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Full text of "Bishop Burnet's History of his own time: with the suppressed passages of the first volume, and notes by the earls of Dartmouth and Hardwicke, and Speaker Onslow, hitherto unpublished"

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BISHOP BURNET'S 
HISTORY 



OF 



HIS OWN TIME: 

WITH THE 

SUPPRESSED PASSAGES OF THE FIRST VOLUME. 

AND NOTES 

BY THE 

EARLS OF DARTMOUTH AND HARDWICKE, 

AND 

SPEAKER ONSLOW, 

HITHERTO UNPUBLISHED. 

To which are added 

THE CURSORY REMARKS OF SWIFT, 

AND OTHER OBSERVATIONS. 



VOL. V. 



OXFORD, 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS. 
MDbCCXXIH. 



Digitized by tine Internet Archive 

in 2007 witii funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



Iittp://www.arcliive.org/details/bishopburnetsliis05burniala 



THE 309 

HISTORY 



OF 



MY OWN TIMES. 



BOOK VII. 

Of the life and reign of queen Anne. 

xJy the death of king William, pursuant to the 1702. 

act that had settled the succession of the crown, it Queen 

devolved on Anne *, the youngest daughter of king ^°J* '"*" 

James, by his first marriage : she was then entered 

on the thirty-eighth year of her age. Upon the 

king's death, the privy council came in a body to 

wait on the new queen: she received them with a Her first 

well considered speech : she expressed great respect ''^^^'^ ' 

" As soon as the breath was ing, whose proper office it was, 
out of king William, (by which besides being universally laugh- 
all expectations from him were ed at for his officiousness. D. 
at an end,) the bishop of Salis- (" On the queen's accession to ' 
bury drove hard to bring the " the throne, he was the first 
first tidings to St. James's ; " who brought the news to her 
where he prostrated himself at " of king William's death ; yet 
the new queen's feet, full of joy " was turned out of his lodg- 
and duty : but obtained no ad- " ings at court, and met with 
vantage over the earl of Essex, " several affronts." Macky's 
lord of the bedchamber in wait- Characters, p. 140.) 

VOL. V. B 



« THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1702. to the memory of the late king, in whose steps she 
intended to go, for preserving both church and 
310 state, in opposition to the growing power of France, 
and for maintaining the succession in the protestant 
line. She pronounced this, as she did all her other 
speeches, with great weight and authority, and with a 
softness of voice, and sweetness in the pronunciation, 
that added much life to all she spoke ^'. These her first 
expressions were heard with great and just acknow- 
ledgments : both houses of parliament met that day, 
and made addresses to her, full of respect and duty : 
she answered both very favourably, and she received 
all that came to her in so gracious a manner, that 
they went from her highly satisfied with her good- 
ness, and her obliging deportment; for she hearkened 
with attention to every thing that was said to her. 
Two days after, she went to the parliament, which, 
to the great happiness of the nation, and to the ad- 
vantage of her government, was now continued to 
sit, notwithstanding the king's demise, by the act 
that was made five years before, upon the discovery 
of the assassination plot. In her speech she re- 
peated, but more copiously, what she had said to the 
council upon her first accession to the throne. There 
were two passages in this speech that were thought not 
so well considered : she assured them, her heart was 

^ King Charles the second much in public. D. It has 
was so pleased with the natural been said, that she was taught 
sweetness of her voice, that he in this by Mrs. Barry, the fa- 
ordered Mrs. Barry, a famous mous actress. I have heard the 
actress, should teach her to queen speak from the throne, 
•peak ; which she did with such and she had all the author says 
success, that it was a real plea- here. I never saw an audience 
sure to hear her ; though she more affected : it was a sort of 
had a bashfiilness that made it charm. O. 
very uneasy to herself to say 



OF QUEEN ANNE. S 

entirely Englkh: this was looked on as a reflection 1702. 
on the late king : she also added, that they might 
depend on her word. Both these expressions had 
been in her father's first speech, how little soever 
they were afterwards minded by him. The city of 
London, and all the counties, cities, and even the 
subaltern bodies of cities, came up with addresses : 
in these, a very great diversity of style was observed; 
some mentioned the late king in terms full of respect 
and gratitude ; others named him very coldly ; some 
took no notice of him, nor of his death, and simply 
congratulated her coming to the crown ; and some 
insinuated reflections on his memory, as if the queen 
had been ill used by him ^\. The queen received all 
civilly : to most she said nothing, to others she ex- 
pressed herself in general words, and some things 
were given out in her name which she disowned ^. 

Within a week after her coming to the crown, she pnrsues 
she sent the earl of Marlborough to Holland, to give and thiw^. 
the States full assurances of her maintaining the al- 
liances that had been concluded by the late king, 
and of doing every thing that the common concerns 
of Europe required. She gave notice also of her 
coming to the crown to all the princes and states of 
Europe, except France and Spain. The earl of 
Marlborough stayed some days in Holland to very 
good purpose : the king's death had struck them all 



*= The queen's prejudices were the king's death to the house of 

strongly for composing her ad- commons on a sunday. Mr. 

ministration from that party ; Granville, or sir J. Packington, 

by which she excluded some of rose after him, and said, Sir, we 

the ablest men in the nation, have lost a great king, we have 

particularly in the house of got a most gracious queen ; it 

lords. H. was a sort of tory-gratulation. 

^ Secretary Vernon notified O. 

B 2 



4 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1702. with such a damp, that they needed the encourage- 
^, ment of such a message as he brought them. When 
they had the first news of the king's death, they as- 
sembled together immediately; they looked on one 
another as men amazed : they embraced one another, 
and promised they would stick together, and adhere 
to the interests of their country : they sat up most 
of the night, and sent out all the orders that were 
necessary upon so extraordinary an emergency. 
They were now much revived by the earl of Marl- 
bweugh's presence, and by the temper that both 
houses of parliament were in, with relation to the 
alliances, and the war with France : and they en- 
tered into such confidence with the earl of Marl- 
borough, that he came back as well satisfied with 
them, as they were with him. The queen, in her 
first speech, had asked of the commons the continu- 
ance of that revenue which supported the civil list, 
and it was granted to her for life, very unanimously; 
though many seemed to apprehend, that so great a 
revenue might be applied to uses not so profitable to 
the public, in a reign that was like to be frugal, and 
probably would not be subject to great accidents. 
When the queen came to pass the act, and to thank 
the parliament for it, she said, she intended to apply 
one hundred thousand pounds of it to the public oc- 
casions of the present year : this was received with 
great applause, and particular notice was taken of it 
in all the addresses that came up afterwards. 
A bill for At the same time, the queen passed a bill for re- 
•c^Snt.!*^ ceiving and examining the public accounts ; and in 
her speech she expressed a particular approbation of 
that bill. A commission to the same effect had been 
kej)t up, for six or seven years, during the former 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 5 

reign, but it had been let fall for some years; since 1702. 
the Gonymission€rs had never been able to make any 
discovery whatsoever, and so had put the public to 
a considerable charge without reaping any sort of 
fruit from it. Whether this flowed from the weak- 
ness or corruption of the commissioners, or from the 
integrity or cunning of those who dealt in the public 
money, cannot be determined. The party that had 
opposed the late king, had made this the chief sub- 
ject of their complaints all the nation over, that the 
public was robbed, and that private men lived high, 
and yet raised large estates out of the public trea- 
sure. This had a great effect over England ; for 
all people naturally hearken to complaints of this 
kind, and very easily believe them : it was also said, 
to excuse the fruitlessness of the former commis- 
sions, that no discoveries could be made under a mi- 
nistry that would surely favour their under-work- 
men, though they were known to be guilty*. One 

* (The following observations " to light extravagance and a-, 

are made on this subject by an " buse in the expenditure of 

impartial writer, who professes " the revenue ; and when the 

and evinces an attachment to " appointment of conmiission- 

the principles of the j)arty he " ers to examine the public ac- 

here animadverts on : " The " counts was, at length, obtain- 

** criminality of mismanage- " ed, they contrived to modify 

" ment and the abuse of power " and fetter their powers, by 

" above described, might have " clauses tending to frustrate, 

" rested upon individuals, if the " in a great measure, the pur- 

" whigs had not pursued such " pose of their appointnient. 

" measures as seemed to imply " They prostituted their abili- 

" the consciousness of wrong, •• ties, in postponing and evad- 

" and a dread of detection ; " ing the means of convict- 

" which tended to involve the ** ing those persons, who were 

" whole party in the participa- " strongly suspected of the most 

" tion of guilt. They strug- *^ notorious embezzlement of 

" gled, long and obstinately, to ** the public money." Somer- 

" parry every inquiry, calculated vilte's Hist, of Political Trans- 

" for the purpose of bringing actions, &c. c. xxi. p. 577.) 

B 3 



6 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1702. visible cause of men's raising great estates, who were 
17^ concerned in the administration, was this, that for 
some years the parliament laid the taxes upon very 
remote funds, so that, besides the distance of the 
term of payment, for which interest was allowed, 
the danger the government itself seemed to be 
often in, (upon the continuance of which the con- 
tinuance and assignment of these funds was ground- 
ed,) made that some tallies were sold at a great dis- 
count, even of the one half, to those who would em- 
ploy their money that way, by which great advan- 
tages were made. The gain that was made by rob- 
bing the coin, in which many goldsmiths were be- 
lieved to be deeply concerned, contributed not a 
little to the raising those vast estates, to which some 
had grown, as suddenly as unaccountably. All these 
complaints were easily raised, and long kept up, on 
design to cast the heavier load on the former mi- 
nistry : this made that ministry, who were sensible 
of the mischief this clamour did them, and of their 
own innocence, promote the biU with much zeal, and 
put the strongest clauses in it, that could be con- 
trived to make it effectual. The commissioners 
named in the bill were the hottest men in the house, 
who had raised as well as kept up the clamour with 
the greatest earnestness. One clause put in the act 
was not very acceptable to the commissioners ; for 
they were rendered incapable of all employments 
during the commission. The act carried a retrospect 
quite back to the revolution : it was given out, that 
great discoveries would be made by them, and the 
art and industry with which this was spread over 
England, had a great effect in the elections to the 
succeeding parliament. The coronation was on the 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 7 

23d of April, on St. George's day; it was performed 1702. 
with the usual magnificence : the archbishop of York 
preached a good and wise sermon on the occasion. 
The queen, immediately after that, gave orders for 
naming the electoress of Brunswick in the collect 
for the royal family, as the next heir of the crown ; 
and she formed a ministry. 

The coldness had continued between the king and a ministry 
her to such a degree, that though there was a recon- 
ciliation after the queen's death, yet it went not 
much farther than what civility and decency re- 
quired. She was not made acquainted with public 
affairs ; she was not encouraged to recommend any 
to jK)sts of trust and advantage ; nor had the mi- 
nistry orders to inform her how matters went, nor to 
oblige those about her : only pains had been taken 
to please the earl of Marlborough, with which he 
was fully satisfied : nothing had contented him bet- 
ter, than the command he had the former year of 
the troops which were sent to the assistance of the 
States ^ The whigs had lived at a great distance 313 

' I have often heard, that terest and influence with her, 

this was a designation of him were likely to throw the princi- 

by king William, for conduct- pal administration of affairs in- 

ing the new war in case of his to his hands, upon a demise, 

own death ; and nothing could the king proposed, by this early 

shew more greatness of mind step, to engage the earl so 

than this did in the king, and much in the war, as to make it 

that he was superior to any his particular interest to pursue 

envy or resentments when the it with vigour in the succeeding 

public good was concerned. He reign : and the then state of the 

did not love the earl of Marl- king's health makes all this to 

borough, and, it is said, had be very probable ; and it is not 

personal reasons enough for not improbable, that he had this in 

doing it ; but he knew his abi- his view so far back, as when 

lities for this great undertaking: he appointed the earl of Marl- 

and as the earl's relation of ser- borough to be preceptor to the 

vice or devotion to the succes- duke of Glocester. O. 
sor, and chiefly his lady's in- 

B 4 



8 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1702. with the queen all the former reign : the tories had 
made much noise with their zeal for her, chiefly 
after the death of the duke of Glocester, though they 
came seldom to her : her court was then very thin, 
she lived in a due abstraction from business ; so that 
she neither gave jealousy, nor encouraged faction : 
yet these things had made those impressions on her 
that had at first ill effects, which were soon observed 
and remedied. The late king had sent a message to 
the earl of Rochester, some weeks before he died, 
letting him know, that he had put an end to his 
commission of lord lieutenant of Ireland, but that 
was not executed in form ; so the commission did 
stiU subsist in his person : he was upon that now 
declared lord lieutenant of Ireland. The lord Go- 
dolphin was made lord treasurer : this was very un- 
easy to himself, for he resisted the motion long; but 
the earl of Marlborough pressed it in so positive a 
manner, that he said he could not go beyond sea to 
command our armies, unless the treasury was put in 
his hands; for then he was sure that remittances 
would be punctually made to him^: he was de- 

8 Lord Godolphin would have long and most expensive war, 
been more uneasy if it had been would have a monument erect- 
put into any other hands : but ed to his vanity at the public 
constantly refused every thing charge, the bridge in the avenue 
that he was sure would be to which cost threescore thou- 
forced upon him. Lord Marl- sand pounds, (the rest in pro- 
borough took early care to se- portion,) for a state house to 
cure the treasury, which for lodge the plunder of his own 
eight years after was entirely country and good part of Eu- 
converted to the gratification of rope in, with greater ostenta- 
his avarice and ambition, with- tion. And most dexterously, 
out the least remorse for what after the queen's death, he got 
difficulties or straits the queen forty thousand pounds out of 
or public were subjected to; what should have paid her ser- 
and when both were in the last vants, as a debt to him ; the 
distress, and exhausted by a queen having, in the accountgiv- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 9 

clared captain general, and the prince had the title 1702. 
of generalissimo of all the queen's forces by sea or 
land. It was for some time given out, that the 
prince intended to go beyond sea, to command the 
armies of the alliance; but this report soon fell; and 
it was said, the Dutch were not willing to trust their 
armies to the command of a prince, who might think 
it below him to be limited by their instructions, or 
to be bound to obey their orders. The late king had 
dissolved the commission for executing the office of 
the lord admiral, and had committed that great 
trust to the earl of Pembroke : the secrets of that 
board were so ill kept, and there was such a faction 
in it, that the king resolved to put it in a single 
person. The earl of Pembroke was not easily brought 
to submit to it : he saw it would draw a heavy load 
on him ; and he was sensible, that by his ignorance 
of sea affairs, he might commit errors ; yet he took 
good officers to his assistance : he resolved to com- 
mand the fleet in person, and he took great pains to 
put things in such order that it might be soon ready. 
A land army was designed to go with the fleet, to 
the command of which the duke of Ormond had 
been named : but upon new measures, the earl of 
Pembroke was first sent to, not to go to sea in per- 
son, and soon after he was dismissed from his post, 
with the offer of a great pension, which he very ge- 



en in to the house of commons, had allowed in monthly pay- 
charged that sum as expended ments at the treasury, (though 
upon Blenheim, by which part nobody believed the half was 
of her own debt was contract- applied to the use pretended,) 
ed, and by that means it was and the manor of Woodstock, 
twice paid. Besides above three with 5,000/. a year, rent charge, 
hundred thousand pounds, as for ever, out of the post-otiice, 
lord Oxford told me, the queen for keeping of it in repair. D. 



10 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1702. nerously refused, though the state of his affairs and 
family seemed to require it. The prince was made 
lord high admiral, which he was to govern by a 
council : the legality of this was much questioned, 
for it was a new court, which could not be au- 
thorized to act but by an act of parliament : yet the 
314 respect paid the queen made that no public ques- 
tion was made of this, so that objections to it never 
went beyond a secret murmur. The earl of Not- 
tingham and sir Charles Hedges were made secre- 
taries of state : the tories would trust none but the 
earl of Nottingham, and he would serve with none 
but Hedges : the maxim laid down at court was, to 
put the direction of affairs in the hands of the tories. 
The earl of Marlborough assured me this was done, 
upon the promises they made to carry on the war, 
and to maintain the alliances : if they kept these, 
then affairs would go on smoothly in the house of 
commons; but if they failed in this, the queen would 
put her business in other hands, which at that time 
few could believe. The marquis of Nonnanby was, 
to the admiration of all men, made lord privy seal, 
and soon after duke of Buckingham : the earl of 
Abingdon, viscount Weymouth, lord Dartmouth, Sei- 
mour, Musgrave, Greenvil, How, Lucan (Levison 
O.) Gower, Harcourt, with several others, who had, 
during the last reign, expressed the most violent 
and unrelenting aversion to the whole administra- 
tion, were now brought to the council board, and 
put in good posts '\ 

^ Musgrave never was of the Fenwick's trial, I thought justly 
council, nor Harcourt, till he entitled me to oppose any thing 
was lord keeper. The violent that was for his majesty's ad- 
unrelenting ill usage I met with vantage, or personal satisfac- 
in the last reign, after sir John tion. Whatever the bishop 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 11 

Before the king's death, it was generally thought, 1702. 



that some in both houses, and many more over the Few refused 
nation, would refuse the abjuration : they had op- Jjon*''^"™ 
posed it so vehemently, that no less could be ex- 
pected from them. Some went out of town when 
the day came, in which the houses resolved to try 
all their members ; but they soon came to other re* 
solutions, and with them almost the whole party 
came and took the oath, and professed great zeal 
for the queen, and an entire satisfaction in her title. 
Some suspected this was treachery, on design to get 
the government once into their hands, that so they 
might deliver it up, or at least that they might carry 
a parliament so to their mind, that the act might 
be repealed ; and they might think, that then the 
oath would fall with it. Distinctions were set about 
among them, which heightened these suspicions ; 
for though in the oath they declared, that the pre- 
tended prince of Wales had not any right what- 
soever to the crown, yet in a paper (which I saw) 
that went about among them, it was said, that right 
was a term of law, which had only relation to legal 
rights, but not to a divine right, or to hirth right: 
so since that right was condemned by law, they, by 
abjuring it, did not renounce the divine right, that 
he had by his birth. They also supposed, that this 
abjuration could only bind, during the present state 
of things, but not in case of another revolution, or 
of a conquest : this was too dark a thing to be in- 
quired after, or seen into, in the state matters were 

would insinuate further, in re- the queen, the day she came to 

lation to myself, is untrue : and the crown, tliat I was all joy, 

he very well knew that I was without the least alloy ; which 

one of the first that signed the she said she did most sincerely 

vohmtary association. I told believe. D. 



n 



THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 



1702. then in. The queen continued most of the great 
officers of the household, all the judges except two ', 
and most of the lords lieutenants of counties ; nor 
315 did she make any change in the foreign ministry. 
It was generally believed that the earl of Rochester 
and his party were for severe methods, and for a 
more entire change, to be carried quite through all 
subaltern employments ; but that the lord Godolphin 
and the earl of Marlborough were for more moderate 
proceedings : so that though no whigs were put into 
employments, yet many were kept in the posts they 
had been put into during the former reign. Re- 
peated assurances were sent to all the allies, that 
the queen would adhere firmly to them ^. 



» And they took out new 
commissions, which the old 
lord Trevor told me was owing 
to Holt's fears, and a notion 
he had entertained that their 
power being commissions, al- 
though they had them with the 
" quam diu se bene gesserit," 
determined upon the demise of 
the prince, who granted them. 
He said that Holt did it of a 
sudden, being then upon the 
circuit, and that the lawyers 
were generally of another opi- 
nion in it ; and that he him- 
self (Trevor) would have tried 
it with the crown when he was 
removed from being chief jus- 
tice of the conmion pleas, at 
the accession of king George 
the first, if it had been new 
then. But see chief justice 
Hale's Pleas of the Crown, 
the manuscript of which Holt 
had seen, and it is said took 
this doctrine from it. Note, 
Jekyl, though much threatened 



with a prosecution, stood it 
out, after the death of king 
William, with regard to his pa- 
tent of chief justice of Chester, 
and continued in the office by 
virtue of his old appointment. 
Quere, the difference. Trevor, 
master of the rolls, made the 
like claim to a continuance ; 
but I have been told, that by 
way of caution, he procured a 
fresh patent. Quere, whether 
Jekyl, a master of the rolls, did 
so upon the accession of our 
present king George the second. 
— But this matter is now settled 
in favour of the judges by an 
act, George the third. O. 

^ At this time the earl of 
Nottingham told me, the queen 
thought it necessary to send 
somebody she could trust to 
Hanover, and had pitched upon 
me as the proper person ; and 
lord Godolphin told him he 
would take care I should have 
no cause to complain of my 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 13 

The queen in her first speech to her parliament, 1702. 



had renewed the motion, made by the late king, The unioa 
for the union of both kingdoms : many of those, j|j, ^^l^ 
who seemed now to have the greatest share of her p^(*poaed. 
favour and confidence, opposed it with much heat, 
and not without indecent reflections on the Scotch 
nation ; yet it was carried by a great majority, that 
the queen should be empowered to name commis- 
sioners, for treating of an union : it was so visibly 
the interest of England, and of the present govern- 
ment, to shut that back-door against the practices 
of France, and the attempts of the pretended prince 
of Wales, that the opposition made to this first step 
towards an union, and the indecent scorn with 
"which Seipiour and others treated the Scots, were 
clear indications that the posts they were brought 
into had not changed their tempers : but that, in- 
stead of healing matters, they intended to irritate 
them farther, by their reproachful speeches. The 
bill went through both houses, notwithstanding the 
rough treatment it met with at first. 

appointments, 1 told him I of Winchelsea was sent, who, 

was very sensible that whoever Mr. Cressit afterwards told me, 

was employed between her ma- was very unacceptable, having 

jesty and her successor, would voted against their succession ; 

soon burn his fingers, and did and the princess Sophia let 

believe lord Godolphin thought drop some words, that shewed 

of me for that very reason ; she took it unkindly that 1 was 

therefore desired he would not sent as first proposed ; and 

bring me off as well as he could, he wished I had, for he believed 

for positively I would not go. it might have prevented a great 

He fell a laughing, and said he deal of misunderstanding that 

thought I was in the right ; happened after ; for he was sure 

but the difficulty would be, the electress would have opened 

that an intimation had already herself very freely to me, and 

been given, and the answer was, have believed any thing that I 

that nobody would be more ac- had assured her was for her 

ceptable. Upon this the earl service. D. 



U THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

fJ'W. Upon the earl of Marlborough's return from Hol- 



The war land, and in pursuance of the concert at the Hague, 
rJwiS^e" ^^ qneen communicated to both houses her design 
to proclaim war with France : they approving of it, 
war was proclaimed on the fourth day of May : the 
house of commons made an address to thank the 
queen, for ordering the princess Sophia to be prayed 
for : and as the right, that recommended her, was 
in her own blood ; she was designed ])y her chris- 
tian name, and not by her title : it came to be 
known that this was opposed in council by the mar- 
quis of Normanby, but that it was promoted by the 
lord treasurer. 
A fa) sere- ^ rcport was Spread about the town, and over 

port of de- * '■ 

signs the nation, with such a seeming assurance, that 
queen. many were inclined to believe it, that a scheme had 
been found among the king's papers, for setting 
aside the queen ; some added, for imprisoning her, 
and for bringing the house of Hanover immedi- 
ately into the succession ; and that, to support this, 
a great change was to be made in all the employ- 
ments and offices over the whole kingdom : this, 
many of those who were now in posts had talked of 
in so public a manner, that it appeared they intended 
316 to possess the whole nation with a belief of it ; hop- 
ing thereby to alienate the people from those, who 
had been in the late king's confidence, and disgrace 
all that side, in order to the carrying all elections of 
parliament for men of their party. Five lords had 
been ordered by the queen to visit the late king's 
papers, and bring her such of them, as related to the 
alliances, or other affairs of the crown : these were 
the dukes of Somerset and Devonshire, and the earls 
of Marlborough, Jersey, and Albemarle : the whigs 



OF QUEEN ANNE. IB 

saw the design which was driven at by those false 1702. 
reports ; so a motion was made in the house of 
lords, by the earl of Carlisle, and seconded by the 
lords Wharton, Halifax, and others, that an inquiry 
should be made into the truth of that report, and 
of all other stories of that kind, that so, if there was 
atiy truth in them, such as had been concerned in 
those wicked designs might be punished ; and if 
they were found to be false, that those who spread 
them about might be chastised. Upon this, the 
house desired that those lords, who had visited the 
late king's papers, would let them know, if they had 
met with any among them, relating to the queen's 
succession, or to the succession of the house of Ha- 
nover. Four of them were then in the house, only 
the earl of Marlborough was ill that day, so the 
four who were present said, they had found nothing 
that did in any sort relate to that matter, and this 
was confirmed by the earl of Marlborough to some 
peers, who were sent by the house, to ask him the 
same question. Upon which a vote passed, that these 
reports were false and scandalous; and an order 
was made for prosecuting the spreaders of them. 
Some books had been published, charging the late 
ministry and the whole whig party with the like 
designs : these ]x)oks were censured, and the au- 
thors of them were ordered to be prosecuted ; 
though both the marquis of Normanby and the earl 
of Nottingham did all they could to excuse those 
writers. When the falsehood of those calumnies 
was apparent, then it was given out, with an un- 
usual confidence, that no such reports had been ever 
set about ; though the contrary was evident, and 
the thing was boldly asserted in those books : so 



16 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1702. that a peculiar measure of assurance was necessary. 



to face down a thing, which they had taken such 
pains to infuse into the minds of the credulous 
vulgar, all England over^ The earl of Notting- 
ham, to divert this inquiry, moved, that another 
miglit be made into those books, in which the mur- 
der of king Charles the first was justified; though 
the provocation given to some of these, was, by a 
sermon preached by Dr. Binks before the convoca- 
tion, on the thirtieth of January, in which he drew 
a parallel between king Charles's sufferings and those 
of our Saviour : and, in some very indecent expres- 
317sions, gave the preference to the former. When the 
liamJlu is business of the session of parliament was all done, 
dissolved. ^Yie queen dismissed them, with thanks for the money 
they had given, recommending earnestly to them a 
good agreement among themselves, assuring them, 
that as on the one hand she would maintain the to- 
leration, so on the other hand her own principles 
would oblige her to have a particular regard to 
those who expressed the truest zeal for the church 
of England : thus the session ended, and the pro- 
clamation dissolving the parliament, with the writs 
for a new one, came out not long after. 
A convoca- During some part of this parliament, a convoca- 
tion sat : the faction raised in the lower house had 
still the majority ; several books were writ to shew, 
that by our constitution, the power of adjourning 
was wholly in the archbishop : the original book of 
the convocation that sat in the year 1661 being 
happily found, it shewed the practice of that convo- 
cation agreed with the bishops in every particular : 
but though it was communicated to the lower house, 
' (But see note at p. 299.) 



OF QUEEN AxXNE. 17 

that had no effect on them : for when parties are 1 702. 



once formed, and a resolution is taken up on otlier 
considerations, no evidence can convince those who 
have beforehand resolved to stick to their point. 
But the prolocutor dying, and the king's death fol- 
lowing, the convocation was by that dissolved : since 
in the act that empowered the parliament to sit af- 
ter the king's death, no provision was made to con- 
tinue the convocation. The earl of Rochester moved 
in the house of lords, that it might be considered, 
whether the convocation was not a part of the par- 
liament, and whether it was not continued in conse- 
quence of the act that continued the parliament: 
but that was soon let fall, for the judges were all of 
opinion, that it was dissolved by the king's death. 

Upon the queen's accession to the crown, all these 
angry men, that had raised this flame in the church, 
as they treated the memory of the late king with 
much indecent contempt, so they seemed very con- 
fident, that for the future all preferments should be 
distributed among them, (the queen having super- 
seded the commission for ecclesiastical preferments,) 
and they thought they were full of merit, and were 
as full of hopes. 

Such an evil spirit as is now spread among thesocietie* 
clergy, would be a sad speculation at any time, but nmti^iT,'^' 
in our present circumstances, when we are near so 
great a crisis, it is a dreadful thing : but a little to 
balance this, 1 shall give an account of more pro- 
mising beginnings and appearances, which, though 
they are of an elder date, yet of late they have been 
brought into a more regulated form. In king James's 
reign, the fear of popery was so strong, as well as 
just, that many, in and about London, began to meet 

VOL. V. c 



18 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1702. often together, both for devotion and for their fur- 
glgther instruction: things of that kind had been for- 
merly practised only among the puritans and the 
dissenters : but these were of the church, and came 
to their ministers, to be assisted with forms of prayer 
and other directions : they were chiefly conducted 
by Dr. Beveridge and Dr. Homeck. Some disliked 
this, and were afraid it might be the original of 
new factions and parties ; but wiser and l>etter men 
thought it was not fit nor decent to check a spirit 
of devotion at such a time : it might have given 
scandal, and it seemed a discouraging of piety, and 
might be a mean to drive well-meaning persons over 
to the dissenters. After the revolution, these socie- 
ties grew more numerous, and for a greater encou- 
ragement to devotion, they got such collections to be 
made, as maintained many clergymen to read pray- 
ers in so many places, and at so many different 
hours, that devout persons might have that comfort 
at every hour of the day: there were constant sacra- 
ments every Lord's day in many churches: there were 
both greater numbers and greater appearances of de- 
votion at prayers and sacraments, than had been ob- 
served in the memory of man. These societies resolv- 
ed to inform the magistrates of swearers, drunkards, 
profaners of the Lord's day, and of lewd houses ; and 
they threw in the part of the fine, given by law to 
informers, into a stock of charity : from this, they 
were called societies of reformation : some good ma- 
gistrates encouraged them ; but others treated them 
roughly'". As soon as the late queen heard of this, 

"' T\\e lord chief justice Holt, combinations for putting laws 
I have heard, was no friend to in execution, which often ran 
them. He did not, as it was into violences and personal re- 
thought, approve of voluntary venges, and other irregularities ; 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 19 

she did, by her letters and proclamations, encourage 1702. 
tliese good designs, which were afterwards prose- 
cuted by the late king. Other societies set them- 
selves to raise charity schools, for teaching poor 
children, for clothing them, and binding them out to 
trades : many books were printed, and sent over the 
nation by them, to be freely distributed : these were 
called societies for propagating Christian knowledge: 
by this means some thousands of children are now 
well educated and carefully looked after. In many 
places of the nation, the clergy met often together, 
to confer about matters of religion and learning; 
and they got libraries to be raised for their common 
use. At last a corporation was created by the late 
king, for propagating the gospel among infidels, for 
settling schools in our plantations, for furnishing 
the clei'gy that were sent thither, and for sending 
missionaries among such of our ])lantations as were 
not able to provide pastors for themselves. It was 
a glorious conclusion of a reign that was begun 
with preserving our religion, thus to create a corpo- 
ration for propagating it to the remoter parts of the 
earth, and among infidels : there were very liberal 
subscriptions made to it, by many of the bishojjs 
and clergy, who set about it with great care and 
zeal: upon the queen's accession to the crown, they 319 
had all possible assurances of her favour and protec- 

soine persons too severely pro- seldom acted upon principle, 

secuted, while others were con- and were often corrupted. He 

nived at. He had met, it is said, was, however, thought to be 

with several instances of this, too much sharpened in this ^ 

in the prosecutions carried on matter, and against some very 

by this society, upon bad in- good men, wIk) lueaut very 

formations from their agents, well in it. O. 
called refornung constables, who 

c 2 



«0 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1702. tion, of which, upon every application, they received 
very eminent marks. 
Affairs in ^he affairs of Scotland began to be somewhat 

Scotland. *^ 

embroiled: by an act made soon after the revolu- 
tion, it was provided, that all princes succeeding to 
the crown, should take the coronation oath before 
they entered upon their regal dignity ; but no direc- 
tion was given concerning those who should tender 
it, or the manner in which it should be taken : so 
this being left undetermined, the queen called toge- 
ther all the late king's ministers for that kingdom, 
and in the presence of about twelve of them she 
took the coronation oath: men, who were disposed 
to censure every thing, said, that this ought not to 
be done, but in the presence of some, deputed for 
that effect, either by the parliament, or at least by 
the privy council of that kingdom. Another point 
occasioned a more important debate. 

Upon the assassination plot, an act had passed in 
Scotland for continuing the parliament that should 
be then in being, six months after the death of the 
king, with two special clauses in it : the first was, 
that it should meet twenty days after the death of 
the king: but the queen did, by several proroga- 
tions, continue the parliament almost three months 
after the king's death before it was opened : some 
said the parliament was by this dissolved, since it 
did not meet upon the day limited by the act to 
continue it ; but there was another proviso in the 
act, that saved to the crown the full prerogative of 
adjourning or dissolving it within that time ; yet in 
opposition to that it was acknowledged, that as to 
all subsequent days of meeting, the prerogative was 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 21 

entire, but the day that was limited, that is, the 1702. 



twenty-first after the king's death, seemed to be 
fixed for the first opening the session. 

The second clause was, a limitation on the power 
of the parliament during their sitting, that it should 
not extend to the repealing laws ; they were. empow- 
ered only to maintain the protestant religion and the 
public peace of the country : it was therefore said, 
that the queen was peaceably obeyed, and the coun- 
try now in full quiet, so there was no need of as- ^ 
sembling the parliament : the end of the law being 
compassed, it was said, the law fell of it self, and 
therefore it was necessary to call a new parliament : 
for the old one, if assembled, could have no author- 
ity, but to see to the preservation of religion and 
the peace of the country, their power being limited 
to those two heads, by the act that authorized their 
sitting. In opposition to this it was said, that the 
act which gave them authority to sit as a parlia- 
ment for six months, gave them the full authority 
of a parliament : the directing them to take care of 320 
some more important matters, did not hinder their 
meddling with other matters, since no parliament 
can limit a subsequent one : it was also said, that, 
since the queen was now engaged in a war, the 
public peace could not be secured, without such a 
force and such taxes to maintain it, as the present 
state of affairs required. The duke of Queensbury 
and his party were for continuing the parliament : 
but duke Hamilton and the others, who had op- 
posed that duke in the last parliament, complained 
highly of this way of proceeding: they said, they 
could not acknowledge this to be a legal parliament, 
they could not submit to it, but must protest against 

c 3 



£2 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1702. it : this was ominous ; a reign was to be begun with 
a parliament, liable to a dispute; and from such a 
breach, it was easy to foresee a train of mischief 
likely to follow. These lords came up, and repre- 
sented to the queen, and those in favour with her, 
their exceptions to all that was intended to be done; 
every thing they said was heard very calmly ; but 
the queen was a sti-anger to their laws, and could 
not take it ujion her to judge of them, so she was 
determined by the advice of the privy council of 
that kingdom. The lords that came up to oppose 
the duke of Queensbury, continued to press for a 
new parliament, in which they promised to give the 
queen all that she could ask of them, and to consent 
to an act of indemnity for all that was passed in the 
form«* reign : but it was thought, that the nation 
Avas then in too great a heat to venture on that ; 
and that some more time was necessary to prepare 
matters, as well as men's minds, before a new par- 
liament should !je summoned. Both parties went 
down, and both being very sensible that the pres- 
byterian interest would, with its weight, turn that 
Bcale into which it should fall, great pains were 
taken by lx)th sides to gain that party. On the one 
hand, they were made to apprehend, what a mad- 
ness it would be for them, to provoke the queen in 
the beginning of her reign, who might be enough 
dis}x)sed to entertain prejudices against them: these 
would be much heightened, if in a point in which 
conscience could not be pretended, they should en- 
gage in a faction against her, especially when they 
ixmld not say that any cause of jealousy was given : 
on the contrary, the queen had, in all her public 
letters, |)ramised to maintain presbyterian govern- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 28 

ment; and though that gave great offence in the 1702. 
late king's time, when those public letters were 
printed, yet now this passed without censure. The 
other party was as busy to inflame them ; they told 
them the queen was certainly in her heart against 
them : all those who were now in her confidence, 
the earls of Rochester and Nottingham in particu- 
lar, were enemies to presbyterian government : good 
words were now given them, to separate them from 321 
a national interest, knowing well, that if they went 
off from that, and so lost the hearts of the nation, 
they lost that in which their chief strength lay : the 
party that now governed, as soon as they should 
have carried the present point by their help, and 
rendered them odious by their concurring in it, 
would strengthen themselves at court, by entering 
into the episcopal interest, and trying to introduce 
episcopacy into Scotland: which would be soon 
brought about, if the presbyterians should once lose 
their popularity : these were the methods and rea- 
sonings that were used on both hands. 

The parliament was brought together on the 9th a session of 
of June : at the opening the session, duke Hamilton {"here. 
read a paper, importing that this was not a legal 
parliament, since the only ends for which they were 
empowered to meet were aheady obtained ; the 
-queen was obeyed, religion was secured, and the 
peace of the country was settled : so there seemed 
to be no occasion for their continuance. Upon which 
he and seventy-four more withdiew ; but one hun- 
dred and twelve members continued to sit, and voted 
themselves to be a free and legal parliament, and 
declared, that, pursuant to their ancient laws, it was 
high treason to impugn their authority. They rati- 

c 4 



24 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1702. fied all acts made in favour of presbyterian govem- 
ment, in which they proceeded with such violence, 
that sir Alexander Bruce moving that all those acts 
might be read, for he believed some of them might 
be found inconsistent with monarchy, he was for 
that expelled the house. They by one act recognised 
the queen's title ; by another, they empowered her 
to name commissioners to treat of the union of the 
two kingdoms ; and by a third, they gave a tax suf- 
ficient to keep up the force that was then in Scot- 
land, for two years longer : and so the pai'liament 
was brought to a quiet conclusion. 

Ireland was put under lords justices, named by 
the earl of Rochester, and the tinistees continued 
still in their former authority. 
Affairs in While our affairs were in this posture at home, 

Germaoy. 

the first step that was made beyond sea, was by the 
house of Hanover ; it had been concerted with the 
late king before his sickness, and was set on foot the 
week he died. The design was well laid, and the 
execution was managed with great secrecy : the old 
duke of Zell, and his nephew the elector of Bruns- 
wick, went in person with an army, that was rather 
inferior in strength to that of the dukes of Wolfem- 
buttle ; they entered their country, while their troops 
were dispersed in their quarters : they surprised 
some regiments of horse, and came and invested 
both Wolfembuttle and Brunswick at once, and cut 
off all communication between them : having them 
322 at this disadvantage, they required them to concur 
in the common councils of the empire, to furnish 
their quota for its defence, and to keep up no more 
troops than were consistent with the safety of their 
neighbours ; for it was well known, that the greatest 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 25 

part of their men were subsisted with French pay, 1702. 
and that they had engaged themselves to declare for 
France as soon as it should be required. Duke Ro- 
dolph, the elder brother, was a learned and pious 
prince; but as he was never married, so he had 
turned over the government to the care of his bro- 
ther duke Anthony, who was a prince of a temper 
very much different from his brother's : he could not 
bear the advancement of the house of Hanover ; so 
in opposition to them, he went into the interests of 
France : but being thus surprised, he went away in 
discontent, and his brother broke through all those 
measures in which he had involved himself: in con- 
junction with duke Anthony, the duke of Saxe Go- 
tha had entered into the same engagements with 
France ; but was now forced to fall into the common 
interests of the empire. 

Thus all the north of Germany was united, and The war in 
ready to declare against France; only the war in 
Poland was so near them, that they were obliged to 
continue armed, and see the issue of that war : the 
king of Sweden was engaged in it, with such a de- 
termined opposition to king Augustus, that there 
was no hope of treating a peace, though it was en- 
deavoured both by England and the States : the 
king of Sweden seemed to have accustomed himself 
to fatigue and danger, so that he grew to love both ; 
and though the Muscovites had fallen upon the fron- 
tiers of Sweden, where they had gained some advan- 
tages, yet even that could not divert him from car- 
rying on the war in Poland. A diet was summoned 
there, but it broke up in confusion, without coming 
to any conclusion, only they sent ambassadors to the 
king of Sweden to treat of a peace. The king of 



26 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

J 702. Prussia was very apprehensive of the consequences 
"" of this war, which was now in the neighbourhood of 

Prussia ; and the king of Sweden threatened to in- 
vade Saxony with the troops that he had in Pome- 
rania, which could not be done but through his ter- 
ritories. The king of Sweden delayed giving audi- 
ence to the ambassadors of Poland ; and marched on 
to ^V^arsaw ; so the king of Poland retired to Cra- 
cow, and summoned those palatines, who adhered to 
him, to come about him : when the king of Sweden 
came to Warsaw, he sent to the cardinal to summon 
a diet for choosing a new king : this went further 
than the resentments of the Poles yet carried them : 
but the rest of this matter will appear hereafter. 
A treaty All Germany was now united, only the two bro- 
hoHse of thers of Bavaria. The court of Vienna set on foot 
Bavana. ggypj-al negotiations with the elector of Bavaria, but 
323 all to no purpose : for that elector seemed only to 
hearken to their propositions, that he might make 
the better terms with France : the elector of Cologn 
put Liege, and all the places that he had on the 
Rhine, except Bonne, into the hands of the French : 
it was said, that he kept Bonne, hoping to be able 
to make his peace with the emperor, by putting that 
into his possession ; but he was prevailed on after- 
wards to deliver that likewise to the French. In 
this, the elector acted against the advice of all his 
cx)uncil ; and as the dean of Liege was making some 
opposition to him, he was seized on, and carried 
away prisoner in a barbarous manner : the elector, 
to excuse his letting the French into his country, 
pretended, he only desired the assistance of some of 
the troops of the circle of Burgundy, to secure his 
dominions : for as France was not ashamed of the 



OF QUEEN ANNE. «T 

slightest pretences, so she taught her allies to make 1702. 
excuses unl^ecoming the dignity of princes. 

The first step of this war was to be made in the The siege 
name of the elector Palatine, in the siege of Keiser- wert. 
wert, which, whilst in the enemies hands, exposed 
both the circle of Westphalia, and the States domi- 
nions : for their places on the Whall, being in no 
good condition, were laid open to the excursions of 
that garrison. Negotiations were still carried on in 
several courts : Methuen was sent to try the court 
(of Portugal ; he came quickly back, with full assur- 
ances of a neutrality, and a freedom of trade in their 
ports ; insinuations were given of a disposition to go 
further, upon a iDetter prospect and better terms ; so 
he was presently sent back, to drive that matter as 
far as it would go. The pope pretended he would 
keep the neutrality of a common father, but his par- 
tiality to the French appeared on many occasions : 
yet the court of Vienna had that veneration for the 
see, that they contented themselves with expostulat- 
ing, without carrying their resentments further. The 
Venetians and the great duke followed the example 
set them by the pope, though the former did not 
escape so well, for their country suffered on both 
hands. 

The prince of Baden drew together the troops of The »i«pe 
the empii'e ; he began with blocking up Landaw, ° 
and that was soon turned to a siege : Catinat was 
sent to command the French army in Alsace, but it 
was so weak, that he was not able to make head 
with it. In the end of April, the Dutch formed 
three ai'mies ; one, under the prince of Nassau, un- 
dertook the siege of Keiserwert ; another was com- 
maiided by the earl of Athlone, and lay in tlie duchy 



28 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1702. of Cleve, to cover the siege ; a third, commanded by 



Cohorn, broke into Flanders, and put a great part of 
that country under contribution. Mareschal Bou- 
flers drew his army together, and having laid up 
great magazines in Ruremonde and Venlo, he passed 
the Maese with his whole army. The duke of Bur- 
324 gundy came down post from Paris, to command it : 
the States apprehended that so great a prince would, 
at his first appearance, undertake somewhat worthy 
of him, and thought the design might be upon Maes- 
tricht : so they put twelve thousand men in garrison 
there : the auxiliary troops from Germany did not 
come so soon as was expected, and cross winds 
stopped a great part of our army : so that the earl 
of Athlone was not strong enough to enter into ac- 
tion with mareschal Bouflers ; but he lay about 
Cleve, watching his motions. The siege of Keiser- 
wert went on slowly : the Rhine swelling very high, 
so filled their trenches, that they could not work in 
them. Mareschal Tallard was sent to lie on the 
other side of the Rhine, to cannonade the besiegers, 
and to send fresh men into the town : the king of 
Prussia came to Wezel, from whence he furnished 
the besiegers with all that was necessary. There was 
one vigorous attack made, in which many were 
Keiierwtrt killed ou both sidcs I in conclusion, after a brave de- 
fence, the counterscarp was carried, and then the 
town capitulated, and was raised according to agree- 
ment. When the duke of Burgundy saw that the 
siege could not be raised, he tried to get between 
the earl of Athlone and Nimeguen : the design was 
well laid, and wanted little of being punctually exe- 
cuted : it must have had fatal effects, had it suc- 
ceeded : for the French would either have got into 



OF QUEEN ANNE. S9 

Nimeguen, or have forced the earl of Athlone to 1702. 
fight at a gi'eat disadvantage. But the earl of Ath- 
lone so carefully watched their motions, that he got 
before them, under the cannon of Nimeguen ; yet 
by this means he was forced to abandon Cleve. The 
French discharged their fury upon that town, and 
on the park, and all the delicious walks of that 
charming place, little to the honour of the prince 
who commanded the army: for upon such occasions, 
princes are apt to be civil to one another, and not 
to make havock of such embellishments as can be of 
no use to them. The earl of Athlone's conduct on 
this occasion raised his credit, as much as it sunk 
Bouflers', who, though he had the superior army, 
animated by the presence of so great a prince, yet 
was able to do nothing ; but was unsuccessful in 
every thing that he designed ; and his parties, that 
at any time were engaged with those of the earl of 
Athlone, were beaten almost in every action. 

Soon after this, the earl of Marlborough came The eari of 
over, and took the command of the army. The earl mugh com- 
of Athlone was set on, by the other Dutch generals, "*"'** ^^^ 

•I o ' army. 

to insist on his quality of velt marshal, and to de- 
mand the command by turns : he was now in high 
reputation by his late conduct, but the States obliged 
him to yield this to the earl of Marlborough, who 
indeed used him so well, that the command seemed 
to be equal between them. The earl of Athlone 325 
was always inclined to cautious and sure, but feeble 
counsels : but the earl of Marlborough, when the 
army was brought together, finding his force superior 
to the duke of Burgundy, passed the Maese at the 
Grave, and marched up to the French ; they retired 
as he advanced : this made him for venturing on a 



30 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1702. decisive action, but the Dutch apprehended the put- 
ting things to such a hazard, and would not consent 
to it. The pensioner, and those who ordered matters 
at the Hague, proceeded the more timorously, be- 
cause, up>on the king's death, those who had always 
opposed him, were beginning to form parties, in se- 
veral of their towns, and were designing a change 
of government : so that a public misfortune in their 
conduct would have given great advantages to those 
who were watching for them. The pensioner was 
particularly aimed at : this made him more unwill- 
ing to run any risk. Good judges thought, that if 
the earl of Marlborough's advices had been followed, 
matters might have been brought to a happy deci- 
sion : but as he conducted the army prudently, so 
he was careful not to take too much upon him. The 
duke of BurguT>dy finding himself obliged to retreat, 
as the confederate army advanced, thought this was 
not suitable to his dignity ; so he left the army, and 
ended his first campaign very ingloriously ; and it 
seems, the king was not satisfied with mareschal 
Bouflers, for he never commanded their armies since 
that time. The earl of Marlborough went on, tak- 
ing several places, which made little or no resist- 
ance ; and seeing that mareschal Bouflers kept at a 
safe distance, so that there was no hope of an en- 
gagement with him, he resolved to fall into the Spa- 
nish Guelder : he began with Venlo. There was a 
fort on the other side of the river, that commanded 
it, which was taken by the lord Cutts in so gallant 
a manner, that it deserved to be much commended 
by every body but himself: but he lost the honour 
that was due to many brave actions of his, by talk- 
ing too much of them : the young earl of Hunting- 



OP QDEEN ANNE. 31 

ton shewed upon this, as upon many other occasions, 1702. 
an extraordinary heat of courage: he called to the "^^ 

soldiers, who had got over the pallisadoes, to help 
him over, and promised them all the money he had 
about him, which he performed very generously, and 
led them on with much bravery and success : upon 
the fort's being taken, the town capitulated. Rure- 
monde and Stevenzwert were taken in a few days 
after ; for mareschal Bouflers did not come to their 
relief. Upon these successes, that came quicker than 
was expected, the earl of Marlborough advanced to 
Liege, which was a place of more importance, in 
which he might put a great part of his army in win- 
ter quarters : the town quickly capitulated ; the ci*- 
tadel was caiTied by storm, and another fort in the 
town likewise surrendered. Here was a very pix>^326 
sperous campaign : many places were taken with lit- 
tle resistance, and an inconsiderable loss, either of 
time or of men. The earl of Marlborough's conduct 
and deportment gained him the hearts of the army : 
the States were highly satisfied with every thing he 
did, and the earl of Athlone did him the justice to 
own, that he had differed in opinion from him in 
every thing that was done : and that therefore the 
honour of their success was wholly owing to him. 

The campaign was kept open till November, and riie eari of 

!/»• •! 1 1111-1 M^rJlJO- 

at the end of it an accident happened, that had al- rough 
most lost the advantages and honour got in it. The part" 0/ * 
earl of Marlborough thought the easiest and quickest, *'^^ out"o*?' 
as well as the safest way of returning to the Hague, ^^^'^ •"""^*- 
was by some of those great boats that pass on the 
Maese : there was one company in the boat in which 
he went, and two companies went in another, that 
was to be before him : there were also some troops 



m THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1702. ordered, to ride along the banks for their guard. 
The great boat that went before, sailed away too 
quick, and the horse mistook their way in the night : 
the French had yet the town of Guelder in their 
hands, which was indeed all they had of the Spa- 
nish Guelder : a party from thence was lying on 
the banks of the river, waiting for an adventure, 
and they seized this boat, the whole company being 
fast asleep ; so they had now both the earl of Marl- 
borough and Opdam, one of the Dutch generals, 
and Gueldermalsen, one of the States' deputies, in 
their hands : they did not know the earl of Marl- 
borough, but they knew the other too. They both 
had passes, according to a civility usually practised 
among the generals of both sides. The earl of 
Marlborough's brother had a pass, but his ill health 
made him leave the campaign, so his pass was left 
with his brother's secretary, and that was now made 
use of for himself. It is true, the date of the pass 
was out, but they being in haste, and in the night, 
that was not considered : the boat was rifled, and 
they took presents from those who they believed 
were protected by their passes : so, after a stop of 
some hours, they were let go, and happily escaped 
the danger. The news of their being taken got be- 
fore them to the Hague ; upon which the States 
immediately met, under no small consternation : 
they sent orders to all their forces, to march imme- 
diately to Guelder, and to threaten the garrison 
with all extremities, unless they should deliver the 
prisoners : and never to leave the place, till they 
had either taken it, or had the generals delivered to 
them. But before these orders could be despatched, 
the earl of Marlborough came to the Hague, where 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 33 

he was received with inexpressible joy, not only by 1702- 



the States, but by all the inhabitants : for he was 
beloved there to a high degree. Soon after his re- 
turn to England, the queen made him duke of Marl- 327 
borough ; and both houses of parliament sent some 
of their number to him, with their thanks for the 
great services he had done this campaign. 

The campaign likewise ended happily on the^andaw 

*^ '=> . was taken. 

upper Rhine : Landaw was taken after a long siege : 
the king of the Romans came in time to have the 
honour of taking it : but with so great a train, and 
so splendid an equipage, that the expense of it put 
all the emperor's affairs in great disorder ; the most 
necessary things being neglected, while a needless 
piece of pomp devoured so great a part of their trea- 
sure. The siege was stopped some weeks for want of 
ammunition, but in conclusion the place was taken. 

The necessities of the king of France's affairs, 
forced him at this time to grant the elector of Ba- 
varia all his demands: it is not yet known what 
they were : but the court of France did not agree 
to what he asked, till Landaw was given for lost : 
and then seeing that the prince of Baden might 
have overrun all the Hondruck, and carried his 
winter quarters into the neighbourhood of France ; 
it was necessary to gain this elector on any terms : 
if this agreement had been sooner made, probably 
the siege, how far soever it was advanced, must 
have been raised. The elector made his declaration, '^''« «'*<^tof 

of Bavaria 

when he possessed himself of Ulm, which was a declares for 
rich free town of the empire: it was taken by a 
stratagem, that, how successful soever it proved to 
the elector, was fatal to him who conducted it ; for 
he was killed by an accident, after he was possessed 

VOL. V. D 



84 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1702. of the town. This gave a great alarm to the 
neighbouring circles and princes, who called away 
their troops from the prince of Baden, to their own 
defence ; by this means, his army was much dimi- 
nished ; but with the troops that were left him, he 
studied to cut off the communication between Straz- 
bourg and Ulm. The emperor, with the diet, pro- 
ceeded according to their forms against the elector : 
but he was now engaged, and continued firm to the 
interests of France. Mareschal Villars, who com- 
manded the French army in Alsatia, had orders to 
break through the black forest, and join the Bavari- 
ans : his army was much superior to the prince of 
Baden ; but the latter had so posted himself, that, 
after an unsuccessful attempt, Villars was forced to 
return to Strazbourg. 
The war in j^ Italy, the duke of'Vendome began with the 
relief of Mantua, which was reduced to great ex- 
tremities by the long blockade prince Eugene had 
kept about it: he had so fortified the Oglio, that 
the duke of Vendome apprehending the difficulty of 
forcing his posts, marched through the Venetian ter- 
ritories (notwithstanding the protestations of the re- 
public against it) and came to Goito, with a great 
convoy for Mantua. Prince Eugene drew his army 
all along the Mantuan Fossa, down to Borgofortes ; 
328 he was forced to abandon a great many places, but 
apprehending that Bersello might be besieged, and 
considering the importance of that place, he put a 
strong garrison in it. He complained much, that 
the court of Vienna seemed to forget him ; and did not 
send him the reinforcements they had promised : it 
was thought, that his enemies at that court, under 
colour of supporting the king of the Romans in his 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 35 

first campaign, were willing to neglect every thing 1702. 
that related to him : by this means, the best army 
the emperor ever had, was left to moulder away to 
nothing. 

King Philip took a very extraordinary resolution King Phi- 

• p n .lip went t« 

of going over to Italy, to possess himself of the king- itaiy. 
dom of Naples, and to put an end to the war in 
Lombardy ; he was received at Naples with out- 
ward splendor, but he made little progress in quiet- 
ing the minds of that unruly kingdom : he did not 
obtain the investiture of it from the pope, though 
he sent him a cardinal legate, with a high compli- 
ment : the Germans thought this was too much, 
while the French thought it was not enough; yet 
upon it the emperor's ambassador left Rome. 
King Philip was conducted from Naples to Final 
by the French fleet, that had carried him from Bar- 
celona to Naples. As he was going to command 
the duke of Vendome's army, he was met by the 
duke of Savoy, of whom there was some jealousy, 
that, having married his two daughters so greatly, 
he began now to discern his own distinct interest, 
which called upon him to hinder the French from 
being masters of the Milanese. King Philip wrote 
to the duke of Vendome, not to fight prince Eugene, 
till he could join him : he seemed jealous, lest that 
prince should be driven out of Italy, before he could 
come to share in the honour of it ; yet when he 
came, he could do nothing, though prince Eugene 
was miserably abandoned by the court of Vienna. 
Count Mansfield, president of the council of war, 
was much suspected, as corrupted by France : the 
supplies promised were not sent into Italy : the ap- 
prehensions they were under of the elector of Ba- 

D 2 



36 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1702. varia's declaring, some time before he did it, gave a 
colour to those, who were jealous of prince Eugene's 
glory, to detain the recruits and troops that had 
been promised to him, for the emperor's own de- 
fence : but though he was thus forsaken, yet he ma- 
naged the force he had about him with great skill 
and conduct. When he saw Luzara was in danger, 
he marched up to the king of Spain ; and as that 
king very oddly expressed it, in a letter to the king 
of France, he had the boldness [audace) to attack 
him, but, which was worse, he had the boldness like- 
wise to beat him ; and if he had not been shut in 
by rivers, and the narrowness of the ground, very 
359 probably he would have carried the advantage he 
had in that engagement much further. The ill 
state of his affairs forced him upon that desperate 
action, in which he succeeded beyond expectation : 
it put the French to such a stand, that all they 
could do after this, was only to take Luzara, and 
some other inconsiderable places ; but prince Eu- 
gene still kept his posts. King Philip left the army, 
and returned, after an inglorious campaign, into 
Spain ; where the grandees were much disgusted, to 
see themselves so much despised, and their affairs 
wholly conducted by French councils. The French 
tried, by all possible methods, to engage the Turks 
in a new war with the emperor; and it was be- 
lieved that the grand vizier was entirely gained, 
though the mufti, and all who had any credit in 
that court, were against it. The grand vizier was 
strangled, and so this design was prevented. 
Affair* in Thg court of Fraucc was in a management with 
the cardinal primate of Poland, to keep that king- 
dom still embroiled : the king of Sweden marched 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 37 

on to Cracow, which was much censured as a despe- 1702. 
rate attempt, since a defeat there must have de- 
stroyed him and his army entirely, being so far from 
home. He attacked the king of Poland, and gave 
him such an overthrow, that, though the army got 
off, he carried both their camp and artillery. He 
possessed himself of Cracow, where he stayed some 
months, till he had raised all the money they could 
produce : and though the Muscovites with the Li- 
thuanians destroyed Livonia, and broke into Sweden, 
yet that could not call him back. The duke of Hol- 
stein, who had married his eldest sister, was thought 
to be gained by the French, to push on this young 
king, to prosecute the war with such an unrelenting 
fury, in which he might have a design for himself, 
since the king of Sweden's venturing his own per- 
son so freely, might make way for his duchess to 
succeed to the crown. That duke was killed in the 
battle of Cracow. There was some hopes of peace 
this winter, but the two priiltes were so exasperated 
against one another, that it seemed impossible to 
compose that animosity : this was very unacceptable 
to the allies ; for both kings were weU inclined to 
support the confederacy, and to engage in the war 
against France, if their own quarrels could have 
been made up. The king of Sweden continued still 
so virtuous and pious in his whole deportment, that 
he seemed to be formed to be one of the heroes of 
the reformation. This was the state of affairs on the 
continent during this campaign. 

One unlooked for accident sprung up in France : An insur- 

, 1 • 1 ^-> • T rection in 

an msurrection happened m the Cevennes m Lan- the ce- 
guedoc; of which I can say nothing that is very par-'^*"""" 
ticular, or well assured. When it first broke out, it 

d3 



88 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1/02. was looked on as the effect of oppression and de- 
spair, which would quickly end in a scene of blood ; 
but it had a much longer continuance than was ex- 
pected ; and it had a considerable eflfect on the af- 
fairs of France ; for an army of ten or twelve thou- 
330 sand men, who were designed either for Italy or 
Spain, was employed, without any immediate success 
in reducing them. 
•Hie Eng- I now chaugc the element, to give an account of 
slnt to our operations at sea. Rook had the command : the 
^'^''' fleet put to sea much later than we hoped for : the 
Dutch fleet came over about a month before ours 
was ready : the whole consisted of fifty ships of the 
line, and a land army was put on board, of twelve 
thousand men, seven thousand English and five 
thousand Dutch. Rook spoke so coldly of the de- 
sign he went upon, before he sailed, that those who 
conversed with him were apt to infer, that he in- 
tended to do the enemy as little harm as possible. 
Advice was sent over*from Holland, of a fleet that 
sailed from France, and was ordered to call in at the 
Groyne. Munden was recommended by Rook to be 
sent against this fleet; but though he came up to 
them with a superior force, yet he behaved himself 
so ill and so unsuccessfully, that a council of war 
was ordered to sit on him. They indeed acquitted 
him ; some excusing themselves by saying, that if 
they had condemned him, the punishment was death : 
whereas they thought his errors flowed from a want 
of sense ; so that it would have been hard to con- 
demn him, for a defect of that which nature had 
not given him. Those who recommended him to the 
employment seemed to be more in fault. This ac- 
quittal raised such an outcry, that the queen ordered 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 39 

him to be broke. Rook, to divert the design that he 1702. 
himself was to go upon, wrote up from St. Helen's, 
that the Dutch fleet was victualled only to the mid- 
dle of September ; so, they being then in July, no 
great design could be undertaken, when so large a 
part of the fleet was so ill provided. When the 
Dutch admiral heard of this, he sent to their am- 
bassador, to complain to the queen of this mis- 
information : for he was victualled till the middle of 
December. They were for some time stopped by 
contrary winds, accidents, and pretences, many of 
which were thought to be strained and sought for: but 
the wind being turned wholly favourable, after some 
cross winds, which had rendered their passage slow 
and. tedious, they came on the 12th of August into 
the bay of Cadiz. Rook had laid no disposition be- 
forehand, how to proceed upon his coming thither : 
some days were lost on pretence of seeking for in- 
telligence : it is certain, our court had false accounts 
of the state the place was in, both with relation to 
the garrison and the fortifications : the garrison was 
much stronger, and the fortifications were in a better 
case than was represented. The French men of 
war, and the galleys that lay in the bay, retired 
within the Puntals. In the first surprise it had been 
easy to have followed them, and to have taken or 
burnt them ; which Fairborn offered to execute, but 
Rook and the rest of his creatures did not approve 
of this. Some days were lost before a council of 
war was called ; in the mean while, the duke of Or- 
mond sent some engineers and pilots to sound the 
south side of Cadiz, near the island of St. Pedro: but 331 
while this was doing, the officers, by the taking of 
some boats, came to know, that those of Cadiz had 

D 4 



40 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1702. sent over the best of their goods and other effects to 
the port of St. Maries, an open village over against 
it, on the continent of Spain; so that here was 
good plunder to be had easily, whereas the landing 
on the isle of Cadiz was like to prove dangerous, 
and, as some made them believe, impracticable. In 
the council of war, in which their instructions were 
read, it was proposed to consider, how they should 
put them in execution ; Haro, one of the general 
officers, made a long speech against landing " : he 
shewed how desperate an attempt it would prove, 
and how different they found the state of the place 
fi'om the representation made of it in England : the 
greater number agreed with him, and all that the 
duke of Ormond could say to the contrary was of no 
effect. Rook seemed to be of the same mind with 
the duke, but all his dependents were of another 
opinion ; so this was thought to be a piece of craft in 
him. In conclusion, the council of war came to a 
resolution, not to make a descent on the island of 
Cadiz: but before they broke up, those whom the 
duke had sent to sound the landing-places on the 
south-side, came and told them, that as they might 
land safely, so the ships might ride securely on that 
side ; yet they had no regard to this, but adhered to 
their former resolution, nor were there any orders 
given for bombarding the town. The sea was for 
the most part very high while they lay there, but it 
was so calm for one day, that the engineers believed 
they could have done much mischief; but they had 

" Hara, afterwards lord Ty- love plunder. The affair of St. 

rawly. He was deemed a very Maries was a most scandalous 

good officer, and was verj- brave: instance of it. O. 
but such men, like other men, 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 41 

no orders for it : and indeed it appeared very evi- 1702. 
dently, that they intended to do nothing but rob St. 
Maries. 

A landing: on the continent was resolved on ; and They land- 

1 . 1 1 1 1 ed, and 

though the sea was high, and the danger great, yet robbed st. 
the hope of spoil made them venture on it; they 
landed at Rota ; a party of Spanish horse seemed to 
threaten some resistance, but they retired, and so our 
men came to St. Maries, which they found deserted, 
but full of riches : both officers and soldiers set them- 
selves with great courage against this tempting but 
harmless enemy ; some of the general officers set a 
very ill example to all the rest; chiefly Haro and 
Bellasis. The duke of Ormond tried to hinder it, 
but did not exert his authority ; for if he had made 
some examples at first, he might have prevented the 
mischief that was done : but the whole army running 
so violently on the spoil, he either was not able, or, 
through a gentleness of temper, was not willing, to 
proceed to extremities. He had published a mani- 
festo, according to his instructions, by which the Spa- 
niards were invited to submit to the emperor ; and 
he offered his protection to all that came in to him : 
but the spoil of St. Maries was thought an ill com- 
mentary on that text. After some days of unfruit- 
ful trials, on the forts of that side, it appeared that 
nothing could be done ; so about the middle of Sep- 
tember, they all reembarked. Some of the ships' 332 
crews were so employed in bringing and bestowing 
the plunder, that they took not the necessary care to 
fiimish themselves with fresh water. Rook, without 
prosecuting his other instructions, in case the design 
on Cadiz miscarried, gave orders only for a squadron 
to sail to the West Indies, with some land forces ; 



48 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1702. and though he had a fleet of victuallers that had 
provisions to the middle of December, he ordered 
them to sail home ; by this means, the men of war 
were so scantily furnished, that they were soon 
forced to be put on short allowance. Nor did Rook 
send advice-boats, either to the ports of Algarve or 
to Lisbon, to see what orders or advices might be ly- 
ing for him, but sailed in a direct course for England : 
but some ships, not being provided with water for 
the voyage to England, touched on the coast of Al- 
garve to take in water. 
The gal- They met with intelligence there, that the Spanish 

leons put in "^ ^ *-" ^ 

■tvigo. plate fleet, with a good convoy of French men of 
war, had put in at Vigo, a port in Galicia, not far 
from Portugal ; where the entrance was narrow, 
and capable of a good defence. It widened within 
land, into a bay or mouth of a river, where the ships 
lay very conveniently : he who commanded the 
French fleet ordered a boom to be laid cross the 
entrance, and forts to be raised on both sides : he 
had not time to finish what he designed, other- 
wise the place had been inaccessible : but as it was, 
the difficulty in forcing this port was believed to be 
greater than any they would have met with, if they 
had landed on the isle of Cadiz. As soon as this 
fleet had put in at Vigo, Methuen, the queen's 
minister at Lisbon, sent advertisements of it to all 
the places, where he thought our advice-boats might 
be ordered to call: Rook had given no orders for 
any to caD, and so held on his course towards cape 
Finisterre : but one of his captains. Hardy, whilst 
he watered in Algarve, heard the news there ; 
upon which, he made all the sail he could after 
Rook, and overtook him. Rook upon that turned 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 43 

his course towards Vigo, very unwillingly, as was 1702. 
said, and finding the advice was true, he resolved to 
force his way in. 

The duke of Ormond landed with a body of the But they 

^"^ burnt 

army, and attacked the forts with great bravery, or taken 
while the ships broke the boom, and forced theEngiuh.- 
port. When the French saw what was done, they 
left their ships, and set some of the men of war and 
some of the galleons on fire : our men came up with 
such diligence, that they stopped the progress of the 
fire, yet fifteen men of war and eight galleons were 
burnt or sunk ; but our men were in time to save 
five men of war and five galleons, which they took. 
Here was a great destruction made, and a great 
booty taken, with very little loss on our side. One 
of our ships was set on fire by a fire-ship, but she 
too was saved, though with the loss of some men ; 
which was all the loss we sustained in this important 
action. The duke of Ormond marched into the 
country, and took some forts, and the town of Ri- 333 
tondella, where much plunder was found : the 
French seamen and soldiers escaped, for we, having 
no horse, were not in a condition to pursue them : 
the Spaniards appeared at some distance in a great 
body : but they did not offer to enter into any ac- 
tion with the duke of Ormond: it appeared, that 
the resentments of that proud nation, which was 
now governed by French councils, were so high, 
that they would not put themselves in any danger, 
or to any trouble, even to save their own fleet, when 
it was in such hands. 

After this great success, it came under consulta- 
tion, whether it was not advisable to leave a good 
squadron of ships with the land forces to winter at 



44 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1702. Vigo: the neighbourhood of Portugal made that 



they could be weU furnished with provisions and aU 
other necessaries from thence: this might also en- 
courage that king to declare himself, when there was 
such a force and fleet lying so near him : it might 
likewise encourage such of the Spaniards, as fa- 
voured the emperor, to declare themselves, when 
they saw a safe place of retreat, and a force to pro- 
tect them : the duke of Ormond, upon these consi- 
derations, offered to stay, if Rook would have con- 
sented; but he excused it; he had sent home the 
victuallers with the stores; and so he could not 
spare what was necessary for such as would stay 
there : and indeed he had so ordered the matter, 
that he could not stay long enough to try, whether 
they could raise and search the men of war and the 
galleons that were sunk : he was obliged to make all 
possible haste home ; and if the wind had turned to 
the east, which was ordinary in that season, a great 
part of our ships' crews must have died of hunger. 
The Eng- The wiud continued favourable, so they got home 
rame iwck safc, but half starvcd. Thus ended this expedition, 
to England. ^j^^,jj ^g^ jjj projected, and worse executed °. The 
duke of Ormond told me, he had not half the am- 
munition that was necessary for the taking Cadiz, 
if they had defended themselves well : though he 
believed they would not have made any great re- 
sistance, if he had landed on his first arrival, and 
not given them time to recover from the disorder 
into which the first surprise had put them. A great 
deal of the treasure taken at Vigo was embezzled, 
and fell into private hands: one of the galleons 

° Will not that be some excuse for Rook's being against it 
at the beginning ? O. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 45 

foundered at sea. The public was not much en- 1702. 
riched by this extraordinary capture, yet the loss 
our enemies made by it was a vast one ; and to com- 
plete the ruin of the Spanish merchants, their king 
seized on the plate that was taken out of the ships 
upon their first arrival at Vigo. Thus the cam- 
paign ended, very happily for the allies, and most 
gloriously for the queen, whose first year, being such 
a continued course of success, gave a hopeful pre- 
sage of what might be hereafter expected. 

The session of parliament comes next to be re-Anewpar- 
lated: the queen did not openly interpose in the 
elections, but her inclination to the tories appearing 
plainly, aU people took it for granted, that she 334 
wished they might be the majority : this wrought 
on the inconstancy and servility that is natural to 
multitudes : and the conceit, which had been inftised 
and propagated with much industry, that the whigs 
had charged the nation with great taxes, of which a 
large share had been devoured by themselves, had 
so far turned the tide, that the tories in the house 
of commons were at least double the number of the 
whigs. They met full of fury against the memory 
of the late king, and against those who had been 
employed by him. The first instance wherein this 
appeared was in their address to the queen, congra- 
tulating her great successes; they added, that by 
her wise and happy conduct, the honour of the 
kingdom was retrieved. The word retrieved im- 
plying that it was formerly lost, aU that had a just 
regard to the king's memory opposed it: he had 
carried the honour of the nation further than had 
been done in any reign before his: to him they 
owed their preservation, their safety, and even the 



46 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1702. queen's being on the throne : he had designed and 
formed that great confederacy, at the head of which 
she was now set. In opposition to this it was now 
said, that during his reign things had been con- 
ducted by strangers, and trusted to them ; and that 
a vast treasure had been spent in unprofitable cam- 
paigns in Flanders. The partition treaty, and every 
thing else with which the former reign could be 
loaded, was brought into the account, and the keep- 
ing the word retrieved in the address was carried 
by a great majority ; all that had favour at court, or 
hoped for any, going into it. Controverted elections 
were judged in favour of tories, with such a bare- 
faced partiality, that it shewed the party was re- 
solved on every thing that might serve their ends. 
Gn«t par- Qf this I shall ouly give two instances : the one 
judging was of the borough of Hindon, near me at Salisbury, 
*'"' where, upon a complaint of bribery, the proof was 
so full and clear, that they ordered a bUl to disfran- 
chise the town for that bribery, and yet, because 
the bribes were given by a man of their party, they 
would not pass a vote on him as guilty of it : so 
that a borough was voted to lose its right of elect- 
ing, because many in it were guilty of a corruption, 
in which no man appeared to be the actor. The 
other was of more importance ; and because it may 
be set up for a precedent, I will be more particular 
in the report : Mr. John How had been vice-cham- 
berlain to the late queen, but missing some of those 
advantages that he had proposed to himself, he had 
gone into the highest opposition that was made in 
the house of commons to the court, during the last 
reign : not without many indecent reflections on the 
person of the late king ; and a most virulent attack- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 47 

ing of all his ministers. He was a man of some 1702. 
wit P, but of little judgment, and of small principles 
of religion : he stood knight of the shire for Gloces- 
tershire ; and had drawn a party in that county to 
join with him in an address to the queen, in which 335 
reflections were made on the danger and ill usage 
she had gone through in the former reign. This ad- 
dress was received by the queen in so particular a 
manner, that it looked like the owning that the 
contents of it were true ; but she made such an ex- 
cuse for this, when the offence it gave was laid be- 
fore her, that probably she was not acquainted with 
the matter of the address when she so received it. 
Upon this, great opposition was made to his elec- 
tion. When it came to the poll, it appeared he had 
lost it ; so the sheriff was moved for a scrutiny, to 
examine, whether all those who had sworn, that 
they were freeholders of forty shillings a year, had 
sworn true. By the act of parliament, the matter 
was referred to the parties' oath, and their swear- 
ing false was declared perjury : therefore, such as 
had sworn faLsely were liable to a prosecution : but 
by all laws, an oath is looked upon as an end of 
controversy, till he who swore is convict of per- 
jury : and the sheriff, being an officer named by the 
court, if he had a power to review the poll, this put 
the election of counties wholly in the power of the 
crown : yet upon this occasion the heat of a party 
prevailed so far, that they voted How duly elected ^. 

P And of great spirit in his might do, however hazardous 

speaking. O. to himself, perhaps ought to do, 

'I By a great and shameful when properly demanded, and 
majority. The petition com- the matter feasible;) but it com- 
plained of the sheriff's granting plained also of the election and 
a scrutiny, (which I think he return, and without entering at 



46 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1702. The house of commons very unanimously, and 
All the 8u -^th great despatch, agreed to all the demands of 
ply agreed the court, and voted all the supplies that were ne- 

to. 

cessary for carrying on the war. Upon the duke of 
Marlborough's coming over, a new demand for an 
additional force was made, since the king of France 
had given out commissions for a great increase of 
his armies : upon that, the States moved the queen 
for ten thousand more men : this was consented to, 
but with a condition, which how reasonable soever 
it might be in itself, yet the manner in which it 
was managed shewed a very ill disposition towards 
the Dutch; and in the debate they were treated 
very indecently. It was insisted on, that before the 
pay of these new troops should begin, the States 
should prohibit all trade with France, and break oflf 
aU correspondence with that kingdom. It was in- 
deed true, that France could not have supplied their 
armies in Italy but by the means of this secret 
trade ; so it was reasonable to break it ; but the im- 
posing it on the Dutch, in the manner in which this 
was pressed, carried in it too high a strain of autho- 
rity over them. Theirs is a country that subsists 
not by any intrinsic wealth of their own, but by 
their trade ; some seemed to hope, that the opposi- 
tion which would be raised on this head might force 
a peace, at which many among us were driving so 
indecently, that they took little care to conceal it. 
The States resolved to comply with England in 



ail into the merits of the elec- the motion of sir Simon (after- 

tioD, and the counsel being wards lord) Harcourt, [who] was 

withdrawn upon the point of often reproached with it to his 

the scrutiny only, How was face : but he was a man without 

voted duly elected. It was at shame, although very able. O. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 49 

every thing; and though they did not like the 1702. 
manner of demanding this, yet they readily con- 
sented to it. The ordinary business of a session of 
parliament was soon despatched, no opposition being 
made to the supply, at which, in the former reign, 
things stuck longest. 

When those matters were settled, a bill was 336 
brought in by the tories against occasional confor- gam'st occa- 
mity, which produced great and long debates': by J^^^JJJjy""" 
this bill, all those who took the sacrament and test, 
(which by the act passed in the year 1673, was 
made necessary to those who held offices of trust, or 
were magistrates in corporations, but was only to be 
taken once by them,) and did after that go to the 
meetings of dissenters, or any meeting for religious 
worship that was not according to the liturgy or 
practice of the church of England, where five per- 
sons were present more than the family, were dis- 
abled from holding their employments, and were to 
be fined in an hundred pounds, and in five pounds a 
day for every day in which they continued to act in 
their employments, after their having been at any 
such meeting: they were also made incapable to 



^ This impertinent bill had and persuaded Mr. Bromley to 
its first rise from sir Humphrey bring in this bill. Nobody be- 
Edwin's having carried the city sides the bishop of Salisbury 
sword to a meeting-house, which pretended to justify the prac- 
gave great offence. Upon which, tice, and nobody besides the 
Mr. John How moved in the earl of Nottingham thought it 
house of commons to bring in would signify any thing for the 
a bill to prevent hypocrisy in end proposed : but provoke the 
religion ; without further de- dissenters to verj- little purpose, 
sign, as he told me, than to But it was afterwards frequent- 
expose the dissenters, and shew ly taken up to inflame parties 
what rogues they were : but and distress the court, as op- 
the earl of Nottingham thought portunities offered themselves 
great use might be made of it, to either side. D. 

VOL. V. E 



50 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1702. hold any other employment, till after one whole 
yeai''s conformity to the church, which was to be 
proved at the quarter session : upon a relapse, the 
penalty and the time of incapacity were doubled: 
no limitation of time was put in the bill, nor of the 
way in which the offence was to be proved: but 
whereas the a^t of the test only included the ma- 
gistrates in corporations, all the inferior officers or 
freemen in corporations, who were found to have 
some interest in the elections, were now compre- 
hended within this bill. The preamble of the bill 
asserted the toleration, and condemned all persecu- 
tion for conscience sake, in a high strain : some 
thought the biU was of no consequence, and that, if 
it should pass into a law, it would be of no effect ; 
but that the occasional conformists would become 
constant ones. Others thought, that this was such 
a breaking in upon the toleration, as would under- 
mine it, and that it would have a great effect on 
corporations ; as indeed the intent of it was believed 
to be the modelling elections, and, by consequence, 
of the house of commons. 
Great de- On behalf of the bill, it was said, the design of 
it. the test act was, that all in office should continue in 

the communion of the church; that coming only 
once to the sacrament for an office, and going after- 
wards to the meetings of dissenters, was both an 
eluding the intent of the law, and a profanation of 
the sacrament, which gave great scandal, and was 
abhorred by the l)etter sort of dissenters. Those 
who were against the bill said, the nation had been 
quiet ever since the toleration, the dissenters had 
lost more ground and strength by it than the church ; 
the nation was now engaged in a great war; it 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 51 

seemed therefore unreasonable to raise animosities 1702. 
at home, in matters of religion, at such a time ; and 
to encourage a tribe of informers, who were the 
worst sort of men : the fines were excessive ; higher 
than any laid on papists by law ; and since no limit- 
ation of time nor concurrence of witnesses was pro- 
vided for in the bill, men would be for ever exposed 
to the malice of a bold swearer or wicked servant : 
it was moved, that since the greatest danger of all 337 
was from atheists and papists, that all such as re- 
ceived the sacrament for an office should be obliged 
to receive it three times a year, which all were by 
law required to do ; and to keep their parish church, 
at least one Sunday a month ; but this was not ad- 
mitted. All who pleaded for the bill, did in words 
declare for the continuance of the toleration, yet the 
sharpness with which they treated the dissenters in 
all their speeches, shewed as if they designed their 
extirpation. The bill was carried in the house of 
commons by a great majority. The debates held 
longer in the house of lords : many were against it, 
because of the high penalties : some remembered the 
practice of informers in the end of king Charles's 
reign, and would not consent to the reviving such 
infamous methods : all believed, that the chief de- 
sign of this bill was, to model corporations, and to 
cast out of them all those who would not vote in 
elections for tories : the toleration itself was visibly 
aimed at, and this was only a step to break in upon 
it. Some thought the design went yet further, to 
raise such quarrels and distractions among us, as 
would so embroil us at home, that our allies might 
see they could not depend upon us ; and that we, 
being weakened by the disorders occasioned by those 

E 2 



5« THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1702. prosecutions, might be disabled from carrying on 
the war, which was the chief thing driven at by the 
promoters of the bill. So that many of the lords, 
as well as the bishops, agreed in opposing this bill, 
though upon different views : yet they consented to 
some parts of it ; chiefly, that such as went to meet- 
ings, after they had received the sacrament, should 
be disabled from holding any employments, and be 
fined in twenty pounds ; many went into this, 
though they were against every part of the bill, be- 
cause they thought this the most plausible way of 
losing it ; since the house of commons had of late 
set it up for a maxim, that the lords could not alter 
the fines that they should fix in a bill, this being a 
meddling with money, which they thought was so 
peculiar to them, that they would not let the lords, 
on any pretence, break in upon it. 

The lords hereupon appointed a very exact search 
to be made into all the rolls that lay in the clerk of 
the parliament's office, from the middle of king 
Henry the seventh's reign, down to the present 
time : and they found, by some hundreds of prece- 
dents, that in some bills the lords began the clauses 
that set the fines ; and that when fines were set by 
the commons, sometimes they altered the fines, and 
at other times they changed the use to which they 
were applied : the report made of this was so full 
and clear, that there was no possibility of replying 
to it, and the lords ordered it to be entered in theu* 
books. But the commons were resolved to maintain 
their point, without entering into any debate upon 
it. The lords also added clauses, requiring proof to 
be made by two witnesses, and that the information 
338 should be given in within ten days, and the pro- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 53 

secution commenced within three months after the 1702. 
fact. The commons agi'eed to this, but would not 
alter the penalties that they had set. The thing de- 
pended long between the two houses ; both sides 
took pains to bring up the lords that would vote 
with them, so that there were above an hundred 
and thirty lords in the house ; the greatest number 
that had ever been together. 

The court put their whole strength to carry the 
bill. Prince George, who had received the sacra- 
ment as lord high admiral, and yet kept his chapel 
in the Lutheran way, so that he was an occasional 
communicant, came and voted for the bill: after 
some conferences, wherein each house had yielded 
some smaller differences to the other, it came to a 
free conference in the painted chamber, which was 
the most crowded upon that occasion that had ever 
been known ; so much weight was laid on this mat- 
ter on both sides. 

When the lords retired, and it came to the final The two 
vote of adheringy the lords were so equally divided, agreeing, 
that in three questions, put on different heads, thej^^oi. 
adhering was carried but by one voice in every one 
of them ; and it was a different person that gave it 
in all the three divisions. The commons likewise 
adhered, so the bill was lost \ This bill seemed to 
favour the interests of the church, so hot men were 
for it : and the greater number of the bishops being 
against it, they were censured, as cold and slack in 
the concerns of the church : a reproach that all mo- 
derate men must expect, when they oppose violent 

' But see the Journal of the upon this jx)int in the case of 
House of Commons, for what what is called the briberj- act, 
the commons have done since, 2d of George the second. O. 

