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"Careful, sympathetic character sketches."— C^^rtrrf/aw. 

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hiwji uU//hr i?Tij^raoin/j L - 

J/ 7/ n ' /////// v// '// / , 







Canon Residentiakv and Pkkckntor of Truro 
Author of "/•/z'd' Great Oxfo'.l Leadeis^^ 

wi TH IL L US tf: a TIONS 





3n HEtTErettt Mzmata 














o,^ -^-.<iq 


THE writing of this volume has been a very real 
pleasure, but it would never have been under- 
taken except at the invitation of others. When the 
life of Archbishop Benson, by his son, Mr. A. C. 
Benson, appeared, it was welcomed everywhere as a 
worthy presentment of the personality, character, and 
life of a great man and eminent prelate, from his 
earliest days down to the moment when he was called 
suddenly away in Hawarden Church. The whole 
period of sixty-eight years was very fully dealt with, 
and carefully illustrated from letters, diaries, and other 
documents. No one could fail to realise, from so 
well-executed a biography, a very clear and definite 
portrait of the person there described, nor to follow 
the main outlines of a life, rich in great opportunities, 
nobly seized and faithfully dealt with. As one reads, 
and reads again, this fine biography, there is observ- 
able in the history an onward progress of personal 
development in the various stages of the Archbishop's 
career. Mr. Benson in exhibiting all this in clear and 
balanced method, endeavoured to do justice to each 
part of the life of his father. This he has ably and 
successfully vindicated in a published reply to certain 


criticisms, on the part of those who thought that the 
six years of remarkably active, and even unique, work 
in Cornwall mi^ht have received a fuller and more 
detailed treatment. But the present writer on the 
whole gives his judgment on the side of Mr. Benson's 
work, recognising the principles on which it was 
written and published. Still he could not withhold 
sympathy from those many lovers of Cornwall, and 
of the first Bishop of Truro, who had become very 
dear to them for his work's sake and for his own, in 
their desire to possess some larger and fuller record 
of his untirinor and fruitful labours. Yet it never 
would have occurred to him to offer his services for 
the writing of such a record. He would have pre- 
ferred to see it done by some one more intimately 
and personally connected with Dr. Benson's Cornish 
episcopate. But when the writer's friend, the Rev. 
A. P. Moor, Honorary Canon of Truro, and formerly 
Vicar of St. Clement's, near Truro, assured him that 
he had failed to induce anyone else to take upon him 
the task, he consented to do so, on the understanding 
that he should receive assistance from those who were 
able to give it. His hesitation was also, to a large 
extent, removed by the wise suggestion of one 
whose judgment was of great value, the Rev. A. J. 
Mason, d.d., Lady Margaret Professor of Divinity, 
Cambridge, and Canon Residentiary of Canterbury, 
that the book should take the form, not merely 
of a record of the Cornish work of Dr. Benson, 
but of an account of the Bishopric of Truro from 


its foundation up to the present time.^ He desires 
to express his warmest gratitude for the kindly 
encouragement and friendly criticism of Canon Moor, 
who has greatly lightened the burden which his 
own hands laid upon the writer's shoulders. To 
no one, however, is he so much indebted as to 
Mr. Arthur C. Benson, who has, with the greatest 
generosity, placed at his disposal such large portions 
of his father's Cornish diary and letters, as have given 
to the book living pictures of persons, scenes, and 
work, without which it would have run the risk of 
being a merely dry chronicle of ecclesiastical events. 
It is not too much to say that, without Mr. Benson's 
generous co-operation, warm sympathy, and encourag- 
ing support, the writer would have shrunk from the 
publication of the book. He must also add his 
thanks to Mr. Benson for his permission (with the 
consent of Miss M orison. Head Mistress of the Truro 
High School) to print his ode, "Luce magistra." 
To Mr. A. T. Ouiller Couch he is under a similar 
obligation for the beautiful poem he has so kindly 
written for this volume. Mr. Couch is a true son of 
Cornwall : he is pre-eminently the exponent of the 
beauty of its scenery, of the pathos and quaintness 
of the character of its people, of the unrivalled 
interest of its historic past. He is not only a poet 
but a lover of other poets, and his anthology of 

1 The writer has to thank Dr. Mason for the very generous permission 
granted to him to make use of private diaries recording his mission 
work in Cornwall from 1877 to 1884. 


English poetry is a valuable addition to our best 
treasuries of literature. His contribution to the 
present volume will assuredly help it to win its way 
to Cornish hands and hearts. 

The Bishop of St. Andrews, by his permission to 
allow the publication of certain letters, has added 
one more to the many acts of kindness received by 
the author from him, while he presided over the 
Diocese of Truro, and since. 

Chancellor Worlledge has greatly helped the writer 
by the loan of documents, letters, pamphlets, and 
newspaper cuttings. He has also given much time 
to the correction of the sheets, besides supplying 
other information which has secured greater accuracy 
and clearness to many parts of the narrative. 

Other writers have also kindly contributed valuable 
matter, which has been acknowledged in the body 
of the work, or in the notes. 

In the Appendices will be found certain tables and 
other documents, which may serve to illustrate or 
elucidate matters treated in the text. 

The writer cannot hope to send his book forth to 
the public free from all blemishes, nor can he have a 
confident assurance that he has succeeded in recordincr 
everything of importance, in a period of Church life 
in Cornwall so remarkable and so full as that of the 
past quarter of a century. But he believes that his 
work v.'ill be received with kindlv interest and in- 
dulgent criticism by all who, with him, love Cornwall, 


its Church, and its people, among whom he has spent 
seventeen years of his Hfe and ministry. 

He cannot perhaps say, with Dr. Benson, that he 
knows " Cornwall about as well as any Cornishman 
can possibly do." P)Ut there are not many parishes 
where he has not been invited to preach or speak, 
and he is glad to believe that he may be accounted, if 
not a Cornishman of Cornishmen, yet not altogether 
a " foreigner " to Cornish hearts and homes. 

Truro, Michaebnas, 1902. 


The Choir of Truro Cathedral . . - Frontispiece 

Edmund Carlyon, Esq. .... Face page 23 

Archbishop Benson . . . ,, 39 

The Earl of Mount Edgcumbe . . . ,, 149 

The Bishop of St. Andrews . . . ,, 195 

The Bishop of Truro . . • . ,, 302 



Chronological Table . . . . . xv 

E. W. B. In Memoriam. Poem by A. T. Quiller-Couch . xvii 

Retrospect . . . . . . i 

Revival . . • • ... 23 

The First Bishop of Truro . . . • • 39 

Laying the Foundations . . ... 58 

Mission Work . ... 76 

The Cathedral ... 103 

Diocesan Work . . . . 129 

The Bishop .\nd the Laitv . . 149 

Changes . . ... 172 

The Second Bishop of Truro . • •195 



Preparation . . . . ... 224 

Fulfilment . . . . ... 245 

Efforts . . . . ... 269 

Trials . . . . ... 289 

The Third Bishop of Truro . . ... 302 

Progress . . . . ... 320 

Last Efforts and Ultimate Success . . . 344 


I. History of the Ancient Bishopric in Cornwall . 365 

II. Religious Census, 1676 . . ... 372 

III. Lisr OF the Rectors of Truro . ... 379 

IV. Cathedral Offices and their Occupants . . 382 

V. Scheme of Subjects for the Stained Windows 

in Truro Cathedral . ... 387 

VI. Scheme for the Statuary in Truro Cathedral . 400 

VII. General Survey of Church Music in the Diocese 

of Truro . . ... 405 

VIII. Men and Women from Cornwall who have 
laboured or are still labouring in the 
Foreign Mission Field ... 410 

Index . . . . ... 413 


St. Gwithian, St. la . 

St. Piran ..... 

Cornish bishops assist in the consecration of St. Chad ' 

Bishop Kenstec of Cornwall submits to Canterbury . 

See of Crediton founded 

Cornish princes do homaye to Athelstan at E.xeter 

Bishop Conan of Cornwall attends Witenagemot 

First Saxon Bishop of Cornwall . 

Charter of Aethelred to Bishop Ealdred granting liberties to the 

Cornish See ..... 

Cornish See merged in that of Crediton 

Lyfing Bishop of Crediton . . . . 

Leofric Bishop of Exeter (under charter of Edward the Confesso 

united See transferred to Exeter) 
Archdeaconry of Cornwall founded 
Bishop Bronescombe 
Bishop De Stapledon 
Bishop De Grandisson . 
Bishop Miles Coverdale 
Bishop Hall- . 
Bishop Sparrow" 
Bishop Trelawny 
Bishop Phillpotts 

First Bill for creation of Cornish See 
Offer of St. Columb Rectory by the Rev. Dr. Walker for 

endowment of See .... 
Bishop Phillpotts' offer of ^500 of income and patronage 
Deputation to Lord Palmerston 
Address to the Queen from Upper and Lower Houses of 

Convocation in behalf of new see 
Refusal by the Government 
Lord Lyttelton's Bill 
Death of Bishop Phillpotts 
Dr. Temple consecrated 



(?i 450 

(?) 520 


(?) 865 




■ ?) 950 







^ Bede, Ecclesiastical History, iii. 28. Haddan and Stubbs, Councils, etc.. 
i. 124. - Author of Contemplations, etc. 

