. 

Oreophilus totaniroslris Darwin, p. 125 Valparaiso; Fraser (1), p. 117 Chile, 
probably a native of the Andes; Des Murs (2), p. 399 from the Straits 
of Magellan to Valparaiso; Pelzeln (2), p. 114 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 
271 Chile. 

Oreophilus ruficollis Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 331, 339 Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 
566 Cordillera of Colchagua; Sclater (4), 1886, p. 403 "Llalcalhuay," 
Tarapaca; E. Reed, Ibis, 1893, p. 596 Chile (resident); idem (4), p. 209 
Chile; Schalow (2), p. 664 Conception; Barros (4), p. 44 Cerros near 
Nilahue, Curic6; Housse (2), p. 150 San Bernardo, Santiago; Gigoux, 
p. 84 Caldera (winter visitor); Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 113 Marga-Marga, 
Valparaiso; Bullock (4), p. 201 Angol, Malleco (winter visitor). 

Oreopholus ruficollis Barros (8), p. 143 Nilahue, Curic6. 

Range in Chile. From Tarapaca to the Straits of Magellan. 

Material collected. Tarapaca: Pica (alt. 4,000 feet), 9 imm., 
May 25. Atacama: Caldera, two d" cf ad., Aug. 29. Llanquihue: 
Casa de Richards, Rio Nirehuau, three 9 9 imm., March 10; Arroyo 
Verde, Argentine boundary, 9 imm., March 17. 

Additional specimens examined. Tarapacd: "Lalcalhuay," cfad., 
Jan. 27, 1886. C. Rahmer (British Museum). Santiago: Cordillera 
of Santiago, 9 ad., Dec., 1864. R. A. Philippi (British Museum). 
Conception: Cabrero, 9 ad., June 28, 1903. C. S. Reed (Tring 
Museum). Malleco: Angol, cT ad., Jan. 6, 1904. C. S. Reed 
(Tring Museum). 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 379 

Study of nearly fifty specimens from throughout the range clearly 
shows that none of the proposed races of the Rufous-throated Plover 
can be maintained. Lowe 1 considered the Chilean form (0. r. 
totanirostris) to be separable from ruficollis "ex Patagonia" by reason 
of its "fulvous-brown" hind neck and upper parts and its buff 
instead of gray under parts. I cannot help thinking that this 
sentence must be disfigured by a misprint, for I have yet to see a 
Rufous-throated Plover with gray under parts. In every specimen of 
this species, regardless of locality, the breast only is underlaid with 
grayish, while the remainder of the belly is buff, varying in shade 
according to season. As a matter of fact, Chilean birds appear 
to me indistinguishable from Patagonian examples in comparable 
plumage. 0. r. simonsi Chubb 2 has no better claims for recognition, 3 
as not one of the characters insisted upon by the describer holds good. 
The buff edges to the dorsal plumage and the hind neck do not differ 
in tone nor is the belly deeper buff than in southern examples, which 
are by no means mostly white below. Only one (the type) out of 
eight specimens from the range assigned to 0. r. simonsi has the 
throat darker rufous, while others, in this respect, are even paler 
than the average from Patagonia. Northern birds are perhaps slightly 
larger, but the divergency is insignificant, as will be seen from the 
appended measurements of the wing. 

Peru. cf ad., Islay, 173; 9 ad., Lobos de Tierra, 170. 

Bolivia. cf ad., Challapata (type), 177; two cf cf ad., Uyuni, 
Potosi, 163, 165; 9 ad., Uyuni, 175. 

Tarapaca. c? ad., Lalcalhuay, 167; 9 ad., Pica, 160. 

Atacama. Two rf 1 cf ad., Caldera, 165, 170. 

Central Chile. 9 ad., Cordillera of Santiago, 165; 9 ad., 
Cabrero, Conception, 164; cf ad., Angol, Malleco, 160. 

Argentina. cf ad., Sierra de Tafi, Tucuman, 160; two 9 9 ad., 
Chubut, 162, 165; two 9 9 ad., Rio Negro, 165, 167; d* ad., Rio 
Negro, 160; three cTcT ad., Buenos Aires, 162, 163, 166; 9 ad., 
Barracas al Sud, 160; two 9 9 ad., Rio Gallegos, 157, 162. 