E 3 



Si THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1702. motions. A gi'eat part of this fell on myself; for I 
bore a large share in the debates, both in the house 
of lords, and at the free conference. Angry men 
took occasion from hence, to charge the bishops as 
enemies to the church, and betrayers of its interests, 
because we would not run bhndfold into the passions 
and designs of ill tempered men ; though we can ap- 
peal to all the world, and, which is more, to God 
himself, that we did faithfully and zealously pursue 
the true interests of the church, the promoting reli- 
gion and learning, the encouraging of all good men 
and good designs : and that we did apply ourselves 
to the duties of our function, and to the work of the 
gospel. Having this quiet within ourselves, we must 
bear the cross, and submit to the will of God : the 
less of our reward that we receive from men, we 
have so much the more to look for from him. 
A bill for While the bill that had raised so much heat was 

prince 

George, in agitation, the queen sent a message to the com- 
mons, desiring them to make some suitable provision 
for prince George, in case he should outUve her. He 
was many years elder than the queen, and was trou- 
bled with an asthma, that every year had ill effects 
on his health ; it had brought him into great danger 
this winter; yet the queen thought it became her 
to provide for all events. How moved, that it should 
be an hundred thousand pounds a year : this was se- 
conded by those who knew how acceptable the mo- 
339 tion would be to the queen ; though it was the dou- 
ble of what any queen of England ever had in join- 
Debates on ture ; so it passed without any opposition. But while 
that WM it was passing, a motion was made upon a clause in 
*° '*' the act, which limited the succession to the Hanover 
family; which provided against strangers, though 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 55 

naturalized, being capable to hold any employments 1702. 
among us. This plainly related only to those who 
should be naturalized in a future reign, and had no 
retrospect to such as were already naturalized, or 
should be naturalized during the present reign. It 
was however proposed as doubtful, whether, when 
that family might reign, all who were naturalized 
before should not be incapacitated by that clause 
from sitting in parliament, or holding employments ; 
and a clause was offered to except the prince from 
being comprehended in that incapacity. Against 
this, two objections lay ; one was, that the lords had 
resolved by a vote, to which the greater number had 
set their hands, that they would never pass any 
money bill, sent up to them by the commons, to 
which any clause was tacked that was foreign to 
the bill. They had done this, to prevent the com- 
mons from fastening matters of a different nature to 
a money bill, and then pretending that the lords 
could not meddle with it ; for this was a method to 
alter the government, and bring it entirely into 
their own hands : by this means, when money was 
necessary for preserving the nation, they might 
force, not only the lords, but the crown, to consent 
to every thing they proposed, by tacking it to a mo- 
ney bill. It was said, that a capacity for holding 
employments, and for sitting in the house of lords, 
were things of a different nature from money; so 
that tliis clause seemed to many to be a tack; where- 
as others thought it was no tack, because both parts 
of the act related to the same person '. The other 
objection was, that this clause seemed to imply, that 

' See the act 1st of George the first, chapter 4. O. 
E 4 



56 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1702. persons ali'eady naturalized, and in possession of the 
rights of natural born subjects, were to be excluded 
in the next reign ; though all people knew, that no 
such thing was intended when the act of succession 
passed. Great opposition was made, for both these 
reasons, to the passing this clause ; but the queen 
pressed it with the greatest earnestness she had yet 
shewed in any thing whatsoever ; she thought it be- 
came her, as a good wife, to have the act passed ;' in 
wliich she might be the more earnest, because it 
Was not thought advisable to move for an act that 
should take prince George into a consortship of the 
regal dignity. This matter raised a great heat in 
the house of lords : those who had been advanced 
by the late king, and were in his interests, did not 
think it became them to consent to this, which 
seemed to be a prejudice, or at least a disgrace, to 
those whom he had raised. The court managed the 
matter so dextrously, that the bill passed, and the 
queen was highly displeased with those who had op- 
posed it, among whom I had my share. The clause 
was put in the bill, by some in the house of com- 
340nions, only because they believed it would be op- 
posed by those against whom they intended to irri- 
tate the queen. 
A further Soou after this, the commons sent up a biU in fa- 
the protest- vour of thosc who had not taken the oath, abjuring 
M8»io"n. the prince of Wales, by the day that was named ; 
granting them a year longer to consider of it : for it 
was said, that the whole party was now come en- 
tirely into the queen's interests : though, on the 
other hand, it was given out, that agents were come 
from France, on design to persuade all persons to 
take the abjuration, that they might become capable 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 57 

of employments, and so might in time be a majority 1702. 
in parliament, and by that means the act of succes- 
sion, and the oath imposed by it, might be repealed. 
When the bill, for thus prolonging the time, was 
brought up to the lords, a clause was added, qualify- 
ing those persons, who should in the new extent of 
time take the oaths, to return to their benefices or 
employments, unless they were already legally filled. 
When this was agreed, two clauses of much greater 
consequence were added to the bill. One was, de- 
claring it high treason to endeavour to defeat the 
succession to the crown, as it was now limited by 
law, or to set aside the next successor : this had a 
precedent in the former reign, so it could not be de- 
nied now : it seemed the more necessary, because 
there was another person, who openly claimed the 
crown ; so that a further security might weU be in- 
sisted on. This was a great surprise to many, who 
were visibly uneasy at the motion, but were not pre- 
pared for it; and did not see how it could be re- 
sisted. The other clause was, for sending the ab- 
juration to Ireland, and obliging all there (in the 
same manner as in England) to take it : this seemed 
the more reasonable, considering the strength of the 
popish interest there. Both clauses passed in the 
house of lords without any opposition : but it was 
apprehended, that the house of commons would not 
be so easy : yet when it was sent to them, they 
struggled only against the first clause, that baiTed 
the return of persons, upon their taking the oaths, 
into places that were already filled. The party tried 
their strength upon this, and upon their success in 
it they seemed resolved to dispute the other clause : 



58 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1702. but it was carried, though only by one voice, to 
agree with the lords. When the clause relating to 
the succession was read, Musgrave tried if it might 
not be made a bill by itself, and not put as a clause 
in another bill : but he saw the house was resolved 
to receive both clauses, so he did not insist on his 
motion. All people were surprised to see a bill, that 
was begun in favour of the Jacobites, turned so ter- 
ribly upon them ; since by it, we had a new security 
given, both in England and Ireland, for a protestant 
successor. 
The earl At this time the earl of Rochester quitted his 
Chester placc of lord licutcnant of Ireland : he was uneasy 
h*i's employ- at the preference which the duke of Marlborough 
™*°*'' had in the queen's confidence, and at the lord Go- 
341 dolphin's being lord treasurer. It was generally be- 
lieved, he was endeavouring to embroil our affairs, 
and that he was laying a train of opposition in the 
house of commons : the queen sent a message to 
' him, ordering him to make ready to go to Ireland ; 
for it seemed very strange, especially in a time of 
war, that a person in so great a post should not at- 
tend upon it : but he, after some days advising about 
it, went to the queen, and desired to be excused 
from that employment : this was readily accepted, 
and upon that he withdrew from the councils. It 
was immediately offered to the duke of Ormond, 
R<K)k'« con- and he was made lord lieutenant of Ireland: The 

dnct exa- 

mined and dukc of Ormoud, upou his first arrival from the ex- 

^"* ' * ' pedition to Cadiz, complained very openly of Rook's 

conduct, and seemed resolved to carry the matter to 

a public accusation : but the court found the party 

that prevailed in the house of commons determined 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 59 

to justify Rook; so to comply with this, the queen 1702. 
made him a privy counsellor ", and much pains were 
taken on the duke of Ormond to stifle his resent- 
ments : he was in a great measure softened, yet he 
had made his complaints to so many lords, that they 
moved the house to examine both his instructions 
and the journals relating to that expedition. A 
committee of the house of peers sat long upon the 
matter : they examined all the admirals and land 
officers, as well as Rook himself, upon the whole 
progress of that affair. Rook was so well supported 
by the court, and by liis party in the house of com- 
mons, that he seemed to despise all that the lords 
could do. Some, who understood sea matters, said, 
that it appeared from every motion that he made 
during the expedition, that he intended to do nor 
thing but amuse and make a shew : they also con- 
cluded, from the protection that the ministry gave 
him, that they intended no other. He took much 
pains to shew how improper a thing a descent on 
Cadiz was, and how fatal the attempt must have 
proved : and in doing this, he arraigned his instruc- 
tions, and the design he was sent on, with great 
boldness, and shewed little regard to the ministers ; 
who took more pains to bring him off than to jus- 
tify themselves. The lords of the committee pre- 
pared a report, which was hard upon Rook, and laid 
it before the house ; but so strong a party was made 
to oppose every thing that reflected on him, that 
though every particular in the report was well 

" He aimed afterwards at the than any one ahnost of his pro- 
garter, and would have worn it fession, yet he was very able in 
well ; for he had a good per- that, and of great courage. He 
son, and was more of a man of was very high in his party, and 
fjihhion, and fitter for a court very high for it. O. 



m THE HISTOllY OF THE REIGN 

1702. proved, yet it was rejected, and a vote was carried 
in his favour, justifying his whole conduct ". The 
great employment given to the duke of Ormond so 
effectually prevailed on him, that though the inquiry 
was set on by his means, and upon his suggestions, 
yet he came not to the house, when it was brought 
to a conclusion : so Rook, being but faintly pushed 
by him, and most zealously supported by his party, 
was justified by a vote, though universally con- 
demned by more impartial judges. The behaviour 
of the ministry in this matter heightened the jea- 
lousies with which many were possessed ; for it was 
342 inferred that they were not in earnest in this whole 
expedition ; since the conduct, being so contrary to 
the instructions, their justifying the one was plainly 
condemning the other. 
The inquiry The Tcport made by the commissioners appointed 

made into 1 1 1 i- 1 1 • 

the public to take the public accounts, was another business 
**^"° ** that took up much time in this session, and occa- 
sioned many debates. They pretended that they 
had made great discoveries : they began with the 
earl of Ranelagh, who had been in great posts ; and 
had all the arts that were necessary to recommend 
a man in a court ; who stuck at nothing that could 
maintain his interest with those whom he served : 
he had been paymaster of the army in king James's 
time ; and being very fit for the post, he had been 



* It ' does not appear from gallant proposal for attacking 

the proceedings in the house of the shipping in Cadiz harbour, 

lords, that either the general or but Rook did not think it prac- 

the admiral shewed any extra- ticable. The force seems to 

ordinary conduct. The duke of have been strong enough to 

Ormond was the most forward have succeeded, had the at- 

of the two. Admiral Fairbonc tempt been made with more 

(if 1 mistake not) made some vigour. H. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 61 

continued all the last reign : he had lived high, and 1702. 
so it was believed his appointments could not sup- 
port so great an expense : he had an account of one 
and twenty millions lay upon him. It was given 
out, that a great deal of the money, lodged in his 
office, for the pay of the army, was diverted to other 
uses, distributed among favourites, or given to cor- 
i*upt members of parliament ; and that some mil- 
lions had been sent over to Holland : it had been 
often said, that great discoveries would be made, 
whensoever his accounts were looked into ; and that 
he, to save himself, would lay open the ill practices 
of the former reign. But now, when all was brought 
under a strict examination, a few inconsiderable ar- 
ticles, of some hundreds of pounds, was all that 
could be found to be objected to him : and even to 
these he gave clear and full answers. At last they 
found, that, upon the breaking of a regiment, a sum 
which he had issued out for its pay had been re- 
turned to his office, the regiment being broke sooner 
than that pay was exhausted : and that no entry of 
this was made in his accounts. To this he answered, 
that his officer, who received the money, was within 
three days after taken so ill of a confirmed stone, 
that he never came again to the office, but died in 
great misery ; and during those three days he had 
not entered that sum in the books. Lord Ranelagh 
acknowledged, that he was liable to account for all 
the money that was received by his under-officers ; 
but here was no crime or fraud designed ; yet this 
was so aggravated, that he saw his good post was 
his greatest guilt : so he quitted that, which was di- 
vided into two : one was appointed to be pay- 



est THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1702. master of the guards and garrisons at home; and 



another, of the forces that were kept heyond sea : 
How had the first, as being the more lasting post. 
With this, all the clamour raised against the earl of 
Ranelagh was let fall ; yet, to make a shew of seve- 
rity, he was expelled the house ; but he appeared, 
upon all this canvassing, to be much more innocent, 
than even his friends had believed him. 
The cja- rpj^^ clamour that had been lonff kept up aerainst 
against the the former ministry, as devourers of the public trea- 

fonner 

reign still sure, was of such use to the party, that they re- 
*^ "343 ^^^^^^ *^ continue it by all possible methods : so a 
committee of the house of commons prepared a long 
address to the queen, reflecting on the ill manage- 
ment of the funds, upon which they laid the great 
debt of the nation, and not upon the deficiencies : 
this was branched out into many particulars, which 
were all lieavily aggravated. Yet, though a great 
part of the outcry had been formerly made against 
Russel, treasurer of the navy, and his office, they 
found not so much as a colour to fix a complaint 
there : nor could they charge any thing on the chan- 
cery, the treasury, or the administration of justice. 
Great complaints were made of some accounts, that 
stood long out, and they insisted on some pretended 
neglects, the old methods of the exchequer not hav- 
ing been exactly followed : though it did not appear 
that the public suffered in any sort by those failures. 
They kept up a clamour likewise against the com- 
missioners of the prizes, though they had passed their 
accounts as the law directed ; and no objection was 
made to them. The address was full of severe re- 
flections and spiteful insinuations ; and thus it was 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 63 

carried to the queen, and published to the nation, 1702. 
as the sense of the commons of England y. 

The lords, to prevent the ill impressions this it was ex- 
might make, appomted a comnuttee to examme all the lords, 
the observations that the commissioners of accounts to'beTu- 
had offered to both houses: they searched all the s'""'''^'''- 
public offices, and were amazed to find, that there 
was not one article, in all the long address that the 
commons had made to the queen, or in the obser-/ 
vations then before them, that was of any import- 
ance, but what was false in fact '. They found the 
deficiencies in the former reign were of two sorts : 
the one wsl^ of sums that the commons had voted, 
but for which they had made no sort of provision ; 
the other was, where the supply that was given 
came short of the sum it was estimated at : and be- 
tween these two, the deficiencies amounted to four- 
teen millions : this was the root of the great debt 
that lay on the nation. They examined into all 
the pretended mismanagement, and found that 
what the commons had stated so invidiously was 
mistaken. So far had the late king and his minis- 
ters been from misapplying the money that was 
given for public occasions, that he applied three 

y At this time the queen man that sold it him run, of 

made a public declaration in losing his own. And by what 

council, that if any body in her we saw afterwards, there was 

service took money for places reason enough to believe he 

under them, they should be was in the right. D. 
tiirned out of their own ; which ^ There is a visible superi- 

was generally understood to be ority in the lords' papers over 

pointed at a certain duke, that those of the commons, and in 

was known to have sold a great all the disputes of that divided 

many in the household. But time, the lords had the law and 

the duke of Buckingham said, the constitution, as well as the 

it was done to raise their price, popular voice, on their side ; at 

for now whoever bought a place least this is the .opinion I have 

was to consider the hazard the been brought up in. H. 



64 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1702. millions to the public service, that by law was his. 
own money, of which they made up the account. 
They also found, that some small omissions, in some 
of the forms of the exchequer, were of no conse- 
quence, and neither had nor could have any ill effect: 
and whereas a great clamour was raised against 
passing of accounts by privy seals, they put an end 
to that effectually, when it appeared on what ground 
this was done. By the ancient methods of the ex- 
chequer, every account was to be carried on, so that 
the new officer was to begin his account with the 
balance of the former account. Sir Edward Seimour, 
who had been treasurer of the navy, owed, by his 
344 last account, an hundred and eighty thousand 
pounds, and he had received after that an hundred 
and forty thousand pounds, for which the accounts 
were never made up : now it was not possible for 
those who came after him to be liable for his ac- 
counts : therefore the treasurers of the navy in the 
last reign were forced to take out privy seals for 
making up their accounts : these imported no more, 
than that they were to account only for the money 
that they themselves had received : for in all other 
respects their accounts were to pass, according to 
the ordinary methods of the exchequer". Complaints 
had been also made of the remissness of the lords of 
the treasury, or their officers, appointed to account 
with the receivers of counties, for the aids that had 
been given : but when this was examined, it ap- 
peared tliat this had been done with such exactness, 
that of the sum of twenty-four millions, for which 
they had accounted, there was not owing above 

» This, with some other good who was made treasurer of the 
regulations in his office, was pro- navy at the latter end of the 
cured by sir Thomas Littleton, late reign. O. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 65 

sixty thousand pounds, and that was for the most 1702. 
part in Wales ; where it was not thought advisable 
to use too much rigour in raising it : and of that 
sum, there was not above fourteen thousand pounds 
that was to be reckoned as lost. The collectors of 
the customs likewise answered all the observations 
made on their accounts so fully, that the house of 
commons was satisfied with their answers, and dis- 
missed them, without so much as a reprimand. All 
this was reported to the house of lords, and they 
laid it before the queen in an address, which was 
afterwards printed with the vouchers to every par- 
ticular : by this means, it was made out to the sa- 
tisfaction of the whole nation, how false those re- 
ports were, which had been so industriously spread, 
and were so easily believed by the greater part : for 
the bulk of mankind will be always apt to think, 
that courts and ministers serve their own ends, 
and study to enrich themselves at the public cost. 
This examination held long, and was followed with 
great exactness, and had all the effect that could be 
desired from it : for it silenced that noise which the 
late king's enemies had raised, to asperse him and 
his ministers. With this the session of parliament 
ended. In it the lords had rendered themselves 
very considerable, and had gained an universal re- 
putation over the whole nation : it is true, those 
who had opposed the persons that had carried mat- 
ters before them in this session were so near them 
in number, that things of the gi'eatest consequence 
were carried only by one or two voices ; therefore, 
as they intended to have a clear majority in both 
houses, in the next session, they prevailed with the 
queen, soon after the prorogation, to create four new 

VOL. V. F 



68 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1702. peers, who had been the violentest of the whole 
Some new paitj *, Finch, Gower, Graiivil, and young Seimour, 
peere made, ^gpg made baroHS. Great reflections were made 
upon this promotion. When some severe things had 
been thrown out in the house of commons upon the 
opposition that they met with from the lords, it was 
insinuated, that it would be easy to find men of 
345 merit and estate to make a clear majority in that 
house : this was an open declaration of a design to 
put every thing in the hands and power of that 
party : it was also an encroachment on one of the 
tenderest points of the prerogative, to make motions 
of creating peers in the house of commons. Hervey, 
though of the other side, was at the same time made 
a baron, by private favour*. Thus the session of 
parliament was brought to a much better conclusion 
than could have been reasonably expected by those 
who knew of whom it was constituted, and how it 
had begun. No harm was done in it : the succes- 
sion was fortified by a new security, and the popu- 
lar clamours of corruption and peculate, with which 
the nation had been so much possessed, were in a 
great measure dissipated. 
The pro- The proceedings of the convocation, which sat at 

oeedingg in , 

conroca. the Same time, are next to be related : at the first 
opening of it, there was a contest between the two 
houses, that lasted some days, concerning an address 
to the queen. The lower house intended to cast 
some reflections on the former reign, in imitation of 
what the house of commons had done, and these 
were worded so invidiously, that most of the bishops 
were pointed at by them ; but the upper house, re- 

** By Lady Marlborough's interest. See her Memoira. O. 



tion. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 6*7 

fusing to concur, the lower house receded, and so 1702. 
they both agreed in a very decent address. The 
queen received it graciously, promising all favour 
and protection to the church, and exhorting them 
all to peace and union among themselves. After 
this, the lower house made an address to the bishops, 
that they might find an expedient, for putting an end 
to those disputes that had stopped the proceedings 
of former convocations : the bishops resolved to offer 
them all that they could, without giving up their 
character and authority : so they made a proposi- 
tion, that, in the intervals of sessions, the lower 
house might appoint committees to prepare matters, 
and when business was brought regularly before 
them, that the archbishop should so order the pro- 
rogations, that they might have convenient and suf- 
ficient time to sit and deliberate about it. This 
fully satisfied many of that body ; but the majority 
thought this kept the matter still in the archbishop's 
power, as it was indeed intended it should : so they 
made another application to the bishops, desiring 
them to refer the points in question to the queen's 
decision, and to such as she should appoint to hear 
and settle them. To this the bishops answered, 
that they reckoned themselves safe and happy in 
the queen's protection, and would pay all due sub- 
mission to her pleasure and orders : but the rights, 
which the constitution of the church and the law 
had vested in them, were tnists lodged with them, 
which they were to convey to their successors, as 
they had received them from their predecessors, and 
that it was not in their power to refer them. It 
would have been a strange sight, very acceptable to 
the enemies of the church, chiefly to papists, to see 

F 2 



68 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1702. the two houses of convocation pleading their autho- 
q 4 g rity and rights before a committee of council, that 
was to determine the matter. This failing, the 
lower house tried what they could obtain of the 
house of commons ; but they could not be carried 
further than a general vote, which amounted to no- 
thing, that they would stand by them in all their 
just rights and privileges. They next made a se- 
parate address to the queen, desiring her protection, 
praying her to hear and determine the dispute : she 
received this favourably ; she said, she would con- 
sider of it, and send them her answer. The matter 
was now brought into the hands of the ministers : 
the earl of Nottingham was of their side, but con- 
fessed that he understood not the controversy : the 
judges and the queen's council were ordered to ex- 
amine hoW the matter stood in point of law, which 
was thus stated to them ; the constant practice, as 
far as we had books or records, was, that the arch- 
bishop prorogued the convocation by a schedule ; 
of this the form was so fixed, that it could not be 
altered but by act of parliament : there was a clause 
in the schedule, that continued all matters before 
the convocation, in the state in which they then 
were, to the day to which he prorogued them ; this 
made it evident, that there could be no intermediate 
session, for a session of the lower house could, by 
passing a vote in any matter, alter the state in which 
it was. It was kept a secret, what opinion the law- 
yers came to in this matter. It was not doubted, 
but they were against the pretensions of the lower 
house : the queen made no answer to their address ; 
and it was believed, that the reason of this was, be- 
cause the answer must, according to the opinion of law- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 69 

yers, have been contrary to what they expected : and 1 702. 
therefore the ministers chose rather to give no answer, 
and that it should seem to be forgot, than that such 
an one should- be given, as would put an end to the 
debate, which they intended to cherish and support. 
The lower house finding that, by opposing their 
bishops in so rough as well as in so unheard of a 
manner, they were represented as favourers of pres- 
bytery, to clear themselves of that imputation, 
came suddenly into a conclusion, that episcopacy 
was of divine and apostolical right. The party that 
stuck together in their votes, and kept their inter- 
mediate sessions, signed this, and brought it up to 
the bishops, desiring them to concur in settling the 
matter ; so that it might be the standing rule of the 
church. This was a plain attempt to make a canon 
or constitution, without obtaining a royal licence, 
which by the statute confirming the submission of 
the clergy in king Henry the eighth's time, made 
both them, and all who chose them, incur a premu- 
nire; so the bishops resolved not to entertain the 
proposition, and a great many of the lower house 
apprehending what the consequence of such pro- 
ceedings might be, by a petition to the bishops, 
prayed that it might be entered in their books, that 
they had not concurred in that definition, nor in 
the address made pursuant to it. The lower house 347 
looked on what they did in this matter as a master- 
piece : for if the bishops concurred with them, they 
reckoned they gained their point : and if they re- 
fused it, they resolved to make them, who would 
not come up to such a positive definition, pass for 
secret favourers of presbytery. But the bishops 

F 3 



70 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1702. saw into their designs, and sent them for answer, 
that they acquiesced in the declaration that was al- 
ready made on that head, in the preface to the book 
of ordinations ; and that they did not think it safe, 
either for them or for the clergy, to go further in that 
matter, without a royal licence. To this, a dark 
answer was made, and so aU these matters were at 
a full stand, when the session came to an end, by 
the prorogation of the parliament ; which was be- 
come necessary, the two houses being fixed in an 
opposition to one another. 
tnictU)nr From those disputes in convocation, divisions ran 
wnongthe through the whole body of the clergy, and to fix 
these, new names were found out : they were dis- 
tinguished by the names of high church and low 
church. All that treated the dissenters with temper 
' and moderation, and were for residing constantly at 
their cures, and for labouring diligently in them ; 
that expressed a zeal against the prince of Wales, 
and for the revolution ; that wished well to the pre- 
sent war, and to the alliance against France, were 
represented as secret favourers of presbytery, and 
as ill affected to the church, and were called low 
churchmen: it was said, that they were in the 
church only while the law and preferments were on 
its side ; but that they were ready to give it up, 
as soon as they saw a proper time for declaring 
themselves : with these false and invidious charac- 
ters did the high party endeavour to load all those 
who could not be brought into their measures and 
designs. When the session was at an end, the 
court was wholly taken up with the preparations for 
the campaign. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 71 

The duke of Marlborough had a great domestic 1 703. 
affliction at this time: he lost his only son, a grace- prepara- 
ful person, and a very promising youth : he died at [JJ'J'* j^"*^ 
Cambridge of the small-pox : this, as may be ima- p»'gn- 
gined, went very deep in his father's heart, and 
stopped his passing the seas some days longer than 
he had intended. Upon his arrival on the other 
side, the Dutch brought their armies into the field : 
the first thing they undertook was the siege of 
Bonne. In the mean while, all men's eyes were 
turned towards Bavaria : the court of Vienna had 
given it out, all the former winter, that they would 
bring such a force upon that elector, as would 
quickly put an end to that war, and seize his whole 
country. But the slowness of that court appeared 
on this, as it had done on many other occasions : for 
though they brought two armies into the field, yet 
they were not able to deal with the elector's forces ; 
Villars, who lay with his army at Strasbourg, had 348 
orders to break through, and join the elector : so he 
was to force his way to him at aU adventures. He 
passed the Rhine, and set down before Fort Keil, 
which lay over against Strasbourg, and took it in a 
few days. Prince Lewis was in no condition to 
raise the siege ; for the best part of his army was 
called away to the war in Bavaria : he therefore 
posted himself advantageously at StoUhoffen, yet he 
could not have maintained it, if the States had not 
sent him a good body of foot, which came seasonably, 
a few days before mareschal Villars attacked him 
with an army, that was more than double his num- 
ber : but his men, chiefly the Dutch battalions, re- 
ceived them with so much courage, that the French 
were forced to quit the attack, after they had lost 

F 4 



7% THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1703. about four thousand men in it. Yet, upon repeated 
orders from France, mareschal Villars resolved to 
venture the loss of his whole army, rather than 
abandon the elector; who, though he had taken 
Newburg, and had surprised Ratisbon, and had se- 
veral advantages in little engagements with the im- 
perialists, yet was like to be overpowered by a su- 
perior force, if he was not relieved in time. The 
black forest was thought impracticable in that 
season, which was a very wet one ; this was too 
much trusted to, so that the passes were ill looked 
after : and therefore Villars overcame all difficulties, 
and joined the elector : but his troops were so ha- 
rassed with the march, that he was obliged to put 
them, for some time, into quarters of refreshment. 
Bonne The dukc of Marlborough carried on the siege of 

Bonne with such vigour, that they capitulated 
within ten days after the trenches were opened ; 
the French reckoned upon a longer resistance, and 
hoped to have diverted this by an attempt upon 
Liege : the States had a small army about Maes- 
tricht, which the French intended to fall upon, be- 
ing much superior to it : but they found the Dutch 
in so good order, and so well posted, that they re- 
tired within their lines, as soon as they saw the 
duke of Marlborough, after the siege of Bonne, was 
marching towards them. The winter had produced 
very little action in Italy : the country was under 
another heavy plague, by a continued succession of 
threatening, and of some very devouring earth- 
Eaith- quakes : Rome itself had a share in the common ca- 
luiy!* '" lamity ; but it proved to them more dreadful than 
it was mischievous. Prince Eugene found that his 
letters, and the most pressing representations he 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 73 

could send to the court of Vienna, had no effect : 1 703. 
so at last he obtained leave to go thither. ' 

The motions of the Dutch army made it believed, '^j*^ *"»"'« 

•^ of Eckeren. 

there was a design on Antwerp : Cohorn was mak- 
ing advances in the Dutch Flanders, and Opdam 
commanded a small army on the other side of the 
Scheld, while the duke of Marlborough lay with the 
main army near the lines in Brabant. Bouflers 
was detached from Villeroy's army, with a body, 349 
double in number to Opdam's, to fall on him ; he 
marched so quick, that the Dutch, being surprised 
at Eckeren, were put in great disorder, and Opdam, 
apprehending all was lost, fled with a body of his 
men to Breda: but the Dutch rallied, and main- 
tained their ground with such firmness, that the 
French retired, little to their honour ; since, though 
they were much superior in number, yet they let the 
Dutch recover out of their first confusion, and keep 
their ground, although forsaken by their general, 
who justified himself in the best manner he could, 
and cast the blame on others. 

Bouflers's conduct was so much censured, that it 
was thought this finished his disgrace ; for he was 
no more put at the head of the French armies : nor 
was the duke of Marlborough Avithout some share 
of censure on this occasion, since it was pretended, 
that he ought to have sent a force to support Op- 
dam, or have made an attempt on Villeroy's army, 
when it was weakened by the detachment sent with 
Bouflers. 

The French lines were judged to be so strong, Huy, Lim- 
that the forcing them seemed impracticable, so the cSe*" 
duke of Marlborough turned towards Huy, which coudil*'"' 
was soon taken ; and after that to Limbourg, which ***'*"• 
he took with no loss, but that of so much time as 



74 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1703. was necessary to bring up a train of artillery: and 
as soon as that was done, the garrison were made 
prisoners of war, for they were in no condition to 
maintain a siege. Guelder was also blocked up, so 
that before the end of the campaign it was brought 
to capitulate. Thus the Low Rhine was secured, 
' and all that country called the Coudras was en- 
tirely reduced : this was all that our troops, in con- 
junction with the Dutch, could do in Flanders : we 
had the superior ai*my, but what by reason of the 
cautious maxims of the States, what by reason of 
the factions among them, (which were rising very 
high, between those who had been of the late king's 
party, and were now for having a captain general, 
and those of the Lovestein party, who were for go- 
verning all by a deputation from the States,) no 
great design could be undertaken by an army so 
much disti*acted. 
The »access In the Upper Rhine, matters went much worse : 
French on Villars lay for some time on the Danube, while the 
iubi?"^ elector of Bavaria marched into Tirol, and possessed 
himself of Inspruck : the emperor's force was so 
broken into many small armies, in different places, 
that he had not one good one any where : he had 
none at all in Tirol : and all that the prince of Ba- 
den could do was to watch Villars's motions : but 
he did not venture on attacking him during this 
separation. Many blamed his conduct : some called 
his courage, and others his fidelity in question ; while 
many excused him, since his army was both weak, 
and iU furnished in all respects. The duke of Ven- 
dome had orders to march from the Milanese to Ti- 
rol, there to join the elector of Bavaria : upon which 
junction, the ruin of the house of Austria would 
350 have probably followed : but the boors in Tirol rose, 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 75 

and attacked the elector with so much resolution, 1703. 
that he was forced to retire out of the country with 
considerable loss, and was driven out before the 
duke of Vendome could join him, so that he came 
too late : he seemed to have a design on Trent, but 
the boors were now so animated with their suc- 
cesses, and were so conducted and supported by offi- 
cers and troops sent them by the emperor, that 
Vendome was forced to return back, without being 
able to effect any thing. 

Nothing passed this summer in Italy : the impe- pttie done 
rialists were too weak and too ill supplied from 
Germany, to be able to act offensively : and the 
miscarriage of the design upon Tirol lost the French 
so much time, that they undertook nothing, unless 
it were the siege of Ostiglia, in which they failed. 
Bersello, after a long blockade, was forced to capi- 
tulate, and by that means the French possessed 
themselves of the duke of Modena's country : the 
duke of Burgundy came to Alsace, and sat down 
before Brisack, of which he was soon master, by the 
cowardice or treachery of those who commanded, for 
which they were condemned by a council of. war. 

The emperor's misfortunes grew upon him ; car- a war be- 
dinal Calonitz and Esterhasi had the government of Hungary. 
Hungary trusted chiefly to them : the former was 
so cruel,' arid the other so ravenous, that the Hun- 
garians took advantage from this distraction in the 
emperor's affairs, to run together in great bodies, 
and in many places, setting prince Ragotzki at their 
head. They demanded, that their grievances should 
be redressed, and that their privileges should be re- 
stored: they were much animated in this by the 
practices of the French, and the elector of Bavaria's 



a THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1703. agents : some small assistance was sent them by the 
way of Poland ; they were encouraged to enter upon 
no treaty, but to unite and fortify themselves; as- 
surances being given them, that no peace should be 
concluded, unless they were fully restored to all 
their ancient liberties. 
Disorders iu fj^g court of Vifenua was much alarmed at this ; 

the empe- 

ror"* court, fearing it might be secretly set on by the Turks : 
though that court gave all possible assurances, that 
they would maintain the peace of Carlowitz most 
religiously, and that they would in no sort encou- 
rage or assist the malecontents. A revolution hap- 
pening in that empire, in which a new sultan was 
set up, raised new apprehensions of a breach on 
that side : but the sultan renewed the assurances of 
maintaining the peace so solemnly, that all those 
fears were soon dissipated. There was a great fac- 
tion in the emperor's court, and among his minis- 
ters ; and it did not appear that he had strength of 
genius enough to govern them. Count Mansfield 
was much suspected of being in the interests of 
France; the prince of Baden, and prince Eugene, 
both agreed in charging his conduct, though they 
differed almost in every thing else : yet he was so 
possessed of the emperor's favour and confidence, 
that it was not easy to get him set aside : in con- 
351 elusion, he was advanced to a high post in the em- 
peror's household, and prince Eugene was made 
president of the council of war. 

Angsbourg g^^ what effect soever this miffht have in suc- 

and Lan- ^ *^ 

daw uken cccdiug Campaigns, it was then too late in the year 

French, to find remedies for the present disorders: and all 

affairs on the south of the Danube were falling into 

great confusion. Things went a little better on the 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 77 

north side of that river: the upper palatinate was 1703. 
entirely conquered; but near the end of the year, 
Augsbourg was forced to submit to the elector of 
Bavaria, and Landaw was besieged by the French : 
Tallard, who commanded the siege, took it in fewer 
weeks than it had cost the Germans months to 
take it the former year : nor was this all ; an army 
of the confederates was brought together to raise 
the siege : the young prince of Hesse commanded, 
but the prince of Nassau Welburg, as a man of 
more experience in war, was chiefly depended on ; 
though his conduct shewed how little he deserved 
it. The emperor's birthday was a day of diversion, 
and the German generals, then at Spire, allowed 
themselves all the idle liberties used in courts on 
such days, without the ordinary precaution of hav- 
ing scouts or parties abroad, in the same careless 
state, as if no enemy had been near them. Tallard, 
having intelligence of this, left a party of his army, 
to make a shew, and maintain the works before Lan- 
daw ; and marched with his best troops against the 
Germans : he surprised and routed them : upon 
which Landaw capitulated: with this, the warlike 
operations of this campaign ended, very gloriously 
and with great advantage to the French. 

But two great negotiations, then brought to a a treaty 
conclusion, very much changed the face of affairs : king of 
all the confederates pressed the king of Portugal to '^^^^ ' 
come into the alliance, as his own interest led him 
to it ; since it was visible, that as soon as Spain was 
once united to the crown of France, he could not 
hope to continue long in Portugal. The Almirante 
of Castile was believed to be in the interests of the 
house of Austria ; therefore to send him out of the 



78 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1703. way, he was appointed to go ambassador to France ; 
he seemed to undertake it, and made the necessary- 
preparations : he saw this embassy was intended for 
an exile, and that it put him in the power of his 
enemies : so, after he had raised what was necessary 
to defray his expense, he secretly changed his course, 
and escaped with the wealth he had in his hands to 
Lisbon : where he entered into secret negotiations 
with the king of Portugal and the emperor : he 
gave great assurances of the good dispositions in 
which both the people and grandees of Spain were, 
who were grown sick of their new masters. The 
risk he himself ran seemed a very full credential ; 
he assured them, the new king was despised, and 
that the French about him were universally hated ; 
the Spaniards could not bear the being made a pro- 
vince, either to France or to the emperor. 
532 He therefore proposed that the emperor and the 
king of the Romans should renounce all their pre- 
tensions, and transfer them to the archduke, and 
declare him king of Spain ; and that he should be 
immediately sent thither; for he assured them, the 
Spaniards would not revolt from a king that was in 
possession, till they saw another king who claimed 
his right : and in that case they would think they 
had a right to adhere to the king they liked best : 
the king of Portugal likewise demanded an enlarge- 
ment of his frontiers^ and some new accessions to 
his crown, which were reasonable, but could not be 
stipulated, but by a king of Spain. 

In the treaty that the emperor had made with 
the late king and with the States, one article was, 
that they should be at liberty to possess themselves 
of the dominions which the crown of Spain had in 



OF QUEEN ANNE. ^ 79 

the West Indies, and he vested in them the right 1703. 
that their arms should give them in these acquisi- 
tions ; upon which the king had designed to send a 
great fleet, with a land army, into the bay of Mex- 
ico, to seize some important places there, with a de- 
sign of restoring them to the crown of Spain, upon 
advantageous articles for a free trade, as soon as the 
Spaniards should receive a king of the house of 
Austria. This design was now laid aside, and the ' 
reason that the ministers gave for it was, that the 
Almirante had assured them, that if we possessed 
ourselves of any of their places in the West Indies, 
the whole nation would by that means become en- 
tirely French ; they would never believe our pro- 
mises of restoring them ; and seeing they had no 
naval power of their own to recover them, they 
would go into the French interest very cordially, as 
the only way left to recover these places. 

An entire credit was given to the Almirante ; so 
the queen and the States agreed to send over a 
great fleet, with a land army of twelve thousand 
men, together with a great supply of money and 
arms to Portugal ; that king undertaking to have an 
army of twenty-eight thousand men ready to join 
ours. In this treaty an incident happened, that 
had almost spoiled the whole ; the king of Portugal 
insisted on demanding the flag, and the other re- 
spects to be paid by our admiral, when he was in 
his ports ; the earl of Nottingham insisted, it was a 
dishonour to England to strike, even in another 
king's ports ; this was not demanded of the fleet 
that was sent to bring over queen Katharine, so, 
though Methuen, our ambassador, had agreed to 
this article, he pressed the queen not to ratify it. 



80 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1703. Methuen, in his own justification, said, he con- 
sented to the article, because he saw it was insisted 
on so much, that no treaty could be concluded un- 
less that point were yielded : the low state of their 
affairs, in the year 1662, when the protection of 
England was all they had in view, for their pre- 
353 servation, made such a difference between that and 
the present time, that the one was not to be set up 
for a precedent to govern the other : besides, even 
then the matter was much contested in their coun- 
cils, though the extremities to which they were re- 
duced made them yield it. The lord Godolphin 
looked on this as too inconsiderable to be insisted 
on, the whole affairs of Europe seemed to turn upon 
this treaty, and so important a matter ought not to 
be retarded a day for such punctilios as a salute, or 
striking the flag: and it seemed reasonable, that 
every sovereign prince should claim this acknow- 
ledgment, unless where it was otherwise stipulated 
by express treaties. The laying so much weight on 
such matters very much heightened jealousies ; and 
it was said, that the earl of Nottingham and the 
tories seemed to lay hold on every thing that could 
obstruct the progiess of the war ; while the round 
proceeding of the lord Godolphin reconciled many 
to him. The queen confirmed the treaty ; upon 
which, the court of Vienna was desired to do their 
part. But that court proceeded with its ordinary 
slowness; the mildest censure passed on these de- 
lays was, that they proceeded from an unreasonable 
affectation of magnificence in the ceremonial, which 
could not be performed soon nor easily, in a poor 
but a haughty court : it was done at last, but so 
late in the year, that the new declared king of 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 81 

Spain could not reach Holland before the end of ^703. 
October. A squadron of our fleet was lying there 
to bring him over ; such as was wont to convoy the 
late king when he crossed the seas. But the mi- 
nisters of the king of Spain thought it was not 
strong enough ; they pretended, they had advertise- 
ments, that the French had a stronger squadron in 
Dunkirk, which might be sent out to intercept him: 
so an additional strength was sent ; this lost some 
time, and a fair wind. 

It had like to have been more fatal; for about the The great 
end of November the weather grew very boisterous, vember. 
and broke out on the 27th of November in the most 
violent storm, both by sea and land, that had been 
known in the memory of man. The city of London 
was so shaken with it, that people were generally 
afraid of being buried in the ruins of their houses : 
some houses fell and crushed their masters to death ^ : 
great hurt was done in the southern parts of Eng- 
land; little happening in the north, where the storm 
was not so violent. There was a great fall of trees, 
chiefly of elms, that were blown down by the wind. 
We had, at that time, the best part of our naval 
force upon the sea; which filled all people with great 
apprehensions of an irreparable loss : and indeed, if 
the storm had not been at its height at full flood, 
and in a spring tide, the loss might have proved 
fatal to the nation. It was so considerable, that 
fourteen or fifteen men of war were cast away, in 
which 1500 seamen perished; few merchantmen were 354 
lost; such as were driven to sea were safe: some 
few only were overset. Thus the most threatening 

"^ (At Wells Kidder, the learned bishop of that see, and his 
wife, were killed in this way.) 

VOL. V. 6 



m THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1703. danger to which the nation could be exposed, went 
off with little damage : we all saw our hazard, since 
the loss of our fleet must have been the loss of the 
nation. If this great hurricane had come at low 
water, or in a quarter tide, our ships must have been 
driven out upon the banks of sand that lie before 
the coast, and have stuck and perished there, as 
some of the men of war did : but the sea being so 
full of water, all but some heavy ships got over these 
safe. Our squadron, which was then in the Maese, 
suffered but little, and the ships were soon refitted, 
and ready to sail. 
The new About the end of December, the king of Spain 
SplSn^came landed at Portsmouth ; the duke of Somerset was 
to England, gg^^ by the quccn to receive him, and to bring him 
to an interview, which was to be at Windsor; prince 
Oeorge went and met him on the way, and he was 
treated with great magnificence : the court was very 
splendid, and much thronged ; the queen's behaviour 
towards him was very noble and obliging : the 
young king charmed all that were there ; he had a 
gravity beyond his age, tempered with much mo- 
desty ; his behaviour was in all points so exact, 
that there was not a circumstance in his whole 
deportment that was liable to censure ; he paid an 
extraordinary respect to the queen, and yet main- 
tained a due greatness in it ; he had an art of seem- 
ing well pleased with every thing, without so much 
as smiling once all the while he was at court, which 
was only three days ; he spoke but little, and all he 
said was judicious and obliging. All possible haste 
was made in fitting out the fleet, so that he set sail 
in the beginning of January, and for five days he 
had a fair wind with good weather, but then the 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 88 

wind changed, and he was driven back to Ports- 1703. 
mouth ; he lay there above three weeks, and then 
he had a very prosperous navigation. The forces 
that were ordered to go over to his assistance were 
by this time got ready to attend on him, so he sailed 
with a great fleet, both of men of war and transport 
ships. He arrived happily at Lisbon, where he was He landed 
received with all the outward expressions of joy and* 
welcome, and at an expense, in a vain magnificence, 
which that court could not well bear: but a national 
vanity prevailed to carry this too far, by which other 
things that were more necessary were neglected. 
That court was then very melancholy; for the young 
infanta, whom the king of Spain was to have manied, 
as had been agreed, died a few days before his arrival. 
While this negotiation with Portugal was carried 
on, the duke of Savoy began to see his own danger, 
if the two crowns should come to be united ; and he 
saw, that if the king of France drove the imperialists 
out of Italy, and became master of the Milanese, he 
must lie exposed, and at mercy. He had married his 
two daughters to the duke of Burgundy and to king 355 
Philip of Spain ; but, as he wrote to the emperor, he 
was now to take care of himself and his son. His The duUe 
alliance with France was only for one year, which °^^*^°^j, 
he had renewed from year to year, so he offered, at*''^*'*'*°"- 
the end of the year, to enter into the great alliance ; 
and he demanded for his share the Novarize and 
the Montferrat. His leaving the allies, as he had 
done in the former war, shewed that he maintained 
the character of his family, of changing sides as oft 
as he could expect better terms by a new turn : yet 
his interest lay so visibly now on the side of the al- 
liance, that it was very reasonable to believe, he was 

G 2 



84 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1703. resolved to adhere firmly to it. So when the de- 



" mands he made were laid before the court of Vienna, 

and from thence transmitted to England and Hol- 
land, all the assistance that he proposed was pro- 
mised him. The court of Vienna had no money to 
spare, but England and the States were to pay him 
twenty thousand pounds a month; of which England 
was to pay him two-thirds, and the States the rest. 
The secret Siucc I am to relate the rest of this transac- 
"uTomer tion, I must look back, and give some account of 
fe)m1t" ^^^ departing from the alliance in the former war, 
which I had from monsieur Herval, who was then 
the king's envoy in Switzerland, a French refugee, 
but originally of a German family of Augsbourg, 
settled but lately in France. In January 1696, when 
the plot for assassinating the king and invading the 
nation was thought so surely laid that it could not 
miscarry', the king of France sent Mr. Chanley very 
secretly to the duke of Savoy, with a fuU credence 
to the propositions he was to make, demanding a po- 
sitive answer within six hours : with that the duke 
of Orleans wrote very warmly to him ; he said, he 
had employed all his interest with the king his bro- 
ther to get these offers made to him, which he con- 
jured him to accept of, otherwise he must look for 
utter ruin, without remedy or recovery. Chanley 
told him, that at that present time he was to reckon 
that king James was repossessed of the throne of 
England, and that the prince of Orange was either 
dead or in his hands : so he offered to restore Cazal 
and Pigneroll, and all that was afterwards agreed to 
by the treaty, if he would depart from the alliance. 
The duke of Savoy being thus alarmed with a revo- 
lution in England, and being so straitened in time. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 85 

thought the extreme necessity to which he would 1703. 
be reduced, in case that was true, must justify his 
submitting, when otherwise his ruin was unavoid- 
able. The worst part of this was, that he got leave 
to pretend to continue in the alliance, till he had 
drawn all the supplies he was to expect for that 
year from England and the States, and then the 
whole matter was owned, as has been related in the 
transactions of that year. I leave this upon the cre- 
dit of him from whom I had it, who assured me he 
was well informed concerning it. 

The duke of Savoy having now secretly agreed to 356 
enter into the alliance, did not declare it, but con- ^iJo J^Xu 
tinned still denying it to the French, that so when and^"iake' 
the duke of Vendome sent back his troops to him, »" ''■* . ^ 

■*■ troops with 

at the end of the campaign, he might more safely them pri- 
own it. The French had reason to stispect a secret war. 
negotiation, but could not penetrate into it ; so they 
took an effectual, though a very fraudulent method 
to discover it, which was told me soon after by the 
earl of Pembroke. They got the elector of Bavaria 
to write to him, with all seeming sincerity, and with 
^eat secrecy, for he sent it to him by a subject of 
his own, so well disguised and directed, that the 
duke of Savoy was imposed on by this management. 
In this letter, the elector complained bitterly of the 
insolence and perfidiousness of the French, into 
whose hands he had put himself: he said, he saw 
his error now, when it was too late to see how he 
could correct it ; yet if the duke of Savoy, who was 
almost in as bad a state as himself, would join with 
him, so that they might act by concert, they might 
yet not only recover themselves, but procure a happy 
peace to all the rest of Europe. The duke of Savoy, 

G 3 



86 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1703. mistrusting nothing, wrote him a frank answer, in 
which he owned his own designs, and encouraged 
the elector to go on, and offered all offices of friend- 
ship on his behalf with the rest of the allies. The 
French, who knew by what ways the Savoyard was 
to return, seized him, without so much as acquaint- 
ing the elector with the discovery that they had 
made : they saw now into this secret ; so when the 
time came in which the duke of Vendome ought to 
have sent back his troops to him, they were made 
prisoners of war, contrary to all treaties : and with 
Count sta- this the war began in those parts. It was much ap- 
jo^ bim. prehended, that, considering the weak and naked 
state in which the duke of Savoy then was, the 
French would have quickly mastered him ; but 
count Staremberg ventured on a march, which mi- 
litary men said was the best laid and the best exe- 
cuted of any in the whole war. He marched from 
the Modenese, in the worst season of the year, 
through ways that, by reason of the rains that had 
fallen, seemed impracticable, having in many places 
the French both before and behind him : he broke 
through all, and in conclusion joined the duke of 
Savoy with a good body of horse. By this he wad 
rendered safe in Piedmont. It is true, the French 
made themselves quickly masters of all Savoy, ex- 
fcept Montmelian ; where some small actions hap- 
pened, much to the duke's advantage. The Switzers 
interposed to obtain a neutrality for Savoy, though 
- without effect. 
The insur- The rising in the Cevennes had not been yet sub- 
th?'cevcn- ducd, though marcschal Montrevel was sent with an 
"*•• Atmy to reduce or destroy them : he committed 

^rfeat barbarities, not only on those he found in 



OF yUEEN ANNE. 87 

arms, but on whole villages, because they, as lie was ' 703. 
informed, favoured them. They came often down 
out of their hills in parties, ravaging the country, 357 
and they engaged the king's troops with much re- 
solution, and sometimes with great advantage : tliey 
seemed resolved to accept of nothing less than the 
restoring their edicts to them ; for a connivance at 
their own way of worship was offered them. They 
had many among them who seemed qualified in a 
very singular manner to be the teachers of the rest ; 
they had a great measure of zeal without any learn- 
ing ; they scarce had any education at all. I spoke 
with the person who, by the queen's order, sent one 
among them, to know the state of their affairs : 
I read some of the letters which he brought from 
them, full of a sublime zeal and piety, expressing a 
courage and confidence that could not be daunted : 
one instance of this was, that they all agreed, that 
if any of them was so wounded in an engagement 
with the enemy that he could not be brought off, he 
should be shot dead, rather than be left alive to fall 
into the enemies hands. It was not possible then to 
form a judgment of that insurrection, the reports 
about it were so various and uncertain ; it being as 
much magnified by some, as it was undervalued by 
others : the whole number, that they could reckon 
on, was four thousand men, but they had not arms 
and clothes for half that number, so they used these 
by turns, while the rest were left at home to follow 
their lal)our. They put the country all about them 
in a great fright, and to a vast expense ; while no 
intelligence could be had of their designs, and they 
broke out in so many different places, that all who 
lay within their reach were in a perpetual agitation. 

G 4 



88 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1703. It was a lamentable thing, that they lay so far within 



the country that it was not possible to send supplies 
to them, unless the duke of Savoy should be in a 
condition to break into Dauphiny; and therefore 
advices were sent them, to accept of such terms as 
could be had, and to reserve themselves for better 
times. 
Thenffairs In Polaud thc sccnc was more embroiled than 

of Poland. n 1 • 

ever ; there was some appearance of peace this sum- 
mer, but it went off in winter ; the old fierce cardi- 
nal drew a diet to Warsaw ; there it was declared, 
that their king had broken aU their laws : upon 
that they, by a formal sentence, deposed him, and 
declared the throne vacant. This was done in con- 
cert with the king of Sweden, who lay with his 
army at some distance from them, in the neighbour- 
hood of Dantzick, which alarmed the citizens very 
much ; it was believed, that they designed to choose 
Sobieski, the eldest son of the late king, who then 
lived at Breslaw in Silesia, and being in the em- 
peror's dominions, he thought himself safer than he 
proved to be ; the king of Poland retired into Sax- 
ony in some haste, which made many conclude, that 
he resolved to abandon Poland ; but he laid another 
design, which was executed to his mind, though in 
the sequel it proved not much to his advantage ; 
Sobieski and his brother were in a correspondence 
with the party in Poland that opposed the king, 
upon which they ought to have looked to their own 
358 security with more precaution : they, it seems, ap- 
prehended nothing where they then were, and so 
diverted themselves at hunting, and otherwise in 
their usual manner; upon this some, sent by the 
king of Poland, took them both prisoners, and 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 89 

brought them to Dresden, where they were safely 1703. 
kept; and all the remonstrances that the emperor 
could make, upon such an act of hostility, had no 
effect. This for a while broke their measures at 
Warsaw ; many forsook them, while the king of 
Sweden seemed implacable in his opposition to Au- 
gustus; whose chief confidence was in the czar: 
it was suspected, that the French had a manage- 
ment in this matter ; since it was certain that, by 
the war in Poland, a great part of that force was 
diverted, which might otherwise have been engaged 
in the common cause of the great alliance. All the 
advices that we had from thence agreed in this, that 
the king of Sweden himself was in no understanding 
with the French, but it was visible, that what he 
did, contributed not a little to serve their ends. 
This was the state of affairs at land. 

I turn next to another element ; and to give an Affairs at 
account of the operations at sea, where things were 
ill designed, and worse executed : the making prince 
George our lord high admiral, proved in many in- 
stances very unhappy to the nation : men of bad 
designs imposed on him, he understood those mat- 
ters very little, and they sheltered themselves under 
his name, to which a great submission was paid; 
but the complaints rose the higher for that : our 
main fleet was ready to go out in May, but the 
Dutch fleet was not yet come over; so Rook was 
sent out to alarm the coast of France ; he lingered 
long in port, pretending ill health ; upon that 
Churchill was sent to command the fleet ; but 
Rook's health returned happily for him, or he 
thought fit to lay aside that pretence, and went to 
sea, where he continued a month ; but in such a 



90 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1703. station, as if his design had been to keep far from 
meeting the French fleet, which sailed out at that 
time ; and to do the enemy no harm, not so much 
as to disturb their quiet, by coming near their 
coast : at last he returned, without having at- 
tempted any thing. 
A fleet sent It was after this resolved to send a strong fleet 

into the . . , 1 « 

Mediterra- into the Mediterranean ; it was near the end of 
June before they were ready to sail, and they had 
orders to come out of the Straits by the end of Sep- 
tember : every thing was so ill laid in this expedi- 
tion, as if it had been intended that nothing should 
be done by it besides the convoying our merchant 
ships ; which did not require the fourth part of such 
a force. Shovel was sent to command; when he 
saw his instructions, he represented to the ministry, 
that nothing could be expected from this voyage ; 
he was ordered to go, and he obeyed his orders ; he 
got to Leghorn by the beginning of September. His 
arrival seemed to be of great consequence, and the 
allies began to take courage from it ; but they were 
soon disappointed of their hopes, when they under- 
stood, that by his orders he could only stay a few 
359 days there : nor was it easy to imagine what the 
design of so great an expedition could be, or why so 
much money was thrown away on such a project, 
which made us despised by our enemies, while it 
provoked our friends ; who might justly think they 
could not depend upon such an ally, who managed so 
great a force with so poor a conduct, as neither to 
hurt their enemies nor protect their friends by it. 
Another to A squadron was sent to the West Indies, com- 
iiiies.'* manded by Graydon ; a man brutal in his way, and 
not well affected to the present state of affairs : the 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 91 

design was, to gather all the forces that we had, 1703. 
scattered up and down the plantations, and with 
that strength to go and take Placentia, and so to 
drive the French out of the Newfoundland trade : 
but the secret of this was so ill kept, that it was 
commonly talked of before he sailed: the French 
had timely notice of it, and sent a greater force to 
defend the place than he could bring together to 
attack it. His orders were pressing, in particular, 
that he should not go out of his way to pursue any 
of the enemy's ships whom he might see ; these he 
observed so punctually, that when he saw a squa- 
dron of four French men of war sailing towards 
Brest, that were visibly foul, and in no condition to 
make any resistance, he sent indeed one of his ships 
to view them, who engaged them, but Graydon gave 
the signal to call him off, upon which they got safe 
into Brest. This was afterwards known to be Du 
Casse's squadron, who was bringing treasure home 
from Cartagena and other ports of the West Indies, 
reported to be four millions of pieces of eight : but 
though here was a good prey lost, yet so careful was 
the prince's council to excuse every thing done by 
such a man, that they ordered an advertisement to 
be put in the Gazette, to justify Graydon ; in which 
it was said, that pursuant to his orders he had not 
engaged that fleet. The orders were indeed strange- They re- 
ly given, yet our admirals had never thought them- without 
selves so bound down to them, but that, upon great ^"*^'^®*'* 
occasions, they might make stretches ; especially 
where the advantage was visible, es it was in this 
case : for since they were out of the way of new or- 
ders, and new occasions might happen, which could 
hot be known when their orders were given, the 



9« THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1703. nature of the service seemed to give them a greater 
liberty than was fit to be allowed in the land ser- 
vice. When he came to the plantations, he acted 
in so savage a manner, as if he had been sent rather 
to terrify than to protect them : when he had drawn 
the forces together that were in the plantations, he 
went to attack Placentia : but he found it to be so 
well defended, that he did not think fit so much as 
to make any attempt upon it : so this expedition 
ended very ingloriously, and many complaints of 
Gray don's conduct were sent after him. 
Our fleets Thcrc was also a great complaint through the 

were ill vie- ^ ^ ^ r>i>*ii* i r 

tuaiied. whole fleet of their victuallmg ; we lost many 01 our 
360 seamen, who, as was said, were poisoned by ill food; 
and though great complaints were made of the vic- 
tuallers, before the fleet went out, yet there was 
not such care taken to look into it as a matter of 
that consequence deserved : the merchants did also 
complain, that they were ill served with convoys, 
and so little care had been taken of the Newcastle 
fleet, that the price of coals rose very high : it was 
also said, that there was not a due care had of our 
seamen that were taken by the privateers, many of 
them died by reason of their ill usage, while others, 
to deliver themselves from that, went into the 
French service. Thus all our marine affairs were 
much out of order, and these disorders were charged 
on those who had the conduct of them ; every thing 
was unprosperous, and that will always be laid hea- 
vily on those who are in the management of affairs : 
it is certain that^in the beginning of this reign, all 
those who hated the late king and his government, or 
had been dismissed the service by him, were sought 
out, and invited into employments : so it was not to 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 93 

be expected, that they could be faithful or cordial 1703. 
in the war against France. 

The affairs of Scotland come next to be related : Tiie affairs 

-, ^ , - of Scotland. 

a new parliament was called, and many were chosen 
to serve in it, who were believed to be in secret en- 
gagements with the court at St. Germains : the 
lords, who had hitherto kept out of parliament, and 
were known to be Jacobites, came and qualified 
themselves, by taking the oaths, to vote in parlia- 
ment : it was set up for a maxim, by the new mi- 
nistry, that all the Jacobites were to be invited 
home : so a proclamation was issued out, of a very 
great extent, indemnifying all persons for all trea- 
sons committed before April last ; without any li- 
mitation of time for their coming home, to accept of 
this grace, and without demanding any security of 
them for the future. The duke of Queensbury was 
sent down the Queen's commissioner to the parlia- 
ment : this inflamed all those who had formerly op- 
posed him; they resolved to oppose him still in 
eVery thing, and the greater part of the Jacobites 
joined with them, but some of them were bought 
off, as was said, by him : he, seeing so strong an op- 
position formed agains thim, studied to engage the 
presbyterian party to stick to him : and even the 
party that united against him, were so apprehensive 
of the strength of that interest, that they likewise 
studied to court them, and were very careful not to 
give them any umbrage. By this, all the hopes of 
the episcopal party were lost ; and every thing re- 
lating to the church did not only continue in the 
same state in which it was during the former reign, 
but the presbyterians got a new law in their favour, Presbytery 

~^ was coa- 

which gave them as firm a settlement, and as full a firmed. 



M THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1703. security as law could give; for an act passed, not 



only confirming the claim of rights, upon which the 
crown had been offered to the late king, one of its 
articles being against prelacy, and for a parity in 
[357] the church, but it was declared high treason to en- 
deavour any alteration of it. It had been often pro- 
posed to the late king, to pass this into an act, but 
he would never consent to it : he said, he had taken 
the crown on the terms in that claim, and that 
therefore he would never make a breach on any 
part of it ; but he would not bind his successors, by 
making it a perpetual law. Thus a ministry, that 
carried aU matters relating to the church to so great 
a height, yet, with other views, gave a fatal stroke 
to the episcopal interest in Scotland, to which the 
Debates late king would never give way. The great debates 

conceroia^ .... . , • n 1 

the succeg- lu this scssiou wcrc conccmmg the succession oi the 
crowiu * crown, in case the queen should die without issue. 
They resolved to give the preference to that debate, 
before they would consider the supplies ; it was soon 
resolved that the successor to the crown after the 
queen, should not be the same person that was king 
or queen of England, unless the just rights of the 
nation should be declared in parliament, and fully 
settled in an independence upon English interests 
and councils. After this, they went to name parti- 
culars, which by some were carried so far, that those 
expedients were indeed the setting up a common- 
wealth, with the empty name of a king : for it was 
proposed, that the whole administration should be 
committed to a council, named by parliament, and 
that the legislature should be entirely in the parlia- 
ment, by which no shadow of power was left with 
the crown, and it was merely a nominal thing : but 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 95 

the further entering upon expedients was laid aside 1 703. 
for that time, only one act passed, that went a great 
way towards them : it was declared, that no suc- 
ceeding king should have the power to engage the 
nation in a war, without consent of parliament. An- 
other act of a strange nature passed, allowing the 
importation of French goods, which, as was pre- 
tended, were to be imported in the ships of a neu- 
tral state. The truth was, the revenue was so ex- 
hausted, that they had not enough to support the 
government witl;out such help : those who desired 
to drink good wine, and all who were concerned in 
trade, ran into it ; so it was carried, though with 
great opposition : the Jacobites also went into it, 
since it opened a free correspondence with France : 
it was certainly against the public interest of the 
government, in opposition to which private interest 
does often prevail. The court of St. Germains, per- 
ceiving such a disjointing in Scotland, and so great 
an opposition made in parliament, was from thence 
eticouraged to set all their emissaries in that king- 
dom at work, to engage both the chief of the nobi- 
lity, and the several tribes in the Highlands, to be 
ready to appear for them. One Frazier '^ had gone 
through the Highlands the former year, and from 
thence he went to France, where he pretended he 
had authority from the Highlanders to undertake to 
bring together a body of 12,000 men, if they might 
be assisted by some force, together with officers, [358] 
arms, ammunition, and money from France. After 
he had delivered this message to the queen at St. 
Grermains, she recommended him to the French mi- 

"^ Afterwards lord Lovat, and beheaded in 1 747. O. 



9<^ THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1703. nisters; so he had some audiences of them. He 
Practices proposed that 5000 men should be sent from Dun- 
^^ kirk, to land near Dundee, with arms for 20,000 
men ; and that 500 should be sent from Brest, to 
seize on fort William, which commanded the great 
pass in the Highlands. The French hearkened to 
all this, but would not venture much upon slight 
grounds, so they sent him back with some others, in 
- whom they confided more, to see how much they 
might depend on, and what the strength of the 
Highlanders was : they were also ordered to try 
whether any of the great nobility of that kingdom 
would engage in the design. 
A discovery When thcsc camc over, Frazier got himself se- 
the«e. cretly introduced to the duke of Queensbury, to 
whom he discovered all that had been already trans- 
acted : and he undertook to discover the whole cor- 
respondence between St. Germains and the Jacob- 
ites ; he also named many of the lords who opposed 
him most in parliament, and said, they were already 
deeply engaged. The duke of Queensbury heark- 
ened very willingly to all this, and he gave him a 
pass to go through the Highlands again, where he 
found some were stiU very forward, but others were 
more reserved. At his return, he resolved to go 
back to France, and promised to make a more entire 
discovery : he put one letter in the duke of Queens- 
bury's hands, from the queen at St. Germains, di- 
rected on the back (but by another hand) to the 
marquis of Athol : the letter was writ in such gene- 
ral terms, that it might have been directed to any of 
the great nobility : and probably he who was trusted 
with it had power given him to direct it to any, to 
whom he found it would be most acceptable: for 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 97 

there was nothing in the letter that was particular 1703. 
to any one person or family ; it only mentioned the 
promises and assurances sent to her by that lord. 
This Frazier had been accused of a rape, committed 
on a sister of the lord Athol's, for which he was con- 
victed and outlawed : so it might be supposed that 
he, to be revenged of the lord Athol, who had prose- 
cuted him for that crime, might put his name on 
the back of that letter. It is certain, that the others 
who were more trusted, and were sent over with 
him, avoided his company, so that he was not made 
acquainted with that proceeding. Frazier came up 
to London in winter, and had some meetings with 
the practising Jacobites about the town, to whom 
he discovered his negotiation : he continued still to 
persuade the duke of Queensbury of his fidelity to 
him : his name was not told the queen ; for when 
the duke of Queensbury wrote to her an account of 
the discovery, he added, that unless she commanded 
it, he had promised not to name the persdn, for he [359] 
was to go back to St. Germains, to complete the dis- 
covery. The queen did not ask his name, but had 
more regard to what he said, because in the main it 
agreed with the intelligence that her ministers had 
from their spies at Paris. The duke of Queensbury 
procured a pass for him to go to Holland, but by an- 
other name : for he opened no part of this matter to 
the earl of Nottingham, who gave the pass. The 
Jacobites in London suspected Frazier's correspond- 
ence with the duke of Queensbury, and gave adver- 
tisement to the lord Athol, and l)y this means the 
whole matter broke out, as shall be told afterwards. 
What influence soever this or any other practice 
might have in Scotland, it is certain the opposition 

VOL. V. H 



98 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1703. in parliament grew still greater; and since the duke 
of Queensbury would not suffer them to proceed in 
those strange limitations upon the crown that had 
been proposed, though the queen ordered him to 
pass the other bills, they would give no supply ; so 
that the pay of the army, with the charge of the go- 
vernment, was to run upon credit, and by this means 
matters there were like to come to extremities. A 
national humour of rendering themselves a free and 
independent kingdom did so inflame them, that, as 
they had a majority of seventy in parliament, they 
seemed capable of the most extravagant things that 
could be suggested to them : the greatest part of the 
ministry forsook the duke of Queensbury in parlia- 
ment ; both the earl of Seafield, lord chancellor, the 
marquis of Athol, the lord privy seal, and lord Tar- 
bet, the secretary of state, with all that depended on 
them, broke off from him : yet upon the conclusion 
of the session, Athol was made a duke, and Tarbet 
was made earl of Cromarty, which looked like re- 
warding them for their opposition. Soon after that, 
the queen resolved to revive the order of the thistle, 
that had been raised by her father, but was let fall 
by the late king : it was to be canied in a green 
ribbon, as the George is in a blue, and the glory was 
in the form of a St. Andrew's cross, with a thistle in 
the middle. Argyle, Athol, Annandale, Orkney, and 
Seafield were the first that had it, the number being 
limited to twelve. And to such a height did the 
disorders in that kingdom rise, that great skill and 
much secret practice seemed necessary to set matters 
ReflectioM right there : the aversion and iealousy towards those 

on the con- 1 » 1 . ^ •/ 

duct of af- who had been nxost active in the last reign, and the 
favour shewed to those who were in king James's 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 99 

interests, had an appearance of bringing matters out 1703. 
of an excess, to a temper : and it was much magni- 
fied by those who intended to flatter the queen, on 
design to ruin her. Though the same measures 
were taken in England, yet there was less danger in 
following them here than there : eri'ors might be 
sooner observed and easier corrected, where persons 
are in view, and are watched in all their motions : [360] 
but this might prove fatal at a greater distance, 
where it was more easy to deny or palliate things 
with great assurance. The duke of Queensbury's 
engrossing all things to himself increased the dis- 
gust at the credit he was in : he had begun a prac- 
tice of drawing out the sessions of parliament to an 
unusual length; by which his appointments ex- 
hausted so much of the revenue, that the rest of the 
ministers were not paid, and that will always create 
discontent : he trusted entirely to a few persons, and 
his conduct was liable to just exceptions : some of 
those who had the greatest credit with him were 
believed to be engaged in a foreign interest ; and his 
passing, or rather promoting the act, that opened a 
correspondence with France, was considered as a de- 
sign to settle a commerce there : and upon that his 
fidelity or his capacity were much questioned ^. 



'• His fidelity might be ques- other demands, all his own sti- 

tioned, but his capacity was pends : which were so large, 

out of all dispute, for any thing the whole revenue of Scotland 

but getting of money, which he could not satisfy them ; and he 

was universally allowed to be had no remorse in leaving the 

very dexterous at : the earl of rest of the company to shift for 

Seafield told me, that at the themselves, who most of them, 

time the bishop mentioned, he if they had not been subsisted 

had obtained a warrant to pay from England, must have re- 

himself, (as first commissioner tired out of mere necessity. D. 

of the treasury,) before any > 

H 2 



100 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

J 703. There were still high discontents in Ireland, occa- 
The affairs sioned by the behaviour of the trustees there. The 
of Ireland, ^^j^g of Ormoud was the better received, when he 
went to that goverament, because he came after the 
earl of Rochester ; till it appeared that he was in all 
things governed by him ; and that he pursued the 
measures which he had begun to take, of raising 
new divisions in that kingdom: for, before that 
time, the only division in Ireland was, that of Eng- 
lish and Irish, protestants and papists : but of late 
ian animosity came to be raised there, like that we 
labour under in England, between whig and tory. 
The wiser sort of the English resolved to oppose 
this all they could, and to proceed with temper and 
moderation ^ : the parliament there was opened with 
speeches and addresses, that carried the compli- 
ments to the duke of Ormond so far, as if no other 
person besides himself could have given them that 
settlement which they expected from his govern- 
ment. The trustees had raised a scandal upon that 
nation, as if they designed to set up an independ- 
ence upon England : so they began the session with 
a vote, disclaiming that as false and injurious. They 
expressed on all occasions their hatred of the trus- 
tees and of their proceedings, yet they would not 
presume to meddle with any thing they had done 

* The wiser sort had good know, that these distinctions 

reason to oppose this ; but the were first begun by that very 

duke of Ormond was far from wise, but over-zealous whig, 

having raised these disputes, the lord Capel, whom the reve- 

The bishop, who has sworn to rend author was unwilling to 

the truth of what he says, has find fault with, being, if we are 

forgot that he has charged it to believe himself, of no party, 

upon lord chancellor Porter, but a most disinterested re- 

(page r59,) though there is no- porter of truth, D. 
body in Ireland that does not 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 101 

pursuant to the act that had passed in England, 1703. 
which vested the trust in them. They offered the^ 
necessary supplies, but took exceptions to the ac- 
counts that were laid before them, and observed 
some errors in them. This begat an uneasiness in 
the duke of Ormond ; for though he was generous, 
and above all sordid practices, yet being a man of 
pleasure, he was much in the power of those who 
acted under him, and whose integrity was not so 
clear. One great design of the wiser among them 
was, to break the power of popery, and the interest 
that the heads of the Irish families had among 
them: they enacted the succession of the crown, 361 
to follow the pattern set them by England in every 
particular ^ : they also passed an act concerning An act 
papists, somewhat like that which had passed infh^re 
England three years before; but with some morCp^pJJy. 
effectual clauses, for the want of which we have 
not yet had any fruit from that act : the main 
difference was that which made it look less invidi- 
ous, and yet was more effectual, for breaking the 
dependence on the heads of families : for it was 
provided, that all estates should be equaUy divided 
among the children of papists, notwithstanding any 
settlements to the contrary, unless the persons on 
whom they were settled, qualified themselves by 
taking the oaths, and coming to the communion of 
the church : this seemed to carry no hardship to the 
family in general, and yet gave hopes of weakening 
that interest so considerably, that the bill was of- 
fered to the duke c^f Ormond, pressing him, with 

^ Whoever is king of Eng- kingdom upon the crown of 
hind, is of course king of Ire- England. O. 
land, by the de)>endency of that 

H 3 



102 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1703. more than usual vehemence, to intercede so effectu- 
allj, that it might be returned back under the 
great seal of England. They understood that the 
papists of Ireland had raised a considerable sum, to 
be sent over to England, to support their practices, 
in order to the stopping this bill : it came over 
warmly recommended by the duke of Ormond : but 
it was as warmly opposed by those who had a mind 
to have a share in the presents that were ready to 
be made. The pretence for opposing it was, that 
while the queen was so deeply engaged with the 
emperor, and was interceding for favour to the pro- 
testants in his dominions ; it seemed not seasonable, 
and was scarce decent, to pass so severe a law against 
those of his religion : though this had the less 
strength, since it was very evident, that all the Irish 
papists were in the French interest, so there was no 
reason to apprehend that the emperor could be 
much concerned for them. The parliament of Eng- 
land was sitting when this bill came over, and men's 
eyes were much set on the issue of it : so that the 
ministers judged it was not safe to deny it : but a 
clause was added, which they hoped would hinder 
its being accepted in Ireland. That matter was car- 
ried on so secretly, that it was known to none but 
those who were at the council, till the news of it 
came from Ireland, upon its being sent thither : the 
clause was to this purpose, that none in Ireland 
should be capable of any employment, or of being 
in the magistracy in any city, who did not qualify 
themselves by receiving the sacrament, according to 
the test-act passed in England ; which before this 
time had never been offered to the Irish nation. It 
was hoped by those who got this clause to be added 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 103 

to the bill, that those in Ireland who promoted it 1703. 
most would now be the less fond of it, when it had 
such a weight hung to it : the greatest part of Ul- 
ster was possessed by the Scotch, who adhered stiffly 
to their first education in Scotland : and they were 
so united in that way, that it was believed they 362 
could not find such Sr number of men, who would 
qualify themselves, as was necessary by this clause 
to maintain the order and justice of the country. 
Yet upon this occasion the Irish parliament pro- 
ceeded with great caution and wisdom : they reck- 
oned that this act, so far as it related to papists, 
would have a certain and great effect for their com- 
mon security : and that when it was once passed, it 
would never be repealed : whereas if great inconveni- 
encies did arise upon this new clause, it would be 
an easier thing to obtain a repeal of it, in a subse- 
quent parliament, either of England or Ireland. So 
the act was passed, and those who thought they had 
managed the matter with a masterpiece of cunning, 
were outwitted by an Irish parliament. However 
this artifice, and some other things in the duke of 
Ormond's conduct, put them into such an ill hu- 
mour, that the supply bill was clogged and lessened 
by many clauses added to it. The session ended in 
so much heat, that it was thouglit that parliament 
would meet no more, if the duke of Ormond was 
continued in the government. 

Thus the parts of the government that were Jealousies 
thought the most easily managed, Scotland and Ire-nistry. 
land, had of late been put into so much disorder, 
that it might prove no easy work to set them again 
in order. The government was every where going, 

H 4 



104 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1703. as it were, out of joint : its nerves and strength 
seemed to be much slackened : the trusting and em- 
ploying, not only violent tories, but even known 
Jacobites, as it brought a weakness on the manage- 
ment, so it raised a jealousy that could not be easily 
cured. Stories were confidently vented, and by some 
easily believed, that the queen was convinced of the 
wrong done her pretended brother % and that she 
was willing to put affairs in the hands of persons 
who favoured his succession. It was also observed, 
that our court kept too cold civilities with the house 
of Hanover, and did nothing that was tender or 
cordial looking that way : nor were any employed 
who had expressed a particular zeal for their in- 
terests. These things gave great jealousy. All that 
was said in excuse for trusting such persons was, 
that it was fit once to try if good usage could soften 
them, and bring them entirely into the queen's in- 
terests : and assurances were given, that, if upon a 
• trial the effect hoped for did not follow, they should 
be again dismissed. 

This was the state of our affairs when a new ses- 
sion of parliament was opened in November. The 
queen m her speech expressed a great zeal for carry- 
ing on the war, and with relation to the affairs of 
Europe: she recommended union and good agree- 
ment to aU her people ; she said she wanted words 
to express how earnestly she desired this. This 
was understood as an intimation of her desire, that 

8 The author has used the infuse a belief into others of his 

like expression before, which illegitimacy, whatever were his 

looks as if he did not believe own real thoughts about it. See 

even now the legitimacy of the notes at \ip. 753. 817. of the 

f)retender. O. (The author had first volume, folio edition.) 

done as much as any man to - 



OF QUEEN ANNE. I0S 

there should be no further proceeding in the bill 1703. 
against occasional conformity. Addresses full of re-^T^ 
spect were made to the queen, in return to her 
speech ; and the lords, in theirs, promised to avoid 
every thing that should occasion disunion or con- 
tention : but nothing could lay the heat of a party, 
which was wrought on by some, who had designs 
that were to be denied or disguised, till a proper 
time for owning them should appear. A motion was a biiia- 
made in the house of commons, for bringing in the ?^ionar 
bill against occasional conformity : great opposition *="°^''""'*y' 
was made to it ; the court was against it, but it was 
canied by a great majority, that such a bill should 
be brought in. So a new draught was formed : in 
it, the preamble that was in the former bill was left 
out. The number, besides the family, that made a 
conventicle, was enlarged from five to twelve : and 
the fine set on those who went to conventicles, after 
they had received the sacrament, besides the loss ot 
their employment, was brought down to fifty pound. 
These were artifices, by which it was hoped, upon 
such softenings, once to carry the bill on any terms : 
and when that point was gained, it would be easy 
afterwards to carry other bills of greater severity. 
There was now such a division upon this matter, 
that it was fairly debated in the house of commons : 
whereas before, it went there with such a torrent, 
that no opposition to it could be hearkened to. 
I'hose who opposed the bill went chiefly upon this 
ground, that this bill put the dissenters in a worse 
condition than they were in before: so it was a 
breach made upon the toleration, which ought not 
to be done, since they had not deserved it by any 
ill behaviour of theii^s, by which it could be pre- 



106 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1703. tended that they had forfeited any of the benefits 
-^ designed by that act. Things of this kind could 

have no effect but to embroil us with new distrac- 
tions, and to disgust persons well affected to the 
queen and her government : it was necessary to 
continue the happy quiet that we were now in, espe- 
cially in this time of war, in which even the severest 
of persecutors made their stops, for fear of irritating 
ill humours too much. The old topics of hypocrisy, 
and of the danger the church was in, were brought 
Pwsed by up again on behalf of the bill, and the biU passed 
moui!'" ill the house of commons by a great majority. 
And so it was sent up to the lords, where it occa- 
sioned one debate of many hours, whether the bill 
should be entertained and read a second time, or be 
thrown out : the prince appeared no more for it, 
, nor did he come to the house upon this occasion : 
some who had voted for it, in the former session, 
kept out of the house, and others owned they saw 
farther into the design of the bill, and so voted 
But rejected against it. Upon a division it was carried, by a ma- 
Jj^ jority of twelve,, not to give it a second reading, but 
to reject it. 

The bishops were almost equally divided : there 
were two more against it than for it. Among these, 
364 1 had the largest share of censure on me, because I 
spoke much against the bill. I knew how the act 
of test was carried, as has been already shewn in its 
proper place. I related that in the house, and the 
many practices of the papists, of setting us of the 
church against the dissenters, and the dissenters 
against us, by turns, as it might serve their ends. 
I ventured to say, that a man might lawfully com- 
municate with a church that he thought had a wor- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 107 

ship and a doctrine uncorrupted, and yet commiini- 1703. 
cate more frequently with a church that he thought 
more perfect. I myself had communicated with the 
churches of Geneva and Holland ; and yet at the 
same time communicated with the church of Eng- 
land : so, though the dissenters were in a mistake, 
as to their opinion which was the more perfect 
church, yet allowing them a toleration in that error, 
this practice might be justified '\ I was desired to 
print what I said upon that occasion, which drew 
many virulent pamphlets upon me, but I answered 
none of them'. I saw the Jacobites designed to 
raise such a flame among us, as might make it scarce 
possible to carry on the war ; those who went not so 
deep, yet designed to make a breach on the tole- 
ration by gaining this point : and I was resolved 
never to be silent, when that should be brought into 
debate : for I have long looked on liberty of con- 
science as one of the rights of human nature, ante- 
cedent to society, which no man could give up, be- 
cause it was not in his own power: and our Saviour's 
rule, of doing as we would be done by, seemed to be 
a very express decision to all men, who would lay 
the matter home to their own conscience, and judge 
as they would willingly be judged by others. 



^ This bill I am persuaded cessity of communion, may be 

was very ill meant, the work of very conscientious, and some- 

a party for other purposes; but times commendable, when there 

occasional conformity, and in is no sin in the matter con- 

ihe sacrament, merely for tem- formed to. The sacramental 

poral emoluments, is very of- test is made a sad and profane 

fensive, and often done against use of by others, and many 

conscience for the sake of pro- more, 1 fear, than the dissenters, 

fit. Occasional conformity from It is become a great scandal. O. 
a principle of Christian charity, ' (See note at p. 336.) 

from true Catholicism, or ne- 



108 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1703. The clergy over England, who were generally in- 
The clergy flamed wlth this matter, could hardly forgive the 
moJf''"" queen and the prince the coldness that they ex- 
pressed on this occasion. The lord Godolphin did 
so positively declare that he thought the bill unsea- 
sonable, and that he had done all he could to hinder 
its being brought in, that though he voted to give 
the bill a second reading, that did not reconcile the 
party to him ^. They set up the earl of Rochester, 
as the only man to be depended on, who deserved tq 
be the chief minister. 
The com- The housc of commons gave all the supplies that 

nions rote r> • i • j 

all the lie- wcrc ucccssary for carrymg on the war : some tried 
ces^ sui>- ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ against occasional conformity to the 

bill of supply, but they had not strength to carry 
it. The commons shewed a very unusual neglect 
of all that related to the fleet, which was wont tci 
be one of their chief cares : it was surmised, that 
they saw, that if they opened that door, discoveries 
would be made of errors that could neither be justi- 
fied nor palliated, and that these must come home 
chiefly to their greatest favourites ; so they avoided 
all examinations that would probably draw some 
censure on them. 
365 The lords were not so tender : they found great 
iDtl!"thr fault with the counsels, chiefly with the sending 
Se Itlirt."^ Shovell to the Mediterranean, and Graydon to the 
West-Indies : and laid all the discoveries, that were 
made to them, with their own observations on them, 
before the queen, in addresses that were very plain, 

^ (The whig author of the voted for the bill, it is very well 

marquis of Wharton's Memoirs, known that he instructed his 

published in 1716, observes, dependents to vote against it, 

that, although lord Godolphin p. 40.) 



OF QUEEN ANNE. ' 109 

though full of all due respect : they went on like- 1 703. 
wise, in their examinations of the outcry made of 
the waste of the public treasure in the last reign ; 
they examined the earl of Orford's accounts, which 
amounted to seventeen millions, and upon which 
some observations had been made by the commis- 
sioners, for examining the public accounts ; they 
found them all to be false in fact, or ill grounded, 
and of no importance. 

The only particular that seemed to give a just t'>c cari of 

1 • •I'll Orford's 

colour to exception was very strictly examined : he accounts 
had victualled the fleet while they lay all winter at^"* 
Cadiz : the pursers' receipts for the quantity that 
was laid into every ship were produced, but they 
had no receipts of the Spaniards, from whom they 
had bought the provisions ; but they had entered 
the prices of them in their own books, and these 
were given in upon oath. This matter had been 
much canvassed in the late king's time, and it stood 
thus : Russel, now earl of Orford, when he had been 
ordered to lie at Cadiz, wrote to the board of victual- 
ling, to send one over to provide the fleet ; they an- 
swered, that their credit was then so low, that they 
could not undertake it : so he was desired to do it 
upon his own credit. It appeared, that no fleet nor 
single ship had ever been victualled so cheap as the 
fleet was then by him : it was not the custom in 
Spain to give receipts ; but if any fraud had been 
intended, it would have been easy to have got the 
Spaniards, after they had their money, to have 
signed any receipts that could have been offered 
them, for swelling up the accounts ; for the prac- 
tices of swelling accounts, in their dealings with 
their own court, were well known there. Upon 



110 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
1703. these reasons, the lords of the treasury had passed 



his accounts, and were of opinion that he had done 
a great service to the government in that whole 
transaction '. The house of lords did now confirm 
this ; and ordered an account of that whole matter 
to be printed. 

The commons made no progress in any discove- 
ries of ill practices in the earl of Ranelagh's office, 
but concluded that matter with an address to the 
queen, that she would order a prosecution. This 
was an artifice to make the nation still think, that 
great discoveries of corruption might be made, if 
carefully looked after : it was expected, after such 
an outcry as they had made, and after the expense 
the nation was put to for this commission, and the 
extraordinary powers that were lodged with the 
commissioners, that at least some important disco- 
veries should have been made by them. 
366 The commons sent up a bill to the lords, for con- 
examiDin'j tinuiug the commission another year: it was ob- 
Mcounu*^ served that an alteration was made of the persons ; 
lost be- some, who expected better places, got their names to 
two houses, be left out. The lords excepted to one Bierly, who 
was named to be one of the commissioners ; because 
he had been a colonel, and had not yet cleared the 
accounts of his own regiment : so they struck out 
his name, and named another ; and they added two 

' If the pious bishop had as presents to himself; and 
not so copiously sworn to the having undertaken the victual- 
truth of his narratives, I could ling, charged them in his ac- 
have sworn that he knew a bet- counts at the current prices, 
ter reason why Spanish receipts But I am not ignorant, that 
could not be produced ; which there is an ancient decision, 
was, that the king of Spain had that the saints may coin dol- 
sent vast quantities of provi- lars, which Rook could not have 
sions to regale the English fleet, been allowed the benefit of, in 
which the earl of Orford took like case. D. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. Ill 

more, who were not members of the house of com- 1703. 
mons. The reason of this was, because the mem- 
bers of that house would not appear before them, to 
explain some particulars ; they only sent their clerk 
to inform them, and when the lords sent a message 
to the house of commons, to desire them to order 
their members to attend on their committee, all the 
return they had was, that they would send an an- 
swer, by messengers of their own : but this was 
illusory, for they sent no such message. So the 
lords thought it necessary, in order to their being 
better informed, to put some in the commission for 
the future, who should be bound to attend upon 
them, as oft as they should be called for. The com- 
mons rejected these amendments ; and pretended 
that this was of the nature of a money-bill, and that 
therefore the lords Could make no alterations in it. 
The message that the commons sent the lords upon 
this head came so near the end of the session, that 
the lords could not return an answer to it, with the 
reasons for which they insisted on their amend- 
ments ; so that bill fell. 

The charge of this commission amounted to eight 
thousand pounds a year ; the commissioners made 
much noise, and brought many persons before them 
to be examined, and gave great disturbance to all 
the public offices, what by their attendance on 
them, what by copying out all their books for their 
perusal ; and yet in a course of many years they 
had not made any one discovery : so a full stop was 
put to this way of proceeding '". 

An incident happened during this session which a dispute 

, . , , concerning 

may have great consequences, though m itself it injustice in 

the elec- 
"" (But see note at p. 3 1 1 .) 



11« THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
1703. might seem inconsiderable : there have been great 



tionsof complaints long made, and these have increased 
™*Hau.ent. much within these few years, of great partiality and 
injustice in the elections of parliament-men, both by 
sheriffs in counties, and by the returning officers in 
boroughs. In Aylesbury, the return was made by 
four constables, and it was believed, that they made 
a bargain with some of the candidates, and then 
managed the matter, so as to be sure, that the ma- 
jority should be for the person to whom they had 
engaged themselves ; they canvassed about the town, 
to know how the voters were set, and they resolved 
to find some pretence for disabling those who were 
engaged to vote for other persons than their friends, 
that they might be sure to have the majority in their 
367 own hands. And when this matter came to be ex- 
amined by the house of commons, they gave the 
election always for him who was reckoned of the 
party of the majority, in a manner so barefaced, 
that they were scarce out of countenance when 
they were charged for injustices in judging elections. 
It was not easy to find a remedy to such a crying 
abuse, of which all sides in their turns, as they hap- 
pened to be depressed, had made great complaints ; 
but when they came to be the majority, seemed to 
have forgot all that they had formerly cried out 
on ". Some few excused this, on the topic of reta- 
liation ; they said, they dealt with others as they 
had dealt with them or their friends. At last an 
action was brought against the constables of Ayles- 
bury, at the suit of one who had been always ad- 
mitted to vote in former elections, iDut was denied 
it in the last election. This was tried at the as- 
" See antea, p. 162. O. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 113 

sizes, and it was found there by the jury, that the ^703. 
constables had denied him a right, of which he was 
undoubtedly in possession, so they were to be cast 
in damages ; but it was moved in the queen's bench, 
to quash all the proceedings in that matter, since 
no action did lie or had ever been brought upon 
that account. Powel, Gould, and Powis were of 
opinion, that no hurt was done the man ; that the 
judging of elections belonged to the house of com- 
mons ; that as this action was the first of its kind, 
so if it was allowed, it would bring on an infinity of 
suits, and put all the officers, concerned in that 
matter, upon great difficulties : lord chief justice 
Holt, though alone, yet differed from the rest ; he 
thought this was a matter of the greatest import- 
ance, both to the whole nation in general, and to 
every man in his own particular ; he made a great 
difference between an election of a member, and 
a right to vote in it ; the house of commons were the 
only judges of the former, whether it was rightly 
managed or not, without bribery, fraud, or violence ; 
but the right of voting in an election was an ori- 
ginal right, founded either on a freehold of forty 
shillings a year in the county, or on burgageland, 
or upon a prescription, or by charter, in a borough : 
these were all legal titles, and as such were triable 
in a court of law. Acts of parliament were made 
concerning them, and by reason of these, every 
thing relating to those acts was triable in a court 
of law ; he spoke long and learnedly, and with some 
vehemence upon the subject ; but he was one against 
three, so the order of the court went in favour of 
the constables. The matter was upon that brought 
before the house of lords by a writ of error ; the 

VOL. V. I 



114 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1703. case was very fully argued at the bar, and the 
judges were ordered to deliver their opinions upon 
it, which they did very copiously ". 

Chief justice Trevor insisted much on the autho- 
rity that the house of commons had, to judge of all 
those elections ; from that he inferred, that they only 
could judge who were the electors : petitions were 
often grounded on this, that in the poll some were 
368 admitted to a vote who had no right to it, and that 
others were denied it who had a right ; so that in 
some cases they were the proper judges of this right : 
and if they had it in some cases, they must have it 
in all. From this he inferred, that every thing re- 
lating to this matter was triable by them, and by 
them only ; if two independent jurisdictions might 
have the same case brought before them, they might 
give contrary judgments in it ; and this must breed 
great distraction in the execution of those judg- 
ments. 

To all this it was answered, that a single man, 
who was wronged in this matter, had no other re- 
medy but by bringing it into a court of law ; for the 
house of commons could not examine the right of 
every voter ; if the man, for whom he would have 
voted, was returned, he could not be heard to com- 
plain to the house of commons, though in his own 
particular he was denied a vote, since he could not 

" Holt's opinion is now ex- 407. &c. O. (Walpole, earl of 

ploded by some of the best Orford, in his curious and im- 

lawyers ; and the resolutions of portant Memoirs, lately pub- 

the house of commons upon lished by lord Holland, remarks, 

this point are well and fully es- in the character he draws 

tablished. See for this the notes of this most respectable man, 

in my printed copy of the de- speaker Onslow, that he was 

bates in the house of commons bigoted to the power of his 

upon this matter, see postea, own house, vol. i. p. 112.) 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 115 

make any exceptions to the return; so he must '703. 



bear his wrong, without a remedy, if he could not 
bring it into a court of law. A right of voting in 
an election was the greatest of all the rights of an 
Englishman, since by that he was represented in 
parliament ; the house of commons could give no 
relief to a man wronged in this, nor any damages ; 
they could only set aside one, and admit of another 
return ; but this was no redress to him that suffered 
the wrong ; it made him to be the less considered 
in his borough, and that might be a real damage 
to him in his trade : since this was a right inherent 
in a man, it seemed reasonable that it should be 
brought, where all other rights were tried, into a 
court of law ; the abuse was new, and was daily 
growing, and it was already swelled to a great 
height; when new disorders happen, new actions 
must lie, otherwise there is a failure in justice, which 
all laws abhor ; practices of this sort were enormous 
and crying ; and if the rule made in the queen's 
bench was affirmed, it would very much increase 
these disorders, by this indemnity, that seemed to 
be given to the officers who took the poll. 

After a long debate, it was carried by a great The lords 
majority to set aside the order in the queen's bench, iJ/,^^,,* of 
and to give judgment according to the verdict given IJ^I^^J"iai,ie 
at the assizes. This gave great offence to the house *^ '*''• 
of commons, who passed very high votes upon it, 
against the man of Aylesbury, as guilty of a breach 
of their privileges, and against all others who should 
for the future bring any such suits into courts of 
law ; and likewise against all counsel, attorneys and 
others, who should assist in any such suits ; and 
they affirmed, that the whole matter relating to 

l2 



116 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1703. elections l>elonged only to them: yet they did not 
think fit to send for the man who had sued, or ra- 
ther in whose name the suit was carried on ; so they 
let the matter as to him fall, under a shew of mode- 
ration and pity, and let it rest upon those general 
votes. The lords on their part ordered the whole 
369 state of the case to be drawn up and printed, which 
was done with much learning and judgment " ; they 
also asserted the right, that all the people of Eng- 
land had, to seek for justice in courts of law, upon 
all such occasions ; and that the house of commons, 
by their votes, struck at the liberties of the people, 
at the law of England, and at the judicature of the 
house of lords ; and they ordered the lord keeper to 
send a copy of the case and of their votes to all the 
sheriffs of England, to be communicated to all the 
boroughs in their counties. The house of commons 
was much provoked with this, but they could not 
hinder it; the thing was popular, and the lords 
got great credit, by the judgment they gave, which 
let the people of England see how they might be 
redressed for the future, if they should meet with 
the injustice, the partiality, and other ill practices, 
that had appeared of late in elections, even beyond 
the examples of former times. This may prove a 
restraint on the officers, now that they see they are 
liable to be sued, and that a vote of the house of 
commons cannot cover them i'. 



