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Full text of "Birds of the Colorado Valley : a repository of scientific and popular information concerning North American ornithology"

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FOR THE PEOPLE 

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THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 

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NATURAL HISTORY 





BY GIFT OF 
ALBERT S. BICKMORE 

AND 

CHARLOTTE B. BICKMORE 



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DEPAETMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE TERRITORIES 

F. V. HAYDEN, TJ. S. Geolooist-d;-Charge 



MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATIONS -No. 11 



Birds of the Colorado Valley 



A REPOSITORY OF 



SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR INFORMATION 



COXCEENTSG 



NORTH AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGY 



BY ELLIOTT COTJES 



'^Hld\ ^A'!/£ -^ehdajv xalaf; wpa<z ayouffa 



PART FIRST 
JPasseres to Liuviiidce 

Bibliographical Appendix 

Seventy Illustrations 



WASHINGTON 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1878 



//. 



^V^r^^ 9cif-(^ 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 

U. S. Geological ajstd Geographical 

Survey of the Territories, 

WasJiington, J). C, October 31, 1878. 
SIE: 

I have the lionor to transmit lierewith, for approval and for 

publication, Part First of a treatise entitled "Birds of the 

Colorado Valley ", which I have taken great pains to render 

worthy of favorable consideration as a repository of scientific 

and popular information concerning North American ornithology. 

I am, Sir, &c.. 



Dr. F. V. Hayden, 




U. 8. Geologist, (fee, <&c., 

Washington^ D. C. 



PREFATORY NOTE 

U. S. Geologicai, and Geographical 

Survey of the Territories, 

WasJdngton, I). C, November 1, 1878. 

RESULTS of Dr. Coues's continued studies of Nortli Ameri- 
can omitliology, in connection with the Sm-vey under 
my charge, are herewith presented as one of the series of Miscel- 
laneous Publications i^o. 11). Should circumstances favor the 
completion of the work, upon which the author is still engaged 
and which is already not far from finished, the remaining portion 
may be expected. The present treatise may be regarded as com- 
plementary to the "Birds of the Northwest" {Misc. Pub. No. 3). 
It covers much ground not gone over in the latter work, in aU 
that relates to the technicalities of the general subject, as well 
as to the particular life-histories of the birds composing the 
remarkable avian fauna of the Colorado Basin. As originally 
projected for publication in a different connection, the work 
consisted merely of a report upon the peculiar features of bird- 
life in the area under consideration, with biographies of the 
species not treated in the "Birds of the Northwest". But the 
author's resources have proved to be so largely in excess of the 
requirements of such a report that the work has outgrown the 
limits of a single volume, and become a full exposition of our 
present knowledge of the subject, by the incorporation of much 
technical matter concerning North American ornithology at 
large, hitherto the private possession of the author and now 
first made accessible to the pubUc. 

The whole subject of the bibliography of North American 
ornithology, and of the synonjrmy of North American birds, 
has been worked up anew from the very bottom, as a matter- of 
original personal investigation admitting of nothing at second- 
hand. Not only the birds of the Colorado Valley, but also aU 
others of North America, are thus exhaustively treated, then- 
synonymy and bibliography being at length placed upon a 
satisfactory basis. In points of accuracy, completeness and 
thorough reliability it is believed that this side of the work 



VI BIRDS OF THE COLORADO VALLEY 

will compare so favorably with wliat has before been done in the 
bibliography of any department of science as to furnish a model 
for the future. 

Since the appearance of the "Birds of the Northwest" it has 
been a matter of frequently expressed regret that the accounts 
of the birds treated in that volume did not include such descrip- 
tions of the species as should enable those using the work to 
identify specimens they might have in hand. It has been 
deemed advisable to supply this want in the present treatise, 
especially as a considerable proportion of the characteristic 
birds of the Colorado Yalley are not so well known as are most 
of those inhabiting the region of the Missouri. The descrip- 
tions are original, in nearly every case having been drawn up 
by the author directly from the specimens themselves, with 
great regard to precision of concise statement. All the species 
ascertained to occur in the Valley of the Colorado, being those 
which form the special subject of the work, are thus treated, the 
other North American birds of which the volume takes account 
being introduced only with their synonymy and a brief state- 
ment of the habitat of each. 

Eespecting the biographies or "life-histories" of the birds, 
which constitute the main text of the present volume, the 
author's view, that this portion of the subject should be so far 
divested of technicality as to meet the tastes and wants of the 
public rather than the scientific requirements of the schoolmen 
in ornithology, will doubtless meet with general and emiihatic 
approval. It is possible to make natural history entertaining 
and attractive as weU as instructive, with no loss in scientific 
precision, but with great gain in stimulating, strengthening and 
confirming the wholesome influence which the study of the 
natural sciences may exert upon the higher grades of mental 
culture; nor is it a matter of little moment to so shape the 
knowledge which results from the naturahst's labors that its 
increase may be susceptible of the widest possible diffusion. 

The first twelve sheets of this volume (to p. 192) were printed 
in 1876, when other engagements obliged the author to inter- 
rupt the preparation of the work. The printing was resiuned in 
1878, and is completed at the date of this prefatory. A few 
impressions of the earlier sheets may have already been in pri- 
vate circidation, but no i^ortion of the work is published prior 
to this date. The types of pp. 1-192 having been distributed 
without stereotyping after only 1,500 impressions had been 



PREFATORY NOTE VU 

taken, it will be necessary to reset this portion if a larger edi- 
tion is required; and in order to secure uniformity, the composi- 
tion should be, if possible, in/ac simile. 

The illustrations of the present volume are chiefly those which 
formerly appeared in the same author's "Key to North Ameri- 
can Birds ". 

According to the report rendered by the author, the present 
part of the work carries the subject through Passercs to Laniidce. 
The whole consists in a systematic treatise on the families, gen- 
era and species represented in the Colorado Valley — that is to 
say, in the whole region drained by the Colorado Eiver of the 
West and its tributaries, as far south as the present Mexican 
boundary of the United States. The watershed of this great river 
includes Arizona, much of New Mexico, Utah, and Nevada, a 
part of the State of Colorado, and some of Southern California. 
The faunal area thus circumscribed is nearly that of the " Great 
Basin", and corresponds with the "Middle Faunal Province" of 
some zoo-geographers, as distinguished from the "Western" and 
' ' Eastern " Provinces respectively. The main chain of the Eocky 
Mountains, or great continental divide, bounds it on the east, as 
the Sierras Nevadas do on the west. To the north hes the Salt 
Lake Valley ; southward the boundary is an arbitrary political 
one. In the last-named direction, the fauna changes insensibly 
by the gradual gain of a "neotropical" complexion, though 
many "nearctic" features are imj^ressed uijon the table-lands of 
Mexico. The proper fauna of that country is prefigured in the 
area under consideration by the various subtropical forms of bird- 
life which have successively been found within the border of the 
United States in the Valley of the Gila, as in that of the Lower 
Eio Grande of Texas. Both to the east and to the west the 
geographical boundaries already mentioned correspond quite 
closely with the limits of the natural faunal areas ; for we miss 
in the Colorado Valley some characteristic forms both of the 
Pacific slope proper and of the Eastern United States at large. 
Northward the Great Basin narrows like a wedge thrust in 
between the converging Eastern and Western Provinces. 

No other portion of the United States of equal area offers 
such varied surface conditions and such climatic extremes. The 
region is hedged about by mountain ranges of immense extent 
and elevation, and contains many other lofty chains and peaks, 
while the greater part of the country is low, hot and arid. The 



Vlll BIRDS OF THE COLORADO VALLEY 

liighly diverse topography of the country is strongly reflected 
in the temiierature, the rainfall, and the course of the seasons 
of this remarkable region, and these in turn leave their impress 
upon animal and vegetable life, with the result that contiguous 
areas of insignificant geographical extent may difi'er as much 
in their natural productions as if they stretched over many 
degrees of latitude. In the Colorado Basin, in fact, as appears 
to be the case in most portions of Mexico, the distribution and 
migrations of birds may be regarded as affected by altitude 
rather than by latitude or longitude; and we have a striking 
instance of the convertibility of these two factors of the general 
equation. The birds here find their siunmer and winter homes, 
and perform their migTations, rather according to "the lay of 
the land" than Avith reference to degrees of latitude. 

A portion of the Colorado Valley, in Southwestern Arizona 
and adjoining parts of California, has long been known as the 
hottest place in the United States. At Fort Yuma, on the 
Colorado Eiver at the mouth of the Gila, in latitude 32° 32', 
longitude 114° 3G' 9", the mean annual rainfall does not exceed 
five inches. A temperature of 119° F. has been recorded, and for 
weeks in succession the merciuy may rise above 100° daily. For 
several hundred miles the great river rises but little, its elevation 
at Fort Mojave, for instance, being only about 525 feet. South- 
ern and Western Arizona is a torrid, alkaline waste ; in fact, 
a part of the "Great American Desert"; yet in the central 
portion of the Territory rise the magnificent San Francisco 
Mountains, 12,562 feet high, pine-clad, and snow-capped during 
a portion of the year ; and at Fort Whipple, with an altitude 
of 5,335 feet, the general course of the seasons is not materially 
different from that in the Middle Atlantic States. A day's jour- 
ney fi'om the last-mentioned locality will show differences in 
the bird-fauna comparable, for instance, to those distinguish- 
ing Massachusetts from the District of Columbia. Many of 
the birds of Fort Yuma and Fort AVhipple respectively are total 
strangers to each other. 

Such striking featiu'es as are here briefly indicated render the 
study of the birds of this region specially attractive, and exact 
information respecting their distribution and movements within 
the area in question is very desirable. The whole subject is 
elucidated in detaU in the present treatise. 

Aside from the local perturbations resulting from topograph- 
ical and chniatic diversity within small areas, the bird-fauna 
of the Colorado Valley is in a sense homogeneous and rather 



PKEFATORY NOTE IX 

compact, being well marked by a large proportion of liighly 
characteristic, if not wholly peculiar, species. The resulting 
aspect of the bird-fauna is far more strongly pronounced than 
is ordinarily found to be the case with areas of corresponding- 
dimensions. As might be expected from aridity of such extent 
and to such degree as is witnessed in the Colorado Valley, the 
prime mark of the birds of the region is that iDallor of colora- 
tion which is now well known to result from the combined effects 
of heat and cfryness. It is the extreme of a condition very sen- 
sibly offered by the birds of the Great Plains at large. In some 
cases we here find that the modification of a common stock has 
produced forms sufficiently distinct from their respective allies 
to meet the requirements of "species"; while in many more 
instances strongly marked geographical races are developed by 
the same natural causes, operating less intensely, less continu- 
ously, or upon less susceptible material. It is unnecessary in 
this i)lace to cite examples, as such cases are already well known 
to ornithologists. It may be added, as a curious fact in the 
matter of the modifications here witnessed, that the tail is length- 
ened in many cases of birds which otherwise differ fr^om their 
respective allies mainly by the bleached coloration just noticed. 

A few words upon the progress of our knowledge of the birds 
of the region under consideration wiU not be out of place here. 
It is only within the last twenty-five years that we have acquired 
any considerable information respecting the ornithology of the 
Colorado Basin. Shortly after NuttaU and Townsend largely 
increased our knowledge of Western birds from localities much 
further north, Dr. William Gambel gave us welcome advices 
in various pai^ers published by the Philadelphia Academy from 
1843 to 1849 ; and this naturalist may be considered as a pioneer 
in this field. He was succeeded by Dr. S. W. Woodhouse, who 
accompanied an expedition to the Zufii and Colorado Eivers, 
and prepared a valuable paper published in 1853 in Sitgreaves's 
Report. Mr. Cassin's well-known "Illustrations", completed 
in 1856, contain colored figures of many interesting species, 
and include the timely field-notes of Col. G. A. McCall, Dr. A. 
L. Heermann, and other naturalists who had made personal 
observations iu the field. A stride forward was taken when the 
ReiJorts of the Pacific Railroad and Mexican Boundary appeared ; 
the technicalities of the subject being admirably worked out by 
Professor Baird in these volumes, while the same publications 
include the field-notes of the naturalists attached to the several 



X BIRDS OF THE COLORADO VALLEY 

Surveys, as Dr. Heermann, already mentioned, Dr. 0. B. E. Ken- 
nedy, Mr. J. H. Clarke, Mr. Artlinr Scliott, and others. Dr. T. 
C. Heniy, then of the Army, published several valuable papers 
on the birds of New Mexico at about this time, and Dr. J. G-. 
Cooper gained much additional information during his some- 
what later residence in Arizona. Much, however, remained to 
be done when Dr. Coues entered Arizona in 1864, and spent 
nearly two years in studying the natural history of the Terri- 
tory. He published in 18G6 the first formal list of the birds of 
Arizona, describing new species and adding others to the fauna 
of the United States; and his personal experiences, now for the 
first time set forth in full, afford a large basis of the biographi- 
cal portion of the present treatise. Lieutenant (now Captain) 
Charles Bendire, U. S. A., subsequently resided for some time 
in Southern Arizona, where he made large collections of nests 
and eggs, and furnished much information respecting the breed- 
ing habits of the birds, which was published in part by Dr. 
Coues, but princix)ally by Dr. T. M. Brewer. By far the most 
important contributions hitherto offered to the natural his- 
tory proper of the birds of New Mexico and Arizona are those 
recently made by Mr. H. W. Henshaw, during his connection 
with the Engineer Survey West of the 100th Meridian. This 
accompUshed ornithologist has added many new species to 
the fauna of the United States, and has published the most 
complete list we possess of the birds of Arizona ; while his 
■ extensive memoir in the 4to Eeports of the Survey mentioned 
. gives us much new information respecting the distribution and 
the habits of the birds of New Mexico and Arizona. 

I may also advert in the present connection to several late 
publications upon the birds of contiguous regions as bearing 
upon the special subject. Among these may be mentioned the 
papers on Texan birds by H. E. Dresser, H. B. Butcher, C. A. H. 
McCauley, J. C. Merrill, and G. B. Sennett ; on those of Colo- 
rado by C. E. Aiken and C. H. Holden, and E. Eidgway; to Mr. 
Henshaw's List of the Birds of Utah ; to Dr. Cooper's work on 
the ornithology of California ; to Mr. J. A. Allen's Eeconnois- 
sance in Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah ; and especially 
to Mr. Eidgway's important memoir on the Ornithology of the 
Survey of the 40th Parallel. 

It is believed that the present volume will be found to be a 
thorough digest of the information we possess upon the subject. 

F. Y. HAYDEN, 
United States Geologist. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

CHAPTER I.— THRUSHES 

Page. 
Family TuRDED^ 1 

Genus Turdus, 7. — The Robin, 8. — ^Varied Tlirusli, 14. — Hermit 
Thrush, 20.— Wood Thrush, 28.— OUve-baclied Thrush, 34.— Wil- 
son's Thrush, 39. — Genus Mytadestes, 43. — Townsend's Fly-catching 
Thrush, 44. — Genus Oroscoptes, 48. — Mountain Mockingbird, 48. — 
Genus Mimus, 53. — The Mockingbird, 53. — The Catbird, 56. — Genus 
Harjyorhynchus, 60. — Brown Thrasher, 61. — Curve-billed Thrasher, 
64. — ^Arizona Thrasher, 67. — Saint Lucas Thrasher, 68. — Yuma 
Thrasher, 70. — Crissal Thrasher, 73. 

CHAPTER n.— BLUEBIRDS 

Family Saxicolid^ 76 

Genus Sialia, 76. — ^Wilson's Bluebird, 77. — ^Western or Mexican 
Bluebird, 80. — Arctic or Rocky Mountain Bluebird, 82. 

CHAPTER III.— DIPPERS 
FamUy CrNCLiD^ 84 

Genus Cinclus, 84. — American Dipper, 89. 

CHAPTER lY.— OLD WORLD WARBLERS 
Family SYLViiDiE 91 

Genus Regulm, 92. — Ruby-crowned Kinglet, 92. — American Golden- 
crested Kinglet, 96. — Genus Polioptila, 101. — Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, 
101. — Plumbeous Gnatcatcher, 105. — Black-capped Gnatcatcher, 106. 

CHAPTER v.— WREN-TITS 
Family Cham^eedje 108 

Genus Chamwa, 108.— The Wren-tit, 108. 

CHAPTER VI.— TITMICE 

FamUy Parid^ Ill 

Genus LophopMnes, 112. — Tufted Titmouse, 113. — Plain Titmouse, 
114. — Black-crested Titmouse, 116.— Bridled Titmouse, 117. — Genus 
Parus, 119. — Long-tailed Chickadee, 120.— Mountain Chickadee, 
122. — Genus Psaltriparus, 123. — Least Bush-tit, 124. — Plumbeous 
Bush-tit, 125. — Genus Auriparus, 129. — YeUow-headed Verdin, 129. 

xi 



Xll BIRDS OF THE COLORADO VALLEY 

CHAPTER VIL— NUTHATCHES 

Page. 

Family Sittid^ 132 

Genus Sitta, 133.— Slender-billed Nuthatch, 134.— Red-bellied Nut- 
hatch, 136.— Pygmy Nuthatch, 139. 

CHAPTER VIII.— CREEPERS 
Family Certhiid^ 143 

Genus Certhia, 143. — Brown Creeper, 135. 

CHAPTER IX.— WRENS 
Family Teoglodytid^ 152 

Genus Campylorliynclms, 154. — Cactus Wren, 156. — Genus Salpinctes, 
159,— Rock Wren, 159.— Genus Catherpes, 163.— Canon Wren, 164.— 
Genus Tliryoihorus, 167. — Carolina Wren, 168. — Genus Thryomanes, 
167. — White-bellied Wren, 169. — Genus Troglodytes, 167. — Western 
House Wren, 171. — Genus Anorthura, 167. — ^Winter Wren, 176. — 
Genus Telmatodytes, 168. — Long-billed Marsh Wren, 178. — Genus 
Cistothorus, 16-3.- Short-biUed Marsh Wren, 180. 

CHAPTER X.— LARKS 
Family ALAUDiDiE 182 

Genus Eremophila, 185. — Homed Lark, 186. 

CHAPTER XL— WAGTAILS 
Family Motacillid^ 191 

Genus Anthus, 192. — American Pipit or Titlark, 193. 

CHAPTER XIL— AMERICAN WARBLERS 

Family Sylvicolid^ 196 

( Ccerebida — Cei-tliiola — Bahaman Honey-creeper, 197. ) — Genus 
Mniotilta, 204. — Black-and-white Warbler, 204. — Genus Parula, 
206.— Sennett's Warbler, 207.— Blue Yellow-backed Warbler, 208.— 
Genus Protonotaria, 210. — Prothonotary Warbler, 210. — Genus Hel- 
mintJierus, 211. — ^Worm-eating Warbler, 211. — Swainson's Warbler, 
212.— Genus Helminthophaga, 210.— White-throated Warbler, 213.— 
Lawrence's Warbler, 214. — Bachman's Warbler, 214. — Blue-winged 
Yellow Warbler, 214. — Blue Golden-winged Warbler, 216. — Lucy's 
Warbler, 219. — Virginia's Warbler, 222. — Nashville Warbler, 224. — 
Orange-crowned Warbler, 226. — Tennessee Warbler, 230. — Genus 
Peucedramns, 232. — Olive Warbler, 233. — Genus Dendroeca, 235. — Blue 
Mountain Warbler, 237. — Carbonated Warbler, 237. — Black-throated 
Green Warbler, 240. — Golden-cheeked Warbler, 241. — Black-throated 
Blue Warbler, 241. — Bay-breasted Warbler, 243. — Chestnut-sided 
Warbler, 244.— Cape May Warbler, 245.— Prairie Warbler, 246,— 
Yellow-throated Warbler, 247. — Kirtland's Warbler, 249. — Yellow 
Red-poll Warbler, 249. — Pine-creepLng Warbler, 251. — Summer 
Yellow-bird, 252. — Hermit Warbler, 258. — Townsend's Warbler, 
260.— Black-throated Gray Warbler, 263.— Cceruleau Warbler, 267.— 



TABLE OF CONTENTS Xlll 

Page. 
Family SYLA^coLiDiE — Continued. 

Audubon's Warbler, 271. — Yellow-rumped Warbler, 278. — Black- 
bumian Warbler, 284. — Black-poll Warbler, 288. — Black-and-yellow 
Warbler, 290. — Grace's AVarbler, 292. — Genus Siuriis, 296. — Golden- 
crowned Accentor, 297. — Aquatic Accentor, 299. — Large-billed 
Accentor, 299. — Genus Oporornis, 308. — Connecticut Warbler, 308. — 
Kentucky Warbler, 309. — Genus Geotldyjpis, 308. — Maryland Yellow- 
throat, 309. — Macgillivray's Warbler, 312. — Mourning Warbler, 
313.— Genus Icteria, 316.— Yellow-breasted Chat, 320.— Genus Myio- 
dioctes, 323. — Canadian Fly-catching Warbler,323. — Hooded Warbler, 
324. — WUsou's Green Black-cai^iied Fly-catching Warbler, 326. — 
Genus Cardellina, 330. — Eed-faced Warbler, 331. — Vermilion Fly- 
catcher, 331. — Genus Setopliaga, 334. — Genus Basileuierus, 335. — 
Painted Flycatcher, 335.— The Redstart, 337. 
Addendum to Chap. XII 346 

CHAPTER XIII.— TANAGERS 
Family T^NAGRiDiE 348 

Genus Euplionia, 349. — Ccelestial Tanager, 349. — Genus Pyranga, 
350. — Scarlet Tanager, 350. — Summer Redbird, 352. — Hepatic Tana- 
ger, 355. — Crimson-headed Tanager, 358. 

CHAPTER XIV.— SWALLOWS 
Family Hirundinid^ 364 

Names of Swallows, 369. — General Distribution of Swallows, 371. — 
Migi-ation of Swallows, 372. — Bibliography of the subject, 378. — 
Ai'chitecture of Swallows, 391. — Bibliography of the subject, 396. — 
Abnormal coloration of Swallows, 400. — General habits and traits of 
Swallows, 401. — Genus i7iraH(7o, 406. — American Barn Swallow, 407. — 
Genus Tachycineta, 412. — White-bellied Swallow, 413. — Violet-green 
Swallow, 419. — Genus Petroclielidon, 425. — Eave, Cliff, or Crescent 
Swallow, 426. — Genus Coiyle, 435. — Bank Swallow, or Sand Martin, 
435. — Genus Stelgidopteryx, 438. — Rough-winged Swallow, 438. — 
Genus Frogne, 444. — Purple Martin, 445. 
Notes to this Chapter 449 

CHAPTER XV.— WAXWINGS 
FamUy Ampelid^e 451 

Genus Ampelis, 451. — Bibliography of the genus, 453. — The Bohe- 
mian AVaxwing, 459. — The Carolina Waxwing, 470. — Genus Phmno- 
pepla, 474. — Crested Shining-black White-winged Flysnapper, 475. — 
Nest and eggs of Myiadestes totvnsendi, 480. 

i CHAPTER XVL— GREENLETS 

Family ViREOXiDiE 483 

Genus Vireo, 484. — ^Number of primaries in Oscines, 486. — Yellow- 
green Viteo, 490. — Moustached Greenlet, 491. — Brotherly-love Greeu- 
let, 492. — Yellow-throated Greenlet, 493.— Red-eyed Greenlet, 495. — 



XIV BIRDS OF THE COLORADO VALLEY 

Page. 
Family ViKEONiDiE — Continued. 
Warbling Greenlet, 501. — Blue-headed Greenlet, 505. — Cassin's 
Greeulet, 514. — Plumbeous Greenlet, 515. — Gray Gwenlet, 517. — 
WTiite-eyed Greenlet, 520. — Button's Greenlet, 525. — Bell's Greenlet, 
526. — Least Greenlet, 531. — Black-capped Greenlet, 533. 

CHAPTER XVII.— SHRIKES 

Family Laniid^ 535 

Genus Lanius, 536. — On the use and meaning of Shrikes' names, 
537. — On tlie American species of Lanius, 542. — Of Shrikes in a state 
of nature, 546. — The Great Northern Shrike, 558. — The Common 
American Shrike, 561. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL APPENDIX 

List of Faunal Publications relating to North American 
Ornithology 567 

Index to Bibliography...-- 747 

Index to whole volume 785 




LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Page. 

Tail-pieceto " Table of Contents " xiv 

Tail-piece to "List of Illustrations" xvi 

Fig. 1. Typical Passerine foot 1 

2. ''Booted" tarsus (foot of Eobin) 5 

3. HeadofRobin 10 

4. Head of Wood Thrusli 27 

5. Details of external form of il/^iadfesfes .- 43 

6. The Mockingbiid 55 

7. Foot of Catbird 57 

8. Head of Brown Thrasher 62 

9. Head of Curve-billed Thrasher 65 

10. Head of Ai-izona Thrasher 68 

11. Head of Saint Lucas Thrasher 69 

12. Head of California Thrasher 71 

13. Head of Crissal Thrasher 73 

14. Details of structure of Saxicola 76 

15. American Dipper 85 

16. Golden-crested Kinglet 98 

17. Heads of Blue-gray and Black-capped Gnatcatchers 102 

18. Tails of Black-cai>ped and Plumbeous Gnatcatchers 107 

19. Head of Bridled Titmouse 118 

20. A typical Parus (P. atricajiiUus) 120 

21. Head of Canada Nuthatch 136 

22. Head, foot and tail-feather of Creeper 143 

23. Carolina Wren 169 

24. Winter Wren 177 

25. Homed Lark 189 

26. Head and foot of Yellow Wagtail 192 

27. Bill and foot of American Pipit 194 

28. A typical Motacilline 195 

29. Black and White Creeper 205 

30. Worm-eating Warbler 211 

31. Blue Golden-winged Warbler 217 

32. Black-throated Green Warbler 240 

33. Chestnut-sided Warbler 244 

34. Black-throated Gray Warbler 264 

35. Yellow-rumped Warbler 283 

36. Black-poU Warbler 288 

37. Black and Yellow Warbler 291 

38. Golden-crowned Accentor 296 

39. Kentucky Warbler 309 

40. Maryland Yellow-throat 312 

XV 



XVI BIEDS OF THE COLOEADO VALLEY 

Pago. 

Fig.41. Yellow-breasted Chat 317 

42. Canadian Fly-catcliing Warbler 324 

43. Hooded Fly-catching Warbler 325 

44. Wilson's Green Black-capped Fly-catching Warbler 328 

45. Outline of head of Hepatic Tanager 356 

46. Details of structure of Barn Swallow 408 

47. White-bellied Swallow 414 

48. Crescent Swallow 450 

49. Wing of Ampelis garrulus 461 

50. Head of Cherry-bird 472 

50 bis. Seio2)haga picta ( j). 335) 482 

51. A Vireo(F. gilvus) 484 

52. Vireo flavoviridis 490 

53. Vireo harhatuhis 492 

54. Vireo j)Mladelj)Mcus 493 

55. Vireo flavifrons 494 

56. Vireo oUcaceiis 496 

57. Vireo gilvus 501 

58. Vireo swainsoni 502 

59. Vireo solitarius 506 

60. Vii'eo plumheus 515 

61. Vireo novehoracensis 520 

62. Vireo huttoni 525 

63. Vireo ielli 527 

64. Vireo pusillus 531 

65. Bills of Shrikes 536 

66. Aspect of a Shrike 547 

Tail-piece to "Index" 807 




BIRDS OF THE COLORADO VALLEY 



CHAPTER I. — THRUSHES 

Fam. TUKDlDiE 

THE birds of this family, together with those of the families 
which follow in this work to the Flycatchers {Tyrannidce), 
inclusively, belong to the great gvo\\\)oi Passer es. Any Passerine 
bird of this country may be recognized by the character of the 
feet, which are perfectly fitted for grasping — in other words, for 
j)ercMng upon such support as the twigs of trees, for instance. 
Though many kinds of birds, such as Birds of Prey, Herons, 
and various others that might be mentioned, perch habitually, 
yet the truly insessorial foot, as exhibited among Passeres, is 
unmistakable in several features. The hind toe, which is never 
wanting, is inserted on the same level as the front toes collec- 
tively; it is always directed straight backward, being thus op- 
posed directly to the front toes ; it is of considerable length, 
and its perfect mobility is secured by the separation of its prin- 
cipal muscle from that one which bends the other toes collec- 
tively. The claw of the hind toe is at least as long as that of 
the middle anterior toe, and often longer. Neither of the front 
toes is ever reversed in position, to effect such arrangement of 
the digits in pairs as is witnessed in some %w\fi! 
Picarian birds, as Woodpeckers, Cuckoos, ™''"'"^ 
«&;c. ; nor are the toes ever soldered together 
for a long distance, as in the Kingfishers ; 
nor are their joints abnormal in number, as 
in some of the Swifts ; nor are the feet 
webbed or lobed, as in many wading and all 
swimming birds. In addition to these char- 
acters, it may be stated that the legs are 
clothed with feathers down to the tibio-tar- 
sal joint; and that the tarsus and toes are t..^ , rr • ,t, 

^ ' Fig. ] .—Typical Passerine 

invested with hard, horny integument, like ^*'°*' 

that encasing the bill. Such a foot as results from these con- 

1 B C 




2 CHARACTERS OF PASSERES 

ditious is rarely found outside the group Passeres ; aud auy 
non-Passeriue bird, the foot of which conforms with the fore- 
going description, may be recognized by some collateral fea- 
tures. The foot of a Hawk or Owl, for instance, is strictly 
insessorial in character, and, in fact, possesses very great 
grasping powers ; but the bill of these birds is furnished with 
a soft cere, which no Passerine bird exhibits. In a Pigeon, 
with decidedly insessorial feet, the covering of the feet, like 
that of the bill in part, is soft aud skinny, not perfectly horny. 
A Hummingbird, the foot of which is perfectly insessorial, is 
ascertained to be non-Passeriue by the fact that it has but six 
wing-quills of the secondary series — all Passeres having more 
than six. And, in general, closely as some of the Picarian 
birds of this country may resemble the Passeres, some peculiar- 
ity of the feet will suffice for their recognition. Thus, in the 
Parrots, Cuckoos, and "SVoodpeckers, the toes are in pairs, two 
before and two behind ; in the Kingfishers, the toes are exten- 
sively soldered together, the covering of the tarsus is rather 
soft, and, moreover, the tibia is naked below 5 in the Swifts and 
Goatsuckers, either the hind toe is elevated above the plane of 
the rest, or it is turned sideways, or there is a web at the bases 
of the front toes, or these last have an unusual number of joints, 
or several of these features occur in combination. Humming- 
birds, the only remaining North American Picarkv, have, as 
already said, a nearly Passerine foot ; but, in this case, the 
above-mentioned feature of the secondaries is distinctive. 

There is also a peculiarity of the wing of Passeres that serves 
to distinguish birds of this group from those of probably auy 
one of the others, excepting Picaricc, and even from the ma- 
jority of Picarkc. In a Passerine bird, the row of " greater " 
wing-coverts — those that overlie the secondary quills — are not 
more than half as long as these quills; while in most non- 
Passerine birds — perhaps in all birds below Pkarkc — the re- 
verse is the case. 

The details of structure of the tarsal envelope of Passeres may 
be noticed in passing. In the majority of the birds of this 
group, the tarsus is covered on each side with a horny plate, 
nearly or quite undivided, meeting its fellow in a sharp ridge 
behind ; and, in some cases, this general fusion of the envelope 
proceeds so far that the front of the tarsus likewise presents a 
nearly or quite undivided surface, the whole tarsus being then 
encased in a " boot," as it is called. The more complete con- 



CHARACTERS OF PASSERES 6 

ditious of fusion of the envelope— those showing the entire lat- 
eral plates, sharp-ridged behind, whether or not the front of 
the tarsus be also fused — are commonly associated with certain 
anatomical characters which aifect the vocal powers of the 
birds; there being a complex arrangement of the muscles of 
the lower larynx. Most of the North American Passeres exhibit 
these features combined, and constitute a minor group Oscines, 
which is denominated a suborder by those who hold Passeres as 
an order. The family of the Larks [Alaudidcc) is the only 
exception among our birds ; for here the larynx is a highly- 
developed vocal organ, while the tarsus shows a different struc- 
ture of the envelope, being covered on the outer side with two 
series of scales lapping around before and behind, and having 
the hinder edge blunt. This state of the tarsus prepares us for 
the further modification witnessed in a single one of the North 
American families of Passeres, namely, the Tyrannidce, or Fly- 
catchers, in which the tarsus is blunt behind, being covered 
with a set of variously-arranged plates lapping entirely around. 
Such condition, in connection with an incomplete development 
of the vocal organ, marks off the Tyrannidce as representatives 
of a second minor group of Passeres, called Clamatores, in con- 
trast with Oscines. 

The purpose of these opening paragraphs will have been at- 
tained, if enough has been said to enable the reader to gain an 
idea of the limits, and of certain leading features, of the great 
group Passeres, which includes the majority of all known birds, 
and something like two-fifths of those of North America. 

The families of Passeres which occur in the Coloradan region 
are the Turdidce, Saxicolidw, Cinclidcc, Sylviidce, Chamceidm, 
Paridcc, Sittidce, Certliiidcc, Trofjlodytidce, Alaudidce, MotaciUidw, 
Sylvicolidw, Tanagridce, Rirundinidcc, Ampelidcv, Yireonidcc, Lani- 
idee, Fringillidw, Icteridce, and Corvidce, all of which are Oscine, 
and the Tyrannidce, which is Clamatorial. These will be sever- 
ally considered in the sequence here indicated. 

"With these few preliminary considerations touching the Pas- 
seres at large, we will at once take up the subject of the present 
chapter, namely, the 



4 CHARACTERS OF TURDIDiE 

Turdid(v, or Thrushes. 

Chars.* — Oscine Fasseres, in which the characters of this 
great group are highly developed. Lateral tarsal plates lami- 
nar, meeting in a sharp ridge posteriorly; anterior scutella 
often fused in a continuous lamina. Toes deeply cleft — the 
outer anterior one to the distal end of its basal joint, the inner 
anterior almost to its very base. Bill more or less subulate, as 
usual in insectivorous birds, usually notched near the end, the 
commissure not angulated, nor very deeply cleft. Nostrils 
oval, nearly or quite reached but not covered by feathers. Eic- 
tus with well-developed bristles. Primaries ten, the first of 
which is spurious, or short ; second shorter than the fourth. 
Tail-feathers twelve, not stifiened nor acute. 

The Turdidw are very closely related both to the SaxicoUdce 
and CinclidcG among American forms, as well as to certain 
exotic groups — perhaps too closely to justify their separation 
■when all their interrelationships are taken into consideratioB. 
Yiewing, however, the North American forms alone, very fair 
diagnostic points may be determined, as will be seen on com- 
paring the characters given in Chapters IL and III. 

The vocal apparatus of the Thrushes is highly developed, 
and some of the members of this family, like the Wood Thrush 
and Mockingbird, are among the most famous of songsters. 

Thrushes are distributed throughout all of temperate North 
America, as well as most other portions of the globe. Our 
species are mainly birds of the woodland, though a few kinds 
enliven with their song the arid and treeless wastes of the 
Southwestern Territories. A majority of the North American 
species are represented within the limits of the Coloradan 
Easin ; they may readily be grouped in three subfamilies, the 
eading antithetical characters of which are as follows : — 

TURDiN^. — Tarsi booted. Bill short, scarcely or not de- 
pressed, moderately cleft. Legs stout. Tail-feathers widen- 
ing a little toward the end, the tail thus becoming squarish or 
fan-shaped. 

Myiadestinje. — Tarsi booted. Bill very short, much de- 
pressed, widened at base, deeply cleft. Legs weak. Tail-feath- 
ers tapering, the tail being thus rendered somewhat cuneate. 

*The characters of this and of other groups are drawn tip -with reference 
to the forms treated in the present work, and may or may not require modifi- 
cation in order to their equal applicahility to extra-limital representatives. , 



CHARACTERS OF TURDINJL 5 

Miming. — Tarsi scutellate anteriorly (scales seven in num- 
ber). Bill variable ; soiuetimes as in Tiirdbm, sometimes as 
long as the bead and bent like a bow. Legs stout. Wings 
usually shorter than the tail, which is more or less graduated, 
with broad, rounded feathers. 

Other characters will be adduced under the heads of the 
respective subfamilies. 



Subfamily TURDIN.E: Typical Thrushes 

Chars. — With the tarsus, in the adult, "booted" or envel- 
oped in a continuous plate, formed by fusion of all the tarsal 
scutella excepting two or three just above the base of the toes. 
(This is a strong character; for the ^ 
few other birds of this country which 
show the same feature are quite dif- 
ereut in other respects.) Wings more 
or less pointed, longer than the tail ; 
first primary spurious, or very short ; 
second longer than the sixth. Bill 
moderate, shorter than the head, 
straight, more or less subulate, little 
depressed at base, with moderate 
bristly rictus. Nostrils oval, nearly 
or quite reached by the frontal feath- 
ers. Tail-feathers widening somewhat 
toward their ends; the tail as a whole 
somewhat fan-shaped, not decidedlv "f Robin, natural size 

' - letteriug of the cut indicates propor- 

forked at the end, nor much gradu- tioual lengths of tarsus and middle 

' toe with claw, and the numeration of 

ated. the several digits of a bird's foot.) 

This group is nearly cosmopolitan, and reaches a high state 
of development in the warmer parts of America, where it is 
represented by various genera and numerous species. There 
are in all upward of one hundred and fifty accredited species of 
TunUnw, most of which are referable to the genus Turdiis and 
its subdivisions. The United States species are few in number, 
and all of them belong to the single genus Tardus; though 
species of CatharuSj an allied form, may possibly be yet found 
on our southern border. 

The Thrushes are generally distributed over North America, 
an wooded regions, but will not be found, except casually, in 
those localities which are devoid of trees or bushes, even 




it 



Jit 

4t 



3 1 



tarsus. (Foot 
N. B.— The 



6 GENERAL ECONOMY OF THE THRUSHES 

though such places are witbiu the general area of distribution 
of the respective species. They are insectivorous, like most 
birds, iu fact; but, like very many others that feed mainly upou 
insects, they also eat berries and various other soft fruits. The 
Eobin, for instance, is extravagantly fond of the berries of the 
common Poke {Phytolacca decandra) ; and, during the season 
when this fruit is ripe, specimens are often found with not only 
the plumage, bill, and feet, but also various interior parts of 
the body, dyed with the purple juice. The Thrushes are migra- 
tory in the United States. They are not properly to be con- 
sidered gregarious, though some of them, like the Eobin, go 
together in troops of hundreds at certain seasons. They are 
arboreal in general habit; yet much of the time is spent on the 
ground in the search for worms and insects. To illustrate the 
case, again, iu the instance of the familiar Robin, every one 
will recall the sprightly excursions of this bird on the green- 
sward of our parks and gardens during the breeding-season, 
and remember how swiftly it runs, with lowered head ; how it 
then draws itself up at full length, displaying its trim and 
shapely form to best advantage; how then, satisfied that no 
danger is to be apprehended, it tugs at the grub that lurks in 
the roots of the grass, and finally bears it away to the nest, on 
a bough of the nearest apple-tree. The mode of nesting varies 
according to the species ; most of the Thrushes build upon 
trees or bushes, but some, less ambitious, are content to nestle 
on the ground. The order of their architecture is never elabo- 
rate or ornate ; the nests, in fact, are rather rude, bulky, and 
inartistic structures, more notable for strength and stability 
than for beauty of finish ; they are built of leaves, grasses, 
rootlets, and similar materials, often strengthened with mud. The 
eggs are usually four, five, or six in number, blue or green in 
color, with or without reddish spots ; some of the most closely- 
allied species lay eggs distinguishable with as much certainty 
as the birds themselves. Under favorable circumstances, two> 
or even three, broods of young may be reared in one season. 
The great voracity of young insectivorous birds is perhaps in 
no case more strongly illustrated than in this group. If the 
Eobins were to feed all other seasons exclusively upon the fruits 
of the orchard and garden, we should still remain in their debt 
for the numberless thousands of noxious insects they destroy 
during the period when they are rearing their young. The de- 
struction of such useful birds cannot be too severely reprobated^ 



CHARACTERS OF THE GENUS TURDUS 7 

even upon selfish grounds, to say nothing of the higher and 
more generous motives which sliould suffice for their protec- 
tion. For we are not alone indebted to the Thrushes as friends 
favoring our economical projects. They lay strong claim to our 
regard as musicians. It is true that the song of the Kobin 
is a humble effort, remarkable for nothing so much as for its 
heartiness, simplicity, and persistence; yet some of the 
Thrushes, like the Hermit and the Wood Thrush, sing with 
wonderful power and effect. 

Genus TURDUS Linn. 

THE characters of the single genus represented in North 
America being in effect the same as those of the sub- 
family already given, need not be recapitulated. The several 
species to be treated fall in three groups, or subgenera, which 
may be thus analyzed: — 

Planesticus. — Sexes similar. Bill notched near the end, little 
widened at base. Tarsi little longer than the middle toe and 
claw. Beneath mostly unicolor, with streaked throat. Large ; 
stout. 

Hesperocichla. — Sexes dissimilar. Bill unnotched. Male 
with a black pectoral collar. Otherwise like Planesticus. 

Hylociclila. — Sexes similar. Bill notched near the end, much 
widened and depressed at base. Tarsi decidedly longer than 
the middle toe and claw. Beneath spotted. Of small stature, 
and rather slender form. 

It may be remarked that the first plumage of young birds is 
spotted, in this genus ; and that the tarsal scutella are only 
fused completely in adult life.* 

All of the North American species of this genus occur in the 
Coloradan region excepting one, the Wood Thrush, T. ninste- 
Umis. While there will be no difficulty in recognizing the 
species of Planesticus and of Hesijerocichla, the smaller species 
of i?i/Zocic/i?a require careful discrimination, nor are ornitholo- 
gists agreed upon the more correct view to be taken of their 
interrelationships. Four species are distinct, beyond question : 
T. mustelimis, T. fiiscescens, T. swainsotii, and T. pallasi ; but 

*This latter subject is well illustrated by Dr. J. J. Kaup, in aa article en- 
titled " IJeber die Bedeckung der Fusswurzel des Turdus migratorius ", in : 
Arch, fiir Naturg., sechszohnter Jalirg. Bd. I. ss. 42, 43, biorzu Taf. ii, Fig. 
1-5. 



8 SYNONYMY OF TURDUS MIGRATOKIUS 

some otber forms which have been admitted to be specific are 
not so well established. It may be further observed that 
several of the names now currently adopted may have to give 
way, in the end, if the species described by some of the older 
authors, as Pennant, Latham, Gmelin, and Pallas, can be fully 
identified. On the present occasion, however, I shall adopt 
the usual nomenclature. 



The Robin 

Tardus (Planesticus) inig^ratoriiis 

Tardus migratoriUS, Linn. SN. i. 1766, 292.— Fors«. Phil. Tr. Ixii. 1772, 382, 399.— Got. SN. 
i. 1788, an.— Lath. 10. i. 1790, 330.— Turt. SN. i. 1806, iOi.—Yicill. GAS. ii. 1807, 5, pis. 
60, 61.— Wils. AO. i. 1808, 35, pi. 2, f. "H.—Bp. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1834, 25; Ann. 
Lye. K. T. ii. 1826, 75 ; Syn. 1828, 15.— Fox, Newc. Mu.s. 1827, l5Q.—Doughty's Uab. 
NH. i. 1830, 133, pi. I^.-Less. Tr. Orn. 1831, 408.— Brehm, Udbh. VD. 1831,388.— ;Vm«. 
Man. i. 1832, 338, fig. — ; 1810, —.—Kittl. Kupfert. iii. 1833, 21, pi. 25, f. 2.—Aud. OB. ii. 
1834, 190; V, 1839, 442; pi. 131 ; Syn. 1839, 89 ; BA. iii. 1841, 14, pi. U2.—Tcmm. Man. 
iii. 1835, 91.— Bp. PZS. 1837, iii.—Bp. C. & GL. 1838, n.—Peab. Kep. Orn. Mass. 1839, 
303.— Fifl'. Voy. Bloss. 1839, 17.— Towns. Jouru. Phila. Acad. viii. 1839, 153.— Giraud, 
BLI. 1844, 86.—Gaml>. Proc. Acad. Phila. iii. 1846, 113.— Thicne. Rhea, i. 1846, 125 
(Vienna.).— Homey. Khea, ii. 1849, 158 (Europe).— .Bp. CA. i. 1850, 272.— A^awm. Naum. 
iv. 1851,7 {G6Tma.ny).— Burnett, Pr. Boat. Soc. iv. 1851, 116.— Cafe. Naum. ii. 1852, 122 
(Germany). — Oabot, Naum. iii. 1852, 65. — Tliomps. Vermont, 1853, 79, fig. — . — Read, 
Pr. Phila. Acad. \i. 1853. 398.— Hoy, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 310.— Woodh. Sit- 
greave's Eep. 1853, ~i.—Cab. J. f. O. 1853, 67 (Germany).— Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. iv. 

1854, 3i5.—Pratten, Tr. Illinois Agr. Soc. 1855, aOl.—Eennic. Tr. Illinois Agr. Soc. 

1855, 582.— Henry, Pr, Phila. Acad. vii. 1855, 3iO.—Haym. Pr. Phila. Acad. viii. 1856, 
288.— Ptttn. Pr. Esses Inst. i. 1856, 209.— ,Sc?. PZS. 1856, Wl.—Neivb. PEPvE. vi. 1857, 
81.— Kneel. Pr. Bost. Soc. vi. 1857, '2.3A.—Bry. Pr. Bost. Soc. vi. 1857, UO.—Scl. PZS. 
1857, 126 ; 1858, 300.— lfaa;im. J. f. 0. 1858, 118.— Treadiv. Pr. Bost. Soc. vi. 1858,396.— 
Scl. PZS. 1859, 225, 331, 362.— Gosse, Alabama, 1859, W5.—Xantiis, Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 
1859, 190.— ^Villis, Smithson. Kep. for 1858, 1859, 281.— ffecrm. PEIlPv. x. pt. iv. 1859, 
190.— Mar tens, J. f. O. 1859, ^13.— Tomes, Ibis, 1859, 387.— ,5. <£• <?. Ibis, 1860, 396.— Ooop. 
<£ Suckl. NHWT. 1860, 112.— Bd. Ivcs' Kep. 1861, 5.— Barn. Smithson. Rep. for 1860, 
1861, i35.—Scl. Ibis, 1861, 2S2.—Blak. Ibis, 1862, 4.—Tayl. Ibis, 1862, 123.— aitnd. J. f. 
O. 1862, 181.— Board. Pr. Bost. Soc. ix. 1862, 124.— Ferr. Pr. Bost. Soc. ix. 1862, 137.— 
Verr. Pr. Essex Inst. iii. 1862, 145.— Hayd. Tr. Am. Philos. Soc. xii. 1862, 159.— Licht. 
"Preis-Verz. Mex. Vog. 1830, 2"; J. f. O. 1863, 51.—Blak. Ibis, 1863, 59.— Bd. Kev. 
AB. 1664, 28.— Scl. PZS. 1864, 112.— Dress. Ibis, 1865, 415.-Hoy, Smithson. Kep. for 1864, 
1865, 431.— Weiz, Fr. Bost. Soc. x. 1866, 267.— ia?vr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. 1866, 281.— 
Mcllwr. Pr. E.ssex Inst. v. 18C6, 84.—Degl.-Gerbe,0'E.i. 1867, 406.— Sam. BNE. 1867, 
154.— iJ>-oi/;7i, Ibis, 1868, 420.— Coues, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 1868, lOl.—Ooues, Pr. Phila. 
Acad. XX. 1868, 82.— Butch.Vr. Phila. Acad. xx. 1868,149.— Cones, Am. Nat. ii. 1868, 
161.— Hughes, Am. Nat. ii. 1868, 490.— Garlick, Am. Nat. ii. 1868, 492.— Cows, Pr. 
Essex Inst. v. 1868, 265.— Allen, Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 573.— Coo;>. Am. Nat. iii. 1809, 
31, 291.— Ball (£• Bann. Tr. Chicago Acad. i. 1869, —.—Turnb. B. E. Pa. 1809, 22; Phila. 
ed. 15.— Ball, Am. Nat. iv. 1870, 600.- Coo^j. B. CaJ. i. 1870, 7, fig. —.—ilajn. B. Mass. 
1870, 89.— CoMes, Pr. Phila. Acad, xxiii. 1871, 19.— Stevens, U.S. Geol. Siirv. Terr, for 
1870, 1871, 463- Aiien, Bull. MCZ. 1871, 2.50.— 2V!p;7e,Pr. Essex Inst. vi. 1871, 115.— 
Bruhin, Zool. (Jart. xii. 1871, 12 —Mayn. 15. Fla. 1872, 1.— Coues, Key, 1872, 71, f. 13.— 
Alle7i, Bull. MCZ. 1872, 113.— Drew, Am. Nat. vi. 1872, 52.— iroorf, Am. Nat. vi. 1872, 



SYNONYMY OF TURDUS MIGRATORIUS d 

M3.— Lockio. Am. Nat. vi. 1872, 'i~0.—Hold. Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1873, 103—Mayn. Pr. 

Bost. Soc. XV. 1872, 351.— Scott, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1872, '^iO.—Trippe, Pr. Bost. Soc. 

XV. 1873, 234.— Merr. IT. S. Gool. Surv. Terr, for 1872, 187.3, li^.-Bidg. BulL Essex 

Inst. V. 1873, 179.— Snow, B. Kan.sas, 1873, 3.—Coues, Prybilov. 18.1873, app. — ; 8vo 

ed. 1875, 172; Harting ed. 1875, 16.— i?o!/ce. Am. Js'at. viii. 18T4, 203.— .Eds. Am. Nat. 

viii. 1874, 2~l.—Comstock, Am. Nat. viii. 1874, ~e.—Coop. Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 16.— 

Bidg. Am. Nat. viii. 1874, ne.—Merrill, Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 5iT.— Allen, Pr. Bost. Soc. 

1874, 45, 48.— Cowes, BNW. 1874, 1, 22B.—Coues, Checkl. 1874, No. 1.— Allen, Pr. Bost. 

Soc. xTii. 1874, iS.-Ridgw. Ann. Lye. N. T. x. 1874, 365.— Rensh. Ann. Lye. N. T. x. 

1874, 'H.-Hensh. <£ Yarr. Kep. Wheeler's Exp. 1874, 5, 39, 56, 70, ^^.—Hensli. Zool. 

"Wheeler's Exp. 1875, 143 (in press).— JJuZflrw. Zool. 40th Par. 187-, 9 (in press).— 

Boies, Cat. B. Michigan, 1875, — . —Nels. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 338, 345, 349, 355.— 

Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 438. 
Tardus megratorius, Bodd. Tabl. PE. 1783, 32, pi. 556, f. l. 
Turdus nilsrratorlus var. luigratorius, Bd. Br. a By. NAB. i. 1874, 25, pi. 2, f. 2. 
Turdus (Planesticus) migratorius, Bd. BNA. 1858, 218.— Oowes, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1861, 218.— 

Allen, Pr. Essex Inst. iv. 1864, 58.— Ooues, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1866, 6i.—Merr. TJ. S. GeoL 

Surv. for 1872, 1873, 670. 
Planestieus migratorius, Henry, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1859, 106.— Coues, Ibis, 1865, \63.—Merr. 

V. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, for 1872, 1873, 713 ; Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 7, 8, 86.— Gundl. J. f. 

0. 1872, 405. 
Mcrnla mlgratorla, S. <e E. EBA. ii. 1831, 176.— TTaiZss, Eep. Miss. 1854, 318.— Gouic?, BE. 

pi. 74. 
Turdus canadensis, Briss. Orn. ii. 1760, 225, No. 9.—2Iiill. SN. Suppl. 177C, 140. 
Turdus pilaris niigratorius, Kalm. iii. 46. 
Fieldfare of Carolina, Catesby, Car. i. pi. 29. 
Litorne de Canada, Buff. Ois. iii. 307. 
Grive de Canada, Buff. PE. 556. f. 1. 
American Fieldfare, Forst. Phil. Tr. Ixii. 1772, 399. 

Pved-breasted Thrush, Fenn. AZ. ii. 1785, 335, No. \^6.—Lath. Syn. ii. — , 26, No. 12. 
Merle Erratiqiie, Temm. Man. iii. 1835, Ol.-Bpgl.-Gerbe, OE. i. 1867, 406. 
Merle ou Rouge-gorge du Canada, Le Maine, Ois. Canad. 1861, 164. 
Migratory Thrush ; American Rfdbreast ; American Robin; Robin Redbreast; Robin, 

Vulgo. 

Var. 

Turdus conflnis, Bd. Eev. AB. 1864, W.—Ooop. B. Cal. i. 1870, 9.— Elliot, BNA. —.—Merrill, 

Am. Nat. viii, 1874, 547. 
Turdus migratorius var. conflnis, Ooues, Key, 1872, T2.—Bd. Br. £ Ry. NAB. L 1874, 27, pi. 

2, f. 1. 
Hab. — Nortli and Middle America ; Greenland ; some of the West India 
Islands; Europe, accidentally. 

Ch. sp. — (J 9 . OUvaceo-scMstaceus, capite caudaqne nigricantl- 
&ns, alis fuscis cinereomarginatis, gastneo suhaxillanhusque cas- 
tancis, gula albostriata, palpehris, tibiis cHssoque albis, rostro 
■fiavo. 

$ in sunnner: Upper parts slate-color, with a shade of olive. Head 
black, the eyelids and a spot before the eye white, and the throat streaked 
with white. Quills of the wings dusky, edged with hoary ash, and with the 
color of the back. Tail blackish, the outer feather usually tipped with 
white. Under parts, to the vent, including the under wing-coverts, chest- 
nut. Under tail-coverts and tibia3 white, showing more or less plumbeous. 
Bill yelloxA', often with a dusky tip. Mouth yellow. Eyes dark brown. 
Feet blackish, the soles yellowish. Length about 10 inches; extent about 
16; wing, 5-5^; tail, 4-4^ ; bill, | ; tarsus, IJ: middle toe and claw about 
the same. 



10 DESCRIPTION OP TIJRDUS MIGRATOKIUS 

$ in suiuiuer: Similar to the <? , but the colors duller ; upper parts rather 
olivaceous-gray ; cbestuut of the uuJer parts paler, the feathers skirted 
with gray or white ; head aud tail less blackish ; throat with more white. 
Bill much clouded with dusky. 

(? $ in winter and young: Similar to the adult female, but receding some- 
what farther from the <J in summer by the duller colors, the paleness and 
restriction of the chestnut, with its extensive skirting with white, lack of 
distinction of the color of the head from that of the back, tendency of the 
white spot before the eye to run into a superciliary streak, and dark color 
of most of the bill. 

Very young birds have the back speckled, each feather being whitish 
centrally, with a dusky tip, and the cinnamon of the under parts is spotted 
with blackish. The greater coverts are tipped with white or rufous^ fre- 
quently persistent, as are also some similar markings on the lesser coverts. 

Albinos, partial or complete, of this species are of comparatively frequent 
occurrence. 

In specimens bred in the Colorado Basin and other portions of the South- 
west, there is a tendency to greater length of the tail ; this member averag- 
ing in length nearly at the maximum of that of Eastern specimens. With 
this is coupled the reduction or extinction of the white spot on the exterior 
tail-feathers. 




Fig. 3. — Head of Robin, natural size. 

THE Eobin is foun'^l in all parts of Korth America. It also 
occurs in Greenland, on islands in Bering's Sea, on several 
of the West India islands, as Bermuda, Cuba, and Tobago ; 
and through Mexico to Guatemala. It has even been known to 
cross the Atlantic, having been several times shot in Europe.* 
Such general statement of its distribution requires little if any 
qualification. For, though it is a woodland bird, like all of its 
tribe, and therefore scarcely to be found in certain portions of 
the country, where desert or prairie fail to afford requisite con- 

* In the above synonymy, numerous European references are given, which 
must not be presumed, however, to indicate as many different instances of 
its occurrence, since several may relate to the same case. Dr. Cabanis sup- 
poses the individual taken in Germany in December, 1851, to have leached 
that country via Siberia, not by crossing the Atlantic. 



DISTRIBUTION AND HABITS OF THE ROBIN 11 

ditions ; nevertlieless, in the course of its extensive migrations, 
it may at least pass over such tracts. Thus I have observed 
large flocks in the open and sterile portions of Dakota and 
Montana — flocks that were journeying across the country, and 
had stopped for rest and food in the fringe of trees along the 
lesser -svater-courses. 

It is not easy to determine the center of abundance of so 
widely diffused a bird as the Robin. Excluding the extremes 
of its range, reached by comparatively few individuals, such 
as Greenland, the West Indies, or Central America, its num- 
bers appear to be determined solely by the food-supply. Since 
settlement of the country and cultivation of the soil result in 
an increase of its favorite articles of diet, it is nowhere more 
numerous than in populous districts. In the Southwest, it 
appears to be becoming more abundant than it formerly was, 
doubtless in direct consequence of the progress of civilization. 
All the recent observers who have recorded their experience 
agree in their representations to this effect. In any given 
locality, short of the extremes of its range, the bird appears to 
be more abundant during the migration — especially the autum- 
nal movement — than at other seasons. This may be due to two 
causes. In the first place, there is an actual increase in number 
by new arrivals ; and, secondly, the birds collect together in 
large companies, and become in consequence more conspicuous 
than they are when generally dispersed. In some regions, 
where trees are few and far between, as in an instance already 
cited, Robins will rarely be seen except in the spring and fall. 
In intermediate portions of the United States, they seem to be 
most numerous early in the spring, and in the latter part 
of autumn, when straggling flocks of hundreds roam through 
favorite tracts of woodland and shrubbery, or betake them- 
selves to the neighboring fields. 

The Robin is strictly a migratory bird, like most insectivor- 
ous species which inhabit the northern hemisphere. There is 
a general north and south movement of the species as a whole, 
during the changing seasons of the year — a movement directly 
related to the sources of food-supply. Nor should it be in- 
ferred from the fact that Robins may be seen in a given locality 
during the whole year, that the tide of migration has not 
passed ; for it may be that the individuals present at one 
season are not the same as those that remained during a pre- 
vious period of the year. The fact appears to be, that, as a 



12 HABITS OF THE ROBIN 

rule, at least, there is a replacing of oue set of individuals by 
another ; so that, though the bird as a species may be resident, 
the birds individually have obeyed the migratory impulse. Wide 
as the Eobin's distribution is, the limits of its summer and 
winter residences are comparatively little narrower. Its breed- 
ing-range extends from Arctic America to the Alpine regions 
of Mexico ; its winter home, from the Northern States to Cen- 
tral America. It is a hardy bird, capable of enduring cold to 
the freezing-point of mercury. Thus, it will be seen, the bird 
is "resident" in one sense throughout the greater portion of 
its range. Nevertheless, the general migration favors its pres- 
ence in greatest numbers in the Southern States during winter, 
and in the Northern during the summer. 

The Eobin is a great eater of berries and soft fruits of every 
description; aud these furnish, during the colder portions of 
the year, its chief sustenance. Some of the cultivated fruits of 
the orchard and garden are specially attractive ; and no doubt 
the birds demand their tithe. But the damage done in this 
way is trifling at most, and wholly inconsiderable in compari- 
son with the great benefit resulting from the destruction of 
noxious insects by this bird. The prejudice which some per- 
sons entertain against the Eobin is unreasonable ; the whole- 
sale slaughter of the birds which annually takes jjlace in many 
localities is as senseless as it is cruel. Few persons have any 
adequate idea of the enormous — the literally incalculable — 
numbers of insects that Eobins eat every year. It has been 
found, by careful and accurate observations, that a young 
Eobin, in the nest, requires a daily supply of animal food equiv- 
alent to considerably more than its own weight! When we 
remember that some millions of i:)airs of Eobins raise five or six 
young ones, once, twice, or even three times a year, it will be 
seen that the resulting destruction of insects is, as I have said, 
simply incalculable. I have no doubt that the services of 
these birds, during the time they are engaged in rearing their 
young alone, would entitle them to protection, were the parents 
themselves to feed exclusively upon garden-fruits for the whole 
period. But at this time the diet of the old birds is very 
largely of an animal nature ; nor is this the only season during 
which the destruction of insects goes on. Upon the first arrival 
of the main body of the birds early in the spring, long before 
any fruits are ripe, they throw themselves into newly-i)lowed 
fields, and scatter over meadows, lawns, and parks, in eager 



HABITS OF THE ROBIN 13 

search for the worms and grubs that, later in the season, would 
prove invincible to the agriculturist, were not their ravages 
thus sta^'ed in advance by the friendly army of Robins. 

It is a matter of congratulation that the good services of the 
Eobin are becoming duly appreciated — thanks to the timely 
and judicious interference in its behalf on the part of many of 
its friends; among whom no one, perhaps, deserves higher 
praise for his active and successful exertions than Dr. Thomas 
M. Brewer, of Boston. The bird is now very generally pro- 
tected by legislative enactments, during a portion of the year 
at least ; it is to be hoped that the laws may be made still more 
stringent, and the " close" time become co-extensive with the 
year itself. As an object of " sport," the Robin can possess no 
attractions save to idle children of larger or smaller growth ; 
while its commercial value, as an article of food, is wholly in- 
considerable. There are, therefore, weighty and cogent reasons 
why the Robin should be protected by law at all seasons ; for 
there would rarely if ever be difdculty in gaining permission, 
upon proper representation, to destroy the very few that might 
be required for scientific purposes, or to please the capricious 
palate of au invalid. 

There is little need to pursue the history of the Robin to the 
details of the bird's daily life ; upon such points the children 
are competent ornithologists; and those of us who may have 
forgotten our early experiences need only look out of the 
window at the right time. A word of record respecting the 
nest, may, however, not be out of place. This is one of the 
most conspicuous pieces of bird-architecture about the home- 
stead — the Kingbird's, the Oriole's, and the various Swallows' 
nests alone approaching it in this respect. The horizontal 
bough of au orchard tree, not far from the ground, is a favor- 
ite situation ; though the Robin is not very particular, and 
will sometimes build, like the Pewit Flycatcher, in odd and 
unsuspected uooks about an out-building. The nest is too bulky 
for concealment, and no art is attempted. A mass of the most 
miscellaneous material, chiefly of vegetable nature, such as 
leaves, weed-stems, moss, grasses, and rootlets, but sometimes 
including hair or wool, surrounds a rather neat cuj) of mud, 
which in turn is lined with finer vegetable fiber. The shape of 
the nest varies, of course, with the character of the support 
upon which it rests ; iu size it is about five inches wide, or' 
deep, with a cavity half as large, the walls and flooring being 



14 SYNONYMY OF TURDUS N^VIUS 

very thick and substantial. Such nests do not readily yield to 
the weather. The eggs, numbering five on an average, perhaps, 
measure from an inch and one-eighth to an inch and one-fourth 
in length hy three-fourths to four-fifths in breadth. When 
fresh, they are of a uniform, rich, greenish-blue color, without 
spots ; after being blown for some time, especially if exposed to 
the light, they fade considerably, becoming of a lighter green- 
ish, with less blue shade. 



Varied Thrush 

Tardus (Sesperocicbla) nscvius 

Tarled Thrush, Penn. AZ. u. 1785, 337, No. 197, pi. 15. 

Spotted Thrush, Lath. Syn. ii. pt. i. 27, No. 13. 

TurdUS naevlUS, Gm. SN. i. pt. ii. 1788, 817, No. 59.— Lath. 10. i. 1790, 331, No. \.3.—Kittl. 
Kupfert. iii. 1833, 21, pi. 25, f. l.—Bp. CA. i. 1850, 271.— Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii, 1875, 
438 (Mass.). 

TurdUS naeviUS, Turt. SN. i. 1806, 497.— VieiU. OAS. ii. 1807, 10.— Bp. C. & GL. 1838, 17.— 
And. OB. iv. 1838, 489; v. 1839, 284, pis. 369, 433.— ^ud Syn. 1839, 89.— Orni«A. Comm. 
Journ. Phila. Acad. vii. 1839, 193.— Vi^. Zool. Voy. Bloas. 1839, IT.—Aud. BA. lu. 1841, 
22, pi. 143.— Gam6. Pr. Phila. Acad. iii. 1846, 113 (California).— GamJ. Journ. Phila. Acad, 
i. 1847, 4%— Cabot, Proc. Bost. Soc. iii. 1848, 17 (New Jersey).— iatcr.Ann. Lye. N. Y. v. 
1852, 221 (New York).— ScZ. PZS. 1857, i.—Newb. PRRR. vi. 1857, 81.— Heerm, PRRR. 
X. pt. iv. 1859, 45.— Xa7itus, Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 1859, 190 (California).— 5ci. PZS. 1859, 
331.— C. 6,-S. NHWT. 1860, lli.—Bd. Ives' Rep. pt. v. 1861, 5 (Colorado River).— 5cZ. 
Ibis, 1861, ^62.— Blah. Ibis, v. 1863, 59.— Bd. Rev. AB. 1864, 3%— Allen, Pr. Essex Inst. v. 
1864, 82 (New Jersey). — Lord, Pr. Arty. Inst. Woolw. iv. 1864, 114. — Lawr. Ann. Lye. 
N. Y. viii. 1866, 281 (Long Island) — Coues, Pr. Essex Inst. v. 1868, 312 (Ipswich, Mass).— 
Brown,lhis, 1868,420(Vancouver).— DaZZ.^-Bawn.Tr. Chicago Acad. i. 1869,276 (Alaska).- 
Tiirnb. B. E. Pa. 1869, 53 ; Phila. ed. 41 (New Jersey).— Cooi?. Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 31 (Coeur 
d'Aleiie Mts., Montana) ; ibid. 75.— Allen, Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 512, 513, 572 (Ipswich, 
Mass., Dec, 1864).— y^ZZcTi, White's Geol. of Iowa, 1870, ii. 419 (" Iowa ").—Da;Z. Am. 
Nat. iv. 1870, 600.— il/ayn. Guide, 1870, 89 (Ipswich, Mass.).- Coo;). B. Cal. i. 1870, 10.— 
Coues, Key, 1872, 72.— aoues, BNW. 1874, l.—Bd. Br. ^ Ry. NAB. i. 1874, 29, f. — 
pi. 2, f. 2. 

TurdUS (Ixoreus) naevius, Bd. bna. 1858,219. 

TurdUS noevia, Towns. Journ. Phila. Acad. viii. 1839, 153. 

Tardus (Hesperocichla) nxrius, Coues, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1866, 65 (Arizona). 

TurdUS auroreus, PaH. ZRA. i. 1831, 448, No. 87 (9 aut juv. Kodiak). [Cf. Cab. J. f. 0. 

1872, 157.] 
Orpheus ineruloides, S. A R. FBA. ii. 1831, 187, pi. 38 (Fort Franklin). 
Mlmus mernlOides, Less. Rev.Zool. iii. 1840, 2?3. 
Columbia Robin, Lewis (( Clarke, Trav. 1st Am. cd. ii. 1814, 185. 
Thrush-like Mock-bird, S. if R. I. c 

Ch. sp. — (? ScMstaceus, suhtiis aurantio-riifus, torque pectorali 
nigro; ])aJpehris, strigd iJOStociilari,fasciis hinls alaribus, necnon 
maculis remigum aurantio-rujis ; remigihus rectricibusque nigri- 
ca7itihiis, crisso rectricibusque exterioribns albo-notatis: rostro 



DESCRIPTION OF TURDUS NiEVIUS 15 

nigro ; pedibussubjlavis. 9 oUvaceo-plumheus,aliscaudaqueconcO' 
loribus, torque angusto dor so concolore; gastrceo dilutiore. 

S , in summer: Entire upper parts dark slate-color, varying in sbacle from 
a blackish to a plumbeous slate, in less perfect specimens with a slight olive 
tinge ; wings and tail blackish, with more or less of plumbeous or olive 
shade, according to the age of the quills ; wing-coverts, greater and lesser, 
tipped with orange-brown forming two cross-bars, and quills edged in two 
or three places with the same ; quills also white at base on the inner webs, 
this marking not visible from the outside ; one or several of the lateral tail- 
feathers tipped with white. A broad black collar across the breast, mount- 
ing on the side of the neck and head. Stripe behind the ej^e, lower eyelid, 
and under parts orange-brown, gradually giving way to white on the lower 
belly; vent and crissum mixed white, orange-brown, and plumbeous. Bill 
black ; feet and claws dull yellowish. Length, 9i-10 inches ; extent about 
16 ; wing, 5 ; tail, 3f ; bill, * ; tarsus, or middle toe and claw, IJ. 

9 , in summer : Upper parts olivaceous-plumbeous (almost exactly the 
Bhade of the common Robin in winter) ; wings and tail scarcely darker ; the 
pectoral collar narrow, like the back in color; other under parts like those 
of the male, but duller, paler, and rather rusty than orange-brown, with 
more white on the lower belly. Markings of head, tail, and wings exactly 
as in the male. 

Young : Like the adult female. Upper parts in many cases with a decided 
umber-brown wash. No speckled stage, like that of the very young Robin, 
has been observed, though August specimens have been examined. In the 
young male, the black pectoral bar is at first indicated by interrupted black- 
ish crescents on individual feathers. Young females sometimes show scarcely 
a trace of the collar. At all ages, the markings of the head and wings are 
much the same. 

In winter : January and December examples from Southern California 
examined differ in no wise from summer specimens of the corres^ionding 
sexes. 

This bird is about the size of the common Robin, and not very dissimilar 
in general appearance, though the black necklace and orange wing-mark- 
ings distinguish it at a glance. The color of the under parts sometimes 
approaches that of the Robin, but is never of the pure chestnut shade — it is 
much as in the Black-headed Grosbeak, Goniaphea melanocepliala. The tail 
is notably shorter than in the Robin, and the bill lacks the notch at the 
end; the bill is more compressed, with a straighter cnlmen, and the 
bristles at its base are more highly developed. The species appears to be 
subject to little variation, chiefly affecting the purity and intensity of the 
colors. 

rFinOUGH the Varied Thrush has been nominally known to 
A naturalists for a century, it is only within the last few 
years that we have gained any considerable knowledge of its 
habits. The nest and eggs, in particular, have but recently come 
to light. The bird was discovered at Xootka Sound, on Captain 
Cook's third voyage ; the specimens passed into the possession 



16 HISTORY OF THE VARIED THRUSH 

of Sir Joseph Banks, and were described both by Latham and 
by Pennant; the latter also giving a figure of the male. 
"Varied Thrash" and "Spotted Thrush" were the names 
bestowed by these writers, upon whose accounts Gmelin, in 
1788, based his Turdus naevius. In 1831, Swainson figured and 
accurately described the species under the name of Orpheus 
meruloides, given, however, in opposition to the prime rule of 
nomenclature, for no better reason than that such designation 
appeared to him to be more expressive. These two terms are 
the only ones to be found in current quotations ; a third, how- 
ever, is to be added ; for Pallas received from Kodiak, through 
his friend Billings, specimens of the same species, to which he 
applied the name of Turdus auroreus. That he had no other 
bird in view will be evident upon consideration of the descrip- 
tion given in the Zoographia liosso-Asiatica ; all the terms of 
that account being in strictness applicable to the female or 
immature male, in which the black pectoral collar is incom- 
plete. 

Neither of the earlier authors mentioned gave any account of 
the bird's habits. Pallas merely remarks that it was often 
killed on the island of Kodiak, where it remains all winter ; 
that it begins to sing late in March, nests on the ground among 
bushes, and lays four or five eggs. Sir John Eichardson's speci- 
men, figured in the Fauna Boreali-Americana, was procured 
at Port Franklin, latitude 65° 30', in the spring of 1826. The 
bird is said by this author to nest in bushes, like the common 
Eobin, but no further information is given. Two American 
naturalists, Thomas Nuttall and J. K. Townsend, gave the 
next glimpses of the life of this bird. Mr. Nuttall observed 
that it reached the Columbia Eiver in October, and remained 
in some numbers through the winter ; " at this time," says he, 
" they flit through the forest in small flocks, frequenting 
usually low trees, on which they perch in perfect silence, and 
are at times very timorous and difficult of approach, having all 
the shy sagacit^^ of the Kobin." Mr. Townsend's notice is to a 
similar effect ; but, in addition, he states that the voice of the 
bird is different from that of the Eobin, being louder, sharper, 
and quicker, and alludes to a pleasant song which the bird 
utters in the spring, just before it sets out on its northern 
journey. Audubon's account is almost entirely made up of 
quotations from the three authors last mentioned. 

In Oregon and Washington Territories, Drs. Cooper and 



HABITS OF THE VARIED THRUSH 17 

Suckley appear to have had excellent opportunities of studying 
the habits of this species. The former remarks, in the Natural 
History of Washington Territory : — " The varied thrush or 
Tvestcru robin is common during winter, and I think that a 
few remain near the coast all summer, as I have seen them 
in the dark spruce forests in June and July. They are much 
more shy and retiring than the robin, and differ very much in 
song, which, as I have heard it, consists only of five or six 
notes in a minor key, and in a scale regularly descending. It 
is commonly heard in the tops of the trees, and in summer only 
in the densest of forests. In winter they associate with the 
robins, and feed much on the ground, sometimes coming around 
houses in cold weather." Dr. Suckley continues with his obser- 
vations, in the same volume : — " In winter it is a shy bird, not 
generally becoming noticeable in the open districts until after 
a fall of snow, when many individuals may be seen along the 
sand beaches near salt water. They are at such times tame 
and abundant, at least sufficiently so for any ordinary shot to 
obtain a dozen specimens in a forenoon. I suppose that they 
are driven out of the woods during the heavy snows by hunger. 
It may then frequently be found in company with the common 
robin, with which it has many similar habits. ... At this time 
of the year it is a very silent bird, quite tame, allowing near 
approach ; flying up when the intruder comes too near, but 
alighting on the ground again a short distance in front. It 
appears to be fond of flying by short stages in a desultory 
manner, sometimes alighting on the ground ; at others on 
fences, bushes or trees. The settlers here (at Port Townsend) 
call them spotted, painted, and golden robins. The most con- 
spicuous mark on the bird which strikes the eye at first is the 
black crescent on the fore part of the breast." 

Never having myself met with the Varied Thrush, I have 
presented the principal accounts which have reached us respect- 
ing its general habits and manners. Its nest and eggs remain 
to be noticed, and its geographical distribution to be traced. 

Mr. W. H. Dall, to whose important researches we are in- 
debted for a decided increase in our knowledge of the birds of 
Alaska, found the Varied Thrush nesting at Nulato, May 22d, 
and gave us our tirst information on this special subject. A 
nest which he found was built in a willow-bush, about two feet 
from the ground, on a mass of debris which had lodged during 
an overflow of the river. Its shape, as described by Dr. 
2 B c 



18 NIDIFICATION AND MIGRATION OP VARIED THRUSH 

Brewer, may not have been natural, for that author remarks 
that it probably had been flattened iu transportation. This 
nest "was composed of " flue dry mosses and licheus impacted 
together, intermingled with fragments of dry stems of grasses". 
A second nest, obtained in Alaska by Dr. Minor, is described 
by Dr. Brewer in the same connection : — " It is a much more 
finished structure. Its base and periphery are composed of an 
elaborate basket work of slender twigs. Within these is an 
inner nest consisting of an interweaving of fine dry grasses 
and long gray lichens." There is thus seen to be the usual 
variation in the materials employed by this Thrush iu the con- 
struction of its nest ; but it is worthy of note that no mud 
enters into its composition, contrary to the surmise of Audu- 
bon that the structure might resemble that of the Eobin iu 
this respect. The position of the nest, at least in Alaska, 
seems to be more constant; for, in the several cases which came 
under Mr. Dall's observation, the nests were close to the river's 
bank, in secluded places, and low in situation. The eggs are 
about one and an eighth of an inch long by four-fifths broad ; 
in color, they are light greenish-blue, distinctly speckled with 
dark umber-brown. 

Our knowledge of the geograi)hical distribution of this species 
was for many years restricted to the immediate region in which 
the bird was discovered ; it was subsequently extended east- 
ward to Great Bear Lake and southward to Oregon. It is only 
recently that information has been secured of such southward 
extension of its habitat that I am enabled to include the species 
among the birds of the Colorado Basin. Its presence in South- 
ern California is attested by several observers. Mr. Xantus 
procured it at Fort Tejon, and Professor Baird, in Lieutenant 
Ives's Eeport of the Exploration of the Colorado, notes a speci- 
men from Fort Yuma, which fixes the southernmost point on 
record to date. But its presence so far south as this, and at 
the same time at such slight elevation, is perhaps fortuitous; 
certainly, neither Dr. Cooper nor myself nor any of the orni- 
thologists who have latterly' visited Arizona found it in this 
Territory. In various portions of Middle California, however. 
Dr. Cooper has observed the bird, and to some extent traced 
its movements. He remarks that it merely visits the lower 
country of California in winter, and that he had not seen it 
himself south of the Coast range near Santa Clara, and even 
there no later than April. " It is very probable, however," he 



ERRATIC MOVEMENTS OF THE VARIED THRUSH 19 

continues, " that some breed in the dark evergreen forests 
toward the north, as they do near the mouth of the Columbia, 
though I did not see any about the summits of the Sierra 
iS'evada, in September, at lat. 39°, elevation 7,000 feet. In 
October, they begin to come down to the valleys, and are quite 
common in winter near San Francisco." 

To the foregoing indication of the normal range of the species, 
namely, along the whole Pacific region from Bering's Straits to 
Southern California, I have only to add the record of its 
singular wanderings ; for the Varied Thrush, like the Even- 
ing Grosbeak, Lark Finch, Arkansan and Fork-tailed Fly- 
catchers, and some other distinctively western birds, has occa- 
sionally crossed the continent. The earliest instance of such 
erratic movement which has come to my knowledge is that 
given by Dr. Samuel Cabot, who records the capture of a speci- 
men in New Jersey. This individual, having been secured in 
the Boston market, has since been more than once mentioned in 
published records as having occurred at or near Boston ; but, 
as Dr. Cabot states explicitly, it was shot in New Jersey. 
Nevertheless, the Varied Thrusli has actually appeared in 
Massachusetts, and not far from Boston either; a specimen 
having been taken in December, 1864, at Ipswich, Mass., as 
recorded by Mr. Allen, Mr. Maynard, Dr. Brewer, and myself, 
in our several papers above cited, all of which refer to this 
single occurrence. This individual is said to be now preserved 
in the collection of the Boston Society of Natural History. Mr. 
George N. Lawrence, in his List of the Birds of New York, 
Long and Staten Islands, marks the Varied Thrush as "rare", 
without further comment; and, in Baird, Brewer, and Eidg- 
way's work, a Long Island specimen is said to be in Mr. Law- 
rence's cabinet. On writing to Mr. Lawrence for the particu- 
lars of this case, I am favored with the following items: — 
" Besides Cabot's New Jersey example, two others have been 
procured near New York city — one atlslip. Long Island, shot in 
the fall, in company with robins, and now in the possession of the 
person who secured it, the other at Hoboken, New Jersey. Both 
were received in the flesh by Mr. J. Akhurst, to be mounted ; 
the Eoboken one was subsequently destroyed by fire in the 
taxidermist's workshop. All the specimens in my own cabinet 
came from the Pacific side." 

Thus it appears that there have been four authentic instances 
of the occurrence of the Varied Thrush on the Atlantic sea- 



20 SYNONYMY OF TURDUS PALLASI 

board — all within a very limited area: the original New Jer- 
sey one, teste Cahot, sometimes wrongly accredited to Boston ; 
the Ipswich one, December, 1864, Maynard ; the Islip, L. I., 
one, teste Lawrence ; the Hoboken, N. J., one, teste Law- 
rence. There is yet another, making the fifth, record of east- 
^yard deviation from ordinary lines of migration ; namely, that 
given by Mr. J. A. Allen in Prof. C. A. White's Geology of Iowa. 
This, however, Mr. Allen himself informs me, is not authentic, 
he having merely introduced the species in his com^iiled list of 
the Birds of Iowa on the strength of its having been found still 
farther eastward, and no specimen being known to have been 
actuallv found in that State. 



Hermit Thru*!»h 

Tiii'ilus (liylocichla) pallasi 

a. pallnsi. 

Tardus SOlitarius, WUs. AG. v. 1812, 95 (not tbe pi. 43, f. 2, which— S!camyo7i2,- JiccLinn.).— 
Dp. Joiirn. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 275 (critical).— .' Ornith. Comm. Journ. Phila. Acad. vii. 
:837, 193 (Columbia River}.- Bp. C. & GL. 1838, 17.— Up. CA. i. 1850, 210.- Aud. Syn. 
1839, 91.— And. BA. iii. 1841, 29, pi. 146.— ThiaiemanJi, Rhea, i. 1846, 125 (Vienna).— 
r Woodh. Sitgreave's Rep. 1353, 72 (Texas and New Mexico — may have been one of tbe 
other varB.).—7'Ao)«;js. Vermont, 1853, BO.— Hoy, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 310 (Wiscon- 
sin).— /^ead, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 398 (Ohio).—McCuw?i, Ann. Lye. N. T. vi. 1653, 
13 (Texas). — ?Henry,Vr. Vhila. Acad. vii. 1855, 310 (New Mexico — may have been one of 
the other yarn.). — .'Pratteu, Tr. 111. Agr. Soc. 1855, 61 (Illinois).— Hay wj. Pr. Phila. Acad, 
viii. 1856, 289 (Indiana).— P«2?t. Pr. Easex Imt. i. 1856, 209.— >K7iccl. Pr. BoBt. Soc. vi. 
1857, 234.— Bry. Pr. Bost. Soc. vi. 1857, 117 (Nova Scotia). — W7J/ is. Smiths. Rep. for 1858, 
1«59, 281 (Nova Scotia).— B^aHi, Smiths. Rep. for 1858, 1859, 287 (Bermuda).— Zle^J.- 
Gerbe, OE. i. 1867, 426 (Europe).— 7'r!>i)e, Pr. Essex. Inst. vi. 1871, 115 (Minnesota). 

Mcrula SOlitarIa, 5. (,■ R. FBA. ii. 1831, 184, pi. "35" by err. for 37.—" Vieill. OAS. ii. 1807, 
7, pi. 63, in part."— Brc;c. Pr. Bost. Soc. 1844, 191. 

Tiirdus minor, Bp. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 33 (=solitarius Wils. ; nee Gm.). — Naum. 
Isis, 1826, 520.— B/i. Ann. Eye. N. Y. ii. 1826, 75.~Brehm. VD. 1831, 3S3.—NuU. Man.i. 
1832, 3ie.—Aud. OB. i. 13.32, 303, pi. 58; v. 1839, 445.— Pca&. Rep. Orn. Mass. 1839, 
305. — ? Towns. Journ. Phila. Acad. viii. 1839, 153 (may have been T. vstulatus).—Giraud, 
BLI. 1844, 90.— Bald. Naum. i. 1849, 10 ( Anhalt). 

Tardus gUttatUS, Cab. Fn. Peru. 1845-'46, 187. 

TurdUS pallasll, Ca6. Arch. f. Naturg. 1847, (1), 205.— Homcycr, Rhea, ii. 1849, 147 (mono- 
graphic).— GK?idi, J. f. 0. 1855, 470 (Cuba).— JS<i. BNA. 1858, 212.— CoMes {fPrent. Smiths. 
Rep. for 1861, 1862, 404 (Washington, D.C.).— Ferr.Pr. Essex Inst, iii, 1862, 145 (Maine).— 
Boardm. Pr. Bost. Soc. ix. 1862, 124 (Maine).— Ferr. Pr. Bost. Soc. ix. 1862,137 (Anti- 
costi).— Bi. Rev. AB. i. 1864, U.—Mcllw. Pr. Essex Inst. v. 1866, 84 (Canada 
West).- Cowes, Pr. Essex Inst. v. 1868, 266 (New England).— Coufs, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 
1868, 106 (South Carolina).— r?-i/i;)e, Am, Nat. ii. 1868, 380.— Mayn. Am. Nat. ii. 1868, 
662, 663.— Allen, Am. Nat. ii, 1868, ieB.—Turnb. B. E. Pa. 1869, 21 ; Phila. ed. U.— Abbott, 
Am. Nat. iv. 1870, 540, 541.— Parser, Am. Nat. v. It7], 168.— Cones, Pr. Phila. Acad, 
xxiii. 1871, 19 (North Carolina).— jVoiyn. Pr. Bost. Soc. siv. 1872, 357.— Coucs, Key, 1872 
72.— Trippe, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1873, 23i.—Merriam, Am. Nut. vii. 1874, 7, 8. 



SYNONYMY OF T. PALLASI AND ITS VARIETIES 21 

Tur.1us pallasl, Cai. Mil. i. 1850, 5.—Sd. PZS. 1859, 3^5 (critical).— &Z. Ibia, iii. 1861, 280.— 
Barn. Smiths. Uep. for 1860, 1861, 435 (Pennsylvania).— iaicr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. 18C6. 
281 (New York).— Allen, Am. Nat. i. 1867, \Od.—Ridg.Fr.Phi\R. Acad. xxi. 18C9, 123 
icf.tica.]).— Allen, Am. Nat. iii. 18C9, 513.— Mnyn. B. Fla. 1872, 8.—Mcrr. U. S. Geol. ,Surv. 
Terr, for 1872, 1873, 713.— Cojics, BNW. 1874, 2. — Trippn, ibid. 225 (Colorado).— Brcir. Pr. 
Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 438.— B. B. fy R- NAB. i. 1874, 18, pi. i. f. 6. 

Turd IIS pallacii, Allen, Proc. Essex Imt. iv. 18G4, 56. 

Grive solUillre, ie.V..Ois. Canad. 1861, 169. 

Merle solltnlre, Pfo-Z.-Gcrfte, /. c. 

Uermit Thrush; Solitarj- Thrush ; lUifous-tailedEThrus!!.; (iround Snnmn Robin. 

b. nanus, 

? rnalH^icba Thrush, Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 338, No. 202. 

? Turdus aoualaschkac, Gm. SN. i. pt. ii. 1788, 808, No. 31. 

?TurdUS aoonalaschka*, Lath. lO. i. 1790, 329, No. 8 (Synop. iii. ZZ).— Turt. SX. i. 18C6, 491. 

fMuscicapa guttata. Pall. ZRA. i. 1811 (1831), 465, No. lOG. 

Turdus nanus, And. OB. v. 1839, 201. pi. 419 (name T. minor on pi.).— To^ns. Journ. Phila. 
Acad. viii. 1839, \5Z.—Aud. Syn. 1839, 9\.—Aud. BA. iii. 1841, 32, pi. 147.— Ga;;;6. Proc. 
Phila. Acad. i. 1843, 262 (California).— //ewri^, Proc. Phil. Acad. vii. 1855, 310 (Nevr 
Mexico).— 5cZ. PZ.S. 1859, A.—Bd. BNA. 1858, iU.—Sd. PZ.S. 1859, 325 (critical).— A'otz- 
lus, Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 1859, 190 (California).— .Rfcnrj/, Pr. Phila. Acad. si. 1859, 106 
(Xew Mexico).— «fcm. PRRR. x. 1859, pt. iv. 45.— 5cZ. Ibis, iii. 1861, Z82.—Scl Cat. 
AB. 1862, 2.— Cd. Rev. AB. 18G4, 15.—Hecrm. Ibis, 1865, 475 (Texan).— Trippe, Am. 
Nat. ii. 1868, 360.— Allen, Am. Nat. ii. 1868, 48e.—Ma7/n. Am. Nat. ii. 18C8, 66-2.— Ridg. 
Vi: Phila. Acad. xxi. 1869, 129 (critical).— iJa.'Z iV Rann. Tr. Chicago Acad. i. 1869, 275.— 
Coop. B. Cal. i. 1870, i.—Coop. Am. Nat. iv. 1871, 75~.— Coop. Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 16.— 
? Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 438 (New England). 

IJylOClcllla nana, Cones, Ibis, 1863, 163 (Arizona). 

Turdus (HylOCichla) nanus, Cones, Pr. Phila. Acad, xviii. 1866, 65 (Fort Whipple. Ariz ). 

Turdus pallasii var. nanus, Coucs, Key, 1872, 72. 

Turdus pallasi 6. nanus, Coucs, BNW. 1874, 3. 

•? Turdus minor, Gamh. Pr. Phila. Acad. iii. 1646, 113 (Cal.); Journ. Phila. Acid. i. 1817, 41. 

Unarf Thrush ; Dwarf Hermit Thrush. 

c. audiiboni. 
^Uru\a »i\em, Sw. Philos. Mag. i. 1827, 647.— ^zr. FBA.li. 1831,186. CSot Tardus stlcnsywin ). 
Turdus Sllens, Set. PZS. 1858, 30U (Parada).— 5(.Z. PZS. 1839, 325 (critical) —Sd. Ibis, iii. 1861, 

282.— &?. Cat. AB. 1862, 2. 
Turdus SOlltariuS, Sd. PZS. 1857, 212 (Orizaba). 
Turdus auduboni, Bd. Rev. AB. i. 1864, 16 (based on M. silcns Sw.).—Siev. U. S. Geol. Surv. 

Terr, for 1870, 1871, 463. 
Turdus audubonil, Allen, Am. Nat, ii. 1868, 489 (critical).- 5u»»V/i. Mem. Bost. Soc. i. 1S69, 

542 (Vera Ciuz).— Rider, pi-. phila. Acad. xxi. 1869, 129 (critical).— il/cT-r. U. S. Oeol. Surv. 

Terr, for 1872, 1873, 705. 713. 
Turdus pallasii var. audubonil, Coucs, Key, 1872, 72. 
Turdus pallasi c audubonil. Coves, BNW. 1874, 3. 

.Vudubon's Thrush ; Rocky Mountain Huriult Thrush. 

H.\n. — North America at large, but especially the Eastern Province. Ac- 
cidental in Europe (see above references). No valid West Indian or Cen- 
tral American quotations? Mexico? Var. Ha>iMS cbielly along tlie Pacific 
side, from Kodiak to Lower California. Var. ancluhoni from the Soutlieni 
Rocky Mountain region and Mexico, wbere resident. 

Cii. sp. — a. PALLASI. — OUvaceus, cauda discolore, rufescente; 
Hubtus alius, lateribus griseo-oUvaccis, j^ectore ct jugulo snhjlari- 
caniibus, maculis nujris angularibus notaiis. 

$ 9 ) in summer: Upper parts olivaceous, with a brownish oust, and 
therefore not so piut; as in mraiii-'^oiti ; tl'.is color cliaiiginj; on tho rump and 



22 DESCRIPTION OF T. PALLASI AND ITS VARIETIES 

upper tail-coverts into the rufous of the tail, iu decided contrast with the 
back. Under parts white, shaded with grayish-olive on the sides, the breast, 
jugulum, and sides of the neck more or less strongly tinged with yellowish, 
and marked with numerous large, angular, dusky spots, which extend back 
of the yellowish-tinted parts. Throat immaculate. A yellowish orbital 
ring. Bill brownish-black, with most of the under mandible livid whitish ; 
mouth yellow ; eyes bro'^n ; legs pale brownish. <? , length, 7-7^ inches ; 
extent, 11-12; wing, 3i-3J; tail, 2|-3. 9 smaller, averaging under 7 
inches iu length, and other dimensions proportionally less. 

In winter : The olivaceous of the upper parts assumes a more rufous cast, 
much like that of ustulaius, aud the yellowish wash of the under parts and 
sides of the head and neck is more strongly pronounced. But the most 
rufous specimens are readily distinguished from fuscescens by the strong 
contrast between the color of the tail and other upper parts. 

Very young: Most of the upper parts marked with pale yellowish longi- 
tudinal streaks, with clubbed extremities, and dusky specks at the end ; 
while the feathers of the belly and flanks are often skirted with dusky in 
addition to the numerous blackish spots of the rest of the uuder parts. 

> 

b. NANUS. — Minor; ^ long. tot. circ. 7 ; alec 2^- seu minus; 
caudcc circ. 2^. 

c. AUDUBONI. — Major; ^ long. tot. circ. 7f ; ala\ 4 + ; caitdce 
3+. 

AMONG the Western Hylocichlce of the pallasi type, there 
are a larger and a smaller race, both intergrading com- 
pletely with the dimensions of Eastern imllasi., their respective 
averages being at about the maxima and minima of pallasi 
proper. The difference in size between them is more noticeable 
than that between either of them and T. pallasi, and appears 
to be preserved with much constancy. I am unable to appreci- 
ate any of the differences in coloration which have been as- 
cribed; at any rate, these differences are fully within the 
normal range of variation of tj\)'m?i\ pallasi. These subspecies 
are less strongly indicated than either of those of the sicainsoni 
type, and little violence would be done by declining to recog- 
nize them by name. Nanus, in particular, is positively indis- 
tinguishable from some small specimens of Eastern pallasi. 
Auduboni is rather better marked. I have never seen the wing 
of pallasi four inches long, aud doubt that it ever exceeds this 
dimension, as is the case with some examples of auduhoni. 

The average of a large series of both sexes of typical pallasi 
froin the Eastern States is : — Length, 7.00 ; extent, 11.25 ; wing, 
3,75 ; tail, 2.75 ; tarsus, 1.15. 

It is not easy to determine the proper name of this species 



HISTORY OF THE HYLOCICHL.E 23 

with the desired precision. Most of the later descriptions 
upou which names have been based are perfectly intelligible ; 
but the doubts which attach to several early accounts will 
probably never be dispelled. The earliest claimant in this con- 
nection appears to be the Unalashka Thrush, described with 
varying orthography by Latham and Pennant, and subse- 
quently the basis of Turdus aonalaschlcae of Gmelin. To enable 
the reader to judge for himself how little can be made of the 
accounts of these authors, Pennant's description is reproduced: 
" Thrush with the crown and back brown, obscurely spotted 
with dusky : breast yellow, spotted with black : coverts of the 
wings, i)rimaries, and tail, dusky, edged with testaceous. Size 
of a lark. Found on Unalascha.'' This description might be 
supposed to refer to a young bird of the present species, still 
in the speckled plumage ; but it is inadequate to the establish- 
ment of a species. 

To pursue the subject of the Unalashka Thrush, we may next 
notice a bird described by the celebrated traveler and natural- 
ist, Peter S. Pallas, in the Zoographia Eosso-Asiatica, a work 
which appears to have been actually printed in 1811, though 
not published, nor generall}^ accessible, until 1831. This author 
describes as a new species a certain 2Iuscicapa guttata^ from 
the island of Kodiak, querying the Unalashka Thrush as syn- 
onymous. But how much doubt he felt on this score is evident 
from the fact that he also cites the same bird, with a note of 
interrogation, as a synonym of his Turdus auroreus. The gen- 
eral drift of the description of Muscicapa guttata indicates some 
species of Turdus of the Hylocichla group, in the speckled plum- 
age of the young; while the expressions '-uropygium rufo- 
lutescens", " rectrices rufescentes ", would seem to jwint to the 
Hermit Thrush. This identification was made by Dr. Cabanis 
in the critical commentary accompanying Tschudi's Fauna 
Peruana ; but the learned German ornithologist seems to have 
soon felt the uncertainty attaching to this case, for he relin- 
quished his Turdus guttatus, to bestow upon the Hermit Thrush 
the name of T. ijallasii, by which it has of late years been gen- 
erally known. While I admit the high probability of the per- 
tinence of Pallas's " Muscicapa^'' to the i)resent species, I 
scarcely think that we are required to adopt the name, especi- 
ally in the uncertainty as to which of the varieties of the species 
the name more particularly applies. 

Meanwhile, in 1812, Alexander Wilson described the Hermit 



24 HISTORY OF THE HYLOCICHL^E 

Thrush with sufficient accuracy, though his plate accompany- 
ing rather indicates the Olive-backed Thrush. He gave it the 
appropriate name of Turdus soUfarius, which has been adopted 
by many ornithologists, but which, unfortunately, cannot stand, 
there being already a Turdus soUtarius of Linnteus. 

The next original name bestowed upon the Hermit Thrush 
was Turdus nanus, applied by Audubon in 1839, used almost 
without exception, of late years, for the Western variety. The 
name antedates Cabanis's paUasii by several years; the de- 
scription is evidently that of the Dwarf Thrush, for the main 
point Audubon makes is the smaller size of his bird; and Dr. 
Brewer has recently contended that the name should replace 
that of pallasi. It has been supposed that Audubon intended 
only to signalize the Western Hermit, or Dwarf Thrush, in 
bestowing the name nanus. But reference to his original de- 
scription will show the contrary ; Audubon having first noted 
the bird from the Atlantic States. " It is extremely rare in our 
Atlantic districts, where, however, I have procured a few indi- 
viduals. Indeed, the first intimation which I received respect- 
ing it was from my friend Charles Pickering of Philadelphia, 
who, having procured one, had kept its wings and head, the 
smallness of which struck me at once. I was then far from 
imagining that its native haunts were the valleys of the Colum- 
bia River", «&c. Since the Dwarf Thrush, as understood -by 
modern ornithologists, is confined to the West, the Eastern 
specimens Audubon procured must have been only unusually 
small examples of the common Hermit Thrush, in which a dif- 
ference of an inch in length is not seldom found. It is thus 
evident that the name names includes both the Hermit Thrush 
proper, T. imllasi of most late authors, and the AVestern 
variety, or Dwarf Thrush; and I really do not see how Dr. 
Brewer's conclusion, that we should reverse our usual nomencla- 
ture, make the Dwarf Thrush the original species, and write 
T. nanus var. pallasi instead of T. pallasi var. nanus, can be 
gainsaid. It will, however, tend to prevent further misunder- 
standing of a matter already sufficiently involved to accept 
the identification of the names made by Professor Baird in 1858. 

The name of Turdus minor Gmelin has been applied by 
Bonaparte to this species, and his example has been followed 
by several writers; the name, therefore, requires examination 
in this connection. Eeferring to Gmelin, it will be found that 
his Turdus minor is not available for use in any connection, 



HISTORY OF THE HYLOCICHL.E 25 

being a thorouglily " made up" species. The diagnosis given 
is too short to answer any purpose, and, in fact, applies almost 
equally well to several different species of Hylocichla. His 
quotations are of Brisson, Buffon, Pennant, Edwards, Catesby, 
and Latham, whose several descriptions are those of different 
species. To take only two of them : Pennant's " Little 
Thrush" was the species now known as T. sicainsom ; while 
Latham's '' Little Thrush " was T. fuscescens. The natural 
result of Gmelin's compilation in this case was that his name 
minor has been applied repeatedly to each one of at least three 
species, namely, T. pallasi, T. swainsom, and T. fuscescens. 

In 1827, William Swainson described a variety of the Hermit 
Thrush from Mexico, under the name of Merula silens. This is 
the same bird afterward named auduboni by Professor Baird — 
the name silens being pre-occupied in the genus for another 
species, Vieillot having first applied the term silens to the 
musteUmis of Wilson, which is the fuscescens of Stephens. 

This' sketch of the early history of the Hermit Thrush's 
troubles in the way of a name may be continued with a similar 
account of the two most nearly allied species, to avoid the neces- 
sity of again recurring to such dry and uninviting matters. We 
will first take up the Olive-backed Thrush, T. sioainsoni of most 
late authors. 

The earliest name of supposed applicability to the Olive- 
backed Thrush is derived from Buffon's Grive de la Caroline, as 
described by that author, and as figured in the Planches Enlu- 
minees (pi. 556, fig. 2). This figure became the exclusive basis 
of two different names ; for P. L. S. Miiller, in his Supplement 
to Linnteus' Systema Natura?, of date 1776, at page 140, 
named it Turdus caroUnus ; and P. Boddaert, in his rare Ta- 
bleau (1783) of the Planches Enluminees, page 32, called it 
Turdus hrunneus. G. E. Gray, in the Genera of Birds, claims 
that the name hrunneus should stand for the species ; this could 
not have been, even were it not anticipated by MUller's name ; 
for it so happens that Buffon's figure, as Mr. Cassin has re- 
marked, is one of the few of the whole series of Planches Enlu- 
minees that is utterly unrecognizable. It may have been either 
one of the smaller Thrushes, if not some other bird ; and the 
reference is entirely out of the question as the basis of a species. 
Turdus "carolinus" I have seen nowhere except in Miiller; 
T. " brunneus " is used by Dr. Brewer in 1852, but for a differ- 
ent s^H^cics, namely, T. fuscescens. 



26 HISTORY OF THE HYLOCICHL^ 

Pennant, as we have already seen, described the Olive- 
backed Thrush ia 1785 under the name of the " Little Thrush", 
in this differing from Latham, whose " Little Thrush" was the 
T.fuscescens. But both Pennant and Latham, in their respect- 
ive works, introduce a " Brown Thrush", which afterward be- 
came the exclusive basis of Turdus fuscus of Gmelin. That 
this bird is certainly no other than the Olive-backed is evident 
from the following description, quoted from Pennant: — " Thrush 
with the head, neck, back, cheeks, coverts, and tail, of an olive- 
brown : primaries dusky : breast and belly of a dirty white, 
marked with great brown spots : legs dusky. Size of the 
former [L c, the Tawny Thrush, T. mustelinus Gm.] ; and a 
native of the same country [Xew York]." Here is a per- 
fectly accurate and diagnostic phrase : the name Turdusfuscus, 
based upon it, would therefore require adoption, were it not 
anticipated in point of date by Turdus fuscus of Milller, Syst. 
Nat. Suppl. 1776, p. 142, which is an altogether different bird, 
described from the Cape of Good Hope. So this name fuscus 
of Gmelin is thrown out of the case. 

In 1831, Swainson and Eichardson described the Olive- 
backed Thrush as Merula wilsoni. This, however, was not an 
original imposition of a name, but merely an erroneous identi- 
fication of Bonaparte's Turdus wilsonii, which latter was the 
mustelinus Wils. («ec Gmelin, i. e., the fuscescens Steph.). 

A few year^ subsequently, in 1814, Mr. J. P. Giraud and Dr. 
T. M. Brewer, independently of each other, applied to the Olive- 
backed Thrush the name of oUvaceus — appropriate indeed, and 
only exceptionable in the fact that there were already one or 
two entirely different species called Turdus oUvaceus. The 
name therefore cannot stand in this connection, unless the 
earlier birds of the same name are shown to belong to a differ- 
ent genus. 

In this evident lack of a tenable specific name for the Olive- 
backed Thrush, Dr. Cabauis proposed to dedicate it to Swain- 
son, and the term Turdus swainsoni has been almost exclusively 
adopted for the species of late years. 

Two varieties of this species, called respectively ustulatus and 
alieicc, have been named, but do not require comment here. 

Turning now to the Tawny or Wilson's Thrush, or Veery, as 
it is indifferently called, we find what is probably the earliest 
indication of this species iu the "Little Thrush" of Latham 
(but not of Pennant), on which Gmelin based his T. minor iu 



HISTORY OF THE HYLOCICHL.E 27 

part, as already shown. It appears to have been first ade- 
quately described by Alexander Wilson, in 1812, under the 
unfortunate name of Tawny Thrush, Turdus musfelinus, not- 
withstanding that this author clearly perceived it was not the 
"Tawny Thrush" of Pennant, upon which Gmelin's name T. 
mtistelinus rested. The same bird was redescribed by Stephens, 
in his continuation of Shaw's General Zoology, in 1817, under 
the new name of Turdus fuscescens, which is now generally 
adopted. Yieillot, perceiving Wilson's double employ of the 
term T. mustelhius, hestowed upon it the name T.sitens in 1823. 
Very shortly afterward, the Prince Bonaparte, also noting 
Wilson's error, but either ignoring or ignorant of both Steph- 
ens' and Yieillot's prior designations, dedicated the species to 
Wilson, calling it Turdus ui'ilsonii, a name current among 
authors for several years. These are the only original names 
I have met with of undoubted applicability' to the present 
species; though Swainson and other writers have called the 
bird T. minor after Gmelin, and Dr. Brewer has once applied 
to it the term T. hrunneus. 

The Wood Thrush being a bird of more marked characters 
than any one of the others, there has been little or no uncer- 
tainty respecting it. The original descriptions — the earliest 
at least that have come to light so far — were those of Latham 
and Pennant, who describe it from Xew York under the name 
of Tawny Thrush, the basis of T. mustelinus of Gmelin. W'ilson, 
having appropriated this name to another species, as we have 
already seen, called the Wood Thrush T. melodus — in so doing 
apparently following Bartram,who had called it T.melodesm 1791. 




^'^' 



Fig. 4.— Head of "Wood Thrush. Kat. size. 

The synonymy given at the head of the several species rep- 
resents an epitome of the whole subject here treated, with a 
great many additional references to the writings of various 
authors. As the Wood Thrush will not be formally introduced 



28 SYNONYMY OF TURDUS MUSTELINUS 

into tlie preseut work, since it is not known to occur in the 
Colorado Basin, its synonymy and description are subjoined,* 
to complete a review of the subject. A figure of the head of 
this species is likewise given. 



WHEX we come to sketch the life-history of the Hermit 
Thrush, we shall be met by difficulties as great as those 
that beset the interpretation of its written record, if we attempt 
to discriminate between the three recognized varieties. Their 
mode of life is the same, notwithstanding the points of dissimi- 

*The Wood TSirnsla.— Turclns (Ilylocichla) miistelinus. 

Tawny Tiirusll, Pmn. AZ. ii. 1785, 337, No. 198 (New York).— Lath. Syu. ii. pt. i. L7S3, 28, No. 
15. (Not of Wilson. ) 

TnrdllS musteliaus, Gm. SN. i. pt. ii. 1783, 817, No. 57 (based on Pcnn. &, Lath.). — r»rt. SN. 
i. 1806, 497.— £a«/i. 10. i. 1790, 33!, No. 15.— VieilL O.A.S. ii. 1807, 6, pi. 62.— Dp. Ann. Lye. 
N. Y. ii. 1826, yj.—Xitu.Man. i. 1832, 31X—Aud. OB. i. 1832, 372; v. 1839, 446 ; pi. 73.— 
Sp.C.& GL. 1838, n.—Pcab. Rep. Orn. Mass. 1839, 304.— D'Or&. La Sag. Cuba, Ois. 
1839, 48 (Cuba).— ^;(rf. BA. iii. 1841, 24, pi. 144.— Gosse, B. Jam. 1847, 144 (in winter).— 
Bp. CA. i. 1850, ^lO.-Read, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 398 {Ohio).— Hoy, Pr. Phila. Acad. 
Ti. 185.3, 310 (Wisconsin).— fFood/i. Sitgr. Rep. 1853, 72.—Gerhnrdt, Naum. iii. 1853, 
38.—Kennic. Tr. Illinois State Agric. Soc. i. 1855, 601. — Pratten, Tr. Illinois State Agric. 
Soc. i. 1855, 5S'2.— Guild. J. f. O. 1855, 469 (^Ciiba).—Hayin. Pr. Phila. Acad. viii. 1856, 
289 (Indiana). — Pm«?j. Proc. Esses Inst. i. 1856, 209.— Scl. PZS. 1856, 294 (Cordova).— 
Kneel. Pr. Bost. Soc. vi. 1857, 234.— Maxim. J. f. O. 1858, 179.— Brf. BNA. 1858, 213.— 
.B/n?((f. Smiths. Rep. for 18.58,1859, 287 (Bermudas).- 5cZ. (,■ Salv.lhia, 1859, 6 (tluate- 
ma.\a) .—Scl. PZS. 1859, 325 (critical), 362 {Xa\apa.).—Moore, PZS. 1859, 55 (Omoa).— War- 
tens, J. f. 0. 1859, 212 (Bermudas).— GJtfieZ, Viig. 1860, 37, tig. 8i.— Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. 
vii. 1860, 307 (Cuba).— Barn. Smiths. Rep. for 186.), 1861, 435 (Pennsylvania).— ScZ. Ibis, iii, 
1861, 282.— Giindl. J. f. O. 1861, 324 (Cuba). — Comcs ^\ Prent. Smiths. Rep. for 1861, 1862, 
—.—Hayd. Tr. Am. Philos. Soc. xii. 1862, 158 (Missouri River).— ^»r. J. f. O. 1862, 194, 
201 (Jamaica).— ^»cn, Pr. Ess. Inst. iv. 1864, 55.— Brf. Rev. AB. 1864, U.—Hoij, Smiths. 
Rep. for 1864, 1865, 437 (Missouri).— Laifr. >nu. Lye. N. Y. viii. 1866, 2SI.—Mcllv>r. Pr. 
Ess. Inst. V. 1856, 84 (Canada West).— Allcji, Am. Nat. i. 1867, UO.-Coues, Pr. Bost. Soc. 
xii. 1868, 106 (South Carolina).— (7o;<es, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 266.—Siimic?i. Mem. Bost. 
Soc. i. 1869, 543 (Vera Cruz).— Turnb. B. E. Pa. 1869, 21 ; Phila. ed. 14.— Abbott, Am. 
Nat. iv. 1870, 540, 541.- rri/^ic, Pr. Ess. Inst. vi. 1871, 115.— Allen, Am. Nat. vi. 1872, 
266.— Allen, Bull. MCZ. iii. 1872, 124, 173 (Ka.rxsa.s).— Gun dl. J. f. O. 1872,405 (Cuba).— 
&o««, Pr. Bost. Soc. XV. 1872, 220.— Cnues, Key, 1872, 72.—Trippc, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 
1873, 234.— Coues, BNW. 1874, 2.—Ii. B. cV R. NAB. i, 1874, 7, pi. i. f. i.— Brew. Pr. Bost. 
Soc. xvii. 1875, 438. 

-Merula inustclina, Rich. List, 18.37. 

Merula inustclinus, Denny, PZS. 1847, 38. 

TupcllJS nielOde^i, Bartr. Trav. 1791, p. 290 bis. 

TurdUS Uiclodlis, WiU. AO. i. 1808, 35, pi. 2, f. l.—Lich'.. " Pi-eisVerz. Mex. Viig. 1830, 2"; 
J. f. 0. 18G3, 57.— Gosse, Alabama, lg.59, 295. 

Tlirdus melodilis, Bp. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 33. 

Turd US densHs, Bp. CR. xxviii. 1853, 2. 

Grive des Bois*, Flute, LeMuine, Ois. Canad. 1861, 176. 

Merle tnniie, D'Orbig. I. c. 

Cii. sp. — $ 9 Supra mustelinus, caiidam versus oUvascens; suhius aJbits, jxclore 
later ibiisqite maculis magnis, numerosis, roiiindalis, nigris notntis. 

,?,9,a(lult: Upper parts, iuclndiug the surface of the closed wings, 
tawny-brown, purest and deepest ou the bead, shading insensibly into oliva- 



DISTRIBUTION OF AUDUBOM'S THRUSH 29 

larity which some observers, reconntiug the impressions they 
received from various transient circumstances of observation, 
Lave sought to establish. For all reasonable purposes of biog- 
raphy, the several races of the Hermit Thrush may be treated 
as one, as I shall do on the present occasion, saving some par- 
ticulars of their geographical distribution. Audubon's variety, 
or the Eochy Mountain Hermit, is specialized in this respect, 
having an exceptional distribution, both during the breeding- 
season and at other periods of the year — its special habitat, 
which subjects it to climatic influences equally peculiar, being 
beyond doubt the cause of the slight modifications of physical 
characters it has undergone. Audubon's Thrush haunts the 
wooded mountainous regions of the West, especially in the 
area known as the Middle Faunal Province. It has not, to my 
knowledge, been traced farther north than Fort Bridger, in the 
Rocky Mountains ; its extension in this direction contrasting 
strongly with that of either the Dwarf or true Hermit, which 
reach the Arctic regions. On the other hand, this variety is the 
characteristic representative of the species in Mexico, through- 
out the Alpine regions, up to an altitude of about 2,500 meters. 
It breeds in that country, and, according to M. Sumichrast, is 
generally distributed and abundant. Some of the current ref- 
erences to " Turdus ])allasi-'' in Mexico doubtless belong to this 

ceous ou the rump and tail. Below, pure white, faintly tiuj^ed on the breast 
with Luff, and everywhere except on the throat, middle of belly, and cris- 
sum marked with numerous large, Well-defined, rounded or subtriaugular 
blackish spots. Inner webs and ends of quills fuscous, with a white or 
buffy edging toward the base. Greater under wing-coverts mostly white. 
Auriculars sharply streaked with dusky and white. Bill blackish-brown 
with flesh-colored or yellowish base. Feet like this part of the bill. Length, 
7|-8 inches; extent, about 13; wing, 4-4 J; tail, 3-3^; bill, | ; tarsus, IJ; 
middle toe and claw less. The sexes d(^not dififer appreciably, either in size 
or coloration. 

Young: For a short time after leaving the nest, the young are speckled 
or streaked above with pale yellowish or whitish ; usuallj' especially noticea- 
ble as triangular spots on the wing-coverts. But these speedily disappear, 
Avhen a plumage scarcely different from that of the adult is assumed. 

The present is the most strongly marked species of the subgenus Hylo- 
cichla. In T. paUaai, the only other one showing both tawny and olive 
on the upper parts, the position of the two colors is reversed, the tawny 
oocupying the rump, the olive the head. In no other species are the spots 
below so large, sharp, numerous, and generally dispersed, only the central 
line of the throat, middle of the belly, and the crissum remaining immacu- 
late. The purity of the white, moreover, only gives way to a faint, some- 
times almost inappreciable, tinge of buff on the breast. 



30 DISTRIBUTION OF THE DWARF THRUSH 

variety ; yet it does not necessarily follow that the true Hermit 
Thrush is never found so far south. I should not leave this 
subject of the southerly distribution of the Audubon Thrush 
without calling attention to the fact that it constitutes one of 
the few exceptions to the general rule that southern repre- 
sentatives of a species are smaller than the others; its larger size 
being unaccountable on any premises we at present command. 
The distribution of the Dwarf Hermit in latitude agrees with 
that of its eastern relative. This bird is the prevailing, if not 
the exclusive, form in the Pacific region, from Alaska as far 
north at least as Sitka and the island of Kodiak, to the ex- 
tremity of the peninsula of Lower California. Though it is par- 
ticularly attached to the immediate Pacific slopes, it yet 
spreads eastward to the Eocky Mountains. Dr. J. G. Cooper 
found it in the Colorado Valley, probably at Fort Mojave, 
where he was stationed for some time as a medical officer 
of the Army. I occasionally saw it in the mountains of Central 
Arizona, and within a year or two Mr. H. W. Henshaw has 
observed it still further eastward, in Southern Arizona, and 
amongthe headwaters of the Gila in New Mexico. These advices 
clearly show that the limit of eastward dispersion assigned 
by Mr. Ridgway (the valley of the Humboldt River in Nevada), 
must be considerably enlarged. As to the movements of the 
species within the general area it inhabits, the accounts 
which have reached us are perplexing ; yet they may, I think, 
be adjusted, if we exercise due care. It is evident from Dr. 
Cooper's researches, that the Dwarf Hermit winters in lower 
portions of Arizona, a fact which both Mr. Henshaw's observa- 
tions and my own would conlirm, were this necessary ; and its 
occurrence at Cape St. Lucas shows probably the southernmost 
point reached at this season.* Starting from these and corre- 
sponding latitudes, the bird migrates to Alaska, as already inti- 
mated, and breeds at the northernmost points it reaches. The 
limit of the breeding-range in the other direction remains to be 
determined, for it is pretty certain that Dr. Cooper, in speak- 
ing of nests which he found at Santa Cruz, and supposed to 
belong to the Dwarf Thrush, was mistaken. He describes the 
nests as placed " about five feet above the ground ", and says 
that they contained speckled eggs, neither of which statements 
agrees with what we know of the nidification and color of the 
eggs of the Hermit Thrush. Dr. Brewer has alluded to these 
discrepancies, which his great familiarity with the subject ena- 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE HERMIT THRUSH 31 

bled hiiu to perceive at ouce, tbougb, somewbat inconsistently, 
be goes on to quote Dr. Cooper's account in connection witb 
tbe Dwarf Tbrusb. We may "witbout besitatiou reject tbe 
wbole record as far as it bears upon au alleged breeding of tbe 
Dwarf Tbrusb so far south, since tbere is no doubt tbat Dr. 
Cooper's nests were really tbose of tbe Olive-backed Tbrusb, or 
its variety ustulatus. Observations are wanting to determine 
tbe case precisely, yet, remembering bow strongly elevation of 
surface affects tbe breeding-range of species, and tbat tbe 
Dwarf Tbrusb is found in wooded mountainous tracts, we may 
grant tbat it will probably be found to nestle mucb farther 
soutb than its Eastern relative is known to do. I should not 
be surprised if its dispersion during tbe breeding-season were 
found very closely correspondent with tbat of tbe Varied 
Tbrusb. 

Turning now to tbe better-known Hermit Tbrusb of tbe East, 
tbat sby recluse whose lowly home bas been often entered by 
the curious naturalist, eager to learn its secrets, tbe first thing 
that strikes us as bearing upon its furtive movements is the 
lack of any trace of its presence in tbose subtropical regions to 
wbicb tbe Wood Tbrusb and tbe Olive-backed and others re- 
sort in winter. We are not even sure tbat it takes the short 
tligbt from Florida, a favorite borne, to any of the West India 
Islands. Though Dr. Gundlach, tbe veteran ornitbologist of 
Cuba, whose labors for many years bave done so mucb to eluci- 
date tbe bird-life of tbat island, once recorded its presence 
tbere, it seems that be bad really anotber species in view. 
Like tbe Catbird and tbe Thrasher, tbe Hermit Tbrusb finds 
in tbe groves and swamps of tbe Soutbern States a winter 
borne so congenial that it need seek no further. Audubon in- 
formed us many years ago of its abundance in Mississippi and 
Louisiana ; and later records, multiplying rapidly with the 
growing number of those who are interested in tbe delightful 
study of birds, not only confirm tbe statement, but extend its 
applicability to most of the Southern States. I well remember 
the admiration which this brave and hardy little bird used to 
excite in me, when I was first trying my own wings in short 
flights in ornithology, mostly confined to the vicinity of my 
home at Washington, by its appearance, notbiug daunted, dur- 
ing the inclemency of October and March, when its more delicate 
relatives were far away. Its very slender, pale-colored legs, 
like tbose of many otber insect-eating birds wbicb spend mucb 



32 DISTRIBUTION OF THE HERMIT THRUSH 

of tlieir time od the grouud, always suggested that it was bare- 
footed, aud tempted me to wonder why it did not sufier, ram- 
bling incessantly over the frozen ground, or even leaving its 
track in a slight fall of snow. Though I never knew it to en- 
dure the depth of winter in this locality, yet other observers 
have found it lingering through the whole season still further 
north — the Eev, Dr. Turnbull has left us such a record in his 
elegant little volume entitled " The Birds of East Pennsylvania 
and New Jersey"; and Mr. C.J. Maynard says he has seen the 
bird in Northern New Hampshire in November, when the snow 
was on the ground. Those who care to look farther into the 
details of the subject will find man^^ other records, which show 
the whereabouts of the bird at various seasons, in my " Birds of 
the Northwest." Here, I will content myself with the further 
statement that it is chiefly known as a migrant in the Middle 
States, not pausing to mate and rear its young south of Massa- 
chusetts as far as we now know, — though I suspect that it will 
yet be discovered to nestle in some of the untried recesses of 
the Alleghauies. In the northerly i)arts of New Eugland, and 
thence to the Arctic regions, the Hermit Thrush is at home in 
summer. Whether it ever reaches Greenland or not is uncer- 
tain. A Thrush is recorded from that country by the accom- 
plished Danish ornithologist Professor Eeinhardt, under the 
name of '' Tardus minor Gm." ; but I believe that the actual 
reference in this case is to the Olive-backed. The same doubt 
attaches to a part, at least, of the quotations we have of the 
bird's occurrence in Europe ; others, however, are undisputed, 
and the fact may be considered established that it 6ccasion- 
ally deviates so widely from its established routes of migration. 

From the West, we have the testimony of two excellent ob- 
servers, to show that the Hermit Thrush reaches the Rocky 
Mountains. Mr. J. A. Allen aud Mr. T. M. Trippe have each 
found it in Colorado, and ascertained that it breeds in that 
Territory, in the mountains, up to an altitude of at least 8,000 
feet. 

How quietly and with what solicitude for i)rivacy the nesting 
of the Hermit Thrush is accomplished ! Such care is taken to 
conceal its nest in the recesses of tangled undergrowth that 
few are the ornithologists who have found it. If Wilson, Nut- 
tall, or Audubon ever saw a nest, no one of them recognized 
its owner. The nests and eggs which they describe as those 
of the Hermit were certainly the Olive-backed Thrush's, the 



NEST AND EGGS OF THE HERMIT 33 

only one which, nests at any considerable distance from the 
ground and lays spotted eggs. And unless the Hermit has 
changed its choice of a summer home since Wilson and 
Audubon thought they had discovered its nest, it never bred 
in the southerly regions where they thought it did. But their 
mistake was not unnatural, since, singularly enough, neither of 
these ornithologists knew the difference between the Olive- 
backed and the Hermit Thrush — a distinction erroneously said 
by Dr. Brewer to have been first suggested by Professor Baird 
in 184-1:, as Swainson had discriminated the two with perfect 
accuracy, though under wrong names, in 1831. The manner 
in which the nest of the Hermit Thrush is built, its situa- 
tion, and the eggs, are all so similar to the Veery's that one 
must detect the shy parents themselves before being sure 
which has been found. The nest is built on the ground or 
near it, generally in some low, secluded spot; no mud is used in 
its composition, the whole fabric being a rather rude and inartis- 
tic matting of withered leaves, weed-stalks, bark-strips, and 
grasses — the coarser and stififer substances outside, the finer 
fibres within. The cup is small in comparison with the whole 
size, owing to the thickness of the walls and of the base. The 
eggs are like those of the Eobin or Wood Thrush, in their uni- 
form greenish-blue color, but smaller, measuring about niue- 
tenths of an inch in length by five-eighths in breadth ; being 
thus not distinguishable from those of the Veery. I have never 
known of an instance, to my recollection, of the eggs being 
spotted ; but so many birds which usually lay whole-colored 
bluish eggs occasionally drop a set which are somewhat 
speckled that I should not be surprised to fiud at any time a 
Hermit Thrush's egg showing a few specks about the larger 
end. 

Great injustice would be done were the Hermit's musical 
powers overlooked in any sketch, however slight, of its life- 
history. The earlier authors were evidently unaware of its 
accomplishments, for its melody is lavished on the gloom of the 
swamp, or lost in the darkening aisles of the forest, where 
years passed by before the ear of the patient and toiling stu- 
dent of nature was gladdened by the sweet refrain. Wilson 
denies it song ; Audubon speaks of " its single plaintive note ", 
though he adds, perhaps upon information received from bis 
friend Dr. Pickering, that " its song is sometimes agreeable ". 
Nuttall seems to have first recognized the power and sweet- 
3 B c 



34 THE SONG OF THE HERMIT 

ness of the lay of our Hermit : he compares it to the famous 
Nightingale, that sweet princess of song, and ranks it far 
above the Wood Thrush. Later writers agree in this high 
estimate of the bird's powers, though it may be questioned 
whether a comparison unfavorable to the Wood Thrush is a 
perfectly just discrimination. The weird associations of the 
spot where the Hermit triumphs, the mystery inseparable from 
the voice of an unseen musician, conspire to heighten the effect 
of the sweet, silvery, bell-like notes, which, beginning soft, low, 
and tinkling, rise higher and higher, to end abruptly with a 
clear, ringing intonation. It is the reverse of the lay of the 
Wood Thrush, which swells at once into powerful and sustained 
effort, then gradually dies away, as though the bird were reced- 
ing from us ; for the song of the Hermit first steals upon us 
from afar, then seems to draw nearer, as if the timid recluse 
were weary of solitude, and craved recognition of its conscious 
power to please. Yet it is but a momentary indecision — 
true to a vow of seclusion, the anchorite is gone again to its 
inviolate grotto in the fastnesses of the swamp, where a world 
of melody is wasted in its pathetic song of life : — 

"Full many a gem of purest ray serene, 
The dark unfathomed caves of ocean bear ; 
Full many a flower is born to blush unseen, 
And waste its sweetness on the desert air." 



Olive-backed TSiriif^h 

Tardus* (Hylociclila) swainsoni 

a. swainsoni. 

Little Thrush, Penn. A.7,. ii. 1785, 338, No. 201 fnot of Latham). 

TurdUiS minor, Qm. SN. i. pt. ii. 1788, 809 (in part ; mixed yviXixfuscescens). — Lath. 10. i. 1790, 
328, No. 5 (in ^&ri).—Turt. >SN. i. 1806, A<i\.— VieiU. OAS. ii, 1807, 7, pi. 63 (in part). 

TurdUS minor, -B/i. C. & GL. 1838, 17 (wrongly quotes FB A. pi. 36, which is /jiscescens).— 
Bp. CA. i. 1850, ^l.—Reinh. J. f. O. 1854, 427 (Greenland).— &Z. PZS. 1857, 212 
(Orizaba). — lidnh. Ibis, iii. 1861, 6 (Greenland). 

Brown Thrnsb, Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 337, No. 199.— £a?A. S}'n. ii. pt. i. 1783, 28, No. 16. 

Turdusfuscus, Gm. SN. i. pt. ii. 1783, 817, No. 56 (based on Penn. & Lath.; name pre- 
occupied).— ritrf. SN. i. 1806, 497. 

TurdllS SOlitariUH, n'iU. AO. v. 1812, pi. 43, f. 2 (not the text on p. ^S).— Coues, Pr. Bost. 
Soc. xii. 1868, 106 (South Carolina. Slip of the pen for swainsoni). 

Merula IVilsonii, S. ^ R. FBA. ii. 1831, 182 (excl. syn. "mustclinus Wils."). 

Merilla Olivacea, Brero. Pr. Bost. Soc. i. 1844, li)\.— no7n.ps. Vermont, 1853, app. 22. 

TurdllS oHvaocus, Giraml. BLI. 1844, Q2.—Ilrij. Pr. Bost. Soc. vi. 1857, 117 (Nova Scotia).— 
irniis. Smiths. Rep. for 1858, 1859,281 (Nova Scotia).— A/a«ens, J. f. O. 1859, 212 (Ber- 
mudas). 



SYNONYMY OF TURDUS SWAINSONI 35 

TurdUSSWainsonii,Cni. Fn. Peru. 1845-'46,I8T.—CaJ. Arch. f. Naturg. 1847 (i), -205.— Hotnajer, 
Rhea, ii. 18-19, H9 (monographic), Cab. MH. 1850, 5 (Siberia).— Ca6. J. f. O. 1857, 241 
(Cuba).— Bd, BNA. 1858, ^IG.—Gund. J. f. O. 1861, 324 {Cahii).—Blakis. Ibis. iv. 1862, 
4 {Sa»kHtchewan).— Boardm. Pr. Bo8t. Soc. ix. 1862, 124 (Maine).— Ferr. Pr. Bost. Soc. 
ix. 1862, 137 (Anticosti).— Ferr. Pr. Ess. Inst. iii. 1862, 145 {M.aine).—Blakis.lhia, 1863, 
58 (Fort Carlton).— Bd. Rev. AB. 1864, W.— Allen, Pr. Ess. Inst. iv. 1864, 56 (Massachu- 
setts).— Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. 1866, 281 (New York).— Ifc/tor. Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 
1866, ei.—Degl.-Gerbe, OK. i. 1867, 427 (Europe).— PeZi. Orn. Bras. ii. 1868, 92.— Coues, 
Proc. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 266 (New England).- ^He«, Am. Nat. ii. 1868, 488, 4B9.—Mayn. 
Am. Nat. ii. 1868, 662.— Turnb. B. E. Pa. 1869, 21 ; Phila. ed. U.—Coop. Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 
31, 295.~Allen, Am.^Nat. iii. 1869, 573, 57i.—Ridg. Pr. Phila. Acad. xxi. 1869, 128 
(critical).— ^66o«, Am. Nat. iv. 1870, 5il.— Parker, Am. Nat. v. 1871, 163.— Trippe. Ft. 
Ess. Inst. vi. 1871, 115 (Minnesota).- JFya«, Ibis, i. 3d. ser. 1871, 320 (Colombia).— il/oj/n. 
Pr. Bost. Soc. xiv. 1872, 3oS.— Allen, Am. Nat. vi. 1872, 266. — Coues, Key, 1872, 72.—Mayn. 
B. Pla. 1872, 6.—Gioidl. J. f. O. 1872, 405 (Cuba).— .l/err. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, for 
1872, 1873, 704, 7l3. — Trippc, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1873, 234. 

Turdus swainsoni, Sd. PZS. 1858, 45L (Ecuador).— .S^c?. PZS. 1859, 326 (critical).- 5cZ. {^Salv. 
Ibis, i. 1859, 6 (Guatemala).— 5ci. PZS. 1860, 84 (Ecuador).—*^. Ibis, iii. 1861, 282.— 
Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. vii. 1860, 307 (Cuba).— Bam. Smiths. Rep. for 1860, 1861,435 
(Pennsylvania).- iawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ix. 1868, 91 (Costa Rica).— y. Frantz. J. f. O. 
1869, 289 (Costa Rica).— Cohcs, Am. Nat. v. 1871, lOil.—Merrill, Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 
5il.— Cones, BNW. 1874, 4; Trippe, ibid. 228; Wheaton, ibid. 233.-5. B. ^ R. NAB. i, 
1874, 14, pi. i. f. i.— kelson, Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 238, 345 (Utah).— .Brew. Pr. Bost. 
Soc. xvii, 1875, 438. 

Turdus minimus, ?Lafr. RZ. xi. 1848, 5 (Bogota).— .?c?. PZS. 1854, HI (Qui.jos).— .Srf. PZS. 
1855, 145 (Bogota).— 5ry. Pr. Bost. Soc. 1859, 226 (Bogota).— LaK'r. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 
viii. 1863, 7 (Panama). 

Turdus manus, Sam. Am. Nat. ii, 1868, 218 (err). 

Grive de Swainson, LcM. Ois. Canad. 1861, 170. 

Merle de Swainson, Degl.-Gerbe. 1. c. 

Olire-baclied Tlirusli ; Snainsou's Thrush ; Swamp Robin. 

b. alici(S, 

Turdus aliCiif, Bd. BNA. 1858, 217 ; ed. of 1861, pi. 81, f. 2.—Sd. PZS. 1859, 326 (critical).— 
Scl. Ibis, iii. 1861, 292.—Ooues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1861, 217 (Labrador).— 
Coues SfPrent. Smiths. Rep. for 1861, 1862,405 (Washington, D. C.).—Hayd. Tr. Am. 
Philos. Soc. xii. 1862, 159.— Bd. Rev. 1864, 21.— All. Am. Nat. ii. 1863, 489 (critical).— 
Mayn. Am. Nat. ii. 1868, 662.— Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ix. 1868, 91 (Costa Rica).— Coues, 
Pr. Ess. Inst. V. 1868, 267.— Dalljf Bann. Tr. Chicago Acad. i. 1869, 275 (Alaska).— 
Turyib. B. E. Pa. 1869, 22 ; Phila. ed. \5.—Ridg. Pr. Phila. Acad. xxi. 1869, 128 (criti- 
cal).— ^((e«. Am. Nat. iii. 1869, hlA.-Dall, Am. Nat. iv. 1870, 6W.—Salv. PZS. 1870, 180 
(Veragua). — Coues, Pr. Phila. Acad, xxiii. 1871, 19 (North Carolina). — Coues, Am. Nat. 
vii. 1873, 222.-5. B. 4- R. NAB. i, 11, pi. i. f 3.—Bre2c. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 438. 

Turdus SWainSOnii var. aliCi^, Coiies, Key, 1872, 73. 

Turdus swainsoni b. aliciae, Coues, BNW. 1874, 4. 

Turdus aliCiae, v. Frantz, J. f. 0. 1869, 289 (Costa Rica).— Gundl. J. f. O. 1872, 405 (Cuba).- 
Tacz. J. f. O. 1872, 440, 1873, 112 (East Siberia). 

Alice's Thrush ; Gray-cheeked Thrush. 

c. ustulatus. 

Turdus ustulatus, Nutt. Man. i. 2d ed. 1840, p. vi.— Be?. BNA. 1858,215; ed. of 1860, pi. 81, 
f. \.—Scl. PZS. 1859, 326 (critical).— C. 6fS. NHWT. 1860, ni.—Sd. Ibis, iii. 1861, 282.— 
Bd. Rev. AB. 1864, \Q.— Brown, Ibis, iv', 1868, 420 (Vancouver).— yiZZeM, Am. Nat. ii. 1868, 
489.— Coo;?. Am. Nat. iii. 1869, Zl.—Ridg. Pr. Phila. Acad. xxi. 1869, 127 (critical).— 
Ball (fBann.lT. Chicago Acad. i. 1869, 275.— Coo;?. B. Cal. i. 1670, 5.— Gras/soH, Pr. 
Bost. Soc. xiv. 1872, 276 (Tres Marias Islands). 

Turdus cestulatus, Nutt. Man. i. 2d ed. 1840, 400 (err. typog. corrected on p. vi). 

lurdus swainsonii var. nstulatus, Coues, Key, 1872, 73. 

Turdus swainsoni var. ustulatus, B. B. lV R. NAB. i, 1874, 16, pi. i. f. 2.—yeUon, Pr. Bost. 
Soc. xvii. 1875, 354 (California). 

Turdus swainsoni c ustulatus, Coues, BNW. 1874, 4. 

(?) Turdus iit'jisonii, Toicns. Journ. Phila. Acad. viii. 1839, 153 (Columbia River). 



36 CHARACTERS OF T. SWAINSONI AND VARIETIES 

Ch. sp. a. SWAINSONI. — $ 2 Olivaceus, cauda concolore ; 
suhtus albus, lateribus griseo-olivaceis, pectore, jugiilo, palpebris, 
cum lateribus capitis et colli suhjlavicantibus, pectore et jugulo 
maculis magnis fuscis notatis. 

Above clear olivaceous, of exactly the same shade over all the upper 
parts ; below white, strouglj' shaded with olive-gray on the sides and flanks, 
the throat, breast, and sides of the neck and head strongly tinged with yel- 
lowish, the fore parts, excepting the throat, marked with numerous large, 
broad, dusky spots, which extend backward on the breast and belly, there 
rather paler, and more like the olivaceous of the upper parts. Edges of 
eyelids yellowish, forming a strong orbital ring; lores the same. Mouth 
yellow ; bill blackish, the basal half of lower mandible x>ale ; iris dark 
brown ; feet pale ashy-brown. Length of ^ , 7-7^ ; extent, 12-12^ ; wing, 
about 4; tail, about 3; bill, i; tarsus, Ij'u. 9 averaging smaller — 6|+ 
extent, lli+ ; &c. 

b. ALICIA. — 5 9 OUvaceus, lateribus capitis concoloribus, 
jugulo vix flobvido-tincto. 3Iajor; rostro longiore, graciliore; long, 

tot. 7J-8; alar. exp. 12J-13J; ala 4+, cauda 3+. 

Similar to sivainsoni; sides of the head like the back, or merely more gray- 
ish ; the distinct yellowish orbital ring and lores of sivainsoni not being seen, 
or but faintly indicated. Breast but slightly tinged with yellowish. Rather 
larger than sioainsoni, the length averaging rather over the maximum of the 
latter, sometimes exceeding 8 inches, and other dimensions to correspond 
bill rather over | an inch, and comparatively slenderer than in swainsoni. 

c. USTULATUS. — 6 2 Eufo-oUvaceus ; ccvteris T. sicainson 
sat similis. 

This form is entirely like sivainsoni proper, excepting in a rufous shade o 
the olive of the upper parts approaching that of fuscescens, from which it is 
distinguished by the different tone and pattern of the coloration of the 
under parts. These characters, which it shares with swainsoni, distinguish 
it from alicicv, no less than does the shade of the upper parts. It is simply 
the more rufous phase of sivainsoni from the northwest coast region. 

T. alicice is more decidedly different from swainsoni in the characters note 
above, and is held by many excellent ornithologists as a distinct species. 
The interrelationships are treated in ray " Birds of the Northwest ", and 
more fully in the " History of North American Birds ". 

ONE of the most peculiar traits of the Olive backed Thrush 
is its erratic dispositioa. If not a greater vagabond than the 
Robin itself, this Thrush commonly wanders further south than 
any of its relatives; its journeying into distant portions of South 
America being conspicuous. While the rest of our Thrushes 
whicli leave the United States in the autumn rarely if ever pene- 



HABITS OF THE OLIVE-BACKED THRUSH 37 

trate beyond the Isthmus, the Olive-backed Thrush has ap- 
peared ia Ecuador, Peru, aud Brazil, as recorded by Sclater, 
Cabanis, and von Pelzeln, respectively. It likewise occurs in 
Cuba and in Greenland, and, like all onr other HylocichlWj except- 
ing the Wood Thrush, has been reported from Europe. There 
is also a record of its presence in Siberia; though very possibly 
the actual reference in this case is to the variety alicke, lately 
accredited by Taczanowski to the same country. Its disper- 
sion over the eastern portions of North America is general. The 
southern limit of its usual breeding-range has been fixed by 
Dr. Brewer in Massachusetts, but I am under the impression 
that such restriction requires to be removed. I have mislaid a 
reference I once possessed to its breeding in Connecticut and 
in the mountains of Pennsylvania, and cannot now recall the 
authority ; but such extension of its range in summer agrees 
better with the accounts of some of the earlier writers as well 
as with what we now know of its distribution during the same 
season in the West. Late observations have informed us of its 
westward extension beyond the main chains of the Rocky 
Mountains. My correspondent, Mr. T. M. Trippe, found the 
bird in Colorado Territory in May and September; and on one 
occasion in October, when the snow lay a foot deep on the 
ground, he observed it in company with various other species 
which had gathered about the Hot Sulphur Springs, in the 
Middle Park, ajiparently atti-acted by the warmth of these tepid 
pools. " In the vicinity of Denver," says Mr. H. W. Henshaw, 
"the species makes its aj)pearance about the 10th of May; and 
by the 17th the thickets and partially open ground in swampy 
localities were fairly swarming with these birds. They were 
perfectly silent, and busied themselves after the usual manner 
of the family in scratching and seeking among the leaves for 
food. The males preceded the arrival of the females by at least 
a week." The most explicit accounts from the Far West are, 
however, those given by Mr. Ridgway, in his still unpublished 
Report on the Birds observed during Clarence King's Survey of 
the Fortieth Parallel. I quote from proof-sheets which he 
kindly placed at my service : " Swainson's Thrush is a very 
abundant species among the W^ahsatch Mountains, and is, in 
fact, one of the most characteristic summer birds of that region. 
It there breeds plentifully in the canons, where its song may 

be heard almost continually during the nesting season 

jSTumerous nests wej-e found among the thickets bordering the 



38 HABITS OF THE OLIVE-BACKED THRUSH 

streams ; they were generally situated about five or six feet 
from the ground, in the willows or other shrubs, near the 
water." 

This paragraph leads me to speak at once of another pecu- 
liarity of the Olive-backed Thrush in comparison with all its 
congeners, excepting, of course, its two varieties alickc and 
ustulatus. I refer to its laying speckled eggs in a nest several 
feet from the ground. The Wood Thrush, indeed, builds in 
bushes and low trees ; but then its eggs are whole-colored, like 
those of the Veery and Hermit, both of which nestle on or very 
near the ground. In high Arctic regions, whither many of Swain- 
son's Thrushes resort for the summer, the nest has been fre- 
quently observed on the stunted vegetation not a yard from 
the ground ; but, in more favored places, the altitude is usually 
about a man's height. The nest is more compact and more 
elaborately finished than those of the ground-builders, the 
Yeery and Hermit, the outer portions of which are coarser and 
less consistent. The material is very miscellaneous, and varies, 
moreover, with the locality; but mosses, lichens, leaves, bark- 
strips, and fibrous weedy substances are usually found, while in 
some the Hypnum mosses are said to be most conspicuous, and 
to give a distinctive character. In size, the nests are only 
about four inches in diameter by half as much in depth; the 
walls being about half an inch thick. The eggs, numbering 
four or five, measure about seven-eighths of an inch in length 
by five-eighths in breadth ; but much variation, both in size 
and shape, has been observed. They are light greenish-blue in 
color, fully speckled with reddish-brown and other shades. 
Any Thrush's eggs like this found in a nest above the ground, 
described by early authors, were almost certainly those of the 
Olive-backed Thrush, to whatever species they may have been 
accredited. 

As to the general habits of this bird in comparison with 
those of its congeners, there is little to be said, since they are 
scarcely distinctive. It is perhaps less decidedly terrestrial 
and less solicitous of concealment than the Hermit, being often 
observed in open woodland, and gleaning much of its food 
among the branches of trees. 1 do not think that I have ever 
recognized its voice, excepting the short single note which is 
much the same as that of its allies. Dr. Brewer describes it as 
having a certain resemblance to that of the Hermit, yet quite 
distinct; " it is more prolonged ; the notes are more equal and 



SYNONYMY OF TURDUS FUSCESCENS 39 

rise with more regularity and more gradually, are richer, and 
each note is more complete in itself. Its song of lamentation, 
when robbed of its young, is full of indescribable pathos and 
beauty, haunting one who has heard it long after." 



AVilsoii's Tlirii!>$h, or Veery 

Tardus (Hylociclila) fuscescens 

Little Thrush, Latham, Syn. ii. pt. i. 1783, 20 No. 5 (not of Pennant). 

Turdus minor, Gm. SN. i. pt. ii. 1788, 809, No. 32 (in part ; mixed with swainsoni). 

Turdus musteliuus, was. AO. v. 1812, 98, pi. 43, f. 3 {nee Gm., necauct.). 