Falkland Islands. d 1 ad., Port Stanley, 167. 

The "Polio del Campo," according to Philippi, Landbeck, E. 
Reed and others, breeds in the high Cordilleras, and visits the plains 

'Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 42, p. 19, 1921. 

'Ibis, (llth ser.), I, p. 262, 1919 Challapata, Lake Poopo, Bolivia. 

1 The description is rather confused, since there is never any olive in the color- 
ation of the species. 



380 FIELD MUSEUM OP NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

on migration and in winter. Its breeding range probably extends 
north to Tarapaca and the adjacent parts of the Bolivian plateau 
(Oruro, Potosi). An adult male secured by Rahmer on January 27, 
1886, at Lalcalhuay is in slightly worn plumage. In Peru this species 
seems to occur merely as a winter visitor. 

273. Arenaria interpres morinella (Linnaeus) 

Tringa morinella Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1, p. 249, 1766 based on 

Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1, p. 72, pi. 72, 1731, coast of Florida. 
Strepsilas interpres Darwin, p. 132 Iquique, Tarapaca; Fraser (1), p. 118 
Chile; Des Murs (2), p. 407 Chile; Pelzeln (2), p. 117 Chile; Sclater 
(2), 1867, p. 339 Chile; Philippi, Reise Wuste Atacama, p. 163 Paposo, 
Antofagasta; idem (12), p. 273 coast of Chile; Sharpe, p. 15 Talcaguano; 
Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 159 Paposo; E. Reed (4), p. 209 Chile; Schalow 
(2), p. 664 Islas dos Pajaros, Coquimbo; Housse (1), p. 51 Isla La 
Mocha, Arauco; Gigoux, p. 67 Caldera, Atacama. 
Range in Chile. From Tarapaca to Arauco. Winter visitor. 
Material collected. Atacama: Caldera, two cf d* ad., one 9 ad., 
March 26. Aconcagua: Papudo, 9 ad., Dec. 1. 

The Turnstone is a winter visitor to Chile. There are various 
records of its occurrence in the northern and central provinces 
(Iquique, Tarapaca; Paposo, Antofagasta; Caldera, Atacama; 
Papudo, Aconcagua; Coquimbo; Talcaguano, Conception; Isla La 
Mocha, Arauco), but none from southern Chile. Boeck (p. 509) 
states that he never saw the species around Valdivia. 

Our specimens are just in the process of acquiring the nuptial 
plumage. They are slightly larger (wing of adult males 152, 154) 
than a series from Alaska, but agree perfectly in coloration. I am 
inclined to follow Murphy's contention 1 that South American 
Turnstones should be referred to A. i. morinella rather than A. i. 
interpres. 

274. Aphriza virgata (Gmelin) 

Tringa virgata Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, (2), p. 674, 1789 based on "Streaked 
Sandpiper" Latham, Gen. Syn. Birds, 3, (1), p. 180, 1785, "Sandwich 
Sound" = Prince William Sound, Alaska. 

Aphriza townsendii Fraser (2), p. 157 Chile. 

Strepsilas borealis Des Murs (2), p. 408 "en las costas de Chile"; Philippi, 
Reise Wuste Atacama, p. 163 Paposo, Antofagasta; idem (12), p. 273 
from Valdivia to Peru; idem, Ornis, 4, p. 159 Paposo. 

Aphriza virgata Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 331, 339 Chile; E. Reed (4), p. 210 
Chile. 

Tringa borealis Housse (1), p. 51 Isla La Mocha, Arauco. 

'Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 55, p. 190, 1926. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 381 

Range in Chile. From Antofagasta to the Straits of Magellan. 
Winter visitor. 