^ Author of A Rationale, or Practical Exposition of the Book of Common 


Great Meeting at Plymouth ; Bishop Temple's offer announced 

March 1st . . . . . 

Lady Rollc's gift of /^40,ooo . . . . 

Truro Bishopric Act, August II th 
Order in Council founds See, December 15th 
Bishop Benson consecrated, April 25th 
Bishop Benson's enthronement, May ist . 
Truro created a city, August 17th 
First Diocesan Conference, October 25th and 26th 
First Honorary' Canons installed, January 17th 
Truro Chapter Act, August 8th . . . . 

Archdeaconry of Bodmin founded 
Great Cathedral Committee at Truro . . . 

Bishop Benson's Primary Visitation, July . 
Foundation Stones of Truro Cathedral laid, May 20th 
Old St. Mary's Church demolished, October 
Bishop Benson offered the Primacy, December i6th 
Bishop Benson's farewell to the diocese, Christmas . 
Canon Wilkinson offered the bishopric, January 
Dr. Benson enthroned at Canterbury, March 29th 
Dr. Wilkinson consecrated, April 25th 

Bishop Wilkinson enthroned, May 1 5th . . . 

Internal Fittings Fund inaugurated, August 29th 
Two Residentiary Canonries founded by Order in Council, 

March loth ..... 

"Truro Cathedral and Chapter Acts Amendment Act" passed 

July 5th . . . . . . 

Truro Cathedral consecrated, November 3rd 

Twelve benefices transferred by Dean and Chapter of Exeter to 

Dean and Chapter of Truro, February 22nd 
Resignation of Bishop Wilkinson, May 

Election of Dr. Gott, August 3rd . . . . 

Consecration of Dr. Gott, September 29th . 
Enthronement of Bishop Gott, October 28th 
Bishop Gott's Primary Visitation, June and July 
Death of Archbishop Benson, October i ith 
Foundations of Nave begun, May 20th 
Revival of Women of Cornwall's Cathedral Association, October 
Death of Mr. J. L. Pearson, R.A., December nth 
liuilding of Nave begun. May 29th 
Death of Queen Victoria, January 22nd 
Gift of Victorian Tower by Mr. Hawke Dennis, March 
Bishop Gott's Second Visitation, July 

E. W. B. 

3n /ID c mo riant 

T^HE Church's outpost on a neck of land — 
By ebb of faith the foremost left the last — 

Dull, starved of hope, we watched the driven sand 
Blown though the hour-glass, covering our past, 
Counting no hours to our relief — no hail 
Across the hills, and on the sea no sail 1 

Sick of monotonous days we lost account, 

In fitful dreams remembering morns of old 
And nights — th' erect Archangel on the Mount 

With sword that drank the dawn ; the Vase of Gold, 
The moving Grail athwart the starry fields 
When all the heavenly spearmen clashed their shields. 

In dereliction by the deafening shore 

We sought no more aloft, but sunk our eyes 
Probing the sea for food, the earth for ore. — 
Ah, yet had one good soldier of the skies 

Burst through the wrack reporting news of them, 
How had we run and kissed his garment's hem ! 

Nay, but he came '. Nay, but he stood and cried, 

Panting with joy and the fierce fervent race, 
" Arm, arm '. for Christ returns ! " — and all our pride, 
Our ancient jjride answered that eager face : 

" Repair His battlements — your Christ is near I" 
And, half in dream, we raised the soldiers' cheer. 


Far, as we flung that challenge, fled the ghosts- 
Back, as we built, the obscene foe withdrew — 
High to the song of hammers sang the host 
Of Heaven— and lo ! the daystar, and a new 
Dawn with its chalice and its wind as wine : 
And youth was hope, and life once more divine ! 

Day, and hot noon, and now the evening glow, 

And 'neath our scaftblding the city spread 
Twilit, with rain-washed roofs, and— hark 1— below. 
One late bell tolling. " Dead ? Our Captain dead ? " 
Nay, here with us he fronts the westering sun 
With shaded eyes and counts the wide fields won. 

Aloft with us 1 And, while another stone 

Swings to its socket, haste with trowel and hod ! 
Win the old smile a moment ere, alone. 
Soars the great soul to bear report to God. 

Night comes ; but thou, dear Captain, from thy star 
Look down, behold how bravely goes the war ! 







THIS Cornubia is a land of wonderment — his- 
torical physical, spiritual."^ So wrote the 
first Bishop of Truro within a few months of enter- 
ing upon his office. Cornwall is indeed a strange 
and a fair land. Great towering cliffs at Boscastle 
and Tintagel ; long stretches of sand at Xewquav 
and Perranporth ; mysterious caverns at Mawgan 
Forth and St. Agnes ; numberless coves and fine 
sweeping bays, both on the northern and southern 
coasts ; rocks of varied and unrivalled tints at 
Kynance ; wild moors near Bodmin ; lovely masses 
of wood round Liskeard and in the Yale of Lan- 
herne ; all these make up a very rich catalogue of 
its many beauties. Perhaps nothing strikes the 
visitor more than the deep blue colour of its sea, 
not inferior to the waters of the Mediterranean, and 

^ Letter to Henry Bradshaw, August 17th, 1877, Life, vol. i. p. 42S. 


the splendour of its glowing sunset sky. It has well 
been named the " Delectable Duchy," 

And yet the face of its scenery has been greatly 
scarred by mines, many of whose deserted engine- 
houses and heaps of refuse are, not only blots upon 
the landscape, but signs of a decayed industry and 
of ventures that have failed. Vast yawning pits of 
glaring white china clay have cut deep into its downs, 
and opaque milky water has polluted its pleasant 
streams. Lines of railway penetrate some of its 
old-world solitudes, and their light wooden viaducts, 
that till recently spanned many a deep valley with 
airy and almost artistic grace, are now giving way to 
heavy granite arches and great iron girders. Some 
of its sweetest nooks and corners, primitive villages 
and sheltered coves, have been invaded by the builders 
of pretentious lodging-houses : big modern hotels 
stand on its headlands, putting to shame the simple, 
quaint old hostelries, that, up to a quarter of a century 
ago and even later, were the delightful havens of 
tired men and women, seeking for rest and refresh- 
ment for a short time, in a land unspoilt by smartness 
and fashion. But all these changes and all this inroad 
of bustle and luxury, inevitable perhaps but none the 
less to be deplored, have not robbed Cornwall of any 
great measure of its fascinating attractions, nor quite 
obliterated the simple ways of its people. 

It is a land of old romance and legend. The story 
of King Arthur, the memories of Lyonesse, the loves 
of Tristram and Isolde, the last battles of British 


Christians ai^ainst heathen invaders, are inextricably 
linked with its shores and hills. It is a land of real 
tragedies. Its coasts have been the scenes of number- 
less shipwrecks, of great Atlantic liners lost among 
its treacherous rocks, of transports with gallant 
soldiers on board, going down when nearing home 
after successful campaigns ; of fishing -boats lost in 
many a storm on northern and southern shores, of 
great cattle ships torn to pieces on its rugged head- 
lands ; and the land is without a harbour of refuge, 
into which a vessel may run for shelter from the awful 
roll of the Atlantic billows. 

It is a land inhabited by a very distinctly marked 
race. Anyone who crosses the Tamar, travelling- 
westward, realises that he is passing into a region 
quite different from the one he is leaving, and is going 
among a people that, even at the beginning of the 
twentieth century, has by no means lost its special 
characteristics of speech and custom. The old Celtic 
Cornish tongue died out more than a century ago, but 
the soft accent and quaint phraseology of the Cornish 
fisherman or agricultural peasant have not yet been 
obliterated by the levelling monotony of Board School 
education. There is a kind of breezy and saltlike fresh- 
ness in the land and among the people, that is very 
attractive to the "foreigner" from "up the country." 