Turdus fuscescens. Step),.. Shaw's GZ. x. 1817, \%'i.'—? Kneel. Pr. Best. Soc. vi. 1857, 234. —M. 
BNA. 1858, 214.— Sri.PZS. 1859,326 (critical).— .STcL Ibis, 18R1, 282— Gi^id. J. f. 0. 1861, 
.Til (Cuba).— £a?er. Ann. Lye. N. Y. vii. 1861, 326 (New Granada). Ooues ^ Prent. Smiths. 
Rep. for 1861, 1862, iOi.—Scl. Cat. AB. 1862, 'i.—Hayd. Tr. Am. Philos. Soc. 1862, 
158. — Kerr. Pr. Essex Inst. iii. 1862, 14.j.—BteA;is(. Ibis, v. ISW, 58 (Saskatchewan). — B(i. 
Rev. AB. 1864, 11.— All. Pr. Ess. Inst. iv. 1864, 5(J.—Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. 1866, 
'iii.—McIliD. Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1866, 81 (Canada West).— Cowes, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 
266.— Co«es, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 1868, im.— Allen, Mem. Boat. Soc. i. 1858, 493, 514.— ^ZZ. 
Am. Nat. ii. 1868, 489. — Pe^i. Orn. Bras, ii, 1868, ^^.—Turnb. B. E. Pa. 1869, 21; Phila. 
ed. \i.—Ridg. Pr. Phila. Acad. xxi. 1869, 127 (critical).— May^i. Nat. Guide, 1870, 90.— 
Ahbou, Am. Nat. iv. 1870, 540, 541.— Afayi. Pr. Bost. Soc. xiv, 1871, —. — Stevenson, U. 
8. Geol. Surv. Terr, for 1870, 1871, 463.— .i;/. Bull. MCZ. ii. 1871, 256 ; iii. 1872, 155, 
173 (Colorado).— A/ny?;. B. Fla. 1872, \Q.— Coues, Kpy, 1872, 73.— £(ijf. Am. Nat. viii. 
1874. 271.- Oundl. J. f. O. 1872, 405 {C\iha.).—Mayn. Pr Bost. Soc. xiv. 1872, 357.— Coues, 
BNW. 1874, 5; Trippe, ibid. 228 (Colorado).— ^Z/e?i, Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1874, 48 
(Dakota).— i?. B. (f R. NAB. i, 1874, 9, pi. i. f. s.— Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 438. 

Turdus fuseesens. Bam. Smiths. Rep. for 1860, 1861, 435. 

Turdus Sllens, Vieill. EM. ii. 1823, 647 {=mustelinus Wils.; ncc silens Sw.). 

Turdus Wilsonlt, Bp. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 34 (based onmnstelinus Wils. nee Gm.).—Bp. 
Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 1826, 16. — Peah. Rep. Orn. Mass. 1839,306.— And. OB. ii. 1834, 362, 
pi. lei.— And. Syn. 1839, 90.—Aud. BA. iii.1841, 27, pi. 145.— Oa6. Pn. Peru. 1845-46, 
\8i.—0ab. Arch. f. Naturg. 1817 (i), Wo.—Homeyer, Rhea, ii. 1849, 148 (monog.). —/foy, 
Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 310 (Wisconsin). — TAom/js. Vermont, 1853, 79.—Bead, Pr. 
Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 398 (Oh\o). —Ke7inic. Tr. 111. Agrie. Soc. i. 1855, 601.— Pratten, Tr. 
111. Agric. Soc. i. 1855, 601.— Hoy, Smiths. Rep. for 1864, 1865, 437 (Missouri).— rrz>i>e, 
Pr. Essex Inst. vi. 1871, 115. 

Turdus wUsoill, Bp. C. & GL. 1838, 17.— B;;. CA. i. 1850, -^IL-Gund. J. f. O. 1855, 470 
{Cuha).—Putn. Pr. Ess. Inst. i. 1856, 209.— Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. vii. 1860, 307 (Cuba).— 
Gund. 3. f. O. 1861, 405 (Cuba). 

Merula WilSOnll, Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. 1844, 191. 

Merula minor, Sw. 4- Rich. FBA. ii. 1831, 179, pi. 38.—.' Denny. PZ5. 1847, 38. 

Turdus minor. Less. Tr. Orn. 1831, 408.— D'OrJ. LaSagra's Cuba, Ois. 1840, 47, pi. 5.—Degl.- 
Gerbe, OE. i. 1867, 424 (Europe). 

Turdus bruneus, Brew. Journ. Bost. Soc. vi. 1852, 304 (chare, and habits).— Ca6o«, Naum. 

Bd. ii. Hft. iii. 1852, 66 (Lake Superior). 
Merl« grivette, Degland- Gerbe. 

Ch. sp. — 9 ^ Rufo-hrunneus, cauda concolore ; infra albus^ 
lateribus canis,jugulo tantum ixdlide Jlavo-hrunnescente, maculis 
minimis, sparsis, sagitlatis fuscis notato. 

Entire upper parts reddish-brown, with a faint olivaceous tinge ; no con- 
trast of color between back and tail ; quills and tail-feathers darker and 



40 DESCRIPTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE VEERY 

purer brown, the former with white or butty spaces at the concealed bases 
of the inner webs, as usual in this subgenus. No orbital light ring around the 
eye ; auriculars only obsoletely streaky. Below, white ; the sides shaded 
with hoary-gray or light grayish-olive; the jugulum buff-colored, contrast- 
ing strongly with the white of the breast, and marked with a few small 
brown arrow-heads, the chin and middle line of throat, however, nearly 
white and immaculate. A few obsolete grayish-olive spots in the white of 
the breast; but otherwise the markings confined to the buff area. Bill dark 
above, mostly all pale below, like the feet. (^,7-7^; extent, about 12 ; wing, 
4-4J ; tail, 3-3J; bill, f ; tarsus, Ij. $ averaging smaller, 

I have not observed a very early spotted and streaked stage of plumage, 
which, however, is presumed to occur, as in other species of this group. The 
sexes are alike in color, and the seasonal changes are slight. The differ- 
ences consist mainly in the stronger reddishness of the upper parts, or its 
tinging with an appreciable shade of olivaceous. But the upper parts are 
never of the decidedly olive shade seen in swainsoni and in the fore parts of 
pallasi. The color of the upper parts, however, viewing its occasional shad- 
ing toward olive, is less strongly distinctive of the species than the peculiar 
coloration of the under parts is. The pinkish-buff of the jugulum, restricted 
and sharply contrasting with the white of the breast, and its few small 
brown (not black or even blackish) spots, which do not extend into the 
white of the breast, are perfectly characteristic, as are the absence of a 
decided yellowish orbital ring and of distinct streaks on the auriculars. 

A curious malformation is exhibited in a specimen in Mr. Ridgway's col- 
lection, in which the upper mandible is overgrown, and as much hooked at 
the end as that of a Shrike. 

The average dimensions of a large series of specimens of both sexes are : — 
Length, 7.35 ; extent, 11.75; wing, 3.90; tail, 2.85 ; tarsus, 1.12. 

WILSON'S Thrush is aiiotlier species which, a few years 
ago, could not have been properly brought into the 
j)resent connection, owing to our lack of knowledge of its ex- 
treme western limits. The first authentic record of its occur- 
rence in the Rocky Mountains is, I think, that giveu in 1858 
by Professor Baird, who received a specimen from Fort Bridger, 
Utah. Latterly, Mr. J. A. Allen found the bird in Colorado Terri- 
tory, where Mr. Trippe also observed it, in July, at an eleva- 
tion of over 8,000 feet, and where it was doubtless breeding. 
Both Mr. Ridgway and Mr. ETenshaw discovered it to be an 
abundant species in Utah and Colorado, and the former re- 
garded it as one of the most characteristic birds of the valleys 
of the Provo, Bear, and Weber liivers in Utah. Two nests 
were found by the latter near Fort Garland, Colorado, at nearly 
the altitude just mentioned ; one of them was curiously built 
above an old nest of the previous season, which had been 
remodeled for the purpose. As Mr. Henshaw remarks, though 
the Veery is thus common on the northern confines of the Colo- 



HABITS OF THE VEERY 41 

rado Basin, no one appears to have found it in New Mexico or 
Arizona. It must consequently take a somewhat circuitous 
route in gaining its winter home in Central America, unless 
perchance it migrates at a considerable elevation along the 
mountain-chains. The latter supposition seems more probable, 
since Professor Sumichrast has observed it in Orizaba in Mexico. 
Its general northward dispersion appears to be more restricted 
than that of either the Hermit or the Olive-backed Thrush, 
being perhaps coincident with the limit of arboreal vegetation. 
In Cuba, it is one of the commoner species of the genus. A few 
linger through the winter in our Gulf States, but the majority 
leave our shores for the more genial climate of subtropical 
America, and proceed as far as Panama — in exceptional case 5 
still farther, as in the instance noted by A. von Pelzelu, of an 
occurrence at San Vicente, Brazil, in December. There is even 
a record of the appearance of the bird in Europe ; but I under- 
stand that this is open to doubt. It will be seen that its dis- 
tribution is much like that of the Hermit and the Olive-backed, 
yet on the whole somewhat restricted, though less so than that 
of the Wood Thrush. Its breeding-range, similarly, is more 
southerly, approximating to that of the Wood Thrush ; it includes 
the Xorthern, Eastern, and some of the Middle States, and an 
adjoining belt of country in British America ; while in the 
Eocky Mountains it stretches southward to the confines of Xew 
Mexico and Arizona. 

The Veery's mating and nest building season, when the bird 
is in full song, is the genial month of May, in most parts of the 
United States ; and two broods may be reared under propitious 
surroundings. But further northward, where alone have I my- 
self found the bird in its home, and heard its seductive epitha- 
lamium, the shorter span of the summer season suffices but for 
a single brood. The yearly crisis of the bird's life is delayed 
till June, and the young are not seen abroad till the latter part 
of that month, if indeed before July. The heavy growth of 
timber that fringes the streams includes many nooks and dells, 
and broken ravines overgrown with thick shrubbery, from out 
the masses of which the tall trees tower, as if stretching forth 
their strong arms in kindly caressing of the humbler and 
weaker vegetation, their offspring. In such safe retreats, 
where the sombre shade is brightened here and there with stray 
beams of sunlight, in the warmth of which myriads of insects 
bathe their wings and flutter away their little span of life, 



42 NESTING AND SINGING OF THE VEERY 

bumming' a qiiaiut refrain to the gurgle of the rivulet, the 
Veery meets his mate — the song rises — the wooed is won — the 
home is made. Should we force our unwelcome presence upon 
the bird who is brooding her newly-found treasures with the 
tenderest solicitude, she will nestle closer still, in hope of our 
passing by, till we might almost touch her; when, without a 
word of remonstrance or reproach, she takes a little flight, 
and settles a few yards away, in silent appeal. If the time, the 
place, the scene, suffice not for our forbearance, with what poor 
words of hers may we then be moved ? 

The nest will be found at our feet, most likely beneath some 
bush, resting upon a bed of leaves, or supported in the forks of 
some stems that spring directly from the ground. It seems 
large for the size of the bird, and perhaps not so neat and 
finisbed as we might expect; for the Veery, though a patient 
and faithful housekeeper, cares little for appearances. Among 
the various materials which enter into its composition, withered 
leaves form a larg'e part, especially of the outer walls, while 
grass-stems, weed-stalks, and bark-strips are more compactly 
woven inside. There is no special lining of the interior, and 
the cavity is small. The nest may contain four, perhaps five, 
eggs, like those of the Hermit, greenish-blue, without markings, 
except in rare instances, when a few specks appear, especially 
about the larger end. 

Varying estimates have been made of the Veery's powers of 
song. For myself, I rate this bird as one of the sweetest of our 
songsters, of whose " clear bell-like notes, resonant, distinct, 
yet soft and of indescribable sadness", I have spoken on a former 
occasion. I think Dr. Brewer's faint praise the most cruelly 
unjust of all ; can he have ever heard the Veery's full utter- 
ance, and then have written, "The song of this thrush is 
quaint, but not unmusical ; variable in its character, changing 
from a prolonged and monotonous whistle to quick and almost 
shrill notes at the close"? He speaks as he might of a hurdy- 
gurdy, instead of an exquisite oboe. No one of the voices of 
the woodland is less quaint than the Veery's ; no one is truer 
to its theme, more measured in its cadences, or softer and 
clearer in tone than that of the Veery — rival of the Olive, the 
Hermit, and the Wood Thrush, completing the quartette of 
silver-tongued cantatrices^ who pledge the promises of spring- 
time in choral symphony. 



CHARACTERS OF MYIADESTIN^E 



43 



Subfamily MYIADESTIX.E 



Flycatching Thrushes 

The essential character of this group has been indicated on 
a preceding page. It lias usually been associated with Ptilo- 
gonys and Phamopepla in 
the family {Ampelidce) 
whicli contains the Ce- 
dar Bird and Bohemian 
Wax wing; from all these 
birds, however, the boot- 
ed tarsi, speckled state of 
the young, and other char- 
acters sufficiently distin- 
guish it. In comparison 
with the Thrushes, among 
which it is now located, 
it differs in the shorter, 
broader, more depressed, 
and flycatcher-like bill, 
with its deeply-cleft ric- 
tus and very short gonys, 
the smaller and weaker 
feet, and in the peculi- 
arly double - margin ate pj^ 5 __oetails of external form of Mijiadcstes (M. town- 

tail, the feathers of which '""^'^ = i''" ^"'^ ^«^* "^*"^'*' "'""^ ' ^'""^ ^''^ '"^^ *• 
taper gently from base to tip. It is a small group, nearly con- 
fined to the warmer portions of America, comprising only two 
or three genera, the leading one of which is the — 




Genus MYIADESTES, Sw., 

which was established by Mr. William Swainson, in 1838, in his 
arrangement of the Flycatchers, a work forming part of Sir 
William Jardine's " Naturalists' Library ". It consists of ten or 
twelve species, only one of which occurs w-ithin our limits, the 
others being more southerly. In addition to the characters just 
noted, it may be observed that the species of Myiadestes agree 
in their rather uniform dark or dull coloration, variegated with 
brighter tints on the wings. They form part of an interesting 



44 CHARACTERS OF MYIADESTES TOWNSENDI 

and somewhat isolated group, having no very intimate rela- 
tions with the other birds of our country, inhabiting woodland 
and shrubbery, feeding on insects and berries, and capable of 
musical expression in an exalted degree. 



Townseiid's FIjcalcliiii§ Tlir«isli 

Myiadestes towiisendi 

PtilOgonys townsendi, Aud. OB. v. 1839, 206, pi. 419, f. 2.—Aud. Syn. 1839, 4H.—N7iU. Mau. 
2d ed. i. 1840, 361. 

PtilOgonys townsendli, Aud. BA. i. 1840, 243, pi. 69.— GamJ. Pr. Phila. Acad. i. 1843, 261 
(California).— Gamfi. Pr. Phila. Acad. iii. 1847, 157 (California).— //ecrm. Journ. Phila. 
Acad. ii. 1853, i&'i.— Woodh. Sitgreave'sRep. 1853, 1^.— Henry, Pr. Phila. Acad. viii. 1855, 
308 (^New Mexico). 

PtlliOROnys townsendii, Gam&. Journ. Phila. Acad. 1.1847, W.—^'twh. PRRR. vi. 1857, 82. 

CuUclVOra townsendi, DcKay, N. Y. Zool. ii. 1814, 110. 

Mjiadestes townsendtl, Cah. Arch. f. Nat. 1847 (i), 208— BaiW, BNA. 18.58, 321.— //enry, Pr. 
Phila. Acad. xi. 1859, 106 (New Mexico).— A'eww. PRRR. x. 1859, 25.— //term. PURR. x. 
1859, 2%.—Xantus, Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 1859, 191 (California).— //nyd. Tr. Am. Philos. 
Soc. xii. 1862, 162.— torrf, Pr. Roy. Arty. Inst. iv. 1864, U&.—Cnues, Pr. Phila. Acad, 
xviii. 1866, 72 (Arizona).— B(i. Rev. AB. 1866, 429, &g.—Coop. Am. Nat. iii. 1869,34.— 
Coop. B. Cal. i. 1870, 134, &g».—Stcv. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, for 1870, 1871, 464.— 
Allen. Bull. MCZ. iii. 1872, 176.— Cones, Key, 1872, 117, f. 57.— Cones, BNW. 1874, 93. 

Myiadestes townsendi, Scl. PZS. 1857, 5.—Scl. PZS. 1858, 97.— Oowes, Ibia, 1865, 163 (Ari- 
zona).— ^iVce/i, Pr. Bost. Soc. XV. 1872, 198 (Colorado).— 5. B. ff R. BNA. i. 1874, 406, pi. 
18, figs. 3, A.—Henshmc, Zool. Expl. W. 100th Merid. 231 (in presi*). 

Myiadestes ObSCUruS, Bp. CA. i. 1850, 336 (in part ; includes townsendi). (Not of Lafr.) 

Townsend's Ptilogonys, Aud. l. c. 

Townsend's Fiycatching Thrush, Ooues, l. c. 

Townsend's Solitaire, b. b. S( r. l. c 

Hab.— Western United States, from the easternmost foothills of the Rocky 
Mountains to the Pacific and British Columbia. Not known to penetrate 
any distance into Mexico, where replaced by other species. 

Ch. SP. — (? 9 SorcUde cinereus, infra dilutior, gula cnssoque 
alUcantibus; alls nigricantibus, fulvo bisignatls; cauda nigricantey 
rectrice extima albo-limbata, rectrice proxima albo-ternwiata; orbi- 
Us albis; rostro pedib usque nigris. 

$ 9 .—General color dull brownish-ash, paler below, bleaching on the 
throat, lower belly, and crissum. Wings blackish, the inner secondaries 
edged and tipped with white, nearly all the quills extensively tawny or ful- 
vous at the base, and several of the intermediate ones again edged exter- 
nally toward their ends with the same color. In the closed wing, the basal 
tawny shows upon the outside as an oblique spot in the recess between the 
greater coverts and the bastard quills, separated by an oblique bar of black- 
ish from the second tawny patch on the outer webs of the quills near their 
ends. Tail like the wings (the middle pair of feathers more nearly like the 
back) ; the outer feather edged and broadly tipped, the next one more nar- 



HABITS OF TOWNSENd's FLYCATCHING THRUSH 45 

rowly tipped, with white. A white ring around the eye. Bill and feet black. 
Eye brown. Length, about 8 inches; wing and tail about equal, 4-4^; the 
latter forked centrally, graduated laterally ; bill, i ; tarsus, | ; middle toe 
and claw rather more. 

Young : — Speckled at first, like a very young Thrush. Each feather with a 
triangular or rounded spot of dull ochraceous or tawny, edged with blackish. 

AMONG the birds of our Western country, Townsend's 
Thrush is almost the only one of general distribution 
which I have never been able to study in its native haunts. 
Until very lately, the Dipper was another which had always 
given me the slip; but, during the summer of 1874, 1 added that 
sprightly and vivacious ornament of the mountain-torrent to 
the list of my i^ersonal friends, and in good time, perhaps, I 
shall come to know the Flycatching Thrush as well. In pen- 
ning an account of this stranger for the " Birds of the North- 
west", I could only state that I had found it rather rare, in sum- 
mer, in the upper portions of Arizona, and gather from my cor- 
respondents, or from the published records of other observers, 
some items of its life-history. I would refer to this article, 
however, as a fair epitome of what was then known, and, 
avoiding repetition, can now supplement it with some further 
particulars, the principal of which relate to the nidification of 
the species. 

None of the earlier observers appear to have ever found the 
nest of this bird ; and to this day the eggs remain unknown. 
A few years ago, however, Mr. Ridgway discovered a nest, an 
account of which was communicated to Dr. Brewer, and pub- 
lished in substance in the work above quoted. The original 
notice, as prepared and printed (but up to the date of present 
writing, February 8, 1876, remaining unpublished), I am able 
to quote through the kindness of the writer, who has placed at 
my service the i)roof-sheets of his report on the birds observ.ed 
during the Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel by Clarence 
King: — 

" In July, 18G7, we found a nest of this species in a deep 
ravine on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, at an alti- 
tude of about 5,000 feet. This nest was placed in a cavity of 
the rocks forming the perpendicular upper bank of a sluice, 
constructed for mining purposes, and through which ran the 
water of a considerable mountain-stream. The nest, which was 
about a foot above the water, was nearly as bulky as that of the 
Brown Thrasher {Rarporhynchus rufiis), and similarly con- 



46 HABITS OF TOWNSEND'S FLYCATCHING THRUSH 

structetl 5 it coutained four young. When we approached it, 
the female was much excited, flying before us or running upon 
the ground in the manner of a thrush, a species of which she 
was at first thought to be, from her entirely thrush-like man- 
ners and appearance. Even afterward, and until the species 
was identified by obtaining specimens, we were led into this 
delusion, its gliding, noiseless flight, and graceful running upon 
the ground being so perfectly thrush-like." 

This curious fact, which would never have been anticipated, 
of the nesting of the bird in the rifts of rocks, is corroborated 
by the later observations of Mr. Henshaw, whose article, as pre- 
pared for the zoological volume of the Reports upon Explora- 
tions West of the One Hundredth Meridian — a work which will 
doubtless issue from the press during the present year — is to the 
following effect: — During a week's stay in June, at the base of 
Baldy Peak, in Colorado, he frequently saw this bird in the pine 
forests, and as high up on the mountain sides as 10,000 feet ; 
its summer range doubtless extends up to timber line. Its 
habits, as far as he noticed them, are singularly like those of the 
Bluebirds. Besides a loud, liquid call note, the male has a 
beautiiul warbling song, which somewhat resembles that of 
the Purple Finch, but far excels it in power, sweetness and 
modulation. Though he searched carefully for the nest, he only 
succeeded in satisfying himself that the bird breeds in the crev- 
ices of rocks. Its preference for such localities during the sum- 
mer, with the evident solicitude manifested on more than one 
occasion, left little doubt in his mind on this point. 

The birds are quite common (Mr. Henshaw continues), in the 
fall, in Eastern Arizona and Western New Mexico. Having 
reared their young, they appear to forsake the pine woods, 
which constitute their summer abode, and are seen lower down, 
on the hillsides covered with pinons and cedars. Their food at 
this season appears to consist almost exclusively of berries, 
particularly of the piiions and cedars, and the crops of many 
examined contained little else save a few insects. Though 
in summer a bird of retiring and unsocial habits — never 
more than a single pair being found in one locality — in the fall 
they are to a considerable extent gregarious, associating usually 
in small companies of from five to ten. At the Old Crater, 
forty miles south of Zuiii, they had congregated in very large 
numbers about a spring of fresh water, the only supply for many 
miles around; and hundreds were to be seen sitting on the 



CHARACTERS OF THE MIMIN.E 47 

bare volcanic rocks, apparently too timid to venture down and 
slake their thirst while we were camped near by. Their song 
is occasionally heard even in November and. December, and is 
very sweet, but not so full and varied as during the vernal 
season. 

The sociable disposition which Townsend's Thrush manifests 
during the winter, contrasting with those traits it shows at 
other seasons so conspicuously that it has acquired the soubri- 
quet of '' Solitaire ", is also attested by Mr. J. K. Lord, from 
observations made at Colville during November, when the 
leaves had fallen, snow covered the ground, and the cold was 
intense. His attention was attracted by the sound of singing, 
unusual at that inclement season ; and he soon discovered a 
score of these brave little birds perched upon the sprays of some 
thorn-bushes, and was reminded, by their low, sweet notes, of 
the Song Thrush of Europe. Commend me to the rare bird 
that sings in winter, whose pipe, yet limpid when the rivers 
cease to flow, is tuned to sounds harmonious amid the discord 
of the elements, in earnest of more genial times to come ! 

Subfamily MIMING : Mocking Thrushes 

Chars. — There is little to be added to the comparative diag- 
nosis of this group already given (p. 5). The tarsi are scutellate 
anteriorly, with seven scales (rarely obsolete, as sometimes oc- 
curs in Galeoscoptes). The wings are short and rounded — usually 
shorter than the tail, the feathers of which are graduated in 
length. There are bristles about the base of the bill, but the 
feathers themselves are soft. The bill is extremely variable in 
length and shape ; sometimes it is much shorter than the head, 
and as straight as that Of a typical Thrush, but in other cases 
it equals or exceeds the head in length, and is bent like a bow. 
The members of this group have been sometimes classed with 
the Wrens, to which they bear a strong resemblance in many 
respects. They are peculiar to America, and abound in species 
in the warmer parts of this hemisphere. In its broader features, 
the economy of these birds is much the same as that of the true 
Thrushes. They are insectivorous, but also feed on various soft 
fruits. They inhabit shrubbery rather than high open wood- 
land, and as a rule keep nearer the ground, some of the species 
being decidedly terrestrial, as indicated by their large strong 
feet. Their nidification is inartistic ; the stout bulky nests are 



48 CHARACTERS OF THE GENUS OROSCOPTES 

placed in bushes ; the eggs are three to six in number, usually 
speckled (the Catbird furnishes an exception to this last state- 
ment). In this group, the vocal powers are carried to the highest 
known degree, some of the species being able to imitate not 
only the notes of other animals, but various sounds which are 
mere noises, without musical quality. 

There are three North American genera of this subfamily, all 
•of which are represented in the Colorado Basin. Although the 
generic characters are not very strongly marked (all the species 
used to be placed iu the single genus Mimus), tangible differ- 
ences will be observed on comparing the diagnoses given. 

Genus OROSCOPTES Baird 

Chars. — Wings and tail of equal lengths, the former more 
pointed than iu the other genera of 31i7nince, with the first quill 
not half as long as the second, which is between the sixth and 
seventh 5 the third, fourth, and fifth about equal to each other, 
and forming the point of the wing. Tail nearly even, its 
feathers being but slightly graduated. Tarsus longer than the 
middle toe and claw, anteriorly distinctly scutellate. Bill much 
shorter than the head, not curved, with obsolete notch near 
the end. llictal bristles well developed, the longest reaching 
beyond the nostrils. 

0. montamis is the type and only known species of this genus. 



JTIoiiutain Iflockiiigbircl 

Oroscoptes uiontauus 

Orpheus montanus, Om. Comm. Joum. Phila. Acad. vii. 1837, 193 (Columbia River).— ^urf. 

Syu. 1839, 89.— ^«rf. BA. ii, 1841, 194, pi. XZ^.— Henry, Pr. Phila. Acad. vii. 1655, 310 

(New Mexico). 
Turdus montanus, Aud. OB. iv. 1838, 437, pi. 369, f. 1. 
Tardus (Orpheus) montanus, Towns. Joum. Phila. Acad. viii. 1839, 153. 
Mimus montanus, B;). C. & GL. 1838, Yl.—Gamb. Pr. Phila. Acad. iii. 1846, 114 (California).— 

Gamh. Journ. Phila. Acad, i, 1847, A%—Bp. CA. i. 1850, 276.— IfcCaW, Pr. Phila. Acad. 

V. 1851, 216 (Texas).- JFoodA. Expl. Zuui River, 1853, IZ.—Heerm. PRRR. x. 1859,44. 
Oroscoptes montanus, Bd. BNA. 1858, Ml.— Cones, Pr. Phila. Acad, xviii, 1866, 65 (Arizona). 
Oreoscoptes montanus, Scl. PZS. 1859, 340 (critical).— i/enry, Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 1859, 

107 (New Mexico).— Bd. Ives' Rep. Expl. Colorado, pt. v. 1861 , 6.—Hayd. Tr. Am. Phil. 

Soc. xii. 1860, 163 (Black HHIb).— 5d. Rev. AB. 1864, 42.— Dress. Ibis, 1865, 482 (Texas) — 

Butch. Pr. Phila. Acad. xx. 1868, 149 (Laredo, Tex.).— Coop. Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 73.— 

Coop. Pr. Gala. Acad. 1870, 75 (Colorado River).— Coop. B. Cal. i. 1870, U.—SCev. U. S. 

Geol. Surv. for 1870, 1871, 464.— .^oW. Pr. Boat. Soc. 1872, 194 (Black UilU).— All. Bull. 

MCZ. iii. 1872, 174.- Cnues, Key, 1872, 74.— Merr. U. S. Geol. Surv. for 1872, 1873, 670, 

705,712,713.— Ridg. Bull. Ess. Inst. v. 1873, 179.— Coop. Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 17.— Allen, 



DESCRIPTION OF OROSCOPTES MONTANUS 49 

Pr. Boat. Soc. xvii. 1S74, 97 (Yellovratone Kiver).— Cones, BXW. 1674, 7, 2Q8.-B. B. \ R. 
NAB. i. 1874, 31, fig. pi. 3, f. 6.—Yarr. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1374, Zi.— Yarr. ff Hensh. Rep. 
Orn. Specs. 1874, 6.— Hensh. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, 40, 71, 9~.—Hensk. List B. Ariz. 1875, 
150*— Aelson, Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 339, 349, 35^', 355 (Califoruia, Nevada, Utah). 
Mountain Mockingbird; Sage Tiirasher. J'liior. 

Hab.— United States, from the Rocky Mountains to the Paciiic ; eastward 
to the Black Hills and Fort Laramie. Texas and Lower California. 

Ch. sp. — S 9 Griseo-cinereus ; infra aJhidus, fusco-maculatus ; 
alis caudaque fnscls, illis alho-bifasciatis et limhatis, hac albo- 
terminatd ; rostro pedihusque nigricantihns. 

^ 9 , in summer : Above, grayish or brownish ash. the feathers with obso- 
letely darker centres. Below, whitish, more or less tinged with pale buflfy- 
brown, everywhere marked with triangular dusky spots, largest and most 
crowded across the breast, small and sparse, sometimes wanting, on the 
throat, lower belly, and crissnm. Wings fuscous, with much whitish edging 
on all the nuills, and two white bands formed by the tips of the greater and 
median coverts. Tail like the wings : the outer feather edged and broadly 
tipped, and all the rest, excepting usually the middle pair, tipped with white 
in decreasing amount. Bill and feet black or blackish, the former often with 
pale base. Length, about 8 inches ; wing and tail, each 4 or rather less (not 
nearly 5, as given by Baird and copied in my " Key '') ; tarsus, 1^ ; bill, f . 

Young : Dull brownish above, conspicuously streaked with dusky ; the 
markings below streaky and ditfuse. 

Specimens ditier little with sex or season, or with age after the first 
streaked stage is passed. The individual variation consists in the purer or 
more brownish ash of the upper parts, and especially in the shade of the 
under parts, Avhich ranges from whitish to a decided brownish-cinnamon 
cast, and in the amount of spotting. Ordinarily, the lower belly and vent, 
and sometimes the throat, are immaculate, but the whole under surface is 
sometimes pretty uniformly covered. The brownish .shade is usually strong- 
est on the breast, flanks, and crissnm. The newly-grown quills and tail- 
feathers are darker than the old ones, aud have more white edging. The 
wing-coverts are sometimes edged as well as tipped with white. 

THIS interesting species resembles a Mockingbird — espe- 
cially a young one, before the spots on the under parts are 
lost — in many respects, but differs altogether in the quality of 
its song, and shares much of the ground-loving nature of a 

* Since these references to Messrs. Yarrow and Henshavrs writings (which are important in 
the present connection) may not be generally understood, it should be stated, that " Rep. Orn. 
Specs." refers to a pamphlet (8vo, pp. 148) published at the office of the United States Geograph- 
ical and Geological Explorations and Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian, under auspices 
of the Engineer Department of the United States Army, relating to the collections made by 
the gentlemen named in 1871, 1870, 1873. containing five separate papers, one of which is an 
"Annotated List of the Bird.t of Utah ", republished from Ann. Lye. N. H. New York, xi, 1874; 
and that "List D. Ariz." refers to a paper by Mr. Henshaw in Appendix LL of Annual Report 
of Chief of Engineers of the United States Army for 1S75 ; the pagination being given accord- 
ing to the separately-printed pamphlet edition of this Appendix (8vo, pp. 196). These papers 
are full of interesting field-notes, aud bear directly upon the subject in hand. 
4 B C 



50 MIGRATION, ETC., OF THE MOUNTAIN MOCKINGBIRD 

Thrasher. It was one of the birds discovered by Mr. J. K. 
Towusend, who, with his some time compauion Nuttall, explored 
the region of the Cohimbia, bringing many ornithological novel- 
ties to light. Xuttall speaks of its pleasant song, which he says 
resembles that of the Thrasher, and ascribes to it powers of 
imitation ; but as his statement of such ability has not been 
since corroborated, we are left to infer that it possesses nothing 
beyond the flexible modulation of the voice for which all its 
tribe are famous. He discovered a nest, situated in a worm- 
wood-bush, containing four eggs. The original accounts of the 
species constituted the sum of our information respecting it 
for many years, until the general openingup of almost untrod- 
den wastes put other eager and curious observers upon its track. 
From what we have learned, it would appear to have been mis- 
named the Mountain Mockingbird, since, as has been intimated, 
its repertoire is not remarkably extensive, while its favorite 
haunts are the arid and desolate sage plains of the great cen- 
tral plateau. We are now jn^etty well acquainted with its 
geographical distribution, though more precise knowledge of 
its movements w^ould be acceptable. It is migratory, like most 
of its tribe, but only within a limited area. It is known to be 
resident in Texas, where my friend H. E. Dresser, of London, 
observed it at San Antonio and Eagle Pass in winter and sum- 
mer, and where he procured the eggs. He found it, like others, 
in brushy plains, and noticed its terrestrial habits. As well as 
I can judge from the accounts to which I have referred for in- 
formation — havingnothingoriginalto presentupon the subject — 
the bird offers one of the many instances of what I should call 
^^ migration at iciW\ if I dared to propose a sort of paradoxical 
term. That is to say : out of the sum-total of individuals com- 
posing the species, congregated in their winter haunts, a cer- 
tain percentage elects to go north in the spring, dropping loi- 
terers by the way, while the rest breed where they wintered. 
In this manner, the species spreads latitudinally until the limit 
of its dispersion, which cannot be far from the northern bound- 
ary of the United States, is reached, and may be found nesting 
anywhere within the area it inhabits. In the fall the return 
movement is accomplished, and the species is then withdrawn 
into its comparatively narrow winter quarters, the limits of 
which I believe remain to be ascertained. This kind of optional 
or elective migration, witnessed in many other cases besides 
the present one, contrasts with the regular migration perforce 



HABITS OF THE MOUNTAIN MOCKINGBIRD 51 

of those other species, all the iudividuals of which are mysteri- 
ously impelled to journey toward the pole, and settle for the 
summer in areas perhaps more contracted than their winter 
homes. 

For the general habits of this species I shall presently quote 
Mr. Ridgway, who has made good use of the favorable oppor- 
tunities he enjoyed ; but will first describe the eggs, which I 
have examined in the National Museum at Washington. The 
clutch usually numbers four, measuring from 0.94: to 1.03 in 
length, and from 0.69 to 0.75 in breadth (inches and decimals). 
The ground-color is light greenish-blue ; this is heavily marked 
with burnt-umber or olive-brown spots, and a few others of 
neutral tint. The pattern is generally bold and sharp, but in 
some cases finer and more diffuse, when the numberless speck- 
les and dots give an effect similar to that of some styles of 
Mockingbirds' eggs. 

Instead of collating the fragmentary notices of writers who 
have recorded their transient impressions or isolated observa- 
tions, I shall conclude the history of the Mountain Mocking- 
bird with an extract from the author last mentioned. looting 
that it inhabits sage-plains, especially of the '-Great Basin", 
and suggesting the name " Sage Thrasher "' as more appro- 
priate than " Mountain Mockingbird", Mr. Ridgway goes on to 
say, in his note-book now lying before me : — 

" Carson City, Xevada, March 24, 1S(3S. — To-day we saw the 
Sage Thrasher for the first time this spring, and heard its song. 
The sage-brush was full of the birds, and many were singing 
beautifully when the evening shades were lengthened by the 
sinking of the sun behind the Sierras. Owing to the earliness 
of the season, the son^- was uttered in a subdued tone, and its 
full merits could not be appreciated. The bird was generally 
seen sitting in an upright position upon a sage bush, but when 
approached would dive — apparently into the bush, though close 
examination failed to reveal its hiding-place ; often, however^ 
we again heard it*sweetly warbling, perhaps a hundred yards 
away in the direction from which we had come. This con- 
cealed, circuitous flight is characteristic of the species. 

^^ April 2. — Rained throughout the night; tbis morning the 
air is fresh and balmy ; clouds are lowering about the bases of 
the mountains, concealing them from view. The air is vocal 
with the music of the spring birds, singing with vigor and 
joyousness. The Meadow Larks are singing throughout the 



52 SONG AND NEST OF THE MOUNTAIN MOCKINGBIRD 

sage-brusb, and with their rich notes are heard the sweet warb- 
lings of Oroscopfcs monfanm. To-day we heard this soDg in all 
its loveliness. Although weaker than that of either the Brown 
Thrasher or the Catbird, it is more varied and longer sustained 
as well as superior in sweetness and delicac}" of tone. The 
song has, in modulation or style, a great resemblance to the 
soft tender warbling of th3 Ruby-crowned Kinglet, although 
it is stronger, of course, in proportion to the size of the bird. 

^^ A])rlld. — The Sage Thrasher is now one of the most com- 
mon birds in this vicinity. Today a great man^- were noticed 
among the brush-heaps in the city cemetery. Its manners dur- 
ing the pairing season are peculiar. The males, as they flew 
before us, were observed to keep up a peculiar tremor or flutter- 
ing of the wings, warbling as they flew, and upon alighting 
(generally upon the fence or a bush), raised the wings over the 
back, with elbows together, quivering with joy as they sang. 

'''•April 23. — Although we saw these birds everywhere among 
the sage-brush, their nests were found onl}' with great diflS- 
culty. In the cemetery, the sage bushes had all been pulled 
up and thrown in piles in different parts of the inclosure, and 
upon these the birds were most frequently seen. On one occa- 
sion, a female was observed to fly into one of these brush-heaps, 
with a bunch of building material in her mouth ; but it was 
only by taking off bush after bush that the nest was discov- 
ered; this, though unfinished, contained one egg, and, in its 
construction and situation, resembled some of the nests of the 
Thrasher, though less bulky. The bushes were carefully re- 
placed, and the nest left undisturbed. In walking through the 
sage-brush on the open commons, several more nests were 
found, in similar situations, being placed in the thickest por- 
tion of the bushes, generally about two feet from the ground, 
but occasionally imbedded in the ground beneath them. They 
were all well concealed. At one time, while blowing some eggs, 
the parent birds came near us, running gracefully upon the 
ground in the manner of a Eobin, stretching* their necks, curi- 
ous to see what we were doing, and watching our movements 
with an anxious look, but uttering no note whatever. 

" The only note of this species, besides its song, is simply a 
weak ' f??c7>:', seldom uttered unless the young are disturbed; 
except during the pairing and nesting seasons, it is one of the 
most silent birds with which I am acquainted. In September 
I saw it feeding upon the ' service-berries,' which grew abund- 
antly in certain localities at the foot of the mountains." 



MIMUS— SYNONYMY OF M. POLYGLOTTUS 53 

Genus MIMUS Boie 

Chaks. — Bill much shorter thau the head, scarcely curved 
as a whole, but with geutlj curved commissure, notched 
near the end. Rictal vibrissae well developed. Tail rather 
longer than the wings, rounded, the lateral feathers being con- 
siderably graduated. Wings rounded. Tarsal scutella some- 
times obsolete. Tarsi longer than the middle toe and claw. 

Of this genus, there are two well marked sections, represented 
by the Mockingbird and Catbird respectively. These may be 
most conveniently distinguished by color: — 

31imus. — Above ashy-brown, below white; lateral tail- 
feathers and bases of primaries white. (Tarsal scutella always 
distinct.) 

Galeoseoptes. — Blackish-ash, scarcely paler below; crown and 
tail black, unvaried; crissum rufous. (Tarsal scutella some- 
times obsolete.) 



The jflockf lis; bird 

Miinns polyglottiis 

TlirdtlS UOlyglOttOS, L. SN. i. lOth ed. 1758, 169, no. 7 (based on Sloane, ii. 306, pi. 253, f. 3 ; 
Gates, i. 27; Kalm, ii. 335); 12th ed. 1766, 293, no. 10 (includes other spp. or vars.).— 
Bp. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 32 (critical).— B;). Ann. Lye. N.'Y. ii. 1826, 74. 

Turdus polyglOttUS, Gm. SN. l. 1788, 612.— Lath. 10. i. 1790, 329. — Turt. SN. i. 1806, 493.— 
Wils. AO. ii. 1810, 14, pi. 10, f. l.—Foz, Newc. Mug. 1827, 150.— iess. Tr. Orn. 1831, 
410.— Aud. OB. i. 1831, 108, pi. 2l.—Niat. Man. i. 1832, 320.— Pea6. Rep. Orn. Mass. 1839, 
300 (rare).- Hayw. Pr. Phila. Acad. yiii. 1856, 289.— Gossf, Alabama, 1859, 4.7.—Gieb. 
Vog. 1860, 37, f. 85. 

Mimas polyglOttUS, Bote, Isis, 1826, 97-2.—Sp. C. & GL. 1838, \7.—Gamb. Pr. Phila. Acad, 
lii. 1846, 114 (California).— Bp. CA. i. 1850, 276.—McCaU, Pr. Phila. Acad. v. 1851,216 
(Texas).— Burnett, Pr.Bost. Soc. iv. 1851, 116.— Hoij, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 309 (Wis- 
consin).— i2ec(i, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853. 398 (Ohio).— U'oodk. Expl. Zuiii R. 1853, 72.— 
Kennic. Tr. Illinois Agric. Soc. i. 1855, 582 (Illinois).— iun^crs/i. J. f. 0. 1856, 69 (in 
captivity).— ScZ. PZ.S. 1857, 212 (Orizaba).— ..Vazm. J. f. O. vi. 1858, 179.— Be?. BNA. 
1858, 344.— 5cZ. PZS. 1859, 340 (critical).- i/cnry, Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 1859, 106 (New 
Mexico).- BaiVrf, Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 1859, ZOZ.—Kenn. PRRR. x. 1859, 25.— i/e«rm. 
PRRR. X. 1859, i4.— Vflieat, Ohio Agric. Rep. for 1860, 1861, 365, no. 115 (Ohio).— Barn. 
Smiths. Rep. for 1860, 1861, 436 (Pennbylvania).— Coi(£S SfPrent. Smiths. Rep. for 1861, 
1862,410 (Washington ; rare). — Scl. Cat. AB. 1862, S.— Tayl. Ibis, 1862, 128 (Florida),— 
Bd. Rev. AB. 1864, 48.—Alle7i, Pr. Essex Inst. iv. 1864, 67 (Massachusetts— northern 
limit).- Hoy, Smiths. Rep. for 1864, 1865, 437 (Missouri).— Bry. Pr. Bost. Soc. ix. 1865, 
372.— Co!us, Ibis, 1865, 159 (New Mexico).— Prc.«s. Ibis, 1865, 481 (Texas).— Co«es, Pr. 
Phila. Acad, xviii. 1866, 65 (Fort Whipple, Ariz.).- Zaicr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. 1866, 
282 (New York).— Corns, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 1868, 107 (South Carolina, resident).— BufcZi. 
Pr. Phila. Acad. xx. 1808, 149 (Laredo, Tex.).— Co«cs, Pr. Essex Inst. v. 1868, 267 (New 
England).— >-i;?en, Mem. Bost. Soc. i. 1868, 523 (Indiana).— 5«mifcA. Mem. Bost. Soc. i. 
1869, 543 (Vera Cruz; Gulf coast up to plateau, breeding at Orizaba). — r«r7i&. B. E. Pa. 
1809,22; Pliila. ed. 15.— Steams, Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 282.— Coop. B. Cal. i. 1870,21.— 
Mayn. Nat. Guide, 1870, 92 (Massachusetts).— ^;^ Bull. MCZ. ii. 1871, 239 (Florida, 



54 DESCRIPTION OF THE MOCKINGBIRD 

winterluff). — Ooucs, Pr. Phila. Acad, xxiii. 1871, 19 (North Carolina). — Parker, Am. Nat. 
V. 1871, 168. — Boarrfm. Am. Nat. v. 1871, \2l.—Grayso7i, Pr. Bost. See. xiv. 1872, 277 
<Tre8 Marias Islands).— Mayre. B. Fla. 1872, 16.— Coj^es, Key, 1872, 74, f. l(j.— Allen, Bull. 
MCZ. iii. 1872, 134 (Kansas).- PMrrfje, Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 693.- Cottcs, BNW. 1874, 8.— 
Merr. Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 7, 8, 86.— Coop. Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 17.— B. B. (f R. NAB. i. 

1874, 49, fig. pi. iii. f. A.—Hensh. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, 91.— Brew. Pr. Bost. See. xvii, 

1875, 438 (.New England).— i/fi7JsA. Zool. Expl. W. 100 Merid. 1876, 151. 

Orpheus polyglOttllS, Sw. Zool. Journ. iii. 1827, \Q~.—Aud. Syn. 1839, %1.—Aud. BA. ii.l841, 
187, pi. 138.— I>eany, PZS. 1847, 38.—Gerhardt, Naum. iii. 1853, 37 (aong). — Wailes, Rep. 
Mississippi, 1854, 3W.—Pratte)i, Tr. 111. Agric. Soc. 1855, 601 (Illinois).— Henry, Pr 
Phila. Acad. vii. 1855, 310 (New Mexico). 
Merinus polyglOttUS, Baird, Ives' Rep. Colorado, pt. vi. 1861, 5 (lapsu). 
Orpbeus leucopterus, Fj>. Zool. Voy. Bloss. 1839, 18. 
Mimus leucopterus, Baird, Stansbury's Rep. GSL. 1852, 328. 
Orpheus polygOthUS, Putn. Pr. Essex lust. i. 1856, 224 (lapsu). 
Mimus CanadatUS, Baird, BNA. 1858, 345 (err. for "caudatus"). 
Mimus caudatUS, Xant. Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 1359, 191 (California).— Ooo/;. Am. Nat. iii. 1369, 

186.— Coop. Pr. Cal. Acad. 1870. 75. 
Mimus polyglOttUS rnr-. caudatUS, Coues, ibis, 1865, 533 (Arizona). — Zif'rf^. Bull. Essex last. 

V. 1873, 179 (Colorado). 
Oreoscoptes montanus!, Coues, Ibis. 1865, 164 (lapsu). 
Mimic Thrush, Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 333, no. 194 and 194 B (young). 
Mocliingbird, Vulg. 
Merle moqueur, French. 
SpottTOgel, German. 

Hab. — United States, southerly, from Atlantic to Pacific. North regu- 
larly to the Middle States, sometimes to Massachusetts and Wisconsin. 
Northerly portions of Mexico. Cuba ? 

Ch. sp. S 9 Griseus, infra sordkle alb us ; alls fuscis spatio 
alho, Cauda fusco alhoque dimidiatd, rostro pedibusque nigr'is. 

$ , adult : Upper parts ashy-gray, the lower i^arts soiled white. Wings 
blackish-brown, the primaries, with the exception of the first, marked with 
a large white space at the base, restricted on the outer quills usually to half 
or less of these feathers, but occupying nearly all of the inner quills. The 
shorter wbite spaces show as a conspicuous spot when the wing is closed, 
the longer iuner ones being hidden by the secondaries. The coverts are also 
tipped and sometimes edged with white ; and there may be much edging or 
tipping, or both, of the quills themselves. Outer tail-featliers white ; next 
two pair white, except on the outer web ; next i)air usually white toward 
the end, and the rest sometimes tipped with white. Bill and feet black, the 
former often pale at the base below ; soles dull yellowi-sh. Length about 10 
inches, but rangingfrom 91 toll; extent about 14 (13 to 15) ; wing,4-4J; tail, 
4^-5; bill, J; tarsus, 1^. 

9 , adult : Similar to the male, but the colors less clear and pure ; above 
rather brownish than grayi.sh ash, below sometimes quite brownish-whitej 
at least on the breast. Tail and wings with less white than as above de- 
scribed for the male. But the gradation in these features is by impercepti- 
ble degrees, so that there is no infallible color-mark of sex. In general, the 
clearer and purer are the colors, and the more white there is on the wings 
and tail, the more likely is the bird to be a male and prove a good singer. The 
female is also smaller than the male on an average, being generally under 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE MOCKINGBIRD 



55 



and rarely over 10 inches in length, with extent of wings usually less thau 
14, the wing little if any over 4, the tail about 4i. 

Young : Above decidedly brown, and below speckled with dusky. 

There is comparatively little variation in this species except in size. A 
tendency is seen in specimens from the southwestern parts of the United 
States to elongation of the tail, this member averaging about.o inches, and 
sometimes measuring rather more. 







Fig. 6.— The Mockingbird. 

IT is unnecessary to give an extended account of this famous 
bird, to which full justice has already been done in several 
treatises which the reader will instantly call to mind; and should 
he be desirous of looking up the subject, the citations given at 
the head of this article — representing a small portion of the 
literature devoted to the Mockingbird — may help him somewhat. 
The bird is common in suitable situations in the Colorado 
Basin, and especially so in the lower and warmer portions. 
Its general range is indicated in a foregoing paragraph. I 
have refrained from citing the various \Yest India islands 
which are occupied by subspecies or varieties of the Mocking- 
bird distinguished by some very modern authors. The Xorth 
American representative is almost confined to this country, 
though it also occurs in portions of Mexico, as Colima, Mira- 
dor, Orizaba, and Mazatlan, as well as the Tres Marias Islands, 
and perhaps in Cuba. It winters in the Southern States in 



56 SYNONYMY OF MIMUS CAROLINENSIS 

great numbers — on the Atlantic side at least as far as South 
Carolina, where I have observed it at all seasons. In the 
spring, a small proportion of the whole number of individuals 
migrate " at will ", commonly reaching the Middle States and 
correspondijig latitudes further west. The northernmost 
records generally quoted fix the limit in Massachusetts ; but 
Dr. Brewer speaks of a single individual seen near Calais, 
Me., by Mr. George A. Boardman. Another record from an 
extreme point, given l)y Dr. P. R. Hoy, is above quoted; 
the extension of the bird to Wisconsin, as there indicated, has 
been commonly overlooked. Other States in which the bird is 
known to have occurred are jS'ew York, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois,. 
Missouri, Iowa, and Kansas. The parallel of J:0° X. has been 
named as its usual or normal limit. 



The Catbird 

' Minins (Galeoscoptes) earoliiiehsis 

MuSCiCapa carolinensiS, L. SN. i. 1766, 328, no. 18 (based on Briss. ii. 365 and Gates, i. 66). — 
Bodd. Tabl. PE. 1783, 42 (PE. 676).— G/;;. SN. i. 1788, 946, no. 18 (" Camtschatc* " 
&c.).—Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 483, no. 6i.— Turt. SN. i. 1806, 581. 

TurdUS carolinensiS, iJcAz. "Verz. 1823, 33^'; "P.-eis-Verz. Mex. Vog. 1830,2"; J. f. O. 
1853, 57.— D'Orb. Ois Cuba, 1839, 51.— Manger, Zool. Gart. viii. 1867, 191 (in captivity). 

Orpheus carolinensiS, ^«rf. Syn. 1839, 88.— /!(«?. BA. ii. 1841, 195, pi. UO.—Piun.Pr. Ess. 
Inst. i. 1856, 209.— Bland, Smiths. R<^p. for 1858, 1S59, 287 (BeTmndas). — Martens, J. f. 
O. 1859, 213 (Bermudas).- JoHcs, Nat. Bermuda, 1859, 27. 

Mimus carolinensiS, Gray.—Sd. PZS. 1856, 294 (Cordova).— Kneel. Pr. Bost. Soc. vl. 1857, 
Q34.—Bd. BNA. 1858, SiS.—Breic. Pr. Bost. Soc. vii. 1860, 307 (Cixb&).— Bam. Smiths. 
Rep. for 1860, 1661, i36.—Gundl. J. f. O. 1861, 324 (Cnha.).—Boardm. Pr. Bost. Soc. ix. 
1862, 126 (Maine).— Blak. Ibis, iv. 1862, 5 (Saskatchewan).— Taj/Z. Ibis, 1862, 128.— Ferr. 
Proc. Essex Inst, iii. 1862, U8.—Haijd. Tr. Amer. Philos. Soc. xii. 1862, 163 (Missouri 
to Rocky Mountains).— £Za4. Ibis, 1863, 66 (British America).— Lord, Pr. Roy. Arty. 
Inst. Woolwich, iv. 1864, 117 (east of Cascade Mountains).— il/c/Zjcr. Pr. Essex Inst. v. 
1866, 87 (Canada West).— Bryaue, Pr. Bost, Soc. 1667, 66 (Inagua).— Oomm, Pr. Essex 
Inst, V. 1868, 267. — Tfirrafe. B. E. Pa. 1869, 22; Phila. ed. 15.— Coop. Am.. Nat. iii. 1869, 
73, 295 (CcBur d'AIeue Mountains).— (7o«es, Pr. Phila. Acad, xxiii. 1871, 19.— Cones, Key, 
1872, 74.— Mayjt. B. Fla. 1872, 19.— Allen, Bull. MCZ. iii. 1872, 174 (Kansas, Colorado, 
Utah).— Trippe. Pr. Bost, Soc. xv. 1873, 236 (Iowa).— PeZ:. Ibis, 3d ser. iii. 1873, 25.— 
Comstock, Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 76.— Packard, Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 27\.— Allen, Pr. Bost. 
Soc. 1874, 49 (Dakota).— Co«fs, BNW. 1874, 8.— Trippe, ibid. 228 (Colorado;. 

MiniiUS carolinensiS, Clifford, Tr. Illinois Agric. Soc. V. 1865, 925 (habits). 

Galeoscoptes carolinensiS, Cab. MH. i. 1850, 82 'type).— Gundl. J. f. O. 1855, 470 (Cuba).— 
5. ffS.lhis, i. 1859, 7 (Guatemala).— &Z. PZS. 1859, 336 (critical), 362 (Xa\apa). —Gundl. 
J. f. O. 1861, 406 (Cuba).— &2. Cat. AB. 1862, 6.— Allen, Pr. Essex Inst. iv. 1864, 68.— 
Bd. Rev. AB. 1864, 5i.— Gundl. Repert. 1865, 230 (Cuba).— Bryrt?i«, Pr. Bost. Soc. ix. 
1865, 372.— Laicr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. 1866, 282.-5. (f S. PZS. 1867, 278 (Mosquito 
Coast).— Coucy, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 1868, 107.— Stcmich. Mem. Bost. Soc. i. 1869, 544 (Vera 
Cnz).—Laicr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ix, 1869, 204 (Yucatan).— Coo;?. B. Cal. i. 1870, 23.-5. <V 
S. PZS. 1870, 838 (Honduras).- Stev. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, for 1870, 1871, A6i.— Gundl. 
J. f. O. 1872, 407 (Cnba).— Scott, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1872, 2->0.-Merr. U. S. Geol. Surv. 




DESCRIPTION OF^ THE CATBIRD 57 

Terr, for 1873, 1873, 670, 705, 713 (far viem).—Rid^. Bull. Essex lust. v. 1673, 179 (Colo- 
rado).— ivW^. Am. Nat. vii. 1873,201, 550; viii. 1874, 19S.— .l/cm Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 7.— 
B. B. {,- R. NAB. i. 1874, 53, fig. pi. 3. f. 5.—Hcnsh. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, 40, 56, 71 (Utah, 
&.c.).—Breic. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, i38.— Hensh. Zool. Expl. W. 100 Jlerid. 1876, 153. 

Caleoscoptes carolineusis, 5. .s- ■?• Pzs. 1859, 370 (Oaxaca). 
Felivox caroiinensis, Bp. CR. 1853. 

Lucar caroiinensis, Coucs Pr. Phila. Acad. 1875, 349 (commeut. on Bartram). 

lucar lividUS, Bartr. Trav. Fla. Amer. ed. 1791, p. 390bi8. 

TurdUS lividus, IVils. AO. U. 1810, 90, pi. 14, f. 3 (after Bartram).— i??. 

Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 36 (critical).— Xess. Tr. Orn. 1831, 4lO.— 

Gaetke, J. f. O. 1856, 71 (Heligoland \).—Hmjm. Pr. Phila. Acad. viii. 

1856, 289. 
OrpIieilS lividus, Bias, ibis, iv. 1862, 66 (Heligoland). 
TurdUS felivox, VieillOX^. ii. 1807, lO, pl.67.— £/>. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 

1824, 36.— Bp. Ann. Lye. N.Y. ii. 1826, 75.—Peab. Rep. Orn. Mass. 1839, 

302.—Tkomps. Vermont, 1853, 78, &g.--ll'iUis. Smiths. Rep. for 1858, 

1859, 281 (Nova Scotia). 
Orpheus felivox, Sw. d: Rich. FBA. ii. 1831, 19-2.— Praimi. Tr. Illinois Agr. 

Soc. 1855, 601. 
MimUS felivox, Bp.C.Sc GL. 1838. IS.—Bp. CA. i. 1850,'in6.— Burnett, Pr, 

Bost. Soc. iv. 1851, 116.— Rearf, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 398.— Hoy, 

Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 309 (Wisconsin).— A'£«?uc. Tr. 111. Agr. Soc. 

i. 1855,'582.— 3/fli!/H. J. f. O. vi. 1858, 180.— i/oy, Smiths. Rep. for 1864, 

1865, 437 (Missouri). 
Oat Flycatcher, Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 388, no. 272. 

Merle ii derriere roux, vorb.i.c. 

Zorzal gato, Cuban. FlG.7.— Foot of 

Merle Catbird; Chat, Le Maine, Oi^. Canad. 1861, 167. Catbird, nat. size. 

Catbird, Vulg. 

Hab. — Nearly all the United States, and adjoining British Provinces. North 
to the Red and Saskatchewan Rivers (latitude 54^^). West to Washington, 
Oregon, Wyoming, and Utah. South in -winter to Panama. Mexico. Cuba. 
Resident in the Southern States. Breeds throughout its range in North 
America. 

Ch. sp. 5 2 ScJiistaceo-plumbeiis, subtus dilutior ; v€rtice,cauddj 
rostro pedibufque yiigris, alis tiigricantibus, crisso castaneo. 

S 9: Slaty-gray, paler and more grayish-plumbeousbelow; crown of head, 
tail, bill and feet black. Quills of the wing blackish, edged with the 
body-color. Under tail-coverts rich dark chestnut or mahogany-color. 
Length, 8^-9; extent,llormore; wing, 3^-3f ; tail,4; bill, f; tarsus, l-lro. 

Young: Of a more sooty color above, with little or no distinction of a 
black cap, and comparatively paler below, where the color has a soiled 
brownish cast. Crissum dull rufous. 

The outer edge and tip of the lateral tail-feather is sometimes decidedly 
palerthantherest, indicating the space occupiedby the white in Oroscoptes. 

IT is not ea.sy to account for the vulgar prejudice agaiust tbis 
bird. The contempt he inspires cannot be entirely due to 
familiarity; for other members of the household, like the Robin, 
Bluebird, and Swallow, do not come under the ban. If his 
harsh, abrupt, and discordant note were the cause, the croaking 



58 SOME OF THE CATBIRD's TRAITS 

Crow and cliattering Blackbird vrould sliare the same disgrace. 
Yet the fact remains that the Catbird is almost always re- 
garded unfavorably, not so much for what he does, perhaps, 
as for what he is, oris not. To eyes polite, he seems to be " off 
color''; in the best society, he is lookeduponas un pen conipro7nis, 
There must be a reason for this — the world is too busy to in- 
vent reasons for things — for there never was a popular verdict 
without roots in some fact or principle. It is instinctive : the 
school-boy despises a Catbird just as naturally as he stones a 
frog; and when he thinks a thing is mean, no argument will 
convince him to the contrary. 

For myself, I think the boys are right. Like many of the 
lower animals, they are quick to detect certain qualities, and 
apt to like or dislike unwittingly, yet with good reason. The 
matter with the Catbird is that he is thoroughly common-place. 
There is a dead level of bird-life, as there is of humanity ; and 
mediocrity is simply despicable — hopeless and helpless, and 
never more so than when it indulges aspirations. Yet it wears 
well, and is a useful thing ; there must be a standard of meas- 
ure, and a foil is often extremely convenient. The Catbird has 
certainly a good deal to contend with. His name has a flip- 
pant sound, without agreeable suggestiveness. His voice is 
vehement without strength, unpleasant in its explosive quality. 
His dress is positively ridiculous — who could hope to rise in 
life wearing a pepper-and-salt jacket, a black velvet skull-cap, 
and a large red patch on the seat of his pantaloons ? Add to 
all this the possession of some very x)lebeian tastes, like those 
which in another case render beer-gardens, circuses, and street- 
shows things possible, and you will readily perceive that a hero 
cannot be made out of a Catbird. 

But to be common-place is merely to strike the balance of a 
great number of positive qualities, no single one of which is to 
be overlooked. It is accomplished by a sort of algebraic proc- 
ess, in wiiich all the terms of an equation are brought to- 
gether on one side, which then equals zero. There is said to 
be a great deal of human nature in mankind, and I am sure 
there is as much bird-nature in the feathered tribe. There is 
as much life in the kitchen as in the parlor : it is only a mat- 
ter of a flight of stairs between them. We who happen to be 
above know none too much of what goes on below — much 
less, I suspect, than the hasse-cour often learns of the salon and 
the boudoir. I sometimes fancv that the Catbird knows us 



UNSCIENTIFIC NOTIONS OF THE CATBIRD 59 

better than we do him. He is at least a civilized bird, if he 
does hang by the eyelids ou good society : if he is denied the 
front door, the area is open to him: he may peep in at the 
basement window, and see the way up the backstairs. His 
eyes and ears are open ; his wits are sharp ; what he knows, 
he knows, and will tell if he chooses. His domesticity is large ; 
he likes us well enough to stay with us, yet he keeps his eye 
on us. His is the prose of daily life, with all its petty concerns, 
as read by the lower classes ; the poetry we are left to discover. 
Explain him as we may, the Catbird is inseparable from 
home and homely things; he reflects, as he is reflected in, 
domestic life. The associations, it is true, are of an humble 
sort; but they are just as strong as those which link us with 
the trusty Eobiu, the social Swallow, the delicious Bluebird, or 
the elegant Oriole. Let it be the humble country-home of toil, 
or the luxurious mansion where wealth is lavished on the gar- 
den — in either case, the Catbird claims the rights of squatter 
sovereignty. He flirts saucily across the well-worn path that 
kads to the well, and sips the water that collects in the shallow 
depression upon the flag-stone. Down in the tangle of the moist 
dell, where stands the spring-house, with its cool, crisp atmos- 
phere, redolent of buttery savor, where the trickling water is 
perpetual, he loiters at ease, and from the heart of the green- 
brier makes bold advances to the milkmaid who brings the 
brimming bowls. In the pasture beyond, be waits for the boy 
who comes whistling after the cows, and follows him home by 
the blackberry road that lies along the zigzag fence, challeng- 
ing the carelessly thrown stone he has learned to dodge with 
ease. He joins the berrying parties fresh from school, soliciting 
a game of hide-and-seek, and laughs at the mishaps that never 
fail when children try the brier patch. Along the hedge row, 
he glides with short easy flights to gain the evergreen coppice 
that shades a corner of the lawn, where he pauses to watch the 
old gardener trimming the boxwood, or rolling the gravel 
walk, or making the flower bed, wondering why some people 
will take so much trouble when everything is nice enough 
already. Ever restless and inquisitive, he makes for the well- 
known arbor, to see what may be going on there. What he 
discovers is certainly none of his business: the rustic seat is 
occupied ; the old, old play is in rehearsal; and at sight of the 
blushing cheeks that respond to passionate words, the very 
roses on the trellis hang their envious lieads. This spectacle 



60 ROMANCE OF A POOR OLD CATBIRD 

tickles bis fancy; always ripe for mischief, he startles the loviug- 
I)air with his quick, shrill cry, like a burlesque of the kiss just 
heard, and enjoys their little consternation. " It is only a Cat- 
bird", they say reassuringly — but there are times when the 
slightest jar is a shock, and pledges that hang in a trembling 
balance may never be redeemed. 

" Only a Catbird "meanwhile remembers business of his own^ 
and is off. The practical question of dining recurs. He means 
to dine sumptuously, and so, like the French philosopher, place 
himself beyond the reach of fate. But nature, in the month 
of May, is full of combustible material, and the very atmosphere 
is quick to carry the torch that was kindled in the arbor where 
the lovers sat. His fate meets him in the only shape that 
could so far restrain masculine instincts as to postpone a dinner. 
The rest is soon told — rather it would be, could the secrets of 
the impenetrable dark-green mass of Smilax whither the pair 
betake themselves be revealed. The next we see of the bird, 
he is perched on the topmost spray of yonder pear tree, with 
quivering wings, brimful of song. He is inspired; for a time 
at least he is lifted above the common-place ; his kinship with 
the prince of song, with the Mockingbird himself, is vindicated. 
He has discovered the source of the poetry of every-day life. 



Genus HARPORHYNCHUS Cabanis 

Chars. — Bill of indeterminate size and shape, ranging from 
one extreme, in which it is straight and shorter than the heady 
to the other, in which it exceeds the head in length and is bent 
like a bow (see figs, of the several species, beyond). Feet large 
and strong, indicating terrestrial habits; the tarsus strongly 
scutellate anteriorly, about equaling or slightly exceeding in 
length the middle toe with its claw. Wings and tail rounded, 
the latter decidedly longer than the former. Rictus with well- 
developed bristles. 

Viewing only the extremes of shape of the bill, as witnessed 
in H. rtifus and such species as H. redivivus or R. crissalis, it 
would not seem consistent with the minute subdivisions which 
now obtain in ornithology to place all the species in one genus; 
and two eminent European ornithologists have already pro- 
posed to separate them. But the gradation of form is so gentle 
that it seems impossible to dismember the group without vio- 



ON THE GENUS HARPORHYNCHUS 61 

leuce. The arcuation of the bill proceeds j>a>-/ x)a.ssH with its 
elongation ; the shortest bills being the straightest, and con- 
versely. There is also a curious correlation of color with shape 
ef bill; the short-billed species being the most richly colored 
and heavily spotted, while the bow-billed ones are very plain, 
sometimes with no spots whatever on the under parts. 

The genus is specially interesting in the present connection, 
since it reaches its highest development in the Colorado Basin, 
where nearly all the known species occur, some of them in 
abundance; while several of them are entirely confined, so far 
as we now know, to this region. As much can be said of no 
other genus. Harporlujnchus is, in fact, the leading feature of 
the Colorado avifauna, whether we consider the relative num- 
ber of species there represented, or the extremely local distribu- 
tion of some of them. The fringilline genus Pipilo offers much 
the same case ; and there is a farther singular parallelism be- 
tween the two. Both are represented, in the United States at 
large, by a single species, heavily and even richly colored in 
comparison with the pale dull shades of the numerous species 
or races of the Coloradan region: in both cases, there are 
species restricted to this Basin; in both, rounded wings shorter 
than the graduated tail, large strong feet, and terrestrial habits 
are conspicuous features in comparison with their respective 
allies. The parallel might even be pushed to the length of 
recognizing individual species of one genus as representatives 
of those of the other. Pipilo aberti is the counterpart of H. 
crissalis, and several others are almost as clearly analogous. 



Brown Tlir.isher 

Harporliynclins rufus 

TurdUS rufus, L. SN. i. ICth ed. 1758, 169, no. 6; liith ed. 1766, 293, no. 9 (Gates, i. 28).— 
Gm. SN. i. 1788, 812, no. 9.— Lath. 10. i. 1790, 338, no. 44.— r«rt. SN. i. 1806. 493.— 
Vieill. OAS. ii. 1807, 4, pi. 59.— rnZs. AO.ii. 1810, 83, pi. \A.—Bp. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 
1824, 33.— B/J. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 1826, ~o.—Lcss. Tr. Orn. 1831, AO^.—Pcah. Rep. Orn. 
Mass. 1839, Ziid.—Aitd. OB. ii. 18.34, 102; v. 1639, 441, pi. 116.— GerA. Naum. iii. 1853, 
21.—Thomps. Vermont, 1853, 78.— Haijm. Pr. Phila. Acad. viii. 1856, 288.— GfltAe, J. f. O. 
1856, 71 (Heligoland).— Gfl«Ae, Naura. 1858, 424 (same).— Go«sc, Alabama, 1859, 54, 295. 

Orpheus rufus, S. ^-R. FBA. ii^l831, 189— V«J«. Man. i. 1832, 3i3.—Aud. Syn. 1839, SS.—Aud. 
BA. iii. 1841, 9, pi. 141.— JVailc^. Rep. Mississip. 1854, 319.— Prattcii. Tr. Illinois Agric. 
Soc. 1855, eOl.—PtiUi. Pr. Essex Inst. i. 185G, 2m.— Trippe, Pr. Essex lust. vi. 1871, 
115 (Minnesota). 

Orphea rufa, Gould, pzs. 1824, 15. 



62 



SYNONYMY OF HARPORHYNCHUS RUFUS 



Mimusrurus, Graij.— Bp.C. & GL. 1638, \i.—BiLrncU, Vr. Bost. Soc. iv. 1851, ll&.— Woodh. 
Rep. Expl. Zufii, 1853, 12.— Read, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 398.— fl^o!/, Pr. Phila. Acad, 
vi. 1853, 309 (Wisconsin).— A'c^n/c. Tr. Illinois Agric. Soc. i. 1855, ZW.—Mazim. 3. f. O. vi. 
1858, im.—Ho!j, Smiths. Rep. for 186-1, 1865, i37. — Turnb. B. E. Pa.l869, 22 ; Phila. ed. 15. 

Tcxostoma rufuni, Cab. Arch. f. Nat. IS-l?, BJ. i. 20~. — Bp. CA. i. 18.50, ill. —Bias. Ibis, iv. 
1862, 66 (Heligoland). 

Toxostoma rilfa, Erukin, Zool. Gart. 1871. 15. 

Harporbynrbus rufus. Cab. MH. i. 1850, &2.—Bd. BNA. 1S58, 353.— Scl. PZS. 1859, diQ.-Scl. 
Cat. AB. 1861, 8.— Barn. Smiths. Rep. for 1860, 1861, 436.— Coues S,- Vrent. Smiths. Rep. 
for 1861, 1862, A\0.—Hayd. Tr. Am. Phil. Soc. xii. 1862, 163.— Fcjt. Proc. Essex Inst. iii. 
1862, \AB.—Blak. Ibis, iv. 1862, 5 (Saskatchewan).— TnT^Z. Ibis, iv. 1862, l^B.—Blak. Ibis, 
V. 1863, 67 (Fort Carlton).— ,J«e«, Pr. Essex Inst, iv. 1864, m.—Bd. RAB. 1864, 44.— 
Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. 1866, Wl.—Mcllwr. Pr. Essex Inst, v. 1866, 87 (Canada 
West).— Coites, Pr. Essex Inst. v. 1868, 267.— Coaes, Pr, Bost. Soc. xii. 1868, im.—Coop. 
Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 296 (Upper Missouri),— ,4/Ze/(, Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 5m.— Allen, Am, 
Nat, vi, 1872, 266 —(7oMes, Key, 1872, 75.— .4ZZe/i, Bull. MCZ. iii. 1872, 173.— i^/a^/?^, B, 
Fla. 1872, "H.-Ridg. Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 550.— Coues, Am. Nat, vii. 1873, 326, f. 65,— 
Trippe, Pr, Bost. Soc. xv. 1873, 'i3G.—Merriam, Am. Nat, viii. 1874, l.—Rcdg. Am, Nat. 
viii, 1874, im.— Coues, BNW. 1874, 9 (see p. 229).— .42Ze«, Pr.. Bost. Soc, xvii, 1874, 49 
(Dakota). — Hews/i. Rep. Oru, Specs. 1874, 57 (Colorado).— 5. B. ^- R. NAB. i. 1874, 37, pi, 
3, f. \.—Brew. Pr, Bost. Soc, xvii. 1875, i3'i.—Htnsh. Zool. Expl. W. ICO Merid. 1876, 154 
(Rocky Mountains oi Colorado) . 








Fig. 8.— Head of Prowa Thrasher, nat. size. 

Antiniiinus rufus, Sundcv. Meth. Av. Disp. Tent. 1372, 13 (type\ 

Harporbynrhus riit'us var. longicauda, Bd. BNA. 1858, 353 [ia tew). —Ridgw. Bull. Essex 

Inst. V. 1873, 179 (Colorado), 
Harporbynchus longicauda, Stev. V. S. r.eol. Surv. Ten. for 1870, 1871, 464. 
Ferruginous Tbrusb, Pe?in. AZ. ii. 1785, 333, no. ig,";. 
Fox-coloured Mock-bird, .'^, SfR. 1, c. 
Ferruginous Mocking-bird, Aud. 1. o. 
erlve roussf, Le Moine. Ois. Cauad. 1861, 171. 
Thrasber, Brown Tbrusb, Brown Thrasher. Sandy MockingbirJ, French Mockingbird, 

Vvlg. 



[Some quotations of the subspecies H. LONGlKOSTias I happen to have at hand are : — Or- 
pheus longirostris, Lafr. RZ. 1838, 55 ; MZ. 1839, pi. l.— Toxostoma longirostre. Cab. Arch. f. 
Naturg. 1847, Bd, i, Wl.—Toxostoma longirostris, Bp. CA. i. 18.50, 217.— Miinus longirostris, Bd. 
Rep. Expl. GSL. 1852, 328 —5f/. PZS. 1856, 294 (Cordova),— A'a/y/or/iyncftus longirostris, 



CHARACTERS OF HARPORHYNCHUS RUFUS 63 

Cab. MH. i. 1850, 81.— Bd. BXA. 1858, 352; ed. of 1860, 352, pi. 5-2.— Bd.V. S. Mex. B. Surv. 
ii. pt. ii. 1859, Birds, 13, pi. U.—Scl. PZS. 1859, 339 (critical) ; 1859, 362 (Xalapa) ; 1864, 172 
(City of Mexico) ; Cat. AB. 1861, B.—Bd. RAB. 1864, 44.— Butch. Pr. Phila. Acad. 1868, 149 
(Laredo, Tex.). — Harporhynchits rufus var. longirostris, Coucs, Key, 1872, 75. — i?. B. If R. 
NAB. i. 1874, 39, pi. 3, f. 2.— Hab.— Valley of tbe Rio Grande and southward.] 

Hab. — Unitefl States, and acijoiuiug belt of British America; north to 
Canada, Lake Winnipeg and the Saskatchewan ; west into the mountains 
of Colorado and AVyoming. Breeds throughout its range. Winters in the 
Southern States. No extraUmital American quotations. Accidental in 
Europe (Heligoland, Gatke; see above). 

Ch. sp. — a. RUFUS. S $ Siiprd ferruglncus, alis albo-hifas- 
ciatis; infra ex rufo alhidus; pectore laterihusque maculis hrunneh 
guttato-lineatis ; (jonyde recto; mandibuld ad basin flavescente. 

$ 9 : Upper parts uniform rich rust-red, with a bronzy lustre. Concealed 
l)ortions of quills fuscous. Greater and median wing-coverts blackish near 
the end, then conspicuously tipped with white. Bastard quills like the 
coverts. Tail like the back, the lateral feathers with paler ends. Under parts 
white, more or less strongly tinged, especially on the breast, flanks, and cris- 
sum, with tawny or pale cinnamon-brown, the breast and sides marked with 
a profusion of well-defined spots of dark brown, oval in front, becoming 
more linear posteriorly. Throat is immaculate, bordered with a necklace 
of spots; the middle of the belly and under tail-coverts likewise unspotted. 
Bill black, with yellow base of the lower n^andible ; feet pale ; iris yellow. 
Length, about 11 inches; extent, 12^ to 14 ; wing, 3f-4;J; tail, 5 or more; 
bill, 1 ; tarsus, 1.25. 

b. LONGIROSTRIS. — Prfccedciiti similis; supra rufo-brunnens, 
alis albo-bifasciatis; infra albus, pectore lateribnsque maculis ni- 
gricantibus guttato-lineatis; gonyde incurvato. 

Similar in general to H. rufus; upper parts reddish-brown, instead of rich 
foxy-red; under parts white, with little if any tawny tinge, the spots large, 
very numerous, and blackish instead of brown. The wing shows dusky and 
white bars across the ends of the median and greater coverts, as in 7-ufus, 
but the ends of the rectrices are .scarcely or not lighter than the rest of these 
feathers. The bill is almost entirely dark-colored. 

Besides these points of coloration, which are readily appreciable, there is 
a decided difference in the shape of the bill. In H. rufus, the bill is quite 
straight, and only just about an inch long; the gonys is straight, and 
makes an angle with the slightly concave lower outline of the mandibular 
rami. In II. longirostris, the bill is rather over an inch long, and some- 
what curved ; the outline of the gonys is a little concave, making with the 
ramus one continuous curve from base to tip of the bill. 

AS ill the case of the Mockingbird, I shall have but a word 
to say respecting- the Brown Thrush or Thrasher, whose 
biography has already been several times written, before tak- 



64 SYNONYMY OF HARPORHYNCIIUS CURVIROSTRIS 

ing up the other species of the genus, which are far better rep- 
resented iu the Colorado Basin. It is scarcely, in fact, an in- 
habitant of this region at all, only reaching, as far as we now 
know, the extreme northeastern portion, where it has been 
found, by Mr. J. A. Allen, iu the mountains of Colorado Ter- 
ritory, up to an altitude of 7,500 feet. The foregoing para- 
graph indicates its general range, iu every part of which it ap- 
pears to nestle with equal readiness, while it passes the winter 
in the southerly portions. Very singularly, the only extralim- 
ital records I possess of this species refer to its occurrence, not 
near our boundaries, as would be expected, but in Europe. It 
has been found in Heligoland, that wonderful little island in the 
North Sea, where the ornithology of the four quarters of the 
world seems to come to a focus. To epitomize some other 
points in its history, I may say that it is a delightful songster, 
like all its tribe; inhabits brushwood and shrubbery, spending 
much of its time on the ground, scratching for food with all the 
persistency ftf a Towhee ; feeds on insects and berries ; nests, 
according to locality, from March to June, in brushes, vines, or 
brier-patches ; builds a bulky structure of twigs, weed-stalks, 
withered leaves, bark-strius, and fibrous roots, and lays from 
four to six eggs, about an inch long by four-fifths broad, white 
or greenish-white, marked with innumerable reddish-brown 
dots, usually more numerous at or around the larger end. 



Curve-billed TSaraslier 

Ilarporliynclin^i curvirostris palineri 

a. curvirostris. 

Orpheus curvirostris, Sw. Philos. Mag. iii. 18-27, 3G9 (Eastern ilexicn).—McCnl',. Pr. Phila. 

Acad. iv. 1848, 63 (Matamoras). 
Minius curvirostris, Gray, G. of B. 
Toxostoma curvirostris, Bp. CA. i. 1850, 277.— imzT. Ann. Lye. X.Y. vi. 1850,223 (Texas).— 

lid. Stansbury's Rep. GSL. 1852, 329. 
Toxostoma curvirostre, Scl. PZS. 1857,212 (Orizaba). 
HarporhjllCllUS curvirostris, Cah. MH. i. 18.50, si. — Bd. BNA. 1858, 351 ; ed. of 1860, 351, pi. 

51.— CA U.S. Mex.B. Surv.ii.pt. ii, 1859, Birds, 12, pi. 13.— /Sd. PZS. 1859, 339 (critical); 

1859, 370 (Oaxaca).— J?(i. RAB. i. 1864, io.— Dress. Ibis, 2d ser. i. 1865, 482 (Texas).— 

Butch. Pr. Phila. Acad. xx. 1868. 149 (Laredo, 'Iex.).—Coues, Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 328 

(critical).— B. i?. ^- R. NAB. i. 1874, 41. pi. 3. f. 3 ('-adjacent region.s of United States 

and Mexico, southward", &c.). 
Pomatorliinus turdinus.ronm. PC. 411. 
Toxostoma vclula, irn^/. Isis, 1831, 528. 

[Note. — Some of the forefjoing United States ref-ireoCi'S actually or virtually uiclwl-^ palmeri.] 



CHARACTERS OF H. CURVIROSTRIS AND VAR. 65 

6. palmeri. 

HarporhynchUS curyirostrls, Heerm. PRRR. x. 1859, Parke's Route, 11 (Arizona.— Heer- 
mann's specimen, No. 8128, Mus. Smiths., afterward became a type of var. palmeri). — 
Cones, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1868, 83 (Arizona).— (7o!ifs, Key, 1872, 75. 

HarporbynchU8 CUrvirostrls var. palmeri, Ridgw. MSS.— Cones, Key, 1872, 35\.— Cones, 
Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 329, &g.68.— Brewer, Pt. Bost. Soc. xvi. 1873, 108 (eggs).— S. B. .V iJ. 
NAB. i. 1874, 43 (Tucson, Ariz.).— Hensh. List B. Ariz. 1875, \5i.—He7ish. Zool. Expl. 
W. 100 Merid. 1876, 156 (Arizona). 

Hab. — Of the typical form, from the valley of the Rio Grtiude along the 
border of the United States, to Mazatlan, aud southward iu Mexico. Var. 
palmeri has only been found iu Arizona. 

Ch. sp. a. CURVIROSTRIS. — Fusco-cinereus, alls cauddqiie 
fuscis; infra alhidns, macuUs rotmidatis fnsco-cinereis nehuloso- 
notatus, hi/pot'hondriis crissoqiit ochraceo-tinctis, alls alho bifasci- 
atis, Cauda albo-terminatd. 

$ 9 '• Above, uniform brownish-gray (exactly the color of a Mockingbird, 
M. ])ohjglottus), the wings and tail darker and purer brown. Below, dull 
whitish, tinged with ochraceous, especially on the flanks and crissum.and 
marked with rounded spots of the color of the back, most numerous and 
blended on the breast. Throat quite white, immaculate, without maxillary 
stripes; lower belly and crissum mostly free from spots. No decided mark- 
ings on the side of the head. Ends of greater and median wing-coverts 
white, forming two decided cross-bars; tail-feathers distinctly tipped with 
white. Bill black ; feet dark-brown. Length of (^ , about 11 inches ; wing, 
4i-4i ; tail,4^-r>; bill, 1^; tarsus, IJ ; middle toe and claw, 1^. $ averaging 
rather smaller. 




' 'I 

Fig. 9. — Head of Curve-billed Thrasher (var.); nat. size. 

1). PALMERI. — Similis; fascHs alarum et apicibus recfrieum 
albis obsoletis; infra griseoalbiduSj rufo-tinctus, maculis fusco- 
cinereis obsoletis; rostro graciliore. 

Although the differences between this and the typical form are not very 
easy to express, yet they are readily appreciable on comparison of specimens, 
and fully warrant Mr. Ridgway's discrimination of a var. palmeri. The upper 
parts are quite similar; but the under parts, instead of being whitish, with 
decided spotting of the color of the back, are grayish, tinged with rusty, 
especially behind, and the spotting is nebulous. The white on the ends of 
wing-coverts and tail-feathers is reduced to a niinimnm or entirely suppressed. 
The bill is slenderer and apparently more curved in all the specimens I 
5 B 



66 HABITS OF THE CURVE-BILLED THRASHER 

have seen. (In the figure, the bill is rather too stout). Average dimensions 
of four specimens of both sexes : length, 10.75 ; wiug, 4.33; tail, 5.00; chord 
of culmen, 1.12; tarsus, 1.25 ; middle toe and claw rather more. 

This form was first indicated, in 1853, by Professor Baird, who noted the 
peculiatities of a specimen (No. 8128 of the National Museum) collected near 
Tucson, Ariz., by Dr. A. L. Heermann, whose notice is above quoted. This 
same specimen afterward became a type of Mr. Ridgway's var. palmeri, as 
first published by rne, from his MS., in the " Key ", p. 351 (1872). 

THE habitat of the true Curve-billed Thrush is stated to 
extend to the southern border of the United States. This 
would bring it within the area the birds of which are treated 
in the present volume ; but it will be understood that the re- 
marks which follow relate to the northern variety, which, so 
far as we know, is peculiar to Arizona. It was discovered near 
Tucson by Dr. Heermann, wlio has left a short note of his 
observations, and its peculiarities were first noted by Professor 
Baird, although it was not named or formally described as dis- 
tinct until 1872. In 1873, I gave a short account of the bird in 
the "American Naturalist", as above quoted, accompanied by a 
figure of the head (here reproduced, as are the others illustrating 
the speciesof this genus), drawn from specimens sent to me while 
I was in Dakota by Lieut. C. Bendire, United States Army. This 
gentleman's memoranda accompanying the specimens indicated 
that the habits of the bird are much the same as those of other 
Thrashers ; and that it nests in cactus, mezquite, and other 
low bushes, laying usually three eggs. Two sets of eggs which 
he obtained were taken, one July 18, the other August 20. 
They measure about 1.10 inches in length by 0.80 in breadth, 
and are pale dull greenish- blue, speckled evenly and profusely 
with reddish-brown dots. 

Later observations, made by Mr. H. W. Henshaw in Arizona, 
afford further insight into the life of this bird. He found it 
common in the dreary desert region about Camp Lowell, where 
it was associated with H. hendirii and R. crissalis, and easily 
distinguished it during life by certain peculiarities of flight. 
It frequented the edges of the mezquite thickets, hopping 
lightly over the ground in search of insects. It flew rapidly, 
keeping generally close to the ground, retreating when alarmed 
from one thicket to another, and hiding in the dense brush. 
Sometimes, when startled, it mounted to the tops of the mez- 
quites with quick nervous movements and continual jetting 
of the long tail, emitting meanwhile a succession of loud cluck- 



CHARACTERS OF HARPORHYNCHUS BENDIRII 67 

ing notes to indioate its anger or alarm. In its general dis- 
position, it appeared wild and suspicious. Hundreds of the 
nests were observed in the ^'cholla" cactuses ; but at the time 
(September 1 to 10) they were empty, and only one bird in nest- 
ing-plumage was found. " Near a water-hole, some thirty miles 
from Camp Lowell, where is found a meagre supply of the 
precious fluid, which, from long standing, becomes so stagnant 
and thick with mud that the thirsty animals which pass through, 
though suffering terribly from the effects of many miles' weary 
travel over the burning sands, often reject it, considerable 
numbers of these Thrushes were noticed in the throngs of the 
commoner kinds, as Sparrows and White-winged Blackbirds, 
which resort here through the day to slake their thirst. The 
brink of the pool was often crowded with hundreds of birds 
brought thus together from common necessity, and forgetful of 
aught else save the urgent need which impelled them to seek 
that spot from great distances." 



Arizona. Thrasher 

Harporbynchns benilirii 

Harporhynchns bendlrei, Corns, Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 330, f. G^.— David Scott, Am. Nat. vii. 

1873, 565 (disallows the species, upon presumptive applicability of Darwinism). -B. B. (f 

iJ. NAB. sii. 1874, 500. 
HarporhynchUS bendiri, Brew. Pr. Bost. See. xvi. 1673, 108 (eggs redescribed). 
Harporhynchus cinereus var. bendirei, Hensh. List B. Ariz. 1875, 154. 

HarporhyuchUS ClnereHS car, bendieri, Hensh. Zool. Expl. W. 100 Merid, 1876, 154 (critical). 
Bendire's Thrush, Coues, 1. c. 

Hab. — Arizona. 

Ch. sr. — $ 2 Bostro capite breviore, ad basin robusto, ad 
a])icem acuminato, gonyde subrecto; tarso digito medio cum un- 
gue longiore. Fiisco-cinereiis, subtus fusco-albidus, pectore macu- 
lis fiiscis acutis, lateribus crissoque rufescentibm; strigis max- 
illaribus nuUis. 

$ : Bill shorter than head, comparatively stout at base, very acute at tip, 
the culmen quite convex, the gonys however only just appreciably concave. 
Tarsus a little longer than the middle toe and claw. Third and fourth pri- 
maries about equal and longest, fifth and sixth successively slightly shorter, 
second equal to seventh, first equal to penultimate secondary in the 
closed vfiug. Entire upper parts, including upper surfaces of wings a»id 
tall, uniform dull pale grayish-brown, with narrow, faintly rusty edgings 
of the wing-coverts and inuer quills, and equally obscure whitish tipping of 
the tail-feathers. No maxillary nor auricular streaks ; no markings about 
the head except slight speckling on the cheeks. Under parts brownish- 



68 CHARACTERS OF HARPORHYNCHUS BENDIRII 

white, palest (uearly white) on the belly and throat, more decidedly rusty- 
hrownish ou the sides, flanks, and crissum, the breast alone marked with 
uumerons small arrow-bead spots of the color of the back. Bill light colored 
at base below. $ : Length, about 9^; wing, 4 ; tail, 4^ ; bill (chord of cul- 
men), I; along gape, 1^; tarsus, IJ ; middle toe and claw, 1^. $ rather 
smaller ; wing, 3f , &c. 

This species is allied to, and in some respects intermediate between, H. 
curvirostris palmeri and H. cincrens : its closest relationships being decidedly 
with the latter, though the appearance of the under parts is altogether dif- 
ferent. It is distinguished from palmeri in being much smaller, with a much 




Fig. 10. — Head of Arizona Thrasher, nat. size. 

shorter and differently shaped bill, different proportions of tarsus and toes, 
and obviously different coloration (compare measurements and description). 
It comes much nearer H. cinereus, in spifle of some decided differences both 
of form and color. In the latter, the bill, though of uearly the same length, 
is more curved; the tarsus is not longer than the middle toe and claw ; the 
third-sixth quills of the wing are about equal and longest, the second 
being about equal to the eighth ; while the under parts are as distinctly and 
heavily spotted as those of H. rii/us itself. The two are of about the same 
size, and in the coloration of the upper parts are much alike. While fully 
recognizing the close relationships of R. hendirii to H. cinereus — in fact, hav- 
ing insisted upon them from the outset, when it was assumed that the bird 
was nearer palmeri — I am not prepared to assent to Mr. Henshaw's 
reduction of the species to a variety of cinereus. I recognize the conscien- 
tious care with which he has made his comparisons, and regret that I can- 
not agree with conclusions so drawn, unlike those of Mr. D. Scott, which 
rest upon hasty speculation. 

The synonymy and characters of H. cinereus* with a figure of the head, 
are given in the subjoined note, to facilitate comparison. 

* HARPORHYNCHUS ciXEREUS. — Saint Lucas Thrasher. 

HarporhyilChUS cinereus, Xant. Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 1859, 298 (Cape Saint Lucas). — Baird, 
Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 1859, 303 (the same).— 5oZ. Cat. AB. 1861, 8.—Bd. RAB. 1864, 46.— 
Elliot, BNA. pi. l.—Ooop. B. Cal. i. 1870, 19.— Ooues, Key, 1872, 75.—Coues, Am. Nat. 
vii. 1873, 327, 331, f. 70.— B. B. <V R. NAB. i. 1874, 40, pi. 4, f. 2. 

Hab. — Lower California. 

Ch. sp. — (? ^ Fusco-cinercus, infra albus, maculis parvis, distinctis, fuscis; 
alls eauddqiie fuscis, illis alho-Vifasciatis, hac albo-tcrminatd. 
$ 9" Upper parts uniform ashy-brown, the wings and tail similar but 



CHARACTERS OF HARPORHYNCHUS CINEREUS 69 

nnHE history of this bird is short, if not also in keeping 
-*- with the rest of the familiar quotation. That it should 
have been overlooked by all the earlier explorers in Arizona 
is probably a result of its extremely local distribution ; in 
fact, it is only known to inhabit a very restricted area in South- 
ern Arizona, in the vicinity of Tucson. It was discovered in 
1872 by the zealous collector whose name it bears in recogni- 
tion of the services he has rendered in developing the orni- 
thology of the Southwest. In the spring of 1873, while at Fort 
Eandall, Dakota, I received specimens from Lieutenant Bea- 

rather purer aucl darker brown, the former crossed with two white bars 
formed by the tips of the coverts, the latter tipped with white. Below, dull 
white, often tinged with rusty, especially behind, and thickly marked with 
small, sharp, triangular spots of dark brown or blackish. These spots are 
all perfectly distinct, and cover the lower parts excepting the throat, lower 
belly, and crissum. Becoming smaller anteriorly, they run up each side of 
the throat in a maxillary series bounding the immaculate area. The sides of 
the head are finely speckled, and the auriculars streaked. The bill is black, 
lightening at the base below, and little if any longer than that of R. rtifus, 
though decidedly curved. Length of ^ about 10 inches; wing, 4 ; tail, 4^; 
bill, 1^; tarsus, li; middle toe and claw, li. $ averaging rather smaller. 




Fig. 11. —Head of Saint Lucas Thrasher, nat. size. 

Young: In a uewly-iiedged specimen, the upper parts are strongly tinged 
with rusty-brown, and this color also edges the wings and tips the tail. 

The striking resemblance of this species to the Mountain Mockingbird, 
{Oroscoptes viontanus) has been noted. The species is immediately distin- 
guished from any others of the United States by the sliariiness of the spot- 
ting underneath, which equals that of H. rufus itself, the small and strictly 
triangular character of the syjots, together with the grayish-brown of the 
upper parts, and inferior dimensions. The bill is shaped much as in curvi- 
rostris and Jja?/Herj. if. ocellaiua of Mexico is even more boldly marked 
below, but the spots are large, rounded, and black. 



70 HABITS OF THE ARIZONA THRASHER 

dire, who had already perceived that the bird differed in its 
habits as well as in its physical, characters from either of the 
two species {crissalis and palmeri) with which he found it asso- 
ciated. These were soon afterward described in the " Ameri- 
can Naturalist", and the head figured to show the peculiar 
shape of the bill. 

The Arizona Thrasher appears to be less numerous than 
either of its associates. The only additional specimens which 
have come to hand since the types were received are three 
taken at Camp Lowell by Mr. Henshaw. The bird is said to 
differ notably in its nesting habits from the Curve-billed 
Thrasher; the latter building almost always in cactuses, while 
Bendire's nests in trees and bushes, preferably mezquite, some- 
times thirty feet from the ground. A nest containing two 
fresh eggs was found July 19, 1872. The eggs are readily 
distinguishable from those of H. palmeri. They are simply 
grayish-white, instead of light dull green, marked with 
numerous spots and larger blotches or dashes of two shades 
of reddish-brown, with other markings of lilac or lavender. 
The markings tend to aggregate about the larger end, instead 
of being evenly distributed over the whole surface. There is 
comparatively little inequality in3||he contour of the two ends ; 
the size is about 1.00 by 0.73. A specimen measured by me 
was only 0,96 by 0.70 ; others, according to Dr. Brewer, were 
1.10 by 0.75. 

According to the observations recorded by its discoverer, 
and also by Mr. Henshaw, the general habits of the species 
are not peculiar in comparison with those of its congeners. 



Yui»a^ Thrasher 

Hnrporhyncbas rediviTUs lecontii 

Toxostoma lecontei, Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. v. 1852, 121 (Fort Yuma).— Bi. Stansbury'8 

Kep. GSL. 1852, 329. 
HarporhyilchUS lecontei, Bp. "OR. xxviii. 1854, 57 ; Not. Delattre, 39."— Bi. BNA. 1858, 350; 

ed. of 1860, 350, pi. 50 ; U. S. Mex. B. Surv. ii. pt. ii. 18.59, Birds, 12, pi. 12.— Bd. RAB. 1864, 

il.— Cones, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1866, 65 (near Fort Mojave, Ariz.). — Coop. Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 

188, HZ. — Coop. B. Cal. i. 1870, 17. 
HnrporliyilchUS lecontii, Sd. PZS. 1859, 339 (critical).— Ooaes, Ibis, 2d ser. ii. 1866, 259. 
Harporbyncbus redtvivus var. lecontii, Ooics, Key, 1872, 75. 
UarporhyncbU8 redivirus var. lecontei, Coues, Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 328.-5. B. 4- fl. NAB. i. 

1874, 44, pi. 4, f. 3.—Hensh. List B. Ariz. 1875, 154. 

Le Conte's Thrasher, ll. cc. 
Hab. — Immediate valley of the Colorado and Gila Rivers. 



CHARACTERS OF H. REDIVIVUS AND VAR. 71 

1). LECONTii. — Ci7iereus, alis catiddque concoloribus ; infra 
dilutior, gula albldd, strigis maxillaribus fuscis, ventre crissoque 
sensim ochraceis. 

This form, with the size and proportions substantially the same as those 
of redicii'Ms proper, diifers very notably in the pallor of all the coloration, 
being in fact a bleached desert race. Excepting the slight maxillary streaks, 
there are no decided markings anywhere ; and the change from the pale 
ash of the general under parts to the brownish-yellow of the lower belly 
and crissum is very gradual. 

The characters of the typical form are subjoined for comparison.* 

* HARPORHY^XHUS REDIVIVUS. — California 'ihasher. 

Harpes rediviva, Gamb. Pr. Ph1la. Acad. ii. 1845, 264 ; iii. 1846, 112 (California). 

Toxostomarediviva, Gamb. Jonrn. Phila. Acad. 2d ser. i. 1847, 42.— M. Stansbury'sRep. G.SL. 
1852, 3-i8.—Heerm. Journ. Phila. Acad. ii. 1853, 264.— Onss. 111. 1855, 260, pl.i2.—?!'Hennj, 
Pr. Phila. Acad. vii. 1855 308 (" New Mexico "). 

Toxostoma redl?ivum, Bp. CA. i. 1850, 2n.—Scl. PZS. 1857, 126 (California). 

Harporhynchusredlvivas, Crt6. Arch. f. Naturg. 1848, Bd. i. 98.— Si. BNA. 1858, 349.— 5cf. 
PZS. 1859, 339(critical).—Xa^«.Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 1859, 191 (California).— Bi. RAB. 1864, 
48.— Coop. Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 188; iv. 1871, 757; viii. 1874, 17.— Coop. B. Cal. i. 1870, 15.— 
Coues, Key, 1872, 15.~Coues, Am. Nat. vii. 1373, 327, f. 66.— if. 5. 4- iJ. NAB. i. 1874, 
45, pi. 4, f. 4. 

Hab. — Coast region of California. 



^- 




Fig. 12. — Head of California Thrasher ; nat. size. 

Ch. sp. — $ $ Immaculatiis, alis cauddque innotatis, roslro arcnato. Oli- 
vaceo-fusciis, suhtua dilutior, ventre crissoque rufescentibtis, gulii alba, lateribus 
capitis fuscis, albo-striatis, rostro nigro. 

(? : No spots anywhere ; the wings and tail without decided barring or 
tipping. Bill as long as the head or longer, bow-shaped, black. Wings very 
much shorter than the tail. Above, dark oily olive-brown, the wings and tail 
similar, but rather purer brown. Below, a paler shade of the color of the 
upper parts, with the belly and crissum strongly rusty-brown, the throat 
definitely whitish in marked contrast, and not bordered by decided maxillary 
streaks. Cheeks and auriculars blackish-brown, with sharp whitish shaft 
streaks. Length of <? , 11^ ; wing, 4 or rather less ; tail, 5 or more ; bill (chord 
of culmen), nearly or quite 1.50; tarsus as long as the bill ; middle toe and 
claw about the same. $ similar, rather smaller. 



72 CAPTURE OF THE YUMA THRASHER 

LE CONTE'S Thrasher still bears off the palm for rarity, 
evea iu competition with the uewly-fouiid H. bencUrii, 
Though it has been known for abont a qnarter of a century, 
only three or four specimens hav^e come to hand. The original 
was taken at Fort Yuma, at the junction of the Gila with the 
Colorado. Dr. J. G. Cooper states that he secured two near 
Fort Mojave, along the route in the Colorado Valley to the San 
Bernardino Mountains, where, however, he found them "rather 
common" in thickets of low bushes. He discovered an empty 
nest built in a yucca, like that of R. redivivus. In September, 
1865, I had the pleasure of meeting with the bird myself, about 
fifteen miles east of the Colorado River, at a point a little 
above Fort Mojave, and I managed, not without difiSculty, to 
secure a single individual. It was in excellent plumage, and, 
having been killed with a touch of fine shot and preserved with 
special care, made a very fine specimen. We had come through 
the "Union Pass" of alow range of mountains, or high line of 
bluffs, which flank the eastern bank of the river, and were prepar- 
ing to make a "dry camp "in a sterile, cactus-ridden plain, which 
stretches across toward the broken ground where Beale's Springs 
are situated, when, in the dusk of the evening, this singular 
whitish-looking bird caught my eye. Though I was not at the 
moment in an enthusiastic frame of mind respecting ornithology, 
the sight was enough to arouse what little energy a hard day's 
march had not knocked out of me, and I started on what came 
near being a wild-goose chase after the coveted prize. It is 
bad enough to play the jack-rabbit among Arizona cactuses in 
broad daylight, and to be obliged to skip about in the uncer- 
tain glimmering of evening is discouraging in the extreme. 
My bird had the best of it for awhile, and seemed to enjoy the 
sport, as it fluttered from one cactus bush to another, with the 
desultory yet rapid flight that is so confusing, and makes one 
hesitate to risk a poor shot, in momentary expectation of getting 
a better chance. At length, it dived into the recesses of a large 
yucca, where it stood motionless just one instant too long. I 
did not see it fall, and feared I had missed, till, on gaining the 
spot, I found the body of the once sprightly and vivacious bird 
hanging limp in a crevice of the thick fronds. As I smoothed 
its disordered plumage, and strolled back to camp, I felt the 
old-time glow which those who are in the secret know was not 
entirely due to the exercise 1 had taken. 



CHARACTERS OF HARPORHYNCHUS CRISSALIS 



73 



€ri$$j!ial Thrasher 

Harporhyuclins crisisalis 

ToXOStoma Crtssalls, Henry, Pr. Phila Acad. x. 1858, 117 (" New Mexico"). 

HarporhynchUS crissalis, Bd. BNA. 1858, 350; atlas, i860, pi. 82.— Henry, Pr. Phila. Acad, 
xi. 1859, 107.— Scl. PZS. 1859, 339 (critical).— B(i. RAB. 1864, i'/. — Corns, Pr. Phila. 
Acad, xviii. 1866, 65 (Arizona).— Coo/;. Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 473.— Coop. B. Cal. i. 1870, 18, 
&g.—Coues, Key, 1872, 75.— Ooues, Am. Nat. vi. 1872, 370 (nest and eggs) ; vii. 1873, 
328, f. 67.— Brew. Pr. Boat. Soc. xvi. 1873, 108 (egg).— S. B. ff R. NAB. i. 1874, 47, pi. 4, 
f. l.— Yarr. d- Hensh. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, 6.—Hensk. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, 40 (Saint 
George, Utah), 97 (Arizona).— fle/is/t. List B. Ariz. 1875, 151.— Hensh. Zool. Expl. W. 
100 Merid. 1876, 158. 

Happorryuchus crissales, Bd. Ives' Rep. Colo. R. pt. v. 1861, 6. 

Bed-Teated Thrasher, B. B. if R. 1. c. 

Hab. — Arizona, New Mexico, Southern Utah, and California in the Colo- 
rado Valley. 

Ch. sp. — $ Immaculatus, alis cauddque innotatis, rostro 
arcuato, gracilUmo, nigro. Fuscocinereus, infra dilutior, guld 
alba strigis maxillarihus nigris, crisso castaneo. 

$ Brownish-ash, with a faint olive shade, the wings and tail purer and 
darker fuscous, without white edging or tipping. Below, a paler shade of 
the color of the upper parts. Throat and side of the lower jaw white, 
with sharp black maxillary streaks. Cheeks and auriculars speckled with 
whitish. Under tail-coverts deep rich chestnut, in marked contrast 
with the surrounding parts. Bill black, slenderer for its length than 




Fig. 13. — Head of Crissal Thrasher ; nat. size. 

that of any other species, as long as that of vedmmis, arcuate. Length, 
about 12 inches ; wing, 4 or rather less ; tail, about 6 (more or less, 
thus absolutely longer than in any other species), its lateral feathers 1^ 
shorter than the central ones ; bill, 1^ ; tarsus, 1^ ; middle toe and claw, 1^. 
Belonging to the group of unspotted Thrashers, with very long arcuate 
bills, this fine species is immediately distinguished by the abruptly chestnut 
under tail-coverts, the contrast being fully as great as tLat seen in the Cat- 
bird, Mimiis carolinensis-in fact, the bird looks uot very unlike a gigantic 
faded-out Catbird. The sharp black maxillary streaks are also a strong 
character. The bill is extremely slender, the tail at a maximum of length, 
and the feet are notably smaller than those of H. redivivus. 



74 HISTORY OF THE CRISSAL THRASHER 

IT only remains to give some account of the Crissal Thrasher 
to finish our notice of the interesting genus Harporhynchus. 
I have never seen the bird alive ; but, to judge from the meagre 
published records respecting it, its general habits are in no 
wise peculiar, and may be passed over without further com- 
ment. The species was not discovered until about 1858, when 
a specimen obtained by himself near Mimbres was described 
by Dr. T. 0. Henry, of the Army — a zealous naturalist, whose 
untimely recall from this world's duties cut short a career which 
opened in full promise of usefulness and honor. Shortly after- 
ward,^ in 1863, a second specimen was procured by Mr. H. B. 
Mollhausen, while associated with Dr. C. B. R. Kennedy on 
the natural history work of one of the Pacific Eailroad surveys, 
under command of Lieutenant Whipple; this was taken at Fort 
Yuma. Quite recently, a specimen was taken by a different 
person at Saint George, in Southern Utah, June 8, 1870. These 
three extreme points give us the angles of a triangle by which 
the distribution of the species, as far as present knowledge 
goes, may be plotted. It will be observed that the range is a 
little more extended than that of LeConte's, Bendire's, or 
Palmer's Thrasher, with all three of which the Crissal Thrasher 
is associated in portions of Arizona ; and we are led to infer 
that when the " topography" of the other three species is fully 
determined, it will be found no less extensive. For there is 
nothing peculiar in the economy or requirements of any one of 
the four in comparison with the rest. 

Though the nidification of the Crissal Thrasher is substan- 
tially the same as that of its associates just mentioned, its egg is 
entirely different, and unique in the genus, as far as known, in 
being whole-colored. It measures an inch and an eighth or a 
seventh in length by a little over four fifths of an inch in 
breadth, and is of a rich emerald-green color, with a shade of 
blue, entirely free from markings — at least, such is the case in 
all the specimens which have been examined by naturalists. 
The nest and eggs appear to have been first collected by the 
person who found the bird at Saint George; though the 
earliest published account of them was a short note which I 
communicated to the " American Naturalist" in 1872, giving 
the results of Lieutenant Bendire's observations respecting the 
species, made at Tucson. According to Dr. Brewer, the Saint 
George nest was an oblong flat structure, with very slight de- 
pression, consisting of coarse sticks loosely put together, with 



HISTORY OF THE CRISSAL THRASHER 75 

an inner finishing of similar but finer material ; the outer por- 
tion was a foot long by seven inches broad ; the inner nest was 
circular, with a diameter of four and a half inches. The site of 
this nest is not mentioned. 

Duringthe latter partof March, 1872, Lieutenant Bendire took 
no less than six nests in Southern Arizona. " The nest," he 
writes, " is externally composed of dry sticks, some of which 
are fully a quarter of an inch thick ; the lining consists exclu- 
sively of dry rotten fibres of a species of wild hemp, or Ascle- 
pias; in none of the nests did I find any roots, leaves or hair. 
The inner diameter of the nest is about three inches, with a 
depth of about two inches. None of the nests were more than 
three feet from the ground. In two cases I found nests in a 
dense bushy thicket of wild currant, twice again on willow 
bushes, and in another instance in an ironwood bush. The 
usual number of eggs, strange as it may appear, is only two ; 
they are of an emerald green color, unspotted. The first set I 
found, March 22d, contained small embryos; the third, next 
day, was a single egg with a very large embryo; it was broken, 
and must have been laid as early as March 10th. From the 
number of nests taken it would appear that the bird is com- 
mon, but such is by no means the case — I believe I have found 
every nest of it on the Rillito. The Red- vented Thrush is very 
shy, restless and quick in its movements, and hard to observe. 
It appears to prefer damp shady localities near water-courses, 
and confines itself principally to spots where the wild currant 
is abundant. At present, March 27th, it appears to feed prin- 
cipally on insects. Its flight is short — only long enough to en- 
able the bird to reach the next clump of bushes. It seems to 
have more frequent recourse to running than to flying, and 
dives through the densest undergrowth with great ease and 
rapidity." 



CHAPTER II.— BLUEBIRDS 



Fam. SAXICOLID^ 

RECOGNITION of the family Saxicolidce is purely a conven- 
tional matter, in which most ornithologists tacitly agree to 
follow each other upon no better ground than that of precedent. 
The characters of the only genus with which we have here to 
do will be found beyond under head of Sialia, no definition of 
the whole group being attempted — none being, perhaps, prac- 
ticable. The limitation of the group fluctuates with different 
authors, especially on the side next to Turdidce. As usually 
constituted, it contains about a dozen genera and upward of a 
hundred species, which agree in possessing 10 primaries, of 

which the first is very short or 
spurious, and booted tarsi. It 
is essentially an Old World 
group, represented in the west- 
ern hemisphere only by the 
characteristic American genus 
Sialia, with three species, and 
by a single species of the typi- 
cal genus ISaxicola, some of the 
Fig. 14.— Details of structur<.oi^,;i;i;oza. dctalls of the external form of 
which are illustrated in fig. 14. This species, the well-known 
Stone Chat or Wheatear of Europe, S. cenanthe, occurs sparingly 
in Greenland, along the North Atlantic coast of America, and 
also in Alaska ; it is generally considered as simply a straggler 
from the Old World, but it is apparently not rare in Labrador, 
in which country there is reason to believe it breeds. 

Genus SIALIA Swainson 

Chars. — Primaries 10, the 1st spurious and very short. 
Wings pointed, the tip formed by the 2d, 3d, and 4th quills. 
Tail much shorter than the wings, emarginate. Bill about half 
as long as the head or less, straight, stout, wider than deep at 




SAXICOLIDiE SIALIA SIALIS 77 

the base, compressed beyond the nostrils, notched near the tip, 
the culmeii at first straight, then gently convex at the end, g'onys 
slightly convex and ascending, commissure slightly curved 
throughout. Nostrils overhung and nearly concealed by the 
projecting bristly feathers of the forehead. Lores aud chin 
likewise bristly. Gape ample, the rictus cleft to below the eyes, 
furnished with a moderately developed set of bristles reaching 
about opposite the nostrils. Feet short, though rather stout, 
adapted exclusively for perching (iu Saxicola, and other typical 
genera, the structure of the feet indicates terrestrial habits). 
Tarsi not longer than the middle toe. Lateral toes of unequal 
lengths. Claws all strongly curved. 

Blue is the principal color of this beautiful genus, which con- 
tains three species, all of them occurring in the Colorado region. 
They are strictly arboricole, frequent the skirts of woods, cop- 
pices, waysides, and weedy fields ; nest differently from the 
Thrushes, in holes, and lay whole-colored eggs ; readily become 
semi-domesticated, like the Swallows, House Wren, aud House 
Sparrow; feed upon insects and berries ; and have a melodious 
warbling song. They are peculiar to America, and appear to 
have no exact representatives in the other hemisphere. 



Tl ilsoi&'s fiSluelbird 

Slalla stalls 

MotaciUa Sialis, Linn. SN. i. 1758, 187, no. 25 (ex CateB. et Eiiw.).—Linn. SN. i. 1766, 336, 
no. 38.— Tiirt. SN. i. 1806, 610.— Less. Tr. Orn. 1831, 416. 

MotaciUa sealis, Gm. SN.i. 1788, 989, no. -JS. 

FicedUla saliS, Schaefer, Mus. Orn. 1789, 36, no. 122. 

Sylvia sialis, Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 522, no 44.— K. OAS. ii. 1807, 40, pis. 101, 102, im—Wils. AO. 
i. 1808, 56. pi. 3, f.—.—Licht. " Preia-Verz. Mex. Viig. 1830, 2"; J. f. O. 1863,57.— 
Gerhardt, Naum. iii. 1853, 38. — Gosse, Alabama, 1859, 189. — Freyhtrg, Zool. Gart. xi. 
1870, 191 (in captivity). 

SaxlCOla sialis, By. Ann. Lye N. Y. ii. 1826, 89. 

.\mpt.-lis sialis, NuU. Man. i. 1832, 444, fig. 

Slalla sialis, HaUeman, " Trego'H Geog. of Penna. 1843, 11".— Bd. BNA. 1858, 222.- Barn. 
Smithson. Rep. for 1860, 1861, 435.— GiUii. J. f. O. 1861, 324 (Cuba).— Coi/es ^ Prcwt. 
Smiths. Rep. for 1861, 1862, Wo.—Hayd. Tr. Am. Philos.Soc. xii. 1862, 159 (Upper Mifisouri 
River).— Fcrr. Pr. Essex Inst. iii. 1862, Hb.— Tayl. Ibis, iv. 1862, 128.— Gitnrf. J. f. O. 
1862, 177 (Cuba).— Bortrrfm. Pr. Bost. Soc. ix. 1862, I'ii.— Allen, Pr. Essex Inst. iv. 1864, 
3i.—Bd. Rev. AB. 1864, 62.— Dress. Ibis, i*. 1865, 475 (Texas).— il/c/Zai. Pr. Essex Inst. 
V. 1866, 84 (Canada West).— Lajcr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. 1866, 282.— 5«<cA. Pr. Phila. 
Acad. XX. 1868, 149 (Texas).- Comcs, Am. Nat. ii. 1868, \Q\. — Ooues, Pr. Essex Inst. v. 
1868, 268.— Coues, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 1868, 107.— ffaldeman. Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 159 (claims 
t'le name).— Coop. Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 32 (.Montana).- ^ajman. Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 390.— 
Turn/). B. E. Pa. 1869, 22; Phila. ed. \^—Tnppe, Pr. Ess. Inst. vi. 1871, 115 (Minnesota).- 
Allen, Bull. MCZ. ii. 1871, 260 ; iii. 1872, 174 (Kaame). —Holden, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1872, 



78 SYNONYMY AND CHARACTERS OF S. SIALIS 

194 (Black Hills).— May?t. Pr. Bogt. Soc. xiv. 1872, 35B.— Scott. Pr. Boat. Soc. xv. 1872, 
221.— rrooti, Am. Nat. vi. 1872, 173 (a\bwo).—May7i. B. Fla. 1872, 23.—Coues, Key, 1872, 
76.— Gund. J. f. O. 1872, 409 (Cnba). —Purdie, Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 603. — Trippe, Pr. 
Bost. Soc. XV. 1S73, 234. — ««V?^. Bull. Essex Inst. v. 1873, 179 (Colorado).— i/err. Am. 
Nat. viii. 1874, 8.—Ooues, BNVV. 1874, l3.—Bd.Br.{fRy.'SAB.i.t81i, 62, fig. pi. 5, 
f. 2.— Brew. Pr. Bost. .Soc. xvii. 1875, 438. 

LllSCinia sialic, Giebel, Vogel, 1860, 41, flg. 94. 

Srialia SCialis, Le Maine, Oi«. Canad. 1861, 202. 

Sialia WilSOUii, "Su>. Zool. Joum. iii. 1827, 173 ".—Peab. Rep. Orn. Mass. 1839. 3\6.— Burnett, 
Pr. Bost. Soc. iv. 1851, 116.— Gabot, Naum. ii.Heft iii. 1852, m. — Thomps. NH. Vermont, 
1853, 85, 6g.— lVoodh. Sitgreave's Rep. 1853, 68.— Hoy, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 313.— 
Read, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853. 399.— Kenriic. Tr. lUiiioiw Agric. Soc. i. 1855, 583.— Prat- 
ten, Tr. Illinois Agric. Soc. i. 1855, 603.— Haym. Pr. Phila. Acad. viii. 1856, i>9Q.— Bland, 
Smithsou. Rep. for 1858, 1859, 287 (Bermuda).— fr<7iis, Smilhson. Rep. for 1858, 1859, 
212 (Nova Scotia).— Hoy, Smithson. Rep. for 1864, 1865, 438.— [Ohittenden,] Am. Nat. v. 
1871, 1G7. 

Erythaca (Sialia) wllsoiill, 5. \ R. PBA. ii. 1831, 210. 

Sialia Wilsoui, Bp. C. & GL. 1838, 16.—Puln. Pr. Esa. Inst. i. 1856, 208.— 5cZ. PZS. 1856, 293 
{Cordova).— Kneel. Pr. Po^t. Soc. vi. 1857, 233.— Max. J. f. O. vi. 1858, 120.— Scl. PZS. 
1858, 297 (Parada).— 5cZ. PZS. 1859, 362 (Xalapa).- 5c2. PZS. 1859, 371 (Oaxaca).— 5. .^5. 
Ibis, i. 1859, 8 (Guatemala).— Afarterts, J. f. O. 1859, 213 (Bermuda).- TayZ. Ibis, ii. 1860, 
110 (Honduras).- 5. {,■ S. Ibis, ii. 1860, 29 (Guatemala) —Owen, Ibia, iii. 1861, 6U (Guate- 
mala, breeding). 

Sialia Wilsonla, IFailes, Rep. Mississippi, 1854, 319. 

Sialia azurca, Sw. Philos. Mag. l. 1827, 369.— Bd. Rev. AB. 1864, 62 (Mexico).— SumzcA. 
.Mem. Bost. Soc. i. 1869, 544 (Vera Cruz). 

Rubeciila carollnensis, Briss. Orn. iii. 423. 

Blue-backed Red-breast Warbler, Penn. AZ. li. 1785, 398, no. 281. 

Rouge-gorge blcue de la Caroline, Buff. "v. 212" ; PE. 390, f. l, 2, 

Blaue Rotli-Kehlein, Schaeff. 1. c. 

Blaue Sanger, Giebel, 1. c. 

Fuuvette bleuc et rousse Le iioine, 1. c. 

Bluebird, Cates, Car. i. 47, pi. 47. 

Blue Redbreast, Edw. Birds, pi. 24. 

Blue Warbler, Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 446, no. 40. 

Coniuiou Bluebird, Eastern Bluebird, Wilson's Bluebird, American Bluebird, Red- 
breasted Bluebird, Vnls'. 
Hab. — Easteru United States, Canada, and Nova Scotia. West to the bor- 
ders of Montana and Wyoming (Milk River, Cooper ; Black Hills, Holden) ; 

and the Rocky Mountains of Colorado and New Mexico. Bermudas. Cuba. 

Mexico (with iS. " azurea"). South to Guatemala. Breeds throughout its 

range. Winters in the Southern States. 

Ch. sp. — S Asurea, suhtiis castanea^ ventre albo, rostro pedi- 
husqiie nigris. 9 Fuscoccerulea, alls cauddque ccvrulescentibus, 
ii\fra pallidb rufa, ventre albo. 

$, in full plumage: Rich azure-blue (clear cobalt), the ends of the wing- 
quills blackish ; throat, breast, and sides of the body deep chestnut ; belly 
and crissum white or bluish-white. The blue extends around the head on 
the sides and often fore part of the chin, so that the chestnut is frequently 
cut off from the bill. Length, (3^-7 ; extent, 12-13 ; wing, 3|-4 ; tail, 2|-3. 

^, in winter, fall, and in general when not fuU-plumaged : Blue of the 
upper pjirts interrupted by reddish-brown edging of the feathers, or obscured 
by a general brownish wash. White of belly more extended ; tone of the 
other under parts paler. In many eastern specimens, the reddish-brown 
skirting of the feathers of the back blends into a decided dorsal patch ; and 



DISTRIBUTION AND SONG OF THE BLUEBIRD 79 

when this state, as sometimes happens, is accompanied by more than 
ordinary extension of blue on the throat, they very closely resemble <S'. mexicana. 

9 , in full plumage : Blue of the upper parts mixed and obscured with 
much dull reddish-brown, becoming bright and pure, however, on the rump, 
tail, and wings. Under parts paler and more rusty-brown, with more 
abdominal white than in the male. Little if any smaller than the male. 

Young, newly fledged : Brown, becoming blue on the wings and tail, the 
back sharply marked with shaft-lines of whitish. Nearly all the under parts 
closely and uniformly freckled with white and brownish. A white ring 
round the eye; inner secondaries edged with brown. From this stage, in 
which the sexes are indistinguishable, to the perfectly adult condition, the 
bird changes by insensible degrees. 

In Mexican-bred specimens, the blue has a slight greenish shade, approach- 
ing that of S. arctica, and does not ordinarily extend on the side of the head 
below the eyes; the tail is rather longer. This is the basis of *S. " azurea." 

LIKE the Thrasher, the Bluebird barely reaches the confines 
of the Colorado Basin, fairly within which it does not yet 
appear to have been found. The northern limit of its distribu- 
tion is nearly coincident with the boundary of the United 
States, though including a portion at least of Canada and Nova 
Scotia. The westernnaost quotations I have found are those 
of Dr. Cooper, Mr. Holden, and Mr. Eidgway, which indicate 
its extension to the Milk Eiver in Montana, the Black Hills, 
lying across the boundary between Dakota and Wyoming, and 
the mountains (probabl3^ the eastern foothills) of Colorado Ter- 
ritory. In Mexico, the species occurs together with the slight 
modification known as S. "azurea." It sometimes penetrates 
to Central America; other extralimital localities assigned are 
Cuba and the Bermudas, to which doubtless the Bahamas 
should be added. It breeds indifferently througliout its United 
States range, and spends the winter in great numbers in the 
Southern States. 

There is no occasion to speak of the Bluebird's habits and 
manners, familiar to every one. In the Middle States, it is one 
of the earliest spring arrivals, with the Bobins, Crackles, and 
Pewits, before the Swallows come ; it is occasionally observed 
during warm w^eather in February, or even in January, and 
may be suspected even of lingering through the winter when 
not too severe. But it disappears in inclement weather, doubt- 
less taking the short flight southward which brings it to a more 
congenial climate ; yet, ready to yield to the allurements of a 
few bright sunny days, it soon returns with its cheery, voluble 
warbling, inseparable from the associations of spring-time, pre- 
saging all the hopeful aspirations of the awakening year. This 



80 CHARACTERS OF SIALIA MEXICANA 

song is melody without great power ; delightful modulation 
without exhibition of the highest art : it is sweet and charming, 
lacking great force, yet with a touch of such nervous quality 
that more is left to the imagination than is revealed. Like the 
sunshine of the days when the year is young, and nature seems 
to pause to gather strength for her intended triumphs, this melt- 
ing music of the Bluebird is full of delicious languor and dreamy 
voluptuousness, suggesting the possibilities of all things, ex- 
pressing the realities of none. It is a promise and a pledge of 
the future, like the unconscious yearning of a maiden for what 
she knows not. 



Western or Mexican ISluebird 

Sialia mexicana 

Slalia mcxlcana, S./i-R.VBK. n. 1831, 202.— Bp. C. & GL. 1838, 16.- Gamb. Pr. Phila. Acad. iii. 
1846, 113 (California).— Ga?re6. Journ. Phila. Acad. i. 1847, 37.— Scl. PZS. 1856, 293 (Cor- 
dova).— 5ci. PZS. 1857, 126 (Califoruia).— Brf. BNA. 18.'58,223.— /ScZ. PZS. 1859, 235 (Van- 
couver).— Sc?. PZS. 1859, 362 (Xalnpa.).— Henry. Pr. Phila. Acad. li. 1859, 106 (New- 
Mexico).— A'aw<»s, Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. ]8^9, 190 (California).— Heerm. PRRR. x. 1859, 
iS.—Kenn. PRRR. x. 1859, 23.-0. ff S. NHWT. 1860, 173.— Bd. Ivea'g Rep. pt. v. 1861, 
5.— Bd. Rev. AB. 1864, 63.-00(668, Ibis, i^. 1865, 163 (Arizona). — Ooues, Pr. Phila. Acad, 
xviii. 1866, 66 (Fort Whipple, AT\z.). — Coues, Pr. Phila. Acad. xx. 1868, 82 (Arizona).— 
Brown, Ibis, iv^. 1868, 420 (Vancouver).— Cooy. Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 32, lS5.—Sumick. Mem. 
Boat. Soc. i. 1869, 544 (Vera Cr\iz).—Ooop. Pr. Gala. Acad. 1870, 75 (Colorado River).— 
Coop. B. Gal. i. 1870, 28.— Coop. Am. Nat. iv. 1871, 758.— Aiken, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1872, 
194 (Colorado).— ^ZZe/t, Bull. MCZ. iii. 1872, 174 (Colorado).— Oowes, Key, 1872, 76.— 
Aiken, Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 16.— Coop. Am. Nat. viii. 1874. 16.— Ooues. BNW. 1874, 14; 
Trippe, ibid. 229.— Bd. Br. 6fRy. NAB. i. 1874, 65, pi. 5, f. 2.— Yarr. ^ Hensh. Rep. Orn. 
Specs. 1874, 7.— Hensh. ibid ^8.— Nelson, Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 3b6.— Hensh. List B. 
Ariz. 1875, \5i.— Hensh. Zool. Expl. W. 100 Merid. 1876, 161. 

Slalta OCeidcntaliS, Towjts. Journ. Phila. Acad. vii. 18.37, 188 (Columbia River).— ^jii. B A. 
ii. 1841, 176, pi. \\i5.—NuU. Man. i. 2d ed. 1840, Z\3.— Woodh. Sitgreave's Rep. 1853, 68.— 
Henry, Pr. Phila. Acad. vii. 1855, 310 (Nevy Mexico).— A'ewi. PRRR. vi. 1857, 8^. 

Sylvia occidentaUs, Aud. OB. v. 1839, 41, pi. 393. 

Sialia caeruleocoUis, Vigors, Zool. Voy. Blossom, 1839, 18, pi. 3. 

Western Bluebird, .Mexican Bluebird, Vulg. 

Hab. — United States aud Mexico, from the Eastern foothills of the Rocky 
Mountains to the Pacific. North to Vancouver. East occasionally to Iowa. 

Ch. sp. — $ Supra, cum capite toto ct giila, azurea; dorso medio, 
pectore later ihiisque castarieis; ventre medio et crisso griseocwru- 
lescentibus. $ Griseo-azurea, dorso medio riifescente, alis, uropy- 
gio cauddque cceruleis, pectore later ibusque griseorujis, gula, 
ventre crissoqiie griseo-ccerulescentihus. 

^, adult: Rich azure-blue, including the head and neck all around. A 
patch of purplish-chestnut on the middle of the back ; breast and sides rich 
chestnut; belly and vent dull blue or bluish-gray. Bill and feet black. 
Size of the last species. 



HABITS OF THE WESTERN BLUEBIRD 81 

9 , and youug : The changes of phiniage of this species are precisely coin- 
cident with those of the Eastern Bluebird, and therefore need not be repeated. 
Immature birds may be recognized, at any rate in the great majority of 
instances, by traces at least of difference in color between the middle of the 
back and the other i^pper parts, and between the color of the throat and of 
the breast. But probably very young birds in the streaky stage could not 
be determined with certainty if the locality were unknown. 

In some adult males, the dorsal patch is much restricted, or even broken 
into two scapular patches with continuous blue between ; and similarly the 
chestnut of the breast sometimes divides, permitting connection of the blue 
of the throat and belly. Specimens with little trace of the dorsal patch are 
with some difficulty distinguished from tho-se samples of .S^. siaUs in which 
there is much blue on the throat — the grayish-blue of the belly, instead of 
pure white, being, in fact, a principal character. The two species are evi- 
dently very closely related. 

THIS is the most abundant and characteristic species of the 
genus in the Colorado Basin. There would appear, how- 
ever, to be some peculiarity in its local distribution, since, ac- 
cording to both Mr. Ridgway aod Mr. Henshaw, it has not been 
seen in Utah. As I stated in the " Birds of the Northwest", 
certain observations ren<ler it probable that, from the general 
winter resorts of the species in Arizona and Xew Mexico, it 
migrates northward along two routes, one the main chain of 
the wooded Rocky Mountains, the other the Pacific slopes, the 
Great Basin being thus passed by on either side. Such specialty 
of movement, however, may be rather apparent than real, and 
further observations are desirable. The species is resident in 
most parts of the Colorado Basin, only disappearing for a short 
time in midwinter from northerly and highly alpine localities. 
At Carson City, in Nevada, Mr. Ridgway did not see it from 
the early part of December until the third week in February, 
when it became numerous. In comparing it with the Rocky 
Mountain Bluebird, he remarks that, though the two species 
are associated in winter, they are .sehlom seen together in sum- 
mer, since the arctica retires to the higher regions to breed, 
while the mexicana remains in the lower districts, amorjg the cot- 
ton woods of the river valleys and the scattered pines skirting 
the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. This corresponds well with 
my observations made at Fort Whipple, Ariz., where mexicana 
i.s resident and extremely abundant, though arctica is rather 
uncommon, and was noticed only in fall and winter. The local 
distribution may be further elucidated from Mr. Henshaw's 
observations : — " In Colorado, it seems to be rather uncommon 
in the eastern part of the Territory. It was not found in June 

6 B c 

\ 



82 SYNONYMY OF SI ALIA ARCTIC A 

near Fort Garhmd in 1873, nor at Santa Fe, N. Mex,, in June 
of 1874, where, however, the succeeding species was abundant. 
About July 23, Inscription Rock, N. Mex., appeared to be a 
favorite locality for tlie species, and large numbers of both old 
and young- were congregated together in the piiion an«l cedar 
trees. From here southward they were frequently seen, com- 
monly among the pines. At Camp Apache, in August, I 
found them in large flocks in the pine woods, and accompanied 
by flocks of Warblers, Nuthatches and Titmice, to which they 
seemed to act as leaders, the whole flock following their flight 
from tree to tree. It apparently winters in the vicinity of 
Cariip Apache, being found here in quite large flocks in 
November." 



Arctic or Rocky IVlounfaiii Bliiebircl 

Sialia arctica 

Erythaca (SiaUa) arctica, s. & R. fba. ii. 1831, 209, pi. 39 (north to 644°). 

Sialia arctica, Nutt. Man. ii. 1834, 573 ; 2(ied. i. 1840, 5\.i.—Or7t.itk. Comm.Journ. Phila. Acad, 
vii. 1837, 193 (Columbia River).— j9p. CGL. 1838, lH.—Aud. Syu. 1839, 84.— And. BA. il. 
1841, 176, pi, 13().—Gamb. Pr. Phila. Acad. iii. 1846, U3. —Gnmb. Jouru. Phila. Acad. i. 
1847, 37.— McCall, Pr. Phila. Acad. v. 1851, 215 (Texas).— r^oofiA. Sitgreave's Rep. 1853, 
68.— Henry, Pr. Phila. Acad. vii. 1855, 310 (NfiW Mexico).— Kneel. Pr. Bust. Soc vi. 1857, 
233.— M. BNA. 1858, 22i.— Maxim. J. f. O. 1858, 122.— Henry. Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 1859, 
106 (New Mexico).— Bd. PRRR. x. 1859, 13, pi. Zb.—Kenner. PRRR. x. 1859, 'ii.—Heerm. 
PRRR. X. 1859, 44.— Bd. Ives's Rep. pt. v. 1861, 5.—Hayd. Tr. Am. Philos. Soc. xii. 1862. 
159.— B/aA:ts. Ibis, v. ]'863, 60 (Rocky Mountains, 49").— Bd. Rev. AB. 1864, m.— Dress. 
Ibis, 1865,476 (Texas).— Cowes, Ibis, 1865, 163 (Arizona). — Co?/.es. Pr. Phila. Acad, xviii. 
1866, 66 (Fort Whipple). — Butch. Pr. Phila. Aoad. xx. 18f^8, 149 (Laredo, Tex.).— 
Coop. At). Nat. iii. 1869, 32, 189.— Coop. Pr. Gala. Acad. 1870, 75.— Coop. B. Cixi. i. 1870, 
29.— Hold, ff Aiken, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1872, \\i4.— Allen, Bull. MCZ. iii. 1872, m.—Coues. 
Key, 1872, IG.—Merriam, U. S. Geol. .Surv. Terr, for 187-^. 187.3,. 671, 712, 713.— ^!A-e«, Am. 
Nat. vii. 1873, \b.—Ridg. Bull. Essex Inst. v. 1873, \19.—Comstock, Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 
7Q.—Goues. BNW. 1374, \4.— Trippe. ibid. 229.— Bd. Br. if Ry. NAB. i. 1874, 67, pi. 5, 
f. 4.-Hensli. Rep. Orn. .Specs. 1874, 40, 72, 98.— Allen, Pr. Bost. Soc. 1874, i9.—i\elson, 
Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 187.5, 339, 343 (Utah) —Hensh. List B. Ariz. 187.>, ir^i.—Hensli. Zool. 
Expl. W. lUO Merid. 1876, 162. 

Sylvia arctica, Aud. OB. v. 1839, 38, pi. 393. 

8alia arctica, Stevenson, U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr. 1871, 463. 

Sialia macroptcra, £(^ Stausbury's Rep. 18.52, 314, 328. 

Arctic ISluebird, Rocliy Mountain Bluebird, Vuls^. 

Hab.— United States, and British America to Great Bear Lake, from the 
easieru foothills of the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific. Texas. 

Ch. sp. — S Azurea, infra dilutior, subvirescens^ ahdomine 
sensim albo; apicihus remigum fuscis, rostra pedibusque uigris. 



])ESCRIPTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF S. AKCTICA 83 

9 Grisea, uropi/gio, caudd alisque ccvruleseentihus ; infm rufo- 
grisea, ahdomine alhicanfe. 

<y,in perfect plumage: Above rich azuve-blue, lif^hter tbau in tbe two 
foregoiug, and witb a faint greenish hue; below, paler and more decidedly 
greenisb-bhie, fading insensibly into white on the belly and under tail- 
coverts. Ends of wing-quills dusky ; bill and feet black. Larger than the 
two foregoing species; length, 7 or more; extent, about 13; wing, 4^; 
tail, 3. 

9 : Of a nearly uniform indeterminate rufous-gray, lighter and more de- 
cidedly rufous below, brightening into blue on the rump, tail and wings, 
fading into white on the belly and under tail-coverts. Ends of the tail- 
feathers as well as of the wing-quills fuscous ; outer one of each edged 
with whitish. A whitish eye-ring. 

Young : The changes of plumage with age as well as those with season 
are parallel with the stages exhibited by the other species. Very young 
birds, in the streaky stage, are distinguished by their superior size and the 
greenish hue of the blue on the wings and tail. The inner wing-quills in 
the specimens before me are edged and tipped with whitish instead of rufous. 

IN the precediiio- uotice of S. mexicana, I have already 
alluded to some points iu the distribution of this species, 
and little remains to be said. It is notable as the most north- 
erly rei)resentative of the genus, reaching latitude 64° 30', or 
about fourteen degrees beyond the usual range of 8. sialis. 
It would appear to be also rather more decidedly migratory 
than 8. mexicana, and is extremely abundant iu some regions, 
as portions of Dakota and Montana, which the latter rarely if 
ever reaches. It is nevertheless numerous in portions of Colo- 
rado, Utah, Nevada, and Northern Arizoua and New Mexico. 
It breeds as far sonth at least as Sauta Fe in New Mexico; 
winters at least as far north as Carson City, Nevada, and is 
consequentlj' resident in the Colorado Basin as a whole. As in 
the case of 8. mexicana, it does not seem to have any peculiar 
habits in comparison with 8. sialis. Though a good deal has 
gone ou record in both cases, the supposed discrepancies 
may be reasonably attributed to transient circumstances of 
observation, or the fluctuating standpoint of comparison as- 
sumed. It breeds in the mountains up to an altitude of about 
10,000 feet, in holes in trees and similar nooks, just like both its 
relatives. The eggs are of the same pale bluish color, but 
rather larger than those of either of the other species, measur- 
ing 0.90 to 0.95 in length by about 0.70 in breadth. 



CHAPTER III. -DIPPERS 



FAM. CINCLID^ 

Chars. — Wiug of lO primaries, the 1st of which is spurious, 
and, like the others, falcate ; wiug as a whole short, stiff, 
rounded, and coneavo-couvex, something like that of a Grebe, 
or gallinaceous bird. Tail still shorter than the wing, soft, 
square, of 12 broad, rounded feathers, almost hidden by the 
coverts, both sets of which reach nearly or quite to the end, the 
under coverts beiug especially loug and full. Tarsi booted, 
about as long as the middle toe and claw. Lateral toes equal 
in length. Claws all strongly curved. Bill shorter than the 
head, slender, attenuate, and compressed throughout, higher 
than broad at the nostrils, about straight, but seeming to be 
slightly recurved, owing to a sort of upward tilting of the supe- 
rior mandible ; culuien at first slightly concave, then convex ; 
commissure nearly straight, but slightly sinuous, to correspond 
with the outline of the culmen, notched near the end; gonys 
convex. Nostrils linear, opening beneath a large scale partly 
covered with feathers. No rictal vibrissas, nor any trace of 
brisfcles or bri8tle-tii)ped feathers about the nostrils. Plumage 
soft, lustreless, remarkably full and compact, water proof. Body 
stout, thick-set. Habits aquatic. 

This is a small but well defined group, in which the general 
characters shared by the Turdidce, SaxicoHdcc and Sylviidw are 
modified to a degree, in adaptation to tlie singular aquatic life 
the species lead. As generally understood, it consists of a 
single geuws, Cinclus, to which a second, found in Asia, is some- 
times added. These birds frequent clear mountain streams of 
various parts of the world, chiefly, however, of the Northern 
Hemisphere. It would scarcely be incorrect to say that they 
inhabit these streams; for a considerable part of their time 
is actually spent in the water — not merely on or near it — in 
gleaning for food beneath the surface. It is marvelous what 
a little change of structure fits them for such an anomalous 
mode of life — one wholly exceptional in the order to which they 



DIPPERS, OR WATER OUZELS 



85 



belong, for a parallel with which we must turn not only to the 
water-birds, but to the lowest representatives of the natatorial 
group, such as Loons, Grebes, Cormorants, and Penguins. In all 
the true water-birds, the feet are paddles, or oars, and as such 
fit instruments of progression. Those that dive but little or not 
at all use the feet exclusively in swimming ; in others, that 




travel below as well as upon the surface of the water, like 
those just named, the wings are also brought into requisition 
as efficient organs of locomotion. But in the Dippers, the feet 
retain a thoroughly iusessorial character, being no more fitted 
for swimming purposes than those of a Thrush or Siiarrow; 
and when the birds make their aquatic excursion3, they swim 
down, and stay below by means of their wings — in a word, they 



86 THE dipper's actions in the water 

fly throiig'h the water. It was an old notion that the Dippers 
could walk on the beds of streams, and various were the inge- 
nious speculations to account for such a phenomenon ; for, the 
specific gravity of their bodies being less than that of water, 
the puzzle was, how then could they stay below? The fact is, 
that they can no more walk on the bottom of a stream than St. 
Peter could walk on the water without some such supernatural 
assistance as he is alleged to have received. Their flights be- 
low the surface require as continuous effort to keep down as 
ordinary aerial flight demands in order that a bird may stay 
up in the air. It is the same action in an opposite direction, 
the operation of the gravitating force being reversed. The bird 
plunges into the water, heading up stream to stem the cur- 
rent, and flies obliquely downward till it gains the bottom, 
where it maintains itself by a similar action of the wings, with 
the body held obliquely head downward. Here the feet may 
aid it somewhat, by scratching along the ground, or even cling- 
ing to such chance inequalities of the surface as may be grasped 
by the toes, but in no sense can this be considered as walking. 
The moment its exertions are relaxed, it comes to the surface 
like a cork, and ma^" be swept hel[)lessly along for some dis- 
tance by the force of the current before regaining itself. The 
whole action may be likened to that of some of the water-bugs — 
the IStotonectes for example — which row idly about on their backs 
with long, feathery oar-like feet, and when alarmed seem to 
make vigorous efforts to propel themselves obliquely downward. 
It is one of the endless instances of Nature's delight in para- 
doxes — her magical way of putting the same thing to the most 
div^erse uses, with a touch of her cunning wand. Given a 
brawling brook, too small, clean, and cold to suit any of the 
water-birds she has on hand, but just the thing for a kind of 
Thrush, if he can be made to understand it; when presto I 
Cinclus. The odd little Thrush puts on his water-proof diving 
apparatus, takes a "header" from the nearest green slippery 
rock, and likes it so well that he wonders why he never did it 
before. Divers ways of doing things were evidently open to 
Thrushes in the beginning — and this is one of them. 

But 1 have got off' the track of legitimate ornithology, I find — 
much as the Dipper itself is sometimes carried away when the 
current is a little too strong. There are about a liozen species, 
including marked geographical races, of this family, the best 
known of which is the Water Ouzel of Europe. This bird 



MACGILLIVRAY ON THE DIPPER's HABITS 87 

has been very successfully studied by William Macgillivray, 
whose singularly truthful narrative reflects the general econo- 
my of the family so clearly that 1 shall transcribe a portion of 
his account, especially since it is equally applicable, mutatis 
mutandis, to the single species which is found in North 
America. I quote the passages which refer more particularly 
to the bird's actions in the water, as corroborative of what has 
been already said with less regard to minute detail. 

