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Full text of "Birds of the Pacific coast, including a brief account of the distribution and habitat of one hundred and eighteen birds that are more or less common to the Pacific coast states and British Columbia, many of which are found eastward to the Rocky mountains and beyond"

BIRDS OF THE 
PACIFIC COAST 




^^^mmW 



VILLARD AYRES ELIOT 



v 











FOR THE PEOPLE 

FOR EDVCATION 

FOR SCIENCE 






LIBRARY 

OF 

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 

OF 

NATURAL HISTORY 


— 



BIRDS OF 
THE PACIFIC COAST 

Including a brief account of the distribution 
and habitat of one hundred and eighteen 
birds that are more or less common to 
the Pacific Coast states and British 
Columbia, many of which are 
found eastward to the Rocky- 
Mountains and beyond 

BY 

WILLARD AYRES ELIOT 



WITH FIFTY-SIX COLOR PLATES BY 

R. BRUCE HORSFALL 



G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS 
Cbe Iknichcrbockcr prced 
NEW YORK AND LONDON 

1923 



Copyright, 1923 

by 

Winard Ayres Eliot 





^•^ 




Made in the United States of America 
Color Cuts made by Beav«5r Engraving Company, Portland, Oregon 



PREFACE 

Birds of the Pacific Coast is intended as a fieid 
book, giving the distribution and habitat, and 
illustrating one hundred and eighteen birds 
which are more or less common to all of the 
Pacific Coast states and British Columbia, 
and only a few that are rare or of local occur- 
rence. Many of the birds described in this 
book may be found as far east as the Rocky 
Mountains, and some as far as the Mississippi 
Valley. 

The migratory habits of many of our 
strictly western birds do not seem to be as 
pronounced as among members of the same 
families along the Atlantic seaboard. This 
seems especially true of many of the warblers, 
bluebirds, thrushes, vireos, robins, wrens and 
purple finches. It would seem that our 
milder winter climate has something to do 
with this retarded movement of our birds 
during their southward migration in the fall. 

The plates are colored to show the males 
in full breeding plumage, and where the 
iii 



PREFACE 

females differ radically in color from the 
males they are shown whenever practicable. 
Many birds go through a seasonal change of 
plumage which requires special study and 
observation on the part of the amateur bird 
student. No attempt is made to describe 
the plumage except to call attention to some 
striking patch of color that will serve as a 
distinct field mark. 

The lengths are given in inches, and are 
averages, some birds are longer and some 
shorter than the figures quoted. 

The arrangement of the birds and the text 
was made without regard to their proper 
order in the check-list and simply follows a 
whimsical plan of my own, bearing in mind 
that the average person is first interested in 
the smaller land birds that are found about 
his home. 

The classification and nomenclature used 
in this book are those of the 1910 Check-List 
of the American Ornithologists' Union. Al- 
though many new sub-species have been 
recognized since its publication there is still 
much controversy regarding them and it was 
thought best to keep to the accepted list. 

The paragraphs on distribution are based 
mainly on Ridgway's Birds of North and 
Middle America, with some minor changes 
iv 



PREFACE 

due to later reports and local observations. 
Other works that have been freely consulted 
are Bendire's Life Histories of North American 
Birds; Bailey's Handbook of Birds of the 
Western United States; Chapman's The 
Warblers of North America ; Finley's American 
Birds; and Dawson's Birds of Washington. 

I wish here to express my thanks to ^Villiam 
L. Finley and Stanley G. Jew^ett for their 
helpful and kindly criticism of the text. 

Birds of the Pacific Coast is dedicated to 
the amateur bird students of the West, es- 
pecially to the teachers and students in our 
public schools, w^ho in ever increasing 
numbers are asking *' What bird is that?" 



WiLLARD AyRES ElIOT. 



Portland, Oregon, 
May. 1922. 



INTRODUCTION 

The popular interest and love for wild 
birds has advanced with such strides in the 
past twenty years that it seems quite un- 
likely that any more bird species will com- 
pletely disappear through the destructive 
agency of man. The most far-reaching influ- 
ence in America to-day for fair play and 
protection to birds is the widespread organ- 
izing of school children in junior Audubon 
societies. A class of approximately three 
hundred thousand pupils each year, who re- 
ceive illustrated educational leaflets of the 
commoner birds has become a vital influence 
in protecting and encouraging wild birds 
about the home. 

The National Association of Audubon 
Societies and the different state Audubon 
societies have molded public opinion and 
secured the pasage and enforcement of proper 
laws and have built up a general 4ove and in- 
terest in birds. This has resulted in a greater 
vii 



INTRODUCTION 

need for books about the common birds that 
every person wants to know. 

The field of bird literature in the eastern 
states is more productive than on the Pacific 
Coast. Along the western slope there is a real 
need for a small popular handbook. Many 
people who have a limited time out-of-doors 
are anxious for a short cut in getting ac- 
quainted with the birds in the woods. A 
careful written description is good, an ac- 
curate colored bird sketch is often a quicker 
help. This volume with its short descriptions 
and colored pictures should be a welcome 
companion for bird lovers on their first walks 
in the fields and forests. 

William L. Finley. 



vui 



CONTENTS 



Family Turdid.e: 

Western bluebird . 

Mountain bluebird 

Western robin 

Varied thrush 

Russet-backed thrush 

Sierra hermit thrush 
Family Sylviid^: 

Western golden-crowned kinglet 

Ruby-crowned kinglet . 
Family TROGLODYTiDiE: 

Seattle wren . 

W^estern house wren 

Western winter wren 

Tule wren 
Family Mniotiltid^: 

California yellow warbler 

Pacific yellow-throat 

Golden pUeolated warbler 

Lutescent warbler 

Black-throated gray warbler 

Macgillivray warbler 

Audubon warbler . 

Long-tailed chat . 

Townsend warbler 

Hermit warbler 
Family Vireonid^: 

Western warbling vireo 

Cassin vireo 



IX 



CONTENTS 



Family Parid^: 

Oregon chickadee . 

Chestnut-backed chickadee 

Bush-tit 
Family Cham^eid^e: 

Coast wren-tit 
Family Certhiid.e: 

California creeper 
Family Sittid.e: 

Slender-billed nuthatch 

Red-breasted nuthatch 

Pygmy nuthatch . 
Family Cinclid^: 

Dipper (water ouzel) 

Family Trochilid^: 

Rufous hummingbird 

Family Caprimulgid^: 
Pacific nighthawk 

Family Micropodid^: 
Vaux swift . 



Family Hirundixid^: 






Cliff swallow 




. 53 


Tree swallow 




54 


Northern violet-green swallow 




55 


Western martin 




56 


Barn swallow 




57 


Rough-winged swallow 




. 58 


Family Tyrannid.e: 






Kingbird .... 




. 59 


Arkansas kingbird 




. 60 


Olive-sided flycatcher . 




. 61 


Western wood pewee 




. 62 


Traill flycatcher . 




. 62 


Say phoebe .... 




. 63 



35 
37 
38 

39 

41 

42 
42 
43 

45 
47 
50 
51 



CONTENTS 



Family Bombycillid.e: 
Bohemian waxwing 
Cedar waxwing 

Family Tangarid.e: 
Western tanager 

Family Fringillid.e: 

Black-headed grosbeak 
Lazuli bunting 
Oregon junco 
Oregon towhee 
Golden-crowned sparrow 
Nuttall sparrow 
Rusty song sparrow 
Townsend fox sparrow- 
Western lark sparrow 
Oregon vesper sparrow 
Western savanna sparrow 
Western chipping sparrow 
Willow goldfinch . 
Green-backed goldfinch 
Crossbill 
Pine siskin 

California purple finch 
Cassin purple finch 
Hepburn rosy finch 
Redpoll 
Western evening grosbeak 

Family Icterid.e: 
Bullock oriole 
Northwestern red-wing . 
Brewer blackbird 
Bobolink 

Yellow-headed blackbird 
Western meadowlark 

Family Alaudid^: 

Streaked horned lark 



64 

05 

67 

68 
70 
71 
73 
74 
76 
77 
78 
80 
80 
81 
82 
83 
85 
86 
87 
88 
90 
91 
93 
94 

97 
98 
100 
101 
UH 
104 

105 



XI 



CONTENTS 



Family Alcedinid.e: 

Belted kingfisher 
Family Corvid^: 

Steller jay 

Oregon jay . 

California jay 

Pinon jay 

Magpie 

Western crow 

Clarke nutcracker 

Family Picid^: 

Red-shafted flicker 

Northern red-breasted sapsucker 

Harris woodpecker 

Gairdner woodpecker 

California woodpecker 

Northern pileated woodpecker 
Lewis woodpecker. 

Family Odontophorid^: 

Bobwhite 

Mountain quail 

California quail 
Family Phasianid^: 

Ring-necked pheasant 
Family Tetraonid^: 

Sooty grouse 

Oregon ruffed grouse 
Family Columbid^: 

Band-tailed pigeon 

Mourning dove 
Family Scolopacid^: 

Spotted sandpiper. 
Family Charadriid^ 

Killdeer 

Xll 



PAGE 

107 



CONTENTS 



Family ('(ilymbid.e: 

Picd-billcd grebe ..... 
Family Rallid^: 

Coot ....... 

Family Ardeid.e: 

(ircat blue heron ..... 
Family Falcon id.e: 

Desert sparrow hawk .... 
Family Buteonid.e: 

Western red-tailed hawk 

Sharp-shinned hawk .... 

Cooper hawk ..... 

Family SxRiGiOiE: 

Long-eared owl ..... 

Short-eared owl ..... 

Dusky horned owl .... 

Kennicott screech owl .... 

California pygmy owl .... 
Family Aluconid.e: 

Barn owl ...... 

Family CucuLiOiE: 

Road-runner ..... 

Systematic Synopsis of Living North American 

Birds to and Including the Families . 
List of Birds Found in British Columbia, Wash 

iNGTON, Oregon and California . 
Index ....... 



PAGE 

144 
145 

146 

149 

150 
152 
154 

155 
156 
156 
158 
159 

160 

161 

165 

169 
207 



Kill 



COLOR PLATES 

PLATE 

1. Western Bluebird, Mountain Bluebird 

Frontispiece 

FACING 
PAGE 

2. Western Robin, Varied Thrush 4 
:J. Russet-backed Thrush, Sierra Hermit 

Thrush ....... g 

4. Western Golden-crowned Kinglet, Ruby- 

crowned Kinglet ..... 12 

5. Western House Wren, Seattle Wren 16 

6. Western Winter Wren, Tule Wren . 18 

7. Golden Pileolated Warbler, Pacific Yel- 

low-throat, Californl^ Yellow Warbler 22 

8. Macgillivray Warbler, Lutescent Warb- 

ler, Black-throated Gray Warbler 26 

9. Audubon Warbler, Long-tailed Chat 28 

10. Hermit Warbler, Townsend Warbler 30 

11. Western Warbling Vireo, Cassin Vireo 34 

12. Oregon Chickadee, Chestnut-backed Chick- 

adee, California Creeper . . .38 

13. Slender-billed Nuthatch, Red-breasted 

Nuthatch, Pygmy Nuthatch ... 40 

14. Bush-tit, Coast Wren-tit . .44 

15. Dipper ....... 46 

16. Rufous Hummingbird .... 50 

17. Vaux Swift, Pacific Nighthawk . 52 

18. Northern Violet-green Swallow, Tree 

Swallow, Cliff Swallow ... 56 

19. Western Martin, Barn Swallow, Rough- 

winged Swallow ..... 58 

20. Olive-sided Flycatcher, Traill Fly- 

catcher, Western Wood Pewee 62 

XV 



COLOR PLATES 



PLATE 

21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 

27. 

28. 

29. 

30. 
31. 

32. 
33. 
34. 

35. 
36. 

37. 
38. 
39. 
40. 

41. 

42. 

43. 
44. 
45. 
46. 

47. 



FACING 
PAGE 



Arkansas Kingbird, Kingbird, Say Phcebe 
Cedar Waxwing, Bohemian Waxwing 
Western Tanager, Bullock Oriole 
Black-headed Grosbeak, Lazuli Bunting 
Oregon Towhee, Oregon Junco 
Golden-crowned Sparrow, Nuttall White 

crowned Sparrow .... 
Rusty Song Sparrow, Townsend Fox Spar 

ROW, Western Lark Sparrow . 
Oregon Vesper Sparrow, Western Chipping 

Sparrow, Western Savanna Sparrow 
Willow Goldfinch, Green-backed Gold 

finch . 
Crossbill, Pine Siskin 
California Purple Finch, Cassin Purple 

Finch ...... 

Redpoll, Hepburn Rosy Finch . 

Western Evening Grosbeak 

Brewer Blackbird, Northwestern Red 

winged Blackbird .... 
Yellow-headed Blackbird, Bobolink 
Western Meadowlark, Streaked Horned 

Lark ...... 

Belted Kingfisher ..... 

Steller Jay, Oregon Jay ... 

California Jay, Pin on Jay 

Western Crow, Magpie, Clarke Nut 

CRACKER ...... 

Red-shafted Flicker, Northern Red 

breasted Sapsucker 
Harris Woodpecker, Gairdner Wood 

pecker, California Woodpecker 
Lewis Woodpecker, Pileated Woodpecker 
bobwhite ...... 

Ring-necked Pheasant 

California Quail, Mountain Quail . 

Sooty Grouse, Oregon Ruffed Grouse 



XVI 



COLOR PLATES 



PLATE 

4H. Band-tailed Pigeon, Mourning Dove 

49. KiLLDEER, Spotted Sandpiper 

50. Coot, Pied-billed Grebe 

51. Great Blue Heron .... 
di. Western Red-tailed Hawk, Desert Spar 

ROWHAWK ..... 

53. Cooper Hawk, Sharp-shinned Hawk . 

54. Dusky Horned Owl, Long-eared Owl 

Short-eared Owl .... 

55. Barn Owl, Kennicott Screech Owl, Cali 

fornia Pygmy Owl ... 

56. Road-runner ..... 



FACING 
PAGE 

144 
148 
150 
1.52 

154 
156 

158 

160 
162 



xvu 



FAMILY TURDIDM: THRUSHES, 
BLUEBIRDS 

Western blue bird, Sialia mexicana 
^ occidcntalis. 6.75 

Distribution: Pacific Coast district from 
Britisli Columbia to southern California, and 
east to western Idaho and Nevada. South- 
ward in winter to northern Mexico. 

The western bluebird is a dark purplish 
blue instead of the bright blue of the eastern 
variety. It has a rufous patch on the upper 
back and the breast is rufous, the underparts 
washed with brownish. It is in every respect 
a darker and browner bird than the eastern 
bluebird. 

The western bluebird is common through- 
out its range in the open country, about 
clearings, farms, orchards and along country 
roads where it may be seen perched on tele- 
phone poles and wires watching for the pass- 
ing insects which it pursues in true flycatcher 
fashion. At other times it is often found in 
small flocks sitting on fence posts, from which 
3 



FAMILY TiirdidcB 

vantage point it watches for small insects on 
the ground beneath, dropping into the grass 
with a dainty flick of the wings, a characteris- 
tic of the family. 

The song, or call note, of the bluebird is a 
gentle, warbling trually, trually, trually. It is 
so distinctive as to be a positive identification 
of the species, even when the bluebird is 
flying high overhead, and so far away as not 
to be distinguished in any other way. 

The western bluebird, in common with 
other bluebirds, builds its nest in natural 
cavities in trees, old woodpeckers' holes and 
in cracks and crannies about outbuildings. 
It is also one of the easiest of birds to attract 
to bird boxes, and if undisturbed will return 
to the same locality year after year. 

While the bluebird is highly migratory in 
most of its range many individuals often 
remain to winter in the protected valleys of 
the Pacific Slope. 

Mountain bluebird, Sialia curru- 
coides. 7.25 

Distribution: Mountain districts of wes- 
tern North America, breeding from Alaska 
south to the mountains of Arizona, New 
Mexico and northern Mexico, east to Wyom- 
ing and Texas, west to the Cascades and 
4 



THRUSHES, BLUEBIRDS 

Siorrca Nevadas. South in winter to Lower 
California and Mexico. 

The mountain bluebird, as its name imphes, 
inhabits the higher parts of its range, hving 
mostly in the interior arid districts of the 
West and in the mountains up to fourteen 
thousand feet. It is a common bird in east- 
ern Washington and Oregon, and throughout 
the foothills and mountains of California as 
far south as the San Bernardino Mountains. 
It comes about the ranches and builds its 
nest in any convenient hole or crevice in tree 
or })uilding and often in bird boxes. 

The exquisite coloring of the mountain 
bluebird makes it one of our most beautiful 
birds. It has all of the winning w^ays of other 
bluebirds, the same soft warble, the same 
dainty manner of lifting its wings as it alights, 
and the same butterfly-like habit of hovering 
close to the ground when in quest of some 
insect it spies in the grass. 

The mountain bluebird is especially attrac- 
tive in its favorite haunts in the high moun- 
tains. Here it may be seen in flocks about 
the mountain meadows, flying back and forth, 
stopping on its way to hover, almost motion- 
less, in midair as it sees something below, 
sometimes dropping lightly to the ground to 
seize some dainty insect morsel. In the fall 
5 



FAMILY TurdidcB 

the young are seen with the parents, in their 
soft gray plumage, with only a hint of blue, 
and speckled breast. 

The mountain bluebird is rarely found in 
the coast valleys although it sometimes 
follows the Columbia River gorge in its wan- 
derings towards the sea and may be seen in 
the burns along the mountain sides high 
above the river. 

^ Western robin, Planesticus migra- 

torius propinquus. 10.50 

Distribution: Western North America 
from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific 
Coast, north to the limit of the Coast forest 
district of Alaska (including Islands), south 
to southern end of Mexican plateau, occa- 
sionally to highlands of Guatemala. 

The robin is perhaps the most abundant 
and conspicuous of all our western birds. 
It is found everywhere from sea level to high 
mountains, both in timbered and cultivated 
areas. It comes about the home in the same 
friendly manner as does its robin cousin of 
the eastern states, building its nest in all sorts 
of places, in vines and shrubbery about the 
porch, in orchard and shade trees or in tall 
firs in the wood-lot. It preys upon the insects 
in trees and garden, and in this respect is 
6 



THRUSHES, BLUEBIRDS 

liitTJily beneficial to growing crops and should 
he i)rotected, though it makes occasional 
raids on cherries and strawberries, causing 
some damage at certain seasons of the year. 

xVlthough the robin is very tame and ap- 
proachable during the breeding season it 
seems to change its nature in the fall, after 
family cares are over, and frequents heavy 
timber w^here it gathers in flocks to roost at 
night, to sally forth in the early morning, 
scattering out over the surrounding country 
in search of food. While the w^estern robin, as 
a species, is highly migratory and moves 
south at the approach of cold weather, large 
numbers remain to winter in the protected 
valleys of the northwestern states. It is 
probable however that the w^inter robins of 
^Yashington and Oregon are the summer 
birds of farther north, and that our ow^n 
summer robins spend the winter in the sun- 
shine of southern California. 

^ Varied thrush, Ixoreus ncovius nce- 

vius. 9.50 

Distribution: Western North America; 
breeding from northern California northward 
to the limit of spruce forests in northern 
Alaska; wintering from Kadiak Island south- 
ward to southern California, and during 
7 



FAMILY TurdidcE 

migrations straggling eastward to Montana, 
Kansas, New Jersey, New York and Massa- 
chusetts. 

The northern varied thrush, a closely 
related sub-species, is found from the Yukon 
Delta south to northeastern Oregon in the 
mountains. 

The varied thrush, Alaska robin, winter 
robin, or Oregon robin as it is variously called, 
is a bird of the heavy timbered areas. It is a 
frequenter of deep woods, of shady fern-clad 
hills and alder bottoms. It lives near the 
ground where it seeks its food, turning over 
the dead leaves in search of fat worms and 
slugs. When the snow gets deep in the moun- 
tains it comes down into the valleys to pick 
at the frozen apples that may be hanging on 
the trees, or turn over the big maple leaves 
with a quick flirt of its bill to seize the be- 
numbed insects that are found there. 

At this time of year the varied thrush may 
be found along the edges of woods roads or 
fields where it watches one furtively from its 
perch on bush or limb. Its orange yellow 
breast and black collar make its identification 
easy. Its nest is usually placed in small firs 
on a limb close to the body of the tree. It is a 
large bulky nest made of twigs, leaves, grass 
and green moss. The varied thrush is a 
8 



THRUSHES. BLUEBIRDS 

mountain bird in the summer, leaving the 
valleys in May to nest well up in the timbered 
slopes of the Coast and Cascade Mountains. 
Its song is a clear, vibrant whistle given in a 
minor key and in a descending scale. It has 
a melancholy strain about it that is hard to 
describe. As the song floats down from the 
top of a giant fir in the mountains it has all 
of the w^ildness and sweetness of the song of 
the hermit thrush. 

_ r. Russet -backed thrush, Hylocichla vs- 

^^ tulaia usiulata, 7.25 

Distribution: Pacific Coast region from 
Alaska south to Lower California. Migrating 
in winter south through Mexico and Central 
America to northern South America. Abun- 
dant summer resident on the Pacific Coast 
from sea level to high mountains. Two 
closely allied species are; willow thrush of 
British Columbia, Alberta and Manitoba 
south to Central Oregon, Utah and Iowa; and 
the olive-backed thrush, found in North and 
South America and on the Pacific Coast from 
Alaska south to eastern Oregon. 

Tlie thrushes live in the deep w^oods where 

the ground is carpeted w^ith moss and ferns. 

The dozen or more species that live in the 

west are alike in their fondness for thickets 

9 



FAMILY TurdidcB 

of alder and vine maple along streams and 
for the heavily wooded hills and mountain 
sides. The delicate browns and grays of their 
plumage blend perfectly with their chosen 
haunts. They flit silently from place to place 
in the semi-darkness of the deep canyons, and 
when sitting still on some low perch are in- 
visible against the background of withered 
leaves. 

The russet-backed thrush is the only mem- 
ber of the family that is a summer resident 
in the valleys along the Pacific Coast. It is 
commonly found in alder bottoms along 
streams, in the tangle of fallen tree tops and 
vines in slashings, along the edges of quiet 
woods roads and tree bordered fields, and 
comes freely into the outskirts of towns to 
live and nest in the shrubbery in the door- 
yards. 

The nest of the russet-backed thrush is 
made almost entirely of green moss, and is a 
thick walled structure, lined with fine grass 
and feathers. It is usually placed in low 
bushes or ferns. 

The characteristic call note of this thrush 
is a sharp quit. Its beautiful tremolo song 
fills the evening woods and is often heard 
till nine or ten o'clock at night in mid- 
summer. 

10 



THRUSHES, BLUEBIRDS 

Sierra hermit thrush, Ilylocichla gut- 
tata scquoiensis. 7.00 

Distribution: Breeding in the Sierra 
Nevada and Cascade ranges from southern 
CaHfornia north to Alaska; during migrations 
southward to Mexico and Lower CaHfornia, 
and eastward to western Texas and AVyoming. 
Three closely allied species are the Audubon 
hermit thrush of the Rocky Mountain region 
of the United States (west occasionally to the 
Cascade Mountains) : the Alaska hermit 
thrush of Alaska, south along the coast in 
winter to Lower California, and east to 
western Texas; and dwarf hermit thrush of 
the coast district of Alaska and British 
Columbia (and probably also in the western 
parts of Washington and Oregon), win- 
tering southward through California and 
Mexico. 

The Sierra hermit thrush is a bird of the 
mountains, usually above five thousand feet, 
and is found in the valleys only during the 
migrations in the fall, when on its annual 
journey to its winter home in the tropics. 
It lives in damp, densely wooded localities 
where it builds its nest in some low bush, 
typical of the thrush family. 

The Sierra hermit thrush is considered the 
finest song bird of the Pacific Coast but only 
11 



FAMILY SyhiidcB 

those who visit its haunts in the high moun- 
tains will have the pleasure of hearing it. 



FAMILY SYLVIID.^: KINGLETS, GNAT- 
CATCHERS, ^YARBLERS 

^ Western golden-crowned kinglet, Re- 
gulus satrapa olivaceous. 4.00 

Distribution: Western North America 
from Alaska to California, and from the 
Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Coast. 
South in winter to Mexico and Guate- 
mala. 

The golden-crowned kinglet is an abundant 
summer resident in coniferous timber from 
sea level to high mountains throughout its 
range, and a common winter resident in all 
the coast valleys from Puget Sound south- 
wards. During the summer the golden- 
crowned kinglet keeps well in the big firs that 
clothe the hills, where their lisping call notes 
nay be heard far overhead as they troop 
:hrough the woods, their tiny forms and 
olivaceous coloring making them almost in- 
visible in the dim light of the heavy growth. 
In the winter, however, they may be found 
everywhere in mixed woods, frequenting the 
lower branches of the trees along the edges of 
12 



X 



■^ ^ 




KINGLETS, GNAT-CATCHERS, ETC. 

old fields, woods roads and hillsides, where 
they may be studied easily. At this season 
of the year they like to associate with chicka- 
dees and bush-tits, large numbers of the three 
families often being seen together in friendly 
flocks. 

As a rule kinglets travel high in bright 
weather and low in misty or rainy weather. 
In the winter when the firs are bending low 
with their load of wet snow the kinglets may 
be seen creeping over the snow picking up 
tiny insects, sometimes dozens of them on 
one small tree talking to each other in cheery 
tones and seemingly regardless of an obser- 
ver's near presence. 

The golden-crowned kinglet builds a beau- 
tiful nest of green moss and vegetable fibers, 
concealing it in a dense clump of needles of 
fir or spruce from twenty to one hundred feet 
from the ground. The ruby-crowned kinglet 
keeps more to the mountains in the summer 
than does the golden-crowned, building its 
nest high in the conifers, and coming down 
into the valleys on its way south during its 
migrations in the f all . Its nest is semi-pensile, 
made of moss, vegetable fibers and plant 
down, lined with feathers. It is usually 
placed in conifers from twenty to one hundred 
feet from the ground. 

13 



FAMILY Sylviidce 

Ruby-crowned kinglet, Regulus calen- 
dula calendula. 4.00 

Distribution: North America in general, 
in wooded districts, north to the limit of trees 
from Labrador to Alaska. Breeding south 
to the middle United States, and wintering 
in the southern part of the United States, 
Mexico and Central America. Common in 
winter in the protected valleys on the Pacific 
Coast north to Washington. Two closely 
related species are the Sitka kinglet, found 
on the Pacific Coast from Alaska to 
southern British Columbia, south in win- 
ter to middle California; and the dusky 
kinglet of Guadaloupe Island, Lower Cali- 
fornia. 

The ruby-crowned kinglet may be found in 
company with the golden-crowned and chick- 
adees in second growth woods, and in the 
tangle of alder and vine maples along streams. 
Its call or alarm note is a sharp chit-it, chit-it- 
it which together with its peculiar habit of 
daintily "flicking" its wings as it moves 
nervously from branch to branch, makes its 
identification easy. The song of the ruby- 
crowned kinglet is a gem of bird music. It 
begins with a series of rapidly uttered couplets 
low and quavering, and ends with two or 
three sets of triplets. It is such a fascinating 
14 



WRENS 

song, so distinctive and unusual, as to be 
always remembered . 

FAMILY TROGLODYTID/E: WRENS 

Seattle wren, Thryomanes hewicki calo- 
phoniis 5.00 

Distribution: Pacific Coast district of 
British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon. 
The Vigors wTcn, Baird wren, San Diego 
wren, San Clements wren and Guadeloupe 
wren are closely related species of California 
and the southwest. 

The Seattle w ren is the largest of the family 
in the northwest and may be distinguished 
from any other WTen in its range by the dis- 
tinct white line over the eye. It may be 
found everywhere from sea level to the Cas- 
cades in heavy timber, in the dense mixed 
woods along streams, along the edges of 
woods roads in the tangle of logs, vines and 
brush, and about the farms in the brushy 
fence rows and overgrown pastures. 

The song and call notes of the Seattle WTen 
are quite different from the other species. 
It has an alarm note that is almost explosive 
in its suddenness, a rasping scolding note and 
two or three different songs according to the 
season of the year. The song is loud and 
15 



FAMILY TroglodytidcB 

clear and may be heard a long distance away. 
In the Puget Sound district this bird has 
what is called its 'Svaterfall song," a beauti- 
ful liquid trill of a dozen notes, uttered 
rapidly, in a descending scale, and unlike 
the song of any other bird in the North- 
w^est. 

The Seattle wren is a shyer bird than the 
house wren and keeps closer to the thickets 
where there is shelter in which to dive when 
danger threatens. Its nest is tucked into any 
convenient nook or corner about old build- 
ings, in hollow logs and cavities in trees. It 
seldom accepts a bird box, preferring the 
shelter of the woods rather than the dis- 
turbance and noise about dwellings. 

Although the Seattle wren is more or less 
migratory it is found most of the year through- 
out its range, living in the dense woods during 
cold weather, though often appearing in the 
open glades to whistle a low sweet song when 
the sun breaks through the wintry clouds. 

Western house wren, Troglodytes cedon 

parkmani, 4.75 

Distribution: Western United States and 

Canada from British Columbia, Alberta and 

Manitoba south to Mexico, and from the 

Mississippi Valley to the Pacific Coast. 

16 



^ 



v» 




f ■:4 



1 











WRENS 

The western house \\Ten resembles its 
cousin of the East in both habits and song, 
and Hves the same jolly Hfe in the midst of its 
chosen surroundings of tangle and brush pile, 
or in the shrubbery about the home. Wher- 
ever there is thick cover in which to range, 
there it will be found, from sea level to moun- 
tain top. It is particularly fond of brush- 
grown fence rows along the edges of old fields 
where it may be heard singing or scolding by 
turns as it seeks its food in the tangle, or on 
the ground running along the lower rail of a 
fence and in and out amongst the weed stalks 
like a mouse. The song is a bubbling, rollick- 
ing performance that goes on incessantly 
from daylight until dark, interspersed with 
much scolding if an intruder happens on its 
hunting grounds or comes too near its nest. 
The nest of the house wren is a bulky mass of 
twigs, grass and weed stems, lined with moss 
and feathers and placed indifferently in 
natural cavities in trees, in old woodpecker 
holes, in cracks and crannies about old build- 
ings, and often in bird boxes. The house 
wren is frequently found as far north as 
the Columbia River during the winter 
although most of the family migrate to 
the southern border of the United States in 
the fall. 

2 17 



FAMILY TroglodytidcB 

Western winter wren, N annus hiemalis 
'pacificus. 4.00 

Distribution: Western North America 
from southern Alaska to southern Cahfornia, 
and from Montana, Idaho, Nevada, and 
Colorado west to the Pacific Coast; wintering 
southward to southern California. 

The winter wrens live for the most part 
in deep shady woods where there is a tangle 
of fallen tree tops and mossy logs. There you 
will see them creeping along in mouse-like 
fashion examining every crack and cranny 
in the bark for possible food. When dis- 
turbed they will scold with a sharp chip, and 
if you approach too near they will dive into 
any convenient tangle, to reappear in a 
moment from the opposite side and watch 
for your next move. 

The winter wren, as its name implies, is more 
or less a permanent resident in the vicinity of 
its summer home. During the severest weather 
it may be found in the shelter of deep canyons, 
seemingly indifferent to cold or storm. 

Its nest is hidden in crevices and holes in 
hollow logs and stumps and under the over- 
hanging roots of trees. A favorite location 
for its nest is underneath the end of a pro- 
jecting log over running water. The nest is 
composed of all sorts of rubbish wedged into 
18 



WRENS 

a huge crack or behind a loose piece of bark. 
The winter wren is the smallest and brownest 
of all our wrens and this fact together with its 
song will distinguish it from all others of the 
family. Its song is a rippling outburst like 
that of the house wren but longer sustained 
and uttered in a higher key. To hear it at its 
best you must go to the deep woods, to a spot 
where the sun comes sifting through the 
leaves overhead, and there on an upturned 
root the little bird will pour out its melody 
of happiness and cheer to its mate that is 
brooding her eggs in some cosy retreat nearby. 

Tule wren, Telviatodytes palustris palu- 
'^^^^ dicola. 5.30 

Distribution: Pacific Coast region from 
British Columbia to California, west of the 
Cascades and Sierra Nevadas. 

The tule wren is the marsh WTcn of the 
Pacific Coast. It is found in the thick cover 
of marsh grass and tules along the borders 
of sloughs, ponds and shallow lakes, where it 
may be common, although rarely seen because 
of its shyness. The best way to study its 
habits is to go in a skiff to its haunts and 
paddle quietly along the edge of the marsh. 
It will soon notice your intrusion and begin to 
scold, bobbing up and down, jerking its tail and 
10 



FAMILY MniotiltidcB 

in most positive terms showing its displeasure. 