But Cornwall is also the "land of saints." From 
Morwenstow, in the extreme northern corner, right 
away to St. Sennen, at the Land's Knd, the map of 
Cornwall is dotted o\er with quaint names of 


" church towns " and parishes, bearing titles of old- 
world saintly men and women, whose lives and deeds 
lie hid in the obscurity of the past. It is very diffi- 
cult to trace, with any sort of clearness, the origin 
of primitive Cornish Christianity. It is not likely 
that it was brought into the land through Roman 
rulers or residents. The impression made on Corn- 
wall by the Roman occupation was probably but 
slight. There are few indications of there havinof 
been any organised Christian communities in this 
part of our island, during the first three centuries 
of the Christian era. It was from Ireland and Wales 
that, in all probability, the earlier evangelists of Corn- 
wall came. St. Piran, who is probably identical with 
the Irish Kieran, and whose memory has been pre- 
served in some three or four Cornish parishes, and 
notably at Perranzabuloe, where his rude oratory 
was discovered in the sands about seventy years ago ; 
and St. Buriena, whose name survives at St. Buryan, 
near the Land's End, in the church once served by a 
college of dean and canons, are instances of Irish 
missionaries. St. David, St. Mewan, St. Teilo, and 
St. Issey brought the message of the gospel from 
Wales, with which county Cornwall long retained 
many links, racial and religious. There was also 
much interchange of missionary enterprise between 
Cornwall and Brittany, as was natural, and St. Pol 
de Leon has perhaps left his name at the parish of 
Paul, near Penzance ; while St. Breock, St. Mylor, 
and St, Budock, who give their names to parishes 


in different localities, are l)elieved to have Ijeen 
Armorican saints, still remembered in the Cornwall 
across the Channel. It seems likely that, as with 
other Celtic countries, the ecclesiastical ori^-anisation 
of Cornwall was for many centuries inexact and 
incomplete, and far from sharing- the regular order 
and discipline of the rest of Christendom, both in 
the East and West. Here, as in Ireland and Scot- 
land, Bishops had no fixed sees, and visited rather 
than ruled districts inhabited by clans or tribes. In 
833 Bishop Kenstec, in making his profession of 
obedience to Archbishop Ceolnoth of Canterbury, 
brought Cornwall for the first time into closer contact 
with the English Church, and consequently with the 
organisation and discipline of the whole of W^estern 
Christendom.^ But it was not until the reign of 
Athelstan, in 931, that Cornwall under its native 
Bishop Conan became really an English diocese. 

In 1027 Lyfing Bishop of Crediton was appointed 
also Bishop of Cornwall. In 1046 the W^estern See, 
including both Devon and Cornw^dl, was transferred 
by King Edward the Confessor to Exeter, of which 
city Leofric became the first Bishop. Erom that time 
onward, for eight hundred and tliirty years, the two 
counties were ruled too-ether as a single diocese. 
Towards the close of the eleventh century Cornwall 

' The act of obedience is sufficiently humble : " Ego Kenstec, humilis 
licet et indiynus . . . tibi tuisque successoribus, oba'dibilis servunculus 
supplexque clicntulus usque ad terminum transeuntis vitic sine ullo 
falsitatis fiivohu cogitationis sciupulo fieri paratus sum." — Councils, etc., 
Haddan and Stubbs, \ol. i. p. 674. 


was formed into a separate archdeaconry, the only 
ecclesiastical mark of its individuality that remained. 

It has sometimes been said, that this absorption of 
the old Cornish bishopric into that of the Devonshire 
capital, had a very serious and detrimental effect upon 
the spiritual well-being- and ecclesiastical discipline of 
the more western county. Certainly the distance of 
the more remote parts of Cornwall from the ecclesi- 
astical centre, the imperfect means of communication 
all through the Middle Ages, and right on to modern 
times, may have prevented the development of the 
higher forms of spiritual culture, Church order, and 
general enlightenment. But, on the other hand, it is 
impossible to read the records of the great Bishops of 
Exeter, so admirably preserved in their Visitations 
and Registers, that have been recently carefully edited 
and given to the world by Prebendary Hingeston- 
Randolph, without perceiving that most conscientious 
efforts were made, on the part of these prelates, to do 
their duty as chief pastors of the remote western 
portion of their huge diocese. More than one Bishop 
of Exeter held high office in the State, and much of 
their time was necessarily spent on political affairs in 
the capital of England. But, nevertheless, they made 
long and toilsome journeys at great cost and with 
niuch fatigue, in the superintendence of their Celtic 
tlock, in the preservation of ecclesiastical discipline, in 
the consecration of numerous churches, and in the 
administration of Confirmation. 

We do not wonder that a man like Bishop de 


Grandisson, accustoincd to the culture of the Continent 
and especially of the Court of Rome, when he found 
himself in his rude diocese, surrounded by tempestuous 
seas, and inhabited by a people who knew no English, 
much less the French of the Court, should have 
oToaned at times under the burden of his lot, and of 
all that he was compelled to "endure daily at the 
hands of the wonderful people who inhabited this 
remote corner of the world. "^ But he, and others 
who occupied the See of Exeter, were indefatigable 
overseers of the Hock. We hear of Bishop de Staple- 
don going down from Exeter to St. Austell and Penryn 
and thence to St. Buryan in the course of a fortnight, 
after a long and busy tour in Devonshire. This latter 
prelate founded a hall which bore his name at Oxford, 
and afterwards became Exeter College. Of its twelve 
original scholars maintained by his benefaction, four 
were to be natives of Cornwall, not necessarily to be 
trained as clerics, and thus early the higher education 
of the laitv by the Church was brought into this 
remote peninsula. In Bishop Stafford's time the same 
strenuous Church work was carried on, and in the days 
of his immediate successors most of the Cornish 
churches were rebuilt. These almost all follow a 
well-known type with low walls, without a clerestory, 
and with a waggon roof. They consist of nave and 
aisles, sometimes doubled, and one or two side chapels 
or quasi-transepts, but usually without any construc- 

^ Episcopal Registers, Diocese of Exeter, John de Grandisson, Preface, 

p. XX. 


tional chancel. They were in old days highly 
decorated with colour, and possessed rich rood lofts 
and screens. Frescoes of a quaint kind covered the 
walls.^ Numerous crosses marked sacred spots, or the 
church paths that traversed the downs and moors. 
In addition to the parish churches, there were 
monastic establishments at St. Germans, Bodmin, 
St. Stephen's-by-Launceston, St. Michael's Mount and 
Tywardreath ; collegiate churches at St. Buryan, 
Probus, St. Carantoc, Glasney, St. Keverne, Tresco, 
and Endellion. Of these latter, the college of 
Augustinian Canons at St. Buryan, founded by 
King Athelstan, gave constant trouble to the Bishop 
by its assertion of the privileges of a royal peculiar, 
and its dean held office down to the middle of the 
nineteenth century, not always to the advantage or 
credit of the Church in Cornwall. There are still 
three Prebendaries of Endellion, without however any 
duties attached to the office they hold in that ancient 
church. A great many chapels and oratories were 
planted in every suitable spot throughout the county, 
and there are numerous tokens, still remaining, that a 
full provision was made for bringing the means ot 
orace within the reach of the scattered inhabitants of 
this remote corner of England. 

A very full and interesting account of the rich 
provision made in ancient days for the spiritual needs 

1 An interesting account of the remains of these is given in a paper 
entitled "Mural Paintings in Cornish Churches," by J. D. Enys, F.G.S., 
Thurstan C. Peter, and H. M. Whitley, printed in llie Journal of the 
Royal Institution of Cornwall^ vol. xv. part i., 1902, pp. 141 seq. 


of the pco])lc in Cornwall, is contained in a paper on 
"Cornish Chantries," by Mr. II. Michell Whitley, 
honorary secretary of the Royal Institution of Corn- 
wall, contributed to the Truro Diocesan Kalendar for 
1883. The writer concludes his account with the 
following" words : — 

"The suppression of these chantries and chapels with their 
endowments was a serious loss to the Church's utilit}'. In 
many a little western combe where the heather and gorse 
flame in autumn, gold and crimson, on the hillsides a few 
crumbling walls o'crgrown with ivy, nettles and brambles, 
still mark the site of a little holy stead. However expedient 
their dissolution may have become, chantry endowments were 
of great service in supplying additional priests to assist the 
parochial clergy; and it should be the aim of Cornish Church- 
men once more to restore more fully the daughter chapels 
dependent on the mother church ; and thus in large parishes 
to bring the services of the Church to the homes of her 
children in every outlying hamlet." 

Making- all allowance for the Celtic superstitions 
that even now still linger among the Cornish people, 
their religious spirit throughout the Middle Ages, 
down to the time of Henry \TII., was undoubtedly 
strong and keen in its devotion to the Church, and in 
its attendance on the means of grace. 

To those who only know Cornwall and its people 
after the lapse of three centuries and a half since that 
time, and after the wave of Wesley's movement has so 
largely transformed the religious life of Cornishmen, 
it seems strange to read of the great uprising against 
the introduction of the English Prayer l>ook in the 
tirst days of Edward \'I.. when thousands of Cornish 


miners marched upon Exeter, full of resentment at the 
changes forced upon them by a distant government 
in London, exasperated at the destruction of their 
beautiful rood-lofts, and the introduction of a form of 
service strange and unfamiliar, less intelligible to 
many of them than the Old Latin prayers had by long- 
use become.^ The revolt ended in disaster, and, 
along with others, the rebellious mayors of St. Ives 
and Bodmin were hanged at Launceston. It is 
probable that the English Reformation, thus ushered 
in, was never received with much enthusiasm amonsf 
this Celtic people. Certainly Puritanism had no hold 
upon this emotional race in the years that followed. 
Loyalty to the Sovereign was vigorous in this far-off 
land, and Cornishmen were on the side of the King in 
his o-reat struLTcrle with his Parliament, and foug-ht 
bravely and successfully in his behalf His famous 
letter still retains its place in some Cornish churches, 
in which he speaks "of the merit of our county of 
Cornwall, of their zeal for the defence of our person, 
and the just rights of our crown." But Cornwall had 
its loyalty sorely tried, when King James II., forty 
years later, imprisoned Jonathan Trelawny, Bishop of 
Bristol, with the other six prelates who withstood his 
absolutism ; and they raised the cry long afterwards 
developed by Robert Hawker into the stirring 
ballad — 

' "We will not leceive the new service, because it is like a Christmas 
game ; but we will have our old service of Mattins, Mass, Evensong, and 
Procession in Latin, not in English.'' See Fifteen Articles of the 
insurgents (Strype's Craitinct\ Appendix xL). 