"The flight of the Dipper is steady, direct, and rapid, like 
that of the Kingfisher, being effected by regularly timed and 
quick beats of the wings, without intermissions or sailings. It 
perches on stones or projecting crags by the sides of streams, 
or in the water, where it may be seen frequently inclining the 
breast downwards, and jerking up the tail, much in the manner 
of the Wheatear and Stonechat, and still more of the Wren ; 
its legs bent, its neck retracted, and its wiugs slightly drooping. 
It plunges into the water, not dreading the force of the current, 
dives, and makes its way beneath the surface, generally moving 
against the stream, and often with surprising speed. It does 
not however, immerse itself head foremost from on high like 
the Kingfisher, the Tern, or the Gannett; but either walks out 
into the water, or alights upon its surface, and then plunges 
like an Auk or a Guillemot, slightly opening its wings, and 
disappearing with an agility and dexterity that indicate its 
proficiency in diving. I have seen it moving under water in 
situations where I could observe it with certainty, and I readily 
perceived that its actions were precisely similar to those of the 
Divers, Mergansers, and Cormorants, which I have often watched 
from an eminence, as they pursued the shoals of sand-eels along 
the sandy shores of the Hebrides. It in fact flew, not merely 
using the wing, from the carpal joint, but extending it con- 
siderably, and employing its whole extent, just as if advancing 
in the air. The general direction of the body in these circum- 
stances is obliquely downwards ; and great force is evidently 
used to counteract the effects of gravity, the bird finding it 
difficult to keep itself at the bottom, and when it relaxes its 
efforts coming to the surface like a cork. Montagu has well 
described the appearance which it presents under such circum- 
stances : — ' In one or two instances, wheu we have been able to 
perceive it under water, it appeared to tumble about in a very 
extraordinary manner, with its head downwards, as if picking 
something ; and at the sauic time great exertion was used, both 



08 MACGILLIVRAY ON THE DIPPER .S HABITS 

by the wings and legs.' This tumbling, however, is observed 
only when it is engaged in a strong current, and its appearance 
is greatly magnified by the unequal refraction caused by the 
varying inequalities of the surface of the water. When search- 
ing for food, it does not proceed to great distances under water; 
but, alighting on some spot, sinks, and soon reappears in the 
immediate neighbourhood, when it either dives again, or rises on 
wing to drop somewhere else on the stream, or settle on <'i 
stone. Often from a shelving crag or large stone it may be 
seen making short incursions into the water, running out with 
quiet activity, and presently bobbing up to the surface, and 
regaining its perch by swimming or wading. The assertion of 
its walking in the water, on the bottom, which some persons 
have ventured, is not made good by observation nor counte- 
nanced by reason and the nature of things. The Dipper is by 
no means a walking bird : even on land I have never seen it 
move more than a few stei)s, which it accomplished by a kind 
of leaping motion. Its short legs and curved claws are very 
ill adapted for running, but admirably calculated for securing 
a steady footing on slippery stones, whether above or beneath 
the surface of the water. Like the Kingfisher, it often remains 
a long time perched on a stone, but in most other respects its 
habits are very dissimilar. . . . On being wounded the Dipper 
commonly plunges into the water, flies beneath its surface to 
the shore, and conceals itself among the stones or under the 
bank. In fact, on all such occasions, if enough of life remains, 
it is sure to hide itself so that one requires to look sharply 
after it. In this respect it greatly resembles the Common 
Gallinule." 

The same agreeable writer speaks of the food of the European 
Dipper as consisting of molluscs and beetles. " 1 have opened 
a great number of individuals at all seasons of the year, but 
have never found any other substances in the stomach than 
Lymnecc, A)icyli, Ooleoptera, and grains of gravel " — a diet 
which he considers to account satisfactorily for the bird's sub- 
aqueous excursions. He denies that there is any proof of its 
feeding upon the ova or fry of fish, notwithstanding the Hvsser- 
tions of authors to that effect, which have, in many cases, led 
to its unmerited persecution. Yet there is no doubt that it is 
somewhat piscivorous ; for at least one instance is i-ecorded of 
its having been seen with a fish in its month. {Saxby, "Zool- 
ogist", xxi, 1863, p. 8631.) 



SYNONYMY AND DESCRIPTION OF C. MEXICANUS 89 

Auierieau Dipper 

Cliiclua mextcantis 

ClnclUS pallasif, Bp Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 18v>6, 439. — Bp. AO. ii. 1828, 173, pi. 16, f. I (necaxtct). 

CinClnS mexieanus, Sxc. Phlloa. Mag. i. 18-27, 308.— 5cZ. PZS. 1859, 362 (Xfilapa).— Bd. Rev. 
AB. 1864, m.— Cones, Pr. Phila. Acad, xviii. 1866,66 (Arizona).— .'5a/w. IbU, ii'. 1866, 190 
(Guatemala). — Salv. Ibis, iii^. 1867, 120 (monographic). — Sumich. Mem. Bost Soc. i. 1869, 
544 (Vera Cruz).— Coop. B. Cal. i. 1870, 25, fig.— Coues. Key, 1872, 77, f. \%.— Alien. 
Bull. MCZ. iii. 1872, 174 (Utah and Colorado).— JRi<i^!0. Bull. Essex Inst. v. 1873, 179.— 
Merriam, U. S. Geol. Surv. for 1872, 1873, 671, 713 (Montana).— Daii, Pr. Cala. Acad. 
— . 1873, — ( LIualashka). —(7oMes, BNW. 1874, 10.— Tri/f^je, ibid. 229.— Bd Br. If Ry. NAB. 
i. 1874,56. fisr. p\. 5, f. l.— Vnrr. (f Hensh. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, 6.— HeTisA. ibid. 46, 
SL—Hi-nsh. List B. Ariz. 1875, 154 (White Mountains).— ffen«A. Zool. Expl. W. 100 
Merid. 1876, 159. 

CInclus mexicana, Allen, Am. Nat. vi. 1872, 396. 

Hydrobata mexicana, Bd. BNA. 1858, •i-29.—He7iry. Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 1859, 106 (New 
Hexico). — Xantus, Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 1859, 190 (California).- O. 4- 5. NHWT. 1860, 
115. — Blahist. Ibis, v. 1861, 60 (Athabasca RWer).— Brown, Ibis, iv'. 1868, 420 (Vancou- 
ver).— Coop. Am. Nat. ili. 1869, 32 (Montana). — DaZZ if Bann Tr. Chicago Acad. i. 1869, 
277 (Alaska).— Oa«, Am. Nat. iv. 1870, dOO.— Aiken, Pr. Boat. Soc. iv. 1872, 194 
(Colorado). 

ClnclUS ameriranus, 5. <V R. FBA. ii. 1831, m.—Nutt. Man. i. 1832, 569.— And. OB. iv. 1838, 
493; V. 1839, 30.3, pU. 370, 435.— ^ud. Syn. 1839, 86.— Towns. Journ. Phila. Acad. viii. 
1839, 153.— ^ud. BA. ii. 1841, 182, pi. 137.— Gam6. Pr. Phila. Acad. iii. 1846, 114 (Cali- 
fornia).— Gam6. Journ. Phila. Acad, i. 1847, 43.— McCall. Pr. Phila. Acad. v. 1851,216 
(Texas).— //eerm. Journ Phila Acad. ii. 1853, 264.— Henry, Pr. Phila. Acad. vii. 1855, 310 
(New Mexico).— Newb. PRRR. vi. 1857, 8i).—Hterm. PRRR. x. 1859, 44. 

CinclUH UnlCOlor, Bp. Zool. journ. iii. 1827, 52. — Bp. CG-L. 1838, 18. 

ClnclUS mortoni, " Tow?is. am 1839, 337". 

CinclUS townsendll, "('Aud.') Towns. Narr. 1839, 340". 

Quz<i Turdus tuwnsendii. Towns. Jouru. Phila. Acad. viii. 1839, 153, degcr. nulla? 

American Dipper; Wafer Ouzel, Vulg. 

Hab. — Mountains of Western North America from the region of the Yukon 
into Mexico. 

Ch. sp. — 3 9 Schistaceo-plumbeiis, infra dilutior, capite brun- 
nescente, palpebrin plerutaque dlbis. 

^ 9 , adult, in summer: Shity-plumbeous, paler below, inclining on the 
head tt) sooty-brown. Quills and tail-feathers fuscous. Eyelids usually 
white. Rill black ; feet yellowish. Length, 6 or 7 inches; extent, 10 or 11 ; 
wing, 3^-4 ; tail, about 2^ ; bill, f ; tarsus, 1^; middle toe and claw rather 
less. Individuals vary much in size. 

^ $ , in winter, and the majority of not perfectly mature specimens are 
paler below than the al)()ve description would indicate, all the feathers of 
the under parts being skirted with whitish. The quills of the wing are also 
conspicuously tipped with white. The bill is largely yellowish at the base. 

Young : Below, whitish, more or less so according to age, frequently tinged 
with pale cinnamon-brown. The whole under parts are sometimes over- 
laid with the whitish ends of the feathers, shaded with the rufous pos- 
teriorly. The throat is usually nearly white; the bill mostly yellow. The 
white tipping of the wing-feathers is at a maximum ; and in some cases the 
tail-feathers are similarly marked. 



90 ON THE AMERICAN DIPPER 

MY limited experience with the American Dipper precludes 
my giving anything particularly to the point from original 
observations. I never saw it alive excepting on one occasion, 
when I noticed nothing in its habits not already known .In 
the "Birds of the Northwest" I brought together nearly all 
the information we possess, and would refer to that work for 
the particulars, especially respecting the nest and egg. It is a 
common inhabitant of the Colorado Basin, in most suitable situa- 
tions, though there are many eligible mountain streams which 
it does not seem to inhabit. An occasional departure from its 
usual habit has been noticed by Mr. Henshaw, who found a pair 
inhabiting a small isolated pond in the White Mountains of 
Arizona, seemingly as much at home in this quiet little sheet 
of water as in the turbulent torrent; though he thought that, 
in keeping with their surroundings, tliey had lost somewhat of 
their usual restlessness and energy. Such choice of still water, 
however, must not be presumed to be very unusual, since 
the European species is well known to frequent lakes, espe- 
cially those which have a shingly or pebbly margin. 

Note. — I may here allude to some iuterestiug experiments to ascertain the 
specific gravity of the European Dipper, made by Dr. John Davy, and pub- 
lished in the eleventh volume (new series) of the Edinburgh New Philo- 
sophical Journal, p. 26.5. The specific gravity of the bird's body alone, after 
removal of the skin and feathers, was f .200 ; in its natural state, with the 
feathers on, 0.724. "When under water, few air-bubbles escaped from its 
feathers, owing probably to their resisting wetting from the oil with which 
they are pruued, that being abundantly supplied by the large oil-gland with 
which this bird is provided." ... " Its long bones contained a reddish 
marrow." The specific gravity of a Wren was 0.890, which, after immersioa 
for twelve hours, had increased to 0.960. The lowest specific gravity was 
found in the case of the Merlin-hawk — 0.570. 



CHAPTER IV.— OLD WORLD WARBLERS 



Fam SYLYllD^ 

LIKE the Saxicolidce, the Sylviidce are a large group of chiefly 
Old World species, having few representatives in this coun- 
try. The family is not well distinguished from the Turdidw 
and Saxieolidce, and no attempt will be made here to cover all 
its phases by any diagnostic phrase — it is perhaps insusceptible 
of exact definition. While there are several hundred species of 
the Eastern Hemisphere, less than a score occur in America. 
One of these is a typical Sylviine, a species of Phyllopneuste, 
found iu Alaska. The other representatives are the two genera 
Eegulus and Polioptila, each of which most writers now consider 
the type of a subfamily. They agree in their extremely small 
size (length four or five inches, less than any of the Turdidce 
or Saxieolidce)^ and in possessing ten primaries (by which they 
are separated from anj' of the Si/lvicolidie, or American Warb- 
lers), deeply cleft toes (compare Troglodytidce), and straight, 
slender bill, with bristly rictus and exposed nostrils (compare 
Gerthiidce, Paridce, and Sittidce). The tarsi are booted in Regit- 
lime, scutellate in PoUoptilince. 

• 
Subfamily REGULIN^ : Kinglets 

Chars. — Tarsi booted, very slender, longer than the middle 
toe and claw. Lateral toes nearly equal to each other. First 
quill of the wing spurious, its exposed portion less than half as 
long as the second. Wings pointed, longer than the tail, which 
is emarginate, with acuminate feathers. Bill shorter than the 
head, straight, slender, and typically sylviine, not hooked at 
the end, well bristled at rictus, with the nostrils overshadowed 
by tiny feathers. 

These characters may be compared with those given beyond 
under head of PoUoptilimc, to which they are antithetical. 
There is but one genus in America, though several are recog- 
nized by some among the Old World species. 



92 SYNONYMY OF REGULUS CALENDULA 

Genus REGULUS Cuvier 

Ohars. — To the foregoing add: Coloration oliviiceous, paler 
or whitish below, with red, black, or yellow, or all three of 
these colors, ou the head of the adult. 

There are only two established s[)e(;ies in this country, both 
of which occur in the Colorado region. They are elegant and 
dainty little creatures, among the very smallest of our birds 
excepting the Hummers. They inhabit woodland, are very agile 
and sprightly, insectivorous, migratory, and highly musical. 



Riibv-crovi'necl Kinglet 

Regrulas calendula 

Motacllla calendula, Linn. SN. i. 1766, 337, no. il. — Forst. Pbil. Tr. Ixii. 1772, 407, no. 32.— 
Gm. SN. i. pt. ii. 1788, 994, nos. 47, 47 b.— Tart. SM. i. 1806, 613. 

Sylvia calendula, /;a</(. 10. ii. 1790, 549, no. 154.— ira.s. A.O. i. 1808, 83, pi. 5, f. 3. 

Sylvia (Reguloidcs) calendula, Gray. HL. i. 1869, 216, no. 3068. 

BegUlUS calendula, "LicAi. Verz. 18-.J3".— B;j. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 1826, 91.— iVM^J. Man. i. 
1832, ^Vb.—Aud. OB. ii. 1834, 546, pi. 195.— B/). CGL. 1838, i'i.—Aud. Syn. 1639, 83.— 
Towns. Journ. Phila. Acad. viii. 1839. \5i.—Nutt. Man. 2d. ed. i. 1840, 50(^.—Aud. BA. ii. 
1841, 168. pi. 133.— Gamfi.Pr. Phila Acad. iii. 1846. 1 15.— Garni. Journ. Phila. Acad. i. 1847, 
36. — Woodh. Sitgreave'B Rep. 1853, 67.— Hoy, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 313.— Read, Pr. 
Phila. Acad. vi. 18.')3, 399.— //enry, Pr. Phila. Acad. vii. 1855, 309.— Kennic. Tr. niinoi» 
Agr. See. i. \855,5S3.—Pratten, Tr. Illinois Agr. .Soc. i. 1855, e03.—Putn. Pr. Esb. In8t. 
i. 1856,208.- &;. PZS. 1857, 202 (Xalapa).- 5ci. PZS. 1858.300 (Parada).—B<i. BNA. 1858, 
226.— 5cZ. PZS. 1859. 362 (Xalapa), 371 (0axaca).-5. ^S. Ibis, 1859, 8 (Guatemala).— 
Henry. Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 18)9, \i)6.—Xantus. Pr. Phila. Acxd. 1859, \m.— mUU, 
Sraithrt. Rpp. for 1858. 18.59, 282 (Nova Scotia).— A'e/iner. I'RRIl. x. 1859, 24.— Heerm. 
PRRR. X. 1859, 43. — a ^5. NHWT. 1860, 174.— frAeat. Ohio Agr. Rep 1860, —.—Barn. 
Smiths. Rep. for 1860, 1861, 435. — Bd. Ives's Rep. pt. v 1861, 5.—Reuih. Ibi^ iii. 1861, 
5 (Greenland). — f^err. Pr. E-i.s. last. iii. 1862, \4o.—Goues. Pr. Phila. Acad. 1861, 219 
(hi\hr>ia<w).-lioardm. Pr. Host. Soc. ix. 1862, \'2i.—Hayd. Rep. 1862, \f)i>.—Blakist. Ibis, 
1863. f,0.—Bd. Rev. AB. 1864, m.—Scl. PZS. 1864, 172 (Mexico).- ^«en, Proc. Essex 
Inst. iv. 1864, 5S.— Hoy. Smiths. Rep. for 1864, 186.5, 438.— Ores*. Ibis. 1865, 476 (Texas).— 
Co«es, Ibip, 1865, 163 (Arizona).— tuwr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. 1866, 282.— W'ejz, Pr. 
Bost. Soc. X. 1866, 267 (Labrador).— Brow^, Ibis, 1868, 420 (Vancouver).— Ooites, Pr. 
Best. Soc. xii. 1868, 107 (South Carolina, winter).- BufcA. Pr. Phila. Acad. xx. 1868, 149 
(Laredo, Tex.) —Tunib B. E. Pa. 1869. 22 ; Phila. ed. 15.— Coop Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 32.— 
Ball If Bonn. Tr. Chic. Acad. i. 1869, 276( Alaska).— Coop. Pr. Gala. Acad. 1870, lo.-Goop. 
B. Cal. i. 1870, 33 -Abbott, Am. Nat. iv. 1870, 542.— DaZ/, Am. Nat. iv. 1870, 61)0.— Par- 
ker, Am. Nat. v. 1871, 168.— Sieu. U. S. Geol. Surv. lor 1870, 1871. 463.— Allen, Am. Nat. 
vi. 1872, 3o9.— Aiken, Pr. Bost, Soc. xv. 1872, 195. — Ooues, K-y, 1872. 18.—Hart. Man. 
Brit. Birds 1872, 107 (Scotland!).— ffic/^. Bull. Essex Inst. v. 1873, ilQ.-Trippe, Am. 
Nat. vii. 1873, 498.-7" ippe, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1873, 234 — J/e'r. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, 
for 1872, 1873, 675, 712, 71.3.— Merr. Am. Nat. viii. 1874, H.— Abbott, Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 364, 
365.— //eflsA. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874. 40, 57, 72, 98 —Coues. BNW. 1874, 15 —JB. B. if R. 
NAB. i. 1874, 75, pi. 5, f. 9.— Nelson, Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875. 356.—Breio. Pr. Bost. 
Soc. xvii. 1875, 438.— //ens/,.. List B. Ariz. 1875, 15^.— Hensh. Zool. Expl. W. 100 Merid. 
1876, 164. 

Regulus calcndulUS, Bp. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 186— Breic. Journ Bost. Soc. i. 1837, 
437.— Pcai. Rep Orn Mass. 1839, 314.— TAomps. NH. v'ermont, 18.53, 8i.— Gould, PZS. 
1858, 290 (Scotland !). — CoMc» If Prentiss, Smiths. Rep. for 1861, 1862. 405.— Mcllwr. Pr. 



CHARACTERS OF REGULUS CALENDULA 93 

Ess. Inst. V. 186R, 84.—Goues, Pr. Phila. Acad, xviii. 1866, 66 (Fort Whipple, Ariz.).— 
Cones, Proc. Essex Inst. v. 1865, 268. — Trippe, Proc. Essex Inst. vi. 1871, 115. — Mayn. B. 
Fla. 1872, 21.— Mayn. Pr. Host. Soc. xiv. 1872, ^6].. — Trippe apud Ooues. BNW. 1874, 229. 

Regruloides calendula, Bp. CA. i. 18.50, 292. 

Phyllobasileus calendula. Cab. ym. i. I85i, 33. 

Corthylio calendula. Cab. j. f. o. i. 1853, 83. 

Regulus cristatus alter verticc rubini colorls, Bartr. Trav. Fla. 1791, 292. 

RegUlUS rublneus, V. OAS. ii. 1807. 49, pis. 104, 105. — Less. Tr. Orn. 1831, 421. 

Ruby-crowned Wren, Edw. Birds, pi. 254, f. •2.—Forst. I. c. 

Roitelet rubiS, Buff. v. 373.— ie M. Oia. Canad. 1861, 215. 

Ruby-crowned Warbler, Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 413, no. 320. 

Ruby-crowned Kinglet, And. 1. c. 

Hab. — North America at large. Mexico. Central America to Guatemala 
at least. Greenland. Accidental in Europe ("Brek, B. Eur. ii. 109 "). 

Ch. sp. — ^ 9 Naribus semi-niidis. — Virenti-oliiiaceus, subtus 
sordideJfavo-albidus,uropyglo ttmarginibus remigum rectricumqiie 
fldvicantibus, alls albo-bifasciatis, orbitls albis, vertice coccineo. 
Juu. vertice dorso concolore. 

$ 9 » adult : Upper parts greenish-olive, becoming more yellowish on the 
rnrap ; wings and tail dnsky, strongly edged with yellowish ; whole under 
parts dull yellowish-white, or yellowish- or greenish-gray (very variable in 
tone) ; wings crossed with two whitish bars, and inner secondaries edged 
with the same. Edges of eyelids, lores and extreme forehead hoary whitish. 
A rich scarlet patch, partially concealed, ou the crown. This beautiful 
ornament is apparently not gained until the second year, and there is a 
question whether it is ever present in the female. Length, \^ (a dozen fresh 
specimens range from 4-iV to 4^) ; extent, 6g- to 7^ ; wing, 2-2i ; tail, If. 

Young for the first year (and 9 ?) : Quite like the adult, but wanting the 
scarlet patch. In a newly fledged specimen, procured in the Rocky Mount- 
ains of Colorado by Major Powell, the wings and tail are as strongly edged 
with yellowish asm the adult; but the general plumage of the upper parts 
is rather olive-gray than olive-green, and the under parts are sordid whitish. 
The bill is light colored at the liase, and the toes appear to have been 
yellowish. 

ONE of the most remarkable things about the Eiiby-crowu 
is its extraordinary powers of song. It is really surprising 
that sach'a tiny creature should be capable of the strong and 
sustained notes it utters when in full song. The lower larynx, 
the sound-producing organ, is not much bigger than a good 
sized pill's head, and the muscles that move it are almost 
microscopic sbreds of flesh. If the strength of the human 
voice were in the same |»roportion to the size of the larynx, we 
could converse with ease at a distance of a mile or more. The 
Kinglet's exquisite vocalization defies description ; we can only 
speak, in general terms, of the power, purity, and volume of 
the notes, their faultless modulation and long continuance. 



94 THE RUBY-CROWN AN ACCOMPLISHED VOCALIST 

Many doubtless have listened to this music without suspecting 
that the author was the diminutive Ruby-crown, with whose 
common-place utterance, the slender wiry"^sip". they were 
already familiar. Such was once the case even with Audubon, 
who pays a heartfelt tribute to the accomplished little vocalist, 
and says further — "When I tell you that its song is t'aWy as 
sonorous as that of the Ganary-bird, and much richer, I do not 
come up to the truth, for it is not only as powerful and clear, 
but much more varied and pleasing." 

This delightful role is chiefly executed during the mating sea- 
son, and the brief period of exaltation which precedes it; it is 
consequently seldom heard in regions where the bird does not 
rear its young, except when the little performer breaks forth in 
song on nearing its summer resorts. Its breeding places were 
long uncertain, or at least not clearly traced out, and it is only 
a year or two since that its nest was discovered. But it is now 
pretty certain that its nesting range includes the wooded por- 
tions of the country from ISTorthern Xew Englt»ud and corres- 
ponding latitudes northward. It is said that a nest containing 
young was recently found in Western New York; though I 
am not sure that this is an authentic case, I think it probable 
that the Kinglet will yet be found to breed in the mountains 
at least as far south as the Middle States, if not further. 
This seeuis more probable since the late discoveries of its nest- 
ing in the Rocky Mountains, and its unquestionable residence 
during summer in other elevated regions of the Wesi , even of 
New Mexico and Arizona. Mr. Henshaw si)eaks without reserve 
on this score : — " The species breeds in the heavy pine and 
spruce forests on the mountains of Colorado, and also in Arizona, 
both in the White Mountains, and as far south as Mount Gra- 
ham, in both which localities I saw tbe old leading about their 
young, still in the nesting plumage as late as August 1. In 
the mountains near Fort Garland, Col., it was a common species 
in June ; the pine woods at an elevation of 10,000 feet often 
echoing with the music of its sweet, beautifully modulated 
song. . . . June 11, while collecting on a mountain near the Rio 
Grande, I discovered a nearly liuished nest, built on a low 
branch of a pine, which [ have little doubt belonged to this 
bird." Mr. Allen and Mr. Trippe both observed it in Colorado, 
in summer, at an altitude of from 9 or 10,000 feet up to timber 
line, and the first-named obtained the young in the vicinity of 
Mount Lincoln toward tbe end of July. At Fort Whipple, in 



MOVEMENTS OF THE RUBY-CROWN 95 

Arizona, I found it extremely abundant iu spring from tlie 
latter part of Marcli to near the middle of May, in the fall 
from the latter i)art of September to November, and judged 
that it bred in the higher mountains of the vicinity. It is un- 
necessary to multiply quotations, all going to show a breeding 
rauge throughout the mountains of the West from 9,000 feet 
upward, thence trending eastward along the northern boundary 
of the United States to Maine and Labrador, and probably 
sending a spur southward along the Alleghany Mountains. 
Northwestward it reaches to Alaska, where the bird was found 
by Mr. W. H. Dall at Xulato. 

But in most portions of the Uuited States, the Rub^-crown 
appears as a migrant or winter resident. Taking an inter- 
mediate point, like the District of Columbia for example, where 
I became familiar with the' dainty little creature in my boy- 
hood, we find that it arrives at least as early as the begin- 
ning of April, or, in open seasons like the present (187G), a 
week or two soener, and remains until the second week in May. 
It returns in the fall by the end of September, and loiters till 
November. But it is such a brave and hardy creature that I 
should never be suri)rised to find it lingering through the sea- 
son here, as it does a little further south. For iu South Carolina 
it is one of the abundant winter birds, from October to April, 
though most numerous in November and March, owing to the 
recruiting of its ranks by fresh arrivals. Titence through all 
the Southern States to Texas it is one of the commonest winter 
birds in suitable localities. Yet a few press on through Mexico, 
or directly across the Gulf to Central America. In the 
Colorado Basin, which includes extremes of climatic and topo- 
graphical conditions, from snowcapped peaks to burning- 
deserts, all the requirements of the bird are fulfilled, and there 
it is consequently resident — gathering on the higher grounds in 
summer, spreading over the lower in winter — migrating indeed, 
but not in the usual sense of that term, since ascent of the 
mountain-sides answers instead of a journey toward the pole. 

Of the eggs of this Kinglet I have nothing to say — they re- 
main unknown ; and it is only a little while ago that 1 should 
have been perforce as silent respecting the nest. Since Dr. 
Brewer thought he might " reasonably infer" that the nest was 
pensile, the discovery has been made that it is not so, showing 
the care that must be exercised in natural history inferences. 
The nest was found by Mr. J. H. Batty, in Colorado, July 21, 



96 THE ruby-crown's manners 

1873, on tilt' branch of a spruce tree, abont fifteen feet from the 
ground. It contained, I am informed, five young and one egg; 
the latter did not come under my inspection. The nest is larger 
than might have been expected — it could hardly be got into a 
good-sized coffee cup. It is a loosely woven mass of hair and 
feathers, mixed with moss and some short bits of straw. The 
nest which Mr. Heushaw believed to be that of a Kinglet was 
" a somewhat bulky structure, very large for the size of the 
bird, externally composed of strips of bark, and lined thickly 
with feathers of the grouse "; it was built on a low branch of a 
pine. 

To observe the manners of the Ruby-crown, one need only 
repair, at the right season, to the nearest thicket, coppice, or 
piece of shrubbery, such as the Titmice, Yellow-rumps and 
other warblers love to haunt. These are its favorite resorts, 
especially in the fall and winter; though sometimes, in the 
spring more particularly, it seems to be more ambitious, and 
its slight form may be almost lost among the branchlets of the 
taller trees, where the equally diminutive Panda is most at 
home. We shall most likely find it not alone, but in strag- 
gling trooi)S, which keep up a sort of companionship with each 
other as well as with different birds, though each individual 
seems to be absorbed in its particular business. We hear the 
slender wiry note, and see the little creatures skipping nimbly 
about the smaller branches in endlessly varied attitudes, peer- 
ing in the crevices of the bark for their minute insect food, 
taking short nervous flights from one bough to another, twitch- 
ing their wings as they alight, and always too busy to pay 
attention to what may be going on around them. They appear 
to be incessantly in motion — I know of no birds more active 
than these — presenting the very picture of restless, puny 
energy, making '^ much ado about nothing". 



American Golden-crested Kinglet 

Regiilus satrapa 

Sylvia regUlUS, Wits. AO. i 1808, 126, pi. 8, f. 0. 

RegUlUS crlStatUS, Banr. Trav. Fla. 1791, 291, no. 107 (at-e Cones, Proc. Pbila. Acad. 1875. 

351)._{7. OAS. ii. 1807, 50, pi. 107.— i?p. Journ. Phi!a. Acad iv. \&i4, 187.— Dp. Aau. 

Lye. N. Y. ii. 1826, 91.— iVu«. Man. i. 1832, i'20.—.4ud. OB. ii 18:i4, 476, pi. IS^. — Tuicns. 

Jouni. Pbila. Acad. viii. 18.39, 154. 
Parus isatrapa, " Illigar ". (Probably only a mu«ouni name). 



SYNONYMY AND CHARACTERS OF R. CRISTATUS 97 

BcSnlllS satrapa, " LicM. Vorz. 18-33, no. 410".— Bp. cat,. 183S, \9.—A>.id. Syn. 1839, 82.— 
Jiid. BA. ii. 1841, 165, pi. 13-3.— «;». CX. i 1850, W\.— Cabot, Naura. ii. pt. iii. 1853, 65 
(Lake Supeiior). — frood/t. Sitgr. Rep. 1853, f^l.—Hnj, Pr. Phila. Ac:id. vi. 1853,313.— 
Henry, Vt. Phila. Acad. vii. 1855, ^m.—Ke.nnic. Tt. Illinois Agr. Soc. 1. 1855,583 — 
Pratlcn, Tr. Illinois Agr. Soc. i. 185.5, mi.— Piitn. Pr. Ess. Inst. i. 18.56, 208.— Bddtker, 
J. f. O. 1856, 33, pi. 1, f. 8 (egg; Libra lor).— Sci. PZS. 1857, 213 (Orizaba). — A/rt.!:m. J. 
f. O. vi. 1858, III.— Bd. BNA. 1858. 2=iT.—Wdlis, Smiths. Rep. f..r 1858, 18,59, 282 (Nova 
Scotia).— //enry, Pr. Phila. Acad xi. 1859, Wd.-Scl. PZS. 1859, 235 (Vancouver).— 5cZ. 
PZS. I860, 25 1 (OriZiba).- C. 6f S. NHWT. 1860, 174 —Coues Sf Prent. Smiths. Rep. for 
1861, 1862, 405.— Saarrfm. Pr. Bost. Soc.ix. 1862, I2i. — Verr. Pr. Essex Inst. iii. 1862, 146.— 
Allen, Pr. Eis. lust. iv. 1864, 5-i.—Lurd, Pr. Koy. Art. Inst. Woolw. 1864, 114 (Vancou- 
ver; breeding).— Z?(i. Rev. AB. 1864, 65.— Hoi/, Smiths. Rep. for 1864, 1865, 438— Dress. 
Ibis, 1865, 476 (Texas).— Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. 1866, 282.—AUe7i, Am. Nat. i. 1867, 
43.— Brown, Ibis, 1868, 420 ( Vanconvei ).— Cottes, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 1868, 101.— DuU if 
Bann. Tr. Chicago Acad i. 1869, 277 (Ala'-ka). -Coop. Am. Nat. iii. 18C9, 32 (Montana).— 
Turnb. B. E. Pa. 1869, 22; Phila. ed. \a. — Coop. B. Cal. i. 1870, 3i.— Allen, Bull. MCZ. 
ii. i871, 960 (Florida).- Tr/ppe, Am. Nat. vi. 1872, il.—Brewst. Am. Nat. vi. 1872, .306 — 
Mayn. Pr. Bost. Soc. xiv. 1872, 361.— Mfiij?i. B. Fla. 1872, 25.— Oo«es, Key, 1372, 78, t. 
Id,— Aiken, Pr. Bost Soc. xv. 1872, 195 (Eastern Colovado). — Trippe, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 
1872, 234 (Iowa).— Tr/ppe, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1873, 234. — TWppe Am. Nat vii. 1873, 498.— 
Ridg. Bull. E^sex Inst. V. 187.3. 179 (Colorado).— /466o«, Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 364.— Coueg, 
BNW. 1874, 16.— i?. B. Sf R. NAB. i. 1874, 73, pi. 5, f. B.—Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 
4:i8.—Hensk. List B. Ariz. 1875, 154. 

RetulUS satrapu, Bnm. Smithson. Rep. for 1860, 1861, 4.35. 

Re^ulus satrapa var. olivasceiis, Bd. Rev. AB. 1864. 65. 

RcgUlUS satrapus, Coues, I'r. Phila. Acad. 1866, 66 (" Arizona "). — Mcllwr. Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 
1866. 8j.— Cones, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, ^68.— Abbott, Am. Nat. iv. 1870, Sii.-Trippe, Pr. 
E.ss. Inst. vi. 1871, 115. 

RegUlUS tricolor, Natt. Man. i. 1832, 4=iO.—Brcw. Journ. Bo.st. Soc. i 1837, 437.— Pea6. Rep. 
Orn. Mass i. 1839, 3\4— Read, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 399.—Tho?nps. Vermont, 1853, 84. 

?RegUlUS anieriCauUS, Ger/tard«, Naum. iii. 1853,38. 

fioldeil -crested Warbler, Pean. AZ. ii. 1785, 414, n.321 (excl. Eur. refs.). 

Ficry-rrowned Wren, Peab f,-Thomps. 11. cc. 

Amcricau Golden-crested Ringlet, ^u</. 1. c. 

Ruitelet liuppe, Le Maine, Ois. Canad. 1861, 216. 

Hab. — The whole of North America. South to Orizaba, Mexico. Winters 
in most of the United States. 

Cn. SP. — $ 2 Naribus ohteciis. VirentioUraceus,, siihtus sor- 
didejlavo-albm, alls cauddque fiiscls JJavo Umbatis, illis albo-blfas- 
ciatis; supercilHs cum /route albidis, vertlce nigro — S medio flam- 
meo flavolimbato, 2 medio flavo. 

$ , adult: Upper parts olive-green, more or less lirio;lit, sometimes rather 
olive-ashy, always brightest on the rump ; nnder parts dull ashy-white, or 
yellowish-white. Wings and tail dusky, strongly edged with yellowish — 
the inner wing-quills with whitish. On the secondaries, this yellowish edg- 
ing stops abrui)tly in advance of the ends of the coverts, leaving a pure 
blackish interval in advance of the white tips of the greater coverts, which, 
with the similar tips of the median coverts, form two white bars across the 
wings. The inner webs of the quills and tail-feathers are edged with w hite. 
Superciliary line and extreme forehead hoary-whitish. Crown black, inclos- 
ing a large space, the middle of which is flame-colored, bordered with pure 
yellow. Tlie black reaches across the forehead, but behind yellow and 
7 B 



98 



CHARACTERS OF REGULUS CRISTATUS 



ilanie-color reach the general olive of the upper parts. Or, the top of the 
head may be described as a central bed of flame-color, bounded in front and 
on the sides with clear yellow, tbis similarly bounded by black, this again 
in the same manner by hoary-whitish. Suialler than E. calendula. Length, 
4 inches ; extent, 6^-7 ; wing, 2-2^ ; tail, If. 

5 , adult; and young: Similar to the adult male, but the ceutral field of 
the crown entirely yellow, inclosed in black (no flame-color). I have never 
seen a rewly-fledged specimen ; but birds of the year, in the fall, always 
show black and yellow on the head, and 1 presume this ai)pears with the 
first feathering. 





Fig. 16. — Golden-crested Kinglet. 

Specimens vary considerably in the shade of the general coloi'ation, being 
.sometimes quite yellowish or greenish, at other times more ashy above, 
except on the rump, and nearly white below. Nor is this a matter of age 
or season, for it is shown by equally i^erfect spring specimens. I am 
unable to verify a supposed more greenish hue in western specimens; in 
point of fact, some of the richest specimens I ever saw are among those I 
collected years ago about Washington, D. C. 

UNLIKE the Euby-crown, the Gokl-crest is far from con- 
spicuous in the Ornis of the Colorado Basin. I find that 
I am usually quoted as authority for its occurrence in Arizona; 
but I expressly stated, in my paper published in 1S6G, that I 
had myself never met with it there. 1 cannot now speak posi- 
tively of the authority upon which 1 relied for including it 
among the birds of that Territory, but think it was Dr. S. W. 
Woodhouse, who speaks of it as very abundant in Texas and 
N'ew Mexico, the latter including Arizona at the time he wrote. 
It is given in none of the Pacific Railroad Reports, nor in the 
Mexican Boundary Survey, nor in Ives's Colorado River Surve}'^, 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF GOLD-CREST 99 

all of which works mention the other species. Mr. Heushaw 
places it in his List of the Birds of Arizona, bat quotes 
me. Mr. Uidgway includes it without remark in his List of 
the Birds of Colorado Territory, where, however, neither 
Mr. Allen nor Mr. Trippe appears to have observed it, though 
Mr. 0. E. Aiken found it. It is omitted from Mr. Henshaw's 
List of the Birds of Utah. Mr. Ridgway found it in the West 
Humboldt Mountains, and Dr. Cooi)er in the Sierra IsTevada. 
From these data, and others that might be given, its rarity in 
the Great Basin and southward is clearly perceived ; yet of its 
actual presence in portions of the region drained by the Colo- 
rado and its tributaries there is of course no doubt. It is 
stated not to have been found south of Fort Crook, California, 
on the w^est coast. In Mexico, it has been traced to Orizaba. 
Details of its local distribution aside, its general range is much 
the same as that of the Ruby-crown, including North America 
at large. 

Yet it is upon the whole a more northerly species. This is 
witnessed both by its apparent absence from Central American 
localities to which the other species regularly resorts in winter, 
and by the respective limits of its breeding and wintering 
ranges. We have no evidence, as yet, of its nesting in the 
Rocky Mountains at large, as the Ruby-crowa does, for the 
southerly observations made upon it on these and other high 
mountains of the west seem to have been during the migra- 
tions. In the West, it has not been ascertained to breed south 
of the Columbia, where Xuttall states that he saw it feeding its 
young. May 21, 1835; Dr. Cooper witnessed the same thing 
in August at Paget Sound ; and Mr. J. K. Lord found the 
nest and eggs ou Vancouver's Island. In the East, the breeding 
range seems to be nearly coincident with that of calendula. The 
bird has been observed through the summer in Maine, under 
circumstances which left no doubt of its nesting there ; while 
Audubon saw it engaged with its young in Labrador in August, 
and Ilerr F. W. Biideker has figured the egg from an exam- 
ple procured in the last-named country. The close parallelism 
in the eastern breeding range of the two species should make 
us cautious in granting that the Golden-crest is actually absent 
from most of the Rocky Mountain region where the Ruby- 
crown breeds ; for it will be remembered that the evidence, 
though strongly presumptive, remains of a negative character. 
On the other hand, there seems to be a decided discrepancy 



100 NEST, EGGS AND MANNERS OF THE GOLD-CREST 

between the wintering ranges of tlie two; for the present 
species winters reguhirly and readily in the United States at 
large — even so far north as ifew England and Washington 
Territory. 

Br. Brewer states that the nest and eggs had not been de- 
scribed at the time of his writing ; nevertheless, a few lines fur- 
ther on he quotes Mr. Lord's account of " a pensile nest sus- 
pended from the extreme end of a pine branch", while the open- 
ing paragraph of the article in which the statement occurs 
gives the reference to Badeker's figure and desciiption of the 
eg^. The i)late indicates a rather roundish egg, though the 
two specimens figured differ noticeably in size and shai)e ; they 
are spoken of in the text as — '■'"niedliche Ideine Eierchen mit 
lehmgelhcn Fleclcchen auf weissem Gnmde''\ and compared with 
those of other species illustrated on the same plate. Various 
authors' accounts of the period at which newly fledged young 
were observed by them render it probable that two broods are 
annually reared. 

I have long been familiar with the resorts and the si)rightly 
ways of the Golden-crest^ but these scarcely call for remark 
after what has been said about the liuby-crowu, since their hab- 
its and manners are closely correspondent. In peering about 
for insects and larvae that lurk in the chinks of bark, it is 
equally tireless, and makes the same show of petty turbu- 
lence — another " tempest in a teai)ot". The song I am not 
sure I have ever recognized, and most authors have passed 
it over. Dr. Brewer says: — "Without having so loud or so 
powerful a note as the iluby-crown, for its song will admit of 
no comparison with the wonderful vocal powers of that species, 
it yet has a quite distinctive and prolonged succession of pleas- 
ing notes, which I have heard it pour forth in the midst of the 
most inclement weather in February almost uninterruptedly, 
and for quite an interval." 



Subfamily POLIOPTILIN^ : GxXATcatchers 

CnARS. — Tarsi scutellate. Toes very short, the lateral only 
about half as long as the tarsus ; outer a little longer than the 
iinier. First quill spurious, about half as long as the se^joud. 
Wings rounded, not longer than the gt-a.luated tail, the feathers 



POLIOPTILA P. C^ERULEA 101 

of wbich widen toward their rounded ends. Bill shorter than 
heatl, straight, broad and depressed at base, rapidly uarrow^- 
ingto the very slender terminal portion, distinctly notched and 
hooked at the end — tlius nmscicapiiie in character. Kictus 
with well developed bristles. Xostrils entirely exposed. 

This is a small group of one genus and about a dozen species, 
confined to Auierica, chiefly developed in Central and South 
America. It may not be well placed in the Sylviidcv, but is 
better off here than among the Parid'ce, where it is put by some. 
I should not be surprised if its closest relationships were with 
the true Muscicapida' of the Old World. 

Genus POLIOPTILA Sclater 

Chars. — To the foregoing add: Coloration grayish-blue, 
white below, without red or yellow on head ; tail black, bor- 
dered with white. 

The three North American species occur in the Colorado 
region, two of them, iu fact, being ciiaracteristic of this part of 
the country. They are dimiuutive birds, of great energy and 
activity, expert in flycatching, inhabiting woodland, migrator}^, 
and musical — though the ordinary call note is a sharp squeak. 



BUie-^ray ^luafcatchcr 

Polioptila ea;rulca 

Motacilla cjenilea, L. SX. i. 176fi, 3)7 ^Edw. Glean, pi. 302). 

Sylvia cicrulea, Utk. lo. ii. 1790, 540, no. 1-.3I. 

CuliCiVorac;erulea, /DOrft. Ois Cuba, 18.39,90.— ZJrcw). Pr. Bost. Soe.vii. 1860, 306 (Cuba).— 

Hoy, Smiths. Rep. for 1864, 1865, 437. 
Sylvaiiia cicrulea, iv««e. Man. ad ed. i. 1840, 337. 
PoMoptilaCierulea, (Sci. PZS. 1855, [l. — Xant. Pr. Phlla Acad, xi 18.59, 191 (California). —Barn. 

Smiths. Rep. for 1860, 1861,437. — Brf. Rev. AB. 1861, H. — Dress. Ibis, 1865, 485 (reXK«).— 

Coucs, Ibil, 1865, 538 (Arizona). — Coucs, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1866, 66 (Arizona). — Cones, 

Pr. Essex Inst. v. 1868, 268 -Crues, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 1868, 101.— Butrh. Pr. Phila. 

Acad. XX. 1868, 149 (Texas).— Mai/ra. B. Fla. 1872, iS.ScoU, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1872. 

221 (ViTgim&).— Allen, Am. Nat. vi. 1872, 269.— Brcjocr, Am. Nat. vi. 1872, 483. — /? (Via-. 

Bull. Ess. Inst. V. 1873, 179.— iVcrr. Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 8.— B. B. S,- R. NAB. i. 1874. 78. 

pi. 6, f r^. — Iirew. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvli. 187.'>, 451.— //chsA. Li-^t B. Ariz. 1875, 155.— /itnsA. 

Zu>l. Expl. W. lOOMerid. lS-76, 166 (Arizona). 
MotacUla facnilca, Gm. SS. i. 1768, 992, no. 43. 

CuMcMora caenilea, Bp. CA. i. 1850, :ilfi.— Gun dl. J. f. 0. 1861, 407 (Cuba). 
Polioplilacacrulea, .S'd. PZS. 1859, .363 (Xalapa).—Gu«d<. J. f. O. 1861, 324 (Cuba) ; 1872, 

4(19 (Cuba). 
Huscirapa C«prulca, Bp. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 172.— GawJ. Journ. PUila. Acad. i. 

1847, 38. 
Cnlicivora CttTUlea, And. BA. i. 1840, 244. pi. m.— Wmulh. .Sitgreave's Rep. 1853, fil.—Ilt.nry, 

Pr. Phila. Acad. vii. 1855, 3U9 (New Mexico).- /'mOi. Pr. Essex Inst. i. 1856, 206. 



102 SYNONYMY AND CHARACTERS OF P. CiERULEA 



Polioptiln ccerillen, Henry, Pr. Pbila. Acad. xi. 1859, 107 (New Mexico).— Bd. Ives's Rnp. 

pt. V. 18(51, 6.—Lnwr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. 1866, 283. — Sreicer, Am. Nat. i. 1867, 116, 

117. — t^wr. Ann Lye. N. Y. ix. 1?69, 199 {YucatAa). — Tur/ib. BE. Pa. 1869, 28; Phila. 

ed. 21.— CoMcs, BNW. 1874, 17 —Hensh. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, 99. 
Cnncivoraroerulca. Gundl. 3. f. o. 1855. 471 (Cuba). 

Culicivora ctTUlca, Hoy, Pr. Phiia. Acad. vi. 185'3, 'i^'i.—Haym. Pr. Phila. Acad. viil. 1856,289. 
Afotacilla caiia, Gm. SN. i. pt. ii. 1788,973, uo. lie (from Buff. 

Latli,, and I'lnn). 

Sylvia caiia, Lntii.io. \\. 1790, ^r^, no. i.33. 

Re^UlllS irriceus, Barlr. Trav. Fla. 1791, 29L 
Culicivora inexicaiia, 7?p CA. i. 18-50, 316 ($; ?)ec Caws.). 
Pulioiltila mexicana, Scl. PZS. 18.59, 363, 373 (Xalapa, Oax- 
aca)- 5 6f S Ibis, 1859, 9 (Guatemala).— Sd. PZS. 1862,18 
(Southern Mexico). 

Fircdula pensj'lvanicaciiierea, Briss. " Av. App. 107, no. 79 ". 
Litlle niiie-grey Fly-catcher, Edw. Glean, pi. 302. 
Figuicr grris-de-fer, Buff. " Oi-t. v. 3 9". 
Cierul an Warbler, Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 49i», no. 117.— - 
Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 4U5, no. 299. 

Plffuier cendi'i; ii gorge tendrt'C, Buff. " v. 3i9 ". 

Grey-thrnat Warbler, Lalk. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 496, no. 128.— Fig. 17.— Head^of Blue- 

Penn. A Z. ii. 1785, 411, no. 315. gray Gnatcatcher (low. fig.); 

Blue-gray Flycatcher, And l. c. of Black-capped Gnatcatcher 

C'ulicivoregris dc fer, V'Orh. I. c. (up. fig.) ; nat. size. 




Hab. — United State.s from Atlantic to Pacific ; north to the Connecticut 
Valley and Yreka, Cal. ; south through Me.Kico and Lower California to 
Gnateniala. Bahamas. Cuba. Breeds throughont its United States range. 
Winters on the .southern United States border and southward. 

Cii. sp. — Cano-ccerulea, infra canescenti alba, alts fmcis cano 
limhutis, Cauda nigra, rectrice externa alhd,secundd alhodimidiatd, 
tertia albo-terminatd, orbitis albis, rostra pedlbiisque nipris. S 
veriice marjis cccrulescente, f route cum strigd superclliari nigrd; 
9 vertice dorso concolore, p'onte et superciliis innotatis. 

^, adult : Grayish-blue, bluer on the crown, hoary on the rump, the fore- 
head black, continuous wifh a black superciliary line. Edges of eyelids 
■white, and above these a slight whitish stripe is commonly observed bordering 
the black exteriorly. Below white, with a faint plumbeous shade, particu- 
larly on the breast. Wings dark brown, the outer webs, especially of the 
innt^r quills, edged with hoary, and the inner webs of most bordered with 
■white. Tail jet-black, the outer feather entirely or mostly white, the next 
oneabout half white, the third one tijjped with white. Bill and feet black. 
Length, 4^-.') ; extent, 6|r-7 ; wing, 2-2^ ; tail about the same. 

$: Like the <?, but duller and more grnyish-blue above; the head like 
the back, and without any black. Bill usually in part light colored. 

The extent of white on the tail varies somewhat; but I have seen no 
eastern specimens in which the outer feather was not white in all of its 
extent which was not covered by the under coverts. In some Arizona 
exam[)les, however, the black which usually exists at the base extends be- 
yond the coverts, and in fact there is little more white on this feather than 
there is in P. plumbea, though the black of the frontlet is intact. 



MIGRATIONS OF THE BLUE-GKAY GNATC'ATCHER 103 

IN its winter resorts among the groves of the southernmost 
States, this tiny creature grows restless with the first breath 
of spring, and frets till its impatience is resolved into the 
mysterious impulse of migration, or absorbed in the more 
pressing duties of the mating season. Tliose that are inclined 
to seek a summer home in the north pass leisurely along in 
March and April, reaching Virginia and Maryland early in the 
latter month, and the Middle States by the first of May. They 
seldom proceed further than this along the Atlantic coast, the 
Connecticut Valley being the terminus of their route.. They 
have been said to reach Nova Scotia, but this appears doubt- 
ful, though in the interior the migration is pushed to the 
region of theGreat Lakes and bordersof the British Provinces — 
west of the Mississippi to Iowa and Nebraska, but apparently 
not to Minnesota. Those that winter in the valleys of the Rio 
Grande and Colorado Rivers seem to be more restricted in 
their movements, as they are not known to penetrate the mount- 
ainous regions to the northward much if any beyond the sources 
of these great streams. On the Pacific slopes, the limit must 
be fixed, so far as we know now, at latitude 42°. 

In the Colorado B.isiu, this Gnatcatcher is sparingly but 
generally distributed in summer, and resident, as far as the 
whole area is concerned, though i)artial]y migratory within its 
limits, since those individuals that repair to northerly or alpine 
districts to breed retire in the fall to the lower warmer portions. 
At Fort Whipple, in the spring of 1805, 1 did not notice their 
j)resence until the last week in April ; but, as I was not then 
collecting every day, 1 may have missed them on their first ap- 
pearance. At VVashington, D. (3., where they are more numer- 
ous than I have found them to be anywhere in the West, I 
used to note tiieir arrival each spring for several years in the 
early part of April. On entering the noble oak forests which 
still surronnd the city, at a time when the bads, though swollen, 
have not yet burst into the leafy canopy which later covers 
the nakedness of the branches and gives privacy to the life of 
numberless sylvan si)rites besides the Blue-gray Gnatcatchers, 
I seldom missed first heaiing, then seeing, these wayward and 
capricious little creatures. Though so near the most uncertain 
and dangerous spot in America — Washington, " Mecca of the 
unfortunate and the tomb of ambition'', tlie Blue-grays seem 
to have no fears for the success of their recent pilgrimage from 
the South, and indulge the aspirations of the day. Not content 



104 BEHAVIOR OF THE BLUE-GRAY GNATCATCIIER 

with the low estate of the shrubbery, which seeras best suited 
to shelter their insigiiifi(5aiice, they mount the tallest trees, and 
go the rounds with all the bluster and display of assured suc- 
cess. From the tree-tops come the shrill wiry notes, two or 
three at a time, like tzee-tzeetzee, as the birds skip nimbly from 
twig to twig, with lowering half-spread wings and nervous 
twitching of the whole body, in eager quest of insects and 
larvai, now pausing a moment to pry more closely into a suspected 
crevice of the bark, then darting into the air to capture a pass- 
ing fly, and regaining their perch after almost a somersault. 
Kestless and bustling as all its actions are at such times, there 
is something more remarkable still in the excessive eagerness 
betrayed, and the wonderful elan with which they dash upoa 
their prey — as if they would crowd the business of a lifetime 
into its early days, and seize its prizes with the first impetuous 
assault. We must admire such spirit, even after we have 
learned it is unsafe. 

Days pass in this incessant activity, this impetuous revolt 
from the monotony of idleness, till other impulses are stimulated 
with the warmth of the advancing season, and the sharp accents 
of the voice are modulated into sweet and tender song, so low 
as to be inaudible at any considerable distance, yet so fault- 
lessly executed and well sustained that the tiny musician may 
claim no mean rank in the feathered choir. A little later still 
w^e may, perchance, if our eyes are sharp, and we know just 
where to look, discover the extremely beantifid nest which the 
Blue gray makes for itself — a structure which cannot fail to 
excite our wonder and admiration. Excepting the Humming- 
bird's nest, none can compare with this exquisite specimen of 
bird architecture, cunningly contrived to combine elegance 
with comfort, artfully rendered substantial without sacrifice of 
good taste, and ingeniously screened from observation by the 
same means that are employed for its ornamentation. True to 
its aspirations, the bird nestles high in the trees, usually at 
least twenty yards from the ground, i)lacing the fabric among 
slender twigs, to whi(;h it is woven, oftenest at the extremity 
of a bough which swavs with the wind. To insure the safety 
of its contents during the motion to which it is often subjected, 
it is built remarkably deep, and contracted at the orifice, so 
that the cavity is somewhat purse-shaped, and the general 
shape outside is like that of a truncated cone. It seems large for 
the size of the bird — it is sometimes three and a half inches in 



NEST AND EGGS OF BLUE-GRAY GNATCATCHER 105 

heigbt, and nearly as ranch in width at the base, with a diaraeter 
of two incht'S at the brim. The walls are closely and warmly 
matted or felted with the softest ve^^etable material, the de- 
composed fibre of various plants, thistle-down, and like sub- 
stances, in some cases woven with spider's web. The structure 
is artistically finished with stucco-work of lichens all over the 
outside, which serves the double purpose of perfecting its 
beauty and making it resemble a natural excrescence. In such 
an elegant cradle, eggs are laid, to the number of four, five, or 
even six, measuring scarcely three-filths of an inch in length 
and less than half an inch in their greatest diameter — white 
in color, speckled and dashed, generally over the whole surface, 
with several shades of reddish or umber brown and lilac. In 
such a secure home as this, the Blue gray Flycatcher usually 
rears its brood unmolested ; it has little to fear ex(;ept from the 
Cowbird and from the ornithologist, against which enemies no 
art avails. The parasitic bird might have its own excuse to 
offer, could its motives be called in question ; the other may 
apologize, after a fashion, by averring that even this slight 
sketch of the Blue-gray Guatcatcher's life could not be finished 
had the nest never been ritled. 



r*liiiiabeoii!$ Gnatcatcher 

Polioptila pluiubea 

Polioptila plunibea, Bd. Pr. Phila. Acad. vii. 1858, n%.—Bd. B.^A. 1858, 332; atlas, 1860, pi. 

33, f. I (Xfizoua.). —Heitry, Pr. Piiila. Acad. 185i(, 107. — Bd. Ives's Rep. pt. v. 1861, 6.— 

Bd. Rev. AB. 166}, li.—Coues. Ibis, 1865, 538— Ooftes, Pr. Pbila. Acad. 1866, 66 —Coop. 

Am. Nat. iii. 1869. 474. 479.— Coop. B. Cal i. 1870, 37, fig.— Coucs, Key, 187;2, 79.— B. B. 

cV R. NAB. i. 1874, 80, pi. 6, tG.^Heiish. List. B. Utah, 1875, 155. 
Lead-colored Flycatcher, Coop. l. c. 
Lead-colored Onatcatclicr; Arizona Gnatcatcher, B. B. ^ R. l. c. 

Hab. — (Not known to occur beyond tbo) Valley of the Gila and Colorado. 

Cii. SP. — Similis prwcedetiti aed notmo minus ccvrulescenfe, et 
fronte concolore; strnjd solum superciliari nigra., altera hreviore 
alba; rectrice externa pogonio exteriore et apice albis. 9 capite 
innotato. 

<? , adult : U[)per parts like those of P. cwrulea, but duller and more gray- 
ish ; no black on the forehead ; a short black stripe over each eye, and be- 
low this another one of white. Outer tail-feather with the whole outer 



106 THE PLUMBEOUS GNATCATCHER 

web and tip white (much like the second feather of P. cceritlea) ; the next 
two feathers tipped with white. Size of P. cwnilea. 

9 : Like the <? ; the upper parts still duller, and frequently with a decided 
brownish shade; no black over the eye. Oiily distiugiiished from 9 cfr''"'t^rt 
by less white on the tail. 

The difference between this species and P. ccerulea lies only in the less 
amount of white on the tail and absence of black on the forehead. The 
black on the head is restricted to a short superciliary stripe, instead of reach- 
ing across the forehead. The outer tail-feather has about as much white as 
there is on the second feather of P. cwfiilea, while the next feather corre- 
sponds to the third of ccerulea. In view of the observed variations in this 
respect, it may fairly be questioned whether the present is anything more 
than a local race of P. ccvrulea, as would certainly seem to be the case if 
specimens also intermediate in the character of the black on the head should 
be forthcoming. This, however, has not been observed ; while the fact that 
the two forms live side by side i i Arizona, each preserving its characters for 
the most part intact, is evidence in favor of their specific difference. 

,n. C. B. R. KENNRRLY discovered this bird on Bill Will- 
iams' River, Arizona, in ISjI, and it was described by Pro- 
fessor Baird daring the same year. It does not seem to be a com- 
mon bird ; in fact, the small nnmber of specimens acquired in 
the interval between its discovery and the present time go to 
show that it is less abundant in Arizona than P. cwnilea^ 
though in one sense it is the characteristic species of the Ter- 
ritory. Daring my residence at Fort Whipple, I did not And it, 
or, at any rate, did not recognize it, though 1 took specimens 
in several other localities, lower than or south of Whipple. In 
these places, it was seen in summer and early autumn. Dr. 
Cooper remarks its wintering on the Colorado as high as Fort 
Mojave. There is nothing to speak of in its habits and man- 
ners after what has been said of its near relative. 



ISlack-capped Oiiatcatcher 

I'olioptila. inelanura 

Cullclvora atricapilla, Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. V. 1852, 124 (Texas).— B(i. Stansbury's Rep. 
IB.iv!, :i2S.—Ht:erm.JoMTn. Pliila. Acad. ii. 1853, 262. 

Polioptila niclaniira, Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. vi. 1856, 168 (Texas and Californiii).— Rti. BXA. 
1858, 382. — «rf. Pr. Phila. Acad. Ib'.g, 304 (Cape Saint Lwa.^). —f/eenn. PURR. x. 1859, 
3d.—Bd. Rev. A8. 1864, 68.— Dress. Ibis, 186.'>, 485 (Texas).— CoMts, Pr Phila. Acad. 
1866, 66 (Arizona).— Coo;). Am. Nat. iii. 180!), 184 —Coo;j. B. Cal. i. 1870, 37,3;.;.— 
Cones. Key, 1872, 79, f. 20.— J^. B. f,- R. NAB. i. 1874, 81, pi. 6, f. l.—IIansh. List B. 
Ariz. 1875, 155. 



THE BLACK-CAPPED GNATCATCHER 107 



Culicivora niexicann, Caf^s, ill. i. 1854, 1C4, pi. 27 (not of Bp.). 
Black-heiided Giiatcatrher, Oon.es, 1. c. 
Black-capped Guatcalcher, B. B. (f R. 1. c. 

/ / 
Hab.— Texas to Southern and Lower California. ff l 



Ch. sp. — Similin P. cwniJecc; sed vertice , / 



nigro, pogonio externa rectricis exterioris albo- 
Umbato, apice albo. 



I 



^ : Like P. cceruJex, but the whole,, top of the head i 

black. White of tail reduced to a minimum; the ' 
outer web of the outer feather being usually edged 
with white, instead of wholly white, and the tip of 

the inner web, with the tip of the uext feather, white Fig. 18.— c tail of Black- 

for a very slight space; no white ob.served on the cnpped Gnatcatcher ; d, of 

ii • 1 r Ii c- ' c i\ 4^ ,:„ . . 4^ .„ ; „.+i^„v. Plumbe'ius Gnatcatcher; 

third feather. Size ot the toregoiug ; tarsi rather 

longer — about 0.70. 2 : No black on the head. 

The male of this species is immediately distinguished from that of either 

of the two foregoing by having the whole top of the head black. The 

female, however, presents somedifficulty, being mainly distinguishable by the 

minimum amount of white ou the tail, as above described, and the rather 

longer tarsi, which are | of an inch instead of about f . 

TELE Black capped Guatcatcber, first described by Mr. G. N. 
Lawrence in 1851, was discovered at Ringgold Barracks, 
Texas, by Capt. J. P. McCown, then of the United States Army, 
who subsequently changed his allegiance to a temporary con- 
federation which was declared in 18SL. Various observers 
hav^e since met with the bird in difterent portions of the South- 
west, till its range has been ascertained to extend from Texas 
to California, at the latitude of San Diego, and down the pen- 
insula to Cape Saint Lucas, including a portion of Mexico. I 
never saw it at Fort Whipple, nor does Mr. Ilenshaw appear to 
have met with it in his various tours in the Sauthwest. Lieu- 
tenant Bendire found it resident about Tucson, and Dr. Cooper 
states that it remains during the winter at Fort Mojave and 
Sau Diego. The published records of its habits, excluding 
some statements that do not seem very well consiilered, indi- 
cate nothing peculiar in comparison with those of P. cxndea; 
while the nest and agg'^^ as described hy Dr. B reaver, are sub- 
stantially the same, tliougli some " black" m irkings of the lat- 
ter are mentioned. This may be a remirkable circumstance, 
for, according to the same author (N. Am. O ol. p. 1) " markings 
of a jet-black color, even to the extent of blotches, spots, or 
lines, are of very rare occurrence, if not positively unknown". 



CHAPTEK v. — WREN-TITS 



Fam. CHAM^ID^ 

THIS small group was proposed in 1864, by Professor Baird, 
for the accommodation of a single genus and spe -ies not 
readily referable to any established familv; although, as its 
proposer suggested, the bird may belong to some recognized 
exotic group. Its characters, which are in effect the same as 
those of the genus Chamtm, are given under head of the latter. 

Genus CHAMPA Gambel 

Chars. — Form and general aspect combining features of 
Wrens and Titmice. Plumage extraordinarily lax, soft and full. 
Coloration simple. Tarsal scutelUi obsolete, or faintly indi- 
cated. Toes coherent at base for about half the length of the 
proximal joint of the middle one. Soles widened and padded, 
much as in Parirkc. Primaries 10, the sixth longest, the third 
equal to the longest secondaries, the first about f as long as 
the longest; wing thus extremely rounded, and much shorter 
than the tail (about § as long). Tail very long, constituting 
more tban half the entire length of the bird, extremely gradu- 
ated, with soft, narrow feathers, widening somewhat toward 
their tips, rounded at the end, the lateral pair not two thirds 
as long as the middle. Bill much shorter than head, straight, 
stout, compressed-conical, not notched, with ridged culmen, 
naked, scaled, linear nostrils, and strongly bristled gape. 

The genus may be found referable to the Troglodytidcc in the 
vicinity of Cinnicerthia. 



TBie T% reii-tit 

Ctaamsea fasciata 

Pams fasciatus, Gamh. Pr. Pliila. Acad. ii. 1845, 265 (California). 

Cbamtra fasciata, Gnmb. Pr. Phila. Acad. iii. IP4n, 154 (type).— Gamft. Journ. Phila. .4cad. 

2a ser. i. 1847, 34, pi. 8, f. X—Cass. 111. i. 1853, .39, \,\.1.—Xnnt. Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 

J8.59, \9\.—nd. RAB. i. 18fi4, 16. — Coop. Am. Nat. iii. 18fi9. 185. — Coo;>. B. Gal. i. 1870, 

30, figH. — Cones, Key, 1872, 7<i.— Coop. Am. Nat. viii. 1874, IT.— C. B. Sf R. NAB. 

1874, 84, figs., pi. 6, f. %.—Nds. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 356 



CHARACTERS OF CHAM.EA FASCIATA 109 

Chamaea fasciata, Cub. Arcli. f. Naturg. 1818, Bd. i. \0-2.—Bp. CA. i. 1850, 206.— Bd. BNA. 

1858. 371).— Heerm. PRRR. x. 18.59, 4:?. 
Chamca fasciata, Bd. Stansbury's Uep. GSL. 1852, 332.— Mien, Am. Nat. vi. 187:.', 350, 404. 
Ground Wren, Wren-tit, Ground-tit, F«/°-. 

Hab. — Califoruia from the Sierra Nevada to the coast, from the Sacra- 
meuto Valley to Sau Diego. 

Ch. SP. — S 2 OUvaceofusca, cnj)ite ohseuriore, alls caudmiue 
obsolete transfasclatis ; infra paUide c'ninamomiiia, later ibus 
crissoque obscur lor ibus, gnld et peetore obsolete fasco-striatis. 

Adult : Dark browu with an olive shade, the top of the head clearer and 
somewhat streaky, the wiugs and tail purer brown, obscurely marked with 
numerous cross-bars ; below dull cinnamou-brown, shaded with olive-brown 
on the sides and cris.suin, .the throat and breast obscurely streaked with 
dusky; bill and feet brown; iris white. Length about six inches; wing, 
2i-2^ ; tail an inch longer, much graduated, the lateral feathers being au 
inch or more shorter than the middle ones ; bill, -J^; tarsus, -^j ; middle toe 
and claw, f. First primary nearly an inch shorter than the longest one. 

With a general purine a[ipearauca, this species, as indicated by the above 
measurements, is of remarkable shape, quite uulike that of any other North 
American bird. It was usually classed with the Pandw, until a separate 
family was formed for its reception. The tail is very long, much exceeding 
the wings, and forms rather more than half the entire length of the bird. 
The wings are exceedingly short and rounded, the exposed portion of the 
tirst primary being less than au inch in length. The plumage is reujarkably 
long, soft and lax ; the culoratioa incouspicuouSf blended and diffuse. The 
tarsal scutella tend to become fused, though a few large plates may com- 
monly be observed in front. 

THE Wren tit is one of several interesting discoveries inatle 
in Califoruiii by Dr. William Uambel,of Philadelpliia, whose 
life left an example of bow much may be accom[)lishe(l in a 
brief space of time by the wise use of natural gifts. He at 
first called it a Parus, but, soon perceiving its strongly dis- 
tinctive characters, conferred upon it the appropriate title of 
Chamcva {yjifiM^ "on the ground"), in allusion to its terrestrial 
habits. According to his accounts, which remain the most 
accurate and pertinent of those which have thus far reached 
me, I gather that its habits are quite Wren-like ; that it in- 
habits shrubby and weedy places, is restless and active, expert 
in eluding obversation, and clamorous in resenting intrusion 
of its haunts, with harsh scolding notes; that it shares, further- 
more, the very Wren-like way of holding the tail erect at times, 
and nervously twitching it. He observed its manner of search- 
ing for its insect food by scrambling sideways about the weeds 
and bushes; and speaks of other notes it possesses more musical 



110 HABITS OF THE WREN-TIT 

tban its usual scolding cries — a succession of slow monotonous 
whistling notes prolonged with a trill. Dr. J. G. Cooper, who 
found the bird " common everywhere west of the Sierra Nevada, 
on dry plains and hillsides covered with chaparral and other 
shrubby undergrowth", describes the nest and eggs, which he 
discovered at San Diego during the last week of April, 18G3. 
The nest was placed in a shrub about three feet from the 
ground, and was "composed of straws and twigs mixed with 
feathers, firmly interwoven", lined with grass and hair; the 
cavity was a little less than two inches wide, and about as 
deep. "The eggs were 0.70x0.52 inch in size, and pale green- 
ish blue" in color. 

I have myself uever seen this curious bird alive ; and I 
hesitated to bring it into the present connection. A short 
uotice, however, of the interesting species seemed desirable, 
and I concluded to introduce it, on the strength of its occur- 
rence in the country about Fort Tejon, at the western edge of 
the interior basin — particularly since there is no doubt in my 
own mind that the bird actually inhabits a small part of the 
Colorado water-shed. It is, however, characteristic of the 
coast region from the Sacramento Valley to Lower California, 
and back from the coast to the Sierra Nevada. There is even 
a record of its probable or possible presence in Colorado Ter- 
ritory ; but this is so extremely doubtful that I shall not refer 
to it more explicitly — I have learned too much of the " growing 
apace" of ornithological ill weeds that once take root. For all 
we know, ChanKva remains a singularly isolated form, so re- 
stricted in habitat, and so widely separated from former or 
present allies, that the wonder is how it was ever developed in 
this place without leaving a trace of its ancestry. 



CHAPTEE VI.— TITMICE 



Fam. PARIDaE 

EXCEPTING the aberrant genus Aunparus, wbich perhaps 
belongselsewhere(see beyond), the North American Paridce 
are all very closely interrelated, and agree in the following- char- 
acters: — Bill very short and stont, straight, compressed-conoid 
in shape, not notched nor with decurved tip, its under as well 
as upper outline convex. Rictus without true bristles, but 
base of the bill covered with tufts of bristly feathers directed 
forward, entirely concealing the nostrils. Feet stout; tarsi 
distinctly scutellate, longer than the middle toe; toes rather 
short, the anterior soldered together at the base for most of 
the length of the basal joint of the middle one. Hind toe with 
an enlarged pad beneath, forming, with the consolidated bases 
of the anterior toes, a broad firm sole. Wing with 10 i)rimaries, 
of which the first is very short or spurious, scarcely or not 
half as long as the second; wing as a whole rounded, scarcely 
or not longer than the tail, which latter is rounded or graduated 
and composed of 12 narrow soft feathers, with rounded or 
somewhat truncated tips. Plumage long, soft and loose, with- 
out bright colors (again excepting Aurlparus) or well marked 
changes according to sex, age or season. Size small (length 
under 7 inches). 

There is really a close similarity in external form — borne out 
to some extent in habits — between the Titmice and the Jays. 
Thus a species of Parus is hardly distinguishable in details of 
form from Perisoreus, and Lophophanes as closely resembles 
Cyamirus. There will, however, be no difficulty in distingnish- 
ing them, if only by the arbitrary criterion of size — for all the 
Jays are much larger than any Titmice. In the assemblage of 
upward of a hundred species which, according to conven- 
tional usage, comi)ose the Parida^, certain aberrant forms are 
generally separated as subfamilies; but a large majority are 
referable to the 



112 characteristics of the parinye 

Subfamily PARIN.E : True Titmice 

The familiar Chickadee, so called from its quaint notes, which 
are thought to resemble the syllables chiek'-ddee, stands as a 
typical represeutative of this group. The accredited species, 
to the number of about seventy, are, with few exceptions, 
confined to the northern hemisphere, and abound in most parts 
of Europe, Asia and North America. A strong family like- 
ness runs through the whole of them, and their habits and 
manners in most respects are much the same. The principal 
exception to this statement is found in the methods of nidi tication, 
which vary greatly — some species building in holes of trees, 
which they excavate like woodpeckers, while others construct 
immense purse-like pensile nests of grasses or mosses. They 
are for the most part hardy birds, capable of enduring great 
cold with impunity; this circumstance, which, with their omniv- 
orous tastes, renders procuring of food of one kind or another 
easy at all seasons, causes them to be non-migratory, or only 
imperfectly so. Their musical ability is decidedly of a low 
order, though they have a great variety of hearty and not dis- 
pleasing notes. They are very active, restless, energetic and 
industrious birds, withal turbulent, self asserting, and in the 
presence of man heedless to a degree. Among their own kind, 
they are sociable, in some cases, almost gregarious, but are 
accused of being tyrannical and cruel, like Jays, toward weaker 
or more defenseless species. They are very prolific, not only lay- 
ing a large clutch of eggs, but often rearing more than one brood 
annually; as a consequence, they are usually abundant wher- 
ever found at all. They are chiefly confined to wooded country ; 
the boreal species of America, like Parus hudsonicus, haunt 
the coniferous forests ; others, for the most part, prefer thickets, 
shrubbery and undergrowth. 

The four genera to be here treated will be readily dis- 
tinguished by the following characters. 

Genus LOPHOPHANES Kanp 

Chars. — Head crested. Wings and tail rounded, of about 
equal lengths, and about as long as the body. Bill conoid-com- 
pressed, with upper and under outlines both convex. No yel- 
low on head nor red on wing. Plumage lax, much the same 
at all ages and seasons. Average size of the species at a 



LOPHOPIIANES CHARS. AND SVNS. OF L. BICOLOR 113 

tnaxiiiiuiu for this group. Nests excavated iu trees. Eggs 
spotted. 

There are four perfectly good Americau species of " Tufted 
Titmice", only two of which are kuowu to occur iu the Colorado 
Basiu. For conveuieuce of comparing the three western species 
with the eastern one, the characters of the latter are subjoined.* 

" I^ophoplianes bicolor.— Tnlted Titmouse. 

ParilS biCOlor, L. SN. i. 1766, 340 (Gates, i. pi. 57).— Gm. SN. i. 1788, 1005. — LarA. 10. ii. 1790, 
567.— Z'((rt. SN. i. 1806, 621.— fr«7s. AO. i. 1808, 137, pi. 8, f. o.—Bp. Journ. Phila. Acad, 
iv. 1825, 255.-2?;?. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 1826, 100.— icss. Tr. Orn. 1831, AbCx—Aud. OB. i. 
1831, 199, pi. .19 — Null. Man. 1. 1832, ^^d.—Temvi. Man. iii. 1835. 210.— Bp. C. & G. L. 
1838, 20.— And. Syn. 1839, IS.— And. BA. ii. 1841, 143, pi. 125 (" Nova Bcotia,"). —Linsl. 
Am. Journ. Sci. xliv. 1843, 255 (Connecticut).— GiV. BLI. 1844, 78.— Read, Pr. Pbila. 
Acad. vi. 1853, 397 (Ohio).— Brew. Pr. Bost, Soc. iv. 1854, 325.— Henrij, Pr. Phila. Acad, 
vii. 1855, 309 (? 1 New Mexico).— A'ewni'c. Tr. Illiuois Agric. Soc. i. 1855, 58i.—Haym. Pr. 
Phila. Acad. viil. 1850, 290 (Indiana).— il/axm. J. t. O. vi. 1858, 118. (N. B.—I'arus 
bicolor. Fabric. Fn. Gra?nlaud. 1780, 123, is some other animal.) 

LophophniieiiibiCOlOr, Bp.CA. i. 1850, 228.— Ca.s.s. 111. 1853, IS.— Jf'oodh. Sitgr. Rep. Zufii, 
1853, 68 (Indian Temtory).— Maxim. J. f. O. 1858, 117.— /?</. BNA. 1858, 38i. — He7iry, 
Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 1859, WT.—Barii. Smiths. Rep. for 1860, 1861, 437 (Pennsylvania).— 
Coues ^S-Pre'it. Smiths. Rep. for 1861, 1862, 'in.—Haijd. Tr. Amer. Philos. Soc. xii. 1862, 
174.— Terr. Pr. Ess. Inst. iii. 1862, i57.—Bd. RAB. 1864, 18.— Allen, Pr. Ess. Inst. iv. 1864, 
8i.—Hoij, Smiths. Rep. for 1864, 1865, 438 (Missouri).— Dress. Ibis, 2d ser. i. 1865, 485 
(Texas).— Za!iT. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. 1866, 283.— C'o;(es, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 1868, 107 
(South Carolina).— Co?<cs, Pr. Ess. lust. v. 1868, 279 (New England).— Turwi. B. E. Pa. 
1869, 28 ; Phila. ed. 21.— Gre^^, Pr. Elmira Acad. 1870, — (Chemung Co. N. Y., rare).- 
Abbott, Am. Nat. iv. 1870, 5i5.— Allen, Bull. MCZ. ii. 1871, 261 (Florida) ; iii. 1872, 125 
< Kansas).— .9co«, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1872, 2-2i.— Allen, Am. Na.t. vi. 1872, 2Gi.—Mayji. B. 
Fla. 1872. 32.— Coues, Key, 1872, 80, f. 21.— Saoic, B. Kans. 1873, 6 (resident).— ifirf^/. 
Am. Nat. vii, 1873, 200.— rri>;7e, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1873, 236 (Iowa).— il/em Am. Nat. 
viii. 1874, 8, 86.— Goues, BNW. 1874, 19.— S. B. 6,- R. NAB. i. 1874, 87, pi. 6, f. \.—Btlio. 
Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 451. 

Raeolopbiis bicolor. Cab. MH. i. 1850, 91. 

Par.llS CristiltUS, Banr. Trav. Fla. 1st Am. ed. 1791, 292. 

Loptaophanes inissouriensis, Bd. BNA. 1858, .384 (in text). 

Toupet Titmouse, Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 423, no. 324. 

Mesaiige bictlore, Temm. \. c. 

Tufted Tituiuusc, t'restert Titiiioui^e, Vnig. 

Hab. — Eastern United States, from Texas and Nebraska to the Connecti- 
cut Vallev. 

Ch. sp. — $ 9 Cinereus, dorso paiilulum oUraxceutc ; hifra sordide alhiis, latiri- 
hiis ntjis ; /route nigra; rostro nigricante, i)edihus phinibeis. 

S 9 : Entire upper parts asby, tbe back usually witb a sligbt olivaceous 
shade, tbe wings and tail rather purer and darker plumbeous, the latter 
sometimes showing obsolete transverse bars. Sides of the head and entire 
under parts dull whitish, washed with chestnut-brown on the sides. A 
black frontlet at the base of the crest. Bill plumbeous-blackish ; feet plum- 
beous. Length, 6-64 inches; extent, 9f-10f; wing, 3-3^; tail about the 
same. 

Young : The crest less developed ; little if any trace of the black frontlet ; 
sides scarcely washed with rusty. 
8 B c 



114 CHARACTERS, ETC , OF LOPHOPHANES INORNATUS 

Plain Tifiiioii!i»e 

l.oi>lioi>9iancs iiioriintiis 

Farus inoniatUS, Gamb. Pr. Phila. Acad. ii. 1845, 265; iii. 1846, 154 ; Journ. Phila. Acad. 2dl 
ser. i. 1847, 3.5, pi. 8, f. 2 (Califoruia). 

Loptaophanes inoriiatUS, i?(i.^8tansb. Rep. GSL. 1852, 332.— Cn.?.". 111. 1853, 19.— Hccrm. 
Journ. Phila. Acad. ii. 1853, 263.— Jrood.'i. Sitgr. Rep. Zuiii R. 1853, 69.— Sd. BNA. 18.58, 
3S6.—Xant. Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 1859, 19L (California).— //eec?«. PRRR. x. 1859, 42.—Scl. 
CAB. 1861, U.—Bd. RAB. 1864, 78.— Coves, Pr. Phila. Acad, xviii. 1866, 79 (Fort Whip- 
ple).— J5;«io<, BNA. pi. S.—Ooop. B. Cal. i. 1870, 42, Hg.— Aiken, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 
1872, 195 (Colorado).— Ooues, Key, 1872, 80, f. ^2.—Ri(lg. Bull. Kss. Inst. v. 1873, 17i> 
(Colorado).—/?. B. <V R. NAB. i. 1874, 91, pi. 6, f. "i.-Coues, BMW. 1874, 20.— Coop. Am. 
Nat. viii. 1874, \1.— Ynrr. 4- Hensk. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, l.—Hensh. Rep.Orn.Specs. 1874> 
40, 99.-A'W.f.Pr.Bost, Soc. xvii. 1875, 3.56.— ;/<H.s/f. 7.oo\. Expl. W. lOU Merld. 1876, 167. 

TophopbaneS iUOriiatllS. Bd. Ives's Rep. Colorado R. pt. vi. 1861, 6. 

Plain Titmuuse, Gray-tufted Titmouise, California Titmouse, Vulg. 

Hab. — United States, from VVesteru Texas and Colorado to the Pacitic. 

Ch. sp. — (J $ Olivaceo ctnereiis, f route concolore; infra cinereo- 
albus, lateribus concoloribus ; rostro pedibusque plumheis. 

Adults: Entire upper parts dull leaden-gray, with a .slight olive shade; 
the wings and tail rather purer and darker. Below, dull ashy-whitish, with- 
out any rusty wash on the sides. No black on the head. Extreme forehead 
and sides of the head obscurely speckled with whitish. No decided mark- 
ings anywhere. In size rather less than L. bicolor; length usually under 
six inches, &c. 

The young are quite like the adults. These closely resemble the young of 
L. iicolor ; but in the latter there are traces at least of the reddish of the 
sides or black of the frontlet, or both ; the general coloration is purer, with 
more distinction between the upper and under parts, and the size is rather 
greater. The peculiar speckled a]>pearance of the sides of the head and 
lores of L. inoniatus is not observed in L. hivolor. 

THROUGHOUT the Colorado Basin, the familiar Tufted Tit- 
mouse of the Eastern States is replaced by the " plaiu "^ 
species, well named " inornatus^^ — a peculiarly sordid bird, the 
dull monotony of whose plumage is unrelieved by a single touch 
of color. It inhabits not only a portion of Western Texas, the 
whole of New Mexico, Arizona, and corresponding latitudes in 
California, but also portions of (3olorado, Utah and Xevada. 
How far north it extends is not precisely ascertained ; but we 
may suppose it to be distributed at least half-way across the 
three last-named Territories, which lie in a tier together. Its 
southern extreme, similarly, is uncertain ; but, wherever the 
" ragged edge " of its habitat may run, tlie watershed of the 
great Colorado of the West is its home, and there it resides 
continually. 

It is another discovery which the lamented Gambel made in 
California, where he first found it, in November, near Monte- 
rey, among the evergreen oaks of that vicinit3^ Since his 



PRACTICAL ORNITHOLOGY IN ARIZONA 115 

time, nearly all the explorers of the Southwest have also met 
with the bird, and recorded the impressions it left upon them — 
among whom may be mentioned Woodhoiise, Heerraann, Xan- 
tus. Cooper, Aiken, Ridgway, and Henshaw, all well known in 
connection with the ornithology of this very interesting region. 
Whilst living at Fort Whipple, I frequently came upou little 
troops of these Titmice, especially in the winter-time — my note- 
book is silent for the summer months, but I never doubted 
their permanence in that vicinity. Nearly all of us who have 
had anything to say about the birds speak of their fondness for 
the tracts of conntry which are covered with scrubby evergreen 
oaks; in my "Prodrome" 1 called it " emphatically an ever- 
green oak species, eschewing the pines, and frequenting the 
open hill-sides" — a correct statement, though not a model of 
literary handicraft. There was, and for aught I know to the 
contrary" there still may be, a large patch of oaks just back of 
the fort, where I was almost sure to find these Titmice at 
any time during a portion of the year. This scrubby hillside, 
by the way, was a favorite resort of mine, not so much for what 
I expected to find there in the ornithological line, as for what 
I very sincerely hoped not to find in the way of the aborigines — 
for it was in full view of the fort, and much safer than the 
ravines on either side, where I have gone more than once to 
bring in the naked and still bleeding bodies of men killed by 
the Apaches. This was in 1864-"G5, when the worst passions 
of both Red and White men were inflamed by atrocities ex- 
changed in kind, and when practical ornithology in Arizona 
was a very precarious matter, always liable to sadden inter- 
ruption, and altogether too spicy for comfort. In the course 
of this volume, I shall probably indulge in some reminiscences 
of this sort, at times when I feel in the humor, or when I for- 
get what I ought to say about this or that bird; for, according 
to the simplest laws of association, my memory of many Ari- 
zona birds — in fact, my whole notion of the lives of some of 
them — is i)ervaded with local color. The recollections of a 
decade ago make a crowded and strangely jumbled picture, in 
which the high lights rest on many an interesting bird, while 
the swarthy savage crouches in the shadow of the background. 
They tell me things are better now — that the trails are seldom 
blood-staiued: iu some states of the social atmosphere, a 
thunder-shower, with leaden rain, clears up the sky ; and so it 
proved in this case. 
In studying the habits of Gambel's Titmouse, surnamed " the 



116 A NOTE ON LOPHOPHANES ATROCRISTATUS 

unadorned'', I often desired to seize upon some salient point in 
its character, to contrast it with its eastern relative ; but I 
was as often disappointed. It has character enough, I wot — 
few birds are of more positive, self- asserting, aggressive person- 
ality than the whole family of the Titmice j but, by the same 
token, there is little to distinguish them from each other. In 
a word, the inornaius is the counterpart of the hkolor; in this 
statement, the whole story of its life is summed. 

Before going on to Wollweber's Titmouse, I wish to allude to 
a closer ally of inornatus: I mean the Black-crested Titmouse, 
L. atrocristatus. This bird was discovered in Texas by J. W. 
Audubon, son of the famous ornithologist, described in 1851 by 
Mr. Cassin, and treated at some length in the latter's " Illus- 
trations " by Dr. H. W. Woodhouse. This naturalist there 
speaks of tracing it westward to the headwaters of the Eio 
San Francisco in " New Mexico " (?. c. Arizona). This state- 
ment, however, is not repeated in his notice of the species, as 
prepared for his article in Capt. L. Sitgreaves' Eeport of the 
Expedition down the Zimi and Colorado Hi vers — an omission 
which supports the inference, drawn from other sources, that it 
is incorrect. None of the recent explorers in New Mexico and 
Arizona have found the bird ; and, so far as we now know, its 
range is confined, in the United States, to the valley of the 
Eio Grande. Dr. Brewer does not seem to have noticed that 
his quotation without comment of this part of Dr. Woodhouse's 
account is at variance with his own statement juade in the pre- 
ceding paragraph. I think it very likely that the bird really 
does get across the mountains into the Colorado watershed ; 
but for the present I must dismiss the case with the Scotch 
verdict — " not proven ". So I put the Black-crest* in limbo at 
the bottom of my page, which is a convenient place to stow 
away those species which have no business in the book at all. 

* Liophopbaiics atrocristatus.— BIack>crcstccl Titmouse. 

ParilS atrlcrislatus, Cass. Pr. Phila. Acad. V. 1850, 103, pi. 2 (Texas). ■ 
Lopliophaiiets atricristalus, 73rf. Stansb. Rep. GSL. 1853, 332.— Onss. III. 18.53, 13, pi. 3.— 
Woodh. .Sitgr. Rep. Expl. Zuni R. 18.53, 69.— M. BNA. 1858, 385.— Bd. Rev. 1864, 78.— 
Dress. Ibis, 2d ser. 1665, 485.— Ccop. B. Cal. i. 1870, 43, fig. (not iu California!;.— 
Ooues, Key, 1872, 80, f. 23.— B. B. ff II. NAB. i. 1874, 90, pi. 6, f. 2. 
Black-crested Titmouse, Texas Titmouse, Vulg. 
Hab. — Valley of the Kio Graude, aucl sontbwaid in Mexico. 
Ch. SP. — g '$ Olivaceo-phimhcus, wfra cincrco-alhus, laterlbiis ritfm, fio>ite 
albidd, ctislii nif/rd. 

(? $ : Plumbeous, with a sbade of olive, the wiug.s aud tail rather darker 
aud purer, edyed with the color of the back, or a more hoary sliade of the 



DESCRIPTION OF LOPilOPHANES WOLLWEBERI 117 



Bridled Tit mouse 

I^oi>lioi>liaaes wollweberi 

L«3hf)phailCS WOllwebcri, Bp. CR. xxi. Sept. 1850, 473.— fres.'crm«;t«, Bijdr. Dierk. iii. 1851, 
15, plate.— M. Stausb. Rep. GSL. 1852, 333. — Cass. 111. i. 1853, 19.— M. BXA. 1858, 
386; ed. of 1860, pi. 53, f. \.-Scl. PZS. 1858, 299 (Parada, Mex.); 18.59, 373 (Oaxaca).— 
Henry, Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 1859, 107 C^ew Mexico).— B(i. U. S. Mex. B. Surv. ii. pt. ii. 
1859, Birds, 14, pi. 15. f. \.—Bd. RAB. 1864, 79.— ,SW. PZS. 1865, 397 (Vera Cruz). —Cohcs, 
Ibis, 2d ser. i. 1865, 164 (Arizona).— Coues, Pr. Phila. Acad, xviii. 1866, 79 (Arizona).— 
Coop. B. Gal. i. 1870, 43.-00^68, Key, 1872, 81, f. 23.— B. B. ff R. NAB. i. 1874, 93, 
pi. 6, f. i.-Hensh. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, 9d.—Hensh. Zool. Expl. W. 100 Merid. 1876, 168. 

ParilS wollweberi, Henry, Pr. Phila. Acad. vii. 18.55, .309 (New Mexico). 

Parus annexus, Oass. Pr. Phila. Acad. V. Oct. 1850, 103, pi. 1 (Texas). 

Parus galeatux, "Licht. Mus. Berol." 

Lophopliaiies galeatus. Cab. MH. i. 1850, 90. 

Ch. sp. — S 9 OUvaceocinereun vertice concolore ; infra cinereo- 
albidiis; laterihrnet apiae cristw, torque miJiali, strigd postoculari 
et auriculari, necnon guhi, nUjris; lateribiis capitis, strigd super- 
ciUari et postoculari, albis. 

$ 9: Upper parts olivaceoos-asli, tba wings aud tail darker, edged with 
the color of the back, or even a brighter tint, .sometimes nearly as yellowish 
as in Eegulus. I.i^nder parts sordid ashy-white. Crest black, with a central 
field like the back. Whole throat black, as in species of Parns. A black 
line rnns behind the eye and cnrves down over the anricnlars, distingnished 
from the black of the crest and throat by the general white of the side of the 
head and conspicuous white superciliary stripe. There is also a half-collar 
of black on the nape, descending on the sides of the neck, there separated 
from the black crescent of the anricnlars by a white crescent, which latter 
is continuous with the white of the superciliary line. There is considerable 
whitish speckling in the black of the forehead and lores. Bill blackish- 
plumbeous; feet plumbeons. Smallest: Length, 5 inches or less; wing, 2i 
(•>.40 to 2.65); tail the same ; bill, i ; tarsus, | (0.00-0.70). 

Young : Chin narrowly or imperfectly black, and soiu'i of tha above de- 
scribed head-marks obscure or incomplete. 

The singularly variegated markings of the head of this species at once 
distinguish it. The .several black and white streaks vary somewhat in their 
exact relations, and are too intricate to be fully appreciated, except upon 
fresh or very well prepared specimens, where thej'^ will be found to be sub- 
stantially as above described. The male and female do not appear to dif- 
fer materially. 

same. Beneath dull ashy-whitish, especially on the breast, the abdomen 
whiter, the sides chestnut-brown as in L. bicolor. Extreme forehead and 
lores whitish; entire crest glossy black. Bill blackish-plumbeous; feet 
plumbeous. Small : length about 3 inches; wing, 2| ; tail the .same. 

I have had no opportunity of examining very young birds to see whether 
the crest is black at all ages. From analogy, it would be expected that 
the crest .should at first be like the rest of the upper parts. 

The specitic name in this ca.se should be written atrocrintatit-s — the construc- 
tion of the word requiring the ablativus instntmenti, as will be evident on reply- 
ing to the qnestio)), How or with what is the bird cristainn * Aiis. If'ith black. 



118 HISTORY OF THE BRIDLED TITMOUSE 

WOLL WEBER'S Titmouse cauie to us with letters of iu- 
troductiou from three very eminent ornithologists, all 
written in 1850, and so nearly simultaneously that it is a close 
question of actual priority. Tiie Prince Boiiaparte named it 
in honor of Wollweber in the issue of the "Comptes Reudus" 
dated September, 1850. Mr. Cassin described it as Parus an- 
nexus in the "Proceedings" of the Philadelphia Academy for 
October, 1850; and it must have been close upon this date 
that Dr. Cabanis published a description under the name of 
ioj>/i02>/i«nc.S'//a?mfMS, adopting the term from Prof.Lichtenstein's 
museum name, Parus ffaleatus. For, though the whole Tlieil of 
the "Museum Ileineauum" which treats of the Sinfjvogel is 
dated 1850-1, it was published in slieets, and not furnished 
with an introduction until October, 1851, and the name occurs 
on the second page of the twelfth "signature'-, the fourteenth 
of which bears date January, 1851. ]S"o one, however, appears 
to dispute Bonaparte's actual precedence in the matter. Mr. 
Cassin figured the bird with his description. The following 
year, 1851, Professor Westermann also gave a figure in the 
"Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde"; for the third time it was re- 
figured by Professor Baird, in the Mexican Boundary Survey 
Report; a fifth illustration is found in 
Dr. Cooper's work ; a sixth in my " Key " ; 
and a seventh in the " History of North 
American Birds". The curious strijiiifg 
of the head is a specific character which 
immediately attracts attention, and one 
well ada[)ted to pictorial illustration. The 
figure here given, reproduced i'vom the 
" Key", is a copy (none too good) of the 
FIG. i9.-Huad of Bridled li^ficl of that in the Mexican Boundary 
Titmouse. " Report. 

This elegant little species is better known stuffed than alive; 
the Stiibengelehrten and some of the ^^Bah/kramer'^ (among whom 
it is whispered the namer of Parus yaleatus is ranked by some) 
Lave had it pretty much their own way. Yet the remark, mnde 
by Dr. Brewer in 1874, that "Dr. Kennerly is the only one of 
our naturalists who has meutioiied meeting the species in its 
living form", was not strictly correct. For one, I had become 
familiar with the bird at Fort "\Vhii)ple, Arizona, and had 
summed my observations in a brief phrase: — "Permanent 
resident; common, more so at least than the preceding [L. 




HABITS OF THE BEIDLED TITMOUSE 119 

inoniatus]. Usually semi-gregarious except wlieu breeding. 
Fouud in all situations ; but chietly affects the oak thickets, 
and the chaparral of open hillsides. Generally distributed 
through the Territory, and extending southward into Sonora." 
These items, published in l.SGO, might easily be expanded into 
a considerable article ; but there is no real occasion for much 
further remark. The habitat there indicated, with reference to 
only oneTerritory, requires to be enlarged to include New Mexico 
and Western Texas, as well as the table-lands of Mexico to 
Oaxaca and Orizaba at least. The species is presented in Dr. 
Cooper's work, without remark to indicate that it has ever been 
found in that State (though it probably occurs on the west 
as well as east side of the great river) ; but I find no record of 
its presence in Colorado, Utah or Nevada. As to its habits, 
we may premise that its nidification and oviposition continue 
unknown ; and that in other respects it agrees so closely with 
its congeners that shrewd and repeated observation is re- 
quired to detect any peculiarities. I mentioned above what 
I considered its leading speciaUte — gregariousness, not wit- 
nessed to the same extent in the other species, though all the 
Titmice are rather sociable birds. Mr. Henshaw has lately con- 
firmed the statement ; speaking of itshabitsin the fall, he says: — 
" Instead of being found in small companies or as stragglers on 
the skirts of the large flocks of other species, it habitually moves 
about iu flocks, composed often of twenty-five, and even more, 
of its own species; its exclusiveness in this particular being 
quite noticeable, though once or twice I have seen a few on 
intimate terms of companionship with the other Chickadees." 
The same excellent observer refers to what I consider another 
trait of this species in comparison with its relatives of the same 
genus : it does not so frequently, nor indeed habitually, descend 
to the ground in search of insects, acorns and other seeds. 
Corresponding with its smaller size and more delicate organiz- 
ation, its voice is not so strong ; the notes, though vehement 
and unmistakably "parine", being weaker and of less volume. 

Genus PARUS Linnaeus 

Chaks. — Head not crested. Wings and tail rounded, of ap- 
proximately equal lengths, and about as long as the body. 
Bill typically parine (see foregoing characters). No bright 
colors (in the American species — the expression not aj)])licable 
to the genus at large) ; throat usually with a black patch. 



120 PARUS p. ATRICAPILLUS SEPTENTRIONALIS 

Plumage lax, without decided changes with age or season. 
Size medium. Nest excavated. Eggs spotted. 
This genus has developed a greater number of species than 




Fig. OO. — A typical Parus {P. atricapillus). 

any other of the family, and may be considered in one] sense 
the typical expression of the whole parine group. There are 
five or six American species, two of which, perfectly distinct' 
from each other, inhabit the Colorado Basin. 



T.<oiig-taile€l Cliickadee 

Parus atricapillus septentrlonalis 

Parus atricapillus, in part, of some authors.— iV/axm. J. f. O. vi. 1858, 119. 

Parus septeiltriunalis, Harris, Pr. Phila. Acad. ii. 1845, 300 (Upper Missouri River). — Brf. 

Stansb. Rep. GSL. 1852, 316— Cass. 111. 1853, 17, 80, pi. \A. — Bd. BNA. 18.58, 389.— Sc/. 

Cat. AB. 1861, U.—Hayd. Tr. Am. Philos. Soc. xii. 1862, 16i.—B/ak. IbiS, iv. 1862, 5 

(Saskatchewan).- Biai. Ibis, v. 1863, 67 (British America).— B(i, Rev. 1864, 19.—{>.)Hoy, 

Smiths. Rep. for 1864, 1865, 438 (Missouri).— Coo;;. Am. Nat. iii. 186!), lA.—Oovis, Am. 

Nat. V. 1871, 369.— .«<£». U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, for 1870, 1871, A&i.— Aiken, Pr. Bost. 

Soc. xvi. 1872, 195 (Colorado).— M«rr. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, for 1872, 1873, 713. 
Lopbophanes septenrionalis, Bd. Stansb. Rep. GSL. 1852, 332. 
Parus atricapiUus var. septentriOIialiS, AH'r, Bull. MCZ. iii. 1872, 174. — Co;/<>s, Key, 1872, 

S\.— Allen, Am. Nat. vi. 1872, 396.— flWo'. Bull. Ess. lust. v. 1873, 179.— Co!/,es, BNW. 

1874, 21, '^iO.— Allen, Pr. Bo.st. Soc. xvii. 1874, 49. — /?. B. (f R. NAB. i. 1874, 99, pi. 7. f. 

2.—rarr. tC Eensn. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, l.—Hensli. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, 41, 72.— 

Allen, Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1874, i9.—Nels. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 339 (Utah).— Hc«.»A. 

Zool. Bxpl. W. 100 Merid. 1876, 171. 
Parus septeiltriOlialis var. albescens, Bd. BNA. 1858, p. xxxvii.— (7o"/^ Xm. Nat. iii. 1869,299. 
Parus albescens. Coop. Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 74. 

Hab. — Region of the Missouri to the Rocky Mountaius and south in Alpine 
districts to. New Mexico. 

Ch. sp. — $ 9 Dorso ochraceoclncreo^gastra'o ochraceo-alho; alls 
ccmdaqiiefuscis, late albo-limhatis; laterihiis capit'iH et colli nireis,. 
vertice, nucha galdque nigris. Cauda alls longiore. 

$ 9 : Dorsal region ashy, with an ochraceons tinge, especially on the rump ; 
under parts white, with an ochraceons tinge. Wings and tail fiLscons, yery 



DESCRIPTION OF LONG-TAILED CHICKADEE 121 

strongly edged, especially on the secondaries and lateral tail-feathers, with 
hoary-white, which usually passes entirely around the ends of these feathers. 
Sides of the head and neck snowy- white. Cap pure black and very extensive, 
reaching to between the shoulders. Black of throat extending to the breast. 
Bill and feet plumbeons-black. Larger than P. atricainllm, the tail decid- 
edly longer ; average general dimensions about those of the maximum of 
P. afi-icapiUm, and minimum length of tail about the same as the maximum 
of that of P. atricapUlus. Length averaging at least 5r} ; extent, 8i or more ; 
wing, 2t-2| ; tail, 2^-3. 

Young : Similar to the adult, but with the usual indications of immaturity 
in a more sordid coloration, less extent and intensity of the black cap, &c. 

The Colorado region does not, it seems, furnish us with typical atrica- 
jAUus, still less with any smaller, darker-colored and shorter-tailed form to 
correspond with the P. carolinensis of similar latitudes on the Atlantic side, 
In this region, the Pari are mainly confined to the upper and to mountain- 
ous portions ; and, P. montanus aside, all the specimens I have seen are derived 
from the prolongation southward along the mountains of the true septeiitrio- 
nalis form. The above description is taken from New Mexican, Coloradan 
and Utah specimens, which are among the largest, hoariest and longest- 
tailed I have seen — quite equal in these respects to the series I procured on 
the Upper Missouri in the winter of 1872-3. 

NOTHIXG in my own experience with this bird, or in the 
recorded observations of other naturalists, indicates any 
real differences between its habits and those of its several allies. 
While at Fort Randall, Dakota, where it is resident and 
abundant, I thought I perceived a peculiarity in the intona- 
tion of the two-syllabled note which is uttered at the ap- 
proach of the breeding season; but as I only compared the 
sound with my recollections, the impression received may have 
had little real foundation. I never saw the bird in Arizona, 
and do not think it has been found in this Territory ; but it 
occurs in the mountains of New Mexico at corresponding lati- 
tudes, and thence northward into the British Possessions. 

I shall not here enter into any general account of the habits 
of the Chickadees ; I have already outlined the family traits, 
and almost every one who is interested in birds is capable of 
filling in the details from his own experience. But I will repro- 
duce a pleasant passage from Dr. Brewer's pen, to illustrate 
how far the stout-heartedness of these small creatures may be 
pushed under the stimulus of maternal love. I only know of 
a parallel case in the instance of the Crossbill, as told by the 
same author : — 

" Their courage and devotion to their young is a remarkable 
trait with the whole race, and with none more than with the 
present species. On one occasion a Black-Cap was seen to tly 



122 DESCRIPTION OF PARUS MONTANUS 

iuto a rotten stump uear the roadside in Brookline. The 
stump was so much decayed that its top was readily broken oft" 
and the nest exposed. The mother refused to leave until forci- 
bly' taken oft' by the hand, and twice returned to tlie nest when 
thus removed, and it was only by holding her in the hand that 
an opportunity was given to ascertain there were seven young 
birds in her nest. She made no complaints, uttered no outcries, 
but resolutely and devotedly thrust herself between her nest- 
lings and the seeming danger. When released she immediately 
flew back to them, covered them under her sheltering wings, 
and looked up in the face of her tormentors with a quiet and 
resolute courage that could not be surpassed." 



i^Ioiiiilaiii Chickadee 

Parus montaiins 

Parus montanus, Gamb. Pr. Phila. Acad. i. 1843. 259 CSanta Fe, N. Mcx.); iii. ISlfi, 155; 
Journ. Phila. Acad. 2d ser. i. 1847, 35, pi. 8, f. l.—Oass. 111. i. 1853, 18. — Jl'ooflh. Sitgr. 
Rep. Expl. Zufii, 1853, 68.— Newh. PRllR. vi. 1857, 7<i.—Bd. BNA. 1858, 394 (Oregon ; 
Nebraska; Texas).— XareJ. Pr. Phila. Acad. 1859, 191 (Port Tejon, Gal.). -Heem. PRRR. 
X. 1859, i^.— Henry, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1859, 101.— Coop. ,\ Suck. NHWT. 1860, 194.— Brf. 
Ives's Rep. Col. R. 1861, pt. vi. 6.— Bo!. Rev. AB. 1864, 82.— Oojics, Pr. Phila. Acad, 
xviii. 1866, 79.— Coo;;. Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 75 (Montana).— Coop. B. Cal. i. 1870, 46, fig.— 
Slev. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, for 1870, 1871, AQi. — Aiken. Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1872, 195 (Col- 
orado).— Co«e.t, Key, 1872, 8)-.- Allen, Bull. MCZ. iii. 1872, Mi.—Merr.V. S. Gaol. Surv. 
Terr, for 1872, 1873, 672, 712, ~\2.—I{>dgti\ Bull. Ess. Inst. v. 1873, 179.— Farr. S,- Hensh. 
Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, l. — Hensh. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, 40, 72, 99.— Coo;?. Am. Nat. 
viii. 1874, 17.— C'o(;es, BNW. 1874, 22, 230.— B. B. 6,- R. NAB. i. 1874, 95, fig. pi. 7. f. 5.— 
Hcnsh. Zool. Expl. W. 100 Merid. 1876, 169. 

Pflecile moiltanus, Coues. Pr. Phila. Acad, xviii. 1866, 79 (Arizona). 

Mountain Chickadee, White-browed Chickadee, Vuig^. 

Hab. — Uuiteil States, from eastern slopes and foothills of tbe Rocky Mount- 
ains to the Paciiic. In southeiiy portions, chiefly alpine districts. 

Ch. sp. — $ S Cinereus, infra cinereo-albus; nlis cauddque cine- 
reo-fuscis, alhklo-limhatis; lateribus caxntis et colli albidis; pileo, 
nucha giildque nlgris, strigd superciliari alhd. 

(? 9 : Upper parts ashy-gray, with scarcely a shade, and only ou the rump, 
of the ochraceous seen iu most of the other species ; under parts similarly 
grayish- white, without an ochrey tinge, the middle of the belly nearly white, 
the rest more heavily shaded. Wings and tail with comparatively little 
whitish edging — the tail at least, with no more than that of P. carolinexsis. 
Sides of the head and neck white ; top of the head, and the throat, black. 
A conspicuous white superciliary stripe in the black cap, usually connecting 
with its fellow across the forehead. Length about 5 inches ; wing, 2^-21 ; 
tail, rather less; bill, |; tarsus, |. 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE MOUNTAIN CHICKADEE 123 

Young : I have never seen this species without indication at least of the 
white snpei'ciliary stripe, hy wlilch it is immediately distinguished from 
any of its congeners. 

This species presents the opposite extreme of P. sepientrionalis in the 
general darkness of its colors, little hoary edging of the wings and tail, &q., 
in these respects more nearly resembling P. carolinensis, or even P. vieridio- 
nalis, as it does also in the shortness of the tail as compared with the wings. 
The white superciliary streak is a conspicuous specific character, 

rriHE White-browed or Monntain Chickadee is a common iii- 
J- habitant of alpine regions in the Middle and Western 
faunistic Provinces. It was discov^ered by Dr. Gambel in New 
Mexico and Arizona, and has since been ascertained to occnr 
also in the monntains of California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, 
Wyomino-, Idaho, INIontana and Oregon. I have no informa- 
tion that it inhabits Texi?s, Mexico or Lower California. 
Throughout the whole region just indicated, it is a resident 
species; and it is fonnd in the mountains up to the timber- 
line. The va«t tracts of coniferous forests that clothe these 
alpine regions with perennial verdure seem best suited to its 
requirements. Yet it is not conhned to the pine-belts ; it often 
descends to the low country, even in the southern portions of 
its habitat, and is then to be found among the fringes of willows 
and cottouwoods along the streams. In saying even so little 
as this, I have about exhausted the scanty material which the 
bird affords a biographer; its nest and eggs, I think, have 
never been seen ; its habits are iu no wise peculiar. The litera- 
ture which the little bird has occasioned consists, in about 
equal parts, of variously couched and sometimes spun-out state- 
ments to this effect, and of mention of the particular locali- 
ties, all within the general area above mentioned, where differ- 
ent observers found it more or less abundant. 

Genus PSALTRIPAKUS Bonaparte 

Chars. — Head not crested. Wings rounded, decidedly 
shorter than the long, graduated tail, which exceeds the 
length of the body. Bill thoroughly parine. No bright colors 
(in our species) ; neither crown nor throat black. Plumage 
lax, without decided changes according to age or season. Size 
very small. Nest pensile, woven ; entrance lateral. Eggs white. 

This genus includes two, perhaps three, kinds of Titmice, 
notable for their extremely diminutive stature. In bulk, they 
scarcely equal a Polioptila, and, were it not for the length of 



124 PSALTRIPARUS P. MINIMUS 

the tail, would rank next to the Humaiingbirds in dwarfish- 
ness. One author has called them " fairy'' Titmice, doubtless 
thinking of their eltlsh aspect; nevertheless, they are more posi- 
tive and substantial pygmies than those we fancy at the court 
of Queen Mab ; while, as for the hanging castles they build, 
there is room enough in them for all the fairies that ever were 
seen. 

The species inhabiting the Colorado Basin is appreciably dif- 
ferent from that of the Pacific coast region, though so closely 
related that combination of the two under one specific name 
may be required. The synonymy and characters of the origi- 
nal species* are subjoined for comparison, especially as it 
extends to the very border of the Colorado watershed. 

There is a third species of this genus, the Black-eared Bush- 
tit (P. melanotis), which we may expect to find in the region 
under consideration. It has beeti for some years admitted ta 
the United States fauna, on the strength of its occurrence near 
the Mexican Boundary, but I am not aware that it has actually 
been known to cross over the border. It is supposed to have 
been seen in ^sTevada by Mr. Eidgway. 

' Piiialtripariis miiiimiis.— I^east Bu»ili-tit. 

Parus minimus, Towns. Jouru. Phila. Acad. vii. 1837, 190 (Columbia River).— 5/>, C. 

iGL. 183?, 20.— Jud. OB. iv. 1838, 382, pi. 3.53, f. 5, 6. — Toro,is. Journ. Phila. Acad. 

viii. 1839, 152.— ^KfZ. Syn. 1839, 80.— And. BA. it. 1841, 160, pi. 130.— Gamb. Pr. Phila. 

Acad. iii. 1846, 155 (California).— Gam6. Journ. Phila. Acad. i. 1847, m.—{f)Heimj, Pr. 

Phila. Acad. vii. 1855, 309. 
Poecila minimus, Bp. CA. i. 1850, 230. 
P^altria minima, Cass. 111. 1853, -20.— Ifeerm. .Tourn. Phila. Acad. ii. 1853, 264.— .S'c:i. PZS, 

1857, 126 (California).— //ccj-fli. PRRR. x. 1859, 43. 
Psaltriparus minimus, Bp. CR. x.^xviii. 1854, 62. — Bd. BXA. 185^ 397.— Xrt«<. Pr. Phila. 

Acad. xi. 1959, 191 (California).— //««ry, Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 1859, 107.— Ooop. ^ Siickt. 

NHWT. 1860, 195.— Bfi. RAB.1864, 84.— 0«op. B. Gal. i. 1870, 48, fig.— Coo^j. Am. Nat. 

iv. 1871, 757.—Ooues, Key, 1872, 82.— Coop. Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 17.— Ncls. Pr. Bost. Soc. 

xvii. 1875, 356 (California). 
Psaltriparus minimus mr. minimus, B. B. ff R- NAB. i. 1874, 109, fig. pi. 7, f. 9. 
Ctiestnut-ci'owni-d Titmouse, Least Titmouse, Least Tit, Least Busli-tit, .-luUiors. 

H.iB.— Pacific Coast re^iou of the Uuited States. 

Ch. sp. — $ 9 Sordidl'. plamheus, infra albiilnn, vertice brannescente. 

^ J: Dull lead-color, frequently with a brownish or olivaceous shade, the 
top of the head abruptly darker — clove-brown or hair-brosvu. Below sordid 
whitish, or brownish-white. Winj^sand tail dusky, with slight boary edgings. 
Bill and feet black. Length, 4 inches or rather less; wing scarcely or not 
2 inches; tail, 2 inclies or a little more; bill, 'J; tarsus, 'i. 

Young bird.s do not ditt'er materially. There is considerable variation in 
the precise shade of tlie body, but the species always presents the browu cap 
appreciably ditforent in color from the rest of the upper parts. 



CHARACTERS OF PSALTRIPARUS PLUMBEUS 125 

l*lllBBll)eOII« Slll.«Ii-tit 

Psaltripariis i>luuibeu<« 

Psaltria pluinbra, Bd. Pr. Phila. Acad. vii. 1854, 118 (Colorado Chiquito, Aiizoua). 
FsnltriparUS pllllllbeUS, Bd. BNA. 1858, 398; ed. of 1860, pi. 33, f. 2.— Keinier. PR-Rli. x. 

le.59. Whipple's Route, Birds, 25. pi. 33, f. 2 (Arizona).— /^e7i7-!/, Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 

1859, 107.— Sc?. RAB. 1864, 8i.—Coiies, Ibis, 2d ser. i. 1S63, 164 (Arizona).— Coues, Pr. 

Phila. Acad, xviii. 1866, 79 (Arizona).— Coo;>. Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 479.— Ccop. B. Cal. . 

1870, 49, fig.— OoMes, Key, 1872, 82.— Aiken, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1872, 195 (Colorado).— .§/fi'. 

U. S. Geol. Siirv. Terr, for 1871, 1872, 464 (Green River, Wyoming).- Coxes, BNW. 

1874, 23.— I'ar;-. cV Hciisk. Rep. Oiu. Specs. 1874, 7. 
Psaitripariis niiniinus mr. pluiubeiis, ffirf^. Bnll. Ess. Inst. v. 1673, 180.— i?. B. ^- R. NAB. 

i. 1874, 110, pi. 7, f. lO.—Hensli. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, 40, 99. 

Leaden Titmouse, Plumbeous Tilmousc, Lead-colored Titmouse, Lead-colored Bush- 
titmouse, Authors. 

Hab. — Rocky Mouutaiu regiou of the United States, southerly; north to 
Green River, Wyoming ; west to the Humboldt Mountains, Nevada. 

Cn. SP. — S 9 Flumheiis, vert ice concolore, infra r/riseoalbiis; la- 
ter ibus capitis palUdehrnnnescentihus; caiidd alis longiore. 

<? 9 : Clear plumbeous, with little or no olive or brownish shade, the top 
of the head not different from the back. Sides of the head jiale brownish. 
Under parts as iu F. minimus, but rather clearer. Tail considerably longer 
than the wiugs. Eyes inditferently yellow or dark brown. Length about 
4i inches ; wing, 2 or rather less (l|-2i); tail, 2^-2^ ; bill, i ; tarsus, 'i. 

This species is very closely related to P. minimus, and may ultimately prove 
to be simply a local race ; but I have seen no specimens not readily dis- 
tinguishable. The total length is somewhat greater, owing to the greater 
size of the tail, which sometimes exceeds that of the wings by half an inch. 
The general coloration is clearer and purer ; the crown is not different iu 
oolor from the back, and the cheeks are pale brownish iu obvious contrast. 

UP to the present time, no one seems to have fonud the nest 
of the Plumbeous Bash-tit, though several naturalists be- 
sides myself have collected diligently in regions where the bird 
abounds. Not to pass over so extraordinary a specimen of bird- 
architecture as the genus Psaltripariis has invented and success- 
fully introduced, I shall refer to the nests of P. minimus, from 
which those of the scarcely distinct F. plumheus cannot be pre- 
sumed to differ. The order of architecture is thoroughly com- 
posite ; in its execution, the qualities of skill, ingenuity, good 
taste and laborious ])erseverance are exhibited on the part of 
the builders ; while the wee creatures seem possessed of no 
little ambition to make a monument, which, if not so lasting as 
•brass, is infinitely more comfortable and convenient. This nest 
belongs in the category of pensile structures, being suspended 



126 .ARCHITECTURE OF THE J]USH-TIT 

from twigs of trees or bushes, but it is not a sioiple cup or 
basket, open at the top. It resembles the old-fashioned silken 
purse (which I recall from tradition rather than by actual 
memory) more than many of the nests called "purse-like" do, 
the entrance being a circular orifice at the side — nothing but 
the rings which slipped along these old purses being wanting 
to render the simile complete. One hardly knows which to 
admire most — the industry with which such a great feat is 
executed, or the cunning with which so curious a fabric is 
wrought — and no one certainly would suspect the owners of 
the nest to be such pygmies. As Dr. Cooper says, it seems as 
if it would take a whole flock to get up one such structure. 
The nest measures in length from six to eight or nine inches, 
with a diameter of three or three and a half ; the general shape 
is cylindrical, not perfectly expressed however, for the ends 
are rounded and the top contracted. The orifice is about an 
inch in diameter. The substance is closely woven of lichens, 
mosses, very soft plant-fibre, or cottony vegetable matter, slender 
spears of grass and fibrous rootlets, and lined with the down- 
iest, softest possible material, and a great mass of feathers, 
some of which may appear at the entrance, or be felted in the 
substance of the walls. The weaving is usually so well executed 
that the walls appear j^retty firm and smooth from the outside; 
while their thickness reduces the cavity about one-half. The 
nest retains the greenish-gray color of the mosses and lichens 
of which it is principally composed, and the whole affair 
resembles a natural jjroduct. The reader will find, on Audu- 
bon's plate already cited, an artistic representation of a nest 
presented to him by Mr. Nuttall, and as the birds are drawn 
alongside, in spirited attitudes, the striking disparity ia size is 
illustrated. In this wonderfully elaborate structure, eggs are 
deposited to the number of six to nine — an eg^ to every inch of 
nest; they are pure white, without markings, and measure 
scarcely or not three-fifths of an inch in lengtb, by less than 
half an incli in breadth — more exactly, in one instance 0.56 x 
0.44. Eggsfound by Mr. Xuttall on the Wahlametor AVillamette 
Elver in Oregon, about the third week in May, were near hatch- 
ing ; in the south, the bird builds much earlier, Dr. Cooper 
having observed a nest near San Diego completed by the 1st of 
March. 

This bird, for aught we know to the contrary, is confined to 
the Pacific coast region. Dr. Brewer, indeed, quotes Dr. Gam- 



HABITS OF THE PLUMBEOUS BUSH-TIT 127 

bel's authority for its abundance " both in the llocky Mount- 
ains and throughout Oaliforuia ". But Dr. Gambel, it will be 
recollected, Avrote some years before the Plumbeous Bush-tit 
was discriminated from the other, and evidently overlooked 
those slight but nice diiferences which are impressed upon the 
bird in the Rocky Mountain region by some climatic or other 
influences not yet understood. The Least Bush- tit, in fact, could 
not be made "exceedingly abundant" in this region. The 
habitat of each is correctly given in the technical portion of 
the work to which the biographical paragraph in question was 
contributed. 

The Plumbeous Bush tit was discovered by Dr. C. B. R. 
Kennerly, then naturalist of Lieutenant Whipple's Surveying- 
Expedition, and afterward of the Northwest Boundary Com- 
missiou, whose early death, under very deplorable circumstances, 
left a gap in the ranks of western explorers. He found it on 
the Colorado Ohiquito and Bill Williams' Rivers ; and, for a 
long time after the publication of the species by Professor 
Baird, its rauge was supposed to be confined to Arizona. Mr. 
C. E. Aiken, who has dealt very successfully with the bird- 
fauna of Colorado, found it in that Territor}-, where it was 
occasionally seen during the winter in the eastern foothills of 
the mountains. It has been traced west to the Humboldt 
3Iountains, Xevada, where Mr. Ridgway observed it in abund- 
ance, and north to Green River, Wjoming, where Mr. James 
Stevensou, the zealous and faithful member of Dr. Hayden's 
Survey, secured specimens. Its southern limit is unknown : I 
have seen no jNIexican quotations. To what extent, if at all, it 
is migratory, I have not ascertained, but I am inclined to think 
it is a resident species wherever found, as is certainly the case 
within the area of the Colorado. Considering the whole coun- 
try, from the Rocky Mountains to to the Pacific, the respective 
ranges of the Plumbeous and Least Bush-tit are nearly com- 
l)Iemeutary, though the latter extends further north on the 
Pacific coast than the former is known to do in the interior. 

These queer little elfs were very numerous about Fort Whip- 
ple, where I saw them all the year round, and learned as much 
about them as any one seems to know. Though living in a 
coniferous region, they avoided the pine forests, keeping in 
the oak scrub of the hillsides, and the undergrowth along the 
creek bottoms and through the numerous ravines that make 
down the mountain sides. They endured, without apparent 



128 BEHAVIOR OF THE PLUiMBEOUS BUSH-TIT 

iucouvenience, an extreme of cold which sometimes proved fatal 
to birds of much more seeming hardihood, like Ravens for iu- 
stauce ; and were as active and sprightly in the depth of winter 
as at any other time. I used to wonder how they managed, iu 
such tiny animal furnaces, to generate heat enough to stand 
such a climate, and speculated whether their incessaut activity 
might not have something to do with it. They always seemed 
to me model store-houses of energy — conserved to a degree in 
cold weather, with consumption of no more than was needed to 
keep them a-going, and thus accumulated for the heavier draft 
required when, in the spring, the arduous duties of nest-build- 
ing and rearing a numerous family devolve upon them. Their 
food at this season consists of various seeds that persist through 
the winter; during the rest of the year, different insects con- 
tribute to their subsistence, and foraging for the minute bugs, 
iarvfe and eggs that lurk in the crevices of bark seems to be 
their j)rincipal business. They are very industrious in this 
pursuit, and too much absorbed in the exciting chances of the 
chase to pay attention to what may be going on around them. 
They are extremely sociable — the gregarious instinct common 
to the Titmice reaches its highest development in their case, 
and flocks of forty or fifty — some say even of a hundred — may 
be seen after the breeding season has passed, made up of 
numerous families, which, soon after leaving the nest, meet 
kindred spirits, and enter into intimate friendly relations. 
Often, in rambling through the shrubbery, I have been sud- 
denly surrounded by a troop of the busy birds, perhaps un- 
noticed till the curious chirping they keep up attracted my 
attention ; they seemed to pervade the bushes. If I stood still, 
they came close around me, as fearless as if I were a stump, 
ignoring me altogether. At such times, it was pleasant to see 
the earnestness with which they conducted affairs, and the 
energy they displayed iu their own curious fashion, as if it 
were the easiest thing in the world to work hard, and quite 
proper to attend to serious matters with a thousand antics. 
They are droll folk, quite innocent of dignity, superior to the 
trammels of decorum, secure in the consciousness that their 
wit will carry off any extravagance. I used to call them my 
merry little philosophers — for they took the weather as it came, 
and evidently knew how much better it is to laugh at the 
world than cry with it. When fretted with the friction of 
garrison-life, I have often sought their society, and amused 
myself like another Gulliver among the Liliputians. 



AURIPxYRUS SYNONYMY OF A. FLAYICEPS 129 

Genus AURIPARUS Baird 

Chars. — Head uot crested. AVings pointed, the second quill 
being little shorter than the third ; the first spurious. Tail little 
rounded, decidedly shorter than the wings. Bill uot typically 
parine — extremely acute, with straight or slightly concave 
under outline, and barely convex culmen ; longer aud slenderer 
than usual in Parincv; nostrils scarcely concealed by the imper- 
fect ruff. Tarsi relatively shorter thau in the preceding genera. 
Bright colors on head (yellow) and wing (red). Plumage com- 
paratively compact; sexes alike, but young very different from 
the adult. Size very small. General form sylvicoline. I^est 
globular, woven. Egg spotted. 

This remarkable genus departs widely from ordinary parine 
characters, and I am far from satisfied with its reference to 
this family, suspecting that Mr. Lawrence was nearer right in 
describing the type-species as a Conlrostrum. The bill is de- 
cidedly unlike that of any of the American genera of Paridm^ 
resembling that of some species of the sylvicoline genus Eel- 
mhitho2)haga, though stouter at base, in this coming still closer 
to the form found iu some exotic genera of Ca'reMdw or 
Bacnidce. Examination of the tongue in the fresh state might 
give a clue to the true position of the genus. For the rest, the 
character of the plumage, its changes, and the system of colora- 
tion are peculiar as far as American Paridce are concerned. 

Yellow-iicaded Tercliii 

Anriparns flaviceps 

iEgitkalU!« flaviceps, Smid. "Ofvers. Svensk. Akad. Porh. vii. pt. v. 1850, 129". 

Psaltria flaviceps, Scl.pzs. 1856, 37. 

Paroides flaviceps, Bd. BNA. 1858, 400 ; ed. of 1860, pi. 53, f. 2.— Brf. Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 

1859, 304 (Cape Saint Lucas).— Brf. U. S. Mex. B. Surv. ii. pt. ii. 1859, 14, pi. 15, f. 2 — 

Bd. Ives's Rep. Col. R. pt. vi. 1861, 6. 
AeglthnlUS flaviceps, Hcerm. PRRR. X. 1859, Williamson's Route, Birds, 43. 
Psaltriparus flaviceps, Sd. CAB. 1861, 13. 
Auriparus flaviceps, Bd. RAB. 1864, 85.— Cowes, Pr. Piiila. Acad, xviii. 1866, 79 (Arizona) — 

Coues, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1868, 83 (the same).— Coop. Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 474.— Ooop. B. 

Cal. i. 1870, 51, fig.— Coaes, Key, 1872, 82.-5. B. (f R. NAB. i. 1874, 112, figs. pi. 7, 

f. \\.—Hensh. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, m.—Hensh. Zool. Expl. W. 100 Merid. 1876, 173. 
Conirostrum ornatum, Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. V. 1852, 112, pi. 5, f. 1 (Texas).— 5i. Stansb. 

Rep. GSL. 1852, Zn.—McCoion, Ann. Lye. N. Y. vi. 1853, 9 (Texas). 

Hai;. — Valley of the Rio Grande and of the Colorado (not kuowu north to 
Colorado or Utah). Lower California to Cape Saint Lucas. 

Ch. sp. — 5 $ Cinereus, alis canduque ohscuriorihits; infra 
alMdus; capiteflavo,tectricibu8 alanim minoribns ruhrocastaneis. 
9 B c 



130 DESCRIPTION OF THE VERDIN ITS NEST 

S 9 '• Upper parts asby ; under parts dull wliitisli ; wiugs aud tail fuscous, 
■with boary edgings. Whole head yellow. Lesser wing-coverts rich chest- 
nut-red. Bill blackish-plumbeous ; feet plumbeous. Length, 4 inches or 
rather more; wing, 2 or rather less; tail, 1|-2J. 

Young: No yellow on head, nor chestnut on the wing. Above, brownish- 
gray, including the head ; below, whitish. Bill pale below. 

Before the young has attained the distinctive markings of the species, it is 
an obscure object, superficially resembling a Psaltriparas or a female PoUo- 
ptila. The generic characters, however, will suffice for its recognition. The 
shape of the bill is peculiar. In its extreme acuteness, it resembles 
that of a Relmiiif,hopha(/a, but it is stouter at the base, and, in fact, to com- 
pare a very small thing with a large one, looks curiously similar to the bill 
of an Oriole (Icterus), though the culmen is a little curved. 

Specimens vary much as usual in the shade of the ash, sometimes quite 
pure, in other cases showing an olivaceous or brownish cast. The yellow of 
the head extends further on the throat than on the crown. It is generally, 
in adult birds, rich aud pure, but is frequently found dull and greenish ; 
again, in highly plumaged specimens, it may be intensified into rich 
brownish-orange, like that on the head of some of the tropical conspecies of 
Dendrccca (estiva. The chestnut on the wing often assumes a rich h;«matitic 
tint. Specimens differ to an unusual degree in the length of the tail. Thus, 
one of two examples before me as I write has this member half an inch 
longer than it is in the other. 

I SHALL claim the reader's iudulgeuce to present one more 
bird supposed to belong to the numerous family of the Tit- 
mice. Like the last species noticed, the Yerdin is an architect 
of extraordinary ability, aud the history of its nidificatiou 
should be as conspicuous an item in its biography as the nests 
themselves are in those localities where the birds are abundant. 
At Cape Saint Lucas, according to Mr. Xantus, Verdins are the 
most numerous of all the birds which nest there; and nearly 
half of the eggs he collected in the summer of 1859 were those 
of this kind — more than a hundred in all. The nest is de- 
scribed as a large globular mass of twigs, lined with down aud 
feathers, having the entrance on one side, near the bottom. 
This singular structure is suspended from the extremity of a 
branch of some algarobia, acacia or mimosa, at a varying 
height — sometimes only two or three feet from the ground, 
sometimes much higher. In the Colorado and Mojave Kiver 
Valleys, Dr. Cooper observed many nests, one of which he de- 
scribes with particularity : — " On the 10th of March, I found a 
pair building, first forming a wall nearly spherical in out- 
line, out of the thorny twigs of the Algarobia (in which tree 
the nest is usually built), then lining it with softer twigs, 
down, leaves of plants, aud feathers, covering the outside w ith 



INCOMPLETE HISTORY OF THE VERDIN 131 

thorns, till it becomes a mass as large as a man's head, or 
9.00x5.50 inches outside, the cavity 4.50x2.70, with au open- 
ing in one side, just large enough for the bird to enter. On 
the 27th of March, I found the first nest containing eggs, and 
afterwards many more. There were in all cases four eggs 
[others say four to six], pale blue, with numerous small brown 
spots, chiefly near the large end, though some had very few 
.«;pots and were much paler; size 0.60x0.44 inch. In one nest 
which I watched they hatched in abont ten days, and in two 
weeks more the young were ready to leave the nest." 

I never saw the Verdin at Fort Whipple, and do not think 
it leaves the lower portions of the Territory for the mountains j 
nor have other observers found it in elevated portions of Ari- 
z;ona or New Mexico, though it occurs in suitable places across 
the country from the Kio Grande Valley to that of the Colo- 
rado, and thence down the peninsula of Lower California to 
Cape Saint Lucas. I^o fairly full account of its habits, except 
as far as its nest-building is concerned, has appeared, and I 
particularly regret my inability to complete the history of the 
species, I bring no message from this interesting bird — only 
gleaning here and there from those who have been before me. 
Heermann, Kennerly and Cooper, the principal observers besides 
Xantus, agree upon a trait that is extremely un-parine — I mean 
the wildness they attribute to the bird. Heermann speaks of 
certains actions, such as hanging back downward, which are 
tit-like, yet shared by many other small birds. Cooper alludes 
to habits " intermediate between those of Titmice and Warb- 
lers", a chickadee-like song, and a "triple lisping note like 
that of tsee-tu-tu''' . A sort of local migration has been noticed, 
though the birds reside in the Colorado Valley at least as high 
as Fort Mojave. Evidently we have much to learn of the Ver- 
din, and much light upon its doubtful affinities to hope for, 
from thoughtful study of its habits, as well as from examina- 
tion of those portions of its structure, no hint of which can be 
gained from inspection of stuffed specimens. 



CHAPTER VII.— NUTHATCHES 



Fam. SITTIDiE 

CiiAKS. — Bill subcyliudiical, tapering, coini)ressed, slender, 
acute, not notched, nearly- or about as long as the bead ; culmeu 
and commissure nearly straight; gonyslong, convex, ascending. 
Nostrils rounded, concealed by tufts of bristly feathers (as in 
Paridw). Wings long, pointed ; primaries ten, the first of 
which is short or spurious. Tail much shorter than the wings, 
nearly even, of twelve soft, broad, not " scansorial" feathers. 
Tarsus shorter than the middle toe and claw, scutellate in front. 
Toes long, with large, strongly curved, compressed and acute 
claws, in adaptation to scansorial habits. Hallux with its claw 
about as long as the middle toe ; the claw as long as the digit. 
Lateral toes of very unequal lengths. Plumage compact. 
Body stout, depressed. Tongue horny, acute, barbed. Habits 
highly scansorial ; manner of climbing peculiar. 

The Nuthatches are related to the Titmice, both in physical 
structure and general economy, but present certain peculiarities 
probably warranting the independent family rank I have as 
signed to them. The bill is altogether different ; other details 
of structure are modified in adaptation to a particular kind of 
climbing, which, if not entirely peculiar to these birds, is at 
least their prime characteristic. Our other scansorial birds, 
such as the Creepers and \Yoodpeckers, use the tail as a prop 
or stay to assist in maintaining position; for which purpose 
the feathers are specially contrived by their rigidity and 
strength, being pressed against the support by the action of 
strong muscles. In the case of the Nuthatches, the tail does not 
assist in the acts of climbing. The birds just mentioned, more- 
over, never climb head downward ; while the Nuthatches scram- 
ble about in every imaginable attitude, running down the 
trunks of trees, or along the under side of the branches, with 
the same ease with which they climb upward. When reversed 
in position, they are still unlike the Titmice and other small 
birds which momentarily hang suspended by their claws; for 



CHARACTERISTICS OF NUTHATCHES 133 

they appear to "bug ''the tree as closely as tbey do iu any 
other posture. They are among the most nimble as well as 
adroit of creepers, matching any of our birds in activity and 
restless energy — a Woodpecker, for instance, is almost a sedate 
bird in comparison. Though not properly gregarious, they are 
sociable birds, and often gather in troops, with which Titmice, 
Kinglets and various Warblers may also mix. They are con- 
fined to woodland, and will be found oftener in high forests, 
on the larger trees, than in the undergrowth. In their rela- 
tions to man, these birds are heedless and familiar, as if they 
trusted to his good will in return- for the valuable services they 
render him in destroying incalculable numbers of noxious 
insects' — a confidence too often abused by the vulgar and ignor- 
ant, who harbor against them the same prejudice that exists 
against the Sapsuckers {Sphyrapicus)^ the innocent and industri- 
ous Kuthatches being supposed to injure trees, when the fact 
is, they spend the whole of their laborious lives in man's ser- 
vice. Instances are known of some Nuthatches becoming so 
tame, when they are appreciated and properly treated, as to 
almost take food from the hand. The voice is harsh, abrupt 
and unmelodious — they have nothing to be called a song. Be- 
sides insects, they feed upon various hard fruits, such as nuts 
and acorns — whence, it is said, is derived the curious name 
"nuthatch", equivalent to "nut-pecker", and perhaps altered 
from "nut-hacker". The nidification resembles that of the 
typical Titmice ; they nest iu holes of trees, and lay numerous 
white, speckled eggs. The coloration is not bright. The sexes 
are similar, or nearly so; and the young, in the first full plum- 
age, closely resemble the adults. 

The genus Sitta^ to which, as the leading representative of 
the family, the foregoing remarks apply more particularly, now 
comprises about fourteen species of Europe, Asia and North 
America. Australia has its peculiar genus Sittella; another, 
Acanthisitta, is confined to New Zealand; while a disputed 
Madagascan form, Hypherpes, is by some referred to this family. 
No South American representatives are known. The family 
is a rather small, as well as a somewhat isolated, group, com- 
prising in all only some thirty species. 

Genus SITTA Linneeus 

CiiARS. as above. Of the five North American species or 
varieties three occur in the Colorado Basin. 



134 DESCRIPTION OF SITTA CAKOLIXENSIS ACULEATA 



Sleiider-I>illed J\ii(liati'h 

Sitta carolincnsi«> aciiloata ' 

Sitta fai'OiillCllsis, /^<., of some authors. — Towns. Journ. Phila. Acad. viii. 1639, 155. — Wnodli. 

Sitgr. Rep. 1853, 66.— JVe;6'6. PURR. vi. 1657, 79.— (>)Sci. PZS. 1856, 293 ; 1858, 300; 1859, 

363,373 (all Mexican quotations).— (?) Siimich. Mem. Boat. Soc. i. 1869, 544 (Vera Cruz). 
Sitta aeulcata, Ortss. Pr. Phila. Acad. viii. 1856, 254 (California).— S'cZ. PZS. 1857, 126.— Brf. 

BNA. 1858, 375; ed. of 1860, 375, pi. 33, f. X—Kenn. PRRR. x. 1859, Whipple's Route, 

26, pi. 33, {. 3.—Heerm. PRRR. x. 1859, Williamson's Route, 56.— Xant. Pr. Phila. 

Acad. 1859, 191.— C. SfS. NHWT. 1860, 193.— Bd. RAB. 1864, 86.— Feiliier, Smiths. Rep. 

for 1864, 1865, i-25.— Cones, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1866, IB.— Brown, Ibis, 2d ser. iv. 1868, 421 

(Vancouver). — Coop. Am. Nat. iii. 1869, lA.—Coop. B. Cal. i. 1870, 54, tigs.— /i/Aiera, Pr. 

Bost. Soc. XV. 1872, 195.— i/en-. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, for 1872, 1873, 672, 713.— 

Coop. Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 17. 
Sitta carolinensiS irtr. aculeata, Coites, Key, 1872, %3.—Allm, 'BaW. MCZ. iii. 1872, 174.— 

TJW^. Bull. Essex Inst. v. 1873, ISO.— Allen, I'r. Bost. Soc. 1874, oO.-Yarr.d-Hensh. 

Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, S.-Hensh. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, 40, 73, 100.— Cones, BNW. 

1874, 24, 230.-5. B. S,- R. NAB. i. 1874, 117, fig. pi. 8, with fig. 2.—Hensh. Ann. List. B. 

Ariz. 1875, 155.— Hensh. Zool. Expl. W. 100 Merid. 1876, 173. 

Hab. — Wooded regions of the Middle and Western Provinces of tbe United 
States, and portions of Mexico. 

Oh. sp. — S $ Cccruleo-iAmnhea^ infra alba, crlsso rufonoiaio., 
alls nigricantihus, cccruleo-plumheo limhatis, rectrieibus mediis 
dorso coucoloribus, ca'feris nigris^ albo-notatis ; rostro tenuissimo ; 
S 2)ileo, nuclui et cervice atris, 2 pileo nigricante a ut dorso concolore. 

$ , adult : Upper parts, central tail-feathers and mnch edginji; of the 
wings clear ashy-bhie, the whole crown, nape and bacii of the neck glossj' 
Mack. Under parts, including sides of the neck and head to above the eyes, 
dull white, more or less marked on the flanks and crissum with rusty-brown. 
Wings and their coverts blackish, mnch edged as already said, and with an 
oblique bar of white on the outer webs of the primaries towards their ends ; 
concealed bases of primaries white ; under wing-coverts mostly blackish ; 
no bold bluish and black variegation cf the innermost secondaries. Tail, 
excepting the. two middle feathers, black ; each feather marked with white 
in increasing amount, the outer web of the lateral feather being mostly 
white. Bill blackish-plumbeous, pale at the base below, extremely slender. 
Feet dark brown. Iris brown. Length, 5A-6 inches ; extent, 10^-11 ; wing, 
3| ; tail, \\ ; bill about f of an iuch long, but ouly about | of an inch deep 
at the base. 

$: Similar to the i; but the black of the head imperfect, mixed or over- 
laid with the color of the back, or altogether restricted to the nape. 

This form, extremely similar to the eastern .S. t'«ro/(Hc»S(s, dift'ers in the 
slenderer bill, which is only 1-J deep at the base, in,stead of !-i, and in the 
indistinctness of the markings of the inner secondaries, which, in .S. caroii- 
nennis, are boldly variegated with bhickish and ashy-blue. 

I HAVE never observed tlie sligbte.st difference in habits 
between this species and its familiar eastern representative; 
other authors also agree that one is the counterpart of the 



HABITS OF THE SLENDER-BILLP:D NUTHATCH 135 

other. Sometimes I fancied the Slender-billed to be fonder of 
pine woods ; but then I saw it chiefly in a country where the 
Conifene were the only extensive forests, and I knew that the 
common White-bellied inhabited pines just as frequently, con- 
sidering the relative numbers of these and deciduous trees in 
most portions of the eastern United States. Mr. T. M. Trippe 
has spoken, in my " Birds of the Northwest", of what he con- 
siders a decided difference in the notes of the two birds : — " The 
common piping note is nearly the same, though in a different 
key ; but the loud spring call is very different. It is far coarser, 
louder, and more rapid in amleata — so loud and rattling, in 
fact, that I have mistaken it for the call of the Red-shafted 
Flicker — while there is none of the soft musical tone that marks 
the spring note of S. carolinensis.-^ This observation, however, 
has not been corroborated by others ; for Dr. Kennerly, in styl- 
ing the note " peculiar", evidently refers to the generic char- 
acter of the voice of Nuthatches, while Mr. Ridgway remarks 
that the notes " are much weaker and are uttered in a finer 
tone, some of them being, indeed, entirely different from those 
of S. caroUnensis, though of the same general character ". In 
this disagreement of the witnesses, I will not undertake to 
judge ; but, in leaving" the case open, I suspect that it has been 
somewhat " worked up ". 

I found the Slender-billed Nuthatches to be very common in 
the pineries about Fort Whipple, where they reside all the 
year ; and the birds seem to be distributed throughout the 
wooded regions of the West, from the Rocky Mountains to 
the Pacific. The northern limit is not precisely determined ; 
but it is doubtless near the boundary of the United States. 
In the mountains, the birds have been observed up to the 
limits of arboreal vegetation. They seem to descend from the 
more elevated regions in the autumn, but there is no regular 
migration. We know that the birds endure extreme cold with 
impunity, since they remain all winter about Colville, sometimes 
braving a temperature of —30^ F. 

I am not aware that the nests and eggs of this particular 
variety have been described ; there is no reason to suppose 
they will be found to diller from those of S. caroUnensis. The 
latter nests like a Titmouse — rather, like a Woodpecker, con- 
sidering that it regularly digs a hole for itself, both sexes 
working assiduously till an excavation, it may be fifteen or 
twenty inches deep, is prepared for the reception of the nest. 