" By lord Somers. O. borough of Aylesburj' being one 
P In all this matter there of those he had election in- 
was too much heat on all sides, terests in, and which he applied 
It was made a party contest, himself to whenever he could, 
and carried on for the sake of and with all sorts of manage- 
that. LordWharton was much ment, in which he was very 
concerned in it personally, the dexterous. He was extremely 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 117 

During the session, and on her own birthday, i7o4. 



which was the sixth of February, the queen sent ajhe queea 
message to the house of commons, signifying her ^*,)u,s ami 



first-fruits 



purpose, to apply that branch of the revenue that fJr\i,e ,,g 
was raised out of the first-fruits and tenths, payed "*'''* "^ •^''^ 

'■ '' piKJf clercy. 

by the clergy, to the increase of all the small bene- 
fices in the nation : this branch was an imposition, 
begun by the popes, in the time of the holy wars, 
and it was raised as a fund to support those expe- 
ditions : but when taxes are once raised by such 
an arbitrary power as the popes then assumed, and 
after there has been a submission, and the payments 
have been settled into a custom, they are always 
continued, even after the pretence upon which they 
were at first raised subsists no more : so this became 
a standing branch of the papal revenue, tiU Henry 
the eighth seemed resolved to take it away : it was 
first abolished for a year, probably to draw in the 
clergy to consent the more willingly to a change 
that delivered them from such heavy impositions : 
but in the succeeding session of parliament, this re- 
venue was again settled as part of the income of 
the crown for ever. It is true, it was the more ea- 
sily borne, because the rates were still at the old 
value, which in some places was not the tenth, and 



odious to the tories, and as written note signed W. VVar- 
much regarded by the whigs, burton, (now bishop of (ilou- 
to whom he was always very cester,) at the end of what is 
firm, and of great use from his called Machiavel's Letter to Ze- 
abilities, especially in parlia- nobius Buondelmontius. It is 
ment. He was inclined to re- in the printed copy I have of 
publicanism, (for which king the English translation of Ma- 
William did not love him,) and chiavel's works. O. (See more 
was much made for leading and on this subject afterwards, p. 
governing a party, especially 408 — 410.) 
the young men in it. See a 



118 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN- 

170-i. in most not above the fifth part of the true valued : 
and the clergy had been often threatened with a 
new valuation, in which the rates should be rigor- 
ously set to their full extent. 

The tenths amounted to about 11,000/. a year, 
and the first-fruits, which were more casual, rose 
one year with another to 5000/. so the whole 
amounted to between sixteen and seventeen thou- 
sand pounds a year : this was not brought into the 
treasury, as the other branches of the revenue ; but 
the bishops, who had been the pope's collectors, 
370 were now the king's, so persons in favour obtained 
assignations on them for life or for a term of years : 
this had never been applied to any good use, but 
was still obtained by favourites, for themselves and 
their friends : and in king Charles the second's time, 
it went chiefly among his women and his natural 
children. It seemed strange, that while the clergy 
had much credit at court, they had never repre- 
sented this as sacrilege, unless it was applied to 
some religious purpose, and that during archbishop 
Laud's favour with king Charles the first, or at 
the restoration of king Charles the second, no en- 
deavours had been used to appropriate this to better 
uses ; sacrilege was charged on other things, on very 
slight grounds ; but this, which was more visible, 
was always forgot '. 

'I Which is double a tenth. O, verty of some, but nothing of 
(The bishop means, that at the the wealth of others ; but take 
time he was writing, the old it in the whole, and no Chris- 
valuation of the whole benefice tian church has a better provi- 
did not, in most cases, exceed sion. If the lands belonging 
the fifth part of the then annual to deans and chapters, who are 
value ; and in some did not of no more use either to the 
reach the tenth.) church or state, than abboUs 

' We hear much of the po- and monks, were divided a- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 119 

When I wrote the History of the Reformation, I 1704. 



considered this matter so particularly, that I saw 
here was a proper fund for providing better subsist- 
ence to the poor clergy ; we having among us some 
hundreds of cures, that have not of certain provision 
twenty pounds a year; and some thousands, that 
have not fifty : where the encouragement is so small, 
what can it be expected clergymen should be ? It 
is a crying scandal, that at the restoration of king 
Charles the second, the bishops and other dignita- 
ries, who raised much above a million in fines, yet 
did so little this way : I had possessed the late 
queen with this, so that she was fully resolved, if 
ever she had lived to see peace and settlement, to have 
cleared this branch of the revenue of all the assigna- 
tions that were upon it, and to have applied it to 
the augmentation of small benefices. This is plainly 
insinuated in the essay that I wrote on her memory, 
some time after her death. I laid the matter before 
the late king, when there was a prospect of peace, 



niongst the poor clergy in every otherwise. A good answer to 
diocese, there would be no just this scheme of dividing dean 
cause of complaint ; unless that and chapter lands amongst the 
bishops' daughters would not parochial clergy is given in a 
go off so well as they do now confutation of bishop Watson's 
with a good sinecure. And if letter to the archbishop of Can- 
bishops themselves were brought terbur)', entitled, An Essay on 
to an equality of revenue as well the Revenues of the Church of 
as function, it would prevent England. Besides other consi- 
the great scandal given by com- derations of importance, the 
nieudams and translations, that pittance which would be added 
are daily increasing. But it is by such a division to the incomes 
to be hoped, that the legisla- of the parochial clergy, would 
ture will think proper (some ill compensate for the loss so- 
time or other) to put them un- ciety sustained by the clergy's 
der a better regulation. D. no longer mixing, as they do 
(This lord was no church tory, at present, with raost of the 
whatever kind of tory he was different ranks in it.) 

I 4 



IftO THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1704. as a proper expression both of his thankfulness to 
almighty God, and of his care of the church ; I 
hoped that this might have gained the hearts of the 
clergy : it might at least have put a stop to a ground- 
less clamour raised against him, that he was an 
enemy to the clergy, which began then to have a 
very ill effect on all his affairs. He entertained 
this so well, that he ordered me to speak to his mi- 
nisters about it : they all approved it, the lord So- 
mers and the lord Halifax did it in a most particular 
manner : but the earl of Sunderland obtained an as- 
signation upon two dioceses, for two thousand pound 
a year for two lives ; so nothing was to be hoped 
for after that. I laid this matter very fully before 
the present queen, in the king's time, and had 
spoken often of it to the lord Godolphin. 

This time was perhaps chosen to pacify the angry 
clergy, who were dissatisfied with the court, and 
began now to talk of the danger the church was in, 
as much as they had done during the former reign : 
this extraordinary mark of the queen's piety and 
zeal for the church produced many addresses, full 
of compliments, but it has not yet had any great ef- 
371 feet in softening the tempers of peevish men. When 
the queen's message was brought to the house of 
commons, some of the whigs, particularly sii' John 
Holland and sir Joseph Jekyll, moved that the cler- 
gy might be entirely freed from that tax, since they 
bore as heavy a share of other taxes ; and that an- 
other fund might be raised of the same value, out 
of which small benefices might be augmented: but 
this was violently opposed by Musgrave, and other 
tones, who said the clergy ought to be kept still* ip 
a dependence on the crown. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 121 

Upon the queen's message, a bill was brought in, 1704. 
enabling her to alienate this branch of the revenue, J^t 
and to create a corporation by charter, to apply it JJJI'j ^j*" 
to the use for which she now gave it : they added 
to this a repeal of the statute of mo?'fmam, so far as 
that it might be free to all men, either by deed or 
by their last wills, to give what they thought fit to- 
wards the augmenting of benefices : it was sug- 
gested, how truly I cannot tell, that this addition 
was made in hope that it would be rejected by the 
lords, and that the scandal of losing the bill might 
lie on them. It occasioned a great debate in the 
house of lords : it was said, that this law was made 
and kept up even during the times of popery, and it 
seemed not reasonable to open a door to practices 
upon dying men. It was answered, that we had 
not the arts of affrighting men by the terrors of 
purgatory, or by fables of apparitions : where these 
were practised, it was very reasonable to restrain 
priests from those artifices, by which they had so 
enriched their church, that without some such ef- 
fectual checks they would have swallowed up the 
whole wealth of the world, as they had indeed in 
England, during popery, made themselves masters 
of a full third part of the nation. The bishops were 
so zealous and unanimous for the bill, that it was 
carried and passed into a law. The queen was 
pleased to let it be known, that the first motion of 
this matter came from me: such a project would 
have been much magnified at another time; and 
those who had promoted it would have been looked 
on as the truest friends of the church : but this did 
not seem to make any great impression at that time ; 
only it produced a set of addresses, from all the 



182 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1704. clergy of England, full of thanks and just acknow- 
ledgments ^ 
A plot dis- I come now, in the last place, to give the relation 
of the discoveries made of a plot, which took up 
much of the lords' time, and gave occasion to many 
sharp reflections, that passed between the two houses 
in their addresses to the queen. About the same 
time that the story of Frazier's pass and negotia- 
tions began to break out, sir John Maclean, a pa- 
pist, and the head of that tribe or clan in the High- 
lands and western isles of Scotland, came over from 
France in a little boat, and landed secretly at Folk- 
ston in Kent : he brought his lady with him, though 
she had been delivered of a chUd but eleven days 
before. He was taken, and sent up to London ; and 
372 it seemed, by all circumstances, that he came over 
upon some important design : he pretended at first, 
that he came only to go through England and Scot- 
land, to take the benefit of the queen's general par- 
don there : but when he was told, that the pardon 
in Scotland was not a good wari'ant to come into 
England, and that it was high treason to come from 
France without a pass, he was not wiUing to expose 
himself to the severity of the law : so he was pre- 
vailed on to give an account of all that he knew 
concerning the negotiations between France and 
Scotland. Some others were at the same time taken 
up upon his information, and some upon suspicion : 
among these there was one Keith, whose uncle was 
one of those who was most trusted by the court of 

* (Cunningham, in his Hist, with the following inscription : 

of Great Britain, vol. i. p. 41 7. p.^.,^ Augusta 

relates, that a medal was this i-rimitiisetDecimis Eccle»i»Coucegsi« 

year struck on the occasion, MDCCIV.) 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 123 

St. Germains, and whom they had sent over with 1704, 
Frazier, to bring them an account of the temper the 
Scotch were in, upon which they might depend. 
Keith had been long at that court, he had free ac- 
cess both to that queen and prince, and hoped they 
would have made him under-secretary for Scotland ; 
for some time he denied that he knew any thing, 
but afterwards he confessed he was made acquainted 
with Frazier's transactions, and he undertook to 
deal with his uncle to come and discover all he 
knew, and pretended there was no other design 
among them, but to lay matters so, that the prince 
of Wales should reign after the queen. Ferguson 
offered himself to make great discoveries : he said, 
Frazier was employed by the duke of Queensbury, 
to decoy some into a plot which he had framed, and 
intended to discover, as soon as he had drawn many 
into the guilt : he affirmed that there was no plot 
among the Jacobites, who were glad to see one of 
the race of the Stuarts on the throne : and they de- 
signed, when the state of the war might dispose the 
queen to a treaty with France, to get such terms 
given her, as king Stephen and king Henry the sixth 
had, to reign during her life. When I heard this, 
I could not but remember what the duke of Athol 
had said to myself, soon after the queen's coming to 
the crown : I said, I hoped none in Scotland thought 
of the prince of Wales : he answ^ered, he knew none 
that thought of him as long as the queen lived : I 
replied, that if any thought of him after that, I was 
sure the queen would live no longer than till they 
thought their designs for him were well laid : l)ut 
he seemed to have no apprehensions of that. I 
presently told the queen this, without naming the 



1«4 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1704. person, and she answered me very quick, there was 
no manner of doubt of that : but though I could not 
but reflect often on that discourse, yet since it was 
said to me in confidence, I never spoke of it to any 
one person during all the inquiry that was now on 
foot : but I think it too material not to set it down 
here. Ferguson was a man of a particular charac- 
ter : upon the revolution he had a very good place 
given him ', but his spirit was so turned to plotting, 
that, within a few months after, he turned about, and 
373 he has been ever since the boldest and most active 
man of the Jacobite party : he pretended he was 
now for high church, but many believed him a pa- 
pist : there was matter of treason sworn both against 
him and Keith, but there was only one witness to 
it 

At the same time Lindsey was taken up. He had 
been under-secretary first to the earl of Me^brt, and 
then to the earl of Middletoun ; he had carried over 
from France the letters and orders that gave rise to 
the earl of Dundee's breaking out, the year after the 
revolution ; and he had been much tnisted at St. 
Germains. He had a small estate in Scotland, and 
he pretended that he took the benefit of the queen's 
pardon, and had gone to Scotland to save that ; and 
being secured by this pardon, he thought he might 
come from Scotland to England ; but he could pre- 
tend no colour for his coming to England : so it 
was not doubted but that he came hither to manage 
their correspondence and intrigues. He pretended 
he knew of no designs against the queen and her 

• It was office or house keeper ness, and soon became as fac- 
at the custom house; but he ex- tious and violent a Jacobite as 
pected one of trust and busi- he had been a whig. H. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 125 

government ; and tliat the court of St. Germains, 1 704. 
and the earl of Middletoun in, particular, had no de- 
sign against the queen : but when he was shewed 
Frazier's commission to be a colonel, signed by the 
pretended king, and countersigned Middletoun, he 
seemed amazed at it : he did not pretend it was a 
forgery, but he said that things of that kind were 
never communicated to him. 

At the same time that these were taken up, 
others were taken on the coast of Sussex. One of 
these, Boucher, was a chief officer in the duke of 
Berwick's family, who was then going to Spain, but 
it was suspected that this was a blind to cover his 
going to Scotland. The house of lords apprehended, 
that this man was sent on great designs, and sus- 
pecting a remissness in the ministry in looking after 
and examining those who came from France, they 
made an addi'ess to the queen, that Boucher might 
be well looked to ; they did also order sir John Mac- 
lean to be brought before them : but the queen 
sent them a message, that Maclean's business was 
then in a method of examination, and that she did 
not think fit to alter that for some time ; but as for 
Boucher, and those who were taken with him, the 
earl of Nottingham told the house, that they were 
brought up, and that they might do with them as 
they pleased. Upon that the house sent back Mac- 
lean, and ordered the usher of the black rod to take 
the other prisoners into his custody; and they named 
a committee of seven lords to examine them. At 
this time the queen came to the parliament, and ac- 
quainted both houses, that she had unquestionable 
proofs of a correspondence between France and Scot- 



196 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1704. land, with which she would acquaint them when 



the examinations were taken. 
Disputes The commons were in an ill humour against the 
two^hoSser lords, and so they were glad to find occasions to 
m addresses ^^^^ j^ rpj^^y thought the lords ought not to have 
qiieen. entered upon this examination ; they complained of 
it as of a new and unheard-of thing, in an address to 
the queen : they said it was an invasion of her pre- 
rogative, which they desired her to exert. This was 
a proceeding without a precedent: the parliamentary 
method was, when one house was offended with any 
thing done in the other, conferences were demanded, 
in which matters were freely debated ; to begin an 
appeal to the throne was new, and might be ma- 
naged by an ill-designing prince, so as to end in the 
subversion of the whole constitution ; and it was an 
amazing thing to see a house of commons affirm, in 
so public a manner and so positively, that the lords' 
taking criminals into their own custody, in order to 
an examination, was without warrant or precedent ; 
when there were so many instances fresh in every 
man's memory, especially since the time of the 
popish plot, of precedents in both houses that went 
much further: of which a full search has been 
made, and a long list of them was read in the house 
of lords. That did not a little confound those among 
them who were beUeved to be in a secret corre- 
spondence with the house of commons ; they were 
forced to confess, that they saw the lords had clear 
precedents to justify them in what they had done, 
of which they were in great doubt before. 

The lords upon this made a very long address to 
the queen, in which they complained of the ill usage 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 127 

they had met with from the house of commons; 1704. 



they used none of those hard words that were in the 
address niade against them by the house of com- 
mons, yet they justified every step they had taken, 
as founded on the law and practice of parliament, 
and no way contrary to the duty and respect they 
owed the queen. The behaviour of the house of 
commons w^as such, on this occasion, as if they had 
no mind that plots should be narrowly looked into : 
no house of pai'liament, and indeed no court of ju- 
dicature, did examine any person, without taking 
him into their own custody during such examina- 
tion ; and if a person's being in custody must re- 
strain a house of parliament from examining him, 
here was a maxim laid down, by which bad minis- 
ters might cover themselves from any inquiry into 
their ill practices, only by taking the persons who 
could make discoveries into custody. The lords also 
set forth the ill consequences that might follow, 
upon one house of parliament carrying their com- 
plaints of another to the throne, without taking first 
the proper method of conferences. This address was 
drawn with the utmost force, as well as beauty and 
decency of style ; and was reckoned one of the best 
pieces of its kind that were in all the records of 
parliament. The queen, in her answer, expressed a 
great concern to see such a dispute between the two 
houses. 

Boucher, when he was examined, would confess 
nothing : he said he was weary of living so long out 
of his country, and that having made some attempt 
to obtain a pass, when that was denied him, he 375 
chose, rather than to live always abroad, to come 
and cast himself upon the queen's mercy. It did not 



128 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1 7()4. seem reasonable to believe this : so the lords made 
an address to the queen, that he might have no 
hopes of pardon till he was more sincere in his dis- 
coveries ; and they prayed that he might be prose- 
cuted on the statute. He confessed his crime, and 
was condemned ; but continued stiU denying that he 
knew any thing. Few could believe this ; yet there 
being no special matter laid against him, his case 
was to be pitied : he proved that he had saved the 
lives of many prisoners during the war of Ireland, 
and that during the war in Flanders he had been 
very careful of all English prisoners. When all this 
was laid before the lords, they did not think fit to 
carry the matter further : so he was reprieved, and. 
that matter slept. 

About the end of January, the queen sent the 
examinations of the prisoners to the two houses. 
The house of commons heard them read, but passed 
no judgment upon them, nor did they offer any ad- 
vice to the queen upon this occasion : they only sent 
them back to the queen, with thanks for communi- 
cating them, and for her wisdom and care of the na- 
tion. It was thought strange, to see a business of 
this nature treated so sliglitly by a body that had 
looked, in former times, more carefully to things of 
this kind ; especially since it had appeared, in many 
instances, how dexterous the French were in raising 
distractions in their enemies' country. It was evi- 
dent, that a negotiation was begun, and had been 
now carried on for some time, for an army that was 
to be sent from France to Scotland; upon this, 
which was the main of the discovery, it was very 
amazing to see, that the commons neither offered 
the queen any advice, nor gave her a vote of credit, 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 129 

for any extraordinary expense in which the progress 1704. 
of that matter might engage her : a credit so given 
might have had a great effect towards defeating the 
design, when it appeared how well the queen was 
furnished to resist it. This coldness in the house of 
commons gave great and just ground of suspicion, 
that those who had the chief credit there, did not act 
heartily in order to the defeating all such plots, but 
were willing to let them go on without check or op- 
position. 

The lords resolved to examine the whole matter The lords 
narrowly : the earl of Nottingham laid before them secret ex- 
an abstract of all the examinations the council had *" '^",*^ho 
taken : but some took ereat exceptions to it, as ^^"^f *"f ' 

or ' pected to 

drawn on design to make it appear more inconsider- ^e in thu 
able than they believed it to be. The substance of 
the whole was, that there went many messages be- 
tween the courts of St. Germain s and Versailles, with 
relation to the affairs of Scotland : the court of Ver- 
sailles was willing to send an army to Scotland, but 
they desired to be well assured of the assistance 
they might expect there; in order to which, some 
were sent over, according to what Frazier had told 
the duke of Queensbury : some of the papers were 
writ in gibberish, so the lords moved, that a reward 376 
should be offered to any who should decipher these. 
When the lords asked the earl of Nottingham, if 
every thing was laid before them, he answered, that 
there was only one particular kept from them ; be- 
cause they were in hopes of a discovery, that was 
like to be of more consequence than all the rest : so 
after the delay of a few days, to see the issue of it, 
which was Keith's endeavouring to persuade his 
uncle (who knew eveiy step that had been made in 
VOL. V. K 



130 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1754. the whole progress of this affair) to come in and dis- 
cover it ; when they were told there was no more 
hope of that, the lords ordered the committee, which 
had examined Boucher, to examine into all these dis- 
coveries. Upon this the commons, who expressed a 
great uneasiness at every step the lords made in the 
matter, went with a new address to the queen, in- 
sisting on their former complaints against the pro- 
ceedings of the lords, as a wresting the matter out 
of the queen's hands, and the taking it wholly into 
their own ; and they prayed the queen to resume 
her prerogative, thus violated by the lords, whose 
proceedings they affirmed to be without a prece- 
dent. 

The seven lords went on with their examinations, 
and after some days they made a report to the 
house. Maclean's confession was the main thing ; 
it was full and particular : he named the persons 
that sat in the council at St. Germains : he said, the 
command was offered to the duke of Berwick, which 
he declined to accept, till trial was made whether 
duke Hamilton would accept of it, who he thought 
was the proper person : he told likewise, what di- 
rections had been sent to hinder the settling the 
succession in Scotland ; none of which particulars 
were in the paper that the earl of Nottingham had 
brought to the house of his confession. It was far- 
ther observed, that all the rest, whose examinations 
amounted to little, were obliged to write their own 
confessions, or at least to sign them : but Maclean 
had not done this; for after he had delivered his 
c<mfession by word of mouth to the earl of Notting- 
ham, that lord wrote it all from his report, and read 
H to him the next d^; upon which he acknow- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 131 

ledged it contained a ftill account of all he had 1704. 



said. Maclean's discovery to the lords was a clear 
series of all the counsels and messages, and it gave 
a full view of the debates and opinions in the coun- 
cil at St. Germains, all which was omitted in that 
which was taken by the earl of Nottingham, and 
his paper concerning it was both short and dark : 
there was an appearance of truth in all that Mac- 
lean told, and a regular progress was set forth in 
it. 

Upon these observations, those lords who were 
not satisfied with the earl of Nottingham's paper, 
intended to have passed a censure upon it, as im- 
perfect. It was said, in the debate that followed 
upon this motion, either Maclean was asked, who 
was to command the army to be sent into Scot- 377 
land, or he was not : if he was asked the question, 
and had answered it, then the earl of Nottingham 
had not served the queen or used the parliament 
well, since he had not put it in the paper ; if it was 
not asked, here was great remissness in a minister, 
when it was confessed, that the sending over an 
army was in consultation, not to ask who was to 
command that army. Upon this occasion, the earl 
of Torrington made some reflections that had too 
deep a venom in them : he said, the earl of Not- 
tingham did prove, that he had often read over the 
paper, in which he had set down Maclean's confes- 
sion, in his hearing ; and had asked him, if all he 
had confessed to him was not fully set down in that 
paper : to which he always answered, that every 
thing he had said was contained in it. Upon this, 
that earl observed, that Maclean, having perhaps 
told his whole story to the earl of Nottingham, and 

K 2 



132 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1704. finding afterwards that he had writ such a defective 
account of it, he had reason to conclude, (for he be- 
lieved, had he been in his condition, he should have 
concluded so himself,) that the earl of Nottingham 
had no mind that he should mention any thing but 
what he had writ down, and that he desired that 
the rest might be suppressed : he could not judge of 
others but by himself; if his life had been in danger, 
and if he were interrogated by a minister of state, 
who could do him either much good or much hurt, 
and if he had made a fuU discovery to him, but had 
observed that this minister, in taking his confes- 
sion in writing, had omitted many things, he should 
have understood that as an intimation that he was 
to speak of these things no more; and so he believed 
he should have said it was all, though at the same 
time he knew it was not all, that he had said. It 
was hereupon moved, that Maclean might be sent 
for and interrogated, but the party was not strong 
enough to carry any thing of that kind ; and by a 
previous vote it was carried, to put no question con- 
cerning the earl of Nottingham's paper. 

The lords were highly offended with Ferguson's 
paper, and passed a severe vote against those lords 
who had received such a scandalous paper from 
him, and had not ordered him to be prosecuted 
upon it; which they directed the attorney general to 
do. It was apparent, there was a train of danger- 
ous negotiations, that passed between Scotland and 
St. Germains, though they could not penetrate into 
the bottom and depth of it: and the design of Keith's 
bringing in his uncle was managed so remissly, that 
it was generally concluded that it was not in earn- 
est desired it should succeed. During these debates, 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 133 

one very extraordinary thing happened: the earl of 1704. 
Nottingham did, upon three or four occasions, affirm, 
that some things had been ordered in the cabinet 
council, which the dukes of Somerset and Devon- 
shire, who were likewise of that council, did not 
agree with him in. 

After all these examinations and debates, the 378 
lords concluded the whole matter, with voting: that^*!*'.''"^^'' 

' o opinion 

there had been daneerous plots between some in "?»■» **»« 
Scotland, and the court of France and St. Ger- matter. 
mains ; and that the encouragement of this plotting 
came from the not settling the succession to the 
crown of Scotland, in the house of Hanover : these 
votes they laid before the queen ; and promised, that 
when this was done, they would endeavour to pro- 
mote the union of the two kingdoms, upon just and 
reasonable terms ". 

This being ended, they made a long and vigorous An addrew 
address, in answer to that which the commons hadjhe'pro-^ 
made against them i they observed how uneasy the the*^ioSs!^ 
commons had been at the whole progress of their 
inquiry into this matter, and had taken methods to 
obstruct it all they could ; which did not shew that 
zeal for the queen's safety, and the preservation of 
the nation, to which all men pretended : they an- 
nexed to their address a list of many precedents, to 
shew what good warrants they had for every step 
they had made : they took not the examination to 

" I have carefully read over said enough to shew the in- 
all the papers in print about trigues between Scotland and 
this plot, and am clear, that St. Germains. The tories and 
the lords' resolution was well Jacobites always flattered the 
founded, though such evidence queen ; the one by crying up her 
as Frazier's was enough to dis- hereditary title, the others by 
parage any plot. Sir John pretending a particular allegi' 
Maclean, however, and others, ance to her during her life. H. 

K 3 



184 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1704. themselves, so as to exclude others who had the 
same right, and might have done it as well as they, 
if they had pleased : their proceedings had been re- 
gular and j)arliamentary, as well as full of zeal and 
duty to the queen : they made severe observations 
on some of the proceedings in the house of com- 
mons, particularly on their not ordering writs to be 
issued out for some boroughs, to proceed to new 
elections, when they, upon pretence of corruption, 
had voted an election void ; which had been prac- 
tised of late, when it was visible that the election 
would not fall on the person they favoured. They 
charged this as a denial of justice, and of the right 
that such boroughs had to be represented in parlia- 
ment, and as an arbitrary and illegal way of pro- 
ceeding : this address was penned with great cai*e 
and much force. These addresses were drawn by 
the lord Somers, and were read over and considered 
and corrected very critically, by a few lords, among 
whom I had the honour to be called for one. This, 
with the other papers that were published by the 
lords, made a great impression on the body of the 
nation : for the difference that was between these, 
and those published by the house of commons, was 
indeed so visible, that it did not admit of any com- 
parison, and was confessed even by those who were 
the most partial to them ^. 
An act for An act passcd in this session, which may be of 

recruits. 

great advantage to the nation, if well executed; 
otherwise, since it is only enacted for one year, it 
will not be of much use : it impowers the justices of 
peace, or any three of them, to take up such idle 

" (8de note before, at p. 343.) 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 185 

persons as have no callings nor means of subsistence, 1704. 
and to deliver them to the officers of the army, upon 
paying them the levy money that is allowed for 
making recruits : the methods of raising these hi- 379 
therto, by drinking and other bad practices, as they 
were justly odious, so they were now so well known, 
that they were no more of any effect : so that the 
army could not be recruited, but by the help of this 
act. And if this is well managed, it will prove of 
great advantage to the nation ; since by this means, 
they will be delivered from many vicious and idle 
persons, who are become a burden to their country : 
and indeed there was of late years so great an in- 
crease of the poor, that their maintenance was be- 
come in most places a very heavy load, and amounted 
to the full half of the public taxes. The party in 
both houses that had been all along cold and back- 
ward in the war, opposed this act with unusual ve- 
hemence ; they pretended zeal for the public liberty, 
and the freedom of the person, to which, by the con- 
stitution, they said, every Englishman had a right ; 
which they thought could not be given away, but 
by a legal judgment, and for some crime. They 
thought this put a power in the hands of justices of 
(Peace, which might be stretched and abused, tp 
serve bad ends : thus men that seemed engaged to 
an interest that was destructive to all liberty, could 
yet make use of that specious pretence to serve their 
purpose. The ^ct passed, and has been continued 
from year to year, with a very good effect : only a 
visible remissness appears in some justices, who are 
jsecretly influenced by men of ill designs. 

The chief objection made to it in the house ofAnaddres. 

" concerning 

lords was, that the justices of peace had been put the justices 

of peace. 
K 4 



186 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1704. in and put out, in so strange a manner, ever since 
Wright had the great seal, that they did not de- 
serve so great a power should be committed to them : 
many gentlemen of good estates and ancient fami- 
lies had been of late put out of the commission, for 
no other visible reason, but because they had gone in 
heartily to the revolution, and had continued zealous 
for the late king. This seemed done on design to 
mark them, and to lessen the interest they had in 
the elections of members of parliament : and at the 
same time, men of no worth nor estate, and known 
to be ill-affected to the queen's title, and to the pro- 
testant succession, were put in, to the great encou- 
ragement of ill-designing men : all was managed by 
secret accusations, and characters that were very 
partially given. Wright was a zealot to the party, 
and was become very exceptionable in all respects : 
money, as was said, did every thing with him ; only 
in his court, I never heard him charged for any 
thing but great slowness, by which the chancery 
was become one of the heaviest grievances of the 
nation. An address was made to the queen, com- 
plaining of the commissions of the peace, in which 
the lords delivered their opinion, that such as would 
not serve or act under the late king, were not fit to 
serve her majesty. 
The ill With this the session of parliament was brought 

many, to a quict couclusiou, after much heat and a great 
rS* ^ deal of contention between the two houses : the 
' * "^^^sn ^"^"» ^^ ^^^ thanked them for the supplies, so she 
again recommended union and moderation to them. 
These words, which had hitherto carried so good a 
sound, that all sides pretended to them, were now 
become so odious to violent men, that even in ser- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 137 

mons, chiefly at Oxford, they were arraigned as im- 1704. 
porting somewhat that was unkind to the church, 
and that favoured the dissenters : the house of com- 
mons had, during this session, lost much of their re- 
putation, not only with fair and impartial judges, 
but even with those who were most inclined to fa- 
vour them. It is true, the body of the freeholders 
began to be uneasy under the taxes, and to cry out 
for a peace : and most of the capital gentry of Eng- 
land, who had the most to lose, seemed to be ill- 
turned, and not to apprehend the dangers we were 
in, if we should fall under the power of France, and 
into the hands of the pretended prince of Wales ; or 
else they were so fatally blinded, as not to see that 
these must be the consequences of those measures 
into which they were engaged. 

The universities, Oxford especially, have been very 
unhappily successful in coiTupting the principles of 
those who were sent to be bred among them : so 
that few of them escaped the taint of it, and the 
generality of the clergy were not only ill-principled, 
but ill-tempered ; they exclaimed against all mode- 
ration as endangering the church, though it is visi- 
ble that the church is in no sort of danger, from ei- 
ther the numbers > or the interest that the dissenters 
have among us, which by reason of the toleration is 
now so quieted, that nothing can keep up any heat 
in those matters, but the folly and bad humour that 
the clergy are possessed with, and which they infuse 

>■ A computation was made them to be as i to i o : but 

(by the direction of Compton Maitland, very accurate in these 

bishop of London) soon after matters, makes them (Hist, of 

the revohition, of the number Lond.) as i to 20 or 22, I 

of dissenters, taking in papists cannot say which. O, (22^toi. 

and all others, and that made Report iu Dalrymp. Ap[>end.) 



138 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1704. into all those with whom they have credit: but at 
the same time, though the great and visible danger 
that hangs over us is from popery, which a miscar- 
riage in the present war must let in upon us, with 
an inundation not to be either resisted or recovered, 
they seem to be blind on that side, and to apprehend 
and fear nothing from that quarter. 

The convocation did little this winter, they con- 
tinued their former ill practices, but little opposition 
was made to them, as very little regard was had to 
them : they drew up a representation of some abuses 
in the ecclesiastical discipline, and in the consistorial 
courts : but took care to mention none of those 
greater ones, of which many among themselves were 
eminently guilty ; such as plurahties, non-residence, 
the neglect of their cures, and the irregularities in 
the lives of the clergy, which were too visible. 
The duke Soou after the session was ended, the duke of 
TOugrwent Marlborough went over to Holland. He had gone 
S vmui.^ ^^^^ ^^^ some weeks, at the desire of the States, ia 
January, and then there was a scheme formed for 
the operations of the next campaign. It was re- 
381 solved, that instead of a fruitless one in the Nether- 
"- lands, they would have a small army there, to lie 

only on the defensive, which was to be commanded 
by M. Auverquerque ; but that since the Rhine was 
open, by the taking of Bonne, all up to the Mozelle, 
their main army, that was to be commanded by the 
duke of Marlborough, should act there: more was 
not understood to be designed, except by those who 
were taken into the confidence. Upon this, all the 
preparations for the campaign were ordered to be 
carried up to the Rhine; and so every thing was 
in a readiness when he returned back to them in 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 139 

April: the true secret was in few hands, and the 1704^ 
French had no hint of it, and seemed to have no ap- 
prehensions about it. 

The earl of Nottingham was animated by the'rheeariof 
party, to press the queen to dismiss the dukes of ham quit- 
Somerset and Devonshire from the cabinet council, p^c«!* 
at least that they might be called thither no more : 
he moved it often, but finding no inclination in the 
queen to comply with his motion, he carried the 
signet to her, and told her, he could not serve any 
longer in councils to which these lords were admit- 
ted : but the queen desired him to consider better 
of it ^\ He returned next day, fixed in his first reso- 
lution, to which he adhered the more steadily, be- 
cause the queen had sent to the earl of Jersey for The eari of 
the lord chamberlain's staff, and to sir Edward Sey- si7EdwTrd 
mour for the comptroller's. The earl of Jersey was fuJ^2"out. 
a weak man, but crafty, and well practised in the 
arts of a court : his lady was a papist, and it was 
believed, that while he was ambassador in France, 
he was secretly reconciled to the court of St. Ger- 
mains : for after that, he seemed in their interests. 
It was one of the reproaches of the last reign, that 
he had so much credit with the late king ; who was 
so sensible of it, that if he had lived a little while 
longer, he would have dismissed him : he was con- 
sidered as the person that was now in the closest 
correspondence with the court of France ; and 
though he was in himself a very inconsiderable man, 
yet he was appUed to by all those who wished well 
to the court of St. Germains. The earl of Kent 
had the staff; he was the first earl of England, and 

' See postea, p. 583. O. 



140 



THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 



1704. 



The duke of 
Marlbo- 
rough con- 
ducted his 
design with 
great se- 
crecy. 



had a gieat estate^: Mansell, the heir of a great 
family in Wales, was made comptroller ; and after a 
month's delay, Harley, the speaker, was made secre- 
tary of state ^. 

But now I turn to give an account of the affairs 



^ The earl of Jersey was not 
so strong a man as bishop Bur- 
net, but had more integrity, 
and a better judgment : it is 
true, his lady was a papist ; but 
the rest of the story was be- 
lieved by nobody but the bishop, 
and those who gave credit to 
his surmises. The earl of Kent 
was strong in nothing but mo- 
ney and smell, the latter to a 
high degree ; the other procur- 
ed him the staff, the quantity 
well known, and to whom given. 
D. The earl of Kent owed his 
white staff to lord treasurer Go- 
dolphin ; the scandalous chro- 
nicle said, he lost money at 
play to the old duchess of Marl- 
borough. H. 

''And continued speaker. He 
had been often talked of for the 
office of secretary, some years 
before, Femon's Letters. O. At 
this time lord Godolphin desir- 
ed to speak with me at his own 
house; where he told me that 
he had something to propose to 
me, that he believed I would be 
unwilling to undertake : but 
some of my friends liaving late- 
ly quitted the service, it was 
possible I n)ight be willing to 
be out of the way for a little 
time ; therefore the queen de- 
signed to send me ambassador 
to V^enice. I told him he knew 
I had refused to go to Hanover, 
and I should be very ill thought 
of, if I went to any other place. 



He said I had been over re- 
fined in that matter, but this 
was a very different case. I 
told him, (knowing very well 
what he meant,) that he was 
extremely mistaken if he thought 
I had any refinement upon that 
occasion ; but if the queen 
thought it for her service that 
I should be out of the way, I 
need not go so far, having a 
house in Staffordshire that I 
could easily and willingly retire 
to. He said, " Now you mis- 
" take me extremely, for there 
" is nobody in the queen's ser- 
** vice that she would less will- 
" ingly part with than your- 
" self: but since you do not 
" like this employment, can you 
" think of any body else that 
" would be proper to send ?" 1 
told him I supposed he knew 
the Venetians did not suffer 
any of their subjects to con- 
verse with foreign ministers, 
therefore a man of quality that 
could make a tolerable figure 
at an audience, was all that was 
wanting. He asked if I meant 
the duke of Somerset ? I told 
him no, but I thought the earl 
of Manchester might do very 
well. He laughed, and next 
council day he was declared so ; 
and lord Godolphin told me, 
"It may be you thought your- 
" self in jest, but he little 
" knows how much he is be- 
" holden to you." D. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 141 

abroad; the emp>eror was reduced to the last extre- 1704. 
mities ; the elector of Bavaria was master of the 
Danube all down to Passau, and the malecontents 
in Hungary were making a formidable progress : 
the emperor was not in a condition to maintain a 
defensive war long, on both hands ; so that when 
these should come to act by concert, no opposition 
could be made to them. Thus his affairs had a very 
black appearance, and utter ruin was to be appre- 
hended ; Vienna would be probably besieged on both 
sides ; and it was not in a condition to make a long 382 
defence : so the house of Austria seemed lost. Prince 
Eugene proposed that the emperor should implore 
the queen's protection ; this was agreed to, and count 
Wratislaw managed the matter at our court with 
great application and secrecy ; the duke of Marlbo- 
rough saw the necessity of undertaking it, and resolv- 
ed to try, if it was possible, to put it in execution. 
When he went into Holland in the winter, he pro- 
posed it to the pensioner and other persons of the 
greatest confidence ; they approved of it, but it was 
not advisable to propose it to the States ; at that 
time many of them would not have thought their 
country safe, if their army should be sent so far 
from them ; nothing could be long a secret that 
was proposed to such an assembly, and the main 
hope of succeeding in this design lay in the secrecy 
with which it was conducted. Under the blind of 
the project of carrying the war to the Mozelle, 
every thing was prepared that was necessary for 
executing the true design. When the duke went 
over the second time, that which was proposed in 
public, related only to the motions towards the Mo- 
zelle; so he drew his army together in May: he 



142 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1 704. marched towards the Mozelle ; but he went farther, 
and after he had gained the advance of some days 
of the French troops, he wrote to the States from 
Ladenburg, to let them know that he had the 
queen's order to march to the relief of the empire, 
with which he hoped they would agree, and allow 
of his carrying their troops to share in the honour 
of that expedition ; he had their answer as quick 
as the courier could carry it, by which they ap- 
proved of the design, and of his carrying their 
troops with him. 
He march. So he marched with all possible expedition from 

ed to the . ^ . ' 

Danube, the Rhmc to the Danube ; which was a great sur- 
prise to the court of France, as well as to the elec- 
tor of Bavaria. The king of France sent orders to 
mareschal Tallard, to march in all haste, with the 
best troops they had, to support the elector ; he ap- 
prehended that the duke of Marlborough would en- 
deavour to pass the Danube at Donawert, and so to 
break into Bavaria: to prevent that, he posted 
about 16,000 of his best troops at ScheUenberg near 
Donawert ; which was looked on as a very strong 
and tenable post. The duke of Marlborough joined 
the prince of Baden, with the imperial army, in the 
beginning of July ; and after a long march, conti- 

The battle ^ucd from three in the morning, they came up to 
the Bavarian troops towards the evening ; they were 
so well posted, that our men were repulsed in the 
three first attacks with great loss ; at last the enemy 
were beat from their posts, which was followed with 
a total rout, and we became masters of their camp, 
their artillery, and their baggage. Their general, 
Atco, with many others, swam over the Danube : 
others got into Donawert, which they abandoned 



of Schel 
lenberg. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 14S 

next morning, with that precipitation, that they 1704. 
were not able to execute the elector's cruel orders, 
which were to set fire to the town, if they should be 383 
forced to abandon it : great quantities of straw were 
laid in many places, as a preparation for that, in 
case of a misfortune. 

The best half of the Bavarian forces were now 
entirely routed, about 5000 of them were killed: 
we lost as many, for the action was very hot, and 
our men were much exposed; yet they went still 
on, and continued the attack with such resolution, 
that it let the generals see how much they might 
depend on the courage of their soldiers. Now we 
were masters of Donawert, and thereby of a passage 
over the Danube, which laid all Bavaria open to our 
army : upon that the elector, with mareschal Mar- 
sin, drew the rest of his army under the cannon of 
Augsbourg, where he lay so well posted, that it was 
not possible to attack him, nor to force him out of 
it ; the duke of Marlborough followed him, and got 
between him and his country ; so that it was wholly 
in his power. When he had him at this disadvan- 
tage, he entered upon a treaty with him, and offered 
him what terms he could desire, either for himself 
or his brother, even to the paying him the whole 
charge of the war, upon condition that he would 
immediately break with the French, and send his 
. army into Italy, to join with the imperialists there : 
his subjects, who were now at mercy, pressed him 
vehemently to accept of those terms ; he -seemed 
inclined to hearken to them, and messengers went 
often between the two armies : but this was done 
only to gain time, for he sent courier after courier 
with most pressing instances to hasten the advance 



144 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1 704. of the French army. When he saw he could gain 
no more time, the matter went so far, that the arti- 
cles were ordered to be made ready for signing : in 
conclusion, he refused to sign them ; and then se- 
vere orders were given for military execution on his 
country : every thing that was within the reach of 
the army, that was worth taking, was brought away; 
and the rest was burnt and destroyed. 

The two generals did after that resolve on fur- 
ther action, and since the elector's camp could not 
be forced, the siege of Ingolstad was to be carried 
on : it was the most important place he had, in 
which his great magazines were laid up. The prince 
of Baden went to besiege it ; and the duke of Marl- 
borough was to cover the siege, in conjunction with 
. prince Eugene, who commanded a body of the im- 
perial army, which was now drawn out of the posts 
in which they had been put, in order to hinder the 
march of the French : but they were not able to 
maintain them against so great a force as was now 
coming up ; these formed a great army. Prince 
Eugene having intelligence of the quick motions 
of the French, posted his troops, that were about 
18,000, as advantageously as he could: and went 
to concert matters with the duke of Marlborough, 
who lay at some distance : he upon that marched 
towards the prince's army with all possible haste, 
and so the two armies joined; it was now in the 
beginning of August. The elector hearing how 
384 near M. Tallard was, marched with M. Marsin, and 
joined him. Their armies advanced very near ours, 
and were well posted; having the Danube on one 
side, and a rivulet on the other, whose banks were 
high, and in some places formed a morass before 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 145 

them. The two armies were now in view one of an- 1704. 
other: the French were superior to us in foot by 
about 10,000; but we had 3000 horse more than 
they : the post, of which they were possessed, was 
capable of being, in a very little time, put out of all 
danger of future attacks ; so the duke of Marlbo- 
rough and prince Eugene saw how important it was 
to lose no time, and resolved to attack them the 
next morning : they saw the danger of being forced 
otherwise to Ue idle in their camp, until their fo- / 
rage should be consumed, and their provisions spent. 
They had also intercepted letters from mareschal 
Villeroy to the elector, by which it appeared, that 
he had orders to march into Wirtemberg to destroy 
that country, and to cut off the communication with 
the Rhine, which must have been fatal to us : so 
the necessary dispositions were made for the next 
morning's action. Many of the general officers came 
and represented to the duke of Marlborough the 
difficulties of the design ; he said he saw these well, 
but the thing was absolutely necessary : so they 
were sent to give orders every where, which was re- 
ceived all over the army with an alacrity, that gave 
a happy presage of the success that followed. 

I wiU not venture on a particular relation of that 
great day : I have seen a copious account of it, pre- 
pared by the duke of Marlborough's orders, that will 
be printed some time or other : but there are some 
passages in it, which make him not think it fit to 
be published presently. He told me, he never saw 
more evident characters of a special providence than 
appeared that day ; a signal one related to his own 
person : a cannon-ball went into the ground so near 
him, that he was some time quite covered with the 

VOL. V." L 



146 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1704. cloud of clust and earth that it raised about him. I 

~ will sum up the action in a few words. 

The battle Qur men quickly passed the brook, the French 
•ted. making no opposition : this was a fatal error, and 
was laid wholly to TaUard's charge ; the action that 
followed was for some time very hot, many fell on 
both sides ; ten battalions of the French stood their 
ground, but were in a manner mowed down in their 
ranks ; upon that, the horse ran many of them into 
the Danube, most of these perished ; Tallard himself 
was taken prisoner. The rest of his troops were 
posted in the village of Blenheim : these seeing all 
lost, and that some bodies were advancing upon 
them which seemed to them to be thicker than in- 
deed they were, and apprehending that it was im- 
possible to break through, they did not attempt it, 
though brave men might have made their way. In- 
stead of that, when our men came up to set fire to 
385 the village ; the earl of Orkney first beating a parley, 
they hearkened to it very easily, and were all made 
prisoners of war: there were about 1300 oflficers 
and 12,000 common soldiers, who laid down their 
arms, and were now in our hands. Thus all Tal- 
lard's army was either killed in the action, drowned 
in the Danube, or become prisoners by capitulation : 
things went not so easily on prince Eugene's side, 
where the elector and Marsin commanded ; he was 
repulsed in three attacks, but carried the fourth, and 
broke in ; and so he was master of their camp, can- 
non, and baggage. The enemy retired in some or- 
der, and he pursued them as far as men, wearied 
with an action of about six hours, in an extreme 
hot day, could go ; thus we gained an entire victory. 
In this action there was on our side about 12,000 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 147 

killed and wounded; but the French and the elec- 1704. 
tor lost about 40,000 killed, wounded, and taken. 

The elector marched with all the haste he could 
to Ulm, where he left some troops, and then with a 
small body got to Villeroy's army. Now all Bava- 
ria was at mercy ; the electress received the civi- 
lities due to her sex, but she was forced to submit 
to such terms as were imposed on her : Ingolstad 
and all the fortified places in the electorate, with 
the magazines that were in them, were soon deli- 
vered up : Augsbourg, Ulm, and Meming quickly 
recovered their liberty; so now our army, having 
put a speedy conclusion to the war, that was got so 
far into the bowels of the empire, marched quickly 
back to the Rhine. The emperor made great ac- 
knowledgments of this signal service, which the 
duke of Marlborough had done him, and upon it 
offered to make him a prince of the empire ; he very 
decently said, he could not accept of this, tiU he 
knew the queen's pleasure ; and upon her consent- 
ing to it, he was created a prince of the empire, and 
about a year after Mindleheim was assigned him for 
his principality ^. 

Upon this great success in Germany, the duke of 
Savoy sent a very pressing message for a present 
supply; the duke of Vendome was in Piedmont, 

^ After which, he assumed tinctions ; but every body 

the title of highness abroad, thought his aim was to bring 

which was given him by all the us by degrees to something 

officers in the army : and he af- much higher. When the queen 

fected eating alone, which the was dead, he made a public 

duke of Montague (who had entry into London, which sur- 

married one of his daughters) prised all the world, but had no 

was tr) countenance by standing effect besides raising an univer- 

at his meals. Nobody in Eng- sal laughter. D. 
land would allow of such dis- 

L 2 



148 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
1704. and after a long siege had taken Verceil, and was 



like to make a further progress : the few remains of 
the imperial army, that lay in the Modeneze, gave 
but a small diversion ; the grand prior had so shut 
them up, that they lay on a feeble defensive ; baron 
Leiningen was sent with another small army into 
the Brescian ; but he was so ill supplied, that he 
could do nothing but eat up the country ; and the 
Venetians were so feeble and so fearful, that they 
suffered their country to be eat up by both sides, 
without declaring for or against either. The prince 
of Baden insisted on undertaking the siege of Lan- 
daw, as necessary to secure the circles, Suabia in 
particular, from the excursions of that garrison : 
this was popular in Germany, and though the duke 
of Marlborough did not approve it, he did not oppose 
it with all the authority that his great success gave 
him : so the prince of Baden undertook it, while 
386 the duke with his army covered the siege. This 
was universally blamed ; for while France was in the 
consternation, which the late great loss brought 
them under, a more vigorous proceeding was like to 
have greater effects ; besides that the imperial army 
was ill provided, the great charge of a siege was 
above their strength : the prince of Baden suffered 
much in his reputation for this undertaking ; it was 
that which the French wished for, and so it was 
suspected that some secret practice had prevailed 
on that prince to propose it. It is certain, that he 
was jealous of the glory the duke had got, in which 
he had no share ; and it was believed, that if he 
had not gone to besiege Ingolstat, the battle had 
never been fought : he was indeed so fierce a bigot 
in his religion, that he could not bear the successes 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 140 

of those he called heretics, and the exaltation which 1704. 
he thought heresy might have upon it. 

While the duke of Marlborough lay covering the 
siege, Villeroy with his army came and looked on 
him ; but as our soldiers were exalted with their 
success, so the French were too much dispirited 
with their losses to make any attack, or to put any 
thing to hazard in order to raise the siege : they 
retired back, and went into quarters, and trusted to 
the bad state of the imperial army, who were ill 
provided and ill supplied ; the garrison made as vi- 
gorous a defence, and drew out the siege to as gi*eat 
a length, as could be expected : the prince of Baden 
had neither engineers nor ammunition, and wanted 
money to provide them ; so that if the duke had 
not supplied him, he must have been forced to give 
it over. The king of the Romans came again to 
have the honour of taking the place ; his behaviour 
there did not serve to raise his character ; he was 
not often in the places of danger, and was content 
to look on at a great and safe distance; he was 
always beset with priests, and such a face of super- 
stition and bigotry appeared about him, that it very 
much damped the hopes that were given of him. 

When it appeared that there was no need of an The duke 

. 11 o*^ Marlbo- 

army to cover the siege, and that the place could rough ad- 
not hold out many days, the duke of Marlborough xXre. 
resolved to possess himself of Triers, as a good 
winter quarter, that brought him near the confines 
of France ; from whence he might open the cam- 
paign next year with great advantage : and he 
reckoned that the taking of Traerback, even in 
that advanced season, would be soon done : and 
then the communication with Holland, by water, 

l3 



150 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1 704. was all clear : so that during the winter, every thing 
that was necessary could be brought up thither from 
Holland safe and cheap. This he executed with 
that diligence, that the French abandoned every 
place as he advanced, with such precipitation, that 
they had not time given them to bum the places 
they forsook, according to the barbarous method 
which they had long practised. The duke got to 
Triers, and that being a large place, he posted a 
387 great pait of his army in and about it, and left a 
sufficient force with the prince of Hesse for the tak- 
ing of Traerback, which held out some weeks, but 
capitulated at last. Landaw was not taken before 
the middle of November ^. 

Thus ended this glorious campaign, in which 
England and Holland gained a very unusual gloiy : 
for as they had never sent their armies so far by 
land, so their triumphant return helped not a little 
to animate and unite their counsels. Prince Eu- 
gene had a just share in the honour of this great 
expedition, which he had chiefly promoted by his 
counsels, and did so nobly support by his conduct. 
The prince of Baden had no share in the public 
joy : his conduct was as bad as could be, and the 
fret he was possessed with, upon the glory that the 
other generals earned from him, threw him, as was 
believed, into a languishing, of which he never 

^ The tones affected to talk back, as a pack of hounds do a 

slightingly of the duke of Marl- hare. So ignorant and so vio- 

borough's march to the Da- lejjt was that eminent party 

nube, and the duchess of Marl- leader : the march might have 

borough left it on record in her been defended, though the battle 

Memoirs, (though not in the of Blenheim had been lost ; it 

printed ones,) that sir Edward was the only measure for sav- 

Seymour declared, they would ing the hoixse of Austria, and in 

run him down when he came effect the grand alliance. H. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 151 

quite recovered, and of which he died two years 1704. 
after. 

At the conclusion of the campaign, the duke of 
Marlborough went to Berlin, where he concerted 
the measures for the next campaign, and agreed 
with the king of Prussia for 8000 of his troops, 
which were to be sent to Italy upon the queen's 
pay: he had settled matters with the emperor's 
ministers, so that they undertook to send prince 
Eugene with an army of 20,000 men, who should 
begin their march into Italy, as soon as it was pos- 
sible to pass the mountains : of these the queen and 
the States were to pay 1 6,000. He returned by the 
court of Hanover, where he was treated with all 
the honour that the success of the campaign well 
deserved : he met with the same reception in Hol- 
land, and was as much considered and submitted to, 
as if he had been their stadtholder : the credit he 
was in among them was very happy to them, and 
was indeed necessary at that time for keeping down 
their factions and animosities, which were rising in 
every province, and in most of their towns. Only 
Amsterdam, as it was the most sensible of the com- 
mon danger, so it was not only quiet within itself, 
but it contributed not a little to keep all the rest so, 
which was chiefly maintained by the duke of Marl- 
borough's prudent management. England was fuU 
of joy, and addresses of congratulation were sent up 
from all parts of the nation ; but it was very visible 
that, in many places, the tories went into these very 
coldly, and perhaps that made the whigs the more 
zealous and affectionate. 

I now turn to the other element, where our af- Affairs at 
fairs were carried on more doubtfully. Rook sailed 

L 4 



152 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1704. into the Straits where he reckoned he was strong 
enough for the Toulon squadron, which was then 
abroad in the Mediterranean. Soon after that, a 
strong squadron from Brest passed by Lisbon into 
the Straits. Methuen, our ambassador there, ap- 
prehending that if these two squadrons should join 
to attack Rook, it would not be possible for him to 
fight against so great a force, sent a man of war, 
that Rook had left at Lisbon, with some particular 
388 orders, which made him very unwilling to carry the 
message, but Methuen promised to save him harm- 
less. He upon that sailed through the French 
fleet, and brought this important advertisement to 
Rook ; who told him, that on this occasion he would 
pass by his not observing his orders, but that for the 
future, he would find the safest course was to obey 
orders. Upon this Rook stood out of the way of 
the French, towards the mouth of the Straits, and 
there he met Shovel, with a squadron of our best 
ships ; so being thus reinforced, he sailed up the 
Straits, being now in a condition, if need were, to 
engage the French. He came before Barcelona, 
where the prince of Hesse Darmstat assured him, 
there was a strong party ready to declare for king 
Charles, as it was certain that there was a great 
disposition in many to it. But Rook would not 
stay above three days before it : so that the motions 
within the town, and the discoveries that many 
made of their inclinations, had almost proved fatal 
to them : he answered, when pressed to stay a few 
days more, that his orders were positive ; he must 
make towards Nice: which it was believed the 
French intended to besiege. 

But as he was sailing that way, he had advice 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 153 

that the French had made no advances in that de- 1704. 
sign: so he turned his course westward, and came 
in sight of the French fleet, sailing from Brest to 
Toulon. The advantage he had was so visible, that 
it was expected he would have made towards them ; 
he did it not : what orders he had was not known, for 
the matter never came under examination : they got 
to Toulon, and he steered another way. The whole 
French fleet was then together in that harbour, for 
though the Toulon squadron had been out before, it 
was then in port. 

A very happy accident had preserved a rich fleet 
of merchant ships from Scanderoon, under the con- 
voy of three or four frigates, from falling into their 
hands. The French fleet lay in their way in the 
bay of Tunis, and nothing could have saved them 
from being taken, but that which happened in the 
critical minute in which they needed it : a thick 
fog covered them all the while that they were sail- 
ing by that bay, so that they had no apprehension 
of the danger they were in till they had passed it. 
I know it is not possible to determine, when such 
accidents rise from a chain of second causes in the 
course of nature, and when they are directed by a 
special providence: but my mind has always car- 
ried me so strongly to acknowledge the latter, that 
I love to set these reflections in the way of others, 
that they may consider them with the same serious 
attention that I feel in myself. 

Rook, as he sailed back, fell in upon Gibraltar ; Gibraltar 

11 1 I 1 I 1 • • ^^ taken. 

where he spent much powder, bombardmg it to very 
little purpose, that he might seem to attempt some- 
what, though there was no reason to hope that he 
could succeed. Some bold men ventured to go 



154 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1704. ashore, in a place where it was not thought possible 
gggto climb up the rocks; yet they succeeded in it. 
When they got up, they saw all the women of the 
town were come out, according to their superstition, 
to a chapel there, to implore the virgin's protection ; 
they seized on them, and that contributed not a 
little to dispose those in the town to surrender: 
they had leave to stay or go as they pleased ; and 
in case they stayed, they were assured of protection 
in their religion, and in every thing else; for the 
prince of Hesse, who was to be their governor, was 
a papist : but they all went away, with the smaU 
garrison that had defended the place. The prince 
of Hesse, with the marines that were on board the 
fleet, possessed himself of the place, and they were 
furnished out of the stores that went with the fleet, 
with every thing that was necessary for their sub- 
sistence or defence ; and a regular method was laid 
down of supplying them constantly from Lisbon ^. 

8 (The following account of " admiral for cannonading the 

the capture of this important " town ; but the wind blowing 

place is given by Ralph the his- " contrary, the men of war 

torian, in his Answer to the " could not take possession of 

duchess of Marlborough's Ac- " their appointed stations, till 

count of her own conduct. " the evening came on. But 

" July twenty-first, the fleet " soon after day-break, the next 

" got into the bay ; and at three " morning, the signal was given ; 

" in the afternoon the English " and so vigorous a fire ensued, 

" and Dutch marines, to the " that, in less than six hours, 

" number of 1 800, under the " 1 500 shot had been discharg"- 

*' command of the prince of " ed ; to so good a purpose, 

** Hesse-Darmstadt, were set " that the enemy were beat from 

" on shore to possess the neck " their gims ; and the admiral, 

" of land, and cut off all com- " snatching the opportunity, 

" munication between the gar- " ordered the boats to be man- 

" rison and the adjacent coun- " ned and armed, and an im- 

" try. " mediate attack to be made 

" The twenty-second, the " on the platform on the south 

" disposition was made by the " mole head ; on the taking of 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 



155 



It has been much questioned, by men who under- 1704. 
stand these matters well, whether our possessing 
ourselves of Gibraltar, and our maintaining ourselves 
in it so long, was to our advantage or not. It has 
certainly put us to a great charge, and we have lost 
many men in it ; but it seems the Spaniards, who 
should know the importance of the place best, think 
it so valuable, that they have been at a much greater 
charge, and have lost many more men, while they 
have endeavoured to recover it, than the taking or 
keeping it has cost us : and it is certain that in war, 
whatsoever loss on one side occasions a greater loss 
of men or of treasure to the other, must be reck- 
oned a loss only to the side that suffers most. 

Our expedition in Portugal, and our armies there. The affaire 

^ ° of Portugal. 



' which the whole success of 
' the enterprise depended. As 

■ this command was given with 
' judgment, it was executed 
' with a resolution that will 
' reflect an everlasting honour 

on the English seamen. For, 
' notwithstanding the incredi- 
' ble difficulty of the attempt, 
' both from the natural and 
' artificial strength of the place, 
' they surmounted all obsta- 
' cles. An action that scarce 
' ever was equalled, and never 

■ can be surpassed ! the works 
' being defended by an hun- 
' dred pieces of cannon towards 

the sea ; and fifty men being 
judged sufficient to maintain 
' that post against several 
' thousand regular troops. But 
' those who first made them- 
' selves masters of the plat- 
form, paid dear for their dis- 
' tinguished bravery ; the Spa- 
' niards soon after springing a 



mine, by which two lieute- 
nants and forty seamen were 
' killed, and sixty wounded. 

" This did not however de- 
' ter the rest from rushing into 
' the like danger ; for in the 
' midst of the smoking ruins, 
' they manifested the same ar- 
' dour, and not only made 
' good the advantage they had 

* obtained, but pressing on- 
' ward still, carried another 

* important redoubt, half way 
' between the mole and the 
' town, with the like astonish- 

* ing intrepidity ; made them- 

* selves masters of many of the 
' enemy's cannon, and had the 
' place at their mercy. 

" Upon this, the governor 
' was summoned to surrender; 
' articles of capitulation were 
' signed the next day ; in the 
' evening, the prince of Hesse 
' took possession of it." p. 
129.) 



156 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1704. which cost us so dear, and from which we expected 
so much, had not hitherto had any gi*eat effects. 
The king of Portugal expressed the best intentions 
possible ; but he was much governed by his minis- 
ters, who were all in the French interests : they had 
a great army, but they had made no preparations 
for taking the field; nor could they bring their 
troops together, for want of provisions and carriages; 
the forms of their government made them very slow, 
and not easily accessible : they were too proud to 
confess that they wanted any thing, when they had 
nothing, and too lazy to bestir themselves to execute 
what was in their power to do ; and the king's ill 
health furnished them with an excuse for every 
thing that was defective and out of order. The 
priests, both in Spain and Portugal, were so univer- 
sally in the French interest, that even the house of 
Austria, that had been formerly so much in their 
favour, was now in disgrace with them : their al- 
liance with heretics, and their bringing over an 
army of them to maintain their pretensions, had 
made all their former services be forgotten : the go- 
verning body at Rome did certainly engage aU their 
zealots every where to support that interest, which is 
now so set on the destruction of heresy. King Philip 
390 advanced towards the frontiers of Portugal, his 
army being commanded by the duke of Berwick, 
who began to shine there, though he had passed 
elsewhere for a man of no very great character. 
They had several advantages of the Portugueze : 
some of the English and Dutch battalions, which 
were so posted that they could not be relieved, and 
in places that were not tenable, fell into the enemy's 
hands, and were made prisoners of war. Some of 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 167 

the general officei's, who came over, said to me, that 1704. 
if the duke of Berwick had followed his advantages, 
nothing could have hindered his coming to Lisbon. 
The duke of Schomberg was a better officer in the 
field than in the cabinet ; he did not enough know 
how to prepare for a campaign ; he was both too 
unactive and too haughty ; so it was thought neces- 
sary to send another to command : the earl of Gal- 
way was judged the fittest person for that service ; 
he undertook it more in submission to the queen's 
commands, than out of any great prospect or hopes 
of success : things went on very heavily there ; the 
distraction that the taking Gibraltar put the Spa- 
niards in, as it occasioned a diversion of some of the 
Spanish forces that lay on their frontier, so it fur- 
nished them with advantages, which they took no 
care to improve. 

Rook, after he had supplied Gibraltar, sailed again a sgiit at 
into the Mediterranean ; and there he met the count *'^^*" 
of Thoulouse, with the whole French fleet : they 
were superior to the English in number, and had 
many galleys with them that were of great use. 
Rook called a council of war, in which it was re- 
solved to engage them : there was not due care 
taken to furnish all the ships with a sufficient quan- 
tity of powder, for some had wasted a great part of 
their stock of ammunition before Gibraltar; yet they 
had generally twenty-five rounds, and it had seldom 
happened that so much powder was spent in an ac- 
tion at sea. On the 12th of August, just ten days 
after the battle of Hocksted, the two fleets engaged: 
Shovel advanced with his squadron to a close fight, 
for it was the maxim of our seamen to fight as near 
as they could ; he had the advantage, and the squa- 



158 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1704. dron before him gave way: Rook fought at a greater 
distance*^; many broadsides passed, and the engage- 
ment continued till night parted them : some ships 
that had spent all their ammunition, were forced on 
that account to go out of the line, and if the French 
had come to a new engagement next day, it might 
have been fatal, since many of our ships were with- 
out powder, whilst others had enough and to spare'. 
In this long and hot action, there was no ship of 
either side that was either taken, sunk, or burnt: 
we made a shew the next day of preparing for a se- 
cond engagement, but the enemy bore off, to the 
great joy of our fleet. The French suffered much in 
this action, and went into Toulon so disabled, that 
they could not be put in a condition to go to sea 
again in many months: they left the sea, as the field 
of battle, to us; so the honour of the action re- 
391 mained with us, though the nation was not much 
lifted up with the news of a drawn battle at sea 
with the French. We were long without a certain 
account of this action : but the modesty in which 

^ Yet he never was suspected and captain Jennings's, after- 
of the want of courage. He wards sir John Jennings. See 
was a man of great parts, more antea, 341. O. (Admiral Sho- 
of a turn for a court than most vel's letter is given by Ralph 
men of his profession, and in his Answer to the duchess of 
seemed to aim more at coun- Marlborough just cited, p. 234, 
sels and conduct at home than where the latter passage stands 
in command and action abroad, thus : ** A great many (ships) 
He was very proud and very am- " have suffered much, but none 
bitious of honours, and hoped to "more than sir George Rook 
have the garter for his successes " and captain Jennings in the 
in this expedition. Shovel's letter " St. George.") 
upon this action says, a sharper ' The best account of this 
engagement between two fleets action that I have seen is in 
never had been, he believed, in some unfinished memoirs of sir 
any time; that many of our ships G. Byng, of which I have ex- 
had suffered much, but none tracts. H. 
more than sir George Rook's 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 159 

the king of France wrote of it to the archbishop of 1704. 
Paris, put us out of all fears ; for whereas their style 
was very boasting of their successes, in this it was 
only said, that the action was to his advantage : 
from that cold expression we concluded the victory 
was on our side. 

When the full account was sent home from our 
fleet, the partialities on both sides appeared very 
signally : the tories magnified this as a great vic- 
tory, and in their addresses of congratulation to the 
queen, they joined this with that which the duke of 
Marlborough had gained at Hocksted. I understand 
nothing of sea matters, and therefore cannot make 
a judgment in the point : I have heard men skilled 
in those affairs differ much in their sentiments of 
Rook's conduct in that action ; some not only justi- 
fying but extolling it, as much as others condemned 
it. It was certainly ridiculous, to set forth the glory 
of so disputable an engagement in the same words 
with the successes we had by land. The fleet soon 
after sailed home for England, Leak being left with 
a squadron at Lisbon. 

The Spaniards drew aU the forces they had in The siege of 

. I Gibraltar. 

Andalousia and Estremadura together, to retake 
Gibraltar : that army was commanded by the duke 
of ViUadarius; he had with him some French troops, 
with some engineers of that nation, who were chiefly 
relied on, and were sent from France to carry on 
the siege. This gave some disgust to the Spaniards, 
who were so foolish in their pride, that though they 
could do nothing for themselves, and indeed knew 
not how to set about it, yet could not bear to be 
taught by others, or to see themselves outdone by 
them. The siege was continued for above four 



160 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1704. months, during which time the prince of Hesse had 
many occasions given him to distinguish himself 
very eminently, both as to his courage, conduct, and 
indefatigable application. Convoys came frequently 
from Lisbon with supplies of men and provisions, 
which the French were not able to hinder or to inter- 
cept. Pointy at last came with a squadron of twenty 
French ships, and lay long in the bay, trying what 
could be done by sea, while the place was pressed by 
land. Upon that a much stronger squadron was sent 
from Lisbon, with a great body of men and stores of 
all sorts, to relieve the place and to raise the siege ; 
and the court of France, not being satisfied with 
the conduct of the Spanish general, sent mareschal 
Tesse to carry on the siege with greater expedition. 
The Portugueze all this while made no use of the 
diversion given by the siege of Gibraltar ; they made 
great demands on us ; for England was now consi- 
dered as a source that could never be exhausted: 
we granted all their demands, and a body of horse 
was sent to them at a vast charge. The king was 
392 in a very ill state of health, occasioned by disorders 
in his youth ; he had not been treated skilfully, so 
he was often relapsing, and was not in a condition 
to apply himself much to business. For some time, 
our queen dowager was set at the head of their 
councils : her administration was much commended, 
and she was very careful of the English, and all 
their concerns. 
Affairs in I" Italy the duke of Savoy had a melancholy 
^^^' campaign, losing place after place ; but he supported 
his affairs with great conduct, and shewed a firm- 
ness in his misfortunes beyond what could have 
been imagined. Verceil and Yvrea gave the duke 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 161 

of Vendome the trouble of a tedious siege; they i704. 



stood their ground as long as possible : the duke of 
Savoy's army was not strong enough to raise these 
sieges, so both places fell in conclusion. The French 
had not troops both to caiTy on the war and to 
leave garrisons in those places, so they demoUshed 
the fortifications : after they had succeeded so far, 
they sat down before Verue, in the end of October. 
The duke of Savoy posted his army at Crescentino, 
over against it, on the other side of the Po : he had 
a bridge of communication : he went often into the 
place during the siege, to see and animate his men, 
and to give all necessary orders : the sick and 
wounded were carried away, and fresh men put in 
their stead. This siege proved the most famous of 
all that had been during the late wars ; it lasted 
above five months, the garrison being often changed, 
and always well supplied. The French army suf- 
fered much by continuing the siege all the winter, 
and they were at a vast charge in carrying it on : 
the bridge of communication was, after many un- 
successful attempts, at last cut off; and the duke of 
Savoy, being thus separated from the place, retired 
to Chivaz, and left them to defend themselves as 
long as they could, which they did beyond what 
could in reason have been expected. The duke of 
Savoy complained much of the emperor's failing to 
make good his promises; but in a discourse upon 
that subject with the queen's envoy, he said, though 
he was abandoned by his allies, he would not aban- 
don himself. 

The poor people in the Cevennes suffered much And io the 
this summer : it was not possible to come to them *^*°°"' 
with supplies, till matters should go better in Pied- 

VOL. V. M 



162 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

170^' raont, of which there was then no prospect; they 
were advised to preserve themselves the best they 
could. Mareschal Villars was sent into the country 
to manage them with a gentler hand; the severe 
methods taken by those formerly employed being 
now disowned, he was ordered to treat with their 
leaders, and to offer them fuU liberty to serve Grod 
in their own way without disturbance. They gene- 
rally inclined to hearken to this ; for they had now 
kept themselves in a body much longer than was 
thought possible in their low and helpless state: 
some of them capitulated, and took service in the 
French army; but as soon as they came near the 
armies of the allies, they deserted, and went over to 
393 them : so that by all this practice, that fire was ra- 
ther covered up at present, than quite extinguished K 
Affairs of The disordcrs in Hungary had a deeper root and 

Hungary. , i 1 i 1 • n 

a greater strength ; it was hoped, that the ruin oi 
the elector of Bavaria would have quite disheart- 
ened them, and have disposed them to accept of 
reasonable terms ; if the emperor could have been 
prevailed on to offer them frankly, and immediately 
upon their first consternation, after the conquest of 
Bavaria. There were great errors in the govern- 
ment of that kingdom : by a long course of oppres- 



'' There is a very particular appearance, but had shewn a 

account of this insurrection, most intrepid spirit on this oc- 

written and published by their casion. I never heard of any 

chief leader, Cavalier. He was a very extraordinary thing done 

baker, and afterwards came into by him afterwards. He seemed 

England, and had a regiment, as to be modest and humble in 

I think ; and when I knew Inm, his common deportment. The 

he was a brigadier, and died a account is in English, and 

major general, and lieutenant worth reading for the matter 

governor of Jersey or Guem- of it. O. (Compare what oc- 

.sey. He was of a very mean curs afterwards in p. 566.) 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 168 

sion and injustice, the Hungarians were grown sa- 1704. 
vage and intractable; they saw they were both 
hated and despised by the Germans ; the court of 
Vienna seemed to consider them as so many ene- 
mies, who were to be depressed in order to their 
being extirpated : upon any pretence of plots, their 
persons were seized on, and their estates confiscated : 
the Jesuits were believed to have a great share in 
all those contrivances and prosecutions ; and it was 
said, that they purchased the confiscated estates 
upon very easy terms; the nobility of Hungary 
seemed irreconcileable to the court of Vienna: on 
the other hand, those of that court who had these 
confiscations assigned them, and knew that the re- 
storing these would certainly be insisted on as a ne- 
cessary article in any treaty that might follow, did 
all they could to obstruct such a treaty. It was 
visible that Ragotski, who was at their head, aimed 
at the principality of Transylvania : and it was na- 
tural for the Hungarians to look on his arriving at 
that dignity, by which he could protect and assist 
them, as the best security they could have. On the 
other hand, the court of Vienna being possessed of 
that principality, would not easily part with it. In 
the midst of all this fermentation, a revolution hap- 
pened in the Turkish empire : a new sultan was set 
up. So all things were at a stand, till it might be 
known what was to be expected from him. They 
were soon delivered from this anxiety ; for he sent 
Chiaus to the court of Vienna, to assure them that 
he was resolved to maintain the peace in all points ; 
and that he would give no assistance to the male- 
contents. The court of Vienna being freed from those 
apprehensions, resolved to carry on the war in Hun- 

M 2 



164 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1704. gary as vigorously as they could: this was imputed 
to a secret practice from France on some of that 
court, and there were so many there concerned in 
the confiscations, that every proposition that way 
was powerfully supported : thus Italy was neglected, 
and the siege of Landaw was ill supported; their 
chief strength being employed in Hungary. Yet 
when the ministers of the allies pressed the opening 
a treaty with the malecontents, the emperor seemed 
willing to refer the arbitration of that matter to his 
394 allies : but though it was fit to speak in that style, 
yet no such thing was designed. A treaty was 
opened, but when it was known that Zeiher had the 
chief management of it, there was no reason to ex- 
pect any good effect of it : he was bom a protestant, 
a subject of the palatinate, and was oft employed 
by the elector Charles Lewis, to negotiate affairs at 
the court of Vienna ; he, seeing a prospect of rising 
in that court, changed his religion, and became a 
creature of the Jesuits ; and adhered steadily to all 
their interests. He managed that secret practice 
with the French in the treaty of Ryswick, by which 
the protestants of the palatinate suffered so consi- 
derable a prejudice. The treaty in Hungary stuck 
at the preliminaries; for indeed neither side was 
then inclined to treat ; the malecontents were sup- 
ported from France ; they were routed in several 
engagements, but these were not so considerable as 
the court of Vienna gave out in their public news ; 
the malecontents suffered much in them, but came 
soon together again, and they subsisted so well, 
what by the mines, of which they had possessed 
themselves, what by the incursions they made, and 
the contributions they raised from the emperor's 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 165 

subjects, that unless the war were carried on more 1704. 
vigorously, -or a peace were offered more sincerely, 
that kingdom was long like to be a scene of blood 
and rapine. 

So was its neighbouring kingdom t)f Poland: it'rheaffiair* 
was hoped, that the talk of a new election was only 
a loud threatening, to force a peace the sooner ; but 
it proved otherwise : a diet was brought together of 
those who were irreconcileable to king Augustus, 
and after many delays, Stanislaus, one of the pala- 
tines, was chosen and proclaimed their king; and 
he was presently owned by the king of Sweden. 
The cardinal seemed at first unwilling to agree to 
this, but he suffered himself to be forced to it ; this 
was believed to be only an artifice of his, to excuse 
himself to the court of France, whose pensioner he 
was, and to whom he had engaged to carry the elec- 
tion for the prince of Conti. The war went on this 
year with various success on both sides ; king Au- 
gustus made a quick march to Warsaw, where he 
surprised some of Stanislaus's party, he himself 
escaping narrowly ; but the king of Sweden fol- 
lowed so close, that, not being able to fight him, he 
was forced to retreat into Saxony, where he conti- 
nued for some months : there he ruined his own 
dominions, by the great preparations he made to 
return with a miglity force ; the delay of that made 
many forsake his party ; for it was given out, that 
he would return no more, and that he was weary of 
the war, and he had good reason so to be. Poland, 
in the mean while, was in a most miserable condi- 
tion ; the king of Sweden subsisted his army in it, 
and his temper gi'ew daily more fierce and Gothic ; 
he was resolved to make no peace, till Augustus was 395 

M 3 



166 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1704. driven out : in the mean while his own country suf- 
fered much; Livonia was destroyed by the Musco- 
vites ; they had taken Narva, and made some pro- 
gresses into Sweden. The pope espoused the inte- 
rests of king Augustus ; for to support a new con- 
vert of such importance, was thought a point wor- 
thy the zeal of that see ; so he cited the cardinal to 
appear at Rome, and to give an account of the share 
he had in all that war. 
The pop* The pope was now whoUy in the French interest, 
theVrench and maintained the character they pretend to, of a 
uit«re»t. common father, with so much partiality, that the 
emperor himself, how tame and submissive soever to 
all the impositions of that see, yet could not bear it ; 
but made loud complaints of it. The pope had 
threatened, that he would thunder out excommuni- 
cations against all those troops that should continue 
in his dominions : the emperor was so implicit in his 
faith, and so ready in his obedience, that he ordered 
his troops to retire out of the ecclesiastical state ; 
but all the effect that this had, was to leave that 
state entirely iti the hands of the French, against 
whom the pope did not think fit to fulminate ; yet 
the pope still pretended that he would maintain a 
neutrality, and both the Venetians and the great 
duke adhered to him in that resolution, and conti- 
nued neutral during the war. 
The affiun Having now given a view of the state of affairs 
abroad, I return back to prosecute the relation of 
those at home, and begin with Scotland. A session 
of parliament was held there this summer: the 
duke of Queensbury's management of the plot was 
so liable to exception, that it was not thought fit to 
employ him, and it seems he had likewiise brought 



of Scotland. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 167 

himself under the queen's displeasure; for it was 1704. 
proposed by some of his friends in the house of 
lords, to desire the queen to communicate to them 
a letter which he had wrote to her of such a date : 
this looked like an examination of the queen her- 
self, to whom it ought to have been left, to send 
what letters she thought fit to the house, and they 
ought not to call for any one in particular. The 
matter of that letter made him liable to a very se- 
vere censure in Scotland : for in plain words he 
charged the majority of the parliament, as deter- 
mined in their proceedings by an influence from St. 
Germains : this exposed him in Scotland to the fury 
of a parliament ; for how true soever this might be, 
by the laws of that kingdom such a representation 
of a parliament to the queen, especially in matters 
which could not be proved, was leasing-making, 
and was capital. 

The chief design of the court in this session was 
to get the succession of the crown to be declared, 
and a supply to be given for the army, which was 
run into a great arrear. In the debates of the for- 
mer session, those who opposed every thing, more 396 
particularly the declaring the succession, had in- 
sisted chiefly on motions to bring their own consti- 
tution to such a settlement, that they might suffer 
no prejudice by their king's living in England. Mr. 
Johnstoun was now taken in by the ministers into 
a new management : it was proposed by him, in 
concert with the marquis of Tweedale and some 
others in Scotland, that the queen should empower 
her commissioner to consent to a revival of the 
whole settlement, made by king Charles the first in 
the year 1641. 

M 4 



168 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1704. By that the king named a privy council and his 
ministei*s of state in parliament, who had a power 
to accept of, or to except to, the nomination, with- 
out being bound to give the reason for excepting to 
it : in the intervals of parliament, the king was to 
give all employments, with the consent of the privy 
council : this was the main point of that settlement, 
which was looked on by the wisest men of that 
time as a full security to all their laws and liber- 
ties : it did indeed divest the crown of a great part 
of the prerogative ; and it brought the parliament 
into some equality with the crown. 

The queen, upon the representation made to her 
by her ministers, offered this as a limitation on the 
successor, in case they would settle the succession, 
as England had done ; and for doing this, the mar- 
quis of Tweedale was named her commissioner. 
The queen did also signify her pleasure very posi- 
tively to all who were employed by her, that she 
expected they should concur in settling the succes- 
sion, as they desired the continuance of her favour. 
Both the duke of Marlborough and the lord Godol- 
phin expressed themselves very fully and positively 
to the same purpose; yet it was dexterously sur- 
mised, and industriously set about by the Jacobites, 
and too easily believed by jealous and cautious peo- 
ple, that the court was not sincere in this matter : 
and that at best they were indifferent as to the suc- 
cess. Some went further, and said, that thos^ who 
were in a particular confidence at court, did secretly 
oppose it, and entered into a management on design 
to obstmct it : I could never see any good ground 
fpr this suggestion ; yet there was matter enough 
for jealousy to work on, and this was carefuUy im- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 169 

proved by the Jacobites, in order to defeat the de- 1704. 
sign. Mr. Johnstoun was made lord register, and ~ 

was sent down to promote the design ; the Jacobites 
were put in hopes, in case of a rupture, to have a 
considerable force sent to support them from Dun- 
kirk. 

A session of parliament being opened, and the 
speeches made, and the queen's letter read, all which 
tended to the settling the succession, that was the 
first debate : a great party was now wrought on, 397 
when they understood the security that was to be 
offered to them : for the wisest patriots in that king- 
dom had always magnified that constitution, as the 
best contrived scheme that could be desired : so they 
went in with great zeal to the accepting of \t. But 
those who, in the former session, had rejected all 
the motions of treating with England with some 
scorn, and had made this their constant topic, that 
they must in the first place secure their own con- 
stitution at home, and then they might trust the 
rest to time, and to such accidents as time might 
bring forth ; now when they saw that every thing 
that could be desired was offered with relation to 
their own government, they (being resolved to op- 
pose any declaration of the succession, what terms 
soever might be granted to obtain it) turned the ar- 
gument wholly another way, to shew the necessity 
of a previous treaty with England. They were 
upon that told, that the queen was ready to grant 
them every thing that was reasonable, with relation 
to their own constitution, yet without the concur- 
rence of the parliament of England, she could grant 
nothing in which England was concerned ; for they 
were for demanding a share of the plantation trade. 



170 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
1 704. and that their ships might be comprehended within 



the act of navigation. 
Debates After a long debate, the main question was put, 
succession, whether they should then enter upon the considera- 
tion of the limitations of the government, in order 
to the fixing the succession of the crown, or if tliat 
should be postponed till they had obtained such a 
security, by a treaty with England, as they should 
judge necessary. It was carried by a majority of 
forty, to begin with a treaty with England : of these, 
about thirty were in immediate dependence on the 
court, and were determined according to the direc- 
tions given them. So, notwithstanding a long and 
idle speech of the earl of Cromarty's, which was 
printed, running into a distinction among divines, 
between the revealed and secret will of God, shew- 
ing, that no such distinction could be applied to the 
queen ; she had but one will, and that was revealed; 
yet it was still suspected, that at least her ministers 
The set- had a secret will in the case. They went no further 
pat off in this vote for a treaty with England; for they 
i^ion. could not agree among themselves who should be 
the commissioners, and those who opposed the de- 
claring the succession, were concerned for no more, 
when that question was once set aside : so it was 
postponed, as a matter about which they took no 
further care. 
Avaoney They offered to the court six months cesse for 

bill with , r, . , , , , 

• tack the pay of the army; but they tacked to this a great 
part of a bill which passed the former session of par- 
398 liament, but was refused by the throne : by that it 
was provided, that if the queen should die without 
issue, a parliament should presently meet, and they 
were to declare the successor to the crown, who 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 171 

should not be the same person that was possessed of 1704. 
the crown of England, unless before that time there 
should be a settlement made in parliament, of the 
rights and liberties of the nation, independent on 
English councils. By another clause in the act,' it 
was made lawful to arm the subjects, and to train 
them, and put them in a posture of defence. This 
was chiefly pressed in behalf of the best affected in 
the kingdom, who were not armed ; for the High- 
landers, who were the worst affected, were well 
armed ; so to balance that, it was moved, that leave 
should be given to arm the rest. All was carried 
with great heat and much vehemence; for a na- 
tional humour, of being independent on England, 
fermented so strongly among all sorts of people with- 
out doors, that those who went not into every hot 
motion that was made, were looked on as the be- 
trayers of their country : and they were so exposed 
to a popular fury, that some of those who studied to 
stop this tide, were thought to be in danger of their 
lives. The presbyterians were so overawed with 
this, that though they wished well to the settling 
the succession, they durst not openly declare it. The 
dukes of Hamilton and Athol led all those violent 
motions, and the whole nation was strangely in- 
flamed. 

The ministers were put to a great difficulty with 
the supply bill, and the tack that was joined to it : 
if it was denied, the army could be no longer kept 
up : they had run so far in arrear, that considering 
the poverty of the country, that could not be carried 
on much longer. Some suggested, that it should be 
proposed to the English ministry, to advance the 
subsistence money, tiU better measures could be 



172 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1704. taken ; but none of the Scotch ministry would con- 
" sent to that. An army is reckoned to belong to 

those who pay it : so an army paid from England, 
would be called an English iarmy : nor was it pos- 
sible to manage such a thing secretly. It was weU 
known that there was no money jn the Scotch trea- 
sury to pay them, so if money were once brought 
into the treasury, how secretly soever, all men must 
conclude that it came from England: and men's 
minds were then so full of the conceit of indepen- 
dency, that if a suspicion arose of any such practice, 
probably it would have occasioned tumults : even 
the army was so kindled with this, that it was be- 
lieved that neither officers nor soldiers would have 
taken their pay, if they had believed it came from 
England. It came then to this, that either the army 
must be disbanded, or the bill must pass : it is true, 
the army was a very small one, not above 3000 ; but 
399 it was so ordered, that it was double or treble of- 
ficered ; so that it could have been easily increased 
to a much greater number, if there had been occa- 
sion for it. The officers had served long, and were 
men of a good character : so, since they were 
alarmed with an invasion, which both sides looked 
for, and the inteUigence which the court had from 
France assured them it was intended ; they thought 
the inconveniences arising from the tack might be 
remedied afterwards: but the breaking of the army 
was such a pernicious thing, and might end so fa- 
The mi- tally, that it was not to be ventured on. Therefore 

nistcra • . 

there mi- oj commou couscut a letter was wrote to the queen, 

"^^lo which was signed by all the ministers there, in 

pau it. which they laid the whole matter before her, every 

thing was stated and balanced : all concluded in an 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 173 

humble advice to pass the bill. This was very heavy 1 704. 
on the lord Godolphin, on Whose advice the queen 
chiefly relied : he saw the ill consequences of break- 
ing the army, and laying that kingdom open to an 
invasion, would fall on him, if he should, in contsa- 
diction to the advice given by the ministry of Scot- 
land, have advised the queen to reject the bill. This 
was under consultation in the end of July, when our 
matters abroad were yet in a great uncertainty ; for 
though the victory at Schellemberg was a good step, 
yet the great decision was not then come : so he 
thought, considering the state of affairs, and the ac- 
cidents that might happen, that it was the safest 
thing for the queen to comply with the advices of 
those to whom she trusted the affairs of that king- 
dom. 

The queen sent orders to pass the bill : it passed it was 
on the 6th of August, after the great battle was 
over, but several days before the news of it came to 
us. When the act passed, copies of it were sent to 
England ; where it was spon printed, by those who 
were uneasy at the lord Godolphin's holding the 
white staff, and resolved to make use of this against 
him ; for the whole blame of passing it was cast on 
him. It was not possible to prove that he had ad- 
vised the queen to it : so some took it by another 
handle, and resolved to urge it against him, that he 
had not persuaded the queen to reject it : though 
that seemed a great stretch, for he being a stranger 
to that kingdom, it might have been liable to more 
objection, if he had presumed to advise the queen to 
refuse a bill, passed in the parliament of Scotland, 
which all the ministry there advised her to pass. 

Severe censures passed on this. It was said, that centres 

passed 
upon it. 



174 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1704. the two kingdoms were now divided by law, and 
that the Scotch were pfitting themselves in a pos- 
ture to defend it ; and all saw by whose advices this 
was done. One thing, that contributed to keep up 
400 an > ill humour in the parliament of Scotland, was 
more justly imputed to him : the queen had pro- 
mised to send down to them all the examinations 
relating to the plot : if these had been sent down, 
probably in the first heat the matter might have 
been carried far against the duke of Queensbury. 
But he, who stayed all the while at London, got it 
to be represented to the queen, that the sending 
down these examinations, with the persons con- 
cerned in them, would run the session into so much 
heat, and into such a length, that it would divert 
them quite from considering the succession, and it 
might produce a tragical scene. Upon these sug- 
gestions, the queen altered her resolution of sending 
them down ; though repeated applications were 
made to her, both by the parliament and by her 
ministers, to have them sent; yet no answer was 
made to these, nor was so much as an excuse made 
for not sending them. The duke of Queensbury 
having gained this point, got all his friends to join 
with the party that opposed the new ministry : this 
both defeated all their projects, and softened the spi- 
rits of those who were so set against him, that in 
their first fury no stop could have been put to their 
proceedings : but now the party that had designed 
to ruin him, was so much wrought on by the assist- 
ance that his friends gave them in this session, that 
they resolved to preserve him. 