"And sliall Trelawny die? 
And shall Trelawny die ? 
Then twenty thousand Cornishmen 
AVill know the reason why." 

Bisliop Trelawny li\cd much in the county at his 
own place, Trelawne, where there are still preserved 
relics of him, })ersonal and otticial.^ 

The religious and moral condition of Cornwall, 
during the seventeenth century, was probably not 
much higher or lower than that of other parts of the 
kinoxlom. Carew o;ives the Cornish a toocI character, 
for being God-fearing, sober, and orderly. Some 
later writers, without niuch evidence, have described 
theni as savage, drunken, and riotous. But there is 
too much ground for believing that the influence of 
the Church in the middle of the eighteenth century 
had here, as elsewhere, ceased to be very effective as 
an elevating power. The form of Anglicanism, pro- 
duced by the expulsion of the Non-jurors and the 
patronage of Hanoverian Sovereigns and statesmen, 
was not very lovable and attractive. It is almost 
certain that the religious spirit of Cornwall, before the 
Wesleys began their remarkable movement, was 
greatly dulled and deadened. And yet this lamentable 
state of thinos was bv no means universal. 

Samuel Walker, Curate-in-charge of Truro, is an 

' "Bishop Trelawny, who in 1707 was translated from Exeter to 
Winchester, in his first charge to the clergy of the latter diocese in 1706, 
' trusted that he might find a clergy of as deserved honour and estimation 
as he left in the diocese of Exeter [including Cornwall] for learning, pietv, 
incessant pains, exemplary lives, wholesome and instructive doctrine.'" — 
Canon Huckin mjoitn Wesley and Modern Methodisin, pp. 163, 164. 


instance, and not a solitary one, of an earnest 
Churchman who revived spiritual religion in his parish, 
on different lines from those of John Wesley, and 
more in harmony with the discipline and principles of 
the Church. Me was a man of profoundly earnest 
and loving" nature, fearless in rebuking vice, gentle to 
sinners, and a wise guide of souls. He established a 
regular system of classes for young people and revived 
public catechising, sometimes having as many as five 
hundred persons present at his instructions.^ He 
paid careful attention to the appointed seasons of the 
Christian year, and Lent was always a very solemn 
time in his parish, as were also the great festivals of 
Christmas, Easter, and Whitsuntide. He maintained 
daily services and bestowed much time and thought 
upon the instruction of his communicants ; and, by 
patience and devotion, raised his parish to so high a 
level of spiritual earnestness, that his biographer 
states, " The town of Truro under the ministry of 
Mr. Walker presented a delightful example of the 
happy effects which may be produced on a Christian 
community by our Church's discipline and doctrines 
wisely enforced and spiritually explained."" He re- 
spected all the good qualities of the early Methodists, 
but distrusted some of the tenets of John Wesley, and 
was keenly apprehensive of the latent schismatic 

^ Two volumes of his sermons, numbering fifty-two in all, on the 
Church Catechism published in 1765 contain much \aluablc spiritual 

- Life of Walker of Truro, by Edwin Sidney, 2nd edition, 1838, 
chap. iv. 


tendencies of the whole movement, and oi the more 
serious danoers that lay close to some of their ways of 
working. There were, besides, in the county other 
parishes where the ministrations of the Church were 
valued and used, throughout the eighteenth century, 
and records still remain that bear witness to the large 
congregations, and surprising number of communicants, 
that were regularly gathered together. Borlase, the 
well-known writer, was Rector of Ludgvan and after- 
wards Vicar of St. Just ; at the latter place he 
exercised some very distinct Church discipline among 
an unruly and intemperate people : his congregations 
numbered one thousand in the morning and five 
hundred in the afternoon. Polwhele, another Cornish 
writer, notices the simple reverence of his congregation 
at Lamorran in 1780, and laments many years after- 
wards a great declension in religion and morals. ^ To 
these may be added the name of the Rev. Thomas 
Fisher, Rector of Roche, who fostered all good and 
kept evil at bay.- The first Bishop of Truro has left 
the following testimony : — 

" It would be a mistake to suppose that when he (John 
Wesley) first began to preach in Cornwall, he found empty 
churches and godless parishes. ]\Ir. Kinsman of Tintagel 
told me of an aged parishioner of higher rank, who died many 
years ago, that she used to tell how, before Wesley came, the 
church had been al\va\-s crowded, how the monthh' celebra- 

' Traditions and Rccollcctiois^f^. 139. 

- The reader should consult for the whole of this period, A Church 
History of Connvall, by the Rev. W. S. Lach-Szyrma, m.a., f.r.h.s., 
formerly Vicar of Newlyn St. Peter, at present \'icar of Barkingside, 


tion of the Sacrament was most largely attended, and the 
children catechised every Sunday afternoon. So too a 
parishioner of Dr. Martin's at St. 13re\vard, who died at an 
advanced age, remembered her father's expression that, 
' when he was young you might have walked a mile to church 
on the heads of the people in the lanes.' "^ 

A very interesting record, still extant, of spiritual 
work done in a Cornish parish, is to be seen in a 
printed paper containing " Rules to be observed by 
the Scholars of Veryan Sunday and Day Schools," 
dated January ist, 1817. The rules bear on personal 
behaviour and cleanliness, punctuality, obedience to 
teachers, reverence for parents and all in authority, 
regular attendance at church. Along with the rules, 
is an excellent pastoral address on the religious educa- 
tion of children, addressed to the parishioners.'^ 

But, nevertheless, the vigour and spiritual fire of 
Charles Wesley, who was the first of the two brothers 
to enter Cornwall, and of his greater brother John, 
swept through the county with almost irresistible 
force. There was, at first, much riotous opposition 
and violent treatment of the preachers, who were 
stoned and hooted at. But the enthusiasm of the 
first Methodists soon enkindled a corresponding en- 
thusiasm in the Cornish folk. The crowds, that came 
to hear the great evangelist, were vast in numbers, 

1 Private Diary, July 29th, 1877. 

^ The late Canon Hockin, in his book ow JoJtn IW'slcy a7id Modern 
Methodism (4th edition, 1878, Rivingtons), says: "I do not think that 
any part of England can produce such a roll of Clerical worthies as 
Cornwall possessed during the early and middle part of the last 
[eighteenth] century" (p. 169). 


and were swayed as one man by the Ijurnin^" 
eloquence of a preacher who spoke from his heart 
of the thinLTs of God. The annual '>atherino- at 
Gwennap Pit, every Monday in W'hitsun week, when 
some rising Wesleyan preacher is chosen to address 
the great assembly, is at once an imaqc and a 
memorial of a ^reat historic scene enacted in those 
early days. The great meeting at Gwennap loomed 
with an almost miraculous magnitude before the eyes 
of John Wesley, who declared that twenty-five 
thousand persons were gathered there, every one of 
whom heard him plainly. Bishop Benson has de- 
scribed the place, in language that somewhat limits 
the natural exao^tjeration of the oreat evanQ-elist. 

"Yesterday I rode with in)- bo}- Martin, in driving rain, to 
Gwennap Pit. The contradictory directions we received, as 
to where it was, were most puzzHng even when we were quite 
near. . . . The Pit is in the midst of the tract devastated by 
mining. Vast heaps of mundic and other debris, condemned 
to everlasting barrenness. The miserable houses, lonely amid 
the desolateness, are so storm beaten that the slates are held 
in their places by large lumps of stone, mortared on to them 
over all the roof, or at the more exposed corners and edges. 
At last we reached it. I expected a yawning mouth like a 
Peak cavern, but it is a green funnel — that c.xacth- describes 
it — like the section of the Inferno in the frontispiece to 
Dante, only with twent}' times as many steps. It looked to 
me about thirty yards wide at top, and about two or three 
\-ards at bottom. Perfectly circular, its grassy steps just 
giving room to stand or sit ; two stone posts, and a step 
between them, are (I conclude) the glorious old John's 
preaching place. But I was greatly disappointed with the 
size of it. ... I canntjt think that eight thousand could be so 


placed as to hear or see, and there would be nothing surpris- 
inor in the fact that all who could be there should hear. John 
treats this as a miracle. . . . The miracle was John : John 
himself and his powers and his attractiveness. Martin and I 
sate on our horses and prayed over the place in the deluge."^ 

Later several friends of Dr. Benson went to the 
annual W'hitsun preaching there. Between three 
thousand and four thousand persons were present, 
and the visitors were "decidedly impressed with the 
sio-ht and the sinoins:."''^ 

Before John Wesley's death, Methodism was a 
power (as he said) " from Launceston to the Land's 
End." It has been stated, that the result of Wesley's 
work was to "persuade Cornishmen to change their 
vices." This is a bitter and uncharitable verdict. 
There can be little doubt that, allowing for such re- 
deeming instances as have been noticed above, the 
religious condition of Cornwall before Wesley's mis- 
sion was generally speaking stagnant." Apart from 

^ Private Diary, January 6th, 1877. - Ibid. 