136 SYNONYMY OF SITTA CANADENSIS 

This is a ratber scanty lining of an indiscriminate mass of soft 
vegetable and animal snbstances. Tlie eggs, to the number of 
five or six, measure on an average about four-fifths of an inch 
in length, and three-fifths in breadth. They are white, often 
with a rosy or creamy hue, speckled and blotched with reddish- 
brown and purplish or lavender shades, sometimes evenly and 
thickly over the whole surface, oftener chiefly about the larger 
end, where a wreath of the markings may be more or less per- 
fectly formed. 



f£ecl-E»elliecl IViithntcli 

Sitta canadensis 

Sitta canadensis, L. SN. i. 17<i6, 177, no. 2 (Briss. iii. 593, no. 2, pi. 29, f. i). — Budd. Tabl. 
PE. 1783, 38.— Got. SN. i. 1788, 441, no. 2.— Lath. ID. i. 1790, 262, no. 2.— Tart. SN. i. 
1806, 271.— Bp. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 1826, 96.— NiUt. iMan. i. 1832, 5S3.—Aud. OB. ii. 1834, 
24, pi. 105.— Ornith. Comvi. Journ. Phila. Acad. vii. 1837, 193 (Columbia River). — /?p. C. 
& GL. 1838, 10.— Peab. Rep. Om. Mass. 1839, 339.— Tokms. Journ. Phila. Acad. viii. 1839, 
i5:j.—Aiul. Syn. 1839, Ul.—Nutt. Man. 2d ed. i. 1840, 697.— ^!(rf. BA. iv. 1842, 179, pi. 
248.— Gam6. Pr. Phila. Acad. iii. 1846, 112 (California). — B/^. CA. i. 1650, 227.— jVcCn//, 
Pr. Phila. Acad. v. 1851, 215 (Texas).— CaZ/o«, Naum. ii. Hft. iii. 1852, 66 (Lake Supe- 
r\OT).—Hoy. Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 381 (Wisconsin).— T/ioznps. Vermont, 1853, 95.— 
Read, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 401 (Ohio).— A'c/r/izc. Tr. Illinois Agric. Soc. i. 1855, 
584.— Henry, Pr. Phila. Acad. vii. 1855, 313 (New Mexico).— PiiSw. Pr. Ess. Inst. i. 1856, 
214.— Kneel. Pr. Bost. Soc. vi. 1857, 233.— Bd. BNA. 1858, 3H9.— PFillis, Smiths. Rep. for 
1858, 1859, 283 (Nova Scotia).— //e/iry, Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 18.59, 107 (New Mexico).— 
Coop. SfStick. NHWT. 1860, 193.— Burn. Smiths. Rep. for 1860,1861, 437.—Bd. Ives'« 
Rep. Col. R. pt. vi. 1861, 6 (Fort Yuma).— 5c/. CAB. 1861, 15.— Co(«es &r Prent. Smiths. 
Rep. for 1861, 1862, 4\1.—Hayd. Tr. Amer. Philos. Soc. xii. 1862, IGi.-Blak. Ibis, 1862, 
5 (Saskatchewan).- Boarrfm. Pr. Bost. Soc. ix. 1862, 126.— Terr. Pr. Bost. Soc. ix. 1865, 
138 (Anticosti).— Tcr;-. I'r. Ess. Inst. iii. 1862, 149.— Blah. Ibis, v. 1863, 67.— Brf. RAB. 
1864, 87.— Allen, Pr. Ess. Inst. iv. 1864 69. —Feilner, Smiths. Rep. for 1864. 1865, 426 
(California).— .Sc/. Ibis, 2d ser. i. 1865, 3Ll.—J/c/tor. Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1866, 88.— Cones, 
Pr. Phila. Acad, xviii. 1866, 79 (Arizona).— Z,a!cr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. 1866. 283.— 
Brown, Ibis, 2d. ser. iv. 1868, 421 (Vancouver).— Ooiies, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 279.— 
Coues, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 1868, 107 (South Carolina).— Coop. Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 74.— 
Allen, Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 581.— Turnb. B. E. Pa. 1869, 28 ; Phila. ed. 2\.— Coop. B. Cal. i. 
1870, 54.— Abbott, Am. Nat. iv. 1870, 546.— Trippe, Pr. Ess. Inst. vi. 1871, m.—.'itev. U. 
S. Geol. Surv. Terr, for 1870, 1871, 46i.—Mayn. Pr. Bost. Soc. xiv. 1872, 359.— Trippe, 
Am. Nat. vi. 1872, 47.— Cones, Key, 1872, 83, f. •27.—Hcnsh. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874. 73 (Col- 
orado, breeding).— Coues, BNW. 1874.25.-5.5.^7?. NAB. i. 1874,118, pi. 8, f. 7.— 
Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 438.— Hen.ih.. List 15. Ariz. 1875, 155.— Hensh. Zool. Expl. 

W. 100 Merid. 1876, 174. 
Sitta varia, Bartr. Trav. Fla. l.st Am. ed. 1791, 29» 
bis.— W7/S.A0. i. 1808, 40, pi. 2, f. 4.—Bp. .Journ. 
Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 25, 275. 
Sitta stulta, " Vieilt." 

iSittcUe de Canada, " Bnf. x. 2()9 ' ; " v. 471 '. 
Torchepot du Canada, Bnf. PE. 623, f. 2. 
Canada Nuthatch, Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 281, no. 170 (in 
part ; the description and tigure are those of S. 
FIG. 21.-nead of Canada Nuthatch. caro.inens,s).-Lath.Syn.i. 1782, pt. 2, 631, no. 2. 

Nuthatch du Canada, Le Maine. Ois. Canad. 1861,2.37. 
Canada Nuthatch, Red-bellied Nuthatch, Vulg. 
Hab.— Wo ockd portions of temperate North America. 




DESCRIPTION OF SITTA CANADENSIS 137 

Ch. sp. — $ 9 Plumheo-cwndea, rectrieihus niediis concolorihuSy 
lateralibus nigris albo nmeulatis, alls exUis Irmotatis; infra fer- 
ruginea; $ vertice cum laterihus capitis nigris, strigd frontali et 
superciliari alba; 9 plleo dor so concolore. 

(^.ailult: Upper parts leadeu-bliie (brif^-hter thau in S. carol hiensis), the 
central tail-feathers the same; wings fuscons, with slight ashy edgings aud 
concealed white bases of the primaries. Entire under i^arts rusty-brown, 
very variable in shade, from rich fulvous to brownish-white, usually palest 
on the throat, deepest on the sides and crissum ; tail-feathers, except the mid- 
dle pair, black, the lateral marked with white. Whole top aud sides of 
head and neck glossy black, that of the side appearing as a broad bar 
through the eye from bill to side of neck, cut off from that of the head by a 
long white superciliary stripe, which meets its fellow across the forehead. 
Bill dark plumbeous, iialer below ; feet plumbeous-brown. Length, 4i-4| ; 
extent, 8-8A ; wing, 2| ; tail, 11 ; bill, |. 

9 : Crown like the back; lateral stripe on the head merely blackish. The 
under parts average paler than those of the ^ , but there is no constancy 
about this. Young birds resemble the 9 • 

Pennant, in the " Arctic Zoology", makes a curious mistake in treating 
of the Canada and Black-headed Nuthatches. His first species, no. 170, 
called " Canada " Nuthatch, consists of the references to this species and 
the description of the other one, aud the figure on plate Hi unmistakably 
represents caroUnensis ; while under his no. 171, called " Black-headed " Nut- 
hatch, he describes canadensis. He correctly distinguishes the two species but 
inadvertently calls one the other. 

OUR knowledge of the distribatioii aud movemeuts of the 
Cauada Nuthatch hxcks prefiisiou. As already said, it is 
known to inhabit wooded portious of temperate North America, 
from one ocean to the other, and from Florida, Texas and 
Arizona to Labrador and other portious of British America ; 
but to what extent it is migratory within this large area, aud 
in what portions it is resident, or a summer or wiuter visitor, 
we are still insufficiently informed. There appears to be little 
doubt that, unlike its relatives, it is decidedly migratory; yet 
authors are singularly at variance in their accounts of its move- 
ments. Wilson speaks of its leaving for the ,Southern States 
in October, and returning again in April. Brewer alludes to 
a flock which he saw in Massachusetts, May 20, which had 
"evidently just arrived from the South". But Allen states 
that it is chiefly a winter resident in Massachusetts, arriving 
in October and departing in April. In the District of Colum- 
bia, Coues and Prentiss say that it is a winter resident, from 
early in October until May. llidgway found it in the mount- 
ains of Nevada in September and June. Such conflicting state- 



138 DISTRIBUTION AND IIAIUTS OF CANADA NUTHATCH 

ments might be multiplied ; ami my limited exi)ei'ieiice with 
the bird, which I have only seen dining the colder part of the 
year, and only about Washington, simply forces me to an 
expression of opinion formed according to the balance of evi- 
dence. 1 judge that the bird is on the whole a more northerly 
species than the Carolina Nuthatch ; that, unlike the other 
Nuthatches, the Titmice and the Creeper, all of which 
are imperfectly migratory, if not stationary, it migrates to a 
considerable extent in spring* and fall. There appears, further- 
more, to be an uncertain intermediate tract, in northerly por- 
tions of the United States, where some individuals at least are 
resident, and north of which the bird is only seen in summer, 
while further south it will only be found in winter, except at 
high elevations among the mountains of the West, where alti- 
tude answers for latitude. Its northern limit of distribution 
has been stated to be about latitude 60° N. In the West, it 
extends southward to the Mexican border, a specimen having 
been obtained at Fort Yuma by Lieut. J. C. Ives. I have 
observed no Mexican references, nor am I aware that the bird 
has ever been found south of the United States. 

The rarity of the Canada Nuthatch in most of the Col- 
orado Basin may be inferred from the infrequency of the 
original quotations referring to this section of the country — 
most writers, in fact, refer to the Yuma example just men- 
tioned. I never saw it myself in any portion of New Mexico 
or Arizona, nor does Mr. Henshaw appear to have met with it 
in either of these Territories or in Utah. He gives us, how- 
ever, an interesting record of its breeding in the pine woods 
about Fort Garland, Colorado, where he states it was by no 
means rare. The nest was found in a pine stump a few feet 
from the ground, excavated in the decayed wood to the depth 
of five inches, and lined with bits of bark; the eggs were five 
in number, in an advanced state of incubation. A nest which 
Audubon found in Maine as early as April 19, before the ice 
was all gone, was dug to a depth of about fourteen inches ; it 
contained four eggs. The eggs I have examined in the Smith- 
sonian collection are like those of the Carolina Nuthatch, but 
noticeably smaller, measuring about O.GOxO.48; they are 
white, sprinkled with reddish dots, sometimes pretty evenly 
distributed over the whole surface, sometimes chiefly wreathed 
about the larger end, or there confluent. The same general 
characters obtain in the eggs of other Nuthatches. 



SYNONYMY AND DESCRIPTION OF SITTA PYGMiEA 139 



Pygmy ^iiliaalcli 

Sitta pyginsea 

Sitta pyguiaea, rig. Zool. Voy. Blosa. 1839, 29, pi. 4. f. 2 (Califoruia).— S/). 0. &- GL. 1838, 

10.— And. OB. V. 1839, 63, pi. 415.— Aud. Syn. 1839, im.—Gamb. Pr. Phila. Acad. iii. 1846, 

Ui.-Sd. PZS. 1859, 363 (Xalapa).— (7oo;j. <£ Suck. NHWT. 1860, 193.— JSrf. Ivea'a Rep. 

Col. R. pt. vi. 1861, 6.—Bd. RAB. 1864, 88.— Scl. Ibis, 2d ser. i. 1865, 311.— Feibm; Smiths. 

Rep. for 1864, 1865, 426 (habits).— Oohcs, Pr. Phila. Acad, xviii. 1866 78 (Arizona).— 

Brown, Ihis,2(\ ^r. iv. 1868, 421 (Vancouver).— Ooo/a Am. Nat. iii. 1869,74, Wd.—Surmch. 

Mem, Bost. Soc. i. 1869, 544 (Vera Cruz).— Coo;?. B. Cal. i. 1870, 55, Rg.— Aiken, Pr. Bost. 

Soc. XV. 1872, 195 (Colorado).— Ooj^es, Key, 1872, 83.— Coop. Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 17.— 

Cones, BNW. 1874, 25, 230.— B. 5. .^ -R. NAB. 1. 1874, 120, pi. 8.— Torr. cV «e?!s/(. Rep. 

Orn. Specs. 1874, 8.— Yarr. Rep. Oru. Specs. 1874, 34.— ffcns/t. Zool. Expl. W. 100 Merid. 

1876, 17.5. 
Sitta pygmea, Atid.B\. iv. 1842, 184, pi. 250.— H'oodh. Sitgr. Rep. Zufii R. 1853, eG.—Hcnrij, Pr. 

Phila. Acad. vii. 1855, 313 ; xi. 1859, 107 (New Mexico).— iVtw6. PRRR. vi. 1859, 79. 
Sitta pyginaea, Bp. CA. i. 1850, 227.— B</. BNA. \858,318.—Kcvnerly, PRRR. x. 1859,Vi^hippIe'8 

Route, 26. 
Sitta piailia^a. Coop. Am. Nat. iv. 1871, 757. 
Sitta pilSilla vnr. pygina>a. Allen. Bull. MCZ. iii. 1872, 174 (Colorado) —/?/rfo-. Bull. Essex Inst. 

v. 1873, 180 (Colorado).— //««.•</(. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, 40, 73, 100. 

Pygmy Nuthateli, Califoniiaii Nutliatch, Vul?. 

H.\B. — United States from the Rocky Mountaius to the Pacific. North to 
49*^ (Vancouver, Broivn). South in Mexico to Xahipa aud Vera Cruz. 

Ch. sp. — ?> 9 Plumbeo-cwnilea, pileo et nucha oUvaceo-brunneis, 
latemliter ohscurioribus, macula alba nuchali obmleta ; recfriclbus 
mecUis dorso coiicoloribus, macula mayna longitndinali alba; infra 
sordlde alba, plus minusve rvfescens, crisso lateribusque dorso viv 
discoloribus. 

$ 9 : Upper i)art.s ashy-blue, aud wings with little or no markings (as iu 
canadensis), though some of the outer primaries maybe narrowly edged with 
white. Whole top of head, nape and back of neck, with the sides of the 
head to below the eyes, olive-brown, the lateral borders of this patch blackish, 
and an oksolete whitish patch at the back of the neck. Central tail-feathers 
like the back, but with a long white spot, and their outer webs black at the 
base; other tail-feathers blackish, with white marks, and often also tipped 
with the color of the back. Entire under parts rangiug in different specimens 
from a mere usuddy white to smoky-brown or rich rusty, nearly or quite as 
intense as in S. canadennis; the Hanks aud crissnm shaded with a duller 
wash of the color of the back. Bill aud feet dark plumbeous, the former ' 
paler'jat base below. Iris black. Length about 4 inches, or rather less; 
extent about 8 ; wiug, 2i ; tail, 1^ ; tai'sus, 'j ; bill about A. 

Young : Differs {from the adult much as the 9 of the foregoing species 
dift'ers from the cf , iu having] the top of the head like the back; the 
under parts are usually muddy-whitish, but there is great diflereuce in this 
respect. The tail-feathers {have (oustantly shown me the characteristic 
markings of the species. 



140 HISTORY OF THE PYGMY NUTHATCH 

While tliis species is iucUibitably very closely related to .'^. pisilla of the 
Sautheru States, it preseuts differences which I have uot seen bridged over 
by interinediato examples. The color of the head is a pure hair-brovs'u ia 
S. pusilla, ill which the white nuchal spot 13 large and distinct ; and the 
central tail-feathers show little, if any, trace of the black and white markings 
so conspicuous in S. pygma'a. 

HERE vre have the most abiiadaut, characteristic aud gen- 
erally distributed species of the family iu the Colorado 
Basin. The bird was originally brought to the notice of natur- 
alists by Mr. N. A. Vigors, who received it from Monterey, 
where it was collected during the voyage of the "Blossom", 
under command of Capt. F. W. Beechey, R. K., and described 
and figured it iu the volume in which the zoological results of 
the expedition were made known, in 1830. A few years sub- 
sequently. Dr. Wm. Gambel spoke of its great abundance iu 
certain portions of California; and most of the western explorers 
who followed in the wake of the sturdy pioneers of '49 have left 
memoranda of their observations. From the southwesterly 
regions where the species was first noticed, its known range 
has gradually extended to the east and north, till it now includes 
the whole of the United States from the Rocky Mountains to 
the Pacific. In Mexico, similarly, we have had advices of its 
presence; it has been recorded from Xalapa, and Sumichrast 
states that it is resident in Vera Cruz up to the limit of vegeta- 
tion on the highest peaks. Though it is strictly the western 
representative of the Brown-headed Xuthatch, yet its range is 
much more extended ; for the latter is almost entirely confiued 
to the Southern Atlantic and Gulf States, only occasionally 
reaching as far north as Ohio. 

Within the whole area of its dispersion, the Pygmy Nut- 
hatch is resident, like most of its family and their allies. Some 
Ijass the winter as far north as latitude 49^, although, according 
to Mr. J. K. Lord, many proceed southward in November. I 
found it at all seasons about Fort Whipple ; but iu the pine forests 
of that elevated locality it is most abundant in summer. It 
seems to prefer the pines, especially during the breeding sea- 
son, and ranges up the mountains to an altitude of 8 or 10,000 
feet, or to the timber-line ; at other times it is more generally 
distributed through the deciduous woods of lower levels. During 
my residence at Fort Whipple, the habits of these birds were to 
me a study which never failed to please. If I loitered in list- 
less mood among the magnificent pines, "the world forgetting, 
l)y the world forgot," absorbed in the sensuous undercurrent 



LEADING TRAITS OF THE PYGMY NUTHATCH 141 

of merely animal existence, the vivacity of these ubiquitous 
little creatures sekloin failed to break the spell of my dream, 
and bring me back to the realities that surrounded me. If I 
hurried breathless through the woods, in eager pursuit of some 
feathered prize that seemed likely to escape me, how did my 
haste in quest of a coveted thing differ from the bustling activity 
and restless energy they displayed in .their search for what 
seemed good to them ! The naturalist is never alone; solitude 
is not for him ; he can call nothing his own — not even his 
thoughts, which he must be content to share with all the forms 
of life about him, and suffer to be carried beyond his control. 
*' How singnlarly," I have said to myself, " how perfectly, do 
these busy troops of birds illustrate the waste of nervous force ! 
Will they never learn to make haste slowly ? Are they so full of 
■energy that such incessant motion becomes a pleasure — a neces- 
sity ? And after all, what does this eager scrambling amount 
to ? They make a living by it, to be sure, and that is something ; 
but so do some of the laziest people. Perhaps they like it ; 
perhaps they cannot help it. That may be a flock of young- 
birds, relishing their work with the zest of enthusiasts who 
have yet to learn the lesson that hard work teaches ; this may 
be a lot of old ones, no longer buoyant, yet equally eager, for 
to them work has become a painful necessity, since habit has 
rendered idleness intolerable," 

With such incessant activity as this do the Pygmy ISTut- 
batches go about their daily avocations. With the appearance 
of the earlier broods the different families unite, and the busy 
throng roams through the woods, straggling from tree to tree 
■with desultory flight, calling incessantly to each other as if to 
make sure that all the company keep together. They show 
some little preference in the matter of their hunting grounds, 
more rarely scrambling about the trunks than among the smaller 
branches of the trees, like the Brown-headed Nuthatches, which 
they resemble so closely in appearance, and they habitually resort 
to the terminal branchlets and foliage of the tree-tops. Their diet 
is a mixed one, consisting in part of the minute insects which 
lurk in the cracks of the bark, in part of the seeds of conifers, 
and doubtless other small hard fruits. Their sociability is a 
prominent trait ; indeed, they may almost be called gregarious 
at all times excepting during the breeding season. Flocks of 
a dozen or twenty, and even up to fifty or a hundred, are not 
seldom seen ; and in the same company numbers of Titmice 
and Warblers may often be found. They are extremely noisy 



142 HABITS OF THE PYGMY NUTHATCH 

at sncli times — uot clamorous in fretfiiluess or irritation, 
l^ut with the jovial abandon of good fellowship. The notes are 
not susceptible of description, such is the endless variety of 
the queer chattering and whistling cries emitted, amidst which 
the peculiar quanic of the larger Nuthatches finds no counter- 
part. Nor are they in themselves harmonious ; yet the effect 
of the medley is pleasing. 

The nest of the Pygmy Nuthatch 1 have never found ; but 
the nidification is now well known to agree with that of its 
congeners, as far as the excavation of a hole is concerned. 
Accounts differ respecting the lining of the cavity ; according 
to some the eggs are simply deposited upon the chips and dust 
at the bottom of the hole, while in other cases a tolerably well 
made and consistent nest of various soft vegetable and animal 
substances is constructed. Doubtless both these accounts are 
correct, their variance being chargeable to the birds them- 
selves. It is probable that, in some localities at least, two 
broods are reared each season ; in Arizona, 1 observed the 
earliest young on wing in June, which would leave ample time 
for a second familj-. The eggs are not distinguishable with 
certainty from those of the Canada Nuthatch, though said to 
be somewhat smaller and more pointed. They appear to have 
been first discovered at Fort Crook, California, by Captain 
(then Sergeant) John Feiluer, U. S. A., who was not long after- 
ward killed by Sioux in Dakota. In his notice of the species 
above quoted, he concludes with a graphic portrayal of a little 
scene which those who have watched the birds will recognize 
as true to nature. . . . "The pine nuts are very closely 
searched for their seeds; when found, it alights on a limb, 
where, holding it with one foot, it hammers with the bill 
until it has broken it in such parts as will enable it to eat the 
seed. If it should happen to one to drop such a seed, two or 
three will be seen diving after and catching it before it can 
reach the ground; another i^lace will be found, and the'ham- 
mering commences afresh. The scene presented by observing 
a party of these little'^ birds all in a bustle and activity, engaged 
in breaking pine nuts, and to hear their chattering and ham- 
mering, reminds one of an immense machine shop, where all 
the mechanics are busily engaged in the various divisions of 
their craft." 



CHAPTER VIII.— CREEPERS 



Fam. CERTHIID.^ 

THIS is a small, well-defiued group, of four or five genera 
and about a dozen species, usually divided iuto two sub- 
families. Oue of these is the Tichodromliue, represented by the 
Europeau Wall Creeper, TicJiodroma muraria, and some species 
of the chiefly Australian genus CUmcicteris. The other is the 

Sqbfamily CERTHIIN.E: Ti-picAL Creepers 

These are represented by the genus GertJUci, and one ov two 
others; they are confined to the Old World, with the exception 
of a single species of the typical 

Genus CERTHIA Linnaeus 

Chars.— Adaptation to scausorial habits by the structure 
of the tail and feet. Tail long and strong, formed of 12 rigid, 
acuminate feathers graduated in length ; the shafts are stout, 
curved and elastic, the points extremely acute, and the whole 
structure of the feathers closely resembles that seen in the Wood- 
pecker family. Tarsus scutellate, shorter than the middle toe 
and claw ; anterior toes connate at base for the length of the 
1st joint of the middle one. Lateral toes unequal in length, the 
inner being much shorter than the outer. Hind toe shorter 
than its claw. Claws strong, much curved, very sharp, the 
hinder one of great size ; 
wing with 10 primaries, the 
first not half as long as the 
2d, which is shorter than 
the 3d ; point of the wing 
formed by the 3d-5th quills. 
Bill about as long as the 
head, extremely slender, 
acute, curved ; nostrils ex- 
posed, narrow, scaled. No 
rictal vibrissje. 

The general economy ot the Creepers is peculiar. 




Fig. 22. — Head, foot and fail-ft-nther ol' the Creeper' 



Their 



144 GENEEAL ECONOMY OF CREEPERS 

liabit of climbing is the most prominent trait; the action is pre- 
cisely similar to that of the Woodpeckers, and quite unlike that 
of their much nearer relatives, the Nuthatches — for the Creep- 
ers never scramble about head downward, and never move 
without being- propped up by the stiff, elastic tail, which is 
pressed against the support. The structure and grasping power 
of the feet are much the same as in the Nuthatches. The bill 
differs altogether from the stout, chisel-like instrument with 
which both Woodpeckers and Nuthatches bore into wood 
either to procure food, or to construct a nesting-place, being 
weak, slender, curved and sharp-pointed. The mandibles may 
be likened to an extremely delicate pair of forceps, which may 
be insinuated into the narrowest crevices of the bark to pick 
out the most minute objects — and a very efficient tool it proves, 
as used by its skillful and indefatigable owner. The food of the 
Creepers consists chiefly of small insects ; sometimes, it is said, 
they feed upon particles of vegetable matter, such as lichens 
or mosses. Their nidificatiou is like that of the Nuthatches 
and typical Titmice, inasmuch as they nest in holes; but their 
weak bill is unfit for the labor of digging into wood, and they 
consequently occupy such natural excavations as they find in 
decayed wood, or the deserted homes of Woodpeckers and 
otlier animals. The eggs are numerous, white, speckled. The 
birds inhabit woodland, and seem to prefer trees of large size. 
They are not highly musical, and are generally considered 
songless ; yet some close observers say they have heard a suc- 
cession of modulated notes, by no means unmusical. In plum- 
age, the sexes are alike, and the regular changes ar.e not 
decided; while the variegated tints, harmonizing with the 
colors of the bark, are a great safeguard. The activity, or 
rather the industry, of the Creepers is a strong trait; yet they 
have none of the vivacity and turbulence of the Titmice and 
Nuthatches, being, in fact, very sedate and almost demure 
birds, gliding stealthily about the trees, and likely to elude 
observation unless narrowly watched. Our species is not regu- 
larly migratory. All the species of the genus resemble each 
other so closely that it is difficult to say how many there are ; 
we have but one in the United States, believed to be identical 
with that of Europe ; there is another species or variety in the 
warmer parts of America, and several are ascribed to Asia. 



SYNONYMY OF CERTHIA FAMILIARIS 145 

Bro^vit Creeper 

Certbla fainiliaris 

{General references) 

Certllia familiaris, L. SN. i. 10th ed. 1758, 118,no. l (Pn. Suec. 213, etc.) ; 12th ed. 1766, 184, no. 
\.—Bruiin. 08. 1764, 12.— 5cop. Bemprk. ed. Guuth. 1770, 53, no. m.— Bodd. Tabl. 17?3, 
4-2 (PE. 661, f. V).~Gm.. SN. i. 1788, 469, no. I.—Schaejf. Mua. Om. 1789, 41, no. 136.— 
Lath. 10. i. 1790, 280, no. \.— Tiirt. SN. i. 18J6, 291.— Foj, Newc. Mus. 1827, GX.—Less. 
Tr. Ora. 1831, 311.— remw. Man. i. 410; iii. 1835, 288.— A'au;?. Thierr. ii. pt. i. 1836, 153.— 
Bp.C. & GL. 1838, 11.— Mac^. Man. Br. B. i. 1840, 214.— 5iedA. Stubenv. Deut3. 1815. 
2o\.—Pdsgler, Naum. i. 1850, 49 (nest and eggs).— .VaMira. Vog. pi. 140.— C^. CA. 1. 1850, 
S2i.— Gould, BE pi. %M —Tobias, Naum. i. 1851, m.— WenUel, J. f. O. 1853, 442.— 
Homey. J. f. O. 1851, d6J.—Ridde, J. f. O. 1854, 62 (Southern Russia).- Fa?j°'. J. f. O. 
18.55, ISd.—Milller, J. f. O. 185S. 22l.—Passler, J. f. O. 1856, 42.— c. Pree?i, J. f. O. 1859, 
451.— Finsch, J. f. O. 1859, ,384.- Brd«. An. Vert. Siberia, 26.— Gieb. ViJg. 1860, 85, f. 
153.— 5cAre?fc/c, Amurl. 1860, 330.— Zand. Arch. Mecklenb. xv. 1861, 95.—Hhitz I. J. f. O. 
1863, 426.— ;j. Bias. Beigabe J. f. O. 1863, 48.— 7J. Preen, J. f. O. 1863, Wl.—Radde, Reisen, 

1863, '2i7.—Sper!. Ibis, vi. 1864, 281 (Corfn). —Nordm. J. f. O. 1864. 365.— y. Drosle, J. f. O. 

1864, 424.— //«7t«z /. J. f. O. 1861, 106, ISi.—Huitz I. J. f. O. 186.5, 235.— More, Ibis, 2d ser. 
i. 186.5, U6.—Des-l.-Gerbe, OE. i. 1867, ]86.—HiiUz I. J. f. O. 1867, IGS.—Holtz, J. f. O. 

1868, \ie.—Wntz T. J. f. O. 186S, 395.— i/owey. J. f. O. 1869, 172 (Eastern Siberia).— 
E. if B. Ibis, 2d ser. vi. 1870, 198 (Tm^ey).— Saunders, Ibis, 3d ser. i. 1871, 2Qi.—Fritsch. 
J. f. O. 1871, Xd'i.-Rey, J. f. O. 1872, \i3.— Hart. Man. Br. B. 1872, 20.— /ertZo/i, Ibis, 3d 
ser. ii. 1872, 19 (Kashmir).- r^r;: .J. f. O. 1872, 353 (Eastern Siberia).- 5«;J«A. Ibis, 3d 
ser.iv. 1874, 152 (Hakodadi).— //anc. B.North & Durh. 1874,30.-i>/-ess. BE. 1874,pt.xxix. 

I'erthia SCandltlaca, Pallas, Zoog. R.-A. i. " 181l " (I83i), 432. 

Certbius major, C. minor, Frisch, " V6g. Teusc-hl. fol. B. 1817, taf. 39 ". 

Certhia marrodactyla, C. bracbydactyla, C. septentrioiialis, C. m garhynchos, Brehm, 

VD. 1831, pp. 206-211. 
Ccrthta Dattereri, Bp. c. & GL. 1838, 11. 
Certhia natereri, Bp. CA. i. 1850, 224. 

Certhia COStie, Baillij, " Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Savoie, Jan. \852".— Siind. J. f. 0. 1855, 60. 
Certhia hrachyrhyiichus, C. paradoxa, L. Brehm, Naum. 1855, 274. 

Certhia rutldorsaliS, " Br.", Giebel, Thes. Om. i. 1872, 618. 
Certhia hodgsoni. Brooks. "JASB. 1872, 73" (Jlde Dresser). 

Motacilla SCOlopacina, StiOm, " Trondh. Selsk. Skr. ino, Jide Collett, Norg. Fi-gl. 1868, 16" 
(from Dresser). 

(American references) 

Certhia familiaris, partly, of older authors.— Vieill. OAS. ii. 1807, 70.— mis. AO. i. 1808, 123, 
pi. 7, f. \.— Bp. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, Zt.—Bp. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 1826, 95.— jVu«<. 
Man. i. 1832, ^'S'i.-Ornilh. Comm. Journ. Phila. Acad. vii. 1837, 193 (Columbia River).— 
Towns. Journ. Phila. Acad. vii. 1839, 155.— Pe«6. Rep. Orn. Mass. 1839, 3il.—.lud. OB. 
V. 1839. 1.58, pi. 415.— ^ui. Syn. 1839, li.-.iud. B.\. ii. 18J1, 109, pi. lla.— Burnett, Pr. 
Host. Soc. iv. 1851, llQ.— lVoodh. Sitgr. Rep. Zufii R. 1853, 66.— Thomps. Vermont, 1853, 
95. — Henry, Pr. Phila. Acad. vii. 1855, 209 (Sew Mexico). — Haym. Pr. PbiUi. Acad. viii. 
1856, 2ii.— Willis, Smiths. Rep. for 1858, 18.59, 282 (Nova Scotia) —r«rn6. B. E. Pa. 

1869, 27 ; Phila. ed. 21).— Trippe, Pr. Ess. Inst. vi. 1871, l\o.—Mayn. BE. Mass. 1870, 93.— 
Maijn. Pr. Bost Soc. xiv. 1872. 359.— Ooues, Key, 1872, 84, f. 28.— Cones, BNW. 1874, 26. 
230.— .VHs. Pr. Bost. xvii. 1875, 343, 356 (California and Uuh).— Gentry, Lif--Hist. B. E. 
Peniiu. lt;76,70 (habits). 

(Certhia rufa, Banram Trav. Pla. 1st Am. ed. 1791, 289bi.'<.— Ookcs, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1875, 347. 
Certhia fusca, Barton, Fragm. N. H. Penna. 1799, II. 
Certhia amiTicana, Bp. C. & GL. 1838, U.—yutt. Man. i. 2d ed. 1840, 701.—/?/) CA. i. 1850, 

225.— Reich. " Hdbh. i. 1853, 265, pi. dcxv. f. 4102, 4103".— Rend, Pr. Fhila. Acad. vi. 

18.53, 401.— Hoy, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 381.— GerA. Naum. iii. 1853, 38,— AVnnic Tr. 

Illinois Agr. Soc. i. 1855, 583.—Mazim. J. f. O. vi. 18.58, 105.— Bd. BNA. 1858, 372.— 

10 B C 



146 CHARACTERS OF CERTIIIA FAMILIARIS 

Henry, Pr. Phila. Acarl. xi. 1859, \07.—Sd. TZS. 1859, 2Z5.—Kenner. PRRR. x. 1859, 
Whipple'H Route, Birds, Q6.—Hecrm. PRRR. x. 1859, Williarasou's Route, Birds, 42.— 
CoopifSiirM. NIIWT. 1830, I9i.—Barn. Smiths. Rep. for 1860, 1861, 437.— Sc/. CAB. 

1861, 15. — Boardm. Pr. Bost. Soc. ix. 1862, l-2G.—Coues Sf Prent. Smiths. Rep. for 1861, 

1862, 410.— Kerr. Pr. Ess. Inst. iii. 1862. 149.— 5rf. RAB. 1864, S9.—JUrTi, Pr. Ess. 
Inst. iv. 1864, G8.—Hoy, Smiths. Rep. for 1864, 1865. 4:i8.— Hamlin, Pr. Post. Soc. x. 1865, 
80 (hiibits).— Arc/?M)r. Pr. Ess. lust. v. 1866, 8S.—Coues, Pr. Pbila. Acad, xviii. 1866, 79 
(Arizona).— iarbr.Ann.Lyc.N.Y.viii. 1868, 28).— Oukcs, Pr.Bo.st.Soc.xii.l868, \08.—O<nus, 
Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, ^19.— Brown, Ibis, 2d ser. iv. 1868, 42 (Vancouver).— Coop. Am. 
Nat. iii. 1869, 296.— Abbott, Am. Nat. iv. 1870, 543.— .4Zifio«t, Am. Nat. \i. 1872, :367.— 
Trippe, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1873, 236. — S'ho;/', B. Kans. 1873, 6. — Merriam, Am. Nat. viii. 
1874, 8.— Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 439. 

Certhia flliniliaris var. aincricana, Ridgw. Bull. Ess. Inst. v. 1873, 180 (Colorado).- B. B. <^- R. 
NAB. i. 1874, 125, tigs. pi. 8, f. \\.—Htiish. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, 41, 73.— Hcnsh. Lint B. 
Ariz. 1875, 155.— Hensk. Zool. Expl. W. 100 Merid. 1876, 177. 

Certhia luexicana, Bd. BXA. 1858, 372,923 (in part; refers to vrestern United States speci- 
mens). — Fcilner, Smiths. Rep. for 1864, 1865, 425.— Coop. Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 74.— Coop. 
B. Cal. i. 1870, 58, fig. (Not of Gloger.) 

European Creeper, Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 285, no. 174 (in part). 

tirimpereaii camuiun, Le M. Ois. Canad. 1861, 236. 

Creeper, Tree Creeper, Browu Creeper, Common Creeper, American Creeper, Vuig. 

var. mexicana 

Gerthla mexioana, "Gloger.''— Reich. "Hdbh. i.l853, 265, pi. dlxii. f. 3841, 3842 ".-.S'd. PZS. 
1856, 290 (Ranches de Suapam). — Bd. BNA. ed. of 1860, pi, 83, f. 2 (Mexico).— &i. PZS. 
1858, 297 (Parada).— 5cZ. PZS. 1859, 362 (Xalap.i), 372 (Oaxaca).— Xrai. Pr. Phila.Acad. 
xi. 1859, 191 (California).- Brf. RAB. 1864, 99.—Salv. Ibis, 2d ser. ii. 1866, 190 (Guate- 
mala). — Sumich. Mem. Bost. Soc. i. 1869, 544 (Vera Cruz). 

Certhia amerirana var. mexicaua, (?) Dress, ibis, 2d ser. i. 1865, 485 (Southern Texas). 

Certhia familiaris var. mexicaua, B. B. s,- R. NAB. i. 1874, 128. 

Hab. — Temperate North America, in woodeil regions. 

Ch. sp. — $ 2 Fusca, albido striata, uropygio rufescente, infra 
albida; alls albido varicgatis, rufo albidoque bifasciatis. 

$ 9 '• Upper parts dark brown, changing to rusty -brown on the rump, 
everywhere streaked with ashy-white. This coloration descends to the sides 
of the head. An obscure whitish superciliary stripe. Under parts dull 
"whitish, sometimes tinged with rusty on the flanks and crissum. Wing- 
coverts and quills tipped with white, the inner secondaries also with white 
shaft-lines, which, with the tips, contrast with the blackish of their outer 
webs. Wings also twice crossed with white or tawny-white, the anterior 
bar broad and occupying both webs of the feathers, the other only on the 
outer webs near their ends. Tail grayish-brown, immaculate, darker along 
the shaft, and at the ends of the feathers, sometimes showing obsolete trans- 
verse bars. Bill blackish above, mostly flesh-colored or yellowish below ; 
feet brown. Length, 5^-51 ; extent, 7^-8 ; wing, 2^, more or less ; tail usu- 
ally a little longer than the wing, sometimes not so, 2|^ to nearly 3 inches. 
2 averaging smaller than $ . 

Of late years, the American Creeper has been very generally separated 
from the European under the name of C. americana ; but this term, which 
Bonaparte proposed in 1838, is anticipated by Professor Bartoo's /i^sca (1799), 
which is in turn antedated by Bartram's nifa (1791). It appears, however, 
that the bird is not fairly separable from C, famiUaris ; the various marks 
of distinction which have been adduced do not prove constant, and, more- 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE AMERICAN CREEPER 147 

over, specimens from different parts of North America vary among themselves 
quite as much as some of them do from European examples. The length of 
the tail, by which it has been said Cfamillaris is " at once separated", is a 
particularly variable feature, having a range of variation of nearly or about 
half an inch, and being sometimes shorter, though usually longer, than the 
tail. Its length depends in a degree upon the age and "wear" of the feathers, 
which are constantly pressed against the rough bark of trees. The shades 
of the several brown and rusty markings, particularly those of the rump and 
crissum, are likewise subject to much variation, not only with sex and age 
and locality, but as a matter of individual ijeculiarity. The best European 
authorities have united the several supposed species of their Creeper, and 
generally consider ours as not different. The var. mexicana appears to be 
better marked in its darker and richer coloration. This is a Central Ameri- 
can and Mexican form, which has never been shown to occur in the United 
States, unless the Texas record above quoted invalidates this statement ; 
for the several Californian references to C. " mesicana" really belong to the 
common form. 

SOME insight into the Creepers' mode of life has been given 
in sketching the leading features of the genus ; it remains 
to be more explicit respecting the particular species which 
inhabits the Colorado Valley as well as most other portions of 
North America. I am not aware that the northern limit of its 
distribution has been accurately determined. Dr. Brewer speaks 
of its extension " to high northern latitudes ", yet the authors 
of the Fauna BoreaU-Americana had nothing to say of the bird. 
The character of the arboreal vegetation i)robabl3' determines 
its northerly dispersion, since it is strongly attached to wood- 
land of large growth. But it is known to extend into the 
British Provinces : Newfoundland and Lake Winnepeg are two 
of the most northerly localities I find mentioned by writers in 
this connection. Its distribution in the United States is general 
in all suitable places ; there are scarcely any of our faunistic 
lists of any considerable pretensions to completeness in which 
its name does not occur. Yet it does not appear to have been 
found in Florida by Allen, a circumstance corroborating Audu- 
bon's statement that in some portions of that State alone he 
had never observed it. It is a common inhabitant of suitable 
•regions throughout the Colorado water-shed. 

The leading trait of the Brown Creeper is its extraordinary 
industry — the "incomparable assiduity", as it has been well 
styled, with which it works for a living. Like all good workers, 
the Creeper makes no fuss about it, but just sticks to it. So 
quietly, yet with such celerity, does it go about its business 
that it scarcely seems to be at work, but rather to be rambling 



148 ACTIVE MOVEMENTS OF THE CREEPER 

in an aimless way about the truuks of trees, or at most only 
caring to see how fast it can scramble up to the top. During 
all this time, however, the bird is on the alert in the search for 
insects, which it extracts from their lurking places with such 
dexterity that its progress is scarcely arrested for a moment ; 
and the numbers of these minute creatures yearly destroyed 
is simply incalculable. The Creeper is strongly attached to 
the trunks of large trees, being seldom seen foraging on even 
the larger branches; and it has a great fancy for traveling 
upward. These two traits combined result in its marked habit 
of beginning its curious search for insects near the bottom of 
a tree, and ascending with jerks in a straight or spiral line to 
the top. Then, if it likes the tree, and thinks it a good place 
to stay a while longer in, the bird launches itself into the air, 
and drops down on wing, to begin another ascent, in prefer- 
ence to scrambling down again, as a Woodpecker or Kuthatch 
would do. The easy, gliding motion with which it climbs has 
deceived one writer into stating that the Creeper does not hop 
along like a Woodpecker; but, in fact, the movement is exactly 
the same in both cases. One of the English writers (Barrington, 
Zool. 2d. ser. ix. p. 3998) describes, however, something peculiar 
in the position of the feet during the act of climbing : — These, he 
says, are not held parallel with each other, and near together, 
under the belly, but widely straddled, and thrown so far forward 
as to form with the end of the tail a surprisingly broad-based 
isosceles triangle. So nimble is the bird, and such a sly way 
has it of eluding observation by turning in the opposite direc- 
tion to that in which a person moves t® look after it, thus con- 
tinually interposing the trunk of the tree in the line of vision, 
that it is no wonder the way it holds its feet long remained 
unascertained. Many things conspire to screen the queer little 
bird from any but the most patient and closest scrutiny during 
its ordinary avocations ; and so nearly do its colors correspond 
with the tints of the bark that it is likely to be overlooked 
altogether. But its habits are so methodical and undeviating 
that when one has learned them there is no difficulty. If we 
see a Creeper alight at the base of a tree on the side away from 
us, we have only to stand still, and keep a sharp lookout for it 
higher up; in a few moments, its spiral twisting will bring it 
round to our side; the chief point is to look high enough up, 
for it is surprising how rapidly the bird ascends. It generally 
makes the whole journey before dropping on wing to the base 



THE CREEPER ASLEEP IN SOCIETY 149 

of tbe tree agaiu, or making off to another; sometimes, how- 
ever, the tree seems to be not to its liking, when, as if actuated 
by a sudden impulse, it abandons an unprofitable search, and 
flies to a more promising feeding ground. 

In thinking about the extraordinary activity of many small 
birds, one is tempted to ask himself the question, Do they ever 
rest? Who ever saw a Creeper, Nuthatch, Titmouse or Gold- 
crest motionless for any considerable length of time ? Very 
few, I suspect. In the present case of the Creeper, however, 
Audubon has left a note of his observation, showing that even 
this most indefatigable of insect-hunters requires its period of 
repose: — "I have observed it when satiated," he says, "remain 
still and silent as if asleep, and, as it were, glued to the bark, 
for nearly an hour at a time. But whether the bird was really 
asleep, or wished to elude us, is more than I can affirm, though 
I am inclined toward the latter supposition, because toward 
night it retires to a hole, where frequently as many as a whole 
brood repose together, as I have on several occasions wit- 
nessed." Mr. T. G. Gentry has noticed the same thing: — "On 
the outskirts of Philadelphia," he says,," stands a certain hol- 
low birch-tree, wMch has afforded lodgings for a half-dozen 
individuals of this species for several successive winters. On 
the return of night, the birds will precipitate themselves into 
the cavity, and closely huddle en masse, until day-break." 

The Creeper differs from most of its relations in having very 
little sociability; it seems to be too much occupied with its 
pressing affairs to have any time for social relaxations. Though 
it is often found with Nuthatches and Titmice, it seems that 
the association is not sought on its own part, but is rather the 
intrusion of the other birds, or the casual coming together of 
species whose resorts are similar. I think it is decidedly a shy 
and solitary bird. Audubon's remark, that the members of one 
family usually remain together until the following spring, is 
contrary to my experience ; but it derives some probable sup- 
port from Mr. Gentry's above-quoted observation. The birds 
that the Creeper is oftenest seen on the same tree with are 
probably the smaller species of Woodpecker, commonly called 
" sapsuckers ". The infestation of particular trees by insects 
probably calls the two kinds of bird together in community 
of interest; though it is supposed by some that the wily little 
Creeper takes advantage of the superior ability of Woodpeck- 
ers to find insects, and follows in their wake to trees where it 



150 BEHAVIOR OF THE CREEPER TOWARDS MAN 

may be sure of a feast. Yet its solitary habits are always con- 
spicuous, and are exhibited by its choice, especially during the 
breeding season, of the depths of the forest for its home, and 
by the little attention it pays to other birds. At other seasons, 
however, it betrays more familiarity, and is occasionally seen 
in orchards, gardens, and lawns near dwelling-houses. The 
degree of shyness or timidity it shows in the presence of man, 
and of the pains it takes to elude observation, has been vari- 
ously rated by authors. Dr. Brewer alludes to the current 
statement that the Creeper, on perceiving itself to be watched, 
moves to the opposite side of the trunk, as lacking foundation, 
and is inclined to the opinion that the bird's movements are 
not due to caution, but simply to restlessness, behaving always 
found them unconscious or regardless of his presence. Mj' 
experience goes to confirm this. While I do not mean to assert 
that a Creeper may not be frightened, and instinctively scuttle 
around the trunk, or fly away, I have often stood within a few 
feet of one of the birds, and watched its movements with per- 
fect ease; the course of its cork-screw journey brought it into 
view as often as it was hidden, and the bird appeared all the 
■while to consider me of no account whatever. Dr. Brewer's 
remark was made apropos of a statement supposed to be Dr. 
Kennerly's. The paragraph sounded very familiar to me, and 
I thought I had seen it before — in short, 1 find tHat Dr. K. 
copied the statement almost word for word from Nuttall, for- 
getting to use the customary quotation marks. 

As already stated, the bird in nesting occupies natural cavi- 
ties of the wood, or deserted Woodpeckers' holes, and similar 
retreats, in which is deposited a lining composed of grasses, 
lichens, or decayed wood, usually mingled with the hair of 
quadrupeds or the feathers of birds, the whole mass having 
little consistenc3\ It appears to nest with equal readiness at 
different elevations, sometimes selecting a rotten stump close 
to the ground, at other times finding a hole at a considerable 
height. It is represented as a brave and devoted parent, 
regardless of its own danger when its nest is threatened. The 
eggs are stated to vary in number from five to eight or even 
nine. They resemble those of the Nuthatches and most Tit- 
mice in being white, sprinkled v/ith reddish-brown dots, and 
others of purplish or neutral tint; the dots being rather SH^ar- 
ingly distributed, though tending at times to wreathe about the 
larger end. The Creeper being a slender-bodied bird in com- 



EGGS, FOOD AND SONG OF THE CREEPER 151 

parisnn with its linear dimensions, the eggs appear rather 
small for its size, being about 0.55 in length by 0,4:4 in breadth. 

The insectivorous diet of the Creeper is occasionally varied 
with vegetable substances. Audubon speaks of finding particles 
of lichens in its gizzard, and Mr. Gentry aflirms that he has 
frequently seen the bird upon hemlock, spruce and birch trees, 
feeding upon the seeds which are contained in the cones of the 
two former, aud npon the catkins of the latter. According to 
the same writer, the following insects have been identified 
among the contents of its stomach: — Cratonychus cinereus, 6. 
pertinax, RhynchccMis pinus, Bostrichus pinits, Platymis cuprei- 
pcrmls, HarpaJm compar, Formica sanguln'a aud F. suhterranea. 
Ants appear to be a favorite article of its diet, and are devoured 
in such quantities that at times the body of the bird has been 
found to smell of these creatures. 

The Creeper's musical ability is not conspicuous. I have 
never recognized its song, aud most authors say nothing on 
this score. But it seems that, besides its well-known harsh 
call-note (more easily learned and recognized than described), 
it has " a very distinct and varied song". This observation 
seems to have been first made, in the case of the American bird, 
by Mr. William Brewster, of Cambridge, who states that he 
has heard the birds singing, in different parts of New. England, 
from the middle of March to June. "Their notes are varied 
and warbling and somewhat confused ; some of them are loud, 
powerful, and surpassingly sweet, others are more feeble and 
plaintive; their song usually ends with their accustomed cry, 
which jnay be represented by cree creecreepJ'^ The same thing, 
however, had been noticed in the case of the European Creeper ; 
its song during the pairing season being, according to Pro- 
fessor Newton, "loud and pleasing, though not often heard, 
and pitched in a high, shrill key". So it seems that this 
obscure, hard-working and very practical little bird has found 
time amidst its absorbing pursuits to cultivate some of the 
accomplishments. 



CHAPTER IX. — WRENS 



Fam. TROGLODYTID^ 

THE composition of the Wren family at present generally 
accepted by naturalists is such that its strict definition 
scarcely becomes possible; for within its limits is embraced 
much variety of form, and some of its accredited members are 
with difficulty distinguished from those of certain other groups. 
Without attempting to frame an exact diagnosis, I can never- 
theless point out those features by which the Wrens of this 
country at least may be recognized. The chief trouble lies in 
the direction of the Mocking group of Thrushes; Wrens being 
so very much like these birds that the arbitrary criterion of 
size is the most obvious distinction. From the Miinincc, how- 
ever, the Troglodytidce are distinguished by the greater extent 
of the cohesion of the anterior toes at their bases : — " The inner 
toe is united by half its basal joint to the middle toe, sometimes 
by the whole of this joint; and the second joint of the outer 
toe enters wholly or partially into this union, instead of the 
basal only." — (Baird.) The possession of ten primaries se:i)arates 
the Wrens from all of the large sylvicoline group of birds; and 
the first primary, though short, is not spurious. The scutellate 
tarsi distinguish them from those groups, discussed in lueced- 
ing chapters, which have the tarsi booted. In comparison with 
the Titmice and Nuthatches, we observe that in the Wrens the 
bill is altogether different, being of a slender, lengthened, and 
generally curved shape, showing exposed scaled nostrils. This 
member lacks obvious rictal bristles, though the frontal 
feathers may be bristle-tipped. The tail is variable, and with- 
out any special attribute, unless the erected position so fre- 
quently observed may be considered a characteristic. We thus 
arrive at some understanding of the nature of this group ; and 
for the practical purpose of discriminating the species with 
which we have to deal, we may say they are 10-primaried 
Oscines of small size, with scutellate tarsi, short, rounded wings, 
not peculiar tail, slender, unnotched bill, with exposed scaled 
nostrils and no rictal vibrissaj, and extensively coherent toes— a 



CHARACTERISTIC* TRAITS OF WRENS 153 

conventional expression which probably covers all the modilica- 
tions of the North American species at least, to the exclusion 
of the birds of other families. 

About a hundred species and geographical races of Wrens 
are usually recognized, and referred to some fifteen or twenty 
genera. Nearly all of them are American, and the great 
majority inhabit the warmer parts of this hemisphere. With 
the exception of certain aberrant forms, by some placed in this 
famil}^, the group is only represented in the Old World by one 
or two species — the common W'ood Wren of Europe, Anorthura 
troglodytes, analogue of our Winter Wren, and a closely related 
Japanese species, A. fumigatus^ thought to be much the same 
as the Alaskan Wren lately described by Professor Baird. The 
habits and general economy of these birds vary to such a 
degree that onl^^ a few leading traits cau be conveniently 
sketched. The Wrens habitually live near the ground, inhabit- 
ing shrubbery rather than trees, the reeds of swamps or marshes, 
the tangled brushwood of windfall country, patches of cactus, 
l>iles of rocks, &c. Although not at all scausorial in the proper 
sense, they have a good deal of the Creeper in their composi- 
tion, and are incessantly rustling about in the intricate recesses 
of their chosen resorts, gliding with short flights or leaping 
impetuously. Such humility, and the evident desire for a 
means of ready concealment, even though not always taken 
advantage of, contrast curiously with some other traits the 
Wrens exhibit in an exaggerated degree, and result in a singu- 
lar compound. FortheWrenspossessahighrateof irritability — 
they are bold, self-asserting and aggressive, petulant to the 
verge of fretfulness, with a certain pertness of demeanor, and 
a singularly pryiug, inquisitive disposition. They are the irre- 
pressible busy-bodies of feathered society, and not seldom make 
trouble among some of the milder-mannered and better-behaved 
members of the sylvan circle. They are noisy birds ; when 
alarmed or displeased, they have a loud, harsh, chattering or 
scolding note; but they are also fine songsters. Every one is 
familiar with the bright hearty carol which the House Wren 
trills so persistently in the spring, and the song of other species 
is often of wonderful timbre. The uidification differs in detail 
with the several species; but it may be said, in general terms, 
that the Wrens build rude and bulky structures of coarse 
materials, souietimes stowed away in holes, beneath rocks, &c., 
in other cases hung in bushes or reeds. There is no constant 



154 THE GENUS CAMPTLOKIIYNCHUS 

Character of the eggs (of two closely related species, for exam- 
ple, the eggs are iu one case white, in the other dark chocolate 
color); but the clutch is always numerous. The Wrens are all 
l^lainly colored birds, the browns and grays being the prevail- 
ing shades; none of our species, at least, and perhaps none of 
the family, show red, blue, yellow, or green. The dietetic 
regimen is insectivorous. 

Species of this family abound iu all parts of temperate North 
America, and one of them also attains the higher latitudes. 
Among them are some of the best known of our eastern birds; 
but in the West and Southwest there are several kiuds, be- 
longing to distinct genera, of which less is generally known. I 
shall take occasion to treat the latter with sufficient particu- 
larity to reflect ^11 that has been learned of their life-history ; 
but the more familiar species must be slighted to some extent, 
since the limits which have been set to the present work forbid 
the completion of biographies in every case. 

Genus CAMPYIORHYNCHUS Spix 

Chars. — '• Bill stout, comjiressed, as long as, or longer than 
the head, without notch or rictal bristles ; culmen and commis- 
sure curved ; gonys nearly straight. Nostrils in the antero- 
inferior part of nasal groove, in advance of the frontal feathers, 
with an overbangiug scale with thickened edge, as in Thryo- 
thoriis; sometimes, as iu the type, reduced to a slight ridge 
along the upper side of the nasal groove. Lateral septum not 
projecting below or anteriorly into the nasal cavity, but con- 
cealed by the nasal scale. Tarsus a little longer than the middle 
toe and claw; claws strong, much curved, and very sharp: 
middle toe with the basal joint adherent almost throughout. 
Wings and tail about equal, the latter graduated ; the exterior 
webs of lateral feathers broad. In size the largest of the 
family." — (Baird.) Tarsi scutellate posteriorly. 

This notable genus consists of some twenty species, inhabit- 
ing Central and South America, with a single one extending 
into the United States. A second, found in Lower California, 
may possibly be hereafter included in our fauna; it is noted 
below.* These birds look quite unlike ordinary Wrens, our 
ideas of which require to be considerably enlarged to include 
the Campylorhynchi. They illustrate a peculiarity, shared by 

* CampylorbyncbUS afflnis, Xant. Pr. Phila. Acad. 1859, 298.— BfZ. Pr. Phila. Acad. 1859 
.303.— M. Rev. AB. 1864, 100.— Scl. Cat. AB. 1861, U.— Elliot, BNA. pi.— Coop. B. Gal. 
i. 1870, 62, fig.— Coues, Key, 1872. 85.— B. B. if R. NAB. i. 1874, 133, pi. 8, f. 6. 



TARSAL ENVELOPE OF CAMPYLORHYNCHUS, ETC. 155 

tlie other two western genera, Catherpes and SaJpinctes, in com- 
parison with the more typical Troglodytes. In the latter, the 
tail is thin, that is, the individual feathers are narrow; in the 
western forms, these feathers are broad and rounded, and the 
tail as a whole is consequently fan-shaped. As already stated, 
the species are of great size for this family, and their habits are 
in some respects peculiar. 

Impressed with certain differeuces observable between typical Wrens and 
the three western genera, Campijlorhnnchus, Salpincles, and Catherpes, gen- 
erally assigned to the Troglodytidce, I have been led to look into the techni- 
cal asiJects of the case, with the result of becoming dissatisfied with the 
alleged position of these forms among the Wrens. In establishing the genus 
Catherpes as distinct from SalpUictes, Professor Baird noted certain discrepan- 
cies in the structure of the feet; and in 1864 (Review, p. 109), he enlarges 
upon the remarkable structure of the tarsus of Salpinctes, which he charac- 
terizes as " especially peculiar among all its cognate genera by having the 
usual two continuous plates along tlie posterior half of the inner and outer 
faces of the tarsus divided transversely into seven or more smaller plates, 
with a naked interval between them and the anterior scutella; ". This is 
certainly a remarkable feature for a presumed thoroughly Oscine bird to 
exhibit, since it is highly characteristic of Oscines to have the postero-lateral 
tarsal plates continuous, meeting in a sharp ridge behind. I verify the state 
of the case in Salpinctes as given by Professor Biird, but I find, to my sur- 
prise, that in Campylorhynchns the lateral plates, but especially the outer one, 
are broken up into a series of conspicuous scutella; and that Catherpes shows 
a tendency, not so fully expressed, to similar division of the tarsal envelope. 
If this structure really possesses the significance attributed to it by many 
of the best writers, the question whether these birds are Wrens at all is 
re-opened. That they possess decidedly Wren-like habits is no strong argu- 
ment, for nothing is more fallacious than such teleological bending of 
diverse structures to similar ends. It will be remembered that Lafresnaye, 
and other writers of repute, have placed species of Campylorhynchiis in the 
genus Ficolaptes, which is a member of the large family Dendrocolaptklcv ; 
some of these birds have rigid acuminate Certhia-Y\\s.G tail-feathers, and 
Creeper-Iilie habits; in others, however, the tail is soft, and among them is 
witnessed the greatest diversity of habits. On comparing our Canipylorhyn- 
chus with a typical Dendrocolaptine (Dendrorms erythropygla), I find that the 
bills of the two are extremely similar, and that the tarsal envelope of Den- 
drornis is broken up posteriorly into a number of plates, of which those on 
the inner aspect are continuous with those in front, while the postero- 
exterior ones are a series of rounded and isolated scales. Again, in the case 
of Saljnnctes, it will be recollected that Bonaparte placed it in the genvxs 
Myiothera, and considered it an Ant-thrush (Formicariida',), Ou examining 
the tarsus of a species of Thamnophilus, a typical Formicariau, I find that the 
plates are divided behind, and the general structure is substuntiallj' the 
same as in Salpincles. The case of Catherpes is less clear, but it would proba- 
bly go with Salpinctes. These points may not suffice for the summary dis- 
missal of the genera under consideration from the Troylodytidw, but they go 
to show that their position in that family is not assured. 



156 SYNONYMY AND DESCRIPTION OF CACTUS WREN 

Cactus Wren 

Campy lorliyiiclins brunneicapillns 

PICOlaptCS bniinieicapiUus, Lafr. " Mag. de Zool. 1835, 01, pi. 47" (?" California").— I«2fr. 
Ami. Lye. N. Y. v. I8.vi, IH (Texas).— Brf. Stansbnry'.s Rep. 1852, •iil.—Heerm. Joum. 
Phila. Arafl. ii. 1853, 263.— Oas.s. 111. B. Cal. & Tex. 1854, 1.5(i, pi. 2.5. 

Campylorhynchus brunncicapillus, Gray, G. of B. i. 1847, 159.— B/). CA. i. 1850, ^2Z.—Scl. 
Pr. Ptiila. Acad. viii. 1856, 264.— M. BNA. 1858, 355.— M U. S. Mex. B. Surv. ii. pt. ii. 
1859, Birds, \2.—Bd. Proc. Phila. Acad. 1859, 304.— flcfrm. PRKR. x. 1859, Williamsou'g 
Route, Birds, i\.—Bd. Rev. AB. i. 1864, 99.— Dress. Ibis, 1865, 483 (Texas).— CoMes, Pr. 
Phila. Acad. 1866, 77 (Arizona) ; 1868, 83 (the »iime).— Butcher, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1868, 
149 (Laredo, Tex.). — Coop. Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 183.— Coo;). B. Cal. i. 1870, 61, figs.— Oomcs, 
Key, 1872, S5.—Merr. U. S. Geol. Surv. Ter. for 1872, 1873, 713 (Utah).— Fam Sf Hensh. 
Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874. 9.—Hcush. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1871, 41, 100.— B. B. 6f R. NAB. i. 
1874, 132, fig. pi. 8, f. 5.—Hensh. Zool. ExpL W. 100 Merid. 1876, 178 (Utah, &c.). 

faraplorynclius brunneicapillus, Hensh. ListB. Ariz. 1875, 155. 

Browu-lu'ajlcd Creeper, Cass. 1. c. 

Caliroriiiaii t'actus-wren. Coop. I.e. 

Cactus Wren, B. B. <v R. I. c. 

H.\B. — Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Southern Utah, Soutbern Nevada, auel 
portions of Califoruia. Northern Mexico. 

Ch. sp. — $ 9 Griseo-fuscus, alho nigroque notatus, pileo ohscure 
hninneo, immaculato ; infra riifoalbus, postlce rufescens^ guld 
macidis magnis rotundatis nigris, 7'eUquis partihus punctis sparsis 
nigris ; caudd nigricante, rectrice externa alho niultifasciatd, reli- 
quis, mediis exceptis, alho uni/asciatis. 

$ , adult : Back grayish-brown, marked with black and white, each feather 
having a central white field several times indented with black. Whole 
crown of head and nape rich dark wood-brown, immaculate. A long white 
superciliary stripe from nostril to nape. Beneath, nearly pure white anter- 
iorly, gradually shading behind into decided cinnamon-brown — the throat 
and fore part of the breast marked with numerous large, crowded, rounded, 
black spots, the rest of the under parts with small, sparse, oval or linear, black 
spots, again enlarging somewhat on the crissum. Wings darker and more 
fuscous-brown than the back; all the quills with a series of numerous white 
or whitish indentations along the edge of both webs — largest and purest on 
the inner webs. Central tail-feathers like the wings, with numenms, more 
or less incomplete, blackish bars ; other tail-feathers blackish, the outer 
with several broad white bars on both webs; the rest with usually only a 
single comj^lete white bar near the end. Bill dark plumbeous, paler below ; 
iris orange. Length, near 8 inches ; wing, 3 or more ; tail rather longer 
thau the wing; bill, | ; tarsus, 1. 

5, adult : Quite like the $ , but the spots on the throat and breast rather 
smaller, therefore less crowded, and less strongly contrasting with the sparse 
speckling of the rest oi the under parts. 

Young : A newly fledged specimen before me is very similar to the adult 
on the upper parts, but the throat is whitish with little speckling, and there 
are scarcely any spots on the rest of the under parts, which are, however, 
as decidedly cinnamon as those of the adults. 

I 



HISTORY OF THE CACTUS WREN 157 

The points of difference between this apecies and the nearly allied though 
apparently quite distinct C affinls of Lower California (which may yet bo 
found in the Colorado Basin) are as follows : In C. affinls, the cap is reddish- 
brown, lighter instead of darker than the back. The marking of the back 
is very conspicuous, in strong streaks of black and white, these two colors 
bordering each other with little or no indentation. The under parts are 
nearly white, with smaller markings on the throat and larger ones else- 
where, so that these areas are scarcely contrasted in appearance. Lastly 
and chieli^', all the lateral tail-feathers, instead of only the outer ones, are 
crossed on both webs with numerous complete white bars. The variations 
with sex and age correspond with those of C. brunneicapiUus. 

THE history of the Brown-headed Cactus Wren begins in 
doubt whether it is the bird which the famous French 
ornithologist De Lafresnaye (or De La Fresnaye — it is written 
both ways by the Baron himself) described and figured in 1835 
.under the name of Picolaptes brunncicaplllus. In critically 
reviewing the case, Professor Baird found it " quite impossible " 
to reconcile the ascribed characters of Lafresnaye's bird with 
the present species, and alludes to the chance that it may 
have come from Peru, instead of California, as was supposed. 
However, as the identification has been universally accepted, 
we are warranted in retaining it, in the absence of proof to the 
contrary. I almost wish that it may be shown to be necessary 
to change the name, which becomes most inconveniently long 
when associated with the generic term — in fact, I remember 
but one more cumbrous appellation for a North American 
bird. T^is is Spithliborhamphus icurmizuzume, a curious Greco- 
Japanese term, which was invented for one of the North Pacific 
species of the Auk family ( AZciV/ce), and for which Brandt, Tem- 
minck and myself are jointly responsible. 

The English name which the " Cactus" Wren has acquired 
indicates the nature of its customary resorts, and aftbrds a hint 
of its peculiar nidification. As we have already seen, several 
of the Arizona birds are architects of singular skill and taste ; 
the Cactus Wren is one of them. In the most arid and desolate 
regions of the Southwest, where the cacti flourish with wonder- 
ful luxuriance, covering the impoverished tracts of volcanic 
debris with a kind of vegetation only less surly and forbidding 
than the very scoria, this Wren makes its home, and places its 
nests, on every hand, in the thorny embrace of the repulsive 
vegetation. True to the instincts and traditions of the Wren 
family, it builds a bulky and conspicuous domicile; and when 
man}' are breeding together, the structures become as noticeable 



158 HISTORY OF THE CACTUS WREN 

as the nests which a colony of Marsh Wrens build in the heart of 
the swaying reeds. But it is not a globular mass of material, 
nor yet a cup; it is like a purse or pouch, and also peculiar in 
its position ; for such nests are usually pensile. In the present 
case, the nest resembles a flattened flask — more exactly, it is 
like the nursing-bottle, with which all mothers (and I suspect 
some fathers) are familiar, and this is laid horizontally, on its 
flat side, in the crotch of a cactus. It is constructed of grasses 
and small twigs woven or matted together, and lined with 
feathers. Including the covered way or neck of the bottle 
leading to the nest proper, the structure is some ten or twelve 
inches long, and rather more than half as much in breadth. 
The bird appears to be an early breeder; Dr. Cooper found it 
preparing to build nests about San Diego so early as the 26th 
of February. This, however, may have been somewhat excep^ 
tional; for the nests which the same naturalist actually examined 
in May contained eggs or newly-fledged young, and must, there- 
fore, have been constructed in April. The eggs, from four to 
six in number, and an inch long by two-thirds as much in 
breadth, are white, but so thickly flecked with small salmon- 
colored spots that a rich cast of this tint is "given to the whole 
surface. 

The first naturalist to fully identify the species as a bird of 
the United States was Mr. George N. Lawrence, who examined 
specimens taken in Texas by Capt. J. P. McOown, in 1851. 
Soon afterward, it was noticed by Dr. A. L. Heermanu in 
the vicinity of Guaymas ; and that gentleman's observations 
upon its habits were published by the Philadelphia Academy, 
in its "Journal". In 1854, Mr. John Cassin gave a recogniz- 
able figure of the species, referring it, as others before him had, 
to the genus Ficolaptes, and consequently placing it on his 
plate in a climbing attitude, which, however suitable for a Pico- 
laptes, is not characteristic of a Campylorhy7ichus, as these birds 
have nothing substantially in common with the scansorial 
nature of the Creepers and Nuthatches. In the mean time, 
other observers successively contributed . their quota to the 
general fund of our knowledge, gradually establishing the 
geographical distribution of the species I have given in a pre- 
ceding p!iragrai)h, and affording further insight into its mode 
of life. Two of the latest items respecting its distribution, 
given by Mr. Henshaw in a work just now issuing from the 
Government press, are specially interesting, as they carry the 



GENUS SALP.NCTES S. OBSOLETUS 159 

known range into Utah and ISTevada: the bird was taken in 
1871 by Mr. Ferdinand Bischolf in the last named Territory, 
and by Dr. H. C3. Yarrow and Mr. Henshaw at Saint George, 
Utah, during the following year. All onr accounts agree sub- 
stantially respecting the thoroughly Wren-like nature of the 
bird. Its motions are sprightly and varied ; its temperament 
is curiously compounded of self-assertion, petulance, inquisitive- 
ness, and timidity; now it skulks in the shelter of the impene- 
trable cactus patches and other dense undergrowth, now 
mounts the tops of the bushes to scold in a loud, harsh tone, 
or to utter the notes of its clear and ringing song. 

Genus SALPINCTES Cabanis 

Chars. — Bill about as long as the head, slender, compressed, 
straight at base, then lightly decurved, acute at tip, faintly 
notched. Kostrils conspicuous, scaled, in a large fossa. Wing 
longer than the tail, the exposed portion of the first primary about 
half as long as the second, which is decidedly shorter than the 
third. Tail rounded, of twelve broad plane feathers, with rounded 
or subtruncate ends. Feet small and weak ; tarsus longer 
than the middle toe, scutellate posteriorly. Hind toe and claw 
shorter than the middle one. Lateral toes of unequal lengths, 
the outer being the longest; both very short, the tips of their 
claws falling short of the base of the middle claw. 
9 The special structure of the tarsal envelope, in connection 
with the small size of the feet and peculiar relative proportions 
of the tarsus and the several toes, readily distinguishes this 
genus among its allies. It is represented, as far as now known, 
by a single species; though a different variety has lately been 
ascertained to occur on the island of Guadaloup, off the coast 
of Lower California. 



Rock IrVren 

Salpinctes obsoletas 

Troglodytes Obsolctus, Snij, Long's Exp. R. Mts. ii. 1823, 4. -And. OB. iv. 183?, 443, pi. 360, 
f. 4— And. Syn. 1839, 73.— And. BA. ii. 1811, 113, pi. U6.— Woodh. Sitgr. Rep. Zuni, 
1853, er^.—Hccrm. Journ. Phila. Acad. ii. 18.J3, 263.— Henry, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1855, 309 
(New .Mhxico).— ATckJ. PRRR. vi. 1857, 80.—Heerm. PRRR. x. 1850, 41. 

MyiOthera Obsolcta, Bp. AO. i. 1825, 6, pi. l. f. 2.—Bp. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 182*^, 13— Towns. 
Journ. Phila. Acad. 18.39, 154. 

Troglodytes obsolcta, Nutt. Man. i. 1832, 435. 

Troglodltes obsolctus, Omilh. Gomm. Journ. Phila. Acad. vii. 1837, 193. 

Tliryolliorus obsolctus, Up. CGL. 1838, U. — Bp. " Riv. Zool. ii. 1839, 98". 



160 SYNONYMY AND DESCRIPTION OF ROCK WREN 

SalplnctfS ObSOletllS, Cnb. Arch. f. Naturg. 1847, Bd. i. 323 (type).— Bp. CA. i. 1850, 234.— 
iW. BXA. 1858, ;i.57.— M. U. S. Mex. B. Surv. ii pt. ii. 1859, Birds, U.— Henry, Pc. 
Phila. Acad. 1859, 107 (New Mexico).— Sci. PZS. 1859, 371 (Oaxaca).— X«/U. Pr. Phila. 
Acad. 1859, 191 (California).— 5'. Sf S. Ibis, Ib60, 30 (Vera Paz). — Rd. Ives's Exped. pt. v. 
1861, 6 (Colorado River.)— Hat/d. Tr. Am. Pbilos. Soc. xii. 18G2, 463.— M. Rev. AB. i. 
1864, 110.— Coices, Ibis, 1865, 164 (Arizona).— Coiies, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1866, 77 (Arizona) .— 
Cmies, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1868, 83 (Arizona).— Bi4«oA. Pr. Phila. Acad. 1868, 149 (Texas).— 
Brown, Ibis, 1868, 421 (Vancouver).— Coop. Am. Nat. iii. 1869,73, 183, 297 (Upper Mis- 
nomi).—Coop. B. Cal. i. 1870, 64, fig. — Coop. Pr. Cal. Acad. 1870, 75 (Colorado River).— 
Coues, Key, 1872, So.—Alhri. Bull. MCZ. iii. 1872, 174.— f^oW. Pr. Bost. Roc. xv. 1872, 
195 (Black Hills).— iJferr. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, for 1872, 1873, 673.— Trippe, Pr. Boat. 
Soc. XV. 1873, 236 (Decatur County, Iowa).— Ridg. Bull. Ess. Inst. v. 1873 180 (Colo- 
rii6n). — Trippe, Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 566 (the same).— .4//e7!, Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 363— 
Ridsr. Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 605.— Alleti, Pr.Bost. Soc. xvii. 1874, 50 (Yellowstone River).— 
Coues, BNW. 1874, 27, 230.— B(i. Br. (f Ry. NAB. i. 1874, 135, figs. pi. 8, f. 2. — Yarr. !( 
Hensk. Rpp. Orn. Specs. 1874, 8.—Hensk. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, 41, 100.— TVeZso?*, Pr. 
Bost. Soc. xvii. 187.5, 353 (Neva.<la.).—Heiish. Zool. Expl. W. 100 Merid. 1876, 179. 

SalplnctUS obSOletUS, Steo. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, for 1870, 1871, 461. 

Sulpinctrs obsoletUS, Merr. U. S. fteol. Surv. Terr, for 1872, 1873, 713. 

Tlirj'olhorus latifusciatiis, " IJcht Preis Verz. 1831, no. 82? " 

Itocky Mountain Wren, Rock Wren, Authors. 

Hab. — Western United States and Mexico. South to Guatemala. 

Cn. sp. — $ 9 Fusco-f/riseufi,, nigra et albido 2)unctatus, ohsoletd 
fnsco-undulatus, uropygio rufescente; subtus albidiis postice rufes- 
cens, guld obsolete fiisco- striata ; rectricibus mediis dorso concolori- 
bus, fuscostriatis, lateralibus fulvis, nigrofasciatis. 

$ 9 ) adult : Upper parts pale browni.sh-j^ray, minutely dotted everywhere 
with blackish and whitish points tot^ether, and usually showing obsolete 
wavy bars of dusky. Rump cinnamon-brown ; a whitish superciliary line ; 
beneath, soiled white, shading behind into pale cinnamon, the throat and 
breast obsoletely streaked, and the under tail-coverts barred, with dusky. 
Quills of the wings rather darker than the back, with similar markings on 
the outer webs. Middle tail-feathers like the back, with many dark bars of 
equal width with the lighter ones; lateral tail-feathers similarly marked on 
the outer webs, plain on the inner webs, with a broad subtermiual black 
baron both webs and cinnamon-brown tips, the latter usually marbled with 
dusky ; outer feather with several blackish and cinnamon bars on both 
webs. Bill and feet dark horn color, the former paler at base below. 
Length, 5^-6: wing, 23-2* ; tail, 2i-2|; bill, f-f ; tarsus, f-i. 

Most of the markings of this species are blended and diffuse. The shade 
of the upper parts is quite variable, from dull grayish to a more plumbeous 
shade, often with a faint pinkish tinge. Specimens in worn and faded plum- 
age may altogether fail to show the peculiar dotting with black and whitish 
usually seen ; but, in these, the crosswise dusky undulation, as well as the 
streaks on the breast, are commonly more distinct than in fresher-feathered 
examples. The rufous tinge of the under parts is very variable in shade; 
that of the rump, however, is always well marked. 

STATEMENTS to the efifect that the Rock Wren does not 
occur on the Pacific side have no foundation in fact. In 



DISTRIBUTION ■ OF THE ROCK WREN 161 

the " Ilistory of North American Birds" (1871), it is said to be 
"not recorded from Pacific slope"; but one such record, of 
date 18G8, is above-quoted. The current eastward limitation 
of its rang'e must likewise be extended, since the bird has been 
found in Iowa. Yet authors are right in regarding; it as more 
especially or chiefly an inhabitant of the great central plateau 
and Rocky Mountains at large to the Coast ranges; and I am 
not aware that it has ever been found on the coast of Upper 
('alifornia or Oregon, though it is said by Dr. Cooper to appear 
toward the Sacramento Valley. It gains the coast further 
south, and extends to Cape Saint Lucas. Its northern limit is 
close by the boundary of the United States (latitude 49°). In 
the other direction, the matter is less definite. I give a Mexi- 
can quotation in a preceding paragraph, and we have the ex- 
cellent authority of Mr. Osbert Salvin for the occurrence of the 
bird in Guatemala. Of the movements of the bird within the 
general area of its distribution, I am not prepared to speak with 
desirable precision. It is migratory ; but the northern limit 
of its wintering, and the southern limit of its summering, I 
think remain to be ascertained. It appears to breed at large 
in its United States range. At Fort Whipple I noticed its 
arrival during the latter part of April, and it remains there at 
least until April. At Port Mojave, lower in the Territory, 
though near the same latitude, its presence has been noted in 
February, and the inference is that it winters there. It has 
been found at Toquerville, Utah, after the middle of October. 
Some of its movements may be furtlier illustrated by the fol- 
lowing uotes of Mr. T. M. Trippe, extracted from the " Birds of 
the Northwest ": — 

"The Kock Wren arrives at Idaho [Springs, Clear Creek 
County, Colorado,] about the20th of May, and extends its range 
up to, and a little above, timber-line. It breeds most abundantly 
between 6,500 and 9,500 feet, rarely nesting higher than the 
latter elevation, though found during summer from 12,000 feet 
down to the plains. It is a constant resident of the piles of loose 
rock which lie scattered on the mountain-sides, in which it finds 
its food and rears its young, and to which it retreats for safety 
on being alarmed. On its first arrival it is rather shy, but 
soon becomes tame and even familiar, haunting piles of boul- 
ders and small stones in the placer diggings, close to the miners' 
cabins. It rarely ventures far from its favorite rocky retreats ; 
but occasionally visits the road-sides to pick up flies and other 
11 B c 



162 HABITS AND MANNERS OF THE ROCK WREN 

insects, and sometimes hops over the roofs of cabins and mills, 
and not infrequently chooses the ridge as a convenient place 
from which to serenade its mate. It has a curious, rapidly 
repeated note, that sounds like the whirring of wings ; its song 
is very beautiful, louder and sweeter than that of the House 
Wren, though not as varied. While singing, the bird usually 
perches on the top of a heap of stones, and stands erect, with 
head thrown up, like the Carolina Wren. At such times it is 
quite timid, and if alarmed, instantly ceases the song and looks 
anxiously around, bobbing itself up and down every little 
while, like tiie Dipper, and presently creeps down into the 
stoueheap. Late in autumn its feathers become much worn 
from constant creeping among the rocks. In September it 
disappears." 

The Eock Wren abounds in suitable situations throughout 
the Colorado Basin, where its vivacious behavior and loud 
notes render it conspicuous among the other smaller plainly clad 
species. It is found iu most situations, whether wooded or 
open, but evidently prefers rocky places, full of chinks and 
crannies, where it creeps furtively about like a mouse, oidy 
with greater agility, or skips and flutters from stone to stone. 
The greater portion of its habitat being still unsettled, the bird 
thus frequenting wild and desolate places has acquired a repu- 
tation for shyness and love of seclusion; but there is every 
reason to suppose that in the course of time, should the coun- 
try ever grow populous, it will become as familiar as the House 
Wren. In the West, Parkman's Wren, which is nothing but 
a variety of the sociable little a'edon, continues to be quite as 
retiring an-d solitary a bird as the Hock Wren. In the case of 
the latter, we already have the premonitory signs of the semi- 
domestication of which the bird is susceptible ; it often comes 
about the miner's or the squatter's cabin, even bailding its nest 
iu the chinks of the logs ; and with equal readiness haunts the 
shrubbery of gardens in many of the western towns. It would 
make a very desirable addition to our " household birds". 

The materials which compose the Rock Wren's nest are very 
miscellaneous — some general term like "rubbish" would best 
express the state of the case. Sometimes a nest is found to be 
composed almost entirely of some single substance that hap- 
pened readily available ; but it is oftener built of a variety of 
materials — any that come handy — sticks, bark-strips, weeds, 
grasses, moss, hair, wool, &c. The sites selected are quite as 



NESTING OF THE ROCK WREN CATHERPES 1G3 

various; usually the nest is built in a rift of rocks, or on the 
jjround beneath some shelving rock. The variety of the 
Rock Wren which inhabits the island of Guadaloup, off the 
coast of Lower California, is said to ingeniously block up the 
entrance to its nest with an artificial wall built of pebbles, leav- 
ing an aperture onl.vjnst large enough to pass. A nest has 
been found in the natural cavity of a clay bank; and others, 
as already hinted, between the logs of a cabin. As to the 
period of laying, we are again met by great diversity, in conse- 
quence of the wide range of the bird during the breeding 
season. Dr. Cooper's Fort Benton nest contained nine eggs, 
in June; at San Diego, the same naturalist found young birds 
in May; in New Mexico, Mr. Heushaw took a nest containing 
three young and one egg, June 17 ; and another, with four 
nearly fledged young, was secured July 28, though birds of the 
year already flying had been observed two weeks previously. 
This indicates, of course, that at least two broods are reared; 
and such is doubtless the rule, in the southerly localities at any 
rate. The eggs seem to run from four to eight or nine to a 
clutch; they measure from 0.72 to 0.77 in length by 0.60 to 
0,66 iu breadth, averaging about f x | ; they are noticeable for 
their rotundity, and the crystalline purity and smoothness 
of the shell. The white ground is rather sparingly sprinkled 
with distinct reddish-brown dots, usually massed at the large 
end or wreathed around it. 

Genus CATHERPES Baird 

Chars. — In general features, even to the system of colora- 
tion, and the tints themselves, closeh' resembling Salpinctes. 
Tail and wings much as iu that genus. Bill singularly attenu- 
ate, about as long as the head, nearly straight in all its out- 
lines, even the gonys being scarcely appreciably, and the cul- 
men and gonys only slightly, deflected toward the end. There 
appears to be some peculiarity in the direction of the axis of 
the bill as a whole iu comparison with that of the rest of the 
skull, there being little rise of the forehead from the line of the 
cuhnen. Tarsus short, not exceeding the middle toe and claw, 
with a tendency to subdivision of the tarsal plates behind. 
Hind toe and claw as long as the middle one. Lateral toes of 
unequal lengths, the tip of the claw of the outer one reaching, 
or rather surpassing, the base of the middle claw. 

As in the case of Salpinctes, this genus possesses but one 
known species, which is separable into two geographical races. 



164 SYNONYMY AND CHARACTERS OF CANON WREN 

Canon Wren 

Catherpes niexicaiius* conspersns 

Troglodytes albifrons, nd. Stansbury's Kep. 1852, 327. 

Troglodytt's nu-XicanilS, Hcerm. Journ. Phila. Acad. 1853, 263. — Cass. 111. B. Cal. & Tex. 

1854, 173, pi. 30 (iu part). 

Catherpes mcxicanilS, Bd. BXA. 1858, 351 (in part).— Ke/mer. P.IRR. x. 1859, 26. — Xant. Pr. 
Phila. Acad. 1859, 191 (California).— /id. Rev. AB. i. 18(54, III (in part). — Dress, Ibis, iefi.5, 
484 (Texas). — Coaes, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1866, 77 (Arizona). — Coop. B. Cal. i. 1870, 66, figs.— 
Aiken, Pr. Best. See. xv. 1872, 196 (Colorado, res\(\ent).— Allen. Hull. MCZ. 1872, 175 
(Colorado City).— .-iZ/e/i, Am. Nat. vi. 1872, 404— Ooues, Key, 1872, 85— Merr. U.S. 
Geol. Surv. Terr, for 1872, 1873,713 (Utah).— Coo;). Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 17.— Coues, BNW. 
1874, 28. 

Catherpes mexicaniis var. conspersus, Ridgw. Am. Nat. vii. 187.3, 603.— lUdg. Bull. Ess. 
Inst. V. 1873, 180 (Colorado).— So!. Br. 4- Ry. NAB. i. 1674, 139, fig. pi. 8, f. 4.—Yarr. 4- 
T/msA. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, 9.— //c?!s/t. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874,41, 101.— flensA. Zool. 
Expl. W. 100 Merid. 1876, 181. 

White-throaled Wrcii, White-throated Rock Wren, Canon Wren, Authors. 

Hab. — Throughout New Mexico aud Arizona, and portion.s of Texas, 
Colorado, Utah, Nevada, and California. Resident. 

Ch. SP. — $ 9 Bmnneus, ant ice paUescens, postlce ruftscens, 
undique aWido n'ujroque imnctatus ; cmidd cimiamomind, ajigustis- 
sime nigrofasciatd ; guld albd ; ventre ferrugineo^ ohsoletd alhido 
fiiscoqne 7ioioto; pedlhiis nigris. 

$ 2 , adult : Upper parts brown, paler aud grayer anteriorly, behind shad- 
ing insensibly into rich rufous, everywhere dotted with small dusky and 
whitish spots. Tail clear cinnamon-brown, crossed witb numerous very 
narrow and mostly zigzag black bars. Wing-quills dark brown, the outer 
webs of the primaries aud both webs of the inner secondaries barred with 
the color of the back. Chin, throat, and fore breast, with the lower half 
of the side of the head and neck, white, shading behind through ochraceons- 
brown into rich deep ferruginous, and posteriorly obsoletely waved with 
dusky and whitish. Bill slate color, of a pale livid hue below ; feet black; 

* The synonymy of the true mexicanus is :— 
Thryothorus mexicanus, Sw. Zool. 111. i. 1829, pi. 11. 
Troglodytes mexicanus, Licht. " Preis-Verz. Mex. Viig. 1830, 2 "; J. f. O. 1863, 57.— Gray, G. 

of B. i. 1847, 159. 
SalpincJeS mexicanus, Cab. Wieg. Arch. 1847, Bd. i. 324.— Sp. CA. i. 1850, 224.- Cai. MH. 

i. 1850, IS.—Scl. PZS. 1855, 66; 1857, 212 (Orizaba) ; 18.i8, 29 (Oaxaca).— ScZ. Cat. AB. 

1861, 18. 
Catherpes mexicanus, Sd. PZS. 1864, 172 (City of yiexKo).—Sumich. Mem. Bost. Soc. i. 

1869, 545 (Vera Cruz). 
Catherpes mexicanus t^ar. mexicanus, Ridg. Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 603.— Bd. Br. Ry. NAB. i. 

1874, 138. 
Thryothorus guttulatus, Lnfr. RZ. 1839, 99. 
? Troglodytes alblcollis, " Cicv.'' 

1 Troglodytes muparlus, Licht. " Preis-Verz. Mex. Vog. 1830, 2 "; J. f. 0. 1863, .57. 
?Certhia albifrons, Giraud, Sixteen Sp.Tex. B. 1841, pi. 8 (see Ridg. Am. Nat. vii. 1873,604). 

Hab.— Mexico, southward from near the border of the United States. 



THE HAUNTS OF THE CANON WREN 165 

eyes brown. Length about 5i inches; extent, 7|; wing, 2i- ; tail, 2^; bill, 
§• ; tarsus, |. 

The unuierous United States specimens of this bird I have examined diifer 
decidedly from the Mexican form, as accurately pointed out by Mr. Ridgway. 
The Mexican bird is larger, with a dilierent curve of the bill ; it is much 
darker colored both above and below, with sharper distinction of the white 
throat, and with the spots of the upper parts restricted to the back and 
wings; with the black tail-bars much broader and more regular, and the 
light markings ou the outer webs of the quills mere indentations instead of 
complete bars. 

POINTS .about the Cauoa Wren are its fondness for the 
resorts the name indicates, and its wonderfully impressive 
chant. More anon of the last of these two leading traits. I 
will first speak of its haunts, which are no less characteristic 
of the bird than its singular utterances. It is not very long 
since the bird was unknown as an inhabitant of the United 
States ; and no one could have surmised how large an area in 
this country it really occupies from the hints of its distribution 
which our literature of ten years ago afforded. It was supposed 
to merely reach our border, with a little extension within our 
limits up the Colorado Valley. The fact that I had never seen 
it at Fort Whipple supported this notion of its limited distribu- 
tion, and in my "Prodrome" of 1866 I gave the bird as one gen- 
erally distributed over the southern and western portions of 
Arizona, np to Fort Mojave at least. I now see that its absence 
from that locality — at any rate, its rarity, so great that it never 
came under my observation — was due to the topographical 
features of the place, not its geographical position. There 
were plenty of rocks about the fort (rocks, like reptiles and 
cactuses, are natural products of Arizona), just suiting the 
wants of the Salpirictes; but this immediate vicinity lacked 
the singular walled chasms with w^hich many portions of the 
Territory are scored and seamed — those reproductions ou a 
smaller scale of the Grand Canon of the Colorado itself, most 
wonderful crack of the ground in America — and such rifts of 
solid rock alone are entirely to the liking of the CaBon Wren. 
So it fell out that it was left for the latest ornithologists of 
the Southwest — for Allen, Aiken, Ridgway, and Henshaw — to 
show that the range of the bird extends from Arizona and 
New Mexico, and portions of Texas and Southern California, 
into Colorado, Utah, and Nevada. How much further it may 
actually reach we do not yet know ; but there is nothing iu 
the analogies of the case to forbid the supposition that the 



166 THE CACTUS WREN AS A MUSIC-BOX 

(Jafion Wren may push northward wherever its favorite resorts 
can be found. For it is by no means the tender, semi-tropical 
bird we may have somewhat unconsciously su{)posed ; it is 
resident in all the Territories just named ; it lointers iu Colorado, 
Utah, and l^evada; and if it is ever subjected to the migratory 
impulses which most of the Wrens feel at times, there is noth- 
ing but the lack of suitable haunts to restrain its movements. 

We remember the " rift within the lute "; in the Caiion Wren 
we have the lute within the rift — a curious little animated 
mnsic-box, ntterly insignificant in size and appearance, yet fit 
to make the welkin ring with glee. This bird-note is one of 
the most characteristic sounds in nature ; nothing matches it 
exactly; and its power to itnpress the hearer increases when, 
as usually happens, the volume of the sound is strengthened 
by reverberation through the deep and sinuous canon, echoed 
from side to side of the massive perpendicular walls till it 
gradually dies away in the distance. No technical description 
would be likely to express the character of these notes, nor 
explain the indelible impression they make upon one who hears 
them for the first time amid the wild and desolate scenes to 
which they are a fit accompaniment. The song is perfectly 
simple ; it is merely a succession of single whistling notes, each 
separate and distinct, beginning as high iu the scale as the 
bird can reach, and regularly descending the gamut as long as 
the bird's breath holds out, or until it reaches the lowest note 
the bird is capable of striking. These notes are loud, clear, 
and of a peculiarly resonant quality ; they are uttered with 
startling emphasis, and I sometimes fancied I detected a shade 
of derision, as if, secure in its own rocky fastnesses, the bird 
were disposed to mock the discomforts and anxieties of a 
journey through hostile deserts.. 

In its general habits, the Canon Wren displays much of the 
nature of a Creeper; and, on closely comparing the structure 
of its feet, much resemblance may be traced. In fact, its habits 
recall the impression I have formed respecting those of the 
European Wall Creeper {Tichodroma). It often flies up and 
down the face of i^erpendicular cliffs, clinging to the slightest 
inequalities of surface, or settling to sing upon the very edge 
of the crest ; and has even been observed to cling to the roof 
of a cave with all the facility of a Creeper. When among loose 
bowlders, its behavior is more becoming a Wren ; it threads the 
mazes of the rocks, like the Salpinctes, with wonderful agility, 



ANALYSIS OF TROGLODYTINyE 1G7 

in a sly aud furtive way, deiigbtiuo- to baffle observation aud 
re appear uuexpectedly in another place to laugh heartily at 
the perplexity it has occasioned. But I must not represent 
the Canon Wren solely in its leading character of the scofhng 
auchoretic cave-dweller; it sometimes displays familiar traits, 
coming in friendly spirit about man's abode, to nest in crevices 
of walls and buildings, or even occupy boxes put up for its 
accommodation, like a Martin, Bluebird, or House Wren. 
Sufhcient and satisfactory details respecting its nest and eggs 
have not yet reached me 5 from what 1 can gather from the 
published records, its economy in these matters closely resem- 
bles tbat of the Rock Wren. Eggs supposed to belong to the 
CaQon \yren have been described by Dr. Brewer : they were 
" four in number, were unusually oblong and pointed for eggs 
of this family, and measured .80 by .60 of an inch, with a 
crystalline-white ground, profusely covered with numerous and 
large blotches of a reddish or cinnamon brown''. 

Subfamily TROGLODYTIN^E : Typical Wrens 

This is a much more homogeneous group than the family at 
large as usually constituted. The current genera of North 
America are very closely related — so closely that their formal 
discrimination becomes difficult. Tbey are iu fact best dis- 
tinguished by the system of coloration, in connection with 
certain slight details of form. Since every one of bur species 
represents a different subdivision, it will suffice to present here 
an analysis which will serve for their recognition, and obviate 
the necessity of diagnosis under the several heads given beyond. 

All the following sections with the wings and tail more or less completely 
barred crosswise. 

A. Large. Upper parts uniform in color, without streaks or bars ; rump 

with concealed white spots. Belly unmarked; a conspicuous super- 
ciliary stripe, 

a. Tail shorter or not longer than the wings, all the featlicrs brown, 
distinctly barred Thryotiiouus ( T. ludovkianus). 

h. Tail decidedly longer than the wings (in our species), blackish, not 
fully barred on all the feathers Thuyom.vxks (7'. bewicki). 

B. Small. Upper parts not uniform, the back being more or less distinctly 

barred crosswise ; wings, tail, and flanks fully barred. 

c. Tail about equal to wings, the outstretched feet reaching scarcely or 

not beyond its end Tkoglodytks (2'. addon). 

d. Tail decidedly shorter than wings, the outstretched feet reaching 

far beyond its end Anouthuka (A. iroijlodytes). 



168 SYNONYMY OF THRYOTHORUS LUDOVICIANUS 

C. Small. Upper parts aot uuiform, the back being streaked leugtbwise; 
flanks scarcely or not barred. 

e. Bill about f as long as head ; crown plain ; streaks of back confined 

to interscapular region - Telmatodytes {T. palnstris). 

f. Bill scarcely or nor i As long as head ; crown streaked, like the whole 

back CisroTHOUUS (C. steJlaris). 

Species of all these sections, exceptiug typical Thryothorus, 
occur in the Colorado Basin. The synonyin3' of Thryothorus 
ludovicianus * is subjoined, together with a figure of the same 

*TIiryotIiorn8 liidoviciaiius.— Carolina Wren. 

a. ludovicianus. 

Motacin.1 troglodytes, var. y, Gm. SN. i. pt. ii. 1788, 994, no. 46v (Buff.v. 361; PE. 730, f. I). 
Sylvia ludovlciana, in(A. 10. ii. 1790, 548, n. 150 (also baBed on Buffon). (i\'o« o/ p. 535, 
no. 105). 

MotaciUa luilovisiann, Tun. SN. i. 180G, 613. 

Troglodytes ludovicianus, "Licht. Verz. 1823, 35".— i5p. Joum. Pbila. Acad. iv. 1824, 29.— 
Bp. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 1826, 9X—NuU. Man. i. 1832, 429.— ^(/c/. OB. i. 1831 , 399, pi. 78.— 
Aud. Syn. 1839, li.—Aud. BA. ii. 1841, 116, pi. ML—Giraud, BLI. 1844, 15.— Woodk. 
Sitgr. Rep. 1853, 67.—Gerhardt, Naura. iii. 1853, Wl.—Hoy, Pr. Pliila. Acad. 1853, 
313 (Wisconsin).— Kea(i, Pr. Pbila. Acad. 18.53, 399 (OVio). —Keniiic. Tr. 111. Agric. 
Soc. i. 1855, o&.—Pratten, Tr. 111. Agric. Soc. i. 1855, 603.— il/oxjm. J. f. O. 1858, 110.— 
Gosse, Alabama, 1859, fiZ.—Hoij, Smitlis. Rep. for 1864, 1865, 438 (Missouri).— .Vaj^ji. B. 
Fla. 1873, .37. 

Thryothorns ludovicianus, Bp. CGL. 1838, U.— Burnett, Pr. Bost. Soc. iv. 1851, wa.—Scl. 
Cat. AB. 1861, 20.— Barnard, Smiths. Rep. for 1860, 1861, iZ&.—Coues (f Prent. Smiths. 
Rep. for 1861, 1862, ilO.—Bd. Rev. AB. 1864, 123.— ? Dress. Ibis, 1805, 484.— Z,«M;r. Ann. 
Lye. N. Y. viii. 1866,283 (Long Island).— (7o?ic», Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 1868, lOS.— Allen, 
Mem. Bost. Soc. i. 1868, 523.- r;/?H6. B. E. Pa. 1869,27; Pbila. ed. 20 (wintering),— 
Coues, Pr. Pbila. Acad. 1871, 19.— Co!(cs, Am. Nat. 1871,367.— ^We?;, Bull. MCZ. ii. 1871, 
266; iii. 1872, 125, 175 (Kansas).— ^//c?t. Am. Nat. vi. 1872, 265.— ScoH, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 

1872, 221.— Coues, Key, 1872,86, f. 29.— Snow, B. Kansas, 1873, 6.—AUen. Am. Nat. vii. 

1873, 363.— ffjrf^. Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 550, 605; viii. 1874, 198.— A/c?-rm?ft, Am. Nat. viii. 
• 1874, 8, 86.— Coues, BNW. 1874, 29. 

Thryotliorws ludovicianus vnr. ludovicianus, Bd. Br. ^f By. NAB. i. 1874, 142, pi. 9, f. l. 

Thriothorus ludovicianus, Bd. BNA. 1858, .361. 

Thrjotorus ludovicianus, Bp. CA. i. 1850, 220. 

Motarilia carolini.ina, Bartr. Trav. Fla. )st Am. ed. 1791, 291. 

Certhia Caroliniana, Wils. AO. ii. 1810, 61, pi. 12, f. 5.— Bp. Joum. Pbila. Acad. iv. 1824, 28. 

Troglodytes arundinaCCUS, Vieill. OAS. ii. 1807, 55, pi. 108 (not the account of habits). 

Thryothorus arundinaceus, " Less. RZ. 1840, 263 (syn. excl.) ". 

Thryolhorus littoraliS, Vieill. "Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxxiv. 1819, 56". 

Thryothorus louisiana;, " Less. RZ. 1840, 263 " (in part). 

Troglodyte dc la Louislane, BuJ. " v. 361"; (PE. 730, f. l).—Bodd. Tabl. PE. 1783,46. 

Roitelet de la Louisiane, Bvff. pe. 730, f. l. 

Louisiana Warbler, Lath. .Syn. Suppl. ii. 244. n. 16 (not o/Syu. ii, pt. ii. 480, no. lOi). 

Troglodyte dcs Roseaux, Vieill. (1807 »(cc 1819). 

Carolina Wren, fJrcat Carolina Vl ren, Authors. 

b. hcrlandieri. 

Thriothorus berlandierl. Couch, MSS.— Brf. BNA. 1858, 362; ed. of 1860, pi. 83, f. 1. 
Thryothorus berlandierl, Bd. Rev. AB. 1864, \2i.— Coues, Am. Nat. v. 1871, 367. 
Thryothorus ludovicianus var. berlandierl, Coues, Key, 1872,86.— (7ohcs, BNW. 1874, 29.— 
Bd. Br. (,-Ry. NAB. i. 1874. 144, pi. 9, f. 2. 

Har.— Eastern United States; north to New York. Var. hcrht)idkn, 
Valley of the Rio Grande. 



THE WHITE-BELLIED WREN 



169 



bird, to coni[)lete ail enumeration of the North American species. 
My notices of the species must be brief, and restricted chiefly 
to local items, since ami)le details of these well known birds 
have already been published in other treatises. 




Fig. '23.— Carolina Wren. 



IVhiJe-bellied ^Vren 



Tbryomaiies bewickl leucog;aster 

a. bewicki. 

Troglodytes bewickii, Aud. OB. i. 1831, 96, pi. IB.—Nutt, Man. i. 1832, 434; 2d. ed. i. 1840, 

489.— Aud. Syn. 1830, 74.— Less. RZ. 1840, •261.— And. BA. ii. 1841, 120, pi. 118. — JFoorf/t. 

Sitgr. Rep. 1853, 67 (Indian Territory). — rr(>;>e, Pr. Ess. Inst.vi. 1871, 115 (Minnesota). 

Thryothoi'US bewickii, Butch. Pr. Phila. Acad. 1868, 149. — Cones, Pr. Boat. Soc. xii. 1868, 

108. — Tur7ib. B. E. Pa. 1869, 27; Phila. ed. 20.— Coues, Key, 1872, S6.—Ridg. Am. Nat. 

vii. 1873, 6it5.— Snow, B. Kans. 1873, d.— Cones, BNW. 1874, 31. 

TliryolhorilS bewickii var. bewickii, Bd. Rev. AB. i. 1864, 126 (aubg. Thryomanesj.-B. B. 

iV R. NAB. i. 1874, 143, figs. pi. 9, f. 3. 
ThriothurtlS bewickii, Bd. BNA. 1858, Z6X— Barnard, Smiths. Rep. for 1860, 1861, 436. 
Thryotliorus bewicki, Bp. CGL. 1838, II.— Dress. Ibis, 1865, 484 (Texas). 
Thryotorus bewicki, Bp. CA. i. 1850, 22i. 
Telraatodytis bewicki, Cab. MH. i. 1850, 78. 
Bewick's Wren, Loug-tuilcd House Wren, Authors. 

b. leucogasler. (^Bd.) 
Thryotliorus bewickii, ?5ci. PZ5. 18.59, 372 (Oaxaea).— 6'o«es. Pr. Phila. Acad. 1866, 78 

(Arizona).— f/ii/i.s/t. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, 101 (Arizona). 
Thryotborus bewicki, Coves, ibis, 1865, 164 (Arizona). 



170 CHARACTERS OF THE WHITE-BELLIED WREN 

Tliryothoi'lis Ucwukii var. leucogasler, Bd. Rov. AB. i. 1864, 127 (not 7'rog. leucu^astra 
Gould, PZS. 1836, 89, which is of a different genus).— Oo^ies, Key, 1872. m.— Yarr. if 
Hciii:h. Rep. Om. Specs. 1874, 9.— //.;;is^. ibid. 41. — C. B. if R. NAB. i. 1871, 147. 

TlirjolhoruH cwic L b. leiicograster, Coues, BNW. 1874, 31. 

ThrjOlhoniS bCWicki m?-. leueogaster, Hcnsh. ListB. Ariz. 1875, 155; Expl. W. 100 M. 183. 

ThriotllOl'tls leucosaster, Coop. Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 474, 479. 

Whitc-bt'llied Wren, Authors. 

c. spil iinis. 

TrOglodik'S bewickii, Omith. Comm. Journ. Phila. Acrtd. vii. 1837, 193. 

Troglodytes bewickii, Towns. Joum. Phila. Acad. 1839, 154. — Gamb. Pr. Phila. Acad. iii. 1846, 

IWi.—Nctch. PRRR. vi. 1857, %'d.—?Xant. Pr. PhiU. Acad. 1859, 191 (Fort Tejon).-i 

Hccrm. PRRR. x. 1859, 40.-0. if S. NHWT. 1860, 189. 
TbryotborilS bCWii'ki, Brown, \hi*, 1868, 421 (Vancouver). 
Thryotlionis l)CWlckii wr.spillirus, Bd. Rev. AB. i. 1864, 126.— (7o«cs, Key, 1872, 86.— B. B. 

4 R. NAB. i. 1H74, \il.—ISels. Pr. Bost. Soe. xvii. 1875, 357. 
TbryotborilS wickii c spiluriis, Coues, BNW. 1874, 31. 

Troglodytes splUirus, rig. Zool. Voy. Bloss. 1839, 18, pi. 4. f. \.—Bp. CA. i. 1850, 222. 
Thryothorus Njiilurus, Coop. B. Cal. i. 1870, 69, fig. 

Hab. — Eastern United States, north to the Middle States and Minnesota. 
Var. leucof/aHter, Southwestern United States and southward in Mexico. 
Yar. spilitrii-'i, Pacific coast of the United States and Lower California. 

Ch. sp. — S 9 Cliisreo-bnmneus, infra cinereo-albus; striga 
superciUari alba; caiidd nijrioiinte, rectricibus meiliis cinereo- 
multifaseiatls, cccteris albo-terniinatis^ pogonlo exteriore rectricis 
extimce albo-fasciato. 

^ 2, adult : Above uniform clear ashy-brown. Below clear ashy-white, 
pnre white on the middle i^arts. A long, strong, white, superciliary stripe 
from the nostrils to the sides of the nape, and auriculars speckled with white. 
A number of concealed white spots on the rump, which only show on dis- 
turbing the plumage. Quills of the wings fuscous, the inner feathers very 
obsoletely waved with the color of the back. Two middle tail-feathers 
closely and regularly barred with pare dark ash and black ; the others 
black, with irregular white or ashy-white tips, the outer web of the exterior 
feather barred with white. Length, 5.}-5| inches ; extent, CiJ; wing, 2-2J ; 
tail, 2i-2i ; bill, | ; tarsus, |. 

This is the best marked of the races currently quoted, in the clearer ashy- 
brown of the upper parts, white shaded with pure ash rather than with 
brown on the under parts, ob.soleteness of the transverse marking on the 
inner secondaries, abundance and size of the concealed white spots on the 
rump, and length of the tail. The Pacilic coast form (T. s2)Uurus Vig.), which 
shares this length of tail, has the bill even longer (about ^) and the browner 
coloration of typical bewicki ; the spots on the rump are as numerous as in 
the Coloradoan form. 

A technical point affecting nomenclature here requires passing notice. 
This bird is not Troglodytes leucogastra of Gould, as supposed by Professor 
Baird, Gould's bird being the same that was afterward described as Ctjphorinm 
pusillus by Dr. Sclater (P. Z. S. 1859, 372), and consequently not even of the 
same genus. The Cyphorinus would consequently stand as C. leucogaster 
(Gould), and the Thryomanes remain T. bewicki leiiGogaster {Biiird, 18(54). See 
Ibis, 1874, p. — , where the point is elucidated by Mr. Salvin. In the " Nomen- 
clator Avium NeolropicaUum" (p. 155), Gould's bird is made the tyjie of a new 
genus and called Uropnihi leucogastra. 



SYNONYMY OF TROGLODYTES DOMESTICUS 171 

BEWICK'S Wreu, of tlie White-bellied variety, is a eoniinoii 
bird ill the Colorado Basiu. At Fort Whipple, I foiiiul it 
to be the most abundaut and characteristic represeotative of 
its family; it resides there duriug- the whole year, and seems 
as iiidiflereut in its choice of resorts as it is in regard to the 
changes of the seasons. There is no occasion to enlarge npou 
its habits, since they are substantially the same as those of its 
eastern relative, which have already been suflQcieutly described 
by other writers besides myself. What I regard as probably 
the best account we have is that contributed by Mr. Ridgway 
to the " History of l^orth American Birds". My " Birds of 
the Northwest" contains some additional information. 



IVesterii Mouse Wren 

Troglodytes floiiiesticiis pnrkmaiil 

a. domesticus 

MotacUIa dOllieStica, Barlr. Trav. Fla. 1st Am. ed. i. 1791, 291. 

Sylvia domestica, WiU. AO. i. 1808, li29, pi. 8, f. Z.—Bp. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 187. 

Trogiodjles domcstica, Coues, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1875, 351. 

Troglodytes iedoil, Vieill, OAS. ii. 1807, 5-2, pi. 107; " Nouv. Diet, xxxiv. 1819, 506".— B;). 
Jouin. Phila. Acad. iv. 1S24, 187.—%. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 1826, ^2.—Aud. OB. i. 427; 
V. 470; pl.83. — /?/). CGL. 1838, 11.— ^i<d Syn. 1839,7.5.— .-/Mi. BA. ii. 1841, 125, pi. 120.— 
Huij, Pr. Phila. Acad. 18.53, Z\'i.—Thomps. NH. Vermont, 1853, Si.— Woodh. Sitg. Rep. 
ZuSi, 1853, 67. — fVai'es, Rep. Mi-ssiss. 1,854, 318. — Kennic. Tr. Illinois Agric. See. i. 1855, 
583.— Pm«(e?i. ibid. 603.— P(i(«. Pr. EsH. Inst. i. 1856, -208.— Haijm. Pr. Phila. Acad. 
1856, 288.— Barn. Smiths. Rep. for 1860, 1861, 437.— F^err. Pr. Ess. In.st. iii. 1862, 149.— 
Bd, Rev. AB. 1864, 138.— i/oy, Smiths. Rep. for 1864, 1865, 43S.—Mcllzo. Pr. Ess. Inst. 
V. 1866, 88.— Coves, Pr. Best. Soc. xii. 1868, 108— Hill, Am. Nat. iii. 1869, id.—Naum. 
Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 390.— McLaugh. Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 6li.— Abbott, An'. Nat. iv. 1870, 
540, 5i5.— Trippe, Pr. Ess. Inst. vi. 1871, 115. — Trippe, Pr. Best. Soc. xv. 1873, 236.— 
Ridg. Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 550.— B. B. if R. NAB. i. 1874, 149, pi. 9, f. 5. 

Troglodytes acdoil, Peab. Rep. Om. Mass. 1839,314.— A"««. Man. i. 2d ed. 1840, 475.— B/j. CA. 
i. 1850, 222. — GcrA. Naum. iii. 1853, 37.— fiead, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 399.— Bo!. BNA. 
1858, 367.— il/axm. J. f. O. 1858, im.— Allen, Pr. Ess. Inst. iv. 1864, G8.—Lawr. Ann. 
Lye. N. Y. viii. 1866, 283.— Coucs, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, ^18.—Turnb. B. E. Pa. 1869, 
27; Phila. ed. '3.O.— Coues, Key, 1872, 8Q.— Allen, Bull. MCZ. ii. 1871, ■2,^5.— Allen, Am. 
Nat. vi. 1872, 265,270,275—^/07/71. Pr. Bost. Soc. xiv. 1872, Z^.—AUeii, Am. Nat. 1873, 
362.— A/flJ/n. B. Fla. 1873, 39.— JJrcK). Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 187,5, 439.- Co!ies. BNW.1874, 32. 

Hylemasliroiisaedoii, Cab. J. f. O. i860, 407. 

Troglodytes fulvus, IVutt. Man. i. 1832, 422. 

Troglodytes furvus, Rick. " List, 1837, II ".—Glogcr, J. f. O. 1854, 376. 

Troglodytes amerfcanus, Aud. OB. ii. 1834, 452, pi. 179.— Bp. C&L, 1838, n.—Peab. Rep. 
Om. M:iss. 1839, 2\G.—Aud. Syn. 1839, 15.—Aud. BA. ii. 1841, 123, pi. 119.— Bp. CA. i. 
1850, 222.—Putn. Pr. Essex Inst. i. 1856, -208.— Bd. BNA. 1858, 368. — Ferr. Pr. Ess. Inst, 
iii. 1862, 149.— Bd. Rev. AB. 1864, Ml.—Lawr. Ann Lye. N. Y. viii. 1866, 283.—Ooues, Pr. 
Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 278. — Tiirnb. B. E. Pa. 1869, 27 ; Phila. ed. 20. 

Troglodytes anierirana, Brew. Journ. Best. Soc. 1837, 437. 

Traglodytes amcrlranus, Thomps. N. H. Vermont, 1853, 85. 

Hyleniatliroiis americanus, Oah. j. f. O. 1860, 407. 

Troglodyte a-ddli, V. 1. c. l8i.)7.—LeM. Ois. Canad. 1861, 182. 

House Mreii, ^«f/<o;-s. 



172 CHARACTERS OF THE WESTERN HOUSE WREN 

b. parkmani 

TrOffloditeS flllVlls, Oniith. Comm. Joiirii. Phila. Acad. vii. 1837, 193. 

Troglodytes fulvus, Tuwns.Jowra. Phila. Aead. viii. 1839, 154. 

Troglodytes parkmiinil, .^«rf. OB. v. 1839, ZlO.— diul. Syn. 1839, 75.-Tuinns. Jouin. Pliila. 
AcM<l. 1839, I5i.— Nun. Man. i. 2d ed. 1840, 483— /l«d. BA. ii. 1841, t.3.3, pi. 122. 

Troglodytes parkinauni, ;?/). CA. i. 1850, -2i2.—Bd. BSA. 18.o8, mi.— Bd. U. S. Mex. B. 
Smv. ii. pt. ii. 1859, 13.— Xa?it. Pi-. Phila. Acad. 1859, 191.-0. If S. NHVVT. 1860, 191.— 
Bd. Ives's Rep. pt. v. 18G1, d. — Blakist. T'oIh, iv. 18R2, 5 (Saskatchewan) ; 1863, G7. — Hayd. 
Tr. Am. Philos. Soc. xii. 1862, I6i.—Bd. Rev. AB. 1864, lH. — Coaes, Ibis, IS*)), 164.— 
Couea, Pr. Phila. Acad. 18G0, 78.— Brown, Ibis, 1868, 421.-00^^7. B. Cal. 1. 1870, 71, fig.— 
Ooop. Pr. Gala. Acad. 1870, 75. — Oi>op. Am. Nat. iv. 1871, 7.58.— /li/ci. Am. Nat. vi. 1872, 
275.— Merr. U. S. Geol. Surv. 1873, 673, 713.— RW^. Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 200. 

Troglodytes imrkniaiii, Aiken, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1872, 196. 

Troglodytes parkniaiinii.^tev. U. S. Geol. Surv. for 1870, 1871, 4G4. 

Troglodytes ledon, S. ff H- PBA. ii. 1831, 316, fig. (Rocky Mountains). 

Troglodytes aedoil, Heerm. PRRR. i. 1859, M.-Holdeii, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1872, 196. 

Troglodytes a?don var. parkinanni, Goues, Key, 1372, 97.— Ridgr. Bull. E^s. lust. v. 1873, 
1^0. — Yarr.'^ Hcnsh. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, 8.—B. B. Sf R. NAB. i. 1874, iai— Allen 
Pr. Bo.st, Soc. xvii. 1874, 5').— Nelson, Pr. Bo.st. Soc. xvii. 1875, 357. 

Troglodytes aedon var. parkm-llllli, Cones, BNW. 1874, 32.— //ens/t. Rep. Oru. Specs. 1874, 
41, 57, 74, \0l. -BeNsh. Zool. Expl. W. 100 Merid. 1876, 184. 

Troglodytes acdon var. parkmani, Allen, Am. Nat. vii. 1873, Z62.—rrippe apud Coues, BNW. 
1874. 2:n.—Hensk. List B. Ariz. 1875, 155. 

Troglodytes sylvestris, Gamb. Pr. Phila. Acad. iii. 1846, 113. 

Troglodytes ainericanus, Gamb. Journ. Phila. Acad. i. 1847, :Vi. —Heerm. Journ. Phila. Acad. ii. 
1853, 263.— f/cHry,Pr. Phila. Acad. vii. 1855,309; xi. 1859, \07.— Heerm. PRRR. x. 1859, 41. 

Parkiiians or Parkmann's Wren, Western House Wren, Authors. 

Hab. — Of tlie typical form, Eastern Uuited States and British Provinces; 
west to Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, &.c. Of var. parkmani, United States 
from the high central plains to the Pacific. 

Ch. sr. (b. PARKMANI). — $ 9 Bnuineus, urojjygio vix discolore, 
notcm, alls cauddqiie fusco transfasciatis ; infra bnaineo-albidus, 
abdomine albicante, hypochondriis crissoqiie fasoiatis. Statura 
T. aedoniSj sed alis eaiiddque longioribus. 

$ 9 : Brown above, little brighter on the rump, nearly everywhere waved 
with dnsky, strongest on the wings and tail, bnt usually verj^ appreciable 
on the whole back as well. Below brownisli-white, becoming nearly pure 
white on the belly, obscurely variegatetl with darker markings, which, on 
the flanks and crissum, become stronger bars, alternating with brown and 
whitish ones. Bill blackish above, pale below ; feet brown. Length, 5 
inches or a little more; extent, 6f ; wing, 2 or rather more; tail almost 2. 

With a very close resemblance to typical aedoii, this form differs appreci- 
ably in some points of form as well as of color. The wings and tail are 
decidedly longer, and this elongation of the wing results in a different 
relative proportion of the first primary, the exposed portion of which in 
aedon is about half as long as the longest primaiy, while the same in parJc- 
mani is only about half as long as the second primary. The Colorado region 
furnishes extreme cases of this difference, as it also does of the paleness of 
color which characterizes the western style of House Wren. The bird has a 
faded appearance in comparison with typical aedon, and the brownish of the 
rump is little different from that of the back. 



CRITICAL KEMARKS ABOUT THE HOUSE WREN 173 

I derive my name of the typical House Wren, T. domeslicus, as Wilson did 
h\s Si/Jria domestica, from the Motacilla domes^ica of Baitrani, which antedates 
Vieillot's name by many years. The current orthography of the latter 
{oedon) is clearly wrong, since it is from arn^uv (th. oeu5w), whence properly 
a'e'don. Nor has the varietul designation of the Western House Wren escaped 
maltreatment, being spelled four different ways. The bird having been 
dedicated to Dr. George Parkmau (not Parkmann)of Boston, its name should 
be written parhmam. The various combinations of these two words in their 
several shapes result in a curiously involved set of synonyms, which show 
that the care to be expected from an author in the use of technical terms in 
science is not always exercised. I am free to speak in the matter, having 
been myself quite as guilty as the rest. 

Respecting the relationships of Audubon's " Wood Wren ", T. americanus, 
to the common House Wren, there seems to be no longer a doubt that the 
two are identical. The authors of the " History of North American Birds", 
while agreeing in this view, differ in their explanation of the ascribed char- 
acters of the " Wood Wren ". At page 149 of the work just mentioned, we 
read : — " There can scarcely be any doubt that the T. americanus of Audubon 
is nothing more than this species \_T. aedon~\ in dark, accidentally soiled 
jilnmage (from charcoal of burnt trees, etc.)." At pages 151 and 132 of the same 
work, the following statement occurs : — " Under the name of TrogJodijtes ameri- 
canus, or Wood Wren, Mr. Audubon figured and described as a distinct 
species what is probably only a somewhat larger and darker form of the 
present species [T. aedon'], hardly distinct enough to be treated even as a 
race." A specimen which came to me as a " Wood Wren" , under color of 
Audubon's personal identification, and which I retain in my cabinet, is noth- 
ing but a House Wren. 

Before proceeding to speak of Parkmau's Wren, I wish to correct an im- 
portant error into which Dr. Brewer has fallen respecting the distribution 
of the commonHouse Wren, which, he states (op. cit. p. 150), "is not ob- 
served in any portion of the United States after the first of November ". 
But Audubon found his "Wood Wren" in South Carolina in winter; the 
House Wren is marked " probably resident " in my List of the Birds of 
South Carolina ; and Mr. Allen found it on-i of the abundant winter birds of 
Florida, " occurring every where ". The fact is that the South Atlantic and 
Gulf States are exactly the winter home of the House W^ren ; there may be 
some extralimital records, indeed, but I am afraid to quote any of the sup- 
posed references, as I have not satisfied myself that the bird ever winters 
anywhere but in the region where Dr. Brewer states it is never seen in 
winter. The same writer says further: — "This species does not appear to 
be found beyond the southwestern portion of Maine and the sontliern por- 
tions of New Hampshire and Vermont." I understand that confirmation of 
its alleged extension to Nova Scotia would be desirabl-,', but of its appearance 
in Canada there is no reasonable doubt. In the interior, it also extends to 
the British Possessions. I have myse'f found it breeding abundantly on 
the Red River of the North, latitude 49° N. 

IN corai)aring tbe habits of Paikman's Wreu with those of 
its eastern relative, we must not regard the matter from the 
standpoint usually assumed. Being familiar with the ways of 



174 DISTRIBUTION OF PARKMAN'S WREN 

the semi-domestieated House Wren, we aoconscionsly consider 
the traits it has acquired iu populous regions, and the con- 
sequent modification of its habits, to be natural, and are apt 
to contrast our bird's somewhat artihcial mode of life with the 
primitive manner in which the other still lives. Making due 
allowance for this, we find that the alleged discrepancies be- 
tween the two birds have little foundation in fact. Nor have 
circumstances altered tbe cavse to the extent some sup[)ose; 
for the behavior of these Wrens is still the same when they are 
placed under similar conditions. Park man's Wren accepts the 
situation as soon as it is brought in contact with civilization, 
as readily as the House Wren did iu the beginning; while the 
latter remains in some places unaffected by the settlement of 
the country. Such is the case iu Florida, for instance, where 
Mr. J. A. Allen studied its habits. " The term ' house ' wren," 
he remarks, " usually applied to this bird, is decidedly a mis- 
nomer, since it frequents the fields, the thickets, and even the 
forest, as much as the vicinity of houses. In the wilds of 
Florida, where human habitations are few, there is nothing 
whatever in its habits to suggest this name." 

The Western House Wren is abundant iu the Colorado Basin 
in all suitable localities; that is, in wooded and shrubby places. 
With reference to the region at large, the bird is resident, being 
found in all parts at one season or another. Yet it is perfectly 
migratory. At Fort Whipple, I noticed its arrival in that 
elevated locality, from its winter resorts in lo^^er portions of 
Arizona, about the 20th of April ; and it remained until October. 
It is nearly a month later in ap[)eariug in the northerly mount- 
ainous portions of the watershed, as in Colorado Territory for 
instance; and it there disai)pears in September. Some Individ-' 
uals continue their migration till they reach the northern bound- 
ary of the United States. Its extension in the other direction 
is less definite, and may perhaps depend upon our interpretation 
of tliegeogra])hical race which has been described from Mexico. 
As in the case of tlie typical House Wren, I do not venture to 
take into consideration any of the extralimital quotations 
which nuvy or may not actually refer to our si)ecies. The 
probability is, that true par/./»a/?/ does not extend into Mexico, 
except perhaps for a little way, and only in winter; the corre- 
sponding resident " House" Wren of that country being what 
is called var. azfecus. 

In its nidification, Parkman's Wren agrees so closely with 



THE HOUSE wren's NOTION OF ARCHITECTURE 175 

its eastern congener that one account wonld do for both. We 
have only to remember that it does not yet generally avail 
itself of the artificial accommodations that its relative usually 
selects, for the simple reason that there are comparatively few 
such resorts to be found \yhere it lives. Nevertheless, it shows 
the same readiness to do so whenever opportunity offers, and 
is rapidly growing semi-domesticated in settled parts of the 
West. The nests of both birds are remarkable for the endless 
variety of the materials of which they are composed, the dimen- 
sions which they sometimes attain, and the diversity of the 
sites selected for them. The birds seem to be afflicted with an 
insanahilc construendi cacoethcs (to borrow a simile from Juvenal), 
which impels them to keep on building after they have built 
enough for any practicable purpose. Their notion seems to be, 
that whatever place they select, be it large or small, must be 
completely tilled with a lot of rubbish before they can feel com- 
fortable about it. When they nest in a knot-hole, or any cavity 
of inconsiderable dimensions, the structure is a mass of sticks 
and other trash of reasonable bulk ; but the case is otherwise 
when they get behind a loose weather-board, for instance, 
where there is room enough for a dozen nests; then they never 
know when to stop. I witnessed a curious illustration of their 
"insane"' propensities in one case where a pair found their 
way through a knot-hole into one of those sma'l sheds which 
stands in the back-yard, with a well-worn path leading to the 
house, showing its daily use. (It should be premised that a 
wren likes to get into its retreat through the smallest possible 
<»rifice; if the entrance be small enough, there cannot be too 
much room inside; and, when the hole is unnecessarily large, 
it is often closed up to the right size.) Having entered through 
a nice little hole, into a dark place, the birds evidently supposed 
it was all right inside, and began to build in a corner under 
the roof, where the joists came together. Though annoyed by 
frequent interruption, the indefatnigable little creatures, with 
almost painful diligence, lugged in their sticks till they had 
made a pile that wonld fill a bushel, and I cannot say they 
would not hav(^ (ibed the whole shed had they not been com- 
pelled to desist; for they were voted a nuisance, and the hole 
was stopped up. The size of the sticks they carried in was 
enormous in comparison with their own stature ; it seemed as 
if they could not lift them, much less drag the crooked pieces 
through such a narrow orifice. These coarse materials, it will 



176 SYNONYMY OF THE WINTER WREN 

be remembered, are ouly the foaiulation of a nest, as it were; 
their use in places where there is no real occasion for such a, 
mass of trash is evidently the remaining trace of primitive 
habits. Inside this pile of material, there is a compact cup like 
nest proper, of various fine soft vegetable and animal sub- 
stances. The birds are extremly i)r()lific, ordinarily laying six 
or eight eggs; and they will continue to deposit more if the 
nest be robbed — sometimes to the number of three or four 
full clutches. The eggs themselves are too well known to 
require description. As to the sites of the nest, it is almost 
impossible to speak in specific terms. The old hat Audubon 
drew has become historic; the sleeve or pocket of a coat hung 
up in an outhouse — a box in a chaise from which the birds 
were often ejected, ami to which they as often returned — boxes, 
jars, or gourds set up for Martins — skull of an ox or horse — 
nest of another bird — are among the odd places the birds 
have been known to fancy. lu the West, favorite locations 
for Park man's Wren are a rift in an old stump or log, or the 
crevice between a strip of partially detached bark and the trunk 
of a tree — places which give fidl scope for its inveterate liking 
to fill up a cavity to an unlimited extent and then barricade 
the entrance. 



Winter Wren 

Aiiorthura trog^lodytea hyeinalis 

MotaciUa trosflodjtfS.p'JrtZy, of some early autijoi-H. 

Sylvia troglodytes, mis. AO. i. 1808, 139, pi. 8. f. 6.—Bp. Joum.Phila. Acad. iv. 18-24, 187.— 
Haijm. Pr. Phila. Acad. viii. 18.'56, 288. 

Anorthiira trofflodytcs, Coues, Key, 1872, 87, f. 30. 

Troglodytes hyemalis, Vieill. " N. D. d'H. N. xxxiv. 18l9, 514"; "EM. ii. 1823, 470".— 5. Sr 
R. FBA. ii. 1831, 318.— Bp. COL. 1838, U.—Aud. OB. iv. 1838, 430, pi. 360; Syn. 1839, 
76; BA. ii. 1841, 128, pi. 121.— .V««C, Man. i.'2d ed. 1840, 481.— GJr. BLI. 1844, 1%—Bp. 
CA. i. 1850, 222.— Ho7j, Pr. Phila. Acad, vi 1853, 3Y2.—Read, ibid. 39i).—Thomp3. Ver- 
mont, 1853, S4.—Kennir.. Tr. 111. Agric. Soc. i. 1855, ^83— Pratteu, ibid, 603.— Scl. PZS. 
1856, 290 (El Jacale, Mexico).— ATnee/ Pr. Bost. Soc. vi. 1857, 233.— Maxim. J. f. O. 1858, 
109.— Willis, Smiths. Rrp. for 1858, 18.59, 28^ (Nova Scotia).— A'a?;;. Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 
1859, 191 (Fort Tejon, Cu\.).—Scl. Cat. AB. 1860, 23.— O. cV 5. NHWT. 1860, 191.— 
Wheatun, Ohio Agric. Rep. 186 1, 365, no. \2i.— Barn. Smiths. Rep. for 1860, 1861, 437.— 
Bonrdm. Pr. Host. Soc. ix. 1862, 126— Ftrr. ibid. 138.— Fe/r. Pr. Ess. Inst. iii. 1862, 149.— 
Bd. Rev. AB. 1864, IM.—Hoy. Smiths. Rep. for 18G1, 1865, ii^.— Dress. Ibis, 2i. Her. i. 
1865, 485 (San Antonio, Texas).— Lazor. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. 1866, 283.— Mc/Zror. Pr. 
Ehs. Inst. V. 1866, m.— Brown, Ibis, 2d. ser. iv, 1868, 421 (Vancouver).— ^«cw, "Mem. 
Bost. Soc. i. 1868, i9i'\—Ttirnb. B. E. Pa. 1869, 27; Phila. ed. 20.— Coop. Am. Nat. iii. 
1869, 74, Ib.-Coop. B. Cal. i. 1870, 73, fig.— /li6o<«. Am. Nat. iv. 1670, 543, bia. — Trippe, 
Pr. Ess. Inst. vi. 1871, W^. — Mayn. Pr. Bost. Soc. xiv. 1872, 360; B. Fla. 187.3, 40.— 
Trippr, Am. Nat. vi. 1872, il.—SiioiD, B.Kans.l873, G.—Brew. Pr. Bost.Soc.xvii. 1875, 439. 

Troglodytes hiCinaiiS, Pcabody, Rep. Orn. Mass. 1839, 316. 



CHARACTERS OF THE WINTER WREN 177 

Troglodytes (Aiiorthura) hyenialis, Bd. BNA. 1858, 369.— ^«en, Pr. Ess. Inst. iv. 1864, 68.— 

Cones, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1866, 78. 
Anorthura hyemalis, Ooues 6,- Pre?it. Smiths. Rep. for 1861, 186-2, UO.—Coues, Pr. Ess. Inst. 

V. 1868, •273.— Coues, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 1868, 108.— Mayn. Nat. Guide, 1870, 96.— Allen, 

Bull. MCZ. ii. 1871, 267. — Tnppe, Am. Nat. vii, 1873, 498. 
• Troglodjtes eiiropieiis, Bp. Joum. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, ISS.-Bp. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 1826, 

93, 440.— .\utt. Man. i. 1832, 427. 
Trogloflite.s europieilS, Omich. Comm. Joum. Phila. Acad. vii. 1837, 193 (Columbia River). 
Auorthura troglodytes rnr. byenialis, Coues, Key, 1872, 351.— Cowes, BNW. 1874, 33. 
Troglodytes parvulllS var. hyemalis, Ridgw. Bull. Ess. Inst. v. 1873, 180 (Colorado). — B. B. 

eVK. NAB. i. 1874, 155, pi. 9. figs. 9, 10. 
Troglodytes hyemalis var. paciflcus, Bd. Rev. AB. i. 1864, 145. 
Troglodyte d'hiver, LeM. Ois. diuad. 1861, 183. 
Winter Wren, Authors. 

Hab.— North America at large, aud portious of Mexico (Cordova, Sclater). 

Oh. sp. — S 9 Brunnens, postice magis rnfescens, obsolete fusco- 
fasciata, pogoniis exterioribus remigum exteriorum albido-fascia- 
tis; infra brunneo-albida, postice brunnescens^ ventre imo, hypo- 
chondriis crissoque.fusco et albido undulatis; caudd alls breviore. 

^ $ : Above browu, duller before, brighter behind, most of the back, 
together with the tail and inner -wing-quills, banded with dusky, the mark- 
ings obsolete on the back, where they are usually accompanied by whitish 
specks, strongest on the wings and tail. Outer webs of several of the pri- 
maries regularly barred with brownish-white, in marked contrast with the 
outer bars of the wings. An inconspicuous whitish superciliary line. Below 
brownish, paler or whitish anteriorly, the lower belly, flauks, aud crissum 
heavily waved with dusky and whitish bars. Bill slender, straight, decid- 
edly shorter than the head. Tail much shorter than the wings. Length, 
about 4; extent, fi-fi^; wing, If; tail, 1| ; bill, f-^ ; tarsus, middle toe, and 
claw together, about 1^. 




Fig. 24.— Winter Wren. 

With a general resemblance to the House Wren, this species is immedi- 
ately distinguished by the very short tail, beyond which the outstretched 
feet reach considerably, the very heavy coloring of the lower hind parts, and 
other characters. 

A .slight variety, pacificus, in which the general colors are darker, and the 
obsolete maikings of the back almost inappreciable, aud unaccompanied by 
12 B C 



178 NOTE ON THE HABITAT OF THE WINTER WREN 

wbitisli clots, lias been described from tbe Pacific coast regiou, and fonnd as 
far east as Nevada. 

Anorthura alascensis is more decidedly different, in tbe larger size, and 
especially tbe great size and peculiar shape of the bill. It is very intimately 
related to A. fumigatus of Japan, and appears to be more appreciably different 
from the common American form than tbe latter is from the European. It 
has been thought best to exclude tbe references to both these forms from 
tbe foregoing synonymatic lis^t. 

WINTER Wreus hold a very inconspicuous place among 
the birds of the Colorado Basin, probably as much on 
account of their actual scarcity as of their shy and retiring 
habits. I never saw them in Arizona, and have at hand no 
references to attest their presence fairly within the Colorado 
watershed. It is less improper, however, to bring them into 
the present connection on the strength of their known general 
distribution than it would be to exclude them because they 
have not yet been seen in this particular region ; especially 
since they have been found in Colorado Territory, in ISTevada, 
in California to Fort Tejon, and in portions of Mexico. Of 
their movements within the present area, we remain igno- 
rant ; that they occur in winter there is no doubt, but whether 
any breed in the higher portions, or whether all retire north- 
ward in spring, remains to be seen. The former supposition is 
more probable, since the birds have been found breeding in 
some of the Middle States, the Northern States and north- 
ward, and such dispersion in summer argues in the case of any 
bird that extends across the continent a summer residence in 
the more elevated districts of the Southwestern Territories. 
For a general account of the distribution and habits of this 
species I must refer the reader to the " History of North Ameri- 
can Birds", the " Birds of the Northwest", and other earlier 
treatises. 



Long -bi Bled ]^Iaa'*li ^Vreii 

Telmatodytefs paliistris 

MotaciUil pahistris, Bartr. Trav. Fla. 1st Am. ed. 1791, 291. 

CerthiiipalUStriS, IVils. AO. ii. IBUi, 58, pi. 12, f. i.—Bp. Joum. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 30.— 

Less. Tr. Orn. 1831, 401).— Lord, Pr. Roy. Arty. Inst. iv. 1864, 117. 
Troglodytes palUStris, Bp. .Tourn. Phila Acad. iv. 1824, 30. — Bp. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 1826, 

93.— S. <V/?. FBA. ii. 1831, 319, fig. (lat. 55°).— And. OB. i. 1831, 500, p\. \00.—Nutt. 

Man. i. 1832, 4.39.— Bre;c. Journ. Host. Soc. 1837, 437.— Aud. Syn. 1839, 77.— Peab. Rep. 

Om.MaHs. 1839, 3]6.—Nun. Man. 2d ed. i. 1840,496.— Aud. BA. ii. 1841, 135, pi. 123.— GJr. 

BLI. \844, 76.— Oamb. Pr. Phila. Acad. iii. 1346, 113 (California).— //oy, Pr. Phila. Acad. 

vi. 1853, ^%—Read, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 399. — Gloger, J. f. O. 1854, 3~7.—Henrij, 



SYNS. AND CHARS. OF TELMATODYTES PALUSTRIS 179 

Pr. Phila. Acad. vii. 1855, 309 (New Mexico).— /ie«7iic. Tr. 111. Agric. Soc. i. 18.'.5, 583.— 
Putn. Pr. Ess. Inst. i. 1856, 208.— .Vci. PZS. 1856, 290 (Cordova).— xVe?c6 PURR. vi. 1857, 
W.—Heerm. PRRR. x. 18i9, 54— .ScZ. Ibis, i 1859, 8 (Guatemala).— KcmA. Ibis, lii. 1861, 5 
(Oreenlaud). — rr?>pfi, Pr. Ess. Inst. vi. 1871, 115. 

ThryothoPUSpalustris. Kp. CGL. 1838, ll.— B^irne^, Pr. Bost. Soc. iv. 1851, W^.— Turnb. 
B. E. Pa. 1869, 27 ; Phila. ed. 20. 

CiStOthorus (Telinatodytes) palustris, Bd. BXA. 18.58. 364.— Cowes ffPrent. Smiths. Rep. for 

1861, 1862, iXO.^AlUn, Pr. Ess. Inst. iv. 1864, 83. 

CistOthorus pallistris, Xantus. Pr. Phila. .\cad. xi. 1859, \9\.— Wheat. Ohio Agric. Rep. 1860, 
36.5. — C. lVS.NHWT. 1860, 190.— .ScZ. CAB. 1861, 22.— Ha yi. Tr. Am. Philos. Soc. xii. 

1862, \G:i.— Blakist. Ibis, 1862, 5 (Saskatchevpan) ; 1863, 67.— Sc?. PZS. 1864, 172 (City of 
Mexico). — B<i. Rev. 1864, Wl.—Coues, Ibis, 136.5, 164 (Arizona) ; 1866, '2Go.—Coues, Pr. 
Phila. Acad. 1866, 78 (Arizona).— Mc/Zw. Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1866, Sl.^Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. 
Y. viii. 1866, 283,— ^Heit, Am. Nat. i. 1867, 161. — Cones, Pr. Ess. Inst.v. 1868, 278. — Coop. 
B. Cal. i. 1870, 75, Rg.—Mayn. Nat. Guide, 1870, 98.—Anen, Bull. MCZ. ii. 1871, 267 ; iii. 
1872, no— Allen, Am. Nat. vi. 1872, 396.— Aiken, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1872, 196.— Mayii. 
B. Fla. 1873, i\>. — Merr. V. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, for 1872, 1873, 673, 713.— B. B. Sf R. 
NAB. i. 1874, 161, figs. pi. 9. f. 6.— Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. xviii. 1875, i39.—Hensh. List B. 
Ariz. 1875, 155. 

Telmatodj'tes palUStris, Henri/, Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 1859, 107 (New Mexico).— Oo?^e», Pr. 

Bosr. Son. xii. 1868, 108.— Co«cs, Pr. Phila. Acad, xxili. 1871, 19.— Oomcs, Key, 1872, 87.— 

Jiidg. Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 200.— RM^'. Bull. Ess. Inst. v. 1873, 180 (Colorado).— Coiies, 

BNW. 1874, .34. 
CiStOtllOPIIS paiustris vnr. paludiCOla, Sd. RAR. 1864, 149 (Western United States).— B. 

B. .VH. NAB. i. 1874, \6l.—Hensk. Zool. Expl. W. 100 Merid. 1876, 185. 
TcimatodjteS palUStriS rar. paludiCOla, Yarr. f( Hensh. Rep. Om. Specs. 1874, 9.— H'cHs/i. 

ibid. 41, 74, 101. 
Thryothorus arundilieus, Vidll. "Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxxiv. L819, 58" (not of OAS. ii. 

18U7, pi. 108). 
Troglodytes ariindiniCSUS, G%mb. Joum. Pnila. Acid. i. 1817, 33 (California).— «c'i/t. 

" Vidensk. Meddel. for 1853, 18.54, 81 " (Greenland).— TJemA. J. f. O. 1854, 438 (the same). 
Thryotorus ariiiidinaceiis, Bp. CA. i. 1850, 220. 
Telmatodytes aniiidiiiafeus, Cah. Mil. i. 1850, 78 (type of genus). 
Marsh Wren, Long-billed Marsh Wren, Salt-water .Marsh Wren, Vulg. 

Hab. — Temperate North America, and Mexico; south to Guatemala: 
accidental in Greenland. Breeds throughout its North American range ; 
winters on the southern border and southward. 

Ch. sp. — $ 9 Brumieus, pileo fuscescente; hiterscapulio nigra, 
aJho-striato; infra ex hrunneo alhidus. 

$ $ : Above clear brown, unbarred, the middle of the back with a large 
black patch sharply streaked with white. Crown of head usually darker 
than the back, often quite blackish. A dull white superciliary line. Wings 
fuscous, the inner secondaries blackish on the outer webs, often barred or 
indented with light brown. Tail evenly barred with fuscous and the color 
of the back. Under parts white, usually quite pure on the belly and middle 
line of the breast and throat, but much shaded with brown on the sides, 
flanks, and crissum. Bill blackish above, pale below ; feet bi-own. Length, 
about 5 inches; extent, 6^ ; wing, lf-2; tail about the same; bill, ^ or more; 
tarsus, .|-f . 

There is a good deal of difterence in details of coloration in this species, 
which I cannot, however, correlate satisfactorily with any special sex, age, 
or season. Sometimes the whole crown of the head and the nape are quite 
blackish, continuous with the dorsal patch. This is especially observed in 



180 SYNONYMY OF CISTOTHORUS STELLARIS 

young birds, iu whicb, also, the white stripes on the back may be altogether 
wautiug. Coloradan specimens in general show a tendency to shorter bill 
and rather more barred tail and its coverts, constituting var. paludicola of 
Baird, but the difference even iu extreme cases is very slight. A specimen 
from Provo, Utah, is curiously bleached, the ni»per jiarts being pale gray. 

OF the common Marsb Wreu I shall have but a word to say, 
respecting its presence iu the Colorado Basin, as I have 
already given an extended biographical notice in the " Birds of 
the Northwest". In noting its general distribution, as above 
given, the reader will of course sui)ply the proviso that it 
occurs only iu suitable places throughout this range, these 
being marshy or swampy tracts. Now, if there is anything the 
matter with mostof the Colorado Basin — especially with Arizona 
and New Mexico — it is the scarcity of water. The Marsh Wren 
is therefore restricted in this region, as elsewhere, to the com- 
paratively few spots which afford the requisite conditions ; but 
in these particular tracts it is as abundant as I have seen it 
anywhere. 



NJiort-billed Marsh \¥reii 

Cistothorus stellaris 

Troglodytes SteUariS, "Licht."—Naum. VD. iii. 1823, 724 (Ca.rolina,). — Trip2)e, Pr. Ess. Inst. 

vi. 1S71, 115 (Minnesota). 
CiStoUlorus SlellariS, Cab. MH. i. 1850, 11.-3(1. BNA. 1858, ■im.— Wheat. Ohio Agric. Rep. 

1860, 2m.- Barn. Smiths. Rep. for 1860, 1861, 436.— SeZ. CAB. 1861, 2%—FIayd. Tr. 

Ainer. Philos. Soe. xii. 1862, "l6,3 (Loup Fork of Platte).— Ooues if Prent. Smiths. Rep. 

for 1861, 1862, 410.— Bd. Rev. AB. 1864, \-i&.— Allen, Pr. Essex Inst. iv. 1864, 9>2.—Lawr. 

Ann. Lye. viii. 1866, 2&i.— Allen, Am. Nat. 1867, 161- Coues, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 1868, 108.— 

Cones, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 279.—Sumick. Mem. Bost. Soc. i. 1869, 545 (Orizaba).— 

Mayn. Nat. Guide, 1870, m.—Coues, Pr. Phila. Acad. 187l, 20.— Allen, Bull. MCZ. ii. 

1871, 167 (Florida in winter).— Parker, Am. Nat. v. 1871, 168.— Cowes, Key, 1872, 88.— 

Ridg. Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 200.— Trippe, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1873, S36 {Iowa).— Mayn. B. 

Fla. 1873, 43.— Snow, B Kansas, 1873, 6.—Coues, BNW. 1874, 36.— Bd. Br. If Ry. NAB. i. 

