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Bifliop B U R N E T's 


O F 

His Own Time. 


From the Revolution 


Conclufion of the Treaty of Peace at VrRECHr, 

I N T H E 

Reign of Queen ANNE. 

To which is added, 

The AUTHOR'S LI FE, by the Editor. 


Printed for the EDITOR, by Joseph Downing in Bartholomnv-Clofe, 
and Henry Woodfall in the Strand. 1734. 

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O F 




Of Bishop 'BV RNET's 

Hiftory of Eis own Time. 


^AL ES. 






Vol. II. 


Jl t 

\ ST 

of the 

N. 8, Tbofe iiiatk'd with an Afterisk [^] have Subfcribed for 

the Large Paper. 


'IS Grace the Duke o/Ancaftcr. 
His Grace the Duke of Argyle. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of 
3^e Right Hon. Jofhua Lord Vtfcount Allen. 
* 'ithe Right Hon. the Lord Aylmer. 

Mr. Jofeph Allen. 

Edward Alhe Efq; 

Thomas Archer Efq; 

The Rev. Mr. Edward Arrowfmith, 

The Rev. Mr. Thomas Amory, Three Books. 

Mr. Lancelot Andrews of Chcapfide. . 

Mr. Edward Athawes Merchant. 

Benjamin Avery LL. D. 

S'he Right Hon. the Cnuntefs 0/ Albemarle. iWr.Rob.Akenhead of'^cv!c&&k,Bookfelier. 

'The Hon. John Aiflabie Efq; 

* 1'be Hon. Richard Arundel Efq; 

* 1'he Hon. Colonel Armftrong. 

* Sir James Afhe Bar. 
Sir John Anftruther Bar. 
Sir John Aubrey Bar. 

Edmund Abbot of Winterborn, Efq; 

^be Rev. Edward Abbot M. A. 

Mr. Abney. 

Alexander Abercromby o/Tilliebody Efq; 

William Acton o/r^e Middle Temple, Efq; 

Peircc Acourt Efq; 

Abraham Adams Efq; 

Mrs. Adelize Albinc. 

S^e Rev. Mr. Rice Adams, Sen. 

Captain Adams. 

The Rev. Mr. Rice Adams. 

S'be Rev. Mr. William Adams. 

* William Arnafl Efq; 

Samuel AOiurft Efq; 

Mr. Nathaniel Andrews Attorney at Law. 

JefFery Amherft Efq; 

William Allix Efq; 

Arthur Alhley Sykes D. D. 

John Anftis Efq; Garter King at Arms. 

Mrs. Arfcott. 

Jofeph Andrews Efq; 

^be Rev. Mr. John Allen of Eaftwick. 

Richard Atwood of Pembroke-Hall, Efq; 

Robert Andrews Efq. 

John Agar of the Middle Temple Efq; 

Thomas Amery Efq; 

Captain Agneaw. 

The Rev. Mr. Aylmer of Wharton, 

Anthony Allen Efq; 

Mr. Allen, His Majefy's Conful at Naples. 

Mrs. Archer. 


iicrjr/5' Grace the Duke of Bedford. 
_i__|_ His Grace the Duke of Buccleugh, 
Five Books. 
His Grace the Duke o/Bolton, Two Books. 
His Grace the Duke of Bridgewater. 

* Her Grace the Dutchefs of Bedford. 
Her Grace the Dutckefs of Bolton., 

* Tbe Right Hon. the Earl of Barrymore. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Buchan. 

Tbe Right Hon. the Lord Vifcmnt Btt- 

The Right Hon. the Lord Vifctum Bateman. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Vi fount Blundell. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Bruce. 
Tbe Right Hon. the Lord Byron. 

* The Right Hon. the Lord Binning. 
The Right Hon. the Lady Binning. 
The Right Hon. the Lady GrilTel Baillie. 
The Right Rev. the Lord Bifhop of Bath ■ 

and Wells. 

* The Hon. George Baillie Efq; 
The Hon. Robert Bruce Efq; 

The Rev. Mr. )ohn Allen Fellow 0/ Sidney The Hon. George Bridges Efq; 



Wametord Armftrong 

Townfend Andrews Efq; Two Books. 

Mr. Thomas Allen of London, Merchant. 

Dr. Peter Allix Dean of Ely. 

Mr. Andrew Andrews and Company. 

* The Lady AUin. 

Charles Afgill of Tokenhoufe-yard, Efq; 

Mr. Andrews. 

Dr. Ayerft, Two- Books. 

Mr. Thomas Afliburncr. 

Mr. Jofeph Aircy of Newcaftle, Merchant. 

Mr. John Andrews of Great Yarmouth, 

Mr. John Atlac of Lisbon, Merchant. 

Richard Bateman Efq; 

* The Hon. Henry Berkeley Efq; 
The Hon. Captain John Byng. 
Sir Roger Beckhurth Bar. 

Sir George Beauhiont Bar. 
Sir Edmond Bacon Bar. 
Sir Orlando Bridgeman Bar. 
Sir Edward Blunt Bart. 

* Sir Thomas Brand Kt. Gentleman UJher 
to the Green Rod, and Gentleman Ufher 
Daily Waiter to His Majefiy. 

* Sir Alexander Burnet ofLtzs, Bar. 
Sir Humphry Briggs Bar. 

Edward Barker of the Inner Temple, Efq; 
Mr. Papillon Ball Merchant. 



7li iiev. Mr. Ballai'd Fel/ow of Trinity 

Mrs. Mary Anne Bar of Pall-Mali, 
Edward Bayly of Evant, M. D. 
Edmond Baiigh of the Inner Temple, £f^; 
Thomas Barefoot of Winchefter, Bfq; 
Thomas Barrett of Lee, £fq; 
The Rev. Mr. Thomas B^ll. 
Mr. FothLiley Baker. . 
Henry Banks of Lincoln'i-Inn, Efq; 
Ht^nry Barker of Grove-pl^ce, Efq; 
Charles B:irIow 0/ Emmanuel CoUtge, Efq; 
John Anrhony BalaquieV Efq', 
Richard Baglhaw Efq; 
William Balil Efq; 
Mr. David Balfour. 
Mr. James Bagnell. 
The Rev. Mr. John Barker. 
John Baskervill Efq; 
Mr. Samuel Barret of Cork. 
Peter Bathuril Efq; 
Benjamin Eathurll Efq; 
The Rev. Dr. Samuel Baker. 
koberc Monteth Baldwin Efq; 
The Rev. Mr. Baker Treafuter of Bangor. 
George Ballatd Efq; 
The Rev. Dr. Barton. 
Richard Bayne Efq; Recorder of Rippon. 
Henry Barclay Stewart of Culamey, Efq; 
Thomas Baillie of Polkernct, Efq; 
Sir William Baird of Newbyth, Bar. 

John Baker Efq; 
ohn Barber Efq; late Lord Mayor 0/ Lon- 
Mr. David Barclay. 
Mr. William Baxter. 
Arthur Barnardifton Efq; 
The Right Hon. William Loi'd Bruce. 

* Jonathan Belcher jun. Efq; 

* Henry Bellingham Efq; 
Mr. Humphry Bell Merchant. 
Mr. Robert Bernard of Clapham. 
The Rev. Mr. Charles Berry of Salop. 
Thomas Bennet LL. D. 

Hugh Bethel of Swindon, Efq; 

John Bennet Efq; Mafler in Chancery. 

Thomas Bennet of Norton Bavant^ Efq; 

Luke Bcnne of the Middle Temple, Efq; 

William Bennet of the Middle Temple, £/f; 

Mr. John Bedwell. 

Mr. Charles Bernard of Surgeons Hall. 

William Beecher of Howberryj Efq; 

Benjamin Benfon Efq; 

Mr. Sylvanus Bevan. 

The Rev. Mr. William Bettcrley. 

Hugh Bethell of Ryfc^ Efq; 

The Rev. Dr. Bearcroft. 

Thomas Beacon Efq; 

Alexander Belehes of Innermag, Efq; 

Thomas Bennet Ejq; 

Jofeph Bifliop Efq; 

Thomas Birch Efq; Sirjeant at Law. 

Mr. Bifcoe. 

Samuel Birch Efq; 

Henry Binficld Efq; 

The Rev. Mr. William Birch. 

Mr. Charles Bicknall. 

WJilliam Bickford of DanHand, Efq; 

The Rev. Mr. Robert Billis. 

Mr. Samuel Birt Bookfeller. 

* Dennis Bond Efq; 

Mr. Thomas Bold of New Ian. 

Mr. Nicholas Bofquct. 

John Bond of Grange, Efq; 

Robert BoWes of Thornton, Efq; 

Henry Bofvillc Efq; 

Thomas Borrctt of the Inner Tcihpic, Ef^; 

William Bowles Efq; 

Mr. Edmund Boehm. 

Mr. Charles Boehm. 

John Bouchier Efq; 

Mr. James Bonwick Bookfeffer. 

* John Briftow Efq; 
Edmund Britiffe Efq; 
Mr. Briftow of Pool. 

The Rsv. Mr. Thomas Bradbury. 
Francis Bradfhaw of Gray's-Inn, Ef^; 
The Rev. Mr. Brettoh. 
Thomas Brocas of Beaurcpaire, Efq; 
John Brougham Efq; 
John Brown Efq; 

Brook Bridges Efq; e/ Great Jamcs-ftrcet. 
Samuel Brady of Portfnlouth, M. D. 
Orlando Bridgman Efq; 
Pufcy Brooke of Portfmouth, Efq; 
The Rev. Dr. Henry Briggs. 
The Rev. Dr. Bridges of Southwcald. 
Mr. Thomas Brookes. 
Mr. Nehemiah Brookes. 
Thomas Brand Efq; 
William Bryan Efq; 
Jofeph Brand of the Itiner Temple, Efq; 
Ifaac Hawkins Brown of Lincoln's Inn, Efq; 
William Brooks of St. John'j, Efq; 
Mr. John Bradbury e/Southampton Build- 
Mr. Samuel Brackley o/Oporto, Merchant. 
Hugh Briggs Efq; 
Thomas Brereton Efq; 
Mr. John Brindley Bookfelltr. 
John Brome of the Inner Teniplc, Efq; 
Henry Bradfhaw Efq; 
Mrs. Anne Bromley, 
William Brockman Efq; 
Brook Bridges Efq; 
Mrs. Mary Brooks, 
Mr. William Bryan. 
Mr, Martin Bryfan. 
Mr. Richard Brown. 
William Brown Efq; 
The Rev. Dr. Broom. 
Mr. D. Brown. 
Alexander Brodie Efq; 
Statap Brooksbank Efq; 
Thomas Brace of Hardinftone, Efq; 
Mr. Andrew Broughton. 


A L 

IS r 

of tht 

Mr. Jonathan Bromley. 

Mr. George Brice Bookfeller in Leiccftcr. 

William Brook 0/ Norwich Efq; 

* Colonel John Brown. 

* The Rev. Mr. Anthony James Braflalay. 
James Burrow Efq; Mafter of the Crown- 

Jofcph Button Bookfeller in Newcaftle. 

* Robert Burnet Efq; 
Thomas Buck of Wcllwick, Efq; 
Mr. Kelfey Bull. 

The Rev. 'Mr. William Butterfield, Reifcr 

of Midleydon. 
William Bumpftcad Efq; 

* Gilbert Burnet Efq; Commifjioner of 
Excife (It Edinburgh. 

The Rev. Dr. Jofeph Butler. 

John Bullock of Dines Hall, Efq; 

* Nathaniel Burrough of St. Edmonds- 
bury, Efq; 

Robert Buxton Efq; 

Mr. James Budgett. 

The Rev. Dr. Bundy Prebendary of Weft- 

Mr. James Burnet of Barnard'j Inn. 
The Rev. Mr. Richard Bullock. 
Jeremiah Burroughs of Brillol, Efq; Two 

The Rev. Mr. William Butterfield. 
Harry Burrard Efq; 
Richard Butterfield Efq; 
Mr. Francis Burton Efq; 
Samuel Buckley Efq; Two Books. 
Anthony Bulair Efq; 
Mr. Francis Burdett of Lisbon. 
Mr. Jeremy Buckle. 
Mr. Nicholas Busfield. 
The Rev. Dr. Burton of Winchefter. 
Samuel Burroughs Efq; 
William Bucknall Efq; 
Bartholomew Burton Efq; 
John Bullock Efq; 
The Rev. Dr. Barnard of Norwich. 
Captain Balderftone. 

Mr. lohnBindham o/Caius College, CAmb. 
Mr. John Beaumont. 
Jonathan Blackwell Efq; 
John Bance Efq; 
Thomas Beckford Efq; 
John Bennet Efq; 

* Mr. John Bonnell. 
Peregrine Bertie Efq; 
Matthew Beachcroft Efq; 
Mr. Samuel Bever. 

Arthur Bernard of the Middle Temple, Efq; 
Mr. Beachcrofts. 
Captain Thomas Blow. 
John Byde Efq; ' 
William Blunt Efq; 
Mr. James Bailey. 

John Bowes Efq; SolicitcrGeneral of Ire- 
Shadrach Blundell of the Inner Temple,£/^j 

Thomas Blencowe Efq; 

The Rev. Mr. Anthony Bllfs. 

John Blencowe Efq; 

Gerard Bothomley Efq; 

William Blackburn Efq; 

Mr. Weaver Bickerton Bookfeller. 

Mr. James Bradley o/Clapham Merchatrt. 

Richard Boult Efq; 

Richard Banner Efq; 

William Battine Efq; 

Mr. William Burforcl. 

Matthew Bacon Efq; 

Richard Banner Efq; 

Mr. Edward Billingiley. 

Mr. Binet. 

William Burton Efq; 

Mr. Brotherton Bookfeller. 

^T T/5 Grace the Lord Archbifhop cf 
Xi Canterbury. 

* His Grace the Duke of Chandos, Five 

* Her Grace Anne Dutchefs o/CleavcIand. 

* The Right Hon. the Earl of Chefterfield. 
The Right Hon. the Earl Cowper. 

* The Right Hon. the Earl 0/ Coventry. 
The Right Hon. Lord James Cavendifh. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Colerain. 

* The Right Hon. the Lord Cathcarr, 
The Right Hon. the Lord Cornwallis. 

The Right Hon. Anne Countefs Dowager of 

The Right Hon. Walter Cary Efq; 

* The Right Hon. Marmadnke Coghill Efq; 

* The Hon. William Clayton Efq-, one of 
the Commiffioners of the Treafury. 

The Hon. Sir William Chappie King's Ser- 
jeant, Two Books. 

* The Hon. William Chetwynd Efq-, 

* The Hon. Mrs. Clayton. 
Sir Charles Crifpe Bar. 
Sir Robert Corbet Bar. 

* Sir John Chardin Bar. 

* Sir William Clayton Bar. 
Sir James Campbell Bar. 
Sir John Cope Bar. 

Sir Bryan Cooke Bar. 

* Sir William Codrington Bar. 

Sir William Calderwood, one of the Sena- 
tors of the College of Jujtice tn Scotland. 
Sir George Cooke of the Inner Temple. 

* Thomas Cartwright Efq; 
Ralph Carr Efq; 

Henry Thomas Carr Efq; 

Caius College Library in Cambridge. 

Mr. Deputy Robert Cady of Ereadftrect. 

Mr. Samuel Carkeet of Totnefs. 

Samuel Card Efq; 

John Cater Efq; 

Francis Capper Efq; 

John Campbell Efq; 


Subscribers Names* 

Collin Campbell Efq; ColleSlor of the Cuf. 

toms at Prefton-pans, 
James Campbell of St. Jcrmains, Efq; 
William Lacon Child Efq\ 
The Rev. Dr. Clarke Reilor of St. Magnus. 
Thomas Cook Efq; 
Thomas Cowflad Efq; 
The Rev. Mr. Richard Cumberland. 
Hugh Campbell Efq; 
The Rev. Mr. Capcll of Stanton. 
Mr. James Carr. 
Cornelius Caley Efq; 
Mr. James Carlos. 

Mr. William Candcll, .1 jjiwi. 

The Rev. Dr. Carter. ' ' ' 

John Campbell Efq; 
Mr. Carr. 

Mr. George Campbell. 
John Carter Efq; Secretary 0/ Virginia. 
3/r. William Carbonnel. .,. Ai Lrviji 
Mr. John Carter of ?on(tnC)iith,Merchaftt. 
Mrs. Mary Ceney. 
Francis Chute Efq; 

Mr. William Chafe Bookfellcr^ Sf^ Books. ■ 
Richard Chifwell Efq; riliiV/ .•?"••. 

Mr. Richard Chafe of Cambridge 
Mr. William Chafe. 
Mr. Jofiah Chitty Merchant. 
John Cholwich of Exeter, Efqi^R-M ?.: - 
Mr. Patrick Chepe Merfhant^ '- -'^ 
John Chadwicke Efq; ntTjC^ 
Andrew Charlton Efq;, 
Charles Chadvvick Efq; 
The Rev. Mr. Chalmers, Principal of King's 

College, Aberdeen. 
The Rev. Mr. Samuel Chandler. 

Matthew Chandler of Maidftone, Efq; 

Mr. Richard Chauncy. 

Dt. Cheyney. ■ 

VVilliam Chetwin of BcdwingtonjJ?/^; 

Seymour Cliolmondeley Efq; 

St. John Charlton Efq; 

Mr. Lewin Cholmley of Cateaten-ftreet. 

Thomas Chudleigh Efq; 

Anthony Chute Efq; 

Air. Samuel Chandler of Portfmouth. 

James Chethara Efq; 

Thomas Chiffinch of Northfleet, Efq; 

Airs. Chambers of Bartlet'f Buildings. 

Mr. John Chifslen of Fenchurch-ftrcet. 

John Chetwade LL. D. 

Brigadier General Clzyton. ;;;[ 

A'fr. William C\&y ton Bookfe Her m M^r 
chefter. ,•■■•'■- 

A'fr. Richard Clements BookfeHer in Ox- 

John Clarkfon Efq; 

A'fr. Martin Clare. 

Thomas Clarke Efq; 

George Clive of Lincoln'^ Inn, Efq. 

Thomas Clennell Efq; 

A4r. Edward Clench. 
Voj.. II. 

Samuel Clarke Efq; ^ 

Sir Thomas Clarke. 
Mrs. Mary Clarke. 

Charles Clarke o/" Lincoln'^ Inn, Efqi \ 
Mr. Richard Clay of London, Merchant. ■. 
The Rev. Dr. Alurcd Clarke, Chaplain ti^ 
Hts Majefty. A 

Clare Hall Libraty in Cambridge. [ 

Edward Clivc of Lincoln *.r Inn, Efq; 
1 he Rev. John Clarke D.D. 
Samuel Clarke of Weft Bromwich, Efq; 
William Clifton Efq; SolieitatcfExe^e in 
Scotland. Ii.'/f I ) ■ if:r!)i>i 

Mrs. Sarah Clarke. 

Captain Samuel Clark.' V 

Walter Clarill Efq; 

Mr. Giles Clutterbuck. |_ 

John Clavering Efq; ih 

George Clarke 0/ Oxford, Efq; LL.Drf^Z 
Edward Clarke of Chipley, Efq; "^ 

Mr. Anthony Clarenbaulo^. 1.1 ... > .^.'A 
* Thomas Corbett ij^jtjmD ^m' AT .1^ 
^ Mrs. Cosburne. , .j.nj ^ 

John Cocks 0/ Caftic Ditch, Efq; ^ 

Mrs. Elizabeth, Cornwall. 
Dr. Thomas Cox of Nottingham. 
Mr. Paul Corbet of London. 
Edward Compton Efq; 
Edward Coke of the Inner Temple, Efqi 
Henry Coape of Duffield Efq; 
Anthony Corbiere Efq; 
James Cocks Efq; 
The Rev. Air. Witting Col ton M. A. 

The Rev. Dr. John Colbatch. 

Richard Coffin Efq; 

Mr. Thomas Colbume. 

The Rev. Dr. Conyers Midleton. 

William Cowper Efq; 

Captain Cockayn. 

* Mrs. Congrcve. 

Richard Cookefey of the White Lady*J,i5y^| ' 

Peter Cottingham of ^ampftead, Efq; ^ [ 

Mr. Robert Cooper. .zisffrlsriJ ,imii[ :\\l\ 

Mr. Nathaniel Cole. 

Francis Cooper Efq; 

Mr. William Cofsley of Briftol, BookfeHer^ 

Aihley Cowper Efq; ' * 

Mr. Charles Conga Iton in Edinburgh. ,. 

Mr. John Coults 0/ Edinburgh, .^erf>&j»/f A'- 

William Cockburn, M. D. 'F.R.S. 

Mr. Cofsley. 

Mr. John Coke of London, Merchant. 

James Cook Efq; 

Mr. Charles Coe. 

3/r. Matthew Collet. i J. 

Mr. Henry Coward 0/ London-, Mircb'ant, 

Benjamin Collier Efq; 

Miles Cook Efq; 

Mr. James Colter. 

Vclters Cornwall Efq; 

'The Rev. Mr. Comarqus. 



A List of the 

The Hon. Mr. Baron Comyns. 

Mr. William Coward. 

George Crowle Efq; 

John Conduit Efq-, 

Thomas Coplcfton Efq; 

The Rev. Mr. John Copping. 

Mr. John Couflmaker. 

John Culleton of Bond-ftrect, Efq; 

George Courthop 0/ Whiligh, Efq; 

Colonel Archibald Cockran. 

Mr, John Cox. 

Mr. Cromc Merchant. "■ 

Richard Cromwell of BartletV-BnildiiBfis, 


Mr. John Crofts of Lincoln s Inn, Efq; 

Thomas Crifp Elq; 

John Crafter of Gray'j Inn, Efq\ 

Richard Crowle of the IniKr Temple, Efq-., 

Saraiiel Crompton 0/ Derby, Ef^ ... 

James Croffe of Winchefter, £/^-' '■>'■'■ '' 

/►/fj. Crcflener 0/ London-ftrecr. ■'' 

Mr. Thomas Croughton. -' ' 

Mr. Robert Cruckfhank MerchaM. 

Thomas Crcmer Efq; , 

The Rev. Mr. Richard Crefly. 

Mr. David Crawford 0/ Allirtgton. T' .~^\ 

Patrick Crawford Efq, 

Dr. Crcfwicke. 

Mr. William Crachroade. > bv"'- 

Mrs. Rebecca Cromp. 

Captain Craig. 

Mr. Jofeph Croucher. v -UidJ i-iit. 

Mr. John Crofhave. * ' " 

* Dr. Thomas Crow. 

* William Curzon of Kenfington, Ef^t 
Dougall Cuthbert Efq\ .' c...iimi.. . 

* Michael Cuff Efq\ ' :\^ "vJl r 
Colley Cibber Efq; 

William Chetwynd Efej:, 

John Clark of Sarum, Efq\ 

George Cheyne M.D. 

James Cockburne Efq; . . :; , ..... 

Mr. James Chalmers. J n-3<\dSi .iVfv 



.juiiiia ^0 

.J J mfiiliiV/ 

* TfJIS Grace the Dukt o/DorKt, Lord 

X Jl Lieutenant of Ireland. 
*.Tie Right Hon. the Earl of Dartmouth. 

* 7 he Right Hon. James Earl of Darby. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Damlcy. 
The Rtght Hon. the Lord Darcy. 

The Right Hon. the Lord Digby. 

The Right Hon. the Lord Delawarr. 

The Right Rev. the Lord B{fhnp of Durham. 

The Hon. Mr. fiifiice Denton. 

Sir Thomas D'Aeth Bar. 

Sir Robert Dickfon of Carberry^ Birr. 

Sir lames Dalrym.ple of Hales, Bar. 

Sir Bafil Dixwell Bar. 

Sir John Diitton Bar. 

Sir Charles Dalton Bar. 

Sir John Darnall Serjeant at Lav;. ^'-'"^ 
The Hon. Sir Conycrs Darcy Knight of 

the Bath. 
Major General Dalzell. 

* Mr. Jofeph Da Colla. 
Robert Darell Efq; 
Thomas Dacrei Efq; 
The Rev. Mr. John Davis. 

Mr. Peter Darvall of Maidenhead. 
Mr. James Davidfon Bookfeller in Edin- 
burgh, Fight Books. 
William Daye Efq; 
Mrs. Dorothea Dafhwood. 
Richard Draper of Lincoln'^ Inn, F/jv 
Benjamin D'Aranda LL. B. 
Mr. Davie of Sidney College, Cambridge. 
Peter Davall of the Middle Temple, Ej'q; 
Peter Davenport of Macclesfield, Efq; 
Robert Davis 0/ Lincoln 'i Inn, Efq; 
Edward Dawfon Efq; 
The Rev. Mr. Edward Darell. 
Mr. Richard Dann Attorney at Law. 
Mrs. Mary Dannye. 
Richard Dawfon Efq; 
Mr. William Dawkins Aferchanf. 
George Daftiwood Efq; 

* Mr. John Denne of Spiral Fields. 
The Rev. Mr. Lewis Debords. 
James Deacon Efq; 

Mrs. Sarah Dennis. 

Mr. Michael Dean. . . 

Dr. John Denne, Archdeacon o/Rochcfter. 

>^rj. Elizabeth Debcrt. "■^ <-.;..., 

Robert Deane £/^v vVIv .u^5l vlY 

Kinard Delabere of Sbtitham, Efq; 

ikfr. John Deverell Surgeon in BtiSiiA^,^ \ ■" 

Captain William Dafty. orlMu ' 

Mr. John Dowland. 

Thomas Dennifon of Lincoln'j Inn, Efc^ ' 

George Delaval of Barrington, Efq; 

Charles Delafaye Efq; 

Mr. D'Enew. 

Captain Theophilus Desbrefay. 

Thomas Difcipline Efq\ 

Mr. Robert Dick. 

Andrew Dickfon Provnfi of Hadington. 

Mr. Benjamin De la Fontaine Merchant. 

Mr. John Dickfon. 

Rumney Diggle Efq; 

Samuel Dixfon Efq; 

John Diferote Efq; 

John Dive Efq; '{^^^ ^ 

Robert Dinwiddiefyg-^ 

Richard Dowdefwell Efq; Commiffioner of 

Excife at Edinburgh. 
Mr. John Dodfwarth. 
John Dowdal of the Middle Temple, Efq; 
Randal Donaldfon of the Middle Temple, 

^heRev. Mr. John Doffie of Sheffield. 
Captain Alexander Duroure. 
Robert Downg^ Efq; 


Subscribers Names. 

Walter Dovey of the Inner Temple, £/^; 
'the Rev. A4r. Dovcy M. A. 
Jfolin Dobfon £/^-, 
James Donn Slieriff C/crk of Stirling. 
Mr. James Douglas. 
James Douglas M.D. 
The Rro. Mr. Samuel D'Oylcy. 
7'he Rev. Mr. Downs. 
■Mr. John Dowding. 
The Rev. Mr. Dobfon. 
Mr. Jofeph Downing Printer. 
* Henry Diniftar Ef^\ 
Colortel William Ducket. 
Mr. John Dundas of Manner. 
William Dunller Efq; 
John Duncombc £/f; 
Mr. Thomas Dugdale o/Tokcnhoufe-yard. 
Mr. John Duprtc. 

Mr. Pcrcr Dunoycr Bookfcllcr, 7'hree Books. 
John Drummond Efej-., 
Richard Duke of Otterton, Effi 
Mr. Hirmphrey Duncalfe Merchartt. 
James Drummond c/ Blair DrummOnd,£/^V 
Daniel Draper El(]\ ■ i. -\. 

Mr. John Djcr of Clapham. 
Henry Drax Eftj; 
Simon Degge EJ^:, 

Baron J)'Alv'a, Mafter of the Ilorfe to the 
Prince of Orange. .. - 

THE Right Hon. the Lord Chief J uf- 
tice Eyre. , . , : ,. 
27;c Right Rev. the tm A/Jhfp'of Ex{*t«*r. 
Tlye Right Rev. the Lord Bijhop of 'E\^\\W. 
'the Right Rev. the Lord Rljbcp of Ely. 
^he Hon. James Erskinc E}q:, one of the Se- 
nator $ of the College ofjujltce in Scotland. 
S'be Hon. George Evans Efq\ 
* 1'he Hon. Lieutenant General Evans. 
Sir Richard Ellis Bar. •"';-'' 

* Sir Redmond Everard Hai'. 


Sir John Eyles. 

AuguRine Earle Efcj-., 

Mr. William E,a{lon. 

Mr. Edward Eafton Bookfeller in Sarum. 

Mr. John Eaton Merchant.. 

Charles Echlyn Efq-., 

George Edwards of Lihcoln'j Inri, Efe[\ 

Vigerus Edwards Efq-y 

A'fr. Robert Edden. 

Humphry Edwin Ef<j\ 

Patrick Edmonfton o/NeMton Edmonfton, 

■/^♦•. Edling, ofie of the Biiforis of the Ex~ 
"■' Cifcei^er /«. Scotland. 
Snmiier Edw^ards Efcfy 
William Edwards Efq\ 
Mr. Eleazcr Edwards. 
* Airs. Mary Edwards of Kenfiiigton. 
Thomas Elder Ef^; 

Francis Eldc Efei\ Mafter in Chancery. 

Thomas Elliot o/Portugal-ftrcct, TwoBooks. 

John Elford Efq\ 

John Eldrcd of Saxham, Efq\ 

Richard Elliot Ffy., 

Thomas Emcrfon Efq\ 

John Emcrfon LL.B. 

7'he Rev. Mr. Robert Emmers. 

7'he Rev. Mr. George Englaivi. 

Mr. George Ewing Bookjeiler tn Dublin.' 

* Thomas Ewer of Highworth, Eltj; 

7'he Rev. Mr. Exton of CliddclUon, 

7'be Rev. Mr. Richard Extcn M. A. 

Mr. Elton. 

Giles Eyre £/^; Serjeant at Law. 

William Eyre of Lincoln'i loii, Efy; 

Robert Eyre Eff., one of His Majefty's 

Comwifjioners of Excife. 
Edward Eyre Efq-., 

,Mr. Egleton. 

Godolphin Edwards Eff., 

*nrHE Right Hon. the Earl of Fitz- 
X water. 

* The Right Hon. James Earl c/FinlateR 
7'he Right Hon. the Earl o/Fiiz-william. 
7'he Rt. Hon. Richard Vtfcount Fitz-william. 
7'be Right Hon. the Lord Vtfcount VaraSL- 

7'ht Right Hon. the Lord Foley. 
7'he Right Hon. the Lady Forrcller. 
7'he Hon. Gilbert Fleming, Lieutenant 

General of the Leeward Ifkinds. 
Sir Thomas Frank land Bar. one of the 

Lords Commijfioners of the Admiralty. 

* Sir John Frederick Bar. 

Brian Fairfax Efq\ one of the Commiffwners 

of the Cuftoms, Tkvo Books. 
William Fawkenor Efq-., 
Mr. John Farrington of Clapham. 
Mr. Henry Faure. 
Mr. John Falkner. 

■ ^he Rev. Mr. Fallc, Prebend, of Durham. 
Mr. George Far roll. 
Francis Fauquier Efq; 
Nicholas Fazakerley of the Inner Temple, 

Dennis Farrcr Efq:, 

Mr. Sam'. Fairbrother Bookfeller in DubliA. 
Mr. James Fall Merchant in Dunbar. 
Jofeph Ferrers Ef% 
Edward Fenwick Efq\ 
Robert Fenwick £/f; 
Mrs. Dorothea Fellowes. 
Coulfon Fellowes Efq\ 
William Fellowes Ejq; 
Mr. Nicholas Fear. 
Mrs. Hannah Fiflicr. 
Mr. Robert Findlay o/Glafcow. 

» Dr. 

A List of the 

* Dr. Fleetwood Anhdeacon of Cornwall. 

* Henry Fletcher of Salton, Effy 
John Floyer of Lincoln^ Inn, Efq-y 
Mr. Caleb Flower. 
Captain John Fletcher. 
William Fortefcue E/r, ^«or«f;' General 

to his Royal Highnefs the Prince of 
John Forfter Efif, 
Patrick Forbes £/"f, 
Duncan Forbes Ef<]\ Lord Advocate. 
Mr. John Foote junior. 
Mr. Richard Ford BookfsUer. 
Mr. Samuel Fofter Merchant. 

Mr. Gabriel Fouace. 
Martin Folkes Ef<}\ 

^he Rev. Mr. Francis Fox M. A. 

Major Henry Foubert. 

Mr. Jacob FoUer. 

Alexander Forreller of the Inner Temple, 

Jolfr(^Fowle £/^-, o«^ of His Majefifs 

Commtffioners of Excife. 
Mr. Thomas f oliambe. _ 

Thomas Fothergill of York, Ef<j'^ ■ • 
JohnFontvive Efq\ 

George Fothergill of Lmcoln j Inn, £/^, 
y^ Rrj. iWr. Forreller. 
Timothy Forfter Surgeon in Newcaltle. 
Michael Fofter of the Middle Temple, f/f, 
John Forbes of CoUoden, Efj; 
The Rev. Mr. Forrefter of Canterbury. 
Mr. Aaron Franks. 
Colonel John FoUiott. 
Charles Frederick f/^j 
Mr. Edward Franklyn. 
The Rev. Mr. William Freeman. 
Richard Frankland £/f, 
Ralph Freeman Eff., ' 
Thomas Frewen of Brickwall, £/^i 
Richard Freeman Efcjh ^-wo Books. 
Arthur Freeman fen. Efq:, 
Thomas Freeman jun. Efijh 
cthe Rev. Mr. Samuel Fry of Wollan. 
Mr. John Fraill BookfeUer in Edinburgh, 

Eight Books, 
q'he Rev. Mr. Samuel Fry. 
,* Afr.Ifaac Franks of Billiter-Squarc 
Gcvernour Fitz-william. 
John Fuller 0/ Rofc-Hill Efej, 
Mrs. Hefter Fuller. 

Mr. William Ford of Bafmghall-ftrcet. 
Captain Wheeler Fletcher. 
John Fuller of Yarmouth, Efy; 
fthc Rev. Dr. Fcnton of Lancaftcr. 
Mrs. Fountagne. 
Stephen Fox Ef<^; 
James Frampton £f^i 
^he Rev. Mr. Freeman. 


* npHjB Right Jfon. the Murquifs of 

j[_ Graham. 
<The Right Hon. the Earl of Grantham. _ 
q'hs Right Hon. the Earl of Godolphin, 

Two Books, 
^he Right Hon. the Earl o/Gainsborough. 
The Right Hon. the- Lord Glenorchy. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Grey. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Gowcr. 
The Right Hon. the Lady Betty Gcrmairtc. 
The Hon. Sir Charles Guntcr-Nichols Kt. 

of the Bath. 
the Hon. Major General Groves. 
Sir Henry Goodricke Bar. 
Sir James Gray Bar. 
Sir Samuel Gerrard Bar. 
William Garforth of York, Eff, TmBioks. 
ithe Rev. Mr. Garnet. 
The Rev. Mr. Henry Gaily D. D. 
Roger Gale Efq; one of His Majefty'sCom- 

miffioners of Escife. 
Samuel Gatwardo/ Cambridge, E/^j 
David GanfelU/Leighton Grainge, Efq; 
James Garland of Lincoln's Inn, £f^i 
The Publick Library of Geneva. 
Mr. Jolhua Geekie. 
The Rev. Mr. William Geekie. 
' John Greene of Lincoln's Inn, Ef^h 
Dr. William George. 
J. Gell of Hopton, Efj; , v. « '^. n " f 1 
Mr. Walter Gibbons of Liricoln'i Inn. 
Thomas Gill of Lincoln's Inn, £/gi 
Mr. Philip Gilbert. 
The Rev. Dr. Gilbert Dean of E.xeter. 
The Rev. Mr. John Gibb. 
The Rev. Dr. Claudius Gibbert. 
Mr. Samuel Gibbons Stationer. 
Jofeph Girdler Eff, Serjeant at Law. 
Mr. John Gill. 

Richard Gilpin £/^-, Recorder of Carliflc 
John Gibfon £ff, ., > 

Mr. James Gilchrift o/Dumfreis, Merchatii. 
Mr. James Girl. 

;t/j-. Thomas Gittins BookfeUer in Sa\op.' 
William Glanville Effj 
Mr. Thomas Glover. ■, 

John Glanvil Eff-, 

Philip Glover Eff, ;;;;.^^ 

* Mrs. Glover. 

Francis Godolphin F/^; , . 

John Godfrey of Norton Court £/gi 

the Rev. Mr. John Goodwin A. M. 

Mr. John Goudge BookfeUer in Weftminftijr. 

John Godfrey of the Middle Temple, Ef<j\ 

Thomas Gouldney of Briftol, Efyy 

Thomas Gordon E/i]--, 

Mr. Thomas Goddard. 

William Gordon £f^-, Provoji of Kirkend- 

_ bright. ^^ 


jbr. Gooch, TvJo Books. 

Mr. Thomas Godfrey. 

Mr. John Gould. 

S'be Rev. Mr. Goddard Ficar o^Hclvcrgatc. 

Mr. John Goldham. 

King Gould Eff^ 

■ Gold EPi; 

Mr. Edward Gouge. 

Mr. William Gordon. 

William Gofeline f/^j 

George GoUop Efq; 

Arthur Gore Eff^ 

Charles Grey Ef^\ 

George Gregory Efji 

Mr. William Grainger, H^riting Mafier in ' 

Mr. Jofeph Grove. 

^he Rev. Mr. Green Prebend. 0/ Chichcller. 
Mr. Silvanus Groves. 
Mr. George Graham. 
Hugh Gregor Efq\ 
Mr. John Gray of Fetter- lane. 
^be Rev. Dr. Zach. Grey. 
Robert Green 0/ Cambridge, Efqy 
Francis Gregor Ef(]\ 
Captain Green of Stanington Bridge. 
Mr. George Grafton, Bookfelier in the 

Kehemiah Griffith Efa\ 
^be Rev. Mr. Benjamin Grofvcnor, D. D. 
John Guthcrick Ffq\ 
fthe Rev. Mr. WiUiam Gufthai;jc of Edin- 

WiUiam Guidott 0/ Liocoln*j Inn, £/^j 
Thomas Guinftone Efq:, 
Nathaniel Gumdry of Lincoln'!" Inn, Efq-^ 
Philips Gybbon Efq\ 
Mr. Fletcher Gyles Bookfelier. 
William Gery Ff<j\ 
Mr. Greenvill fenior. 
Mr. Greenvill junior. 


HIS Grace the Duke of Hamilton. 
* ^he Right Hon. the Earl of 

* ^he Right Hon. the Earl of Hertford. 
fhe Right Hon. the Earl of Harborough. 

* 1'he Right Hon. the Earl of Hadinton. 
3'he Right Hon. the Lord Hobart. 

^ht Right Hon. the Lord Hardwick, Lord 
Chief Jufiice of the King's-Bench, I'wo 

^he Hon. George Hamilton Efq\ 

^he Lady Hanmer. 

^be Hon. Alexander Hume Campbell Efq:, 

^oe Hon. John Hentdn Efq:^ 

fbe Hon. Mrs. Howe. 

Sir William Heathcoate Bar. 

Sir Walter Hawkfworth Bar. 

Sir Robert Hildyard Bar. 
Vol. II. 

Sir folin Hind Cotton Bar. 
Sir Charles Hotham Bar. 
Sir John Hartopp Bar. 

* Sir James Hall of Dunglafs, Bar. 

* Sir Richard Hopkins Kt. 
Colonel Hawley. 

Philip Harcourt of the Inner Temple, Ef^ 

Mr. Dcnhara Hammond A'ercbant. 

Harbord Harbord Efq\ 

Alexander Hales Efq\ 

Mr. Thomas Harris of Gray'j Inn. 

Hopton Hayncs Ffq\ ^wo Books. 

Nicholas Harding Efq'^ Clerk of the Hcu/i 

of Connnons. 
Thomas Hawes Efq; 
Roger Harcne Efq; 

Henry Hatfell of the Middle Temple, Efj; 
Benjamin Hays of Mark-lane, Efq; 
Mr. Samuel Hafwcll Merchant. 
Robert Hart of Portfmouth, Efq; 
Bcnj. Hall Efq; Principal of Clilford'i Inn. 
William Hall Efq; 

Chvles Harell of the Middle Temple, Efq; 
John Hayes of the Middle Temple, Efq; 
Mr. James Hanfon Attorney at Law. 
John Hamilton Efq; 
George Hathaway of Ware, Efq; 
William Harris of Sarum, Efq; 
John Hadley Efq; 
James Harris of Sarura, Efq; 
William Hayward of the Middle Templcj" 

John Hawey of the Middle Temple, Efq\ 
Chriftopher Hawkins Efq^ 
Mr. John Haftings. 

Francis Hall of the Middle Temple, Efq'y 
Mr. Samuel Handley. 
Samuel Hallows in Lancafljire, Efq^ 
Mr. Stephen Hcrvey. 
William Hamilton Efq--, 
Mr. William Hawkes of Marlborough. 
^he Rev. Mr. Charles Hall of Oxford. 
Hr. Hay tor. Archdeacon of York. 
John Hammct of Lincoln'^ Inn, £/^i 
Mr. John Harrifon. 
Mr. George Halftead. 
Mr. John Hafwell, Provoji of Jedburgh. 
Gavin Hamilton, Bookfelier in Edinburgh. 
Mr. Philip Hale. 
Mr. John Harris Surgeon. 
Air. Thomas Hammond. 
Henry Harwood Efq:, 
Mrs. Haley. 

S. Harris D.D. ReginsProfefforyCiimhxidigr:. 
Mr. George Hawkins Bookfelier. 
John Harris Efq:, 
Henry Hale Efq:, 
Mr. William Harris. 
James Hawley Efq\ 
Edward Haifterell Efq'., 
Hanlhaw Halfey Efq:, 
Alexander Hamilton Efq'-, 

c Mr. 

A L 

1 S T 

of tht 

Mr. Ezekid Hall Merchant. 

Mr. Tim. Hatchett of London, BookftUef, 

Tbe Rev. Mr. Samuel Haliday. 

Mr. Jofcph Hayward. 

Edward Harrifon Ef<j\ 

Thomas Haws Eff, 

Captain Harvey. 

Mr. Abraham Haworth. 

William Hedges of Arith, £/^; 

Jeffrey Hethcrington of the Middle Temple, 

iWn Thomas Heames of hon^on. Merchant. 
Mr. Geo. Headlam o/Ncwcaftlc,^#rfr/;tf«r. 
John Herring £'gi 
Gorges Hcly Efr-, 
J«hn Hetherington Efq; 
Mr, James Hcnchcll. 

_: Henchman, LL. D. 

John fames Heidegger Efq\ 

Stephen Heme tfa:, 

John Hcdworth of Chcfter-deanry, Efq\ 

Mr. Richard Hctt Bookfeller. 

Mr. Thomas Heach of New Inn. 

Henry Herring Efq; 

Mr. J.mes Htnfhaw. 

Hugh Henry Efq; 

Major General Hill. 

9'he Rev. Mr. Rowland Hill. 

Samuel Hickman Efq; 

fbe Rev. Mr. Hinckcfman. 

Mr. J hn Hieron of Little Eaton. 

Mr. John Hildyard Bookfeller. 

ftke Rev. Mr. Hiley of Reading. 

Mr. William Hlrd of Rawdcn. 

* ^he Rev.Dr. Holte, /ircb-Deaco/t 0/ Salop. 

Hugh Howard Efq^ 

Dr. Samuel Horfman. 

Mrs. Honcywood of Canterbury. 

Edward Hooker of Winchcftcr, Efq; 

Charles How of Grectworth, Efq; 

Ifaac Holroyd Efq; 

John Howe of the Middle Temple, Efq; 

Mr. John Hollifter. 

Mifs Elizabeth Hooker «f Greenwich. 

John Hopkins of Lincoln^s Inn, Efq; 

John Howe of Hanflopc, Efq; ^ 

Mr. Philip HoUingworth junior. 

Mr. John Hodges Bookfeller. 

Henry Hoar Efq; 

Mr. Hooper of St. Giles. 

^he Rev. Dr. Holland of Merton CoSege. 

Richard Holford of Lincoln^j Inn, Efq; 

Mr. John Hog of Prcfton-pans, Merchant. 

3fr.W"\Hogg jun. ofEdinbargh,Merchant. 

Thomas Hodges of Ruflel-ftrcct, Efq; 

Dr. Holcorabc. 

Mr. George Holliday. 

The Rev. Dr. Hooper, Two Books. 

Robert Holford Sfp 

Robert Hoblyn E^; 

Jacob Houblyn E/q; 

Peter Hookc, M.D. 

Mrs. Honcywood of Eluiftcd. 

The Rev. Mr. Hopkins. 

John Hows Efq; 

Mr. Harrington Horfmanden. 

Mr. John Holmes of Southgatc. 

Richard HoUings of Lincoln'^ Inn, Efj; 

The Rev. Mr. Hornby of Whitington. 

Mr. John HoHis. 

• Sir James Howe Bar. 

• Mejfieurs Houflayc and Viennc of Lif- 
bon. Merchants, 

• Robert Honeywoed Efq; 

Tht Rev. Mr. Hughes, ChanceUer of Ban- 
The Rev. Df. Husbands o/Caius CeUti*, 
William Hucks Efq; 
Robert Hucks Efq; 
Henry Hudfon 0/ Whitlow, Efq; 
Thomas Hunt Efq; 
Thomas Hunt junior^ Efq; 
^e Rev. Matthew Hutton, D.D. 
The Rev. Nathaniel Humfrey, LL. D. 
Edward Hulfe, MD. 
W..Iccr Hungcrford of Calne, Efq; 
Mr Edward Hunter of Maidftone. 
Governottr Hunter, 
St^e Rev. Obadiah Hughes, D. D. 
Mr. N icholas Humfrey of Halftead. 
Mr. ]4'cph Hurlock. 
The Rev. Mr. Bartholomew Hughes. 
Mr. James Hind of Glafcow, Merchant. 
Mr. oamuel Hyde. 
The Rev. Mr. Nathaniel Harding. 
John Haw kin Efq; 
Charles Hornby of Grty's Inn, Efij; 
Mr. Samuel Hardmg Bookfeller. 
Charles Hyet of Gloccltcr, Efq; 
Mr. Hay of Mordington. 
Richard Hoare Efq; 
Henry Hoarc Efq; 
John Hoggard Efq; 
Thomas HoUis Efq; 


f~jnHE Right Hon. the Earl $f la- 

M chinquin. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Vifcount Irwin. 

* 7he Right Hon. Sir Jofeph Jekyll, Majier 
efthe Rolls. 

^he Hon. and Rev. Mr. Ingram. 

* ^be Hon. James Johnfton Efq; 
The Hon. William Jcffop Efq; 
The Hon. Henry Inghram Efq; 
The Hon. the Lady Jekyll. 

* Charles Jarvis Efq; Principal Painter 
to His Majefty. 

* Richard Jackfon Efq; 
Richard Jackfon Gent. 
Mr. Jofcph Jackfon. 

Edward Jackfon <?///'< Middle Templc,5/j^; 
fhi Rev. Mr. Jackfon. 


Subscribers Names. 

William jamej Efq; 

Henry J.icomb Efqi 

Mr. Scfphcn Jackfon Merchant. 

Mr. Piiilip James. 

Samuel Jacomb of Yarmouth, Efq; 

Samuel ibbocfon Efq; 

Joho Idle of Lincoln'^ Inn, Efq; 

Tliomas Jciincr of the Inner Temple, Efq; 

Barthol. \cfferyofthe Middle Templc,iiyi^; 

Thomas Jcrvoicc of Harriard, E/q; 

John Jervis 0/ Darlafton, Efq; 

Swinlcn jervis of Mcaford, Efq; 

Mrs. Jennings. 

John Jeffreys of Lincoln'^ Inn Fields, Efq; 

Edward Jeffreys Efq; 

John Jermy of ths Inner Temple, Efq; 

Nicholas Jeffries Efq; 

Jeremiah Immyns Gent. 

Arthur Ingram Efq; 

Meffieurs Innys ani Manby of London, 

Michael Impcy Efq; 
His Excellency Gabriel Johnfon Efq; 

* James Joy I fq; 
John jolllffe Efq; 
R')gtr Jones Efq; 

S'te Rev. Walter Jones, D.D. mJ Chaplain 

to His Majefly. 
Mr. Zcchariah Jones, 
Mr. Theodore janfen. 
Mr. Henry Johnfon. 
Thomas [ones Gent. 
Mr. Jobfon Merchant. 
Mr. Chriftnpher Joepkin Merchant. 
Mr. lohn Iftc'd Bonkfeller. 
Jer. Ives Efq, Mayor $f Norwich. 
Mrs. Sarah Jenncr. 
Beneditt Ithcl Efq; 


* T 'TIS Grace the Duke of Kent. 

iTl The Right Hon. John Earl of 

* ^he Right Hon. the Lord King, 2 Books. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Mark Kerr. 
The Hon. the Lady KnatchbuU, 2 Books. 
Sir William Kcr of Greenhcad, Bar. 
John Kay Efq; 

* Thomas Kcmpthorne Efq; Commiffiofter 
of Hts Majefty's Navy at Chatham. 

Dr. Kerrich 0/ Cambridge. 

Anthony Keck Efq; 

The Rev. Mr. Samuel Kcnich M. A. 

Abel Kctclbcy of the Middle Temple, £/^; 

Mr. James Kennedy tf Kclfo, Merchant. 
Mr. George Kennedy of Romana. 
James Kendall Efq; 
John Kendall Efq; 

Mr. Lawrence Kelly 0/ London, Merchant. 
William King Efq\ LL. D. 

Mr. Timothy Kiplln of Ackworth, 

Edward Kinfcy Atkins Efq; 

Hezekiah King Efq; 

Mr. Matthias King. 

3lje Rev. Dr. Knight, Chaplai» to Mis 

Jerome Knap of Habcrdalhers Hall, Gent. 
John Knowler Efq; 
Meffieurs James, John ani Paul KnaptoD, 

William Kynafton Efq; 
The Rev. Mr. Kinckes, Rtaor tf/BUnchJll. 
Major James Kennedy. 


• npH£ Right Hon. the Marquifs of 

JL Lothian. 

• TbeRigit Hon. the Earl of Leiceftcr. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Loudoun. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Vifcou»t Lyming- 

Tie Right Rev. the LordBifhop of London, 

STtt'o Books. 
^jeRigktRev. the Lord Bijhop o/Litchficld. 
Tie Hon. Mr. Jufttce Lee. 
^'« Hon. Hcucage Lcggc Efq; 
^he Hon. Mrs. Lumley. 
Sir William Lemmon Bar. 
Sir Berkeley Lucy Bar. 
Sir Thomas Lowther Kt. 
Sir Edward Lawrence Kt. 
Sir Thomas Littleton Kt. 

• Matthew Lamb of Lincoln*! Inn, Efq; 
John Lang cf the Middle Temple, Efq; 
William Lamblon o/Lincoln*i Inn, Efq; 
The Rev. Dr. Lang with. 

Penifton Lamb Efq; 

TbeRev.Mr.john Latham, Plcar 0/" Shrews; 

John Lacy of the Middle Temple Efqi 
E. Latham, M. D. of Findem. 
Thomas Langford of Nottingham, Gent. 
Mrs. Lacy. 

Mr. Andrew Lavington. 
Mr. John Launder of the Middle TempU. 
Mr. James Lancafliire. 
Richard Langley Efq; 
Daniel Lambert Efq; 
The Rev. Mr. John Lavington. 
The Rev. Dr. Lee. 
Mrs. Anne Leighton ef Pall-Mali. 
Mr. Thomas Lee. 

Mr. Onefiphorus Leigh o/Tootinj. 
Mr. Lewis. 
Mr. Thomas Lee, 
Percivall Lewis of Putney, Efy; 
Charles Legh Efq; 
Thomas Lewis Efa; 
Edward Lewis Efj; 
Mr. Richsird Lechmcrc of Salter* Hall. 
Thomas Le« of Chefter, Eff; 


A List of the 

Captain William Leman- 

Mr. Leonard. 

Mr. George Lewis. 

Chriftopher Lethuillier Efq\ 

James Lever Efq\ 

Edward Leeds of the Inner Temple, Efq-, 

Samuel Legg Samber, M. D. of Sarum. 

Smart Lethieuillicr Efq; 

The Rev. Mr. Richard Levctt. 

Mr. George Lee. 

Francis Leymoure Efq; 

The Rev. Mr. John Lewis. 

Mr. Simon Lc Blanc. 

The Rev. Mr. James Ligertwood, M. A. 

Thomas Lifter of Bawcry, Efqi 

George Lillington Efq; 

Mr. John Lifter. 

Captain John Lightfoot. 

^he Rev. Mr. Charles Lidgould. 

Mr. William Limbcry. 

Mr. Samuel Lillington. 

Richard Lloyd of the Middle Temple, ^/^j 

n'he Rev. Mr. John Lloyd. 

Mr. Edward Lloyd. 

David Lloyd Efq; 

James Lloyd of Lanceing, Efq; 

Philip Lloyd Efq; 

Mr. Francis Loggin. 

John Lockhart of Lee, Efq; 

Mr. John Lothian, Divinity Prefeffor in 

Mr. David Lothian of Glafcow. 
George Lockart of Carnwath, Efef, 
William Lock Efq\ ^-wo Books. 
Mrs. Mary Love. 
Ifrael Long of Dunfton, Efq; 
Mr. John Lock ley. 
Mr. Jofliua Locke. 

Edward Louifa Man o/Lincoln'j Inn, Efq\ 
Mr. Jofeph Lord, BookfsUer in Wakefield. 
John Locke of the Inner Temple, Efq--, 
Mr. George Lodge Bookfeller. 
Grey Longucvilie Efq\ 
Mr. Benjamin Louguet. 
Henry Luffan Efq\ 

Mr. John Luke of Glafcow, Merchant. 
Franklyn Lulhington Gent. 
Thomas Luck Efq\ 
Thomas Lunt of Macclesfield, Gent. 
Mrs. Heftcr Lumbrofo of Aliens-Court, 
Colonel Lyddell. 

George Lynch, M. D. of Canterbury. 
Dr. John Lynch, Prebend of Canterbury. 
Lionel Lyde of Briftol, Efq:, 

* Mr. Deputy L'Quefnc. 
Mr. Hewling Lafon. 

S'he Rev. Mr. Samuel Liflc. 
Mr. Henry Lintot Bookfeller. 

* Mrs. Sufannah I^owe. 

Mr. Thomas Lediard of Weftminfter, 

John Locker Efq\ 

Thomas Lane of the Inner Temple, Efa 

Henry Lawton Efq; 
John Lawton Efq; 


HIS Grace the Duke of Manchefter. 
* Her Grace the Dutches Dowager 
of Marlborough. 

* His Grace the Duke of Marlborough, 
^■we Books. 

* His Grace the Duke of Montrofe. 

* Her Grace the Dutchefs of Manchefter. 

* The Right Hon. George Earl of Mac- 

* ^he Right Hon. the Earl of MtLtchmont. 
fhe Right Hon. the Lord Vifcount Middle- 

^he Hon. the Lady Murray. 

* ^he Hon. Edward Montague Efq; 
3^he Hon. Thomas Maynard Afq; 

3'he Hon. Lewis Morris, Chief Juftice in 

New York. 
^e Hon. Colonel Lewis Mordaunt. 

* Sir William Morrice Bar. 
Sir Francis Molineaux Bar. 
Sir John Molefworth Bar. 
Sir John Maxwell of Pollock. 

* James Macrae Efq; Governour of Fort 
St. George. 

* Roger Mainwaring Efq; 
Miles Man Efq; 

John Mafon of the Middle Temple, Efqi. 
Thomas May of Godmerftiam, Efq; 
Dr. Maurice, Dean of Bangor. 
Manchefter Library. 
William Manfcll Efq; 

* Mrs. Maynard. 
Peter Mafcres Efq; 

Mr. Thomas Matthew of the Inner Temple. 
Mr. Richard Mancklin, Bookfeller in York. 
Mr. John Mackncy of Salisbury. 
Mr. Andrew Martin, Bookfeller in Edin- 
burgh, Eight Books, 
^he Rev. Mr. Maxwell. 
Mr. Charles Mafon. 

Anthony Marlay o///&eMiddleTemple,E/^; 
Mr. Samuel Mayne. 
Colonel John Martin. 
John Marlh of the Middle Temple, Efq; 
|ohn Mafon Gent, 
Robert Macky Efq; 

Mr. Obadiah Marryett, Attorney at La'X. ' 
Mr. Robert Marlh of London, Merchant. 
Dr. Ifaac Maddox. 

Edmund Malonc of the MiddleTemple,Ey^; 
Mr. James Mallortie. 
Thomas Martin of Clapham, Efq; 
John Mann of Tooting, Efq; 
Mr. William Mann of Clapham, 
Robert Marfham Efq; 
Nicholas Mann Efq; 
Magdalen College Library. 


Subscribers Names. 

Edward Mann Efq; 
Herbert Mackworth Efq; 
Richard Marriott Efq., of the Exchequer- 
Office, Lincoln'j Inn. 
Henry Maifter of Hull, Efq; 
Dr. Manwariiig of Manclieftcr. 
Benjamin Marten, M.D. 
Gelaiius Mackmahon Efq-y 
Thomas Maftcrs Efq^ 
Charles Marflial Eff-, 

Macdowal E/q; 

Mr. Jof. Marftron. 

SThe Rev. Air. William May. 

Captain Robert Man. 

The Rev. Mr. Markwick. 

Mr. Bryan Mackreth. 

Robert Mann EJq\ 

Miles Mann Efq\ 

Mr. Alexander M^cauU of Hadinton. 

Samuel 'M.'-. c\d\in, Portioner 0/ Dalkeith. 

* Richard Meade, M. D. F.R.S. 

Mr. William Mein, Beokfeller in Dumfreis. 

Samuel Mead Efq; 

Mr. Robert Meefc of New Inn. 

William Melmoth o^Lincoln'i Inn, £/jj 

Francis Meyfcy Efq-., 

Thomas Medlicot Efq:, 

Captain Thomas Meads. 

George Medcalfe o///&e Inner Temple, Efq; 

Merton College Library. 

John Merrill Efq-., 

Mr. Meadowcourt. 

John Meller of Erthigg, Efq\ 

James Millcken jun. of Milleken, Efq\ 

Jonathan Micklethwait of Croydon, Efq-^ 

Chriftopher Milles of Nackington, Efq'-, 

Patrick Mitchell of the Middle Temple, 


Mr. John Milnes, Merchant in Wakefield. 
Mr. Daniel Midwinter, Bookfetter. 
John Milner of the Middle Temple, Efq\ 
George Milborne Efq\ 
John Milner Efq; 
Mr. George Middleton. 
The Rev. Mr. Robert Miliar, o/Paifley. 
The Rev. Mr. John Millar, of Old Kil- 

John Mitchell, M.D. 
'Ihe Rev. Mr. Millar, Viicar of Hillindon. 
William Mills of Leeke, Gent. 

* Jofeph Moyle Efq; Clerk of the Signet. 
Mr. Samuel Morrice. 

Mr. Samuel Mountfort, BookfsUer in 

^'he Rev. Mr. Henry Moor. 
Robert Moreton Efq; 
Samuel Morris Gale of "New Inn, Gent. 
Mr. John Morfe. 
Mr. James Mowld. 
John Moody of Havant, Gent. 

* William Morehcad E/q; 
Morgan Morfe of London, Gent. 

Vol. II, 



Mrs. Catherine Morrice. 

7'he Rev. Mr. Morgan, Prebend of Win- 

James Montagu of Laikham, Efq; 
Charles Molineaux of Feverlhall, Efq; 
Henry Montagu of Lincoln'^ Inn, Efq; 
William Moreton of the MiddlcTemplc,£/^, 
Spark Molefworth Efq; 
Sir Ofwald Moflcy. 
Mr. Charles Mofely, Fellow of Morton 

College, Oxford. 
Charles Mountaguc Ffq; 
7'he Rev. Mr. Lewis Monoii.x. 
Humphry Monoux £/f*, 
George Mon(bn Efq; 
Charles Monfon Efq^ 
Mr. Robert Morris of Furnival'j Inn. 
Jonas Morris of Cork, Efq; 
* Mr. Peter Muileman. 
Jofeph Mufgrave Efq; 
T'he Rev. Mr. Hugh Munro, Minifter at 

Jofeph Murray of New York, £/^-, 
1'he Rev. Mr. Gill. Michell, M. A. 
Mr. Collet Mawhood. 
Mr. Millican, Apothecary. 
Mr. Benjamin Motte, Bookfetter, 
The Rev. Mr. Henry Miles. 
Mr. Matthews. 


HIS Grace the Duke of Norfolk. 
^he Right Hon. the Qountefs D&X(U 

^«r of Northampton. A r<h '• • ' 
T'he Right Rev. the Lord Bi_^p'of ^ormch. 
The Hon. Sir Michael Newton, Knight of 

the Bath. 
The Right Hon. the Lady Francis Naflau. 
y^ei/o/?. Henry Naflau Efq; 
Robert Nafh of Norwich, Efq; 
Richard Nanfan of Worcefter, Efq; 
Dr. Nailer, Dean of Winchefter. 
Wyndhanx Napier of the Middle Temple, ' 

Richard Nafti Efq-., 
T'he Rev. Mr. William Newton. 
Noah Neale Efq; 
Edward Newton Efq; 
T'he Rev. Mr. Neden, Re^or o/Rougham. 
The Rev. John Newey, D. D. 
Thomas Newnham Efq; . , 

Mr. Henry Newcome, Scboolmafier <?Aw 

The Fev. Mr. Richard Newcome. 
Robert Nelfon Efq; -r T 

Mr. Albert Nesbitt. |-l 

Mr. William Newnham. ■*" ^ 

Mr. John Newman. 
Mr. Gabriel Neve, Attorney at Lay}. 
Alexander Nesbit of the Middle Temple, 

d Dr. 

A List of the 

Dr. John Newington. 

^he Rev. Mr. Daniel Neal, M. A. 

3l'e Kiv. Mr. Newton of Wingham. 

'The Rev. Mr. John Needham of Weltbourne. 

The Rev. Dr. Nicolls, Vicar o/Crippkgate. 

Mr. Jofiah Nicholfon of Clapham. 

Mr. George Nirgoe. 

Mr. George Nichols. 

Mr. William Nicholas. 

Francis Nichols of halt's Green, Efq\ 

Colonel Norton. 

William Northey Ef^-., 

Mr. John Noon, BookfeUer. 

William Norclifte of the Inner Temple, E/^; 

John Norris Efcj\ 

Fettiplace Nott of the MiddleTemple, £/^; 

Charles Nourfe £/^i 

John Norris £/^; 

Edward Northey Efef, 

Mr. Jofcph Noy. 

Henry Norris Efq; 

Mr. Henry Norris of London, Merchant. 

Mr. James N 'Smith. 

Mr. Alderman Nuthall. 


*nrHE Kight Hon. the Earl o/Or- 

X rery. 
* The Kight Hon. the Earl of Oxford, 

Three Books, 
"fhe Right Hon. the Earl of Orkney. 
The Kight Kev. the Lord Bifloup of Offory. 
The Kight Hon. Arthur Onflow, Efq; 

Speaker of the Houfe ofComtHWS, 
Sir Danvers Osburne Bar. \ .v^il \: 
Sir Adolphus Oughton Bar. 
William Oaker Gent. 
Lucy Oliver Ef(f; 
Crew Offley Ef<^; 
The Rev. Mr. Orem of New York. 
William Orlcbar Efq; 
Robert Ord Efq; 
William Osbaldefton Efj; 
Mr. Thomas Osborne, BookfeUer. 
Meffteurs Osborn andhonpaaajBookftUers. 
Mr. John Ofwald, BookfeUer. 
yWf.Henry Overton, o/Charterhoufe-fquare. 
Jabez Owin of Warrington, Efq; 
Thomas Owen c/Lincoln'j Inn, Efq; 
Mr. Edmund Oyden, Merchant. 
Mr. Henry Owen. 
Mrs. Maria Onflow. 

HIS Grace the Duke of Portland. 
ne kight Hon. the Lord Vifcount 
The Kight Hon. the Lord Percival. 
The Kight Hon. the Lord Polwarth. 
The Kight Hon. the Lord Harry Pawlet. 
The Kight Hon. the Lord Naflau Pawlct. 

* The Right Hon. the Qountefs 0/ Pembroke, 
The Kight Hon. the Lady William Pawlet. 
The Right Hon. the Lady Polwarth. 

The Hon. Willam Pawlet Efq; 

The Hon. Air. Juftice Page. 

The Hon. Mr. Jujiice Probyn. 

The Kight Kev. the Presbytery o/Hadlnton. 

Sir John Prideaux Bar. 

* Thomas Parker of the Inner Temple, Efq-, 
John Palmer of the Middle Temple, Efq; 
David Papillon o/?/?'^ Inner Temple, Efq; 
William Page of Lincoln'^ Inn, Gent. 
Henry Partridge Efq; 

Mr. John Paltock, Banker. 

Abraham Payne of St. Chriftophcr'j, Efq; 

John Parflow Efq; 

Charles Payne of Otterden, Efq; 

The Kev. Mr. Parker. 

The Kev. Mr. Dennis Payne, o/Hanbury. 

Mr. John Payne. 

Mr. John Paton, BookfeUer in Edinburgh, 

Thirteen Books. 
Mr. John Parkhill, Agent to the Excife in 

Robert Paul Efq; 

Mr. Thomas Payne o/London, BookfeUer.^ 
Nathaniel Payler Efq; 
Mr. John Page of Oporto, Merchant. 
Mr. William Parker of London, BookfeUer. 
Mr. William Pawfon of Oporto, Merchant. 
Mr. Thomas Parilh. 
John Page Efq; 

Mrs. Page, BookfeUer in Chcfter. 
Mr. Thomas Payne. 

* Mifs Perris's in New Bond-ftreet, Tipo 

Jeremiah Pemberton Efq; 

The Kev. Zachary Pearce, D. D. 

William Pecre Williams jun. Efq; 

Newlham Peers Efq; 

Captain John Petit. 

Mr. John Peters of Spittle Square. 

James Pennyman of Ormsby Efq; 

Air. John Ptrryman. 

Pembroke-Hall Lii>rary in Cambridge. 

Chefter Pern 0/ Cambridge, Efq; 

John Penny Efq; 

John Penrofe o/f^e Middle Temple, Efq; 

jofliua Penbroke of Lincoln'j Inn, Efq; 

Ralph Petley E/q; 

Air. John Pemberton, BookfeUer. 

J olhua. Pembroke £/^; 
lutton Perkins Efq; 
Edward Pennant of the MiddkT^m^k,Efqi 
Mr. Jofeph Peacock of Huntingdon. 
Air. William Petrie. 
Mr. James Peirce. 
"Micajah Perry Efq; 
The Rev. Mr. Nicholas Pearfon. 
The Kev. Ralph Perkins, D. D. 
Jeremy Pemberton Efj; 

* John Phillipfon Efq; 

Subscribers Na ^e s. 

Mr. Thomas Phillips. 

Mr. Gravcll Philips. 

Erafmus Philipps Efq; 

Thomas Phillips of the Middle Temple, 

Efq; , 

Mr. John Pickering. 
Robert Pigot Efq-, 
Favcl Pike Efq; 

Pinfold, LL. D. 

Mr. John Pigou 0/ Hamerfmith, Two 5oo)fej. 
Mr. Thomas Pilkington, Bookfsller in 


* Woolcomb Pollexfcn of the Middle 
Temple, Efq; 

* John Pollexfcn of Wcmburg, Efq; 
Mr. John Powel of Salisbury. 
Henry Plumptrc, M.D. 

Fitz- William Plumptre oftbe Middle Tem- 
ple, Efqi 

John Plumptre of Nottingham, Efq; 

Mr. John Plant. 

William Plumer Efq\ 

Richard Plumer Efq; 

■ Plumpton Efq; 

Mr. William Plomer. 

Charlas Polhill Efq; one of His Majejiy*s 
CommiflioHers of Excift. 

Mr. John Poyner of Iflington. 

Mr. Robert Pountney of Kcnfington. 

James Porteen Efq; 

John Pollen of Lincoln'^ Inn, Efq; 

Mr. Jofeph Potc of Eaton, Bookfelkr. 

Thomas Porter Efq; 

Henry Powel Efq; 

William Povvlett Efq; 

William Poyntz Efq; 

Mr. Deputy Pometoy. 

a'he Rev. Dr. Powell, Dean of St. Afaph. 

David PolhiU Efq; 

Mr. Henry Alexander Primrofe. 

Samuel Prime of the Middle Temple, Efq-, 

Edmund Prideaux of Padllow, Efq; 

Mr. Nathaniel Primatt, Cbyniift. 

^he Rev. Dr. Daniel Primrofe. 

Mr. Thomas Prince of Lyntoo. 

Jenkin Price of Brecknock £/^i 

Mr. Godfrey Puis. 

Captain George Purvis. 

Humphry Pudner of Canterbury, Efq\ 

William Pulteney Efq-^ 

Mrs. PurccU. 

Mrs. Pultncy. 

Reginald Pynder Efq\ 

Hcnrv Pye Efq\ 

A/rj. Elizabeth Phill. 

Mr. Parridge of Hampftead. 

The Rev. Mr. Perry, M. A. 


* T "JJ S Grace the Duke o/Queensbury. 


Queen'j Col/e^e Library in Cam- 


HER Qract the Dutcbefs Dcrjcartr of 

* Ibe Right Hon. the Earl of Rothes. 

* The Right Hon. the Lord Ranclagh. 
The Rtght Hon. the Lord Chief Baron Rey- 

The Right Hon. the Lord Raymond, Tao 

^e Hon. Thomas Reeves f-fq\ one of the 

Jujiices of the Common Pleas. 
Sir John Rufliout Bart. 
Sir John Rodes Bart. 
Sir Leonard Rcrcsby Bart. 
STie Lady Rous, 
The Rev. Mr. Rawlins, Chaplain t9 the 

Hon. Society of Lincoln'j Inn, 
Mr. Francis Rainsford. 
Mr. Richard Rann of Bermingham. 
'The Rev. Mr. Ray, 
John Raymond Efq\ 
S'he Rev. Mr. Herbert Randolph. 
^he Rev. Mr. William Raitrick, ) 

PcUiint Reeves Efq\ c 

*the Rev. Mr. Reeves Junior of Ipfwich. 
Pr. Rennet, 
Thomas Reeve, M. D. 
William Revely £/^j 
Mr. Thomas Reading. 
John Reynolds Efq:, 

* Robert RaikesFulthorpe, Ef^j 
William Richardfon of the Middle Tem- 
ple, Efq; 

Paul Rifely of Chitwood, Efq\ 

George Riggs of the Middle Temple, Efq'y 

William Richardfon of Smalley, £/^j 

Mr. Charles Rivington, Bookfclier. 

Jonathan Richardfon Efq; 

William Rider of Bufton, Efq\ 

Mr. Rider, Surgeon at Greenwich, 

Major Roberts of Lord Cobham'j Horfc. 

John Roberts of Appley £/"f, 

William Rous Efq\ 

Mr. John Rogers, Attorney at Law. 

^he Rev. Mr. Benjamin Robertfhaw, 

Mr. Thomas Rogers. 

Matthew Robinfon cf Mount Morris, £/f5 

Samuel Rowc Efq-., 

Mr. Jeremiah Roe, BookfeUer in Derby. 

John Roberts Efq\ 

Mr. Robert Robinfon. 

Mr. Samuel Robertfofi c/Kel fo, Merchant. 

Chriflopher Rhodes Eftr, Comptroter of 

Exctfe tn Scotland, 'T'-joo Books. 
John Rooper Efq\ 

William Rogers */ Dowdefwell, Efq\ 
Robert Robinfon Efq\ 
Nicholas Rotlhouk Efq\ 
The Rev. Mr. Robcrtfon. 
The Rev. Mr, Robertfliaw. 


A 'List of th 

Mr. James Round. 

Henry Robinfon Ef<j\ Comviijfwner of Ex- 
cife at Edinburgh. 

^e Rev. Mr. John Roberts. 

William Roope of Fuge Ef^\ 

Chriftopher Rogers of Cork f/^; 

9'be Library of the Cathedral of Kod^^ix. 

^be Rev. Mr. Roffyniack. 

Mr. Michael Ruflel. 

Mr. John Rufli in Scotland-yard. 

Samuel Ruflel of Newington-Grcen, Efq-., 

S'be Rev, Mr. John Rufh of Bacoulthorp. 

Chriilopher Rundlc 0/ Norton Folgate, Sal- 

'The Rev. Dr. Rundle. 

Mr. Thomas Ryles. 

Dudley Ryder EJq:, His Majejiy's Solicitor 

Rich". Ryder of the Clofe 0/ Litchfield, Efq:, 
.The Rev. Dr. Regis. 

Mr. Ranew Robinfon, Bookfeller. 


HIS Grace the Duke of Somerret. 
His Grace the Duke of St. Albans. 

* Her Grace the Dutchefs of St. Albans. 

* Tlje Right Hon. James Earl of Salisbury. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Strafford. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Shelburn. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Stair. 

Ti'i Right Hon. James Earl of Strathmorc, 
The Right Rev. the Lord Bijaop of Sarum, 

Two Books. 
The Right Rev. the Lord Bifbop of St. 

Afaph. I 

The Right Hon. the Countefs of Suffolk. 
The Right Hon. the Lady Stanhope. 

* The Hon. John Spencer Efq:, 
The Hon. the Lady Savile. 

The Right Rev. Mr. John Simpfon, Divini- 
ty Profeffor in Glafcow. 

The Hon. Sir Luke Schaub. 

Sir Edward Stanley Bar. 

The Hon. Sir William Stanhope. 

Sir Thomas Style Bar. 

Sir William Strickland Bar. 

Sir Robert Smith Bar. 

Sir Thomas Sebright Bar. 

Sir Robert Salsbury Cotton Bar. 

Sir John Stanley Bar. firft Commifftoner 
of His Majefiy's Cuftoms. 

Sir George Stuart of Gairntilly, Bar. 

Sir Robert Sinclair Bar. 

Sir Hans Sloan. 

Sir John Stathsm. 

Sir John Shadwell. 

Madam Margaretta Sabine. 

George Sayer Efcj% 

Thomas Sadler of the Exchequer, Efy., 

lohn Sare of the Middle Temple, Ef^; 

James Sampfon of the Inner Temple, Efq\ 


Richard Salwey o//,?'f Moor, Efqt, 

Mr. Savil of Threadueedle Street. 

Daniel Sadler Efq-, 

Ed. Sainthill Efq; 

Samuel Sandys of Omberfly Court, Efq; 

George Sawbridge Little Efq; 

Mr. Richard Samborne of Sarum, Mer- 

Mr. Mark Sandilands c/ Edinburgh, Mer- 

Jeromy Sambrookc Ef<i\ 

Thcophilus Sal way Efq\ 

George Savil Ef<]\ 

Mrs. Sabine. 

Henry Sayer Eff., 

Major Anthony Sauin. 

The Rev. Dr. Savage. 

Mr. John Savage. 

The Rev. Dr. Salter of Norwich. 

* John Sawbridge Eff, 

* Peter Signoret £/^j 
Francis Scott Eff, 
Mr. John Scrimfliirc. 
Henry Selwin £/^; 
Mrs. Selwin. ... _ / 
Mr. Sedgwich. ' 
John Stephens f/f ; 

Mr. Richard Sherbrooke of St. Sepulchres. 

Anthony Shepherd Efej; 

Thomas Sharer of Squthampton, Eftf, 

William Sharpe Eftj; one of his Majejiy's 
Clerks of the Council. 

Mr. Uriah Shudall. 

John Shelling E/^^ 

The Rev. Dr. Sharp of Durham. 

Mr. James Shrapnell of Bafinghall Street. 

Mr. John Shuckburgh, Bookfeller. ,, 

ilichard Shuttleworth E/^i 

Mr. Richard Shirriff o/Prefton-pans, Mer- 

Mr. Shuttleworth. 

Mr. Jeremiah Shadwell. 

Mr. Shepherd. 

Mrs. Sherlock. 

* Mr. Benjamin Shepherd. 
Mr. Thomas Sikes, Merchant. 
Mr. Simkins. 

Mr. Nathaniel Sidgwicke. 
The Rev. Mr. Jofeph Simmons. 
Edward Simpfon Efq; 
William Sloane Efq; 
Charles Sloane, Carpenter at Greenwich. 
William Sloper jun. Efej; 
The Rev. Mr. Thomas Sleigh. 
Mr. John Smart. 
Charles Smith Efq; 
Mr. Thomas Smith, j4pothecary. 
John Smale of Wheatenhurll, Efq; 
Mr. William Smith, Merchant. 
Air. Thomas Smith of Sarum. 
Mr. Benjamin Smithurft, Bookfeller. 7 
Mr. William Smith, Bookfeller in Dublin. 


Subscribers N a m e s. 

fofeph Smith Efq; 

The Kev. Mr. Robert Smith. 

William Smith of New York, £/"^; 

Ateffieurs Smith and Bruce, Bookftliers in 

5 Robert Snell £/f j Bencher of tbt Inner' 

Mr. Thomas Snow, Banker. 
William SncUing Efq; 
James Sothcby of Hatton Garden, Efq'y 
Edward Southwell Ef<j\ 
William Somcrville Efof:, 
Thomas South Efq:, 

3'he Rev. Mr. Sprint, of Milbornfr-port. 
Mr. Benjamin Sprint. 
John Spelman of the Inner Temple, Efq:, 
George Spooner Efq-, 
Richard Spearman Eftj'^ 
fbe Rev. Mr. Sprint. 
Nathaniel Springal £/^-, 
Thomas Stanyford Efq:, 
John Strange o//i&ff Middle Temple, Efq\ 
Mir. Charles Statham of London, ^ieTchmt. 
Mr. Peter Storcr, of the Inner Temple. 
^e Rev. Mr. John Sturges, o/Winchcftcr. 
William Strahan, LL. D. 
Mr. Stuart, of Ludlow. 
Charles Stanhope of Park-place, Efq:, 
BoSior Stephens. 
Thomas Skinner Efq:, 
Oliver St. John of Lincoln'^ Inn, Efq\ 
Matthew Skinner Efq:, Serjeant at Lav:. 
Ralph Skerret, D. D. Re6ior of St. Peter 

the Poor. ', 
James Stewart Efq; 

Thomas Stephens 0/ if ;&f Liner Temple, Efq:, 
Mr. Paf. Stevens. 

St. Peter's College Library in Cambridge. 
Mr. Robert Scretfield of Delaware. 
Mr. Edward Strong. 
Mr. John Stagg, Bookfeller. 
Francis Stonehoufe Efq:, 
^he Rev. Dr. Stillingfleet, Dean of Wor- 

fthe Rev. Mr. Edward Stillingfleet. 
Mrs. Anne Stillingfleet. 
Mr. John Stark of Glafcow, Merchant. 
Mr. John Steedman, Surgeon in Kinrofs. 
Mr. Andrew Stalker, Bookfeller in Glaf- 
cow, Eight Books. 
Mr. William Steele. 

Mr. John Stevens, Fellow o/Merton College. 
7'be Rev. Mr. Fairfax Stillingfleet. 
Alexander Strahan Efq'y 
Mr. George Strahan, Bookfeller. . 
Mr. Samfon Stert of Oporto, Merchant. 
Mrs. Anne Strode. 
Mr. William Stratton. 
7ht Rev. Mr. Charles Stewart of Dublin. 
* Benjamin Swctc of Norfolk-ftrect, Efq:, 
William Spiccr Efq; Mafter in Chancery. 
Mr. Thomas Swayne. 

V o I . n. 

Mrs. Sutherton of Norwich. 

The Rev. Mr. John Swinton, M. A. 

'the Rev. Mr. Sumner, 0/ Cambridge. 

Mr. Richard Shi rriffo/Prefton- pans, Mer- 

the Rev. Mr. William Smith. 

John Sladc of Warminftcr, £fq\ 

The Rev. Mr. George Sykcs, Vicar of 

Humphry Sydenham of the Inner Temple, 


The Rev. Mr. John Symmonds o/Ottcrden. 

William Symonds Efq; 

Edward Spcllman Efq'., 

Thomas Shalcrofs Efq; 

the Rev. Mr. Smith of Cuddicot. 

Mr. Skinner, Attorney at Law. 

Robert Scot Efq; 

the Rev. Mr. Swinton, M. A. 

Mr. John Scrimlhire, two Books. 

John Smith of Lee, Efq; 

THE Right Hon. Charles Lord Talbot, 
Lord High Chancellor of Great Bri- 
His Grace the Archhifhop of Tuam. 
the Right Hon. the Mar qui fs o/Twecdale. 
the Right Hon. the Earl of Thanet. 
the Right Hon. the Earl of Thumond. 
the Right Hon. the Earl of Tankerville. 

* the Right Hon. the Lord Vifeount 

the Right Hon. the Lord Vifeount Torring- 

* The Right Hon. the Lord Tyrconnell. 
the Hon. Colonel Townftiend. 

the Hon. Thomas Townftiend, Efj; 
the Hon. Mr. Baron Thompfon. 
the Hon. Brigadier General Tyrcll. 

* Sir Thomas Trollop Bar. 
Sir James Thornhill. 

* Henry Tatham Efq; 
Mr. Giles Taylor. 

William Taylor of the Inner Temple, £/<f; 

Mr. Robert Taylor of Newark. 

the Rev. Mr. Herbert Taylor. 

Samuel Tatem Efq; two Books 

Sigifmond Tafford Efq; 

John Talbot Efq; 

Andrew Taylor of Lynn, Efq\ 

Mr. William Taylor. 

John Temple Efq; 

Mr. William Templeman, of Dorchefter. 

Bartholomew Tate Efq:, 

Jofeph Thompfon Efq; 

Luke Thompfon of Gny's Inn, Efq; 

Humphry Thayer Efq; one of His Majefty's 

Commiffioners of Excife. 
Mr. Peter Thompfon 0/ London, Merchant. 
Porter Thompfon of Trumpington, Fjq; ■ 
e William 

A List of the 

W". Tlnirlboiirn, Bookfeller in CambTiBge. 

^he Rev. Mr. Thorn. 

Mark Thurfton Efq; Accomptant Gennal 

of the Court of Cbmury^ Four Books. 
Robert Thomas £/^-, 
Thomas Thornbary Efq^ 
Robert Thornton f/^; 

* Jofcph Thompfon Efqh 

William Tillard of Spital-fquare, Eff., 

Joas TiWard of the Inner Temple, Efq; 

George Tilfon Efq; 

Chriftoplicr Tilfon Efq; 

Abraham Tilghman of Kent, Efq; 

William Tillard Efq; 

5the Rev. Mr. Tilfon, of Aylcsford. 

* John Townfend Efq; 

Richard Tomfon Efq; one of the Protho- 

notarics of the Common Pleas. 
Mr. John Towers. 

Mr. lames La Toucbe, of Little Chelfea, 
John Topp of the Middle Temple, Efq; 
fthe Rev. Mr. Townftiend, of Norfolk. 
Mr. William Townfon. 
fhe Rev. Mr. William Henry Tomlinfon. 
Mr. Samuel Torriano. 

* Mr. James Townfend of Chcapfide. 
Edmund Trench Efq; 

Samuel Trench Efq; 

John Tracy Efq; 

Arthur Trevor Efq; 

James Trott Efq; 

Trinity College Library in Cambridge. 

Robert Trcfufis of Trefufis, Efq; 

John Tracy of Lincoln'^ Inn, Efq; 

Trinity HaU Library in Cambridge. 

Timothy Tredway Efq; 

Herbert Tryfte Efq; 

Mr. John Travel!. 

George Trenchard of Latchct, Efq; 

Mr. George Trulock. 

Lawrence Trent Efq; 

Mr. Patrick Trehie of London, Merchant. 

Jofeph Tuder of the Inner Temple, Efq; 

ihree Books. 
Cholmly Turner Efq; 
Mrs. Turner. 

John Tufton of Orgreave, Efq; 
Abraham Tucker of the Inner Temple, f/^j 
William Turner tff, 

Samuel Tuffnell Efq; 

George Turville Eff, 

Mr. Richard Tucker. 

John Turner of St. Edmonds-bury, £/^i 

Peter Twyman of Rufhborn, Efq; 

S'he Rev. Mr. David Tweed, of Cork. 

Simon Thuncmans Efq; 

'the Rev, Dr. Tyrwhit. 

Samuel Tyffen JSfq; 

5fhe Rev. Mr. Nicholas Tyndal. 

William Talbot Ef^\ 

Boulter Tomlinfon, v^.D. 

Mr. George Trenthara Talbot. 

Bacon Townfend Efq\ 
Charles William Tonyn Efq-^ 
Mr. John Tilly, Printer. 
Sir John Thompfon. 
St. Quintin Thompfon Efq'j 
John Thompfon £/fi 

*r|-^ H£ Hon. Henry Vane Efy; 

X 3l&e Hon. James Vernon Efqi 
the Lady Vanburgh. 
Henry Vanderach Efq\ 
Mr. Peter Vanderhorft of London, yl/«r- 


* Arthur Vanfitart Efq; 

* Bowater Vernon Efq; 
Captain Philip Vanburgh 

Mr. Gerard Vanneck, three Books. 
Mr. Samuel Vandcrplank. 
Dame Margaret Vandcput. 
Edward Vernon Ef(j\ 
Mr. Matthew Vernon. 
Mrs. Henrietta Vernon. 
Mr. Vicars. 

William Underwood Efq\ 
John Ulher of the Middle Temple, E/f, 
Thomas Ufhwat Efq\ 
Mrs Unett, Bookfeller in Woolverhamp- 


* ^~T^HE Right Hon. the Earl of Wil- 

JL mington, Lord Prefident of the 
the Right Hofi. the Earl of Warwick. 
the Right Hon. the Earl 0/ Warrington. 

* the Right Hon. the Lord Vifcount Wey- 

Tl&e Right Hon. the Lord Wallingford. 
The Right Rev. the Lord Bifloop of Wiu- 
chefter, two Books. 

* the Right Hon. Sir Charles Wager. 

* the Right Hon. the Lady Walpole. 

'the Right Hon. Lady Mary Wortley Moun- 

* the Hon. Henry Worfley Efq; two 

Sir Edward Ward Bar. 
Sir William Wentworth Bar. 
Sir Francis Wichcote Bar. 
Sir William Wyndham Bar. 
Sir Alexander Wedderburn 0/ Blacknefs, 


* Edward War4 ©/ Stoke Doyle, Efq; t-wc 

* Peter Warren Efq; 

* Thomas Walker Efq; 
Lieutenant General Wade. 

John Wale jun. of the Inner Temple, Efqi 
Philip Ward Efq; 


Subscribers Names. 

Tie Kev. Mr. Warburton of Newark. 
Mr. Jonatlwn Warner jun. of Northamp- 
John Wace Efq\ 
John Walden of Shildon, Gent. 
William Waddon Efq-^ 
Robert Waldron Ejq-^ 
Robert Warner of Lincoln'j Inn, Efq^ 
Richard Warner Efq; 
Wadham College Library. 
Philip Henry Warburton of Lincoln'j Inn, 

John Waftel Efq; 

Mrs. Waghornc of Durham, Bookfeller 

7be Kev. Mr. Robert Wallace, Mtnifier 
in Edinburgh. 

George Warrendcr of Bruntsfield, Efq; 

William Waafteld of Salisbury, Efq-, 

Mr. William Waketord. 

Mr. Charles Wade, 

Captain Robert Watts. 

Gilbert Walmdey Efq; 

Lewis Way Efq; 

Mr. Robert Wallfield. 

Mr. Richatd Wake. 

Air. James Waller. 

William Ward, I,L,Z). 

Mr. George Watfon. 

Mr. Thomas Ward, of Staples Inn. 

^he Rev. Mr. Waugh. 

^be ^ev. Dr. Watfon. 

Mr. Edward Wade. 

Mr. Thomas Walker, of Broad-ftrect. 

William Walter of Chatham, Efq; 

Mr. William Ward, Bookfeller i» Not- 

Mrs. Frances Wall, Bookfeller in Briftol. 

Lee Warner Efcj:, 

MeJJietirs Ward and Wickkic6.yBookfeUcrs. 

Thomas Wellern of Dover-ftreet, Efq; 

Thomas Weddell Efq\ 

Edward Wefton Efq-., 

Mr. William Webb. 

Edward Weaver of the Inner Temple, £/gi 

John Weft of the Inner Temple, Eff, 

Thomas Weftern 0/ Great Abington, Efq; 

Spicer Weldon .£y^i 

Peter Wedderbum Eftf, Secretary to the 
Excife in Scotland. 

Mr. James Weft, oj Chcapfide. 

Mr. Titus Weft. 

Henry Wefton Efq\ 

Couway Whithorne of the Middle Temple, 

James White of Porrfmouth, Gent. 

Thomas Whitmore of Apley, Efq\ 

John White of Pottfmouth, Gent. 

Samuel Whitmore of Chaltbrd, Efq; 

John Whetham Efoj, one of His Majejly's 
Commiffioners of Excife. 

George Wheat of the Inner Temple, Efq; 

Paul Whichcote Efq; 

William Wharton Efq; 
Mr. Richard Willock, (f Ford. 
Taylor White of Lincoln'j Inn, Eff, 
Mr. Henry Whitridgc, Bookfeller. 
Mr. Whitchurch. 

^he Kev. Mr. Nathaniel Whitlock. 
Jofcph White Efq; 
Jofcph Whcake Efq; 
John White Efq; 

^be Rev. Mr. WilUam Wheeler, Vicar of 
Leamington. ^ 

* Mrs. Whorwood. 

* Thomas Wild Eftf, 

^hc Rev. Mr. John Willct, Vicar of V^tA- 

Wmchellcr ColUge Library, 
^e Rev. Mr. Peter Wiggct, Re^Ior of 

Robert Wilfon Efq; 
Charles Hanbury Williams, Ef<ft 
Richard Witton of Wakefield, Efc,; 
Richard Willoughby of Weft-Knoylc. Efqi 
^he Rev. Mr. William WUfon. 
Godfrey Willes Efq; 
George WMmor Efq; 
Mr. George Willfon, Surgeon in Edinburgh. 
Mr. Jofon Withs. 
Mr. Ifaac Wild-pharm. 
Mr. James Willder. 
Mr. Samuel Wilfon. 
Samuel Winder Gent. 
Mr. Samuel Willfon o/London, Merchant. 
John Williams Efq; 
Mr. Richard Williamfon, Bookfeller. 
Thomas Wilbrahara, LL.D. 
Mr. Jof. Windham. 
Cornelius Wittenoom Efq; 
Mr. William Wildman. 
Francis Wiat 0/ Quckes, Efq; 
Daniel Wilfon Efq: 
SThe Reix. Mr. Withers. 
Richard Wilkin Gent. v 

John W'igan, M. D. 
Marfti Woolfe Efq; 

Thomas Woodmanfee, jm. o/Portfmouth, 

John Godden Woolfe Efq; 
^he Rev. Mr. Woodfordc. 
William Woolafton Efq; 
^be Rev. Mr. '^/oodwf^,.Vtcar of Linton. 
Mr. J. Wooley, cf Derby. 
Mrs. Lucy Woodcock. 
Thomas Worfupp Efq; 
Thomas Worfley Efq; 
Ifaac Woolafton Efq; 
S'be ^ev. Mr. Robert Woodrow, Mnifler 

of Eaftwood. 
Jofias Wordfworth, jun. Efq; 
Stbe R^v. Mr. Mountague Wood. 
Dr. William Woodford, Reg. Prof Mel 


A List of the, &c. 

Mr. Edward Wooley. 
Mr. Samuel Wood, of Macclesfield. 
Mr. John Wowcr. 
Arthur WoUey Efq; 
Mrs. Elizabeth- Wolnough, 
Mr. John Worftcr. 
Daniel Wrcy Efq; 
William Wright of Leiccfter, Efq; 
John Wright Efq; 

Martin Wright Efq; Serjeant at Law. 
Mr. George Wright, 
^he Rev. Mr. Wright. 
Colonel Adam Williamfon 
Colonel Francis Williamfon. 
William Wynne o/"?/??c Middle Temple,E/"^*, 
Humphry Wyrley of the Inner Temple,J^ijj 
Thomas Wyndham of lately, Efq; 
Francis Wyndham Efq; 
Wadham Wyndham Efq; 
Mr. Wynne; , 
^he Rro. Mr. Evan Wynne, 
^he Rev. Mr. John Wynne, 
* Robert Wyldc Efq; 
Thomas Williams of Gray'j Inn, Efq; 
Captain George Wingfield of Worcefter. 
U'heRev. Mr. George Wightwick, M. A. 
'Minijier at Kingllon upon Thames. 

Mr. John Wilcox, Bo(JifeUer. 

John Wilfon of Lincoln'^ Inn, Efq; 

Henry Wright Efq; 

William Wright Efq; 

Mr. Weft, , 

Mr. William Wrights," 

Thomas Windham Efq; 


HIS Grace the Arcbbijhop of York, 
The Hon. Sir William Yonge, Kniebt 

of the Bath. 
John Yate of the Inner Temple, Efq; '^we 

Thomas Yarborough Efq; 
Blague Yarburgh Efq; 
Edward Young of Durnford Efq; 
Hitch Young Efq; 
John Yramaus Efq; 
William York of the Inner Temple, Efq; 

F, Zincke, 


Names Omitted. 

THE Hon. Colonel George Byng, 
7'he Hon. Robert Byng Efq., 
Sir John Bruce Hope Bar. 
Sir David Bennet of Grubbat, Bar. 
Sir Robert Baylys. 
Jofeph Beachcroft Efq-y 
Peter Burnet Effj 
Mr. Bromfield. 
The Rev. Mr. Bramfton, 
A<fr. William Burford, 

7 he Right Hon. the Lord Carmichael. 

The Right Hon. the Lady Cobham. 

* The Hon. Robert Coke £/^; Vtce-Cham- 

herlain to her Majefty. 
T'he Hon. Edward Carteret £/^; ?oft Maf- 

ter General. 
Sir James Cunningham o/Millcraigs, Bar. 
William Cowper Efq:, 

Alexander Forrefter of the Inner Temple, 

Samuel Gale Efq\ Surveyor of the Cuftoms 

for the Port of London. 
Nathaniel Gould Efq; 
John Gould Efq; 

* Major General Philip Honywood. 
Sir John Heathcote Bar. 

f Brigadier General Peircy Kirke. 

Sir Francis Leicefter Bar. 
Sir John Lee Bar. 

* Sir Charles Peers, 
George Pro&or Efq; 

The Right Rev. the Lord Biflm of Ko- 

Mofcs Raper Efq; 
Matthew Raper £/f ; 


) T z I H '^^\T 




'to tJi 


O F 

My Own Times. 

B O O K V. 

0/ the Reign of King William and 
Qjueen Mary. 

I NOW begin, on the firft day of 7k%, 1705, to 1689 
profecute this Work ; and have before me a reign, u<f''v"''*»J 

The hopet 

I that drew upon it an univerfal expe<ftation of of the 
I great things to follow, from fuch aufpicious' be- ^^^ 
\\ ginnings ; and from fo general a joy as was fpread 
over thefe Nations, and all the neighbouring King- 
doms and States ; of whom, fome had apprehended a general 
deprefllon, if not the total ruine of the Proteftant Religion : 
Vol. II. B and 

2 7??^ History of the Reign 

1689 and all of them faw fuch a progrefs made by the French in 
«^x-^/-H^KJ the defign of enflaving the reft of Europe, that the check whieh 
the Revolution in England feemed to promifc, put a new life 
in thofe, who before were funk in defpair. It feemed to be 
a double-bottomed Monarchy, where there were two Joint-So- 
vereigns ; but thofe who knew the Queen's temper and prin- 
ciples, had no apprehenfions of divided Counfels, or of a dif- 
tradted Government. 
The effefls That which gave the moft melancholy profpedl, was the ill 
mSh? * ftate of the King's health, whofe ftay fo long at St. James^ 
without exercife or hunting, vfhich was fo much ufed by him 
that it was become neceflary, had brought him under fuch a 
weaknefs, as was like to have very ill efi^efts : And the face he 
forced himfelf to fet.'upon it, that it might not appear too 
much, made an imprefTion on his temper. He was apt to be 
peevifh: it put him under a neceflity of being much in his 
clofet, and of being filent and referved ; which, agreeing fo 
well with his natural difpolition, made him go off from what 
all his friends had advifed, and he had promifed them he would 
fet about, of being more vilible, open, and communicative. 
The Nation had been fo much accuftomed to this, in the two 
former reigns, that many ftudied to perfwade him, it would 
be neceffary for his affairs to change his way, that he might 
be more acceflible, and freer in his difcourfe. He feemed re- 
folved on it ; But he faid, his ill health made it impoflible 
for him. to execute it : And fo he went on in his former way, 
or rather he grew more retired, and was not eafily come at, 
nor fpoke to. And in a very few days, after he was fet on 
the Throne, he went out to Hampton-Court : And from that 
palace he came into Town only on Council days. So that the 
face of a Court, and the rendezvous, ufual in the publick rooms, 
was now quite broke. This gave an early and general difguft. 
The gaiety and the diveriGions of a Court difappeared. And, tho' 
the Queen fet her lelf to make up, what was wanting in the King, 
by a great vivacity and chearfulnefs ; yet when it appeared that 
fhe meddled not in bufmefs, fo that few found their account in 
making their court to her, tho' fhe gave a wonderful content to 
all that came near her, yet few came. 

The King found the air oi Hampton-Court agreed fo well with 
him, that he refolved to live the greateft part of the year there. 
But that palace was fo very old built, and fo irregular, that a 
defign was formed of raifing new buildings there, for the King 
and the Queen's Apartments. This fhewed a refolution to Uve 
atjiS^dif^ance from London: And the entring fo foon on fo€x- 
' li«r. penfive 

of KWiLLiAM and Q. M a^r y. -5 

penfiive a building, afforded matter of cen(ure to thofe, who were 1 896 
difpofed enough to entertain it. And this fpread a univerfal *-'<^^'"'^^'***^ 
difcontent in the City of hondon. And thefe fmall and almoft 
indifccrnable beginnings and feeds of ill humour, liavc ever fince 
gone on in a very vifible encreafe and progrefs. »r rhi • ivr 

The firft thing the King did, was, to choafe a Miniftry, and \^'*' ^''" 
to fettle a Council. The Earl oi Shrewibury was declaTcd Secre- 
tary of State, and had the greateft fharc of the Kihgii Goinftdence. 
No exception could be made to the choice, except on account 
of his youth. But he applied himfelf to bu'fincfe with great di- 
ligence, and maintained his candor and ■ temper with more re^ 
fervednefs, than was expelled from one of his agev ' It was for 
fome time under confideration, who fholild be thd dther Secrc+ 
tary ; at laft the Earl oi Nottingham was pitched on^ -He had 
oppofed the Settlement with great earneftnefs, in his dopious way 
of fpeaking. But he had always faid, that, tho' he^ould not 
make a King, yet upon his principles, he (could obey him bet- 
ter than thofe who were fo much fetvoii making 1 one. The 
High Church Party did apprehend, that tjhe oppofition they had 
given the King's advancenkeiit, and the zeal that others had 
fhewed for it, would alienate him from them^ and throw hiM 
intb other hands, from whom no good was to be expefted for 
them: And they looked for fevere revenges' for the' hardlhips 
they had put on thefe in the end of King C^^r/(?j's Reign. This 
grew daily upon that party, and made theiil begin to look back 
toward King yames. So, not to provoke fo great a Body too 
much, it was thought advif^ble to employ the Earl of Not- 
tingham. The great increafe of Chancery bufmefs had made JJ^^J"' °^ 
many apprehend, it was too much to be trufted to one perfon : ham's ad- 
So it was refolved to put the Chancery in Commiflion : And un^c^uble 
the Earl of Nottingham was propofed to be the firft in the *o ^^^ ^^^'8*- 
Commillion, but he refufed it. So Maynafd^ Keck^ and Raiv- 
Irnfon^ three eminent Lawyers, were made the three Commif- 
iioners of the Great Seal. And foon after that, the Earl of 
Nottinghajn was appointed Secretary of State. This gave as 
much fatisfadion to all the High Party, as it begot jealoufies 
and diftruft in others. The one hoped for protedion and favour 
by his means : They reckoned, he would infufe all the Prero- 
gative Notions into the King ; and give him fuch a jealoufy 
of every ftep that the others fhould make in prejudice of 
thefe, that from thence the King would fee caufe to fufpe6t all 
the fhew of kindnefs that they might put on to him, when at 
the fame time they were undermining fome of thofe Preroga- 
tives, for which the Earl of Nottingham feemed to be fo zea- 


4 The H Ts t d r y of the Reign 

1689 lous. This had a great effeft on the King, who being igno- 
U''*v'"'5>^ rant of our Conftitution, and naturally cautious, faw caufe 
enough to dillike the heat he found among fhofey who expref- 
fed much zeal for him, but who feemed, at the fame time, to 
have with it a great mixture of Republican principles. 77)eyy 
on the other hand, were much offended at die employing the 
Earl of Nottingham. And he gave them daily caufe to be 
more difpleafed at it: For he fet himfelf with a moft eager 
partiaUty againft the whole Party, and againft all the motions 
made by them : And he ftudied to poffefs the King with a 
very bad opinion of them. And, whereas Secretaries of State 
have a particular allowance for fuch Spies, as they employ to 
procure intelligence, how exa£t foever he might be in procur- 
ing Foreign intelligence, he fpared no coil nor pains to have 
an account of all that paffed in the City, and in other angry 
cabals : And he furnifhed the King very copioufly that way ; 
which made a deep impreflion on him, and had very bad 
effeds. The Earl of Danby was made Marquifs of Carmar- 
theity and Prefident of the Council : and Lord Halifax had 
the Privy Seal. The laft of thefe had gone into all the ftcps, 
that had been made for the King, with great zeal, and by 
that means was hated by the High Party, whom for diftin<9ion 
iakelwill hereafter call TORIES, and the other WHIGS: 
Terms that I have fpoken much againft, and have ever hated : 
But to avoid making always a longer defcription, I muft ufe 
them ; they being now become as common as if they had been 
words of our Language. Lord Halifax foon faw that his 
friend fhip with the Whigs was not like to laft long : His op- 
pofing the Excluiion ftuck ftill deep with them : And the 
buiinefs of the ^0 Warranto s^ and the delivering up of 
Charters, was caft on him : The flownefs of relieving Ireland 
was alfo charged on him ; He had for fome time great credit 
with the King; tho' his Mercurial Wit was not well fuited 
with the King's Phlegm. Lord Carmarthen could not bear the 
equality, or rather the preference that feemed to be given to 
Lord Halifax : And therefore fet on the ftorm, that quickly 
broke put upon him. 

Lord Mordaunt was made Earl of Monmouth^ and firft 
Commiflioner of the - Treafury : And Lord Z)^ la Mere y made 
Earl of Warrington^ was Chancellor of the Exchequer : Lord 
Godolphin was likevdfe brought into the Treafury, to the great 
grief of the other Two ; who foon faw, that tlie King confi- 
dered him more than them both. For, as he underftood 
Treafury bufmefs well, fo his calm and cold way fuited the 


^K William and Q. Mary. j 

King's temper. The Earls of Monmouth 2ls\A Warrington^ tho* 1689 

both mod violent Whigs, . became great enemies : The former uj^v^^J 

was generous, and gave the inferior places freely ; but fought 

out the men, who were moft noted for RepubUcan Principles, 

for them all : And the other, they faid, fold every thing that 

was in his Power. The Privy Council was compofed chiefly of 


Nothing gave a more general {atisfadlion than tlie naming of^' !"%** 
the Judges ; the King ordered every Privy Counfellor, to bring 
a lift of twelve : And out of thefe, twelve very learned and wor- 
thy Judges were chofen. This nomination was generally well 
received over the Nation. The firft of thefe was Sir yohn Holty 
made Lord Chief Juftice of England^ then a young man for fo 
high a poft, who maintained it all his time with a high reputation 
for capacity, integrity, courage, and great difpatch. So that 
flnce the Lord Chief Juftice Hale% time, that Bench has not 
been fo well filled, as it was by him. 

The King's chief perfonal favour, lay between Benthinck and 
Sidney : The former was made Earl of Portland^ and Groom of 
the Stole, and continued for ten years to be entirely trufted by 
the King ; and ferved him with great fidelity and obfequiouf- 
ncfs : But he could never bring himfelf to be acceptable to the 
Englijh Nation. The other was made firft, Lord Sidney^ and 
then Earl of Rummy: And was put in feveral great pofts. 
He was made Secretary of State, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland^ 
and Mafter of the Ordnance : But he was fo fet on pleafure, that 
he was not able to follow bufmefs with a due application. The 
Earls of Devonptre and Dorfet had the White Staffs : The Erfl 
was Lord Steward, and the other was Lord Chamberlain : And 
they being both Whigs, the houfhold was made up of fuch, ex- 
cept where there were buyers for places, which were fet to fale : 
And tho' the King feemed to difcourage that, yet he did not en- 
courage propofitions, that were made for the detecting thofe prac- 
tices. Thus was the Court, the Miniftry, and the Council com- 
pofed. The Admiralty was put in Commiftion : And Herbert 
made Earl of "Torrington^ was firft in the Commiflion. He tried 
to dictate to the Board : And, when he found that did not pafi 
upon them, he left it ; and ftudied all he could to difparage their 
condudl : And it was thought, he hoped to have been advanced 
to that high Truft alone. 

The firft thing propofed to be done, was to turn the Con- ^Jti^/^ 
vention into a Parliament, according to the precedent fet in the e<i to a Par- 
year 1660. This was oppofed by all the Tories. They faid, *°**"^ 
Writs were indifpenfible to the being of a ParUamcnt And, 

Vol. IL C tho* 

6 -The History of the Reign " 

1689 tho' the like was done at the Reftoration, yet it was faid, that 
'-^^"^'"'^ the Convention was then called, when there was no King nor 
Great Seal in England : And it was called by the confent of the 
lawful King, and was done upon a true and vifible, and not 
6h a pretended neceflity : And they added that, after all, 
even then the Convention was not looked on as a legal Parlia- 
ment : Its ads were ratified in a fubfequent Parliament ; and 
" ^" from thence tliey had their Authority. So it was moved, that 
the Convention fhould be diffolved, and a new Parliament fum- 
moned ; For in the joy which accompanied the Revolution, mien 
well-afFeded to it were generally chofen : And it was thought, 
that the damp, which was now fpread into many parts of the Na- 
tion, would occafion great changes in a new eleAion, On the 
other hand, the neceffity of affairs was fo prefling, that no 
time was to be loft : A delay of forty days might be the total 
lofs of Ireland ; and ftop all our preparations at Sea : Nor was it 
advifeable, in fo critical a time, to put the Nation into the fer- 
ment, vvhich a new eleftion would occafion. And it was reafon- 
able to expeft, that thofe who had fet the King on the Throne, 
would be more zealous to maintain him there, than any new 
fet of men could pofllbly be : And thofe who fiibmitted to a 
King, defaBOi muft Hkewife fubmit to a Parliament, de faEio. 
So the Bill paft : And a day was fet for the call of both Houfes, 
and for requiring the Members to take the Oaths. 
Some Bi- Eight Bifhops abfented themfelves, who were Bancroft of Can- 
the^Pariia- ^^^'^^O'' "^omas of Worcejier, Lake of Chichejlery "Turner of 
Ely^ Lloyd o^ Norwich^ Ken of Bafh ^ind Wells, Frampton of 
Glocejler, and White of Peterborough. But in the mean while, 
that they might recommend themfelves by a fhew of Modera- 
tion, fome of them moved the Houfe of Lords, before they 
withdrew from it, for a bill of Toleration, and another of Com- 
prehenfion : And thefe were drawn and offered by the Earl of 
Nottingham : And, as he faid to me, they were the fame that 
he had prepared for the Houfe of Commons in King Charles's 
time, during the Debates of the Exclufion : But then things of 
that kind were looked on as artifices, to lay the heat of that 
time, and to render the Church Party more popular. After 
thofe motions were made, the Bifhops that were in the Houfe 
withdrew : Sa?icroft, Thomas, and Lake, never came : The two 
laft died foon after. Ken, was a man of a warm imagination : 
And at the time of the King's firft landing, he declared heartily 
for him, and advifcd all the Gentlemen, that he faw, to go and 
join with him. But during the Debates in the Convention, he went 
with great heat into the notion of a Prince Regent. And now, 



of K. William and Q.Mary, 7 

upon the call of the Houfe, he withdrew into his Diocefe. He 1689 
changed his mia4 again, and wrote a paper, perfwading the'^•'''^^^ 
Clergy to take the Oaths, which he fliewed to Dr. fVhitby, who 
read it, as the Dr. has told me often. His Chaplain, Dr. Eyrej 
did alfo tell me, that he came with him to London^ where at 
firft he owned he was refolved to go to the Houfe of Lords, 
and to take the Oaths. But the firft day after he came to Town, 
he was prevailed on to change his mind : And he has continued 
ever fince in a very warm oppofition to the Government. San- 
croft went on in his unadive ftate, ftill refufing the Oaths, but 
neither adling nor fpeaking, except in great confidence, to any 
againft their taking them. Thefe Bifhops did one thing very 
inconfiftent with their other actions, and that could not be cafily 
reconciled to the rules of good confcience. All prefentations are 
diredled to Biftiops, or to their Chancellors. But, by a general 
agreement in the year 1660, the Bifhops refolved to except out 
of the Patents, that they gave their Chancellors, the power of 
giving Inftitution into Cures, which before that, the Chancellors 
were impowered to give in the Bifhops abfence. Now the Bi- 
fhops were bound to fee that the Clergy, before they gave them 
Inftitution, took the Oaths to the Government. In order there- 
fore to decline the doing this, and yet avoid the adions of Huare 
Imfedity that they would he liable to, if they did not admit the 
Clerks prefented to them, they gave new Patents to their Chan- 
cellors, empowering them to give Inftitution ; which they knew 
could not be done, but by tendring the Oaths. So they gave 
authority to Lay-men, to admit men to Benefices, and to do that 
which they thought unlawful, as was the fwearing to an Ufurper 
againft the lawful King. Thus it appeared, how far the Engage- 
ment of intereft and parties can run men into contradidions. 

Upon the Biftiops refufing the Oaths, a Bill was brought into 
the Houfe of Commons, requiring all perfons to take them by 
a prefixed day, under feveral forfeitures and penalties. The 
Clergy that took them not, were to fall under fufpenfion for fix 
months, and at the end of thofe, they were to be deprived. 
This was followed with a particular eagernefs by fome, who were 
known enemies to the Church : And it was then generally be- 
lieved, that a great part of the Clergy would refufe the Oaths. 
So they hoped to have an advantage againft the Church by this 
means. Hambden perfwaded the King, to add a period to a 
Speech he made, concerning the Affairs of Ireland, in which he 
propofed the admitting all Proteftants to fervc in that War. This 
was underftood, to be intended, for taking off the Sacramental 
Teft, which was necefTary by the Law, to qualify men for em- 

S The History^/ the Reign 

1689 ployments, and was looked on, as the chief fecurity the Church 
y,.'<f'''V^^ of England had, as it excluded Diffenters froin^U employments. 
And it was tried, if a bargain could be made, for excufing the 
Clergy from the Oaths, provided the Diflenters might be excufed 
from the Sacrament. The King put this into his Speech, with- 
out communicating it to the Miniftry : And it had a very ill ef- 
fect. It was not only rejefted by a great majority in both 
Houfes; but it very much heightened the prejudices againil 
the King, as bearing no great affedion to the Church of Eng- 
land^ when he propofed the opening fuch a door, which they 
believed would be fatal to them. The rejed:ing this, made the 
I was made aft impofing the Oaths to be driven on with the more zeal. This 
?«S/ry ^^^ ^"^ debate, when I came into the Houfe of Lords : For 
Ward^ Bifhop of Salisbury^ died this Winter : Many fpoke to 
the King in my favour, without my knowledge. The King 
made them no anfwer. But a few days after he was fet on the 
Throne, he of his own motion named me to that See : And he 
did it in terms more obliging, than ufually fell from him. When 
I waited on the Queen, Ihe faid, ihe hoped I would now put in 
pradlice thofe notions, with which 1 had taken the Hberty often 
to entertain her. All the forms of the conge delire, and my 
Eleftion, were carried on with difpatch. But a great difficulty 
was in view. Sancroft would not fee me ; and He refiifed to 
confecrate mc. So by Law, when the Mandate was brought to 
him, upon not obeying it, he muft have been fued in a Pre^ 
muntre : And for fome Days, he feemed determined to venture 
that : But as the danger came near, he prevented it, by granting 
a Commiffion to all the Bifhops of his Province, or to any three 
of them, in Conjundion with the Bifhop of London) to exercife 
his Metropolitical authority during pleafure. Thus he did au- 
thorife others to confecrate me, while yet he feemed to think it 
an unlawful A6t. This was fo mean, that he himfelf was afham- 
ed of it afterwards. But he took an odd way to overthrov/ it : 
For he fent for his original Warrant : And fo took it out of the 
Office, and got it into his own hands. 

I happened to come into the Houfe of Lords, when two 
great debates were managed with much heat in it. The one 
was about the Toleration and Comprehenfron, and the other 
was about the Impofing the Oaths on the Clergy. And I was 
engaged at my firft coming there, to bear a large fhare in both. 
That which was long infifted on, in th*e Houfe of Lords, was, 
wmfng'thT ^^^^ inftead of the claufe pofrtively enabling, that the Clergy 
Oaths. fhould be obliged to take the Oaths, the King might be im- 
powered to tender them, and then the refufal was to be pu- 


of K. Will | a m a/id Q. Mary. ^9 

niflied according to the Claufe, as it flood in the Ad. It was 1689 
thought, fuch a power would oblige them to their good beha- uj'^v/""'^ 
viour, and be an effedlual reftraiiit upon them : They would be 
kept quiet at leaft by it : Whereas, if they came under Deprivar-} 
tion, or the apprehenfions of it, that would make them def- - 1. 

peratc, and fet them on to undermine the Goverrunent. It 
was faid, that the Clergy, by the Offices of the Church, did 
folemnly own their Allegiance to God, in the fight of all their 
people ; that no Oath could lay deeper Engagements on them, 
than thofe Adts of religious Worfliip did : And if they fhould 
either pafs over thofe Offices, or perform them, otherwife than 
as the Law required, there was a clear method, purfuant to the 
AO. of Uniformity, to proceed fevercly againft them. It was alfo 
faid, that in many different changes of Government, Oaths 
had not proved fo effedual a fecurity as was imagined ; Dif- 
tindions were found out, and fenfes were put on words, by 
which they were interpreted fo, as to fignify but little, when a 
Government came to need ftrength from them: And it ill 
became thofe, who had formerly complained of thefe impofi- 
tions, to urge this with fo much vehemence. On the other 
hand, it was urged, that no man ought to be trufled by a Go- 
vernment, chiefly in fo facred a concern, who would not give 
fecurity to it ; efpecially, fince the Oath was brought to fuch 
low and general terms. The Expedient that was propofed, 
would put a hardfhip upon the King, which was always to be 
carefully avoided. The day prefixed was at the diftance of 
fome months : So that men had time fufficient given them to 
ftudy the point : And, if in that time they could not fatisfy 
themfelves, as to the lawfulnefs of acknowledging the Govern- 
mert, it was not fit that they fhould continue in the highefl 
Pofls of the Church. An exception of Twelve was propofed, 
who fhould be fubje<Et to the Law, upon refufing the Oaths, 
when required to it by the King ; but that was rejed;ed : And 
all the mitigation that was obtained, was a power to the King, 
to referve a third part of the profits of any twelve Benefices 
he fhould name, to the Incumbents who fliould be deprived 
by virtue of this A61 : And fo it paffed. I was the chief 
Manager of the Debate, in favour of the Clergy ; both in the 
Houfe of Lords, and at the Conferences, with the Commons. 
But, feeing it could not be carried, I acquiefced the more ea- 
fily ; becaufe, tho' in the beginning of thefe Debate^ I was a{^ 
fured, that thofe who feemed refolved not to take the Oaths, 
yet prayed for the King in their Chapels ; yet I found after- 
wards this was not true, for they named ap King nor Queen, 
Vol. IL D and 

to -^ ^\[h'e History of the Reign "^ 

16&9 and fo it wis ekfy to guefs, whom they meant by fuch an in- 
i-^^'v^'^ definite delignation. I alfo heard many things, that made me 
concKide, they were endeavouring to raife all the Oppofition 
to the Government poflible. 
An Aa of xhe Bill of Toleration pafled eafily. It excufed Diflenters 
from all penalties, for their not coming to Church, and for 
going to their feparate Meetings. There was an exception 
of Socinians : But a provifion was ^utin it, in favour of ^<3;- 
kers : And, tho' the reft were required to take the Oaths to 
the Goyerhinent, They were excufed, upon making in- lieu 
thereof a folemn Declaration. They were to take out War- 
rants for the Houfes they met in : And the Juftices of Peace 
were required to grant them. Some propofed, that the Adl 
fhbuld only be temporary, as a necelTary reftraint upon the 
Diflenters, that they rriight demean themfelves, fo as to merit 
the continuance of it, when the term of years now of- 
fered fliould end. Biit this was rejefted : There was now an 
lihiverfal incliriation to pafs the A<5t : But it could not be ex- 
pedled, that the Nation would be in the fame good difpofition 
towards them at another time. I fhewed fo much zeal for 
this A6lj as Very much funk my credit, which had rifen from the 
approbation I had gained, for oppofing That which enaded the 
taking the Oaths. As for the Ad of Comprehenfion, fome 
progrefs was made in it. But a Provifo was offered, that, in 
fo "com- imitation of the Ads paffed in King Henry the Eighth and 
prehenfion. King Edward the Sixth's time, a number of perfons, both of 
the Clergy and Laity, might be empowered to prepare fuch 
a Reformation of things, relating to the Church, as might be 
offered to King and Parliament, in order to the healing our 
Divifions, and the correding what might be amifs or defedive 
in our ConiHtution. This was preffed with great earneftnefs 
by many of the temporal Lords. I at that time did imagine, 
that the Clergy would have come into fuch a defign with 
zeal and unanimity : And I feared this would be looked on 
by them, as taking the matter out of their hands : And for 
that reafon I argued fo Warmly againft this, that it was carried 
by a fmall Majority to let it fall. But I Was convinced foon 
iifter, that I had taken wrong meafures ; and that the method 
■propofed by thefe Lords, was the only one like to prove effec- 
tual: But this did not fo recommend me to the Clergy, as to 
balance the cenfure I came under, for moving, in another Pro- 
vifo of that Bill, that the Subfcription, inftead of AJ[e?jt and 
Confentj fhould only be to fubmit with a promife of Conformity. 
There W^s a Provifo likewife, in the Bill, for difpenfing with 


<?/ K William M^Q,. Ma ASt: ii 

kneeling at the Sacrament, and being Baptized with the Sign t689 
of the Crofs, to fuch as, after conference upon thofe heads, L^^^V"^^ 
fhould folemnly proteft, they were not fatisned as to the law- 
fulnefs of them. That concerning kneeling, occafion'd a ve- 
hement Debate : For, the Pofture being the chief exception 
that the Diflenters had, the giving up this was thought to be 
the opening a way for them to come into Employments. Yet 
it was carried in the Houfe of Lords. And I declared my felf 
zealous for it. For fince, it was acknowledged, that the Pof- 
ture was not effential in itfelf, and that Scruples, how ill 
grounded foever, were raifed upon it, it feemed reafonable to 
leave the matter as indifferent in its pradlice, as it was in its 

Thofe who had moved for this Bill, and afterwards brought 
it into the Houfe, adted a very dilingenuous part : For, while 
they ftudied to recommend themfelves by this fhew of Mode- 
ration, they fet on their Friends to oppofe it : And fuch as were 
very fincerely and cordially for it, were reprefented as the Ene- 
mies of the Church, who intended to fubvert it. When the 
Bill was fent down to the Houfe of Commons, it was let lie on 
the Table. And, inftead of proceeding in it, they made an Ad- 
drefs to the King, for fummoning a Convocation of the Clergy to 
attend, according to cuftom, on the Sefllon of Parliament. The 
Party, that was now beginning to be formed againft the Go- 
vernment, pretended great zeal for the Church ; and declared 
their apprehenfions that it was in danger, which was imputed 
by many to the Earl of Nottingham % management. Thefe, as 
they went heavily into the Toleration, fo they were much of- 
fended with the Bill of Comprehenfion, as containing matters 
relating to the Church, in which the Reprefentativc Body of 
the Clergy had not been fo much as advifed with. 

Nor was this Bill fupported by thofe, who feemed moft fa- 
vourable to the Diflenters : They fet it up for a maxim, that it 
was fit to keep up a ftrong fadion both in Church and State ; 
And they thought it was not agreeable to that, to fuffer fo 
great a body as the Presbyterians to be made more eafy, or 
inore inclinable to unite to the Church : They alfb thought, 
that the Toleration would be befl maintained, when great 
numbers fliould need it, and be concerned to preferve it : So 
this good Defign being zealoufly oppofed, and but faintly pro- 
moted, it fell to the ground. 