^ An instance may be given by way of contrast between past and 
present, and illustrative of the Church's growth in the nineteenth 
century. One hundred years ago, the parish of Kenwyn was served 
along with that of Kea. The two have been long severed. Out of the 
former the following ecclesiastical parishes have been formed : — Baldhu 
(1847, church built 1848), Chacewater (church built 1828, separated 
1837), Mithian (1846, church built 1847), St. George's Truro (1846, 
church built 1855), St. John's Truro (churchbuilt 1827-8, separated 1865) 
Where, at the time indicated, not more than four services were held on a 
Sunday, and scarcely any on weekdays, there are now, every Sunday, at 
least thirty, as well as numerous weekday services and meetings, in the 
above new parishes, and in Kenwyn, with its four mission churches in 
addition to the parish church. Among the Vicars of Kenwyn have been 
the Rev. (i. J. Cornish, the friend of Keble, and the Rev. E. Harold 
Browne, successively Bishop of Ely and Winchester. 


the more serious moral scandals arisiii!:^'- from the 
unworthy conduct of some of the clergy, the evils 
of plurality and non-residence, here as elsewhere, 
chilled religious aspirations. 

Earnest persons, as has been well said, had, in an 
absent rector, '■ want of access for advice about 
their spiritual state."' But, on the other hand, it 
would be a serious error to suppose, that, before the 
advent of the Methodists, Cornwall was a county whollv 
given over to vice and irreligion ; and, after it, has 
become a spiritual garden of the Lord. To a careful 
observer, the results of the Wesleyan movement are 
not as admirable as its great leader hoped for, and in 
no little degree merited. Among nearly all races, but 
especially, perhaps, among some branches of the 
Celtic, it is easy to arouse the emotional side of re- 
liofion, sometimes to the neo-lect of the oblio-ations of 
morality. In Cornwall, as in other districts where 
Dissent prevails, the unity of the Church, the grace 
of the Sacraments, the apostolic ministry, are, not 
only neglected, but too often scorned. In many a 
small village, besides the parish church, two or three 
meeting-houses of rival sects divide and distract the 
spiritual life of the place. The condition to which 
Cornwall has been to a large extent reduced, is briefly 
and lucidly described in the words of one, whose 
natural gift of keen spiritual insight was wonderfully 
quickened by a full experience, but who was certainly 

1 Griffith ap Jones in Canon Bevan's Essays on the Church in Wales, 
p. xx\ i., quoted in Archbishop Benson's Seven Gifts, p 93, note. 


not biassed by any prejudice or lacking- in large- 
hearted and kindly sympathy. 

" The principal Church doctrines (except the Atonement) 
considered as mere 'superstitions' — the Atonement not much 
dwelt on — the Last Judgment supposed to be intended for 
England, but not for Cornwall. Worship consists in singing 
hymns. For Sacraments we have the voice of the preacher 
(sometimes his meaning, but always his voice) ; it is through 
this that grace enters the soul. Calvinism (of which Wesley 
taught not a word) has pervaded nearly every place. Now in 
all such places Sacraments are simply abhorred."^ 

Some attempts were made at various times, v^Ithin 
the pale of the Church of England, to meet the special 
religious sentiments of the Cornish, by adopting 
methods similar to those of the Wesleyans. Revival 
meetings, meetings for exteiup07'e prayer, and even 
class meetings, were tried. The most remarkable 
effort of this kind took place at Pendeen, a newly 
formed parish taken out of the large parish of St. Just- 
in-Penwith, in which are situated the well-known 
Botallack mines, not far from Cape Cornwall and the 
Land's End. The Rev. Robert Aitken, who had 
previously worked in Leeds, was the first Vicar. He 
built a church, designed on the lines of the old 
cathedral at lona, near the wind-swept cliffs, among 
the purple heather and the golden gorse. Some of 
the granite masonry was laid by his own hands. He 
was a man of great earnestness of soul, of lofty 
stature and impressive bearing. He was, above all, a 

^ Life of Archbishop Benson^ vol. i. p. 438. 


man of prayer. lie spent long hours of the day, and 
often too of the night, wrestHng with God, alone in 
his church. His wife was a lady of ancient Scottish 
family, richly endowed with mental and spiritual 
gifts. Together they carried on for man\- years a 
very remarkable work. They lived in the most 
ascetic manner, denying themselves all luxuries and 
even the simplest comforts, that they might be able to 
help the sick and poor. Mrs. Aitken's earnest efforts 
for the welfare of the people, were as great as the 
preaching and pastoral labours of her husband. A 
deep and lasting impression was made upon the 
inhabitants of Pendeen and of the country round. 
The employment of some of the methods of 
Wesleyanism did not, in this case, tend t(~» alienate 
Mr. Aitken's congregation away from the parish 
church and its services, even after his decease. 
Though his theology struck many of his friends as 
very eclectic, and his books, designed to reconcile the 
tenets of Church and Dissent, puzzled most readers, 
he nevertheless held strongly to the Divine character 
of the Church and her ministry, and, to this day, his 
converts, and their descendants, are steadfast members 
of the Church of England. 

Similar attempts were made in the parish of Baldhu. 
and much later on, in one or two other places, but not 
with any very conspicuous success. Mr. Aitken's 
influence was not confined to his own parish, and not 
a few great mission preachers of the English Church, 
whose theology differed widely from his own. cau^'ht 


the sacred fire from the torch that he hghted. His 
son, the Rev. W. H. INI. Altken, now Canon of 
Norwich, Superintendent of the Church Parochial 
Mission Society, inherits his father's gifts, and uses 
them over a far more extended sphere. 

The condition of the Church in Cornwall, up to the 
close of the first quarter of the nineteenth century, 
cannot have presented any very admirable features. 
Non-residence was only too common : the proportion 
of non-resident incumbents was about one in three. ^ 
With all that must be said about the disintecrratlncr 
results of ^lethodism upon Church life, it is only fair 
to express a belief, that the multitude of meeting- 
houses built, during these years, all over Cornwall, 
were larg"ely, on the one hand, the result of the closed 
churches and cold and infrequent services, and, on the 
other, served to keep alive among the people some 
elements at least of Christianity ; imperfect in many 
ways, distorted perhaps and even perverted, but not 
altogether lacking in sincere spirituality, and simple 
earnestness. Not a few remarkable characters were 
nourished on this spiritual atmosphere, who, in their 
day and generation, prevented the light of personal 
religion from dying out in many a corner of the 
county. One of these was " Billy Bray," who was 
born at Kea near Truro in 1794, and died at Baldhu 
in 1868, and lies buried in the churchyard there. He 
was, in his youth, like too many other Cornish miners 
of that time, wild, sensual, drunken, and godless. 

^ See note at the end of chapter ii. 


After resisting- nil religious inllucnccs stubbornly for 
some time, he yielded himself to the call of God, and, 
ever afterwards, not only led a good and consistent 
life, but was most earnest and active in his endeavour 
to win souls. His methods and language were not 
such as would commend themselves to cultured and 
well-trained Church people, but they were undoubtedly 
sincere, and bore no little spiritual fruit. His efforts 
for the good of others have been thus described : — 

" At one time he might be seen in the midst of a group of 
pleasure-seekers, seeking to impress them with the idea that 
real and lasting pleasure was only to be had in religion ; at 
another time he might be found in the midst of an angry 
quarrelsome party, striving to conciliate them by kind 
entreaties and loving arguments, or, perhaps, on his knees 
asking God to be merciful and soften the hearts of the angry 
ones ; calling them by name ; and, anon, you m.ight have seen 
him accosting strangers, whom he met on his road or in the 
street . . . cheerfully and lovingly saying something about 
Christ and His salvation."^ 

No one who loves the Master can think otherwise 
than kindly and sympathetically of such a man ; nor, 
however just it may be to deplore the sad results of 
religious separation, will refuse to listen to the counsel 
of an able religious writer, expressed in the following- 
words : — 

" Do not despise these little whitewashed chapels, which 
dot the bleak hillsides of Cornwall or cluster in the villages. 
Ugly and old-fashioned though they be, }-et the\- are hallowed 

1 The King's Son; or, Billy Bray, by F. \V. Bourne, pp. 125, 126, 
35th edition. Simpkin, Marshall, and Co., London. 


places, and man\- in heaven look down and hold them dear 
and sacred, second only to that celestial city itself, paved 
with gold and with gates of pearl." ^ 

And the Churchman, while he mourns the failures 
of his own Communion, in the past dreary days, will 
be able to rejoice in the thought, that the Holy Spirit 
made good to many a soul, the grace that was sought 
in simple good faith. It is surely possible, in such 
cases, to repeat the prayer of Hezekiah : "The good 
Lord pardon every one that prepareth his heart to 
seek God, the Lord God of his fathers, though he 
be not cleansed according to the purification of the 
sanctuary" {2 Chron. xxx. iS, 19).'-^ 

^ Daniel (2tiorm, second series by Mark Guy Pearse, p. 94, edition 
1884. Bishop Benson, in his Diary, May 31st, 1879, alluding to the 
Wesleyan Methodists at Launceston, speaks of the "excellent Mark Guy 
Pearse, author of the admirable Daniel Qnormy 

'^- For a very excellent account of Church work and life in Cornwall 
during the period here described a book by Canon Hockin, Rector of 
Phillack, and Proctor in Convocation, should be consulted ; entitled 
JoJin Wesley and Modern Methodism (fourth edition, 1887, Rivingtons), 
especially the Appendix, "Cornwall and Methodism," pp. 159 seq. 