1874, 159, pi. 9, f. l.-Yarr. ff Hensk. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, 9, 41 (Provo, XJla.h).— Brew. 

Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, ASd.-Hensh. Zool. Expl. W. 100 Merid. 1876, 185 (Utah). 
ThrjOthorus SteUariS, Tumb. B. E. Pa. 1869, 27 ; Phila. ed. 20. 
Troglodytes brevirostris, Nutt. Man. i. 1832, 436 (pagination of Mem. Amer. Acad, quoted 

here); Mem. Amer. Acad. Sci. new series, i. "1833"', 98, &g.—Aud. OB. ii. 1834, 427, 

pi. n5.—Bp. CGL. 1838, ll.—Peab. Rep. Orn. Mass. 1839, 3\5.— And. Syn. 1839, 77.— iV««. 

Man, i. 2d ed. 1840, 493, &g.—Aud BA. ii. 1841, 138, pi. 124.— fi;^. CA. i. 185 1, 222.— Gerh. 

Naum. iii. 1853, 31.— Hoy, I'r. Phila. Acad. 1853, 3\2.— Read, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1853, 399.— 

Kennic. Tr. 111. Agric. Soc. i. 1.855, 59i.—Putn. Pr. Ess. Inst. i. 1856, 227. 
IShort-billed Marsh Wreu, Fresh-water Marsh Wren, Authors. 

The synonymy of the scarcely different T). eJegans is : — 
Oi.StothorilS elegaus, S. SfS. Ibis, i. 1859, 8 (Guatemala) ; ii. 1860, 30 (Dueila-i).— Bd. Rev. AB. 
1864, iiG.-fSalv. PZS. 1870, 182 (Veragua).— Brf. Br. ff Ry. NAB. i. 1874, 159. 

ristothorus stellaris b. clegaiis, Coucs, bnw. 1874, 36. 



CHARACTERS OF SHORT-BILLED MARSH WREN 181 

Hab. — Chiefly eastern province of the United States ; observed, howevei', 
north to Massachnsetts and Manitoba (Cowes), and west to Nebraska {Hayden) 
and even Utah (Renshaw). Winters in the Southern States. Yar. elegam 
from Mexico and Guatemala. 

Ch. sp. — (5 9 BrunneuSj pileo dorsoque albo et nigro striatis, 
rostro brevissimo. 

S 9 : Upper parts brown, the crown and most of the back Idackish, streaked 
witli white. Below whitish, shaded with clear brown across the breast and 
along the sides, and especially on the flanks and crissura, the latter more or 
less indistinctly barred with dusky (often inappreciable). A whitish line 
over the eye. Wings and tail marked as in the last species. Upper tail- 
coverts decidedly barred. Bill blackish above, whitish below, extremely 
small, scarcely half as long as the liead ; feet brown. Length, 4^ ; extent, 
6 ; wing and tail each about 1| ; bill, ^-4. 

The streaking of the head and that of the back are usually separated by a. 
plain nuchal interval ; but tliese areas often run together, the whole bird 
above being streaked with whitish and blackish upon a brown ground. 
The wings, tail, and entire under parts are much like those of C. paluntris, 
from which the species is immediately distinguished by the markings of 
the upper parts and extremely short bill, which is less than half an inch long. 

UNTIL within a year or. two, the Short-billed Marsh Wreu 
has been supposed to be entirely an eastern species, the 
most western locality quoted being Nebraska, where Dr. Hayden 
found the bird many years ago. One result of Mr. H. W. 
Henshaw's observations in the West has been to ascertain its 
occurrence in Utah. "• While at Provo, Utah," says this writer, 
" we received undoubted evidence of its existence in the marshes 
of the river, where it lived in company with the preceding 
[the Long-billed] species. Although no individuals were 
actually captured, nests and eggs were seen which had been 
secured in this locality.'' This is as satisfactory evidence as 
if the bird itself had been secured, for — as should be mentioned 
even in the most cursory notice of the bird — the eggs differ 
from those of all its congeners in being pure white, without 
markings. This record enables me to bring the species into 
the present connection, as one of the rarities of tlie Coloradan 
bird fauna. 

What little information I have been able to add to the com- 
mon store from my observations will be found in my other 
book ; it relates chiefly to the abundance of the bird in certain 
interior regions, in comparison with its apparent rarity along 
the Atlantic seaboard. 



CHAPTER X.— LARKS 



Fam. ALAUDID^ 

WITH the Larks we enter upou au entirely dillereut group 
of birds, having no special affinities with any of the 
preceding families. They are strictly terrestrial, as indicated 
by the structure of the feet ; they nest on the ground, where 
they spend the time when not on wing; are usually migratory, 
and more or less completely gregarious when uot breeding. 
Theirs is a mixed diet of seeds, insects, &c. The Skylark of 
Europe, famous for its song, is a typical member of this group; 
and others are highly musical. I have only to add to these 
slight prcemonenda, before going into some interesting details, 
that the unpracticed reader must be careful not to confound the 
Larks proper with certain birds loosely called "larks"; thus 
theTit/arA's, or Pipits, though sharing the lengthened, straight- 
ened hind claw and elongated inner wing-quills of Alaudidw, 
belong to au entirely different family, the llotacUlidw, while 
the American Field LarJc is one of the Icteridcv, much further 
removed. 

The Alandidce. are remarkably distiDguisbed from otber oscine Passeres 
by the anomalous structure of the tarsal envelope. The tarsus is covered 
with two series of scutella, one lapping around in front, the other around 
behind, the two meeting along a groove on the inner face of the tarsus ; the 
tarsus is consequently blunt behind as well as in front. There is a simple 
suture of the two series of plates on the outer face of the tarsus ; the in- 
dividual plates of each series alternate. Now in all this there is seen an 
apjiroach to — say rather but little depai'ture from — the condition of the 
tarsus afforded by the clamatorial or nou-osciue Passeres, in which the rule 
is that the tarsus shows a single series of variously or irregularly arranged 
jilates lapping around both before and behind, to meet like a scroll along a 
deep suture on the inner face of the bone. Were we to take this character 
alone into consideration we should be obliged to remove the Alaudidcv from 
the Oscines, or at any rate place them at the bottom of the series, next to 
the Clamatores; yet, as we have seen, the vocal power of the birds is of a 
Aery high order. As Dr. Cabanis remarked (Mus. Hein. i. 121) shortly after 



NUMBER OF PRIMARIES IN OSCINE BIRDS 183 

establishiug (Orn. Notizea, ii. 3:^7) the family upon these tarsal characters, 
its position is "still doubtful" (noc/i zweifdhaft). lu G. R. Gray's system, 
it immediately follows his Emberizidw ; and, indeed, some of the Larks bear 
uo slight superficial resemblauce to some of the Bnutiogs. Bat in the 
sequence of oscine families adopted in the present and other of U13' works 
(which is substantially the .same as that employed by the best late authori- 
ties iu this country), I find uo more fittiug place for the family than where 
I ventured to put it in the '"Key" — next to the Motacillidce, and betweea 
the foregoing set of 10-primaried families, and such 9-primaried groups as 
the MotacilUdce, Sylvicolidit, and FringilUdce, which are to follow. These con- 
siderations lead up to another remarkable characteristic of the AlaiuUdm ; 
namely, the apparently variable number of the primaries. 

The number of primaries among oscine birds, whether " nine" or "ten", 
has been rightly considered an important item in classification, ranking in 
value with the moditioatious of the tarsal eavelopa just discinsad. Oscine 
families, and even groups of fiirailies, are conveniently distinguished by 
this character, and as naturally as by the " bDoting ", or scutellation, of the 
tarsus. In certain families, however, the disfciuction fails t) hold. In the 
Vireonidce, for instance, species of the same genus have indiiferently " nine" 
or "ten" primaries. Thus, Vireo philadehilucus and V. gilvm are two species 
so much alike that presence or absence of a spurious " first " primary be- 
comes the readiest means of distinguishing them. Noting this remarkable 
circumstance in 1855, Professor B.iird was led to look m n-e closely into the 
matter. His results are summed on page 325 of the " Review of American 
Birds" (see also p. 160) ; from which it appears that in those Vireos which 
seem to have only nine primaries, two little feathers, distinct iu size, shape, 
and to some extent in position from the general series of primary coverts, 
are found at tlie base of the supposed first primary; while in those Vireos 
with an obvious spurious first primary, making ten in all, only one such 
feather is found. "In all the families of Passeres where the existence 
of nine primaries is supposed to bj characfcerisbic," he coiitiiiuis, " I have 
invariably found, as far as my examinabioas have extended, that there were 
two of the small feathers referred to, while in those of ten primaries but 
one could be detected." He does not specify how far his examinations 
extended. 

Believing this to be an important matter, which would bear further investi- 
gation, I have been led to look into the question, with the most satisfactory 
results, confirming Professor Baird's observations and extending them to 
include every one of the North American families of Oscines, excei)tiug, per- 
haps, LanUdcc (in CoUurio) and Ampelidw (in Ampelis). With the possible 
exception of the two genera specified, I find, on examining numerous genera 
of all the North American families, that those ratedas 10-primaried have 
but one of these little feathers, while all the rest have two. 

In clamatorial Passeres, perhaps without exception, there are ten fully 
developed primaries, the first of which may equal or exceed the next in 
length. In the single North American clamatorial family Tyraniiidw, I find, 
as before, only one of these little feathers. In a Woodpecker, remarkable 
among picarian birds in possessing only nine fully developed primaries, the 
first being short or spurious, there is also but one. 

It seems to be conclusively jjroveu that among the supposed 9-primaried 



184 NUMBER OF PRIMARIES IN OSCINE BIRDS 

birds, the additional primary, making ten iu all, is usually, if not always, 
found in the second of these little quills which overlie the first fully devel- 
oped primary ; and that it is this same little quill which, in 10-primaried 
Oscines, in Clamatores, and probably in other birds, comes to the front and 
constitutes the first regular primary — sometimes remaining very short, when 
it is the so-called "spurious" quill, in other cases lengthening by imper- 
ceptible degrees, until it may become the longest one of all. The true 
nature of the other one of these two little feathers becomes an interesting 
question : Is it also an abortive primary, as the outer certainly is, or is it one 
of a series of coverts ? 

After close examination, I fail to detect any material difference in the 
position of the tvvo ; one overlies the other, indeed, as a covert should a pri- 
mary, but then the two are inserted side by side, both uiion the upper side 
of the sheath of the first fully developed quill. In size and shape, the two 
are substantially the same; both being rigid and acuminate, more like re- 
miges than like coverts, and both being abruptly shorter than the true primary 
coverts. So far, all the evidence favors an hypothesis that both are rudi- 
mentary remiges. To offset this, coZor usually points the other way, as in 
the original case of Vireo flavifrons, in which Professor Baird determined 
the underlying one of the tw^o feathers to be a supposed wanting primary 
mainly because it was colored like the other primaries, while the overlying 
one agreed with the coverts in this respect. But it will be obvious that 
when, as is oftenest the case, the primaries and their coverts are colored 
alike, the evidt-nce froni this source fails altogether; and I find that the tes- 
timony from coloration is someiimes the other wa}\ In Sitta caroJinensiR, for 
example, a 10-primaried bird with spurious first primary, the single remain- 
ing little feather is white at base across both webs, like the primaries, the 
true primary coverts being white only on the inner web. It is true that the 
overlying one of these little feathers sometimes exactly resembles a true cov- 
ert ; but so, also, does the other one in some cases. In morphological 
determinations, position and relation of parts are all-important, while mere 
size, shape, and especially function, go for very little. One of the two little 
feathers of 9-primaried bii'ds, as we have seen, certainly corresponds to the 
spurious or fully developed first primary of 10-primaried ; why may not the 
other be also a primary? It is not conclusive argument to the contrary that 
the feather in question is never fully developed; nor is it an insuperable 
objection that the function of the feather is certainly that of a covert. The 
strongest argument against the view here verj' guardedly discussed is, that 
if the feather be not a covert, then the first fully developed primary has 
none, while the rest have one apiece. While I am far from committing my- 
self to the implied proposition that an osciuebird possesses eleven primaries, 
I think it jiroper to bring the case forward as one which will bear looking 
into, and which will probably remain open until the exact relations between 
a remex and a tectrix are ascertained. Should it be determined that an 
Oscine may show traces of two suppressed i)rimarie8, instead of only the 
single one which certainly persists in 10-primaried birds, the fact would 
tend to increase the value already justly set upon number of remiges as a 
taxonomic factor. It is generally admitted, and it seems to be uuquestiona- 
ble, that here, as in numberless other cases, reduction in number and special- 
ization in function of parts indicates a higher grade of organization ; for 



CHARACTERS OF ALAUDID^ EREMOPHILA 185 

only the lower birds show the hiirher aggregate number of remiges, and in 
none but the higher are the developed primaries ever reduced to nine. A 
gradual reduction in the number of remiges seems to be directly correlated 
with that progressive consolidation or compaction of the distal osseous 
segments of the fore limb which reaches its climax in the wing of the most 
highly organized birds of the present epoch. 

Returning to the special subject of the present chapter after this digres- 
sion, we have to note that the Alaudidce, like the Vireonidce, show the varia- 
bility of the primaries already mentioned. In our genus Eremophila, in 
which only nine primaries are developed, there are two of the small feath- 
ers above mentioned. The overlying one is exactly like one of the primary 
coverts ; the other, though not very dissimilar, more resembles an abortive 
primary. In Jlauda arvensis, where there is a minute but obvious spurious 
quill, there is but oue such feather. In GalerUa cra^ato, with a spurious 
quill about two-thirds of an inch long, there is likewise but one. Upon the 
presence or apparent absence of the spurious quill. Dr. Cabanis was led to 
divide his Alaiididw into two subfamilies; but as the case appears, the char- 
acter is scarcely a satisfactory one. He felt some uncertainty himself, as he 
says, after alluding to the doubtful position of the family in the system, — 
" ehenso die EintheiJung in Siibfamilien ". I shall consequentlj'' present no sub- 
division of the family, which may be briefly characterized as follows : — 

Chars. — Structure of wing and tarsal env^elope as already 
fully indicated. Feet stout; hind claw lengthened and nearly 
straight. Inner secondaries (the so-called tertials) elongated 
and flowing (as in MottwilUdie). Bill of variable shape, usually 
conoid and acute, sometimes more elongated and thrush-like; 
nostrils more or less covered, often completely concealed, by 
tufts of antrorse feathers. No obvious rictal vibrissas. Head 
sometimes crested or peculiarly tufted. 

Eepresented in North America by a single genus and species. 

Genus EREMOPHILA Boie 

Chars. — Primaries apparently only nine (no obvious spuri- 
ous first primary). Point of the wing formed by the first three 
developed primaries. Inner secondaries elongated. Tail of 
medium length, nearly even, the middle pair of feathers differ- 
ent in shai)e and color from the rest. Bill compressed-conoid, 
acute, shorter than head. Nostrils completely concealed by 
dense tufts of antrorse feathers. Head not crested, but a 
peculiar tuft of feathers over each ear, somewhat like the so- 
called " horns" of some Owls. Feet of ordinary alaudine char- 
acters, as already given. Coloration' peculiar in the presence 
of yellowish tints and strong black bars on the head and breast. 



18d synonymy of eremophila alpestris 



Moi'Bieel L<ai*k 

£renioi>hila alpestris 

(General references) 

Alauda alpestris, partly, of some early authors. — Yarr. PZS. 183!, 35. — Temm. Man. i. 1820, 
279; iii. 1835, 201.— Kaup. Thierr. ii. pt. i. 1836, U7.— Manor. Man. Br. Orn. i. 1840, 175.— 
Narim Naum. i. 1850, i.—Kjarb. Naum. i. 1850, 43.— Tobias, Naum. i. 1851, 62.— LzVj. 
Naum. ii. Heftii. 1852, d9.—Pdssler, J. f. O. i. 1853, 212, '25i.—Radde,J. f. O. 1854,60.— 
Gdtke, J. f. O. 1854, 70.— Homey. 3. f. O. 1854, 36i.—Miiller, J. f. O. 1856, 2n.—Orde, Ibis, 
i. 1859, 469.— GZo^-er, J. f. O. 1860, 118 {distvihutiou).— Rowley, Ibis, iv. 1862, 88.— Stev. 
Ibis, iv. 1862, l39. — Homnj. Zool. Gart. ix. 1868, 236 ; J. f. O. 1869, 52.—Fritsch, J. f. O. 

1871, \9l.—Hartiiig, Man. Br. B. 1872, 25. 
£remophiIa alpestris, Bote, Isia, 1828, 322. 

OtOCoris alpestris, SiJ. " Fu. Ital. i. Uccelli, Introd. (1832-184l)".— Bp. CA. i. 1850, 246.— 
Altum, J. f. O. 1863, U8.— Brandt, Anlm. Vert. Siberia, 'ii.—Degl.-Gerbe, OK. i. 1867, 
3i&.— Hancock, B. North. & Durh. 1874, 58. 

Otocoryx alpestris, Licht. " Nomencl. 1854, 38 ". 

OtOCOryS alpestris, Bp. " OR. xxxviii. 1854, 6i".—HeUni. J. f. O. 1855, 181.— S^ew. Ibis, iv. 
1862, 303.—Siei7ih. PZS. 1863, 272 {Chiaa).— Go Uett, J. f. O. 1869, 393 —E. if B. Ibis, 2d 
ser. vi. 1870, W5.—Siciiih. PZS. 1871, 39Q.—Heiigl. Ibis, 1872, 61 (Nova Zembla) ; J. f. O. 

1872, n&.—Alst. 4" Br. Ibis, 3d ser. iii. 1873, Qi. — Dresser, BE. pt. xxxiii. 1874. 
Alauda (Piiilcremos) alpestris, Radde, Reise, 1863, 1.52, pi. 3, f. 2. 

PhileremOS alpestris, Brehm, VD. 1831, ZVi.—Brehm, Hdbh. Stub. Hausvog. 1832, 295.— Sp. 
CGL. 1838, 3~.—Hartl. Syst. Verz. 1844, 80.— Zander, Arch. Meckleab. xv. 1861, 91. 

Philermes alpestris, Brehm, Hdbh. Stub. Hausvog. 1832, p. xvii. 

Philerenius alpestris, Gobel, 3. f. o. 1870, 187. 

Alauda flava, Gm. SN. i. 1788, 800, uo. 3i (Siberia). (Based on PE. 650, f. 2). 

Alauda nivalis, Pallas, Zoog. R. A. i. " 18U" (1831), 519. 

Phileremos rufcsccus, P. striatus, C.L. Brehm, " Vogelf. 1855, 122". 

Oeinlure dePretrc ou Alouetfe de Siberic, Mo?i«6. " Hist. Nat. des Ois. v. 1778, 61 (Siberia)". 

Alouetti^ de Siberie, Bujf. pe. 650, f. 2. 

Schneelerclie, Frisch, "pi. 16". 

AlOUettC a liausse-COl Iioir, Temm. 1. c— Less. Man. 1828, 310. 

(American references) 

Alauda alpestris, L. SN. i. ed. lO, 1758, 166, no. 8 (from Catesby, i. 32) ; 12th ed. i. 1766, 289, 
no. \Q.—Forst. Phil. Tr. Ixii. 1772, 398, no. 20.— (?m.. SN. i. 1788, 800.— Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 
498, no.21.— rjirt. SN. i. 1806, 486.— ffiZs. AO. i. 1806, 85, pi. 5, f. i.—Bp. Journ. Phila. 
Acad. iv. 1824, 181.— 5p. Ann. Lye. N. Y. il. 1826, 102.— Less. Tr. Orn. 1-31, M5—Nutt. 
Man. i. 1832, 4oo.—Aud. OB. ii. 1834, 570, pi. 200.— ^ad. Syu. 1839, 96.— ^«rf. BA. iii. 
1841, 44, pi. \5l.—Giraud, BLI. 1844, 95.— Read, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 399.— BeiraA. 
J. f. O. 1854, 440 (Greenland).— P«(re.Pr. Ess. Inst. i. 1856, 209.— Mar«e«s, J. f. O. 1859, 
214 (Bermudas). — /?/(i7i(i. Smiths. Rep. for 1858, 1859, 9.-<7 (Bermudas) —Willis, ibid. 282 
(Nova Scotia).— Gieft. Vog. 1860, \3Q.— Weiz, Pr. Bost. Soc. x. 1866, 267 (Labrador).— 
Turnb. B. E. Pa. 1869, 28 ; Phila. ed. 21.—.' Trippe, Pr. Ess. Inst. vi. 1871, 115. 

Eremophila alpestris, ? Allen, Mem. Bost. Soc. i. 1868, 496.—AlleJi, Am. Nat. iii. 1869, ."iSl.— 
Mayn. Guide, 1871, 112, (Massachusetts, in 3vay).— Allen, Am. Nat. v. 1871, 6.— Ooaes, 
Key, 1872, 89, t32.—Mayn. Pr. Bost. Soc. xiv. 1872, 374.— ao?fes, BNW. 1874, 37.— 
? Nelson, Pr. Bost Soc. xvii. 1875, 339, 345,353 (Nevada and Utah).— Brcai. Pr. Bost. 
Soc. xvii. 1875, 442. 

OtOCOriS alpestris, McCall, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1851, 218 (Texas).- -ffoy, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1851, 
382.— Woodh. Rep. Zuui R. 1853, B8.—Kenn. Tr. Illinois Agric. Soc. i. 1855, 584. 

OlOCOryS alpestris, Reinh. Ibis, iii. 1861, 8 (Greenland). 

.\lauda viruiniana, Briss. Oca. iii. 1760, 367, no. 12 (from Catesby, etc). 

Alauda cornuta, fVils. AO. i. 1808, 87 (in text).— S. SfR. PBA. ii. 1831, 245, f. 2i6. — Towns. 
Journ l^hila. Acad. viii. 1839, I5i.— Maxim. Reise, i. 1839, 367. 

Eremophila coruuta, Boie, Isis, 1828, 322.— Bd. BNA. 1858, 403.— .'//e«ry, Pr. Phila. Acad, 
xi. 18.59, 107 (New Mexico).— .'Xa?U. Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 1859, 191 (California).— O. Sr S. 
NHWT. 1860, l9o.—Barn. Smiths. Rep. for 1860, 1861, 431.- Wheat. Ohio. Agr. Rep. 



SYNONYMY OF E. ALPESTRIS AND VARS. 187 

for 1860, 365. — Coues, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1861, 221.— Co?tes 4- Prent. Smiths. Rep. for 
1861, 1862, m.—Boardm. Pr. Bost. Soc Ix. 1862, 126.— Ferr. Pr. Ess. lu^it. iii. 1862, 149.— 
fBlak. Ibis, iv. 1862, 5; v. 186:i, 6S.— Allen, Pr. Essex Inst. iv. 1864, 69.— Dress. Ibis, 2fl 
ser. 1865, 486 (Texas).— tawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. 1866, 289.— ATc/Zwr. Proc. Ess. Inst. 
V. 1866, 88. — Cowes, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 280.— Brown, Ibis, 2d ser. 1868, 421 (Vau- 
couver).—Co«f.'!, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 1866, 11.3.- .'Coop. Am. Nat. iii. 1869,75.295,297; 
1874, \l.—y Aiken, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1872, 202.—:'Trippe, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1873, 236. 

Pliilereiiios coriiulus, Bp. CGL. 1838, 37. 

Olocoris coriuita, Bp. CA, i. 1650, 246. 

OtOCDI'J'X rorilllta, Licla. " Nomencl. 1854, 239". 

Otocorj.s coi'uilta, Bp. "CR. xxxviii. 1854, 64 ". 

Alauda rilfa, /Maxim. J. f. O. vl. 18.i8, 349 (Missouri). 

Otocoris riifa, Hoy, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. i853, 332 (Wisconsin). 

Lark, Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, i. 1731, 32, pi. 32. 

Shore Lark, Forst. l. c.—Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 392. no. 218.— Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 385, no. 19. 

Hausse-col uoir ou .\louctte de Vjrginie, Buff. " Hist. Nat. Ois. v. 55 ". 
Alouettf de Virgiuie, Ortolan, LeM. Ois. Canad. 1861, 225. 
Horned Lark, Shore Lark, Authors. 

h. leucolama 
? Otocoris occidentalls, jl/cfa//, Pr. Phila. Acad. v. 1851, 218 (Santa Fe, N. Mex.).— Brf. 

Stansbury's Rep. GSL. 1852, 318, 331. 
Otocorys alpestris, Ntwb. prrr. vi. 1857, 88. 
Ereuiophila alpestris, AlUu, Bull. MCZ. iii. 1872, 176. 
Eremophila Cornuta, iS(i. PRRR. x. 1859, Beckwlth's Route, Birds, 13, pi. 32.— /fnyrf. Tr. 

Araer. Philos. Soc. xii. 1872, IIA.-Siev. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, for 1870, 1871, 464.— 

Merr. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, for 1872, 1873, G8o.—Hold. Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1872, 202. 
EreiUOphila alpestris h. leuCOlxnia, Cones, BNW. 1874, 38.— Coues, Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 

602.— ^He?i, Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1874, 50. 

c. chrysoltema 

Alauda cornuta. Sw. Philos. Mag. i. 1827, 434 (Mexico). 

PhiltreuiOS COrUUtUS, Bp. PZS. 1837, m. (Mexico). 

Eremopllila cornuta, Coues, ibis, 2d ser. i. 1865, 164 (Arizona).— Co«es, Pr. Phila. Acad. 

xviii. 1666, 79 (the same). 
Alauda glacialis, Licht. •' Preis-Verz. Mex. Vog. 1830, 2"; J. f. O. 1863, 56 (Mexico). 
Alauda chrjsolaema, Wagl. Isis, 1831, 350 (Mexico). 
Otocoris chrysolaeina, Bp. CA. i. 1850, 246. 
Otocorys dirysolaema. Cab. MH. i. 1851, 122. 
Alauda chrysolsma, Sd. PZS. 1855, 66. 
Otocorys chrysoltema, Bp. '■ CR. xxxviii. 1854, 65 '\—Scl. PZS. 1856,306 (Mexico) ; 1859, 372 

(Oaxaca). 
Eremophila chrysoliema, Scl. PZS. 1864. 174 (City of Mexico). 
Eremopbilii cornuta var. chrysohema, Bd. BNA. 1858, 403. 
Eremophila alpestris c chrysol:enia, Coues, bnw. 1874, 38, 231. 
Alauda minor, Giraud, IC Sp. Tex. B. 1841. 
Eremophila minor, Sd. Cat. AB. 1862. 126. 

Alauda rufa, Aud. B. Amer. vii. 1843, 353, pi. 497.— Brf. Stansb. Rep. GSL. 1852, 331. 
Otocoris rufa, Heerm. PRRR. x. 1859, Williamson's Route, Birds, 45. 

Hab. — The typical form inhabits the greater part of the uorthern hemi- 
sphere (Europe aud Asia as well as most of North America). Var. leucolwma 
breeds on tlie plains of the United States, north of about 40°. Var. chrysolivma 
breeds in the Western United States, south of about 40°, and southward 
through Mexico. 

Ch. sp. — a. AL.VBSTUIS.— Notwo griseo plus minusve rvfescenti- 
vinaceo tincto. nucha tectricibusque alat^um et caudcc vegetioribus, 
dorso sordidiore^ strigis fuscis notato; gastrceo albido, lateribus 
dorso suhsimilibus, ijelta magna pectorali nigra; strigd malari et 



188 CHARACTERS OF EREMOPHILA ALPESTRIS 

infraoculari nigra; sfrigd postfrontali per later ibiis pllei diictd 
nigra; reUquis partihus laterum capitis, strigd frontali et super- 
ciliari, necnon gula totd, albis velfiavis; rectricibus mediis diiabus 
remigibusgue intimis dorso subsiniilibufi; rectricibus lateralibus 
omnibus nigris, extiniis albido niarginatis ; remigibus fuscis, 
pogonio exteriore primarii extimi albido; rostro phanbeo-nigricante, 
ad basiii mandibulcc pallidiore; pedibus nigris. 

b. LEUCOL^MA. — Persimilis,-sed coloribus dilutioribus; capite 
vix flavicante ; plagis nigris minoribus. 

c. CHRYSOL^MA. — Minor, coloribus vegetioribus; notceo fere 
cinnamomino, capite flavissimo; plagis nigris extensis. 

The iypicalform. — $ 9, adult, iu breeding plumage: Upper parts in gen- 
eral piukish-brown, this piukish or viuaceous or lilaceous tint brightest on the 
nape, lesser wing-coverts, and tail-coverts, the rest of the upper parts being 
duller and more grajdsh-brown, boldly variegated with dark-brown streaks ; 
the middle pair of tail-feathers and several of the inner secondaries rufous- 
brown, with darker centers. Under parts, from the breast backward, 
white — the sides, however, strongly washed with the color of the npper parts, 
and some mottling with the same usually extending across the lower part of 
the breast. A large, distinct, shield-shaped, black area on the breast. Tail- 
feathers, except the middle pair, black, the outermost edged with whitish. 
Wing-quills, except the innermost, plain fuacous, the outer web of the first 
primary whitish. Lesser wiug-coverts usually tipped with grayish-white. 
Peculiar head-markings as follows : — Top of head like nape ; bar across front 
of vertex, thence extended along sides of crown, and produced into a tuft 
or " horn", black; front and line over eye, also somewhat produced to form 
part of the tuft, white or yellowish ; a broad bar, from the nostrils along the 
lores, thence curving below the eye and widening as it descends in front of 
the auriculars, black ; rest of the sides of the head and whole throat white 
or sulphury-yellow. Bill plumbeous-blackish, bluish-plumbeous at base 
below (sometimes there yellowish) ; feet and claws black ; iris brown. 
Length of J', 7-7^; extent, 13-14; wing probably always over 4 — 4J-4^ ; 
tail, 2|-3; bill, from extreme base of culmen, |-| ; tarsus, 1^—^% ! middle toe 
and claw rather less ; hind claw about ^ — usually longer than its digit, but 
very variable. 9 commonly smaller than the male. Length, 6|-7J ; extent, 
12f-13J; wing about 4, &c. 

Aside from the varietal conditions, to be presently noticed, the precise 
shade of typical alpesiris varies greatly, especially of those parts which are 
tinged to greater or less degree with the peculiar " pinkish-brown," lilaceous 
or cinnamon, and with the sulphury-yellow about the head. 

^ 9 ) adult, in winter : As usually seen in most of the United States iu 
the fall, winter, and early spring, the birds differ from the above in a general 
more sordid coloration of the upper parts, which may be simply grayish- 
brown, heavily streaked with dusky, even on the crown, with little or none 
of the "pinkish" tints just mentioned; and in the lack or restriction of the 
black markings of the head and breast, or their being veiled with whitish 
tips of the individual feathers ; nevertheless, the sulphury tinge of the white 
parts about the head is usually very conspicuous. 



HORNED LARK AND ITS VARIETIES 189 

Fledglings, just from the nest, are altogether different from the adults. 
They have the npper parts dusky, mixed with some yellowish-brown, and 
sprinkled all over with whitish or light tawny dots, each feather having a 
terminal speck. Most of the wing- and tail-feathers have rusty, tawny, or 
whitish edging and tipping. The under parts are white, mottled with the 
colors of the upper parts along the sides and across the back. There are no 
traces of definite black markings about the head and breast, nor is there any 
yellow tinge. Bill and feet pale or yellowish. This peculiar speckled stage 
is of brief duration ; with an early autunmal change, a dress, little if at all 
different from that of the adults in winter, is acquired. 




Fig. -.25.— Horned Lark. 

Var. Jeucolwma. — Size of the foregoing. General coloration extremely 
pale — brownish-gray, the peculiar pinkish tint of certain parts sharing the 
general pallor. Black markings on head and breast much restricted in 
extent, and white surroundings correspondingly increased — thus, the black 
postfrontal bar is scarcely or not broader than the white of the forehead. 
No yellow about the head, excepting usually a slight tinge on the chin. 
The changes of plumage are parallel with those already given; even the 
nestlings show the same decided pallor. 

Far. chrysoJcvma. — Smaller than either of the foregoing : ^ with the wing 
scarcely or not 4, and other dimensions to correspond ; a verj' small speci- 
men before me, probably $ , has the wing only .3.} ; in another, marked ^ , 
it is 3f . The " pinkish " tinge intensified into cinnamon-brown, and pervad- 
ing nearly all the upper parts. Yellow of the head intensified, and the 
black markings very lieavy — the black on the crown often or usually widens 
to occui)y more than half of the cap, reducing the white frontlet to a mere 
trace. 

As I remarked in the " Birds of the Northwest ", the question of the rela- 
tionships of our Larks is rather intricate, though we probably have an 
approximately correct solution of the difficulty. Probably no authors of 
repute now undertake to maintain any of the supposed or alleged differences 
between the ordinary North American bird and that of Europe and Asia. 
(It may here be remarked parenthetically that in any event our bird is 
to bear the name alpcstris, that having been based by Linu;eus upon the 
"Lark" of Catesby — a new name, if any, being required for the European 
bird.) This form is dispersed, at one or another season, over most of North 
America, breeding far north (I have specimens from the Arctic coastj and 



190 HORNED LARKS OF THE COLORADO BASIN 

generally throughout British America, and migrating into the United States 
in the fall, to leave again in the spring. Those birds which breed in the United 
States, in the oi)en country between Iowa, Wisconsin, and Minnesota and 
the Rocky Mountains, north of about 40°, and are resident to some degree 
on those plains, have acquired certain recognizable peculiarities which stamp 
them as a geographical race. This form has been occasionally mentioned by 
late writers under the name of "occidentalis ", which I observe is retained 
in the "History of North American Birds" (ii. p. 140). But Colonel McCall's 
descriptiou was based upon a bird from Santa Fc, New Mexico, and is there- 
fore most probably applicable to clirysolmma, where also belong the other spe- 
cific names which have been imposed upon our Western Larks. Anew name 
being apparently required, I called this var. leucolmma in the work above 
mentioned. Var. chrysolcena is more decidedlj' different in the points already 
given. Some of the specimens before me, labeled " California", but probably 
either from Lower California or Mexico, are so strongly marked that, in the 
absence of connecting links, I should give it specific rank. Many inter- 
mediate examples are, however, forthcoming. 

Specimens from the northerly portions of the Pacific coast regions are said 
to be nearer typical alpcatrls, but even darker than that form, and thus still 
further removed from either leiicolwmaoT chrysolcema. 

Lacking opportunity at present of reviewing the case of E. peregrina of 
New Granada (Scl. PZS. 1855, 160, pi. 102, Bogota), which is held to be speci- 
fically distinct by several high authorities, I have omitted the references to 
it, though in the " Birds of the Northwest" I added them to those of cJiryso- 
Iwma, judging it to be only the extreme of differentiation which the latter 
has sustained. 

The preparation of exact synonymy in the present case has proved a mat- 
ter of some difficulty, especially since tlie case has been complicated by the 
introduction of var. leiicolcunia. When other clue was wanting, I have col- 
lated the quotations mainly upon geographical considerations, not always, 
however, satisfactory. For many of the references are actually more com- 
prehensive than my collation would imply, since they include the varieties, 
especially var. leiicola'ma ; in other cases, geographically restricted, it is still 
uncertain which variety a writer had in view, since both may be found asso- 
ciated at some seasons. I have been obliged to query some references, and 
take others "upon their face", according to the name used. 

RESPECTING more particularly the Larks of the Colorado 
Basin, it should be observed that the birds which breed 
withiu this area are, probably without exception, referable to 
the var. chrysolcema^ even though the peculiarities may notalways 
be as strongly expressed as they are in those which breed fur- 
ther south. This form is abundantly distributed in suitable 
localities, and resident. With the fall migration, however, 
uortheru-bred birds of the other variety [leucolmna] enter this 
region, and the two may be found associated. No difference 
in habits has been observed. 



CHAPTEE XL— WAGTAILS 



Fam. MOTACILLTD^ 

Chars. — Primaries only nine (the sbort or spurious first 
primary found in all the birds ^f foregoing families excepting 
Eremopliila remaining undeveloped), the first nearly or about 
as long as the next, and the point of the wing foimed by the 
first three, four, or five qnills, which are abruptly longer than 
the succeeding ones ; inner secondaries enlarged, lengthened, 
and flowing, the longest one usually about equaling the first 
primary when the wing is closed. (This construction of the 
wing is a prime characteristic of the family.) Tail of variable, 
but always conspicuous, length, of different shapes in the sev- 
eral genera, but usually donbleronnded, i. e., central and 
external pairs of feathers both shorter than intermediate ones; 
in life held tilted up, or vibrated up and down with a peculiar 
see-saw motion (a characteristic habit of birds of this family, 
whence comes the name Wagtail — Mota cilia — Iz'.<r-<ivpa). Feet 
large, in adaptation to terrestrial habits; progression ambula- 
torial, not saltatorial; tarsus slender, lengthened, equaling or 
exceeding the middle toe in length, of ordinary oscine charac- 
ters as to scutellation ; inner toe cleft to the very base, outer 
adherent to middle by its basal joint only. Hind claw length- 
ened and straightened in most of the genera (not in Motacilla 
itself). Bill shorter than the head, very slender, straight, 
acute, usually notched near the tip, not furnished with 
obvious rictal vibrissas, though feathers about its base are 
bristle-tipped. ISTostrils patent, in slight fossae. 

This is a pretty well marked family, easily distinguished 
from any of the foregoing by the development of only nine 
primaries, and from the following 9-primaried O-scines by the 
particular shape of the wing, in connection with ambulatorial 
feet and slender, strictly "insectivorous" or " dentirostral" 
bill. The birds may be considered Sylvians modified for terres- 
trial habits. The family is characteristic of the Old World, 
being poorly represented in the New, where only some eight or 
ten of the about one hundred accredited species occur. There 




1 92 MOTACILLID^ ANTHINiE ANTHUS 

are two groups in tbe family, commonly admitted as sub- 
families. In one of these, the MotacilUncv, or typical Wagtails, 
the tail is lengthened to equal or exceed the wing, and formed 
of narrow feathers gradually tapering to their rounded ends ; 
only three primaries usually enter into the point of the wing; 

the tarsi are longer and slenderer; 
the lateral toes are shorter; and the 
system of coloration for the most 
l^art has what a painter would call 
"breadth", the colors being massed 
in large areas. The hind claw in 
Motacilla is of ordinary characters : 

Fig. 26.— Head and foot of Yellow "^ ' 

Wagtail. but in Budytes, the next most prom- 

inent genus, it is lengthened and straightened. The Mota- 
cillincv are only represented in the western hemisphere by the 
BlotacUla alba, or common White Wagtail of Europe, which 
has occasionally been foucd in Greenland, and by the Yellow 
Wagtail, Bndytes flava, an ubiquitous species of the Old World 
lately ascertained to occur abundantly in Alaska. The cut of 
this sptcies (tig. 20) will illustrate some motacilline features. 
The other group is the 

Subfamily ANTHIN^ : Pipits, or Titlaeks 

In these, the tail is shorter than the wings, and composed of 
broader feathers retaining their width to near the end; four or 
five primaries usually form the point of the wing ; the tarsi are 
relatively shorter, usually about equal to the middle toe; the 
lateral toes are longer, the points of their claws reaching 
beyond the base of the middle claw ; the hind claw is always 
lengtliened and straightened (as in the figure beyond given 
under head of Anthus ludovicianits) ; and the coloration is "nig- 
gled", that is to say, broken up in streaks and spots. The 
species of Anthinai make up nearly or about half the family ; 
they are chiefly referable to the 

Genus ANTHUS Bechstein 

This has been split by modern systematists into a good many 
genera, which, however, are scarcely worth retaining except 
as sections. Neocorys, Pediocorys, and Hoiiocorys are the Ameri- 
can subdivisions, the last two belonging to South America, the 



SYNONYMY OF ANTHUS LUDOVICIANUS 193 

first one to our country. Weocorys spraguii* should be found 
in the Colorado Basin, but has not been, so far as I know. A 
careful description and a full account of the habits of this inter- 
esting bird is given in the " Birds of the Northwest", to which 
the reader is referred. A typical Anthus, A. pratensis, is occa- 
sionally found in Greenland {Reinh. J. f. O. 1854, 439; Ibis, 
1861, 6) and Alaska ; another, A. cervinus, is said to occur in 
the Aleutian Islands {Zander, J. f. O. i. 1853, Extrah. 1854, 64). 
With these exceptions, the following is the only known North 
American species of Anthus : — 



American Pipit, or Titlark 

Antbas Indovlcianns 

Alauda ludoriclana, Gm. SN. i. pt. ii. 1788, 793, no. 14 (from Buflf. & Liath.).— Lath. 10. ii. 
1790, 494, no. 9. 

Anthus lUdoriCianus, Licht. "Verz. 1823, 37".— Bp. CGL. 1838, 18.— ^u<f. Syn. 1839, 94.— 
Nutt. Man. i. 2d ed. 1840, 5a.—Aud. BA. iii. 1841, 40, pi. 150.— Gir. BLI. 1844, 94.— Gam6. 
Pr. Phila. Acad. iii. 1846, 114.— Garni. Journ. Phila. Acad. i. 1847, 37— Bp. CA. i. 1850, 
2'l9.—McOall,Pr. Phila. Acad. v. 1851, 215 (Texas).— i/oy, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 
310.— Bead, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 399.— Reiiih. J. f. 0. 1854, 439 (Greenland).— /ferary, 
Pr. Phila. Acad. vii. 1855, 310 (New Mexico).— A'ean. Tr. 111. Agr. Soc. i. 1855, 583.— 
Pratten, Tr. III. Agr. Soc. i. 1855, 601.— Putn. Pr. Ess. Inst. i. 1856, 209.— Scl. PZS. 
1856, 293 (Mexico).— 5cZ. PZS. 1857. 126 (Califorma).- .fiTmeeZ. Pr. Bost. ,Soc. vi. 1857, 
23i.—Bd. BNA. 1858, 23-2.— Willis, Smiths. Rep. for 1858, 1859, 281 (Nova Scotia).— 
Sland, Smiths. Rep. for 1858, 1859, 287 (BeTmuda.).— Martens, J. f. O. 1859, 214 (Ber- 
mnda).— Jones, Nat. in Bermuda, 1859, 29.— S. ((■ S. Ibis, 1859, 9 (Guatemala).— /ferary, 
Pr. Phila. Acad. 1859, 106.— Xantus, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1859, 100.— Heerm. PRRR. x. 1859, 
45.-0. <VS. NHWT. I860, 176.— Coues, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1861, 330 (Labrador ; eggs).— 
Barn. Smithson. Rep. for 1860, 1861, 435.— Reinh. Ibis, 1861, 6 (Greenland).— Coues 6f 
Prent. Smiths. Rep. for 1861, 1862, i05.—Hayd. Tr. Amer. Philos. Soc. xii. 1862, 159.— 
Blasius, Ibis, 1862, 71 (Heligoland, Europe).— BZaA;. Ibis, 1862, 4 (Saskatchewan).— Ferr. 
Pr. E>8. Inst. iii. 1862, 156.— Boardm. Pr. Bost. Soc. ix. 1862, 124.— BZaA:. Ibis, 1863, 60.— 
Bd. Rev. AB. 1864. 153.— Allen, Pr. Ess. Inst. iv. 1864, 58.— Dress. Ibis, 1865, 476.— 
Coues, Ibis, 1866, 64 (Colorado Desert).- Cowes, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1866, 67 (Arizona).— 
Zawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. 1866, 283.— Wejz, Pr. Bost. Soc. 1866, 267 (Labrador).— 
Mcllw. Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1866, 85.— Allen, Mem. Bost. Soc. i. 1868, 494.— Coaes, Pr. Bost. 
Soc. xii. 1868, 108.— Coj^es, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 268.— Cowes, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1868, 
Sa.— Butch. Pr. Phila. Acad. 1868, 149.— Broicn, Ibis, 1868, 420 (Vancouver).— Twrni. B. 
E. Pa. 1869, 23; Phila. ed. 16.— Dall 6f Bann. Tr. Chic. Acad. i. 1869, 277 (Alaska).- 

*Aiithus (Neocorys) spra§^nii.— Missouri Pipit. 

Alauda spragneii, And. BA. vii. 1844, 334, pi. 486 (Dakota). 

Otocoris sprangeri, Bp. CA. i. 1850, 246. 

Agrodoma spraguel, Bd. Stansbury'a Rep. 1852, 329. 

NeocorysspragUii, Scl. PZS. 1857, 5.—Blakist. Ibis, 1862, 4 (Saskatchewan).— BiaiJst. Ibis, 

1863, 61 (Minnesota to Saskatchewan). 
NeOCOrys spraguei, Bd. BNA. 1858, 234.— Allen, Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 745.— B. B. ifR. NAB. i. 

1874, 175, figs. pi. 10, f. 5.— Allen, Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1874, 50 (habits).- Comcs, BNW. 

1874, 42 (full description and account of habits). 
Anthus spraguei, Bd. Rev. AB. 1864, 155.— Coues, Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 697. 

Spraffue'siUissourl Lark, Missouri Skylark, Sprague's Pipit, Authors. 
13 B C 



194 SYNS. AND CHARS. OF ANTHUS LUDOVICIANUS 

Stev. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, for 1870, 1871. A^.—Ooop. Pr. Phlla. Acad. 1870, Tj.— Ooop. 
B. Cal. i. 1870, 78.— Coues, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1871, \^.—Trippe, Pr. Esn. Inst. vi. 1871, 
lib.— Allen, Bull. MCZ. ii. 1871, ^Gl.— Allen, Bull. MCZ. iii. 1872, 161, 175 (Colorado, 
breeding).— ^«e?i, Am. Nat. vi. 1873, ^^G.—Harting, Man. Brit. B. 1872, 109 (Great 
Britain ?).—^iA:cre, Pr. Bost. Soc. 1872, 196 (Colorado, breeding).— Trtppe, Pr. Boat. Soc. 
XV. 1872, 234.— iHaya. Pr. Bost. Soc. xiv. 1872, 360.— Cowes, Key, 1872, 90, f. 34.— Jlfayra. 
B. Fla. 1873, Ai.—Ridgxe. Bull. Ess. Inst. v. 1873, 180.— Aferr. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, 
for 1872, 1873, 713.— Sraow, B. Kans. 1873, i.—Trippe, Pr.Bost. Soc. xv. 1673, 234.— ^H«», 
Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1874, 50.— Coucs, BNW. 1874, M.— Yarr. fy Hensk. Rep. Orn. Specs. 
1874, 10.— Hensh. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, 41.— i?. B. If R. NAB. i. 1874, 171, fig. pL 10, f. 
3.—Hensh. List B. Ariz. 1875, 156.— Hensh. Zool. Expl. W. 100 Merid. 1876, 187. 

Alauda ludovlcana, Turt. SN. i. 1806, 482. 

Anthus ludOViceanus, Bd. Ives's Rep. pt. v. 1861, 5. 

AnthUS ludoriciDUS, Merriam, U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, for 1872, 1873, 674. 

Antbus ludOTiCanuS, Trippe, Coues'a BNW. 1874, 231. 

Alauda rubra, Gm. SN. i. pt. ii. 1788, 794, no. 15 (from Briss., BuflF., Edw., etc.).— £atA. 10. 
ii. 1790, 494, no. 10. — Turt. SN. i. 1806, 482. 

Motacilla hudsonica, Lath. lO. ii. 1790, 503, no. 6 (no references ; orig. descr. VFell suiting pres- 
ent species).— Tar«. SN. i. 1806, 616.— K. OAS. ii, 1807, 47.— r. Ency. M6th. ii. 1823, 409. 

Alauda migratoria, Bartram, Trav. Fla. Ist Am. ed. 1791, p. 290 bis (see Coues, Proc. Phila. 
Acad. 1875, 346). 

Anthus rubens, Merrem, " Ersch Grub. Encycl." 

Alauda rufa, Wils. AO. v. 1812, 89, pi. 42, f. A.—Bp. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 181. 

AntbUS spinolelta, Bp. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 1826, 90.— iVwtt. Man. i. 1832, i5Q.—Ornith. Cov;m. 
Journ. Phila. Acad. vii. 1837, 193 (Columbia River). — rown*. Journ. Phila. Acad. viii. 
1839, 154.— Pea6. Rep. Orn. Mass. 1839, 317. — Thomps. NH. Vermont, 1853, 86. 

Anthus aquatlCUS, 5. ^ R. FBA. ii. 1831, 231, pi. 44.— Aud. OB. i. 183-, name on pi. 10. 

Anthus pipiens. Aud. OB. i. 1832, 408 ; V. 1839, 449, pi. SO.— Bp. CGL. 1838, 18. 

Anthus reinhardtil, HolbOll, " Fn. Gronl. ed. Paulsen, 1846, 25". 

Alaiida pensUvanlca, Briss. Om. 1760, App. 94, no. 13. 

Anthus pensylvaniCUS, TAiejiennTiTi. Rhea, ii. 1849, 171 (monographic).— Zarerfcr, J. f. O. i. 
1853, Extrah. 1854, 63 (monographic).— Zander, Naumannia, iv. 1854, 13 (monographic). 

AntbUS pennsylvaniCUS, Gaetke, J. f. 0. 1856, 71 (Heligoland). 

Farlouzanne, Buff. " Hist. Nat. des Ois. V. 38". 

LouiSiane Lark, Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 376, no. 7 (based on BuflF. v. 38). 

HudSOnian Wagtail, Lath. Syn. Snppl. ii. 1801, 231, no. 3. 

Alouette aux joucs brunes de PensilTanie, Buff. " llist. Nat. des Ois. v. 58 ". 

Hochequeue de la bale d'Hudson,F. Ency. M6th. ii. 1823, 409. 

Lark from Pensylvania, Edw. "Glean.pt. ii. 185, pi. 297". 

Red Lark, Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 393, no. 279 (Pennsylvania).— iaJA. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 376, no. 8. 

Polarpleper, Thienemann, 1. c. 

Alouette pipe, Le Maine, Ois. Canad. 1861, 185. 

American Pipit or Titlark, Prairie Titlark, F>eddish-broirn Titlark, Brown Lark, 

Authors. 

Hab. — The whole of North America. South to 
Guatemala and perhaps further. Greenland. Ber- 
mudas. Casual in Europe (Heligoland, Gatke ; and 
see especially Harting, I. c. supra). No West Indian 
quotations. 

Ch. sp. — 3 9 Olivaceo-hrunneus, fusco- 
notatus; alis fuscis, hrunneo-Umbatis ; caudd 
fused, rectricihus lateralihus 1-3 ex parte 
alhis ; orbit is, superciliis, partihusque infe- 
rioribus ex toto brunneo-albidis, pectore lateri- 

Fig. 27.— Bill and foot of , .. . ^ . ^. 

American Pipit; nat. size, ousque olivaceo-brunneo striatis. 
$ $ : Above, olive-brown, most of the feathers with dusky centres, giving 
a streaked or nebulated appearance. Wings blackish-brown, the quills and 




NOTE ON THE TITLARK 195 

their coverts edged with dull pale brown ; tnil blackish, the central feathers 
like the back, one to three of the lateral feathers, partly at least, white, the 
outer often wholly white. Line over the eye, eyelids, and entire under parts 
brownish-white, or pale ochrey- or buffy-brown (very variable in shade), 
the Gides of the throat and body and the breast spotted or s*.reaked with 
the color of the back. Bill blackish, pale at base below ; feet brown. 
Length, 6^-7 ; extent, lOJ-ll ; wing, 3^-3^ ; tail, 2|-3 ; bill about li ; tarsus, -f. 
I have not examined newly-fledged birds, which may be more streaky than 
as above described. Well-feathered birds of both sexes, at all seasons, are 
not distinguishable. The shade of the under parts is extremely uncertain, 
varying from brownish-white to rich buffy-brown, and the amount of whito 
on the tail is equally variable. 

ME. J. A. ALLEN'S discovery of tbe breeding of this 
species on the highest peaks of the mountains iu Colo- 
rado is the most interesting of the recent contributions to its 
history, and enables us to speak of the Titlark as a resident 
bird of the region now under consideration. However, in 
neary all of the Colorado water-shed the bird is only a winter 
visitant; it is common and generally distributed in suitable 
places. Its habits are too well known to require any extended 
notice in the present connection ; I have already given the 
results of my own observations in Labrador and other portions 
of North America in some of my publications cited above, 
notably the " Birds of the Northwest". 




Fig. 28.— Head and foot of Budytes 
flava, a typical Molacilline. 



CHAPTER XII. — AMERICAN WARBLERS 



Fam. SYLVICOLIDiE 

PRIMARIES nine; rectrices twelve; scutellation of tarsi, 
disposition of wing-coverts, and structure of lower larynx 
strictly Oscine in character. It is simply impossible to define 
the SylvicoUdce, because it is an artificial group, corresponding 
with no natural division of birds, and consequently having no 
natural boundaries. As customarily limited, this family — its 
North American representatives at any rate — may be distin- 
guished from other nine-primaried Oscines, excepting Cccrebidw, 
by the following negations : — Inner secondaries not enlarged, 
nor hind toe lengthened and straightened, as occurs in Motacil- 
lidce. Bill not " fissirostral ", as in Hirundinidw; nor strongly 
"dentirostral", — that is, hooked and toothed at end, — as in Lan- 
iidceand Vireonidce; nor yet typically "conirostral", as in Frin- 
gillidce; and without the tooth or lobe near the middle of the 
commissure which exists in the genus Pyranga of Tanagridce. 
From the Ccerebidce,* or Honey-creepers of the warmer parts of 

*In B. B. & R. Hist. N. A. B.,i. p. 177, we read: — " In fact, we are of the opin- 
ion that no violence would bo done by adopting this view [the propriety of 
uniting Tamigridce, Sylvicolidce, and Cccreiidw'], and would even include with 
the above-mentioned families the Fringillidw also. The order of their rela- 
tion to one another would be thus : Fringillidw, Tanagridce, Sylvicolidce, Ccere- 
bidce ; there being scarcely any break in the transition between the two ex- 
tremes, unless there are many genera referred to the wrong family, as seems 
very likely to be the case with many included in the Tanagridce. The/rin- 
gilline forms of the latter family are such genera as Buarremon and Arremon, 
they being so closely related to some fringilline genera by so many features — 
as rounded concave wing, lax plumage, and spizine coloration — as to be 
scarcely separable. Either these two families are connected so perfectly by 
intermediate forms as to be inseparable, or the term Tanagridce covers too 
great a diversity of forms. With the same regularity that we proceed from 
the Fringillidce to the typical forms of the Tanagridce (Pyranga, Tanagra, 
Calliste, etc.), we pass down the scale from these to the Sylvicolida; ; while 
between many genera of the latter family, and others referred to the Coere- 
lidcB, no difference in external anatomy can be discovered, much less ex- 
pressed in a description." 
196 



RELATIONSHIPS OF SYLVICOLID^ 197 

America, the Sylvicolidce are not distinguished by any known 
character ; and the same is the case in the relations both with 
the Fringillidce and the Tanagridce. For, though extreme forms 
of Sylvicolidce, Tanagridce, and Fringillidce are sufficiently 

In his previous critical studies of this group, Prof. Baird had been as 
much perplexed. I quote some passages from Rev. A. B., pp. 160, 161 : — " The 
Sylvicolidce are essentially characterized among the Oscines with nine pri- 
maries, by their small size, the usually slender and conical insectivorous bill, 
shorter than the head, without angle in the gape near the base ; the toes 
deeply cleft so as to leave the inner one free almost to its very base (except 
in Mniotiltece), etc. The shallow notch at the end of the tongue, instead of 
a deeply fissured tip, distinguishes the family from the CcBreMdw, to some of 
which there is otherwise so great a resemblance. The absence of abrupt 
hook and notch in both mandibles separates it from such of the Vireonidce 
as have nine primaries. To the Tanagridce, through the slender-billed forms, 
as Chlorospingus, Nemosia, Chlorochrysa, etc., the relationship is very close ; 
so much so that, by many, both families are included in one. . . . 

"There is, perhaps, no family to which the relationship is closer than to the 
CwreiidcB. Of equally small size, and, to some extent, of a somewhat simi- 
lar style of coloration, it is not to be wondered at that many species in each 
family have been indifferently assigned to either. The genus Helmintho- 
phaga, for instance, can scarcely be so defined as to distinguish it from Coni- 
roatrnm, excepting by the characters of the tongue, so rarely preserved in a 
skin, ... I am by no means sure that some of the species even now re- 
tained among the Sylvicolidce would not be more appropriately placed in 
CcerebidcB, as Helminthophaga haclimani, Parula gutturalis, etc. ... To the 
general character of the tongue in the Sylvicolidce, however, that of ' Den- 
droica tigrina' forms a striking exception in its approximation to the Ccere- 
bine character, especia>lly that of Certhiola." And it remains to be seen 
whether various other reputed Sylvicolines do not show similar structure of 
the tongue, as comparatively few of the species have been examined with 
reference to this point. 

One species of the CcereMda; is found in the United States, and has been 
attributed, but erroneously, to the Colorado Valley : it is the following : — 

Certhiola babamensis.— Bahaman Honey-creeper. 

Certhia flareola, 0, L. SN. i. 176G, 187, n. 18 /S (from Cates. Car. pi. 59, and Briss. Orn. iii. 

(1-20, pi. 34, f. 5— this fig. however, ia of the Martinique bird). 
Certhia fiaveola, v. <?»«'• SN. i. 1788, 479, n. 18 y {Gates. 1. c. and Fenn. AZ. ii. 285, n. 175).— 

Lath. 10. i. 1790, 297, n. 53. 
Certhiola flaveola, Bp. CA. i. 1850, 402 (partly).— .Baird, BNA. 1858, 924; atlas to ed. of 

1860, pi. 83, f. 3 (Florida).— JJry. Pr. Bost. Soc. vii. 1859, 117 (Bahamas).- J.i&r. J. f. 0. 

1361,54 (the same).— Cowes, Pr. Phila. Acad, sviii. 1866, 67 ("Arizona"— a blunder).— 

Coues, Key, 1872, 110 (Indian Key, Fla.). 
Certhiola bahamcnsis, lieich. "Handb. 1. 1853, 253" (from Catesby). —Ca*stn, Pr. Phila. 

Acad. 1864, ill.— Baird, Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 612 (critical).— U. B. d- R. NAB. i. Ie74, 

428, pi. 19, f. 5 (Florida).- iren«A. List. B. Ariz. 1875, 157 (error). 
Certhiola bairdi, Cab. J. f. O. 1865, 412 (= O. flaveola of Baird, 1858). 
Grimpercau de Bahama, Certhia bahamcnsis, BHgg. Om. iii. 1760, 620. 
Parus bahamicnsis, Bahama Titmonse, Gates. Car. i. 1771, 59, pi. 59 (descr. orig.). 
Bahama Creeper, Fenn. AZ. ii. 1785, 285, n. 175. 
Honey Creeper, Goues, 1. c. (1872). 
Hab. — Bahama Islands and coast of Florida. 



198 CHARACTERISTICS OF WARBLERS 

diverse, other forms are observed to melt insensibly into each 
other ; so that, taken altogether, the supposed families are in- 
separable. This state of the case is admitted by the best 
authorities, who nevertheless continue to follow usage, as I do 
in the present instance, partly for the sake of convenience, 
partly because it is not yet clear what else to do. As I re- 
marked some years ago, " it is probable that final critical study 
will result in a remapping of the whole group " of these allied 
nine-primaried American Oscines; and I might have added, 
that such course is urgently demanded. 

Nevertheless, it is practically an easy matter to recognize 
any North American example of this arbitrary group — the dif- 
ficulty is with its limitation, not within its ascribed boundaries. 
All the " Sylvicolines" are small birds ; excepting the species of 
Icteria, and perhaps of SiuruSj none are over six inches long, 
and the mean length is even less than this. The usual or nor- 
mal shape of the bill is that of an elongate compressed conoid, 
but its variations in details of configuration are great; in Icteria 
it is very stout and high, and in Setophaga broad and flat, like a 
Flycatcher's. The bill is usually nicked near the end, sometimes 
not; sometimes strongly notched and hooked, though not also 
toothed as in Vireonidce — more as in Tyrannidce. The rictus 
is usually bristled; sometimes not ; sometimes the bristles are 
very highly developed, much as in Tyrannidce. The wings are 
longer than the tail, and more or less pointed, excepting in 
Geothlypis and Icteria. The feet show some minor, though very 
evident, modifications, in adaptation to the scansorial habits of 
some genera, and the terrestrial habits of others. 

This is the second largest family of North American birds, 
the Fringillidce alone surpassing it in number of species. If 
not exactly "representative", in a technical sense, of the Old 
World Sylviidcc, it may be considered to replace that family in 
America, having much the same role in bird-economy: both 
families abound in species and individuals; they are small, 
migratory, insectivorous, and everywhere take prominent part 
in the make-up of the bird-fauna. There are ui)ward of a hun- 
dred species of Sylvicolidcc, distributed over the whole of North 
and Middle America, and much of South America. The centre 
of abundance of the Setojphaginw, or Flycatching Warblers, is 
in the warmer parts of America; comparatively few species 
reach the United States, and only two or three are extensively 
dispersed in this country. On the other hand, the Sylvicolince 
are more particularly birds of North America; very few of 



CHARACTERISTICS OF WARBLERS 199 

the species are confined to Middle or South America ; and 
Dendrceca, the leading type of this group, is the largest, most 
beautiful, and most attractive genus of North American birds, 
preeminently characteristic of this country. 

I shall be more particular in speaking of the several sub- 
divisions of the family ; but I wish to bring into this sketch of 
the Warblers at large some touches to show their family traits. 
I said that Dendrceca was a "beautiful" genus ; and I am sure 
that the Warblers, taken altogether, are the most attractive of 
our birds to every lover of birds for their own sakes — to every 
one who delights in those aesthetic emotions which the inter- 
pretation of bird-life never fails to excite. We have just seen 
what a problem they oflfer to the strict scientist ; the most de- 
termined utilitarian will find them not beneath his notice, for 
their good services in the interests of agriculture are imuieas- 
urable ; the naturalist derives from them never-failing gratifi- 
cation of his sense of the beautiful, whether he regards their 
forms, their colors, or their habits. They are prominent among 
the birds that awaken and stimulate the enthusiasm of the 
young ornithologist, nor do they cease to feed the ardor of 
maturer years ; they challenge interest perpetually, and en- 
gage attention in their endlessly varied aspects. They are the 
universal favorites of the amateur ; every collector is keen on 
the scent of the "rare Warbler"; emulation quickens the quest 
of its nest and eggs; the rivalry is to discover some unrecorded 
trait, some unrecognized plumage, some note unheard before; 
and the specimen itself is among the treasures of every cabi- 
net. Has any one stopped to think what our ornithology would 
be with this life of the woodland left out ? 

With few exceptions, the SylvicoUdw are clad in variegated 
colors — always pretty and tasteful, often brilliant and strikingly 
effective ; even when the tints are subdued, as in the oliva- 
ceous species, there is a pleasurable harmony of color, in keep- 
ing with shy and modest demeanor ; while some of the War- 
blers may boast of the most exquisite and delicate of hues, 
next alter those that glitter in the sheen of iridescence. Most 
Warblers, moreover, have several suits of color ; the sexes are 
seldom alike, the young are different again, and so many are 
the changes, that here is a study by itself, to recognize the same 
bird under its color-variations. The plumage of the Warblers 
may be used to illustrate a very broad and important truth that 
bears upon the question of species itself. Those familiar with 
the subject will recall the fact that very few of our Warblers 



200 CHARACTERISTICS OF WARBLERS 

offer any difficulty in the way of discrimination of species, 
when in perfect plumage ; that is to say, their " specific char- 
acters " are well marked. They are also well aware, that none of 
our birds are more strictly and completely migratory than 
these ; probably none of our species reside permanently in any 
one locality. Putting this and that together, it is easy to infer, 
as I think we may with entire accuracy, that the integrity of 
the species depends upon their migrations, for they are never 
continuously subjected to modifying local influences. Migration 
holds species true; localization lets them slip. That the inherent 
susceptibility to variation is not less in this family than else- 
where, is shown by the fact that the few localized forms respond 
as usual to modifying influences. Take the exotic races of 
Geothlypis trichas or Dendroeca petechia in instance. The Vireos, 
noted for the constancy of their slight though obvious specific 
characters, offer a i^arallel case. For the converse, the student 
may be reminded of the cases of such sedentary birds as species 
of Picus and various Fringillidce, which " run into each other" 
from one faunal area to another. 

Musical proficiency might be reasonably presupposed in a 
group of birds known by the delightfully suggestive name of 
" warblers ". It is quite our own fault, however, that they are 
misnamed ; we have simply perpetuated an early blunder in 
classification, by which these birds were referred to the Old 
World genus Sylvia. We have corrected the technical mis- 
nomer of "Sylvia", but have been less precise in our vernacu- 
lar. Nothing less like warbling than the songs of our "war- 
blers" can well be imagined. Bluebirds and Wrens warble or 
trill their lays ; Warblers, as a rule, do not. There are few 
great singers among them all. Their voice usually is thin, sharp, 
"unsympathetic"; the pitch is too high; the notes are abrupt 
and jerky ; movement is uneven and never long-sustained. The 
song indeed has musical quality, and may afl'ect us rather pleas- 
antly ; but our attention is more likely to be arrested by its 
oddity than attracted b^' its melody. I cannot but criticise 
here ; yet I am ready to bear witness to the endless variety of 
the songs of the Warblers, — probably every species has its own, 
distinctly recognizable by the practised ear ; and much of the 
pleasurable excitement which the study of these birds affords, 
comes from the effort of discriminating between their wonder- 
fully varied performances. Pi'obably no single ornithologist 
has learned them all — even all those to be heard in his own 



CHARACTERISTICS OF WARBLERS 201 

vicinity ; so subtile, so fugitive, so incomprehensible are these 
quaint snatches of song, which arouse attention only to disap- 
point expectation, and make us feel that we can never interpret 
the language in which these sylvan sprites tell the story of their 
lives. But the Warblers are such a multitude, so composite, 
that no indiscriminate comment, however guarded, can fail to 
do injustice. There are singers among them. The voice of the 
Summer Yellowbird is sweetly modulated. The species of the 
genus Siurus are splendid performers: the Golden-crown is a 
musician of extraordinary yet long-unsuspected ability, so sed- 
ulously does he hide his real accomplishments — one who con- 
tinually obtrudes upon us his loud shrill chant, in accelerated 
monotone, as if this were all that lay in his power ; yet in rare 
moments of triumph delighting to transport us with the ex- 
quisite vocalization which his nuptial ecstasies inspire. 

More anon of the general habits of the Warblers, when I 
come to speak of the genera and species individually ; here I 
can do little more than witness the "various language" which 
they speak "to him who in the love of Nature holds communion 
with her visible forms". The Warblers have we always with us, 
all in their own good time; they come out of the South, pass on, 
return, and are away again, their appearance and withdrawal 
scarcely less than a mystery; many stay with us all summer 
long, and some brave the winters in our midst. Some of these 
slight creatures, guided by unerring instinct, travel true to the 
meridian in the hours of darkness, slipping past " like a thief 
in the night", stooping at day-break from their lofty flights 
to rest and recruit for the next stage of the journey. Others 
pass more leisurely from tree to tree, in a ceaseless tide of 
migration, gleaning as they go ; the hardier males, in full song 
and plumage, lead the way for the weaker females and the 
yearlings. With tireless industry do the W^arblers befriend 
the human race; their unconscious zeal plays due part in the 
nice adjustment of Nature's forces, helping to bring about the 
balance of vegetable and insect life, without which agriculture 
would be in vain. They visit the orchard when the apple and 
l^ear, the peach, plum, and cherry, are in bloom, seeming to 
revel carelessly amid the sweet-scented and delicately- tinted 
blossoms, but never faltering in their good work. They peer 
into the crevices of the bark, scrutinize each leaf, and explore 
the very heart of the buds, to detect, drag forth, and destroy 
those tiny creatures, singly insignificant, collectively a scourge, 



202 ANALYSIS OF SYLVICOLID^E 

which prey upou the hopes of the fruit-grower, and whicb, 
if undisturbed, would bring his care to nought. Some War- 
blers flit incessantly in the terminal foliage of the tallest trees ; 
others hug close to the scored trunks and gnarled boughs of 
the forest kings ; some peep from the thicket, the coppice, the 
impenetrable mantle of shrubbery that decks tiny water- 
courses, playing at hide-and-seek with all comers ; others more 
humble still descend to the ground, where they glide with pretty 
mincing steps and affected turning of the head this way and 
that, their delicate flesh-tinted feet just stirring the layer of 
withered leaves with which a past season carpeted the ground. 
We may seek Warblers everywhere in their season ; we shall 
find them a continual surprise ; all mood and circumstance is 
theirs. 

Naturalists have sought to divide the varied forms of the 
Warblers into groups ; an attempt attended with no little diffi- 
culty, so varied are the phases of bird-life here exhibited. 
Even the earliest writers, whose genera were usually more 
comprehensive than our modern families are, dissociated these 
birds in three or more different genera, Motacillay Sylvia, Mus- 
clcapa, and some others, vaguely perceiving how varied these 
birds are in form and habits. Later systematists have multi- 
plied genera, as the fashion of minute subdivision dictated, 
though some of the newest genera, like Denclt'ceca, Eelmintho- 
phaga, and Setophaga, were still allowed to contain numerous 
species. Professor Baird's critical studies of this group gave 
us four subfamilies, according to the schedule* which I subjoin 

^Bill conical, its Iristles very short, or wanting. 

Sylvicolin^. Bill conical, or about as high as wide, or even higher, 
opposite the nostrils. Gape with short bristles, not reaching beyond the 
nostrils, or none. Tip of bill not hooked; with or without a faint notch; 
commissure nearly straight. Wings long and pointed ; considerably longer 
than the narrow, nearly even tail. Legs short and weak : tars-i not as long 
as 1 he head (except iu Mniotiltece). 

[Sections Mniotiltece, or Creej)ing Wm-Mers (genera Mniotilta and Panda) ; 
Ferntivore(v., or Swamp Warblers (genera Protonotaria, Helminthophaga, and 
Helminthei'us) ; and Sylvicolew, or Wood Warhlers (genera Pei'issoglossa and 
Dendi'oeca).'] 

Geothlypin^. Bill much as in Sylvicolinw, with distinct notch ; slender, 
or stout, the culmen gently curved ; the commissure nearly straight. Legs 
much developed : tarsi longer than the skull. Bristles of rictus short but 
appreciable. Ground Warblers. 

[Sections Seiitrece (genera Seiurus and Oporornis) and Geothlypea; (genus 
Geothlypis).^ 



ANALYSIS OF SYLVICOLID^ 203 

for tlie reader's convenience. Waiving the question of absolute 
rank in the scale of classification, we find among our North 
American Warblers at least three strongly marked groups, into 
which I divided our Warblers in the "Key"; and I shall ad- 
here for the present to these divisions, which seem as natural 
as they are convenient. They only differ from those proposed 
by Baird in the union of his Geothlypincv with SylvicoUncc. One 
of these groups, Icteriince, is so peculiar that it has often been 
altogether removed from the family. Another includes the 
well-marked " Fly-catching W^arblers"; the other covers the bal- 
ance of the family. These groups, conventionally rated as sub- 
families, may be thus distinguished : — 

Analysis of subfamilies. 

SylvicolincB. — Wings longer than tail (except in Geothlypis) ', bill conical, 
slender; couimissare slightly curved, with short bristles or none. Size 
moderate. 

Ictminw. — Wings shorter than tail; bill compressed, high, very stont; 
commissure much curved, without any bristles ; size very large. 

Setophagince. — Wings longer than tail ; bill broad, flattened ; coiiimisaure 
slightly curved, with bristles reaching far beyond the nostrils. 

Subfamily SYLVICOLINJE: True Warblers 

Chars. — Bill conoid-elongate, shorter than head, about as 
high as, or rather higher than, wide opposite the nostrils, not 
hooked, and with but a slight notch, if any, at tip : commissnre 
straight or slightly curved ; a few rlctal bristles, reaching little, 
if any, beyond the nostrils, or none. Wings pointed, longer 
than the narrow, nearly even tail. 

This beautiful group, which comprehends the great majority 
of the Warblers, is specially characteristic of North America, and 
reaches its highest development in the eastern portions of the 
continent, mainly through the preponderance of species of the 

ICTERIAN^. Bill without notch, or rictal bristles. Culmen and commis- 
sure much curved Wings much rounded, shorter than the tail. 
[Sections Icteriew (genus Icteria) and the exotic Teretristew.'] 

Bill depressed ; rictus with long bristles. 

Setophagince. Bill much depressed, considerably broader than high ; the 
tip more or less hooked, with distinct notch. Bristles lengthened, reaching 
half way or more from the nostrils to tip of bill. Flycatching Warblers. 

[Genera Myiodioctes, Cardellina, and Setophaga, with their respective- 
subdivisions.] 



204 SYLVICOLIN^ MNIOTILTA VARIA 

largest genus, Dendrceca. All the genera and most of the spe- 
cies of Sylvicolinw are found in this country, mainly as migrants, 
which appear in the spring, pass the summer, and retire for the 
winter to Mexico, the West Indies, and Central or even South 
America 5 though some pass the inclement season within our 
limits, and one at least is found in winter in Northern States. 

The Sylvicolinw are not very well represented in the Colorado 
Basin, where various genera are wanting, and the Dendrcecw 
are comparatively few; the Helminthophagce, however, are pro- 
portionally numerous. 

We may rapidly note some of the characteristics according to 
which the genera may be thrown into recognizable groups. The 
genus Geothlypis, in the first place, stands quite alone, in the rel- 
ative length of the wings and tail, the former being shorter than 
the latter: it is one of the "Ground Warblers". Intimately 
related is the genus Oporornis — so intimately, that species of the 
two are sometimes confounded. These genera, ^eith Siurus, are 
somewhat terrestrial and aquatic ; they have lengthened, pale- 
colored legs, and some of the species step very prettily over the 
ground, instead of hopping, or advancing both feet together, 
like most Passeres. There is another grouj), known as " Swamp 
Warblers" or " Worm-eating Warblers", consisting of the gen- 
era Hehnintlierus, Helmintliopliaga^ and Protonotaria : in these, 
the bill is extremely acute, and usually unnotched, and has no 
rictal bristles. Two genera, Mniotilta* and Parula, the first of 

* Mniotilta varia.— Black-and-wbite Warbler. 

MotaciHa varia, L. SN. i. 1766, 333, n. 23 (Briss. iii. 529, pi. 27, f. 5 ; Sloane, ii, 309, pi. 265, f. 
D.—Om. SN. i. 1788, 979, n. 23.—Turt. SN. i. 1806, 603. 

Sylvia varia, Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 539, n. 118.— Bp. Ann. Lye. K. Y. ii. 1826, 81.— Nutt. Man. i. 
1832, 38i.—Thomps. Vermont, 1853, 83. 

Certhia varia, T. OAS. ii. 1807, 69.—Aud. OB. i. 1832, 452, pi. 90.—Feab. Eep. Orn. Mass. 
1839, ■SiO.-Haym. Pr. Phila. Acad. viii. 1856, iSS.— WUlis, Smiths. Kep. for 1858, 1859, 
282 (Nova Scotia). 

MniotiSta varia, Y. ^'Anal. 1816, 45".— Bp. PZS. 18.'i7, 118 (Guatemala).— i?p. List, 1838, 11.— 
And. Syn. 1839, ll.—Nutt. Man. i. 2d ed. 1840, "iOi.—Aud. B A. ii. 1841, 105, pi. 114.— 
Gimwd, BLL 1844, 70.— Gosse, B. Jam. 1847, 134.— ^i?. CA. i. 1850, 311. -i«7n6ei/e, Av. 
Cuba, 1850, 68, pi. 10, f. l.—BurneU,'PT. Best. Soc. iv. 1851, 116.— i2ead, Pr. Phila. Acad, 
vi. 1853, 401.— JTo2/, ibid. 312.— TFoodA.Sitgr. Kep. Znni R. 1853, 69.— &Z. PZS. 1835,143 
(Bogotd).— OwndJ. J. f. 0. 1855, 475 (Cuba).— PraHm, Tr. 111. Agr. Soc. i. 1855, 603.— 
Putn. Pr. Ess. Inst. i. 1856, •■i08.—Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. vi. 1856, 6.—Scl. PZS. 1856, 140 
(Chiriqni) ; 291 (Mexico).— Br;/. Pr. Bost. Soc. vi. 18.')7, 116 (Nova ^coXm).— Maxim. J. f. 
O. vi. 1858, 108.— i?d. BNA. 1858, 235.-4. <£ E. Newt. Ibis, i. 1859, 143 (St Croix).— Srf. 
PZS. 1859, 363 (Xal»pa); 373 (Oaxaca).— ilTarten*, J. f. 0. 1859, 213 (Bermudas).— JJiand, 
Smiths. Kep. for 1858, 1659, 287 (Bermudas) —Brj/. Pr. Bost. Soc. vii. 1859, 110 (Baha- 
mas).— Cab. J. f. 0. 1860, 328 (Costa Kica).— Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. vii. 1860, 306 (Cuba).— 
Barn. Smiths. Kep. for 1860, 1861 , 435.— iawr. Ann. Lye. N. T. vii. 1861, 322 (New Gre- 
nada).— -ScJ. PZS. 1861, 70 (Jamaica).- GwndJ. J. f. 0. 1861, 326 (Cnha) .—Albrecht, J. f. 
0. 1861, 52 (Bahamas).— AZfir. J. f. 0. 1862, 193 (Jamaica).— Boardw. Pr. Bost. Soc. ix. 
1862, 124.— ffaj/d. Tr, Amer. Philos. Soc. xii. 1802, 159 (Dakota).— Ferr. Pr. Ess. Inst. Kl. 



SYNONYMY OF MNIOTILTA VARIA 205 

which is not known to occur in the Colorado Basin, are " Creeping 
Warblers", showing certain slight peculiarities of the feet which 
adapt them (at least one of them) to a mode of life quite like 

1862, 146.— March, Pr. Phila. Acad. xv. 1863, 293 (Tamaica).— Bd. Eev. AB. 1864, 167.— 
Scl. PZS. 1864, 172 (City of Mexico); 349 (Panama).— AJJen, Pr. Ess. Inst. iv. 1864, 59. - 
Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. T. viii. 1865, 174 (Cliiriqai).— -Dre««. Ibis, 2d ser. i. 1865, 47G (Texas, 
breeding).— IfcJiwr. Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1S66, 6^.— Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. T.viii. 1866, 2^3.— 
Salv. PZS. 1867, 135 (Veragna).- Tri^pe, Am. ISTat. ii. 1868, 171.— iawr. Ann. I<yc. N. T. 
ix. 1868, 93 (Costa Kica).— Oowes, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 269.— Cottes, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 
1858, lOS.— Allen, Am. Nat.iii. 1869, 509.— Raymond, Geol. Sarv. Indiana, 1869,216.— 
Turnb. B. E. Pa. 1869, 23 ; Phila. ed. 16.- 1>. Frantz. J. f. 0. 1869, 292 (Costa Rica) .—& <& S. 
PZS. 1870, 780 (Merida).— Cope, Am. Nat.' iv. 1870, 395, 396,399.— ParJker, Am. Nat. v. 
1871, 168.— IVippe, Pr. Ess. Inst. vi. 1871, lU.—Wyatt, Ibis, 3d ser. i. 1871, 322 (Her- 
radura).— AiZen, Am. Nat. ri. 1872, 265.— ifai/n. Pr. Bost. Soc. xiv. 1872, 361.— 5co«, Pr. 
Bost. Soc. XV. 1872,221 (West Virginia, breeding).— GundZ. J. f. 0. 1872, 411 (Cuba).— 
Allen, Bull. MCZ. iii. 1872, 175.— Cowes, Key, 1872, 92, f. "i^.—Srww, B. Kans. 1873, 4.— 
Ridg. Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 601.— Trippe, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1873, 234.— fferrici, Bull. Ess. 
Inst. V. 1873, — (New Brunswick).— Oo!t«s BNW. 1874, 45.— Merr. Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 
7, 86.— Packard, ibid. ^11.— Allen. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1874, 52 (Dakota).— B. B. <£ B. 
NAB. i. 1874, 180, pi. 10, f. 6.— Awes, Bull. Minnesota Acad. 1874, 55.— Brew. Pr. Bost. 
Soc. xvii. 1875, 439.-^310/. Bull. F. S. Nat. Mus. 1876, 15 (Tehuantepec).- (Jewtrj/, Life- 
Hist. i. 1876, 91.— Minot, B. N. Eng. 1877, 97. 

MniOtnia varia, V. " EM. 1823, — ".—Less. Tr. Orn. 1631, 318.— F. Gal. Ois. i. 1834, 276, pi. 
169.—Scl. PZS. 1858, 298 (Parada).— Brejcster, Ann. Lye. N. Y. xi. 1875, 134. 

Minotilta varia, S. <£ S. Ibis, i. 1859, 10 (Guatemala). 

Miniotilta vara, Gregg, Proc. Elmira Acad. 1870. 

Sylvicola varia, Rich. " List, 1837 ".—Bry. Pr. Bost. Soc. xL 1867, 91 (St. Domingo). 

Nectarinia varia, Bahn, " Ausliind. V6g. . . . ". 

Certhia pictii, Bartr. Trav. Fla. 1st ed. 1791, 289 bis (see Coues, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1875, 347). 

Certhia maculata, Wils. AO. iii. 18il, 22, pi. 19, f. 3.—Bp. Joum. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 27.— 
Benny, PZS. 1847, 39. 

OxyglOSSUS maculatUS, Siv. Zool. Joum. iii. 1827, 357 (type of the genus). 

Mniotilta borealis, Ifutt. Man. i. 2d ed. 1840, I05.—Hoy, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 312. 

Mniotilta varia var. longirostris, Bd. BNA. 1858, p. xxxi, n. 167. 

Ficedula dominicensis varia, Figuier varie de S. Domingue, J5ms. Orn. iii. 1760, 529, n. 
69, pi. 27, f. 5. 

Piguier varie de St. Domingue, JBm/. "Hist. Nat. Oiav. 305". 

Black and Wliite Creeper, Ediv. "Glean, pi. 300". 

White-poll Warbler, Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, n. 402, 293.— 
Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 488, d. 114. 

Small Black and White Bird, Sloane, "Jam. ii. 309, pi. 
265, f. 1". 

Mniotille varit, T. 1. c. 

Grinipereau varie, T. " Ois . Dor. ii. — , 111, pi. 74 ". 

Creeping V/arbler, Northern Creeping Warbler, 
Nuttall, 11. cc. 

Black«and-white Warbler, Black-and-white creep- 
ing Warbler, Black-and-white Creeper, 
Authors. 

Fig. 29. -Black-and-white Creeper. 

Hab.— Eastern North America. West to Dakota (Hayden, Allen), but not, 
as far as known, to the Rocky Mountains, in any portion of the United States. 
North to the Fur Countries. South through Mexico, various West India 
Islands, and Central America, to New Grenada at least. Not observed on the 
Pacific side north of Mazatlan. Breeds throughout its North American range. 
Winters from the southern border of the United States to the limit of its 
distribution. 




206 THE GENUS PARULA 

that of the true Creepers. The remaining genera are " Wood 
Warblers", chiefly represented by Dendroecajrom which Perisso- 
glossa and Peucedranms have been successively detached, on the 
ground of certain peculiarities of the tongue and bill, and some 
other features. In their special habits, song, food, and mode 
of nesting, the Sylvicolince differ among themselves to such a 
degree that it is scarcely possible here to go into further details. 
I must refer to the several histories of the species, upon which 
we are now prepared to enter. The descriptions and biographies 
will be confined to the species inhabiting the Colorado Basin; 
but I shall take note of all the North American species, giving 
synonymy and habitat. 

Genus PARULA Bonaparte 

ChlorlS, Boie, Isia, 1826, 927. (Not of Mohr. Gen. Av. 1752, 51. Type Parus amerieanus L.) 
S Jlvicola, Sw. Zool. Journ. iii. 1827, 169. (Not of Humph. Mas. Calon. 1797, CO. Type Sylvia 

ptisilla Wils.) 
Parula, Bp. C. & G. L. 1838, 20. (Type Parus amerieanus L.) 
Compsothlypis, Odb. Mas. Hein. i. 1850, 20 (same type). 
Ficedula, Des Murs, "— , 1853, — " (fide Gray ; nee auct.). 

This generic name, based upon Parus amerieanus of Linnaeus, 
and latterly restricted to include only species having the same 
pattern of coloration as the bird just named, is now employed to 
designate a group of Warblers considered by Baird to be most 
nearly related to Mniotilta, all of which have the upper parts 
bluish, with a yellowish patch on the back, and the under parts 
more or less yellow. The tail-feathers have white spots, as in 
Dendroeca. The bill is very short, quite stout, acutely conical, 
and notched near the tip. The rictus is evidently furnished 
with bristles, though these are few and short. The hind toe is 
decidedly longer than its claw, and the anterior toes are rather 
more than usually connate at the base. The tarsus is longer 
than the middle toe and claw. The lateral claws are of un- 
equal lengths. But the structural peculiarities are very slight, 
and the species are easiest recognized by the pattern of colora- 
tion and the very small size — five inches in length, or less. 

If the group is considered worth retaining, its proper name 
is uncertain. Clitoris was used by Mohring in 1752 for a dif- 
ferent group; but if his genera are to be rejected as pre-Linnaean, 
the employ of Chloris by Boie in 182G may require to be endorsed. 
Sylvicola of Swainsou, 1827, whether applying exclusively here 
or not, is clearly antedated in zoology by Sylvicola of Humph- 
reys, 1797. Parula of Bonaparte, 1838, if acceptable without 
diagnosis, is antedated by Parulus of Spix, "Av. Bras. i. 1824, 



PARULA NIGRILORA 207 

85". Cabanis, in proposing Coinpsothlypis in 1850, defends it 
on the ground that ,,die friiheren Namen dieser Gruppe sind 
bereits auderweitig vergeben" — that all the earlier names are 
preoccupied. Baird does not see why Chloris is not tenable. 

To the species long known as the only one of the United 
States, I recently had the pleasure of adding another, discov- 
ered in Texas, and then new to science.* 

*ParnIa nigrilora,— Sennett's Warbler. 

<? Subccerulea, dorso medio virenti-flavo, alig alio-bifasdatia, palpebria nigris 
immaculatis, loris linedqiie frontali nigerrimis ; suhtu8flava,juguloaurantiaco,ab- 
domine infimo, hypochondriis crissoque alMs. 

$ adult : Upper parts of the same ashy-blue color as in P. americana, with 
a dorsal patch of greenish-yellow exactly as in that species. Wings also a^ 
in americana, dusky, with grayish-blue outer, and whitish inner, edgings, 
and crossed by two conspicuous white bars, across tips of greater and middle 
coverts. Tail as in americana, but the white spots smaller and almost re- 
stricted to two outer feathers on each side. Eyelids black without white 
marks. Lores broadly and intensely black, this color extending as a narrow 
frontal line to meet its fellow across base of culmeu, and also reaching back 
to invade the auriculars, on which it shades through dusky to the general 
bluish. Under parts yellow as far as the middle of the belly, and a little 
farther on the flanks, and also spreading up the sides of the jaw to involve 
part of the mandibular and malar region ; on the fore breast deepening into 
rich orange, but showing nothing of the orange-chestnut and blackish of 
P. americana. Lower belly, flanks and crissum, white. Bill black above, 
yellow below. ■ Legs undefinable light horn color. Length (of akins, about) 
4.50; wing 2.00-2.20; tail 1.80-1.90; bill from nostril 0.38-0.40 ; tarsus 0.62- 
0.65 ; middle toe alone 0.40. (Extremes of three adult males.) 

Habitat: — Texas, and doubtless Mexico (Hidalgo, Texas), G. B. Sennett, 
Apr.-May, 1877, Nos. 248 (type), 343, 396. 

This bird is entirely distinct from P. americana, and belongs to the pitia- 
yumi type. From americana it is distinguished by the extension of the yellow 
to the middle belly and flanks, absence of the decided blackish collar, lack 
of white on eyelids, and broadly black lores involving auriculars and frontal 
stripe. The upper parts, wings, and tail are substantially as in americana, 
the tint of the upper parts, shape and color of the dorsal patch, and the white 
wing-bars being the same in both. From P. inornata Baird it differs in the 
presence of the wing-bands and color of the upper parts, inornata being a 
deep blue species with plain wings. From pitiayumi it difliers in the much 
lighter colored upper parts, and less of the yellow below, pitiayumi having 
a deep plumbeous-blue back and the yellow extending to the crissum. The 
relationships are closest to P. insularis, agreeing in having the lower abdo- 
men and flanks white, like the crissum, instead of yellow like the breast, 
as is the case both with inornata and pitiayumi. The differences from inau- 
laris, however, are readily expressed ; the lores being decidedly black, and 
broadly contrasting with the bluish-gray, as in pitiayumi and inornata, and 
the wing-bands being as broad and distinct as they are in americana, instead 
of narrow as in inaularis, and the yellow of the throat extending on tbe malar 
region, while in inaularis the yellow is strictly confined between the sides 
of the jaw. 



208 SYNONYMY OF PARULA AMERICANA 

Blue Yellow-backed Warbler 

Parala americana 

Parus americanus, L. SN. i. lOih ed. 1758, 190, n. 3 (Gates, i. 64) ; ioth ed. 1766, 3-1 1, 
n. 4.— 0-m. vSN. i. 1788, 1007, n. 4 (Briss. iii. 522; Buff. v. 301; PE. 7:U, 1'. l).—Turt. 
SN. i. 1806, ti'i-i.—Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 571, n. 28. 

Motacilla americana, Om. SN. i. 1788, 960, u. 7:> (Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 440, n. 36;.— Jt.r>'. 
SN. i. 180G, .=)90. 

Sylvia americana, Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 520, n. 'iO.—Bp. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 1826, eZ.—Aud. 
OB. i. 1832, 78, pi. 15.— Peab. Rep. Orn. Mass. 1839, 11.— D'Orb. Ois. Cuoa, 1839, 67.— 
Thomps. Verm. 1853, app. 24. 

Sylvicola americana. Rich. Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. for 1836, 1837, —.—Aud. Sj-n. 
1839, 59.— .flMd. BA. ii. 1841, 57, pi. 91.— Z>enni/, PZS. 1847, SS.— Woodh. Sitgr. Rep. 
Zuni, 1853, 11.— Hoy, Ft. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 311 —Read, ibid. .m—Pratten, Tr. Illi- 
nois Agr. Soc. 1855, 602. -Putn. Pr. Ess. Inst. i. 18.56, ^Ol.—Scl. PZS. 1857, 202 (Tlacotai- 
pam, VeraCrnz).— Jfaa;. J. f. O. vi. 1858, 116.— Martens, J. !. 0. 1859, 213 (Bermudas).— 
Willis, Smiths. Rep. for 1858, 1859, 282 (Nova Scotia).— B^flwid, ibid. 287 (Bermudas).— 
B.-eiv. Pr. Bost Soc. vii. 1860, 307 (Cnha.).— Hoy, Smiths. Rep. for 1864, 1865, 438 (Mis- 
souri).— .Br?/. Pr. Bost. Soc. X. 1856, 251 (Porto Rico).— ^rjf. J. f. 0. 1866, 184 (the 
same). — Trippe, Pr. E.ss. Inst. vi. 1871, 114 (Minnesota). 

Parula americana, Bp. CGL. 1838, W.—Gosse, B. Jam. 1847, 154.— Bp. CA. i. 1850, 310.— Brf. 
BNA. 1838, 238.— S. t6 S. Ibis, i. 1859, 10 (Guatemala).— J. <£ E. Newt. Ibis, i. 1859, 143 
(St. Uroix).— Cass. Pr. Phila. Acad. xii. 1860, 376 (St. Thomas Island).— Sci. PZS. 
1861, 70 (Jamaica).— (rMTMiZ. J. f. O. 1861, 326 (Cuba).— Barn. Smiths. Rep. for 1860, 
1861, 435.— Ooues (6 Prent. Smiths. Rep. for 1861, 1862, 405.— Hayd. Tr. Amer. Philos. 
Soc. xii. 1862, 159.— Ferr. Pr. Ess. Inst. iii. 1862, 19-2.—Albrecht, J. f. 0. 1862, 19-J 
(Jamaica).- Jl/arc/i, Pr. Phila. Acad. xv. 1863, 293 (Jamaica).— F«rr. Pr. Bost. Soc. ix. 
1863, 233 (Maine). —Allen, Pr. E<<s. Inst. iv. 1864, 5d.—Bd. Rev. AB. 1865, 169.— 
Dress. Ibis, 2d »er. i. 1865, 476 (San Antonio, Tex.).—Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viu. 
1866, 'UbX—McIlwr. Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1866, 85.— Brew. Am. Nat. i. 1867, 117.— 
Trippe, Am. Nat. ii. 1868, m.—Goues, Am. Nat. ii. 1868, 161.— Cowes, Pr. Bost. Soc. 
xii. 1868, 108.— Oo'tes, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 269.— iawr. Ann. Lye. N. T. ix. 1869, 
200 (Yucatan).— riirnft. B. E. Pa. 1869, 23 ; Phila. ed. IG.— Cope, Am. Nat. iv. 1870, 395, 
396, 397.— Oottes, Pr. Phila. Acad, xxiii. 1871, W.—Alhn, Bull. MCZ. ii. 1871, 267 
(Florida, wintering).— Aiien, Ball. MCZ. iii. 1872, 124, 175 (Kansas, &.c.).— Allen, Am. 
Nat. vi. 1872, 265.— Scott, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1872, 221 ("West Virginia, in summer).- 
Aiken, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1872, 196 (Colorado).— Jfayn. Pr. Bost. Soc. xiv. 1872, 361.— 
Gundl. J. f. O. 1872, 411 (Cuba).— Cowes, Key. 1872, 9-2.— Trippe, Pr. Bost Soc. xv. 1873, 
ii34.—Herrick, Bull. Ess. Inst. v. 1873, — (New Brunswick).- iZidgr. Bull. Ess. Inst. v. 
1873, 180 (Colorado).— 2fe?-r. Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 86.— Packard, Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 
271.— C7oMes, BNW. 1874, 46.— Ames, Bull. Minnesota Acad. 1874, 55.— B. B. <£- B. NAB. 
i. 1874, 208, flgs. pi. 10, f. 1.— Brewster, Ann. Lye. N. Y. i. 1875, 134 (Virginia, probably 
breeding). — iVeietow, Birds of Greenland, 1875?, 98 (one specimen from the Southern 
Inspectorate in 1857).— JSrcw.Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 439.— Gentry, Life-Hist. 1876, 
94.—Lawr. Bull. Nat. Mus. no. 4, 1876, 15 (Tehuantepee).— Deane, Bull. Nnttall Club, 
i. 1876, 21 (albinotie).— Jlfi/io«, B. N. Engl. 1877, 99. 

Agreeably to the latest fashion, the bird will probably stand as iritiayumi 
var. nigrilora; hut its probable gradation into pittayumi through Mexican and 
Central American epecimens remains to be shown. It is thoroughly distinct 
from P. americana. 

This welcome and unexpected addition to our fauna was made by ray 
esteemed correspondent, Mr. George B. Senuett, during his collecting tour in 
Texas in the spring of 1877, when other novelties and many interesting 
points were brought to light through his diligent and successful enterprise. 
Mr. Sennett secured three adult males at Hidalgo, Texas, some seventy miles 
from Fort Brown, during the months of April and May. 



CHARACTERS OF PARULA AMERICANA 209 

Compsothlj-pis {imerlcana, Cab. MH. i. 1850, 20.- GundlJ. t. O. 1855, 476 (Cuba). 
Mniotilta amerirana, Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, im.—Reinh. Ibis, iii. 1861, 6 (Greenland). 
Motacilla eques, Bodd. Tabl. PE. 1-63, 46 (PE. 731, f. i). 

Motacllla ludoviciana, Gm. SN. i. 1788, 983, n. 148 (Bns8. iii. 500, n. .55, pi. 26, f. 4 ; Buff, 
"v. 288" ; Penn. AZ. ii. 407, n. 303).— Turt. SN. i. 1806, 605.— iess. Tr. Orn. 1831, 418. 
Sylvia ludOTiciana, Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 535, n. lOX—Steph. Shaw's Gen. Zool. x. 1817, 713. 
Sylvia torquata, F. OAS. ii. 1807, 38, pi. 99.— r. Ency. Meth. ii. 1823, 438, n. 67. 
Tbriothurus torquatus, Steph. Shaw's Gen. Zool. xiv. 1826, 194. 
Sylvia pusilla, Wils. AO. iv. ISll, 17, pi. 28, f. -d.—Gosse, Alabama, 1859, 295. 
SylviCOia pusilla, Sto. Zool. Journ. iii. 1827, 169 (type of the genus) ; CI. B. ii. 1837, 245. 
Ficedula ludoviciana, Briss. Orn. iii. 17G0, .500, n. 55. pi. 26, f. 4. 

LouiSianc Warbler, Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 480, n. 101.— Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 407, n. 303. 
Parus fringillaris, Finch-Creeper, Gates. Car. i. 1771, 64, pi. 64. 
Parus varius, Bartr. Trav. Fla. 1791, 292. 

Creeping Titmouse, Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 423, n. 326.— ia*A. Syn. ii. pt ii. 1783, 558, n. 27. 
reliow-backed Warbler, Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 440, n. 36. 
Ficedula carollnensls clnerea, Briss. Orn. iii. 1760, 522, n. 66. 
Figuier cendre a collier. Buff. " Hist. Nat. Oia. v. 301" (PE. 731, f. l). 
Figuier cendre, de la Caroline, Buff. PE. 731, f. l. 

Fauvette a collier, V. Ency. M6th. ii. 1823, 438.— ie M. Ois. Canad. 1861, 201. 
Particolored Warbler, Blue Yellow-backed Warbler, Authors. 

Hab. — Eastern North America. West to Nebraska (Hayden), aud even to 
the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado (^ifcex) J hence 
probably to be hereafter detected in the Colorado Basin. North regularly to 
British America (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, &c.) ; casually to Greenland 
(auct. Bcinhardt, Newton). South through various West India Islands and 
Mexico to Guatemala at least. Breeds chiefly in the northerly portion of 
its range, but perhaps in the greater part of tha United States (Illinois, Vir- 
ginia, New Jersey, &c.). Winters from Florida southward. 

Ch. sp. — $ Subccerulea, dorso medio virenti-Jlavo, palpebris 
albo maculatis, alis albo bifasciatis, cauda albo maculatd, loris 
nigricantibus ; siibtus alba, jugiilo et pectore Jlavis,spatio pec- 
torali obscuriore ; maxilla nigra, mandibuld subjlavd aut albidd. 
Long. tot. 4^-4| ; alee 2^; cauda; If. 9 coloribus minus vegetis; 
juv. dorso toto virescente, etc. 

$ , in spring : Upper parts clear ashy-blue, the middle of the back with a 
triangular patch of greenish-yellow or brownish-golden. Lores dusky. A 
white spot on each eyelid. Wings blackish, crossed on the ends of the 
greater and middle coverts with two broad white bars ; the i^rimaries nar- 
rowly, the secondaries more broadly, edged externally with the color of the 
back, and internally with white. Tail like the wings, with much edging 
of the outer webs like the back, the middle feathers being mostly bluish; 
at least two outer feathers on each side with largp, white, squarish patches 
on the inner web near the end, usually the third feather blotched with 
white, and a white touch on the fourth and even the fifth feather. Chin 
and throat yellow, rather narrowly confined, this yellow spreading over the 
whole breast, but much of the breast spotted or tinged with orange-brown, 
and the jugulum showing even a decided blackish collar. The coloration of 
this part is very variable ; sometimes, in addition to the colors mentioned, 
reddish-brown markings occur in the white along the sides, much as in the 
Chestnut-sided Warbler. Rest of under parts white. Bill above black ; 
14 B C 



210 SYNONYMY OF PROTONOTARIA CITREA 

below whitish or flesh-colorecl, drying yellowish. Length, 4|-4J; extent 
about 7| ; wing, 2i; tail, If. 

$ , in spring, like the male, the upper parts less brightly bluish, some- 
times with a slight greenish gloss, the back-patch not so well defined ; less 
white on the tail, the white wing-bands narrower, and the dark or reddish 
tinting of the fore breast less decided or scarcely indicated, the yellow itself 
being more restricted. 

Young of either sex in the fall have the bluish of the upper parts glossed 
over with greenish, sometimes to such extent as to obscure the dorsal patch, 
which is then not very different from the rest of the upper parts. White tail- 
spots smaller, generally confined to two outer feathers on each side. White 
wing-bands narrower. Edging of tail and wings tinged with greenish, like 
the back. Eyelids not spotted -with white. Yellow of fore under parts 
pale, with little or no indication of the dusky across the jugulum. White 
of the under parts tinged "with yellowish posteriorly, and frequently show- 
ing brownish touches along the sides. From the latter fact I am disposed 
to think that the highest spring plumage of the males is not that with the 
most golden-brown in the yellow of the breast and with the reddish along 
the sides, but that iu which the heavier coloration is condensed into the 
blackish jugular collar, leaving the rest of the yellow intact. 

Genns HELMINTHOPHAGA Cabanis 

The birds of this genus are distinguished among the War- 
blers for the acuteness and attenuation of the bill, together 
with the straightness of its several outlines, the entire absence 
of notch near the tip, and lack of bristles at base. The wings are 
long ;;nd pointed, in one species nearly half as long again as 
the tail, which is even or slightly emarginate, narrow, and 
rather short. The tarsi are longer than the middle toe. The 
genus comprehends the "Worm-eating" or "Swamp" War- 
blers, and is very closely related to both Frotonotaria and Jlel- 
mintherus : species of all three were formerly included in the 
genus Vermivora or HcUnaia of authors. Frotonotaria* is 

'Protonotaria citrea. — Protbonotary H'arbler. 

Motacnia citrea, Bodd Tabl. PE. 1783, 44 (PE. 704, f. 2). 

Mnlotnta ClCrca, Gray, G.of B. i. 1848, 196 (after Botldaert). 

Frotonotaria Citrea, £d. BNA. 1858, 239.— TTTimt Ohio Agrlc. Pvep. for 1860. 1861, 363.— 
Oundl. J. f. O. 1861, 324 (Cuba).— Oomcs d- Prent. Siuitha. Eep. for 1861, 1862, -106 (Wash- 
ington, D. C.).—Barn. Smiths. Rep. for 1860, 1861, 435 (Peunsylvauia). —CwndJ. 
J. f. 0. 1862, 178 (Cuba).— rej-r. Pr. Best. Soc. ix. 1863, 233 (Maiue).— Bd. Eev. AB. 
1864, 173.— Oowes, Pr. Boat. Soc. xii. 1868, 108 (South Carolina).— Co?(es, Pr. Ess. lust. 
V. 1868, 269 ("New England", yerr.).—Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. T. ix. 1868, 94 (Costa 
Rica) ; jbi.l. 1869, 200 (Yucatan).- rMm.&. B. E. Pa. 1869, 53; Ph'la. ed. 42.— i'. Frantz. 
J. i. O. 1869, 292 (Costa Rica).— S. <£• 5. PZS. 1870, 780 (Merida).— Gw«d«. J. f. 0. 1872. 
411 iCuha). —Ridgiv. Am. Nat. riii. 1874, lO^.—Iiidgiv. Ann. Lye. N. Y. x. 1874, 367 
(niinois, abundant).— Snow, B. Kans. 1873, 4 (Neosho Falls, Kans.).— iJ. B. <£• R. NAB. 
i. 1874, 184, figs., pi. 10, f. 8.— Brew. Pr.Bost. Soc. xvii. 187."i, 439 (New England). 

Frotonotaria citriea, Coues, Key, 1872, 93, f. 36.— Coj<m,BNW. 1874, 41.—Merr. Am. Nat. 
viii. 1874, 81.—Nehon, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, i. 1876, 42 (Illinois).- Jfinot, B. N. Engl. 

nclmlnlbophaga citrea, Cab. J. f. O. 1861, 85 (Costa Rica). f 1877, 90. 




SYNONYMY OF HELMINTHEEUS VERMIVORUS 211 

characterized by its much larger, less acute bill, which nearly 
equals the head iu length, is slightly notched at the tip, and 
has a few rictal bristles ; the tarsi are about equal to the middle 
toe and claw ; the very long, pointed wings exceed the tail by 
an inch, and the tail is slightly 
graduated. The system of col- 
oration is peculiar, resulting in 
one of the handsomest of the 
Warblers, the whole head and 
under parts being intense gold- 
en-yellow, shading on the back 

through olive to bluish-ash. There ^"'- SO—Wormeating Warbler. 

is but one species, inhabiting the Eastern United States, and, 
unlike the HelmintJiophagcv, nesting in holes. The genus Helmin- 
tJierus* is even nearer HehninthopJiaga, having an entirely 

Motacilla protonotarius, Gm. SN. i. 1788, 972, n. 111.— Turt. SN. i. 1806, 598.— Less. Tr. Orn. 

1831. 418. 
Sylvia protonotarius, Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 542, n. 128.— F. OAS. ii. 1807, 27, pi. 83.— mis. AO. ili. 

1811, 72, pi. 24, f. 3.—JBp. Jouru. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 195.— Bp. Ann. Lye. N. T. ii. 1826, 

86.— Nutt. Man. i. 1832, 4X0.— Aud. OB. i. 1832, 22 ; v. 1839, 460, pi. 3 {Dacnis on pi.). 
Sylvicola protonotaria, Rich. Eep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. for 1836, 1837, 171. 
Vermivora protonotarius, Bp. CGL. 1838, 21.— TFood/i. Sitgr. Kep. Zuiii, 1853, li.—Hoy, 

Smiths. Kep. for 1864, 1865, 438 (Missouri). 
Helinaia protonotarius, Aud. Syn. 1839, (il.-Aiid. BA. ii. 1841, 89, pi. im.—Pratten, Tr. 

niinois Agric. Soc. i. 1855, 602. 
Helmitlieros protonotarius, Bp. CA. i. 1850, 3i4. 
Helminthopbaga protonotarius, Cab. MH. i. 1850, 20. 
Motacilla auricollis, Gm. SX. i. 1788, 984, n. 150 (Briss. iii. 508, n. 59, pi. 26, f. 1 ; Buff. v. 290 ; 

Penn. ii. 408).— Titrt. SN. i. 1806, 606. 
Sylvia auricollis. Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 536, n. 107 (Bxiff. v. 290).— F. Ency.M6th. ii. 1823,447, 

n.99.—JV"M«tMan.i. 1832, 380.— Pea&.Rop. Orn. Mass. 1839, 309.— iimt Am. Journ. Sci. 

xliv. 1843, 257 (see Merr. Trans. Conn. Acad. iv. 1877, 147). 
Sylvicola auricollis, N%M. "Man. i. 2d ed. 1840, 431". 
SIniotilta auricollis. Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, 196. 
Orange-throat Warbler, Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 408, n. 304. 
Orange-tliroated Warbler , Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 481, n. 103 (" Canada"). 
Grand Figuier dc Canada, Ficedula canadensis major, Briss. Orn. iii. 1760, 508, u. 59, 
Plguicr Protonotairc, .B^;/. "ix. 465", or 'v. 316", or "vL lUl". [pi. 26, f. 1. 

Fauvette protonotairc, Sylvia protonotaria, V. N. D. d'H. N. xi. 1817, 211, pi. D 22, f. 2. 
Flguier d gorge orangee, Bvff. "v. 290". 

Figuicr A ventre et ti^tc Jaunes de la Louisiane, Buff. PE. 704, f. 2. 
Fauvette a gorge orangee, V. Eucy. M«3th. ii. 1823, 447. 

Prothonotary Warbler, Pnm. AZ. ii. 1785, 410, n. 316.— Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 494, n. 123. 
Prothonotary Warbler, Prothonotary Swamp Warbler, Golden Swamp Warbler, Aut/iors. 

IIak. — Eawtern United States, rather southerly. North casually to Maine 
and Nt!W Brunswick. West to Missouri, Kausas, Indiau Territory, and Texas. 
Cuba (the only West Indian record). Apparently not noted in Mexico. South 
to Panama. Has been found breeding abundantly iu Illinois and Kansas. 
Rare or casual in all Eastern and Middle States. Not known to winter in 
the United States. 

*IIcIniiiitherus vcrmivorns.— Worin-oating^ Warbler. 
Motacilla vermivora, Gm. SN. i. 1738, 951, n. 55 (Edw. pi. 305, &;c.).— Turt. SN. i. 1806, 585. 
Sylvia vermivora. Lath. 10. ii. 1700, 544, n.l38.— ITtJs. AO. iiL 1811. 74, pi. 24, f. 4.— V 



212 SYNONYMY OF HELMINTHERDS SWAINSONI 

uDuotched bill; it differs chiefly ia the less acuteness and 
greater robustness of the bill, which in one species mounts high 

N. D. d'H. N. 2(t ed. xi. 1817,278.— F. Ency. M6th. ii. 1823, 480, n. 105.— ^p. Jouro. 
Phila. Acad. iv. 1821, 196.— Bp. Ann. Lye. N. T. ii. 1826, 86. -Nutt. Man. i. 1832, 409.— 
And. OB. i. 1832, 177; v. 1839, 4C0, pi. 34.— Peat. Rep. Orn. Mass. 1839, 312.— XmtJcj/, 
"Am. Journ. Sci. xliv. 1843, —" (Conn.).— TAomp*. NH.Vermont, 1853, 83. 

Daciiis vcnnivora, Aud. " name on pi. 34 ". 

SylviCOla vcrmivora, liich. Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. for 183(3, 1837, 171. 

neliiiaia vcrmlvora, Aud. Syn. 1839, G6.—Aud. BA. ii. 1841, 86, pi. 103.— Lembeye, Av. 
Cuba, 1850, 35, pi. 6, f. 4.—Pratten, Tr. Illiuois Agric. Soc. for 18,54, 1855, 60-2.— Putn. 
Pr. Ess. Inst. i. 18.56, 227.— Brcio. Pr. Boat. Soc. vii. 1860, 307 (Cuba). 

Mniotilta vernilvopa, Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, 196. 

Hyloptailus vermivora, Temm. " Tabl. M6th. 36" (quoted from Giebel). 

Helmitberos vermivora, Up. CA. i. 1850, 314. 

Helmitheros verniivorus, Cab. MH. i. 1850, W.—Gundl. J. f. O. 1855. 476 (Cuba).— ScZ. PZS. 
18.59, 303 (Xalapa).— Ca6. JfO. 1800, 328 (Costa Rica). -Gwndi. JfO. 1861, 326, 409 (Cuba). 

lelmitherus vermivorus, Ud. BKA. 1858, 252.— /S. £ S. Ibis, i. 1859, ll (Guatemala).- 
Wheat.Ohio Agi: Rep. for 1800, 1801, 363.— I?arn. Smiths. Rep. for 1860, 1861, 435.— Co«cs 
<£ Prent. Smiths. Rep. for 1861, 406 (Washington, summer). — Yerr. Pr. Ess. Inst. iii. 
1862, -i^&.— Allen, Pr. Ess. Inst. iv. 1864, «2.-2;d. Kev. AB. 1865, 179.— iawr. Ann. Lyo. 
viii. 1866, 284.— /SaZw. PZS. 1867, 135 (Veragua).— ifwr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ix. 1868,94 
(Costa Rica).— Combs, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 270.— Coues, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 1868, 109. 
Trippe, Am. Kat. ii. 1868, 178. — Allen, Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 576.— Jackson, Am. Nat. iii. 
1869, 556.— Turnb. B. E. Pa. 1869,23; Phila. ed. 16.—Lau'): Ann. Lye. N. Y. ix. 1869, 
200 (Yucatan).— <S'Mmtc/t. Mem. Bost. Soc. i. 1869, 546 (Orizaba). — Gregg, Pr. Elmira 
Acad. 1870 ('Jhemung Co., N. Y.).— Abbott, Am. Nat. iv. 1870, ZiX-Gitnal. J. f. 0. 1873, 
412 (Cuba).— -Scot*, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1872, 221 (West Va., breeding).— Cowes, Key, 
1872, 93, f. 37.— Pwrdie, Ara. Nat. vii. 1873, 092.— Ifaj/n. B. Fla. 1873, 45 (wintering).— 
Ridgw. Ann. Lye. N. Y. x. 1874, 368 (Illinois).— /Sf/iott-, Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 757.— Cowes, 
BN W. 1874, 48.— J5. B. <f- It. NAB. i. 1674, 187, flg.s. pi. 10, f. W.— Brewster, Ann. Lye. 
N. Y. xi. 1875, 134 (Virginia; habits).— Brew. Pr. Boet. Soc. svii. 1875, i^i^.— Gentry, 
Life-Hist. 1876,97.— Jfmo«, B.N.Engl. 1877, 89.— Pwrdie, Bull. Nutt. Club, ii. 1877, 21 
(Connecticut).— Iferr. Trans. Conn. Acad. iv. 1877, 12 (Connecticut). 

Helmiutherus vermivorus, v. Frantz. J. f. 0. 1809, 293 (Costa Rica). 

nelmitherus migratorius, Baf. " Jm. de Phys. Ixviii, 1819, 417 ".—Hartl. " EZ. 1845, 342 ". 

Vermivora pennsylvanica, " Sw.''—Bp. List, 1838, 20.— Gosse, B. Jam. 1847, 150.— Hoy, 
Pr. Phila. Acad. 1853, '212.—Albrecht, J. f. O. 1862, 194, 201 (Jamaica).- il/arcA, Pr. 
Phila. Acad. 1863, 2-93 (Jamaica) —Soi/, Smiths. Rep. for 1864, 1865, 438 (Missouri). 

Vermivora fulvicapilla, Sw. Class. Birds, ii. 1637, 245, f. 213 g. 

Worm-eater Warbler, Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 406, n. 300. 

Figuier de Pensilvanic, Ficedula peusilvanica, Briss. Orn. vi. 1760, App. 102, n. 76. 

Worm-eater, Edw. Glean, pt. ii. 200, pi. 305.— Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 499, n. 133. 

Demi-flii Maiigear de vers, P«/. "v. 325". 

Pitpit vermivore, Y. N. D. d'H. N. xi. 1817, 278.— F. Ency. M6th. ii. 1823, 480. 

Worm-eating Warbler, Worm-eating 8wamp Warbler, Authors. 

Hab. — Eastern United States. West to Missouri, Kansas, and Indian Ter- 
ritory. North regularly to the Middle States, frequently to New England in 
the Connecticut Valley, casually to Maine. In winter, Florida, Cuba, Ja- 
maica, Eastern Mexico, and Central America. Known to breed in most of 
its United States range, and probably does so throughout. 

Helminttaerus sivainsoni, — Swainsoii's Warbler. 
Sylvia swainsonii. Arid. OB. ii. 1834, 563, pi. 198.— Pea6. Rep. Orn. Mass. 1839, 313 (wrong). 
Sylvicola swalnsonii, Bich. Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. for 1830, 1837, 171. 
Helinaia swalnsonii, Aud, Syn. 1839, 66 (type of genus. .South Carolina to Massachusetts— 

wrong).— Awd. BA. ii. 1841, 83, pi. 104 — Pit«n. Pr. Eas. last. i. 1856, 227 (wrong). 
nelmithcrus swalnsonii, Bd. BNA. 1858,252.— J.ZZe(i, Pr. Ess. Inst. iv. 1864, 83 (wrong).- 

Allcn, Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 576 (corrects tho error).- C7ouc«, Key, 1872, 93. 
Helminthophaga swalnsonii, Allen, Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 513. 
Vermivora swalnsoni, Bp. CGL. 1838, 21. 



HELMINTHOPHAGA LEUCOBRONCHIALIS 213 

on the forehead, and in the other is provided with slight rictal 
bristles, and in the relative length of the tarsi and toes. The two 
species commonly relened to Helmintherus are confined to the 
Eastern United States; they are among the most simply- 
colored of the Warblers, being plain olivaceous, with more or 
less characteristic stripes on the head. 

The genus Helminthophaga, established by Dr. Cabanis in 
1850, is peculiarly North American, all the known species being- 
found in this country, and some of them not yet ascertained to 
occur elsewhere. It is the second largest genus of the subfamily 
Sylvicolincv. To the six species known to the earlier writers, 
two more were added a few years ago, and two others have 
been just now described. It is a notable circumstance that 
these birds scarcely occur in the West Indies, except in Cuba. 
The two species last described, E. lencobroncMalis* and H. 

Mniotilta swainsoui, Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, 196. 

Helmitberos swainsoni, Cab. MH. i. 1850, 20.— Bp. CA. i. 1850, 314. 

Helmitberus swainsoni, £d. Rev. AB. 1865, 180.— Coues, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 270 
(wrong).— Cowe«, Pr. Best. See. xii. 1868, 109 (South Carolina).— Gunrfi. J. f. 0. 1872, 412 
(Caha).—Mayn. B. Fla. 1873, 47.— B. U. <t- li. NAB.i. 1874, 190, pi. 10. f.9; lit. 1874, 
504 (Florida). — Breic. Pr. Bost. See. xvii. 1875, 451 (corrects the long-standing error). 

8wainson'$ Siramp Warbler, Swainsou's Warbler, Authors. 

Hab. — Only known to occur in South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and 
Cuba ; distribution thus like that of H. bachmani. Has been repoatedly but 
erroneously attributed to New England, on the authority of Dr. Brewer. 

* Helniintbophag'a leucobroncbialis. — Wbite-throated Warbler. 

Uelmintbopbaga leucobroncbialis, JBreivster, Amer. Sportsman, v. Oct. 17, 1874, p. 33 
(orig. descr., spec, unique, Newtonvillo, Mass., May 18, 1810).— Ooues, BNW. 1874, 
760. — Breiv. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 439 (note on same specimen).— .B;-et««ter, Bull. 
Nntt. Club, i. 1876, 1, pi. 1 (redescr. and fig.).— lfmo«, B. N. Engl. 187T, 92 (copy of the 
last).— Trotter, Bull. Nutt. Club, ii. 1877, 79 (2d spec, from Clifton, Delaware Co , Pa.). 

(Note. — Of this supposed good species, no specimen is known to be now in 
existence. The unique typo was accidentally destroyed shortly after publi- 
cation of the original description, but fortunately not before Mr. Eidgway 
had made the drawing which illustrates Mr. Brewster's second notice. At 
the time that the specimen was kindly sent by the owner to the Smithsonian 
Institution for esamiuation by Mr. Eidgway, there was living at large in the 
'' South Tower" an Owl of the genus Speotyto, species doubtful, which had 
been captured at sea, somewhere near the West Indies, and was destined to 
make history in an undesirable manner. This reckless bird of prey, in one 
of his nocturnal explorations, discovered the pretty Warbler, and proceeded 
to investigate the new species anatomically. He survived the dose of raw 
cotton and arsenic, but was condemned to death by unanimous verdict 
of the exasperated ornithologists who haunted the locality. His heart was 
cut out with mock ceremony, bottled and sealed, and sent to Mr. Brewster as 
a, peace-oft'eriug ; and a serio-comic narrative of the whole transaction shortly 
afterward" appeared in one of the papers by a "strictly anonymous'' author.) 

(Note (2).— Since the foregoing was penned, Mr. Spencer Trotter has re- 
corded a second spec. men, as above cited.) 



214 HELMINTHOPHAGA LAWRENCII H. BACHMANI 

lawrencii,* are at present known only from isolated localities, 
and nothing can be predicated respecting their actual distribu- 
tion, if, indeed, they be reallj^ good species. Another, E. 
bachmani,\-\s extremely rare, being only known from South 
Carolina, Georgia, and Cuba. Two, H. virginice and H. lucice, 
are characteristic of the Southern Kocky Mountain region 
and Valley of the Colorado. Two are of rather general 
distribution in North America, H. celata being chiefly West- 
ern, but also of irregular occurrence in the East, while H. 
ruficapilla is chiefly Eastern, but is known to reach the Rocky 
Mountains. H. peregrina is much like ruficapilla, but more 
decidedly Eastern, only known to casually reach the Eocky 
Mountains. The remaining two, H. pinus^ and JS. chrysop- 

* Helminttaopliag'a lawrencii, — Iiawrcnce's Warbler. 

Helminthophaga lawrencii, Herrick, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1874, 2-20, pi. 15 (descr. 

orig. New Jersey). 
Helmiiithopbaga lawreiicei, iTerricfc, Bull. Nutt Orn. Cinb, ii. 1877, 19 (second specimen, 

from Hoboken, N. J.). 
(Note. — Closely related to H. pinus, from which it di£fer8 chiefly in having 
the chin, throat, and fore breast black. It is curious to observe that the fore- 
going species differs from its nearest ally, H. chrymptera, in not having these 
parts black. The discovery of the second specimen of lawrencii tends, of 
course, to confirm the validity of the species ; but further information 
respecting both of these novelties is desirable.) 

t Helmintbopba^a bacbmaiii.— Bacbiuan's Warbler. 

Sylvia baciiinani, Aud. OB. ii. 1834, 483, pi. 183 (Charleston, S. C). 

Sj Ivicola baclimani, Eich. Sixth Ann. Kep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. for 1836, 1837, 172. 

Termivnra bachmaui, Bp. C. & G. L. 1838, 21. 

Eeliiiaia bachmaai, Attd. Syn. 1839, C8.— Awd. BA. ii. 1841, 93, pi. 108.— Zemft. Av. Cuba, 

1850, 36, pi. 6, f. l.—Brew. Pr. Best. Soc. vii. 1860, 307 (Cuba). 
MnloUlta bachmani, Gray, G. of B. i. lb48, 196. 
Helmilbcros bachmani, Bp. CA. i. 1850, 315. 
Helmintbophaga bacbmani, Cab.—Gundl. J. t. O. iii. 18.55, 475 (Cuba).— GwndJ. J. £ O. 

18G1, 326, 409; 1874, 411 (Cuba).— .Bd. BNA. 1858, 255.— Bd. Rov. AB. 18C4, 17.").— 

Cowes, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 1868, 109 (South Carolina).— Cowes, Key, 1872, 94.— U. B. c£ii. 

NAB. 1. 1874, 194, pi. 11, f. 3. 
Mniotilta bachmanni, Giebel, Nomencl. Av. ii. 1875, 600. 
Bachman's Warbler, Bacbman's Swamp-Warbler, Authors. 
[Note. — In the foregoing, " bachmani " and " bachmanii" are not distinguished.] 

Hab.— Only known to occur in South Carolina, Georgia, and Cuba — .he 
latter in winter oulj'. 

;lIeliniiithopbag:a piniis,— Blue-winded Yellow Warbler. 

Certbia pinus, Linyi. SN. i. 1766, 187, n. 16 (diagnosis exclusively pertinent ; cites Edwards 
primarily ; wrongly includes Catesby and Brisson in the synonymy) .—G?n. SN. i. 
1788, 470, n. 16 (^arae as the Linusean species ; Butfon and Latham also cited). 

Sylvia pinus. Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 537, n. 11 l.—Tieill. OAS. ii. 1807, 44. (Not of Wihon.) 

Motacilla pinus, Turt. SN. i. 1606, 006. 

Terraivora pinus, Sw. Class. B. ii. 1837, 245, f. 213, h, i. 

Helminthophaga pinus, Bd. BNA. 18,58, 254.-5. <£■ S. Ibis, i. 1859, 11 (Guatemala).— &i. Cat. 
1861, 28.— n7iea«. Ohio Agric.Eep. for 1860, 1861, 363.— J?amard, Smiths. Rep. for 1860, 
1861, 435.— Co«€« d Prent. Smiths. Rep. for 1861, 1862, 4U6.— Bd. Rev. AB. 1864, 174.— 
AZten, Pr. Ess. Inst. iv. 1864, 82 (Massachusetts).- iawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii, 1866. 



SYNONYMY OF HELMINTHOPHAGA PINUS 215 

tera, are exclusively Eastern, as far as we uow know. The 
genus, as a whole, is rather southerly, belonging to the United 

284.— Trippe, Am. Nat. ii. 1868, 174.— OoM«s, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 18C8, 109. — jffaj/m. Geol. 
Surv. Indiana, 1809, 210.— Ifai/n. Guide, 1870, 100 (Massachusetts).- J.66oa, Am. Nat. 
iv. 1870, 543.— Allen, Am. Nat. vi. 1872, 265.— Cowes, Key, 1872, 9i.-Allen, Bull. MCZ. 
iii. 1872, 124, 175 (Kansas) .—Sdow, B. Kans. 1873, A.—Ridgw. Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 199.— 
Trippe,VT. Bost. Soc. sv. 1873, 234 (Iowa).— Comcs, BNW. 1874, 49.— iJidgrit). Aun. Lye. 
N. Y.x, 1874, 368 (Illinois, breeding).— Ames, Bull. Minn. Acad. i. 1874, 56 (Minne- 
sota).— i?. i?. <£i?. NAB. 1. 1874, 195, pi. 11, f.l.—Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875,439 
(Conn.).— Minot, B. New Engl. 1877, 91.— JT^rr. Trans. Conn. Acad. iv. 1877, 14 (Conn.). 
Helminthopaga pinus, Gregg, Pr. Elmira Acad. Nat. Sci. 1870, — . 
Helminthophaga pina, Ooues, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1808, 271 (S. New England).— Pwrdie, Am. 

Nat. vii. 1873, 092 (Connecticut, breeding regularly). 
Parus aureus alis ccruleis, Bartr. Trav. Fla. 1791, 292 (cf. Coues, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1875, 352). 
Sylvia solitaria, TTtb. AO. ii. 1810, 109, pi. 15, f. 4.— F. Ency. M6th.ii. 1823,450.— ^p. Jonrn. 
Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 189.— i?i9. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 1820, 87.— A"w«. Man. i. 1832, 410.— 
Aud. OB. i. 1832, 102, pi. W.—Haym. Pr. Phila. Acad. viii. 1856, 290 (Indiana). 
Vermivora solitaria, ./ard. "ed. Wils. 1832".— £p. CGL. 1838, 21.— i?emi2/, PZS. 1847, 38.— 
Vfoodh. Sitgr. Rep. Expl. Col. K. 1853, 72 (Indian Terr., common, breeding).— JEcad, 
Pr. Phila. Acad. 1853, 399 {Ohio).— Hoy, Smiths. Kep. for 1804, 1805, 438 (Missouri). 
SylTlCola solitaria, Rich. Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. for 1836, 1837, 171. 
Helinaia solitaria, Attd. Syn. 1839, 69.— Awd. BA. ii. 1841,98, pi. 111.— Pra«toi, Tr. Illinois 

Agric. Soc. 1855, 002.— Pittn. Pr. Ess. Inst i. 1856, 227 (Massachusetts). 
MniOtilta solitaria, Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, 190. 
Helmitberos solitaria^ Bp. C A. i. 1850, 315. 
Helmitheros solitariu's, Sd. PZS. 1850, 291 (Cordova). 

Helmlntliophaga solitaria, Cab. MH. i. 1850, 20.— Twrnft. B. E. Pa. 1869, 23; Phila. ed. 16. 
Pine Creeper, Ediv. Glean, pt. ii. 139, pi. 277, f. 2. (Not of Oatesby.) 

Figuier de la Louisiane, Z?ms. Orn. vi. 1760, App. 59 (based on Edwards's Pine Creeper; 
not the bird described in the body of hi.s work, iii. 570, which is Catesby's Pine 
Creeper, nor the bird of same name in p. 500, which is Parula americana). 
Pine Warbler, Fenn. AZ. ii, 1785, 412, n. 31S.— Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 483, n. 107. (Descrip- 
tion mostly pertinent, but synonymy confused with that of Dendrceca pinus) . 
Figuier des 8apius, Buff. "v. 276" [?]. 

Fauvette des Sapins, Sylvia pinus, Y. N. D. d'H. N. 2d ed. xi. 1817, 218 (description). 
Fauvette jaune aux ailes bleues, T. Ency. Meth. ii. 1823, 4.50. 
Blue-winged Yellow Warbler (or Swamp-Warbler), Authors. 

, [Note. — The synonymy of the Blue-winged Yellow Warbler, HelminthophagapimU, is 
curiously involved with that of the Pine-creeping Waibler, Dendrceca pinus, but may 
readily be disentangled. Wilson, in fact, understood the case, and showed that the confu- 
sion arose from the fact that the "Pino Creeper" of Edwards and the "Pine-Creeper " of 
Catesby are two different birds, wrongly supposed by Linnaius and Gmelin, as well as 
by Brisson, Latham, and Pennant, to be the same species. Edwards, it seems, received 
the Uelminthophaga from Bartram, and described and figured it (pi. 277) under the style 
of the " Pino Creeper ". Edwards's bird became the Certhia pinus of Liuuffius, whoso diag- 
nosis ("C. flava, supra olivacea, alis cferuleis fasciis duabus albis . . . lora nigra ") is 
exclusively pertinent. Meanwhile, Catesby described and figured the Dendrceca under iho 
same stylo of "Pine-Creeper ", Parus americanus lutescens (folio and pi. 01) ; his account is 
poor and.his figure bad, aud they were mistaken to indicate the same bird that Edwards 
treated of. Sd it fell out that the Oerthia pinus of LiunaBus and Gmelin, the Sylvia pinus 
of Latham, and the Pine Warlder of Latham and Pennant include both birds, as far as 
synonymy is concerned, though their descriptions all indicate the Uelminthophaga. Bris- 
sou's "Mesango d'Am6rique, Parus americanus" is based solely on Catesby, and is the 
Dendrceca; but, after thus handling the species in the body of his work (iii. 576), he gives 
in the appendix (vi. 59) a certain "Figuier de la Louisiane", based solely on Edwards's 
Pine Creeper (pi. 277), remarking the black loral stripe, as given by Edwards, and thus 
unmistakably indicating the ITelminthophaga. But Bri.sson's " Figuier de la Louisiaue", 
of the body of his work, ill. 500, is Parula americana. I have not been able to consult 
ButTon ( 'v. 270"), and am consequently unable to say which of the two birds his 



216 SYNONYMY OF HELMINTHOPHAGA CHRYSOPTERA 

States more than to British America, and beiug well represented 
in winter in Central America; though at least three of the 
species, peregrina, celata, and ruficapilla, pass well beyond the 
United States in the spring?, and one of them has even occurred 
in Greenland. Tbe synonymy of i7. chryHoptera* is subjoined. 

"Figuier des Sai)ins" may be; the quotation is currently assigned to the Helmintho- 
puaga. By Linnaiiis, Gnieliu, and others, Cutesby is quoted " i. 4G " ; but on examining 
the Edwards English-French ed. of 1771, I find that Uatesby's 4<jth folio and plate are 
devoted to Ampelis cedrorum, his 61st folio and plate being the one in question, as correctly 
cited by Brisson.] 

Hab. — Eastern United States. North to Massachusetts (see Cabot, Pr. 
Boat. Soc. vi. 386, and many authors above quoted, but preseucc in New 
England denied by Dr. Brewer until 1875) and Minnesota (J /nes). West 
to Iowa, Kansas, Indian Territory, and Texas. South through Eastern Mex- 
ico to Guatemala (Salv'm). Not recorded from any of the West Indies. 

* Helminthoptaag'a clirysoptera.— KIne Cioldeii-winged Warbler. 
UotaciUa Chrysoptera, iinn. SN. i. 17()G, 333, n. 20 (based on Edw. pi. 2'J9).— £odd. Tabl. 

PE. 1783, 44 (PE. 70.i, f. 2).— (?m. SN. i 178S, 971, u. iO.—Turt. SN. i. 1800, 597. 
Sylvia Chrysoptcra, Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 541, n. 123.— F. OAS. ii. 1807, 37, p'. <il.—Wils. 

AO. ii. 1810, 113, pi. 15, f. 5— F.Eucy. M6ih. ii. 1823, 438, n. CO.— £i>. Journ. Phila. Acad. 

iv. 1824, 199.— .Bp. AO. i. 1825, 12, pi. 1, f. 3.-Bp. Ann. Lye. N. y . ii. 1826, 87.—Kutt. Man. 

i. 1832, 411.— Aud. OB. v. 1839, 154, pi. 414.— Pea6. Rep. Orn. Mass. 1839, 312. 
Sylvlcola Clirysoptera, liich. Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. for 1836, 1837, 171. 
Verinivora chrysoptera, " ,S«;."— .Bp. CGL. 1838, 21.— ffo;/, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 312.— 

Read, ibid. ■SdO.—Kenn. Tr. 111. Agric. Soc. i. 1855, 583. 
Hellnala chrysoptera, Aud. Syn. 1839, 67.— Aud. BA. ii. 1841, 91, pi. 101.— Henry, Pr. Phila. 

Acad. vii. 1855, 309.— Fratten, Tr. 111. Agric. Soc. 1855, tiO-i.—Putn. Pr. Ess. Inst. i. 

1856, 227.— Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. vii. 18G0, 307 (Cuba). 
Mnlotilta chrysoptera, Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, 196.— Gie&. Nouienc. Av. ii. 1875, 601. 
Helmitluros chrysoptera, Bp. CA. i. 1850, 315. 
Helmitheros clirysopterus, Sd. PZS. 1855, 143 (Bogotd). 
neluiinttaopbaga chrysoptera. Cab. MH. i. 1850, 20.— iJd. BNA. 1858, ^55.— Henry, Pr. Phila. 

Acad. xi. 1859, 106.— & (£8. Ibis, ii. 1860, 397 (Choctum, Guatemala).— irft«<i«. Ohio 

Agric. Rep. for 18b0, 1861, 363.—Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. T. vii. 1861, 293 (N. Granada).— 

Barn. Smiths. Rep. for 1860, lt61, i35.—Gundl. J. f. 0. 1861, 326 (Cuba) .—Guiidl. J. f. O. 

1802, 177 (Cuba).— Cortes <£Prent. Smiths. Rep. for 1861, 1862, iOQ.-Bd. Rev. AB. 1864, 

n^.— Allen, Pr. Ess. lust. iv. 1864, 82.-S. <£S. PZS. 1864, 347 (Panama).— Z>re«s. Ibis, i. 

2d ser. 1865, 477 (San Antonio, Tex.).— iaior. Ann. Lye. N. T. viii. 1866, 284.— IfcJtor. 

Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1866, 85 (Canada West).— SaJv. PZS. 18C7, 135 (Veragna).— Tnppe, Am. 

Nat. ii. 1868, 181.— iawr. Ann. Lyc.N.T.ix. 1868, 94 (Costa Rica).- Coues, Pr. Ess. Inst. 

V. 1868, 271.- Cojies, Pr. Bost. Soc.xii. 1868, lOi.— Allen, Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 575.— Tiirnft. 

B. E. Pa. 1869, 23 ; Phila. ed. 16.- «. Frantz. J. f. 0. 18C9, 293.— JTaj/n. Guide, 1870, 100.— 

8alv. PZS. 1870, 182 (Veragna).— Ab&o«, Am. Nat. iv. 1870, 543.— Cowes, Key, 1872, 94, f. 

3.—Gundl. J. f. 0. 1872, 411 (Caha) .—Scott, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 2i2.— Tripp.:, Pr. Bost. Soc. 

XV. 1873, 234.— A'tdfirw. Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 199. — Cowes, BN W. 1874, 49.— i>. B. cC- R. NAB. 

i. 1874, 192, tig. pi. 11, {.2.— Ridgtv. Ann. Lye. N. T. x. 1874, 368 (Illi;ioi8).—iTrew. Pr. 

Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 439.— TVarreu, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, i. 1876, 6 (full account of 

nest and eggs).— Gentry, Life-Uist. 1876, 98.- J/inof, B. N. Engl. 1877, 91.—Merr. 

Trans. Conn." Acad. iv. 1877, 14 (Connecticut). 
nelminlhupaga chrysoptera, Cab. J. f O. i860, 328 (CoataRica).— Greflrfir, Pr. El. Ac. 1870, — . 
Motacilia llarifron!», Gm. SN. i. 1788, 976, n. 126 (based on the Yellow-fronted Warbler of 

Pouu. and Lath.).— Turl. SN. i. 1806, 601. 
Sylvia flavifrous, Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 527, n. 69. 

Panis alis aurcis, Bartr. Tniv. Fl 1. 1791, 292 (cf. Coues, Pr. Piiila. Acad. 187.j, 352). 
GoldeU'Winged Flycatcher, Edw. Glean, pt. il 169, pi. 299 (basis of M. chrysoptera L.). 



CHARACTERS OF IJELMI1>TH0PHAG^ 217 

There is a great similarity in the habits of the HelminthopJiogcc, 
as might be expected from their close resemblance to each 
other in structure. They are indefatigable insect-hunters, peer- 
ing into the crevices of bark and the interstices of leaves and 
blossoms for the minute bugs upon which they prey, catching 
them adroitly with their acute and attenuate bill ; but they do 
not appear to pursue flying insects so persistently as many 
other Sylvicolines are known to do. Their notes are few, odd, 
and not very musical, pitched in a high key, and delivered in 
a slender, wiry tone. 

They are, without exception, migratory ; perhaps they are not 
more delicate than other Warblers, but the special nature of 
their food compels them to leave scenes which some other 
species withstand without inconvenience. Their mode of nest- 
ing is nearly uniform ; all the species, as far as certainly known, 
build on the ground or scarcely above it, making rather coarse 
and bulky nests, for such elegant little owners, out of grasses, 
weeds, mosses, withered leaves, bark-strips, and the like. The 
eggs of all are alike white, speckled with various reddish 
shades. 

The ten species may be thrown into two groups, according to 
color — groups \shich correspond in a general way with geo- 
graphical distribution, and exactly divide the genus in halves. 
In one set of five species, namely, innus, laivrencii, clirysoptera^ 
leucobronchialis, and hachmani, the colors are highly variegated, 
and the tail-feathers are largely blotched with white. These 
are all exclusively Eastern. In the other five, rnjicapilla, vir- 
ginice, celata, peregrina, and lucice, the coloration is simpler ; the 

Gold-winged Warbler, Lath. Sj^n. ii. pt. iL 1783, 492, n. 118. 

Gold-wiug Warbler, Pcnn. AZ. ii. 1785, 403, n. 295. 

Plguier aux ailes dories. Buff. "v. 3ii". 

Fignier cendre a gorge DOir de Pensilvanie, Flcedula peusilranica cinerea gutture 
nigro, £ms. Oru. vi. 17G0, 109. 

Yellow-fronted Warbler, Lath. Sjm. ii. ptii. 1783, 461, n. 67.— Penn.AZ.ii. 1765, 404, n. 296. 
(Basis oi MotaciUa fiavifrons Gm.) 

Fauvette chrj sopttire, V. Eccy. M6th. ii. 1823, 438. 

Fauvetee chrysoptere, Le Moine, Gis. Canad. 1861, 200. 

Golden-Winged Warbler, Golden-winged Swamp War- 
bler, Blue Golden-winged Warbler, Authors. 

Hab. — Eastern Uuited States and Canada (Mcll- 
vraith). "Nova Scotia" (^m(7m6o«)- Rarer in the 
Northern States. South (not in Mexico, for all 
that is known) to New Granada. Many Central 
American quotations. Cuba only of the West In- 
dies. Breeds at large in the Uuited States ; win- puj. si.-Bluo Goldou-winged 
ters beyond our limits. Warbler. 




218 ANALYSIS OF HELMINTHOPHAG^ 

tail-feathers are not, or not conspicuously, blotched with white ; 
anil a mark of all but one of them is a crown-patch of color 
different from surrounding parts. One of these is Eastern, two 
are Western, and two are of general dispersion. The males may 
be recognized, when in perfect plumage, by the following 

Analysis of species 

I. Tail-feathers conspicuously w hite-blotched. Wings with white or yellow 
on coverts. Head or breasS; with black. (All exclusively Eastern.) 

1. Bluish-ash, below white; crown and wing-bars yellow; throat 

and stripe on side of head black chrysoptera. 

2. Like the last; '• no black on throat" " leucohronchialis" . 

3. Olive-green ; wings and tail bluish-ash, former with white or yel- 

low bars ; crown and under parts yellow ; lores black pinus. 

4. Like the last; "chin, throat, and breast black" "lawrencil". 

5. Olive-green, below yellow ; throat, breast, and crown-patch black ; 

forehead yellow hachmani. 

II. Tail-feathers inconspicuously or not blotched with white. No decided 
wing-markings. No black anywhere. 

a. Crown without colored patch. Wingsabout half as long again as tail. 

6. Tail with obscure whitish spot on outer feather ; under parts 

white or whitish ; upper parts olive-green, brighter behind, quite 
ashy in front. Chiefly Eastern peregrina. 

b. Crown with cilored patch. Wings shorter. 

7. Cr >WD-patch orange-brown ; tail unmarked ; upper parts olive- 

green ; under parts greenish-yellow, both nearly uniform. West- 
ern and incompletely Eastern celata. 

8. Crown-patch chestnut ; tail unmarked ; upper parts olive-green, 

growiug ashy on head ; under parts uniformly yellow. Eastern 
and i ncomiiletely Western ruficapilla. 

9. Crown-patch chestnut ; tail unmarked ; above olivaceous-ash, be- 

low whitish ; rump and under tail-coverts bright yellow ; breast 

yellowish. Western virginicB. 

10. Crown-patch aod upper tail-coverts chestnut ; outer tail-feather 
with dull white patch ; above pale cinereous, below white. 
Western lucice. 

The females and young of Sect. II, at least, require more detailed descrip- 
tions for their determination in some cases, especially Nos. 7, 8, and 9, which 
resemble each other quite closely, even when in full plumage. All of them 
are described in detail in the following pages, with special reference to the 
characters that distinguish them from each other ; and it is believed that 
there will be no difficulty experienced in discrimiuatiug between them, if the 
diagnostic points which are given are sufficiently considered. 