The Clergy began now to fhew an implacable hatred to the An ia hu- 
Nonconformifts, and feemed to vnfli for an occafion to renew ^"ig'the 
old Severities againft them. But wife and good men did very Clergy. 


1 2 The History of the Reign 


Great gen- 
tlenefs to- 
wards Pa- 

War pro- 




v:i !!. 

much applaud the quieting the Nation by the Toleration. It 
feemed to be fuitable, both to the Spirit of the Chriftian Reli- 
gion, and to the Intereft of the Nation. It was thought very 
unreafonable, that, while we were complaining of the Cruelty 
of the Church of Romej we fhould fall into fuch practices, 
among our felves ; chiefly, while we were engaging in a war, 
in the progrefs of which we would need the united ftrength 
of the whole Nation. 

This Bill gave the King great content. He in his own opinion 
always thought, that Confcience was God's Province, and that 
it ought not to be impofed on : And his experience in Ho/- 
laiid made him look on Toleration, as one of the wifeft mca- 
flires of Government : He was much troubled to fee fo much 
ill humour fpreading among the Clergy, and by their means 
over a great part of the Nation. He was fo true to his Principle 
herein, that he reftrained the heat of fome, who were proposing 
fevere Ads againft Papifts. He made them apprehend the ad- 
vantage, which that would give the French^ to alienate all the 
Papifts of Europe from us ; who from thence might hope to 
fet on foot a new Catholick League, and make the War a 
quarrel of Religion ; which might have very bad effeds. Nor 
could he pretend to protedl the Proteftants in many places of 
Germany, and in Hungary, unlefs he could cover the Papifts 
in England, from all Severities on the account of their Religion. 
This was fo carefully infufed into many, and fo well under- 
ftood by them, that the Papifts have enjoy 'd the real effeds 
of the Toleration, tho' they were not comprehended within 
the Statute that enadled it. 

While domeftick matters were raifmg great heats at home, 
we faw the neceftity of making vigorous Preparations for the 
War abroad, and in Ireland. The King laid before both 
Houfes the Alliances, formerly made by the Crown of Eng- 
land, with the States, and with the Empire, together with 
the new ones that were now propofed, which made a Rupture 
with France neceflary. So, by the Advices of both Houfes, 
War was declared againft France : And the neceflary Supplies, 
both for the ^uota that the King was to furnifli, ' and for 
the Redudion ot Ireland, were provided. 

The next care was a Revenue, for the Support of the Go- 
vernment. By a long courfe, and the pradlice of foijle A!ges, 
the Cuftoms had been granted to our Kings for lifer^ao the 
King expeded, that the like regard fliould be fhewn for him. 
But mens rainds were much divided in that matter. Some 
Whigs, who by a long Oppofltion, and jealoufy of the Gp- 


.k!) J- 

of K. William and Q. Mary. 13 

Vemment, had wrought themfelves into fuch Republican Prin- 1689 
eiples, that they could not eafily come off from them, fet it ^^^^'V^ 
up as a maxim not to grant any Revenue, but from year to 
year, or at moft, for a fhort term of years. This, they tliought, 
would render the Crown precarious, and oblige our Kings to . , w.a . 
fuch a popular method of Government, as fhould merit the 
conftant Renewal of that Grant. And they hoped, that fo 
uncertain a Tenure, might more eafily bring about an entire 
change of Government. For, by the decaying the Revenue at 
any time (except upon intolerable conditions) they thought That 
might be eafily effeded, fince it would render our Kings {o 
feeble, that they would not be able to maintain their Autho- 
rity. The Tories obferving this, made great ufe of it, to be- 
get in the King jealoufies of his Friends, with too much co- 
lour, and too great fuccefs. They refolved to reconcile them- 
felves to the King by granting it, but at prefent only to look 
on, till the Whigs, who now carried every thing, to which 
they fet their full ftrength, fhould have refufed it. 

The King, as he had come through the Weftern Countries, The Chim- 
fi-om his firft Landing, had been in many places moved to 5jf^,j™*"2[ 
difcharge the Chimney money: And had promifed to recom- 
mend it to the Parliament. He had done that fo effeftually, 
that an A61 paft difcharging it ; tho' it was fo much oppofed 
by the Tories, that it ran a great hazard in the Houfe of 
Lords. Thofe who oppofed it, pretended, that it was the on- 
ly fure Fund, that could never fail in War, fo that Money 
would be freely advanced upon it : They faid, a few regu- 
lations would take away any grievance, that might arife from 
it : But it was thought, they -w^rt not willing that fuch an 
Aft fhould pafs, as would render the King acceptable to the 
Body of the Nation. It was alfo thought, that the profped 
they then had of a fpeedy Revolution, in favour of King jfameSy 
made fome of them unwilHng to pafs an Ad, that feemed to 
lay an obligation on him, either to maintain it, or by refum- 
ing his Revenue, to raife the hatred of the Nation higher againfl 
him. When the fettling the King's Revenue was brought 
under Confideration, it was found, there were anticipations 
and charges upon it, from which it feemed reafonable to clear 
it. : So many Perfons were concerned in this, and the Seafon 
of the year was fo far advanced, that it was pretended, they 
had not time to examine that matter with due care : And there- 
fore, by a Provifional Ad, they granted the King the Revenue 
for one year : And many intended never to carry the Grant 
but from year to year. This touched the King very fenfibly. 
Vol. II. E And 


14 The History of the Reign 

1689 And many difcourfes, that paft among four Whigs in their 
K^'iS^'^'y'^ Cabals, were communicated to him by the Earl of Nottingham, 
by which he concluded, he was in the Hand of Perfons, that 
did not intend to ufe him well. ''^ "^' 

A Bill con- A Bill was preparedi, concerning the Militia, which upon the 
caning the j^^^XXftt', and in confequence of many claufes in it, took it 
in a "great meafure both from the Crown, and out of the 
Lords Lieutenants ; who being generally Peers, a Bill that Icf- 
fened their authority fo much, was net like to pafs in the 
Houfe of Lords : So it was let lie on the Table. By this like- 
wife, which was chiefly promoted by the Whigs ; the King 
came to think, that thofe who had raifed him to the Throne, 
intended to deprefs his Prerogative, as much as they had ex- 
alted his Perfon. He feemed to grow tender and jealous up- 
on thefe points, the importance of every one of them being 
much aggravated by the Earl of Nottingham^ who had fur- 
nifhed him with a Icheme of all the points of the Prerogative, 
and of their dependance one upon another : And he feemed ib 
-'":*'n 5 poffeffed with this, that many of thofe who had formerly moft 
of his confidence, found a coldnefs growing upon him, which 
increafed their difguft, and made them apprehend, they fhould 
again fee a Reign full of Prerogative maxims. One thing the 
Houfe of Commons granted, which was very acceptable to 
the King ; They gave the States about 660000/. for the charge 
they had been at in the Fleet and Army, which they fumifhed 
the King with at the Revolution. 
Debatescon- They could not be brought to another point, tho' often and 
aS of ?n- much prefTed to it by the King. He thought nothing would 
demnity. fettle the minds of the Nation fo much as an A6t of Indem- 
nity, with proper exceptions of fome Criminals, that fhould be left 
to Juftice. yefferies was in the Tower; Wright, who had been 
Lord Chief Juftice, and fome of the Judges, were in Newgate ; 
Graham and Burton., who had been the wicked Solicitors in 
the former Reigns^ were in Prifon ; but the hotteft of the 
Whigs would not fet this on. They thought it beft to keep 
many under the lafh ; they intended fevere revenges for the 
Blood that had been fhed, and for the many unjufl: things 
that had been done in the end of King Charles^ Reign ; they 
faw, that the clogging the Indemnity, with many compre- 
henfive Exceptions, would create King James a great Parly ; 
fo they did not think it proper to offer at that : Yet they 
refolved to keep them flill in their power, till a better 
opportunity for falling on them fhould offer itfelf: Therefore 
tliey proceeded ib flowly in that matter, that the Bill could 
fcnA not 

^ /C. William and Gl.^Ix^y. ^ly 

not be brought to a ripencfs during this Seflion. It is true, 1689 *. 
the great niildnefs of the King's temper, and the gcntlenefs of ^-^t^^^"^^ 
his Government, which was indeed rather liable to cenfurc, as 
being too remifs, fet peoples minds much at eafe : And, if it 
gave too much boldnefs to thofe, who began to fet up an open 
oppofition to him, yet it gained upon the greater part of the 
Nation, who faw none of thofe moving fpeftacles, that had been 
fo common in former Reigns : And all promifed themfclves happy 
days, under fo merciful a Prince. But angry men put a wick- 
ed conftrudion on the earneftnefs the King {hewed for an Ad: 
of Indemnity ; They faid, he intended to make ufe of a fet of 
Prerogative men, as foon as legally he could ; And therefore 
he defired the Inftruments of King yames\ illegal Government 
might be once fecured, that fo he might employ them. The 
Earls of Monmouth and Warrington were infiifing jcaloufies of 
the King into their party, with the fame Induftry that the Earl 
of Nottingham was, at the fame time, inflilling into the King 
jealoufies of them : And both afted with too much fuccefs ; 
which put matters much out of joint. For tho' the Earls of 
Shrewsbury and De^onpire did all they could, to flop the pro- 
grefs and effedis of thofe fufpicions, with which the Whigs were 
pofTeffed, yet they had not credit enough to do it. The Earl 
of Shrewsbury ^ tho' he had more of the King's favour, yet he 
had not ftrength to refift the Earl of Nottingham's, pompous 
and tragical Declamations. 

There was a Bill of great importance fent up by the T^e Bill of ^ 
Commons to the Lords, that was not finifhed this SefTion. Rig^^'s- 
It was a Bill, declaring the Rights and Liberties of Eng- 
land^ and the Succefllon to the Crown, as had been agreed 
by both Houfes of Parliament, to the King and Queen and 
their Iffue, and after them, to the Princefs Anne and her Iffue, 
and after thefe, to the King and his Iffue. A Claufe was infert- 
ed, difabling all Papifts from fucceeding to the Crown, to which 
the Lords added, or -fuch as Jhould marry Papijis. To this I 
propofed an additional Claufe, abfolving the Subjeds, in that 
cafe, from their Allegiance. This was feconded by the Earl of 
Shrewsbury: And it pafled without any oppofition, or debate : ^ 

which amazed us all, confidering the importa:nce of it. But the . "♦ 

King ordered me to propofe the naming the Dutchefs oi Hanwer^ 
and her Poflerity, next in the Succeffion. He fignified his 
pleafure in this alfo to the Minifters. But he ordered me 
to begin the Motion in the Houfe, becaufe I had already fet it 
on foot. And the Duke of Hanover had now other thoughts of 
the matter, and was feparating himfelf from the Interefls of 


1 6 The HisroKY of the Reign 


1689 France. The Lords agreed to the propofition without any op- 
i^'-v-'^iJ polition. So it was fent down to the Commons. There were 
great Debates there upon it. Hambden prefled it vehemently. 
But Wildman^ and all the Republican Party, oppofed it. Their 
fecret Reafon feemed to be, a defign to extinguifh Monarchy, 
and therefore to fubftitute none, beyond the three that were nam- 
ed, that fo the Succeflion might quickly come to an end. But, 
it not being decent to own thas, all that they pretended was, 
that there being many in the lineal Succeflion, after the three that 
were named, who were then of the Church o^ Rome, the leaving 
to them a pofTibility to fucceed, upon their turning Proteflants, 
might have a good efFed on them, and difpofe them to hearken 
to Inftrudlion ; all which would be defeated by a Declaration 
in favour of the Dutchefs. 

To this it was anfwered, in a free Conference, that for that 
very reafon it was fit to make this Declaration : Since nothing 
could bring us into a more certain danger, than a pretended 
Converfion of a falfe Convert, who might by fuch a difguife af- 
cend the Throne, and fo work our ruine by fecret artifices. 
Both Houfes adhered, after the free Conference. So the Bill fell 
for that time : But it was refolved to take it up at the opening 
of the next SefTion. And the King thought, it was not then 
convenient to renew the motion of the Dutchefs of Hanover , of 
which he ordered me to write her a particular account. It was 
fit once to have the Bill pafTed, that enaded the perpetual Ex- 
clufion of all Papifts : For that, upon the matter, brought the 
SuccefFion to their^door. And if any in the Line, before Her, 
fhould pretend to change, as it was not very likely to happen, 
(o it would not be eafily believed. So it was refolved to carry 
this matter no further at this time. The Bill pafTed without 
any oppofition, in the beginning of the next Seflion j which I 
mention here, that I might end this matter all at once. The 
prefent Seflion was drawn to a great length, and was not ended 
till Augufi : And then it broke up with a great deal of ill hu- 
King . One accident happen'd this Summer, of a pretty extraordi- 
S^tSeal "^^ nature, that deferves to be remembred. A Fifher-man, 
found in the between Liambeth and Vaux-hall, was drawing a Net pretty 
'"^^' clofe to the Chanel ; and a great weight was, not without fome 
difHculty, drawn to the Shore, which, when taken up, was 
found to be the Great Seal of England. King James had cal- 
led for it from the Lord Jefferies, the night before he went 
away, as intending to make a fecret ufe of it, for Pardons or 
Grants. But it feems, when he went away, he thought either, 


of KWiLLiAU and Q. M a r y. '\y 

that the Bulk or Weight of it made it inconvenient to be carried 1689 
off, or that it was to be hereafter of no more ufe to him : And '.-^'^"V"^ 
therefore, that it might not be made ufe of againft him, he threw 
it into the Thames. The Fifher-man was well rewarded, when 
he brought the Great Seal to the King : And by his Order it was 

But now I muft look over to the affairs of Ireland^ and to The Stafc 
King James % motions. Upon his coming to the Court of^^^^;*'^^. 
France^ he was received with great fhews of Tendemefs and Re- 
fpedt ; the French King affuring him, that, as they had both 
the fame Interefts, fo he would never give over the War, till he 
had reftored him to his Throne. The only profpedl he now 
had, was to keep up his Party in Ireland and Scotland, The 
Meflage from Ttrconnel^ for fpeedy Supplies, was v^ery pref- 
fmg : And his Party in Scotland fent one Lindfay over to him, 
to offer him their fervice, and to ask what affiftance they might 
depend upon. The French Miniftry was at this time much di- 
vided. Louvois had the greateft credit, and was very fucceff- 
ful in all his Counfels : fo that he was mod confidered. But 
Seignelay was believed to have more perfonal favour, and to be 
more entirely united to Madam Maintenon. Thefe two were in 
a high competition for favour^ and hated one another. Seigne- 
lay had the Marine, as the other had the Army, for his province. 
So, King "James having the moft dependance on the Marine, and 
looking on the Secretary for that Poft as the moft powerful Fa- 
vourite, made his chief application to him ; which fet Louvois 
to crofs and retard every thing, that was propofed for his fervice. 
So that matters for him went on flowly, and very defedively. 
There was another circumftance in King James's affairs, that 
did him much hurt. Laufun, whofe adventures will be found 
in the French Hiftory, had come over to King James, and of»- 
fered him his fervice, and had attended on the Queen, 
when fhe went over to France. He had obtained a promife of 
King James, that he fhould have the Command of fuch Forces, 
as the King of France would affift him with. Louvois hated 
Laufun ; nor did the King of France like to employ him : So 
Louvois fent to King James, defiring him to ask of the King 
of France, Souvray, a Son of his, whom he was breeding to 
ferve in War, to command the French Troops. But King 
James had fo engaged himfelf to Laufun, that he thought he 
could not in honour depart from it. And ever after that, we 
were told, that Louvois ftudied, by all the ways he could think 
of, to difparage him, and all the Propofitions he made : Yet 
he got about 5000 Frenchmen, to be fent over with him to 
■ Vol. II. F Ireland, 

1 8 The History of the Reign 

1689 Ireland^ but no great fupplies in money. Promifes were fent 
M^^'V^'*-' the Scots of great afliftance, that fhould be fent them from Ire- 
land: They were encouraged to make all pofTible oppoHtion in 
the Convention: And, as foon as the feafon of the year would 
c^mf ?i7" admit of it, they were ordered to gather together in the High- 
thitber. lands, and to keep themfelves in fafe places there, till further 
Orders fhould be fent them. With thefe, and with a fmall 
^ fupply in money, of abou-t five or fix thoufand Pounds, for buy- 

ing Ammunition and Arms, Lindfay was fent back. I had fuch 
a character given me of him, that I entertained good thoughts 
of him. So, upon his return, he came firft to me, and pre- 
tended he had gone over on private affairs, being deeply en- 
gaged in debt for the Earl of Melforty whofe Secretary he had 
been. I underftood from him, that King James had left Pa- 
ris to go for Ireland : So I fent him to the Earl of Shrewsbury'^ 
Office : But there was a fecret management with one of tJie 
Under Secretaries there for King Jafnes : So he was not only 
difmiffed, but got a Pafs Warrant from Dr. Wynne, to go to Scot- 
land. I had given the Earl of Shrewsbury fuch a charadler of 
the man, that he did more eafily believe him ; but he knew 
nothing of the Pafs Warrant. So, my eafinefs to think well of 
people, was the chief occafion of the mifchief that followed, 
on his not being clapt up and more narrowly examined. Upon 
King James\ landing in Ireland, he marched his Army from 
Kinfale to Uljier. And, when it was all together, it confifted 
of 30,000 Foot, and 8000 Horfe. It is true, the Irijh were 
now as infolent, as they were undifciplined : And they began 
to think they muft be mafters of all the King's Counfels. A 
jealoufy arofe between them and the French : They were foon 
on very bad Terms, and fcarce ever agreed in their Advices : 
All King James\ party, in the Ifle of Britain, preffed his 
fetthng the affairs of Ireland the bell he could, and his bring- 
ing over the French, and fuch of the IriJh, as he could beft 
govern, and depend on ; and advifed him to land in the 
North of England, or in the Weft of Scotland. 
The Siege ^"^ ^^ ^^^ thing that was to be done, was to reduce Lon- 
of London- donderry. In order to this, two different Advices were offered. 
The one was, to march with a great Force, and to take it im- 
mediately : for the Town was not capable of refifting, if vi- 
goroully attack'd. The other was, to block it up (o, that it 
fhould be forced in a little time to furrender -, and to turn to 
other more vigorous defigns. But, whereas either of thefe 
Advices might have been purfued with advantage, a third 
Advice was offered, but I know npt by whom, which was 


of K.Willi AM and Q. M a R y. 19 

the only bad one, that could be propofed ; and yct.^ by a fort 1689 
of fatality, which hung over that King, it was followed by him j ^^^^'""V* 
and that was, to prefs the Town by a flow Siege, which, a$ 
was given out, would bring the /r//2> into the methods of War, 
and would accuflom them to Fatigue and Difcipline. And 
this being refolved on, King yames fcnt a fmall Body before 
it, which was ofteii changed : And by thefe he continued the 
Siege above two months, in which the poor Inhabitants formed 
themfelves into great Order, and came to generous Refolutions 
of enduring the laft extremities. They made fome Sallies, in 
which the Irijh always ran away, and left their Officers ; {o 
that many of their bed Officers were killed. Thofe within 
fuffered little, but by hunger, which deftroyed near two thirds 
of their number. One Convoy, with two Regiments, and 
Provifions, was fent to their relief: But they looked on the 
fervice as defperate, being deceived by Lundyy who was the 
Governour of the Place, and had undertaken to betray it to 
King yames ; but he finding them jealous of him, came to 
the Convoy, and perfuaded tliem that nothing could be done: 
So they came back, and Lundy with them. Yet the poor 
Inhabitants, tho' thus forfaken, refolved ftill to hold out ; and 
fent over fuch an account of the ftate they were in, that a fe- 
cond and greater Convoy was fent, with about 5000 men, 
commanded by Kirk^ who, after he came in iight, made not 
that hafte to relieve them that was neceflary, confidering the 
mifery they were in. They had a River that came up to their 
Town : But the IriJh had laid a Bomb and Chains crofs it, 
and had planted Batteries for defending it. Yet a Ship fail- 
ing up with Wind and Tide broke through : And fo the Town . 
was relieved, and the Siege raifed in great confufion. raifed. 

Iniskillin had the fame fate : The Inhabitants entred into 
Refolutions of fuffering any thing, rather than fall into the 
hands of the IriJh : A confiderable Force was fent againft 
them : but thro' their courage, and the cowardice of the Irijby 
they held out. 

AH this while, an Army was preparing in England^ to be 
fent over for the Reduction of Ireland, commanded by Schom- 
berg, who was made a Duke in England, and to whom the Dukc3VJ&ow- 
Parliament gave 100,000 Pounds for the fervices he had^^^*''** 
done. The Levies were carried on in Engla7id with great went to //•#- 
zeal: And the Bodies were quickly full. But, tho' both Offi-^''"'^- 
cers and Soldiers fliewed much courage and affedion to the 
fervice ; yet they were raw, without experience, and without 
skill. Schopiberg had a quick and happy paffage; with about 

1 0,000 

fd The History of the Reign 

1689 10,000 men. He landed at Belfafi, and brought the Forces 
v.-^^^v"'^^ that lay in Uljier together. His Army, when flrongeft, was 
not above 14,000 men ; and he had not above 2000 Horfe.' 
He marched on to Dundalk j and there pofted himfelf. King 
James came to Ardee^ within five or fix miles of him, being 
above thrice his number. Schofnberg had not the Supplies fi-ora 
England^ that had been promifed him: Much treachery or 
ravenoufnefs appeared in many, who were employed. And he 
finding his numbers fo unequal to the Irijh^ refolved to lie 
on the defenfive. He lay there fix weeks in a very rainy Sea- 
fon. His men, for want of due care and good management, 
contra6ted fuch Difeafes, that he loft almoft the one half of 
his Atmy. Some blamed him for not putting things more 
to hazard : It was faid, that he meafured the Iri/h by their 
Numbers, and not by their want of Senfe and Courage. Such 
complaints were fent of this to the King, that he wrote twice 
to him, preffing him to put fomewhat to the venture : But 
he faw the Enemy was well pofted, and well provided : And 
he knew they had feveral good Ofticers among them. If he 
had puftied matters, and had met with a misfortune, his 
whole Army, and confequently all Irelaitd^ would have been 
loft : For he could not have made a regular Retreat. The 
fure game was to preferve his Army : And that would fave 
Uljier^ and keep matters entire for another year. This was 
cenfured by fome ; But better judges thought, the managing 
this Campaign as he did, was one of the greateft parts of his 
Life. The IriJJj made fome poor attempts to beat up his 
Quarters : But even where they furprifed his men, and were 
„ . much fuperior in number, they were fo fhamefuUy beat back, 

that this encreafed the contempt, the EngUJh naturally had for 
them. In the end of OElober^ all went into Winter Quarters. 
Affairs at Our operations on the Sea were not very profperous. Her- 
Sea, ^^^^ ^^g ^gj^^ with a Fleet, to cut off the communication be- 

tween France and Ireland. T\\^ French \\2idi fent over a Fleet, 
with a great Tranfport of Stores and Ammunition. They 
had landed their loading, and were returning back. As they 
came out of Bantry Bay, Herbert engaged them. The wind 
-w was againft him : So that it was not poftible for the greateft 

part of the Fleet to come up, and enter into adion : And fo 
■■^•^ thofe who engaged were forced to retire with fome difad- 

vantage. But the French did not purfue him. He came 
back to Port/mouthy in order to refit fome of his Ships ; and 
went out again, and lay before Brejlj till the end of Summer. 
But the French Fleet did not come out any more all that 
- -;- Summer: 


of K. William and Q,. Mary. 21 

Summer: So that ours lay fome months at Sea to no purpofe. 1689 
But, if we loft few of our Seamen in the Engagement, we loft ^^^^^/"^^ 
a great many, by reafon of the bad Victualling. Some cxcufed 
this, becaufe it was fo late in the year, before Funds were 
made for it: while others imputed it to bafe pradices, and 
worfe defigns. So affairs had every where a very melancholy 


I now turn to give an Account of the Proceedings in ^Sc^?/- Affairs in 
land. A Convention of the States was fummoned there, {xi^"'^'*"^' 
the fame manner as in England. Duke Hamilton was cho- 
fen Preftdcnt. And, a Letter being offered to them, from 
King James by Lindfay^ they would not receive, nor read 
it : But went on to ftate the feveral Violations of their Con- 
ftitution and Laws, made by King James. Upon thefe it was 
moved, that a Judgment fhould be given, declaring, that he 
had forfeited his Right to the Crown. Upon this, three Par- 
ties were formed : One was compofed of all the Bifhops, and 
fome of the Nobility, who oppofed thefe Proceedings againft Debate* in 
the King, as contrary to their Laws and Oaths : Others thought, *^^ Conven-, 
that their Oaths were only to the King, as having the execu- 
tive Power, to fupport him in that; but that, if he fet him- 
felf to invade and affume the Legiflature, he renounced his 
former Authority by fubverting that, upon which it was found- 
ed : So they were for proceeding to a declaratory Judgment : 
A third Party was formed, of thofe who agreed with the for- 
mer in their Conclufton: But not in coming to fo fpeedy a 
determination. They thought, it was the Intereft of Scotland 
to be brought under the Laws of England^ and to be united 
to the Parliament of Ejigland ; and that this was the propereft 
time for doing that to the beft advantage ; fince England 
v.'ould be obliged, by the prefent ftate of Affairs, to receive 
them upon good terms. They were therefore willing to pro- 
ceed againft King James : But they thought it not reafonable 
to make too much hafte in a riew Settlement ; and were for 
maintaining the Government, in an Interregnum, till the Union 
fiiould be perfeAed, or at leaft put in a probable way. This 
was Ipecioiis, and many went into it : But, fince it tended 
to the putting a ftop to a full Settlement, all that favoured 
King James joined in it : For by this more time was gained. 
To this Project it was objected, that the Union of the two 
Kingdoms muft be a work of time ; ftnce many difficulties 
would arife in any Treaty about it : whereas the prefent cir- 
cumftances were critical, and required a fpeedy decifion, and 
quick provifton to be made for their fecurity ; fince, if they 
V o L. U. G con- 

i i ^ Y J^^ H l> T o R Y (f the Reign » 

1689 continued in fuch a neutral State, ihey would have many Enemies, 
V-4*V!S«-^ and no Friends : And the zeal that was now working among 
them for Presbytery, muft raife a greater averiion than ordi- 
nary, in the Body that was CoF^theiChurch of ^/z^/^W, to any 
fuch Treaty with thern. . , ; n;.h' ' 

While rpuch heat was occafioned ■. by this Debate, great Num- 
bers came armed from the Weftern Counties, on pretence to 
defend- the Convention : For the I^uke oi' Gordon was ftill in 
the C^ii^lQ oi Edinburgh., and could have done thein much 
harm, tho' he lay there in a very inoiFenfive ftate. He thought 
the beft, thing he could do. 'was,, :i|:£) preferve that place long 
for King "James j fince to provoke i^he Convention, would have 
drawn a Siege and mine upon him, with too much precipi- 
tation, while there v/as. not a Force in the Field ready to come 
arid afTift him. ^ So- it;was, f^iid, there was no need of fuch 
armed Companies, , aQd that they were come to over-awe and 
force the Convention,., njAH'miiJ -i 
ARifingde- The Earl oi Du?2dee! had been at Londony and had fixed 
^IwfoJ ?.!' a correfpondenee . both with England and France : tho' he had 
•"°-' employed me to carry Meflages, from him to the King, to 
know \yhat Security Jbe might exped, if he fhould go and 
live in Scotland YfithqiLjt owning^his Government. The King 
faid, if he wouiji liye, peaceablyj ^nd at home, he would pro- 
ted: him: To this he apfweredj thatj unlefs he were forced to it, 
he would ' live quietly. , But he went down with other refolu- 
tions ; and all the Party refolved to Submit to his command. 
Upon his coming XQ Edinburgh, he pretended he was in dan- 
ger from thofe armed multitudes : And fo he left the Conven- 
tion; and went up and down the High-lands, and fent his 
Agents about, to bring together what Force they could gather. 
This fet on the Conclufion of the Debates of the Convention. 
YJxngjames They paffed the Judgment of Forfeiture on King James. 
rere.^"^^'*^ ^^^ on the iidi of April, the day in which die King and 
Queen were crowned, with tlie" ordinary Solemnities at Wejimin- 
Jler, they declared William and Mary King and Queen of 
Scotla7td. But with this, as they ordered the Coronation-Oath 
to be tendered to them, fo they drew up a Claim of Rights, 
which they pretended, were the fundamental and unalterable 
Laws of the Kingdom. By one of thefe it was declared, that 
the Reformation in Scotland, having been begun by a parity 
among the Clergy, all Prelacy in that Church was a great and 
infupportable Grievance to that Kingdom. It was an abfurd 
thing to put this in a Claim of Rights ; for which not only 
they had no Law, but which was contrary to many Laws then 

' in 




of K. William, and Qi. M i k y. -25 

in being: So that, tho' they might have" offered it as a Griev- 16^9 
ance, there was no colour for pretendir^ it was a National '-<J''^/^^»^ 
Right. But they had a Notion among them, that every Article, 
that fhould be put in the Claim of Rights, became an unalter* 
able Law, and a Condition upon which thei Crown was to be ciatm^of' 
held: whereas Grievances were fuch things, as werd fubmitted ^'8'' 
tp the King and Parliament to ! be redfclTcd, or not, as the^ 
fhould fee caufe : But the Bifhops, and thofe who adhered tp 
them, having left -the Convention, the l^resbyterians had a ma- 
jority of Voices to scarry ^v^ry^ thing as they pleafed, how un- 
reafonable foever. And upon this, the abolifhing Epifcopacy 
in Scotland^ was made a necefiary Article of the new Settle- 

Soon after the King came to St.- yames's, the Epifcppal Party Epifcop; 
there, had fent up the Dean of Glafgaw^ whom they ordered aLii/hed 
to come to me: And I introduced him to the then Prince. 
He was fent to know, what his Intentions were with relation 
to them. He anfwercd, he would do all he could to preferve 
them, granting a full Toleration to the Presbyterians : But this 
was, in cafe they concurred in the new Setjrlemerk^ of that 
Kingdom: For if they oppofed that, and if, by a great' Ma- 
jority in Parliament, Refolutions fhould be taken againfl: thfem^ 
the^ King could - not wake a War for them : but ^et h6' would' 
do 'all that was. ifiif his Power to maiiitain fuch of them, ^ 
jfhould live peaceably iri their Funftibns. This he ordered me 
likewife to write back, 'in anfwer to what fome Bifhops and 
others had writ to me upon that fubjeft. But the Earl of 
Dundee^ when he went down, poffeffed them with fuch an- 
opinion of another fpeedy Revolution, that would be brought 
about in favour of King James., that they refolved to adhere 
firmly to his Interefls : So, they declaring in a body, with fb 
much zeal, in oppofition to the new Settlement, it was not pof- 
fible for the King to preferve that Government there : All 
thofe who exprefTcd their zeal for him, being equally zealous 
againft that Order. 

Among thofe who appeared in this Convention, none diflin- 
guifhed himfelf more, than Sir yames Montgomery, a Gentle- 
man of good Parts, but of a mofl unbridled heat, and of a' 
reillefs ambition : He bore the greatefl fhare in the whole De- 
bate, and promifed himfelf a great Pofl in the new Govern- 
ment. Duke Hamilton prefided with great difcretion and cou- 
rage : So that the bringing the Settlement fo foon to a calm 
conclufion, was chiefly owing to him. A Petition of Grievances,^ 
relating to the Lords of the Articles, the Judges, the Coin, 


(- ! 


24 The History of the Reign 

•1689 and feveral other matters, was alfo fettled: And three Com- 
y.^t^^^/"^^ miflioners were fent, one from every State, to the King and 
Queen, witli the Tender of the Crown, with which they were 
alfo to tender them the Coronation-Oath, and the Claim of 
Rights : And when the Oath was taken, they were next to 
offer the Petirion, for the Redrefs of Grievances. The three 
Com miflioners were, the Earl of Argyle for the Lords, Sir 
yames Montgomery for the Knights, or, as: they call them, for 
the Barons, and Sir yohn Dalrymple for the Burroughs. When 
the King and Queen took the Oaths, the King explained one 
word in the Oath, by which he was bound . to reprefs Here- 
Jies, that he did not by this bind himfelf to perfecute any for 
their Confcience. And now he was King of Scotland, as well 
as of England and Ireland. 
A Miniflry The firft thing to be done was, to form a Miniflry in Scot- 
jn Scotland, i^^^^ ^^^ ^ Council ; and to fend Inftrudions, for turning the 
Convention into a Parliament, in which the Duke of Hamil- 
ton was to reprefent the King, as his Commiflioner. Before 
the King had left the Hague, Fagel had fo effedually recom-. 
mended Dalrymple, the Father, 'to him, that he was refolved 
to rely chiefly on him for advice. And, tho' he had heard 
great complaints of him, as indeed there was fome ground 
for them, yet, fiiice his Son was fent One of the three, upon 
fo great a Deputation, be concluded from thence that the Fa- 
mily was not fo much hated, as he had been informed : So 
he continued ftill to be advifed by him. The Epifcopal Party- 
were afraid of Montgomery^ being made Secretary, from whom 
they expelled nothing but extream feverities: So they fet them- 
felves to divert that, and the Lord Melvil, who had married 
the Dutchefs of Mo?tmouth\ Sifl:er, and had continued from 
1660 firm to Presbytery, and had been of late forced to leave 
the Kingdom, was looked on as an eafy Man, who would have 
credit enough to reftrain the fury of that Party. So he was 
made fole Secretary of State; which proved a very imhappy 
ftep : for, as he was by his Principle bigotted to Presbytery, 
and ready to facrifice every thing to their humours, fb he prov- 
ed to be in all refpeds a narrow hearted man, who minded his 
own Intereft more, than either tliat of the King or of his Coun- 
try. This choice gave a great diftafte : And that was followed 
by a Miniftry, in the framing of which he had the chief hand ; 
who were weak and paflionate men. All Offices were fplit 
into Commiflions, that many might have fome fhare : But it 
rendred them all contemptible : And, tho' Moritgomery had a 
confiderable Pofl offered him, yet his mifling that he aimed 
bns 2 at 

of K. William a/td Gi.MAtiY. if 

at ftuck deep, and began to work in him an averfion to the 1689 
King, which broke Oiit afterwards into much fury and plotting ^-^^''^ 
againft him. Nor did Duke Hamilton think, that he was con- 
fidercd, in the new model of the Miniftry, as he deferved, and 
might juftly have cixpeiSled. 

The Parliament there was opened with much ilj humour : A fartioo 
And they refolved to carry the Redrefs of Grievances very far. scohanS* 
Lord Melvill hoped to have gained the Presbyterian Party^ bjr 
fending Inftrudions to Duke Hamilton^ to open the Seflion with 
an Ad in favour of Presbytery : But the Majority refolved to 
begin with their Temporal concerns. So the firft Grievance, 
to which a Redrefs was defired, was the Power of the Lords of 
the Articles ; that relating fo immediately to the Parliament itfelf. 
The King confented to a proper Regulation, as that the number 
fhould be enlarged and changed, as often as the Parliament 
fhould defire it, and that the ParHament might bring matters 
before tliem, tho' they were reje£led by the Lords of the Ar- 
ticles. This anfwered all the juft complaints, that had been 
made of that part of the Conftitution : But the King thought 
it was the Intereft of the Crown, to prefefve it thus regulated i 
Yet it was pretended, that, if the name and fhadow of that 
were ftill kept up, the Parliament would in fome time be in- 
fenfibly brought under all thofe Reftraints, that were now to be 
provided againft. So they moved to take it quite away. Duke 
Hamilton writ long Letters, both to the King and to the Lord 
Melvill^ giving a full account of the progrefs of an ill humour, 
that was got among them, and of the ill confequence it was like 
to have : But he had no anfwer from the King : And Lord 
Melvill writ him back dark and doubtful orders : So he took 
little care how matters went, and was not ill pleafed to fee them 
go wrong. The Revenue was fettled on the King for life : And 
they raifed the money, which was neceflary for maintaining a fmall 
Force in that Kingdom, tho' the greateft part of an Army of 
6000 men was paid by England. But even the Presbyterians 
began to carry their Demands high ; They propofed to have 
the King's Supremacy, and the Right of Patronage taken away : 
And they asked fo high an Authority to their Government, that 
Duke Hamilton^ tho' of himfelf indifferent as to thofe matters, 
yet would not agree to them. He thought, thefe broke in too 
much on their Temporal concerns ; and would eftablifh a Ty- 
ranny in Presbytery, that could not be eaftly born. He writ 
to me very fully on that head, and I took the Hberty to fpeak 
fometimes to the King on thofe fubjeds ; my defign being 
chiefly to ftielter the Epifcopal Clergy, and to keep the change. 

Vol. IL Ji that 

26 The History of the Reign 

1689 that was now to be made, on fuch a foot, that a door might 
t^^"v^"^5>-' ftill be kept open : But Lord Mehill had poffefled the King 
with a notion, that it was neceflary for his fervice, that the Pref- 
byterians fhould know, that I did not at all meddle in thofe 
matters, otherwife they would take up a jealoufy of every thing 
that was done ; and that this might make them carry their 
demands much further : So I was fhut out from all meddling 
in thofe matters : And yet I was then, and ftill continue to 
be much loaded with this prejudice, that I did not ftudy to 
hinder thofe changes, that were then made in Scotlafid. And 
all the King's enemies in England continued ftill to charge him, 
for the alterations then made in Scotland ; tho' it was not pof- 
fible, had he been ever fo zealous for Epifcopacy, to have pre- 
ferved it at that time ; And I could do no more than I did, 
both for the Order itfelf, and for all thofe who adhered to it 
there. A new debate was fet on foot in that Parliament, 
concerning the Judges. By the Law there, when the King 
names a Judge, he ought to be examined by other Judges, whe- 
ther he is qualified as the Law direds : But, in the year 1661, 
becaufe the Bench was to be filled with a new fett of Judges, 
fo that there was none to examine the reft, the nomination 
the King then made, was read in Parliament : And, no ob- 
jedion being made to any of them, they did upon that fit and 
ad as Judges. It was expeded, that the fame method fhould 
be followed at this time. But inftead oi that, the King con- 
tinued fuch a number of the former Judges, as was fufficient 
to examine thofe, who were now to be advanced : So that 
was ordered to be done. Upon this thofe, who oppofed every 
thing, pretended, that the Nomination ought to be made in 
Parliament : And they had prepared Objedions againft every 
one, that was upon the Lift ; intending by this to put a publick 
Afiront on one of the Firft, and moft important Adions of 
the King's Government. Duke Hamilton had a pofitive In- 
ftrudion fent him, not to fufter this matter to be brought ipto 
Parliament : Yet he faw the Party was fo fet, and fo ftrong, 
that they had a clear Majority : Nor did he himfelf very muci 
approve of the Nomination, chiefly that of old Dalrympky foon 
after made Lord Stair, to be Prefident. So he difcontinued 
the Parliament. 
A Rifing in But, while thofe animofities were thus fomented, the Earl of 
Dundee had got together a confiderable body of Gentlemen, 
with fome Thoufands of Highlanders. He fent feveral Mef- 
, fengers over to Ireland, prefling King James to come, either 

to the North of England, or to ^gqfland. But, at the fame 


of K. Will I A m and Q. Mary, ly 

time he defircd, that he would not bring the Lord Me/fort over i68g 
with him, or employ him more in Scotch Bufmefs ; and that c^^'V""^ 
he would be contented with the exercife of his jown Religion. 
It may be eafily fuppofcd, that all this went againft the grain 
with King James \ and that the Lord Melfort difparaged all 
the Earl of Du7idee\ undertakings. In this he was much fup- 
portcd by the French near that King, who had it given them in 
charge (as a main inftrudion) to keep him up to a high own- 
ing of his Religion, and of all thofe who were of it ; and not 
to fuller him to enter into any Treaty or Conditions with his 
Proteftant Subjeds, by which the Papifts Ihould in any fort 
fuffer, or be fo much as difcouraged. The Irijh were willing 
enough to crofs the Seas to England^ but would not confent to the 
going over to Scotland. So the Earl of Dundee was furnifhed 
with fome fmall ftore of Arms and Ammunition, and had kind 
promifes, encouraging him, and all that joined with him. 

Mackajfy a General Officer, that had ferved long in Holland 
with great reputation, and who was the pioufeft man I ever 
knew, in a Military vv^ay, was fent down to command the Army 
in Scotland. He was one of the beft Officers of the Age, when 
he had nothing to do but to obey and execute Orders ; for he 
was both diHgent, obliging and brave : But he was not fo 
fitted for command. His Piety made him too apt to miftruft 
his own Senfe, and to be too tender, or rather fearful, in any 
thing, where there might be a needlefs effufion of blood. He 
followed the Earl of Dundee'^ motions, who was lefs encum- 
ber'd with Cannon and other Baggage, and fo marched quicker 
than it was poffible for him to follow : His men were for the 
moft part new-levied, and without experience ; but he had 
fome old Bodies, on whom he depended. The heads of the 
Clanns among the Highlanders, promifed to join him : but 
moft of them went to the Earl of Dundee. At laft, after many 
marches and motions, they came to an engagement at Gilli- 
cranky^ fome few miles above Dunkell : The ground was narrow: 
And Lord Dundee had the advantage : He broke through Mac- 
kay\ Army, and they ran for it ; And probably, if the Earl of 
Dundee had out-lived that day, the Vidory might have been 
purfued far: But a random Ihot put an end to his life, and 
to the whole defign : For Mackay ralHed his men, and made 
fuch a ftand, that the other fide fell into great diforder, and 
could never be formed again into a confiderable Body : A Fort 
was foon after built at Innerlockyy which was called Fort Wil- 
liam^ and ferved to cut off" the communication between the Nor- 
thern and Southern Highlanders. 


28 The History of the Reign 

1689 During all thefe publick diforders, that happen'd in fo many" 
K^r^^T'^ different places, the Trade fuffered confiderably : For the French^ 
not fetting out a Fleet any more, fent out fo many Cruifers 
and Privateers into our Seas, that England thereby fuffered great 
loffes ; there not being at that time a fujffieient number of Fri- 
gates to convoy and fccure the Merchant-men. We feemed to 
be Mafters at Sea, and yet were great Lofers there. 

Affairs went much better on the Rhine. The Imperial Army, 
ASirsI commanded by the Duke of Lorrain^ took Mentz^ which the 
French had entred, after they took Philipsburg : The Siege was 
flow and long, but profperous in its conclulion : And by this 
means Franconia, which before lay expofed, was now covered. 
The Ele(9:or of Brandenburg came down with an Army, and 
cleared the Archbiflioprick of Coloign^ which was before pof- 
feffed by French Garrifons. Keizerwart and Bonne held him 
fome time : but the reft were foon taken. So now the Rhine 
was open all up to Mentz. Nothing paffed in Flanders^ where 
Prince Waldeck commanded : And the Campaign ended with- 
out any misfortunes on that fide. 
A jeaioufy I now return to the affairs of E?}gland, during the Recefs. 
fpread ^'"^ '^^^ clergy generally took the Oaths, tho' with too many rc- 
mong the fervatious and diftindiions, which laid them open to fevere cen- 
CJefgy, fures, as if they had taken them againft their Confcience. 
The King was fufpedled by them, by reafon of the favour 
fhewed to Diffenters, but chiefly for his aboliftiing Epifcopacy 
in Scotland^ and his confenting to the fetting up Presbytery 
there. This gave fome credit to the Reports, that were with 
great induftry infufed into many of them, of the King's cold- 
nefs at beft, if not his averfion, to the Church of England. 
The leading men in both Univerfities, chiefly Oxford^ were 
poffeffed with this j And it began to have very ill effeds over 
all England. Thofe who did not carry this fo far as to think, 
as fome faid they did, that the Church was to be pulled down ; 
yet faid, a Latitudinarian Party was like to prevail, and to en- 
grofs all Preferments. Thefe were thought lefs bigotted to 
outward Ceremonies : So now it was generally fpread about, 
that men zealous for the Church would be negle<3:ed, and that 
thofe who were more indifferent in fuch matters, would be 
preferred. Many of jhe latter had managed the Controver- 
fies with the Church of Rome with fo much clearnefs, and 
with that fuccefs, that the Papifts, to revenge themfelves, and 
to blaft thofe, whom they confidered as their moft formidable 
Enemies, had caft afperfions on them as Socinians, and as men 
that denied all Myfl:eries. And now, fome angry men at Ox- 


of K. William and Q.Mary. 29 

fordi who apprehended that thofc Divines were likely to be 1689 
moft confidered in this Reign, took up the fame method of '-'<^'^^''^'^ 
Calumny ; and began to treat them as Socinians. The Earl of 
Clarendon, and fome of the Bifliops, who had already incurred 
the Sufpenfion, for not taking the Oaths to the Government, 
took much ill-natured pains to fpread thefe Slanders. Six 
Bifhopricks happened to fall within this year : Salisbury, Chef- 
ter, Bangor, Worcejler, Chichejler, and Brijiol : So that the 
King named fix Bifhops within fix months. And the Perfons 
promoted to thefe Sees were, generally, men of thofe princi- 
ples. The proceedings in Scotland caft a great load on the 
King : He could not hinder the change of the Government of 
that Church, without putting all his affairs in great difordcr; 
The Epifcopal Party went almoft univerfally into King James s 
Interefts : So that the Presbyterians were the only Party, that 
the King had in that Kingdom. The King did indeed affurc 
us, and my felf in particular, that he would reftrain and mo- 
derate the violence of the Presbyterians. Lord Melvill did. 
alfo promife the fame thing very folemnly : And at firft he 
feemcd much fet upon it. But when he faw fo great a Party 
formed againft himfelf: And, fince many of the Presbyterians 
inclined to favour them, and to fet themfelves in an oppofitioii 
to the Court, he thought it was the King's Intereft, or at Icaft 
his own, to engage that Party entirely : And he found nothing 
could do that fo effedually, as to abandon the Minifters of 
the Epifcopal Perfuafion to their fury. He fet up the Earl of 
Crawford, as the head of his Party ; who was paflionate in his 
temper, and was out of meafure zealous in his Principles : He 
was chofen to be the Prefident of the Parliament. He received 
and encouraged all the complaints, that were made of the 
Epifcopal Minifters : The Convention, when they pafled the 
Votes, declaring the King and Queen, order'd a Proclamation 
to be read the next Sunday, in all the Churches of Edinburgh ; 
and in all the other Churches in the Kingdom, by a certain 
prefixed day ; but which was fo near at hand, that it was fcarce 
pofiible to lay Proclamations, all round the Nation, within the 
time ; and it was abfolutely impofTible for the Clergy to meet 
together, and come to any refolution among themfelves : For 
the moft part, the Proclamations were not brought to the Mi- 
nifters till the morning of the Sunday, in which they were 
ordered to be read ; fo, this having the face of a great change 
of Principles, many could not on the fudden refolve to fubmit to 
it: Some had not the Proclamations brought to them till the day 
was paft ; Many of thefe read it the Sunday following. Some of 
Vol. II. ^ J thofe< 

JO The History of the Reign 

1689 thofe, who did not think fit to read the Proclamation, yet obeyed 
UJ^^v'-'^^iJ it J and continued, after that, to pray for the King and Queen. 
Complaints were brought to the Council of all thofe, who had 
not read nor obeyed the Proclamation ; And they were in a 
fummary way deprived of their Benefices. In the executing 
this, Lord Crawford fhewed much eagernefs and violence. 
Thofe who did not read the Proclamation on the day appointed, 
had no favour, tho' they did it afterwards. And upon any 
word that fell from them, either in their extemporary Prayers, 
or Sermons, that fhewed difafFedion to the Government, they 
were alfo deprived : All thefe things were publifhed up and 
down England, and much aggravated : And raifed the averfion, 
that the friends of the Church had to the Presbyterians fo high, 
that they began to repent their having granted a Toleration to 
a Party, that, where They prevailed, fhewed fo much fury 
againfl thofe of the Epifcopal Perfuafion. So that fuch of us, 
as had laboured to excufe the change, that the King was forced 
to confent to, and had promifed in his Name, great Modera- 
tion towards our friends in that Kingdom, were much out of 
countenance, when we faw the Violence with which matters 
were carried there. Thefe things concurred to give the Clergy 
fuch ill impreflions of the King, that we had little reafon to 
look for fuccefs, in a defign that was then preparing for the 
Convocation, for whom a Summons was ifliied out to meet, dur- 
ing the next Seffion of Parliament. 
A Compre- It was told, in the Hiftory of the former Reign, that the Clergy 
henfion en- J' J ^^^^ exprefs an inclination, to come to a temper with relation 
to the Presbyterians, and fuch other Difl'enters as could be brought 
into a Comprehenfion with the Church : The Bifhops had men- 
tioned it in the Petition to King "James, for which they were 
tried ; And his prefent Majefty had promifed, to endeavour an 
Union between the Church and the Diffenters, in that Declara- 
tion, that he brought over with him : But it feemed neceffary 
to prepare and digefl that matter carefully, before it fhould be 
offered to the Convocation. Things of fuch a nature ought to 
be judged of by a large number of Men ; but mufl be pre- 
pared by a fmaller number well chofen : Yet it was thought 
a due refpe£l to the Church, to leave the matter wholly in the 
hands of the Clergy. So, by a fpecial Commiffion under the 
Great Seal, Ten Bifhops and Twenty Divines were empowered 
to meet, and prepare fuch Alterations, in the Book of Com- 
mon-Prayer and Canons, as might be fit to lay before the Con- 
vocation. This was become neceflary, fince by the Submiffion, 
^hich the Clergy in Convocation made to King //(?/?r)/ VIII, which 


of KWiLLiAM and Q. M a r y. 31 

was confirmed in Parliament, they bound themfelvcs not to at- 1689 
tempt any new Canons, without obtaining the King's leave firft, ^^^'(^'W"^ 
and that under the pains of a Premunire. It was looked on there- 
fore, as the propereft way, to obtain the King's leave, to have a 
Scheme of the whole matter put in order, by a number of Bifhops 
and Divines : Great care was taken to name thefe fo impartially, 
that no exceptions could lie againft any of tliem : They, upon this, 
late clofcly to it, for feveral weeks : They had before them all 
the Exceptions, tliat either the Puritans before the War, or the 
Nonconformifts fince the Reftoration, had made to any part 
of the Church-Service : They had alfo many PropoHtions and 
Advices that had been offered, at feveral times, by many of our 
Bifhops and Divines, upon thofe heads : Matters were well con- 
fidered, and freely and calmly debated : And all was digefted 
into an entire Corredion of every thing, that feemed liable to 
any juft objedion : We had fomc very rigid, as well as very 
learned men among us ; tho' the moft rigid, either never came 
to our Meetings, or they foon withdrew from us, declaring them- 
felves dilTatisfied with every thing of that nature ; fome telling 
us plainly, that they were againft all alterations whatfoevcr. 
They thought, too much was already done for the Diflenters, in 
tlie Toleration that was granted them ; but that they would do 
nothing to make that ftill ealier. They faid further, that the 
altering the Cuftoms and Conftitution of our Church, to gratify 
a peevifli and obftinate Party, was like to have no other effed: 
on them, but to make them more infolent ; as if the Church, 
by offering thefe Alterations, feemed to confefs that fhe had 
been hitherto in the wrong. They thought, this attempt would 
divide us among our felves, and make our People lofe their 
efteem for the Liturgy, if it appeared that it wanted Corredion. 
They alfo excepted to the manner of preparing matters, by a fpe- 
cial Commiflion, as limiting the Convocation, and impofing 
upon it : And to load this with a word of an ill found, they 
called this a new Ecclefiaftical Commiflion. But in anfwer to 
all this, it was faid ; that, if by a few Corredions or Explana- 
tions, we offered all juft fatisfadion to the chief Objedions of 
the Diflenters, we had reafon to hope, that this would bring 
over many of them, at leaft of the People, if not of the Teach- 
ers among them ; or, if the prejudices of education wrought too 
ftrongly upon the prefent Age, yet, if fome more fenfible ob- 
jedions were put out of the way, we might well hope, that it 
would have a great effed on the next generation. If thefe 
condefcenfions were made fo, as to own, in the way of offering 
them, that the Nonconformifts had been in the right, that might 


3 2 The History of the Reign 

1689 turn to the reproach of the Church: But, fuch offers being 
L^^^^s/"'^ made only, in regard to their weaknefs, the reproach fell on 
them ; as the honour accrued to the Church, who fhewed her 
I felf a true Mother, by her care to preferve her Children. It 

was not offered, that the ordinary pofture, of receiving the Sa- 
crament kneeling, fliould be changed : That was ftill to be the 
received and favoured pofture : Only fuch, as declared they 
could not overcome their fcruples in that matter, were to be 
admitted to it in another pofture. Ritual matters were of. their 
own nature indifferent, and had been always declared to be 
fo : All the neceflity of them arofe only, from the authority 
in Church and State, that had enaftcd them. Therefore it 
was an unreafonable ftiffnefs, to deny any abatement, or yield- 
ing in fuch matters, in order to the heahng the wounds of our 
Church. Great alterations had been made in fuch things, m 
all the Ages of the Church. Even the Church of Rome was 
ftill making fome alterations in her Rituals. And changes had 
been made among our felves, often fince the Reformation, in 
King Edward^ Queen Elizabeth, King James, and King Charles 
the Second's reigns. Thefe were always made upon fome great 
turn : Critical times being the moft proper for deftgns of that 
kind. The Toleration, now granted, feemed to render it more 
, neceffary than formerly, to make the terms of Communion, 
with the Church, as large as might be ; that fo we might draw 
over to us the greater number, from thofe who might now 
leave us more fafely : And therefore we were to ufe the more 
care in order to gaining of them. And, as for the manner of 
preparing thefe overtures, the King's Supremacy fignify'd little^ 
if he could not appoint a feledl number to confider of fuch 
matters, a« he might think fit to lay before the Convocation.. 
This did no way break in upon their full freedom of Debate j 
it being free to them to reje6t, as well as to accept, of the Pro-^ 
pofitions that fliould be aftered to them. But, while men were 
arguing this matter on both fides, the Party that was now at work 
for King James, took hold of this occafion to enflame mens 
minds. It was faid, the Church was to be jjulled down, and 
Presbytery was to be fet up ; that all this now in Debate was 
only intended to divide and diftra<3; the Church, and to render 
it, by that means, both weaker and more ridiculous, while it 
Went off from its former grounds, in offering fuch conceffions. 
The Univerfities took fire upon this ; and began to declare 
againft it, and againft all that promoted it, as men that in- 
tended to undermine the Church : Severe Refledions wera 
eaft on the King, as being in an Intereft contrary to the 
a Church J 

of X. W I L L I A M and Q. M a r y. 3 j 

church : For tlie Church was as the word given out by the Ja- 1689 
cobite Party, under which they thought they might more fafcly '-<^'''>'*^^ 
flicker themfelvcs : Gteat canvaflings were every where, in the 
Elections of Convocation-Men ; d. thing not known in former 
times : So that it was foon very vifible, that we wefe not in a 
temper, cool br cahn enough, to encourage tile further profecut- 
ing fuch a defign. 

When the Convocation was opened^ the King fent them a A Convoca- 
Mcflage by the Earl of Nottingham^ afluring them of his con- liouiTnot" 
ftant Favour and Protedion, and defiring them to confider fuch *g'« ^° "• 
tilings, as by his order fhould be laid before them, with due care, 
and an impartial zeal for the peace and good of the Church. 
But the Lower Houfe of Convocation expreffed a refolution not 
to enter into any Debates with relation to alterations : So that diey 
would take no notice of the fecond part of the King's Meflage : 
And it was, not without difficulty, carried to make a decent 
Addrefs to the King, thanking him for his Promife of Protection. 
But becaufe, in tha draught which the Bifhops fent them, they 
acknowledged the Protedion that the Proteftant Religion in ge- 
neral, and the Church of England in particular, had received 
from him, the lower Houfe thought, that this imported their 
Owning fome common Union with the foreign Proteftants : So 
they would not agree to it. There was at diis time but a fmall 
number of Bifhops in the upper Houfe of Convocation : And 
they had not their Metropolitan with them : So they had not 
ftrength nor authority to fet things forward. Therefore they 
advifed the King to fufFer the Seffion to be difcontinued. And 
thus, feeing they were in no difpofition to enter upon bufinefs, 
they were kept from doing mifchief by Prorogations, for a courfe 
of ten years. This was in reality a favour to them ; for, ever 
lince the year 1662, the Convocation had indeed continued to 
iit, but to do no bufinefs ; fo that they were kept at no fmall 
charge in Town to do nothing, but only to meet, and read a Latin 
Litany. It was therefore an eafe, to be freed from fuch an at- 
tendance to no purpofe. The ill reception, tliat the Clergy gave 
the King's meflage, raifed a great and jufl: out-cry againft 
diem : Since all the promifes made in King James\ time were 
now fo entirely forgot. 

But there was a very happy direction of the Providence of 
God obferved in this matter. The Jacobite Clergy, who were 
then under Sufpenfion, were defigning to make a Schifm in the 
Church, whenfoever they fhould be turned out, and their places 
fhould be filled up by others. They faw, it would not be eafy 
to make a Separation upon a private and perfonal account; 

Vol. II. K They 

34 The H 1 s t o R Y of the Ueign 

1689 They therefore wilhed to be fiirnifhed with more fpecious prfe- 
U?''*^/"'^ tences : And, if we had made alterations in the Rubrick, and 
other parts of the Common-Prayer, they would have pretended, 
that they ftill ftuck to the Ancient Church of England^ in op- 
pofition to thofe who were altering it, and fetting up new mo- 
dels : And, as I do firmly believe that there is a wife Provi- 
dence, that watches upon human affairs, and diredls them, ' 
chiefly thofe that relate to Religion ; fo I have with great plea- 
fure obferved this, in many inftances relating to the Revolution. 
And, upon this occafion, I could not but fee, that the Jacobites 
among us, who wifhed and hoped that we fhould have made 
thofe Alterations, which they reckoned would have been of 
great advantage for ferving their ends, were the inftruments 
of raifing fuch a clamour againft them, as prevented their be- 
ing made. For by all the judgments wc could afterwards make, 
if we had carried a Majority in the Convocation for alterations, 
they would have done us more hurt than good. 
A Seffion of I now tum to a more important, as well as a more trouble- 
Pariiamenr. ^^^_^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ Winter, a ScfTion of Parliament met, full of 

jealoufy and ill humour. The ill condud of affairs was im- 
puted chiefly to the Lord Halifax ; fo the firfl: attack was 
made on him. The Duke of Bolton made a motion in the 
Houfe of Lords, for a Committee to examine, who had the 
chief hand in the Severities and Executions in the end of King 
Charles's reign, and in the ^0 Warranto s^ and the delivering 
up the Charters : The Enquiry lafted fome weeks, and gave 
occafion to much heat : But nothing appeared that could be 
proved, upon which Votes or Addreffes could have been ground- 
ed : Yet the Lord Halifax having, during that time, concurred 
with the Miniftry in Council ; he faw, it was neceflary for him 
to withdraw now from the Minifters, and quit the Court. 
And fosn after he reconciled himfelf to the Tories, and be- 
came wholly theirs : He oppofed every thing that looked fa- 
vourably towards the Government, and did upon all occafions 
ferve the Jacobites, and protect the whole Party. But the 
Whigs began to lofe much of the King's good opinion, by the. 
heat that they fhewed in both Houfes againft their enemies ; 
and by the coldnefs that appeared in every thing, that related 
to the Publick, as well as to the King in his own particular. 
He expreffed an earneft defire to have the Revenue of the Crown 
fettled on him for life : He faid, he was not a King, till that 
was done ; Without that, the title of a King was only a page- 
ant. And he fpoke of this with more than ordinary vehemence : 
So that fometimes he faid, he would not ftay, and hold an 


of K. William and Q, M a r Y* 35* 

empty name, unlefs that was done: He faid once to my felf, 1689 
He underftood die good of a Commonwealth, as well as of a c<?'^>^*'^ 
Kingly Government : And it was not eafy to determine, which grtw^Suj 
was beft : But he was fure, the worft of all Governments was, ofthtWhigs. 
that of a King without Treafure, and without Power. But a 
jealoufy was now infufcd into many, that he would grow Ar- 
bitrary in his Government, if he once had the Revenue ; and 
would ftrain for a high ftretch of Prerogative, as foon as he 
was out of difficulties and neceffities| Thofe of the Whigs, 
who had lived Ibme years at Amjlerdamy had got together a 
great many ftories, that went about the City, of his fullennefs, 
and imperious way of didtating : The Scotch^ who were now 
come up, to give an account of the proceedings in Parliament, 
iet about many things that heightned their apprehenfions. One 
Simpfon^ a Scotch Presbyterian, was recommended to the Earl 
of Portland, as a man whom he might truft j who would bring 
him good intelHgence : So he was often admitted, and was 
entertained as a good Spy : But he was in a fecret confidence 
with one Nevill Payne, the moft adlive and dextrous of all 
King yamesh Agents, who had indeed loft the reputation of 
an honeft man entirely : And yet had fuch arts of manage- 
ment, that even thofe who knew what he was, were willing to 
employ him. Simpfon and he were in a clofe League together ; 
And he difcovered fo much of their fecreteft intelligence to 
Simpfon, that he might carry it to the Earl of Portland, as made 
him pafs for the beft Spy the Court had. When he had gain- 
ed great credit, he made ufe of it to infufe into the Earl of 
Portland jealoufies of the King's beft friends ; And, as the Earl 
of Portland hearkned too attentively to thcfe, fo by other hands 
it was conveyed to fome of them, that the Court was now 
become jealous of them, and was feeking Evidence againft 

Sir James Montgomery was eafily pofleffed with thefe reports ; Conspiracy 
and he and fome others, by Paynes management, fell a treat- Jfoveln- '* 
ing with King Jamess Party in England : They demanded an ment. 
aflurance for the fettlement of Presbytery in Scotland, and to 
have the chief Pofts of the Government fhared among them : 
Princes in exile are apt to grant every thing that is asked of 
them ; for they know that, if they are reftored, they will have 
every thing in their power : Upon this, they entred into a clofe 
Treaty, for the way of bringing all this about. At firft they 
only asked money, for furnifhing themfelves with Arms and 
Ammunition ; But afterwards they infifted on demanding 3000 
men, to be fent over from Dunkirk ; becaufe, by Duke ScAom- 


36 The HtsroKY of the Reign 

1689 isrg's being pofted in Ulfier^ their communication with In^ 
UJ^'^'^*'^ land was cut off. In order to the carrying on this defign, they 
reconciled themfelves to the Duke of ^eensbury^ and the other 
Lords of the Epifcopal party ; And on both fides it was given 
out, that .this Union of thofe, who were formerly fuch violent 
Enemies, was only to fecure and ftrengthen their Intereft in 
Parhament : The Epifcopal Party pretending, that Unce the King 
was not able to proted them, they, who faw themfelves mark- 
ed out for deftrudion, were to be excufed for joining \vith 
thole, who could fecure them. Shnpfon brought an account 
of all this to the Earl of Portland, and was prelTed by him to 
find out witnefles to prove it againft Montgomery : He carried 
this to them, and told them, that the whole bufinefs was dif- 
covered, and that great Rewards were offered to fuch, as would 
merit them by fwearing againft them. With this they alarm- 
ed many of their Party, who did not know what was at bot- 
tom, and thought that nothing was defigned, but an oppofi- 
tion to Lord Mehill and Lord Stair ; And they wei-e poffeffed 
with a fear, that a new bloody fcene of Sham-plots and fuborn- 
ed Witneffes was to be opened. And when it began to be 
whifpered about, that they were in treaty with King James^i 
that appeared to be fo little credible, that it began to be faid, 
by fome difcontented men, What could be expedled from a 
Government, that was fo foon contriving the mine of its beft 
Friends ? Some feared, that the King himfelf might too eafily 
receive fuch Reports ; and that the common pradices of Mi- 
nifters, who ftudy to make their Mafters believe, that all their 
own enemies are likewife His, were like to prevail in this 
reign, as much as they had formerly done. Montgomery came 
to have great credit with fome of the Whigs in England, par- 
ticularly with the Earl of Monmouth, and the Duke of Bolton : 
And he employed it all, to perfuade them not to truft the 
King, and to animate them againft the Earl of Portland : 'This 
wrought fo much, that many were difpofed to think, they 
could have good terms from King James : And, that he was 
now fo convinced of former errors, that they might fafely 
truft him. The Earl oi Monmouth let this out to my felf tv«ce; 
but in a ftrain that looked like one who was afraid of it, and 
who endeavoured to prevent it : but he fet forth the reafons 
for it with great advantage, and thofe againft it very faintly. 
Matters were trufted to Montgomery and Payne-, And Fergufon 
was taken into it, as a man that naturally loved to embroil 
things. So, a defign was managed, firft to alienate the City 
of London fo entirely from the King, that no Loans might be 


of K. William and Q. Ma ry. 37 

advanced on the Money Bills; which, without credit upon 1689 
them, could not anfwer the end, for which they were given. c<?^'v"s>J 
It was fet about, that King yames would give a full Indemnity, 
for all that was paft ; and that, for the future, he would fc- 
parate Iiimfelf entirely from the French Intereft, and be content- 
ed with a fccrct connivance at thofe of his own Religion. It 
was faid, he was weary of the Infolence of the French Court, 
and faw his error, in trufting to it io much as he had done. 
This corrupted Party had gone fo far, that they feemed to 
fancy, that the reftoring him would be not only fafe, but hap- 
py to the Nation. I confefs, it was long before I could let 
my felf tliink, that the matter was gone fo far; But I was at 
laft convinced of it. 

I received a Letter from an unknown hand, with a dircdlion Difcovcred 
how to anfwer it : The fubftance of it was, that he could dif- jhor.*^ **" 
cover a Plot, deeply laid againft the King, if he might be af- 
fured not to be made a Witnefs ; and to have his friends, who 
were in it, pardoned : By tlie King's order, I promifed the firft ; 
But an indefinite promife of Pardon, was too much to ask : He 
might, as to that, truft to the King's mercy. Upon this he 
came to me, and I found he was Montgomery^ Brother : He 
told me a Treaty was fettled with King yames ; Articles were 
agreed on ; And an Invitation was fubfcribed, by the whole Ca- . 
bal, to King yatnes to come over : Which was to be fent to the 
Court of France; both becaufe the Communication was eafier, 
and lefs watched, when it went thro' Flanders^ than widi Ire- 
land ; And, to let the Court fee how ftrange a Party he had, 
and by that means to obtain the Supplies and Force that was 
defired. He faid, he faw the writing, and fome hands to it ; 
but he knew many more were to fign it ; And he undertook 
to put me in a method to feize on the Original Paper. The 
King could not eafily believe the matter had gone fo far ; Yet 
he ordered the Earl of Shrewsbury to receive fuch advices, as 
I fhould bring him, and immediately to do what was proper : 
So a few days after this, Montgomery told me, one Williamfon 
was that day gone to Dover, with the original Invitation : I 
found the Earl of Shrewsbury inclined enough to fufpedl Wil- 
liamfon. He had for fome days folicited a Pafs for Flanders^ 
and had got fome perfons, of whom it was not proper to fhew 
a Sufpicion, to anfwer for him. So one was fent Poft after 
him, with orders to feize him in his bed, and to take his Clothes 
and Portmanteau from him, which were ftridly examined ; But 
nothing was found : Yet, upon the news of tliis, the Party was 
grievoully affrighted ; But foon recovered themfelves : The true 
Vol. II. L fccrct 

38 The His TO KY of the Reign 

1689 fecret of which was afterwards difcovered. Simp/on was (it 
U^^^""^ feems) to go over with WUliamfon \ but firft to ride to fome' 
Houfes that were in the way to Dover ; whereas the other went 
directly in the Stage-Coach. It was thought fafefl for Simp/on 
to carry thefe Papers ; for there were many different Invita- 
tions, as they would not truft their hands to one common pa- 
per : Simpfon came to the Houfe at Dover, where Williamfon was 
in the Meffengers hands : Thereupon he went away immediately 
to Deal, and hired a boat, and got fafe to France with his 
Letters. Montgomery, finding that nothing was difcovered, by the 
way which he had directed me to, upon that fancied he would 
be defpifed by us, and perhaps fufpedled by his own fide ; 
And went over foon after, and turned Papift : But I know not*^ 
what became of him afterwards. The fear of this Difcovery. 
foon went off: Simpfon came back with large aflurances : 
And 12000 Pounds were fent to the Scotch, who undertook 
to do great matters. All pretended Difcoveries were laughed 
at, and looked on as the fidions of the Court : And upon 
this, the City of London were generally poffefled with a very 
ill opinion of the King. The Houfe of Commons granted 
the Supplies, that were demanded for the Redudion of Ireland, 
and for the ^ota, to which the King was obliged by his Al- 
liances : And they continued the gift of the Revenue for ano- 
ther year. But one great error was committed by the Court, 
in accepting remote Funds j whereby the Intereft of the money, 
then advanced on a Fund, payable at the diftance of fome years, 
did not only eat up a great deal of the Sum, but feemed fo 
doubtful, that great Premiums were to be offered to thofe, 
who advanced money upon a Security, which was thought very 
contingent ; fince few believed that the Government would 
laft fo long. So here was a fhew of great Supplies, which 
yet brought not in the half of what they were eftimated at. 
A Bill con- The Tories, feeing the Whigs grow fullen, and that they 
cerning Cor- ^Quld make uo advauccs of money, began to treat with the 
Court, and promifed great advances, if the ParHament might 
be diffolved, and a new one be fummoned. Thofe propofi- 
tions came to be known ; fo the Houfe of Commons prepared 
a Bill, by which they hoped to have made fure of all future 
Parliaments ; In it they declared, that Corporations could not 
be forfeited, nor their Charters furrendred ; And they enaded, 
that all Mayors and Recorders^ who had been concerned in 
the private delivering up of Charters, without the confent of 
the whole Body, and who had done that in a clandeftine man- 
ner, before the Judgment that was given againft the Charter 


^K William a/id Q. Mary. 39 

of London^ fhould be turned out of all Corporations, and be 1689 
incapable of bearing Office in them for Six years. This was uj'^V^s^ 
oppofed in the Houfe of Commons, by the whole ftrength of^ 
the Tory Party j for they faw the carrying it was the total ru-f 
ine of their Intereft, thro' the whole Kingdom. They faid a 
great deal againft the declaratory part; But whatfoever might 
be in that, Ihey faid, lince the thing had been fo univerfal, it 
feemcd hard to punifh it with fuch Severity : It was faid, thatj 
by this means, the Party for the Church would be difgraced,i 
and that the Corporation* would be caft into the hands off 
Diflenters. And now both Parties made their court to the King ; i 
The Whigs promifed every thing that he defired, if he would) 
help them to get this Bill pafTed j And the Tories were not 
wanting in their promifcs, it the Bill fhould be ftopp'd, and 
the Parliament diffolved. The Bill was carried in the Houfe of 
Commons by a great Majority : When it was brought up to 
the Lords, the firft point in debate was, upon the declaratory; 
part. Whether a Corporation could be forfeited or furrendred ; 
Holt^ and two other Judges, were for the Affirmative, but all 
the reft were for the Negative : No Precedents for the Affirma- 
tive were brought, higher than the reign of King Henry VIII, 
in which the Abbies were furrendred ; which was at that time 
fo great a point of State, that the authority of thefc Precedents 
feemed not clear enough for regular times : The Houfe was io 
equally divided, that it went for the Bill only by one Voice; 
After which, little doubt was made of the pafling the Adt. 
But now the applications of the Tories were much quickned ; 
They made the King all poffible promifes : And the promoters 
of the Bill faw themfelves expofed to the Corporations, which 
were to feci the effeds of this Bill, fo fenfibly, that they made 
as great promifes on their part : The matter was now at a cri- 
tical iffiie ; The paffing the Bill put the King and the Nation 
in the hands of the Whigs ; as the rejeding it, and diffolving 
the Parliament upon it, was fuch a trufting to the Tories, and 
fuch a breaking with the Whigs, that the King was long in fuf- 
pence what to do. 

He was once very near a defperate refolution ; He thought, 
he could not truft the Tories, and he refolved he would not 
truft the Whigs ; So he fancied, the Tories would be true to the 
Queen, and confide in her, tho' they would not in him. He 
therefore refolved to go over to Holland^ and leave the Govern^ 
ment in the Queen's hands : So he called the Marquifs oiCaer- 
marthen^ with the Earl of Shrewsbury^ and fome few more, 
-and told them, he had a Convoy ready, and was refolved to 


40 The History of the Reign ^ 

1 68g leave all in the Queen's hands ; lince he did not fee how he could 
\^r'\r%J extricate himfelf out of the difficulties, into which the animo- 
fittes of Parties had brought him : They prefTed him vehement- 
ly to lay afide all fuch defperate refolutions, and to comply 
with the prefent neceffity ; Much paffion appeared among them: 
The Debate was fo warm, that many tears were fhed ; In con- 
ciufion, the King refbked to change his firft Defign, into ano- 
ther better Refolution o{ going over in perfon, to put an end 
to the War in Ireland : 'fhis was told me fome time, after 
by the Earl of Shrewsbury ; But the Queen knew nothing of: 
it, till - flie had it from me ; So referved was the King to her, 
even in a matter that concerned her fo nearly. The King's 
deiign, of going to Ireland^ came to be feen by the Preparations, 
that were ordered , But a great Party was formed in both Houfes 
to oppofe it :. Some did really apprehend the air of Ireland would 
be fatal to fo weak a Conftitution ; And the Jacobites had no 
mind that King "James fhould be fo much prefTed, as he would 
probably be, if the King went againft him in perfon : It was 
by concert propofed in both Houfes, on the fame day, to pre- 
pare an Addrefs to the King againft this Voyage : So the King, 
to prevent that, came the next day, and prorogued the Parlia- 
ment J and that was foon after followed by a DifTolution. 

This Seflion had . not raifed all the money, that was demand- 
1090 gj £^j. the following Campaign ; So it was neceffary to iffue out 
kCwPar- Writs immediately for a new Parliament. There was a great 
liament. Struggle all Eiigland over in Eledions ; But the Corporation 
Bill did fo highly provoke all thofe, whom it was to have 
difgraced, that the Tories wxre by far the greater number in 
the new Parliament. One thing was a part of the Bargain, that 
. the Tories had made, that the Lieutenancy of London fhould 
be changed : For upon the King's coming to the Crown, he 
had given a CommilFion, out of which they were all excluded ; 
which was fuch a Mortification to them, that they faid, they 
could not live in the City with credit, unlefs fome of them 
were again brought into that Commiftion : The King recom- 
mended it to the Biftiop of London., to prepare a Lift of thofe, 
who were known to be Churchmen, but of the more moderate, 
and of fuch as were liable to no juft exception j that fo the 
two Parties in the City might be kept in a Balance : The Bi- 
fhop brought a Lift of die moft violent Tories in the City, who 
had been engaged in fome of the worft things, that pafled in 
the end of King Charles\ Reign : A Committee of Council 
was appointed to examine the Lift ; But it was fo named, that 
^ they 

of K. William ^W % Marv, 41 

they approved of it. This was done to the great grief of the 1690 
"Whigs, who faid, that the King was now putting himfelf in ^-<^'v*"'^ 
his Enemies hands ; and that the Arms of the City were now 
put under a fett of Officers, who, if there was a poffibility of 
doing it without hazard, would certainly ufe them for Kingy^w^x. 
This matter was managed by the Marquifs of Caermarthen., and 
the Earl of Notti?igham ; but oppofed by the Earl of Shrewf^ 
burjy who was much troubled at the ill conduft of the Whigs, 
but much more at this great change in the King's Government. 
The Eledlions of Parliament went generally for men, who would 
probably have declared for King Jamesy if they could have 
known how to manage matters for him. The King made a 
change in the Miniftry, to give them fome fatisfadtion ; The 
Earls of Monmouth and Warrington were both difmifled ; Other 
leffer changes were made in inferior places : So that Whig and 
Tory were now pretty equallv mixed ; And both fludied to 
court the King, by making advances upon the Money Bills. 

The firft great Debate arofe, in the Houfe of Lords, upon a A Bill re- 
Bill that was brought in, acknowledging the King and Queen JhrKilfg, 
to be their Rightful and Lawful Sovereigns ; and declaring all ^^^^A^^f 
the Ads of the laft Parliament to be good and valid. The firft the Conven- 
part pafled, with little contradidion ; tho' fome excepted to the 
words Rightful and Lawful^ as not at all neceflary. But the 
fecond Article bore a long and warm Debate. The Tories of- 
fered to ena<a, that thefe fliould be all good Laws, for the time 
to come, but oppofed the doing it in the declaratory way. They 
faid, it was one of the Fundamentals of our Conftitution, that 
no Afiembly could be called a Parliament, unlefs it was called 
and chofen upon the King's Writ. On the other hand it was 
faid, that whatfoever tended to the calling the authority of that 
Parliament in queflion, tended likewife to the weakning of the 
prefent Government, and brought the King's Title into queftion. 
A real neceflity, upon fuch extraordinary occafions, muft fuper- 
fede Forms of Law : Otherwife the prefent Government was 
under the fame NuUity. Forms were only Rules for peaceable 
times : But, in fuch a jundure, when all that had a right to 
come, either in perfon, or by their Reprefentatives, were fum- 
xnoned, and freely eleded ; and when, by the King's Confent, 
the Convention was turned to a Parliament, the effentials, both 
with relation to King and People, were ftill maintained in the 
Conftitution of that Parliament. After a long debate, the Ad: 
paffed in the Houfe of Lords, with this temper, declaring and 
enading, that the Ads of that Parliament were and are good and 
valid : Many Lords protefting againft it, at the head of whom 
.' Vol. IL M was 


42 .V tThe History of the Reign ss 

1690 was the Earl of Nottingham^ notwithftanding his great Office at 
u«''^y"'^!»J Court. It was expeded, that great and long Debates fhould 
have been made in the Houfe of Commons upon this A61. But, 
tb the wonder of all People, it pafied in two days in that Houfe, 
without any Debate or Oppolition. The truth was, the Tories 
Had refolved to commit the Bill ; and in order to that, fome 
trifling exceptions were made to fome words, that might want 
correftion ; for Bills are not committed, unlefs fome amend- 
ments are offered : And, when it was committed, it was then 
refolv^ed to oppofe it. But one of them difcovered this too 
early ; for he queftioned the Legality of the Convention, fince 
it was not fummoned by Writ : SomerSj then Solicitor General, 
anfwercd this with great fpirit ; He faid, if that was not a Le- 
gal Parliament, they who were then met, and had taken the 
Oaths, enadied by that Parliament, were guilty of High Trea- 
fon ; the Laws repealed by it were ftill in force, fo they muft 
prefently return to King James \ All the money levied, col- 
•n ^m Icded, and paid, by virtue of the A€t% of that Parliament, 
made every one that was concerned in it highly criminal : This 
he fpoke with much zeal, and fuch an afcendant of Authority, 
that none was prepared to anfwer it ; So the Bill palTed with- 
" out any more oppofltion. This was a great fervice, done in a 
very critical time, . and contributed not a little to raife Somersh 

The Speaker of the Houfe of Commons, Sir John Trevor, 
was a bold and dextrous man ; and knew the moft cffe<^ual 
ways of recommending himfelf to every Government : He had 
been in great favour in King James's time, and was made 
Mafter of the Rolls by him ; And, if Lord jfefferies had ftuck 
at any thing, he was looked on as the man, likelieft to have 
had the Great Seal : He now got himfelf to be chofen Speaker, 
and was made Firft Commiffioner of the Great Seal : Being a 
Tory in principle, he undertook to manage that Party, provided 
he was iurniihed with fuch fums of money, as might purchafe 
fome Votes; And by him began the practice of buying off 
men, in which hitherto the King had kept to ftrider rules. 
I- took the liberty once to Complain to the King of this metlKxl; 
He faid, he hated it as much as any man could do; But he 
faw, it was not polTible, confidering the Corruption of the Age, 
to avoid it, unlefs he would endanger the whole. 
The Reve- ; , Xhc Houfe of Commons ga\'e the King the Cuftoms for five 
yelrl"^" ""' years, which they faid made it a furer Fund, for borrowing 
money upon, than if they had given it for Hfe : The one was 
fubjedt tojaccidents, but the other was more certain. They alfo 
cii . continued 

of K. Wi L L I A M and % M A r y. 43 

continued the other branches of the Revenue for the fame num- 1690 
her of years. It was much prefled to have it fettled for Hfe ; '-^'^'^'''^^ 
But it was taken up as a general maxim, that a Revenue for a 
certain and fhort term, was the beft fecurity that the Nation 
could have for frequent Parliaments. The King did not hke 
this ; He faid to my felf, why fhould they entertain a jealouly 
of him, who came to fave their Religion and Liberties ; when 
they trufted King James fo much, who intended to deftroy 
both ? I anfwered, they were not jealous of him, but of thofe 
who might fucceed him ; And if he would accept of the Gift 
for a term of years, and fetdc the Precedent, he would be rec- 
koned the Deliverer of fucceeding Ages, as well as of the pre- 
Jent ; And, it was certain, that King y antes would never have 
run into thoie Counfels that ruined him, if he had obtained 
•the Revenue only for a fhort term ; which probably would 
have been done, if Argyle\ and Monmouth\ Invafions had not 
fo over-awed the Houfe, that it would then have looked like 
being in a Confpiracy with them, to have oppofed the King's 
demand : I faw the King was not pleafed, tho' he was per- 
fuaded to accept of the Grant, thus made him. The Commons 
granted a Poll Bill, with fome other Supplies, which they thought 
would anfwer all the occafions of that year : But as, what they 
gave, did not quite come up to what was demanded j So when 
the Supply was raifed, it came far fhort of what they eftimated 
it at. So that there were great Deficiencies to be taken care of, 
in every SefTion of ParHament : which run up every year, and 
made a great noife, as if the Nation was, thro' mifmanagement, 
running into a great Arrear. An Ad: pafled in this Seilion, 
putting the Adminiftration in the Queen, during the King's ab- 
fence out of the Kingdom ; but with this Provifo, that the 
Orders which the King fent fliould always take place. In all 
this Debate, the Queen feemed to take no notice of the matter, 
nor of tkofe who had appeared for it, or againft it : The Houfe , 

of Commons, to the great grief of the Whigs, made an Ad- 
drefs to the King, thanking him for the Alterations he had 
made in the Lieutenancy of London. 

But the greateft Debate in this SefTion, was concerning an Debates for 
Abjuration of King James ; fome of the Tories were at firft for an Abjura- 
it, as were all the Whigs : The Clergy were excepted out of y°^°^^^°8 
it, to foften the oppofition that might be made ; But ftill the 
main body of the Tories declared, they would never take any 
fuch Oath ; So they oppofed every flep that was made in it, 
with a great copioufnefs of long and vehement arguing : They 
infilled much on this ; that when the Government was fettled, 


44 ^^^ History of the Reign 

1690 Oaths were made to be the Ties of the Subjed to it, and thdt 
^^^^^""^/""^ all new Impofitions were a Breach made on That, which might 
be called the Original Contrail of the prefent Settlement : Things 
of that kind ought to be fixed and certain, and not mutable 
and endlefs ; By the fame reafon, that the Abjuration was now 
propofed, another Oath might be prepared every year ; and 
every Party, that prevailed in Parhament, would bring in fomc 
difcriminating Oath or Teft, fuch as could only be taken by 
thofe of their own fide ; And thus the largenefs and equality 
of Government would be loft, and contracted into a Fadion. 
On the other fide it was faid, that this was only intended to be 
a fecurity to the Government, during the War ; For, in fuch a 
time it feemed necefl'ary, that all who were employed by the 
Government, fhould give it all pofllble fecurity : It was appa- 
rent, that the comprehenfive Words in the Oaths of Allegiance 
had given occafion to much equivocation ; Many who had ta- 
ken them having declared, which fome had done in print, that 
they confidered themfelves as bound by the Oaths, only while 
the King continued in peaceable pofleflion ; but not to affift 
or fupport his Title, if it was attacked or fhaken ; It was 
therefore neceflary, that men in publick Trufts fhould be 
brought under ftriCler Ties. The Abjuration was debated in 
both Houfes, at the fame time ; I concurred with thofe that 
were for it. The Whigs preffed the King to fet it forward ; 
They faid, every one who took it, would look on himfelf as 
impardonable, and fo would ferve him with the more Zeal 
and Fidelity ; whereas thofe, that thought the Right to the 
Crown was ftill in King James, might perhaps ferve faithfully 
as long as the Government ftood firm ; but, as they kept ftill 
meafures with the other fide, to whom they knew they would 
be always welcome, fo they would never adi with that life and 
zeal, which the prefent ftate of affairs required. At tlie fame 
time, the Tories were as earneft in prefiing the Kin^ to ftop 
the further progrefs of thofe Debates : Much time was already 
loft in them ; And it was evident, that much more muft be 
loft, if it was intended to carry it on, fince fo many branches 
of this Bill, and incidents that arofe upon the fubjedl of it, 
would give occafion to much heat and wrangling : And it 
was a doubt, whether it would be carried, after all the time 
that muft be beftowed on it, or not : Thofe who oppoled it 
would grow fullen, and oppofe every thing elfe that was mov- 
ed for the King's fervice : And, if it fhould be carried, it 
would put the King again into the hands of the Whigs, 
who would immediately return to their old pradices, againft 


ofK. W I L LI A M and % M a1 y. ^ j- 

ithc Prerogative ; And it would drive many into Kingy^^/z^xs 1690 
Party» who might otherwife flick firm to the King, or at leaft '-'<'''''^^*'^ 
]be Neui^ls : Thefe reafons prevailed with the King, to order 
an Intimation to be given in the Houfe of Commons, that he 
fleiired tliey would let that Debate fall, and go to otlier mat- 
ters, that were more preiling. ' liiii ;[;ni>i lo jirjni -^nuvA 
This gave a new difguft to tlie Whigs, but was very acx^ep^ 
table to tlie Tories ; And it quickned the advances of Money 
upon the Funds jJiat were given : It had indeed a very ill effect 
abroad; For b^pth friends and enemies looked on it, as a fign 
of ,*v great decline in the King's Intereft with his people : And 
the' King's interpoling, to ftop further Debates in the matter, 
was« reprefented, as an artifice only to fave the affront of its be- 
ins reiedted. The Earl of Shrewsbury was at the head of thofe 
who prefied the Abjuration moft ; So, upon this change 0^ J^T^Sary 
Colinfels, he thought, he could not ferve the King longer with lett the 
reputcvUon or.fuccefs: He faw the Whigs, by ufing the King 
jflfriwere driving (him into the Tories ; and he thought, thefe 
woyld lerve the.Kifig with more zeal, if he left his Poft. The 
credit, that the Marquifs of Cacrmarthen had gained, was not 
eafy to him : So he refolved to deliver up the Seals.' I was 
the firfl Perfon, to whom he difcovered this ; And he had them 
in his hands, when he told'meof it; Yet I prevailed with him *Y;"-,^^, ^ 
not to go that night; He was in' fome heat. I had no mind, 
th^f: tlie King (Kould be furprifed, by a thing of that kind; 
piid I was afraid, that the Earl of Shrewsbury might have 
faid fuch things to Him, as fhould have provoked him too 
much ; So I fent the King word of it. It troubled him more 
thaUj I thought, a thing of that fort could have done ; He lov- 
ed the Earl of Shrewsbury ; And apprehended, that his leaving 
his fervice at this time, might alienate the Whigs more entirely 
from him ; For now they, who thought him before of too cold 
a Temper, when they faw how firm he was^ came to confider 
and truft him more than ever. The King fent Tillotfon^ and 
all thofe, who had moft credit with the Earl, to divert him 
from his Refolution : But all was to no purpofe. The agitation 
of rnind, that this gave him, threw him into a Fever, which al*- 
moft coft him his life. The King prefied him to keep the 
Seals, till his return from Ireland^ tho' he fhould not aft as 
Secretary ; But he could not be prevailed on. The Debate, 
for the Abjuration, lafted longer in the Houfe of Lords ; it had 
fome Variation, from that which was propofed in the Houfe of 
Commons : and was properly an Oath of a fpecial FideHty to the 
King, in oppofition to King James : The Tories ofiered, in Bar to 
1 Vol. II. N this, 


46 ^The History of t&e Reign ^ 

1 6go this, a Negative Engagement, againft afTifting King James, or 
W^'V"'^ any of his Inftruments, knowing them to be fuch, with fe~ 
vere Penalties on fuch as fhould refufe it. In oppofition to this, 
it was faid, this was only an expedient to fecure all King 
James\ Party, whatever fhould happen ; fince it left them the 
entire merit of being ftill in his Interefts, and only reftrained 
them from putting any thing to hazard for him. The Houfe 
was fo near an equality, in every Divifion, that what was gained 
in one Day, was loft in the next ; And by the heat and length 
of thofe Debates, the Seflion continued till yum. A Bill, 
projeded by the Tories, paiTcd, relating to the City of Lendort^ 
which was intended, to change the hands that then governed it ; 
But thro' the hafte or weaknefs of thofe who drew it, the Court 
of Aldermen was not comprehended in it ; So, by this Ad:, the 
'^' Government of the City was fixed in their hands: And they were 

I generally Whigs. Many difcoveries were made of the practices 
• '■ from St. Germains and Ireland; But few were taken up upon 
them : And thofe were too inconfiderable, to know more than, 
that many were provided with Arms and Ammunition, and 
that a method was projected, for bringing men together upon a 
call. And indeed things feemed to be in a very ill difpofition, 
towards a fatal Turn. 
The King's The King was making all pofTible hafte to open the Cam- 
fairs!° paign, as foon as things could be ready for it, in /r^Az^a^ •• The 
day before he fet out, he called me into his Clofet ; He feemed 
to have a great weight upon his fpirits, from the ftate of his 
affairs, which was then very cloudy : He faid, for his own 
part, he trufted in God, and would either go thro' with his 
bufinefs, or perifti in it ; He only pitied the poor Queen, re- 
peating that twice with great tendernefs, and wifhed, that thofe 
who loved him, would wait much on her, and aftlft her : 
He lamented much the fadions and the heats that were among 
us, and that the Bifhops and Clergy, inftead of allaying them, 
did rather foment and inflame them : But he was pleafed to 
make an exception of my felf : He faid, the going to a Cam- 
paign was naturally no unpleafant thing to him : He was fure, 
he underftood that better, than how to govern England : He 
added, that, tho' he had no doubt nor miftruft of the caufe 
he went on, yet the going againft King James, in perfon, was 
hard upon him, fince it would be a vaft trouble both to him- 
felf and to the Queen, if he fhould be either killed or taken 
Prifoner : He defired my Prayers, and difmiffed me, very deep- 
ly affeded wdth all he had faid. 
03 le.'i r'a (borjrlc i ■. oi\\«\^giii^l.oJ 

of K.yV\hi.ikViand ^Marv. -. ^y 

1 had a particular occafion to know, how tender he was of 1 690 
King James's perfon, having learnt an inftance of it from the ThTiS*^ 
firft hand : A propofition was made to the King, that a third tcndcmcft 
Rate Ship, well mann'd by a faithful Crew, and commanded y'^,'"? 
by One, who had been well with King Jamesy but was fuch P'^on* 
a one as the King might truft, fhould fail to Dubliriy and de- ) 

clare for King James. The perfon, who told me this, offered 
to be the man, that fhould carry the meflage to King Jamesy 
(for he was well known to him) to invite him to come on 
Board, which he feemed to be fure he would accept of ; and, 
when he was aboard, they fhould fail away with him, and land 
him either in Spain or Italy, as the King fhould defire ; and 
fhould have twenty thou (and Pounds to give him, when he 
fhould be fet afhore : The King thought it was a well formed 
defign, and likely enough to fuccecd ; But would not hearken 
to it : He faid he would have no hand in Treachery : And 
King James would certainly carry fome of his Guards, and of 
his Court aboard with him : And probably they would make 
fome oppofition ; And in the ftruggle, fome accident might 
happen to King James's Perfon j In which he would have no 
hand. I acquainted the Queen with this ; And I faw in her 
a great tcndernefs for her Father's Perfon ; And fhe was much 
touched with the anfwer the King had made. 

He had a quick pafTage to Ireland^ where matters had been The King 
kept, in tlie flate they were in, all this Winter ; Charlemont was jleiani, 
reduced, which was the only place in Ulfter, that was then left 
-, in King James\ hands. The King had a great Army; There 
were about 36,000 men, all in good plight, full of heart and 
zeal ; He loft no time, but advanced in fix days from Belfajiy 
where he landed, to the River of Boyne, near Drogheda. King 
James had abandoned the PafTes, between Newry and Dundalk^ 
which are fo flrait for fome miles, that it had been eafy to have 
difputed every inch of ground ^ King James and his Court 
were fo much lifted up, with the news of the Debates in Parlia- 
ment, and of the diflradions of the City of London, that they 
flattered themfelves with falfe hopes, that the King durft not 
leave England, nor venture over to Ireland : He had been fix 
days come, before King James knew any thing of it. . Upon 
that, he immediately pafTed the Boyne, and lay on the South 
fide of it. His Army confifted of 26,000 men ; His Horfe 
were good ; And he had 5000 French Foot, for whom he had 
fent over, in exchange, 5000 Irijh Foot. He held fome Coun- 
cils of War, to confider what was fit to be done ; whether he 
fhould make a fland tliere, and put all to the decif\on of a 


r^S .The l^isToviY of the ReJgrT 

^i^^f^ ''Battle, or if he fhould march ofF, and abandon that River, 
t'^^'^^"'^*-' and by confequence all the Country on to Dublin. 
Advices ,, ^-{fiA.ll his. Officers, hoth. French and Iripj who difagreed al- 
King '" moil in all their advices, yet agreed in tliis, that, tho' they had 
7^mS' . .there a very advantageous Pofl; to maintain, yet their Army be- 
ing fb much inferior, both in number, and in every thing elfe, 
they would put too much to hazard, if they fhould venture 
on a Battle. They therefore propofed the ftrengthning their 
Garrifons, and marching off to the Shannon with the Horfe, 
and a fmall body of Foot, till they fhould fee how matters 
went at Sea: For the French King had fent them affurances, 
that he would, not only fet out a great Fleet, but that, as foon 
as the Squadron that lay in the IriJJj Seas, to guard the Tranf- 
port Fleet, and to fecure the King's paffage over, fhould fail 
into the Channel, to join our Grand Fleet, he would then 
ifend into the Irijh Seas a Fleet of fmall Fregats and Privateers, 
Ito deftroy the King's Tranfports. This would have been fatal, 
• if it had taken effe<3: ; And the executing of it feemed eafy 
and certain. It would have fhut up the King within Ireland, 
till a new Tranfport Fleet could have been brought thither, 
which would have been the work of fbme months : So that 
.Engla7jd might have been loft, before he could have pafled 
the Seas with, his Army, And the deftru6lion of his Tranfports 
^..iv-; r, : jmuft have ruined his Army : For his Stores, both o^ Bread and 
^^,''^ "Ammunition, were ftill on Board ; and they failed along the 
Coaft, as he advanced on his march : Nor was there, in all that 
rCoaft, a fafe Port to cover and fecure them. The King indeed ^ 
ireckoned, that by the time the Squadron, which lay in the IriJh 
,Seas, fhould be able to join the reft of the Fleet, they would 
■have advanced, as far as the Chops of the Channel, where they 
.would guard both England and Ireland : But things went far 
The Queen The Queen was now in the Adminiftration. It was a new 
miniflradon. fcene to her; She had, for above Hxteen months, made fo lit- 
tle figure in Bufinefs, that thofe, who imagined, that every 
jWoman of fenfe loved to be meddling, concluded that flie had 
a fmall proportion of it, becaufe fhe lived fo abitraded from all 
jAfTairs. Her behaviour was indeed very exemplary ; She was 
jexadly regular, both in her private and publick devotions : She 
•Was much in her clofet, and read a great deal ; She was of- 
ten bufy at work, and feemed to employ her time and thoughts, 
in any thing, rather than matters of State ; Her converfation 
was lively and obliging ; Every thing in her was eafy and 
natural J She was fingular in great Charities, .to the Poor; of 
«3ljJ£ti whom 

of K. WihhiKuand .^Mary. 49 

whom, as there are always great numbers about Courts, fo the 1690 
crouds of Perfons of QiiaHty, that had fled over from Ireland, .x^^'V'^^ 
drew from her Hberal SuppUes : All this was nothing to the Pub- 
lick. If the King talked with her of Affairs, it was in fo pri- ^ 
vate a way, that few feemed to believe it ; The Earl of Shrews- 
bury told me, that the King had, upon many Occafions, faid to 
him, that tho' he could not hit on the right way of pleafing 
England, he was confident fhe would ; and that we fhould all be 
very happy under her. The King named a Cabinet Council of 
eight Perfons, on whofe Advice (he was chiefly to rely ; foiir of 
them were Tories, and four were Whigs : Yet the Marquifs of 
Caermarthen and the Earl of Nottingham, being of the firfl: fort, 
who took moft: upon them, and feemed to have the greatefl: 
credit, the Whigs were not fatisfied with the Nomination. The 
Queen balanced all things, with an extraordinary Temper ; and 
became univerfally beloved and admired by all about her. 

Our concerns at Sea were then the chief thing to be looked to : Affairs at 
An unhappy Complement, of fending a Fleet to convoy a Queen ^"* 
to Spain, proved almofl: fatal to us. They were fo long delay'd 
by contrary Winds, that a defign of blocking up Toulon, was 
lofl: by it. The great Ships, that lay there, had got out before 
our Fleet could reach the place. Our Squadron returned back, 
and went into Plymouth to refit there : and it was joined by that, 
which came from the Irijh Seas. Thefe two Squadrons confift:ed 
of above thirty Ships of the line : The Earl of Torrington, that 
had the chief command, was a man of pleafure, and did not 
make the hafl:e that was necefliary, to go about and join them : 
Nor did the Dutch Fleet come over fo foon as was promifed : So 
that our main Fleet lay long at Spithead. The French under- 
flood, that our Fleets lay thus divided, and faw the advantage 
of getting between them : So they came into the Channel, with 
fo fair a Wind, that they were near the Ifle of Wight, before 
our Fleet had any advice, of their being within the Channel. 
The Earl of Torrington had no advice Boats out to bring him 
News ; And tho' notice thereof was fent pofl: over Land, as 
foon as the French came within the Channel, yet their Fleet failed 
as faft, as the Pofl: could ride : But then the Wind turned upon 
tliem ; otherwife they would, in all probabiHty, have furprifed us. 
But after this firft advantage, the Winds were always contrary to 
them, and favourable to us. So that the French Officers in Ire- 
land, had reafon to look for that Fleet of fmaller VeflTels, which 
was promifed to be fent, to defl:roy the King's Tranfport Ships.^ 
And for thefe reafons, all King James\ Officers were againfl: 
bringing the War, to fo fpeedy a decifion. ^ 

Vol. II. O In 

ed the King. 

jo 7>&^ History of the Reigrr 

1690 In oppofition to all their Opinions, King James himfelf was 
u?^~v'*''5>j pofitive, that they muft flay and defend the Boyne : If they 
marched off and abandoned Dublin^ they would fo lofe their, 
reputation, that the people would leave them, and capitulate |- 
It would alfo difpirit all their Friends in Englaiid : Therefore he 
refolved to maintain the Poft he was in, and feemed not a little 
pleafed to think, that he fhould have one fair Battle for his 
Crown. He fpoke of this with fo much feeming pleafure, that 
many about him apprehended, that he was weary of the flrug- 
gle, and even of Life, and longed to fee an end of it at any 
rate : and they were afraid that he would play the Heroe a little 
too much. He had all the advantages he could defire : The 
River was deep, and rofe very high with the Tide : There was a 
Morafs to be pafs'd, after the pafHng the River, and then a ri- 
ling ground. 
A Cannon ^^1 the kft of yum^ the King came to the Banks of the Ri- 
Baii^wound- ygj. . ^^d as he was riding along, and making a long ftop in one 
place, to obfervc the Grounds, the Enemy did not lofe their 
opportunity, but brought down two pieces of Cannon : And j 
with the firft firing, a Ball pafied along the King's Shoulder, tore 
off fome of his Cloaths, and about a hand-breadth of the Skin, 
out of which about a fpoonful of Blood came. And that was 
all the harm it did him. It cannot be imagined, how much terror 
this ftruck into all, that were about him: He himfelf faid, it was 
nothing : Yet he was prevailed on to alight, till it was waflied, 
and a plaifter put upon it, and immediately he mounted his 
Horfe again, and rode about all the Pofts of his Army : It was 
indeed neceffary to fliew himfelf every where, to take off" the 
apprehenfions, with which fuch an unufual accident filled his 
Soldiers. He continued that day, nineteen hours on horfe- 
back : But upon his fir ft alighting from his horfe, a Deferter had 
gone over to the Enemy with the news, which was carried quickly 
into France^ where it was taken for granted, that he could not 
out-live fuch a Wound : So it ran over that Kingdom, that he 
was dead. And upon it, there were more publick rejoicings, 
than had been ufual upon their greateft Vidories : Which gave 
that Court afterwards a vaft Confufion, when they knew that 
he was ftill alive ; and faw, that they had raifed, in their own 
people, a high opinion of him, by this inhumane joy, when 
djqy believed him dead. 

r. But, to return to the adion oiihe Boyne: The King fent a 
great body of Cavalry, to pafs the R.iver higher, while he refolv- 
ed to pafs it in the face of the Enemy : And the Duke of 
Schomberg was to pafs it in a third place^ .% Uttle below him. I 


of if. Wi L L I A Mand ^ Mar y* j i 

'^vill not enter into the particulars of tJiat day's a6tion, but leave 1690 
that to Military men. u?'v^'5>j 

It was a compleat Victory : And thofe, who were the leaft difpof- The Bittie Flattery, faid, it was almoft wholly due to the King's Courage \oyn«. 
and Condu£l. And, tho' he was a little flirt by reafon of his Wound, 
yet he was forced to quit his Horfc in the Morafs, and to gg 
through it on foot : But he came up in time, to ride almoft: into 
every body of his Army : He charged in many diilerent places ; 
And nothing flood before him. The Iriflj Horfe made fomc 
reliftance, but the Foot threw down their Arms, and ran away. 
The moft amazing Circumfl:ance was, that King James fl:aid all 
tlie while with his Guards, at a fafe difl:ance, and never came 
into the places of Danger or of Adion. But, when he law his 
Army was every where giving ground, was the firfl: that ran 
for it, and reached D-uhlin^ before the adion was quite over; 
for it was dark before the King forfook the purfuit of the Irip. 
His Horfe and Dragoons were fo weary, with the fatigue of a 
long adlion, in a hot day, that they could not purfue far : nor 
was their Camp furnifhed with neceflary refrefhments, till next 
morning ; for the King had marched faft:er, than the waggons 
could poffibly follow. The Army of the Iriflj was fo entirely 
forfaken by their Officers, that the King thought they would 
have difperfed themfelves, and fubmitted ; and that the fol- 
lowing them would have been a mere butchery, which was a 
thing he had always abhorred. The only allay to this Vidtory 
was the lofs of the Duke of Schomberg : He paffed the River in 
his Station, and was driving the Iri^ before him, when a party 
of defperate men fet upon him, as he was riding very carelefly, 
with a fmall number about him. They charged, and in the dis- 
order of that Adion he was (hot : But it could not be known by 
whom ; for moft of all the Party was cut off. Thus that great 
man, like another Epaminondas^ fell on the day, on wliich his 
fide triumphed. 

King James came to Dublin^ under a very indecent Confter- 
nation ; He faid, all was loft ; He had an Army in England^ that 
could have fought, but would not : and now he had an Army, 
that would have fought, but could not. This was not very 
gratefully, nor decently fpoken by him, who was among the 
firft that fled. Next morning he left Dublin \ He faid, too 
much Blood had been already ftied ; It feemed, God was with 
their Enemies ; The Prince of Orange was a merciful Man ; So 
he ordered thofe, he left behind him, to fet the Prifoners at li- 
berty, and to fubmit to the Prince : He rode that day from 
Dublin to Duncannon Fort : But, tho' the place was confldera- 


yi The Yiis TORY of the Reign 

1690 bly ftrong, he would not truft to that, but lay aboard 2i French 
t^-^y^'^isJ Ship, that anchored there, and had been provided, by his owii 
fpecial directions to Sir Patrick Trant. His Courage funk with 
his Affairs, to a degree, that amazed thofe, who had known the 
former Parts of his Life. The Irijh Army was forfaken by 
their Officers for two days : If there had been a hot purfuit, it 
would have put an end to the War of Ireland : But the King 
thought his firft care ought to be to fecure Dublin : And King 
yames\ Officer's, as they abandoned it, went back to the Army, 
only in hopes of a good Capitulation. Dublin was thus forfak- 
en ; and no harm done, which was much apprehended : But 
the fear the 7r//^ were in was fuch, that they durft not venture 
on any thing, which muft have drawn fevere revenges after it. 
So the Proteftants there, being now the Mafters, they declared 
for the King. Drogheda did alfo Capitulate. 
The Battle ^ut, to balance this great fuccefs, the King had, the very 
of Berus. ^ay after the Battle at the Boyne^ the news of a Battle fought in 
Flanders^ between Prince Waldeck and the Marfhal Luxem- 
bourg^ in which the former was defeated. The Cavalry did at 
the firft charge run, but the Foot made an amazing ftand. 
The French had the honour of a Victory, and took many Pri- 
foners, with the Artillery : Yet the ftand the Infantry made was 
fuch, that they loft more than they got by the day : Nor were 
they able to draw any advantage from it. This was the Battle of 
Flerus, that, in the Confequence of it, proved the means of pre- 
ferving England. 
An Engage- On the day before the Battle of the Boyne^ the two Fleets 
ment at ea, ^^^^^ ^^ ^ great Engagement at Sea. The Squadron, that lay at 
Plymouth, could not come up to join the great Fleet, the Wind 
being contrary ; So it was under debate, what was fitteft to be 
done : The Earl of Torrington thought he was not ftrong e- 
nough, and advifed his coming in, till fome more Ships, that 
were fitting out, fhould be ready : Some began to call his cou- 
rage in queftion, and imputed this to fear ; They thought, this 
would too much exalt our Enemies, and difcourage our Al- 
lies, if we left the French to triumph at Sea, and to be the maf- 
ters of our Coaft and Trade ; For our Merchants richeft Ships 
were coming home ; So that the leaving them, in fuch a fuperi- 
ority, would be both very unbecoming, and very mifchievous to 
us. The Queen ordered Rujfel to advife, both with the Navy 
Board, and with all that underftood Sea affairs; And, upon a 
view of the ftrength of both Fleets, they were of opinion, that 
tho' the French were fuperior in Number, yet our Fleet was fo 
equal in ftrength to them, that it was reafonable to fend orders 


ofK. William and ^Mary. y 3 

to our Admiral, to venture on an Engagement : Yet the Orders 1 690 
were not fo politive, but that a great deal was left to a Council <-<5^/"'*»-' 
of War. The two Fleets engaged near Beachy in Sujfex \ The 
Dutch led the Van ; and, to fhew their courage, they advanced 
too far out of the Line, and fought, in the beginning, with fome 
advantage, the French plying before them ; And our Blue Squa- 
dron engaged bravely : But the Earl of Torrington kept in his 
Line, and continued to fight at a diftance : The French^ feeing 
the Dutch came out fo far before the Line, fell on them furioufly, 
both in front and flank, which the Earl of Torrington neglefted 
for fome time ; And, when he endeavoured to come a httle 
nearer, the calm was fuch, that he could not come up. The 
Dutch fufFered much ; and their whole Fleet had perifhed, if 
their Admiral, Calembourg, had not ordered them to drop their 
Anchors, while their Sails were all up ; This was not obferved 
by the French : So they were carried by the Tide, while the 
others lay ftill ; And thus in a few minutes the Dutch were out 
of danger. They loft many men, and funk fome of their Ships, 
which had fufFered the moft, that they might not fall into die 
Enemies hands. It was now neceflary to order the Fleet to come 
in, with all pofTible hafte ; Both the Dutch and the Blue Squar- 
dron complained much of the Earl of Torrington \ And it was 
a general opinion, that if the whole Fleet had come up to a 
clofe Fight, we muft have beat the French : And, confidcring 
how far they were from BreJ}, and that our Squadron at Ply- 
mouth lay between them and home, a Vidory might have had 
great confequences. Our Fleet was now in a bad condition, and 
broken into fadlions ; And if the French had not loft the night's 
Tide, but had followed us clofe, they might have deftroyed ma- 
ny of our Ships : Both the Admirals were almoft equally blam- 
ed ; Ours for not fighting, and the French for not purfuing his 

- Our Fleet came in fafe ; And all pofllble diligence was ufed The Fre»cfl 
in refitting it : The Earl of Torriitgton was fent to the Tower, the Sea. 
and Three of our beft Sea Officers had the joint command of 
the Fleet ; But it was a Month before they could fet out ; And, 
in all that time, the Fre7ich were mafters of the Sea, and our Coafts 
were open to them. If they had followed the firft confterna- 
tion, and had fallen to the burning our Sea Towns, they might 
have done us much mifchief, and put our affairs in great difor- 
der ; for we had not above feven thoufand men then in Fng- 
land. The Militia was raifed, and fufpeded perfons were put 
in prifon : In this melancholy conjundure, tho' the Harveft drew 
on, fo that it was not convenient for people, to be long abfent 
Vol. II. P from 

j4 ^" ^^ History of the Reign 

1 690 from their labour, yet the Nation exprefled more zeal and af- 
\^'<r\'~''^ fedion to the Government, than was expected ; And the yaco- 
bites, all England over, kept out of the way, and were afraid of 
being fallen upon by the Rabble. We had no great lofTes at Sea : 
fof mofl of our Merchant- men came iafe into Plymouth: The 
French flood over, for fome time, to their own Coaft ; And we 
had many falfe alarms of their Ihipping Troops, in order to a 
Defcent. But they had fuffered fo much, in the Battle at Flerus'^ 
and the Dutch ufed fuch diligence, in putting their Army in a 
condition to take the Field again, and the Eledor of Branden- 
burgh, bringing his Troops to ad in conjundion with theirs, gave 
the Frefich fo much work, that they were forced, for all theirr 
Vidlory, to lie upon the defenlive, and were not able to fpare 
fo many men, as were neceffary for an Invafion. The Dutch did 
indeed fend politive orders to Prince Waldeck, not to hazard 
another Engagement, till the Fleet fhould be again at Sea : Thisi 
reftrained the Eledlor, who, in conjundlion with the Dufch^ was 
much fuperior to Luxembourg : And afterwards, when the Dutch 
fuperfeded thofe Orders, the Eledor did not think fit to hazard his 
Army. Such is the fate of Confederate Armies, when they are 
under a different diredion ; that when the one is willing, or at 
leaft feems ta be fo, the other ftands off. The French riding 
fo long, fo quietly in our Seas, was far from what might 
have been expeded, after fuch an advantage : We underflood af- 
terwards, that they were flill waiting, when the Jacobites fhould,, 
according to their promifes, have begun a Rifing in England ; 
But they cxcufed their failing in that, becaufe their Leaders were 
generally clapp'd up. 

That Party began to boaft, all England over, that it was vi- 
fible the French meant no harm to the Nation ; but only to 
bring back King James. ; fince now, tho' our Coafls lay open 
to them, they did us no harm. And this might have made 
fome impreffion, if the French had not effedually refuted it^ 
Their Fleet lay for fome days in Ihrbay ; Their Equipages were 
vveakned ; And by a veffel, that carried a Pacquet from "Tour- 
ville, to the Court of France, which was taken, it appeared, that 
they were then in fo bad a condition, that if our Fleet (whick 
upon this was haftened out aU that was poflible) could have over- 
taken them, we fhould. have got a great Vidory very cheap. 
But before they failed, they made a Defcent on a miferable Vil- 
lage, called 7'mmouthy that happen'd- to belong to a Papifl ; 
They burnt it, and a few Fi(her-Boats that belonged to it , But 
the Inhabitants got away ; and, as a Body of Militia was march- 
ing thither, the French made great hafle back to their Ships t 


^iT. William ^W % Mary, jy 

The French publifhcd this in their Gazettes, with much pomp, 1 690 
as if it had been a great Trading Town, that had many Ships, v^^^v^*>J 
with fome Men of War in Port : This both rendered them ridi- 
culous, and fervcd to raife the hatred of the Nation againft 
them ; for every Town, on the Coaft, faw what they muft expcd:, 
if the French fliould prevail. 

In all this time of lear and difordcr, the Queen fhewed an TheQucen*« 
extraordinary firmnefs ; For tho' flie was full of difmal thoughts, u!,on*,hii^ 
yet fhe put on her ordinary cheerfulnefs, when fhc appeared in occafion. 
publick, and fhewed no indecent concern : I faw her all that 
while once a week ; For I ftaid that Summer at Wind/or ; Her 
behaviour was, in all refpeds, heroical : She apprehended the 
greatnefs of our danger j But fhe committed herfelf to God ; 
And was refolved to expofe herfelf, if occafion fhould require it ; 
For fhe told me, fhe would give me leave to wait on her, if fhc 
was forced to make a Campaign in England^ while the King was 
in Ireland, 

Whilft the misfortunes in Flanders^ and at Sea, were putting The King 
us in no fmall agitation, the news firft of the King's prefervation ^^^^/^ 
from the Cannon ball, and then of the Vidlory, gained the day 
after, put another face on our Affairs: The Earl ol Nottingham 
told me, that when he carried the news to the Queen, and ac- 
quainted her in a few words, that the King was well ; that he 
had gained an entire Vidlory ; and that the late King had e- 
fcaped ; he obferved her Looks, and found that the laft Article 
made her joy compieat, which feemed in fome fufpence, till fhe 
underflood that. The Queen and Council, upon this, fent to the 
King, prefTmg him to come over with all pofTible hafle ; fmce, 
as Eftgland was of more importance, fo the flate of Affairs re- 
quired his Prefence here : For it was hoped, the Reduction of 
Ireland would be now eafily brought about. The King, as he 
received the news of the Battle of Flerus^ the day after the Vic- 
tory at the Boyney fo on the day, in which he entred Dublin, he 
had the news of the misfortune at Sea, to temper the joy, that 
his own Succefies might give him ; He had taken all the Earl 
of 'Tyrconnel\ papers in the Camp ; And he found all King 
Ja7nes\ papers, left behind him in Dublin : By thefe he under- 
flood the defign, the French had of burning his Tranfport Fleet, 
which was therefore firft to be taken care of; And fince the 
French were now Maflers at Sea, he faw nothing that could 
hinder the execution of that Defign. 

Among the Earl of Tyrconnel\ papers, there was one Letter ^ j^gg^ ^^ 
writ to Qiieen Mary at St. Germains, the night before the Bat- affaffinate 
tie ; But it was not fent. In it, he faid, he looked on all as loft; "'^' 


J 6 The History of the Reign 

1690 And ended it thus ; / have now no hope in any thing hut hi 
'-^^'"v'^j Jones'j biifmefs. The Marquifs of Caermarthen told me, that 
fome weeks before the King went to Ireland^ he had received 
an advertifement, that one named Jones, an h'iJJj man, who 
had ferved fo long in France and Holland, that he fpoke both 
Languages well, was to be fent over to murder the King. And 
^'ttttjCT-'-^ Sir Robert Southwell told me, that he, as Secretary of State for 
Ireland, had looked into all TjrconneV^ papers, and the copies 
■'^' of the Letters he wrote to Queen Mary, which he had ftill in 
his pofTeflion : And he gave me the Copies of two of them. 
In one of thefe he writes, that "Jones was come ; that his "]^ropo- 
iition was more probable, and likcr to fucceed, than any yet 
made ; His demands were high ; but he added, if any thing 
can he high for fuch a fervice. In another he writes, that 
Jones had been with the King, who did not like the thing at 
firft ; But he added, we have now fo fatisfied him both in 
Confcience and Honour, that every thing is done that Jones ^ 
I. deiires. Southwell further told me, that Deagle, the Attorney- 

General, had furnifhed him with money, and a Poignard of a 
particular compofition ; and that they fought long for a Bible, 
bound without a Common Prayer Book, which he was to carry 
in his pocket, that (o he might pafs, if feized on, for a DifTen- 
fisi". ^' Some perfons of great quality waited on him to the Boat, 
that was to carry him over : He was for fome time delayed in 
Dublin ; and the King had paffed over to Ireland, before he 
could reach him ; We could never hear of him more ; So it is 
likely he went away with his money. A paper was drawn of all 
this matter, and defigned to be publifhed ; But, upon fecond 
thoughts, the King and Queen had that tendernefs for King 
James, that they ftopp'd the publifhing to the world fo fhame- 
ful a practice. The King faid, upon this, to my fclf, that God 
had preferved him out of many dangers, and he trufted he 
would flill preferve him ; He was fure he was not capable of 
retaliating in that way. The efcape of a Cannon Ball, that 
touched him, was fo fignal, that it fwallowed up lefler ones : 
Yet, in the Battle at the Boyne, a Musket Ball ftruck the Heel of 
his Boot, and recoiling, killed a H^orfe near him ; And one of 
his own men, miftaking him for an Enemy, came up to fhoot 
him : but he gently put by his piftol, and only faid, Do not 
you know your friends f 

At Dublin he publifhed a Proclamation of Grace, offering, 
to all the inferior fort of the /r//^, their Lives and perfonai 
Eftates, referving the conlideration of the real Eftates of the bet- 
ter fort to a Parliament, and indemnifying them only for their 
*■ Lives: 

^^ William and. ^Maay^ |7 

Lives : It was hoped, that the fulnefs of the pardon of the Com- 1 690 
mons might have feparated them from the Gentry ; and that, by u-^v^*^ 
tJiis means, tliey would be fo forfaken, that they would accept of 
fuch terms, as ihould be ofierfed them. I'he King had intended 
to have made the Pardon more comprchenfive ; hoping, by that, 
to bring the War foon to an end : But the Englijh in Ireland 
op|X)fed this. They thought the prefcnt opportunity was not to 
be let go, of breaking the great IriJJj Families, upon whom the 
inferior fort would always depend. And, in compUance with 
tJicm, the Indemnity, now offered, was fo limited, that it had no 
effect : For the Priefts, who governed the Irifi with a very blind 
and abfolute authority, prevailed with them to try their fortunes 
ftill* The news of the Vidory, the French had at Sea^ was io 
magnified among them^ that they made the people believe, that 
they would make fuch a Defcent upon England^ as muft oblige 
the King to abandon Ireland. The King was prefled to purfue 
the Irijh, who had retired to Athlone and Limerick^ and were 
now joined by their Officers, and fo brought again into fome or- 
der : But the main concern was, to put the Tranlport Fleet in a 
fafe ftation. And that could not be had, till the King was mafter 
of JVaterfordy and Duncannon Fort, which commanded the en- 
trance into the River : Both thefe places capitulated ; and the 
Transports were brought thither. But they were not now fo much 
in danger, as the King had reafon to apprehend; for King ^^^v^j, 
when he failed away from Duncannon^ was fqrcgd, by contrary 
winds, to go into the Road of Kinfale, where he found fome French 
Frigats, that were already come to burn our Fleet : He told them^; 
it was now too late, all was loft in Ireland. So he carried them' 
back, to convoy him over to France ; where he had but a cold 
reception : For the mifcarriage of affairs in Ireland^ was imputed 
both to his ill condud, and his want of courage. He fell under 
much contempt of the people of France : Only that King conti- 
nued ftill to behave himfelf decently towards him. 

The King fent his Army towards the Shannon ; and he hirri- 
felf came to Dublin^ intending, as he was advifed, to go over to 
England ; But he found there Letters of another ftrain ; Things 
were in fo good a pofture, and fo quiet in England^ that they 
were no more in any apprehenfion of a Defcent : So the King 
went back to his Army, and marched towards Litnerick. Upon 
this Laufun, who commanded the French^ left the Town ; and 
fent his equipage to France, which periftied in the Shannon. It 
was hoped, that Limerick^ feeing it felf thus abandoned, would 
have followed the example of other Towns, and have capitulated* 
Upon that confidence, die King marched towards it, tho' his Ap- 

VoL. n. Q my 

J § < The 'RisroKY of the Reign 

1690 my was now much diminiOicd ; He had left many Garrifons iil 
^^'^'^""^^^"^ feveral places, and had fent fome of his beft Bodies over to 
Zimerlck.^ England; So that he had not now above 20000 men together. 
Limerick lies on both fides of the Shannon^ and on an Ifland, that 
the River makes there : The Iripj were yet in great numbers in 
Connaught \ fo that, unlefs they had been fhut up on that fide, 
it was eafie to fend in a conftant fiipply both of men and provi- 
fions : Nor did it ieem advifeable to undertake the Siege of a 
place fo fituated, with fo fmall an Army, efpecially in that jfeafon, 
in which it uled to rain long 5 and by that means, both the Shan- 
non would fwell, and the ground, which was the beft foil of Ire- 
land^ would be apt to become deep, and fcarce practicable for 
carriages. Yet the cowardice of the Irijh^ the confternation they 
were in, and their being abandoned by the French^ made the 
King refolve to fit down before it. Their Out-works might have 
been defended for fome time ; But they abandoned thele in fo 
much diforder, that it was from hence beHeved, they would not 
hold out long. They alfo abandoned the Pofts, which they had 
on the other fide of the Shannon : Upon which, the King paft 
the River, which was then very low, and viewed thofe Pofts; but 
he had not men to maintain them : So he continued to preis the 
Town on the Munjier fide. 