The Surf-bird, whose breeding place has lately been discovered 
in Alaska, visits Chile on its winter migration. According to Philippi, 
the Santiago Museum has five specimens, one of which is specifically 
stated to be from Valdivia. In his "Reise durch die Wiiste Atacama" 
the species is recorded from Paposo, coast of Antofagasta. During 
the cruise of the "Alert," R. W. Coppinger, as reported by Sharpe 
(P. Z. S. Lond., 1881, p. 15), secured a male on February 15, 1879, 
on Van Island, Trinidad Channel, in the Straits of Magellan. 

275. Haematopus ater Vieillot and Oudart 

Haematopus ater Vieillot and Oudart, Gal. Ois., 2, p. 88, pi. 230, 1825 1 part, 
"au detroit de Magellan" (type in Paris Museum examined); Peale, p. 245 
Valparaiso; Cassin, p. 198 Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, pp. 331, 339 
Chile; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1870, p. 499 Puerto Laguna, Chonos 
Archipelago; Salvin, Ibis, 1874, p. 37 Mas Afuera (?); E. Reed (4), p. 210 
Chile; Schalow (2), p. 664 Isla dos Pajaros, Coquimbo; E. Reed (5), 
p. 50 coast of Chile; Passler (1), p. 103 Arica. 

Haematopus niger Fraser (1), p. 116 along rocky shores [of Chile]; Des Murs 
(2), p. 406 Chile; Hartlaub (3), p. 215 Valdivia; Boeck, p. 509 
Corral, Valdivia; Pelzeln (2), p. 117 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 272 central 
provinces; Housse (1), p. 51 Isla La Mocha, Arauco; Gigoux, p. 87 
Caldera, Atacama. 

Range in Chile. From the Straits of Magellan to the Peruvian 
border. 

Material collected. Chiloe" Island: Rio Inio, three d* cf ad., two 
9 9 ad., Jan. 8-14, 1923. H. B. Conover. Atacama: Caldera, 
9 ad., Aug. 28, 1923. C. C. Sanborn. 

The Black Oyster-catcher, immediately recognizable by its 
elevated, excessively compressed bill, breeds in suitable localities 
all along the Chilean and Peruvian coast, north to Ancon. On Chiloe" 

^berholser (Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 31, p. 47, 1918) calls the South American 
Black Oyster-catcher H. townsendi Audubon, 1838, based on a specimen erroneously 
supposed to have been obtained by Townsend somewhere on the Pacific Coast of 
North America. According to the dates of publication of the "Galerie des Oiseaux," 
as worked out by Mathews (Austr. Av. Rec., 2, pp. 153-158, 1915), Vieillot's name, 
however, appears to have priority by many years. Inspection of the specimens in 
the Paris Museum shows that Vieillot did not distinguish between the South 
American and the Australian species (H. fuliginosus), and while his description 
might equally be referred to either, the original of the plate marked as such 
unquestionably pertains to the first-named. It was secured by Quoy and Gaimard 
(collectors' No. 258), naturalists of the "Uranie" and "Physicienne" under the 
command of Captain Freycinet, and is stated to have come from "la baie des 
Chiens Marins, Nouvelle Hollande" [ =Shark's Bay, Australia]. The locality is an 
obvious mistake, since the bird agrees in every respect, particularly in the 
characteristic shape of the bill, with others from the Straits of Magellan. 



382 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Island it was found breeding with the two other species, but seemed 
to prefer rocky rather than sandy shores. Its occurrence in Mas 
Afuera is open to doubt. 

The Caldera bird agrees with those from more southern localities. 

276. Haematopus ostralegus pitanay Murphy 

Haematopus palliatus pitanay Murphy, Amer. Mus. Nov., 194, p. 1, 1925 
Pisco Bay, lea, Peru. 

Haematopus palliatus (not of Temminck) Fraser (1), p. 116 sandy shores 
north of Valparaiso; Des Murs (2), p. 406 Chile; Cassin, p. 197 Chile; 
Germain, p. 314 near the borders of the sea, Santiago (nesting habits); 
Pelzeln (2), p. 117 Chile (egg); Sclater (2), 1867, p. 339 Chile; Philippi, 
Reise Wuste Atacama, p. 163 Chanaral, Atacama; idem (12), p. 272 
central provinces; Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1870, p. 499 An cud, Chilo4; 
Philippi, Ornis, 4, p. 159 Chanaral, Atacama; E. Reed (4), p. 210 Chile; 
idem (5), p. 50 Chile; Gigoux, p. 87 Caldera, Atacama. 