CHARACTERS OF HELMINTHOPHAGA LUCI^ 219 

liUCj^'s TFarMer 

Helminthopbaga laciee 

nelminthophaga lucise, Coop. Pr. Cala. Acad. July, 18G2, 120 (Fort Mojave, Ariz.).— id. 
Rev. AB. 186.5, \1A.—Coues, Ibis, 2d ser. ii. 1866, 260 (Fort Whipple, A.viz.).—Coues, Pr. 
Phila. Acad. 1866, 70 (Fort Whipple, A.Tiz.).— Elliot, BMA. pi. 5.— Ooop. Am. Nat. iii. 
1869, 476, 479.— Oooj). B. Cal. i. 1870, 84.— Coues, Am. Nat. vi. 1S72, 493 (supposed nest 
andegga). — Coues, Key, 1872, 94. — 2Jreiy.Pr.Bost. Soc. xvii. 1873, 107 {supposed n&si 
and eggs).— i. iJ. <£ if. NAB. i. 1874, 200, pi. 11, f. 9; App. iii. 1875, 50i.—Rensh. List 
B. Ariz. 1875, IX.—Hensh. Zool. Espl. W. 100 Merld. 1876, 190 (Arizona). 

MniOtilta lUCiae, Gieb. Nomencl. Av. ii. 1875, 603. 

Lucy's Warbler, Authors. 

Hab. — Valley of the Colorado (not yet found outside of Arizona). 

Ch. sp. — 6 9 Cinerea, infra alba; vertice tectricibusque cau- 
dalibus superioribus castaneis. 

$ 2 : Clear ashy-gray. Beneath white, with a faint tinge of buflf on the 
breast. A rich chestnut patch on the crown, and upper tail-coverts of the 
^sarne color. A white eye-ring. Quills and tail-feathers edged with the color 
of the back or whitish. Lateral tail-feather with an obscure whitish patch. 
Lining of wing white. Feet dull leaden-olive. Iris dark brown or black. 
Length, 4^4|; extent, 1-1\\ wing, 2:^-2^; tail, l|-2; tarsus, f ; bill, J-J-. 

Young: Newly fledged birds lack the chestnut of the crown, though that 
of the rump is present. The throat and breast are milk-white, without the 
ochrey tinge of the adults; the wing-coverts are edged with pale rufous. 

The chestnut upper tail-coverts, and absence of any trace of olivaceous or 
yellowish coloration, distinguish this interesting species, the general super- 
ficial aspect of which is quite like that of a PoUoptila. 

LUCY'S Warbler is oue of the later additions to this geuus, 
the kuown species of which have still more recently been 
increased in number by the discovery of H. virginice in the 
West, and of S. leucobronchialis and H. lawrencii in the East- 
ern States. It illustrates the extreme of the gradation in color 
which the olivaceous Selminthophagce present, from such green- 
ish species as the Nashville and the Orange-crowned, through 
the partly cinereous Virginia's and Tennessee Warblers, to the 
entirely ashy and white H. luciw, in which the upper tail-coverts 
as well as the crown are, moreover, differently colored from the 
rest of the body. 

The interesting bird is one of Dr. Cooper's discoveries, having 
been first observed by this gentleman at Fort Mojave, Arizona, 
where it arrived one year during the latter part of March, the 
first specimen having been secured on the 25th of that month. 
The males appeared to have preceded the females, as no indi- 
viduals of the latter sex were noted until about ten days after- 
ward. The birds soon became quite numerous in the mezquite 



220 HABITS OF Lucy's warbler 

thickets, where they were observed to frequent the tops of the 
trees, utteriDg their curious notes during their incessant pur- 
suit of insects. In the course of the two months during which 
they continued under Ur. Cooper's observations, six specimens 
were secured, but their mode of nest-building was not ascer- 
tained. 

Two years subsequently, in March, 18G3, Mr. Holden secured 
additional specimens near the 34th parallel ; and, in the spring 
of 1805, Lucy's Warbler fell to my own lot. Whilst rambling 
one pleasant April morning along the little stream that flows 
past Fort Whipple, I heard a curious note, which reminded me 
of that of a Gnatcatcher {Poliojytila)^ and was not long on the 
alert before I saw one of the modest vocalists, betrayed no less 
by the restlessness with which the bird skipped about in the 
budding foliage than by the singularity of its voice. Xot recog- 
nizing the species, I made the usual sacrifice without delay, 
and was overjoyed to find, as I turned the dainty bird over and 
over in my hand, removing every trace of blood and smoothing 
every ruffled feather, that I had taken a species new to me ; for 
I had not then learned of Dr. Cooper's prize, and moments of 
discovery are always moments of pardonable enthusiasm. In 
the course of the spring, I took a few more specimens, among 
them the first ones, I think, of the young, which differ in some 
particulars from the adults. These Warblers, however, did 
not appear to be very common in the field of my observations; 
they are rather timid and retiring birds, likely to be long over- 
looked in the thickets and copses to which they seem so much 
attached. They reach the vicinity of Fort Whipple, which is 
pretty high among the mountains, about the middle of April, 
thus much later than the time of their appearance in lower 
portions of the Territory, and remain until the latter part of 
September, if not longer. They certainly breed there ; for I 
found a newly fledged brood of young, just about to disperse, 
early in May. This family was reared in a little clump of wil- 
low bushes along the stream, and seemed so feeble on wing that 
I attempted to catch one of them alive ; but the little thing was 
too quick for me, and I shot it after giving up the chase. 
The nest was, of course, somewhere near at hand, but I failed 
to find it. 

When penning some notes on this species, which were pub- 
lished in 186G, I ventured to surmise that the nest would be 
found not on the ground, but in the crotch of a bush. " Should 



HABITS OF LUCY's WARBLER 221 

it prove so," Dr. Brewer recently replied, "it would in this 
respect differ from all the other members of this well-marked 
group"; nevertheless, ou the fifth page following, in the same 
work, Dr. Brewer describes a nest o? Eelminthophaga percgrina., 
which, he says, "was built in a low clump of bushes". Some 
uncertainty in the case continues, I regret to say, though ac- 
counts of a nest and eggs, fully believed to be those of Lucy's 
Warbler, and confirming my surmise of its non-terrestrial nidi- 
fication, have been published both by Dr. Brewer and myself. 
Writing from Tucson, Arizona, under date of May 19, 1872, 
Lieut, (now Captain) Charles Bendire informed me by letter 
that he had that day found a nest " of a very small warbler, 
four inches long, which has a bright chestnut spot on the crown, 
and the tail coverts of the same color, the other upper parts 
cinereous, the lower parts dull white". I shortly afterward 
published the account in the American Naturalist, and another 
notice, based on the same data, was next year put ou record 
by Dr. Brewer, as above cited. The eggs were described as 
four in number, nearly globular in shape, scarcely larger than 
a Hummingbird's, white, with fine red spots at the larger end: 
they contained large embryos. They were placed between the 
bark and main wood of a dead mezquite tree, about four feet 
from the ground. The bird described was surely no other than 
Lucy's Warbler : the only question is, whether the nest and 
eggs belonged to it. The ostensible evidence, however, is with- 
out flaw, and may be accepted until rebutted, though it is against 
the analogy of uidification in this genus upon which Dr. Brewer 
has properly dwelt. 

Lucy's Warbler is thus far only known from the Territory of 
Arizona, and its abode in winter, which we may presume to be 
in Mexico, remains to be ascertained, as does also probably 
its limit of distribution in other directions. It was first fig- 
ured by Mr. D. G. Elliot on plate V of his splendid work, 
and subsequently by the authors of the "History of North 
American Birds", from a drawing of the head made by Mr. 
Ridgwaj'. The citations at the bead of this article indicate 
nearly the whole of the literature the little bird has occasioned 
up to the date of present writing, and in'jlude only one syno- 
nym, namely, that resulting from the reference of the species 
to the genus Mnioiilta by Professor Giebel, who, in 1875, threw 
nearly all the SylvicoUnce together under this head, as Mr. George 
Robert Gray had likewise done before him. 



222 CHARACTERS OF HELMINTHOPHAGA VIRGINIA 

Virginia's Warbler 

Helmlntbopbaga Tirffinise 

Helminthophaga vlrglnise, Bd. B"NA. ed. of 18C0 (not of 1858), Atlas, p. xi, footnote, pi. 7S, 
f. 1 (Cantonment Burgwyn, N. Mex.).— iJd. Eev. AB. 1865, m.—Coues, Pr. Pbila. 
Acail. xviii. 1866, 70 (Fort Whipple, Ariz.).— Coop. B. Cal. i. 1870, e5.— Coues, Key, 1872, 
94.— AfJt^n, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1872, 196 (Colorado ; nest and eggs).— Bid^^w. Bull. Ess. 
Inst. V. 1873, 180.- Cowes, BNW. 1874, 51.-B. B.£ B.^AB.i. 1674, 199, pi. 11, f.l2; 
App. iii. 50i.—Hcnsh. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, 41.— Hensh. List B. Ariz. 1875, 156.— 
Hensh. Zool. Expl. W. 100 Merid. 1876, 189. 

Mnlotilta virginlae, Oieb. Nomencl. Av. ii. 1875, 608. 

Virginia's Warbler, Rocliy Mountaiu Warbler, Authors. 

Hab. — Southern portion of the Middle Province of the TTnited States, or 
Southern Rocky Mountain region at large. North to Nevada, Utah, and 
Colorado at least, where it breeds. Found (migratory ?) in New Mexico and 
Arizona. Winter resorts unknown (probably in Mexico). 

Ch. sp. — S plumbea, infra sordide alba; tectricibus caudw su- 
perioribus et inferioribus, necnon macula pectorali, fiavis; vertice 
castaneo. 9 sat similis, partibus fiavis obscurioribus, pileo cos- 
taneo restricto. 

$ , in summer : Ashy-plumbeous, alike on the back, and top and sides of 
head. Below dull whitish, the sides shaded with ashy. Lining and edge of 
wings white. Upper and under tail-coverts, and isolated spot on the breast, 
yellow, in strong contrast with all surroundings. A white ring round eye. 
Wings and tail without yellowish edgings. Crown with a chestnut patch, 
as in H. ruficapilla. Length, 4| ; extent, 7i ; wing, 2^-2^ ; tail, 2^. 

9 , in summer : Quite like the male, the yellow duller and slightly tinged 
with greenish ; that of the breast, and the chestnut of the crown, more re- 
stricted than in the ^. 

Autumnal specimens resemble the $ most nearly ; but in both sexes the 
plumbeous of the upper parts has a slight olive shade, and in birds of the 
year the crown-patch may be wanting. 

When this species was first described, from defective material, the isolated 
yellow spot on the breast, so different from anything observed elsewhere in 
the genus, suggested the possibility that better plumaged specimens might 
be extensively yellow underneath, and thus like H. ruficapilla. But many 
specimens since taken, in high spring plumage, intensify the oiiginal char- 
acters given of the species, and separate it still more widely from H. 
ruficapilla. The whole upper parts are about of the shade of the head of 
ruficapilla, and, even when most glossed with olive, are still strongly con- 
trasted with the yellow upper tail-coverts. The under parts are as white as 
in adnlt pcrcgrina, with the yellow spot on the breast, and yellow under tail- 
coverts, both in strong contrast. The chestnut crown and white eye-ring 
are much as in ruficapilla. 

VIRGINIA'S Warbler was discovered at Cantonment Burg- 
wyn, iu New Mexico, by Dr. W. W. Anderson, and first 
described, in 1860, by Professor Baird, who dedicated it to the 
wife of the discoverer. The type-specimen remained unique 



HABITS OF Virginia's warbler 223 

until 18G4, wbeu the present writer took a second example at Fort 
Whipple, on the 15th of August; this was a young bird, very 
likely bred in the vicinity. Shortly afterward, in 1869, Mr. Ridg- 
way ascertained that the bird was abundant in the East Hum- 
boldt and Wahsatch IMountains, where it was breeding in thick- 
ets of scrub-oak. He found a nest containing four eggs, on the 
9th of August, on the side of a ravine ; it was sunken in the 
ground among the withered leaves, so that its brim was flush 
with the surface, and measured 3^ inches in diameter by 2 
inches in depth. The material consisted of loosely interwoven 
strips of the inner bark of the "mountain mahogany", mixed 
with grasses, mosses and slender rootlets, and lined with the 
fur of some small quadruped. According to Dr. Brewer's 
measurements, the eggs were 0.64 long by 0.47 broad; the 
groundcolor, when fresh, was rosy white, and this was "pro- 
fusely spotted with numerous small blotches and dots of pur- 
plish-brown and lilac, forming a crown around the larger end". 
Mr. C. E. Aiken shortly afterward extended the known range 
of the species to include the eastern foot-hills of the liocky 
Mountains in Colorado, where it breeds. This excellent ob- 
server found it in various parts of the State, but especially 
along the eastern base of the mountains, where, in its favor- 
ite haunts, it sometimes outnumbers all the other Warblers put 
together. It is a shy and timid species, generally darting, with 
its sharp note of alarm, into its place of concealment when ap- 
proached. In summer, it frequents the scrub of the hillsides, 
at any elevation up to about 7,500 feet, but during the migra- 
tions it is found indifferently in the pine forests and among the 
cottonwoods and willows along the streams. "The male is 
very musical during the nesting season", says Mr. Aiken, " utter- 
ing his sweet ditty continually as he skips through the bushes 
in search of his morning repast ; or having satisfied his appe- 
tite, he mounts to the top of some tree in the neighborhood of 
his nest, and repeats at regular intervals a song of remarkable 
fullness for a bird of such minute proportions. . . . No bird 
with which I am acquainted conceals its nest more effectually 
than this warbler. This is placed at the base of a tussock of 
grass among the oak bushes, being sunk in a hollow scratched 
in the earth, so that the rim of the nest is on a level with the 
surface. The overhanging grass of the tussock hides all so 
completely that the nest is only to be discovered by the most 
careful and persistent search. About the first of June, five 
white eggs, delicately speckled with reddish brown, are laid." 



224 SYNONYMY OF HELMINTHOPHAGA RUFICAPILLA 

]¥a§hTififle Warbler 

Helmintbopbaga rnficapilla 

Sylvia rnficapilla, WiU. AO. iii. 1811, 120, pi. 27, f. 3.~Bp. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 
VJl.—Aud. OB. i. 1832, 450, pi. 89. 

Mnlofilta rufloapilla, Graij, G. of B. i. 1848, 19G. 

neliiilnthophaga rufleapilla, iid. BN A. 1858, 256.— Sci. PZS. 1858,298 (Parada).— ScJ.PZS. 
1851, 373 (Oaxaea).— Xant. Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 1859, 191 (California).— TT/ieat. Ohio 
Agric. Rep. for 1860, 1861, 3G3.—Sd. Cat. AB. 1861, 29.— Barn. Smiths. Ecp. for 1860, 
1861,435.— Cows (£-Pre?i«. Smiths. Eep. lor 1861, 1862, 406.— i'oardm. Pr. Bost. Soc. ix. 

1862, 125 (Maine, rare).- Ferr. Pr. Ess. Inst. iii. 1862, 146 (Maine, rare).— T^JaJfc. Ibis, v. 

1863, 62 (Great Slave Lake) —Bd. Kev. AB. 1864, lib.— Allen, Pr. Ess. Inst. iv. 1864, 59 
(Massachusetts, breeding). — Dress. Ibis, 1865, 477 (San Antonio, Tex.).—ilcIhor.Fr. 
Ess. Inst. V. 1866, 85 (Canada West).— iawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. 1866,284.— Tri^e, 
Am. Nat. ii. 1868, 177— Cowes, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 270.— Cowes, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 
1868, 109 (South Carolina). -rttrnb. B. E. Pa. 1869, 24; Phila. ed. 17.— Swr/iic/i. Mem. 
Bost. Soc. i. 1869, 546 (Orizaba).— Cooi?. B. Cal. 1. 1870, 8-2.-~Mayn. Guide, 1870, 99.— 
Gregg, Pr. Elmira Acad. 1870, p. —.—Parker, Am. Nat. v. 1871, 1G8.— Allen, Bull. MCZ. 
iii. 1872, 175 (Kansas; Utah).— Oowe*, Key, 1872, 94.—Mayn. Pr. Bost. Soc. xiv. 1872, 
36'2.—Mayn. B. Fla. 1873, 63.—Trippe, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1873, 23i.—Eidgw. Bull. Ess. 
Inst. V. 1873 (Colorado ; Utah ; Nevada) —Merr. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, for 1872, 1873, 
713.— Packard, Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 271.— Ames, Bull. Minn. Acad. 1»74, 56 (Minne- 
sota).- CoMes,BNW. 1874. 50.— £. J?. <f- B. NAB. i. 1874, 196, fig. p. 191, pi. 11, f. 7, 8.— 
Ridgiv. Ann. Lye. N. T. x. 1874, 368.— ifens^i. Hep. Orn. Specs. 1874, 4l.—Hensh.liiat 
B. Ariz. 1875, 156.— Brewst. Ann. Lye. N. T. xi. 1875, 135 (Virginia).— iVew^Qn, Birds 
Greenland, p. 99 (GodtUaab, 1835, Fiskenoes, A ng. 31, 1840).— iV^eis. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 
187.5, 357 (California).— iVew. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 439.—Heni!h. Zool. Expl. W. 
100 Merid. 1876, leS.—Lawr. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. n. 4, 1876, 15 (Tehuantepec).— 
Minot, B. N. Engl. 1877, M.—Merr. Trans. Conn. Acad. iv. 1877, 14. 

Helmintbophaga rufleapilla, vars. rufleapilla, oeularis, gutturalis, Ridgw. apvd 

B. B. d: Ii. NAB. i. 1874, 191. 
Sylvia rubrieapilla, Wils. AO. vi. 1812, 15 (Index).— Pp. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 197.— 

Bp. Ann. Lye. N. T. ii. 1826, m.—Nutt. Man. i. 1832, 412.— Pea6. Kep. Cm. Mass. 1839, 

313.— Thomps. Vermont, 1853, 81. 
Sylvieola (Vermivora) rubrieapilla, & t£U. FBA.ii. I83l,220,pl. 42, up. fig. 
Sylvieola rubrieapilla, Rich. Rep. Brit. Atsoc. Adv. Sci. for 1836, 1837, 111.— Willis, 

Smiths. Kep. for 1858, 1859, 282. 
Termivora rubrieapilla, Bp. CGL. 1838, Zl.—Nutt Man. i. 2d ed. 1840, 472.— Jffcj/, Pr. Phila. 

Acad. vi. 1853, 312.— 7?ead, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 3Q0.—Reinh. " Vid. Meddel. for 1853, 

1854, 82" (Greenland).— Petnft. J. f. O. 1854, 439 (aame) .—Kennic. Tr. Illinois Agric. 

Soc. i. 1855, 583.— .Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. 1856, 4 (nest and eggs). 
Helinaia rubrieapilla, Aud. Syn. 1339, lO.—Aud. BA. ii. 1841, 103, pi. 113.— Girowd, BLL 

1844, 6d.—Pratten, Tr. Illinois Agric. Soc. i. 1855, 602.— Putn. Pr. Ess. Inst. i. 1856, 208. 
Helmitheros rubrieapilla, Bp. CA. i. 1850, 315. 
Helmltheros rubrieapUius, Sd. PZS. 1856, 291 (Cordova). 
Helmintbophaga rubrieapilla, Cab. MH. 1. 1850, 20 —5ci. PZS. 1859, 363 (Xalapa).— J.Jfe»», 

Am. Nat. vi. 1872, 265. 
Mniotilta rubrieapilla, J?ei?ift. Ibis, iii. 1861,6 (Greenland). 
Sylvia leueogastra, Steph. " Shaw's Gen. Zool. x. 1817, 622 ". 
Sylvia nashviilci, Vieill. Ency. M6th. ii. 1823, 451, n. Ill (based on "Wilson). 
Sylvia mcxicana, '•HolholV [Where?] 
Fauvettc nashvillc, Y. 1. c. 

Nashville Warbler, \ashville Swamp Warbler, Nashville Vcrmlvora, Nashville Worm- 
eater, Authors. 

Hab, — Tomperato North America, but especially the Eastern Province. 
North casually to Greenland (two instances, J. Eiinhardt, A. Xewton). West 
occasionally to Utah (Ogden, J. A. Allen), Nevada (Humboldt Mountains, 



( HARACTERS OF HELMINTHOPHAGA RUFICAPILLA 225 

R. Eidgway), and California (Lake Tahoe, F. Griiber ; Fort Tejon, J. Xantus) ; 
" Columbia River" {auct. Audubon) ; not yet detected in intervening ground. 
Mexico (numerous quotations). Not in "West Indies or Central America? 
Breeds from Massachusetts (and probably much farther south in the Alleghany 
Mooutaius) northward. 

Ch. sp. — 3 Jlavido-oHvacea, nropygio magis flavicante, capite 
cinereo, pileo castaneo plus minusve celato; infra ex toto flava. 
9 sat similis, obscurior, capite aliquantulum olivascente. 

$, in summer: Upper parts olive-green or yellowish-olive, clearer and 
brighter on the rump and uppcjr tail-coverts. Top and sides of the head and 
neck Hshy, with a more or less veiled chestnut patch on the crown, and a 
white ring round the eye. No superciliary stripe. Lores pale. Wings and 
tail fuscous, edged with the color of the back. Entire under parts yellow, 
including under wing-coverts and edge of the wing, the sides somewhat 
shaded with olive. Length, 4^-4|; extent, 7^; wing, 2^-2^; tail, lf-2. 

9 , in summer : Similar to the male. Head less purely ashy. Crown-patch 
smaller and more hidden, if not wanting. Yellow of under parts paler, 
whitening on the belly. 

Autumnal specimens, of both sexes, though quite as yellow below as in 
summer, have the ash of the head glossed over with olivaceous, and in birds 
of the year the crown-patch may be entirely wanting. 

This species is distinguished from any other by the rich clear yellow of the 
under parts at all seasons. In H. celata, which is next most yellow below, 
the color has a greenish cast; the head is little, if any, different from the 
rest of the upper parts, and the crown-patch is orange-brown. 

LONG supposed to be a bird of the Eastern Province, the 
Nashville Warbler has gradually come to be known from 
nearly all portions of North America, and the extensive distri- 
bution I here attribute to the species is fully attested. Wilson 
described it, probably for the first time, from the vicinity of 
the city whose name it has since borne, and it was a rarity to 
the early school ; Audubon speaks of a few specimens of his 
from Kentucky and Louisiana ; Richardson records it from the 
Fur Countries; and Swainson figures a specimen from Cumber- 
land House. Nuttall speaks of it as a Southern bird, and sub- 
sequently as occurring in Labrador. Its occurrence in Green- 
land in two instances, in 1835 and 1840, is attested by Reinhardt 
and A. Newton. In 1858, Baird gave its general distribution 
as "Eastern North America to the Missouri". Audubon had 
long before ascribed it to the Columbia River; and though 
such ascription may not have been confirmed by later ob- 
servation, it is probably correct. At any rate, we have now 
many Western records. Xantus got the bird at Fort Tejon in 
California, and Gruber soon found it at Lake Tahoe; Allen 
15 B c 



226 SYNONYMY OF HELMINTH OPHAGA CELATA 

observed it in Utah, cousidering it quite common about Ogden; 
Eidgway noticed it in Nevada; and Hensbaw has latterly 
recorded a number of specimens from Arizona, in which Terri- 
tory he states that it probably occurs only as a migrant, and 
that he found it common in August and September in the vicin- 
ity of Camp Crittenden. I have collated numerous Mexican 
records, presented in the foregoing synonymy, but have found 
110 evidence that the bird is known at all either from Central 
America or the West Indies. 

In the greater part of the United States, it has the reputation 
of a migratory bird ; but I suspect that it will finally be ascer- 
tained to breed much farther south than it is now known to do, 
particularly in the higher mountains of the West, both along 
the Eocky Chain and in the Sierras of California ; for various 
birds, like the Kinglets and Titlarks, nestle there in latitudes 
to which they are strangers during the breeding season in the 
East. Most of our accounts of its nidiflcation come from the 
ornithologists of New England, and especially of Massachu- 
setts, where the study of our birds has long been pursued with 
unusual ardor and commensurate success. North of this lati- 
tude, the Nashville Warbler will probably be found as a summer 
resident wherever found at all. Several excellent accounts of 
its habits and satisfactory descriptions of its nest and eggs 
having already appeared, I shall not pursue the subject, the 
purpose of this article being rather to signalize the occurrence 
of the bird in the region now under consideration, and indicate 
its wide dispersion in North America and Mexico, than to pre- 
sent its history in full. 

Orange-cro^Fiied "Wartoler 

Hclminttaopbaga celata 

a. celata 
SylTia ce!ata, Sat/, Long's Exped. R. Mts. i. 1823, 169— Bp. AO. i. 1825, 45, pi- 5, f. 2 — Bp. 

Ann. Lye. N. T. ii. 1826, 88.— Xutt. Man. i. 1832, 413.— Awd. OB. ii. 1834, 449, pi. 178.— 

Towns. Journ. Phila. Acad. viii. 1839. 1 33.— Pec.b. Rep. Orn. Mass. 1839, 313. 
Sylvicola celata, /iic/i. Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. for 1836, 1837, ra.—Finsch, Abh.Nat. 

iii. 1872, 36 (Alaska). 
Vermivora celata, Bp. CGL. 1838, 21 — .A'w«. Man. i. 2d ed. 1840, ATi.—Gamh. Vv. Phila. 

Acad. iii. 1846, 155.--Ga»n6. Journ. Phila. Acad. i. 1847,37. — JTo?/, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 

1853, 312. 
Helinaia celata, Awi. Syn. 1839, 69.-J.Md. BA. ii. 184), 100, pi. 112.— fl^ecrm. Jouru. Phila. 

Acad. ii. 1853, 263.— PraHew, Tr 111. Agric. Soc. i. 1855, 602. 
Mniotilta celata, Grmj, G. ofB. i. 1848, 196.— Gieb. Nomeuc. Av. ii. 1875,601. 
Helmitheros celata, Bp. Syn. C A. i. 1850, 315. 
Helmitheros celatus, Scl. PZS. 1857,212 (Orizab.a). 



CHARACTERS OF HELMINTHOPHAGA CELATA 227 

Helminthophaga celata, Bd. BNA. 1858, 251.— Scl. PZS. 1858, £98 (Parada).— ScZ. PZS. 1859, 
2a5 (Vancouver) ; 373 (Oaxaca).— Xant. Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 1859, 191 (California).— 
Bd. U. S. Mex. B. Surv. pt. ii. 1859, Birds, 10.— Heerm. PRRR. x.1859, 40.— Coop. <£■ SttcU. 
NHWT. 1860, 118.— Sd. Ives's Colo. Rep. pt. v. 1861, b.—Hayd. Tr. Amer. Philos. Soc. 
xii. 1862, 160.— /ScJ. PZS. 1862, 19 (Parada).— JBJaA;. Ibis, iv. 1862, 4 (Saskatchewan).- 
Blak. Ibis, v. 1863,'62.— Bd. Rev. AB. 1864, 176.— iord, Pr. Roy. Arty. Inst. iv. 1864, 
115.— Allen, Pr. Ess. Inst. iv. 1864, 60 (Massachusetts).— Dress. Ibis, 2d ser. i. 1865, 477 
(Texas). — Coues, Ibis, 2d ser. ii. 1806, 262 (Fort Yuma). — Coues, Pr. Phila. Acad, xviii. 
1866, 70 (Fort Whipple).— Laior. Ann. Lye. N. T. viii. 1866, 284.— Cowes, Pr. Bost. Soc. 
xii. 1868, 108 (South Carolina).— Ooites, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 271.— rnppe, Am. Nat. 
ii. 1868, 181.— BroMi/i, Ibi}, 2d ser. iv. 1868, 420 (Vanconver).—BM<c;j. Pr. Phila. Acad. 
sx. 1868, 149 (Texas).— (7oop. Am. Nat. iii. 18C9, 416.— Turnb. B. E. Pa. 1869, 53 ; Phila. 
ed. Ai.—Dall <£ Bann. Tr. Chic. Acad. i. 1869, 278.— Coop. Pr. Cal. Acad. 187'>, 75.— Coop. 
RCal. i. 1870, 83, Qg.— Allen, Bull. MCZ. ii. 1871, 268 (Florida) -Aii. Bull. MCZ. iii. 
1872, 175 (Utah and Kansas).— Sfew. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, for 1870, 1871, 463.— Coues, 
Kev, 1872,95.— J. tA:e", Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1872, 96.— AiJen, Am. Nat. vi. 1872, 265, 390.— 
Ridgw. Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 606.— liidgw. Bull. Ess. lust. v. 1873, 180 (Colorado).- 
Mayn. B. Fla. 1873, 61.— Trippc, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1873, 234.— Jfp.rr. U. S. Geol. Surv. 
Terr, for 1872, 1873, m.—Herrick, Bull. Ess. Ins', v. 1873, p.— g^rand Menan).— 
Snow, B. Kans. 1873,4. — Ridgw. Ann. Lye. N. T. x. 1874, 308.— Coop. Am. Nat. viii. 
1874, 16.— Co?i«s, BN'W. 1871, 52.-Je»is/i. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, 41, 57, 74, 102.- J.?nes, 
Ball. Minn. Acad. 1814,56.— Breiv. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 439 (Massachusetts).- 
Hensh. List B. Ariz. 1875, 156.— Hensh. Zool. Expl. W. 100 Merid. 1870, 191.— Foa;, 
"Forest and Stream, vi. 354 " (New Hampshire).— i>reM)S<er, Bui!. Nutt Club, i. 1876, 
94 (Mssachusetts, for the third time).— Ifinoi, B. N. Engl. 1877, 95. -Purdie, Bull. Nutt. 
Club, ii. 1877, 21 (Rhode Island, in December).— Jlferr. Trans. Conn. Acad. iv. 1877, 15 
(Massachusetts and Rhode Island). 

Helminthophaga celata var. celata, B. B. <£• 72. NAB. 1. 1874, 202, pi. 11, f 5, 6. 

Helminthophiiga celata var. obscura, Ridgiu.apud .B.B. (£72. NAB. i. 1874, 192. 

Orange-colored Warbler, Peab<idy. 1. c. 

Orange-crowned Warbler, Orange-crowned Swamp Warbler, Orange-crowned Vermi- 
rora. Authors. 

b. lutescens 

Helminthophaga celata var. lutescens, Ridgw. Am. Journ. Sci. 1872, 451.— Ridgw. Am. 
Nat. vii. 187.3, 606.— B. B. <& R. NAB. i. 1874, 204, pi. 11, f. 4. 

Helminthophaga celata b. lutescens, Com«s, BNW. 1874, 52. 

Pacific Orange-crowned Warbler, B. B. <£ R. 1. c. 

Hab. — North America at large, but especially the Western and Middle 
Provinces; rare or occasional in theEastera Province. North regularly to 
high latitudes in British America and Alaska. South into Mexico, but not 
reco;inized as West Indian or Central American. Winters from the south- 
ern borders of the United States southward. Var. lutescens along the Pacific 
coast, from the Yukon River to Cape Saint Lucas. 

Ch. SP. — S 9 Olivacea^tiropygiomagisfiamcante; infra sordide 
flavo-albida ; vertice aurantiaco. 

(J 9 > in summer: Upper parts olive, duller and washed with grayish to- 
ward and on the head, brighter and more yellowish on the rump and upper 
tail-coverts. Beneath greenish-white, palest on the belly and throat, more 
olive-shaded on the sides ; the color not pure, but rather streaky, and having 
in places a grayish cast. Wings and tail edged with the color of the back; 
lining of the wings like the belly, and inner edges of tail-feathers whitish. 
Orbital ring and lores yellowish. An orange-brown patch on the crown, 
partially concealed, smaller and more hidden in the $ than in the i . Size 
of ruficapilla 



228 HABITS OF THE ORANGE-CROWNED WARBLER 

The sexes of this species scarcely differ, and young or autumnal birds 
are very similar to the adults, exrept the frequent or usual absence of the 
orange-brown crown-spot in birds of the year. The species is well distin- 
guished from all its allies by the color of the crowu-patch, as well as by tlie 
general oliveness and yellowness of coloration, no part of the bird being 
pure ashy or white. 

The foregoing description is applicible more particularly to typical celata, 
from which the Pacific-coast form differs decidedly, as pointed out by Mr. 
Ridgway, being much more richly colored. It may be described simply as 
olive-green above, and greenish-yellow, shaded with olive, on the sides below, 
without any of the qualifying terms required for precision in the case of 
typical celata. This form, lutescens, occurs in parts of the Colorado region 
during the migrations, when it is associated with true celata, but is stated to 
breed only farther north and more coastwise. 

AS remarked by Dr. Brewer, the geographical distribution 
of H. celata is involved in some obscurity, probably owing 
to its irregularity of migration. The bird was unknown to 
Wilson, but described soon after his time by Mr. Say, whose 
zoological commentary has rendered "Long's Expedition" mem- 
orable to ornithologists. After a few years, Nuttall spoke of it 
as not uncommon in the orange-groves of West Florida; he may 
or may not have had some other species in view, but we find 
Allen recording celata among the winter birds of Florida, as 
well as attesting its occurrence in Massachusetts. Thus it ap- 
pears that Audubon's notice of its movements is probably well 
founded, and that it was not sufiQciently considered, when, in 
1858, Baird assigned a range only from the Mississippi River to 
the Pacific, The gist of the matter would appear to be that 
we have here a bird of very general dispersion in North Amer- 
ica, evenly and regularly distributed in large numbers over 
more than the western half of the continent, but of rare and 
perhaps fitful occurrence in the Atlantic States. The extra- 
limital records, without exception so far as I know, are Mexican. 
The habitat of the species is thus brought into close correspond- 
ence with that of H. ruficapilla, though the areas of greatest 
abundance of the two species are upon opposite sides of the 
continent. 

I have myself only observed the Orange-crowned Warbler 
in the West, where it is a common bird, at least during the 
migrations. It is known to winter along our southwestern 
border, as it also does in Florida. Its breeding-range appears 
to be nearly coextensive with the whole area of its distribution 
in the West, where the mountain chains afford the elevation 
that answers to increase of latitude as far as the nidification 



HABITS OF THE ORANGE-CROWNED WARBLER 229 

of birds is coDcerued. We may consider, therefore, tbat this 
pretty bird, whose very uame is suggestive of the topic uow 
uuder discussion, is virtually a summer resident as well as a 
migrant in all the mountainous Territories of the West, nesting 
at certain elevations that afibrd conditions corresponding to 
those that it finds down to sea-level in the boreal regions to 
which some individuals press on in the alluring spring-time. It 
has been traced to the Yukon Eiver, along which mighty water- 
course the lamented Kennicott found its nests, which were 
placed on the ground, generally in clumps of low bushes. The 
same naturalist observed its nesting about Great Slave Lake 
in June, and both Dr. Brewer and myself have drawn up our 
descriptions of the structure and its contained eggs from the 
material thus furnished. The former notes certain variations 
in architecture according to locality, nests which he examined 
from more arctic regions being smaller and more compact, as 
well as more homogeneous in the materials used, which were 
chiefly stems of small plants and the finer grasses. As usual 
in the case of ground-building birds, the nests of the Orange- 
crown seem large for the size of the bird] they may be built 
of fibrous bark strips outside, and fine grasses or mosses within, 
with or without other lining, such as the fur of animals. The 
eggs, which have been found to be four, five, or six in number, 
measure about 0.67 in length by 0.50 in greatest diameter ; the 
color of the shell is white, dotted all over — sometimes pro- 
fusely, sometimes sparsely — with light reddish-brown, the mark- 
ing being either evenly distributed over the surface, or, as is 
oftener the case, more numerous about the larger than toward 
the other end. 

Within the limits of the Colorado Basin, which is so highly 
diversified in its surface features and climatic conditions, the 
Orange-crowned Warbler has the mixed character of both a 
resident and a migratory species. In the spring, it ascends the 
mountains to seek a congenial nesting place, even at a height 
of 1L,000 feet; it retreats in the fall from these elevated regions, 
and becomes more generally dispersed. You will find it during 
the migrations especially in the shrubbery along water-courses, 
wliere you may recognize it by its apparently uniform yellow- 
ishness, its sprightly, restless movements, its frequent aerial 
forays after passing insects, and the sharp, wiry "tsip", the 
incessant repetition of which expresses the vivacity of its 



230 feYNONYMY OF HELMINTHOPHAGA PEREGRINA 

nature. Its uuptial song I Lave never heard, for I have never 
found the bird wearing the orange-blossoms j those who have 
been more fortunate say that the stave consists of a few sweet 
trills, varied according to the spirit of the songster, but always 
ending abruptly with a rising inflection. 

Tennessee WarMer 

Hclmintbopbaga percgrina 

Sylvia percgrina, Wils. AG. iii. ISll, 83, jil. 25, f. 2.— JBp. Journ.T>hila. Acad. iv. 1824, 196.— 
£p. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 1826, 87, 43Q.—Nutt Man. i. 1832, 412.— Attd. OB. ii. 1834, 307, 
pi. 154. 

Sjlvicola (Vermivora) percgrina, S. <£ R. FBA. ii. 1831, 221, pi. 42. 

SylTicoIa peregrina, Rich. Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. for 1836, 1837, 171. 

Vcrniirora peregrina, jBp. CGL. 1838, 2l.—Kutt. Man. i. 2dod. 1840, 469.— JJo?/, Pr. Phila. 
Acad. vi. 1853, 312 (Wisconsin).— Bead, ibid. 399 (Ohio).— JTeiimc. Tr. ni. Agric. Soc. i. 
1855, 583.— Hey, Smiths. Rep. for 1864, 186.'), 438 (Missouri). 

Helinaia peregrina, ^wd. Syn. 1839, 68.—Aud. BA. ii. 1841, 96, pi. 110— Pratten, It. 111. 
Agric. Soc. 1855, 602.— Brew. Pr. Best. Soc. vii. 1860, 307 (Cuba). 

Mnlotilla peregrina, Ormj, G. of B. i. 1848, WG.— Cabot, Naum. Jahrg. ii. Heft iii. 1852, 66. 

Uelmitberos peregrina, Bp. CA. i. leso, 315. 

Helminthophaga peregrina. Cab. MH. i. 1850, HO—Bd. BNA. 1858, 258.— Scl. PZS. 1859, 373 
(Oaxaca).— S. d- S. Ibis, ii. 1860, 31 (Coban, V. P.).— Ca&. J. f. 0. 1861, 85 (Costa Rica).— 
Gundl. J. f. O. 1861, 326 (Cuba).— iawr. Ann. Lye. TsT. T. vii. 1861, 322 (Panama).— 
Bam. Smiths. Rep. for 1860, 1861, 435.— Gundl. J. f. 0. 1862, 177 {Cuha) .— Blak. Ibis, iv. 
1862, 4 (Saskatchewan).— Terr. Pr. Ess. Inst. iii. 1862, 156.— i3Zait. Ibis, v. 1863,62.— 
Alle7i, Pr. Eqs. Inst. iv. 1864, 61.— ,S. d- S. PZS. 1864, 347 (Panama) —Lawr. Ann. Lye. 
N. T. viii. 1865, 174 (Chiriqui) —Bd. Rev. AB. 1865, 1'8.—Salv. PZS. 1867, 1.35 (Ve- 
ragua).- iawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. 1866, 284 (New York) ; is. 1868, 94 (Costa Rica).— 
Coues, Pr. Esa. In^t. v. 1868, 270.— Co?/es, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 1868, im.—Trippe, Am. Nat 
ii. 1868, 181.~Allen, Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 575.— Twrnfe. B. E. Pa. 1869, 24 ; Phila. ed. 17 — 
V. Fra.ntz. J. f. O. 1869, 293 (Costa Rica).— /Soto. PZS. 1870, 182 (Veragua).— «. tf- S. 
PZS. 1870, 830 (Honduras).- ilfa2/n. Guide, 1870, lOO.—Wyan, Ibis, 3d ser. i. 1371, 322 
(Herradura).- ilfaj/n. Pr. Bost. Soc. xiv. 1872, 362.— Cowes, Key, 1872, 95.— Gundl. 
J. f. O. 1872, 412 (C\i\)o).—Herrick, Bull. Ess. Inst. v. 1873 (Grand Menan).— i?ufp?t). 
Bull. Ess. Inst. V. 1873, 180 (Colorado).— >S'now, B. Kans. 1673, 5.— CoMf«, BNW. 1874, 
53.—Ridgw. Ann. Lye. N. Y. x. 1874, 308 (Illinois). —.B. B. d- R. NAB. i. 1874, 205, pi. 11, 
f. 10, IL— Brew. Pr. Beet. Soc. xvii. 1875, 439.— iawA Bull. Nat Mus. n. 4, 1876, 15 (Te- 
huan tepee). —iU^mo«, B. N. Engl. 1877, 96. 

Helminthopaga peregrina, Gregg, Pr. Elmira Acad. 1870, — . 

Sylvia tenenssa*!, T. EM. ii 1823,452, n. 114. 

Sylvlcola missurlensisi, Maxim. J. f. O. vi. 1858, 117. 

Fauvette du tenensse'e, F. 1. e. 

Tennessee Swamp Warbler, Tennessee Warbler, Tennessee Vermlvora, Authors. 

Hab. — Chiefly Eastern North America. West to the Upper Missouri (J. G. 
Bell, aiict. Audubon) and Colorado (El Paso County, C. E. Aiken, aucl. liidg- 
waij). Cuba. Mexico. South to Colombia. Breeds in the nortLern tier of 
States, and northward to high latitudes. 

Cn. SP. — $ , adulttis, niipt. tenip., supra Jiavo-oUvacea posiice 
vegetior, antice cinerea; subtiis ex toto albida ; vcrline innotata; 
Cauda brevissimd, vix hipolHcari ; alls longissimis. ? et juv. 



CHAEACTERS OF HELMINTHOPHAGA PEREGRINA 231 

vegetiores, supra flavo-oUvascentes, suhtus virenti-alMclce. Long, 
tot. 4J-4|, alee 2|, caudce l'^-2. 

(J, adult: Upper parts yellowish-olive, brightest posteriorly ; on the fore 
parts aud head changing to pure ash, without any greenish tint whatever. 
No crown-patch of any diti'erent color. Lores, eye-ring, or frequently a decided 
superciliary stripe, whitish. Entire under parts dull white, scarcely or not 
tinged with yellowish. Wings aud tail dusky, strongly edged with the color 
of the back, the outer tail-feathers frequently with an obscure whitish spot. 
Bill and feet dark. Length, 4|-4|; wing about '21, long and pointed, the 
first quill as long as the nest, aud little difference between the first three or 
four quills. Tail extremely short, only two inches or less; such comparative 
lengths of wiug and tail probably always serving to identify the species. 

2 , adult : Quite like the male, but the ashy of the head less pure and clear, 
aud the whole under parts more or less tinged with greenish-yellow. 

Young : Entire upper parts strongly and uniformly yellowish-olive, like 
the back of the adult male, or even gi'eener, this color also tinging the eye- 
ring and superciliary stripe. Whole under parts like those of the adult 
female, or even more decidedly greenish-yellow, leaviug only the belly and 
crifasum whitish. In such case, the species more closely resembles some 
others than the adults do ; but the short tail, long wings, and absence of 
crown-patch, are distinctive. 

THE Tennessee Warbler is scarcely entitled to a place here. 
Yet its westward dispersion is wider than is generally 
known or supposed, and there is no question that it reaches the 
Eocky Mountains of Colorado. There is an old record of the 
finding of the bird on the Upper Missouri bj^ Mr. J. G. Bell, 
the famous taxidermist of New York, who accompanied Audu- 
bon up the river; and the Prinz Maximilian von Neu Wied 
described it from the same region under the name of " Sylvicola 
missuriensis". 1 have myself only found it along the eastern 
border of Dakota, where, however, it is extremely abundant 
during the migration, which is concluded in that latitude during 
the fore part of June. It is one of the numerous Eastern birds 
first discovered in Colorado by Mr. C. E. Aiken, who took it in 
El Paso County of that State, along with such decidedly East- 
ern species as "Wilson's Bluebird, the Blue Yellow-backed 
Warbler, the Indigo-bird, Baltimore Oriole, Carolina Wood- 
pecker, and the Dusky Duck {Anas obscura). No one else ap- 
pears to have met with it so far west, nor has it yet been found 
fairly within the watershed of the Colorado. I consider it one 
of the less abundant Warblers of the Atlantic States ; it is cer- 
tainly much more numerous in the Valley of the Mississippi, its 
main belt of migration both in spring and fall. It is one of the 
three Helminthophagcv which proceed far beyond the United 



232 THE GENUS PEUCEDRAMUS 

States to breed, though it occasionally nests in the Northern 
States. In the opposite direction, it extends in winter to South 
America. For an account of its habits, I must refer to other 
treatises, though I may add that nothing 1 have read upon 
the subject indicates that the bird differs in any notable respect 
from others of the same genus. 

Genus PEUCEDRAMUS Coues 

Peucedramus, Ooues apud Hemh. Zool. Expl. "W. 100 Merid. " 1875" (= 1876), 202. (Type 
Sylvia olivacea Giraud.) 

Chars. — General aspect of Dendroeea. Tongue much as in 
that genus, but larger, with revolute edges, cleft tip, and lacin- 
iate for some distance from the end. Wings elongated, half as 
long again as the tail (in Dendrceca but little longer than the 
tail), reaching, when folded, nearly to the end of the tail. Tail 
emarginate. Tarsus no longer than the middle toe and claw. 
Hallux little if any longer than its claw. Bill little shorter 
than tarsus (averaging little over half the tarsus in Dendrceca), 
attenuate, notably depressed, yet very little widened at base. 
Culmen rather concave than convex in most of its length, the 
under outline almost perfectly straight from extreme base to 
tip. Nasal fossae very large, with a highly developed nasal 
scale. Rictal vibrissae few and short. Plumage without streaks. 

The form of the bill is peculiar, lacking entirely the Parino 
aspect of that of Dendrceca; it somewhat resembles that of 
Shurus. The relationships of P. olivaceus appear to be with the 
Jamaican Sylvicola eoa of Gosse. Certain Certhia-\ike peculiari- 
ties of habits have been noted by Mr. Henshaw. Professor 
Baird long ago called attention to the characters of this form 
in the following terms : — "The bill in this species is quite pecu- 
liarly slender and depressed, and the culmen is straighter than 
in any other Dendroica. The nostrils, too, are much more linear, 
and the wings unusually long. In these respects, as well as in 
pattern of coloration, it forms a very strongly marked section 
among the Dendroicas, even if not entitled to consideration as 
a separate genus." The ostensible date of the establishment 
of the genus is 1875, but the actual issue of the work in which 
it was characterized was delayed until the latter part of 1870 ; 
the first appearance of the name (without characterization) was 
in 1875 in Mr. Henshaw's other publication below cited. The 
genus, as far as known, embraces a single species. 



CHARACTERS OF PEUCEDRAMUS OLIVACEUS 233 

The Olive Warbler 

Fenced ram ns olivacens 

Sylvia Ollvacea, <?tr. Sxt. Sp. Tex. B. 1841, 29,pl.7, f.2.— ScJ. PZS. 1855, 66 (commentary). 

Sylvicola olivaeea, Bd. Stansb. Rep. GSL. 185-2, 3-28.— Cass. 111. 1855, 283, pi. 48. 

Rbimamphus oliraceus, Sel. P2fS. 1856, 291 (Mexico). 

Dendroica olivaeea, Bd. BXA. 1858, 305.— Sci. PZS. 18:8, 295 (Cordova) ; 298 (Oaxaca) —Bd. 
Rev. AB. 1865, 205.— i?. B. d- B. NAB. i. 1874, 258, pi. 14, f. i.—Hemh. Amer. Sportsman, 
V. Feb. 20, 1875, 328 (first actual introduction to U. S. fauna). 

Dendroeca olivaeea, Sd. PZS. 1859, 363 (Xalapa).— ScL Cat. AB. 1861, "ii.—SaZv. Ibis, 2d ser. 
ii. 1866, 191 (Guatemala).— Sw7id. Oefv. K. Vet.-Akad. Forh. iii. 1869, 610.— Oottes, Key, 
1872, 99. 

Mniotilta olivaeea. Gray, Handlist, i. 1869, 240, n. 3479.— C?te6. Nomencl. Av. 1875, 604. 

Peueedrainus olivaceus, Com«s apudHemh. Zool. Expl. W. 100 Merid. "1875" (== 1876), 
202 (type of genus). 

Peucedramus olivaeea, Hensh. List B. Ariz. 1875, 156 (Arizona). 

Sylvia tseniata, Dubus, " Bull. Acad. Brux. xiv. 1847, 104 " ; Revue Zoologique, 1848, 245. 

Mniotilta tiPulata, Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, 196. 

Sylvieola tseniata, Bp. C A. i. 1850, 309. 

Olive Warbler, Olive-backed Warbler, Olive-headed Warbler, Orange-breasted War- 
bler, Authors. 

Hab. — Mexico. North to ''Texas" (Giraud) smd Arizona, (Henshatv). South 
to Guatemala. 

Ch. sp. — <J Capite et collo aurantio-hrunneis, fascia lata nigra 
per latera capitis ductd; alis albo hi/asciatiSj speculo albo ad ha- 
seos primariorum. 

$ : Upper parts ashy, more or less olivaceous, changing to greenish on 
the nape. Head and neck all around orange-brown or intense safifron-yellow, 
with a broad black bar on the side of the head through the eyes. Wings 
blackish, the inner webs of all the quills edged with white, the outer webs 
of most of the primaries with whitish, and the outer webs of the secondaries 
with greenish ; most of the primaries also marked with white on the outer 
webs at base, forming a conspicuous spot (only seen elsewhere in Z). cccrules- 
cens, which is altogether different in other characters). Tail like the wings, 
with greenish edging of most of the feathers, the two outer ones on each 
side mostly or wholly white. Belly and sides whitish, tinged with olive or 
brownish. Length, about 4f ; wing, 3.00 ; tail, 2^-2^^ ; bill, i ; tarsus, f . 

The female is described as having the saffron color much clearer yellowish, 
and shaded with olive-green on the crown ; tho black bar replaced by whit- 
ish, excepting a dusky patch on the auriculars. The very young bird does 
not appear to be known. 

THE present is one of the "sixteen species" described and 
figured as new in 1841 by J. P. Giraud, and by him attrib- 
uted to Texas. Doubt has been often expressed with reference 
to the ascribed habitat of these birds, the presumption being 
that some, if not all, of them actually came from contiguous 
Mexican territory. But it is well to bear in mind that their 
describer's declaration of their origin was unwavering to the 
last, and that his statement is gradually being borne out by the 
rediscovery of his species within our limits; while the Texan 



234 HABITS OF THE OLIVE WARBLER 

side of the Valley of the Lower Eio Grande has afforded vari- 
ous species,* the existence of which in this region long remained 
unsuspected. Mr. Cassin redescribed and figured the species 
in 1855, since which time it has been generally enumerated 
among the birds of the United States; but, so far as I am 
aware, the first unequivocal testimony of its presence over our 
border has only been very recently afforded, by Mr. H. W. Hen- 
shaw, who took specimens in Arizona, and gave us our first 
information of the habits of the bird. The distribution of the 
species had meanwhile been traced southward through Mexico 
to Guatemala. The Baron Dubus, an ornithologist of Belgium, 
had examined a specimen from some portion of Mexico, and in 
1847 had described it as a new species under the name of Syl- 
via tccniata. Baird had noted the bird from Popocatepetl and 
the alpine region of Orizaba, whence specimens reached the 
Smithsonian through Prof. F. E. Sumichrast, the well-known 
collector; while Sclater and Salvin had left records of the occur- 
rence of the species in Cordova, Oaxaca, Xalapa, and Vera Paz. 
Mr. Henshaw's narrative of his experiences with the bird is as 
follows : — " During a three days' visit to Mount Graham, Au- 
gust 1 to 4, the species was not detected ; . . . . Returning 
here September 19, many of the species found in August in 
abundance had migrated south, and were either entirely want- 
ing or represented by individuals from farther north, while the 
woods, the silence of which was often unbroken for long inter- 
vals by the note of a single bird, would now and then, as if by 
magic, be filled with hundreds of feathered migrants, who in 
noisy companies were proceeding on their way south. The day 
after establishing our camp here, Mr. Kutter, of the party, 
brought in a fine specimen of this warbler, which he stated he 
had shot from among a flock of Audubon's Warblers and Snow- 

* Dr. James C. Merrill, Assistant Surgeon United States Army, lately found 
at Fort Brown, Texas, the following interesting species, all, with the excep- 
tion of the Grebe, new to the fauna of the United States: — Molothm? ccneus, 
Nyctidromus albicolliii, Pyrrhophana ricfferi, Amazilia cerviniventris, Parra 
gymnostoma, and Podiceps doviinicus. (See Bull. Nutt. Oruith. Club, i. n. 4, 
Nov. IHTG, p. 88, and ii. n. 1, Jan. 1877, p. 2G.) That the ornithological re- 
sources of our southern border are not yet exhausted may also be inferred 
from the fact that Mr. Henshaw alone added about a dozen species to the 
fauna of Arizona. Still later, Mr. George B. Sennett collected a Pigeon 
(Leptoptila albifrons) new to our fauna, near Fort Brown, Texas, as recorded 
by me. Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, ii. n. 3, for July, 1877, p. 82 ; besides the new 
Panda described on a preceding page, and a variety of My iarchus not before 
recognized as an inhabitant of the United States. 



THE GENUS DENDRCECA 235 

birds, which he had started from the ground while walking in 
the pine woods. With the rest, it had apparently been feeding 
upon the ground, and had flown up to a low branch of a pine, 
where it sat and began to give forth a very beautiful soug, 
which he described as consisting of detached, melodious, whist 
ling notes. During the next few days, I confined my collecting- 
trips to the spruce woods, and though I watched eagerly for 
this to me strange warbler, I did not see it until the last day of 
my stay in the locality, when I heard a few strange Vireo-like 
notes coming from some thick pines, and, hurrying to the spot, 
soon had the satisfaction of seeing one of these warblers on 
the low limbs of a huge pine, where it was moving quickly over 
the large branches, its manner and whole appearance remiud- 
ing me instantly of the Pine Creeper {Dendroica pinus). A few 
moments later, a second specimen was shot from the top of a 
tall pine, where it was actively creeping about. As all the 
warblers present here at this time were migrants, we may rea- 
sonably infer that, with the others, this species was en route 
from some locality to the north, and perhaps it may be found to 
be a rare inhabitant of the high pine region throughout Arizona 
and New Mexico." 

Genus DENDRCECA Gray 

MotaciUa and Sylvia, in part, of early authors. 

Sjivicola of Swainson, in part, and of many authors.— Gray, List of G. of B. 2d ed. 1841, 32. 

Xot of Humphreys. 
Dendroica, Gray, List of G. of B. 1&41, App. sep. titled and paged, 1842, 8 (type MotaciUa 

coronata L.).—Bd. NAB. 1858, 263. 
Dendrceca, " Agassiz".—Sund. Oefv. K. Vetensk.-Akad. Forh. iii. 1869, 605 (monographic). 
Dendrseca, Elliot, Introd. to Illust. BNA. 18—, — . 
Riinamphus, Rafinesque, "Am. Monthly Mag. iv. 1818, .39 ; Journ. de Phys. Isxxviii, 1819, 

417". (Type iE. citrinus, supposed to be Z). cestiva. Name not available) 
Riiimamphus, Hartl. Revue Zoologique, 1845, 342. 
Rhimanplius, Gray, " 1848 ".—Cab. Mus. Hein. L 1850, 19. 

Chars. — Bill variable in shape, usually conico-attenuate, more 
or less depressed at base, compressed from the middle ; notched 
near the tip, not showing the extreme acuteness of that of Hel- 
mintherus, Helminthophaga, and Protonotaria. Kictus with ob- 
vious bristles, which are not evident in the true " worm-eating" 
Warblers. Tarsus longer than the middle toe and claw (it is 
shorter, or not longer, in Mniotilta). Hind toe little if any 
longer than its claw (decidedly longer in Mniotilta and Parula). 
Wings much longer than tail, pointed, 1st and 2d primaries 
longest. Tail moderate, with rather broad feathers, nearly even, 
but varying to slightly rounded, or with slight central emargi- 
nation. Pattern of coloration indeterminate. Tail always with 
white blotches (except in cvstiva and its immediate allies, where 



236 THE GENUS DENDRCECA 

the inner webs are yellow), never plain olivaceous. Crown never 
with lateral black stripes, nor under parts uniformly streaked 
with blackish on a pale ground, nor back with a yellow patch, nor 
whole head yellow. Length usually 5 or G inches ; rarely under 
and perhaps never over these dimensions. Nest in trees or 
bushes, with rare exceptions. Eggs white, spotted. 

It is not easy to frame a definition of this genus covering all 
its modifications, yet introducing no term inapplicable to any 
species; but the foregoing expressions considered collectively, 
however arbitrary or trivial some of them may seem to be, 
may serve to distinguish any Dendrceca from its allies of other 
genera; and, if so, the diagnosis is exclusively pertinent to 
group as conventionally accepted. The coloration of these 
birds, though indeterminate iu most respects, is nevertheless 
a good clue to the genus ; for the tail of every Dendrceca is 
blotched with white, excepting D. (estiva and its allies, in 
which it is bright yellow on the inner webs ; and though sev- 
eral of the Worm-eating Warblers have white-blotched tails, 
these birds are easily distinguished by the acute, unnotched, 
and scarcely or not bristled bill ; while the Creeping Warblers, 
Mniotilta and Parula, with white-spotted tail-feathers, have 
differently j)roportioned feet. 'No Dendrceca shows the special 
color-pattern which Mniotilta, Parula, Protonotaria, Siiirus, 
Oporornis, and Geothlypis respectively exhibit; nor does any 
one of them present such a development of the rictal bristles 
as that seen in the group of Fly-catching Warblers, where, 
moreover, the bill is usually wider and more depressed at the 
base than it is in Dendrceca. 

The names this genus has borne have been frequently 
changed. The earlier-described species were usually called 
Motacilla or Sylvia, the ineligibility of which names is too obvi- 
ous to require comment. Next Sylvicola came into vogue ; but 
this, as instituted by Swainson, belongs more particularly to 
the group afterward called Parula, and, iu any event, is untena- 
ble, being long antedated by Sylvicola in conchology. The 
family name Sylvicolidce, however, is still generally derived from 
this source, though Gray calls the family Mniotiltidce, after 
Vieillot's genus Mniotilla or Mniotilta, and Cooper has lately 
named it Dendrcecidoe. Gray, in 1842, proposed the term Den- 
droica, Baird's adoption of which fixed it so firmly in our no- 
menclature, that a generation of American ornithologists have 
grown up who probably never think of using any other term. 
As far as I can see into the devices of nomenclature, it should 



D. MONTANA HELMINTHOPHAGA (1) CARBON ATA 237 

be retained in its emended form Dendroeca; the word being from 
the Greek de>dpov, a tree, and some one of the many words that 
group about oixsw, I inhabit, and oixoq, a Jiouse — signifying a 
tree-tenant, or one who is at home in the trees, as all our Wood- 
warblers are, excepting perhaps D. palmarum. 

For, as Baird showed in 1858, the only choice is between 
Dendroeca, and Rimamplius of Kaflnesque, which latter, in the 
forms of Bhimamphus or Rhimanphus, has been used by Hart- 
laub and Cabanis. Eafinesque's description of the type of his 
genus, E. citrinus, from the Ohio, has been supposed to indicate 
the Summer Warbler, B. ccstiva, and he doubtless had that 
species in the distorted perspective of his mental vision ; but 
the description of his "Citron Open-bill", as he called it, is that 
of an imaginary if not altogether impossible bird, so faulty as 
to render the name unavailable for the purposes of science. 

Dendroeca is the largest North American genus of birds, con- 
taining some thirty-five reputed species, nearly thirty of which 
are doubtless valid. No fewer than twenty-five of these have 
latterly been ascribed to North America; but two of them, 
"moutaiia"* and "carbonata",t are not now substantiated by 

* Dendroeca montana.— Blue Monntain Warbler. 

Sylvia montana, Wils. AO. v. 1812, 113, pi. 44, f. 2 (Blue Mountains of Pennsylvania).— 
Steph. Gen. Zool. x. 1817, 736 (after Wilson).— F. Ency. M6th. ii. 1823, 451, n. 110 (from 
Wilson).— £p. Joum. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 199.—.? ? Aud. OB. v. 1839, 294, pi. 434, f. 3 
(" California"). 

Sylvlcola montana, Jard. "ed. Wils. 1832, —".—?? Aud. Syn. 1839, 62.— iVwM. Man. i.2d 
ed. 1840, 442.— .? ? Aud. BA. ii. IS-.!, 69, pi. 98.— Bp. CA. i. 1850, 308. 

Mniotiltn montana. Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, 106.—Giebel, Nomenc. Av. ii. 1875, 604. 

Dcndroica montana, Bd. BNA. 1858, 278 (after Wilson)— i?d. Kev. AB. 1865, 190 (after 
Wilson).— JB. B. <£ B. NAB. i. 1874, 271 (after Wilson). 

Dendroeca montana, Sund. Oefv. K. Vet.-Akad. Forh. iii. 1869, 613. 

Sylvia tigrina, ? Vieill. OAS. ii. 1807, 34, pi. 94 (see under tigrina beyond, p. 245).— .Bp. 
Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 1820, 82 (after Wilson).- A^Mtt. Man. i. 1832, 393 (after Wilson). 

Sylvicola tigrina. Rich. Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. for 1836, 1837, 171 (ref. to Wilson).— B;;. 
CGL. 1838, 23. 

Fauvette des MontagneH Blenes, Y. Ency. M6th. ii. 1823, 451. 

Blue Mountain Warbler of Wilson, Nuttall, and Baird ,- whether of Audubon ? 
Hab. — "Blue Mountains of Pennsylvania." 

tHelntinthopbaga (?) carboiiata.— Carbonated Warbler. 

Sylvia carbonata, Aud. OR i. 1831, 308, pi. m.—Nutt. Man. i. 1832, 405. 

Sylvicola carbonata, Rich. Kep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. for 1836, 1837, 172. 

Helinaia carbonata, Aud. Syn. 1839, G8.— Aud. B A. ii. 1841, 95, pi. lO:). 

Termivora carbonata, Bp. CGL. 1838, 21. 

Helmitheros carbonata, Bp. C A. i. 1850, 315. 

Mniotilta carbonata, Qray,G. of B. i. 1848, 196.— Gieftei, Nomenc. Av. ii. 1875, COO. 

Dendroica carbonata, Bd. BNA. 1858, 287.— Bd. Rev. AB. 1865, 207. 

Dendroeca carbonata, Sund. Oefv. K. Vetensk.-Akad. Forb. iii. 1869, 618. 

Perissoglossa carbonata, B. B. <C- R. NAB. i. 1874, 214. 

Carbonated Swamp Warbler, Aud. I. c. 

Dusky Warbler, Nutt. 1. c. 

Hab.— " Kentucky." 



238 GENERAL TRAITS OF WARBLERS 

known specimens, and "carbouata", moreover, may belong to 
another genus; while one, olivacea, only lately ascertained to 
occur within our borders, has been made the type of a separate 
genus. This leaves twenty-two valid United States species, as 
given in my "Key" in 1872, there having been no additions 
since that date to the genus Dendrceca itself, though several 
other Warblers have in the mean time been discovered and de- 
scribed. Dendrceca tigrina, made by Baird the type of a distinct 
genus Perissoglossa in 1865, 1 still retain in this genus, pendiog 
the question whether other Warblers may not share its sup- 
posed peculiarities. The principal extralimital species of the 
genus are the Cuban D. jjHyopMla, the Jamaican I), pharetra, 
the Porto Rican D. adelaidw, and the several species or races 
related to D. crMiva. 

The beauty and variety of the genus are displayed to best 
advantage in the woodland of the Eastern United States, where 
the numerous species are conspicuous ornaments of the forest 
scene. In most portions of the United States, the Wood- 
warblers are migratory birds, coming with great regularity in 
the spring, each in its own time, abounding for a seasou, and 
then passing on to reappear in even greater profusion during 
the autumn. It is scarcely possible, however, to speak of them 
collectively in other than very general terms, such is the differ- 
ence they present not only in their movements, but in the minor 
details of their habits and traits of character. To the regular 
periodicity of their movements may be ascribed in some mea- 
sure the constancy of their specific characters, since none of 
them are long subjected to the modifying influences of particu- 
lar localities. Some species, like doinimca, are quite southerly 
in their distribution ; a few, like discolor and pinus, breed south- 
erly as well as farther north, and are as well known at large 
during the breeding season as at any other time. Most of them, 
however, push the spring migration to higher latitudes, scarcely 
resting content south of the latitude of Massachusetts, unless 
it be that they are satisfied to nestle upon the higher eleva- 
tions of the Alleghanies. Few remain with us during the 
winter, and these only linger along our southern border; but 
the hardy and resolute Yellovv-rumps are an exception to this 
statement, as they abound over at least the southern half of 
the United States throughout the most inclement seasons. The 
rest find more congenial winter homes beyond our border; some 
in the West Indies, others again in Mexico, and yet others in 



GENERAL TRAITS OF WARBLERS 239 

Central and even South America. Some of the Warblers that 
push farthest north in spring are also those that penetrate farth- 
est into South America, it being not at all a question of balan- 
cing a far-north spring migration with a less extended return 
movement in the fall. The passage of the Warblers keeps the 
collectors busy, and thousands, doubtless, of these delicate and 
attractive birds meet their fate each year in this way. The 
great variability in color, according to age, sex, or season, which 
nearly all the species display, no less than their real beauty, 
encourages the acquisition of large suites of specimens, and 
stimulates the collector to rival his fellows in the possession of 
the most highly plumaged spring males, or in the discovery of 
some of those indifferently feathered females and young which 
sometimes puzzle the most expert ornithologists ; and almost 
every local collection may boast its Warbler prize. In the 
breeding season, especially in New England and other northerly 
portions of the United States, the riper and more thoughtful 
naturalist, less avaricious of mere possession, finds ample scope 
for the exercise of his craft in his leisurely studies of the 
habits of Warblers and his diligent search for their nests. Nor 
was it long since that the nest and eggs of many of the com- 
monest species were rarities or even novelties, so slowly did we 
acquire our knowledge of this kind; and even now so much 
remains to be ascertained, that the field may be considered open 
to the diligence and ability of whoso may will to enter it. 

Only a single species of Dendrceca — the familiar and ubiqui- 
tous Summer Warbler — ranges regularly across the continent, 
though each side occasionally receives a straggler from the 
other, like D. coronata and D. townsendi. The abundance of 
the genus in the East contrasts sharply with its poverty in the 
West. Audubon's Warbler is the most numerously and widely 
diffused species, corresponding to the Yellow-rump of the East. 
D. nigrescenSj which may perhaps be considered to represent 
1). coerulescens, is another common species. The Eastern D. virens 
is the type and only representative of a little subgroup, which, 
in the West, furnishes no fewer than three species; though chry- 
soparia can hardly be called Western, as it only reaches Texas, 
D. occidentalis and D. toicnsendi being the representatives of 
the virens group in other parts of the West. Finally, the East- 
ern D. dominica is replaced in the Southwest by the lately dis- 
covered Grace's Warbler. 

In drawing comparisons between the Eastern and Western 



240 



DENDRffiCA VIRENS 



representation of Dcndrccca, lio« ever, we should not forget that 
several Eastern species, properly speaking, are not so exclu- 
sively restricted as has long been supposed. The recent thor- 
ough ransacking of the mountains of Colorado, by several 
well-trained ornithologists, has shown that various species 
reach across the Plains to the Rocky Mountains, and even pen- 
etrate their fastnesses — not as mere stragglers, but as regular 
migrants. Such species are D. striata, D. coerulea, D. black- 
hurnice, and D. maculosa, which I shall consequently include in 
the main text of the present work, as reaching the confines of 
the Colorado watershed. 




Fig. 32.— Black-throated Green "Warbler, natural size. 

The North American species of Bendrceca which are not 
known to come within such limit are the following: — 

Dendroeca virens.— BlacU-throated Oreen Warbler. 

MotaclIIa virens, Gm. SJT. 1. 1788, 985, n. 1541 (Edw. pi. 300, etc.) .—Turt. SN. i. 1806, 607. 

Sylvia Vlrens, Lath. lO. ii. 1790, 537, n. W^.— Vieill. OAS. ii. 1807, 33, pi. 92.— TFifa. AO. ii. 1810, 
127, pi. 17, f. 3.— F. N. D. d'H. N. xi. 1817, ll^.—Steph. Gen. Zool. x. 1817, 740.— F. 
Ency. M6th. ii. 1823, 440, n. 73.— i?p. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 192.— Bp. Ann. Lye. 
N. Y. ii. 1826, m.—Nutt. Man. i. 1832, 376, fig.-iicA<. "Preis-Verz. Mex. Vog. 1830, 2" ; 
J. f. O. 1863, 57.— Awd. OB. iv. 1838, 70, pi. 399.— P«a6. Rep. Orn. Mass, 1839, 308.— 
Thtmps. Vermont, 1853, ei.—Gcitke, " Nanm. 1858, 423 " (Heligoland, Europe). 

SylTlCOla virens, Ewh. Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. for 1836, 1837, 172.— jB;;. CGL. 1838, 22.— 
Aud.Syn. 1839, 55— 4«d. BA. ii. 1841.42, pi. 84.— Gir. BLI. 1844, 57.— J?p. CA. i. 1850, 
307.— TFood/t. Rep. Zuiii R. 1853, 70 (Texas and Indian Terr.).— Hoy, Pr. Phila. Acad, 
vi. '853, 310.-J?cad, Pr. Phila. Acad. IS.'A 398.— JJeinft. " Vid. Med. for 1853, 1854, 72, 
81 '\—Rei7ih. J. f. O. 1854, 426 (Greenland).— E'enwc. Tr. Illinois Agric. Soc. i. 1855, 
583.— Bnw. Pr. Bost. Soc. 1856, e.—Putn. Pr. Ess. Inst. i. 1856, 207.— Brj/. Pr. Best. 
Soc. vi. 1857, 116 (Nova Hcotia).— Willis. Smiths. Rep. for 1858, 1859, 282 (Nova 
Scotia).— Brew. Pr. Boat. Soc. vii. 1860, 307 (Cuba).— floj/. Smiths. Rep. fijr 1804, 1865, 
438.— Trippe, Pr. Ess. Inst. vi. 1871. 114. 



D. CHRYSOPARIA D. CCERULESCENS 241 

Mnlotrita vlrens, Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, 106.— Cabot, Naum. ii. Heft iii. 1852, G5.— Kneel. Pr. 
Bost. Soc. vi. 1857, 234. — Relnh. Ibia, iii. 1861, 5 (Greenland). 

Rhimanphus virens. Cab. MH. i. 1850, 19. 

Rhimamphus virens, Oundl. .J. f. 0. 1855, 474 (Cuba).— Sd. PZS. 1856, 291 (Mexico). 

Dendroica virens, Bd. B. N. A. 1858, ^ai.—Sel. PZS. 1858, 295 (Cordova).— &Z. PZS. 1859, 
373 (Oasaca).— S. <£ S. Ibis, i. 1859, 11 (Guatemala) —Gundl.J. f. 0. 1861, 326 (Cuba).— 
Barn. Smiths. Rep. for 1860, 1861, 436.— Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. vii. 1861, 293 (New 
Gianada).— Cowc« <f- Prenf. Smiths. Rep. for 1861, 1862, iGn.—Boardm.Vr. Bost. Soc. 
ix. 1862, 125.— Ferr. Pr. Ess. Inst. iii. 1862, \A&.— Allen, Pr. Ess. Inst. iv. 1864, 61.— 
£d. Rev. AB. 1865, 182.— iawr. Ann. Lye. N. T. viii. 1866, 284.— Trippe, Am. Nat. ii. 
1868, 113.— Turnb. B. E. Pa. 1869, 24; Phila. e,d. ll.—Haym. Cox's Surv. Indiana, 1869, 
'Hl'l.-Sumich. Mem. Bost. Soc. i. 1869, 546 (Vera Cruz). —». Frantz. J. f. O. 1869, 293 
(Costa Rica). —GMndi. J. f. O. 1872, 413 (Cuba).— & iJ. <£• i2. NAB. i. 1874,261, pi. 12, f. 
A.—Brewst Ann. Lye. N. Y. xi. 1875, 135.— J3m«. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 439. 

Dendroeca virens, Scl. P7S. 18.">9, 363 (Xalapa).— ,S'. <& S. PZS. 1864, 347 (Panama).— 5cJ. 
Ibis, 2d ser. i. 1865, 89 (critical). — Dress, ibid. 477 (San Antonio) .—Mcllwr. Pr. Ess. 
Inst. V. 18o6, 85.— £awr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ix. 1868, 94 (Costa Rica).— Coucs, Pr. Bost. Soc. 
xii. 1868, 110.— Cowes.Pr. Ess. Inst. V. 1868, 212.— Allen, Axn. Nat. iii. 1869, 509.— Sund. 
Oefv.K. Vet.-Akad. Forh. iii. 1809, Cll.—Salv. PZS. 1870, 182 (Voragua).— Cope, Am. 
Nat. iv. 1870, 395, 396, 399.— Coites, Key, 1872, 97, f. i^.-Mayn. Pr. Bost. Soc. xiv. 1872, 
Z&^.-Trippe, Am. Nat. vi. 1872, 47, AA.—Kerrick, BulL Ess. Inst. v. 1873, — .— TWppc, 
Pr. Bost. Soc. XV. 1873, 2.34.— Oowes, BNW. 1874, 54.— iaior. Bull. Nat. Mus. n. 4, 1876, 
16 (Tehuantepec).—Gen/r?/, Life- Hist 1876, lQ2.—Minot, B. N. Engl. 1877, 117.— i/err. 
Trans. Conn. Acad. iv. 1877, 15. 

Dendroeca '? , S. <f- S. Ibis, ii. 1860, 273 = w>en« ? . 

Black-throated Green Flycatcher, Edw. Gl. ii. 190, pi. 300. 

Figuier a gorge noir dc Peusilranie, Ficedula pensilvanica gutture nigro, Briss. 
Orn. vi. 1760, App. 104, n. 77. 

Figuier a cravatte noir. Buff. "v. 298 ". 

Green Warbler, Pmn. AZ. ii. 1785, 404, d. iOI.-Lath. Syn. ii. pt. IL 1783, 484, n. 108. 

Parus viridis gutture nigro, Bart. Trav. Fla. 1791, 292. 

Fauvette a cravate noire, V. EM. ii. 1823, 440.— ie Moine, Gis. Canad. 1861, 196. 

Black-throated Green Warbler, Authors. 

Hab.— Eastern Province of the United States and temperate British Amer- 
ica. West only to the edge of the Plains (Missouri, Kansas, Indian Territory, 
and Texas). North casually to Greenland. South to Panama. Migratory 
only in most parts of the United States. Breeds from the higher portions 
of the Middle States, and from New Englacd, northward. "Winters in Mexico, 
Central America, and also in Cuba (alone of the West Indies). Accidental 
in Europe (Heligoland, Gcitke, as above cited). 

Dendroeca chrysoparia. — Crolden-chceked 'Warbler. 

Dcndroeca chrysoparia, S. <& 8. PZS. i860, 298 (Guatemala ; not of PZS. 1862, 19).— S. dtS. 

Ibis, ii. 1860, 273 (Vera Paz, Guatemala).- M. Ibis, i. 2d ser. 1805, 89 (critical).— Dress. 

Ibis, 1865, 477 (Medina River, Texas). 
Dendroica chrysopareia, Bd. Rev. AB. i. 1865, 183, 267.— B. B. d- Ji. N. A. B. i. 1874, 260, pi. 

12, f. 6. 
Dendroeca chrysopareia, Sund. Gefv. K. Vot.-Akad. Forh. iii. 1869, 610.— Coop. B. C.il. i. 

1870, 193, lig.— Coues, Key, 1872, 98. 
Mniotilta chrysopareia, Gray, H.-L. i. 1869, 241, n. 3494.— Gieb. Nomenc. Av. ii. 1875, 601. 

Hab. — Tiixas to Guatemala. 

Dendroeca ccerulescens.- Black-throated Bine Warbler. 

llotacilla canadensis, L. SN. i. 1760, 336, n. 42 (from Briss. iii. 527, pi. 27, f. 6, .and Edvr. v. 
pi. 2j2, f. 1 — Not the bird of same name on p. 334, ■which is D. coronata).—Bodd. 
Tabl. PE. 17H3, 43 (PE. 685, f 2).— Got. SN. i. 1788, 991. n. 42 (same bases, with addi- 
tion of Black-throated Warbler of Penu. and L.ath.).— Twrt. SN. i. 1806, Oil. 
lU B C 



242 DENDRCECA CCERULESCENS 

Sylvia canadensis, Xa<ft. 10. ii. 1790, 539, d. m.—Wils. AO. ii. 1810, 115, pi. 15,{.7.—Bp. 

Jonrn. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 191.— i?p. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 1826, 8i.—mitt. Man. i. 1832. 

398.— J^ud. OB. ii. 1834, 309, pis. 148, 155.— Pea6. Rep. Cm. Mass. 1839, 311.— rftowip*. 

Vermont, 1853, 83. 
Ftayllopneuste canadensis, Boie, Isis, 1828, 321. 
SylvlCOla canadensis. Rich. Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. for 1836, 1837, 112.— Bp. CGL. 1838, 

ZS.—Aud. Syn. 1839, 61.— Aud. BA. ii. 1841, 63, pi. 95.— Gir. BLI. 1844, 56.— Gos«e, B. 

Jam. 1847, 160.— Z>en7ij/, PZS. 1847, 38.— £p. CA. i. 1850, 308.— TFoorf/i. Sitgr. Rep. Zuni 

and Colo. R. 1853, 11.— Read, Pr. Phila. Acid. vi. 1853, 399.— ZToy, ibid. 31 1.— Henry, 

Pr. Phila. Acad. vii. 1855, 309.— £:en?i. Tr. 111. Agric. See. i. 1855, 583.— Pmften, ibid. 

602.— Pw<»t. Pr. Ess. Inst. i. 1856, 201.— Salle, PZS. 18.57, 231 (San Domingo).— TTiiJts, 

Smiths. Rep. for 1858, 1859,282 (Nova Scotia).— Prr/. Pr. Bost. Soc. vii. 1859, 110 

(Bahamas).— £rew. Pr. Bost. Soc. vii. 1860, 307 (Cuha). —Albrecht, J. f. O. 1861, 53 

(Bahamas).- B^oy, Smiths. Rep. for 1864, 1865, 438.— Bry. Pr. Bost. Soc. xi. 1867, 91 

(San Domingo).— IVippe, Pr. Ess. Inst. vi. 1871, 114. 
MniotlUa canadensis, Oray, G. of B. i. 1848, im.— Kneel. Pr. Bost. Soc. vi. 1857, 234. 
Rhimamphus canadensis, Gundl. J. f. O. 1855, 473 (Cuba).— Gundl. J. f. 0. 1861,408 (Cnha). 
Dendroica canadensis, Bd. BNA. 1858, 271.— iTmri/.Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 1859, 106.— OwndJ. 

J. f. O. 1861, 326 (Cuba).- Barn. Smiths. Rep. for 1860, 1861, 436.—Goues d- Prent. 

Smiths. Rep. for 1861, 1862, 407.— Fcrr. Pr. Ess. Inst. iii. 1862, 146.— Boardm. Pr. Bost. 

Soc. ix. 18C2, 125.— March, Pr. Phila. Acad. xv. 1863, 29:i.— Allen, Pr. Ess. Inst. iv. 1864, 

62.—Lawr. Ani'. Lye. IST. T. viii. 1866, 28i.—Trippe, Am. Nat. ii. 1868, 172. 
Dendroeca canadensis, Set PZS. 1861, 70 (Jamaica).— AifirecAt, J. f. 0. 1862, 193 (Jamaica).— 

Dress. Ibis, 2d ser. i. 1865, 478 (Texas).— Ifc/Jwr. Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1866, 85.—Trippe, Am. 

Nat. vi. 1872, 41.—Trippe, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1873, 235. 
Motacilla cserulescens, 6m. SN. i. 1788, 960, n. 74 (Buff. v. 164 ; Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 440, 

n. 35).—Turt. SN. i. 1806, 590.— Less. Tr. Orn. i. 1831, 419. 
Sylvia caerulescens, Steph. Gen. Zool. x. 1817, 651.— F. Ency. M6th. ii. 1823, 432, n. 44.— 

B'Orb. Ois. Cuba, 1839, 63, pi. 9, f. 1, 2 (Cuba). 
Dendroica ca;rulescens, Bd. Rev. AB. 1865, 186— Gundl. J. f. 0. 1872, 413 (Cuba).— 2J. B. 

d: B. NAB. i. 1874, 254, pi. 12, f. 10, 11.— Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 439. 
Dendrceca cserulescens, Sund. Oefv. K. Vec.-Akad. Forh. iii. 1869, 610.— Cowes, Key, 1872, 

90.—Uayn. Pr. Bost. Soc. xiv. 1872, 363.— Jlfaj/n. B. Fla. 1873, 54.— Iferr. Am. Nat. viii. 

1874, 81.— Gentry, Life-Hist. 1876, 105.— Jones, Bull. Nutt. Club, i. 1870, 11 (breeding).- 

Minot, B. N. Engl. 1877, 115.— Merr. Tr. Conn. Acad. iv. 1877, 15. 
Sylvia coerulescens. Lath. lO. ii. 1790, 520, u. 39.— F. OAS. ii. 1807, 25, pi. 80.— F. N. D. 

d^n. N. xi. 1817, 168. 
Dendrteca coerulescens, Coiies, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 1868, 110.— Coues, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 18G8, 

212.— Cope, Am. Nat. iv. 1870, 395, 399.- Cottes, BNW. 1874, 55. 
Dendroica coerulescens, Turnb. B. E. Pa. 1869, 24 ; Phila. ed. 17. 
Mniotilta coerulescens, Gie6. Nomenc. Av. ii. 1875, 602. 
Sylvia pusilla, Wih. AO. v. 1812, 100, pi. 43, f. 4 ( $ . Not of same -work, iv. 1811, 17, pi. 28, 

f. 3, which is Parula americana). — Bp. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 197. 
SylvlCOla pusilla, Denny, PZS. 1847, 38. 

Sylvia leucoptera, Wils. "Index, and 2d od. (Hall's ed.) ii. 390" ($ renamed). 
Sylvia palustris, Steph. Shaw's Gen. Zool. x. 1817, 722 ( ? renamed). 
Sylvia macropos, Yieill. Ency. M6th. ii. 1823, 451, n. 112 ( $ renamed). 
Mniotilta macropus. Gray, G. of. B. i. 1848, 196. 
Sylvia sphagnosa, Bp. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 199 (? renamed).— Bp. Ann. Lye. 

N. Y. ii. 1826, 85.— Nutt. Man. i. 1832, 406.— Aud. OB. ii. 1834, 279. 
Vlreo spbagnosa, "Jardine ". (See Brewer's 12mo. ed. of Wilson, Boston, 1840, 393.) 
SylvlCOla pannosa, Gosse, B. Jam. 1847, 162 ( ? ).—Gosse, HI. B. Jam. 1849, pi. 37. 
Mniotilta pannosa. Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, 196. 
Dendra'ca pannosa, Scl. PZS. 1861, ll.—Albrecht, J. f. 0. 1862, 193. 
Blue Flycatcher, Edw. Gl. pi. 252, f. l (= ]\J. canadensis Linn. p. 336). 
Petit Figuier cendr^ de Canada, Ficedula canadensis cinerea minor, Briss. Orn. iii. 

1760, 527, pi. 27, f. 6 (= M. canadensis L. p. 336). 
Figuier cendre du Canada, Buff. PE. 685, f. 2. 

Flguier bleu. Buff. "v. 304 ', or " ix. 44C " (PE. 685, i. 2) (= If. canadensis Linn. p. 336). 
Fauvette bleuatre de S. Domingue, Buff. "Hist. Nat. Ois. v. 164 " (= M. cceruhscens Gm.) 



DENDRCECA CASTANEA 243 

Blue-grey Warbler, Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 440, n. 35 (= M. ccendeseens Gm.). 

Black-thPOatcd Warbler, Lath. Syn. ii. 1783, 487, n. 113.— Penw. AZ. ii. 1785, 399, n. 2S5, 

Faiivettc blcuiitre, V. 1. c. 1817. 

Fanveftc dcs pins marccageux, V. EM. ii. 1823, 451 ($). 

Bec>fln bleuatre, J)' Orb. 1. c. 

Olive Warbler, Gogse, 1. c. ( ?). 

Black-throated Blue Warbler, Canadian Warbler, Pine-swamp Warbler, Authors. 

Note. — Though so extensive, the synonymy of this species is perfectly plain. Ther« 
were two early sources of names, both referring to the Black-throated Blue cT. One ol 
these was Edwards's " Bine Flycatcher ", which became M. canadensis L., anct. ; the other 
was Buffou's " Fanvette blenStre de St. Domingue ", which made M. ccerulescens Gm., auct. 
It is required to adopt the latter and later name, because there is another, prior, M. cana- 
densis L. = coronata. The very differently-colored olivaceous ? did not appear till 
Wilson, who called it S. jyusilla, a name he had, however, already given to the Parula. 
Perceiving this double employ, several authors hastened to propose names ; whence leucop- 
tera of Wilson's "Index", palustris Steph., macropos V., and sphagnosa Bp. — all mere 
renames ; Gosse, however, discovered and named the $ pannosa independently. 

Hab. — Eastern Province of North America, including most of British 
Amorica ; its United States range closely coincident with that of D. virens. 
(Accredited to the Upper Missouri by Audubon.) Breeds from New England, 
and doubtless from higher portions of the Middle States, northward. Mi- 
gratory in most of the United States. Winters in Southern Florida {Mayu- 
ard), and in various of the West India Islands (Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, 
and San Domingo); eo M exican nor Central American record, the winter 
range being thus very different from that of D. virens. 

Dendrceca castanea.— Bay-breasted Warbler. 

Sylvia castanea, Wils. AO. ii. 1810, 97, pi. 14, f i.-Steph. Gen. Zool. x. 1817, 714.— F. Ency. 

M6th. ii. 1823, 452, n. 113.— .Bp. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 189.— i?^?. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 

ii. 1826, 80.— A^Mtt. Man. i. 1832, 382.— J. wd. OB. i. 1832, 358, pi. m.—Peab. Eep. Orn. Mass. 

1839, 309. 
SylvlCOla rastanea. Rich. Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. for 1836, 1837, 172 —£p. CGL. 1838, 

22.— 4ud. Syn. 1839, 53.— Awd. BA. ii. 1841, 34, pi. 80.— Pp. CA. i. 1850, 308.— ITo?/, Pr. 

Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, ZW.—Read, ibid. zm.—Prntten, Tr. 111. Agric. Soc. i. 1855, COl.— 

Putn. Pr. Ess. Inst. i. 1856, Wl.—Hoy, Smiths. Rep. for 1864, 1865, 438 (Missouri). 
Mniotilta castanea. Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, 196. 
Bhtmanphus castancus, Cab. MH. i. 1850, 19. 
Dendrolca castanea, Pd BJTA. 1858, 276.— &<fi& Ibis, i. 1859,11 (Guatemala).- Cass. Pr. 

PhiL% Acad. xii. 1860, 193 (Isthmus of Darion).— Parw. Smitlia. Rep. for 1860, 1861, 

436.— Cowes (6 Prent. Smiths. Rep. for 1861, 1862, 407.— Poardm. Pr. Bost. Soc. ix. 1862, 

125.— Ferr. Pr. Ess. Inst. iii. \mi,m.— Allen, Pr. Ess. Inst. iv. 1864, 62.— Pd. Rev. 

AB. 1865, 189.— £awr. Ann. Lye. N. T. viii. 1866, 284.— 2Wppe, Am. N.at. ii. 1868,173, 

Vt^.—Turnb. B. E. Pa. 1869, 25 ; Phila. ed. 18.— Prew. Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1872, 102.— P. P. 

d R. NAB. i. 1874, 251, pi. 13, f. 4, 5.— Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 4.39. 
Dendroeca castanea, Lawr. Ann. Lye. vii. 1861, 322 (New Granada).— >?. (C S. PZS. 1864, 347 

fPanama).— jjfciiior. Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1866, m.—Goues, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 272.— 

Ooues, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 1868, IIQ.— Allen, Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 578.— Simd. Oefv. K. 

Vet.-Akad. Forh. iii. 1869, QU.—Mayn. Guide, \«lQ,Wi.— Wyatt, Ibis, 2d ser. i. 1871, 

322 (Naranjo).- Ifai/n. Pr. Bost. Soc. xiv. 1872, 361.- Prew. Ibis, 3d ter. ii. 1872, 

334 (migrations).— OoMfis, Key, 1872, 101.— Oowes, BNW. 1874, 61.— Ocn^rj/, Life-Hist. 

i. 1876, 117.— Pawr. Bull. Nat. Mus. n. 4, 1876, 15 (Tehuantepec).— Jftnof, B. N. Engl. 

1877, 108.— Iferr. Trans. Conn. Acad. iv. 1877, 16. 
Sylvia antumnalis, WiU. AO. iii. 1811, 65, pi. 23, f. 3.— Steph. Gen. Zool. x. 1817, 632.— F. 

Ency. M6th. ii. 1823, 448, n. 102.— B^J- Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 195.— Pp. Ann. Lye. 

N. Y. ii. 1826, 84.—Nutt. Man. i. 1832, 390.— Attd. 03. i. 1832, 449, pi. 88.— Pea&. Rep. 

Orn. Mass. 1839, 310 —Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. v. 1852, 223. 




244 DENDRCECA PENNSYLVANICA 

Fauvettc i\ poltrlne rouseatre, V. EM^. ii. 1823, 452. 
Fauvctte d'automne, T". Ency. Meth.ii. 18-23, 448. 
Fauvettc ti gorge bale, ie Jroine,Oi8.Canail. 1861, 205. 
Baj-brcastcd Warbler, Autumnal Warbler, Authors. 

Hab. — Closely correspoudcnt to that of D. striata, but less extensive. 
Eastern Province of North America ; north to Hudson's Bay (not Alaska nor 
Greenland) ; west only to the edge of the Plains. Migratory only in nearly 
all of the United States. Breeds from Northern New England northward. 
Winters in Central and northernmost South America (no other extraliniital 
record). 

Deudroeca pennsylvanica.— Ctaestnut>sided \^arbler. 

Motacilla pensylvanira, L. SN. i. 1766, 333, n. 19 (Edw.pl.30l).— Twr*. SN. i. 1806,596. 

Sylvia pensylvanlca. Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 540, n. 120. 

Dendroica pensylvanlca, Parker, Am. N.it. v. 1871, 
im.— Packard, Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 2n.— Stark, 
Am. Nat. viii, 1874, 756 (breeding in West Vir- 
ginia). 

Dendroeca pensylvanlca, iJidflfw.Am.Nat.vii. 1873,199. 

Motacilla pensilvanlca, Gm. SN. i. 1788, 971, n. 19. 

Sylvia peiinsylvanica, Wils. AO. ii. 1810, 99, pi. 14, f. 
5.—Bp. Journ. Pliila. Acad. iv. 1824, 189. 

Mniotilta pennsylvanica, Gray, G. of B. 1.1848, 196.— 
Cabot, Naum. ii. Heft iii. 1852, 66 (Lake Supe- 
rior). • Fig. 33.— Cliestnat-sided "Warbler. 

Dendroica pennsylvanica, Bd. BNA. 1858, 279.— Barn. Smiths. Kep. for 1860, 1861, 436.— 
Cones (£• Prent. Smiths. Eep. for 1861, 1862, 408.— Boardm. Pr. Best. Soc. ix. 1862,125.— 
Verr. Pr. Ess. Inst. iii. 1862, 147.— Hayd. Eep. Tr. Amer. Philos. Soc. xii. 1862, 161 
(Platte 'River). —AUen, Pr. Ess. Inst.iv. 1864, 63.— Bd. Kev. AB. 1865, 191.— Xawj-. Ann. 
Lye. N. T. viii. 1866, 284.— Tripp e, Am. Nat. ii. 1868, 173.— v. Frantz. J. f. O. 1869, 293 
(Costa Ricti). —Turnb. B. E. Pa. 1869, 25 ; Phila. od. 18.— i?. B. a R. NAB. i. 1874, 24.5, pi. 
13, {. 7, 8.— Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 439. 

DendroBca pennsylvanica, S. <£ S. Ibis, ii, i860, 273 (Cobau).— £awr. Ann. Lye. N. T. vii. 1861, 
322 (New Granada).— & <fi S. PZS. 1864, 347 (Panama).— ^/c/iwr. Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 
1866, 86.— Salv. PZS. 1867, 136 (Veragua).— iawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ix. 1868, 94 (Costa 
Kica).— Cow««, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 1868, IIQ—Coties, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1808, 273.— Law*-. 
Ann. Lye. N. Y. ix. 1869, 200 {Yucatan).— Salv. PZS. 1870, 182 (Veragua).— S. <£• S. PZS. 
1870. 836 (Honduras).— Oowes, Key, 1872, 101, f 43.— Allen, Am. Nat. vi. 1872, 2(5.- Allen, 
Bull. MCZ. iii. 1872 (Kansas).— Jfaj/n. Pr. Bost. Soc. xiv. 1872, 366.— Trippe, Pr. Bost. 
Soc. XV. 1873, 235.— Oowes, BNW. 1874,62 —Gentry, Lifc-Hist. i. 1876, 120.— Minot, B. N. 
Engl. 1877, 106.— Merr. Trans. Conn. Acad. iv. 1877. 17. 

Sylvicola pennsylvanica, Trippe, Pr. Ess. Inst. vi. 1871, 114 (Minnesota). 

Motacilla icterocephala, L. SN. i. 1766, 334, n. 25 (Briss. iii. 517) —O?^. SN. i. 1788, 980, n. 
■2o.—Iurt. SN. i. 1806, 603. 

Sylvia icterocephala. Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 538, n. 113.— F. OAS. ii. 1807, 31, pi. 90.— F. N. D. 
d'H. N. xi. 1817, 223.— Steph. Gen. Zool. x. 1817, 622.— F. Ency. Mttb. ii. 1823, 441, n. 80.- 
.Bp.Ann. Lyc.N.Y.ii. 1826, 80.— J.Md. OB. i. 18.32, 306, pi. 59.— xVm«. Man. i. 1832, 380.- 
Peab. Ptep. Orn. M.iss. 1839, 309.— Thomps. Vermont, 1853, 82. 

Sylvicola icterocephala, iStc/i. Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1836, 1837, 172.— Bp. CSL. 1838. 22- 
A«ri. Syn.1839, 54.— At/d.BA.ii. 1841, 35, pi. 81.— Bp. CA. i. 1850, 308.— Ho?/, Pr. Phila. 
Acad. vi. 1853. 30.— iJerad, ibid. 398— iTcmitc.Tr. 111. Agric. Soc. i. 1855, 583.— Pratten, 
ibid. 602.— Putn. Pr. E-s. Inst. i. 1856, 207.— Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. vi. 1856, 6.—Bry. 
Pr. Bost. Soc. vi. 1857, 116 (Nova Scotia).— Bry. Pr. Bost. Soc. vii. 1859, 110 (Bahamas).— 
Willis, Smiths. Rep. for 18.58, 18.59, 382 (Nova Scotia).— A^6rec/^^ J, f. 0. 1801, 153 (Baha- 
mas).— Hoy, Smiths. Rep. for 1864, 1865, 438 (Missouri). 

Dendra;ca icterocephala, Sel. PZS. 1859, 363 (Xalapa). -Ca6. J. f. 0. 1860, 328 (Costa Rica).— 
Sund. Oefv. K. Vet.-Ak.id. Forh. iii. 1860, 612.— Cope, Am. Nat. iv. 1870, 395, 396. 

Dendroica icterocephala, Sd. PZS. 1869, 374 (Oaxaca). 



DENDRCECA TIGRINA 245 

Mniotilta icterocephala, Gieb. Nomonc. Av. ii. 1875, 603. 

Red-tbroatcd Flj catcher, ^dw. Gl. ii. 193, pi. 301 {= 2I.pen»ylvanica J..',. 

Red-tliroatcd Warbler, Lath. S.vn. ii. pt, ii. 1783, 490, n. 116 (after Edwards/ 

Figuier a poitrine rouge, Buf. "v. 308". 

Flguicr a tes'e jaune de Canada, Ficedula c^inadensis Icterocephalos, Briss Orn. iii. 

17G0, 517, n. 64, pi. 27, f. 2 (descr. orig. = M. icterocephala L.). 
Figuier a tete jaune de Canada, Buf. "v. 299". 
Figuier a tesle jaune de Peusilvanie, Ficedula pensilvanica Icteroceplialos, Briss. 

Orn. vi. 1760, App. 105 (after Edwards). 
Quebec Warbler, Pmn. AZ. ii. 1785, 408, n. 305.— Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 484, n. 109. 
Yellow-crowned Warbler, Steph. 1. c. nee auct. 

Fauvette a tete jaune, r. N. D. d'H. K xi. 1817, 223.— F. Ency. Meth. ii. 1823, 441. 
FauTCtte aux cotes cbataines, Le Maine, Ois. Canad. 1861, 206. 
Chestnut-Sided Warbler, Authors. 

Note. — There are two independent early sources of mmcs here. One is the Edwards's 
" Red-throated Flycatcher ", pi. 301, which became If. pensylvanica L., auct. The other is 
Brissou's "Figuier h teete jaune de Canada", which became M. icterocephala L., auct. 
Note that the bird may have received the epithet " Bloody-sided " from some; but that, 
nevertheless, the "Bloody-sided Warbler" of Latham and Pennant is quite another bird, 
to wit, Sylvia ruficr'pilla Lath. 1790, a "Woet Indian variety of D. petechia of the D. cestiva 
group; and that it is the "Quebec "Warbler" of Pennant and Latham that = ictero- 
cephala L. 

Hab. — Eastern Province, United States and Canada. West only to the edge 
of the Plains, and scarcely north of the United States. Breeds abundantly 
in New England, and doubtless also in the Middle States. Winters entirely 
extralimital. South in portions of Mexico (Xalapa, Oaxaco, Sclater, though 
it is stated in Hist. NAB. i. 245, that it is not recorded from Mexico); 
Honduras, Costa Rica, and Guatemala to Panama, and probably farther. 
Bahamas alone of the West Indies. 

Dendroeca tigrina. — Cape May Warbler, 

Motacilla tigrina, Gm. SN. 1. 1788, 985, n. 153 (Edw. pi. 25^,&c.).-?Turt. SN". i. 1806, 606. 
Sylvia tigrina, Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 537, n. 110.— F. OAS. ii. 1807, 34, pi. 94 (Baird makes 

this = montona Wils. ; but V. quotes himself as = %rin« Gm.). — K N. D. d'H. N. 

xi. 1817, '2^8.— Steph. Gen. Znol. x. 1817, 738.— F. Ency. M6th. iL 1823, 428, n. 30 (quotes 

Edw., Buff., and Briss., and his own OAS. ii. 34, pi. 94). 
Mniotilta tigrina, Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, 19<5. 
Sylvlcola tigrina, Bry. Pr. Best. S::c. xi. 1867, 91 (San Domingo). 
Dendroica tigrina, .Bd BNA. 1858, 286.— Gundi. J. f. O. 1861,326 (Cnba).—.Ba/-n. Smiths. 

Kep. for 1860, 1861, 4:!6. — Coucs tfi Pretit. Smiths. Rep. for 1861, 1862, 408.— Boardm. Pr. 

Best Soc. ix. 1862, 125— Ferr. Pr. Ess. Inst. iii. 1862, 157.— Jlfarc/t, Pr. Phila. Acad. 

XV. 1863, 293 (Jamaica).- A(?fln, Pr. Es-. Inst. iv. 1864, 63.— iawr. Ann. Lye. N. T. 

viii. 1866, 2S4.—Tri2)pe, Am. iN'at. ii. 1868, 115.— Turnb. B. E. Pa. 1869, 25 ; Phila. cd. 18.— 

Orton, Am. Nat. iv. 1871, 714. 
Dendroeca tigrina, Scl. PZS. 1801, 71 {.Taniaica).—Albrecht, J. f. 0. 1862, 193 (Jamaica).— 

Mcllwr. Pr. Ess. Inst. v. If 66, 86 (Can.ada West).— Siind. Oefv. K. Vet.-Akad. Fiirh. 

iii. 1869, 6ie.—Ooues, Key, le72. !02 — JlfrtJ/ji. B. Fla. 1873, 55.— Gentry, Life-Hist. i. 

1876, 127.— Jferr. Tr. Conn. Acad. iv. 1877, 17. 
Perissoglossa tigrina, £J. Rev. AB. 1865, 181.— (7oue«,Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 274.— Cows, 

Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 1868, 109.— A««»i, Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 578.— Jlf«i/n. Pr. Bost. Soc. xiv. 

1872, 31)8.— Gundl. J. f. 0. 1872, 412 (Cuba).-K B. <t R. NAB. i. 1874, 212, pi. 12, f. 1, 2.— 

Bretv. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 430.— llinot, B. N. Engl. 1877, 102. 
Sylvia maritima, Wils. AO. vi. I812, 99, pi. 54, f 3 (d)-— Steph. Gen. Zool. x. 1817,739.— 

.B;j. Jonrn. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 200.— i?^j. AO. i. 1825, 32, pi. 3, f. 3.— iJ/i. Ann. Lye. 

N.Y.ii. 1826,79.— A ud. OB. v. 1839, IhG, i>\. 414. -Xutt. Man. i. 1832, 371.— D'Orft. Ois. 

Cuba, 1639, 70, pi. 10. 



246 DENDRCECA DISCOLOR 

SylvlCOla maritima, Jard. " od. Wils. 1832 ".—Bp. CGL. 1838, 22.— Awd Syn. 1839, 5&.—Nutt. 

Man. i. 2d ed. 1840, 424.— Awd. BA. ii. 1841, 44, pi. 85.— Bfi. C A. i. 1850, 307.— iTot/, Pr. 

Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 311 (Wisconsin).— iiead, ibid. 398.— Pw«7i. Pr. Ess. Inst. i. 185G, 

^{^1.— Willis, Smiths. Rep. for 1858, 18.59,282 (Nova Scotia).— .Brj/. Pr. Best. Soc. vii. 

1859, 110 (Bahamas).— ^rew. Pr. Boat. Soc. vii. 1860, 307 (Cuha.) .—Alhrecht, J. f. 0. 1861, 

53 (Bahamas). 
Certhiola maritima, Gosse, B. Jam. 1847, m.—Gosse, 111. B. Jam. 1849, pi. 17. 
Muiotilta maritima, Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, 196.— Oaftot, Naum. ii. Heftiii. 1852, 66 (Lake 

Superior). 
Rliimamphns maritimus, Gundl J. f. 0. 1855, 474 (Cuba).— Gwndi. J. f. 0. 1801, 409 (Cuba). 
Dondroeoa maritima, A. & E. Newt. Ibis, i. 1859, 144 (St. Croix). 
Spotted Yellow Flycatcher, Edio. Gl. lOl, pi. 257. 
Spotted Yellow Warbler, Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. ) 783, 482, n. 106. 
Spotted Warbler, Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 407, n. 302. 
Figuier briiii de Canada, Ficedula canadensis fusca, Brisn. Orn. iii. 1760, 515, n. 63, pi. 

27, f. 4 (.ifter Edwards, pi. 257). 
Figuier tachet6 de Jaune, Buff. " Hist. Nat. Ois. v. 293 ". 
Fauvette tlgree, V. K D. d'H. N. xi. 1817, 228.— F. Ency. M6th. ii. 1823, 428. 
Bec-Hn a joues rousses, D'Orb. 1. c. 
Spotted Creeper, Gosse, 1. c. 

Fauvette du Cape May, Le Maine, Ois. Canad. 1861, 208. 
Cape May Warbler, Cape May Wood Warbler, Authors. 

Note. — All the synonymy flows in one stream from Edw. pi. 257, until it receives the 
tributary maritima "Wils.— V. OAS. pi. 94, has been referred to "montana Wils.", but 
wrongly, I think, though at least one author, Nuttall, 1832, called the "Blue Mountain 
Warbler " " S. tigrina Lath." Note that Latham's var. A. of his " Spotted Yellow War- 
bler " is altogether another bird, namely, Siurus ncevius, q. v. 

Hab. — Eastern Province, United States and temperate British America. 
North to Hudson's Bay and Lake Winipeg. Only known west to the Missis- 
sippi. A rather rare migrant in most of the United States, breeding from 
Northern New England northward. Winters in various West India Islands. 
Resident in Jamaica. No Mexican nor Central American record. 

Dendrceca discolor.— Prairie liVarblcr. 

Sylvia discolor, F. OAS. ii. 1807, 37, pi. 98.— F. N. D. d'H.N. xi. 1817, 181.— Steph. Gen. 
Zool. X. 1817, 716.— F. Encj-. M6th. ii. 1823, 445, n. 92.— i?p. Ann. Lye. N. T. ii. 1826, 
82.— iess. Tr. Orn. 1831, 418.— iV^M**. M.an. i. 1832, "294" (i.e. a04).—Aud. OB. i. 1831, 
76, pi. Ii.— Brew. Jonrn. Boat. Soc. i. 1837, 436 (Massachusetts).— Pea6. Rep. Crn. 
Mass. 1839,311. 

SylviCOla discolor, Jard. "ed. Wils. 1832".— Bich. Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. for 1836, 
1837, 172.— Pi*. CGL. 1838, 23.— A«rf. Syn. 1839, 6i.—Aud. BA. ii. 1841, 68, pi. 97.— 
Gosse, B. Jam. 1847, i50.—Bp. CA. i. 1850, 308.— iTo!/, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 311 
(Wisconsin^- Pead, ibid. 309.— Pratten, Tr. 111. Agiic. Soc. i. 1855, 602.— Brew. Pr. 
Bottt. Soc. 1856, 6 (Massachusetts).- Pm<»i. Pr.Ess. Inst. i. 1856, 201.— Bland, Smiths. 
Rep. for 1858, 1859, 287 {BoTmnda).—Bry. Pr. Bost. Soc. vii. 1859, 110 (Bahamas).— 
Bretv. Pr. Bost. Soc. vii. 1860, 307 (Cuba.).— Albrecht, J. f. O. 1861, 53 (Bahamas).— 
Bry. Pr. Bost. Soc. x. 1866, 251 (Porto Rico).— Uri/. J. f. 0. 1866, 184 (the same).—^?-?/. 
Pr. Bost. Soc. xi. 1867, 91 (San Domingo). 

Mniotilta discolor. Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, 196. 

Rhimampbus discolor, Gundl. J. f. o. 1855, 474 (Cuba). 

Dendroica discolor, Bd. BNA. 1858, 290.— Gundl. J.f.0. 1801,326 (Cuba).— .Barn. Smiths. 
Rep. for I860, 1861, 436.— Cones d: Prent. Smiths. Rep. for 1861, 1862, 408.— Jlfrtrcft, Pr. 
Phila. Acad. xv. 1863, 293 (J Ama,ica).— Allen, Pr. E.ss. Inst. iv. 1864, 64 (Massachu- 
setts).- Bd Rev. AB. 186.5, 213.— Laivr. Ann. Lye. N. T. viii. 1866, 284.— rn>i)c. Am. 
Nat. ii. 1868, I18.—Turnb. B. E. Pa. 1869, 25 ; Phila. od. 18.— Gundl. J. f. 0. 1872, 416 
(Cnha,). —Packard, Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 271.— i'.l?. <g i?. NAB. i. 1874, 276, pi. 14, f. 9.— 
Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 440. 



DENDRCECA DOMINICA 247 

Dendroeca discolor, A. <fi E. Newt. Ibis, i. 1859, 144 (St. Croix).— &?. PZS. 1861, 71 
(Jamaica).— Attrec/i«, J. f. 0. 1862, 194 (Jamaica).— Oowes, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 274.— 
Coues, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 1863, 110 (South Carolina). — Sund. Ocfv. K. Vet.-Akad. 
Forh. i!i. 1869, 615.— Allen, Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 507, 51S.— Allen, Bull. MCZ. ii. 1871, 268 
(Florida, resident).— CouM, Key, 1872, 103.— Allen, Bull. MCZ. iii. 1872, 125 (Kansas).— 
Mayi;. B. Fla. 1873, 58.— Merr. Am. Nat. viii. 1874, «l.—Coues, BN W. 1874, d'A.— Gentry, 
Life-Hist. i. 1876, n^.— Bailey, Bull. Nutt. Club, i. 1870,25.— JTinot, B.N. Engl. 1877, 
105.— J/crr. Trans. Conn. Acad. 1877, 17. 

Sylvia miuutfl,, Wils. AO. iii. 1811, 87, pi. 25, f . 4.— JBp. Ann. Lye N. Y. ii. 1826, 86 Qoite, 

Alabama, 1859, 295. 

Phyllopneuste minuta, Bole, Isis, 1828, 321. 

SylTlcala minuta, Denny, PZS. 1847, 38. 

Fauvette discolor, V. 1. c. 1817. 

Particoloured Warbler, Steph. 1. c. 

Fauvette discolore, v. Ency. M6th. ii. 1823, 445. 

Red-backed Warbler, Gosse, B. Jam. 1847, 159. 

Prairie Warbler, Authors. 

Hab. — Eastern United States. North to Southern New England ; vfest to 
Kansas. Breeds throughout its United States range. Winters in Florida, 
and more numerously in most of the West India Islands. No extralimital 
continental record. 

Dendroeca dominica.— TellowTtaroatect Warbler. 

a. dominica 
Motacilla dominica, iinn. SN. i. 1766, 334, n. 26 (Brisa. iii. 520, n. 65, pi. 27, f. 3; Sloane, 

Jam. ii. 310) (Jamaica and San Domingo).— Gw. SN. i. 1788, 980, n. 26.— ^Mrt. SN. i. 

1806, 603. 
Sylvia dominica, Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 538, n. 114.— "F. N. D. d'H. N. xi. 1817, 223 (made a var. of 

maculosa). — Steph. Gen. Zool. x. 1817, 612. 
Mnlotilta dominica. Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, 191.— Gieb. Nomcnc. Av. ii. 1875, 602. 
Dendroica dominica, Bd. Rev. AB. 1865, 209 (Colima, &.c.) .—Sumich. Mem. Bost. Soc. i. 

1869, 547 (Orizaba).— iiidgiw. Am. Nat. vii. 1873, m&.—Gundl. J. f. 0. 1872, 415 (Cuba).— 

B. B. cf- R. NAB. i. 1874, 240, pi. 14, f. 6. 
Dendroica dominica var. dominica, Bidgw. Am. Nat. vii. 187.3, 607.— B. B. <£• R. NAB. i. 

1874. 241, pi. 14, f. 6. 
Dendreeca dominica, Coues, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 270 (questions its occurronco in New 

England ; refers to Linsley, Am. Journ. Sci. xliv. 1843, 258). — Coues, Pr. Bost. Soc. 

xii. 1868, 109 (South Carolina).- Swnd Oefv. K. Vet.-Akad. Forh. iii. 1869, 611.— Xiwr. 

Ann. Lyc.N. Y. ix. 1869, 200 (Yucatan).— J.H(;n, Bull. MCZ. iu 1871, 268 (Florid.a, in 

winter).— 5co«,Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1872, 222 (West Virginia).—(7oMes, Key, 1872, 103.— 

Coues, Am. Nat.vii. 1873, i^l.— Allen, Am. Nnt. vii. 1»73, 363.— JTar/n. B. F1.H. 1873, 60.— 

Coues, BNW. 1874,66, 233.— Ifcrriam, Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 7, 8.—Brewst. Bull. Nutt. 

Club, ii. 1877, 102 (best biography).— McCauley, Bull. U. S. Gaol. Surv. iii. 1877, 661 

(Texas). — Merr. Trans. Conn. Acad. iv. 1877, 17 (Connecticut, several instances). — 

Brewst. Bull. Nutt. Club, iii. 1878, 43. 
Motacilla supcrciliosa, Bodd. Tabl. PE. 1783, 43 (pi. 686, f. 1). 
Mniotilta supcrciliosa. Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, 196. 
Dendroica supcrciliosa, Bd. BNA. 1858, 289.— TT^aton, Ohio Agric. Rep. for 1860, 1861, 

374 (Ohio, quite common). —Owndi. J. f. O. 1801, 326 (Cuba).— Cowes <£ Prewf. Smiths. 

Eep. for 1861, 1862,408 (Washington, casual.)— il/arc^, Pr. Phila. Acad. xv. 1663,293 

(Jamaica). — Haym. Cox's Surv. Indiana, 1869, 217 (Indi.-ina, common). — Scl. PZS. 

1869, 374 (Oax.ica).— TutoS. B. E. Pa. 1869, 53; Phila. ed. A'i.—Snow, B. Kans. 1873,5. 
Dendroeca supcrciliosa, Scl. PZS. 1859, 363 (Xalapa).— 5ci!. PZS. 1802, 368 (Mexico).— S. £ S. 

Ibis, ii, I860, 274 (Dueuas) —Dress. Ibis, 2d ser. i. 1865, 478 (S.in Antonio, Tex.). 
Motacilla pensilis, Gm. SN. i. 1788, 960, n. 76 (from Buffon and Lath.im).— rurt. SN. i. 1806, 

500.— Less. Tr. Orn. 1831, 418. 
Matacilla pensilis, Ledru, " Voyage, ii. 1810.— JTnoa;, Hist. Ace. St. Thomas, 1852, p. — ". 
Sylvia pensilis, ia«/i. 10. ii. 1790, 520, n. 41.— F.OAS. ii. 1807, 11, pi. 72.— F. N. D. d'H. N. 

xi. 1817, m.-Steph. Gen. Zool. x. 1817, 629.— F. Ency. M61b. ii. 1823, 427, n. ■iG.-Bp. 

Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 1826,79.— Vm«. M.an. i. 1832, 314.— Aud. OB. i. 1831, 434, pi. 85.— 

D'Orb. Ois. Cuba, 1839, 65.— Haym. Pr. Phila. Acad. viii. 1856, 200 (Indiana). 



248 DENDRCECA DOMINICA 

SjlvlCOlft pen8ill8,7?icA. Rep. Brit. Assoc.for 183G, 1837, 172.— Bp. CGL. 1838, 22 — Awd. Syu. 

18.19, 53.—Aud. B. Am. ii. 1841, 32, pi. '9. — Oosse, B. Jam. 1847, 156.— D«im/, PZS. 1847, 

3S.—Gosse, 111. B. Jam. 1849, pi. 32.— iJp.CA. i. 1£50, 307.— Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. vi. 

1853, 8 (Long Island).— /fcad, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 398 {Ohio) .—Salle, PZS. 1857, 231 

(SanDomingo).— l?r«o. Pr. Boat. Soc. vii. 1800, 307 (Cuba).— A»rfc/i«, J. f. O. 1862, 201 

(Jamaica).— Br (/. Pr. Bo«t. Soc. xi. 1867,91 (San Domingo). 
Rhimanphu8 pcnsilis. Cab. MH. i. 1850, 19. 
RhimampbiiH pensil:s, Gundl. J. f. O. 1855, 474 {Ca.ha.).—Scl PZS. 185G, 291 (Mexico). - 

Oundl. J. f. 0. 1861, 4G8 (Cuba). 
Sylvicolil pensillis, Pratten, Tr. 111. Agric. Soc. 1. 1855, 601. 
Dendroira pensilis, Scl. PZS. 1858, 295 (Cordova). 
Motacilla flavlcollis, Om. SN. i. 1788, 959, n. 71 (from Catesby, Brisson, Si.c.).—Turt. SN. i. 

1606, 589. 
Sylvia flavlcollis, Lath. 10. ii. 1790,518, n. 35.— y. OAS. ii. 1807, 45.— Wits. AO. ii. 1810,64, 

pi. 12, f.6.— F. X.D.d'H. N. xi. 1817, 191. -Steph. Gen. ZooL x. 1817, 679.— F. Ency. 

M6th. ii. 1823, 453, n. 118.— J5p. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 188. 
Sylvicola flavicolUs, Hou, Pi-. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 310 (Wisconsin). 
Figuier cendre de S. Domingue, Ficedula dominicensis cinerea, Briss. Orn. liL 1700, 

520, n. 65, pi. 27, f. 3 (basis of If. dominica L.). 
Con-Jaune, Huff. "Hist. Nat. Ois. v. 165"; PE. 686, f. 1 (basis of M. supcreilicsa Bodd. 

and of M. pensilis Gm.). 
M^sangc grise de la Caroline, Parus carolinensis griseus, Briss. Orn. ill. I7fi0, 563, n. 

10 ( 1 basis of M. fiavicollis Gm). 
Tellow-tliroated Creeper, Parus americanus gutture luleo, Caus. Car. i. I77l, 02, pi. 62 

(a hiBis.oi M. flavicollis Gm.). 
Tellow-throat Warbler, Penn. A. Z. ii. 1785, 400, n. 286. 
Tellow-throated Warbler, Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 437, n. 31. 
IWsauge grise li gorge jaiine. Buff. 'v. 454". 
Pensile Warbler, Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 441, n. 37 (= Cou-jaune, Biiflf. v. 165; PE. 686, f. 

1. A hasis of M. pensilis Gm.). 
Parus griccus gutture luteo, Bartr. Trav. 1791, 292. 
Jamaica Warbler and St. Uomingo Warbler, Turton, 11. cc. 
Jamaica Warbler, Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 485, n. no. 
Fauveite grise it cou Janne, V. N. D. d'll. N. xi. 1817, 191. 
Fauvelte a cou Jaune, Y. Ency. Meth. ii. 1623, 427. 

Fauvette grise a gjrge Jaune, V. OAS. ii. 1807, 45.— r. Ency. M6th. ii. 1823, 453. 
Bcc-fln a gorge Jaune, D'Orb. 1. c. 
Yellow-throated Warbler, Tellow-throated Gray Warbler, Yellow-throated Woo;'- 

warbler. Authors. 

b. albilora 

Uendroica dominica var. albilora, Ridgw. Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 606 —B. B. £ Ii. XAB. i. 1874, 
241, pi. 14, f. 7. 

Note. — Tbero are three sources of the four old names of this species. The first binomial, 
M. dominica L., is 1 om Brisson's " Figuier cendr6 do S. Domingue", after Sloane. The 
second, jr. snperdliosa Bodd., and the third, M. pensilis Gm., are both from the " Cou-jaune " 
of Buffon, PE. 686. f 1— the -'Pensile "Warbler " of Latham. The fourth, M. fiavicollis Gm., 
ie Catesby's " Yellow-throated Creeper ". 

We have no recognized la'e names for the bird, excepting albilora of Kidgway, which 
may stand as a geogrsvphical race. Probiibly the record of the bird from the Mississippi 
Valley all belongs to albilora ; but it is not easy to discriminate. Texas specimens I have 
lately examined have the superciliary stripe entirely white, and such seems to be tho 
char.acter of tho birds from the western portions of the range of the species. 

Hab. — Eastern United States, rather southerly. North reguhirly to Ohio, 
Illinois, Indiana, being common in the Ohio Valley ( fVheaton et al.); rarely 
east of the Alleghauies, even in corresponding latitudes. Washington, D. C, 
rare (Coues <|' Prentiss)', West Virginia (TV. D. Scott); Pennsylvania {Tarn- 
bull); New Jersey (-4 «d«6ow); New York (jDeJS^af/). Connecticut {(■/.Coues, 



DENDRCECA KIETLANDI — D. PALMARUM 249 

Pr. Esses Inst. v. 270; Coues, BNW. G6; and especially Merriam, Tr. Conn. 
Acad. Iv. 17). West to Kansas (Snow) and Texas {McCauley.) Breeds in its 
United States range at large. Winters in Florida, Mexico (Xalapa, Cordova, 
Colima), Central America, Guatemala, Yucatan, and various West India 
Islands (Cuba, San Domingo, Jamaica, where probably resident). Replaced 
in Porto Rico by D. addaidw, and in the Southern Middle Province of the 
United States by D. gracice. 

It should be added, that Mr. R'dgway restricts ttie range of true dominica 
to the Atlantic States as far nortli as Washington in summer, and in winter 
to Cuba, San Domingo, and Jamaica, assigning to his var. alhilora the follow- 
ing habitat : — " In bummer, the Mississijipi region of the United States, north 
to Lake Erie ; common in South Illinois. In winter, and possibly all the 
year, in Mexico, south to Guatemala, Yucatan on the Atlantic, and Colima 
on the Pacific side." 

Dendrceca kirtlandi.— Kirtlaud-s TFarbler. 

Sylvicola kirtlandii, Bd. Ann. Lye. N. T. v. 1852, 216, pi. 6 (Cleveland, Ohio, May, 1851, J. 

P. Kiitland).— Z(tt7ioZd, J. f. O. 1854; 355 (copies deacr. ).—Oas«. 111. i. 13^5 278, pi. 47 

(from the original). 
Dendroica kirtlandii, -Bd BNA. 1858, 286.— TF7iea«. Ohio Agric. Eep. for 1860, 1861, 374 

(ref. to the orig. spec, and to another from same locality, and to a possible third 

from Eaciuo, Wis.). — Bd. Kev. AB. 1865, 206 (notices a second specimen from sea 

near Cabamas, in Coll. S. Cabot, and report of third and fourth specimens in 

" Ohio Farmer" for June 9, 18C0). 
DendrG?ca kirtlandi, Sund. Oefv. K. Vet.-Aiad. Tiiih. iii. 1869, QV^.—Langdon. Cat. B. 

Cincinnati, 1877, fi. 
DeDdroeca kirtlandii, Coues, Key, 1872, 104. 
Deudroica kirtlandi, B. B. <£• B. NAB. i. 1874, 272. pi. 14, f. 5. 
Hniotilta kirtlaiidi, Gieb. Nomenc. Av. ii. 1875, 603. 
Kirtland's Warbler, Authors. 

Jlxn. — Of the known specimens, four in number, three were taken in Ohio 
and one at sea between the Bahamas and Cuba. Supposed to have been seen 
in Wisconsin (Racine, Hoy). 

I>endrceca palmarum.— Yellow Red-poll Warbler. 

a. palmarum 

Motacilla palmarum, Gm. SX i. 1788, 951, n. 53 (San Domingo; based on the Bimbeli ou 
fausne Linotte, Bull", v. 330, and Palm Warbler of Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 498, n. 131) — itjos. 
Tr. Oru. 1831, 418. 

Sylvia palmarum, Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 544, n. 136.— F. OAS. ii. 1807, 21, pi. 73.— F.N. D. d'H. N. 
xi. 1817, IGS.—Steph. Gon. Zool. x. 1817, 607.— F. Ency. M6th. ii. 1823, 431, n. 42 — £f). 
AO. ii.— ,— , pi. 10, f. i.—Bp. Journ. Phila. Acad. v. 1825, 2J (Florida).— £/). Ana. 
Lye. N. T. ii. 182G, 78.— D' Orb. Ois. Cuba, 1839, 61, pi. 8. 

Sylvicola palmarum, Jiich. Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. for 1836, 1837, 172 (= Bp. AO. pi. 
10, f. 2).—Salli, PZS. 1857, 231 (San Domingo).— JSri/. Pr. Bost. Soc. vii. 1859, 110 (Baha- 
mas).— A/fc/-ec/i«, J. f. O. 1861, 53 (Bah.amas).— £>•»/. Pr. Bost. Soe. xi. 18G7, 91 (San 
Domingo). 

MniOtiJta palmarum, Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, 196 (= Gm., and Bp. AO. pi. 10, f. 2). 

Dendroica palmarum, £d. BNA. 1858, 288.— Bar?i. Smiths. Rep. for 1860, 186l,4;G.— OwnrfJ. 
J. f. O. IdOl, 326 iCaha).— Coues <£ Prent, Smiths. Rep. for 1861, 1862, 408.— Boardm. Pr. 
Bost. Soc. ix. 1862, 125.— Ferr. Pr. Ess. lust. iii. 1862, lil.— Allen, Pr. Ess. Inst. iv. 1864, 
63.— ifcZ. Rev. AB. 1865, 207.— Zawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. 1866, i84.—Trippe, Am. Nat. ii. 
1868, lll.—Turnb. B. E. Pa. 1869, 25; Phila. ed. 18.— Gundl. J. f. 0. 1872, 415 (Cuba).— 
B. B. <& B. NAB. i. 1874, 273, pi. 14, f. 8.— Brew. Pr. Bjst. Soc. xvii. 1875, 440. 



250 DENDRCECA PALM ARUM 

Dcndroecii palmnrum, Scl. PZS. 1861, 7i (Jamaica).— J.Z6rec/t(, J. f.0. 1802,193 (Jamaica). 

Blak. 1 ;is, V. 1,SC3, (X—Mollwr. Pr. Ess. lust. v. 1866, 86.— Ooiies, Pr. Bost. Soc. sii. 1868, 

109 (South Carolina, iu winter).— CottM, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 274.— ySttnd. Oefv. K. 

Vet.-Akad. Forh. iii. 1809, GIG.—Ouues, Pr. Phila.Acad. xxiii. 1871, 21.— Oowes, Key, 

187-', 101.— Allen, Bull. MCZ. ii. 1871, 208 (Florida, wintering).— Jlfa(/«. Guide, 1870, 

104.— Mayn. Pr. Bost. Soc. xiv. 1872, 36ii.—Mayn. B. Fla. 1873, 52.— Cowes, BNW. 

1874, GT.— Gentry, Life-EList. i. 1876, 132.— Jlinof, B. N. Engl. 1877, 122.— Merr. Tr. Conn. 

Acad. iv. 1877, la. 
Sylvia petechia, Wits. AO. vi. 1812, 19, pi. 28, f. 4.—Bp. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 198.— 

Bp. Ann. Lye. N. T. ii. 1826, SS.-Nutt. Man. i. 1832, 364.— Aud. OB. ii. 1834, 259, 300, pis. 

163, 164.— Peab. Eop. Orn. Mass. 1839, 307.— McCulloch, Journ. Bost. Soc. iv. 1844, 406 

(habits ; makes it a Seiurus).—Tlwmps. Nil. Vermont, 1853, 80. 
SjlvlCOla pctccliia, S. (S-R. FBA. ii. 1831, 215, pi. 41.— Aud. Syn. 1839, 58.—Aud. BA. ii. 1841, 

55, pl.90.—iro2/,Pr. Phila. Acad. 1853, 3\0.—Putn. Pr. Ess. Inst. i. 1856, 207.— TFiHis, 

Smiths. Rep. for 1858, 1850, 2S2.—Hoy, Smiths. Kep. for 1864, 1865, 437 (Missouri).- 

Trippe, Pr. Ess. Inst. vi. 1871, 114. 
Phjllopneustc petechia, Boie, Isis, 1828, 321. 
Mnlutllta petechia, Graij, G. of B. i. 1848, 196 (= Wils. pi. 28, f. 4). 
Sylvicola petechea, Pratten, Tr. 111. Agric. Soc. i. 18.")5, 602. 

S) Ivlcola rullcapilla, Bj). CGL. 1838, 22.— Bp. CA. i. 1850, 307. (Not Mot. ruficapilla Gm.) 
RliimaniphU!>i ruflcaplllus, Gundl. J. f. 0. 1855, 473 (Cuba) ; 1861, 408 (same). 
Bimhele ou Fausse Llnote, Buf. "v. 330". 

Palm Warbler, Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 498, n. 133 (cites Bimbele of Buffon). 
Fauvette bimbele, V. N. D. d'H. N. xi. 1817, 168.— K EM. ii. 1823, 421. 
Bec-fln blmble, DOrb. 1. c. 

Fauvette ti tete rouge, Leilfoine,Ois.Canad. 1861, 195. 
Yellow Ucd-poll Warbler (not of Edw.), Palm Warbler, Authors. 

b. hypochrysea 

Dendrfleca palmarum hypochrysea, Eidgw. Bull. Nutt. Club, i. 1876, 84. 

Note (l). — The " Yellow Eed-poll" of Edwards, pi. 256, f. 2, basis of M. petechia L., and 
wrongly ascribed to Pennsylvania by the early authors, is the West Indian conspecies of 
X>. cestiva, as any one may be satisfied by a glance at the figure. Being ascribed to Penn- 
sylvania, it was not unnaturally mistaken for the present species by some who never saw 
Edwards's plate, and never read Brisson's elaborate description ; for the terms of the Lin- 
nsean diagnosis make it equally applicable to the present species. Wilson transferred the 
asLvae petechia, wiih Edwards's English name, to this species, and many have followed him, 
the "Yellow Ked-poU" of late and current vernacular being thus applied to the present 
species. — The first tenable name ia palmarmn Gm., based on the Bimbele of Buflon, which 
became the "Palm Warbler" of Latham. — Bonaparte called the bird ruficapilla in 1838 
and 1850; but the original ruficapilla Gm., Lath., after Ficedula martinicana Brisson, was 
another West Indian cestiva-\ik.& bird, which Latham and Pennant called the Bloody- 
sided Warbler. — My index-slips include many West Indian citations of "petechia", but I 
am afraid to use them, as I cannot tell now whether they refer to true petechia or to pal- 
marum, which latter occurs in the West Indies. 

Note (2). — A recent paper by Mr. Eidgway, " On Geographical Variation in Dendroeca 
palmarum ", < Bull. Nutt. Club, i. 1876, pp. 81-87, separates the species into two subspecies, 
D. palmarum subs, jmlmarum, and D. palmarum subs, hypochrysea. The range of the 
former is given as follows : — " Mississij.pi Valley during the migrations ; breeding in the 
interior of British America, wintering iu the Gulf States, from Texas to Western and 
Southern Florida, and West Indies (Cuba, Jamaica, Santo Domingo, and Bahamas). Cas- 
ual in certain Atlantic Stales (but not in New England ?)." The new variety is assigned 
as follows : — " Atlantic States, from East Florida (in winter) ta Nova Scotia. Breeding in 
Maine and northward aud wintering iu the South Atlantic States; apparently not found 
at all in the West Indies, nor in Southern and Western Florida ! " It being scarcely or 
not practicable to rearrange the synonymy of the species in conformity with the subspo- 
cific distinction here drawn, I have left all the prior names and references under tho 
original, and have formed no opinion respecting the merits of the case as presented by 
Mr. Eidgway. 

Hab. — Eastern Province of the United States and temperate British Amer- 
ica. West only to the Lower Missouri and Texas. North to Labrador, Hud- 



DENDECECA PINUS 251 

son's Bay, Forts Simpson and Kesolution, &c., breeding only beyond the 
United States, as far as known, excepting Maine. Migrates early in the 
spring and late in the fall, being observed in New England at both seasons 
with the snow, April and November, and winters abundantly in the South- 
ern States, from the Carolinas to Texas, as well as in various West India 
Islands, as Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, and San Domingo. No extralimital 
continental records. 

Denclreeca i>inits.— Pine-creeping Warbler. 

Sylvia piuus, Wils. AO. iii. 1811, 25, pi. 19, f. 4 (refers to Catesbj-. Not of any earlier 
writer, which =■ Hdminthophaya pintls). — Steph. Gen. Zool. x. 1817, 737 (in part. 
Synonymy mixed with that of Uclminthophaga pinus and Parula americana !) — Y. 
Ency. M6th. ii. 1823, 464, u. 163 (cites Wilaon).— £p. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 
\^i.—Bp. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 1826, HI.—NkU. Man. i. 1832, 387.— Aud. OB. ii. 1834, 
232, pi. 111.— Pea6. Kep. Oru. Masi. 1839, 310.— Thomps. N. H. Vermont, 1853, 82. 

Thriotburus? pinus, Steph. Shaw's Gen. Zool. xiv. Is26, 194 (iu part). 

Sj'lviCOla pinus, Jard. "cd. Wils. 1832 ".—iiicA. Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1836, 1837, 172.— Bp. 
CGL. 1838, 22.— Awd. Syn. 1839, 54.— Awd. BA. ii. 1841, 37, pi. 82.— IFoodA. Sitgr. Expl. 
Colo. R. 1853, 70 (Texa8).—flroi/, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 311 (Wisconsin).— ffennie. 
Tr. 111. Agric. Soc. 1855, 583 (Illinois).— PrntJen, ioid. 602 —Putn. Pr. Ess. Inst. i. 1856, 
207.— Jones, "Nat. in Bermuda, 1859, 59" (Bermuda).— Jfartens, J. f. O. 1859, 312 (the 
same). — Bland, Smiths. Hep. for 1858, la59, 287 (the same). — Trippe, Pr. Es9. Inst. vi. 
1871,114 (Minnesota?). 

Mlliot:lt.l pinus, Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, 196 (not of Gieb. Nomenc. Av. ii. 1875, 605). 

Bhitnaniphus pinus, Bp.CAA. 1850, 3ii. 

Dendroica piuus, £d BNA. 1858, 277 (not of Coueg, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1861, 220 ("Labra- 
dor ">, — D. striata).— Goues £ Prent. Rep. Smiths. Inst, for i861, 1862, 407 (Washing- 
ton, D. C. ; breeding, not wintering).— laniard, Rep. Smiths. Inst, for 1860, 1861, 
436.— Fere. Pr. Ess. Inst. iii. 1862, 156 (Maine).— AZtoi, Pr. Ess. Inst. Iv. 1864, 62.— Pd. 
Rev. AB. 1865, 190.— iawr. Ann. Lye. N. T. viii. 1866, Wi.— Bryant ' Pr. Bost. Soc. 
1867, 67 (Veragua) ".—Trippe, Am. Nat. ii. 1868, I'O.—Turnb. B. E. Pa. 1()69,25 ; Phila. 
ed. lS.-~Gregg, Pr. Elmira Acad. 1870, p. — . — Ridgw. Ann. Lye. N. T. x. 1874, 368 
(Illinois).— i?.iJ.<£ P. NAB. i. 1874, 268, pi. 13, {. 6.— Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. 1875,440.— 
Breivst. Ann. Lye. N. T. xi. 1875, 13fi (Virginia, breeding). 

Dendroeca piuus, Mcllwr. Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1866, 86 (Can.ada W'^st).—Ooues, Pr. Bost. Soo. 
xii. 1868, 109 (South Carolina, resident). — Ooi>«, Am. Nat. iv. 1870, 39S.— Allen, Bull. 
MCZ. ii. 1871, 268 (Florida, resident).— Cowes, Key, 1872, lOi.-Scott, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 
1872, 222—Mayn. Pr. Bost. Soc. xiv. 1872, 366 (Maine and New Hampshire).- lf«rr. 
Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 7, 8, Sl.-Coues, BNW. 1874, 69.— Gentry, Life-Hist. 1876, 135.— 
Minot, B. N. Engl. 1877, 120.— Merr. Tr. Conn. Acad. iv. 1877, 18. 

Dendrocca pina, Goues, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 2T2.—Mayn. B. Fla. 1873, 48. 

Sylvia vigorsii, And. OB. i. 1832, 153, pi. 30. 

VIreo vigorsii, I^utt. Man. i. 1832, 318. 

Pine-Creeper, Parus americanus lutesccns. Gates. Car. i. 1771, 61, pi. 61 (not the Pine 
Creeper of Edwards). 

Mesangc d'Amerique, Parus americanus, Briss. Orn. iii. 1760, .576, n. 15 (cites Catesby). 

Fauvette des Sapins, V. Ency. Meth. ii. 1823, 464. 

Fauvettc des Pins, Le Moine, Ois. Canad. 1861, 192. 

Vigor's VIreo, Aw«£. 1. c. 

Pine-creeping Warbler of Authors. 

Hab.— Eastern Province, United States, Canada, and New Brunswick, but 
not known to reach Labrador, as wrongly recorded by me in Pr. Phila. Acad. 
IHGl , 220. (•' North to Massachusetts", U. B. Jj- Ii. Hist. NAB. i. 208 ; but " to 
New Brunswick ", lid. ibid. 270.) West ouly tj the Lower Missouri and 
Kacsas, &,c., thus strictly couiiued to the Eastern Province, like 2>ali>iar"m 
and some others. Breeds throughout its United States rauge, and winters 
in the Southern States, having no extralimital record whatever, excepting 
Bermudas {Jonea) and Bahamas {Brijani). 



252 SYNONYMY OF DENDRCECA ESTIVA 

Summer Yello^vbird 

Dendroeca ecstiva 

Motacilla canadensis, Bodd. Tabl. P. E. 1783, 4 (PE. 58, f. 2). {=M. centiva Gm. Not M. 
candensin Linn. sp. 27, nor sp. 42 ; nor M. canadensis Bodd. p. 24.) 

MotaclIlaaJStiTa.Gm.SN.i. 178H,996, n. 169.— Twrt.SN.i. IftOG, 615.— ie«8. Tr. Orn. 1631,418. 

Sylvia jnstlva, Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 551, n. 157.- F. OAS. ii. 1807, 35, pi. 95.— F. X D. d'H. N. 
xi. 1817, arj.—Steph. Gen. Zool. s. 1817, 750.— F. Ency. M6th. ii. 1823, 429, n. 34.-.Bp. 
Ann. Lye. JT. Y. ii. 1826, 83.— Ji'oa;, Newc. Mus. 1827, 161.— ^wd. OB. i. 1831, 470, pi. 95.— 
Nutt. Man. i. 1832, 370, flg.— Peat. Rep. Orn. Mass. 1839, 307.—Thomps. Vermont, 1853, 
81, Qrr.—nayin. Pr. Phila. Acad. viii. 1856, 290. 

SylviCOla festiva, S. & R. FBA. ii. 1831, 211.— Bp. CGL. 1838, 23.— Awd. Syn. 1839, 58 — 
Nutt. Man. i. 2d od. 1840, 417, iig —Aud. BA. ii. 1841, 50, pi. 88.— Gir. BLL 1844, 58 — 
Burnett, Pr. Boat. Soc. iv. 1851, 116.— TTood/j. Sitgr. Kep. Zuni, 1853, IQ—Uoy, Pr. 
Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 310.— i?«ad, ibid. "A^^.— Henry, Pr. Phila. Acad. vii. 1855, 309.— 
Kennic. Tr. 111. Agric. Soc. 1. 1855, 583.— Pratten, ibid. 602.— Pm«w. Pr. Ess. Inst. 
i. 1856, 207.— Bry. Pr. Boat. Soc. vi. 1857, 110.- Jl/aa;i»i. J. f. O. vi. 1858, 114.— TTiHr*', 
Sinithd. Kep. for 1858, 1859, 282.— .? Brew. Pr. Best. Soc. vii. 1800, 307 (Cuba).— ffcj/. 
Smiths. Rep. for 1864, 18C5, iSS.-Finsch, PZS. 1870, 564 (Trinidad).— Tn^pe, Pr. Ess. 
Inst. vi. 1871, 114. 

Mnlotiltn sestiva, Oray, G. of B. i. 1848, 196.— Cabot, Naum. ii. Heft iii. 1852, 66.— Kneel. 
Pr. Bost. Soc. vi. 1857, 234. 

Rhimanphus jcstlvus, Cab. MH. i. 1850, 19. 

Rhimamptius jestivus, Bp. CA. i. 1850, 311.-.? Gundl. J. f. 0. 1855, 472 (Cuba).— ScJ. PZS. 
1855, 143 (Bogotd).— ,Sci. PZS. 1856, 141 (Chiriqui).— Sd. PZS. 1857, 202 (Xalapa).— ? Cab. 
J. f. O. 1860, 326 (Cuba). 

Dendrolca jestiva, Bd. BNA. 1858, 282.— .Bd. U. S. Mex. B. Surv. ii. pt. ii. Birds, 10.— 
Heerm. PRRR. x. 1859, iO.-Henry, Pr. Phil.a. Acid. xi. 1859, 106.— Xant. ibid. 191.— 
Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. vii. 1859, 21 (uests).- -S. (6 S. Ibis, i. 1859, 11 (Guatemala).- 0. <£ S. 
NHWT. 1860, 181.— Ca.w. Pr. Phila. Acad. xii. 1860, 191, 192 (Isthmus of Uar«»n).— 
Barn. Smiths. Rep. for 1860, 1861. i.i6.—Coties <£■ Prent. Smiths. Rep. for 1361, 1862, 408.— 
Blak. Ibis, iv. 1862, 4.—Boardm. Pr. Bost. Soc. ix. 1862, 125.— Ferr. ibid. 127.— Verr. 
Pr. Ess. Inst. iii. 1862, Ul.-AUen, Pr. E.ss. Inst. iv. 1804, 63.—Baird, Rev. AB. 1865, 
195.— iawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. 1865, 174 (Chiriqui) ; 179 (Nicaragua) —Lau'r. Ann. 
Lye. N. T. viii. 1866, 284.— Jri;:ipc, Am. Nat. ii. 1868, ll^.-Butch. Pr. Phila. Acad. xx. 
1868, 149.- Coop. Ann. Nat. iii. 1869, 296 —Turnb. B. E. Pa. 1869,25 ; Phila. od. 18.— 
V. Frantz. J. f. 0. 1869, 293 (Costa Rica).— DaH <t Bann. Tr. Chicago Acad. i. 1869, — .— 
Ball, Ann. Nat. iv. 1870, 600.— *'<«?;. U. S. Geol. Sarv. Terr, for 1870, 1871, 463.— iicZfien, 
Pr. Bost. Soc. XV. 1872, 197.—Ridg. Bull. Ess. Inst. v. 1873, ISO.— Merr. U. S. Geol. 
Surv. Terr, for 1872, 1873, 675, 705, 713.— Pacfcard, Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 271.— P B. d-B. 
NAB. i. 1874, 2-22, pi. 14, f. 1.— Tarr. <£- Hensh. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, 10.— Yarr. ibid. 
M.—Hensh. ibid. 41, 58, 74, lO^.—Henxh. L'st B. Ariz. 1875, 156.— Prcw. Pr. Bost. Soc. 
xvii. 1875, 439.— ITens/i. Zool. Expl. W. 100 Merid. 1876, 192. 