He fent for fome more Ammunition, and fome great Guns ; 
They had only a guard of two Troops of Horfo, to convoy them, 
who defpifed the Irijh fo much, and thought they were at fuch dis- 
tance, that they fet their Horfes to grafs, and went to bed. Sarf- 
fields one of the beft Officers of the Irijh-i heard that the King 
rode about very carelefly, and upon that, had got a fmall Body 
of refolute men together, on defign to foize his perfon ; But now, 
hearing of this Convoy, he refolved to cut it off: The King had 
advertifement of this brought him in time, and ordered fome 
more Troops to be fent, to fecure the Convoy : They, either 
through Treachery or Carelefoefs, did not march till it was night, 
tho' their Orders were for the morning ; But they came a few 
hours too late. Sarsjield ftirprifed the Party, deftroyed the Am- 
munition, broke the Carriages, and burft one of the Guns, and 
fo marched off : Lanier, whom the King had fent with the 
Party, might have overtaken him ; but the general obfervation 
made of him (and of moft of thofe Officers, who had ferved King 
yamesy and were now on the King's fide) was, that they had a 
greater mind to make themfolves rich, by the continuance of the 
War of Ireland, than their Matter great and lafe by the fpeedy 
conclufion of it. 

^ By 

of K. William and % M a r y, y 9 

By this, the King loft a Week, and his Ammunition was low; 1690 
for a great Tupply, that was put on Ship Board in the River oi^(^^^^'^'^ 
Thames^ before the King left London^ ftill remaihed there, the 
French being Mafters of the Channel. Yet the King prefled the 
Town fo hard J that the Trenches were nm up to the Counter- 
fcarp ; And wiicn they came to lodge there, the /r//& ran back 
fo faft, , at a Breach that the Cannon had made, that a body of 
the King's men rim in after them ; And if they had been fecon- 
ded, the Town had been immediately taken ; But none came in 
time, fo they retired : And tho' the King fent another body, 
yet they were beaten back with lofs. As it now began to rain, 
the King faw that, if he ftaid longer there, he muft leave his 
great Artillery behind him : He went into the Trenches every 
day ; And it was thought he expofed himfelf too much. His 
Tent was pitched within the reach of their Cannon ; They fhot 
often over it, and beat down a Tent very near it ; So he was pre- 
vailed on, to let it be removed to a greater diftance : Once, upon 
receiving a Packet from England., he fat down in the open Field 
for fome hours, reading his Letters, while the Cannon Balls were 
flying round about him. The IriJIj fired well ; and ftiewed, 
they had fome courage, when they were behind Walls, how little 
foever they had fhewn in the Field. 

The King lay three Weeks before Limerick ; But at laft the The Siege 
rains foi-ced him to raife the Siege : They vidthin did not offer r^^**^- 
to fally out, and diforder the Retreat ; This laft a£lion proving 
Unlucky, had much damped the joy, that was raifed by the firft 
fuccefs of this Campaign* The King exprcfled a great equality 
of temper, upon the various accidents that happened at this time. 
Dr. Hutwt, his firft Phyfician, who took care to be always near 
him, told me. He had obferved his Behaviour very narrowly, 
upon two very different occafions. 

The one was, after the return from the VicSlory at the Boyne ; 

when it was almoft midnight, after he had been leventeen hours 

in conftant fatigue, with all the ftiifnefs that his Wound gave 

him : He expreffed neither joy, nor any fort of Vanity ; Only 

he looked chearful ; And when thofe about him made fuch 

Complements, as will be always made to Princes, even tho' they 

do not deferve them, he put all that by, with fuch an unafleded 

negledt, that it appeared how much foever he might deferve the 

acknowledgments, that were made him, yet he did not like 

them. And this was fo vifible to all about him, that they foon 

faw, that the way to make their Court was, neither to talk of 

his Wound, nor of his Behaviour on that day. As foon as he 

faw his Phyfician, he ordered him to fee that care fhould be 

I taken 

6o ^Tl^e HtsroKY of the Reig^ 

1690 taken of tlie wounded men, and he named the Prifoners, as 

u^^-v-=^j wrell as his own Soldiers. And tho' he had great reafon to be 

offended with Hamilton^ who had been employed to treat with 

the Earl of Tyrconnell^ and was taken prifoner in his fight, and 

was prefefved by his order : yet fince he faw he was wounded, 

he gave particular diredions to look after him. Upon the whole 

matter, the King was as grave and filent as he ufed to be ; and 

the joy of a day, that had been both fo happy and (o glorious to 

him, did not feem to alter his temper or deportment in any way. 

He told me, he was alfo near him, when it was refolvcd to 

raife the Siege of Limerick ; and faw the fame calm, without 

The cqua- ^j^g j^^^ deprefliou, difordcr, or peevifhnefs : From this he 

King's tem- concludcd, that either his mind was fo happily balanced, that 

^^'^' no accident could put it out of that fituation ; or that, if he had 

commotions within, he had a very extraordinary command over 

his temper, in reftraining or concealing them. 

While he lay before Limerick., he had news from England., 
that our Fleet was now out, and that the French were gone to 
][^;Jf ""^Breft : So, fince we were Mafters of the Sea, the Earl of Marl- 
roiigb pro- borough propofed, that five thoufand men, who had lain idle all 
\lvmgCork this Summer in England, fhould be fcnt to Ireland \ and with 
^'^iP"/f^ the afiiftance of fuch men as the King fhould order to join 
and effedsit. them, they fhould try to take Cork and Kinfale. The King ap- 
proved of this ; And ordered the Earl to come over with them : 
And he left orders for about five thoufand more, who. were to 
join him. And fo he broke up this Campaign, and came over 
to Briflol, and from thence to London. The contrary winds 
ftopp'd the Earl of Marlborough fo, that it was OBober before 
he got to Ireland. He foon took Cork by ftorm : And four 
thoufand men, that lay there in Garrifon, were made prifoners 
of War. In this adlion, the Duke of Grafton received a fhot, of 
which he died in a few days ; He was the more lamented, as 
being the perfon of all King Charles^ Children, of whom there 
was the greateft hope : He was brave,, and probably would have 
become a great man at Sea. From Cork, the Earl of Marlborough 
marched to Kinfale, where he found the two Forts, that com- 
manded the Port, to be fo much flronger, than the Plans had re- 
prefented them to be, that he told me, if he had known their 
true ftrength, he had never undertaken the expedition, in a fea- 
fon fo far advanced ; yet in a few days the place capitulated. 
The Irijh drew their forces together, but durft not venture on 
raifing the Siege ; But to divert it, they fet the Country about, 
which was the beft built of any in Ireland^ all in a flame. 

' , Thus, 

of IT. W iLLi AM aftd ^Mary. 6i' 

Thus, thofe two important places were reduced in a very bad 1 690 
feafon, and with very litde lofs ; which cut ofF die quick com- u?*^^'*!*^' 
munication between France and Ireland. Count Laufun^ with TJ '^/7'"J 
the French Troops, lay all this while about Gallway^ without at- 
tempting any thing ; He fent over, to Francey an account of the 
defperate ftate of their affairs, and defired Ships might be fent for 
thcTranfport of their Forces : That was done ; yet the Ships came 
not till the Siege oi Limerick was raifed : Probably, if the Court of 
France had known, how much the ftate of affairs was altered, 
they would have fent contrary orders : But Laufun was weary of 
the fervice, and was glad to get out of it ; So he failed away, 
without ftaying for new orders ; By which he loft the little repu- 
tation, that he was beginning to recover at the Court of France, 
The Earl of Tyrconnell went over with him, and gave full affu- 
rances, that tho' the Irijh were like to fuffer great hardihips next 
winter ; yet they would ftand it out, if they were ftill fupported 
from France, It had appeared, upon many occafions, that the 
French 2sA ^^ Irijh Soldiers did not agree well together : there- 
fore he propofed, that no more Soldiers, but only a number of 
good Officers, together with Arms, Ammunition, and Clothes, 
might be fent over to them. In the mean while, the IriJh 
formed themfelves into many bodies, which by a new name, were 
called Rapparees : Thefe knowing all Ways, and the Hoggs, and o- 
ther Places of Retreat in Ireland^ and being favoured by the 
Irijhy that had fubmitted to the King, robbed and burnt Houfes 
in many places of the Country ; while the King's Army ftudied 
their own eale in their quarters, more than the Protection of 
the Inhabitants : Many of them were fufpeded of robbing in 
their turn, tho' the Rapparees carried the blame of all : Between 
them, the poor Inhabitants had a lad time, and their ftock of 
Catde and Corn was almoft quite deftroyed in many places. 

From the Affairs of Ireland^ I turn next to give an account Affairs in 
of what paffed in Scotland ; Matters went very happily, as to the "" ' 
military part : When the Remnants of the Earl of Dundee's Ar- 
my (to whom many Officers, together with Ammunition and 
Money, had been fent from Ireland) began to move towards 
the Low Country^ to receive thole, who were refolved to join 
with them, and were between two and three thoufand ftrong, they ' 

were fellen upon, and intirely defeated by a Dutch Officer Le- 
vingjion, that commanded the Forces in Scotland : About an hun- •'>»i^ 

dred Officers were taken Prifoners : This broke all the meafures, 
that had been taken for King yames\ Interefts in Scotland. 
Upon this, thofe who had engaged in Montgomery^ Plot, looked 

Vol. II. R, upon /?( 

62 The History of the Reign 

1690 upon that Defign as defperate ; yet they refolved to try what 
^-<=''V^^ ftrength they could make in ParHament. 

Lord Mehill carried down Powers, firft to ofFer to Duke Ha- 
milton, if he would join in common meafures heartily with him, 
to be Commiflloner in Parliament, or if he proved intractable, 
as indeed he did, to ferve in that Poft himlclf. He had full In- 
ftrudtions for the Settlement of Presbytery j For he aflured the 
King, that without that, it would be impoflible to carry any 
thing ; Only the King would not confeht to' the taking, away 
the Rights of Patronage, and the Supremacy ti the Crown : Yet 
he found thefe fo much infilled on, that he fcnt one to the King 
to Ireland, for fuller inftru£tions in thofe Points 5 They were 
enlarged, but in fuch general words, that the King did not un- 
derftand, that his Inftrudions could warrant what Lord Mehill 
did J for he gave them both up. And the King v/as fo offended 
with him for it, that he loft all the credit he had with him j 
tho' the King did not think fit to difown him, or to call hina 
to an account, for going beyond his Inftruftions. 
A Pariia- The Jacobitcs perfwaded all their Party to go to the Parha- 
ment there. ^^^^^ ^ud to take the Oaths ; for many of the Nobility flood 
off, and would not own the King, nor fwear to him : Great 
Pains were taken by Paterfon^ one of their Archbifliops, to per- 
fwade them to take the Oaths, but on defign to break them j 
For he thought, by that means, they could have a majority in 
Parliament ; tho' fome of the Laity were too honeft to agree 
to fuch Advices ; but with aU thefe wicked arts, they were not 
able to carry a majority. So other things failing, they few a 
neceffity of defiring a Force to be lent over from France: This 
appeared fo odious, and fo deftrudlive of their Country, that 
fome of them refiifed to concur in it : Others were not pleafed 
with the anfwers King J antes, had fent to the Propofitions, they 
had made him. He had indeed granted aU that they had asked, 
upon their own particular Interefts, and had promifed to fettle 
Presbytery ; but he rejefted all thofe demands, that imported a 
diminution of his Prerogative, in as firm a manner, as if he had 
been already fet on the Throne again : They propofed, finding 
his anfwer fo Httle to their fatisfadion, to fend him a fecond 
APiotdif- Upon this, the Earls o^ Argyle, Annandale, and Braidalhin, 
covered. withdrew from them : Annandale came up to the Bath, pre- 
tending his ill health : Both Lord Argyle and Braidalbin went 
to Chejler, pretending, as they faid afterwards, that they intended 
to difcover the whole matter to the King ; But he had pafled 
over to Ireland, before they got to Chejler. Montgomery upon 


tf K. William and %Mary- oj 

this, looked on the defign as broken ; And fo he went, ana i O90 
reconciled himlelf to Mehill, and difcovered the whole Nego- <-<^'V>'J 
tiation to him. Upon which, the Earl of Mehill prefied the 
King to grant a general Indemnity, and gave Montgomery a Pais 
to go to London ; And he wrote to the Queen in his Favour. 
But the King was rcfolved to know the bottom of the Plot, and 
particularly how far any of the Englijh were engaged in it ; 
So Montgomery abfconded for fomc time in London, fincc he faw 
no hopes of pardon, but upon a full difcovery. A Warrant was 
fent to the Bath for the Earl of Annandale, of which he had 
notice given him, and went up privately to L'ondon. Mont- 
gomery fent Fergufon to him, alluring him, that he had difco- 
vered nothing, and defiring him to continue firm and fecretj 
But when he had certain notice, that Montgomery had difcovered 
all the Negotiation among the Scotch, he caft hirhfelf on the 
Queen's mercy, asking no other conditions, but that he might 
not be made an evidence againft odiers. He himfelf had not 
treated with any in England, fo, as to thcm^ he: was only a 
fecond-hand Witnefs ; Only he informed againft Nevil Payney 
who had been fent down to Scotland, to manage matters a- 
mong them : He was taken there, but would confefs nothing ; 
Upon die Earl of Annandale% information, which he gave upon 
Oath, the Earl of Nottingham wrote to the Council of Scotland^ 
that he had in his hands a Depofition upon Oath, containing 
Matter of High Treafon againft Payne 3 Upon which it was 
pretended, that, according to the Law of Scotland, he might 
be put to the torture j and that was executed with rigour : 
He refifted a double queftion, yet was ftill kept a prifoner ; 
And this was much cried out on, as barbarous and illegal. Mont' 
gomery lay hid for fome months at London ; But when he faw 
he tould not have his pardon, but by making a full difcovery, 
he chofe rather to go beyond Sea : So fatally did Ambition and 
Difcohtent hurry a Man to ruin, who feemed capable of greater 
thingSi His art in managing fuch a defign, and his firmnefs 
in not difcoVering his Accomplices, raifed his character, as much 
as it ruined his fortune. He continued in perpetual Plots after 
this, to no purpofe : He was once taken, but made his efcape ; 
And at laft, Ipleen and vexation put an end to a turbulent 

The Lord Mehill had now a clear majority in Parliament, 
by the difcovery of the Plot ; fome abfented themfelves j and 
others, to redeem themfelves, were compHant in all things : The 
main point, by which Mehill defigned to fix himfelf, and his 
party, was, the abolifhing of Epifcopacy, and the fetting up of 


64 The History of the Reign 

i6go Presbytery. The one was foon done, by repealing all the la\va 
t'<5''V"^5>J in favour of Epifcopacy, and declaring it contrary to the genius 
and conflitution of that Church and Nation ; For the King 
would not confent to a plain and fimple condemnation of it. 
But it was not fo eafy to fettle Preabytery : If they had followed 
the pattern, fet them in the Year 1638, all the Clergy, in a 
parity, were to affumc the government of the Church ; but thofe 
being Epifcopal, they did not think it fafe to put the power of 
the Church in fucli hands ; Therefore it was pretended, that 
fuch of the Presbyterian Minifters, as had been turned out in 
the Year 1662, ought to be confidered, as the only found part 
of the Church ; And of thefc there happened to be then three- 
fcore alive : fo the government of die Church was lodged with 
them ; And they were empowered, to take to their affiftance, and 
to a (hare in the Church government, fuch as they fhould think 
fit : Some furious men, who had gone into very frantick Prin- 
ciples, and all thofe who had been fecretly ordained in the 
Presbyterian way, were prefendy taken in : This was like to 
prove a fatal error, at their firft fetting out ; The old men a- 
mong them, what by reafon of their age, or their experience of 
former miftakes, were difpofed to more moderate Counfels; 
But the taking in fuch a number of violent men, put it out of 
' their power to purfuc them ; So thefe broke out into a moft 
extravagant way of proceeding againft fuch of the Epifcopal 
party, as had efcaped the rage of the former Year. Accufationa 
were raifed againft them ; fome were charged for their do6lrine» 
as guilty of Arminianifm ; Others were loaded with more fcan- 
dalous Imputations : But thefe were only thrown out to defame 
them. And where they looked for proof, it was in a way 
more becoming Inquifitors, than Judges : fo apt are all parties, 
in their turns of power, to fall into thofe very exceffes, of which 
they did formerly make fuch tragical complaints. All other 
matters were carried in the Parliament oi Scotland, as the Lord 
Mehill, and the Presbyterians defired. In lieu of the King*s 
Supremacy, he had Chimney-money given him ; and a Teft was 
impofed on all in office, or capable of eleding, or being eledled 
to ferve in Parliament, declaring the King and Queen to be 
their rightful and lawful Sovereigns, and renouncing any man- 
ner of Title pretended to be in King y antes. 
Affairs a- As for affairs abroad, the Duke of Savoy came into the Al- 
broad. fiance : The French fufpedled he was in a fecret Treaty with 
the Emperor, and fo they forced him to declare it, before mat- 
ters were ripe for it. They demanded, that he would put Turin 
and Monttmlian in their hands. This was upon the matter to 


of K.WiijIuIXU and % M a r v* 6 j , 

^sk all, and to make him a vaflal Prince : Upon his refufal, a 1 690 
French Army took pofl^^^fTioii of Savoy ; and marched intoy^''"^^*"^ 
Piedmont., before he was ready to receive them : For tho' the 
Imperialifts ^nd the Spaniards had made him great promifes, 
in which they are never wanting, when their affairs require.. 
it ; yet they failed (0 totally in the performance, that if thc,j 
King and the Dutch., who had promifed liim nothing, had not/j 
perlormcd every thing eifeftually, he muft have become at once , 
a prey to the French. The Emperor was this Year unhappy 
in Hungary., both by lofing Belgrade, and by fome other ad- 
vantages, which the "Turks gained : Yet he was as httle inclined , 
to Peace, as he was capable of carrying on the War. [ 

Tiie King, at his firft coming over from Ireland., was {o little^ 
wearied with that Campaign, that he intended to have gonc[ 
over to his Army in Flanders : But it was too late ; for they, 
were going into Winter quarters : So he held the Seflion of j 
Parliament early, about the beginning of OBober, that fo, the 
Funds being fettled for the next Year, he might have an inter- 
view with many of the German Princes, who intended to meet 
him at the Hague., that they might concert meafures for the . 
next Campaign. 

Both Houfes began with Addrefles of Thanks and Congra- ^^ seffion of 
tulation to the King and Queen, in which they fet forth the Parliament 
fenle they had of their pious care of their people, of their courage " = 

and good government, in the higheft exprefllons that could 
be conceived ; with promifes of {landing by them, and af- 
fifting them^ with every thing that fhould be found neceflary^ 
for the publick Service : And they were as good as their word : 
for the King, having laid before them the charge of the next; 
Year's War, the eftimate rifing to above four millions, the vaft-i 
eft fum that ever a King of England had asked of his peo-, 
pie, they agreed to it ; the oppolition, that was made, being 
very inconfiderable ; And they confented to the Funds pro-, 
pofed, which were thought equal to that, which was demanded, 
tho' thefe proved afterwards to be defedive. : 'i'he Adminiftra- 
tion was fo juft and gentle, that there were no grievances to in- 
flame the Houfe ; by which the moft promiflng beginnings of 
fome Sefllons, in former Reigns, had often mifcarried. 

Some indeed began to complain of a mifmanagement of the 
Publick Money : But the Miniftry put a ftop to that, by moving 
for a Bill, empowering fuch, as the Parliament fhould name, to 
examine into all Accounts^ with all particulars relating to them ; 
giving them authority to bring all perfons, that they fhould 
have occafion for, before them, and to tender them an Oath, 

Vol. li. S to 


66 The Hist OR Y of the Reign 

1 690 to difcovcr their knowledge of ftich things, as they fhould ask 
Ui5'''V"^5>J of them. This was like the power of a Court of Inquifition : 
And how unufual foever fuch a Commiflion was, yet it feemed 
necefiary to grant it ; for the bearing down, and filencing all 
fcandalous reports. When this Bill was brought to the Lords, 
it was moved, that lince the Commons had named none, but 
Members of their own Houfe, that the Lords fhould add fome 
of their Number : This was done by ballot ; And the Earl of 
Rochejier having made the motion, the greateft number of. bal- 
lots were for him ; But he refufed to fubmit to this, with fo 
much firmnefs, that the other Lords, who were named with 
him, feemed to think they were in Honour bound to do tlic 
fame ; fo, fince no Peer would fuffer himfelf to be named, the 
Bill palTed as it was fent up. Many complaints were made, of 
the illegal Commitments of fufpedled perfons for High Treafon ; 
tho' there was nothing fworn againft them. But the Danger 
was fo apparent, and the Publick fafety was fo much concerned 
in thofe Imprifonments, that tlie Houfe of Commons made a 
precedent, for fecuring a Miniftry, that fhould do the like, upon 
the like neceflity, and yet maintained the Habeas Corpus Acft ; 
They indemnified the Miniftry, for all that had been done 
^ - contrary to that K&:. 

Ireland, Great Complaints were brought over from Ireland^ where 

S"? the^' ^^^ King's Army was almoft as heavy on the Country, as 
Rapparees the Rapparees were : There was a great Arrear due to them ; 
my^t£e^'" ^1" which Tcafon, when the King fettled a Government in Ire- 
land^ of three Lords Juftices, he did not put the Army under 
their Civil Authority, but kept them in a military fubjedion 
to their OjRicers : For he faid, fince the Army was not regu- 
larly paid, it would be impofilble to keep them from Mutiny, 
if diev were put under ftrift Difcipline, and punifiied accor- 
dingly. The Under Officers, finding that they were only an-' 
fwerable to their Superior Officers, took great Liberties in their 
Quarters j and, inftead of proteding the Country, they ory~ 
prefled it. The King had brought over an Army of feven thou- 
sand Danesy under the command of a very gallant Prince, one 
of the Dukes of Wtrtemberg \ But they were cruel friends, and 
thought they were Mafters ; Nor were the Englijh Troops much 
better. The Dutch were the leaft complained of ; Ginkle, who 
had the chief command, looked ftridtly to them ; But he did 
not think *it convenient to put thofe of other Nations, under 
the fame fevere meafures. But the Pay, due for fome months, 
being now fent over, the Orders were changed ; And the Army 
was made fubje6t to the Civil Government : Yet it was under- 


of K. William and %Mi*fV. (J^ 

flood, that Inftructions were fent to the Lord's Ju dices, to be 1690 
cautious in the exercife of their Authority over them ; fo th<Si^-^-^^-^"^ ' 
Country ftill fuffered much by thefe Forces. 

The Houfe of Commons paft a Vote, to raifc a million of •'^ ^'" '^'J|J|' 
money, out of the Forfeitures and Confifcations in Ireland : And jnp For- 
in order to that, they pafTed a Bill of Attainder of all^""""** 
thofe, who had been engaged in the Rebellion of Ire- 
land^ and appropriated the Confifcations, to the raifing a Fund 
for defraying the expencc of the prefent War ; Only they left 
a power to the King, to grant away a third patt of thofe 
confifcated Eftates, to fuch as had fervcd in the War ; and to 
give fuch Articles and Capitulations to thofe, who were in Arms, 
as he fhould think fit. Upon this Bill, many petitions were 
offered, the creditors of fome, and the heirs of others, who 
had continued faithful to the Government, defired provifo's 
for their fecurity. The Commons, feeing that there was no 
end of Petitions, for fuch provifo's, rejeAed them all; imitating 
in this too much the mock Parliament, that King "James held 
in Dublin ; in which about 3000 perfons were attainted, with- 
out proof or procefs, only becaufe fome of them were gone 
over to England-, and others were abfconding, or informed a- 
gainft in Ireland. But when this Bill was brought up to the 
Lords, they thought they were in juftice bound to hear all pe- 
titions : Upon this, the Bill was like to be clogg'd with many 
provifo's ; And the matter muft have held long : So the King, 
to ftop this, fent a meffage to the Commons : And he fpoke td 
the fame purpofe, afterwards from the Throne, to both Houfes : 
He promifed, he would give no Grants of any confifcated E- 
ftates ; but would keep that matter entire, to the confideration 
of another Sefiion of Parliament : By which the King intended 
only, to affure them, that he would give none of thofe Eftates 
to his Courtiers or Officers ; But he thought, he was ftill at 
liberty, to pafs fuch Ad:s of Grace, or grant fuch Articles to the 
Irijht as the ftate of his affairs fhould require. 

There were no important Debates, in the Houfe of Lords. The £arl of 
The Earl of Torrinzton\ Bufinefs held them long : The form ^orrp^gtou 

.. , . tried and 

01 his Commitment was judged to be illegal ; And the Martial juftificd. 
Law, to which, by the Statute, all who ferved in the Fleet were 
fubjeft, being lodged in the Lord High Admiral, it was doubted, 
whether, the Admiralty being now in Commiffion, that power 
was lodged with the Commiffioners. The Judges were of o- 
pinion, that it was : Yet, fince the power of life and death was 
too facred a thing, to pafs only by a conftrudion of Law, it 
was thought the fafeft courfe, to pafs an Ad, declaring, that the 





68 ThUrsroRY of the Reign 

1690 powers of a Lord High Admiral did veft in the CommifTioners. 

UJ^'V'W Jfhe fecret Enemies of the Government, who intended to embroil 
matters, moved that the Earl oiT'orringmi fhould be impeached 
in Parliament \ Proceedings in that way being always flow, In- 
cidents were alfo apt to fall in, that might create difputes be- 
tween the two Houfes, which did fometimes end in a Rup- 
ture : But the King was apprehenflve of that ; And, tho' he 
was much incenfed againft that Lord, and had reafon to be- 
lieve, that a Council. of War would treat him very favourably ; 
yet he chofe rather to let it go fo, than to diforder his affairs. 
The CommifTioners of the Admiralty named a Court to try him, 
who did it with fo grofs a partiaHty, that it reflefted much on. 
the Juflice of the Nation ; fo that, if it had not been for the great 
Intereft the King had in the States, it might have occafloned a 
breach of the Alliance between them and us. He came off fafe 
as to his Perfon and Eftate, but much loaded in his Reputation ; 
fome charging him with want of courage, while others imputed 
his ill condud, to a haughty fullennefs of temper, that made him, 
Unce orders were fent him, contrary to the advices he had given, 
to refolve indeed to obey them, and fight ; but in fuch a manner, 
as fhould caft the blame on thofe, who had fent him the Orders, 
and give them caufe to repent of it. .1 xti : 

Defigns a- Another Debate was moved in the Houfe of Lotds (by thofe 
'^ift ofwho intended to revive the old Impeachment of the Marquifs 

gainft the 



Camnar- q{ Caermarthen) whether Impeachments continued, from Parlia- 
ment to Parliament, or whether they were not extinguifhed by 
an Ad; of Grace : Some antient Precedents were brought to 
favour this, by thofe who intended to keep them up : But in 
all thefe, there had been an order of one Parliament, to con- 
tinue them on to the next : So they did not come home to the 
prefent cafe : and how doubtful fbever it was, whether the King's 
Pardon could be pleaded in Bar to an Impeachment ; yet, fince 
the King had fent an Adt of Grace, which had paffed in the 
hrft Scffion of this Parliament, it feemed very unreafonible, 
to offer an Impeachment againft an Ad of Parliament. All 
tliis difcovered a defign againft that Lord, who was believed 
to have the greateft credit, both with the King and Queen, 
and was again falling under an univerfal hatred. In a Houfe 
of Commons, every motion againft a Minifter, is apt to be 
well entertained j Some envy him ; Others are angry at him ; 
Many hope to fhare in the fpoils of him, or of his Friends, 
tliat fall with him ; And a love of change, and a wantonnefs 
of mind, makes the attacking a Minifter, a diverfion to the 
reft : The thing was well laid, and fourteen leading men had 


^A". William and ^ Mary. 69 

undertaken to manage the matter againft him ; In which the 1 690 
Earl of Shrewsbury had the chief hand, as he himfelf told me ; u^'V^vJ 
For he had a very bad opinion of the man, and thought his 
advices would, in conclusion, ruin the King and his afi'airs* 
But a Difcovery was at this time made, that was of great 
confequence ; And it was managed chiefly, by his means, fo 
that put an end to the defigns againft him for the prefent. 

The Sefllon of Parliament was drawing to a conclufion : r.or^ 'Pref- 
And the King was making hafte over, to a great Congrefs o{'°"p^l°ff' 
many Princes, who were coming to meet him at the Hague. 
The Jacobites thought this opportunity was not to be loft ; 
They fancied it would be eafy, in the King's abfence, to bring 
a Revolution about : So they got the Lord Prejion to come up to 
LondoHy and to imdertake the Journey to France^ and to manage 
this Negotiation. They thought, no time was to be loft, and that 
no great force was to be brought over with King "James ; but 
that a few refolute men, as a guard to his perfon, would fervc 
the turn, now that there was fo fmall a force left within the 
Kingdom, and the Nation was fo incenfed at a burthen of 
four millions in Taxes. By this means, if He furprifed us, and 
managed his coming over with fuch fecrecy, that he fhould 
bring over with himfelf the firft news of it, they believed this 
Revolution would be more eafy, and more fudden, than the laft. 
The men that laid this defign were, the Earl of Clarendon^ the 
Eifhop of £/y, the Lord Pre/Ion^ and his brother Mr. Graham., 
and Pen the famous Quaker. Lord Prejion refolved to go 
over, and to carry Letters, from thofe who had joined with 
him in the defign, to King James and his Queen. The Bifliop 
of Ely\ Letters were writ in a very particular ftile ; He under- 
took both for his elder Brother, and the reft of the Family ; 
which was plainly meant of Sancrofty and the other deprived 
Bifhops : In his Letter to King Ja?nes\ Queen, he afiured her 
of his, and all their zeal for the Prince of Wales ; and that 
they would no more part with that, than with their hopes of 
Heaven. ^Jhton^ a fervant of that Queen's, hired a veflel to 
carry them over; But the owner of the veffel, being a man 
zealous for the Government, difcovered all he knew ; which 
was only, that he was to carry fome perfons over to France : 
The notice of this was carried to the Marquifs of Caermarthen : 
And the matter was fo ordered, that Lord Prejion, AJhton, and 
a young man (Elliot) were got aboard, and faUing down the 
River, when the Officer fent to take them came, on pretence 
to fearch, and prefs for Seamen ; And drew the three Paf- 
fengers out of the Hold, in which they were hid. Lord Prejion 

Vol. II. T left 

7^ The History of the Reign 

169G left his Letters behind him in the Hold, together with King 
^-'<!^""^^'^^ ■Jafnes\ Signet ; Apt on took them up, on defign to have thrown 
them in the Sea ; But they were taken from him. 
.;^ Both they and theij- Letters were brought to Whitehall. Lord 
PreJlon\ mind funk fo vifibly, that it was concluded, he would 
not die, if confeffing all he knew could fave him. AJJjto?i 
was more firm and fullen ; Elliot knew nothing. There was 
among their Papers one, that contained die heads of a Decla- 
ration, with affurances of Pardon, and promifes to preferre 
the Proteftant Religion, and the Laws ; Another paper contained 
{hort memorials, taken by Lord PreJlo?t^ in which many of the 
Nobility were named : The moft important of all was, a rela- 
tion of a Conference, between fome Noblemen and Gentlemen, 
Whigs and Tories ; by which it appeared, that, upon a conver- 
fation on this fubjed, they all feemed convinced,, that upon this 
occafion France would not ftudy to conquer, but to oblige 
England; and that King James would be wholly governed by 
Proteftants, and follow the Proteftant and Englijh Intereft. 
Taken, tri- The Prifoncrs were quickly brought to their Trial ; Their de- 
ed, and con- {-jgj^ of gomgto France, and the treafonable Papers found about 
them, were fully proved : Some of them were writ in Lord 
Prejlon&i and fome in Aptoriz hand. They made but a poor 
• defence : They faid, a fimilitude of hands was not thought a good 
proof in Sidneys Cafe ; But this was now only a circumftance j 
in what hand ibever the Papers were writ, the Crime was al- 
ways the fame, fince they were open, not fealed : So they knew 
the contents of them, and thus were carrying on a Negotiation 
of High Treafon, with the King's Enemies : Upon full evidence 
they were condemned. 
AptonM- y4f}jton would enter into no Treaty with the Court ; but pre- 
pared himfelf to die. And he fuffered with great decency 
and ferioufnefs. He left a Paper behind him, in which he 
owned his dependance on King James, and his fidelity to him ; 
He alfo affirmed, that he was fure the Prince of Wales was born 
of the Queen ; He denied, that he knew the contents of the 
Papers, that were taken with him. This made fome conclude, 
that his paper was penned by fome other perfon, and too has- 
tily copied over by himfelf, without making due reflexions on 
this part of it ; for I compared this paper, which he gave the 
Sheriff, and which was written in his own hand, with thofe 
found about him; and it was vifible, both were writ in the fame 

Lord PreJlo?i went backward and forward : He had no mind 
to die, and yet was not willing to tell all he knew j He aded 
3i . 2 * a 

ofK. William and %MarV- 71 

a weak part in all rcfpeds : When he was heated by the Im- 1690 
portunities of his friends, who were violently engaged z.'^Wi^^^^^^""^ 
the Government, and after he had dined wellj he refolved he Lord 'pr/f- 
would die heroically ; But by next morning, that heat went off; jo'iJ'd" ^''"^' 
And when he faw full view, his heart failed him. 
The Scheme he carried over was fo foolifh, fo ill concerted, 
and fo few engaged in it, that thofc who knew the whole fe- 
cret concluded, that if he had got fafc to the Court of France, 
the Projedt would have been fo defpifcd, that he mufl: have 
been fuipedcd, as fent over to draw King yatnes into a Snare, 
and bring hini into the King's hands. The Earl o{ Clarendo7t 
was feized, and put in the Tower ; But the Bifliop of Ely, 
Grimes, and Fen, abfconded. After fome months, the King, 
in regard to the Earl oi Clarendons relation to the Queen, would 
proceed to no extremities againft him, but gave him leave to live, 
confined to his houfe in the Country. 

The King had fufFered the deprived Bifhops to continue, now The Beha- 
above a Year, at their Sees : They all the while negledled the depHvedB? 
concerns of the Churchy doing nothing, but living privately in ''^«'P»- 
their Palaces. I had, by the Queen's Order, moved both the 
Earl of Rochejler, and Sir yohn 'Trevor, who had great credit 
with them, to try whether, in cafe an Ad: could be obtained, 
to excufe them from taking the Oaths, they would go on, and 
do their fundions in Ordinations, Inftitutions, and Confirma- 
tions ; and alTift at the Publick Worfhip, as formerly ; But ^'^"'^ " ' 
they would give no anfwer ; Only they faid, they would 
live quietly, that is, keep thcmftlves xlofe, till a proper time 
fliould encourage them to ad more openly. So all the thoughts 
of this kind were, upon that, laid afide. One of the confider- 
ableft men of the party. Dr. Sherlock, upon King James\ going 
out of Irela?td, thought that this gave the prefent Government 
a thorough fettlement ; And in that cafe, he thought it lawful 
to take the Oaths ; And upon that, not only took them him- 
felf) but publickly juflified what he had done ; Upon which, he 
was mott feverely Hbelled by thofe, fi-om whom he withdrew. 
The difcovery of the Bifliop of Ely\ correfpondence, and en- 
gagement in the name of the reft, gave the King a great ad- 
vantage in filling thofe vacant Sees ; which he refolved to do, 
iipon his return from tlie Congrefs, to which he went over in 

In his way, he ran a very great hazard ; When he got within a Congrefi 
the Maefe, fo that it was thought, two hours rowing would bring of Princes at 

-L- r J L • r ^ r^ 1 ■ ^ the Hague, 

mm to Land, bemg weary or the Sea, he went mto an open 
Boat with fome of his Lords ; But by Mifts and Storms, he was 


72 The History of the Reign 

1690 tofled up and down above fixtecn hours, before he got fafe to 
u^^v"*^' Land. Yet neither he, nor any of thofe who were with him, 
were the worfe for all this cold and wet Weather. And, when the 
Seamen feemed very apprehenfive of their danger, the King faid 
in a very intrepid manner ; What are you afraid to die in my 
Company ? He foon fettled fome points, at which the States 
had ftuck long ; And they created the Funds for that Year. 
The Electors of Bavaria and Brandenburg^ the Dukes of Zell 
and Wolfenbuttel^ with the Landgrave of Hejfe, and a great 
many other German Princes, came to this Interview, and entred 
into confutations concerning the operations of the next Cam- 
paign. The Duke of Savoys aifairs were then very low ; But 
the King took care of him, and both furniflied, as well as pro- 
cured him fuch Supplies, that his affairs had quickly a more 
promiling face. Things were concerted among the Princes them- 
felves, and were kept fo fecret, that they did not truft them to 
their Minifters : At leaft, the King did not communicate them to 
the Earl oi Nottingham., as he protefted folemnly to me, when he 
came back. The Princes fhewed to the King all the refpedts 
that any of their rank ever paid to any crowned Head ; And they 
lived together in fuch an eaiy freedom, that points of Ceremony 
occafioned no dilputes among them ; tho' thofe are often, upon 
lefs folemn interviews, the fubjeds of much quarrelling, and in- 
terrupt more important Debates. 
A new Pope During this Congrefs, Pope Alexander the Eighth, Ottobonty 
a Tong Con- ^^^^- He had fucceeded Pope Innocent, and fate in that Chair 
clave. almofl a Year and a half : He was a Venetian., and intended to 
enrich his Family as much as he could. The French King re- 
nounced his pretenfions to the Franchifes : And he, in return 
for that, promoted Fourbin., and fbme others, recommended by 
that Court, to be Cardinals ; which was much refented by the 
Emperor. Yet he would not yield the point of the Regale to 
the Court of France : Nor would he grant the Bulls for thofe, 
whom the King had named to the vacant Bifhopricks in France^ 
who had figned the Formulary, paffed in 1682, that declared 
the Pope fallible, and fubjed to a General Council. When Pope 
Alexander felt himfelf near Death, he paffed a Bull in due Form, 
by which he confirmed all Pope Innocent's Bulls : And by this 
he put a new flop, to any Reconciliation with the Court of 
France. This he did, to render his Name and Family more ac- 
^» qeptable to the Italians, and moft particularly to his Country- 
men, who hated the French as much as they feared them. Upon 
his Death, the Conclave continued fhut up for five months, be- 
fore they could agree upon an Eledion. The party of the Zea- 

ofK.WihLikU and %MarV* 7^ 

lots ftood long firm to BarbarigOy who had the reputation of 1690 
a Saint, and feemed in all things to fet Cardinal Borromeo before ^rv^*^ 
him as a Pattern : They at laft were perfwaded to confent to the 
choice of Pignatelli^ a Neapolitan^ who, while he was Areh- 
bifhop of Naples^ had fome difputes with the Viceroy, concern- 
ing the Ecclefiaftical Immunities, which he aflerted fo highly, 
that he excommunicated fome of the Judges, who, as he thought, 
had invaded them. The Spaniards had feemed difpleafed at 
this ; which recommended him fo to the French ^ that they alfo 
concurred to his Elevation. He affumed Pope Innocent\ name, 
and feemed refolved to follow his maxims and fteps ; for he 
did not feek to raifc his Family ; Of which the King told me 
a confiderable inftance : One of his neareft kindred was then, 
in the Spanijh Service in Flanders ; and hafted to Rome upon 
his promotion ; He received him kindly enough, but prefently 
difmifled him, giving him no other prefent, if he faid true, but 
fome fiiuff. It is true, the Spaniards afterwards promoted him : 
But the Pope took no notice of that. 

To return to the Low Countries : The King of France refolved 
to break off the Conferences at the Hague^ by giving the A- 
larm of an early Campaign : Mons was befieged ; And the King The Siege 
came before it in perfon. It was thereupon given up, as a loft °^ '^''"^* 
Place ; For the French Minifters had laid that down among 
their chief maxims, that their King was never to undertake any 
thing in his own perfon, but where he was fure of fucccls. 
The King broke up the Congrefs, and drew a great Army very 
foon together : And, if the Town had held out fo long as, they 
might well have done, or if the Governour of Flanders had per- 
formed what he undertook, of furnifhing Carriages to the Army, 
the King would either have raifed the Siege, or forced the 
French to a Battle. But fome Priefts had been gained by the 
French^ who laboured fo effedually among the Townfmen, who 
were almoft as ftrong as the Garrifon, that they at laft forced 
the Governour to capitulate. Upon that, both Armies went 
into Quarters of refrefliment : And the King came over again 
to England for a few weeks. 

He gave all neceffary Orders for the Campaign in Ireland ; Affairs Ctu 
in which Ginkle had the chief command. Rujfel had the com- n^t^Cam' 
mand of the Fleet, which was foon ready, and well manned. P^'g"- 
The Dutch Squadron came over in good time. The proportion 
of the Quota, fettled between England and the States, was, that 
we were to furnifli five, and they three Ships of equal rates and 

Vol. II. U Affairs 


74 The History of the Reign 

1 690 Affairs in Scotland were now brought to fome temper : Many 
ujs^y*^j of the Lords, who had been concerned in the late Plot, came up, 
Aff-iirsin and confcffcd and difcovered all, and took out their pardon ; 
Tiiey excufed themfelves, as apprehending that they were ex- 
pofed to ruin ; and that they dreaded the tyranny of Presbytery, 
no lefs than they did Popery : And they promifed that, if the 
Kinor would fo balance matters, that the Lord Mehill, and his 
party, fhould not have it in -their power to ruin them and their 
friends, and in particular, that they (hould not turn out the 
Minifters of the Epifcopal Perfwafion, who were yet in office, 
nor force Presbyterians on them, they would engage in the 
King's Interefts faithfully and with zeal : They alfo undertook 
to quiet the Highlanders, who flood out ftill, and were robbing 
the Country in Parties : And they undertook to the King, that, 
if the Epifcopal Clergy could be affured of his protedlion, they 
would all acknowledge and ferve him : They did not defire, that 
the King fhould make any ftep towards the changing the Govern- 
ment, that was fettled there ; They only defired, that Epifcopal 
Minifters might continue to ferve, in thofe places that liked them 
beft ; and that no man ftiould be brought into trouble for his 
opinion, as to the government of the Church ; and that fuch 
Epifcopal men, as were willing to mix with the Presbyterians 
in their Judicatories, fhould be admitted, without any fevere 
impofition in point of opinion. 

This looked fo fair, and agreed fo well with the King's own 
fenfe of things, that he very eafily hearkned to it ; And I did 
believe that it was fmcerely meant ; (o I promoted it with great 
zeal ; tho' we afterwards came to fee, that all this was an arti- 
fice of the Jacobites, to engage the King to difguft the Presby- 
terians ; And by lofing them, or at leaft rendring them remifs 
in his Service, they reckoned they would be foon Mafters of that 
Kingdom. For the party refolved now to come in generally, 
to take the Oaths ; But in order to that, they fent one to King 
James J to fhew the neceffity of it, and the fervice they intended 
him in it ; and therefore they asked his leave to take them. 
That King's anfwer was more honeft ; He laid, he could not 
confent to that, which he thought unlawful ; But if any of them 
took the Oaths on defign to ferve him, and continued to advance 
his interefts, he promifed, it fhould never be remembred againft 
them. Young Dalrymple was made conjund Secretary of State, 
with the Lord Melvilh, And he undertook to bring in moft of 
the Jacobites to the King's Service ; but they entred at the fame 
time, into a clofe correfpondence with St. Gerjnains : I believed 


niide in 


of K. William and ^Mary. Jp/ 

nothing of all this at that time, but went in cordially to ferve 1690 
many, who intended to betray us. K^c^^sr^ 

The truth was, the Presbyterians, by their violence and other 
foolidi pradiccs, weit: rendring themfelves both odious and con- 
temptible : They had formed a General Aflembly, in the end of the 
former Year, in which they did very much expofe themfelves, 
by the wcaknefs and pcevidinefs of their conduct : Little Learn- , 

ing or Prudence appeared among them ; Poor preaching and 
wretched haranguing ; partialities to one another, and violence 
and injuftice to thofe who differed from them, lliewcd them- 
felves in ail their Meetings. And thefe did fo much fink their 
reputation, that they were weaning the Nation moft effectually 

from all fondnefs to their Government: But the falfhood of "' 

many, who, under a pretence of moderating matters, were really 
undermining the King's Government, helped in the fequel to 
preferve the Presbyterians, as much as their own condudl did 
now alienate the King from them. 

The next thino; the King did was, to fill the Sees vacant by The vacaf»t 

„ . . TT • 1 1 • t 1 • c r Sees filled 

Deprivation. He judged right, that it was or great conlequence, 
both to his Service and to the interefts of Religion, to have 
Canterbury well filled : for the reft would turn upon thaL 
By the Choice, he was to make, all the Nation would fee, whethet 
he intended to go on, with his firft defign of moderating matters, 
and healing our Breaches, or if he would go into the paifions and 
humours of a High Party, that feemed to court him as abjedtiy, 
as they inwardly hated him. Dr. Tillotfon had been now well 
known to him for two Years ^ his foft and prudent Counfels, 
and his zeal for his Service, had begot, both in the King and 
Queen, a high and juft opinion of him. They had both, fof 
above a Year, preffed him to come into this Poft : And he had 
ftruggled againft it with great earneftnefs : As he had no am- 
bition, nor afpiring in his temper, fo he forefaw what a fcene of 
trouble and flander he muft enter on, now in the decline of his 
age. The prejudices, that the Jacobites would poffefs all people 
wddi) for his coming into the room of One, whom they called 
a Confeffor, and who began now to have the pubHck compaf^ 
fion on his fide, were well forefeen by him. He alfo appre* 
hended the continuance of that heat and averfion, that a violent 
party had always expreffed towards him, tho' he had not only 
avoided to provoke any of them, but had, upon all occafions, 
done the chief of them great fervices, as oft as it was in hi$ 
Power. He had large Principles, and was free from Superftition ; 
His Zeal had been chiefly againft Atheifm and Popery : But hd 
had never fhewed much fharpnefs againft the Diffenters. He 



76 The History of the Reign 

1 690 had lived in a good correfpondence with many of them : He had 
i-^"V"'5>j brought feveral over to the Church, by the force of reafon, and 
the foftnefs of perfwafion and good ufage ; but was a declared 
enemy to violence and feverities on thofe heads. Among other 
prejudices againft him, one related to myfelf : He and I had 
Jived, for many Years, in a clofe and ftrid: friendfliip ; He laid 
, before the King all the ill effefts, that, as he thought, the pro- 

moting him w^ould have on his own Service : But all this had 
ferved only to increafe the King's efteem of him, and fix him 
in his purpole. 
Man Pro- '^^^ Bilhop of Ely^ Lcttcts to St. Germains, gave (o fair an 
motions in Qccafion of filling thofe Sees, at this time, that the King refolved 
the Church. ^^ j^^ j^^i^ ^^ -J.. AndT^y/o^;?, with great uneafinefs to himfelf, 
fubmitted to the King's command : And foon alter, the See of 
Tork falling void. Dr. Sharp was promoted to it i So thofe two 
Sees were filled with the two beft Preachers, that had fat in 
them in our time : Only Sharp did not know the World fb well, 
and was not fo fteady as Tillotfon was. Dr. Patrick was ad- 
vanced to Ely^ Dr. More was made Bifhop of Norwich^ Dr. 
Cumberland was made Bifhop of Peterborow, Dr. Fowler was 
made Bifhop of Glocejler, Ironjide was promoted to Hereford^ 
Grove to Chichejler, and Hall to Brijiol \ as Hough, the Pre- 
fident of Magdalen s, was the Year before this, made Bifhop of 
Oxford. So that in two Years time, the King had named fifteen 
Bifhops ; And they were generally looked on as the learnedeft, 
the wifeft, and beft men, that were in the Church. It was vifible, 
that in all thefe nominations, and the filling the inferior Dig- 
nities, that became void by their promotion, no ambition, nor 
Court favour, had appeared ; Men were not fcrambling for 
Preferment, nor ufing arts, or employing friends to let them 
forward ; On the contrary, men were fought for, and brought 
out of their Retirements ; And moft of them very much againft 
their own inclinations : They were men both of moderate Prin- 
ciples and of calm tempers : This great promotion was fuch a 
difcovery of the King and Queen's defigns, with relation to the 
Church, that it ferved much to remove the jealoufies, that fome 
other fteps the King had made, were beginning to raife in the 
Whigs, and very much foftned the ill humour, that was fpread 
among .them. 
The Cam- As foon as this was over ; the King went back to command 
^f landers. hi$ Armj in. Flanders. Both Armies were now making hafte 
to take the Field. But the French were quicker than the 
Confederates had yet learned to be. Prince JValdeck had not 
^ got above eighteen thoufand men together, when Luxemburg^ 




of JiTiWiLLiAM and ^MAry, 77 

with an Army of forty thoufand men, was marching to have i6go 
furprized Brujfels : And at the fame time, Bouflers^ with an- '-^^'''v-*^ 
other Army, came up to Liege. Waldeck polled his Army fo 
well, that Luxemburgh^ believing it ftronger than indeed it was, 
did not attempt to break through, in which it was believed he 
might have fucceeded. The King haftned the reft of the 
Troops, and came himfelf to the Army in good time, not only 
to cover Brujjels^ but to feftd a detachment to the relief of 
Liege ; which had been bombarded for two days. A Body of 
Germans, as well as that which the King fent to them, came in 
good time to fupport thofe of Liege, who were beginning to 
think of Capitulating. So Bouflers drew off ; And the French 
kept themfelves fo clofe in their Pofts, all the reft of the Cam- 
paign, that though the King made many motions, to try if it 
was poiTible to bring them to a Battle, yet he could not do it. 
Signal prefervations of his perfon did again {hew, that he had a 
watchful Providence ftill guarding him. Once he had ftood 
under a tree for fome time, which the Enemy obferving, they 
levelled a Cannon fo exaAly, that the tree was fhot down two 
minutes after the King was gone from the place. There 
was one, that belonged to the train of Artillery, who was 
corrupted to fet fire to the Magazine of powder"r And he fired 
the matches of three Bombs, two of thefe blew up, without 
doing any mifchief, tho' there were twenty four more Bombs in 
the fame Waggon, on which they lay, together with a Barrel of 
powder : The third Bomb was found, with the match fired, 
before it had its efiecl. If this wicked pradice had fucceeded, 
the confufion, that was in all reafon to be expeded, upon fuch 
an accident, while the Enemy was not above a League from 
them, drawn up, and looking for the fuccefs of it, muft 
have had terrible efieds. It cannot be eafily imagined, how 
much mifchief might have followed upon it, in the mere 
deftrudion of fo many as would have perifhed immediately, if 
the whole Magazine had taken fire ; as well as in the pannick 
fear, with which tlie reft would have been ftruck upon fo 
terrible an accident •, by the iurprize of it, the French might 
have had an opportunity to have cut off the whole Army. 
This may well be reckoned one of the Miracles of Providence, 
that fo little harm was done, when fo much was fo near being 
done. The two Armies lay along between the Samber and 
the Maefe : But no Adion followed. When the time came of 
going into Quarters, the King left the Armies in Prince ff^a/- 
deck\ hands, who was obferved not to march off with that 
caution, that might have been expeded from fo old a Captain : 
Vol. II. X Lux- 

78 The History of the Reign 

1690 lutcxemburgh upon that drew out his Horfe, with the King's 
W^^'v"^ Houfhold, defigning to cut off his Rear; And did, upon the 
firit furprize, put them into fome diforder ; But they made fo 
good a ftand, that, after a very hot adion, the French marched 
offi and loft more men on their ftde than we did. Auverquerqm 
commanded the Body, that did this fervice : And with it the 
Campaign ended in Flanders. 
Affairs at Matters went on at Sea with the fame caution. Dunkirk 
s<-"'^- was for fome time block'd up by a Squadron of ours. The 

great Fleet went to find put the French ; But they had Orders 
to avoid an Engagement : And, though for the fpace of two 
months, Rujfel did all he could to come up to them, yet they ftill 
kept at a diftance, and failed off in the night : So that, though 
he was fometimes in view of them, yet he loft it next day. 
The trading part of the Nation was very apprehenfive of the 
danger the Smirna Fleet might be in, in which the Dutch and 
Fnglijh Effeds together, were valued at four millions : for, tho' 
they had a great Convoy, yet the French Fleet ftood out to 
intercept them : But they got fafe into Kin/ale. The Seafon 
went over without any Action ; And Rujfel., at the end of it, 
came into Plymouth in a Storm : which was much cenfured ; 
for that Road is not fafe : and two confiderable Ships were loft 
upon the occafion. Great Factions were among the Flag Ofii- 
cers : And no other Service was done by this great Equipment, 
but that our Trade was maintained. 

But, while we had no fuccefs, either in Flanders or at Sea, 
The Cam- wc werc more happy in Ireland^ even beyond expedation. The 
P^'?'""'-'^^' Campaign was opened with the taking of Baltimore^ on which 
the Irijh had wrought much, that Athlone might be covered 
by it : We took it in one day ; and the Garrifon had only Am- 
munition for a day more. St. Ruth., one oi the violenteft of all 
the Perfecutors of the Proteftants in France^ was fent over with 
two hundred Ofticers to command the Irip Army : This firft 
adion reflected much on his Condud:, who left a thoufand 
men, with fo flender a provifiorp' of Ammunition, that they 
were all made Prifoners of War. From thence Ginkle advanc'd 
to Athloney where St. Ruth was pofted on the other fide of the 
Shannon^ with an Army in number equal to his : The River 
was deep, but fordable in feveral places : The Caftle was foon 
turned to a ruin by the Cannon : But the paffmg the River, 
in the face of an Enemy, was no eafy thing, the Ford being fb 
nairrow, that they could not pafs above twenty in fi-ont : Parties 
^|;fere fent out ta try other Fords, which probably made the 
Enemy imagine, diat they never intended to pafs the River, juft 


ofK. Willi AU and ^ Mary. 79 

Under the Town, where the Ford was both deep and narrow. i6go 
Talmajh, a General Officer, moved, that two BattalHons might '^^c^^v-^J 
have Guineas apiece to encourage them ; And he offered to 
march over at the Head of them ; which was prcfently executed 
by Mackay^ with fo much refolution, that many ancient Officers 
faid, it was the gallanteft adtion they had ever feen. They paft 
the River, and went through the Breaches into the Town, with jiihione 
the lofs only of fifty men, having killed above a thnufimd of "''"*• 
the Enemy ; And yet they fpared all, that asked quarter. St. 
Ruth did not, upon this occafioni, a6l fuit^'bly to the reputa- 
tion he had formerly acquired ; He retired to Aghrem % where 
he pofted himfelf to great advantage, and was much fuperior to 
Ginkle in number ; for he had abandoned many fmall Garrifbns, 
to increafe his Army, which was now tweftty eight thoufand 
ftrong ; whereas Ginkle had not above twenty thoufand ; fo that 
the attacking him was no advifable thing, if the courage of the 
En^lijhy and the cowardice of the /r//Z>, had not made a difference 
fo confiderable, as neither numbers nor polls could balance. 

St. Ruth had indeed taken the moft effedual way poffible _, 

to infufe courage into the Irijh : He had fent their Priefts oiJghrem» 

about among them, to animate them by all the methods they 

could think of: And, as the moft powerful of all others, they 

made them fwear on the Sacrament, that they would never 

forfake their Colours. This had a great effect oil them : For 

as, when Ghikle fell on them, they had a great Bog before them ; 

and the Grounds on both fides were very favourable to them : 

With thofe advantages, they maintained their Ground much 

longer, than they had been accuftomed to do. They difputed 

the matter fo obftinately, that for about two hours the Adion 

was very hot, and every Battalion and Squadron, on both fides, 

had a Ihare in it. But nature will be always tdo ftrong for art ; 

The IriJJjy in conclufion, trufted more to their heels, than to 

their hands ; The Foot threw down their Arms, and ran away. 

St. Ruthy and many more Officers, were killed, and about eight 

thoufand Soldiers, and all their Cannon and Baggage was taken. 

So that it was a total Defeat ; Only the night favoured a Body 

of Horfe, that got off. From thence Ginkle advanced to Gal- 

Icmay^ which capitulated ; fo that now Limerick was the only 

place that ftood out ; A Squadron of Ships was ferit to fhut up 

the River. In the mean while, the Lords Juftices iffufcd out a 

new Proclamation, with an ofi'er of life and eftate, to fuch as, 

within a fortnight, fliould come under the King's Protedion. 



8o The History of the Reign 


^^./^'"'^/^'^ Ginkle purfued his advantages : And, having reduced all Con- 
Z/wzer/ci naughty he came and fat down before Limerick^ and bom- 
^ '^^^ * barded it ; But that had no great effed: ; And though mofl of 
the houfes were beat down, yet as long as the Connaught was 
open, frelh men and provifions were ftill brought into the placc. 
"» When the Men of War were come up, near the Town, Ginkh 

fent over a part of his Army to the Gonnaught fide, who fell 
upon fome Bodies of the Irijh that lay there, and broke them ; 
and purfued them fo clofe, as they retired to hijnerick^ that the 
French Govcrnour D'ujfon^ fearing that the Englijh would have 
come in with them, drew up the Bridge ; fo that many of them 
were killed and drowned. This contributed very much to- 
^ wards heightning the prejudices, that the IriJh had againft the 
French. The latter were fo inconfiderable, that, if Sarsfield 
and fome oi the IriJh had not joined with them, they could not 
have made their party good. The Earl of Tyrconnell had, with 
a particular view, ftudied to divert the French^ from fending 
over Soldiers into Ireland ; For he defigned, in cafe of new 
misfortunes, to treat with the King, and to preferve himfelf 
and his friends ; And now he began to difpole the Iripj to think 
of treating ; fince they faw that otherwife their ruin was inevi:- 
table. But as foon as this was fufpedled, all the military men, 
who refolved to give themfelves up entirely to the French In=- 
tereft, combined againft him, and blafted him as a feeble and 
falfe man, who was not to be trufted. This was carried fo far ; 
that to avoid affronts, he was advifed to leave the Army : And 
he ftaid aU this Summer at Limerick, where he died of griej^ 
as was believed : But before he died, he advifed all that came 
to him, not to Ifet things go to extremities, but to accept of fuch 
terms as could be got : And his words feemed to weigh more 
after his death, than in his life-time : For the IriJh began ge- 
nerally to fay, that they muft take care of themfelves, and ncrt 
be made facrifices to fervc the ends of the French. This was 
much heightned, by the flaughter of the IriJJj., whom the 
French Governor had fhut out, and left to perifh. They wanted 
no provifions in Limerick. And a Squadron of French Ships 
flood over to that Coaft, which was much ftronger than ours, 
that had failed up to the Town. So it was to be feared^ that 
they might come into the River to deftroy our Ships. 

To hinder that, another Squadron of Englip Men of War 

was ordered thither. Yet the French did not think fit to venture 

their Ships within the Shannon, where they had no places of 

flicker ; The mifunderflanding that daily grew, between the 

z. Irifi 

of A". William z?;/^ ^Mary. 8i 

Irifij ziid. the French v^2j^ great; And all appearance of relief x6gi 
from France failing, made them refolve to capitulate. This was U/^/'^vJ 
very welcome to Ginkle and his Army, who began to be in great 
wants ; For that Country was quite wafled, having been the 
Seat of War for three Years : And all their draught-horfcs were 
fo wearied out, that their Camp was often ill fupplied. 

When they came to capitulate, the Irijh infilled on very high J^^ ^"'^ 
demands ; which was fet on by the French^ who hoped they 
would be rejected : But the King had given Ginkle fecret di- 
redtions, that he fhould grant all the demands they could make, 
that would put an end to that War : So every thing was granted^ 
to the great difappointment of the French^ and the no fmall 
grief of fome of the Englijhi who hoped this War fhould have 
ended in the total mine ot the IriJh Intereft. During the Treaty, 
a faying of Sarsfielcfs deferves to be remembred ; for it was 
much talked of, all Europe over. He asked fome of the Englijh 
Officers, if they had not come to a better opinion of the Irijhy 
by their behaviour during this War ; And, whereas they faid, 
it was much the fame, that it had always been ; Sarsjield an- 
fwered, as low as we now are, change but Kings with us, 
and we will fight it over again with you. Thofe of Limerick 
treated, not only for thcmfelves, but for all the reft of their 
Countrymen, that were yet in Arms. They were all indem- 
nified and reftored to all, that they had enjoyed in King Charless, 
time. They were alfo admitted to all the Privileges of Subjeds, 
upon their taking the Oaths of Allegiance to their Majefties, 
witliout being bound to take the Oath of Supremacy. Not 
only the French^ but as many of the Iri^j as had a mind to go 
over to France^ had free liberty, and a fate tranfportation. And 
upon that, about twelve thoufand of them went over. 

And thus ended the War of Ireland : And with that our jhe ^^ 
Civil War came to a final end. The Articles of Capitulation ^^ere at an 
were pundually executed ; and fome doubts that arofe, out of 
fome ambiguous words, were explained in favour of the Irijb. 
So earneftly defirous was the King to have all matters quieted 
at home, that he might dired his whole force againft the Ene- 
my abroad. The Englijh in Ireland^ tho' none could fuffer 
more, by the continuance of the War, than they did, yet were 
uneafy, when they faw diat the IriJh had obtained fuch good 
conditions ; Some of the more violent men among them, who 
were much exafperated with the wrongs, that had been done 
them, began to call in queftion the legaHty of fome of the 
Articles : But the Parliament of England did not think fit to ^ 

enter upon that difcuflion ; Nor made they any motions to* 

Vol. IL Y wards 

Affairs in 


82 The History of the Reign 

1691 wards the violating the Capitulation. Ginkle came over Rill 
^-^"V""*^ of honour, after fo glorious a Campaign, and was made Earl 
of Athlone^ and had noble rewards for the great Service he had 
done ; though, without detrading from him, a large fhare 
of all that was done, was due to fome of the Gener^ 
Officers, in particular to Rouvigiiy^ made upon this Earl 
of Gall'wayy to Mackay, and Tallmajh- Old Rouvigny being 
dead, his Son offered his Service to the King, who iinwilUngly 
accepted of it ; becaufe he knew that an eftate, which |iis Fa- 
ther had in France, and of which, he had ftill the income, 
would be immediately confifcated : But he had no regard to 
that, and heartily engaged in the King's Service, and has been 
ever fince employed in many eminent Pofts ; in all w hich he 
has acquitted himfelf with that great reputation, both for 
Capacity, Integrity, Courage, and Application, as wtil as Suc- 
cefs in mod of his Undertakings, that he is juflly reckoned 
among the great men of the Age : And to crown all, he is 
a man of eminent Vertues, great Piety, and Zeal for Religion. 

The Emperor's affairs in Hungary went on fuccefsfully this 
Year, under the command of Prince Lewis o^ Baden ; tho' he 
committed an error, that was like to have proved fatal to him: 
His ftores lay near him, in great boats on t\m Danube : But 
upon fome defigri, he made a motion off from that River ; 
Of which the Grand /^mVr took the advantage, and got into 
his Camp, between him and his ftores ; fo he muil either ftarve, 
or break through to come at his provili^ns. The Turks^ had 
not time to fortify themfelves in their new Camp : So he at- 
tacked them with fuch fury, that they were quite routed, and 
loft Camp and Cannon, and a great part of their Army ; 1 he 
Grand Vizier himfelf being killed. If the Court of Vienna had 
really deftred a Peace, they might have had it, upon this Vic- 
tory, on very eafy terms : But they refolved they would be 
Mafters of all Tranjilvania ; And, in order to that, they under- 
took the Siege of Great PVaradin, which they were forced to 
turn to a Blockade : So that it fell ftot into their hands till the 
Spring following. The Emperor was led on by the Prophecies, 
that affured him of conftant Conquefts, and that he ftiould, 
in conclulion, arrive at Conjiantinople itfelf : So that the prac- 
tices of thofe, whom the French had gained about him, had 
but too much matter to work on in himfelf 

The news of the total redufftion of Ireland, confirmed him 
in his refolutions, of carrying on the War in Hungary. It was 
reckoned that England, being now difengaged at home, would, 
with the reft of the Proteftant AlHes, be able to carry on the 


The Max- 
ims of the 
Court of 

ofK. William and %Marv. 8} 

War with Fr^/^c^. And the two chief paflidns in the Empe- 1691 
ror's mind, being his hatred of Hercfy, and his hatred of France j ^-^^'V'^ 
it was faid, that thofe about him, who ferved the interefts of 
diat Court, perfwaded him that he was to let the War go on be- 
tween France, and thofe he efteemed Hereticks ; Since he would 
be a gainer, which {ide foever fhould lofe ; either France would 
be humbled, or the Hereticks be cxhaufted ; while he fliould 
extend his Dominions, and conquer Infidels : The King had a 
/ort of regard and fubmifTion to the Emperor, that he ha,d to 
no other Prince whatfoever : So that he did not prefs l>im, as 
many defired he ftiould, to accept of a Peace with the Turksy 
that fo he might turn his whole force againft France. 

Germany was now more entirely united in one common in- The state of 
tereft than ever : The third party, that the French had formed, ' ^ "P ' 
to obftrud the War, were now gone off from thofe meafures, 
and engaged in the general intereft of the Empire : The two 
Northern Kings had fome fatisfadlion given them, in point of 
Trade, that fo they might maintain their neutrality ; And they 
were favourable to the Allies, though not engaged with them. 
The King of Sweden, whom the French were preiFrng to offer his 
mediation for a Peace, wrote to the Duke of Hannover, affuring 
him, he would never hearken to that propofition, till he had 
full affurances from the French, that they would own the pre- 
fent Government of England. 

That Duke, who had been long in a French management, ^ j^inth e- 
did now break off all commerce with that Court, and enter'd 1-^°' ««»*"! 
into a Treaty, both with the Emperor and with the King : He 
promifed great fupplies againft France, and the Turk, if he 
might be made an Eledor of the Empire ; In which the 
King concurred to prels the matter fo earneftly, at the Court 
oi Vienna, that they agreed to it, in cafe he could gain the 
confent of the other Electors ; which the Emperor's Minifters re- 
folved to oppofe, underhand, all they could. He quickly gained 
the confent of the greater number of the Eledlors ; Yet new objec- 
tions were ftill made. It was faid, that if this was granted, anodier 
Electorate in 2iPopip Family, ought alfo to be created, to balance, 
the advantage that this gave the Lutherans : And they moved 
that Aufiria fhould be made an Eledorate. But this was fo 
much oppofed, fince it gave the Emperor two Votes in the E- 
ledloral College, that it was let fall. In conclufion, after a 
Year's negotiation, and a great oppofition, both by Popifli and 
Proteftant Princes, (fome of the latter, confiiiering more their 
jealoufies of the Houfe of Hannover, tlian the intereft of their ** 

Religion,) the Inveftiture was given, with the Title of Eledor 


'§4 ^^^^ History of the Reign 

1 69 1 of Brunfwick, and Great Marfhal of the Empire. The FrencB 
k.xf^'s/'^j oppofed this, with all the artifices they could fet at work. The 
matter lay long in an unfettled ftate ; Nor was he now admitted 
into the College 5 it being {aid, that the unanimous confent of all 
the Eledors muft be firft had. 
Affairs in f he Affairs of Saiioy did not go on fo profperoufly as was 
Savoy. j^Qpgjj foj. . Caraffa, that commanded the Imperial Army, was 
more intent on raifing Contributions, than on carrying on the 
War : He crofTed every good motion that was made : Montme- 
lian was loft, which was chiefly imputed to Caraffa ; The 
young Duke of Schombergy fent thither to command thofe Troops 
that the King paid, undertook to relieve the place, and was 
^^'■' aflured that many Proteftants mDauphiny, would come and 

join him. But Caraffa, and indeed the Court of Turin, feemed 
to be more afraid of the flrength of Herefy, than of the Power 
of France ; and chofe to let that important place fall into their 
hands, rather than fuffer it to be relieved by thofe they did not 
like. When the Duke of Savoys Army weht into Quarters, 
Caraffa obliged the neighbouring Princes, and the State of 
Genoa, to contribute to the fubfiftence of the Imperial Army^, 
threatning them otherwife with Winter Quarters : So that how 
ill foever he managed the Duke of Savoys concerns, he took 
care of his own. He was recalled, upon the Complaints made 
againft him on all hands ; and Caprara was fent to command 
in his room. 
Tji; iieaor rj.^^ greatcft danger lay in Flanders, where the feeblenefs of 

of Sitvsna to *^/,/-ini i i ii 

comni.n<ie<l the Spanijh Government, did 10 exnault and weaken the whole 

ini=-/«^^^^^y^ that all the ftrength of the Confederate Armies was 

fcarce able to defend it : The Spaniards had offered to deHver 

it up to the King, either as he was King of England, or as he 

was Stadtholder of the United Provinces. He knew the bigotry 

of the people fo well, that he was convinced, it was not pofTible 

to get them to fubmit to a Proteftant Government ; Put he pro- 

pofed the Eledor of Bavaria, who feemed to have much heat, 

and an ambition of fignalizing himfelf in that Country, which 

• was then the chief fcene of War : And he could fupport that 

, Government by the Troops and Treafure, that he might draw 

out of his Eledorate : Befides, if he governed that Country 

well, and acquired a fame in Arms, that might give him a Prof- 

peft of fucceeding to the Crown of Spain, in the right of his 

Eledorefs, who, if the Houle of Bourbon was fet afide, was next 

in that Succeffion. The Spaniards agreed to this Propofal ; But 

they would not make the firft offer of it to that Eledor, nor 

would he ask it j and it ftuck for fome time at this : But the 

, Court 

ofK. Wi L L I AM and % Mar y. ^ j- 

Goiirt of Vienna adjufted the matter, by making the propofition, .1^91 
which the Eledor accepted : And that put a new life into thofe U5''"^-'■'*>J 
opprcflcd and mi ferable Provinces. AScmonci 

This was the general ftate of affairs, when a new SefTion of P"''*™<^"^ 
Parliament was opened at Wejlminjler^ and then it appeared, 
tliat a Party was avowedly formed againft the Government. 
They durft not own that before, while the War of Ireland con- 
tinued. But now, fmce that was at an end, they began to 
infufe into all people, that there was no need of keeping up a 
great Land Army, and that we ought only to affift our AHies, 
vyith fome auxiliary Troops, and increafe our force at Sea. Many 
that underftood not the ftate of foreign affairs, were drawn into 
this conceit ; not confidering, that if Flanders was loft, Hollajtd 
muft fubmit, and take the beft terms they could get. And. 
the conjundlion of thofe two great Powers at Sea, muft prefently 
mine our Trade, and in a little time fubdue us entirely. But it 
was not eafy to bring all people to apprehend this aright ; And 
thofe who had ill intentions, would not be beaten out of it, but 
covered worfe defigns with this pretence : And this was ftill 
kept up as a prejudice, againft the King and his Government, 
that he loved to have a great Army about him ; and that when 
they were once modelled, he would never part with them, but 
govern in an arbitrary way, as foon as he had prepared his Sol- 
diers to ferve his ends. 

Another prejudice had more colour, and as bad effeds. The jeaioufi(»of 
King was thought to love the Dutch more than the Englijh, to ^^"^ ^'"2- 
truft more to them, and to admit them to more freedom with 
him. He gave too much occallon to a general difguft^ which 
was fpread both among the Englijh Officers, and the Nobility : 
He took little pains to gain the affections of the Nation ; Nor 
did he conftrain himfelf enough to render his Government more 
acceptable : He was fhut up all the day long ; And his ftlence, 
when he admitted any to an audience, diftafted them as much, 
as if they had. been denied it. The Earl of Marlborough thought, 
that the great fervices he had done, were not acknowledged nor 
rewarded, as: they well deferved ; and began to fpeak like a 
man difcontented. And the ftrain of all the Nation almoft was, 
tliat the Englijh were overlooked, and the Dutch were the only 
perfons favoured or trufted. This was National ; And the En- 
glijh being too apt to defpife other Nations, and being of more 
lively tempers than the Dutch^ grew to exprefs a contempt and 
an averlion for them, that went almoft to a mutiny. It is true, 
the Dutch behaved themfelves fo well, and fo regularly in their 
Qiiarters, and paid for every thing fo pundually, whereas the 
Vol. II. Z £»- 


8^ The History of the Reign 

1 69 1 Englijh \y^rc apt to be rude and exading ; efpecially thofe who 
U^'V^'^^; were all this Winter coming over from Ireland^ who had been 
fo long in an Enemy's Country, that they were not eafily brought 
..-.n^iiii. •jjj.Q order ; fo that the common people were generally better 
pleafed with xkc Dutch Soldiers, than with their own Countrymen, 
but it was not the fame as to the Officers. Thefe feeds of dif- 
content, were carefully managed by the Enemies of the Govern- 
ment ; And by thofe means, matters went on heavily in the 
Houfe of Commons. The King was alfo believed to be fo ten- 
der, in every point that feemed to relate to his Prerogative, that he 
could not well bear any thing, that was a diminution of it : 
And he was faid to have taken a diflike and miftruft of 
all thofe, whofe notions leaned to publick Liberty, tho' thofe 
Jwere the perfons that were the firmeft to him, and the moft 
zealous for him. The men, whofe notions of the Prerogative 
were the higheft, were fufpeded to be Jacobites : Yet 
it was obferved, that many of thefe were much courted, 
and put into Employments, in which they fhewed fo little af- 
fedion to the Government, and fo clofe a Correfpondence with 
^its profelTed Enemies, that it was generally believed they intended 
to betray it. The blame of employing thefe men, was caft on 
the Earl of Nottingham, who, as the Whigs faid, infufed into 
the King Jealoufies of his beft Friends, and inclined him to court 
fome of his bittereft Enemies. 
.V.~ ■ 

1 69 2 The taking off Parliament men, who complained of griev- 
L<;'=-v"'^ ances, by Places and Penfions, was believed to be now very ge- 
nerally pradifed. Seimour, who had, in a very injurious man- 
ner, not only oppofed every thing, but had refleded on the 
King's Title and Condud, was this Winter brought into the 
Treafury, and the Cabinet Council : Yet tho' a great oppofition 
was made, and many delays contrived, all the money that was 
asked was at length given. Among the Bills that were 
offered to the King, at the end of the Seffion, one was 
to fecurc the Judges Salaries ; and to put it out of the 
King's power to ftop them. The Judges had their Com- 
miflion, during their good behaviour ; Yet their Salaries were 
not fo fecured to them, but that thefe were at the King's plea- 
fure. But the King put a ftop to this, and refufed to |mfs the 
Bill : for it was reprefented to him, by fome of the Judges 
diemfelves, that it was not fit they fhould be out of all depen- 
dence on the Court ; tho' it did not appear, that tliere was any 
hurt in making Judges, in all refpeds, free and independent. A 
Parliament was fummoned to meet in Ireland, to annul all that 


of I^.V/iLLi AM and ^ Ma r y. %j 

had }xifled in King James\ Parliament; to confirm anew the 1692 
Ad of Settlement ; and to do all other things, that the broken ^-^'^'^ 
(late of that impoveriflied Ifland required, and to grant fucli 
Supplies, as they could raifc, and as the ftate of their affairs would 

Affairs in Scotland were put in another method ; Lord Twee- ^^/^" 
dale was made Lord Chancellor, and not long after a Marquifs 
in that Kingdom : Lord Melvill was put in a left important 
Poll ; And mofk of his creatures were laid afide ; But feveral 
oi thofe, who had been in Montgomery % Plot, were brought into 
the Council and Miniftry. Johnjloun., who had been fent Envoy 
to the Eledor of Brandenburgh, was called home, and made 
Secretary of State for that Kingdom : It began foon to appear 
in Scotland, how ill die King was advifed, when he brought in 
Ibme oi the Plotters into the chief Pofts of that Government ; 
As this difgufted the Presbyterians, fo it was very vifiblc, that 
thofe pretended Converts came into his Service, only to have it 
in their power, to deliver up that Kingdom to King yames : 
They fcarce difguiled their defigns ; So that the trufting fuch 
men amazed all people. The Presbyterians had very much of- 
fended the King, and their fury was inftrumental in raifing 
great Jealoufies of him in England : He well forelaw the ill 
effects this was like to have ; And therefore he recommended to 
a General Affembly, that met this Winter, to receive the EpiP 
copal Clergy, to concur with them, in the Government of the 
Church, upon their defiring to be admitted : And in cafe the 
Affembly could not be brought to confent to this, the King or- 
dered it to be diflblved, without naming any otlier time or place 
of meeting. It was not likely, that there could be any agree- 
ment, where both Parties were fo much inflamed one againft 
another ; And thofe, who had the greateft credit with both, 
ftudied rather to exafperate, than to foften them. The Epifcopal 
Party carried it high ; They gave it out, that the King was now 
theirs ; and that they were willing to come to a concurrence 
with Presbytery, on defign to bring all about to Epifcopacy, 
in a little time : The Presbyterians, who at all times were ftifF 
and peevifh, were more than ordinarily fo at this time : They 
were jealous of the King ; Their Friends were now difgraced, 
and their bittereft Enemies were coming into favour : So they 
were furly, and would abate in no point of their Government : 
And upon that, the Aflembly was diflblved. But they pretended, 
that by Law they had a right to an Annual meeting, from which 
nothing could cut them off; for they faid, according to a dif- 
tindion much ufed among them, that the King's power of 



8§^ The UtsT oKY of rheReigl^^^^ 

r6o2 calling Synods and Aflemblies was cumulative, and not pri- 
^>y^^f^^ vative ; That is, he might call them if he would, and appoint 
time and place ; but that, if he did not call them, they might 
meet by an inherent right that the Church had, which was 
confirmed by Law : Therefore they adjourned themfelves. This 
^wliv ' was rcprefented to the King as a high ftrain of infolence, that 
invaded the Rights of the Crown, of which he was become very 
fenlible : Moft of thofe, who came now into his Service, made 
it their bufmefs to inccnfe him againft the Presbyterians, in 
which he was fo far engaged, that it did alienate that* party 
much from him. 
The Affair There was, at this time, a very barbarous Maflacre committed 
oiGiencoe. in Scotland^ which fhewed both the cruelty and the treachery of 
fome of thofe, who had unhappily infinuated themfelves, into 
the King's Confidence : The Earl of Braidalbi?t formed a Scheme 
of quieting all the Highlanders, if the King would give twelve 
or fifteen thoufand pounds for doing it, which was remitted 
down from England ; And this was to be divided among the 
Heads of the Tribes, or Clanns of the Highlanders. He em- 
ployed his EmifTaries among them, and told them, the beft 
fervice they could do King James^ was to lie quiet, and referve 
themfelves to a better time ; And^ if they would take the Oaths, 
the King would be contented with that, and they were to have 
a fhare of this fum, that was fent down to buy their quiet ; 
But this came to nothing ; Their demands rofe high ; They 
knew this Lord had money to diftribute among them ; They 
believed he intended to keep the beft part of it to himfelf ;'^ 
So they asked more than he could give : Among the moft cla- 
morous and obftinate of thefe, were the Mackdonalds of Glejtcoe, 
who were believed guilty of much robbery, and many murders;*^ 
And fo had gained too much by their pilfering War, to be eafily 
brought to give it over. The head of that Vally had fo par- 
ticularly provoked Lord Braidalbin^ that as his Scheme was 
quite defeated J by the oppofition that he raifed, fo he defigned 
^ fevere revenge. The King had, by a Proclamation, offered 
an indemnity to all the Highlanders, that had been in Arm^s 
againft him, upon their coming in, by a prefixed day, to take 
the Oaths ; The day had been twice or thrice prolonged ; And 
it was at laft carried to the end of the Year 1691 ; with a 
pofitive threatning, of proceeding to military execution, againft 
fuch as fhould not come into his obedience, by the laft day of 

All were fo terrified, that they came in ; and even that 

Macdo7iald went to the Governor of Fort IVilliamy on the laft 

-ifi3 • of 

of K. William and %Mary, 89 

oi December, and offered to take the Oaths; But he, being only 169 J 
a military, man, could not, or would not tender them ; Andu=''"V'*^>J 
Macdonald was forced to feek for fome of the Legal Magiftrates, 
to tender them to him. The Snows were then fallen, fo four 
or five days paffed, before he could come to a Magiftrate ; He 
took the Oaths in his prefcnce, on the fourth or fifth of yanuary, 
when, by the ftridnefs of Law, he could claim no benefit by 
it ; The matter was fignified to the Council ; and the perfon 
had a reprimand, for giving him the Oaths, when the day was 

This was kept up from the King ; And the Earl of BraU 
dalbin came to Court, to give an account of his diligence, and 
to bring back die money, fince he could not do the fervice, 
for which he had it. He informed againft this Macdonald, as 
the chief perlbn, who had defeated that good defign ; And that 
he might both gratify his own revenge, and render the King 
odious to all the Highlanders, he propofed, that Orders fhould 
be lent for a military execution, on thofe of GlenCoe. An In- 
ftrudion was drawn by the Secretary of State, to be both figned 
and counterfigned by the King (that fo he might bear no part 
of the blame, but that it might he wholly on the: King) that 
fuch as had not taken the Oaths, by the time limited, fhould 
be fhut out of the benefit of the Indemnity,: and be received only 
upon mercy. But when it was found, that this would not au- 
thorize what w^as intended, a, fecond Order was got to be figned 
and counterfigned, that if the Glencoe men could be feparated^ 
from the reft of the Highlanders, fome Examples might be made 
of them, in order to ftrike terrpr into the reft. The King 
figned this, without, any enquiry about it; for. he was too apt ', 

to fign papers in a hurry, without examining the importance of 
them. This was one effed: of his flownefs in difpatching bufi- 
nels : for as he was apt to /uffer things to run on, till there was 
a great heap of papers laid brfore him ; fo then he figned them, 
a Jittle too precipitately. But all this while, the King knew 
nothing of Macdonald^ offering to take the Oaths, within tlie 
time, nor of his having takei> ^them foon after it was paft, when 
he came to a .proper Magiftrate. As thefe Orders were fent 
down, the Secretary of State wiit many private Letters to Leving- 
Jioun, who commanded in Scotland, giving him a ftrid: charge 
and particular diredlions for the execution of them : And he 
ordered the paffejS in the Valley to be kept, defcribing them fo 
minutely, that the Orders were certainly drawn by one, who 
knew the Country well. He gave alfo a pofitive direction, that 
no Prifoners fhould be taken, that fo the execution might be as 
Vol. IL A a ter- 

no The History of the Reign 

1692 terrible as was poffible. He prefled this upon Levingflomt^ 

K.yr\/'^^iyj widi fimins of veiiemence, that looked as if there was fomething 

jnore tiian ordinary in it ; He indeed grounded it on his zeal 

for the JCiiig's fervioe, adding, that fueh Rebels and Murderers 

iliDuld be made Examples of 

in February^ a Company was {^vX to Gkncoe, who were kindly 
receivjed, and quartered over the Valley ; the Inhabitants thinks 
ing themfek'ies fafe, and looking for ng Hoftilities ; After they 
had ftaid a week among them, they took their time in the 
night, and killed about fix and thirty of them, the reft taking 
die alarm, and efeaping : This raifed a mighty out-ery, and was 
publi/Ked by the French in their Gazettes, and by the Jacobites 
jn their Libeis, to caft a reproach on the King's Government^ 
as cruel and barbarous ^ tho' in all other inftances it had ap- 
peared, that his own inclinations were gentle and mild, rather 
to an excefs. The King fent Orders to inquire into the matter ; 
But wh^n the LetteriS, writ upon this bu(incfs, were all examined, 
which I myfeif read, it appeared, that fo many were involved in 
rile fnatter, that the King's gentlenefs prevailed on him to a fault ; 
and Jifi eontentipid himfelf with difmiffing only the Mafter of 
Stair from his Service : The Highlanders were (o inflamed with 
this, that they were put in as forward a difpofition, as the Jaco- 
bites wifhed for, to have rebelled upon the firft favourable op- 
portunity : And indeed the not punilhing this with a due rigour, 
ivas the greateft blot in this whole Reign, and had a very ill 
^ffed in alienating that Nation, from the King and his Govern- 
ment. -•>- 
The Earl of An Incident happened neal" the end of this Seflion, that had 
dSrlced!' "^^^^X ^^ fiffcds ; which I unwillingly mention, becaufe it cannot 
be told without fqme reflexions on the memory of the Qiieen, 
■whon> I always honoured, beyond all the perfons I had evet 
known. The Earl of NQttingham came to the Earl of Marl- 
borough^ with a meflage from the King, telling him, that he had 
no more ufe for his Service, and therefore he demanded all his 
Commiffions. What drew fo fudden and fo hard a meflage 
was not kfiown : For he had been with the King that morning, 
and had parted with him in the ordinary manner. It feemedj 
fqme Letter was intercepted, which gave fufpicion : It is certain, 
th^t he thought he was too little eonfidered, and that he had, 
upon many oeealions, cenfured the King's eondu6l, and refleded 
on the Dutch. But tjie original paule of his difgrace, arole from 
another conflderation ; The Princefs thought herfelf too muci; 
negie^ed by the King, whofe cold way towards her, was foon 
obferved : After the King was on the Throne, no propofltions 



^jr.WiLLTAM and %Mary. 9? 

were made to her of a Settlement, nor any advances of money. 1692 
So flie, thinking fhc was to be kept in a neceflitous dependancc on "^^cts/^^^ 
the Court, got fome to move in the Houfe of Commons, in the year 
1 690, when they were in tlie Debate concerning the Revenue, that 
(he lliould have alignments, fuitable to her Dignity. This both 
King and Queen took amifs from her ; The Queen complained 
more particularly, that Ae was then ill, after her lying-in of the 
Duke of Glocefier ^t Hampton- Courts and that fhc herfclf was treat- 
ing her and the young child, with the tendernefs of a mother, arwl 
that yet fuch a motion was made, before flie had tried, in a 
private way, what the King intended to afTign her. The Prin- 
cefs, on the other hand, faid, flie knew the Queen was a good 
wife, fubmiflive and obedient to every thing that the King de- 
fired ; fo fhe thought, the bcft way was to have a Settlement 
ty Kdi of Parliament : On the other hand, the cuftom had al- 
ways been, that the Royal Family (a Prince of Wales not esf- 
cepted) was kept in a dependancc on the King, and had no al- 
lowance, but from his nicer favour and kindneft ; yet in this 
cafe, in which the Princefs was put out of the SuccefTion, during 
the King's life, it feemcd reafonable, that fomewhat more than 
ordinary ftiould be done in confideration of that. The A<5t 
paft, allowing her a Settlement of fifty thoufand pounds. But 
upon this a coldnefs followed, between not only the King, but 
even the Queen, and the Princefs. And the blame of this mo- 
tion was caft on the Co\mtcfs pf Marlborgugh^ as moft in favour 
with the Princefs : And this had contributed much to alienate 
the King froin her husband> and had difpofed him to receive 
ill impreflions of hipi. 

Upon his difgr^ce, his Lady was forbid the Coqrt ; The A Breach 
Princefs woviM not fubmit to this ; She thought, flie ought to ^ueenlnd* 
be allowed to keep what perfons fhe pleafed about herfelf. And t^e Princefs. 
when the Queen infifted on the thing, fhe retired from the 
Court. There were, no doubt, ill offices dope on all hands, as 
there were fome that prefled the Princefs to fubmit to the Queen, 
as well as others who preffed the Queen to pafs it over ; but 
without effect : Both h^d engaged themfelves, before they had. 
well refleded on the confequences of fuch a breach : And the 
matter werit fo far,* that the Queen ordered, that no publick. 
Honours fhould be {h?wed the Princefs, befides m^my other 
ieffer matters, which \ unwillingly rcfled: on, becaufe I was 
much troubled to fee the Qiieen carry fuch a matter fo far : 
And the breach continued to the end of her life. The Enemies 
of the Govcrnrnent tried what cpuld be made of this, to create 
diflradlions among us ; But the Princefs gave no encouragement 


9 2 The . H I s T o r y of the Reign 

1692 to them. So that this mifunderftanding had no other effed, biit 
^.^^^^''^^ that it gave Enemies much ill-natured joy, and a fecret fpiteful 

The King gave Ruff el the Command of the Fleet ; tho' he 
malted °the had put himfelf in ill terms vi^ith him, by prefTmg to know^ the 
Pieet- grounds of the Earl of Marlborough\ difgrace : He had not 
only lived in great friendfhip w^ith him, but had carried the 
firft meffages that had paffed between him and the King,, when 
he went over to Holland ; He almoft upbraided the King with 
the Earl of Marlborough\ Services, who, as he faid, had fet the 
Crown on his head. Rujfel alfo came to be in ill terrris with 
the Earl of Nottingham^ who as he thought, fupported a faction 
among the Flag Officers againft him ; And he fell indeed into 
lb ill an humour, on many accounts, that he leemed to be for 
fome time in doubt, whether he ought to undertake the com- 
mand of the Fleet, or not : I tried, at the defire of fome of hi& 
friends, to foften him a little, but without fuccefs. 
A Defcent The King went over to Holland in March, to prepare for 
prc^afed by ^^^ early Campaign. He intimated fomewhat in his Speech to 
K. jfames. the Parliament, of a delcent defigned upon France ; But we had 
neither men nor money to execute it. And, while we were 
plealing our felves with the thoughts of a defcent in France^ 
King "James was preparing for a real one in England. It was 
intended to be made in the end oi April : He had about him 
fourteen thoufand Englijh and Irijh ; And Marfhal Belfonds was 
to accompany him, with about three thoufand French. They 
were to fail from Cherbourg and La Hague, and fome other 
places in Normandy, and to land in Sujfex, and from thence to 
march with all hafte to Lojtdon. A Tranfport-Fleet was alfo 
brought thither : They were to bring over only a fmall number of 
horfes ; for their party, in E?igland., undertook to furnifh them with 
horfes, at their landing. At the fame time, the King of iV«:;zc^ was 
to march witli a great Army into Flafiders \ and he reckoned, that 
the defcent in England, would, either have fucceeded, fince there 
was a very fmall .force left within the Kingdom ; or at leaft, that 
it would have obliged the King to come over, with fome of his 
EngliJJD Troops : And in that cale, which way foever the War 
of England had ended, he fhould have maftered Flanders, and 
fo forced the States to fubmit:. And, in cafe other dejGigns had 
failed, there was one in referve, managed by the French Miniftry,' 
and by Luxemburgh, of alTaflinating the King, which would 
have brought about all their defigns. The French King feemed 
to think the Project was fo well laid, that it could not mifcarry : 
for he faid publickly, before he fet out, that he was going to 
, make 

of K.WihiuiKu and %MarY. 93 

make aii end of the War. We in England were all this while 1692 
\'ery (ecure, and did not apprehend we were in any danger. ^^^^^^""^"^ 
Both the King and his Secretaries were much blamed, for taking 
fo little care to procure Intelligence ; If the winds had favoured 
the French^ they themfelvcs would have brought us the firft 
news of their dejQgn ; They fent over (bme perfons, to give their 
friends notice, but a very itw days, before they reckoned, they 
fhould be on our Coaft : One of thefe was a Scotchman, and 
brought the hrft difcovery to Johnjloun : Orders were prefently 
fent out, to bring together fucli Forces as lay fcattered in Quar- 
ters ; And a Squadron of our Fleet, that was fet to Sea, was 
ordered to lay on the Coaft of Normandy : But the Heavens 
fought againft them more effedually, than we could have done; 
There was, for a whole month together, fuch a Storm that lay 
on their Coaft, that it was not polFible for them to come out 
of their Ports ; nor could Marfhal UEJirees come about with 
the Squadron from 'Toulon, fo foon as was expefted. In the 
beginning of May, about forty of our Ships were on the Coaft 
of Normandy, and were endeavouring to deftroy their Tranfport 
Ships : Upon which, Orders were fent to Marfhal Tourville, to 
fail to the Channel, and fight the Englijh Fleet. They had a 
Wefterly wind to bring them within the Cliannel : But then 
the wind ftruck into the Eaft, and flood fo long there, that it 
both brought over the Dutch Fleet, and brought about our 
great Ships. By this means, our whole Fleet was joined ; So 
that Tourville^ defign, of getting between the feveral Squadrons 
that compofed it, was loft. The King of France, being then in 
Flanders, upon this change of wind, fent Orders to Tourville not 
to fight : Yet the Veflel that carried thefe was taken, and the 
duplicate of thele Orders, that was fent by another conveyance, 
came not to him till the day after the Engagement. j 

On the nineteenth of May, Rujfel came up with xht French, k^ratYic- 
and was almoft twice their number ; Yet not above the half'°'^*'^"' 
of his Ships could be brought into the Adion, by reafon of the 
winds : Rook, one of his Admirals, was thought more in fault. 
The number of the Ships that engaged was almoft equal; Our 
men faid, that the French neither (hewed courage nor skill in 
the Adion ; The night and a fog feparated the two Fleets, after 
an Engagement that had lafted fome hours. The greateft part 
of the French Ships drew near their Coafts ; But Rujfel not 
cafting anchor, as the French did, was carried out by the tide ; 
So next morning he was at fome diftance from them. A great 
part of the French Fleet failed Weftward, through a dangerous 
Sea, called the Race q{ Alderney ; Apby was fent to purfue 

Vol. II. B b them: 

g4 The History of the Reign 

1692 them: And he followed them fome leagues: But then, the 
u?^^'"^^ Pilots pretending danger, he came back ; fo twenty fix of them, 
whom \i. Ap^by had purfued, by all appearance, he had deftroy'd 
them all, got into St. Malo%. Ruff el came up to the French 
Admiral, and the other Ships that had drawn near their Coafts ; 
Delaval burnt the Admiral, and his two Seconds : And Rook 
burnt lixteen more before La Hogue. 
fiut not foi- It vvas believed, that if this Succefs had been purfued with 
mi^it h'ave vigour, confidcring the conflernation, with which the French 
•^^"- were ftruck, upon fuch an unufiial and furprizing blow, that 

this Victory might have been carried much farther than it was. 
But Rujfel was provoked by fome Letters and Orders, that the 
Earl of Nottingham fent him from the Queen, which he thought 
were the effeds of ignorance ; And upon that he fell into a 
crofTnefs of difpofition ; He found fault with every Order that 
was fent him ; But would offer no advices on his part. And 
he came foon after to St. Helens ; which was much cenfured ; 
for tho' the difabled Ships muft have been fent in, yet there 
was no fuch reafon for bringing in the reft, that were not touched. 
Crofs winds kept them long in Port ; So that a great part of 
the Summer was fpent, before he went out again. The French 
had recovered out of the firft difbrder, that had quite difpirited 
them. A defcent in France came to be thought on, when it 
was too late : About feven thoufand men were fhipped ; And 
it was intended to land them at St. Malo\ \ But the Seamen 
were of opinion, that neither there, nor any where €i{Q^ a de- 
fcent was ■ then pradicable. They complained, that the Earl of 
Nottingham was ignorant of Sea affairs, and yet that he fet on 
propofitions relating to them, without confulting Seamen, and 
lent Orders which could not be obeyed, without endangering 
the whole Fleet. So the men, who were thus fhipped, lay fome 
days on board, to the great reproach of our Counfels : But that 
we might not appear too ridiculous, both at home and abroad, 
by landing them again in England ; the King ordered them to 
be fent over to Flanders^ after they had been for fome weeks 
on Shipboard ; And fo our Campaign on the Sea, that began 
fo glorioufty, had a poor conclufion. The common refledion 
that was made on our condud: was, that the providence of God, 
and the valour of our men, had given us a vidlory, of which 
We knew not what ufe we fhould make : And which was worfe, 
our Merchants complained of great loffes this Summer ; for the 
French having laid up their Fleet, let their Seamen go and ferve 
in Privateers, with which they watched all the motions of our 
Trade : And fo, by an odd Reverfe of things, as we made no 
*(n»ib U con- 

ofK. William and ^ Mary. ^j 

toniiderable lofles, while the French were Mafters of our Sea, 1692 
two years before ; fo now, when we triumphed on that Ele- ^'"v^^J 
tnent, our Merchants fuftered the moft. The conclufion of all 
was, Rujfcl complained of the Miniftry^ particularly of the Earl 
of Nottingha7n \ and they complained no lefs of him ; and tlie 
Merchants complained of the Admiralty : But they, in their own 
defence faid, that we had not Ships nor Seamen, both to fur- 
uifh out a great Fleet, and at the fame time to lend out Con- 
voys for fecuring the Trade. 

In Flanders^ the defign, to which the French tnifted moft, ^^J^f^^ *® 
failed : That was laid for affaflinating the King : One Grand- the King. 
val had been in treaty with Louvoy about it ; And it was in- 
tended to be executed the former year. He joined with Du 
Mont to follow the King and fhoot him, as he was riding about 
in his ordinary way, moving flowly, and viliting the pofts of his 
Army. The King of France had loft two Minifters, one after 
another. Seignelay died firft, who had no extraordinary genius, 
but he knew all his father's methods, and purfued them fo, 
that he governed himfelf, both by his father's maxims, and 
with his tools. Louvoy did not furvive him long ; He had 
more fire, and io grew uneafy at the authority, Madam de 
Maintemn took in things which fhe could not underftand : And 
was, in conclufton, fo unacceptable to the King, that once, when 
he flung his bundle of papers down upon the floor before him, 
upon fome provocation, the King lifted up his cane : But the 
Lady held him from doing more ; Yet that affront, as was 
given out, funk fo deep into Lowvoy^ fpirits, that he died fud- 
denly a few days after. Some faid, it was of an Apoplexy ; 
Others fufpeded poifon ; for a man that knew fo many fecrets, 
would have been dangerous, if he had out-lived his favour. 
His Son Barbejieux had the furvivance of his place, and con- 
tinued in it for fome years ; But, as he was young, fo he had 
not a capacity equal to the poft. He found, among his father's 
papers, a memorandum of this defign of GrandvaH ; So he 
fent for him, and rdblved to purfue it ; in which Madam de 
Maintemn concurred, and Luxemburgh was trufted with the 
direction of it. Du Mont retired this winter to Zell, as one 
that had forfaken the French Service : From fome practices and 
difcourfes of his, a fufpicion arofe, of which Sir William Colt, 
the King's Envoy there, gave notice : So one Leefdale, a Dutch 
P^ift, was fecretly fent to Paris, as a perfon that would enter 
into the defign J But, in reality^ went on purpofe to difcover 




96 The History of the Reign 

1692 Grandval and he came back to ¥la?tdersj to fet about it ; But 
^^^'^^'""^ Leefdak brought him into a party, that feized on him : Both 
fufflTeZfor K-ing James, and his Queen, were, as Grandval faid, engaged 
ir, and con- iri the dciign ; One Par kbej' J whom they employed in many 
black deligns, had concerted the matter with Grandval, as he 
confeffed, and had carried him to King James, who encou- 
raged him to go on with it, and promifed great rewards. When 
Grandval faw there was full proof againft him, he confefled 
the whole ferie's of the management, without {laying till he were 
put to the torture. Mr. Morel oi Berne, a famous Medalift, 
(who had, for fome years, the charge of the French King's ca- 
binet of medals, but being a Proteftant, and refuling to change 
his Religion, was kept a clofe prifoner in the Bajiile for feven 
years) was let out in April this year. And, before he left Paris, 
^ his curiolity carried him to St. Germains, to fee King James : 

He happened both to go and come back in the Coach with 
Grandval ; And while he was there, he faw him in private 
difcourfe with King James : Grandval was full of this projed:, 
and, according to the French way, he talked very loolely to 
Morel, not knowing who he was ; but fancied he was well af- 
feded to that Court. He faid there was a defign in hand, that 
would confound all Europe : For the Prince of Orange, fo he 
called the King, would not live a month. This Morel writ 
over to me in too carelefs a manner ; for he directed his Letter 
with his own hand, which was well known at Court ; Yet it 
came fafe to me. The King gave Orders, that none belonging 
to him fhould go near Grandval, that there might be no colour 
for faying, that the hopes of life had drawn his Confeflion from 
him ; Nor was he ftriftly interrogated concerning Circumftances ; 
but was left: to tell his flory, as he pleafed himfelf. He was 
condemned ; and fuffered with fome flight remorfe, for going 
into a defign to kill a King : His Confeflion was printed. But 
how black foever it reprefented the Court of France, no notice 
was taken of it : Nor did any of that Court ofFer to difown or 
difprove it, but let it pafs and be forgotten : Yet fo- blind and 
violent was their party among us, that they refolved they would 
believe nothing, that either blemifhed King James, or the Frejich 
Court. ;J 

Namnr Wis gu^- ^.j^q' ^-j^jg mifcarried, the French fucceeded in the Siege 

taken by the ^,_ ai r- 1 iiii 

Frewf;. or JMamur : A place or great importance, that commanded both:; 
the Maefe and Sambre, and covered both Liege and Majiricht .f 
The Town did foon capitulate, but the Citadel held out much 
longer. The King came with a great Army to raife the Siege ; 
Luxemburgh lay in his way with another to cover it, and the 
. ■ -v.-.' -^ Me- 

of I^. WrbL I AM and <^ M a r y. 97? 

Mehaignehi^ hztyN^^n. The Kin p; jntcrxled to pafs the River, 1692 
and force a Battle ; But fuch rains fell, the night before he de- '-^J^'V"'^ 
iigned to do it, and the River fwelled fo much, that he could 
not'pafs it for'fome days : He tried, by ahothtr motion, to 
come and raife the Siege. But the Town having capitulated (b 
early, and the Citadel laying on the other fide of the Sambre, 
he could not cOriieal: it: So after a month's Siege it was taken. 
This was looked on'^skhe^greateft adion of the French K\t\^^ 
life ; that, not withftanding the deprefTion of fuch a defeat at 
Sea, he yet fupported his meafurcs, fo as to take that important 
place, ;in the view of a great Army. The King's condud: was 
on this occafion much ccnfured : Tt was faid, he ought to have 
put muchto hazard, rather than'fufFer fuch a place to be taken 
in his fight. 

After Namur furrendred, that King went back to Paris in 
his ufual method ; for, according to the old Perjian Luxury, 
he ufed to bring the Ladies with him, with the Mufick, Poems, 
and Scenes, for an Opera, and a Ball ; in which he and his 
actions were to be fet out, with the pomp of much flattery. 
When this aftion was over, his Forces lay on the Defcnfive, and 
both Armies made fome motions, watching and waiting on one 

At Steenkirk^ the King thought he had a favourable oecafion 'The Battle 
for attacking the French^ in their Camp ; But the ground was jt/r/t. 
found to be narrower, and lefs pradicable, than the King had 
been made to believe it was. Ten Battalions begun the Attack, 
and carried a Poft with Cannon, and maintained it long, doing 
great execution on the Enemy ; And if they had been fupported, 
or brought off, it had proved a brave attempt : But they were 
cut in pieces. In the whole adion, the French loft many more 
men than the Confederates did ; for they came fo thick, 
that our fire made great execution.' The Conducfl of this affair 
was much cenfured. It was faid, the ground ought to have been 
better examined, before the attack was begun ; And the men 
ought to have been better maintained, than they were : For many 
thought, that if this had been done, we might have had a 
total Vidory. Count Solms bore the blame of the errors, com- 
mitted on this occafion. The Englijh had been fometimes 
check'd by him, as he was much dilgufted with their heat 
and pride : So they charged all on him, who had fome good 
qualities ; but did not manage them in an obhging manner. 
We loft in this aftion about five thoufand men, and many brave 
Officers ; Here Mackay was killed, being ordered to a Poft 
that he faw could not be maintained ; He fent his opinion about 

Vol. n. C c it : 



The History of the Reign 

it • But the former Orders were confirmed : So lie went on, 

L^j^v"''!^,' faying only, The Will of the Lord be done. He was a man 
of fuch ftri6t principles, that he would not have ferved in a 
War that he did not think lawful. He took great care of his 
Soldiers morals, and forced them to be both fober and juft in 
their Quarters : He fpent all the time that he was mafter of, in 
fecret Prayers, and in the reading of the Scriptures. The King 
often obferved, that when he had full leifure for his devotions, 
he a6led with a peculiar exaltation of courage. He had one 
very lingular quality ; In Councils of War, he delivered his opi- 
nion freely, and maintained it with due zeal ; But how pofltive 
foever he was in it, if the Council of War over-ruled it, even 
tho' he he was not convinced by it, yet to all others he juftified 
it, and executed his part with the lame zeal, as if his own 
opinion had prevailed. After the Adion at Steenkirky there 
was little done this Campaign. A Detachment, that the King 
fent from his Army, joined with thofe Bodies that came from 
England^ broke in fome way in to the French Conquefts : They 
fortified Dixmtiyde and furnes^ and put the Country about them 
under Contribution, and became very uneafy neighbours to Dun- 
kirk. The Command of thofe Places was given to the Count 
of Horn^ who underftood well the way to make all poiTible ad- 
vantages by Contributions ; But he was a man of no gre^ worth, 
and of as little courage. This difgufted the EngliJJj ftill more ; 
who faid, the Dutch were always trufted and preferred, while 
they were negleded. They had fome colour to cenfure tliis 
choice the following winter : For, upon the motion of fome 
French Troops, Horn (without ftudying to amufe the Enemy, 
or to gain time, upon which, much may depend in Winter) 
did immediately abandon Dixmuyde. All he had to juftify 
himfelf, was a Letter from the Eledor of Bavaria^ telling him, 
that he could fend him no relief ; and therefore he ordered him 
to take care of the Garrifon, which was of more importance than 
the Place itfelf Thus the Campaign ended in Flanders ; Na~ 
mur was loft ; The Reputation of the King's conducing Ar- 
mies was much funk, and the E?iglifi were generally difcon- 
tented, and alienated from tlie Dutch. 

Nothing was done on the Rhine. The Eledor of Saxony had 
promifed to bring an Army thither : But Shening his General, 
who had great power over him, was gained by the French^ to 
break his defign. The Duke of Saxony complained, that the 
Emperor favoured the Circles of Franconia and Swahia fo much, 
that he could have no good Quarters affigned him for his Army : 
And upon this occafion it was faid, that the Emperor drew much 


Affairs in 

of K.V/iLhiAU and ^ Mary. 99 

money from thofe Circles, that they might be covered from 1692 
Winter Qiiarters ; and that he applied all that to carrying on ^-^'^'-''^hj 
the War in Hungary ; and fo left the weight of the War with 
'Branca^ to lie very heavy on the Princes of the Empire. This 
Gonteft went on fo high, that Shening^ who was thought the ill 
inftmment in it, going for his health to the Hot Baths in Bohemia^ 
was feized on by the Emperor's Orders ; Upon which, great ex- 
poftulations pafled between the Courts of Vienna and Drefden, 
There were two fmall Armies, that aded feparately on the 
Rhine, under the Command of the Landgrave of Heffe, and 
the Marquifs of Bareith : But they were not able to cover the 
Empire : And another fmall Army, brought together by the 
Duke oi Wirtemberg, for the defence of his. Country, was to- 
tally deleatcd ; Not only Cannon and Baggage, but the Duke 
himfelf fell into the Enemies hands. 

But, tho' the Emperor did, as it were, abandon the Empire i^f " '" 
to the Vrenchy he made no great progrefs in Hungary : The 
Xw-h lay upon a defenfive ; And the Seafon was fpent in mo- 
tions, without either Battle or Siege. There was ftill fome dif- 
courfe, but no great probability of Peace. Two Englijh Am- 
bafladors dying, the one, Sir Thomas Huffay, foon after his ar- 
rival at Conjlajitinople ; and the other, Mr. Harbor dy on his way 
thither ; The Lord Paget , then our Ambaflador at the Emperor's 
Court, was ordered to go thither, to mediate the Peace. He 
found the Mediation was, in a great meafure, fpoiled by the 
Dutch Ambafiador, before his arrival : for he had been pre- 
vailed on, by the Court of Vienna, to offer the Mediation of 
the Dutch upon a very high Scheme. Caminieck, and the Ukrain^ 
and Podolia, with Moldavia, and Valachia, were demanded for 
Poland'. "Tranjilvania, with the perfon of CounX. Tekeli, ioi the 
Ejnperor ; and Achaia and Livadia, as an Antemurale to cover 
the Morea, for the Venetians. The Court of Vienna, by offering 
fuch a Projedt, reckoned the War muff: go on, which they de- 
ffred. The Minifters of the Porr, who were gained by the 
French to carry on the War, were glad to fee fo high a Projedl ; 
They were afraid of Tumults ; So they fpread this Projedl over 
the whole Empire, to fhew, on what ignominious terms the 
Mediation was prppofed ; And by that they they juftified their 
going on with the War. But the Lord Paget offered the King's 
Mediation upon another Projed: ; which was, that every Prince 
was to keep what he was then poffeiTed of : And Caminieck 
was only demanded to be razed. If this had been off'ered at 
firft, the Ottojuan Court durft not have refufed it : The people 
were become fo weary ynder a long and unprofperous War; 


100^ The History of the Reign 

1692 But the Vizkr fuppreffed this, arid made it ftill pafs among 
'-^^'"^'''"''^ them, x\\iX. xht Englijh prefled the fame Projed, that xh^ Dutch 
had propofed ; which was the more eafily beUeved there, be- 
caufe how ignorant foever they were at that Court, they knew 
well what an intereft the King of England hakl in the States. 
So the War was dill carried on there ; And Trtimbal, who came 
over to England at this time^ told the King, that if inftead 
of fending Embaffies, he would fend a powerRil Fleet into the 
Mediterranean^, to deftroy the i^r^^c^ Trade, and ftop the Com- 
merce with Tm-key, he would quickly bring that Court to* other 
meafures, of raife fuch tumults among them, as would fet that 
Ertipire, ;and even Conjlantinople itfelf, all in a ftame. 
Affairs in Jn Picdmntj the Campaign was opened very late ; And the 
'j'ledumu. p^^^^^jy vv^ei^^ on a defenfive : So the Duke of Sa^y entred into 
Daiiphiny v/ith an Army ; And if he had carried on that at- 
tempt with the Spirit, . with which he began it, he had put the 
affairs of i^r^wc^ on that fide into great diforder : But he was 
eilhfer ill ferved. or betrayed in it ; He fat down before Ambruny 
and befiegediit in form : So that a place, which he might have 
carried in three days, coft him fome weeks : And in every 
ftepi he niade it appear, there was either a great feeblenefs, or 
much treachery in his Counfels. He made no great progrefs; 
■Yet the diforder, it threw that and the neighbouring Provinces 
into, v/as very great. He was flopped by the Small Pox, which 
faved his honour, as much as it endangered his perfon : The 
retreat of his Army, when his life was in danger, looked like 
a due caution. He recovered of the Small Pox, but a ferment 
remaiacd ftillin his Blood,' and broke out fo often into feverifh 
relapfes, that it was generally thought he was poifoned. Many 
months paffed, before he was out of danger. So the Campaign 
ended there with confiderable loffes to the Fre7ich^ but with no 
great advantage to the Duke. The greateft prejudice the French 
buffered this year, was from the Seafon ; They had a very bad 
harveft, and no vintage in the Northern parts. We in England 
had great apprehenfions of as bad an one, from a very cold 
and wet Summer. Great deluges of rain continued till the very 
time of harveft. But, when we were threatned with a famine, 
it plcafed God to fend fuch an extraordinary change of the Sea- 
fon, that we had a very plentiful crop, enough both to ferve 
our felves, and to fupply our neighbours, which made us eafy 
at home, and brought in much. wealth, for that Corn which we 
were able to fpare. 
A p/cat In the beginning of September^ there was an Earthquake felt 

ill moft places in England \ and was at the fame time felt in 
^' 2 many 

Jiarthquake. ^ 

of K. William and .^Mary^ lof 

many parts of France^ Germany, and the Netherlands. No 1692 
harm was done by it, tho' it continued for thrCj or four minutes. l-c^-V'W 
I can write nothing oPit from my own Obfervation ; for it was 
not fenfible in the place where I happened to be at that time J' 
Nor can it be determined, whether this had any relation to. 
thofe terrible Earthquakes that happened, fome months after 
this, in Sicily and Malta : Upon which I cannot enlarge, hav- 
ing feen no other account of them, than what was in publick 
Gazettes, which reprefented them as the dreadfuUeft by much,' 
of any that are in Hiftory : It was eftimated, that about one 
hundred thoufand perfons pcrifhed by them in Sicily. It is 
fcarce to be imagined, that the Earthquake, which about the 
fame time deftroyed the beft part of the chief Town in Jafnaica, 
could have any connexion with thefc in Europe. Thefe were 
very extraordinary things, which made thofe, who ftudied Apo- 
calyptical matters, imagine that the end of the World drew 
near. It had been happy for us, if fuch difmal accidents had 
ftruck U3 with a deeper fenfe of the Judgments of God. 

We were indeed brought to more of an outward face of A great 

vertue and fobriety : And the great examples, that the King oZl^^ns^ 

and Queen fet the Nation, had made fome conliderable altera- ^««'^- 

tions, as to publick pradlices : But we became deeply corrupted 

in principle : A disbelief of Revealed Religion, and a profane 

mocking at tJie Chriftian Faith, and the Myfleries of it, became 

avowed and fcandalous. The Queen, in the King's abfence^ 

gave orders to execute the Laws againft Drunkennefs, Swearingj 

and the Profanation of the Lord's Day ; and fent diredlions 

over England, to all Magiftrates to do their duty in executing 

them ; to which the King joined his Autliority, upon his return 

to England. Yet the Reformation of Manners, which fome 

zealous men ftudied to promote, went on but flowly: Many 

of the inferior Magiftrates were not only remifs, but very faulty 

themfelves : They did all they could to difcourage thofe, who 

endeavoured to have Vice fupprefled and puniftied : And it 

muft be confefled, that the behaviour of many Clergymen gave 

Atheifts no fmall advantage : They had taken the Oaths, and 

read the Prayers for tlie prefent Government ; They obferved 

the Orders for publick Fafts and Thankfgivings ; And yet they 

fhewed in many places their averfion to our EftabHftiment but 

too vifibly : So that the offence that this gave, in many parts 

of the Nation, was too evident : In fome places, it broke out in 

very indecent Inftances, that were brought into Courts of Law, 

and cenlured. This made many conclude, that the Clergy were 

a fort of men, that would fwear and pray, even againft their 

Vol. IL • D d Con- 

1 02 The Yii^l^oviY of the Reign 

1692 Confciences, rather than lofe their Benefices ; and by confe- 
u^'V'^'jo quence, that they were governed by Intereft, and not by Prin- 
ciple. The Jacobites grew ftill to be more and more outrageous, 
while the Clergy feemed to be Neutrals in the difpute ; And 
which was yet the moft extraordinary thing in the whole mat- 
ter, the Government itfelf aded with fo much remiflhefs, and 
fo few were enquired after, or punifhed, that thofe who were 
employed by the King, behaved themfelves, in many places, as 
if they had fecret Inftrudtions to be heavy upon his beft friends, 
and to be gentle to his Enemies. Upon the whole matter, the 
Nation was falling under fuch a general corruption, both as to 
Morals and Principles ; And that was fo much fpread among 
all forts of people, that it gave us great apprehenfions of heavy 
Judgments from Heaven. 
PaSiSInt^ The SefTion of Parliament was opened under great difad van- 
tages. The Earl of Marlborough^ and fome other Peers, had 
been put in the Tower, upon a falfe accufation of High Treafon, 
which was evidently proved to be a Confpiracy, defigned by 
fome profligate creatures, who fancied that forgeries and falle 
fwearing would be as acceptable, and as well rewarded, in this 
Reign, as they had been formerly. But till this was detedled, 
the perfons accufed were kept in Prifon ; and were now only 
out upon Bail : So it was faid to be contrary to the nature and 
freedom of Parliaments, for Prifoners to fit in it. It was con- 
fefled, that in times of danger, and fuch was the former Sum- 
mer, it mufl be trufted to the difcretion of a Government, to 
commit fuch perfons as were fufpefted : But when the danger 
was over, by our Vidory at Sea, tliofe againft whom there lay 
nothing befides fufpicions, ought to have been fet at liberty : And 
this was thought reafonable. There was an AfTociation pretended 
to be drawn againft the Government, to which the Subfcriptions 
of many Lords were fet fo dexteroufly, that the Lords themfelves 
feid, they could not diftinguifli between their true Subfcriptions, 
and thofe that were forged for them. But the manner of the 
difcovery, with feveral other circumflances, carried fuch marks 
of Impoflure, that the Lords of the Council ordered a flrid: pro- 
fecution of all concerned in it, which ended in a full convidion 
of the forgery: And thole who had combined in it, were whipt 
and pilloried, which, to the reproach of our Conflitution, is the 
only punifhment that our Law has yet provided for fuch prac- 
tices. The Lords pafTed fome Votes, afferting their Privileges ; 
and were offended with the Judges, for detaining fome in prifon, 
tho' there was no reafon nor colour for their difpleafure. But 


ofK. Wi L L I A M and ^ M a r y. 103 

where the Privilege, or the Dignity of Peerage is in queftion, it 1692 


. \n,iiii 

is not cafy to keep the Hoiife within bounds. 

The Debate went off in a Bill, that indemnified the Miniftry 
for tliofc Commitments, but limited them, for the future, by 
feveral rules ; all which rules were rejcdlcd by the Commons. 
They thought thofe Limitations gave a Legal power to commit, 
in cafes where they were obferved ; whereas they thought the 
fafer way was, to indemnify the Miniftry, when it was vifible 
they did not commit any but upon a real danger, and not to 
fet them any rules : Since, as to the committing of fufpe<Eted 
perfons, where the danger is real and vifible, the publick fafety 
muft be firft looked to, and fuperfede all particular Laws. When 
this was over, an attempt was made in both Houfcs, for the 
Abjuration of King James : The King himlelf was more fet 
on it, than he had been formerly. It was rejected by the Houfe 
of Commons : And tho' fome fteps were made in it by the 
Lords, yet the oppofition was fo great, that it was let fall. 

The affairs at Sea occafioned much heat in both Houfes. 
The Earl of Nottingham laid before the Lords, upon an Addrefs 
they had made to the King, all the Letters that had paft be- 
tween himfelf and Rujfel \ with all the Orders he had fent 
him : And he aggravated Rujfefs errors and negleds very fe- 
verely. But the Houfe of Commons juftified Rujfely and gave 
him thanks over and over again ; and remained fo fixed in this, 
that tho' the Lords then communicated the papers, the Earl of 
Nottingham had laid before them, to the Commons, they would 
not fo much as read them, but renewed their firft Votes, that 
juftified Rujfefs fidelity, courage, and conduft. 