Haematopus frazari (not of Brewster) Lane, p. 303 Arauco; Schalow (2), p. 
663 Chile. 

Range in Chile. From the northern boundary to Chiloe* Island. 

Material collected. Chiloe" Island: Cucao, d* ad., 9 ad., Dec. 
22, 23; Rio Inio, rf ad., 9 ad., Jan. 7, 10. H. B. Conover. 

The six American races classed under the name H. palliatus are 
clearly conspecific with the European Oyster-catcher. This has 
recently been pointed out by Stresemann, 1 and an independent 
investigation of the problem leads me to essentially the same con- 
clusions. In structural details the New World representatives agree 
perfectly with the European bird, while the close resemblance of 
the adult plumage of H. palliatus to the juvenile stage of H. ostra- 
legus affords additional evidence for their genetic relationship. Their 
natural affinities are, therefore, best expressed by the use of tri- 
nomials, taking ostralegus as the specific name. 

The Oyster-catcher of the coasts of Chile and Peru, justly sepa- 
rated by Murphy as H. o. pitanay, is very similar to H. o. palliatus 
in general coloration, but smaller in all dimensions and lacks the 
white markings on the inner primaries. In the latter respect it 
resembles H. o. frazari, of Lower California and western Mexico, 
which is, however, somewhat larger and has a black and white 
mottled zone on the lower end of the blackish gular area, while 
in H. o. pitanay the black of the foreneck is abruptly defined against 
the white of the belly. 

'Ornith. Monatsber., 35, pp. 71-73, 1927. 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 383 

H. o. pitanay is the common Oyster-catcher breeding on the arid 
seacoast of Chile, but it does not seem to range farther south than 
Chilo Island, where it was found nesting in company with H. 
leucopodus and H. ater by the members of Field Museum Expedition. 

In the north it extends all along the coast of Peru to southwestern 
Ecuador (Gulf of Guayaquil). Specimens from the latter country, 
we are told by Murphy, show an approach to H. o. palliatus by having 
a slight suggestion of white on the inner primaries. 

277. Haematopus leucopodus Garnot 

Haematopus leucopodus Garnot, Ann. Sci. Nat., 7, p. 47, 1826 lies Malouines. 

Haematopus leucopus Boeck, p. 509 Chiloe", Rio Pudeto, and Bay of "Relon- 
caoi" [=Reloncavi], Llanquihue; Philippi (12), p. 272 southern Chile 
to Straits of Magellan; E. Reed (4), p. 210 Magellania and southern 
Chile; idem (5), p. 50 Chile; Blaauw (1), p. 70 island east of Achao, 
Chiloe"; (?) Housse (1), p. 51 Isla La Mocha, Arauco. 

Range in Chile. From the Straits of Magellan north to Chilo 
Island and (?) Arauco (Isla La Mocha). 

Material collected. Chik>6 Island: Rio Inio, cT ad., two 9 9 ad., 
Jan. 12-18, 1923. H. B. Conover. 

This Oyster-catcher is obviously quite different specifically. It 
may be distinguished from the other white-bellied species (H. o. 
pitanay} by glossy black (instead of hair brown) back and wings; 
wholly white upper tail coverts (the middle ones not mottled or 
spotted with brown); black (instead of white) under wing coverts; 
the extension of the black all over the chest; yellow instead of crimson 
eyelid; decidedly shorter, stouter tarsi; and wider nails with promi- 
nent lateral flange. 

Birds from Chilo4 Island are identical with others from Patagonia 
and the Falklands. 

H. leucopodus is of more southerly distribution than the pre- 
ceding species. It breeds on the Falkland Islands and in the Straits 
of Magellan, extending north on the Atlantic side to the Chubut, 
and on the west coast to Chilo Island. Housse lists it as a visitant 
to the Isla La Mocha, Arauco, but perhaps this record refers to the 
superficially similar H. o. pitanay. 