^^u/a/i S/^r^c Snarm>t/w u." 

C ' ///■// // // // ( //r/// 1 



ANEW era of Church life and work began when 
Menry Phillpotts was consecrated Bishop of 
Exeter in 1831. He was a man of great bodily and 
mental vigour ; an acute thinker, and an able writer. 
His work, as a politician and a controversialist, does 
not belong to this present history. W^hat he did for 
Cornwall, in the gradual restoration of discipline and 
removal of abuses, may be gathered from the com- 
parison of the number of clergy resident and non- 
resident in 1830 and those in 1869, when his episco- 
pate ceased.^ It was little less than an ecclesiastical 
reform of the most drastic kind. In those days not a 
few new churches were built. The ancient ones were 
in many cases restored, not always, alas ! without 
serious damaoe to some of their most interestinsf 
features, and with consequent loss of much of their 
beauty. Education was increasingly cared for. Train- 
ing Colleges for Schoolmasters and Schoolmistresses 
were founded at Exeter and Truro. The influence 
of the Tractarian Mcn-ement, beQ^innino- at the verv 
time that Bishop Phillpotts came to the Western 
Diocese, very soon made itself felt, even in the 

^ See note at the end of this chapter. 


remotest corners of Cornwall, as had been the case 
already in the most unexpected quarters elsewhere/ 

His vigorous enunciation of Church principles, and 
his strong commanding championship of Catholic 
doctrine, won him many enthusiastic supporters 
among the Cornish clergy. He was a steadfast 
friend of Dr. Pusey and many of the great Oxford 
leaders ; though, in the face of his strong opposition 
to papal claims, no one could justly accuse him of any 
undue sympathy with Rome, The presentation of 
the \ icar of a Cornish parish, the Rev. G. C. Gorham, 
of St. Just-in-Penwith, in June, 1847, by the Lord 
Chancellor, to the Vicarage of Brampford Speke, 
a living in Devonshire, gave rise to the famous con- 
troversy, which bore bitter and disastrous fruit in the 
secession of not a few devout and learned men from 
the Enoflish Church to the Communion of Rome. 
Bishop Phillpotts, after examining Mr. Gorham as to 
his tenets and belief, especially on the doctrine of 
Baptismal Regeneration, refused him institution. - 
The case was carried finally before the Judicial 
Committee of the Privy Council and given in Mr. 
Gorham's favour, though the propositions, on which 
that decision was based, were not identical with the 
original statements made by Mr. Gorham to which 

^ Dean Burgon speaks of "that great revival in the English Church, 
which the Rt. Hon. Thomas Grenville (1755-1846) characterised, as by 
far the most remarkable phenomenon which he had witnessed through- 
out his long career." — Lives of Twelve Good Men, vol. ii. p. i. 

- The details of the examination and of the subsequent correspond- 
ence were given by Mr. Gorham in a volume published by Hatchard and 
Son, 1848. 


the Bishop had objected. Even after the decision 
Dr. Phillpotts resolutely persisted in his refusal to 
institute, and when the official of the Archbishop of 
Canterbury performed that ceremony, the Bishop 
of Exeter entered a solemn protest in the Court of 
Arches against the proceedings. The Synod of 
Exeter, summoned by Bishop Phillpotts with charac- 
teristic boldness and ecclesiastical independence of 
spirit, reaffirmed the ancient doctrine of the Catholic 
Church on Holy Baptism, and to sonie extent re- 
assured troubled minds. The synod was the precursor, 
and to some extent the cause, of that re\^ival of 
synodical life in the Anglican Communion, not yet 
fully realised, which, from the year 1852 when 
Convocation met for discussion after a long silence 
of one hundred and thirty-five years, has been slowly 
but surely winning its way, both in the Church at 
home and in the Colonies, 

During Bishop Phillpotts' episcopate much interest- 
ing spiritual work was begun in Cornwall. The 
Devotional Conference for the Clergy, instituted in 
1869, mainly by the efforts of the Rev. E. N. (now 
Prebendary) Dumbleton, met first in January, 1S70, 
and has been maintained with two annual o-atherino-s 
ever since, with excellent results. Education and 
Church endowments funds were started and gener- 
ously aided by the Bishop. In 1863, through his 
munificence, the very fine theological library, now- 
housed in Truro and largely augmented by later gifts 
from various donors, especiall\- Prebendary Ford and 


the Rev. F. Parker/ was given to the clergy of Corn- 
wall. The inscription carved on the episcopal throne 
in Truro Cathedral, presented by clergymen ordained 
by him, expresses very well all that the Church owes 
to his faithful and vigorous rule. 

" Ad Dei gloriam cum pia memoria pni^sulatus Reverendi 
in Christo Patris Henrici Phillpotts S.T.P., Exoniensis Episcopi 
noni quinquagesimi, tarn in cura pastorali quam in doctrinse 
Catholicai defensione indefessi, Presbyteri, qui sacrum minis- 
terium sub ejus regimine exercuerant, banc Cathedram in 
usum Truronensis Episcopi exstruendam curaverunt. 

His interest in Cornwall showed itself in anxious 
forethought for the future establishment of a new 
bishopric in that county. The retention of a fifth 
endowed residentiary canonry at Exeter, when the 
new P^cclesiastical Commission was reducing all capi- 
tular establishments to the dead level of four 
residentiary canonries in each cathedral, is believed 
to have been the result of his advice and influence. 
He had in view the application of the endowment 
of this canonry towards the establishment of a Cornish 
bishopric, or else, what has since actually taken place 
at Truro, the foundation of one or more canonries in 
a future cathedral. He lent the aid of his great 
abilities to the first efforts that were made in the 
direction of the revival of a Cornish see, after the 
lapse of more than eight centuries. He had a full 
experience of the great difficulties of so large a 
diocese, with so many serious impediments in the 

^ The bequest of the latter, who was Rector of Luffington, more than 
doubled the library. 


way of travelling", at a time when the standard 
of episcopal duties was rapidly chant^'ini^- from that 
of scholarly leisure and dignified repose, to vicrorous 
acti\-it\- in every branch of Church work and admini- 
stration. He, almost as much as liishop Samuel 
Wilberforce of Oxford, deserved the title of " Re- 
modeller of the Episcopate";^ and, when he began 
his first work in Cornwall, soon after his consecration, 
with a visit to the Isles of Scilly, he was compelled to 
realise the extent of that great diocese which later on 
he endeavoured to subdivide. 

The foundation of the Cornish bishopric cannot be 
considered as an isolated event in the history of the 
modern Church of England. The older bishoprics 
of England had had their origin within the boundaries 
of the early English kingdoms. This will account, in 
the main, for the discrepancy in the size of many 
of the dioceses, as for instance, the small territory 
of the old See of Rochester, and the vast regions 
ruled by the Bishop of Lincoln, at one time stretching 
from the H umber to the Thames. Some subdivision 
was made in the days of Henry \'I11., when the Sees 
of Gloucester, Bristol. Westminster, Oxford. Chester, 
and Peterborough were founded, out of the spoils 
of ofreat monastic establishments. Cranmer wished 
for a still larger number, but did not succeed in ' 
loosening the grasp of the royal spoiler upon other 
lands and possessions of the Church. Bodmin had 
indeed been named as the seat of a Cornish bishopric 

' Dean lUirgon's Lives of Twek'c Good Mm. 