The tule wren has all of the nest building 
passion of its kind, constructing half a dozen 
but occupying on^ one. Its nest is a thick- 
walled structure made of tule leaves lined with 
the pith of the stalks and thickly padded with 
this material. The eggs are purplish brown 
in color and from five to nine in number. 

The tule wren is as full of song as the house 
wren and during the nesting season the marsh 
is a medley of little bird voices. They will 
sing and scold by turns, a comical sight as 
they cling to some swaying stalk of grass, 
bubbling over with wrath at your impudence, 
or with happiness at the thought of the babies 
tucked away in the round ball of a nest that 
is hung in the tules a few feet from the water. 

Any distinct field markings are lacking 
in the tule wren, although the back is slightly 
streaked with white, being different in this 
respect from other wrens in its territory. 

FAMILY MNIOTILTID^: WOOD 
WARBLERS 

^ California yellow warbler, Dendroica 

cestiva hrewsteri. 4.50 

Distribution: From northern Washington 

to southern California, west of the Cascade 

and Sierra Nevada Mountains. The Alaska 

20 



WOOD WARBLERS 

yellow warbler, a closely related species, is 
found on the Pacific Slope from Alaska to 
Vancouver Island, wintering south through 
Mexico to Nicaragua. 

The yellow warbler is the summer yellow 
bird of the whole United States. It is the 
commonest of the warblers, coming north 
in April and May to fill the woods with its 
cheery song, taking possession of the big 
maples in town and country where it loves to 
dwell. Although found from sea level to high 
mountains it is particularly fond of mixed 
woods along the edges of old fields and open 
park-like timber where the sun comes sifting 
through the leaves to warm the ground 
beneath. Its song is variously interpreted by 
different writers, but Chapman renders it as, 
wee-chee-chee, chee-chee, chur-wee, or, stveet, 
sweety sweet, sweet, sweeter, sweeter, etc. 

The yellow warbler is the most persistent 
singer of all the family and no summer day is 
complete without its music floating in from the 
tree tops. Its nest is placed in small bushes 
and trees, sometimes in willows along streams. 

^^ Pacific yellow-throat, Geothhjpis trichas 

arizela. 4.70 

Distribution: Pacific Coast region from 

British Columbia to southern California, east 

21 



FAMILY Mniotiltidce 

to the Cascades and Sierra Nevadas. South 
in winter to Mexico and Lower Cahfornia. 
The western yellows-throat, a closely related 
species, is found from the Mississippi Valley 
west to the Cascades and Sierra Nevadas; 
wintering in Central America. 

The Pacific yellow-throat is a bird of the 
marsh and wet meadows, of brush-grown 
pastures, and of the tangle of weeds and vines 
along railroad cuts and rail fences. It loves 
the protection of the tall grass that grows by 
the side of ditches and here it usually builds 
its nest near the ground well hidden by the 
thick cover. The black domino worn by the 
Pacific yellow-throat, together with its dis- 
tinctive song will easily identify this from all 
other warblers of the West. Its song is 
variously interpreted by different observers 
but may be rendered as, witch-a-wee-o, witch- 
a-wee-o, witch-a-wee-o, witch. One enthusias- 
tic bird student seemed to hear it say, *' Willie- 
come-ere, Willie-come-ere, Willie-come-ere, 
Willie." 

^o 1 Golden pileolated warbler, Wilsonia 
pusitla cnryseola. 4.%5 

Distribution : Pacific Coast district of the 
United States and British Columbia. Win- 
tering in southern California and Mexico. 
22 




2 o 






WOOD WARBLERS 

The pileolated warbler is a closely related 
species found in all of the western country 
from Alaska to Arizona and from the Rocky 
Mountains to the Pacific. Less common than 
the former along the coast. 

The golden pileolated warbler lives in the 
thickets of alder and vine maple along streams, 
thick damp woods, along the edges of woods 
roads and in the tangle of brush and vines 
that line the deep canyons. Its quiet song of 
four or five notes is uttered in a descending 
scale and is not distinctive. Its black cap is 
a certain field mark since no other of the 
yellow warblers has it. The golden pileolated 
warbler is an abundant summer resident 
throughout its range but keeps so close to 
cover as to escape observation unless one is 
watching for it. Its nest is of the usual 
warbler type usually placed in bushes near 
the ground. 

^ . Lutescent warbler, Vermivora cclafa 
646a - 

lidescens. 4.30 

Distribution: From southern Alaska to 
Mexico, and from the Rocky Mountains to 
the Pacific. Abundant summer resident of 
the Pacific Coast district; wintering in south- 
ern Mexico and Central America. 

The lutescent warbler is common every- 
23 



FAMILY MniotiltidcB 

where from sea level to high mountains, but 
is most often found in second growth woods, 
and is particularly abundant on brush-covered 
hillsides, along woods roads and about the 
edges of old fields in the lower branches of the 
trees. It is the earliest of the warblers to 
come north in the spring, appearing in the 
northern part of its range by the first of 
March. 

The lutescent warbler is the plainest of all 
our western warblers and lacks any distinc- 
tive markings. It is an olive gi-een bird above 
and pale olive yellow below, with yellowish 
eye ring and a dull orange patch on crown, 
which is covered by tips of adjoining feathers. 
Its very plainness together with its beautiful 
song, a long, well-sustained trill of a dozen 
or more notes, w^ll distinguish it from any 
other w^arbler. The song is uttered rapidly 
and ends either in an ascending or descending 
scale. The nest is placed on the ground at 
the foot of a bush, usually in deep woods on 
a hillside. 

^. Black-throated gray warbler, Den- 

droica nigrescens . 4.40 

Distribution: From British Columbia to 

Mexico and from the Roc :y Mountains to 

the Pacific Coast. Abundant summer resi- 

U 



WOOD WARBLERS 

dent of the Pacific Coast. Wintering through 
Mexico to Central America. 

The bhick-throated gray warbler is abun- 
dant throughout its range from sea level to 
high mountains in both coniferous timber 
and mixed woods. It keeps more to the upper 
branches than do most of the warblers, es- 
pecially in bright weather but comes down 
into the lower branches and undergrowth in 
misty or cloudy weather. It has striking 
black and white, lengthwise streaked plumage 
making it easily recognized among all our 
western warblers, except Townsend's, which it 
resembles in general appearance at a distance, 
but which, when seen closely will not be con- 
fused with it. The song of the black- 
throated gray warbler is an indistinct medley 
of notes resembling that of both the Town- 
send and hermit, except in the ending, which 
has a zee, zee quality that is distinctive and 
may be recognized as far as it is heard. The 
nest is placed in some conifer from twenty to 
fifty feet from the ground. 

.^ Macgillivray warbler, Oporomis to!- 

miei. 5.00 

Distribution: From British Columbia to 

southern California, Arizona and New iNIex- 

ico and from the Rocky Mountains to the 

25 



FAMILY MniotiltidcB 

Pacific. An abundant summer resident along 
the Pacific Coast. Wintering throughout 
Mexico and Central America to northern 
South America. 

The Macgillivray warbler, like the lu- 
tescent, lives near the ground, frequenting 
brush-covered hillsides, thickets of vine maple 
and alder and the tangle of logs and vines 
along woods roads, and streams and swampy 
places. Its slate-gray head and neck, and 
peculiar ventriloquial song are distinctive 
and will aid in its identification. The nest is 
placed in the tangle of vines and brush near 
the ground. 

^ . Audubon warbler, Dendroica auduhoni 
auduhoni. 5.00 

Distribution: Western North America 
from British Columbia to southern California, 
Arizona and New Mexico, and from the Great 
Plains to the Pacific Coast. Wintering south 
to Guatemala. 

The Audubon warbler is the commonest 
and most distinctive of all our western 
warblers. It is found from sea level to high 
mountains throughout its range, both in 
mixed woods and coniferous timber. It may 
be seen along the edges of old fields in second 
growth woods, in fruit orchards where it is 
26 



WOOD WARBLERS 

abundant during blossoming time, catching 
the tiny insects that swarm about the blooms, 
and along woods roads on the hills and in the 
valleys. The Audubon warbler is a restless 
little bird, ever on the wing, darting from tree 
to tree in pursuit of flying insects or chasing 
its fellows in and out among the trees and 
bushes in a Ceaseless game of tag. With 
spread tail and fluttering wings its move- 
ment reminds one of a butterfly as it fairly 
dances from the top of one tree to another. 
It may be distinguished from all other of the 
western warblers by its five yellow patches on 
crown, throat, sides and rump. The song of 
the Audubon warbler is one of the earliest 
heard in the spring. It is loud and clear, with 
many variations, and may be heard a long 
way off. Its favorite perch when singing is 
the highest point on some conifer or other tall 
forest tree. Although the warblers as a group 
are highly migratory, most of them leaving 
the United States entirely in the winter, the 
Audubon warbler may be found in large 
numbers in the winter as far north as southern 
British Columbia. In their winter dress they 
retain only the yellow rump patch and in this 
grayish garb they go about in small flocks 
seeking their living in weedy old fields and 
along roadsides. 

«7 



FAMILY MniotiltidcB 

The nest is usually placed in small firs 
about twenty-five feet from the ground. It 
is rather a large nest for a warbler, loosely 
built, and composed of fir twigs, weeds, root- 
lets, moss and dry grass, lined with hair and 
feathers. 

.^ Long- tailed chat, Icteria virens longi- 
cauda. 6.75 

Distribution : Western United States from 
the Great Plains to the Pacific Coast, and 
from British Columbia to southern Mexico. 
Wintering in Mexico and Central America. 

The long-tailed chat is the largest of the 
warblers and very unlike any other member 
of the family. It makes its home in dense 
thickets and in the tangle of vines and brush 
in swampy places . No other warbler, and few 
birds of any kind, possess the individuality 
of the chat. Its form, call notes and habits 
are all pronounced and characteristic making 
it one of the most interesting birds in the 
world. No other small bird has such a vo- 
cabulary of call notes, gurgles, chuckles or imi- 
tations of other birds. It is chut, chut, chut, 
or quoort, quoort, quoort, and again, whew, 
whew, whew, and sometimes a kee-yuk; then a 
series of hawk or jay notes startling in their 
suddenness and close imitations. Its presence 
28 







\ 




WOOD WARBLERS 

Is usually madr known by a suddon ckui, chut, 
cJiuf, from out \hv depths of a marshy place. 
After this introduction it will follow with a 
number of its various call notes. It is a very 
shy and suspicious bird and at the least sign 
that it is being watched, will dive into the 
underbrush and slink away in silence. It 
sometimes bursts into an ecstasy of song and 
will jump into the air fluttering its wings and 
warbling in a delightful manner. The nest of 
the long-tailed chat is hidden in the center of 
some thicket close to the ground. It is made 
of dead leaves and fine grass and lined with 
finer gi'asses. 

^^o Townsend warbler, Dendroica toum- 

668 . 

sendi. 4.50 

Distribution: Western North America 
from southern Alaska to southern California, 
and from the Great Plains to the Pacific Coast. 
Abundant summer resident of the Pacific 
Coast states, thinning out eastward. During 
migrations to Colorado, western Texas and 
south to Guatemala. 

The summer home of the Tow^nsend warb- 
ler is in the heavy timber that clothes the 
hills and mountain ranges. Its weak song 
comes drifting down to one from the tops of 
tall firs and only once in a w hile will one catch 
29 



FAMILY MniotiltidcB 

a glimpse of the bird itself as it flits from the 
top of one tree to another. Occasionally it 
will come down near the ground to feed in 
the lower branches of the trees. At such 
times it fairly dances from bush to bush with 
wings a-flutter and tail spread wide, showing 
the white outer tail feather. In action it 
resembles the Audubon warbler with all its 
butterfly-like traits. 

There is nothing distinctive about the 
Townsend warbler by which it may be easily 
identified, except the triangular black patch 
enclosing the eye, surrounded by the yellow 
on the side of the head. During the fall 
migrations these marks have a faded appear- 
ance, the males, females and young of the 
year looking very much alike. The nest of 
the Townsend warbler is rarely found. It is 
reported as being placed in bushes and in firs 
well up from the ground. 

^^ Hermit warbler, Dendroica occidentalis. 
''^ 4.50 

Distribution: From British Columbia to 
southern California, and from the Rocky 
Mountains to the Pacific Coast. Abundant 
summer resident throughout its range in con- 
iferous timber. Wintering south of the United 
States in Mexico and Central America. 
30 







\- V 



WOOD WARBLERS 

The hermit warbler is found along with the 
Townsend in the same kind of woods, usually 
high in the firs but sometimes showing itself 
on the lower branches of the mixed woods, 
or along the edges of quiet woods roads in the 
tangle of alder and vine maple. It seems to 
be far commoner than the Townsend warbler, 
frequenting the fir-clad hills in all parts of its 
range and swarming through the valleys 
during the spring and fall migrations. The 
hermit warbler shows to best advantage in 
the firs, its bright yellow head, black throat 
and white underparts making a striking 
picture against the background of greenery. 
It may be easily distinguished from all other 
of our western warblers by its unusual colora- 
tion. While the hermit warbler is quite 
common in many localities it keeps well to 
cover and must be diligently sought for by the 
bird student w^ho wishes to become familiar 
with it in its native haunts. 

The song of the hermit warbler is varied. 
In some cases it resembles that of the black- 
throated gray, again that of the Townsend 
warbler, but it has a very peculiar and dis- 
tinctive song of its ow^n that, when once heard, 
will never be forgotten. If set to words it 
would say, see here, see here, I see you. The 
first four notes are given in couplets, and in a 

31 



FAMILY VireonidcB 

sharply ascending scale, the last three in a 
sharply descending scale. The song is en- 
tirely different from that of any other western 
warbler and as it comes floating down from 
the top of some giant fir in the big woods its 
unusual cadence will instantly attract the 
attention of those whose ears are attuned to 
bird music. 

The nest of the hermit warbler is placed in 
all sorts of locations from small trees along 
mountain streams to high conifers in the 
mountains. 

FAMILY VIREONIDM: VIREOS 

^ Western warbling vireo, Vireosylva 

gilva swainsoni. 5.00 

Distribution: Western United States and 
British Columbia south to Mexican border, 
and from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific 
Coast. South in winter through Mexico. 
An abundant summer resident on the Pacific 
Slope. Two closely allied species include the 
Hutton vireo of California, Oregon and Wash- 
ington west of the Cascades and Sierra Neva- 
das; and the red-eyed vireo that is rarely 
(and irregularly), found in the Sierras and 
Cascades from California to northern Wash- 
ington. 

32 



VIREOS 

Vireos are not confined to any particular 
kind of woods. They seem to be everywhere. 
If you go to the seashore they are there in the 
thickets of manzanita and lodge-pole pine. 
If you journey to the mountains you find 
them filling the big woods with their song. 
But they are most abundant in the valleys, 
living in the heavy timber that covers the 
hills, in the thickets of alder and vine maple 
in the canyons or in the deep woods that skirt 
old fields and quiet country roads. They are 
common in parks where they build their 
nests in dogwood and hazel along steep banks; 
and they inhabit the trees and shrubbery of 
vacant city lots, peering at you from the 
overhanging limbs while searching the under- 
side of leaves for tiny insects. 

Vireos are so nearly the color of the green- 
ery in which they live that it is often diflScult 
to see them, and since their plumage lacks 
distinctive markings one must rely on the 
song for identification unless one can observe 
them at arm's length. 

. Cassin vireo, Lanivireo solitarius cas- 

sini. 5.'i5 

Distribution : Pacific Coast district of the 

United States and British Columbia, south 

to southern California, and east to Idaho, 

3 33 



FAMILY VireonidcE 

Wyoming and Utah. South in winter to the 
western part of Mexico. An abundant sum- 
mer resident of the Pacific Coast states. 

The white line over the eye and absence of 
wing bars will identify the warbling vireo, 
while the ring around the eye and distinct 
white wing bars will indicate the Cassin vireo. 

The Vireos comprise a very compact and 
w^ell-defined family of about one hundred 
species that are confined to the western 
hemisphere. About twenty species visit the 
United States in the summer, ranging north- 
ward to the Canadian Provinces. They are 
noted for their musical ability and on this 
account are among the most delightful of all 
the smaller birds of our country. The song 
of the warbling vireo is loud and clear with a 
rhythm that carries you with it. That of the 
Cassin vireo seems to talk to you out of the 
deep woods and seems to say, / see you, do 
you see vie? I do, do you? During the nesting 
season they sing incessantly and dominate the 
woods with their melody, and both sexes sing 
while sitting on the nest during incubation. 

The nest of the vireo is a dainty basket 
hung by the edges to a slender fork in tree or 
bush, usually in dogwood, alder or hazel on 
the side of a steep bank. It is a thick-walled, 
well-woven structure of various vegetable 
34 




Iff gf A k^ 



••' ■••»• ir^.»3kf 



T'-i:<*|fc? 



r^uW 



TITMICE 

fihcM's, HiumI willi plant down and iVatliors 
and otlu^r soft materials. Wlicn the wintry 
l)lasts have cleared the trees of leaves their 
nests may be fonnd everywhere along woods 
roads where they have remained well hidden 
among the greenery during the nesting season. 

FAMILY PARIDM: TITMICE 

, Oregon chickadee, Penthestes atricapil- 
lusoccidentalis. 5.00 

Distribution: Pacific Coast district from 
Alaska to California west of the Cascade 
Mountains. Three closely allied species 
include the long-tailed chickadee of western 
North America from Alaska south to eastern 
Oregon; mountain chickadee, found from 
central British Columbia south to southern 
California and Arizona; and the Bailey 
mountain chickadee, breeding in the moun- 
tains of southern Oregon, eastern California, 
to Lower California. 

The Oregon chickadee is found everywhere 
in its range from sea level to high mountains. 
It seems equally common in coniferous 
timber and mixed woods. Its fi^vorite haunts 
are thickets of vine maple and alder along 
streams, brushy hillsides grown up to dog- 
wood and hazel, or the borders of woods 
35 



FAMILY ParidcB 

roads. The Oregon chickadee prefers the 
lower branches of the trees and may be 
found trooping through the woods, often in 
company with kinglets and bush-tits, peering 
into crevices and holes in trees or tearing 
open the rolled up leaves and cocoons in 
search of fat grubs. 

The gray and black of its plumage blends 
so well with its surroundings that the Oregon 
chickadee is often hard to see against the 
mottled bark of its favorite alder and dog- 
wood trees, but its distinct whistled song of 
three notes, or its chickadee, dee, dee, dee, call 
notes will help to identify this species. 

The Oregon chickadee is resident wherever 
found and because of the nature of its food 
supply is able to exist in the coldest weather. 
It has the habit of using its last year's nesting 
hole to sleep in during cold nights, several 
birds often occupying the same hole together. 
The Oregon chickadee builds its nest in 
natural cavities in trees, old woodpeckers' 
holes or bird boxes. Large quantities of warm 
materials are gathered to fill the bottom of 
the cavity, the lining being usually bits of 
animal hair of various kinds and feathers. 
The tiny eggs number from five to nine. 
They are pure white, thickly dotted with 
reddish brown. 

36 



TITMICE 

Chestnut-backed chickadee, Penthes- 
^ tcsrufcsccnsrufesceyis. 4.75 

Distribution: Pacific Coast district from 
Alaska south to northern CaHfornia, east 
to Idaho and INIontana. Two closely 
related species found in California are 
the California chickadee and the Barlow 
chickadee. 

The chestnut-backed chickadee is a bird 
of coniferous timber, living in the upper 
branches of the trees where it spends much 
of its time pecking at the cones of the Doug- 
las fir. In the summer it seems to keep well 
to the heavy timber along the crests of the 
hills, coming down into the valleys in the fall 
and winter to feed in the lower woods and 
underbrush along with the bush-tits and 
kinglets but rarely mixing with the Oregon 
chickadee in its wanderings. 

The chestnut-backed chickadee may be 
distinguished from the Oregon by its smaller 
size and the well-defined rufous brown of its 
back and sides. Both its song and call notes 
are weaker than those of the Oregon chicka- 
dee. The song has more of a wiry quality, 
and the chickadee-dee notes are far less pro- 
nounced. When a flock of chestnut-backs, 
kinglets and bush-tits are ranging through 
the tree tops together it is often difficult to 
37 



FAMILY ParidcE 

tell them apart on account of the resemblance 
of then- lisping call notes. 

The nesting habits of the chestnut-backed 
chickadee are in all respects like those of the 
Oregon chickadee. 

Bush-tit, Psaltriparus minimus mini- 
vius. 4.25 

Distribution: Pacific Coast region from 
Washington to Lower California; and from 
the Cascades and Sierra Nevadas to the 
Pacific. The California bush-tit of California, 
except on the northwest coast, and the lead- 
colored bush-tit of eastern Oregon, to Wyom- 
ing and south to Arizona, Texas and Califor- 
nia are closely related species. 

The bush-tit is found everywhere from the 
mountains to the sea but mostly in open 
country away from heavy timber. One may 
expect to see it along the edges of woods 
roads in second growth timber, and in the 
tangle of fallen logs and brush in slashings 
and cut-over lands. Then too the brushy 
slopes of deep canyons afford cover for these 
little gray birds as they go trooping from 
place to place in search of food. They may 
be seen clinging head downwards in true 
titmouse fashion as they examine every 
curled leaf or cocoon for a possible chrysalis 
38 



\f ^"^^ 




WREN-TITS 

or grub, all the while keeping up a subdued 
conversation in lisping tones that reminds 
one of the kinglets. Late in the summer, 
when the nesting season is over, bush-tits 
may be seen in large flocks, probably several 
families united, wandering about the country, 
flitting across the road ahead of one or cling- 
ing to the side of gravel pit or cut bank search- 
ing the tiny crevices for insects. 

In the winter bush-tits are found in com- 
pany with chickadees and kinglets moving 
through the woods in leisurely fashion, calling 
to one another in cheery notes, seemingly 
indifferent to cold or stormy w^eather. The 
nest of the bush-tit is a purse-shaped affair 
about ten inches long, woven of vegetable 
fibers and moss and hung to the sw^aying 
slender end of fir or hemlock bough, or placed 
in a bush along the side of some steep canyon. 
The entrance is near the top, often so small 
that the little bird has to wriggle in and out 
like a mouse. The tiny eggs are five to nine 
in number. 

FAMILY CHAM^IDJE: ^YREN-TITS 

, Coast wren-tit, Chamooa fasciaia phooa. 

^-'-'' ' 5.00 

Distribution: Coast counties of northern 

California and Oregon to the Columbia River, 

39 



FAMILY CJiamcEidcB 

between the mountains and the sea. The 
pallid and the ruddy wren-tits are found in 
California and the southwest. 

The coast wren-tit is found in the dense 
grow^th of salal, manzanita and lodge-pole 
pines that clothe the ridges along the coast. 
It delights in the thick cover from which it 
rarely shows itself except to dart from one 
dense patch of brush to another in its travels. 
One's first introduction to this queer yet 
delightful little bird is usually a sharp scold- 
ing on the part of the wren-tit that sounds 
hke the w^ooden rattle that the small boy 
whirls in his fingers. Then one may hear a 
queer tremolo whistle that sounds like the 
subdued quaver of the screech owl. The call 
will probably be taken up and repeated by 
several other tits from different directions, 
the whole performance being very unusual 
in bird life. The song may be described as 
keep, keep, keep, keep-it, keep-it, keep-it, 
running down the scale, starting slowly and 
ending in a trill. And another song may be 
rendered, pee, pee, pee, peep, peep, peep, peep, 
in a slow and monotonous tone. The nest 
is described by Finley as well made and 
deeply cupped, resembling that of the 
lazuli bunting. It is usually well hidden in 
low brush. 

40 



CREEPERS 

FAMILY CERTIIIID/E: CREEPERS 

. California creeper, Certhia familiaris 
occidentalis. 5.00 

Distribution : From central British Colum- 
bia south through central Washington, Ore- 
gon and California to the mountains of Los 
Angeles county. Two closely allied species 
are the tawny creeper found along the humid 
coast district from northern California to 
southern Alaska, and the Sierra creeper of 
the Cascade and Sierra Nevada mountains 
of Oregon and California. 

The creepers are quiet little brown birds that 
spend their lives examining the rough bark of 
the big forest trees for food. This they do by 
climbing spirally up the tree to the large 
branches and then flying to the bottom of the 
next tree nearby to repeat the performance. 

They have a weak lisping call note that 
can be heard but a short distance away, and 
are said to have a short sweet song of four 
notes, which only a few observers have been 
fortunate enough to hear. Their small size, 
brownish striping, long slender curved bill 
and creeping habits will aid in identifying the 
creepers. They usually build their nests 
behind a loose piece of bark from twenty to 
fifty feet from the ground. 
41 



FAMILY Sittidct 
FAMILY SITTID.E: NUTHATCHES 

Slender-billed nuthatch. Sitta carolin- 

ensis aculeata. 5.50 

Distribution: Pacific Coast district from 
interior of British Columbia to northern 
Lower California and east to the Cascades 
and Sierra Nevadas. The Rocky Mountain 
nuthatch, a closely related species, is found 
in the interior of North America west as far 
as the eastern base of the Cascades and 
Sierra Nevadas. 

The slender-billed is the largest of the 
western nuthatches and may be distinguished 
from the other species by its white under- 
parts, bluish gray upper-parts and black cap. 
Its peculiar yajik, yank, call note, uttered in 
a deliberate manner, is a good clue to its 
identity. During its cross country trips from 
ridge to ridge it may often be seen about the 
orchards and wood-lots in the valleys busily 
engaged in searching the rough bark of the 
trees for small insects. 

^ Red-breasted nuthatch, Sitta canaden- 
^^ sis, 4.50 

Distribution: Forest districts of northern 
North America and higher mountains of the 
United States, from Labrador and Alaska 
south to middle United States. 
42 



NUTHATCHES 

The red-breasted nuthatch is a smaller 
bird than the slender-billed and may be dis- 
tinguished by its reddish brown sides and 
breast and white line over the eye. Its nasal 
yanJi, yank, is also uttered more rapidly and 
in a higher key. It wanders from tree to tree 
in the restless manner of its kind, running up 
a tree spirally and going out on the big 
limbs, sometimes to the very tips, often 
hanging head downwards like a chicka- 
dee, while it examines the clusters of fir 
needles for food. 

Pygmy nuthatch, Sitta pygmoea pyg- 
^'^^ moea. 4.20 

Distribution : Mountains of western North 
America and Mexico, north to British Colum- 
bia, and from the Pacific Coast east to 
Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and New 
Mexico. The white-naped nuthatch, a near 
relative, is found in southern California in 
San Diego County, south into Lower Cali- 
fornia. 

The pygmy nuthatch lives in the moun- 
tains and only rarely comes down into the 
valleys. Only those who go to its haunts will 
make its acquaintance. Its small size and 
the white patch on the back of its neck will 
serve to identify it. 

43 



FAMILY SittidcB 

The nuthatches are small, soft-plumaged, 
square-tailed little birds that spend their 
lives running up and down the tree trunks 
looking for food. All of them are denizens 
of the forests, usually keeping well to the big 
woods where they lead a more or less solitary 
life. One seldom sees more than half a dozen 
together and then it is probably a family 
party. In the winter however they often 
congregate in good-sized flocks to w^ander 
about in search of food during the day, and 
sleep together in old woodpeckers holes at 
night. One observer counted twenty-one 
pygmy nuthatches coming out of one hole 
in the early morning. 

Nuthatches build their nests in natural 
cavities in trees, old woodpeckers' holes and 
in holes which they dig for themselves in 
decayed trees. 

The nests are lined with bits of wool, plant 
down, feathers and the brown fuzz gathered 
from the stems of ferns. The five to nine tiny 
eggs are pure white thickly speckled with 
reddish brown. After leaving the nest the 
young follow the parents about begging for 
food, and a party of them perched on the top 
of an old snag holding an animated conversa- 
tion in nuthatch language is an interesting 
sight. 

44 



DIPPERS 

FAMILY CINCLID/E: DIPPERS 

Dipper (Water ouzel), C Indus mexi- 
701 ' ' ^. , ^ 

canus unicolor. 7.75 

Distribution : Mountains of western North 
America from near tree limit in northwestern 
Alaska, northeastern British Columbia, and 
west central Alberta south to northern Lower 
California and southern New Mexico; acci- 
dental in the Black Hills, South Dakota and 
in western Nebraska. Resident wherever 
found. 

The dipper, or water ouzel, belongs to one 
of the most unique as well as one of the 
smallest families of birds in the world. The 
family has been traced back to its probable 
home in the high Himalaya Mountains of 
northern India from whence it spread over the 
mountainous districts of the w^orld. Five 
species are found in the western hemisphere, 
one in North and four in South America. It 
is found only in the vicinity of rushing moun- 
tain streams in which it lives and finds its 
food supply. 

Its plumage is a soft lusterless gray, very 
compact and practically waterproof. The 
body has also a secondary coat of oily down 
like that on typical water birds, and this 
marks it as unique among strictly land birds. 
45 



FAMILY CinclidcB 

The eye is provided with a nictitating mem- 
brane, or third eyehd, which protects it from 
injury in its underwater journeys. 

The dipper is common in the mountains 
of the Pacific Slope, in many places following 
the streams down to the foothills where it 
may be seen darting ahead of the fisherman 
as he works upstream, or standing on a water- 
worn boulder bobbing up and down in its 
peculiar fashion. The relationship of the 
dipper to other families has been in dispute 
for many years but its resemblance to the 
wrens is striking, and its bobbing and atti- 
tudinizing is very -wTen-like. 

The dipper has strong feet and sharp claws 
with which it is enabled to walk deliberately 
into swift water and disappear without effort, 
using its wings to fly under water. It will 
appear up or down stream fifty or more feet 
from where it went in, quietly step out of the 
water to rest a minute and then plunge in 
again. No water seems too swift or rough for 
it to enter. Its food consists of minute marine 
life such as periwinkles and the like which it 
collects from the bottom of the streams. 
Fishermen claim that it destroys the eggs of 
the brook trout but this has yet to be proven. 

The dipper is one of the most interesting 
and delightful of all the small birds of the 
46 



HUMMINGBIRDS 

West. Its song is a bubbling warble, long 
sustained and clear, louder than that of the 
winter wren and closely resembling it. John 
Muir recounts many interesting tales of the 
water ouzel, which he studied and learned to 
love in the mountains of California. He tells 
of seeing them swimming under the thin ice 
from one air hole to another in the high 
Sierras, and Grinnell records the same thing 
in other places. 

The nest of the dipper is a round ball of 
green moss with its entrance hole on one side, 
placed in a crevice in the rock over w^ater, 
and often near or behind a waterfall where 
the spray is always keeping it wet. Where it 
is placed behind a waterfall the ouzel will 
dash right through the spray to reach it. 

FAMILY TROCHILID.T:: HUMMING- 
BIRDS 

Rufous hummingbird, Selasphorus 

rufous. 3.50 

Distribution: Western North America 

from Alaska to southern Mexico, east during 

migrations to Montana, Wyoming, Colorado 

and western Texas, wintering in Mexico. 

The hummingbirds comprise one of the 
most wonderful as well as one of the largest 
47 



FAMILY Trochilidce 

families of birds in the world. Nearly six 
hundred species are known, all peculiar to 
the western hemisphere. Their center of 
distribution lies in Ecuador and Colombia in 
South America where they are found from the 
lowest jungle to the crests of the high Andes. 
Of the total number only about eighteen 
species visit the United States, most of whom 
only come over the border from Mexico into 
Arizona, New Mexico and southern Califor- 
nia. Only one, the ruby-throat, is found east 
of the Mississippi River. The rufous hum- 
ming-bird is found in the summer from south- 
ern Mexico to southern Alaska while the 
black-chinned. Calliope and the broad-tail- 
ed hummingbirds are found more or less com- 
monly from British Columbia to Mexico, and 
the Anna, Allen and Costa hummingbirds 
are confined to the Southwest. 

The rufous hummingbird is the most widely 
distributed and the most abundant of all the 
hummingbirds of the West. It comes North 
early in the spring, reaching the northern 
border of the United States by the first week 
in March. It seems to time its arrival with 
the blooming of the wild currant. The males 
are the first to arrive and they may be found 
along the crests of the hills, sometimes dozens 
together, sitting in the bushes preening their 
48 



HUMMINGBIRDS 

feathers or chasing each other about with an 
angry buzz or twitter. By the first of April 
rufous hummers are common everywhere, 
buzzing about the dooryards, probing the 
flowers, darting at some winged intruder with 
an angry squeak or investigating possible 
nesting sites. 