This was the state of that nation, which was ag- 
gravated very odiously all England over: it was 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 175 

confidently, though, as was afterwards known, very 1704. 
falsely reported, that great quantities of arms were 
brought over and dispersed through the whole king- 
dom : and it being well known how poor the nation 
was at that time, it was said that those arms were 
paid for by other hands, in imitation of what it was 
believed cardinal Richelieu did in the year 1638. 
Another thing was given out very maliciously by 
the lord treasurer's enemies, that he had given di- 
rections underhand, to hinder the declaring the suc- 
cession, and that the secret of this was trusted to 
Johnstoun, who they said talked openly one way, and 
acted secretly another ; though I could never see a 
colour of truth in those reports. Great use was to 
be made of the affairs of Scotland ; because there 
was no ground of complaint of any thing in the ad- 
ministration at home : all the duke of Marlborough's 
enemies saw his chief strength lay in the credit that 
the lord Godolphin was in at home, while he was so 
successful abroad: so it being impossible to attack 
him in such a course of glory, they laid their aims 
against the lord treasurer. The tories resolved to 
attack him, and that disposed the whigs to preserve 
him ; and this was so managed by them, that it gave 
a great turn to all our councils at home. 

In the beginning of November, the session of par- 401 
liament was opened : it might well be expected, that^^*^^^^^° 
after such a summer the addresses of both houses "«°* »" 

England. 

would run in a very high strain : the house of com- 
mons in their address put the successes by sea and 
land on a level, and magnified both in the same ex- 
pressions : but the house of lords in their address 
took no notice of Rook nor of the sea. The lower 
house of convocation were resolved to follow the ex- 



176 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

i/OA. ample of the house of commons, and would have the 
sea and land both mentioned in the same terms ; but 
the bishops would not vary from the pattern set them 
by the house of lords ; so no address was made by 
the convocation. The commons agreed to every 
thing that the court proposed for supporting the 
war another year; this was carried through with 
great despatch and unanimity : so that the main bu- 
siness of the session was soon over ; all the money- 
bills were prepared and carried on in the regular 
method without any obstruction : those who in- 
tended to embroil matters saw it was not advisable 
to act aboveboard, but to proceed more covertly. 

1705. The act against occasional conformity was again 
The occa- brouG^ht iu, but moderated in several clauses : for 

•ionalbiU . 

ia again thosc who prcsscd it wcrc now resolved to bring the 

brought in, m 1 • 1 

and endea- tcrms as low as was possible, in order once to carry a 
beucked bill upou that head. The opposition in the house of 
toj money- commous made to it was become so considerable, (for 
the design was now more clearly discerned,) that it 
was carried in that house only by a majority of fifty. 
When the bill was to be committed, it was moved 
that it should be committed to the same committee 
which was preparing the bill for the land-tax ; the 
design of this was, that the one should be tacked 
to the other, and then the lords would have been put 
upon a great difficulty. If they should untack the 
bill, and separate one from the other, then the 
house of commons would have insisted on a maxim, 
that was now settled among them as a fundamental 
principle never to be departed from, that the lords 
cannot alter a money-bill, but must either pass it or 
reject it, as it is sent to them : on the other hand. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 177 

the lords could not agree to any such tack, without 1705. 
departing from that solemn resolution, which was in 
their books, signed by most of them, never to admit 
of a tack to a money-bill : if they yielded now, they 
taught the house of commons the way to impose any 
thing on them at their pleasure. 

The party in the house of commons put their 
whole strength to the carrying this point : they went 
further in their design : that which was truly aimed 
at, by those in the secret, was to break the war, and 
to force a peace : they knew a bill with this tack 402 
could not pass in the house of peers : some lords of 
their party told myself that they would never pass 
the bill with this tack, so by this means money 
would be stopped: this would put all matters in 
great confusion both at home and abroad ; and dis- 
pose our allies, as despairing of any help from us, to 
accept of such terms as France would offer them : so 
here was an artful design formed to break, at least 
to shake, the whole alliance. The court was very 
apprehensive of this, and the lord Godolphin opposed 
it with much zeal : the party disowned the design 
for some time, until they had brought up their whole 
strength, and thought they were sure of a majority. 

The debate held long : those who opposed it said, 
this now aimed at was a change of the whole con- 
stitution ; and was in effect turning it into a com- 
monwealth : for it imported the denying, not only 
to the lords, but to the crown, the free use of their 
negative in the legislature ; if this was once settled, 
then as often as the public occasions made a money- 
bill necessary, every thing that the majority in their 
house had a mind to would be tacked to it. It is 
true, some tacks had been made to money-bills in 

VOL. V. N 



178 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. king Charles's time; but even these had still some 



relation to the money that was given : but here a 
bill, whose operation was only for one year, and 
which determined as soon as the four shillings in the 
pound was paid, was to have a perpetual law tacked 
to it, that must continue still in force after the 
greatest part of the act was expired and dead : to all 
this, in answer, some precedents were opposed, and 
the necessity of the bill for the preservation of the 
church was urged, which they saw was not like to 
pass, unless sent to the lords so accompanied ; which 
some thought was very wittingly pressed, by calling 
it a portion annexed to the church, as in a marriage; 
and they said they did not doubt but those of the 
court would bestir themselves to get it passed, when 
it was accompanied with two millions as its price. 
The tack Upou the divisiou 134 were for the tack, and 250 

■wai re- ■*• ^ 

jected. were against it : so that design was lost by those 
who had built all their hopes upon it, and were 
now highly offended with some of their own party, 
who had by their opposition wrought themselves 
into good places, and forsook that interest to which 
they owed their advancement : these, to redeem 
/ themselves with their old friends, seemed still zea- 

lous for the bill, which after went on coldly and 
slowly in the house of commons, for they lofet all 
hopes of carrying it in the house of lords, now that 
the mine they had laid was sprung. 

Debate* While this was ffoinff on in the house of commons, 

concerning o o ' 

Scotland, the debate about the Scotch act was taken up with 

403 great heat in the house of lords : the ill effects that 

were like to follow upon it were opened, in very 

tragical strains : it was after much declaiming 

moved, that the lords might pass some votes upon 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 



179 



it. The tories who pressed this, intended to add a 
severe vote against all those who had advised it; and 
it was visible at whom this was aimed. The whigs 
diverted this ' : they said the putting a vote against 
an act passed in Scotland, looked like the claiming 
some superiority over them, which seemed very im- 
proper at that time, since that kingdom was pos- 
sessed with a national jealousy on this head, that 
would be much increased by such a proceeding : 
more moderate methods were therefore proposed and 
agreed to, in order to the making up of a breach 
in this island, with which they seemed to be then 
threatened. So an act was brought in, empowering 
the queen to name commissioners to treat of a full 
union of both kingdoms, as soon as the parliament 
of Scotland should pass an act to the same purpose : 
but if no such union should be agreed on, or if the 



1703. 



• This was the fatal period 
of lord Godolphin's life and 
reign. He had hitherto con- 
stantly played a double game, 
but had so far outshot himself 
in this act of security, (as it 
was called,) that he had no way 
of defending it, without expos- 
ing what he had ever had in his 
view, and used his utmost dex- 
terity to conceal. When the de- 
bate began, he did not know 
which side would fall hardest 
upon him : lord Nottingham 
attacked him first: in answer, 
he talked nonsense very fast, 
which was not his usual way, 
either as to matter or manner ; 
but said much as to the neces- 
sity of passing the money-bill. 
Lord Halifax in a very insolent 
style desired to know what the 
value of that bill might be ; the 
answer was, five and twenty 



thousand pounds: upon which 
he proceeded with great out- 
rage, and said he would have 
been responsible himself, that 
the people of England should 
have given twice that sum to 
have had the bill rejected. Dur- 
ing which, I saw lord Wharton 
discoursing very seriously with 
lord Godolphin, and from him 
went to lord Somers, and both 
afterwards to lord Halifax : 
upon which he spoke in much a 
lower strain, and the whigs, as 
the bishop says, diverted the 
whole debate ; he having, as 
we afterwards ubderstood, de- 
livered himself entirely into 
their management, provided 
they brought him off. He made 
a poor figure for the rest of his 
lime, being obliged to do every 
thing that every body knew was 
most against his inclinations. D. 

N 2 



180 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. same succession to the crown, with that of England, 
should not be enacted by a day prefixed, then it was 
enacted that after that day no Scotchman, that was 
not resident in England or Ireland, or employed in the 
queen's service by sea or land, should be esteemed a 
natural-bom subject of England : they added to this, 
a prohibition of the importation of Scotch cattle, and 
the manufacture of Scotland : all this fell in the house 
of commons, when sent down to them, because of 
the money-penalties which were put in the several 
clauses of the biU. The commons were resolved to 
adhere to a notion, that had now taken such root 
among them, that it could not be shaken, that the 
lords could not put any such clause in a bill begun 
with them : this was wholly new ; penalties upon 
transgressions could not be construed to be a giving 
of money : the lords were clearly in possession of 
proceeding thus ; so that the calling it in question 
was an attempt on the share which the lords had 
in the legislature : the commons let this bill lie on 
the table, and began a new one to the same purpose ; 
it passed : and the following Christmas was the day 
prefixed for the Scotch to enact the succession, or 
on failure thereof, then this act was to have its ef- 
fect. A great coldness appeared in many of the 
commons, who used to be hot on less important oc- 
casions : they seemed not to desire that the Scotch 
should settle the succession : and it was visible that 
some of them hoped, that the lords would have used 
their bill, as they had used that sent down by the 
lords : many of them were less concerned in the fate 
of the biU, because it diverted the censure, which 
they had intended to fix on the lord treasurer. The 
lords were aware of this, and passed the bill. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 181 

Those who wished well to the union were afraid, '705. 
that the prohibition, and the declaring the Scots 494 
aliens after the day prefixed, would be looked on 
as threatenings : and they saw cause to apprehend, 
that ill-tempered men in that kingdom would use 
this as a handle to divert that nation, which was al- 
ready much soured, from hearkening to any motion 
that might tend to promote the union, or the de- 
claring the succession. It was given out by these, 
that this was an indignity done their kingdom, and 
that they ought not so much as to treat with a na- 
tion that threatened them in such a manner. The 
marquis of Tweedale excused himself from serving 
longer ; so the duke of Argyle, whose father was 
lately dead, was named to be sent down commissioner 
to hold a parliament in Scotland : he was then very 
young, and was very brave '". 

This being despatched easier than was expected, complaints 
the parliament went on to other business : com- miraity. 
plaints of an ill management both at the board of 
the prince's council and at sea rose very high. This 
house of commons, during the whole continuance of 
the parliament, never appointed a committee to look 
into those matters, which had been formerly a main 
part of their care : they saw things were ill con- 
ducted, but the chief managers of sea affairs were 
men of their party, and that atoned for all faults, 
and made them unwilling to find them out, or to 
censure them : the truth was, the prince was pre- 
vailed on to continue stiU in the admii'alty, by those 
who sheltered themselves under his name; though 

"" He managed well for the deed he secured in June an 
court, and was from the begin- English dukedom. H. 
njng zealous for the union ; in- 

N 3 



188 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. this brought a great load on the government. The 
lords went on as they had done the former session, 
examining into all complaints : they named two com- 
mittees; the one to examine the books of the admi- 
ralty, the other to consider the proceedings at sea: no 
progress was made in the first of these ; for though 
there was a great deal suggested in private, yet 
since this seemed to be complaining of the prince, 
none would appear directly against him; but the 
other afforded matter enough, both for inquiry and 
censure. The most important, and that which had 
the worst consequences, was, that though there were 
twenty-two ships appointed for cruising, yet they 
had followed that service so remissly, and the orders 
sent them were so languid, and so little urgent, that 
three diligent cruising ships could have performed all 
the services done by that numerous fleet. This was 
made out in a scheme, in which all the days of their 
being out at sea were reckoned up, which did not 
exceed what three cruisers might have performed. 
It did not appear whether this was only the effect 
of sloth or ignorance, or if there lay any designed 
treachery at bottom : it seemed very plain that there 
405 was treachery somewhere, at least among the under- 
oflScers : for a French privateer being taken, they 
found among his papers instructions sent him by his 
owners, in which he was directed to lie in some sta- 
tions, and to avoid others; and it happened that this 
agreed so exactly with the orders sent from the ad- 
miralty, that it seemed that could not be by chance, 
but that the directions were sent upon sight of the 
orders. The queen began this winter to come to the 
house of lords upon great occasions to hear their de- 
bates, which, as it was of good use for her better in- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 18S 

formation, so it was very serviceable in bringing the 1705. 
house into better order. The first time she came" 
was when the debate was taken up concerning the 
Scotch act : she knew the lord treasurer was aimed The bin a- 
at by it, and she diverted the storm by her endea- c^ufnar 
vours, as well as she restrained it by her presence. SblSand 
She came likewise thither to hear the debates rfj^";*^^ "^y 

the lords. 

upon the bill against occasional conformity, which 
was sent up by the commons : if it had not been for 
the queen's being present, there would have been no 
long debate on that head, for it was scarce possible 
to say much that had not been formerly said ; but 
to give the queen full information, since it was sup- 
posed that she had heard that matter only on one 
side, it was resolved to open the whole matter in 
her hearing. The topics most insisted on were, the 
quiet that we enjoyed by the toleration, on which 
head the severities of former reigns were laid open, 
both in their injustice, cruelty, and their being ma- 
naged only to advance popery, and other bad designs: 
the peaceable behaviour of the dissenters, and the 
zeal they expressed for the queen and her govern- 
ment was also copiously set forth ; while others 
shewed a malignity to it. That which was chiefly 
urged was, that every new law made in the matter, 
altered the state of things from what it was when 
the act for toleration first passed : this gave the dis- 
senters an alarm ; they might from thence justly 
conclude, that one step would be made after an- 
other, until the whole effect of that act should be 
overturned. It did not appear from the behaviour 
of any among them, that they were not contented 
with the toleration they enjoyed, or that they were 
carrying on designs against the church : in that case 
it might be reasonable to look for a further security. 



184 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
1705. but nothing tending that way was so much as pre- 



tended : all went on jealousies and fears, the com- 
mon topics of sedition. On the other hand, to sup- 
port the bill, all stories were brought up to shew 
how restless and unquiet that sort of men had been in 
former times. When it came to the question, whe- 
ther the bill should be read a second time or not, it 
went for the negative by a majority of twenty lords. 
406 Another debate, that brought the queen to the 
i«»bop house, was concerning Watson, late lord bishop of 
practices. St.David's": his business had been kept long on foot 
in the courts below, by all the methods of delay that 
lawyers could invent. After five years pleading, the 
concluding judgment was given in the exchequer, 
that he had no right to the temporalities of that bi- 
shopric ; and that being affirmed in the exchequer- 
chamber, it was now, by a writ of error, brought be- 
fore the lords, in the last resort. But as the house 
seemed now to be set, he had no mind to let it go to 
a final decision ; so he delayed the assigning the 
errors of the judgment, until the days were lapsed in 
which, according to a standing order, errors ought 
to be assigned upon a writ of error : in default of 
which, the record was to be sent back. He suffered 
the time to lapse, though particular notice was or- 
dered to be given him, on the last day in which, ac- 
cording to the standing order, he might have as- 
signed his errors ; and the house sat that day some 
hours on purpose waiting for it. Some weeks after 
that, when the session was so near an end that he 
thought his cause could not be heard during the ses- 
sion, and so must in course have been put off to an- 
other session, he petitioned for leave to assign his 
errors : this was one of the most solemn orders that 
" (See before, j>. 226, &c.) 



OF QUEExNT ANNE. 185 

related to the judicature of the lords, and had been 1705. 

the most constantly stood to ; it was not therefore 

thought reasonable to break through it in favour of 

so bad a man, of whom they were all ashamed, if 

parties could have any shame. He had affected, in 

every step he had made, to seek out all possible 

delays for keeping the see still void, which, by reason 

of a bad bishop and a long vacancy, was fallen into 

great disorder : yet after all this, he had still by law 

the benefit of a writ of error, which he might bring 

in any subsequent session of parliament. 

Upon this, the queen resolved to fill that see; and Some pro- 
motions in 
she promoted to it the celebrated Dr. Bull, who had the church. 

writ the leamedest treatise that this age had pro- 
duced, of the doctrine of the primitive church con- 
cerning the Trinity : this had been so well received 
all Europe over, that in an assembly general of the 
clergy of France, the bishop of Meaux was desired 
to write over to a correspondent he had in London*^, 
that they had such a sense of the service he had 
done their common faith, that upon it they sent 
him their particular thanks : I read the letter, and 
so I can deliver it for a certain truth, how uncom- 
mon soever it may seem to be. The queen had a 
little before this promoted Dr. Beveridge to the see 
of St. Asaph, who had shewed himself very learned 
in the ecclesiastical knowledge. They were both 
pious and devout men, but were now declining ; both 407 
of them being old, and not like to hold out long p. 

° The famous Mr. Nelson. H. noticed by the church of France, 

P (If old age is here intended and then only promoted to the 

to be objected to their apjwint- poor bishopric of St. David's ? 

ment, how came it that Dr. Beveridge, indeed, had formerly 

Bull, who had long been dis- refused the see of one of the 

tinguished by his great learn- bishops, who were deprived »t 

ing, was not preferred till he was the revolution.) 



Ter. 



186 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. Soon after this, the see of Lincoln became vacant by 
that bishop's death : Dr. Wake, was after some time 
promoted to it : a man eminently learned, an excel- 
lent writer, a good preacher, and, which is above aU, 
a man of an exemplary life. 
Tttsigas A desiffn was formed in this session of parliament, 

with rela- ° * . 

tion to the but thcrc was not strength enough to cany it on at 
If^li^o^- this time ; the earl of Rochester gave a hint of it in 
the house of lords, by saying that he had a motion 
of great consequence to the security of the nation, 
which he would not make at this time, but would 
do it when next they should meet together. He 
said no more to the house, but in private discourse 
he owned it was for bringing over the electoress of 
Hanover to live in England : upon this I wiQ di- 
gress a little, to open the design and the views 
which he and some others might have in this mo- 
tion. 

It seemed not natural to believe that a party, 
which had been all along backward at best, and 
cold in every step that was made in settling the suc- 
cession in that family, should become all on the 
sudden such converts as to be zealous for it ; so it 
was not an unreasonable jealousy to suspect, that 
somewhat lay hid under it : it was thought that 
they either knew, or did apprehend, that this would 
not be acceptable to the queen ; and they, being 
highly displeased with the measures she took, went 
into this design both to vex her ^i, and in hopes that 

1 The two parties were al- were for it. To speak impar- 

ways ii|K)n tl»e catch with each tialiy, I do not wonder the 

other : the whigs in power op- queen was always averse to 

posed it now with very good the measure. The rising sun 

reason ; when out of power, and is never an agreeable sight. H. 

the succession in danger, they (Sec also below, p. 430.) 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 187 

a faction might arise out of it, which might breed a 1705. 
distraction in our councils, and some of them might 
hope thereby to revive the prince of Wales's preten- 
sions. They reckoned such a motion would be po- 
pular : and if either the court or the whigs, on 
whom the court was now beginning to look more 
favourably, should oppose it, this would cast a load 
on them as men, who, after all the zeal they had ex- 
pressed for that succession, did now, upon the hopes 
of favour at court, throw it up : and those who had 
been hitherto considered as the enemies of that 
house, might hope by this motion to overcome all 
the prejudices that the nation- had taken up against 
them ; and they might create a merit to themselves 
in the minds of that family, by this early zeal, which 
they resolved now to express for it. 

This was set on foot among all the party : but 
the more sincere among them could not be prevailed 
on to act so false a part, though they were told this 
was the likeliest way to advance the pretended 
prince of Wales's interests. 

I now come to give an account of the last busi-Tiie house 

" ^ ^ _ of com- 

ness of this session, with which the parliament mons com- 
ended "^ ; it was formerly told, what proceedings had prison some 
been at law upon the election at Ailesbury ; the of AUesb"- 
judgment that the lords gave in that matter was^'' ^^ 
executed, and upon that, five others of the inhabit- 
ants brought their actions against the constables 
upon the same grounds. The house of commons 
looked on this as a great contempt of their votes, 
and they voted this a breach of privilege, to which 
they added a new, and until then unheard of crime, 
that it was contrary to the declaration that they had 
■■ See antea, 366, &c. O. 



188 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. made ; upon that they sent their messenger for 
these five men, and committed them to Newgate, 
where they lay three months prisoners ; they were 
all the while well supplied and much visited ; so 
they lay without making any application to the 
house of commons : it was not thought advisable to 
move in such a matter, until all the money-bills were 
passed; then motions were made, in the interval 
between the terms, upon the statute for a habeas 
coi'pus ; but the statute relating only to commit- 
ments by the royal authority, this did not lie within 
it. 

When the term came, a motion was made in the 
queen's bench upon the common law, in behalf of 
the prisoners for a habeas corpus ; the lawyers who 
moved it produced the commitment, in which their 
offence was set forth, that they had claimed the be- 
nefit of the law in opposition to a vote of the house 
of commons to the contrary ; they said the subjects 
were governed by the laws, which they might, and 
were bound to know, and not by the votes of a 
house of parliament, which they were neither bound 
to know nor to obey : three of the judges were of 
opinion, that the court could take no cognizance of 
that matter ; the chief-justice was of another mind ; 
he thought a general warrant of commitment for 
breach of privilege was of the nature of an execu- 
tion ; and since the ground of the commitment was 
specified in the warrant, he thought it plainly ap- 
peared, that the prisoners had been guilty of no 
legal offence, and that therefore they ought to be 
discharged: he was but one against three, so the 
prisoners were remanded. 

Upon that they moved for a writ of error, to 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 189 

bring the matter before the lords; that was only to 1705. 
be come at by petitioning the queen to order it : 
the commons were alarmed at this, and made an 
address to the queen, setting forth, that they had 
passed all the money-bills, therefore they hoped her 
majesty would not grant this. Ten judges agreed, 
that in civil matters a petition for a writ of error 
was a petition of right, and not of grace ; two of 
them only were of another mind ; it was therefore 
thought a very strange thing, which might have 
most pernicious consequences, for a house of com- 
mons to desire the queen not to grant a petition of 
right, which was plainly a breach of law and of her 
coronation oath ; they also took on them to affirm, 409 
that the writ did not lie ; though that was clearly 
the work of the judicature to declare, whether it 
lay or not, and that was unquestionably the right of 
the lords ; they only could determine that ; the sup- 
plying the public occasions was a strange consider- 
ation to be offered the queen, as an argument to per- 
suade her to act against law : as if they had pre- 
tended that they had bribed her to infringe the law, 
and to deny justice : money given for public service 
was given to the country and to themselves, as pro- 
perly as to the queen. 

The queen answered their address, and in it said, 
that the stopping proceedings at law was a matter 
of such consequence, that she must consider well of 
it : this was thought so cold, that they returned her 
no thanks for it ; though a well composed house of 
commons would certainly have thanked her for that 
tender regard to law and justice. The house of 
commons carried their anger farther ; they ordered 
the prisoners to be taken out of Newgate, and to be 



190 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. kept by their sergeant ; they also ordered the law- 
yers and the solicitors to be taken into custody, for 
appearing in behalf of the prisoners : these were 
such strange and unheard of proceedings, that by 
them the minds of all people were much alienated 
from the house of commons. But the prisoners 
were under such management, and so well supported, 
that they would not submit nor ask pardon of the 
house ; it was generally believed, that they were 
supplied and managed by the lord Wharton ^ ; they 
petitioned the house of lords for relief; and the 
lords resolved to proceed in the matter by sure and 
regular steps : they first came to some general re- 
solutions ; that neither house of parliament could 
assume or create any new privilege that they had 
not been formerly possessed of; that subjects claim- 
ing their rights in a course of law, against those 
who had no privilege, could not be a breach of pri- 
vilege of either house; that the imprisoning the 
men of Ailesbury, for acting contrary to a declara-f 
tion made by the house of commons, was against 
law; that the committing their friends and their 
counsel for assisting them, in order to the procuring 
their liberty in a legal way, was contrary to law ; 
and that the writ of error could not be denied with- 
out breaking the Magna Charta and the laws of 
England. These resolutions were communicated to 
the house of commons at a conference. 

They made a long answer to them : in it they set 
forth, that the right of determining elections was 
lodged only with them, and that therefore they only 
could judge who had a right to elect ; they only 
were the judges of their own privileges, the lords 
» See antea, p. 369. O. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 191 

could not intermeddle in it; they quoted very co- 1705. 
piously the proceedings in the year 1675, upon an 77^^ 
appeal brought against a member of their house ; 
they said their prisoners ought only to apply them- 
selves to them for their liberty ; and that no motion 
had ever been made for a writ of error in such a 
case. Upon this second conference according to 
form, the matter was brought to a free conference, 
where the point was fully argued on both sides ; the 
city and the body of the nation were on the lords' 
side in the matter. Upon this, the lords drew up 
a full representation of the whole thing, and laid it 
before the queen, with an earnest prayer to her ma- 
jesty, to give order for the writ of error ; this was 
thought so well drawn, that some preferred it to 
those of the former sessions ; it contained a long and 
clear deduction of the whole affair, with great de- 
cency of style, but with many heavy reflections on 
the house of commons \ 



t This representation was bury, and supported by the aid 
also drawn by the lord Somers. and authority of the lord So- 
As to the principal" point in niers, who had reason enough 
this affair, the commons, in for resentment and anger to- 
sole jurisdiction of determining wards the tories. But upon 
the rights of electors, are as well a calm consideration of the 
as in that of elections, (sic.) See matter, the point seems to me 
my printed copy of the debates to be clearly with the house of 
upon it in the house of com- commons ; and so it stands 
mons. All this happened in a now fortified with some subse- 
turbjilent time, and was car- quent acts of the house of cora- 
ried on with great violence by mons, with regard to the main 
the tories, which raised a pre- objection made to their claim, 
judice toit in thewhigs, height- as you may see in my printed 
ened by the part the lords copy of these debates. Holt 
took in it, the majority of whom does not seem a friend to par- 
were then of that party, who liamentary judicatories : he had 
were actuated in it by the lord high notions of justice, and the 
Wharton for the sake of his strictness of it, and thought it 
interest and friends at Ailes- could not well be had, but in 



192 



THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 



1705. ^^^^ precision of the common 
law courts. He had some rea- 
son for this, but he carried it 
too for. The lords have in ge- 
neral preserved a purity in their 
judicial acts beyond what could 
be expected from so large a 
body, and composed as they 
are of such various persons, in 
age and otherwise, with so few 
of the science of law among 
them. But what can I say 
for the judgments of the house 
of commons in their election 
causes ? It is reported, that 
sir Edward Seymour, in his 
profane way of talking, said 
once in the house of commons, 
" If the Lord should be ex- 
" treme to mark what was done 
" amiss by us in the matter of 
" elections here, Mr. Speaker, 
*• the Lord have mercy upon 
" us all ;" and so it has been 
more or less in every age since 
parties began among us. It 
soon worked itself into a po- 
lice ; but it is really come to 
be deemed by many a piece of 
virtue and honour to do injus- 
tice in these cases. " The right 
" is in the friend, and not in 
" the cause," is almost avowed, 
and he is laughed at by the lead- 
ers of parties who has scruples 
upon it ; and yet we should not 
bear this a month in any other 
judicature in the kingdom in 
any other object of jurisdiction 

or in this : but we do it 

ourselves, and that sanctifies it, 
and the guilt is lost in the num- 
ber of the guilty, and the sup- 
port of party without doors. It 
has ever been a burden upon 
my mind and heart, and I have 
never laboured more for any 
thing in my station, than to be 
some means of preventing it. 



It is the great disgrace of par- 
liaments, is indeed a reproach 
to the nation, as we should 
think it, if it was said of any 
other; and I see and feel evils 
from it, which go very far be- 
yond this they flow from. A ha- 
bit of false determination, with- 
out shame in some things, will 
make men not ashamed to do 
it in any thing ; and I wish this 
of elections has not had a deep 
effect upon other determina- 
tions in the same place, where 
there have been the like motions 
of party interest for them ; and 
this, because the hearing of 
elections is always the first bu- 
siness in a new parliament ; and 
young men more easily plunged 
into this corruption, because the 
heat of election contest in the 
country is still upon them, and 
when once in it, they seldom 
come out of it, but carry it to 
almost every thing. I speak 
what I have said from some 
experience, and have often wish- 
ed that a new constitution was 
made, and tried for judging of 
controverted elections ; I would 
not have it out of the house of 
commons ; many strong objec- 
tions are to that, which I think 
unanswerable; but I would 
have them tried by a small num- 
ber of members, a committee 
of seven, nine, or eleven, to try 
three, four, or five of these causes 
as they are in course, and then a 
new committee of the like num- 
ber and choice for the like num- 
ber of cases, and so on, more 
or less, according to the re- 
maining petitions, and this to 
be done upon one or more 
fresh petitions as they shall 
come in the course of the par- 
liament's continuance. This was 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 



19S 



By this time the whole business of the session 
was brought to a conclusion ; for the lords, who had 
the money-bills, would not pass them, until this was 
ended : they carried their representation to the 
queen, who in answer to it told them, that she 
would have granted the writ of en'or, but she saw 
it was necessary to put a present conclusion to the 
session. This being reported to the house, was 
looked on by them as a clear decision in their fa- 
vour ; therefore they ordered their humble thanks 
to be immediately returned to her majesty for it : 



1705. 



so far practised some time in 
Q. Elizabeth's reign, that parti- 
cular committees of a few were 
appointed to hear particular 
elections, and their determinati- 
ons were quick, and without any 
imputation of partiality. I would 
have these committees to sit in a 
morning, and their proceedings 
and decisions to be public, and 
in the face of the world, as 
other courts are holden. I am 
satisfied that this would go a 
great way at least to cure the 
evil. A small number of men 
have always a greater regard to 
their characters than large bo- 
dies of men, because they are 
more likely to be stigmatized 
for doing wrong, especially if 
their actings are open, and the 
distinct opinion of every man 
is known to the world ; and 
when the first judgment is ac- 
knowleged to be well made, 
and so stated to the house, it 
will then be difficult even for 
so large a number to vary from 
it, as the means of an iniquitous 
decision chiefly lie in the trial, 
and not in the report of it. 
Thus the house of commons 

VOL. V. 



may recover the virtue of their 
judicature, which may, nay must 
have an effect upon the impu- 
rity of elections themselves, 
which is chiefly encouraged by 
the hopes of impunity above, 
from the supposed prevalence 
of their party there, and this is 
now gotten to so infamous a 
height in boroughs, (most of 
them, I fear,) that, being joined 
with peijury in many of them, 
this corrupt taking and the cor- 
rupt giving, and the sort of 
men chosen by it, and the irre- 
verence it draws towards par- 
liaments themselves, and the 
discredit it gives to the govern- 
ment for the supposed encou- 
ragement of it, afford too much 
reason to fear, that all this, 
should it continue, (and it is 
continued,) with the boundless 
luxury of the times, will sooner 
or later be the cause of some 
revolution fatal to the consti- 
tution and liberties of this coun- 
try. How or what that may 
be, I don't pretend to judge. 
See antea, p. 367 — 369. See 
also antea, p. 162. O. 



O 



194 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. an hour after that, the queen came to the house of 
lords, and passed all the bills, and ended the session, 
with a speech full of thanks for the supplies so rea- 
dily granted ; she took notice with regret of the ef- 
fects of the ill humour and animosity that had ap- 
peared; and spoke of the narrow escape we had 
made, which she hoped would teach all persons to 
avoid such dangerous experiments for the future : 
this was universally understood to be meant of the 
tack, as indeed it could be meant of nothing else. 
The end of Thus this scssiou, and with it this parliament, 

the par- ^ * ^ 

liament. came to an end : it was no small blessing to the 
queen and to the nation, that they got well out of 
such hands : they had discovered, on many occa- 
sions, and very manifestly, what lay at bottom with 
most of them ; but they had not skiU enough to 
know how to manage their advantages, and to make 
use of theu' numbers ; the constant successes, with 
which God had blessed the queen's reign, put it out 
of their power to compass that which was aimed at 
by them ; the forcing a peace, and of consequence 
the delivering all up to France. Sir Christopher 
Musgrave, the wisest man of the party, died before 
the last session ; and by their conduct after his 
death, it appeared that they wanted his direction : 
411 he had been at the head of the opposition that was 
made in the last reign from the beginning to the 
end ; but he gave up many points of great import- 
ance in the critical minute, for which I had good 
reason to believe that he had 12,000 pounds from 
the late king, at different times " : at his death it 
appeared that he was much richer, than by any vi- 
sible computation he could be valued at : which 
" (See before, notes at p. 109.) 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 195 

made some cast an imputation on his memory, as if 1705. 
he had received great sums even from France. 

I shall conclude the relation of this parliament ^'"« "'»* 

were not 

With an account of some things that were begun, passed, 
but not perfected by them : there was a bill offered 
for the naturalization of some hundreds of French- 
men, to which the commons added a clause, dis- 
abling the persons so naturalized, from voting in 
elections of parliament ; the true reason of this was, 
because it was observed that the French among us 
gave in all elections their votes for those who were 
most zealous against France : and yet, with an ap- 
parent disingenuity, some gave it as a reason for 
such a clause, that they must be supposed so partial 
to the interests of their own country, that it was 
not fit to give them any share in our government. 
The lords looked on this as a new attempt, and the 
clause added was a plain contradiction to the body 
of the bill, which gave 'them all the rights of na- 
tural-born subjects; and this took from them the 
chief of them all, the choosing their representatives 
in parliament : they would not agree to it, and the 
commons resolved not to depart from it ; so without 
coming to a free conference, the biU fell with the 
session. 

Another bill was begun by the lords against the 
papists : it was occasioned by several complaints 
brought from many parts of the kingdom, chiefly 
from Cheshire, of the practices and insolence of 
those of that religion : so a bill was ordered to be 
brought in, with clauses in it, that would have made 
the act passed against them four years before prove 
effectual; which, for want of these, has hitherto 

o 2 



ige THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. been of no effect at all : this passed in tlie house of 
lords, and was sent to the commons. They had no 
mind to pass it ; but to avoid the ill effects of their 
refusing such a bill, they added a clause to it, con- 
taining severe penalties on papists who should once 
take the oaths, and come into the communion of 
our church, if they should be guilty of any occa- 
sional conformity with popery afterwards : they fan- 
cied that this of occasional conformity was so odious 
to the lords, that every clause that condemned it 
would be rejected by them : but when they came to 
understand that the lords were resolved to agi'ee to 
the clause, they would not put it to that hazard : 
so the bill lay on their table, and slept till the pro- 
rogation. 
412 A general self-denying bill was offered in the 
house of commons, by those very men, who in the 
first session of parliament, when they hoped for 
places themselves, had opposed the motion of such a 
biU with great indignation : now the scene was a 
little altered, they saw they were not like to be fa- 
vourites, so they pretended to be patriots. This 
looked so strangely in them, that it was rejected : 
but another bill of a more restrained nature passed, 
disabling some officers, particularly those that were 
concerned in the prize office, from serving in parlia- 
ment : to this a general clause was added, that dis- 
abled all who held any office that had been created 
since the year 1684, or any office that should be 
created for the future, from sitting in parliament : 
this passed among them, and was sent to the lords ; 
who did not think fit to agree to so general a clause, 
but consented to a particular disability, put on some 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 197 

offices by name : the commons did not agree to this 1 705. 
alteration ; they would have all or nothing : so the 
bill feU. 

The conclusion of the parliament set the whole 
nation in a general ferment ; both sides studied how 
to dispose people's minds in the new elections, with 
great industry and zeal: all people looked on the 
affairs of France as reduced to such a state, that 
the war could not run beyond the period of the next 
parliament : a well chosen one must prove a public 
blessing, not only to England, Ijut to all Europe ; as 
a bad one would be fatal to us at home, as well as 
to our allies abroad : the aifairs of France were run 
very low : all methods of raising money were now 
exhausted, and could afford no gi'eat supplies : so, 
in imitation of our exchequer-biUs, they began to 
give out mint-bills ; but they could not create that 
confidence which is justly put in parliamentary cre- 
dit. The French had hopes from their party here 
in England, and there was a disjointing in the seve- 
ral provinces of the United Netherlands: but as 
long as we were firm and united, we had a great 
influence on the States, at least to keep things en- 
tire during the war : so it was visible that a good 
election in England must give such a prospect for 
three years, as would have a great influence on all 
the affairs of Europe. 

I must, before I end the relation of the parlia- proceedings 

* 111 the con- 

ment, say somewhat of the convocation that attended vocation. 
upon it, though it was then so little considered, that 
scarce any notice was taken of them, and they de- 
served that no mention should be made of them. 
The lower house continued to proceed with much 
indecent violence : they still held their intermediate 

o3 



198 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. sessions, and brought up injurious and reflecting 
addresses to the upper house, which gave a very- 
large exercise to the patience and forbearance of the 
413 archbishop and bishops ; the archbishop, after he had 
borne long with their perverseness, and saw no good 
effect of it, proceeded to an ecclesiastical monition 
against their intermediate meetings : this put a stop 
to that, for they would notventure on the censures that 
must in course follow, if no regard was had to the 
monition. At the final prorogation, the archbishop 
dismissed them with a wise, well composed speech ; 
he laid open to them their indecent behaviour, and 
the many wrong steps they had made ; to this he 
added a severe, but grave reprimand, with much 
good advice. The governing men among them were 
headstrong and factious, and designed to force them- 
selves into preferments, by the noise they made, and 
by the ill humour that they endeavoured to spread 
among the clergy, who were generally soured, even 
with relation to the queen herself, beyond what 
could be imagined possible. 

Now having given a full relation of our counsels 
and other affairs at home, I shall next consider the 
progress of those abroad. The first operation of the 
campaign was before Gibraltar: Lake was sailing 
from Lisbon thither, and as he went out he met 
Dilks, who was sent from England to increase his 
force; by this addition, he had a strong fleet of 
thirty men of war, so he held on his course with all 
iiie siege of expedition, hoping to find Pointy in the bay of Gib- 
SbJdl*" raltar; but a great storm had blown all but five 
ships up the Mediterranean. Pointy remained only 
with these, when he was surprised by Lake, who 
did quickly overpower him, and took three capital 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 199 

ships; the other two, that were the greatest of 1705. 
them, were run ashore, and bunit near Marbella. 
Lake sailed to the Levant, to see if he could over- 
take those ships that the wind had driven from the 
rest ; but after a fruitless pursuit for some days, he 
returned back to Gibraltar : that gamson was now 
so well supplied, that the Spaniards lost all hopes of 
being able to take it ; so they raised the siege, turn- 
ing it into a very feeble blockade. This advantage 
came at the same time that Verue was lost, to ba- 
lance that. 

Now the campaign was to be opened, the duke of 
Marlborough designed that the Moselle should be 
the scene of action, and care had been taken to lay 
up magazines of all sorts in Triers : the States con- The duke of 
sented that he should carry the greatest part ot their rough 
army to the Moselle, and resolved to lie on the de-Trie*rs.* 
fensive upon their own frontiers ; for they reckoned 
that how strong soever the elector of Bavaria's army 
was at that time, yet whensoever France should be 
pressed with so great a force as they reckoned 
would be on the Moselle, he would be ordered to 
send such detachments thither, that his army would 
be quickly diminished, and so would not have the 414 
superior strength long. Prince Lewis of Baden 
seemed to like this scheme of the campaign so weU, 
and had concurred so cordially in the concert of it 
during the winter, that no doubt was made of his 
being both able and willing to enter upon this new 
scene of the war : but as the duke of Marlborough 
was setting out, depending on his concurrence, he 
received an express from him, excusing himself both 
on his own want of health, and because the force he 
had about him was not considerable, nor was that 

o 4 



aOO THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1/05. which he expected like to come to him so soon as 
might be wished for. This could not stop the duke 
of Marlborough, who had set his heart on opening 
the campaign in those parts, and had great hopes of 
success : so he resolved to push the matter as far as 
he could. He went to the prince of Baden to con^ 
cert matters with him ; whose ill health seemed only 
to be a pretence : it was true, that the princes and 
circles of the empire had not sent in their quotas, but 
it appeared that there was already strength enough, 
in conjunction with the army that the duke of Marl- 
borough was to bring, to advance and open the 
campaign with great advantage, at least until detach- 
ments should come from other parts : the prince of 
Baden at last consented to this, and promised to 
follow with all the forces he could bring. 
Expecting The dukc of Marlborough was so satisfied with 
of sKr these assurances, that he came back to his army, 
and quickened their march, so that he brought them 
to Triers ; and he advanced eight leagues further, 
through so many defiles, that the French might 
easily have made his march both dangerous and 
diflScult. He posted himself very near mareschal 
Villars's camp, not doubting but that the prince of 
Baden would quickly follow him : instead of that, 
he repeated his former excuse of want of health and 
force. That which gave the worst suspicions of 
him was, that it appeared plainly that the French 
kjpew what he intended to do, and their manage-- 
ment shewed they depended on it ; for they ordered 
no detachments to increase M. ViUars's army : on 
the contrary, the elector of Bavaria, having the su- 
perior force, pressed the States on their frontier. 
Huy was besieged and taken, after it had, beyond 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 201 

all expectation, held out ten days: Liege was at- j^q^ 

tacked next ; the town was taken, but the citadel 

held out. Upon this, the States sent to the duke of 
Marlborough to march back with all possible haste ; 
he had then eat up the forage round about him, and 
was out of aU hope of the prince of Baden's coming 
to join him ; so he saw the necessity of marching 
back, after he had lost some weeks in a fruitless 
attempt : he made such haste in his march, that he 
lost many of his men in the way, by fatigue and de-415 
sertion ; the French gave him no trouble, neither 
while he lay so neai* their camp, nor when he drew 
off, to march away with so much haste. To com- 
plete the ill conduct of the Germans, those who were who failed 
left with the magazines at Triers, pretending dan-'""*" 
ger, destroyed them all, and abandoning Triers, re- 
tired back to the Rhine. 

The prince of Baden's conduct through this whole 
matter was liable to great censure : the worst sus- 
picion was, that he was coiTupted by the French. 
Those who did not carry their censure so far, attri- 
buted his acting as he did to his pride, and thought 
he, envying the duke of Marlborough, and appre- 
hending that the whole glory of the campaign would 
be ascribed to him, since he had the stronger army, 
chose rather to defeat the whole design, than see 
another carry away the chief honour of any successes 
that might have happened. The duke of Marlbo- 
rough came back in good time to raise the siege of 
the citadel of Liege ; and he retook Huy in three 
days : after that, in conjunction with the Dutch 
army, he advanced towards the French lines : he for The duke of 

•^ Marlbo- 

some days amused them with feints ; at last he made rough brok« 
the attack, where he had designed it, and broke French 

liues. 



202 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. through the lines, and gave a gi'eat defeat to the 
body of the French that defended them, with the 
loss only of seven men on his side ; and so without 
more opposition he came very near Louvain, the 
Dyle running between his camp and the town : a 
deluge of rain fell that night, and swelled the Dyle 
so, that it was not possible to pass it. This gave the 
French time to recover themselves out of the first 
consteraation, that the advantages he had gained put 
them in : after a few days, when the passing the 
Dyle was practicable, the duke of Marlborough gave 
orders for it : but the French were posted with so 
Tiie Dutch much advantage on the other side, that the Dutch 
renlure a gcucrals pcrsuadcd the deputies of the States, that 
battle. ^Yiey must loin a great risk, if they should venture 
to force the passage. The duke of Marlborough was 
not a little mortified with this, but he bore it calmly, 
and moved another way. After some few motions, 
another occasion was offered, which he intended to 
lay hold on : orders were given to force the passage ; 
but a motion through a wood, that was thought ne- 
cessary to support that, was not believed practicable : 
so the deputies of the States were again possessed 
with the danger of the attempt ; and they thought 
their affairs were in so good a condition, that such a 
des})erate undertaking as that seemed to be, was not 
to be ventured on. 

This was very uneasy to the duke, but he was 
forced to submit to it, though very unwillingly : all 
agreed that the enterprise was bold and doubtful ; 
416 some thought it must have succeeded, though with 
some loss at first ; and that if it had succeeded, it 
might have proved a decisive action ; others indeed 
looked on it as too desperate. A great breach was 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 203 

like to arise upon this, both in the army and among 1705. 
the States at the Hague, and in the towns of Hoi- 
land, in Amsterdam in particular ; where the burgh- 
ers came in a body to the stadthouse, complaining 
of the deputies, and that the duke of Marlborough 
had not fuller powers. 

I can give no judgment in so nice a point, in 
which military men were of very different opinions, 
some justifying the duke of Marlborough, as much 
as others censured him : he shewed great temper 
on this occasion, and though it gave him a very sen- 
sible trouble, yet he set himself to calm all the heat 
that was raised upon it. The campaign in Flanders 
produced nothing after this but fruitless marches, 
while our troops were subsisted in the enemy's coun- 
try, until the time came of going into winter quar- 
ters. Prince Lewis's backwardness, and the caution 
of the deputies of the States, made this campaign less 
glorious .than was expected ; for I never knew the 
duke of Marlborough go out so full of hopes as in 
the beginning of it : but things had not answered 
his expectation. 

This summer the emperor Leopold died : he wasTheempe- 
the most knowing and the most virtuous prince ofandcha- 
his communion; only he wanted the judgment that*^*"* 
was necessary for conducting great affairs in such 
critical times : he was almost always betrayed, and 
yet he was so firm to those w^ho had the address 
to insinuate themselves into his good opinion and 
confidence, that it was not possible to let him see 
those miscarriages that mined his affairs so often, 
and brought them sometimes near the last extremi- 
ties : of these every body else seemed more sensible 
than he himself. He was devout and strict in his 



204 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. religion, and was so implicit in his submission to 
those priests who had credit with him, the Jesuits 
in particular, that he owed all his troubles to their 
counsels. The persecution they began in Hungary 
raised one great wai', which gave the Turks occa- 
sion to besiege Vienna, by which he was almost en- 
tirely swallowed up : this danger did not produce 
more caution ; after the peace of Carlowitz, there 
was so much violence and oppression in the govern- 
ment of Hungary, both of papists and protestants, 
that this raised a second war there, which, in con- 
junction with the revolt of the elector of Bavaria, 
brought him a second time very near utter ruin : 
yet he could never be prevailed on, either to punish 
or so much as to suspect those who had so fatally 
entangled his affairs ; that without foreign aid no- 
thing could have extricated them. He was natu- 
rally merciful to a fault, for even the punishment of 
417 criminals was uneasy to him : yet aU the cruelty in 
the persecution of heretics seemed to raise no relent- 
ings in him. It could not but be observed by all pro- 
testants, how much the ill influence of the popish reli- 
gion appeared in him, who was one of the mildest 
and most virtuous princes of the age, since cruelty in 
the matters of religion had a full course under him, 
though it was as contrary to his natural temper as 
it was to his interests, and proved oftener than once 
almost fatal to all his affairs. His son Joseph, elected 
king of the Romans, succeeded him both in his he- 
reditary and elective dignities : it was given out 
that he would apply himself much to business, and 
would avoid those rocks on which his father had 
struck, and almost split ; and coiTect those errors 
to which his father's easiness had exposed him : he 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 205 

promised to those ministers that the queen and 1705. 
the States had in his court, that he would offer all 
reasonable terms to the Hungarians: and he con- 
sented to their setting a treaty on foot, in which 
they were to be the mediators, and become the gua- 
rantees for the observance of such articles as should 
be agreed on ; and he gave great hopes, that he would 
not continue in that subjection to the priests, to 
which his father had been captivated. 

He desired to confer with the duke of Marlbo- 
rough, and to concert all affairs with him : the queen 
consented to this, and the duke went to Vienna, 
where he was treated with great freedom and confi- 
dence, and he had all assurances given him that 
could be given in words : he found that the emperor 
was highly dissatisfied with the prince of Baden, but 
he had such credit in the empire, especially with the 
circles of Suabia and Franconia, that it was neces- 
sary to bear with that which could not be helped. 
The duke of Marlborough returned through the he- 
reditary dominions to Berlin, where he had learned 
so perfectly to accommodate himself to that king's 
temper, that he succeeded in every thing he pro- 
posed, and renewed all treaties for one year longer. 
He came from thence to the court of Hanover, and 
there he gave them full assurances of the queen's 
adhering firmly to their interests, in maintaining the 
succession to the crown in their family, with which 
the elector was fully satisfied: but it appeared that the 
electoress had a mind to be invited over to England. 
From thence he came back to Holland, and it was 
near the end of the year before he came over to Eng- 
land. Thus I have cast all that relates to him in 



206 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. one continued series, though it ran out into a course 



of many months. 

Affairs in The Gcrmau army was not brought together be- 
ennany. ^^^^ August : it was a Very brave one, yet it did not 
much ; the French gave way and retired before 
418 them : Haguenaw and some other places were left 
by the French, and possessed by the imperialists : a 
blockade was laid to fort Lewis. But nothing was 
done by that noble army, equal either to their num- 
bers and strength, or to the reputation that the prince 
of Baden had formerly acquired. This was contrary 
to the general expectation ; for it was thought, that 
being at the head of so great an army, he would 
have studied to have signalized himself, if it had 
been but to rival the glory that the duke of Marlbo- 
rough and prince Eugene had acquired. 

And in Princc Eugene had a hard time in Italy : he had 

a weak army, and it was both ill provided and ill 
paid ; he was long shut up within the country of 
Bergamo; at last he broke through to Cusano; where 
there was a very hot action between him and the 
duke of Vendome ; both sides pretended they had 
the \ictory, yet the duke of Vendome repassed the 
river, and the imperialists kept the field of battle. 
The French threatened Turin with a siege, but they 
began with Chivas, which held out some months, 
and was at last abandoned ; the duke of Feuillade 
commanded the army near Turin, and seemed to 
dispose every thing in order to a siege ; but the de- 
sign was turned upon Nice, though late in the year: 
they made a brave resistance for many weeks ; in 
December they were forced to capitulate, and the 
place was demolished by the French. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 207 

The firmness that the duke of Savoy expressed in 1705. 
all these losses was the wonder of all Europe ; he " 

had now but a small army of 8000 foot and 4000 
horse, and had scarce territory enough to support 
these; he had no considerable places left him but 
Turin and Coni: but he seemed resolved to be 
driven out of all, rather than to abandon the alli- 
ance. His duchess, with all the clergy, and indeed 
all his subjects, prayed him to submit to the neces- 
sity of his affairs ; nothing could shake him ; he ad- ' 
mitted none of his bishops nor clergy into his coun- 
cils, and, as his envoy the count Briancon told me, 
he had no certain father confessor, but sent some- 
times to the Dominicans, and sometimes to the Fran- 
ciscans for a priest, when he intended to go to con- 
fession. 

I turn next to Spain, which was this year a scene Affairs in 

. ^ n . Spain- 

of most important transactions : the first campaign 
in Portugal before the hot season produced no- 
thing : the second campaign seemed to promise 
somewhat, but the conduct was so feeble, that though 
the earl of Galway did all that was possible to put 
things in a good posture, yet he saw a disposition in 
the ministers, and in their whole management, that 
made him often despair, and wish himself out of the 
service. Fagel, that commanded the Dutch forces, 
acted in every thing in opposition to him, and it 41 9 
was visible that the ministers did secretly encourage 
that by which they excused themselves. 

King Charles was so disgusted with these pro- a fleet and 
ceedings, that he was become quite weary of staying ?o'sp^n! 
in Portugal : so when the fleet of the allies came to 
Lisbon with an army on board, of above 5000 men, 
commanded by the earl of Peterborough, he resolved 



208 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. to go aboard, and to try his fortune with them. 
The Almirante of Castile died about that time; some 
thought that was a great loss; though others did 
not set so high a value upon him, nor on any of the 
intrigues that were among the grandees at Madrid : 
they were indeed offended with several small mat- 
ters in king Philip's conduct, and with the ascend- 
ant that the French had in all their councils ; for 
they saw every thing was directed by orders sent 
from Versailles, and that their king was really but a 
viceroy : they were also highly provoked by some 
innovations made in the ceremonial, which they va- 
lued above more important matters ; many seemed 
disgusted at that conduct, and withdrew from the 
court. The marquis of Leganes was considered as 
most active in infusing jealousies and a dislike of 
the government into the other grandees, so he was 
seized on and sent prisoner to Navarre ; the gran- 
dees, in all their conduct, shewed more of a haughty 
sullenness in maintaining their own privileges, than 
of a generous resolution to free their country from 
the slavery under which it was fallen ; they seemed 
neither to have heads capable of laying any solid de- 
signs for shaking off the yoke, nor hearts brave 
enough to undertake it. 

Our fleet sailed from Lisbon with king Charles ; 
they stopped at Gibraltar, and canied along with 
them the prince of Hesse, who had been so long go- 
vernor of Barcelona, that he knew both the tempers, 
and the strength, and importance of the place. The 
first design of this expedition was concerted with 
the duke of Savoy; and the forces they had on 
board, were either to join him, or to make an at- 
tempt on Naples or Sicily, as should be found most 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 209 

advisable: there were agents employed in different 1705. 
parts of Spain, to give an account of the disposition 
people were in, and of what seemed most practica- 
ble. A body of men rose in Catalonia about Vick : 
upon the knowledge king Charles had of this, and 
upon other advertisements that were sent to our 
court, of the dispositions of those of that principality, 
the orders which king Charles desired were sent, 
and brought by a runner, that was despatched from 
the queen to the fleet : so the fleet steered to the 
coast of Catalonia, to try what could be done there. 
The earl of Peterborough, who had set his heart on 
Italy, and on prince Eugene, was not a little dis-420 
pleased with tliis, as appeared in a long letter from 
him, which the lord treasurer shewed me. 

They landed not far from Barcelona, and were They landed 
joined with many Miquelets and others of the coun- cdona.*"^ 
try ; these were good at plundering, but could not 
submit to a regular discipline, nor were they wiUing 
to expose themselves to dangerous services. Barce- 
lona had a garrison of 5000 men in it ; these were 
commanded by officers who were entirely in the in- 
terests of king Philip ; it seemed a very unreason- 
able thing to undertake the siege of such a place 
with so small a force ; they could not depend on the 
raw and undisciplined multitudes that came in to 
join them, who, if things succeeded not in their 
hands, would soon abandon them, or perhaps study 
to merit a pardon, by cutting their throats. A coun- 
cil of war was called, to consult on what could be 
proposed and done ; Stanhope, who was one of 
them, told me, that both English and Dutch were 
all of opinion, that the siege coidd not be undertaken 
with so small a force ; those within being as strong 



210 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. as they were, nor did they see any thing else worth 
the attempting : they therefore thought that no time 
was to be lost, but that they were all to go again on 
board, and to consider what course was next to be 
taken, before the season were spent, when the fleet 
would be obliged to return back again, and if they 
could not fix themselves any where before that time, 
they must sail back with the fleet. The prince of 
Hesse only was of opinion, that they ought to sit 
down before Barcelona ; he said, he had secret in- 
telligence of the good affections of many in the 
town, who were well known to him, and on whom 
he relied, and he undertook to answer for their suc- 
cess : this could not satisfy those who knew nothing 
of his secrets, and so could only judge of things by 
what appeared to them. 
The king The debate lasted some hours : in conclusion, the 
[ieje. king himself spoke near half an hour; he resumed 
the whole debate, he answered all the objections 
that were made against the siege ; and treated every 
one of those who had made them, as he answered 
them, with particular civilities; he supported the 
truth of what the prince of Hesse had asserted, as 
being known to himself; he said, in the state in 
which his affairs then stood, nothing could be pro- 
posed that had not great difficulties in it ; all was 
doubtful, and much must be put to hazard ; but this 
seemed less dangerous than any other thing that 
was proposed : many of his subjects had come and 
declared for him, to the hazard of their lives ; it be- 
came him therefore to let them see, that he would 
run the same hazard with them; he desired that 
they would stay so long with him, till such attempts 
421 should be made, that all the world might be con- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 211 

vinced that nothing could be done, and he hoped 1705. 



that till that appeared, they would not leave him ; 
he added, that if their orders did oblige them to 
leave him, yet he could not leave his own subjects : 
upon this they resolved to sit down before Barce- 
lona. They were all amazed to see so young a 
prince, so little practised in business, argue in so 
nice a point with so much force, and conclude with 
such heroical resolutions. This proved happy in 
many respects ; it came to be known afterwards, 
that the Catalans and Miquelets, who had joined 
them, hearing that they were resolved to abandon 
them, and go back to their ships, had resolved, ei- 
ther out of resentment, or that they might merit 
their pardon, to murder as many of them as they 
couli When this small army sat down before Bar- 
celona, they found they were too weak to besiege it ; 
they could scarce mount their cannon : when they 
came to examine their stores, they found them very 
defective, and far short of the quantities that by 
their lists they expected to find ; whether this flowed 
from treachery or carelessness, I will not determine ; 
there is much of both in all our o0ices. It soon ap- 
peared that the inteUigence was true, concerning the 
inclinations of those in the town ; their affections 
were entire for king Charles : but they were over- 
awed by the gamson, and by Velasco, who, as well 
as the duke of Popoli, who had the chief command, 
was devoted to the interests of king Philip. De- 
serters came daily from the town, and brought them 
intelligence : the most considerable thing was, that Fort Mont- 
fort Montjuy was very ill guarded, it being thought Sk^" 
above their strength to make an attempt on it ; so 
it was concluded, that all the hopes of reducing Bar- 

p 2 



«1« THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. celona lay in the success of their design on that fort. 
Two bodies were ordered to march secretly that 
night, and to move towards the other side of Barce- 
lona, that the true design might not be suspected, 
for all the hopes of success lay in the secrecy of the 
march. The first body consisted of 800, and both 
the prince of Hesse and the earl of Peterborough 
led them : the other body consisted of 6OO, who 
were to follow these at some distance; and were 
not to come above half way up the hill, till further 
order: Stanhope led this body, from whom I had 
this account. They drew up with them some small 
field-pieces and mortars; they had taken a great 
compass, and had marched all night, and were much 
fatigued by the time that they had gained the top 
of the hill ; 300 of them, being commanded to an- 
other side of the fort, were separated from the rest, 
and mistaking their way, fell into the hands of a 
body of men, sent up from the town to reinforce the 
422 garrison in the fort ; before they were separated, the 
whole body had attacked the outworks, and carried 
them ; but while the prince of Hesse was leading on 
his men, he received a shot in his body, upon which 
he fell ; yet he would not be carried off, but con- 
tinued too long in the place giving orders, and died 
in a few hours, much and justly lamented. The go- 
vernor of the fort, seeing a small body in possession 
of the outworks, resolved to sally out upon them, 
and drew up 400 men in order to it ; these would 
soon have mastered a small and wearied body, dis- 
heartened by so great a loss ; so that if he had fol- 
lowed his resolution, all was lost, for all that Stan- 
hope could have done, was, to receive and bring off 
such as could get to him ; but one of those newly 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 213 

taken, happening to cry out, O poor prince of '705. 
Hesse^ the governor hearing this, called for him, 
and examined him, and when he learned that both 
the prince of Hesse and the earl of Peterborough 
were with that body, he concluded that the whole 
army was certainly coming up after them ; and re- 
flecting on that, he thought it was not fit for him to 
expose his men, since he believed the body they 
were to attack would be soon much superior to him ; 
so he resolved not to risk a sally, but to keep within, 
and maintain the fort against them. Thus the earl 
of Peterborough continued quiet in the outworks, 
and being reinforced with more men, he attacked 
the fort, but with no great hopes of succeeding : he 
threw a few bombs into it ; one of these fell happily 
into the magazine of powder, and blew it up : by 
this, the governor and some of the best officers were 
killed, which struck the rest with such a consterna- 
tion, that they delivered up the place. This success And taken. 
gave them great hopes, the town lying just under 
the hill which the fort stood on : upon this, the 
party in Barcelona, that was well affected to king 
Charles, began to take heart, and to shew them- 
selves : and after a few days' siege, another happy 
bomb fell with so good an effect, that the garrison 
was forced to capitulate. 

King Charles was received into Barcelona with 
great expressions of joy : in the first transport they 
seemed resolved to break through the articles granted 
to the garrison, and to make sacrifices of the chief 
officers at least. Upon that, the earl of Peterbo- Barcelona 

capitulated. 

rough, with Stanhope and other officers, rode about 
the streets to stop this fury, and to prevail with the 
people to maintain their articles religiously ; and in 

P 3 



214 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
1705. doing this, Stanhope said to me, they ran a greater 



hazard, from the shooting and fire that was flying 
about in that disorder, than they had done during 
the whole siege: they at last quieted the people, and 
the articles of capitulation were punctually observed. 
423 Upon this unexpected success, the whole principality 
of Catalonia declared for king Charles. I will not 
prosecute this relation so minutely in other parts of 
it, having set down so particularly that which I had 
from so good a hand, chiefly to set forth the signal 
steps of Providence that did appear in this matter. 

Soon after, our fleet sailed back to England, and 
Stanhope was sent over in it, to give a full relation 
^°? , of this great transaction: by him king Charles wrote 
letter*. to the quecn a long and clear account of all his af- 
fairs ; full of great acknowledgments of her assist- 
ance, with a high commendation of all her subjects, 
more particularly of the earl of Peterborough. The 
queen was pleased to shew me the letter ; it was all 
writ in his own hand, and the French of it was so 
little correct, that it was not like what a secretary 
would have drawn for him : so from that I con- 
cluded he penned it himself. The lord treasurer had 
likewise another long letter from him, which he 
shewed me : it was aU in his own hand : one correc- 
tion seemed to make it evident that he himself com- 
posed it. He wrote, towards the end of the letter, 
that he must depend on his protection : upon re- 
flection, that word seemed not fit for him to use to 
a subject, so it was dashed out, but the letters were 
still plain, and instead of it application was writ 
over head. These letters gave a great idea of so 
young and unexperienced a prince, who was able to 
write with so much clearness, judgment, and force. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 215 

By all that is reported of the prince of Lichtenstein, 1705. 
that king could not receive any great assistance from 
him : he was spoken of as a man of a low genius, 
who thought of nothing but the ways of enriching 
himself, even at the hazard of ruining his master's 
business. 

Our affairs at sea were more prosperous this year Affairs at 
than they had been formerly. In the beginning of 
the season our cruisers took so many of the French 
privateers, that we had some thousands of their sea- 
men in our hands : we kept such a squadron before 
Brest, that the French fleet did not think fit to ven- 
ture out, and their Toulon squadron had suffered so 
much in the action of the former years, that they 
either could not or would not venture out : by this 
means our navigation was safe, and our trade was 
prosperous. 

The second campaign in Portugal ended worse 
than the first: Badajos was besieged, and the earl The siege 
of Galway hoped he should have been quickly masr raised.*^*" 
ter of it ; but his hopes were not well grounded, for 
the siege was raised. In one action the earl of Gal- 
way's arm was broke by a cannon ball : it was cut 
off, and for some days his life was in great danger ; 
the miscarriage of the design heightening the fever 
that followed his wound, by the vexation that it 424* 
gave him. But now, upon the news from Catalonia, The coun- 
the councils of Portugal were quite changed : they tigd. "^ 
had a better prospect than formerly of the reduction 
of Spain : the war was now divided, which lay wholly 
upon them before : and the French party in that 
court had no more the old pretence to excuse their 
<!Ouncils by, which was, that it was not fit for them 
to engage themselves too deep in that war, nor ta 

p 4 



216 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. provoke the Spaniards too much, and so expose 
themselves to revenges, if the allies should despair 
and grow weary of the war, and recall their troops 
and fleets. But now that they saw the war carried 
on so far, in the remotest corner of Spain, which 
must give a great diversion to king Philip's forces, 
it seemed a much safer, as weU as it was an easier 
thing, to carry on the war with m'ore vigour for the 
future. Upon this, all possible assurances were given 
the earl of Galway, that things should be conducted 
hereafter fully to his content. So that by two of 
his despatches, which the lord treasurer shewed me, 
it appeared that he was then fully convinced of the 
sincerity of their intentions, of which he was in 
great doubt, or rather despairing, formerly. 

Hunlr" ^^ Hungary, matters went on very doubtfully: 
Transylvania was almost entirely reduced ; Ragotzi 
had great misfortunes there, as the court of Vienna 
published the progress of the new emperor's arms ; 
but this was not to be much depended on : they 
could not conceal, on the other hand, the great ra- 
vages that the malecontents made in other places : so 
that Hungary continued to be a scene of confusion 
and plunder. 

AndinPo. Poland was no better: king Augustus's party 
continued firm to him, though his long stay in 
Saxony gave credit to a report spread about, that 
he was resolved to abandon that kingdom, and to 
return to it no more: this summer passed over in 
motions and actions of no great consequence ; what 
was gained in one place was lost in another. Stanis- 
laus got himself to be crowned : the old cardinal, 
though summoned to Rome, would not go thither : 
he suffei'ed himself to be forced to own Stanislaus, 



land 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 217 

but died before his coronation, and that ceremony 1705. 
was performed by the bishop of Cujavia. The Mus- 
covites made as great ravages in Lithuania as they 
had done formerly in Livonia. The king of Sweden 
was in perpetual motion : but though he endea- 
voured it much, he could not bring things to a de- 
cisive action. In the beginning of winter, king Au- 
gustus, with two persons only, broke through Po- 
land in disguise, and got to the Muscovite army, 
which was put under his command. The campaign 
went on all the winter season, which, considering 
the extreme cold in those parts, was thought a 
tiling impracticable before. In the spring after, 425 
Reinschild, a Swedish general, fell upon the Saxon 
army, that was far superior to his in number: he had 
not above 10,000 men, and the Saxons were about 
18,000: he gave them a total defeat, killed about 
7000, and took 8000 prisoners, and their camp, 
baggage, and artillery. Numbers upon such occasions 
are often swelled, but it is certain this was an entire 
victory: the Swedes gave it out, that they had not 
lost a thousand men in the action ; and yet even this 
great advantage was not like to put an end to the 
war, nor to the distractions into which that miserable 
kingdom was cast. In it the world saw the mischiefs 
of an elective government, especially when the elec- 
tors have lost their virtue, and set themselves to sale. 
The king of Sweden continued in an obstinate aver- 
sion to all terms of peace : his temper, his courage, 
and his military conduct were much commended ;' 
only all said he grew too savage, and was so positive 
and peremptory in his resolutions, that no applica- 
tions could soften him : he would scarce admit them 
to be made : he was said to be devout almost to en- 



218 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. thusiasm, and he was severely engaged in the Lu- 
theran rigidity, almost equally against papists and 
Calvinists; only his education was so much neglected, 
that he had not an equal measure of knowledge to 
direct his zeal. 

This is such a general view of the state of Europe 
this summer, as may serve to shew how things went 

Apariia- ou in every part of it. I now return to England. 

in England. The clcction of the members of the house of com- 
mons was managed with zeal and industry on both 
sides : the clergy took great pains to infuse into all 
people tragical apprehensions of the danger the church 
was in : the universities were inflamed with this, 
and they took all means to spread it over the nation 
with much vehemence. The danger the church of 
England was in, grew to be as the word given in an 
army ; men were known as they answered it : none 
carried this higher than the Jacobites, though they 
had made a schism in the church : at last, even the 
papists, both at home and abroad, seemed to be dis- 
turbed, with the fears that the danger our church 
was in put them under ; and this was supported by 
the Paris gazette, though the party seemed con- 
cerned and ashamed of that. Books were writ and 
dispersed over the nation with great industry, to 
possess all people with the apprehensions that the 
church was to be given up, that the bishops were 
betraying it, and that the court would seU it to the 
dissenters. They also hoped, that this campaign, 
proving less prosperous than had been expected, 
might put the nation into ill humour, which might 
426 furnish them with some advantages. In opposition 
to all this, the court acted with such caution and 
coldness, that the whigs had very little strength 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 219 

given them by the ministers in managing elections: 1705. 
they seemed rather to look on as indifferent spec- 
tators, but the whigs exerted themselves with great 
activity and zeal. The dissenters, who had been 
formerly much divided, were now united entirely in 
the interests of the government, and joined with 
the whigs every where. 

When the elections were all over, the court took 
more heart : for it appeared, that they were sure of 
a great majority, and the lord Godolphin declared 
himself more openly than he had done formerly, in 
favour of the whigs : the first instance given of this 
was the dismissing of Wright, who had continued 
so long lord-keeper, that he was fallen under a high 
degree of contempt with all sides ; even the tories, 
though he was wholly theirs, despising him : he was 
sordidly covetous, and did not at all live suitably 
to that high post : he became extreme rich, yet I 
never heard him charged with bribery in his court, 
but there was a foul rumour, with relation to the 
livings of the crown, that were given by the great 
seal, as if they were set to sale, by the officers under 
him". 

" It was not confined to " for that ; it is yourself has 

them. It has been said, he had " made me so." The great- 

Tooo/. of baron Bury, for mak- est performance of Wright's, 

ing him a judge, as appeared that I have heard of, was his 

by Bury's book of accounts af- management as a counsel of sir 

ter his death. Wright had al- John Fenwick's bill in the house 

lowances out of the profits of of lords. He was to support 

ail his officers, and alluding to the bill, which he did so well, 

which, when an officer under as to raise his character very 

his successor had been guilty of much at that time. But it ap- 

some neglect of duty, and his peared the better, because it 

lord in reprimanding him said, had been so ven,- ill done by the 

" Thou art a most unaccount- counsel for the bill in the house 

" able fellow," answered, " I of commons. O. 
" may thank your good lordship 



THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

170s. The seals being sent for, they were given to 
^^ Cowper, a gentleman of a good family, of excellent 

lord-keeper, pj^i^^ and of an engaging deportment, very eminent 
in his profession ; and who had for many years been 
considered as the man who spoke the best of any in 
the house of commons : he was a very acceptable 
man to the whig party : they had been much dis- 
gusted with the lord treasurer, for the coldness he 
expressed, as if he would have maintained a neu- 
trality between the two parties ; though the one 
supported him, while the other designed to ruin 
him : but this step went a great way towards the 
reconciling the whigs to him ^. 

A session of parliament met this summer in Scot- 
land : there was a change made in the ministry 
there : those who were employed in the former ses- 
sion could not undertake to carry a majority : so 
all the duke of Queen sbury's friends were again 
brought into employment. The duke of Argyle's 
instructions were, that he should endeavour to pro- 
cure an act, settling the succession as it was in 
England, or to set on foot a treaty for the union of 
the two kingdoms : when he came to Scotland, and 
laid his instructions before the rest of the ministers 
there ; the marquis of Anandale pressed, that they 
should first try that which was first named in the 

* The day after Cowper had chief perfection lay in being a 

the seal, I met lord Godolphin good party man ; and seemed 

at St. James's ; where in dis- desirous I should understand, 

, course I told him, that the that it had not been done with 

world was in high expectations his approbation : which I did 

from the new keeper. He said not doubt, knowing it was part 

he had the advantage to sue- of his penance for having pass- 

ceed a man that nobody esteem- ed the Scotch act of security, 

ed ; but the world would soon and that there were things of a 

have other sentiments, for his harder digestion to follow. D. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 221 

instructions, and he seemed confident, that, if all 1705. 
who were in employments would concur in it, they ~" 

should be able to carry it. Those of another mind, 427 
who were in their hearts for the pretended prince 
of Wales, put this by with great zeal : they said 
they must not begin with that, which would meet 
with great opposition, and be perhaps rejected : that 
would beget such an union of parties, that if they 
miscarried in the one, they would not be able to 
carry the other; therefore they thought, that the 
first proposition should be for the union : that was 
popular, and seemed to be a remote thing ; so there 
would be no great opposition made to a general act 
about it. Those who intended still to oppose it, 
w^ould reckon they would find matter enough in the 
particulars, to raise a great opposition, and so to 
defeat it. This course was agreed on, at which the An act for 
marquis of Anandale was so highly offended, thaty^i^n^J^ 
he concurred no more in the councils of those who*^- 
gave the other advice. Some did sincerely desire 
the union, as that which would render the whole 
island happy : others were in their hearts against 
it ; they thought it was a plausible step, which they 
believed would run, by a long treaty, into a course 
of some years; that during that time, they would 
be continued in their employments, and they seemed 
to think it was impossible so to adjust all matters, 
as to frame such a treaty as would pass in the par- 
liaments of both kingdoms. The Jacobites concur- 
red all heartily in this : it kept the settling the suc- 
cession at a distance, and very few looked on the 
motion for the union, as any thing but a pretence, 
to keep matters yet longer in suspense : so this be- 
ing proposed in parliament, it was soon and readily 



222 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. agreed to, with little or no opposition. But that 
' being over, complaints were made of the acts passed 

in the parliament of England: which carried such 
an appearance of threatening, that many thought it 
became them not to enter on a treaty, till these 
should be repealed. It was carried, but not without 
diflSculty, that no clause relating to that should be 
in the act, that empowered the queen to name the 
commissioners ; but that an address should be made 
to the queen, praying her that no proceedings should 
be made in the treaty, till the act that declared the 
Scotch aliens by such a day should be repealed: 
they also voted, that none of that nation should 
enter upon any such treaty, till that were first done. 
This was jwpular, and no opposition was made to 
it : but those who had ill intentions, hoped that all - 
would be defeated by it. The session run out into 
a great length, and in the harvest-time, which put 
the country to a great charge. 
The state of In Ireland, the new heat among the protestants 
"*" ■ there, raised in the earl of Rochester's time, and 
connived at, if not encouraged, by the duke of Or- 
428 mond, went on still : a body of hot clergymen sent 
from England, began to form meetings in Dublin, 
and to have emissaries and a correspondence over 
Ireland, on design to raise the same fury in the 
clergy of that kingdom against the dissenters, that 
they had raised here in England : whether this was 
only the effect of an unthinking and ill-governed 
heat among them, or if it was set on by foreign 
practices, was not yet visible. It did certainly serve 
their ends, so that it was not to be doubted, that 
they were not wanting in their endeavours to keep 
it up, and to promote it, whether they were the ori- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 223 

ginal contrivers of it or not; for indeed hot men, 1705. 
not practised in affairs, are apt enough, of their own 
accord, to run into wild and unreasonable extrava- 
gances. 

The parliament of England met in the end ofApariia- 
October : the first struggle was about the choice of England. 
a speaker, by which a judgment was to be made 
of the temper and inclinations of the members. 
The court declared for Mr. Smith : he was a man 
of clear parts and of a good expression : he was 
then in no employment, but he had gone through 
great posts in the former reign, with reputation and 
honour. He had been a commissioner of the trea- a speaker 
sury and chancellor of the exchequer : he had, from 
his first setting out into the world, been thoroughly 
in the principles and interests of the whigs, yet with 
a due temper in all personal things with relation to 
the tories : but they all declared against him for 
Mr. Bromley, a man of a grave deportment and 
good morals, but looked on as a violent tory, and as 
a great favourer of Jacobites ; which appeared evi- 
dently in a relation he printed of his travels. No 
matter of that sort had ever been carried with such 
a heat on both sides as this was : so that it was just 
to form a judgment upon it of the temper of the 
house ; it went for Mr. Smith by a majority of four 
and forty. 

The queen, after she had confirmed this choice, 
made a speech, in which she recommended union to 
them in a very particular manner : she complained 
of the reports that were spread by ill-designing men, 
of the danger the church was in, who, under these 
insinuations, covered that which they durst not own :- 
she recommended the care of the public supplies to 



224 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. the commons, and spoke of the duke of Savoy in 
high and very obliging terms. This produced ad- 
dresses from both houses, in which they expressed a 
detestation of those practices, of infusing into her 
subjects groundless fears concerning the church : 
this went easily, for some kept out of the way, from 
whom it was expected, that they would afterwards 
open more copiously on the subject. The chairmen 
of the several committees of the house of commons, 
were men of whom the court was well assured. 
429 The first matter with which they commonly begin, 
is to receive petitions against the members returned, 
so that gave a further discovery of the inclinations 
of the majority : the corruption of the nation was 
grown to such a height, and there was so much foul 
practice on all hands, that there was, no doubt, great 
cause of complaint. The first election that was 
judged was that of St. Alban's, where the duchess of 
Marlborough had a house : she recommended ad- 
miral Killigrew to those in the town ; which was 
done all England over, by persons of quality who 
had any interest in the burghers : yet, though much 
foul practice was proved on the other hand, and 
there was not the least colour of evidence to fix any 
ill practice on her, some reflected very indecently 
upon her : Bromley compared her to Alice Piers, in 
king Edward the third's time, and said many other 
virulent things against her; for indeed she was 
looked upon by the whole party, as the person who 
had reconciled the whigs to the queen, from whom 
she was naturally very averse. Most of the contro- 
verted elections were carried in favour of the whigs: 
in some few they failed, more by reason of private 
animosities than by the strength of the other side. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 225 

The house of commons came readily in to vote all 1705. 
the supplies that were asked, and went on to provide 
proper funds for them. 

The most important debates that were in this 
session began in the house of lords ; the queen being 
present at them all. The lord Haversham opened 
the motions of the tory side : he arraigned the duke 
of Marlborough's conduct, both on the Moselle and 
in Brabant, and reflected severely on the Dutch, 
which he carried so far as to say, that the war cost 
them nothing : and after he had wandered long in a 
rambling discourse, he came at last to the point 
which was laid to be the debate of the day. He said Debates 
we had declared a successor to the crown who was next suc- 
at a great distance from us, while the pretender was "**°'^' 
much nearer^ and Scotland was armed and ready to 
receive him, and seemed resolved not to have the 
same successor for whom England had declared: 
these were threatening dangers that hung over us, 
and might be near us. He concluded, that he did 
not see how they could be prevented, and the na- 
tion made safe, by any other way, but by inviting 
the next successor to come and live among us. The 
duke of Buckingham, the earls of Rochester, Not- 
tingham, and Anglesey, canied on the debate with 
great earnestness. It was urged, that they had sworn 
to maintain the succession, and by that they were 
bound to insist on this motion, since there was no 
means so sure to maintain it, as to have the suc- 
cessor upon the place, ready to assume and maintain 
his right. It appeared, through our whole history, 430 
that whosoever came first into England had always 
carried it : the pretending successor might be in 
England within three days, whereas it might be three 

VOL. V. Q 



226 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. weeks before the declared successor could come: from 
thence it was inferred, that the danger was apparent 
and dreadful, if the successor should not be brought 
over : if king Charles had been in Spain when the 
late king died, probably that would have prevented 
all this war in which we were now engaged. With 
these lords, by a strange reverse, all the tories joined; 
and by another, and as strange a reverse, all the 
whigs joined in opposing it. They thought this mat- 
ter was to be left wholly to the queen ; that it was 
neither proper nor safe, either for the crown or for 
the nation, that the heir should not be in an entire 
dependance on the queen ; a rivalry between two 
courts might throw us into great distractions, and 
be attended with very ill consequences. The next 
successor had expressed a full satisfaction, and rested 
on the assurances the queen had given her, of her 
firm adherence to her title, and to the maintaining 
of it : the nation was prepared for it, by the orders 
the queen had given to name her in the daily prayers 
of the church : great endeavours had been used to 
bring the Scotch nation to declare the same suc- 
cessor. It was true, we still wanted one great se- 
curity, we had not yet made any provision for carry- 
ing on the government, for maintaining the public 
quiet, for proclaiming and sending for the successor, 
and for keeping things in order till the successor 
should come : it seemed therefore necessary to make 
an effectual provision against the disorders that 
might happen in such an interval. This was proposed 
first by myself, and it was seconded by the lord Go- 
dolphin, and all the whigs went into it ; and so the 
question was put upon the other motion, as first 
made, by a previous division, whether that should be 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 227 

put or not, and was carried in the negative by about J 703. 
three to one. 

The queen heard the debate, and seemed amazed 
at the behaviour of some, who, when they had credit 
with her, and apprehended that such a motion might 
be made by the whigs, had possessed her with deep 
prejudices against it : for they made her apprehend, 
that when the next successor should be brought 
over, she herself would be so eclipsed by it, that 
she would be much in the successor's power, and 
reign only at her or his courtesy : yet these very 
persons, having now lost their interest in her, and 
their posts, were driving on that very motion, which 
they had made her apprehend was the most fatal 
thing that could befall >. This the duchess of Marl- 
borough told me, but she named no person ^ : and 
upon it a very black suspicion was taken up by some, 431 
that the proposers of this matter knew, or at least 
believed, that the queen would not agree to the mo- 
tion, which way soever it might be brought to her, 
whether in an address or in a bill ; and then they 
might reckon, that this would give such a jealousy, 
and create such a misunderstanding between her 

>■ (Scandalous and inconsist- he told her, that whoever pro- 

ent conduct in the tories, know- posed bringing over her suc- 

ing, as well as this bishop cessor in her life-time, did it 

undoubtedly did, that a fatal with a design to depose her, or 

wound would have been inflict- he must think she had forgot 

ed on the queen's authority by that he was the first man that 

the measure.) made the proposal, to imagine 

'• This made an impression any body could do him worse 
upon the queen to lord Not- offices than he had done him- 
tingham that could never be self. She said, indeed the duke 
overcome, I told her I heard of Leeds had told her the same 
he complained that people had thing, but remembered it bet- 
done him ill offices to her ; ter, or did not bear her so much 
and particularly myself. She ill-will. D. 
sfiid, Sure he has forgot that 

Q 2 



9SS THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. and the parliament, or rather the whole nation, as 
would unsettle her whole government, and put all 
things in disorder. But this was only a suspicion, 
and more cannot be made of it. 
A bill for a The lords were now engaged to go on in the de- 
bate for a regency : it was opened by the lord Whar- 
ton, in a manner that charmed the whole house " : 
he had not been present at the former debate, but 
he said he was much delighted with what he had 
heard concerning it ; he said, he had ever looked on 
the securing a protestant succession to the crown as 
that which secured all our happiness : he had heard 
the queen recommend from the throne, union and 
agreement to all her subjects, with a great emotion 
in his own mind : it was now evident, there was a 
divinity about her when she spoke ; the cause was 
certainly supernatural, for we saw the miracle that 
was wrought by it ; now all were for the protestant 
succession ; it had not been always so : he rejoiced 
in their conversion, and confessed it was a miracle : 
he would not, he could not, he ought not to suspect 

* This charming lord Whar- " lie well believed is as good 
ton had the most provoking in- " as if it were true?" He and 
Solent manner of speaking that lord Halifax brought up a fa- 
I ever observed in any man, miliar style with them from the 
without any regard to civility house of commons, that has 
or truth ; and in respect to his been too much practised in the 
great sincerity and veracity, went house of lords ever since, where 
amongst his own party by the every thing formerly was ma- 
name of honest Tom Wharton, naged with great decency and 
I asked him once, after he had good manners. D. (The speak- 
run on for a great while in the er, in a note above, at p. 369, 
house of lords, upon a subject and lord Dartmouth below, at 
that both he and I knew to be page 435, have given some fur- 
false, how he could bring him- ther account of this peer, who 
self to do so : he answered me, used to be called, as long as he 
" Why, are you such a simple- was talked of, an atheist grafted 
" ton as not to know, that a on a presbyterian.) 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 229 

the sincerity of those who moved for inviting the 1705. 
next successor over; yet he could not hinder him- 
self from remembering what had passed in a course 
of many years, and how men had argued, voted, and 
protested all that while : this confirmed his opinion 
that a miracle was now wrought; and that might 
oblige some to shew their change by an excess of 
zeal, which he could not but commend, though he 
did not fully agree to it. After this preamble, he 
opened the proposition for the regency, in all the 
branches of it : that regents should be empowered 
to act in the name of the successor, till he should 
send over orders : that besides those whom the par- 
liament should name, the next successor should send 
over a nomination sealed up, and to be opened when 
that accident should happen, of persons who should 
act in the same capacity with those who should be 
named by parliament : so the motion being thus di- 
gested, was agreed to by all the whigs, and a bill 
was ordered to be brought in pursuant to these pro- 
positions ^. But upon the debate on the heads of the 
bill, it did appear that the conversion, which the 
lord Wharton had so pleasantly magnified, was not 

''If my lord Somers did not sign of the bill, so much, that 

first suggest the having such a I well remember I concluded, 

law, the plan of it, I have been from the wording of the letter, 

informed, was his, and that he that he was the author of the 

drew the bill. I know he had measure. O. This bill was 

a principal hand in conducting drawn by lord Somers, and was 

the passage of it; for he wrote one of his many great services, 

to my uncle, sir Richard On- In truth, it was a real security 

slow, to engage him to take to the Hanover succession, 

the care of the bill in the house whereas the motion for bring- 

of commons, which he did. I ing over the princess Sophia 

have seen the letter, which does would haved disobliged the 

some honour to my uncle, and queen, and only increased the 

shewed a particular earnestness factions within the country, 

in my lord Somers for the de- H. 

Q3 



230 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. so entire as he seemed to suppose : there was some 
cause given to doubt of the miracle ; for when a se- 
curity, that was real and visible, was thus offered, 
those who made the other motion, flew off from it. 
432 They pretended, that it was because they could not 
go off from their first motion ; but they were told, 
that the immediate successor might indeed, during 
her life, continue in England, yet it was not to be 
supposed that her son the elector could be always 
absent from his own dominions, and throw off all 
care of them, and of the concerns of the empire, in 
which he bore so great a share. If he should go 
over for ever so short a time, the accident might 
happen, in which it was certainly necessary to pro- 
vide such an expedient as was now offered. This 
laid them open to much censure, but men engaged 
in parties are not easily put out of countenance. It 
was resolved, that the regents should be seven, and 
no more; and they were fixed by the posts they 
were in: the archbishop of Canterbury, the lord 
keeper, the lord treasurer, lord president, lord privy 
seal, lord high admiral, and the lord chief justice, 
for the time being, were named for that high trust ^. 
The tories struggled hard that the lord treasurer 
should not be one, only to shew their spite to the 
lord Godolphin, but the motion was rejected with 
scorn; for it seemed ridiculous, in a time when there 

^ Lord Godolphin thought the queen, and should, by no- 
he had outwitted the whigs in minating those officers, with the 
this scheme : for except the duke of Marlborough's assist- 
archbishop, who was a very old ance, have it in their power to 
man, and the chief justice, the make who they pleased her suc- 
rest were in the disposal of the cesser. But Providence inter- 
crown during pleasure : and he posed sometimes in their dou- 
had no imagination at that ble dealings. D. 
time, that he could ever lose 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 231 

might be much occasion for money, to exclude an 1705. 
officer from that high trust, who alone could furnish 
them with it, or direct them how to be furnished. 
The tories moved, that the lord mayor of London 
should be one, but that was likewise rejected : for 
the design of the act was, that the government 
should be carried on by those who should be at that 
time in the conduct and secret of affairs, and were 
persons nominated by the queen ; whereas the lord 
mayor was chosen by the city, and had no practioe 
in business. These regents were required to pro- 
claim the next successor, and to give orders for the 
like proclamation over England and Ireland : the 
next successor might send a triplicate of the persons 
named by her or him ; one of these was to be de- 
posited with the archbishop of Canterbury, another 
with the lord keeper, and a third with his own mi- 
nister residing at this court ; upon the producing 
whereof, the persons nominated were to join with 
the regents, and to act in equality with them : the 
last parliament, even though dissolved, was to be 
presently brought together, and empowered to con- 
tinue sitting for six months ; and thus things were 
to be kept in order, till the successor should either 
come in person, or send over his orders. 

The tories made some opposition to every branch Great op- 
of the act, but in that of the parliament's sitting, the m^e to it. 
opposition was more remarkable: the earl of Ro- 
chester moved, that the parliament and the regents 
should be limited, to pass no act of repeal of any 
part of the act of uniformity, and in his positive 
way said, if this was not agreed to, he should still 
think the church was in danger, notwithstanding 433 
what they had heard from the throne, in the begin- 

Q 4i 



9S9, THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. ning of the session. It was objected to this, that if 
the regal power was in the regents, and if the par- 
liament was likewise a legal one, then by the con- 
stitution the whole legislature was in them, and 
that could not be limited : for they could repeal any 
law that limited them ; but the judges were of opi- 
nion, that the power of regents might be limited : 
so that, as the design of moving this might be, to 
have a new colour to possess the clergy, that there 
was a secret design against the church, which might 
break out at such a time, the lords gave way to it, 
though they thought it unreasonable, and proposed 
with no good design. The tories, upon the yielding 
this to them, proposed a great many more limita- 
tions, such as the restraining the regents from con- 
senting to a repeal of the act for triennial parlia- 
ments, the acts for trials in cases of treason, and 
some others : and so extravagant were they, in their 
design of making the act appear ridiculous, that 
they proposed as a limitation, that they should not 
have power to repeal the acts of succession : all these 
were rejected with scorn and indignation ; the lords 
seeing by this their error in yielding to that pro- 
posed by the earl of Rochester. The bill passed in 
the house of lords, but the tories protested against 
it. 