at that time, but the funds for its foundation were 
wanted for some royal favourite. Westminster soon 
ceased to be an episcopal see, and it was not until 
the years 1836 and 1840, when drastic ecclesistical 
legislation took place, that any addition was made to 
the number of the bishoprics of England. Even 
then a proposal was made, though happily defeated, 
to combine the See of St. Asaph with Bangor, to 
suppress the See of Llandaff and that of Sodor and 
}klan, in order that the Bishoprics of Manchester and 
Ripon might be founded. Bristol, however, was 
actually removed from the list of English sees, to 
regain more than half a century later its separate 
existence, mainly through earnest and generous efforts 
of a noble band of Churchmen, lay and clerical, 
amono- whom will never be forootten Archdeacon 
J, P. Norris, for some years Vicar of St. Mary's 
Redcliffe. Even after the foundation of the Sees 
of Manchester and Ripon, such jealousy of the 
influence of the Church was felt, that, in order to 
prevent any increase in the number of prelates who 
had seats in the House of Lords, the rule was made 
that, with the exception of the two Archbishops and 
the Bishops of London, Durham, and Winchester, 
the rest of the Bishops should receive a seat in 
rotation, according to the date of their consecration. 
But, under the inspiration of the great revival that 
resulted from, or was at all events contemporaneous 
with, the Oxford Movement, Churchmen everywhere 
were beginnino; more and more to feel the great 


importance of r.aking the episcopal office a practical 
reality ; less of a desirable position of honour and 
emolument, and more of an apostolic ministry and 
labour. In India and the colonies bishoprics were 
beinij;" founded ; at first in Canada, Australia, New 
Zealand, and South Africa, and then in other and less 
prominent places ; and it was felt that England herself 
needed some serious reform in the episcopal oversight 
of the Church. In 1847 a I)ill was introduced for the 
foundation of four new sees, and among these Bodmin 
was named as the seat of a new Cornish bishopric. 
This town is agreeably situated, has long been the 
Assize town, and includes several large and important 
public institutions. It has, moreover, an ancient 
ecclesiastical tradition, not only of its noble fifteenth- 
century churcli and the old Priory that once stood 
close by, but in the records of the original church of 
St. Petroc, which was in all probability used as a 
cathedral by some of the earlier Cornish Bishops. 
But for practical purposes Bodmin was not a con- 
venient centre for the whole county. It lies far away 
from the oreat mass of the minino- and seafarinof 
population, and for many years it had no railway 
station within several miles, while its population was 
much less than that of several other towns in Corn- 

But, at all events, the Bill for the formation of these 
four new bishoprics, introduced by Lord John Russell, 
came to nothing ; and so the question of the choice of 
an episcopal cit\" was postponed. 


Some years later, Bishop Phillpotts received an 
offer from Dr. Edmund Walker, Rector of St, Columb 
Major, of the advowson of that wealthy benefice, for 
the endowment of a new see in Cornwall or for the 
foundation of canonries. The Bishop was himself 
willing to resign ^500 a year of his income to further 
the scheme. The Cathedral Commission recommended 
the plan, and the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, at the 
suggestion of the Dean and Chapter of Exeter, were 
approached with the view of assigning an income out 
of old capitular property which included valuable 
lands in Cornwall. The names of two earnest men 
deserve to be remembered in connection with this 
effort. Prebendary Tatham and the Rev. Reginald 
Hobhouse, afterwards the first Archdeacon of Bodmin, 
wrote able pamphlets, held enthusiastic meetings, and 
actively stirred up a great and increasing interest. A 
memorial, largely signed by the clergy and laity of the 
diocese, was presented to Lord Palmerston in i860 by 
a deputation headed by the Earl of St. Germans. 
The Prime Minister of the day, popular as he was 
with the multitude, never had any deep interest in 
Church matters, nor much knowledge of the Church's 
needs. As is well known, he practically delegated to 
Lord Shaftesbury the task of selecting nominees for 
vacant bishoprics. Certainly he treated in a somewhat 
light and airy manner the proposal for satisfying the 
legitimate desires of Cornish Churchmen. Bishop 
Benson has recorded some recollections ot this 


"Sir M. S. had been one of the original deputation which 
waited on Lord Palmerston to urge a bishopric for Cornwall. 
He kept them long waiting, and came down unshaved, un- 
buckled, almost unwashed. To stop their mouths he said, 
' First, gentlemen, you must have a church, a house, an estate. 
Where would you place him? Have you thought of that?' 
' Oh yes,' one of the members broke out, ' all is ready. 
St. Columb, beautiful house built by Dr. Walker on purpose 
— large nucleus of endowments.' ' Gentlemen,' said Lord 
Palmerston, 'you must do what Mrs. Glasse said, first catch 
your hare ; you must first catch your Bishop.' "^ 

Perhaps the attempt to utilise St. Columb and its 
revenues was not a very wise or practical one, and its 
defeat not greatly to be deplored. The situation was 
rather remote ; the church, though very interesting, 
quite inadequate for cathedral purposes. The rectory 
and its grounds would have made a charming episcopal 
residence ; but the little town could scarcely expect to 
rise to the dignity of a city. And so, for years 
discouraged but not in despair, men waited till better 
times, when a more enlightened appreciation of the 
growing requirements of the Church, should compel a 
proper solution of the difficulty. The "good Earl of 
Devon " was a prominent leader of these persistent 

There was also one faithful friend and counsellor, 
who himself was an earnest advocate for the increase 
of the home episcopate, who often cheered and 
encouracred the distressed and baffied Cornish Church- 
men, Dr. Christopher Wordsworth, Canon, and after- 

' Private Diary. 


wards Archdeacon, of Westminster, and subsequently 
Bishop of Lincoln. In his sermons, and even in his 
commentaries, he never lost an opportunity of pointing 
out the need of making the office of a Bishop more of 
a reality, by a wise subdivision of dioceses. To one 
who MTOte to tell him of one of the above-mentioned 
failures, he replied from his vicarage of Stanford-in- 
the-Yale, " Let us not despair : fxeTu^v 6t]piow, /j-eraiv 
Geov." And then he v/ent on to speak of " consolation 
and hope," through faith in "an heavenly Master, 
through the thorns and briars of contradiction and 
blasphemy to His heavenly grace. Our faith in Him 
is now being tried, and through His strength it will 

In 1 86 1 Lord Lyttelton made another earnest, but 
unsuccessful effort ; and in the following year the 
Cathedral Commissioners again urged the foundation 
of a Cornish see. The Archbishop of Canterbury, 
Dr. Longley, lent the aid of his personal influence and 
that of his high office to the cause, and took the 
trouble to visit Cornwall, that he might be able to 
press upon the Government, by his own experience of 
what he had seen and heard on the spot, the pressing 
necessity for a subdivision of the Western Diocese. 
But matters remained as before, until the year 1869, 
when Bishop Phillpotts died. The occasion was at 
once taken to urge upon the Government the need of 
separating Cornwall from Exeter, and so break up 
what had long been felt to be a most unwieldy 
diocese. Fresh petitions were signed and fresh 


pamphlets written, but without avail ; and Dr. Temple, 
Head Master of Ru_L;by, was appointed to the undivided 
Diocese of Exeter. Of the storm of feeling aroused at 
this appointment, on account of his authorship of one 
of the papers in the notorious volume, called Essays 
and Reviews, published nine years before, this is not 
the place to speak. He came into the West in the 
midst of much ecclesiastical resentment, but he won 
the hearts of the clergy and laity alike by his vigorous 
personality, his untiring energy and his Christian 
manliness. They were, as time went on, to learn the 
earnestness and truthfulness of his character, and to 
find in him a strongly-rooted faith that seemed to 
grow and expand more and more as the years passed 
by. Later on, he quite disarmed all suspicion of the 
soundness of his orthodoxy and the strength of his 
Church principles. Nothing can exceed the firm faith 
in the fundamental truths of Christianity, lucidly ex- 
pressed in his Bampton Lectures ; nothing could be 
more outspoken in defence of the Divine origin and 
character of the Church, than the sermon that he 
preached, many years later, at the evening service on 
the day of die consecration of Truro Cathedral. ^ 

The very vigour of his administration soon made 
him realise the absolute necessity of a division of the 
diocese. The effort to brinor this about, which had 
been so ably m:ide by Prebendary Tatham, was on his 
death in 1S74 warml\- renewed by Mr. Edmund 

1 Catholicity and Indh'uhialisiii, tweh-e sermons preached at the 
consecration of the Cathedral Church of Truro, pp. 14-22. 


Carlyon of St. Austell, to whom the whole Church in 
Cornwall owes a debt which it is almost impossible to 
estimate, not only on account of all that he accomplished 
for the foundation of the bishopric, but for equally 
valuable labours as Secretary of the Diocesan Con- 
ference of the new diocese, and later still of the 
Buildine Committee of Truro Cathedral. One of the 
happiest results of the foundation of the new see has 
been seen in the awakening of zeal, liberality and hard 
work for the Church, among a very large number of 
Cornish laymen. 

Dr. Temple saw that there was no hope of per- 
suading the State authorities to recognise the just 
claims of Cornwall to a share in ancient episcopal 
endowments for the purposes of creating a see in 
that county. " What do you want to do ? " he wrote. 
"To convert the Legislature, or to get the bishopric? 
The former will, I can answer for it, take twenty 
years at least, even if you could do it in twenty years." 
But he not only gave good advice, but made a very 
important contribution towards the foundation of the 
Cornish bishopric by his surrender of ^800 of his 
episcopal income, and by his promise to hand over 
the episcopal patronage in Cornwall to the Bishop 
of the new see. This generous offer was announced 
at a meeting held at Plymouth on March 1st, 1875, 
and proved to be a great stimulus to further efforts 
on the part of those who were anxious to bring the 
matter to a successful issue. Once more a memorial, 
largely signed, was presented by a great deputation 


of Cornish Churchmen, under the leadership of Dr. 
Temple, and was far more favourably received by 
Mr. Disraeli than a similar one had been twenty 
years before by the Prime Minister of the day. 