DendriBCa icstiva, Scl. PZS. 1859, 363 (Xalapa). —Lawr. Ann. Lye. N.T. vii. 1861, 322 (New 
branada).- Ptofc. Ibip, v. 1863, 6X—Scl PZS. 1864, 172.— -S. c6 S. PZS. 1864, 347 
(Pa.na,ma).— Taylor, ibid. vi. 1864, 81 (Trinidad).— Cowes, Ibis, i. 2d ser. 1865, 159.— 
Brcss. ibid. 478.— Comca-, Pr. Phila. Acad, xviii. 1866, I'd.—Mclhvr. Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 
1866, m—Salv. PZS. 1867, 136 (Veragua).— Cowes, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 1868, 109.— Co?«cs, 
Pr. Phila. Acad. 1868, 83.— Prowji, Ibis, 2d ser. iv. 1868, 420 (Vancouver).— Cowes, Pr. 
Ess. Inst. V. 1868, 273.— Xrtwr. Ann. Lye. N. T. ix. 1868, 94 (Costa Rica).- Laior. Ann. 
Lye. N. Y. ix. 1869, 200 (Yucatan).— ,5. £8. PZS. 1869, 251 (Venezuela).— 5!wd. Oefv. 
K. Vet.-Akad. FiJrb. iii. 1869, 606.— S. <£■ S. PZS. 1870, 836 (Honduras).— .Saii). PZS. 1870, 
183 (Veragna).— Tf ?/«(«, Ibis, 3d cjer. i. 1871, 322 (Ocaiia).- Comm, Key, 1872, 97.— 
Alhn, Am. Nat. vi. 1872, 205, 345, 396.— JTaj/ti. Pr. Bost. Soo. siv. 1672, 7i66.— Scott, 
Pr. Bost. Soc. XV. 1872, ^^.—Trippe, Pr. Bost. Soo. xv. 1873, ^5.— Allen, Pr. Bost. Soc. 
• xvii. 1874, 52.— Cowes, BN W. 1874, 5^, 232.— Coo;?. Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 16.— A'cJ.so7i, Pr. 
Bost. Soc. xvii. 187.5, 339, 346, S:,"!.— Gentry, Life-Hist. 1876, 99.—Minit, B. N. Engl. 
1877, 103.— Merr. Tr. Conn. Acad. iv. 1877, 15. 



SYNONYMY OF DENDRCECA J3STIVA 253 

Sylvia (PStiva, Towns. Journ. Phila. Acad. viii. 183!), 153. 

Flguier taciiete, Bm/. "Hist. Nat. Ois. v. 235" {a ha,sis of M. cestiva Gia.). (Adult.) 
Figuler de Canada, Buff. PE. 58, f. a (same as Figuier tachete of Buff.). (Adult.) 
Ficedula canadensis, Briss. Orn. iii. 17f 0, 492, n. 51, pi, 26 f. 3 (first basis of M. cestiva Gin.). 
Sylvia carallnensis, Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 551, n. 158 (based on PE. 58, f. -i).—Sli'ph. Gen. Zool. 

X. 1817, 752. 
Motacilla carolincnsis, Turt. SN. i. 1806, 615 (same as Latham's bird). 
Mniotilta carolinensis, Grmj, G. of r>. i. 1848, 196. 
Figuier de la Caroline, Biiff. PE. 58, f. l (basis of -S'. caroUnensis Lath.). 
Figuier de la Caroline, Ficedula carolincnsis, Briss. iii. 1760, 48G, n. 48 (Carolina; 

quotes Gates. G3; but aLso gives "West Indian localities). 
Olive Warbler, Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 409, n. 307 (based on PE. 58, f. 1).—Steph. Gen. Zool. x. 

1817, 752. 
TellOW-poIl Warbler, Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 402, n. 292.— iofft. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 515, n. 148 

(based on PE. 58, figs. 1 and 2). 
lellow Titmouse, Parus carolincnsis luteus, Gates. Car. i. 1771, 63, pi. G3. 
Parus luteus, Bartr. Trav. Fla. 1st Am. ed. 1791, 292. 
Sylvia flava, rieill. GAS. ii. 1807, 31, pi. e9.-F. N. D. d'H. N. 2d cd. xi. 1817, 195.— F. Ency. 

M6th. ii. 18i3, 455, u. 1-25.— Less. Tr. Orn. 1831, 418 {=r. GAS. pi. 89). 
Sylvia Citrinclla, Wils. AG. ii. 1810, ill, pi. 15, f. 5.—Bp. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 

WO.— Wagl. Isis, 1831, 529.— BrwAiw, Zool. Gait. 1871, 18. 
Motacilla rubiginosa, Pall. Zoog. R.-A. i. 1811 (1831), 496 (Kodiak) 
Rhimamphus citriuus, "? Raf. .Journ. de Phys. Ixxxviii. 1819, 417 ". 
Sylvia childrenii, Aud. OB. i. 1831, 180, pi. 35. 
Sylvia childreni, Nutt. Man. i. 1832, 370. 

SylvlCOla childrenii, Rich. Kep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. for 1836, 1837, 172. 
Sylvia ratlibonia, Aud. OB. i. 1831, 333, pi. 65. 
SylvlCOla ratbbonla. Rich. Rep. 1837, 11%— Bp. CGL. 1838, 22.— Nutt. Man. i. 2d cd. 1840, 

447. 
SylvlCOla rathbonii, Aud. Syn. 1839, 58.-AMd. BA. ii. 1841, 53, pi. 89. 
Mniotilta ratbbonla, Gray, G. of B. 1. 1848, 196. 
Rhimamphus rathbouia, Bp. C A. i. 1850, 3ii. 

Rhimamplius chryseolus, Bp. "Bull. Soc. Linn. Caen. ii. 1831, 32 (Cayenne) ". 
Sylvia (rochilus, Nutt. Man. i. 1832. 406.— Pea6. Kep. Orn. Mass. 1839, 312. 
Citron Open-bill, ? Raf. " Am. Month. Mag. iv. 1818, 39 ". 
Citron Warbler, Sw. d- Rich, FBA. ii. 1831. 211. 
Children's Warbler, Rathbone's Warbler, Aud. U. cc. 
lellow Wren, or Willow Wren, Nuttall, 1. c.—Peah. 1. c. 
Fauvctte tachetee de rougeatre, V. I.e. 1817 and 1823. 

Fauvette jaune, V. Ency. M6th. ii. 1823, 455.— ie Maine, Gis. Canad. 1861, 198. 
Summer Warble?, Summer Tellowblrd, Golden Warbler, Yellow Warbler, TcUow- 

poll Warbler, Blue-eyed Yellow Warbler, Authors. 

[Note. — In tho foregoing synonymy, the different modes of writing cestiva ovaestiraAv^ not 
preserved. — All the above quotations are believed to be strictly applicable to the o"dinarv 
North American bird, exclusive of its several West Indian conspecies or varieties — The 
Motacilla petechia Linn. SN^. i. 334, n. 30, is based on Ficedula pensilvanica crythrocephalos 
Briss. iii. 486, and Yellow Red-pole Edw. pi. 2.')6, f. 2, and quoted from " Penu.sylvania" ; 
the references, however, and the descriptions of the authors cited, indicate clearly thit it 
is one of the West Indian red-capped conspecies of D. cestiva — neither D. cestiva itself, nor 
D. palmarum, though tho name has been used ia connection with both these species. — The 
names ruficapilla, albicollis, and chloroleuca of Gmelin, all indicate birds like Z). cestiva, but 
are apparently rather referable to some of the West Indian forms. " Bloody-sided " Wnr- 
bli:T is one of tho epithets of Dendroeca pennsylvanica or icterocephala, the Chestnut-sided 
Warbler of authors ; but the Bloody-sided Warbler of Pennant aud Latham, based on 
Ficedida martinicana of Biiss. iii. 490, pi. 22, f. 4 (= Mot. ruficapilla of Gmelin), is one of 
the West Indian Warblers like D. cestiva.— The Sylvia Jlavaoi YieiWot seem.s to be unques- 
tionably D. cestiva. — In addition to tho synonyms given, the curious reader, if he be so 
minded, may look among the older names for a Motacilla or Sylvia troohilus var. 0, a 
supposed variety of tho Willow Wren or Yellow Wren of Europe, for a long timo quoted 



254 CHARACTERS OF DENDRCECA iESTIVA 

a'so from America, and supposed to inhabit this country. Examine, for instance, Mota- 
cilia trochilusP, acredula, L. SX. i. 338, n. 49 /?; Si/loia trochilus, 0. Lath. 10. ii. S.^O, n. 155 
/3 ; Sylvia acredula, Steph. Gen. Zool. x. 744 ; in all of which places Catesby'a pi. C3 and 
Edwards's pi. 278, f. 2, are cited, and the bird is ascribed to North America. Vieillot dis- 
cusses this matter in connection with a bird described by him as the " Fauvotte naine ", 
Sylvia pumilia, OAS. ii. pi. 100, or the "Pouillot naiu ", 5. pumilia, N. D. d'H. N. xi. 239, 
where it is referred to trochilug var. of Lath., and Ency. Meth. ii. 407, where the female is 
said to be figured by Edwards, pi. 278, f. 2, and where reference is made to the " Figuior 
bran et jiune" of Buffon, v. 295; but I cannot make out what his pumilia is, nor has any 
one identified it, so far as I know. The whole matter hinges on Edw. pi. 278, f. 2 ; and aa 
this is not recognizable, the case is dubious, probably beyond determination. It is unne- 
cessary to add that no such bird occura in this country ; but so much of the composition of 
the species as includes American references is doubtless more or less exclusively pertinent 
to Dendroeca cestiva. The ascribing of the Willow "Wren to this country lasted until 
wi*,hin thirty or forty years, such species being given for instance in Nuttall's work of 
1832 and Peabody's of 1839. — Boddaert has a Motacilla canadensis, which is this species, 
being based upon PE. 58, f. 2 ; but the name is twice anticipated by Motacilla canadensis 
of Linnaeus, for two diflferent species of the same genus.] 

Ch. sp. — S Flava, dor so fiavo-virente^ gastrceo aurantio-brun- 
neo striato; remigibus rectricibusque fuscis, extus et intiis Jlavo- 
Umbatis; rostro plumbeo; 9 et juv. infra innotata. 

$ , adult : Golden-yellow ; tlio back with a greenish tinge resulting in rich 
yellow-olive, the rump more jellowish; the middle of the back sometimes 
obsoletely streaked with darker. Crown like the under parts, in high plum- 
age often tinged with orange-brown. Breast and sides, and sometimes most 
of the under parts, streaked with orange-brown. Quills and tail-feathers 
dusky, edged on both webs with yellow, the yellow occupying most of the 
inner webs of the tail-feathers. Bill plumbeous. Feet pale brown. Length, 
4f-5; extent, 7^-7f ; wing, 2^; tail, 2. 

$ , adult : Like the $ ; yellow-olive of upper parts extending on the crown ; 
streaks below obsolete or entirely wanting. General coloration paler than 
in the $ . 

Young : Like the 9 , but still more dully colored. Upper parts, including 
crown, pale olive, with an ochrey instead of clear yellow shade ; below ochrey- 
white or dull pale yellowish. Edgings of wings and tail dull yellowish. 

I have not seen, perhaps, the very youngest stage of this species; at any 
rate, I have seen no streaked specimens. The fledglings of comparatively 
few of our Warblers, even the commonest, have been described. But as fjr 
as known, all, with probably the exception of the present species, are 
streaked or spotted at first like very young Thrushes. 

The North American Golden Warbler is well distinguished from its several 
West Indian and South American allies. It appears to be somewhat the 
smallest, with shortest tarsus — scarcely two-thirds of an inch. In tho <? of 
D. vieilloti, the head all around is orange-brown ; and, in D. capUalis, of the 
Barbadoes, the whole crown is of this color, sharply defined. D. petechia, of 
various West Indian Islands, is most nearly related ; it is larger ; tho tarsi 
are longer ; the wing is more rounded ; the yellow-olive of the back extends 
with little more mixture of yellow on the nape, rump, and wing marginings: 
the yellow edgings of the tail are narrower. In any plumage, D. cestiva is 
distinguished from all the other North American species by the yellow edging 
instead of white blotching of the tail-feathers. 



EXTRALIMITAL ALLIES OF DENDRCECA ESTIVA 255 

The synonymy of these and the several other extralimital species related 
to D. ccstiva is subjoined.* 

* Denclroeca petecbia (L.). [Jamaica.l 
Motacilla petechia, L. SN. i. 176C, 334, n. 30. (Based on Edw. pi. 256, f. 2, and Briss. iii. 504 ; 

erroneously ascribed to Pennsylvania. Edwards's flg. shows clearly that the bird 

meant is not Dendrceca palmarum, but one of the " Golden Warblers " allied to £>. 

cestiva.)—Gm. SN. 1. 1788, 983, n. 30 (same).— rttrt. SX. i. 1806, 605.— ie«s. Tr. Orn. 

1831, 418. 
Sylvia petechia, Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 535, n. 103.— "T. OAS. ii. 1807, 32, pi. 9l.-SUph. Gen. Zool. 

X. 1817, TiS.— VieiU. N. D. d'H. N. xi. 1817, ^W.—Yieill. Ency. M6tb. ii. 1823, 443. 
Dendrceca petechia, 5ci. PZS. 1861, 71 (Jamaica).— &i. Cat. A B. 1862,32. 
Dendroica petechia, Jfarcft, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1863, 292 (Jamaica).— £d. Kev.AB. 1865, 199 

(Jamaica).— £. B. & R. NAB. i. 1874, 216. 
Dendroeca petechia e) Jamaicensis, Sund. Oefv. K. Vet.-Akad. Eiirh. iii. 1869, 007. 
Sylvicola jestiva, Qosse, B. Jam. 1847, 157. 

TellOW Red-poll, Edw. Gl. 99, pi. 256, f. 2 (basis of M. petechia L.). 
Figuier a teste rouge de Pcnsilvanie, Ficedula pensilvanica erythrocephalos, Brisa. 

Orn. iii. 1760, 488, n. 49 (after Edwards, pi. 256, f. 2). 
Figuier a tete rouge de Fensylvanie, Buff. "v. 286". 
Pauvette a t^te rouge do Fensylvanie, F. OAS.Lc. 
Red-headed Warbler, Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 479, n. m.—SUph. Gen. Zool. x. 1817, 733 

(mixed with D. palmarum). 
Red-head Warbler, Pe7m. AZ. ii. 1785, 401, n. 289. 

Dendroeca petechia g'andlactai (Bd.). [Cuba and Bahamas.] 
? Motacilla albicollis, Gm. SN. i. 1788, 983, n. 147. (Based on Briss. iii. 494, n. 52, pi. 26, f. 

5.)—Turt. SN. i. 1806, 605. 
? Sylvia albicollis, Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 535, n. 104 (- Gm. 983). 
? Sylvia albicolis, V. N. D. d'H. N. xi. 1817, 221. 
Dendroica albicollis, Cass. Pr. Phila. Acad. 1860, 192 (Cuba).- £awr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 1860, 

18 (Cnha,). —Albrecht. J. f. 0. 1861, 205 (Cnhsi).—Gundl. J. f. 0. 1861, 3C6 (Cuba). 
Sylvia jestiva, Lembeye, " Av. Cuba, 1850, 31, not the figure". 
Rhimamphus sestivus, GwjidJ. J. f.0. 1861,407 (Cuba). 
Dendroica gundlachi, Bd. Kev. AB. 1865, 197 (Cuba). 
Dendroica petechia var. gundlachi, B. B. <£ R. NAB. i. 1874, 216. 
Dendroeca petechia d) cubana, .S'wid. Oefv. K. Vet.-Akad. Forh. iii. 1869, 608. 
? Figuier de 8. Domingue, Ficedula dominicensis, Briss. Orn. iii. 1760, 494, n. 52, pi. 26, f. 5. 

(Basis of Jlf. albicollis Gm.) 
? Figuier li gorge blanche, Bvff. "v. 287" (= Briss. iii. 494). 
1 St. Domingo Warbler, Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 479, n. 100 (= Briss. iii. 494). 
? Motacilla chloroleuca, Gm. SN. i. 1788, 984, n. 149. (Based on Briss. iii. 496, n. 53, pi. 26, 

f. 2.)—Turt. SN. i. 1806, 606. 
1 Sylvia chloroleuca. Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 536, n. 106 (Gm. 98i).—Steph. Gen. Zool. x. 1817, 734. 
? Sylvia chroroleuca, r. N. D. d'H. N. xi. 1817, 195. 
? Petit Figuier de S. Domingue, Ficedula dominicensis minor, Briss. Orn. iii. 1760, 

496, n. 53, pi. 26, f. 2. 
T Figuier vert et blanc. Buff. " v. 289 " (= Briss. iii. 496). 
1 Green and White Warbler, Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 480, n. 102 (— Briss. iii. 496). 

Dendrceca petechia rnficapilla (Bd.). [Porto Bico, etc.] 

Chloris erythachorldes, Feuillee, "Journ. Obs. Phys. iii. 1725, 413" (others quote "C 
eritachotdes"). 

Motacilla ruflcapilla, Gm. SN. i. 1788, 971, d. 106 (based on Briss. iii. 490, pi. 22, f. 4, Mar- 
tinique). —T«r<. SN. 1806, 597. 

Sylvia rullcapilla. Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 540, n. 119 (= Gm. 9n).—Steph. Shaw's Gen. Zool. s. 
1817, 699. 

Figuier de la Slartlnlque, Ficedula martlnlcana, Brits. Om. iii. nco, 490, n. 50, pi. 22, 
f. 4 (based on Feuillee). 

Figuier ^ tete rousse, Btiff. " v. 306 ". 



25G EXTRALIMITAL ALLIES OF DENDRffiCA ESTIVA 

THERE is no occasion to enlarge upon the history of a bird 
so well known as the Summer Warbler has become by 
means of the many excellent biographies which previous writers 
have furnished. The bird is common in the Colorado Basin, as 
in most other parts of North America, and breeds in all suita- 

Fauvette a tfete rousse, T. N. D, d H. N. 1. c. 

Bloodj-side Warbler, Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 489, n. 115 (= Briss. and Buff, as above). — 
Pen7i. AZ. ii. 1785, 405, n. 208.—Steph. Gen. Zool. x. 1817, 699. (Not of Turton.) 

Uendra'ca sestlva, A. <£• £. Newt. " Ibis, i. 1859, 143 (St. Croix) ". 

Dendroica pctecbia, Cass. Pr. Phila. Acad. 1860, 192, .376 (St. Thomas). 

Dendroica , £d. Rev. AB. 1855, 201 (St. Uroix and St. Thomas). 

Dendra'ca petechia b) cruciana, Sund. Oefv. K. Vet.-Akad. Forh. iii. 1869, 608. 

Dendrceca petechia a) bartbolemica, Sund. Oefv. K. Vet.-Akad. Forh. iii. 18C9, 607. 

Dendroica petechia var. ruficapllla, B. B. & B. NAB. i. 1874, 217 (Porto Rico, St. Thomas, 
St. Croix, and St. Bartholomew). 

Dendriueca capitalis, Laior. [Barbadoes.] 

Dendrceca , Bd. Rev. AB. in text of p. 202 (spec, from Barbadoes). 

Dendroica capitalis, Lawr. Pr. Phila. Acad. 1868, 359.—^. B. d- B. NAB. i. 1874, 21T. 
Dendroeca petechia c) barbadcnsis, Sund. Oefv. K. Vet.-Akad. Forh. iii. 18C9, 008. 

Dendrceca vieilloti, Cass. [New Granada.] 
Dendroica eribtachorldes, Bd. BNA. 1853, 283 (not " Ohloris erythachorides FeuilUe"). 
Dendroica vieilloti, Cass. Pr. Phila. Acad. May, 1860, 192 (Panama and Carthagena). — Bd. 

Rev. AB. Ib64, 203.— i?. B. <£ R. NAB. i. 1874, 217. 
Dendroeca vieilloti, Scl. Cat. AB. 1862, 33 (includes vars. bryanti and rufigula). 
Rhimaniphus rudceps, Cab. J. f. O. for Sept. 1860, pub. Jan. 1861, 326 (includes var. bryanti). 
?Mniotilta rutlceps, Gieb. Nomenc. Av. ii. 1875, 606 (includes other vars.). 
Dendrceca petechia 1) panamcnsis ?, <SM?id. Oefv. K. Vet. -Akad. Forh. iii. 1869, C09. (Quid 

D. petechia g) ■peruviana ? ; h) cequatorialis ? ; Id. ibid. 1) 

Dendroeca vieilloti rufigula, Bd. [Panama.] 

f SylTia ruflcapilla, Tieill. Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xi. 1817, i28.—Tieill. Ency. M6th. ii. 
1823, 442, n. S-2.— Tieill. Gal. Ois. i. 1834, 268, pi. 164. (" L'Am6riqne." Not of Latham, 
though Feuill§e, and Briss. iii. 490, are quoted. The description clearly indicates 
one of the birds with the whole head red, but which of the varieties of modem 
authors may not be determinable. Baird makes it the basis of his J>. rufigula, 
queried as West Indian, but really from the Isthmus of Panama.) 

tRbimamphus ruflcapilla, Bp.CA.i.^850,3n (=Vieill.). 

Dendroica rufl^ula, Bd. Rev. AB. 1865, 204 {loc. ignot). 

Dendroica Tiellloti var. rufigula, .B. 2?. cC- ii\ NAB. i. 1874, 217 (Panama). 

Dendrceca vieilloti bryanti, Ridgw. [Mexico.] 
Dendroica vieillotii var. bryanti, Ridgw. Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 606. 
Dendroica yieiiloti var. bryanti, B. B. <& R. NAB. i. 1874, 218 (Mexico and Yucatan). 

Dendrceca anreola, (Gould) Bd. [Galapagoes J 
Sylvia aureila, Gould, " Voy. Beagle, 1841, 86, pi. 28 ". 
Mniotilta aureola, Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, 196. 
Sylvlcola aureola, Bp. CA. i. 1850, 309. 

Dendroica anreola, Bd. Rev. AB. i. 1865, 194.— U. B.aR NAB. i. 1874, 217. 
Dendra*ca petechia f) gallapagensis, Sund. Oefv. K Vet.- Akad. Forh. iii. 1869, 608. 

Dendroeca eoa, (Gosse) Bd. [Jamaica.] 
Sylvlcola eoa, Gosse, B. Jam. 1847, 159.— Gosse, 111. B. Jam. 1849, pi. 34.— Bp. C A. L 1850, 300. 
Mnlolilta eoa. Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, 196. 

Dendroica eoa, Bd. Rev. AB. 1865, 195.— B. B. <£ R. NAB. i. 1874, 218. 
Dendrceca eoa, Sund. Oefv. K. Vet.-Akad. Fiirh. iii. 1869, 609. 



HABITS OF THE SUMMER WARBLER 257 

ble places within this area, but probably withdraws entirely in 
the fall. In the mountains about Fort Whipple, Arizona, I 
noted its arrival one year on the 25th of April, and saw it not 
after the second week in September of either of the autumns I 
passed in that locality. Though the bird is so generally dis- 
tributed at all altitudes, you would scarcely look for it in the 
pine woods of the higher mountains; for it loves the less sombre 
verdure of ravine, hillside, and water-course, and its brilliant 
yellow plumage is oftenest seen glancing through the cotton- 
woods and willows that fringe the streams, even far out on the 
dreary plains ; while the sprightly and agreeable song which 
accompanies its movements at frequent intervals has all the 
pleasurable associations that are awakened at the sound of a 
familiar voice — never so attractive as when unexpectedly heard 
in a far-away place. 

A bird so widely distributed as the Summer Warbler is, might 
be presumed to modify its habits somewhat according to the 
diverse conditions of its environment. But the present, like 
other Warblers, is so regular in its periodical movements that 
it bears little or no local impress, — the reverse, I have no doubt, 
of the case with the several insular races into which the species 
has been converted in the West Indies. Its habits are every- 
where substantially the same, whatever little changes, particu- 
larly in the location and construction of the nest, may be 
required to meet special conditions. With us, the Summer 
Warbler is well known to be a confiding bird, rather attracted 
than repelled by man's presence, fond of nesting in our orchards, 
gardens, and lawns, even our crowded streets ; and the nest, as 
a rule, is placed rather low down, in some hedge, thicket, or other 
shrubbery. In the arctic regions, where the bird has been found 
to be abundant, the nest is said to be usually placed in the low 
willow bushes of those latitudes. The nest and eggs are too 
well known to require descriptiou ; but Mr. Henshaw has left a 
memorandum that the eggs he took in the West were all pure 
white in the ground color, lacking the slight greenish shade 
observed in those laid in the Eastern States. 

This Warbler has long been known as one of the birds most 
frequently victimized by the Cow Bunting, and has become cel- 
ebrated for the resolution with which it refuses to incubate the 
alien egg, as well as for the sagacity and deterrainatiou it dis- 
plays in making shift to avoid the hateful imposition, even to 
the length of sacrificing its own eggs and giving up its nest. 
17 B 



258 SYNONYMY AND CHARS. OF D. OCCIDENTAHS 

It frequently constructs a two-story nest, leaving the Bunting's 
egg in the cellar; and at least one instance is recorded of the 
repetition of this laborious and disagreeable work, resulting in 
a three-story nest some seven inches deep, with a Cow bird's egg 
in each of the two lower compartments. 

Hermit Warbler 

I>endr<eca occldentalls 

Sylvia OCCidentaiiS, Towns. Journ. Phila. Acad. vii. 1837, 190 (Colambia Kiver) ; viii. 1839, 

iry.i.—Aud. OB. v. 1839, 55, p). 395, f. 3, 4. 
SylriCOla OCCldentaliS, Bp. CGL. 1838, 23.— Awd. Syn. 1839, 60.— iVM«. Man. i. -id ed. 1840, 

445.— Aud. BA. ii. 1841, CO, pi. 93.— .Bp. CA. 1. 1850, 308. 
Mniotilta occldentalls, Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, 196. 
Dendroica occldentalls, Bd. BNA. 1858, 268.— Coop. «6 Suck. NHWT. 1860, 178.— Bd. Kev. 

AB. 1865, 183.— B. B. & B. NAB. i. 1874, 266, pi. 12, f. S.—Hensh. List B. Ariz. 1875, 156.— 

Hensh. Zool. Expl. W. 100 Merid. 1876, 201. 
Dendroeca occldentalls, Cowes, Ibis, 2d ser. i. 1865, 163 (Arizona).— <Sct ibid. 89 (critical).— 

Salv. Ibis, 2d ser. ii. 1866, 191 (Guatemala).— Cowes, Pr. Phila. Acad, xviii. 1866, 69 (Fort 

Whipple).— 5M»id.0efv.K.Vet.-Akad. Forh. iii. 1869, 611.— Coop. B. Cal. i. 1870, 92.— 

Coues, Key, 1872, 97.—Ooop. Am. Kat. viii. 1874, 16. 
Dendrceca perldentalis, Coop. Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 480. 
Dendroeca chrysoparia, Sd. PZS. 1862, 19 (La Parada). (Not of PZS. 1860, 298.)— /Sc?. Cat. 

AB. 1862, 358 (La Parada). 
Dendroeca niveirentris, Salv. PZS. 1863, 187, pi. 24, f. 2 (San Geronimo, Guatemala). 
Hermit Warbier, Western Warbler, Authors. 

Hab. — In the United StateB, Rocky Mountains to the Pacific. South 
through Mexico to Guatemala. 

Ch. sp. — ^ Suprcb cinerea, olivaceo tincta, nigro striata^ infra 
alba ; capite flavo, nigro notato, jugulo et guld nigris. 

$ , adult : Above ashy-gray, tinged with olive, especially on the rump, and 
closely streaked with black ; below white. Top and sides of head rich yellow, 
the former with transverse black markings. Central line of chin, throat, and 
jugulum black, ending on the breast with a sharp convex outline, contrasted 
with the adjoining white. Wings and tail as in tJtre»s. Bill black. Length, 
4f-5; extent, 7i; wing, 2i-2|; tail, 2i-2i; tarsus, §-|; bill, f. 

2 , adult : This sex, unknown to me, is described as similar to the male, 
but darker gray above, with the yellow of the head less extended, and the 
throat whitish, spotted with dusky. 

Young: Upper parts olivaceons-ash, and the yellow of the top of the 
head overlaid with olive. Sides of the head pretty clear yellow, fading 
gradually into the white of the throat. No black on the throat. White of 
the under parts faintly brownish-tinged, and sides with obsolete streaks. 

There is every gradation between the stages above described. The very 
earliest plumage is probably still unknown. In a September specimen of 
mine, taken at Fort Whipple in 1864, the dusky olive extends over all the 
upper parts, tinging the ashy of the lower back, and reaching on the crown 
nearly to the bill, where it gradually lightens by admixture of yellow; the 
sides of the head are clear yellow, soiled with some olivaceous : chin and 



HABITS OF THE HERMIT WARBLER 259 

throat the same, fading on the breast into the dull white of the other under 
parts ; sides with obsolete streaks, and a slight grayish-olive wash. There 
is no black whatever about the head or throat, and the blackish streaks of 
the back are obsolete. The wings are twice barred with the conspicuous 
white tips of the greater and median wing-coverts. 

On the technical questions involved in the consideration of D. chryaoparia 
and D. niveiventris, see especially Ibis, 1865, 87. 

MY own experience with this Warbler in the field is limited 
to the summary shooting of one, before I knew what it 
was, in some thick scrub-oak bushes near Fort Whipple, Arizona, 
September 3, 1864. In the same Territory, Mr. Henshaw lately 
collected a series of specimens during August and September, 
finding the birds in such close association with Townsend's 
Warblers, and so similar in habits and general appearance, that 
it was impossible to distinguish the two species at the distance 
at which they were usually seen. The bird appears to be only 
a migrant in the Colorado Basin : it passes into Mexico in the 
fall, along with various other Warblers, and proceeds in some 
cases at least as far south as Guatemala, always showing an 
attachment to high pine-clad regions, like those of the far north, 
where it was originally discovered many years since by Nuttall 
and Townsend. There is no evidence that it breeds in the south- 
erly portion of our territory ; but this lack of positive evidence 
to such effect does not prevent my surmise that it will, sooner 
or later, be shown to inhabit the higher pine belts of the Colo- 
rado watershed, where it is now only known as a migrant. We 
have very little information respecting its habits ; in fact, noth- 
ing beyond our knowledge of its geographical distribution and 
general movements has been added to the memoranda which 
its discoverers left us. Mr. Townsend shot his birds, a pair, on 
the 28th of May, 1835, near Fort Vancouver, whilst they were 
fluttering through the depths of the pine woods in search of in- 
sects ; he saw them hanging from the twigs like Titmice, and 
thought that their notes resembled those of the Black-throated 
Blue Warbler. Mr. Nuttall's notice is more extended, and fur- 
nished the basis of the name "Hermit" Warbler, given in con- 
sequence of what he calls the " eremitic predilection " of the 
bird. He observed it with difficulty in the tops of the pine 
trees, where it searches for its food, and where, he had no doubt, 
the nest would also be found. "Its song", he continues, " fre- 
quently heard from the same place, at very regular intervals, 
for an hour or two at a time, is a soft, moody, faint, and monot- 



260 SYNONYMY AND CHARS. OF D. TOWNSENDI 

onous note, apparently delivered chiefly when the bird is at rest 
on some lofty twig, and within convenient hearing of its mate 
and only companion of the wilderness." 

Dr. George Suckley later confirmed these accounts of the in- 
accessible nature of the bird's favorite haunts, he having found 
it difficult to reach them with fine shot in the tops of the lofty 
fir-trees, where they spent most of their time. All these reports 
indicate that the anchorites were in their summer homes, and 
inform us of at least one portion of the country in which they 
do breed, though we must be slow to assert that they may not 
also breed elsewhere under different conditions. My specimen, 
as I distinctly remember, was hopping about in a bush close to 
the ground, showing that the habits of the siiecies are not the 
same at all seasons of the year. 

Townscnd's "WarMer 

Dendroecn townfsendi 

Sylvia townsendi, "Nutt", Towns. Joum. Phila. Acad. vii. 1837, 191 (Columbia River; .— 

Aud. OB. V. 1839, 36, pi. 393, f. 1. 
SylviCOla townsendi, Bp. CGL. 1838, '23.— Aud. Syn. 1839, 59.— Nutt. Man. i. 2d ed. 1840, 446.— 

Aua. BA. ii. 1841, 59, pi. QH.—Bp. CA. i. 1850, 308. 
Dendroica townsendi, Sd. PZS. 1858,295,298; 1859, 374 (Oaxaca).—B.B.<£i?.NAB.i. 1874, 265, 

pi. 12, f. 5.—Hensh. List B. Ariz. 1875, 156.— Hensh. Zool. Expl. W. 100 Merid. 1876, 200. 
Dendroeca townsendi, Coues, Ibis, 2d ser. i. 1865, 163 (Arizona).— /Sc{. Ibis, i. 2tl ser. 1865, 89 

(critical).— <S(*nd. Oefv. K. Vet.-Akad. Forh. iii. 1869, 610. 
SylTia townsendii, Towns. Journ. Phila. Acad. viii. 1839, 153. 
Mnlotilta townsendii, Oray,G. of B. i. 1848, 196. 
Dcndrolca townsendii, Bd. BNA. 1858, 269.— S. <£ S. Ibis.i. 1859, 11 (Guatemala).— Coop, ct 

Suckl NHWT. 1860, 179.— Bee. Kev. AB. 1865, 185.— rMm&. B. E. Penn. 1869, 53, fig. ; 

Phila. ed. 42 (Pennsylvania). 
Dendroeca townsendii. Coop. B. Gal. i. 1870, 91, fig.- Oomm, Key, 1872, 98.— Coop. Am. Nat. 

viii. 1874, 10. 
Syivlcola townsendii, Finsch, Abh. Nat. iii. 1872, 35 (Alaska). 

Sylvia melanocausta, "Licht.", "Brandt, Ic.Ined. Rosso-As. pi. i. f. 5, ? " (fide Finsch). 
lownsend's Wood-Warbler, Townsend's Warbler, Authors. 

Hab. — Rocky Mountains to the Pacific, from Alaslia to Guatemala. (A 
stray specimou tali en near Philadelphia.) 

Ch. sp. — (J Supra Jlavoviridis, nigro striata; infra antice 
flava, postice alba, jugulo pectore lateribusque nigro striatis, lateri- 
bus capitis nigris fiavo circumcinctis. 9 jugulo jiavo intertincto 
fet auricularibus viridibus ?J. 

$ , adult : Entire upper parts yellowish-olive, rather darker than in virens, 
everywhere streaked with black, especially on the crown, where the black 
usujilly predominates; no hidden yellow on the crown. Sides of the head 
bright yellow, enclosing a large black patch, constituted by the lores and or- 
bital and auricular region, in which the yellow eyelids appear. Chin, throat, 
breast, and sides part way, yellow, the jugulum black; the sides of the 



HABITS OF TOWNSEND's WARBLER 261 

breast and of the body streaked with black. Under wing-coverts, belly, 
flanks, and crissum white, the two latter slightly shaded and streaked with 
dusky. Wings crossed with two white bands, that of the median coverts 
broadest. Wings and tail fuscous, the former with pale edgings, the latter 
having two or three outer feathers largely blotched with white. Bill and 
feet blackish horn-color. Length, about 5 ; extent, 7^-8 ; wing, 2^-2^ ; tail, 2. 

$ : Like the $ , but the black of the jugulum mixed with yellow (and 
that on the sides of the head mixed with or replaced by olive?). 

Young: Shade of the upper parts slight brownish, and the black streaks 
slight, obsolete, or wanting. The dark patch on the side of the head oliva- 
ceous, like the back. No continuous black on the jugulum. 

Autumnal adults show various gradations between the characters of the 
old and young. The species is very closely related to D. virens, of which it 
is the Western representative. Adult males are readily distinguished by the 
darker greenish upper parts, conspicuously streaked, especially on the head, 
with black ; the black cheeks and auriculars ; black of jugulum not reaching 
anteriorlj^ to the bill, and the surrounding yellow spreading on the breast 
back of the black. Young birds are rot so easily discriminated, however; 
but there are usually traces at least of the black streaks on the upper parts : 
there is no concealed yellow on the crown ; the yellow of the under parts, 
quite OS bright as in the adult, extends far along the breast, behind that 
part where it veils the black. 

The fledgling state of this species is unknown, and some of the characters 
ascribed to the female should be attested by further material. 

TOWNSEND'S Warbler is another species respecting which 
our knowledge is limited, and does not include any infor- 
mation respecting the nest or eggs. It is one of the many dis- 
coveries made during Nuttall and Townsend's journey to the 
Pacific — an adventurous and toilsome pilgrimage for the pur- 
poses of science, fraught with interest to all lovers of nature, and 
greatly redounding to the advantage of botany and ornithology. 
The gist of their notices, which long remained our only source 
of information, is that they found the bird migrating through 
the coniferous forests of the Columbia River region. This ob- 
servation long remained unverified ; but we have late advices 
of the bird from Alaska, as far north at least as Sitka. The 
full extent of its breeding range is not yet ascertained ; but I 
have no doubt that the pine belts of the mountains of the 
VA^est, from the latitudes even of New Mexico and Arizona, will 
in the end be found to shelter these birds in summer. During 
September, they are commonly seen migrating through the Col- 
orado region, and in some situations have been observed iu 
considerable numbers. They press on through Mexico, and find 
a winter home, in some cases at least, as far south as Guate- 
mala. There is no conclusive evidence that any of them remain 



262 HABITS OF TOWNSEND's WARBLER 

with US through the winter. Dr. Brewer, indeed, says that Dr. 
Cooper saw one at Sboalwater Bay in December; but on turning 
to both of Dr. Cooper's works in which this species is men- 
tioned, I find that he only saw at Shoalwater what he " supposed 
to be this species ", and did not secure the specimen. The same 
gentleman's statement that he shot two specimens in November, 
1855, in Santa Clara County, California, furnishes, so far as I 
am aware, the record of the latest lingering of the species over 
our border. All of Mr. Henshaw's Arizona specimens were 
taken in September, during the migration. Mr. C. E. Aiken's 
Colorado examples were procured in August and September. 
The extralimital records, from Mexico and Central America, 
relate, probably without exception, to occurrences in winter or 
during the migration. We have consequently in this species a 
bird which occupies the United States in summer from Colorado 
to Sitka, breeding in an unascertained portion of such extent 
of country from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific, and which 
late in the fall entirely withdraws from the United States to 
winter in Mexico and Central America. The date of its return 
in spring over our border is not known. I have already indi- 
cated what I presume to be its actual breeding range. In the 
summer, it is confined to the pine regions, at high elevations in 
southerly districts, but down to sea-level in the farther north. 
Durhig the migrations, it is much more generally dispersed ; 
for Dr. Cooper has observed it among low willows and other 
bushes. 

In tracing its distribution and migrations, we should not over- 
look the unexpected occurrence of this bird, in one exceptional 
instance, near Philadelphia, as attested by the Rev. Dr. W. P. 
Turnbull, in his elegant little treatise upon the Birds of East 
Pennvsylvania and New Jersey. A full-plumaged male was shot 
in Chester County, near the Brandywine, on the 12th of May, 
18G8, and preserved in his collection. 

Mr. Henshaw has left more copious notes than any other 
writer whom I have consulted in the preparation of this article — 
for I never saw the bird alive, and have nothing of my own to 
contribute to its history. He found these Warblers numerous at 
Mount Graham, in Arizona, during the mouth of September, 
though he experienced some difficulty in securing specimens, as 
the birds kept in the tops of the tallest trees, where only occa- 
sional glimpses rewarded the perseverance with which he 
endeavored to mark them as they dashed out after insects, or 



SYNONYMY AND CHARACTERS OF D. NIGRESCENS 263 

flew from tree to tree in their ceaseless migratory course. At 
this time and place, they were not among piues, but in forests 
of spruce and fir, and their flights seemed to be regulated some- 
what by the presence or absence of these kinds of conifers. 
Their motions were extremely rapid j a moment spent in thread- 
ing the mazes of the interlaced branches, — a few hurried sweeps 
about the ends of the limbs, and they were off to the next tree 
to repeat such actions till lost sight of in the density of the 
forest. Their only note at this season was the chipping sound 
which many Warblers utter. The writer concludes with the re- 
mark, that though he obtained no evidence that the birds breed 
in Arizona, he saw no reason why the mountain fastnesses 
of that Territory should not ofi'er a congenial summer home. 

Black-throated Gray Warbler 

]>endroeca nigrescens 

Sylvia nigrescens, Towns. Joum. Phila. Acad. vii. 1837, 191 (Columbia River) ; viii. 1833, 

153.— Towns. Narr. 1839, 341.— Aud. OB. v. 1839, 57, pi. 395. 
Vermivora nigrescens, Bp. CGL. 1838, ^l.—Nutt. Man. i. 2d ed. 1840, 471. 
SylviCOla nigrescens, Aii,d. Syn. 1839, ^d.-Aud. BA. ii. 1841, 62, pi. 94.— Bp. CA. i. 1850, 30a 
Mntotilta nigrescens, Gray, G.of B. i. 1848, 196. 
Rhimauplius nigrescens. Cab. MH. i. 1830, 20. 
Dendroica nigrescens, Bd. BNA. 1858, TiO.—Scl. PZS. 1858, 295, 298 (Oaxaca).— -ScZ. PZS. 1859, 

374 (Oaxaca).— fl^enrj/, Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 1859, 106 (Xew Mexico).— ffeerm. PRRR. x. 

1859, 40.— O. cfi /S. NHWT. 1860, 180.— J5d. Ives's Rep. Colo. pt. vi. 1861, 5.—Bd. Rev. 

AB. 1865, 186.— .Swrnicft. Mem. Boat. Soc. i. 1869, 547 (Orizaba).- Aijtew, Pr. Boat. Soc. 

XV. 1872, 197 (Colora-lo).- i?. B. db R. NAB. i. 1874, 238, pi. 12, f. 8. 
Dendreeca nigrescens, Sd. Cat. 1862, 30 (Oaxaca).— Oowes, Ibis, 1865, 163 (Arizona).— Oowes, 

Pr. Phila. Acad, xviii. 1866, 69 (Arizona).— <S'M7id. Orfv. K. Vet.-Akad. Foih. iii. 1869, 

610.— Cowes, Key, 1872, 98.— Coop. Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 16.— Coues, BNW. 1674, 55, 232.— 

Nels. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 357 (Cuba). 
? Sylvia palpebralis, Ornith. Gomm. Joum. Phila. Acad. viL 1837, 193 (descr. null4). 
? Sylvicola tristis, N'utt. Man. i. 2d ed. 1840, 472 (scarcely identifiable). 
Sylvia halseii, Gir. 16 Sp. Tex. B. 1841, fol. 11, pi. 3, f. 1 ( ? ). 
Sylvicola nigricans, Henry, Pr. Phila. Acad. vii. 1855, 309 (New Mexico). 
Black'ttaraated Gray [or Grey] Warbler, Authors. 

Hab. — Rocky Mountains to the Pacific, United States; and south into 
Mexico in winter. Not yet recorded north of the United States. Breeds in 
suitable places throughout its United States range. Winters extralimital. 

Ch. sp. — (J Supra cceruleocinerea, dor so medio nigro striato ; 
capite toto etjiigulo tiigris, macula ante oculum flavd, strigis post- 
ocular i et maxillari albis; infra alba, latcribus nigro striatis. 

$ , adult : Above bluish-ash, the interscapular region, and usually also the 
upper tail-coverts, streaked with black. Below, from the breast, pure white, 
the sides streaked with black. Entire head, with chin and throat, biack; 
a sharply-defined yellow spot before the eye, a broad white stripe behind the 
eye, and a long white maxillary stripe widening behind from the corner of 



264 HABITS OF BLACK-THROATED GEAY WARBLER 

the bill to the side of the neck. Wings fuscous, with much whitish edging, 
and crossed with two broad white bars on the ends of the greater and median 
coverts. Tail like the wings, the three lateral feathers mostly white, except 
on the outer webs, the fourth with a white blotch. Bill and feet black. 
Size of the last. 

$ : Like the male, but the black of the crown mixed with the ashy of the 
back, and that of the throat veiled with white tips of the feathers. 

Youug : Like the $ , but the crown almost entirely like the back, and the 
black of the throat still more hidden. Back not streaked. Less white on 
the tail. Bill not entirely black. 

This species varies but little, and chiefly in the intensity and purity of the 
black of the fore parts. Autumnal specimens of either sex are found in 
every stage between the extremes above described. In very immature birds, 
the back has sometimes a slight brownish cast. The curious little yellow 
spot appears at a very early age ; I have never seen it wanting. The fledg- 
ling stage I have not seen, nor does it appear to be known. 

HERE is the third Dendrceca discovered by the indefatiga- 
ble travellers of whom mention has been made in speaking 
of the two preceding species. Townsend 
gives it as abundant in the forests of the 
Columbia, where he says that it remains 
until very late in the fall, and builds a 
nest of fibrous green moss suspended be- 
tween two small twigs among the upper 
branches of the oak. Nuttall states that 
Fm. 34.— Black-throated Gray it is sccu to arrivc in the samc region early 
Warbler. ^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^ mf^v^ that it brccds there 

from the character of the notes that he heard it utter. "On 
the l'3d of May," he continues, " I had the satisfaction of heark- 
ening to the delicate but monotonous song of this bird, as he 
busily and intently searched every leafy bough and expanding 
bud for larvae and insects in a spreading oak, from whence he 
delivered his solitary note. Sometimes he remained a minute 
or two stationary, but more generally continued his quest for 
prey. His song, at short and regular intervals, seemed like 
Hshee H shay t shaitshee, varying the feeble sound very little, and 
with the concluding note somewhat slenderly and plaintively 
raised." 

It was a good many years before we heard of this Warbler 
again. Meanwhile, the systematists were busy with its name, 
much as usual, bandying the bird about from one genus to 
another, but adding nothing whatever to our real knowledge. 
Drs. Cooper and Suckley met with it in the original locality, or 
at least in the same general area, and the latter notes that it 




HABITS OF BLACK-THROATED GRAY WARBLER 265 

g^enerally arrives from the south early in April, is commonly 
found in oak forests, and is rather abundant in the vicinity of 
Fort Steilacoom. Dr. Cooper saw a pair at Puget Sound which 
seemed to have a nest, but he did not succeed in finding it. 
About the time that these observations were made, we had 
sudden word of the species from a distant point in Mexico ; for 
M. A. Boucard secured specimens in Oaxaca, Mexico, as Dr. 
Sclater soon recorded. To this very day these advices remain 
the northernmost and about the most southerly we have ; for 
the Black-throated Gray has never been traced north of the 
region in which it was originally discovered, nor yet through 
Mexico into Central America. Prof. F. Sumichrast has, how- 
ever, taken it in Orizaba ; and there is much reason to suppose 
that its actual range is not less extensive than that of either 
occidentalis or townsendl. As to its longitudinal dispersion, we 
simply note its spread in suitable forest-clad country from the 
eastern bases of the Eocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, and 
may next endeavor to trace its movements within this area from 
the rather fragmentary indicia we command. 

In California, the late Dr. A. L. Heermann took a few speci- 
mens near Sacramento City, and also on the mountain range 
between the Calaveras and Mokelumne Eivers, during the au- 
tumnal migration of 1852, when the bird was found gleaning 
its insect food in the upper branches of oak trees, and had notes 
which the observer likened to those of a locust. In the same 
State, the birds api)eared to Dr. Cooper to reach San Diego 
about the 20th of April, in small flocks, migrating northward, 
and were not seen after this month. Dr. Suckley's remark of 
their coming so much farther north in the beginning of the 
same month is somewhat at variance with the experiences of 
others, and I suspect he may have meant to say May, not April. 
During their passage across California, according to Dr. Cooper, 
the birds haunt low bushes along the coast; but afterward, 
he says, they take to the deciduous oaks when the leaves begin 
to grow, early in May, at which time the birds reach the Colum- 
bia Eiver. This record of migration squares as to date with 
what is known of the movements of the species in other longi- 
tudes ; but the supposed absence of the bird from California 
after April must bo cautiously regarded. 

For we have plenty of evidence that the Black-throated Gray 
nestles all through the mountains of corresponding latitudes 
east of California. And first for my own observations, made 



266 HABITS OF BLACK-THROATED GRAY WARBLER 

at Fort Whipple during two seasons. I found the bird common 
there in the pine forests, and especially numerous during the 
migrations ; but it was also seen through the summer, and un- 
questionably breeds in that locality. It was tirst observed about 
the 20th of April, and did not entirely disappear until toward 
October. I generally saw it skipping with great agility through 
the tops of lofty pines, at such height that I could scarcely tell 
what bird it was until some well-directed shot, perhaps after a 
tedious poking about with the gun held almost vertically upon 
my shoulder, brought my victim dropping by stages from one 
limb to another, and then with a long whirl through the clear 
space between the lower branches to the ground, sometimes at 
my very feet. My later spring specimens were some of them 
in full nuptial attire, and the queer scraping notes which I sup- 
posed to come from this species not seldom descended from the 
leafy canopy where the endless chirpings of the Nuthatches, 
Titmice, and other little birds were mingled with the rappings 
of the Woodpeckers and the harsh, sudden outcries of the 
rowdyish Jays. 

In the autumn, these Warblers appeared, of course, in larger 
numbers, their ranks being recruited by new comers from the 
north, en route to Mexico, land of the mezquite and of " war's 
revolution"; and at the same season they were also more gener- 
ally dispersed over the country, on the hillsides clad with scrub 
oak, and even along the willow-fringed mountain-streams. Mr. 
Heushaw's observations, very recently made at corresponding 
latitudes in New Mexico, agree with mine. He found the 
birds in June in the vicinity of Santa Fe, New Mexico, where 
they frequented the growths of piuones and cedars that cov- 
ered the dry foot-hills. The males were then iu worn plum- 
age, as if already breeding — an indication confirmed by the 
nonappearance of the females, who were no doubt too assid- 
uous in their housekeeping to come much in the collector's 
way. Mr. Ridgway had already found these birds in the East 
Humboldt Mountains of Nevada, under precisely similar con- 
ditions ; there they were abundant in piiion and cedar thickets, 
where they certainly had bred, for he saw families of young 
following their parents in July and August. In Colorado, says 
Mr. Aiken, the birds are rather rare migrants, a few probably 
leraaining to breed ; they frequent mesas and foot-hills covered 
with low scrubby piSou, making their appearance about the first 
of May, when the males precede the. females by a few days, and 



SYNONYMY OF DENDRCECA CCERULEA 267 

are heard at frequent intervals to rehearse their curious love- 
songs as they wage their war of extermination against insects 
on every leaf and limb. 

From such data as these, representing nearly all that is posi- 
tively known respecting this bird, it is not difficult to make out 
its movements and mode of life — to see how, entering our ter- 
ritory from the south in April, it disperses to breed over ail the 
coniferous regions of the West, at the higher altitudes only in 
the south, but down to the general level of the country in re- 
gions farther north ; how it returns to its winter home, trooping 
through the whole country irrespective, in a great measure, of 
the kind of forest vegetation it may encounter; how diligently 
it forages for its insect prey, and with what repetition the emo- 
tions of the nuptial hours are expressed. Such are traits that 
nearly all Warblers share ; but the observant ornithologist finds 
ample room to enlarge his experiences and increase his sources 
of thoughtful pleasure in noting those nice points which, like 
the touches of color upon the plumage, stamp an individuality 
upon each member of this attractive group of birds. 

CoDrullean l¥arMer 

Dendroeca coeralea 

Sylvia Cicrulea, WiU. " AO. ii. 1810, 141, pi. 17, f. 5 ". 

SylviCOla cserulea, "Sw."—Jard. "ed. Wila. 1832, — ".—^p. CGL. 1838, 23.— .Bp.CA.i. 1850, 

203.— Hoy, Smiths. Kep. for 1864, 1865, 438 (Missouri). 
Rhlmamplms caeruleus, Scl. PZS. 1857, 18 (Bogotd) ; 1858, 64 CRio'^apo). —Gundl. J. f. 0. 1862, 

177 (Cuba). 
Dendrolca cserulca, Bd. BISTA. 1858, iSO.—Gundl. J. f. 0. 1861,326 (Cuba).— Barn. Smiths. 

Kep. for 1860, 1861, 436.— Bd Rev. AB. 1865, ]9l.—Trippe, Am. Nat. ii. 1868, 176.— Brew. 

Am.Nat.vi.l872, 483.— Gundi. J. f. 0.1872, 414 (Cuba).— B. B. <6B. NAB. i. 1874, 235, 

pi. 13, f. 10, U.—Brcw. Pr. Bost Soc. svii. 1875, 451 (denied to New England).— H^emft. 

Zool. Expl. W. 100 Merid. 1875, 106 (Denver, Colo.). 
Dendrfleca cserulea, Scl. Cat. AB. 1862, 31.— ,S. d- S. PZS. 1864, 347 (Panama).— Oowes, Pr. Ess. 

lust. V. 1868, 21i.—Sund. Oefv. K. Vot.-Akad. Forh. iii. 1869, 614.— & <£ S. PZS. 1870, 836 

(Honduras).— /SaJ«. PZS. 1870, 183 (Veragua).— ^ZJen, Am.Nat. v. 1871, 6.— A««n, Am. 

Nat. vi. 1872,265.— -ScoK, Pr. Best. Soc. xv. 1872, 222.— (7oMes, Key, 1872, m.—Ridgw. 

Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 199.— Gentry, Life-Hist. i. 1876, 108.— Jfino«, B. N. Engl. 1877, 114.— 

Purdie, Bull. Nutt. Club, ii. 1877, 21 (Connecticut).— lf«rr. Tr. Conn. Acad. iv. 1877, 15 

(Connecticut, two instances). 
Dendrceca caerula, Trippe, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1873, 2 !5. 
Sylvia cairulea, Bp. Jouru. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 193. — Licht. "Preis-Verz. Mox. Vog. 

183!), 2" ; J. f. 0. 1803, 37.— Tftornps. N. U. Vermont, 1853, 82. 
SylviCOla ceerulea, Eich. Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. for 1836, 1837, 172.— Aud. Syn. 1839, 56.— 

And. BA. ii. 1841, 45, pi. 8ii.— Woodh. Sitgr. Rep. Zuiii, 1853, 10.— Hoy, Pr. Phila. Acad. 

vi. 1853, 311 ( Wisconsin).- ITcwj/, Pr. Pbila. Acad. vii. 1855, 309.— Pwtn. Pr. Ess. Inst. 

i. 1856, 207 (wrongly attributed to Massachusetts). — Willis, Smiths. Rep. for 1858, 1859, 

282 (Nova Scotia ; doubtful). 
Blniotilta coBPulca, Gieb. Nomenc. Av. ii. 187.5, 601. 



268 CHARACTERS OF DENDRCECA CCERULEA 

Dcndroica coerulea, Henry, Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 1850, 106.— Ferr. Pr. Ess. Inst. iii. 1862, 156.— 

Turnb. B. E. Pa. 1869, 25 ; Phila. eil. Ic—Hensh. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, 58 (Denver, Colo.). 
Dendroeca ccerulca, Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. T. vii. 1861, 322 (New Granndn).— ilfc/iwr. Pr. Ess. 

Innt. V. 1866,86 (Uamilton, C. \Y.).—Coues, Pr. Best. See. xii. 1868, 110.— Lowr. Ann. 

Lye. K Y. ix. 1869, 200.— Couc«, BN W. 1874, 56, ^22.—Jouy, Field and Forest, iii. n. 3, 

Sept. 1877, 51 (Washington, D.C.). 
Sylria rara, WUs. iii. 1811, 119, pi. 27, f. %—Steph. Gen. Zool. x. 1817, 657.— F. Ency. M6th. 11. 

1823, 448.— Bp. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 197.— J5p. Ann. Lye. N. T. ii. 1826, 

m.—Nutt. Man. 1. 1832, 393.— Tlud. OB. i. 1832, 258, pi. 'id.— Brew. Journ. Boat. Soc. 

i. 1837, 436 (Massachusetts — wrong). 
Pbyllopneustc rara, Boie, Isis, 1828, 321. 
Fermivora rara, Jard. " cd. Wils. 1832". 
Mniotilta para. Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, 196. 
Sjlvia azuPca, Steph. Shaw's GZ. x. 1817, 653.— Bp. Am. Orn. ii. 1828, 37, pi. 11, f. 2.— Bp. 

Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 1826, B5.—Xutt. Man. i. 1832, 407.— Aud. OB. i. 1832, 255, pi. 48.— 

Towns. Journ. Phila. Acad. viii. 1839, 153 (Oregon ? !). 
Hypotbimis azurea, Boie, isis, 1828, 318. 
Sylvia bifasciata, Say, Long's Exp. R. Mts. i. 1823, 170. 
Sylvia pupulorum, V. Ency. Meth. ii. 1823, 449, n. 104. (After "Wilson.) 
Fauvette b6pylle, K Ency. M6th. ii. 1823, 448. 
Fauvette des Pcupliers, F. Ency. M6th. iL 1823, 449. 
Fauvette bleuatre, Le Moine, Ois. Canad. 1861, 192. 
Cceruleai), CseruleaD, or Cerulean Warbler or Wood'Warblcr, Azure Warbler, Blue- 

green Warbler, White-throated Blue Warbler, Authors. 
[Note. — Ccerulca and caerulea are not distinguished ; neither are coerulea and coerulea. — 
Note that the "Caerulean Warbler " (ATotacilla or Sylvia c.) of authors before Wilson is 
Polioptila, not Dendroeca. — See p. 101.] 

Hab. — Eastera North America to the Rocky Mountains in the latitude of 
Colorado, and to the Lower Missouri. Rare in the Atlantic States; authen- 
tic as a hird of New England (Connecticut, Linsley, Am. Journ. Sci. sliv. 
1843, — ; Purdie, Merriam, II. ss. cc). Canada West {Mcllivraith). Cuba 
(GHndlach); no other West Indian record. In winter, Central and portions 
of South America. No Mexican record. 

Ch. sp. — $ Coerulea, dorso medio nigro striata; infra alba, 
pectore lateribusque fusco-coeruleo striatis, strigd superciliari alba, 
alls albo bifasciatis, rectricibus lateralibus albo notatis. 9 vires- 
cens, infra sordide flavo-albida, alls cauddque sicut in mare. 

$, adult: Entire upper parts sky-blue, the middle of the back streaked 
with black ; the crown usually richer and also with dark markings. Below 
pure white, streaked across the breast and along the sides with dusky blue — 
the breast-streaka inclining to form a short bar, sometimes interrupted in 
the middle. Auriculars dusky ; edges of eyelids and superciliary line white. 
Wings blackish, much edged esternallj" with the color of tlie back, the inner 
webs of all the quills, the outer webs of the inner secondaries, and two broad 
ba.rs across the tips of the greater and median coverts, white. Tail black, 
with ninch exterior edging of the color of the back, all the feathers, except 
the middle pair, with small, white, subterminal epots on the inner webs. 
Length, 4-4^ ; wing, '2j ; tail, 2 or less. 

$, adult: Quito dill'erent. Upper parts dull greenish, with more or less 
grayisb-blue shade, the greenish brightest and purest on the crown. Eye- 
lids, line over eye, and entire under parts whitish, more or less strongly over- 
cast with dull greenish-yellow. Wings and tail dusky, the exterior edgings 
of the color of the back; the bars, spots, and interior edgings white, as in 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE CCERULEAN WARBLER 269 

the $ . The female is curiously similar to the same sex of D. ccerulescens, 
but in the latter the tail-spots are different ; there are no white wing-bars, 
but instead there is a small whitish spot at the base of the outer primaries. 
The autumnal plumage of the adults is said to differ in no wise from that 
of the spring. Young males are said to be much like the adult females, but 
less uniformly greenish-blue above and purer white below, with evident 
blackish stripes on the interscapulars and sides of the head. The young 
female resembles the adult of that sex, but is still greener above, with little 
or no blue, and quite buffy-yellowish below. When in full dress, this is a 
very pretty bird, there being something peculiarly tasteful and artistic in 
the simj)le contrast of the snowy-white with the delicate azure-blue, without 
any " warm " color. 

HAVING left in the " Birds of the Northwest" a sketch of 
the general geographical distribution of this species, I 
resume the subject chiefly to enter into detail respecting the 
western limits of its dispersion, which are wider than is com- 
monly supposed, or than is indicated by Dr. Brewer's latest 
contribution to its history. It will be remembered that not long 
after Wilson's original notice of the bird, Thomas Say described 
it under the name of Sylvia bifasciata in Major Long's Expedi- 
tion to the Rocky Mountains, and such hint of its westward 
extension has very recently been verified by Mr. Henshaw, who 
saw a Warbler, "unquestionably of this species", on the 17th 
of May, whilst he was collecting in the vicinity of Denver, Col- 
orado. The bird had not previously been recognized from west 
of the Plains. Woodhouse, however, gave it as breeding in 
abundance in the Indian Territory, and Allen as common about 
Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. These are the principal Western 
records. For though it is true that Audubon assigns it to the 
"Columbia River" on Townsendian authority, there is probably 
some mistake about this — at any rate, I continue to discredit 
the statement. The Mississippi Valley, in a broad sense, seems 
to be the bird's main area of distribution, where only is it at all 
abundant. In the Atlantic watershed, it is certainly one of our 
rarer species, though apparently of general dispersion ; but 
there is now no doubt that it enters New England. Audubon, 
indeed, ascribes it to Nova Scotia, and it would not be likely to 
reach that island without passing by New England. Audubon 
says explicitly, "the northeastern point at which I have known 
it to be procured is the neighborhood of Pictou, Nova Scotia"; 
but gives no authority nor any circumstances of observation. 
So long ago as 1837, Dr. Brewer gave *^ Sylvia rara^^ as a bird 
of Massachusetts, and for many years the species has been 



270 DISTRIBUTION OF THE CCERULEAN WARBLER 

currently attributed to New England, by myself as well as by 
others. Nearly all the later citations to such effect, however, 
have rested upon the appearance of the name in F. W. Put- 
nam's List of the Birds of Essex County, Mass., published in 
185G ; but Dr. Brewer " recently ascertained ))y careful enquiry " 
that the species Mr. Putnam had in view was the Black-throated 
Blue Warbler, D. ccerulescens. This left the bird without au- 
thentic Massachusetts record, and caused Dr. Brewer, ignoring 
his 1837 announcement, to deny the bird to New England in 
1875. In 1874, in the "Birds of the Northwest", I simply que- 
ried the occurrence of the species in that part of the country, 
considering that Linsley's Connecticut record of 1843 needed 
confirmation, though my other sources of information, such as 
Lawrence's New York List of 1866, left me in no real doubt of 
its presence in the Connecticut Valley — a fact fully confirmed 
by Mr. Purdie's and Mr. Merriam's respective records above 
cited. The only authoritative record I know of the occurrence 
of the bird north of our boundary is that above cited, fur- 
nished by Mr. Mcllwraith, of Hamilton, Canada West. In the 
Middle States, the Ccerulean Warbler is certainly rare ; it is so 
given by Dr. TurnbuU for Pennsylvania, and Dr. Prentiss and 
I never saw it alive in the District of Columbia ; though it has 
been got in this place on more than one occasion, the last being 
an instance of which I am informed by Mr. L. P. Jouy, of Wash- 
ington, who happens into my study with the information, by a 
curious coincidence, as I pen this very article (October 16, 1877), 
and who published the case in the number of " Field and Forest" 
above cited, which appeared a few days afterward. 

The Coerulean Warbler entirely withdraws from the United 
States in the fall. It is singular that we have no Mexican 
record, and that our only West Indian one is from Cuba. For 
aught that we know to the contrary, the bird makes for Central 
America, and winters in Yucatan, Guatemala, the Isthmus, and 
New Granada, even pushing as far in South America as the 
Rio Napo. 

Good fresh observations respecting the nest, eggs, and breed- 
ing habits of the Coerulean Warbler are wanted, as the present 
generation of ornithologists knows nothing of these matters 
but what it has inherited from the last one. 



SYNONYMY OF DENDRCECA AUDUBONI 271 

Aiidubon'is Warlbler 

Dendroeca andnboni 

SylvJa audnboni, Towns. Joam. Phila. Acad. vii. 1837, 191 (Columbia Kiver) ; viii. 1839, 153. 
SylflCOla audubonl, Bp. CGL. 1838, 21.—Aud. Syn. 1839, 52.— iV««. Man. i. 2d ed. 1840, 

414.— Gamb. Pr. Phila. Acad. iii. 1846, 155.— Gam6. Journ. Phila. Acad. i. 1847, 37.— 

Bp. CA. i. 1850, 307. 
Mniotllta auduboni, Gray, G.ofB.i. 1848,196. 
Dendroica auduboni, Sd. PZS. 1858, 295, 298 (Oaxaca).— Xan«. Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 1859. 

101.— Hold. <£■ Aiken, Pr. Boat. Soc. xv. 1872, 197.— B. B. d B. NAB. i. 1874, 229, pi. 13, 

f. l.—Hensh. List B. Ariz. 1875, 156.—3ensh. Zool. Expl. W. 100 Merid. 1876, 174. 
Dendroeca auduboni, Sd. PZS. i860, 250 (Orizaba).- «. d- S. Ib's, ii. i860, 273 (Guatemala).— 

Scl. PZS. 1864, 172 (City of Mexico).— Oowes, Ibis, 2d ser. i. 1865, 163 (Arizona).— Comcs, 

Pr. Phila. Acad. 1868, 83 (Arizona).— Brown, Ibis, 2d ser. iv. 1868, 420 (Vancouver).— 

Sund. Oefv. K Vet.-Akad. Forh. iii. 1809, 613.— Trippe apud Coues, BN W. 1874, 232.— 

Nels. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 357.— Frazar, Bull. Nutt. Club, IL 1877, 27 (Cambridge 

Mass. !). 
Sylvia auduboni), Aud. OB. v. 1839, 52, pi. 395. 

Sylvlcola audubonii, Aud. BA. ii. 1841, 26, pi. Ti.—Woodh. Sitgr. Rep. Zuni, 1853, 71. 
Dendroica audubonii, .Bd BN A. 1858,273.— iJd. U.S. Mes. B. Surv. ii. pt. ii. 1859, Birds, 

10.— Kenn. PRRR. x. 1859, 24.— ffeerm. ibid. 39.— Coop. <£■ Suck. NHWT. i. 1860, 181.— 

Hayd. Tr. Amer. Philos. Soc. xii. 1862, 160.— .Bd. Rev. AB. i. 1865, 188.— Coop. Am. 

Nat. iii. 1869, 33.— Sfei). U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, for 1870, 1871, 463.—Merr. U. S. Geol. 

Surv. Terr, for 1872, 1873, 675, 713. 
Dendroeca andubonii, Cortes, Pr. Phila. Acad. xv. 1866, 69.— Coop. B. Cal. i. 1870, 88, fig.— 

Coues, Key, 1872, 100,— Cowes, BNW. 1874, 53.— Coop. Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 16.— Farr. 

<£ Hens\'Re-p. Orn. Specs. 1874, 10.— Hensh ibid. 41, 58, 75, 102.— Nels. Pr. Bost. Soc, 

xvii. 1875, 343. 
Dendroica audubonls, Bd. Ives's Rep. Colo. R. pt. vi. 1861, 5. 

Dendroica coronata var. auduboni [!], Bidgw. Bull. Ess. Inst. v. 1873, 180 (Colorado). 
Audubon's Warbler, Western Yellow-rump, Authors. 

Hab. — From the easternmost bo.ses and outlying foot-hills of the Rocky 
Mountains to the Pacific, United States and British Columbia ; probably also 
to Alaska. South in winter through Mexico to Guatemala. Accidental in 
Massachusetts. 

Ch. sp. — (? Gceruleo-cinerea, dorsonigro striato ; vertice medio, 
uropygio, guld et lateribus pectoris, flavis; pectore nigro, ah- 
domine albo, lateribus nigro-striatis ; $ brunneo-cinerea, pectore 
nigro maculato. 

$ , adult, in summer : Upper parts clear bluish-ash, streaked with black. 
A central longitudinal spot on the crown, the rump, throat, and a patch on 
each side of the breast, rich yellow. Sides of the head little darker than the 
upper parts ; eyelids narrowly white, but no decided superciliary white 
stripe. The ash of the upper parts extending far around the sides of the 
neck. Jugulum and breast in high plumage pure black, though usually 
mixed with some grayish skirting of the feathers, or invaded by white from 
behind, or even touched with yellow here and there. Belly and under tail- 
coverts white, the sides streaked with black. Wings blackish, with gray or 
white edging, especially on the inner quills ; the median wing-coverts tipped, 
the greater ones edged and tipped, with white, forming a great white blotch. 
Tail like the wings, the outer webs narrowly edged with gray or white, tho 



272 CHARACTERS OF DENDRCECA AUDUBONI 

inner webs of all the lateral feathers with large white blotches. Bill and 
feet black. One of the larger species. Length, 5^5i ; extent, 8|-9i ; wing, 
2f-3 ; tail, 2^. 

$, in summer: Generally similar to the <?. Upper parts duller and 
browner slate-color, with less heavy dorsal streaks ; crown-spot and other 
yellow parts paler ; breast not continuously black, but variegated with black, 
white, and the color of the back. Sides only obsoletely streaked. Eyelids 
scarcely white, and cheeks hardly different from the back. White of wing- 
coverts mostly restricted to two bars ; white tail-spots smaller. 

Both sexes in autumn and winter, and young: Upper parts quite brown, 
with obscure black marking. Yellow crown-spot concealed or wanting ; yel- 
low of throat, rump, and sides of breast paler and restricted. Under parts 
whitish, shaded on the sides, and usually across the breast, with a dilute tint of 
the color of the back, the breast and sides obsoletely streaked with darker. 
White of wing-coverts obscured with brownish. 

Very young : No yellow anywhere. Everywhere streaked ; above with 
blackish and brownish ash, below with dusky and whitish. Wings and tail 
much as in the autumnal plumage of the adult. 

The full breeding dress of this species is worn but a short time. The 
spring moult is usually not completed until some time in May, as early 
May and all April specimens show more or loss evident traces of the dull 
brown winter plumage, mixed with the clear slate-color. September and 
October specimens are much the same. The early streaked condition is very 
brief, the distinctive marking of the species soon appearing. 

In comparing this species with D. coronata, its Eastern representative, the 
very marked character of restricted yellow throa.t, in contrast with the 
more extensively white throat of D. coronata, has drawn attention from other 
equally good characters. In D. coronata, in full plumage, the whole sides of 
the head are pure black, bounded above by a white superciliary line ; whereas 
this part is little darker than the back in auduhoni, and there is no white line. 
The breast of D. coronata does not appear to be ever continuously black, nor 
do the two white bars on the wings fuse completely into a large white patch. 
Younger and autumnal or winter specimens are more similar, but the dis- 
tinctive yellow throat of auduboni shows at least in traces at a very early 
age, and is always distinctive. In the very earliest streaky stage, the two 
species are indistinguishable. 

ALL things cousidered, we may fairly regard Audubon's 
Warbler as the most characteristic species of the genus 
Dendrceca in the West. Not that it is more specially indicative 
of the fauna from the Eocky Mountains to the Pacific than 
D. townsendi, D. occidentalism and D. nigrescens respectively 
are; but that it is much more abundant and more equably dif- 
fused over the country than any one of the three other species 
just mentioned are known to be. It almost entirely replaces the 
Yellow-rump Warbler or Myrtle-bird in this region, and in fact 
forms its exact Western representative, being equally common 
and no less conspicuous among the small insectivorous birds 



DISTRIBUTION OF AUDUBON's WARBLER 273 

which throug the forests and thickets of the entire West. It 
is a fourth species of Dendrceca discovered by Nuttall and 
Townseud, completing their additions to our knowledge of the 
varied exhibitions of bird-life which compose this extensive 
genus. Their original accounts of the bird are not entirely con- 
sistent, nor as satisfactory in other respects as could be desired, 
but we have gradually come into possession of the materials 
for a tolerably complete biography. 

Not the least interesting point in the history of Audubon's 
Warbler is its recent occurrence on the side of the continent 
where it does not properly belong. Mr. A. M. Frazar has this 
year published a note of his capture of a specimen at Cam- 
bridge, Mass., on the 15th of November, 1876. As he says 
that it was a fine male specimen, with the yellow of the throat 
very plainly marked, there is no reason to doubt the accuracy 
of his identification ; and we may match the case with that of 
the Townsend's Warbler which lately wandered into Pennsylva- 
nia. This estray aside, Audubon's Warbler has never been 
known to come eastward beyond the line of arboreal vegetation 
which marks the easternmost foot-hills and outlying elevations 
of the Rocky Mountains. As soon as we fairly enter the wooded 
tracts, as distinguished from those slight fringes of trees that 
straggle along the water courses, we are pretty sure to- find 
Audubon's Warbler, and we may find it anywhere, so we be in 
the woods at the right season, thence to the Pacific. The north- 
ern limit of its distribution is a little uncertain. The bird is 
known to enter British Columbia, and I have myself observed 
it on the headwaters of the Saskatchewan, on the northern 
border of Montana. Though we have as yet no Alaskan record, 
we should be slow to infer that it does not reach at least part 
way through that country — as far as the Pacific fauna proper 
extends. J), coronata is found there, Alaska being doubtless 
the region whence come those straggling Yellow-rumps that oc- 
casionally turn up in the Pacific region. B. auduboni is no less 
hardy a bird than its Eastern analogue, and its northwestern 
restriction, wherever the line may actually be drawn, is infer- 
ably determined by the topographical rather than climatic con- 
ditions, which are well known to carry the Eastern Province 
proper to the very shores of the Pacific in the higher latitudes. 
In the opposite direction, Audubon's Warbler is known to pen- 
etrate through Mexico and to reach various portions of Central 
America, where again, as at the far North, it greets its Eastern 
18 B o 



274 DISTRIBUTION OF AUDUBON^S WARBLER 

cousin ; for Mr. Albert Salvia found both Eastern and Western 
Yellow-rumps together, at San Geronimo, in November, 1859. 

As to the local and seasonal movements of Audubon's War- 
bler within the extensive area thus sketched : The bird is migra- 
tory, like all the rest of our Warblers, and the "tidal wave" 
passes twice a year, bearing the vast majority of individuals 
north in spring and south in autumn. The extent of the spring 
movement seems to be sufficient to bring all those that entered 
Mexico the previous fall back into the United States ; at any 
rate, if some linger to breed in even the most elevated portions 
of Mexico, the fact has not become known to us. The body of 
birds thus thronging over our border takes upon itself two 
movements: one of these, the ordinary to-and-fro migration, 
spreads the species in latitude, until the limits of its geograph- 
ical range are attained ; the other is an up-and-down movement, 
equally obvious and decided, though of course less extensive, 
which carries the species into suitable breeding grounds, at the 
higher elevations of the lower latitudes. Thus a breeding 
range is secured which is almost coextensive, geographically 
speaking, with the entire United States range of the species, 
yet entirely dependent upon topographical features of the coun- 
try ; for while at the North the birds may breed anywhere, down 
to sea-level, at the South their nesting-grounds are found only 
along certain lines or in certain spots that attain sufficient ele- 
vation. There is nothing peculiar in this ; in fact, it is the rule 
equally applicable to various other migratory birds. The case 
of D. auduhoni, however, is notable among the Warblers, as that 
of J), coronata also is, in that the winter range of the species is 
unusually extensive ; for only a part, perhaps only a small pro- 
portion, of the individuals composing the species withdraw 
from the United States in the fall. How far north the bird may 
be enabled by the hardiness of its constitution to endure the 
rigors of winter is not fully known, for ornithologists are neither 
numerous nor active at this season in the Rocky Mountains. 
But the bird has been seen in Washington Territory in March, 
which is long before any general migration of birds occurs in 
that latitude ; and the probability is that the lower levels and 
sheltered situations generally may harbor numbers of the birds 
in winter, even toward the northern extremes of their Jiabitatj 
just as the Eastern Yellow-rumps are sometimes seen in Massa- 
chusetts at the same season. However this may be, it is certain 
that the lower portions of the Colorado Basin, and of the coun- 



DISTKIBUTION OF AUDUBON'S WARBLER 275 

try generally at corresponding latitudes iu the Pacific water- 
sheds, are witness of the birds through the winter. In such lat- 
itudes, the species, as a species, is resident ; but it by no means 
follows that the individuals which we see there in the winter 
are those that were bred in the vicinity. In the nature of the 
case, the question is not likely to be decided ; but the probabil- 
ity is, to judge from analogy, that the winter representatives 
of the species in New Mexico, Arizona, and Southern California 
consist mainly of Northern-born birds which have migrated 
southward, and that Mexico and Guatemala are supplied from 
more southerly broods, that may have been raised in the very 
latitudes where others of the species pass the winter. Should 
such be the case, we see clearly that the migratory impulse is 
carried out in all cases, even though Autlubon's Warblers may 
be found in certain areas at all seasons of the year. I think, 
however, that we are all unconsciously apt to be biassed 
respecting the general subject of the migrations of birds, by too 
close reliance upon the north-south lines of movement, to the 
extent of underrating the lateral and the up-and-down ranges 
of species, which are particularly noticeable iu countries much 
diversified by mountains. For instance, the Black Snowbird is 
commonly supposed to come from the North in the fall, and so 
it certainly does ; but its sudden appearances, dependent upon 
changes of the weather, remained unaccountable till it was 
learned that the bird breeds in the mountains even as far south 
as Virginia and North Carolina, and flies up and down, accord- 
ing to exigencies of the weather. 

The general statements I have made respecting the move- 
ments of Audubon's Warbler are gathered from sources too 
numerous to be spread in full upon this record ; but I shall re- 
count some of the more prominent observations which are at 
our service. In Colorado State, according to Mr. T. M. Trippe, 
Audubon's Warbler is abundant, migratory, and breeds from 
an altitude of 9,000 or 9,500 feet up to timber-line. It reaches 
Idaho from the South about the middle of May, goes higher up 
to breed, and rears its young during the latter part of June and 
in July, iu the dense spruce forests of the mountain-sides, 
whence it begins to descend in August, becomes common in 
the lower parts of the country in September, and disappears by 
October. In the same State, Mr. Aiken says this Warbler is a 
common summer resident, particularly numerous during the 
migrations, when it is dispersed over the whole country from 



276 HABITS OF Audubon's waebler 

the stunted pines of the timber-line to the deciduous trees and 
bushes bordering the streams of the Plains, but during the 
breeding season restricted to an altitude of 8,000 to 10,000 feet, 
where they rear their young in the fastnesses of the pines and 
aspens. He found it as early as April 16, but it does not be- 
come numerous till some time afterward. Henshaw saw it about 
Denver early in May, and found it tolerably common on the 
pine-clad mountains of Southern Colorado from about 9,000 feet 
upward. The birds had paired by the 1st of June, and a fin- 
ished but still empty nest was discovered a week later on the 
top of a small spruce some thirty feet high. This nest was 
composed of bark strips firmly and neatly woven, with a lining 
of fine grasses ; it was four inches in diameter and an inch deep. 
In Arizona, the same diligent and observing naturalist ascer- 
tained that these Warblers breed in the White Mountains, 
where he took young just from the nest on the 12th of July, 
even so far south as Mount Graham, where the young birds 
were just beginning their new plumage on the 1st of August. 
At Fort Whipple, in the same Territory, I found these Warblers 
to be extremely abundant — as much so as I ever saw Yellow- 
rumps in the East — during both the vernal and the autumnal 
migrations. I thought then that they bred in the neighboring 
mountains at higher elevations, and am now satisfied that such 
is the case. I used to find them while they were on the move 
in almost any situation, but they were specially conspicuous by 
reason of their numbers and their activity in the cottonwood 
trees and mixed undergrowth along the various mountain 
streams from the 20th of April to the 10th of May, and again 
during the month of October. They were also seen occasionally 
during the winter, even at this elevation, and Dr. Cooper attests 
their presence in numbers at the same season along the Colo- 
rado River, at Fort Mojave. The experience of the last named 
with the birds in California accords with what has gone before. 
He obtained newly-fledged birds at Lake Tahoe in September, 
and considers it probable that they breed throughout the 
higher ranges of the Sierra Nevada. At Santa Cruz, latitude 
37<^, and down to sea-level, the birds did not appear until the 
end of September ; some winter there ; about the 20th of March, 
the dull plain garb is quickly exchanged for the gay vernal 
attire, and the birds are ofi^" by the middle of April. Great 
numbers, he says, winter in various portions of Southern Cali- 
fornia, where they flutter and chirp among the weeds of the 



HABITS OF Audubon's warbler 277 

plains as well as ia the woods. They retire toward the north 
in April, none being seen after May, even in the Coast Range 
south of San Francisco, though they reappear in September. 
According to Heerraann, they winter in California as far north 
as Sacramento, and Cooper is inclined to believe that some re- 
main, in mild winters, in the Columbia River region. In Nevada, 
Ridgway states this beautiful Warbler inhabits chiefly the pine 
forests of the higher mountain-ranges during the summer, but 
also frequents the cedar and pinon woods of the desert mount- 
ains, descending thence to the lower portions of the country, 
where it haunts the shrubbery of the water-courses, precisely 
after the manner of the Eastern Yellow-rump. In Montana, at 
latitude 49°, and at an elevation of about 4,500 feet, I found 
Audubon's Warblers abundant, and evidently at their birth- 
place, as the time was August, and before any migration had 
begun. 

But it is needless to multiply quotations further. The only 
nest of Audubon's Warbler I have ever seen is the one in the 
National Museum, transmitted from Vancouver by the late Mr. 
J. Hepburn, who affirms that the structure may be placed indif- 
ferently in the upper branches of trees or in bushes only a few 
feet from the ground ; and that the eggs, to the number of four, 
are white, with red markings, chiefly about the larger end. 
The nest just spoken of was built in the crotch formed by three 
forks of an oblique stem, its shape consequently being obliquely 
conical. The exterior of the nest is composed of rather coarse 
strips of fibrous bark and weeds variously intertwined, the main 
substance consisting of fine grasses, mosses, and rootlets, 
mixed with some large feathers and bits of string, these mis- 
cellaneous materials being closely matted or felted ; and the 
interior is finished oft" with an abundant lining of horse-hairs. 

The general habits of Audubon's Warbler indicate no traits 
of character that are not shared by its very well-known Eastern 
relative, the familiar Yellow-rump. In some parts of the country, 
as in Eastern Colorado, and also in Guatemala, the two species 
are found together, behaving exactly alike. Mr. Salvin noticed 
them thus associated at San Geronimo, where they congregated 
on the ground, and got most of their food in this way. One 
difference, however, between the two birds has been attested 
by independent observers. Mr. Trippe likens their ordinary 
chirping note to one of the sounds uttered by the Barn Swal- 
low, while Mr. Ridgway speaks of their feeble '■wW as some- 



278 SYNONYMY OF DENDROECA CORONATA 

thing quite unlike the loud, sharp ^chip^ of the Eastern Yellow- 
rump. The fall song of the bird has never, to my present 
recollection, greeted my ears; Mr. Trippe, who has heard it, 
calls it "a simple little carol", and Nuttall says it is like that 
of the Summer Warbler, but superior in style of execution. 

Yellow-ruBnped IVartoler 

Dendroeca coronata 

Motacllla coronata, L. SN. i. 1766. 333, n. 21 (Edw. pi. 298).— Bodd. Tabl. PE. i:83, 44, 
pi. 709, f. 1 (Fauvette ornbree de la Loui>iiane).—Om. SN. i. 1788, 974, n. 21 (Briss. Buff. 
Edw. Penu. and Lath.).— rurt. SN. i. 1806, 599. 

Sylvia coronata, Ln.th. 10. ii. 1790, 538, n. 115.— F. OAS. ii. 1807, 24, pis. 78, 79.— TTik. AO. ii. 
1810, 138, pi. 17, f. 4 ; ii. .356, pi. 4.5, f. 3.— F. N. D. d'H. N. xi. 1817, 178.— Step/i. Gen. Zool. 
X. 1817, 636.— F. Ency. M6th. ii. 1823, 426, n. 25.— Jtp. Jouru. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 
192.— Bp. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 1826, tl.—Licht " Preis-Verz. Mex. Vog. 1830, 2" 
(,T. f. O. 1863, 51).— Less. Tv. Orn. 1831, il8.—NuU. Man. i. 1832, 361.— Awd. OB. ii. 
1834, 303, pi. 153.— D' Orb. Ois. Cuba, 1839, 60.— Peab. Kep. Orn. Mass. 1839, 307.— 
Thomps. Vermont, 1853, SO.—Gieb. Vog. 1860, 56, f. llO.—Weiz, Pr. Best. See. x. 
1866,267 (Labrador). 

Sylvlcola coronata, /S. <£R.FBA. ii. 1831, 216.— Bp. CGL. 1838,22.— Ftgr. Zool. Voy. Bless. 
1839, 16.— And. Syn. 1839, 51.— iVi««. Man. i. 2d ed. 1840, 411.— Aitd. BA. ii. 1841, 23,pL 
76.— Go«se, B. Jam. 1847, 155 —Benny, PZS. 1847, 38— .Bp. CA. i. 1850, -iQl.— Burnett, Pr. 
Boat. Soc. iv. 1851, 116 —JTo?/, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 310.— Bead, ibid. 398.— TToodft. 
Sitgr. Rep. Zuiii R. 1853, 71.-i?em/i. J. f.0. 18.54, 439 (Greenland).— ffcn?-j/, Pr. Phila. 
Acad. vii. 1855, 309.— i?rj/. Pr. Boat. Soc. 1855, 142 (Massachusetts, in January). — 
Kennic. Tr. 111. Agric. Soc. i. 1855, 583.— Praffen, ibid. 601.— Pwen. Pr. Efs. Inst. i. 1856, 
207.— Sa.ie, PZS. 1857, 231 (San Domingo).— Jlfaxim. J. f. O, vi. 1858, lU.—Bry. Pr. 
Boat. Soc. vii. 1859, 110 (Bahamas).- J/ar«ens, J. f. O. 1859, 213 (Bermudas) —TFiZKs, 
Smiths. Rep. for ISo-', 1859, 282 (Nova Scotia).— BJand, ibid. 287 (Bermudas).— JSrew. 
Pr. Boat. Soc. vii. 1860, 306 (Cwha,). —Albrecht, J. f. 0. 1861, 52 (Bahamas).— Ai6recA«, J. f. 
0. 1862, 194, 201 (Jamaica,).— ffoj/, Smiths. Rep. forl864, 1865, 437 (Western Missouri).— 
Bry. J. f. O. 1806, 184 (Porto Rico).— Pry. Pr. Best. Soc. x. 1866, 251 (the same).— 
Bry. Pr. Best. Soc. xi. 1867, 91 (S.an Domingo).— rrt^^pe, Pr. Ess. Inst. vi. 1871, 114. 

Mniotilta coronata, Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, 196.— Ca6o«, Naum. ii. Hoft iii. 1852, 65.— Kneel. 
Pr. Best. Soc. vi. 1857, •iM.—Reinh. Ibis, iii. 1861, 5 (Greenland). 

Rtalmanphus coronatus. Cab. MH. i. 1850, 19. 

Rhimamphus coronatus, Gundl. 3. f. O. 1855, 473; 1861, 408 (Cuba).— ,Sc«. PZS. 1856, 291 
(Cordova). 

Dcndroica corona a, Gray, List of G. of B., App.,1842,8.— PdBNA.1858,272.— Sct.PZS. 
1858, 295 (Cordova).— <S. <£ S. Ibis, i. 1859, 11 (Guatemala).— Henry, Pr. Phila. Acad, 
xi. 1859, 106.— C <£• S. NHWT. 1860, 187 (Washington Territory).— Pam. Smiths. 
Rep. for 1860, 1861, 436.— Cowev d: Preni. Smiths. Rep. for IfOl, 1862, 407 (Washington, 
D. C. ; wintering).— Poardm. Pr. Bost. Soc. ix. 1862, 125 (Maine, breeding).— Ferr. 
Pr. Ess. Inst. iii. 1862, 147.— ffaj/d. Tr. Amer. Philos. Soc. xii. 1862, ICO (Dakota).— 
March, Pr. Phila. Acad. xv. 1863, 292 (Jamaica, breeding).— AZiew, Pr.Ess. Inst.iv. 
1864, 62.— Pd. Rev. AB. 1865, 187.— Pawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. 1866, 284.— Pwtcft. 
Pr. Phila. Acad. xx. 1868, 149 (Laredo, ton.) .—Trippe, Am. Nat. ii. 1808, n\.—Dall 
& Bann. Tr. Chicago Acad. i. 1869, 278 (Alaska, breeding).— d. Frantz. J. f. O. 1869, 
293 (Costa Rica).— rwrjift. B. E. Pa. 1869, 21 ; Phila. ed. 11.- Abbott, Am. Nat. iv. 1870, 
543.— Paii, ibid. 600.- Parfcer, Am. Nat. v. 1871, 168 —Pre?<'. Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1872, 
4 (nesting; Maine).— Gwndi. J. f. O. 1872, 413 (Cuba).— AtAen, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1872, 
196 (Colorado).— Pidi/w. Bull. Ess. Inst. v. 1873, 180 (Colorado). -P. P. <£• P. NAB. i. 
1S74, 227, pi. 12, f. 9, 12 —HmsTi. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, 58 (Co'orado).— Prew. Pr. Bost. 
Soc. xvii. 1875, 439.— ffe?is/i. Zool. Expl. W. 100 Morid. 1876, 193. 
Dendrolca coronatus, Gundl. J. f. 0. 1861, 326 (Cuba). 



SYNONYMY OF DENDRGECA CORONATA 279 

Dendroeca COronata, Sd. PZS. 1859, 363 (Xalapa).— iawr. Ann. Lye. N. T. viii. 1863, 6 (New 
Granadix).— £ia/fc. Ibis, v. 1863, 62.— *'.<£- -S. PZS. 1864, 347 (Panama).— Z)rc«s. Ibis, 2d 
eer.i. 1865, 418 (Texas).— Mclhcr. Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1866, 85.— Broivn, Ibis, 2d ser. iv. 
1868, 420 (Vancouver).— Cowes, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 1868, 109.— Oowfs, Am. Nat. ii. 1868, 
161.— Coues, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 272.— Xawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ix. 1868, 94 (Costa 
'Rica,).—Sund. Oefv. K. Vet.-Akad. Forh. iii. 1869, 613.— Gope, Am. Nat. iv. 1870, 395, 
396.— Coop U. Cal. i. 1870, 69, figs.— S. <£ 8. PZS. 1870, 836 (Honduras).- Cowes, Pr. 
Phila. Acad, xxiii. 1871, W.—Mayn. Pr. Bost. Soc. xiv. 1672, 363.—Trippe, Am. Nat. 
vi. 1872, 41.— Allen, Am. Nat. vi. 1872, 265, 359.— Pwrdie, Am. Nat. vii. 187.1, 693.— 
Mayti.B. Fla. 1873, 51.— IVippr, Pr.Bost. Soc. xv. 1873, 235.— Jf err. Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 
7, 8.—Coues, BNW. 1874, 51.—Trip2}e, ibid. 232 (Colorado, abundant).- Gentr?/, Life- 
Hist. i. 1876, 109.— lfiwo«, B. N. Engl. 1877, 124.-lferr. Tr. Conn. Acad. iv. 1877, 16. 

Figuier couronne d'or, Buff. " Hist. Nat. Ois. v. 312". 

Fauvette couronnre d'or, V. Ency. Moth. ii. 1823, 426. 

Figuier cendre tachet^ de Pensilvanie, Ficedula pensilvanica cinerea nsevia, Briss. 
Orn. vi. 17C0, App. p. 110, n. 81 (Edw. pi. 298) (first basis of Mot. coronata Gm.). 

Oolden-crowned Flycatcher, Edw. Gl. pi. 298 ^8ole basis of Motacilla coronata Linn.). 

Golden-crowned WnrhUr, Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 486, n. 111.— Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 403, n. 294. 

Motacilla canadensis, L. SN. i. 1766, 334, n. 27 (based on Briss. iii. 524, pi. 27, f. 1 ; nee L, 
SN. p. 336, n. 42, whicb is Dendrceea cmrulescens) . 

Motacilla ciucta, Om^ SN. i. 1788, 980, n. 27 (= M. canadensis L. n. 27 + Belted 'Warhler, 
Penn. & Lath.).— ia<;i. 10. ii. 1790, .539, n. 116.— 2Vrt SN.i. 1806, 604. 

Figuier a ceinture. Buff. " Hist. Nat. Ois. v. 303 ". 

Figuier cendr6 de €anada, Ficedula canadensis cinerea, Briss. Orn. iii. 1760, 524, n. 67, 
pi. 27, f. 1 (basis of Mot. canadensis Linn. n. 27, nee n. 42). 

Belted Warbler, Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 408, n. 306.— Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 487, n. 112. 

Mesange de Virginie, Parus virginianus, Briss. Orn. iii. 1760, 575, n. 14 (quotes Klein, 74, 
n. 8, and Catesby, 58). 

Parus virgiuianus, L. SN. i. 1766, 342, n. 9 (Catesby and Briss.).— Gm. SN. i. 1788, 1010, 
n. ^.-Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 567, n. Ib.—Turt. SN. i. 1806, 6'i5.—Steph. Gen. Zool. x. 1817, 50. 

Luscinia uropjgio luteo, JT^rfji, "Av. 74, n. 8". 

Virginian Titmouse, Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1785, 546, n. Vi.—Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 423, n. 325. 

lellow-rump, Parus uropygeo luteo, Catesby, Car. i. 1771, 58, pi. 58 (not Yelloiv-rumped 
IFarWer of Lath, and Penn., which is D. maculosa). CBsLSi&of Parus virginianus'Lvaa.) 

Mesange a croupion Jaune, Buff. " Hist. Nat. Ois. v. 453 ". 

Fauvette a croupion jaune, Y. N. D. d'H. N. xi. 1817, 180.— F. Ency. M6th. ii. 1823, 444. 

Motacilla nmbrla, Gm. SN. i. 1788, 959, n. 70 (Buff. v. 162 ; PE. 709, f. 1, &c.).— Twri. SN. i. 
1800, 589. 

SylTia umbria. Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 518, n. 34. 

Fauvette ombrte de la Louislane, Buff. " Hist. Nat. Ois. v. 162 ". 

Fauvette taehetee de la Louislane, Buff. PE. 709, f. 1. 

Dusky Warbler, Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 410, n. 309. 

Umbrose Warbler, Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1763, 437, n. 30 (PE. 709, f. 1). 

Motacilla pinguis, Gm.SN.i. 1788, 973, n. 115 (based on Buff. Penn. andLath.).— rwrt. SN.L 
1806, 598. 

Sylvia pinguis. Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 543, n. 132. 

Figuier grasset, Buff. " Hist. Nat. Ois. v. 319 ". 

Grasset Warbler, Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 411, n. 3\4.~Lnth. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1873, 496, n. 127. 

Figuier dil MisslSSipi, PE. 731, f. 2 (generally assigned to Dendroeca penmylvanica) . 

Sylvia flavopygia, T. OAS. ii. 1807, 47 (usually wrongly quoted as "xanthopygia". 
= Parus virginianus L. Gm.). 

Sylvia xanthorboa, T. N. D. d'H. N. xi. 1817, 180 (after Catesby). 

Sylvia xantboroa, Yieill. Ency. M6th. ii. 1823, 444, n. 87. 

Parus cedrus, uropygio flavo, .Bartr.Trav.Fla. 1st Am. ed. 1791,202. 

Bec-fln couronne, JD' Orb. I.e. 

Fauvette couronnee, Y. OAS. ii. 1807, 24.— ie Moine, Ois. Canad. 1861, 190. 

Yellow-crowned Warbler, Yellow-crowned Wood Warbler, Yellow-rumped Warbler, 
Yellow-rump, Myrtle-bird, Authors. 

Hab.— North America, but chiefly the Eastern Province. In the North- 
west, extends across the continent; thence some individuals straggle south- 



280 HISTORY OF DENDRCECA CORONATA 

ward along the Pacific side to Washington, and probably Oregon and Cali- 
fornia. North to the Arctic coast ; Greenland. West to the Rocky Mountains 
in the latitude of Colorado, where common. West in the Missouri region 
into D'lkota, and nearly across that Territory in the Mouse River area. 
South into Mexico and Central America and various of the West India 
Islands. Breeds mostly north of the United States, but also in Northern 
New England ; and also in Jamaica. Winters anywhere in the United States 
from the latitude of Southern New England southward, and also in the sub- 
tropical and tropical countries just mentioned. 

Ch. sp. — (? Similis prcecedenti; lateribus capitis nigris, super- 
ciliis alhis ; guld alba; pectore nigro alboque iniermixto ; alis 
albo bifasclatis. 

$ : Like the last species, excepting in the following points : — Throat white. 
Breast black, mixed with white. Sides of the head definitely pure black ; 
edges of eyelids, and long, narrow superciliary line, white Wings crossed 
with two broad white bars, which, however, do not fuse into one white 
patch, owing to narrowness or deficiency of white edging along the outer 
webs of the great coverts. Size of the last. 

The seasonal sexual changes of plumage, and those dependent upon age, 
are precisely parallel with those of D. auduhoni. 

A sketch of the literary vicissitudes which the Yellow-rumped Warbler has 
suffered may not unprofitably occupy some of the space which would other- 
wise be given up to an account of its habits, already familiar to most per- 
sons, especially as I am not aware that the intricate history of the matter 
has ever been fully brought out, though the bare names coronata, canadensis, 
virginiantis,umiria,2nnguis, cincta,Jiavopygia,Sindi xanihorhoa are all currently 
and properly quoted in the present connection. We are too much in the habit 
of unconsciously supposing that when we have once "hunted down "' a Latin 
binomiiil name we have got at the root of the matter ; when, in fact, pinning 
a Gmelinian or even a Linnsean name, in many cases, should be but the pre- 
liminary to determining the actual basis of the species. Gmt lin, in particu- 
lar, was a turbid stream, generally several removes from the fountain-head ; 
while Linnaeus himself seems to have known comparatively little of birds 
other than of his own country, and his accounts are for the most part at 
second hand. In the cases of very many North American birds, known in 
the last century, the real authors of species were Catesbj^, Edwards, Brisson, 
Buffon, Latham, and Pennant, who are too often ignored, because they had 
the misfortune to write before 1766, or failed to accent the shibboleth of sci- 
ence ; Linnaius was the original describer of very few of our birds, and 
Gmelin perhaps not of a single one. The state of the case is very well illus- 
trated in the instance of Dendrceca coronata. The synonyraatic digest of the 
whole matter, as given above, looks singularly involved ; but the bird is one 
of such marked characters that it is not difficult, exercis-ing due care, to 
make it perftctly plain. 

To begin with the Motacilla coronata Linn., which has come down to us 
through a chain of genera, — Sylvia, Sylvicola, Mniotilia, Ehimavjihus or Elii- 
mamphus, and Dcndroica or Dendrceca : This was based solely upon Edwards's 
plate 298 of the " Golden-crowned Flycatcher '', which became Buffon's 
" Figuior couronu6 d'or", and the "Golden-crowned Warbler" of Pennant 



HISTORY OF DENDRCECA CORONATA 281 

and Latham, being also described meanwhile by Brisson (who, by the way, 
was one of the very best ornithologists of the last century) as the "Figuier 
cendrd tachet^ de Pensilvanie", otherwise Ficedula penailvanica cinerea iicevia. 
This set of names, therefore, go and all hang together upon Edwards's plate. 

Linnaeus again got hold oi the Yellow-rump under me name and style of 
" Figuier ceudr6 de Canada ", Ficedula canadensis cinerea, originally described 
by Brisson from a specimen or specimens sent by Gautier from Canada to 
the Kdaumur Museum. Brisson's description is very particular, as usual, 
and his bird is also figured. This plate aud description are the basis of Mo- 
tadlla canadensis Linn., species n, 27, p. 334. It is necessary to specify this 
page and number of Linnaeus, for he has on p. 336, n. 42, another Motacilla 
canadensis, based on Ficedula canadensis cinerea minor of Brisson, iii. jj. 527, pi. 
27, f. 6; this last being altogether a different bird, namely, the Black- 
throated Blue Warbler, Dendroeca canadensis or ccerulescens of modern authors.* 

Linnaeus, for the third time, brought up agai .st the Yellow-rump in the 
shape of Catesby's Parus uropygto luteo, Anglic^, Yellow-rumped Titmouse, 
figured on his plate 58; and this time he named it Parus virginianus, follow- 
ing Brisson, who, in 1760, described it very fully under the same name in 
Latin, and under the name of "M^sange de Virginie" in French. Brisson 
quotes Catesby, and also Klein, — the latter under the name I have above 
placed in quotation-marks, not having examined the book in tbis connection. 
At Buffou's hands, Catesby's bird became the Mesange a croupion jaune, a 
translation of Catesby's name ; in Pennant's and Latham's works, it was ren- 
dered as the Virginian Titmouse, a simple version of Brisson's name Gme- 
lin simply kept up with the procession at this point, while poor Turt(m came 
straggling after. A little later, Vieillot, in the Giseaux de I'Amdrique Sep- 
tentrionale, perceiving that the bird was no Parus, placed it in the genus 
Sylvia; but, as if to pay himself for his sagacity, presumed to change the 
Parus virginianus into Sylvia jlavopygia, rendering " yellow lump " into such 
wretched bastard Latin that his commentators have generally quoted it 
xanthopygia. Vieillot himself seems to have become displeased with the 
name he had bestowed, for he changed it to xanihorhoa in 1817, in the Nouv. 
Diet., and to xanihoroa in the EncyclopMie M^thodique. This concludes 
a third set of names, traceable to Catesby's "Yellow-rump"; but before I 
have done with this part of the subject, I should account for the Yellow- 
rumped Warbler of Pennant and Latham. For, as must be particularly 
not' d, the "Yellow-rump" of Pennant and Latham is a very different 
bird, to wit: the Yellow-rumped Flycatcher of Edwards's pi. 255; the 

* Besides this double employ of Motacilla canadensis by Linnaus, Boddaert. in 1783, used 
the same term twice, in different connections, both different from Linnans's use of the 
terms. On p. 4 of the Tableau, Boddaert names a Motacilla canadensis, basing it upon 
PE. 58, f. 2, which is Dendroeca, ceativa. On p. 24 of the same work, Boddaert names another 
Motacilla canadensis, based primarily upon PE. 398, f. 2 (which is Slums auricapillus) , with 
some of the synonyms of Dendroeca added (Jf. canadensis Linn., sp. n. 27, and Edw. Gl. 
252), Boddaert having evidently coufounded the Gohlen-crowued Flycatcher of Edwards 
aud the Golden-crowned "Warbler of Pennant and Latham with the Golden-crowned 
Thrush of Edwards. Therefore :— 

Motacilla canadensis Linn. (sp. 27) =: Dendroeca coronata. 

Motacilla canadensis Linn. (sp. 42) ^= Dendroeca ccerulescens. 

MotaciHa canadensis Bodd. (p. 4 — PE. 58, f. 2) ^ Dendroeca cestiva. 

Motacilla canadensis Bodd. (p. 24 — PE. 398, f. 2) ^ Siurus auricapiUus, mixed with some 
synonyms of Dendroeca coronata. 



282 HISTORY OF DENDRCECA CORONATA 

Ficedida liensilvanica nwvia of Brissou, iii. p. 502, n. 56; the "Figuier ^ tete 
ceudr^e " of Buffon ; the Dendroeca maculosa, or Black-and-yellow Warbler, 
of moderu author.-^. 

A bird which is found iu Linuaius is generally reproduced in Gmelin under 
the same name; but Motacilla canadensis, Linn. sp. 27, above fully explained, 
disappears with that single author — to be moro precise, it reappears, but 
under a different title. For we liud it again iu the Motacilla cincta of Gmelin. 
Gmelin does not, indeed, quote M. canadensis; but ho numbers his cincta 
"27", and bases it primarily on Brisson's pi. 27, f. 1. Now, Brissou, in de- 
scribing the yellow spots which exist, one on each side of the breast of D. 
coronata, spoke of them as if they formed a band or belt across the breast, — 
"entre le ventre & la poitrine est une bando transversale jaune", says he; 
and out of this expression comes the "Figuier h ceinture" of the Count do 
Buffon, and the Belted Warbler of Latham and Pennant, M. cincta Gm. This 
fourth set of names are to be bundled together with the Motacilla canadensis 
Linn., sp. 27, and hung upon the peg of Brissou (iii. 524, pi. 27, f. I). 

Besides operating upon the three Linnjean names, coronata, vii-ginianus, and 
canadensis {^^ cincta), we have discussed, Gmeliu stumbled twice more upon 
the Yellow-rump, giving us our fifth and sixth Latin binomials, umhria and 
pinguis. In the Planches EaluminiSes, there is (Igured, at pi. 709, f. 1, a bird 
called on the plate " Fauvette tachet^e de la Louisiane ", and in Buffon's 
text "Fauvette ombrde de la Louisiane", which is recognized as a Yellow- 
rump at first glance ; the same was called the " Dusky Warbler " by Pennant, 
and the " Umbrose Warbler" by Latham. This became Gmelin's l/o<aci/Za 
umbria; and all these names go with PE. 709, f. 1. For the sixth time (and, 
so far as I know, the last for the eighteenth century), the uuhappy Yellow- 
rump comes upon the stage as Motacilla pinguis— the " Fat Warbler". This 
name is based upon th°i " Figuier grasset " of Buffon, rendered by Pennant 
and Latham as the " Grasset Warbler". There is no plate that I know of to 
refer to in this case, and the descriptions are not as satisfactory as could be 
wished; but there is no reasonable doubt of the species. For though La- 
tham, for instance, describes the " throat and fore part of the neck pale 
rufous", yet the rest of his account is sufficiently pertinent, and the mention 
of "a spot of yellow on the head" and the "yellow rump" fixes the bird 
he had iu view as the Yellow-rump in some obscure imperfect plumage in 
which the yellow on the sides of the breast was not present or not noticed. 
It is said to be from '* Louisiana ", a term which at that date, it will be re- 
membered, covered most of the United States west of the Mississippi. 

There is yet another representation of the Yellow-rump, as I take it, 
though not usually quoted in this connection. I refer to PL Enlnm. 731, f. 2, 
called " Figuier du Mississipi " on the plate. This has been generally quoted, 
following Linnseus, Gmelin, and Latham, as pertaining to the Chestnut-sided 
Warbler (Quebec Warbler of Pennant and Latham), M. icier ocephala, but the 
plate certainly resembles D. coronata more nearly, whatever may be said of 
tbe descriptions that go with it. 

I trust that I have made it clear how the vai'ious specific names above 
cited — coronata, canadensis, virginianus, cincta, umbria, pinguis, and fiavopygia 
or " xanthopggia ", with xanthorhoa or " xanthoroa " — came to be applied to one 
and the same species ; how canadensis No. 42 differs from canadensis No. 27 of 
Linnseus; and how the Yellow-rumped Flycatcher or Warbler of Edwards, 




DISTRIBUTION OF YELLOW-RUMPED WARBLER 283 

Latham, and Pennant differs from the Yellow-rump of authors ; and have 
accounted for the large number of polynomial Latin, French, and English 
names that the same bird has received. The state of the case is nothing 
unusual ; for though the number of names is perhaps in excess, yet this is 
offset by the possibility of determining them all. The reader may imagine 
how inextricable would have been the confusion had the bird been some 
plainly-marked species closely reserablmg several others. 

WHAT little I have here to say of the Myrtle-bird relates 
chiefly to its extensive dispersion in the West beyond 
the recognized limits of the Eastern 
Province, of which the bird has been 
generally supposed characteristic. It 
is not remarkable that it should have 
been found in some cases on the 
Pacific side, seeing that it extends 
northwestward obliquely across Brit- 
ish America into Alaska, where it 
breeds, and whence some individuals ^iq. as.-Yeiiow-rumped warbier. 
pass south, reaching Washington Territory and doubtless yet 
other regions along the Pacific side. The westward trend of 
the species in the United States may correspond nearly with 
the oblique lay of the Coteau de Missouri in Dakota; thus 
the birds are common at the proper season in the Red River 
Valley, and thence in the same watershed nearly across Dakota, 
along the parallel of 49° ; but directly west of this, in the Mis 
souri watershed, and even in that of the Saskatchewan, they 
are not known to occur ; and in the Rocky Mountains at 49°, 
D. auduboni is the species, not D. coronata. 

The common and regular occurrence of the Yellow-rump in 
the main chain of the Rocky Mountains is a fact of compara- 
tively recent recognition, fully attested by such observers as 
Trippe, Aiken, and Henshaw. Thus, the first named .of these 
ornithologists speaks in the "Birds of the Northwest" of the 
abundance of Myrtle-birds about Idaho and Colorado, where 
they appear during the latter part of April, go as high as 8,500 or 
9,000 feet, and disappear about the 10th of May, passing north. 
Mr. Henshaw has recorded the capture of several specimens at 
Denver, Colorado, where in early May the birds were noticed 
with Audubon's Warblers, the two species associating so inti- 
mately tbat they were sometimes heard singing in the same tree. 

I have in another bird-book noted the singular distribution 
of this species according to season, without special reference 



284 SYNONYMY OF DENDRCECA BLACKBURNI^ 

to its geographical dispersion at large. It is a hardy bird, capa- 
ble of euduriug the rigors of winter almost everywhere in the 
United States; nevertheless, numbers press on to the south, 
reaching Central America along with the tenderest and most 
susceptible species of the family, while others are taking the 
weather as it comes in the Middle States, and even portions of 
New England. The breeding range is no less curious. Ordina- 
rily, no Myrtle-birds nestle anywhere in the United States south 
of Northern New England ; yet some at least of those that 
winter in the West Indies do not migrate at the vernal crisis of 
the year, but rear their young on the spot, as Mr. March has 
recorded from Jamaica, in the paper above cited. 

For accounts of the general habits of this species, reference 
may be made to other treatises, as the necessary limits of the 
l)resent work forbid me to be as full as I should like to be in 
the cases of those species which are scarcely entitled to any 
place in this volume. 

Blackburnian Warbler 

Deudrceca blackbarnise 

? Flgruier orang^, Buff. " v. 313". 

? Figuier stranger. Buff. PE. 58, f. 3. 

? Motacilla fusca. Mull. Syst. Nat. Sappl. 17:6, 175 (from Bnffon). 

? Fauvette oraiigee, F. N. D. d'H. N. xi. 1817, 206 ; Ency. M6th. ii. 1823, 459. 

? MotaciUa aurautia, Bodi. Tabl. PE. 1783, 4 (PE. 58, f. 3) (Figuier orange Buflf. " v. 313 " ; 

Figuier etratiger, name on PE. 58, f. 3). 
? Mniotilta aiirantia, Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, 196. 
? Orange-headed Warbler, Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 492, n. 119. 

? MotaciUa chrjsocephala, Gm. SX. i. 1788, 971, n. 107 (Guiana ) (based on the foregoing). 
? Sylvia clirysocephala, Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 541, n. 124 (same as the foregoing).— F. N. D. d'H. 

N. xi. 1817, 20r,.—Steph. Gen. Zool. x. 1817, 700.— F. Ency. M6lh. ii. 1823, 459, n. 143. 
tSylvicola clirysocephala, iJp. C A. i. 1850, 309. 

? Grcy.Poll Warbler, Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 401, n. 66.— Penn. AZ. ii. 178.=;, 402, n. 291. 
? Fauvette a tete grise, F. N.D. d'H. N.xi. 1817,224 j Ency. Meth.ii. 1823,412. 
1 Molacilla incana, Om. SN. i. 1788, 976, n. 125 (New York. Grey-Poll Warber of Pcnn. and 

Lath ).—Turt. SN. i. 1806, 601. 
? Sylvia incana. Lath. 10. ii. 1790,527, n. 68 —Yieill. N. D. d'H. N. xi. 1817, 224.— Steph. 

Gen. Zool. x. 1817, 628.— F. Ency. M6lh. ii. 1823, 442, n. 81. 
? Mnlot jlta iacana. Gray. G. of B. i. 1848, 196. 

Motacilla blaclsburnije, Gm. SN. i. 1788, 977, n. 127.— IV.r^ SN. i. 1806, 601. 
Sylvia blackburiiiffi,ia(/t. 10. ii. 1790,527, n. 70.— F. OAS. ii. 1807,36, pi. 90.— Wtte. AO. iii. 

1811, 64, pi. 23, f. 3.—Steph. Gen. Z(m)1. x. 1817, 627.— F. Ency. M6lh. ii. 1823, 432, n. 43.— 

Bp. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 195 —JBp. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 1626, HO.-Nutt. Man. i. 

1832, 379.-Awd. OB. ii. 1834, 208; v. 1839, 73, pis. 135, '3i)9.—Peab. Kep. Orn. Mass. 

1839, 30S.—Thomps. Vermont, 1853, 82. 
Sylvia blackburnl, F N. D. d'H. N. xi. 1817, 108. 
Sylvlcola blackburnia', Jard. " ed. Wil.s. 1832 ".—Rich. Rep. Brit Assoc. forl836, 1837, 172.— 

Bp. CGL. 1838, 2-2.- Aud. Syn. 1839, 57.— Awd. 15 A. ii. 1841, 48, pi. 87.— Bp. C A. i. 1850, 

301 -Hoy, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1833. 310.— Pead, ibid. 398.— -SW. PZS. 1834, 111 (Qui- 

jos).—Ke)inic. Tr. III. Agric. Soc. i. 1855, 583.— Pw<n. Pr. Ess. Inst. i. 1856, 201.—Bry. 

Pr. Bnst. Soc. vii. 1859, 110 (Bahamas).- IFiUis, Smiths. Hep. for 1858, 1859, 282 (Nova 

Scotia).— Albrecht, J.t.O. 1861, 52 (B.ihamas).- floy, Smiths. Rep. for 1864, 18C5, 438 

(Missouri). 



SYNONYMY OF DENDRCECA BLACKBURNI^ 285 

Sylvlcola blackburnia, Pratten, Tr. 111. Agrio. Soc. i. 1855, 602. 

Mnlotilta blackburniae, Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, 19G. 

Rhimanphus blackburiiiie, Oab. MH. i. 1350, 19. 

Bbimamphus blackburnlse, Scl. PZS. 1855, U3 (Bogotd) ; 1838, 61 (Rio Napo). 

Dendroica blaekburnije, Bd. BNA. 1853, 274.-S. <£ S. Ibis, i. 1859, ll (Guatemala).— Sal. 
PZS. 1860, 84 (Ecuador).— ScJ. PZS. 1860, — (Pallatanga).— £am. Smiths. Rep. for 1860, 
1861, 436.— Cowes <£ Prent. Smitlis. R'^p. for 1861, 1862, —.—Verr. Pr. Ess. Inst. iii. 1862, 
Ul.—Boardm. Pr. Bost. Soo. ix. 1862, 1-io.— Allen, Pr. Ess. Inst. iv. 1864, Gi.—Bd. Rev. 
AB. 1865, 189.— iawr. Ann. Lye. K Y. viii. 1866, ^M.—Trippe, Am. Nat. ii. 1868, 179 — 
V. Frantz. J. f. 0. 1869, 203 (Costa 'R\c<x).—Turnb. B. E. Pa. 1869, 24 ; Phila. ed. n.—Merr. 
U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, for 1872, 1873, 713.-5. B. <£■ R. NAB. i. 1874, 237, pi. 13, f. 2, 3. 

Dcndroeca blaekburnije, Scl. PZS. 1859, 363 (Xalapa).— Oaft. J. f. O. i860, 328 (Costa Rica).— 
iaMc Ann. Lye. N. T. vii. 1862, 468 (New Granada).— .Biafc. Ibis, 1863, 68 (Hudson's 
Bis).— Dress. Ibis, 2d ser. i. 1865, 478 (Texas).— MeJiwr. Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1806, 85.—Salv. 
PZS. 1867, 136 (Veragua).— iator. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ix. 1866, 94 (Costa Rica).— Ooucj, 
Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 212.— Coues, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 1868, 110.— Allen, Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 
5'n.—Su7id. Oefv. K. Vet.-Akad. Forh. iii. 1869, 611.— Cope, Am. Nat.iv. 1870, 395, 396.— 
S. cf'S. PZS. 1870, — (Merida) —Salv. PZS. 1870, 183 (Veragua).— TTi/Ktt, Ibis, 1871,322 
(Columha).— Allen, Am. Nat. vi. 1872, i65.—Salv. Ibis, 3d ser. ii. 1872, 314 (Cbontales).— 
Mayn. Pr. Bost. Soc. siv. 1872, 363.— Cow,?, Key, 1872, 100.— Allen, Bull. MCZ. iii. 1872, 
124, 166, 175 (Kansas and Vtiih).—Tnppe, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1873, 235.— Cowes, BNW. 
1874, 59.— Gentry, Life-Hist. i. 1876, 112.— Minot, B.N. Engl. 1877, 112.- JlTerr. Trans. 
Conn. Acad. iv. 1877, 16. , Bull. Nutt. Club, iii. 1878, — (Fort Bayard, N. M.). 

Sylvia parus, Wils. AO. v. 1812, 114, pi. 44, f. 3.—Steph. Gen. Zool. x. 1817,727.— F. Ency. 
M6th. ii. 1823, 449, n. 106.— Bp. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 200.— Bp. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 
ii. 1826, 82.— Nutt. Man. i. 1832, 392.— Awd. OB. ii. 1834, 205, pi. 134.— P«a6. Rep. Oru. 
Mass. 1839, 310.— Thompn. Vermont, 1853, App. 23. 

SylTiCOla parus, Bp. CGL. 1838, 22.— Aud. Syn. 1839, f 5. -Aud. BA. ii. 1841, 40, pi. 8X—IA7>M. 
Am. Journ. Sci. xliv. 1843, 257.- JSp. C A. i. 1850, 311.— ? ? Eeinh. J. f. 0. 1854, 426 (Green- 
land).- Kennic. Tr. 111. Agric. Soc. 1. 1855, 500.— Bry. Pr. Best. Soc. 1855, 142 (Massachu- 
setts, in January).— Pwin. Pr. Ess. Inst. i. 1856, 226.— Wilds, Smiths. Rep. for 1858, 
1859, 282 (Nova Scotia).— Trippe;, Am. Nat. ii. 1868, 179. 

Mnlotilta parus, Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, 196.—.? / Reinh. Ibis, iii. 1861, 6 (Greenland). 

Bbimamphus parus, Bp. CA. i. 1850, 311. 

Sylvia melanorboa, Yieill. Noav. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xL 1817, leo (Martinique) ; Ency. Meth. 
ii. 1823, 444, n. 88. 

Mnlotilta melanorboa, Gray, G. of B. 1.1848, 197. 

Blaekburnian Warbler, Penn. AZ. ii. 1785. 412, n. 311.— Lath. Syn. ii. pt IL 1783, 461. n. 67. 

Traquet Blackburn, Y. 1. c. 1807. 

Fauvette Blackburn, F. I.e. 1823. 

Fauvette ^ croupion noir, V. 11. cc. 1817 and 1823. 

Fauvette Hemlock, Y. 1. c. 1823 (—parus Wilson). 

Fauvette blaekburnian, Y. N. D. d'H. N. xi. 1817, 168.— Le Moine, Ois. Canad. 1861, 199. 

Fauvette d'automne, Lc Moine, Ois. Canad. 1861, 207 (= parus Aud.). 

Hemlock Warbler, Orange-ttaronted Warbler, Authors. 

Note. — It may ba worth while to look into the synonymy of the Blaekburnian "Warbler, 
part of it being very problematical. The earliest conjectured name of the bird is the 
"Figuier orang6 " of Baffon, figured on PI. Enlum. 53, f. 3, under the name of " Figuier 
6trauger", and said to be from "Guiana". This is the sole basis of no less than three 
binomial n&mes—Motacillaf-asca Miiller, 1776, M. aurantia Bodd., 1783, and M. chrysocephaia 
Gm., 1788, and also became the 'Orange-headed Warbler" of Latham. The PL Enlum. is 
not clearly referable to the present species, nor are the descriptions identifiable with cer- 
tainty. Miiller's runs as follows :— ,,55. Der Fliigelfleck, Motaeilla fusca. Sie ist oben 
braun, hat einen gelben Wirbel, und gelbe Augenringe. Die Bru^t ist roth, der Banch 
gelb, und die Fliigel sindmit einemweissen Flecken gezeichnet, Buffon." Latham says:— 
" Bill black : top and sides of the head, fore part and sides of the neck, fine orange : over 
the eye a brown band; beneath the eye a second, but paler : the upper parts of the body 
and quills reddish brown : wing coverts black and white : breast and boUy pale yellow : 
tail black, edged with pale yellow : legs yellow." These terms are so discordant with 



286 HISTORY OF DENDRCECA BLACKBURNI^ 

the characters of D. blackburnice, as to lead us to suppose that an entirely different bird 
may have been in view ; and at any rate the names in question may be passed over. The 
PL Enlum., however, though not well colored, can hardly be anything else than the Black- 
burnian Warbler, and it may become necessary to call the species Dendroeca aurantia, 
after Boddaert, who distinctly bases the name on this plate, while Miiller's earlier account 
simplj' refers to Buffon without specially indicating what bird of Buffon's is meant. 

The next candidate for recognition in this connection is the "Grey-poll "Warbler" of 
Pennant and of Latham, which became Motacilla incana Gm. Latham's description is: — 
" Head, sides of the neck, and upper tail coverts, of a fine grey : wing coverts crossed with 
two white bars: primaries and tail dusky, edged with grey: throat orange: chin and 
breast of a fine yellow: belly of a whitish ash-colour. Inhabits New York." This is much 
nearer the mark, and in fact agrees pretty well with some imperfect plumage of the pres- 
ent species ; but as it is scarcely diagnostic (some points seem to indicate Dendroeca ■inacu- 
?o«a),it may also be passed over, in favor of the " Blackbumian Warbler" of the same 
authors, which became Motacilla blackburnice Gm. This bird was likewise sent from 
" New York ", and was named after Mrs. Blackburn. 

The fifth name to be noticed is the " Hemlock Warbler ", Sylvia partis of Wilson, Nut- 
tall, Audubon, and others, from "Pennsylvania". This species endured for many years — 
in fact, until Baird in 1858 showed that it was a Blackbumian Warbler. One may be satis- 
fied of the accuracy of this determination, by referring to Wilson's original description, 
which perfectly accords with the incomplete dress of D. blackburnice. The reference by 
Audubon of the Autumnal Warbler, Sylvia autumnalis, to this species, is clearly an error. 

In 1817, Vieillot gave a sixth name to the species, Sylvia melanorhoa, described from 
"Martinique" in the Nouv. Diet. ; and in the Ency. Meth. the species reappears, along 
with the four previous designations, chrysocephala, incana, blackburnice, anA paras. The 
bird is here attributed to "L'Am6rique m6ridionale ", which removes the chief objec- 
tion to the name, for the species is not known from the West Indian locality first ascribed ; 
the description is tolerably pertinent, fitting about as well as that of Pennant and Latham's 
"Grey-poll Warbler" for example, and may be held, in absence of evidence to the con- 
trary, to indicate some incomplete dress of the Blackbumian Warbler. 

Stephens is said to have called this species Sylvia lateralis, in the x. vol. of his Cent, of 
Shaw's Gen. Zool., 1817, 659; but on turning to this place, I find that the "Sylvia lateralis" 
is there described after Latham, from "Now South Wales", and does not agree in any 
particular with the characters of the present species. 

The reference of the species to various genera, whereby additional synonyms are 
created, is a matter of course, requiring no comment. 

Hab. — Chiefly the Eastern Province. West, however, to Utah {Allen) 
ancl New Mexico (F. Stephens). South in winter through Eastern Mexico and 
Central and South America to Ecuador. Bahamas (Bryant). Breeds in the 
northern portions of its United States range and northward in the British 
Provinces; doubtless, also, in elevated tracts of the Middle States. Winters 
extralimital. A Sylvicola ^'parus" is attributed to Greenland by Reinhardt, 
7. c. (Frederikshaab, Oct. 16, 1845, Holboll). 

Ch. sp. — S Nigra, albido varia; vertice medio, strigd superci- 
liari, lateribus colli, guld et pectore flammeis ; reliquis partibus 
inferioribus ex fiavo albidis, lateribus nigro striatis ; alis caudd- 
que dorso concoloribus, illis specula magno albo, rectricibus late- 
ralibiis magnd ex parte albis. 9 Supra brunneo-olivaeea, albido 
nigroqiie varia, guld aurantiacd, alis albo bifasciatis. 

$, adult, in spring: Entire upper parts, including the wings and tail, 
black, the back varied with whitish, the wings with a large white specu- 
lum on the coverts and much white edging of the coverts, the lateral tail- 
feathers largely white, only a shaft-line, with clubbed extremity, being left 



CHARACTERS OF DENDROSCA BLACKBURNI^ 287 

blackish on the outer two or three pairs. Spot on fore part of crown, eye- 
lids, line over eye spreading into a large spot behind the auriculars, with 
chin, throat, and fore breast, intense orange or flame color. Sides of head 
black in an irregular patch, usually confluent with the black streaks on the 
side of the breast, isolating the orange of the sides of the head from that of 
the throat, and circumscribing the orange patch below the eye. Under parts 
from the breast white, more or less tinged with orange or yellow, the whole 
sides streaked with black. Bill and feet dark. Length about 5^ ; extent, 
8i; wing, 21; tail, 2. 

$, adult, in spring: Similar to the male in the pattern and distribution 
of the colors; upper parts brownish-olive, streaked with black; the fiery 
orange of the male not so intense, or merely yellow, that on the crown ob- 
scure or obsolete. White speculum of the wing resolved into two white 
bars. Sides of the head like the back, instead of black as in the male, and 
the lateral streaks duller and more blended. 

(J and 9 ) adult, in autumn, are sufficiently similar to the respective sexes 
in spring, but the coloration is toned down, the fiery colors of the male being 
less intense, and the black of the back being much mixed with olivaceous, 
bringing about a close resemblance to the spring female ; while the female is 
duller still, and more impurely colored. 

Young : Early autumnal birds of the year of this species are very obscure 
looking, showing no sign of the rich coloration of the adults. Above, like 
the adult 9 , but still browner, with more obsolete dusky streaking. Usually 
indication of the crown spot in a lightening of the part. Sides of the head 
like the crown, cutting off a superciliary stripe and the eyelids, which are 
ochrey white. Whole under parts white, tinged, especially on the throat 
and breast, with yellowish, the sides with obsolete streaking. Indication of 
the peculiar pattern of the adults, though without their actual coloration, 
together with the extent of white on the tail-feathers, will usually suffice for 
the determination of the species, before any. orange appears on the throat, 
after which there can be no difficulty. 

A POINT of special interest iu the present connection is the 
authentic record furnished by Allen of the occurrence of 
the Blackburnian Warbler iu Utah, where a few specimens were 
secured in the spring of ]871, as he has recorded iu the valu- 
able paper above cited. This is, with one exception, the 
westernmost advice we have of the Blackburnian Warbler, 
previously supposed to be confined strictly to the Eastern 
Province, and one which brings the bird fairly into our present 
geographical perspective; but just as these pages go to press, 
I learn from advance sheets of a forthcoming number of the 
Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club, that the Black- 
burnian Warbler has been found at Fort Bayard, New Mexico. 
It is a well-known and abundant species, into the natural 
history of which I do not propose to enter here. 



288 SYNONYMY OF DENDRffiCA STRIATA 

JBlack-poll Warbler 

Dendrceca striata 

Huscicapa striata, Forst. Philos. Trans. Isii. 1772, 406, 4-Z8, n. 31 (Severn River).— Ow. S. 5f. 
i. 1788, 930, n. 7 (from Forster ; quotes also Miill. 111. pi. 15, A. B.).—Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 
481, n. 56 (from Forater ; qu(»tes also Striped Flycatcher, Penn. A. Z. ii. 3C0, and Lath. 
Syn. ii. pt. i. 34!)).— Tart S>r. i. 180G, :>n.—Steph. Gen. Zool. x. 1817, 370. 

Motacilla striata, Gm. SN. 1. 1788, 976, n. 124 {Black-poll Warbler, Penn. & Lath ).—Turt. 
SN. i. IfeOe, 600. 

Sylvia striata, i.a«/t. 10. ii. 1790, 527, n. 67.— F. OAS.ii. 1807, 22, pis. 75, 76.-TriJ«. AO. iv. 
1811, 40, pi. 30, f. 3 ; vi. 1812, 101, pi. 54, f. X—Steph. Gen. Zool. x. 1817, 645.— r. N. D. d'H. 
N. xi. 1817, 219 and 222.-7. Ency. M6th. ii. 1823, 441, n. 77, and 464, n. 167.— 2?p. Journ. 
Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 199.— jBp. Auu. Lye. N. T. ii. 1826, 81.— iVa«. Man. i. 1832, 383.— 
And. OB. ii. 1834, 201, pi. Ui.-Peah. Eap. Orn. Mass. 1839, 309.— ITio/rps. Vermont, 
1853, App. 22. 

SylviCOla striata, 5. .£«. FBA.ii. 1831,218.— Bp. CGL. 1838, 22.— Awd. Syn. 1S39,53.— 4ui. 
BA. ii. 1841, 28, pi. 78 —hp. CA. i. 1850, Zm.— Burnett, Pr. Boat. Soc. iv. 1851, W&.—Hoy, 
Pr. Pbila. Acad. vi. 1853, 311.— iZead, ibid. 399.— iJeinA, J. f. 0. 1854, 427 (Greenland).— 

Henry, Pr. Phila. Acad. vii. 1855, 309 Kennic. Tr. 111. Agric. Soc. i. 1855, SsX — Pratten, 

ibid. 601.— Pw«(i. Pr. Ess. Inst. i. 1856, iOL—Tiry. Pr. Best. Soc. vi. 1857, 116 (Nova 
Scotia).— Ifaxini. J. f. 0.1858, 113.— TTiZ-i?, Smiths. Rep. for 1858, 1859, Wi.—Bry. Pr. 
Bost. Soc. vii. 1859, 110 (Bahamas).— i?/ew. Pr. Bost. Soc. vii. 1860, 307 (Cuba).— 
Albrecht, J. f. 0. 1861, 52 (Bahamas).— ffoy, Smiths. Rep. for 1864, 1865, 438 (Missouri). 

Mnlotilta striata. Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, 196.— Cabot, Nanm. ii. Heft iii. Ilr52, 66.-Kneel. 
Pr. Bost. Soc. vi. 1857, 234— iZei/iA. Ibis, iii. 1861, 6 (Greenland). 

Bhimanpbus strialus. Cab. Mil. i. 1850, 20. 

Btaimamphus striatus, Scl. PZS. 1855, 143 {Bogot&). —Gundl. J. f. O. 1855, 475 (Caba).— 
Gundl. J. f. 0. 1861, 409 (Cuba). 

Dendroica striata, -Bd.BN A. IrSS, 280.— ffe/iry, Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 1859, 106.— Coue«, Pr. 
Phila. Acad. 1861, 230 (Labrador).— iJarn. Smiths. Rep. for 1860, 1861, i^r^.-Blak. Ibis, 
iv. 1862, 4 (Saskatchewan).- Haj/d. Tr. Amer. Philos. Soc. xii. 1862, l61.—Boardm. Pr. 
Bost Soc. ix. 1862, 125.— C'owes <£ Prent. Smiths. Rep. for 1861, 1862, 408.— F«rr. Pr. Ess. 
Inst. iii. 1862, 147.— AJien, Pr. Ess. Inst. iv. 1864, 63.— Bd. Rev. AB. 1865, 19^.-Lawr. 
Ann. Lye. N. T. viii. 1866, 284.— Brew. Am. Nat. i. 1867, 120.— IVippe, Am. Nat. ii 1869, 
119.— Turnb. B. E. Pa. 1869, 25 ; Phila. ed. 18.— Dall <£ Bann. Tr. Chicago Acad. i. 1869, 
278 (Alaska).— Z>ai«, Am. Nat. iv. 1870, 600 (Alaska).— (Jwndi. J. i. 0. 1872, 414 (Cuba).— 
Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. xiv. 1872, 439.— Packard, Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 271.— ffensft. Rep. 
Orn. Specs. 1874, 59 (Colorado).— ffm»ft. Zool. Expl. W. 100 Merid. 1875, 198 (same). 

Dendroica striatus, Gundl. J. f. 0. 1861, 326 (Cuba). 

Dendrfleca striata, Blak. ibis, v. 1863, (,i.—McIlwr. Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1866, 86.— Cowes, Pr. Ess. 
Inst. V. 1868,273. — 5Mnd. Oefv. K. Vet.-Akad. Fiirh. 1869, 614.— ,S. d: S. PZS. 1870, 780 
(Merida).— Trippe, Am. Nat. vi. 1872, 48.— Cowes, Key, 1872, 100, f. 42, pi. 2, f. 15, 16.— 
Mayn. Pr. Bost. Soc. xi v. 1872, 366— frippe, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1873, 2.3.').—5now, Am. 
Nat. viii. 1874, 757.— Cowes, BN W. 1874, 60.— £. B. <£■ It. NAB. i. 1874, 248, pi. 13, f. 9.— 
Gentry, Life Hist. i. 1876, \U.—Minot, B. N. Engl. 1877, 110.— Merr. Trans. Conn. 
Acad. iv. 1«77, 10. 

Dendroica pliius [err.!), Coueg, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1861, 
220 (Labrador). 

Dendrwca atricapilla, Landb. " Arch. f. Naturg. 1864, 
50 (Chile) '\—Scl. PZS. 1867, 337 (Chile). 

Striped Flycatcher, Forst. 1. c.-Lath. Syn. ii. pt. i. 
1783,349, n. 4G.— Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 390, n. 277. 

Black*poll Warbler, Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 460, n. 
65.— Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 401, n. 290. 

Fanrette striee, Fauvette tailor, V. N. D. d'H. N. xi. 
1817, 219 and 222; and Ency. M6th. ii. 1823, 464 
and 441. 

Fanvette ray^e, Le Maine, Ois. Canad. 1861, 189. ^lo- 36. -Black-poll Warbler. 

Note. — This bird was first described in 1772 by Forster as the "Striped Flycatcher", 

Miiscicapa striata. Next it was described as a sep.irato species, the •'Black-poll War- 
bler", by Pennant and Latham, their bird becoming Motacilla striata of Giuelin, it being 




CHARACTERS OF DENDRGECA STRIATA 289 

a mere coincidence that the same specific name, st'riata, was bestowed upon the two birds, 
supposed to belong to different genera, but which are the same species. Vieillot very 
carionsly retains both under the genus Sylvia, in the Xouv. Diet 1S17, and the Ency. M6th. 
1823, having in each of these works a Sylvia striata in two places, though one he calls ;n 
French " Fauvette 8tri6e", and the other " Fanvette tailor". Even in Gray, G. of B. 
1848, the name striata is similarly duplicated under Mniotilta. 

Hab. — North America, exceptinjj the Western aod most of the Middle 
Province. North to the Arctic Ocean and Greenland. Northwest to AlaskOi, 
in the Yukon region. West to Nebraska and Colorado. South to New Gran- 
ada and perhaps to Chili (c/. D. atricapilla, I. 8. c). Cuba and Bahamas only 
of the West Indies. No Mexican quotations. Breeds from Northern New 
England northward. Winters beyond the United States. Migrates late in 
the spring, bringing up the rear-guard of the Warbler hosts. 

Ch. sp. — S Olivacea, nigro striata, pileo nigra ; infra alba, late- 
raliter nigro striata a rostro ad caudam; alisfuseis, albo bifas- 
ciatis, Cauda fused, reetricibus lateralibus albo notatis ; pedibus 
pallidis. S supra virescensy undique nigro striata ; infra virenti- 
albida, fusco striata. 

$ , adult : Back, rump, and upper tail-coverts grayish-olive, heavily streaked 
with black ; whole crown pure glossy black. Below pure white ; a double 
series of black streaks starts from the extreme chin, and diverges to pass 
one on each side to the tail, the streaks being confluent anteriorly, discrete 
posteriorly. Side of head above the chain of streaks pure white, including 
lower eyelid. Wings dusky, the primaries with much greenish edging, the 
inner secondaries with whitish edging, the greater and median coverts tipped 
with white, forming two cross-bars. Tail like the wings, with rather small 
white spots at the ends of the inner webs of two or three outer feathers. 
Upper mandible brownish-black ; lower mandible with the feet flesh-colored 
or yellowish. Length, 5i-5f; extent, 9-9^; wing, 2f-2| ; tail, 2|^. 

$: Entire upper parts, including the crown, greenish-olive, with dusky 
streaks ; below white, much tinged with greenish-yellow, especially anteri- 
orly, the streaks dusky and not so sharp as those of the male, but still very 
evident. Bars and edgings of the wings greenish-white. Tail as in the 
male. Rather smaller than the male on an average. 

Young : Similar to the adult 2 , but brighter and more greenish -olivo above, 
the streakings few and chiefly confined to the middle of the back ; below 
more or less completely tinged with greenish-yellow, the streaking obsolete, or 
entirely wanting. Under tail-coverts usually pure white. These autumnal 
birds bear an extraordinary resemblance to those of D. castanea (though the 
adults are so very different), the upper parts being, in fact, the same iu both. 
But young castanea generally shows traces of the chestnut, or at least a buffy 
shade, quite different from the clear greenish-olive of striata, this tint being 
strongest on the flanks and under tail-coverts, just where striata is the most 
purely white. Moreover, castanea shows no streaks below, traces at least of 
which are usually observable in striata. 

The still earlier plumage of the bird when just from the nest is different 
again, for this species, like many other SylvicolidcB, Turdidce, &c., has at first 
a transient streaky or speckled plumage. In this condition, the upper parts 
are grayish, the lower white, the whole body marked with blackish in the 
form of a terminal spot or bar on each feather. 
19 B c 



290 SYNONYMY OF DENDRCECA MACULOSA 

DURING the vernal migrations, vast numbers of the Black- 
polls enter the United States from their winter home in 
South America, sometimes as early as February, and pass leis- 
urely northward till some of them gain the uttermost Arctic 
regions, while others, presumably later comers, are advised by 
the progress of the season to nestle even short of the northern 
border of our country. None are known as yet to come from 
Mexico — a circumstance long favoring the general impression 
that the species was a thoroughly Eastern one. Nevertheless, 
we have ascertained that some of these birds advance west of the 
Plains, along the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains, for they 
have been found in May near Denver, Colorado, by Mr. H. W. 
Henshaw, hovering about the rather debatable border-land of 
the " Birds of the Colorado Valley ". 

Black-and-yelloir TVarbler 

I>endroec» maculosa 

MotaclHa maculosa, Gm. SN. i. 1788, 984, n. 151 (Brisa. iii. 502, n. 56 ; Penn. ii. 400, n. 288).— 
Turt. SX. i. 1806, 606. 

Sylvia maculosa, Lath. 10. li. 1790, 536, n. 108.— F. OAS. ii. 1807, 33, pi. 93.— F. N. D. d'H. 
N. y.\.i&n,^'i-i.—Steph.. Gen. Zool. x. 1817, 715.— F. Ency. M6th. ii. 1823, 427, n. 29.— 
.Hp. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 1826, 78.— Awd OB. i. 1831, 260; ii. 1834, 145; v. 1839,458; pie. 
50, 123.— iVM«. Man. i. 1832, 370.— Pea6. Rep. Orn. Mass. 1839, 308.— D'Orft. Ois. Cuba. 
1839, 72 —Thomps. Vermont, 1853, 81.— Haym. Pr. Phila. Acad. viii. 1856, 290. 

SylViCOla maculosa, S. <t R. FB A. ii. 1831, 213, pi. 40.— .Bp. CGL. 1838, 22.— iiud. Syn. 1839, 
61.— Aud. BA. ii. 1841, 65, pi. 96.— Denny, P2S. 1847, 38.-i?p. CA. i. 1850, 307.— iroy, Pr. 
Phil.1. Acad. vi. 1853, 310.— Read, ibid. 3dB.—Eennic. Tr. 111. Agric. Soc. i. 1855, 5t3.— 
Pratten, ibid. 60-2.—Putn. Pr. Ess. Inst. i. 1856, '20T.— Willis, Smiths. Eep. for 1858, 1859, 
282.— Bry. Pr. Bost. Soc. vii. 1859, 110 (Babamas).- 5cew. Pr. Bost. Soc. vii. 1860,307 
{Cnha.).—Albrecht, J. f. O. 1861, 53 (Bahamas).— JTo?/, Smiths. Rep. for 1864, 1865, 438. 

Mniotilta maculosa. Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, 196.— Cabot, Naum. ii. Heft iii. 1852, 66.— 
Kneel. Pr. Bost. Soc. vi. 1857, 234. 

Rblman;>taus maculosus, Cab. MH. i. 1850, 20. 

Rhimamphus maculosus, Gundl. J. f. 0. 1855, 474 (Cuba). 