The King was now pofiieffed againft him : For he difmifi^d jealoufiej of 
him from his Service, and put the Command of the Fleet into M'Jn^tcri* 
the hands of three perfons, KtUigrew^ Delavaly and Shovel: 
The two firft were thought fo inclinable to King "Jamess In- 
terefts, that it made fome infinuate, that the King was in ^ the 
hands of thofe, who intended to betray him to his Enemies : 
For tho' no exception lay againft Shovel., yet it was faid, he was 
only put with the other Two^ to give fome reputation to the 
Commiffion, and that he was One againft Two ; fo that he 
could neither hinder nor do any thing. The chief blame of this 
Nomination was thrown on the Earl of Nottingham ; and of 
thofe, who belonged to his Office, many ftories were raifed and 
fpread about, as if there had been among them, befides a very 
great remiffnefs in fome of the concerns of the Government, 
an adual betraying of all our Secrets and Counfels. The opi- . 
nion of this was fpread both within and without the Kingdom ; 


I04 'T^^ History of the Reign 

i6q2 And moft of our Confederates were poffeffed with it. He juf^ 
Ui^'v""'^ tilled not only himfelf, but all his Under Secretaries ; Both King 
and Queen continued ftill to have a good opinion of his fide- 
lity ; But they faw fome defeds in his Judgment, with a moft 
violent Party heat, that appeared upon all occafions, and even 
in the fmalleft matters. The Bills for the fupply went on with 
a heavy progrefs in the Houfe of Commons j Thofe who could 
not oppofe them, yet fhewed their ill humour in delaying them, 
and clogging them widi unacceptable claufes all they could. 
And tliey continued that wafteful method, of railing money 
upon remote Funds ; by which there lay a heavy difcount on 
Tallies ; fo that above a fourth part was, in fome of them, to be 
difcounted : The parties of Whig and Tory appeared almoft 
( in every debate, and in every queftion. 
Complaints ^pj^^ -^ humour prevailed moft in the Houle of Lords, where 
ment. a ftrong oppofition was made to every tiling that was propofed 
for the Government. They paft many Votes, and made many 
Addreffes to the King, which were chiefly defigned to 
load the Adminiftration, and to alienate the King from the 
Dutch. The Commons begun with great complaints of the 
Admiralty : And then they had the condu6t in Flanders^ par- 
ticularly in the Adion at Steenkirk, before them : And they 
voted fome heads of an Addrefs relating to thofe matters : But 
by a fecret management, they let the whole thing fall, after 
they had paflied thofe angry Votes. Any thing that the Lords 
could do, was of lefs moment, when it was not like to be fe- 
conded by the Commons ; Yet they fhewed much ill humour. 

r5s=-A-^^ This was chiefly managed by the Marquifs of Halifaxy and 
1^93 the Earl of Mulgrave\ And they drew in the Earl of Shrews- 

^^'^^'^^^"'^ bury^ who was very ill pleafed with the credit, that fome had 
with the King, and lived in a particular friendfhip with the Earl 
of Marlborough ; and thought that Jie was both ungratefully 
and unjuftly perfecuted. Thefc Lords had all the Jacobites 
ready to aflift them, in every thing that could embroil matters .; 
A great many Whigs, who were difcontented, and jealous of 
the Miniftry, joined with them : They knew that all their mur- 
muring would lignify little, unlefs they could flop a Money-bill : 
And, fince it was fettled in the Houfe of Commons as a maxim, 
that the Lords could not make any alterations in Money-bills ; 
When the Bill for four fliillings in the pound Land-tax came 
up, they put their ftrength to carry a claufe, that the Peers 
fhould tax themfelves. And tho', in the way in which this 
claufe was drawn up, it could not be defended, yet they did 


t)f K. William and ^Mary. loy 

all that was pofTible, to put a flop to the Bill ; and with unu- 1693 
fual vehemence prefled for a delay, till a Committee (hould be '^<''^**>J 
appointed to examine Precedents. This the Earl of Mulgrave 
prefled for many hours, with a force of Argument and Elo- 
<^uence, beyond any thing that I had ever heard in that Houfe. 
He infifted much upon the dignity of Peerage ; and made this, 
which was now propofed, to be fo main a part of that dignity, 
that he exhaufted all the topicks of Rhctorick, to convince the 
Lords, that, if they yielded to this, they divefted themfclves of 
their true greatnefs ; and nothing would remain, but the name 
and fhadow of a Peer, which was but a Pageanti But after all 
the pomp and heat of his Oratory, the Lords confidered the 
fafety of the Nation, more than the fliadow of a Privilege ; And 
fo they pafl*ed the Bill. 

Thefe Lords alfo fet on foot a proportion, that had never 
been offered, but when the Nation was ready to break out into 
Civil Wars ; And that was, that a Committee of Lords and 
Commons fhould be appointed to confer together, concerning 
the flate of the Nation : This once begun, would have grown 
in a very fhort time, to Jiave been a Council of State ; And they 
would foon have brought all affairs under their infpcdlion ; But 
this was fb flrongly oppofcd, that it was foon let fall. 

When the Party, that was fet againfl the Court, faw they 
could carry nothing in either Houfe of Parliament, then they 
turned their whole flrength againfl the prefent ParUament, to 
force a diflblution ; And in order to that, they firfl loaded it 
with a name of an ill found ; And, whereas King Charles % Long 
Parliament was called the Penfioner Parliament, they called 
this the Officer's Parliament ; becaufe many, that had Com- 
mands in the Army, were of it : And the word, that they gave 
out among the people, was, that we were to be governed by a 
flanding Army, and a {landing Parliament. They tried to 
carry a Bill, that render'd all Members of the Houfe of Com^ 
mons incapable of places of truft or profit ; fo that every Mem- 
ber that accepted a place, fhould be expelled the Houfe, and 
be incapable of being chofen again, to fit in the current Parlia- 
ment. The truth was, it came to be obferved, that fome got 
credit by oppoflng the Government ; and that to filence them, 
they were preferred : And then they changed their note, and 
were as ready to flatter, as before to find fault. This gave a 
fpecious colour to thofe, who charged the Court with dcfigns 
of corrupting Members, or at leaft of flopping their mouths by 
places and penfions. When this Bill was fet on, it went through 
the Houfe of Commons vidth little or no difficulty : Thofc who 

Vol. IL E c were 

1 o6 The History of the Reign 

1693 were in places, had not ftrength and credit to make great op- 
^^.^(^"'^r-^'^ pofition to it, they being the perfons concerned, and looked on 
as Parties : And thofe who had no places, had not the courage 
to oppofe it ; for in them it would have looked as ari art to 
dude M°em- rccommend themfelves to one. So the Bill pafled in the Houfe 
bers of Par- of Commons : but it was rejeded by the Lords ; fince it fecmed 
fiomTiaces- to cftablifli an oppofition between the Crown and the People, 
as if thofe who were employed by the ont, could not be trufted 
by the other. 
Another for When this failed, another attempt was made in the Houfe 
PaTiiiment ^f Lords ; in a Bill that was offered, enaAing, That a Seffion 
6f Parliament fhould be held every year, and a new Parliament 
be fummoned every third year, and that the prefent Parliament 
Ihould be diffolved within a limited time. The Statutes, for 
Annual Parliaments in King Edward the firft, and King Edward 
the third's time, are well known. But it is a queftion, whether 
the fuppofition if need be falls upon the whole Aft, or only upon 
thofe words, or oftner : It is certain thefe Ads were never ob- 
ferved ; And the non-obfervance of them was never complained 
df as a grievance. Nor did the famous Adt in King Charles 
the firft's time, carry the neceffity of holding a Seffion further, 
than to once in three years. Antiently, corifidering the hafte and 
hurry in which Parliaments fat, an annual Parliament might 
be no great inconvenience to the Nation : Biit by reafon of the 
flow methods of SefTions now, an annual Parliament in times of 
peace would become a very infupportable grievance. A Par- 
liament of a long continuance, feemed to be very dangerous, 
either to the Crown, or to the Nation : If the conjundure, and 
their proceedings, . gave them much credit, they might grow 
very uneafy to the Crown, as happened in King Charles the firft's 
'tkne ; Or in another fituation of affairs, they might be foprac- 
tifed upon by the Court, that they might give all the money, and 
ail the liberties of England up, when they were to have a large 
fhar^ of the money, and were to be made the inftruments of Ty- 
ranny ; as it was in King Char hi the fecond's time. It was like- 
wi^ hoped, that frequent Parliaments would put an eiftd to the 
greatt -ej^pence Candidates put themfelves to in Elediohs ; and 
that it would oblige the Members to behave themfelves fo 
well, both with relation to the Publick, and in their private de- 
pbrtmetit, as to recommend them to their Eledors^ at three 
years end : Whereas when a Parliament was to fit many years, 
Members covered with Privileges were apt to take great liberties, for- 
"- got that they reprefented others, and took care only of themfelves. 
S^it Was- thought, th&t EnglaTfd wouW have a truer Reprefen- 
fiiav/ ' -J ii Ai tative, 

ofK.WiLLiAu and %Maky. 107 

tative, when it was chofen anew every third year, than when it 1693 
run on to the end of a Reign. All that was obje^fled againft ^y'^^r*^ 
this was, that frequent Eled:ions would make the Freeholders 
proud and infolent, when they knew that applications muft bfe 
made to them at the end of three years : This would eftablifh 
a Fadtion in every body, that had a right to an EleAion ; And 
whereas now an Election put men to a great charge all at once, 
then the charge muft be perpetual all the three years, in laying 
in for a new Eledion, when it was known how foon it muft 
come round. And as for the diflblution of the prcfent Parlia- 
ment, fome were for leaving it to the general triennial claufc, 
that it might ftill fit three years ; They thought that, during fo 
eritical a War, as that in which we were now engaged, it was 
not advifable to venture on a new Eledion ; fince we had ib 
many among us, who were fb ill affeded to the prcfent Efta- 
blifhment : yet it was faid, this Parliament had already fat three 
years ; and therefore, it was not confiftent with the general 
reaibn of tlie A61, to let it continue longer. So the Bill pafled 
in the Houfe of Lords : And tho* a Bill from them, dif^lving 
a Parliament, ftruck only at the Houfe of Commons, the Lords 
being ftill the f^me men ; fo that, upon that fingle account, 
many thought they would have rejedled it, yet they alfb paffed 
it, and fixed their own diflblution to the twenty fifth of March 
in the next year ; So that they referved another Seffion to them- 
felves. The King let the Bill lie for fome time on the Table ; 
So that mens eyes and expeftations were much fixed on the ifllie 
of it. But in conclufion, he refufed to pafs it ; So the SefiioQ 
ended in ill humour. The rejedling a Bill, tho' an unqueftioini- 
able right of the Crown, has been fo feldom pra6tifed, that th^ 
twoHoufes are apt to think it ahardfhip, when there is a.BiH« 
denied. . ^ 

But to foften thediftafte this might otherwife'giv^i the King a Change 
made confiderable alterations in his Miniftry. All. people were 1^"^^^ ^'* 
now grown weary of the Great Seal's being in Commiflion ; 
It made the proceedings in Chancery, to be both more dilatory, 
and more expenfive : And there were fuch exceptions made, tO 
the Decrees of the Commiflioners, that Appeals were brought "^^ ' 

againft moft of them, and generally they were revferfed. Si? 
^ohn Somers had now got great reputation, both in his Poft of 
Attorney General, and in the Houfe of Commons ; So the King 
gave him the Great Seal. He was very learned in his own ProfeP^ 
Son, with a great deal more Learning in other Profeflions, iii 
Divinity, Philofophy, and Hiftory. He had a great capacity fot 
bufinefs, with an extraordinary temper v for he was fair- and 


io8 The HistoRV of the Reign 

1693 gentle, perhaps to a fault, confidering his Poft. So that he ha<i 
^-^'''V"'''*-' all the patience and foftnefs, as well as the juftice and equity, 
becoming a great Magiftrate. He had always agreed in his no- 
tions with the Whigs; and had ftudied to bring them to better 
thoughts of the King, and to a greater confidence in him. 
Trenchard was made Secretary of State : He had been engaged 
far with the Duke of Monmouth^ as was told formerly. He got 
out of England J and lived fome years beyond Sea, and had a right 
underftanding of affairs abroad : He was a calm and fedate 
man; and was much more moderate, than could have been 
expeded, fince he was a leading man in a party. He had too 
great a regard to the Stars, and too little to Religion. The 
bringing thefe men into thofe Pofts, was afcribed chiefly to the 
great credit the Earl of Sunderland had gained with the King ; 
He had now got into his confidence, and declared openly for 
the Whigs. Thefe advancements had a great effeft on the 
whole party : and brought them to a much better opinion of 
the King. A young man, Mr. Montague, a branch of the Earl 
of Manchejler\ family, began to make a great figure in the 
Houfe of Commons. He was a Commiflioner of the Treafury, 
and foon after made Chancellor of the Exchequer. He had 
great vivacity and clearnels, both of thought and exprefiion : 
His fpirit was at firft turned to Wit and Poetry, which he con- 
tinued ftill to encourage in others, when he applied himfelf to 
more important bufincfs. He came to have great notions, with 
relation to all the concerns of the Treafury, and of the Publick 
Funds, and brought thofe matters into new and better methods : 
He fliewed the error of giving money upon remote Funds, at a 
vaft difcount, and with great premiums to raife Loans upon 
them ; which occafioned a great out-cry, at the fums that were 
given, at the fame time that they were much fhrunk, before they 
produced the money, that was expeded from them. So he 
prefled the King to infill on this as a maxim, to have all the 
money for the fervice of a year, to be raifed within that year. 
Faaions But as the employing thefe men had a very good effed: on 

**"-"ft^th ^^ King's affairs, fo a party came to be now formed, that ftu- 
Court. died to crofs and defeat every thing ; This was led by Sehnour 
and Mufgrave. The laft was a Gentleman of a noble family in 
Cumberland, whofe life had been regular, and his deportment 
grave. He had loft a place in King yamess time : for tho' he 
was always a high Tory, yet he would not comply with his 
defigns. He had indeed contributed much to increafe his re- 
venue, and to offer him more than he asked ; yet he would 
not^ into the taking off the Tefts. Upon the Revolution, 
.''r the 

ofK. Wi L L I A M and ^ M a r y. 109 

the placQ out of which he had been turned, was given to a 1693 
man, that had a good fhare of merit in it. This alienated him '-^'"v^^*^ 
from the King ; And he, b-^ing a man of good judgment, and 
of great experience, came to be confidered as the Head of the 
Party ; in which he found his account fo well, that no offers 
that were made him, could ever bring him over to the King's 
Interefts. Upon many critical occasions, he gave up fome im- 
portant points, for which the King found it neceflary to pay 
him very liberally. 

But the Party of the Tories was too inconfiderable to have 
raifed a great oppolition, if a Body of Whigs had not joined 
with them \ Some of thefe had fuch Republican notions, that 
they were much fet againft the Prerogative : And they thought 
the King was become too ftiff in maintaining it : Others were 
offended, becaufe they were not confidered nor preferred, as 
they thought they deferved. The chief of thefe were, Mr. Paul 
Foley and Mr. Harley ; The firft of thefe was a younger fon 
of one, who from mean beginnings had, by Iron Works, raifed 
one of the greateft eftates, that had been in England in our 
time. He was a learned, tho' not a pradiiing Lawyer ; and 
was a man of vertue, and good princi||les, but morofe and wil- 
ful : And he had the affedation of pafling for a great Patriot, 
by his conflant ifinding fault with the Government, and keeping 
up an ill humour, and a bad opinion of the Court. Harley 
was a man of a noble family, and very eminently learned ; 
much turned to Politicks, and of a reftlefs Ambition. He was a 
man of great induftry and application ; and knew forms, and 
the Records of Parliament fo well, that he was capable both of 
lengthening out, and of perplexing debates. Nothing could 
anfwer his afpiring temper : So He and Foley joined with the 
Tories to create jealoulies, and raife an oppolition : They 
foon grew to be able to delay matters long ; and fet on 
foot fome very uneafy things, that were popular ; fuch as the 
Bill againft Parliament men's being in places, and that for dif- 
folving the ParHament, and for having a new one every third 

That which gave them much ftrength was, the King's cold 
and referved way; He took no pains to oblige thofe that came 
to him ; nor was he eafy of accefs ; He lived out of Town at 
Kenfington ; And his chief Confidents were Dutch. He took 
no notice of the Clergy, and feemed to have little concern in 

I the matters of the Church, or of Religion : And at this time 
fome Atheifts and Deifts, as well as Socinians, were publilhing 
Books againft Religion in general, and more particularly againft 
Vol. II. F f the 

no The HistORY of the Reign 

1693 the Myfteries of our Faith. Thefe expreffed great zeal for the 
\j.'*v""'*>j Government : which gave a handle to thofe, who were waiting 
for all advantages, and were careful of increaling and improv- 
ing them, to fpread it all over the Nation, that the King, and 
thofe about him, had no regard to Religion, nor to the Church 
of England. 

But now I go on to the tranfadlions of this Summer : The King 
had, in his Speech to the Parliament, told them, he intended 
to land a confiderable Army in France this year. So after the 
SefTion, Orders were given for hiring a Fleet for Tranfports, 
with fo great a train of Artillery, that it would have ferved an 
Army of forty thoufand men : This was very acceptable to the 
whole Nation, who loved an adive War ; and were very uneafy 
to fee fo much fhoney paid, and fo little done with it : But all 
Affairs in ^}^-g -y^^^nt ofF without any effe£t. The French had attempted this 

Flanders. . ,«. r -m • r 1 1 1 r r 

Wmter the Siege ot Rhinjeldt^ a place 01 no great conlequence. 
But it lay upon the Rhiney not far from Coblentz ; And by it 
Franconia would have been open to them. They could not cut 
off the communication by the Rhine : fo that frefh fupplies of 
■ men and providons were every day fent to them, by the care of the 
Landgrave of Hejfe, who*'managed the matter with fuch fuccefs, 
that nfter a fortnight's ftay before it, the French were forced to 
raife the Siege ; which was a repulfe, fo feldom given them, that 
upon it fome (aid, they were then fure, Louvoywdi^ dead. The 
French- had alfo made another attempt upon Huy^ of a fhorter 
continuance, but with the like fuccefs. The Campaign was 
opened with great Pomp in Flanders : for the King of France 
came thither in perfon, accompanied by the Ladies of the Court, 
which appeared the more ridiculous, fince there was no Queen 
at the head of them ; unlefs Madam de Maintenon was to be 
taken for one, to whom refpefts were indeed paid with more 
fubmiflion, than is commonly done to Queens ; fo that what 
might be wanting in the outward ceremony, was more than 
ballanced by the real authority that fhe had. It was given out, 
that xh^ KiagQ^ France, after he had amufed the King for fome 
days, intended to have turned either to Brujfels on the one 
hand, or to Liege on the other. In the mean while xht French 
were working on the Dutch, by their fecret pradices, to make 
them hearken to a feparate Peace ; And the ill humour that had 
appeared in the Parliament of £;^^/«W againft them, was an ar- 
gument much made ufe of, to convince them how little ground 
they had, to tru ft to their Alliance ^ff'wh England : So that, as 
'French practices had r^ifed this ill humour among us, they made 
now this ufe of it, to break our mutual confidence, and by con- 


of K. William and %Mar y. i i i 

;fequence our Alliance with the States. The King made great 1693 
hafte, and brought his Army much fooner together, than the l<^^''^*5;>j 
French expe6led : He encamped at Park near Louvain ; by 
which he broke all the French meafurcs : for he lay equally 
well ported to relieve Brujfelsy or Liege. It was grown the 
more neceflary to take care of Liege ; becaufe tho' the Biifhop 
was true to the Allies, yet there was a fadion formed, among the 
Capitulars, to offer themfclves to the French ; But the Garrifoh 
adhered to the Bifhop ; And now, when fo great an Army lay 
near them, they broke the meafures which that faction had 
taken. The French King, feeing that the pradices of treachery, 
on which he chiefly relied, fuccceded fo ill, refolved not to ven- 
ture himfclf in any dangerous enterprize ; lb he and the Ladies 
went back to Verfailles. 

The Dauphin, with a great part of the Army, was fent to Affairs in 
make head againft the Germans^ who had brought an Army '*** ^™P"'* 
together, commanded by the Eledlor of Saxony, the Landgrave 
oi Hejfe, and the Prince of Baden : The Germans moved flowly, 
and were retarded by fome difputes about the Command : So 
that the French came on to Heidelberg, before they were ready 
to cover it : The Town could make no long refiftance ; But it 
was too foon abandoned by a timorous Governor. The French 
were not able to hinder the conjundion of the Germans, tho' 
they endeavoured it ; They advanced towards them.* And tho* 
the Dauphin was much fuperior in numbers, and (ludied to 
force them to adion, yet they kept clofe ; and he did not think 
fit to attack them in their Camp. The French raifed gre^t 
contributions in the Wirtemberg ; But no adlion happened on 
the Rhijte all this Campaign. The French had better fuccels 
and lefs oppofition in Catalonia : They took Rofes, and ad- 
vanced to Barcelona, expeding their Fleet, which was to have 
bombarded it from the Sea, while their Army attacked it by 
Land : This put all Spain under a great confternation ; The 
defign of this Invafion was, to force them to treat of a feparate 
Peace ; while they felt themfelves fo vigoroufly attacked, and 
faw that they were in no condition to refift. 

Affairs in 'Piedmont gave them a fealbnable relief : The Duke Affairs in 
of Savoy's motions were fo flow, that it feemed, both fides were "Piedmont. 
refolved to lie upon the defenfive. The French were very weak 
there, and they expected to be as weakly oppofed. But ifi the 
end of July, the Duke began to move : And he obliged Cati-^ 
nat to retire with his fmall Army, having made him quit fome 
of his Pofl^. And then he formed the Siege of St, Bridget, a 
fort that lay above Pignerol, and, as was believed, might com- 

1 1 2 The History of the Reign 

1693 mandit. After twelve days Siege, the French abandoned it, and 
<-<^*v"""'5>J he was mafter of it. But he was not furniflied for imdcrtakino; 
the Siege of Pigmrol : And fo the Campaign went off in 
Marches and Countermarches : But in the end of it, Cati?jat<t 
having increafed his Army by fome detachments, came up to 
the Duke of Savoy. They engaged at Orbaffon^ where the ho- 
nour of the adion, but with that the greateft lofs, fell to the 
French : for tho' they carried it by their numbers, their bodies 
being lefs fpent and fuller, yet the refiftance that was made, 
was fuch, that the Duke of Savoy gained more in his reputation, 
than he fuffered by the lofs of the day. 
The Battle The two Armies lay long in Flanders-y watching one another's 
rALmden. motions, without coming to adion. In "July^ Luxemburgh 
went to beliege Huy^ and carried it in two or three days. The 
King moved that way, on defign either to raife the Siege, or to 
force a Battle. Thofe in Huy did not give him time to come to 
their relief ; And huxemburgh made a feint towards Liege., which 
obliged the King to fend fbme Battallions to reinforce the 
Garrifon of that Place. He had alfo fent another great detach- 
ment, commanded by the Duke of Wirtemberg^ to force tlie 
French Lines, and to put their Country under Contribution ; 
which he executed with great fuccefs, and raifed above four 
millions. Luxemburgh thought this was an advantage not to 
be loft : So that, as foon as he had received Orders from the 
King of France to attack the King in his Camp, He came up 
to him near Landen^ upon the River Gitte. He was about 
double the King's number, chiefly in Horfe. The King might 
have fecured himfelf from all attacks, by paffmg the River : 
And his condud in not doing it, was much cenfured, conftdering 
his ftrength, and the Enemy's. He chofe rather to ftay for them ; 
But feiit away the Baggage and heavy Cannon to Mechelen ; 
and fpent the whole night in planting Batteries, and cafting up 
Retrenchments. On the twenty ninth of July^ the French be- 
gan their attack, early in the morning, and came on with great 
refolution, tho' the King's Cannon did great execution : They 
were beat off, with the lofs of many Ofiicers in feveral attacks : 
Yet they came ftill on with frefti Bodies ; till at laft, after an 
adion of feven or eight hours continuance, they broke through, 
in a place where there was fuch a Body of German and Spanijh 
Horfe, that the Army on no ftde was thought lefs in danger. 
Thefe Troops gave way ; And fo the French carried the honour 
6f the day, and were mafters both of the King's Camp and Can- 
non : But the King paffed the river, and cut the bridges, and 
lay fecure out of reach. He had fupported the whole adlion 


ofK. Wi L L I A M and ^M a R v. ! i j 

with fo much courage, and fo true a judgment, that it was 1693 
thought, he got more honour that day, than even when he -<?^^"'«sJ 
triumphed 2iX. \\\q Boyne : He charged himfelf in feveral place3. 
Many were fliot round about him, with the Enemies Cannon i 
One musket-fhot carried away part of his icarf, and another 
went through his hat, without- doing him any harm. The 
French loft fo many men, and fiiffered fo much, in the feveral 
onfets they had made, that they were not able to purfue a Vic- 
tory, which coft them fo dear. We loft in all about 7000 : 
And among thefe, there was fcarce an Officer of note ; Only 
the Count de Sobns had his Leg fliot off by a Cannon Ball, of 
which he died in a few hours. By all the accounts that came 
from France^ it appeared, tliat the French had loft double the 
number, with a vaftly greater proportion of Officers. The 
King's behaviour, during the Battle, and in the retreat, was 
much magnified by the Enemy, as well as by his own fide. 
The King of France was reported to have faid upon it, that 
Luxemburgh\ behaviour was like the Prince of Conde\^ but the 
King's like M. 'Turenne\. His Army was, in a few days, as 
ilrong as ever, by recalling the Duke of Wirtemberg^ and the 
Batalhons he had fent to Liege, and fome other Bodies, that he 
drew out of Garrifons. And the reft of the Campaign paft over, 
without any other adtion ; Only at the end of it, after the King 
had left the Army, Charleroy was befieged by the French : 
The Country about it had been fo eat up, that it was not pof- ^^'^''^r'\. 
fible to fubfift an Army, that might have been brought to re- Trench. 
licve it : The Garrifon made a brave refiftance, and held out 
a month ; But it was taken at laft. 

Thus the trench triumphed every where : But their fuccefles Attempts 
were more than ballanced by two bad harvefts, that came fuc- peace, 
ceffivcly one after another : They had alfo fuffered much in 
their vintage ; fo that they had neither bread nor wine. Great 
diligence was ufed to bring in Corn from all parts ; And ftri<St 
Orders were given by that Court, for regulating the price of it ; 
and for furnifiiing their Markets : There was alfo a liberal 
diftribution ordered by that King, for the relief of the poor. 
But mifery will be mifery ftill, after all poffible care to alleviate 
it ; Great multitudes periflied for want, and the whole King- 
dom fell under an cxtream poverty : So that all the pomp of 
their Vi<5lorics could not make them eafy at home. They tried 
all poffible methods for bringing about a general Peace j or if 
that failed, for a feparate Peace with fome of the Confederates ; 
But there was no difpofition in any of them to hearken to it ; 
nor could they engage the Northern Crowns to ofter their me- 
VoL. II. G g diation. 

114 . The History of the Reign 

,t6q3 dlation. Some fteps were indeed made; for they offered to 

^-^'^^/""'^ acknowledge the prefent Government of England : But in all 

other points, their demands were ftill fo high, that there was 

no profped: of a juft Peace, till their affairs fhould have brought 

them to an humbler pofture. 

But while the Campaign, in all its fcenes, was thus unequal 
Our Affairs ^^^j various, the French^ tho' much weaker at Sea, were the 
moft fuccefsful there : And tho' we had the fuperior ftrength, 
i. we were very unprofperous ; And by our ill condud; we loft 

much, both in our honour and intereft, on that ElemejQt The 
^ ^ great difficulty that the French were under in their Marine was, 

by reafon of their two great Ports, Breji and Toulon ; and from 
the bringing their Fleets together, and fending them back again. 
The danger they ran in that, and the delays that it put them 
under, were the chief occafions of their lofles laft year : But 
thefe were, in a great meafure, made up to them now. We 
were fending a very rich Fleet of Merchants Ships to the Me- 
diterranean, which was valued at many millions ; Some of theie 
had lain ready a year and a half, waiting for a Convoy, but were 
ftill put off by new delays ; nor could they obtain one after 
RuJfeTs Vidory, tho' we were then Mafters at Sea. They were 
promifed a great one in Winter. The number of the Merchant 
Ships did ftill increafe ; lb that the Convoy, which was at firft: 
deiigned, was not thought equal to the riches of the Fleet, 
and to the danger they might run by Ships, that might be fent 
from Toulon to intercept them. The Court o{ France was watch- 
ing this carefully : A Spy among the Jacobites gave advice, that 
certain Perfons fent from Scotland to France., to fhew with how 
fmall a force they might make themfelves Mafters of that King- 
dom, had hopes given them for fome time ; Upon which feveral 
military men went to Lancajljire and Northumberland., to fee 
what could be expeded from thence, if commotions ftiould 
happen in Scotland: But in February the French faid, they could 
not do what was expedled ; And the Scotch Agents were told, 
that they wrre obliged to look after the Smirna Fleet ; which 
they reckoned might be of more confequence, than even the 
carrying Scotland could be. The Fleet was ready in February^ 
But new excufes were again made ; For it was faid, the Convoy 
muft be increafed to twenty Men of War ; Rook was to com- 
mand it ; A new delay was likewife put in, on the pretence of 
ftaying for advice from T'oulon^ whether the Squadron that was 
laid up > there, was to lie in the Mediterranean tliis year, or to 
come about to Breft. The Merchants were very uneafy under 
thofe delays j fince the charge was like to eat up the profit of 


ofK. William and %Mary. ti/ 

the Voyage : But no difpatch could be had ; and very probable 1693 
reafons were oftered to juftify every new retardment. The ^-^'^'■'''>-' 
French Fleet had gone early out of Toulon^ on defign to have 
dcftroyed the Spanijh Fleet, which lay in the Bay of Puzzolo'x 
But they lay fo fafe there, that the French faw they could not 
fucceed in any attempt upon them ; Afterwards they ftood off 
to the Coaft of Catalonia, to afTift their Army, which was mak- 
ing fome Conquefts there. Yet thefe were only feints to amufe 
and to cover their true defign. The Fleet at BreJ} failed away 
from thence fo fuddenly, that they were neither compleatly 
manned nor vi6tualled ; And they came to Lagos Bay in Ai- 
garve. Tenders were fent after them, with the ncceflary Com- 
plement of men and provifions; This fudden and unprovided 
motion of the French Fleet looked, as if fome fecret advice had 
been fent from England^ acquainting them with our defigns. 
But at the Secretary's office, not only there was no Intelligence 
concerning their Fleet, but when a Ship came in, that brought 
the news of their having failed from Breji, they Were not be- 
lieved. Our main Fleet failed out into the Sea, for fome leagues 
with Rooky and the Merchant Ships : And when they thought 
they were out of danger, they came back. Rook was unhappy 
in that, which, upon any other occafion, would have been a > 

great happinefs ; He had a fair and a ftrong gale of wind ; fo 
that no advdce fent after him could overtake him: Nor did he meet -i-^-- 
with any Ships at Sea, that could give him notice of the dan- 
ger that lay before him. He doubled the Cape of St. Vincent-, 
and had almoft fallen in with the French Fleet, before he was 
aware of it : He dreamed of no danger, but from the Toulon 
Squadron, till he took a Fire-fhip ; 'Fhe Captain whereof en- 
deavoured to deceive him, by a falfe fl:ory, as if there had been 
only fifteen men of War lying at Lagos, that intended to join 
DEJlrees : The Merchants were for going on, and believed 
the information \ They were confirmed in this, by the diforder 
the French feemed to be in ; for they were cutting their cables. The Tnrky 
and drawing near the Shore. The truth was, when they faw great dan- 
Rook\ Fleet, they apprehended, by their numbers, that theS^""- 
whole Fleet of England was coming toward them : And indeed 
had they come fo far with them, here was an occafion offered, 
which perhaps may not be found again in an Age, of deftroying 
their whole flrength at Sea. But as the French foon perceived 
their error, and were forming themfelves into a Line ; Rook faw 
his error likevvife, and flood out to Sea, while the Merchants 
fled, as their fears drove them ; a great many of them flick- 
ing flill clofe to him : Others failed to Cadiz, and fome got to 

' Gi' 

1 1 6 The History of the Reign" i 

1693 Gibraltar: And inftead of purfuing their Voyage, put m 
UJ''^/^"'^ there : Some Ships were burnt or funk, and a very fmall 
number was taken by the French. They did not purfue Rooky 
but let him fail away to the Maderas ; And from thence he 
came, firft to Kinfak, and then into England. The French 
tried what they could do upon Cadiz ; but found that it was 
not practicable. They came next to Gibraltar, where the Mer- 
chants funk their Ships, to prevent their faUing into their hands : 
From thence they failed along the Coaft of Spain, and burnt 
fome Englijh and Dutch Ships, that were laying at Malaga, 
Alicant, and in fome other places. They hoped to have de- 
ftroyed the Spanijh Fleet ; But they put in at Port Mahoncy 
where they were fafe : At length, after a very glorious Cam- 
paign, the French came back to Toulon : It is certain, if Tour- 
mile had made ufe of all his advantages, and had executed the 
defign, as well as it was projeded, he might have done us much 
mifchief ; Few of our Men of War, or Merchant-men, could 
have got out of his hands : The lofs fell heavieft on the Dutch : 
The Voyage was quite loft ; And the difgrace of it was vifible 
to the whole World, and very fenfible to the trading part of the 

The appearances were fuch, that it was generally furmifed, 
loufiesofthe our Counfcls wcrc betrayed. The Secretary, that attended on the 
Sflry.'^' Admirals, was much fufpeded, and charged with many things : 
But the fufpicions rofe high, even as to the Secretary of State's 
office. It was faid, that our Fleet was kept in port, till the 
French were laid in their way, and was then ordered to fail, 
that it might fall into their hands : Many particulars were laid 
together, which had fuch colours, that it was not to be won- 
dred at, if they created jealoufy , efpecially in minds fufficiently 
prepared for it. Upon enquiry it appeared, that feveral of thofe, 
who, for the laft two years, were put in the fubaltern employ- 
ments, through the Kingdom, did upon many occalions fliew 
a difaffedion to the Government, and talked and aded like E- 
nemies. Our want of intelligence of the motions of tht Frenchy 
while they feemed to know every thing that we either did, or 
defigned to do, caft a heavy reproach upon our Minifters , who 
were now broke fo in pieces, that they aded without union or 
concert : Every one ftudied to juftify himfelf, and to throw the 
blame on others : A good fhare of this was caft on the Earl of 
Nottingham j The Marquifs of Caermarthen was much fufpeded : 
The Earl of Rochejler began now to have great credit with the 
Queen ; and feemed to be fo violently fet again ft the Whigs, 
that they looked for dreadful things from him, if lie came again 

of K. William and %Mar y* lij 

to govern: For, bemg naturally warm, and apt to heat him- 1693 
lelf in company, he broke out into Sallies, which were carried <-t^*N»J 
about, and began to create jealoufies, even of the Queen her, 

I was in fome fort anfwerable for this : For, when the Queen 
came into England.^ fhe was fo poffefTed againft him, that he 
tried all his Friends and Intereft in the Court, to be admitted 
to clear himfelf, and to recover her favour, but all in vain ; for 
they found her fo alienated from him, that no perfon would un- 
dertake it. Upon that, he addreffed himfelf to me : I thought 
that, if he came into the fervice of the Government, his relation 
to the Queen would make him firm and zealous for it : And 
I ferved him fo effectually, that the Queen laid afide all her re- 
lentments, and admitted him, by degrees, into a high meafure of 
favour and confidence. I quickly faw my error : And he took 
pains to convince me effeftually of it : For he was no fooner 
poflefied of her favour, than he went into an interefl, very dif- 
ferent from what I believed he would have purfued. He talked 
againft all favour to DifTenters, and for fetting up the notions of 
Perfecution and Violence, which he had fo much promoted in 
King Charles\ time, and profefled himfelf an enemy to the 
prefent Bifhops, and to the methods they were taking, of preach- 
ing and vifiting their Diocefes, of obliging the Clergy to attend 
more carefully to their Fun<Sion>, and of endeavouring to gain 
the Diffenters by gentle and calm methods. 

The King had left the matters of the Church wholly in the "T^^ State of 
Queen's hands. He found he could not refift Importunities, and Church. 
which were not only vexatious to him, but had drawn prefer- 
ments from him, which became foon to fee were ill beftowed : 
So he devolved that care upon the Queen, which {he managed 
with ftrid and religious prudence : She declared openly againft 
the preferring of thofe, who put in for themfelves ; and took 
care to inform herfelf particularly of the merits of fuch of the 
Clergy, as were not fb much as known at Court, nor ufing any 
methods to get themfelves recommended : So that we had rea- 
fon to hope, that, if this courfe fhould be long continued, it would 
produce a great change in the Church, and in the temper of the 
Clergy. She confulted chiefly with the Archbifhop of Canter- 
hury-, whom fhe favoured and fupported in a moft particular 
manner. She faw what need there was of it : For a party was 
formed againft him, who fet themfelves to cenfure every thing 
he did. It was a melancholy thing to confider that, tho* we 
never faw an Archbifhop before him, apply himfelf fo entirely, 
without partiality or biafs, to all the concerns of the Church and 

Vol. II. H h Re- 

ii8 The History^ the Reign 

1693 Religion, as he did; and that the Queeh's heart was fet on 
u^^/'^J promoting them, yet fuch an evil fpirit fhould feem to be let 
loofe upon the Clergy. They complained of every thing that 
I was done, if it was not in their own way : And the Archbifhopi 
bore the blame of all. He did not enter into any clofe corre- 
fpondence, or the concerting meafures with the Miniftry, but lived 
much abftraded from them : So they ftudied to deprefs • him 
all they could. This made a great impreflion upon him. He 
grew very uneafy in his great Poft : We were all foon convinced, 
that there was a fort of Clergymen among us, that would never 
be fatisfied, as long as the Toleration was continued : And they 
feemed refolved to give it out, that the Church was in danger, 
till a profecution of Diffenters fhould be again fet on foot : Nor 
could they look at a man with patience, or fpeak of him with 
temper, who did not agree with them in thefe things. The Bi- 
fhops fell under the difpleafure of the Whigs, by the methods 
they took, not only of proteding, but of preferring fome of thefe 
men, hoping by that means both to have foftned them, and 
their friends : But they took their preferments, as the rewards 
that they fuppofed were due to their merit ; and they employed 
the credit and authority which their preferments brought them, 
wholly againft thofe to whom they owed them. The Whigs 
were much turned againft the King ; and were not pleafed with 
thofe who had left them, when they were fo violent in the begin- 
ning of this Reign : And it was a hard thing, in fuch a divided 
time, to relolve to be of no party, lince men of that temper are 
pufhed at by many, and proteded by no fide. Of this we had 
many inftances at that time : And I myfelf had fome very fen- 
fible ones : but they are too inconfiderable to be mentioned. 
In this bad ftate we were, when a Seflion of Parliament came on 
with great appreheniions, occafioned by our ill fuccefs, and by 
the King's temper, which he could no way conftrain, or render 
more complaifant, but chiefly from the difpolition of mens 
minds, which was pradlifed on with great induftry, by the ene- 
mies of the Government, who were driving on Jealoufies daily. 
Affairs in A Parliament had been fummoned in Ireland by the Lord 
Sidney ; But they met full of difcontent, and were difpofed to 
find fault with every thing : And there was too much matter to 
work upon ; for the Lord Lieutenant was apt to excufe or juftify 
thofe, who had the addrefs to infinuate themfelves into his fa- 
vour : So that they were difmifled, before they brought their 
Bills to perfedion. The Englijh in Ireland thought the Go- 
vernment favoured the Irijh too much ; fome faid, this was the 
effed of Bribery, whereas others thought, it was neeeffary to 


of k. Wi L L I A M and ^ M a R V. 119 

keep them fafe from the profecutions of the Englijh^ who hated 1693 
them, and were much fharpned againft them. The protecting u;''"v"'^>J 
the Irifj was indeed in fome fort neceffary, to keep them from 
breaking out, or from running over to the French : But it was 
Very plain, that the Ir'tjh were Irifl) ftill, enemies to tlie Englijh 
Nation, and to the prefent Government : So that all kindnels 
fhevved them, beyond what was due in ftri6t juftice, was the 
cherifhing an inveterate enemy. There were alfo great com- 
plaints of an ill Adminiftration, chiefly in the Revenue, in the 
pay of the Army, and in the embezzelling of Stores. Of thefe, 
much noiie was made in England., which drew Addreflcs from 
both Houles of Parliament to the King, which were very invi- 
dioufly penned : Every particular being feverely aggravated. So 
the King called back the Lord Sidney., and put the Government 
of Ireland^ into three Lords Juftices ; Lord Capel^ Brother to the 
Earl oi EJfex^ Sir Cyril Wyche, and Mr. Duncomb. When 
they were fent ,from Court, the Queen did very earneftly re- 
commend to their care, the reforming of many diforders, that 
were prevailing in tliat Kingdom : For, neither hacS^ the late 
deftrudive War, out of which they were but beginning to re- ' 
cover themfelves, nor their poverty, produced thofe effedls, that 
might have been well expeded. 

The ftate of Ireland leads me to infert here a very particular TheQuecn's 
inftance of the Queen's pious care, in the difpofmg of Bifhopricks : fnd plllui 
Lord Sidney was fo far engaged in the intereft of a great Fa- Defigns. 
mily of Ireland, that he was too eafily wrought on, to recom- 
mend a Branch of it to a vacant See. The reprefentation was 
made with an undue charafter of the perlbn : So the Queen 
granted it. But when fhe underftood, that he lay under a very 
bad character, fhe wrote a letter, in her own hand, to Lord 
Sidney, letting him know what fhe had heard, and ordered 
him to call for fix Irijh Bifhops, whom fhe named to him, and 
to require them to certify to her their opinion of that perfon : 
They all agreed, that he laboured under an ill fame : And, till that 
was examined into, they did not think it proper to promote 
him ; fo that matter was let fall. I do not name the perfon ; 
for I intend not to leave a blemifh on him : But fet this down 
as an Example, fit to be imitated by Chriftian Princes. 

Another effeft of the Queen's pious care of the Souls of her 
people was finifhed this year, after it had been much oppofed, 
and long ftopped. Mr. Blair, 3. very worthy man, came over 
from Virginia, with a propofition for erecting a College there. 
In order to which, he had fet on foot a voluntary Subfcription, 
which arofe to a great Sum : And he found out fome branches 


1 2 o The H t sToKY of t/je Reigrt 

1693 of the Revenue there, that went all into private hands, without 
^-^^^'*^^*'^>*' being brought into any publick account, with which a Free- 
School and College might be well endowed. The EngliJJj born 
there were, as he faid, capable of every thing, if they were pro- 
vided with the means of a good education ; And a foundation 
of this kind in Virginia^ that lay in the middle, between our 
Southern and Northern Plantations, might be a common Nur- 
fery to them all ; and put the people born there, in a way of 
further improvement. Thofe concerned in the management of 
the Plantations, had made fuch advantages of thofe particulars, 
out of which the Endowment was to be raifed, that all poffible 
objedions were made to the Proje6t, as a delign that would 
take our Planters off from their mechanical employments, and 
make them grow too knowing, to be obedient and fubmiflive. 
The Queen was fo well pleafed with the delign, as apprehend- 
ing the very good effedis it might have, that no objed:ion a- 
gainft it could move her : She hoped, it might be a means of 
improving her own people, and of preparing fome to propagate 
the Gofpel among the Natives ; And therefore, as fhe efpoufed 
the matter with a particular zeal, fo the King did very readily 
concur with her in it. The Endowment was fixed, and the 
Patent was palfed for the College, called from the Founders, 
the William and Mary College. 
Affairs in Affairs in Scotland grew more and more out of joint. Many 
Scotland. ^i^Qj^ the King had trufted in the Miniftry there, were thought 
enemies to Him and his Government ; and fome took fo little 
care to conceal their incUnations, that, when an Invafion was 
looked for, they feemed refolved to join in it. They were taken 
out of a Plot, which was managed by perfwading many to take 
Oaths to the Government, on defign to betray it ; and were 
now trufted with the moft important Pofts. The Presbyterians 
began to fee their error, in driving matters fo far, and in provok- 
ing the King fo much ; And they feemed defirous to recover 
his favour, and to manage their matters with more temper. The 
King came likcwife to fee, that he had been a little too fudden 
in trufting fome, who did not deferve his confidence. Duke 
Hamilton had for fome years withdrawn from bufinefs ; But he 
was now prevailed with to return to Council j Many Letters were 
intercepted between France and Scotland: In thofe from Scot- 
land^ the eafinefs of engaging that Nation was often repeated, 
if no time were loft ; It leemed therefore neceflary to bring that 
Kingdom into a better ftate. 
A Seffion of A Seffion of Parliament was held there, to which Duke Ha- 
there. " mtlton was fent as the King's Commiflioner ; The Supplies that 


of K. Wi L L I A M and % M a r y. iz\ 

Were asked were granted; And now the whole Presbyterian 1693, 
Party was again entire in the King's Intereft ; The matters of the i-<:?'v^>J 
Church were brought to more temper, than was cxpeded : The 
Epifcopal Clergy had more moderate terms offered them ; They 
were only required to make an Addrefs to the General Aflembly, 
offering to fublcribe to a Confeflion of Faitli, and to acknow- 
ledge Presbytery to be the only Government of that Churcli, 
with a promife to fubmit to it ; upon which, within a fortnight 
after they did that, if no matter of fcandal was objeded to 
them, the Affembly was cither to receive them into the Govern- 
ment of the Church ; or, if they could not be brought to that, 
the King was to take them into his protedion, and maintain 
them in their Churches, without any depcndance bn thfe Piref- 
bytery. This was a ftrain of Moderation, that the Presbyterians 
were not eafily brought to; A Subfcription that owned Presby- 
tery to be the only Legal Government of that Church, witliout 
owning any Divine Right in it, was far below their ufual pre- 
tenfions. And this Ad: vefted the King with an authority, very 
Hkc that which they were wont to condemn as Rrajlianifm. 
Another ad: was alfo paffed, requiring all in any Office in Church 
or State, to take, befides the Oath of Allegiance, a Declaration 
called the AJfurance^ owning the King and Queen to be their 
rightful and lawful Sovereigns, and promifing Fidelity to them 
againft King yames^ and all his Adherents. The Council was 
alfo impowercd to tender thefe, as they ffiould fee caufe for it, 
and to fine and imprifon fuch as fhould refufe them. When the 
SefHon was near an end, Nevil Payne was brought before the 
Parliament, to be examined, upon the many Letters that had 
been intercepted. There was a full evidence againft him in 
many of his own Letters ; But he fent word to feveral of the 
Lords, in particular to Duke Hatnilton^ that as long as his Life 
was his own, he would accufe none : But he was refolved he 
would not die ; and he could difcover enough to deferve his 
pardon. This ftruck fuch terror into many of them, whofe 
Sons or near Relations had been concerned with him, that he 
moving for a delay, on a pretence of fome witnefles that were 
not then at hand, a time was given him beyond the continu- 
ance of the Sefllon ; fo he efcaped, and that enquiry was ftifled : 
The Seffion ended calmly. But the King feemed to have for- 
got Scotland fo entirely, that he let three months go over, before 
he took notice of any of their Petitions : And, tho' he had 
asked, and had Supplies for an Augmentation of Forces ; and 
many had been gained to confent to the Tax, by the hope of 
CommiiTions in the Troops, that were to be levied ; yet the 
Vol. II. I i King 

122 The YLi ST OKY of the Reign ^ 

1693 King did not' raife any new ones, but raifed the Supply, and 
^-^^^'V^^ijv^ applied it to other ufes : This began again to raife an ill humour, 
that had been almoft quite laid down, in the whole courfe of this 
Sefllon, which was thought a reconciling One. The Clergy let 
the day prefixed, for making their fubmiffion to the Affembly, 
flip, and did not take the Oaths ; fo they could claim no Bene- 
fit by the Ad:, that had been carried in their favour, not without 
fome difficulty. And the Law, that was intended to fave them, 
did now expofe them to mine ; fince by it, they, not taking the 
Oaths, had loft their Legal Rights to their Benefices. Yet they 
were fuffered to continue in them, and were put in hope, that 
the King would proted them, tho' it was now againft Law. 
They were alfo made to believe, that the King did not defirc 
that they fhould take the Oaths, or make any flibmiflion to 
Presbytery : And it is certain, that no publick fignification of 
the King's mind was made to them ; fo they were eafily impof- 
ed on by furmizes and whifpers ; upon this the diftraidions grew 
up afrefh. Many concluded there, as well as in Englandy that 
the King's heart led him ftill to court his Enemies, even after all 
the manifeft reafons he had to conclude, that the fteps they 
made towards him were only feign'd Submiflions, to gain fuch 
a Confidence, as might put it in their power to deliver him 

The Earl of Middletoun went over to France, in the begin- 

Mddiltom "^^S °^ ^^^^ ^^^'^ * ^^^ ^^ ^^ believed, he was fent by a great 
Went to body among us, with a Propofition, which, had he had the af- 
ftirance to have made, and they the wifdom to have accepted, 
might have much increafed our Faftions and Jealoufies. It 
was, that King y antes fhould offer to refign his Title in fe- 
vour of his Son, and likewife to fend him to be bred in Eng- 
land, under the diredion of a Parhament, till he fhould be of 
Age ; But I could never hear that he ventured on this advice ; 
in another he fucceeded better. When King James thought the 
Invafion from Normandy, the former Year, was fo well laid, 
that he feemed not to apprehend it could mifcarry, he had pre- 
pared a Declaration, of which fome Copies came over. He 
promifed nothing in it, and pardoned no body by it. But he 
fpoke in the ftile of a Conquerour, who thought he was Ma- 
fier, and therefore would limit himfelf by no promifes, but fuch 
as were conceived in general words, which might be afterwards 
expounded at pleafure. This was much blamed, even by his ovm. 
party, who thought that they themfelves were not enough fe- 
cured by fo loofe a Declaration : fo the Earl of Middletoun, upon 
his going over, procured one of another ftrain, which, as, far as 


^^. William and ^MhViY, 113 

Words could go, gave all content: For he promifed every thing, 1693 
and pardoned all perfons. His Party got this into their hands \ uj^'V*^ 
I faw a Copy of it, and they waited for a fit occauon to pub- 
Hfh it to the Nation. 

We were alfo at this time alarmed with a Negotiation, that the xhe Duke 
Court of France was fetting on Foot at Madrid : They offered ^^^"^''"J^' 
to reftore to the Crown of Spain all that had been taken from Spaniards. 
it, fince the Peace of Munjier^ on condition that the Duke of 
y^njou (hould be declared the Heir of that Crown, in default of 
Iffue by the King : The Grandees of Spain, who are bred up to 
a difregard and contempt of all the World befides thcmfelves, ' 

were inclinable to entertain this Propofition ; tho' they faw that 
by fo doing, they muft lofe the Houfe of Aujiria, die Ele(9:or 
of Bavaria, and many of their other Allies. But the King 
himfelf, weak as he was, flood firm and intractable ; and feem- 
ed to be as much fet on watching their conduft, as a man 
of his low Genius could poffibly be. He refoived to adhere to 
the Alliance, and to carry on the War ; tho' he could do little 
more than barely refolve on it. The Spaniards thought of 
nothing, but their Intrigues at Madrid; And for the manage- 
ment of the War, and all their affairs, they left the care of that 
to their Stars, and to their Allies. 

The King came over to England in Nove?nber ; He faw the The Duke 
necefTity of changing both his Meafures and his Miniflers ; He ?^ ^'^j'^'^^: 
exprefTed his diflike of the whole conduct at Sea ; and named made Secre- 
Rujfel for the Command of the Fleet next Year : He difmifTed^''^"^^"''' 
the Earl of Nottingham, and would immediately have brought 
the Earl of Shrewsbury again into the Miniftry : But when that 
Lord came to him, he thought the King's Inclinations were flill 
the fame, that they had been for fome Years, and that the turn, 
which he was now making, was not from choice, but force ; So 
that went off; and the Earl of Shrewsbury went into the Coun- 
try : Yet the King foon after fent for him, and gave him fuch 
alTurances, that he was again made Secretary of State, to the 
general fatisfadion of the Whigs. But the perfbn, that had the 
King's Confidence to the higheft degree, was the Earl of Sun- 
derland, who, by his long experience and his knowledge of men 
and things, had gained an afcendant over him, and had mwe 
credit with him, than any Englijhman ever had : He had 
brought the King to this Change of Councils, by the profpedt 
he gave him of the ill condition his affairs were in, if he did 
not entirely both trufl and fatisfy thofe, who, in die prefent 
conjundure, were the only party, that both could and would 
fupport him. It was faid, that the true fecret of this change of 


114 The History of the Reign 

1693 meafures was, that the Tories (ignified to the King plainly, that 
Lx?'-v'^'!>J i^^j could carry on the War no longer, and that therefore he 
muft accept of fuch a Peace, as could be had : This was the 
moft pernicious thing that could be thought on, and the moft 
contrary to the King's notions and defigns ; but they being po- 
fitive, he was forced to change hands, and to turn to the othet 
Party \ So the Whigs were now in favour again, and every thing 
was done that was like to put them in good humour. The 
CommifTion of the Lieutenancy for the City of London, on 
which they had fet their hearts, much more perhaps than it 
deferved, was fo altered, that the Whigs wete the fuperior 
number ; and all other Commiflions over England were much 
changed. They were alfo brought into many places of Truft 
and Profit ; So that the King put his affairs chiefly into their 
hands : Yet fo, that no Tory, who had expreffed zeal or affe- 
ction for the Government, was turned out. Upon this, the 
Whigs expreft new zeal, and confidence in the King. All the 
Money that was asked, for the next Year's expence, was granted 
very readily. 
A Bank Among other Funds that were created. One was for conftf- 

crefled, tuting a Bank, which occafioncd great debates : Some thought 
a Bank would grow to be a Monopoly. All the Money of 
England would come into their hands ; And they would in a 
few years become the Mafters of the Stock and Wealth of the 
Nation. Others argued for it : That the credit It would have, 
muft increafe Trade and the circulation of Money, at leaft in 
£ank Notes. It was vifible, that all the Enemies of the Go- 
vernment fet themfelves againft it, with fuch k vehemence of 
zeal, that this alone convinced all people, that they faw the 
ftrength that our affairs would receive from it. I had heard 
the Dutch often reckon up the great advantages they had from 
their Banks ; And they concluded that, as long as England con- 
tinued jealous of the Government, a Bank could never be fettled 
among us, nor gain credit enough to fupport itfelf: And upon 
that, they judged that the fuperiority in Trade muft ftill lie on 
their fide. This, with all the other remote Funds that were 
created, had another good effed: : It engaged all thofe, who 
jvere concerned in them, to be, upon the account of their own 
jlntereft, zealous for maintaining die Government ; fince it was 
not to be doubted, but that a Revolution would have fwept all 
thefe away. The advantages that the King, and all concerned 
in Tallies, had from the Bank, were loon fo fenfibly felt, that 
all people faw into the fecret reafons, that made the Enemies of 


of K. William and ^Mary. i 2 j 

the Conftitiition fet themfelves with (o much earneftncfs againft 1693 
it. v-i?'^/-^*^ 

The enquiry iiito the conduft at Sea, particularly, with re- The Con- 
lation to the Smirna Fleet, took up much time^ and held long; Jy^ofthe 
Great exceptions were taken to the many delays ; by which it miocd. 
feemed a train was laid, that they fhould not get out of our 
Ports, till the French were ready to lie in their way, and inter- 
cept them ; Our want of Intelligence was much complained of: 
The Inftrudions that the Admirals, who commanded the Fleet, 
had received from the Cabinet Council, were thought ill given, 
and yet worfe executed ; Their Orders feem'd weakly drawn, 
ambiguous, and defedlive : Nor had they fhewed any zeal in 
doing more, than ftridly to obey fuch orders : They had very 
cautioufly kept within them, and had been very careful never 
to exceed them in a tittle : They had ufed no diligence to get 
certain information, concerning the French Fleet, whether it 
was ftill in Brejl^ or had failed out ; But in that important 
matter, they had trufted general and uncertain reports too 
eafiily : Nor had they failed with Rook^ till he was paft danger. 
To all this their anfwer was, that they had obferved their Or- 
ders ; They had reafon to think, the French were ftill in Br eft \ 
that therefore it was not fafe to fail too far from the Coaft of 
England^ when they had ( as they underftood ) ground to be- 
lieve, that they had left behind them a great Naval force, which 
might make an imprefllon on our Coaft, when they were at too 
great a diftance from it ; The getting certain Intelligence from 
Brefty was reprefented as impradicable. They had many Ipe- 
cious things to fay in their own defence, and many friends to 
flipport them ; For it was now the bufinefs of one party to ac- 
cufe, and of another to juftifie that condud. In conclufion, 
there was not groimd fuflicient to condemn the Admirals ; as 
they had followed their Inftrudions : So a Vote pafTed in their 
favour. The reft of the bufinefs of the Seflion was managed 
both with dexterity and fuccefs : All ended well, tho' a little too 
late : for the Seflion was not finifhed before the end of April. ' 

Prince Lewis of Baden came this Winter to concert meafures 
with the King : He ftayed above two Months in England, and 
was treated with very fingular refpedls, and at a great expence. 

The Tories began in this SefTion, to obftru«9: the King's Mea- 1 694 
fures more openly than before ; The Earls of Rochefter and Not- c^^^v^w 
tingham did it in the Houfe of Lords, with a pecuHar edge and The Go- 
violence: They faw how great a reputation, the fair Admini- ^Y^™"' 
ftration of Juftice by the Judges, and more particularly thatfemed; 

Vol. II. K k Equity, 


126 The llisroKY of the Reign 

1694 Equity, which appeared in the whole proceedings of the Court 
L<^A/-''W of Chancery, gave the Government ; therefore they took all 
occafions, that gave them any handle to refle<ft on thefe. We 
had many fad declamations, fetting forth the Mifery the Nation 
was under, in fo tragical a ftrain, that thofe who thought it 
was quite othervvife with us, and that under all our taxes and 
loffes, there was a vifible encreafe of the Wealth of the Nation, 
could not hear all this without fome Indignation. 
TheBi/hops The Bifhops had their fhare of ill humour vented againft 
are heavily tj^^^i ; It was viiiblc to the wholc Nation, that there was ano- 
ther face of ftridnefs, of humility and charity among them, 
than had been ordinarily obferved before ; They viiited their 
Diocefes more ; They confirmed and preached oftner, than any 
who had in our memory gone before them : They took more 
care in examining thofe whom they Ordained, and in looking 
into the behaviour of their Clergy, than had been formerly 
pradifed ; But they were faithful to the Government, and zea- 
lous for it ; They were gentle to the Diffenters, and did not rail 
at them, nor feem uneafy at the Toleration. This was thought 
fuch a heinous matter, that all their other diligence was de- 
fpifed ; And they were reprefented as men, who deiigned to un- 
dermine the Church, and to betray it. 

Of this, I will give one Inftance ; The matter was of great 
importance ; and it occafioned great and long Debates in this, 
and in the former SefTion of Parliament : It related to the Duke 
of Norfolk, who had proved his Wife guilty of Adultery, and 
did move for an A61 of Parliament, diflblving his Marriage, and 
allowing him to marry again : In the later Ages of Popery, 
when Marriage was reckoned among the Sacraments, an opinion 
grew to be received, that Adultery did not break the Bond, 
and that it could only entitle to a Reparation, but not fuch a dif- 
folution of the Marriage, as gave the party, that was injured, a 
right to marry again : This became the Rule of the Spiritual 
Courts ; tho' there was no Definition made about it, before the 
Council of Trent. At the time of the Reformation, a fuit of 
this nature was profecuted by the Marquifs of Northampton: 
The Marriage was diflblved, and he married a fecond time ; 
But he found it neceffary to move for an Ad of Parliament, 
to confirm this fubfequent Marriage : In the Reformation of the 
Ecclefiaftical Laws, that was prepared by Cramner and others, 
in King Kdward\ time, a Rule was laid down, allowing of a 
fecond Marriage, upon a Divorce for Adultery. This matter 
had lain afleep above an hundred years, till the prefent Duke of 
Rutland, then Lord Roos, moved for the like liberty. At that 





ofK. William and ^Mary* 127 

time a fceptical and libertine fpirit prevailed, fo that fome began 1 694 
to treat Marriage, only as a Civil Contrad:, in which the Parlia- ^-'•i''^'"'''*^ 
ment was at full liberty, to make what Laws they pleafed ; And 
moft of King Charles\ Courtiers applauded this, hoping by this 
dodlrine, that the King might be divorced from the Queen. 
The greater part of the Bifhops, apprehending the confequencc 
that Lord Roos\ Adl might have, oppofed every ftep that was 
made in it ; tho' many of them were perfuaded, that in the 
cafe of Adultery, when it was fully proved, a fecond Marriage 
might be allowed. In the Duke of Norfolk^ cafe, as the Lady 
v/as a Papift, and a bufy Jacobite, fo a great Party appeared for 
her. All that favoured the Jacobites, and thofe who were 
thought engaged in lewd Practices, efpoufed her concern with 
a zeal that did themfelves little honour. Their number was 
fuch, that no progrefs could be made in the Bill, though 
the proofs were b\it too full, and too plain. But the main 
quefhion was, whether, fuppofing the matter fully proved, the 
Duke of Norfolk fhould be allowed a fecond Marriage : The 
Bifliops were defired to deliver their opinions, with their rea- 
fbns : All thofe, who had been made during the prefent Reign, 
were of opinion, that a fecond Marriage in that cafe was law- 
fill, and conformable, both to the Words of the Gofpel, and to 
the Do6trine of the Primitive Church ; and that the contrary 
opinion was ftarted in the late and dark Ages : But all the Bi- 
fhops, that had been made by the two former Kings, were of 
another opinion-, tho' fome of them could not well tell why 
they were fo. Here was a colour for men, who looked at 
things fuperficially, to obferve that there was a difference of 
opinion, between the laft made Bifhops, and thofe of an elder 
ftanding : from which they inferred, that we were departing 
from the received Doctrine of our Church ; and upon that 
topick, the Earl of Rochejier charged us very vehemently. The 
Bill was let fall at this time ; Nor was the Difpute kept up, for 
no Books were writ on the fubjed: of either fide. 

The King went beyond Sea in May ; And the Campaign was The Cam- 
opened foon after : The Armies of both fides came very near /r/^^^^ 
one another: The King commanded that of the Confederates, 
as the Dauphin did the French : They lay between Brujfels 
and Leige ; And it was given out, that they intended to be- 
fiege Majlrkht ; The King moved toward Namur^ that he 
might either cut off their provifions, or force them to fight ; 
But they were refolved to avoid a Battle : So they retired like- 
wife, and the Campaign paft over in the ordinary manner; 
both of them moving, and watching one another. The King 


1 2 8 The History of the Reign 

1694 fent a great Detachment to break into the French Countrey at 
^^^(^""'y^^ "Pont Efperies : But tho' the Body he fent had made a great ad- 
vance, before the French knew any thing of their march, yet 
they fent away their Cavahy with fo much haft, and in fo con- 
tinued a march, that they were pofleifed of the Pafs before the 
Body, the King had fent, could reach it ; whereby they gainfcd 
their point, tho' their Cavalry Riifered much. This delign 
failing, the King fent another Body towards Huy^ who took 
it in a few days : It was become more necef^ry to do this, for 
the covering of Liege^ which was now much broken into fadtion ; 
Their Bifliop was dead, and there was a great divifion in the 
Chapter : Some were for the Eledior of Cologne^ and others were 
for the Eleftor Palatine's, Brother : But that for the Ele<£lor of 
Cologne was the ftronger party, and the Court 6f Rome judged 
in their favour. The differences between that Court, and that 
of V erf allies^ were now fo far made up, that the Bulls for the 
Bifhops, whom the King had named to the vacant Sees, were 
granted, upon the fubmiflion of all thofe, who had been con- 
cerned in the Articles of 1682. Yet after all that Reconciliation, 
the real Inclinations of the Court of Rome lay ftill towards the 
Confederates : The Alliance that France was in with the Turk, was 
a thing of an odious found at Rome. The taking of Huy cover- 
ed Liiege ; So that they were both fafer and quieter. The Confe- 
derates, efpecially the Englijh and the Dutch, grew weary of keep- 
ing up vafl Armies, that did nothing elfe, but lay for fome Months 
advantageoufly pofted, in view of the Enemy, without any Adion. 
On the ^^ ^^^ Rhine, things went much in the ufiial manner; only 

Rhiue. at the end of the Campaign, the Prince of Baden pafTed the 
Rhine, and raifed great Contributions in Alface, which the 
French fuffered him to do, rather than hazard a Battle. There 
was nothing of any importance done on either fide in Pied- 
mont \ Only there appeared to be fome fecret management be- 
tween the Court of France, and that of Turin, in order to a 
Peace : It was chiefly negotiated at Rome, but was all the while 
denied by the Duke of Savoy. 
And in In Catalonia, the Spaniards were beat off from fome Pofts, 

Cata oma. ^^^ Gironne was taken ; nor was Barcelona in any condition to 
have refifted, if the French had fet down before it The Court 
oi Madrid felt their weaknefs, and faw their danger fo viiibly, that 
they were forced to implore the Protedion of the Englijh Fleet : 
The French had carried the beft part of their Naval Force into 
the Mediterranean, and had refolved to attack Barcelona, both 
by Sea and Land, at the fame time : And, upon their fuccefs 
there, to have gone round Spain, deflroying their Coaft every 


of K. William and ^Mary. f 2^5) 

where. All this was intended to force them to accept the offers 1694 
the French were willing to make them ; But to prevent this, Uj^^V'^jJ 
Ruff el was ordered to Tail into the Mc'diterraneany with a Fleet 
of threefcote great Ships : He was fo long ftopt in his Voyage 
by contrary Winds, that the French^ if they had puffued their 
advantages, might have finiflied the Coriqueft of Catalonia ; But 
they refolved riot to hazard their Fleet ; So it was brought back. 
to Toulon^ long before Ruffd could get into the Mediterraneany 
which was now left entirely to him. But it was thought, that 
the French intended to make a fecond Attempt, in the end of 
the year, aflbon as he fhould fail back to England : So it was 
propcfed, that he might lie at Cadiz all the winter. This was 
an affair of that importance, that it was long and much de- 
bated, before i^ was refolved on. It was thought a dangerous , 
thing, to expole the beft part of our Fleet, fo much as it muft lay at a- 
be, while it lay at fb great a diftance from us, that Convoys of '^'*' 
Stores and Provifions might e^fily be intercepted : And indeed, 
the Ships were fo low in their Provifions, when they came 
back to Cadiz (the Veffcls that were ordered to carry them, 
having been ftopt four months iti the Channel by contrary 
winds) that our Fleet had not then above a fortnight's Vid:uals 
on Board : Yet when the whole matter was thoroughly canvaft, 
it was agreed, that our Ships might both lie fafe, and be well "^"^'T ; 
tareened at Cadiz ; Nor was the difference in the expence, be- 
tween their lying there, and in our own Ports, confiderable. 
By our l}'ing there, the French were fhut within the Mediter- 
ranean ; fo that the Ocean and their Coafts were left open to us. 
They were in effeft fhut up within Toulon ; for they, having no 
other Port in thofe Seas but that, refolved not tb venture abroad ; 
So that now we Were MafterS of the Seas every where. Thefe 
confiderations, determined the King to fend Orders to Ruffel, 
to lie all the winter at Cadiz ; which produced very good ef- 
fects ; The Fe?tetiam and the Great Duke had not thought fit 
to oWri the King till then : A great Fleet of Stores and Am- 
munitiftn, with iill other provifions for the next Campaign, came 
fafe tb Cadiz : arid fome clean Men of War were fcnt out, in 
exchange for others, which were ordered horrie. 

But while we were very fortunate in our main Fleet, we 
had not the like good fucccfs, in an attempt that was made c<» J^rS. 
on Camaftt^ a fmall neck of Land that lies in the mouth of thfe 
River of Brejl^ and Wbuld have commanded that River, if we 
could have, made bur felves Mafters of it. Talmajh had farm- 
ed the defign bf feizing on it ; He had taken care to be wdl 
informed of every thing relating to it ; 6000 Men feemed to 
t Vol. II. LI be 

1,3:0 The History of the Reign 

1694 be more than were neceflary for taking and keeping iti The 
\i'(r'^C^^ defign, and the preparations for it, were kept fo fecret, tliat 
there was not the leaft fufpicion of the Projedt, till the hiring 
Tranfport Ships difcovered it. A proportion had been made 
of this two years before to the Earl of Nottingham ; who, a- 
mong other things, charged Ru^el with it, that this had been 
laid before him, by men that came from thence, but that he 
had negleded it : Whether the Frejich apprehended the defign 
from that motion, or whether it was now betrayed to them, by 
fome of thofe who were in the fecret, I know not : It is cer- 
tain, that they had fuch timely knowledge of it, as put them 
on their guard. The Preparations were not quite ready, by 
the day that was fettled : And, when all was ready, they were 
ftopt by a wefterly wind for fome time : So that they came 
' ' -■- thither, a month later than was intended. They found the place 
was well fortified by many Batteries, that were raifed in diffe- 
rent Lines upon the Rocks, that lay over the place of Defcent : 
And great numbers were there ready to dilpute their landing. 
When our Fleet came fo near as to fee all this, the Council 
of Officers were all againft making the attempt ; But Talmajb 
had fet his heart fo much upon it, that he could not be di- 
verted from it : 
It tnifcar- He fancied, the men they faw were only a Rabble brought 
"«<*• together to make a fhow, tho' it appeared very evidently, that 

there were regular bodies among them, and that their numbers 
were double to his. He began with a landing of fix hundred 
men, and put himfelf at the head of them ; the men followed him 
with great courage ; But they were fo expofed to the Enemies 
Fire, and could do them fo little harm, that it quickly appear- 
ed, it was needlefly throwing away the lives of brave men, to 
perfift longer in fo defperate an undertaking. The greateft 
part of thofe who landed, were killed, or taken prifon- 
ers • And not above an hundred of them came back. Tal- 
majh himfelf was fhot in the thigh, of which he died in a few 
days, and was much lamented ; For he was a brave and ge- 
nerous man, and a good Officer, very fit to animate and en- 
courage inferior Officers and Soldiers ; But he was much too 
apt to be difcontented, and to turn mutinous ; fo that upon the 
whole, he was one of thofe dangerous men, that are capable 
of doing as much mifchief, as good fervice. Thus that De- 
iign mifcarried, which, if it had been undertaken at any time, 
before the French were fo well prepared to receive us, might 
have fucceeded j And muft have had great effedls, 

, ... GUI' 

ofK.WiLLtkU and <^ Mary. 131 

Our Fleet came back to Plymouth ; and after they had fet the 1694 
Land Forces afhore, being well furnifhed with Bomb-veilels and i-^^/"*<^ 
Ammunition, they were ordered to try what could be done oti The Frf«c* 
the French Qqz!^; They lay firft before Dieppe, and burnt it^^a^i"""" 
almoft entirely to the ground ; They went next to Havre de 
Grace, and deftroyed a great part of that Town : Dunkirk was 
the place of the greateft Importance : So that attempt was long 
purfued in feveral ways ; But none of them fucceeded. The{e 
Bombardings of the French Towns foon fpread a Terror, a- 
mong all that lived near the Coaft ; Batteries were every where 
raifed, and the people were brought out to defend their Coun- 
try ; But they could do us no hurt, while our Bombs at a 
mile's diftance did great execution : The action feemed inhu- 
man ; But the French, who had bombarded Genoa, without d 
previous Declaration of War, and who had fo often put whole 
Countries under Military Execution, even after they had paid 
the Contributions, that had been laid on them (for which they 
had protection given them) had no reafon to complain of this 
way of carrying on the War, which they themfelves had firft 

The Campaign ended every where, to the advantage of the Affairs io 
Confederates, tho' no fignal fuccefles had happened to their ^^^^^' 
Arms ; And this new fcene of adtion at Sea raifed the hearts of 
our people, as much as it funk our Enemies. The War in 
Turkjf, went on this year with various f\iccefs : The Venetians 
mide themfelves Matters of the Ifle of Bcio, the richeft and the 
beft peopled of all the Iflands in the Archipelago: Thofe of 
that Ifland had a greater (hare of hberty left them, than any 
Subje<9:s of the Ottoman Empire ; and they flouriflied accord- 
ingly : The great Trade of Smirna, that lay fo near them, made 
them the more conliderable : The Venetians fortified the Port, 
but ufed the Natives worfe than the Turks had done: And 
as the Ifland had a greater number of People upon it, than 
could fubfift by the produdions within themfelves, and the Turks 
prohibited all Commerce with them from Apa, from whence 
they had their Bread ; the Venetians could not keep this Pof- 
fefllon, unlefs they had carried off' the greateft part of the In- 
habitants to the Morea, or their other Dominions, that wanted 
People. The Turks brought their whole power at Sea toge- 
ther, to make an attempt for recovering this Ifland : Two Ac- 
tions happened at Sea, within ten days one of another ; In the 
laft of which, tlie Venetians pretended they had got a great Vic- 
tory : But their abandoning Scio, in a few days after, ftiewed 
that they did not find it convenient to hold that Ifland, which 


{ ^ i ' The Hist 6 r y of the Reign 

1694 obliged them to keep a Fleet, at fuch a diftance from their 
u?''V"''«/v.' other Dominions, and at a charge, which the keeping the Ifland 
\ could not ballance. The T^urh fent, as they did every year, 

- a great Convoy to Caminteck^ guarded by the Crim-Tartars : 
The Polijh Army routed the Convoy, and became Matters of 
all the Provifions ; But a fecond Convoy w^as ihore happy, and 
got into the place; Otherwife it muft have been abandoned. 
There was great diftradion in the Affairs of Poland : Their 
Queen's intrigues with the Court of France, gave much jealou- 
fy ; Their Diets were broke up in confulion j And they could 
never agree fo far in the Preliminaries, as to be able by their 
forms to do any bufinefs. In Tranfilvania, the Emperor had, 
after a long Blockade, forced Giula to furrender ; So that the 
Turks had now nothing in thofe parts, on the North of the 
Danube^ but Temefwaer. The Grand Vizier came into Hun- 
gary with a great Army, while the Emperor had a very fmall 
one to oppofe him. If the T^^rij had come on refolutely, and if 
the weather had continued good, it might have brought a fatal 
reverfe on all the Imperial affairs, and retrieved all that the 
Turks had loft. But the Grand Vizier lay ftill, while the Em- 
peror's Army encreafed, and fuch rains fell, that nothing could 
be done. The affairs of Turky were thus in great diforder : 
The Grand Seignior died foon after : And his Succeffor in that 
Empire save his Subiefts fuch hopes of Peace, that they were 
calmed for the preient. 
Attempts At the end of the Campaign, the Court of France flattered 
' their People with hopes of a fpeedy end of the War : And 
fome men of great conlideration were fent to try, what terms 
they could bring the Empire or the States to : But the French 
were yet far from offering conditions, upon which a juft or 
a fafe Peace could be treated of : The States fent fbme, as far as 
to Mafiricht, to fee what Powers, thofe fent from France, had 
brought with them ; before they would grant them the Paff- 
ports, that they defired : And when they faw how Hmited thefe 
were, the Negotiation was foon at an end ; or rather, it never 
began. When the French faw this, they difowned their hav- 
irig fent any on fuch an errand ; And pretended, that this was 
only an artifice of the Confederates, to keep one another and 
their people in heart, by making them believe, that they had 
now only a fmall remnant of the' War before them, fince the 
French had Inftruments, every where at work, to follicit a Peace. 
AS (Ton of '^^^ King came to England in the beginning of November y 
Parliament. And the Parliament was opened with a calmer face, than had 
appeared in any Seffion during this Reign : The Supplies that 
* . , were 

of K,W It hi Au and % MarV. 135 

were demanded, the total amounting to five Millions, were all 1694 
granted readily : An ill humour indeed appeared in fome, who u?''V"'«*a 
oppoled the Funds, that would moft eafily and moft certainly 
raife the money that was given, upon this pretence, that fuch 
Taxes would grow to be a general Excife ; ind that the more , 
eafily money was raifed, it would be the more eafy to continue 
fuch Duties to a longer period, if not for ever ; the truth was, 
the fccret Enemies of the Government propofed fuch Funds, as 
would be the heavieft to the people, and would not fully an- 
fwer what they were eftimated at ; that fo the Nation might be 
uneafy under that load, and that a conftant Deficiency might 
bring on fuch a Debt, that the Government could not dif- 
charge, but mud fink under it. 

"With the Supply Bills, as the price or bargain for them, tht An Aa for 
Bill for frequent Parliaments went on ; It enaded, that a new Pa^u "' 


Parliament lliould be called every third year, and that the pre- 
fent Parliament iiiould be diflblved before the Firji of yanuary 
1695-6 i And to this, the Royal Aflent was given: It was re- 
ceived widi great Joy, many fancying that all their other Laws 
and Liberties were now the more fecure, fihce this was pafled 
into a Law. Time muft tell what effects it will produce ; whe- 
ther it will put an end to the great Corruption, with which 
Eledions were formerly managed, and to all thofe other prac- 
tices that accompanied them. Men that intended to fell their own 
Votes within doors, fpared no cdft to buy the Votes of others irt 
Eledions: But now it was hoped we fhould fee a Golden Age, 
wherein the charader men were in, and reputatiori they had, 
would be die prevailing confiderations in Eledions : And by' 
this means it was hoped, that our Conftitution, in particular 
that part of it, which related to the Houfe of Commons, would i 

again recover both its ftrength and reputation ; which was nowj 
very much funk ; for Corruption was fo generally fpread, that 
it was believed every thing was carried by that method. ' 

But I am now coming towards the fatal period of this Book. The Queen'* 
The Queen continued ftill to fet a great Example to the wholef Adminiftra- 
Nation, which fhined in all the Parts of it. She ufed all pofll- 
ble methods for reforming whatever was amifs : She took La- 
dies off from that Idlenefs, which not only wafted their time,^ 
but expofed them to many temptations ; She engaged many both 
to read and to work ; fhe wrought many hours a day her felf, 
with her Ladies and her Maids of Honour working about her, 
while one read to them all ; The Female part of the Court 
had been, in the former Reigns, fubjedl to much cenfure ; And 
there was great caufe for it ; But fhe freed her Court fo en- 
VoL. II. Mm tirely 

1 3 4 The History of the Re^n ^^ 

1 694. tircly from all fufpicion, that there was not fo much- as a co- 
ij^'^^^V"'^^ lour for difcourfes of tliat fort ; She did divide hex Time fo re- 
gularly, between lier clafet and builnefs, her work and diver- 
fion, that every minute feemed to have its proper employment : 
She exprefTed fo deep a fenie of Religion, with fo true a regard 
to it ; She had fuch right principles and juft notions ; And her 
deportment was fo exa^ in every part of it, all being natural 
and unconftrained, and animated with due life and cheerful- 
nels ; She confidered every thing that was laid before her (o 
carefully, and gave fuch due encouragement to a freedom of 
Speech : She remembred every thing fo exadlly, ob&rving at the 
fame time the clofeft refervednefs, yet witk an open air and 
franknefs : She was fo candid in all ihe faid, and cautious in 
^ every promife fhe made ; And notwithftanding her own great 

capacity, fhe exprefled fuch a diftruft of her own thoughts, and 
was fo entirely refigned to the King's judgment, and fo con- 
ftantly determined by it, that when I laid all thefe things toge- 
ther, which I had large opportunities to obferve, it gave a very 
plealant profped:, to ballance the melancholy view, that rofc 
from the ill poflure of our affairs, in all other refpe<a:s. It 
gave us a very particular joy, when we faw, that the perfon, 
wliofc condition feemed to mark her out as the Defender and 
Perfeder of our Reformation, was fuch in all refpeds in her 
publick Adminiflration, as well as in her private deportment, 
that fhe feemed well fitted for accomplifliing that work, for 
which we thought fhe was born : But we foon faw this hope- 
ful view blafted, and our expedations difappointed in the lofs 
of her. 
Arcbbifhop It was prccecdcd by that of Archbifhop Tillotfon ; who was 
^f'ii/otfoii's (-aleen ill of a fit of a dead Palfy in November, while he was in 
the Chapel at Whitehall, on a Sunday, in the Worfliip of God : 
He felt it coming on him ; but not thinking it decent to inter- 
rupt the Divine Serviee, he ncgleftcd it too long ; till it fell io 
heavily on him, that all remedies were ineffectual : and he died 
the fifth day after he was taken ill. His diflemper did fo op- 
•"' prefs him, and fpeaking was fo uneafy to him, that tho' it ap- 
peared, by figns and other indications, that his Underflanding 
remained long clear, yet he was not able to exprefs himfelf, fo 
as to edify others. He feemed ftill ferene and calm ; And in 
broken words he faid, He thanked God, he was quiet within, 
apid had nothing then to do, but to wait for the Will of Hea- 
ven. I preached his Funeral Sermon, in which I gave a Cha- 
racter of him, which w^as fo feverely true, that I perhaps kept too 
n^jlf]^ v\^|:j[jni|i, boifnc^^j, and feid- kfs than he delerved. But v/e 

of K. William and ^Mary* ijy 

had lived in fuch friendfliip together, that I thought it was more 1 694 
decent, as it always is more fafe, to err on that liand : He was ^-'^'^'"''^. 
the man of the trueft judgment, and beft temper, I had ever 
known: He had a clear head, witli a mod tender and com- 
paflionate heart ; He was a faithful and zealous friend, but a 
gentle and foon coiiqucred enemy ; He was truly and ferioufly 
reHgbus, but without affectation, bigottry, or fuperftition ; His 
notions of Morality were fine and fublime ; His thread of 
Reafoning, was eafy, clear, and folid 5 H<: was not only the 
beft Preacher of the age, but itemed to have brought 
Preaching to perfcdion ; His Sermons were fo well heard and 
liked, and (b mucli read, that all the Nation propofed him as 
a Pattern, and ftudicd to copy after him ; His parts re- 
mained with him clear and unclouded ; But the perpetual Slan- 
ders, and other ill ufage he had been followed with, for many 
years, moft particularly lince his advancement to that great 
Poft, gave him too much trouble, and too deep a concern; 
It could neither provoke him, nor fright him from his duty ;■ 
But it affected his mind fo much, that this was thought to have 
fbprtned his days. c r! •: 

Sancroft had died a year before, in the fame poor and def- sancrofi'i 
picable manner, in which he had lived for fome years ; He died Dfeath. 
in a iUte of Separation from the Church ; And yet he had not 
the courage to own it in any publicic declaration : For neither 
living nor dying, did he publifti any thing concerning it : His 
Death ought to hav"e put an end to the Schifm, that fome were 
endeavouring to raife ; upon this pretence, that a Parliamentary 
Deprivation was never to be allowed, as contrary to the intrin- 
lick Power of the Church ; And therefore they looked on San- 
croft as the Archbifhop ftill, and reckoned THlotfon an Ufurper ; 
And all that joined with him were counted Schiftnaticks ; They 
were willing to forget, as fome of them did plainly condemn, 
the Deprivations made in the prc^rels of the Reformation, more 
particularly, thofe in the firft Parliament of Queen Elizabeth'^ 
Reign, and the Deprivations made by the A(3: of Uniformity in 
the year 1662: But from thence, the Controverly was carried 
up to the Fourth Century; And a great deal of angry reading was 
brought out on both fides, to juftify, or to condemn thofe pro- 
ceedings. But arguments will never have the better of intereft 
and humour; Yet now, evpn according to their own preten- 
fions, the Schifm ought to have ceafed ; fince he, on whole 
account it was fet up, did never afTert his right ; and therefore 
that might have been more juftly conftrued a tacit yielding it : 
But thofe who have a mind to embroil Church or State, will 


136 The History of the Reign 

1693 never want a pretence, and no Arguments will beat them 
«^<^^~v-''^ from it. 

^fenifon "■ Botli King and Queen were much affedled with Tillotfons 
fucceeded. clcath : The Queen for many days fpoke of him, in the tender- 
eft manner, and not without tears ; He died fo poor, that if the 
King had not forgiven his Firft Fruits, his debts could not have 
been- all payed: So generous and charitable was he in a Poft, 
out of which Bancroft had raifed a great Eftate, which he left 
to his Family: But T'illotfon was rich in good works. His See 
was filled by Tenifon, Bifhop of Lincoln , Many wifhed that 
Stillingfleet might have fucceeded, he being not only fo eminent- 
ly learned, but judged a man in all refpefts fit for the Poft. 
The Queen was inchned to him, fhe fpoke with fome earneft- 
nels, oftner than once, to the Duke of Shrewsbury on that 
fubjed : She thought, he would fill that Poft with great dig- 
nity : She alfo preffed the King earneftly for him : But as his ill 
health made him not capable of the fatigue that belonged to 
this Province: So the Whigs did generally apprehend, that both 
his notions and his temper were too high ; and all concurred to 
defire 'Tenifon^ who had a firmer health, with a more a<51:ive 
t'\\?'"<=«- temper ; and was univerfally well liked, for having ferved the 
•■'•-■' Cure of St. Martins, in the ivorft time, with fo much courage- 
and difcretion ; So that at this time he had many Friends, and' 
no Enemies. ; n;>i;j::.-b-i> ..■. //uq ■■r.L :u :; iv:: 

The Small Pox raged "this winter about X<7;ft/(?« ; Some thou- 
fands dying of them ; wliich gave us great apprehenfions, with 
relation to the Queen ; for fhe had never had them. 
The Queen's In conclufiou, fhe was taken ill, but the next day that feem- 
Sicknefs. gjj ^.Q gQ Q£f . J )^^^ ^)^q houour to bc half an hour with her that 
day : And fhe complained then of nothing. The day follow- 
ing, fhe went abroad ; But her illnefs returned fo heavily on her, 
that fhe could difguife it no longer : She fhut her felf up long 
in her Clofet that night, and burnt many Papers, and put the 
reft in order: After that, fhe ufed fome flight remedies, think- 
ing it was only a tranfient indifpofition ; But it encreafed upon 
her; And within two days after, the Small Pox appeared, and 
with very bad Symptoms. I will not enter into another's Pro- 
vince, nor fpeak of matters fo much out of the way of my 
own ProfefTion : But the Phyficians part was univerfally con- 
demned, and her death was imputed to the negligence or 
unskilfulnefs of Dv. Ratcliffe. He was called for; and it ap- 
peared, but too evidently, that his Opinion was chiefly confi- 
dered ; and was moft depended on. Other Phyficians were 
afterwards called; But not till it was too late. The King was 
2 ftruck 

^A^.WiLLiAM and ^Mary; 137 

ftruck with this beyond exprelTion ; He came, on the fccond 1 694 
day of her illnefs, and pafled the Bill for frequent ParHa- ^-^^'^z**^ 
ments ; which if he had not done that day, it is very proba- 
ble he would never have pafled it. The day after, he called mc 
into his Clofet, and gave a free vent to a moft tender paf- 
fion ; He burft out into tears ; and cried out, that there wa^ 
no hope of the Qiieen ; and that, from being tlie happieft, ' 
he was now going to be the miferableft creature upon Earth. 
He faid, during the whole courfe of their Marriage, he had 
never known one fingle fault in her ; There was a worth in 
her, that no body knew befides himfelf j tho' he added, that 
I might know as much of her as any other perfon did. Ne- 
ver was fuch a face of univerfal Sorrow feen in a Court, • 
or in a Town, as at this time : All people, men and w:omenj 
young and old, could fcarce refrain from Tears : On Chriji- 
fnas Day, the Small Pox funk fo entirely, and the Queen 
felt her felf fo well upon it, that it was for a while con- 
cluded fhe had the Meailcs, and that the danger was over. 
This hope was ill grounded, and of a fhort continuance: For 
before night, all was fadly changed. It appeared, that the 
Small Pox were now fo funk, that there was no hope of 
raifing them. The new Archbifhop attended on her j He 
performed all devotions, and had much private difcourfe with 
her: When the defperate condition fhe was in, was evident 
beyond doubt, he told the King, He could not do his duty 
faithfully, unlefs he acquainted her with the danger Ihe was 
in : The King approved of it, and faid, whatever effed: it 
might have, he would not have her deceived in fo impor- 
tant a matter. And, as the Archbifhop was preparing the 
Queen, with fome addrefs, not to furprife her too much witli 
fuch tidings, fhe prefently apprehended his drift, but fhewed 
no fear nor difbrder upon it. She faid, fhe thanked God 
ihe had always carried this in her mind, that nothing was 
to be left to the laft hour ; fhe had nothing then to do, 
but to look up to God, and fubmit to his Will ; It went 
further indeed than fubmiffion ; for fhe feemed to delire Death, 
rather than Life ; And fhe continued to the laft minute of her 
life in that calm and religned ftate. She had formerly wrote 
her mind, in many particulars, to the King : And fhe gave 
order, to look carefully for a fmall Scrutoir diat Ihe made ufe 
of, and to deHver it to the King : And, having difpatched that, 
ihe avoided the giving her felf or him the tendernefs, which 
a final parting might have raifed in them both. She was al- 
moft perpetually in Prayer j The day before fhe died, fhe receiv- 
VoL. II. N n . ed 

1 3 8 The History of the Reign, &c, 

1694 ed the Sacrament, all the Bifhops who were attending^ being 
U^^'v/"'^ admitted to receive it with her : We were, God knows, a for- 
rowful Company; For we were lofing her, who was our chief 
hope and glory on Earth ; She followed the whole Office, re-. 
peating it after the Archbifhop ; She apprehended, not without 
fome concern, that (he {hould not be able to fwallow the Bread, 
yet it went down ealily. When this was over, fhe compofed 
her felf folemnly to die; She {lumbered fometimes, but faid, 
fhe was not refrefhed by it ; and faid often, that nothing did 
her good but Prayer ; She tried once or twice to have faid 
fomewhat to the King, but was not able to go through; with 
it. She ordered the Archbifhop to be reading to her fucli 
paffages of Scripture, as might fix her Attention, and raife her 
Devotion : Several Cordials were given, but all was inefFedual ; 
She lay filent for fome hours : And fome words that came from 
her, fhe wed her thoughts began to break : la conclufion, fhe 
And Death, died on the 2^th of December^ about One in the Morning, in 
the Thirty third year of her Age, and in the Sixth of her Reign. 
She was the moft univerfally lamented Princefs, and deferved 
the beft to be fo, of any in our Age, or in our Hiftory. I will 
add no more concerning her, in the way of a Charader : I have 
faid a great deal already in this work ; And I wrote a Book, 
as an EfTay on her Charader, in which I have faid nothing, 
but that which I knew to be ftridly true, without the enlarge- 
ment of Figure or Rhetorick. The King's afHidion for her 
Death was as great as it was jufl ; It was greater than thofe who 
knew him befl, thought his temper capable of: He went beyond 
all bounds in it ; During her Sicknefs, he was in an Agony, 
that amazed us all, fainting often, and breaking out into mofl 
violent Lamentations ; When fhe died, his Spirits funk fo low, 
that there was great reafon to apprehend, that he was follow- 
ing her ; For fome Weeks after, he was fo Httle Mafler of him- 
felf, that he was not capable of minding bufinefs, or of feeing 
Company. He turned himfelf much to the Meditations cJ 
ReHgion, and to fccret Prayer ; The Archbifhop was often and 
long with him ; He entred upon folemn and ferious refolu- 
tions of becoming, in all things, an exad, and an exemplary 
Chriftian. And now I am come to the Period of this Book, 
with a very melancholy Profpe6t : But God has ordered mat- 
ters fince, beyond all our expedations. 


Iv T 

1 h- 




O F 


My Own Times. 



BOOK VI ;;, 

Of the Life and Reign of King 
William III. 

HE Two Houfes of Parliament fet an Example, \^nii 
that was followed by the whole Nation, of mak- u?'*\/"'^ 
ing confolatory and dutiful Addreffes to the King. r^^„ ^^^^ 
The Queen was buried with the ordinary Ceremp- ceeding in 
ny, and with one piece of Magnificence that could ^^ '*"^" ' 
never happen before ; for both Houfes of Parliament went in 
Proceffion before the Chariot, that carried her Body to JVefi- 
minfier Abbey ; where places were prepared for both Houfes, 
to fit in form, while the Archbifhop preached the Funeral Ser- 
mon. This could never happen before, fincc the Sovereign's 


140 The History of the ReigH 

i6qc Death had alwap diiTolved our ParHaments : It is true, the Earl 
\^/r^^-^^ of Rocheftef tried, if he could have raifed a doubt of the Lega- 
lity of this Parliament's continuance, Unce it was fummoned by 
King William and Queen Mary ; So upon her death, the writ, 
that ran in tier name, feemed to die with her : This would 
have had fatal Confequences, if in that feafon of the year> all 
things muft have flood ftill, till a new Parliament could have been 
brought together : But the Adt, that put the Adminiftration en- 
tirely in the King, tho' the Queen had a fhare in the dignity 
of Sovereign, made this cavil appear to be fo ill-grounded, that 
rib body fcconded fo dangerous a fuggeftion. 
the ill ftate The Parliament went on with the bufiriefs of the Nation ; 
of the Coin, jjj which the Earl of Rochejler, and that Party, artfully ftudied, 
all that was pofTible, to embroil our affairs : The ftate of our 
Coin gave then too great a handle for it. We had two forts 
of Coin, The one was milled, and could not be pradlifed on : 
But the other was not fo, and was fubjed: to clipping ; And in 
a courfe of fome years, the old money was every year fo much 
diminifhed, that it at laft grew to be lefs than the half of the 
intrinfick value ; Thofe who drove this Trade, were s§ much 
enriched, as the Nation fuffered by it : When it came to be 
generally obferved, the King was adviled to iffue out a Pro- 
clamation, that no money ftiould pafs for the future, by the 
tale, but by the weight, which would put a prefent end to clip- 
ping. But Seimoury being then in the Treafury, oppofed this; 
He advifed the King to look on, and let that matter have its 
courfe : The Parliament would in due time take care of it ; 
But in the mean while, the badnefs of money quickned the Cir- 
culation, while every one ftudied to put out of his hands all 
the bad money ; Arid this would make all people the readier to 
bring their cafh into- the Exchequer ; And fo a Loan was more 
ealily made. The badnefs of the money began now to grow 
very viflble ; It was plain, that no remedy could be provided 
for it, but iDy recoining all the Specie of England 5 And that 
could not be fet about, in the end of a SefTion. The Earls of 
Rochejier and Nottingham reprefented this very tragically in the 
Houfe of Lords, where it was not poffible to give the proper 
remedy 5 It produced only an Adl, with ftrider claufes and fe- 
verer penalties againft Clippers ; This had no other effedl, but 
that it alarmed the Nation, and funk the value of our money 
in the Exchange 5 Guineas, which were equal in value to twenty 
one Shillings and Six-pence in Silver, rofe to thirty Shillings, that 
is to fay, thirty Shillings funk to twenty one Shillings and Six- 
,pence. This publick difgrace, put on our Coin, when the evil 
^ was 

of King William Ilt'rc \/\^i 

was not cured, was in cffed: a great point carried, by which 1695 
there was an opportunity given to fink the credit of the Govern- t<?'VN>j 
ment, and of the pubHck Funds ; And it brought a difcount of 
above 40/. per Cent, upon Tallies. . 1,^ 

Another Bill was fet on foot, which was long purfued, and, a Bill cori- 
in conclulion, carried by the Tories : It was concerning Trials Jf/JoriS- 
for Treafon ; And the defign of it feemed to be, to make men fon. 
as fafe in all treafonable Confpiracies and Pradices, as was pof-]j 
fible : Two Witnefles were to concur to prove the fame Fadt, at 
the fame time : Council in matters of Fadt, and Witnefles upon 
Oath, were by it allowed to the Prifoners ; They were to have a 
Copy of the Indidtment, and the Pannel in due time: All 
thefe things were in themfelves juft and reafonable : And if they 
had been moved by other men, and at another time, they 
would have met with little oppofition: They were chiefly fet on 
by Finchy the Earl of Nottingham^ Brotheri who had been con- , 
cerned in the hard profecutions for Treafons in the end of King 
Chatles\ Reign, and had then carried all Prerogative points 
very far ; but was during this Reign, in a conftant oppofltiom 
to every thing, that was propofed for the King's Service : He ^ 
had a copious way of fpeaking, with an appearance of Beau-j 
ty and Eloquence to vulgar Hearers : But there Was a fuper-{, 
ficialnefs in moft: of his harangues, that made them feem tedious ,- 

to better Judges ; His Rhetorick was all vicious, and his Reafoning 
was too fubtle. The occafion given for this Bill, leads me to^ 
give an account of fome Trials for Treafon, during the lafl: har- r 
veft, which, for the relation they have to this matter, I have 
referved for this place; 

hunt an Irijhman, who was bold and poor, and of a mean Trials in 
vinderftanding^ had been often employed to carry Letters and ^^"'^"fi'^^' 
Meflages between Ireland and England, when King y antes was- 
there. He was once taken up on fufpicion^ but he was faithful 
to his Party, and would difcover nothing ; So he continued after- 
that to be trufl:ed by them. But, being kept very poor, he 
grew weary of his low eftate, and thought of gaining the re- 
wards of a difcovery. He fell into the hands of one 'Taff, an 
Irijh Prieft:, who had not only changed his Religion, but had 
married in King yames\ time. Taff came into the fervice of tlie 
prefent Government, and had a fmall penfion. He was long, 
in purfuit of a difcovery of the Impofture in the Birth of the 
Prince of WaleSy and was engaged with more fuccefs in difco- 
vering the concealed Eftates of the Priefts, and the ReHgious 
Orders, in which forae progrefs was made. Thefe feemed to be 
fure evidences of the flncerity of the man, at leaft in his oppo-. 

VoL. IL O o fitiors 

142^ 3^^ History of the Reign 

1695 fition to thofe, whom he had forfaken, and whom he was pro- 
kJts/^'^ yoking in fo fenfible a manner. All this I mention, the more 
particularly, to fhew how little that fort of men is to be depend- 
ed on ; He pofTefled thofe, to whom his other difcoveries gave 
him accefs, of the importance of this Lunt, who was then come 
from St. GermainSy and who could make great difcoveries : So 
• Lunt was examined by the Minifters of State ; And he gav^e 
them an account of fome difcourfes and defigns againft- the 
King, and of an Inlurredlion, that was to have broke out in the 
year 1692, when King yames was defigning to come over from 
Normandy ; for, he faid, he had carried at that time Commif- 
fions to the chief men of the party, both in La7icajhire and 
Chejhire, A Carrier had been employed to carry down great 
quantities of Arms to them : One of the Chefts, in which they 
^ were put up, had broke in the carriage, fo the Carrier faw 

what was in them ; And he depofed, he had carried many of 
the fame weight and fize ; The perfons concerned, finding the 
Carrier was true and fecret, continued to employ him in that 
fort of carriage for a great while. Lunis ftory feemed probable 
and coherent in all its circumftances : So orders were fent to 
feize on fome perfons, and to fearch houfes for Arms. In one 
houfe they found Arms for a Troop of Horfe, built up within 
walls, very dexteroufly. ^Taff was all this while very zealous in 
fupporting Lunis credit, and in aflifting him in his difcoveries ; 
A folemn Trial of the Prifoners was ordered in Lancajhire. 
"When the fet time drew near, I'aff fent them word, that, if he 
fhould be well paid for it, he would bring them all off; It 
may be eafily imagined that they ftuck at nothing for fuch a 
fervice ; He had got out of Lunt all his depofitions, which he 
difclofed to them ; So they had the advantage of being well 
prepared to meet, and overthrow his evidence in many cir- 
cumftances : And at the Trial, I'aff turned againft him, and 
witnefled many things againft Lunt, that fhook his credit. 
There was another Witnefs that fupported Lunt\ evidence; but 
he was fo profligate a man, that great and juft objections lay 
againft giving him any credit ; But the Carrier's evidence was 
not fhaken. Lunt^ in the Trial, had named two Gentlemen 
wrong, miftaking the one for the other: But he quickly cor- 
rected his miftake, he had feen them but once, and they were 
both together ; So he might miftake their names : But he was 
fure thefe were the two perfons, with whom he had thofe trea- 
fonable Negotiations, 'faff had engaged him in company in 
London, to whom he had talked very idly, like a man who 
refolv^ed to make a fortune by fwearing : And it feemed, by 


.:-^iJ:„i . 

-of S^tng William 111* 143 

what he faid, that he had many difcoveries yet in referve, which 169 c 
he intended to fpread among many, till he ihould grow rich '^^^^"v^ 
and confiderable by it : This was fworn againft him : By all 
thefe things, his Evidence was fo blafted, that no credit was 
given to him. Four of the Judges were fent down to try the 
Prifoners at Manchefter^ and at Chejler ; where they managed 
matters with an impartial exadlnefs : Any leaning that appear- 
ed, was in favour of the Prifoners, according to a Charade- 
riftick, that Judges had always pretended to, but had not of 
latjc deferved fo well, as upon this occafion, of being Council 
for the Prifoner. The evidence, that was brought againft 
hunty was afterwards found to be falfe ; But it looked then ,,.;.,, ., 
with fo good an appearance, that both tie King's Counpl and 
the Judges were fatisfied with it ; And fo, without caHing for 
the reft of the Evidence, the matter was let fal^ : And when 
the Judges gave the Charge to the Jury, it was in favour of 
the Prifoners, fo that they were acquitted. And the reft of 
thofe, who were ordered to be tried after them, were all dif- 
charged without Trial. 

, The whole Party triumphed upon this, as a Vidory ; and 
complained both of the Minifters of State, and of the Judges ; 
The matter was examined into, by both Houfts of Parliament ; 
and it evidently appeared, that the proceeding had been, not 
only exactly according to Law, but that all reafonable favouf 
had been ftiewed the Prifoners : So that both Houfes M^re fully 
fatisfied ; Only the Earls of Rochefter and Nottingham hung on 
the matter long, and with great eagernefs ; and in conclufion, 
protefted againft the Vote, by which the Lords juftified thefe 
proceedings. This Examination was brought on with much 
noife, to give the more ftrength to the Bill of Treafons : But 
the progrefs of the examination turned fb much againft Them, 
who had made this ufe of it, that it appeared there was no 
juft occafion, given by that Trial, to alter the Law. Yet the 
Commons pafied the Bill : But the Lords infifted on a claufe, 
that all the Peers fhould be fummoned to the Trial of a Peer, 
that was charged with High Treafon ; The Commons would 
not agree to that ; And fo the Bill was dropt for this time. 
By the late Trial, it had manifeftly appeared, how little the 
Crown gained by one thing, which yet was thought an ad- 
vantage ; that the Witnefles for the Prifoner were not upon 
Oath : Many things were upon this occafion witnefled in favour 
of the Prifoners, which were afterwards found to be notorioufly 
falfe ; And it is certain, that the terror of an Oath is a great 
reftraint, and many, whom an Oath might over- awe, would 


1 44 The H I s' T b¥ ¥• of the Reign 

1695 more freely allow themfelves the liberty of Lying, in behalf of & 
(-^""v""^' Prifoner, to. fave his life. 

Complaints When this defign failed, another was fet up againft the Bank, 
of the Bank, which began to have a flourifhing credit, and had fupplied the 
King fo regularly with money, and that upon fuch reafonable 
terms, that thofe who intended to make matters go heavily, tri- 
ed what could be done to fhake the credit of the Bank. But 
this attempt was rejected in both Houfes with indignation*; It 
was very evident, that pubHck Credit would fignify little, if 
what was eftablifhed in one SefHon of Parliament, might be 
fallen upon, and fhaken in another. 
Enquiries Towafds the end of the Seffioh, Complaints were made of 
pradkes"^' fome Military men, who did not pay their Quarters, pretending 
their own pay was in arrear ; But it appearing, that they had 
been payed ; and the matter being further examifted into, it 
was found, that the fuperior Officers had cheated the Subalterns, 
which exculed their not paying their Quarters. Upon this, the 
enquiry vvas carried further ; And fuch difcoveries were made, 
that fome Officers were broke upon it, while others prevented 
complaints, by fatisfying thofe, whom they had opprefled : It 
was found out, that the Secretary of the Treafiiry had takenc 
two hundred Guineas, for procuring the Arrears due to a Re- 
giment, to be payed 5 whefeupon, he was fent to the Towef, 
and turned out of his place : Many were the more fharpried a- 
gainft him, becaufe it was believed that he, as well as Trevor 
the Speaker, were deeply concerned in corrupting the Members 
of the Houfe of Commons : He had held hi^ place both in. 
King Charles and King James's, time : And the fhare he had 
in the fecret diftribution of money, had made him a neceflary 
man for thofe methods. 

But the Houfe, being on this fcent, carried the matter ftilf 
further. In the former Seffion of Parliament, an A<St ha:d pafled, 
creating a Fund for the repayment of the Debt owing to the 
Orphans, by the Chamber of London ; And the Chamber had 
made Trevor a Prefent of a thoufand Guineas, for the Service 
he did them in that matter ; This was entred in their Books ; 
So that full proof was made of it. It was indeed believed, that 
a much greater Prefent had been made him in behalf of the 
Orphans : But no proof of that appeared ; Whereas, what had 
been taken in fo publick a manner could not be hid. This was 
objefted to Trevor as Corruption, and a Breach of Truft 5 And 
upon it, he was expelled the Houfe ; And Mr. Paul Foley 
was chofen Speaker in his room ; who had got great credit by 
his Integrity, and his conftant complaining of the Adminiftration. 
^ ' . One 

^ ^///^ William III. xT 14^ 

One difcovery made way for another: It was found, that in 1695 
the Books of the Eaft India Company, there were Entries made ^-"i*'^'^^ 
of great Sums given, for fecret Service done the Company, And into the 
that amounted to 170000 Pounds; And it was generally be- made by the 
lieved, tliat the greateft part of it had gone among the Members ^fi-J'^'^'* 
of the Houfe of Commons ; For the two preceeding Winters, 
there had been attempts, eagerly purfued by fome, for break- 
ing the Company, and either opening a free Trade to the In- 
diesy or at leaft, ereding a new Company : But it was obferv- 
ed, that fbme of the hotted fticklers againft the Company, did 
inienfibly, not only fall off from that heat, but turned to ferve the 
Company, as much as they had at firft endeavoured to deftroy 
it. Seimour was among the chief of thefe : And it was faid,' 
that he had 12000 Pounds of their money, under the colour 
of a Bargain for their Salt-petre. Great pains and art was ufed 
to ftifle this Enquiry ; But curiofity, envy, and ill-nature, as 
well as vertue, will on fuch occafions always prevail, to fet on 
enquiries. Thofe, who have had nothing, delire to know who 
have had fomething, while the guilty perfons dare not Ihew too 
great a concern in oppofing difcoveries. Sir Thomas Cook^ a 
rich Merchant, who was Governour of the Company, was exa-i 
-jiined concerning that great Sum given for Secret Service ; But 
he refufed to anfwer. So a fevere Bill was brought in againft 
him, in cafe he (hould not, by a prefixed day, confefs how all 
that money had been difpofed of. When the Bill was fent- 
up to the Lords, and was like to pafs, he came in, and offer-' 
ed to make a full difcovery, if he might be indemnified, for 
all that he had done, or that he might fay in that matter :i 
The Enemies of the Court hoped for great difcoveries, that 
fhould difgrace both the Minifters and the Favourites ; But it 
appeared, that, whereas both King Charles and King James had 
obliged the Company, to make them a yearly prefent of loooo 
Pounds, that the King had received this but cnce ; and that, 
tho' the Company offered a Prefent of 50000 Pounds, if the 
King would grant them a new Charter, and confent to an 
Adl of Parliament confirming it, the King had refufed to hear- 
ken to it. There were indeed prefumptions, that the Mar-^^ 
quils of Caermarthe-n had taken a Prefent of 5000 Guineas, 
which were fent back to Sir Thomas Cooky the morning before 
he was to make his difcovery. The Lords appointed twelve 
of their Body to meet with twenty four of the Houfe of Com- 
mons, to examine into this matter ; But they were fo ill fa-"* 
tisfied with the account, that was given them, by the four 
perfons who had been entrufted with this fecret, that by a par-^^ 

Vol. n. P p ticular 

i 46 The History of the Reign 

1695 ticular Aft, that paffed both Houfes, they were committed to 
Kj(fW''^ the Tower of London^ till the end of the next SefTion of Par- 
3i: liament, and reftrained from difpoling of their Eftates, real or 

perfonal. Thefe were proceedings of an extraordinary nature, 
which could not be juftified, but from the extraordinary occa- 
'" ^ fion that was given for them. Some faid, this looked like the 
fetting up a Court of Inquifition, when new Laws were 
made on purpofe to difcover fecrct Tranfa6lions ; and that" no 
bounds could be fet to fuch a method of proceeding. Others faid, 
that when Entries were made of fuch Sums, fecretly dilpofed 
of, it was as juft for a Parliament to force a confeffion, as it 
was common in the courfe of the Law to fubpcena a man, to 
declare all his knowledge of any matter, how fecretly fbever it 
might have been managed, and what perfon foever might have 
been concerned in it. The Lord Preddent felt, that he was 
deeply wounded with this difcovery ; For while the A6t, againft 
Cooky was pafling in the Houle of Lords, he took occafion to 
affirm, with folemn proteftations, that he himfelf was not at all 
concerned in that matter ; But now all had broke out : One 
Firebrafs a Merchant, employed by the Eaji-India Company, 
had treated witli Bates, a friend of the Marquifs of Caermar- 
then\ ; and foF the favour that Lord was to do them, in pro- 
curing them a new Charter, Bates was to have for his ufe five 
thoufand Guineas. But now a new turn was to be given to 
all this : Bates fwore, that he indeed received the money, and 
that he offered it to that Lord, who pofitively refufed to take 
it : But, fince it was already payed in, he advifed Bates to keep 
it to himfelf; tho' by the examination, it appeared, that Bates was 
to have five hundred Pounds for his own negotiating the affair : 
It did alfo appear, that the money was payed into one of that 
Lord's Servants ; But he could not be come at : Upon this dif- 
covery, the Houfe of Commons voted an Impeachment for a 
Mifdemeanour againft the Lord Prefident ; He, to prevent that, 
defired to be heard fpeak to that Houfe in his own Juftification ; 
When he was before them, he fet out the fervices that he had 
done the Nation, in terms that were not thought very decent 5 
He afiumed the greateft ffiare of the honour of the Revolu- 
tion to himfelf; He exprefl^ed a great uneafinels, to be brought 
under fo black an Imputation, from which he cleared himfelf as 
much as words could do ; In the end, he defired a prefent Trial. 
Articles were upon that brought againft him ; He, in anfwer 
to thele, denied his having received the money. But his Ser- 
vant, whofe teftimony only could have cleared that point, dis- 
appearing, the fufpicion ftuck ftill on him. It was intended to 
idmb jbang 

df King William IIL^ \% 

hang up the matter to another SfefTion ; But an Ad of Grace 1695 
came in the end of this, with an exception indeed as to Cor- u^^y^^J 
ruption ; Yet this whole difcovery was let fall) and it was be- 
lieved, too many of all fides were concerned in it : For by a 
common confent, it was never revived j And thus the Scflion 

The firft confliltation, after it was over, was concerning the Confulta- 
Coin, what methods fhould be taken to prevent further clip- Ihe^com." 
ping, and for remedying fo great an abufe. Some propofed 
the recoining the money, with fuch a raifing of the value of 
the Species, as fhould ballance the lofs upon the old money, 
that was to be called in : This took with fo many, that it was 
not eafy to correal an error, that muft have had very bad ef- 
feds in the concluflon : For the only fixed flandard mufl be the 
intrinfick value of an Ounce of Silver ; And it was a publick 
Robbery, that would very much prejudice our Trade, not to 
keep the value of our Species, near an equality with its weight 
and finenefs in Silver. So that the difference, between the old 
and new money, could only be fet right by the Houfe of Com- 
mons, in a Supply to be given for that end. The Lord Keeper 
Somers did indeed propofe that, which would have put an ef- 
fedual flop to clipping for the future; It was, that a Procla- ' " ' ' 
mation fliould be prepared with fuch fecrecy, as to be pub- 
lifhcd over all England on the fame day, ordering money to 
pafs only by weight ; but that, at the fame time, during three 
or four days after die Proclamation, all perfons in every County, 
that had money, fhould bring it in to be told and weighed ; and 
the difTerence was to be regiflred, and the money to be fealed 
up, to the end of the time given, and then to be reftored to the 
owners ; and an afTurance was to be given, that this deficiency 
in weight, fhould be laid before the Parliament, to be fuppli- 
ed another way, and to be allowed them in the following 
Taxes. But tho' the King liked this propofition, yet all the 
refl of the Council were againfl it. They faid, this would flop 
the circulation of money, and might occafion tumults in the 
Markets. Thofe,. whofe money was thus to be weighed^ 
would not beheve that the difference, between the tale and the 
weight, would be allowed them, and fo might grow mutinous j 
Therefore, they were for leaving this matter, to the Confidera- 
tion of the next Parliament. So this propofition was laid afide: 
which would have faved the Nation above a million of money. 
For now, as all people believed, that the Parliament would re- 
ceive the dipt money in its tale, clipping went on, and became 
more vifibly fcandalous, than ever it had been. 


HE4S The History^ the Reign 

1695 There was indeed reafon to apprehend Tumults; For now, 
u^^/'"^' after the Queen's death, the Jacobites began to think, that the 
Confuita- Government had loft the half of its ftrength, and that things 
"hTja^cT"^' could not be kept quiet at home, when the King Ihould be 
bites. beyond Sea. Some pretended, they were for putting the Prin- 

cefs, in her Sifter's place ; But that was only a pretence, to 
which fhe gave no fort of encouragement : King yames lay at 
tu■^^.. .... .. bottom. They fancied, an Invafton in the King's abfence vvould 

be an eafy attempt, which would meet with little refiftance : 
So they fent fome over to France., in particular one Charnochy 
a Fellow of Magdalen College, who in King yames\ time had 
turned Papift, and was a hot and ad:ive Agent among them : 
They undertook to bring a Body of 2000 Horfe, to meet fuch 
an Army as fhould be fent over ; But Charnock came back with 
a cold account, that nothing could be done at that time ; 
Upon which it was thought necclTary, to fend over a man of 
Quality, who fhould prefs the matter with fome more autho- 
rity : So the Earl of Ailesbury was prevailed on to go : He was 
admitted to a fecret converfation with the French King : And 
this gave rife to a Deftgn, which was very near being executed 
the following Winter. 
A defign to But if Sir John Fenwick did not flander King James, they at 
^h^^k"^*^ this time propofed a fhorter and more infallible way, by affaf- 
finating the King ; For he faid, that fome came over from France 
about this time, who aflured their Party, and himfelf in parti- 
cular, that a Commiftlon was coming over, figned by King 
James, which they affirmed they had feen, warranting them to 
attack the King's Perfon. This, it is true, was not yet arrived ; 
But fome affirmed, they had feen it, and that it was trufted to 
One, who was on his way hither ; Therefore, fince the King 
was fo near going over to Holland, that he would probably be 
gone before the Commiffion could be in England-, it was de- 
bated among the Jacobites, whether they ought not to take 
the firft opportunity to execute this Commiffion, even tho' they 
had it not in their hands : It was refolved to do it ; and a day 
was fet for it ; But as Fenwick faid, he broke the defign ; and 
fent them word, that he would difcover it, if they would not 
promife to give over the thoughts of it : And upon this reafon, 
he believed, he was not let into the fecret the following win- 
ter. This his Lady told me from him, as an article of merit 
to obtain his pardon : But he had trufted their word very eafily, 
it feems, fince he gave the King no warning to be on his 
guard ; And the two witnefles, whom he faid he could pro- 
duce to vouch this, were then under prolecution, and out-law- 
2 ed : 

of King William III. \ 149 

ed : So that the proof was not at hand, and the warning had 1695 
not been given, as it ought to have been. But of all this, -^^'^'v*''^ 
the Government knew nothing, and fufpeded nothing at this 

The King fettled the Government of England in feven Lords a Oovetn- 
Juftices, during his abfence ; And in this, a great error was JJ^""'' ,'" 'Jf 
committed, which had fome ill effeds, and was like to have fence, 
had worfe : The Queen, when She was dying, had received 
a kind Letter from, and had fent a reconciling Meflage to the 
Princefs ; And fo, that breach was made up. It is true, the 
Sifters did not meet ; It was thought, That might throw the 
Queen into too great a commotion ; So it was put off till it 
was too late ; Yet the Princefs came foon after to lee the 
Kin?; j And there was after that an appearance of a good cor- 
relpondence between them : But it was little more than an ap- 
pearance. They lived ftill in terms of civility, and in formal viiitsj 
But the King did not bring her into any fhare in bufinefs ; nor 
did he order his Minifters to wait on her, and give her any ac- 
count of Affairs. And now, that he was to go beyond Sea, fhc 
was not fet at the head of the Councils, nor was there any 
caie taken, to oblige thole who were about her. This looked 
either like a jcaloufy and diftruft, or a coldnefs towards her, 
which ij;ave all the the lecret Enemies of the Government a co- 
lour of complaint. They pretended zeal for the Princefs, tho* 
they came Httle to her ; And they made it very vilible, on many 
occafions, that this was only a difguife for worfe defigns. '"m-^T 

Two great men had died in Scotland the former Winter, the The deailt ' 
Dukes of Hamilton and i^ueensbury : They were Brothers-in-law, Lord™* 
and had been long great friends ; But they became irreconcilable 
Enemies. The firft had more application, but the other had 
the greater genius ; They were incompatible with each other, 
and indeed with all other perfons ; For both loved to be abfo- 
lute, and to dired every thing. The Marquifs of Halifax di- 
ed in April this year ; He had gone into all the meafures of the 
Tories ; Only he took care to preferve himfelf from criminal 
engagements ; He ftudied to oppofe every thing, and to embroil 
matters all he could ; His fpirit was reftlefs, and he could not 
bear to be out of bufinefs ; His vivacity and judgment funk 
much in his iaft years, as well as his Reputation ; He died of a 
Gangrene, occafioned by a Rupture that he had long negleded ; 
When he faw death fo near him, and was warned, that there 
was no hope, he fhewed a great firmnefs of Mind, and a Calm 
that had much of true Philofophy at leaft ; He profeffed him- 
felf a fincere Chriftian, and lamented the former parts of his 

Vol. II. q^q Life, 


The Lords 

The Cam- 
paign in 

The Siege 
of l^amtir. 

The Hi si:oViY of the Reign 

Life, with folemn refolutions of becoming in all refpecfls another 
man, if God fhould raife him up. And fo, I hope, he died 
a better man, than he lived. 