278. Himantopus himantopus melanurus Vieillot 

Himantopus nwlanurus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. e"d., 10, p. 42, 
1817 based on "Zancudo" Azara, No. 393, Paraguay. 



384 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

Himantopus nigricollis Fraser (1), p. 117 margins of lakes and rivers [of 
Chile]; Des Murs (2), p. 424 Chile; Bibra, p. 131 common around the 
lakes near Santiago; Cassin, p. 196 Chile; Germain, p. 313 Santiago 
(nesting habits); Pelzeln (2), p. 131 Chile; Sclater (2), 1867, p. 339 
Chile; Philippi (12), p. 276 Chile; E. Reed (2), p. 567 Hacienda de 
Cauquenes, Colchagua; Lataste (9), p. 171 Lake Aculeo, Santiago. 

Himantopus brasiliensis E. Reed (4), p. 210 lagunas of the central provinces; 
Jaffuel and Pirion, p. 113 Marga-Marga, Valparaiso; Bullock (4), p. 
202 Angol, Malleco. 

Range in Chile. Central provinces. Recorded from Cauquenes, 
Colchagua, the vicinity of Santiago, and Angol, Malleco. 

The Black-tailed Stilt is reported to be not uncommon in the 
central provinces, though as yet little is known regarding its dis- 
tribution. According to Bibra, it is frequent around the lakes near 
Santiago, and Lataste met with it on Lake Aculeo. Germain, whose 
notes refer to the same district, tells us that it lays in November three 
or five eggs in the marshes, choosing for this purpose slight elevations, 
where it puts together a few dry grasses in the form of a nest. Edwyn 
Reed lists it as uncommon in the Hacienda de Cauquenes, Colchagua. 

279. Recurvirostra andina Philippi and Landbeck 

Recurvirostra andina Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, 19, p. 618, 
1861 Laguna "Parunicota" [= Parinacota], Tacna; idem, Arch. Naturg., 
29, (1), p. 131, 1863 "Parunicota"; Harting, Ibis, 1874, pp. 241, 257, 
pi. 9 Parinacota; Sclater (4), 1886, p. 404 Huasco, Tarapaca; Philippi, 
Ornis, 4, p. 160 northern Chile (locality not specified); Rahmer, Journ. 
Orn., 35, p. 161, 1887 Cordilleras of Tarapaca and Atacama; Sclater (6), 
1891, p. 137 Sacaya and Lake Huasco, Tarapaca; E. Reed (4), p. 210 
Tarapaca; Lane, p. 308 Lake Huasco and Sacaya, Tarapaca (habits); 
Philippi (24), p. 64, pi. 32 Parinacota (Tacna), Inacaliri and Incahuasi 
(Antofagasta). 

Range in Chile. Puna Zone from Tacna to Atacama. 

Material collected. Antofagasta: twenty miles east of San Pedro 
(alt. 12,600 feet), two tf cf ad., one 9 ad., Sept. 18, Oct. 6, 1923. 

The Andean Avocet was discovered by Frobeen, in June, 
1853, on the Laguna de Parinacota, in the Cordillera of Tacna, at an 
elevation of 16,000 feet. Subsequently, the collectors of the late H. 
Berkeley James secured a small series in the Andes of Tarapaca, 
which, after his death, passed into the collection of the British 
Museum. According to Ambrose Lane, this bird is peculiar to the 
salt-marshes, occurring in the Cordillera of Tarapaca (alt. 8,000 to 
12,000 feet). He found it plentiful about Huasco and a few occurred 
at Sacaya in one spot, which was a stretch of saltish sediment with 



1932 BIRDS OF CHILE HELLMAYR 385 

from two to nine inches of water on it, but it never resorts to swamps 
or grassy slopes. The birds are said to be resident and to nest about 
November on the shores of the water they frequent, laying four or 
five eggs. In Antofagasta F. Philippi met with the Avocet at 
Inacaliri and Incahuasi, while Sanborn noticed it at Ojo de San 
Pedro in April, May, September, and October. 