I never knew any thing, in the management of 
the tories, by which they suffered more in their re- 
putation, than by this : they hoped, that the motion 
for the invitation would have cleared them of all 
suspicions of inclinations towards the prince of 
Wales, and would have reconciled the body of the 
nation to them, and turned them against all who 
should oppose it : but the progress of the matter 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 233 

produced a contrary effect : the management was so 1 705. 
ill disguised, that it was visible they intended only 
to provoke the queen by it, hoping that the provo- 
cation might go so far, that in the sequel all their 
designs might be brought about, though by a me- 
thod that seemed quite contraiy to them, and de- 
structive of them. 

The bill lay long in the house of commons, by a a secret 

•^ *-^ ^ ^ \ manage- 

secret management, that was against it : the tories ment in the 
there likewise proposed, that the next successor commous. 
should be brought over ; which was opposed by the 
whigs, not by any vote against it, but by resolving 
to go through the lords' bill first : the secret ma- 
nagement was from Hanover. Some indigent per- 
sons, and others employed by the tories, had studied 
to infuse jealousies of the queen and her ministers 
into the old electoress '*. She was then seventy- 
five ; but had still so much vivacity, that as she was 
the most knowing, and the most entertaining woman 
of the age, so she seemed willing to change her 434 
scene, and to come and shine among us here in Eng- 
land; they prevailed with her to write a letter to 
the archbishop of Canterbury, intimating her rea- 
diness to come over, if the queen and parliament 
should desire it ^ : this was made public by the in- 
triguing persons in that court : and a colour was 
soon found, to keep some whigs from agreeing to 
the act. In the act that first settled the succession, 
one limitation (as was told in its proper place) had 

^ Very likely by the earl of the tories to her, by his influ- 

Rochester, who was always es- ence over them. O. 
teemed by the princess Sophia ' See this letter in the Ge- 

to be much in her interest for neral Dictionar)-, &c. under the 

the succession. See antea, article of Tenison. O. 
p. 270. She hoped to secure 



234 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. been, that when the crown should pass into that 
house, no man who had either place or pension 
should be capable of sitting in the house of com- 
mons : the clause in this bill, that empowered either 
the parliament, that should be current at the queen's 
death, or that which had sat last (though dissolved) 
to sit for six months, or till the successor should 
dissolve it, seemed contrary to this incapacitating 
clause, in the former act. Great exceptions were 
taken to this by some zealous whigs, who were so 
possessed with the notion of a self-denying bill, as 
necessary to preserve public liberty, from the prac- 
tices of a designing court, that for some weeks 
there was cause to fear, not only the loss of the bill, 
but a breach among the whigs upon this head : 
much pains were taken, and with very good effect, 
to heal this : it was at last settled ; a great many 
offices were enumerated, and it was declared that 
every man, who held any of these, was thereby in- 
capacitated from sitting in the house of commons ; 
and every member of the house, who did accept of 
any other office, was upon that excluded the house, 
and a new writ was to go out, to those whom he 
represented, to choose again ; but it was left free to 
them to choose him, or any other, as they pleased. 
The act of It was dcsircd by those, who pressed this matter 
paLidr"'^most, that it should take place only in the next 
reign : but to remove all jealousy, the ministers 
were content that these clauses should take place 
immediately upon the dissolution of the present 
parliament. And when the house of commons sent 
up these self-denying clauses to the lords, they 
added to them a repeal of that clause, in the first 
act of succession, by which the succeeding princes 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 235 

were limited to govern by the advice of their coun- 1705. 



cil, and by which all the privy-counsellors were to 
be obliged to sign their advices ; which was imprac- 
ticable, since it was visible that no man would be a 
privy-counsellor on those terms : the lords added 
the repeal of this clause, to the amendments sent up 
by the commons ; and the commons readily agreed 
to it ^ 

After this act had passed, the lord Halifax re- The dan- 

CTcrs of the 

membering what the earl of Rochester had said, church ia- 
concerning the danger the church might be in, moved *'"'"^* 
that a day might be appointed, to inquire into those 
dangers, about which so many tragical stories had 
been published of late : a day was appointed for 435 
this, and we were all made believe, that we should 
hear many frightful things : but our expectations 
were not answered ; some spoke of danger from the 
presbytery that was settled in Scotland : some spoke 
of the absence of the next successor : some reflected 
on the occasional bill, that was rejected in that 
house : some complained of the schools of the dis- 



'' This law was enacted in derstood in Scotland, and ap- 

the sixth year of the queen, prehended there to relate to 

and was thought necessary to the form of government here, 

be so, because of the union in which that of the church of 

with Scotland, which had inter- England might be included, and 

vened. In the act which pass- if so, the presbyterians in Scot- 

ed now, (the fourth of the land could not take the oath, 

queen,) the oath there pre- Upon this, as the words limita- 

scribed had these words in it, tion and succession were univer- 

" The limitation and succession sally imderstood with the Eng- 

" of the crown," but in that of lish to be synonymous only, 

the sixth of the queen the words "^limitation and" were very 

•* limitation and" were left out, readily left out of the oath 

which I have been well inform- in compliance with this scru- 

ed, was done at the desire of pie, to the great quiet and joy 

the Scotch members, who said of the whole presbyterian inte- 

the word limitation was misun- rest in Scotland. Q. 



S96 



THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 



1705. 



senters : and others reflected on the principles that 
many had drank in, that were different from those 
formerly received, and that seemed destructive of 
the church s. 

In opposition to all this, it was said, that the 
church was safer now than ever it had been : at the 
revolution, provision was made, that our king must 
be of the reformed religion, nor was this all ; in the 
late act of succession it was enacted, that he should 
be of the communion of the church of England : it 
was not reasonable to object to the house the reject- 
ing a bill, which was done by the majority, of whom 
it became not the lesser number to complain: we 
had all our former laws left to us, not only entire, 



8 This dispute rather than 
debate was brought on by lord 
Rochester's passion, without 
consulting any body, and was 
as ill timed as it could well be, 
for we all knew the queen was 
little satisfied with the hands 
she was fallen into, and the 
whigs wanted nothing more 
than an opportunity to justify 
themselves in relation to the 
church. I happened to sit by 
lord Godolphin, when lord Ro- 
chester accepted lord Halifax's 
challenge, and said to him, 
(not thinking it would have 
gone further,) that I believed a 
scene between Hothead and 
Testimony would be very di- 
verting. He was pleased with 
the conceit, and told it to all 
about him, knowing nothing 
damps a debate more than turn- 
ing it into ridicule ; and it had 
such an effect, that every body 
was ready to laugh, when ei- 
ther of them spoke. Lord 



Wharton who never failed to 
insult, if he thought he had an 
advantage, desired lords would 
mark out what their real ap- 
prehensions were from. Were 
they from the queen ? The 
duke of Leeds, who was highly 
provoked at such a question, 
answered him. No, but if deer- 
stealers were got into his park, 
he should think his deer in 
danger, though he had no sus- 
picion of his keeper. Lord 
Wharton said, he wished his 
grace would name, who these 
rogues were that had got into 
the pale of the church. The 
duke said. If there were any 
that had pissed against a com- 
munion table, or done his other 
occasions in a pulpit, he should 
not think the church safe in 
such hands. Upon which lord 
Wharton was very silent for 
the rest of that day, and de- 
sired no further explanations. 
D. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 237 

but fortified by late additions and explanations: so 1705. 
that we were safer in all these, than we had been at 
any time formerly : the dissenters gained no new 
strength, they were visibly decreasing: the tolera- 
tion had softened their tempers, and they concurred 
zealously in serving all the ends of the government : 
nor was there any particular complaint brought 
against them : they seemed quiet and content with 
their toleration ; if they could be but secure of en- 
joying it : the queen was taking the most effectual 
means possible, to deliver the clergy from the de- 
pressions of poverty, that brought them under much 
contempt, and denied them the necessary means 
and helps of study : the bishops looked after their 
dioceses with a care that had not been known in the 
memory of man : great sums were yearly raised, by 
their care and zeal, for serving the plantations bet- 
ter than had ever yet been done : a spirit of zeal 
and piety appeared in our churches, and at sacra- 
ment, beyond the example of former times. In one 
respect it was acknowledged the church was in dan- 
ger ; there was an evil spirit and a virulent temper 
spread among the clergy ; there were many indecent 
sermons preached on public occasions, and those hot 
clergymen, who were not the most regular in their 
lives, had raised factions in many dioceses against 
their bishops : these were dangers created by those 
very men, who filled the nation with this outcry 
against imaginary ones, while their own conduct 
produced real and threatening dangers. Many se- 
vere reflections were thrown out on both sides, in 
the progress of this debate. 43g 

It ended in a vote carried by a sreat majority : a vote and 

an address 

that the church of England, under the queen's to the 

queen about 
that. 



238 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1/05. happy administration, was in a safe and flourishing 
*""""" condition ; and to this a severe censure was added, 
on the spreaders of these reports of dangers ; that 
they were the enemies of the queen and of her go- 
vernment. They also resolved to make an address 
to the queen, in which, after this was set forth, they 
prayed her to order a prosecution, according to law, 
of aU who should be found guilty of this offence : 
they sent this down to the house of commons, where 
the debate was brought over again, but it was run 
down with great force : the commons agreed with the 
lords, and both houses went together to the queen 
with this address. Such a concurrence of both houses 
had not been seen for some years : and indeed there 
was in both so great a majority for carrying on all 
the interests of the government, that the men of ill 
intentions had no hopes, during the whole session, of 
embroiling matters, but in the debates concerning 
the self-denying clause above-mentioned. 

1706. But though the main designs and hopes of the 
ofThe'i'n^s P^rty had thus not only failed them, but turned 
rejected, agaiust them ; yet they resolved to make another 
attempt : it was on the duke of Marlborough, though 
they spoke of him with great respect. They com- 
plained of the errors committed this year in the 
conduct of the war : they indeed laid the blame of 
the miscarriage of the design on the Moselle on the 
prince of Baden, and the errors committed in Bra- 
bant on the States and their deputies ; but they said 
they could not judge of these things, nor be able to 
lay before the queen those advices that might be fit 
for them to offer to her, unless they were made ac- 
quainted with the whole series of those affairs: 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 239 

therefore they proposed, that by an address they 1706. 
might pray the queen to communicate to them all 
that she knew concerning those transactions during 
the last campaign : for they reckoned, that if all 
particulars should be laid before them, they would 
find somewhat in the duke of Marlborough's con- 
duct, on which a censure might be fixed. To this 
it was answered, -that if any complaint was brought 
against any of the queen's subjects, it would be rea- 
sonable for them to inquire into it by all proper 
ways : but the house of lords could not pretend to 
examine or to censure the conduct of the queen's 
allies : they were not subject to them, nor could 
they be heard to justify themselves : and it was 
somewhat extraordinary, if they should pass a cen- 
sure or make a complaint of them. It was one of 
the trusts that was lodged with the government, to 
manage all treaties and alliances : so that our com- 437 
merce with our allies was wholly in the crown : al- 
lies might sometimes fail, being not able to perform 
what they undertook : they are subject both to er- 
rors and accidents, and are sometimes ill served: 
the entering into that matter was not at all proper 
for the house, unless it was intended to run into 
rash and indiscreet censures, on design to provoke 
the allies, and by that means to weaken, if not break 
the alliance : the queen would no doubt endeavour 
to redress whatsoever was amiss, and that must be 
trusted to her conduct. 

So this attempt not only failed, but it happened 
upon this as upon other occasions, that it was turned 
against those who made it : an address was made to 
the queen, praying her to go on in her alliances, and 
in particular to cultivate a perfect union and corre- 



240 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1706. spondence with the States of the United Provinces : 
this had a very good effect in Holland, for the agents 
of France were, at the same time, both spreading re- 
ports among us, that the Dutch were inclined to a 
peace ; and among them, that the English had very 
unkind thoughts of the:m : the design was, to alien- 
ate us from one another, that so both might be 
thereby the better disposed to hearken to a project 
of peace ; which in the state in which matters were 
at that time, was the most destructive thing that 
could be thought on: and all motions that looked 
that way, gave very evident discoveries of the bad 
intentions of those who made them. 
The acts The ricxt busincss, of a public nature, that came 

against the . , , . 

Scots re- bcforc the parliament, was carried very unanimous- 
^'^ ' ly: the queen laid before the two houses the ad- 
dresses of the Scotch parliament, against any pro- 
gress in the treaty of union, till the act, which 
declared them aliens by such a day, should be re- 
pealed: the tories, upon this occasion, to make 
themselves popular, after they had failed in many 
attempts, resolved to promote this; apprehending 
that the whigs, who had first moved for that act, 
would be for maintaining their own work : but they 
seemed to be much surprised, when, after they had 
prefaced their motions in this matter, with such de- 
clarations of their intentions for the public good, 
that shewed they expected opposition and a debate, 
the whigs not only agreed to this, but carried the 
motion further, to the other act relating to their 
manufacture and trade. This passed very unani- 
mously in both houses ; and by this means way was 
made for opening a treaty, as soon g^s the session 
should come to an end. All the northern parts of 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 241 

England, which had been disturbed for some years, 1706. 
with apprehensions of a war with Scotland, that " 

would certainly be mischievous to them, whatsoever 438 
the end of it might prove, were much delighted 
with the prospect of peace and union with their 
neighbours. 

These were the most important debates during 
this session ; at all which the queen was present : 
she staid all the while, and hearkened to every thing 
with great attention. The debates were managed 
on the one side by the lords Godolphin, Wharton, 
Somers, Halifax, Sunderland, and Townshend ; on 
the other side by the duke of Buckingham, and the 
lords Rochester, Nottingham, Anglesey, Guernsey, 
and Haversham. There was so much strength and 
clearness on the one side, and so much heat and ar- 
tifice on the other, that nothing but obstinate par- 
tiality could resist so evident a conviction. 

The house of commons went on in creating funds The public 
for the supplies they had voted for the next year : h^gh. "^ 
and the nation was so well satisfied with the govern- 
ment, and the conduct of affairs, that a fund being 
created for two millions and a half, by way of annu- 
ities for ninety-nine years, at six and a half per cent, 
at the end of which the capital was to sink ; the 
whole sum was subscribed in a very few days : at 
the same time the duke of Marlborough proposed the 
advance of a sum of 500,000/. to the emperor, for 
the use of prince Eugene, and the service of Italy, 
upon a branch of the emperor's revenue in Silesia, 
at eight per cent, and the capital to be repaid in 
eight years : the nation did so abound, both in money 
and zeal, that this was likewise advanced in a very 
few days : our ai'mies, as well as our allies, were every 

VOL. V. B 



242 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1706. where punctually paid : the credit of the nation was 
" never raised so high in any age, nor so sacredly 

maintained : the treasury was as exact and as regular 
in all payments as any private banker could be. It 
is true, a great deal of money went out of the king- 
dom in specie : that which maintained the war in 
Spain was to be sent thither in that manner, the way 
by biUs of exchange not being yet opened: our trade 
with Spain and the West Indies, which formerly 
brought us great returns of money, was now stopped : 
by this means there grew to be a sensible want of 
money over the nation : this was in a great measure 
supplied by the currency of exchequer bills and bank 
notes : and this lay so obvious to the disaffected par- 
ty, that they were often attempting to blast, at least 
to disparage this paper credit : but it was still kept 
up. It bred a just indignation in all who had a true 
love to their country, to see some using all possible 
methods to shake the administration, which, not- 
withstanding the difficulties at home and abroad, 
was much the best that had been in the memory of 
439 man: and was certainly not only easy to the subjects in 
general, but gentle even towards those who were 
endeavouring to undermine it. 
A bill to The lord Somers made a motion in the house of 
"rSeedlugs lords to corrcct somc of the proceedings in the com- 
at law. j^Qjj Yaw, and in chancery, that were both dilatory 
and very chargeable : he began the motion with 
some instances that were more conspicuous and 
gross ; and he managed the matter so, that both the 
lord keeper and judges concurred with him ; though 
it passes generally for a maxim, that judges ought 
rather to enlarge than contract their jurisdiction. 
A bill passed the house, that began a reformation of 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 243 

proceedings at law, which, as things now stand, are 1706. 
certainly among the greatest grievances of the na- 
tion : when this went through the house of commons, 
it was visible that the interest of under-officers 
clerks, and attorneys, whose gains were to be les- 
sened by this bill, was more considered than the in- 
terest of the nation itself: several clauses, how be- 
neficial soever to the subject, which touched on their 
profit, were left out by the commons. But what 
fault soever the lords might have found with these 
alterations, yet, to avoid all disputes with the com- 
mons, they agreed to their amendments. 

There was another general complaint made of the 
private acts of parliament, that passed through both 
houses too easily, and in so great a number, that it 
took up a great part of the session to examine them, 
even in that cursory way, that was subject to many 
inconveniences : the fees that were paid for these, to 
the speakers and clerks of both houses, inclined them 
to favour and promote them ^ : so the lord Somers 
proposed such a regulation in that matter, as will 
probably have a good effect for the future. The pre- 
sent lord keeper did indeed very generously obstruct 
those private bills, as much as his predecessor had pro- 
moted them: he did another thing of a great example; 
on the first day of the year it was become a custom 
for all those who practised in chancery, to offer a 
new-year's gift to the lord who had the great seal : 
these grew to be so considerable, that they amounted 
to 1500/. a year : on this new-year's day, which was 
his first, he signified to all who according to custom 
were expected to come with theii' presents, that he 

•^ I can very truly say that my constant practice has been the 
contrary. O. 

R 2 



244 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
1706. would receive none, but would break that custom. 



He thought it looked like the insinuating themselves 
into the favour of the court ; and that if it was not 
bribery, yet it came too near it, and looked too like 
it : this contributed not a little to the raising his cha- 
racter : he managed the court of chancery with im- 
partial justice and great despatch ; and was very use- 
ful to the house of lords, in the promoting of business, 
440 ^Vhen the session was near an end, great com- 
of'2'pro-* plaints were made in both houses of the progress of 
Kress of po- popery in Lancashire, and of many insolences com- 
mitted there both by the laity and priests of that re- 
ligion : upon this a bill was brought into the house 
of commons, with clauses that would have rendered 
the bill passed against papists in the end of the last 
reign, effectual : this alarmed all of that religion : so 
that they made very powerful, or (to follow the rail- 
lery of that time) very weighty intercessions with the 
considerable men of that house. The court looked on, 
and seemed indifferent in the matter; yet it was given 
out that so severe a law would be very unreasonable, 
when we were in alliance with so many princes of 
that religion, and that it must lessen the force of 
the queen's intercession, in favour of the protestants 
that lived in the dominions of those princes ' : the 
proceeding seemed rigorous, and not suited to the 
gentleness that the Christian religion did so particu- 
larly recommend, and was contrary to the maxims 
of liberty of conscience and toleration that were 
then in great vogue. It was answered, that the de- 
pendance of those of that religion on a foreign juris- 
diction, and at present on a foreign pretender to the 
crown, put 'them out of the case of other subjects, 
' (They are said to have interfered on this occasion.) 



OF QUEEN ANNE. «45 

who might differ from the established religion; i/OO. 
since there seemed to be good reason to consider 
them as enemies, rather than as subjects. But the 
application was made in so effectual a manner, that 
the bill was let fall : and though the lords had made 
some steps towards such a bill, yet since they saw 
what fate it was like to have in the house of com- 
mons, instead of proceeding farther in it, they dis- 
missed that matter with an address to the queen, 
that she would give orders, both to the justices of 
peace, and to the clergy, that a return might be 
made to the next session of parliament, of all the pa- 
pists in England. 

There was another project set on foot at this time ^ <'^*'S" 

^ •' , for a pub- 

by the lord Halifax, for putting the records and the i«c library. 
public offices of the kingdom in better order : he had, 
in a former session, moved the lords to send some of 
their number to view the records in the Tower, 
which were in great disorder, and in a visible decay 
for want of some more officers, and by the neglect 
of those we had. These lords in their report pro- 
posed some regulations for the future, which have 
been since followed so effectually, though at a con- 
siderable charge, by creating several new officers, 
that the nation will reap the benefit of all this 
very sensibly : but lord Halifax carried his project 
much further. The famous library, collected by sir 
Robert Cotton, and continued down in his family, 
was the greatest collection of manuscripts relating 
to the public that perhaps any nation in Europe 441 
could shew : the late owner of it, sir John Cotton, 
had, by his will, left it to the public, but in such 
words, that it was rather shut up than made any way 
useful: and indeed it was to be so carefully pre- 

R 2 



246 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1706. served, that none could be the better for it : so that 
lord moved the house to entreat the queen, that she 
would be pleased to buy Cotton house, which stood 
just between the two houses of parliament ' ; so that 
some part of that ground would furnish them with 
many useful rooms, and there would be enough left 
for building a noble structure for a library ** : to 
which, besides the Cotton library and the queen's 
library, the royal society, who had a very good li- 
brary at Gresham college, would remove and keep 
their assemblies there, as soon as it was made con- 
venient for them. This was a great design, which 
the lord Halifax, who set it first on foot, seemed 
resolved to carry on till it were finished : it will set 
learning again on foot among us, and be a great 
honour to the queen's reign. 

Thus this session of parliament came to a very 
happy conclusion : there was in it the best harmony 
within both houses, and between them, as well as 
with the crown, and it was the best applauded in 
the city of London, over the whole nation, and in- 
deed over all Europe, of any session that I had ever 
seen : and when it was considered, that this was the 
first of the three, so that we were to have two other 
sessions of the same members, it gave an universal 

' This matter is imperfectly the several parliamentary provi- 

represented here. Therefore see sions that have been made for 

two acts of parliament relating it. I had some share in this 

to it, viz. the 12th and 13th of establishment, and I deem it 

William 111. chap. 7. and the one ofthe happinesses of my life. 

5th of Anne, chap. 30. See What relates to the royal so- 

also the Journal of the House ciety is not done, but it was 

of Commons. O. part of my proposal, and also to 

^ This is now in effect ac- take in the society of antiqua- 

complished, and indeed en- rians ; but difficulties arose, 

larged by the institution of the which prevented the doing ei- 

British Museum. For which see ther of the one or the other. O. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 247 

satisfaction, both to our own people at home, and 1706. 
our allies abroad, and afforded a prospect of a happy 
end that should be put to this devouring war, which 
in all probability must come to a period, before the 
conclusion of the present i)arliament. This gave an 
unspeakable satisfaction to all who loved their coim- 
try and their religion, who now hoped that we had 
in view a good and a safe peace. 

The convocation sat at the same time ; it was Proceedingj 

10 111 11 1'" fnvoca- 

chosen as the former had been, and the members t.on. 
that were ill affected were still prevailed on to come 
up, and to continue in an expensive but useless at- 
tendance in town. The bishops drew up an address 
to the queen, in which, as the two houses of parlia- 
ment had done, they expressed a just indignation at 
the jealousies that had been spread about the nation, 
of the danger of the church : when this was com- 
municated to the lower house, they refused to join 
in it, but would give no reason for their refusal : 
they drew an address of their own, in which no no- 
tice was taken of these aspersions : the bishops, ac- 
cording to ancient precedents, required them either 
to agree to their address, or to offer their objections 
against it ; they would do neither ; so tlie address 
was let fall : and upon that, a stop was put to all 442 
further communication between the two houses. 
The lower house, upon this, went on in their former 
practice of intermediate sessions, in which they be- 
gan to enter upon business, to approve of some 
books, and to censure others ; and they resolved to 
proceed upon the same grounds, that factious men 
among them had before set up, though the falsehood 
of their pretensions had been evidently made to ap- 
pear. The archbishop had prorogued them to the 

R 4 



848 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1706. first of March: when that day came, the lower 
house was surprised with a protestation that was 
brought to the upper house, by a great part of their 
body, who, being dissatisfied with the proceedings of 
the majority, and having long struggled against 
them, though in vain, at last drew up a protestation 
against them : they sent it up and down, through 
the whole province, that they might get as many 
hands to it as they could ; but the matter was ma- 
naged with such caution, that though it was in many 
hands, yet it was not known to the other side, till 
they heard it was presented to the president of the 
upper house : in it, all the irregular motions of tlie 
lower house were reckoned up, insisting more par- 
ticularly on that of holding intermediate sessions, 
against all which they protested, and prayed that 
their protestation might be entered in the books of 
the upper house, that so they might not be involved 
in the guilt of the rest: this was signed by above fifty, 
and the whole body was but an hundred and forty- 
five : some were neutral : so that hereby very near 
one half broke off from the rest, and left them, and 
sat no more with them. The lower house was de- 
liberating how to vent their indignation against 
these, when a more sensible mortification followed : 
the archbishop sent for them, and when they came 
up, he read a letter to them, that was wrote to him 
by the queen, in which she took notice that the dif- 
ferences between the two houses were still kept up ; 
she was much concerned to see that they were ra- 
ther increased than abated : she was the more sur- 
prised at this, because it had been her constant 
care, as it should continue always to be, to preserve 
the constitution of the church, as it was by law 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 249 

established, and to discountenance all divisions and ^7o6. 



innovations whatsoever : she was resolved to main- 
tain her supremacy, and the due subordination of 
presbyters to bishops, as fundamental parts of it : 
she expected, that the archbishop and bishops would 
act conformable to this resolution, and in so doing 
they should be sure of the continuance of her pro- 
tection and favour, which should not be wanting to 
any of the clergy, as long as they were true to the 
constitution, and dutiful to her and their ecclesias- 
tical superiors, and preserved such a temper, as be- 
came those who were in holy orders. The arch- 443 
bishop, as he was required to read this to them, so 
he was directed to prorogue them, for such a time 
as should appear convenient to him : they were 
struck with this, for it had been carried so secretly, 
that it was a surprise to them all. When they saw 
they were to be prorogued, they ran very indecently 
to the door, and with some difficulty were kept in 
the room, till the prorogation was intimated to them : 
they went next to their own house, where, though 
prorogued, they sat still in form, as if they had been 
a house, but they did not venture on passing any 
vote : so factious were they, and so implicitly led by 
those who had got an ascendant over them, that 
though they had formerly submitted the matters in 
debate to the queen, yet now, when she declared 
her pleasure, they would not acquiesce in it. 

The session of parliament beinsr now at an end, P'^p^™- 

i^ c> ' tions for 

the preparations for the campaign were carried on the cam- 
with all possible despatch : that which was most 
pressing was first done. Upon Stanhope's first com- 
ing over, in the beginning of January, orders were 
immediately issued out for sending over 5000 men. 



250 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1 706. with all necessary stores, to Spain : the orders were 
given in very pressing terms ; yet so many offices 
were concerned in the execution, that many delays 
were made ; some of these were much censured : at 
last they sailed in March. The fleet that had gone 
into the Mediterranean with king Charles, and was 
to return and winter at Lisbon, was detained by 
westerly winds longer in those seas than had been 
expected. 
A retoit in The people of Valencia seemed to hope that they 
were to winter in those seas ; and by this they were 
encouraged to declare for king Charles : but they 
were much exposed to those who commanded in 
king Philip's name. All Catalonia had submitted 
to king Charles, except Roses ; garrisons were put 
in Gironne, Lerida, and Tortosa : and the states of 
that principality prepared themselves, with great 
zeal and resolution, for the next campaign, which, 
they had reason to expect, would come both early 
and severely upon them. There was a breach be- 
tween the earl of Peterborough and the prince of 
Lichtenstein, whom he charged very heavily, in the 
king's own presence, with corruption and injustice : 
the matter went far, and the king blamed the earl 
of Peterborough, who had not much of a forbearing 
or forgiving temper in him. There was no method 
of communication with England yet settled : we did 
not hear from them, nor they from us, in five 
months : this put them out of all hope : our men 
wanted every thing, and could be supplied there 
with nothing. The revolt in Valencia made it ne- 
444cessary to send such a supply to them from Barce- 
lona as could be spared from thence : the disgust 
that was taken made it advisable to send the earl 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 251 

of Peterborough thither, and he willingly undertook J 706. 
the service : he marched towards that kingdom with 
about fifteen hundred English, and a thousand Spa- 
niards : they were all ill equipped and ill furnished, 
without artillery, and with very little ammunition : 
but as they marched, all the country either came 
into them, or fled before them. He got to Valencia 
without any opposition, and was received there with 
all possible demonstrations of joy : this gave a great 
disturbance to the Spanish councils at Madrid : they 
advised the king to begin with the reduction of 
Valencia : it lay nearer, and was easier come at : 
and by this the disposition to revolt would be 
checked, which might otherwise go further: but 
this was overruled from France, where little regard 
was had to the Spaniards : they resolved to begin 
with Barcelona : in it king Charles himself lay ; 
and on taking it, they reckoned all the rest would 
fall. 

The French resolved to send every thing thafr**^ 
was necessary for the siege by sea, and the count of lona 
Toulouse was ordered to lie with the fleet before 
the place, whilst it was besieged by land : it was 
concerted to begin the siege in March, for they 
knew that if they begun it so early, our fleet could 
not come in time to relieve it : but two great 
storms, that came soon one after another, did so 
scatter their tartanes, and disable their ships of war, 
that, as some were cast away, and others were much 
shattered, so they all lost a month's time, and the 
siege could not be formed before the beginning of 
April : king Charles shut himself up in Barcelona, 
by which the people were both animated and kept 
in order : this gave all the allies very sad apprehen- 



siege 
Barce- 



«S» THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1 706. sions ; they feared not only the loss of the place, but 
of his person. Leak sailed from Lisbon in the end 
of March : he missed the galleons very nanowly, 
but he could not pursue them ; for he was to lose 
no time, but haste to Barcelona : his fleet was in- 
creased to thirty ships of the line by the time he 
got to Gibraltar ; but though twenty more were fol- 
lowing him, he would not stay, but hasted on to the 
relief of the place as fast as the wind served. 
Aicanura At the samc time the campaign was opened on 
the side of Portugal : the earl of Galway had full 
powers, and a brave army of about 20,000 men, well 
furnished in aU respects : he left Badajos behind 
him, and marched on to Alcantara. The duke of 
Berwick had a very small force left him, to defend 

• that frontier : it seems the French trusted to the 
interest they had in the court of Portugal : his troops 
were so bad, that he saw in one small action, that 

445 he could not depend on them : he put a good gar- 
rison in Alcantara ; where their best magazine was 
laid in. But when the earl of Galway came before 
the town, within three days, the ganison, consisting 
of 4000 men, delivered up the place and themselves 
as prisoners of war: the Portuguese would have 
stopped there, and thought they had made a good 
campaign, though they had done no more : but the 
English ambassador at Lisbon went to the king of 
Portugal, and pressed him, that orders might be im- 
mediately sent to the earl of Galway to march on : 
and when he saw great coldness in some of the mi- 
nisters, he threatened a present rupture, if it was not 
done : and he continued waiting on the king, till 
the orders were signed, and sent away. Upon re- 
ceipt of these, the earl of Galway advanced towards 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 253 

Placentia, all the country declaring for him, as soon 1706. 
as he appeared ; and the duke of Berwick still re- 
tiring before him, not being able to give the least 
interruption to his march. 

The campaign was opened in Italy with great "^'^^ g*""- 

^ ^ ^ y. ° nians are 

advantage to the French : the duke of Vendome defeated ia 
marched into the Brescian, to attack the imperial- 
ists, before prince Eugene could join them, who 
was now come very near : he fell on a body of about 
12,000 of them, being double their number; he 
drove them from their posts, with the loss of about 
3000 men killed and taken; but it was believed 
there were as many of the French killed as of the 
imperiahsts. Prince Eugene came up within two 
days, and put all in order again : he retired to a 
surer post, waiting till the troops from Germany 
should come up : the slowness of the Germans was 
always fatal in the beginning of the campaign : 
the duke of Savoy was now reduced to great extre- 
mities : he saw the siege of Turin was designed ; 
he fortified so many outposts, and put so good a 
garrison in it, that he prepared well for a long siege ' 
and a great resistance : he wrote to the queen for a 
further supply of 50,000 pounds, assuring her, that 
by that means the place should be put in so good a 
state, that he would undertake that all should be 
done which could be expected from brave and re- 
solute men : and so careful was the lord treasurer 
to encourage him, that the courier was sent back, 
the next day after he came, with credit for the 
money. There was some hopes of a peace, as there 
was an actual cessation of war in Hungary : the 
malecontents had been put in hopes of a great di- 
version of the emperor's forces on the side of Bava- 



254 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
1706. ria, where there was a great insurrection, provoked, 



as was said, by the oppression of the imperial offi- 
cers, who were so accustomed to be heavy in their 
quarters, that when they had the pretence, that they 
were among enemies, it may be easily believed 
446 there was much just occasion of complaint; and 
that they were guilty of great exactions and rapine. 
This looked formidably at first, and seemed to 
threaten a new war in those parts ; but all was soon 
suppressed: the peasants had no officers among 
them, no discipline, nor magazines, and no place of 
strength : so they were quickly dispersed, and 
stiicter orders were given for the better regulating 
the military men, though it was not expected that 
these would be long observed. 
The treaty While mattcrs were in this disposition abroad, 
on of the the treaty for the union of the two kingdoms was 
domi"!"*^' brought on, and managed with great solemnity. 
Commissions were given out for thirty-two persons 
of each kingdom to meet at London on the 18th 
of April: Somerset-house was appointed for the 
* place of the treaty ; the persons who were named 
to treat on the English side were well chosen : they 
were the most capable of managing the treaty, and 
the best disposed to it of any in the kingdom. Those 
who came from Scotland were not looked on as 
men so well affected to the design : most of them 
had stood out in a long and firm opposition to the 
revolution, and to all that had been done afterwards, 
pursuant to it. The nomination of these was fixed 
on by the dukes of Queensbury and Argyle : it was 
said by them, that though these objections did in- 
deed lie against them, yet they had such an interest 
in Scotland, that the engaging them to be cordially 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 255 

for the union would be a great means to get it 1706. 
agreed to in the parliament there : the Scotch had 
got among them the notion of a federal union, like 
that of the united provinces, or of the cantons in 
Switzerland : but the English resolved to lose no 
time in the examining or discussing of that project, 
for this reason, besides many others, that as long as 
the two nations had two different parliaments, they 
could break that union whensoever they pleased; 
for each nation would follow their own parliament : 
the design was now to settle a lasting and indis- 
soluble union between the kingdoms, therefore they 
resolved to treat only about an incorporating union, 
that should put an end to all distinctions, and unite 
all their interests : so they at last entered upon the 
scheme of an entire union. 

But now to look again into our affairs abroad : 
the French seemed to have laid the design of their 
campaign so well, that it had every where a formi- 
dable appearance : and if the execution had answered 
their scheme, it would have proved as glorious, as 
it was in the conclusion fatal to them. They reck- 
oned the taking of Barcelona and Turin sure : and 
by these, they thought the war, both in Spain and 
Italy, would be soon brought to an end : they knew 447 
they would be superior to any force that the prince 
of Baden could bring together on the upper Rhine ; 
and they intended to have a great army in Flanders, 
where they knew our chief strength would be, to 
act as occasion or their other affairs should require. 
But how well soever this design might seem to be 
laid, it appeared Providence had another; which 
was brought to bear every where in a most won- 
derful manner, and in reverse to all their views. 



256 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1706. The steps of this, I intend to set out, rather as a 
meditation on the providence of God, than as a par- 
ticular history of this signal year, for which I am 
no way furnished : besides that, if I were, it does 
not answer my principal design in writing. 

The French lay thirty-seven days before Barce- 
lona : of that time, twenty-two were spent in taking 
Mountjoy ; they seemed to think there was no dan- 
ger of raising the siege, and that therefore they 
might proceed as slowly as they pleased : the town 
was under such a consternation, that nothing but 
the king's presence could have kept them from ca- 
pitulating the first week of the siege : there were 
some mutinies raised, and some of the magistrates 
were killed in them : but the king came among 
them on all occasions, and both quieted and ani- 
mated them. Stanhope wrote, after the siege was 
over, (whether as a courtier or not, I cannot tell, 
for he had now on him the character of the queen's 
envoy to king Charles,) that the king went into all 
places of danger, and made all about him examples 
to the rest, to be hard at work, and constant upon 
duty. After Mountjoy was taken, the town was 
more pressed : the earl of Peterborough came from 
Valentia, and was upon the hills, but could not give 
them any great assistance : some few from Gironne 
and other places got into the town : the French en- 
gineers performed their part with little skill and 
success ; those they relied most on happened to be 
killed in the beginning of the siege. The Levant 
wind was all this while so strong, that it was not 
possible for Leak to come uj) so soon as was desired 
to their relief. 
The siege of But whcH their Strength, as well as their pa- 

Barcelooa 
nuMd. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 257 

tience, was almost quite exhausted, the wind turned, 170^. 
and Leak with all possil)le haste sailed to them : as " 

soon as the count of Toulouse had intelligence that 
he was near him, he sailed back to Toulon. Tesse, 
with king Philip, (who was in the camp, but was 
not once named in any action,) continued three days 
before Barcelona, after their fleet sailed away : they 
could then have no hopes of carrying it, unless a 
storm at sea had kept our fleet at a distance: at 
last, on the first of May, O. S. the siege was raised 
with great precipitation, and in much disorder: 
their camp was left well furnished, and the sick and 448 
wounded could not be carried off. 

On the day of the raising the siege, as the An eclipse 
French army was marching off, the sun was eclipsed, 
and it was total in those parts: it is certain that 
there is no weight to be laid on such things ; yet 
the vulgar being apt to look on them as ominous, it 
was censured as a great error in Tesse, not to have 
raised the siege a day sooner ; and that the rather, 
because the king of France had made the sun, with 
a motto of Nee pluribus impar^ his device. King 
Philip made all the haste he could to Perpignan, but 
his army was almost quite ruined before he got thi- 
ther : there was no manner of communication over* 
land between Barcelona and Portugal : so the Por- 
tuguese, doubting the issue of that siege, had no 
mind to engage fui'ther, till they saw how it ended : 
therefore they ordered their army to march aside to The eari of 
Ciudad Roderigo, on pretence that it was necessary fan3 ^' 
to secure their frontier, by taking that place : it was 
taken after a very short siege, and with small re- 
sistance : from thence they advanced to Salamanca. 
But upon the news of raising the siege of Barcelona, 

VOL. V. s 



268 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1706. they went on towards Madrid ; the duke of Berwick 
' only obsemng their motions, and still retiring be- 
fore them. King Philip went, with great expedi- 
tion, and a very small train, from Perpignan to Na- 
King PhUip varre ; from thence he came post to Madrid ; but 
Madrid, and finding he had no army that he could trust to, the 
soon left It. gj.^jj(jggs jjeing now retired, and looking as so many 
dead men ; and he seeing that the Portuguese were 
still advancing, sent his queen to Burgos, and fol- 
lowed her in a few days, carrying with him that 
which was valuable in the palace : and it seems he 
despaired ever to return thither again, since he de- 
stroyed aU that could not be carried away ; in which 
he acted a very extraordinary part, for he did some 
of this with his own hand ; as the gentleman whom 
the earl of Galway sent over told me, was univer- 
sally believed in Madrid. 
The earl of The Capital city being thus forsaken, the earl of 
cam! to it, Golway camc to it by the end of June ; he met with 
chlriM^de- "^ resistance indeed, but with as little welcome : an 
layed too army of Portuguese, with a heretic at their head, 
comethi- werc Certainly very strange sights to the Castilians, 
who retained all the pride, without any of the cou- 
rage, of their ancestors : they thought it below them 
to make their submissions to any but to the king 
himself; and if king Charles had come thither im- 
mediately, it was believed that the entire reduction 
of Spain would have been soon brought about. It 
is not yet certain, what made him stay so long as 
he did at Barcelona, even from the beginning of 
May till near the end of July. Those about him 
pretended, it was not fit to go to Madrid, till he was 
449 well furnished with money, to make a decent entry : 
Stanhope offered to furnish him with what was ne- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 259 

cessary for the journey, but could not afford a mag- 1706. 
nificent equipage for a solemn entry. King Charles 
wrote a very pressing letter to the duke of Marlbo- 
rough, setting forth his necessities, and desiring 
greater supplies ; I saw this letter, for the duke sent 
it over to the lord treasurer: but little regard was had 
to it, because it was suggested from many different 
hands, that the prince of Lichtenstein was enriching 
himself, and keeping his king poor. Others pretended 
the true cause of the delay was a secret amour of that 
king's at Barcelona; whatsoever the cause of it might 
be, the effects have hitherto proved fatal : it was first 
proposed, that king Charles should march through 
Valentia, as the nearest and much the safest way, and 
he came on that design as far as Tarracona: but advice 
being brought him there, that the kingdom of Arra- 
gon was in a good disposition to declare for him, he 
was diverted from his first intentions, and prevailed 
on to go to Saragoza ; where he was acknowledged 
by that kingdom : but he lost much time, and more 
in the reputation of his arms, by delaying so long 
to move towards Madrid : so king Philip took heart, 
and came back from Burgos to Madrid. The earl 
of Galway was very uneasy at this slow motion 
which king Charles made : king Philip had some 
more troops sent him from France, and the broken 
bodies of his army, being now brought together, he 
had an army equal in numbers to the earl of Gal- 
way, and so he marched up to him ; but since so 
much depended on the issue of an action, the earl of 
Galway avoided it, because he expected every day 
reinforcements to be brought up to him, both by 
king Charles and by the earl of Peterborough, from 
Valentia : therefore, to facilitate this conjunction, he 

s 2 



260 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1706. moved towards Arragon ; so that Madrid was again 
left to be possessed by king Philip. At last, in the 
beginning of August, king Charles came up, but 
with a very inconsiderable force : a few days after, 
the earl of Peterborough came also with an escort, 
rather than any strength ; for he had not with him 
above 500 dragoons. He was now uneasy, because 
he could not have the supreme command, both the 
earl of Galway and count NoyeUes being much an- 
cienter officers than he was. But to deliver him 
from the uneasiness of being commanded by them, 
the queen had sent him the powers of an ambassador 
extraordinary; and he took that character on him 
for a few days. His complaining, so much as he 
did, of the prince of Lichtenstein and the Germans, 
who were still possessed of king Charles's confidence, 
made him veiy unacceptable to that king: so he, 
450 waiting for orders from the queen, withdrew from 
the camp, and sailed away in one of the queen's 
ships to Genoa. Our fleet lay all the summer in 
the Mediterranean; which obliged the French to 
keep theirs within Toulon. Cartagena declared for 
king Charles, and was secured by some of our ships : 
the fleet came before Alicant ; the seamen landed, 
and stormed the town; the castle hdd out some 
weeks, but then it capitulated, and the soldiers by 
articles were obliged to march to Cadiz. Soon after 
that, our fleet sailed out of the straits ; one squa- 
dron was sent to the West Indies ; another was to 
lie at Lisbon, and the rest were ordered home. Af- 
ter king Charles had joined lord Galway, king Phi- 
lip's army and his looked on one another for some 
time, but without venturing on any action : they 
were near an equality, and both sides expected to 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 261 

be reinforced; so in that uncertainty neither side 1706. 
would put any thing to hazard. 

But now I turn to another and a greater scene : The battle 
the king of France was assured that the king ofiies. 
Denmark would stand upon some high demands he 
made to the aUies, so that the duke of Marlborough 
could not have the Danes, who were about ten or 
twelve thousand, to join him for some time; and 
that the Prussians, almost as many as the Danes, 
could not come up to the confederate army for some 
weeks : so he ordered the elector of Bavaria and 
Villeroy to march up to them, and to venture on a 
battle ; sinc^e, without the Danes, they would have 
been much superior in number. The States yielded 
to all Denmark's demands, and the prince of Wir- 
temberg, who commanded their troops, being very 
well affected, reckoned that all being granted, he 
needed not stay till he sent to Denmark, nor wait 
for their express orders : but marched and joined 
the army the day before the engagement. Some 
thought, that the king of France, upon the news of 
the disgrace before Barcelona, that he might cover 
that, resolved to put all to venture, hoping that a 
victory would have set all to rights ; this passed ge- 
nerally in the world. But the duke of Marlborough 
told me, that there being only twelve days between 
the raising of the siege of Barcelona and this battle, 
the one being on the first of May, and the other on 
the twelfth, eight of which must be allowed for the 
courier to Paris, and from thence to Brabant, it 
seemed not possible to put things in the order in 
which he saw them, in so short a time. The French 
left their baggage and heavy cannon at Judoign; 
and marched up to the duke of Marlborough : he 

S3 



262 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1706. was marching towards them on the same design ; for 

if they had not offered him battle on the twelfth, he 

was resolved to have attacked them on the thirteenth 

of May : they met near a village called Ramellies, 

451 (not far from the Mehaigne,) from whence the battle 

takes its name. 

A great vie The engagement was an entire one; and the 

orygaini • g^^j^j^ ^^g j^^^ £qj. |.^q hours ', both the French 

mousquetaires and the cuirassiers were there; the 
elector of Bavaria said, it was the best army he 
ever beheld : but after two hours, the French gave 
way every where, so it ended in an entire defeat. 
They lost both their camp, baggage, and artillery, 
as well as all that they had left in Judoign ; and in 
all possible confusion they passed the Dyle ; our men 
pursuing till it was dark. The duke of Marlbo- 
rough said to me, the French army looked the best 
of any he had ever seen : but that their officers did 
not do their part, nor shew the courage that had 
appeared among them on other occasions. And when 
I asked him the difference between the actions at 
Hockstedt and at Ramellies, he said, the first battle 
lasted between seven and eight hours, and we lost 
above 12,000 men in it; whereas the second lasted 
not above two hours, and we lost not above 2500 
men '. Orders were presently sent to the great ci- 
ties, to draw the garrisons out of them, that so the 
French might have again the face of an army : for 
their killed, their deserters, and their prisoners, on 
this great day, were above 20,000 men. The duke 

' ITiere is a curious account given by the late lord Moles- 

of the personal danger which worth (then a captain) to the 

the duke of Marlborough was compiler of an Irish peerage, 

exposed to in the battle, as H. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 263 

of Marlborough lost no time, but followed them 1706. 
close : Louvain, Mechlin, and Brussels submitted, yi^n^^n 
besides many lesser places ; Antwerp made a shew ^"2^®"^' 
of standing out, but soon followed the example of^^- 
the rest ; Ghent and Bruges did the same : in all 
these king Charles was proclaimed. Upon this un- 
expected rapidity of success, the duke of Marlbo- 
rough went to the Hague, to concert measures with 
the States, where he stayed but few days ; for they 
agreed to every thing he proposed, and sent him 
back with full powers : the fitst thing he undertook 
was the siege of Ostend, a place famous for its long ostend and 
Siege m the last age : the natives 01 the place were taken. 
disposed to return to the Austrian family, and the 
French that were in it had so lost all heart and spi- 
rit, that they made not the resistance that was 
looked for : in ten days, after they sat down before 
it, and within four days after the batteries were 
finished, they capitulated. From thence the confe- 
derates went to Menin, which was esteemed the best 
finished fortification in all those parts : it was built 
after the peace of Nimeguen ; nothing that art could 
contrive was wanting to render it impregnable ; and 
it was defended by a garrison of 6000 men, so that 
many thought it was too bold an undertaking to sit 
down before it. The French army was become con- 
siderable, by gi-eat detachments brought from the 
Upper Rhine; where mareschal Villars was so far 452 
superior to the Germans, that, if it had not been for 
this revulsion of his forces, the circles of Suabia and 
Franconia would have been much exposed to pillage 
and contribution. 

The duke of Vendome's conduct in Italy had so The duke of 

. Vendome 

raised his character, that he was thought the only commauded 

. in Flanders. 

S 4 



264 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

170O. man fit to be at the head of the army in Flanders : 
so he was sent for, and had that command given 
him, with a very high compliment, which was very 
injurious to the other officers, since he was declared 
to be the single man on whom France could depend, 
and by whom it could be protected in that extre- 
mity. The duke of Orleans was sent to command 
in Italy, and mareschal Marsin was sent with him 
to assist, or rather in reality to govern him : and so 
obstinately was the king of France set on pursu- 
ing his first designs, that notwithstanding his dis- 
graces both in Spain and in the Netherlands, yet 
(since he had ordered all the preparations for the 
siege of Turin,) he would not desist from that at- 
tempt, but ordered it to be pursued with all possible 
vigour. The siege of Menin was, in the mean while, 
carried on so successfully, that the trenches were 
opened on the 24th of July, and the batteries were 
finished on the 29th : and they pressed the place so 
warmly, that they capitulated on the 11th of Au- 
gust, and marched out on the 14th, being St. Lewis's 
day ; 4000 men marched out of the place. 

It seemed strange, that a garrison which was still 
so numerous, should give up, in so short a time, a 
place that was both so strong and so well furnished : 
but as the French were much sunk, so the allies 
were now become very expert at carrying on of 
sieges ; and spared no cost that was necessary for 
despatch. Dendermonde had been for some weeks 
under a blockade: this, the duke of Marlborough 
ordered to be turned into a formal siege. The place 
Dender- ^as SO surroundcd with water, that the king: of 

monde and , _ " 

Aeth taken. Francc, having once begun a siege there, was forced 
to raise it ; yet it was now so pressed, that the gar- 



»0F QUEEN ANNE. 265 

rison offered to capitulate, but the duke of Marlbo- 1706. 



rough would give them no other terms but those of 
being prisoners of war, to which they were forced 
to submit. Aeth was next invested ; it lay so incon- 
veniently between Flanders and Brabant, that it 
was necessary to clear that communication, and to 
deliver Brussels from the danger of that neighbour- 
hood: in a fortnight's time it was also obliged to 
capitulate, and the garrison were made prisoners of 
war. 

During those sieges, the duke of Vendome, hav- 
ing fixed himself in a camp that could not be forced, 
did not think fit to give the duke of Marlborough 
any disturbance ; while he lay with his army cover- 
ing the sieges ; the French were jealous of the elec- 453 
tor of Bavaria's heat, and though he desired to com- 
mand an army apart, yet it was not thought fit to 
divide their forces, though now grown to be very 
numerous. Deserters said, the panic was still so 
great in the army, that there was no appearance of 
their venturing on any action : Paris itself was un- 
der a high consternation, and though the king car- 
ried his misfortunes with an appearance of calmness 
and composure, yet he was often let blood, which 
was thought an indication of a gi'eat commotion 
within ; and this was no doubt the greater, because 
it was so much disguised. No news was talked of 
at that court ; all was silent and solemn ; so that 
even the duchess dowager of Orleans knew not the 
true state of their affairs ; which made her write to 
her aunt, the electoress of Hanover, to learn .news 
of her. 

There was another alarm given them, which Designs for 
heightened the disorder they were in: the queen "uf^u^. 



266 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1706. and the States formed a design of a descent in 
France, with an army of about 10,000 foot and 
1200 horse. The earl of Rivers commanded the 
land army, as Shovell did a royal fleet, that was to 
convoy them, and to secure their landing ; it was to 
be neai* Bourdeaux : but the secret was then so weU 
kept, that the French could not penetrate into it ; 
so the alarm was general. It put all the maritime 
counties of France to a vast charge, and under dis- 
mal apprehensions : officers were sent from the court 
to exercise them ; but they saw what their militia 
was, and that was all their defence. I have one of 
the manifesto's that the earl of Rivers was ordered 
to publish upon his landing : he declared by it, that 
he was come neither to pillage the country, nor to 
conquer any part of it ; he came only to restore the 
people to their liberties, and to have assemblies of 
the states, as they had anciently, and to restore the 
edicts to the protestants ; he promised protection to 
all that should come in to him "\ The troops were 
all put aboard at Portsmouth in the beginning of 
July, but they were kept in our ports by contrary 
winds till the beginning of October : the design on 
France was then laid aside ; it was too late in the 
year for the fleet to sail into the bay of Biscay, and 
to lie there for any considerable time in that season: 
the reduction of Spain was of the greatest import- 
ance to us ; so new orders were sent them to sail 
first to Lbbon, and there to take such measures as 
the state of the affairs of Spain should require. 

•" The projectors of this ex- joined our 11,200 men. And 

pedition to be sure believed, so earl Rivers was to restore 

that at least all the protestants freedom to France. O. 
in France would have risen and 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 267 

The siege of Turin was begun in May, and was 1706. 
continued till the beginning of September : there was The siege of 
a strong garrison within it, and it was well furnished, ^"°' 
both with provisions and ammunition. The duke 
of Savoy put all to the hazard : he sent his duchess 
with his children to Genoa; and himself, with a 
body of 3000 horse, was moving about Turin, from 454 
valley to vaUey, till that body was much diminished : 
for he was, as it were, hunted from place to place, 
by the duke of Feuillade, who commanded in the 
siege, and drove the duke of Savoy before him : so 
that all hope of relief lay in prince Eugene. The 
garrison made a noble resistance, and maintained 
their outworks long ; they blew up many mines, and 
disputed every inch of ground with great resolution: 
they lost about 6000 men, who were either killed, 
or had deserted during the siege ; and their powder 
was at last so spent, that they must have capitulated 
within a day or two, if they had not been relieved. 
The siege cost the French very dear; they were 
often forced to change their attacks, and lost about 
14,000 men before the place; for they were fre- 
quently beat from the posts that they had gained. 

Prince Eugene made all the haste he could to Prince 
their relief: the court of Vienna had not given due mSe^s to 
orders, as they had undertaken, for the provision of "^'^^ '** 
the troops that were to march through their coun- 
try to join him : this occasioned many complaints, 
and some delay. The truth was, that court was so 
much set on the reduction of Hungary, that all 
other things were much neglected, while that alone 
seemed to possess them. A treaty was set on foot 
with the malecontents there, by the mediation of 
England and of the States ; a cessation of arms was 



268 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1706. agreed to for two months : all that belonged to that 
court were very uneasy while that continued; they 
had shaied among them the confiscations of all the 
great estates in Hungary, and they saw, that if a 
peace was made, all these would be vacated, and the 
estates would be restored to their former owners : 
so they took all possible means to traverse the nego- 
tiation, and to inflame the emperor. There seemed 
to be some probability of bringing things to a settle- 
ment, but that could not be brought to any conclu- 
sion during the term of the cessation; when that 
was lapsed, the emperor could not be prevailed on 
to renew it : he recalled his troops from the Upper 
Rhine, though that was contrary to all his agree- 
ments with the empire. Notwithstanding all this 
ill management of the court of Vienna, prince Eu- 
gene got together the greatest part of those troops 
that he expected in the Veronese before the end of 
June : they were not yet all come up, but he, be- 
lieving himself strong enough, resolved to advance ; 
and he left the prince of Hesse, with a body to re- 
ceive the rest, and by them to force a diversion, 
while he should be going on. The duke of Ven- 
dome had taken care'of all the fords of the Adige, 
the Mincio, and the Oglio ; and had cast up such 
lines and intrenchments every where, that he had 
455 assured the court of France, it was not possible for 
prince Eugene to break through all that opposition, 
at least to do it in any time to relieve Turin. By 
this time the duke of Orleans was come to take the 
army out of Vendome's hands : but before that duke 
had left it, they saw that he had reckoned wrong, 
in all those hopes he had given the court of 
France, of stopping prince Eugene's march. For, 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 269 

in the beginning of July, he sent a few battalions 1706. 

over one of the fords of the Adige, where the 

French were well posted, and double their number ; 
yet they ran away with such precipitation, that they 
left every thing behind them : upon that, prince 
Eugene passed the Adige with his whole army, and 
the French, in a consternation, retired behind the 
Mincio. After this, prince Eugene surprised the 
French with a motion that they had not looked for, 
nor prepared against, for he passed the Po ; the 
duke of Orleans followed him, but declined an en- 
gagement ; whereupon prince Eugene wrote to the 
duke of Marlborough, that he felt the effects of the 
battle of Ramellies, even in Italy, the French seem- 
ing to be every where dispirited with their misfor- 
tunes. Prince Eugene, marching nearer the Appe- 
nines, had gained some days' march of the duke of 
Orleans; upon which, that duke repassed the Po, 
and advanced with such haste towards Turin, that 
he took no care of the pass at Stradella, which 
might have been kept and disputed for some days : 
prince Eugene found no opposition there; nor did 
he meet with any other difficulty, but from the 
length of the march, and the heat of the season ; 
for he was in motion all the months of July and 
August. 

In the beginning of September, the duke of Sa- 
voy joined him, with the small remnants of his 
army, and they hasted on to Turin. The duke of 
Orleans had got thither before them, and the place 
was now reduced to the last extremities ; the duke 
of Orleans, with most of the chief officers, were for 
marching out of the trenches; Marsin was of an- 
other mind, and when he found it hard to maintain 



«70 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1 706. his opinion, he produced positive orders for it, which 
put an end to the debate. The duke of Savoy saw 
the necessity of attacking them in their trenches ; 
his army consisted of 28,000 men, but they were 
good troops ; the French were above 40,000, and in 
a well fortified camp ; yet after two hours' resist- 
ance, the duke of Savoy broke through, and then 
there was a great destruction ; the French flying in 
much disorder, and leaving a vast treasure in their 
camp, besides great stores of provisions, ammuni- 
The French tiou, and artillery. It was so entire a defeat, that 
ed, Ld the not above I6OO men of that great army got off in a 
siege raised, jy^^y . ^^^j ^jj^y uj^dc all the hastc they could into 

Dauphiny. The duke of Savoy went into Turin ; 
456 where it may be easily imagined, he was received 
with much joy ; the garrison, for want of powder, 
was not in a condition to make a sally on the French, 
while he attacked them ; the French were pursued 
as far as men, wearied with such an action, could 
foUow them, and many prisoners were taken. The 
duke of Orleans, though he lost the day, yet gave 
great demonstrations of courage, and received seve- 
ral wounds : mareschal Marsin fell into the enemies' 
hands, but died of his wounds in a few hours ; and 
upon him all the errors of this dismal day were cast, 
though the heaviest part of the load fell on Chamil- 
lard, who was then in the supreme degree of favour 
at court, and was entirely possessed of madame 
Maintenon's confidence. Feuillade had married his 
daughter, and in order to the advancing him, he 
had the command of this siege given him, which 
was thus obstinately pursued, till it ended in this fa- 
tal manner. The obstinacy continued ; for the king 
sent orders, for a month together, to the duke of 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 271 

Orleans, to march back into Piedmont, when it was 1706. 
absolutely impossible ; yet repeated orders were sent, 
and the reason of this was understood afterwards : 
madame Main tenon, it seems, took that care of the 
king's health and humour, that she did not suffer 
the ill state of his affairs to be fully told him : he, all 
that while, was made believe, that the siege was only 
raised upon the advance of prince Eugene's army ; 
and knew not that his own was defeated and ruined. 
I am not enough versed in military affairs, to offer 
any judgment upon that point, whether they did 
well or ill, not to go out of their camp to fight : it 
is certain, that the fight was more disorderly, and 
the loss was much greater, by reason of their lying 
within their lines : in this I have known men of 
the trade of different opinions. 

While this was done at Turin, the prince of Hesse 
advanced to the Mincio, which the French aban- 
doned ; but as he went to take Castiglione, Medavi, 
the French general, surprised him, and cut off about 
2000 of his men ; upon which he was forced to re- 
tire to the Adige. The French magnified this ex- 
cessively, hoping with the noise they made about it, 
to balance their real loss at Turin. The prince of 
Vaudemont, upon the news from Turin, left the city 
of Milan, and retired, with the small force he had, to 
Cremona : the duke of Savoy and prince Eugene 
marched, with all haste, into the Milanese : the city 
of Milan was opened to them ; but the citadel, and 
some strong places that had garrisons in them, 
stood out some time ; yet place after place capitu- 
lated, so that it was visible all would quickly fall 
into their hands. 

Such a succession of eminent misfortunes in one 



272 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1706. campaign, and in so many different places, was 
TTZ without example : it made all people conclude, that 
the time was come, in which the perfidy, the ty- 
ranny, and the cruelty of that king's long and bloody 
reign, was now to be repaid him, with the same 
severe measure with which he had formerly treated 
others: but the secrets of God are not to be too 
boldly pried into, till he is pleased to display them 
to us more openly. It is certainly a year that de- 
serves to be long and much remembered. 
The king of In the end of the campaign, in which Poland had 

Sweden ° . 

marched bccu harasscd with the continuance of the war, 
axony. |^^^ without any great action ; the king of Sweden, 
seeing that king Augustus supported his affairs in 
Poland, by the supplies both of men and money, 
that he drew from his electorate, resolved to stop 
that resource: so he marched through Silesia and 
Lusatia into Saxony. He quickly made himself 
master of an open country, that was looking for no 
such invasion, and was in no sort prepared for it, 
and had few strong places in it, capable of any re- 
sistance : the rich town of Leipsick, and all the rest 
of the country, was, without any opposition, put 
under contribution. All the empire was alarmed 
at this ; it was at first apprehended, that it was set 
on by the French councils, to raise a new war in 
Germany, and to put the north all in a flame. The 
king of Sweden gave it out, that he had no design 
to give any disturbance to the empire : that he in- 
tended, by this march, only to bring the war of Po- 
land to a speedy conclusion; and it was reasonable 
to believe, that such an unlooked for incident would 
soon bring that war to a crisis. 

A treaty of 'pj,jg ^^g ^^iQ state of our affairs abroad, in this 

union con- 
eluded. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 273 

glorious and ever-memorable year. At home, an- »706. 



other matter of great consequence was put in a good 
and promising method : the commissioners of both 
kingdoms sat close in a treaty, till about the middle 
of July ; in conclusion, they prepared a complete 
scheme of an entire union of both nations " : some 
particulars being only referred, to be settled by 
their parliaments respectively. When every thing 
was agreed to, they presented one copy of the treaty 
to the queen, and each side had a copy, to be prer 
sented to their respective parliament, all the three 
copies being signed by the commissioners of both 
kingdoms : it was resolved to lay the matter, first 
before the parliament . of Scotland, because it was 
apprehended that it would meet with the greatest 
opposition there. 

The union of the two kingdoms was a work, of 
which many had quite despaired, in which number 
I was one ; and those who entertained better hopes, 
thought it must have run out into a long negotiation 
for several years : but beyond all men's expectation, 
it was begun and finished within the compass of 
one. The commissioners, brought up from Scot- 458 
land, for the treaty, were so strangely chosen, (the '^^'^ articles 
far greater number having continued in an opposi- union, 
tion to the government ever since the revolution,) 
that from thence many concluded, that it was not 
sincerely designed by the ministry, when they saw 
such a nomination. This was a piece of the earl of 
Stair's cunning, who did heartily promote the de- 
sign : he then thought, that if such a number of 
those who were looked on as Jacobites, and were 
popular men on that account, among the disaffected 

" There is one in the office of the house of commons. O. 
VOI,. V. T 



274 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1706. there, coiild be so wrought on, as to be engaged in 
the affair, the work would be much the easier, when 
laid before the parliament of Scotland : and in this, 
the event shewed that he took right measures. 
The lord Somers had the chief hand in projecting 
the scheme of the union, into which all the com- 
missioners of the English nation went very easily : 
the advantages that were offered to Scotland, in the 
whole frame of it, were so great and so visible, that 
nothing but the consideration of the safety, that was 
to be procured by it to England, could have brought 
the English to agree to a project, that, in every 
branch of it, was much more favourable to the 
Scotch nation. 

They were to bear less than the fortieth part of 
the public taxes : when four shillings in the pound 
was levied in England, which amounted to two mil- 
lions, Scotland was only to be taxed at 48,000 
pounds, which was eight months' assessment : they 
had been accustomed for some years to pay this, 
and they said it was all that the nation could bear. 
It is held a maxim, that in the framing of a govern- 
ment, a proportion ought to be observed between 
the share in the legislature, and the burden to be 
borne °; yet in return of the fortieth part of the 



" In the first establishment by a great spirit of government 

or renewal ; for variations after- be done with safety. The long 

wards must happen in trading parliament of 1641 formed a 

countries, especially by the in- plan for it in part ; it was sug- 

crease and decrease in the gested to them in one of the 

riches and value of different representations to the parlia- 

places ; and alterations upon ment, (a scheme, very likely, of 

such changes in property may Ireton's,) and Cromwell carried 

be dangerous, and will be end- it into execution : but he lost his 

less. Upon great emergencies parliament by it, and his son Ri- 

and- revolutions, it may perhaps chard returned to the old me- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 



275 



burden, they offered the Scotch near the eleventh '706. 
part of the legislature : for the peers of Scotland 
were to be represented by sixteen peers in the 
house of lords, and the commons, by forty-five mem- 
bers in the house of commons ; and these were to 
be chosen, according to the methods to be settled 
in the parliament of Scotland. And since Scotland 
was to pay customs and excises, on the same foot 
with England, and was to bear a share in paying 
much of the debt England had contracted during 
the war ; 398,000 pounds was to be raised in Eng- 
land, and sent into Scotland, as an equivalent for 
that ; and that was to be applied to the recoining 
the money, that all might be of one denomination 
and standard, and to paying the public debts of 
Scotland, and repaying to their African company 
all their losses with interest ; upon which that com- 



thod of representation for Eng- 
land. What I mean was the tak- 
ing away elections from the 
small decayed boroughs, and 
enlarging the number of repre- 
sentatives for counties and city 
of London : but even this was 
unequally done. It was how- 
ever a constitution I heartily 
wish had been continued. This 
would be the most effectual 
cure of corruption in elections, 
&c. See Willis's Notitia Parlia- 
mentaria for the lists of Crom- 
well's (elected) parliament, and 
observe the names and families 
of the knights of the shires 
for England, and the same also 
in his son's parliament. It is 
a sad mark of courts or times, 
when corruption is deemed ne- 
cessary for government. How 
glorious and popular would a 



prince be who should suppress 
it J every thing would be just 
and great. I had an acquaint- 
ance (whom you remember, I 
believe) that had done some- 
thing for me (I think it was on 
that occasion) which I was 
pleased with, and hinted at 
some gratuity for : but he de- 
sired to be excused, and said, 
" It is a rule with me, sir, to 
" do nothing for money." He 
was (I confess) a very particu- 
lar man ; and his neighbours, 
to whom he did great good in 
the way of a profession without 
any consideration for it, looked 
upon him as half mad, and I, 
as the only true philosopher I 
ever met with ; for which you 
shall call me what you please. 
O. 

T 2 



276 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1706. pany was to be dissolved ; and the overplus of the 
equivalent was to be applied to the encouragement 
459 of manufactures. Trade was to be free all over the 
island, and to the plantations ; private rights were 
to be preserved ; and the judicatories and laws of 
. Scotland were still to be continued : but all was 
put, for the future, under the regulation of the par- 
liament of Great Britain ; the two nations now 
were to be one kingdom, under the same succession 
to the crown, and united in one parliament. There 
was no provision made in this treaty, with relation 
to religion : for in the acts of parliament, in both 
kingdoms, that empowered the queen to name com- 
missioners, there was an express limitation, that 
they should not treat of those matters. 
Debated This was the substance of the articles of the 

long in the 

parliament treaty, which being laid before the parliament of 
Scotlaijd, met with great opposition there p. It was 
visible, that the nobiUty of that kingdom suffered a 
great diminution by it ^ ; for though it was agreed. 



P Amongst lord Somers's of being elected ; the gene- 
papers were several letters from rality were very poor, and had 
the most considerable Scotch been mostly raised by high 
peers ; as Queensbury, Stair, commissioners to serve a turn ; 
Marchmont, &c. by which it and the privilege of not being 
ap()ears how much he was con- arrested was a valuable one to 
suited on every step of this them : besides the being tri- 
great work. H. able by the house of lords only 

•1 In nobody's opinion but was a vast security to the best 

the bishop's : for their voting of them, who were entirely at 

for a representative in the house the mercy of the court before : 

of lords was more than an with a great many other im- 

equivalent for sitting in their munities they had never been 

own parliament ; where they entitled to. For in truth there 

sat with the commons, and had was little distinction between 

only an equal vote with the rest them and the commons but high 

of the company. The chief of titles, that had been liberally 

them thought themselves sure bestowed, and afterwards used 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 277 

that they should enjoy all the other privileges of the 1706. 
peers of England, yet the greatest of them all, 
which was the voting in the house of lords, was 
restrained to sixteen, to be elected by the rest at 
every new parliament ; yet there was a greater ma- 
jority of the nobility, that concurred in voting for 
the union, than in the other states of that kingdom. 
The commissioners from the shires and boroughs 
were almost equally divided, though it was evident 
they were to be the chief gainers by it; among 
these the union was agreed to by a very small ma- 
jority : it was the nobility, that in every vote turned 
the scale for the union : they were severely reflected 
on by those who opposed it ; it was said, many of 
them were bought off, to sell their country and their 
birthright : all those who adhered inflexibly to the 
Jacobite interest opposed every step that was made 
with great vehemence ; for they saw that the union 
struck at the root of all their views and designs for 
a new revolution. Yet these could not have raised or 
maintained so great an opposition as was now made ; 
if the presbyterians had not been possessed with 
a jealousy, that the consequence of this union would 
be the change of church government among them, 
and that they would be swallowed up by the church 
of England. This took such root in many, that no 
assurances that were offered could remove their 
fears : it was infused in them chiefly by the old 
duchess of Hamilton, who had great credit with 
them : and it was suggested, that she and her son 
had particular views, as hoping, that if Scotland 

for a lame leg to beg with, after the union, than it was be- 
which they knew would remain fore. D. 
as good, if not a better plea, 

T 8 



278 



THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 



1706. should continue a separated kingdom, the crown 
might come into their family, they being the next 
in blood after king James's posterity. The infusion 
of such apprehensions had a great effect on the main 
460 body of that party, who could scarce be brought to 
hearken, but never to accept of the offers that were 
made for securing their presbyterian government. 
A great part of the gentry of that kingdom, who 
had been oft in England, and had observed the pro- 
tection that all men had from a house of commons, 
and the security that it procured against partial 
judges and a violent ministry, entered into the de- 
sign with great zeal ^ The opening a free trade. 



*■ This constitutional check 
upon power, by the house of 
commons, is one of the most 
bene6cial advantages the people 
receive by frequent parliaments. 
It has such an effect upon all 
counsels and offices whatsoever, 
that the being barely named 
there for any misfeazance 
creates a terror to every body 
concerned in it. A majority for 
them is not a sufficient security 
for wrong doing; and I have 
known the smallest minority 
there, by the freedom of speech 
only, keep the ablest and bold- 
est ministers in awe. If par- 
liaments sit annually, which 
they may always secure to 
themselves now, if they will, 
and should never depart from, 
it is almost impossible that any 
exorbitancy of power should 
subsist long enough to do much 
mischief. No person can stand 
it, unless supported by violence, 
if the abuse be great and glar- 
ing. He may be acquitted by 
a corrupt majority ; but he is 



undone, notwithstanding that. 
I have known some very good 
men, who have thought, that 
the only cure of corruption in 
parliament would be to have 
them meet but once in two or 
three years, and to have the 
supplies given for that period. 
I admired their zeal, but not 
their wisdom. The remedy 
would be death. The benefit 
I mentioned before would be 
in a great measure lost soon, 
and parliaments themselves in 
some time would be lost too. 
An artful court might easily 
carry it by degrees from three 
years to the seven ; and then 
afterwards to make the assem- 
bling, and giving aids of money 
to the crown, to be matters of 
form only, as it is j)ractised in 
some of the provinces of France ; 
which instance alone is suffi- 
cient to put us upon our guard. 
They were once as free in those 
assemblies as we are ; but the 
appetite of sole power, jvith the 
support of armies, has reduced 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 



279 



not only with England, but with the plantations, 
and the protection of the fleet of England, drew in " 
those who understood these matters, and saw there 
was no other way in view to make the nation rich 
and considerable. Those who had engaged far into 
the design of Darien, and were great losers by it, 
saw now an honourable way to be reimbursed, which 
made them wish well to the union, and promote it. 
But that which advanced the design most effectu- 
ally, and without which it could not have succeeded, 
was, that a considerable number of noblemen and 
gentlemen, who were in no engagements with the 
court, (on the contrary, they had been disobliged, 
and turned out of great posts, and some very lately,) 



1706. 



their real freedom to the sha- 
dow of it only ; and so I fear 
it would be with us, if once we 
let go our hold of yearly meet- 
ings of parliament. But to this 
perhaps it may be said, that in 
Ireland parliaments meet but 
once in two years, and no at- 
tempt has been made to extend 
the interval to a farther period. 
To which this plain answer is 
to be given. That it is not 
worth the while of the crown 
to attempt, or to have it, there 
only ; and if it was attempted 
there, the parliament and na- 
tion here would be alarmed, 
and interpose upon it : but if 
the measure was taken and 
completed in this country, it 
would in a quicker way become 
the fate of that. See antea 
p. 247. O. (This reasoning 
in favour of the annual meet- 
ing of parliament, by the 
speaker, is conclusive, as far as 
concerns, what he calls the li- 



berties of the people, or, as Mr. 
Fox expressed himself, the 
disguised republic ; but fre- 
quent meetings of parliament 
at some stated periods, such as 
the necessities of government, 
arising from the relations of 
this country with others, must 
always command, would be 
sufficient for the preservation 
of real liberty, and the correc- 
tion of abuses, in the opinion at 
least of those who are attach- 
ed to the ancient, efficient, hut 
limited, monarchy of England. 
Yet all this is perhaps mere 
matter of speculation ; for those 
who have been long in posses- 
sion of power will never vo- 
luntarily part with it; and in 
case of violent proceedings, 
which Heaven avert! accordingly 
as either party prevailed, des- 
jwtism, or, for a time, an avow- 
ed republic, would most pro- 
bably be established.) 

T 4 



«80 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
1706. declared for it. These kept themselves very close 



and united, and seemed to have no other interest 
but that of their country, and were for that reason 
called the squadrone : the chief of these were, the 
marquess of Tweedale, the earls of Rothes, Rox- 
burgh, Hadington, and Marchmont; they were in 
great credit, because they had no visible bias on 
their minds ; ill usage had provoked them rather to 
oppose the ministry, than to concur in any thing 
where the chief honour would be carried away by 
others. When they were spoke to by the ministry, 
they answered coldly, and with great reserves ; so it 
was expected they would have concurred in the op- 
position ; and they being between twenty and thirty 
in number, if they had set themselves against the 
union, the design must have miscarried. But they 
continued still silent, till the first division of the 
house obliged them to declare, and then they not 
only joined in it, but promoted it effectually, and 
with zeal : there were great and long debates, ma- 
naged, on the side of the union, by the earls of Sea- 
field and Stair for the ministry, and of the squadrone 
by the earls of Roxburgh and Marchmont ; and 
against it by the dukes of Hamilton and Athol, and 
the marquess of Annandale \ The duke of Athol 
was believed to be in a foreign correspondence, and 
was much set on violent methods : duke Hamilton 
managed the debate with great vehemence, but was 
against all desperate motions : he had much to lose, 
and was resolved not to venture all with those who 
suggested the necessity of running, in the old Scotch 
way, to extremities. The topics, from which the 
461 arguments against the union were drawn, were the 
* See Lockhart's Memoirs. O. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 281 

antiquity and dignity of their kingdom, which was 1706. 
offered to be given up, and sold ; they were depart- 
ing from an independent state, and going to sink 
into a dependence on England ; what conditions so- 
ever might be now speciously offered as a security 
to them, they could not expect that they should be 
adhered to, or religiously maintained in a parlia- 
ment, where sixteen peers and forty-five commoners 
could not hold the balance against above an hun- 
dred peers and five hundred and thirteen commoners. 
Scotland would be no more considered as formerly 
by foreign princes and states : their peers would be 
precarious and elective : they magnified their crown, 
with the other regalia, so much, that since the na- 
tion seemed resolved never to suffer them to be car- 
ried away, it was provided, in a new clause added 
to the articles, that these should stilLremain within 
the kingdom. They insisted most vehemently on 
the danger that the constitution of their church 
must be in, when all should be under the power of 
a British parliament : this was pressed with fury 
by some, who were known to be the most violent 
enemies to presbytery of any in that nation : but it 
was done on design to inflame that body of men by 
those apprehensions, and so to engage them to per- 
sist in their opposition. To allay that heat, after 
the general vote was carried for the union, before 
they entered on the consideration of the particular 
articles, an act was prepared for securing the pres- 
byterian government : by which it was declared to 
be the only government of that church, unalterable 
in all succeeding times, and the maintaining it was 
declared to be a fundamental and essential article 
and condition of the union ; and this act was to be 



282 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1 706. made a part of the act for the union, which, in the 
consequence of that, was to be ratified by another 
act of parliament in England. Thus those who 
were the greatest enemies to presbytery of any in 
the nation, raised the clamour of the danger that 
form of government would be in, if the union went 
on, to such a height, that by their means this act 
was carried, as far as any hunian law could go, for 
their security : for by this they had not only all 
the security that their own parliament could give 
them, but they were to have the faith and authority 
of the parliament of England, it being, in the stipu- 
lation, made an essential condition of the union : 
the carrying this matter so far, was done in hopes 
that the parliament of England would never be 
brought to pass it. This act was passed, and it 
gave an entire satisfaction to those who were dis- 
posed to receive any ; but nothing could satisfy men 
who made use of this only to inflame others. Those 
who opposed the union, finding the majority was 
462 against them, studied to raise a storm without doors, 
to frighten them : a set of addresses against the 
union were sent round all the countries, in which 
those who opposed it had any interest: there came 
up many of these, in the name of counties and bo- 
roughs, and at last, from parishes : this made some 
noise abroad, but was very little considered there, 
when it was known by whose arts and practices 
they were procured. When this appeared to have 
little effect, pains were taken to animate the rabble 
to violent attempts, both at Edinburgh and at Glas- 
gow. Sir Patrick Johnston, lord provost of Edin- 
burgh, had l3een one of the commissioners, and had 
concurred heartily in the design : a great multitude 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 283 

gathered about his house, and were forcing the 1706. 
doors on design, as was believed, to murder him ; 
but guards came and dispersed them. Upon this 
attempt, the privy council set out a proclamation 
against all such riots, and gave orders for quartering 
the guards within the town : but to shew that this 
was not intended to overawe the parliament, the 
whole matter was laid before them, and the proceed- 
ings of the privy council were approved. No other 
violent attempt was made after this, but the body 
of the people shewed so much suUenness, that pro- 
bably, had any person of authority once kindled the 
fire, they seemed to be of such combustible matter, 
that the union might have cast that nation into 
great convulsions. These things made great im- 
pressions on the duke of Queensbury, and on some 
about him : he despaired of succeeding, and he ap- 
prehended his person might be in danger : one 
about him wrote to my lord treasurer, representing 
the ill temper the nation was generally in, and 
moved for an adjournment, that so with the help of 
some time, and good management, those difficulties, 
which seemed then insuperable, might be conquered. 
The lord treasurer told me, his answer was, that a 
delay was, upon the matter, laying the whole design 
aside ; orders were given, both in England and Ire-r 
land, to have troops ready upon call ; and if it was 
necessary, more forces should be ordered from Flan- 
ders : the French were in no condition to send any 
assistance to those who might break out, so that the 
circumstances of the time were favourable ; he de-^ 
sired therefore, that they would go on, and not be 
alarmed at the foolish behaviour of some, who, what- 
ever might be given out in their names, he believed. 



284 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1 706. had more wit than to ruin themselves. Every step 
' that was made, and every vote that was carried, was 

with the same strength, and met with the same op- 
position : both parties giving strict attendance dur- 
ing the whole session, which lasted for three months. 
Many protestations were printed, with every man's 
463 vote : in conclusion, the whole articles of the treaty 
At last were agreed to, with some smaU variations. The 

agreed to. . . 

J 707. earl of Stair, having maintained the debate on the 
last day in which all was concluded, died the next 
night suddenly, his spirits being quite exhausted by 
the length and vehemence of the debate. The act 
passed, and was sent up to London in the beginning 
of February. 

The queen laid it before the two houses : the 
house of commons agreed to it all, without any op- 
position, so soon, that it was thought they interposed 
not delay and consideration enough, suitable to the 
importance of so great a transaction. The debates 
were longer and more solemn in the house of lords : 
the archbishop of Canterbury moved, that a bill 
might be brought in for securing the church of Eng- 
land ; by it, all acts passed in favour of our church 
were declared to be in full force for ever ; and this 
was made a fundamental and essential part of the 
union. Some exceptions were taken to the words 
of the bill, as not so strong as the act passed in 
Scotland seemed to be, since the government of it 
was not declared to be unalterable : but they were 
judged more proper, since, where a supreme legisla- 
ture is once acknowledged, nothing can be unalter- 
able. After this was over, the lords entered upon the 
consideration of the articles, as they were amended 
in Scotland : it was pretended, that here a new con- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. ^5 

stitution was made, the consequence of which, they 1707. 
said, was the altering all the laws of England. All 
the judges were of opinion, that there was no weight 
in this : great exceptions were taken to the small 
proportion Scotland was rated at in the laying on 
of taxes ; and their election of peers to every new 
parliament was said to be contrary to the nature of 
peerage. To all the objections that were offered, this 
general answer was made, that so great a thing as 
the uniting the whole island into one government 
could not be compassed but with some inconveni- 
ences : but if the advantage of safety and union was 
greater than those inconveniences, then a lesser evil 
must be submitted to. An elective peer was indeed 
a great prejudice to the peers of Scotland, but since 
they had submitted to it, there, was no just occasion 
given to the peers of England to complain of it. But 
the debate held longest upon the matters relating to 
the government of the church : it was said, here was 
a real danger the church ran into, when so many 
votes of persons tied to presbytery were admitted to 
a share in the legislature. All the rigour with which 
the episcopal clergy had been treated in Scotland 
was set forth, to shew with how implacable a temper 
they were set against the church of England ; yet, 
in return to all that, it was now demanded, from 
the men of this church, to enact, that the Scotch 464< 
form should continue unalterable, and to admit those 
to vote among us who were such declared enemies to 
our constitution. Here was a plausible subject for po- 
pular eloquence, and a great deal of it was brought 
out upon this occasion by Hooper, Beveridge, and 
some other bishops, and by the earls of Rochester 
and Nottingham. But to all this it was answered. 



286 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1707. that the chief dangers the church was in were from 
France and from popery : so that whatsoever se- 
cured us from these, delivered us from our justest 
fears. Scotland lay on the weakest side of England, 
where it could not be defended but by an army; the 
coaleries on the Tine lay exposed for several miles, 
and could not be preserved but at a great charge, and 
with a great force : if a war should fall out between 
the two nations, and if Scotland should be conquered, 
yet, even in that case, it must be united to England, 
or kept under by an army. The danger of keeping 
up a standing force in the hands of any prince, and to 
be modelled by him, (who might engage the Scotch 
to join with that army, and turn upon England,) was 
visible ; and any union, after such a conquest, would 
look like a force, and so could not be lasting; 
whereas aU was now voluntary. As for church mat- 
ters, there had been such violence used by aU sides 
in their turns, that none of them could reproach the 
others much, without having it returned upon them 
too justly. A softer management would lay those 
heats, and bring men to a better temper : the can- 
tons of Switzerland, though very zealous in their 
different religions, yet were united in one general 
body : the diet of Grermany was composed of men of 
three different religions ; so that several constitu- 
tions of churches might be put under one legisla- 
ture : and if there was a danger of either side, it 
was much more likely that 513 would be too hard 
for 45, than that 45 would master 513, especially 
when the crown was on their side ; and there were 
twenty-six bishops in the house of lords to outweigh 
the sixteen votes from Scotland. It was indeed said, 
that all in England were not zealous for the church; 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 287 

to which it was answered, that by the same reason 1707. 
it might be concluded, that all those of Scotland 
were not zealous for their way, especiaUy when the 
favour of the court lay in the English scale. The 
matter was argued for the union by the bishops of 
Oxford, Norwich ^ and my self, by the lord trea- 
surer, the earls of Sunderland and Wharton, and the 
lords Townshend and Halifax, but above all by the 
lord Somers ". Every division of the house was 
made with so great an inequality, that they were 
but twenty against fifty that were for the union. 
When all was agreed to in both houses, a bill was 
ordered to be brought in to enact it; which was 465 
prepared by Harcourt with so particular a contriv- 
ance, that it cut off all debates. The preamble was 
a recital of the articles as they were passed in Scot- 
land, together with the acts made in both parlia- 
ments for the security of their several churches; and 
in conclusion, there came one enacting clause, ratify- 
ing all. This put those upon great difficulties, who 
had resolved to object to several articles, and to in- 
sist on demanding some alterations in them : for 
they could not come at any debate about them; they 
could not object to the recital, it being merely mat- 
ter of fact; and they had not strength enough to 
oppose the general enacting clause, nor was it easy 
to com^ at particulars, arid to offer provisos relating 

* (Talbot and Moore.) whole course of the transac- 
" It was one of that great tion. Amongst the burnt pa- 
man's favourite points : there pers (by thejire in Mr. C. Yorke's 
were many letters to him from rooms) were many bundles of 
the friends of the union in letters from men of the first 
Scotland amongst his manu- eminence in Scotland — March- 
script papers, by which it ap- mont, Stair, Queensbury, &c. — 
^ieared how much his advice about the union. H. (Compare 
was relied upon through the a note by the speaker at p. 62 2.) 



288 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1707. to them. The matter was carried on with such zeal, 
that it passed through the house of commons, before 
those who intended to oppose it had recovered them- 
selves out of the surprise, under which the form it 
was drawn in had put them. It did not stick long 
in the house of lords, for all the articles had been 
copiously debated there for several days before the 
bill was sent up to them : and thus this great de- 
sign, so long wished and laboured for in vain, was 
begun, and happily ended, within the compass of 
nine months ^. The union was to commence on the 
first of May, and till that time the two kingdoms 
were still distinct, and their two parliaments con- 
tinued still to sit. 
The equi- In Scotlaud they proceeded to dispose of the sum 

Talent di»- . 

posed of. provided to be the equivalent: in this great par- 
tialities appeared, which were much complained of, 
but there was not strength to oppose them. The 
ministry, and those who depended on them, moved 
for very extravagant allowances to those who had 
been employed in this last and in the former treaty ; 
and they made large allotments of some public 
debts that were complained of as unreasonable and 
unjust, by which a great part of the sum was di- 
verted from answering the end for which it was 
given. This was much opposed by the squadrone ; 
but as the ministers promoted it, and those who 
were to get by it made all the interest they could to 
obtain it, (some few of them only excepted, who, as 
became generous patriots, shewed more regard to 
the public than to their private ends ;) so those who 

* Whilst the royal assent was Scotch Jacobite account of the 
given to the bill, the guns at union, see Lockhart's Memoirs. 
the Tower were fired. For the O. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 289 

had opposed the union were not ill pleased to see 1707. 
this sum so misapplied ; hoping by that means, that 
the aversion, which they endeavoured to infuse into 
the nation against the union, would be much in- 
creased; therefore they let every thing go as the 
ministers projjosed, to the great grief of those who 
wished well to the public. It was resolved, that the 
parliament of England should sit out its period, 
which, by the law for triennial parliaments, ran yet 466 
a year further ; it was thought necessary to have 
another session continued of the same men who had 
made this union, since they would more readily con- 
solidate and strengthen their own work. Upon this 
ground it seemed most proper, that the members to 
represent Scotland should be named by the parlia- 
ment there : those who had opposed the union car- 
ried their aversion to the squadrone so far, that they 
concurred with the ministry in a nomination, in 
which very few of them were included, not above 
three of the peers and fifteen commoners ; so that 
great and just exceptions lay against many who 
were nominated to represent that kingdom : all this 
was very acceptable to those who had opposed the 
union. The customs of Scotland were then in a 
farm, and the farmers were the creatures of the 
ministry, some of whom, as was believed, were 
sharers with them : it was visible, that since there 
was to be a free trade opened between Scotland and 
England after the first of May, and since the duties 
in Scotland, laid on trade, were much lower than in 
England, that there would be a great importation 
into Scotland, on the prospect of the advantage that 
might be made by sending it into England. Upon 
such an emergency it was reasonable to break the 
VOL. V. U 



290 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1707- farm, as had been ordinarily done upon less reason, 
and to take the customs into a new management, 
that so the gain to be made in the interval might 
go to the public, and not be left in private hands: 
but the lease was continued in favour of the farmers. 
They were men of no interest of their own, so it 
was not doubted, but that there was a secret prac- 
tice in the case. Upon the view of the gain to be 
made by such an importation, it was understood, 
that orders were sent to Holland, and other places, 
to buy up wine, brandy, and other merchandise : 
and another notorious fraud was designed by some 
in England, who, because of the great drawback that 
was allowed for tobacco and other plantation com- 
modities, when exported, were sending great quan- 
tities to Scotland, on design to bring them back 
after the first of May, that so they might seU them 
free of that duty: so a bill was offered to the house 
of commons for preventing this. While this was 
going on, Harley proposed the joining another clause, 
to this effect ; that all goods that were carried to 
Scotland after the first of February, (unless it were 
by the natural-born subjects of that kingdom, inha- 
biting in it,) in case they were imported into Eng- 
land after the first of May, should be liable to the 
English duties ; and of this the proof was to lie on 
the importer. This angered all the Scotch, who 
raised a high clamour upon it, and said the union 
467 was broke by it ; and that such a proceeding would 
have very ill effects in Scotland : but the house of 
commons were so alarmed with the news of a vast 
importation, which was aggravated far beyond the 
truth, and by which they concluded the trade of 
England would greatly suffer, at least for a year or 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 291 

two, that they passed the bill, and sent it to the 1707. 
lords, where it was rejected ; for it appeared plainly " 
to them, that this was an infraction of some of the 
articles of the treaty. It was suggested, that a recess 
for some days was necessary, that so the commons 
might have an opportunity to prepare a bill, pro- 
hibiting all goods from being brought to England 
that had been sent out only in order that the mer- 
chants might have the drawback allowed. With this 
view the parliament was prorogued for a few days ; 
but at their next meeting the commons were more 
inflamed than before ; so they prepared a new bill, to 
the same effect, only in some clauses it was more 
severe than the former had been : but the lords did 
not agree to it, and so it felU. 