The feven Lords Juftices Were, the Archbifhop of Canterbury^ 
the Lord Keeper, the Lord Privy Seal, the Lord Stensoard, the 
Lord Chamberlain^ the Firft Secretary of State, and the Firft 
Commiffioner of the Treafury: They had no Charafter nor Rank, 
except when Foiir of them were together ; And they avoided 
affembling to that number, except at the Council Board, where 
it was neceffary ; And when they were together, they had the 
Regal Authority vefted in them. They were chofen by the 
Pofts they were in. So that no other perfon could think he 
was negleded, by the preference : They were not envied for 
this Titular Greatnefs ; Since it Was indeed only Titular ; For 
they had no real Authority trufted with them. They took care to 
keep within bounds, and to do nothing, but in matters of courfe, 
till they had the King's Orders, to which they adhered exadly r 
So that no complaints could be made of them, becaufe they 
took nothing on them, and did only keep the peace of the King- 
dom, and tranfmit and execute the King's Orders. The Sum- 
mer went over quietly at home ;' for tho' the Jacobites fhev/ed 
their difpoHtion on fome occafions, but moft fignally on the 
Prince of Wales\ Birth- day, yet they were wifer than to break 
out into any dilbrder, when they had no hopes of dfliftance from 

About the end of May, the Armies were brought together in 
Flanders : The King drew his main Force towards the French 
Lines ; And the Deiign was formed to break thro', and to de- 
ftroy the French Flanders : Luxembourg died this Winter ; So 
the Command of the French Armies was divided between Ville- 
roy and Bouflers : But the former commanded the ftronger Ar- 
my. An Attempt was made on the Fort of Knock, in order 
to forcing the Lines ; And there was fome a6tion about it; But 
all on the hidden, Namur was invefted ; And the King drew 
off the main part of his Army, to beliege that place, and left 
above 30000 Men, under the Command of the Prince of Vau- 
demont, who was the beft General he had ; for Prince Waldeck 
died above a year before this. With that Army, he was to 
cover Fla7iders and Brabant, while the King carried oii the 

As loon as Namur was invefted, Bouflers threw himfelf into 
it, with many good Officers, and a great Body of Dragoons; 
The Garrifon was 1 2000 ftrong : A place fo happily fitua- 
ted, fo well fortified, and fo well furnifhed and Qonimanded, 

' '\^ • made 

of King William III. ^ fjf 

made the attempt feem bold and doubtful; The dry Seafon put 1695 
the King under another difficulty ; The Maefe was fo low, lx^'V^^^vJ 
that there was not water enough to bring up the Barks, loaden 
with Artillery and Ammunition, from Liege and Majlrkht ; 
So that, many days were loft in bringing thefe over Land ; And 
if Villeroy had followed the King clofe, it is thought he muft 
have quitted the defign : But tibe French prefumed upon the 
ftrength of the Place and Garrifon, and on our being fo little 
pradifed in Sieges : They thought, that Villeroy might make 
fome confiderable Conqueft in Flanders^ and when that was 
done, come in good time to raife the Siege. Prince Vaude- 
mont managed his Army with fuch skill and conduct, that as 
he covered all the Places, on which he thought the French 
had an eye, fo ke marched with that caution, xS\2lX.xS\6 Ville-^ 
roy had above double his ftrength, yet he could not force him 
to an engagement, nor gain any advantage over him. The 
Military men, that ferved uhder him, magnified his conduct 
highly, and compared it to any thing that Tjirenne, or the great- 
eft Generals of the Age had done. Once it was thought, he 
could not get off;' But he marched under the Cannon of Ghent 
without any lols. In this, Villeroy s, condudt was blamed, but 
without caufe y For he had not overfeen his advantage, but 
had ordered the Duke of Mayne, the French King's beloved 
Son, to make a motion with the Horfe, which he commanded ; 
And probably, if that had been fpeedily executed, it might 
have had ill effe<fts on the Prince of Vaudemont : But the Duke 
de Mayne defpifed Villeroy^ and made no hafte to obey his 
Orders, fo the advantage was loft, and the King of France put 
him under a flight difgrace for it. Villeroy attackt Dixmuyda 
and Deinfe ; The Garrifons were not indeed able to make a gred^ 
refiftance ; But they were ill commanded : If their Officers had 
been Mafters of a true judgment, or prelence of mind, they might 
at leaft have got a favourable compolition, and have faved the 
Garrifons, tho' the Places were not tenable; Yet they were 
balely delivered up, and about 7000 men were made prifoners 
of War. And hereupon, tho' by a Cartel that had been fettled 
between the two Armies, all Prifoners were to be redeemed at 
a fet price, and within a limited time : Yet the French^ having 
now fo many men in their hands, did, without either colour or 
fhame, give a new effay of their perfidioufnefs ; for they broke 
k, upon this occafion, as they had often done at Sea ; indeed, 
as often as any advantages on their fide tempted them to it : 
The Governours of thofe places were at firft believed to have 
betrayed" their Truft, and fold the Garrifons, as well as the 
J places 

iy2 The History of the Reigti 

1695 places to the jPr^;^c^ 5 But they were tried afterwards ; And it 
'-^^^"'^'^'"'''^ appeared, that it flowed from Cowardice, and want of Senfe ; 
for which one of them fuifered, and the other was broke with 
Srttjjefs Villeroy marched toward Brujfels^ and was followed by Prince 
b^^dtd*" Vaudefnont^ whofe chief care was, to order his motions fo, that 
the French might not get between him, and the King's Camp 
at Namur, He apprehended, that Villeroy might bornbard 
Brujfels, and would have hindred it, if the Town could have 
been wrought on, to give him the afliftance that he deflred of 
them : Townfmen, upon all fueh occafions, are more apt to 
confider a prefent, tho' a fmall expence, than a great, tho' an 
imminent danger : So Prince Vaudemont could not pretend to 
cover them : The Eledorefs of Bavaria was then in the Town ; 
And tho' Villeroy fent a Complement to her, yet he did not 
give her time to retire ; but bombarded the place for two days, 
with fo much fury, that a great part of the lower Town was 
burnt down : The damage was valued at fome Millions, and 
the Eledorefs was fo frighted, that fhe mifcarried upon it of a 
Boy. When this execution was done, Villeroy marched towards 
Namur \ His Army was now fo much encreafed, by Detach- 
ments brought from the Rhine, and Troops drawn out of Gar- 
rifons, that it was faid to be 1 00000 ftrong: Both Armies on 
the Rhine., were fo equal in ftrength, that they could only lie 
on a Defenfive ; neither fide being flrong enough to undertake 
any thing : M. De V Orge commanded ^cFrench, and the Prince 
of Baden, the Imperialifts : The former was finking as much ia 
his health as in his credit ; So a great Body was ordered to 
march from him to Villeroy ; And another Body equal to that, 
commanded by the Landgrave of Hejfe, came and joined the 
King's Army. 
Namtir Wis The Siege was carried on with great vigour; The errors, to 
taken. which our want of practice expofed us, were all correded by 
the courage of our men ; The Fortifications, both in ftrength, 
and in the extent of the out-works, were double to what they 
had been when the French took the place ; Our men did not 
only fucceed in every attack, but went much further : In the 
firft great Sally, the French loft fo many, both Ofiicers and Sol- 
diers, that after that, they kept within their Works, and gave 
us no difturbance : Both the King and the Eleftor of Ba- 
varia, went frequently into the Trenches ; The Town held out 
one Month, and the Cittadel another: Upon Villeroy s ap- 
proach, the King drew off all the Troops that could be fpared 
from the Siege, and placed himfelf in his way, with an Army 


of King William III. lyj 

bf 60000 men; But he was fo well ported, that after VillerQy 1695 
had looked on him for fome days, he found it was not advifa- v.^?'"v^'!>J 
ble to attack him : Our men wifhed for a Battle, as that which 
would not only decide the fate of Namur, but of the whole 
War; The French gave it out, that they would put all to 
hazard, rather than fuffer fuch a diminution of their King's 
Glory, as the retaking that place feemed to be ; But the Signal 
of the Cittadel's treating, put an end to Vtlleroy\ defigns : 
Upon which, he apprehending that the King might then attack 
him, drew off with fo much precipitation, that it looked liker a 
flight than a retreat 

The Capitulation was foon ended and figned by BouflerSy 
who, as was faid, was the firft Marefchal of France that had ever 
delivered up a place ; He marched out with 5000 men, fo it 
appeared he had loft 7000 during the Siege : And we loft in 
it only about the fame number. This was reckoned one of 
the greateft anions of the King's Life, and indeed, one of the 
greateft that is in the whole Hiftory of War. It raifed his Cha- 
radler much, both at home and abroad, and gave a great repu- 
tation to his Troops : The King had the entire Credit of the 
matter ; His General Officers having a very fmall fhare in it, 
being moft of them men of low Genius, and little pradifed in 
things of that nature. Cohorn^ the chief Engineer, ftgnalized 
himfelf fo eminently on this occafion, that he was looked on 
as the greateft Man of the Age : and out-did even Vauban^ 
who had gone far beyond all thofe, that went before him, in 
the conduct of Sieges : But it was confefled by all, that Cohorn 
had carried that Art to a much farther perfection during this 
Siege. The Subaltern. Officers and Soldiers gave hopes of a 
better race, that was growing up, and fupplied the errors and 
defedls of their Superior Officers. As the Garrifon marched out, 
the King ordered Bouflers to be ftopt, in reprifal for the Garri- 
Jons of Dixmuyde and Deinfe. Bouflers complained of this as 
a Breach of Articles, and the adlion feemed liable to cenflire. 
But many authorities and precedents were brought, both from 
Law and Hiftory, to juftify it : All obligations among Princes, 
both in Peace and War, muft be judged to be reciprocal j So 
that he who breaks thefe firft, fets the other at liberty. At 
length, the French confented to fend back the Garrifons, pur- 
fuant to the Cartel ; Bouflers was firft let at liberty, and then 
thefe Garrifons were releafed according to promife. 

The Officers were tried and proceded againft, by Councils of 
War, according to Martial Law ; They were raifed in the Army 
by ill methods, and maintained themfelves by worfe ; Corrup- 

VoL. II. R r tion 

1^4 The VLis^oviY of the Reign 

1695 tion had broke into the Army, and Oppreffion and Injuftlce 
^--''^'V'''^ were much complained of ; The King did not approve of thofe 
pradices ; But he did not enquire after them, nor punifli them, 
with a due feverity ; Nor did he make difference enough be- 
tween thofe who ferved well, fold nothing, and ufed their Sub- 
alterns kindly, and thofe who fet every thing to fale, and op- 
preffed all that were under them ; and when things of that kind 
go unpunifhcd, they will foon make a great progrefs. There 
was little more done, during the Campaign in Flanders ; Nor 
was there any Action upon the Rhine. 

In Italy^ there was nothing done in the Field by force of •"* 
Arms : But an affair of great confequence was tranfadted, in a 
very myfterious manner ; The Duke of Savoy, after a very long 
Cafai was Blockade, undertook the Siege of Cafal\ but he was fo ill pro- 
furandred. yidcd for it, that no good account of it could be expcfted ; 
The King had fo little hopes of fucceis, that he was not eafily 
prevailed on to confent to the befieging it ; But either the 
French intended to gain the Pope and the Venetians, and in 
conclufion, that Duke himlelf, with this extraordinary concef- 
fion ; Or, fince our Fleet was then before Toulon, they judged 
it more neceffary to keep their Troops, for the defence of their 
Coaft and Fleet, than to fend them to relieve Cafal ; So Orders 
were fent to the Governour to Capitulate, in fuch a number of 
days, after the Trenches were opened : So that the Place was 
furrendred, tho' it was not at all ftraitned : It was agreed, that 
it fhould be reftored to the Duke of Mantua, but fo difmant- 
led, that it might give jealoufy to no fide ; And the flighting 
the Fortifications went on fo flowly, that the whole Seafon was . 
fpent in it, a Truce being granted all that while. Thus did the 
French give up Cafal, after they had been at a vaft expence 
in fortifying it, and had made it one of the flrongeft places in 
Affairs at ^"^ Flcct was all the Summer, Mafter of the Mediterra- 
Sca. nean ; The French were put under great diforder, and feemed 

to apprehend a Defcent ; For Rujfel came before Marfeilles and 
Toulon oftncr than once; Contrary Winds forced him out to 
Sea again, but with no lols ; He himfelf told me, he believed 
nothing could be done there ; Only the honour of command- 
ing the Sea, and of fhutting the French within their Ports, 
gave a great reputation to our affairs. In Catalonia, the French 
made no progrefs ; They abandoned P alamos, and made Gi- 
ronne their Frontier. The Spaniards once pretended to befiege 
F alamos, but they only pretended to do it ; They defired fome 
men from Rujfel, for he had Regiments of Marines on Board : 


of King W I L L f A M III.^ i } ^ 

They Tdd, they had begun the Siege, and were provided with 1695; 
every thing that was ileceflary to carry it oh, only they wanted ^-<J^'*v^vi 
men ; So he fent them fome Battalions ; But when they came 
thither, they found not any one thing, that was neceflary to 
carry on a Sieg^, not fo ihucn as Spades, not to mention Guns 
and Ammunition: So Rujfd knt for his men back again. But a 

the French of themfelves quitted the place ; for as they found 
the charge of the War in Catatonia was great, and tho' they 
met with a feeble oppofition from the Spaniards^ yet fihce they 
faw, they could not carry Barcelona, fo long as our Fleet lay 
hi thofe Seas, they refolved to lay by, iri expectation of a better 
occafiort. We htid another Fleet in our own Channel, that was 
ordered to bombard the French Coaft ; They did fome execu- 
tion upon St. Maids, arid deftroyed Grandville, that lay not 
fer from it : They alfo attempted Dunkirk, but failed in the 
execution ; Some Bombs were thrown into Calais, but with- 
out any great effeft ; So that the French did not fuffer {o 
much by the Bombardment, as was expedled : The Country 
indeed was much alarmed by it ; They had many Troops dif- 
perfed all along their Coaft ; So that it put their affairs in great 
diforder, and we were every where Mafters at Sea. Another 
Squadron, commanded by tne Marquifs of Carmarthen (whole 
Father was created Duke of heeds, to colour the difmifling 
him from bufinefs, with an encreafe of Title) lay off from the 
Ifles of Scilly, to fecure our Trade, and convoy our Merchants : 
He was an extravagant man, both in his Pleafures and Hu- 
mours ; He was flow in going to Sea ; and, when he was out, 
he fancied the French Fleet was coming up to him, which 
proved to be only a Fleet of Merchant Ship : So he left his fta- 
tion, and retired into Milford Haven : By which means, that 
Squadron became ufelefs. '" '/ . 

This proved fatal to our Trade; Many of our Barbadoes ThtLoSei 
Ships were taken by French Cruizers and Privateers : Two rich °^°"'' ^"' 
Ships, coming from the Eajl- Indies, were alfo taken, 150 
Leagues to the Weftward, by a very fatal accident, or by fome 
treachetous advertifement ; for Cruizeri feldom go fo far into 
the Ocean : And to compleat the misfortunes of the Eajl-India 
.Company, three other Ships, that were come near Gallwayy 
cm the Weft of Ireland, fell into the hands of ibme French 
Privateers : Thdfe five Ships were valued at a Million, fb here 
was great occafroh of difcontent in the City of London. They 
complained, that neither the Admiralty, nor the Government, 
took the care that was neceflary for preferving the Wealth of the 
Nation. A French Man of War, at the fame time, fell upon our 



Affairs in 



ij6 The History of the Reigtt 

1695 Fadory on the Coaft of Guinea; He took the fmall Fort wc 

u?'=^/'"*?>j had there, and deftroyed it ; Thefe misfortunes were very fen- 

fible to the Nation, and did much abate the Joy, which fo 

glorious a Campaign would otherwife have raifed ; And much 

matter was laid in for ill humour to work upon. 

The War went on in Hungary 5 The new Grand Signior 
came late into the Field ; But as late as it was, the Imperialifts 
were not ready to receive him : He tried to force his way into 
Tranjilvania, and took fome weak and ill defended Forts, which 
he foon after abandoned ; Veteran^ who was the moft beloved 
of all the Emperor's Generals, lay with a fmall Army to de- 
fend the Entrance into 'Tranjilvania ; The Turks fell upon him, 
and overpowered him with numbers ; His Army was deftroyed, 
and himfelf killed ; But they fold their Lives dear ; The Turks 
loft double their number, and their beft Troops in the a£lion ; 
So that they had only the name and honour of a Victory ; 
They were not able to profecute it, nor to draw any advantage 
from it. The ftragglers of the defeated Army drew together, 
towards the Pafles. But none purfued them, and the Turks 
marched back to Andrianople, with the Triumph of having 
made a glorious Campaign. There were fome flight Engage- 
ments at Sea, between the Venetians and the Turks, in which, 
the former pretended they had the advantage ; But nothing fol- 
lowed upon them. Thus affairs went on abroad during this 

There was a Parliament held in Scotland^ where the Mar- 
quils of Tweedale was the King's Commiffioner : Every thing 
that was asked for the King's Supply, and for the fubflftance 
of his Troops, was granted ; The Maflacre in Glencoe, made 
ftill a great noife j and the King feemed too remifs in inquir- 
ing into it. But when it was reprefented to him, that a SefTion 
of Parliament could not be managed, without high motions 
and complaints of fo crying a matter, and that his Minifters 
could not oppole thefe, without feeming to bring the guilt of 
that Blood, that was fo pcrfidioufly fhed, both on the King, 
and on themfelves : To prevent that, he ordered a Commiflion 
to be pafled under the Great Seal, for a precognition in that 
matter, which is a praxfticc in the Law of Scotland, of exa- 
mining into Crimes, before the Perfons concerned are brought 
upon their Trial. This was looked on as an artifice, to cover 
that tranfaftion by a private enquiry ; Yet, when it was com- 
plained of in Parliament, not without refledions on the flack- 
nefs in examining into it, the King's Commiffioner afliired them, 
that by the King's Order, the matter was then under examina- 

A Parlia- 
ment in 

of King William IIL 157 

tion, and that it fliould be reported to the PaHiament : The 1695 
Enquiry went on ; And, in the progrefs of it, a new pfadice of ^-^^'^^z'^*^ 
the Earl of Braidalbin^ was difcovered ; For the Highlanders 
depofed that, while he was treating with them, in order to their 
fubmitting to the King, he had aflured them, that he ftill ad- 
hered to King James's Intereft, and that he prefled them t6 
come into that Pacification, only to preferve them for his fervice, 
till a more favourable opportunity. This, with feveral other 
treafonable difcourfes of his, being reported to the Parliament, 
lie covered himfelf with his pardon ; But thefe difcourfes hap- 
pened to be fubfequent to it ; So he was fent a Prifoner to the 
Caflle of Edinburgh : He pretended, he had fecret Orders from 
the King, to fay any thing that would give hini credit with 
them ; which the King owned fo far, that he ordered a new 
pardon to be pafl for him. A great Party came to be formed 
in this Seflion, of £l very odd mixture ; The High Presbyteri- 
ans, and the Jacobites, joined together to oppofe every thing ; 
Yet it was not fo flrong as to carry the Majority ; But great 
heats arofe among them. 

The Report of the MafTacre of Glencoe^ was made in full The Bufi- 
Parliament : By that it appeared, that a black defign was laid, ne'sofc/^/i- 

1 rr 1 ^ r ^] i '^"^ examm- 

not only to cut ott the men or Ulencoe, but a great many cd. 
more Clans, reckoned to be in all above Six Thoufand perfons : 
The whole was purfued in many Letters, that were writ with 
great earneftnefs ; And tho' the King's Orders carried nothing 
in them, that was in any fort blameable, yet the Secretary of 
States Letters went much further. So the Parliament juftified the 
King's Inftruftions, but voted the execution in Glencoe, to have 
been a barbarous MafTacre, and that it was pufhed on by the Se- 
cretary of State's Letters, beyond the King's Orders : Upon that, 
they voted an Addrefs to be made to the King, that he, and 
others concerned in that matter, might be proceeded againft ac- 
cording to Law : This was carried by a great Majority. 

In this SefTion, an Ad: paft, in favour of fuch of the Epif^ 
copal Clergy, as fhould enter into thofe engagements to the 
King, that were by Law required ; That they fhould continue 
in their Benefices under the King's Protedion, without being 
fubjed: to the power of Presbytery. This was carried with fome 
addrefs, before the Presbyterians were aware of the confequences 
of it ; for it was plainly that which they call Erajiianifm. A 
day was limited to the Clergy for taking the Oaths : And by a 
very zealous and dextrous management, about feventy of the 
bell of them were brought to take the Oaths to the King ', 

Vol. II. S s And 

^jy8 The History of the Reign 

1695 And fo they came within the Protedion promifed them by 
u?''^/'^^>J the A6t. 

AnAftfor Another Ad paffed, that has aheady produced very fatal 
a new Com- confequences to that Kingdom, and may yet draw worfe 
^^"^" after it : The Interlopers in the Raft-hidia Trade^ finding 
that the Company was Uke to be favoured by the ParHa- 
luent, as well as by the Court, were refolved to try other me- 
thods to break in upon that Trade : They entred into a Treaty 
with fome Merchants in Scotland-, And they had, in the former 
Seflion, procured an Ad, that promifed Letters Patents to all 
fuch, as fhould offer to fet up new Manufadures, or drive any 
new Trade, not yet pradifed by that Kingdom, with an ex- 
emption for twenty one years from all Taxes and Cuftoms, and 
\yith all fuch other Privileges, as fhould be found neceffary for 
eflabliihing or encouraging fuch projeds. But here was a ne- 
ceility of procuring Letters Patents, which they knew the cre- 
dit, that the Eaji-India Company had at Court, would certain- 
ly render inefFedual. So they were now in treaty for a new 
Ad, which fhould free them from that difficulty. There was 
^ ^ ., one Paterfon, a man of no education, but of great Notions; 
which, as was generally faid, he had learned from the Buc- 
caneers, with whom he had conforted for fome time. He had 
confidered a place in Darien, where he thought a good Settle- 
ment might be made, with another over againft it, in the South 
Sea ; And by two Settlements there, he fancied a great Trade 
might be opened both for the Eaji and Wejl-Indies ; and that the 
Spaniards in the neighbourhood might be kept in great fubjec- 
tion to them ; So he made the Merchants believe, that he had 
a great fecret, which he did not think fit yet to difcover, and 
reierved to a fitter opportunity; Only he defired, that the 
Wefi-Indks might be named in any new Ad, that fhould be 
offered to the Parliament : He made them in general under- 
ftand, that he knew of a Country, not poflefTed by Spaniards, 
where there were rich Mines, and Gold in abundance. While 
theie matters were in treaty, the time of the King's giving the 
Inftrudions to his Commifiioner for the Parliament came on ; 
And it had been a thing of courfe, to give a general Inftruc- 
tion, to pafs all Bills for the encouragement of Trade, yohn- 
Jloiin told the King, that he heard there was a fecret manage- 
ment among the Merchants for an Ad in Scotland, under which 
the Eaji--India Trade might be fet up ; So he propofed, and 
drew an Inftrudion, impovy'cring the Commifiioner to pafs 
any Bill, promifing Letters Patents for encouraging of Trade, 
yet limited, fo that it fhould not interfere with the Trade of 
2 E^g- 

of King William III^^ ciy^ 

England : When they went down to Scotland^ the King's Com- 1695 
millioner either did not confidcr this, or iiad no regard to it ; v.^S^'^v^"'*'*-' 
for he gave the Royal Affent to an Ad, that gave the Under- 
takers, either of the Eaft-hidia or Wejl-India Trade, all pofli- 
ble privileges, with exemption of twenty one years frdm all 
Impofitions : And the Aft direfted Letters Patents to be p^fled 
under the Great Seal, without any further Warrant for them : 
When this was printed, it gave a great alarm in England^ more 
particularly to the Eaft-hidia Company ; For many of the 
Merchants of hondon refolved to join Stock with the Scotch 
Company ; And the exemption from all Duties gave a great 
profpeft of gain. Such was the pofture of affairs in Scotland. 

In Irelandy the three Lords Juftices did not agree long to- AfFiirs lo 
gether ; The Lord Capel ftudied to render himfclf popular, and ^'^^^'^"'^' ■ 
efpoufed the interefts of the Englijh againft the Irijhj without 
any nice regard to juftice or equity : He was too eafily fet on, 
by thofe who had their own end in it, to do every thing that 
gained him applaufe : The other two were men of fevere tem- 
pers, and ftudied to proteft the Irijh, when they were oppreft ; 
nor did they try to make themfelves otherwife popular, than by 
a wife and juft Adminiftration : So Lord Capel was highly 
magnified, and they were as much complained of, by all the 
Englijh in Ireland. Lord Capel did undertake to manage a Par- 
liament (a, as to carry all things, if he was made Lord Depu- 
ty, and had power given him to place and difplace fuch as he 
fhould name. This was agreed to, and a Parliament was held 
there, after he had made feveral removes : In the beginning of 
the Seffion, things went fmoothly ; The Supply that was asked, 
for the fupport of that Government, was granted ; All the pro- 
ceedings in King James^ Parliament were annulled, and the 
great Adt of Settlement was confirmed an-d' explained, as they 
defired : But this good temper was quickly loft, by the heat of 
fome, who had great credit with Lord Capel. Complaints were 
made of Sir Charles Porter^ the Lord Chancellor, who was 
beginning to fet on foot a Tory humour in I r eland ^ whereas it 
was certainly the intereft of that Government, to have no other 
divifion among them, but that of Englijh and IriJh., and of 
Proteftant and Papift : Lord Capel\ Party, moved in the Houfe 
of Commons, that Porter fhould be impeached j But the 
grounds, upon which this motion was made, appeared to be fo 
frivolous, after the Chancellor was heard by the Houfe of 
Commons^ in his own juftification, that he was voted clear fi-om 
all imputation, by a Majority of two to one 5 This fet the Lord 
Deputy and the Lord Chancellor, with all the friends of both, 


1 60 The History of the Reign 

1695 at fo great a diftance from each other, that it put a full flop, 
U?"V''^ for fome time, to all bufinefs. 

Thus Factions were formed in all the King's Dominions ; 
And he, being for fo much of the year at a great diftance from 
the fcene, there was no pains taken to quiet thefe, and to check 
the animofities which arofe out of them. The King ftudied 
only to ballance them, and to keep up among the Parties, a 
jealoufy of one another, that fb he might oblige them all to 
depend more entirely on himfelf 
A new Par- As foon as the Campaign was over in Flanders^ the King ih- 
liament cai- ^^ndcd to comc ovcr dircdly into England ; But he was kept 
long on the other fide by contrary winds ; The firft: point, that 
was under debate upon his arrival, was, whether a new Par- 
liament fhould be fummoned, or the old one be brought to- 
gether again, which by the Law that was lately pafled, might 
fit till Lady-day : The happy ftate the Nation was in, put all 
men, except the Merchants, in a good temper ; None could be 
fure, we fhould be in fo good a ftate next year ; So that now 
probably Elections would fall on men, who were well affedled 
to the Government ; A Parliament, that faw it felf in its laft 
Seflion, might affeft to be froward ; The Members, by fuch a 
behaviour, hoping to recommend themfelves to the next Elec- 
tion ; Belides, if the fame Parliament had been continued, pro- 
bably the Enquiries into Corruption would have been carried on, 
which might divert them from more prefTmg affairs, and kindle 
greater heats ; all which might be more decently dropt by a new 
Parliament, than fuffered to lie afleep by the old one. Thefe 
confiderations prevailed, tho' it was ftill believed, that the 
King's own inclinations led him, to have continued the Parlia- 
ment yet one SefBon longer ; For he reckoned, he was fure of 
the major Vote in it. Thus this Parliament was brought to a 
Conclufion, and a new one was fummoned. 

The King made a progrefs to the North ; And ftaid fbme 
days at the Earl of Sunderland's^ which was the firft publick 
mark of the high favour he was in ; The King ftudied to con- 
ftrain himfelf to a little more opennefs and affability, than was 
natural to him : But his cold and dry way had too deep a root, 
not to return too oft upon him j The Jacobites were fo decried, 
that few of them were elected ; But many of the fourer fort of 
Whigs, who were much alienated from the King, werechofen: 
Generally, they were men of Eftates, but many were young, 
hot, and without experience. Foley was again chofen Speaker ; 
The demand of the Supply was ftill very high, and there was 

of King William IIL i(3i 

a great airear of Deficiencies ; All was readily granted, and lodg- 1695 
ed on Funds, that feemcd to be very probable. ^../rs/-"^ 

The ftate of the Coin was confidered, and there were great The flatc of 
and long Debates about the proper remedies : The motion of [J^^'JJ 
raifina the money above its intrinfick value, was ftill much 
prefled; Many apprehended this matter could not be cUred, 
without cafting us into great diforders : Our money they thought 
would not pafe, and fo the Markets would not be furniflied ; 
And it is certain, that if there had been ill humours then ftir> 
ring in the Nation, this might have caft us into great Convul-. 
fions. But none happened, to the difappointment of our Ene- 
mies, who had their eyes and hopes long fixed on the cffeds, 
this might produce. All came in the end to a wife and happy 
refolution, of Recoining all the Specie of England^ in mill'd 
money ; All the old money was ordered to be brought in, in 
publick Payments, or Loans to the Exchequer, and that by de- 
grees ; firft the half Crown pieces, and the reft of the money 
by a longer day; Money of a bad Allay, as well as dipt mo*, 
ney, was to be received ; tho' this was thought an ill precedent, 
and that it gave too much encouragement to falfe Coining ; 
Yet it was judged neceflary upon this occafion ; And it gave a 
prefent calm to a ferment, that was then working all England 
over. Twelve hundred thoufand Pounds was given, to fupply the 
deficiency of the bad and dipt money. So this matter was hap- 
pily fetded, and was put in a way to be effeftually remedied, 
and it was executed with an order and a juftice, with a qui- 
et and an exaftnefs, beyond all mens expedlation. So that 
we were freed from a great and threatning mifchief, without 
anv of thofe effedts, that were generally apprehended from it. 

The Bill of Trials in Cafes of Treafon, was again brought An Art of 
into the Houfe of Commons, and pafTed there ; When it oa{b*of 
came up to the Lords, they added the Claufe, for fummoning Treafon. 
all the Peers to the Trial of a Peer, which was not eafily 
carried; for thofe, who wifhed well to the Bill, looked on 
this as a device to lofe it, as no doubt it Was ; And there- 
fore they oppofed it ; But, contrary to the hopes of the Court, 
the Commons were fo defirous of the Bill, that when it came 
down to them, they agreed to the Claufe, and fo the Bill 
paffed, and had the Royal Aflent. 

A fevere Bill was brought in, for voiding all the Eledllons ^^^ ^on- 

of Parliament Men, where the Eleded had been at any ex- cfrn'ngElec- 
, . , T7- T "°"* to Par- 
pence m meat, drmk, or money, to procure Votes : It was liament. 

very flridly penned ; But time muft fhew, whether any eva- 
fionscan be found, out ^t9^ ^yoid it :, Certainly ,^ if it has the 
/Vol. ir. ' ■ ' ' Tp'£-'^" ■-- '- defired 

i6i The History of the Reign 

1695 defired efed, it would prove one of the beft Laws that ever 
L^"^/**<5>«' was made in 'England \ For abufes in Eledlions were grown to 
moft intolerable exceffes, which threatned even the ruin of the 
Nation. Another A6t paffed againft unlawful and double Returns ; 
For perfons had been often returned, plainly contrary to the 
Vote of the Majority ; and in Burroughs, where there was a con- 
teft, between the feledl number of the Corporation, and the 
whole Populace, both fides had obtained favourable decisions, 
as that fide prevailed, on which the perfon eleded happened 
to be ; So both Eledions weVe returned, and the Houfe judged 
the matter. But by this A61, all Returns were ordered to be 
made, according to the laft determination of the Houfe of 
Commons : Thefe were thought good Securities for future Par-' 
liaments ; It had been happy for the Nation, if the firft of thefe 
had proved as effectual, as the laft was. 
Complaints Gfeat Compkints were made in both Houfes of the Aft fop 
Ad.*^ (^"/c the ^y^rfy/C/^ Eajl-India Company, and Addrefies were made to 
the King, fctting forth the Inconveniencies that were like to arife 
from thence to England : The King anfwered, that he had beeit 
illferved in Scotland; But he hoped Remedies fhould be found, 
to prevent the ill confequences, that they apprehended fi-om the 
A6t : And foon after this, he turned out both the Secretaries 
of State, and the Marquifs of Tweedale : And great Changes 
were made in the whole Miniftry of that Kingdom, both high 
, and low. '. No Enquiry was made, nor proceedings ordered, 
concerning the bufinefs oVGlencoey So that furniftied the Li- 
bellers with foitie colours, in afperfing the King, as if he muft 
have been willing to fuffer it to be executed, fince he feemed fo 
unwilling to let it be punifhed. 
Scotland ' But when it was underftood in Scotland, that the King had 
Epptrdig" difowned the Aft for the Eaji-India Company, from which it 
it. was expedcd that great Riches fhould flow into that Kingdom, 

it is, not eafy to conceive how great, and how general an in- 
dignation was fpread over the whole Kingdom ; The Jacobites faw 
what a Game it was like to prove in their hands ; They played it 
with great skill, and to the advantage of their caufe, in a courfe of 
niany years 5 and continue to manage it to this day : There was 
a great deal of noife made of the Scotch Ad: in both Houfes of 
Parliament in £;^^/^W by fome, who feemed to have no other de- 
•m) lign in that, but to heighten our diftradions, by the apprehen- 
•' fions that they exprefied. The Scotch Nation fancied nothing 

•'•■-■"• but Mountains of Gold ; And the credit of the defign rofe fo 
high, that Subferiptions were made, and advances of money 
were offered, beyond what any believed the Wealth of that King- 

u of King William III. 163 

dom could have furnifhed. Pater/on came*^ to Have fuch credit 1695 
among them, that the ddign of the Eajl-India Trade, how '^^^^'V^'^iJ 
promifing foever, was wholly laid afide ; And they refolvcd to 
employ all their wealth, in the fettling a Colony, with a Port 
and Fortifications in Darien^ which was long kept a fecret, and 
was only trufted to a feled number, empowered by this new 
Company, who ailumed to themfclvcs the name of the African 
Company, tho' they never meddled with any concern in that 
part of the World : The unhappy progrefs of this affair will ap- 
pear in its proper time. 

The Loflcs of the Merchants gave great advantages to thofe, ^ njotion 
who complained of the Adminiftration ; The condud-, with re- ^V^ » ^o"."* 
lation to our Trade, was rcprefcilted as at beft a negled: of the 
Nation, and of its Profperity : Some, with a more fpiteful ma- 
lice, faid, it was dcfigned, that wc fliould fuffer in our Trade, 
that the Dutch might carry it from us : And how extravagant 
foever this might feem, it was often repeated by fome men of 
virulent tempers. And in the end, when all the errors, with 
relation to the protedion of our Trade, were fet out, and much 
aggravated, a motion was made to create, by Ad: of Parlia- 
ment, a Council of Trade: 

This was oppoled by thofe,. who looked on it, as a change 
of our Conftitution, in a very effential point : The Executive 
part of the Government was wholly in the King : So tliat the 
appointing any Council, by Ad of Parliamenti^ began a Prece- 
dent of their breaking in, upon the execution of the Law, m 
which, it could not be eafy to fee how far they might be car- 
ried ; It was indeed offered, that this Council fhould be much 
limited as to its Powers ; Yet many apprehended, that if the Par- 
liament named the perlons, how low foever their powers might 
be at firft, they^woidd be enlarged every SefTion ; and from 
being a Council to look into matters of Trade, they would be 
next empowered to appoint Convoys and Cruizers ; This irt 
time, might draw in the whole Admiralty, and that part of 
the Revenue or Supply, that was appropriated to the Navy ; So 
that a King would foon grow to be a Duke of Venice ; And 
indeed thofe, who fet this oni moft zealoufly, did not deny 
that they defigned to graft many things upon it. 

The King was {o fenfible of the> ill effeds this wQuld have, 
that he ordered his Minifters to oppofe it^ as much as pofTibly* 
they could : The Earl ol ^underland^ to the wonder of many, 
declared for it, a& all that depended on him promoted it : He 
was afraid of the violence of the Republican Party, and would 
not venture on provoking them ; The Minifters were much of- 

1 64 The History of the Reign 

16,95 fei^ded with him, for taking this method to recommend him- 
^-^""v-v felf at their coft ; The King himfelf took it ill, and he told 
m€, if he went on, driving it as he did, that he muft break 
with him 5 He imputed it to his Fear ; For the uahappy fteps 
he had made in King James^ time, gave his Enemies fo many- 
handles and colours for attacking him, that he would venture 
on nothing, that might provoke them. Here was a Debate, 
plainly in a point of Prerogative, how far the Government 
fhould continue on its antient bottom of Monarchy, as to the 
Executive part 5 or how far it fhould turn to a Commonwealth ; 
and yet by an odd reverfe, the Whigs, who were now moft em- 
ployed, argued for the Prerogative, while the Tories feemed 
zealous for publick Liberty : So powerfully does intereft biafs 
men of all forms. 
AConfpira- This was goiug ou, and probably would have paft In both 
cy licover- pj^yjC^g^ wheu the difcovery of a Confpiracy turned mens thoughts 
quite another way : So that all angry motions were let fall, and 
the Sellion came to a very happy conclufion, with greater advan- 
tages to the King, than could have been other wife expedted. 
We were all this Winter alarmed, from many different quar- 
ters, with the infolent difcourfes of the Jacobites, who feemed 
fo well affured of a fudden Revolution, which was to be both 
quick and entire; that at Chrijimas they faid, it would be 
brought about, within fix weeks. The French Fleet, which we 
had fo long fhut up within Toulon^ was now fitting out, and 
was ordered to come round to Breji ; Our Fleet, that lay at 
CadtZy,.v/2LS not ftrong enough to fight them, when they fhould 
pafs the Streights ; Rujfel had come home, with many of the 
great Ships, and had left only a Squadron there ; But a great Fleet 
was ordered to go thither ; It was ready to have failed in De- 
• cember ; But was kept in our Ports by contrary Winds, till Fe- 
bruary ; This was then thought a great unhappinefs ; But we 
found afterwards, that our prefervation was chiefly owing to it ; 
And it was fo extraordinary a thing, to fee the wind fixed at South 
Weft during the whole Winter, that few could refift the obferving 
a fignal Providence of God in it. We were all this while in great 
pain for Rook^ who commanded the Squadron that Uy at Cadiz ; 
and was like to fuffer for want of the Provifions and Stores, 
which this Fleet was to carry him, befides the addition of 
flrength this would bring him, in cafe the Toulofi Squadron 
fhould come about ; V/e were only apprehenfive of danger from 
that Squadron ; For we thought, that we could be in none at 
home, till that Fleet was brought about ; the advertifements came 
from many places, that fome very important thing was ready to 


of King William III^ ^6y 

break out : It is true, the Jacobites fed their Party with fuch 1695 
ftories every year ; But they both talked and wrote now with more u^V'VJ 
than ordinary affurance. The King had been fo accuftomed to 
alarms and reports of this kind, that he had now fo little re- 
gard to them, as fcarce to be willing to hearken to thofe, who 
brought him fuch advertifements. He was fo much fet on pre- 
paring for the next Campaign, that all other things were little 
conlidcred by him. 

But in the beginning of February^ one Captain Fifljer cameOf affaffi-i 
to the Earl of Portland^ and in general told him, there was aJJIJ,"^ ''**' 
defign to affaflinate the King ; But he would not, or could 
not then name any of the perfons, who were concerned in it ; 
He never appeared more, for he had affurances given him, 
that he fhould not be made ufe of as a v/itnefs ; Few days af- 
ter that, one F endergrafsy an Irip Officer, came to the Earl 
of Portland^ and difcovered all that he knew of the matter ; 
He freely told him his own name ; but would not name any 
of the Confpirators ; La Rue^ a Frenchman^ came alfo to Bri- 
gadier LeviJo7i) and difcovered to him all that he knew ; Thefe 
two [Pendergrafs and La Rue) were brought to the King apart, 
not knowing of one another's difcovery : They gave an account 
of two Plots then on foot, the one for affaflinating the King, 
and the other for invading the Kingdom. The King was not 
eafily brought to give credit to this, till a variety of circum- 
ftances, in which the Difcoveries did agree, convinced him of 
the truth of the whole defign. 

It has been already told, in how many Projects King James 
was engaged, for afTaffinating the King j But all thefe had fail- 
ed ; So now one was laid, that gave better hopes, and look'd 
liker a Military adion, than a foul murder : Sir George Berkeley ^ 
a Scotchman^ received a Commiffion from King James^ to go 
and attack the Prince of Orangey in his Winter Quarters : Char- 
nocky Sir William Ferkins, Captain Forter, and La Rue, were 
the men to whofe condud the matter was trufted ; The Duke 
of Berwick came over, and had fome difcourfe with them about 
the method of executing it : Forty Perfons were thought ne- 
ceflary for the attempt 5 They intended to' watch the King, as 
he fliould go out to hunt, or come back from it in his Coach 5 
Some of them were to engage the Guards, while others fhould 
attack the King, and either carry him off a Prifoner, or, in cafo 
of any refiftance, lull him. This foft manner was propofed, to 
draw Military men to ad in it, as a warlike Exploit : Forter 
and Knightly went and viewed the Grounds, and the way thro* 
which the King paft, as he went between Kenjington and Rich- 
Vol. 11. U u mond 

1 66 The History^ the Reign 

1695 mond Park, where he ufed to hunt commonly on Saturdays', 
L«PV"'^>J And they pitched on two places, where they thought they might 
well execute the defign. King James fent over fome of his 
Guards to aflift in it ; He fpoke himfelf to one Harris to go 
over, and to obey fuch Orders as he fhould receive from Berke- 
ley ; He ordered money to be given him, and told him, that, if 
he was forced to ftay long at Calais^ the Prelident there would 
have orders to furnifh him. 

i6q6 When the Duke of Berwick had laid the matter fo well here:, 
t,^j?-v-«!%>j that he thought it could not mifcarry, he went back to FrancCy 
And to in- ^^^ ^^^ King James at St. Denis, who was come fo far on 
vade the hjs way from Paris : He flopt there, and after a long Confe- 
°"' rence with the Duke of Berwicky he fent him firft to his Queen 
at St. GermainSy and then to the King of Francey and he him- 
felf called for a Notary, and pafled fome A6t : But it was 
not known to what effedt. When that was done, he purfued 
his journey to Calais, to fet himfelf at the head of an Army of 
about 20000 men, that were drawn out of the Garrifons, which 
lay near that Frontier. Thefe being full in that feafon, an Ar- 
my was in a very few days brought together, without any pre- 
vious warning or noife. There came every Winter a coafting 
Fleet, from all the Sea- ports of France to Dunkirk, with all the 
provifions for a Campaign; And it was given out, that the 
French intended an early one this year. So that this coafting 
Fleet was ordered to be there by the end of January ; Thus 
here were Tranfport Ships, as well as an Army, brought toge- 
ther in a very filent manner ; There was alfo a fmall Fleet of 
Cruizers, and fome Men of War ready to convoy them over ; 
Many Regiments were embarked, and King James was wait- 
ing at Calais, for fome tidings of that, on which he chiefly 
depended ; For upon the firft notice of the fuccefs of the AfTaf- 
lination, he was refolved to have fet fail : So near was the mat- 
ter brought to a Crifis, when it broke out by the difcovery, 
made by the perfons above named. La Rue told all particu- 
lars, with the greateft franknefs, and named all the perfons 
that they had intended to engage in the execution of it ; For 
feveral Lifts were among them, and thofe who concerted 
the matter, had thofe Lifts given them ; And took it for grant- 
ed, that every man named in thofe Lifts was engaged; Since 
they were perfons on whom they depended, as knowing their 
inclinations, and believing that they would readily enter into the 
Projed: : tho' it had not been, at that time, propofed to many of 
them, as it appeared afterwards. The defign was laid, to ftrike 
^ * the 

of King William III. 167 

tKe Blow on the 15//6 ot February^ in a Lane that turns down 1696 
from Turnham-Green to Brentford \ And the Confpirators were '-^^^^""^ 
to be fcattered about the Greeuy in Taverns and Ale-houfes, 
and to be brought togetlicr, upon a fignal given. They were 
caft into feveral parties, and an ^icl de Camp was affigned to 
every one of them, both to bring them together, and to give 
the whole the air of a Military adlion : Pendergrafs owned very 
freely to the King, that he was engaged in interefl againft him, 
as he was of a Religion contrary to his ; He faid, he would 
have no Reward for his difcovery ; But he hated a bafe adlion ; 
And the point of Honour was the only motive that prevailed on 
him : He owned, that he was defircd to aiTift, in the feizing 
on him, and he named the perfon that was fixed on to fhoot 
him ; He abhorred the whole thing, and immediately came to 
reveal it : His ftory did in all particulars agree with La Rues ; 
For fome time he ftood on it, as a point of Honour, to name 
no perfon ; But upon affurance given him, that he fhould not 
be brought as a witnefs againft them, he named all he knew : 
The King ordered the Coaches and Guards to be made ready 
next morning, being the 15 /A of February y and on Saturday j^ 
his ufual day of Hunting : But fome accident was pretended to 
cover his not going abroad that day 5 The Confpirators conti- 
nued to meet together, not doubting but that they iliould have 
occafion to execute their defign the next Saturday 5 They had 
fome always about Kenjington^ who came and went continually, 
and brought them an account of every thing that paft there 5 
On Saturday^ the 22d of February^ they put themfelves in a 
readinefs j And were going out to take the Pofts affigned 
them 5 but were furprifed, when they had notice that the King's 
Hunting was put off a fecond time 5 They apprehended, they 
might be difcovered : Yet as none were feized, they fbon quieted 

Next night, a great many of them were taken in their beds : Many of the 
And the day following, the whole difcovery was laid before the to"" Ed 
Privy Council : At the fame time. Advices were fent to the King°"- 
from Flandersy that the French Army was marching to Dun- 
kirk, on defign to invade England : And now, by a very hap- 
py Providence, tho' hitherto, a very unacceptable one, we had 
a great Fleet at Spitbead, ready to fail ; And we had another; 
Fleet, defigned for the Summer's fervice in our own Seas, quite-, 
ready, tho' not yet manned. Many brave Seamen, feeing the 
Nation was inf fuch vifible danger, came out of their lurking^ 
holes, in which they were hiding themfelves from the Prefs, and' 
offered their Service j And all people ihewed fo much zeal, 


1 68 The H I s T o R Y ^ //&^ Reign 

1696 that in three days, Rujfel^ who was fent to command, flood 
oc^'v*^^ over to the Coaft of France^ with a Fleet of above fifty Men 
of War. The French were amazed at this ; And upon it, their 
Ships drew fo near their Coafts, that he durft not follow them 
in fuch fhallow Water, but was contented with breaking their 
Defign, and driving them into their Harbours. King James flayed 
for fome weeks there. But, as the French faid, his malignant 
Star ftill blafled every projeft, that was formed for his Service. 
The acfign The Court of France was much out of countenance with this 
fion broken' difappointmcnt ; for that King had ordered his defign of In- 
vading England, to be communicated to all the Courts, in 
which he had Minifters : And they fpoke of it with fuch an 
air of afTurance, as gave violent prefumptions, that the King of 
France knew of the Confpiracy againfl the King's Perfon, and 
depended upon it ; for indeed, without that, the Defign was 
impradicable, confidering how great a Fleet we had at Spk- 
head\ Nor could any Men of common fenfe have entertained. 
a thought of it, but with a view of the Confufion, into which, 
the intended AfTaffination mufl have caft us. They went on in 
England, feizing the Confpirators j And a Proclamation was if^ 
fued out, for apprehending thofe that abfconded, with a pro- 
mife of a thoufand Pound Reward, to fuch as fhould feize on 
any of them, and the ofi'er of a Pardon to every Confpirator, 
that fhould feize on any of the refl : This fet all people at 
work, and in a few weeks, moft of them were apprehended • 
Only Berkeley was not found, who had brought the Commif- 
fion from King James, tho' great fearch was made for him. 
For, tho' the reaUty of fuch a CommifHon, was fully proved 
afterwards, in the Trials of the Confpirators, by the Evidence of 
thofe, who had feen and read it all written in King Jainesh own 
hand (fuch a Paper being too important to be trufted to any 
to copy) yet much pains was taken, to have found the very 
='■ ' ■' perfon who was intrufled with it : The Commiffion itfelf would, 
have been a valuable piece, and fuch an Original, as was not to 
be found any where. 

The Military Men would not engage on other terms 5 They 
thought, by the Laws of War, they were bound to obey all 
Orders, that run in a Military Stile, and no other ; And fo they 
imagined, that their part in it was as innocent, as the going on 
any defperate defign, during a Campaign : Many of them re- 
pined at the Service, and wifhed that it had not been put on 
them ; But, being commanded, they fancied that they were lia- 
ble to no Blame nor Infamy, but ought to be treated as Prifon- 
ers of War. 
-"-LiJ Among 

of King Wl L L I A M III. \ I 69 

Among thofe who were taken, Porter and Pendergrafs were 1696 
brought in. Porter had been a vitious man, engaged in many u?'^\/>>J 
ill things ; and was very forward and furious in all their Con- <j>orter dif- 
fultations : The Lord Cutts, who, as Captain of the Guards, "'"«'* ""• 
was prefent, when the King examined Pendergrafs, but did 
not know his name, when he faw him brought in, prefTed 
him to own himfelf, and the fervice that he had already done ; 
But he claimed the promile of not being forced to be a Wit- 
ness, and would fay nothing : Porter was a man of pleafurc, 
who loved not the hardfhips of a Prifon, and much lefs the 
folemnities of an Execution ; So he confefled all: And then 
Pendergrafs., who had his dependance on him, freely confefled 
likewife : He faid. Porter was the man who had tnifted him ; 
He could not be an Inftrument to deftroy him ; Yet he lay 
under- no obligations to any others among them. Porter haa 
been in the management of the whole matter : So he gave a 
,yery copious account of it all, from the firft beginning. And 
now it appeared, that Pendergrafs had been but a very kw days 
among them, and had feen very few of them ; and that he 
came and difcovered the Confpiracy, the next day after it was 
opened to him. 

When by thefe Examinations the matter was clear and unde- BothHoufea 
niable, the King communicated it, in a Speech to both Houfes °^ P^r''*- 
of Parliament: They immediately made Addreffes of Congra- into a voiun- 
tulation, with affuranccs of adhering to him againft all his Ene- [foi'^^'*" 
mies, and in particular, againft King James j And after that, 
Motions were made in both Houfes, for an Affociation, wherein 
they fhould own him as their Rightful and Lawful King, and 
promife faithfully to adhere to him againft King James, and 
the pretended Prince of Wales ; engaging at the fame time to 
maintain the Ad; of SuccefHon, and to revenge his Death on 
all who fhould be concerned in it. This was much oppofed in 
both Houfes, chiefly by Seimour and Finch in the Houfe or 
Commons, and the Earl of Nottingham in the Houfe of Lords: ^ 

They went chiefly upon this, that Rightful and Lawful were 
words, that had been laid aftde in the beginning of this Reign ; 
that they imported one that was King by Defcent, and fo could 
not belong to the prefent King. They faid, the Crown and the 
Prerogatives of it were vefted in him, and therefore they would 
obey him, and be faithful to him, tho' they could not acknow- ^ 

ledge him their Rightful and Lawful King. Great exceptions were 
alfb taken to the word Revenge, as not of an Evangelical found ; 
But that word was fo explained, that thefe were foon cleared ; 
Revenge was to be meant in a l^al fenfe, either in the profe- 

V o L. II. X X cution 

f^d The History of the Reign 

1696 cutiori of Juftice at home, or of War abroad ; And the fame 
u^^'v^'^iiJ word had been ufed in that AfTociation, into which the Nation 
entrcd, when it was apprehended, that Queen Elizabeths Life 
was in danger, by the practices of the Queen of Scots. After 
a wafm Debate, it was carried in both Houfes, that an AfTocia- 
tion fhould be laid on the Table, and that it might be figned 
ty all fuch, as were willing of their own accord to fign it ; 
only with this difFerence, that inftead of the words Rightful 
and hansoful King, the Lords put thefe words, That King Wil- 
liam hatn the Right by Law to the Crown of thefe Realms, 
and that neither King JameSy nor the pretended Prince of 
Wales, nor any other perfon, has any Right whatfoever to the 
fame. This was done, to fatisfy thofe, who faid, they could 
not come up to the words Rightful and Lawful ; And the Earl 
of Rochefler ofFering thefe words, they were thought to anfwer 
the ends of the Aflociation, and fo were agreed to. This was 
iigned by both Houfes, excepting only Fourfcore in the Houf® 
of Commons, and Fifteen in the Houfe of Lords : The Aflo- 
ciation was carried from the Houfes of Parliament over all Eng- 
land, and was figned by all forts of people, a very few only 
excepted : The Bifhops alfo drew a Form for the Clergy, ac- 
cording to that figned by the Houfe of Lords, with fome fmall 
variation, which was fo univerfally figned, that not above an 
Hundred all England over refufed it. ' 

Soon after this, a Bill was brought into the Houfe of Com- 
mons, declaring all men incapable of publick Trufl, or to ferve 
jn Parliament, who did not fign the Affociation ; This paft with 
jio confiderable oppofition ; for thofe who had figned it of their 
own accord, were not unwilling to have it made general ; and 
fuch as had refufed it when it was voluntary, were refolved to 
fign it, as foon as the Law fhould be made for it. And at 
the fame time, an Order pafl in Council, for reviewing all 
the Commifllons in England, and for turning out of them all 
thofe, who had not figned the Affociation, while it was volun- 
tary ; Since this feemed to be fuch a declaration of their Princi- 
ples and AffedionSj that it was not thought reafonable, that fuch 
perfons fhould be any longer, either Juflices of Peace, or De- 
puty Lieutenants. 

The Seffion of Parliament was foon brought to a conclufiort. 
on a Land They Created one Fund, upon which, two Millions and an half 
■^^"^' were to be raifed, which the beft judges did apprehend was 
neither jufl nor prudent. A new Bank, was propofed, called 
the Land Bank, bccaufe the Securities were to be upon Land : 
This was the main difference between it, and the Bank of Eng- 
land : 

r ofttihg William III. 171 

land : And by reafon of this, it was pretended, that it was not 1696 
contrary to a Claufe in the Ad for that Bank, that no other ^-c^-v^*^ 
Bank fhould be fet up in oppofition to it. TJierc was a fct .of 
Undertakers, who engaged that it Hiould prove effedual, for the 
Money for which it was given : This was chiefly managed by 
Foley^ Harley^ and the Tones ; It was much laboured by the 
Earl of Sunderland \ And the King was prevailed on to con- 
fent to it, or rather to defire it, tho' he was then told by ma^ 
ny, of what ill confequence it would prove to his affairs : The 
Earl of Sunderland\ excufe for himfelf, when the Error ap- 
peared afterwards but too evidently, was, that he thought it 
would engage the Tories in intereft to fupport the Goverri-f 
ment. hfifl • 

After moft of the Conlpirators were taken, and all Examina- 
tions were over, fome of them were brought to their Triak. 
Charnocky King^ and KeySy were begun with : The Defign was f^j o£j 
fully proved againft them. Charnock ftiewed great prefence of "icci and 
mind, with temper and good judgment, and made as good a^" 
defence as the matter could bear : But the proof was fo full, that 
they were all found guilty. Endeavours were ufed to perfuade 
Charnock to confels all he knew ; for he had been in all their 
Plots from the beginning : His Brother was employed to deal 
with him, and he feemed to be once in fufpence ; But the next 
time that his Brother came to him, he told him, He could not fave 
his own Life without doing that, which would take away the; 
Lives of fo many, that he did not think his own Life worth it. 
This {hewed a greatneis of mind, that had been very valuable^ 
if it had been better direfted. Thus this matter wae underftood 
at the time. But many years after this, the Lord Somen gave 
me a different account of it. Charnock^ as he told me, fent an 
Offer to the King, of a full difcovery of all their confultations and 
defigns ; and defired no pardon, but only that he might live in 
fome eafy prifon ; and if be was found to prevaricate, in any 
part of his difcovery, he would look for the execution of thJa 
Sentence : But the King apprehended, that fo many perfons 
would be found Concerned, and thereby be rendred defperate, 
that he was afraid to have fuch a Scene opened, and would 
not accept of this offer. At his death, Charnock delivered ai 
paper, in which he confeffed, he was engaged in a defign tor 
attack the Prince of Orange\ Guards ; But he thought liimfelf 
bound to clear King James, from having given any Commif- 
fion to affaflinate him. King's Paper, who fuffered with him, 
Was to the fame purpofe ; and they both took pains to clear 
all thole of their Religion, from any acceffion to it. King 





172 7>^^ H 1 s TO R Y oft^e Reign 

1696 fexpreffed a fenle of the Unlawfulnefs of the undertaking; But 
^-^<:^''''\<''^^ Charnock feemed fully fatisfied with the lawfulnefs of it. Keys 
was a poor ignorant Trumpeter, who had his dependance on 
Porter^ and now fuffered chiefly upon his Evidence, for which 
he was much reflected on : It was faid, that Servants had oftent 
been Witneffes againft their Matters, but that a Mafter's wit- 
nefling againft his Servant, was fomcwhat new and extraor- 
Kin2.7rf»2e5 V The way \h2X. Charnock and King took to vindicate King 
tterby J^fnes^ did rather faften the imputation more upon him ; They 
did not deny, that he had fent over a CommifTion to attack 
the Prince of Orange, which, as Porter depc^fed, Charnock toXd 
him he had feen ; If this had been denied by a dying man^ his 
laft words would have been of fome weight : But inftead of 
denying that which was fworn, he only denied, that King 
"James had given a Commiffion for AfTaflination : And it feems 
great weight was laid on this Word ; for all the Confpirators 
agreed in it, and denied that King "James had given a Com- 
miffion to aflaffinate the Prince of Orange. This was an odi- 
ous word, and perhaps no perfon was ever fb wicked, as to 
order fuch a thing, in fo crude a manner : But the fending a 
Commiffion, to attack the King's Perfon, was the fame thing 
upon the matter; and was all that the witneffes had depofed; 
Therefore their not denying this, in the terms in which the 
Witnefles fwore it, did plainly imply a Confeffion that it was 
true. But fome, who had a mind to deceive themfelves or 
others, laid hold on this, and made great ufe of it, that dying 
men had acquitted King James of the Affaffination. Such 
flight colours will ferve, when people are engaged before-hand 
to believe, as their affections lead them. 

Sir John Friend, and Sir William Perkins, were tried next. 
"j'erkins tri- The firft of thefe had rifen from mean beginnings to great ere- 
fere^d '^ ^"^ ^^^' ^^^ much wealth ; He was employed by King James, 
and had all this while ftuck firm to his interefts : His Purfe 
was more confidered than his head, and was open on all occa- 
fions, as the Party applied to him : While Parker was former- 
ly in the Tower, upon Information of an Affaffmation of the 
King defigned by him, he furnifhed the money that corrupt- 
ed his Keepers, and helped him to make his efcape out of the 
Tower : He knew of the Affaffination, tho' he was not to be an 
Aftor in it : But he had a Commiffion for raifing a Regiment 
for King James, and he had entertained and payed the Offi- 
cers, who were to ferve under him : He had alfo joined with 
thofe who had fent over Charnock, in May 1695, with the Mef- 
h ,- - ^ge 

of King William IIL 17^ 

fage to King James ^ mentioned in the account of the former 1696 
year : It appearing now, that they had then defired an Inva- i-^'^'V"'^ 
fion with 8000 Foot, and 1000 Horfe, and had promifed 
to joiii thefe with 2000 Horfe, upon their landing. In this, 
the Earl of Ailesbury^ the Lord Montgomery, Son to the Mar- 
quifs of Powis, and Sir yohn Fenwicky were alfb concerned : 
Upon all this evidence. Friend was condemned, and the Earl of 
Ailesbury was committed Prifoner to tlie Tower. Perki?is was 
a Gentleman of Eftate, who had gone violently into the Paf- 
flons and Interefts of the Court, in King Chariest time: He 
was one of the fix Clerks in Chancery, and took all Oaths to 
the Government, rather than lofe his Place : He did not only 
conlent to the defign of Aflaflination, but undertook to bring 
five men, who fhould afiift in it ; And he had brought up 
Horfes for that Service, from the Country ; But had not nam- 
ed the Perfons ; fo this lay yet in his own breaft : He himfelf 
was not to have acfted in it, for he likewife had a Commifiion 
for a Regiment ; And therefore, was to referve himlelf for that 
Service : He had alfo provided a ftock of Arms, which were 
hid under Ground, and were now difcovered : Upon this Evi- 
dence, he was condemned. Great endeavours were ufed, both 
with Friend and him, to confefs all they knew ; Friend was 
more fuUen, as he knew lefs ; for he was only applied to and 
trufted, when they needed his money : Perkins fludtuated more ; 
He confeflied the whole thing for which he was condemned ; 
But would not name the five perfons, whom he was to have 
fent in, to aflift in the Afiaflination ; He faid, he had engaged 
them in it, fo he could not think of faving his own Life by de- 
ftroying theirs : He confefled, he had feen King James % Com- 
mifiion ; The words differed a little from thofe which Porter 
had told ; But Porter did not fwear that he faw it himfelf ; He 
only related what Charnock had told him concerning it ; Yet 
Perkins faid, they were to the fame effect : He believed, it 
was all writ with King James\ own hand, he had feen his 
writing often, and was confident it was writ by him : He own- 
ed, that he had raifcd and maintained a Regiment ; But he 
thought he could not fwear againft his Ofiicers, fince he him- 
felf had drawn them into the Service ; and he affirmed that he 
knew nothing of the other Regiments : He fent for the Bifhop 
of Ely, to whom he repeated all thefe particulars, as the Bi- 
fhop himfelf told me ; He feemed much troubled with a fenie 
of his former Life, which had been very irregular : The Houfe 
of Commons fent fome to examine him : But he gave them fo 
litde fatisfadtion, that they left him to the courfe of the Law : 
Vol. IL \ Yy Hfi» 

174 ^^^ History of the Reign 

1696 His tendernefs, in not accufing thofe whom he had drawn in, 
U^'V"*^*^ was fo generous, that this alone ferved to create fome regard for 
a man, who had been long under a very bad Charader. In 
the beginning of Aprils Friend and he were executed toge- 

A very unufual inftance of the boldnefs of the Jacobites ap- 
peared upon that occafion ; Thefe two had not changed their 
Religion, but ftill called themfelves Proteftants ; So three of the 
Nonjuring Clergymen waited on them to Tyburn, two of them 
The had a ^^^ ^^^" °^^ ^^^^ Friend^ and one of them with Perkins ; And 
pubiick Ab- all the three, at the place of Execution, joined to give them 
efthem.^'" Publick Abfolution, with an Impofition of Hands, in the view 
of all the People ; A ftrain of Impudence, that was as new as 
it was wicked ; fince thefe perfons died, owning the ill De- 
signs they had been engaged in, and exprefling no fort of Re- 
pentance for them. So thefe Clergymen, in this folemn Abfo- 
lution, made an open Declaration of their allowing and jufti- 
fying thefe perfons, in all they had been concerned in : Two of 
thefe were taken, and cenfured for this in the King's Bench, 
the third made his efcape. 

Three other Confpirators, Roohwood, Lowicky and Cranhorn, 
Simo?"" were tried next. By this time, the new Ad for Trials in fuch 
tried and cafcs began to take place, fo thefe held long ; for their Council 
execute . ^^^}^ upon every thing. But the Evidence was now more co- 
pious : For three other Witnefles came in ; The Government 
being fo gentle as to pardon even the Confpirators, who con- 
fefled their guilt, and were willing to be Witnefles againfl: 'o- 
thers. The two firft were Papifls, they exprefl'ed their diflike 
of the Defign ; But inflfted on this, that as Military Men they 
were bound to obey all Military Orders ; And they thought, 
that the King, who knew the Laws of War, ought to have a 
regard to this, and to forgive them. Cranhorn called himfelf a 
Proteflant, but was more fuUen than the other two ; to fuch a 
degree of fury and perverfenefs, had the Jacobites wrought up 
their Party. Knightly was tried next ; He confefl^ed all, and 
upon that, tho' he was condemned, he had a Reprieve, and 
was afterwards pardoned. Thefe were all the Trials and Exe- 
cutions that even this black Confpiracy drew from the Govern- 
ment ; for the King's Inclinations were fo merciful, that he 
feemed uneafy even under thefe Ads of neceflary Juftice. 
Coofc tried Cooli was brought next upon his Trial, on account of the 
vai! ^" intended Invafion ; for he was not charged with the Aflaflina- 
tion ;. His Trial was confldered as introductory to the Earl of 
Ailesbury\ 5 for the Evidence was the fame as to both. Porter 

2 and 

of King William IH. i/y 

and Goodman were two Witnefles againft him ; They had been 1.696 
with him at a meeting, in a Tavern in Leadenhall Street, where ur^y^^^j 
Charnock received Inftrudions to go to France, with the Mef- 
fage formerly mentioned ; All that was brought againft t|iis, was, 
that the Mafter of the Tavern, and two of his Servants fworejj 
that they remembred well when that Company was at the Ta:». 
vern, for they were often coming into the Room where they 
iat, both at dinner time, and after it ; and that they faw not Good-^f 
man there, nay, they were politive, that he was not there. On the 
other hand. Porter depofed, that Goodman was not with them at 
dinner ; but that he came to that Houfe after dinner, and fent 
him in a note ; upon which he, with the confent of the Com-, 
pany, went out and brought him in : And then it was certain, 
that the Servants of the Houfe were not in that conftant at- 
tendance ; nor could they be believed in a negative, againft 
pofitive evidence to the contrary. Their credit was not fuch, 
but that it might be well fuppofed, that, for the intereft of their 
houfe, they might be induced to make ftretches : The Evi- 
dence was believed, and Cook was found guilty, and condemn- 
ed ; He obtained many fhort Reprieves, upon aflurances that 
he would tell all he knew : But it was viiible he did not deal 
fincerely, his puniftiment ended in a Banifhment. Sir yohn 
Fenwick was taken not long after, going over to France, and 
was ordered to prepare for his Trial ; Upon which, he leemed 
willing to difcover all he knew: And in this, he went off and 
on, for he had no mind to die, and hoped to fave himfelf 
by fome practice or other : Several days were fet for his Trial, 
and he procured new delays, by making fbme new difcoveries : 
At laft, when he faw that flight and general ones would not 
ferve his turn, he fent for the Duke of Devonjhire, and wrote 
a Paper as a difcovery, which he gave him to be fent to the 
King ; And that Duke, affirming to the Loi;ds Juftices, that it 
was not fit that Paper fhould be feen by any, before the King 
faw it, the matter was fuffercd to reft for this time. 

The Summer went over, both in Flanders and on the Rhine, The Cam-; 
without any adion : All the Funds given for this year's Service P^'g" Re- 
proved defedive, but that of the Land Bank failed totally : feebly carri- 
And the credit of the Bank of England was much fhaken. A- ^^ °"* 
bout five Millions of dipt money was brought into the Exche- 
quer ; And the lofs that the Nation fuffered, by the recoining 
of the money, amounted to two Millions, and two Hundred 
Thoufand pounds. The Coinage was carried on with all pof- 
fible hafte ; About eighty Thoufand pounds was coined every 
Week : Yet flill this was flow, and th-e new money was gene- 

I jG The H I s T o R Y (2^ the Reign 

1696 rally kept up ; (o that, for feveral months, little of it appeared. 

^-<='''v"''=>»^ This ftop in the free Circulation of money, put the Nation in- 
to great diforder : Thofe who, according to the Aft of Parlia- 
ment, were to have the firft Payments in Milled money, for 
the Loans they had made, kept their Specie up, and would 
not let it go, but at an unreafonable advantage. The King 
had no money to pay his Army, fo they were in great diftre fs, 
which they bore with wonderful patience : By this means, the 
King could undertake nothing, and was forced to lie on the 
defenfive : Nor were the French ftrong enough to make an Im- 
preflion in any place ; The King had a mighty Army, and 
was much fliperior to the Enemy ; Yet he could do nothing ; 
And it paffed for a happy Campaign, becaufe the French were 
not able to take any advantage from thofe ill accidents, that 
our want of Specie brought us under ; which indeed were fuch, 
that nothing but the fenfe all had of the late Confpiracy, kept 
us quiet and free from tumults. It now appeared, what a 
ftrange error the King was led into, when he accepted of fa 
great a Sum, to be raifed by a Land Bank : It was fcarce ho- 
nourable, and not very fafe at any time ; But it might have 
proved fatal at a time, in which, money was like to be much 
wanted, which want would have been lefs felt, if Paper Credit 
had been kept up : But one Bank working againft another, and 
the Goldfmiths againft both, put us to great ftreights : Yet the 
Bank fupplied the King in this extremity, and thereby con- 
vinced lum, that they were his friends in affedion, as well as 

A Peace in '^^^ fccrct pradiccs in Italy were now ready to break out ; 

'Piedmont. The Pope and the Venetians had a mind to fend the Germans out 
of Italy.^ and to take the Duke of Savoy out of the neceflity 
of depending on thofe, they called Hereticks. The manage- 
ment in the bufinefs of Cafal looked fo dark, that the Lord 
Gallway, who was the King's General and Envoy there, did 
apprehend there was fomewhat myfterious under it. One ftep 
more remained, to fettle the Peace there ; for the Duke of Sa- 
voy would not own that he was in any Negotiation, till he 
fhould have received the advances of money, that were promi- 
fed him from England and Holland ; for he was much fet on 
the heaping of Treafure, even during the War ; to which end, 
he had debafed his Coin, fo, that it was not above a fixth part 
in intrinfrck value, of what it pafied for. He was always befet 
witli his Priefts, who were perpetually complaining of the pro- 
grefs, that Herefy was like to make in his Dominions ; He had 
indeed granted a very full Edid, in favour of the Faudois, re- 


op King William IIL 177 

ftoring their former Liberties and Privileges to them, which the 1696 
Lord Gallway took care to have put, in the moft emphatical Uf'^v^W 
words, and paft with all the formalities of Law, to make it as 
effectual, as Laws and Promifes can be : Yet every ftep, that 
was made in that affair, went againft the grain, and was ex- 
torted from him, by the interceffion of the King and the States, 
and by the Lord Gallways zeal. 

In concluiion, the French were grown fo weary of that War^ 
and found the Charge of it fo heavy, that they offered, not 
only to reftore all that had been taken, but to demoHfh Pig- 
nerol, and to pay the Duke fome Millions of Crowns ; and to 
compleat the whole, that the Duke of Burgundy fhould mar- ,^'^^^. 
ry his Daughter : To this he confented ; But to cover this De- 
fection from his Allies, it was further agreed, that Catinat 
fhould draw his Army together, before the Duke could bring, 
his, to make head againft him ; And that he fhould be or-» 
dered to attempt the Bombardment of Turin, that fo the Duker 
might feem to be forced, by the extremity of his affairs, to 
take fuch conditions, as were offered him. He had a mind to 
have caft the blame on his Allies ; But they had affifted him 
more effedually at this time, than on other occafions : A Truce 
was firft made, and that, after a few months, was turned into 
an entire Peace ; One Article whereof was, that the Milaneza 
fhould have a neutrality granted them, in cafe the German 
Forces were fent out of Italy ; All the Italian Princes and 
States concurred in this, to get rid of the Germans as foon as 
was poffible \ So the Duke of Savoy promifed to join with the 
French to drive them out. Valence was the firft place, that 
the Duke of Savoy attackt ; There was a good Garrifon in it, 
and it was better provided, than the places of the Spaniards 
generally were : It was not much preffed, and the Siege held 
fome weeks, many dying in it. At laft, the Courts oi. Vienna 
and Madrid accepted of the Neutrality, and engaged to draw 
the Germans out of thefe parts, upon an advance of money, 
which the Princes of Italy were glad to pay, to be delivered 
from fuch troublefome guefts. 

Thus ended the War in Piedmont, after it had lafted fix 
years : Pignerol was demolifiied ; But the French, by the Trea- 
ty, might build another Fort at Fenejirella, which is in the 
middle of the Hills : And fo it will not be fo important as Pig- 
nerol was, tho' it may prove an uneafy neighbour to the Duke 
of Savoy. His Daughter was received in France as Dutchels of 
Burgundy, tho' not yet of the Age of Confent : for fhe was 
but ten years old. 

Vol. II, Z z Nothing 

Affairs in 


178 The Hist OKY of the Reign 

1696 Nothing of confequence pafled in Catalonia', The French 
'u5?'^/"^»o •vtrent no further than Gironney and the Spaniards gave them 
no difturbance ; Both the King and Queen of Spain were at 
this time fo ill, that, as is ufual upon fuch occafions, it 
was fufpedted they were both poifoned : The King of Spain 
relapfed often, and at laft, remain'd in that low ftate of health, 
in which he feemed to be always rather dying than -living. 
The Court of France were glad of his recovery ; for they were 
not then in a condition, to undertake fuch a War, as the 
Dauphin\ Pretenfions muft have engaged them in. '^ 

In Hungary, the Turks advanced again towards Tranjiha- 
nia, where the Duke of Saxony commanded the Imperial Ar- 
my : The Turks did attack them, and they defended themfelves 
fo well, that, tho' they were beat, yet it coft the Turks fo dear, 
that the Grand Signior could undertake nothing afterwards. 
The Imperialifts loft about 5000 men; But the Turks loft 
above twice that number ; And the Grand Signior went back 
with an empty Triumph, as he did the former year: But ano- 
ther adlion happened, in a very remote place, which may 
come to be of a very great confequence to him. The Mufco- 
vites, after they had been for fome years under the divided Mo- 
narchy of Two Brothers, or rather, of a Sifter, who governed 
all in their Name, by the death of one of thefe came now 
under one Czar : He entered into an Alliance with the Empe- 
ror, againft the Turks ; and Azuph, which was reckon'd a ftrong 
place, that commanded the mouth of the Tanais or Donn, 
where it falls into the Meotis-palus, after a long Siege, was 
taken by his Army. This opened the Euxine Sea to him ; So 
that, if he be furniftied with men, skilled in the building, and 
in the failing of Ships, this may have confequences, that may 
very much diftrefs Conjiantinople, and be in the end, fatal to 
that Empire. The King of Denmark^ Health was now on a 
decline 5 Upon which, the Duke of Holjlein was taking advan- 
tage, and new difputes were like to arife there. 

Our affairs at Sea went well, with relation to Trade : All 
our Merchant Fleets came happily home ; we made no confi- 
derable Lofles; on the contrary, we took many of the French 
Privateers ; they now gained little in that way of War, which 
in fome of the former years, had been very advantageous to 
them. Upon the breaking out of the Confpiracy, Orders were 
ient to Cadiz, for bringing home our Fleet ; The Spaniards 
murmured at this, tho' it was reafonable for us to take care 
of our felves in the firft place. Upon that, the French Fleet 
was alfo ordered to come about 3 They met with rough Wea- 

Affairs at 


of King WlLJLlAM III*:' 179 

ther, and were long in the pafTage : So that if we had Tent a 1696 

.Squadron befor.e Brefi^ we had probably made fome confiderable ^-<;;''v^"'5*J 

advantage j but the Fleet was fo divided, that Fadion appeared 

in every order, and in every motion ; ^or did the King ftudy 

enough to remedy this, but rather kept it up, and feemed to 

think, tliat was tie way to pleafe both Parties ; but he found 

afterwards, that by all his management with the Tories, he 

difguiled thofe, who were afFedionate and zealous for him ; and 

.that the Tories had too deep an alienation from him, to be 

-overcome with good ufage : Their fubmifHons however to him 

gained their end, wJaich was to provoke the Whigs to be pee^ 

viTh and uneaCy. Our Fleet failed towards the Iflc of RhcB^ 

with fome Bomb Veffels : 3ome fmall Ifl^nds were burnt and 

-plundered, as St. Martins was bombarded : The lofs the French 

made, was not confiderable in itfelf, but it put tlieir affairs i^ 

great diftradion : and the charge they were at in defending 

their Coaft, was much greater than ours in attacking it. This 

was the ftate of affairs in Enghndy and abroad, during this 


Scotland was falling under great mifery, by reafon of two Affairs id 
-fucceflive bad Harveflg, which exhaufted that Nation, and drove ■^'f"^^""^* 
away many of their People 5 the greateft number went over to 
Ireland : A Parliament was held at Edinburgh^ and in a very 
•thin Houfe, every thing that was asked was granted : They 
-were in a miferahle condition, for two fuch bad years lay ex- 
tremely heavy on them. 

This Summer, the French were making fteps towards a Peace ; a treaty of 
The Court was very uneafy under fo long and fo deftrudive ^""^J ^"j^"" 
a War ; Tjie Country was exhaufted, they had neither men French. 
nor money : Their Trade was funk to nothing, and publick 
Credit was loft : The Creation of new Offices, which always 
was confidered as a refource, never to be exhaufted, did not 
work as formerly ; Few buyers or undertakers appeared : That 
King's health was thought declining ; He affeded fecrecy and 
retirement, fo that both the temper of his mind,' and the ftate 
of his affairs, difpofed him to deftre a Peace. One Callieres 
was lent, to make propofitions to the States, as Z)' /Ivaux was 
prefling the King of Sweden to offer his Mediation : The States 
would hearken to no propolition, till two Preliminaries were 
agreed to ;* The firft was, that all things fhould be brought back 
to the ftate, in which they were put, by the Treaties of Munfier 
and Nimeguen. This imported, not only the reftoring Mom 
and Charier oy^ but likewife Strasburg and Luxembourg, and 
that, in the ftate which they were in at prefent ; The other 



<i8o The History of the Reign 

1696 Preliminary was, that Fra7ice flioiild own the King, whenlbevef 
L^'V'^ the Peace fhould be concluded. The Emperor, who defigned 
to keep off any Negotiation as much as pofUble, moved that 
this {hould be done before the Treaty was opened : But the 
King thought the other was fufEcient, and would not fuffer the 
Peace to be obftru6led, by a thing, that might feem perfonal to 
himfelf. To all this, the Court of France^ after fome delays, 
confentcd ; But that fpirit of Chicane and Injuftice, that had 
feigned fo long in that Court, did ftill appear in every ftep that 
was made : For they made ufe of equivocal terms, in every Pa- 
per that was offered in their name : The States had felt the ef- 
fects of thefe in former Treaties too fenfibly, not to be now on 
their guard againft them : The French ftill returned to them, 
and when fome points feemed to be quite fettled, new diffi- 
culties were ftill thrown in. It was propofed by the French^ 
that the PopiHi Religion muft continue ftill at Strasburg, that 
the King of France could not in confcience yield that point : 
It was alfo pretended, that Luxembourg was to be reftored in the 
fame ftate, in which it was when the French took it s Thefe 
variations did almoft break off the Negotiation ; but the French 
would not let it fall, and yielded them up again : So it was vi- 
able all this was only an amufement, and an artifice, by this 
fhew of Peace, to get the Parliament of England to declare 
for it : Since as a Trading Nation muft grow weary of War, fo 
the Party they had among us, would join in with the inclina- 
tion, that was now become general to promote the Peace : For 
tho' our affairs were in all refpedts, except that of the Coin, 
in fo good a condition, that we felt our felves grow richer by the 
War, yet during each Campaign, we ran a greater rifque, than 
our Enemies did : For all our prefervation hung on the fingle 
thread of the King's Life, and on that profped, the Party, that 
Wrought againft the Government, had great hopes, and aded 
with much fpirit during the War, which we had reafon to think 
muft fink with a Peace. 
A Seffion of The Parliament met in November ; And at the opening of 
in^^w^ylw. the iSeffion, the King, in his Speech to the two Houfes, ac- 
quainted them with the Overtures, that were made towards a 
Peace : But added, that the beft way to obtain a good one 
was, to be in a pofture for carrying on the War. The great 
difficulty was, to find a Way to reftore Credit : There v^as a great 
Arrear due ; All Funds had proved deficient ; And the total 
failing of the Land Bank had brought a great confiifion on all 
payments ; The Arrears were put upon the Funds of the Re- 
venue, which had been granted for a term of but five years, and 


of King William III. i8i 

that was now ending; So a new continuance of thofe Revenues 1696 
was granted ; and they were put under the management of -<?^^**^ 
the Bank of England^ which upon that fecurity, undertook the 
payment of them all. It was long before all this was fully fet- 
tled : The Bank was not willing to engage in it ; yet at laft 
it was agreed : And the Bank quickly recovered its Credit fo 
entirely, that there was no difcount upon the Notes. The Arrear 
amounted to ten Millions : And five Millions more were to be 
raifed for the Charge of the following year. So that one SeiTion 
was to fecure fifteen Millions, a Sum never before thought pof- 
fible to be provided for, in any one Seflion. There was not 
Specie enough, for giving that quick circulation, which is ne- 
ceffary for Trade ; So to remedy that, the Treafury was em- 
powered to give out Notes, to the value of almoft three Milli- 
ons, which were to circulate as a Species of Money, and to be 
received in Taxes, and were to fink gradually, as the money 
fhould arife out of the Fund, that was created to anfwer them; 
By thefe methods, all the demands, both for Arrears, and for the 
following year, were anfwered. The Commons fent a Bill to 
the Lords, limiting Eledions to future Parliaments, that none 
fhould be chofen, but thofe who had fuch a proportion of Ef- 
tate or Money 5 The Lords rejected it : They thought it rea- 
fonable to leave the Nation to their freedom, in choofing their 
Reprefentatives in Parliament : It feemed both unjufl: and cruel, 
that if a poor man had fo fair a Reputation, as to be chofen, 
notwithftanding his Poverty, by thofe, who were willing to pay 
him Wages, that he fhould be branded with an Incapacity, be- 
caufe of his fmall eftate. Corruption in Eled:ions was to be 
apprehended from the rich, rather than from the poor. Ano- 
ther Bill was fent up by the Commons, but rejefted by the 
Lords, prohibiting the Importation of all Eaji-India Silks, and 
Bengales : This was propofed, to encourage the Silk Manu- 
fadure at home ; And Petitions were brought for it by great 
multitudes, in a very tumultuary way 5 But the Lords had no 
regard to that. 

The great bufinefs of this Seflion, that held longeft in both pg„„j,j^f^'^ 
Houfes, was a Bill relating to Sir yohn Fenwick : The thing was Bufinefs. 
of fo particular a nature, that it deferves to be related in a fpe- 
cial manner 3 And the great fhare that I bore in the Debate, 
when it was in the Houfe of Lords, makes it more neceffary 
for me copioufiy to enlarge upon it : For it may at firft view, 
feem very liable to exception, that a man of my Profeflion .^ 

fhould enter fo far into a Debate of that nature. Fenwicky when 
he was firft taken, writ a Letter to his Lady, fetting forth his 
V o L. II. A a a Mis- 

1 82 The History of the Reign 

1696 Misfortune, and giving himfelf for dead, unlefs powerful appli- 
^-'i^'V*''^ cations could be made for him, or that fome of the Jury could 
be hired to ftarve out the reft ; and to that he added, This or 
nothing can fave my Life : This Letter was taken from the per- 
fon, to whom he had given it : At his firft Examination, be- 
fore the Lords Juftices, he denied every thing," till he was fhew- 
ed this Letter ; and then he was confounded. In his private 
Treaty with the Duke of Devonjhirey he defired an affurance of 
Life, upon his promife to tell all he knew ; But the King re- 
fufed that, and would have it left to himfelf, to judge of the 
truth, and the importance of the difcoveries, he fhould make. 
So he refolving to call himfelf on the King's Mercy, fent him 
a Paper, in which, after a bare account of the Confultations 
among the Jacobites (in which he took care to charge none of 
his own Party) he faid, that King JameSy and thofe who were 
employed by him, h^d aflured them, that both the Earls of 
Shrewsbury and Marlborough^ the Lord Godolphin^ and Admiral 
Ruffely were reconciled to him, and were now in his Interefts, and 
a6ting for him. This was a Difcovery that could fignify nothing, 
but to give the King a jealoufy of thofe perfons ; For he did 
not ojffer the leaft fhadow or circumftance, either of proof or 
of prefumption, to fupport this accufation. The King, not be- 
ing fatisfied herewith, fent an Order for bringing him to a 
Trial, unlefs he made fuller Difcoveries : He deflred to be fur- 
ther examined by the Lords Juftices, to whom he, being upon 
Oath, told fome more Particulars 3 But he took care to name 
none of his own fide, but thofe againft whom Evidence was 
already brought, or who were fafe and beyond Sea ; Some few 
others he named, who were in matters of lefs Confequence, 
that did not amount to High Treafon ; He owned a thread of 
Negotiations, that had paffed between them and King James^ 
or the Court of France \ He faid, the Earl of Ailesbury had 
gone over to Franc e^ and had been admitted to a private Au- 
dience of the French King, where he had propofed the fending 
over an Army of 30000 Men, and had undertaken that a great 
Body of Gentlemen and Horfes fhould be brought to join them : 
It appeared by his Difcoveries, that the Jacobites in England 
were much divided : Some were called Compounders, and others 
Noncompounders. The firft fort defired Securities from King 
yameSy for the prefervation of the Religion and Liberties of 
England 'j whereas, the fecond fort were for trufting him upon 
difcretion, vdthout asking any terms, putting all in his power, 
and relying entirely on his honour and generofity. Thefe feem- 
ed indeed to ad more fuitably to the great Principle, upon 


of King William III. 1S3 

which they all infifted, that Kings have their Power from God, 1696 
and are accountable only to him for the exercife of it. Dr. i-^^^^^V^vJ 
Lloydj the deprived Bifhop of Norwich, was the only eminent 
Clergyman that went into this : And therefore, all that Party 
had, upon Sancroft\ Death, recommended him to King James, 
to have his nomination for Canterbury. 

Fenwick put all this in writing, upon aflurance, that he fhould j^''"^ ^^' 
not be forced to witneis any part of it. When that was fent to 
the King, all appearing to be fo trifling, and no other proof 
being offered, for any part of it, except his own word, which 
he had ftipulated, fhould not be made ufe of, his Majefty fent 
an Order to bring him to his Trial. But as the King was flow 
in fending this Order, fo the Duke of Devon/hire, who had 
been in the fecret Management of the matter, was for fome 
time in the Country : The Lords Jufl:ices delayed the matter, 
till he came to Town : And then the King's coming was fo 
near, that it was refpited till he came over. By thefe delays, 
Fenwick gained his main defign in them, which was to pradlife 
upon the Witnefles. 

His Lady began with Porter ; He was offered, that if he Praftices 
would go beyond Sea, he fhould have a good Sum in hand, U^^^"' 
and an Annuity fecured to him for his Life ; He hearkned fo 
far to the propofltion, that he drew thofe, who were in Treaty 
with hinij together with the Lady herfelf, who carried the Sum, 
that he was to receive, to a meeting, where he had provided 
Witnefles, who fliould over-hear all that paffed, and fliould, up- 
on a Signal, come in, and feize them with the money ; which 
was done, and a profecution upon it was ordered. The prac- 
tice was fully proved, and the perfons concerned in it were 
cenfured, and punifhed : So Porter was no more to be dealt 
with. Goodman was the other Witnefs \ Firft they gathered 
matter to defame him, in which his wicked courfe of Life fur- 
niflied them very copioflyj But they trufted not to this me- 
thod, and betook themfelves to another, in which they prevail- 
ed more effed:ually ; They perfuaded him to go out of Eng- 
land : And by this means, when the laft: Orders were given for 
Fe?iwick\ Trial, there were not two Witnefles againft him ; So by 
the courfe of Law, he mufl have been acquitted : The whole was 
upon this kept entire for the SefTion of Parliament. The King 
fent to the Houfe of Commons the two Papers that Fen- 
wick had fent him ; Fenwick was brought before the Houfe : 
But he refufed to give any farther account of the matter con- 
tained in them ; So they rejeded them as falfe and fcandalous, 
made only to create jealoufies : And they ordered a Bill of At- 

1 84 The H I s T o R Y ^^/^ the Reign 

1696 tainder to be brought againft iv^iy/ci ; which met with great 
K^ir^^y^''^ oppofition in both Houfes, in every ftep that was made. The 
Debates were the hotteft, and held the longeft, of any that ever 
I knew. The Lords took a very extraordinary method to force 
all their abfent Members to come up ; They fent Mefl'engers for 
them to bring them up, which feemed to be a great Breach on 
their Dignity ; For the Privilege of making a Proxy was an un- 
doubted Right belonging to their Peerage ; But thofe, who in- 
tended to throw out the Bill, refolved to have a full Houfe. 
A Bill of The Bill fet forth the Artifices, Fenwick had ufed to gain de- 
^ aT'IiF ^^y^ > ^^^ ^^ pra6lice upon Porter^ and Goodmans efcape ; 
'wick. the laft having fworn Treafon againft him at CooKs Trial, and 
likewife to the Grand Jury, who had found the Bill againft 
him upon that Evidence. So now Porter appearing, and giv- 
ing his Evidence againft him, and the Evidence that Goodman 
had given, being proved, it was inferred, that he was guilty 
of High Treafon, and that therefore he ought to be Attainted. 
Reafons The fubftancc of the Arguments brought againft this way 

againft It. ^£ pj-QcggfJing^ was, that the Law was all Mens Security, as 
well as it ought to be their Rule : If this was once broke thro', 
no Man was fafe : Men would be prefumed guilty without legal 
proofs, and be run down, and deftroyed by a torrent : Two 
Witneffes feemed neceflary, by an indifputable Law of Juftice, 
to prove a Man guilty : The Law of God given to Mofes, 
as well as the Law of England^ made this neceflary : And, 
befides all former ones, the Law lately made for Trials in 
Cafes of Treafon, was fuch a facred one, that it was to be 
hoped, that even a Parliament would not make a Breach upon 
it. A written Depofition was no Evidence, becaufe the Perfon 
accufed could not have the benefit of crofs interrogating the 
Witnefs, by which much falfe fwearing was often detected : 
Nor could the Evidence given in one Trial be brought againft 
a Man, who was not a party in that Trial : The Evidence that 
was offered to a Grand Jury, was to be examined all over again 
at the Trial ; Till that was done, it was not Evidence. It did 
not appear, that Fenwick himfelf was concerned in the pradlice 
upon Porter ; What his Lady did, could not be charged on 
him : No Evidence was brought, that Goodjna7i was pradis'd on ; 
So his withdrawing himfelf could not be charged on Fenwick, 
Some very black things were proved againft Goodman^ which 
would be ftrong to fet afic'e his Teftimony, tho' he were prefent ; 
And that proof, which had been brought in CooKs Trial, againft 
Porters Evidence, was again made ufe of, to prove that as he 
was the Angle Witnefs, fo he was a doubtful and fufpeded 


tf King William 111.^ iiy 

one : Nor was it proper, that a Bill of this nature fhould begin 1 696 
ill the Houfe of Commons, which could not take Examination^ ^-^^^^^^ 
upon Oath. This was the fubftarlce bf thfc Arguitietits, tliat 
were utged againft the Bill. 

On the other hahd, it Was faid, in behalf of the Bill, that .^q^ 
the nature of Government required, that the Legiflature fliould y^^r^ 
be recurred to, in extraordinary Cafes, for which effedlual Pro- ^"g^f ^'^'' 
Vifion could not be made by fixed and ftanding Laws : Our 
Common Law grew up out of the Proceedings of the Courts of 
Law : Afterwards, This iii cafes of Treafon was thought too loole, 
fo the Law in this point was limited, firft by the famous Statute in 
King Edward the Third's time, and then by the Statute in King 
Edward the Sixth's time ; the two WitnefTes were to be brought 
face to face with the perfon accufed : And that the Law, lately 
made, had brought the method of Trials to a yet further cer- 
tainty ; Yet in that, as well as in the Statute of Edward IIL 
Parliamentary Proceedings were ftill excepted ; And indeed, the' 
no fuch provifion had been exprefly made in the Ads themfelves, 
the nature of Government puts always an exception, in favour 
of the Legiflative Authority. The Legiflature Was indeed bound 
to obferve Juftice and Equity, as much, if not more, than the 
inferior Courts ; Becaufe the Supreme Court ought to fet an 
Example to all others : But they might fee caufe td pafs over 
Forms, as occafion fliould require ; This was the more reafon- 
able among us, becaufe there was no Nation in the World be- ' 
fides England^ that had riot recourfe to Torture, when the Evi- 
dence was probable but defective r That was a mighty refl:raint,' 
and flruck a terror into all People ; And the freeft Govern- 
ments, both antient and modern, thought they could not fubfift 
without it. At prefent, the Venetians have their Civil Inquifi- 
tors, and the Grifons have their High Courts of Juftice, which 
adb without the Forms of Law, by the abfolute Truft that is 
repofed in them, fuch as the Romans repofed in Didators, in 
the time of their Liberty. England had neither Torture, nor any 
unlimited Magiftrate in its Conftitution ; And therefore, upon 
great Emergencies, recourfe mtift be had to die Supreme Legi- 
slature. Forms are neceflary in fuborbinate Courts ; But there' 
is no reafon to tie up the Supreme One by them : This me- 
thod of Attainder, had been praftifed among us at ill times * 
It is true, what was done in this way at one time, was often . 
reverfed at another ; But that was the effed: of the violence of 
the Times; and was occafioned often, by the injuftice ofthofe 
Attainders : The Judgments of the infericw Courts were npon 
Vol. n. B b b th6 

1 86 T^f^^ History of the Reign 

1697 the like account often reverfed ; But when ParHamentary At- 
u?=='V*'''5>J tainders went upon good grounds, tho' without obferving the 
Forms of Law, they were never blamed, not to fay condemn- 
ed. When poifoning was firft pradifed in England^ and put 
in a pot of Porridge in the Bifhop of Rochefier\ Houle, this, 
which was only Felony, was by a Ipecial Law made to be High 
Treafon; And a new Punifhment was appointed' by A61 of 
Parliament : The Poifoner was boiled alive. When the Nun 
of Kent pretended to Vifions, to oppofe King He?ity the Eighth's 
Divorce, and his fecond Marriage ; and faid, if he married again, 
he fhould not live long after it, but fhould die a Villain's 
death ; This was judged in Parliament to be High Treafon ; And 
fhe and her Accomplices fuffered accordingly. After that, 
there paffed many Attainders in that Reign, only upon Depo- 
fitions, that were read in both Houfes of ParHament : It is true, 
thefe were much blamed, and there was great caufe for it ; 
There were too many of them ; For this extream way of pro- 
ceeding is to be put in pradice but feldom, and upon great 
occafions ; Whereas, many of thefe went upon flight grounds, 
fuch as the uttering fome paflionate and indecent Words, or 
the uling fome Embroidery in Garments and Coats of Arms, 
with an ill intent. But that, which was indeed execrable, was, 
that perfbns in Prifon were attainted, without being heard in 
their own defence ; This was fo contrary to natural Jufcice, that 
it could not be enough condemned. In King Edward the Sixth's 
time, the Lord Seimour was attainted in the fame manner, only 
with this difference, that the Witnefles were brought to the Bar, 
and there examined ; Whereas, formerly, they proceeded upon 
fome Depofltions, that were read to them : At the Duke of So- 
merfet\ Trial, which was both for High Treafon and for Felony, 
in which he was acquitted of the former, but found guilty of 
the latter, Depofitions were only read againft him; But the 
Witneffes were not brought face to face, as he preffed, they 
might be : Upon which it was, that the following Parliament 
enafted, that the Accufers (that is the Witneffes) fhould be exa- 
mined face to face, if they were alive : In Queen Elizabeth^ 
time, the ParUament went out of the method of Law, in all 
the fteps of their Proceedings againft the Queen of Scots ; It is 
true, there were no Parliamentary Attainders in England^ during 
that long and glorious Reign, upon which, thofe who oppofed 
the Bill, infifted much ; Yet that was only, becaufe -there then 
was no occafion here in England for any fuch Bill : But in h-e- 
landy where fome things were notorioufly true, which yet could 
not be legally proved, that Government was forced to have, on 
wb ' ii^any 

of king William III. 187 

many different occafions, recourfe to this method. In King Jafncs 1697 
the Firft's time, thofc who were concemed in the Gunpowder Plot, U5^'v^^»J 
and chofe to be killed, rather than taken, were by A6t of 
Parliament, attainted after their death ; which the Courts of 
Law could not do, fmce by our Law, a Man's Crimes die 
with himfelf ; for this reafon, becaufe he cannot make his own 
Defence, nor can his Children do it for him. The famous At- 
tainder of the Earl of Strafford^ in King Charles the Firft's time^ 
has been much and juftly cenfured ; not fo much, becaufe it paft 
by Bill, as becaufe of the Injuftice of it : He was accufcd, for 
having faid, upon the Houfe of Commons refufing to grant 
the Subfidies, the King had asked. That the King was abfohed 
from all the Rules of Government ^ and might make ufe of force to 
fuhdue this Kingdom. Thefe words were proved only by one 
Witnels, all the reft of the Council, who were prefent, depo- 
sing, that they remembred no fuch Words, and were poiitive, 
that the Debate ran only upon the War with Scotland ; So that 
tho' this Kingdom^ ^iigly taken, muft be meant of Englandy 
yet it might well be meant of that Kingdom^ which was the 
Subjed: then of the Debate ; Since then the words were capable 
of that favourable fenfe, and that both he who fpoke them, 
and they who heard them, affirmed that they were meant and 
underftood in that fenfe, it was a moft pernicious Precedent, 
firft to take them in the moft odious fenfe pofTible, and then to 
deftroy him who faid them, upon the teftimony of one fingle 
exceptionable Witnefs ; Whereas, if, upon the Commons refu- 
ling to grant the King's demand, he had plainly advifed the 
King to lubdue his people by force, it is hard to tell, what the 
Parliament might not juftly have done, or would not do again in 
the like cafe. In King Charles the Second's time, fome of the moft 
eminent of the Regicides were attainted, after they were dead ; 
and in King fames % time, the Duke of Monmouth was attainted 
by Bill : Thefe laft Attainders had their firft beginning in the 
Houfe of Commons. Thus it appeared, that thefe laft two 
hundred years, not to mention much ancienter Precedents, tlie 
Nation had upon extraordinary occafions proceded in this Par- 
liamentary way by Bill. There were already many Precedents 
of this method j And whereas it was faid, that an ill Parlia- 
ment might carry thefe too far ; It is certain, the Nation, and 
every Perfon in it, muft be fafe, when they are in their own 
hands, or in thofe of a Reprefentative chofen by themfelves : As 
on the other hand, if that be ill chofen, there is no help for 
it ; the Nation muft perifti, for it is by their own fault ; They 
have already too many Precedents for this way of proceeding, 

if ♦ 

1 88 The History of the ReigH 

1697 if they intend to make an ill nfe of them: But a Precedent is 
V'^'^^^'"''^ only a ground or warrant for the like proceeding, upon thfe 

like occafion. 
Thegrounds Xwo Rules Were laid down fcr all Bills of this nature : Firft, 
fJTh a Bill that the Matter be of a very extraordinary nature : Leffer Crimes 
"^^^ d^'^uft^ ^"^^ better be paffed over, than punifhed by the Legiflature. Of 
all the Crimes, that can be contrived againft the Nation,* cer- 
tainly the moft heinous one is, that of bringing in a Foreign 
Force to conquer us : This ruines both Us, and our Pofterity for 
ever : Diftradions at home, how fatal foever, even tho' they 
fhould end ever fo tragically, as ours once did in the Murder of 
the King, and in a MiUtary Ufurpation, yet were capable of a 
Grifis and a Cure. In the Year i66o, we came again to our 
wits, and all was fet right again ; Whereas, there is no prop- 
ped: after a Foreign Conqueft, but of Slavery and Mifery : And 
how black foever the affaffmating the King muft needs appearj 
yet a Foreign Conqueft was worfe, it was aflaflinating the King- 
dom : And therefore the inviting ■ and contriving that, muft be 
the blackeft of Crimes. But, as the importance of the matter 
ought to be equal to fuch an unufual way of proceeding, fd 
the certainty of the Fa6ls ought to be fuch, that if the defed^ 
in Legal Proof, are to be fupplied, yet this ought to be done 
upon fuch grounds, as make the Fad charged appear fo evi- 
dently true, that tho' a Court of Law could not proceed upon 
it, yet no Man could raife in himfelf a doubt concerning it. 
Antiently, Treafon was judged, as Felony ftill' is, upon fuch 
prcfumptions, as fatisfied the Jury : The Law has now limited 
this to two Witnefles brought face to face ; But the Parliament 
may ftill take that liberty, which is denied to Inferior Courts, 
of judging this matter, as an ordinary Jury does in a cafe of 
Felony. In the prefent cafe, there was one Witnefs, viva voce^ 
upon whofe Teftimony, feveral Perfons had been condemned j 
and had fufiered ; And thefe neither at their Trial, nor at their 
Death, difproved or denied any circumftance of his Depofttions. 
If he had been too much a Libertine in the courfe of his Life, 
that did not deftroy his credit as a Witnefs : In the firft Tri- 
al, this might have made him a doubtful Witnefs j But what 
had happened fmce, had deftroyed the poflibility even of fuf- 
peding his Evidence ; A Party had been in intereft concerned 
to enquire into his whole Life, and in the prefent cafe had 
full time for it ; And every circumftance of his Depofition had 
been examined ; and yet nothing was difcovered that could fo- 
much as create a doubt ; All was ftill untouched, found and 
true. The only circumftance in which the dying Speeches of 
• thofe 


of King William IIL 189 

thbfe who fuffer'd on his Evidence, feemed to contradict him^ 1697 
was concerning King y antes ^ Commifllori : Yet none of them u;^'>/''^»* 
denied really what Porter had depofed, whicli was, that Char^ 
nock told him, that there was a Commifllon, come from King 
yamesy for attacking the Prince of Orange\ Guards : They on- 
ly denied, that there was a CommifTion for afTaffinating himi 
Sir yohn Friend^ and Sir IVilliam Perkins, were condemned^ 
for the Confultation now given in Evidence againft Fenwick : 
They died, not denying it ; on the contrary, they juftified all 
they had done : It could not be fuppofed, that, if there had 
been a tittle in the Evidence that was falfe, they fhould both 
have been {o far wanting to themfelves, and to their friends, 
who were to be tried upon the fame Evidence, as not to have 
declared it in the folemneft manner : Thefe things were 
more undeniably certain, than the Evidence of ten Witniefles 
could poflibly be. Witnefles might confpire to fwear a falf- 
hood ; But in this cafe, the Circumftances took away the pofll- 
bility of a doubt. And therefore, the Parliament, without tak- 
ing any notice of Goodmans Evidence, might well judge Fen- 
wick guilty, for no Man could doubt of it, in his own mind. 

The ancient Romans were very jealous of their Liberty ; But 
how exadi foever they might be in ordinary Cafes, yet when 
any of their Citizens feemed to have a Defign of making him- 
felf King, they either created a Didator to fupprefs, or deftroy 
him, . or elfe the People proceeded againft him, in a fummary 
way. By the Portian Law, no Citizen could be put to Death 
for any Crime whatfoever ; yet fuch regard did the Romans pay 
to Juftice, even above Law, that, when the Campanian Legion 
had perfidioufly broke in upon Rhegium, and pillaged it, they 
put them all to Death for it. In the famous cafe of Cati/ine^s 
Confpiracy, as the Evidence was clear, and the Danger extream ; 
The Accomplices in it, were executed, notwithftanding the Por^ 
tian Law : And this was done by the Order of the Senate, with- 
out either hearing them make their own Defence, or admit- 
ting them to claim the Right, which the Valerian Law gave 
them, of an Appeal to the People. Yet that whole Proceed- 
ing was chiefly direded by the two greateft Afferters of Publick 
Liberty, that ever lived, Cato and Cicero ; And Ceefar, who 
oppofed it, on pretence of its being againft the Portian Law, 
was for that reafon, fufpedted of being in the Confpiracy : It 
appeared afterwards, how Httle regard he had, either to Law 
or Liberty, though, upon this occafion, he made ufe of the one, 
to proted thofe, who were in a Plot againft the other. This 

Vol. 11. C cc Ex- 


190 The History of the Reign 

169^ ExprefTion was much refented by thofe, who were againft this 
t^J'^^V"^ Bill, as carrying a bitter refleftion upon them^ for oppofing it. 
The Bill In concluiion, the Bill paffed, by a fmall Majority, of only 

feven in the Houfe of Lords ; The Royal AfTent was foon given 
to it ; Fenwick then made all pofTible applications to the King for 
a Reprieve ; And as a main ground for that, and as an article of 
merit, related how he had faved the King's Life, two years before, 
as Was already told in the beginning of the Year 1695. 'But as 
this Fad: could not be proved, fo it could confer no obligation 
on the King, fince he had given him no warning of his danger ; 
And according to his own ftory, had trufted the Confpirators 
words very ealily, when they promifed to purfue their defign no 
farther, which he had no reafon to do. So that this pretenfion 
was not much confidered ; But he was preft to make a full 
Difcovery ; And for fome days, he feemed to be in fome fuf- 
pence, what courfe to take. He defired to be fecured, that 
nothing which he confeft, fliould turn to his own prejudice ; 
The Houfe of Lords fent an Addrefs to the King, intreating, 
that they might be at liberty to make him this Promife ; And 
that was readily granted. He then farther defired, that, upon 
his making a full Confeflion, he might be aflured of a Pardon, 
without being obliged to become a Witnefs againft any other 
Perfon : To this, the Lords anfwered, that he had to do with 
Men of Honour, and that he muft truft to their Difcretion ; that 
they would mediate for him with the King, in proportion as they 
fhould find his Difcoveries fincere and important : His behaviour 
to the King hitherto, had not been fuch, as to induce the Lords 
to truft to his Candour, it was much more reafonable, that he 
fhould truft to them. Upon this, all hopes of any Difcoveries 
from him were laid afide. But a matter of another nature broke 
out, which, but for its fingular Circumftances, fcarce deferves to 
be mentioned. 
Praaices There was one Smithy a Nephew of Sir William Perkins, 

againft the who had for fome time been in Treaty at the Duke of Shrews- 
shreJs- hury\ Office, pretending that he could make great Difcoveries, 
bury. and that he knew all the motions and defigns of the Jaco- 
bites : He fent many dark and ambiguous Letters to that Duke's 
Under-Secretary, which were more 'properly to be called A- 
mufements than Difcoveries ; For he only gave hints and Icraps 
of Stories ; but he had got a promife not to be made a Wimefs, 
and yet he never offered any other Witnefs, nor told where any 
of thofe, he informed againft, were lodged, or how they might 
be taken. He was always asking more Money, and bragging 


of King William 111^' 19; 

what he could do, if he were well fupplied, and he feemed to 1697 
think he never had enough. Indeed, before the Confpiracy v-/c?^^*^%>J 
broke out, he had given fuch hints, that when it was difcover- 
ed, it appeared, he mufl: have known much more of it, than 
he thought fit to tell. One Letter he wrote, two days before 
it was intended to have been put in Execution, fhewed, he muft 
have been let into the Secret very far (if this was not an arti^ 
fice to lay the Court more aileep) for he faid, That as things 
ripened and came near execution, he fhould certainly know 
them better : It was not improbable, that he himfelf was one 
of the five, whom Perkins undertook to furnifh, for afiifting 
in the AfiTafTination ; And that he hoped to have faved himfelf 
by this pretended Difcovery, in cafe the Plot mifcarried. The 
Duke of Shrewsbury acquainted the King with his Difcoveries, 
but nothing could then be made either of them or of him. 
When the whole Plot was unravelled, it then was manifeft from 
his Letters, that he muft have known more of it, than he would 
own : But he ftill claimed the Promife before made him, that 
he fhould not be a Witnefs. Upon the whole therefore, he rather 
deferved a fcvere Punifhment, than any of thofe Rewards, which he 
pretended to. He was accordingly difmift by the Duke of Shreivs- 
buryy who thought that even this fufpicious Behaviour of his did 
not releafe him, firom keeping the Promifes he had made him. 
Smithy thereupon, went to the Earl of ^^^ and poffeft him 
with bad impreflions of the Duke of Shrewsbury, and found 
him much inclined to entertain them ; He told him, that he 
had made great Difcoveries, of which that Duke would take: 
no notice ; And becaufe the Duke's ill Health had obliged him 
to go into the Country, two days before the Aflaflination was 
intended ; He put this conftrudion upon it, that he was willing 
to be out of the way, when the King was to be murthered. 
To fix this imputation, he fhewed him the Copies of all bis 
Letters, all of which, but the laft more efpecially, had the face 
of a great Difcovery. The Lord ^^* carried this to Court, 
and it made fuch an impreflion there, that the Earl of Portland 
lent Smith Money, and entertained him as a Spy, but never 
could by his means learn any one real piece of Intelligence. 
When this happened, the King was juft going beyond Sea ; So 
Smith\ Letters were taken, and fcaled up by the King's Order, 
and left in the hands of Sir William T'rumbally who was the 
other Secretary of State. This matter lay quiet, till Fenwick 
began to make Difcoveries: And when Lord ^* underftood, 
that he had not named himfelf (about which he expreft too 
vehement a concern) but that he had named Lord Shrewsbury^ 


192 "The History of the Reign 

1697 it was faid, that he entred into a Negotiation with the Dutch- 
^^'^"""^"'^'^ efs of Norfolk^ that fhe fhould, by Fenwick\ Lady, encourage 
him to perfift in his Difcoveries ; And that he didated fome 
Papers to the Dutchefs, that fhould be offered to him, as an 
additional one ; In which, many little ftories were related, which 
had been told the King, and might be believed by him ; And 
by thefe, the King might have been difpofed to believe the reft 
of Fenwick's Paper; And the whole ended in fome Difcove- 
ries concerning Smith, which would naturally occafion his Let- 
ters to be called for, and then they would probably have 
had great effect. The Dutchefs of Norfolk declared, that he 
had dilated all thefe Schemes of his to her, who copied tliem, 
and handed them to Fenwick ; And that he had left one Paper 
with her ; It was fhort, but contained an Abftrad: of the whole 
defign, and referred to a larger one, which he had only dic- 
tated to her. The Dutchefs faid, fhe had placed a Gentle- 
woman, who carried her Meffages to Fenwick\ Lady, to over- 
hear all that paft ; So that fhe both had another Witnefs, to 
fupport the Truth of what fhe related, and a Paper left by 
him with her. She faid, that Fenwick would not be guided 
by him ; And faid, he would not meddle with contrived Dif- 
coveries : That thereupon this Lord was highly provoked ; He 
faid, if Fenwick would follow his Advice, he would certainly 
fave him ; But if he would not, he would get the Bill to pafs. 
And indeed, when that matter was depending, he fpoke two 
full hours in the Houfc of Lords, in favour of the Bill, with 
a peculiar vehemence. Fenwick\ Lady, being much provok- 
ed at this, got her Nephew the Earl of Carlile, to move the 
Lords, that Fenwick might be examined, concerning any Ad- 
vices that had been fent him, with relation to his Difcove- 
ries : And upon this, Fenwick told what his Lady had brought 
him, and thereupon, the Dutchefs of Norfolk and her Confi- 
dent were likewife interrogated, and gave the account which 
I have here related : In conclufion. Smiths Letters were read, 
and he himfelf was examined : This held the Lords feverai 
days ; For the Earl of Portland^ by the King's Orders, produc- 
ed all Smith\ Papers : By them it appeared, that he was a 
very infignificant Spy, who was always infifting in his old ftrain 
of asking Money, and taking no care to deferve it. The Earl 
of *^^ was, upon the Accufation and Evidence above-men- 
tioned, fent to the Tower, and turned out of all his Employ- 
ments. But the Court had no mind to have the matter far- 
ther examined into ; For the King fpoke to my felf to do all I 
could, to foften his Cenfure, which he afterwards acknowledg- 

of King William IH. 193 

cd I had done. I did not know what new fcheme of Confu- 1697 
fion might have been opened by him, in his own excufe. The U5!'*v^^>«J 
Houfe of Lords was much fet againft him, and feemed refolv- 
ed to go great Lengths : To allay that heat, I put them in 
mind, that he fet the Revolution firft on foot, and was a great 
promoter of it, coming twice over to Holland^ to that end ; I 
then moved, that he fhould be fent to the Tower ; This was 
agreed to, and he lay there till the end of the Seflion, and 
was removed from all his Places : But that lofs, as was believ- 
ed, was fecretly made up to him, for the Court was refolved 
not to lofe him quite. 

Feriwkk feeing no hope was left, prepared himfelf to die ; Fen'xicVi 
He defired the afliftance of one of the deprived Bifliops, which ^''^^""°"' 
was not eafily granted ; But in that, and in feveral other mat- 
ters, I did him fucli fervice, that he wrote me a Letter of 
thanks upon it. He was beheaded on 'Tower-Hill^ and died 
very compofed, in a much better temper, than was to be 
expe6led ; For his Life had been very irregular. At the place 
of his Execution, he delivered a Paper in writing, wherein he 
did not deny the Fads, that had been fworn againft him, but 
complained of the Injuftice of the Procedure, and left his 
Thanks to thofe, who had voted againft the Bill. He owned 
his Loyalty to King "James^ and to the Prince of Wales after 
him ; But mentioned the Defign of affaflinating King Willi- 
am^ in terms full of horror. The Paper was fuppofed to have 
been drawn by Bifhop White^ and the Jacobites were much 
provoked with the Paragraph, laft mentioned. This was the 
conclufion of that unacceptable affair, in which I had a much 
larger fhare, than might feem to become a Man of my Profef- 
lion : But the Houfe of Lords, by fevere Votes, obliged all 
the Peers to be prefent, and to give their Votes in the matter : 
Since I was therefore convinced, that he was guilty of the 
Crime laid to his charge, and that, fuch a method of proceed- 
ing was not only lawful, but in fome cafes neceflary ; And 
iince, by the fearch I made into Attainders and Parliamen- 
tary Proceedings, when I wrote the Hijlory of the Reformation^ 
I had feen further into thofe matters, than otherwife I fhould ever 
have done ; I thought, it was incumbent on me, when my opi- 
nion determined me to the feverer fide, to offer what Reafons 
occurred to me, in Juftification of,|iiy Vote. But this did not 
exempt me, from falling under a great load of Cenfure, upon 
this occafion. 

AiToon as the Bu^nefs of the SefHon of Parliament was at A£Fa5r« in 
an end, the King went beyond Sea ; The Summer pafTed over ^'^'""'*'■^• 

V o L. II. D d d very 

{§4 The History of the Reign 

i6q7 very quietly in England^ for the Jacobites were now humble 
u?''^/'''^>»^ and filent. The French were refolved to have Peace at any rate, 
by the end of the Year ; They therefore ftudied to pufb matters 
as far as pofTible, during this Campaign, that they might obtain 
the better terms, and that their King might ftill, to outward 
appearance, maintain a Superiority in the Field, as if nothing 
could ftand before him, and from thence might indulge his 
Vanity in boafting, that, notwithftanding all his SuccefTes, he was 
willing to facrifice his own advantages, to the quiet of Euj'ope. 
The Campaign Was opened with the Siege of Aeth ; The Place 
was ill furnifhed, and the bad ftate, both of our Coin and Cre- 
dit, fet the King's Preparations fo far back, that he could not 
come in time to relieve it. From thence, the French were ad- 
vancing towards Brujfels, on defign, either to take or bom- 
bard it. But the King, by a very happy diligence preventing 
them, poffeft himfelf of an advantageous Camp, about three 
hours before the French could reach it ; by which they were 
wholly incapacitated to execute their Defign. After this, there 
was no more Adion in Flanders all the Summer ; The reft of 
the time was ipent in Negotiation. 
Barcelona The French were more fuccefsful in Catalonia ; They fent 
^^en^h. * ^ ^"^ Army againft Barcelona^ commanded by the Duke of Fen- 
dome, and their Fleet came to his afliftance : The Garrifon was 
under the Command of a Prince of Hejfe, who had ferved 
in the King's Army, and, upon changing his Religion, was 
now at the head of the German Troops, that were fent into 
Spain. The Viceroy (whether by a Fate common to all the 
Spaniards, or from a jealoufy, that the whole Honour would 
accrue to a Stranger, if the Place fhould hold out) fo entirely 
negleded to do his part, that he was furprized, and his fmall 
Army was routed. The Town was large and ill fortified, yet 
it held out two Months, after the Trenches were opened : So 
that time was given to the Spaniards, fufficient to have 
brought Relief from the furtheft corner of Spain : Nothing had 
happened, during the whole courfe of the War, that did more 
evidently demonftrate the feeblenefs, into which that Monar- 
chy was fallen ; For no Relief was fent to Barcelona, fo that 
they were forced to Capitulate. By this, the French gained a 
great point ; Hitherto, the Spaniards, who contributed the leaft 
towards carrying on the War, were the moft backward to all 
Overtures of Peace : They had felt little of the Miferies of War, 
and thought themfelves out of its reach : But now, France be- 
ing Mafter of fo important a Place, which out off all their Com- 

of King William III. 19; 

inunication with Italy ; They became as earneft for Peace, as 1697 
they had hitherto been averfe from it. uj^^vno 

Nor was this all their Danger : A Squadron had been fcnt, a Frefich 
at the fame time, to feize on the Plate Fleet in the ^eji-ln-^^^^^.^^j"^ 
dies ; The King ordered a Squadron, which he had lying at Ca- indiei. 
diz, to fail after them, and affift the Spaniards. The French 
finding, that the Galleons were already got to the Havana^ 
where they could not attack them, failed to Carthagena^ which 
was in no condition to refift them. The Plate had all 
been fent away, before they came thither ; But they landed and 
pillaged the Place, and then gave it out, that they had found 
many Millions there, which at firft feemed incredible, and was 
afterwards known to be falfe : Yet it was confidently afferted at 
that time, to cover the reproach of having mifcarried in the at- 
tempt, on which they had raifed great expedations, and to 
which many Undertakers had been drawn in. Our Squadron 
was much fuperior to theirs, yet never engaged them : Once 
indeed, they came up to the French^ and had lome Advantage 
over them ; But did not purfue it. The French failed to the 
North, towards Newfoundland^ where we had another Squa- 
dron lying, which was fent with fome Land Forces, to reco- 
ver Hudfons Bay : Thefe Ships might have fallen upon the 
Frenchy and would probably have mafter'd them: But as they 
had no certain account of their ftrength, fo being fent out up- 
on another Service, they did not think it proper to hazard the 
attacking them : So the French got fafe home, aild the Condud: 
of our affairs at Sea was much cenfured : Yet our Admiralty de- 
clared themfelves fatisfied, with the account the Commanders 
gave of their Proceedings. But that Board was accufed of much 
partiality : On all fuch occafions, the unfortunate muft expedt 
to be blamed, and to outward appearance, there was much 
room given, either to cenfure the Orders, or the execution of 
them. The King owned, he did not underftand thofe matters : 
And Rujfel, now made Earl of Orford^ had both the Admi- 
ralty and the Navy Board, in a great dependance on himfelf ; 
So that he was confidered almoft as much, as if he had been 
Lord High Admiral : He was too much in the power of thofe, 
in whom he confided, and trufted them too far : And it was 
generally believed, that there was much Corruption, as it was 
certain there was much Fadtion, if not Treachery, in the conduct 
of our Marine. Our Mifcarriages made all people cry, that we 
muft have a Peace, for we could not manage the War to any 
good purpofe ; Since, notwithftanding our great fuperiority at 
Sea, tlie Fre?ich conduced their matters fo much better than 


196 The History of the Reign 

1697 us, that we were Lofers, even in that Element, where we ufed 
^-^^^""^^''''^ to triumph moft. Our Squadron, in the Bay of Mexico^ did very 
httle fervice; They only robbed and deftroyed fome of the 
French Colonies ; And that fent to Hudfons Bay, found it quite 
abandoned by the French ; fo that both returned home inglo- 
^J'^'"!' ^ great change of affairs happened this year in Poland: 
Death. Their King, John Sobieskiy after he had long outlived the Fame 
he had got, by railing the Siege of Vienna, died at laft under a 
general contempt. He was going backwards and forwards, as 
his Queen's Negotiations in the Court of France were entertained 
or rejected : His Government was fo feeble and disjointed at 
home, that all their Diets broke up upon Preliminaries, before 
they could, according to their forms, enter upon bufinefs : He 
was fet on heaping up Wealth, which feemed neceflary to give 
his Son an intereft in the fucceeding Eleftion. And upon his 
Death, a great party appeared for him, notwithftanding the gene- 
ral averfion to the Mother : But the Polip Nobility refolved to 
make no hafte with their Election, they plainly fet the Crown 
to Sale ; And encouraged all Candidates that would bid for it ; 
One Party declared for the Prince of Conti, of which their Pri- 
mate, then a Cardinal, was the Head ; The Emperor did all he 
could to fupport the late King's Son ; but when he faw the 
French Party were too ftrong for him, he was willing to join 
with any other Pretender. 
The Eieaor '^^^ Dukc of Lorratn, the Prince of Baden, and Don Li- 
of Saxony i}jo Odefchalchty Pope Innocent\ Nephew, were all named ; But 
\iToianI'. t^^efe not being likely to fucceed, a Negotiation was fecretly ma- 
naged with the Elector of Saxony, which fucceeded fo well, 
that he was prevailed on to change his Religion, to advance his 
Troops towards the Frontier of Poland, to diftribute Eight 
Millions of Florins among the Poles, and to promife to con-- 
firm all their Privileges, and in particular, to undertake the 
Siege of Caminieck. He confented to all this, and declared 
himfelf a Candidate, a very few Days before the Eleftion ; 
And fo he was fet up by the Imperialifts, in oppofition to the 
French Party : His Party became quickly fo ftrong, that tho', 
upon the firft appearance at the Eledion, while every one of 
the Competitors was trying his ftrength, the French Party was 
the ftrongeft, and was fo declared by the Cardinal ; yet when 
the other Pretenders faw, that they could not carry the Elec- 
tion for themfelves, they united in oppofition to the French In- 
tereft, and gave over all their Voices to the Eledor of Saxony, 
by which his Party became much the ftrongeft, fo he was 


of King William III. 197 

proclaimed the Eledled King. The Cardinal gave notice to the 1697 
Court of France^ of what had been done in favour of the ^-'C/^v*'^ 
Prince of Conti ; and defired that he might be fent quickly thi- 
ther, well furnifhed with Arms and Ammunition, but chiefly 
with Money. But the Party for Saxony made more difpatch ; 
that Eledor lay nearer, and had both his Money and Troops 
ready, lb he took the Oaths that were required, and got the 
Change of his Religion to be attefted by the Imperial Court : He 
made all the hafte he could with his Army to Cracow^ and he 
was foon after Crowned, to the great joy of the Imperial Party, 
but the unexpreflible trouble of all his Subjeds in Saxony. 

The Secular Men, there faw, that the fupporting this Elec- 
tive Crown, would ruin his Hereditary Dominions : And thofe, 
who laid the concerns of the Proteftant Religion to heart, were 
much more troubled, when they faw that Houfe, under whofe 
Protection their Religion grew up at firfl:, now fall off to Po- 
pery. It is true, the prefent Family, ever fmce Maurices tirrie, 
had fhewcd very little zeal in that Caufe : The Eleded King 
had fo fmall a fhare of ReUgion in himfelf, that Httle was to 
be expeded from him : Nor was it much apprehended that he 
would become a Bigot, or turn a Perfecutor : But fuch was the 
eagernefs of the Popifli Clergy, toward the fupprefling what 
they call Herefy, and the perpetual jealoufies, with which there- 
fore they would poffefs the Poles^ were like to be fuch, in cafe 
he ufed no violence towards his Saxon Subjects, as poflibly 
might have great effedls on him ; fo that it is no wonder, if 
they were ftruck with a general Conflernation, upon his revolt. 
His Eledtorefs, tho' a very young perfon, defcended of the 
Houfe of Brandenbourg^ exprelled fo extraordinary a meafure of 
zeal and piety upon this occafion, that it contributed much to 
the prefent quieting of their fears : The new King fent a Po- 
pifli Statholder to Drefde?t^ but fo weak a Man, that there was 
no reafon to apprehend much from any condud: of his. He 
alfo fent tliem all the affurances, that could be given in words, 
that he would make no Change among them, nor has he hi- 
therto made any fteps towards it. 