Its nest is placed in all sorts of situations 
on vines, bushes and trees but its favorite 
nesting site seems to be on the swaying 
slender end of a hemlock or cedar bough at 
varying heights from the ground. It is a tiny 
cradle composed of spider web and plant 
down and other silky vegetable fibers. The 
outside is covered with small lichens making 
the nest appear like a small knot on the limb. 
It is about the size of half an eggshell. The 
eggs are always two in number and pure 
white. These when hatched disclose two of 
the ugliest little birds imaginable, blind, 
naked and more like insects than birds. They 
are fed by regurgitation, a frightful looking 
operation, and leave the nest in from fourteen 
to twenty days, beautiful full fledged hum- 
mers, ready to follow their parents back to 
the tropics. 

By the first of October the hummingbirds 
are flocking south and they may be found by 
scores, the males and females and the young 
4 49 



FAMILY Caprimulgidce 

of the year, all busily engaged in dipping 
into the flowers for honey or tiny insects. 

At such times they are unusually tame and 
one can study them at close range. By the 
middle of October they have retired from the 
northern part of their range to southern 
California and beyond. 

FAMILY CAPRIMULGIDM'. GOAT- 
SUCKERS 

, Pacific nighthawk, Chordeiles virginia- 
nus hesperis, 9.00 

Distribution: Pacific Coast district and 
eastward to the Rocky Mountains, and from 
British Columbia south to Nevada and Utah, 
and to southern California; an abundant 
summer resident of the Pacific Coast states. 

The nighthawk, or bullbat, belongs to a 
world-wide family of about one hundred 
species. They are curious looking birds with 
the horny part of their bills short and weak, 
and a wide gaping mouth that opens behind 
the eye. The mouth is surrounded with long 
stiff bristles which act as a fly trap when the 
bird is flying through the air in pursuit of the 
winged insects upon which it lives. 

Nighthawks are familiar objects in the 
evening sky during the summer as they pass 
50 




■^W' 




0l^ 



SWIFTS 

with irregular flifjlit over town and country 
in search of an evening meal. They are dark- 
phunaged birds, barred and streaked with 
whites and grays and browns in intricate 
patterns, and they show conspicuous white 
wing patches as they soar overhead in the 
twihght. Their pecuHar screeching cry and 
hollow booming sound are characteristic 
noises of hot summer nights. 

The nighthawk is highly migratory, coming 
from its home in the tropics in May and June, 
going as far north as British Columbia to 
spend the summer and returning South again 
about the first of October. 

The nighthawk lays its two oblong, even- 
ended eggs on the bare ground in open places 
in fields, pastures and hillsides, and sometimes 
on a flat rock or boulder, or in the gravel on 
a beach near water. The eggs have a marbled 
appearance, being blotched and streaked 
with varying shades of lavender, grays and 
blackish brown, blending perfectly with their 
surroundings. 

FAMILY MICROPODIDJE: SWIFTS 

Vaux swift, Chcotura vauxi. 4.30 

Distribution: Pacific Coast region 
from Alaska to Lower California; rare east 
51 



FAMILY MicropodidcB 

of the Cascades and Sierra Nevadas. Migrat- 
ing to Mexico and Central America. 

The Vaux swift is confined almost ex- 
clusively to the Pacific Slope and is a bird of 
the mountains rather than of the valleys. It 
is rarely seen in any numbers, a dozen or 
more being considered a large flock. At times 
it may be seen by twos or threes sailing over 
the open country on the way from one high 
ridge to another, and at certain places along 
the Columbia River it may even be called 
common. In California it is reported as being 
common in the coast districts from San 
Francisco Bay northward. 

In coloration the Vaux swift is sooty brown 
instead of the sooty gray of the chimney 
swift. Vaux swifts may be distinguished at 
a distance from the swallows by the peculiar- 
ity of their flight. The narrow crescent- 
shaped .wings move with a rapid bat-like 
motion, alternating several wing beats with a 
swift gliding movement, darting here and 
there with incredible speed. When in the 
mountains observers have noticed the swifts 
circling close overhead as if curious about 
the intruders, and occasionally they will come 
close to the ground in the open country, 
beating about over the fields in a curious 
zigzag manner. 

52 



f 



/ 





SWALLOWS 

TIr' Vaux swift builds a tiny saucer-shaped 
nest of small twigs plastered together with 
the sticky saliva, secreted so abundantly by 
the bird, and is usually fastened to the inside 
of a hollow tree. Of late years however it 
has been reported as nesting in chimneys like 
its cousin of the eastern states. 



FAMILY HIRUNDINIDM: SWALLOWS 

. Cliff swallow, Petrochelidon lunijrons 

lunifrons. 5.50 

Distribution: Nearly the whole of North 
America. Abundant summer resident on the 
Pacific Coast. South in winter over Mex- 
ico, Central America and most of South 
America. 

The cliff swallow, eave swallow, or mud- 
dauber, is seen in great numbers in the farm- 
ing districts, circling about the big red barns, 
snapping up the flies that are so common 
there and building its nest under the over- 
hanging eaves. The nest is a gourd-shaped 
affair with the neck slanting dow^nwards. It 
is made of mud and lined with grass and 
feathers. This swallow formerly cemented 
its nest to the perpendicular face of cliffs but 
since the advent of man with his numerous 
buildings it has changed its habits, and its 
53 



FAMILY HirundinidcB 

name as well, and is commonly called the 
eave swallow. The brownish plumage, squar- 
ish tail and buffy forehead are the distinguish- 
ing field marks of this species. The call note, 
too, is quite different from others of the 
family. It is a peculiar purring note, easily 
remembered if given careful attention. It is 
interesting to know that each species of swal- 
low has its own distinctive call note which a 
careful student learns to recognize without 
seeing the bird as it flies overhead. 

^ Tree sw allow y I ridoprocnebicolor. 5.75 

Distribution: North America in 
general; on the Pacific Coast from Alaska to 
California; wintering south of the United 
States in Mexico and Central America. 

The tree swallow, or white-bellied swallow, 
is far less common than the violet-green in 
the northern part of its range. It builds its 
nest in hollow trees or old woodpeckers' ho^es, 
and rarely in a bird box. The tree swallow 
with its steely blue upperparts and pure 
silky white underparts is considered the 
most beautiful of all the swallows. It is 
so nearly like the violet-green swallow^ in 
appearance, however, that only a good bird 
student can identify it on the wing at any 
distance. 

54 



SWALLOWS 

. ^ Northern Violet-green swallow, Tavhy- 
ciucfa ihalassina Icpida. 5.30 

Distribution: Western North America 
from Alaska to southern California, and from 
the Pacific Coast to Montana, Wyoming, 
Colorado, New Mexico and western Texas; 
breeding throughout its range. South in 
winter to highlands of Guatemala and Costa 
Rica. 

The swallows of the Pacific Coast seem to 
follow well-defined routes in their wanderings. 
The violet-green swallows seem to prefer the 
inland valleys where they are found in untold 
thousands in the summer. They follow the 
waterways north early in March and by the 
middle of April are sw^arming over the coun- 
tryside in quest of nesting sites. The nest is 
usually placed in the cornice of a building 
where a shingle has been knocked off or the 
boards have sprung, or on a beam on the 
inside of a barn which may be entered 
through a convenient knot hole. Many other 
curious and interesting nesting sites might 
be mentioned, however, and the violet-green 
is also one of the commonest occupants of 
the bird box. 

In September the violet-green swallows 
gather for the long flight southward. They 
Hne the telegraph wires along country roads 
55 



FAMILY HirundinidcE 

and with much twittering make their plans 
for the long trip. Today they are everywhere 
in animated groups, tomorrow they have 
disappeared not to return until the following 
spring. The white rump patch, together with 
the white encircling the eye, will distinguish 
the violet-green from the tree sw^allow and 
are distinctive field marks for the species. 

^ Western martin, Progne suhis hesperia, 

8.00 

Distribution: Pacific Coast district from 
British Columbia to Mexico, wintering south 
to Nicaragua. 

The western martin is not common any- 
where in its range. Small colonies are known 
to inhabit certain localities about Puget 
Sound and the lower Columbia River. They 
are occasionally reported from points in the 
Coast Range Mountains where they are 
supposed to nest in hollow trees. They are 
known to nest m the wooden boxing about 
the overhead electric wires in some north- 
western cities, and in the broken cornices of 
old buildings at several points along the lower 
Columbia. They are more common in the 
southern part of their range. In California 
the western martin is found about the farm- 
steads where it nests in the crevices of the 
56 




Y. 



SWALLOWS 

big red barns, or in artificial houses put up 
for them. The martin is the Largest of the 
American swallows and may be distinguished 
from all others of the family by its color as 
well as by its size. The whole body is a glossy 
blue black, the wings and tail being black, 
the tail is deeply forked. Its twittering call 
note, or song, attracts instant attention by 
its vibrant quality. Martins are wanderers. 
They may be found in one locality for several 
years and then disappear without apparent 
reason, no others coming to take their place. 

. Barn swallow, Hirundo erythrogastra. 

^^ 6.75 

Distribution: North America in general 
from Alaska south over the whole ofi the 
United States and Mexico. Wintering from 
the INIexican border south through Central 
America and South America to the Argentine. 

The barn swallow is very handsome with 
its steely blue upperparts, reddish brown 
underparts and long forked tail. In flight 
it is the most graceful of all the swallows. 
Along the Pacific Slope it is more common 
west of the Coast Range JNIountains where it 
may be found m\ large numbers skimming 
over the grassy slopes in sight of the ocean; 
making its nest underneath culverts and 



FA M I L Y HirundinidcB 

bridges and the eaves of the beach cottages, 
and about old outbuildings. The nest is a 
half saucer-shaped affair composed of mud 
and grass mixed together and warmly 
lined with feathers, placed either on a 
beam or rafter or glued to the side of a 
beam or wall. 

, Rough-winged swallow, Stelgidopteryx 

serripennis. 5.40 

Distribution: Temperate North America, 
Mexico and Central America to Costa 
Rica. Breeding nearly throughout its 
range. 

The rough-winged swallow resembles the 
bank swallow but may be distinguished from 
it by its soiled rather than white underparts 
and absence of the sooty band across the 
breast. Its nesting habits are similar to those 
of the bank swallow, although it is not found 
in so large numbers in any one place, and it 
sometimes places its nest in the cracks and 
crannies about the abutments of bridges. 
Although the rough- winged and bank swal- 
lows are much alike in appearance and habits, 
both species being sooty gray with lusterless 
plumage, the rough-winged is found more 
often about water than the bank swallow and 
lives in much smaller colonies. Neither 
58 



r 



'iawr^' 





« 









FLYCATCHERS 

variety is common in the West, and both are 
rare in most parts of the Northwest. 

FAMILY TYRANXID/E: FLYCATCHERS 

Kingbird, Tyrannus iyrannus. 8.50 

Distribution: Temperate North 
America, except parts of the arid regions 
(where it is distributed locally and irregu- 
larh'), from the Atlantic Coast west to south- 
ern British Columbia, and in eastern 
^Vashington and Oregon. 

The flycatchers comprise a family of over 
four hundred species centering in tropical 
America, about ten per cent of which come 
north in the spring to spend the summer in 
the L'nited States, and northward to Alaska. 
Most of the family, at least those that visit 
the United States, are birds of somber hue, 
of })rowns and grays and blacks with only 
slight touches of color in some of the species. 
They have few distinctive markings and one 
must n^ly principally on their call notes, 
especially among the smaller species, to tell 
them apart. 

The kingbird, eastern kingbird, or bee 

martin, is abundant in the eastern United 

States l)ut thins out west of the Rockies, being 

found in certain localities in eastern Wash- 

59 



FAMILY TyrannidcB 

ington and Oregon but rarely west of the 
mountains. 

Arkansas kingbird, Tyrannus verticalis. 
^^"^ 8.75 

Distribution: Western United States and 
Canada from British Columbia to Mexico, 
and from the Pacific Coast east to the Mis- 
sissippi Valley. Wintering throughout Mexico 
and south to Guatemala. 

The Arkansas kingbird or western king- 
bird, is slightly larger than its eastern cousin, 
with yellowish underparts, and is common in 
the open country along water courses where 
it frequents the willows and cottonwoods 
during the nesting season. It is also found 
far from water about the ranches and cattle 
pens where it may be seen perched on fence 
posts and scrubby trees, darting at the pass- 
ing flying insects upon which it feeds. The 
nest of the Arkansas kingbird is placed in 
small trees or bushes or on ledges of rock in 
the broken hill country, and sometimes on 
beams or posts about the ranch buildings. 
The Arkansas kingbird is said not to be so 
quarrelsome as other kingbirds, and one ob- 
server noted a Say phoebe, Swainson hawk 
and Arkansas kingbird nesting in the same 
tree, all on the best of terms. 
60 



FLYCATCHERS 

Olive-sided flycatcher, Nuttallornis 
borcali.s. 7.50 

Distribution: North America from Hud- 
son Bay to Alaska, southward in coniferous 
timber over the higher parts of the United 
States to the Carolinas, and in the coniferous 
forests of the western United States from 
British Columbia south to Mexico. INIigrat- 
ing in winter to South America. 

With the exception of the kingbirds the 
olive-sided flycatcher is the largest of the 
family to be found on the Pacific Coast. It 
inhabits tall timber along the crests of the 
hills, and well up into the mountains, where 
it may be seen perched on the higher parts of 
some dead tree watching for flying insects. 
Its whitish underparts, raised crest and half- 
droope.d wings will be noticed if examined 
through a field glass as it stands on its lofty 
vantage point. Its excursions will sometimes 
take it far afield but it wull soon return to the 
same tree, w^hich is usually near its nest. 

The call note of the olive-sided flycatcher 
is a shrill pit-pip, pu, pu-pip while its song is 
a loud, i\vii^\\mg s-e-c-h-c-r-c , or tliree ch-e-e-r-s 
which may })e heard a long way off. Its nest 
is placed high in fir or sj^ruce and is one of 
the most difficult to find. It is beautifully 
made of small twigs, rootlets and green moss, 
61 



FAMILY TyrannidcB 

the outside covered with lichens and the in- 
inside lined with moss. 

^ Western wood pewee, Myiochanes rich- 
ardsoni richardsoni. 6.40 

Distribution: Western North America 
from Alaska to southern California, and from 
the Great Plains to the Pacific Coast. Win- 
tering southward over most of Mexico and 
Central America to middle South America. 

The western wood pewee makes its home 
in the big maples that are found about the 
farm houses and barns in the open valleys. 
The barnyard nearby, with its numbers of 
flying insects, offers an inviting field for its 
food supply, and one or more pairs of wood 
pewees may be seen darting back and forth, 
in and out among the buildings, snapping 
up their unwary prey. The pewee's nest is 
saddled on the top of a large limb. It is made 
of fine grass, weed stems and bits of moss, lined 
with plant down, cobweb and feathers, and the 
outside is often decorated with lichens making 
the nest look like a knot on the limb. The call 
note of the wood pewee is a plaintive swee-air. 

Traill flycatcher, Empidona: trailli 

^ trailli. 6.00 

Distribution: Western North America 

from the Mississippi Valley to the Pacific 

62 



FLYCATCHERS 

Coast, and from southern Alaska to Mexico. 
South in winter over greater part of ^lexico. 
Central America and Colombia. 

The Traill flycatcher is one of the com- 
monest of its family to be found along the 
Pacific Slope. It may be seen everywhere 
from sea level to high mountains, in thickets 
of vine, maple and alder along streams, in 
deep brush-covered canyons, and along woods 
roads in the tangle of dogwood, hazel and fern. 
It is found along the borders of fields and coun- 
try lanes where it may be seen darting from 
place to place in pursuit, of flying insects or 
chasing some rival from the vicinity of its nest. 

Its nest is usually placed in a clump of 
ferns near the edge of the woods, or in a bush, 
or lower limb of a tree. Its song or call note 
is a hurried pree-pe-deer. 

Say phcebe. Say amis sayiis. 7. To 

Distribution : Western North Amer- 
ica from Alaska to Mexico, and from the 
western part of the Mississippi Valley to the 
Pacific Coast. 

The Say phoebe is a bird of the arid country 
and is seldom found west of the mountains 
along the Pacific Coast. It is easily recog- 
nized by its black tail and reddish brown 
breast, differing in these markings from all 
63 



FAMILY BomhycillidcB 

other of our western flycatchers. It is one 
of the commonest of the western flycatchers 
and is said to breed from the Arctic Circle to 
Mexico, building its nest underneath culverts 
and bridges and about outbuildings, and in 
caves and crevices in rocks. It is also re- 
ported as nesting in abandoned mining shafts 
and has been known to occupy an old robin's 
nest. In common with others of the family it 
feeds upon flying insects, as well as grass- 
hoppers, crickets, beetles and butterflies. 

FAMILY BOMBYCILLIDJE: WAX WINGS 

^ ^ Bohemian waxwing, Bomhycilla gar- 
rula. 8.10 

Distribution: Circumpolar, breeding in 
the coniferous forests of the far North or the 
higher mountains of the Canadian Rockies, 
ranging south in winter (irregularly) to 
middle United States. 

The waxwings in several varieties are found 
throughout the northern hemisphere where 
they live in the great belts of coniferous 
timber, breeding north to the Arctic Circle. 
They are birds of great beauty, of a soft 
immaculate gray, trimmed with black, yellow 
and red, set off with a splendid crest which 
can be raised or lowered at will. The birds 
64 




'^ 



WAXWINGS 

are so different from any other North Ameri- 
can species that there should be no difficulty 
in identifying them at sight. 

The Bohemian waxwing is the larger and 
rarer of the two species. Its home is in the 
more northern parts of Canada, from which 
region it wanders south, at intervals of several 
years, during the winter, to visit various parts 
of the Pacific Coast states. Such a visit 
occurred during the winter of 1919-20 when 
large flocks appeared in the vicmity of Seattle, 
Spokane and Portland. They came into the 
dooryards to feed on holly berries and rose 
apples and to splash in the chilly water of 
the bird baths. 

The Bohemian waxwing has been found 
n(\sting in the stunted conifers about Hudson 
Bay, and has been reported by Brooks, 
Macoun and Raine from various parts of the 
Canadian Rockies where nests and eggs were 
taken. The nest is described as a loosely con- 
structed, bulky affair made of moss, dry grass, 
weed stems and rootlets, placed in small spruce 
trees about twenty feet from the ground. 

. Cedar waxwing, Bomhycilla cedrorum. 

^^ 7.00 

Distribution: Temperate North America 

in general, wandering over most of the United 

s 65 



FAMILY BombycillidcB 

States and breeding northward through the 
Canadian Provinces to Hudson Bay. Winter- 
ing in whole of the United States, south 
irregularly to the West Indies and Central 
America. 

The cedar waxwing, cedar bird, or cherry 
bird, although practically a permanent 
resident wherever found, has the habit of 
wandering about the country in small flocks, 
thus being common in some localities one 
year and rare the next. It may be that the 
food supply has something to do with this 
since the waxwing lives chiefly on various 
wild fruits and berries, though sometimes it 
makes serious raids on domestic fruits. 

The call note of the cedar waxwing is a low 
beady pee-eet which may be heard as it sits 
perched in a tree or as it flies overhead. This, 
together with its rapid wing beat and straight- 
away flight, will help to identify it. 

Its nest is usually placed in small firs, 
cedar or orchard trees. It is rather bulky, 
composed of bark, leaves, roots and weed 
stalks, sometimes bits of paper, and lined 
with various soft materials. 

The waxwings are very sensitive about 

their nests being touched by the human hand 

and will often desert the eggs if they are 

molested in any way. On the other hand 

66 



TANAGERS 

they are most devoted parents when the 
young are hatched and will then endure 
almost any amount of disturbance without 
resentment. 



FAMILY TANGARID.^: TANAGERS 

Western tanager, Piranga ludoviciana. 
^^^ 7.00 

Distribution: From British Columbia to 
Mexico and from the Mississippi Valley to 
the Pacific Coast. Casually eastward to the 
Atlantic states. South in winter through 
Mexico to Guatemala. The western tanager 
is the only representative in northwestern 
North America of a family of nearly four 
hundred species that centers in tropical 
America. 

The western tanager, Louisiana tanager, or 
crimson-headed tanager is found everywhere 
in its range from sea level to high mountains, 
where it often breeds at an elevation of ten 
thousand feet. It inhabits all sorts of wooded 
areas but seems to prefer coniferous timber. 
East of the mountains it is abundant in the 
belts of pine timber where it is often seen in 
large flocks. In the valleys w^est of the moun- 
tains it is common everywhere in the culti- 
vated areas, coming about the farmsteads to 
G7 



FAMILY FringillidcB 

feed upon wild and tame berries. In the fall 
it is commonly found in the dogwood trees 
where it consumes great quantities of the 
bitter red berries. 

The western tanager usually builds its 
nest in a fir well up from the ground and near 
the tip of the limb. It is a flat, loosely built 
affair of twigs, grass and weed stems. The 
song of the western tanager is short, of three 
or four notes, w^th a robin-like quality. The 
call note is a pit-ic, pit-ic-ic, uttered as it sits 
high in a fir or other tall tree. The striking 
plumage of the western tanager, lemon- 
yellow body, black wings and orange-red 
head is so distinctive that the bird may be 
readily identified at sight. 

In common with most of the family it 
changes its dress in the fall assuming almost 
the olive green of the female, with darker 
wings. In this plumage it spends the winter 
months. 

FAMILY FRINGILLIDJE: FINCHES 

^ Black-headed grosbeak, Zamelodia 

melanocephala. 7.25 

Distribution: Western United States and 

plateau of Mexico; north in summer to 

British Columbia, Idaho and Montana, and 

68 



FINCHES 

east to tlu' Dakotas and Nebraska. South 
in winter to southern Mexico. 

When tlie b hick-headed grosbeaks first 
arrive in the spring they keep well to the tops 
of the tall firs along the crests of the hills 
where they may be heard singing, but are 
hard to see because of their habit of conceal- 
ing themselves in the dense foliage. The 
females usually appear a couple of weeks 
later when the birds soon mate and scatter 
out over the valleys and hillsides to nest. 
Then they may be found in the mixed timber 
along woods roads and in brushy canyons, or 
in thick woods along streams. 

The black-headed grosbeak eats wild fruits 
and berries of all kinds and is particularly 
fond of dogwood berries in the fall. They 
also consume great quantities of potato bugs 
and other injurious insects, as well as tender 
fruit and leaf buds of forest trees. 

Its black head and conspicuous white wing 
bars, which show as white patches when it is 
flying, together with its rapid wing beat and 
straight-away flight will help to identify the 
species at a distance. 

Its nest is a frail affair made mostly of 
twigs and rootlets so loosely woven together 
as to allow the eggs to be seen from under- 
neath, and is placed indifferently in bushes 
69 



FAMILY FringillidcB 

along the sides of steep hills, in trees in deep 
woods and in firs, nesting from the floor of 
the valleys to well up in the mountains. The 
song of the black-headed grosbeak is of fine 
quality. The well-rounded notes are exe- 
cuted with care and deliberation as if the bird 
were enjoying the performance. It has been 
called a *' glorified robin song," and it is 
indeed one of the finest of the finch family. 
Its call note is a sharp eek, eek, resembling 
that of the Gairdner woodpecker, for which 
it is often mistaken when the bird is not seen. 

Lazuli bunting, Passerina amoena. 
^^^ 5.30 

Distribution: Western United States and 
British Provinces, from British Columbia to 
the Mexican border, and from the Pacific 
Coast east to the Dakotas and Kansas. 
Migrating in winter to Lower California and 
the valley of Mexico. 

The Lazuli bunting comes North early in 
May from its winter home in Mexico and 
spreads over the country from California to 
British Columbia. Although it may be 
found in all sorts of country it is partial to 
second growth woods, old pastures and 
meadows interspersed with sweet-briar and 
blackberry vines. It has a weak song which 
70 



FINCHES 

it repeats by the hour during the nesting 
season as it sits in the top of tree or bush. 
Its nest, a deep well-cupped structure, rather 
ragged in appearance on the outside, is placed 
in small trees or bushes. 

The Lazuli bunting may be distinguished 
from all other small western finches by its 
coloration. The head, neck and back are a 
bright turquoise blue, the breast and sides 
are reddish brown and the wings have distinct 
white bars. When seen in bright sunlight 
the blue fairly glistens, a little gem in 
feathers. 

. Oregon junco, Junco hyemalis 
oreganus. 5.75 

Distribution: Pacific Coast from the 
northern border of the United States, north 
to Alaska. In winter south through Wash- 
ington and Oregon to northern California, 
and east to Nevada. Two closely allied 
species include: Shufeldt junco, found from 
northern British Columbia south through 
Washington and Oregon and east to Idaho 
and Montana; and the Thurber junco, found 
in southern Oregon and California, south to 
Arizona. Speaking generally, the Oregon 
junco is a summer bird in British Columbia, 
north to Alaska, and a winter bird in Wash- 
71 



FAMILY FringillidcB 

ington, Oregon and California; while the 
Shufeldt junco is a summer bird in Wash- 
ington and Oregon and a winter bird in Cali- 
fornia and the southwest to Mexico. The 
Thurber junco breeds in southern Oregon and 
south through California, summering in the 
mountains and wintering in the valleys. The 
three species are so much alike that it is hard 
to tell them apart without a close examina- 
tion of the skins. 

The junco is so abundant and conspicuous, 
with its blackish head and neck, flesh-colored 
bill, and a flash of its white outer tail feathers 
when it flies, that it may be easily identified 
by these points alone. It may be found 
everywhere, at all seasons, from sea level to 
high mountains, spending the breeding season 
in the hills and mountains and the winters in 
the valleys, where it swarms over the stubble- 
fields and pastures, and along the roads 
picking up weed seeds and scattered grain. 
Its metallic chip can be heard on every hand 
as it darts from the roadside at one's ap- 
proach. 

The junco builds its nest on the ground in 
the side of a bank or in an open field among 
the weeds. The nest is a frail structure of 
fine grass w ith a few bits of other soft material 
for lining. 



FINCHES 

^^, Oregon towhee, Pipilo macidafus 
Oregon us. 7.35 

Distribution: Coast districts of southern 
British Columbia, Washington, Oregon and 
California, soutli to San Francisco Bay. 

The Oregon towhee, or catbird, as it is 
commonly called, is common everywhere in 
its range from the mountains to the sea. It is 
a ground bird, living in the underbrush where 
it may be often heard, when not seen, through 
its habit of vigorously kicking in the dead 
leaves in search of food. Its love of the cover 
afforded by brushy fence rows and the tangle 
of brush and vines along woods roads, it 
shares with the song sparrow with w hich it is 
alw^ays closely associated. It is one of our 
permanent birds, braving the cold and snow 
with seeming indifference, its strong feet and 
bill enabling it to find a living where other 
weaker birds would perish. 

It may be easily identified by its black head 
and neck, reddish brown sides, white belly 
and long black tail bordered with conspicuous 
white thumb marks. A near view will also 
disclose its red eye. 

When disturbed it utters a mewing call 

note not unlike that of the catbird of the 

eastern states. It has a pleasing, though 

monotonous variety of other call notes and 

73 



FAMILY FringillidcB 

songs which it repeats as it sits on some bush 
in the vicinity of ii s nest. When approached 
too closely it will dive into the underbrush, to 
reappear in a few moments at some other 
point, scolding all the while at one's intrusion 
on its preserves. Its nest is placed on or near 
the ground in thickets. It is coarsely built of 
twigs and weed stems, lined with various 
soft materials. 

Golden-crowned sparrow, Zonotrichia 
coronata. 7.00 

Distribution: Pacific Coast and Bering 
Sea districts of North America, breeding on 
the Shumagin Islands, Alaska peninsula, 
Kadiak and the more western parts of the 
Alaska mainland, and south at least to south- 
ern British Columbia in the high Rockies 
where its nests have been taken. South in 
winter through British Columbia, ^Yashing- 
ton, Oregon and California to Lower Cali- 
fornia; straggling eastward, rarely to Nevada, 
Colorado and Wisconsin. 

The golden-crowned sparrow is a migrant 
and winter resident in the United States, 
reaching our northern border on the way 
south about the first of September, and by 
the middle of November has spread over the 
whole coast to Lower California. Its favorite 
74 



FINCHES 

haunts seem to ))e along the sides of brushy 
canyons where it may be found sitting in 
small groups sunning itself in the bushes, 
preening its feathers and practising its 
peculiar soft, vibrant whistle of three notes 
given in a descending scale. Set to words it 
sounds like 0-dear-mc! Those wdio are fa- 
miliar with the bird in Alaska report it 
as an incessant singer, the plaintive strain 
often becoming tiresome with the repeti- 
tion. 

It is often seen scratching in the dirt roads 
after the manner of towhees, always on the 
lookout for danger, darting into the adjoining 
cover at the least suggestion of it. Its larger 
size, conspicuously black area above the eyes 
and wide central stripe on crow^n, lemon- 
yellow in front and gray behind, will readily 
distinguish the golden-crow^ned from the 
white-crowned sparrow. The young of the 
year have the head marked with brown in- 
stead of black and they are very handsome 
in this dress. The golden-crown is seen in 
many places along the Pacific Coast as late as 
the middle of May, and many young are seen 
by the first of July, which may indicate that 
they may possibly nest within the borders of 
the United States, although no nest has yet 
been found so far as known. 
15 



FAMILY FringillidcE 

Nuttall sparrow, Zonotrichia leuco- 
^^^ phrys mittalli. 6.25 

Distribution: Pacific Coast district from 
British Columbia south to southern CaH- 
fornia, east to the Cascade and Sierra Nevada 
Mountains. Two closely allied species are 
the Gambel sparrow, found in western North 
America from Alaska south to eastern Oregon. 
Idaho and Montana; and the white-crowned 
sparrow, found over most of the United States 
from the Atlantic seaboard to the western 
slope of the Rocky Mountain district, 
straggling west to the Sierra Nevadas and 
southwest to southern California. 

The Nuttall white-crowned sparrow is one 
of the commonest of the sparrows along the 
Pacific Slope and is found everywhere from 
the mountains to the sea. It is always in 
evidence during the spring and summer, 
sitting on fence posts along country roads, 
perched on bushes and trees in field and 
pasture and along w^ith the song sparrow 
making its home in the cities wherever there 
is shrubbery enough to afford protection, and 
gardens for its food supply of insects and 
worms. It is a familiar bird about the lawns, 
hopping about on the grass or singing from 
the top of some tree or peak of the house. 
It is also the night singer of the Pacific Coast. 
76 



FINCHES 

Its song is subject to great variation and this 
often leads to some confusion as to its ident- 
ity. Tlie birds of the Puget Sound district 
have an entirely different song from those of 
the Willamette Valley in Oregon, and many 
of those of the coast belt differ from those of 
the interior valleys. 

The nest of Nuttalls sparrow is usually built 
on the ground although it is sometimes placed 
in vines or shrubbery about the home ten or 
twelve feet from the ground. It is made of 
weed stems and fine grass when on the 
ground but twigs are used when placed in 
vines or shrubbery. 

r. Rusty song sparrow, Melospiza melodia 
morphna. 6.00 

Distribution : From southern Alaska south 
through British Columbia, Washington and 
Oregon, west of the Cascade Mountains. 

Several closely allied species include: the 
Merrill song sparrow, found in Idaho and 
eastern Washington and Oregon; sooty song 
sparrow, found in Alaska, south in winter 
through western Washington and Oregon; 
Mendicino song sparrow, found on northwest 
coast of California and southwest coast of 
Oregon, and the mountain song s]);irrow, 
found in the Rocky Mountain districts of the 
77 



FAMILY Fringimd<B 

United States, west to the mountains of 
eastern Washington and Oregon. A dozen 
other sub-species are found in California and 
the Southwest. 

The rusty song sparrow, in common with 
others of the genus, lives on or near the 
ground in thickets of brush and vines, in the 
tangle of fallen logs and ferns along woods 
roads and in the shrubbery' and garden patch 
about the home. It is everywhere one of the 
familiar birds with brown-streaked plumage, 
and nervous wren-like action. It is a p>er- 
manent resident wherever found for it is able 
to find a living in the coldest weather and 
imder the worst conditions. Its food consists 
of insects and weed seeds. In the winter it 
may be seen picking at the thistles and cockle 
burrs that are sticking up through the snow, 
all the while calling to its fellows in a chee^^^ 
manner, and if the sun breaks through the 
winter sky but for a moment, burst iog iato 
song. Its nest is placed m. some tangle of 
vines or brush near the ground. 