Rahmer gives Maricunga, in the Andes east of Copiapo, as the 
southern limit of its range. 

The Andean Avocet has rather a restricted range. Besides in 
northern Chile, it has been recorded from several localities in Peru 
(Ingapirca, Junin; Laguna de Pahara, Puno). I have also seen many 
specimens in the Berlepsch Collection secured by the Garlepp 
brothers at Esperanza and Sajama (alt. 13,000 feet), Prov. Oruro, 
Bolivia. 

280. Phalaropus f ulicarius (Linnaeus) 

Tringa fulicaria Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 148, 1758 based on 

"The Red-footed Phalarope" Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, 3, p. 142, pi. 

142, Hudson Bay. 

Phalaropus platyrhynchus Meyen, p. 107 Coquimbo. 
Lobipes hyperboreus Lesson, Echo du Monde Sav., 11, 2nd sem., No. 8, col. 

183, July 28, 1844 Chile. 
Lobipes antarcticus Lesson, Echo du Monde Sav., 11, 2nd sem., No. 8, col. 

183 (in text), July 28, 1844 Chile; idem, Compl. Oeuvr. Buffon, ed. 

LeVgque, 20 (Descr. Mamm. et Ois.), p. 238, 1847 Chile; Sclater (2), 

1867, p. 332 Chile (ex Lesson). 
Phalaropus antarcticus Des Murs (2), p. 431 Chile; Philippi (12), p. 277 

Valdivia; idem, Verh. Deuts. Wiss. Ver. Santiago, 2, p. 267, pi. 4, 1893 

Santiago (April), Valdivia (November), ChiloS (February) (crit.); idem 

(24), p. 66, pi. 27, fig. 2 same localities (Spanish translation of preceding). 
Phalaropus f ulicarius Des Murs (2), p. 430 (ex Meyen); Philippi (12), p. 

278 (ex Meyen); Salvin (2), p. 429 Coquimbo Bay (Nov., 1881); E. 

Reed (4), p. 210 Chile; Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 50 Valparaiso Bay 

(Feb. 18). 
Crymophilus fulicarius Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 24, p. 693, 1896 Coquimbo, 

Chile, and off Juan Fernandez; Schalow (2), p. 662 Chile. 

Range in Chile. From Coquimbo to Chilo Island. Winter 
visitor. 

The Red Phalarope is now known as a regular, though not very 
common winter visitor to central Chile. It was first recorded by 
Meyen, who shot a specimen in winter plumage towards the close 
of the summer on the open sea near Coquimbo. Lesson founded a 
new species on Chilean specimens changing from the winter into the 



386 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIX 

nuptial plumage. At first, the name L. antarcticus was proposed 
tentatively in the text of a description, but in a later communication 
the Chilean bird was accorded full specific rank. Philippi, in a little- 
known paper published at Santiago in 1893, treats of this bird at 
length, giving, besides a colored figure, various details on six speci- 
mens in the Chilean National Museum, from Santiago, Valdivia, and 
Chiloe" Island. 

From the data at hand it results that the Red Phalarope arrives 
in Chile in September and stays there all winter until April, when 
it departs on its northward migration. Specimens have been taken 
at Coronel (Sept. 13, 15; Berlin Museum), Valdivia (November; 
Philippi), Coquimbo (November; Markham), Chilo (February; 
Philippi), Valparaiso Bay (March 18; M. J. Nicoll), and Santiago 
(April; Philippi). 

281. Steganopus tricolor Vieillot 

Steganopus tricolor Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. &L, 32, p. 136, 
1819 based on Azara, No. 407, Paraguay; Sclater (2), 1867, p. 332 
Chile. 

Phalaropus wilsonii Fraser (1), p. 118 Lake Quintero, Valparaiso; Schlegel, 
Mus. Pays-Bas, 5, No. 27 (Scolopaces), p. 60, 1864 Chile; Sclater (2), 
1867, p. 339 Chile; Philippi, Verb. Deuts. Wiss. Ver. Santiago, 2, p. 270, 
pi. 5, 1893 Iquique, Tarapaca (Se