A very unufual accident happened at this time, that ferved Javenrdtd 
not a little to his quiet EftablifKment on the Throne of Poland : HoitaridAnA 
The Czar was fo fenfible of the defeds of his Education, that, -^"^''"'^• 
in order to the corre6ling thefe, he • refolved to go a little into 
the World, for better Information : He was forming great De- 
ligns ; He intended to make a navigable Canal between the 
Folga and the Tanais, by which, he might carry both mate- 
rials and provifions for a Fleet to Azuph \ and when that Com- 

V o L. II. E e e munica- 

198 The History of the Reign 

1697 munication was opened, he apprehended great things might be 
L<?''V"'^ done afterwards ; He therefore intended to fee the Fleets of Hol- 
land and England^ and to make himfelf as much Mafler of that 
matter, as his Genius could rife up to. He fent an Embaffy to 
Holland^ to regulate fbme matters of Commerce, and to fee if 
they would aflift him in the War, he was defigning againft the 
7'urk ; When the Ambaffadors v/ere fet out, he fettled his Af- 
fairs in fuch hands, as he trufted moft to, and with a fmall re- 
tinue of two or three Servants, he fecretly followed his Ambaf- 
ladors, and quickly overtook them ; He difcovered himfelf firft 
to the Eleftor oi Brandenhourg^ who was then in Prujffiay look- 
ing on the Difpute, that was like to arife in Poland^ in which, 
if a War fhould follow, he might be forced to have a fhare : 
The Czar concerned himfelf much in the matter, not only by 
reafon of the Neighbourhood, but becaufe he feared, that if 
the French Party fhould prevail, France being in an Alliance 
with the lurk^ a King fent from thence would probably, not 
only make a Peace with the Tta'k^ but turn his Arms againft 
himfelf, which would hinder all his Defigns for a great Fleet. 
The French Party was ftrongeft in Lithuania : Therefore the 
Czar fent Orders to his Generals, to bring a great Army to the 
Frontier of that Dutch y, to be ready to break into it, if a War 
fhould begin in Poland : And we were told, that the terror of 
this had a great effed: : From Prujfta^ the Czar went into Hol- 
land^ and thence came over to England -y therefore I will refer 
all that I fhall (ay concerning him, to the time of his leaving 
The Prince A Fleet was Ordered at Dunkirk^ to carry the Prince of Conti 
failed to to Poland : A Squadron of ours, that lay before that Port, kept 
tDnntzick. j^jj^ [^ £qj. fome time ; At laft he got out, and failed to Dant- 
%kk ; But that City had declared for the new King, fo they 
would not fuffer him to land, with all thofe that had come 
with him ; They only confented to fuffer himfelf to Land, with 
a fmall Retinue ; This he thought would not become him ; So 
he landed at Marienbourg^ where he was met by fome of 
the Chief of his Party 5 They prefied him to diftribute the Mo- 
ney, that he had brought from France^ among them 5 And 
promifed to return quickly to him with a great Force ; But he 
was limited by his Inftruftions, and would fee a good Force, 
before he <v^ould part with his Treafure. The new King fent 
fome Troops to difperfe thofe, who were coming together to ferve 
him, and thefe had once almoft feized on the Prince himfelf; 
But he afted after that, with great caution, and would not 
truft the Poles ; He faw no appearance of any force, like to be 
, brought 

of King William III. "i:>9 

brought to him, equal to the Undertaking, and fearing lead, if 1697 
he ftayed too long, he fliould be frozen up in the Balticky he ^-^'^'^'''^^ 
came back to Dunkirk: The Cardinal ftood out ftill: The 
Court of Rome rejoyccd at the pretended Converfion of the new 
King, and owned him ; But he quickly faw fuch a fcene of 
difficulties, that he had reafon to repent his embarking himfclf, 
in fuch a dangerous Undertaking. This may prove of fucli 
Impoitance, both to the Political and .Religious concerns of 
Europe^ that 1 thought it deferved, that a particular mention 
fhould be made of it, tho' it lies at a great diftance from us ; 
It had fome influence, in difpoiing the Frenchy now to be more 
earneft for a Peace ; For if they had got a King of Poland in 
their depend ance, that would have given them a great intereft 
in the Northern Parts, with an eafier accefs, both to afTift the 
Turk and the Malecontents in Hungary. 

The Negotiation for a Peace was held at Ryfwkk^ a HouIe,j,j^^ -^^.^ 
of the King's, between the Hague- and Delft. The chief o{ ^.i Ry^'-xxk. 
our Plenipotentiaries was the Earl of Pembroke^ a Man of emi- 
nent Virtue, and of great and profound Learning, particularly 
in the Mathematicks : This made him a little too fpeculative 
and abftraded in his Notions ; He had great application, but 
he lived a little too much out of the World, tho' in a publick 
Station ; a little more prad:ice among Men, would give him the 
laft finifhing : There was fomewhat, in his perfon and manner, 
that created him an univerfal refped: ; for we had no Man among 
us, whom all lides loved and honoured fo much, as they did 
him : There were two others joined with him in that Em- 

The King of Sweden was received as Mediator, but he died ^ ,, . ^ 

r i-irr> TT-o 1 TheKingot 

before any progrels was made m the 1 reaty : His bon, who s-xedetis 
fucceeded him in his Throne, was alfo received to fucceed him so^ls'ivS-'* 
in the Mediation. The Father was a rough and boifl:erous<i'atoratthc 
Man ; He loved fatigue, and was free from Vice ; He reduced Ryfwick. 
his Kingdom to a Military State, and was ever going round it, 
to fee how his Troops w^ere ordered, and his Difcipline obferv- 
ed : He looked narrowly into the whole Adminiftration ; He 
had quite altered the Conftitution of his Kingdom ; It was for- 
merly changed from being an Eledive, to be a Hereditary King- 
dom, yet till his time, it had continued to be rather an Ari- 
ftocracy, than a Monarchy ; But he got the Power of the Se- 
nators to be quite taken away, fo that it was left free to him, 
to make ufe of fuch Counfellors as he fhould choofe ; The Se- 
nators had enriched themfelves, and opprefled the People ; They 
had devoured the Revenues of the Crown, and in two Reigns, 



200 The History of the Reign 

1697 in which the Sovereign was long in a ftate of Infancy, both in 
UJ''"V"*'4^ Queen Chrijiina\ and in this King's time, the Senators had 
taken care of themfelves, and had ftripped the Crown. So the 
King moved for a general Refumption, and this he obtained 
ealily of the States : Who, as they envied the Wealth of the 
Senators, fo they hoped that, by making the King rich, the Peo- 
ple would be lefs charged with Taxes ; This was not all ; He 
got like wife an A61 of Reviiion, by which thofe who had 
Grants were to account for the mean profits, and this was applied 
even to thofe who had Grants upon valuable Confiderations ; for 
when it appeared, that the valuable Confideration was fatisfied, 
they were to account for all they had received over and above 
that, and to repay this, with the intereft of the Money, at 1 2 
per Cent, for all the Years they had enjoyed it. This brought 
a great Debt on all the Senators and other Families of the King- 
dom, it did utterly ruin them and left them at Mercy ; And 
when the King took from them all they had, he kept them ftill 
in a dependance upon him, giving them Imployments in the 
Army or Militia that he fet up. 

After that, he procured of the States of his Kingdom, an 
abfolute Authority to govern them as he thought fit, and ac- 
cording to Law ; But even this limitation feemed uneafy, and 
their Slavery was finifhed by another AcEt, which he obtained, 
that he fhould not be obliged to govern by Law, but by his 
meer Will and Pleafure : So fuccefsful was he, in the fpace of 
five Years, to ruin all the Families in his Kingdom, and to 
deftroy their Laws and Liberties, and that by their own con- 
fent : He died when his Son was but fifteen years old, and 
gave great hopes of being an aftive, warlike, and indefatiga- 
ble Prince, which his Reign ever fince has demonftrated to the 

The firft aft of his Reign, was the Mediation at Ryfwick, 
where the Treaty went on but flowly, till Harlay^ the firft of 
the French Plenipotentiaries, came to the Hague^ who, as was 
believed, had the fecret. He fhewed a fairer inclination, than 
had appeared in the others, to treat frankly and honoiu-ably ; 
and to clear all the Difficulties, that had been ftarted before : 
But while they were negotiating, by exchanging Papers, which 
was a flow method, fubjed: to iTiuch delay, and too many ex- 
ceptions and evafions ; The Marfhal Bouflers defired a Confe- 
rence vidth the Earl of Portland^ and by the order of their 
Mafters, they met four times, and were long- alone : That Lord 
told me himfelf, that the fubjed; of thofe Conferences, was 
concerning King James : The King defired to know, how the 


of King William III. ±6\ 

King f)f France intended tb difpofe of him, and how he could 1697 
own him, and yet fupport the other : The King of France ^--cj^^v^^ 
would not renounce the protecting him, by any Article of the 
Treaty : But it was agreed between them, that the King of 
France fhould give him no afTiftance, nor give the King any 
difturbancc on his account : And that he fhould retire from the 
Court of France^ either to Avignon or to Italy : On the other 
hand, his Queen fliould have Fifty thoufand pounds a Year, 
which was her Jointure, fettled after his Death, and that it 
fhould now be paid her, he being reckoned as dead to the 
Nation ; and in this, the King very readily acquiefced : Theie 
Meetings made the Treaty go on with more dilpatch, this ten- 
der point being once fettled. 

A new Difficulty arofe with relation tb the Empire : The The Peace 
French offered Brizack and Fribourg^ as an equivalent for Stras- *„" Xe ° 
bourg ; The Court of Vienna confented to this, but the Empire Tf"ty ^%^ 
refufed it ; Thefe Places belonged to the Emperor's Hereditary 
Dominions, whereas Strasbourg was a free City, as well as a 
Proteftant Town ; So the Emperor vvas foon brought to accept 
of the exchange. All other matters were concerted ; Spain 
was now as impatient bf Delays, as France : England and the 
States had no other concern in the Treaty, but tb fecure their 
AlHes, and to fettle a Barrier in the Netherlands ; So in Sep- 
tember the Treaty was figned by all, except the German Princes : 
But a fet time was prefixed for them to come into it. The 
Duke of Savoy was comprehended within it ; and the Princes 
of the Empire, finding they could ftruggle no longer, did at 
laft confent to it. A new piece of Treachery, againft the Pro- 
teftant Religion, broke out in the conclufion of all : The French 
declared that, that part of the Palatinate, which was ftipulated 
to be reftored in the ftate in which it was, by virtue of that 
Article, was to continue in the fame ftate, with relation to Re- 
ligion, in which it was at that time : By this, feveral Churches 
were to be condemned, that otherwife, according to the Laws 
of the Empire, and in particular of thofe Dominions, were to 
be reftored to the Proteftants : The Eledor Palatine accepted 
of the condition very willingly, being bigotted to a high de- 
gree : But fome of the Princes, the King of Sweden in particu- 
lar, as Duke of Deuxponts, refufed to fubmit to it : But this 
had been fecretly concerted, among the whole Popijh Party, 
who are always firm to the Interefts of their Religion, and 
zealous for them ; Whereas, the Proteftant Courts are too ready 
to Sacrifice the common Intereft of their Religion, to their own 
private advantage. The King was troubled at this treacherous 
Vol. II. F f f Motion, 

202 The lUis TORY of the Reign 

1697 Motion, but he faw no Inclination in any of the Allies to op- 
u?=*^/"'''>J pofe it, with the zeal with which it was prelTed on the other 
hand : The Importance of the thing, Sixteen Churches being 
only condemned by it, as the Earl of Pembroke told me, was 
not fuch as to deferve, he fhould venture a rupture upon it i 
And it was thought, the Eledor Palatine might, on other ac- 
counts, be fo obnoxious to the Proteftants, and might need their 
Affiftance and Proteftion fo much, that he would be obliged 
afterwards to reftore thefe Churches, thus wreftcd from them : So 
the King contented himfelf, with ordering his Plenipotentiaries 
to p'roteft againfl: this, which they did in a formal Ad, that they 
, The King by this Peace concluded the great Defign, of put- 

«i\he Peace, ting a ftop to thc progrcfs of the French Arms, which he had 
conftantly purfued from his firft appearance on the Stage, in the 
Year 1672. There was not one of the Allies who complain- 
ed, that he had been forgot by him, or wronged in the Trea- 
ty : Nor had the defire, of having his Title univerfally acknow- 
ledged, raifed any impatience in him, or made him run intd 
this Peace with any indecent hafte. The terms of it were ftill 
too much to the advantage of France ; But the length and 
charge of the War had fo exhaufted the Allies, that the King 
faw the neceflity of accepting the beft Conditions that could 
be got : It is true, France vras more haraffed by the War, yet 
the arbitrary frame of that Government made their King, the 
Mafter of the whole Wealth of his people ; And the War was 
managed on both fides, between them and us, with this vilible 
difference, that every Man who dealt with the French King was 
ruined by it ; whereas, among us, every Man grew rich by his 
dealings with the King : And it was not eafy to fee, how this 
could be either prevented or punifhed. The regard that is 
fhewn to the Members of Parliament among us, makes that few 
abufes can be enquired into or difcovered j And the King found 
his Reign grow fo unacceptable to his people, by the conti- 
nuance of the War, that he faw the neceflity of coming to a 
Peace. The States were under the lame prellure ; they were 
heavier charged, and fuffered more by the War than the Eng- 
lijh : The French got indeed nothing by a War which they 
had moft perlidioufly begun ; They were forced to return to 
the Peace of Nimeguen \ Pignerol and Brizack, which Cardi- 
nal Richlieu had conlidered as the Keys of Italy and Germany^ 
were now parted with ; And all that bafe praftice, of claiming 
fo much, under the head of Re-unions and Dependencies, was 
abandoned : The Dutchy of Lorram was alfo entirely reftored ; 
4 i It 

of King William IIL 20^ 

It was generally thought, that the King o{ France intended, to 1697 
live out the reft of his days in quiet ; For his parting with u;^v"*'%>J 
Barcelona^ made all people conclude, that he did not intend 
to profecute the Dauphins Pretenfions upon the Crown of 
Spairiy after that King's Death, by a new War ; and that he 
would only try how to manage it by Negotiation. 

The moft melancholy part of this Treaty was, that no ad- 
vantages were got by it, in favour of the Proteftants in France ; 
The French Refugees made all pofTible Applications to the King, 
and to the other Proteftant Allies j But as they were no part of 
the Caufe of the War, lb it did not appear that the Allies could 
do more for them, than to recommend them, in the warmeft 
manner, to the King of France ; But he was fo far engaged 
in a courfe of Superftition and Cruelty, that their conditit)n be- 
came worfe by the Peace ; The Court was more at leifure to 
look after them, and to perfecute them, than they thought fit 
to do, during the War. The Military Men in France did ge- 
nerally complain of the Peace, as diflionourable and bafe; The 
Jacobites among us, were the more confounded at the News 
of it, becaufe the Court of France did, to the laft minute, af- 
fure King James, that they would never abandon his Interefts: 
And his Queen fent over afTurances, to their Party here, that 
England would be left out of the Treaty, and put to maintain 
the War alone : Of which they were fo confident, that they 
entred into deep Wagers upon it ; a practice little known among 
us before the War, but it was carried on, in the progrefs of it, 
to a very extravagant degree ; So that they were ruined in their . ^ 
Fortunes, as well as funk in their Exped:ations, by the Peace ; 
Upon which, it was faid, King yames\ Queen made a bold. 
Repartee to the French King, when he told her the Peace 
was figned : She faid, fhe wifhed it might be fuch, as fhould 
raife his Glory, as much as it might fettle his Repofe. 

But while the Peace was concluded in thefe parts, the War 
between the Emperor and the Turky went on in Hungary. 
The Imperial Army was commanded by Prince Eugene, a Bro- 
ther of the Count of Soijfons, who apprehending, that he was 
not Uke to be fo much confidered, as he thought he might 
deferve in France, went and ferved the Emperor, and grew up, 
in a few years, 'to be one of the greateft Generals of the 
Age. ,; ii < J 

The Grand Signior came to command his Armies in perfon. The Turks 
and lay encamped on both fides of the Theijfe, having laid a Army in 
Bridge over the River ; Prince Eugene marched up to him, and routed. ^ 
attackt his Camp, on the Weft fide of the River, and after a 


204 The History of the Reign 

1697 fhort difpute, he broke in and was Mafter of the Camp, and 
^^^^^^"-^/"^^ forced all, who lay on that fide, over the River ; In this ac- 
tion many were killed and drowned ; He followed them crofi 
the Theijfe and gave them a total defeat : Mdft of their Jani- 
zaries were cut off, and the Prince became Mafter of all their Ar-^ 
tillery and Magazines : The Grand Signior himfelf narrowly e- 
fcaped, with a Body of Horfe, to Belgrade ; This was a .com- 
pleat Victory, and was the greateft blow the "Turks had received, in 
the whole War. At the feme time, the Czar was very fuccefsful 
on his fide againft the Tar tar tans. The Venetians did little ori 
their part, and the Confufions in Poland made that Republick 
but a feeble Ally : So that the weight of the War lay wholly 
on the Emperor. But tho' he, being now delivered from the 
War with France., was more at leifure to profecute this, yet his 
Revenue was fo exhaufted, that he was willing to fuffer a 
Treaty to be carried on, by the Mediation of England and Hol- 
land ', And the French, being now no longer concerned to en- 
gage the Port to carry on the War, the Grand Signior, fearing 
a Revolution upon his jU fuccefs, was very glad to hearken to 
a Treaty, which was carried on all this Winter, and was fi- 
nifhed the next year at Carlowitz, from which place it takes its 
The peace gy \^^ hoxk Parties were to keep that, of which they were 
w/rs. then poffeffed, and fo this long War of Hungary, which had 
brought both fides by turns very near the laft extremities, was 
concluded by the Diredion and Mediation of the King of Eng- 
land : Upon which I will add a curious Obfervation, that tho' it 
may feem to be out of the Laws of Hiftory, yet confidering my 
Profeflion, will I hope be forgiven. 
The dura- Dr. Lloyd, the prefent moft learned Bifhop of Worcefter, 
P^yfh^^ who has now, for above twenty Years, been ftudying the Reve- 
Wars/ lations with an amazing diligence and exadnefs, had long be- 
fore this year faid, The Peace, between the Turks and the Pa- 
pal Chriftians, was certainly to be made in the year 1698, 
which he made out thus : The four Angels, mentioned in the 
fourteenth Chapter of the Revelations, that were bound in the 
River Euphrates, which he expounds to be the Captains of the 
Turkijh Forces, that till then were fubjed to the Sultan at Ba- 
bylon, were to be loofed, or freed from that Yoke, and to fet 
up for themfelves : And thefe were prepared, to flay the third 
part of men, for an hour, a day, a month, and a year : He reck- 
ons the year, in St. "John, is the Julian year of 365 days, that 
is, in the Prophetick ftile, each day a year ; a month is 30 of 
thefe days ; and a day makes one ; which added to the former 


of King William III. lo; 

number makes 396. Now he proves from Hiftorians, that Ot- 1697 

t07nan came, and began his Conquefts at Proujfe^ in the year '^-^(^^^^/"^^ 

1302, to which the former number, in which they were to flay 

the third part of men, being added, it muft end in the year 

1698 : And tho' the Hiftorians do not mark the hour, or the 

twelfth part of the day or year, which is a month, that is, the 

beginning of the Deftrudion the Turks were to make ; yet he is 

confident, if that is ever known, that the Prophecy will be 

found, even in that, to be pundually accompUfhed. After this, 

he thinks their time of hurting the Papal Chriftians, is at an 

end 5 They may indeed ftill do mifchief to the Mufcovites^ or 

perfecute their own Chriftian Subied:s, but they can do no hurt 

to the Papalins ; and he is fo pofitivc in this, that he confents 

that all his Scheme fhould be laid afjde, if the Turk engages in 

a new War with them ; and I muft confels, that their refufing 

novv, in a courfe of three years, to take any advantage from 

the Troubles in Hungary^ to begin the War again, tho' we 

know they have been much follicited to it, gives for the prefent 

a confirmation, to this learned Prelate's Expofition of that part 

of the Prophecy. 

The King came over to England^ about the middle of No- The King 
vember ; And was received by the City of London^ in a fort of to England. 
Triumph, with all the Magnificence that he would admit ; 
Some progrefs was made in preparing Triumphal Arches, but 
he put a ftop to it ; He feemed, by a natural modefty, to have 
contracted an antipathy to all vain fhows ; which was much 
increafed in him, by what he had heard of the grofs excefles 
of flattery, to which the French have run, beyond the exam- 
ples of former Ages, in honour of their King; Who having 
fhewed too great a pleafure in thefe, they have been fo far pur- 
fued, that the wit of that Nation has been for fome years 
chiefly imployed on thefe ; For they faw that mens fortunes 
were more certainly advanced, by a new and lively invention 
in that way, than by any fervice or merit whatfoever. This, 
in which that King has feemed to be too much pleafed, rendring 
him contemptible to better Judges, gave the King fuch an aver- 
fion to every thing that looked that way, that he fcarce lx)re 
even with things, that were decent and proper. 

The King ordered many of his Troops to be disbanded foon Confuita- 
after the Peace ; But a ftop was put to that, becaufe the French a fianding 
were very flow in evacuating the Places, that were to be reftor- -^"^"y* 
ed by the Treaty, and were not beginning to reduce their 
Troops : So, tho' the King declared what he intended to do, 
yet he made no hafte to execute it, till it fhould appear how 

Vol. II. G g g t^c 

2o6 The Yii^iioviY of the Reign 

1697 the French intended to govern themfelves. The King thought 
^^^^^/"^i^ it was abfolutely neceffary, to keep up a conflderable Land 
Force; he knew the French would ftill maintain great Ar- 
mies, and that the pretended Prince of Wales would certainly 
be afTifted by them, if England fhould fall into a feeble and 
defencelefs Condition ; The King of Spain was alfo, in fuch an 
uncertain ftate of health, fo weak and fo exhaufted, that it 
feemed neccflary, that England fhould be in a condition to bar 
Frances invading that Empire, and to maintain the Rights of 
the Houfe of Aufiria. But tho' he explained himfelf thus in 
general to his Minifters, yet he would not defcend to particu- 
lars, to tell how many he thought neceflary, fo that they had 
not authority to declare, what was the loweft number the King 
infifled on. 
The matter Papers were writ on both fides, for and againft a ftanding 
bSrfides. Force ; On the one hand, it was pretended, that a ftanding Army 
was incompatible with publick Liberty, and according to the 
Examples of former times, the one muft fwallow up the other; 
It was propofed, that the Militia might be better modelled and 
more trained, which, with a good naval Force, fome thought^ 
would be an effedual fecurity againft Foreign Invafions, as 
well as it would maintain our Laws and Liberties at home. 
On the other fide, it was urged, that fince all our Neighbours 
were armed, and the moft formidable of them all kept up 
fuch a mighty Force, nothing could give us a real fecurity, 
but a good Body of regulated Troops ; Nothing could be made 
of the Mihtia, chiefly of the Horfe, but at a vaft charge ; and 
if it was well regulated, and well commanded, it would prove 
a mighty Army ; But this of the Militia was only talked of, to 
put by the other ; for no projed: was ever propofed to render 
it more ufeful j A Force at Sea might be fo fhattered, while 
the Enemy kept within their Ports (as it aftually happened at 
the Revolution) that this ftrength might come to be ufelefs, 
when we fliould need it moft ; So that without a conflderable 
Land Force, it feemed the Nation would be too much expofed. 
The word, Jlanding Armyy had an odious found in Englijh ears ; 
So the popularity lay on the other flde ; And the King's Mi- 
nifters fuft'ered generally in the good Charaders, they had hi- 
therto maintained, becaufe they ftudied to ftop the tide, that 
run fo ftrong the other way. 
ASeffionof At the Opening the Seflion of Parliament, the King told 
Parliament, them, that in his opinion, a ftanding Land Force was neceflary ; 
The Houfe of Commons carried the jealoufy of a ftanding Ar- 
my fo high, that they would not bear the Motion, nor did they 


of King William III. - 207 

like the way the King took, of offering them his opinion in the 1697 
point : This feemed a prefcription to them, and mignt biafs fome, '^x^^^v*^ 
in the Counfels they were to offer the King, and be a bar to the 
freedom of Debate ; The Managers for the Court had no Or- 
ders to name any number ; So the Houfe came to a Refo- 
lution of paying off and disbanding all the Forces, that had 
been raifed fince the year 1680 ; This Vote brought the Army 
to be lefs than 8000 : The Court was ftruck with this ; and A fniall 
then they tried, by an after-game, to raife the number to 1^000^°'''^^'^* 
Horfe and Foot. If this had been propofed in time, it would 
probably have been carried without any difficulty ; but the 
King was fo long upon the referve, that now, when he thought 
fit to fpeak out his mind, he found it was too late : So a Force 
not exceeding loooo Horfe and Foot was all that the Houfe 
could be brought to. This gave the King the greatefl diftafte 
of any thing, that had befallen him in his whole Reign ; He 
thought it would derogate much from him, and render his 
Alliance fb inconfiderable, that he doubted whether he could 
carry on the Government, after it fhould be reduced to fo weak 
and fo contemptible a flate. He faid, that if he could have 
imagined, that after all the fervice he fhould have done the 
Nation, he fhould have met with fuch returns, he would never 
have meddled in our Affairs 5 and that he was weary of govern- 
ing a Nation, that was fo jealous, as to lay itfelf open to an 
Enemy, rather than truft him, who had a£led fo faithfully dur- 
ing his whole Life, that he had never once deceived thofe who 
trufled him. He faid this, with a great deal more to the fame 
purpofe, to my felf ; But he faw the neceffity of fubmitting to 
that, which could not be helped. 

During thefe Debates, the Earl of Sunderland had argued >. ^ 
with many upon the neceffity of keeping up a greater Force ; ^^^ %^ 
This was in fo many hands, that he was charged as the Author The Earl of* 
of the Counfel, of keeping on foot a flanding Army : So he Sfr^ffr "4 
was often named in the Houfe of Commons, with many fevere bufinefs. 
refledlions, for which there had been but too much occafion 
given, during the two former Reigns. The Tories prefled hard 
upon him, and the Whigs were fo jealous of him, that he appre- 
hending, that while the former would attack him, the others 
would defend him faintly, refolved to prevent a publick affront, 
and to retire from the Court and from Bufinefs ; not only againft 
the entreaties of his Friends, but even the King's earneft defire 
that he would continue about him ; Indeed, upon this occafion, 
his Majcfly cxpreffed fuch a concern and value for him, that 


2o8 The History of the Reign 

1698 the jealoufies were encreafed, by the confidence the Court 
Ki^'^'^^y'^ faw, the King had in him. During the time of his credit, 
things had been carried on, with more fpirit and better 
fuccefs than before : He had gained fuch an afcendant over 
the King, that he brought him to agree to fome things, that 
few expefted he woujd have yielded to : He managed the 
publick affairs, in both Houfes, with fo much fteddinefs and 
fb good a conduft, that he had procured to himfelf a greater 
meafure ef efteem, than he had in any of the former parts of 
his Life; And the feeblenels and disjointed ftate we fell into, 
after he withdrew, contributed not a little to eftablifh the Cha^ 
rafter, which his adminiftration had gained him. 

The Parliament went on flowly in fixing the Fund for the 
Lift fettled SuppKcs they had voted : They fettled a Revenue on the King 
f " lI/^ "^ ^°^ \^\^^-i for the ordinary expence of the Government, which 
was called the Civil Lift : This they carried to Seven hundred 
thoufand pounds a year, which was much more than the for- 
mer Kings of England could apply to thofe occafions ; Six 
hundred thoufand pounds was all that was defigned, but it had 
been promifed at the Treaty of Ryfwick^ that King yamesy be- 
ing now as dead to England, his Queen fhould enjoy her Join- 
ture, that was Fifty thoufand pound a year ; and it was intend- 
ed to fettle a Court about the Duke of Glocejler, who was then 
nine years old ; So to enable the King, to bear that expence, 
this large provifibn was made for the Civil Lift : But by fome 
( great error in the management, tho' the Court never had fo 

much, and never fpent fo little, yet payments were ill made, 
and by fome ftrange confumption, all was wafted. 
AnewEajl- While the Houfe of Commons was feeking a Fund, for 
India Com- paying the Arrears of the Army, and for the Expence at Sea 
^*"^' and Land for the next year; A Propofition was made, for 
conftituting a new Eajl-India Company, who fhould trade with 
a joint Stock, others being admitted in a determinate Propor- 
tion to a feparate Trade : The old Eaji-India Company oppofed 
this, and offered to advance a Sum (but far fhort of what the 
publick Occafions required) for an Ad of Parliament, that 
fhould confirm their Charters. The Projectors of the new 
Company offered two Millions, upon the fecurity of a good 
Fund, to pay the Intereft of their Money at eight per Cent ; 
Great oppofition was made to this : For the King, upon an Ad- 
drefs that was made to him by the Houfe of Commons, had 
granted the old Company a new Charter, they being obliged 
to take in a new Subfcription of Seven hundred thoufand 
pounds, to encreafe their Stock and Trade. Thofe empowered 



' of King William IITi ^ 1 1^ 

by this new Charter, were not charged with any Malevtrfation ; 1698 
-They had been trading under great difadvantages, and with great u?'''V>>J 
lofi'es, by reafon of the War : It is true, the King had referved 
a p6wer to himfelf, by a claufc ih the Charter, to difiblve them 
upon warning given, three years before fuch diflbkition : So it 
was faid, that no injuftice was done them, if ptibHck notice 
fhould be given of fuch an intended diflblution. To this it 
was anfvvered, that the Claufe, referving that power, was put 
in many Charters, but that it was conlldered only as a threat- 
ning, obHging them to a good condud ; But that it was not 
ordinary to diflblve a Company, by virtue of fuch a Claufc, when 
no Error or Maleverfation was objedcd : The old Company 
came at laft to offer the whole Sum tliat was wanted ; But the 
Party was now formed, fo they came too late, and this had no 
other effet^:, but to raife a clamour againft this proceeding, aS 
extremely rigorous^ if not unjuft. This threw the old Com- 
pany, and all concerned in it, ihto the hands of the Toriesj 
and made a great breach and disjointing in die City of Lon- 
don : And it is certain, that this Ad, together with the Incli- 
Jiations which thofe of the Whigs, who were in good Pofts," The whigj 
had exprefled for keeping up a greater Land Force, did con- Jo'e their 
tribute to the blafting the reputation, they had hitherto main- Nation, 
tained, of being good Patriots, and was made ufe of over 
England by the Tories, to difgrace both the King and them. 
To this, another charge of a high nature was added, that they 
robbed the Publick, and applied much of the Money, that was 
given for the fervice of the Nation, both to the lupporting a; 
vaft Expence, and to the raifing great Eftates to themfelves. 
This was fendble to the people, who were uncafy under heavy 
Taxes, and were too ready to believe, that, according to the 
pradice in King Charles % time, a great deal of the Money that 
was given in Parliament, was divided among thofe who gave it. 
Thefe clamours were raifed and managed with great dexterity, 
by thofe, who intended to render the King, and aH who were 
beft affeded to him, fo odious to the Nation, that by this meansf 
they might carry fuch an Eledion, of a new Houfe of Com- 
mons, as that by it all might be overturned. It was faid, that 
the Bank of England and the new Eaji- India Company, being- 
in the hands of Whigs, they would have the command of alt 
the Money, and by confequence, of all the Trade of England y 
So a great Party was raifed againft the new Company, in both 
Houfes : But the Ad for it was carried : The King vvas very 
indifferent in the matter at firft, but the greatnefs of the Sum- 
that was wanted, which could not probably be raifed by any 
Vol. li. H h h other' 

110 The History of the Reign 

i6g8 other Projeft, prevailed on him; The Interefts of Princes car- 
Us^^v^*^ rying them often to ad: againft their private Opinions and In- 
The King Bcforc the King went into Holland^ which was in July^ 
of spaitC^ News came from Spain, that their King was dying ; This 
heaitiu^ ° Alarm was often given before, but it came much quicker now ; 
The French upon this, fent a Fleet to lie before Cadiz, which 
came thither, at the time that the Galleons were expeded 
home from the Weji-Indies ; And it was apprehended, that, if 
the King had died, they would have feized on all that Trea- 
fure. We fent a Fleet thither to fecure them, but it came too 
late, to have done any fervice, if it had been needed ; This was 
much cenfured, but the Admiralty excufed themfelves, by faying, 
that the ParHament was fo late in fixing the Funds for the Fleet, 
that it was not pofTible to be ready fooner than they were : 
The King of Spain recovered for that time, but it was fo far from 
any entire recovery, that a Relapfe was ftill apprehended. When 
the King went to Holland, he left fome fealed Orders behind 
him, of which fome of his Minifters told me, they knew not the 
contents till they were opened: By thefe, the King ordered 16000 
Men to be kept up ; For excufing this, it was faid, that tho' the 
Parliament had, in their Votes, mentioned only loooo Land men, 
to whom they had afterwards added 3000 Marines, and had 
raifed only the Money neceffary for that number, yet no de- 
termined number was mentioned in the A6t itfelf ; So, fincc 
the apprehenfion of the King of Spaing Death made it advifa- 
ble, to have a greater force ready for fuch an Accident, the 
King rcfolved to keep up a Force, fomewhat beyond that, which 
the Houfe of Commons had confented to ; The leaving thefe 
Orders fealed, made the whole blame to be caft fingly on the 
King, as it skreened the Minifters from a fhare in this Counfel : 
And we have more than once known Minifters put the advices, 
that they themfelves gave, in fuch a manner on their Mafters, 
that in executing them, our Kings have taken more care to 
fhelter their Minifters, than to prcferve themfelves. 
The Duke The King, before his leaving England, fettled a Houfhold 
p!xt^nT£ about the Duke of Glocejier-, The Earl of Marlborough, who 
thodofE- was reftored to favour, was made his Governor, and I was 
named by the King, to be his Preceptor. I ufed all pollible 
endeavours to excufe my felf ; I had hitherto no fhare in the 
Princefs's favour or confidence ; I was alfo become uneafy at 
fome things in the King's conduct ; I confidered him as a glo- 
rious Inftrument, raifed up by God, who had done great things 
by him j I had alfo fuch obligations to him, that I had refolv- 


of King William lit. m 

ed, on publick as well as on private accounts, never to engage 1698 
in any oppofition to him, and yet I could not help thinking Ui^'V^^J 
he might have carried matters further than he did ; And that 
he was giving his Enemies handles, to weaken his Government. 
I had tried, but with little fuccefs, to ufe all due freedom with 
him ; He did not love to be found fault with ; and tho' he bore 
every thing that I faid very gently, yet he either difcouraged 
me with filence, or anfwered in fuch general exprefllons, that 
they fignified little or nothing. Thefe confiderations difpofed 
me, rather to retire from the Court and Town, than to engage 
deeper in fuch a conftant attendance, for fo many years, as 
this Imployment might run out to ; The King made it indeed 
eafy, in one refped: ; for as the young Prince was to be all the 
Summer at Windfor^ which was in my Diocefe ; So he allowed 
me ten weeks in the year, for the other parts of my Diocefe. All 
my endeavours to decline this were without effedl ; the King 
would trufl that care only to me, and the Princefs gave me fuch 
encouragement, that I refolved not only to fubmit to this, which 
feemed to come from a direction of Providence, but to give 
my felf wholly up to it. I took, to my own Province, the 
reading and explaining the Scriptures to him, the inflruding him 
in the Principles of Religion, and the Rules of Virtue, and the 
giving him a view of Hiftory, Geography, Politicks and Go- 
vernment. I refolved alfo to look very cxadly to all the Maf- 
ters, that were appointed to teach him other things ; But now 
I turn, to give an account of fome things, that more immedi- 
ately belong to my own Profeflion. 

This year, Thomas Firming a famous Citizen of London, di-The pro- 
ed ; He was in great efleem, for promoting many charitable De- fj^^Hm."" 
figns, for looking after the Poor of the City, and fetting them 
to work ; for raifing great Sums for Schools and Hofpitals, and 
indeed, for Charities of all forts, private and publick ; He had 
fuch credit with the richefl Citizens, that he had the command 
of great Wealth, as oft as there was occafion for it ; And he 
laid out his own time chiefly, in advancing all fuch defignsi 
Thefe things gained him a great reputation ; He was called a 
Socinian, but was really an Arian, which he very freely own- 
ed, before the Revolution ; But he gave no publick vent to it, 
as he did afterwards. He fludied to promote his Opinions, af- 
ter the Revolution, with much heat ; Many Books were print- 
ed againft the Trinity, which he difperfed over the Nation, dif- 
tributing them freely to all who would accept of them ; Pro- 
fane Wits were much delighted with this ; It became a com- 
mon Topick of Difcourfe, to treat all Myfteries in Religion, as 


2 12 The History of the Reign 

1698 the contrivances 6f Priefts, to bring the World into a blind 
L<<j'^v"'W fubmifllon to them ; Prieftcraft grew ' t^o * be another word in 
fafhion, and the Enemies of ReHgion veritbd all their Impieties, 
under the cover of thefe wOrds ; But while thefe pretended much 
zeal for the Government, thofe who were at work to under- 
mine it, made grfeat ufe of all this ; They raifed a great outcry 
againft Socinanifm, and gave it out, that it was like to over-ruii 
all 5 For ArchbiiTiop Ttllotfo?i^ and fome of the Bifhops, had 
lived in great friendship with Mr. FiHnhij vVhole charitable tem- 
per they thought it became them to encourage ; Many under- 
took to write in this Controverfy ; Some of thefe were not fit- 
ted for handling fuch a nice Subjedt ; A learned Deift made A 
fevere remark on the progrefs of this Difpute; He faid, he 
was fure the Divines would be too hard for the Sociniansy in 
proving their Doctrines out of Scripture ; But if the Dodrins^ 
could be once laughed at and rejedled as abfurd, then its being 
proved, how well foever, out of Scripture, would turn to be 
an Argument againft the Scriptures themfelves, as containing 
fuch incredible Doftrines. 
Different The Divincs did not go all in the fame method, nor upori 

Expiana- ^j^^ fame Principles; Dr. Sherlock engaged in the Controverfy; 
Trinity He was a clcar, a polite and a ftrong Writer, and had got great 
credit in the former Reign, by his Writings againft thofe ot the 
Church of Rome ; But he was apt to aflume too much to 
himfelf, and to treat his Adverfaries with contempt ; This creat- 
ed him many Enemies, and made him pafs for an infolent haugh- 
ty Man ; He was at firft a Jacobite, and while, for not taking 
the Oaths, he was under fufpenfion, he wrote againft the So- 
ciniansy in which he took a new method of explaining the 
Trinity ; He thought there were three eternal Minds ; two of 
thefe ifluing from the Father, but that thefe were one, by rea- 
fon of a mutual confcioulhefs in the three, to every of their 
thoughts : This was looked on as plain Tritheifm 5 But all the 
Party applauded him and his Book ; Soon after that, an accident 
of an odd nature happened. 
Dr.sheriock There was a Book drav/n up by Bifhop Overall^ fourfcore 
cobites! years ago, concerning Government; in which, its being of a 
Divine Inftitution was very pofitively afferted ; It was read in 
Convocation, and pafled by that Body, in order to the pub- 
liftiing it;- in opposition to the Principles laid down, in that fa- 
mous book of Parfons the Jefuit, publifhed under the name 
of Dollinan\ King James the Firft, did not like a Convoca- 
tion entring into luch a Theory of PoHticks ; So he wrote a 
k>ng Letter to Abbot^ who was afterwards Archbiihop of Ca7i- 


of King William lit. ii? 

terbury, but was then in the Lower Houfc ; I had die Original, 1698 
writ all in his own hand, in my poffcflion ; By it he dcfired, vu^-v"*'*-* 
that no further progrefs fhould be made in that matter, and 
that this Book might not be offered to him for his aflent ; Thus 
that matter flept, but Sancroft had got Overafs own Book into 
his hands; So, in the beginning of this Reign, he refolved to 
publifh it, as an authentick Declaration, that the Church of 
England had made in this matter ; And it was publifhed, as 
well as licenfed by him, a very few days before he came under 
fufpenfion, for not taking the Oaths : But there was a Para- 
graph or two in it, that they had not confidered, which was 
plainly calculated, to juftify the owning the United Provinces 
to be a lawful Government: For it Was there laid down,, that 
when a change of Government was brought to a thorough fet- 
tlement, it was then to be owned and fubmitted to, as a work of 
the Providence of God ; and a part of King yames\ Letter to 
Abbot related to this. When Sherlock obfcrved this, he had 
fome Conferences with the Party, in order to convince them 
by that, which he faid had convinced himfelf ; Soon after that 
he took the Oaths, and was made Dean of St. Pauls \ He 
publifhed an account of the grounds he went on, which drew out 
many virulent Books againft him ; After that they purfued him 
with the clamour of Tritheifm, which was done with much 
malice, by the very fame perfons, who had highly magnified 
the performance, while he was of their Party : So powerful is 
the biafs of intereft and paflion, in the moft fpeculative and 
the moft important Do6lrines. 

Dr. South, a. learned but an ill-natured Divine, who had 
taken the Oaths, but with the referve of an equivocal fenfe, wrote a- 
which he put on them, attackt Dr. Sherlock's Book of the Tri- 8*'"^^ '''"'' 
nity, not without Wit and Learning, but without any meafure 
of Chriftian Charity, and without any regard, either to the 
dignity of the Subject, or the decencies of his ProfefTion. He 
explained the Trinity in the common method, that the Deity 
was one Effence in three SubUftencies ; Sherlock replied, and 
charged this as Sabellianifm ; and fome others went into the 
Difpute, with fome Learning, but with more heat : One preached 
Sherlock's Notion, before the Univerfity of Oxford, for which 
he was cenfured ; but Sherlock wrote againft that Cenfure, with 
the higheft ftrains of contempt : The Socinians triumphed, not 
a Httle upon all this : and, in feveral of their Books, they divi- 
ded their Adverfaries into real and nominal Trinitarians ; Sher- 
lock was put in the firft Clafs ; As for the fecond Clafs, they 
pretended it had been the Dodtrine of the Weftern Church, 
Vol. n. I i i ever 

214 The History of the Reign 

1698 ever fince the time that the fourth Council in the Lateran faC ; 
uj'-v''"'^ Some, who took advantage from thefe Debates to publifh their 
Impieties without fear or fhame, rejoiced to fee the Divines 
engaged in fuch Aibtle Queftionsj And they reckoned, that, 
which fide foever might have the better, in the turn of this 
Controverfy, yet in conclufion they alone muft be the Gain- 
ers, by every Difpute, that brought fuch important matters to 
a doubtfulnels, which might end in Infidelity at laft. 
The King's The ill cffeds that were like to follow, on thofe different 
injunaions Explanations, made the Bifhops move the King to fet out In- 

filencc thole . i . . . , J. ■• ^° p 

Difputes. jundions, requiring them to lee to the reprelling of Error and 
Herefy, with all poffible zeal, more particularly in the funda- 
mental Articles of the Chriftian Faith : And to watch againft and 
hinder the ufe of new Terms or new Explanations in thofe mat- 
ters : This put a flop to thofe Debates, as Mr. Firming Death 
put a flop to the printing and fpreading of Socinian Books. 
Upon all this, fome angry Clergymen, who had not that fhare 
of Preferment, that they thought they deferved, begun to com- 
plain, that no Convocation was fuffered to fit, to whom the 
judging in fuch points, fcemed moft properly to belong : Books 
were writ on this head; It was faid, that the Law made in 
King Henry the Eighth's time, that limited the Power of that 
body, fo that no new Canons could be attempted or put in 
ufe, without the King's Licenfe and Confent, did not difable 
them from fitting : On the contrary, a Convocation was held 
to be a part of the Parliament, fo that it ought always to at- 
tend upon it, and to be ready, when advifed with, to give 
their Opinions chiefly in matters of Religion. They had alfo, 
as thefe men pretended, a right to prepare Articles and Canons, 
and to lay them before the King, who might indeed deny his 
affent to diem, as he did to Bills, that were offered him by 
both Houfes of Parliament. This led them to flrike at the 
King's Supremacy, and to affert the intrinfick Power of the 
Church which had been difbwned by this Church, ever fince the 
time of the Reformation : And indeed, the King's Supremacy 
was thought to be carried formerly too high, and that, by the 
fame fort of men, who were now fludying to lay it as low. It 
feemed, that fome men were for maintaining it, as long 
as it was in their management, and that it made for them: 
but refolved to weaken it, all they could, as foon as it went 
out of their hands, and was no more at their difcretion : 
Such a turn do mens interefls and partialites give to their Opi- 


of King William III. ' ii; 

All this while it was manifeft, that there were two different 1698 
Parties among the Clergy ; One was firm and faithful to the '-'"^^"v-''*^ 
prefent Government, and ferved it with zeal ; Thefe did not Divifion* 
envy the Diffenters the eafe, that the Toleration gave them ; ck^gy.'^^ 
they wiflied for a favourable opportunity of making fuch alte- 
rations, in fome few Rites and Ceremonies, as might bring into 
the Church thofe, who were not at too great a diftance from 
it ; And I do freely own that I was of this number. Others 
took the Oaths indeed, and concurred in every a<ft of compliance 
with the Government, but they were not only cold in ferving 
it, but were always blaming the Adminiftration, and aggravat- 
ing misfortunes ; They expreffed a great efteem for Jacobites, 
and in all Elections, gave their Votes to thofe, who leaned that 
way : At the fame time, they fhewed great refentments againft 
the Dillenters, and were enemies to the Toleration, and leemed 
refolved never to confent to any alteration in their favour. The 
bulk of the Clergy ran this way, fo that the moderate Party 
was far out numbered. Profane Minds had too great advanta- 
ges from this, in refleding feverely on a body of men, that took 
Oaths, and performed publick Devotions, when the reft of their 
Lives was too publick and too vifible a contradidion, to fuch 
Oaths and Prayers. 

But while we are thus unhappily disjointed in matters ofDivifions 
Religion, our Neighbours are not fo entirely united, as they 1'"°'?.^ '^' 
pretend to be ; The Quietifts are faid to encreafe not only in 
Italy^ but in France \ The Perfecution there began at firft, upon 
a few Janfenijis, but it turned foon to the Proteftants, on whom 
it has been long very heavy and bloody ; This had put an end 
to all Difputes in thofe matters j A new Controverfy has fince 
been managed, with great heat, between Bajfuet^ the famous 
Bifhop, firft of Condom and now of Meaux ; and La Motte Fe- 
nelony who was once in high favour with Madam Maintenoriy 
and was, by her means, made Preceptor to the Dauphins Chil- 
dren, and afterwards advanced to be Archbifliop of Cambray. 
He wrote a Treatife of Spiritual Maxims, according to the fub- 
tilty, as well as the fublimity of the Writers, called the Myf- 
ticks ; In it, he diftinguifhed between that, which was falfly 
chained upon them, and that which was truly their Dodrine : 
He put the perfedion of a fpiritual Life, in the loving of God 
purely for himfelf, without any regard to our felves, even to 
our own Salvation : And in our being brought to fuch a ftate 
of Indifference, as to have no will nor defire of our own, but 
to be fo perfectly united to the Will of God, as to rejoice in 
the hope of Heaven, only becaufe it is the Will of God, to 


21 6 The History of the Reign 

1698 bring us thither, without any regard to our own happinefs. 
^^^<^''''>^'^*>^ Bojfuet wrote fb fhaxply againft him, that one is tempted to 
think, a rivaky for favour and preferment had as great a {hare 
in it, as zeal for the Truth. The matter was fent to Rome., 
Fenelon had fo many authorized and canonized Writers of his 
fide, that many diftinftions muft be made ufe of to feparate 
them from him ; But the King was^ much fet againft him*; He 
put him from his attendance on the young Princefs, and fent 
him to his Diocefe ; His difgrace fefved to raife his Charadler. 
Madam Maintemn\ violent averfton to a man, fhe fo lately 
raifed, was imputed to his not being fo tradable as fhe expelled, 
in perfwading the King to own his Marriage with her : But 
that I leave to conjedure. There is a breach running thro' the 
Lutheran Churches ; It appeared at firft openly at Hamborough, 
where many were going into ftrider methods of Piety, who 
from thence were called Pi,etifts ; there is no difference of Opi- 
nion between them and the reft, who are moft rigid to old 
forms, and are jealous of all new things, efpecially c^ a ftrider 
courfe of Devotion, beyond what they themfelves are ii«:line(i 
to pradtife : There is likewife a Spirit of Zeal and Devotion, 
and of publick Charities, fprung at home, beyond what was 
known among us in former times ; of which I may have a good 
occafion to make mention hereafter. 

But to return from this digreflion : The Company in Scot-- 
fettle at 2>^-/^W, this year, fet out a Fleet, with a Colony, on defign to 
rieu. {-g^-j-ie ii^ America ; The fecret was better kept, than could have 

been well expeded, conlldering the many hands in which it 
was lodged ; It appeared at laft, that the true defign had been 
guefTed, from the firft motion of it ; They landed at Darieify 
which, by the report that they fent over, was capable of being 
made a ftrong place, with a good Port. It was no wonder, 
that the Spaniards complained loudly of this ; It lay fo near 
Porto Belo and Panama on the one fide, and Carthagena on 
the other, that they could not think they were fafe, when fuch 
a Neighbour came fo near the Center of their Empire in A- 
merica \ The King of France complained alfo of this, as an In- 
vafion of the Spafiijh Dominion, and offered the Court of Ma- 
drid a Fleet to diflodge them. The Spaniards preffed the King 
hard upon this ; They faid, they were once poffeffed of that 
place ; and tho' they found it too unhealthy to fettle there, yet 
the right- to it belonged ftill to them : So this was a breach of 
Treaties, and a violent poffcffion of their Country ; In anfwer 
to this, the Scotch pretended, that the Natives of Darien were 
never conquered by the Spaniards., and were by confequence 

of King William III. 217 

a free People ; they faid, they had purchafed of them leave to 1 698 
poflefs themfelves of that place, and that the Spaniards aban- l^j'^'^'jJ 
doned the Country, becaufe they could not reduce the Natives : 
So the pretenfion of the iirft difcovery was made void, when 
they went off from it, not being able to hold it ; and then 
the Natives being left to themfelves, it was lawful for the Scots 
to treat with them : It was given out, that there was much 
Gold in the Countrey. Certainly, the Nation was fo full of 
hopes from this Project, that they raifed a Fund for carrying it 
on, greater than, as was thought, that Kingdom could ftretch 
to ; Four hundred thoufand pounds Sterling was fubfcribed, and 
a fourth part was paid down, and afterwards, Seventy thoufand 
pounds more was brought in, and a National fury feemed to 
have tranfported the whole Kingdom, upon this Projed. 

The Jacobites went into the management, with a particular Great Dif- 
heat ; They faw the King would be much preffed from Spain ; P""* *''*"" 
The Englip:) Nation apprehending, that this would be fet up as a 
breach of Treaties, and that upon a Rupture, their Effeds in 
Spai7i might be feized, grew alfo very uneafy at it ; upon which 
it was thought, that the JCing would in time be forced to difown 
this Invafion, and to declare againft it, and in that cafe, they hoped 
to have inflamed the Kingdom with this, that the King denied 
them his Protection, while they were only ading according to 
Law ; and this, they would have faid, was contrary to the Coro- 
nation Oath, and fo they would have thought they were freed from 
their Allegiance to him. The Jacobites, having this profped:, 
did all that was poflible to raife the hopes of the Nation to the 
higheft degree ; Our Englijh Plantations grew alfo very jealous 
of this new Colony ; They feared, that the double profped, 
of finding Gold, and of robbing the Spaniards., would draw 
many Planters from them, into this new Settlement ; and that 
the Buccaneers might run into them : For by the Scotch Ad:, 
this place was to be made a free Port ; and if it was not ruined, 
before it was well formed, they reckoned it would become a 
feat of Piracy and another Algiers in thofe parts. Upon thefe 
grounds, the Englijh Nation inclined to declare againfl this, 
and the King feemed convinced, that it was an infradion of 
his Treaties with Spain : So Orders were fent, but very fecret- 
ly, to the Englifi Plantations, particularly to Jamaica and 
the Leeward Iflands, to forbid all Commerce with the Scots at 
Darien. The Spaniards made fome faint attempts on them, 
but without fuccefs ; This was a very great difficulty on the 
King ; He faw how much he was like to be preflTed on both 
hands, and he^pprehended what ill confequences were like to 
follow, on his declaring himfelf either way. 

Vol. II. K k k The 

2 1 8 Th VLis'totiY of the Reign 

1698 The Parliament of England had now fate its period of three 
*->5?~v''=5>j years, in which great things had been done ; The whole Money 
Miniarv's"* of England was recoined, the King was fecured in his Govern- 
gnodcon- ment, an honourable Peace was made, Publick Credit was re- 
flored, and the payment of Publick Debts was put on fure and 
good Funds. The chief conduct lay now in a few hands ; The 
Lord Somers was made a Baron of England ; and as he was one 
of tlie ableft and the moft incorrupt Judges, that ever fate in 
Chancery ; fo his great Capacity for all Affairs made the King 
confider him beyond all his Minifters, and he well deferved the 
confidence that the King exprefled for him on all occafions. In 
the Houfe of Commons, Mr. Mountague had gained fuch a 
vifible afcendant over all, that were zealous for the King's Ser- 
vice, that he gave the Law to the reft, which jie did always 
with great fpirit, but fometimes with too alTuming an air : The 
Fleet was in the Earl of Orford\ management, who was both 
Treafurer of the Navy, and was at the head of the Admiralty ; 
he had brought in many into the Service, who were very zea-. 
lous for the Government, but a fpirit of Impiety and DifTolu- 
tion ran thro' too many of them, fo that thofe, who intended 
to caft a load upon the Government, had too great advantages 
given by fome of thefe. The Adminiftration at home was 
otherwife without exception, and no grievances were complain- 
ed of. 
A new Par- There was a new Parliament called, and the Eledions fell 
liament. generally on men, who were in the Interefts of the Govern- 
ment : Many of them had indeed fome popular Notions, which 
they had drank in under a bad Government, and thought they 
ought to keep them under a good one ; So that thofe, who 
wifhed well to the publick, did apprehend great difficulties in 
managing them. The King himfelf did not feem to lay this to 
heart, fo much as was fitting ; He ftayed long beyond Sea ; He 
had made a vifit to the Duke of Zell^ where he was treated in 
a moft magnificent manner. Crofs Winds hinder'd his coming 
to England^ fo foon as he had intended ; upon which, the Par- 
liament was prorogued for fome weeks, after the Members were 
come up ; even this foured their fpirits, and had too great a 
ftiare in the ill humour, that appeared among them. 
The Forces The King's keeping up an Army beyond the Votes of the 
niflied, ""' former Parliament, was much refented, nor was the occafion 
for doing it enough confidered ; All this was increafed by his 
own management after he came over. The Minifters repre- 
fented to him, that they could carry the keeping up a Land 
Force of ten or twelve thoufand, but that they could not carry 


of King William IIL tic) 

it further; He faid, fo frriall a number was as good as none 1698 
at all, therefore he would not authorize them to propofe it ; <-«^'^/*^w 
On the other hand, they thought they fliould lofe their Credit 
with their beft friends^ if they ventured to fpeak of a greater 
number. So, when the Houfe of Commons took up the De- 
bate, the Miniftry were fllent and propofed no number ; upon 
which thofe, who were in the contrary intercft, named Seven 
thoufand Men, and to this they added, that they fhould be all 
the King's natural born Subjeds : Both the parts of this Vpte 
gave the King great unealinefs ; He feemed not only to lay it 
much to heart, but to fink under it ; He tried all that was 
poflible to ftruggle againft it, when it was too late ; it not be- 
ing fo eafy to recover things in an after-game, as it was to havd 
prevented this mifunderftanding, that was like to arife between him 
and his Parliament. It was furmized, that he was refolved not 
to pafs the Bill, but that he would abandon the Government, 
rather than hold it, with a Force that was too fmall to preferve 
and proteft it ; yet this was confidered only as a threatning, io 
that little regard was had to it : The Adt pafled with fomc 
oppofition in the Houfe of Commons ; a feeble attempt was 
made in the Houfe of Lords againft it, but it was rather a re- 
proach, than a fervice to the Government, it being faintly made 
and ill fupported. The Royal AfTent was given, and when it 
was hoped, that the pafllng the A61 had fofbied peoples minds, 
a new attempt was made for keeping the Dutch Guards in 
England^ but that was rejeded, tho' the King fent a Meffage 
defiring it. 

In the carrying thefe points, many hard things were faid The Party 
againft the Court, and againft the King himfelf; It was fug- pffng^with' 
gefted, that he loved not the Nation ; that he was on the re- g"""^ ''""'^* 
ferve with all Englijhmeny and fhewed no confidence in them ; 
But that as fbon as the Seflion of Parliament was over, he 
went immediately to Holland', And they faid, this was not to 
look after the affairs of the States, which had been more excu- 
lable 5 but that he went thither to enjoy a lazy privacy at Loo 5 
where, with a few Favourites, he hunted and pafTed away the 
Summer, in a way that did not raife his Charader much. It 
is certain, the ufage he had met with of late, put his Spirits 
too much on the fret ; and he neither took care to difguife 
that, nor to overcome the ill humour, which the manner of 
his deportment, rather than any juft occafion given by him, 
had raifed in many againft him. Some, in the Houfe of Com- 
mons, began to carry things much further, and to fay, that they 
were not bound to maintain the Votes, and to keep up the 


220 The Hi sroT^Y of the Reign 

1698 Credit of the former Parliament; And they tried to fhake the" 
U^^V"^ Ad, made in favour of the new Eafi-India Company : This 
was fo contrary to the fundamental Maxims of our Conftitu^ 
tion, that it gave caufe of Jealoufy, fince this could be intend- 
ed for nothing, but to ruine the Government: Money raifed 
by Parliament, upon Bargains and Conditions that were per- 
formed, by thofe who advanced it, gave them fuch a purchafe 
of thofe Adls, and this was fo facred, that to overturn it muft 
deftroy all Credit for the future, and no Government could be 
maintained that did not preferve this religioufly. 

i6qq Among other Complaints j one made againft the Court was, 
U?^/-'^ that the King had given Grants of the confifcated Eftates in 
A Debate Ireland', It was told before, that a Bill being fent up by the 
Grants of Commons, attainting the Irip that had been in Arms, and ap- 
utM ^ ply^^g ^^^^ Eftates to the paying the Publick Debts, leaving on- 
ly a Power to the King, to difpofe of the third part of them, 
was like to lie long before the Lords ; Many Petitions being of- 
fered againft it ; Upon which the King, to bring the Seffion to 
a fpeedy conclufion, had promifed, that this matter fhould be 
kept entire, till their next meeting : But the next SefTion going 
over, without any proceeding in it, the King granted away all 
thofe Confifcations : It being an undoubted Branch of the Royal 
Prerogative, that all Confifcations accrued to the Crown, and 
might be granted away at the pleafure of the King : It was 
pretended, that thofe Eftates came to a Million and a half in 
value. Great Objedions were made to the merits of fome, who 
had the largeft fhare in thofe Grants ; Attempts had been made, 
in the Parliament of Ireland, to obtain a confirmation of them, 
but that which Ginkle, who was created Earl of Athlone, had, 
was only confirmed ; Now it was become a popular fubjed of 
Declamation, to arraign both the Grants, and thofe who had 
them: Motions had been often nmde, for a general Refumption 
of all the Grants, made in this Reign ; But in anfwer to this, 
it was faid, that fince no iuch motion was made, for a. Re- 
fumption of the Grants made in King Charles the Second's 
Reign, notwithftanding the extravagant profufion of them, and 
the ill grounds, upon which they were made, it fhewed both 
a difrefped and a black ingratitude, if, while no other Grants 
were refumed, this King only fhould be called in queftion. The 
Court Party faid often, let the Retrofped go back to the year 
1660, and they would confent to it, and that which might 
be got by it would be worth the while. It was anfwered, this 
could not be done after fo long a time, that fo many Sales, 


of King William IlL xii 

Mortgages, and Settlements had been made, purfuant to thofe 1699 

Grants ; So all thefe attempts came to nothing. Biit now they i^c^'V'^ 

fell on a more efFedtual method : A Commilllon was given, by 

Ad of Parliament, to {qs^xi perfons named by the Houfc of 

Commons, to enquire into the Value of the confifcated Eftatcs 

in Ireland fo granted away, and into the Coniiderations, upon 

which thofe Grants were made. This pad in this Seilion, and 

in the Debates, a great alienation difcovered itfelf in many from 

the King and his Government, which had a very ill effed upon 

all affairs, both at home and abroad. When the time prefixed 

for the disbanding the Army came, it was reduced to Seven thou- 

fand Men : of thefe, Four thoufand were Horle and Dragoons, 

the Foot were Three thoufand ; The Bodies were alfo reduced 

to fo fmall a number of Soldiers, that it was faid we had now 

an Army of Officers : The new model was much approved of 

by proper judges, as the beft into which fo fmall a number could 

have been brought. There was at the fame time, a very large 

Proviiion made for the Sea, greater than was thought neceffary 

in a time of Peace. Fifteeen thoufand Seamen, with a Fleet 

proportioned to that number, was thought a neceffary fecurity, 

lince we were made fo weak by Land. 

I mentioned, in the relation of the former year, the Czars ii^^czarot 
coming out of his own Country ; on which I will now enlarge : Mofcovy in 
He came this Winter over to England^ and ftay'd fome Months "^ '*" * 
among us ; I waited often on him, and was ordered, both by 
the King and the Archbifhop and Bifhops, to attend upon him, 
and to offer him fuch Informations of our Religion and Confti- 
tution, as he was willing to receive ; I had good Interpreters, 
fo I had much free difcourfe with him ; He is a man of a very 
hot temper, foon inflamed and very brutal in his Pafllon ; He 
raifes his natural heat, by drinking much Brandy, which he 
redifies himfelf with great application ; He is fubjed to con- 
vuKive Motions all over his Body, and his Head feems to be 
affeded with thefe ; He wants not Capacity, and has a larger 
meafure of Knowledge, than might be expeded from his Edu- 
catioiij which was very indifferent; A want of Judgment, with an 
inftability of Temper, appear in him too often and too evident- 
ly ; He is mechanically turn'd, and feems defigned by Nature ; 
rather to be a Ship Carpenter, than a great Prince ; This was 
his chief ftudy and exercife, while he flayed here : He wrought 
much with his own hands, and made all about him work at 
the Models of Ships 5 He told me, he deligned a great Fleet 
at Azuphy and with it to attack the Turkijh Empire ; But he 
did not feem capable of conduding fo great a Deiign, though 

Vol. XL L U hk 

211 The History^ the Reign 

1699 his condudt in his Wars fince this, has difcovcred a greater 
L,<?^v"''5yj Genius in him, than appeared at that time ; He was defiroiis to 
underftand our Doftrine, but he did not feem difpofed to mend 
matters in Mofcovy 5 He was indeed refolved to encourage 
Learning, and to poHfh his People, by fending fome of them 
to travel in other Countries, and to draw Strangers to come 
and live among them ; He feemed appreheniive flill of his 
Sifter's Intrigues ; There was a mixture both of Pafllon and Se- 
verity in his temper. He is refolute, but underftand s little of 
War, and feemed not at all inquifitive that way : After I had 
feen him often, and had converfed much with him, I could 
not but adore the depth of the Providence of God, that had 
raifed up fuch a furious man, to fo abfolute an Authority over 
fo great a part of the World. 

David-) conftdering the great things God had made for the 
ufe of man, broke out into the Meditation, What is man, that 
thou art fo mindful of him f But here there is an occafion, for 
reverftng thele words, fince Man feems a very contemptible 
thing, in the ftght of God, while fuch a perfon as . the Czat- 
has fuch multitudes, put as it were under his feet, expofcd to 
his reftlefs Jealoufy and favage Temper. Fie went from hence 
to the Court of Vienna, where he purpofed to have ftay'd fome 
time, but he was called home, fooner than he had intended, 
upon a difcovery or a fufpicion of Intrigues managed by his 
Sifter : The Strangers to whom he trufted moft, were fo true 
to him, that thofe defigns were cruftied before he came back 5 
But on this occafion, he let loofe his fury on all whom he fuf- 
peded ; Some hundreds of them were hanged all round Mof- 
cow, and it was faid, that he cut off many Heads with his 
own hand, and fo far was he from relenting or fhewing any fort 
of tendernefs, that he feemed delighted with it : How long he 
is to be the Scourge of that Nation, or of his Neighbours, God 
only knows : So extraordinary an incident will, I hope, juftify 
fuch a digreffion. 
The Affairs The King of Poland was not much better thought of by the 
of "Polami. PqI^^^ though fomewhat deeper in his defigns j He had giv- 
en that Republick great caule of fufpedling, that he intend- 
ed to turn that free and eledive State, into an hereditary and 
abfolute Dominion ; Under the pretence of a Civil War, like 
to arife at home, on the Prince of Conti\ account, and of the 
War withr*the lurks, he had brought in an Army of Saxons, 
of whom the Poles were now become fo jealous, that if he does 
not fend them home again, probably that Kingdom will fall 
into new Wars, 


of King William III. ^ 113 

The young King of Sweden leemed to inherit the roughnefs of 1699 
his Father's temper, with the Piety and the Virtues of his Mother ; L^J^V""^ 
His Coronation was performed in a particular manner ; He took of Sweden! 
up tht Crown himfelf, and fet it on his head ; The defign of 
this Innovation in the Ceremonial feems to be, that he will 
not have his Subje6ls think, that he holds his Crown in any re- 
fpcd by their Grant or Confent, but that it was his own by Dc- 
fcent : Therefore no other perfon was to fet it on his head : Where- 
as, even abfolute Princes are willing to leave this poor remnant 
and /hadow of a popular Election, among the Ceremonies of 
their Coronation ; lince they are crowned upon the defircs and 
fhoutings of their People. Thus the two Northern Crowns, 
Denmark and Sweden^ that were long under great reftraints by 
their Conftitution, have in our own time, emancipated them- 
felves fo entirely, that in their Government they have little re- 
gard, either to the rules of Law or the decencies of Cuftom. A 
little time will fhew, whether Poland can be brought to fubmit 
to the fame abfolutenefs of Government ; They who fet their 
Crown to Sale, in fo bare-faced a manner, may be fuppofed 
ready likewife to fell their Liberties, if they can find a Merchant, 
that will come to their Price. 

The frequent relapfes, and the feeble ftate of the King of a Treaty 
Spain\ Health, gave the World great alarms. The Court of^"'*''^^"/^' 

I ' D D ceflion to the 

Vienna^ trufted to their intereft in the Court of Spain^ and in Crown of 
that King himfelf; The French Court was refolved not to let*^^"'"* 
go their Pretenfions to that SuccefTion, without great advantages ; 
The King aiid the States were not now ftrong enough^ to be 
the Umpires in that matter ; This made them more eafily hear- 
ken to Propofitions, that were fet on foot by the Court of Fra?tce ; 
The Eleftoral Prince of Bavaria was propofed, he being the 
only Iflue of the King of Spains fecond Sifter, who was mar- 
ried to the Emperor. Into this, the King, the States, and the Elec- 
tor of Bavaria entred ; The Court of Spain agreed to this ; and 
that King, by his Will, confirmed his Father's Will, by which 
the SuccefTion of the Crown was fettled on the IfTue of the fe- 
cond Daughter, and it was refolved to engage all the Grandees 
and Cities of Spain.^ to maintain the SuccefTion, according to this 
Settlement. The Houfe of Aujiria complained of this, and 
pretended that, by a long tradt of reciprocal Settlements, feveral 
mutual Entails had paffed, between thofe two Branches of the 
Houfe of AuJlria \ The Court of France feemed alfo to com- 
plain of it, but they were fecretly in it, upon engagements, 
that the Dominions in Italy fhould fall to their fhare ; But 
while thefe engagements, in favour of the Prince Eledoral, 



¥24 TJl^e HisroRV of th Reign 

1699 were raifing great apprehenfions every where, that yx)ung Prince, 
t^!'^'*v"'^ who feemcd marked out for great things, and who had all the' 
promifing beginnings, that could be expefted in a Child of fe- 
ven years old, fell fick, and was carried oJfT the third or fourth 
day of his illnefs ; So vmcertain are all the profpeds, and all the 
hopes, that this World can give. Now the Dauphin and the 
Emperor were to difpute, or to divide this SuccefTion between 
them ; So a new Treaty was fet on foot : It was generally given 
out, and too eafily believed, that the King of France was grown 
weary of War, and was reiblved to pafs the reft of his days 
in Peace and Quiet ; But that he could not confent to the ex- 
altation of the Houfe of Aujiria ; yet if that Houfe were fet a- 
lide, he would yield up the Dauphins pretenfions ; and fo the 
Duke of Savoy was much talked of, but it was with the pro- 
fpefl: of having his Hereditary Dominions yielded up to the Cfowri 
of France : But this great matter came to another digeftion tl 
few Months after. 
The Earl of About this time, the King fet up a new* Favourite : Keppely 
favo^ur.'*'^^* a Gentleman of Guelder^ was raifed from being a Page, into 
the higheft degree of favour, that any perfon had ever attained j 
about the King : He was now made Earl of Albemarle^ and 
foon after Knight of the Garter, and by a quick and unaccount- 
able pTogrefty he feemed to have engrofled the Royal Favour 
fo entirely, that he difpofed of every thing, that was in the 
King's Power. He was a cheerful young man, that had the 
art to pleafe, but was fo much given up to his own pleafures, 
that he could fcarce fubmit to the attendance and drudgery, that 
was neceflary to maintain his Poft. He never had yet diftin- 
guiflied himfelf in any thing, tho' the King did it in every 
thing. He was not cold nor dry, as the Earl oi Portland was 
thought to be ; who feemed to have the art of creating many 
enemies to himfelf, and not one friend : But the Earl of Al- 
bemarle had all the Arts of a Court, was civil to all, and pro- 
cured many favours. The Earl oi Portland obferved the pro- 
grefs of this favour with great uneafinefs ; They grew to be not 
only incompatible, as all Rivak for favour muft needs be, but 
to hate and oppofe one another in every thing ; by which the 
King's Affairs fuffered much ; The one had more of the confi- 
dence, and the other much more of the favour ; The King had 
heaped .many Grants on the Earl of Portland^ and had fent 
him Ambaflador to France^ upon the Peace ; where he ap- 
peared with great Magnificence, and at a vaft Expence^ and 
had many very unufual Refpeds put upon him by that King 
and all that Court j but upon his return, he could not bear 


of King William \\\f\ i^if 

the vifible fuperiority in favour, that the other was grown up to; 1699 
So he took occafion, from a fmall preference that was given -.<;^'V"*^ 
him, in prejudice of his own Poft, as Groom of the Stole, and 
upon it withdrew from the Court, and laid down all his Im- 
ployments. The King ufed all poffible means to divert him 
from this refolution, but without prevailing on him ; He con- 
fented to ferve the King ftill in his affairs, but he would not 
return to any Poft in the Houfliold ; And not long after that he 
was employed in the new Negotiation, fet on foot for the Suc- 
ceflion to the Crown of Spain. 

This year died the Marquifs of JVtncheJler^ whom the King The Dtath 
had created Duke of Bolton ; He was a man of a ftrange mix- of ^"Bolton. 
ture ; He had the Spleen to a high degree, and affeded an ex- 
travagant behaviour ; for many weeks he would take a conceit 
not to fpeak one word ; and at other times, he would not open 
his mouth, till fuch an hour erf the day, when he thought the 
Air was pure ; He changed the day into night, and often hunt- 
ed by torch light, and took all forts of Liberties to himfelf, 
many of which were very difagreeable to thofe about him. hx 
the end of King Charles % time, and during King James % reign, 
he afFedled an appearance of folly, which afterwards he com- 
pared to Junius Brutus\ behaviour under the Tarquins. With 
all this, he was a very knowing and a very crafty politick 
man : and was an artful Flatterer, when that was necelfary to 
compafs his end, in which generally he was fuccefsful : He 
was a man of a profufe expence, and of a moft ravenous ava- 
rice to fupport that ; and tho' he was much hated, yet he car- 
ried matters before him with fuch authority and fuccefs, tliat 
he was in all refpeds, the great Riddle of the age. 

This Summer, Sir Jojiah Child died ; He was a man of And of Sir 
great Notions as to Merchandize, which was his Education, ^^^* 
and in which he fucceeded beyond any man of his time ; He 
appHed himfelf chiefly to the Eajl-India Trade, which by his 
management was railed fo high, that it drew much envy and 
jealoufy both upon himfelf and upon the Company ; He had a 
compafs of knowledge and apprehenflon, beyond any Mer- 
chant I ever knew ; He was vain and covetous, and thought 
too cunning, tho' to me he feemed always fincere. 

The Complaints that the Court of France fent to Rome^ r^^ie ^KUn- 
againft the Archbilhop of Cambray\ Book, procured a Cenfure '^^"P "^ 
from thence ; But he gave fuch a ready and entire fubmifllon Book coiv- 
to it, that how much foever that may have leflened him, in '^<=""°^' 
fome mens Opinions, yet it quite defeated the dcflgns of his 
enemies againft him : Upon this occafion, it appeared how much 
Vol. II. M m m both 

ii6 The History of the Reign 

1699 both the Clergy of France^ and the Courts of Parliament there, 
<-'<;^*V''=>-' were funk from that firmnefs, which they had fo long main- 
tained again ft the incroachment of the Court of Rome ; not fo 
much as one perfon of thofe bodies, has fet himfelf to aflert 
thofe Liberties, upon which they had fo long valued themfelves ; 
The whole Clergy fubmitted to the Bull, the King himfelf re- 
ceived it, and the Parliament regiftred it : We do not yet know, 
by what methods and pradices this was obtained at the Court 
of Rome, nor what are the diftindions, by which they faVe the 
Dodrine of fo many of their Saints, while they condemn this 
Archbifhop's Book ; For it is not eafy to perceive a difference 
between them : From the conclufion of this Procefs at Rome, I 
turn to another, againft a Bifhop of our own Church, that was 
brought to a fentence and conclufion this Summer. 
Tiie Bifhop Dp. Watfon was promoted by King James to the Bifhoprick of 
w^'/de- '^ St. David\ ; It was believed that he gave money for his ad- 
privedfor vancement, and that, in order to the reimburfing himfelf, he 
fold mod of the fpiritual Preferments in his Gift : By the Law 
and Cuftom of this Church, the Archbifhop is the only Judge 
of a Bifhop, but, upon fuch occafions, he calls for the afliftance 
of fbme of the Bifhops ; He called for fix in this caufe ; I was 
one of them ; It was proved, that the Bifhop had collated a 
Nephew of his to a great many of the beft Preferments in his 
Gift, and that, for many years, he had taken the whole profits 
of thefe to himfelf, keeping his Nephew very poor, and oblig- 
ing him to perform no part of his duty : It was alfo proved, 
that the Biftiop obtained leave to keep a Benefice, which he 
held before his Promotion, by a Commendam (one of the abufes, 
which the Popes brought in among us, from which we have 
not been able hitherto to free our Church) he had fold both 
the Cure, and the Profits to a Clergyman, for a fum of Money, 
and had obliged himfelf to refign it upon demand ; That is, 
as foon as the Clergyman could, by another fum, purchafe the 
next prefentation of the Patron : Thefe things were fully prov- 
ed. To thefe, was added a charge of many opprefilve Fees, 
which being taken for Benefices, that were in his Gift, were 
not only Extortion but a prefumptive Simony : all thefe he had 
taken himfelf, without making ufe of a Regifter or Aduary ; 
for as he would not truft thofe fccrets to any other, fo he 
fwallowed up the Fees, both of his Chancellor and Regifler ; 
He had alfo ordained many perfons, without tendring them the 
Oaths, enjoined by Law, and yet, in their Letters of Orders, 
he had certified under his hand and Seal, that they had taken 
thofe Oaths ; This was, what the Law calls Crimen falft, the 


bf King William lit. ^^b^ij 

tertifying that, which he knew to be falfe ; No exceptions lay 1699 
to the WitnclTes, by whom thefe things were made out, nor did ^^.'^^w'^*^ 
the Bifhop bring any proofs, dn his fide, to contradict tlicir Evi- 
dence ; Some affirmed, that he was a fober and regular man, 
and that he fpoke often of Simony, with fuch deteftation, that 
they could not think him capable of committing it : The Bi- 
fhop of Rochefier withdrew from the Court, on the day, in 
which Sentence was to be given ; He confentcd to a fufpcnfion, 
but he did not think that a Bifhop could be deprived, by the 
Archbifhop : When the Court fate to give Judgment, the Bifhop 
refumed his Privilege of Peerage, and pleaded it ; but he, hav- 
ing waved it in the Houfe of Lords, and having gone on ftill 
fubmitting to the Court ; No regard was had to this, fmce a 
Plea to the Jurifdidion of the Court, was to be offered in the 
firft inflance, but could not be kept up to the laft, and then 
be made ufe of: The Bifhops, that were prefent, agreed to a 
fentence of Deprivation : I went further, and thought that he 
ought to be excommunicated. He was one of the worft men, 
in all refpeds, that ever I knew in Holy Orders : paflionate, co- 
vetous, and falfe in the blackeft inftances; without any one 
vertue or good quality, to balance his many bad ones. But, 
as he was advanced by King yames^ (o he ftuck firm to that 
Interefl ; and the Party, tho' afhamed of him, yet were refolved 
to fupport him, with great zeal : He appealed to a Court of 
Delegates ; and they, about the end of the year, confirmed the 
Archbifhop's fentence. Another profecution followed for Si- 
mony, againft yones Bifhop of St. ji^faph, in which, tho' the 
prefumptions were very great, yet the Evidence was not fb clear, 
as in the former cafe ; The Bifhops in Wales give almoft 
all the Benefices in their Diocefe ; So this Primitive Conftitu- 
tlon, that is ftill preferved among them, was fcandaloufly abufed 
by fome wicked men, who fet holy things to fale, and thereby 
cncreafed the prejudices, that are but too eafily received, both 
ao;ainfl ReHgion and the Church. 

I publifhed this year an Expofition of the Thirty nine Arti- i puwi/hed 
cles of Religion : It feemed a Work much wanted, and it was ^." £'«pofl- 
juftly to be wondred at, that none of our Divines had at- Thirty nine 
tempted any fuch Performance, in a way fuitable to the digni- ■^"'<^'"- 
ty of the fubjed: : For fome flight Analyfes of them are not 
worth, either mentioning or reading. It was a work, that re- 
quired ftudy and labour, and laid a man open to many mali- 
cious attacks ; This made fome of my friends advife me againft 
publifhing it ; In compliance with them, I kept it five years 
by me, after I had finifhed it : But I was now prevail'd on by 




'22 8 The YlisroKY of the Reigfi 

^^ibQQ the Archbifliop and many of my own Order, befides a great 
u?^'^/'^5>J many others, to delay the publifhing it no longer. It feemed 
a proper addition to the Hiftory of the Reformation, to explain 
and prove the Dodrine, which was then efl:abli£hed. I was 
moved firft, by the late Queen, and preflet.' by the late Arch- 
bifhop to write it ; I can appeal to the Searcher of all hearts, 
that 1 wrote it, vvdth great fmcerity and a good intention ; and 
with all the application and care, I was capable of ; I did then 
expeft, what I have iince met with, that malicious men would 
imploy both their induftry and ill- nature, to find matter for 
cenfure and cavils ; But tho' there have been fome Books writ 
on purpofe againft it, and many in Sermons and other Treati- 
fes have occafionally reflected, with great feverity, upon feveral 
paffages in it, yet this has been done, with fo little juftice or 
reafon, that I am not yet convinced, that there is one fingle 
period or exprefTion, that is juftly remarked on, or that can 
give me any occafion, either to retrad, or fo much as to ex- 
plain any one part of that whole Work ; which I was very 
ready to have done, if I had feen caufe for it. There was 
another reafon, that feemed to determine me to the publifhing 
it at this time. 
The growth Upon the Peace of Ryjwick, a great fwarm of Priefts came 
of Popery. Qy^^ ^q England^ not only thofe, whom the Revolution had 
frighted away, but many more new men, who appeared irt 
many places with great infolence ; And it was faid, that they 
boafted of the favour and protedion, of which they were affur- 
ed. Some enemies of the Government began to give it out, 
that the favouring that Religion was a fecret Article of the 
Peace ; and fo abfurd is malice and calumny, that the Jaco- 
bites began to fay, that the King was either of that Religion, 
or at leaft a favourer of it : Complaints of the avowed praftices 
and infolence of the Priefts were brought from feveral places, 
k during the laft Seflion of Parliament, and thofe were malici- 

oufly aggravated by fome, who caft the blame of all on the 
An Aa a- Upon this, fome propofed a Bill, that obliged all perfons 
gainft Pa- g^^^catcd in that ReHgion, or fufpeded to be of it, who 
fhould fucceed to any Eftate before they were of the age of 
eighteen, to take the Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy, and 
the Teft, as foon as they came to that age ; and till they did 
it, the Eftate was to devolve to the next of kin, that was a 
Proteftant ; but was to return back to them, upon their taking 
the Oaths. All popifh Priefts were alfo banifhed by the Bill, 
and were adjudged to perpetual imprifonment, if they fhould 
* again 

of King William IIL 


again return into England-, and the reward of an hundred 1699 
pound was offered to every one, who fhould difcover a Popifli L-i^<'"Vi 
JPricft, fo as to convid him. Thofc, who brought this into the 
Houfc of Commons, hoped, that the Court would have opppf- 
ed it; Bet the Court promoted the Bill; So when the Party 
faw their miftake, they feemed willing to let the Bill fall ; and 
when that could not be done, they clpgged it with many fevere 
and fome unrcafonable Claufes, hoping that the Lords would 
not pafs the Ad ; And it was faidj that if the Lords fhould 
make the leaft alteration in it, they, in ,the Houfe of Commons^ 
who had fet it on, were refolved to let it lie on their Tajble*, 
when it fhould be fent back to theni. - Many Lords, who fe- 
eretly favoured Papifts, on the Jacobite account, did for this 
very realbuj move for feveral alterations j Some of thefe im- 
porting a greater feverity ; But the zeal againft Popery was 
fuch in that Houfe, that the. Bill paft without any amendment, 
and it had the Royal Affent. I was for this Bill, t\otwithftand- 
ing my Principles for Toleration, and againft all Perfecution /pt 
Confcience fake ; I had always, thought, that if a Government 
found any Se6t in Religion, incornpatible with its quiet and 
fafety, it might, and fometimes ought to fend away all of that 
Sed, with as little hardfhip as pofTible ; It it certain, that 
as all Papifts muft, at all times, be ill fubjeds to a Proteftant 
Prince, fo this is much more to be apprehended, when there 
is a pretended Popifti Heir in the cafe ; This A61 hurt no man|. 
that was in the prefent poflefllon of an Eftate, it only incapaci^ 
» tated his next Heir, to fuccecd to that Eftate, if he continued ai 
Papift ; So the danger pf this, in cafe the Ad ftiould be well 
looked to, would put thofe of that Religion, who are men of 
Confeience, on the felling their Eftati^s ; and in the courfe of a 
few years, might deliver us from having any Papifts left among 
us. But this Ad wanted feveral neceflary Claufes, to enforce 
the due execution of it ; The word next of kin, was very in- 
definite, and the next of kin was not obliged to claim the be- 
nefit of this Ad, nor did the Right defcend to the remoter 
Heirs, if the more immediate ones fhould not take the benefit 
of it ; The Teft, relating to matters of Dodrine and Worfhip, 
did not feem a proper ground for fo great a feverity ; So this 
Ad was not followed nor executed in any fort ; But here is a 
Scheme laid, tho' not fully digefted, which on fome great pro- 
vocation, given by thofe of that Religion, may difpofe a Par- 
liament to put fuch Claufes in a new Ad, as may make this 

Vol. II. 

N n n 


230 T'he History of the Reign 

1699 The King of Demnark was in a vifible decline all this year^ 
«-<!^''v"'^f and died about the end of Summer ; While he was languifh- 
Affairs in ing, the Duke of Holflein began to build fome new Forts in 
Hoijieiu. ^^^ Dutchy ; This the Danes faid, was contrary to the Trea- 
ties, and to the Condominium^ which that King and the Duke 
have in that Dutchy ; The Duke of Holjlein had married die 
King of Sweden^ Sifter, aind depended on the affurances he had, 
of being fupported by that Crown ; The young King of Den- 
mark, upon his coming to the Crown, as he complained of 
thefe Infractions, fo he eiitred into an Alliance, with the King 
of Poland, and the Elector of Brande?tburgh, and, as was 
faid, with the Landgrave of Hejfe and the Duke of Wolfem- 
buttel, to attack Sweden and Holjlein at once, on all hands. The 
King of Poland was to invade Livonia ; The Eledtor of Bran- 
denburgh was to fall into the Regal Pomerania, and the other 
Princes were to keep the Dukes of Zell and Hanover, from 
aflifting Holjlein ; The King of Denmark himfelf was to attack 
Holjlein, but his Father's chief Minifter and Treafurer, the Baron 
Plejfe, did not like the Concert, and apprehended it would not 
end well ; So he withdrew from his Poft, which he had main- 
tained long, with a high reputation, both for his capacity and 
integrity ; which appeared in this, that, tho' that King's Pow- 
er is now carried to be abfolute, yet he never ftretched it to 
new or oppreflive Taxes ; and therefore feeing things were like 
to take another ply in a new Reign, he refigned his imploy- 
ment. He was the ableft and the worthieft man, that I ever 
knew belonging to thofe parts; He was much trufted and 
imployed by Prince George 5 So that I had great opportunities 
to know him. 
A War raif- The King of Sweden, feeing fuch a Storm coming upon him 
theKlIlfoffron^ fo many hands, claimed the Effeds of his Alliance with 
Sweden. England and Holland, who were Guarantees of the feveral 
Treaties made in the North, particularly of the laft made at 
Altena, but ten years before. The Houfe of Lunenburgh was 
alfo engaged in intereft, to preferve Holjlein, as a Barrier be- 
tween them and Denmark : The King of Poland thought the 
invaiion of Livonia, which was to be begun with the Siege of 
Riga, would prove both eafy and of great advantage to him. 
Livonia was antiently a Fief of the Crown of Poland, and de- 
livered itlelf for protedtion, to the Crown of Sweden, by a Ca- 
pitulation : By tha|:, they were ftill to enjoy their ancient Li- 
berties ; afterwards, the pretenlion of the Crown of Poland was 
yielded up, about threefcore years ago : So that Livonia was 
an abfolute but .legal Government : Yet the late King of Swe- 


of king William IIIAV 231 

den had treated that principality, in the fame rough manner, 1699 
in which he had opprefled his other Dominions ; So it was v><5='^v*'^ 
thought, that the Livonians were difpofed (as foon as they faw 
a power ready to proteA them, and to reftore them to their 
former Liberties) to ihake oiT the Swedijh Yoke ; efpecially, if 
they faw the King attack'd in fo many different places at 

The King of Poland had a farther defign in this Invafion : The King 
He had an Army of Saxons in Poland., to whom he chiefly ^J^l^^"' * 
trufted, in carrying on his Defigns there ; The Poles were be- 
come fo jealous, both of him and of his Saxons, that in a 
general Diet, they had come to very fevere Refolutions, in cafe 
the Saxons were not fent out of the Kingdom, by a prefixed 
day ; That King therefore reckoned, that as the reduction of 
Livonia had the fair appearance, of recovering the antient inhe- 
ritance of the Crown ; So by this means, he would carry the 
Saxons Dut of Poland, as was decreed, and yet have them with- 
in call : He likewife ftudied to engage thofe of Lithuania, to 
join with him in the attempt. His chief dependance was on 
the C%ar, who had affured him, that if he could make Peace 
with the Turk, and keep Azuph, he would aflift him power- 
fully againft the Swedes ; His defign being to recover Narva^ 
which is capable of being made a good Port. By this means, 
he hoped to get into the Baltick, where if he could once fettle, 
he would foon become an uneafy Neighbour, to all the nor- 
thern Princes : The King of Poland went into Saxony, to 
mortgage and fell his Lands there, and to raife as much money, 
as was pofiible, for carrying on this War ; and he brought the 
Eledtorate to fo low a ftate, that if his Defigns in Poland mif- 
carry ; and if he is driven back into Saxony, he, who was the 
richeft Prince of the Empire, will become one of the pooreft. 
But the Amufements of Balls and Opera's confumed fo much, 
both of his Time and Treafure, that whereas the Defign was 
laid to furprize Riga, in the middle of the Winter, he did 
not begin his attempt upon it, before the end of February, and 
thefe Defigns went no farther this year. 

While the King was at Loo this Summer, a new Treaty was The Parti- 
fet on foot, concerning the Succefiion to the Crown of Spain ; "°" Treatj-. 
The King and the States of the United Provinces faw the dan- 
ger, to which they would be expofed, if they fhould engage in 
a new War, while we were yet under the vaft Debts, that 
the former had brought upon us ; The King's Minifters in the 
Houfe of Commons affured him, that it would be a very dif- 
ficult thing to bring them, to enter into a new War, for main- 


232 Th^ 'Hist OKY of the Reign 

1699 taining the rights of the Houfe of Aujiria. During the De- 
^uT^^T'^^ bates concerning the Army, when fome mentioned the danger 
of that Monarchy falling into the hands of a Prince of the 
Houfe of Bourbon^ it was fet up for a maxim, that it would be 
of no confequence to the affairs of Europe^ who was King of 
Spainy whether a Frenchman or a German , And that as foon 
as the SuccefTor ihould come within Spain^ he would become 
r a true Spaniard^ and be governed by the Maxims and Interefts 
^of that Crown ; So that there ^as no profped: of being able 
to infufe into the Nation an apprehenfion of the confequence of 
that SuccefHon. The Emperor had a very good claim ; but aa 
he had little ftrength to fupport it by Land, (o he had none a6 
all by Sea ; and his Treafure was quite exhaufted, by his long 
War with the Turk: The French drew a great Force towards 
the Frontiers of Spainy and they were refolved to march into it^ 
upon that King's death : There was no ftrength ready to oppofe 
them, yet they feemed willing to compound the matter ; But 
they faid, the conlideration muft be very valuable, that could 
make them defift from fo great a Pretenlion ; and both the 
King and the States thought it was a good Bargain, if, by yield-^ 
ing up fome of the lefs impditant branches of that Monarchy, 
they could fave thofe in which they were moft concerned, whicJi 
were Spain itfelf, the Wefi-IndieSy and the Netherlands, The 
French feemed willing to accept of the Dominions in and about 
Italyy with a part of the Kingdom of Navarre^ and to yield up 
the reft to the Emperor's fecond Soii, the Archduke Charles ; 
The Emperor entrcd into the Treaty, for he faw he could not 
hope to carry the whole Succeflion entire ; but he preffed to 
have the Dutchy of Milan added to his hereditary Dominions 
in Germany ; The expedient that the King propofed was, that 
the Duke of Lorrain fliould have the Dutchy of Milan, and 
diat France fliould accept of Lorrain inftead of it ; He was 
the Emperor's Nephew, and would be entirely in his Interefts ; 
\ The Emperor did not agree to this, but yet he preffed the 
King, not to give over the Treaty, and to try if he could make 
a better Bargain for him ; above all things, he recommended 
Secrecy, for he well knew how much the Spaniards would be 
offended, if any Treaty fhould be owned, that might bring on 
a difmembring of their Monarchy ; for tho' they were taking no 
care to preferve it, in whole or in part, yet they could not 
bear the having any branch torn from it. The King rec- 
koned that the Emperor, with the other Princes of Italy, might 
have fo much intereft in Rome, ais to ftop the Pope's giving the 
Inveftiture of the Kingdom of Naples j And which way fbever 


of King William III. v ;j33 

that matter might end, it would obHge the Pope to fhew great 1699 
partiality, either to the Houfe of Aujlria or the Houfe of Bour- v-^^'^v"''^ 
bon \ which might occafion a breach among them, with other 
confequences, that might be very happy to the whole Protef- 
tant Intereft ; Any War, that might follow in Italy^ would be 
at great diftance from us, and in a Country, that we had no 
reafon to regard much ; Befides, that the Fleets of England and 
Holland muft come, in concluficn, to be the Arbiters of the 

Thefe were the King's fecret motives; For I had moft of 
them from his own mouth: The French confented to this 
Scheme, and if the Emperor would have agreed to it, his Son 
the Archduke was immediately to go to Spain-, to be conlidered 
as the Heir of that Crown : By thefe Articles, figned both by 
the King of France and the Dauphin^ they bound themfelves, 
not to accept of any Will, Teftament, or Donation, contrary 
to this Treaty, which came to be called the Partition Treaty. 
I had the Original in my hands, which the Dauphin figned ; 
The French and the Emperor tried their ftrength in the Court 
of Spain ; It is plain, the Emperor trufted too much to his In- 
tereft in that Court, and in that King himfelf ; And he refufed 
to accept of the Partition, meerly to ingratiate himfelf with 
them ; otherwife, it was not doubted, but that, feeing the im- 
pofTibility of mending matters, he would have yielded to the 
necefllty of his affairs. The French did, in a moft perfidious 
manner, ftudy to alienate the Spaniards from their Allies, by 
{hewing them to how great a diminution of their Monarchy 
they had confented ; So that no way poflible was left, for them 
to keep thofe Dominions ftill united to their Crown, but by 
accepting the Duke of Anjou to be their King, with whom all 
fhould be again reftcred. The Spaniards complained in the 
Courts of their Allies, in ours in particular, of this Partition, as 
a deteftable Projed j which was to rob them of thofe Domi- 
nions, that belonged to their Crown, and ought not to be torn 
from it ; No mention was made of this, during the Seflion of 
Parliament, for tho' the thing was generally believed, yet it not 
being publickly owned, no notice could be taken of bare Reports ; 
and nothing was to be done, in purfuance of this Treaty, dur- 
ing the King of Spain % Life. 

In Scotland^ all men were full of hopes, that their new The affair* 
Colony fhould bring them home mountains of Gold ; The Pro- °^ Scotland. 
clamations, fent to Jamaica and to the other Englijh Planta- 
tions, were much complained of, as a6ts of Hoftility and a 
Violation of the common Rights of humanity j Thefe had a 

V o L. II. O o o great 

2 34 ^^ HisTORY<?/'/>&^ Reign 

1699 great effedl on them, tho' without thefe, that Colony was tod 
*-<^'^"V''>-' weak and too ill fupplied, as well as too much divided within 
itfelf, to have fubfifted long ; Thofe, who had firft pofleffed 
themfelves of it, were forced to abandon it ; Soon after they 
had gone from it, a fecond Recruit of Men and Provifions 
was fent thither from Scotland -^ But one of their Ships unhap- 
pily took Fire, in which they had the greateft flock of Provi- 
sions j And fo thefe likewife went off: And tho' the third Re- 
inforcement, that foon followed this, was both ftronger and 
better furnifhed, yet they fell into fuch Fadions among themfelves, 
that they were too weak to relift the Spaniards^ who feeble as 
they were, yet faw the neceflity of attacking them : And they 
finding themfelves unable to relift the Force, which was brought 
againft them, capitulated ; and with that the whole Defign fell 
to the ground, partly for want of ftock and skill in thofe who 
managed it, and partly by the bafenefs and treachery of thofe 
whom they imployed. 
_ ^ j.p The condud: of the King's Minifters in Scotland was much 
content upon cenfured, in the whole progrefs or this affair ; For they had 
]z)ariea. Connived at it, if not encouraged it, in hopes that the Defign 
would fall of itfelf, but now it was not fo eafy, to cure the uni- 
verfal difcontent, which the mifcarriage of this Defign, to the 
impoverifhing the whole Kingdom, had raifed, and which now 
began to fpread like a Contagion, among all forts of people. 
A Petition for a prefent Seflion of Parliament was immediately 
fent about the Kingdom, and was figned by many thoufands : 
This was fent up, by fome of the chief of their Nobility, whom 
the King received very coldly : Yet a Sefiion of Parliament 
was granted them, to which the Duke of ^ueensbury was fent 
down Commiffioner. Great pains were taken, by all forts of 
practices, to be fure of a Majority ; Great offers were made them 
in order to lay the difcontents, which ran then very high ; 
A Law for a Habeas Corpus, with a great Freedom for Trade, 
and every thing, that they could demand, was offered, to per- 
fuade them to defift, from purfuing the defign upon D<irten. 
The Court had tried, to get the ParHament of England to in- 
terpofe in that matter, and to declare themfelves againft that 
Undertaking ; The Houfe of Lords was prevailed on, to make 
an Addrefs to the King, reprefenting the ill effeds that they 
apprehended from that Settlement ; But this did not fignify 
much, for as it was carried in that Houfe by a fmall Majority of 
feven or eight, fo it was kid afide by the Houfe of Commons. 
Some were not ill pleafed, to fee the King's affairs run into an 
embroilment,; And others did apprehend, that there was a De- 

bf King William III. 23 j 

fign to involve the tw^o Kingdoms, in a National quatrel, that 1699 
by fuch an artifice, a greater Army might be raifed, and kept ^•^=^'*'*'''"*^ 
up on both fides ; So they let that matter fall, nor would they 
give any entertainment to a Bill, that was fent them by the 
Lords, in order to a Treaty for the Union of both Kingdoms. 
The managers in the Houfe of Commons, who oppofed the 
Court, relblved to do nothing, that fhould provoke Scotland^ 
tr that fliould take any part of the blame and general difcon- 
tent, that foured that Nation, off from the King : It was fur- 
ther given out, to raife the National dilgufl: yet higher, that thd 
opposition the King gave to the Scotch Colony, flowed nei- 
ther frorri a regard to the Interefts of England^ nor to the Trea- 
ties with Spairiy but from a care of the Dutch^ who from Cu- 
rafoe drove a coafting Trade, among the Spanijh Plantations, 
with great advantage ; which, they faid, the Scotch Colony, if 
once well fettled, would draw wholly from them. Thefe 
things were fet about that Nation with great induftry ; The ma- 
nagement was chiefly in the hands of Jacobites ; Neither the 
King nor his Minifl:ers were treated with the decencies, that ar^ 
fometimes obferved, even after Subjedls have run to Arms ; 
The keeneft of their rage was plainly pointed at the King him- 
felf ; Next him the Earl of Portland^ who had flill the direc- 
tion of their affairs, had a large fhare of it. In the Seflion of 
Parliament, it was carried by a Vote, to make the affair of Da- 
rien a national concern 5 Upon that, the Seflion was for fome- 
time difcontinued ; When the news of the total abandoning of 
Darien was brought over, it cannot be well exprefled, into how 
bad a temper this cafl: the body of that people ; They had now 
loft almoft two hundred thoufand pounds Sterling, upon this 
ProjeiS:, befides all the imaginary treafure, they had pro- 
mifed themfelves from it : So the Nation was raifed into a fort 
of a fury upon it, and in the firft heat of that, a remonftrance 
was fent about the Kingdom for hands, reprefenting to the King, 
the neceflity of a prefent fitting of the Parliament, which was 
drawn in fo high a ftrain, as if they had refblvcd to ,purfue the 
effefts of it, by an armed Force. It was figncd by a great 
Majority of the Members of Parliament, and the ferment in 
mens fpirits was raifed fo high, that few thought it could have 
been long curbed, viathout breaking forth into great extremi- 

The King ftay'd beyond Sea till November ; Many expe<^ed A Seffion of 
to fee a new Parliament ; For the King's Speech at the end of ^^'''^°''=°*" 
the former SefHon looked like a Complaint, and an Appeal to^ 
the Nation againft them ; He feemed inclined to it, but his 


236 ' The VLisroK^ of the ReigH 

1699 Minifters would not venture on it 5 The diffolving a Parliament 
L<j»'^''^>J in anger has always caft fuch a load on thofe, who were thought 
to have advifed it, that few have been able to bear it ; befides, 
the disbanding the Army had render'd the Members, who pro- 
moted it, very popular to the Natioii ; So that they would have 
fent up the fame men, and it was thought that there was little 
occafion for heat in another SefTion ; But thofe who oppofed 
the King, refolved to force a change of the Miniftry upon him ; 
They were feeking Colours for this, and thought tliey had found 
one, with which they had made much noife ; It was thi^. 
A Com- Some Pirates had got together in the Indian Seas, and rob- 

piaint made bg^j fomc of the Mogul\ Ships, in particular one, that he was 
rates, fending with Prefents to Mecca \ moft of them were E?iglip : 
The Eajl-India Company, having reprefented the danger of the 
Moguls taking Reprifals of them, for thefe LofTes, it appeared 
that there was a necefTity of deftroying thofe Pirates, who were 
harbouring themfelves in fome creeks in Madagafcar. So a 
Man of War was to be fet out to deftroy them, and one Kid 
was pitched upon, who knew their haunts, and was thought 
a proper man for the fervice ; But there was not a Fund, to 
bear the charge of this ; For the ParUament had (o appropriat- 
ed the money given for the Sea, that no part of it could be 
applied to this expedition. The King propofed the managing 
it, by a private undertaking, and faid he would lay down 
three thoufand pounds himfelf, and recommended it to his Mi- 
nifters, to find out the reft : In compliance with this, the Lord 
Somers^ the Earls of Orford^ Rumney^ Bellamounty and fome 
others contributed the whole expence ; For the King excufed 
himfelf, by reafon of other accidents, and did not advance the 
fum, that he had promifed : Lord Somers underftood nothing of 
the matter, and left it wholly to the management of others, fo 
that he never faw Kid^ only he thought it became the Poft he 
was in, to concur in fuch a publick Service. A Grant was 
made to the Undertakers, of all that (hould be taken from thofe 
Pirates, by their Ship. Here was a handle for Complaint, for 
as it was againft Law, to take a Grant of the Goods of any 
Offenders before Convidion, fo a parity between that and this 
cafe was urged : but without any reafon : The Provifions of 
Law being very different, in the cafe of Pirates and that of o- 
ther Criminals. The former cannot be attackt, but in the way 
of War ; and therefore fince thofe, who undertook this, muft 
run a great rilque in executing it, it was reafonable, and ac- 
cording to the Law of War, that they fhould have a right to 
all, that they found in the Enemies hai^ds, whereas thofe, who 


,; of King Wi L Li A m lit ^' 1 5 7 

feize common Offenders, have fuch a ftrength by the Law, to 1699 
afTift them, and incur fo little danger iri doing it, that no juft ^.^''■v^^ 
inference can be drawn from the one cafe to the other. Wheii 
this Kid was thus fet out, he turned Pirate himfelf j ,, So a hea- 
vy load was caft on the Miniftry, chiefly on him, wlio was at 
the head ofi tlie Juftice of the Nation ; .It was faid, he oughf: 
not to have engaged in fuch a Project ; And i^ was malicioufly 
inGnuated, that the Privateer turned Pirate, in confidence of the 
prote6tion of thofe, who imployed him, if he had hot fecret 
Orders from them for what he did. Such black. c6nftru(^ions ai'e 
men, who are engaged in Parties, apt to liiake of the a<3;ions 
of thofe, whom they intend to difgrace, even againft their owrt 
Confciences : So that an Undertaking, that was not only inno- 
cent but meritorious, was traduced as a delign for Robbery 
and Piracy. This was urged iri the Houfe of Commons as 
highly criminal, for which all, who were concerned in it, ought 
to be turned out of their Imployments ; and a Qiieftion was 
put upon it, but it was rejeded by a great Majority. The next 
attempt was to turn me out from the Truft of Educating the 
Duke of Glocejier : Some obje<^ed fny being a Scotchman., others 
remember'd the Book that was ordered to be burnt ; So thejr 
prefTcd an Addrefs to the King, for removing me from that 
Pod ; but this was likewife loft by the fame Majority, that had 
carried the former Vote. The pay for the fmall Army, and the 
expence of the Fleet, were fettled : And a Fund was given for 
it J Yet thofe, who had reduced the Army, thought it needlefs 
to have fo great a Force at Sea j They provided only for eight 
thoufand men ; This was moved by the Tories, aild the Whigs 
readily gave way to this redudlion, becaufe the Fleet was now 
in another management ; Rujfel (now Earl of Orford) with his 
friends being laid afide, and a fet of Tories being brought into 
their places. 

The great bufinefs of this Seftion was the Report brought 1^°?^ 
from Ireland, by four of the feven CommifHoners, that werfc 
fent by Parliament, to examine into the Confifcations, andcernfn^ e"^ 
the Grants made of them. Three of the feven refufed to {igti^^^^p^ ire- 
it, becaufe they^ thought it falfe, and ill grounded in many par- 
ticulars, of which they fent over an account to both Hotifes ; 
But no regard was had to that, nor was arxy enquiry made into 
their objedions to the Report. Thefe three were looked oil, 
as men gained by the Court ; And the refl: were magnified, 
as men that could not be wrought on, rtOr frighted fi-om , 

their duty. They had proceeded like Iiiquifitors, and did rea- 

VoL. IL P P P dily 

258- Tbe UiWdK^ ofWpmign 

ii'yoo dily believe every thing, that v^^as offered to them, that tended 
U^'V^'Wto inflame the Report; as they fuppreffed all, that wds laid b'«?-. 
fore them, that contradidled their defign, of reprefenting the 
value of the Grants as very high, and of fliewing how unde- 
ferving thofe were, who had obtained them: There .was fo^ 
much truth, in the- main of this, that no Complaints againft' 
their proceedings could be hearkned to ; And indeed, all the- 
methods that were taken, ,to difgrace the Report, had the quite 
contrary effed; They reprefented the Confifcated Eftates to be' 
fuch, that out of the Sale of them, a MilHon and a half might 
be raifed ; So this fpecious Proportion, for difcharging fo great 
a part of the Publick Debt, took with the Houfe ; The ha- 
tred, into which the Favourites were fallen, among whom 
and their Creatures the Grants were chiefly diftributed, made 
the motion go the quicker ; All the oppofition that was made, 
in the whole progrefs of this matter, was looked on as a court- 
ing the men in favour ; nor was any regard paid to the referve 
of a third part, to be difpofed of by the King, which had been 
in the Bill that was fent up eight years before to the Lords. 
When this was mentioned, it was anfwered, that the Gran- 
tees had enjoyed thofe Eftates fo many years, that the mean 
profits did arife to more than a third part of their value : Lit- 
tle regard alfo was fhewn to the Purchales made under thole 
Grants, and to the great improvements, made by the Purcha- 
fers or Tenants, which were laid to have doubled the value of 
thofe Eftates. All that was faid, on that head, made no im- 
preflion, and was fcarce heard with patience : Yet, that fome 
juftice might be done both to Purchafers and Creditors,, a num- 
An Aa ber of Truftees were named, in whom all the confifcated E- 
Tn^TfufteeT. ft^^cs wcrc veftcd, and they had a very great and uncontroula- 
ble Authority lodged with them, of hearing and determin- 
ing all juft claims, relating to thofe Eftates, and of felling 
them to the beft Purchafers ; And the money to be raifed 
by this Sale, was appropriated to pay the Arrears of the Army. 
When all this was digefted into a Bill, the Party apprehended, 
that many Petitions would be offered to the Houfe, which the 
• Court would probably encourage, on defign at^ leaft to retard 
tlieir proceedings : So, to prevent this, and that they might nor 
lofe too much time, nor clog the Bill with too many Claufes 
and Provifo's, they pafl^d a Vote of a very extraordinary na- 
ture ; That they would receive no Petitions, relating to the 
matter of this Bill. The Cafe of the Earl of Athloneh Grant 
was very fingular ; The Houfe of Commons had been fo fenfi- 
ble of his good fervice^ in reducing Ireland^ that they had 


'^;ofJCtng William llll^ c:j39 

made an Addrefs to the King, to give him a recompenc6, fiiit- 1 700 
able to his Services : And the ParHament of Ireland was fo icw- y-"^^"^^ 
fible of their obHgations to him, that they, as was formerly 
told, confirmed his Grant, of between two and three thoufand 
pounds a year. He had fold it to thofc, who thought they 
purchafed imder an unqueftionable Title, yet all that was now 
let afidc, no regard being liad to it ; So that this Eftate was 
thrown into the heap. Some Exceptions were made, in the Bill, 
in favour of fome Grants, and Provifion was made for reward- 
ing others, whom the King, as they thought, had not enough 
confidered. Great oppofition was made to this by fome, who 
thought that all Favours and Grants ought to be given by the 
King, and not originally by a Houfe of Parliament, and this 
was managed with great heat, even by fome of thofe, who 
concurred in carrying on the Bill : Iti conclufion it was, by a 
ne^i term as well as a new invention, confolidated with the 
Money Bill, that was to go for the pay of tlie Fleet and Army, 
and fo it came up to the Houfe of Lords ; which by confe- 
.quehce they muft either pafs or reject. The method, that the 
Court took in that Houfe to oppofe it, was, to offer fome Al- 
terations, that were indeed very jufl: and reafonable ; but fince 
the Houfe of Commons would not fuffer the Lords to alter 
Money Bills, this was in effed to lofe it. The Court, upon 
fome previous Votes, found they had a Majority among the 
Lords ; So, for fome days, it feemed to be defigned to lofe the 
Bill, and to venture on a Prorogation or a Diflblutipn, rather 
than pafs it. Upon the apprehenfions of this, the Commons 
were beginning to fly out into high Votes, both againft the Mi- 
-riifters and the Favourites ; The Lord Somers was attack'd a fe- 
cond time, but was brought ofF by a greater Majority, than 
had appeared for him, at the beginning of the Seflion. Dur- 
ing the Debates about the Bill, he was ill ; And the worft con- 
ftrudlion pofTible was put on that ; it was faid, he advifed all 
the oppofition that was made to it, in the Houfe of Lords, but 
that, to keep himfelf out of it, he feigned that he was ill : 
Tho' his great attendance in the Court of Chancery, the Houfe 
of Lords, and at the Council Table, had fo impaired his health, 
that every year, about that time, he ufed to be brought very 
low, and difabled from bufinels. The King feemed refolved, 
to venture on all the ill confequences, that might follow the 
lofing this Bill ; tho' thofe would probably have been fatal. As 
far as We could judge, either another Seflion of that Parliament, 
or a new One, would have banifhed the Favourites, and be- 
gun the Bill anew, with the addition of obliging the Gran- 

240 T^^ History t)f the Reign 

1700 tees, to refund all the mean profits: Many in the Houfe <£ 
U^"Vw Lords, that in all other things were very firm to the King, \ver€ 
for pafling this Bill, notwithftanding the King's earneftnefs a- 
gainft it, fince they apprehended the ill eonfequences, that 
were like to follow, if it was loft. I was one of thele, and the 
King was much difpleafed with me for it : I faid, I would ven- 
ture his difpleafure, rather than pleafe him in that, which I 
feared would be the ruine of his Government : I confefs, I did 
not at that time apprehend, what injuftice lay under many of 
the Claufes in the Bill, which appeared afterwards fo evidently, 
that the very fame pcrfons, who drove on the Bill, were con- 
vinced of them, and redrefled fome of them in A6ts, that paff- 
ed in fubfequent Seffions : If I had underftood that matter a- 
right and in time, I had never given my Vote for fo unjuft a 
.Bill. I only confidered it as a hardfhip put on the King, ma^ 
ny of his Grants being thus made void ; fome of which had 
not been made on good and reafonable confiderations, fo that 
they could hardly be excufed, much lefs juftified ; I thought 
the thing was a fort of force, to which it feemed reafonable to 
give way, at that time, fince we were not furnifhed with an 
equal ftrength, to withftand it : But when I faw afterwards, 
what the eonfequences of this Ad: proved to be ; I did firmly 
refolve, never to confent again to any tack to a Money Bill, as 
long as I lived. The King became fuUen upon all this, and 
upon the many incidents, that are apt to fall in upon Debates 
of this nature : He either did not apprehend, in what fuch 
things might end, or he was not much concerned at it : His re- 
fentment, which was much provoked, broke out into fome in- 
flances, which gave fuch handles to his Enemies, as they wifb- 
ed for ; and they improved thofe advantages, which his ill con- 
dudl gave them, with much fpite and induftry, fo as to alie- 
nate the Nation from him. It was once in agitation among 
the Party, to make an Addrefs to him, againft going beyond 
Sea, but even that was diverted, with a malicious defign. Hi- 
therto the Body of the Nation retained a great meafure of af- 
fedion to him ; This was beginning to diminifh, by his going 
fo conftantly beyond Sea, as foon as the Sefiion of Parliament 
was ended ; tho' the War was now over. Upon this, it grew 
to be publickly faid, that he loved no Englipmans, face, nor 
his company ; So his Enemies reckoned it was fit for their ends, 
\ to let that prejudice go on, and encreafe in the minds of the peo- 

ple ; till they might find a proper occafion, to graft fome bad 
defigns upon it. The Seffion ended in April-, Men of all fides, 
being put into a very ill humour by the proceedings in it. 


of King Wl L L I A M III. 24 I 

The Leaders of the Tories began to infinuatc to the Favoi: 1 - . 
rites, the neceffity of the King's changing his Miniftry, in par- ^^ , ' 
ticular of removing the Lord Somers^ who, as he was now confi- tatMu-iiftry* 
dered as the Head of the Whigs, fo his wife Counfels, and his 
modeft way of laying them before the King, had gained him 
a great fhare of his efteeni and confidence ; and it was rec- 
koned, that the chief ftrength of the Party lay in his credit 
with the King, and in the prudent methods he took, to govern 
the Party, and to moderate that heat and thofe jealoufies, with 
which the King had been fo long difgufted, in the firft years 
of his Reign. In the Houle of Commons, he had been parti- 
cularly charged, for turning many Gentlemen out of the Com- 
miffion of the Peace ; This was much aggravated, and raifed a 
very high complaint againft him ; but there was no juft caufe 
for it : When the delign of the Allkffination and Invafton, in 
the year 1695 and 1696 was diicovered, a voluntary Aflbciation 
Was entred into, by both Houfes of Parliament, and that was 
fet round the Nation : In fuch a time of danger, it was thought, 
that thofe, who did not enter ^'oluntarily into it, were fo ill 
affedted, or at leaft fo little zealous for the King, that it was 
not fit, they fhould continue Juflices of Peace : So an Order 
pafled in Council, that all thofe, who had fo refufed, fhould 
be turned out of the Commiflion : He had obeyed this Order, 
upon the reprefentations made to him, by the Lords Lieute- 
nants and the Cujiodes Rotulorum of the feveral Counties, who 
were not all equally difcreet : Yet he laid thofe reprefentations 
before the Council, and had a fpecial Order, for every perfon, 
that was fo turned out. All this was now magnified, and it 
was charged on him, that he had advifed and procured tliefe 
Orders, yet this could not be made fo much as a colour to pro- 
ceed againft him, a clamour and murmuring was all that could 
be raifed from it. But now the Tories ftudied to get it infufed 
into the King, that all the hard things, that had been of late 
put on him by the Parliament, were occafioned by the hatred, 
that was born to his Minifters ; and that if he would change 
hands, and imploy others, matters might be foftned and mend- 
ed in another Parliament: With this the Earl of Jerfey ftudied 
to pofTefs the Earl of Albemarle j And the uneafinefs the King 
was in, difpofed him to think, that if he fhould bring in a fet 
of Tories, into his bufinefs, they would ferve him with the 
fame zeal, and with better fuccefs, than the Whigs had done ; 
and he hoped to throw all upon the Miniftersj that were now 
to be difmiiTed. 

Vol. II. CLq e( Tli« 

242 The History of the Reign 

1700 The firft time that the Lord Somers had recovered fo much 
'-^^"^'^"^'^ health, as to come to Court, the King told him, it feemed ne- 
'^^nii^i't ceflary for his fervice, that he fhould part with the Seals, and 
turned out. he wifhcd, that he would make the delivering them up his own 
Ad: : He excufed himfelf in this ; all his Friends had prefled 
him, not to offer them, fince that feemed to fhew fear or guilt ; 
So he begged the King's pardon, if in this he followed their ad- 
vice ; but he told the King that, whenfoever he fhould fend a 
Warrant under his hand, commanding him to deliver them .up, 
he would immediately obey it ; The Order was brought by 
Lord Jerfey^ and upon it the Seals were lent to the King. Thus 
the Lord Somers was difcharged from this great Office, which 
he had held feven years, with a high reputation for capaci- 
ty, integrity, and diligence : He was in all relped:s the great- 
eft Man I had ever known in that Poft ; His being thus re- 
moved, was much cenfured by all, but thofe who had pro- 
cured it ; Our Princes ufed not to difmifs Minifters, who ferved 
them well, unlefs they were preffed to it by a Houle of Com- 
mons, that refufed to give money, till they were laid alide. 
But here a Minifter (who was always vindicated by a great Ma- 
jority in the Houfe of Commons, when he was charged there, 
and who had ferved both with fidelity and fuccefs, and was 
indeed cenfured for nothing fo much, as for his being too com- 
pliant with the King's humour and notions, or at leaft for be- 
ing too foft or too feeble in reprefenting his errors to him) 
was removed without a fhadow of complaint againft him. This 
was done with fo much hafte, that thofe, who had prevailed 
with the King to do it, had not yet concerted, who fhould 
fucceed him ; They thought, that all the great Men of the 
, Law were afpiring to that high Poft, fo that any one, to whom it 
fhould be offered, would certainly accept of it : But they loon 
found they were miftaken ; for what, by reafon of the inftability 
of the Court, what by reafon of the juft apprehenfions men might 
have, of fucceeding fo great a man, both Holt and Trevor, to 
whom the Seals were offered, excufed themfelves. It was Term- 
time, fo a vacancy in that Poft put things in fome confufion. 
A temporary Commiflion was granted, to the three Chief Judges, 
to judge in the Court of Chancery ; and after a few days, the 
Seals were given to Sir Nathan Wright, in whom there was no- 
thing equal to the Poft, much lefs to him, who had lately fil- 
led it. The King's inclinations feemed now turned to the To- 
ries, and to a new Parliament : It was for fome time in the 
dark, who had the Confidence, and gave diredions to affairs ; 
we, who looked on, were often difpofed to think, that there 



of King William III. 143 

was no diredtion at all, but that every thing was left to take 1 700 
its courfe, and that all was given up to hazard. uj^'v^'W 

The King, that he might give fome content to the Nation, a Fleet fcnt 
ftay'd at Hampton-Court till July, and then went to Holland; '"'^^Sound. 
But before he went, the Minifter of Sweden prefTed him to 
make good his engagements vidth that Crown ; Riga was now 
beiieged by the King of Poland \ The firft attempt, of carrying 
the place by furprize, mifcarried ; Thofe of Riga were either 
over-awed by the Swedijh Garrifon, that commanded there, or 
they apprehended, that the change of Mafters would not change 
their condition, unlefs it were for the worfe ; So they made a 
greater ftand, than was expefted ; and in a Siege of above eight 
months, Very Httle progrefs was made: The firmnefs of that 
place, made the reft of Livonia continue fixt to the Swedes ; 
The Saxons made great wafte in the Country, and ruined the 
Trade of Riga : The King of Sweden, being obliged to imploy 
his main Force elfewhere, was not able to fend them any confi- 
derable afllftance : The Eledtor oi Brandenburgh lay quiet, with- 
out making any attempt : So did the Princes of Heffe and Wol- 
fembuttle ; The two fcenes of Adion were in Holjlein, and be- 
fore Copenhagen. The King of Denmark found the takin'r the 
Forts, that had been raifed by the Duke of Holjlein, an eafy 
work ; they were foon carried and demolifhed ; He befieged 
Toninghen next, which held him longer. Upon the Swedes de- 
mand of the Auxiliary Fleets, that were ftipulated, both by 
the King and the States, Orders were given for equipping them 
here, and likewife in Holland \ The King was not willing to 
communicate this defign to the two Houfes, and try if the Houfe 
of Commons would take upon themfelves the Expence of the 
Fleet 5 They were in fo bad a humour, that the King appre- 
hended, that fome of them might endeavour to put an affront 
upon him, and oppofe the fending a Fleet into the Sound : Tho' 
others advifed the venturing on this, for no Nation can fubfift 
without AlHances facredly obferved ; And this was an ancient 
one, lately renewed by the King; fo that an oppoiition in fuch 
a point, muft have turned to the prejudice of thofe who fhould 
move it. Soon after the Seflion, a Fleet of thirty Ships Englijb 
and Dutch, was fent to the Baltick, commanded by Rook ; 
The Danes had a good Fleet at Sea, much fuperior to the 
Swedes, and almoft equal to the Fleet fent from hence ; But it 
was their whole ftrength, fo they would not run the hazard of 
lofing it ; They kept at Sea for fome time, having got between 
the Swedes and the Fleet of their Allies, and ftudied to hinder their 
conjundion ; When they faw that could not be done, they re- 

244 ^^ ^ ^ s T all Y of the Reign 

1700 tired, and fecured themfelves within the Port of Ccpenhagcn- 
^^-^i^^y""'^ which is a very ftrong one : The Swedes., with their Allies, 
came before that Town and bombarded it for fome, days, but 
with Httle damage to the Place, and none to the Fleet. The 
Dukes of Liunetiburgh., together with the Forces, that the Swede: 
had at Bremen, pafTed the Elbe, and marched to the afHftance 
of the Duke of Holftein : This obliged the Danes, to raife the 
Siege of Toninghen, and the two Armies lay in view of. one 
another, for fome weeks, without coming to any Adion : Ano- 
ther defign of the Danes did alfo mifcarry. A Body o£ Saxons 
broke into the Territories of the Duke of Brunfwic'k, in hopes 
to force their Army to come back, to the defence of their 
own Country : But the Duke of Zell had left things in fo good 
order, that the Saxons were beat back, and all the booty that 
they had taken, was recovered, 
f^^*^^ onl In the mean time, the King offered his Mediation, and 
mark and a Treaty was let on foot : The two young Kings were fo much 
■.ve en. {]-jarpned againft one another, that it was not eafy to bring 
them, to hearken to terms of Peace. The King of Denmark 
propofed, that the King of Poland might be included in 
the Treaty, but the Swedes refufed it : And the King was not 
Guarantee of the Treaties between Sweden and Poland, fo he 
was not obliged to take care of the King of Poland : The 
Treaty went on but flowly, this made the King of Sweden ap- 
prehend, that he fhould lole the Seafon, and be forced to aban- 
don Riga, which began to be ftraitned : So, to quicken the 
Treaty, he refolved on a Defcent in Zealand. This was execut- 
ed, without any oppofition, the King of Sweden conducing it 
in perfon, and being the firft that landed: He fhewed fuch 
fpirit and courage in his whole Condudt, as raifed his Charafter 
very high : It ftruek a terror thro' all Denmark : For now the 
Swedes refolved to beliege Copenhagen. This did fo quicken 
the Treaty, that by the middle of Augufi it was brought to a 
full end : old Treaties were renewed, and a liberty of fortifying 
was referved for Holjiein, under fome Hmitations : and the King 
of Denmark pay'd the Duke of Holjiein two hundred and fixty 
thoufand rix-dollars for the charge of the War. The Peace 
beins thus made, the Swedes retired back to Schonen : and the 
Fleets of England and Holland returned home. The King's 
Condu6t, in this whole matter, wa's highly applauded ; he ef- 
fedually protedted the Swedes, and yet obliged them to accept 
of reafonable terms of Peace : The King of Denmark fuffered 
moft in honour and intereft : It was a great happinefs, that 
this War was fo foon at an endj for if it had continued, all the 
^ North 

of King WillTAm IIL 24f 

North muft have engaged in it, and there the chief ftrength of 1700 
the Proteftant Rehgion lay: fo that Intereft muft have fuf- 'w^^'^/''"'>J 
fcred much, which fide foevcr had come by the worft, in the 
progrefs of the War : and it is already fo weak, that it needed 
not a new diminution. 