^^ ^ To wnsend fox sparrow, Pa-sserella Uiaca 

toinuendi. 6.70 

Distribution: Breeds on Alaska i>eninsula 

and islands and migrates south along the 

Pacific Coast to southern California. Several 

78 



FINCHES 

closely allied species include: slate-colored 
fox sparrow of the Rocky Mountain region 
and west to the Sierra Nevada and Cascade 
Mountains; Shumagin fox sparrow, of the 
Shuniagin Islands and the Alaska peninsula; 
sooty fox sparrow of the coast district of 
British Columbia and northwest Wash- 
ington; Kadiak fox sparrow of Kadiak 
Island, Alaska; thick-billed fox sparrow 
of the Sierra Nevadas of California from 
Shasta to Whitney, and Stephens fox spar- 
row of the mountains of southern Cali- 
fornia. 

Fox sparrows in the w^est live in the far 
north or in the higher mountains of the 
United States, and are only seen in the 
valleys during the spring and fall migrations. 
The sooty fox sparrow is said to nest in 
northwestern Washington, and the slate- 
colored in the Cascades of Washington 
and Oregon, while the thick-billed and 
Stephens fox sparrows live and nest in 
California. 

Fox sparrows may be distinguished from 
song sparrows by their slightly larger size, 
unstreaked u])perparts, boldly spotted 
breast and yellow lower mandible. Their 
song is described as rich and fine for a 
finch. 

79 



FAMILY FringiUidcB 

Western lark sparrow, Chondestes 
552a . ^ 

grammaciis strigatus. 6.15 

Distribution: Western North America 
from British Columbia and Manitoba south 
over the United States to Mexico, and from 
the Great Plains to the Pacific Coast. 

The western lark sparrow is common 
throughout its range except west of the 
Cascades where it is rare. It seems to be a 
bird of the plains and semi-arid country 
where it builds its nest on or near the ground. 
It is a far more common bird in California 
than farther north. Its striped head, brown 
cheek patches and rounded white-bordered 
tail are distinctive field marks. 

, Oregon vesper sparrow, Pooecetes 

gramineus affinis. 5.50 

Distribution: Pacific Coast district from 

British Columbia south through western 

Washington and Oregon. South in winter 

to southern California and northern Mexico. 

The western vesper sparrow, its near relative, 

is found in western North America from 

Canada to Mexico (except Pacific Coast 

district), and east to the Mississippi Valley. 

The "sparrows" are always difficult for 

the amateur to identify because of their 

similarity in appearance. They are brown- 

80 



FINCHES 

ish, more or less lengthwise streaked birds 
that live on or near the ground, yet there are 
certain marks, which if learned, will help in 
telling them apart. The vesper and savanna 
sparrows look very much alike and live very 
much in the same kind of cover. The vesper 
sparrow has partly white outer tail feathers 
which may be seen when the bird is standing 
still but show more plainly as a field mark 
when it flies. The savanna sparrow lacks the 
white in the tail and is slightly smaller in size, 
but has a yellowish line over the eye that will 
serve as a good field mark. 

The vesper sparrow is a common bird along 
country roads sitting on fence posts or bushes ; 
a favorite perch being the cross arm of a 
telephone pole. It lacks a distinctive call 
note but has a pretty, though weak, song of 
several notes that is one of the pleasing 
sounds in the hot summer days along the 
dusty highways. The vesper sparrow makes 
its shallow nest of grass in some slight 
depression on the ground in grain or stubble- 
field or weedy pasture. 

, Western savanna sparrow, Passerculus 

sandwichensis alaudinus. 5.00 

Distribution: Western North America 

from northwestern Alaska to southern 

6 81 



FAMILY FringillidcE 

Mexico, and from the eastern edge of the 
Great Plains to the Pacific Coast. Breeding 
nearly throughout its range. Wintering in 
the valleys of the entire west and south 
through Mexico to Guatemala. 

The savanna sparrow, meadow sparrow, or 
ground sparrow, keeps close to cover in weedy 
old fields, brush-grown pastures and in the 
grass-grown and vine-covered fence rows 
along country roads in company with the 
vesper sparrow^s. Although it may be seen 
at times perched on fence or bush it is usually 
found on the ground skulking along in the 
grass like a mouse, and it is flushed with 
difficulty. When it flies it goes in a halting 
zigzag manner for a few yards, to drop into 
the grass and hide itself as before. 

Sometimes it may be seen running along in 
the bottom of a furrow in a grain field searching 
for tiny insects or weed seeds, then it will perch 
on an upturned clod and sing a weak little song, 
a tune just the reverse of that of the vesper spar- 
row. The nest is placed on the ground in grain 
field or pasture well hidden in the grass. 

^ Western chipping sparrow, Spizella 

passerina arizoiice. 5.00 

Distribution: Western North America in 

general from the Rocky Mountains to the 

82 




/ - 



/ 



FINCHES 

Pacific Coast (including Alaska) and British 
Columbia, south to the Mexican border. 
Wintering south to Mexico. 

The western chipping sparrow, chippy, or 
hair bird is in habits and song like the 
chipping sparrow of the eastern states. It is 
the smallest of the sparrows and this fact 
together with its grayish white unmarked 
underparts, and distinct rufous crown patch 
will distinguish it from all others of the family 
on the Pacific Coast. 

Willow goldfinch, Astragalinus tristis 
salicamans. 4.50 

Distribution: Pacific Coast district from 
Lower California north to British Columbia, 
west of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade 
Mountains. An abundant summer resident 
and partial winter resident throughout its 
range. 

The willow goldfinch, wild canary, thistle- 
bird, or yellow bird, is one of our most abun- 
dant and conspicuous birds throughout most 
of the year. It is found everywhere in open 
country from sea level to high mountains. It 
is a common bird along the coast within 
hearing of the booming breakers, or about the 
clearings on the crests of the ranges. It is a 
characteristic bird in the farming districts 
83 



FAMILY FringillidcB 

where it may be seen perched on fences and 
telephone wires along the roads or feeding 
on dandelion and thistle heads in the fields. 
The goldfinch is equally common in the cities 
about the lawns and gardens. Any vacant 
lot grown up to weeds and thistles is likely to 
be the home of a small flock of goldfinches 
where they may be seen clinging to the bend- 
ing stalks, picking at the ripened seeds. 

In its summer dress of black and yellow 
the goldfinch differs from all other of our 
small birds in the arrangement of its color 
pattern, and this, together with its undulating 
flight and querulous call note, which is uttered 
on the wing, makes its identification easy. 

Its call note is a plaintive per-chic-o-ree. 
Its song is a weak imitation of the tame ca- 
nary and is heard constantly during the nest- 
ing season. The willow goldfinch changes its 
dress in the fall to olive-yellow and green and 
drifts about in small family parties from 
place to place in search of food, its favorite 
haunts being weedy old fields and brush- 
grown pastures. Because of its inconspicuous 
dress at this time of year it is often overlooked, 
and this leads to the common impression that 
it is only a summer resident. The willow 
goldfinch begins nesting in midsummer when 
there is plenty of thistle down and other soft 
84 



FINCHES 

plniit fihrrs with whicli to line its nest, which 
is made of weed stems and fine grasses. 

Its nest is phiced indiscriminately in bushes 
or trees up to fifty feet from the ground. 

Green-backed goldfinch, A.stragalinus 
psaUria hesperophilus. 4,50 

Distribution: Southwestern United States 
and northwestern Mexico, northward 
through California and Oregon to southern 
AYashington; common in the coast valleys 
north to the Columbia River. 

The green-backed goldfinch is not nearly 
so common a bird as the willow goldfinch, and 
on account of its quieter habits and dark 
olive-green dress, with blackish upperparts, it 
usually escapes the attention of the casual 
observer. It seems to stay in the open spaces 
more than does the willow goldfinch, and 
apparently does not consort with it on the 
feeding grounds. The green-backed gold- 
finch has all of the interesting ways of the 
family, the same querulous talking notes and 
quaint little song as it sits perched on bush 
or tree, and the same undulating flight as 
it goes darting across a field. Its nest is 
placed in bushes or small trees and is similar 
in composition and construction to that of the 
willow goldfinch. 

85 



FAMILY FringilUdce 

When the young are able to leave the nest 
they accompany the parents in small flocks to 
swarm over the weed patches in search of 
food. At the approach of cold w^eather most 
of them move to the more southern part of 
their range, a few how^ever remaining in the 
protected valleys along the Pacific Slope. 

Crossbill, Loxia curvirostra minor. 6.00 
527 

Distribution: Northern and eastern 

North America, breeding in coniferous forests 
from the southern Alleghanies in northern 
Georgia, Maryland, Virginia and Michigan, 
north to Nova Scotia and west to western 
Alaska. South in the mountain districts 
through the Pacific Coast states to Cali- 
fornia. 

Although crossbills generally breed in the 
mountains they are sometimes found in the 
coast valleys in small flocks, a few remaining 
to nest in the firs on the big hills. They are 
particularly abundant however in the Coast 
Range mountains wdiere they find a congenial 
home in the tall spruces, and one may see 
them, and hear their querulous call notes, all 
day long as they fly from the top of one giant 
tree to another. The crossbills have a fond- 
ness for salt and may be seen along the 
beaches picking at the encrusted salt on the 
86 



FINCHES 

seaweed. At such times they are very tame 
and may be studied easily. 

Crossbills are always hard to see in the 
tree tops, they blend so well with the foliage 
and cones upon which they feed. Through a 
pair of powerful glasses one can see them 
clinging to the cones while extracting the 
seeds, many hanging downwards like chicka- 
dees, and if one is near enough their plaintive 
conversation can be heard. 

The nest of the crossbill is placed in some 
conifer from twenty to one hundred feet from 
the ground. The twigs which form the 
foundation are pulled from the trees rather 
than picked up from the ground, as with 
most birds. The nest is a rather flat structure, 
lined with rootlets, strips of bark and hair or 
other soft substances. 

The call note of the crossbill is a metallic 
kimp, kimp, kimp. 



533 



Pine siskin, Spinus pinus. 4.50 

Distribution : North America at large, 
breeding northerl}^ in most of its range. Mov- 
ing about in flocks in the winter in most of 
the United States. Abundant and resident in 
the coniferous forests of the Pacific Coast 
states. 

The pine siskin is common in the Pacific 
87 



FAMILY FringillidcB 

Coast district from sea level to high mountains, 
making its home in the great belts of fir and 
spruce that clothe the mountains and big 
hills. It builds its nest high in some conifer, 
and late in the summer when the young are 
full grown it gathers in large flocks to wander 
about the country in search of its favorite 
food which consists of the seeds of the Doug- 
las fir and the alder. In the fall when the 
leaves have dropped these little birds may be 
seen in large numbers fairly covering the 
trees, hanging head downwards like chickadees 
as they devour the cone-like seeds. When dis- 
turbed they rise from the tree, a whirling mass 
of little gray birds, to circle about over the 
trees for a short distance and settle back again 
in the same tree to resume the feast. Pine sis- 
kins, in company with goldfinches, may often 
be seen along the roadsides feeding on weed 
seeds or thistle heads. The gray streaked plu- 
mage with yellow patch on the wing may be 
easily seen at such a time. They have much 
the same call notes and pretty little song of 
the willow goldfinch, and the same undulatory 
flight, showing their close relationship. 

California purple finch, Carpodacus 

purpureus calif ornicus. 5.75 

Distribution: Pacific Coast district from 

88 



FINCHES 

British Coluinbiii to southern CaHfornia, cast 
to the Casca(h\s and Sierra Nevadas. 

The CaHfornia purj>le finch is one ot* the 
characteristic western birds, found every- 
where from the mountains to the sea. It is 
common in the valleys about the farms and 
comes freely into the cities to nest in the 
parks and dooryards. When singing its very 
finely lodulated warble its favorite perch is 
the tip of the leader of fir or hemlock. Its 
song is one of the finest of the family, a clear 
loud warble of several notes, with many 
variations, but always unmistakable. Its 
call note is a plaintive dear-ie. 

In the central valleys of Washington and 
Oregon the purple finch usually builds its frail 
nest in maple or alder trees, while in Califor- 
nia it seems to go to the mountains to build 
in pine or fir. 

The food of the purple finch consists of 
various insects, beetles and grasshoppers, to- 
gether with tender leaf and fruit buds and 
})erries, both wild and cultivated. It is 
often found along roadsides in company with 
goldfinches and pine siskins, picking at the 
dandelion and thistle heads; and in the fall 
it resorts to the dogwood in company with 
robins, tanagers and thrushes to feed on the 
berries. 

80 



FAMILY FringillidcB 

Although partially migratory, large num- 
bers of the purple finch remain all winter in 
the more northern parts of its range, and in 
severely cold weather it is one of the common- 
est birds at the feeding shelf. 

The wine purple on head and neck and the 
pinkish wash on breast and rump will dis- 
tinguish the purple finch from all other 
sparrow-like birds in its range. The female 
and young of the year are gray and brownish 
lengthwise-streaked birds without distinct 
field marks. It seems to take two or three 
years for the male bird to acquire its full 
breeding plumage, which varies all the way 
from deeply colored hues on some birds to 
barely a purplish trace on others. 

p Cassin purple finch, Carpodacus 
cassim. o.(o 

Distribution: Western United States from 
the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains to 
the Pacific Coast, and from British Columbia 
to Mexico. Wintering from central Califor- 
nia and southern Arizona south over the 
Mexican plateau. 

The Cassin purple finch is practically 

unknown west of the Cascades, in the interior 

valleys in the more northern parts of its 

range, although common in eastern Washing- 

90 



FINCHES 

ton and Oregon, and throughout California in 
the mountains and foothills country. Id 
habits and nesting it is the same as the Cali- 
fornia purple finch but its song is said to be 
even finer. 

The Cassin purple finch differs con- 
siderably from the California in its coloration. 
The squarish crown patch is crimson and the 
wash on breast and sides is decidedly pink 
instead of purplish. 

It is reported that the Cassin purple finch is 
met with along the entire high Sierras from 
Mt. Shasta southwards. The winter storms 
only drive them a little lower down to the 
shelter of the brush, or in severe seasons to 
the foothills. With the return of spring the 
flocks go back to their pine-covered haunts in 
the higher altitudes. They breed north to 
the Spokane country where they are com- 
monly found in the foothills, and in the 
Wallowa country of eastern Oregon. 

Hepburn rosy finch, Leucosticte tephro- 

cotis littoralis. 6.50 

Distribution: High mountain districts of 

northwestern North America, from Alaska 

south through the interior mountain ranges 

of British Columbia, Washington and Oregon; 

straggling eastward to the Rocky Mountains; 

91 



FAMILY FringillidcB 

rare and irregular in the southern part of its 
range. Two closely allied species are the 
gray-crowned rosy finch, found in the interior 
of British Columbia, wintering in the Rocky 
Mountains, and the black rosy finch of the 
high mountains of Idaho, Colorado and 
Utah. 

The rosy finches are birds of the high 
mountains, living far above the timber line 
among the snow-clad peaks. They seem 
fearless in the face of the storms that sweep 
over the mountain tops, huddling together on 
the sheltered sides of snowbank or boulder 
until the sun comes out again. 

Their food consists of small insects and 
beetles that are blown up the mountains by 
the winter storms and scattered in a be- 
numbed condition over the surface of the 
snow. Only the severest w^eather w^ill drive 
the rosy finches down into the timber below, 
where they may seek shelter for the night in 
dense clumps of spruce and pine. 

The rosy finches are singularly tame in the 
presence of those who visit their haunts, 
feeding about on the snow close to one's camp 
or flitting from crag to crag in small flocks 
uttering a low churring note as they fly. 

The nest of the rosy finch is hidden in the 
cleft of a rock or underneath the edge of an 



FINCHES 

ovorlianging crafj:. It is made of small weed 
stalks, moss, fine grass and feathers. 

^ Redpoll Acanthis linaria inaria. 
^^ 4.90 

Distribution: More northern portions of 
northern hemisphere. In North America 
breeding from Greenland to Alaska and 
southward to the northern border of the 
United States. In winter south to northern 
United States generally, irregularly and more 
rarely to Virginia, northern Alabama, Ohio, 
Indiana, Kansas, Colorado, Washington and 
Oregon. 

Redpolls are circumpolar in their distri- 
bution, living as they do in the region of ice 
and snow. They nest in the stunted cedars 
about Hudson Bay and south and w^est to 
the northern border of the United States. 

In severe winters they drift south to middle 
United States, and along the Pacific Coast 
may often be found as far south as California 
in the Sierra Nevadas. In exceptional cases 
they have been found in the valleys in small 
flocks visiting weed patches and old gardens 
for the lettuce and turnip seed to be found 
there. They are also fond of the seeds of the 
alder and birch, and have the curious and 
interesting habit of following the crossbill to 
93 



FAMILY FringillidcB 

feed upon the pine seeds which they drop as 
they tear at the pine and fir cones. 

They remind one of the goldfinch and siskin 
in their manner of flight and querulous call 
notes and soft warbling song, and in feeding 
habits they resemble the chickadee in their 
manner of hanging back downwards at the 
ends of the tree branches while they peck at 
the seeds. 

The redpoll migrates in winter more from 
want of food supply than on account of the 
temperature, often appearing in the United 
States in open winters and being found in the 
far north in the most severe weather, seem- 
ingly immune to bitter cold. The nest is 
built in low trees, bushes or on the ground 
as circumstances permit. It is composed of 
moss and fine grass, lined with hair and 
feathers. 

Western evening grosbeak, Hesperi- 

phona vespertina montana. 7.00 

Distribution: Western North America 

from British Columbia to northern Mexico, 

and from the Rocky Mountains to the 

Pacific Coast. 

The western evening grosbeak is a bird of 
irregular distribution. Its summer home 
seems to be in the heavy coniferous timber 
94 




- M^ ' St- 



i 



V^ 



FINCHES 

of the big hills and mountains, although it is 
found sporadically at various points in the 
valleys the year around. Often in midsum- 
mer one may hear the beady call note of the 
evening grosbeak high overhead as it flies 
across the valley from one high point to 
another. It is a more famihar bird in the 
fall when it visits the towns to feed upon the 
crop of seeds that lie thick upon the ground 
under the maples in the parks and along quiet 
side streets. At such times the grosbeaks 
may often be seen festooned over the top of 
some large maple picking at the leaf buds or 
winged seeds that may still be hanging on the 
trees, or on the ground underneath walking 
about, crackling the seeds with their queer, 
thick flesh-colored bills. They are very 
sociable birds and not only keep close to- 
gether but carry on a continual twittering 
conversation that sounds like the peeping of a 
flock of young chickens just out of the shell. 

When suddenly startled on the ground they 
will often resort to *' freezing" tactics instead 
of flying, and when in such an attitude fade 
almost imperceptibly into the background, 
the white and black, and gold, blending per- 
fectly with their surroundings. When once 
they have found plenty of seed they are loath 
to leave the spot and though frightened away 
95 



FAMILY FringillidcB 

will return again and again to the same place. 

The evening grosbeak has two or three 
distinct call notes in addition to the con- 
versational notes referred to, and one ob- 
server from eastern Oregon claims to have 
heard the grosbeak sing a pleasing warbling 
song. 

When sitting still the evening grosbeak is 
easily recognized by its unusual looking bill 
and striking plumage, while it may be readily 
distinguished in flight by its short wings and 
rapid wing beat, together with the showing of 
conspicuous white wing patches and its pecu- 
liar whistled call note. It is seldom alone, 
except during the breeding season, and even 
then likes to be within call of its fellows. 

The nest is described as being largely 
composed of the yellow lichen of the moun- 
tain pine forests where it usually spends the 
breeding season, but if the nest is built in 
other than conifers it will be made of bark 
and rootlets. The writer once saw a pair of 
evening grosbeaks carrying nesting material 
in the hills back of Portland but was unable 
to trace the birds to their nest. One bird, 
probably the female, had a mouthful of 
fibrous material and the male was following 
close behind as they darted up a canyon. 
The presence and call notes of a flock of 
96 



1^ 




i 



s^" 

m^ 

J^^ 



BLACKBIRDS. ORIOLES 

gi'osbeaks bring up memories of a wild free 
life in the out-of-doors, of the mountains, and 
the singing of the wind through the tops of 
fir and spruce, as one listens in the hush of the 
big woods. 

FAMILY ICTERID/E: BLACKBIRDS, 
ORIOLES 

^ ullock oxiole, Icterus bullocki. 7.25 
Distribution : Western North Amer- 
ica from British Provinces south to the 
plateau of Mexico; east to the eastern border 
of the Great Plains, south in winter to 
southern Mexico. 

The Bullock oriole belongs to a family 
group of about one hundred and fifty species 
whose center of distribution is in tropical 
America, and it bears the distinction of being 
the only one of the number that is found in 
all the northwestern part of the North Ameri- 
can continent. 

While they are found generally in all parts 
of the West, the orioles seem to prefer the 
interior valleys for their summer home. 

Alders and cottonwoods along water 

courses are their favorite haunts. Here they 

build their nests, often returning to the same 

tree year after year. In cities and about farm 

» 97 



FAMILY IcteridcE 

dwellings they live in the maples where they 
may be heard singing in the peculiar oriole 
fashion, a series of gurgles and chuckles, re- 
minding one of their blackbird relationship. 
Their nest is a well-woven basket of plant 
fibers, wiry grass, wool, horsehair and string, 
lined with plant down and other soft sub- 
stances. It is hung from the tip of some 
slender branch and is swayed by every pass- 
ing breeze. East of the mountains in the arid 
plains country, where trees are scarce, every 
poplar or cottonwood near a bit of w^ater is 
festooned with these nests. 

The food of the Bullock oriole is said to be 
chiefly insects and injurious caterpillars. The 
birds are often seen in the berry patches but 
are searching for insects rather than fruit. 

^. Northwestern red-wing, Agelaius 
phoeniceus caurinus. 9.00 

Distribution: North w^est coast district 
from British Columbia south through w^estern 
Washington and Oregon to northern Cali- 
fornia. The bi-colored red-wing of Oregon, 
Washington and California, and the tri- 
colored red-wing of the central valleys of 
California, north into southwestern Oregon, 
are closely allied species. 

Blackbirds are inseparably associated with 
98 



BLACKBIRDS, ORIOLES 

lowland meadows, ponds, sloughs and 
marshes. The red-wing carries its field mark 
on its shoulders and needs no other badge of 
identification. No marsh is complete with- 
out one or more pairs of red-wings clinging 
to the tules or cat-tails, sounding their 
o-ka-Iee or cong-ga-ree music, dear to every 
bird-lover. The favorite perch of the red- 
wing is the top of some small tree where it can 
get a good view of the marsh, some old 
veteran usually acting as lookout while the 
rest of the flock are feeding on the ground in 
the grass. 

The nest is placed in a bush or in reeds over 
water. It is made of wide bladed grasses and 
strips of bark fastened to several upright 
stems, a well-woven basket-like structure, 
deeply cupped and warmly lined with feathers 
and hair. The blackbirds are sociable fellows, 
even in the nesting season, and like to build 
close together in the marsh where they 
keep up a continual conversation among 
themselves. 

In the fall the red-wings collect in large 
flocks to wander about the country in search 
of food. At such times they may often be 
found associating together with the Brewer 
black})ir(ls, crows and robins, walking about 
over freshly ploughed ground picking up 
99 



FAMILY IcteridcB 

insects and grubs, or in stubble-fields looking 
for fallen grain. 

Brewer blackbird, Euphagus cyano- 
cephalus. 9.00 

Distribution: Western United States, 
British Provinces and greater part of Mexico, 
and from the Mississippi valley to the Pacific 
Coast. In winter south over most of its 
range to Mexico (except on the Pacific Coast 
where it is practically resident). 

The Brewer blackbird is found everywhere 
from sea level to high mountain districts, 
and is equally common in marshes and the 
drier parts of its range. It is a more sedate 
bird than the red-wing, walking about on the 
ground with long strides in a very independ- 
ent manner looking for food, and uttering a 
coarse chack from time to time. During the 
breeding season it has a curious squeaky 
little song which it gurgles to its mate as it 
sits perched on some convenient telegraph 
wire, or housetop in the city. If it comes to 
the feeding stations in the winter every other 
bird will stand aside, for it has a very 
aggressive manner and will greedily clean the 
board of all edibles. 

The Brewer blackbird places its nest 
indiscriminately in bushes or trees, often to 
100 



BLACKBIRDS, ORIOLES 

the height of one hundred feet in the giant 
firs, or sometimes in an old woodpecker's hole, 
or crevice about a building. The nest is 
made of sticks, weed stalks, grass and rootlets 
cemented with mud or manure. 

Although accused of doing some damage to 
crops, the Brew^er blackbird consumes great 
numbers of worms and grubs, crickets and 
grasshoppers, and it is a common sight in the 
spring and fall following the plow to snap up 
the wriggling insects in the furrow. 

Bobolink, DoUclionyx oryzivorus. 7.00 
Distribution: Eastern and central 
North America in general. Occurring in the 
west sparingly in British Columbia and south 
through eastern Washington and Oregon, and 
in Idaho and Nevada. Wintering in Brazil 
and Paraguay. 

The bobolink lives in the open country 
away from timber. It is found in the farming 
districts and prairies of the eastern United 
States in great abundance, ranging northwest 
into eastern British Columbia and southward 
very sparingly through eastern W^ashington 
and Oregon, and rarely into California during 
migrations. Only within recent years, how- 
ever, has it appeared in any numbers west of 
the Rockies. The bobolink is highly migra- 
101 



FAMILY Icteridce 

tory, leaving the United States entirely in the 
winter and retiring almost in a body to South 
America, centering there in southeastern 
Brazil. In the spring it swarms north 
through the eastern states in untold thou- 
sands, nesting all the way from Florida to 
British Columbia. 

It builds its nest in hay or grain fields or in 
grassy meadows, well hidden in thick grass, 
in fact its nest is one of the most difiicult to 
find. The parents will resort to every artifice 
known to them to draw one away from the 
vicinity of the nest. 

The male bobolink undergoes a complete 
change of plumage twice a year and during 
migration south in the fall the males, females 
and young have much the same appearance. 
In different parts of the country the bobolink 
goes under the different common names of 
meadow-wink, skunk blackbird, reed-bird 
and rice-bird. The song of the bobolink is a 
very pleasing one, of a bubbling, tinkling 
quality hard to describe. 

Yellow-headed blackbird, Xantho- 
Cephalus xa?ithocephalus. 9.30 

Distribution : More open districts of west- 
ern and central North America generally, 
from British Columbia east to Manitoba, 
102 




'$» 



BLACKBIRDS, ORIOLES 

Illinois, Indiana, and Michigan, and south to 
northern Mexico. Breeding throughout its 
range in suitable localities. 

The yellow-headed blackbird is common in 
eastern Washington and Oregon, and in the 
central valleys of California, rarely coming 
west of the mountains in the northern parts of 
its range. It is partial to the reedy borders 
of alkaline lakes or the edges of the big ditches 
in the irrigated country where it builds its 
nest in the tules over water. The nest is a 
deeply cupped, well-made structure woven of 
the wet leaves of tule and marsh grass lined 
with fine grass, soft weed stems and plant 
down. In the fall the yellow-heads gather in 
flocks with other blackbirds and wander 
south in their annual migration. 

Vernon Bailey speaks of finding "flocks by 
themselves in fields and meadows, along the 
roadsides, often in barnyards and corrals, and 
sometimes in city streets, flocks with pom- 
pous, yellow-capped males strutting about 
among the dull-colored females and young, 
talking in harsh, guttural tones. Noisy at 
all times, they are doubly so at the breeding 
grounds, where they try to sing, and their 
hoarse voices come up from the tule borders 
like the croaking of frogs and creaking of 
unoiled gates." 

103 



FAMILY Icteridce 

Western meadowlark, Sturnella 
SOI. I 

negiecta. 9.50 

Distribution: Western United States from 
the Mississippi valley to the Pacific, and from 
British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, 
and western Manitoba south to northern 
Mexico and Lower California. 

The meadowlark is a bird of the wide, open 
country. It is a feature of every grain or 
stubble-field, and when not engaged in look- 
ing for food may be heard whistling its clarion 
song as it sits perched on fence or bush along 
the road. While it is a bird of the ground it 
may sometimes be seen perched on the top 
of a tree where it watches the passerby, 
nervously jerking its tail and uttering its 
sharp alarm note to warn its mate on the 
ground in the adjoining field. 

The nest is hidden under a thick bunch of 
grass in a meadow or field. It is usually 
arched over by pulling the nearby grass down 
to form the cover. 

The song of the western meadowlark has a 
greater variety of notes than that of the 
eastern species. It has been known to 
change its song two or three times while one 
listened to it, some thirty or more variations 
being recorded. It is a constant singer and 
can be heard at any season of the year. 
104 



LARKS 

When other birds are silent its melody greets 
the ear as the sun breaks through the rift 
in the clouds in the winter sky, and brings up 
visions of summer, and waving grain fields 
and green meadows. The western meadow- 
lark is practically a permanent resident along 
the Pacific Coast west of the Cascades. 
During severe winters it will come to the feed- 
ing stations with other birds, but ordinarily 
it is well able to find a living for itself under 
even very hard conditions. 

FAMILY ALAUDIDM: LARKS 

r. Streaked horned lark, Otocoris alpes- 
tris strigata. 7.00 

Distribution: Pacific Coast region from 
British Columbia to California; migrating to 
eastern Washington and Oregon, and south- 
ward. 

The horned lark is the only representative 
found in North America of a world-wide 
family; the one species, with about a dozen 
geographical races, being scattered from Hud- 
son Bay to Mexico. Those birds living in 
desert areas are lighter in coloration than 
those inhabiting the more humid districts. 
In the Pacific Coast districts the dusky 
horned lark is found from British Columbia 
105 



FAMILY AlaudidcB 

south between the Cascades and the Rockies, 
wintering to Nevada and California; paUid 
horned lark, breeding in Alaska and migrating 
southward to Oregon, Utah and Montana; 
and the California and ruddy horned larks, 
and a half dozen other varieties found in 
California and the Southwest 

Horned larks are ground birds, gleaning a 
living from the stubble-fields and along road- 
sides. They are often seen perched on fence 
posts along country thoroughfares and have 
the curious habit of crouching low when 
alarmed by any passerby, as if to hide them- 
selves. They fly with a sudden jerky motion, 
usually going only a short distance to drop 
into the grass, and running along a few feet 
they will mount an upturned furrow to watch 
the wayfarer disappear down the road. One 
must look for horned larks in flat open 
country away from timber, along dusty 
roads when the heat is dancing in the 
air and the purple hills look hazy in the 
distance. 

The nest of the horned lark is a frail 
structure placed on the ground in an open 
field. The horned lark has a weak song 
which is uttered as it sits perched on the 
ground or fence, or as it goes darting across a 
field. 

106 




^ I 



KINGFISHERS 

FAMILY ALCEDINID.E: KINGFISHERS 

Belted kingfisher, Ceryle alcyon. 
■^^^ 13.00 

Distribution: North America and north- 
em South America. Breeds from north- 
western Alaska, and northern Quebec and 
Newfoundland, south to the southern border 
of the United States. Wintering on the Pacific 
Coast from British Columbia southwards. 

The kingfishers are cosmopolitan in their 
distribution, the center of their abundance 
lying in the Malay Peninsula. Nearly two 
hundred species are known, only about a 
dozen of which are found in the western 
hemisphere. They are divided into two 
general groups, those that are found in the 
vicinity of water and catch fish by plunging 
in after them, and those that live in the 
woods or desert places and feed on insects 
and small animal life. 

The water loving species dig their nesting 
burrows in the banks of ponds or streams, 
while the wood dwelling group nest in natural 
cavities in trees. 

The belted kingfisher is one of our best 

known birds and is generally distributed in 

suitable localities throughout its range, 

though seldom common anywhere. AI- 

107 



FAMILY AlcedinidcB 

though a summer resident only in the more 
northern parts of its range, it is practically 
resident in the United States along the 
Pacific Slope. It is commonly found along 
salt water and in the mountains up to ten 
thousand feet where it may be seen about the 
mountain torrents and glacial lakes. The 
kingfisher frequents the shores of clear ponds, 
lakes or streams, bordered with brush or 
trees, and may often be seen perched on 
some half-submerged snag or fallen tree top 
or dead branch overhanging the water, 
watching for fish. There seem to be certain 
places where it will sit by the hour in silent 
meditation, its only movement being a 
quick turning of the head from side to side as 
if watching for some danger that might 
threaten. When it spies a fish it springs 
into the air, hovering over the spot for a few 
moments like a sparrowhawk, and then, if not 
certain, rising higher to hover again for a 
moment and then plunge boldly into the 
water. On emerging with its prey it flies to 
some favorite perch, beats the fish against a 
limb to make sure that it is dead and swallows 
it head foremost at a gulp. Although fish con- 
stitutes the major part of its food it also cap- 
tures various kinds of insects, frogs, lizards, 
small crustaceans, mice and even small birds. 
108 




-^^ 






v." 