Dendroica maculosa, Bd. BNA. 18."8, 284.— & a S. Ibis, i. 1859, 11 (Guatemala) —Gundl. 
J. f. O. 1861, 326 (Cuba).— i?rtrn. Smiths. Eep. for I860, 1861, 436.— Cowes tC Prent. 
Smiths. Rep. for 1861, 1862, 408.— Ferr. Pr. Bost. Soc. is. 1862, 147 (Anticosti).— ^Hen, 
Pr. Ess. Inst. iv. 1864, 63.— Bd. Rev. AB. 1865,206.— iator. Ann. Lye. N. "y. viii. 1866, 
2e4.-Tnppe, Am. Nat. ii. 1868, 180.— Scl. PZS. 18C9, 374 (Ottaca).— rarn&. B. E. Pa. 
1869, 25; Phila. od. 18.— Gundl. ,T. (. 0. 1872, 415 (Vuha).— Packard, Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 
271.- .B. B. <£- R. NAB. i. 1874, 232, pi. 14, f. '2.—Hcnsh. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, 58 (Den- 
ver, Colo.).— Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 439.— Hensh. Zool. Expl. W. 100 Merid. 
1875, 196 (Denver, Colo.). 

Dendroeca maculosa, Scl. PZS. 1859, 363 (Xulapa).— iawr. Ann. Lye. N. T. vii. 1861, 322 
(New Granada).— -Sd. PZS. 1862, 19 (Southern Mexico).— BJafc. Ibis, v. 1863, 03 (British 
America).- Ferr. Pr. Bost. Soc. ix. 1863, 234.— S. <6 S. PZS. 1864, 347 (Panama).— Drews. 
Ibis, 2deer. i. 1865, 478(Texa8) — JJfciiwr. Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1866, 86.— Cowes, Pr. Ess. Inst. 
V. 1868, 273.— Cowes, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 1868, 110. -Sund. Oefv. K. Vet.-Akad. Forh. 1869, 
615.— Cope, Am. Nat. iv. 1870, 395, 396, 399.— Mayn. Pr. Bost. Soc. xiv. 1872, 367 (Maine, 
breeding).- ilfaj/n. B. Fla. 1873, 56 —Trippe, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1873, 235.— /Sjiow, Am. 
Nat. viii. 1874, 7.57 —Coues, BNW. 1874, 6-2.— Gentry, Life-Hist. i. 1876, 123.— Jlfinof, B. 
N. Engl. 1877, 126.— Jferr. Trans. Conn. Acad. iv. 1877, n.-Brcwut. Bull. Nuttall Club, 
ii. 1877, 1 (full biography). 




CHARACTERS OF DENDRCECA MACULOSA 291 

SylTla magnolia, Wils. AO. iii. ISll, 63, pi. ^.—Steph. Gen. Zool. x. 1817, 604.— Bp. Joarn. 

Phila. Acad. iv. 18-24, 194. 
Tellow-rumpefl Flycatcher, Hdw. pi. 255. 
Figuier a tete cendrce. Buff. "Oi.s. v. 291". 
Figuter tacbet6 de Pensilyanie, Ficedula pensilvanica nievia, Briss. Orn. iii. 50-2, n. 50 

(quotes Edw. pi. 255). 
Tellow-ruinped Warbler, Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 

481, n. 104. 
Yellow-rump Warbler, Penn. AZ. ii. 400, n. 288 

(a basis of M. maculosa Gra. ; not to be con- 
founded with Yellow-rump of modern writers, 

which is D. coronata). — Sw. <6 Rich. FBA. 1. c. 
Fauvette ^ tete cendree, V. N. D. d'H. N. xi. 1817 

223 ; Ency. M6th. ii. 1823, 427. 
Spotted Warbler, Peab. l. c.—Nutt. 1. c. 
Bee-fin ^ tfete cendree, D'Orfe. i.e. 
Black-and-ycllow Warbler, Authors. Fig. 37.— Black-and-yellow Warbler. 

Hab. — Eastern Province of North America. North to Labrador, Hudson's 
Bay, Great Slave Lake, «fec. South through Eastern Mexico and Central 
America to New Granada. West to the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. Cuba 
and the Bahamas. Breeds from New England northward, and probably 
farther south in elevated portions of the United States. Winters extralimita.l. 

Ch. sp. — S ? Dorso nigro, plus minusve olivaceo tincto ; uro- 
pygio Jlavo ; vertice cinereo ; lateribus capitis cum fronte angus 
tissimd nigris, palpebris et strigd postoculari albis ; gastrwo flavo, 
crisso albo, pectore laterihusqiie nigro striatis ; alis cauddque ni- 
gricantibus, illis spcculo albo, rectricibus maculis albis quadratis. 

2 , in spring : Back black, usually quite pure and uninterrupted in the 
^ , more or less mixed with olive in the $ ; rump yellow ; ujiper tail-coverts 
black, often skirted with olive or ashy. Whole crown of head clear ash ; 
sides of head black, including a very narrow frontlet; the eyelids and a 
stripe behind the eye, between the ash and black, white. Entire under parts 
rich yellow, excepting the white crissum, hea.vily streaked with black across 
the breast and along the sides, the streaks on the breast so thick as to form a 
nearly continuous black border to the immaculate yellow throat. Wings 
fuscous, with white lining, white edging of the inner webs of all the quills, 
of the outer webs of the inner secondaries, and with a large white patch 
formed by the tips of the median coverts and tips and outer edges of the 
greater coverts. Tail blackish, with square white spots on the middle of 
the inner webs of all the feathers excepting the middle pair. Bill blackish ; 
feet dark. Length, 4|-5 ; extent, 7-7^ ; wing, 2^-2^ ; tail, 2-2^. 

Young: Upper parts ashy-olive, becoming grayer on the head; rump as 
yellow as in the adult. No decided head-markings ; a whitish ring round the 
eye. Below yellow, generally continuous, but sometimes incomplete, being 
partially replaced by gray ; black streaks wanting or few, and confined 
chiefly to the sides. Wings with two whitish bars. Tail-spots as in the adult. 

While the sexes of the adult of this beautiful species are quite similar, 
dififering mainly in the less extent and purity of the black on the back, the 
young are quite different; but may always be recognized by the yellow 
rump, in connection with the extensively or completely yellow under parts, 
and small, square, white tail-spots remote from the ends of the feathers. 



292 CHARACTERS OF DENDRCECA GRACIJi 

WITH the name of tbis pretty species, the list of Eastern- 
Province Warblers which reach westward to the con- 
fines of the Colorado Basin closes. The bird was not long 
since added to the fauna of Kansas by Prof. F. 11. Snow, who 
has been foremost in filling out the recognized category* of the 
birds of that State ; and about the same time, Mr. H. W. Hen- 
shaw found the Black-and-yellow Warbler near Denver, Colo- 
rado, where, on the 17th of May, 1873, he picked a male in full 
plumage out of a flock of Audubon's Warblers, in the company 
of which it was migrating. The occurrence may have been 
wholly fortuitous, as Mr. Henshaw has surmised; but we have 
learned of the appearance of so many Eastern birds along the 
foot-hills of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, that we should 
be slow to deny that the present species may not pass that way 
regularly each year. 

Grace's "Warbler 

Dendroeca spracise 

a. gracice 
Dendroica gracise, Coues, MSS.—Bd. Rev. AB. 1865, 210 (Fort Whipple, Ariz.).— Coop. 

B. Cal. 1. 1870, 563, Q.g.—Eidgw. Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 608.— B. B. <t R. NAB. i. 1874, 243, 

pi. 14, f. lO.—Rensh. List B. Ariz. 1875, 156.— Hensh. Zool. Expl. W. 100 Merid. 1876, 197. 
DendrtBca graciie, Ooues, Pr. Phila. Acad, xviii. 186C, 67. — Sund. Oefv. K. Vet.-Akad. Forh. 

1869, 611.— Coojj. Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 479.— Cojtes, Key, 1872, 103.—.' Salv. Ibis, iii. 3d eer. 

1873,428 (Guatemala— decom?). 
Dendrseca graclse, Elliot, lUust. BNA. i. pi. vi. 
Mniotilta gracise, Gisbel, Nomencl. Av. 1875, 603. 

6. decora 
Dendroica gracite var. decora, Ridgw. Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 608.— B. B. t6 R. NAB. i. 1874, 220. 

Cn. SP. — S ? Ca^ruleo-cinerea, dorso et vertice nigro notatis, 
loris nigris, superciliis et macula suboculari, cum guld et pectore, 
flavis; abdomine crissoque albis, lateribus corporis et colli nigro 
striatis ; alls albo bifasciatis, rectricibus lateralibus magna ex 
parte albis ; rostro pedibusque nigris. 

$, adult: Entire upper parts ashy-gray, with a slaty-blue tinge; the 
middle of the back streaked with black, the upper tail-coverts less conspic- 
uously 80 marked ; the crown with crowded black arrow-heads, especially 
anteriorly and laterally, the tendency of these markings being to form a line 
along the side of the crown, meeting its fellow on the forehead. A broad 
superciliary line of yellow, confluent with its fellow on the extreme front, 
changing to white behind the eye. Lores blackish ; sides of head otherwise 
like the back, enclosing a crescentic yellow spot below the eye ; edges of eye- 
lids yellow. Chin, throat, and fore breast bright yellow, bordered with 
blackish streaks; the yellow of the throat separate from that under the eye 
or on the lores. Under parts from the breast white, the sides shaded with 



HABITS OF grace's WARBLER 293 

the color of the back, and streaked with black in continuation of the chain 
of shorter streaks along the side of the neck. Wings dusky, with very nar- 
row whitish edging, and crossed with two white bars along the ends of the 
greater and median coverts. Tail like the wings ; the lateral feather mostly 
white, excepting the outer web ; the next two or three with white blotches, 
decreasing in size. Eyes, bill, and feet black ; soles dirty yellowish. Length, 
4T(5-5i ; extent about 8 ; wing, 2f ; tail, 2J-. 

$ , in autumn : Color of the upper parts obscured with a shade of brown- 
ish-olive, the dorsal streaks obscure. The head-markings as in summer, and 
the yellow parts quite as bright. 

9 : Quite similar to the male, and in fact scarcely distinguishable from the 
male in autumn, though the yellow is not quite so strong. 

Young : The slate-gray of the upper parts much shaded with brownish- 
olive, the black streaks wanting on the back, those on the crown obsolete. 
Yellow much as in the adult but paler, and not bordered along the sides of 
the neck with black streaks. The black lores are poorly defined. The wing- 
bars are grayish or obsolete. The white of the under parts has an ochrey 
tinge, and the lateral streaks are not so heavy in color nor so well defined. 

Since this species was originally degcribed, a slight variety {decora) has 
been noted from Honduras, in which the superciliary stripe is wholly yellow 
and does not pass beyond the eye, and there are some other slight charac- 
ters. Among United States species, the present is most like D. dominica, but 
this is much larger, with a much longer and stouter bill, the long white su- 
perciliary line prolonged to the side of the neck, where it enlarges into a 
spot, and the sides of the head and neck broadly black, isolating the white 
lower eyelid, and otherwise different. 

GRACE'S Warbler is to me a bird of particular and not 
unpardonable interest, being the only species of this 
beautiful genus that it has fallen to my lot to discover, and 
bearing the name of one for whom my affection 'and respect 
keep pace with my appreciation of true loveliness of character. 

It is one of the latest additions to the long and varied list of 
Wood- Warblers, and the only species with which the genus has 
been enriched during the last ten or twelve years — a near rela- 
tive of Adelaide's Warbler* from Porto Eico, described at the 
same time by Professor Baird, and next most closely related to 
the very old species now usually called Dendrceca dominica. 

In my original notice of this bird, I referred to certain speci- 
mens collected by Mr. C. Wood, at Belize, British Honduras, 

* A near relative of D. gracice is the following Porto Rican species, described 
at the same time by Baird : — 
Dendroeca a<lelaid?e. 

Dendroica adclaldie, Bd. Eev. AB. 1865, 212. 
Mnlotilta adelaidse, Gray, Haadlist, i. 1B69, 241. n. 3500. 
Dendroeca adelaidae, Sund. Oof%'. K. Vet.-Akad. Forh. iii. I8ca, CIS. 
Dendroica gracia* tar. adelaidiB, B.B.<t: R. NAH. i. 1874,220. 
Mnlotilta adelaldae, GUbel, Nomencl. Av. 1875, 59y. 



294 HABITS OF grace's WARBLER 

where it was said to be common. These specimens, however, 
were afterward described as representing a different variety, to 
which the name decora was applied by Mr. Robert Ridgway. 

While journeying through New Mexico, en route to Fort 
Whipple, Arizona, in July, 1864, I found Grace's Warbler on 
the summit of Whipple's Pass of the Rocky Mountains, not far 
from the old site of Fort Wingate, and secured the first speci- 
men on the second of the month just named. I saw no more 
of the bird — though it certainly must live in the pine-clad San 
Francisco Mountains which I traversed — till the following 
spring, when I ascertained that it was the most abundant bird 
of its kind, excepting Audubon's Warbler, in the pineries in 
the midst of which Fort Whipple is located. I have not yet 
learned of its occurrence anywhere beyond New Mexico and 
Arizona, nor indeed outside of the pine belt that indicates a 
certain elevation of the surface in these Territories ; but as it 
is a migratory bird, and has never been found in the United 
States in winter, there is no doubt that it retires to Mexico in 
the fall, to return in the spring. The extent of its movements, 
however, remains to be ascertained. I secured a fine large suite 
of specimens at Fort Whipple, illustrating the variations of 
the plumage under the different conditions of sex, age, and 
season, and latterly my friend Henshaw has taken many more. 
His were all procured in the White Mountains of Arizona, at 
and near Camp Apache, exce[)ting one which he took at Inscrip- 
tion Rock, New Mexico, which is within an easy day's march of 
the spot where my original specimen was procured. During 
two seasons he found it to be one of the commonest of the 
summer Warblers in the White Mountains, where the young- 
birds just from the nest were observed during the second week 
in July. His observations confirm my own in regard to the 
pine-loving character of the birds; he found them almost inva- 
riably in coniferous forests, passing swiftly along the smaller 
branches of these tall trees, or darting into the air to capture 
passing insects ; and even in August, when various families had 
united into small flocks, and were lingering in company with 
other insectivorous birds, before their departure for the South, 
their preference for their native pines was still evident. 

In the spring of 1865, I noted the arrival of these Warblers 
in the vicinity of Fort Whipple on the 20th of April, and they 
continually fell under my observation from this date until the 
third week in September, about which time I suppose they left 



HABITS OF grace's WARBLER 295 

for the South. They pair off very soon after their arrival, by 
the begiuuing of May, and I think they must, in some cases at 
least, rear two broods during the summer, as I found newly 
fledged birds during the middle of August. I never discovered 
their nest, but have no doubt it will be found high up iu the 
pine-trees, to which the birds are so much attached. They 
keep not only among tall pines, but even in the upper portions 
of these magnificent trees, some of which grow to such height 
that it is a fair gunshot range to their lower limbs, let alone the 
canopy of foliage that stretches to the sunlight out of the lower 
shade it casts itself, affording the happiest hunting-ground to 
these nimble and industrious birds. They are seen coursing 
among the branchlets, skipping at apparent random through 
the endless intricacies of the foliage, hovering momentarily 
about the terminal bunches of needles, and then dashing far 
out into clear space, to capture the passing insect with a dex- 
terous twist and turn. So the season passes, till the young are 
on wing, when the different families, still with bonds unbroken, 
ramble at leisure through the woods, the young birds timid and 
feeble at first, venturing shorter flights than their parents, who 
seem absorbed in solicitude for their welfare, and attend them 
most sedulouslj^ till they are quite able to shift for themselves. 
They are quick to learn ; it is not long before, gaining full con- 
fidence, they loose their family ties ; different broods meet in 
undistinguished companies, and all go trooping down the mount- 
ain-sides, or off to the southward, when first the pine-trees sigh 
and whisper to each other that they hear the threatening mur- 
mur of oncoming storms. 

During the whole summer, these Warblers have no other note 
than that thin and wiry chirping which so many species of this 
group utter. Earlier in the season, when the males would seek 
their fates, they sing right heartily, and with a strength and 
clearness one would scarce expect to hear from musicians of 
such puny size. The song opens with two or three slurred, 
whistling notes, continued for a few moments with a clear, thin 
chirrup that I know not how to express in words. Tbey have 
also another song, which always reminded me of that which is 
so constantly heard from the Eedstart during the same climac- 
teric period of its life. 

I await with impatience the discovery of the nest and eggs of 
ray sister's Warbler, and the determination of its winter home, 
that the history of the pretty bird may be completed. 



296 THE GENUS SIURUS 

The only species of Dendrocca not taken into account in the foregoing pages 
are the two following : — 
Dendrocca pharetra. 

Sylvicola pharetra, Gosse, B. Jam. 1847, 163.— Go«se, Illust. B. Jam. 1848, pi. 38.— JSp. 

CA. i. 1850, 309.— Osbuni, "Zoologist, p. 6660". 
Mniotilta pharetra, Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, 106.—Giebel, Nomencl. Av. 1875, 605. 
Dendroera pharetra, Scl. I'ZS. i. 1861, n.—Sd. Cat. AB. 1862, 358.—Sund. OetV. K. Vet.- 

Akad. Forh. iii. Ie69, 617. 
Dendroica pharetra, JBd. Kev. AB. 1865, 192.— B. B. <£ R. NAB. i. 1874, 220. 

Hab. — Jamaica. 

Dentlroeca pityopbila. 

Sylvicola pityophila, Gundl. Ann. Lye. N. T. vi. Oct. 1855, 160. 

Bhlmamphus pityophilus, Gundl. J. f. 0. 1857, 240. 

Dendroica pityophila, Bd. Rev. AB. 1865, 208— B. B.<6 R. NAB. i. 1874, 221. 

Deudroeca pityophila, Sund. Oefv. K. Vet.-Altad. Forh. iii. 1869, C12. 

Mniotilta pityophila, Gray, Handlist, 1. 1869, 241, n.3i'J9.—Giebel, Nomencl. Av. 1875,606. 

Hab. — Cuba. 

Genus SIURUS Swainson 

Seliirus, Sw. Zool. Joum. iii. 1827, 171. (Type 

Motacilla aurocapilla L.) 
Slums, Stricll. "Syn. 1841, —".—Coues, Bull. 

Nutt. Club, fl. 1877, 29 (nomenclature). 
Sejurus, Sciurus, Senurus, Seuirus, of Some. 
Enicocichla, Gray, "1840"; List G. of B, 

1841,31. 
Henicocichla, " Agass."—Cab. M. H. i. 1850, 15. \ 

Exocbocichla, Yan der Hoev. " Zool. 1856 ". Fig. 38.— Goldon-crowued Accentor. 

Chars. — lu general form, scarcely distinguishable from Ben- 
drceca; larger in size, different in pattern of coloration, in 
habits, gait, and nidification. Bill ordinary, llictal bristles 
short but evident. Wings pointed, much longer than tail. 
Tarsus longer than middle toe and claw. Tail nearly even, 
with rather acute feathers, and long, copious under coverts. 
Size larger than in Dendrceca. Neither wings nor tail parti- 
colored. Above olivaceous, with or without head-markings, 
otherwise uniform ; below white, buffy, or yellowish, profusely 
streaked. Legs slender, pale-colored. Habits terrestrial to 
some extent ; nest on the ground ; eggs white, spotted. Vocal 
powers preeminent. Gait ambulatorial, not saltatorial, and 
some other traits decidedly Motacilline. 

Thi.s genus has held its position in the system by very uncer- 
tain tenure, having been referred to various families, as the 
Turdidw, Motacillidcc, and Sylvicolidcc. It is difficult to see how 
it differs in any important particular of structure from such a 
Sylvicoline genus as Dendrccca for instance, and it seems much 
better located here than among the Wagtails, notwithstanding 
the fact that it resembles these birds in many points of its econ- 




SYNONYMY OF S1URU8 AURICAPiLLUS 297 

omy. The number of primaries (nine) excludes it from the 
Turdidce. The genus is probably definable by the characters I 
have given, and I continue to endorse Baird's reference of it to 
the SylvlcoUdcc, considering it to be a terrestrial type of Warbler. 
The original name ot the genus, written Seiiirus by Swainson, 
rendered Sejurus by some and amended as Siurus by others, has 
been discarded by some on account of its identity in sound, 
though not in orthography or etymology, with Sciurus, a mam- 
malian genus. But I see no necessity for this. There are only 
three well-determined species, all of them North American, and 
two of them occurring in the Colorado Basin. 

GoUden-crowned Accentor 

SiarufS aaricapillns 

MotaclUa aurocapiUa, L. SN. 1. 17G6, 334, n. 2') (Briss. iii. 504 ; Edw. 91, pi. 252).— Gm. SN. i. 
1788, 982, n. W.—Turt. SN. i. 1806. 605. 

Turdus aurocapillus, ia«/i. 10. i. 1790, 328, n. e.— Wils. AO. iii. 1810, 88, TplUJ. 2.— Stcph. 
Geu. Zool. X. 1817, 199.— F. Ency. M6th. i!. 1823, 641, n. M.—Bp. Journ. Phila. Acad. 
iv. 1824, 35.— iVwM. Man. i. 1832, 355 ; 2d ed. i. 1840, 40i.—Aud. OB. ii. 1834, 2?3 ; v. 1839, 
447, pi. 143.— Peab. Eep. Orn. Masa. 1839, 306.— rowns. Journ. Phila. Acad. viii. 1839, 
153 (Northwestern United States) .—Thomps. Vermont, 1853, 80.— Read, Pr. Phila. 
Acad. vi. 1853, 298.— Willis, Smiths. Kep. for 1858, 1859, 281 ^Nova Scotia).— Gosse, 
Alabama, 1859, 305. 

Sylvia aurocapiUa, Bp. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 35.— Bp. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 1826, 77. 

Seiurus aurocapillUS, Sw. Zool. Journ. iii. 1827, 171 ; Phil. Mag. i. 1827, 369 ; Isi.i, 1830 1154.— 
<S'. <£R. FBA. ii. 1831, 227.— 2?p. CGL. 1838, 21.— Aud. Syn. 1839, 93.— ^«d. BA. iii. 1841, 
35, pi. 148.- Gir.BLI. 1844, 92.—Gosse, B. Jam. 1847, 152.— Boy, Pr. Phil-i. Acad. vi. 1853, 
310 (Wisconsin).- iTenmc. Tr. 111. Agric. Soc. i. 1855, 583.— Pratten, ibid. 001.— Salle, 
PZS. 1857, 231 (San 'Domingo).— Maofim. J. f. O. 1858, 177.— i?d. BNA. 1858, 200.— J?am. 
Smiths. Rep. for 1860, 1861, 435.— Cowes <£• Prent. Smiths. Eep. for 1861, 1862, 407.— 
Boardm.Vv. Best. Soc. ix. 1862, 125 (Maine). — Ferr. ibid. 137 (Anticosti). — Verr. Pr. Ess. 
Inst. iii. 1802, UO.—Hayd. Tr. Am. Philos. Soc. xii. 1862, im.—Blak. Ibis, v. 1863, 62.— 
March, Pr. Phila. Acad. xv. 1863, 294 (Jamaica).— 4i^en, Pr. Ess. lust. iv. 1864, OV.—Bd. 
Eev. AB. 1665, 214, 266.— iawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. 1866, 28i.~McIlwr. Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 
1866,85 (Canada West).— iJr?/. Pr. Boat. Soc. xi. 1867,91 (San Domingo).— iaivr. Ann. 
LycN. Y.ix. 1868,94 (Costa Rica).— Trippe, Am. Nat. ii. 1868, 182.— Cowes, Pr. Bost. 
Soc. xii. 1868, 110.— Coues, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 2U.— Jackson, Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 556.— 
Turnb. B. E. Pa. 1869, 24; Phila. ed. U.-v. Frantz. J. f. O. 1869,293 (Costa Rica).— 
Sumich. Mem. Bost. Soc. i. 1869, 547 (Orizaba).— Z)a?Z <£■ Bann. Tr. Chicago Acad. i. 1869, 
268 {A\A6ka).—Trippe, Pr. Ess. Inst. vi. 1871, 115.— Allen, Bull. MCZ. ii. 1871, 269 
(Florida, wintering); iii. 1872, 175 (Kansas).— Coucs, Key, 1872, 105, f. 45.— Mayn. B. 
Fla. 1872, 12.— Allen, Am. Nat. vi. 1872, 260.— Mayii. Pr. Bost. Soc. xiv. 1872,358.— 
Gundl. J. f. O. 1872, 416 (Cuba),— Pacterd, Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 2'l.—Ingersoll, ibid. 
239.— A/kn, Pr. Boat. Soc. xvii. 1874, 52 (Dakota).— Cowes, BNW. 1874, 70.— P. i?. cCiZ. 
NAB. i. 1874, 280, fig. pi. 14, f. 11.— Prw. Pr. Boet. Soc. xvii. 1875, 440.— Gentry, Life- 
Hist. i. 1876, 138.— Minot, B. N. Engl. 1877, 84. 

Seiurus aurocapillU8, D'Orb. Ois. Cuba. 1839, 55.— Denny, PZS. 1847, 38.— Pwhi. Pr. Ess. 
Inst. i. 1856, 209.— Hoy, Sraitbs. Rep. for 1864, 1865, 431.-Tnppe, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 
1873, 234. 

Siurus aurocapillus, A. c6jE7. Newt. Ibis, i. 1859, 142 (St. Croix).— S. £ S. Ibis, i. 1859,9 
((ruatemala). 

Enlcocicbla aurocapiUa, Gray, ListG. of B. 1841, 31. 

Enicocichla aurocaplUus, Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. vii. 1860, 306 (Cuba). 

Henicoririila aurocapiUa, Cab. MU. i. 1850, 15.— Gundl. J. f. O. 1855, 471 (Cuba).— Ca6. 
J. f. 0. 1861, 84 (Costa R\ca).—Gnndl. ibid. 326, 407 (Cuba).— iawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. 
1865, 117 (Nicaragua).— 6'a2y. PZS. 1870, 183 (Veragua). 



298 CHARACTERS OF SIURUS AURICAPILLUS 

Tardus aurieaplllus, lAcM. " Preis-Verz. Mex. Viig. 1830, 2" ; J. f. 0. 1863, 57. 

Accentor aurieaplllus, RUh. Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. for 1836, 1837, 172. 

Seiurus aurieaplllus, Sw. Class. B. ii. 18J7, m.—Bp. CA. i. 1850, 306. — Lawr. Ann. Lye. 

N. Y. ix. 1861), 200 (Yucatan).— Coues, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1875, 349. 
Slurus aurlcapillHS, Moore, PZS. 18.W, 55 (Omoa).— C7o««». Bull. Nutt. Club, ii. 1877, 31 

(corroctiou of nomcnclaturo). — Merr. Trans. Conn. Acad. iv. 1677, 20. 
HeniCOClChIa auricapllla, Sd. PZS. IS.'ie, 293 (Mexico).— &2. PZS. 1861, 70 (Jamaica).— 

Alurecht, J. f. 0. 1862, 192 (Jamaica).— A'. <£• 8. PZS. 1870, 836 (Honduras). 
Tardus citreus, Miill. SN. Suppl. 1776, 141 (/dc Cassin, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1864; said to be 

based on PE. 398, f. 2). 
Motacilla cauadensis, Bodd. Tabl. PE. 1783, 24 (PE. 398, f. 2). (In part. The ori<rinal 

quotation of PE. is this species, and so is the quotation of Edw. pi. 252 j but the 

other references are to Dendroeca coronata). 
Tardus minimus, Bartr. Trav. FIj. 1st Am. ed. 1791, 290 bis. (Not of authors.) 
Turdus coronatus, V. OAS. ii. 1807, 8, pi. 64.— Less. Tr. Orn. 1831, 418. 
Antlius coronatus, Gerhardt, Naum. iii. 1853, 38. 
Figuicr a teste d'or de Pcnsilranle, Ficcdula pensilTanica auro-capilla, Briss. Orn. 

iii. 1760, ,504, u. 57. 
Golden-crowned Thrush, Edw. Gl. 91, pi. 252.— Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 339, n. 203.-ia«ft. Syn. 

ii. pt, i. 1783, 21, n. 6. 
Grirelette de S. Domingue, Buff. " Hist. Nat. Ois. iii. 317 ". 

Petite Griye dc St. Domlngue, Buff. PE. 396, f. 2 (basis oi Mot. catiademis Bodd.). 
Grive couronnee, V. 1. c. 1817.— iye Maine, Ois. Canad. 1861, 174. 
Grive grivelette, T. 1. c 1823. 
Land Rick-up, Gosse, B. Jam. 1847, 152. 

Goldeu-crowned Accentor, Golden-crowned Wagtail, Orange-crowned Accentor, Oven- 
bird, Authors. 

Hab. — Eastern North America to the Rocky Mountains (Denver, Colorado), 
the Yellowstone, and Alaska. South through the whole West Indies and 
Mexico (even at Mazatlau) and Central America. Breeds indifferently in its 
North American range. Winters from the Beimudas and Florida southward. 

Ch. sp. — S 9 Virenti-olivaceus^ infra alba fusco striata ; ver- 
tice aurantiacobrunneo, nigra bistrigato ; pedibiis pallide incar- 
natis. Long. tot. 5^-G^ ; alee 3 ; caudce 2^. 

^ 9, adult: Entire upper parts, including the wings and tail, uniform 
bright olive-green, without markings. Top of head with black lateral 
striped, bounding a golden-brown or dull orange space. A white ring round 
eye ; no white superciliary striiie. Under parts white, thickly spotted with 
dusky on the breast, the spots lengthening into streaks on the sides ; a nar- 
row llack maxillary lino; under wing-coverts tinged with yellow. Legs 
flesh-colored. Length about G inches; wing, 3; tail, 2|. 

This species exhibits a remarkable constancy of coloration with age, sex, 
and season. The sexes are indistinguishable, and the young are scarcely to 
be told from the adults. Fall specimens are ordinarily quite as clearly col- 
ored as those of the spring; and the orange-brown crown-spot, though it 
may be more or less bright, is acquired by the young with their first full 
feathering. There is doubtless a very tarly streaky stage. 

ACCORDING to our preseut information, tbe Golden- 
crowoed Accentor claims j^lace here solely upon the 
strength of its observed occurrence at the base of the Rocky 
Mountains of Colorado, near Denver. It is more especially an 
Eastern species, though it reaches Alaska, and has been taken 



SYNONYMY OF SIURUS MOTACILLA 299 

on the west coast of Mexico. Our koowledge of its natural 
history has, strange to say in the case of so very common and 
widely diffused a bird, only very lately been completed by the 
discovery of its wonderful vocal powers, made independently 
by Mr. John Burroughs, as well known to naturalists by his 
delightful sketches of bird-life as he is to others by his essays 
in the field of general literature, and by Mr. George A. Board- 
man, whose name is inseparably connected with the culture of 
American ornithology. 

Aquatic Accentor 

Sinrns mevlns* 

Motacilla nsevia!, Bodd. Tableau PE. 1783, 47 (pi. 752, f. 1). 

8iurus nsevius, Coues, Ball. Nutt. Club, ii. 1877, 32.— Jferr. Trans. Conn. Acad. iv. 1877, 20. 

* The third species of this geuus has the following synonymy : — 
Slarns motacilla.— IiaTg^e-billed Accentor. 

Tnrdus motaciUa, V. 0A.S. il. 1807, 9, pi. 65 (Kentucky ; accurate description and recog- 
nizable &gaTe).- Steph. Gen. Zool. x. 1817, 197.— F. if. D. d'H. N. xx. 1818, 234.— F. 
Ency. M6tli. 11. 1823, 04 J, n. 20. 

Selurus motacilla, Bp. CA. 1. 1850, 306. 

Siurns motacilla, Goues, Bull. Nutt. Club, ii. 1877, 33.— Merr. Trans. Conn. Acad. iv. 1877, 
20 (Conuecticut). 

Henicocichla motacilla. Cab. J. f. 0. 1857, 240 (Cuhsi) .—Oundl. J. f. 0. 1861, 326 (Cuba). 

Turdus ludoricianus, Aud. OB. i. 1832, 99, pi. 19 (afterward united it with noveboracensis). 

Seiupus ludovicianus, Bp. CGL. 1838, 21.— JSd. BNA. 1858, 262; ed. of 1860, pi. 80, f.2.— 
Barn. Smiths. E.ep. for 18G0, 1861, 435 (Chester County, Pa.).— Coues <£ Brent. Smiths. 
Rep. for 1861, 1862, 407 (Washington, D. C, common in spring).- £d. R.v. AB. 1865, 
217 (Colima, &.c.).—Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. T. viii. 18GG, 284 (New York).— Cowes, Pr. Ess. 
Inst. V. 1868, 271 (Southern New England). —jTrtppe, Am. Nat. ii. 1868, 183.— Coues, Pr. 
Best. Soc. xii. 1868, 110 (South Carolina).— £awr. Ann. Lye. N. T. ix. 18C8, 94 (Costa 
Rica).— «. Frantz. J. f. O. ie69, 293 (Costa Rica).— Aikn, Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 512, 577 
(Massachusetts).- rwrnft. B. E. Pa. 1869, 24; Phila. ed. 11 - Oundt. J. f. O. 1872, 417 
(Cuba).— Cowes, Key, 1872, 106, pi. 2, f. S.—Scott, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1872, 222 (West 
Virginia).- Coues, Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 421.— Pwrdie, Am. Nat. vii. 1873, C93.— Snow, B. 
Kans. 1873, —.—Ingersoll, Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 238.— Cowes, BNW. 1874, 72.— iJ. B. dkB. 
NAB. i. 1874, 287, figs. pi. 14, f. 13.— Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 440 (New Eng- 
land).— Gentrj/, Life-Hist.i. 1876, U5.—Minot, B. N. Engl. 1877, 83. 

Siurus ludovicianus, Scl. PZS. 1859, 363 (Xalapa) ; 373 (Oaxaca).— 5. cfi & Ibis, ii. 1860,273 
(Guatemala). 

Sciurus ludOYiCi nus, Trippe, Pr. Bost. Soc. sv. 1873, 234 (Iowa). 

Henicocichla ludoviciana, Sd.Cat. AB. 1861, 25 (Orizaba).— 5ci. PZS. 1861, 70 (Jamaica).— 
Albrecht. J. f. O. 1862, 192 (Jamaica).— -Saiw. PZS. 1870, 183 (Veragua). 

Henicocichla major, Cab. MH. i. 1850, 16 (Xalapa).— Ca6. J. f. 0. 1857, 240 (Cuba). 

Enicocichla major. Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. vii. 1860. 306 (Cuba). 

Grive hochequeue, F. OAS. 1. c.,andEM. I.c. 

Warbler Thrush, Steph. 1. c. 

Louisiana Water Thrush, Large*bllled Water Thrush, Authors. 

Hab. — Eastern United States. North to Massachusetts and Michigan. 
West to Kansas, the Indian Territory, and Texas. South through Mexico 
(the eastern portion at lea;*t) and Central America. Cuba and Jamaica. 
Breeds in its United States range at large. Winters extralimital. Abun- 
dant in many of the Southern aud Western States. Kare toward the north- 
ern limits of its range. 



300 SYNONYMY OF SIURUS N^VIUS 

Motacilla noveboracensis, Om. SX. i. 1788, 953, n. 6!) (primarily based on PE. 752, f. 1 = 

ncevia Bodd.).— ie**. Tr. Orn. 1831, 418. 
Sylvia noveboraCc-nsis, Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 518, n. 33.— F. OAS. ii. 1807, 26, pi. 82.—SUph. Gen. 

Zool. X. 1817, Gil.— Bp. Ann. Lye. N. Y. iL 1826, 77. 
Tardus (Seiurus) noveboraccnis, Xutt. Man. i. 1832, 353 (in part. Not Tardus novebora- 

cetvds of Gm. anl Lath., which is Scolecophagus ferrugineius.) 
Turdus noveboracensis, Peab. Kep. Orn. Mass. 1839, ZQG.—Thomps. Vermont, 1853, 79.— 

Head. Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 398. 
Belarus noveboracensis, Bp. CGL. 1838, 21.— Go««e, B. Jam. 1847, 151 ; 111. pL Z-i.—Bp. CA. i. 

18.")0, iW.—Hartl. Naum. ii. 1852, 53 (Cuba).— JToi/, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 310.— A'm- 

»uc. Tr. 111. Agric. Soc. i. 1*55, 582.— JTaaJim. J. f. O. 1858, Vii.— Martens, J. f. O. 1859 

213 (Bermuda) —J5te?i(i, Smiths. Kep. for 1858,1859,287 (B:rmuda^).— Ca««. Pr. Phila. 

Acad. xii. 1860, 91 (Isthtans of Darien). —i>arn. Smiths. Kep. for 1860, 1861, 435.— 

Laxor. Ann. Lye. N. Y. vii. 1861, 322 (New Granada) —fl^ai/d. Tr. Amer. Philos. Soc. 

xii. 1862, 160.— Ferr. Pr. Ess. Inst. iii. 1862, H6.—Boardm. Pr. Bost. Soc. ix. 1862, 125.— 

Blak. Ibis, iv. 1862, 4 (Saskatchewan) ; v. 1863, Gi.— March, Pr. Phila. Acad. xv. 1863, 

294 (Jamaica).— iJd. Kov. AB. 1865, 215.— Low/-. Aun. Lye. N. Y. viii. 1666, -2M.—Bry. 

Pr. Bost. Soc. xi. 1867,91 (San Domingo).— jTri^jpe, Am. Nat. ii. 1868, 182.— Coue«, Pr. 

Bost. Soc. xii. 1868, WQ.—Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ix. 1863, 94 (Costa Rica).— iauir. Ann. 

Lye. N. Y. ix. 1869, 200 (Yucatan).— u. Frantz. J. f. O. 1869, 293 (Costa Rica).— ritrnft. 

B. E. Pa. 1869, 24; Phila. ed. ll.—Coues, Key, 1872, 106.— Gundl. J. f. O. 1872, 416 

(Cuba).— Scott, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1872, 222.— Afaj/Jt. Pr. Bost. Soc. xiv. 1872, 358.— jlfay7i. 

B. ria. 1872, U.—Purdie, Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 692 —Ooues, BN .V. 1874, 11.— B. B. <£ R. 

NAB. i. Ic74, 283, pi. 14, f. 12.—.? Allen, Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1874, 52 (Dakota).— iJreio. 

Pr. Bnst. Soc. xvii. 1875, 440.— Hensh. List B. Ariz. 1875, IbO.—Hemh. Zool. Expl. W. 

100 Merid. 1876, 204.— ilfinot, B. N. Engl. 1877, 81. 
Slurus noveboracensis, 8.(6 8. Ibis, i. 18,59, lO (Guntemala).— A. tC- E. Newt. ibid. 142 (St. 

Croix).— Scl. PZS. 1859,363 (Xalapa).— AHen, Pr. Ess. Inst iv. 1861, 61.— Dresg. Ibis, 

2d ser. i. 1865, 477 (Texas). 
SeSnrus noveboracensis, Hensh. Kep. Orn. Specs. 1874, 59 (Colorado). 
Seiurus noveboracensis, Gentry, Lifo-Hist. i. 1876, 142. 
Enicocictala noveboracensis, Gray.— Kneel. Pr. Bost. Soc. vi. 1857, 233.— Brew. Pr. Bost. 

Soc. vii. 1860, 306 (Cuba). 
Henicocichla noveboracensis. Cab. " Schomb. Guiana, iii. 1843, 666".— Oaft. MH. 1850, 16.— 

GundJ. J. f. 0. 1855, 471 (Cuba).-Ca6. J. f. O. 1860, 324 (Costa H. ca.).—Scl. PZS. 1861, 

70 (Jamaica).— Gwndi. J. f. O. 1861, 326, 407 (CuhA). —Albrecht, J. f. 0. 1862, 192 

(Jamaica).— 5. (£-S. PZS. 1864, 340 (Panama).— 6'. d- 8. PZS. 1868, 627 (Venezuela).— 

S. d-S. PZS. 1869, 251 (Venezuela).— -S. (£8. PZS. 1870, 836 (Honduras).- -SoJ». PZS. 

1870, 183 (Veragua). 
Motacilla novieboracensis, Turt. SN. 1. 1806. 589. 

Turdus (Seiurus) novieboracensis, Nutt. Man. i. 2d ed. 184'>, 402 (in part). 
Seiurus novieboracensis, Aud. Syn. 1839, 93.— Awd BA. iii. 1841, 37, pi. 49 (in part) — 

Gir. BLI. 1844, 93.—Pratten,TT. 111. Agric. Soc. i. 185.5, 601.— Mcllwr. Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 

1866, 85.— (7oMfis, Pr. Phila. Acad, xviii. 1866,71 (Arizona).- Oowcs, Pr. Ess. Inst v. 

1868, 271.— Coop. Am. X.at. iii. 1869, 32. 
Seiurus novieboracensis, Putn. Pr. Es.s. Inst i. 1856, 209. 
Motacilla tigrina, var. 0. Gm. SX. i. 1788, 985, n. 153 Ii. (based on Briss. iii. 513). 
Motaciia tigrina, 2, Turt. SN. i. 1806. — . 
Sylvia tigrina, var. 8, Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 537, n. 110 0. (= Gm.). 
Figuier bpun de S. Domingue, Ficedula Dominicensis fusca, Brisa. Orn. iii, 1760,513, 

n. 62, pi. 2>*. i. 5 (obviously this species ; basis ui Mot. tigrina var. B. of Gm.). 
Spotted Yellow Warbler, var. A , Lath. Syn. ii. pt ii. 1783, 483, wr. A. 
Sfotaciila fluviatilis, Bartr. Trav. Fla. 1st Am. ed. 1791, 291. 
Turdus aquaticus, ^fUs. AO. iii. I8ii, 66, pi. 23, f 5.— Stepft. Gen. Zool. x. 1817, 183.— Awd. 

OB. v. 1839, 284, pi. 433, f l.-Haiim. Pr. Phila. Acad. viii. 1856, 289. 
Seiurus aquaticus, <S. <£■ R. F3A. ii. 1831, 229, pi. 4'i.—8w. Class. B. ii. 1837, 247. 
Turdus aquatius, Bp. Jonva. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824,34. 

Sylvia anthoides, V. N. D. d'H. N. x. 1817,208.-7. Ency. M6th. ii. 18-23, 421, n. 19.— ie**. 
Tr. Orn. 1831, 418. 



CHARACTERS OF SIURUS N^VIUS 301 

Tardus motacilla, Bp. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 35 (adopts Vieillot'a name for this 
species). 

Seinrus tenulrostris, Sw. Phil. Mag. i. 1827, 369. 

Scinrus tenulrostris, <?«?«&. Pr. Phila. Acad. i. 1843, 261 (Colorado Kiver). 

Sciurus sulfurascens, D'Orh. Ois. Cuba, 1839, 57, pi. 6. 

Seiurus sulphurascens, Bp. CA. i. 1850, 306. 

Enicocicbla sulpburasrens, '-Gray". 

Henicocicbla sulpburascens, Oundl. J. f. 0. 1855, 471 (Cnha.). —Gundl. J. f. 0. 1861, 407 
(Cuba). 

Anthus Iberminieri, ILess. Eov. Zool. 1839, 101. 

Seiurus gossii, Bp. C A. i. 1850, 306 (.Jamaica). 

Fauvette tacbet^e de la Louisiane, Buff. " Hist. Nat. Ois. v. 161 " ; PE. 752, f. l (basis of 
Boddaert's and Gmelia'a names). 

New York Warbler, Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 409, n. 308.— Lath. Syn. ii. pt. ii. 1783, 436, n. 29. 

Fanrette brune, V. OAS. 1. c 

Fauyette plpl, V. 1. c. 1817 and 1823. 

Grlve de roulsseaux ou Hochequeue, Le Maine, Ois. Canad. 1861, 173. 

Bessy Klck'Up, River Pink, Oosse, B. Jam. 1847, 151. 

Mew York or Aquatic Thrush, Water Thrush, Aquatic Wood-wagtall, Aquatic Ac- 
centor, Small-billed Water Thrush, Authors. 

Hab. — North America at large. Mexico, West Indies, Central America and 
mach of South America. Winters from Florida and the Gulf coast south- 
ward. Breeds in the greater part, if not the whole, of its North American 
range. 

Ch. sp. — <J 9 Olwaceofuscus, alls cauddque concoloribus ; infrei 
albido-sulphurascens^ undique olivaceo-fusco Hrlatus; striga super- 
ciliari hrunneoalhido ; rostro pedibusque ohscuris. 

2 (? : Uniform dark olive-brown, the wings and tail pimilar, unmarked; 
below very pale sulphury -yellow, everywhere, except perhaps on the middle 
of the belly, thickly speckled or streaked with dark olive-brown, the mark- 
ings smallest on the throat, largest on the eidep. A long dull whitish super- 
ciliary line. Bill and ftet dark. Length, bi-6 ; extent, 8^-9^ ; wing, 2|-3 ; 
tail, 2J ; bill not over i along the culmen . 

The sexes do not differ appreciably, and the youngest birds examined are 
not notably different from the adult; but I have not seen the newly-fledged 
bird. The shade of the upper parts varies from a decidedly olivaceous-brown 
to a purer, darker bistre-browu, and that of the under parts from sulphur- 
yellow to nearly white; but it is never of the bufify-white of >S. motacilla. 
The streaking varies in amount and intensity, but always has the sharp dis- 
tinct character of the species in comparison with iS. motacilla, and is rarely 
if ever absent from the throat. I have seen no bill over half an iucli long, 
and this member lacks the peculiar shape, as well as size, characteristic of 
S. motacilla. 

The earliest feathering has only lately beeu described, and it proves to be 
streaky, as might have been anticipated. Mr. Ridgway speaks of a very 
young bird as being sooty-blackish, with each feather of the upper parts 
with terminal bar of ochraceous; the wing-coverts tipped with the same, 
forming two bars; the streaks below as in the adult, but broader and not so 
sharply defined. 

It should be noted that Motacilla noveloracensis of Gm., the name currently 



302 HISTORY OF THE WATER THRUSH 

adopted, is the same as M. ncevia Badd. (1783), both being based upon PL 
Enlum. 752, f. 1, which represents the Faiivette tachet^e de la Louieiane of 
Buffoii, afterward the New York Warbler of Pennant and Latham. It is a 
curiouH fact, that Gmelin in another place made Siurus ncBviua out to be a va- 
riety of the Cape May Warbler, Dendrceca tigrina : for the Motaeilla tigrina 
var. /?. of Gmelin, and the Sylvia tigrina var. /?. of Latham, are both based 
exclusively upon the Ficedula dominicensis fusca of Brisson, which is obvi- 
ously this Siurus. Vieillot, in 1807, noticed the circumstance, which later 
authors seem to have overlooked, and correctly allocated the synonymy. — 
The Motaeilla fuscescena of Gmelin has been queried as a synonym of this 
species; it is based upon Ficedula jamaicensis Briss. iii. 512, n. 61 ; but Bris- 
son's account cannot be made to square with the characters of Siurus ncBviua. 
The remaining references above given, though so numerous, do not call for 
special remark, excepting Audubon's accounts, which, it should be remem- 
bered, include both this species and S. motaeilla, as he united the two, having 
previously described Turdua ludovicianua as distinct. These and other tech- 
nical points are discussed in my paper above cited, on " Corrections of Nomen- 
clature in the Genua Siurua". 

MATERIAL for the life-history of the Water Thrush has 
gradually accumulated, until we now possess knowledge 
enough of the subject for a more complete biography than has 
hitherto appeared. The latest article, that from the long-accus- 
tomed pen of Dr. Brewer, is much the best, though the many 
items there given are perhaps none too closely knit into conse- 
quent narrative. As Dr. Brewer justly remarks, all that the 
earlier authors have left us respecting the habits of this bird 
must be taken cum grano; for it was a good while before the 
Louisiana or Large-billed Water Thrush was fairly recognized, 
and much that Wilson, Nuttall, and Audubon have to say of 
the Water Thrush refers either to the other species, or to both 
species indiscriminately. Audubon indeed capped the confu- 
sion by reuniting the two species which he had formerly distin- 
guished with sufficient precision. Wilson pertinently describes 
the aquatic habits and Motacilline actions of the true Water 
Thrush as observed in Pennsylvania; but the rest of his notice 
seems to point to the Large-billed bird. Nuttall's and Audu- 
bon's whole accounts parallel Wilson's in this regard ; and none 
of these authors seem to speak of the vocalization, nidification, 
and breeding habits of the real Water Thrush, but rather of 
the Louisiana species. Sir John Richardson must have had 
the present species in exclusive view, as the other is not found 
about Carlton House; and Swainson's plate is unmistakable. 
Mr. Philip Henry Gosse gives us one of his delightful and char- 
acteristic sketches, undoubtedly referring to the present species, 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE WATER THRUSH 303 

under the names of "River Pink" and " Bessy Kick-up". These 
notices, including, of course, Dr. Brewer's last and best one, are 
among the principal accounts we have; for if the long synony- 
matic list I present with this article be analyzed, it will be found 
to consist largely of the compilations of name-peddlers, other- 
wise known as systematists, taxonomists, and philosophers, who 
describe and redescribe with insufficient knowledge of what 
their predecessors have done, and in whose hands natural his- 
tory becomes not unlike a kaleidoscopic tube, where names, like 
colored bits of glass, leap into fantastic shapes at the touch of 
the pen-point. Few indeed of the namers of the many species 
that have sprung up like mushrooms in the fertile compost-heap 
of synonymy knew anything of the Water Thrush except as a 
museum object; and, as if there were not names enough already, 
several of the French ornithologists, with characteristic viva- 
city, bestowed a number more. Wilson knew the bird he called 
Turdus aqiiaticus, and so doubtless did Bartram when he called 
it Motacilla fluviatilis. Among the earlier notices, we have 
several from indei)endent original sources; such are that of 
Pennant's "New York Warbler", and Buflfon's " Fauvette 
tachetee de la Louisiane", and Brisson's "Figuier bruii de S, 
Domiiiguc"; and Buffon's bird, figured on the Planche Enlu- 
minee 752, afforded the very first technical name of the species, 
that bestowed in 1783 by the cataloguer Boddaert. 

Very many of the numerous citations I have compiled, how- 
ever, are those I give to certify the recognized geographical 
distribution of the species, as vouchers for its occurrence in the 
widely separated localities which, when duly collated, enable 
us to map its dispersion and trace its movements. This is 
always an important subject, and one which, I think, more than 
justifies the bibliographical matter which may seem to the gen- 
eral reader to so heavily handicap the present volume, but which 
is the real ballast of the book if not the most valuable part of 
the cargo which I bring. By such researches I have traced the 
spread of the Water Thrush over all of North America, there 
being few small areas and no large ones whence I have not 
gathered reports of its presence — through Mexico and Central 
America — among nearly all of the West Indies — and for a con- 
siderable distance into South America. Its latitudinal disper- 
sion is from Brazil to the Arctic Ocean ; in longitude, it reaches 
across the northern half of the Western Hemisphere, and per- 
haps of the southern portion also; though I believe that our 



304 MIGRATIONS OF THE WATER THRUSH 

South American records to date do uot attest its presence on 
the western side of South America. In the greater part of 
North America, it is of general and common occurrence, and 
the same is the case in the West Indies, Eastern Mexico, and 
Cen'ral America. It is not so frequent, perhaps less regular 
in its appearances, and, at any rate, not so commonly observed, 
in the Middle and Western Provinces of North America, as it 
is in the Eastern ; but we may remember that the observers are 
there far fewer. This is a migratory species, of course ; for no 
small insectivorous bird covers such an extent of country as I 
have indicated at all seasons of the year. In this matter of its 
movements we may note, first, that it is not accredited with any 
extralimital record of breeding, so far as I can now recall ; but 
I speak guardedly here, as the record is voluminous, and among 
the many notices extant there may be some indicating that cer- 
tain individuals do not perform the extensive migrations re- 
quired for their presence within the bird's recognized breeding 
range in North America. As to its nesting in the southern 
portions of the United States, we must put out of court such 
testimony as is vitiated by references to 8. ludovicianus ; and 
this aside, there is no evidence that I know of to prove that 
the bird nestles south of about the latitude of Washington, 
D. C There I have myself found the Water Thrush through 
the summer, under circumstances that leave uo doubt of its 
breeding. Almost directly north of such latitude, accounts of 
its summer residence and nidification begin to multiply, and its 
nesting thence to the Arctic regions is established. 

As will have been inferred already, the winter resorts of the 
Water Thrush are for the most part beyond our limits ; yet the 
fact that many individuals linger through the year in the South- 
ern States is well attested. In Illinois, for example, where 
8. motacilla breeds in abundance, the Water Thrush is only 
known as a migrant and as a partial winter resident. Accord- 
ing to Mr. Ridgway, they reappear from the north in August, 
and many linger in the sheltered forests of the river-bottoms, 
where ho has heard them singing in December and January. 
The period and duration of the vernal and autumnal movements 
are not easily determined in the case of a bird that gets over so 
much ground; but the months of April and September appear 
to be those when the migrations are at their height. I may 
give some isolated data bearing on this subject. In Jamaica, 
Mr. March found Water Thrushes from early in August to the 



NEST AND EGGS OF THE WATER THRUSH 305 

end of March. Henshaw saw tbe birds in Colorado iu the mid- 
dle of May, and in Arizona late in August. May is the month 
in which their arrival has been noted for the Middle States and 
New England, and also for the Saskatchewan region. Could 
all the data we have be verified and digested, we should prob- 
ably find that the Water Thrush is a bird of rapid and not of 
the most regular migration, likely to appear at such times and 
places that it becomes difficult to reconcile the seemingly con- 
flicting testimony we possess. 

June is the height of the breeding season with this bird. 
During this month, egg-laden nests have been found so far apart 
as are Maine and Alaska — early in the month in the New Eng- 
land locality just mentioned, and later on the Yukon Elver. 
Doubtless only one brood is reared in the higher latitudes to 
which the birds resort ; the case may also be the same in other 
localities, and probably is so, considering how soon — by the 
fore part of August — these birds reappear in places where they 
are not known to breed, as in Illinois and Jamaica. In the few 
instances which have come to the knowledge of naturalists, the 
Water Thrush's nest was built on the ground or its equiva- 
lent. The Alaskan nests to which I have alluded were placed 
by the river bank, at the foot of willow-bushes, one of them 
beneath a small pile of drift-wood, and contained four to six 
eggs. These and other Arctic nests, as preserved in the Smith- 
sonian Institution, are about four inches across by two-thirds 
as much in depth; they are composed chiefly of moss, com- 
pactly matted and mixed with little sticks and straws, one of 
them having also a large amount of circularly-woven fibrous 
material in a state of disintegration. A nest found in Maine 
by Prof. A. E. Verrill, and described with particularity by Dr. 
Brewer, was built in an excavation iu the side of a decayed log, 
which overarched the structure somewhat as the domed por- 
tion of the nest of the Golden-crowned Thrush covers the main 
part of the structure. It was a beautiful fabric, built chiefly 
of green Hypnum mosses, with which a few withered leaves and 
plant-stems were mixed, having a compact inner portion or 
lining of the fruit-stems of the same Hypnum, and showing a 
number of slender black rootlets intertwined around the outer 
circumference. It was flatter and shallower than the nests I 
have seen, being four and a half inches across, but only one and 
a half high, with a cavity half an inch less in depth. "This 
nest contained five eggs, the brilliant white ground of which, 
20 B 



306 SONG OF THE WATER THRUSH 

with tbeir delicately shaded spots of reddish browu, contrasted 
with the bright green of the mossy exterior, and set off to ad- 
vantage by the conspicuous and unique lining, produce a very 
beautiful effect." 

The numerous eggs I have examined — all, however, after they 
had been emptied of their contents — measure from three-fourths 
to four-fifths of an inch in length by a little more or less than 
two-thirds of an inch in breadth — more exactly, two selected 
specimens give respectively the measurements 0.75x0.58 and 
0.82x0.60. The ground-color of the shell is brilliant crystal- 
white ; this is marked all over, but in most cases more thickly 
at and around the larger end than elsewhere, with small spots 
of reddish, of quite dark brown, and of lilac or lavender — 
sometimes all the spots being dots and mere points; sometimes 
many of them being larger, and more or less confluent to en- 
wreathe the greater end of the egg. Occasionally the other end, 
or even some considerable part of the egg, is nearly free from 
markings, but the shell, as a rule, is pretty thoroughly speckled. 

The singing of birds is inseparably associated with the power 
and the desire to bring forth, as the involuntary and uncontrol- 
lable expression of emotions that are never stayed except 
through gratification. Surcease of passion is the fountain brim- 
ming over, when the stream of life flows downward like the 
loosened brook forever, and the babbling of the waters makes 
unconscious melody. I never heard the singing of this Water 
Thrush, nor do I find it carefully described ; but it is likened, 
with good reason, to the song of the Louisiana, and this is so 
melodious, so loud and yet so mellow, as when once heard to 
slowly be forgotten. Both Audubon and Nuttall have expressed 
their admiration of this Philomel's performance, which the 
latter says is even heard at night, when the sweet incessant 
warbling greets the ear "like the dulcet lay of some fairy vis- 
ion". It was long before we found out that the Golden-crown 
sings also, for the harsh crescendo ditty of this bird is scarcely 
to be called a song; and when the vocal powers of the humbler 
Water Thrush receive full recognition, we shall doubtless know 
the three birds for a trio scarcely rivalled by the Wood Thrush 
and the Hermit and the Veery. Mr. Boardman calls the Water 
Thrush one of our liveliest singers, beginning with a sudden, 
almost startling burst of melody, that rings as clear as if the 
joyous bird had found a long-lost mate, and then keeps falling 
till the slightest breath of air may blow the rest away. Its 
secrecy in singing lends a charm to the performance, for though 



MANNERS OF THE WATEE THRUSH 307 

tbe notes are sounded loud and fearlessly, the bird dislikes in- 
trusion; and it sings best far away from prying eyes, amidst 
the dark recesses of the swamp. 

Should you force your way, — perhaps by paddling in a light 
canoe beneath the overhanging mysteries of the dank morass, — 
perhaps by clambering among the fallen logs that jut from 
treacherous black depths of ooze and slime — you may even catch 
a glimpse of this coy songster as he dashes onward into yet 
more secret fastness of his watery and seldom sunlit home. 
His song is still now; silence broods, or else a sharp short note 
of anger and anxiety betrays the presence of the timid bird, too 
restless and too nervous in his vague alarm to hide in safety, 
but rather dallying with danger as he leaps and balances on 
log, moss-heap, or branchlet. But this is only when he feels 
the cares and full responsibilities of home and family. Later in 
the season, when these things are off his mind, he is quite 
another fellow, who will meet you more than half-way should 
you chance to find him then, with a wondering, perhaps, yet 
with a confident and quite familiar, air of easy unconcern. 
Anywhere by the water's edge — in the debris of the wide- 
stretched river-bottom, in the flowery tangle of the brook, 
around the margins of the little pools that dot the surface where 
tall oaks and hickories make pleasant shade — there rambles the 
Water Thrush. Watch him now, and see how prettily he walks, 
rustling among the fallen leaves where he threads his way like 
a mouse, or wading even up to his knees in the shallow minia- 
ture lakes, like a Sandpiper by the sea-shore, all intent in quest 
of the aquatic insects, worms, and tiny molluscs and crustace- 
ans that form his varied food.* But as he rambles on in this 
gliding course, the mincing steps are constantly arrested, and 
the dainty stroller poises in a curious way to see-saw on his legs, 
quite like a Titlark or a Spotted Sandpiper. All of his genus 
share this gait, quite different from the hopping movement with 
which the SylvicoUdcc in general progress — but see! he catches 
sight of us, and quite breaks off the thread of such reflections as 
he casts his bright brown eye upon us with a coquettish turning 
sideways of the head. Let the pretty picture be — we leave him 
to resume in peace his morning's walk, bidding good-speed. 

* Gosse has found the stomach to contaia " water-insects and shells ". Gen- 
try has observed the beetles Plaiijnus cupripennis, Harpalus pennsylvanicus, 
and Cratonychus pertinax, the Neuropterous larvne of Agrion and Phryganea, 
both larvas and imagos of various Noctuid and Tineid moths, and the Dip- 
terous Culex tceniorhynchus. 



308 GEOTHLYPIS — OPORORNIS AGILIS 



Genus GEOTHLYPIS Cabanis 

TriChas, Sw. Zool. Journ. iii. April-July, 1827, 1G7 (not of Gloger, March, 1827, = Criniger 

Temm., fide Cabanis). Type Turdus trichas L. 
Geotblypis, Cab. "Arch. f. Naturg. 1847, Bd. i. 316, 349". Same type.— Sd. BNA. 1858, 

240. — Bd. Rev. AB. 18C."), 219 (review of genus; nine species). — Eidgw. Am. Jonm. 

Sci. 1872, 457 (monographic ; five species and twelve varieties).— /SaJ». Ibis, 1872, 

147 (eight species and three varieties). 

Chars. — Bill of ordinary Sylvicoline characters ; rictal bris- 
tles very slight. Wings remarkably short and much rounded, 
scarcely or not longer than the rounded tail. Legs stout ; tarsi 
longer than the middle toe. Of medium and rather small size 
for this family. Coloration olivaceous above, with yellow below. 
Tail without white spots. Legs pale-colored. Habits somewhat 
terrestrial. Nest on the ground or near it. 

This genus affords a considerable number of species more or 
less resembling the common Maryland Yellow-throat, chiefly of 
the warmer parts of America — three of them, however, are 
North American, and two occur in the Colorado watershed. 
They are well distinguished from other Warblers by the extreme 
shortness of the wings, which are scarcely or not longer than 
the head, and by the size of the pale-colored legs, which indi- 
cates somewhat terrestrial habits. Uur species are familiar 
inhabitants of the shrubbery, ordinarily keeping near the 
ground, where the nest is usually placed. 

Oporornis is the most closely related genus, distinguished 
mainly by the greater length of the pointed wings, which are 
much longer than the tail. This type is represented by only 
two known species, neither of which occurs in the region under 
consideration.* 

* Oporornis ag^ilis.— €onnecticnt Warbler. 

Sylvia agilis. Wils. AO. v. 1812, 64, pi. 39, t.4.—Steph. Gen. Zool. x. 1817, 732.— F. Ency. 
M6th. ii. 1823, 448, n. 101.— J5p. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 199.— J5p. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 
ii. 1826, 8i.—Aud. OB. ii. 1834, 227, pi. 138. 

SUvIa agllls, Oabot, Pr. Bost. Soc. ii. 1845, 63. 

Trichas agllls, Nutt. Man. i. 2d ed. 1840, 463.— Hoy, Proc. Phila. Acad.vi. 1853, 312 ( Wis- 
consin ).—i?ead, ibid. 399 (Ohio).— .ffenn. Tr. Illinois Agric. Soc. i. 1855, 583. 

SylTiCOla agilis, Jard. "ed. Wils. 1832".— Rich. Rep. Bo-t. Assoc. Adv. Sci. for 1836, 1837, 
n^.—Aud. Syn. 1839, G3.—Aud. BA. ii. 1841, 71, pi. 99.— Pm^. Pr. Ess. Inst. i. X856, 226. 

Oporornis agilis, Bd. BNA. 1858, 246 ; ed. of i860, pi. 79, f. <ii.— Wheat. Ohio Agric. Rep. for 
1860, 1861, 363.— Bam. Smiths. Rep. for 1860, 1861, 435.— Coties £ Prent. ibid, for 1861, 
1862, 406.— AHen, Pr. Ess. Inst. iv. 1864, S2.—£d. Rev. AB. 1865, 218.— Latur. Ann. Lye. 
N.T.viii. 1866, 283.— Coues, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 269.— Coi«e«, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 1868, 
110 (South Carolina).— Trippe, Am. Xat. ii. 1868, 114.— Allen, Am. Nat. iii. 1869, 574.— 
Turnb. B. E. Pa. 1869, 23 ; Phila. ed. l6.—Coites, Key, 1872, \06.—Breio. Pr. Bost. Soe. 
XV. 1872, 3.— Pwrdie, Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 693.— B. B. <£ R. NAB. i. 1874, 290, fig. pi. 15, 



GEOTHLYPIS TRICHAS OPORORNIS FORMOSA 309 



Maryland Yellow-throat 

Geothlypis tricbas 

Turdus tricbas, L. SX. i. 1766, 293. n. 7 (Edw. V. 56, pi. 237, f. 2 ; Briss. iii. 506 ; Petiv. Gaz. 
pi. 6, f. 1).—Qjn. SN. i. 1788, 811, n. I.—Less. Tr. Orn. 1831, 418. 

f. 1, 2.— Awes, Ball. Minn. Acad. i. 1874, 55.— Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 440.— 
Gentry, Life-Hist. 1876, 147.— Jfiwot, B. N. Engl. 1877, 88.— J[f err. Trans. Conn. Acad, 
iv. 1877, 21. 

Ceothlypls agilis, Gregg, Pr. Elmira Acad. 1870, — (p. 7 of the reprint). 

Seiurns (Oporornis) agilis, Ridgw. Ann. Lye. N. T. x. 1874, 369 (Illinois). 

? Tricbas tephrocotis, Nutt. Man. i. 2d ed. 1840, 46-2 (Chester County, Pa.). 

? Geotblypis tepbrocotis, Bam. Smiths. Eep. for 1860, 1861, 435 (Chester County, Pa. ; game). 

? Oporornis varius, Blak. Ibla, v. 1863, 61 (Mackenzie River IP.). 

FauTCtte agile, V. 1. c. 1823. 

Connecticut Warbler, Connecticut Wood-warbler, Authors. 

Hab.— Eastern Province of the United States. (The geographical distri- 
bution of this species is very imperfectly known. We have no extralimital 
citations that I know of, nor any winter record whatever ; nor has the bird 
ever been foand breeding.) 



m^ 




Oporornis formosa.— Kentucky Warbler. 

Sylvia formosa, Wils. AO.iii. 1811, 85, pi. 25, f. 3.— StepTi. Gen. Zool. x. 1817, 683.— F. Ency. 
M6th. iL 1823, 450, n. 108.— £p. Joarn. Phila. 
Acad. iv.l824, 197.— J5p. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 1826, 
U.—Aud. OB. i. 1831, 196, pi. 38.— iV^wtt. Man. i. 
1832, 399.— 5'«orer, Pr. Bost. Soc. i. 1841, 29.— <?ie6. 
Vog. 1860, 51, f. 103. 

Sylvicola formosa, /ard. "ed. Wils. 1832".— i?ic/j. Rep. 
Brit. Assoc, for 1836, 1837, 172.— Up. List, 1838, 
23.— Hoy, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 311 (Wis- 
consin ).—iicad, ibid. 399. — Maxim. J. f. 0. vi. 
1858, 113. 

Mniotilta formosa, Gratj, G. of B. i. 1848, 196. 

Tricbas (Sylvicoia) formosa, Hoy, Smiths. Rep. for _ , , .^ , , 

1864, 1865, 438 (Missouri). ^I«- 39.-Kentucky Warbler. 

Myiodioctes formosus, And. Syn. 1839, 50.— Aud. BA. ii. 1841, 19, pi. 14.—Lemb. " Av. Cubn^ 
1850, 37 '\—Oundl. J. f. 0. 1861, 326 (Cuba). 

Myiodioctes formosa, J?p. C A. i. 1850,315. 

Myodloctes formosa, Pratten, Tr. Illinois Agric. Soc. 1855, 601. 

Sylvania formosa, Woodh. Sitgr. Rep. Zuni, 1853, 70. 

Myioctonus formosus, Gundl. J. t 0. 1855, 472 (Cuba). 

Setopbaga formosa. Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. vii. 1860, 307 (Cuba). 

Oporornis formosus, Bd. BNA. 1858, 247.— TFTieat. Ohio Agric. Rep. for I860, 1861,363.— 
£am. Smiths. Rep. for 1860, 1861, 435 (Pennsylvania).— Cowes tf- Pre?i<. Smiths. Eep. 
for 1861, 1862, 406 (Washington, breeding).— iawr. Ann. Lye. N. T. vii. 1862, 468 (New 
Granada).— 2>re«s. Ibis, 2d ser. i. 1865, 477 (Tex.as).— Bd. Rev. AB. 1865, 218.— iawr, 
Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. 1866, 28i.—Salv. PZS. 1867, 136 (Ver.igua).- Tnppe, Am. Nat ii. 
1868, 181.— iawr. Ann. Lye. N. T. ix. 1868,94 (Costa Rica).— Cotter, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 
1868, 110 (South Carolina).— r. Frantz. J. f. 0. 18G9, 293 (Costa Rica).— Tur/ib. B. E. Pa. 
1869,23; Phila. ed. 16— Gundl.J.t.O. 1872, 417 (Cuba).- Cowes, Key, 1872, 106, f 46— 
Allen, Am. Nat. vi. 1872, 265 —Scott, Pr. Bost. Soe. xv. 1872, 222 (West Virginia, breed- 
ing).— Aiten, Bull. MCZ. iii. 1872, 125, 175 (Kansas).- Cowes, BNW. 1874, 73.— K. JS. <6 B. 
NAB. i. 1874, 293, pi. 15, f. 3.— Brew. Pr. Boat. Soc. xvii. 187.5, 451 (New England).— 
Fisher, Am. Nat. x. 1875, 573 (New York, breeding).— Gcn^n/, Life-IIist. i. 1876, 149.— 
Jlferr. Trans. Conn. Acad. iv. 1877, 22 (Connecticut). 



310 SYNONYMY OF GEOTHLYPIS TRICHAS 

SylTla tricblts. Lath. lO. ii. 1790, 519, n. 30.— F. OAS. ii. 1807, 28, pis. 85, 86.— F. N. D. d'H. 
N. xi. 1817, ^-Xl.—Steph. Gen. Zool. x. 1817, ()82.— F. Ency. M6.h. ii. 1823, 443, n. 85.— 
-Bp. Aun. Lye. N. T. ii. 1826, 84.— A^Mtt. Man. i. 1832, 401.— Aud. OB. i. 1832, 120; v. 
1839, 403, pi. ^J.—D'Orb. Ois. Cuba, 1839, 6^.—Peab. Kep. Orn. Mass. 1839, 311.— 
Towns. Jouni. Pliila. Acad. Tiii. 1839, 153. — Thotnps. Vermont, 1853, 83. — Oosse, Ala- 
bama, 1859, 295. 

Sylvia trlchas var. 0. Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 519, n. 36 (= PE. 709, f. 2; Orange-thighed War- 
bler Penn.). 

Geothljpis trichas, Cab. MH.i. 1850, l&.—Gundl. J.f.O. 1855,472 (Cuba).— .Bd. BNA. 1858. 
241.— £d. U. S. Mex. B. Sarv. ii. pt. ii. 1859, Birds, 10.-5. <£ S. Ibis, i. 1859, 10 (Guate- 
mala).— 5ci. PZS. 1859, 363 (Xalapa); 373 (Oaxaca).-Xa»it. Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 1859, 
191 (California). — Henry, Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 1859, IOC (New Mexico). — Coop. dSuck. 
NHWT. 18C0, m.—Iiarn. Smiths. Rep. for 18G0, 1801, iio.—Gundl. J.f.O. 1861, 326 
(Cuba).— Ca&. J. f. O. 18G1, 84 (Costa Rica).— /ScJ. PZS. 1861, 70 (Jamaic.-i).- 5cZ. Cat. 

AB. 1861, 267 Uayd. Tr. Amer. Philos. Soc. xii. 1862, 160.— Boardm. Pi. Boat. Soc. ix. 

1862, l-2i.-Yerr. ibid. 137 (Antico.sti).— Ferr. Pr. Ess. Inst. iii. 1862, U6.—Albrccht, 
J. f. 0. 1862, 102 (Jamaica).— .Jfart/i, Pr. Phila. Acad. xv. 1863, 293 (Jamaica).— iord, Pr. 
Koy. Arty. Inst. iv. 1864, 115.— Alle7i, Pr. Ess. Inst. iv. 1864, 59.— JScZ. Eev. AB. 1865, 
220.— Dress. Ibis, i. 21 ser. 1865, 476 (Texas).— Cowes, ibid. 163 (Arizou.a).— Coues, Pr. 
Phila. Acad, xviii. 1866, 69 (Fort Whipple).— iauir. Ann. Lye. N. T. viii. 1866,283.— 
Mcllwr. Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1866, 85.— I?row?i, Ibis, 2d ser. iv. 1868, 420 (Vancouver).— 
Goues, Pr. Best. Soc. xii. 1868, 110.— Cowes, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 'iQ^.—Trippe, Am. Nat. 
. ii. 1868, IIG.—Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ix. 1868, 94 (Costa Tdca) .—Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. T. 
ix. 1869, 200 (Yucatan), —v. Frantz. J. f. 0. 1869, 293 (Costa Rica).— Coop. Am. Nat. iii. 
1869, 296.— rwrnft. B. E. Pa. 1869. 23 ; Phila. ei!. 16.— S. <& S. PZS. 1870, 836 (Hondurivs).— 
Coop. B. Cal. i. 1870, 95, figs.— (7oMes, Pr. Phila. Acad, xsiii. 1871, iO.—Stev. U. S. Gool. 
Surv. Terr, for 1870, 1871, 162.- Allen, Bull. MCZ. ii. 1871, 269; iii. 1872, 175.— .4J2«n, 
Am. Nat. vi. 1872, 265.— Cowes, Key, 1872, 107, tH.—Salv. Ibis, 3d eer. ii. 1872, 149 
(monographic).- Gundi. J. f. 0. 1872, 417 (Cuba).— Jlfar/ft. Pr. Boat. Soc. xiv. 1872, 362.— 
Scott, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1872, 222.— Aifcen, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1872, 197.— Coues, Key, 1872, 
107, f. 41.—Eidgw. Am. N.it. vii. 1872, 550.— Merr. V. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, for 1?72, 1873, 
674, n3.—Trippe, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1873, 2'M.—Ridgw. Bull. Ess. Inst. v. 1873, 180.— 
Allen, Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1874,52 (Dakota;.— Cottf 3, BNW. 1»74,74.— Jferr. Am. Nst. 
viii. 1874, 7, 8, 81.-Pack. Am. N.it. viii. 1874, 271.— B. B. & E. NAB. i. 1874, 297, figs. pi. 
15, f. 7,8.— Tarr. d- Hensh. Rep Orn. Specs. 1874, 10.— ffmsA. ibid. 42, 59, 103.— ffens/i. 
List B. Ariz. 1875, 156. -.Brew. Pr. Bo^t. Soc. xvii. 1875, 440.— Zfcnsft. Zool. Expl. "W. 100 
Merid. 1876, 204.— Gentry Life-Hist. i. 1676, 152.— Minot, B. N. Engl. 1877, 85. 

Geothlypis trlchls, Merr. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, for 1872, 1873, 705. 

Motacllla trlclilas, Turt. SN. i. 1800, 590. 

Regulus peregrinus, Bartr. Trav. Ela. 1st Am. ed. 1791, 292. 

Sylvia uiarylandica, Wils. AO. i. 1808, 88, pi. 6, f. l; iL 1809, 163, pi. 18, f. 4.— £p. Journ. 
Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 186.— Gie6. Viig. 1860, 57, f. 111. 

Trlctaas marylandlca, iV^wK. Man.i. 1840, 454, flg.—Gir. BLI. 1844, 64.— Gam&.Journ. Phila. 
Acad. i. 1847, 37.— Gosse, B. Jam. 18 17, UB.—Hoy, Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 311. -Read, 
ibid. 399.— £:ennic. Tr. Illinois Agric. Soo. i. 1855, 58i.—Bry. Pr. Bost. Soc. vi. 1857, IIG 
(Nova Scotia). — Bry. Pr. Bost. Soc. vii. 1859, 110 (Bahamas).— Ureto. Pr. Bost. Soc. vii. 
1860, 309 {Cuba).— Albrecht, J. f. O. 1861, 52 (Bahamas).— ffoy. Smiths. Rep. for 1864, 
1865, 438. 

Trlctaas marylandlcns, Gam&. Pr. Phila. Acad. iiL 1846, 155 (California). 

Oporornls formosa, S. <£• S. Ibis, i. 1859, 10 (Guatemala).— Sci. PZS. 1862, 19 (Playa Vicente, 
Mexico).— 5. <£• S. PZS. 1864, 347 (Panama).— (7ow«s, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 269 (New- 
England). 

Fauvette du Kentucky, F. 1. c. 1823. 

Kentucky Warbler, Kentucky Flycatchlng Warbler, Authors. 

Hab. — Eastern Province of the United States, especially in the Valley ot 
the Mississippi. North to the Connecticut Valley. West to Kansas and the 
Indian Territory. South through Mexico and Central America. Cuba. 
Breeds throughout, its United States range. Winters extralimital. 



CHAKACTERS OF GEOTHLYPIS TRICHAS 311 

TriChas marilanflica, Bp. CGL. 1838, 20.— Awd Syn. 1839, 65.— Aud. BA. iL 1841, 78, pi. 

102.— Bp. CA. i. 1850, ZIO.— Henry, Pr. Phila. Acad. vii. 1855, 309 (New Mexico).— Pwte. 

Pr. Ess. Inst i. 1856, ■iOl.—Scl. PZS. 1856, 292 (Mexico).— J/axim. J. f. 0. 1858, 118.— 

Willis. Smiths. Kep. for 1858, 1859, 282 CSovaScotia,). —Trippe, Pr. Ess. Inst. vi. 1871, 1 14. 
Trlchas marilandicus, Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, 197.— Woodh. Sitgr. Kep. Zuui, 1853, 71. 
RegUlus ? m} Staceus, StepK Shaw's Gen. Zool. xiii. pt ii. 1826, 232. 
TriChas personatus, Sw. Zool. Journ. iiL 1827, 167 ; Philos. Mag. i. 1827, 433 ; Isis, 1830, 1153 ; 

Isis, 1834, 785; Class. B. ii. 1837, 2iT.—Tig. Zool. Voy. Bloss. 1839, 18.— I>«nnj/, PZS. 

1847, 33.— Pratten, Tr. Illinois Agric. Soc. i. 1855, 602. 
Tricbas bracbidactylus, Sw. Anim. in Menag. 1838, 295. —Gray, G. of B. i. 1843, 197. 
Sylvia roscoe, And. OB. i. 1832, 124, pi. i4.—Peab. Kep. Orn. Mass. 1839, 313. 
Trlchas roscoe, Nutt. Man. 1. 2d ed. 1840, 457. 
TriChas delafleldii, neerm. PKRK. x. 1859, 40 (not ot Authors). 
Maryland Yellow-throat, Edw. Gl. v. 56, pi. 237. — And of Authors. 
Ayls marylandica, gutture luteo, Petiv. " Gaz. pi. 6, f. l ". 
Flguier de Mariland, Ficedula marilandica, Briss. Orn. iii. 1760, 506, n. 58. 
Figuler aux joues noires, Buff. Hist. Kat. Ois. v. 292. 
Fauvette aux Joues noires, V. 1. c. 
Yellow-breast Warbler, Perm. AZ.ii. 1785, 399, n. 283. 

Yellow-breasted Warbler, Lath. Syn. ii. pt ii. 1783, 438, n. 32 ; also, var. A, p. 439. 
Orange-thighed Warbler, Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 399, n. 284 (PE. 700, f. 2). 
Fauvette a poitrine jaune de Louisiane, Buff. "v. 162" (PE. 709, f. 2). 
Fauvette tricbas, F. 1. c.—Xe Jfoinc, Ois. Canad. 1861, 193. 
Bec-fln trlchas, D'Orb.l.c. 
Black-cheeked Yellow-throat, Gosse, 1. c. 
Black-masked Ground Warbler, B. B.<£B.l c. 

H\B. — The United States at large, aud south through Mexico and Central 
America. Several of the West Indies, as Cuba, Jamaica, aud the Bahamas. 
Breeds throughout its United States range, and winters from our southern 
border southward. 

Ch. sp. — ^ Olivaceus, fronte lateribusque capitis nigris, cano 
postice limhatis ; guld, pectore, tectricibusque inferioribus alaribus 
et caudallbus Jlavis. 9 capite innotato. 

$ , in summer: Upper parts rich olive, inclining to grayish on the head, 
brightest on the rump. Wings and tail brown, edged with the color of the 
back. Chin, throat, and breast, with under wing- and tail-coverts, rich yel- 
low. Middle under parts dull whitish, shaded on the sides. A broad black 
mask on the front and sides of the head, bordered behind by hoary-ash. Bill 
black ; feet flesh-colored. Length, 4f-5 ; extent, 6|-Gf ; wing, 2 ; tail rather 
more. 

9 , in summer : Similar to the male; rather smaller; yellow of the under 
parts paler and more restricted ; no black or ashy markings on head, but 
crown usually with some concealed reddish-brown. Otherwise top and sides 
of head like back, with some obscure whitishness about the lores aud orbits. 

Young : Similar to the adult female, but the olive of the upper parts with 
much of a brownish tinge, the yellow parts buflfy, and, in fact, most of the 
under parts quite bufify. 

The adults, in fall and winter, are similar to each other, except in the 
purer aud stronger yellow of the male, as at that season the peculiar black 
and ashy markings of the head are wanting. Both sexes then resemble the 
autumnal plumage of the young in the browner shade of the olivo and 
buffiness of the under parts. 




312 SYNONYMY OF GEOTHLYPIS MACGILLIVRAYI 

ABUNDANT as the Maryland Yellow throat is iu the East, 
it is scarcely less so in suitable places in the Colorado 
Basin, thoujjh much of that country' is too dry and open to 
be inviting. It is one of the few Warblers that range indiffer- 
ently across the continent. In Arizona, 
I found it occasionally about Fort 
Whipple, where it arrives early in 
April and remains until October, when 
it either goes south, or elsewhere seeks 
less elevated places. Henshaw found 
it in the thickets of the lowlands in 
Fig. 40.— Maryland Yellow- various parts of Colorado and Utah, 
throat. rjjjQ uiore scldom in Arizona ; differ- 

ent observers have left their records of its presence iu other 
portions of the same general area. There is no occasion 
to enlarge upon its habits, as these are much the same under 
all the varying circumstances iu which we find that the bird 
places itself, and have been repeatedly described with sufficient 
particularity. 

MacgaMivray's WarWer 

GeotblypLs niacgilliTrayi 

Sylvia macgillivrayi, Aud. OB. v. 1839, 75, pi. 399, f. 4, 5. 

Trichas macgilUvrajl, Aud. Syn. 1839, 64. -Aud. BA. ii. 1841, 74, pi. 100.— Gray, G.of B. 
1. 1848, 197.— Bp. C A. i. 1850, 310.— Maxim. J. f. 0. 1858, 118. 

Geothlypis macgillivrayi, Bd. BNA. 1858,244; ed. of i860, pi. 99, f. 4.—Bd. U. S.Mex.B. 
Surv. ii. pt. il. Birds, 1859, 10.— Xant. Pr. Pliila. Acad. si. 1859, 191 (California).— iTenry, 
ibid. 106 (New Mexico).— Coop, d- Suck. NEWT. 1860, n'.—Cab. J. f. 0. 1S61, 84 (CosU 
Kica).— Coue«, Ibis, 2d ser. i. 1865, 163 (Arizona).— £ti. Rev. AB. 1865, 227.— Oowe*, Pr. 
Phila. Acad, xviii. 1866, 70 (Fort Whipple).— 2?row», Ibis, 2d ser. iv. 1808, 420 (Vancou- 
ver).— iawr. Ann. Lye. N. T. ix. 1868, 94 (Costa Rica).— y. Frantz. J. f. O. 1869, 294 
(Costa Rica).— Coop. Am. Nat. iii. 1669, 32, 299.— Coop. Pr. Cal. Acad. 1870, 75.— Coop. 
B. Cal. i. 1870, ^G.—Stev. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, for 1870, 1871, 463.— Cortes, Key, 1872, 
107. — Salv. Ibis, 3d ser. ii. 1872, 149 (monographic).— Ifcrr. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, for 
1872, 1873, 713.— Coop. Am. Nat. viii. 1874, U.—Trippe apud Coues, BNW. 1874, 232.— 
B. B. (& R. NAB. i. 1874, 303, pi. 15, f. 4, 5.—Hcnsh. Rep. Ora. Specs. 1874, 59, 75, 103.— 
Hensh. List B. Ariz. 1875, 156.— Hensh. Zool. Espl. W. 100 Merid. 205. 

Geothlypis macgillivrayii, S. <£ S. Ibis, i. 1859, 10 (Guatemala). — Aiken, Pr. Bost. Soc. zv. 
1872, 197. 

Geothlypis macgllllvraii, Sd. PZS. 1859, 363 (Xalapa) ; 373 (Oaxaca). 

Geothlypis mcGilllvrayl, Coop. Am. N.it iii. 1869, 477. 

Geothlypis Philadelphia var. margiilvrayi, Allen, Bull. MCZ. iii. July, 1872, 175 (Colo- 
rado).— /eidi/if). Am. Journ. Sci. Dec. 1872, 45d.—Ridgw. Bull. Ess. Inst. v. 1873, 180.— 
Allen, Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1874, 52 (Dakota). — Tarr. d- Hensh. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, 
10.— Hensh. ibid. 4-2.— Nelson, Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 339, 357 (Utah and CaUfornia). 

Geothlypis Philadelphia b. macgillivTayi, Coues, BNW. 1874,75. 

Sylvia tolmflel, Toivns. Journ. Phila. Acad. viii. 1839, 149 (road April 2, 1839) ; also, pp. 153, 
159 (read Sept. 10, 1839; the vol. for 1839 not pub. till 1840). 

Trichas toimiei, To i«)i*. Narr. 1839, 343.— Zfeerm. Journ. Phila. Acad. ii. 1853, 263.— flejiry, 
Pr. Phila. Acad. vii. 1855, 309. 



SYNONYMY OF GEOTHLYPIS PHILADELPHIA 313 

Trichas tolmaei, Nutt. Man. i. 2d ed. 1840, 460. 
Tricbas tolmieii, Hterm. PRRR. x. 1839, 40. 
Sylvia vegeta, LicM. " Mua. Berol." (c/. J. f. 0. 1861, 84). 
Trichas vegeta, Bp. CA. i. 1850, 310. 

McGillivray's Warbler, McGillivray's Ground Warbler, Tolmie's Ground Warbler, 
Authors. 

Hab. — Middle and Western Provinces of the United States, and British 
Columbia. East to the limit of arboreal vegetation along the Rocky Mount- 
ains. South in winter through Mexico to Central America (Guatemala and 
Costa Rica). Breeds throughout its United States range. 

Ch. sp. — $ 9 Olivaceus, infrcb jlavus ; capite et collo cano- 
plumheis, palpebris alhis. 

$ 9 : Upp<"r parts, including exposed surfaces of wings and tail, clear olive- 
green ; below bright yellow, shaded with olive on the sides. Head and neck 
all aronnd, and throat and fore breast clear ashy, the eyelids white, and the 
loral region usually dusky, the throat with blackish centres to the featl ers, 
veiled by their gray skirting. Upper mandible blackish ; under mandible 
and feet flesh-colored or pale yellowish. Length, 5^ ; extent, 7|-8 ; wing 
and tail each about 2J. 

Unlike the species of the G. trichas group, the sexes in the present case are 
nearly alike, the chief difference between the adults being in the paler and 
more hoary ash of the throat of the $ , without any of the conctaled black. 
In autumn, both sexes have the head more or less glossed with an extension 
of the olive of the back. 

This bird differs chiefly from G. Philadelphia* its Eastern representative, 

*GeotbIypls pbiladelphia,— Mourning Warbler. 

Sylvia Philadelphia, Wils. AO. ii. 1810, lOl, pi. 14, f. 6.— F. Eccy. M6tli. ii. 1823, 449, n. 
105— Bp. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 189.— Bp. Ann. Lye. N. T. ii. 1826, 65.—Xutt. 
Man. i. 1832, 404.— Brew. Journ. Bost. Soc. i. 1837, 436.— And. OB. v. 1839, 78.— Peab. 
Pvep. Orn. Mass. 1839, 312.— Tftomps. N. H. Vermont, 1853, App. 23. 

Trichas Philadelphia. Jard. " ed. Wil.'*. 1832 ".—Bich. Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 1836, 1837, 
n-2.—Bp. CGL. 1838, 20 (includes Oporornis ag%lis).—Aud. Syn. 1839, 65.— Aud. BA. 
ii. 1841, 7G, pi. \Ql.—Nutt. Man. i. 1840, 459.— Gtr. BLI. 1844, 65.— Gray, G. of B. i. 1848, 
197.— Bp. CA. i. ItSO, 310.— (7aJ)0<, Naum. ii. Heft iii. 1852, 66 (Lake Superior).— ffoj/, 
Pr. Phila. Acad. \i. 1853, 312 (Wisconsin). -i?etj)A. Ved. Meddel. for 1853, 1854, 73 
(Greenland).— jRein/i. J. f. O. 1854,427 (Greenland).- £^ewmc. Tr. Illinois Agric. Soc. 
i. 1855, 5ii3.—Putn. Pr. Ess. Inst. i. 1856, 'iiG.—Beinh. Ibis, iii. 18C1, 6 (Gieenland).— 
Trippe, Pr. Ess. Inst. vi. 1871, 114. 

Trichas philadelphica, Wdlis, Smiths. Rep. for 1858, 1859, 282 (Nova Scotia).— ZToi/, Smiths. 
Rep. for 18G4, 1865, 438 (Missouri). 

Geothljpis Philadelphia, Bd. BNA. 1858, 243; ed. of I860, pi. 79, f.3.— Tr/ie«<. Ohio Agric. 
Rep. for 1860, 1861, 373.— iawr. Ann. Lye. N. T. vii. 1861, 322 (New Granada).— Scl. 
Cat. AB. 1861, 27 (Orizaba).— Ai««n, Pr. Ess. Inst. iv. 1864, 59 (Massachusetts).- Bd. 
Rev. AB. 1865, 226.— i)rc«s. Ibis, 2d ser. i. 1865, 476 (Texas).- ^a/niin. Rep. See'y 
Maine Board Agiie. 1865 (WaterviUe, Me., breeding). — Mcllwr. Pr. Ess. Inst v. 
1866, 85 (Canada "West) .— Bat«r. Ann. Lye. N. T. viii. 1866, '■itZ.-Lawr. Ann. Lye. 
N. T. ix. 1868, 94 (Costa Rica). — Com««, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 269.— rnppc, Am. Nat. ii. 
1868, Vi5.—Btitch. Pr. Phila. Aciid. xx. 1868, 149 (Laredo, Tex.).— Co«es, Pr. Bost. Soc. 
xii. 1868, 110 (South Carolina).— w. Frantz. J. f. O. 1869,294 (Costa Rica).— Timift. B. 
E. Pa. 1869, 23; Phila. ed. 16.—Mayn. Guide, 1870, 99 (Massacbusett.s).- TTya^, 
Ibis, 3d ser. L 1871, 322 (Ocaiia).— Jfaj/n. Pr. Bost. Soc. xiv. 1872, 362 (New Hamp- 
shire and Maine).— >iJkn, Bull. MCZ. iii. 1872, 126 (KaDsaa). —Salv. Ibis, 3d ser. ii. 
1872, 149 (monographic) —Ooues, Key, 1872, lat.—Ridgw. Am. Jouru. Sci. 1872, 459.- 



314 HABITS OF MACGILLIVRAY's WARBLER 

in having white eyelids, and in never showing a decided black patch on the 
breast, which is conspicuous in highly plumaged males of the other form. 
Whether we are to regard it as a good species or as a geographical race, 
seems to have settled into a matter of individual preference in nomenclature. 

IN the United States, the two species or varieties of the 
Mourning Warbler are separated by a considerable inter- 
val — that of the treeless Plains, where neither occurs. The 
same is the case, for aught we have learned to the contrary, 
throughout Mexico, where the Philadelphia has- not been found. 
In Central America, however, the two come together, and both 
are recorded from Costa Rica. Throughout the wooded and 
watered regions of the West, from the eastern slopes of the 
Rockies quite to the Pacific, and north at least to British Co- 
lumbia, Macgillivray's Warbler is sometimes as common as the 
Maryland Yellow-throat is in the East, and decidedly outnum- 
bers the latter in its own region. It appears to breed fairly 
over the whole of this great extent of country, wherever suita- 
able shrubbery and underbrush grow. I think it has not been 
shown to winter over our border, although it may very possibly 
do so in the warmer parts of Southern California, as suggested 
by Dr. Cooper, and in corresponding localities in Arizona and 
'New Mexico. It has been traced through Mexico to Costa Rica 
and Guatemala, where Mr. Salvin found that it was a common 
bird in certain districts. I observed its arrival about Fort 
Whipple, where it is a not very common summer resident, during 
the latter part of April, and occasionally noticed it until late in 
September. Heushaw has seen it in the same Territory and in 
each of the three neighboring ones, and found that any patch 
of shrubbery or tangled growth of bushes may be selected as 
a summer home by one or more pairs, from the lower valleys 
up to an altitude of about 9,000 feet. In Eastern Colorado, 

Bidgw. Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 199.— Coues, BK W. 1874, 75.-5. B. <& R. NAB. i. 1874, 301, 
pi. 15, f. 6.— Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, iiO.— Gentry, Life-Hist. i. 1876, 151.— Minot, 
B. N. Engl. 1877, 81.—Merr. Trans. Conn. Acad. iv. 1877, 23. 

Panvettc petit-dcuil, T. 1. c. 1823. 

Mourning Warbler, Mourning Oronnd-warbler, Authors. 

Hab. — Eastern Province of the United States and British America, casually 
to Greenland. West to Kansas, Missouri, and Dakota. South to Costa Rica 
and New Granada, but no Mexican nor West Indian quotations. No United 
States wintering record. Breeds in the northern portions of its habitat, as 
New England, and very abundantly in Minnesota and Eastern Dakota. 
Common in the Mississii^pi Valley, but rare along the Atlantic States. (See 
"Birds of the Northwest", p. 75, for other items.) 



HABITS OF MACGILLIVBAY's WARBLER 315 

Trippo noted its arrival iu May, aud its disappearance in Sep- 
tember or even in August; it is there common, he states, up to 
about the altitude just given, and closely resembles the Mourn- 
ing Warbler in its habits. 

I am myself not very familiar with the traits of this species, 
excepting one, namely, its timidity and love of seclusion during 
the breeding season, for I have never seen it under other cir- 
cumstances, and its shyness stands greatly in the way of close 
acquaintance. I usually had to wait when I wanted to secure 
a specimen until the bird had recovered from the first alarm, 
which sent it into the closest cover; then, watching narrowly, 
I might see it again, creeping furtively about to get a better 
look at the cause of the trouble, and perhaps to scold about it. 
I do not remember to have ever seen a Macgillivray's Warbler 
more than a few feet from the ground, nor elsewhere than in 
thicii; brush ; but the Mourning Warbler, which 1 once closely 
studied in June, along the Red River of the North, where it was 
breeding abundantly, has a habit of clambering up quite high 
trees to forage and sing while its mate is nestling below. I 
scarcely think, however, that there is any material difference in 
the habits of the two species. As to the song of Macgillivray's 
Warbler, I have nothing to say, for if I ever heard it, I have 
forgotten what it is like, and I am writing far away from any 
chance of refreshing my memory. Nearly all that has ever been 
said on this score, however, lies before me on the table as I 
write. Townsend, who discovered the bird on the Columbia 
River, says it warbles a very sprightly and pleasant little song, 
raising its head until its bill is almost vertical, swelling its 
throat in the manner of its relatives. Nuttall, whose ear for 
bird music was certainly unlike any one's else, is more elaborate 
in his description. He speaks of a " loud snapping clink " which 
is uttered when the bird is skulking off, shy and jealous ; he 
likens another note to the "hurried rattling sound of Turdus 
aurocapiUus^^ ; another male " called out at intervals vish vishtyu, 
changing to vitvitvitvityu^^; another still "had a call of visht 
visht, vtsht e visht Vsheic " — and so forth. One late writer alludes 
to a "complete loss of musical power" that Macgillivray's 
Warbler has suffered in comparison with the Mourning Warbler; 
another likens its notes to those of the Maryland Yellow-throat ; 
and another writes of its "sweet notes" and of the "warbling 
melody" occasionally poured forth, " almost unrivalled in sweet- 
ness by that of any other of the forest songsters". Evidently 



316 THE GENUS ICTERIA 

the differences of musical critics are as hard to reconcile in some 
cases as in certain others with which we are all familiar ; but 
I have no doubt the bird sings very well indeed. 

Many nests of this bird have come to the notice of natural- 
ists. They are usually built on the ground in close covert, 
though said to be sometimes placed in a bush a foot or so high — 
in one instance, given by Nuttall, "near the ground, in the dead 
mossy limbs of a fallen oak, and further partly hidden by a long 
tuft of Usnea^K The shape differs much according to the situ- 
ation, the ground-built specimens being quite broad and flattish, 
not more than half as high as wide, with a shallow cavity, and 
quite uniformly thick walls. Those placed in bushes were more 
cup-like. Some have been described as consisting almost en- 
tirely of mosses ; others, among them one 1 examined, are built of 
various soft, fibrous materials, especially bark-strips and frayed- 
out plant-stems, with finegrasses, mostly circularly arranged, and 
lined with slender rootlets. The eggs, four or five in number, 
are white, doubtless with a flesh-tint when fresh, and are vari- 
ously blotched, in a wholly irregular manner, with very dark 
brown, almost blackish ; and further spotted and smirched with 
several shades of lighter, more reddish-brown, together with the 
usual shell-markings of undefinable neutral tint. Some of the 
blotches, especially the darker ones, are remarkably large ; and 
the whole aspect of the egg is different from that usually seen 
in this family, where fine speckling with reddish is the rule. 
The eggs I describe were collected by Mr. Kidgway in Nevada, 
and I presume there is no question of their identification. The 
extremes measure 0.70x0.50 and 0.65x0.52. As the bird ranges 
so widely in the breeding season, the period of laying must vary; 
but June appears to be the usual time. We are not informed 
whether more than one brood may be reared by the same pair 
during a summer. Fully fledged birds have been seen by the 
21st of July. 

Genus ICTERIA Vieillot 

IctePla,Fj>j'H. OAS. i. 1807, pp. iii. and85. (Tly\>^ Musdca.pa viridis Gm.) 
Jcteria, Cab. MH. i. 1850, C3, and some other German writers. 
Feterla, Moy, Proo. Pliila. Acad. 1853, 309. (Typographical error.) 

Chars. — Bill stout, high at tbe base (higher than broad at 
nostrils), thence compressed; unnotched, unbristled, with much 
curved culmen and commissure. Frontal feathers reaching the 
nostrils, which are subcircular and scaled. Wings much 
rounded, shorter or not longer than the graduated tail. Tarsus 



THE GENUS ICTEEIA 317 

partly booted, longer than middle toe; feet stout. Inner toe 
cleft to the degree usually seen in this family. Of largest size 
for this family. Form stout. Coloration simple, chiefly olive, 
yellow and white. Nest in bushes. Eggs white, spotted. 

This is a genus which was usually assigned to the neighbor- 
hood of the Vireos and Shrikes until Baird referred it to 
8ylvicolidce, and some of the leading systematists retain it in 
the former association. The structure of the wing and foot, 
however, is rather Sylvicoline than Vireoniue, and may serve 
to turn the balance in favor of the present assignment. There is 
no very closely related North American genus; but Granatellus,* 
from the warmer parts of America, and the Cuban Teretristis, 
are near extralimital allies. 

Only one species of Icteria can be regarded as established 
among the several indicated by authors; and as the habits of 
the two recognized races are the same, a sketch of the genus 
may include those notices that will enable me to confine the 
account of the Western race to its specialties. 

Chats being abundant birds, conspicuous for their bright col- 
oring and the singularity of their 
habits, they early attracted atten- 
tion. Catesby may have been 
the first to give a detailed ac- 
count, with a figure; though I do ^.^v"^"^^ 
not suppose that earlier reference 
to the Eastern species is not to 

be found. His notice is the basis, fig. 41.— Yellow-breasted Chat, natural 

wholly or in part, of many sub- ^*^''* 

sequent ones, and is especially noteworthy in the fact that 
upon it is primarily grounded the original Linnsean name of 
the bird, Turdus virens, the latter half of this term having 
been lately and, I think, properly revived by Baird, though 
the specific name viridis, from Gmelin's Muscicapa viridis, has 
been oftener employed. Bartram and Wilson both bestowed 
generic and specific names of their own ; and Vieillot renamed 
the bird in 1807, inventing the two terms of his new designa- 
tion. In later times, there have been other and less unques- 
tionable names ; for the Mexican bird was renamed by both 
Lichtenstein and Bonaparte. It is somewhat uncertain to 
which race of the species these names apply; but it is most 
probable that they indicate simply the resident Mexican indi- 

* For monographic sketch, cf. Bd. Rev. AB. 1865, 230 j Scl. PZS. 1864, 007. , 




318 HABITS OF CHATS 

viduals of true virens, rather than the grayer and longer- 
tailed form later called longicauda by Lawrence. 

The common Chat is a migratory bird of general diffusion 
during the movement and in the breeding season throughout 
the Eastern United States, as far north at least as Massachu- 
setts and Dakota, though it is not abundant north of the Mid- 
dle States. Wherever Chats may be found, they are of this 
species, excepting in the Middle and Western Provinces. No 
Chats are known in the West Indies; but the birds migrate in 
the fall beyond our limits, through Mexico and into Central 
America. On their return, they reach the Middle districts 
usually the latter part of April, and complete their migration 
by the early part of the month following ; they remain until 
about the middle of September, when, after rearing their one 
or two broods, they betake themselves away. It is difficult to 
observe their arrival with precision, unless the collector is care- 
fully on the watch for them, for they come furtively, and for 
some little time keep most sedulously concealed in their favor- 
ite retreats amidst dense shrubbery. Such period of conceal- 
ment probably corresponds to the interval between the arrival 
of the males and the following after of their more dilatory 
mates, which may be several days or even a week. Their man- 
ner of migration is somewhat uncertain ; we do not know that 
they ever make long-continued flights overhead, and rather pre- 
sume that they come skulking through the bushes. But the 
fact that their ordinary flight is wayward, desultory, and never 
long continued, is no proof that the emergency of the migration 
does not develop different and much better sustained powers 
of the wing. 

However this may be, no sooner is the ardor of occasion stim- 
ulated by the presence of the females than the gay and gaudy 
Chats develop those eccentricities that make them famous. 
They grow too restless to abide the covert they have chosen 
for their home, and are seen incessantly in motion, flitting with 
jerky movement from one bush and brier-patch to another, 
giving vent to long-pent emotions in the oddest notes imagina- 
ble. Such a medley of whistling, chuckling, barking, and mew- 
ing sounds proceeds from no other bird, unless it be the Mocking- 
bird itself, to whom all possibilities of song are open. During 
such performances, the Chats seem sedulous to keep concealed, 
displaying ingenuity and perversity in thwarting our best efforts 
to catch them at their tricks. The notes, in all their infinite 



HABITS OF CHATS H19 

variety, come now from this and now from that spot in the 
bushes, shifting from point to point as we peer eagerly into the 
tangled underbrush to catch a glimpse of the tantalizing musi- 
cian. Such restlessness, and all this variation in the rendering, 
have much the effect of ventriloquism, and we have not seldom 
to acknowledge that the Chat has fairly beaten us. But his 
coloring is brilliant; he has, moreover, a fancy to return again 
to some particular spot already chosen as his stage ; so that if 
we discover it, and keep so still as not to cause the bird anxiety, 
nor yet to rouse his ire, we shall most likely see him take his 
stand again to swell his golden throat afresh with the fantasy 
of song. 

His nuptial song, I should observe, is something very different 
from the medley of sounds, not all of which are pleasing, that 
are heard when each Chat, as one performer in the orchestra, 
first tunes his curious pipe. Such prelude, after several days' 
essay, is changed into the rich, voluminous ode with which the 
bird inaugurates a new order of events, in bursts of almost 
startling eloquence and fervor. For the nesting-place is fixed 
upon, the fabric hastens to completion ; and the exultant bird, 
no longer constrained to the lowliness of the coverts, mounts 
buoyantly from bough to bough of some tall sentinel that 
guards the leafy undergrowth, to sound his exultation from the 
very tree-top. Yet once more : the nest now bears its precious 
burden ; the brooding bird assumes her patient place, and 
presses down her golden breast upon her hopes. Then this 
strange bird goes fairly wild with joy ; he spurns the ground, 
the favorite singing-post no longer bids him welcome, he rises 
on the wing, and in mid-air above the nest, with fluttering pin- 
ions, down-stretched legs, and open beak, he poises, hovers, and 
performs a thousand antics in the sheer abandon of his 
eccentricity. 

Such are the Chat's most characteristic actions during the 
heyday of his life ; and when we see him cutting such capers 
we may be sure the nest is not far off. It is one of the bird* 
nests most easily found — as easily as a Catbird's or a Thrasher's 
You can hardly miss it if you go carefully through the brier 
patch or blackberry field, the tangle of smilax and grape-vine 
or the old pasture grown up to oak bushes. It is a rather bulky 
and decidedly primitive affair, set in the bush so low you may 
usually look down into it, and made up of withered leaves, 
bark-strips, rootlets, and hay — not unlike a Catbird's, — smaller 



320 WESTERN YELLOW-BREASTED CHAT 

and deeper than a Thrasher's, and perhaps more compact than 
either of these. Besides, you may know it by the eggs, which 
are more globular, brilliantly white or pink-blushed, prettily 
speckled all over with rich reddish-brown and some neutral-tint 
spots, and measuring about nine-tenths of an inch long by two- 
thirds in diameter — the Catbird's eggs are emerald-green, while 
the Thrasher's are elongated and speckled in a different way. 
The eggs are commonly four or five in number; the young are 
said to hatch in eleven or twelve days, and to remain in the 
nest only about as many more. Such a nest and eggs as I have 
described may be found during the latter part of May and in 
June, in the Middle districts ; somewhat earlier and at subse- 
quent intervals during the rest of the summer, at least in the 
more southerly regions the bird inhabits. In Pennsylvania, 
and thence northward, one brood each season is the rule, 
perhaps without exception. 

Notwithstanding its vivacity and ardor, the Chat seems 
rather a delicately organized bird, susceptible to cold ; and it 
consequently leaves us rather early in the fall. As to its food, 
we remark that it is insectivorous, like all of its family, but 
that it feeds much upon small soft fruits, such as strawberries, 
blackberries, and huckleberries. Several stomachs of the bird 
which were examined by Mr. Gentry with reference to this 
matter contained coleopterous insects of numerous kinds, 
butterflies and moths with their larvae, spiders, ants, and other 
insects. 

The Western YelloiF-breasted Chat 

Icterla Tlrens longrlcanda 

a. viren8 

Tnrdns Tlrens, L. SN. i. 1758, loth ed. 171, n. 16 (Catesby, i. 50). 

Icteria vlrens, Bd. Kev. AB. 1865, 228.— JDawr. Ann. Lyo. N. Y. ix. 1868, 95 (Co8ta. Ricn).— 
Sumich. Mem. Boat. Soc. i. 1869, 54 (Vera Cruz).— «. Frantz. J. f. O. 1869, 294 (Costa 
Kica). —Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. T. ix. 1869, 200 (Tncatan).— rwrnb. B. E. Pa. 1869, 23; 
Phila. ed. \6.—? Allen, Bull. MCZ. iii. 1872, 115.— Ooues, Key, 1872, 108, f. 49— .Scoff, 
Pr. Bost. Soc. XV. 1872, 2^.— Allen, Am. Nat. vi. 1872, 265.— Pwrdi«, Am. Nat. Tii. 1873, 
692, m3.—Iiidgiv. Am. Nat. vii. 1873. 198.— Allen, Pr. Bost. Soc. svii. 1874, 52 (Dakota 
and Montana).— Cowe«, BNW. 1874,77.— B..B. <£- R. NAB. i. 1874, 307, fig. pi. 15, f. 12.— 
Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 440.— Gentry, Life-Hiat. i. 1876, 160.— Jlfinof, B. N. Engl. 
1877, 132. -Jf err. Tr. Conn. Acad. 1877, 24. 

Mnscicapa TiridiS, Gm.S'H. i. 1788, 936, n. 35 (Briss. and Gates. ).—iia<A. IO.il. 1790,482, n. 
58. -Turt. SN. i. 1806, 514.— Steph. Gen. Zool. x. 1817, 356. 

Icteria vlrldls, Bp. Journ. Phlla. Acad. iv. 1825, 252.— Bp. Ann. Lye. N. T. ii. 1826, 69.- 
Nutt. Man. i. 1832,299.— J.Md. OB. ii. 1834, 223; v. 1839, 433; pi. 137.— Bp. PZS. 1837, 
111 (Mexico).— Bp. CGL. 1838, 25.— Pea6. Rep. Orn. Mass. 1839, 297 (occasional).- Aftd. 
Syn. 1H39, 16i.—Nutt. Man. 2d ed. 1840, 339.- Aud. BA. iv. 1842, 160, pi. 244.— Gir. BLL 
1844, 162.— JBp. CA. i. 1850, 331.— Bead, ibid. 397 (Ohio).—? TToodA. Sitgr. Rep. Zuiii, 



SYNONYMY OF I. VIRENS LONGICAUDA 321 

1853, IS.—Eennic. Tr. Illinois Agric. Soc. i. 1855, 582.— Pra(t«n, ibid. GO'S.— Maxim. 

J. f. O. 1858, 12'2.—Bd. B]Sr\. 1858, 248.— Ca6. J. f. O. 18C0, 403 (Costa Rica).— 2?arn. 

Smiths. Kep. for 1860, 1861, 435.— Coues dt Prent. Smiths. Rep. for 1861, 1862, 400.— Allen, 

Pr. Ess. Inst. iv. 1864, 59.—Scl. PZS. 1864, 173 (City of Mexico).— Hoy, Smiths. Rep. for 

1864, 1865, iil.—Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. viii. 1866, 285.— Cowe*, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 1868, 

110.— Cou^s, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 270.— Ja<;foon, Am. Nat. ii. 1868, 490.— Coop. Am. 

Nat. iii. 1869, 295, 477, 479 (Dakota).— J.66o«, Am. Nat iv. 1870, 540.— S. <£• S. PZS. 

1870, 836 (Honduras).— 2Vippc, Pr. Bost Soc. xv. 1873, 234. 
Jcteria viridis. Cab. MH. i. 1850, 63. 

Peteria Tiridis, Hoy, Pr. Phila. AcaJ. vi. 1853, 309 (Wisconsin). 
Garrulus australis, Bartr. Trav. Fla. 1st Am. ed. 1791. 290. 
Motacilla trochilus, Bartr. Trav. Fla. Ist Am. ed. 1791, 302 {nee auct.). 
Icteria dumicola, F. OAS.i. 1807, 85, pi. 55.— r. Ency. M6th. ii. 1823, 71)2.-7. Gal. Ois. i. 

1834, 119, pi. 85. 

luteus, " Sparrm." (fide Gray). 

Pipra polyglotta, TTils. AO. i. 1803, 90, pi. 6, f. l.—Bp. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1825, 251. 

Tanagra auricollis, Licht. '• Preis-Verz. Mex. Vog. 1830, 2 " ; J. f. 0. 1863, 57. 

Icteria auricollis, Bp. CA. i. I8o0,33l.—Bp. Compt. Rend. 1854, 380, 382. 

Icteria velasquezi, Bp. PZS. 1837, 117 (Guatemala).— iJp. CA. i. 18:0, 33l.—Scl. PZS. 1856, 

298 (Mexico).— Sci. PZS. 1859, 363 (Xalapa), 375 (Oaxaca).— /S. <£ S. Ibis, i. 1859, 12 

(Guatemala). 
Merle verd de la Caroline, Buff. " Hist Nat. Ois. iii. 396 ". 
Turdns pectore luteo, Klein. " Av. 69, n. 26". 
Merida viridis carolinensis, Briss. Om. ii. 1760, 315, n. .55. 

Yellow-breasted Chat, Uenanttae americana pectore luteo, Gates. Car. 1. 1771, 50, pi. 50. 
Chattering Flycatcher, Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 385, n. m6.—Lath. Syn. iL pt i. 1783, 350, u. 48. 
Ict^rie damicole, T. 1. c. 
Chat, Yellow-breasted Chat, Teliow-breasted Icteria, Authors. —Lyman, Pr. Bost. Soc. 

1851, 67 (New England, breeding). 

6. longicauda 

Icteria viridis. Towns. Joum. Phila. Acad. viii. 1839, 153 (Northwestern United States).— 
Gainb. Pr. Phila. Acad. iii. 1847, 157 (California).— Gaw6. Joum. Phila. Acad. i. 1847, 
44 (California).— H^eerm. Joum. Phila. Acad. iL 1853, 269 (California).— ir(?nri/, Pr. 
Phila. Acad. viL 1855, 313 (New Mexico).— Henri/, Pr. Phila. Acad. xi. 1859, 106 (New 
Mexico). 

Icteria velasqnezii, Bd. Stansb. Rep. GSL. 1852, 328 (California). 

Icteria longicauda, Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. vi. 1853, 4 (California).— JV«c6. PRRR. vi. 1857, 
81.— JSd. BNA. 1858, 249 ; ed. of 1860, pi. 34, f. %—Xant. Pr. Phila. Acad. 1859, 191 (Cali- 
fornia).- i?d. U. S. Mex. B. Surv. ii. pt ii. 1859, Birds, 10.— Heerm. PRRR. x. 1859, 55.— 
Scl. Cat AB. 1861, Ai.—Hayd. Tr. Amer. Philo.s. Soc. xii. 1862, 160.— Bd Rev. AB. 1865, 
230.— Cowes, Ibis, 2d ser. i. 1865, 163.— Cottes, Pr. Phil.i. Acad, xviii. 1866, 71. — Coues, Pr. 
Phila. Acad. xs. 1868, 83.— Coop. Pr. Cal. Acad. 1870, 75.— Coop. B. Cal. i. 1870,98.— 
Finsch, Abhand. Bremen, 1870, 331 (Mazatlan).— Coop. Am. Nat iiL 1869, 479. — Aiken, 
Pr. Bost Soc. 1872, 197.— ilferr. U; S. Geol. Surv. Terr, for 1872, 1673, 674, 713. 

Icteria virens var. longicauda, Coues, Key, 1872, 108.— B. B. <£ B. NAB. i. 1874, 309.— 
r<irr. <f- Ucwsft. Rep. Orn. Specs. 1874, \0.—ncnsh. ibid. 1874, 42, ^i.-Hevsh. List B. 
Ariz. 1875, l^.—Bensh. Zool. Expl. "W. 100 Merid. 1876, 206. 

Icteria virens b. longicauda, Cowe«, BNW. 1874, 77. 

Hab. — Middle and Western Provinces of the United States ; Lower Cali- 
fornia, and Western Mexico. 

Ch. sp. — $ 9 GriseooHvacea, infra jlavo et albo dimidiata; 
loris nigris, strigd maxillari et sitperciliari, necnon palpebrisy 
albis / rostro nigro-plumbeo. 

S $ : Entire upper parts, including exposed surfaces of the wings and 
tail, grayish-olive. Quills of the wings and tail fuscous. Fore half of body 
21 B 



322 THE WESTERN LONG-TAILED CHAT 

below, including lining of the wings, rich yellow ; hinder half white, shaded 
with gray on the sides. Loral region black ; a sharp maxillary line, another 
from nostril over the eye, and the under eyelid, white. Bill blackish-plum- 
beous; feet plumbeous. Length, 7 J or more; extent about 10; wing, 3; 
tail, 3i. 

There is very little difference with sex, age, or season in this bird, except- 
ing in the purity and intensity of the tints. The yellow of the breast is 
sometimes heightened to orange, or may show golden as usual, with staina 
of intense orange here and there. Immature specimens have the under man- 
dible light plumbeous or plumbeous-white. In very young birds, the yellow 
may appear only as slashing in the white, and the peculiar markings of the 
side of the head are defective. 

This form, in its typical manifestation, such as is presented in the Colo- 
radan region, is decidedly different from true virens in the shade of the upper 
parts— quite grayish instead of pure olive-green. But in both cases the 
shade is liable to variation. In the dullest colored Coloradan birds there 
is scarcely a tinge of olive in the gray of the upper parts. The yellow of 
the breast is as rich, however, as that of the Eastern representatives. As 
in the cases of so many other birds from the same region, the tail averages 
longer than that of Eastern representatives of the same species. 

THE best examples of the Western or Long-tailed Chat come 
from the arid regions of the Great Basin, and the Colorado 
watershed in general, the bird being there usually duller colored 
than it is about the confines of its range. Birds more or less 
properl}^ referable to this form, however, occur throughout the 
Middle and Western Provinces of the United States, and also 
in Western Mexico, though the ordinary Mexican bird is rather 
I. virens. Owing to the remarkable surface-irregularities of the 
region this race inhabits, its movements can scarcely be traced 
with the precision we have acquired in noting the passages of 
the Eastern relative, and can only say in general terms that the 
movements of the two are correspondent. We hear of arrivals 
in Southern California, Arizona, and New Mexico by the 
middle or latter part of April ; of nests within a month subse- 
quently; and of departures in September. Such dates corre- 
spond with my observations at Fort Whipple, and may be used 
for calculation. In these latitudes, it ascends mountains prob- 
ably not higher than about 9,000 feet, and is generally distrib- 
uted at all lower levels. It is said, doubtless rightly, to extend 
to the Columbia and Upper Missouri region, but it is certainly 
less abundant in the northerly portions of its range than in the 
latitudes of Colorado, Utah, Nevada, and southward. Our in- 
formation respecting its dispersion in winter is deficient ; one 
author ascribes a winter range extending to the vicinity of 
Sacramento, California, but it may be doubted that any of these 



THE GENUS MYIODIOCTES 323 

birds winter much if any over our Mexican border. The full 
extent of their dispersion in Western Mexico remains to be 
ascertained, our advices from that country, excepting Lower 
California, being altogether insufficient. 1 saw nothing during 
my acquaintance with the bird to indicate any peculiarity of 
character or habits in comparison with its Eastern congener, 
and the experience of others is to the same effect. 

Genus MYIODIOCTES Audubon 

Wilsonla, Bp. CGL. 1838, 23. (Preoccupied in botany ; used also in entomology.) 
MylodiOCt'es, Aud. Syn. 1839, 48. (Type Motacilla mitrata Gm.)—Bd. BNA. 1858, 291.— Bd. 

Rev. AB. 1865, 2.38.— B. B. <& B. NAB. i. 1874, 313. 
Hyloctonus, Cab. MH. i. 1850, 18. (Same type.) 

Chars. — Bill Muscicapine, though with the lateral outlines 
a little concave, broad and depressed at the base, with many 
obvious rictal bristles reaching decidedly beyond the nostrils; 
culmen and commissure nearly straight. Wings pointed, as in 
most Si/lvicolidw, longer than the tail, the 1st quill longer than 
the 5th, the 3d equalling or exceeding the 4t.h. Tail narrow, 
even or little rounded. Middle toe without claw about three- 
fifths as long as the tarsus. Coloration indeterminate. Tail 
unmarked, or with white blotches as in Dendrceca. No red or 
flame-color ; always yellow below. 

This genus comprehends three or four species, well distin- 
guished by the development of the rictal bristles and the 
depressed shape of the bill, though the Muscicapine characters 
are not pushed to the extreme seen in Selopliaga. The tail is 
narrow, lacking the fan-shaped contour of that of Setojyhaga, 
and the feet are stouter, with longer toes. In CardelUna, a near 
ally, the bill is narrow and conoidal, somewhat Parine in appear- 
ance, with curved culmen. In Basileiiterus, and in fact in all 
the extralimital forms of the Flycatching Warblers, the wing 
is rounded, with the 1st quill shorter than the 5th. 

All the recognized species of 3Iyiodi>ctcs are natives of the 
United States; only one, however, is known to occur in the 
Colorado Valley. The others are as follows : — 

Slyiodioctes canadensis.— Canadian Flycatching: Warbler. 

MuSClcapa canadensis, L. SN. i. 1766, 327, n. 13 (Briss. ii. 400, pi. 39, f. 4).— Gm. SX. i. 1788, 
937, n. U.—Turt. SN. i. 1806, 515.— Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 484, n. 65.— Wils. AO. iii. 1811, 100, 
pl.26, f.2.— S<<pft. Gen. Zool. x. 1817, 350.— F. Ency. M6th. ii. 1823, 810.— Bp. Joum. 
Phila, Acad. iv. 1824, 1~8.— Aud. OB. ii. 1834, 17, pi. 103.— Breic. Jonrn. Boat. Soc. i. 
1837, 436.— Pca6. Eep. Orn. Mass. 1839, ^Ol.-Thomps. Vermont, 1853, 77. 

Setophaga canadensis, " Sw."—Jard. "ed. Wils. 1832 ".— fitcft. Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1836, 
1837, -.—(Jra?/, "G. of B."— Cabot, Naum. ii. Hcftii'. 1852, CO.— IToy, Pr. Phila. Acad, 
vi. 1853. 309. 



324 SYNONYMY OF MYIODIOCTES CANADENSIS 

Myjodlodes canadensis, A^id. Syn. 1830, 40.— Aud. BA. ii. 1841, 14, pi. 7-2.-,Sc2. PZS. 1854, 
111 (Quijoa).— 5ci. PZS. 185.5, 143 (BogoXi). —Putn. Pr. Ess. Inst. 1. 185C, 20G (Massachu- 
setts, in suiumcr).— Bri/. Pr. Boat. Soc. vi. 1857, IIC (Xova Scotia).— /Sd. PZS. 1858, 
64 (Rio Napo) ; 451 (Ecuador).— Bd. BNA. 1858, 294.— S. <£• S. Ibis, 1. 1859, 11 (Guate- 
mala).— TfjHis, Smiths. Kcp. for 1858, 1859,282 (Nova Scotia).— Barn. Smiths. Kep. for 
1860, 1861, 436.— CoMfiS c£- Pre»i(. Smiths. Rep. for 1861, 1862, 409.— Ferr. Pr. Ess. Inst, 
iii. 1862, 147.— Boardm. Pr. Bost. Soc. ix. If 62, 125.— L.wr. Aun. Lye. N. T. vii. 1862, 
468 (New GranaJa).— iJtoJ:. This. v. 1863, 63 (Saskatchewan).— Dress. Ibis, 2d ser. i. 
1865,478 (Texas).— i?d. Rev. AB. 1865, 230.—McIlwr. Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1866, 86.— I/Cwr. 
Ann. Lye. N. T. viii. 1866, 285.— iawr. Ann. Lye. N. T. ix. 1868,95 (Costa Rica).— 
Trippe, Am. Nat. ii. 1868, 176.— Cowes, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 1S68, 111. —Oowes, Pr. Ess. Inst. 
V. 1868, 274.— V. Frantz. J. f. 0. 1869, 294 (Costa Rica).— iMrnft. B. E. Pa,. 1869, 261 ; Phila. 
ed. 19.— Cope, Am. Nat. iv. Io70, 395, 306.—Mayn. Guide, 1870, IQo.—Mayn. Pr. Bost. 
Soc. xiv. 1872, 369. -Cottes, Key, 1872, 109, f. 51.— Pacil-ard, Am. Nat. viii. 1874, 271.— 
S. B. <t E. NAB. i. 1874, 320, pi. 16, f. 6.—Coues, BNA. 1874, 80 —Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. 
xvii. 1875, 440. -Gen«r?/, Life-Hist. i. 1876, IGd.—Minot, B. N. Engl. 1877, 127. 

Eutblypis canadensis. Cab. MH. i. 18.50, 18 (not type).— Ca6. J. f. 0. 1863, 326 (Costa Rica).— 
Allen, Pr. Ess. Inst. iv. 1864, 65. 

Sylvia pardalina, Bp. Joum. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 179.— 
Bp. Ann. Lye. N. T. ii. 1826, 19.—Xutt. Man. i. 1833, 
312.—Linsley, Am. Journ. Sci. xliv. 1843, 256.— 
Thomps. Vermont, 1853, App. 23. 

Sylvicola pardalina, Bp. CGL. 1838, 22.— Bead, Pr. 
Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 39S.— Brew. Pr. Bost. Soc. 
vi. 1856, 5 (nest and eggs). 

Myiodioctes pardalina, Bp. CA. i. 1850, 315. 

Myodloctes pardalina, Pratten, Tr. Illinois Agric. Soc. 
1855, 601. 

Huscicapa bonaparlii, And. OB. i. 1831, 27, pi. 5 (young). 

Setophaga bonapartii, Siv. d Rich. Fn. Bor. Am. ii. 

1831,225, pi. 41.— Rich. Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1836, ^'O. 42.— Canadian Elycatching 
1837 172. "Warbler, natural size. 

Wilsonia bonapartii, Bp. CGL. 1838, 23. 

Myiodioctes bonapartii, Aud. Syn. 1839, 49.— A«d. BA. iL 1841, 17, pi. 73.— Bd. BNA. 
1858,295. 

Sylvania bonapartii, Nutt. Man. i. 2led. 1840,332. 

Setophaga nigro-cincta, La/res. Rev. Zool. 1843,292; 1844,79. 

Oobe-mouche cendre de Canada, Muscicapa canadensis cinerea, Briss. Om. ii. 1760, 406, 
n. 25, pi. 39, f. 4 (descr. orig.; Canada). 

Canada Flycatcher, Lath. Syn. ii. pt. i. 1783, 354, n. 5.— Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 388, n. 273. 

Moucherolle du Canada, LeMoine, Ois. Can ad. 1861, 163. 

Canadian Flycatching Warbler, Bonaparte's Fiycatching Warbler, Spotted Fly- 
catcher, Authors. 

Hab. — Eastern North America .and the British Provinces. West OL-ly to 
the edge of the Plains. South through Mexico and Central America to 
Ecuador. No West Indian record. Breeds from the Middle States occasion- 
ally, from the Northern States regularly, northward ; its precise limits not 
ascertained, but perhaps coinciding with limit of trees (lat. 54° N., Eichard- 
8on). Winters entirely beyond the United States. Abundant in the Atlantic 
States during the migrations. 

jnyiodioctes mitratus.— Hooded Flycatcbing' Warbler. 

Motacilla mitrata, Om. SN. i. 1788, 977, n. 128 (Briss. iii. 578 ; Buflf. v. 452, PE. 666, f. 2, &c.).— 

Turt. SN. i. 1803, 601.-iess. Tr. Orn. 1831, 418. 
Sylvia mitrata. Lath. 10. ii. 1790, 528, n. 71.— F. OAS. ii. 1807, 23, pi. 77.— F. Nouv. Diet. 

d'Hist. Nat. xi. 1817, 203.-i?p. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 178.— Pp. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 

ii. 1-2';, 19.— mat. Man. i. 1832, 373.— Awd. OB. ii. 1834, 68, pi. 60. 




SYNONYMY OF MYIODIOCTES MITRATUS 325 

Setopbaga mitrata, Jard. "ed. Wils. 1832".— Gray, "'x. of B."— BtcTi. Eep. Brit. Asaoc. 
Adv. Sci. for 1836, 1837, 17-2.— D'Orft. Ois. Cuba, 1839, 89.— Boy, Pr. Phila. Acad.vi. 
1853, 309 (Wisconsin).- £rew. Pr. Boat Soc. vii. 1800, 307 (Cuba). 

Wilsonia mitrata, iifp. CGL. 1838, 23.— J.ii«n, Pr. Ess. lust. iv. 1864, 83 (Massachusetts). — 
AWen, Mem. Boat. Soc. i. 1868, 516.— JH«7i, Bull. MCZ. iiL 1872, 175 (Kansas).— -Scott, 
Pr. Bost. Soc. XV. 1872, 223 (West Virginia, breeding). 

Sjlvania mitrata, Nutt. Man. i.2ded. 1840, 333.— TToodA. Sitgr. Kep. Zuni, 1853, 69.— i?eai, 
Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 1853, 397. 

Mjiodioctes mitrata, Aud. BA. ii. li-41, 12, pi. 71.— Bp. C A. i. 1850, 315. 

MyiOdioctes mitratus, Aud. Syn. 1839, Ai.—Gir. BLL 1844, AJi.—Scl. PZS. 1856, 291 (Cor- 
dova). —£d. BNA. 1858, 292.— & «£- S. Ibis, i. 1859, 11 (Guatemala).— u. Martens, J. f. O. 
1859, 212 (Bermudaa).— iJtond, Smitha. Kep. for 1853, 1859, 287 (Bermudas). -Toi/Jor, 
Ibis, ii. 1860, 110 (Hondur.i8).— GandJ. J. f. 0. 1861, 326 (Cuba).— 5am. Smiths. Kep. 
for 1860, 1861, 436 (Pennsylvania).— TFAeaf. Ohio Agric. Eep. for 1860, 1861, 364.— /S. c6 S. 
PZS. 1864, 347 (Paxxaxan). —Samuels, Orn. andOol. N. E. 245 (Connecticut).— ,Sam. Cat. 
B. Maaa. 1864, 7 (Massachusetts ?).—£d. Kev. AB. 1865, 239.— Dress. Ibis, 2d aer. i. 1865, 
478 (San Antonio).— iawr. Ann. Lye. N. T. viii. 1866, "iSi.—THppe, Am. Kat. ii. 1863, 
178.— Cowes, Pr. Bost. Soc. xii. 1868, 110.— Coues, Pr.Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 275.— iawr. Ann, 
Lye. N. T. ix. 1869, 200 (Yucatan).- Titrjift. B. E. Pa. 1869, 26 ; Phila. ed. \a.—Sumich. 
Mem. Boat. Soc. i. 1869, 547 (Orizaba).— A&6o«<, Am. Nat. iv. 1870, ZiZ.—Cope, ibid. 
395 —Cows, Key, 1872, 109, f. 40.—Gundl. J. f. O. 1872, 419 (Cuba).— Pwrdie, Am. Nat. 
Til. 1873, 692.— ^'now, B. Kans. 1873, 5.— Grippe, Pr. Boat. Soc. xv. 1873, 235 (Iowa).— 
Coues, BNW. 1874, 78.— iJ. B. d- B. NAB. i. 1874, 314, pi. 15, f. 10, 11.— Brew. Pr. Bost. 
Soc. xvii. 1875, 440 (Connecticut).— Gent/-?/, Lile-Hist. i. 1876, 165.— Merr. Tr. Conn. 
Acad. i. 1877, 25 (Connecticut; abundant). 

Hyodioctes mitrata, Pratten, Tr. Illinois Agric. Soc. i. 1855, 601. 

Myiidioctes mitratus, Sd. PZS. 1858, 358 (Honduras). 

MyiOdioctes mitralus. Cope, Am. Nat. iv. 1870, 395. 

Myioctonus mitratus, Cab. MH. i. 1850, 18 (type).— Gttndl. J. f. 0. 1855, 472 (Cuba).— Gundi. 
J. f. O. 1861, 407 (Cuba). 

Sylvlcola mitrata, Maxim. J. f. 0. 1858, 113. 

Muscicapa CUCUllata, Wils. AO. iii. 1811, 101, pi. 26, f. 3.—Bp. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 
1824, 177. 

Muscicapa pileata, Steph. Gen. Zool. x. 1817, 399 (= Sylvia mitrata Lath.). 

Muscicapa selbyii, Aud. "OB. i. 1831, 46, pi. 9". 

Muscicapa selbii, Nutt. Man. i. 1832, 296. 

Hooded Titmouse, Parus cucullo nigro, Caicsbj/, Car. i. 1771,60, pi. 60. 

Mesange a collier de la Caroline, Parus carolinensis torquatus, Briss. Orn. iii. 1760 
578, n. 16. 

Gobe-mouche, de la Louisiane, name on PE. 666, 
f. 2 (basis of Mot. m,itrata var. /?. Gm.). 

Gobe-mouche citrln de la Louisiane, Bvf. " Hist. 
Nat. Ois. iv. 538" (PE. 666, f. 2). 

Hooded Warbler, Penn. AZ. ii. 1785, 400, n. 287.— 
Lath. Syn. iL pt. ii. 1783, 462, n. 68. 

Setoptaaga milrc, D'Orb. I.e. 

Fauvettc mltre'e, V. II. ca.—Le Moine, Ois. Canad. 
1861, 189. 

Hooded Flycatcbing Warbler, Aud. 1. c. 

Hooded or Mitred Warbler, Selby's Sylvan Fly- 
catcher, Mitred Sylvan Flycatcher. Nutt. ^^''- 43.-Hooded Flycatching War- 
jj jjg bier, natural size. 

Hab. — Eastern United States, rather southerly ; north regularly to the 
Middle States and the Connecticut Valley {Linsley, Am. Journ. Sci. 1843, 
257 ; Merriam, 1. c.) and casually to ? Massachusetts {Samuels, 1. c). West to 
Kansas. Bermudas, Cuba, Jamaica. Eastern Mexico aud Ceutral America, 
Breeds at large in its United States range, "Winters cxtraliuiital. 




326 SYNONYMY OF MYIODIOCTES PUSILLUS 

"Myiodloctes? minutus.— Small-headed Flycatclier." 

Musclcapa minuta, Wils. AO. vi. 1812, 02, pi. 50, f. 5.—Bp. Journ. Phlla. Acad. iv. 1624, 
119.— Nutt. Man. i. 1832, '2.96.— Aud. OB. v. 1839, 291, pi. 434, f. ^.—Aud. Syn. 1839, 44.— 
Feab. Kep. Oru. Mas.s. 1839, 296 (Mass.-icbusetts, awt. Brewer).— Aud. BA. i. 1840, 
238, pi. Gl.—Putn. Pr. Eaa. Inst. i. 185C, 226. 

Sylvia minuta, Bp. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 197. 

Wilson ia minuta, Bp. CGL. 1838, ^.— Allen, Pr. Ess. Inst. iv. 1864, 83.- Allen, Am. Nat iii. 
1869, 577. 

Setophaga minuta. Rich. Eep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. for 1836, 1837, n^.-Hoy, Pr. Phila. 
Acad. 1853, 309 (Wisconsin). 

Myiodioetes minutus, Bd. BXA. 1858, 293.— Bd. Rev. AB. 1865, 2il.—Tumb. B. E. Pa. 1869, 
53 ; Phila. ed. 42.— B. B. £ R. NAB. i. 1874, 316.— Bmw. Pr. Best. Soc. xvii. 1875, 440. 

Muscicapa or Myiodioetes " minuta ", Coiies, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 275. 

Sylvania pumilia, Nutt. Man. i. 2d ed. 1840, 334. 

Small-lieaded Flycatcher of Wilson and Audubon. 

Small-headed Sylvan Flycatcher, Nutt. 1. c. 1832. 

Hab. — "Eastern United States."— The above synonymy is nearly all mere 
compilation, tlie several authors, excepting Wilson, Nuttall, and Audubon, 
not claiming to know the species. The existence of any such bird is doubt- 
ful, and its reference to Myiodioetes by Baird and others is wholly conjectural. 
Bonaparte first put it here, i. e., in his genus TVilsonia, but in 1850 queerly 
identified it with Empidonax flaviventris of Baird. The history of the bird 
begins with a misunderstanding between Wilson and Audubon, and the whole 
record from that day to this is a tissue of surmises. 

Wilson's Greesi Black-capped Flycatching^ 
liVartoler 

Ufylodioctes pnsillas 

Uuscicapa pusilla, Wils. AO. iii. 1811, 103, pi. 26, f. 4.—Bp. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 179, 
^n.—Thomps. Vermont, 1853, App. 22.— Henry, Pr. Phila. Acad. vii. 1855, 308 (New- 
Mexico).— TFiJiis, Smiths. Kep. for 1858, 18r>9, 281 (Nova Scotia). 

Wilsonia pusilla, Bp. CGL. 1838, 23.— Ai^en, Pr. Ess. Inst. iv. 1864, 64.— AJfen, Bull. MCZ. 
iii. 1872, nb.-Allen, Am. Nat. vi. 1872, 346, 348. 

Kylvania pusilla, Nutt. Man. i. 2d ed. 1840, 335.— Gam6. Pr. Phila. Acad. iii. 1847, 156 (Cali- 
fornia).— Gamb. Journ. Phila. Acad. i. 1847, 38. 

Myiodioetes pusilla, Bp. C A. i. 1850, 315. 

Myioetonus pusillus. Cab. MH. i. 18J0, 18. 

Myiodioetes pusillus, Scl. PZS. 1856, 291.— ^d. BNA. 1858, 293.— Bd. U. S. Mex. B. Surv. ii. 
pt. ii. 1859, Birds, 10.— Heerm. PRRR. x. 1859, 39.—Xant. Pr. Phila. Acad. xL 1859, 191 
(California).— -Sd. PZS. 1859, 363 (Xalapa). —S. <& S. Ibis, i. 1859, 11 (Guatemala).— Coop. 
a Suck. NHWT. 1860, 182.— Wheat. Ohio Agric. Rep. for 1800, 1861, 364.- Cab. J. f. O. 
1860, 325 (Costa Rica).— .Bam. Smiths. Rop. for 1860, 1861, 436.— Fcrr. Pr. Ess. Inst, 
iii. 1862, 147.— CouM <£ Prent. Smiths. Rep. for 1861, 1862, 4i)9.—Blak. Ibis, v. 1863, 63 
(M.ackenzie River).— iord, Pr. Roy. Arty. Inst. iv. 1864, 115.— iJd. Rev. AB. Ic65, 
240.— CoMe«, Ibis, 2d eer. i. 1865, 163.— Dress, ibid. 478 (Texas).— iawr. Ann. Lye. 
N. T. viii. 18G6, 285.— Cowes, Pr. Phda. Acad. 186G, 71 (Fort Whipple).— ilfcl/wr. Pr. 
Ess. lust. V. 1866, 66.— Trippc, Am. Nat. ii. 1868, 170, 175.— Oowea, Pr. Phila. Acad. 1868, 
83.— Cowes, Pr. Ess. Inst. v. 1868, 274.— iaior. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ix. 1868, 95(Co.ta 
Rica).— Oowes, Pr. Boat. Soc. xii. 1868, HI (South Carolina).— Cojtes, Pr. Phila. Acad. 

1868, 83 (Arizona).— -BufcA. Pr. Phila. Acad. xx. 18G8, 149 (Texas).— Da^J <£ Bann. Tr. 
Chicago Acad. i. 1869, 278 ( Alaska).- u. Frantz. J. f. 0. 1869, 294 (Costa E ca).—Turnb. 
B. E. Pa. 1869, 26; Phila. ed. 19.— Scl. PZS. 1869, 374 (Oaxaca).— Corp. Am. Nat. iii. 

1869, 480.— Coop. Pr. Cal. Acad. 1870, 75.-Coop. B. Cal i. 1870, ]01.—Salv. PZS. It70, 183 
(Veragua).— -Stei). U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, i^r 1870, 1871, 463.— Mayn. Pr. Bost. Soc. xiv. 
1872, 369.— Aiken, Pr. Bost. Soc. xv. 1872, 197.— Paisc/i, Abh. Nat. iii. 1872, 36.— CoHe«, 
Key, 1872, 109, f. 10.— Salv. Ibis, 3d ser. iii. 1873, .334 (San Domingo).- iJid;7U). Am. Nat. 



CHARACTERS OF MYIODIOCTES PUSILLUS 327 

vii. 1873, e03.—Merr. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, for 1872, 1873, 675, 113.— Coop. Am. Nat. 

viii. 1874, \6.—Coues, BNW. 1874, 79, 232.— B. B. <£: R. NAB. i. 1874, 317, pi. 16, f. 3, 4.— 

Tarr. <& Hensh. Eep. Orn. Specs. 1874, 10.— Hensh. ibid. 42, IQZ.—Hensh. List B. Ariz. 

1875, \bG.— Nelson, Pr. Bost. Soc. xvii. 1875, 343, ZSl.—Brew. ibid. iiO.— Hensh. Zool. 

Expl. W. 100 Merid. 1876, ^Qt.— Gentry, Life-Hist. i. 1876, 167.-ilfino«, B. N. Engl. 

1877, 129. 
Myildioctes pnsillus, Scl. PZS. 1858, 299 (Parada). 
Motacilla pileolata, Pall. ZKA. i. 1831, 497. 
MyiodiOCtes pusillUS var. pileoIatUS, Ridgw. Am. Joum. Sci. 1872, i^l.—Ridgw. Am. Nat. 

vii. 1873, 608.— Cottes, Am. Nat. vii. 1873, 417.— B. B. & R. NAB. i. 1874, 319. 
Sylvia Wilsonii, £p. Journ. Phila. Acad. iv. 1824, 179.— iJp. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 1826, 86.— 

Nutt. Man. i. 1832, 438.— Towns. Journ. Phila. Acad. viii. 1839, 153. 
Setophaga wilsonii, Jard. "ed. Wils. 1832 ".-Cafeot, Naum. ii. Heft iiL 1852, 60.— ZTot/, 

Pr. Phila. Acad. vi. 18.53, -im.-Hoy, Smiths. Eep. for 1864, 1865, 437. 
Musclcapa wilsonii, Aud. OB. ii. 1834, 148, pi. 124.— Pea&. Rep. Orn. Mass. 1839, 297. 
MyiodiOCtes wilsonii, Aud. Syn. 1839, 50.— Awd. BA. ii. 1841, 21, pi. 75.— Patn. Pr. Ess. Inst. 

i. 1856, 206.— TFi7h"s, Smiths. Eep. for 1858, 1859, 282. 
Sylvania wilsonii, Vfoodh. Sitgr. Eep. Zuui E. 1853, 69. 

Abrornis atricapilla !, Blyth., Ibis, 1870, 169, from " China " (see Finsch, PZS. Dec. 7, 1875). 
Sylvia petasodes, f Licht. " Preis-Verz. 1830 " (others quote /S. petesoda). 
Green Black-capt Warbler, Nutt. 1. c. 

Wilson's Green Black-capped Flycatching Warbler, Coues, 1. c. 1874. 
Green Black-capped Flycatcher, or Flycatcbing Warbler, Wilson's Flycatching War- 
bler, Authors. 

Hab. — The who