Thus far I have carried on the recital 'of this 
great transaction, rather in such a general view as 
may transmit it right to posterity, than in so copious 
a narration as an affair of such consequence might 
seem to deserve : it is very probable, that a particu- 
lar journal of the debates in the parliament of Scot- 
land, which were long and fierce, may at some time 
or other be made public : but I hope this may suf- 
fice for a history. I cannot, upon such a signal occa- 
sion, restrain myself from making some reflections Reflections 
on the directions of Providence in this matter. It is union! 
certain, the design on Darien, the great charge it 
put the nation to, and the total miscarriage of that 
project, made the trading part of that kingdom see 
the impossibility of undertaking any great design in 
trade ; and that made them the more readily concur 
in carrying on the union. The wiser men of that 
nation had observed long, that Scotland lay at the 
y See antea p. 465. O. 
U2 



298 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1707. mercy of the ministry, and that every new set of 
ministers made use of their power to enrich them- 
selves and their creatures at the cost of the public ; 
that the judges being made by them, were in such 
a dependence, that since there are no juries allowed 
in Scotland in civil matters, the whole property of 
the kingdom was in their hands, and by their means 
in the hands of the ministers : they had also ob- 
served how ineffectual it had been to complain of 
them at court : it put those who ventured on it to a 
vast charge, to no other purpose but to expose them 
the more to the fury of the ministry. The poor no- 
blemen and the poor boroughs made a great majority 
in their parliament, and were easily to be purchased 
468 by the court : so they saw no hopes of a remedy to 
such a mischief but by an incorporating union with 
England. These thoughts were much quickened by 
the prospect of recovering what they had lost in 
that ill-concerted undertaking of Darien ; and this 
was so universal and so operative, that the design on 
Darien, which the Jacobites had set on foot and pro- 
secuted with so much fury, and with bad intentions, 
did now engage many to promote the union, who, 
without that consideration, would have been at least 
neutral, if not backward in it. The court was en- 
gaged to promote the union on account of the act 
of security, passed in the year 1704, which was im- 
puted chiefly to the lord treasurer: threatenings 
of impeaching him for advising it had been often let 
fall, and upon that his enemies had set their chief 
hopes of pulling him down ; for though no proof 
could be brought of his counsel in it, yet it was not 
doubted but that his advice had determined the 
queen to pass it. An impeachment was a word of 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 293 

an odious sound, which would engage a party against 1707. 
him, and disorder a session of parliament ; and the 
least ill effect it might have, would be to oblige him 
to withdraw fi'om business, which was chiefly aimed 
at. The queen was very sensible, that his managing 
the great trust he was in, in the manner he did, 
made all the rest of her government both safe and 
easy to her; so she spared no pains to bring this 
about, and it was believed she was at no small cost 
to compass it; for those of Scotland had learned 
from England to set a price on their votes, and they 
expected to be well paid for them : the lord trea- 
surer did also bestir himself in this matter with an 
activity and zeal that seemed not to be in his na- 
ture : and indeed all the application with which the 
court set on this affair, was necessaiy to master the 
opposition and difficulties that sprang up in the pro- 
gress of it'. That which completed aU was the 
low state to which the affairs of France were re- 
duced : they could neither spare men nor money to 
support their party, which otherwise they would 
undoubtedly have done : they had, in imitation of 
the exchequer notes here in England, given out 
mint bills to a great value ; some said two hundred 
millions of livres: these were ordered to be taken 

' (Dr. Swift says, " I re- " management of the earl of 

" member discoursing above six " Godolphin" (the passing the 

" years ago with the most con- Scotch act of security is meant,) 

" siderable person of the adverse "was the only cause of the 

" party," (the name of lord So- " union." Swift's Public Spirit 

mers is properly added in the of the fVhigs, p. 30. See also 

margin,) " and a great promoter the 29th number of the Ex- 

" of the union ; he frankly own- aminer, and lord Dartmouth's 

" ed to me, that this necessity note above at page 403.) 
" brought upon us by the wrong 

u 3 



«94 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1707. by the subjects in all payments, as money to the full 
value, but were not to be received in payments of 
the king's taxes : this put them under a great dis- 
credit, and the fund created for repaying them not 
being thought a good one, they had sunk seventy 
per cent. This created an unexpressible disorder 
in all payments, and in the whole commerce of 
France: all the methods that were proposed for 
raising their credit had proved ineffectual ; for they 
469 remained, after all, at the discount of fifty-eight per 
cent. A court, in this distress, was not in a condi- 
tion to spare much, to support such an inconsider- 
able interest as they esteemed their party in Scot- 
land: so they had not the assistance which they 
promised themselves from thence. The conjuncture 
of all these things meeting together, which brought 
this great work to a happy conclusion, was so re- 
markable, that I hope my laying it all in one view 
will be thought no impertinent digression. 

This was the chief business of the session of par- 
liament : and it was brought about here in England, 
both sooner and with less difficulty than was ex- 
The sup- pected. The gi'ant of the supplies went on quicker 
granted, than was usual. There was only one particular to 
which great objections were made : upon the great 
and early success of the former campaign, it was 
thought necessary to foUow that, with other pro- 
jects, that drew on a great expense, beyond what 
had been estimated, and laid before the parliament. 
An embarkation, first designed against France, and 
afterwards sent to Portugal ; and the extraordinary 
supplies that the duke of Savoy's affairs called for, 
amounted to about 800,000/. more than had been 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 295 

provided for by parliament. Some complained of 1707. 
this, and said, that if a ministry could thus run the 
nation into a great charge, and expect that the par- 
liament must pay the reckoning, this might have 
very ill consequences. But to this it was answered, 
that a ministry deserved public thanks, that had 
followed our advantages with such vigour: if any 
thing was raised without necessity, or ill applied, 
under the pretence of serving the public, it was very 
reasonable to inquire into it, and to let it fall heavy 
on those who were in fault : but if no other excep- 
tion lay to it, than because the matter could not be 
foreseen, nor communicated to the parliament before 
those accidents happened that occasioned the ex- 
pense, it was a very unjust discouragement, if minis- 
ters were to be quarreled with for their care and 
zeal : so it was carried by a great majority to dis- 
charge this debt '^. All the other supplies, and among 
them the equivalent for Scotland, were given, and 
lodged on good funds : so that no session of parlia- 
ment had ever raised so much, and secured it so 
well, as this had done. The session came to a happy 
conclusion, and the parliament to an end. But the 
queen, by virtue of a clause in the act of union, re- 
vived it by proclamation. Upon this, many of the 
Scotch lords came up, and were very well received ; 
two of them, Montrose and Roxburgh, were made 
dukes in Scotland ; some of them were made privy 



^ A dangerous practice, and that might authorize it : but 

to be well watched and ex- such a power should be very 

amined into by the house of cautiously given. In either case 

commons ; but in this particu- it is, in eftect, allowing minis- 

lar instance, and some others, ters to raise money without 

there were some general words consent of parliament, O. 



in the clauses of appropriation, 



u 4 



«96 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1707. counsellors in England ; and a commission for a new 
4-.Q council was sent to Scotland : there appeai'cd soon 
two different parties among the Scotch; some of 
them moved, that there should neither be a distinct 
government, nor a privy council continued there, 
but that all should be brought under one adminis- 
tration, as the several counties in England were ; 
they said, the sooner all were consolidated, in all re- 
spects, into one body, the possibility of separating 
and disuniting them would be the sooner extin- 
guished ; this was pressed with the most earnestness 
by those who were weary of the present ministry, 
and longed to see their power at an end : but the 
ministry, who had a mind to keep up their autho- 
rity, said, there was a necessity of preserving a shew 
of greatness, and a form of government in those 
parts, both for subduing the Jacobites, and that the 
nation might not be disgusted by too sudden an al- 
teration of outward ap])earances. The court re- 
solved to maintain the ministry there, till the next 
session of parliament, in which new measures might 
be taken. Thus our affau's were happily settled at 
home, and the first of May was celebrated with a 
decent solemnity ; for then the union took place. 
Proceedings Thc couvocation sat this winter; and the same 

in coDTOca- 1 1 i o 

tioD. temper that had lor some years possessed the lower 
-house did still prevail among them: when the debates 
concerning the union were before the parliament, 
some in the lower house spoke veiy tragically on that 
subject : a committee was named, to consider of the 
present danger of the church, though but a little while 
Ijefore they had concurred with the bishops, in a very 
respectful address to the queen, in which it was ac- 
knowledged, that the church was, under her majesty's 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 297 

administration, in a safe and flourishing condition : 1707. 
this was carried, by the private management of some 
aspiring men amongst them, who hoped by a piece of 
skill to shew what they could do, that it might re- 
commend them to farther preferment; they were 
much cried out on, as betrayers of their party, for car- 
rying that address ; so to recover their credit, and be- 
cause their hopes from the court were not so promis- 
ing, they resolved now to act another part. It was 
given out, that they intended to make an applica- 
tion to the house of commons against the union : to 
prevent that, the queen wrote to the archbishop, or- 
dering him to prorogue them for three weeks : by 
this means that design was defeated ; for before the 
end of the three weeks, the union had passed both 
houses. But, when one factious design failed, they 
found out another ; they ordered a representation to 
be made to the bishops, which set forth, that ever 
since the submission of the clergy in Henry the 
Vlllth's time, which was for a course of one hun- 
dred and seventy-three years, no such prorogation had 
ever been ordered, during the sitting of parliament : 
and they besought the bishops, that, from the con- 471 
scientious regard, which they doubted not they had 
for the welfare of this church, they would use their 
utmost endeavours that they might still enjoy those 
usages of which they were possessed, and which 
they had never misemployed : with this, they brought 
up a schedule, containing, as they said, all the dates 
of the prorogations, both of parliament and convoca- 
tion, thereby to make good their assertion : and to 
cover this seeming complaint of the queen's pro- 
ceedings, they passed a vote, that they did not in- 
tend to enter into any debate concerning the va- 
lidity of the late prorogation, to which they had 



298 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1707. humbly submitted. It was found to be a strange 
and a bold assertion, that this prorogation was with- 
out a precedent : their charge, in the preserving 
their usages, on the consciences of the bishops, in- 
sinuated that this was a breach made on them : the 
bishops saw this was plainly an attempt on the 
queen's supremacy; so they ordered it to be laid 
before her majesty : and they ordered also a search 
to be made into the records. For though it was an 
undoubted maxim, that nothing but a positive law 
tould limit the prerogative, which a non-usage could 
not do; yet they ordered the schedule, offered by 
the lower house, to be compared with the records : 
they found that seven or eight prorogations had 
been ordered, during the sitting of parliament, and 
there were about thirty or forty more, by which it 
appeared, that the convocation sat sometimes before, 
and sometimes after a session of parliament, and sat 
sometimes even when the parliament was dissolved. 
Upon all this, the queen wrote another more severe 
letter to the archbishop, complaining of the clergy, 
for not only continuing their illegal practices, but 
reflecting on her late order, as without a precedent, 
and contrary to ancient usages; which, as it was 
untrue in fact, so it was an invasion of her supre- 
macy: she had shewed much tenderness to the 
clergy, but if any thing of this nature should be 
attempted for the future, she would use means war- 
ranted by law for punishing offenders, how unwill- 
ing soever she might be to proceed to such mea- 
sures. When the day came, on which this was to 
be communicated to the lower house, the prolocutor ^ 
had gone out of town, without so much as asking 

^ (Dean Stanhoj^e.) 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 299 

the archbishop's leave, so a very small number of 1707. 



the clergy appeared : upon this signal contempt, the 
archbishop pronounced him contumacious, and re- 
ferred the further censuring him to the day he set for 
their next meeting : the prolocutor's party pressed 
him to stand it out, and to make no submission ; 
but he had sounder advice given him, by some who 
understood the law better ; so he made a full sub- 
mission, with which the archbishop was satisfied : 472 
yet a party continued with great impudence to as- 
sert, that their schedule was true, and that the 
queen was misinformed, though the lord chancellor, 
made now a peer of England, and the lord chief 
justice Holt, had, upon perusal of the records, af- 
firmed to the queen, that their assertion was false, 
and that there were many precedents for such pro- 
rogations. 

And now I must look abroad into foreisrn affairs. Affair* in 

Italy. 

The French were losing place after place in Lom- 
bardy : Cremona, Mantua, and the citadel of Milan, 
were the only places that were left in their hands : 
it was not possible to maintain these long, without 
a greater force, nor was it easy to convey that to 
them. On the other hand, the reducing those for- 
tresses was like to be a work of time, which would 
fatigue the troops, and would bring a gi*eat charge 
with it ; so a capitulation was proposed for deliver- 
ing up those places, and for allowing the French 
troops a free march to Dauphiny. As soon as this 
was sent to Vienna, it was agreed to, without com- 
municating it to the allies, which gave just cause of 
offence : it was said in excuse, that every general 
had a power to agree to a capitulation ; so the em- 
j)eror, in this case, was not bound to stay for the 



800 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
1707. consent of the allies. This was true, if the capitu- 



lation had been for one single place, but this was of 
the nature of a treaty, being of a greater extent : by 
this, the French saved ten or twelve thousand men, 
who must all have been, in a little time, made pri- 
soners of war : they were veteran troops, and were 
sent into Spain, of which we quickly felt the ill ef- 
fects. 

The design was formed, for the following cam- 
paign, after this manner : the duke of Savoy under- 
took to march an army into France, and to act there 
as should be concerted by the allies : some proposed 
the marching through Dauphiny to the river of the 
Rhone, and so up to Lyons : but an attempt upon 
Toulon was thought the most important thing that 
could be designed; so that was settled on. Mare- 
schal Tesse was sent to secure the passes, and to 
cover France on that side. This winter the prince 
of Baden died, little esteemed, and little lamented ; 
the marquis of Bareith had the command of the 
army on the Upper Rhine, from whom less was ex- 
pected ; he was so ill supported, that he could do no- 
thing. The court of Vienna was so set on the reduc- 
tion of Hungary, that thjey thought of nothing else : 
the Hungarians were very numerous, but they wanted 
both officers and discipline : Ragotzi had possessed 
himself of almost all Transilvania, and the Hunga- 
rians were so alienated from the emperor, that they 
were consulting about choosing a new king. 
473 The eyes of aU Europe were upon the king of 
And in Po- gwcdcn, who, haviug possessed himself of Saxony, 
made king Augustus soon feel that now that his 
hereditary dominions were in his enemy's hands, he 
could no longer maintain the war in Poland : so a 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 301 

treaty was set on foot with such secrecy, that it ' 707' 
was concluded before it was apprehended to be in 
agitation. King Augustus was only waiting for a 
fit opportunity, to disengage himself from his Po- 
landers, and from the Muscovites ; an incident hap- 
pened that had almost imbroiled all again : the Po- 
landers and Muscovites attacked a body of Swedes, 
at a great disadvantage, being much superior to 
them in number : so the Swedes were almost cut to 
pieces. King Augustus had no share in this, and 
did all that he durst venture on, to avoid it : he paid 
dear for it, hard conditions were put on him, to 
which the necessity of his affairs forced him to sub- 
mit. He made all the haste he safely could, to get 
out of Poland : he resigned back their crown to 
them, and was contented with the empty name of 
king, though that seemed rather to be a reproach, 
than any accession of honour to his electoral dignity; 
he thought otherwise, and stipulated that it should 
be continued to him : he was at mercy, for he had 
neither forces nor treasure. It was thought the 
king of Sweden treated him with too much rigour, 
when he had so entirely mastered him : the other 
was as little pitied as he deserved to be, for by 
many wrong practices he had drawn all his misfor- 
tunes on himself. The king of Sweden being in the 
heart of Germany, in so formidable a posture, gave 
great apprehensions to the allies. The French made 
strong applications to him, but the courts of Prussia 
and Hanover were in such a concert with that king, 
that they gave the rest of the allies great assurances, 
that he would do nothing to disturb the peace of 
the empire, nor to weaken the alliance : the court 
of France pressed him to offer his mediation for a 



302 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
1 707. general peace ; all the answer he gave was, that if 



" the allies made the like application to him, he would 
interpose, and do all good offices in a treaty. So he 
refused to enter into any separate measures with 
France ; yet the court of Vienna was under a great 
apprehension of his seeking matter for a quarrel 
with them. The czar at this time oveiTun Po- 
land, so that king Stanislaus was forced to fly into 
Saxony, to the king of Sweden, for protection : both 
he and his queen stayed there all the winter, and a 
great part of this summer. The czar pressed the 
Polanders to proceed to the election of another king, 
but could not cany them to that ; so it was gene- 
rally believed, that they were resolved to come to 
a treaty with king Stanislaus, and to settle the quiet 
474 of that kingdom, exhausted by a long and destruc- 
tive war. The czar tried, if it were possible, to 
come to a peace with the king of Sweden, and made 
great offers in order to it ; but that king was impla- 
cable, and seemed resolved to pull him down, as he 
Thecha- had donc king Augustus. That king's designs were 
the king of impenetrable ; he advised with few, and kept him- 
** *°' self on great reserves with all foreign ministers, 
whom he would not suffer to come near him, except 
when they had a particular message to deliver. 
Our court was advised, by the elector of Hanover, 
to send the duke of Marlborough to him : it was 
thought this would please him much, if it had no 
other effect ; so he went thither, but could gain no 
ground on him. He affected a neglect of his per- 
son, both in clothes, lodging, and diet ; all was sim- 
ple, even to meanness ; nay, he did not so much as 
allow a decent cleanliness : he appeared to have a 
real sense of religion, and a zeal for it, but it was 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 303 

not much enlightened : he seemed to have no notion 1 707. 
of public liberty, but thought princes ought to keep 
their promises religiously, and to observe their trea- 
ties punctually : he rendered himself very acceptable 
to his army, by coming so near their way of living, 
and by his readiness to expose his own person, and 
to reward services done him : he had little tender- 
ness in his nature, and was a fierce enemy, too 
rough, and too savage : he looked on foreign minis- 
ters as spies by their character, and treated them 
accordingly ; and he used his own ministers rather 
as instruments to execute his orders, than as coun- 
sellors. 

The court of France finding they could not pre-Proposi- 
vail on him, made a public application to the pope, peace. 
for his mediating a peace : they offered the domi- 
nions in Italy to king Charles, to the States a bar- 
rier in the Netherlands, and a compensation to the 
duke of Savoy, for the waste made in his country ; 
provided, that on those conditions king Philip 
should keep Spain and the West Indies. It was 
thought the court of Vienna wished this project 
might be entertained, but the other allies were so 
disgusted at it, that they made no steps toward it "^ : 

•^ (Somerville, in his History " it is perfectly consistent with 

of Queen Anne, makes the fol- " that belief, to admit that he 

lowing impartial reflections on " wished to sow dissensions 

the overtures of the French for " among the allied powers, as 

peace. " The various and per- " the most effectual means for 

" severing applications of the " procuring what he so eagerly 

" French king for peace, as " desired, or for strengthening 

" well as the preliminaries " his own hands, if he foiled 

" which he suggested to the " in that object. His applica- 

" pope when soliciting his me- " tion, first to the Dutch, and 

" diation, are certainly strong " afterwards to them and the 

" arguments for inducing the " English, exclusive of the em- 

** belief of his sincerity ; while " peror and the duke of Savoy, 



304 



THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 



1707. the court of Vienna did what they could, to con- 
found the designs of this can>paign ; for they ordered 
a detachment of 12,000 men to march from the 
army in Lombardy to the kingdom of Naples. The 
court of England, the States, and the duke of Savoy, 
studied to divert this, with the warmest instances 
possible, but in vain : though it was represented to 
that court, that if the duke of Savoy could enter into 
Provence, with a great army, that would cut off all 
supplies and communication with France: so that 
success in this great design would make Naples and 
Sicily fall into their hands of course ; but the impe- 
475 rial court was inflexible: they pretended, they had 
given their party in Naples such assurances of an 
invasion, that if they failed in it, they exposed them 



^' and lastly to the pope, as the 
" common father of the church, 
" might very naturally infuse 
" into the breast of the allies 
" a suspicion of artifice and ill 
"designs; but the admission 
" of this will not be considered, 
" by the impartial inquirer, as 
" a sufficient ground for the 
" exculpation of those minis- 
" ters, who, abruptly and pe- 
" reraptorily, rejected propo- 
" sals, .which might have been 
" improved for the accomplish- 
" ment of an equitable and 
" lasting pacification. The 
" English ministers discovered 
" an anxiety to conceal every 
" thing relative to this business 
" from the notice and investi- 
" gation of the public : they 
" would not so much as per- 
** mit the preliminaries offered 
" by Lewis, to enter into any 
" of the newspapers ; which 
" certainly afforded just ground 



" for suspecting, either that 
" they were doubtful of the 
" propriety of their own con- 
" duct, or secretly conscious of 
" acting from other motives, 
" than those which referred, 
" purely, to the interest of the 
" nation. Salmon, vol. xxv. 
" p. 390." Somerville, chap, 
xi. p. 234. Macpherson ob- 
serves, " that the whigs, who 
" were now possessed of the 
" whole power of the govern- 
" ment in England, insulted 
" common sense in the reason 
" which they gave for rejecting 
" the proposed peace. They 
" said, the terms offered by 
" France were too good to be 
" the foundation of a lasting 
" tranquillity, (Hanov. papers 
" 1707,) and therefore, that 
" they ought not to be admit- 
" ted." Hkt. of Great Britain, 
vol. ii. p. 363.) 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 305 

all to be destroyed, and thereby they might provoke 1707. 
the whole country to become theu* most inveterate 
enemies. Thus they took up a resolution, without 
consulting their allies, and then pretended that it 
was fixed, and could not be altered. 

The campaign was opened very fatally in Spain : The battle 
king Charles pretended, there was an army coming za. 
into Catalonia from RoussiUon ; and that it was ne- 
cessary for him to march into 'that country : the di- 
viding a force, when the whole together was not 
equal to the enemy's, has often proved fatal : he 
ought to have made his army as strong as possibly 
he could, and to have marched with it to Madrid ; 
for the rest of Spain would have fallen into his 
hands, upon the success of that expedition. But he 
persisted in his first resolution, and marched away 
with a part of the army, leaving about 16,000 men 
under the earl of Galway's command. They had 
eaten up all their stores in Valentia, and could sub- 
sist no longer there ; so they were forced to break 
into Castile : the duke of Berwick cam6 against 
them with an army not much superior to theirs : 
but the court of France had sent the duke of Or- 
leans into Spain, with some of the best troops that 
they had brought from Italy ; and these joined the 
duke of Berwick a day before the two armies en- 
gaged. Some deserters came over,, and brought the 
earl of Galway the news of the conjunction ; but 
they were not believed, and were looked on as spies, 
sent to frighten them. A council of war had re- 
solved to venture on a battle, which the state of 
their affairs seemed to make necessary : they could 
not subsist where they were, nor be subsisted if they 
retired back into Valentia; so on the 14th of April, 

VOL. V. X 



306 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
1707- the two armies engaged in the plain of Almanza. 



The English and Dutch beat the enemy, and broke 
through twice ; but the Portugueze gave way : 
upon that the enemy, who were almost double in 
number, both horse and foot, flanked them, and a 
total rout followed, in which about 10,000 were 
killed or taken prisoners. The earl of Galway was 
twice wounded ; once so near the eye, that for some 
time it put him out of a capacity of giving orders : 
but at last he, with some other officers, made the 
' best retreat they could. Our fleet came happily on 
that coast on the day that the battle was fought ; 
so he was supplied from thence, and he put gan'i- 
sons into Denia and Alicant, and retired to the 
Ebro, with about 3000 horse, and almost as many 
foot. The duke of Orleans pursued the victory; 
Valentia submitted, and so did Saragoza; so that the 
principality of Catalonia was all that remained in 
476 king Charles's obedience. The king of Portugal 
died this winter, but that made no great change in 
affairs there : the young king agreed to every thing 
that was proposed to him by the allies ; yet the Por- 
tugueze were under a great consternation, their best 
troops being either cut off, or at that time in Cata- 
lonia. 

Marshal Villars was sent to command in Alsace: 
he understood that the lines of Stolhoven were ill 
kept, and weakly manned ; so he passed the Rhine, 
and without any loss, and very little opposition, he 
broke through, and seized on the artillery, and on such 
magazines as were laid in there. Upon this shameful 
disgrace, the Germans retired to Hailbron : the cir- 
cle of Suabia was now open, and put under contri- 
bution ; and Villars designed to penetrate as far as 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 307 

to Bavaria. The blame of this miscarriage was laid 1707. 
chiefly on the imperial court, who neither sent their 
quota thither, nor took care to settle a proper gene- 
ral for the defence of the empire. In Flanders the 
French army, commanded by the duke of Vendome, 
came and took post at Gemblours, in a safe camp ; 
the duke of Marlborough lay at Meldert in a more 
open one: both armies were about 100,000 strong; 
])ut the French were rather superior to that number. 
In the month of June, the design upon Toulon 
began to appear : the queen and the States sent a 
strong fleet thither, commanded by sir Cloudesly 
Shovel ; who, from mean beginnings, had risen up 
to the supreme command; and had given many 
proofs of gi'eat courage, conduct, and zeal, in the 
whole course of his life. Prince Eugene had the 
command of the imperial army, that was to second 
the duke of Savoy in this undertaking, upon the 
success of which the final conclusion of the war de- 
pended. The army was not so strong as it was 
intended it should have been : the detachment of 
1 2,000 men was ordered to march to Naples ; and 
no applications could prevail at the court of Vienna, 
to obtain a delay in that e^fpedition : there were also 
eight or ten thousand recruits, that were promised 
to be sent to reinforce prince Eugene, which were 
stopped in Germany ; for the emperor was under 
such apprehensions of a rupture with Sweden, that 
he pretended it was absolutely necessary, for his 
own safety, to keep a good force at home. Prince 
Eugene had also orders, not to expose his troops too 
much ; by this means they were the less serviceable : 
notwithstanding these disappointments, the duke of 
Savoy, after he had for some weeks covered his true 

X 2 



308 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1 707. design, by a feint upon Dauphiny, by which he drew 
most of the French troops to that side ; as soon as 
he heard that the confederate fleet was come upon 
the coast, he made a very quick march through 
477 ways that were thought impracticable, on to the 
river Var, where the French had cast up such 
works, that it was reckoned these must have stop- 
ped his passing the river: and they would have 
done it eflfectually, if some ships had not been sent 
in from the fleet into the mouth of the river, to at- 
tack these where there was no defence ; because no 
attack from that side was apprehended. By this 
means they were forced to abandon their works, 
and so the passage over the river was free : upon 
this, that duke entered Provence, and made all the 
haste he could towards Toulon. The artillery and 
ammunition were on board the fleet, and were to be 
landed near the place, so the march of the army was 
as little encumbered as was possible ; yet it was im- 
possible to advance with much haste in an enemy's 
country, where the provisions were either destroyed 
or carried into fortified places, which, though they 
might have easily been taken, yet no time was to be 
lost in executing the gr^t design ; so this retarded 
the march for some days: yet in conclusion they 
came before the place, and were quickly masters of 
some of the eminences that commanded it. At their 
first coming, they might have possessed themselves 
of another, called St. Anne's hill, if prince Eugene 
had executed the duke of Savoy's orders : he did it 
not, which raised a high discontent ; but he excused 
himself, by shewing the orders he had received, not 
to expose the emperor's troops. Some days were - 
lost by the roughness of the sea, which hindered the 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 309 

ships from landing the artillery and ammunition. 1707. 
In the mean while, the troops of France were or- 
dered to march from all parts to Toulon : the garri- 
son within was very strong ; the forces that were on 
their march to Spain, to prosecute the victory of 
Almanza, were countermanded ; and so great a part 
of Villars's army was called away, that he could not 
make any further progress in Germany. So that a 
great force was, from all hands, marching to raise 
this siege ; and it was declared, in the court of 
France, that the duke of Burgundy would go and 
lead on the army. The duke of Savoy lost no time, 
but continued cannonading the place, while the fleet 
came up to bombard it : they attacked the two forts 
that commanded the entrance into the mole with 
such fury, that they made themselves masters of 
them ; but one of them was afterwards blown up. 
Those within the town were not idle: they sunk 
some ships in the entrance into the mole, and fired 
furiously at the fleet, but did them little harm : they 
beat the duke of Savoy out of one of his most im- 
portant posts, which was long defended by a gallant 
prince of Saxe-Gotha ; who, not being supported in 
time, was cut to pieces. This post was afterwards 
regained, and the fleet continued for some days to 
bombard the place. But in the end, the duke of 478 
Savoy, whose strength had never been above 30,000 
men, seeing so great a force marching towards him, 
who might intercept his passage, and so destroy his 
whole army ; and there being no hope of his carry- 
ing the place, found it necessary to march home in 
time : which he did with so much order and pre- 
caution, that he got back into his own country 
without any loss ; and soon after his return, he sat 

X3 



310 



THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 



1707. 

It failed in 
the execu- 
tiou. 



down before Suza, and took it in a few weeks. Our 
fleet did all the execution they could on the town : 
their bombs set some places on fire, which they be- 
lieved were magazines ; for they continued burning 
for many hours ; in conclusion, they sailed off: they 
left behind them a fleet of six and twenty ships in 
the Mediterranean, and the great ships sailed home- 
wards. Thus this great design, on which the eyes 
of all Europe were set, failed in the execution, 
chiefly by the emperor's means : England and the 
States performed all that was expected of them, nor 
was the duke of Savoy wanting on his part ; though 
many suspected him as backward, and at least cold 
in the undertaking '^. It was not yet perfectly un- 



'^ It has been said, that he 
wa§ bought ofFby the French for 
200,000/. These things are 
verj' apt to be reported, when 
expected good success does not 
happen. O. (•' A remarkable 
" anecdote came out after- 
" wards, which accounted for 
" this extraordinary miscar- 
" riage. The duke of Marlbo- 
" rough, before the opening of 
*' the campaign this year, made 
" the king of Sweden a visit in 
•* Saxony ; and there is no doubt 
" but that by his address he 
" gained so far upon the enter- 
" prising genius of that prince, 
" or rather upon his chief mi- 
" nister, as to divert liim from 
" taking any part with France 
•• against the grand alliance. 
'* However it seems, when the 
" design against Toulon was 
" discovered, the French and 
" Bavarian ministers, who at- 
" tended his Swedish majesty, 
" prevailed upon him^ by the 



influence of count Piper, to 
cause insinuations to be made 
in great secrecy to the duke 
of Savoy, not to persist in 
the siege of Toulon, intimat- 
ing, that if that town was 
taken, he, the king of Swe- 
den, should be obliged to en- 
ter into the hereditary coun- 
tries of the emperor. The 
consideration of the fatal con- 
sequences to the common 
cause, with which such an 
attempt might be attended, 
made his royal highness pre- 
fer the public good to his 
own glory, and was the secret 
reason, Lamberti says, (Me- 
moires, vol. iv. p. 569,) for 
raising the siege of Toulon. 
The same author adds, that 
the public, which remained 
in ignorance for many years, 
may imagine, that this anec- 
dote is pure invention ; but 
that the duke of Savoy himself 
is a voucher for the truth of it, 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 311 

derstood what damage the French sustained: many 1707. 
of their ships were rendered unserviceable, and con- 
tinue to be so still : nor did they set out any fleet 
all the following winter ; though the affairs of king 
Charles in Spain were then so low, that if they 
could have cut off the communication by sea, be- 
tween Italy and Spain, they must soon have been 
masters of all that was left in his hands : so that 
from their fitting out no fleet at Toulon, it was con- 
cluded that they could not do it. When the design 
upon Toulon was broke, more troops were sent into 
Spain : the earl of Galway did, with incredible dili- 
gence and activity, endeavour to repair the loss at 
Almanza, as much as was possible : the supplies and 
stores that he had from our fleet put him in a ca- 
pacity to make a stand ; he formed a new army, and 
put the strong places in the best posture he could ; 
Lerida was the most exposed, and so was the best 
looked to; Tortosa, Tarragona, and Gii'onne, were 
also well fortified, and good garrisons were put in 
them. The attempt on Toulon, as it put a stop 
to all the motions of the French, so it gave him 
time to put the principality of Catalonia in a good 
state of defence. The duke of Orleans, being rein- The siege of 
forced with troops from France, sat down before 
Lerida, in the end of September, with an army of 
30,000 men : the place was commanded by a prince 
of Hesse, who held out above forty days : after some 
time, he was forced to abandon the town, and to 
retire into the castle; the army suffered much in 



•' having been pleased to de- to the latter part of Lord lio- 

" clare it to several persons of lingbrokes Letters on History, 

" character and credit." Lord Let. vii. p. 154.) 
Walpole of Wooltrr ton's Anstcer 

X 4 



81S THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1707. this long siege. When the besieged saw how long 
" .„f. they could hold out, they gave the earl of Galway 
notice, upon which he intended to have raised the 
siege; and if the king of Spain would have con- 
sented to his drawing out of the other garrisons 
such a force as might have been spared, he under- 
took to raise it, which was believed might have been 
easUy done : and if he had succeeded, it would have 
given a new turn to all the affairs of Spain. But 
count NoyeUes, who was well practised in the arts 
of flattery, and knew how much king Charles was 
ahenated from the earl of Galway, for the honest 
freedom he had used with him, in laying before him 
some errors in his conduct, set himself to oppose 
this, apprehending that success in it would have 
raised the earl of Galway's reputation again, which 
had suffered a great diminution by the action of Al- 
manza : he said, this would expose the little army 
they had left them to too great a hazard ; for if the 
design miscarried, it might occasion a revolt of the 
whole principality. Thus the humours of princes 
are often more regarded than their interest ; the 
design of relieving Lerida was laid aside. The 
French army was diminished a fourth part, and the 
long siege had so fatigued them, that it was visible, 
the raising it would have been no difficult perform- 
ance ; but the thoughts of that being given over, 
Lerida capitulated in the beginning of November : 
the Spaniards made some feeble attempts on the 
side of Portugal, with success, for little resistance 
was made ; the Portuguese excusing themselves by 
their feebleness, since their best troops were in Ca- 
talonia. 
Relief »ent King Charlcs, finding his affairs in so ill a condition. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. S13 

wrote to the emperor, and to the other allies, to send 1 707. 



him supplies with all possible haste: Stanhope was sent 
over, to press the queen and the States to despatch 
these the sooner. At the end of the campaign in 
Italy, 7000 of the imperial troops were prepared to 
be sent over to Barcelona : and these were carried 
in the winter, by the confederate fleet, without any 
disturbance given them by the French. Recruits 
and supplies of all sorts were sent over from Eng- 
land, and from the States, to Portugal. But while 
the house of Austria was struggling with great diffi- 
culties, two pieces of pomp and magnificence con- 
sumed a great part of their treasure : an embassy 
was sent from Lisbon to demand the emperor's sister 
for that king, which was done with an unusual and 
extravagant expense : a wife was to be sought for 
king Charles among the protestant courts, for there 
was not a suitable match in the popish courts : he 
had seen the princess of Anspach, and was much 
taken with her *^ : so that great applications were 
made to persuade her to change her religion, but 
she could not be prevailed on to buy a crown at so 
dear a rate : and soon after she was mamed to the 480 
pripce electoral of Brunswick, which gave a glorious 
character of her to this nation ; and her pious firm- 
ness is like to be rewarded, even in this life, by a 
much better crown than that which she rejected^. 

•^ She was then very hand- of religion, and carried her 

some, as I have heard from many state and dignity with ease and 

who saw her at that time. O. decency. 1 had frequent occa- 

f She retained a great respect sions to ohserve all this, having 

for him, and was always a been her chancellor several years, 

friend to him here. She was a and to the time of her death, 

very wise woman in what she She was very generous, and 

knew: was an excellent wife particularly so in her charities; 

and mother : had an high sense without the least appearance of 



314 



THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 



1707. The princess of Wolfenbutle was not so firm ; so she 
was brought to Vienna, and some time after was 
married by proxy to king Charles, and was sent to 
Italy, in her way to Spain. The solemnity with 



ostentation. This I also knew : 
she was much set upon making 
the king and his family accept- 
able to the nation, and to fix 
their establishment here; with 
respect to which, I have been 
told, she had sometimes very 
anxious thoughts, (perhaps from 
the fearfulness of her nature, 
and her passions in it, which 
however she had generally the 
skill to conceal.) She was re- 
markably strict in her beha- 
viour, with regard to all points 
of virtue and decorum, so that 
she never went or suffered her 
daughters to go to masquerades, 
although then too much the fa- 
shion; and, by her example at 
least, endeavoured to discoun- 
tenance them. Her hours of 
leisure were employed in con- 
versations with some of our 
learned men, especially with the 
famous Dr. Clarke ; whom she 
once had prevailed with the 
king to have made archbishop 
of Canterbury, upon the then 
expected death of archbishop 
Wake. She had imbibed Dr. 
Clarke's notions of the Trinity, 
and liked best to converse with 
those who were of the same 
sentiments; sir Isaac Newton, 
&c. &c. &c. : from whom she ac- 
quired a good deal of know- 
ledge in many things, and spoke 
well upon them all. Her last 
illness was lingering and pain- 
ful, which she bore with great 
patience and resignation. Her 
death affected the king beyond 



any thing 1 ever saw, or, I be- 
lieve, ever happened on the like 
occasion: it is scarcely to be 
described. I saw him twice in 
this mournful condition : once 
when the house of commons 
presented their address of con- 
dolence to him, (which should 
have been shorter, and of an- 
other cast, but ,) and the 

other time was when I deli- 
vered her great seal to him in 
his closet. In a word, her er- 
rors were few and pardonable : 
they hurt nobody ; and they 
were so much overbalanced by 
her good and great qualities, 
that they ought to be forgotten. 
This justice I thought due 
from me to the memory of this 
excellent queen, because of the 
many obligations I had to her — 
none of interest or profit. She 
indeed offered me, and pressed 
me to take, an additional salary 
of a thousand pounds a year, 
which I declined, and had no 
other benefit but the old salary 
of fifty pounds a year. Upon 
her death I had as my fee, the 
rich purse and velvet bag be- 
longing to her seal; and the 
king gave me the seal itself, 
which I converted into a piece 
of plate, and presented it to the 
town of Kingston in honour of 
her memory, I had also from 
herself the cornelian seal set in 
gold, which was used as her 
public seal till the great one 
could be made. O. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 815 

which these matters were managed, in all this dis- 1707. 
tress of their affairs, consumed a vast deal of trea- 
sure ; for such was the pride of those courts on such 
occasions, that, rather than fail in a point of splen- 
dour, they would let their most important affairs go 
to wreck. That princess was landed at Barcelona : 
and the queen of Portugal the same year came to 
Holland, to be carried to Lisbon by a squadron of 
the English fleet. 

But while matters were in a doubtful state in The con- 
Spain, the expedition to Naples had all the success Naples. 
that was expected : the detachment from Lombardy 
marched through the ecclesiastical state, and struck 
no small terror into the court of Rome, as they 
passed near it : it was apprehended, some resistance 
would have been made in Naples by those who go- 
verned there under king Philip; but the inbred 
hatred the Neapolitans bore the French, together 
with the severities of their government, had put 
that whole kingdom into such a disposition to re- 
volt, that the small party which adhered to king 
Philip found it not advisable to offer any resistance, 
so they had only time enough to convey their trea- 
sure and all their richest goods to Cayeta, and to 
retire thither : they reckoned, they would either be 
relieved from France by sea, or obtain a good ca- 
pitulation ; or if that failed, they had some ships 
and galleys in which they might hope to escape. 
The imperialists took possession of Naples, where 
they were received with great rejoicings ; their ill 
conduct quickly moderated that joy, and very much 
disposed the Neapolitans to a second revolt: but 
upon applications made to the courts of Vienna and 



816 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1 707. Barcelona, the excesses of the imperialists, who car- 
ried their ravenous disposition with them whereso- 
ever they went, were somewhat corrected, so that 
they became more tolerable. As soon as a govern- 
ment could be settled at Naples, they undertook the 
siege of Cayeta, which went on at first very slowly ; 
so that those within seemed to apprehend nothing 
so much as the want of provisions, upon which they 
sent the few ships they had to Sicily, to bring them 
supplies for all they might want : when these were 
sent away, the imperialists, knowing what a rich 
booty was lodged in the place, pressed it very hard, 
and in conclusion took it by storm ; and so were 
masters of all the wealth that was in it : the gar- 
481 rison retired into the castle, but they were soon after 
forced to surrender, and were all made prisoners of 
war. It was proposed to follow this success with an 
attempt upon Sicily : but it was not easy to supply 
Naples with bread ; nor was our fleet at liberty to 
assist them, for they were ordered to lie on the coast 
of Spain, and to wait there for orders : when these 
arrived, they required them to carry the marquis 
das Minas and the earl of Galway, with the forces 
of Portugal, to Lisbon ; which was happily performed: 
and the earl of Galway found the character and 
powers of an ambassador lying for him there. The 
thoughts of attempting Sicily were therefore laid 
aside for this time; though the Sicilians were known 
to be in a very good disposition to entertain it. A 
small force was sent from Naples to seize on those 
places which lay on the coast of Tuscany, and be- 
longed to the crown of Spain ; some of them were 
soon taken, but Porto Longone and Port Hercole 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 317 

made a better resistance: this was the state of affairs 1707. 
in Italy and Spain all this year, and till the opening 
of the campaign the next year. 

Villars continued in Germany, laying Suabia un- Affairs on 
der heavy contriljutions ; and very probably he would 
have penetrated into Bavaria, if the detachments he 
was ordered to send away had not so weakened his 
army, that he durst not venture further, nor under- 
take any considerable siege. While the empire was 
thus exposed, all men's eyes turned towards the 
elector of Brunswick, as the only person that could 
recover their affairs out of those extremities into 
which they were brought : the emperor pressed him 
to accept of the supreme command; this was se- 
conded by all the allies, but most earnestly by the 
queen and the States : the elector used all the pre- 
caution that the embarking in such a design re- 
quired, ,and he had such assurances of assistance, 
from the princes and circles, as he thought might be 
depended upon ; so he undertook the command : his 
first care was to restore military discipline, which had 
been very little considered or submitted to for some 
years past ; and he established this with such impar- 
tial severity, that the face of affairs there was soon 
changed : but the army was too weak, and the season 
was too far spent, to enter on great designs. One 
considerable action happened, which very much 
raised the reputation of his conduct : Villars had 
sent a detachment of 3000 horse and dragoons, 
either to extend his contribution, or to seize on 
some important post ; against these the elector sent 
out another body, that fell upon the French, and 
gave them a total defeat ; in which 2000 of them 
were cut off; soon after that, Villars retired back 



318 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1707. to Strasbourg, and the campaign in those parts 
ended. 
482 I will take in here a transaction, that lay not far 
The king of fj.Qjj^ ^Yie scene of action. There was, all this summer, 

Prussia ' 

judged a dispute at Neufchastel, upon the death of the old 

prince of , 

Neufchas- duchess of Ncmours, m whom the house of Longue- 
viUe ended: she enjoyed this principality, wliich, 
since it lay as a frontier to Switzerland, was on this 
occasion much considered. There were many pre- 
tenders of the French nation ; the chief was the prince 
of Conti : all these came to Neufchastel, and made 
their application to the States of that country, and 
laid their several titles before them : the king of 
France seemed to favour the prince of Conti most : 
but yet he left it free to the States, to judge of their 
pretensions, provided they gave judgment in favour 
of one of his subjects ; adding severe threatenings, 
in case they should judge in behalf of any other pre- 
tender. The king of Prussia, as heir by his mother 
to the house of Chaalons, claimed it as his right, 
which the late king e had, by a particular agreement, 
made over to him ; so he sent a minister thither, to 
put in his claim : and the queen and the States 
ordered their ministers in Switzerland to do their 
best offices, both for advancing his pretensions, and 
to engage the cantons to maintain them ; the king 
of Sweden wrote also to the cantons to the same 
effect. The allies looked on this as a matter of 
great consequence ; since it might end in a rupture 
between the protestant cantons and France ; for the 
popish cantons were now wholly theirs. After much 
pleading and a long dispute, the States of the prin- 
cipality gave judgment in favour of the king of Prus- 
g (Of Prussia.) 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 319 

sia; the French pretenders protested against this, 1707. 

and left Neufchastel in a high discontent : the French 

ambassador threatened that little state with an inva- 
sion, and all commerce with them was forbid : the 
canton of Bern espoused their concern with a spirit 
and zeal that was not expected from them : they 
declared they were in a comburghership with them ; 
and upon that they sent a body of 3000 men to de- 
fend them. The French continued to threaten, and 
Villars had orders to march a great part of his army 
towards them ; but when the court of France saw 
that the cantons of Bern and Zurick were not fright- 
ened with those marches, they let the whole matter 
fall, very little to their honour : and so the inter- 
course between the French dominions and that State 
was again opened, and the peace of the cantons was 
secured. The king of Prussia engaged his honour, 
that he would govern that state with a particular 
zeal, for advancing both religion and learning in it ; 
and upon these assurances he persuaded the bishops 
of England, and myself in particular, to use our best 
endeavours to promote his pretensions ; upon which 
we wrote, in the most effectual manner we could, to 483 
Mons. Ostervald, who was the most eminent ecclesi- 
astic of that state, and one of the best and most judi- 
cious divines of the age : he was bringing that church 
to a near agreement with our forms of worship ^ : 
the king of Prussia was well set in all matters relat- 
ing to religion ; and had made a great step, in order 
to reconcile the Lutherans and the Calvinists in his 
dominions, by requiring them not to preach to the 
people on those points in which they differ ; and by 

*^ (Their form of Common English in 1693, with the ap- 
Prayer had been published in probation of six of our bishops.) 



320 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
1707- obliging them to communicate together, notwith- 



standing the diversity of their opinions : which is 

indeed the only wise and honest way to make up 

that breach. 

The king of The affinity of the matter leads me next to give 

f^g^J*"/*^"' an account of the differences between the king of 

t^tant Sweden and the court of Vienna : that kinff, after he 

churches in *^ 

Silesia to be had bccn a very heavy euest in Saxony, came to un- 

restoredto , , , "^ , *' ° . r.-, • i i i • 

them. derstand that the protestants m Silesia had their 
churches and the free exercise of their religion stipu- 
lated to them by the peace of Munster, and that the 
crown of Sweden was the guarantee for observing 
this : these churches were taken from them ; so the 
king of Sweden was in justice bound to see to the 
observing of that article ; he very readily embraced 
this opportunity, which had long been neglected or 
forgotten by his father. When this was first repre- 
sented to the court of Vienna, it was treated there 
with much scorn : and count Zabor, one of the mi- 
nisters of that court, spoke of the king of Sweden in 
a style, that he thought furnished him with a just 
pretension to demand, that he should be sent to him, 
to be punished as he thought fit : this was soon 
yielded ; the count was sent to the king, and made 
such an humble submission to him as was accepted : 
but the demand for restoring the churches was a 
matter of hard digestion to a bigoted and haughty 
court. The king of Sweden had a great army at 
hand, and he threatened an immediate rupture, if 
this demand was not agreed to without delay : in 
this he was so positive, that the imperial court at 
last yielded, they being then in no condition to re- 
sist a warlike prince and an army, hardened by an 
exact discipline, and the fatigues of a long war : so 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 321 

that every thing that was demanded, pursuant to 1707. 
that article of the treaty of Munster, was agreed to 
be performed within a prefixed time : and upon that 
the king of Sweden marched his army, under the 
most regular discipline, through Silesia, as had been 
agreed, into Poland. The Jesuits made great oppo- 
sition to the f>erformance of what had been stipu- 
lated ; but the imperial court would not provoke a 
prince, who they thought was seeking a colour to 
break with them : so, by the day prefixed, all the 
churches were restored to the protestants in Silesia. 
Upon this he was highly magnified, and great endea- 484 
vours were again used, to engage him in the alliance ; 
but he was so set against the czar, whom he de- 
signed to dethrone, that nothing could then divert 
him from it : yet he so far entered into the interests 
of religion, that, as he wrote to the king of France, 
desiring him not to oppose the king of Prussia, iii 
his pretensions on Neufchastel ; he also wrote to the 
cantons, desiring them to promote and support them. 
The cantons seeing those characters of zeal in him, 
sent a French gentleman of quality to him, the mar- 
quis de Rochegude, to let him know what regard 
they had to his recommendations, and to desire him 
to interpose his good offices with the king of France, 
for setting at liberty about three hundred persons, 
who were condemned to the galleys, and treated 
most cruelly in them, upon no other pretence, but 
because they would not change their religion, and 
liad endeavoured to make their escape out of France : 
he received this message with a particular civility, 
and immediately complied with it ; ordering his mi- 
nister at the court of France, to make it his desire 
to that king, that these confessors might be delivered 
VOL. V. Y 



322 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1707. to him : but the ministers of France said, that was a 
point of the king's government at home, in which he 
could not suffer foreign princes to meddle : he 
seemed sensible of this neglect, and it was hoped, 
that when his affairs could admit of it, he would ex- 
press a due resentment of it. 
A sedition To cud all the affairs of Germany, for this year, 

ill Hanibo- ^ , i • 1 • tt 

rough. at once ; 1 must mention a quarrel, raised m Ham- 
borough, between some private persons, one of 
whom was a Lutheran minister; which created a 
great division in that city. One side was protected 
by the senate, which gave so great a disgust to the 
other side, that it was like to end in a revolt against 
the magistrates, and a civil war within the town : 
and it being known that the king of Denmark had, 
for many years, had an eye on that place, the neigh- 
Ijouring princes apprehended, that he might take ad- 
vantage from those commotions, or that the weaker 
side might choose rather to fall under his power than 
under the revenges of the adverse party. The kings 
of Sweden and Prussia, with the house of Bruns- 
wick, resolved therefore to send troops thither to 
quiet this distraction, and to chastise the more re- 
fractory ; while the emperor's ministers, together 
with the queen's, endeavoured to accommodate mat- 
ters, without suffering them to run to extremities. 

The cam- Jt rcmaius, that I give an account of the cam- 

pitii^n in , . i-r^ II t • ^ ' 

Fiandera, paigu in Flaudcrs : the French kept close within 
their posts ; though the duke of Marlborough often 
485 drew out his troops, to see if that could provoke them : 
but they were resolved not to fight on equal terms ; 
and it was not thought advisable to attempt the 
forcing their posts : they lay for some months look- 
ing on one another; but both armies had behind 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 323 

them such a safe and plentiful conveyance of provi- 1707. 
sions, that no want of any sort could oblige either side 
to dislodge. The duke of Vendome had orders to 
send detachments to reinforce mareschal Villars, in 
lieu of those detachments that he had been ordered to 
send to Provence. The duke of Savoy seemed to 
wonder that the confederates lay so quiet, and gave 
the duke of Vendome no disturbance ; and that they 
could not, at least, oblige him to keep all his army 
together: at last the duke of Marlborough decamped, 
and moved towards French Flanders : the French 
decamped about the same time, but lodged them- 
selves again in such a safe camp, that he could not 
force them into any action : nor was his army so nu- 
merous as to spare a body to undertake a siege, by 
that means to draw them to a battle ; so that the 
campaign was carried on there in a very inoffensive 
manner on both sides: and thus matters stood in 
the continent every where this season. 

France set out no fleet this year, and yet we ne- Affairs at 
ver had greater losses on that element : the prince's 
council was very unhappy in the whole conduct of 
the cruizers and convoys : the merchants made heavy 
complaints, and not without reason : convoys were 
sometimes denied them ; and when they were grant- 
ed, they were often delayed beyond the time limited 
for the merchants to get their ships in readiness: 
and the sailing orders were sometimes sent them so 
unhappily, (but as many said, so treacherously,) that 
a French squadron was then laying in their way to 
intercept them. This was liable to very severe re- 
flections : for many of the convoys, as well as the 
merchant sliips, were taken : and to complete the 
misfortunes of our afl*airs at sea, this year, when sir 

Y 2 



324 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
1707. Cloudesly Shovel was sailing home witli the great 



ships, by an unaccountable carelessness and security, 
he, and two other capital ships, ran fovil upon those 
rocks, beyond the Land's End, known by the name 
of the Bishop and his Clerks ; and they were in a 
minute broke to pieces ; so that not a man of them 
escaped. It was dark, but there was no wind, other- 
wise the whole fleet had perished with them: all 
the rest tacked in time, and so they were saved. 
Thus one of the greatest seamen of the age was lost, 
by an error in his own profession, and a great mis- 
reckoning; for he had lain by all the day before, 
and set sail at night, believing, that next morning 
he would have time enough to guard against run- 
ning on those rocks ; but he was swallowed up with- 
in three hours after. 
486 This was the state of our affairs abroad, both by 
w-ihK\&^^ sea and land. Things went at home in their ordi- 
tion to nary channels : but the conduct, with relation to 

Scotland. -^ ' 

Scotland, was more unaccountable: for whereas it 
might have been reasonably expected, that the ma- 
nagement of the newly united part of this island 
should have been particularly taken care of, so as ta 
give no just distaste to the Scots, nor offer handles 
to those who were still endeavouring to inflame that 
nation, and to increase their aversion to the union : 
things were, on the contrary, so ordered, as if the 
design had been to contrive methods to exasperate 
the spirits of the people there. Though the ma- 
nagement of the Scotch revenue was to fall into the 
lord treasurer's hands on the first of May, no care 
was taken to have all the commissions ready at the 
day, with new officers to serve in them : so that the 
whole trade of Scotland was stopped for almost two 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 325 

months, for want of orders to put it into the new 1707. 
course, in which it was to be carried on. Three 
months passed, before the equivalent was sent to 
Scotland: and when wines and other merchandise 
were imported into England from thence, seizures 
were every where made; and this was managed with 
a particular affectation of roughness''. All these 
things heightened the prejudices with which that 
nation had been possessed against the union : it was 
also known, that many messages passed between 
Scotland and France; and that there were many 
meetings and much consultation among the discon- 
tented party there; a great body appeared openly 
for the pretended prince of Wales, and celebrated 
his birthday very publicly, both at Edinburgh and 
in other places of the kingdom : and it was openly 
talked, that there was now an opportunity that was 
not to be lost of invading the kingdom, though with 
a small force ; and that a general concurrence from 
the body of that nation might be depended on : these 
things were done in so barefaced a manner, that, no 
check being given to them, nor inquiiy made after 
them, by those who were in the government, it gave 
occasion to many melancholy speculations. The 
management from England looked like a thing con- 
certed to heighten that distemper; and the whole 
conduct of the fleet afforded great cause of jealousy. 

But to open this as clearly as it has yet appeared a new party 
to me, I must give an account of a new scene at 



'• The bishop has described so bad, that one would imagine 

this almost inexcusable negli- it was impossible, (considering 

gence in the manner it deserves, who was the treasurer,) that it 

and the lord treasurer seems should happen but from some 

the most blameable in it. It is unavoidable accidents. O. 

Y 3 



826 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1707. court. It was observed, that Mr. Harley, who had 
been for some years secretary of state, had gained 
great credit with the queen, and began to set up for 
himself, and to act no more under the direction of 
the lord treasurer : there was one of the bedchamber 
women, who, being nearly related to the duchess of 
487 Marlborough, had been taken care of by her, toge- 
ther with her whole family, (for they were fallen 
low,) in a most particular manner. She brought 
her not only into that post, but she had treated her 
with such a confidence, that it had introduced her 
into a high degree of favour with the queen : which, 
for some years, was considered as an effect of the 
duchess of Marlborough's credit with her ; she was 
also nearly related to Mr. Harley; and they two 
entered into a close correspondence. She learned 
the arts of a court, and observed the queen's temper 
with so much application, that she got far into her 
heart : and she employed all her credit to establish 
Harley in the supreme confidence with the queen, 
and to alienate her affections from the duchess of 
Marlborough, who studied no ^ther method of pre- 
serving her favour, but by pursuing the true interest 
of the queen and of the kingdom >, It was said, 

' How she was then, and had ness, especially against the royal 

been before, I am not a judge, family, and her old and best 

But after she had lost the pru- friends. She had no true wls- 

dent advice of, and checks of dom or greatness of mind, and 

temper by the earl of Godol- was in truth a very weak pas- 

phin, and of perhaps her hus- sionate woman. Her letters 

band too, and when she was (of which I have several from 

left to herself, with a mighty her) were the best of her per- 

fortune of her own, she gave formances. She spoke ill ; and 

vent to all the violence of her her memoirs are very mean. I 

natural temper, and her talk and was sometimes in her favour, 

actings, in the latter part of her and I endeavoured to shew her 

life, were like the rage of road> all the respect I could, for she 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 



327 



that the prince was brought into the concert, and 
that he was made to apprehend that he had too 
small a share in the government, and that he was 
shut out from it by the great power that the duke 
of Marlborough and the lord treasurer had drawn 
into their hands : it was said, all depended on them, 
that the queen was only a cipher in the government, 
tliat she was in the duchess of Marlborough's liands, 
as her affairs were in the duke of Marlborough's : it 
was likewise talked among those who made their 
court to the new favourites, that there was not now 
a Jacobite in the nation, that all were for the queen, 
and that, without doubt, she would reign out peace- 
ably her whole life ; but she needed not concern 



1707. 



had starts of goodness and ge- 
nerosity which were very com- 
mendable. There have been 
people who believed that the 
duke and she had at one time 
some views towards the crown, 
and the queen (Caroline) did 
once say to me, that the reason 
of the duchess of Marlborough's 
animosity against her was, (it 
was said at court,) that, (these 
were her words,) " I am mis- 
" tress of this house, and she 
*• not." The words struck me 
at the time as alluding to the 
crown ; but I have since thought, 
and am most inclined to believe, 
that the queen meant only the 
same ascendency in the duchess 
over her, as she, the duchess, 
had over queen Anne, which it 
is certain she aimed at, but 
failed in, upon the accession of 
this family. Whatever this an- 
ger arose from, it shewed itself 
in several little spiteful acts to- 
wards the queen, and with some 
indecency in the manner. O. 



(How her grace had behaved to 
queen Anne, let lord Walpole 
of Woolterton tell, one engaged 
on the same side in politics as 
the duchess herself " The hu- 

* moursome and ungrateful car- 
' riage (he says) of one proud 
' woman towards her friend, 
' her mistress, and her sove- 

* reign, gave a few ambitious 
' and unskilful persons an op- 
' portunity of getting, in the 
' midst of this career of glory 
' and success against the com- 
' mon enemy, the reins of go- 
' vemment into their hands." 

Answer to Part of Lord Doling- 
broke's Letters on the Study of 
History, Let. viii. p. 171. See 
also lord Dartmouth's note be- 
low, at p. 547. But the inso- 
lence of this woman is best 
pourtrayed in her own letter to 
the queen, published in page 
165 of the Account of the Con- 
duct of the Dowager Ducliess 
of Marlboroiigli, written by 
Hooke, under her direction.) 

Y 4 



328 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

^707' herself for a German family : these discom'ses began 
to break out, and gave sad thoughts to those to 
whom they were brought. This went on too long, 
little regarded ; the duchess of Marlborough seemed 
secure of her interest in the queen, and shewed no 
jealousy of a favour to which herself gave the fii*st 
rise. This was the state of the court at the opening 
of the session of parliament. 
Promotions There were at that time three bishoprics vacant : 
church. Trelawny had been removed, the summer before, 
from Exeter to Winchester ; which gave great dis- 
gust to many, he being considerable for nothing but 
his birth, and his (election O.) interest in Cornwall. 
The lord treasurer had engaged himself to him, and he 
was sensible that he was much reflected upon for it : 
but he, to soften the censure that this brought on 
him, had promised, that, for the future, preferments 
should be bestowed on men well principled with re- 
lation to the present constitution, and on men of 
merit ^. The queen, without regarding this, did se- 
cretly engage herself to Dr. Blackball for Exeter; 
and Chester (being at the same time void, by the 
488 death of Dr. Stratford) to sir William Dawes for 

^ Here Burnet could not would have him thought, having 

help shewing resentment for been one of the seven bishops 

his great disappointment. After sent to the Tower by king 

king William's death he made James, and one of the two, out 

his court in a most obsequious of them that conformed to the 

manner, and, I question not, government after the revolu- 

shewed the Marlborotigh fa- tion. {Lloyd of St. Asaph was 

mily and lord Godolphin the the other.) But the rest of the 

fine things he designed to say world was surprised to see Dr. 

of them in his History ; most Godolphin, who was the trea- 

of which seem to be wrote with surer's brother, and in reality 

that view; for to other people a more deserving man than ei- 

he represented them as Jacob- ther of them, so much neglect- 

ites in disguise. Trelawny was ed upon that occasion. D. 
not so void of merit as he 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 



3^ 



that see ' : these divines were in themselves men of 
value and worth, but their notions were all on the" 
other side ; they had submitted to the government, 
but they, at least Blackball, seemed to condemn the 
revolution, and all that had been done pursuant to it"'. 
Dawes "^ also was looked on as an aspiring man. 



1707. 



' (Queen Anne, in a letter 
to the duke of Marlborough, 
assures him, that sir William 
Dawes and Dr. Blackhall were 
both of her own choice ; and 
that Mr. Harley knew nothing 
of the appointment until it was 
publicly talked of. See the let- 
ter in Coxe's Life of the Duke 
of Marlborough, vol. ii. p. 343. 
The stniggle of the whig mi- 
nistry, against this violation by 
the sovereign of their assumed 
right to dispose of the whole 
of her preferment, continued a 
long time. So in the former 
reign, her sister, queen Mary, 
when left at the head of the 
government, upon her friends 
complaining in her name, that 
an order or appointment of 
the queen's had been repeatedly 
unattended to by some infe- 
rior board, received for answer, 
that the revolution was not 
brought about for the sake of 
king William and queen Mary. 
And now, in order completely 
to annihilate the will of the 
single person, and to set aside 
the power of the monarch, a 
fundamental maxim in law, that 
the king can do no wrong, 
which means, amongst other 
things, that he can authorize no 
wrong, is abused to the main- 
tenance of the position, that he 
can do no right without an ad- 
viser, which is true only in 



certain cases specially provided 
for by statute. Certainly, if I 
can do nothing without an ad- 
viser, and other persons appoint 
my adviser, my adviser, or the 
persons who appoint him, are 
the authors of any act called 
ra'me, and I am reduced to a 
mere cipher; and after all per- 
haps I may finally be treated as 
responsible. But what is here 
said does not affect the right 
of either or both houses of par- 
liament to offer advice to the 
crown in all cases ; nor inter- 
feres with the impeachment in 
parliament of persons high in 
office, who have actually trans- 
gressed the laws, or who have 
cooperated in measures evi- 
dently injurious to the interests 
of the nation. This has always 
been the established usage and 
law of England ; but the other 
doctrine or position belongs to 
the plan of a government ne- 
cessarily and essentially cor- 
rupt : a favourable delineation 
of which is to be found in lord 
HoUis's Letter, and in Henry 
Neville's book called Plato Re- 
divitms.) 

"" (Blackhall, in a sermon 
preached in 1705, on the ac- 
cession of the queen, defends 
at length the legality of the ex- 
isting establishment.) 

" Afterwards archbishop of 
York. He always adhered very 



330 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1707- wlio would set himself at the head of the toiy party: 
so this nomination gave a great disgust. To qualify 
this a little, Patrick, the pious and learned bishop of 
Ely, dying at this time, the queen advanced More 
from Norwich thither ; and Dr. Trimnell, a worthy 
person in all respects, was named for Norwich : yet 
this did not quiet the uneasiness many were under 
by reason of the other nominations, which seemed 
to flow from the queen herself, and so discovered 
her inclinations. To prevent the ill effects that this 
might have in the approaching session, some of the 
eminent members of the house of commons were 
caUed to a meeting, with the dukes of Somerset and 
Devonshire: these lords assured them, in the queen's 
name, that she was very sensible of the services the 
whigs did her ; and though she had engaged herself 
so far with relation to those two bishoprics, that she 
could not recall the promises she had made, yet for 
the future she was resolved to give them full con- 
tent. But while this was said to some whigs, Har- 
ley, and his friends St. John and Harcourt, took great 
pains on the leaders of the tories (in particular on 
Hanmer, Bromley, and Freeman) to engage them in 
the queen's interests ; assuring them, that her heart 
was with them, that she was weary of the tyranny 
of the whigs, and longed to be delivered from it. 
But they were not wrought on by that manage- 
ment ; they either mistrusted it, as done only to en- 

strongly to the protestant sue- Shippen thought an Hanover 

cession. He and some few o- tory a contradiction in terms, 

thers, who were considerable and a monster in its produc- 

tories, had at all times declared tion. The chief of them were 

this, and were upon that styled this archbishop, the late earl of 

" Hanover tories." The vio- Anglesey, (Arthur.) sir Thomas^ 

lent tories abominated this dis- Hanmer, Freeman, &c. O. 
tinctioD, and hated the men. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 331 

snare them, or they had other views, which they did j 707. 
not think fit to own. This double-dealing came to 
be known, and gave occasion to much jealousy and 
distrust °. A little before the session was opened, an 
eminent misfortune happened at sea : a convoy, of 
five ships of the line of battle, was sent to Portugal, 
to guard a great fleet of merchant ships ; and they 
were ordered to sail, as if it had been by concert, at 
a time when a squadron from Dunkirk had joined 
another from Brest, and lay in the way, waiting for 
them. Some advertisements were brought to the 
admiralty of this conjunction, but they were not be- 
lieved. When the French set upon them, the con- 
voy did their part very gallantly, though the enemy 
were three to one ; one of the ships was blown up, 
three of them were taken, so that only one escaped, 
much shattered : but they had fought so long, that 
most of the merchantmen had time to get away, and 
sailed on, not being pursued, and so got safe to Lis- 
bon. This coming almost at the same time with 489 
the misfortune that happened to Shovel, the session 
was begun with a melancholy face; and a dispute 
upon their opening had almost put them into great 
disorder. 

It was generally thought, that though this was a 
parliament that had now sat two years, yet it was a 
new parliament, by reason it had been let faU, and 
was revived by a proclamation, as was formerly told : 
and the consequence of this was, that those who had 
got places were to go to a new election. Others main- 
tained, that it could not be a new parliament, since 
it was not summoned by a new writ, but by virtue 

° (The author means the double-dealing of the queen.) 



332 



THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 



1707. of a clause in an act of parliament. The duke of 
Marlborough, upon his coming over, prevailed to 
have it yielded to be a new parliament ; but Harley 
was for maintaining it to be an old parliament p. 
The house of commons chose the same speaker over 
again, and all the usual forms in the first beginning 
of a new parliament were observed. 
Complaints Thcsc wcrc uo sooncr over, than the complaints 

of the ad- , '■ 

miraity. of the admiralty were offered to both houses : great 
losses were made, and all was imputed to the weak- 
ness, or to a worse disposition, in some who had 
great credit with the prince, and were believed to 
govern that whole matter: for as they were en- 
tirely possessed of the prince's confidence, so when 
the prince's council was divided in their opinions, 
the decision was left to the prince, who understood 



P That it was a new par- 
liament was certainly the safer 
opinion, and that very likely was 
the reason the duke of Marl- 
borough went upon. It is not 
improbable too, that the jealousy 
and ill opinion which he now 
had of Harley, might make him 
suspect the other designed some 
embarrassment in the affairs of 
the government, which might, 
and very probably would, have 
arisen with regard to the le- 
gality of the parliament, if it 
had been considered as the old 
one continued ; and it does seem 
a pretty extraordinary notion 
that it should not be deemed a 
new parliament, since the words 
of the article of the union re- 
lative to it most obviously carry 
that sense of it. Any doubt 
with respect to the validity of a 
parliament is at any time very 
dangerous, and would have been 



particularly so at this juncture. 
See Mr. Harley's exhortation to 
the house, (when he was speak- 
er,) in the case of Ashby and 
White ; it is printed in the 8th 
vol. of the State Trials, p. 92. 
Observe the difference between 
the case there mentioned of 
Hen. the fourth, and the 
case here. But notwithstand- 
ing that difference, 1 am in- 
clined to think his opinion in 
the first governed him in the 
last, that there could not be a 
new parliament without a new 
election. See also, and note 
well, the words of the pro- 
visions for the reviver of a for- 
mer parliament, on the demise 
of the crown, in the acts of 
7th and 8th of William III. 
chap. 15 ; 4th of Anne, chap. 8 ; 
6th of Anne, chap. 7 ; 24th of 
George II. relating to the re- 
gency. O. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 333 

very little of those matters, and was always deter- 1707. 
mined by others. By this means they were really 
lord high admiral, without being liable to the law 
for errors and miscarriages ^. This council was not 
a legal court, warranted by any law, though they 
assumed that to themselves ; Ijeing counsellors, they 
were bound to answer only for their fidelity. The 
complaints were feebly managed at the bar of thfe 
house of commons ; for it was soon understood, that 
not only the prince, but the queen likewise con- 
cerned herself much in this matter: and both looked 
on it as a design levelled at their authority. Both 
whigs and tories seemed to be at first equally zealous 
in the matter; but by reason of the opposition of 
the court, all those who intended to recommend 
themselves to favour abated of their zeal : some were 
vehement in their endeavours to baffle the com- 
plaints : they had great advantages, from the mer- 
chants managing their complaints but poorly ; some 
were flighted, and others were practised on, and 
were carried even to magnify the conduct of the 

^ George Churchill, the duke it. He once took an oppor- 
of Marlborough's brother, was tunity to tell me, that he was 
set at the head of the admiralty, very much obliged to my fa- 
in the name of prince George, ther ; who, he said, was the 
who had a commission of high only friend he had in king 
admiral only to screen the o- James's court: but he satisfied 
ther, by which means the duke himself with telling me so, for 
of Marlborough commanded as he never aimed at making me 
absolutely at sea as he did at any other return; but having 
land, where the prince had like- said it before a great deal of 
wise the title of generalissimo, company, made me pass for one 
with as little authority ; for he that was very much in his fa- 
was not allowed the nomina- vour, if that had signified any 
tion to any one office in either, thing, besides shewing his own 
which hewould sometimes com- want of ability to gratify one 
plain of, but had not spirit he had professed an obligation 
enough to help himself, nor to. D. 
durst any body put him upon 



384 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1707. fleet, and to make excuses for all the misfortunes 
'that had happened. That which had the chief 
operation on the whole tory party was, that it was 
set round among them, that the design of all these 
complaints was to put the earl of Orford again at the 
head of the fleet: upon which they all changed their 
490 note, and they, in concurrence with those who were 
in offices, or pretended to them, managed the matter 
so, that it was let fall, very little to their honour ^ 
Unkind remarks were made on some who had 
changed their conduct upon their being preferred at 
court : but the matter was managed with more zeal 
and courage in the house of lords, both whigs and 
tories concurring in it. 
Examined A committcc was appointed to examine the corn- 
house of plaints ; they called the merchants, who had signed 
lord*. ^Yie petition, before them ; and treated them, not 
with the scorn that was very indecently ofiered 
them by some of the house of commons, but with 
great patience and gentleness : they obliged them 
to prove all their complaints by witnesses upon oath. 
In the prosecution of the inquiry it appeared, that 
many ships of war were not fitted out, to be put to 
sea, but lay in port neglected, and in great decay ; 
that convoys had been often flatly denied the mer- 
chants, and that, when they were promised, they 
were so long delayed, that the merchants lost their 
markets, were put to great charge, and when they 
had perishable goods, suffered great damage in them : 



*■ Some of the whigs in the some of his friends, that he 

house of commons took part should be ashamed to sit at a 

with the court, particularly Mr. board, and not be in a capacity 

Walpole, then one of the lords to defend its proceedings. H. 
of the admiralty. He said to 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 335 

the cruizers were not ordered to proper stations in ^707- 
the channel ; and when convoys were appointed, and 
were ready to put to sea, they had not their sailing 
orders sent them, till the enemies' ships were laid in 
their way, prepared to faU on them, which had often 
happened. Many advertisements, by which those 
misfortunes might have been prevented, had been 
offered to the admiralty, but had not only been neg- 
lected by them, but those who offered them had 
been iU treated for doing it. The committee made 
report of all this to the house of lords ; upon which 
the lord treasurer moved that a copy of the report 
might be sent to the lord admiral, which was done, 
and in a few days an answer was sent to the house, 
excusing or justifying the conduct, in all the branches 
of it. The chief foundation of the answer was, that 
the great fleets which were kept in the Mediterra- 
nean obliged us to send away so many of our ships 
and seamen thither, that there was not a sufficient 
number left to guard all our trade ; while the enemy 
turned all their forces at sea into squadrons, for de- 
stroying it; and that all the ships that could be 
spared from the public service abroad were employed 
to secure the trade; the promise of convoys had 
been often delayed, by reason of cross winds and 
other accidents, that had hindered the return of our 
men of war longer than was expected ; they being 
then abroad, convoying other merchant-ships : and 
it was said, that there was not a sufficient number of 
ships, for cruizers and convoys both. The paper 
ended with some severe reflections on the last reign, 
in which great sums were given for the building of 491 
ships, and yet the fleet was at that time much dimi- 
nished, and four thousand merchant ships had been 



336 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1707. taken during that war: this was l)elieved to have 
been suggested by Mr. Harley, on design to mortify 
king William's ministry. Upon reading of this an- 
swer, a new and a fuller examination of the particu- 
lars was again resumed by the same committee ; and 
all the allegations in it were exactly considered : it 
appeared, that the half of those seamen that the par- 
liament had provided for were not employed in the 
Mediterranean ; that many ships lay idle in port, and 
were not made use of; and that in the last war, in 
which it appeared there were more seamen, though 
not more ships employed in the Mediterranean, than 
were now kept there, yet the trade was so carefully 
looked after by cruizers and convoys, that few com- 
plaints were then made : and as to the reflections 
made on the last reign, it was found, that not half 
the sum that was named was given for the building 
of ships ; and that, instead of the fleet's being dimi- 
nished during that war, as had been affirmed, it was 
increased by above forty ships ; nor could any proof 
be given that four thousand ships were taken during 
that war : all the seamen who were then taken and 
exchanged did not exceed 15,000, and in the pre- 
sent war 18,000 were already exchanged; and we 
had 2000 still remaining in our enemies' hands : so 
much had the prince been imposed on, in that paper, 
that was sent to the lords in his name. 
And laid Whcu the examination was ended, and reported 
que«n in an to the housc, it was rcsolvcd to lay the whole matter 
address, before the queen in an address ; and then the to- 
ries discovered the design that they drove at ; for 
they moved in the committee that prepared the 
address, that the blame of all the miscarriages 
might be laid on the ministry and on the cabi- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 837 

net council. It had been often said in the house of 1707. 
lords, that it was not intended to make any com- 
plaint of the prince himself; and it not being ad- 
mitted that his council was of a legal constitution, 
the complaining of them would be an acknowledging 
their authority ; therefore the blame could be laid 
regularly no where, but on the ministry : this was 
much pressed by the duke of Buckingham, the earl 
of Rochester, and the lord Haversham. But to this 
it was answered, by the earl of Orford, the lord So- 
mers, and the lord Halifax, that the house ought to 
lay before the queen only that which was made out 
before them upon oath : and therefore since, in the 
whole examination, the ministry and the cabinet 
council were not once named, they could offer the 
queen nothing to their prejudice. Some of the things 
complained of fell on the navy-board, which was a 492 
body, acting by a legal authority : the lords ought to 
lay before the queen such miscarriages as were 
proved to them ; and leave it to her to find out on 
whom the blame ought to be cast : so far was the mi- 
nistry from appearing to be in fault, that they found 
several advertisements were sent by the secretaries 
of state to the admiralty, that, as appeared after- 
wards, were but too well gi'ounded ; yet these were 
neglected by them ; and that which raised the cla- 
mour the higher was, that during the winter there 
were no cruizers laying in the channel ; so that many 
ships which had run through all dangers at sea, were 
taken in sight of land ; for the privateers came up 
boldly to our ports. All this was digested into a full 
and clear address, laid by the house before the 
queen : there was a general answer made to it, giv- 
ing assurances, that the trade should be carefully 

VOL. V. Z 



Iia THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1 70f . looked to ; but nothing else followed upon it ; and 
the queen seemed to be highly offended at the whole 
proceeding. At this time, an inquiry likewise into 
the affairs of Spain was begun in both houses, 
inquiryinto The earl of Peterborough had received such posi- 
of spaia. tive ordcrs recalling him, that though he delayed as 
long as he could, yet at last he came home in Au-f 
gust : but the queen, before she would admit him 
into her presence, required of him an account of 
some particulars in his conduct, both in military 
matters, in his negociations, and in the disposal of 
the money remitted to him. He made such general 
answers, as gave little satisfaction ; but he seemed 
to reserve the matter to a parUamentary examina- 
tion, which was entered upon by both houses. All 
the tories magnified his conduct, and studied to de- 
tract from the earl of Galway ; but it was thought 
that the ministry were under some restraints with 
relation to the earl of Peterborough, though he did 
not spare them ; which gave occasion to many to 
say, they were afraid of him, and durst not provoke 
him. The whigs, on the other hand, made severe 
remarks on his conduct : the complaints that king 
Charles made of him were read, upon which he 
brought such a number of papers, and so many wit- 
nesses to the bar, to justify his conduct, that after 
ten or twelve days spent wholly in reading papers, 
and in hearing witnesses, both houses grew equally 
weary of the matter ; so, without coming to any con- 
clusion, or to any vote, they let all that related to 
l^iw fall '^ : but that gave them a handle to consider 

. t ; 

' (The trcatuicnt the earl of successes in Spain, may be seen 
Peterborongh met with at this in Ralph's Answer to the Du- 
titue, after all his surprising chess of Marlborough's Account 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 339 

the present state of affairs in Spain. It was found, 1707. 
that we liad not above half the troops there that the 
parliament had made provision for; and that not 
above half the officers that belonged to those bodies 
served there ; this gave the house of commons a high 
distaste, and it was hoped by the tories, that they 493 
should have carried the house to severe votes and 
warm addresses on that head ; which was much la- 
boured by them, in order to load the ministry. In 
this, Harley and his party were very cold and pas- 
sive, and it was generally believed that the matter 
was privately set on by them : but the court sent an 
explanation of the whole matter to the house, by 
which it appeared, that though, by death and deser- 
tion, the number of the troops there was much dimi- 
nished, yet the whole number provided, or at least 
very near it, was sent out of England. The service 
in Spain was much decried; and there was good 
reason for it; things there could not be furnished, 
but at excessive rates, and the soldiers were gene- 
rally ill used in their quarters. They were treated 
very unkindly, not by king Charles, but by those 
about him, and by the bigoted Spaniards. 

During these debates, severe things were said in 1708. 
general of the conduct of affairs in both houses : it 
was observed, that a vast army was well supplied in 
Flanders, but that the interest of the nation required 
that Spain should be more considered ; it was moved 
in both houses, that the emperor should be earnestly 
applied to, to send prince Eugene into Spain ; com- 
plaints were ako made of the duke of Marlborough, 

of her own Conduct, p. 265 — little about the earl's victo- 
270. Bishop Burnet has said ries.) 

z 2 



340 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1/08. as continuing the war, though, at the end of the 
campaign of 1706, the French had offered to yield 
up Spain and the West Indies ; but that was a false 
suggestion \ All these heats in the house, after 
they had got this vent, were allayed : the queen as- 
sured them, all past errors should be redressed for 
the future ; and with repeated importunities, she 
pressed the emperor to send prince Eugene to Spain : 
that court delayed to comply in this particular ; but 
sent count Staremberg thither, who had indeed ac- 
quired a very high reputation. The queen entered 
also into engagements with the emperor, that she 
would transport, pay, and furnish all the troops that 
he could spare for his brother's service. These 
steps quieted the discontent the house had expressed 
upon the ill conduct of affairs in Spain ; but upon 
Stanhope's coming over, he gave a better prospect 
of affairs there ; and he found a readiness to agree 
to all the propositions that he was sent over to 
nriake. All this while an act was preparing, both 
for a better security to our trade by cruizers and 
convoys, and for the encouraging privateers, parti- 
cularly in the West Indies, and in the South sea. 
They were to have all they could take entirely to 
themselves ; the same encouragement was also given 
to the captains of the queen's ships, with this differ- 
ence, that the captains of privateers were to divide 
49't their capture, according to agreements made among 
themselves ; but they left the distribution of prizes, 
taken by men of war, to the queen : who, by pro- 
clamation, ordered them to be divided into eight 
shares ; of which the captain was to have three, un- 
less he had a superior officer over him, in which 
■* (See before, page 474.) 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 341 

case, the commodore was to have one of the three; 1708. 
the other five parts were to be distributed equally, 
among the oflScers and mariners of the ships, put in 
five different classes : all the clauses that the mer- 
chants desired, to encourage privateers, were readily 
granted ; and it was hoped, that a great stock would 
be raised to carry on this private war. This passed 
without opposition, all concurring in it. 

But as to other matters, the tories discovered 
much ill humour against the ministry ; which broke 
out on all occasions : and the jealousies with which 
the whigs were possessed made them as cold as the 
others were hot. This gave the ministers great un- 
easiness : they found Mr. Harley was endeavouring 
to supplant them at court, and to heighten the jea- 
lousies of the whigs ; for he set it about among the 
tories, as well as among the whigs, that both the 
duke of Marlborough and the lord treasurer were as 
much inclined to come into measures with the tories 
as the queen herself was " : this broke out, and was 
like to have had very ill effiects ; it had almost lost 
them the whigs, though it did not bring over the 
tories ^. 

At this time two discoveries were made, very un-.i>"co^erie8 
lucky for Mr. Harley : Tallard wrote oft to Chamil- spondence 
lard, but he sent his letters open, to the secretary's Jrju'ice. 

" The truth was, the whigs " This jealousy in the whigs 

rode them very hard, and they of the lord treasurer produced 

would have been glad to have the juncto, as it was then called, 

relieved themselves, if they which consisted chiefly of the 

could have told how ; but found earl of Sunderland, the earl of 

neither side would trust them. Orford, the lords Wharton, So- 

Besides, we all knew the queen mers, and Halifax. They were 

wanted more to be delivered reconciled to him afterwards; 

from them, than from the but it was thought to be only 

whigs. D. so in appearance. O. 

z 3 



342 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1708. office, to be perused and sealed up, and so to be 
conveyed by the way of Holland : these were opened, 
« upon some suspicion, in Holland ; and it appeared, 
that one, in the secretary's office, put letters in them, 
in which, as he offered his service to the courts of 
France and St. Germains, so he gave an account of 
all transactions here : in one of these, he sent a copy 
of the letter that the queen was to write, in her 
own hand, to the emperor: and he marked what 
parts of the letter were drawn by the secretary, and 
what additions were made to it by the lord treasu- 
rer : this was the letter, by which the queen pressed 
the sending prince Eugene into Spain; and this, 
if not intercepted, would have been at Versailles 
many days before it could reach Vienna. He who 
sent this wrote, that by this they might see what 
service he could do them, if well encouraged ; all 
this was sent over to the duke of Marlborough, and 
upon search, it was found to be writ by one Gregg, 
a clerk, whom Harley had not only entertained, but 
had taken into a particular confidence, without in- 
quiry into the former parts of his life ; for he was a 
495 vicious and a necessitous person, who had been se- 
cretary to the queen's ^envoy in Denmark, but was 
dismissed by him for those his ill qualities. Harley 
had made use of him to get him intelligence, and he 
came to trust him with the perusal and the sealing 
up of the letters which the French prisoners here 
in England sent over to France: and by that 
means he got into the method of sending intelli- 
gence thither. He, when seized on, either upon re- 
morse, or the hopes of pardon, confessed all, and 
signed his confession ; upon that he was tried ; he 
pleaded guilty, and was condemned as a traitor, for 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 343 

corresponding with the queen's enemies. At the 1708. 
same time Valiere and Bara, whom Harley had em- 
ployed, as his spies, to go oft over to Calais, under the 
pretence of bringing him intelligence, were informed 
against as spies employed by France to get intelli- 
gence from England ; who carried over many letters 
to Calais and Bulloign ; and, as was believed, gave 
such information of our trade and convoys, that by 
their means we had made our great losses at sea. 
They were often complained of upon suspicion, but 
they were always protected by Harley ; yet the pre- 
sumptions against them were so violent, that they 
were at last seized on, and brought up prisoners. 
These accidents might make Harley more earnest 
to bring about a change in the conduct of affairs, 
in which he relied on the credit of the new favourite. 
The duke of Marlborough and the lord treasurer 
having discovered many of his practices, laid them 
before the queen : she would believe nothing that 
was suggested to his prejudice : she denied she had 
given any authority for carrying messages to the 
tories ; but would not believe, that he or his friends 
had done it, nor would she enter into any examina- 
tion of his ill conduct, and was uneasy when she 
heard it spoke of. So these lords wrote to the queen^ 
that they could serve her no longer, if hcNwas con- 
tinued in that post : and on the Sunday following, 
when they were summoned to a cabinet councU, 
they both went to the queen, and told her, they 
must quit her service, since they saw she was re- 
solved not to part with Harley. She seemed not 
much concerned at the lord Godolphin's offering to 
lay down ; and it was believed to be a part of Har- 
ley 's new scheme to remove him; but she was much 

z 4 



344 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1708. touched with the duke of Marlborough's offering to 
quit, and studied, with some soft expressions, to di- 
vert him from that resolution : but he was firm, and 
she did not yield to them : so they both went away, 
to the wonder of the whole court >. Immediately 
after, the queen went to the cabinet council, and 
Harley opened some matters, relating to foreign af- 
fairs : the whole board was very uneasy ; the duke 
of Somerset said, he did not see how they could de- 
496 liberate on such matters, since the general was not 
with them ; he repeated this with some vehemence, 
while all the rest looked so cold and sullen, that the 
cabinet council was soon at an end; and the queen 
saw that the rest of her ministers, and the chief of- 
ficers, were resolved to withdraw from her service, 
if she did not recall the two that had left it. It 
was said, that she would have put aU to the hazard, 
if Harley himself had not apprehended his danger. 



y Next morning the duke of treatment I understood she had 
Roxborough came to my house, received from some of her ser- 
and told me the duke of Marl- vants ; she said, she had never 
borough was gone in a great doubted of my affection to her, 
pet to the lodge at Windsor, and and if I had received no greater 
left the queen incensed beyond marks of her favour hitherto, I 
measure. I asked him if he knew from whence the obstruc- 
had seen her. He said, there tion came : but I might exj)ect 
were particular reasons which any thing that was in her power 
made it improper for him, but for the future. I asked her if 
advised me to go immediately, it would be agreeable that other 
and make my compliments, people should express their duty 
which he could assure me would upon that occasion. She said 
be very well taken. Accord- it would ; upon which the back 
ingly I went : the qtieen re- stairs were very much crowded 
ceived me most graciously, (and for two or three days, till the 
it was plain 1 had not been duke of Marlborough was ad- 
sent thither by chance. ) After I vised to return, and make his 
had made some professions of subnnssions ; which in appear- 
duty and zeal for her service, ance were accepted of by the 
and resentment for the insolent queen. D. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 345 

and resolved to lay down : the queen sent the next i70Sw 
day for the duke of Marlborough, and after some 
expostulations, she told him, Harley should imme- 
diately leave his post, which he did within two 
days : but the queen seemed to carry a deep resent- 
ment of his and the lord Godolphin's behaviour on 
this occasion ; and though they went on with her 
business, they found they had not her confidence. 
The duchess of Marlborough did, for some weeks, 
abstain from going to court, but afterwards that 
breach was made up in appearance, though it was 
little more than an appearance. Both houses of 
parliament expressed a great concern at this rupture 
in the court ; and apprehended the ill effects it 
might have : the commons let the bill of supply lie 
on the table, though it was ordered for that day : 
and the lords ordered a committee to examine Gregg 
and the other prisoners. As Harley laid down, 
both Harcourt, then attorney general, Mansell, the 
comptroller of the household, and St. John, the se- 
cretary of war, went and laid down with him. The 
queen took much time to consider how she should 
fill some of these places, but Mr. Boyle, uncle to the 
earl of Burlington, was presently made secretary of 
state '=. 