\ 



\ 



CROWS, JAYS, MAGPIES 

I'he kingfisher digs its nesting burrow in 
the hanks of streams, railroad cuts and 
ai)andoned gravel pits. The hole is from 
three to eight feet deep, usually straight 
hut sometimes turned at an angle, and nearly 
ahvays slanting upwards. The end of the 
burrow is enlarged making a dome shaped 
chamber where the eggs are laid on the bare 
ground or pile of crawfish shells, though 
sometimes a scant nest of grass is made. 
The male kingfisher will sometimes dig a 
burrow nearby, about three feet deep, in 
which to sleep at night. 

The glint of blue and white, the long 
sword-like bill, the rattling call note and the 
energetic flight of the kingfisher are char- 
acteristic sights and sounds of every water- 
course. As long as there is open water the 
kingfisher will find a living and will stay 
about its accustomed haunts, and if, as in the 
mountains, the water freezes over, it simply 
moves down into the valleys. 

FAMILY CORVIDJ:.- CROWS, JAYS, 
MAGPIES 

^ Steller jay, Cyanocitta stelleri 

^^ Hielleri. 12.50 

Distribution: Pacific Coast district from 
southern Alaska to middle California, east to, 
109 



FAMILY CorvidcE 

and including, the Cascades and Sierra 
Nevadas. Closely allied species include the 
blue-fronted jay of California; Coast jay, of 
the Coast counties of California and Oregon 
from Monterey Bay north to the Columbia 
River; and the black-headed jay found from 
eastern British Columbia and the northern 
parts of the Rocky Mountain regions gener- 
ally, south through eastern Washington and 
Oregon, and eastward to Wyoming, Utah 
and western Nebraska. 

The Steller jay, blue jay or jaybird is found 
everywhere from the thick brush of the Coast 
counties to the tall timber of the high Cas- 
cades and Sierra Nevadas. It is common in 
the valleys about the farms where it picks up 
a living around the barn and chicken yard, 
in old pastures and stubble fields where grain 
has been scattered, and comes into the out- 
skirts of the cities to skulk in the underbrush 
and snatch up any stray eatables that may be 
found within reach of its long black bill. The 
large size of the Steller jay together with its 
jaunty crest and deep blue dress make it a 
conspicuous object as it sits in a fir or hem- 
lock, working upward from limb to limb by 
short leaps, until, reaching the top, it sails 
downward again with outstretched wings, 
showing to advantage the beautiful color of 
110 



CROWS, JAYS. MAGPIES 

Its plumage. Its call and scolding notes are 
harsh and rasping, and when suddenly dis- 
turbed, its squawking sets all the woods 
astir. Its nest is a wide, flat structure made 
of twigs and grass lined with rootlets. It is 
usually placed in small firs from eight to 
twenty feet from the ground, and rarely in the 
taller firs. There is no prettier sight than a 
nestful of nearly full grown young jays wdth 
their wide open yellow mouths begging for 
food. 

r, Oregon jay, Perisoreus obscurus 
obscurus. 10.25 

Distribution: Mountain districts and fir 
clad hills of northern California, Oregon, 
Washington and southern British Columbia. 

Two closely allied species are the white- 
headed jay found in the coniferous timber of 
the Rocky Mountain region west to eastern 
British Columbia, ^Yashington, Oregon and 
south to Arizona; and the gray jay found in 
the interior districts of British Columbia south 
through Washington, Oregon and California. 

The Oregon jay, camp robber or meat bird 
is only seen in heavy coniferous timber where 
it flits silently from tree to tree in search of 
food, which consists of whatever ofi'ers itself 
in the shape of insects, acorns and many a 
111 



FAMILY CorvidcB 

nestful of other birds' eggs. The Oregon jay 
is a long lean looking bird, with loose plumage 
that looks unkempt at all seasons. It is a 
somber bird of black and white and brownish 
gray, with no suggestion of blue anywhere. 
It is the little camp robber in hunters' par- 
lance, a name earned by its boldness in 
coming about the camp and stealing from 
pot, kettle or table what it can carry away. 

The nest of the Oregon jay is usually 
placed in a bushy fir well up from the ground 
and is hard to find. It is bulky, of the usual 
jay type, wide and flat, lined with moss and 
rootlets. 

^ California jay, Aphelocoma cali- 
fornica calif ornica. 11.75 

Distribution: Pacific Coast region from 
the Columbia River south to Lower Cali- 
fornia, and east to, and including, the Sierra 
Nevada and Cascades. Rare in the north- 
ern parts of its range. A few seen in the 
Willamette valley north to Salem, and rarely 
to the vicinity of Portland. 

The California jay, or blue squawker, 
belongs to a genus including eight or ten 
closely allied species of crestless jays that 
strongly resemble each other in the field, but 
which when examined in the hand are found 
112 



h- 




CROWS, JAYS, MAGPIES 

to show interesting difPerences in shades of 
hhie and gray, and in the pencilings about the 
head and throat. They are all birds that are 
found mostly in mountainous country or in 
the high plateaus, being frequenters of pine 
and fir and the oak timber of the south- 
west. 

Although common in California, the Cali- 
fornia jay thins out northerly through the 
interior valleys, and for some unknown 
reason it is now rare in districts where 
formerly it was common. It is usually found 
in oak woods where a large part of its food 
consists of acorns. In common with most 
jays it is very destructive of the eggs and 
young of other small birds. It is also a 
destroyer of a vast number of injurious 
insects. 

The nest of the California jay is usually 
found in low bushes or thickets near the 
ground, or more rarely in trees. It is a noisy 
bird and will often fill the woods with its 
jmj, jay, jay, or quay, quay, quay, and some- 
times hoy-ee, or kay-kee. 

Pinon jay, Cyanocephalus cyano- 

cephalus. 11.00 

Distribution: Pinon and juniper woods of 

the western United States from British 

8 113 



FAMILY CorvidcB 

Columbia south to Mexico, and from the 
Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Coast; 
casually east to Kansas and Arkansas. 

The pinon jay, blue crow, or pine jay, as 
noted in the distribution, is a bird of the 
pinon and juniper woods of the mountainous 
and plateau districts of the west. It fre- 
quents the belts of pine timber in the foot- 
hills from California northward through 
eastern Oregon and Washington to southern 
British Columbia. Unlike most jays, it is 
often found in large flocks after the breeding 
season, swarming through the woods like a 
flock of blackbirds and feeding on the 
ground. It may often be seen pursuing 
grasshoppers and other insects on the wing 
after the manner of the flycatchers. 

The pinon jay seems to be an exception to 
the rule among its kind in that it is a sociable 
bird, being on good terms with other small 
birds, nesting near them without harming 
either eggs or young. And to prove its good 
intentions it often builds its own nest in plain 
sight on the lower branch of some tree, often 
in small colonies. Its nest is a bulky affair, 
composed of pinon needles, bits of sage brush 
and shreds of bark, lined with rootlets and 
dry grass well woven together. In the fall 
when the young are full grown they may be 
114 




•^^ 








^ I 



tf.- 

^1, 



CROWS. JAYS, MAGPIES 

seen following the parents about teasing for 
food, which is always willingly supplied. 

The pinon jay closely resembles the Cali- 
fornia jay at a distance, but at close range 
the latter bird is found to have grayish-white 
under-parts and bluish streakings on the 
throat, while the piiion jay is almost uniform 
grayish-blue with white streakings on the 
throat. 

^Magpie, Pica 'pica hudsonia. 
^'^^ 19.50 

Distribution: Treeless or more sparsely 
wooded districts of western North America, 
except coast and interior valleys of California 
from Alaska to Arizona, New Mexico and 
western Texas. A rare straggler eastward 
to Ontario, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin and 
Nebraska. The yellow-billed magpie, a some- 
w^hat smaller bird, is found only in the interior 
valleys of California. 

The magpie, American magpie, or black- 
billed magpie with its striking black and 
white plumage, long wedge-shaped tail and 
peculiar flight will attract instant attention 
whether seen from the window of a moving 
train as one speeds across the wide dusty 
plains or from one's seat in an automobile in 
the cattle country. The magpie is a bird of 
115 



FAMILY CorvidcE 

the arid plains, being common along willow 
bordered streams or about the irrigated dis- 
tricts from Montana to California. It rarely 
straggles over into the valleys west of the 
mountains, although occasionally follow- 
ing the Columbia River down to the 
Willamette. 

The magpie builds its nest in a scrubby 
tree or bush, a mud cup lined with grass, hair 
and pine needles, surrounded by a mass of 
coarse sticks built in a globular form with an 
opening at the side. The nest is often as 
large as a bushel basket. In manners and 
food habits the magpie strongly resembles 
the crow. 

Western crow, Corvus brachyrhyn- 
ckos hesperis. 19.00 

Distribution: Western North America 
from northern British Columbia south to 
Mexican border, and from the Rocky Moun- 
tains to the Pacific Coast, except the coast 
district from the Columbia River northward, 
which is the home of the northwestern crow. 
The western crow in every way resembles 
the other members of the family, differing 
from its eastern relative only in its smaller 
size. It does not collect in the great roosts 
so common in the eastern states but lives in 
116 



CROWS, JAYS, MAGPIES 

comparatively smaller groups. Although on 
the blacklist in many states because of the 
damage it does to crops, a recent announce- 
ment from the Agricultural Department 
would indicate that it does not do the amount 
of harm imputed to it. In all events it is one 
of the most interesting birds that we have, 
and a pet crow will keep one busy w^ith its sly 
tricks and knowing ways. 

Clarke nutcracker, Nucifraga colum- 
^^^ biana. 12.50 

Distribution : Coniferous forests of western 
North America from Alaska to Mexico, 
casually eastward to the states of Kansas, 
Missouri and Arkansas. 

The Clarke nutcracker, Clarke crow, pine 
crow, gray crow or big camp robber lives 
along the crests of the ranges in the high 
mountains. It is a frequenter of stunted 
pine and fir and a characteristic feature of 
mountain scenery. It is a combination of all 
the traits of both crow and jay, and in size 
and color is between the two. It is an in- 
dei)endent and positive bird, and with its 
clear-cut plumage of ashy gray, and the con- 
trast of black and white in wings and tail it 
makes a fine picture as it sails along or pitches 
headlong down a thousand feet or more 
117 



FAMILY Picidce 

uttering a harsh karr\ kar'rr' as it goes. 
Mountain climbers report it as a very tame 
bird, following along in the trees as they toil 
upward, and visiting camp on occasion, to 
pick up what it can for food. It is reported to 
be a sly rascal about these mountain camps 
and is in habits a first cousin to that other 
little rascal in feathers, the Oregon jay. The 
Clarke nutcracker builds a bulky nest in 
evergreen trees often when the snow is still on 
the ground. Its food in winter is mainly pine 
nuts which are hammered from the cones 
with much labor. In summer it feeds mainly 
on insects, beetles, grasshoppers and various 
wild fruits. 

FAMILY PICIDM: WOODPECKERS 

Red-shafted flicker, Colaptes cafer 
collaris, 13.25 

Distribution: Western United States and 
southw^estern British Provinces (except coast 
district from northern California northward), 
east to the Great Plains, and south to Mexico. 
The northwestern flicker, a closely allied spe- 
cies, is found from northern California, north 
to Alaska, west of the Coast Range Mountains. 
The red-shafted flicker is so well known, 
even to the most casual bird student, that any 
118 



^^^i^<2i 



^ A 




fi 



*f ^ 



f 







u 



^ ^ 



/ 






f" 






WOODPECKERS 

(letailcMl description of its plumago or habits 
seems superfluous. It is a common bird 
everywhere. It hops about on the hiwu with 
tht robins, digging in ant liills or prol)ing 
under the grass roots with its long bill in 
search of any worm or cricket that may be 
hidden there. It may be seen perched on 
telegraph poles, peaks of houses, and, on rare 
occasions, even on the coping of a business 
block in the downtown district. It is a 
familiar sight in the country about orchards 
and fields, digging a hole for its nest in any 
old stump or dead tree that may be handy 
to its feeding grounds. 

The large white rump patch, which shows 
distinctly as it flies, is the positive field mark 
of this species. Its characteristic call notes 
sound like ivicker-wicker-wicker, or yuclxer- 
yucker-yuckery and again it shouts heigh-ho! 
or warrup! as it sits in the top of a tree. 

Northern red-breasted sapsucker, 

Sphyrapicus ruber notkensis. 9.00 

Distribution: Northwest coast district; 

breeding from western Oregon northward 

through western Washington and British 

Columbia to southern Alaska. Closely allied 

species include the red-breasted sapsucker of 

California and south central Oregon, east of 

119 



. FAMILY PicidcB 

the Cascades; red-naped sapsucker, found in 
western North America from British Colum- 
bia south to Mexico, and from the Rocky 
Mountains west to the Cascades and the 
Sierra Nevadas, sparingly west of the moun- 
tains in Oregon and Washington. 

The red-breasted sapsucker is found in 
coniferous timber and mixed woods from sea 
level to high mountains. It is common in 
parts of its range and rare in others. One 
never sees more than one or two pairs at a 
time. It is a shy bird, keeping behind the 
trunk of a tree as you approach it, all the 
while peering at you cautiously from first one 
side of the tree, and then the other. Some- 
times it is seen clinging to a rail fence, or in 
small trees, but more often in tall firs or 
cedars in heavy timber. 

The all-red head, neck and breast of this 
bird make its identification easy, since no 
other woodpecker on the Pacific Coast is like 
it in appearance. 

The call notes of the red-breasted sap- 
sucker are varied and unusual for a wood- 
pecker. One of its calls sounds more like a 
squirrel than a bird, while another reminds 
one of a hawk. The latter is unique as com- 
ing from a woodpecker, it is so loud and 
unexpected. 

120 



r^ 



I- 



'^ V^ 




A 



I M 



^JL A. 



WOODPECKERS 

* The nest is built in both live and dead 
trees, and the eggs are white, in common with 
all woodpeckers. 

Harris woodpecker, Dryohates villosus 
^^^^ harrisi. 9.50 

Distribution : Humid Pacific Coast district 
from northern California, north through 
Oregon and Washington to British Columbia 
and southeastern Alaska. Three other 
closely allied varieties found on the Pacific 
Coast are the Rocky Mountain hairy w^ood- 
pecker of the Rocky Mountain region, west to 
the eastern slope of the Cascades; Cabanis 
woodpecker of the Southwest and California, 
and the Queen Charlotte woodpecker of the 
Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. 

The home of the Harris woodpecker is in 
the deep woods where it lives a more or less 
solitary life. It is found everywhere from 
sea level to high mountains, seeming to prefer 
coniferous timber rather than mixed woods, 
though it is occasionally seen in heavy tim- 
ber along streams and on the crests of the big 
wooded hills. It is the counterpart in color- 
pattern of its smaller cousin the Gairdner 
woodpecker, though much larger in size. 

The Harris w^oodpecker is a forest preserver, 
spending much of its time ridding the trees 
121 



FAMILY PicidcB 

of the wood-borers that destroy them. In 
common with many of the family it enjoys 
drumming on some resonant limb when not 
otherwise engaged in seeking its food. 

The call note of the Harris woodpecker is a 
sharp "peek, or eek, which is usually answered 
by its mate from some other part of the woods. 
Its nest is dug in some dead tree from twenty 
to fifty feet from the ground. 

Gairdner woodpecker, Dryohates pubes- 
cens gairdner I. 7.00 

Distribution: Humid northwest coast dis- 
trict from southern British Columbia south 
through Washington and Oregon to northern 
California. Two other closely allied varie- 
ties are the Batchelder woodpecker of the 
Rocky Mountain region west to eastern 
Washington and Oregon and California, and 
the willow woodpecker of southern California. 

The Gairdner woodpecker is a friendly 
little fellow that comes boldly into the door- 
yard to make a survey of the tree trunks, or 
to take an occasional mouthful of fruit from 
dogwood or wild cherry. It goes rapidly up 
a tree, making side excursions to all of the 
big limbs and then flies on to the next tree in 
a nervous, restless manner to repeat the per- 
formance. 

122 



WOODPECKERS 

The GairdiRT woodpeckcT is found ovcry- 
where both in open country and timbered 
areas. It makes itself at home in fruit or- 
chards, in the wood-lot and in clumps of trees 
about the farmsteads. It is commonly seen 
in vacant lots and parks about the cities 
where it gleans larvae and spiders from every 
tree and shrub. It is the counterpart of its 
cousin, the downy woodpecker of the eastern 
states, building its home in a dead limb of 
some orchard tree or in a stub in field 
or wood-lot. Its call note is a shrill eek, 
and occasionally it utters a rapid, rattling 
cry. 

California w^oodpecker, Melanerpesfor- 
micivorus bairdi. 9.00 

Distribution: Pacific Coast region from 
southern Oregon (Eugene), south to northern 
Lower California, west of the Cascades and 
Sierra Nevadas. 

The California woodpecker haunts the oak 
belts of the Southw^est, its favorite food being 
acorns. It is a rare bird in the northern part 
of its range and is seen only occasionally as 
far north as Eugene, Oregon. In habits and 
characteristics the California woodpecker is 
very much like the red-headed woodpecker 
of the eastern states. 

123 



FAMILY Picidce 

Northern pileated woodpecker, Phlceo- 
tomus pileatus ahieticola. 17.00 

Distribution: Heavily wooded regions of 
North America from the southwestern Alle- 
ghanies northward to about latitude 63, and 
westward to the Pacific Coast. The western 
pileated woodpecker is a new sub-species 
found in the humid northwest coast district 
from British Columbia south through Wash- 
ington, Oregon, and California to Mendicino 
county on the coast, and southern Sierra 
Nevadas in the interior (Sequoia National 
Park) ; east to Idaho and Western Montana. 

The pileated woodpecker, log-cock, or 
cock-of-the-woods lives in the big woods, in 
the broken hill country and the mountains. 
It has become one of the rarer species, for its 
large size and handsome appearance has been 
its undoing, the so-called scientist, the collector 
and the idle gunner having shot it out to 
such an extent that it has become exceedingly 
wary of the settlements. 

These woodpeckers may be found occa- 
sionally in the valleys by twos and threes but 
one must go to the mountains to find them in 
their real hunting grounds. Here they may 
often be heard knocking on the trees with 
sledge-hammer blows as they dig into the 
rotten wood for grubs. Their loud call, cuk, 
124 



V 



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4 



♦* A * t*-C " 





J *^. 







W&:^' -,"^^^ 



WOODPECKERS 

ciili'y cuL\ cuky cull', rings through \\\v tinihcr as 
they fly back and forth from ridge to ridge. 
When flying the pileated woodpecker has a 
spread of wings of over two feet. It goes 
with long sweeping strokes in the undulating 
manner of its kind and makes a grand picture 
that matches well its usual wild surroundings. 
Its large size, together with its flaming red 
crest and conspicuously black and white plu- 
mage make its identification certain. Its 
nest is usually excavated in living trees well 
up from the ground but occasionally in dead 
trees or stubs at low elevations. Its power- 
ful })lows cut out unbelievable chunks of wood 
and the ground below plainly shows the 
amount of chips removed. Its nesting hole 
is about fifteen inches deep and the glossy 
white eggs are laid on a bed of clean chips. 

o Lewis woodpecker, Asyndesmus lewisi. 
4°^ 11.00 

Distribution : From the Rocky Mountains to 
the Pacific Coast, and from British Columbia 
and Alberta south to Arizona and California. 

The Lewis woodpecker is unique among the 
family. At a distance it looks and flies like 
a small crow, with steady straight-away wing 
beats, and one might think it a crow until it 
lights on the side of a stub in characteristic 
125 



FAMILY PicidcE 

woodpecker fashion. The Lewis woodpecker 
may be found everywhere from sea level to 
high mountains, frequenting the stretches of 
dead timber where it may be seen flying from 
stub to stub, or perched in flicker-like atti- 
tude on the top of a broken-off tree or length- 
wise on a limb. 

It is also found throughout the valleys 
about the farming districts especially where 
there are numerous dead and blackened stubs 
suitable for nesting holes. It is a familiar 
figure perched on fence posts along country 
roads on the lookout for grasshoppers and 
crickets, or darting into the air to snap up a 
passing winged insect. This habit is often 
indulged from the top of a high stub, the bird 
returning again and again to the same perch 
unless its excursion takes it far afield, when it 
will stop on some other tree to repeat the per- 
formance. The iridescent greenish black of the 
upper-parts, crimson face, grayish breast, and 
rose pink belly make the Lewis wood pecker 
distinctive in coloration and easily identified. 

FAMILY ODONTOPHORIDM: BOB- 
WHITES, QUAILS 

^ Bobwhite, Colinus virginianus vir- 
ginianus. 10.00 

Distribution: Resident in eastern United 
126 




..*^^^3?»ier 




?*. 



k\ 



^'^■^V;^^^^^ 




BOBWHITES. QUAILS 

States, and spreading from Nebraska and 
Texas westward; also since intnxluction, in 
Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, Idaho, Cali- 
fornia, Oregon and Washington. 

The bobwhite, or bobwhite quail, is found 
in several varieties in different parts of tlie 
United States. Those on the Pacific Coast 
are the offspring of the original stock from the 
northeastern part of the United States. 
Another slightly smaller and darker sub- 
species is found in Florida, and still another 
in Texas, and the masked bobwhite is found 
in the extreme southwest. 

Since introduction on the Pacific Slope the 
bobwhite has increased rapidly and is now as 
common as the native quail. It is found in 
the open country away from timber, in old 
fields, pastures, grain fields and slashings where 
the cover i? good. It likes to follow the fence 
rows that are grown up to brush and weeds or 
the dusty country roads where it loves to take 
dust baths during the hot summer days. 

Some old bird, the chosen leader of the 
flock, will mount a fence post and be on guard 
while the rest of the flock is feeding in the 
edge of a nearby field. If one comes too near 
it will })egin nervously to walk back and forth, 
jerking its head and clucking to its conu'ades 
below. Then with a startled alarm note it 
127 



FAMILY Odontophondce 

will dart across the field with a rush of wings, 
to drop out of sight in the grass, the rest of 
the flock skulking through the field to join 
him, or taking wing by twos and threes to go 
in the same direction. Presently the old 
scout will mount a fence rail and begin his 
call, I want you, I want you, I want you, 
emphasis being placed on the you. In a few 
minutes the clan will be united and the leader 
will probably call hohwhite, hob, hobwhite, 
in triumph across the field. When surprised 
in the tall grass bobw^hites wdll sometimes 
"freeze" instead of flying and it is interesting 
to see how much they depend on their color- 
ation for protection. At such a time they 
will almost allow one to step on them before 
taking flight. Again the sudden rush of 
wrings as they fly up from almost under foot is 
disconcerting when unexpected. 

Bob whites are among the most domestic of 
birds. Both parents brood the eggs and 
share alike in caring for the young. The 
nest is usually placed in the corner of an old 
rail fence or near a stump or under a fallen 
tree top. It is built of grass neatly arched 
over with the same material and carefully 
hidden from view. Twelve to twenty eggs 
are laid, pure white and sharply pointed at 
one end. It is said that the male bobwhite 
128 



BOBWHITES, QUAILS 

will sometimes incubate the first clutch while 
the female is bringing off a second brood, 
thus accounting for the large number of 
young often seen trailing after one pair of 
bobwhites. The young are little balls of 
fuzzy brown, striped on the back w^ith darker 
brown and buff. As soon as they are out of 
the shell and have dried off they are ready to 
leave the nest and follow their parents out 
into the world. Bobwhites watch their 
young with jealous care, giving the alarm at 
the slightest approach of danger. 

In the more settled parts of the country 
bol) whites spend most of their time in grain 
and potato fields where they consume great 
numbers of potato bugs and other insects 
which are injurious to field crops. 

They are not know^i to injure grain or field 
crops of any kind, and wherever you go, east 
or west, the bobwhite is one of the favorite 
birds of farmer and bird-lover alike; his 
cheery call bringing up recollections of days 
on the farm, of waving grain and rustling 
corn, of peace and contentment. 

IVIountain quail, Oreoriyx picia picta. 
^^" 11.00 

Distribution: Humid Pacific Coast dis- 
tricts from middle California north to Puget 
9 li^9 



FAMILY Odontophoridce 

Sound, rare in the northern parts of its range. 
The plumed quail, a closely related form, is 
found from the Columbia River south to 
Lower California in the more arid districts 
east of the Cascade and Sierra Nevada 
Mountains. 

The mountain quail and the plumed quail 
are so nearly alike that the slight differences 
will be overlooked in the field. It is well to 
keep in mind that the former is found in the 
deep wooded humid districts in the hills and 
valleys while the latter species keeps more to 
the drier parts west of the Cascades in Oregon 
and on both sides of the Sierra Nevadas in 
California. The mountain quail, or moun- 
tain partridge frequents the wooded hills 
throughout the interior valleys where its loud 
clear whistle may be heard all summer as it 
calls to its mate or young. Mrs. Bailey gives 
a splendid rendition of its call in the words, 
hah, hah, hah, there's danger ne-ar, there's dan- 
ger ne-ar. Its whistle has a peculiarly pene- 
trating and ventriloquial quality. 

The long straight plume on its head, and 
its larger size will readily distinguish the 
mountain quail from the California quail, the 
latter having a shorter crest which curves 
forward. The nest of the mountain quail is 
placed on the ground in a thick clump of 
130 



I 



'ommmmm' 





m 



BOBWHITES, QUAILS 

grass, or beside a log or under a fallen tree 
top. It is made of leaves and fine grass. 
The eggs are from eight to fifteen in number, 
creamy white and unspotted. When sur- 
prised in the woods with their brood of half- 
grown young the old birds will dash into the 
underbrush with wild duckings while the 
young will hide in the grass until the danger is 
over. One can almost pick them up before 
they will scamper away. The young birds 
are very pretty in their brown streaked 
plumage and short erect crests as they go run- 
ning ahead of one in single file, weaving back 
and forth as they watch for some opening 
into which they can dart to safety. 

California quail, Lophortyx califor- 
nica californica. 9.50 

Distribution: Resident along the Pacific 
Coast from middle California north to the 
Columbia River, and sparingly northward 
west of the Cascades in Washington (except 
in the region of Seattle where it is abundant 
in the reserve about Lake Washington). 
The valley quail, a closely related form, is 
found in the more arid interior districts of 
Oregon and California and south to Lower 
California. 

The California quail, California partridge, 
131 



FAMILY PhasianidcB 

top-knot quail, or valley quail, as it is va- 
riously called, is the commoner of the two 
species about the farms and in the valleys 
generally. It may be seen in the parks and 
vacant lots about the cities, often becoming 
so tame as to be a menace to tender garden 
truck of which it is very fond. Little coveys 
of these quail may be seen along country 
roads in the edges of wood lots, or perched 
on fences whistling their sit-right-down, sit- 
right-down, sit-right-down . 

The California quail builds its nest like all 
others of the family in clumps of grass at the 
foot of a tree, or under the edge of a log or 
fallen tree top. The eggs, twelve to sixteen 
in number, are white or buffy, thickly 
spotted with shades of brown. 

FAMILY PHASIANID^: PHEASANTS 
AND TURKEYS 

^ Ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus tor- 
^ quatus, Male, 30.00: Female 22.00 

Distribution : Southern Siberia, Corea and 
northeastern China. Now found in many 
states of the Union, principally on private 
game farms, though in a wild state in some 
sections, being particularly abundant in 
California, Oregon and Washington. It is 

in 



PHEASANTS AND TURKEYS 

one of the commonest of the game birds of 
Oregon where it was introduced from China 
by Judge Denny in 1880. It is now abundant 
everywhere in the valleys west of the Cas- 
cades and in the irrigated districts east of 
the mountains. 

On account of the protection afforded the 
pheasant by the game laws it is now one of 
the main sources of sport open to the gunner 
in the short open season each year. It has 
increased so rapidly in the farming districts 
as to be a serious menace to growling crops 
in some sections, and it has become so tame 
in its constant association with man that it is 
a frequent visitor to towns and cities where it 
is a common nester in vacant lots under the 
protection of brush piles and tall weeds. 

In the farming districts the China pheas- 
ants may be seen in small flocks feeding in the 
grain fields and potato rows. It naturally 
keeps near the protection of thick brush 
along the edges of woodland into which it 
dives at the approach of danger, trusting 
to its strong legs for safety rather than to 
flight, except when surprised at close quarters 
when it darts to cover with a whirr of wings 
in a straight-away flight of astonishing 
swiftness. 

While the male pheasant is conspicuous in 
133 



FAMILY PhasianidcB 

its variegated plumage the female and young 
of the year are dull colored in their pale 
browns and blacks, spotted and length- 
wise streaked in many shades, blending 
with their environment so well as to make 
them hard to see as they crouch down in the 
cover of grass or weeds. The pheasant is 
rarely found perched above the ground except 
at night when it will often frequent trees 10 
to 30 feet from the ground where it is safe 
from prowling enemies. 

The nest of the China pheasant is hidden in 
thick grass in grain or pasture fields, or under 
brush piles in slashings or vacant lots. Like 
all of the game birds, the young are able to 
take care of themselves within a few hours 
after hatching out. While small the young 
pheasants are fed on insects but upon attain- 
ing the half grown stage they are gross 
feeders on vegetable matter, parents ar\d 
young often consuming great quantities of 
grain and garden crops. The male pheas- 
ants are very noisy during the breeding sea- 
son, giving vent to a peculiar cackling crow 
which may be heard both day and night and 
often at other time^ during the year. 

Although an introduced species the ring- 
necked pheasant has become one of the 
best known birds of the Pacific Coast, a beau- 
134 



i 

I 






\ 








J 


':A 




■^ 



GROUSE, SPRUCE PARTRIDGES 

tiful and interesting member of the game bird 
gi'oup, liiglily esteemed by sportsmen and 
bird-lovers alike, a welcome addition to our 
shores. 



FA:\nLY TETRAONID/E: GROUSE, 
SPRUCE PARTRIDGES, PTARMIGAN 

Sooty grouse, Dendragapus ohscurus 
fuUginosus. 17.50 

Distribution: Northwest coast region in 
mountain and heavy timbered districts from 
Alaska south to California and Nevada. 
Two closely aUied species are Richardson's 
grouse of the Rocky Mountain region, west 
to eastern Washington and Oregon; and the 
Sierra grouse of southern Oregon and the 
mountains of California; and another species, 
the Franklin grouse, or "fool hen," of the 
genus canachites, found from southern Alaska 
to northern Oregon in mountainous districts. 

The sooty grouse, blue grouse, wood grouse, 
mountain grouse or hooter, is a denizen of the 
mountains, the adjoining foothills and the 
big wooded hills that are scattered through 
the valleys of the Northwest. Although often 
found in the deep woods, where it habitually 
roosts in the tall firs and spruces, it is more 
common along the edges of the timber in the 
135 



FAMILY TetraonidcB 

open spaces where wild berries abound, and 
where the mixed woods are interspersed with 
pines and other conifers. It frequents the 
sides of deep canyons and the edges of the 
streams in the willow thickets where it re- 
sorts to drink and to bathe in the backwater of 
the pools. The sooty grouse is commonly 
found about the ranches in the hill country, 
frequently coming into the orchards to pick 
at the prunes and plums in midsummer. The 
hooting of the sooty grouse is one of the 
familiar sounds of the deep woods throughout 
the year. Although supposed to be a call to 
its mate it is often heard in the dead of winter 
when the snow is deep in the hills and the 
weather at zero point. While hooting it hides 
in the top of a tall fir or spruce, and the ven- 
triloquial quality of the notes makes it almost 
impossible to locate the bird. It sounds like 
oomp, oomp, oomp, oo, oo, oo, oo, oo, beginning 
slowly and ending rapidly. In the summer 
the food of the sooty grouse is composed of 
the various wild fruits and berries to be found 
in the wooded districts where it lives, to- 
gether with crickets, grasshoppers and grubs, 
and in the winter it is said to live almost ex- 
clusively on the tender buds of fir and spruce 
which it gathers from the tops of the trees. 
Its nest is placed on the ground in a thick 
136 



GROUSE, SPRUCE PARTRIDGES 

])unc'li of fprass near the foot of a tree or under 
a fallen tree top. The eggs are seven to ten 
in number, ereamy white, spotted with brown 
over the entire surface. 