The fccret oi the Partition Treaty was now publiilied ; and Onfuf""' 
the Projed was to be oilered jointly, by the Minifters of France^ plrthioa 
England and the States^ to all the Princes of Europe^ but par- '^'^''^'y- 
ticularly to thofc, who were moft concerned in it ; and an An*- 
fwer was to be demanded, by a day limited for it. The Empe* 
ror refufed to declare himfelf, till he knew the King of Spain s 
mind concerning it: The Duke of Savoy ^ and the Prinres of 
Italy J were very apprehenfive of the neighbourhood of Fra7Ke : 
The Pope was extreme old, and declined very f^ft. The Treaty 
was varioufly cenfured : Some thought it would deliver up the 
Mediterranean Sea, and all our Trade there, into the hands of 
France : Others thought, that the Treaties of Princes were 
(according to the pattern, that the Court of France had fet now 
for almoft half an age) only artifices to bring matters to a pre- 
fent quiet, and that they would be afterwards obferved, as Prin- 
ces found their account in them. The prefcnt good Undcr- 
ftanding, that was between our Court and the Court of France^ 
made, that the Party of our Malecontents at home, having no 
fupport from thence, funk much in their heat, and they had 
now no profpedt ; for it feemed, as if the King of France had 
fet his heart on the Partition Treaty, and it was neceflary for 
him, in order to the obtaining his ends in it, to live in a good 
Correfpondence with Engla7id and che States : All our ho|>es 
were, that the King of Spain might yet live a few years longer,' 
till the great Mortgages, that were on the Revenue, might be 
cleared, and then it would be more eafy for us, to engage in a 
new War, and to be the Arbiters of Europe. 

But while we were under the apprehenfion of his death, we The Death 
were furprized by an unlooked for and fudden death of our liG/ocejIen 
young Prince at home, which brought a great change on the 
face of affairs. I had been trufted with his education now for 
two years ; and he had made an amazing progrefs ; I had read 
over the Pfalms^ Proverbs, and Gofpels with him, and had 
explained things, that fell in my way, very copioufly ; and was 
often furprized, with the Queftions that he put me, and the 
Reflexions that he made ; he came to underftand things, relat- 
ing to Religion, beyond imagination ; I went thro' Geography 
fo of^eri with him, that he knew all the Maps very particular- 
ly ; Fexplained to hin\ the forms of Government in every Coun- 

Vo L. 11. R r r try, 

246 The History of the Reign 

1700 trv, with the Interefts and Trade of that Country, and what 
^-^^"V^^yJ was both good and bad in it : I acquainted him, with all the 
great Revolutions, that had been in the world, and gave him 
a copious account of the Greek and Roman Hiftories, and of 
Piutarch\ Lives ; The laft thing I explained to him was the 
Gothick Conftitution, and the Beneficiary and Feudal Laws: 
I talked of thefe things at different times, near three hours a 
day : This was both eafy and delighting to him. The King 
ordered five of his chief Minifters, to come once a quar- 
ter, and examine the progrefs he made : They feemed amazed 
both at his knowledge, and the good underftanding that appear- 
ed in him : He had a wonderfiil memory, and a very good judg- 
ment. He had gone thro' much weaknefs, and fome years of 
ill health : The Princefs was with Child of him, during all the 
Diforder we were in at the Revolution, tho' (he did not know 
it herfelf at the time, when fhe left the Court : This probably 
had given him fo weak a Conftitution, but we hoped the dan- 
gerous time was over : His Birth-day was the 2/^th of July, 
and he was then eleven years old : He complained a little the 
next day, but we imputed that to the fatigues of a Birth- day ; 
So that he was too much negledted ; The day after, he grew 
much worfe, and it proved to be a Malignant Fever ; He died 
the fourth day of his illnefs, to the great grief of all who were con- 
cerned in him. He was the only remaining Child, of feventeen 
that the Princefs had born, fome to the full time and the reft 
before it. She attended on him, during his ficknefs, with great 
tendernefs, but with a grave compofednefs, that amazed all who 
faw it : She bore his death with a Refignation and Piety that 
were indeed very fingular. His death gave a great alarm to 
the whole Nation : The Jacobites grew infolent upon it and 
faid, now the chief difficulty was removed out of the way of 
the Prince of Wales\ Succeffion. Soon after this, the Houfe of 
Brunfwick returned the Vifit, that the King had made them 
laft year, and the eyes of all the Proteftants in the Nation turn- 
ed towards the Ele£l:orefs of Brunfwick ; who was Daughter to 
the Queen of Bohemia^ and was the next Proteftant Heir, all 
Papifts being already excluded from the Succeffion. Thus^ of 
the four Lives that we had in view, as our chief fecurity, the 
two that we depended moft on, the Queen and the Duke of 
Glocefier were carried off on the fudden, before we were aware 
of it, and of the two that remain'd (the King and the Prin- 
cefs) as there was no iffue, and little hopes of any by either 
of them, fo the King, who at beft was a man of a feeble Con- 
ftitution, was now falling under an ill habit of body: His L^ 


of King William IIB^ 247 

were much fvvelled, which fome thought was the beginning of 1 700 
a Dropfy, whi It others thought it was only a fcorbutick Dif- ^-'^''V'*^ 

Thus God was giving us great alarms, as well as many mer- The temper 
cies : He bears long with us, but we are become very corrupt *!* ^^^ ^*' 
in all refpeds ; Sb that the ftate of things among us gives a 
melancholy profpeft. The Nation was failing under a general 
dilcontent, and a diflike of the King's perfon and government ; 
And the King, on his part, feemed to grow weary of us and 
bf our affairs ; and partly by the fret, from the oppolition he 
had of late met with, partly from his ill health, he was falling 
as it were into a lethargy of mind ; We were, upon the mat- 
ter, become already more than half a Commonwealth ; fincc 
the Government was plainly in the hands of the Houfe of Com- 
mons, who muft fit once a year, and as long as they thought 
fit, while the King had only the Civil Lift for Life, fo that 
the whole Adminiftration of the Government was under their 
infpedlion : The Aift for Triennial Parliaments kept up a ftand- 
ing fadion in every County and Town of E?igland : But tho' 
ive were falling infenfibly into a Democracy, we had not learn- 
ed the virtues, that are ncceffary for that fort of Government ; 
Luxury, Vanity, and Ambition increafed daily, and our animofities 
were come to a great height, and gave us difmal apprehenfions. 
Few among us feem'd to a right notion of the love of 
their Country, and of a zeal for the good of the Publick : The 
Houfe of Com^nons, how much foever its power was advanced, 
yet was much funk in its credit; very little of gravity, order, or 
common decency appeared among them : The balance lay 
chiefly in the Houle of Lords, who had no natural ftrength to 
refift the Commons : The Toleration, of all the feds among us, 
had made us live more quietly together of late, than could be 
expcfted, when fevere Laws were rigoroufly executed againft 
Diffenters. No tumults or diforders had been heard of in any 
part of the Kingdom, thefe eleven years, fince that Adl pafTed : 
and yet the much greater part of the Clergy ftudied to blow 
up this fire again, which feemed to be now, as it were covered 
over with afhes. 

The Diffenters behaved themfelves more quietly, with relation Divifioss 
to the Church, they having quarrels and difputes among them- 3"'"": 
felves : The Independents were raifing the old ji^ntinomian Te- 
nets, as if men, by believing in Chrift, were fo united to him, 
that his righteoufnefs became theirs, without any other condi- 
tion, befides that of tlieir Faith : So that, tho' they acknow- 
ledged the obedience of his Laws to be neceffary, they did not 


g the 

248 The History of the Reign 

1700 call it a condition, but only a confequence of juftification. In 
L.<?==^/'^=^ this, they were oppofed by moft of the Presbyterians, who 
feemed to be fenfible, that this ftruck at the root of all Religion, 
as it weaken'd the obligation to a holy life : This year had pro- 
duced a new extravagance in that matter. One Afgil^ a Member 
of Parliament, had publifhed a Book, grounded on their notions, 
on which he had grafted a new and wild inference of his own, 
that lince true Believers recover'd in Chrift all that they loft in 
Adam^ and our natural death was the effeft of Adams Sin, he 
inferr'd that Believers were render'd immortal by Chrift, and 
not liable to death : And that thofe who believed, with a true 
and firm Faith, could not die. This was a ftrain beyond all 
that ever went before it, and fince we fee that all men die, 
the natural confequence that refulted from this was, that there 
neither are nor ever were any true Believers. The Presbyte- 
rians had been alfo engaged in difputes with the Anabaptifts. 
They complain'd, that they faw too great a giddinefs in their 
people, and feemed fo fenfible of this, and fo defirous to be 
brought into the Church, that a few inconfiderable Conceflions 
would very probably have brought the bulk of them into our 
Communion : But the greater part df the Clergy were fo far 
from any difpofition this way, that they feem to be more preju- 
diced againft them than ever. 
And among The Quakcrs have had a great breach made among them, 
the Quakers, ^^y quc George Keith ^ a Scotchman^ with whom I had my firft 
education at Aberdeen ; He had been thirty fix years among 
them ; He was efteemed the moft learned man, that ever was 
in that feft ; He was well verfed both in the Oriental Tongues, 
in Philofophy and Mathematicks ; After he had been above 
thirty years in high efteem among them ; He was fent to Pen- 
Jilvania (a Colony fet up by Pen^ where they are very nume- 
rous) to have the chief diredion of the education of their youth. 
In thofe parts, he faid, he firft difcovered that, which had been 
always either denied to him, or fo difguifed that he did not 
fufpedl it ; But being far out of reach, and in a place where 
they were Mafters, they fpoke out their mind plainer ; and it ap- 
peared to him, that they were Dcifts, and that they turned the 
whole Dodrine of the Chriftian Religion into Allegories ; chief- 
ly thofe, which relate to the Death and Refurredion of Chrift, 
and the reconciliation of Sinners to God, by virtue of his Crofs : 
He being a true Chriftian, fet himfelf with great zeal againft 
this, upon which they grew weary of him, and fent him back 
to England. At his return, he fet himfelf to read many of 
their Books, and then he difcovered the Myftery, which was 
formerly fo hid from him, that he had not obferved it : Upon 


C hutch. 

of King William III. 249^ 

this, he opened a new meeting, and by a printed Summons he J 700 
called the whole Party, to come and fee the. Proof, that he ^-^^^"^^/"'^ 
had to offer, to convince them of thcfe errors : Few Quakers 
came to his Meetings, but great multitudes of other People ilockt 
about him : He brought the Quakers Cooks with him, and read 
fuch paffages out of them, as convinced his hearers, that he had 
not charged them falfly : He continued thele Meetings, being 
ftill in outward appearance a Quaker, for fbme years ; till hav- 
ing prevailed, as far as he faw any probability of fuccefs, he 
laid afide their exterior, and was reconciled to the Church, 
and is now in Holy Orders among us, and likely to do good 
fervice, in undeceiving and reclaiming fome of thofe milled 

The Clergy continued to be much divided: All mode-r ^ jiviCoo 
rate Divines were looked upon by fome hot men, with an ill'" '*>« 
eye, as perfons who were cold and indifferent jn the mat- 
ters of the Church: That which flowed from a gentTenefs, 
both of temper and principle, was reprefented, as an incli- 
nation to favour Di/Tcnters, which paffed among many, for 
a more heinous thing than leaning to Popery itfelf. Thofe 
men, who began now to be called tlie High Church Party, 
had all along expreffed a coldnefs, if not an oppofition to the 
prefent Settlement ; Soon after the Revolution, fome great Pre- 
ferments had been given among them, to try if it was pofli- 
ble to bring them, to be h'earty for the Government; but it 
appearing, that they were foured with a leaven, that had gonie 
too deep to be wrought out, a flop was put to the courting them 
any more ; When they faw Preferments went in another Chan- 
nel, they fet up a complaint over England of the want of Con- 
vocations, they that were not allov^^ed to fit nor a£l with a free 
liberty, to confider of the grievances of the Clergy, and of the 
danger the Church was in. This was a new pretenfion, never ^ 
thought of fince the Reformation ; Some Books were writ 
to juflify it, with great acrimony of flile, and a flrain of in- 
folence, that was peculiar to one Atterhury^ who had indeed 
very good parts, great learning, and was an excellent Preacher^ 
and had many extraordinary things in him ; but was both am- 
bitious and virulent out of meafure ; And had a fingular ta- 
lent in aflerting Paradoxes with a great air of affurance, fhewing 
no fhame when he was deteded in them, tho' this was done in 
many inflances : But he let all tliefe pafs, without either con- 
feffmg his errors, or pretending to juflify himfelf : he went on^ 
ftill venting new falihoods in fo barefaced a manner, that he 
feemed to have outdone the Jefuits themfelves. He thought 
Vol. It. S s s tlie 

2JQ The History of the Reign 

1700 the Government had fo little ftrength or credit, that any claim 
^^^^'"'^ againft it would be well received ; he^ attack'd the Supremacy 
of the Crown, with relation to Ecclefiaftical matters, which had 
been hitherto maintained by all our Divines with great zeal ; 
But now the hot men of the Clergy did fo readily entertain his 
Notions, that in them it appeared, that thofe who are the moft 
earneft in the defence of certain points, when thefe feem to be 
for them, can very nimbly change their minds upon a cKange 
of circumftances. 
Debates con- ^j^ eminent inftance of this had appeared in the Houfe of 
Bifliop of Lords, in the former Sellion ; Where the deprived Bifliop of 
6t.2)^w^'s. gj.^ J) avid: % complained of the Archbifliop of Canterbury ; Firft, 
For breach of Privilege, fince Sentence was paft upon him, 
tho' he had in Court claimed Privilege of Parliament, to which 
no regard had been paid : But as he had waved his Privilege 
in the Houfe of Lords, it was carried, after a long Debate 
and by no great Majority, that in that cafe, he could not re- 
fume his Privilege. He excepted next to the Archbifhop's Jurif- 
didion, and pretended that he could not judge a Biiliop, but 
in a Synod of the Bifhops of the Province, according to the 
Rules of the Primitive Times : In oppofition to this it was fhewn, 
that from the ninth and tenth Century downward, both 
Popes and Kings had concurred to bring this Power fingly in- 
to the hands ot the Metropolitans ; That this was the conflant 
pradice in England before the Reformation ; that by the pro- 
vifional Claufe, in the Ad paft in the twenty fifth of Henry 
the Eighth, that empowered thirty two perfons to draw a new 
Body of Church Laws, all former Laws or Cuftoms were to 
continue in force, till that new Body was prepared : So tliat the 
Power, the Metropolitan then was pofTeffed of, flood confirmed 
by that Claufe : It is true, during the High CommifTion, all 
Proceedings againft Bifhops were brought before that Court, 
which proceeded in a Summary way, and againft whofe Sen- 
tence no Appeal lay ; But after that Court was taken away, a 
full Declaration was made, by an Aft of Parliament, for conti- 
nuing the Power that was lodged with the Metropolitan. It was 
alfo urged, that if the Bifhop had any exception to die Arch- 
bifhop's Jurifdidion, that ought to have been pleaded in the 
firft inftance, and not referved to the conclufion of all : Nor 
could the Archbifliop ered a new Court, or proceed in the 
Trial of a Bifhop in any other way, than in that, which was 
warranted by Law or Precedent. To all this no anfwer was 
made, but the bufinels was kept up, and put off by many de- 
lays ; Jt was faid, the thing was new, and the Houfe was not 


of King William IIL i^\ 

yet well apprized of it ; and the laft time, in which the Debate 1700 
was taken up in the Houfe, it ended in an intimation, that it uj^^v^'^vJ 
was hoped the King would not fill that See, till the Houfe fhould 
be better fatishcd, in the point of the Archbifhop's Authority : So 
the Biflioprick was not difpofed of for fome years 1 And this un- 
certainty put a great delay to the Procefs againft the other ll^elch 
Bifliop, accufed of the fame Crime. 

In OEiober die Pope died ; and at the fame time, all FM7'ope The death 
was alarmed with the defperate ftate of the King of Spams °f [^Lfj''" 
health ; when the news came to the Court of FrancSy that 
he was in the laft Agony, the Earl of Ma-nchejier^ who was 
then our Ambaflador in that Court, told me, that Mr. Tor- 
cjy the French Secretary of State, was fent to him by the King 
of France, deliring him to let the King bis Mafter know the 
News, and to fignify to him, that the French King hoped, that 
he would put things in a readinefs, to execute the Treaty, in 
cafe any oppofition fKould be made to it ; And in his whole 
difcourfe, he exprefled a fixed Refolution in the French Councils 
to adhere to it : A ^^w days after that, the news came of his 
Death and of his Will, declaring the Duke of Anjou the Uni- 
verfal Heir of the whole Spaniflj Monarchy : It is not yet cer- 
tainly known, by what means this was brought about, nor how 
the King of Spain was drawn to confent to it, or whether it 
was a meer forgery, made by Cardinal Portocarrero and fome of 
the Grandees, who partly by practice and corruption, and partly 
for fifety and that their Monarchy might be kept entire (they 
imagining that the Power of France was far fuperior to all, that 
the Houfe of Aujiria would be able to engage in its interefts) 
liad been prevailed oil to prepare and publifh this Will ; and, 
to make it more accepft^able to the Spaniards, among other For- 
feitures of the Crown, not only the SuccefTor's departing from, 
what they call the Catholick Faith, but even his not maintain- 
ing the immaculate Conception of the Virgin, was One. 

As foon as the news came to Rome, it quickned the Intrigues element the 
of the Conclave, fo they fet up Albano, a. man of fifty two Eleventh 
years of age, who beyond all mens expedtation was chofen Pope, " ^ 
and took the name of Clement the Eleventh: He had little 
pradice in affairs, but was very learned ; And in fo critical a. 
time, it feems, a Pope of Courage and Spirit, not funk with 
age into covetoufnefs or peevifiinefs, wa's thought the fitteft Per- 
fon for that See. France had fent no exclufion to bar him, 
not imagining that he could be thought on : At firfl they did 
not fcem pleafed with the choice, but it was too late to oppofe 
it : So they refolved to gain him to their interefts, in which 


2 y 2 The History of the Reign 

1700 they have fucceeded beyond what they then hoped for. When 
^K,/^"^':^ the Court of France had notice fent them of the late King of 
Spain s Will, real or pretended, they feemed to be at a ftand 
'• for fome days; And the Letters wrote from the Secretary's Of- 

fice, gave it out for certain, that the King would ftick to the 
Partition Treaty: Madam de Maintenon had an unjlpeakable 
fondnefs for the Duke of Anjou : So fhe prevailed with the 
^ Dauphin to accept of the Will, and fet afide the Treaty ; *She 

alfo engaged Pontchartrain to fecond this. 
The King They being thus prepared ; when the news of the King of 
^yji'^'fj"^^! .<S'/'^/Vs Death came to Fontainebleau^ where the Court, was at 
cepted. that time ; Mr. Spanheim, who was then there as Arnbaflador 
^pf Prujftaj told me, that a Cabinet Council was called, within 
5two hours after the news came ; It met in Madam de Mainte- 
non^ Lodgings, and fate about four hours : Pontchartrain was 
for accepting the Will, and the reft of the Miniftry were for 
adhering to the Treaty ; But the Dauphin joined, for accepting 
the Will, with an air of pofitivenefs, that he had never alfum- 
ed before ; So it was believed to be done by concert with the 
King, who was referved and feemed more enclined to the Trea- 
ty : In conclufion. Madam Maintejion faid, what had the Duke 
of Anjou done, to provoke the King, to barr him of his Right 
to that Succeflion ? And upon this, all fubmitted to the Dau- 
phins opinion, and the King feemed overcome with their reafons. 
The Duke This was on Munday \ But tho' the matter was refolved on, 
ck5 Kfng yet it was not publifhed till Thurfday ; For then, at the King's 
oi sjiain. Lcvcc, he declared, that he accepted of the Will, and the Duke 
of Anjou was now treated as King of Spain. Notice of this 
being fent to Spain^ an AmbafTador came in form, to fignify 
the Will, and to defire that their King might go and live among 
them ; Upon which he was fent thither, accompanied by his 
two Brothers, who went with him to the Frontiers of Spain. 
When the Court of France publifhed this Refolution, and {^r± 
it to all the Courts of Europe^ they added a moft infamous 
excufe, for this notorious breach of Faith : They faid, the King 
of France confidered chiefly what was the main defign of the 
Treaty, which was to maintain the Peace of Europe ; and there- 
fore to purfue this, he departed from the words of the Treaty, 
but he adhered to the Spirit and the chief intent of it. This 
feemed to be an equivocation of lb grofs a nature, that it look- 
ed like tlie invention of a Jefuit Confeffor, adding impudence 
to Perjury. The King and the States- were ftruck with this: 
The King was full of indignation, to find himfelf fo much 
abufed ; So he came over to Engla?7d, to fee what was to be 


of King William IIL * 25-3 

done upon fo great an emergency. Tlie Spaniards^ feeing tliem- 1 700 
(elves threaten'd with a War from tlie Eiuperor, and apprehend- ^-^^/'^J 
ing that the Empire, together with England and the United 
Provinces, might be engaged to joui rin the War, and being 
unable to defend themfelves, delivered all into the hands of 
France ; And upon that, both the SpanifJj N ether lajids and 
the Dutchy of Milan received French Garrifons : The French 
Fleet came to Cadiz \ A Squadron was alio fent to the Wcjl- 
Indies ; So that the whole SpaniJJj Empire fell now, without a 
ftroke of the Sword, into the French Power. All this was the 
more formidable, becaufe the Duke of Burgundy had then no 
Children, and by this means, the King of Spain was in time 
likely to fucceed to the Crown of France ; And thus the World 
faw the appearance of a new Univerfal Monarchy, like to arife 
out of this cc»njund:ion. 

It might have been expe<9:ed that, when fuch a new unlook- \ new Tar- 
ed for Scene was opened, the King fliould have J oft no time-'i''"'*^"' j 
in brii^ging liis Parliament together, as foon as poffible ; It 
was prorogued to the 20th of November^ and the King had 
fent Orders from Holland^ to fignify his Refolution for their 
Meeting on that day ; But the Minifters, whom he was then 
bringing into his bulinefs, had other views: Tliey thought they 
were not fure of a Majority in Parliament for their purpofes, fo 
they prevailed with the King to difiblve tlie Parliament, and 
after a fet of SheriflTs were pricked, fit for the turn, a new Par- 
liament was fummoned, to meet on the fixth day of February., 
but it was not opened till the tenth. 

And now I am come to the end of this Century, in which The end of 
there was a black appearance of a new and difmal fcene ; ^^^"^ Century. 
France was now in poflefTion of a great Empire, for a fmall 
part of which they had been in Wars (broke off indeed in fomc 
intervals) for above two hundred years ; while we in England, 
who were to prote6l and defend the reft, were, by wretched 
fadions and violent animoftties, running into a feeble and dif- 
jointed ftate ; The King's cold and relerved manner, upon fo 
high a provocation, made fome conclude, that he was in fccret 
engagements with Fra?ice ; that he was refolved to own the 
new King of Spain, and not to engage in a new War : This 
leemed fo different from his own inclinations, and from all the 
former parts of his Life, that it made many conclude, that he 
found himfelf in an ill ftate of health, the fweliing of his Legs 
being much encreafed, and that this might have fuch effedls on 
his mind, as to make him lefs warm and adive, lels difpofed 
to involve himfelf in new troubles ; and that he might think 

Vol. IL Ttt; / it 


2J4 The History <9^ the Reign 

1700 it too inconfiderate a thing to enter on a new War, that was 
^.^'^'^^/''''^ not Hke to end foon, when he felt himfelf in a dedining ftate 
of health : But the true fecret, of this unaccountable behaviour 
in the King, was foon difcovered. 
A new Mi. The Earl of Rochejier was now fet at the head of his bufi- 
nefs, and was to bring the Tories into his Service : They had 
continued, from his firfb accefTion to the Throne, in a con- 
ftant oppoHtion to his interefts ; Many of them were beUeved 
to be Jacobites in their hearts, and they were generally much 
againft the Toleration, and violent enemies to the Difienters : 
I'hey had been backward in every thing, that was neceflary for 
carrying on the former War; they had oppofed Taxes as much as 
they could, and were againft all fuch, as were eafily levied and 
lefs fenfibly felt by the people ; and were always for thofe, that 
were moft grievous to the Nation, hoping that by thofe heavy 
burthens, the people would grow weary of the War and of the Go- 
vernment ; On the contrary the Whigs, by fupporting both, were 
become lefs acceptable to the Nation : In Eledtions their Intereffc 
was much llink ; every new Parliament was a new diicovery, 
that they were become leis popular, and the others, who were 
always oppofing and complaining, were now cried up as the 
Patriots. In the three laft Seffions, the Whigs had fhewed 
fuch a readinels to give the King more force, together with a 
management to preferve the Grants of Ireland, that tliey were 
publickly charged as Betrayers of their Country, and as men 
that were for trufting the King with an Army; in a word, 
they were accufed of too ready a compliance with the humours 
and interefts of Courts and Favourites, fo they were generally 
cenfured and decried : And now ftnce they had not fucceeded to 
the King's mind, fome about him pofleflcd him with this, that 
either they would not, or could not ferve him. In fome of 
them indeed, their Principles lay againft thofe things, whereas 
the Tories Principles did naturally lead them to make the Crown 
great and powerful : It was alfo faid, that the great oppofition 
made, to every thing the King defired, and the difficulties 
that had been of late put upon him, flowed chiefly from the 
hatred born to thofe, who were imployed by him, and who had 
brought in their friends and creatures into the beft Pofts ; And 
they were now ftudying, to recover their loft popularity ; which 
would make them cold, if not backward in complying with 
what the King might defire for the future ; The Whigs did alio 
begin to complain of the King's Condud:, of his minding Af- 
fairs fo little, of his being fo much out of the Kingdom, and 
of his ill choice of Favourites; and they imputed the late 


of King William III* 3^;^ 

mifcarriages to errors in conduft, which they could neither pre- 1700 
vent nor redrefs : The Favourites, who tliought of nothing but '-^"^v^^ 
to continue in favour, and to be ftill fafe and fecure in theif 
credit, concurred to prefs the King to take other meafures, and 
to turn to another fet of men, who would be no longer his 
enemies, if they had fome of the beft Places fhared among 
them : And tho' this method had been almoft fatal, when the 
King had followed it, foon after his firft Accefllon to the Crown, 
yet there feemed to be lefs danger in trying it now, than was 
formerly. We were in full Peace : And it was commonly faid, 
that no body thought any more of King jfames^ and therefore 
it was fit, for the King's Service, to encourage all his people 
to come into his interefts, by letting them fee how foon he 
could forget all that was paft. Thefe confiderations had fb far 
prevailed with him, that before he went out of England^ he 
had engaged himfelf fecretly to them : It is true, the Death, 
firft of the Duke of Glocefter^ and now of the King of Spain^ 
had very much changed the face of afi^airs, both at home and 
abroad ; yet the King would not break off^ from his engage- 

Soon after his return to England, the Earl of Rochefier was 
declared Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and he had the chief di- 
redion of affairs ; And, that the moft eminent man of the 
Whigs might not oppofe them in the new Parliament, they got 
Mr. Mountague to be made a Baron, who took the Title of 
Halifax, which was funk by the death of that Marquifs, with- 
out iflue Male. The man, on whofe management of the Houfe 
of Commons, this new Set depended, was Mr. Harley, the Heir 
of a Family, which had been hitherto the moft eminent of 
the Presbyterian Party ; his Education was in that way : But 
he, not being confidered at the Revolution, as he thought he 
deferved, had fet himfelf to oppofe the Court in every thing, 
and to find fault with the whole Adminiftration ; he had the 
chief hand, both in the reduction of the Army, and in tlie 
matter of the Irijh Grants ; The High Party trufted him, tho' 
he ftill kept up an intereft among the Presbyterians ; and he 
had fo particular a dexterity, that he made both the High 
Church Party and the Diflenters depend upon him ; fb it was 
agreed that he fhould be Speaker. All this while, the new 
Minifters talked of nothing but Negotiations, and gave it 
out, that the King of France was ready to give all the (ecurity 
that could be defired, for maintaining the Peace of Europe. 
At this time, the Emperor fent over to England a Minifter, to 
fet forth his Title to the Spafiijh Monarchy, fettled on his 


2 J 6 The History of the Reign 

1700 Houle by antient Entails, often repeated, and now devolving 
u?='v"^^' on him by an undoubted Right, fince by the Renunciation made 
by the late Queen of France, (as was ftipulated by the Treaty 
of the Pyrenees^ and then made by her in due form) this could 
not be called in queftion. Our new Minifters were fcarce civil 
to the Emperor's En\oy; and would riot enter into any Con- 
fultations with him : But the Dutch, who were about the King, 
^. and all the Foreign Minifters fpoke in another Stile ; they faid, 

that nothing but a General Union of all the Powers in Europe, 
could hinder the conjundion of the two Monarchies : So, by 
what thofe, who talked often with the King, gave out, it came 
to be foon known, that the King faw the neceiTity of a new 
War, but that he kept himfelf in a great referve, that he might 
manage his new Minifters and their Party, and fee if he could 
engage them to concur with him. 
The King But before I conclude the relation of this year, at which the 
''[oHouf^" ' Century ends, I muft clofe it with an account of the King of 
Campaign, Sijoedens, glorious Campaign : He made all the hafte he could 
to relieve Livonia, where not only Riga was for fome months 
befieged by the King of Poland, but Narva was alfo attackt 
by the Czar, who hoped by taking it, to get an entrance into 
the Baltick : The Czar came in Perfon againft it, with an Ar- 
my of one hundred thpufand men : Narva was not provided 
for a Siege : It had a fmall Garrifon, and had very poor Ma- 
gazines, yet the Mufcovites attackt it fo feebly, that it held out 
beyond all expedation, till the end of the year. Upon the 
King of Sweden s landing at Revel, the Saxons drew oif from 
Riga, after a long Siege at a vaft charge: This being done, 
and Riga both opened and fupplied, that King marched next 
to Narva ; The Czar, upon his March towards him^ left his 
Army in fuch a manner, as made all people conclude, he had 
no mind to hazard his Perfon ; The King marched thro' ways, 
that were thought fo impradicable, that little care had been 
taken to Secure them ; So he furprifed the Mufcovites, and broke 
into their Camp, before they apprehended he was near them ; 
he totally routed their Army, toc4?: many Prifoners, with all their 
Artillery and Baggage, and fo made a glorious entry into Nar- 
va. This is the nobleft Campaign that we find in any Hifto- 
ry ; in which a King about eighteen years of age, led an Army 
himfelf againft three Kings, who had confederated againft him, 
and was fuccefsful in every one of his Attempts, giving great 
marks, both of perfonal courage and good condud: in tliem all ; 
and which is more extraordinary, an eminent meafure both of 
Virtue and Piety appeared in his whole behaviour. In him, 


was now in. 

of King William IIL ij7 

the World hoped to fee another Gujiavus Adolphus^ who con- 1700 
quered, or rather pofleffed himfclf of Livonia^ in tlie fame year <-^<:^^>/^'^ 
df his age, in which this King did now fo glorionfly re- 
cover it, when almoft loft by the Invafion of two powerful 
Neighbours. Thei-e were great diforders at this time in L/- 
thudniay occaftoncd by the Fadions there, which were fet on 
dnd fomented by the King, who feemed to afpire to be the 
Hereditary King of Poland. But as thefe things are at a great 
diftance from us, fo fince ^^e have no publick. Minifter in thofe 
parts, I cannot give an account of them, nor form a true judg- 
ment thereupon. The Eighteenth Century began with a great 
Scene, that opened with it. 

The new King cH Spain wrote to all the Courts of Europey ^7°^ ^ 
giving notice of his AccefHon to that Crown, only he forgot Great ap- 
England ; And it was publickly given out, that he had pro- Jpth^J"".* 
miled the pretended Prince of Wales^ that in due time he ger Europe 
Would take care of his interefts : The King and the States were 
much alarmed, when they beheld the French pofTeffed of the 
Spanijh Netherlands ; A great part of the Dutch Army lay 
Icattered up and down in tnofe Garrifbns, more particularly in 
Luxefnburghy Namur and Mons^ arid thele were now made 
Prifoners of War : Neither Officers nor Soldiers could own the 
King of Spain, for their Mafters had not yet done it : At this 
time, the French prefled the States vety hard to declare them- 
felves : A great Party ill ' the States were for owning him, at 
leaft in form, till they could get their Troops again into their 
own hands, according to Capitulation : Nor were they then, in 
a condition to refift the imprefHon, that might have been made 
upon them, from the Garrifons in the SpaniJJj Guelder, who 
could have attack'd them before they were able to make head ; 
So the States confented to own the King of Spain. That 
being done, their Battalions were fent back, but they were 
ill ufed, contrary to Capitulation, and the Soldiers were tempt- 
ed to defert their Service, yet very few could be prevailed on 
to do it. 

As foon as our Parliament was opened, it appeared that the a Party for 
French had a great Party in it ; It is certain, great Sums came -^'■"^'^^ '" 
over this Winter from France, the Packet-boat came feldom 
without 1 0000 Louis dOrsy it brought often more ; The Na- 
tion was filled with them, and in fix months time, a Million of 
Guineas were coined out of them ; The Merchants indeed faid, 
that the ballance of Trade was then fo much turned to our fide, 
that, whereas we were wont to carry over a Million of our 

Vol. II, U u u Money 


2 J 5 The ViistoKY of the Reign 

1 701 Money in Specie, we then fent no money to France-, and had 
^^-^'^'"'^^''^ at leaft half that Sum fent over to ballance the Trade : yet this 
did not account for that vaft flood of French Gold, that was 
vifible amongft us : And, upon the French Ambaffador's going 
away, a very fenfible alteration was found in the Bills of Ex- 
change 5 So it was concluded, that great remittances were 
made to him, and that thefe were diftributed among thofe, who 
refolved to merit a fhare in that Wealth, which came over now 
fo copioufly, beyond the example of former times. The King, 
in his Speech to the Parliament, in the mod effedual manner 
pofTible, recommended the fettling the SuccefTion of the Crown, 
in the Proteftant Line ; and with relation to Foreign aflairs, he 
laid them before the Two Houfes, that they might offer him 
1 -)"■ r fuch Advices, as the State of the Nation and her Alliances re- 
quired : but he did not fo much as intimate to them his own 
thoughts concerning them. A defign was laid, in the Houfe 
of Commons, to open the Seflion with an Addrefs to the King, 
that he would own the King of Spain \ The matter was fo far 
concerted, that they had agreed on the words of the Vote, and 
feemed not to doubt of the concurrence of the Houfe ; but Mr. 
Monkton oppofed it with great hea(t, and among other things 
laid, if that Vote was carried, he fhould exped that the next 
Vote to be put, would be for owning the pretended Prince of 
Wales : Upon this occafion it appeared, how much popular 
Aflemblies are apt to be turned, by a thing boldly faid, tho' the 
confequence is ever fo remote ; fince the connection of thefe two 
points lay at fome diftance, yet the iflue of the Debate was quite 
contrary to that which was deiigned : It ended in an Addrefs 
to the ICing, to enter into new Alliances with the States, for 
our mutual Defence, and for preferving the Liberty and Peace of 
Europe ; Thefe laft words were not carried, without much dif- 
ficulty : They were confidered, as they were indeed, an infinu- 
ation towards a War. 
Partiality in Upon the vicw of the Houfe, it appeared very evidently, that 
lesfonf ^ ^^ Tories were a great Majority ; yet they, to make the mat- 
ter fure, refolved to clear the Houfe of a great many, that 
were engaged in another intereft : Reports were brought to 
them of Elections, that had been Icandaloufly purchafed, by 
ibme who were concerned in the new Eajl-India Company ; 
inftead of Drinking and Entertainments, by which Eleftions 
were formerly managed, now a moft fcandalous pradice was 
brought in of buying Votes, with fo little decency, that the 
Electors engaged themfelves by Subfcription, to chufe a blank 
perfon, before they were trufted with the name cf their Candi- 

of King William IIL ay 9 

date. The old Eajl-India Company had driven a courle of lyoi 
Corruption within doors with fo little fhamc, that the new ^^^^"^T'*** 
Company intended to follow their example, but with this dif- 
ference, that, whereas the former had bought the perfons who 
were eleded, they refoived to buy Eledions. Sir Edward Sei- 
inour^ who had dealt in this Corruption his whole life-time, and 
whom the old Company was faid to have bought before, at a 
very high price, brought before the Houfe of Commons tlie 
difcovery of fome of the pradices of the New Company : The 
examining into thefe took up many days ; In concluiion, the 
matter was fo well proved, that feveral Eledtions were declared 
void : and fome of the perfons fo chofen, were for fome time 
kept in prifon ; after that they were expelled the Houfe. In 
thefe proceedings, great partiality appeared ; for when in fome 
cafes, Corruption was proved clearly, againft fome of the Tory 
Party, and but doubtfully againft fome of the contrary fide, 
that, which was voted Corruption in the latter, was called the 
giving Alms in thofe of the former fort. Thus for fome weeks, 
the Houfe feemed to have forgot all the Concerns of Europe^ 
and was wholly imployed in die weakening of one fide, and in 
fortifying the other ; To make fome fhew of zeal for the 
Publick fafety, they voted thirty thoufand Men for the Fleet ; 
But they would allow no Marines, tho' they were told, that a 
Fleet without thefe ^was only a good fecurity for our own De- 
fence, but could have no influence on the Affairs of Europe^ ei- 
ther to frighten or to encourage thofe abroad : Such a Fleet as 
it could not offend, fb it was much too flrong, if it was intend- 
ed only for a defence, and it looked like a needlefs wafling 
the Trcafure of the Nation, to imploy fo much of it to fo little 
purpofe, and only to make a fhew. 

While the Houfe of Commons was going on, minding only The Parti- 
Party matters, a defign was laid in the Houfe of Lords, to at- ^1°" ^J*'^ 
tack the Partition Treaty and fome of thofe, who were con- in the Houfe 
cerned in it ; They begun with an Addrefs to the King, that °^ ^°'^*^*' 
he would order all the Treaties made, fince the Peace of Ryf- 
wick, to be laid before them. This was complied with (o flowly, 
that they were not brought to the Houfe till the 26th of Fe- 
bruary^ and no notice was taken of them, till the \oth of 
March ; It foon appeared that this was done by a French di- 
redlion. The Court oi France (perceiving that the Dutch were 
alarmed at their neighbourhood, and were encreafing their 
force, both by Sea and Land, and were calling upon their Al- 
lies to furnifh their Quota's, which they were bound by Trea- 
ties to fend to their defence) enter'd upon a Negotiation with 


26o Th )iits^OKY of the Reigft 

1 701 them at the Hague^ to try what would lay thefe fears. Itporl 
(-^^^'v^"^ this, in the beginning of March^ the States^ in conjundioh 
with Mr. Stanhope^ the EngJiJh Envoy at the Hague^ gave in 
Memorials, in which they inlifted on the violation of the Pat- 
tition Treaty, and particularly on the French poffefling them- 
felves of the Spanijh Netherlands : They alfo delired, that the 
Emperor might have juft fatisfa6lion in his pretenfions, and that 
in the mean v/KAQiLuxemburgh., Namur^ Mons, and y^ei/j, 
y might be put in their hands ; and 0Jie7id and Newport into the 

hands of the Englijh., and both they and the Dutch might have 
a free Tradej as before, to all the Spa?tiJ}j Dominions. The 
French feeing thefe demands run fo high, and being refolvcd to 
offer no other lecurity for the Peace of Europe^ but the renew- 
ing the Treaty of Ryfwick^ fet all their Engines at work in 
Englandy to involve us into fuch contentions at home, as fhoiild 
both difable us, from taking any care of Foreign affairs, and 
make the reft of Europe conclude, that nothing confiderabld 
was to be expefted from England. Affoon as tlie news of 
thofe Memorials could come to England-, the Marquifs of Nor- 
manby and the reft of the Tories, took up the Debate concerning 
the Partition Treaty : This they managed with great dexterity, 
while the matter was as much negleded by the King, who 
went that day to Hampton-Court^ where he ftay'd Ibme time ; 
by this means, no diredions were given, and we were involved 
in great difficulties, before the Court 'was aware of it : The 
King either could not prevail with his new Minifters to excufe 
the Treaty, if they would not juftify it ; or he negledled them 
fo far, as not to fpeak to them at all about .it. Thofe, who 
attack'd it, faid, they meant nothing in that but to offer the 
King Advices for the future, to prevent fuch errors as had been 
committed in that Treaty, both as to matter and form. They 
blamed the giving fuch Territories to the Crown of France^ 
and the forfaking the Emperor ; They alfo complained of the 
fecrecy, in which the Treaty was carried on, it not being com- 
municated to the Englip Council or Miniftry, but privately 
tranfaded by the Earls of Portland and J^rfey : They alfo blam- 
ed the putting the Great Seal, firft to blank Powers, and then 
to the Treaty itfelf, which the King's hew Minifters faid, was 
unjuft in the contrivance, and ridiculous in the execution. To 
all this, it was anfwered, that there not being a Force ready 
and fufiicient to hinder the French from poffefling themfelves 
of the Spanijh Monarchy, which they were prepared for, the 
Emperor had deftred the King to enter into a Treaty of Par- 
tition, and had confented to every Article of it, except that 
. 1 . which 

of King WiLLtAM ni:^ 261 

which related to the Dutchy of Milan ; But the King, not think- 1701 
ing that worth the engaging in a new War, had obtain'd an ex- t^''^^■■'''>J 
change of it for the Dutchy of Lorrain : The Emj^eror did not 
agree to this, yet he prefled the King not to break off the 
Treaty, but to get the beft terms he could for him, and above 
all things, he recommended fecrecy, that fo he might not lofe 
his intereft in Spain^ by ieeming to confent to this Partition : 
It is certain, that by our Conftitution, all Foreign Negotiations 
were trufted entirely to the Crown ; that the King was under 
no obligation by Law, to communicate fuch fecrets to his Coun- 
cil, or to hear, much lefs was he obliged to follow their Ad- 
vices : In particular it was faid, that the Keeper of the Great 
Seal had no fort of authority, to deny the putting it, either to 
Powers for a Treaty, or to any Treaty which the King fhould 
agree to : The Law gives no direction in fuch matters, and he 
could not refule to put the Great Seal to any thing, for which 
he had an Order from the King, imlefs the matter was contrary 
to Law, which had made no provifron in this cafe : They in- 
fifted mod on the other fide, upon the concluding a Treaty of 
this importance, without communicating it firft to the Privy 
Council ; fo the firft day of the Debate ended with this. 

The Earl of Portland apprehending that this might fall too hea- ^^fj^ j^^^^^ 
vy on him, got tJie King's leave to communicate the whole matter advifed 
next day to the Houfe ; So he told them, that he had not concluded Tppofed'it. 
the Treaty alone, but had, by tlie King's Order, acquainted fix of 
his chief Minifters with it, who were the Earls of Pembroke and 
Marlborough^ the Vifcount Lonfdalej the Lords Somers and Hali-^ 
fax^ and Secretary Vernon \ Upon which thofe Lords, being likewile 
freed by the King from the Oath of Secrecy, told the Houfe, that 
the Earl of Jerfey., having in the King's Name called them together, 
the Treaty was read to them, and that they excepted to feve- 
ral things in it, but they were told, that the King had carried 
the matter as far as was pofiible, and that he could obtain no 
better terms : So when they were told, that no alterations could 
be made, but that every thing was fettled, they gave over in- 
fifting on particulars ; they only advifed, that the King might 
not engage himfelf in any thing, that would bring on a new 
War, fince the Nation had been fo uneafy under the laft. This 
was carried to the King, and a few days after that, he told 
fome of them, that he was made acquainted with their excep- 
tions, but how reafonable foever they were, he had driven the 
matter as far as he could ; The Earl of Pembroke faid to the 
Houfe of Lords, he had offered the King thofe Advices, that he 
thought were moft for his fervice, and for the good of the 

Vol. n. X X X Nation j 

262 The History of the Reign 

1 70 1 Nation; but that he did not think himfelf bound to give art 
K-^r^"^^ account of that, to any other perfons ; He was not the man 
ftruck at, fo there was nothing faid, either againft him, or the 
Earls of Marlborough or Jerfey : Upon this, the Debate went 
on ; Some faid, this was a mockery, to ask advice, when there was 
no room for it : It was anfwered, the King had asked the ad- 
vice of his Privy Council, and they had given it ; but that, fuch 
was the Regal Prerogative, that it was ftill free to him to follow 
it or not, as he faw caufe. 
An AcWrefs In conclufion, the Houfe of Lords refolved to let out this 
to the King ^}^ole matter, in an Addrefs to the King, complaining both of 
the Partition Treaty, and of tke. method in which it had been, 
carried on ; The Lord Wharton moved an addition to the Ad- 
drefs, that, whereas the French King had broke that Treaty, 
they fhould advife the King to treat no more with him, or rely 
on his word without further fecurity : This was much oppofed, 
by all thofe who were againft the engaging in a new War ; 
They faid, all Motions of that kind ought to come from the 
Houfe of Commons, who only could fupport fuch an Advice, 
that did upon the matter engage us into a new War ; nor 
would they lay any blame on the breaking of a Treaty, which 
they were refolved to condemn : They alfo excepted to the 
words further fecurity as ambiguous ; yet the Majority of the 
Houfe agreed to it ; for there was fuch treachery in the French 
Negotiations, that they could not be relied on, without a good 
Guarantee, and the Pledge of fome ftrong places. It now plain- 
ly appeared, that the defign was, to let on the Houfe of Com- 
mons, to impeach fome of the Lords, who had been concern- 
ed in the Partition Treaty, for it was moved to fend the Ad- 
drefs to the Houfe of Commons, for their concurrence ; but 
that was not carried. The King feemed to bear all this with 
his ufual coldnefs : and the new Minifters continued ftill in his 
confidence, but he laid the matter much to heart ; Now he 
faw the error he had fallen into, by the change he had made 
in the Miniftry : It was plain they refolved to govern him 
in every thing, and not to be governed by him in any one 

As foon as this was over, the Earl of ferfey did, by the King's 
ftBtTora^ Order, bring to the Houfe of Lords the Memorials that had 
the States, been given in at the Hague^ and then, by comparing Dates, it 
was eafy to conjecture, why the Partition Treaty had been let 
lie fo long on the Table, and it feemed as if it was taken up 
at laft, only to blaft this Negotiation ; A French management 
appearing very plainly in the whole fteps, that had been made. 


of King William ill. ^ 163 

The Houfe of Commons began, at the fame time, not only to 1701 
complain of the Partition Treaty, but likewife of the demand u?'^/"'W 
of OJiend and Newport^ nor would they fhew any concern for 
the Emperor's pretenfions : The Dutch demanded the execu- 
tion of the Treaty, that King Charles had made with them< 
in the year 1677, by which England was bound to aflifl: them 
with ten thoufand Men and twenty Ships of War, if they 
were attack'd \ Some endeavoured, all that was pofTiblcj to put 
this off for the prefent, pretending that they were not yet at- 
tack'd : Others moved, that the pay of ten thoufand Men 
might be given to them, with the twenty Ships, as a full equi- 
valent to the Treaty ; yet they ^ipt liking this, it was in con- 
clufion agreed to fend the ten thoufand Men : five thoufand of 
thefe were to be drawn out of the Army in Ireland^ and five 
thoufand of them were to be new levied ; but they took care, 
that Ireland fliould not be provided with any new Forces in 
their ftead, fo jealous were they of trufting the King with an 
Army. The reprefentation fent over by the States, fetting forth 
the danger they were in, and defiring the affiftance of Eng" 
land, was penned with great fpirit, and in a very moving ftrain ; 
The Houfe of Lords did, upon a Debate on that fubjedl, make 
an Addrefs to the King, to enter into Leagues Oftenfive and 
Defenfive, with the Emperor and other Princes and States^ 
who were interefted againft the conjun6lion of the Fr'ench and 
Spanijh Monarchies ; But the Houfe of Commons could not, 
upon this occafion, be carried further, than to advife the King 
to enter into fuch Alliances, as (hould be neceflary, for our 
common fecurity, and for the Peace of Europe. This coldneis 
and uncertainty in our Councils, gave the French great advan- 
tages in their Negotiations, both in Germany and in Portugal y 
They tried the Courts of Italy, but without fuccefs ; only the 
Duke of Ma7itua confented, that they {hould make a fhew, 
as if they had furprized him, and fo force him to put Mantua 
in their hands : The Pope and the Venetians would not declare 
themfelves ; the Pope favoured the French, as the Venetians did 
the Emperor ; who began the War with a pretenfion on the 
Dutchy of Milan, as a Fief of tlie Empire that devolved on 
him ; and he was making Magazines, bdth in Tirol and at 
Trent : The French feemed to defpife all he could do, and did 
not apprehend, that it was poflible for him to march an Army 
into Italy; Both the King and the States preffed him to make 
that attempt ; The Eledlor of Bavaria, and fome of the Circles, 
had agreed to a Neutrality this year ; So there was no hope of 
doing much upon the Rhine, and the French were making the 


264 The HisrovLY of the Reign 

in 01 Italians feel, what infolent Mafters they were Uke to prove; 
U?'"v'*''W So a general uneafinefs among them, determined the Emperor, • 
to fend an Army into Italy^ under the Command of Prince Eu- 
gene : England was all this while very unwilhng to engage, yet 
for fear we fhould at laft have feen our intereft fo clearly, that 
we muft have fallen into it, thofe who were pradifed on to 
embroil us, fo that we might not be in a condition to mind 
Foreign Affairs, fet on foot a defign to impeach the former 
A defign to The handle, tliat brought this about, was given by the Earl 
fwEer M?-*^ of Portland ; When he was excufing his own part in the Par- 
niftry. tition Treaty, he faid, that having withdrawn himfelf from 
bulinefs, and being at his Country Houfe in Holland^ the King 
fent to him, defiring him to enter upon that Negotiation ; up- 
on that, he wrote to Secretary Vernon^ to ask his advice and 
tlie advice of his other Friends, whether it was fit for him to 
meddle in that matter, finee his being by Birth a Foreigner, 
feemed a juft excufe for not engaging in a thing of fuch confe- 
quence ; To this Secretary Vernon anfwered, that all his friends 
thought he was a very proper perfon, to be imployed in that 
Treaty, fmce he had known the progrefs of all thofe Treaties, 
and the perfons, who were imployed on that occafion ; and he 
named the Lord Somers among thole, who had advifed this. 
The Earl of Portland had miftaken this circumftance,. which 
did not belong to the laft Partition Treaty, but to that of the 
year before, in favour of the Prince Eledloral of Bavaria. The 
Houfe of Commons, hearing of this, required Secretary Vernon 
to lay before them that Letter, with his anfwer to it ; for the 
Earl of Portland faid, that he had left all Papers, relating to 
that matter, in Holland. Vernon faid, he had received no fuch 
Letter in the year 1699 ; So that led them to enquire farther, 
and they required him, to lay before them all the Letters he had, 
relating to both Treaties : He faid, thofe were the King's Se- 
crets, writ in confidence, by the perfons he imployed ; But in 
fuch a cafe, a Houfe of Commons will not be put off" : a deni- 
al rather raifes in them more earneftnefs, in following their 
point ; It was faid, the King had difpenfed with the Oath of 
Secrecy, when he ordered all matters to be laid before them, 
and they would admit of no excufe. Vernon upon this went to 
the King, and told him, fince thefe were his Secrets, he was 
ready to expofe himfelf to the indignation of the Houfe, and 
to refufe to fhew his Letters : But the King faid, his refufing to 
do it would not only raife a ftorm againfl himfelf, from which 
the King could not protedt him, but it would occafion an Ad- 
2 drefa 

of King William III. 26; 

drefs to the King, to order him to lay every thing before the 1701 
Houfe, which, in the ftate that things were in then, he could U?''V*''W 
not deny : Vernon, upon thefe Orders given him, at two dif- 
ferent times, carried all the Letters, and laid them before the 
Houfe of Commons ; It appeared by thefe, that he had com- 
municated the Treaty to the King's Minifters, who were in 
Town, about the end o{ Atiguft 1698 ; That Lord Somers fac- 
ing then at Tunbridge, he went to him ; and that he had com- 
municated the Projeft, both to the Earl of Orford and the 
Lord Halifax ; Several objedions were made by them to many 
parts of the Treaty, which were mentioned in Vernon % Letters ; 
but, if better terms could not be had, they thought it was better 
to conclude the Treaty, than to leave the Spanijh Monarchy, to 
be over-run by France, or to involve Europe in a new War ; 
Lord Somers had alfo put the Seals to Blank Powers, for con- 
cluding this Treaty. When all this was read, thofe, who were 
fet on to blow up the flame, moved the Houfe to impeach 
fbme of the Minifters, who had been concerned in this tranfac- 
tion ; yet in this they proceded, with fb vifible a partiality, 
that tho' the Earl of Jerfey had figned the Treaty, had been 
Plenipotentiary at Ryfwick, Ambaffador in France, and Secreta- 
ry of State, while the Partition Treaty was negotiating ; yet he, 
having joined himfelf to the new Miniftry, was not queftioned 
about it : The Party faid, he had been too eafily drawn into it, 
but that he was not in the Secret, and had no fhare in the 
Councils, that projedled it. 

On the firft of April, the Houfe of Commons brought up a T^^y f^^ 
general Iirl^eachment of the Earl of Portland, for high Crimes 
and Mifdemeanors ; but the chief deflgn was againft the Earl 
of Orford, and the Lords Somers and Halifax. Their Ene- 
mies tried again what ufe could be made of Kid'^ bufinefs, for 
he was taken in our Northern Plantations in America, and 
brought over : He was examined by the Houfe, but either he 
could not lay a probable ftory together, or fome remnants of 
honefty, raifed in him by the near profped of death, reftrained 
him ; he accufed no perfon of having advifed or encouraged 
his turning Pirate ; He had never talked alone with any of the 
Lords, and never at all with Lord Somers : He faid, he had 
no Orders from them, but to purfue his Voyage againft the 
Pirates in Madagafcar -, All endeavours were ufed to perfuade 
him to accufe the Lords ; he was afl'ured that if he did it, he 
fhould be preferved ; and if he did it not, he fhould certainly 
die for his Piracy ; yet this could not prevail on him to charge 
them : So he, with fome of his Crew, were hanged, tliere ap- 
VoL. n. Y y y pearing 


266 The History of the Reign 

1 701 pearing not fo much as a colour to faften any imputation on 
^^cr-^/"'^ thofe Lords 5 yet their Enemies tried, what ufe could be made of 
the Grant of all that Kid might recover from the Pirates, which 
fome bold and ignorant Lawyers affirmed to be againft Law. 
So this matter was for the fourth time debated in the Houfe of 
Commons, and the behaviour of thofe Peers in it appeared 
to be fo innocent, fo legal and in truth fo meritorious, that 
it was again let fall. The infifting fo much on it, ferved to 
convince all people, that the enemies of thefe Lords wanted not 
inclinations, but only matter to charge them, iince they made 
fo much ufe of this ; But fo partial was a great part of the 
, Houfe, that the dropping this was carried only by a fmall 
Majority : When one defign failed, another was fet up. 
i.m^Somen ft ^vas pretended, that by Secretary Vernon^ Letters it was 
the Hou?e clearly proved, that the Lord Somers had confented to the Par- 
of Com- tition Treaty ; So a Debate coming on concerning that, Lord 
Somers deiired that he might be admitted, to give an account 
of his fhare in it, to the Houfe of Commons ; Some oppofi- 
tion was made to this, but it had been always granted, fo it 
could not be denied him ; He had obtained the King's leave, to 
tell every thing 5 So that when he appeared before the Houfe, 
he told them, the King had writ to him, that the ftate of the 
King of Spain % health was defperate, and that he faw no way 
to prevent a new War, but to accept of the proportion, the 
French made for a Partition : The King fent him the Scheme of 
this, and ordered him to communicate it to fome others, and to 
give him both his own opinion and theirs concerning it, and to 
fend him over Powers for a Treaty, but in the fecreteft manner 
that was pofUble : Yet the King added, that, if he and his 
other Minifters thought that a Treaty ought not to be made 
upon fuch a Projeft, then the whole matter muft be let fall, 
for he could not bring the French to better terms. Lord So- 
mers upon this faid, that he thought it was the taking too 
much upon himfelf, if he fhould have put a ftop to a Treaty 
of fuch confequence ; If the King of Spain had died, before 
it was finijQied, and the blame had been caft on him, for not 
fending the neceflary Powers, becaufe he was not ordered to 
do it, by a Warrant in full form, he could not have juftified 
that, flnce the King's Letter was really a Warrant, and there- 
fore he thought he was bound to fend the Powers that were 
called for, which he had done. But at the fame time, he 
wrote his own opinion very fully to the King, objeding to 
many particulars, if there was room for it, and propoling f&- 
veral things, which, as he thought, were for the good and in- 


of King WiLLtAik^ in. %(>j 

ttrt^ o^ England. Soon after the Powers were fent over by 1701 
him, the Treaty was concluded, to which he put the Great '-<J^'V"'^ 
Seal, as he thought he was bound to do : In this, ds he was a 
Privy Councellor, he had offered the King his beft advice, and 
as he was Chancellor, he had executed his Office according to 
his duty. As for putting the Seal to the Powers, he had done 
it upon the King's Letter, which was a real Warrant, tho' not 
a formal one : he had indeed defired, that a Warrant in due 
form might be fent him for his own fccurity ; but he did not 
think it became him, to endanger the Publick, only for want of . 
a point of Form, in fo critical a time, where great difpatch was 
requifite. He fpoke fo fully and fo clearly, that, upon his with- 
drawing, it was believed, if the Queflion had been quickly put^ 
the whole matter had been foon at an end, and that the pro- 
fecution would have been let fall : But his enemies drew out 
the Debate to fuch a length, that the imprefTion, which his 
Speech had made, was much worn out ; and the Houfe fitting 
till it was pafl midnight, they at lafl carried it by a Majority * 

of feven or eight to impeach him and the Earl of Orford and 
the Lord Halifax^ of high Crimes and Mifdemeanors : The 
general Impeachment was brought up the next day to the Lords 

The Commons were very fenfible, that thofe Impeachments Contrary 
muft come to nothing, and that they had not a Majority in ^'f ,he Two 
the Houfe of Lords, to judge in them, as they fhould dire<ft ; Houfes. 
So they refolved on a fhorter way, to fix a fevere cenfure on the 
Lords, whom they had thus impeached ; They voted an Addrefs 
to the King, for excluding them from his Prefence and Coun- 
cils for ever ; This had never gone along with an Impeachment 
before ; The Houfe of Commons had indeed begun fuch a 
pradice in King Charles the Second's time: When they difliked 
a Minifler, but had not matter to ground an Impeachment on, 
they had taken this method, of making an Addrefs againfl 
him, but it was a new attempt, to come with an Addrefs af- 
ter an Impeachment : This was punifhing before Trial, con- 
trary to an indifpenfible Rule of Juflice, of not judging before 
the Parties were heard : The Lords faw, that this made their 
Judicature ridiculous, when, in the firfl inflance of an Accufa- 
tion, application was made to the King for a Cenfure, and a 
very fevere one ; fince few Mifdemeanors could deferve a har- 
der Sentence. Upon thefe grounds, the Lords prevented the 
Commons, and fent fome of their Body to the King, with an 
Addrefs, praying him, that he would not proceed to any Cen- 
fure of thefe Lords, till they had undergone their Trial. The 


268 The History of the Reign 

1 701 King received thefe Addrefles, fo contrary to one another, froni 
U^'V"^ both Houfes, but made no anfwer to either of them ; imlefs the 
letting the names of thefe Lords continue ftill in ' the Council 
Books, might be taken as a refufing to grant what the Com- 
mons had defired. They renewed their Addrefs, but had na 
dired anfwer from the King ; This^ tho' a piece of commorr 
juftice, was complained of, and it was faid, that thefe Lords 
had ftill great credit with the King ; The Commons had, for 
forms fake, ordered a Committee to prepare Articles of Im- 
peachment, but they intended to let the matter deep ; think- 
ing that, what they had already done had fo marked thofe 
Lords, that the King could not imploy them any more ; for 
that was the main thing they drove at. 
The King While this was in agitation, a Letter came to the King frorii 
owned the ^-^e King of Spain^ giving notice of his AccefTion to that Crown ; 
s^ain. It was dated, the day after he entred into Spain^ but the Date 
and the Letter were vifibly writ at different times ; The King 
ordered the Letter to be read in the Cabinet Council'; there 
was fome jfhort Debate concerning it, but it was never brought 
into any further deliberation there. The Earl of Rochejler faw 
the King feemed diftruftful of him, and referved to him in 
that matter, and was highly offended at it : He and the reft of 
the new Miniftry prefTed the King, to own the King of Spain^ 
and to anfwer his Letter ; and fince the Dutch had done it, 
it feemed reafonable that the King fhould likewife do it ; They 
prevailed at laft, but with much difficulty j The thing was 
kept fecret, and was not communicated to the Privy Councilj, 
or to the T^yo Houfes, nor did the King fpeak of it to any of 
the Foreign Minifters ; The Paris Gazette gave the World the 
firft notice of it. This being carried in fuch a manner, feem- 
ed the more ftrange, becaufe his^Miniflry had fo lately con- 
demned a former One, for not communicating the Partition 
Treaty to the Council, before it was concluded ; and yet had, 
in a matter of great confequence, fo fbon forgot the Cenfures, 
they had thrown out fo liberally, upon the fecrecy with which 
that matter had been tranfaded. While things were moving 
in fuch a flow and uncertain pace in England., the Dutch had 
daily new allarms brought them of the Forces, that the French 
were pouring into their Neighbourhood ; into the SpaniJIj Guel- 
der on the one hand, and into Antwerp on the other ; So that 
they were apprehenfive ofadefign, both upon Nimeguen and 
"Bergen-op-zonf : •'They took the beft care they could to fecure 
their Frontier : The Negotiations went on flowly at the Hague ; 
The Fre?ich rejefted all their demands, and offered nothing but 


of King William IIL 269 

io renew the Peace of Ryfwick ; This the Dutch laid again be- 1 70 1 
fore the King, in a very awakening ftrain ; and he fcnt all to '^'<i'''v"''>J 
the Hoiife of Commons, but they could not be brought to de- 
clare, that the Offers made by the French were not fufficient. 
D' Avaux, feeing this coldnefs in our Counfels, refufed to treat ' 

any more with the Dutch., in conjunction with the Envoy of 
England^ and faid, his Powers directed him only to them; 
This put a full ftop to all further Treaty j for the States faid, 
they were engaged in fuch a clofe conjundion with England-, 
that they could not enter on a feparate Treaty. In the mean 
while they armed powerfully ; and our Fleet, in conjundion 
with theirs, were Mafters of the Sea ; but for want of Marines, 
they were in no condition to make any impreflion on the Ene- 
my. The Emperor went on, with his preparation for a Cam- 
paign in Italy ; The French (ent an Army into the Milaneze, 
that they reckoned would be much fuperior to any Force the 
Emperor could fend thither ; The Duke of Savoy was engaged 
in the interefl: of France, by King Philip\ marrying his Second 
Daughter : The Pope ftill refufed to give the Inveftiture of Na- 
ples, or to accept the Annual prefent ; for he would not quite 
break with the Emperor. 

The French pradices were every where the more prevalent, Ke^^otia- 
becaufe they gave out that England would not engage in a *'°"' '" ^e^e- 
War, and the face of our Affairs looked but dark at home ; The ^ "^ 
Emperor's Minifters had an unealy time among us ; the King 
encouraged them, but the new Minifters were fcarce civil to 
them,. and ftudied to put them quite out of hope ; The King of 
Denmark entered into a Treaty with the Emperor and the 
States ; Great pains were taken to mediate a Peace between 
Sweden and Poland ; The Court of France, as vi^ell as that of 
Vienna, tried it ; both fides hoping that Sweden, if not Poland, 
might enter into their interefts : The French reckoned that Den- 
mark and Sweden could never be on the fame fide ; So, when 
they found they could not gain Denmark, they tried a Media- 
tion, hoping to get Sweden into an Alliance with them, but all 
attempts for a Mediation proved unfuccefsful. The Diet of 
Poland was put off, and their King being delivered from them, 
refolved to carry on the War j The Spaniards, and the Sub- 
jefts of their other Dominions, began to feel the Infolence of 
the French very fenfibly ; but nothing was more uneafy to 
them, than the new regulations, they were endeavouring to 
bring in, to leffen the expence of the Court of Spain : So they 
feemed well difpofed to entertain a new Pretender. 

Vol. II. Z z z While 

270 The HtsrokY of the Reign 

1701 while all thefe things were in a ferment all Europe ovet ; 
Ui5?='>/'''^^ Xhe declaring a Proteftant Siicceflbr, after the Princefs and 
An Aa de- fuch Iffue as {he might have, feemed to be forgot by our Par- 
p?otei?ant Hament, tho' the King had begun his Speech with it. The 
Succeflion. ^^^ Miniftcrs fpoke of it with much zeal ; from this their 
friends made inferences in their favour, that certainly men, irt 
the interefts of France^ would not promote a defrgn fo de- 
ftrudtive of all they drove at : This was fo little of a piece, with 
the reft of their conciuft, that thofe, who were ftill jealous of 
their fincerity, looked on it as a blind, to cover their ill defigns, 
and to gain them fome credit ; for they could not but fee, that, 
if France was once poflefled of the Power and Wealth of 
Spain, our Laws, and every thing that we could do to fupport 
them, would prove but feeble defences. The manner, in which 
this motion of the Succeflion was managed, did not carry in 
it great marks of fincerity ; It was often put off from one day 
to another, and it gave place to the moft trifling matters ; at 
laft, when a day was folemnly fet for it, and all people expe<5l- 
ed, that it fliould pafs without any difliculty, Harley moved, 
that fome things previous to that might be firft confidered. He 
obferved, that the hafte the Nation was in, when the prefent Go- 
vernment was fettled, had made us go too faft, and over- 
look many fecurities, which might have prevented much 
mifchief, and therefore he hoped they would not now fall 
into the fame error : Nothing preflTed them at prefent, fo he 
moved they would fettle fome Conditions of Government, as 
Preliminaries, before they fliould proceed to the Nomination of 
the Perfon ; that fo we might fix every thing that was want- 
ing, to make our fecurity compleat. This was popular, and 
took with many, and it had fo fair an appearance, that indeed 
none could oppoP it ; Some weeks were fpent upon it ; Sufpi- 
cious people thought, this was done on defign to blaft the 
Motion, and to ofi^er fuch extravagant Limitations, as fhould 
quite change the Form of our Government, and render the Crown 
titular and precarious : The King was alarmed at it, for almoft 
every particular, that was propofed, implied a reflexion on 
him and his Adminiftration, chiefly that of not imploying 
Strangers, and not going too often out of the Kingdom ; It 
was propofed, that every thing fhould be done with the advice 
of the Privy Council, and every Privv Counfellor was to fign 
his advice; All men, who had Places or Penfions, were made 
incapable of fitting in the Houfe of Commons ; As all this was 
unacceptable to the King, fo many, who had an ill opinion of 
the defign of thofe, who were now at the Helm, began to 

of King William IIL'^ tji 

eonclude, that the delays were afFeded, and that thefe Limitd- 1701 
tions were defigned, to raife difputes between the Two Houfes, '-^'"V"*^ 
by which the Bill might be loft. When fome time had been 
fpent in thofe Preliminaries, it came to the nomination of the 
Perfon ; Sir yohn Bowles^ who was tlien difbrdered in his Senfes, 
and foon after quite loft them, was fet on by the Party, to be 
the firft that fhould name the Eledorefs Dowager of Brunfwick^ 
which feemed done to make it lefs ferious, when moved by 
fuch a perfon : He was, by the Forms of the Houfe, put in the 
Chair of the Committee, to whom the Bill was committed : 
The thing was ftill put off for many weeks ; At every time 
that it was called for, the motion was entertained with cold- 
nefs, which ferved to heighten the jealoufy ; The Committee 
once or twice fate upon it, but all the Members ran out of 
the Houfe, with fo much indecency, that the Contrivers feem-^ 
ed afhamed of this management : There were feldom fifty or 
fixty at the Committee ; yet in conclufion, it paft and was fent 
up to the Lords ; where we expelled great oppofition would 
be made to it : Some imagined, the A61 was only an artifice, 
defigned to gain credit to thofe, who at this time were {o ill thought 
of over the Nation, that they wanted fome colourable thing, 
to excufe their other proceedings : Many of the Lords ablented 
themfelves on defign ; Some little oppofition was made by the 
Marquifs of Normanby ; And four Lords, the Earls of Hun- 
tington and Plymouth and the Lords Guilford and JefferieSf 
protefted againft it. Thofe, who wifht well to the Aft, were ; 

glad to have it pafi"ed any way, and fo would not examine the 
Limitations tliat were in it ; They thought it of great impor- 
tance to carry the Ad:, and that, at another time, thofe Li- 
mitations might be better confidered : So the A61 pafled, and 
the King fent it over by the Earl of Macclesfield to the Elec- 
torefs, together with the Garter to the EleEior. We reckoned 
it a great point carried, that we had now a Law on our fide, 
for a Proteftant Succeflbr; for we plainly faw, a great Party 
formed againft it, in favour of the pretended Prince of WaleSi 
He was now paft thirteen, bred up with a hatred both of our 
Religion and our Conftitution, in an admiration of the French 
Government ; and yet many who called themfelves Proteftants, 
feemed fond of fuch a Succeflbr ; a degree of infatuation that 
might juftly amaze all who obferved it, and faw the fiiry with 
which it was promoted. 

Another very good A6t paft this Seflion, concerning the Pri- An Adle*- 
vilege of Parliament ; Peers had, by Law or Cuftom, a Privi- 1\^^^}^"^ 
lege for themfelves and their Servants, during the Seflion, and 

at ^ 

272 The History^ the Reign 

1 70 1 at leaft twenty days before and after; of late they have rec-* 
"^^^^^^^""^ koned forty days before and after, in which neither they nor 
their Servants could be fued in any Court, unlefs for Treafon, 
Felony, or breach of the Peace : The Houfe of Commons had 
alfo poflefled themfelves of the fame Privilege ; but with this 
difference, that the Lords pretended theirs was a right, not fub- 
je6l to the Order of the Houfe of Lords ; whereas the Com- 
mons held, that their Privilege was fubjed to the Authority of 
their Houfe : Of late years, SefTions were long and continued by 
intermediate Prorogations, fo that the whole year round was a 
time of Privilege ; This made a great obftrudlion in the courfe 
of juftice, and none, who were fo protected, could be fued 
for Debt ; The abufe was carried further, by the Protedlions 
which fomc Lords gave, or rather fold to perfons, who were 
no way concerned in their affairs ; but when they needed this 
fhelter, they had a pretended office given them, that was a bar 
to all Arrefts : After many fruitlefs attempts to regulate thefe 
abufes, a Bill was brought into the Houfe of Commons, that 
took away all Privilege againft Legal Profecutions, in interme- 
diate Prorogations, and did fo regulate it, during the fitting 
of Parliament, that an effedual remedy was provided for a 
grievance, that had been long and much complained of: Thefe 
were the only popular things, that were done by this Parlia-^ 
ment, the reft of their proceedings fhewed both the madnefs 
and fury of Parties. 
Proceedings yj^g Impeachments lay long neglected in the Houfe of Com- 
impeach- mons, and probably they would have been let fleep, if the Lords 
*"^"*** concerned had not moved for a Trial ; On their motion, Mef- 
fages were fent to the Commons to quicken their Proceedings ; 
At laft, Articles Were framed and brought up, firft againft the 
And firft, Earl of Orford : He was charged for taking great Grants from 
Jealnft'thi" ^hc King ; Kid\ bufineis was objeded to him ; he was alfo 
Earl of Or- charged for abufes in managing the Fleet, and vidtualling it, 
•^"^ * when it lay on the Coaft of Spain, and for fome Orders he 

had given, during his Command ; and in conclufion, for his ad- 
vidng the Partition Treaty. And in fetting this out, the Com- 
mons urged, that the King, by the Alliance made with the 
Emperor in the year 1689, was bound to maintain his Succef- 
fion to the Crown of Spain, which they faid was ftill in force ; 
So the Partition Treaty was a Breach of Faith, contrary to 
that Alliance, and this paft current in the Houfe of Commons, 
without any Debate or Enquiry into it ; for every thing was 
acceptable there, that loaded that Treaty, and thefe Lords : But 
they did not confider, that by this they declared, they thouglit 


9/ King Wlti:tA\t in; i73 

the King was bound to maintain the Emperor's right to that 1701 
Succeflion : yet this was not intended by thofe, who managed U?S/*^ 
the Party, who had not hitherto given any countenance to the Em- 
peror's pretenfions : So apt are Parties to make ufe of any thing; 
that may ferve a tUrh, without cortfidering the confequences of 
it.- -J 

The Earl of Orford put in his Anfwer in fout days; He JJ'f^^^^lJ^ **^ 
faid he had no Grant of the King, but a Revcrfion at a great Aufwcr. 
diftance, and a Gift of ten thoufarid Pounds, after he had de- 
feated the French at La Hogtie^ which he thought he might 
lawfully accept of, as all others before him had done : He 
opened KicT^ matter^ in which he had adted legally, with good 
intentions to the publick, and to his own lofs : His Accounts, 
while he commanded the Fleet, had been all examined and 
were paft ; but he was ready to wave that, and to juftify him- 
felf in every particular, and he denied his having given any 
Advice about the Partition Treaty ; This was immediately fent 
down to the Commons ; But they let it lie before them, with- 
out coming to a replication ; which is only a piece of Form, 
by which they undertake to make good their charge. 

Articles were next fent up againft the Lord Somen ; In thefe Articles of 
the two Partition Treaties were copibufly fet forth, and it was ii^!!?^a- . 
laid down for a foundation, that the King was bound to main- ^^'"^ ^°'^" 
tain the Emperot's right of SuccefllOn to the Crown of Spain ; 
Lord Somers was charged, for fettirig the Seals, firft to the 
Powers and then to the Treaties themfelves ; He was alfo 
charged, for accepting fome Grants, and the manner of taking 
them was reprefented as fraudulent, he ieeming to buy theni 
of the King, and then getting himfelf difcharged of the Pried 
contraAed for ; Kid's bufinefs was alfo mentioned, and dilatory 
and partial proceedings in Chancery were objeded to him. He 
put in his Anfwer in a: very few days : In the Partition Trea- ^o""^ 
ty, he faid, he had offered the King very faithfbl advice as a Anfwer. 
Counfellor, and had a£led according to the duty of his Poft, 
as Chancellor ; So he had «iothing more to anfwer fot : As for 
his Grants, the King defigned him a Grant to fuch a value ; 
The King was not deceived in the value j The manner of paf- 
ling it, was according to the ufual methods of the Treafury, 
in order to make a Grant fufe, and out of the danger of be- 
ing avoided. Kid's bufinefs was opened, as was formerly fet 
forth ; and as to the Court of Chancery, he had applied hirii- 
felf wholly to the difpatch of bufinefs in it, with little regard 
to his own health or quiet, and had a£ted according to the beft 
6f his judgment, without fear or fivour. This was prefently 

Vol. II. A a a a' fent 


274 The Hi sroViY of the ReJgn 

1 70 1 fent down to the Houfe of Commons, and upon that they were 
*-<J^'"V'^^ at a full ftand : They framed no Articles againft the Earl of 
Portland, which was reprefented to the King, as an expreflion 
of their refped to him. 
Articles of Somc time after this, near the end of the Sefllon, they fent 
Impeach- up Articlcs againft the Lord Halifax, which I mention here, 
Xord^j/S/- that I may end this matter all at once ; They charged him 
J''-"' for a Grant that he had in Ireland, and that he had not pay'd 

in the produce of it, as the Ad; concerning thofe Grants had 
enabled : They charged him for another Grant, out of the Fo- 
reft of Dean, to the wafte of the Timber, and prejudice of 
the Navy of England : They charged him, for holding Places 
that were incompatible, being at the fame time both a Com- 
miflioner of the Trealury, and Auditor of the Exchequer; 
and in conclufion, he was charged for advifing the two Partition 
Lord iLili- Treaties. He was as quick with his Anfwer as the other Lords 
fax's An- i^^^ been : He faid, his Grant in Ireland was of fome Debts and 
Sums of Money, and fo was not thought to be within the Adt, 
concerning confifcated Eftates ; All he had ever received of it 
was four hundred pounds ; If he was bound to repay it, he was 
liable to an adion for it ; but every man was not to be impeach- 
ed, who did not pay his Debts, at the day of payment. His 
Grant in the Foreft oi Dean was only of the Weedings ; fo it could 
be no wafte of Timber, ncr a prejudice to the Navy ; The 
Auditor's place was held by another, till he obtained the King's 
leave to withdraw from the Treafury ; As for the firft Partition. 
Treaty, he never once law it, nor was he ever advifed with in 
it ; As for the fecond, he gave his Advice very freely about it, 
at the ftngle time, in which he had ever heard any thing con- 
cerning it ; This was fent down to the Commons, but was ne- 
ver fo much as once read by them. When, by thefe Articles 
and the Anfwers to them, it appeared, that after all the noife 
and clamour that had been raifed againft the former Miniftry 
(more particularly againft the Lord Halifax) for the great wafte 
of Treafure, during their Adminiftration, that now, upon the 
ftrideft fearch, all ended in fuch poor accufations ; it turn- 
ed the minds of many, that had been formerly prejudiced a- 
gainft them. It appeared, that it was the animofity of a Party 
at beft, if it was not a French pradlice, to mine men, who 
had ferved the King faithfully, and to difcourage others, from 
engaging thcmfelves fo far in hislnterefts, as thefe Lords had done. 
They faw the effed: that muft follow on this : and that the King 
could not enter upon a new War, if they could difcourage from 
his Service all the men of Uvely and adive tempers, that would 


of King William III^,; ij^ 

rai/e a fplrit in the Nation, for fuppoiting fuch an important 1701 
and dangerous War, as this now in profpedl was hke to prove. u?='^/*■*oJ 

This gave a general difguft to all England^ more particular- The Pro- 
ly to the City of London^ where Foreign affairs and the intereft "cdings of 

J ^ 11 1 1 n 1 /-r-<i 1 1 T-< /t r 1 ornament 

or Trade were generally better underltood ; The old Eajt-In- much ccn- 
dia Company, tho' they hated the Miniftry that let up the^"'^'^'^* 
new, and ftudied to fupport this Houle of Commons, from 
Nvhom they expected much favour ; yet they, as well as the reft 
of the City, faw vifibly that firft the ruiue of Trade, and then, 
as a confequence of that, the ruine of the Nation muft cer- 
tainly, ertfue, if France and Spain were once firmly united : 
So they began openly to condemn the proceedings of the Com- 
mons, and to own a jealoufy, that the Lpuh d'Ors fent hither 
of late, had not come over to England, tor notliing, Thi^ 
dilpofition to blame the flownefs, in which the Houfe of Com- 
mons proceeded, with relation to Foreign Affiiirs, and the heat 
with which private quarrels were purfued, began to Ipread it 
felf thro' the whole Nation. Thofe of the County of Keni lent 
up a Petition to the Houfe, defiring them to mind the ^^^-ThcKentifi 
lick more, and their private heats lefs, and to turn their Ad- Petition, 
drefles to the King, to Bills of Supplies, to enable him both to 
protedl the Nation, and to defend our AUies. This' was brought 
up by fbme Perfons of QuaHty, and was prefented by them to 
the Houfe : But it was looked on as a Libel on their Proceedt 
ings ; and the Gentlemen, who brought it up, were fent to 
Prifon ; where they lay till the Prorogation, but they were much 
vifited and treated as Confeflbrs. This was highly cenfured ; it 
was faid, the Commons were the Creatures of the People, and 
upon all other occafions, they ufed to favour and encourage 
Petitions : This feverity was condemned therefore as unnatural, 
and without a precedent : It was much queftioned, whether they 
had really an Authority to Imprifon any except their own Mem- 
bers, or fuch as had violated the Privilege of their Houfe : But 
the Party thought it was convenient, by fuch an unufual feve- 
rity, to difcourage others from following the example fet them 
by thofe of Kenf : for a defign was laid to get Addrefles of 
the fame nature, from all parts of the Kingdom, chiefly from 
the City of London. The Minifters reprefented to the King, 
what an indignity this would be to the Houfe of Commons ; 
and that, if he did not difcourage it, he might look for unac- 
ceptable things from them. It might rather difcourage, than 
give heart to our Allies, if they fhould fee fuch a disjointing, 
and both City and Country in an oppofition to the Houfe 
of Commons 5 Some went in his Name, to the eminent 


176 TJl^ History offJ^e Reign 

1 70 1 Men of the City, to divert ft, yet with all this it came fo near, 
U=^^/■■'W for fuch an Addrefs, in a Common Council, that the . Lord 
Mayor's Vote turned it for the Negative, fo that fell. But a dif- 
poiition to a War, and to a more hearty concurrence with the 
King, appeared to be the general fenfe of the Nation, and this 
had a great eflFed on the Hoiife of Comnloris : They began to 
talk of a War as unavoidable ; and when the Sefliori drew near 
an end, they, by an Addrefs defired the King to enter into 
fuch Alliances with the Emperor, and other States and Princes, 
as were neceflary for the fupport of us and our Allies, and 
to bring down the exorbitant Power of France. This was op- 
pofed with great zeal by thofe, who were looked on as the 
chief Condudiors of the Jacobite Party, tho' many, who had 
in other things gone along with them, thought this was the 
only mean that was left, to recover their Credit with the people : 
for the current ran fo ftrong for a War, that thofe, who ftrug- 
gled againft it, were looked on as little better than publick E- 
nemies. They had found good Funds for a MilHon and a 
half; It is true, one of thefe was very unacceptable to the 
" ' King : It was obferved, that the allotment for the Civil Lift did 
far exceed the Sum that was defigned, which was only fix 
hundred thouland pounds, and that, as King Jamesh Queen 
would not take her Jointure, fo by the Duke of GloceJier\ 
death, the charge on it was now lefs than when it was grant- 
ed ; fo they took almoft four thoufand pounds a Week out of 
the Excife, and, upon an AfTignation made of that for fome 
years, a great fum was raifed ; This was very fenfible to the 
Court, and the new Minifters found it no eafy thing to main- 
tain, at the fame time, their Intereft both with the King and 
their Party : This matter was at laft yielded to by the King. 
All the remainder of this SefTion relates to the Impeachments. 
Meffaees The Lords had refolved to begin with the Trial of the Earl 
paftbetwccn q{ Qrford ; becaufe the Articles againft him were the firft that 
Houfes. were brought up ; and fince the Commons made no Replica- 
tion, the Lords, according to clear Precedents, named a day 
for his Trial, and gave notice of it to the Houfe of Commons : 
Upon this, the Commons moved the Lords, to agree to name 
a Committee of both Houfes for fettling the Preliminaries of 
the Trial, and they named two Preliminaries ; One was, that 
the Lord who was to be tried, fhould not fit as a Peer ; the 
other was, that thofe Lords, who were impeached for the fame 
matter, might not vote in the Trial of one another : They al- 
fo acquainted the Lords, that the courfe of their Evidence led 
them to begin with the Lord Sotners. The Lords judged their 
, laft 


of King William III. ijy 

laft demand reafonable, and agreed to it; but difagreed to the 1701 
others. They confidered themfelvcs as a Court of Juftice, and "w-tf^v^vJ 
how great foever the regard due to the Houfe of Commons 
might be, in all other rcfpeds, yet in matters of Juftice, where 
they were the Acculers, they could only be confidered as Par^ 
ties. The King, when he had a Suit with a Subjedl, fubmit- 
ted to the equality of Juftice ; So the Commons ought to pre- 
tend to no advantage over a fingle perfon, in a Trial ; A Court 
of Juftice ought to hear the demands of both Parties pleaded 
fairly, and then to judge impartially ; A Committee named by 
one of the Parties, to lit in an equality with the Judges, and 
to fettle matters relating to the Trial, was a thing pradifed in 
no Court or Nation, and feemed contrary to the principles of 
Law or rules of Juftice : By thefe means, they could at Icaft 
delay Trials, as long as they pleafed, and all delays of juftice 
arc real and great injuftices. This had never been demanded 
but once, in the cafe of the Popifh Plot ; then it was often re- 
fufed ; it is true, it was at laft yielded to by the Lords, tho' 
with great oppofition j That was a cafe of Treafon, in which 
the King's Life and the Safety of the Nation was concerned ; 
There was then a great jealoufy of the Court, and of the Lords 
that belonged to it ; and the Nation was in {o great a fer- 
ment, that the Lords might at that time yield to fuch a motion, 
tho' it derogated from their Judicature : That ought not to be 
fet up for a precedent for a quiet time, and in a cafe pretend- 
ed to be no more than a Mifdemeanor ; So the Lords re- 
folved not to admit of this, but to hear whatfoever fhould be 
propofed by the Commons, and to give them all juft and rea- 
fonable fatisfadion in it. The chief point in queftion, in the 
year 1679, was, how far the Bifhops might fit and vote in 
Trials of Treafon ; but without all difpute, they were to vote 
in Trials for Mifdemeanors ; It was alfo fettled in the cafe of 
the Lord Mordaunt^ that a Lord tried for a Mifdemeanor was 
to fit within the Bar ; In all other Courts, men tried for fuch 
Offences came within the Bar ; This was ftronger in the cafe of 
a Peer, who by his Patent had a Seat in that Houfe, from 
which nothing but a judgment of the Houfe, for fome offence, 
could remove him : They indeed found that, in King James 
the Firft's time, the Earl of Middle/ex, being accufed of Mifde- 
meanors, was brought to the Bar ; But as that profecution was 
violent, fo there had been no later precedent of that kind, to 
CTovern proceedings by it : There had been many fince that 
time, and it had been fettled, as a rule for future times, tlmt 
Peers tried for fuch Offences were to fit within the Bar. The 
Vol. n. B b b b other 


278 The History of the Reign 

1 70 1 other Preliminary was, that Peers accufed for the fame Offence^ 
u^-v"^ might not vote in the Trials of tlie others : The Lords found 
that a right of voting was fo inherent in every Peer in all caufes, 
except where himfelf was a Party, that it could not . be taken 
from him, but by a fentence of the Houfe ; a Vote of the Houfe 
could not deprive him of it 5 Otherwife, a Majority might up- 
on any pretence deny fome Peers their right of voting, and the 
Commons, by impeaching many Peers at once, for the lame 
offence, might exclude as many Lords as they pleafed from 
judging : It was alfo obferved, that a man might be a judge in 
any caufe, in which he might be a Witnefs ; And it was a 
common pradice to bring perfons, charged with the fame of- 
fence, if they were not in the fame Indidlment, to witnefs the 
fads, with which they themfelves were charged, in another In- 
didment : and a parity of reafon appeared in the cafe of Lords, 
who were charged in different Impeachments, for the fame 
fads, that they might be judges in one another's Trials. Upon 
thefc points, many Meffages paffed between the Two Houfes, 
with fo much precipitation, that it was not eafy to diftinguiih, 
between the Anfwers and the Replies : The Commons fLill kept 
off the Trial, by affeded delays ; It was vifible, that when a 
Trial fhould come on, they had nothing to charge thefe Lords 
with : So the Leaders of the Party fhewed their skill, in find- 
ing out excufes, to keep up the clamour, and to hinder the 
matters from being brought to an iffue : The main point, that 
was ftill infifted on, was a Committee of both Houfes, fo ac- 
cording to the forms of the Houfe, it was brought to a free 

In it, the Lord Haverjbam, fpeaking to the point of Lords 
being partial in their own cafes and therefore not proper judges, 
faid that the Houfe of Commons had plainly fhewed their par- 
tiality, in impeaching fome Lords for fads, in which others were 
equally concerned vnth them, who yet were not impeached 
by them, tho' they were ftill in credit and about the King ; 
which fhewed, that they thought neither the one nor the other 
were Guilty. The Commons thought, they had now found 
an occafion of quarrelling with the Lords, which they were 
looking for ; So they immediately withdrew from the Confe- 
rence, tho' they were told that the Lord Haver Jham Ipoke only 
his own private fenfe, and not by any diredion from the Houfe. 
The Houfe of Commons fent up a Complaint to the Lords, of 
this Refledion on their Proceedings, as an indignity done 
them, for which they expeded Reparation 5 Upon this, the Lord 
Haverjham offered himfelf to a Trial, and fubmitted to any 


of King William IIL 179 

Cenfure, that the Lords fliould think he had deferved ; but 1701 
infifted that the words muft firft be proved, and he muft be ^-^J^'^v^^sJ 
allowed to put his own fenfe on them ; The Lords fent this to the 
Commons, but they ffccmed to think that the Lords ought to 
have proceeded to cenfuxe him in a fummary way, which the 
Lords thought, being a Court of Judicature, they could not do, 
till the words were proved, and the importance of them difculTed. 

The Houfe of Commons had now got a pretence to juftify The Lord* 
their not going further in thefe Trials ; and they refolved to "cauitlcd, 
infift upon it : They faid, they could expedt no juftice, and 
therefore they could not go on with the profecutions of their 
Impeachments ; And a day being fet for the Lord Sotners\ Tri- 
al, they excepting ftill, it was put off for fome time, at laft a 
peremptory day was fixed for it ; But the Commons refufed to 
appear, and faid they were the only Judges, when tliey were 
ready with their Evidence, and that ic was a mockery, to go to 
a Trial, when they were not ready to appear at it. There 
were great and long Debates upon this in the Houfe of Lords ; 
The new Miniftry, and all the Jacobites joined to fupport the 
pretenfions of the Commons : every ftep was to be made by a 
Vote, againft which many Lords protefted, and the reafons 
given, in fome of their proteftations, were thought to be fo in- 
jurious to the Poufe, that diey were by a Vote ordered to be 
expunged, a thing that feldom happens. When the day fet for 
the Trial came, the other Lords, who were alfo impeached, 
asked the leave of the Houfe to withdraw, and not to fit and 
vote in it ; This was granted them, tho' it was much oppofed 
and protefted againft by the Tory Party, becaufe the giving 
iuch leave, fuppofed that they had a right to vote : The Lords 
went down in Form to Wefiminjier-Hall^ where the Articles 
againft the Lord Somers were firft read ; Lord Somers\ Aniwers 
were next read ; and none appearing to make good the charge, 
the Lords came back to their Houfe, where they had a long 
and warm Debate of many hours, concerning the Queftion that 
was to be put ; The Judges told them, that, according to the 
Forms of Law, it ought to be Guilty^ or not Guilty : But thofe 
of the Party faid, as it was certain, that none could vote him 
Guilty, fo fince the Houfe of Commons had not come to make :.i 

good the charge, they could not vote him iiot Guilty ; fo to 
give them fome content, the Queftion, agreed on to be put, 
was, whether he ought to be acquitted of the Impeachment or 
not ? That being fetded, the Lords went again to the Hall, 
and the queftion being put, fifty fix voted in the Affirmative, 
and thirty one in the Negative. Upon this, the Houfe of Com- 

28 o The History of the Reign 

1701 mons paffed fome high Votes againft the Lords, as having dc- 
U5'^v*'^>J nied them juftice, and having obftrudled the pubUck proceed- 
ings ; and called the Trials a pretended Trial. The Lords 
went as high in their Votes againft the Commons ; and each 
Houfe ordered a Narrative of the proceedings to be publifhed, 
for fatisfying the Nation ; A few days after this, the Earl of 
Orford\ Trial came on, but: all the Lords of the other fide 
withdrawing, there was no difpute ; So he was acquitted by an 
unanimous Vote. The Lords did alfo acquit both the Earl of 
Portland^ and the Lord Halifax ; and becaufe the Commons 
had never infifted on their profecution of the Duke of Leeds^ 
which they had begun fome years before, they likewife acquit- 
ted him, and fo this contentions SefTion came to an end. The 
Two Houfes had gone fo far in their Votes againft one another, 
that it was believed they would never meet ^ again ; The pro- 
ceedings of the Lords had the general approbation of the Na- 
tion on their fide ; Moft of the Bifhops adhered to the impeach- 
ed L/ords, and their behaviour on this occafion was much com- 
mended J I bore fome fhare in thofe Debates, perhaps more 
than became me, confidering my ftation and other circum- 
ftances ; But as I was convinced of the innocence of the Lords, 
fo I thought the Government itfelf was ftruck at, and there- 
fore when I apprehended all was in danger, I was willing to 
venture every thing in fuch a quarrel ; The violence, as well 
as the folly of the Party, loft them much ground, with all in- 
different men ; but with none more, than with the King him- 
felf ; who found his error, in changing his Miniftry at {o criti- 
cal a time ; and he now faw, that the Tories were at heart irre- 
concilable to him : in particular, he was extream uneafy with 
the Earl of Rochejler^ of whofe imperious and intradlable tem- 
per, he complained much, and feemed refolved to difengage 
himfelf quickly from him, and never to return to him any 
more. He thought the Party was neither folid nor fincere, and 
that they were aduated by pafHon and revenge, without any 
views with relation to our quiet at home, or to our affairs 
A Convoca- But having now given an account of the SefHon of Parlia- 
Qeigy met, ment, I tum to another fcene : When the new Miniftry under- 
took to ferve the King, one of their Demands was, that a Con- 
vocation fhould have leave to fit, which was promifed, and it 
fate this Winter ; Dr. Atterbury\ Book, concerning the Rights 
of a Convocation, was reprinted with great Corredions and Ad- 
ditions ; The firft Edition was drawn out of fome imperfeft 
and diforderly CoUedions, and he himfelf foon faw that, not- 


of King William IIL 281 

withftandlng the aflurance and the virulence with which it 1701 
was writ, he had made many great miftakes in it ; So, to pre- v-^^^'v"'^ 
vent a difcovery from other hands, he corredled his Book, in 
many important matters ; Yet he left a great deal to thofe who 
anfwered him, and did it with fuch a fuperiority of Argument 
and of Knowledge in thele matters, that his infolence in defpifing 
thefe Anfvvers, was as extraordinary, as the Parties adhering to 
him after fuch manifeft difcoveries. Dr. Kennet laid him fo 
open, not only in many particulars, but in a thread of igno- 
rance that ran thro' his whole Book, that if he had not had a 
meafure of confidence peculiar to himfelf ; he muft have been 
much humbled under it. The Clergy lioped to recover many 
loft Privileges, by the help of his performances ; They fancied 
they had a right to be a part of the Parliament, fo they look- 
ed on him as their Champion, and on moft of the Bilhops, as 
the Betrayers of the Rights of the Church : This was encourag- 
ed by the new Miniftry ; They were difpleafed with the Bi- 
fhops, for adhering to the old Miniftry ; and they hoped, by 
the Terror of a Convocation, to have forced them to apply to 
them for fhelter. The Jacobites intended to put us all in fuch 
a flame, as they hoped would diforder the Government. The 
things the Convocation pretended to, were firft, that they had 
a right to fit whenfoever the Parliament fate ; So that they 
could not be prorogued, but when the Two Houles were pro- 
rogued : Next they advanced, that they had no need of a Licence 
to enter upon Debates, and to prepare matters, tho' it was con- 
fefl'cd, that the Pradlice for an hundred years was againft them ; 
But they thought the Convocation lay under no farther reftraint, 
than that the Parliament was under ; and as they could pafs no 
Ad without the Royal Aflent; fo they confefi"ed that they 
could not ena(5t or publifh a Canon without the King's Li* 
cenfe. Antiently the Clergy granted their own Subfidies apart, 
but ever fince the Reformation, the Grant of the Convocation 
was not thought good, till it was ratified in Parliament ; But 
the Rule of Subfidies being fo high on the Clergy, they had 
fubmittcd to be taxed by the Houfe of Commons, ever fince 
the year 1665, tho' no Memorials were left to inform us, how 
that matter was confented to fo generally, that no oppofition 
of any fort was made to it ; The giving of Money being yield- 
ed up, which was the chief bufinefs of Convocations, they 
had after that nothing to do ; fo they fate only for Form's fake, 
and were adjourned of courfe ; nor did they ever pretend, not- 
withftanding all the danger that Religion was in during the for-?^ 
mer Reigns, to fit and ad as a Synod ; but now this was de- 
V o L. II. C c c c , manded 

2§2 The History of the Retgn 

1701 manded as a Right, and they complained of their being fo ofterl 
^.^''v^^ prorogued, as a violation of their Conftitution, for which all the 
Bifhops, but more particularly the Archbifhop of Canterbury 
was cried out on ; They faid, that he and the Bifhops looked 
fo much to their own Interefts, that they forgot the Interefts 
of the Church, or rather betrayed them : The greater part of 
the Clergy were in no good temper : they hated the Toleration^ 
and were heavily charged with the Taxes, which made them 
very uneafy; and this difpofed them to be foon inflamed by 
thofe, who were feeking out all poflible methods to diforder oui" 
affairs : They hoped to have engaged them againft the Suprema- 
Qy, and reckoned, that in the feeble ftate to which the Go- 
vernment was now brought, they might hope either to wreft 
it quite from the Crown, and then it would fall into the Ma- 
nagement of the Houfe of Commons ; Or if the King fhould 
proceed againft them according to the Statute, and fue them 
in a Premunire, this might unite the Clergy into fuch an op- 
polition to the Government, as would probably throw iis into 
great Convulfions : But many afpiring men among them, had 
no other defign, but to force themfelves into Preferment, by the 
oppofition they made. In the Writ that the Bifhops had, 
fummoning them to Parliament, the Claufe, known by the 
firft word of it Premunientes, was ftill continued : at firfl, by 
virtue of it, the inferior Clergy were required to come to 
Parliament, and to confent to the Aids there given : But after 
the Archbifhops had the provincial Writ, for a Convocation of 
the Province, the other was no more executed, tho' it was ftill 
kept in the Writ, and there did not appear the leaft fhadow 
of any ufe that had been made of it, for fome hundreds of 
years ; yet now fome Bifhops were prevailed on, to execute this 
Claufe, and to Summon the Clergy by virtue of it : The Con- 
vocation was opened with Speeches, full of fharp Reflexions on 
the Bifhops, which they paft over, being unwilling to begin a 
Theyaif- ^^- Hooper, Dean of Canter bury , was chofen Prolocutor, a 
pute the lY^an df Learning and good condud: hitherto ; he was referved, 
fhop's Pow' crafty and ambitious j his Deanery had not foften'd him, for he 
er of ad- thought he dcfcrvcd to be raifed hip;her. The conftant method 
them. of Adjournments had been this ; the Archbifhop figned a Schedule 
for that puxpofe, by which the Upper Houfe was immediately 
adjourned, and that being fent down to the Prolocutor, did al- 
fo adjourn the Lower Houfe : The Clergy perceiving that, by 
this means, the Archbifhop could adjourn them at pleafure, 
and either hinder or break off all Debates, refolved to begin at 
■*•' ^ difputing 

of tttng William HI. i8^ 

difputing this point ; and they brought a Paper to the Upper lyot 
Houfe, in which they afferted their right of Adjourning them- UJ^v"^^ 
felves, and cited fome Precedents for it ; To this, the Bifliops 
drew a very copious anfwer, in which all their Precedents were 
examined and anfwered, and the matter was fo clearly ftated, 
and fo fully proved, that we hoped we had put an end to the 
Difpute : The Lower Houfe late for fome time about the Re- 
ply to this ; but inftead of going on with that, they defired 
a free Conference : and began to affed^, in all their Proceedings, 
to follow the methods of the Houfe of Commons : The Bifliops 
refolved not to comply with this, which was wholly hew : 
They had, upon fome occafions, called up the Lower Houfe to 
a Conference, in order to the explaining fome things to them : 
But the Clergy had never taken upon them, to defire a Con- ' 
fercnce with the Bifhops before ; So they refolved not to admit 
of it, and told them, they expeded an Anfwer to the Paper 
they had fent them : The Lower Houfe refolved not to comply 
with this, but on the contrary, to take no more notice of the 
Archbifhop's Adjournments : They did indeed obferve the rule 
of adjourning themfelves to the day, which the Archbifhop had 
appointed in his Schedule, but they did it as their ovvn Ad, 
and they adjourned themfelves to intermediate days. 

That they might exprefs a zeal in the matters of Religion, They Cen- 
they refolved to proceed againft fome bad Books ; They began 
with one, entitled Chrijlianity not Myjierious^ wrote by one To- 
landy a man of a bold and petulant wit, who paffed for a So- 
cinian, but was believed to be a man of no Religion : They 
drew fome propofitions out of this Book, but did it with fo lit- 
tle judgment, that they pafTed over the worfl:, that were in itj 
and fmgled out fome, that how ill foever they were meant, yet 
were capable of a good fenfe : They brought up the Cenfure, 
that they had paft on this Book, to the Bifhops, and defired them 
to agree to their Refolutions: This ftruck fo diredlly at the 
Epifcopal Authority, that it feemed ftrange to fee men, who 
had fo long afTerted the Divine Right of Epifcopacy, and that 
Presbyters were only their AfTiftants and Council (according to 
the Language of all Antiquity) now aflume to themfelves the 
moft important Ad of Church Government, the judging in 
Points of Dodtrine : In this it appeared, how foon mens Inte- 
refls and PafTions can run them from one extreme to another i 
The Bifhops faw, that their defign in this was only to gain fome 
credit to themfelves, by this fhevv of zeal for the great Articles 
of Religion ; So they took advice of men learned in the Law, 
how far the Ad of SubmifTion in the twenty fifth of Henry the 


284 ^^^ History of the Reign 

1 701 Eighth did reftrain them in this cafe. There had been the Hke 
*w<?''V'''^ complaint made in the Convocation 1698, of many ill Books 
then publifhed ; and the Bifhops had then advifed both with 
Civilians and Common Lawyers in this matter : They were an- 
fvvered, that every Bifhop might proceed in his own Court, againft 
the Authors or Spreaders of ill Books, within his Diocefe : 
But they did not know of any Power the Convocation had to 
do it : it did not fo much as appear, that they could furnmon 
any to come before them : And when a Book was publifhed, 
with the Author's Name to it, the condemning it, without 
hearing the Author upon it, feemed contrary to the common 
rules of Juftice. It did not feem to be a Court at all, and 
lince no Appeal lay from it, it certainly could not be a Court, 
in the firft inftance. When this Queftion was now again put 
to Lawyers, fome were afraid, and others were unwilling to 
anfwer it: But Sir Edward Northey, afterwards made Attor- 
ney General, thought the condemning Books was a thing of 
great confequence ; iince the Doftrine of the Church might be 
altered, by condemning Explanations of one fort, and allowing 
thofe of another; and fince the Convocation had no Licence 
from the King, he thought that, by meddling in that matter, 
they fhould incur the Pains in the Statute : fo all further De- 
bate of this matter was let fall by the Bifhops. The Lower Houfe 
going on, to fit in intermediate days, many of the moft eminent 
and learned among them, not only refufed to fit with them 
on thofe days, but thought it was incumbent on them, to pro- 
teft againft their Proceedings ; but the Lower Houfe refufing to 
fuffer this to be enter'd in their Books, they fignified it in a 
Petition to the Archbifhop. The Party fitting alone, in thofe 
intermediate days ; they enter'd into flich a fecrecy, that it 
could not be known what they fate fo clofe upon : So the Arch- 
bifhop appointed five Bifhops, together with ten they fhould 
name, as a Committee to examine their Books ; But tho' this 
had been often done, yet, upon this occafion, the Lower Houfe 
refufed to comply with it, or to name a Committee : This 
was fuch an unprecedented invafion of the Epifcopal Authori- 
ty, that the Upper Houfe refolved to receive nothing from them, 
till that irregularity was fet right. 
And com- Hereupon they, being highly incenfed againfl me, cenfured 
Jxpofitio™^ "^y Expofition of the Articles, which, in imitation of the Gene- 
ral Impeachments by the Houfe of Commons, they put in three 
General Propofitions : Firji^ That it allowed a diverfity of 
Opinions, which the Articles were framed to avoid. Secondly^ 
That it contained many PafTages contrary to the true mean- 

of King William III. iSy 

ing of the Articles, and to other received Dodrines of our 1701 
Church. Thirdly^ That fome things in it were of dangerous ^-^^^^v^'"^ 
confequence to the Church, and derogated from the honour of 
the Reformation. What the particulars, to which thefe gene- 
ral Heads referred, were, could never be learned ; this was a 
Secret lodged in confiding hands : I begg'd, that the Archbi- 
fhop would difpenfe with the Order made, againft further com- 
munication with the Lower Houfe, as to this matter : But 
they would enter into no particulars, unlefs they might at the 
fame time offer fome other matters, which the Bifliops would 
not admit of 

In thefe Proceedings the Bifhops were unanimous, except the 
Bifliops of London^ Rochejler^ and Exeter : The Bifliop cf 
London had been twice difappointed of his hopes, of being ad- 
vanced to the See of Canterbury ; fo for feveral years he was 
engaged with the Tory Party, and oppofed the Court in eve- 
ry thing, but with little force or authority : The Bifliop of Ro- 
chejler had been deeply engaged in the former Reigns, and he 
ftuck firm to the Party, to which, by reafon of the liberties of 
his Life, he brought no fort of honour. Thefe Bifliops gave 
no great reputation to the proceedings of the Lower Houfe, to 
which they adhered; They likewife enter'd their 'Difl'ent to the 
Refolutions taken in the Upper Houfe. From the fire raifed 
thus in Convocation, a great heat was fpread thro' the whole 
Clergy of the Kingdom : it alienated them from their Bifliops, 
and raifed Fadions among them every where. 

Thus ended the SelTion of Parliament and Convocation, The King 
which had the worft afpedt of any, that had fate during this ^^vcd^" "" 
Reign. The new Minifters prefixed the King often to diflblve 
the Commiflion, that recommended to Ecclefiaftical Prefer- 
ments, and to turn out fome of the Whigs, who were in Im- 
ployments, the Lord Haverjham in particular, who was in the 
Admiralty : But the King could not be prevailed on to do any 
thing, yet he kept himfelf {o much on the referve, that when 
he went out of England^ it was not certainly known, whether 
he intended to diflblve the Parliament or not. When the King 
came to the Hague^ he found the Negotiation with France quite 
at an end : the King of France had recalled his Minifter ; The 
States had encreafed their Force, and the French were very 
flrong in their Neighbourhood : So that though no War was ac- 
tually declared, yet it was very near breaking out. 

The Emperor's Army was now got into Italy : The entrance Prince Eu- 
towards Verona was fiopt by the French \ but Prince Eugene^^"f "'^"^^- 
canie in by Vincenza ; and when the Reinforcements and Artil- iy. ' 

Vol. IL Dd d d Icry 

286 The History of the Reign 

1 701 lery came up to him, he made a feint of pafling the Po near 
u?''V"''=sJ perrara ; and having thus amufed the French., he pafled the 
Adige near Carpi., where a Body of five thoufand French lay : 
thefe he routed, fo the French retired to the Mincio : He fol- 
lovi^ed them, and pafled that River in their fight, without any 
oppofition : The French Army was commanded by the Duke 
of Savoy., with him were the Marefchal Catinat, and the Prince of 
Vaudemont., Governor of Milan : Thefe differed in opinion, the 
Duke of Savoy was for fighting ; Catinat and Prince Vaiidemont 
were againfl it: So the Marefchal Villeroy was fent thither, with Or- 
ders to fight. Catinat, who was the befh General the French had 
left, looking on this as a Difgrace, retired and languifhed for fome 
time ; yet he recovered. There were many fmall engagements of 
Parties fent out on both fides, in which the Germans had always 
the better : yet this did not difcourage Villeroy, from ventur- 
ing to attack them in their Camp at Chiari : but they were fo 
well entrenched, and defended themfelves with fo much refo- 
lution, that the French were forced to draw off with great lofs : 
about five thoufand of them were killed, whereas the lofs of the 
Germans was inconfiderable. Sicknefs likewife broke in upon 
the French, fo that their Army was much diminilhed ; and after 
this, they were not in a condition to undertake any thing. Prince 
Eugene lay for fome time in his Camp at Chiari, fending out 
Parties as far as the Adda, who meeting oft with Parties of the 
French, had always the advantage, killing fome, and taking ma- 
ny Prifoners : For feveral Months, Prince Fugene had no place 
of defence to retire to ; his Camp was all ; fo that a blow given 
him there, muft have ruined his whole Army : towards the end of 
the Campaign, he poffeffed himfelf of all the Mantuan Territo- 
ry, except Mantua and Goits : he blockt them both up ; and 
when the Seafon obliged the French to go into Quarters, he 
took all the Places on the Oglio, and continued in motion the 
whole following Winter. The French had no other Enemy to 
deal with, fo they poured in their whole force upon him : He 
was then but a young man, and had little afTiftance from thofe 
about him, and none at all during the Summer from the Princes 
and States of Italy : For the Pope and the Venetians pretend- 
ed to maintain a Neutrality, tho' upon many occalions, the 
Pope fhewed great partiality to the French : The People indeed 
favoured him, fo that he had good and feafonable Intelligence 
brought him of all the motions of the French : and in his 
whole Condudt, he fhewed both a depth of contrivance, and an 
exadnefs in execution, with all the courage, but without any 
, of the rafhnefs of youth. 


of King William III. 287 

But to carry on the fcries of his motions as far as this period 1701 
of my Hiftory goes, his attempt in January following upon ^.^^^^'■v-'^vj 
Cremona^ had almoft proved a decifive one. Marefchal Villeroy "pJn S?-^* 
lay there with fix or feven thoufand Men, and commanded a """'''• 
Bridge on the Fo ; Prince Eugene had paft that River, with a 
part of his Army, the Princefs of Mirandola drove out the 
French^ and received a Garrifon from him : The Duke of Mo- 
de?ta put his Country in his hand, and gave him Berfello^ the 
ftrongeft place of his Dominions : The Duke of Parma pre- 
tended he was the Pope's Vaflal, and fo put himfelf under the 
Protection of that See : Prince Eugene would not provoke the 
Pope too much, fo he only marched thro' the Parmezan ; here 
he laid the defign of furprifing Cremona^ with fo much fecre- 
cy, that the French had not the leaft fufpicion of it. Prince 
Eugene went to put himfelf at the head of a Body that he ' 
brought from the Oglio^ and ordered another to come from the 
Parmezan at the fame time, to force the Bridge. He marched 
with all fecrecy to Cremona ; at the fame time, thro' the ruins 
of an old Aquedud:, he fent in fome Men, who got thro' and 
forced one of the Gates, fo that he was within the Town, before 
Marefchal Villeroy had any appreheniion of an Enemy being near 
him : He wakened on the fudden with the noife, got out to 
the Street, and there he was taken Prifoner. But the other 
Body did not come up critically, at the time appointed : So 
an IriJJj Regiment fecured the Bridge : And thus the Defign, 
that was fo well contrived, and fo happily executed in one 
part, did fail. Prince Eugene had but four thoufand Men 
with him, fo that fince the other Body could not join him, lie 
was forced to march back, which he did without any confide- 
rable lofs, carrying Marefchal Villeroy and fome other Prifoners 
with him. In this attempt, tho' he had not an entire Succefs, yet 
he gained all the Glory, to which the ambition of a Military 
Man could afpire, fo that he was looked on as the greateft and 
happieft General of the Age : He went on enlarging his Quar- 
ters, fecuring all his Pofts, and ftraitning the Blockade of Man- 
tua-i and was in perpetual motion during the whole Winter : 
The French were ftruck with this ill fuccefs ; More Troops were 
fent into Italy^ and the Duke of Vendome went to command 
the Armies there. 

The Duke of Savoy was preffed to fend his Forces thither : King 'Phi- 
But he grew cold and backward ; He had now gained all that cdom. 
he could promife himfelf from France : His Second Daughter 
was married to King Philip, and was fent to him to Barcelona, 
and he came and met her there : Philip fell into an ill habit 


288 The llisTOKY of the Reign 

1 70 1 of Body, and had fome returns of a Feverifli Diftemper: He 
L-*?''^*'^ h'ad alfo great difputes with the States of Catalo?iia^ who, be- 
fore they would grant him the Tax that was asked of them, 
propofed that all their Privileges fhould ht confirmed to them. 
This took up fome time, and occafioned many difputes : all 
was fettled at laft : But their Grant was fhort of what was ex- 
peded, and did not defray the charges of the King's ftay in- 
the place. A great difpofition to revolt appeared in the King- 
dom of Naples^ and it broke out in fome feeble attempts, 'that 
were foon mattered, the Leaders of thefe were taken and exe- 
cuted : They juftified themfelves by this Apology, that till the 
Pope granted the Inveftiture, they could not be bound to obey 
the new King : The Duke of Medina was a fevere Governor, 
hoth on his Mailer's account and on his own : Some of the 
Atifirimi Party made their efcape to Rome and to Vienna : They 
reprefented to the Emperor, that the difpofition of the Coun- 
try was fuch, in his favour, that a fmall Force of ten thoufand 
Men, would certainly put that Kingdom wholly into his 
hands. Orders were upon that fent to Prince Eugene^ to fend a 
Detachment into the Kingdom of Naples : But tho' he believed, 
a fmall Force would foon redyce that Kingdom, yet he judged 
that fuch a diminution of his own ftrength, when the French 
were fending fo many Troops into the Milanese, would fo 
expofe him, that it would not be poflible to maintain a defen- 
five, with fuch an unequal Force : Yet repeated Orders came 
to him to the fame effed ; but in oppofition to thofe, he made 
fuch reprefentations, that at laft it was left to himfelf, to do 
what he found fafeft and moft for the Emperor's Service ; with 
that the matter was let fall, and it foon appeared, that he had 
judged better than the Court of Vienna : but this was, by his 
Enemies, imputed to humour and obftinacy : So that for fome time 
after that, he was neither confidered nor fupported, as his great 
Services had deferved. This might flow from envy and malice, 
which are the ordinary growth of all Courts, chiefly of feeble 
ones : Or it might be a pradice of the French, who had corrupt- 
ed moft Courts, and that of Vienna in particular ; fince nothing 
could more advance their ends, than to alienate the Emperor 
from Prince Eugene ; which might fo far difguft him, as to 
make him more remifs in his Service. 
The War in Our Fleets lay all this Summer idle in our Seas, on a bare 
'Poland, defenflve ; -while the French had many Squadrons in the Spa- 
nijh Ports, and in the Weji-Indies. In the North, the War 
went on ftill 5 The King of Sweden pafl!ed the Duna, and fell 
on an Army of the Saxons, that lay on the other fide, over 
^ againft 

:. ijf king William J1J[>\ 489 

ligainft Rigay and routed them fo entirely, that he was Mafter of i^oi 
their Camp and Artillery. From thence he marched into Cour^ u^''^/■^»J 
land, where no Reli/lance was made : Mittaw^ the chief Town, 
fiibmitted to him : The King of Poland drew his Army into 
Lithuania, which was much divided between the Saphias and 
Oginskii: So that all thofe parts were breaking into much confufioni 
The Court of Vienna pretended, they had made a great djf- 
covery of a Confpiracy in Hungary : It is certain, the Germany 
play'd the Mafters very feverely in that Kingdom, fo that all 
places were full of complaints, and the Emperor was fo be- 
lieged, by the Authors of thofe Opprefiions, and the Proceed- 
ings were fo fummary upon very flight groiinds, that it was not 
to be wondered, if the Hungarians were difpofed to lliake off 
the yoke, when a proper opportunity fhould offer itfelf : and it 
is not to be doubted, but the French had Agents among them^ 
by the way of Poland as well as of Turky, that {o the Emperor 
might have work enough at home. 

This was the ftatd of the Affairs of Europe this Sumnier. SeveVat Kf: 
Several Negotiations were fecretly carried on; The Eledtor of 2°"*"°"" 
Cologn was entirely gained to the French Intereft, but was re- 
Iblved not to declare himfelf, till his Brother thought fit Hkewife 
to do it : All the progrefs that the French made with the two 
Brothers this Summer, was, that they declared for a Neutrality, 
and agairift a War with France: The Dukes of Wolfemhuttle 
and Saxe Gotha, were alio engaged in the fame defign ; They 
made great Levies of Troops, beyond what they them- 
felves could pay, for which it was vilible that they were fup- 
plied from France :■ Here was a formidable appearance of great 
diftradlions in the Empire. An Alliance was alfo projeded with 
the King of Portugal : His Minifters were in the French In- 
terefts, but he himfelf inclined to the Aujirian Family : He for 
fomc time affeftcd Retirement, and avoided the giving Audi- 
ence to Foreign Minifters : He faw no good profped; from Eng- 
land-, So being prefled to an Alliance with France, his Minifters 
got leave from him to propofe one, on terms of fuch advantage to 
him, that as it was not expected they could be granted ; fo it 
was hoped this would run into a long Negotiation : But the 
French were as liberal in making latge promifes, as they were 
perfidious in not obferving them : So the King of France agreed 
to all that was propofed, and figned a Treaty purfuant to it, 
and publiftied it to the World ; Yet the King of Portugal de- 
nied that he had confented to any fuch Projeft : and he was fo 
hardly brought to fign the Treaty, that when it was brought to 

V o L. II. E e c e hiiU^ 

A Parlia- 
ment in 

Affairs in 

ZOO TWVL\^"t OK\ of the Reign 

1 701 him, he threw it down, and kickt it about the Room, as our 
U^^V'^sJ Envoy wrote over : In concluiion however, he was prevailed on 
to lign it : But it was generally thought, that when he fhould 
fee a good Fleet come from the AUies, he would obferve this 
Treaty with the French, as they have done their Treaties with 
all the reft of the World. Spain grew uneafy and difcontent-^ 
ed under a French Management : The Grandees were little con- 
fidered, and they faw great defigns, for the better condutft of the 
Revenues of the Crown, likely to take place every where, which 
were very unacceptable to them, who minded nothing fo much 
as to keep up a vaft Magnificence, at the King's Coft. They 
faw themlelves much defpifed by their new Mafters, ias there 
was indeed great caufe for it ; They had too much pride to bear 

this well, and too little courage to think how! they fliould fhake 

it off '"'-'^ ^'f'r- ;/. b"/! '- '; ^ ... ^\yivM\({h -A o" 1(ki r.f 

But now to return to our Affairs at home, the Duke of 
^eensbury was fent down to hold a Parliament in Scotlarul\ 
where people were in fo bad a humour, that much pradice was 
neceffary to bring them into any temper. They pafled many 
angry Votes upon the bufinefs of Darien, but in conclufion 
the Seflion ended well. The Army was reduced one half, and 
the Troops that were ordered to be broke, were fent to the States, 
who were now encreafing their Force : This Seflion was chiefly 
managed by the Duke of ^eensbury and the Earl of Argyle, 
and in reward for it, the one had the Garter, and the other was 
made a Duke. 