' He was then, and had been and wisdom, and was treated 

for some time, chancellor of the there and every where else with 

exchequer, and in a particular much personal respect and dis- 

confidence with the lord trea- tinction. He had good natural 

surer. He was now at least abilities, with a very sound judg- 

very firm and acceptable to ment; wary and modest in all 

the whigs, but without any his actions^ even to a diffidence 

party violence, and never en- of himself, that was often im- 

gaged in mean things. He proper and hurtful to him. But 

conducted the business of the on occasions which he thought 

government in the house of required it, he shewed no want 

commons with great dignity either of spirit or steadiness. 



346 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1 706. The lords who were appointed to examine Gregg 
An exaniin- could Hot find out much by him ; he had but newly 
that^ci'JI^- t>egun his designs of betraying secrets, and he had 
•pondence. no associates with him in it : he told them, that all 
the papers of state lay so carelessly about the office, 
that every one belonging to it, even the door- 
keepers, might have read them aU. Harley's custom 
was to come to the office late on post-nights, and 
after he had given his orders and wrote his letters, 
he usually went away, and left all to be copied out 
when he was gone : by that means he came to see 
every thing, in particular the queen's letter to the 
emperor'*. He said, he knew the design on Tou- 
lon in May last, but he did not discover it; for 
he had not entered on his ill practices till October : 
this was all he could say. By the examination of 
Valiere and Bara, and of many others who lived 
about Dover, and were employed by them, a disco- 
very was made of a constant intercourse they were 
in with Calais, under Harley's protection : they often 
went over with boats full of wool, and brought back 

which, with the justice and ho- thought fit to do it any where, 

nour of his nature, and the de- O. 

corum of his manner in every * There was not the least 
thing, gave him a consideration pretence to lay treachery to Mr. 
and a weight in the opinion of Harley's charge. But there did 
those who knew his character appear a negligent management 
far beyond what any other pub- of his office, and the kjrds' 
lie person has acquired in our committee could not do other- 
times. I have often thought him wise (impartially speaking) than 
a great pattern for those who insert the particulars which re- 
would govern this country well. lated to it, as they accounted 
His private life was decent, ex- for the manner in which Gregg 
rept that it was too luxurious, had gained the sight of such se- 
I thought it right to give you cret papers. The small salaries 
some notes of so rare a cha- still given to the clerks are a 
racter with us, which I have disgrace to government, and a 
from persons who knew him, hazard to the state. H. 
because this author has not 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 847 

brandy; though both the import and export were 1708. 
severely prohibited : they, and those who belongeil 7^1 
to the boats carried over by them, were well treated 
on the French side, at the governor's house, or at the 
commissary's ; they were kept there till their letters 
could be sent to Paris, and till returns could be 
brought back, and were all the while upon free cost : 
the order that was constantly given them was, that 
if an English or Dutch ship came up to them, they 
should cast their letters into the sea, but that they 
should not do it when French ships came up to 
them : so they were looked on, by all on that coast, 
as the spies of France. They used to get what in- 
formation they could, both of merchant ships and of 
the ships of war that lay in the Downs ; and upon 
that they usually went over, and it happened that 
soon after some of those ships were taken : these 
men, as they were papists, so they behaved them- 
selves very insolently, and boasted much of their 
power and credit. Complaints had been often made 
of them, but they were always prbtected : nor did it 
appear, that they ever brought any information of 
importance to Harley but once, when, according to 
what they swore, they told him, that Fourbin was 
gone from Dunkirk, to lie in wait for the Russia 
fleet, which proved to be true : he both went to 
watch for them, and he took a great part of the 
fleet. Yet, though this was the single piece of in- 
telligence that they ever brought, Harley took 
so little notice of it, that he gave no advertise- 
ment to the admiralty concerning it. This particular 
excepted, they only brought over common news and 
the Paris gazettes. These examinations lasted for 
some weeks : when they were ended, a full report 



348 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1708. was made of them to the house of lords; and they 
' ordered the whole report, with all the examinations, 

to be laid before the queen in an address, in which 
they represented to her the necessity of making 
Gregg a public example ; upon which he was ex- 
ecuted: he continued to clear all other persons of 
any accession to his crimes, of which he seemed very 
sensible, and died much better than he had lived *'. 

A very few days after the breach that had hap- 
pened at court, we were alarmed from Holland with 
the news of a design, of which the French made then 
no secret; that they were sending the pretended 
prince of Wales to Scotland, with a fleet and an 
army, to possess himself of that kingdom. But be- 
fore I go further, I will give an account of all that 
related to the affairs of that part of the island. 
Proceedings The members sent from Scotland to both houses 

with rela- 

ScoUand. '' Particularly so with regard " the sake," he says, " of those 

to Mr. Harley, in the strongest " whom it was his misfortinie 

and most explicit terms. He " not to be able to satisfy in 

did this in a paper lie delivered " his lifetime, he expressejs his 

to the ordinary at the place of " hopes of finding mercy with 

execution, which was afterwards " God, who had touched his 

printed, and which I have read. " conscience so powerfully, as 

Scrope, secretary of the trea- " to prevent his prostituting 

Rury, and who had been a con- " the same to save his life." 

fident of Harley, told me, that Ralph adds, that it was not 

he knew Harley did, after on Gregg only that experiments 

Gregg's death, give his widow were made, but on those other 

fifty pounds a year out of his persons mentioned by bishop 

own pocket. O. (The paper Burnet, who were taken up for 

which Gregg delivered to the betraying secrets they were ne- 

ordinary of Newgate is to be ver trusted with; and who were 

seen in Ralph's Answer to the retained by Harley in virtue of 

Account of the Duchess of his office, as spies upon the 

Marlborough's Conduct, p. 345; enemy, p. 349. Swift also, in 

where, after most solemnly ac- the 3 2d and 40th numbers of 

quittiQg Harley of any know- the Examiner, mentions the at- 

ledge of his treasonable cor- tempt to suborn Gregg.) 
respondence with France, "for 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 349 

of parliament were treated with very particular 1708. 
marks of respect and esteem : and they were persons 
of such distinction, that they very well deserved 498 
it '^. The first thing proposed in the house of com- 
mons with relation to them, was to take off the stop 
that was put on their trade : it was agreed unani- 
mously, to pray the queen by an address, that she 
would give order for it ; some debate arising only, 
whether it was a matter of right or of favour : Har- 
ley pressed the last, to justify those proceedings in 
which he himself had so great a share, as was for- 
merly set forth, and on which others made severe 
reflections ; but since all agreed in the conclusion, 
the dispute concerning the premises was soon let 
fall. After this, a more important matter was pro- 
posed concerning the government of Scotland, whe- 
ther it should continue in a distinct privy council or 
not. All the court was for it : those who governed 
Scotland desired to keep up their authority there, 
with the advantage they made by it ; and they gave 
the ministers of England gi'eat assurances, that by 
their influence elections might be so managed as to 
serve all the ends of the court ; but they said, that 



' And were very importunate turned out before now. Lord 
to have their deserts rewarded. Godolphin told him, he hoped 
A Scotch earl pressed lord Go- his lordship did not expect that 
dolphin extremely for a place. he should be the person to pro- 
He said there was none vacant, pose it : and advised him never 
The other said, his lordship to mention it any more, for 
could soon make one so, if he fear the queen should come to 
pleased. Lord Godoli)hin asked hear of it ; for if she did, his 
him, if he expected to have lordship would run great risk 
any body killed to make room ? never to have a place as loncf 
He said, No; but lord Dart- as she lived. But he could not 
mouth commonly voted against forbear telling every where, how 
the court, and every body won- ill the lord treasurer had used 
dered that he had not been him. D. 



350 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1708. without due care, these might be carried so as to 
run all the contrary way. This was the secret mo- 
tive, yet this could not be owned in a public assem- 
bly ; so that which was pretended was, that many 
great families in Scotland, with the greatest part of 
the Highlander, were so ill affected, that without a 
watchful eye, ever intent upon them, they could not 
be kept quiet : it lay at too great a distance from 
London to be governed by orders sent from thence. 
To this it was answered, that by the circuits of the 
justiciary courts, and by justices of peace, that coun- 
try might be well governed, notwithstanding its dis- 
tance, as Wales and Cornwall were. It was carried, 
upon a division, by a great majority, that there 
should be only one privy council for the whole 
island. When it was sent up to the lords, it met 
with a great opposition there: the court stood alone; 
all the tories, and the much greater part of the 
whigs, were for the bill'^. The court, seeing the 
party for the bill so strong, was willing to com- 
pound the matter; and whereas by the bill the 
council of Scotland was not to sit after the first of 
May, the court moved to have it continued to the 
first of October. It was visible, that this was pro- 
posed only in order to the managing elections for 
the next parliament; so the lords adhered to the 
day prefixed in the bill. But a new debate arose 
about the power given by the bill to the justices of 
peace, which seemed to be an encroachment on the 
jurisdiction of the lords' regalities, and of the here- 
ditary sheriffs and stewards, who had the right of 

•* Among lord Somers's pa- house of lords, against the con- 
pers, was the minute of an ex- tinuance of the Scotch privy 
cellent speech of his in the council. H. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 351 

tt-ying criminals, in the first instance, for fourteen 1708. 

days' time : yet it was ordinary, in the cases of great 

crimes and riots^ for the privy council to take im- 
mediate cognisance of them, without any regard to 499 
the fourteen days ; so by this act, the justices of 
peace were only empowered to do that which the 
privy council usually did : and except the occasion 
was so great as to demand a quick despatch, it was 
not to be doubted, but that the justices of peace 
would have great regard to all private rights; yet 
since this had the appearance of breaking in upon 
private rights, this was much insisted on by those 
who hoped, by laying aside these powers given to 
the justices of the peace, to have gained the main 
point of keeping up a privy council in Scotland : for 
all the Scotch ministers said, the country would be 
in great danger, if there were not a supreme govern- 
ment still kept up in it : but it seemed an absurd 
thing, that there should be a different administra- 
tion where there was but one legislature. While 
Scotland had an entire legislature within itself, the 
nation assembled in parliament could procure the 
correction of errors in the administration : whereas 
now, that it was not a tenth part of the legislative 
body, if it was still to be kept under a different ad- 
ministration, that nation could not have strength 
enough to procure a redress of its grievances in par- 
liament ; so they might come to be subdued and go- 
verned as a province: and the arbitrary way in 
which the council of Scotland had proceeded ever 
since king James the first's time, but more particu- 
larly since the restoration, was fresh in memory, 
and had been no small motive to induce the best 
men of that nation to promote the union, that they 



852 



THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 



1 708. 



might be delivered fi-om the t)Tanny of the council : 
and their hopes would be disappointed, if they were 
still kept under that yoke ^. This point was in con- 
clusion yielded, and the bill passed, though to the 
great discontent of the court: there was a new 
court of exchequer created in Scotland, according to 
the frame of that court in England: special acts were 
made for the elections and the returns of the re- 
presentatives in both houses of parliament ; and such 
was the disposition of the English to oblige them, 
and the behaviour of the Scots was so good and dis- 
creet, that every thing that was proposed for the 
good of their country was agreed to : both whigs 
and tories vied with one another, who should shew 
most care and concern for the welfare of that part of 
Great Britain ^. 



■^ The duke of Roxborough 
told nie, this was the main in- 
ducement that he and most of 
the nobility had to come into 
the union ; finding it impossible 
to have any redress against the 
high commissioner and coun- 
cil, let their proceedings be ne- 
ver so unreasonable or tyran- 
nical. From whence I con- 
cluded, the government had 
acted in relation to Scot- 
land u|K)n the same maxim 
they laid down for the plant- 
ations. When I was of the 
council for trade, they used to 
depute me to acquaint the lord 
treasurer, when any thing hap- 
pened that was not proper for 
us to give an answer to, with- 
out the queen's directions. Up- 
on one of those occasions lord 
Godolphin told me, he did not 
doubt, but I knew no govern- 
ment could subsist without an 



absolute power lodged some- 
where : and at the distance the 
plantations lay, it was neces- 
sary to place it in the governor 
and council, as acting by the 
queen's authority ; therefore we 
should promote any misunder- 
standings between themselves, 
as being checks upon one an- 
other: but that all complaints 
against them from other people 
should be discouraged as n)uch 
as possible, or the plantations 
would soon be independent of 
England. D. 

^ There was somethi ng not easy 
to be accounted for in the con- 
duct of the ministry preceding 
this attempt. Scotland was 
shamefully neglected. The lord 
Bolingbroke (then secretJiry at 
war) told my father, that to his 
certain knowledge lord Godol- 
phin was informed of the associa- 
tion there to bring in the pre- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 353 

On the twentieth of February, which was but a 1708. 

few days after the act dissolving the council in Scot- a descent 

land had passed, we understood there was a fleet *''*'^"f'* 

^ upon Scot- 

prepared in Dunkirk, with about twelve battalions, '*"*•• 

and a train of all things necessary for a descent in 
Scotland : and a few days aftei-, we heard that the 
pretended prince of Wales was come from Paris, 
with all the British and Irish that were about him, 
in order to his embai'kation. The surprise was 500 
great, for it was not looked for, nor had we a pro- 
spect of being able to set out in time a fleet able to 
deal with theirs, which consisted of twenty-six ships, 
most of them of above forty guns : but that Provi- 
dence, which has, on all occasions, directed matters 
so happily for our preservation, did appear very sig- 
nally in this critical conjuncture : our greatest want 
was of seamen, to man the fleet ; for the ships were 
ready to be put to sea : this was supplied by several 
fleets of merchant ships, that came home at that 
time with their convoys : the flag officers were very 
acceptable to the seamen, and they bestirred them- 
selves so eff*ectually, that, with the help of an em- 
bargo, there was a fleet of above forty ships got 
ready in a fortnight's time, to the surprise of all at 
home as well as abroad : these stood over to Dun- 
kirk, just as they were embarking there. Upon the 
sight of so great a fleet, Fourbin, who commanded 

and in particular had seen a and the duke of Marlborough 

list of the persons, amongst of the dispersion of the French 

whom was the officer who com- fleet by sir G. liyng, the duke 

manded in Edinburgh castle, was silent, and lord Godolphin 

Mr. Erskine has told me, that he only said, lifting up his eyes, 

had heard his father-in-law, " Well I men propose, (f. man 

lord Mar, say, that when he, as " proposes,) and God disposes!" 

secretary of state for Scotland, or to that effect. H. 
went to inform lord Godolphin 

VOL. V. A a 



354 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

J708. the French fleet, sent to Paris for new orders: he 
himself was against venturing out, when they saw 
a superior fleet ready to engage or to pursue them. 
The king of France sent positive orders to prosecute 
the design : so Fourbin, (seeing that our fleet, after 
it had shewed itself to them, finding the tides and 
sea run high, as being near the equinox, had sailed 
A fleet back into the Downs.) took that occasion to eo out 

tailed from ^ ' " 

Dunkirk, of Dunkirk on the eighth of March : but contrary 
winds kept him on that coast till the eleventh, and 
then he set sail with a fair wind. Our admiral, sir 
George Bing, came over again to watch his motions ; 
and as soon as he understood that he had sailed, 
which was not till twenty hours after, he followed 
him. The French designed to have landed in the 
Frith, but they outsailed their point a few leagues ; 
and by the time that they had got back to the north 
side of the Frith, Bing came to the south side of it, 
and gave the signal for coming to an anchor ; this 
was heard by Fourbin : he had sent a frigate into 
the Frith to give signals, which it seems had been 
agreed on, but no answers were made. The design 
was to land near Edinburgh, where they beheved 
the castle was in so bad a condition, and so ill pro- 
vided, that it must have surrendered upon summons: 
and they reckoned, that upon the reputation of that, 
the whole body of the kingdom would have come in 
to them. But when Fourbin understood, on the 
thirteenth of March, that Bing was so near him, he 
tacked, and would not stay to venture an engage- 
ment. Bing pursued him with all the sail that he 
could make, but the French stood out to sea ; there 
was some firing on the ships that sailed the hea- 
viest, and the Salisbury, a ship taken from us, and 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 355 

then their vice-admiral, was engaged by two Eng- 1708. 
lish ships, and taken without any resistance. There 
were about 500 landmen on board her, with some 501 
officers and persons of quality; the chief of these 
were the lord Griffin, and the earl of Middleton's 
two sons. Bing, (having lost sight of the French, 
considering that the Frith was the station of the 
greatest importance, as well as safety, and was the 
place where they designed to land,) put in there, 
till he could hear what course the French steered : 
the tides ran high, and there was a strong gale of 
wind. Upon the alarm of the intended descent, or- 
ders were sent to Scotland, to draw all their forces 
about Edinburgh : the troops that remained in Eng- 
land were ordered to march to Scotland : and the 
troops in Ireland were ordered to march northward, 
to be ready when called for : there were also twelve 
battalions sent from Ostend under a good convoy, 
and they lay at the mouth of the Tine till further 
orders. Thus all preparations were made to dissi- 
pate that small force: but it appeared, that the 
French relied chiefly on the assistance that they 
expected would have come in to them upon their 
landing : ^ of this they seemed so well assured, that ^p^ 
the king of France sent instructions to his ministers the French. 
in all the courts that admitted of them, to be pub- 
lished every where, that the pretended prince being 
invited by his subjects, chiefly those of Scotland, to 
take possession of the throne of his ancestors, the 

f Colonel Hooke's Memoirs in the letter (f. letters) were 

bear ample testimony to the actually treated with, and signed 

reality of the Jacobite intrigues assurances to colonel Hooke, 

in Scotland, and indeed to the that they would take up arms 

general truth of what is called for the pretender. H. (Hooke's 

the Scotch plot in 1703, that of Negociations were published in 

the . Persons mentioned 1760.) 

A a 2 



356 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1 708. king had sent liim over at their desire, with a fleet 
and army to assist him : that he was resolved to 
pardon all those who should come in to him, and he 
would trouble none upon the account of religion : 
upon his being reestablished, the king would give 
peace to the rest of Europe. When these ministers 
received these directions, they had likewise advice 
sent them, which they published both at Rome, Ve- 
nice, and in Switzerland, that the French had, be- 
fore this expedition was undertaken, sent over some 
ships with arms and ammunition to Scotland : and 
that there was already an army on foot there, that 
had proclaimed this pretended prince, king. It was 
somewhat extraordinary to see such eminent false- 
hoods published all Europe over : they also affirmed, 
that hostages were sent from Scotland to Paris, to se- 
cure the observing the engagements they had entered 
into ; though all this was fiction and contrivance. 

The States were struck with great apprehensions, 
so were all the allies ; for though they were so long 
accustomed to the cunning practices of the court of 
France, yet this was an original; and therefore it 
was generally concluded, that so small an army and 
80 weak a fleet would not have been sent, but upon 
great assurances of assistance, not only from Scot- 
land, but from England : and upon this occasion 
severe reflections were made, both on the conduct 
of the admiralty, and on that tract of correspond- 
SOSence lately discovered, that was managed under 
Harley's protection e : and on the great breach, that 

8 These words imply more excusably negligent. That was 

than the bishop had any autho- his crime, but some of his ene- 

rity to say ; I say this for the mies wished to make it treason, 

sake of justice. Harley was in- O. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 367 

was so near the disjointing all our affairs but a few ] 70s. 
days before. These things, when put together, fiUed 
men's minds with thoughts of no easy digestion. 

The parliament was sitting, and the queen, in aThcpariia- 
speech to both houses, communicated to them the ad- "rmiV^y *'' 
vertisements she had received : both houses made ad-*''^ *i"**°" 
dresses to her, giving her full assurance of their adher- 
ing steadfastly to her, and to the protestant succession : 
and mixed with these broad intimations of their ap- 
prehensions of treachery at home. They passed 
also two bills ; the one, that the abjuration might be 
tendered to all persons, and that such as refused it 
should be in the condition of convict recusants : by 
the other, they suspended the Habeas Corpus act till 
October, with relation to persons taken up Ijy the 
government upon suspicion : and the house of com- 
mons, by a vote, engaged to make good to the queen 
all the extraordinary charge this expedition might 
put her to. 

A fortnight went over, before we had any news of The French 
the French fleet: three of their ships landed near agalifSto 
the mouth of Spey, only to refresh themselves ; for ^""''"^''• 
the ships being so filled with landmen, there was 
a great want of water : at last all their ships got safe 
into Dunkirk : the landmen either died at sea, or were 
so ill, that all the hospitals in Dunkirk were filled 
with them. It was reckoned that they lost above 
4000 men in this unaccountable expedition : for 
they were above a month tossed in a very tempestu- 
ous sea. Many suspected persons were taken up in 
Scotland, and some few in England : but further 
discoveries of their correspondents were not then 
made. If they had landed, it might have Iiad an ill 
effect on our affairs, chiefly with relation to all paper 

A a 3 



358 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

17O8. credit: and if by this, the remittances to Piedmont, 
Catalonia, and Portugal, had been stopped in so cri- 
tical a season, that might have had fatal conse- 
quences abroad : for if we had been put into such a 
disorder at home, that foreign princes could no more 
reckon on our assistance, they might have been dis- 
posed to hearken to the propositions that the king of 
France would then have probably made to them. 
So that the total defeating of this design, without 
its having the least iU eflfect on our affairs, or our 
losing one single man in the little engagement we 
had with the enemy, is always to be reckoned as one 
of those happy providences, for which we have much 
to answer. 

The queen seemed much alarmed with this matter, 
and saw with what falsehoods she had been abused 
by those who pretended to assure her there was not 
503 now a Jacobite in the nation : one variation in her 
style was now observed : she had never in any speech 
mentioned the revolution, or those who had been 
concerned in it : and many of those who made a 
considerable figure about her, studied, though against 
all sense and reason, to distinguish her title from the 
revolution : it was plainly founded on it, and on no- 
thing else. In the speeches she now made, she 
named the revolution twice : and said she would 
look on those concerned in it as the surest to her in- 
terests : she also fixed a new designation on the pre- 
tended prince of Wales, and called him the pre- 
tender ; and he was so called in a new set of ad- 
dresses, which, upon this occasion, were made to the 
queen : and I intend to follow the precedent, as often 
as I may have occasion hereafter to mention him. 
The session of parliament was closed in March, soon 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 359 

after defeating the design of the descent : it was dis- 1 708. 
solved in April by proclamation, and the writs were * 

issued out for the elections of a new parliament, 
which raised that ferment over the nation, that was 
usual on such occasions. The just fears and visible 
dangers to which the attempt of the invasion had 
exposed the nation, produced very good effects : for 
the elections did for the most part fall on men well 
affected to the government, and zealously set against 
the pretender. 

As soon as the state of affairs at home was well The design* 
settled, the duke of Marlborough went over to Hoi- paign are 
land, and there prince Eugene met him ; being sent *^°"'^*'^'*' 
by the emperor, to concert with him and the States 
the operations of the campaign : from the Hague, 
they both went to Hanover, to settle all matters re- 
lating to the empire, and to engage the elector to 
return, to command the army on the Upper Rhine. 
Every thing was fixed : prince Eugene went back to 
Vienna, and was obliged to return by the beginning 
of June ; for the campaign was then to be opened 
every where. 

The court of France was much mortified by the The princes 
disappointment they had met with in their designs sent to "le 
against us: but to put more life in their troops, pj^en. 
they resolved to send the duke of Burgundy with 
the duke of Berry to be at the head of their army in 
Flanders : the pretender went with them, without 
any other character than that of the chevalier de St. 
George. The elector of Bavaria with the duke of 
Berwick were sent to command in Alsace, and 
marshal Villars was sent to head the forces in Dau- 
phiny. The credit, with relation to money, was still 
very low in France : for after many methods taken 

A a 4 



360 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1 708. for raising the credit of the mint bills, they were still 
at a discount of forty per cent. No fleets came this 
year from the West Indies, so that they could not be 
supplied from thence ^. 
504 The duke of Orleans was sent to command in 
of'orleans Spain ; and according to the vanity of that nation it 
MDt to y^Qg given out, that they were to have mighty armies 
in many different places, and to put an end to the war 
there : great rains fell all the winter in all the parts 
of Spain ; so that the campaign could not be so soon 
opened as it was at first intended. The bills, that 
the duke of Orleans brought with him to Spain, were 
protested ; at which he was so much displeased, that 
he desu'ed to be recalled : this was remedied to some 
degree, though far short of what was promised to 
him. The troops of Portugal that lay at Barcelona, 
ever since the battle of Almanza, were brought about 
by a squadron of our ships, to the defence of their own 
country : sir John Leak came also over thithei- from 
England with recruits and other supplies, that the 
queen was to furnish that crown with : and when all 
was landed, he sailed into the Mediterranean, to 
bring over troops from Italy, for the strengthening 
of king Charles, whose affairs were in great disorder. 
Tortosabe- After all the boasting of the Spaniards, their army 
teifen. *" on the side of Portugal was so weak, that they could 
not attempt any thing ; so this was a very harmless 
campaign on both sides ; the Portugueze not being 
much stronger. The duke of Orleans sat down be- 
fore Tortosa in June, and though Leak dissipated a 
V fleet of Tartanes, sent from France to supply his 

army, and took about fifty of them, which was a 

•^ It was their general supply in this war, and the whole 
amounted to an immense sura. CK 



OF yUEEN ANNE. 361 

very seasonable relief to those in Barcelona, upon 1708. 



which it was thought the siege of Tortosa would be 
raised, yet it was carried on till the last of June, and 
then the garrison capitulated. 

Leak sailed to Italy, and brought from thence, supplies 
both the new queen of Spain and 8000 men with uTiy to"" 
him : but by reason of the slowness of the court of ^'"""' 
Vienna, these came too late to raise the siege of Tor- 
tosa: the snow lay so long on the Alps, that the 
duke of Savoy did not begin the campaign till July, 
then he came into Savoy, of which he possessed him- 
self without any opposition : the whole country was 
under a consternation as far as Lyons. 

On the Upper Rhine, the two electors continued 
looking on one another, without venturing on any 
action; but the great scene was laid in Flanders: ' 
the French princes came to Mons, and there they 
opened the campaign, and advanced to Soignies, 
with an army of an hundred thousand men : the 
duke of Marlborough lay between Enghien and Hall, 
with his army, which was about eighty thousand. 

The French had their usual practices on foot inchendtand 
several towns in those parts : a conspiracy to deliver tak'en* by 
Antwerp to them was discovered and prevented :**'* ^'^*'°*^*'" 
the truth was, the Dutch were severe masters, and 505 
the Flandrians could not bear it : though the French 
had laid heavier taxes on them, yet they used them 
better in all other respects : their bigotry, being 
wrought on by their priests, disposed them to change 
masters, so these practices succeeded l>etter in 
Ghendt and Bruges. The duke of Marlborough re- 
solved not to weaken his army by many gai'risons : 
so he put none at all in Bruges, and a very weak 
one in the citadel of Ghendt, reckoning that there 



362 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1708. was no danger, as long as he lay between those 
places and the French army. The two armies lay 
about a month, looking on one another, shifting their 
camps a little, but keeping still in safe ground, so 
that there was no action all the while ; but near the 
end of June, some bodies drawn out of the garrisons 
about Ypres, came and possessed themselves of 
Bruges without any opposition : and the gari'ison in 
Ghendt was too weak to make any resistance, so 
they capitulated, and marched out : upon this, the 
whole French army marched towards those places, 
hoping to have carried Oudenarde in their way. 
The battle The dukc of Marlborough followed so quick, that 
J^IJ^*^*" they drew off from Oudenarde as he advanced : in 
one day, which was the last of June, he made a 
march of five leagues, passed the Scheld without any 
opposition, came up to the French army, and en- 
gaged them in the afternoon : they had the advan- 
tage both of numbers and of ground ; yet our men 
beat them from every post, and in an action that 
lasted six hours, we had such an entire advantage, 
that nothing but the darkness of the night and 
weariness of our men saved the French army from 
being totally ruined. There were about 5000 
killed, and about 8000 made prisoners, (of whom 
1000 were officers,) and about 6000 more deserted; 
so that the French lost at least 20,000 men, and re- 
. tired in great haste, and in greater confusion, to 
Ghendt. On the confederates' side, there was about 
1000 killed and 2000 wounded : but our army was 
so wearied with a long march and a long action, 
that they were not in a condition to pursue with 
that haste that was to be desired : otherwise great 
advantages might have been made of this victory. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 363 

The French posted themselves on the gi*eat canal, 1708. 
that runs from Ghendt to Bruges : prince Eugene's 
army, of about 30,000 men, was now very near the 
great army, and joined it in a few days after this 
action : but he himself was come up before them, 
and had a noble share in the victory ; which, from 
the neighbourhood of that place, came to be called 
the battle of Oudenarde. 

The French had recovered themselves out of their 
first consternation, during that time which was ne- 
cessary to give our army some rest and refreshment : 506 
and they were so well posted, that it was not thought 
fit to attack them. Great detachments were sent, 
as far as to Arras, to put all the French countries 
under contribution ; which struck such a terror 
every where, that it went as far as to Paris : our 
army could not block up the enemy's on all sides, 
the communication with Dunkirk by Newport was 
still open ; and the French army was supplied from 
thence : they made an invasion into the Dutch 
Flanders : they had no great cannon, so they could 
take no place ; but they destroyed the country with 
their usual barbarity. 

In conclusion, the duke of Marlborough, in con- Lisie be- 
cert with prince Eugene and the States, resolved to"*^*^ ' 
besiege Lisle, the capital town of the French Flan- 
ders : it was a great, a rich, and a well fortified 
place ; with a very strong citadel : it had been the 
first conquest the French king had made, and it was 
become, next to Paris, the chief town of his domi- 
nions : marshal Boufflers threw himself into it, with 
some of the best of the French troops : the garrison 
was at least 12,000 strong, some called it 14,000. 
Prince Eugene undertook the conduct of the siege, 



364 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1708. with al)Out 30,000 men, and the duke of Marlbo- 
rough, with the rest of the army, lay on the Scheld 
at Pont Esperies, to keep the communication open 
with Brussels : some time was lost before the great 
artillery could be brought up : it lay at Sass van 
Ghendt, to have been sent up the Lys, but now it 
was to be carried about by Antwerp to Binissels, 
and from thence by land-carriages to the camp,, 
which was a long and a slow work : in that some 
weeks were lost, so that it was near the end of Au- 
gust before the siege was begun. The engineei*s 
promised the States to take the place within a fort- 
night, after the trenches were opened ; but the se- 
quel shewed that they reckoned wrong : there were 
some disputes among them : errors were committed 
by those who were in greatest credit, who thought 
the way of sap the shortest, as well as the surest 
method : yet after some time lost in pursuing this 
way, they returned to the ordinary method. Bouf- 
flers made a brave and a long defence : the duke of 
Burgundy came with his whole army so near ours^ 
that it seemed he designed to venture another 
battle, rather than lose so important a place : and 
the duke of Marlborough was for some days in a 
posture to receive him : but when he saw that his 
whole intention, in coming so near him, was only to 
oblige him to be ready for an action, without com- 
ing to any ; and so to draw off a great part of those 
bodies that carried on the siege, leaving only as 
many as were necessary to maintain the ground 
507 they had gained, he drew a line before his army, and 
thought only of cariying on the siege ; for while he 
looked for an engagement, no progress was made in 
that. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 365 

After some days, the French drew off, and fell to 1708. 
making lines all along the Scheld, but chiefly about ^^j^TTwu 
Oudenarde ; that they might cut off the communi- ^,7^,^^"^* 
cation between Brussels and our camp, and so sepa- t^e Scheid. 
rate our army from all intercourse with Holland : 
the lines were about seventy miles long, and in some 
places near 'Oudenarde they looked liker the ram- 
parts of a fortified place than ordinary lines; on 
these they laid cannon, and posted the greatest part 
of their army upon them, so that they did effectually 
stop all communication by the Scheld. Upon which 
the States ordered all that was necessary, both for 
the army and for the siege, to be sent to Ostend : 
and if the French had begun their designs with the 
intercepting this way of conveyance, the siege must 
have been raised for want of ammunition to carry it 
on. 

About this time, 6000 men were embarked at 
Portsmouth, in order to be sent over to Portugal: 
but they were ordered to lie for some time on the 
coast of France, all along from BuUoigne to Dieppe, 
in order to force a diversion, we hoping that this- 
would oblige the French to draw some of their 
troops out of Flanders, for the defence of their coast : 
this had no great effect, and the appearance that the 
French made, gave our men such apprehensions of 
their strength, that though they once begim to land 
their men, yet they soon returned back to their 
ships : but as their behaviour was not a little cen- 
sured, so the state of the war in Flanders made it 
necessary to have a greater force at Ostend. They 
were upon this ordered to come and land there : a new sup- 
Earl, who commanded them, came out and took aoitend. 
post at Leffingen, that lay on the canal, which went 



366 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN , 

J-Q8. from Newport to Bruges, to secure the passage of a 

great convoy of 800 waggons, that were to be carried 

from Ostend to the army : if that had been inter- 
cepted, the siege must have been raised : for the 
duke of Marlborough had sent some ammunition 
from his army, to carry on the siege, and he could 
spare no more : he began to despair of the under- 
taking, and so prepared his friends to look for the 
raising the siege, being in great apprehensions con- 
cerning this convoy ; upon which, the whole success 
of this enterprise depended : he sent Webb, with a 
body of 6000 men, to secure the convoy. 
A defeat The Frctich, who understood well of what con- 
Fren1:h'** scqucncc this couvoy was, sent a body of 20,000 
when they mgn^ with forty pieces of cannon, to intercept it: 
to one. Webb, seeing the inequality between his strength 
508 and the enemy's, put his men into the best disposi- 
tion he could. There lay coppices on both sides of 
the place where he posted himself; he lined these 
well, and stood still for some hours, while the enemy 
cannonaded him, he having no cannon to return 
upon them : his men lay flat on the ground, till that 
was over. But when the French advanced, our 
men fired upon them, both in front and from the 
coppices, with that fury and with such success, that 
they began to run ; and though their officers did all 
that was possible to make them stand, they could 
not prevail : so, after they had lost about 6000 men, 
they marched back to Bruges: Webb durst not 
leave the advantageous ground he was in to pursue 
them, being so much inferior in number. So une- 
qual an action, and so shameful a flight, with so 
great loss, was looked on as the most extraordinary 
thing that had happened during the whole war: 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 



367 



and it encouraged the one side as much as it dis- 1708. 
pirited the other '. Many reproaches passed on this 
occasion between the French and the Spaniards ; 
the latter, who had suffered the most, blaming the 
former for abandoning them : this, which is the or- 
dinary consequence of all great misfortunes, was 
not soon quieted. 

The convoy arriving safe in the camp, put new convoys 
life in our army : some other convoys came after- tend came 

safe to the 



' It was indeed a great ac- 
tion, and of great consequence ; 
but he who performed it, per- 
petually talking of it, and people 
by that growing tired of his va- 
nity in it, came very soon to lose 
almost the whole merit of it. 
The then duke of Argyle said a 
severe, but a very true thing to 
him, and which deserves to be 
remembered as a general in- 
struction. He was one day 
talking over this battle, when 
the duke was jjresent, (who had 
heard it from him twenty times 
before,) and saying in the course 
of his relation, '* Here I received 
** four wounds;" says the duke 
immediately, " I wish, dear ge- 
" neral, you had received one 
" more, and that had been in 
*' your tongue ; for then every 
" body else would have talked 
" of your action." O. (" The 
" siege of Lisle," says Ralph, 
" one of the strongest plac^es in 
" the world, was next under- 
" taken by the confederate ge- 
•' nerals, in the sight of an 
" army superior to their own ; 
*' which had posted themselves 
•' so advantageously, as to cut 
" off all communication be- 
'* tween the besiegers and Brus- 
" sels ; whereby ammunition of 



' all sorts began to fail ; and ^^°^^' 
' the consequences might have 
' been greatly calamitous, if 
' general Webb had not, with 
' incredible conduct and bra- 
' very, both covered the grand 
' convoy committed to his 
' charge, and with a party of 
' but 6000, defeated an army 

* of between 23, and 24,000, 
' which had been detached to 
' make sure of a supply which 

* was of such immediate im- 
' portance to the confede- 
' rates. 

" But the merit of this gal- 
' lant action was by Mr. Car- 

* donnel, the duke of Marlbo- 
' rough's secretary, ascribed 
' solely to lieutenant general 
' Cadogan, (his grace's favour- 

* ite,) who did not come up 

* till it was entirely over, and 
' the enemy retreating in dis- 
' order ; without the least men- 
' tion of Mr. Webb, who there- 
' upon quitted the army in dis- 
' gust, and very frankly set 
' forth the iiyury which had 
' been done him, both to the 

* queen and the whole nation." 
Answer to the Account of' the 
Duchess of Marlborough's Con" 
duct, p. 360.) 



368 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
1708. WM-ds, and were brought safe: for the duke of 



Marlborough moved with his whole army to secure 
their motions, nor did the enemy think fit to give 
them any disturbance for some time. By the means 
of these supplies, the siege was carried on so effec- 
tually, that by the end of October the town capitu- 
lated : Mareschal Boufflers retiring into the citadel 
with 6000 men. The French saw of what import- 
ance the communication by Ostend was to our army, 
which was chiefly maintained by the body that was 
posted at Leffingen ; so they attacked that by a 
very great force : the place was weak of itself, but 
all about was put under water, so it might have 
tok*"1f° made a longer resistance : it was too easily yielded 
the French, up by thosc within it, who were made prisoners of 
war. Thus the communication with Ostend was 
cut off, and upon that the French flattered them- 
selves with the hopes of starving our army ; having 
thus separated it from all communication with Hol- 
land : insomuch that it was reported, the duke of 
Vendome talked of having our whole forces deli- 
vered into his hands as prisoners of war, for want of 
I bread and other necessaries. It is true the duke of 
Marlborough ~ sent out great bodies, both into the 
French Flanders and into the Artois, who brought 
in great stores of provisions : but that could not last 
long. 

The French army lay all along the Scheld, but 
had sent a great detachment to cover the Artois : 
509 all this while there was a great misunderstanding 
•tending'" between the duke of Burgundy and the duke of 
theTkM Vendome : the latter took so much upon him, that 
d' S^° *^^ other officers complained of his neglecting them ; 
Vendome. so they made their court to the duke of Burgundy, 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 369 

and laid the blame of all his miscarriages on Ven- 1708. 
dome. He kept close to the orders he had from 
Versailles, where the accounts he gave, and the ad- 
vices he offered, were more considered than those 
that were sent by the duke of Burgundy : this was 
very uneasy to him, who was impatient of contra- 
diction, and longed to be in action, though he did 
not shew the forwardness, in exposing his own per- 
son, that was expected : he seemed very devout, 
even to bigotry ; but by the accounts we had from 
France, it did appear that his conduct during the 
campaign gave no great hopes or prospect from 
him, when all things should come into his hands : 
Chamillard was often sent from court to soften him, 
and to reconcile him to the duke of Vendome, but 
with no effect. 

The elector of Bavaria had been sent to com- Affairs on 

-ni • 1 1 *''^ upper 

mand on the upper Rhme: the true reason was be-RUine. 
lieved, that he might not pretend to continue in the 
chief command in Flanders : he was put in hopes 
of being furnished with an army so strong, as to be 
able to break through into Bavaria. The elector of 
Hanover did again undertake the command of the 
army of the empire : both armies were weak ; but 
they were so equally weak, that they were not able 
to undertake any thing on either side : so after some 
months, in which there was no considerable action, 
the forces on both sides went into winter quarters. 
Then the court of France, believing that the elector The elector 
of Bavaria was so much beloved in Brussels, that he sent to at- 
had a great party in the town, ready to declare for^^s. ""' 
him, ordered an army of 14,000 men, with a good 
train of artillery, to be brought together, and with 
that body he was sent to attack Brussels ; in which 
VOL. V. B b 



370 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1708. there was a garrison of 6OOO men. He lay before 
the town five days ; in two of these he attacked it 
with great fury : he was once master of the counter- 
scarj), but he was soon beaten out of it ; and though 
he repeated his attacks very often, he was repulsed 
in them all, 
MwibS-*"^ The duke of Marlborough hearing of this, made 
rough pass- a suddeu motion towards the Scheld : but to deceive 

ed the . , , 

Scheld and the cucmy, it was given out, that he designed to 
march directly towards Ghendt, and this was be- 
lieved by his whole army, and it was probably car- 
ried to the enemy ; for they seemed to have no no- 
tice nor apprehension of his design on the Scheld : 
he advanced towards it in the night, and marched 
with the foot very quick, leaving the horse to come 
up with the artillery : the lines were so strong, that 
it was expected, that in the breaking through them 
510 there must have been a very hot action: some of 
the general officers told me, that they reckoned it 
would have cost them at least 10,000 men ; but to 
their great surprise, as soon as* they passed the river, 
tlie French ran away, without offering to make the 
least resistance ; and they had drawn off their can- 
non the day before. Our men were very weary 
with the night's march, so they could not pursue ; 
for the horse were not come up, nor did the garrison 
of Oudenarde sally out ; yet they took a thousand 
prisoners. Whether the notice of the feint, that the 
duke of Marlborough gave out, of his design on 
Ghendt, occasioned the French drawing off their 
cannon, and their being so secure, that they seemed 
to have no apprehensions of his true designs, was 
not yet certainly known : but the abandoning those 
lines, on which they had been working for many 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 371 

weeks, was a surprise to all the world : their coun- 1 708. 
cils seemed to be weak, and the execution of them " 

was worse : so that they, who were so long the ter- 
ror, were now become the scorn of the world. 

The main body of their army retired to Valen- The eiec- 
ciennes ; great detachments were sent to Ghendt and varia drX 
Bruges. As soon as the elector of Bavaria had thejJJ^"^ 
news of this unlooked for reverse of their affairs, he 
drew off from Brussels with such precipitation, that 
he left his heavy cannon and baggage, with his 
wounded men, behind him : so this design, in which 
3000 men were lost, came soon to an end. Those 
who thought of presages, looked on our passing the 
lines on the same day in which the parliament of 
England was opened, as a happy one. Prince Eu- 
gene had marched with the greatest part of the force 
that lay before Lisle, (leaving only what was neces- 
sary to keep the town, and to carry on the sap 
against the citadel,) to have a share in the action 
that was expected in forcing the lines : but he came 
quickly back, when he saw there was no need of 
him, and that the communication with Brussels was 
opened. 

The siege of the citadel was carried on in a slow The dtadei 
but sure method : and when the besiegers had pituiated. 
lodged themselves in the second counterscarp, and 
had raised all their batteries, so that they were 
ready to attack the place in a formidable manner ■*, 
mareschal Boufflers thought fit to prevent that, by a 

^ It was during the siege of cure theni a peace. Mr, Torcy 
Lisle, that the French court, refers to this transaction in his 
through the channel of the Memoirs, vol. ii. The duke of 
duke of Berwick, offered the Berwick's mother was Church- 
duke of Marlborough a consi- ill's sister. H. 
derable sum of money to pro- 

B 1) 2 



372 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1708. capitulation. It was now near the end of Novem- 
ber ; so he had the better terms granted him : for it 
was resolved, as late as it was in the year, to reduce 
Ghendt and Bruges, before this long campaign 
should be concluded: he marched out with 5000 
men, so that the siege had cost those within, as 
many lives as it did the besiegers, which were near 
8000. 
Reflections This was a great conquest ; the noblest, the rich- 

that passed . 

on it. est, and the strongest town in those provinces, was 
^■"^^thus reduced: and the most regular citadel in Eu- 
rope, fortified and furnished at a vast expense, was 
taken without firing one cannon against it. The gar- 
rison was obliged to restore to the inhabitants all 
that had been carried into the citadel, and to make 
good all the damages that had been done the town, 
by the demolishing of houses while they were prepar- 
ing themselves for the siege. All the several me- 
thods the French had used to give a diversion had 
proved ineffectual : but that in which the observers 
of Providence rejoiced most, was the signal charac- 
ter of a particular blessing on this siege : it was all 
the whole time a rainy season all Europe over, and 
in all the neighbouring places ; yet during the siege 
of the town, it was dry and fair about it : and on 
those days of capitulation, in which time was al- 
lowed for the garrison to march into the citadel, it 
rained ; but as soon as these were elapsed, so that 
they were at liberty to besiege the citadel, fair wea- 
ther returned, and continued till it was taken. 

Ghendt and From Lislc, thc army marched to invest Ghendt, 

Bruges re- . ■. • ^ t^ • -i 

taken. though it was latc in the year ; lor it was not done 
before December : the French boasted much of their 
strength, and they had, by some new works, made a 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 373 

shew of designing an obstinate resistance. They 1708. 
stood it out till the trenches were far advanced, and 
the batteries were finished, so that the whole train of 
artillery was mounted : when all was ready to fire 
on the town, the governor, to save both that and his 
garrison, thought fit to capitulate : he had an honour- 
able capitulation, and a general amnesty was gi-anted 
to the town, with a new confirmation of all their pri- 
vileges. The burghers did not deserve so good usage ; 
but it was thought fit to try how far gentle treatment 
could prevail on them, and overcome their perverse- 
ness : and indeed it may be thought, that they had 
suffered so much by their treachery, that they were 
sufficiently punished for it : Ghendt was delivered to 
the duke of Marlborough on the last of December 
N. S. ; so gloriously was both the year and the cam- 
paign finished at once : for the garrison, that lay at 
Bruges and in the forts about it, withdrew without 
staying for a summons. These being evacuated, the 
army was sent into winter quarters. 

It had not been possible to have kept them in a very hard 

* * wiater. 

the field much longer ; for within two or three days 
after, there was a great fall of snow, and that was 
followed by a most violent frost, which continued 
the longest of any in the memory of man : and 
though there were short intervals of a few days of 
thaw, we had four returns of an extreme frost, the 
whole lasting about three months. Many died in 512 
several parts by the extremity of the cold ; it was 
scarce possible to keep the soldiers alive, even in 
their quarters : so that they must have perished, if 
they had not broke up the campaign before this 
hard season. This coming on so quick, after all 

Bb3 



374 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1708. that was to be done abroad was effectuated, gave new 
occasions to those who made their remarks on Pro- 
vidence, to observe the very great blessings of this 
conjuncture, wherein every thing that was designed 
was happily ended just at the critical time that it 
was become necessary to conclude the campaign : 
and indeed the concurrence of those happy events, 
that had followed us all this year, from the pre- 
tender's first setting out from Dunkirk, to the con- 
clusion of it, was so signal, that it made great im- 
pressions on many of the chief officers, which some 
owned to my self; though they were the persons 
from whom I expected it least. 
Sardinia Thc Campaign in Spain was more equally ba- 

ca reduced, lauccd : the dukc of Orleans took Tortosa ; Denia 
was also forced to capitulate, and the garrison were 
made prisoners of war. But these losses by land 
were well made up by the successes of our fleet : 
Sardinia was reduced after a very feeble and short 
struggle : the plenty of the island made the con- 
quest the more considerable at that time, for in Ca- 
talonia they were much straitened for want of pro- 
visions, which were now supplied from Sardinia. 
Towards the end of the campaign, the fleet, with a 
thousand landmen on board, came before Minorca, 
and in a few days made themselves masters of that 
island, and of those forts that commanded Port Ma- 
hon, the only valuable thing in that island : all was 
carried after a very faint resistance, the garrisons 
shewing either great cowardice, or great inclinations 
to king Charles. By this, our fleet had got a safe 
port to lie in and refit, and to retire into on all oc- 
casions ; for till then we had no place nearer than 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 375 

Lisbon : this was such an advantage to us, as made 1708. 
a great impression on all the princes and states in 
Italy'. 

At this time the pope began to threaten the em- The pope 

. 1 1 • • 1 1 n threatens 

peror with ecclesiastical censures and a war, lortheempe- 
possessing himself of Commachio, and for taking ceLu'res 
quarters in the papal territories : he levied troops, '"^^ * ^"' 
and went often to review them, not without the 
affectation of shewing himself a general, as if he 
had been again to draw the sword, as St. Peter 
did : he opened Sixtus the fifth's treasure, and took 
out of it 500,000 crowns for this service. Many 
were afraid that this war should have brought the 
emperor's affairs into a new entanglement ; for the 
court of France laid hold of this rupture, and, to 
inflame it, sent mareschal Tesse to Rome, to encou- 
rage the pope, with great assurances of support. 513 
He was also ordered to try, if the great duke, and 
the republics of Venice and Genoa, could be en- 
gaged in an alliance against the imperialists. 

The emperor bore all the pope's threats with The duke of 
great patience, till the duke of Savoy ended the Exiiies and 
campaign : that duke, at the first opening of it, *°"^* *• 
marched into Savoy, from whence it was thought 
his designs were upon Dauphiny. Villars was sent 
against him, to defend that frontier ; though he did 
all he could to decline that command : he drew all 
his forces together to cover Dauphiny ; and by these 

' This important acquisition, Boyer's Annals of Queen Anne, 

as it has proved to Great Bri- and the letter there of the then 

tain, was owing to the bravery secretary of state, (earl of Sun- 

and conduct of Stanhope, af- derland,) to general Stanhope, 

terwards earl Stanhope 4 and on the occasion of this con- 

for his part in it, though not (|uest, pp. 349, — 50, — 51. O. 
mentioned by our author, see 

Bb4 



376 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1708. motions the passage into the Alps was now open : so 
the duke of Savoy secured that, and then marched 
back to besiege, first Exilles, and then Fenestrella, 
two places strong by their situation, from whence 
excursions could have been made into Piedmont ; so 
that in case of any misfortune in that duke's affairs, 
they would have been very uneasy neighbours to 
him : he took them both. The greatest difficulty in 
those sieges was from the impracticableness of the 
gi'ound, which drew them out into such a length, 
that the snow began to fall by the time both were 
taken. By this means the Alps were cleared, and 
Dauphiny was now open to him : he was also mas- 
ter of the valley of Pragelas, and all things were 
ready for a greater progress in another campaign. 

The emperor's troops, that were commanded by 
him, were, at the end of the season, ordered to 
march into the pope's territories ; and were joined 
by some more troops, drawn out of the Milanese 
and the Mantuan. The pope's troops began the 
war in a very barbarous manner; for while they 
were in a sort of a cessation, they surprised a body 
of the imperiaUsts, and without mercy put them all 
to the sword : but as the imperial army advanced, 
the Papalins, or, as the Italians in derision called 
them, the Papagallians, fled every where before 
them, even when they were three to one. As they 
came on, the pope's territories and places were all 
cast open to them : Bologna, the most important 
and the richest of them all, capitulated; and re- 
ceived them without the least resistance. The peo- 
ple of Rome were uneasy at the pope's proceedings, 
and at the apprehensions of a new sack from ^ 
German army : they shewed this so openly, that tu- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 3T7 

mults there were much dreaded, and many cardinals 1 708. 
declared openly against this war. The emperor sent 
a minister to Rome, to see if matters could be ac- 
commodated : but the terms proposed seemed to be 
of hard digestion ; for the pope was required to ac- 
knowledge king Charles, and in every particular to 
comply with the emperor's demands. 

The pope was amazed at his ill success, and at The pope i« 
those high terms ; but there was no remedy left : submit to 
the ill state of affairs in France was now so visible, ror.**"^*" 
that no regard was had to the great promises which 51 4 
mareschal Tesse was making, nor was there any 
hopes of drawing the princes and states of Italy into 
an alliance for his defence. In conclusion, the pope, 
after he had delayed yielding to the emperor's de- 
mands long enough to give the imperialists time to 
eat up his country, at last submitted to every thing ; 
yet he delayed acknowledging king Charles for some 
months, though he then promised to do it; upon 
which the emperor drew his troops out of his terri- 
tories. The pope turned over the manner of ac- And ac- 

1 1 • 1 • r^t 1 • n knowledged 

knowledgmg kmg Charles to a congregation of car- king 
dinals : but they had no mind to take the load of 
this upon themselves, which would draw an exclu- 
sion upon them from France in every conclave; 
they left it to the pope, and he affected delays ; so 
that it was not done till the end of the following 
year. 

The affairs in Hungary continued in the same ill Affairs in 

•I'lii-ii r» ■• Iltingary. 

state m which they had been lor some years : the 
emperor did not grant the demands of the diet that 
he had called, nor did he redress their grievances, 
and he had not a force strong enough to reduce the 



878 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
1 708. malecontents ; so that his council could not fall on 



methods, either to satisfy or to subdue them. 
And in Poland continued still to be a scene of war and 

PoUnd. 

misery : to their other calamities they had the addi- 
tion of a plague, which laid some of their great 
towns waste : the party formed against Stanislaus 
continued still to oppose him, though they had no 
king to head them. The king of Sweden's warlike 
humour possessed him to such a degree, that he re- 
solved to march into Muscovy. The czar tried how 
far submissions and intercessions could soften him ; 
but he was inflexible: he marched through the 
Ukrain, but made no great progress; the whole 
Muscovite force fell on one of his generals, that had 
about him only a part of his army, and gave him a 
total defeat, most of his horse being cut off. After 
that, we were for many months without any certain 
news from those parts : both sides pretended they 
had great advantages ; and as Stanislaus's interests 
carried him to set out and magnify the Swedish suc- 
cess, so the party that opposed him studied as much 
to raise the credit of the Muscovites : so that it was 
not yet easy to know what to believe further, than 
that there had been no decisive action throughout 
the whole year ; nor was there any during the fol- 
lowing winter. 
Affairs at Our affairs at sea were less unfortunate this year 
than they had been formerly : the merchants were 
515 better served with convoys, and we made no con- 
siderable losses. A squadron that was sent to the 
bay of Mexico met with the galleons, and engaged 
them: if all their captains had done their duty, 
they had been all taken : some few fought weU. 



sea. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 379 

The admiral of the galleons, which carried a great 1708. 
treasure, was sunk; the vice-admiral was taken; and 
the rear-admiral run himself ashore near Cartagena; 
the rest got away. The enemy lost a great deal by 
this action, though we did not gain so much as we 
might have done, if all our captains had been brave 
and diligent "". Another squadron carried over the 
queen of Portugal, which was performed with great 
magnificence : she had a quick and easy passage. 
This did in some measure compensate to that crown 
for our failing them, in not sending over the sup- 
plies that we had stipulated; it was a particular hap- 
piness, that the Spaniards were so weak, as not to 
be able to take advantage of the naked and un- 
guarded state in which the Portugueze were at this 
time. 

In the end of October, George prince of Denmark Prince ^ 
died, in the fifty-sixth year of his age, after he had death. 

""Wager was the commander most ordinary acts of his life, 

of this squadron, and behaved He was indeed a person of 

greatly in the action. "He was most extraordinary worth, and 

afterwards at the head of our the world bore him a respect 

sea affairs, and very able in that was due to it. His father 

that knowledge. He was of was a captain of a man of war 

the most gentle and humane before the restoration, and very 

disposition I ever knew, and likely after that : but dying 

spent almost the whole he got when this son was young, and 

in the most generous acts of the mother marrying a quaker, 

charity and compassion. 1 had he was bred up among that 

a long and intimate acquaint- people; by which he acquired 

ance with him, and have seen the simplicity of his manners, 

where his temper has been tried and had much of their fashion in 

by much provocation, but I his speech as well as carriage, 

never saw him discomposed. And all this, with his particular 

He had a very good under- roughness of countenance, made 

standing, great plainness of the softness of his nature still 

manners, and a steadiness of more pleasing, because unex- 

courage that no danger could pected at his first appearance, 

daunt, with the same calmness O. 
in it that he showed in the 



880 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
1708. been twenty-five years and some months married to 



the queen : he was asthmatical, which grew on him 
with his years : for some time he was considered as 
a dying man, but the last year of his life he seemed 
to be recovered to a better state of health. The 
queen had been, during the whole course of her 
marriage, an extraordinary tender and affectionate 
wife : and in aU his illness, which lasted some years, 
she would never leave his bed ; but sat up, some- 
times half the night in the bed by him, with such 
* care and concern, that she was looked on very de- 
servedly as a pattern in this respect. 
And cha- This priucc had shewn himself brave in war, both 

r&ct^r. 

in Denmark and in Ireland. His temper was mild 
and gentle : he had made a good progress in mathe- 
matics : he had travelled through France, Italy, and 
Germany, and knew much more than he could well 
express ; for he spoke acquired languages ill and un- 
gracefully. He was free from all vice : he meddled 
little in business, even after the queen's accession to 
the crown : he was so gained to the tories, by the 
act which they carried in his favour, that he was 
much in their interest : he was unhappily prevailed 
with to take on him the post of high-admiral, of 
which he understood little ; but was fatally led by 
those who had credit with him, who had not all of 
them his good qualities, but had both an iU temper 
and bad principles " : his being bred to the sea 
gained him some credit in those matters. In the 
conduct of our affaire, as great errors were com- 
5l6imtted, so great misfortunes had followed on them: 

" (Admiral Churchill, the ed, and his political principles, 
brother of the duke of Marlbo- as he was a tory, condemned.) 
rough, is here principally intend- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 



381 



all these were imputed to the prince's easiness, and 1708. 
to his favourite's ill management and bad designs. 
This drew a very heavy load on the prince, and 
made his death to be the less lamented " : the queen 
was not only decently, but deeply affected with it. 

The earl of Pembroke was now advanced to the a new mi- 
post of high-admiral; which he entered on with"'**^' 
great uneasiness, and a just apprehension of the dif- 
ficulty of maintaining it well in a time of war : he 
was at that time both lord president of the council 
and lord lieutenant of Ireland. The earl of Wharton 
had the government of Ireland, and the lord Somers 
was made lord president of the council p. The great 



° (" In the prosecution of the 
*• inquiry (into the great losses 
** of the merchants at sea,) great 
" abuses were dLscovered in the 
" department of the admiralty, 
" which was managed by a 
" council, in the name of the 
" prince of Denmark, who bore 
" the name, but not the power 
*' of lord admiral." Macpher- 
son's Hist, of Great Britain, 
vol. iii. ch. 7. p. 382. Ralph 
also, in his Answer to the 
Duchess of Marlborough's Ac- 
count of her Conduct, affirms, 
that our whole marine was at 
this time most deplorably ma- 
naged bj the council of the ad- 
miralty, p. 211.) 

P (The following account of 
these appointments is given by 
Mr. Hamilton, a descendant of 
that duke of Hamilton who was 
killed in 1 712. In his preface 
to his Transactions during the 
Reign of Queen Anne, published 
in 1 790, he mentions family me- 
moirs as the authorities which 
form the basis of his work. 



At p. T 10 he writes thus: "On 
being nominated high-admi- 
ral, lord Pembroke of course 
resigned both the presidency 
of the council and the go- 
vernment of Ireland. Lord 
Somers, who had been totally 
overlooked in all the political 
arrangements of this reign, 
was appointed president of 
the council ; and lord Whar- 
ton, professing himself a 
whig, but intrinsically void of 
moral or religious principles, 
who with mischievous abili- 
ties had long been a thorn in 
the minister's sides, was ap- 
pointed lord lieutenant of Ire- 
land. Lord Dorset and others 
were sworn in members of 
her majesty's privy council, 
and gratified to the full ex- 
tent of their wishes. It 
may not be amiss in this 
place to detail the circum- 
stances attending the minis- 
ter's deviation from his ori- 
ginal system, and give a par- 
ticular account of the extra- 



382 



THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 



1708. 



" ordinary means employed by 
_ " lord Wharton to recommend 
" himself so suddenly to Go- 
" dolphin's notice. The mar- 
" quis of Annandale happened 
" to have in his possession one 
" of the treasurer's original let- 
" ters to the court of St. Ger- 
" mains. By insinuating his 
" certain knowledge of lord 
" Godolphin's secret and tic- 
" klish manoeuvres with the ex- 
" eluded prince, while a peti- 
" tion of his lay pending a- 
" gainst an undue return in 
" the election of one of the 
" peers for Scotland, the full 
" support of government was 
" instantaneously afforded to 
" seat him in the house of 
" peers. Lord Wharton, hav- 
" ing got wind of this cir- 
" cumstance, entered into an 
" immediate treaty with the 
'" marquis for his miraculous 
" manuscript. For some con- 
" sideration, either given or 
" promised, it was readily trans- 
" ferred to him. No sooner 
" was lord Godolphin apprised 
" of his lying at the mercy of 
" lord Wharton, than he be- 
" came as pliant and gracious 
" as he had, a while before, 
" been lofty and distant. In 
" the height of his alarm, he, 
" with all expedition, imparted 
" the serious tidings to the 
" duke of Marlborough ; who, 
" without loss of time, directed 
" him, by all possible means, 
" to be speedy in hushing the 
" business, and giving to the 
" holder of the letter whatever 
" he should ask. Lord Whar- 
" ton was not of a selfish na- 
" ture ; he regarded his friends ; 
" he contented himself with 
'• the government of Ireland 



" for his own share; and in- 
" sisted upon the privy seal for 
" lord Somers, the admission 
" in council of lord Dorset, 
" and some other douceurs for 
" other friends. MS. Anec- 
" dotes," At p. 120, Mr. Ha- 
milton proceeds in his account 
of this curious transaction : 
" While these debates occu- 
" pied the attention of parlia- 
" ment, the trepidations of the 
" lord treasurer were unde- 
" scribable. The urgent neces- 
" sity of an ample act of grace, 
" both for his own and Marl- 
" borough's protection, mani- 
'• fested itself more and more 
" every moment. The latter, 
" whom private business no 
" longer kept on the continent, 
•' impatiently pressed the mi- 
" nister to expedite that salu- 
" tary measure. Godolphin 
" needed no spurring to be 
" quickened in his pace; but 
" he dreaded to breathe a syl- 
" lable on the subject, while his 
" newly acquired friend, the 
" mischievous Wharton, re- 
" mained in the kingdom. En- 
" treaties and promises were 
" not spared, to persuade him 
" to repair to Ireland, and take 
" possession of his viceroyal- 
" ty: temporary embarrassments 
" were pleaded as the causes of 
" delay : these the treasurer in- 
" stantly removed with a consi- 
" derable pecuniary aid. All 
" excuses for tarrying longer 
" in the kingdom being thus 
" obviated, lord Wharton was 
" forced to leave London, fully 
" resolved to make fiirther use 
" of his precious talisman. No 
" sooner, however, was the lord 
'• lieutenant's back turned, than 
" the famous bill was intro- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 383 

capacity and inflexible integrity of this lord, would J708. 
have made his promotion to this post very accept- 
able to the whigs at any juncture, but it was most 
particularly so at this time: for it was expected, that 
propositions for a general peace would be quickly 
made ; and so they reckoned, tliat the management 
of that, upon which not only the safety of the na- 
tion, but of all Europe depended, was in sure hands, 
when he was set at the head of the councils, upon 
whom neither ill practices nor false colours were 
like to make any impression. Thus the minds of all 
those who were truly zealous ,for the present con- 
stitution were much quieted by this promotion ; 
though their jealousies had a deep root, and were 
not easily removed. 

The parliament was opened in the middle of No- a new par- 
vember With great advantage: lor the present mi- opened. 

" duced ; and so rapidly was it posed by Marlborough's son- 

" pushed through the houses, in-law, the earl of Sunder- 

" that the first intelligence land, archdeacon Coxe, in his 

" received by his excellency life of the former, makes the 

" on reaching Dublin was, following observation : *' This 

" that the minister had fairly *' act could not be othenvise 

" worked himself out of his " than agreeable to Godolphin 

" clutches, and was perfectly " and Marlborough, and to the 

" safe under the potent shield *' nunierouspersons,of all ranks 

" of an act of grace, pointedly " and descriptions, who, since 

" and especially pardoning all '* the abdication of James, had 

" correspondence with the court " carried on a correspondence, 

" of St. Germain. MS. Anec- " either by letter or message, 

" dotes." Macpherson, in his " with the Stuart family, and 

History of Great Britain, which "who had been held in per- 

was published in 1775, had be- " petual anxiety, lest, by some 

fore given the substance of this " unforeseen change of politics, 

account. See vol. ii. ch. 7. p. " the sympathy which they had 

406. On the act of grace, " shewn towards their dethron- 

which comprehended every spe- " ed sovereign should be visited 

cies of treason, except such as " with the heaviest vengeance 

had been committed on the " of the law." Vol. iii. ch. 78. 

high seas, and which was pro- p. 20.) 



384 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1 708. nistiy was now wholly such, that it gave an entire 
content to all who wished well to our affairs; and 
the great successes abroad silenced those who were 
otherwise disposed to find fault and to complain. 
The queen did not think it decent for her to come 
to parliament during this whole session ; so it was 
managed by a commission representing her person. 
Sir Richard Onslow was chosen speaker without the 
least opposition : he was a worthy man, entirely zea- 
lous for the government ; he was very acceptable to 
the whigs ^, and the tories felt that they had so little 
strength in this parliament, that they resolved to lie 
silent, and to wait for such advantages as the cir- 
cumstances of affairs might give them. In the house 
of commons, the supplies that were demanded were 
granted very unanimously, not only for maintaining 
the force then on foot, but for an augmentation of 
10,000 more : this was thought necessary to press 
the war with more force, as the surest way to bring 
on a speedy peace : the States agreed to the like 
augmentation on their side. The French, according 
to their usual vanity, gave out, that they had great 
designs in view for the next campaign : and it was 
confidently spread about by the Jacobites, that a 
517 new invasion was designed, both on Scotland and 
on Ireland. At the end of the campaign, prince 
Eugene went to the court of Vienna, which obliged 

^ He was a very trifling, vain house of lords, notwithstanding 
man, of a ridiculous figure; full the contemptible denomination 
of party zeal, by which he ex- of Stiff Dick, usually given him 
pected to go shares in the com- by the whole party, except bi- 
pany's merits, though he brought shop Burnet, and a few solemn 
little to the common stock, be- nonconformists, who looked up- 
sides being descended from one on him with reverence, as a man 
of Oliver's lords; which intro- greatly gifted, D. (Hewasun- 
duced him at last into the cleof speaker Onslow.) 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 385 

the duke of Maiiborougli to stay on the other side 1708. 
till he returned. Things went on in both houses ac- 
cording to the directions given at court, for the 
court being now joined with the whigs, they had a 
clear majority in every thing: all elections were 
judged in favour of whigs and courtiers, but with 
so much partiality ^ that those who had formerly 
made loud complaints of the injustice of the.tories 
in determining elections, when they were a majority, 
were not so much as out of countenance when they 
were reproached for the same thing : they pretended 
they were in a state of war with the tories, so that 
it was reasonable to retaliate this to them on the ac- 
count of their former proceedings ; but this did not 
satisfy just and upright men, who would not do to 
others that which they had complained of, when it 
was done to them or to their friends. The house of 
commons voted a supply of seven millions for the 
service of the ensuing year : the land-tax and the duty 
on malt were readily agreed to ; but it took some 
time to find a fund for the rest that they had voted. 

A petition of a new nature was brought before 1709. 
the lords, with relation to the election of the peers ^^^^'^'*^*^''^^ 
from Scotland: there was a return made in due*!'^*'*^- 

tions of toe 

form, but a petition was laid before the house in the peers of 
name of four lords, who pretended that they ought 
to have been returned : the duke of Queensbury 
had been created a duke of Great Britain, by the 
title of duke of Dover, yet he thought he had still a 
right to vote as a peer of Scotland : he had likewise 
a proxy, so that two votes depended on this point, 
whether the Scotch peerage did sink into the peerage 

■■ See antea, p. 41 1. O. 
VOL. V. C C 



386 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1709. of Great Britain \ Some lords who were prisoners 
in the castle of Edinburgh on suspicion, as favouring 
the pretender, had sent for the sheriff of Lothian to 
the castle, and had taken the oaths before him ; and 
upon that were reckoned to be qualified to vote or 
make a proxy ; now it was pretended that the castle 
of Edinburgh was a constabulatory, and was out of 
the sheriff's jurisdiction ; and that therefore he could 
not legally tender them the oaths : some proxies 
were signed without subscribing witnesses, a form 
necessary by their law : other exceptions were also 
taken from some rules of the law of Scotland, which 
had not been observed. The clerks being also com- 
plained of, they were sent for, and were ordered to 
bring up with them all instruments or documents 
relating to the election : when they came up, and 
every thing was laid before the house of lords, the 
whole matter was long and well debated. 
518 As to the duke of Queensbury's voting among the 
^ee^r'crelted ^cotch lords, it was Said, that if a peer of Scotland, 
a peer of heiYis made a peer of Great Britain, did still retain 

Great Bri- , f ^ 

tain was to his iutcrcst iu electing the sixteen from Scotland, 

have no , . , , , ,. 

vote there, this would crcatc a great mequality among peers ; 
some having a vote by representation as well as in 
person : the precedent was mischievous, since by the 
creating some of the chief families in Scotland peers of 
Great Britain, they would be able to carry the whole 
election of the sixteen as they pleased. It was object- 
ed, that by a clause in the act passed since the union, 
the peers of England (who were likewise peers of 
Scotland) had a right to vote in the election of Scot- 
land still reserved to them, so there seemed to be a 
parity in this case with that : but it was answered, 

» See iiostea, p. 586, 587. O. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 387 

that a peer of England and a peer of Scotland held 1 709. 
their dignity under two different crowns, and by two 
different great seals : but Great Britain including 
Scotland as well as England, the Scotch peerage must 
now merge in that of Great Britain : besides, that 
there were but five, who were peers of both king- 
doms before the union ' ; so that, as it might be rea- 
sonable to make provision for them, so was it of no 
great consequence ; but if this precedent were allow- 
ed, it might go much further, and have very ill con- 
sequences. Upon a division of the house, the mat- 
ter was determined against the duke of Queensbury. 

A great deal was said both at the bar by lawyers, other ex- 
and in the debate in the house, upon the point of ju-wire'Te'ter- 
risdiction, and of the exemption of a constabulatory : '"'"**'* 
it was said, that the sheriffs' court ought to be, as all 
courts were, open and free ; and so could not be held 
within a castle or prison : but no express decision 
had ever been made in- this matter. The prisoners 
had taken the oaths, which was the chief intent of 
the law, in the best manner they could ; so that it 
seemed not reasonable to cut them off from the 
main privilege of peerage, that was reserved to them, 
because they could not go abroad to the sheriffs' 
court : after a long debate, it was carried that the 
oaths were duly tendered to them. Some other ex- 

* And they were allowed it for being so, as they gave the 

for no other reason, but be- greater proof of his absolute 

cause they could not be well power. And when the autho- 

separated from the duke of rity of the crown was not suffi- 

Marlborough, who was baron cient, the whole legislature was 

of Aymouth in Scotland, and called upon to assist ; as in the 

would have it so : which was settlement of his titles, and of 

reason enough at that time for the honour of Woodstock, with 

the most unreasonable things the revenue annexed to it, &c. 

that could be done ; and he D. 
seemed to Kke them the better 

C c2 



388 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1709. ceptions were proved and admitted, the returns of 
some, certifying" that they had taken the oaths, were 
not sealed, and some had signed these without sub- 
scribing witnesses : other exceptions were offered 
from provisions the law of Scotland had made with 
relation to bonds and other deeds, which had not 
been observed in making of proxies : but the house 
of lords did not think these were of that importance, 
as to vacate the proxies on that account. So, after 
a full hearing, and a debate that lasted many days, 
there was but one of the peers, that was returned, 
who was found not duly elected, and only one of the 
519 petitioning lords was brought into the house; the 
marquess of Annandale was received, and the mar- 
quess of Lothian was set aside. 
A faction 'pj^g gcotch members in both houses were divided 

among the 

Scots. into factions. The duke of Queensbury had his party 
still depending on him : he was in such credit with 
the lord treasurer and the queen, that all the posts 
in Scotland were given to persons recommended by 
him : the chief ministers at court seemed to have 
laid it down for a maxim, not to be departed from, 
to look carefully to elections in Scotland ; that the 
meml)ers returned from thence might be in an entire 
dependance on them, and be either whigs or tories, 
as they should shift sides. The duke of Queensbury 
was made third secretary of state ; he had no foreign 
province assigned him, but Scotland was left to his 
management " : the dukes of Hamilton, Montross, and 

" I presume the party the anil an equal share in the pro- 
bishop mentions did the biisi- fits with tlie other secretaries, 
ness for him, for he did not When I came into the office, 
seem capable of doing much he had a province assigned him, 
himself. His secretary's place which was Russia, Poland, Swe- 
was almost a sinecure, though den, and Denmark ; and the se- 
he had. the same appointments venteen provinces were taken 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 389 

Roxburgh, had set themselves in an opposition to his 1 709. 
power, and had carried many elections against him : 
the lord Somers and Sunderland supported them, but 
could not prevail with the lord treasurer to bring 
them into an equal share of the administration ; this 
had almost occasioned a breach ; for the whigs, 
though they went on in a conjunction with the lord . 
treasurer, yet continued still to be jealous of him ". 

Another act was brought in and passed in this An act con- 
session, with relation to Scotland, which gave occa- triai^^f 
sion to great and long debates ^ ; what gave rise to sSSd." 
it was this : upon the attempt made by the pre- 
tender, many of the nobility and gentry of Scotland, 
who had all along adhered to that interest, were se- 
cured ; and after the fleet was got back to Dunkirk, 
and the danger was over, they were ordered to be 
brought up prisoners to London ; when they came, 
there was no evidence at all against them, so they 
were dismissed, and sent back to Scotland. No ex- 
ceptions could be taken to the securing them, while 
there was danger : but since nothing besides pre- 

from the southern province, and to support his administration, 

annexed to what was called the There were many national 

northern before. When he died, points touched upon in it, as 

I carried his seals to the queen: well as some personal ones. H. 

in the outward room I met the y (For an account of thisstfug- 

duke of Buckingham, who with gle in Scotland respecting the 

a very grave face told me, he elections, when Sunderland and 

thought he was a great loss to the other whigs united them- 

the whole court ; for every body selves with the Jacobites against 

might reasonably plead, that the_ ministry, see Ralph's An- 

they deserved as much as the swer to the Account of the Du- 

duke of Queensburj'. D. chess of Marlborough's Conduct, 

'^ Amongst lord Somers's pa- p. 379 — 382. and his Use and 

pers was one containing the Abuse of Parliaments, vol. i. p. 

points which the whigs insisted 158. with Coxe's Life of the 

upon lord Godolphin's com- Duke of Marlborough, vol. ii. 

pliance with them in, before chap. Ixvii. p. 436 — 438.) 
they could bring themselves 

c c 3 



»90 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1709. sumptions lay against them, the bringing them up 
to London, at such a charge, and under such a dis- 
grace, was much censured, as an unreasonable and 
an unjust severity ; and was made use of to give 
that nation a further aversion to the union. That 
whole matter was managed by the Scotch lords then 
in the ministry, by which they both revenged them- 
selves on some of their enemies, and made a shew 
of zeal for the government ; though such as did not 
believe them sincere in these professions, thought it 
was done on design to exasperate the Scots the 
more, and so to dispose them to wish for another in- 
vasion. The whig ministry in England disowned 
all these proceedings, and used the Scots prisoners 
so well, that they went down much inclined to con- 
520 cur with them : but the lord Godolphin fatally ad- 
hered to the Scotch ministers, and supported them, 
by which the advantage that might have been made 
from these severe proceedings was lost ; but the 
chief occasion given to the act concerning treasons 
in Scotland, was from a trial of some gentlemen of 
that kingdom who had left their houses, when the 
pretender was on the sea, and had gone about 
armed, an^ in so secret and suspicious a manner, 
that it gave great cause of jealousy : there was no 
clear evidence to convict them, but there were very 
strong, if not violent presumptions against them : 
some forms in the trial had not been observed, 
which the criminal court judged were necessary, 
and not to be dispensed with. But the queen's ad- 
vocate. Sir James Stuart, was of another mind : the 
court thought it was necessary by their laws, that 
the names of the witnesses should have been signi- 
fied to the prisoners fifteen days before their trial : 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 391 

but *the queen's advocate had not complied with 1709. 
this, as to the chief witnesses ; so the court could 
not hear their evidence : he did not upon that move 
for a delay, so the trial went on, and the gentlemen 
were acquitted. Severe expostulations passed be- 
tween the queen's advocate and the court : they 
complained of one another to the queen, and both 
sides justified their complaints in print. Upon this 
it appeared, that the laws in Scotland, concerning 
trials in cases of , treason, were not fixed nor certain : 
so a bill was brought into the house of commons, 
to settle that matter ; but it was so much opposed 
by the Scotch members, that it was dropt in the 
committee : it was taken up and managed with more 
zeal by the lords. 

It consisted of three heads : all crimes which T^e heads 

of the act. 

were high treason by the law of England (and these 
only) were to be high treason in Scotland : the 
manner of proceeding settled in England was to be 
observed in Scotland ; and the pains and forfeitures 
were to ])e the same in both nations. The Scotch 
lords opposed every branch of this act : they moved, 
that all things that were high treason by the law of 
England might be enumerated in the act for the 
information of the Scotch nation : otherwise they 
must study the book of statutes to know when they 
were safe, and when they were guilty. To this it 
was answered, that direction would be given to the 
judges to publish an abstract of the laws of high 
treason, which would be a sufficient information to 
the people of Scotland in this matter : that nation 
would by this means be in a much safer condition 
than they were now ; for the laws they had were 

c c 4 



892 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
1709- conceived in such general words, that the judges 



might put such constructions on them as should 

serve the ends of a bad court ; but they would by 

this act be restrained in this matter for the future. 

521 The second head in this bill occasioned a much 

The forms longer debate : it changed the whole method of pro- 
of proceed- 00 r 

inp in Scot- ceedings in Scotland : the former way there was, 
the queen's advocate signed a citation of the per- 
sons, setting forth the special matter of high trea- 
son of which they were accused ; this was to be de- 
livered to them, together with the names of the wit- 
nesses, fifteen days before the trial. When the jury 
was empanneled, no peremptory challenges were 
allowed ; reasons were to be offered with every chal- 
lenge, and if the court admitted them, they were to 
be proved immediately. Then the matter of the 
charge, which is there called the relevancy of the 
libel, was to ])e argued by lawyers, whether the 
matter, suppose it should be proved, did amount to 
high treason or not ; this was to be determined by a 
sentence of the court called the Interloquitur : and 
the proof of the fact was not till then to be made : 
of that the jury had the cognisance. Anciently the 
verdict went with the majority, the number being 
fifteen ; but by a late act, the verdict was to be 
given upon the agreement of two tliird parts of the 
jury : in the sentence, the law did not limit the 
judges to a certain form, but they could aggravate 
the punishment, or moderate it, according to the 
circumstances of the case. AU this method was to 
he set aside : a grand jury was to find the bill, the 
judges were only to regulate proceedings, and to 
declare what the law was, and the whole matter of 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 393 

the indictment was to be left entirely to the juiy, 1709. 
who were to be twelve, and all to agree in their 
verdict. 

In one particular, the forms in Scotland were 
much preferable to those in England ; the deposi- 
tions of the witnesses were taken indeed by word of 
mouth, but were writ out, and after that, were signed 
by the witnesses ; they were sent in to the jury ; 
and these were made a part of the record. This 
was very slow and tedious, but the jury, by this 
means, was more certainly possessed of the evidence ; 
and the matter was more clearly delivered down to 
posterity : whereas the records in England are very 
defective, and give no light to a historian that pe- 
ruses them, as I found when I wrote the History of 
the Reformation. 

The Scotch opposed this alteration of their way 
of proceeding ; they said, that neither the judges, 
the advocates, nor the clerks would know how to 
manage a trial of treason : they insisted most on 
the having the names of the witnesses, to be given 
to the persons some days before their trial : it seemed 
reasonable, that a man should know who was to l)e 
brought to witness against him, that so he might 
examine his life, and see what credit ought to be 
given to him : on the other hand it was said, this 
would open a door to much practice, either upon 522 
the witnesses to corrupt them, or in suborning other 
witnesses, to defame them. To this it was an- 
swered, that a guilty man knew what could be 
brought against him, and without such notice would 
take all the methods possible to defend himself: but 
provision ought to be made for innocent men, whose 
chief guilt might be a good estate, upon which a fa- 



394 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1709. vourite might have an eye: and therefore such per- 
sons ought to be taken care of. This was after- 
wards so much softened, that it was only desired, 
that the names of the witnesses that had given evi- 
dence to the grand jury should, upon their finding 
the bill, be signified to the prisoner five days before 
his trial. Upon a division of the house on this ques- 
tion, the votes were equal; so by the rule of the 
house, that in such a case the negative prevails, it 
Of the for- was lost. Upou the third head of the bill, the de- 

feitures in 

cases of batcs grcw still warmer : in Scotland many fami- 

trc&soD 

lies were settled by long entails and perpetuities ; 
so it was said, that since, by one of the articles of 
the union, aU private rights were still preserved, no 
breach could be made on these settlements. I car- 
ried this farther ; I thought it was neither just nor 
reasonable to set the children on begging for their 
fathers' faults ''■ : the Romans, during their liberty, 
never thought of carrying punishments so far : it 
was an invention under the tyranny of the empe- 
rors, who had a particular revenue called the Fisc, 
and all forfeitures were claimed by them, from 
whence they were called confiscations : it was never 
the practice of free governments : Bologna flourished 
beyond any town in the pope's dominions, because 
they made it an article of their capitulation with the 
pope, that no confiscation should follow on any 
crime whatsoever. In Holland the confiscation was 
redeemable by so very small a sum, as an hundred 
guilders : many instances could be brought of pro- 

* I have ever been most written by my friend, the ho- 

strenuously for this, notwith- nourable Mr. Charles Yorke, 

standing a very learned and now solicitor general. O. 
able treatise upon forfeitures 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 395 

seditions, only to obtain the confiscation : but none 1709. 

of the lords seconded me in this ; it was acknow- 

ledged, that this was just and reasonable, and fit to 
be passed in good times ; but since we were now ex- 
posed to so much danger from abroad, it did not 
seem advisable to abate the severity of the law : 
but clauses were agreed to, by which, upon mar- 
riages, settlements might be made in Scotland, as 
was practised in England ; for no estate is forfeited 
for the crime of him who is only tenant for life. 
By this act also, tortures were condemned, and the 
queen was impowered to grant commissions of Oyer 
and Terminer, as in England, for trying treasons : 
the Scotch insisted on this, that the justiciary or the 
criminal court being preserved by an article of the 
imion, this broke in upon that. It was answered, 
the criminal court was still to sit in the times regu- 523 
lated : but these commissions were granted upon 
special occasions. In the intervals, between the 
terms, it might be necessary upon some emergency 
not to delay trials too long : but to give some con- 
tent, it was provided by a clause, that a judge of 
the criminal court should be always one of the quo- 
rum, in these commissions : so the bill passed in 
the house of lords, notwithstanding the opposition 
of all the Scotch lords, with whom many of the 
tories concurred ; they being disposed to oppose the 
court in every thing, and to make treason as little to 
be dreaded as possible. 

The bill met with the same opposition in theAmend- 
house of commons ; yet it passed with two amend- the act, 
ments : by one, the names of the witnesses that had 
appeared before the grand jury were ordered to be 



396 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1709. sent to the prisoner ten days before his trial'*: the 
other was, that no estate in land was to be forfeited 
upon a judgment of high treason : this came up 
fully to the motion I had made. Both these amend- 
ments were looked on as such popular things, that 
it was not probable that the house of commons 
would recede from them : upon that, the whigs in 
the house of lords did not think fit to oppose them, 
or to lose the bill : so it was moved to agree to 
these amendments, with this proviso, that they 
should not take place till after the death of the pre- 
tender : it was said, that since he assumed the title 
of king of Great Britain, and had so lately at- 
tempted to invade us, it was not reasonable to 
lessen the punishment and the dread of treason as 
long as he lived. Others objected to this, that there 
would be stUl a pretender after him, since so many 
persons stood in the lineal descent before the house 
of Hanover ; so that this proviso seemed to be, upon 
the matter, the rejecting the amendment: but it 
was observed, that to pretend to the right of suc- 
ceeding, was a different thing from assuming the 
title, and attempting an invasion. The amendment 
was received by the house of lords with this pro- 
viso ; those who were against the whole bill did not 
agree to it. The house of commons consented to 
the proviso which the lords had added to their 
amendment, with a further addition, that it should 
not take place till three years after the house of 
Hanover should succeed to the crown ''. 

" It is to be a list of the names of Anne, chap. 2 1 . O. 
of the witnesses who are to be '' It is now extended till after 

produced at the trial, and of the death of the pretender's 

the jury also. See the act 7th sons. O. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 397 

This met witli great opposition; it was considered 1700. 
as a distinguishing character of those who were for,^ ■ 

or against the present constitution and the succes- '" "^"ti' 

• 1 o 'i-i • • houses. 

sion ; the Scots still opposing it on the account of 
their formal laws : both parties mustered uji their 
strength, and many, who had gone into the country, 
were brought up on this occasion : so that the bill, 
with all the amendments and provisos, was carried 
by a small majority ; the lords agreeing to this new 524 
amendment. The Scotch members in })oth houses 
seemed to apprehend, that the bill would be very 
odious in their country; so to maintain their in- 
terest at home, they, who were divided in every 
thing else, did agree in opposing this bill *-\ 

The court apprehended from the heat with which An act of 
the debates were managed, and the difficulty in car-^™*^*' 
rying the bill through both houses, that ill-disposed 
men would endeavour to possess people with appre- 
hensions of bad designs and severities that would be 
set on foot ; so they resolved to have an act of grace 
immediately upon it : it was the first the queen had 
sent, though she had then reigned above seven 
years : the ministers, for their own sake, took cai*e 
that it should be very full ; it was indeed fuller than 
any former act of gi'ace, all treasons committed be- 
fore the signing the act, which was the 19th of 
April, were pardoned, those only excepted that were 
done upon the sea : by this, those who had embarked 
with the pretender were still at mercy. This act, 

•^ One of the reasons for this the laws of England in general 

bill was, with many people here, into Scotland, that there might 

the hopes that it niiglit, with be in both countries but one 

the English constitution of the " lex, rex, grex." King James 

new court of exchequer there, the first's words. O. 
be an introduction (in time) of 



398 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1709. according to form, was read once in both houses, 
and with the usual compliments of thanks; and with 
that the session ended **. 
An enlarge- Other things of great importance passed during 

ment of the . 

bank. this scssiou : the house 01 commons voted an en- 
largement of the bank, almost to three millions, 
upon which, the books were opened to receive new 
subscriptions : and to the admii'ation of all Europe, 
as well as of ourselves at home, the whole sum was 
subscribed in a few hours' time : this shewed both 
the wealth of the nation, and the confidence that all 
people had in the government. By this subscrip- 
tion, and by a further prolongation of the general 
mortgage of the revenue, they created good funds 
for answering all the money that they had voted in 
the beginning of the session. 

Great Our trade was now very high ; and was carried 

Portugal, on every where with advantage, but no where more 
than at Lisbon : for the Portugueze were so happy 
in their dominions in America, that they discovered 
vast quantities of gold in their mines, and we were 
assured that they had brought home to Portugal, the 
former year, about four millions sterling, of which 
they, at that time, stood in great need, for they had 
a very bad harvest : but gold answers all things : 
they were supplied from England with com, and 
we had in return a large share of their gold. 