Oregon ruffed grouse, Bonasa umhellus 
sabini. \1 .o\) 

Distribution: Resident in Pacific Coast 
districts from British Columbia south to 
northern California west of the Cascade 
]\ Fountains. Two closely allied species are 
the Canadian ruffed grouse of northeastern 
British Columbia and the eastern parts of 
Washington and Oregon ; and the gray ruffed 
grouse of the central Rocky INIountain dis- 
trict of the United States, British America 
and Alaska. 

The Oregon ruffed grouse, native pheasant, 
bush pheasant, partridge, or drummer, is a 
bird of the forest like the sooty grouse, with 
similar food and nesting habits. When sud- 
denly flushed its brown mottled plumage and 
long black-l)anded tail will distinguish it from 
all others of the family. It is a commoner 
l)ird a})out the settlements than the sooty 
grouse, being often met with in the mixed 
woods in the valleys and along streams. Its 
scanty nest is hidden under a fallen tree top 
or in a thick clump of brush at the foot of a 
137 



FAMILY ColumhidcB 

tree. The eggs are seven to thirteen in 
number, varying from white to buff in color, 
stained with brown. 



FAMILY COLUMBIDM; PIGEONS AND 
DOVES 

Band-tailed pigeon, Columba fasciata 
fasciata 15.50 

Distribution: Western North America 
from British Columbia south over the United 
States and most of Mexico, and from the 
Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Coast. It is 
common in the coast counties of California, 
Oregon and Washington and in the interior 
valleys west of the Cascades. 

The band-tailed pigeon is the "wild 
pigeon " of the west, and with the exception of 
the mourning dove is the only representative 
found in northwestern North America of 
about eighty species that are found in the 
western hemisphere. It is often reported by 
amateurs as the passenger pigeon, which has 
been extinct for many years. The latter had 
a wedged-shaped tail and the underparts 
were a rich reddish chestnut. In appearance 
it strongly resembled the mourning dove, 
especially in its rapid whistling flight. The 
band-tailed pigeon strongly resembles the 
138 







1 



PIGEONS AXD DOVES 

tame pigeon in its manner of flight and habits. 
It has a square tail, and the white crescent on 
the back of the neck is a distinctive field 
mark. It usually goes about in small flocks 
and may often be seen in the region of farms 
and orchards perched on the tops of tall 
trees, from which vantage point it makes 
raids on young fruit and berries of which it is 
very fond. When alighting in a tree it does 
so with a noisy flapping of wings, a character- 
istic of the species. This is especially notice- 
able at its roosting place, usually in some 
dead tree situated in a deep canyon, where it 
makes a great fuss as it restlessly flies from 
limb to limb before settling down for the night. 
The nest of the band-tailed pigeon is a 
frail platform of sticks placed in trees or 
bushes, or on the ground as reported from 
various places in California. The eggs are 
two in number, white and equal ended. 

^ ]\rourning dove, Zenaidura macroiira 

caroUnensis. 13.00 

Distribution : North America; breeding on 

the Pacific Coast from British Columbia 

south to ^lexico. Wintering from southern 

Oregon to Panama. 

The mourning dove, or turtle dove, is a 
common bird in the cultivated areas of the 
139 



FAMILY CoJumbidce 

Pacific Slope where it may be seen by twos 
and threes, or in small flocks, feeding in the 
grain fields and pastures, or gleaning the 
scattered grain in the stubblefields in the fall, 
its bobbing head and dainty step making an 
attractive picture. It may be easily dis- 
tinguished at sight from the band-tailed 
pigeon by its smaller size, wedge-shaped tail 
and rapid whistling flight. The mourning 
dove is far more common in the southern 
parts of its range where it may be seen in 
flocks of hundreds in the central valleys of 
California or about the large ranches of eastern 
Washington and Oregon. 

Its nest is a frail structure made of tw^igs, 
placed indifferently in trees, bushes or on the 
ground; and is often placed on the top of rail 
fences, posts and stumps. When the eggs 
are laid on the ground they are usually placed 
in any slight depression with only a few bits 
of dry grass for lining. Its mournful note is 
a coo, TOO, 00, 00, oo. 

Pigeons are almost always monogamous 
and their devotion to each other is well known. 
They may often be seen sitting side by side 
on the cross arm of a telephone pole along 
country roads and are rarely found alone at 
any time. Both parents take turns in 
incubation and in feeding the young. 
140 






<*.- 











\ ^ 



<*/■". 



t 



"*»«> 



SNIPES, SANDPIPERS, ETC. 

FAMILY SCOLOPACID.E: SNIPES, SAND- 
PIPERS, ETC. 

Spotted sandpiper, Actiiis macidaria. 
'"' 7.00 

Distribution: Whole of North America, 
breeding from the Arctic Circle to the Gulf of 
]\Iexico; migrating southward over the whole 
of Mexico, Central America, West Indies and 
South America to southern Brazil. 

The spotted sandpiper, peet-weet, tip-up, 
or teeter-tail is found along the shores and 
beaches of lakes, ponds and streams where it 
seeks its living picking up the tiny forms of 
marine life to be found there. Except during 
the nesting season it usually goes about in 
small rlocks. When disturbed it darts out 
over the water with a startled peet-iceet, the 
wings moving so rapidly that the tips seem to 
be always pointing downward. When it 
alights it stops so suddenly that it is almost 
bowled over by the shock. Its dainty 
dipping motion as it steps along has given 
it the nick-names of tip-up and teeter-tail. 

The small size of the spotted sandpiper, 
together with its grayish- white underparts, 
spotted throat and breast and white wing 
bars, which show plainly when it is flying, 
make its identification easy. In its winter 
141 



FAMILY CharadriidcB 

plumage, however, the underparts are 
unmarked. 

The nest of the spotted sandpiper is a 
shght depression in the ground lined with 
fine grasses. It is usually placed near the 
protection of a bunch of grass or at the foot 
of a small bush, though sometimes in the 
open among the pebbles and driftwood on 
the beach. The three or four pear-shaped, 
sharply pointed eggs, thickly mottled with 
all shades of gray, olive-green and black, look 
very much like a part of their surroundings. 

FAMILY CHARADRIIDM: PLOVERS 

^73 Killdeer, Oxyechus vociferous, 10.75 
Distribution: Whole of temperate North 
America from southern Canada south to the 
Gulf of Mexico. Breeding throughout its 
range. In winter from the southern border of 
the United States to northern South America. 
The killdeer, killdee, or killdee plover is a 
bird of fresh rather than salt water and may be 
found about the shores of streams, lakes and 
ponds from sea level to high mountains. It 
is also common throughout the country in 
wet meadows, stubble fields and old pastures 
where it is a conspicuous figure as it probes 
for food in the soft ground, and even chases 
142 




-^ 1 

1 



^% 



mi 





W« 



,4 



^^ 



\ 




^ 



. -^ 



'^^^^ 



M 



PLOVERS 

small grasshoppers and crickets after the man- 
ner of other non-aquatic birds. The kill- 
deer is robin size with a conspicuous black 
band across both breast and neck, and reddish 
brown upper tail coverts, the latter showing 
plainly when the bird is flying, or as it alights 
and daintily lifts its wings for a moment be- 
fore settling down. When standing motion- 
less, which it does for minutes at a time when 
it discovers that it is being watched, the bird 
is almost invisible, its variegated plumage 
blending with its surroundings to a remark- 
able degree. 

The song or call note of the killdeer is a 
rapidly uttered kill-dee, kill-dee, given on the 
wing or when standing still. It also has 
other notes of alarm and contentment of a 
peculiar churring quality. 

During the breeding season it is a noisy 
bird calling or scolding incessantly as it circles 
about over the field where its nest may be 
located. The nest is placed indiscriminately 
about the shores of streams and ponds or in 
fields far from water. It is a slight depres- 
sion in the ground lined with bits of dry 
grass. The three or four eggs are sharply 
pointed and heavily mottled with varying 
shades of gray, olive-green and black to match 
the de})ris among which they are laid. 
143 



FAMILY ColymhidcB 

FAMILY COLYMBIDM: GREBES 

^ Pied-billed grebe, Podilymhus podiceps. 

13.50 

Distribution: North and South America 
except extreme northern and southern parts. 
Common resident and migrant in Pacific 
Coast states. 

The home of the pied-billed grebe is in 
shallow ponds full of tall water grass and tules 
and in the larger lakes and sloughs with reed 
bordered shores. While many grebes may 
be found inhabiting the same body of water 
it is rare to find them nesting near each other 
as they seem to require more territory than 
most water birds. 

Along with the coot and great blue heron 
the pied-billed grebe is known to every 
country boy in America, going under the 
common names of hell-diver, water- witch and 
dab-chick in different parts of the country. 
The peculiar yelping, hollow cry of the grebe 
is one of the characteristic sounds of the 
marsh, and when it is taken up and repeated 
by a dozen other birds at the same time it is a 
weird sound. 

The grebe looks like an almost tail-less 
duck of a sooty brown color, with yellowish 
bill encircled with a black band. It will be 
144 




I\ 



RAILS, GALLINULES, COOTS 

seen swimming along the edge of the reeds 
when it will begin to slowly sink and disap- 
pear entirely, to reappear a hundred feet 
away. Or it will dive suddenly if frightened, 
coming up in the cover of the grass and tules. 
The grebe makes a semi-floating nest of 
dead tules and marsh gi'ass which are beaten 
down to form a platform only a few inches 
above the water. The eggs, three to five in 
number, are dirty white in color and become 
much discolored as incubation advances. 
When the bird leaves the nest it pulls the 
loose nesting material over to the eggs to 
hide it during its absence. When surprised 
on its nest it makes desperate efforts to cover 
it before slipping into the water and some- 
times makes a poor job of it. 

FAMILY RALLID^: RAILS, GAL- 
LINULES, COOTS 

2^^ Coot, Fulica americana. 14.00 

Distribution: Whole of North America 
from Alaska to Greenland, south to W'est In- 
dies, Bermudas and northern South America. 
Breeding from Texas northward. Resident 
and migrant in the Pacific Coast states. 

The coot or mudhen is one of the common 
denizens of every marsh bordered pond and 
lake in the west. It lives in the cover of the 
14o 



FAMILY ArdeidcB 

tall marsh grass and tules, feeding along the 
edges in the mud and slime, probing for the 
small marine life to be found there. Though 
shy at times, it may usually be seen swim- 
ming about in the open water in small flocks, 
or standing on a log sunning itself. If 
frightened, it takes a running start with much 
pattering of feet along the surface of the 
water but when once in the air makes good 
progress. It may be identified at a distance 
by the bobbing motion of its head as it swims, 
and its distinctly whitish bill in contrast 
with its blackish plumage. 

Coots are noisy birds and keep the marsh 
ringing with their cries, especially towards 
evening or early in the morning. They build 
their nests in the thick cover of the marsh, 
more elevated than those of the grebe, and 
better built of grass and reeds. They lay 
from five to ten whitish eggs thickly spotted 
with fine black or brownish dots. The young 
are black when first hatched and have red bills. 

FAMILY ARDEID.E: HERONS AND 
EGRETS 

Great blue heron, Ardea herodias 

^^^ herodias, 46.00 

Distribution: North America in general 

from Hudson Bay south to northern South 

146 



HERONS AND EGRETS 

America. The great blue heron is divided 
into nearly a dozen geographical varieties 
scattered over the United States and south- 
ward. The northwest coast heron, a dark 
variety, is found on the coast of British 
Columbia and on the Queen Charlotte and 
Vancouver Islands ; the California blue heron 
on the Pacific Coast of Oregon and California, 
and the Tryganza blue heron in the Great 
Plains country from the w^estern part of the 
Mississippi Valley west to eastern Washing- 
ton, Oregon and California. 

The great blue heron, or blue crane, is a 
common sight along the shores of ponds, lakes 
and streams in all parts of the United States 
and almost seems a part of the landscape as 
one glances across open shallow water in search 
of the water birds that may be found there. 

The great blue heron frequents salt as w^ell 
as fresh water and is found in large numbers 
about the bays and estuaries along the coast. 
Here it may be seen wading in shallow water 
or standing in its statuesque pose as it 
w^atches for fish or other small marine life. 
It usually fishes in the morning or evening, 
though at times it may be found standing 
about in the moonlight or in the middle of 
the day watching patiently for its prey. It 
seizes its victim with a sudden thrust of its 
147 



FAMILY Ardeidce 

sword-like bill, swallowing it head down- 
wards. The heron often captures fish so 
large that it has diflSculty in getting them 
ashore, and in rare instances has almost lost 
its life in the struggle with some very large fish. 

Although fish is its principal food it also 
captures meadow mice, frogs, grasshoppers 
and even small birds. Its flight is rapid and 
graceful, and when migrating is sometimes 
very high, but it usually keeps near the ground 
or water. The heron is at all times vigilant 
and hard to approach. When wounded it 
defends itself with its sharp bill and can in- 
flict a dangerous wound. In flying it doubles 
the neck back between the wings allowing the 
legs to stick out straight behind. A hoarse 
croak is the only sound it utters except during 
the nesting season when its squawking and 
raucous bellowing is beyond description. 

It begins nesting early in April and the 
young are not fully matured and capable of 
flying until July. In the treeless parts of its 
range it nests in bushes about water, and in 
the absence of these it will build its nest on 
the ground in a marsh, as in the alkaline lake 
districts of eastern Washington and Oregon. 
Along the Pacific Coast and in the valleys 
the great blue heron nests in colonies in tall 
trees, usually in firs at a great height. One 
148 




i '^ 



FALCONS 

such rookory known to tlie writer has been 
occupied by several hundred herons for a 
number of years. Over one hundred and 
fifty nests are included in the nesting area, 
several trees containing from ten to seven- 
teen nests each. They are wide flat struc- 
tures made of sticks and marsh grass which is 
carried several miles to the nest. The large 
gi'eenish-blue eggs are three or four in num- 
ber. Both parents take part in incubation, 
which lasts nearly thirty days, and both 
feed the young. 

FAMILY FALCONIDJE: FALCONS 

Desert sparrow hawk, Falco sparverius 
^ phalcena. 11.00 

Distribution: Western United States and 
British Columbia from the Rocky Mountains 
to the Pacific, south to Guatemala. Com- 
mon summer resident on the Pacific Coast. 

The sparrow hawk, killy hawk, mouse 
hawk, or grasshopper hawk is the familiar 
little falcon of the whole of the United States, 
and although found in several geographical 
varieties it is easily recognized in any plumage 
by its peculiar markings, differing in this re- 
spect from all other of the smaller hawks. 
One strong field mark, or habit, is its charac- 
teristic manner of hovering or poising in the 
149 



FAMILY ButeonidcB 

air over some object which seems to promise 
a meal, and then dropping lightly down upon 
its prey. 

Sparrow hawks are found in open country 
away from heavy timber, more especially 
about cultivated fields which offer them a 
food supply in the shape of mice, grass- 
hoppers and other vermin so closely identi- 
fied with farming operations. They may be 
seen perched on dead trees and telephone 
poles along country roads watching intently 
for any movement in the grass that may indi- 
cate possible quarry. When disturbed they 
fly leisurely across a field to perch on tree or 
bush in plain sight, seemingly unafraid of man. 

The eggs of the sparrow hawk are laid in 
natural cavities in trees, but preferably in 
old woodpecker's holes which are occupied 
for many years in succession if undisturbed. 
The eggs are almost round, three or four in 
number, dull white and thickly spotted with 
reddish brown. 

FAMILY BUTEONID/E: HAWKS, EAGLES, 
KITES 

Western red-tailed hawk, Buteo horealis 

^^^ calurus. 22.50 

Distribution: Western North America 

from the Mississippi valley to the Pacific 

150 




r 








HAWTCS. EAGLES, KITES 

Coast, south to Guatemala. Common sum- 
mer resident on the Pacific Slope, casual in 
winter. 

The western red-tailed hawk, chicken 
hawk, or hen hawk is the largest member of 
the family that frequents the coast valleys on 
the Pacific Slope. It is common from sea 
level to high mountains and may be seen 
slowly winging its way overhead in ever widen- 
ing circles as it watches for its prey below. 

It has none of the dash of the smaller 
hawks, nor does it attack birds as do the 
sharp-shinned, the Cooper or the rare 
goshawk, but lives mostly on small rodents 
and snakes which it captures by quietly 
dropping down on them unawares. The red- 
tailed hawk will sit for hours at a time on 
some favorite perch, usually a tall tree along a 
stream, perhaps in the vicinity of its nest, and 
make short excursions back and forth across 
the valley returning to the same spot to eat its 
captured prey. 

As it slowly circles above the tree tops it 
displays its fan-shaped tail which is colored a 
rich reddish bro^Ti, crossed by several narrow 
black bands. The bird itself will look al- 
most blackish but varies greatly in the adult 
plumage, the females and young of the year 
lacking the reddish tail. 
151 



FAMILY Buteonidcs 

The favorite nesting site of the red-tailed 
hawk in the Northwest is in a tall cotton- 
wood or alder tree along river bottoms, 
though it is found in many situations from 
the flat valley to well up in the mountains. 
In the drier parts of California it places its 
nest in the sycamores growing along the hill- 
sides. Its nest is made of large sticks and 
smaller twigs, mixed towards the center with 
grass, moss, green leaves and other soft ma- 
terials, and sometimes a few feathers. The 
eggs are usually three in number, dull white, 
boldly spotted with varying shades of reddish 
brown. The young are slow to acquire their 
perfect plumage, being long full grown before 
the red appears upon the tail. 

Sharp-shinned hawk, Accipiter velox. 
^^^ 12.00 

Distribution: North America in general, 
south to Panama. Breeds throughout its 
range. 

The sharp-shinned hawk, or bird hawk, is 
not common along the Pacific Coast. It 
frequents mixed woods and open farming dis- 
tricts where it may be seen skimming along 
only a few feet from the gi'ound, or just over 
the tops of bushes and low trees along the 
edges of open woods and clearings in search 
152 



HAWKS, EAGLES. KITES 

of its prey. Ordinarily its flight is leisurely 
but once in pursuit of a bird it dashes in and 
out tlirough the densest thickets with the 
greatest ease and swiftness. No matter 
how its intended victim doubles and twists 
in its efforts to escape, the sharp-shinned 
hawk is ecjually quick to follow and rarely 
fails to capture its quarry. 

It may easily be distinguished from the 
sparrow hawk by its manner of flight and 
entirely different coloration. The sparrow 
hawk is a common sight hovering over its 
prey in the open field, or sitting on trees and 
bushes watching for any movement in the 
grass that may betray a field mouse, lizard or 
grasshopper which are its favorite foods. On 
the other hand, the sharp-shinned hawk is 
never seen hunting in this manner but de- 
pends on surprising its prey by a sudden 
dash into the midst of a flock of small birds, 
})earing one to the ground before it can 
escape. 

Its color is bluish gray above w^ith the 
underparts white, heavily barred and spotted 
with reddish l)rown. Its tail is long and 
narrow with three or four blackish bands and 
a white tip. 

'I'he sharp-shinned hawk builds its nest 
indiscriminately in the old nests of crow, 
153 



FAMILY ButeonidcB 

magpie or squirrel and the natural cavities 
in trees and cliffs. When it builds for itself 
the nest is made of sticks with a lining of grass, 
moss, leaves and bark, placed at all ele- 
vations in conifers. 

333 Cooper hawk, Accipiter cooperi. 17.00 
Distribution: Temperate North America 
at large and southward. Wintering from 
about latitude 40 south to southern Mexico. 

The Cooper hawk, chicken hawk, hen 
hawk, or blue darter in colors and changes of 
plumage is practically the same as the sharp- 
shinned, differing only in size, averaging 
about three inches longer. It is the common 
"chicken hawk" of the United States, a 
hawk of great audacity, preying on birds up 
to the size of grouse and poultry. Once it 
gets a taste of a farmer's chickens it will re- 
turn again and again with the greatest 
boldness and must be shot to stop its 
depredations. 

Its medium size, long slender build and 
swift flight will mark the Cooper hawk so 
that its identification should be compara- 
tively easy. The Cooper hawk builds its 
nest in tall forest trees from twenty-five to 
fifty feet from the ground. The nest is used 
from year to year and becomes a large pile of 
154 



I 



.^v 




v^^^ji^^'-' 



\ 




HORNED OWLS 

sticks and rubbish. In many cases tlie bird 
remodels a nest built by another hawk, a 
crow or squirrel. 

The favorite haunts of the Cooper hawk 
are moderately timbered districts inter- 
spersed with cultivated fields and meadows, 
but it is also found in the more extensive and 
heavily wooded mountain regions, and on 
the open treeless plains of the West where its 
nest may be found placed in low willows 
along streams and in rare instances on the 
ground. 

The Cooper hawk is never a common bird 
in the West, being far more abundant east of 
the Rockies. 



FAMILY STRIGID^: HORNED OWLS 

3^^ Long-eared owl, Asio wilsonianus. 

14.50 

Distribution: Temperate North America 
from Newfoundland to southern Alaska, and 
south to the southern border of the United 
States. Winters over the greater part of its 
range and southward into Mexico. 

The long-eared owl lives in dense woods 

where it hides in the day and hunts at night. 

Because of its habits it is seldom seen. Its 

food consists of rats and mice and other 

155 



FAMILY StrigidcB 

small animal life, with an occasional bird to 
vary its diet. Its nest is placed in hollow 
trees, cavities in rocks and in old hawks' or 
crows' nests. 

^67 Short-eared owl, Asioflammeus. 15.50 
Distribution: Entire western hemisphere 
except the Galapagos Islands and part of the 
West Indies, and also throughout the eastern 
hemisphere excepting Australia. Practically 
resident wherever found and breeding 
throughout its range. 

The short-eared owl, or marsh owl, differs 
from all others of the family in its habits of 
living. It is a marsh bird, hiding in the tall 
grass during bright days but at dusk or 
during cloudy w^eather it hawks about over the 
marshes for its food, which consists of mice 
and rats and other small rodents. It also 
catches grasshoppers and large crickets. Its 
nest is built of sticks lined with grass and 
feathers and is placed on the ground in a 
marsh or wet meadow. 

Dusky horned owl, Bubo virginianus 
^'^^^ saturatus. 22.00 

Distribution: Pacific Coast district from 
northern California through western Ore- 
gon, Washington and British Columbia to 
southern Alaska. Four closely allied species 
156 



IIORXED OWLS 

arc tlio western liorned owl, found from the 
Mississippi Valley west to Nevada, south- 
eastern Oregon, Wyoming and IMontana to 
central Alberta; California horned owl of 
California north to south central Oregon; 
coast horned owl of the coast counties of 
northern California, and the northwestern 
horned owl of Idaho, eastern Oregon, ^Yash- 
ington and central British Columbia to 
southern Alaska. 

The big horned owl, hoot owl, or cat owl 
frequents heavy timber, hiding during the 
day in dense thickets away from sunlight, 
and coming out at dusk to beat over the open 
spaces on hillside and valley in search of its 
prey which consists of animals and birds up 
to the size of rabbits, ground squirrels and 
skunks, and game birds, smaller land birds and 
poultry. In spite of the fact that it does con- 
siderable damage to bird life it is highly bene- 
ficial as a destroyer of rodent pests and for 
tills reason should })e protected. 

The horned owl begins laying in January 
even in the colder parts of its range. Its 
nest is placed indifferently in hollow trees, in 
an old hawk's or crow's nest and sometimes 
in a crevice in a cliff, or in a cave. Horned 
owls are much less in evidence on the Pacific 
Coast than they are east of the Rockies, 
157 



FAMILY Strigidce 

probably because of the denser timber in the 
mountains of the West rather than disparity 
of numbers. In the thick timber along river 
bottoms a few pairs of horned owls may be 
found nesting, and it is no doubt these few 
individuals that are found raiding the chicken 
yards in the dead of night. In disposition 
the big horned owl is fierce and untamable, 
striking savagely at its captor when taken 
and refusing to be on friendly terms even 
after long captivity. In this respect it differs 
from nearly all others of the family. 

, Kennicott screech owl, Otus asio ken- 
^^^ nicotti. 9.00 

Distribution: Northwest coast region in- 
cluding Oregon, Washington and British 
Columbia north to Sitka. Closely allied 
species include the Macfarlane screech owl, 
found from western Montana west through 
Idaho to southern British Columbia, eastern 
W^ashington, Oregon and northeastern Cali- 
fornia; and the California screech owl of 
California and north to south central Oregon. 

The screech owl is divided into thirteen 
geographical varieties scattered from Maine 
to California and from Alaska to the Gulf 
of Mexico. The Kennicott screech owl is 
the northwestern form and is identical with 
158 





I 



HORNED OWLS 

all of the olluTs in food and nesting liabits. 
It is a bird of great economic value living al- 
most entirely on vermin of all kinds, rats, 
mice, roaches and other noxious pests, rarely 
attacking birds of any kind. Its peculiar 
tremulous and barking call notes are among 
the familiar sounds of warm summer nights 
in both city and country. It lays its eggs in 
old woodpeckers' holes and in natural cavities 
in trees and dead stubs from ten to fifty feet 
from the ground. 

California pygmy owl, Glaucidium 
gnoma californicum. 7.00 

Distribution: From southern California 
north through eastern Oregon, Washington 
and Idaho to southern British Columbia. 
Two closely allied species are the coast pygmy 
owl of the humid coast districts of California, 
Oregon, Washington and British Columbia, 
and the Vancouver pygmy owl of Vancouver 
Island. 

The pygmy owl is often found flying about 
in the daylight hours preying upon small birds 
among whom it is very destructive. It is 
about half the size of the screech owl, being 
the smallest of the northwestern owls and on 
this account may be easily identified at sight. 
The pygmy owl lays its eggs in old wood- 
159 



FAMILY AluconidcB 

peckers' holes or in natural cavities in trees 
like its larger cousin the screech owl. 

FAMILY ALU CON ID M: BARN OWLS 

3^5 Barn owl, Aluco pratincola. 17.00 

Distribution: Cosmopolitan. Found in 
the greater part of the United States and 
Mexico, more common in the southern parts 
of its range. 

The barn owl is the only member of its 
family that is found in the United States. 
In plumage it is distinct in appearance from 
all our owls. The general color is a tawny 
or orange brown, clouded or marbled with 
ashy white. The underparts vary all the 
way from tawny to almost pure w^hite. The 
feathers are soft and downy. The triangular 
facial disk is unusual, and the eyes are com- 
paratively small and black. 

The barn owl is so strictly a bird of the 
night, and keeps so well hidden during the 
day, that it may be fairly common in dis- 
tricts where it is rarely seen or reported. It 
is fairly common in California in certain dis- 
tricts but thins out northerly until it becomes 
rare in northern Oregon and southern Wash- 
ington. It inhabits wooded settled districts 
and is resident wherever found. It breeds 
160 



ANIS. ROAD-RUNNERS, CUCKOOS 

naturally in hollow trees but is also found 
occupying barn lofts, belfrys, towers and 
caves. Three to nine eggs are laid, at vary- 
ing intervals, so that a brood of young when 
hatched out will show a great variation in size 
according to age, as much as a week or ten days 
intervening between the eldest and youngest. 
The barn owl is the most important 
economically to the farmer of any of the 
family. Its food consists of rats, mice, 
gophers, ground squirrels and insects of all 
kinds, and rarely a rabbit or bird. The 
amount of vermin it will dispose of in a 
season is out of all proportion to its size and 
in common with most of the family it should 
be protected by the farmer for the good it 
does. A pair of barn owls about the farm- 
stead are worth a dozen cats. They spend the 
night silently flitting about the farm buildings 
or over the fields picking up great numbers of 
the little rodents so destructive to farm crops 
and asking no pay but a chance to live. 

FAMILY CUCULID.E: ANIS, ROAD- 
RUNNERS, CUCKOOS 

j.^ Road-runner, Geococcy calif ornianus. 

^ ^ 22.00 

Distribution: From Brownsville, Texas, 

to San Diego, California, and from Central 

'' ICl 



FAMILY CuculidcB 

California, Nevada and Kansas south across 
the tablelands of Mexico. 

The road-runner, chaparral cock, snake- 
killer, ground cuckoo, or lizard bird is a re- 
markable bird belonging to the cuckoo family. 
It is generally resident and breeds wherever 
found, except in the extreme northern parts of 
its range. It spends most of its time on the 
ground in search of food, and it frequents the 
drier desert tracts along river valleys and low 
foothills covered by cactus, yuccas and thorny 
underbrush. Its food consists almost entirely 
of animal matter such as lizards, beetles, 
grasshoppers, small snakes, the smaller 
rodents and sometimes young birds. The 
road-runner builds its nest in April; a large 
flat structure about twelve inches in diameter 
and six inches deep, made of sticks lined 
with grass, feathers, bark, snake skins and 
roots. The nest is placed variously in mes- 
quite, cactus and other thorny brush that may 
be available. Road-runners are rather shy 
and suspicious birds and may not often be seen 
even where comparatively common. They 
are rarely seen in large numbers, one or two 
pairs with their young being the usual num- 
ber found together at any one time. 

The road-runner has an interesting number 
of call notes, one of which sounds like the 
162 



AXIS. ROAD-RUNNERS, CUCKOOS 

cooing of a dove, another like the hen calh'ng 
her chickens together where some food has 
been discovered, the rapidly uttered clack, 
(Iach\ (lack, repeated several times. It also 
makes a peculiar sound by snapping its bill 
together rapidly. AVhen suddenly alarmed 
it trusts to its legs to escape, running sur- 
prisingly fast but when about to be overtaken 
it will double on its tracks and dive into the 
underbrush and disappear. It flies with 
ease and swiftness considering its short 
wings, its long tail acting as a rudder when it 
makes a sudden turn. 

The road-runner is most abundant along 
the southern border of the United States, 
thinning out northward. It is almost two 
feet in length, one half of which is tail. It is 
one of the most remarkable and interesting 
birds imaginable with its many unusual 
traits and its grotesque appearance. Coues 
calls it a combination of chicken and magpie. 
The young can be easily domesticated and 
make interesting pets, having many of the 
uncanny tricks of a crow. Although usually 
shy it will sometimes become a regular visi- 
tor to the chicken yard to i)ick up the scraj)s 
of animal matter and destroy all sorts of 
vermin about the ranch. 

The road-runner belongs to a family of 
IG.S 



FAMILY CuculidcB 

over two hundred species that are scattered 
all over the world, only half a dozen of which 
belong to North America north of the Mexi- 
can border. It is closely related to the tree 
cuckoos, the yellow-billed and the black- 
billed cuckoos of the whole of the United 
States. In the March- April Bird-Lore for 
1915 Finley tells of his many interesting 
experiences with the road-runner. He found 
it one of the wariest and wisest of birds and a 
never ending source of interest and enjoy- 
ment. 



164 



SYSTEMATIC SYXOPSI^^ OF LIVIXG NORTH 

AMERICAN BIRDS TO AND INCLUDING 

THE FAMILIES 

Class Aves: Birds. 

Sub-Class Carinate: (Embracing all living birds except 
Ratita.) 
Order Pygopodes. Diving Birds. 
Suborder Colymbi. Grebes. 

Family Colymhidop. Grebes. 
Suborder Cepphi. Loons and Auks. 
Family Gaviidop. Loons. 
Family Alcidoe. Auks, Murres and Puffins. 
Order Longipennes. Long-winged Swimmers. 
Family Stercorariidce. Skuas and Jaegers. 
Family Laridoe. Gulls and Terns. 
Family Rynchopidop. Skimmers. 
Order Tubinares. Tube-nosed Swimmers. 
Family Diomedcidce. Albatrosses. 
Family Procellariidae. Fulmars, Shearwaters and 
Petrels. 
Order Steganopodes. Totipalmate Swimmers. 
Family PhoEthontidac. Tropic Birds. 
Family Sulidop. Gannets. 
Family Anhingidce. Darters. 
Family Phalacrocoracidoe. Cormorants. 
Family Pclccariidop. Pelicans. 
Family Frcgatidcp. Man-o' -war-birds. 
Order Ansercs. Lamellirostral Swimmers. 

Family Anatidtr. Ducks, Geese and Swans. 
Order Odontoglossw. Lamellirostral Grallatores. 
Family Phoenicopteridcp. Flamingoes. 
165 



SYSTEMATIC SYNOPSIS 

Order Hcrodiones. Herons, Storks, Ibises, etc. 
Suborder Ibides. Spoonbills and Ibises. 

Family Ihididcc. Ibises. 
Suborder Ciconioe. Storks, etc. 