In Ireland, the Truftees went on to hear the Claims df iehe 
Irijh, and in many cafes, they gave judgment in their favour : 
But now it began to appear, that whereas it had been given out, 
that the Sale of the confifcated Eftates would amount to a 
Million and a half, it was not like to rife to the third part 
of that Sum : In the mean while, the Truftees lived in great 
State there, and were Mafters of all the Affairs of that King- 
dom : But no propofitions were yet made for the purcha- 
fing of thofe Eftates : During the King's abfence, the Nation 
was in a great ferment, which was increafed by many Books 
that were wrote, to expofe the late Management in the Houfe 
;of Commons, and the new Miniftry, the Earl of Rochejier in 
jparticular, who was thought the driver of all violent motions : 
The few Books that were publiihed, on the other fide, were 
fo poorly writ, that it tempted one to think, they were writ by 
men who perfonated the being on their fide, on defign to ex- 
pofe them. The Earl of Rochejier delayed his going to Ireland 


of King William IIL ^91 

Very long: He perceived that the King's heart was not with, 17011 
him, and was very uneafy at that : as on the other hand, th« ^-<J'^''*^ 
King complained much of his inrradable temper and imperious- 
manner, and by his intercourfe with him, the King came to fcc 
that he was not the man he had taken him for ; tltat he had no 
great nor clear notions of Affairs abroad, and thatj inftead of 
moderating the violence of his Party, he inflamed them ; fti. 
that he often faid, that the year, in which he diredted tlic Counti 
oils, was one of the uneaficft of his whole Life. Thfe Eafl of 
Rochefler finding the King's coldnefs towards him, expoftulated 
witli him upon it, and laid, he could fervc him no longer, lincc 
he faw he did not truft him. The King heard this v/ith his 
ufual flegm, and concluded upon it, that he (hould kc him no 
more : But Harley made him a little more fubmiflirc and to.*- 
wardly. After the King was gone beyond Sea, he alfo wedtl 
into Irelandy there he ufed much art in obliging people of all 
forts, DilTenters as well as Papifts : yet fuch confidence Was piit 
in him by the High Church Party, that they bore every thing 
at his hands ; It was not eafy to behave himfelf towards tht: 
Truftees, fo as not to give a general diftafte to the Nation, for 
they were much hated, and openly charged with partiality, in- 
juftice, and corruption : That which gave the greateft difguf^ 
in his Adminiftration there, was, his ufage of the . reduced OP* 
iicers, who were upon half pay, a Fund being fetded for that 
by hSi of Parliament : They were ordered to live in Ireland^ 
and to be ready for Service there : The Earl of Rochefter calk 
cd them before him, and required them to exprefs Under their 
hands their readinefs to go and ferve in the Wefi-Indks ; Theiy* 
did not comply with this : So he fet them a day for theii* 
final Anlwer, and threaten'd, that they fhould have no more 
appointments, if they flood out beyond that time. This was ,, 

reprcfented to the King, as a great hardfhip put on them, and ' ' 

as done on defign to leave Ireland deflitute of the fervicey 
that might be done by fo many gallant Officers, who were all 
known to be well affefted to the prefent Government ; So the 
King ordered a flop to be put to it. 

I am now come to the laft period of the Life of the unfor- King 
tunate King y antes : He had led for above ten yearsj a y^Tj.^^J^^'^ 
unadlive Hfe in France : After he had, in fo poor a rtiariner as 
was told, abandoned firfl England and then Ireland, he had 
enter'd into two Defigns, for recovering the Crowns^ \^rliiGh \m 
nmy be faid more truly to have thrown away than lofl : The' 
gne was broke by the defeat of the Fnnch Fleet at Sea before 


292 Thi HisTbRY^ the^Reigfi 

1 701 Cherburg^ in the year 1692 : The other feemcd to be laid vvit|i 
*-<5''*v'"'W more depth, as well as with more infamy, when an Army 
was brought to Dunkirk^ and the defign of the Aflairination 
was thought fure, upon which it was reafonably hoped, that 
we muft have fallen into fuch convulfions, that we fhould have 
been an eafy prey to an Army ready to invade us. The re- 
proach, that fo black a contrivance caft upon him, brought him 
under fo much contempt, that even the abfolute Authority of 
the French Court could hardly prevail fo far, as to have com- 
mon refpeft paid him after that. He himfelf feemed to be the 
leaft concerned in all his misfortunes ; and tho' his Qiieen could 
never give over meddling, yet he was the moft eafy, when he 
was leaft troubled with thofe airy Schemes^ upon which flie 
was ftill employing her thoughts. He went fometimes to the 
Monaftery of L,a Irappe-t where the poor Monks were much 
edified with his humble and pious deportment : Hunting was 
his chief diverfion, and for the moft part he led a harmlefs, in- 
nocent Life ; being ftill very zealous about his Religion. In 
the opening of this year, he had been fo near Death, that it 
was generally thought the decline of it would carry him off: 
He went to Bourbon., but had no benefit by the Waters there v 
In the beginning of September., he fell into fuch fits, that it was 
concluded he could not live many days : The King of Francs' 
came to fee him, and feemed to be much touched with the 
fight : He, with fome difficulty, recommended his Queen and 
Son to his care and protedion ; The French King anfwered, he 
would reckon their Concerns as his own ; and when he Jeft 
him, he promifed thofe of his Court, that he would, upon King 
yafnes\ Death, own the Prince of Wales as King oi Fnglandy 
and that he would take care of them all. King James died on 
His Chirac- t:he 6th day of September. He was a Prince that feemed made 
**'• for greater things, than will be found in the courfe of his Life, 

more particularly of his Reign : He was efteemed in the for- 
mer parts of his Life, a Man of great Courage, as he was 
quite thro' it a man of great application to bufinels : He had no 
vivacity of thought, invention or expreflion : But h^ had a good 
judgment, where his Religion or his Education gave him not a 
biafs, which it did very often : He was bred with ftrange No- 
tions of the Obedience due to Princes, and came to take up as 
ftrange ones, of the Submifiion due to Priefts : He was natural- 
ly a man of truth, fidelity, and juftice : But his ReUgion was 
fo infufed in him, and he was fo managed in it by his Priefts, 
that the Principles which Nature had laid in him, had little 


of King William III. 295 

power over him, when the concerns of his Church flood in the 1701 
way : He was a gentle Mafter, and was very eafy to all who u^^v^^ 
came near him : yet he was not io apt to pardon, as one ought 
to be, that is the Vicegerent of that God, who is flow to an- 
ger, and ready to forgive : He had no perfonal Vices but of 
one fort : He was ftill wandring from one Amour to another, 
yet he had a real fenfe of Sin, and was afhamed of it: But 
Priefls know how to engage Princes more entirely into their in- 
terefts, by making them compound for their Sins, by a great 
zeal for Holy Church, as they call it. In a word, if it had 
not been for his Popery, he would have been, if not a great 
yet a good Prince. By what I once knew of him, and by what 
1 faw him afterwards carried to; I grew more confirmed in 
the very bad opinion, which 1 was always apt to have, of the 
Intrigues of the Popifh Clergy, and of the Confeflbrs of Kings : 
He was undone by them, and was their Martyr, fo that they ought 
to bear the chief load of all the errors of his inglorious Reign, 
and of its fatal Cataftrophe. He had the Funeral which hq 
himfelf had defired, private, and without any fort of Ceremo- 
ny : As he was dying, he laid nothing concerning the Legitimacy 
of his Son, on which fome made fevere remarks : Others thought 
that, having fpoken fo oft of it before, he might not refledt on 
the fitnefs of faying any thing concerning it, in his laft cxtre- 
inity» He recommended to him Firmnefs in his Religion, and 
Juftice in his Government, if ever he fhould come to reign. 
He iaid, that by his prafticc, he recommended Chriflian For- 
givenefs to him, for he heartily forgave both the Prince of 
Orange and the Emperor : It was believed, that the naming the 
Emperor was fuggefted to him by the French^ to render the 
Emperor odious to all thofe of that Religion. 

Upon his Death, it was debated in the French Council what The pre- 
was !it to be done, with relation to his pretended Son : The ^^^^^^ ^f 
Miniftry adviled the King to be paflivc, to let him afllime what Wain own. 
Title he pleafed, but that, for fome time at leaft, the King tdg j-J-py 
fhould not declare himfelf; This might be fome reftraint on the Court. 
King of England^ whereas a prefent Declaration muft precipi- 
tate a Rupture : But the Dauphin interpofed with fome heat, 
for the prefent owning him King : He thought the King was 
bound in honour to do it : He was of his Blood, and was dri- 
ven away on the account of his Religion ; So Orders were 
given to proclaim him at St. Germains. The Earl of Manchef- 
ter^ then the King's AmbafTador at Paris, told me, that hi^ 
own Court was going about it ; But a difficulty, propofed by the 

Vol. II. F f f f Earl 

294 ^^ History of the Reign 

1 701 Earl of MiddletouHy put a ftop to it; He apprehended, that it 
u^^'v^'^iJ would look very ftrange, and might provoke the Court of 
France^ if among his Titles he fhould be called King of France \ 
and it might difguft their Party in England^ ^f it was omit- 
ted : So that piece of Ceremony was not perform.ed : Soon af- 
ter this, the King of Spain owned him, fb did the Pope and 
the Duke of Savoy : And the King of France prefled all other 
Princes to do it, in whofe Courts he had Minifters, and pre- 
vailed on the Pope, to prefs the Emperor and other Popifh 
Princes to own him, tho' without effed:. The King looked up- 
on this, as an open violation of the Treaty of Ryfwick, and 
he ordered the Earl of Manchejier to leave that Court, with- 
out asking an Audience. The French pretended, that the bare 
owning of his Title, (ince they gave him no afTiftance to make 
good his Claim, was not a breach of the Treaty : But this 
could not pals on the World, fince the owning his Right was 
a plain Declaration, that they would afTift him in claiming 
it, whenfoever the ftate of their affairs fhould allow of it. 
With which This gave a univerfal diftafte to the whole Englijh Nation t 
the Eiigiip all people feemed pofTefTed with a high indignation upon it, to 

Nation was A _r . i^ ° ° . r i 

inflamed, icc a Torcign Fowcr, that was at Peace with us, pretend to 
declare who ought to be our King : Even thofe, who were per- 
haps fecretly well pleafed with it, were yet, as it were forced, 
for their own fafety, to comply with the general fenfe of the 
reft in this matter : The City of London began, and all the Na- 
tion followed, in a fet of Addrefles, expreflirig their abhorrejice of 
what the French King had done, in taking upon him to declare 
who fhould be their King, and renewing a Vow of Fidelity to 
the King, and to his Succeflbrs, according to the A6t of Set- 
tlement. A great diverfity of Stile appeared in thefe AddrefTes, 
Ibme avoided to name the French King, the Prince of JValeSy 
or the Ad of Settlement, and only refleded on the Tranfac- 
tion in France^ in general and loft words : But others carried 
the matter farther, encouraging the King, to go on in his Al- 
liances, promifing him all faithful afUftancc in fupporting them, 
and afTuring him that, when he fhould think fit to call a new 
Parliament, they would choofe fuch Members as fhould concur 
in enabling him to maintain his Alliances : This raifed the Di- 
vifions of the Nation higher. All this Summer the King conti- 
nued at Lo9^ in a very ill ftate of health : New methods gave 
fome relief: But when he came to the Hague^ on his way to 
England^ he was for fome days in lb bad a Condition, that 
2 they 

of King William IIL ? 29; 

they were in great fear of his Life: He recovered, ' and came 1701 
over in the beginning of November. L-(5''^/"'^ 

The firll thing that fell under Debate, upon his return, was, a new Pir- 
whether the ParUament fhould be continued, or diflblved and a^'^"'^"'""* 
new one called ; Some of the leading Men of the former Par- 
liament had been fecretly askt, Iiow they thought they would 
proceed, if they fhould meet again : of thefe, while fome an- 
Ivvered doubtfully, others faid pofitively, they would begin 
where they had left off, and would infift on their Im- 
peachments. The new Miniftry ftruggled hard againft a 
Diflblution, and when they faw the King refolved on it, fome 
of them left his Service. This convinced the Nation, that the 
King was not in a double game, which had been confidently 
given out before, and was too^ eafily believed by many : The 
heats in Elections encreafed with every new Summons. This 
was thought fo critical a conjuncture, that both fides exerted 
their full ftrength. Moft of the great Counties, and the chief 
Cities, chofe Men tliat were zealous for the King and Govern- 
ment, but the rotten part of our Conftitution, the fmall Bur- 
rouglis, were in many places wrought on to choofe bad men ; 
iiponj:th,e whole however, it appeared, that a clear Majority 
was in the King's Jnterefts, yet the adivity of the apgry fide 
was fuch, that theyr^ad a Majority in choofing the Speaker, and 
in determining cpntrpverted Eledions ; but in matters of Publick 
concern, tilings wei>t on as the King defired, and as the Inte- 
reft of the Nation required. 

fe,yh,e King opened the Parliament with the beft Speech that The King's 
e, or perhaps any other Prince ever made to his People : He Speech. 
laid the ftate of our Affairs, both at home and abroad, before 
them in a moft pathetical manner ; He laid it upon them to 
confider the dangers they were in, and not to encreafe thefe, 
by new divifions amo^ng themfelves ; He exprefled a readinels 
to forgive all Offences againft himfelf, and wiftied they would 
as readily forgive one another ; fo that no other divifion might 
remain, but that of Englijh and Frenchy Proteftant and Papift ; 
He had enter'd into fome Alliances, purfuant to the Addreffes 
of the laft Parliament, and was negotiating fome others, all 
which fhould be laid before them, and this was accordingly 
done. Both Houfes began with Addreffes, in which they did 
very fully renounce the Prince of Wales ; The Houfe of Lords 
ordered that all fuch as were willing to do it, fhould fign the 
Addrefs, that was enter'd into their Books. This was without 
a Precedent, an^^ yp,t i^ was promoted by thofe, who, as was 


296 The History (9^ the Reign 

1 701 thought, hoped by fo unufual a practice, to prevent any further 
W^'V"^ proceedings on that head. No exception was made to any Ar- 
ticle of the AlHances : One addition was only propofed, that 
no Peace iliould be made, till a full reparation was offered to 
the King, for the Indignity done him, by the French King's de- 
claring the pretended Prince of Wales King of England % 
which was foon after propofed to the Allies, and was agreed 
All were to to by them all. By the AUiances, the King was obliged to 
a War. fumifh forty thoufand Men to ferve in the Armies, befides 
what he was to do by Sea : All was confented to in every 
particular ; angry men fhewed much rancour againft the King, 
and tried to crofs every thing that was propofed, both as to 
the Quota's of the Troops we were to furnifh, and as to the 
ftrength of our Fleet. But the Publick Intereft was now fb vi- 
fible, and the concurrent fenfe of the Nation ran fo vehement- 
ly for a War, that even thofe who were moft averfe to it, 
found it convenient to put on the appearance of zeal for it. 
The City of London was now more united, than it had been at 
any time during this Reign, for the two Companies that trad- 
ed to the Eaji- Indies^ faw that their Common Intereft required 
they fliould come to an agreement ; and tho' men of ill de- 
figns did all they could to obftrudt it, yet in concluflon it was 
happily effefted. This made the body of the City, which was 
formerly much divided between the two Companies, fall now 
into the fame meafures. But thofe, who intended to defeat all 
this good beginning of the Seflion, and to raife a new flame, 
' fet on Debates that muft have embroil'd all again, if they had 
fucceeded in their defigns : They began with Complaints of 
fome Petitions and Addreffes, that had refleded on the Pro- 
ceedings of the laft Houfe of Commons ; but it was carried a- 
gainft them, that it was the Right of the Subjects to petition as 
they thought themfelves aggrieved : yet they were not difcou- 
raged by this, but went on to complain, that the Lords had deni- 
ed Juftice in the matter of the Impeachments. This bore a 
long and hot Debate in a very full Houfe : But it was carried, 
tho' bv a fmall Majority, that Juftice had not been denied 
them t After this, the Party gave over any farther ftruggling, and 
things were carried on with more unanimity. 
The pre- The Houfe of Commons began a Bill of Attainder of the 
p'-'^^'* of pretended Prince of Wales^ this could not be oppofed, much 
Wales at- lefs ftopt ; yet many jQiewed a coldnefs in it, and were abfent on 
tainted. ^j^^ ^^^^ -j^ which it was ordered to be read : It was fent up to 
the Lords, and it paft in that Houfe, with an addition of an 


'' of I^mg William IIL^ 297 

Attainder of the Queen, who a6led as Queen Regent for him. 1701 
This was much oppofed ; for no Evidence could be brought to L-tf^^^/'^^iJ 
prove that Allegation, yet the thing was fo notorious, that it 
paft, and was fent down again to the Commons. It was ex- 
cepted to there as not regular, fince but one Precedent in King 
Henry the Eighth's time was brought for it, and in that the 
Commons had added fome names, by a claufe in a Bill of At- 
tainder, fent down to them by the Lords ; yet as this was a 
fingle Precedent, fo it feemed to be a hard one : Attainders by 
Bill were the greateft rigours of the Law, fo ftretches in them 
ought to be avoided : It was therefore thought more proper to 
attaint her by a Bill apart, than by a Claufe in another Bill : 
To this the Lords agreed, fo the Bill againfl the pretended 
Prince of Wales paft. The Lords alfo paft a new Bill, attaint- 
ing the Queen, but that was let deep in the Houfe of Commons. 

The matter, that occafioned the longeft and warmeft De-AnAafor 
bates in both Houfes, was an A6t for abjuring the pretended objuring 
Prince of fVales, and for fwearing to the King, by the Title of 
Rightful and Lawful King, and to his Heirs, according to the 
Ad: of Settlement: This was begun in the Houfe of Lords and 
the firft defign was, that it fhould be voluntary, it being only 
to be tender'd to all perfons, and their fubfcription or refufal 
to be recorded, without any other penalty. It was vehemently 
oppofed by all the Tory Party, at the head of whom the Earl 
of Nottingham fet himfelf. They who argued againft it, faid, 
that this. Government was firft fettled witli another Oath, which 
was like an Original Contrad, and it was unjuft and unreafon- 
able to offer a new one : There was no need of new Oaths, as 
there was no new ftrength got by them ; Oaths, relating to 
mens opinions, had been always looked on as fevere Impoli- 
tions : A voluntary Oath feemed to be by its nature unlawful ; 
for we cannot fwear lawfully, unlefs we are required to do it. 
To all this it was anfwered, that in ancient time, the Oath of 
Allegiance was fhort and fimple, becaufe then it was not thought 
that Princes had any right, other than what was conveyed to 
them by Law : But of late, and indeed very lately, new Opi- 
nions had been ftarted of a Divine Right, with which former 
times were not acquainted : So it was neceffary to know, who 
among us adhered to thefe opinions : The prefent Government 
was begun upon a comprehenfive foot, it being hoped, that all 
Parties might have been brought to concur in fupporting it : 
But the effeds had not anfwered expedation : Diftindions had 
been made between a King de jure and a King de faSio ; by 

V o L. n. G g g g thefe 

^98 The History of the Reign 

1701 thefe men plainly declared, with whom they believed the right 
^-f'Tv^^'^ was lodged : This opinion muft, whenfoever that Right comes 
to be claimed, oblige thofe who hold it, to adhere to fuch Clai- 
mers : It feemed therefore in fome fort neccilary, that the 
Government lliould know, on whom it might depend : The 
difcrimination made, by fuch a Teft, was to be without com- 
pullion or penalty : no hardiliip was put on any perfon by it : 
Thofe who refufed to give this fecurity, would fee what, jufh 
caufe of jealoufy they gave : and would thereby be oblio-ed, to 
behave themfelves decently and with due caution : When a Go- 
vernment tender'd an Oath, tho' under no penalty, that was 
a fufEcient authority for all to take it, who were fatisfied with 
the fubftance of it : While therefore, there was fo great a power 
beyond Sea, that did fo openly efpoufe this young man's preten- 
fions, and while there was juft grounds to fufped, that many 
at home favoured him, it feemed very reafonable to offer a me- 
,; thod, by which it fhould appear, who obeyed the prefent Go- 

vernment from a Principle, believing it Lawful^ and who fub- 
mitted only to it, as to a profperous Ufurpation. About twen- 
ty Lords perlifted in their oppolition to this Bill, thofe who 
were for it being thrice that number: But, in the Houfe of 
Commons, when it appeared how the Lords were inclined, they 
refolved to bring in a Bill, that fliould oblige all perfons to take 
this Abjuration. It was drawn by Sir Charles Hedges \ All 
Imployments in Church or State were to be fubjcdi to it ; 
Some things were added to the Abjuration, fuch as an obliga- 
tion to maintain the Government in King, Lords, and Com- 
mons, and to maintain the Church of England^ together with 
the Toleration for Diffenters : Finch offered an alteration to the 
Claufe, abjuring the Prince of Wales^ fo that it imported only 
an obligation not to affift him ; but tho' he preffed this with 
unufual vehemence, in a Debate that he refumed feventeen 
times in one Seffion, againft all rules, lie had few to fecond 
him in it : The Debate, whether the Oath fhould be impofed 
.or left free, held longer : it was carried, but by one Vote, to 
impofe it ; The Party chofe that, rather than to have it left 
free : for they reckoned the taking an Oath that was impofed, 
was a part of their fubmifllon to the Ufurpation ; but the tak- 
ing any Oath, that ftrengthened the Government, of their own 
accord, did not fuit with their other Principles : But to help 
the matter with a fhew of zeal, they made the Claufe that im.- 
pofed it very extenfive, fo that it comprehended all Clergymen, 
Fellows of Colleges, Schoolmaflers, and private Tutor::. : The 


of King William III. ^ 299 

Claufe of maintaining the Government in King, Lords, and 1701 
Commons, was rejedcd witli great indignation ; fince the Go- U5^'v""'!!>J 
vernment was only in the King : The Lords and Commons be- 
ing indeed a part of the Conftitution, and of the Lcgiflative 
Body, but not of the Government. This was a bare-faced Re- 
publican Notion, and was wont to be condemned as fuch, by 
the fame perfons who now prefled it. It was farther faid, that 
if it appeared that our Conftitution was in danger, it might 
be reafonable to fecure it by an Ad: and an Oath apart : but 
lince the fingle point, that required this Abjuration, was the 
French King's declaring, that the pretended Prince of Wales 
was our King, it was not fit to join matters foreign to that in 
this Oath : Upon the fame reafbn, the Claufe in favour of the 
Church, and of the Toleration were alfo laid afide. The de- 
fign of this Adt was to difcover to all, both at home and a- 
broad, how unanimoufly the Nation concurred in abjuring the 
pretended Prince of Wales : But here was a claufe, to one part 
of which (the maintaining the Church) the Diflenters could not 
fwear ; and even the more moderate men of the Church, who 
did well approve of the Toleration, yet might think it too much 
to fwear to maintain it ; fince it was reafonable, to oblige the 
Difl'enters to ufe their Liberty modeftly, by keeping them un- 
der the apprehenfion of having it taken away, if it was abufed 
by them. One addition was offered, and received without any 
Debate about it, or the fhadow of any oppofition : It was de- 
clared to be High Treafon, to endeavour to prevent or defeat 
the Princefs's Right of SuccefTion : The Tories pretended great 
zeal for her, and gave it out that there was a defign to fet her 
afide, and to have the Houfe of Hanover to fucceed the King 
immediately ; tho' it could never be made appear, that any mo- 
tion of this kind had ever been, either made or debated, even 
in private difcourfe, by any of the whole Whig Party. Great 
endeavours were ufed, and not altogether without effect, to in- 
fufe this jealoufy into the Princels, and into all about her, not 
without infinuations, that the King himfelf was inclined to it. 
When this Claufe was offered, its being without a Precedent, 
gave handle enough to oppofe it, yet there was not one Word 
faid in oppofition to it, in either Houfe, all agreeing heartily 
in it. This ought to have put an end to the fufpicion, but fur- 
mifes of that kind, when raifed on defign, are not foon parted 

Soon after the Sefiion was opened, the Earl of Rochejler wrote Affairs in 
to the King, and asked leave to come over : it was foon grant- ^^^^'*"'^' 
cd, but when he fignified this to the Council of Ireland^ the 


3 00 The History of the Reign 

1 701 whole Board joined in a requeft to him, that he would lay be!- 
u^'V*^^ fore the King the great Grievances, under which the whole 
Kingdom lay, by the proceedings of the Truftees, who ftretch- 
ed the Authority, that the Law gave them, in many inftances, 
to the opprefllng of the Nation t He feemed utieafy at the mo- 
tion, but promifed to lay it before the King, which he did at 
his coming over. Soon after that. Petitions were fent round all 
the Counties of Ireland^ and ligned by many, reprefenting 
both the hardfhips of the Ad, and the fevere methods the 
Truftees took in executing it : All this was believed, to be fet 
on fecretly by the Court, in hope that fome temper might be 
found in that matter, fo that the King's Grants might again take 
place in whole or in part. The Houfe of Commons was mov- 
ed, to proceed leverely againft the Promoters of thefe Petitions ; 
yet the complaining of Grievances, had been fo often afierted to 
be a Right of the Subjeft, that this was let fall : But fince no 
perfon appeared, to juftify the Fads fet forth and fuggefted in 
thofe Petitions, they were voted falfe and fcandalous, and this 
ftopt a further progrefs in that method. The heat with which 
that Ad had been carried was now much qualified, and the 
Truftees having judged for fo many Claims in favour of Irijfj 
Papifts, fhewing too manifeft a partiality for them, and having 
now fate two years, in which they had confumcd all the Rents 
that arofe out of the eonfifcated Eftates, the Houfe was applied 
to for their interpofition, by many Petitions relating to that mat- 
ter. This was the more neceflary, becaufe, as was formerly 
told, when that Ad was pafling, they had paft a Vote againft 
receiving any Petition, relating to it : The thing had now loft 
much of the credit and value that was fet upon it at firft : 
tho' the fame Party ftill oppofed the receiving any Petitions, 
yet the current was now fo ftrong the other way, that they 
were all received, and in a great many cafes juftice was done : 
yet with a manifeft partiaHty, in favour of Papifts ; it being a 
maxim, among all who favoured King yames\ Interefts, to ferve 
Papifts, efpecially thofe whofe Eftates were eonfifcated for ad- 
hering to him. One motion was carried, not without difficulty, 
in favour of thofe, who had purchafed under the Grantees, and 
had made great improvements, that they fhould be admitted to 
purchafe, with an abatement of two years value of the Eftates ; 
The Earl of Athlone^ whofe cafe was fingular, as was formerly 
fet out, having fold his Grant to men, who had reafon to think 
they had purchafed under a fecure Title, a fpecial Claufe was 
offered in their favour ; but the Party had ftudied fo far to in- 
flame the Nation againft the Dutcbj that in this the Votes 


of A74^' William III. joi 

Were equal, and the Speaker's Vote being to turn tfie matter, he 1 7c x 
^ave it againft the Purchafers. Many BilJs were brought in ^x^'V^^^ 
relating to Irijh Forfeitures, which took up the greateft part of 
the Seffion. 

The Commons, after a long delay, lent up the Bill, abjuN 
ing the Prince of Wales. In the Houfe of Lords, the Tories 
oppofed it all they poflibly could : It Was a new Bill, fo th^ 
Debate was Entirely open : They firft moved for a Claufc, ex-* 
cufing the Peers from it : If this had been received, the Bill 
would have been certainly loft< for the Commons would nevef 
have yielded to it : "When this was rejedted, they tried to have 
brought it back to be Voluntary : It was a ftrange piece of in- 
confiftence in men, to move this, who had argued even againft 
the lawfulnefs of a voluntary Oath ; but it was vifible they in- 
tended by it only to lofe or at leaft to delay the Bill : When 
this was over- ruled by the Houfe, not without a mixture of 
indignation in fome againft the movers ; They next offered all 
thofe Claufes, that had been rejected in the Houfe of Com- 
mons, with fome other very ftrange additions, by which they 
difcovered both great weaknefs, and an inveterate rancour a- 
gainft the Government ; but all the oppofition ended in a Pro- 
teftation of nineteen or twenty Peers againft the Bill. 

And now I am arrived at the fatal period of this Reign. The 170^ 
King feemed all this Winter in a very fair way of recovery ; kuts^^^)^ 
He had made the Royal Apartments 'wi Hampton-Court very inJefs^nl^ 
noble, and he was fo much pleafed with the Place, that he ^^' ^^°™ •^'^ 
went thither once a week, and rode often about the Park : In 
the end of February^ the Horfe he rode on ftumblcd, and he, 
being then very feeble, fell off and broke his Collar-bone : He 
feemed to have no other hurt by it, and his ftrength was then 
fo much impaired, that it was not thought neceffary to let him 
Blood, no Symptom appearing that required it : The Bone was 
well fet, and it was thought there was no danger : fo he was 
brought to Kenfington that night : He himfelf had apprehended 
all this Winter, that he was finking ; he faid to the Earl of PortA. 
land, both before and after this accident, that he was a dead 
man : It was not in his Legs, nor now in his Collar-Bone, that 
he felt himfelf ill, but all was decayed within, fo that he be- 
lieved he fhould not be able to go thro' the fatigue of anothef 
Campaign. During his illnefs, he fent a Meflage to the Two 
Houfes, recommending the Union of both Kingdoms to them. ' 
The occafion of this was, a Motion that the Earl of Nottingham 
had made, in the Houfe of Lords, when the Ad of Abjuratioft 
Vol. n. Hhhh was 

302 The History of the Reign 

1702 was agreed to: He faid, tho' he had differed from the Majori- 
K^^^'^^^y"^ ty of the Houfe, in many particulars relating to it, yet he was 
fuch a friend to the defign of the Ad, that in order to the 
fecuring a Proteftant Succeflion, he thought an Union of the, 
whole Illand was very neceffary ; and that therefore, they fhoiild 
confider how both Kingdoms might be united ; but in order 
to this, and previous to it, he moved, that an Addrefs fhould 
be made to the King, that he would be pleafed to diffolve the 
Parliament now fitting in Scotland^ and to call a new one: 
Since the prefent ParHametit was at firft a Convention, and then 
turned to a Parliament, and was continued ever fmce, fo that 
the Legality of it might be called in queftion : and it was necef- 
fary, that fo important a thing, as the Union of both King- 
doms, fhould be treated in a Parliament, againft the Conftitution 
of which no exception could lie. The Motion was warmly op- 
pofed; for that Nation was then in fuch a ferment, that the 
calling a new Parliament would have been probably attended 
with bad confequenees : So that Project was let fall, and no 
progrefs was made upon the King's Meffage. On the third of 
March^ the King had a fhort fit of an Ague, which he re- 
garded fo little, that he faid nothing of it : It returned 011 him 
next day : I happened to be then near him, and obferved fuch 
a vifiblc alteration, as gave me a very ill opinion of his condi- 
. tion: After that, he kept his Chamber till Fridays every day 
it was given out that his Fits abated : On Friday, things had {o 
melancholy a face, that his being dangeroufly ill was no lon- 
ger concealed : There was now fuch a difficulty of breathing, 
and his pulfe was fo funk, that the alarm was given out every 
where : He had fent the Earl oi Albemarle over to Holland, to put 
things in a readinefs for an early Campaign. He came back on the 
^th of March in the morning, with fo good an account of every 
thing, that, if matters of that kind could have wrought on the 
King, it muft have revived him : but the coldnefs with which he 
received it, fhewed how little hopes were left : Soon after, he faid 
ye tire vers ma Jin^ (7 draw tmvards my end.) The Ad: of Ab- 
juration, and the Money Bill, were now prepared for the Royal 
Aflent : The Council ordered all things to be in a readinefs, for 
the pafTmg of thofe Bills by a fpecial CommifTion, which ac- 
cording to form muft be figned by the King, in the prefence of 
the Lord Keeper and the Clerks of the Parliament : They 
came to the King, when his Fit began, and ftayed fome hours 
before they were admitted : Some in the Houfe of Commons 
moved for an Adjournment, tho' the Lords had fent to them 
not to adjourn for fome time : By this means, they hoped the 


of King William III. 303 

Bill of Abjuration fliould be loft; But it was contrary to all 1703 
i-ules to adjourn, when fuch a Meflage was fent them by the ^--c^^sT"^ 
Lords, fo they waited till the King had figned the Commiiliort 
and the Bills, and thus thofe Adls pafs'd in the laft day of the 
King's Life. 

The King's ftrength and pulfe was ftill finking, as the difEcul- And Death, 
ty of breathing encreafcd, fb that no hope was left. The 
Archbifhop of Canterbury and I went to him on Saturday morn- 
ing, and did not ftir from hirri till he died. The Archbifhop 
prayed on Saturday fome time with him, but he was then io 
weak, that he could fcarce fpeak, but gave him his hand, as a 
fign that he firmly believed the Truth 01 the ChriOian Religion, 
and faid, he intended to receive the Sacrament : His reafon and 
all his fenfes were entire to the laft minute : About five in the 
morning he defired the Sacrament, and went thro' the Office 
with great appearance of ferioufnefs, but could not exprefe 
himfelf : When this was done, he called for the Earl of Albe- 
inarle, and gave him a charge to take care of his Papers. He 
thanked Mr. Auverquerque for his long and faithful fervices. He 
took leave of the Duke of Ormonde and called for the Earl of 
Portland-, but before he came, his Voice quite failed, fo he 
took him by the hand, and carried it to his heart with great ten- 
dernefs. He was often looking up to Heaven, in many fhort 
Ejaculations ; between feven and eight a Clock the rattle began, 
the Commendatory Prayer was faid for him, and as it ended, he 
died, in the fifty fecond year of his Age, having reigned thir- 
teen years and a few days. When his Body was opened, it 
appeared that, notwithftanding the fwelling of his Legs, he had 
no Dropfy : His Head and Heart was found : There was fcarce 
any Blood in his Body : His Lungs ftuck to his Side, and by 
the fall from his Horfe, a part of them was torn from it, which 
occafioned an Inflammation, that was believed to be the imme- 
diate caufe of his Death, which probably might have been pre- 
vented for fome time, if he had been then let Blood. His 
Death would have been a great ftroke at any time, but in our 
circumftances, as they ftood at that time, it was a dreadful one. 
The Earl of Portland told me, that when he was once encourag- 
ing him, from the good ftate his affairs were in, both at home 
and abroad, to take more heart ; the King anfwered him, that 
he knew Death was that, which he had looked at on all occa- 
fions without any terror, fometimes he would have been glad to 
have been delivered out of all his troubles, but he confefled 
now he faw another Scene, and could wifh to live a Httle lon- 
ger. He died with a clear and full prefence of mind, and in 



304 The History of the Reign 

1702 a wonderful tranquillity: Thofe who knew it was his Rule all 
^-^^""'^'^'^^ his Life long, to hide the impreflions that Religion made on 
him, as much as pojfUble, did not wonder at his filence in 
his laft minutes, but they lamented it much : They knew what 
a handle it would give to cenfure and obloquy. 
His Charac- Thus lived and died William the Third, King of Grcai-Bri~ 
tain, and Prince of Orange j He had a thin and weak Body, 
was brown haired, and of a clear and delicate Conftitution i. He 
had a Roman Eagle Nofe, bright and fparkling Eyes, a large 
front, and a Countenance compofed to gravity and authority: 
All his Senfes were critical and exquifite. He was always afth- 
matical, and the dregs of the Small Pox faUing on his Lungs, 
he had a conftant deep Cough. His Behaviour was folemn and 
ferious, feldom cheerful, and but with a few : He ipoke little 
and very flowly, and moft commonly with a di^ufting drynels, 
which was his Charafter at all times, except in a day of Bat*' 
tie : for then he was all fire, tho' without paflion : He was tlieri 
every where, and looked to every thing. He had no great ad- 
vantage from his Education ; De JVit\ Difcourfes were of 
great ufe to him, and he, being apprehenfive of the obfer- 
vation of thofe, who were looking narrowly into every thing 
he faid or did, had brought himfelf under a habitual cau- 
tion, that he could never fhake off, tho' in another fcene it 
proved as hurtful, as it was then neceffary to his affairs : He 
fpoke Dutch, French, Englijh and German equally well ; and 
he underftood the Latin, Spanijh and Italian, (o that he 
was well fitted to command Armies compofed of feveral 
Nations. He had a Memory that amazed all about him, for 
it never failed him : He was an exa<3: obferver of men and 
things : His ftrength lay rather in a true difcerning and a found 
judgment, than in imagination or invention : His Defigns were 
always great and good : But it was thought he trufted too much 
to that, and that he did not defcend enough to the humours of 
his people, to make himfelf and his notions more acceptable to 
them : This, in a Government that has fo much of freedom in 
it as ours, was more neceffary than he was inclined to believe : 
His refervednefs grew on him, fo that it dilgufted moft of thofe 
who ferved him : but he had obferved the errors of too much 
talking, more than thofe of too cold a filence. He did not 
like contr^didion, nor to have his adions cenfured : but he 
loved to imploy and favour thofe, who had the arts of com- 
placence, yet he did not love Flatterers : His genius lay chiefly 
to War, in which his courage was more admired than his con- 
dud : Great errors were often committed by him, but his he- 


of King William III. ."^ 307 

roical courage fet things right, as it inflamed thofe who were 1702 
about him : He was too lavifli of money on fome occafions, both ^-^'V^yJ 
in his Buildings and to his Favourites, but too fparing in re- 
warding Services, or in encouraging thofe who brought Intelli- 
gence : He was apt to take ill impreflions of people, and thefe 
ftuck long with him ; but he never carried them to indeceqt 
revenges : He gave too much way to his own humour, almoft 
in every thing, not excepting that which related to his own 
health : He knew all Foreign Affairs well, and undcrftood the 
State of every Court in Europe very particularly : He inflruded 
his own Minifters himfelf, but he did not apply enough to Af- 
fairs at home : He tried how he could govern us, by ballancing 
the two Parties one againft anodier, but he came at laft to be 
perfuaded, that the Tories were irreconcilable to him, and he 
was refolved to try and truft them no more. He believed the 
Truth of the Chriftian Religion very firmly, and he exprefled a 
horror at Atheifm and Blafphemy : and tho' there was much of 
both in his Court, yet it was always denied to him, and kept 
out of fight. He was moll exemplarily decent and devout, 
in the publick exercifes of the Worfhip of God, only on week 
days he came too feldom to them : He was an attentive hearer 
of Sermons, and was conftant in his private Prayers, and in read- 
ing the Scriptures: And when he fpoke of religious matters, 
which he did not often, i\. was with a becoming gravity : 
He was much poffefTed with the belief of abfblute Decrees: 
He faid to me, he adhered to thefe, becaufe he did not fee 
how the Belief of Providence could be maintained upon any 
other Suppofition : His indifference as to the Forms of Church- 
Government, and his being zealous for Toleration, together with 
his cold Behaviour towards the Clergy, gave them generally very 
ill impreflions of him : In his deportment towards all about 
him. He feemed to make little diflindlion between the good 
and the bad, and thofe who ferved well, or thofe who ferved 
him ill : He loved the Dutch, and was much beloved among 
them : but the ill returns he met from the Englijh Nation, their 
jealoufies of liim, and their perverfenefs towards him, had too 
much foured his Mind, and had in a great meafure alienated 
him from them, which he did not take care enough to conceal, 
tho' he faw the ill effeds this had upon his bufinefs. He grew, 
in his laft years, too remifs and carelefs as to all Affairs ; till the 
Treacheries of France awakened him, and the dreadful con- 
jundion of the Monarchies gave fo loud an Alarm to all Ewope, 
For a watching over that Court, and a beftirring himfelf againft 
their pra6lices, was the prevailing paffion of his whole Life : 
Vol. II. I i i i Few 

3 o6 The H I s T o r' ¥^ th& FCe}gn 

1702 Few men had the art of concealing and' governing PafHon 
u?^v^ more than he had ; yet few men had ftronger PaiTions, which 
were feldom felt but by inferior Servants, to whom he ufually 
made fuch recompences, for any fudden or indecent vents he 
might give his anger, that they were glad at every time, that it 
broke upon them : He was too eafy to the faults of thofe about 
him, when they did not lie in his own way, or crofs any of 
his defigns : and h« was fo apt to think, that his Minifters mi^Iit 
grow infolent, if they fhould find that they had much credit 
with him, that he feemed to have made it a Maxim, to let them 
often feel, how little power they had, even in fmall matters : 
His Favourites had a more intire power, but he accuftomed 
them only to inform him of things, but to be fparing in offer- 
ing Advice, except when it was asked : It was not eafy to ac- 
count for the reafons of the favour that he fhewed, in the high-^ 
eft inflanees, to V^o perfons beyond all others, the Earls of 
Portland and Albemarle; they being in all refpeds men, not 
only of different, but of oppofite Characters : Secrecy and Fi- 
delity were the only qualities, in which it could be faid, that 
they did in any fort agree. I have now run thro' the chief 
branches of his Charadter ; I had occafion to know him well, 
having obferved him very carefully in a courfe of Sixteen years : 
I had a large meafure of his favour, and a free accefs to him 
all the while, tho' not at all times to the fame degree : The 
freedom, that I ufed with him, was not always acceptable : 
but he faw that I ferved him faithfully, fo, after fome intervals 
of coldnefs, he always returned to a good meafure of confi- 
dence in me : I was, in many great inflances, much obliged by 
him ; but that was not my chief biafs to him : I confidered 
him, as a Perfon raifed up by God to refift the Power of France 
and the progrefs of Tyranny and Perfecution : The Series of 
the five Princes of Orange, that was now ended in him, was the 
nobleft Succeffion of Heroes that we find in any Hiftory : And 
the thirty years, from the year 1672 to his Death, in which he 
aded fo great a part, carry in them fo many amazing fteps o^ 
a glorious and diftinguifhing Providence, that in the words of 
Davidy he may be called, TTje man of God's right hand, whom 
he made Jlrong for himfelf: After all the abatements, that may 
be allowed for his Errors and Faults, he ought ftill to be rec- 
koned among the greateft Princes that our Hiffory, or indeed 
that any other, can afford. He died in a critical time for his 
. own Glory ; fince he had formed a great Alliance, and had 
projeded the whole Scheme of the War; fo that if it fucceeds, 
a great part of the Honour of it will be alcribed to him : and 


of King William III. 


if otlherwire, it will be faid He was the Soul of the Alliance, 1702 
that did both animate and knit it together,' and that it was na-^-^:?''^'"*^^ 
tiiral for that Body to die and fall afunder, when he who gave 
it life, was withdrawn. Upon his Death, fome moved for a 
magnificent Funeral ; but it feemed not decent to run into un- 
necefl'ary Expence, when we were entring on a War, that muft 
be maintained at a vaft charge : fo a private Funeral was refolv- 
ed on. But for the Honour of his Memory, a noble Monument 
and an Equeftrian Statue were ordered. Some years muft fhew 
whether thefe things were really intended, or if they were only 
fpoke of to excufc the Privacy of his Funeral, which was fcarcc 
decent, fo far was it from being Magdificent. 



ail MAI 

'fr?r 1' 

5.4tn ■' 

I io ^u < ' noH 3jtfl ibi 3 



O F 

My Own Times. 



Of the Life and Reign of ^een A n n £• 

jY the Death of King William^ purfuant to the Adt rnoi 
that had fettled the Succeflion of the Crown, it (^-(i^^v-^^j 
devolved on Anne^ the youngeft Daughter ^^^^^^^^""^ 
King James, by his firft Marriage; She was 
then entred on the Thirty eighth year of her Age. 
Upon the King's Death, the Privy Council came in a body, to 
wait on the new Queen : She received them with a well confi- iicr Firft 
dered Speech : She expreffed great refpeft to the Memory of ^^^"^^^ 
the late King, in whofe fteps (he intended to go, for preferving 
both Church and State, in oppofition to the growing Power 
Vol. II. Kkkk of 

3IO The History^ the Reign 

1702 of France^ and for maintaining the SuccefTion in the Proteftant 
K.'<^'^\r'^ Line : She pronounced this, as fhe did all her other Speeches, 
with great weight and authority, and with a foftnefs of Voice 
and fweetnefs in the pronunciation, that added much life to all 
fhe fpoke. Thefe her iirft Expreflions were heard with great and 
juft acknowledgments : Both Houfes of ParHament met that 
day, and made Addrefles to her, full of refpedl and duty: 
She anfwered both very favourably, and fhe received all that 
came to her in fo gracious a manner, that they went frorri her 
highly fatisfied with her goodnefs, and her obliging deport- 
ment ; for fhe hearkened with attention to every thing that 
was faid to her. Two days after, fhe went to the Parliament, 
which, to the great happinefs of the Nation, and to the advan- 
tage of her Government, was now continued to fit, notwith- 
ftanding the King's Demife, by the Ad, that was made five 
years before, upon the difcovery of the AflafTmation Plot. In her 
Speech fhe repeated, but more copioufly, what fhe had faid to 
the Council, upon her firfl Acceffion to the Throne : There 
were two paflages in this Speech, that were thought not fb well 
confidered : She afTured them, her Heart was entirely Englip : 
This was looked on, as a reflexion on the late King : fhe alfo 
added, that they might depend on her word : Both thefe Expref^ 
fions had been in her Father's firft Speech, how little foever they 
were afterwards minded by him. The City of Londouy and all 
the Counties, Cities, and even the fubaltern Bodies of Cities, 
came up with AddrefTes : In thefe, a very great diverfity of Stile 
was obferved, fome mentioned the late King in terms full of re- 
fpedl and gratitude ; others named him very coldly : fome took 
no notice of him, nor of his death ; and fimply congratulated 
her coming to the Crown : and fome infinuated reflexions on 
his Memory, as if the Queen had been ill ufed by him. The 
Queen received all civilly, to mofl fhe faid nothing, to others fhe 
exprelTed herfelf in general words, and fome things were given 
out in her Name, which fhe difowned. 
She purfues Within a week after her coming to the Crown, fhe fent the 
fndtheWar.Earl of Marlborough to Holland, to give the States full affu- 
rances of her maintaining the Alliances, that had been con- 
cluded by the late King, and of doing every thing that the 
common concerns of "Europe required : She gave notice alfo of 
her coming to the Crown to all the Princes and States of Eu- 
rope, except France and Spain. The Earl of Marlborough 
flay'd fome days in Holland, to very good purpofe : The King's 
Death had flruck them all with fuch a damp, that they need- 
ed the encouragement of fuch a Meflage, as he brought them : 
a When 

of ^een Anne. 311 

When they had the firft news of the King's Death, they ailem- 1702 
bled together immediately, they looked on one another as men >-'^'"V*^ 
amazed : They embraced one another, and promifed they would 
ftick together, and adhere to the interefts of their Countrey : 
They fate up moft of the night, and fent out all the Orders 
that were neceflary, upon fo extraordinary an emergency. They 
were now much revived by the Earl of Marlborough\ prefence, 
and by the temper that both Houfes of Parliament were in, 
with relation to the AUiances, and the War with France : and 
they entered into fuch Confidence with the Earl of Marlbo- 
roughy that he came back as well fatisfied with them, as they 
were with him. The Queen in her firft Speech, had asked of 
the Commons the continuance of that Revenue, which fupport- 
ed the Civil Lift, and it was granted to her for Life, very una- 
nimoufly, tho' many feemed to apprehend, that fo great a Re- 
venue might be applied to ufes, not fo profitable to the Pub- 
Kck, in a Reign that was like to be frugal, and probably would 
not be fubjed: to great accidents. When the Queen came to 
pafs the Ad, and to thank the Parliament for it ; fhe faid, fhe 
intended to apply one hundred thoufand pounds of it, to the 
publick occasions of the prefent year : This was received with 
great applaufe, and particular notice was taken of it, in all the 
Addreffes that came up afterwards. 

At the fame time, the Queen pafled a Bill for receiving and A Biu for 
examining the Publick Accounts ; and in her Speech, fhe ex- Jccounts?^ 
preffed a particular approbation of that Bill : a Commiffion to 
the fame effed had been kept up, for fix or feven years, during 
the former Reign, but it had been let fall for fome years; 
fince the Commiflloners had never been able to make any dif- 
covery whatfoever, and fo had put the Publick to a confiderable 
charge, without reaping any fort of fruit from it. Whether 
this flowed from the weaknefs or corruption of the Com- 
milTioners, or from the integrity or cunning of thofe, who 
dealt in the Publick Money, cannot be determined. The Party 
that had oppofed the late King, had made this the chief lub- 
jed of their Complaints all the Nation over, that the Publick was 
robbed, and that private men lived high, and yet raifed large 
Eftates out of the Publick Treaiure : This had a great effed: 
over E?igland j for all people naturally hearken to Complaints 
of this kind, and very eafily believe them : It was alfo faid, to 
excufe the fruitlelsnefs of the former Commiflions, that no dif- 
coveries could be made, under a Miniftry, that would furely fa- 
vour their under-workmen, tho' they were known to be Guilty. 
One vifible caufe of mens raifing great Eftates, who were con- 

312 The History of the Reign 

1 70 2 cerned in the Adminiftration, was this, that for fome years the 
K^^"^^ Parhament laid the Taxes upon very remote Funds, fo that, be- 
lides the diftance of the term of Payment, for which Intereft 
Avas allowed, the danger the Government itfelf feemed to be of- 
ten in (upon the continuance of which the continuance and af- 
fignment of thefe Funds was grounded) made that fome Tallies 
were fold at a great difcount, even of the one half, to thofe 
who would employ their Money that way, by which great ad- 
vantages were made. The gain that was made, by robbing 
the Coin, in which many Goldfmiths were believed to be deep- 
ly concerned, contributed not a little to the railing thofe vaft 
Eftates, to which fome had grown, as fuddenly as unaccounta- 
bly. All thefe complaints were eafily railed, and long kept up, 
on delign to caft the heavier load on the former Miniftry : This 
made that Miniftry, who were fenfible of the mifchief this cla- 
mour did them, and of their own innocence, promote the Bill 
with much zeal, and put the ftrongeft Claufes in it, that could 
be contrived to make it effedual. The Commiflioners named 
in the Bill, were the hotteft men in the Houfe, who had railed 
as well as kept up the clamour, with the greateft earneftnels. 
One Claufe put in the A6t, was not very acceptable to the 
Commiflioners ; for they were rendered incapable of all Im- 
ployments, during the Commiflion : The A6t carried a Retro- 
Ipedt quite back to the Revolution : It was given out, that great 
diicoveries would be made by them, and the art and induftry 
with which this was fpread over Efiglandy had a great effeft in 
the Elections to the fucceeding Parliament. The Coronation 
was on the i^d oi Aprils on St. Georges day ; it w^as perform- 
ed with the ufual Magnificence ; The Archbifihop of York 
preached a good and wife Sermon on the occafion : The Queen, 
immediately after that, gave Orders for naming the Eleftorels 
of Brunfwick in the Colled; for the Royal Family, as the next 
Heir of the Crown ; and fhe formed a Miniftry. 
A Minflry The coldncfs had continued between the King and her, to 
formed. fuch a degree, that tho' there was a reconciliation after the 
Queen's Death, yet it went not much farther, than what civility 
and decency required : She was not made acquainted with pub- 
lick Affairs ; She was not encouraged to recommend any to 
Pofts of truft and advantage : Nor had the Miniftry Orders to 
inform her how matters went, nor to oblige thofe about her : 
Only pains had been taken to pleafe the Earl of Marlborough^ 
with which he was fully fatisfied : nothing had contented him 
better, than the Command he had the former year of the Troops, 
which wej-e fent to the afllftance of the States, The Whigs had 



^^ ' ^f %^^^ Anne. 313 

lived at d great diftance with the Queen, all the former Reign: 1702 
The Tories had made much noife with their zeal for her, chiefly ^-<?'"^/"'^ 
after the death of the Duke of Glocejier, tho' they came feldom 
to her : Her Court was then very thin, (he lived in a due abftrac- 
lion from bufinels ; fo that fhe neither gave jealouiy, nor ehcou- 
raged faftion : Yet thefe things had made thofe impreflions on her, 
that had at fir ft ill effeds, which were foon obferved and reme- 
died. The late King had fent a Meflage to the Earl of Rochejiefy 
fome weeks before he died, letting him know, that he had put an 
end to his CommiiBon of Lord Lieutenant of Ireland^ but that 
was not executed in form ; lb the Commiflion did ftill fubfift irt 
his perfon : He was upon that now declared Lord Lieutenant of 
Ireland. The Lord Godolphin was made Lord Treafurer : Thi§ 
was very uneafy to himfelt, for he refifted the motion long ; but 
the Earl of Marlborough prefTed it in fo pofitive a manner, that 
he faid he could not go beyond Sea to command our Armies, un- 
lefs the Treafury was put in his hands ; for then he was fure that 
remittances would be punctually made to him : He was declared 
Captain General, and the Prince had the Title of Generaliflimo 
of all the Queen's Forces by Sea or Land. It was for fome time 
given out, that the Prince intended to go beyond Sea, to com- 
mand the Armies of the Alliance, but this report foon fell; and it 
was faid, the Dutch were not willing to truft their Armies to the 
command of a Prince, who might think it below him to be limit- 
ed by their Inftru<5l:ions, or to be bound to obey their Orders. 
The late King had diflblved the Commiflion, for executing the Of- 
fice of the Lord Admiral, and had committed that great Truft to 
the Earl of Pembroke : The Secrets of that Board were fo ill kept, 
and there was fuch a Fadion in it, that t\\t King refolved to put 
it in a fingle perfon : The Earl of Pembroke was not eafily brought 
to fubmit to it : He faw it would draw a heavy load on him, and 
he was fenfible that by his ignorance of Sea Afiairs, he might com- 
mit errors : yet he took good Officers to his aftiftance : He refolv- 
ed to command the Fleet in perfon, and he took great pains to 
put things in fuch Order, that it might be foon ready. A Land 
Army was defigned to go with the Fleet, to the Command of which 
the Duke of Ormond had been named : But upon new meafures, 
the Earl of Pembroke was firft fent to, not to go to Sea in per- 
fon, and foon after he was difmiflied from his Poft, with the of- 
fer of a great Penfion, which he very generoufly refufed, tho' 
the ftate of his Affairs and Family feemed to require it. The Prince 
was made Lord High Admiral, which he was to govern by a 
Council : the Legality of this was much queftioned, for it was a 
new Court, which could not be aiithorized to ad, but by an AA 
of Parliament : yet the refped paid the Queen made that no pub- 
VpL. II. Li 11 lick 


3 1 4 The History of the Reign 

1702 lick queftion was made of this, fo that objections to it nevcf 
\,/^'^=i>J went beyond a fecret murmur. The Earl of Nottingham and 
Sir Cha?'les Hedges were ma3e Secretaries of State : I'he Tories 
would truft none but the Earl of Nottingham^ and he would ferve 
with none but Hedges ; The Maxim laid down at Court, was, to 
put the direction of Affairs in the hands of the Tories. The Earl 
of Marlborough affured me this was done, upon the promifes they 
^ made to carry on the War, and to maintain the Alliances : if 
they kept thefe, then Affairs would go on fmoothly in the Houfe 
of Commons, but if they failed in this, the Queen would put her 
bufmefs in other hands, which at that time few could believe. 
The Marquifs of Normanby was, to the admiration of all men, 
made Lord Privy Seal, and foon after Duke of Buckingham : The 
Earl of Abington^ Vifcount Weymouth.^ Lord Dartmouth^ Seimour^ 
Mufgravey Greenvil, How, Lucan Gower, Harcourt, with feveral 
others, who had, during the laft Reign, exprelTed the moft violent 
and unrelenting averfion to. the whole Adminiftration, were now 
brought to the Council Board, and put in good Pofts. 
Few refufed Before the King's death, it was generally thought, that fome in 
the Abjura- |^q^j^ Houfes, and many more over the Nation, would refufe the 
Abjuration : They had oppofed it fo vehemently, that no lefs 
could be expeded from them. Some went out of Town when 
the day came, in which the Houfes refolved to try all their Mem- 
bers ; but they foon came to other Refolutions, and with them 
almoft the whole Party came and took the Oath, and profeffed 
great zeal for the Queen, and an entire fatisfadion in her Title. 
Some fufpeded this was Treachery, on defign to get the Govern- 
ment once into their hands, that fo they might deliver it up, or at 
leaft that they might carry a Parliament (o to their mind, that the 
Ad might be repealed ; and they might think, that then the Oath 
would fall with it. Diftindions were fet about among them, which 
heightened thefe fufpicions ; for tho' in the Oath, they declared, 
that the pretended Prince of Wales had not any Right whatfoever 
to the Crown, yet in a Paper (which I faw) that went about a- 
mong them, it was faid that Right was a term of Law, which 
had only relation to Legal Rights^ but not to a Divine Rights or 
to Birth Right : So fince that Right was condemned by Law, 
they, by abjuring it, did not renounce the Divine Right y that he 
had by his Birth. They alfo fuppofed, that this Abjuration could 
only bind, during the prefent ftatc of things, but not in cafe of 
another Revolution, or of a Conqueft : This was too dark a thing, 
to be enquired after, or feen into, in the ftate matters were then 
in. The Queen continued moft of the great Officers of the 
Houfliold, all the Judges except two, and moft of the Lords 
Lieutenants of Countiesj nor did £he make any change in the Fo- 

reign Miniftry. It was generally believed, that the Earl of Ro- 1702 

chejler and his Party were for ievere methods, and for a more L^'V'VJ 

entire change, to be carried quite thro' all fubaltern Imployments ; 

But that the Lord Godolphin and the Earl of Marlborough wtrt 

for more moderate proceedings : So that tho' no Whigs were put 

into Imployments, yet many were kept ifi the Pofts they had been 

put into during the former Reign. Repeated aflu ranees were 

lent to all the Allies, that the Queen would adhere firmly to 


The Queen in her firft Speech to her Parliament, had renewed The Union 
the Motion, maue by the late King, for the Union of both King- °^. ^^ 
doms : Many of thofe, who feemed now to have the greateft propofed. 
(hare of her favour and confidence, oppofed it with much heat, 
and not without indecent reflexions on the Scotch Nation ; yet it 
was carried by a great Majority, that the Queen fhould be em- 
powered to name Commilfioners, for treating of an Union • It 
was fo vifibly the Intereft of England, aiid of the prefent Govern- 
ment, to fhut that back door againft the pradices of France, and 
the attempts of the pretended Prince of Wales, that the oppofition 
made to this firft ftep towards an Union, and the indecent fcorn 
with which Seimour and others treated the Scots, were clear indi- 
cations that the Polts they were brought into, had not changed 
their tempers : but that inftead of healing matters, they intended 
to irritate them farther, by their reproachfijl Speeches. The Bill 
went thro' both Houfes, notwithftanding the rough treatment it 
met with at firft. 

Upon, the Earl of Marlborough\ return from Holland, and in t^c War 
purfuance of the concert at the Hague, the Queen communicated withpM»fff 
to both Houfes her defign to proclaim War with France ; They ^"^^ 
approving of it. War was proclaimed on the fourth day of May s 
The Houfe of Commons made an Addrefs to thank the Queen, 
for ordering the Princefs Sophia to be prayed for : And as the 
Right, that recommended her, was in her own Blood ; She was 
defigned by her Chriftian Name, and not by her Title : It came 
to be known that this was oppofed in Council by the Marquifs of 
Normanby, but that it was promoted by the Lord Treafurer. 

A Report was fpread about the Town, and over the Nation, A faife re- 
with fuch a feeming alTurance, that maay were inclined to be- cgns againft 
lieve it, that a Scheme had been found among the King's Pa- the Que- 
pers, for fetting afidc the Queen ; Some added for imprifoning 
her, and for bringing the Houfe of Hanover immediately into the 
Succemon ; and that, to fupport this, a great change was to be 
made in all the Imployments and Offices over the whole King- 
dom : This, many of thofe, who were now in Pofts, had talked in 
fo publick a manner, that it appeared they intended to poflefs the 



3 1 6 The History of the Reign 

1702 whole Nation with a belief of it ; hoping thereby to alienate the!' 
u?''^;''''*-' people from thofe, who had been in the late King's confidence, 
and difgrace all that fide, in order to the carrying all Ele<5tions 
of ParHament for Men of their Party. Five Lords had been or- 
dered by the Queen to viiit the late King's Papers, and bring her 
fuch of them, as related To the Alliances or other Affairs of the 
Crown : Thefe were the Dukes of Somerfet and Devonpire^f ahd 
the Earls of Marlborough^ J^'f^fyt ^^^ Albemarle : The Whigs 
faw the defign which was driven at, by thofe falfc reports;, fo a 
n Motion was made in the Houfe of Lords, by the Earl of Car- 

lijle, and feconded by the Lords JVharton^ Halifax^ and others^ 
that an enquiry fhould be made, into the truth of that Report, and 
of all other ftories of that kind, that fo, if there was any truth in 
them^ fuch as had been concerned in thofe wicked deligns might 
be punifhed ; and if they were found to be falfe, that thofe 
who fpread them about, might be chaftifed. Upon this, th6 
Houfe defired that thofe Lords, who had vilited the late King's 
Papers, would let them know, if they had met with any among 
them, relating to the Queen's SuccefHon, or to the Succefhon of the 
Houfe of Hanover. Four of them were then in the Houjfe, only 
the Earl of Marlborough was ill that day, fo the four who were 
prefent faid, they had found nothing, that did in any fort relate to 
that matter, and this was confirmed by the Earl of Marlborough 
to fome Peers, who were fent by the Houfe, to ask him the fame 
queftion. Upon which a Vote paft, that thefe Reports were falfe 
and fcandalous ; and an Order was made for profecuting the 
fpreaders of them. Some Books had been publifhed, charging the 
late Miniftry, and the whole Whig Party with the hke defigns : 
Thefe Books were cenfured, and the Authors of them were or- 
dered to be profecuted ; tho' both the Marquifs of Normanby and 
the Earl of Nottingham^ did all they could to excufe thofe Wri- 
ters. When the falfhood of thofe Calumnies was apparent, then 
it was given out, with an unufual confidence, that no fuch Re- 
ports had been ever fet about ; tho' the contrary was evident, 
and the thing was boldly afferted in thofe Books : So that a pe- 
culiar meafure of afliirance was neceflary, to face down a thing, 
which they had taken fuch pains to infufe into the minds of the 
credulous Vulgar, all England over. The Earl of Nottingham^ 
to divert this Enquiry, moved, that another might be made into 
thofe Books, in which the Murder of Xing Charles the Firft was 
juftified ; tho' the provocation given to fome of thefe, was, by a 
Sermon preached by Dr. Binh before the Convocation, on the 
30/^ of January^ in which he drew a Parallel between King 
Charles\ Sufferings and thofe of our Saviour : and, in fome very 
indecent ExprefTions, gave the preference to the former. When 
f.: the 

of ^een Ann eI I uu . 5 1 7 

tlie bufinefs of die Seil'ion of Parliament was all done, the Quetn 1 703 
difmiil'ed them, with thanks for the money they had given, re- v.^^'^v-^^J 
commending earneftly to them a good agreement among them- The Pariia- 
felves, afluring them, that as on the one hand fhc would main- E-d'.* ^^ ' 
tain the Toleration, fo on the other hand, her own principles 
would oblige her, to have a particular regard to thofe, who ex- 
prefled the trueft zeal for the Church of England : Thus the 
SefTion ended, and the Proclamation diflblving the Parliament, 
with the Writs for a new one, came out not long after. 

During fome part of this Parliament, a Convocation Hite : a Convoca- 
The Faaion railed, in the Lower Houfe, had ftill the Majo- ''°" ^*'*'' 
rity ; Several Books were writ to fhew, that by our Conftitu- 
tion, the power of Adjourning was wholly in the Archbifhop : 
The Original Book of the Convocation, that fate in the year 1 661, 
being happily found, it fhewed the pradice of that Convocation 
agreed with the Bifliops in every particular ; But tho' it was com- 
municated to the Lower Houfe, that had no eflcd: on them ; for 
when Parties are once formed, and a refolution is taken up on 
other confiderations, no Evidence can convince thofe, who have 
before hand refolved to flick to their point. But the Prolocutor 
dying, and the King's Death following, the Convocation was by 
that difTolved : fince in the Ad:, that empowered the Parliament 
to fit after the King's Death, no provifion was made to continue 
the Convocation. The Earl of Rochejier moved in the Houfe of 
Lords, that it might be confidered, whether the Convocation was 
not a part of the Parliament, and whether it was not continued, 
in confequence of the Ad, thdt continued the Parliament : But 
that was foon let fall, for the Judges were all of Opinion, that it 
was difTolved by die King's Death. 

Upon the Queen's AccefHon to the Crown, all thefc angry men, 
that had raifed this flame in the Church, as they treated the Me- 
mory of the late King with much indecent contempt, fo they 
feemed very confident, that for the future, all Preferments fliould 
be diftributed among them (the Queen having fuperfeded the 
Commiflion for Ecclefiaflical Preferments) and they thought they 
were full of merit, and were as full of hopes. 

Such an evil fpirit as is now fpread among the Clergy, would Societies for 
be a fad fpeculation at any time, but in our prefent circumflances, '^ °'^™*" 
when we are near fo great a crifis, it is a dreadful thing : But a 
little to ballance this, I fhall give an account of more promiiing 
beginnings and appearances, which tho' they are of an elder date, 
yet of late they have been brought into a more regulated form, 
in King yames\ Reign, the fear of Popery was fo flrong, as well 
as juft, that many, in and about London^ began to meet often 
together, both for Devotion, and for thqir further Inflruclion : 

V o L. II, M m m m Things 


3i8 The History of the Reign 

1702 Things of that kind had been formerly pradifed, only among 
<-<^^V^>J the Puritans and the Diflenters: But thefe were of the Church, 
and came to their Minifters, to be afTifted with Forms of Prayer 
and other direftions : They were chiefly conduded by Dr. Beve- 
r'tdge and T)!. Horneck. Some difliked this, and were afraid it 
might be the Original of new Fadlions and Parties ; but wifer 
and better men thought, it was not fit nor decent to check a fpi- 
rit of Devotion, at fuch a time : It might have given {candal,.and 
it feemed a difcouraging of piety, and might be a mean to drive 
well-meaning perfons over to the Diflenters. After the Revolu- 
tion, thefe Societies grew more numerous, and for a greater en- 
couragement to Devotion, they got fuch Colledions to be made, 
as maintained many Clergymen to read Prayers in fo many places, 
and at fb many different hours, that devout perfons might have 
that comfort, at every hour of the day : There were conftant Sa- 
craments every Lord's Day in many Churches : There were both 
greater numbers and greater appearances of Devotion at Prayers 
and Sacraments, than had been obferved in the memory of Man. 
Thefe Societies refblved, to inform the Magiftrates of Swearers, 
Drunkards, Profaners of the Lord's Day, and of Lewd Houfes ; 
and they threw in the part of the Fine, given by Law to Inform- 
ers, into a flock of Charity : From this, they were called Societies 
of Reformation : Some good Magiftrates encouraged them ; but 
others treated them roughly. As foon as the late Queen heard 
of this, flie did, by her Letters and Proclamations, encourage thefe 
good deflgns, which were afterwards profecuted by the late King. 
Other Societies fet themfelves to raife Charity Schools, for 
teaching poor Children, for cloathing them and binding them out 
to Trades •, Many Books were printed, and fent over the Nation 
by them, to be freely diftributed : Thefe were called Societies for 
propagating Chriftian Knowledge: By this means, fome thou- 
iands of Children are now well educated and carefully looked 
after. In many places of the Nation, the Clergy met often to- 
gether, to confer about matters of Religion and Learning ; and 
they got Libraries to be raifed for their common ufe. At laft a 
Corporation was created by the late King, for propagating the 
Golpel among Infidels, for fettling Schools in our Plantations, 
for furnifliing the Clergy that were fent thither, and for fending 
Miflionaries among fuph of our Plantations, as were not able 
to provide Paftors for themfelves. It was a glorious conclufion 
of a Reign, that was begun with preferving our Religion, thus to 
create a Corporation, for propagating it to the remoter parts of 
the Earth, and among Infidels : There were very liberal Sub- 
fcriptions made to it, by many of the Bifliops and Clergy, who 
fet about it with great care and zeal : Upon the Queen's 
2 *;i ^ti. Ag- 

of ^een Anne* 519 

Acceflion to the Crown, they had all pofTiblc afluranccs of her 1702 
favour and protedion, of which upon every appHcation, they re- c*^'"v''^J 
ceived very eminent marks. 

The Affairs of Scotland began to be fomewhat embroiled : By Affain in 
an A6t made foon after the Revolution, it was provided, that all 
Princes fucceeding to die Crown, fhould tak« the Coronation 
Oath, before they enter'd upon their Regal Dignity ; but no di- 
redion was given, concerning thofe who fhould tender it, or the 
manner in which it fhould be taken : So this being left undeter- 
mined, th« Queen called together all the late King's Minifters for 
that Kingdom, and in the prefence of about twelve of them, fhe 
took the Coronation Oath : Men, who were difpofed to cenfure 
every thing, faid, diat this ought not to be done, but in the pre- 
fence of fome, deputed for that effed, either by the Parliament, 
or at leaft by the Privy Council of that Kingdom. Another point 
occafioned a more important Debate. 

Upon the Affaffmation Plot, an Ad: had pafied in Scotland for 
continuing the Parliament, that fhould be then ia being, fix 
months after the Death of the King, with two fpecial Claufes in 
it ; the firft was, that it fhould meet twenty days after the Death 
of the King : But the Queen did, by feveral Prorogations, conti- 
nue the Parliament almoft three months after the King's Death, 
before it was opened ; Some faid the Parliament was by this dif-' 
folved, fmce it did not meet upon the day, limited by the Ad 
to continue it ; but there was another Provifo in the Ad, that, 
faved to the Crown the full Prerogative of adjourning or dif- 
folving it within that time ; yet in oppofltion to that, it was ac- 
knowledged, that as to all fubfequent days of Meeting, the Prero- 
gative was entire, but the day that was Hmited, that is the twen- 
ty firfl: after the King's Death, feemed to be fixed for the firfl 
opening the SefTion. 

The fecond Claufe was, a limitation on the Power of the Par- 
liament, during their fitting, that it fhould not extend to the re- 
pealing Laws ; they were empowered only, to maintain the Pro- 
teflant Religion, and the publick peace of the Country : It was 
therefore faid, that the Queen was peaceably obeyed, and the 
Country now in full quiet, fo there was no need of aflembling 
the Parliament : The end of the Law being compafTed, it was 
faid, the Law fell of it felf, and therefore it was neceffary to call 
a new Parliament : for the old one, if afTembled, could have no 
Authority, but to fee to the prefervation of Religion, and the peace 
of the Country, their power being limited to thofe two heads, by 
the Ad that authorized their fitting. In oppofition to this, it 
was faid, that the Ad which gave them Authority to fit as a Par- 
liament for fix inonths, gave them the full Authority oi a Parlia- 
ment : 

3 2 o The History of the Reign 

1702 ment : the direding them to take care of fome more important 
u?='^/"''^ matters, did not hinder their meddling with other matters, fince 
no ParHament can limit a fubfequent one : It was alio faid, 
that, fince the Queen was now engaged in a War, the pub- 
lick Peace could not be fecured, without fuch a Force and fuch 
Taxes to maintain it, as the prefent ftate of Affairs required. The 
Duke of ^ueensbury.^ and his Party, were for continuing the Par- 
liament : But Duke Hamilton^ and the others, who had oppofed 
that Duke in the laft Parliament, complained highly of this way 
of proceeding : They faid, they could not acknowledge this to 
be a legal Parliament, they could not fubmit to it, but muft pro- 
teft againft it : This was ominous ; a Reign was to be begun 
with a Parliament, liable to a difpute ; and from fuch a breach, 
it was eafy to forefee a train of mifchief likely to follow. Thefe 
Lords came up, and reprelented to the Queen, and thofe in fa- 
vour with her, their exceptions to all, that was intended to be 
done ; every thing they faid was heard very calmly ; but the 
Queen was a ftranger to their Laws, and could not take it upon 
her to judge of them, fo fhe was determined by the Advice of 
the Privy Council of that Kingdom. The Lords that came up 
to oppofe the Duke of ^eensbury^ continued to prefs for a new 
Parliament, in which they promifed to give the Queen all that 
fhe could ask of them, and to confent to an Ad of Indemnity, for 
all that was paft in the former Reign ; But it was thought, that 
the Nation was then in too great a heat to venture on that ; and 
that fome more time was neceflary, to prepare matters, as well as 
mens minds, before a new Parliament fhould be fummoned. Both 
Parties went down, and both being very fenfible that the Presby- 
terian Intereft would, with its weight, turn that fcale, into which it 
fhould fall ; Great pains were taken by both fides to gain that 
Party. On the one hand, they were made to apprehend, what a 
madnefs it would be for them, to provoke the Queen in the be- 
ginning of her Reign, who might be enough difpofed to entertain 
prejudices againft them : thefe would be much heightened, if in a 
point, in which Confcience could not be pretended, they fliould. 
engage in a Fadion againft her, efpecially when they could not 
fay, that any caufe of jealoufy was given : on the contrary, the 
Queen had, in all her publick Letters, promifed to maintain Pres- 
byterian Government ; and tho' that gave great offence, in the late 
King's time, when thofe publick Letters were printed, yet now 
this paft without cenfiire. The other Party was as bufy to in- 
flame, them ; They told them the Queen was certainly in her 
heart againft them : All thofe who were now in her confidence, 
the Earls of Rochejier and Nottingham in particular, were ene- 
mies to Presbyterian Government ; Good words were now given 


of §lueen Anne* 32 1 

them, to feparate them from a national Intereft, knowing well, 1702 
that if they went off from that, and fo loft the hearts of the Nation, ^^^P^''^^ 
they loft that, in which their chief ftrength lay : The Party that 
now governed, as foon as they fhould have carried the prefcnt 
point by their help, and render'd them odious, by their concur- 
ring in it, would ftrengthen themfclves at Court, by entering into 
the Epifcopal Intereft, and trying to introduce Epifcopacy into 
Scotland : which would be foon brought about, if the Presbyte- 
rians (hould once lofe their popularity : Thefe were the methods 
and reafonings that were ufed on both hands. 

The Parliament was brought together on the 9/^ of yune ; at j^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ 
the opening the Seftion, Duke Hamilton read a Paper, importing, Parliament 
that this was not a legal Parliament, fince the only ends, for which 
they were empowered to meet, were already obtained ; The 
Queen was obeyed, Religion was fecured, and the Peace of the 
Country was fettled : fo there feemed to be no occafion for their 
continuance ; Upon which he and feventy four more withdrew ; 
but one hundred and twelve Members continued to fit, and voted 
themfelves to be a free and legal Parliament, and declared, that 
purfuant to their ancient Laws, it was High Treafon to impugn 
their Authority. They ratified all A<Sls made, in favour of 
Presbyterian Government, in which they proceeded with fuch vio- 
lence, that Sir Alexander Bruce moving, that all thofe Acfis might 
be read, for he believed fome of them might be found inconftf- 
tent with Monarchy, he was for that expelled the Houfe. They 
by one A6t recognized the Queen's Title ; by another, they em- 
powered her to name Commifiioners to treat of the Union of 
the Two Kingdoms ; and by a third, they gave a Tax fufficient to 
keep up the Force, that was then in Scotland, for two years lon- 
ger : and fo the Parliament was brought to a quiet conclufion. 

Ireland was put under Lords Juftices, named by the Earl of 
Rochejier, and the Truftees continued ftill in their former Autho* 

While our Affairs were in this pofture at home ; The firft ftep Affairs in 
that was made beyond Sea, was by the Houfe of Hanover \ it ^^^"^""y- 
had been concerted with the late King before his ficknefs, and 
was fet on foot the Week he died ; The defign was well laid, and 
the execution was managed with great fecrecy ; The old Duke 
of Zelly and his Nephew the Eledor of Brunfwkkj went in per- 
fon with an Army, that was rather inferior in ftrength to that 
of the Dukes of Wolfembuttle ; They enter'd their Country, while 
their Troops were difperfed in their Quarters: They furprized fome 
Regiments of Horfe, and came and inverted both Wolfetnbuttle 
and Bf'unfwick at once, and cut off all Communication between 
them : Having them at this difadvantage, they requited them to 

Vol. IL N n n n concur 

3 22 The H I s T q r ^of the Reign 

1702 concur in the Common Councils of the Empire, to furnifli their 
K^<:^<^''^>!»J Quota for its defence, and to keep up no more Troops, than were 
confiftent with the fafety of their Neighbours j for it was well 
known, that the greateft part of their Men were fubfifted with 
French pay, and that they had engaged themfelves to declare for 
France, as foon as it fhould be required. Duke kodolph, the el- 
der Brother, was a learned and pious Prince ; but as he was never 
married, fo he had turned over the Government to the Care of 
his Brother Duke Anthony, who was a Prince of a temper very 
much different from his Brother's : He could not bear the ad- 
vancement of the Houfe of Hanover ; So in oppofition to them, 
he went into the Interefts of France : But being thus furprifed, he 
went away in difcontent, and his Brother broke thro' all thofe 
meafures, in which he had involved himfelf : In conjundtion with 
Duke Anthony, the Duke of Saxe Got ha had enter'd into the fame 
engagements with France ; but was now forced to fall into the 
common Interefts of the Empire. 
The War in Thus all the North of Germany was united, and ready to de- 
' ° ^'^' • clare againft France ; only the War in Poland was fo near them, 
that they were obliged to continue armed, and fee the ifTue of 
that War : The King of Sweden was engaged in it, with fuch a 
determined oppofition to King Augujius, that there was no hope 
of treating a Peace, tho' it was endeavoured both by England and 
the States : The King of Sweden feemed to have accuftomed 
himfelf to fatigue and danger, fo that he grew to love both ; and 
tho' the Mufcovites had fallen upon the Frontiers of Sweden, where 
they had gained fome advantages, yet even that could not divert 
him from carrying on the War in Poland. A Diet was fummon- 
ed there, but it broke up in confufion, without coming to any 
conclufion, only they fent AmbalTadors to the King of Sweden to 
treat of a Peace. The King of Prujfta was very apprehenfive of 
the confequences of this War, which was now in the neighbour- 
hood of Prujfia ; and the King of Sweden threaten'd to invade 
Saxony, with the Troops that he had in Pomerama, which could 
not be done, but thro' his Territories. The King of Sweden de- 
lay 'd giving Audience to the AmbalTadors oi Poland-, and march- 
ed on to Warfaw ; fo the King of Poland retired to Cracow, and 
Summoned thofe Palatines, who adhered to him, to come about 
him : When the King of Sweden came to Warfaw, he fent to 
the Cardinal to fummon a Diet, for choofing a new King : This 
went further than the refentments of the Poles yet carried 
them : But the reft of this matter will appear hereafter. 

All Germany was now united, only the two Brothers of Bava- 
with'th? ria ; The Court of Vienna fet on foot feveral Negotiations with 
Houfe of ^^ Eledor of Bavaria, but all to no purpofe : for that Eledor 
^'''''''- *■ feemed 

of ^een :; 323 

Icemcd only to hearken to their Propofuions, that he might 1702 
make the better terms with France: The Elector of Cologn put -O^'*'^ 
Liege^ and all the places that he had on the Rhine, except Bonne, 
into the hands or the French : It was faid, that he kept Bonne, 
hoping to be able to make his peace wi^h the Emperor, by putting 
that into his poffcflion ; but he was prevailed on afterwards to de- 
liver that likewife to the French. In this, the Eleiior aded againft 
the advice of all his Council ; and as the Dean of Liege was 
making fome oppofition to him, he was feized on, and carried 
away Prifoner in a barbarous manner : The Ele<Slor, to cxcufe his 
letting the French into his Country, pretended, he only dcfircd 
the afliflance of fome of the Troops of the Circle of Bur- 
gundy, to fecure his Dominions : For as France was not a(hamed 
of the flighttft pretences, fo fhe taught her Allies to make excufes 
unbecoming the Dignity of Princes. 

The lirft ftep of this War was to be made in the name of the T'^Jv^^^J^ 
Eledor Palatine, in the Siege of Keiferwert, which, whilft in the 
Enemies hands, expofed both the Circle of IVeJlphalia, and the 
States Dominions : for tlieir places on the Whall, being in no good 
condition, were laid open to the excurfions of that Garrifon. Ne- 
gotiations were ftill carried on in feveral Courts : Methuen. was 
fent to try the Court oi Portugal; he came quickly back, with 
full affurances of a Neutrality, and a freedom of Trade in their 
Ports ; Infinuations were given of a difpofition to go further, upon 
a better profped: and better terms ; fo he was prefently ferit 
back, to drive that matter as far as it would go. . The Pope pre- 
tended he would keep the Neutrality of a common Father, but 
his partiality to the French appeared on many occafions : yet the 
Court of Vienna had that veneration for the See, that they con- 
tented themfelves with expoftulatihg, without carrying their re- 
fentments further. The Venetians and the Great Duke followed 
the example fet them by the Pope, tho' the former did not efcape 
fo well, for their Country fuffer'd on both hands. 

The Prince of Baden drew together the Troops of the Empire ; TheSicgeof 
he began with blocking up Landaw, and that was foon turned '^"' ''** 
to a Siege : Catinat was fent to Command the French Army in 
^ If ace, but it Was fo weak, that he was not able to make head ^ 
with it. In the end of April, the Dutch formed three Armies ; 
one under the Prince of Najfaw, undertook the Siege of Keifer- 
wert ; Another was commanded by the Earl oi Athlone, and lay in 
the Dutchy of Cleve, to cover the Siege ; A third commanded by 
Cohorn, broke into Flanders, and put a great part of that Country 
luider Contribution. Marefchal Boufiers drew his Army together, 
and having laid up great Magazines in Ruremonde and Venlo, he 
pafTed die Maefe with his whole Army. The Duke of Burgun- 

324 ^^ History of the Reign 

1 702 dy came down poft from Paris, to Command it : The States ap- 
u-'^'V*^^ prehended, that fo great a Prince would, at his firil appearance, 
undertake fomewhat worthy of him, and thought the Defign 
might be upon Maejiricht : fo they put twelve thoufand Men in 
Garrifon there : The Auxiliary Troops from Germany did not 
come fo foon as was expeded, and crofs Winds ftopt a great part 
of our Army : So that the Earl of Athlojie was not ftrong enough 
to enter into adion with Marefchal Boufiers : but he lay. about 
Cleve, watching his motions. The Siege of Keifer'we?'t went on 
flowly : the Rhine fwelling very high, fo filled their Trenches, 
that they could not work in them. Marefchal Tallard was fent 
to lie on the other of fide the Rhine, to cannonade the Befieg- 
ers, and to fend frefh Men into the Town : The King of Prujfta 
came to Wezel, from whence he furnifhed the Beliegers with 
all that was neceflary : There was one vigorous Attack made, in 
which many were killed on both fides ; In conclufion, after a 
brave defence, the Counterfcarp was carried, and then the Town 
Keifer-wert capitulated, and was raifed according to agreement. When the 
Duke of Burgundy faw, that the Siege could not be raifed, he 
tried to get between the Earl of Athlone and Nimeguen : The De- 
fign was well laid, and wanted little of being punctually executed: 
It muft have had fatal efFeds, had it fucceeded : for the French 
would either have got into Nimeguen, or have forced the Earl 
of Athlone to fight at a great difadvantage. But the Earl of 
Athlo?te fo carefully watched their motions, that he got be- 
fore them, under the Cannon of Nimeguen ; yet by this means, 
. he was forced to abandon Cleve. The French difcharged their 

fury upon that Town, and on the Park, and all the delicious 
Walks of that charming place, little to the Honour of the Prince 
who commanded the Army: for upon fuch occafions, Princes 
are apt to be civil to one another, and not to make havock of 
fuch embellifhments as can be of no ufe to them. The Earl of 
Athlone^ condudl on this occafion, raifed his credit, as much as it 
funk Boufiers, who, tho' he had the fuperior Army, animated by 
the prefence of fo great a Prince, yet was able to do nothing ; but 
was unfuccefsful in every thing that he defigned ; and his Parties, 
that at any time were engaged with thofe of the Earl of Athlone, 
were beaten almoft in every Adiion. 
The Earl of Soon after this, the Earl of Marlborough came over, and took 
■^rf com- ^'^ Command of the Army. The Earl of Athlone was fet on, by 
ma?ds the the Other Dutch Generals, to infift on his Quality of Felt Mar- 
'^™^" fi^al, and to demand the Command by turns : He was now in 
hicrh reputation by his late Conduft, but the States obliged him 
to yield this to the Earl of Marlbo7'ough, who indeed ufed him fo 
we'll, that the Command feemed to be equal between them. The 


of ilueen An n fe. 32J 

Earl of Athlom was always inclined to cautious and fiire, but 1702 
feeble Counfcls : But the Earl of Marlborough^ when the Army ^^'"v'^^ 
was brought together, finding his Force fuperior to the Duke of 
Burgundy y paffed the Maefe at the Grave^ and marclied up to the 
French ; they retired as he advanced : this made him for ventur- 
ing on a decifive Adlion, but the Dutch apprehended the put- 
ting things to fuch a hazard, and would not confent to it. The 
Penfioner, and thofe who ordered matters at the Hagucy pro- 
ceeded the more timoroufly, becaufe, upon die King's Death, thole 
who had always oppofed him^ were beginning to form Parties, 
in feveral of their Tdwns, and were designing a change of Go- 
vernment : So that a publick misfortune in their condudl, would 
have given great advantages to thofe who were watching for them. 
The Penfioner was particularly aimed at : this made him more 
unwilling to run any rifque. Good Judges thought, that if the 
Earl of Marlborough\ Advices had been followed, matters might 
have been brought to a happy decifion : But as he condudled the 
Army prudently, fo he was careful not to take too much upon 
him. The Duke of Burgundy finding himfelf obliged to retreat, 
as the Confederate Army advanced, thought this was not fuitable 
to his dignity ; So he left the Army, and ended his firft Cam- 
paign very inglorioufly ; and it leems, the King was not fatisfied 
with Marefchal Bouflers^ for he never commanded their Armies 
fince that time. The Earl of Marlborough went on, taking feve- 
ral places, which made little or no refiftance ; and feeing that 
Marefchal Bouflers kept at a fafe diftance, fo that there was no 
hope of an engagement with him^ he refolved to fall into the Spa- 
nijh Guelder : he began with Venlo. There was a Fort on 
the other fide of the River, that commanded it, which was taken 
by tlie Lord Cutts^ in fo gallant a manner, that it deferved to be 
much commended by every body but himfelf: but he loft the 
honour, that was due to many brave Adlions of his, by talking too 
much of them : The young Earl of Huntington fhewed upon this, 
as upon many other occafions, an extraordinary heat of Courage : 
He called to the Soldiers, who had got over the pallifadoes, to 
help him over, and promifed them all the money he had about 
him, which he performed very generoufly, and led them on with 
much bravery and fuccels: Upon the Fort's being taken, the Town 
capitulated. Ruremonde and Stevenzwert were taken in a few 
days after ; for Marefchal Bouflers did not come to their relief. 
Upon thefe SuccelTes, that came quicker than was expeded, the 
Earl of Marlborough advanced to Liege^ which was a place of 
more importance, in which he might put a great part of his Ar- 
my in Winter Quarters : The Town quickly capitulated ; The 
Cittadel was carried by ftorm, and another Fort in the Town 
V o L. II. O o o o like- 

326 The History^ the Reign 

1702 like wife lurrender'd. Here was a very profperous Campaign: 
U;^'^^''''5>J rnany places were taken with little refiftance, and an inconlide- 
rable lofs, either of time or of men. The Earl of Marlborough\ 
conduft and deportment gained him the hearts of the Army : 
The States were highly fatisfied with every thing he did, and the 
Earl of Athlone did him the juftice to own, that he had differed 
in opinion from him in every thing that was done : and that 
therefore the Honour of their Succefs was wholly owing to him. 
The Earl of The Campaign was kept open till November^ and at t'he end 
■^^^^ft^un, of it, an accident happened, that had almoft loft the a d van- 
by a Party of (-^ges and honour got in it. The Earl of Marlborough thought 
go^ ou7of ' the eafieft and quickeft, as well as the fafeft way of returning to 
their hands. ^^ Hague^ was By fomc of thofe great Boats, that pafs on the 
Maefe : There was one Company in the Boat in which he went, 
and two Companies went in another, that was to be before him : 
There were alfo fome Troops ordered, to ride along the Banks 
for their Guard. The great Boat that went before, failed away too 
quick, and the Horfe miftook their way in the night : The French 
had yet the Town of Guelder in their hands, which was indeed 
all they had of the Spanijh Guelder : A Party from thence was 
lying on the Banks of the River, waiting for an Adventure, and 
they feized this Boat, the whole Company being faft afleep : fo 
they had now both the Earl of Marlborough and Opdam^ one of 
the Dutch Generals, and Gueldermalfen^ one of the States Deputies 
in their hands : They did not know the Earl of Marlborough^ but 
they knew the other two- They both had Paffes, according to a 
Civihty, ufually pradifed among the Generals of both fides. The 
Earl of Marlborough's Brother had a Pafs, but his ill health made 
him leave the Campaign, fo his Pafs was left with his Brother's Se- 
cretary, and that was now made ufe of for himfelf. 'Tis true, the 
Date of the Pafs was out, but they being in hafte, and in the night, 
that was not confidered : The Boat was rifled, and they took Pre- 
fents from thofe, who they believed were protefted by their Paf- 
fes : So, after a ftop of fome hours, they were let go, and happily 
efcaped the danger. The news of their being taken got before 
them to the Hague ; upon which the States immediately met, 
under no fmall confternation : They fent Orders to all their 
Forces, to march immediately to Guelder^ and to threaten the Gar- 
rifon with all extremities, unlefs they fhould deliver the Prifoners : 
and never to leave the Place, till they had either taken it, or had 
the Generals delivered to them. But before thefe Orders could 
be difpatched, the Earl of Marlborough came to the Hague, where 
he was received with inexpreffible joy, not only by the States, but 
' by all the Inhabitants : for he was beloved there to a high de- 
gree : Soon after his return to EfJglandj the Queen made him 


of ^een Anne. '327 

JDuke of Marlborough ; and both Houfes of Parliament fent fome 1 702 
of their number to him, with their Thanks for the great fervices u^vvJ 
he had done this Campaign. 

The Campaign likewife ended happily on the Upper Rhine : f.anda'-x 
Landaw was taken after a long Siege ; The King of the Romans *** '*^^°' 
came in time to have the honour of taking it : But with fo great 
a train, and (o fplendid an equipage, that tlie expence of it put all 
the Emperor's Affairs in great diforder : the moft neceflary things 
being negledled, while a needlefs piece of Pomp devoured fo great 
a part of their Treafure ; The Siege was flopt fome weeks for 
want of Ammunition, but in conclufion, the place was taken. 

The neceflities of the King of Frances Affairs, forced him at 
this time, to grant the Eledlor of Bavaria all his demands : It 
is not yet known what they were ; But the Court oi France did not 
agree to what he asked, till Landaw was given for loft : and then 
feeing that the Prince of Baden might have over-run all the Hon- 
drucky and carried his Winter Quarters into the neighbourhood 
of France ; it was neceffary to gain this Elector on any terms : If 
this agreement had been fooner made, probably the Siege, how 
far foever it was advanced, muft have been raifed. The Eledor The Elector 
made his Declaration, when he poffeffed himfelf of Ulm, which dtcbr^Tr'* 
was a rich free Town of the Empire : It was taken by a ftrata- France. 
gem, that, how fuccefsful foever it proved to the Eledor, was fa- 
tal to him who conducted it : for he was killed by an accident, 
after he was poffeffed of the Town. This gave a great alarm to 
the neighbouring Circles and Princes, who called away their 
Troops from the Prince of Baden^ to their own defence ; by 
this means, his Army was much diminifhed ; but with the Troops 
that were left him, he fludied to cut off the Communication be- 
tween Strasbourg and Ulm. The Emperor with the Diet, pro- 
ceeded according to their forms againft the Eled:or ; But he was 
how engaged, and continued firm to the Intereflis of France. 
Marefchal Fillars., who commanded the French Army in Alfatiay 
had Orders to break thro' the Black Foreft, and join the Bavari- 
ans : His Army was much fiiperior to the Prince of Baden ; but 
the latter had fo pofted himfelf, that after an unfuccefsful at- 
tempt, Villars was forced to return to Strazbourg. 

In Italyy the Duke of Fendome began with the Relief of Man- The War in 
tua^ which was reduced to great extremities by the long Block- ^^^^^' 
ade Prince Eugene had kept about it : He had fo fortified the 
Oglioj that the Duke of Vendome apprehending the difficulty of 
forcing his Pofts, marched thro' the Venetian Territories (not- 
withftanding the proteftations of the RepubHck againft it) and 
came to Goito^ with a great Convoy for Mantua. Prince Eugene 
drew his Army all along the Mantuan Foja, down to Borgofortes-^ 



328 The VLisTol^Y of the Reign 

1702 he was forced to abandon a great many places, but apprehending^ 
^-^^'^^"'^ that Berfello might be befieged, and confidering the importance 
of that place, he put a ftrong Garrifon in it. He complained 
- much, that the Court of Vienna feemed to forget him ; and did 
not fend him the Reinforcements they had promifed : It was 
thought, that his Enemies at that Court, under colour of fuppoft- 
ing the King of the Romans in his firil Campaign, were willing 
to negled; every thing that related to him : by this means,' the 
beft Army the Emperor ever had, was left to moulder away to 
Kins TM- -^i^g Philip took a very extraordinary refolution of going ovet 
lip went to to Italy ^ to polTefs himfelf of the Kingdom of Naples^ and to put 
an end to the War in Lombardy ; he was received at Naples with 
outward fplendor, but he made little progrefs, in quieting the 
minds of that unruly Kingdom : He did not obtain the Invefti- 
ture of it from the Pope, tho' he fent him a Cardinal Legate, with 
a high Complement : The Germans thought this was too much, 
while the French thought it was not enough ; yet upon it, the 
Emperor's Ambaffador left Rome. King Philip was conducted 
from Naples to Final by the French Fleet, that had carried him 
from Barcelona to Naples. As he was going to Command the 
Duke of Vendome% Army, he was met by the Duke of Savoy, of 
whom there was fome jealoufy, that, having married his two 
Daughters fo gready, he began now to difcern his own diftin£t 
intereft, which called itpon him to hinder the French from 
being Mafters of the Milaneze. King Philip wrote to the Duke 
of Vendome, not to fight Prince Eugene, till he could join him : 
He feemed jealous, leaft that Prince fhould be driven out of Ita- 
ly, before he could come to fhare in the Honour of it ; yet when 
he came, he could do nothing, though Prince Eugene was mife- 
rably abandoned by the Court of Vienna. Count Mansfield, Pre- 
fident of the Council of War, was much fulpefted, as corrupted 
by France : The Supplies promifed, were not fent into Italy : 
The apprehenfions they were under of the Eledor of Bavaria's 
declaring, fome time before he did it, gave a colour to thofe, who 
were jealous of Prince Eugene's Glory, to detain the Recruits and 
Troops that had been promifed to him, for the Emperor's own 
defence : But tho' he was thus forfaken, yet he managed the 
Force he had about him, with great skill and conduct. When 
he law Luzara was in danger, he marched up to the King of 
Spain ; and as that King very oddly expreffed it, in a Letter to 
the King of France, he had the boldnefs [Audace] to attack him, 
but which was worfe, he had the boldnefs likewife to beat him ; 
and if he had not been fhut in by Rivers, and the narrownefs of 
the Ground, very probably he would have carried the advantage, 


of ^een Anne» '^^^ 329 

he had in that engagement, much further. The ill Aate of his Af- 1702 
fairs forced him upon that defperate adion, in whicli he fucceedcd ^^^'"^'^^'^ 
beyond expedation ; It put the French to fuch a ftand, that all tliey 
could do after this, was only to take Luzara^ and fome other incon- 
fiderable places ; but Prince Eugene ftill kept his Pofts. King Phi- 
lip left the Army, and returned, after an inglorious Campaign, into 
Spaifz i where the Grandees were much difgufted, to lee themfelves fo 
much defpifed, and their Affairs wholly conducted by French Coun- 
cils. The French tried, by all pofTible methods, to engage the Turks 
into a new War with the Emperor : and it was believed that the 
GraTid Vizier was entirely gained, tho' the Mufti, and all who had 
any credit in that Court, were againft it : The Grand Vizier was 
firangled, and fo this defign was prevented. 

The Court of France was in a management with the Cardinal AfFairs in 
Primate of Poland, to keep that Kingdom ftill embroiled : The King 
of Sweden marched on to Cracow, which was much cenfured, as a 
defperate attempt, fmce a defeat there muft have deftroyed him and 
his Army entirely, being fo far from home. He attackt the King 
of Poland, and gave him fuch an Overthrow, that tho' the Army got 
off, he carried both their Camp and Artillery. He poffefled himlclf 
of Cracow, where he ftay'd fome Months, till he had raifed all the 
money they could produce : and tho' the Mufcovites with the Lji- 
thuanians deftroyed Livonia, and broke into Sweden, yet that could 
not call him back. The Duke oi Holjiein, who had married his eldeft 
Sifter, was thought to be gained by the French, to pufli on this young 
King, to profecute the War with fuch an unrelenting fury, in which 
he might have a defign for himlelf, fince the King of Sweden s ven- 
turing his own perfon fo freely, might make way for his Dutchefs to 
fucceed to the Crown. That Duke was killed in the battle of Cracow. 
There was fome hopes of Peace this Winter, but the two Princes werefo 
exafperated againft one another, that it feemed inipoflible to compofe 
that animofity : This was very unacceptable to the Allies : for both 
Kings were well inclined to fupport the Confederacy, and to engage in 
the War againft France, if their own Quarrels could have been made 
up. The King of Sweden continued ftill fo vertuous and pious in 
his whole deportment, that he feemed to be formed, to be one of the 
Heroes of the Reformation. This was the ftate of Affairs on the 
Continent, during this Campaign. .,. ., .) c 

One unlooked for accident fprung up in France: An Infurreftion Anlnfurrec- 
happened in the Cevennes in Languedoc : of which I can fay nothing ^q^J^Ij^^^ 
that is very particular, or well aflurcd. When it firft broke out, it 
was looked on as the effedl of Oppreffion and Defpair, which would , 
quickly end in a fcene of Blood : but it had a much longer conti- '\ 
nuance than was expelled ; and it had a coniiderable effed: on the . 
Affairs of France ; for an Army of ten or twelve thoufand men, 

V o L. II. P p p p who 

3 30 The History of the Reign 

in 02 who were dcfigned, either for Italy or Spaiuy was imployed, without 
^^^c^'^'^y^^^ any immediate fuccefs in reducing them. 

Thi. E7;giip I now change the Element, to give an account of our operations 
K)'cIS ^t Sea : Rook had the Command ; The Fleet put to Sea much later 
than we hoped for ; The Dutch Fleet came over, about a month be- 
fore ours was ready ; The whole confifted of fifty Ships of the Line, 
and a Land Army was put on board, of twelve thoufand men, feven 
thoufand EftgliJI:) and five thoufand Dutch : Rook Ipoke fb coldly of 
the Defign he went upon, before he failed, that thofe who converfed 
with him, were apt to infer, that he intended to do the Enemy as 
little harm as poffible. Advice was fent over from Holland, of a 
Fleet that faik:d from France-, and was ordered to call in at the 
Groy72e, Mtmden was recommended by Rook, to be fent againft this 
Fleet ; but tho' he came up to them, with a fuperior Force, yet he 
behaved himfelf fo ill, and fo unfuccefsfully, that a Council of War 
was ordered to fit on him : They indeed acquitted him, fome ex- 
cufing themfelves, by faying that if they had condemned him, the 
puniihment was Death : whereas they thought his errors flowed from 
a want of fence : fo that it would have been hard to condemn him, 
for a defedt of that, which Nature had not given him. Thofe who 
recommended him to the Imployment, Teemed to be more in fault. 
This acquittal raifed fuch an outcry, that the Queen ordered him to 
be broke. Rook, to divert the defign that he himfelf was to go up- 
on, wrote up from St. Helena, that the Dutch Fleet was viftualled 
only to the middle of September \ So they, being then in July, no 
great defign could be undertaken, when fo large a part of the Fleet 
was fo ill provided. When the Z)i!<;/f/6 Admiral heard of this, he 
fent to their Ambafiador, to complain to the Queen of this misinfor- 
mation : for he was vidualled till the middle of December. They 
were for fome time ftopt by contrary Winds, accidents and pretences, 
many of which were thought to be ftrained and fought for : but the 
Wind being turned wholly favourable, after fome crofs Winds, which 
had render'd their paflage flow and tedious, they came on the 1 2th 
of Augujl, into the Bay of Cadiz. Rook had laid no dilpofition be- 
fore hand, how to proceed upon his coming thither : Some days ' 
were loft on pretence of feeking for intelligence : It is certain, our 
Court had falfe accounts of the ftate the place was in, both with re- 
lation to the Garrifon and the Fortifications ; The Garrifon was 
much ftronger, and the Fortifications were in a better cafe, than was 
reprefented. • The French Men of War, and the Gallies that lay ii*^ 
the Bay, retired within the Puntah. In the firft lurprize, it had been 
eafy to have followed them, and to have taken or burnt them ; which 
Fairborn offered to execute, but Rook and the reft of his creatures 
did not approve of this. Some days were loft, before a Council of 
War was called ; In the mean while, the Duke of Ormond fent 
fome Engineers and Pilots to found the South-fide of Cadiz, near 


of §lueen AnN^. 351 

the Ifland of St. Tedro : but while this was doing, the Officers, by 1702 
the taking of fome Boats, came to know, that thofe of Cadiz had -^j^'v''^ 
fent over the beft of their Goods and other Effcdls to the Port of St. 
MarieS) an open Village over againft it, on the Continent of Spain ; 
fo that here was good plunder to be had eafily, whereas the Land- 
ing on the Ifle of Cadiz was like to prove dangerous, and, as fome 
made them believe, impradicable. In the Council of War, in which 
their Inftrudions were read, it was propofed to confider, how they 
{hould put them in execution ; Haro^ one of the General Officers, 
made a long Speech againft Landing : He fhewed how dcfperate an 
attempt it would prove, and how different they found the ftate of 
the place, from die reprefentation made of it in Engla?jd : The great- 
er number agreed with him, and all that the Duke of rmond cou[6. 
fay to the contrary was of no effeft. Rook feemed to be of the fame 
mind with the Duke, but all his Dependants were of another opi- 
nion, fo this was thought to be a piece of craft in him ; In conclu- 
fion, the Council of War came to a refolution, not to make a De- 
fcent on the Iflagd of Cadiz : But before they broke up, thofe, whom 
the Duke had fent to found the Landing places on the South- fide, 
came and told them, that as they might Land fafely, fo the Ships 
might ride fecurely on that fide ; yet they had no regard to this, but 
adhered to their former refolution, nor were there any Orders given 
for Bombarding the Town. The Sea was for the moft part very high 
while they lay there, but it was fo calm for one day, that the Engi- 
neers believed they could have done much mifchief ; but they had 
no Orders for it : And indeed it appeared very evidently, that they 
intended to do nothing but rob St. Maries. 

A Landing on the Continent was refolved on ; and t-ho* the Sea '^^^^^^'f 
was^ high, and the danger great, yet the hope of Ipoil made them st. jf<in>y. 
venture on it ; they landed at Rota ; a Party of Spanijh Horfe feem- 
ed to threaten fome refiftance, but they retired, and fo our men 
came to St. Maries^ which they found delerted, but full of riches : 
Both Officers and Soldiers fet themfelves, with great courage, againft 
this tempting but harmlefs enemy ; Some of the General Officers fet 
a very ill example to all the reft; chiefly Haro and Bellafis. The 
Duke of Ormond Xi'v^d. to hinder it, but did not exert his authority; 
for if he had made fome examples at firft, he might have prevented 
the mifchief that was done : But the whole Army, running fo vio- 
lently on the Sppil, he either was not able, or, thro' a gentlenefs of 
temper, was not willing to proceed to extremities. He had pub- 
liffied a Manifefto, according to his Inftruftions, by which the Spa- 
niards were invited to fubmit to the Emperor ; and he offered his 
Protection to all that came in to him : But the Spoil of St. Maries 
was thought an ill Commentary on that Text. After fome days 
of unfruitful Trials, on the Forts of that fide, it appeared that nor- 
thing could be done ; fo about the middle of September^ they all re- 


33 2 The History of the Reign 

1 702 embarked. Some of the Ships Crews were fo imployed, in bringing 
us^^v""*^ and beftowing the Plunder, that they took not the neceffary care to 
furniOi themfelves with frefh Water. Rook, without profecuting his 
other inftrudlions, in cafe the defign on Cadiz mifcarried, gave Orders 
only for a Squadron to fail to the Weft-Indies^ with fome Land Forces; 
and tho' he had a Fleet of Viduallers, that had Proviiions to the 
middle of December, he ordered them to fail home ; by this means, 
the Men of War were fo fcantily furnifhed, that they were foon 
forced to be put on fhort allowance. Nor did Raok fend Advice- 
Boats, either to the Ports of Algarve, or to Lisbon, to fee what Or- 
ders or Advices might be lying for him, but failed in a direft courfe 
for England : But fome Ships, not being provided with Water for 
the Voyage to England, touched on the Coaft of Algarve, to take in 
i^ons^ut in "^^^y met with intelligence there, that the Spanift) Plate Fleef, 
at Figo. with a good Convoy of French Men of War, had put in at Vigo^ a 
Port in Galicia, not far from Portugal ; where the entrance was nar- 
row, and capable of a good defence. It widened ^yithin Land, into 
a Bay or Mouth of a River, where the Ships lay very conveniently : 
He who commanded the French Fleet, ordered a Boom to be laid 
crofs the entrance, and Forts to be raifed on both fides : He had not 
time to finifh what he defigned, othervidfe the place had been inac- 
ceflible : But as it was, the difficulty in forcing this Port was believed 
to be greater, than any they would have met with, if they had landed 
on the Ifle of Cadiz. As foon as this Fleet had put in at VigOj 
Methuen, the Queen's Minifter at Lisbon^ fent Advertifements of it, 
to all the places, where he thought our Advice-Boats might be order- 
ed to call : Rook had given no Orders for any to call, and fo held on 
his courfe towards Cape Finijierre : But one of his Captains, Har- 
dy, whilft he water'd in Algarve, heard the news there ; upon which, 
he made all the Sail he could after Rook, and overtook him. Rook 
upon that, turned his courfe towards Vigo, very unwillingly as was 
:^id, and finding the Advice was true, he refolved to force his way in. 
But they ^^^ Duke of Ormond landed with a Body of the Army, and at- 
were burnt tack'd the Fofts with great bravery, while the Ships broke the Boom, 
the^£«^///.and forced the Port. When the French law what was done, they 
left their Ships, and let fome of the Men of War and fome of the 
Galleons on fire : Our Men came up with fuch diligence, that they 
ftopt the progrefs of the fire, yet fifteen Men of War and eight Gal- 
leons were burnt or funk ; but our Men were in time to fave five 
Men of War, and five Galleons, which they took. Here was a great 
deftrudion made, and a great Booty taken, with very little lols on 
our fide. One of our Ships was fet on fire by a Fire-Ship, but 
fhe too was faved, tho' with the lofs of fome Men ; which was 
all the lofs we fuftained in this important Aftion. The Duke of Or- ^ 
mond marched into the Country, and took fome Forts, and the Town 
2 ' of 

of ^een Anne. jVj' 

bi Rttondeliay where much Plunder was found; The French S^a- 1702 
men and Soldiers efcaped, for we having no Horfe, were not in a u^'V^J 
condition to purfue them : The Spaniards appeared at fome di- 
ftance, in a great Body : But they did not offer to enter into any 
Adion with the Duke of Ortnond : It appeared, that the refentmcnts 
of that proud Nation, which was now governed by French Councils, 
were fo high, that they would not put themlelves in any danger, or td 
any Trouble, even to fave their own Fleet, when it was in fuch hands. 
After this great Succefs, it came under confultation, whether it 
was not advifable to leave a good Squadron of Ships, with the Land 
Forces, to Winter at Vigo : The Neighbourhood of Portugal madcj 
that they could be well furnifhed with Provifions, and all other ne- 
ceffaries from thence : This might alfo encourage that King to de- 
clare himfelf, when there was fuch a Force and Fleet lying fo neaf 
him : It might likewife encourage fuch of the Spaniards^ as favour- 
ed the Emperor, to declare themfelves, when they faw a fafe place 
of retreat, and a Force to proted them : The Duke of Ormonde up- 
on thefe confiderations, offered to ftay, if Rook would have confent- 
ed ; but he excufed it ; he had fent home the Viduallers with the 
Stores ; and fo he could not fpare what was rlecellary, for fuch as 
would ftay there : and indeed, he had fo ordered the matter, that 
he could not ftay long enough to try, whether they could raife and 
fearch the Men of War and the Galleons that were funk : He was 
obliged to make all poffible hafte home ; and if the Wind had turn- 
ed to the Eaft, which was ordinary in that Seafon, a great part of 
our Ships Crews muft have died of hunger. 

The Wind continued favourable, fo they got home fafe, but half The £«£://> 
ftarved. Thus ended this Expedition, which was ill projeded, and back to 
worfe executed. The Duke of r mond X.o\d me, he had not half ■^''•^^ 
the Ammunition that was neceffary, for the taking Cadiz, if they 
had defended themfelves well : tho' he believed they would not 
have made any great reftftance, if he had landed on his firft arri- 
val, and not given them time to recover from the diforder, into 
which the firft furprize had put them. A great deal of the Trea- 
fure taken at Vigo was embezzled, and fell into private hands : One 
of the Galleons founder'd at Sea. The Publick was not much en- 
riched by this extraordinary Capture, yet the lofs our enemies made 
by it was a vaft one, and to compleat the ruine of the Spanijh Mer- 
chants, their King feized on the Plate, that was taken out of the 
Ships, upon their firft arrival at Vigo. Thus the Campaign ended ; 
very happily for the Allies, and moft glorioufly for the Queenj 1 

whofe firft year, being fuch a continued courfe of Succels, gave a 
hopefiil prefage, of what might be hereafter expeded. 

The Seffion of Parliament comes next to be related : The ^ "^'^ ^"' 
Queen did not openly interpofe in the Eledions, but her inclina- 
tion to the Tories appearing plainly, all people took it for grant- 
VoL. II. Q^q q q ed, 

334 ^^ History of the Reign 

1702 ed, that fhe wifhed they might be the Majority : This wrought oil 
v-^'^'V''^ the inconftancy and ferviHty, that is natural to multitudes : and 
the conceit, which had been infufed and propagated with much 
Induftry, that the Whigs had charged the Nation with great Taxes, 
of which a large fhare had been devoured by themfelves, had fo 
far turned the tide, that the Tories in the Houfe of Commons were 
at leaft double the number of the Whigs. They met full of fury 
againft the Memory of the late King, and againft thofe, who had 
been imploy'd by him. The firfl: inftance, wherein this appeared, 
was in their Addrefs to the Queen, congratulating her great Succef- 
fes; they added, that by her wife and happy Conduct, the Honour of 
the Kingdom was Retrieved. The word Retrieved implying that 
it was formerly loft, all that had a juft regard to the King's Memo- 
ry oppofed it : He had carried the Honour of the Nation further, 
than had been done in any Reign before his : To him they owed 
their prefervation, their fafety, and even the Queen's being on the 
Throne ; He had defigned and formed that great Confederacy, at 
the head of which fhe was now fet. In oppoiition to this, it was 
now faid, that during his Reign, things had been conduced by Stran- 
gers, and trufted to them ; and that a vaft Treafure had bc-en fpent 
in unprofitable Campaigns in Flanders. The Partition Treaty, and 
every thing elfe, with which the former Reign could be loaded, was 
brought into the account, and the keeping the word Retrieved^ in 
the Addrefs, was carried by a great Majority ; All that had favour 
at Court, or hoped for any, going into it. Controverted Eledions 
were judged in favour of Tories, with fuch a bare-faced partiality, 
that it {hewed the Party was refolved on every thing, that might 
ferve their ends. 

Of this I fhall only give two Inftances : The one was of the Bo- 
tiaiity in TOUgh of Hindofiy near me at Salisbury, where upon a complaint of 
ieafons ^ Bribery, the proof was fo full and clear, that they ordered a Bill to 
disfranchize the Town for that Bribery, and yet, becaufe the Bribes 
were given by a man of their Party, they would not pafs a Vote on 
him as guilty of it : So that a Borough was voted, to lofe its Right 
of Eleding, becaufe many in it were guilty of a Corruption, in 
which no man appeared to be the Ador. The other was of more 
importance ; and becaufe it may be fet up for a Precedent, I will be 
more particular in the Report : Mr. John How had been Vice- 
Chamberlain to the late Queen, but miffing fome of thofe advanta- 
ges, that he had propofed to himfelf, he had gone into the highcft: 
oppofition, that was made in the Houle of Commons, to the Court, 
during the laft Reign : not without many indecent reflexions on 
the perfon of the late King ; and a moft virulent attacking of all 
•■' ' ' his Minifters. He was a man of fome wit, but of little judgment, 
and of fmall principles of Religion : He ftood Knight of the Shire 
for Gkcejierfiire i and had drawn a Party in that County to join 


of ^ein Anne. '33j 

with him in an Addrefs to the Queen, in which, reflecSions were 1702 
made on the danger and ill ufage fhe had gone thro' in the former '-x^^V'^ 
Reign ; this Addrefs was received by the Queen, in fo particular a 
manner, that it looked Hke the dwning that the Contents of it were 
. true ; but fhe made fuch an excufe for this, when the offence it 
gave was laid before her, that probably, fhe was not acquainted with 
tlie matter of the Addrefs, when fhe fo received it. Upon thisj 
great oppofition was made to his Eledion ; When it came to the 
the Poll, it appeared, he had lofl it ; So the Sheriff was moved for 
a Scrutiny, to examine, whether all thofe who had fworn, that they 
were Freeholders of forty ShiUings a year, had fworn true. By the 
Ad of Parliament, the matter was referred to the Parties Oath, and 
their fwearing falfe was declared Perjury : Therefore fuch, as had 
fworn falfly, were liable to a Profecution : but by all Laws, an Oath 
is looked upon as an end of Controverfy, till he who fwore is con- 
vi(51: of Perjury : and the Sheriff", being an Officer named by the 
Court, if he had a power to review the Poll, this put the Eledion 
of Counties, wholly in the power of the Crown : yet upon this oc- 
cafibn, the heat of a Party prevaileov fo far, that they voted Hm) 
duly eleded. 

The Houfe of Commons very unanimoufly, and with great dif- AiithcSuj». 
patch, agreed to all the demands of the Court, and voted all the fof "^^"^ 
Supplies that were neceflary for carrying on the War. Upon the 
Duke of Marlborough^ coming over, a new demand for an addi- 
tional Force was made, fince the King of France had given out 
Commifllons, for a great increafe of his Armies : Upon that, the 
States moved the Queen, for ten thoufand more men : This was 
confented to, but with a condition, which how reafonable foever it 
might be in itfelf, yet the manner, in which it was managed, fhew- 
ed a very ill difpofition towards the Dutch ; and in the Debate, they 
were treated very indecently. It was infifled on, that before the 
Pay of thefe new Troops fhould begin, the States fhould prohibit 
all Trade with France^ and break off all Correfpondence with that 
Kingdom. It was indeed true, that France could not have fuppli- 
ed their Armies in Italy but by the means of this fecret Trade 5 fo 
it was reafonable to break it ; but the impofing it on the Dutch, in 
the manner in which this was prefled, carried in it too high a ftrain 
of Authority over therh. Theirs is a Country, that fubfifls not by 
any intrinfick Wealth of their own, but by their Trade j fome feem- 
ed to hope, that the oppofition, which would be raifed on this head, 
might force a Peace, at which many among us were driving fo in- 
decently, that they took little care to conceal it. The States re^ 
folved to comply with England in every thing j and tho' they did 
not like the manner of demanding this, yet they readily confented 
to it. The ordinary bufinefs of a Seflion of Parliament was fbon 
difpatched, no oppofition being made to the Supply, at which, in 
the former Reign, things ftuck longeft. When 

336 The HistoilY of the Reign 

1702 When thofe matters were fettled, a Bill was brought in by thfe 
^^(^^"^^""^^ Tories, againft Occafional Conformity, which produced great and 
Minft'occa- long Debates : By this Bill, all thofe who took the Sacrament and 
fionaiCon- Xeft (which by the A6t paffed in the year 1673, was made neceffa- 
""■""y* jy ^Q thofe, who held Offices of Truft, or were Magiftrates in Cor- 
porations, but was only to be taken once by them) and did aftfer that, 
go to the Meetings of DifTenters, or any Meeting for Religious Wor- 
fhip, that was not according to the Litiirgy or Practice of the Church 
of England^ where five perfons were prefent, more than the Family, 
Xvere difabled from holding their Imployments, and were to be fined 
in an hundred pounds, and in five pounds a day for every day, in 
which they continued to aft in their Imployments, after their having 
been at any fuch Meeting : They were alfo made incapable to hold 
any other Imployment, till after one whole year's Conformity to 
the Church, which was to be proved at the Quarter Seffion : Upon 
a rclapfe, the penalty and the time of incapacity were doubled : no 
limitation of time was put in the Bill, nor of the way, in which the 
Offence was to be proved : But whereas, the Ad: of the Teft only 
included the Magiftrates in Corporations, all the inferior Officers or 
Freemen in Corporations, who were found to have fome intereft in 
the Elections, were now comprehended within this Bill. The Pre- 
amble of the Bill afferted the Toleration, and condemned all Perfe- 
cution for Confcience fake, in a high ftrain : Some thought the 
Bill was of no confequence, and that, if it ffiould pafs into a Law, it 
would be of no effed : but that the Occafional Conformifts would 
become conftant ones. Others thought, that this was fuch a break- 
ing in upon the Toleration, as would undermine it, and that it would 
have a great effed: on Corporations ; as indeed, the intent of it was 
believed to be, the modelling Eledions, and by confequence of the 
Houfe of Commons. 
Great De- ^^ behalf of the Bill, it was faid, the defign of the Teft Ad: was, 
bates about xh^X. all in Office fhould continue in the Communion of the Church ; 
that coming only once to the Sacrament for an Office, and going 
afterwards to the Meetings of Diflenters, was both an eluding the in- 
tent of the Law, and a profanation of the Sacrament, which gave 
great fcandal, and was abhorred by the better fort of DifTenters. 
Thofe who were againft the Bill, faid, the Nation had been quiet 
ever fince the Toleration, the Diflenters had loft more ground and 
ftrength by it, than the Church ; The Nation was now engaged in 
a great War ; it feemed therefore unreafonable, to raife aijimofities 
at home, in matters of Religion, at fuch a time ; and to encourage 
a tribe of Informers, who were the worft fort of men : The Fines 
were exceffive ; higher than any laid on Papifts by Law ; and fince 
no limitation of Time, nor concurrence of Witnefles, was provided 
for in the Bill, men would be for ever expoled to the malice of a 
bold Swearer, or wicked Servant : It was move^, that fince the great- 

of ^een Anne- 337 

eft danger of all was from Atheifts and Papifts, that all fuch as re- 1702 
ceivcd the Sacrament for an Office, fliould be obliged to receive it ^-^'^'v^'^^^J 
three times a year, which all were by Law required to do ; and to 
keep to their Parifh Church, at leaft one Sunday a Month ; but this 
was not admitted. All, who pleaded for the Bill, did in words de- 
clare for the continuance of the Toleration, yet the fharpnefs, with 
which they treated the DifTenters in all their Speeches, fhewed as if 
they defigned their extirpation. The Bill was carried in the Houfe 
of Commons, by a great Majority. The Debates held longer in the 
Houfe of Lords : Many were againft it, becaufe of the high Penal- 
ties : Some remember'd the practice of Informers, in the end of 
King Charles\ Reign, and would not confent to the reviving 
fuch infamous methods ; All believed, that the chief defign of 
this Bill was, to model Corporations, and to caft out of them all 
thofe, who would not vote in Eledions for Tories : The Toleration 
itfelf was vifibly aimed at, and this was only a ftep to break in 
upon it. Some thought, the defign went yet further, to raife 
fuch quarrels and diftradions among us, as would fb embroil us 
at home, that our Allies might fee, they could not depend upon us ; 
and that we, being weaken'd by the diforders, occafioned by thofe 
Profecutions, might be difabled from carrying on the War, which 
was the chief thing driven at, by the promoters of the Bill. So that 
many of the Lords, as well as the Bifhops, agreed in oppofing this 
Bill, tho' upon different views : yet they confented to fome parts of 
it ; chiefly, that fuch as went to Meetings, after they had received 
the Sacrament, fliould be difabled from holding any Imployments, 
and be fined in twenty pounds ; many went into this, tho' they were 
againfl: every part of the Bill, becaufe they thought this the moft 
plaufible way of lofing it : fince the Houfe of Commons had of 
late fet it up for a maxim, that the Lords could not alter the Fines, 
that they fhould fix in a Bill, this being a meddling with money, 
which they thought was fo peculiar to them, that they would not 
let the Lords, on any pretence, break in upon it. 

The Lords hereupon appointed a very exadl learch to be made in- 
to all the Rolh^ that lay in the Clerk of the Parliament's Office, from 
the middle of King Henry the Seventh's Reign, down to the prcfent 
time: and they found, by fome hundreds of Precedents, that in fome 
Bills the Lords began the Claufes, that let the Fines ; and that when 
Fines were fct by the Commons, fometimes they altered the Fines, 
and at other times, they changed the ufe, to which they were applied : 
The Report made of this was fo full and clear, that there was no 
pofiibility of replying to it, and the Lords ordered it to be enter'd 
in their Books. But the Commons were refolved to maintain 
their point, without entering into any Debate upon it. The Lords 
alfo added Claufes, requiring proof to be made by two Witnefles, 
and that the Information fliould b