An act for An act passcd in this session that was much de- 

a general ^ 

naturaiiza- sircd, and had been often attempted, but had been 
protestanu. laid asidc in so many former parliaments, that there 
was scarce any hopes left to encourage a new at- 
tempt : it was for naturalizing all foreign protest- 

^ (See note before, at p. 5 1 o.) 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 399 

ants, upon their taking the oaths to the government, 1709. 
and their receiving the sacrament in any protestant ' 

church. Those who were against the act, soon per- 525 
ceived that they could have no strength, if they 
should set themselves directly to oppose it ; so they 
studied to limit strangers in the receiving the sacra- 
ment, to the way of the church of England. This 
probably would not have hindered many, who were 
otherwise disposed to come among us : for the much 
greater part of the French came into the way of our 
church. But it was thought best to cast the door 
as wide open as possible for encouraging of strangers: 
and therefore since, upon their first coming over, 
some might choose the way to which they had ])een 
accustomed beyond sea, it seemed the more inviting 
method to admit of all who were in any protestant 
communion : this was carried in the house of com- 
mons with a great majority ; but all those who 
appeared for this large and comprehensive way were 
reproached for their coldness and indifference in the 
concerns of the church : and in that I had a large 
share ^ ; as I spoke copiously for it when it was 
brought up to the lords : the bishop of Chester ^ 
spoke as zealously against it, for he seemed resolved 
to distinguish himself as a zealot for that wliich was 
called high church. The bill passed with very little 
opposition. 

There was all this winter great talk of peace ; An address 
which the miseries and necessity of France seemed queen when 
to drive them to : this gave occasion to a motion, J,.1m"^^ " 
concerted amonff the whigs, and opened by the lord ''''""''^ ^ 

o o ' r J opened. 

Halifax, that an address should be made to the 
"= Dog. S. f Sir William Dawes. O. 



400 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1709. queen, to conclude no peace with France, till tliey 
should disown the pretender, and send him out of 
that kingdom, and till the protestant succession 
should be universally owned, and that a guarantee 
should be settled among the allies for securing it. 
None durst venture to oppose this, so it was easily 
agi'eed to, and sent down to the house of commons 
for their concurrence. They presently agreed to it, 
but added to it a matter of gi'eat importance, that 
the demolishing of Dunkirk should be likewise in- 
sisted on, before any peace were concluded : so both 
houses carried this address to the queen, who re- 
ceived and answered it very favourably. This was 
highly acceptable to the whole nation, and to all our 
allies. These were the most considerable transac- 
tions of this session of parliament, which was con- 
cluded on the 21st of April. 

Tbe convo- The couvocatiou was summoned, chosen, and re- 
cation was 
put off by a tumcd as the parliament was : but it was too evi- 

^on/* dent, that the same ill temper that had appeared in 
former convocations did still prevail, though not 
with such a majority : when the day came in which 
it was to be opened, a writ was sent from the queen 
to the archbishop, ordering him to prorogue the 
convocation for some months : and at the end of 
526 these, there came another writ, ordering a further 
prorogation : so the convocation was not opened 
during this session of parliament ; by this, a present 
stop was put to the factious temper of those who 
studied to recommend themselves by embroiling the 
church. 

A fiuAion j^ jji^j jjqj. (.yj.g them ; for they continued still, by 

among tbe ' j ' j 

clergy of Hbcls and false stories, to animate their party :. and so 

Ireland. , . , . . '. , , . . ^ 

catchmg a thmg is this turbulent spint, when once it 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 401 

prevails among clergymen, that the same ill tern- 1709. 
per began to ferment and spread itself among the 
clergy of Ireland ; none of those disputes had ever 
been thought of in that church formerly, as they 
had no records nor minutes of former convoca- 
tions. The faction here in England found out pro- 
per instruments to set the same humour on foot 
during the earl of Rochester's government, and, as 
was said, by his directions ; and it being once set a 
going, it went on by reason of the indolence of the 
succeeding governors: so the clergy were making 
the same bold claim there, that had raised such dis- 
putes among us ^ ; and upon that, the party here 
published those pretensions of theirs, with their usual 
confidence, as founded on a clear possession and pre- 
scription ; and drew an argument from that to jus- 
tify and support theu- own pretensions, though those 
in Ireland never dreamed of them till they had the 
pattern and encouragement from hence. This was 
received by the party with gi'eat triumph ; into such 
indirect practices do men's ill designs and animosities 
engage them : but though this whole matter was An iii tem- 

per among 

well detected, and made appear to their shame who our clergy 
had built so much upon it, yet parties are never out ^p. *^' 
of countenance; but when one artifice fails, they will 
lay out for another. The secret encouragement with 
which they did most effectually animate their party 
was, that the queen's heart was with them : and 
that though the war and the other circumstances of 
her affairs obliged her at present to favour the mo- 
derate party, yet, as soon as a peace brought on a 

f Dog, dog, dog. S. 
VOL. V. D d 



402 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1709. better settlement, they promised tliemselves all fa- 
vour at her hands. It was not certain that they had 
then any ground for this, or that she herself, or any 
by her order, gave them these hopes; but this is 
certain, that many things might have been done to 
extinguish those hopes which were not done, so 
that they seemed to be left to please themselves 
with those expectations, which kept still life in their 
party : and indeed it was but too visible, that the 
much greater part of the clergy were in a very ill 
temper, and under very bad influences ; enemies to 
the toleration, and soured against the dissenters. 
Negotia- I now must relate the negotiations that the French 

tions for " 

peace. sct on foot for a peace. Soon after the battle of 
527 Ramellies, the elector of Bavaria gave out hopes of 
a peace ; and that the king of France would come 
to a treaty of partition : that Spain and the West 
Indies should go to king Charles, if the dominions 
of Italy were given to king Philip. They hoped that 
England and the States would agree to this, as less 
concerned in Italy : but they knew the court of Vi- 
enna would never hearken to it; for they valued 
the dominions in Italy, with the islands near them, 
much more than all the rest of the Spanish mo- 
narchy k. But at the same time that Lewis the 
XlVth was tempting us with the hopes of Spain and 
the West Indies, by a letter to the pope that king 
offered the dominions in Italy to king Charles. The 
parliament had always declared the ground of the 
war to be, the restoring the whole Spanish monarchy 

8 As being nearer their Ger- peror. The governments there, 
man dominions, and more suit- so near home, were very tempt- 
ed to the title of Roman em- ing to their great men. O. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 403 

to the house of Austria, (which indeed the States 1709. 
had never done,) so the duke of Marlborough could 
not hearken to this : he convinced the States of the 
treacherous designs of the court of France in this 
offer, and it was not entertained. 

The court of Vienna was so alarmed at the in- 
clinations some had expressed towards the enter- 
taining this project, that this was believed to be the 
secret motive of the treaty, the succeeding winter, 
for evacuating the Milanese, and of their persisting 
so obstinately, the summer after, in their designs 
upon Naples: for by this means they became masters 
of both. The French, being now reduced to great 
extremities by their constant ill success, and by the 
miseries of their people, resolved to try the States 
again; and when the duke of Marlborough came 
over to England, M. Rouille was sent to Holland 
with general offers of peace, desiring them to pro- 
pose what it was they insisted on : and he offered 
them as good a barrier for themselves as they could 
ask. The States, contrary to their expectation, re- 
solved to adhere firmly to their confederates, and to 
enter into no separate treaty, but in conjunction 
with their allies; so, upon the duke of Marlborough's 
return, they, with their allies, began to prepare pre- 
liminaries to be first agreed to, before a general 
treaty should be opened : they had been so well ac- 
quainted with the perfidious methods of the French 
court, when a treaty was once opened, to divide the 
allies, and to create jealousies among them, and had 
felt so sensibly the ill effects of this, both at Nime- 
guen and Ryswick, that they resolved to use all ne- 
cessary precautions for the future ; so preliminaries 
were prepared, and the duke of Marlborough carne 

D d 2 



404 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1709. over hither, to concert them with the ministry at 
home ^. 

In this second absence of his, Mr. de Torcy, the 
secretary of state for foreign affairs, was sent to the 
528 Hague, the better to dispose the States to peace, by 
the influence of so great a minister; no methods 
were left untried, both with the States in general, 
and with every man they spoke with in particular, 
to beget in them a full assurance of the king's sin- 
cere intentions for peace : but they knew the arti- 
fices of that court too well to be soon deceived ; so 
they made no advances till the duke of Marlbo- 
rough came back, who carried over the lord viscount 
Townshend, to be conjunct plenipotentiary with 
himself, reckoning the load too great to bear it 
wholly on himself. The choice was well made : for 
as lord Townshend had great parts, had improved 
these by travelling, and was by much the most shin- 
ing person of all our young nobility, and had on 
many occasions distinguished himself very eminently; 
so he was a man of great integrity, and of good 
principles in all respects, free from all vice, and of 
an engaging conversation. 
The preii- The foundation of the whole treaty was, the re- 

minaries . n 1 i 1 ci • i 

agreed on. stOHng of the wholc Spanish monarchy to king 
Charles within two months : Torcy said the time 

•• And procure his own being he had lately done them : but 

made captain-general for life ; lord Somers, who had no mind 

which, without so much as to be his grace's subject, ac- 

mentioning of it to the queen, quainted the queen with it, and 

he endeavoured to get proposed the danger she run, if it suc- 

in the house of commons, as a ceeded. Which put an effectual 

reward for his services diu-ing stop, and gave the queen a 

the war ; and expected the grateful sense of lord Somers's 

whigs should all come into, fidelity and integrity ever after. 

in return for the great services D. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 405 

was too short, and that perhaps it was not in the 1709. 
king of France's power to bring that about ; for the 
Spaniards seemed resolved to stick to king Philip. 
It was, upon this, insisted on, that the king of 
France should be obliged to concur with the allies, 
to force it by all proper methods : but this was not 
farther explained, for the allies were well assured, 
that if it was sincerely intended by France, there 
would be no great difficulty in bringing it about '. 
This, therefore, being laid down as the basis of the 
treaty, the other preliminaries related to the restor- 
ing all the places in the Netherlands, except Cam- 
bray and St. Omer ; the demolishing or restoring of 
Dunkirk ; the restoring of Strasbourg, Brisack, and 
Huningen to the empire; Newfoundland to Eng- 
land ; and Savoy to that duke, besides his continu- 
ing possessed of all he then had in his hands ; the 
acknowledging the king of Prussia's royal dignity, 
and the electorate in the house of Brunswick ; the 
sending the pretender out of France, and the own- 
ing the succession to the crown of England, as it 
was settled by law. As all the great interests were 
provided for by these preliminaries, so all other 
matters were reserved to be considered when the 
treaty of peace should be opened : a cessation of all 
hostilities was to begin within two months, and to 
continue till all was concluded by a complete treaty, 

' There was among lord So- to be out of the way when the 
mers's papers a large bundle of barrier treaty was signed. It 
letters from lord Townshend, was imputed to his manage- 
but they related chiefly to the ment for the court of Vienna, 
barrier treaty, and I do not re- who had offered to make him 
collect many anecdotes among governor-general of the Low 
them. I am sure there was no Countries ; but that he certainly 
account given in them of the refused. H. 
duke of Marlborough's choosing 

Dd3 



406 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
1709. and ratified; provided the Spanish monarchy was 



then entirely restored. The French plenipotentiaries 
seemed to be confounded at these demands. Torcy 
excepted to the leaving Exilles and Fenestrella in 
the duke of Savoy's hands ; for he said he had no 
instructions relating to them: but in conclusion they 
529 seemed to submit to them, and Torcy at parting de- 
sired the ratifications might be returned with all 
possible haste, and promised that the king of France's 
final answer should be sent by the fourth of June ; 
but spoke of their affairs as a man in despair : he 
said, he did not know but he might find king Philip 
at Paris before he got thither, and said all that was 
possible to assure them of the sincerity of the king 
of France, and to divert them from the thoughts of 
opening the campaign ; but at the same time king 
Philip was getting his son, the prince of Asturias, 
to be acknowledged by all the towns and bodies of 
Spain, as the heir of that monarchy. 
The king of Upon this outward appearance of agreeing to the 
fuses to ra- preliminaries, all people looked upon the peace to be 
' ^ ^ ' as good as made ; and ratifications came from all the 
courts of the allies, but the king of France refused to 
agree to them : he pretended some exceptions to the 
articles relating to the emperor and the duke of Sa- 
voy ; but insisted chiefly on that, of not beginning 
the suspension of arms till the Spanish monarchy 
should be all restored ; he said, that was not in his 
power to execute; he ordered his minister after- 
wards to yield up all but thi» last ; and by a third 
person, one Pettecum, it was offered, to put some 
more towns into the hands of the allies, to be kept 
by them till Spain was restored. It appeared by ^ 
this, that the French had no other design in all this 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 407 

negotiation, but to try if they could beget an ill un- 1709. 
derstanding among the allies, or, by the seeming 
great concessions for the security of the States, pro- 
voke the people of Holland against their magistrates, 
if they should carry on the war, when they seemed 
to be safe ; and they reckoned, if a suspension of arms 
could be once obtained upon any other terms than 
the restoring of Spain, then France would get out of 
the war, and the allies must try how they could con- 
quer Spain. France had so perfidiously broke all 
their treaties during this king's reign, that it was a 
piece of inexcusable folly to expect any other from 
them. In the peace of the Pyrenees, where the in- 
terest of France was not so deeply engaged to pre- 
serve Portugal from falling under the yoke of Castile, 
as it was now to preserve Spain in the hands of a 
grandson ; after the king had sworn to give no 
assistance to Portugal, yet, under the pretence of 
breaking some bodies, he suffered them to be enter- 
tained by the Portugueze ambassador, and sent 
Schomberg to command that army ; pretending he 
could not hinder one, that was a German by birth, 
to go and serve where he pleased : under these pre- 
tences, he had broke his faith, where the considera- 
tion was not so strong as in the present case. Thus 
it was visible, no faith that king could give was to 530 
be relied on, and that unless Spain was restored, all 
would prove a fatal delusion : besides, it came after- 
wards to be known, that the places in Brabant and 
Hainault, commanded by the elector of Bavaria, would 
not have been evacuated by him, unless he had orders 
for it from the king of Spain, under whom he go- 
verned in them ; and that was not to be expected : 
so the easiness with which the French ministers 

D d 4 



408 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1709- yielded to the preliminaries, was now understood to 
be an artifice, to slacken the zeal of the confederates, 
in advancing the campaign, as the least effect it 
would have : but in that their hopes failed them, for 
there was no time lost in preparing to take the 
field. 

I do not mix with the relation that I have given 
upon good authority, the uncertain reports we had of 
distractions in the court of France, where it was 
said, that the duke of Burgundy pressed the making 
a peace, as necessary to prevent the ruin of France, 
while the Dauphin pressed more vehemently the 
continuance of the war, and the supporting of the 
king of Spain : it was said, that madam Mainte- 
non appeared less at court; Chamillard, who had 
most of her favour, was dismissed : but it is not cer- 
tain what influence that had on the public councils ; 
and the conduct of this whole negotiation shewed 
plainly, that there was nothing designed in it, but to 
divide or to deceive the confederates ; and, if possible, 
to gain a separate peace for France ; and then to let 
the allies conquer Spain as they could ''. But the 
allies kept firm to one another, and the treachery of 
the French appeared so visible, even to the people in 
Holland, that all the hopes they had, of inflaming 



^ The distress of France was general sighed for peace. It is 

so great, that the king was cer- too nice a point for one not an 

tainly in earnest for a peace, the actor in the piece to determine 

regard he had all along shewn whether the allies should have 

in so great a point to his family been satisfied with the assur- 

interest made him tenacious not ance he gave, that he would not 

to avow a total abandoning of assist his grandson. Undoubt- 

his grandson ; if a peace could edly the army in Flanders must 

not be made, the next point have been kept up, till Spain 

was to render the allies odious was reduced. H. 
to the French nation, who in 



OF QUEExN ANNE. 409 

them against their magistrates, likewise failed. The 1 709. 
people in France were much wrought on by this 
pretended indignity offered to their monarch, to 
oblige him to force his grandson to abandon Spain ; 
and even here in England there wanted not many, 
who said it was a cruel hardship put on the French 
king, to force him into such an unnatural war : but if 
he was guilty of the injustice of putting him in posses- 
sion of that kingdom, it was but a reasonable piece 
of justice to undo wliat he himself had done : and 
it was so visible that king Philip was maintained on 
that throne by the councils and assistance of France, 
that no doubt was made, but that, if the king of 
France had really designed it, he could easily have 
obliged him to relinquish all pretensions to that 
crown. 

Thus the negotiations came soon to an end ; with- The war 
out producing any ill effect among the allies ; and '*'*°* ""* 
all the ministers at the Hague made great acknow- 
ledgments to the pensioner Heinsius, and to the 531 
States, for the candour and firmness they had ex- ' 
pressed on that occasion. The miseries of France 
were represented from all parts as extreme great ; 
the prospect both for com and wine was so low, that 
they saw no hope nor relief. They sent to all places 
for com, to preserve their people ; many of the ships 
that brought it to them were taken by our men of 
war ; but this did not touch the heart of their king, 
who seemed to have hardened himself against the 
sense of the miseries of his people. Villars was sent 
to command the armies in Flanders, of whom the 
king of France said, that he was never beaten ; Har- 
couit was sent to command on the Rhine, and the 
duke of Berwick in Dauphiny. This summer passed 



410 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1 709. over without any considerable action in Spain : 
In Portu. there was an engagement on the frontier of Portu- 
^» gal, in which the Portugueze behaved themselves 

very ill, and were beaten ; but the Spaniards did not 
pursue the advantage they had by this action : for 
they, apprehending that our fleet might have a de- 
sign upon some part of their southern coast, were 
forced to draw their troops from the frontiers of Por- 
tugal, to defend their own coast ; though we gave 
them no disturbance on that side. 
In Spain, The king of France, to carry on the shew of a 
design for peace, withdrew his troops out of Spain, 
but at the same time took care to encourage the 
Spanish grandees, and to support his grandson : and 
since it was visible, that either the Spaniards or the 
allies were to be deceived by him, it was much more 
reasonable to believe, that the allies and not the 
Spaniards were to feel the effects of this fraudulent 
way of proceeding. The French general Besons, 
who commanded in Arragon, had indeed orders not to 
venture on a battle, for that would have been too 
gross a thing to be in any wise palliated ; but he 
continued all this summer commanding their armies. 
Nothing of any importance passed on the side of 
In Dauphi- Dauphiuy : the emperor continued still to refuse 
°'' complying with the duke of Savoy's demands ; so he 

would not make the campaign in person, and his 
troops kept on the defensive. On the other hand, 
the French, as they saw they were to be feebly at- 
tacked, were too weak to do any thing more than 
cover their own country. Little was expected on 
In Gerroa- the Rhiuc ', the Germans were so weak, so ill fur- 
°^* nished, and so ill paid, that it was not easy for the 

court of Vienna to prevail on the elector of Bruns- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 411 

wick to undertake the command of that army; yet 1709. 

he came at last: and upon his coming, the French, 

who had passed the Rhine, thought it was safest for 
them to repass that river, and to keep within their 
lines. The elector sent count Mercy, with a consi- 
derable body, to pass the Rhine near Basil, and on 532 
design to break into Franche Comte ; but a detached 
body of the French lying in their way, there fol- 
lowed a very sharp engagement; 2000 men were 
reckoned to be killed on each side ; but though the 
loss of men was reckoned equal, yet the design mis- 
carried, and the Germans were forced to repass the 
Rhine. The rest of the campaign went over there 
without any action. 

The chief scene was in Flanders ; where the And in 
duke of Marlborough, trusting little to the shews of 
peace, had every thing in readiness to open the 
campaign, as soon as he saw what might be ex- - 
pected from the court of France. The army was 
formed near Lisle, and the French lay near Doway ; 
the train of artillery was, by a feint, brought up 
the Lys to Courtray; so it was believed the de- 
sign was upon Ypres, and there being no apprehen- 
sion of any attempt on Tournay, no particular care 
was taken of it ; but it was on the sudden invested, 
and the train was sent back to Ghendt, and brought 
up the Scheld to Tournay. The siege was carried Toumny is 
on regularly : no disturbance was given to the works „„d taken. 
by sallies, so the town capitulated within a month, 
the ganison being allowed to retire into the citadel, 
which was counted one of the strongest in Europe, 
not only fortified with the utmost exactness, but all 
the gi'ound was wrought into mines ; so that the 
resistance of the garrison was not so much aj)pre- 



412 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1709. hended, as the mischief they might do by blowing 
up their mines. A capitulation was proposed for 
delivering it up on the fifth of September, if it 
should not be relieved sooner, and that all hostilities 
should cease till then. This was offered by the gar- 
rison, and agreed to by the duke of Marlborough ; 
but the king of France would not consent to it, un- 
less there were a general suspension, by the whole 
army, of all hostilities ; and that being rejected, the 
siege went on. Many men were lost in it, but the 
proceeding by sap prevented much mischief; in the 
end no relief came, and the garrison capitulated in 
the beginning of September, but could obtain no bet- 
ter conditions than to be made prisoners of war'. 

After this siege was over, Mons was invested, and 
the troops marched thither as soon as they had le- 
velled their trenches about Tournay : but the court 
of France resolved to venture a battle, rather than 
to look on, and see so important a place taken from 
them. Boufflers was sent from court to join with 

' I never could understand, stances to prove that he did not 

and it seems a point fit to be direct the negotiations for peace, 

cleared up in the military his- observes, " that the diike dif- 

tory of that time, why the duke " fered in many material points 

of Marlborough, instead of en- " from the cabinet, and was 

gaging back again (as it were) " guided by positive instruc- 

in that circle of low country *• tions, which he could not 

fortresses, did not avail himself " venture to transgress." He 

of the possession of Lisle, to adds, " that had he indeed pos- 

niake an impression on the in- " sessed the sole management 

terior of France, and endeavour " of affairs in peace, he would 

to drive the French monarch " doubtless have framed such 

from his capital. There may " conditions as would have been 

have been very solid reasons " accepted, or would have made 

for this conduct, but I was ne- " such mighty preparations, as 

ver master of them. H. (Arch- "would have enabled him to 

deacon Coxe, in his Life of the " dictate his own terms in the 

Duke of Marlborough, vol. iii. " heart of France," p. 48. See 

ch. 79. after adducing many in- also ch. Ixxxviii. pp. 176, 177.) 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 413 

Vi liars in the execution of this design: they pos- 1709- 
sessed themselves of a wood, and intrenched them- 
selves so strongly, that in some places there were 
three intrenchments cast up, one within another. 
The duke of Marlborough and prince Eugene saw 
plainly, it was not possible to carry on the siege of 
Mons, while the French army lay so near it ; so it 533 
was necessary to dislodge them. The attempt was of Biarig* 
bold, and they saw the execution would be difficult, "J^*' j-^ 
and cost them many men. This was the sharpest i"«*0 
action in the whole war, and lasted the longest. 
The French were posted so advantageously, that 
our men were oft repulsed ; and indeed the French 
maintained their ground better, and shewed more 
courage than appeared in the whole course of the 
war : yet in conclusion they were driven from all 
their posts, and the action ended in a complete vic- 
tory. The number of slain was almost equal on 
both sides, about 12,000 of a side. We took 500 
officers prisoners, besides many cannon, standards, 
and ensigns. Villars was disabled by some wounds 
he received, so Boufflers made the retreat in good 
order. The military men have always talked of 
this as the sharpest action in . the whole war, not 
without reflecting on the generals for beginning so 
desperate an attack. The French thought it a sort 
of a victory, that they had animated their men to 
fight so well behind intrenchments, and to repulse 
our men so often, and with so great loss. They re- 
tired to Valenciennes, and secured themselves by 
casting up strong lines, while they left our army to 
carry on the siege of Mons, without giving them 
the least disturbance. As soon as the train of artil- mods b«- 

. sieged &Dd 

lery was brought from Brussels, the siege was car-ukea. 



414 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
1709. ried on with great vigour, though the season was 



both cold and rainy : the outworks were carried 
with little resistance, and Mons capitulated about 
the end of October ; with that the campaign ended, 
both armies retiring into winter quarters. 
Affairs ia The most important thing that relates to Italy 
was, that the pope delayed acknowledging king 
Charles, by several pretended difficulties ; his design 
being to stay and see the issue of the campaign ; 
but when he was threatened, towards the end of it, 
that if it was not done, the imperial army should 
come and take up their winter quarters in the ec- 
clesiastical state, he submitted, and acknowledged 
him. He sent also his nephew Albano, first to Vi- 
enna, and then to Poland ; he furnished him with a 
magnificent retinue, and seemed to hope, that by 
the services he should do to the papal interests 
there, he should be pressed to make him a cardinal, 
notwithstanding the bull against nepotism '^. 
Affwrs in Ii^ Catalonia, Staremberg, after he received rein- 
Spain. forcements from Italy, advanced towards the Segra, 
and having for some days amused the enemy, he 
passed the river : the Spaniards designed to give 
him battle, but Besons, who commanded the French 
troops, refused to engage ; this provoked the Spa- 
niards so much, that king Philip thought it was ne- 
cessary to leave Madrid, and go to the army ; Besons 
534 produced his orders from the king of France to 
avoid all engagements, with which he seemed much 

"> Which bull had been drawn be devised : which stood much 

by himself, in his predecessor's in his way for promoting his 

time, when there was no ex- family afterwards ; to which he 

pectation of his own being ever was most passionately devoted, 

pope ; and therefore drawn in D. 
the strongest terms that could 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 415 

mortified. Staremberg advanced and took Balaguer, 1709. 



and made the garrison prisoners of war ; and with 
that the campaign on that side was at an end. 

This summer brought a catastrophe on the affairs The king of 
of the king of Sweden : he resolved to invade Mus- defeat." 
covy, and engaged himself so far into the Ukrain, 
that there was no possibility of his retreating, or of 
having reinforcements brought him. He engaged 
a great body of Cossacks to join him, who were 
easily drawn to revolt from the czar : he met with 
great misfortunes in the end of the former year, but 
nothing could divert him from his designs against 
Muscovy : he passed the Nieper, and besieged Pul- 
towa : the czar marched to raise the siege, with an 
army in number much superior to the Swedes ; but 
the king of Sweden resolved to venture on a battle, 
in which he received such a total defeat, that he lost 
his camp, his artillery, and baggage : a great part 
of his army got off, but being closely pursued by the 
Muscovites, and having neither bread nor ammuni- 
tion, they were all made prisoners of war. 

The king himself, with a small number about The king 
him, passed the Nieper, and got into the 1 urkish Turkey, 
dominions, and settled at Bender, a town in Mol- 
davia. Upon this great reverse of his affairs, king 
Augustus pretended, that the resignation of the 
crown of Poland was extorted from him by force, 
and that it was not in his power to resign the 
crown, by which he was tied to the republic of 
Poland, without their consent : so he marched into 
Poland; and Stanislaus was not able to make any 
resistance, but continued under the protection of the 
Swedes, waiting for another reverse of fortune. A 
project was formed to engage the kings of Den- 



416 'The history of the reign 

1709. mark and Prussia, with king Augustus and the czar, 
to attack the Swedes in so many different places, 
that the extravagant humour of their king was like 
now to draw a heavy storm upon them, if England 
and the States, with the court of Vienna, had not 
crushed all this, and entered into a guarantee for 
preserving the peace of the empire, and by conse- 
quence, of the Swedish dominions in Germany. 
Dantzick was at this time severely visited with a 
plague, which swept away almost one half of their 
inhabitants, though few of the better sort died of 
the infection. This put theii' neighbours under 
great apprehensions ; they feared the spreading of 
the contagion : but it pleased God it went no far- 
ther. This sudden, and, as it seemed, total reverse 
of all the designs of the king of Sweden, who had 
been for many years the terror of all his neighbours, 
made me write to Dr. Robinson, who had lived 
535 above thirty years in that court, and is now bishop 
of Bristol ", for a particular character of that king. 
I shall set it down in his own words. 
HU cha- fje is now in the 28th year of his age, tall and 
slender, stoops a little, and in his walking discovers, 
though in no great degree, the effect of breaking his 
thigh-bone about eight years ago : he is of a very 
vigorous and healthy constitution, takes a pleasure 
in enduring the greatest fatigues, and is little cu- 
rious about his repose : his chief and almost only 
exercise has been riding, in which he has been ex- 
tremely excessive: he.usuaUy eats with a good ap- 
petite, especially in the morning, which is the best 
of his three meals : he never drinks any thing but 

" (Soon afterwards of London, and before that lord privy seal,) 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 417 

small beer, and is not much concerned whether it be 1709. 
good or bad: he speaks little, is very thoughtful, 
and is observed to mind nothing so much as his own 
affairs ; laying his designs, and contriving the ways 
of acting, without communicating them to any, till 
they are to be put in execution : he holds few or no 
councils of war ; and though in civil affairs his mi- 
nisters have leave to explain their thoughts, and are 
heard very patiently, yet he relies more on his own 
judgment than on theirs, and frequently falls on 
such methods as are farthest from their thoughts; 
so that both his ministers and generals have hitherto 
had the glory of obedience, without either the praise 
or blame of having advised prudently or otherwise. 
The reason of his reservedness in consulting others 
may be thus accounted for : he came at the age of 
fifteen to succeed in an absolute monarchy, and, by 
the forward zeal of the states of the kingdom, was 
in a few months declared to be of age : there were 
those about him that magnified his understanding 
as much as his authority, and insinuated that he 
neither needed advice, nor could submit his affairs 
to the deliberation of others, without some diminu- 
tion of his own supreme power. These impressions 
had not all their effect till after the war was begun, 
in the course of which he surmounted so many im- 
possibilities, (as those about him thought them,) that 
he came to have less value for their judgments and 
more for his own, and at last to think nothing im- 
possible. So it may be truly said, that under God, 
as well all his glorious successes, as the late fatal re- 
verse of them, have been owing solely to his own 
conduct. As to his piety, it cannot be said but that 
the outward appearances have highly recommended 
VOL. V. E e 



418 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1709. it, only it is not very easy to account for the excess 
' of his revenge against king Augustus, and some 

other instances ; but he is not suspected of any bo- 
dily indulgences. It is most certain, he has all along 
wished well to the allies, and not at all to France, 
which he never intended to serve by any steps he 
has made. We hear the Turks use him well, but 
536 time must shew what use they will make of him, 
and how he will get back into his own kingdom. 
If this misfortune does not quite ruin him, it may 
temper his fire, and then he may become one of the 
greatest princes of the age. Thus I leave him and 
his character °. 
Aflairs in The king of Denmark spent a great part of this 

Denmark. . ° • ^ ii- 

summer in a very expensive course of travelling 
through the courts of Germany and Italy, and it was 
believed he intended to go to Rome, where great 
preparations were making for giving him a splendid 
reception ; for it was given out, that he intended to 
change his religion : but whether these reports were 
altogether groundless, or whether their being so 
commonly believed wds like to produce some dis- 
orders in his own kingdom, is not certainly known ; 
only thus much is certain, that he stopped at Flo- 
rence, and went no further, but returned home ; and 
upon the king of Sweden's misfortunes, entered into 
measures to attack Sweden with king Augustus; 
who had called a diet in Poland, in which he was 
acknowledged their king, and all things were settled 
there according to his wishes. The king of Den- 
mark, upon his return home, sent an army over the 
Sound into Schonen ; but his counsels were so weak, 

» (The author lived to relate more of this king. See page 617.) 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 419 

and so ill conducted, that he did not send a train of J 709. 
artillery, with other necessaries, after them : some 
places, that were not tenable, were 3delded up by 
the Swedes, and by the progress that he made at 
first, he seemed to be in a fair way of recovering 
that province ; but the Swedes brought an army to- 
gether, though far inferior to the Danes in number, 
and falling on them, gave them such an entire de- 
feat, that the king of Denmark was forced to bring 
back, as well as he could, the broken remnants of 
his army, by which an end was put to that inglorious 
expedition. 

The Swedish army that was in Poland having 
got into Pomerania, the French studied to engage 
them to fall into Saxony, to embroil the affairs of 
Germany, and by that means engage the neighbour- 
ing princes to recall the troops that were in the 
queen's service, and that of the other allies in Flan- 
ders ; but the queen and the States interposed effec- 
tually in this matter, and the Swedes were so sen- 
sible how much they might need their protection, 
that they acquiesced in the propositions that were 
made to them : so the peace of the northern parts of 
the empire was secured. A peace was likewise made 
up between the grand seignior and the czar: the 
king of Sweden continued still at Bender : the war 
in Hungary went still on. The court of Vienna 
published ample relations of the great successes they 
had there; but an Hungarian assured me, these were 
given out to make the malecontents seem an incon-537 
siderable and ruined party. There were secret ne- 
gotiations still going on, but without effect. 

Nothing of importance passed on the sea: the Our fleet 
French put out no fleet, and our convoys were so ducted. 

E e 2 



420 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1709. weU ordered and so happy, that our merchants made 
"^"^~" no complaints. Towards the end of the year, the 
earl of Pembroke found the care of the fleet a load 
too heavy for him to bear, and^ that he could not 
discharge it as it ought to be done; so he desired 
leave to lay it down. It was offered to the earl of 
Orford ; but though he was willing to serve at the 
head of a commission, he refused to accept of it 
singly: so it was put in commission, in which he 
was the first p. 
A session I now comc to givc an account of the session of 

of parlia- . ... * 11 1 

ment. parliament that came on this winter. All the sup- 
plies that were asked, for carrying on the war, were 
granted, and put on good funds ; in this there was a 
general unanimous concurrence i : but the great bu- 
siness of this session, that took up most of their 
time, and that had great effects in conclusion, re- 
lated to Dr. Sacheverel : this being one of the most 
extraordinary transactions in my time, I will relate 
it very copiously. Dr. Sacheverel was a bold, inso- 
lent man, with a very small measure of religion, vir- 
tue, learning, or good sense; but he resolved to force 
himself into popularity and preferment, by the most 

P It had all along been a fa- " ceitful insinuations, of her de- 

vourite point of the whig junto " sire of peace, (Journals, Nov. 

to bring lord Orford back to " 15.) Though the contrary was 

the admiralty, and it was the " certainly the fact, the assertion 

most difficult one of all, H. " was necessary to justify the 

<< (" The speeches of princes " continuance of the war. The 

" are the echoes of the voice of ♦' commons, with great unani- 

" their principal servants. The " mity and zeal, proceeded on 

" queen expressed the usual " the supplies. More than six 

" sentiments concerning the " millions were demanded, and 

" war, and demanded the usual " granted : the whole placed 

" supplies. She complained that " on good and sufficient funds. 

" France had made use of all her " Journals passim," Macpher- 

" artifices to amuse the allies, son's Hist, of Great Britain, vol. 

" with false appearances and de- ii. ch. 7. p. 430.) 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 421 

petulant railings at dissenters and low-churchmen, 1709. 
in several sermons and libels, wrote without either " 

chasteness of style or liveliness of expression : all was 
one unpractised strain of indecent and scurrilous 
language. When he had pursued this method for 
several years without effect, he was at last brought 
up by a popular election to a church in South wark, 
where he began to make great reflections on the mi- 
nistry, representing that the church was in danger, 
being neglected by those who governed, while they 
favoured her most inveterate enemies. At the assizes Sacheverei's 
in Derby, (where he preached before the judges,) and 
on the fifth of November, (preaching at St. Paul's in 
London,) he gave a full vent to his fury, in the most 
virulent declamation that he could contrive, upon 
these words of St. VdivX^Perils from false brethren i 
in which, after some short reflections upon popery, 
he let himself loose into such indecencies, that both 
the man and the sermon were universally con- 
demned. He asserted the doctrine of non-resistance 
in the highest strain possible; and said, that to 
charge the revolution with resistance, was to cast 
black and odious imputations on it : pretending that 
the late king had disowned it, and cited for the 
proof of that some words in his declaration, by which 
he vindicated himself from a design of conquest. 
He poured out much scorn and scurrility on the dis- 
senters, and reflected severely on the toleration ; and 
said the church was violently attacked by her ene- 538 
mies, and loosely defended by her pretended friends: 
he animated the people to stand up for the defence 
of the church, for which, he said, he sounded the 
trumpet, and desired them to put on the whole ar- 

£ e 3 



42^ THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1709. mour of God. The court of aldermen refused to de- 
sire him to print his sermon ; but he did print it, 
pretending it was upon the desire of Garrard, then 
lord mayor, to whom he dedicated it, with an in- 
flaming epistle at the head of it. The party that op- 
posed the ministry did so magnify the sermon, that, 
as was generally reckoned, about 40,000 of them 
were printed, and dispersed over the nation. The 
queen seemed highly offended at it, and the ministry 
looked on it as an attack made on them that was not 
to be despised. The lord treasurer was so described, 
that it was next to the naming him ; so a parlia- 
mentary impeachment was resolved on : Eyre, then 
solicitor-general, and others, thought the short way 
of burning the sermon, and keeping him in prison 
during the session, was the better method ; but the 
more solemn way was unhappily chosen ^ 
Many books There had been, ever since the queen came to the 

wrote a- , 

gainst the crowu, au opcu rcvival of the doctrine of passive 

queens obedicnce and non-resistance % by one Lesley, who 

was the first man that began the war in Ireland; 

saying, in a speech solemnly made, that king James, 

by declaring himself a papist, could no longer be our 

king, since he could not be the defender of our faith, 

nor the head of our church, dignities so inherent in 

"" The impeachment was said fess, that he was against en- 

to have been- principally pushed gaging in that foolish prosecu-' 

on by lord Wharton; sir J. tion of doctor Sacheverel, as 

Jekyl thought the article for what he foresaw was likely to 

vindicating the revolution the end in the ruin of the whig 

only thing worth contending party, p. i4.) 
for. H. (Dr. Swift, in his Hist. " The truth is, the clergy 

of the Four last Years of the did not care to be taxed with 

Queen, affirms, that he had the contradiction they then 

been assured, indeed that he shewed to their old passive o- 

himself heard lord Somers pro- bedience doctrine. H, 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 423 

the crown, that he who was incapable of these 1709. 
could not hold it: a copy of which speech the pre- 
sent archbishop of Dublin ^ told me he had, under 
his own hand. As he animated the people with liis 
speech, so some actions follow-ed under his conduct, 
in which several men were killed: yet this man 
changed sides quickly, and became the violentest 
Jacobite in the nation, and was engaged in many 
plots, and in writing many books against tlie- revo- 
lution and the present government ". Soon after the 
queen was on the throne, he, or his son, as some 
said, published a series of weekly papers under the 
title of the Rehearsal, pursuing a thread of argu- 
ments in them all against the lawfulness of resist- 
ance, in any case whatsoever ; deriving government 
wholly fi'om God, denying all right in the people, 
either to confer or to coerce it : the ministers con- 
nived at this, with what intention God knows. 

Whilst these seditious papers had a free coui'se 1710- 

' King. O. " the church of Eiiglaiul against 
" He answered bishop King's •' those of Rome, with all his 
Account of King James's Gon- " might ; for which he was 
duct in Ireland. It is a scarce " taken notice of, reprimanded, 
Jacobite tract, which I have. " and run hazards, at that time, 
H. (The author of the Re- *' when the dissenters were very 
marks on Birch's Life of Arch- " civil and silent upon the point 
bishop Tillotson, p. 65, after " of religion. But that he set 
complaining of Burnet's attempt " not up deposing principles, 
to blemish the character of his •' nor meddled with arms, for 
old antagonist Leslie, gives the " which of these has the Ob- 
following extract from one of '* servator made him a papist? 
Leslie's Rehearsals, which an- " Rehearsal, No. 90. vol. ii. p. 
swers the aspersions on him by " 130." Leslie was a powerful 
the writer of a paper called the defender of religion, and a rea- 
Observator. Leslie says, "that he soner for it, as doctor Johnson 
" opposed the late king James, observed, not to be reasoned 
" as some then counted it, so far against.) 



as justifying the principles of 



E e 4 



424 THE HISTOHY OF THE REIGN 

1710. for many years, and were much spread and magni- 
Dr. Hoad- fi^d *, onc Hoadly, a pious and judicious divine, be- 
InmTn'de- ^^S Called to prcach before the lord mayor, chose 
fei.ce there- for his tcxt the first vcrscs of the 13th chapter to 

of. 

539 the Romans, and fairly explained the words there, 
that they were to be understood only against resist- 

• ing good governors, upon the Jewish principles ; but 
that those words had no relation to bad and cruel 
governors : and he asserted, that it was not only 
lawful, but a duty incumbent on all men to resist 
such ; concluding all with a vindication of the revo- 
lution and the present government. Upon this, a 
great outcry was raised, as if he had preached up 
rebellion ; several books were wrote against him, 
and he justified himself, with a visible superiority 
of argument to them all, and did so solidly over- 
throw the conceit of one Filmer ^, now espoused by 
Lesley, (that government was derived by primoge- 
niture from the first patriarchs,) that for some time 
he silenced his adversaries : but it was an easier 

* thing to keep up a clamour, than to write a solid 
answer. Sacheverel did, with great virulence, reflect 
on him, and on me, and several other bishops, car- 
rying his venom as far back as to archbishop Grin- 
dal, whom, for his moderation, he called a perfidious 
prelate, and a false son of the church. When it was 
moved to impeach him, the lord mayor of London, 
being a member of the house of commons, was ex- 
amined to this point, whether the sermon was 
printed at his desire or order ; upon his owning it, 
he would have been expelled the house ; but he de- 

" (Sir Robert Filmer, the verninent had been confuted by 
author of the book entitled Locke.) 
Patriarcha. His theory of go- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 425 

nied he had given any such order, though Sacheverel 1710. 
affirmed it, and brought witnesses to prove it : yet 
the house would not enter upon that examination ; 
but it was thought more decent to seem to give 
credit to their own member, though indeed few be- 
lieved him. 

Some opposition was made to the motion for im-Sacheverei 

was im- 

peaching Sacheverel, but it was carried by a gi*eat peached by 
majority : the proceedings were slow ; so those, whOof*com- 
intended to inflame the city and the nation upon™""** 
that occasion, had time sufficient given them for 
laying their designs : they gave it out boldly, and in 
all places, that a design was formed by the whigs to 
pull down the church, and that this prosecution was 
only set on foot to try their strength ; and that upon 
their success in it they would proceed more openly. 
Though this was all falsehood and forgery, yet it 
was propagated with so much application and zeal, 
and the tools employed in it were so well supplied 
with money, (from whom, was not then known,) that 
it is scarce credible how generally it was believed. 

Some things concurred to put the vulgar in ill 
humour ; it was a time of dearth and scarcity, so 
that the poor were much pinched : the summer be- 
fore, ten or twelve thousand poor people of the Pa- 
latinate, who were reduced to great misery, came 
into England ; they were well received and sup- 540 
plied, both by the queen, and by the voluntary cha- 
rities of good people : this filled our own poor with 
great indignation ; who thought those charities, to 
which they had a better right, were thus intercepted 
by strangers ; and all who were ill affected, studied 
to heighten these their resentments. The clergy 



426 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
1710. did generally espouse Sacheverel as theii* champion, 



who had stood in the breach ; and so they reckoned 
his cause was their own. Many sermons were 
preached, both in London and in other places, to 
provoke the people, in which they succeeded beyond 
expectation. Some accidents concurred to delay 
the proceedings ; much time was spent in preparing 
the articles of impeachment : and the answer was, 
by many shifts, long delayed : it was bold, without 
either submission or common respect ; he justified 
every thing in his sermon in a very haughty and 
assuming style. In conclusion, the lords ordered 
the trial to be at the bar of their house ; but those 
who found, that by gaining more time the people 
were still more inflamed, moved that the trial might 
be public in Westminster hall; where the whole 
house of commons might be present : this took so 
with unthinking people, that it could not be with- 
stood, though the effects it would have were well 
foreseen : the prepai'ing Westminster hall was a 
work of some weeks. 

.^"wlsS* At last, on the 27th of February, the trial begun. 

minster Sachcvercl was lodged in the temple, and came 
every day, with great solemnity, in a coach to the 
hall ; great crowds ran about his coach, with many 
shouts, expressing their concern for him in a very 
rude and tumultuous manner. The trial lasted 
three weeks, in which all other business was at a 
stand ; for this took up all men's thoughts : the ma- 
nagers for the commons opened the matter very so- 
lemnly : their performances were much and justly 
commended : Jekyll, Eyre, Stanhope, King, but 
above all Parker, distinguished themselves in a very 



OF QUEExN ANNE. 



427 



particular manner: they did copiously justify lx)th 1710. 
the revolution >, and the present administration. 
There was no need of witnesses ; for the sermon be- 
ing owned by him, all the evidence was brought 
from it, by laying his words together, and by shew- 
ing his intent and meaning in them, which appeared 
from comparing one place with another. When his 
counsel, sir Simon Harcourt^, Dodd, Phipps, and 
two others, came to plead for him, they very freely 
acknowledged the lawfulness of resistance in ex- 
treme cases, and plainly justified the revolution, and 
our deliverance by king William : but they said, it 
was not fit in a sermon to name such an exception ; 
that the duties of morality ought to be delivered in 
their fuU extent, without supposing an extraordinary 541 
case : and therefore Sacheverel had followed pre- 



y (They in a very manly 
way rested its justification, not 
on a pretended supposititious 
birth, but on the right of the 
nation to make such a change 
in the existing circumstances. 
Perhaps they adopted a mode 
of defence rather consistent 
with their principles, than po- 
litic at the time ; for the lie 
about a supposititious birth 
produced doubt in men's minds, 
and kept out the Stuarts. Cer- 
tainly this, in conjunction with 
people's fears for the safety of 
the established religion, and the 
determination of the great men 
to govern, instead of being go- 
verned, hindered their restora- 
tion. Even tories of rank spoke 
at that time of the prince's birth 
as uncertain.) 

' He spoke only in the first 
day of the defence ; for he was 



chosen a member of the house 
of commons upon a vacancy, 
and had notice of it just as he 
had done speaking ; some said 
that it was before he spoke. 
He had been voted out of the 
house of commons in this par- 
liament, upon a petition against 
him carried on with great heat 
and violence by the government 
interest, which made him, as it 
was said, engage in this cause 
with the more bitterness, but 
as against the administration, 
rather than for his client. He 
was afterwards lord chancellor, 
with no character in any station, 
but for his abilities, saving that 
of integrity in causes, which I 
never heard doubted. He had 
the greatest skill and power of 
s|>eech of any man I ever knew, 
in a public assembly. O. 



428 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

^710. cedents, set by our greatest divines, ever since the 
reformation, and ever since the revolution. Upon 
this they opened a great field ; they began with the 
declarations made in king Henry the Vlllth's time ; 
they insisted next upon the homilies, and from 
thence instanced in a large series of bishops and 
divines, who had preached the duty of submission 
and non-resistance, in very full terms, without sujp- 
posing any exception ; some excluding all excep- 
tions, in as positive a manner as he had done : they 
explained the word revolution^ as belonging to the 
new settlement upon king James's withdrawing ; 
though, in the common acceptation, it was under- 
stood of the whole transaction, from the landing of 
the Dutch army, till the settlement made by the 
convention. So they understanding the revolution 
in that sense, there was indeed no resistance there ; 
if the passage quoted from the declaration given out 
by the late king, while he was prince of Orange, did 
not come up to that, for which he quoted it; he 
ought not to be censured because his quotation did 
not fully prove his point. As 'for his invective 
against the dissenters and the toleration, they la- 
boured to turn that off, by saying he did not reflect 
on what was allowed by law, but on the permission 
of, or the not punishing many, who published im- 
pious and blasphemous books : and a collection was 
made of passages in books, full of crude impiety and 
of bold opinions. This gave great offence to many, 
who thought that this was a solemn publishing of 
so much impiety to, the nation, by which more mis- 
chief would be done than by the books themselves ; 
for most of them had been neglected, and known 
only to a small number of those who encouraged 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 429 

them : and the authors of many of these books had 1710. 
been prosecuted and punished for them. As to those ' 
parts of the sermon, that set out the danger the 
church was in, though both houses had some years 
ago voted it a great offence, to say it was in danger, 
they said it might have been in none four years ago, 
when these votes passed, and yet be now in danger : 
the greatest of all dangers was to be apprehended 
from the wrath of God for such impieties. They- 
said, the reflections on the administration were not 
meant of those employed immediately by the queen, 
but of men in inferior posts ^ : if his words seemed 
capable of a bad sense, they were also capable of a 
more innocent one ; and every man was allowed to 
put any construction on his words that they could 
bear. When the counsel had ended their defence, 
Sacheverel concluded it with a speech, which he 
read with much bold heat ; in which, with many 
solemn asseverations, he justified his intentions to- 542 
wards the queen and her government ; he spoke 
with respect, both of the revolution and the pro- 
testant succession ; he insisted most on condemning 
all resistance under any pretence whatsoever, without 
mentioning the exception of extreme necessity, as 
his counsel had done : he said, it was the doctrine 

* In the time of the trial, parted, without any further ex- 

the earl of Godolphin asked me planation of his mysterious sen- 

if I did not think they were all tence. Btit I knew, neither 

gone mad, to fall foul upon the the doctor nor the doctrine had 

doctrine of the church of Eng- been called in question, if the 

land, as well as the doctor. I word Volpone had been left out 

said, I supposed they would of his sermon ; which was too 

not have troubled themselves hard and significant a word to 

with one, but to have a fling at be passed over, in a sermon 

the other. He said, " Well, preached before the lord mayor 

** things must be worse before and city of London, with impu- 

" they can be better," and so nity. D. 



430 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
1710. of the church in which he was bred up ; and added 



many pathetical expressions, to move the audience 
to compassion. This had a great effect on the 
weaker sort, while it possessed those who knew the 
man and his ordinary discourses with hoiTor, when 
they heard him affirm so many falsehoods with such 
solemn appeals to God. It was very plain the 
speech was made for him by others ; for the style 
was correct, and far different from his own ^. 
Agreatdis- Duriuff the trial, the multitudes that foUowed 

order at *-* 

that time, him, all the way as he came, and as he went back, 
shewed a great concern for him, pressing about 
him, and striving to kiss his hand : money was 
thrown among them ; and they were animated to 
such a pitch of fury, that they went to pull down 
some meeting-houses, which was executed on five 
of them, as far as burning all the pews in them. 
This was directed by some of better fashion, who 
followed the mob in hackney coaches, and were .seen 
sending messages to them : the word, upon which 
all shouted, was. The Church and Sacheverel! and 
such as joined not in the shout were insulted and 
knocked down : before my own door, one, with a 
spade, cleft the skull of another, who would not 
shout as they did. There happened to be a meeting- 
house near me, out of which they drew every thing 
that was in it, and burned it before the door of the 
house. They threatened to do the like execution 
on . my house ; but the noise of the riot coming to 

'' (It is commonly attributed in Sacheverel's handwriting, and 

to bishop Atterbury, and is corrected by him, yet this ac- 

finely written. And although count is by no means satisfac- 

the eminent tory leader, Mr. tory, or proves, that Sacheverel 

Bromley, used to say, that he was its real author.) 
had seen a copy of this speech 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 431 

court, orders were sent to the guards to go about, 1710. 
and disperse the multitudes, and secure the public 
peace. As the .guards advanced, the people ran 
away ; some few were only taken ; these were after- 
wards prosecuted ; but the party shewed a violent 
concern for them ; two of them were condemned as 
guilty of high treason; small fines were set on the rest ; 
but no execution followed ; and after some months, 
they were pardoned : and indeed this remissness in 
punishing so great a disorder, was looked on as the 
preparing and encouraging men to new tumults. 
There was a secret management in this matter, that 
amazed all people : for though the queen, upon an 
address made to her by the house of commons, set 
out a proclamation, in which this riot was, with se- 
vere words, laid upon papists and nonjurors, who 
were certainly the chief promoters of it; yet the 
proceedings afterwards did not answer the threaten- 
ings of the proclamation. 

When Sacheverel had ended his defence, the ma- 543 
nagers for the house of commons replied, and [("n'^f "the 
shewed very evidently, that the words of his sermon *"*'• 
could not reasonably bear any other sense, but that 
for which they had charged him ; this was an easy 
performance, and they managed it with great life : 
but the humour of the town was turned against 
them, and all the clergy appeared for Sacheverel. 
Many of the queen's chaplains stood about him, en- 
couraging and magnifying him ^ ; and it was given 
out that the queen herself favoured him : though 
upon my first coming to town, which was after the 

"= (The respectable names of this occasion. See Life and 
Smalridge, Stanhope, Atterbu- Reign of Queen Anne, publish- 
ry, and Moss, are mentioned on ed in 1738. p. 520.) 



43S 



THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 



1710. impeachment was brought up to the lords, she said 
to me, that it was a bad sermon, and that he de- 
served well to be punished for it. All her minis- 
ters who were in the house of commons were named 
to be managers, and they spoke very zealously for 
Sir John pubhc liberty, justifying the revolution. Holt, the 
death and lord chicf justicc of the king's bench, died during 
*^ *™ '^* the trial : he was very learned in the law, and had 
upon great occasions shewed an intrepid zeal in as- 
serting its authority ; for he ventured on the indig- 
nation of both houses of parliament by turns, when 
he thought the law was with him : he was a man of 
good judgment and great integrity, and set himself 
with great application to the functions of that im- 
portant post ^. Immediately upon his death, Parker 
was made lord chief justice ^ : this great promotion 
seemed an evident demonstration of the queen's ap- 
proving the prosecution ; for none of the managers 
had treated Sacheverel so severely as he had done ; 
yet secret whispers were very confidently set about, 
that though the queen's aflfairs put her on acting the 
part of one that was pleased with this scene, yet 



Parker 
made lord 
chief jus- 
tice. 



^ But not of very enlarged no- 
tions ; perhaps the better judge ; 
whose business is to keep strict- 
ly to the plain and known rules 
of the law. Men of lively ge- 
nius are loo apt to go beyond 
those boundaries, and affect to 
strike out what they call " new 
" lights ;" a very dangerous 
thing in the law, how well soe- 
ver and useful in other sciences. 
O. 

* This wise promotion was 
most judiciously made to please 
the Duke of Somerset, who had 
taken it into his head that he 



could govern Parker, which no- 
body that knew either could be- 
lieve. But the duke was loo 
necessary at that time to be 
contradicted. D. (" I would 
" fain ask," writes Swift in 
his Public Spirit of the Whigs, 
p. 54, " one single person in 
" the world a question. Why 
" he hath so often drank the 
** abdicated king's health upon 
" his knees ?" Parker, when 
chief justice, had condemned 
Bedford, the editor of a book 
in favour of hereditary- right, 
to a rigorous imprisonment.) 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 433 

she disliked it all, and would take the first occasion 1710. 
to shew it. 



After the trial was ended, the debate was taken Debate* ia 
up in the house of lords: it stuck long on the *{* Jj.^^* 
first article; none pretended to justify the sermon, *^^'^*''* 
or to assert absolute non-resistance : all who favoured 
him went upon this, that the duty of obedience 
ought to be delivered in full and general words, 
without putting odd exceptions, or supposing odious 
cases : this had been the method of all our divines. 
Pains were also taken to shew, that his sermon did 
not reflect on the revolution : on the other hand, it 
was said, that since the revolution had happened so 
lately, and was made still the subject of much con- 
troversy, those absolute expressions did plainly con- 
demn it. The revolution was the whole progress of 
the turn, from the prince of Orange's landing, till 
the act of settlement passed. The act of parliament 
expressed what was meant by the abdication and 
the vacancy of the throne; that it did not only 
relate to king James's withdrawing himself, but to 544 
his ceasing jto govern according to our constitution 
and laws, setting up his mere will and pleasure as 
the measure of his government : this was made 
plainer by another clause in the acts then passed, 
which provided, that if any of our princes should be- 
come papists, or marry papists, the subjects were in 
those cases declared to be free from their allegiance. 
Some of the bishops spoke in this debate on each 
side ; Hooper, bishop of Bath and Wells, spoke in 
excuse of Sacheverel; but Talbot, bishop of Ox- 
ford, Wake, bishop of Lincoln, Trimnel, bishop of 
Norwich, and myself, spoke on the other side. We 
shewed the falsehood of an opinion too commonly 
VOL. V. F f 



434 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1710. received, that the church of England had always 
condemned resistance, even in the cases of extreme 
tyranny : the books of the Maccabees, bound in our 
Bibles, and approved by our Articles,, (as containing 
examples of life and instruction of manners, though 
npt as any part of the canon of the scripture,) con- 
tained a full and clear precedent for resisting and 
skaking off extreme tyranny : the Jews, under that 
brave family, not only defended themselves against 
Antiochus, but formed themselves into a free and 
new government. Our homilies were only against 
wilful rebellion, such as had been then against our 
kings, while they were governing by law : but at 
that very time queen Elizabeth had assisted, first 
the Scotch, and then the French, and to the eiid of 
her days continued to protect the States, who not 
only resisted, but, as the Maccabees had done, shook 
off the Spanish yoke, and set up a new form of go- 
vernment : in all this she was not only justified by 
the best writers of that time, such as Jewel and Bil- 
son, but was approved and supported in it : both her 
parliaments and convocations gave her subsidies, to 
carry on those wars. The same principles were kept 
up aU king James's reign : in the beginning of king 
Charles's reign, he protected the Rochellers,and asked 
supplies from the parliament to enable him to do it 
effectually; and ordered a fast and prayers to be 
made for them. It is true, soon after that, new no- 
tions of absolute power, derived from God to kings, 
were taken up-; at the first rise given to these by 
Manwaring, they were condemned by a sentence of 
the lords ; and though he submitted, and retracted 
his opinion, yet a severe censure passed upon him : 
but during the long discontinuance of parliaments 



OF QIJE^N ANNE. 485 

that followed, this doctrine was more favoured ; it 1710. 
was generally preached up, and many things were done 
pursuant to it, which put the nation into the great 
convulsions that followed in our civil wars. After 
these were over, it was natural to return to the other 
extreme, as courts naturally favour such doctrines. 545 
King James trusted too much to it ; yet the very 
assertors of that doctrine were the first who pleaded 
for resistance, when they thought they needed it. 
Here was matter for a long debate : it was carried 
by a majority of seventeen, that the first article was 
proved. The party that was for Sacheverel made 
no opposition to the votes upon the follo\^ang arti- 
cles ; but contented themselves with protesting 
against them : the lords went down to the hall, 
where the question being put upon the whole im- 
peachment. Guilty or iVb^ guilti/, fifty-two voted 
him Not guilty, and sixty-nine voted him Guilty. 

The next debate was, what censure ought to pass He u cen- 
upon him : and here a strange turn appeared ; some genUy. 
seemed to apprehend the effects of a popular fury, 
if the censure was severe ; to others it was said, that 
the queen desired it might be mild ; so it was pro- 
posed to suspend him from preaching for one year ; 
others were for six years ; but by a vote it was fixed 
to three years. It was next moved, that he should 
be incapable of all preferment for those three years ; 
upon that the house was divided, fifty-nine were for 
the vote, and sixty were against it : so that being laid 
aside, the sermon was ordered to be burnt, in the 
presence of the lord mayor and the sheriffs of Lon- 
don ; and this was done ; only the lord mayor, being 
a member of the house of commons, did not think 

F f 2 



436 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1710- he was bound to be present. The lords also voted, 
' that the decrees of the university of Oxford, passed 

in 1683, in which the absolute authority of princes, 
and the unalterableness of the hereditary right of 
succeeding to the crown, were asserted in a very 
high strain, should be burnt with Sacheverel's ser- 
mon : the house of commons likewise ordered the 
impious collection of blasphemous expressions, that 
Sacheverel had printed as his justification*^, to be 
also burnt. 

When this mild judgment was given, those who 
had supported him during the trial expressed an 
inconceivable gladness, as if they had got a victory ; 
bonfires, illuminations, and other marks of joy ap- 
peared, not only in London, but over the whole 
kingdom. 
Addresses This had yet greater effects ; addresses were set 

against the n n ■^^ n t ••i«it 

parliament, ou foot from all the parts of the nation, m which the 
absolute power of our princes was asserted, and all 
resistance was condemned, under the designation of 
an timonarchical and republican principles; thequeen's 
hereditary right was acknowledged, and yet a zeal 
for the protestant succession was likewise pretended, 
to make those addresses pass the more easily with 
unthinking multitudes S: most of these concluded 

^ (His justification for assert- It is true, king William was 

ing, that religion and the church never so ; but he would not 

of England were in danger, have been displeased to have 

See above, p. 541.) had the distinction made, if it 

8 I believe it would puzzle could have been done in his fa- 

a wiser man than the bishop, vour ; well knowing he was not 

to distinguish between queen the more respected, either at 

Anne's hereditary right, and the home or abroad, for being upon 

house of Hanover's, they being the foot of selection : and if 

equally so, upon the foot of the princess of Denmark had 

next qualified heirs to the crown, died before him, would soon 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 487 

with an intimation of their hopes, that the queen 1710. 
would dissolve the present parliament, giving assur- 
ances, that in a new election, they would choose 
none but such as should be faithful to the crown, 
and zealous for the church : these were at first more 
coldly received ; for the queen either made no an- 
swer at all, or mad^ them in very general words. 
Addresses were brought upon the other hand, mag- 
nifying the conduct of the parliament, and express- 
ing a zeal for maintaining the revolution and the 
protestant succession. 

In the beginning of April the parliament was The queen** 
prorogued, and the queen, in her speech thereupon, *''*'^*^'' 
expressed her concern that there was cause given 
for that which had taken up so much of their time, 
wishing that all her people would be quiet, and 
mind their own business ; adding, that in all times 
there was too much occasion given to complain of 
impiety, but that she would continue that zeal 
which she had hitherto expressed for religion and 
for the church : this seemed to look a different way 
from the whispers that had been set about. Soon 
after that, she made a step that revived them again : 
the duke of Shrewsbury had gone out of England 
in the end of the former reign, thinking, as he gave 
out, that a warmer climate was necessary for his 
health : he stayed several years at Rome, where he 
became acquainted with a Roman lady : and she, 
upon his leaving Rome to retuni to England, went 
after him to Augsbourg, where she overtook him, 
and declared herself a protestant ; upon which, he 

have shewn he knew the differ- and that was one great cause of 
ence, as some that were much his aversion to h«r, that she liad 
in his confidence have told me : a better title than he had. D. 

Ff 3 



436 



THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 



1710. married her there, and came with her back to Eng- 
Duke of land in the year 1706 ^. Upon his return, the whigs 
msiT!or"<r li^^d in civilities with him; but they thought his 
cbamber- leaving England, and his living so long out of it, 
while we were in so much danger at home, and his 
strange maniage, gave just cause of suspicion. The 
duke of Marlborough and the lord Godolphin lived 
still in friendships with him, and studied to over- 
come the jealousies that the whigs had of him ; for 
they generally believed, that he had advised the 
late; king to the change he made in his ministry 
towards the end of his reign. He seemed not to be 



^ Forced to it, as it was ge- 
nerally said and believed, by a 
furious brother of hers, with 
whom the duke did not care to 
quarrel. However, to avoid the 
scandal of that upon himself, 
he had the skill and temper to 
preserve ever afterwards all ap- 
pearances to the world of affec- 
tion and respect for her, and 
laboured to procure the latter 
to her from all other people, 
and carried it so far as to get 
her^made one of the ladies of 
the bedchamber to the princess 
of Wales. But after his death 
she was very little considered, 
and was in truth a vain, im- 
pertinent woman, without vir- 
tue or sense, not enough even 
for the art of her country. By 
the means of a relation of mine, 
I had an opportunity of know- 
ing a good deal of her charac- 
ter, and the duke's management 
of it, which seemed to take up 
more of his time and thoughts 
than all his other private and 
his public concerns did ; and all 
this from the hopes be had of 



concealing what all the world 
did really know. The whole 
of this transaction affords a 
most eminent proof, that he 
who wants courage should ne- 
ver want prudence, and that all 
the after wisdom that can be 
exerted, may not in every case 
be able to cure or to cover even 
a single folly. His life was not 
disturbed only by this care of 
her, but he was continually dis- 
quieted by the brother for mo- 
ney, who at last came into Eng- 
land, mad with pride and po- 
verty, and having in his rage 
murdered a chairman, or a ser- 
vant, was hanged here for that 
offence; but the duke was then 
dead. They were of a great 
family in Italy, named Faliotti, 
and descended, by a female, 
from the famous sir Robert 
Dudley, thought to be the legi- 
timate, but only allowed to be 
the natural son of Robert Dud- 
ley, earl of Leicester, and was 
created by the emperor or the 
pope, a duke, with the title of 
Northumberland. O. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 



439 



concerned at the distance in which he was kept 
from business; but in the late trial he left the 
whigs in every vote ; and a few days after the par- 
liament was prorogued, the queen, without commu- 
nicating the matter to any of her ministers, took the 
chamberlain's white staff from the marquis of Kent, 
(whom, in recompence for that, she advanced to be 
a duke,) and gave it to the duke of Shrewsbury'. 
This gave a great alarm ; for it was upon that con- 
cluded, that a total change of the ministry would 



1610. 



» See a very free letter of the 
lord Godolphin on this occa- 
sion to the queen. It is in the 
duchess of Marlborough's Me- 
moirs O. The duke of Shrews- 
bury was a man of a very noble 
family, a clear understanding, 
had an education that qualified 
him for any employment, ex- 
tremely agreeable in his person, 
and of a very lively conversa- 
tion : but with all these advan- 
tages was a very unhappy man. 
He was ambitious, but natu- 
rally so timorous, and quick of 
apprehension, that he enjoyed 
more imaginary dangers than 
any man ever did. His duch- 
ess, who kept her authority over 
him by the same means she had 
obtained it, was the constant 
plague of his life, and the real 
cause of his death. He had 
not resolution enough to be 
chief minister, but could not 
bear that another should be 
what he so often refused ; and 
could not help shewing his dis- 
satisfaction, even to invidious- 
ness. He would give very bold 
advice, but always shrunk in the 
execution ; an instance of which 
lessened his esteem with the 
queen, who did not want cou- 



rage herself, to a degree of con- 
tempt. Jack How, who was 
vice- chamberlain to the queen 
her sister, told me, if she had 
outlived the king, she would 
certainly have married him. 
The first time he perceived any 
thing extraordinary was in lead- 
ing of her to chapel : when the 
duke stepped forward to speak 
to her, she trembled all over ; 
and he often observed the like 
commotions afterwards, when- 
ever he came into her presence. 
I believe his father and brother 
having been killed, might con- 
tribute to his unaccountable 
faint-heartedness. D. (" The 
" duke of Shrewsbury," (says 
Swift, in the 26th number of 
the Examiner,) " was highly in- 
" strumental in bringing about 
" the revolution, in which service 
" he freely exposed his life and 
" fortune ; he had ever been 
" the favourite of the nation, 
" being possessed of many ami- 
" able qualities ; but in the 
" agreeableness and fragrancy 
" of his person, and the pro- 
" foundnessof his politics, must 
*' be allowed to fall very short 

" of the " [duke of Kent.] 

Compare note above, at p. 381.) 

F f 4 



440 



THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 



1710. quickly follow ; the change of principles that he had 
discovered in the trial was imputed to a secret ma- 
nagement between him and Harley, with the new 
favourite. The queen's inclination to her, and her 
alienation from the duchess of Marlborough, did in- 
547 crease, and broke out in many little things not 
worth naming : upon that, the duchess retired from 
the court, and appeared no more at it ^. The duke 
of Shrewsbury gave the ministers very positive assur- 
ances, that his principles were the same they had 
been during the last reign, and were in no respect 
altered: upon which, he desired to enter into con- 
fidences with them ; but there was now too much 
ground given for suspicion. 

During this winter I was encouraged by the 



^ The duchess of Marlbo- 
rough had been long out of fa- 
vour, before either her husband 
or lord Godolphin knew of it, 
(she keeping it a secret from 
them as long as she could.) 
After the battle of Blenheim, 
she thought her foundation so 
broad, that she treated the 
queen with the utmost inso- 
lence and contempt. The last 
free conference she had with 
her was at Windsor, wliere Mrs. 
Dan vers, who was then in wait- 
ing, told me, the duchess re- 
proached her for above an hour 
with her own and her family's 
services, in so loud and shrill a 
voice, that the footmen at the 
bottom of the back stairs could 
hear her : and all this storm 
was raised for the queen's hav- 
ing ordered a bottle of wine a 
day to be allowed her laun- 
dress, without having acquaint- 
ed her grace with it. The 



queen, seeing her so outrageous, 
got up, to have gone out of the 
room : the duchess clapped her 
back against the door, and told 
her she should hear her out, 
for that was the least favour 
she could do her, for having 
set and kej)t the crown upon 
her head. As soon as she had 
done raging, she flounced out 
of the room, and said, she did 
not care if she never saw her 
more : to which the queen re- 
plied very calmly, that she 
thought the seldomer the bet- 
ter. She used to entertain her 
confidents with telling them 
what a praying, godly idiot the 
queen was, and was wise enough 
to think they would keep such 
a secret for her : but lady Fitz- 
harding, who could not keep 
her secret in king William's 
time, was as little di.sposed to 
do it in queen Anne's, D. 



free- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 441 

queen to speak more freely to her of her affairs, 1710. 
than I had ever ventured to do formerly; I told The queen 
her what reports were secretly spread of her through to"wifb''* 
the nation, as if she favoured the design of bring- JJ|^* 
ing the pretender to succeed to the crown, upon 
a bargain that she should hold it during her life : 
I was sure these reports were spread about by 
persons who were in the confidence of those that 
were believed to know her mind; I was well as- 
sured, that the Jacobites of Scotland had, upon her 
coming to the crown, sent up one Ogilby of Boyne, 
who was in great esteem among them, to propose 
the bargain to her ; he, when he went back, gave 
the party fuU assurances that she accepted of it : 
this I had from some of the lords of Scotland, who 
were then in the secret with the professed Jacobites. 
The earl Cromarty made a speech in parliament, 
as was formerly mentioned ', contradicting this, and 
alluding to the distinction of the Calvinists, made 
between the secret and the revealed will of God; 
he assured them the queen had no secret will, con- 
trary to that which she declared : yet at the sam6 
time his brother gave the party assurances to the 
contrary. I told the queen all this ; and said, if she 
was capable of making such a bargain for herself*", 
by which her people were to be delivered up, and 
sacrificed after her death, as it would darken all the 
glory of her reign, so it must set all her people to 
consider of the most proper ways of securing them- 
selves, by bringing over the protestant successors; 

' (P- 397') should say exactly this, and 

•" (The bishop's assurance what immediately follows, to 

was certainly very great, but it the queen.) 

is hardly to be credited that he 



442 THE HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1710. in which, I told her plainly, I would concur, if she 
did not take effectual means to extinguish those 
jealousies. I told her, her ministers had served her 
with that fidelity, and such success, that her making 
a change among them would amaze all the world. 
The glory of queen Elizabeth's reign arose from the 
firmness of her counsels, and the continuance of her 
ministers, as the three last reigns, in which the mi- 
nistry was often changed, had suffered extremely 
by it ". I also shewed her, that if she suffered the 
pretender's party to prepare the nation for his suc- 
ceeding her, she ought not to imagine, that when 
they thought they had fixed that matter, they would 
stay for the natural end of her life ; but that they 
548 would find ways to shorten it : nor did I think it 
was to be doubted, but that in 1708, when the pre- 
tender was upon the sea, they had laid some assas- 
sinates here, who, upon the news of his landing, 
would have tried to despatch her. It was certain, 
that their interest led them to it, as it was known 
that their principles did allow of it. This, with a 
great deal more to the same purpose, I laid before 
the queen ; she heard me patiently ; she was for the 
most part sUent : yet, by what she said, she seemed 

" But queen Elizabeth's mi- had their constant and united 

nistry was a mixed one, con- service as she pleased, and their 

sisting of some moderate pa- quarrels made therefore no 

pists, church of England men, changes in the court. The 

and of persons not disinclined keeping her servants in awe, 

to the puritans. They had ani- and courting her people, both 

mosities too against one an- which she was admirably made 

other, in rivalry for power, for, and knowing when she was 

which she checked or suffered, well served, and generally choos- 

just as it served her purpose to ingsuch as were proper for that, 

control them all, and to keep were the great characters of her 

them in an absolute subservi- government, and will always 

ency to herself: and by this she make a government great. O. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 448 

desirous to make me think she agreed to what I 1701. 
laid before her; but I found afterwards it had no 
effect upon her : yet I had great quiet in my own 
mind, since I had, with' an honest freedom, made 
the best use I could of the access I had to her °. 

The duke of Marlborough went beyond sea in 
February, to prepare all matters for an early cam- 
paign, designing to open it in April, which was 
done. The French had wrought so long upon their 
lines, that it was thought they would have taken as 
much care in maintaining them; but upon the ad- 
vance of our army they abandoned them. And 
though they seemed resolved to make a stand upon 
the scarp, yet they ran from that likewise ; and this 
opened the way all on to Doway : so that was in- 
vested. The garrison was 8000 strong, well furnished po^-ay be- 
with every thing necessary to make a brave de-Sa.* 
fence: the besieged sallied out often, sometimes with 
advantage, but much oftener with loss. It was the 
middle of May before the French could bring their 
army together: it appeared that they resolved to 
stand upon the defensive, though they had brought 
up together a vast army of two hundred battalions 
and three hundred squadrons : they lay before Ar- 
ras, and advanced to the plains of Lens: Villars 
commanded, and made such speeches to his army, 

" This all-knowing bishop be the first man hanged, if ever 

knew little of what passed at the pretender came ; (which 

court at this lime : but the nobody else thought could fall 

queen, who was the best bred to his share, in a much longer 

person in her dominions, would time than his age would admit 

give him a patient hearing, when of;) and I dare say she laughed 

she despised his impertinence ; heartily at his threats, knowing 

and very well knew she run him to be as insignificant, as he 

most danger, though he had was bold and intruding. D. 
the vanity to fancy he should 



444 HISTORY OF THE REIGN OF Q.ANNE. 

1710. tliat it was generally believed he would venture on 
a battle, rather than look on, and see Doway lost. 
The duke of Marlborough and prince Eugene posted 
their army so advantageously, both to cover the 
siege and to receive the enemy, that he durst not at- 
tack them ; but after he had looked on a few days, 
in which the two armies were not above a league 
distant, he drew off: so the siege going on, and no 
relief appearing, both Doway and the Fort Escarp 
capitulated on the 14th of June. 



THE END OF VOL. V. 



TABLE OF THE CONTENTS 



OF THE F0BK60INO 



VOLUME-. 



BOOK VII. 



Of the reign of queen Anne. 



v^UEEN Anne succeeds 309 

Her first speech to the privy- 
council ibid. 

She pursues the alliance and 
the war 3 10 

A bill for the public accounts 

311 
A ministry formed 312 

Few refused the abjuration oath 

The union of both kingdoms 
proposed 315 

The war with France proclaim- 
ed ibid. 

A false report of designs against 
the queen ibid. 

The parliament is dissolved 317 

A convocation sat ibid. 

Societies for reformation ibid. 

Affairs in Scotland 319 

A session of parliament there 321 

Affairs in Germany ibid. 

The war in I'oland 322 



A treaty with the house of Ba- 
varia 322 
The siege of Keiserwert 323 
The siege of Landaw ibid. 
Keiserwert taken 324 
The earl of Marlborough com- 
mands the confederate army 
ibid. 
Is taken by a party of the 
French, but gets out of their 
hands 326 
Landaw was taken 327 
The elector of Bavaria declares 
for France ibid. 
The war in Italy ibid. 
King Philip went to Italy 328 
Affairs in Poland 329 
An insurrection in the Ceven- 
nes ibid. 
The English fleet sent to Cadiz 

330 

They landed and robbed St. 

Maries 331 



" {The pages referred to are those qfthefoUo editiony which are 
inserted in the margin of the present.) 



446 



A TABLE OF THE CONTENTS. 



The galleons put in at Vigo 

332 

But are burnt or taken by the 

English ibid. 

The English fleet came home 

333 

A new parliament ibid. 

Great partiality in judging e- 
lections 334 

All the supply agreed to 335 

A bill against occasional con- 
formity 336 

Great debates about it ibid. 

The two houses disagreeing, 
the bill was lost 338 

A bill in favour of prince George 
ibid. 

Debates ou a clause that was in 

it _ 339 

A further security to the pro- 

testant succession 340 

The earl of Rochester laid down 

his employment ibid. 

Rook's conduct examined and 

justified 341 

The inquiry made into the 

public accounts 342 

The clamour kept up against 

the former reign ibid. 

Is examined by the lords, and 

found to be ill grounded 

343 
Some new peers made , 344 
The proceedings in convocation 

345 

Great distractions among the 

clergy 347 

1703. 

Preparations for the campaign 

347 
Bonne taken 348 

Earthquakes in Italy ibid. 

The battle of Eckeren ibid. 
Huy, Limburgh, and Guelder, 
with all the Coudras, taken 

349 
The success of the French on 

the Danube ibid. 

Little done in Italy 350 



A war begun in Hungary 350 

Disorders in the emperor's 
court ibid. 

Augsburg and Landaw taken 
by the French 351 

A treaty with the king of Por- 
tugal ibid. 

The high wind in November 

353 
The new king of Spain came 
to England 354 

He landed at Lisbon ibid. 

The' duke of Savoy came into 
the alliance 355 

The secret reasons of his for- 
mer departure from it ibid. 
The French discover his inten- 
tions, and make all his troops 
with them prisoners of war 
356 
Count Staremberg joined him 
ibid. 
The insurrection in the Ceven- 
nes continued ibid. 

The affairs of Poland 357 

Affairs at sea 358 

A fleet sent into the Mediter- 
ranean ibid. 
Another to the West Indies 359 
They returned without success 
ibid. 
Our fleets were ill victualled 
ibid. 
The affairs of Scotland 360 
Presbytery was confirmed ibid. 
Debates concerning the succes- 
sion to that crown [357] 
Practices from France [358] 
A discovery made of these ibid. 
Reflections on the conduct of 
affairs in Scotland [359] 
The affairs of Ireland [360] 
An act passed there against po- 
pery 361 
Jealousies of the ministry 362 
A bill against occasional con- 
formity 363 
Passed by the house of com- 
mons ibid. 



A TABLE OF THE CONTENTS. 



447 



But "rejected by the lords 363 

The clergy out of humour 364 

The commons vote all the ne- 
cessary supplies ibid. 

Inquiries into the conduct of 
the fleet 365 

The earl of Orford's accounts 
justified ibid. 

1704. 

A bill for examining the public 
accounts, lost between the 
two houses 366 

A dispute concerning injustice 

in the elections of a member 

of parliament for Aylesbury 

ibid. 

The lords judge that the right 
to elect is a right triable at 
common law 368 

The queen gave the tenths 
and first-fruits for an aug- 
mentation to poor livings 

369 
An act passed about it 371 
A plot discovered ibid. 

Disputes between the two 
houses in addresses to the 
queen 373 

The lords order a secret exa- 
mination of all that are sus- 
pected to be in the plot 

375 

The lords' opinion upon the 
whole matter 378 

An address justifying their pro- 
ceeding ibid. 

An act for recruits ibid. 

An address concerning justices 
of peace 379 

The ill temper of many of the 
clergy ibid. 

The duke of Marlborough went 

to Holland in the winter 

380 

The earl of Nottingham quits 
his employment 381 

The earl of Jersey and sir Ed- 
ward Seimour are turned out 
ibid. 



The duke of Marlborough con- 
ducted his design with great 
secrecy 381 

He marches to the Danube 
382 
The battle of Schellenberg 
ibid. 
The battle of Hocksted, or 
Blenheim 384 

The duke of Marlborough ad- 
vanced to Triers 386 
Affairs at sea 387 
Gibraltar was taken 388 
The affairs of Portugal 389 
A fight at sea 390 
The siege of Gibraltar by the 
French 391 
Affairs' in Italy 392 
And in the Cevennes ibid. 
Affairs in Hungary 393 
The affairs of Poland 394 
The pope wholly in the French 
interest 395 
The affairs of Scotland ibid. 
Debates about the succession 

397 

The settling it put off for that 
session 397 

A money bill with an odd tack 
to it ibid. 

The ministers there advise the 
queen to pass it 399 

It was passed ibid. 

Censures upon it ibid. 

A session of parliament in Eng- 
land 401 

. ^705-. 

The occasional bill is again 

brought in, and endeavoured 

to be tacked to a money bill 

ibid. 

The tack was rejected 402 

Debates concerning Scotland 

ibid. 

Complaints of the admiralty 

404 
The bill against occasional con- 
formity debated and rejected 
by the lords 405 



448 



A TABLE OF THE CONTENTS. 



Bishop Watson's practices 406 
Some promotions in the church 
ibid. 
Designs with relation to the 
electoress of Hanover 407 
The house of commons impri- 
son some of the men of 
Aylesbury ibid. 

The end of the parliament 410 
Bills that were not passed 411 
Proceedings in the convocation 
412 
The siege of Gibraltar raised 

413 
ThedukeofMarlborough march- 
ed to Triers ibid. 
Expecting the prince of Baden 
414 
"Who failed him 415 
The duke of Marlborough broke 
through the French lines 
ibid. 
The Dutch would not venture 
a battle ibid. 
The emperor Leopold's death 
and character 416 
Affairs in Germany 417 
And in Italy 418 
Affairs in Spain ibid. 
A fleet and army sent to Spain 
419 
They landed near Barcelona 
420 
King Charles pressed to besiege 
it ibid. 
Fort Montjui attacked 421 
And taken 422 
Barcelona capitulated ibid. 
King Charles's letters 423 
Affairs at sea ibid. 
The siege of Badajos raised by 
the French ibid. 
Affairs in Hungary 424 
And in Poland ibid. 
A parliament chosen in Eng- 
land 425 
Cowper made lord keeper 426 
An act for a treaty of union 
passed in Scotland 427 



The state of Ireland 427 

A parliament in England 428 
A speaker chosen ibid. 

Debates about the next succes- 
sor 429 
A bill for a regency on the 
queen's death 431 
Great opposition made to it 

432 

A secret management in the 

house of commons 433 

The act of regency passed 

434 
The danger of the church in- 
quired into ibid. 
A vote and address to the queen 
about it 436 
1706. 
Complaints of the allies rejected 
ibid. 
The act against the Scots re- 
pealed 437 
The public credit very high 

438 

An act for the amendment of 

the law 439 

Complaints of the progress of 

popery 440 

A design for a public library 

ibid. 

Proceedings in convocation 441 

Preparations for the campaign 

.443 
A revolt in Valentia ibid. 

Barcelona besieged by the 

French 444 

Alcantara taken by the earl of 

Galway ibid. 

The Germans are defeated in 

Italy 445 

The treaty for the union of the 

two kingdoms 446 

The siege of Barcelona raised 

447 
An eclipse of the sun 448 

The earl of Galway advanced 

into Spain ibid. 

King Philip came to Madrid, 

and soon left it ibid. 



A TABLE OF THE CONTENTS. 



449 



The earl of Galway came thi- 
ther, but king Charles de- 
layed his coming too long 
448. 
The battle of Ramellies 450 
A great victory gained there 45 1 
Flanders and Brabant reduced 
ibid. 
Ostend and Menin taken ibid. 
The duke of Vendome com- 
mands in Flanders 452 
Dendermond and Aeth taken 
ibid. 
Designs of a descent in France 

453 
The siege of Turin ibid. 

Prince Eugene marches to raise 

it 454 

The French army routed, and 

the siege raised 455 

The king of Sweden marched 

into Saxony 457 

The treaty of union concluded 

here ibid. 

The articles of the union 458 
Debated long in the parliament 

of Scotland 459 

1707. 
At last agreed to by both par- 
liaments 463 
The equivalent disposed of 465 
Reflections on the union 467 
The supplies were granted 469 
Proceedings in convocation 470 
Affairs in Italy 472 
And in Poland 473 
The character of the king of 

Sweden 474 

Propositions for a peace ibid. 
The battle of Almanza 475 
The design upon Toulon 476 
It failed in the execution 478 
The siege of Lerida ibid. 

Relief sent to Spain 479 

The conquest of Naples by the 

emperor 480 

Affairs on the Rhine 481 

The king of Prussia judged 

prince of Neufchatel 482 

VOL. V. 



The king of Sweden gets the 

protestant churches in Silesia 

restored 483 

A sedition in Hamburgh 484 

The campaign in Flanders ibid. 

Affairs at sea 485 

Proceedings with relation to 

Scotland 486 

A new party at court ibid. 

Promotions in the church 487 

Complaints of the admiralty 

489 
Examined by the house of lords 
490 
And laid before the queen in 
an address 49 j 

Inquiry into the affairs of Spain 
492 
1708. 
Discovery of a correspondence 
with France 494 

An examination into that cor- 
respondence 496 
Proceedings with relation to 
Scotland 497 
A descent intended upon Scot- 
land 499 
A fleet sailed from Dunkirk 
500 
Reports spread by the French 

501 
The parliament stands firmly 

by the queen 502 

The French fleet got again into 

Dunkirk ibid. 

The designs of the campaign 

are concerted 503 

The princes of France sent to 

the army in Flanders ibid. 
The duke of Orleans sent to 

Spain 504 

Tortosa besieged and taken 

ibid. 

Supplies sent from Italy to 

Spain ibid. 

Ghent and Bruges taken by the 

French ibid. 

The battle of Oudenarde 505 
Lisle besieged 506 



4SO 



A TABLE OF THE CONTENTS. 



The French drew lines along 
the Scheld 507 

A new supply sent to Ostend 
ibid. 

A defeat given the French when 
they were three to one ibid. 

The convoy from Ostend came 
safe to the camp 508 

Leffinghen taken by the French 
ibid. 

A misunderstanding between 
the duke of Burgundy and 
duke of Vendome 509 

Affairs on the Upper Rhine 
ibid. 

The elector of Bavaria sent to 
attack Brussels ibid. 

The duke of Marlborough pass- 
ed the Scheld and the French 
lines ibid. 

The elector of Bavaria drew off 
from Brussels 510 

The citadel of Lisle capitulated 
ibid. 

Reflections upon that siege 

Ghent and Bruges are retaken 

A very hard winter ibid. 

Sardinia and Minorca reduced 

The pope threatens the empe- 
ror with censures and a war 
ibid. 
The duke of Savoy takes Exilles 
and Fenestrella 513 

The pope is forced to submit 
to the emperor 514 

And acknowledges king Charles 
ibid. 
Affairs in Hungary ibid. 

And in Poland ibid. 

Affairs at sea ibid. 

Prince George's death and cha- 
racter 515 
Some new ministers taken in 
516 
The new parliament opened 
ibid. 



1709. 

Debates concerning the election 
of Scotch peers 517 

A Scotch peer created a peer 
of Great Britain is to have 
no vote in the election there 

Other exceptions were deter- 
mined ibid. 
A faction amongst the Scots 519 
An act concerning trials of trea- 
sons in Scotland, and on 
what occasion ibid. 
The heads of that act 5 20 
The forms of proceeding in 
Scotland 521 
Of the forfeitures in cases of 
treason 522 
Amendments to the act 523 
It passed in both houses ibid. 
An act of grace 524 
An enlargement of the fund of 
the bank of England ibid. 
Great riches come to Portugal 
from America ibid. 
An act for a general naturaliza- 
tion of all foreign protestants 

524 
An address to the queen con- 
cerning the terms on which 
a peace might be made 525 
The convocation prorogued ibid. 
A faction amongst the clergy in 
Ireland 526 

An ill temper amongst the Eng- 
lish clergy ibid. 
Negotiations for peace 526 
The preliminaries agreed upon 
528 
The king of France refuses to 
ratify them 5 29 
The war went on 530 
In Portugal 531 
In Spain ibid. 
In Dauphiny ibid. 
In Germany ibid. 
And in Flanders 532 
Tournay is besieged and taken 
ibid. 



A TABLE OF THE CONTENTS. 



451 



The battle of Blarignies 
Mods is besieged and 



553 
taken 
ibid, 
ibid, 
ibid. 



Affairs in Italy 
Aifairs in Spain 
The king of Sweden's defeat at 
Pultowa 534 

He flies into Turkey ibid. 

His character by Dr. Robinson 

535 
Affairs in Denmark 536 

Our fleet well conducted 537 
A session of parliament ibid. 
Sacheverel's sermon ibid. 

Many books wrote agjunst the 
queen's title 538 

Dr. Hoadly's writings in de- 
fence of it ibid. 
1710. 
Sacheverel was impeached by 
the house of commons 539 
And tried in Westminster hall 
540 



Great disorders at that time 

542 
The continuation of the trial 

543 

Sir John Holt's death and cha- 
racter ibid. 

Parker made lord chief justice 
ibid. 

Debates in the house of lords 
after the trial ibid. 

Sacheverel is censured very 
gently 545 

Addresses against the parlia- 
ment ibid. 

The queen's speech at the end 
of the session 546 

The duke of Shrewsbury made 
lord chamberlain ibid. 

The author's free discourse to 
the queen 547 

Doway is besieged and taken 
548 



Q\ /(-4 



Jinn 

A 000 988 187 ,