Family Ciconiidw. Storks and Wood Ibises. 
Suborder Herodii. Herons, Egrets and Bitterns. 
Family Ardeidoe. Herons, Bitterns, etc. 
Order PaludicolcB. Cranes, Rails, etc. 
Suborder Grues. Cranes, Courlans, etc. 
Family Gruidoe. Cranes. 
Family Aramidce. Courlans. 
Suborder Ralli. Rails, Gallinules, Coots, etc. 
Family Rallidas. Rails, Gallinules and Coots. 
Order Limicolce. Shore Birds. 

Family Phalaropodidoe. Phalaropes. 
Family RecurvirostridoB. Avocets and Stilts. 
Family Scolopacidce. Snipes, Sandpipers, etc. 
Family Charadriidce. Plovers. 
Family Aphnzidce. Surf-birds and Turnstones. 
Family H CBmatopodidoe . Oyster-catchers. 
Family Jacanidae. Jacanas. 
Order GallinoB. Gallinaceous Birds. 

Suborder Phasiani. Pheasants, Grouse, Partridges, 
Quails, etc. 
Family OdontophoridcB. Bobwhites, Quails, etc. 
Family TetraonidoB. Grouse, Spruce Partridges, 

Ptarmigans, etc. 
Family Meleagridoe. Turkeys. 
Suborder Penelopes. Curassows and Guans. 
Family Gracidoe. Curassows and Guans. 
Order Columhoe. Pigeons and Doves. 

Family Columbidoe. Pigeons and Doves. 
Order Raptores. Birds of Prey. 

Suborder Sar cor ham phi. American Vultures. 

Family Cathartidas. American Vultures. 
Suborder Falcones. Vultures, Falcons, Hawks, Buz- 
zards, Eagles, Kites, Harriers, etc. 
Family Buteonidae. Hawks, Eagles, Kites, etc. 

166 



SYSTEMATIC SYNOPSIS 

Family Falconidcr. Falcons, Caracaras, etc. 

Family Pandionidce. Ospreys. 
Suborder Striges. Owls. 

Family Aluconidce. Barn Owls. 

Family Strigidoe. Horned Owls, etc. 
Order Psittaci. Parrots, Macaws, Paroquets, etc. 

Family Psittacidco. Parrots, Macaws and Paro- 
quets. 
Order Coccyges. Cuckoos, etc. 
Suborder Cuculi. Cuckoos, etc. 

Family Cuculidce. Cuckoos, Anis, etc. 
Suborder Trogones. Trogons. 

Family Trogonidae. Trogons. 
Suborder Alcyones. Kingfishers. 

Family AlcedinidoB. Kingfishers. 
Order Pici. Woodpeckers, Wrynecks, etc. 

Family Picidoe. Woodpeckers. 
Order Macrochires. Goatsuckers, Swifts, etc. 
Suborder Caprimulgi. Goatsuckers, etc. 

Family CaprimulgidcE. Goatsuckers, etc. 
Suborder Cypseli. Swifts. 

Family Micropodidoe. Swifts. 
Suborder Trochili. Hummingbirds. 

Family Trochilidoe. Hummingbirds. 
Order Passeres. Perching Birds. 

Suborder Clamatores. Songless Perching Birds. 

Family Cotingidce. Cotingas. 

Family Tyrannidcr. Tyrant Flycatchers. 
Suborder Oscines. Song Birds. 

Family Alaudidoe. Larks. 

Family CorvidoB. Crows, Jays, Magpies, etc. 

Family Sturnidce. Starlings. 

Family Ictcridce. Blackbirds, Orioles, etc. 

Family Fringillid(r. Finches, Si)arrows etc. 

Family Tangaridw. Tanagcrs. 

Family JHrundinid(r. Swallows. 

Family BnmhycUUdw. Waxwings. 

Family Ptilogonatidcr. Silky Flycatchers. 

1G7 



SYSTEMATIC SYNOPSIS 

Family Laniidoe. Shrikes. 

Family Vireonidce. Vireos. 

Family Coerehidce. Honey Creepers. 

Family MniotiUidoE. Wood Warblers. 

Family Motacillidce. Wagtails. 

Family CinclidcB. Dippers. 

Family Mimidce. Thrashers, Mockingbirds, etc. 

Family Troglodytidce. Wrens. 

Family Certhiidce. Creepers. 

Family Sittidae. Nuthatches. 

Family Paridce. Titmice. 

Family ChamcddcB. Wren-Tits. 

Family Sylviidae. Warblers, Kinglets, Gnat- 
catchers, etc. 

Family Turdidce. Thrushes, Solitaires, Stone- 
chats, Bluebirds, etc. 



168 



LIST OF BIRDS FOUND IX BRITISH 

COLUMBIA, WASHINGTON, OREGON 

AND CALIFORNIA 

This list is based upon the 1910 Check-List of 
the American Ornithologists' Union, modified in 
some instances by later information in more up- 
to-date lists for British Columbia and Oregon 
generously furnished by Mr. Francis Kermode, 
Director of the Provincial Museum, Victoria, 
B. C, and Mr. Stanley G. Jewett of the United 
States Biological Survey, Portland, Oregon. 

It is not possible with so long a list to give any 
data on the range, comparative abundance or 
seasonal status of the species. In numbers they 
vary all the way from very rare to abundant. 
The occurrence of some species is irregular in 
any given locality and the absolute range of 
many species is still to be worked out by further 
observation and reports. 

The much hoped for new edition of the A. O. 
U. Check-List will undoubtedly reveal many 
new sub-species and changes in the distribution 
of western birds. In the meantime the author 
trusts the list of Pacific Coast birds herein con- 
tained will prove of help to the bird student. It 
IGO 



LIST OF BIRDS 

must be remembered, however, that this list is 
only intended for amateurs and others who will 
welcome such a condensed list for quick reference. 

The numbers are the n'jmbers of the A. O. U. Check- 
List. 

The common names are given in roman type. 

The scientific names in italics. 

These are followed by the abbreviations of the states 
where the birds are f oimd. 

(1) Western grebe, ^Echmophorus occiden- 
talism B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(2) Holboell grebe, Colymbus holboelli, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(3) Horned grebe, Colymbus auritus, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(4) Eared grebe, Colymbus nigricollis cali- 
fornicus, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(6) Pied-billed grebe, Podilymbus podiceps, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(7) Loon, Gavia immer, B. C, Wash., Ore., 
Cal. 

(8) Yellow-billed loon, Gavia adamsi, B. C. 

(9) Black-throated loon, Gavia arctica, 

B. C. 

(10) Pacific loon, Gavia pacifica, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(11) Red-throated loon, Gavia stellata, B. 

C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(12) Tufted puflBn, Lunda cirrhata, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

170 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(14) Horned puffin, Fratercula cornicidaia, 
B. C, Cal. 

(1.5) Rhinoceros auklet, Cerorhinca mono- 
cerata, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(16) Cassin auklet, Ptychoramphus aleuiicus, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(17) Paroquet auklet, Phaleris psittaculay 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(20) Least auklet, Mthia pusilla, B. C, Wash. 

(21) Ancient murrelet, Synthliboramphus 
antiquus, B. C, W^ash., Ore., Cal. 

(23) Marbled murrelet, Brachyramphus mar- 
moratiis, B. C, W^ash., Ore., Cal. 

(25) Xantus murrelet, Brachyramphus hypo- 
leucuSy Cal. 

(29) Pigeon guillemot, Cepphus Columbia, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(30a) California murre, Uria troille call- 
Jornica, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(35) Skua, Megalestris skua, Cal. 

(36) Pomarine jaeger, Stercorarius poma- 
rinus, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(37) Parasitic jaeger, Stercorarius parasiticus, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(38) Long-tailed jaeger, Stercorarius longi- 
caudus, B. C, Ore., Cal. 

(39) Ivory gull, Pagophila alba, B. C. 
(•tOa) Pacific kittiwake, Rissa tridaciyla pol- 

licaris, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(42) Glaucous gull, Larus hyperboreus. Ore., 
Cal. 

171 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(44) Glaucous-winged gull, Larus glauces- 
cens, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(49) Western gull, Larus occidentalism B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(51) Herring gull, Larus argentatus, B, C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(53) California gull, Larus calif ornicus, B. C. 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(54) Ring-billed gull, Larus delawarensis, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(55) Short-billed gull, Larus brachyrhynchuSy 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(57) Heermann gull, Larus heermanni, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(59) Franklin gull, Larus franklini, Cal. 

(60) Bonaparte gull, Larus Philadelphia, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(62) Sabine gull, Xema sabini, B. C, Wash., 
Ore., Cal. 

(64) Caspian tern, Sterna caspia. Ore., Cal. 
{Q5) Royal tern, Sterna maximay Cal. 
(66) Elegant tern. Sterna elegans, Cal. 

(69) Forster tern. Sterna forsteri. Wash., 
Ore., Cal. 

(70) Common tern, Sterna hirundo, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(71) Arctic tern. Sterna paradiscea, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(74) Least tern, Sterna antillarumy Cal. 
(77) Black tern, Hydrochelidon nigra surina- 
mensisy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 
172 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(81) Black-footed albatross, Diomcdea ni- 
gripes, ^Yash., Ore., Cal. 

(82) Short-tailed albatross, Diomedea alba- 
trus. B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(83) Yellow-nosed albatross, Thalassogeron 
culminatuSy Ore. 

(84) Sooty albatross, Phoehetria palpebrata. 
Ore. 

(85) Giant fulmar, Macronectes giganteus. 
Ore. 

(86b) Pacific fulmar, Fulmarus glacialis 
glupischoy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(86. 1) Rodgers fulmar, Fulmarus rodgersi, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(87) Slender-billed fulmar, Priocella glacia- 
loidesy Ore., Cal. 

(91) Pink-footed shearwater, Puffinus 
creatopus. Ore., Cal. 

(93) Black-vented shearwater, Puffinus opis- 
thomelaSy B. C, Wash., Cal. 

(95) Sooty shearwater, Puffinus griseus. 
Ore. 

(96) Slender-billed shearwater, Puffinus 
tenuirostrisy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(96.2) New Zealand shearwater, Puffinus 
hulleriy Cal. 

(102) Pintado petrel, Daption capense^ Cal. 

(105) Forked-tailed petrel, Occanodroma 
furcatOy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(105.2) Kaeding petrel, Occanodroma kac- 
diruji. Wash., Ore., Cal. 

173 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(106) Leach petrel, Oceanodroma leucorhoa, 
B.C. 

(107) Black petrel, Oceanodroma melania, 
Cal. 

(108) Ashy petrel, Oceanodroma homochroa, 
Cal. 

(108.1) Socorro petrel, Oceanodroma socor- 
roensis, Cal. 

(120b) White-crested cormorant, Phalacro- 
corax auritus cincinatus, B. C, Wash. 

(120c) Farallon cormorant, Phalacrocorax 
auritus albociliatus, Ore., Cal. 

(122) Brandt cormorant, Phalacrocorax 
penicillatus, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(123a) Violet-green cormorant, Phalacro- 
corax pelagicus robustus, B. C, Wash., Ore. 

(123b) Baird cormorant, Phalacrocorax 
pelagicus resplendens. Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(125) White pelican, Pelecanus erythro- 
rhynchoSy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(127) California brown pelican, Pelecanus 
californicuSy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(128) Man-o'-war bird, Fregata aquila, Cal. 

(129) Merganser, Mergus americanus, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(130) Red-breasted merganser, Mergus ser- 
rator, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(131) Hooded merganser, Lophodytes cucul- 
latus, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(132) Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

174 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(135) Gadwall, Chaulelasmus streperus, B. 
C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(136) European widgeon, Mareca penelope, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(137) Baldpate, Mareca americana, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(138) European teal Nettion crecca, Cal. 

(139) Green-winged teal, Nettion carolinense, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(140) Blue-winged teal, Querquedula discorSy 

B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(141) Cinnamon teal, Querquedula cyanop- 
tera, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(142) Shoveller, Spatula clypeata^ B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(143) Pintail, Dafila acuta, B. C, Wash., 
Ore., Cal. 

(144) Wood duck, Aix sponsa, B. C, Wash., 
Ore., Cal. 

(146) Redhead, Marila americana, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(147) Canvas-back, Marila valisineria, B. 

C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(148) Scaup duck, Marila marila, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(149) Lesser scaup duck, Marila affinis, B. 
C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(150) Ring-necked duck, Marila collarisy 
B. C, Wash., Ore., CaL 

(151) Golden-eye, Clangula clangula ameri- 
cana, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

175 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(152) Barrow golden-eye, Clangula islandica, 

B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(153) Buffle-head, Charitonetta albeola, B. 

C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(154) Old-squaw, Harelda hyemalis, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(155) Harlequin duck, Histrionicus histrioni- 
cus, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal, 

(162) King eider, Somateria spedabilis, Cal. 

(163) Scoter, Oidemia americana, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(165) White-winged scoter, Oidemia deglandi, 

B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(166) Surf scoter, Oidemia perspicillatay B. 

C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(167) Ruddy duck, Erismatura jamaicensisy 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(169) Snow goose, Chen hyperboreus hyper- 
boreus, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(170) Ross goose, Chen rossi, B. C, Wash., 
Ore., Cal. 

(171a) White-fronted goose, Anser albifrons 
gambeliy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(172) Canada goose, Branta canadensis cana- 
densis, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(172a) Hutchins goose, Branta canadensis 
hutchinsi, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(172b) White-cheeked goose, Branta cana- 
densis occidentalism B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(172c) Cackling goose, Branta canadensis 
minimayB. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 
176 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(174) Black brant, Branta nigricans, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(176) Emperor goose, Philade canagica, B. 
C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(177) Black-bellied tree duck, Dendrocygna 
autumnal is, Cal. 

(178) Fulvous tree duck, Dendrocygna bi- 
color, B. C, Wash., Cal. 

(180) Wliistling swan, Olor columbianus, B. 
C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(181) Trumpeter swan, Olor buccinator, B. 
C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(183) Roseate spoonbill, Ajaia ajaja, Cal. 

(187) White-faced glossy ibis, Plegadis 
guarauna, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(188) Wood ibis, Mycteria americana, Cal. 

(190) Bittern, Botaurus lentiginosus, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(191) Least bittern, Ixobrychus exilis. Ore., 
Cal. 

(194) Great blue heron, Ardea herodias 
Jierodias, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(194a) Northwestern coast heron, Ardea 
herodias fannini, B. C, W'ash., Ore. 

(190) Egret, //ero(/m6'^^re/<a, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(197) Snowy heron, Egretta candidissima 
candidissima. Ore., Cal. 

(201c) Anthony green heron, Buiorides 
virescens anthonyi. Ore., Cal. 

(202) Black-crowned night heron, Nyciicorax 
nycticorax naevius. Wash., Ore., Cal. 

177 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(205) Little brown crane, Grus canadensisy 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(206) Sandhill crane, Grus mexicana, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(210) California clapper rail, Rallus obsoletus. 
Wash., Cal. 

(210.1) Light-footed rail, Rallus levipes, Cal. 

(212) Virginia rail, Rallus virginianus, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(214) Sora rail, Porzana Carolina, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(215) Yellow rail, Coturnicops novehoracensis. 
Ore., Cal. 

(216.1) Farallon rail, Creciscus coturniculus. 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(219) Florida gallinule, Gallinula galeata, 
Cal. 

(221) Coot, Fulica americana, B. C, Wash., 
Ore., Cal. 

(222) Red phalarope, Phalaropus fulicarius, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(223) Northern phalarope, Lobipes lohatus, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(224) Wilson phalarope, Steganopus tricolor, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(225) Avocet, Recurvirostra americana. 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(226) Black-necked stilt, Himantopus mexi- 
canus. Ore., Cal. 

(230) Wilson snipe, Gallinago delicata, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

178 



LIST OF BIRDS 

('-23'2) Long-hilled dowitcher, Macrorhamphus 
griscua scolopacciis, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(•234) Knot, Tringa canuius, B. C, Wash., 
Ore., Cal. 

('23oa) Aleutian sandpiper, Arquatella mari- 
tinia couesi. Ore. 

(238) Sharp-tailed sandpiper, Pisobia aurita, 
B. C. 

(239) Pectoral sandpiper, Pisobia maculata, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(241) Baird sandpiper, Pisobia bairdi, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(242) Least sandpiper, Pisobia miriKtilla, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(243a) Red-backed sandpiper, Pelidna alpina 
sakhalina, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(246) Semipalmated sandpiper, Er-'unetes 
pusilluSy B. C, Wash. 

(247) Western sandpiper, Ereunetes mauri, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(248) Sanderling, Calidris leucophwa, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(249) Marbled godwit, Limosa fedoa, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(2.54) Greater yellow-legs, Totanus melano- 
leucus, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(2.5.5) Yellow-legs, Totanus flavipes, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(256a) Western solitary sandpiper, Ilelo- 
dromas solitarius cinnamomeusy B. C, Wash., 
Ore., Cal. 

179 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(258a) Western willet, Catoptrophorus semi- 
palmatus inoniatiis, B. C, Wash., Ore., 
Cal. 

(259) Wandering tattler, Heteractitis incanus, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(261) Upland plover, Bartramia longicauda, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(262) Buff-breasted sandpiper, Tryngites 
subruficollisy B. C, Wash. 

(263) Spotted sandpiper, Actitis maculariay 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(264) Long-billed curlew, Numenius ameri- 
canus, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(265) Hudsonian curlew, Numenius hudsoni- 
cus, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(270) Black-bellied plover, Squatarola squata- 
rola, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(272) Golden plover, Charadrius dominicus 
dominicuSy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(272a) Pacific golden plover, Charadrius 
dominicus fulvus, B. C. 

(273) Killdeer, Oxyechus vociferuSy B. C, 
W^ash., Ore., Cal. 

(274) Semipalmated plover, ^gialitis semi- 
palmata, B. C, W'ash., Ore., Cal. 

(278) Snowy plover, ^gialitis nivosa. Wash., 
Ore., Cal. 

(280) Wilson plover, Ochthodromus wilsonius, 
Cal. 

(281) Mountain plover, Podasocys montanus, 
Cal. 

180 



LIST OF BIRDS 

('■2i^'-2) Surf-hird, Aphriza virgata, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(283a) Ruddy turnstone, Arenaria inter pres 
morincUa, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

('■284) Black turnstone, Arenaria melano- 
cephahy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(•^SCl) Frazar oyster-catcher, Hoematopus 
frazari, Cal. 

("287) Black oyster-catcher, Ilcematopus 
bachmani, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(•289) Bobwhite, Colinus virginianus virgini- 
anuSy Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(292) Mountain quail, Oreortyx picta picta, 
B. C, W'ash., Ore., Cal. 

(292a) Plumed quail, Oreortyx picta plumi- 
fera. Wash, Ore., Cal. 

(292b) San Pedro quail, Oreortyx picta con- 
finis, Cal. 

(294) California quail, LopJiortyx californica 
californica, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(294a) Valley quail, Lophortyx californica 
vallicolay W^ash., Ore,, Cal. 

(295) Gambel quail, Lophortyx gamheliy Cal. 
(297a) Sooty grouse, Dendragapus obscurus 

fidiginosusy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(2971)) Richardson grouse, Dendragapus ob- 
scurus richardsoniy B. C, Ore. 

(297c) Sierra grouse, Dendragapus obscurus 
sierrTy Ore., Cal. 

(298b) Alaska spruce partridge, Canachites 
canadensis osgoodi, B. C. 

181 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(299) Franklin grouse, Canachites franklini, 
B. C, Wash., Ore. 

(300a) Canada ruffed grouse, Bonasa umbel- 
lus togata, B. C, Wash., Ore. 

(300b) Gray ruffed grouse, Bonasa umhellus 
umbelloideSy B. C. 

(300c) Oregon ruffed grouse, Bonasa umhellus 
sabini, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(301) Willow ptarmigan, Lagopus lagopus 
lagopus, B. C. 

(304) White-tailed ptarmigan, Lagopus 
leucurus leucurus, B. C, Wash. 

(308) Sharp-tailed grouse, Pedicecetes phasi- 
anellus phasianellus, B. C. 

(308a) Columbian sharp-tailed grouse, Pedi- 
cecetes phasianellus columbianusy B. C, Wash., 
Ore., Cal. 

(309) Sage hen, Centrocercusu rophasianus, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(312) Band-tailed pigeon, Columba fasciata 
fasciata, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(316) Mourning dove, Zenaidura macroura 
carolinensis, B. C, W^ash., Ore., Cal. 

(319) White-winged dove, Melopelia asiatica. 
Wash., Cal. 

(320a) Mexican ground dove, Choemepelia 
passerina pallescens, Cal. 

(324) California vulture, Gymnogyps cali- 
fornianus. Ore., Cal. 

(325) Turkey vulture, Cathartes aura septen- 
trionalis, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

182 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(3^28) White-tailed kite, Elanus leucurus, 
Cal. 

(331) Marsh hawk, Circus hudsonius, B. C, 
\Yash., Ore., Cal. 

(33*2) Sharp-shinned hawk, Accipiter veloXy 

B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(333) Cooper hawk, Accipiter cooperi, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(334) Goshawk, Astur atricapillus atricapil- 
lus, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(334a) Western goshawk, Astur atricapillus 
siriatulusy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(335) Harris hawk, Parabuteo unicinctus 
harrisi, Cal. 

(337b) Western red-tailed hawk, Buteo 
borealis calurus, B. C, W^ash., Ore., Cal. 

(339b) Red-bellied hawk, Buteo lineatus 
elegans, B. C, W^ash., Ore., Cal. 

(342) Swainson hawk, Buteo swainsoni, B. 

C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(347a) Rough-legged hawk, Archibuteo 
lagopus sancti-johannis, B. C, Wash., Ore., 
Cal. 

(348) Ferruginous rough-legged hawk, Arch- 
ituteo ferrug incus, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(349) Golden eagle, Aquila chryscptos, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(352) Bald eagle, Ilaliocetus leucoccphalus 
leucocephalus, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(352a) Northern bald eagle, Ilalio'ctus 
leucoccphalus alascanus, B. C. 
183 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(353) White gyrfalcon, Falco islandus, B. C. 

(354) Gray gyrfalcon, Falco rusticolus rusti- 
coins y Wash., Ore. 

(355) Prairie falcon, Falco mexicanus, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(356a) Duck hawk, Falco peregrinus anatum, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(356b) Peale falcon, Falco peregrinus pealeiy 
B. C, Wash., Ore. 

(357) Pigeon hawk, Falco columbarius 
columbarius, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(357a) Black pigeon hawk, Falco columbarius 
suckleyi, B. C, W^ash., Ore., Cal. 

(357b) Richardson pigeon hawk, Falco 
columbarius richardsoni, B. C. 

(360) Sparrow hawk, Falco sparverius spar- 
verius, B. C. 

(360a) Desert sparrow hawk, Falco spar- 
verius phalcena, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(364) Osprey, Pandion halicetus carolinensis, 

B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(365) Barn owl, Aluco pratincola. Wash., 
Ore., Cal. 

(366) Long-eared owl, Asio wilsonianuSy B. 

C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(367) Short-eared owl, Asio flammeus, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(369) Spotted owl, Strix occidentalis oc- 
cidentalism Cal. 

(369a) Northern spotted owl, Strix oc- 
cidentalis caurina^ B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 
184 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(370) Great gray owl, Scotiaptex nchulosa 
nebulosay B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(371) Richardson owl, Cryptoglaux funerea 
richardsoniy B. C, Wash., Ore. 

(372) Saw-whet owl, Crypioglaux acadica 
acadica, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(37'-2a) Northwestern saw-whet owl, Crypiog- 
laux acadica scotooa, B. C, Wash. 

(373c) California screech owl, Otus asio 
beiidirei, Ore., Cal. 

(373d) Kennicott screech owl, Otus asio 
kennicotti, B. C, Wash., Ore. 

(373h) MacFarlane screech owl, Otus asio 
macfarlanei, B. C, Wash., Ore. 

(374a) Dwarf screech ow^l, Otus flammeolus 
idahoensis, B. C, Wash. 

(37oa) Western horned owl. Bubo virginianus 
pallescens, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(375b) Arctic horned owl. Bubo virginianus 
subarcticus, B. C, Wash., Ore. 

(375c) Dusky horned owl, Bubo virginianus 
saturatus, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(375d) Pacific horned owl. Bubo virginianus 
pacificus. Ore., Cal. 

(376) Snowy owl, Nydea nyctea, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(377a) Hawk owl, Siirnia idula caparoch, 
B. C, Wash. 

(378) Burrowing owl, Speofyto ciinicularia 
hypogway B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 
185 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(379) Pygmy owl, Glaucidium gnoma gnoma, 
B. C, Wash., Ore,, Cal. 

(379a) California pygmy owl, Glaucidium 
gnoma californicum, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(381) Elf owl, Micropallas whitneyiy Cal. 

(385) Road-runner, Geococcyx calif or nianuSy 
Cal. 

(387a) California cuckoo, Coccyzus ameri- 
canus occidentalism B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(390) Belted kingfisher, Ceryle alcyon, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(393c) Harris woodpecker, Dryohates villosus 
harrisi, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(393d) Cabanis woodpecker, Dryohates vil- 
losus hyloscopuSy Cal. 

(393e) Rocky mountain hairy w^oodpecker, 
Dryohates Villosus monticola. Wash., Ore. 

(393f) Queen Charlotte woodpecker, Dryo- 
hates villosus picoideus, B. C. 

(394a) Gairdner woodpecker, Dryohates 
puhescens gairdneri, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(394b) Batchelder woodpecker, Dryohates 
puhescens homorus, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(394e) Willow woodpecker, Dryohates puhes- 
cens turatiy Cal. 

(396a) San Lucas Woodpecker, Dryohates 
scalaris lucasanus, Cal. 

(397) Nuttall woodpecker, Dryohates nut- 
talli. Ore., Cal. 

(399) White-headed woodpecker, Xenopicus 
alholarvatus, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 
186 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(400) Arctic three-toed woodpecker, Picoides 
arcticu^-, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(401a) Ahiska three-toed woodpecker, 
Picoides americanus fasciatus, B. C, Wash. 

(401b) Alpine three-toed woodpecker, 
Picoides americanus dorsalisy B. C, Wash., Ore. 

(402a) Red-naped sapsucker, Sphyrapicus 
varius nuchalis, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(403) Red-breasted sapsucker, Sphyrapicus 
ruber ruber, Cal. 

(403a) Northern red-breasted sapsucker, 
Sphyrapicus ruber notkensis, B. C, Wash., Ore., 
Cal. 

(404) Williamson sapsucker, Sphyrapicus 
thyroideus, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(405a) Northern pileated woodpecker, 
Phlwotomus pileatus abieticola, B. C, Wash., 
Ore., Cal. 

(407a) California woodpecker, Melanerpes 
formicivorus bairdi. Ore., Cal. 

(408) Lewis woodpecker, Asyndesmus lewisi, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(411) Gila woodpecker, Centurus uropygialis, 
Cal. 

(412a) Northern flicker, Colaptes auratus 
luteusy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(413) Red-shafted flicker, Co plates cafer 
collaris, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(413a) Northwestern flicker, Colaptes cafer 
saturatior, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(414) Gilded flicker, Colaptes chrysoides, Cal. 

187 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(418) Poor- will, PhaloBUoptilus nuttalli nut- 
talli B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(418b) Dusky poor-will, Phalcenoptilus nvt- 
talli californicusy Cal. 

(420a) Western nighthawk, Chordeiles vir- 
ginianus lienryi, B. C, Wash. 

(420d) Pacific nighthawk, Chordeiles vir- 
ginianus hesperis, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(421) Texas nighthawk, Chordeiles acuti- 
pennis texensisy Cal. 

(422) Black swift, Cypseloides niger borealis, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(424) Vaux swift, Choetura vauxi, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(425) White-throated swift, Mronautes 
melanoleucus, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(429) Black-chinned hummingbird, Archi- 
lochus alexandri, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(430) Costa hummingbird, Calypte costae, 
Cal. 

(431) Anna hummingbird, Calypte anna, Cal. 

(432) Broad-tailed hummingbird, Selas- 
phorus platycercus. Ore. 

(433) Rufous hummingbird, Selasphorus 
rufus, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(434) Allen hummingbird, Selasphorus alleni, 
Cal. 

(436) Calliope hummingbird, Stellula cal- 
liope, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(444) Kingbird, Tyr annus tyr annus, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

188 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(447) Western king])ird, Tijrayinus vcrticalisy 
B. C, Wash., Ore., (\il. 

(448) Cassin kingbird, Tyranniis vociferanSy 
Ore., Cal. 

(454) Ash-throated flycatcher, Myiarchus 
cinerascens cinerasceiis. Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(457) Say phcebe, Sayornis sayus, B. C, 
W^ash., Ore., Cal. 

(458) Black phoebe, Sayoryiis nigricans, Ore., 
Cal. 

(459) Olive-sided flycatcher, Nuttallornis 
horealis, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(462) Western wood pewee, Myiockanes 
ricliardsoni richardsoni, B. C, Wash., Ore., 
Cal. 

(464) Western flycatcher, Empidonax dif- 
ficilis difficilis, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(464a) San Lucas flycatcher, Empidonax 
difficilis cineritiusy Cal. 

(466) Traill flycatcher, Empidonax trailli 
irailli, B. C, W\ash., Ore., Cal. 

(468) Hammond flycatcher, Empidonax 
hammondiy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(469) Weight flycatcher, Empidonax wrightiy 
B. C.y Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(469.1) Gray flycatcher, Empidonax griseuSy 
Ore., Cal. 

(474a) Pallid horned lark, Otocoris alpestris 
arcticola, B. C, Wash., Ore. 

(474c) Desert horned lark, Otocoris alpestris 
leucolwmay Cal. 

189 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(474e) California horned lark, Otocoris al- 
pestris actiay Cal. 

(474f) Ruddy horned lark, Otocoris alpestris 
ruhea, Cal. 

(474g) Streaked horned lark, Otocoris al- 
pestris strigata. Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(474i) Dusky horned lark, Otocoris alpestris 
merrilli, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(474m) Island horned lark, Otocoris alpestris 
insularisy Cal. 

(475) Magpie, Pica pica hudsonia, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(476) Yellow-billed magpie. Pica nuttalli, Cal. 
(478) Steller jay, Cyanocitta stelleri stelleri, 

B. C, Wash., Ore. 

(478a) Blue-fronted jay, Cyanocitta stelleri 
frontalis y Ore., Cal. 

(478c) Black-headed jay, Cyanocitta stelleri 
annectenSy B. C, Wash., Ore. 

(478d) Queen Charlotte jay, Cyanocitta 
stelleri carlottoB, B. C. 

(478e) Coast jay, Cyanocitta stelleri car- 
bonacea, Ore., Cal. 

(480) Woodhouse jay, Apheloconia wood- 
houseiy Ore., Cal. 

(481) California jay, Aphelocoma californica 
californicay Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(481b) Belding jay, Aphelocoma californica 
ohscuray Cal. 

(481.1) Santa Cruz jay, Aphelocoma in- 
sularisy Cal. 

190 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(484) Canada jay, Perisoreus canadensis 
canadensis, B. C. 

(484a) Rocky Mountain jay, Perisoreus 
canadensis capitalis, B. C, Wash., Ore. 

(485) Oregon jay, Perisoreus obscurus oh- 
scums, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(48oa) Gray jay, Perisoreus obscurus griseus. 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(486) Raven, Corvus corax sinuatus. Ore., Cal. 
(486a) Northern raven, Corvus corax prin- 

hipalis, B. C, Wash., Ore. 

(488b) Western crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos 
cesperis, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(489) Northwestern crow, Corvus caurinus, 
B. C, Wash., Ore. 

(491) Clarke nutcracker, Nucifraga columbi- 
autty B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(492) Pinon jay, Cyanocephalus cyano- 
cephalus. Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(494) Bobolink, Dolichonyx oryzivorus, B. C, 
Ore., Cal. 

(495) Cowbird, Moloihrus ater ater, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(495a) Dwarf cowbird, Moloihrus ater ob- 
scurus, Cal. 

(497) Yellow-headed blackbird, Xantho- 
cephalus xanthocephalus, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(498a) Sonora red-wing, Agelaius phwniceus 
sonoriensisy Cal. 

(498e) San Diego red-wing, Agelaius phwni- 
ceus neutralisy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 
191 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(498f) Northwestern red-wing, Agelaius 
phopniceus caurinus, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(499) Bicolored red-winged, Agelaius guherna- 
tor calif ornicus. Ore., Cal. 

(500) Tricolored red-wing, Agelaius tricolor, 
Cal. 

(501.1) Western meadowlark, Sturnella 
neglecta, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(504) Scott oriole. Icterus parisorum, Cal. 

(505a) Arizona hooded oriole. Icterus cucul- 
latus nelsoni, Cal. 

(508) Bullock oriole. Icterus bullocki, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(509) Rusty blackbird, Euphagus carolinus, 
B. C. 

(510) Brewer blackbird, Euphagus cyano- 
cephalus, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(514a) Western evening grosbeak, Hesperi- 
phonavespertinamontana, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(515b) California pine grosbeak, Pinicola 
enucleator calif ornica, Cal. 

(515c) Alaska pine grosbeak, Pinicola 
enucleator alascensis, B. C, Wash., Ore. 

(517a) California purple finch, Carpodacus 
purpureus calif ornicus. Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(518) Cassin purple finch, Carpodacus 
cassiniy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(519) House finch, Carpodacus mexicanus 
frontalis. Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(519c) San Clemente house finch, Carpodacus 
mexicanus dementis^ Cal. 
192 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(521) Crossbill, Loxia curvirosira minora B. 
C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

{5'i'i) White-winged crossbill, Loxia leiicop- 
tera, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(524) Gray-crowned rosy finch, Leucosticte 
tephrocotis tephrocotisy B. C, Wash., Ore., 
Cal. 

(524a) Hepburn rosy finch, Leucosticte 
tephrocotis littoralisy B. C, Wash., Ore. 

(527a) Hoary redpoll, Acanthis hornemanni 
exilipesy B. C. 

(528) Redpoll, Acanthis linaria linariay B. 
C, W^ash., Ore., Cal. 

(529a) Pale goldfinch, Astragalinus tristis 
pallidus, B. C, Wash., Ore. 

(529b) Willow goldfinch, Astragalinus tristis 
salicamanSy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(530a) Green-backed goldfinch, Astragalinus 
psaltria hesperophiluSy Ore., Cal. 

(531) Lawrence goldfinch, Astragalinus 
lau)renceiy Cal. 

(533) Pine siskin, Spinus jnnuSy B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(534) Snow bunting, Plectrophenax nivalis 
nivalis y B. C, Wash., Ore. 

(536) Lapland longspur, Calcarius lapponi- 
cus lapponicuSy B. C. 

(536a) Alaska longspur, Calcarius lapponi- 
cus alascensisy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(539) McCown longspur, Rhynchophanes 
mccowniy B. C. 

'3 193 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(540a) Western vesper sparrow, Pooecetes 
gramineus conjinisy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(540b) Oregon vesper sparrow, Pooecetes 
gramineus affinisy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(542) iElutian savannah sparrow. Passer- 
cuius sandwichensis sandwichensisy B. C, Wash., 
Ore., Cal. 

(542b) Western savannah sparrow, Passer- 
culus sandwichensis alaudinus, B. C, Wash., 
Ore., Cal. 

(542c) Bryant sparrow, Passerculus sand- 
wichensis bryantiy Cal. 

(543) Belding sparrow, Passerculus beldingiy 
Cal. 

(544) Large-billed sparrow, Passerculus 
rostratus rostratus, Cal. 

(546a) Western grasshopper sparrow, .4m- 
modramus savannarum bimaculatus, B. C, Wash., 
Ore., Cal. 

(552a) Western lark sparrow, Chondestes 
grammacus strigatuSy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(553) Harris sparrow, Zonotrichia querula, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(554) White-crowned sparrow, Zonotrichia 
leucophrys leucophrySy Ore., Cal. 

(554a) Gambel sparrow, Zonotrichia leu- 
cophrys gambeliy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(554b) Nuttall sparrow, Zonotrichia leu- 
cophrys nuttalli, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(557) Golden-crowned sparrow, Zonotrichia 
coronata, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 
194 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(558) White-throated sparrow, Zonoirichia 
albicollis, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(559a) Western tree sparrow, Spizella monii- 
cola ochracea, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(560a) Western chipping sparrow, Spizella 
passerina arizoncBy B. C, W^ash., Ore., Cal. 

(561) Clay-colored sparrow, Spizella pallida, 
B.C. 

(562) Brewer sparrow, Spizella breweri, B. 
C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(565) Black-chinned sparrow, Spizella 
atrogularis, Cal. 

(567) Slate-colored junco, Junco hyemalis 
hyemalis, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(567a) Oregon junco, Junco hyemalis 
oreganuSy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(567b) Shufeldt junco, Junco hyemalis con- 
nectens, B. C, W^ash., Ore. 

(567c) Thurber junco, Junco hyemalis 
thurberiy Ore., Cal. 

(567d) Point Pinos junco, Junco hyemalis 
pinosus, Cal. 

(570b) Gray-headed junco, Junco phceonotus 
canicepsy Cal. 

(573a) Desert sparrow, Amphispiza bilineata 
deserticolay Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(574) Bell sparrow, Amphispiza belli, Cal. 

(574.1) Sage sparrow, Amphispiza nevadensis 
nevadensisy W^ash., Ore., Cal. 

(574.1b) California sage sparrow, Am- 
phispiza nevadensis canescensy Cal. 
195 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(580) Rufous-crowned sparrow, Aimophila 
ruficeps ruficepsy Cal. 

(581a) Desert song sparrow, Melospiza 
melodia fallaxy Cal. 

(581b) Mountain song sparrow, Melospiza 
melodia montanay Ore., Cal. 

(581c) Heermann song sparrow, Melospiza 
melodia heermanni, Cal. 

(581d) Samuels song sparrow, Melospiza 
melodia samuelisy Cal. 

(581e) Rusty song sparrow, Melospiza 
melodia morphna, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(581f) Sooty song sparrow, Melospiza 
melodia rufinay B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(581h) Santa Barbara song sparrow, Melo- 
spiza melodia gramineay Cal. 

(581i) San Clemente song sparrow, Melospiza 
melodia clementcBy Cal. 

(581k) Merrill song sparrow, Melospiza 
melodia merrilliy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(5811) Alameda song sparrow, Melospiza 
melodia pusillulay Cal. 

(581m) San Diego song sparrow, Melospiza 
melodia cooperiy Cal. 

(581p) Mendocino song sparrow, Melospiza 
melodia cleonensisy Ore., Cal. 

(581s) Suisun song sparrow, Melospiza 
melodia maxillarisy Cal. 

(583) Lincoln sparrow, Melospiza lincolni 
lincolniy Wash., Ore., Cal. 
196 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(588a) Forlnish sparrow, Melospiza lincolni 
iftriata, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(585a) Shumagin fox sparrow, Passerella 
iliaca U7ialaf>chcen.s{s, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(585b) Thick-billed fox sparrow, Passerella 
iliaca megarhyncha, Cal. 

(585c) Slate-colored fox sparrow, Passerella 
iliaca schistacea, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(585d) Stephens fox sparrow, Passerella iliaca 
stephensiy Cal. 

(585e) Sooty fox sparrow, Passerella iliaca 
fuliginosa, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(585f) Kadiak fox sparrow, Passerella iliaca 
insularis, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(585g) Townsend fox sparrow, Passerella 
iliaca iownsendi, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(588a) Spurred towhee, Pipilo maculatus 
monianuSy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(588b) Oregon towhee, Pipilo maculatus 
oregonus, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(588c) San Clemente towhee, Pipilo macula- 
tus elements, Cal. 

(588d) San Diego towhee, Pipilo maculatus 
megalonyXy Cal. 

(591.1) California towhee, Pipilo crissalis 
crissalis. Ore., Cal. 

(591.1a) Anthony towhee, Pipilo crissalis 
seniculoy Cal. 

(592) Abert twohee, Pipilo abertiy Cal. 

(592.1) Green-tailed towhee, Oreospiza 
cfilorura. Wash., Ore., Cal. 
197 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(596) Black-headed grosbeak, Zamelodia 
melanocephalay B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(597a) Western blue grosbeak, Guiraca 
ccBTulea lazultty Cal. 

(599) Lazuli bunting, Passerina amcena, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(605) Lark bunting, Calamospiza melano- 
corysy B. C, Cal. 

(607) Western tanager, Piranga ludoviciana, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(611a) Western martin, Progne subis 
hesperiay B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(612) Cliff swallow, Petrochelidon lunifrons 
lunifronSy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(613) Barn swallow, Hirundo erythrogastray 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(614) Tree swallow, Iridoprocne bicolor, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(615) Northern violet-green swallow, Tachy- 
cineta thalassina lepida^ B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(616) Bank swallow, Riparia riparia, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(617) Rough- winged swallow, Stelgidopteryx 
serripennis, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(618) Bohemian waxwing, Bomby cilia gar- 
rultty B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(619) Cedar waxwing, Bomby cilia cedrorum^ 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(620) Phainopepla, Phainopepla nitens, Cal. 

(621) Northern shrike, Lanius borealisy B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

198 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(622a) White-rumped shrike, Lanius ludo- 
vicianus excuhitorides^ Wash,, Ore., Cal. 

(622b) CaUfornia shrike, Lanius ludovicianus 
gamheli, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(622c) Island shrike, Lanius ludovicianus 
anthonyi, Cal. 

(624) Red-eyed vireo, Vireosylva olivacea, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(627a) Western warbling vireo, Vireosylva 
gilva swainsoni, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(629a) Cassin vireo, Lanivireo solitarius cas- 
siniy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(632) Hutton vireo, Vireo huttoni huttoni, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(633a) Least vireo, Vireo belli yusillus, 
Cal. 

(634) Gray vireo, Vireo viciniory Cal. 

(645a) Calaveras warbler, Vermivora rubri- 
capilla gutturalis, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(646) Orange-crowned warbler, Vermivora 
celata celatay B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(646a) Lutescent warbler, Vermivora celata 
lutescensy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(646b) Dusky warbler, Vermivora celata 
sordid a, Cal. 

(647) Tennessee warbler, Vermivora pere- 
grinoy B. C. 

(652b) Alaska yellow warbler, Dendroica 
CBstiva rubiginosa, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(652c) California yellow warbler, Dendroica 
CBstiva brewsteri, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 
199 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(655) Myrtle warbler, Dendroica coronatay 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(656) Audubon warbler, Dendroica auduboni 
avduboniy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(657) Magnolia warbler, Dendroica magnolia, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(661) Black-poll warbler, Dendroica striata, 
B.C. 

(665) Black-throated gray warbler, Den- 
droica nigrescens, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(668) Townsend warbler, Dendroica town- 
sendiy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(669) Hermit warbler, Dendroica occidentalis, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(675a) Grinnell water-thrush, Seiurus nove- 
boracensis notabilis, B. C, Wash. 

(680) Macgillivray warbler, Oporornis tol- 
miei, B, C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(681a) Western yellow-throat, Geothlyjris 
trichas occidentalis, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(681c) Pacific yellow-throat, Geothlypis 
trichas arizela, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(68 le) Salt marsh yellow-throat, Geothlypis 
trichas sinuosa, Cal. 

(683a) Long-tailed chat, Ideria virens longi- 
cauda, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(685a) Pileolated warbler, Wilsonia pusilla 
pileolata, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(685b) Golden pileolated warbler, Wil- 
sonia pusilla chryseola, B. C, Wash., Ore., 
Cal. 

200 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(687) Redstart, Setophaga ruticilla, B. C, 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(697) Pipit, Anthus rubescens, B, C, Wash., 
Ore., Cal. 

(701) Dipper, Cinclus mexicanus unicolor, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(702) Sage thrasher, Oreoscoptes montanus. 
Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(703a) Western mockingbird, Mimus poly- 
glottos leucopteruSy Cal. 

(704) Catbird, Dumetella carolinensis, B. C, 
Wash., Ore. 

(708) Bendire thrasher, Toxostoma bendireiy 
Cal. 

(710) California thrasher, Toxostoma redivi- 
vunty Cal. 

(711) Leconte thrasher, Toxostoma lecontei 
leconteiy Cal. 

(712) Crissal thrasher, Toxostoma crissale, Cal. 

(713) Cactus wren, Heleodytes brunneicapil- 
lus couesiy Cal. 

(713a) Bryant cactus wren, Heleodytes brun- 
neicapillus bryantiy Cal. 

(715) Rock wren, Salpinctes obsoletus obso- 
letusy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(715a) San Nicolas rock wren. Salpinctes 
obsoletus pulveriusy Cal. 

(717a) Cafion wren, Catherpes mexicanus 
conspersus, Cal. 

(7171)) Dotted cafion wren, Catherpes mexi- 
canus punctulatuSy Wash., Ore., Cal. 
201 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(719a) Vigors wren, Thryomanes bewicki 
spiluruSy Cal. 

(719b) Baird wren, Thryomanes bevncki 
bairdi, Cal. 

(71 9d) San Diego wren, Thryomanes bewicki 
charienturuSf Cal. 

(71 9e) Seattle wren, Thryomanes bevncki 
calophonus, B. C, Wash., Ore. 

(719.1) San Clemente wren, Thryomanes 
leucophrysy Cal. 

(721a) Western house wren. Troglodytes cedon 
parkmani, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(722a) Western winter wren, Nannus 
hiemalis pacificus, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(725a) Tule wren, Telmatodytes palustris palu- 
dicola, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(725c) Western marsh wren, Telmatodytes 
palustris plesius, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(726b) Rocky mountain creeper, Certhia 
familiaris montana, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(726c) California creeper, Certhia famil- 
iaris occidentalism B. C, Wash., Ore., 

Cal. 

(726d) Sierra creeper, Certhia familiaris 

zelotesy Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(727a) Slender-billed nuthatch, Sitta carolin- 
ensis aculeata^ B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(727c) Rocky mountain nuthatch, Sitta 
carolinensis nelsoni. Ore., Cal. 

(728) Red-breasted nuthatch, Sitta canaden- 
sis, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 
202 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(730) Pygmy nuthatch, Sitta pygmwa pygmoBay 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(730a) White-naped nuthatch, Sitta pyg- 
mora leuconucha, Cal. 

(733) Plain titmouse, Bceolophua inornatus 
inornatus. Ore., Cal. 

(733a) Gray titmouse, Baeolophiis inornatus 
griseus, Cal. 

(735a) Long-tailed chickadee, Penthestes 
atricapillu.'i' septentrionalis, B. C, Wash., Ore. 

(735b) Oregon chickadee, Penthestes atrica- 
pillns occidentalism B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(738) Mountain chickadee, Penthestes gam- 
beli gambeliy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(738a) Bailey mountain chickadee, Pen- 
thestes gambeli bailey ce^ Ore., Cal. 

(740) Hudsonian chickadee, Penthestes 
hudsonicus hudsonicuSy B. C. 

(741) Chestnut-backed chickadee, Penthestes 
rufescens rufescens^ B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(741a) California chickadee, Penthestes 
rufescens neglectuSy Cal. 

(741b) Barlow chickadee, Penthestes rufes- 
cens barloiviy Cal. 

(74*2) Wren-tit, Chamceafasciatafasciata, Cal. 

(742a) Pallid wren-tit, Chamooa fasciata 
henshaiidy Cal. 

(7421)) Coast wren-tit, Chamcea fasciata 
phccay Ore., Cal. 

(742c) Ruddy wren-tit, Chamaea fasciata 
rufulay Cal. 

203 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(743) Bush-tit, Psaltriparus minimus mini- 
musy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(743a) California bush-tit, Psaltriparus mini- 
mus calif ornicusy Ore., Cal. 

(744) Lead-colored bush-tit, Psaltriparus 
plumbeusy Ore., Cal. 

(746) Verdin, Auriparus flaviceps flavicepSy 
Cal. 

(748a) Western golden-crowned kinglet, 
Regulus satrapa olivaceuSy B. C, Wash., Ore., 
Cal. 

(749) Ruby-crowned kinglet, Regulus calen- 
dula calendula, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(749a) Sitka kinglet, Regulus calendula grin- 
nelliy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(751a) Western gnatcatcher, Polioptila 
coerulea obscuray Cal. 

(752) Plumbeous gnatcatcher, Polioptila 
plumbeay Cal. 

(753) Black-tailed gnatcatcher, Polioptila 
calif ornica, Cal. 

(754) Townsend solitaire, Myadestes town- 
sendiy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(756a) Willow thrush, Hylocichla fuscescens 
salicicolay B. C, Wash., Ore. 

(757) Gray-cheeked thrush, Hylocichla 
alicias alicicB, B. C. 

(758) Russet-backed thrush, Hylocichla 
ustulata ustulatay B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(758a) Olive-backed thrush, Hylocichla 
ustulata swainsoniy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 
204 



LIST OF BIRDS 

(7.59) Alaska hermit thrush, Hylocichla 
guttata guttata, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(759a) Audubon hermit thrush, Hylocichla 
guttata auduboni. Wash., Ore. 

(7.59h) Hermit thrush, Hylocichla guttata 
pallasi, B. C. 

(7o9c) Dwarf hermit thrush, Hylocichla 
guttata nanus, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(759d) Monterey hermit thrush, Hylocichla 
guttata slevini, Cal. 

(759e) Sierra hermit thrush, Hylocichla 
guttata sequoiensis, B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(761) Robin, Planesticus migratorius migra- 
toriuSy B. C. 

(761a) Western robin, Planesticus migra- 
torius propinquuSy B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(763) Varied thrush, Ixoreus ncevius ncBvius, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(763a) Northern varied thrush, Ixoreus 
noBvius meruloidesy B. C, W^ash., Ore., Cal. 

(767) Western bluebird, Sialia mexicana 
occidentalism B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 

(767b) San Pedro bluebird, Sialia mexicana 
anabelcp, Cal. 

(768) Mountain bluebird, Sialia currucoides, 
B. C, Wash., Ore., Cal. 



205 



INDEX 



Alaska Robin (Varied 

Thrush), 7-9 
Arkansas Kingbird, 60 
Audubon Warbler, 26-8 

Band-tailed Pigeon, 138-9 
Barn Owl, 160-1 
Barn Swallow, 57-8 
Belted Kingfisher, 107-9 
Blackbird, Brewer, 100-1 

Northwestern Red- 
winged, 98-100 

Yellow-headed, 102-3 
Black-headedGrosbeak, 68- 

70 
Black-throated Gray War- 
bler, 24-5 
Bluebird, Mountain, 4-6 

Western, 3-4 
Bobolink, 101-2 
Bobwhite, 126-9 
Bohemian Waxwing, 64-5 
Brewer Blackbird, 100-1 
Bullock Oriole, 97-8 
Bunting, Lazuli, 70-1 
Bush-tit, 38-9 



California Creeper, 41 

Jay, 112-13 

Purple Finch, 

Pygmy Owl, 

Quail, 131-2 

Woodpecker, 

Yellow Warbler, 20-1 
(assin Purple Finch, 90- 
Cassin Vireo, 33-5 



88-90 
159-00 



123 



Odar Waxwing, 65-7 

Chat, long-tailed, 28-9 

Chestnut-backed Chicka- 
dee, 37-8 

Chickadee, Chestnut- 
backed, 37-8 
Oregon, 35-6 

Chipping Sparrow, Western, 
82—3 

Clarke Nutcracker, 117-18 

Cliff Swallow, 53-4 

Coast Wren-tit, 39-40 

Cooper Hawk, 154-5 

Coot, 145-6 

Creeper, California, 41 

Crossbill, 86-7 

Crow, Western, 116-17 

Desert Sparrowhawk, 149- 

50 
Dipper (W^ater Ouzel), 45-7 
Dove, Mourning, 139-40 

Evening Grosbeak, W^est- 
ern, 94-7 

Finch, California Purple, 

88-90 
Cassin Purple, 90-1 
Hepburn Rosy, 91-3 
Finches: 

Black-headed Grosbeak, 

68-70 
Calirornia Purple Finch, 

88-90 
Cassin Purple Finch, 90-1 



207 



INDEX 



Finches — Continued 

Crossbill, 86-7 

Golden Crowned Spar- 
row, 74-5 

Green-backed Goldfinch, 
85-6 

Hepburn Rosy Finch, 
91-3 

Lazuli Bunting, 70-1 

Nuttall White-crowned 
Sparrow, 76-7 

Oregon Junco, 71-2 

Oregon Towhee, 73-4 

Oregon Vesper Sparrow, 
80-1 

Pine Siskin, 87-8 

Redpoll, 93-4 

Rusty Song Sparrow, 77- 
8 

Townsend Fox Sparrow, 
78-9 

Western Chipping Spar- 
row, 82-3 

Western Evening Gros- 
beak, 94-7 

Western LarkSparrow,80 

Western Savannah 
Sparrow, 81-2 

Willow Goldfinch, 83-5 
Flicker, Red-shafted, 118- 

19 
Flycatcher, Olive-sided, 61- 
2 

Traill, 62-3 
Flycatchers : 

Arkansas Kingbird, 60 

Kingbird, 59-60 

Olive-sided Flycatcher, 
61-2 

Say Phoebe, 63-4 

Traill Flycatcher, 62-3 

Western Wood Pewee, 62 
Fox Sparrow, Townsend, 
78-9 



Gairdner Woodpecker, 122- 
3 



Golden-crowned Kinglet, 

Western, 12-13 
Golden-crowned Sparrow, 

74-5 
Goldfinch, Green-backed, 

85-6 
Willow, 83-5 
Great Blue Heron, 146-9 
Grebe, Pied-billed, 144-5 
Green-backed Goldfinch, 

85-6 
Grosbeak, Black-headed, 

68-70 
Western Evening, 94-7 
Grouse, Oregon Ruffed, 

137-8 
Sooty, 135-7 

Harris Woodpecker, 121-2 
Hawk, Cooper, 154-5 
Sharp-shinned, 152-4 
Sparrow, Desert, 149-50 
Western Red-tailed, 150- 

2 
Hepburn Rosy Finch, 91-8 
Hermit Thrush, Sierra, 11- 

12 
Hermit Warbler, 30-2 
Heron, Great Blue, 146-9 
Horned Lark, Streaked, 

105-6 
Horned Owl, Dusky, 156-8 
House Wren, Western, 16-17 
Hummingbird, Rufous, 47- 

50 

Jay, California, 112-13 

Oregon, 111-12 

Pinyon, 113-15 

Steller, 109-11 
Junco, Oregon, 71-2 



Kennicott Screech 

158-9 
Killdeer, 142-3 
Kingbird, 59-60 
Arkansas, 60 



Owl. 



208 



INDEX 



Kingfisher. Belted, 107-9 
Kinglet, Uuby-crowned, 

14-15 
Western Golden-crowned, 

U-V3 

Lark Sparrow, Western, 80 
Lark, Streaked Horned, 

105-6 
Lazuli Bunting, 70-1 
Lewis Woodpecker, 125-G 
Long-eared Owl, 155-G 
Long-tailed Chat, 28-9 
Lutescent Warbler, 23-4 

Macgillivray Warbler, 25-6 
Magpie, 115-16 
Martin, Western, 56-7 
Meadowlark, Western, 104- 

5 
Mountain Bluebird, 4-6 
Mountain Quail, 129-31 
Mourning Dove, 139-40 

Nighthawk, Pacific, 50-1 
Northern Violet-green Swal- 
low, 55-6 
Northwestern Red- winged 

Blackbird. 98-100 
Nutcracker, Clarke, 117-18 
Nuthatch, Pygmy, 43-4 
Red- breasted, 42-3 
Slender-billed, 42 
\ u 1 1 a 1 1 White-crowned 
Sparrow, 76-7 

Olive-sided Flycatcher, 01- 

2 
Oregon Chickadee, 35-6 

Jay, 111-12 

Junco, 71-2 

Huffed Grouse, 137-8 

Towhee, 73-4 

X'esper Sparrow, 80-1 
Oriole, Bullock, 97-8 
Ouzel, Water (I)ij)per), 45- 
7 



Owl, Barn, 160-1 

California Pygmy, 159- 

60 
Dusky Horned, 156-8 
Kennicott Screech, 158-9 
Long-eared, 155-6 
Short-eared, 156 

Pacific Nighthawk, 50-1 
Pacific Yellow-throat War- 
bler, 21-2 
Pewee, Western Wood, 62 
Pheasant, Ring-necked 

(China), 132-5 
Phoebe, Say, 63-4 
Pied-billed Grebe, 144-5 
Pigeon, Band-tailed, 138-9 
Pileated Woodpecker, 124- 

5 
Pileolated Warbler, 22-3 
Pine Siskin, 87-8 
Pinyon Jay, 113-15 
Purple Finch, California, 
88-90 
Cassin, 90-1 
Pygmy Nuthatch, 43-4 
Owl, California, 159-60 

Quail: 

Bob white, 126-9 
California, 131-2 
Mountain, 129-31 

Red-breasted Nuthatch, 

42-3 
Sapsucker, 119-21 
Redpoll, 93-4 

Red-shafted Flicker. 118-19 
Red-tailed Hawk. 150-2 
Red- winged Blackbird, 

Northwestern. 98-100 
Ring- necked Pheasant 

(China), 132-5 
Road-runner. 161-4 
Robin. Alaska (Varied 

Thrush), 7-9 
Western, 0-7 



209 



INDEX 



Rosy Finch, Hepburn, 91-3 
Rough-winged Swallow, 58- 

9 
Ruby-crowned Kinglet, 14- 

15 
Ruffed Grouse, Oregon, 

137-8 
Rufous Hummingbird, 47- 

50 
Russet-backed Thrush, 9- 

10 
Rusty Song Sparrow, 77-8 

Sandpiper, Spotted, 141-2 
Sapsucker, Red-breasted, 

119-21 
Savanna Sparrow, West- 
ern, 81-2 
Say Phoebe, 63-4 
Screech Owl, Kennicott, 

158-9 
Seattle Wren, 15-16 
Sharp-shinned Hawk, 152-4 
Short-eared Owl, 156 
Sierra Hermit Thrush, 11- 

12 
Siskin, Pine, 87-8 
Slender-billed Nuthatch, 42 
Sooty Grouse, 135-7 
Sparrow, Golden-crowned, 
74-5 
Nuttall White-crowned, 

76-7 
Oregon Vesper, 80-1 
Rusty Song, 77-8 
Townsend Fox, 78-9 
Western Chipping, 82-3 
Western Lark, 80 
Western Savanna, 81-2 
Sparrowhawk, Desert, 149- 

50 
Steller Jay, 109-11 
Streaked Horned Lark, 

105-6 
Swallows: 

Barn Swallow, 57-8 
Cliff Swallow, 53-4 



Swallows — Coniinved 

Northern Violet-green 

Swallow, 55-6 
Rough-winged Swallow, 

58-9 
Tree Swallow, 54 
Western Martin, 56-7 
Swift, Vaux, 51-3 

Tanager, Western, 67-8 
Thrush, Russet- backed, 9- 
10 
Sierra Hermit, 11-12 
Varied (Alaska Robin), 
7-9 
Towhee, Oregon, 73-4 
Townsend Warbler, 29-30 
Traill Flycatcher, 62-3 
Tree Swallow, 54 
Tule W^ren, 19-20 

Varied Thrush, (Alaska 

Robin), 7-9 
Vaux Swift, 51-3 
Vesper Sparrow, Oregon, 

80-1 
Violet-green Swallow, 

Northern, 55-6 
Vireo, Cassin, 33-5 

Western Warbling, 32-3 

Warblers : 

Audubon Warbler, 26-8 
Black- throated Gray 

Warbler, 24-5 
California Yellow War- 
bler, 20-1 
Hermit Warbler, 30-2 
Long-tailed Chat, 28-9 
Lutescent Warbler, 23-4 
Macgillivray Warbler, 

25-6 
Pacific Yellow-throat 

Warbler, 21-2 
Pileolated Warbler, 22-3 
Townsend Warbler, 29- 
30 



210 



INDEX 



Warbling Vireo, Western, 

32-3 
Water Ouzel (Dipper), 45- 

7 
Waxwing, Bohemian. G4-5 

Cedar, 65-7 
Western Bluebird. 3-4 

Chipping Sparrow, 82-3 

Crow, 116-17 

Evening Grosbeak, 94- 
7 

Golden-crowned Kinglet, 
12-13 

House Wren, 16-17 

Lark Sparrow, 80 

Martin, 56-7 

Meadowlark, 104-5 

Red-tailed Hawk, 150-2 

Robin, 6-7 

Savanna Sparrow, 81-2 

Tanager, 67-8 

Warbling Vireo, 32-3 

Winter Wren, 18-19 

Wood Pewee, 62 
White-crowned Sparrow, 

Nuttall, 76-7 
Willow Goldfinch, 83-5 



Winter Wren, Western, 18- 

19 
Wood Pewee, Western, 62 
Woodpeckers: 

California Woodpecker, 

123 
Gairdner Woodpecker, 

122-3 
Harris Woodpecker, 121- 

2 
Lewis Woodpecker, 125-6 
Pileated Woodpecker, 

124-5 
Red-breasted Sapsucker, 

119-21 
Red-shafted Flicker, 
118-19 
Wren, Seattle, 15-16 
Tule, 19-20 
Western House, 16-17 
Western Winter, 18-19 
Wren-tit, Coast, 39-40 

Yellow Warbler, California, 

20-21 
Yellow-headed Blackbird, 

102-3 



211 



The 
Mathews Field Books 



BY F. SCHUYLER MATHEWS 



Though these volumes will grace any library table, they 
are built primarily to take on your expeditions into the 
country. They measure 434 ' 7 inches, and are prettily 
and substantially bound. 

In suggesting the Mathews Field Books, the pub- 
lishers are sure of their ground. Their judgment 
has the backing of eminent naturalists and scientists, 
and thousands of nature lovers, the country over. 

The Mathews books are standard and their in- 
formation is sure. Their simplicity and directness 
of vision is amazing. 

Their companionship opjens vistas that bring a new 
and lasting pleasure to your walks in wood and 
field. Also, an excellent accessory to your motor 
equipment. 

The editions are kept to date. 

FIELD BOOK OF AMERICAN WILD 
FLOWERS 

610 Pages. 24 Color Plates, and Over 300 Other Ulustra- 
tions from Studies from Nature by the Author. 

FIELD BOOK OF AMERICAN TREES 
AND SHRUBS 

480 Pages. 16 Color Plates, 3 Pages of Half-Tones, 61 
Line Drawings, 50 Crayon Drawings, 43 Maps, by the 
Author. 

FIELD BOOK OF WILD BIRDS AND 
THEIR MUSIC 

Revised and Enlarged Edition. 370 Pages. C2 Color 
Plates, and 19 Other Full-Page Illustrations, niumi&atiog 
Musical Notations Throughout Text. 



The 

Book of Wild Flowers 
for Young People 

By Fe Schuyler Mathews 

Mr. Mathews is a sympathetic natural- 
ist himself, and his children's nature books, 
even though completely accurate, are 
written so simply that they cannot fail to 
stimulate a youngster's ever-present curi- 
osity about the out-of-doors. The color 
illustrations are not only beautiful but 
authentic, and admirably calculated to 
instil a love of flowers in many a child's 
impressionable mind. 

G. P. Putnam's Sons 

New York London 



THE 

BOOK OF BIRDS 

FOR YOUNG PEOPLE 

By 
F. SCHUYLER MATHEWS 

Cr. 8\ A Handsome Volume of 340 Pages. 

66 Color Plates and 29 Illustrations 

in Black and White 

MR. MATHEWS, who needs no introduc- 
tion to many thousands of nature lovers, 
has written a book so sympathetic, so simple, so 
direct, that it will make an instant appeal to 
Young People — all of those who are still young 
at five or fifty, including the wiser ones of High 
School age. 

The text is in narrative form, and the volume 
is beautifully illustrated in color by the author, 
as well as by charming photographs, maps, and 
musical notations. 

Children are by nature endowed with a love 
for the birds, and this book with its lightness 
of touch and deep understanding is sure to 
stimulate and broaden their interest, and will 
prove to be a potent factor in their more liberal 
education. 

G. p. PUTNAM'S SONS 

New York Loadoa 



The 
Field Book of Insects 

With Special Reference to Those of the North- 
eastern United States, Aiming to 
Answer Common Questions 

by Frank E. Lutz 

Associate Curator, Dept. of Invertebrate Zoology, 
American Museum of Natural History 

/5^ About 600 Illustrations, Many in 
Color, by Edna F, BeutcnmuUcr 
Flex. do. Flex, lea, 

Hints concerning collecting, breeding, preserv- 
ing, and classifying insects; ''catch characters," 
rather than lengthy descriptions, by which com- 
monly observed insects, and insects which would 
repay observation, may be recognized ; outlines 
of interesting or economically important insect 
life histories ; and an untechnical but scientifi- 
cally accurate text. 

Uniform with Schuyler Mathews's books of 
Birds, Flowers, and Trees. 



G. P. Putnam's Sons 

New York London 



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