But it was not until a noble benefaction by Emily 
Lady Rolle, amounting to ^^40,000, had been promised, 
that the committee appointed for the purpose was able 
to take definite steps to complete the scheme. Few, 
if any, of the wealthy sons and daughters of the 
Church have made so splendid an offering as this 
West-country lady consecrated to the service of God's 
Church. It perhaps can only be paralleled, or ex- 
ceeded, in modern times, by the foundation of several 
colonial sees by another generous Englishwoman, 
Lady Burdett-Coutts. It is interesting to note that 
there was a pleasant friendship and intercourse be- 
tween the first Bishop of the new see and its generous 
benefactress. In Dr. Benson's diary, on June 17th, 
1882, it is written : — 

" Went and sat with m)- ancient foundress for half an 
hour, Lady Rolle. Very clear and very clever, and interested 
about all things ; full of old knowledge of Cornwall, and of 
horror at the people like X. Y., who (as she said) think the 
Bishops the last people who ought to have any authority." 

An instantaneous and enthusiastic response to this 
great act of generosity was made by many private 
individuals, and by the Council of the Additional 
Home Bishoprics Endowment Fund, ^3,000 being 
ofiven from this last-named source. On August i ith, 
1876, the patient faith and strenuous efforts of the 


earnest Churchmen of Cornwall were at length re- 
warded, by the passing of the Bishopric of Truro Bill 
by which the see was founded. For thirty years the 
attempt had been made, again and again, to reverse 
the act of union of Cornwall with Devon under one 
Bishop, so far back as the eleventh century, and had 
at last been crowned with deserved success. Even 
then the resources of the new see were somewhat 
scanty and meagre. There was no cathedral, no 
collegiate church, as at Manchester, or Ripon, or 
Southwell ; no splendid abbey church, as at St. 
Albans, that could, at once and without question, 
become the central church of the diocese. Truro, for 
sufficient reasons already indicated above, com- 
mended itself as the most suitable town for the 
setting up of the " Bishop's stool." Situate on the 
main line of railway, easily accessible to the popula- 
tions of the chief mining districts, as well as the sea- 
port of Falmouth ; besides being the most ancient 
municipal borough in Cornwall, and the seat of the 
then existing Stannaries Court, it had, for many 
years, been growing into something like a county 
town. Since that time, the holding of the meetings 
of the County Council at Truro has impressed upon 
it still more the character of the civil capital of the 
Duchy. But its church, the ancient sanctuary of a 
venerable municipality, with a history reaching far 
beyond the actual date of the existing fabric, which 
was erected in 1518 on the same site as two previous 
churches had occupied, had no pretensions to any- 


thing- more th;in those of a fairly ^^^ood specimen of 
an ordinary Cornish town church. There were no 
parochial resources that could form a nucleus tor a 
cathedral establishment. The rectory was miserably 
endowed. There was no residence in the city that 
could be assigned as a "palace" to the new Bishop. 
The only prospective provision for the endowment 
of a residentiary chapter was the income of the fifth 
Canonry of Exeter of the value of /^i,ooo a year, 
which did not, however, become available for several 
years afterwards. 

Nevertheless, the great achievement had been 
accomplished. Henceforth a Cornish Bishop was to 
rule the Cornish Church, and to give undivided 
attention to the oversight of that most important, 
interesting, and, at the same time, exceedingly difficult 
portion of the "Vineyard of the Lord." 




1830 1850 1869 1876 1885 

85 ... 150 ... 178 ... 183 ... 195 

In Licensed House, or in Parish... 4 ... 25 ... })■}> •■■ 25 ... 24 

Incutnbents Resident 

In Glebe House 85 ... 150 ... 178 ... 183 ... 195 

Incumbents Non-Resident 
By Exemption 
Otherwise ... 

Of Non-Resident Incumbents there "\ 
were performing duties ... ...) 

Curates of Non-Resident Incumbents 72> 
Curates of Resident Incumbents ... 

Number of Clergy serving — 

Curates of Non - Resident \n-\ 
cumbents ... ... ...J 

Curates of Resident Incumbents 

Parsonage Houses 150 ... 171 ... 190 ... 198 ... 210 






31 •• 

. 8 .. 

• 7 •• 

. II .. 

. 7 

61 .. 

. 17 .. 

• 5 •• 

. 14 .. 

. 6 







. 5 •• 

. 6 .. 

. 7 .. 

,. 6 

73 ■■ 

. 19 .. 

,. 4 •• 

,. 14 .. 

•• 5 

14 .. 

• 47 •• 

. 50 .. 

,. 51 .. 

.. 78 

104 .. 

. 180 .. 

,. 217 .. 

.. 215 .. 


1- 73 .. 

. 19 .. 

.. 4 ., 

.. 14 .. 

•• 5 

14 .. 

,. 47 .. 

.. 50 .. 

.. 51 . 

.. 78 






(y. (IJ. .yjaiao/i 



IT has already been noticed, that the position of the 
first Bishop of the newly created diocese had very 
few attractions to offer, beyond those of a new and 
interesting sphere of labour, with great opportunities, 
and not a few obstacles. In spite of all the previous 
good work carried out by the last two Bishops of the 
undivided diocese, there was large scope for new 
organisation, fresh reforms and venturesome enter- 
prises. A large portion of the Cornish people still 
held the attitude of distrust and suspicion towards the 
Church, disbelieved in her spiritual character, and 
held aloof from her ministrations. To regain a hold 
for the Church, first on the respect, and then on the 
affection, of the people of Cornwall, was the great 
task laid upon the new Bishop. To extend, and in 
some degree to create, the machinery of Church work ; 
to seize upon the best elements of Cornish religious 
sentiment ; to direct strong emotionalism into sane 
directions ; to dissipate prejudice ; all this demanded a 
leader, wise, sympathetic and skilful. No hard parti- 
san, anxious to push a cut-and-dried scheme of Church 
work, no dreamy idealist, no man of mere shibboleths, 



would have had a chance of success. What was 
wanted was one who could appreciate the individuality 
of the Cornish race, and take a real delight in its 
unique history ; who could make himself at home in 
the midst of new and quaint customs, strange and 
incongruous, very often, to the mind and taste of 
persons trained elsewhere under very different con- 
ditions. A great opportunity might have been lost, 
if the first Bishop of Truro had been a mere scholarly 
pedant, or a hard-and-fast organiser, or a rigid cham- 
pion of one narrow school of thought. 

To those who know anything of Cornwall it must 
always be a matter of great thankfulness, that so 
happy a choice was made, in the person of Edward 
White Benson, for the first Bishop of Truro. Born 
in the neighbourhood of Birmingham, he was educated 
at Kino- Edward's School under Mr. Prince Lee, and 
had amonor his schoolfellows and intimate friends 
Joseph Barber Lightfoot and Brooke Foss Westcott. 

The great Midland hardware town held a high 
place in his affections. Late in life he thus spoke 

of it : — 

" How can any— how can I — look on this strong city of the 
Midlands and not feel the enchantment? How was it grow- 
ing when I knew it for fifteen years of happy life near it, and 
all the keenest interest of school life within it ! The dark 
haze of countless industries ever hanging over it, pierced by 
spire and dome ; the solemn music of its great hall and the 
noble roofs from which the look and memory of scholarly 
wisdom and aspiration will never be parted. Even so long 
ago we were ' citizens of no mean city.' " ^ 

' Church Congress sermon at Ijiriningham in Fishers of Men, p. 140. 


Of the debt that he owed to the Head Master, whose 
memory he cherished, and whose character and work 
he defended with a strong- affection, and sometimes 
with a passionate indignation, to the end of his \\{<i, he 
has left a touching record. 

" I know how in my own boyhood it was the dissociation 
of labour from vexation, the unfailinc; kindly wit, the rapid 
illustration, the endless happy allusion to men and books and 
things, the brightness which flashed a cheer into a difficulty 
and made every knotty point of scholarship into a pleasure 
of the mind, only waiting to be realised : above all, it was 
never presenting to our minds the standard of an examina- 
tion ; the keeping before us that, if a subject was worthy 
of intense study, it was worthy in itself for its own sake. 
This was the spirit which took us all captive, and enamoured 
us of the eloquence, the knowledge, the insight of the ancient 
masters, and of the acuteness and precision of the Scholar- 
critics." ^ 

His career at Cambridge was marked by great self- 
denial, under the stress of very narrow means. He 
was a Subsizar of Trinity College, and held a small 
exhibition from Birminoham. That he was enabled 
to complete his course was due to the wise generosity 
of Francis Martin, Bursar, and afterwards \'ice-?^Iaster 
of the College. His degree. Senior Optime and Eighth 
Classic, was a disappointment to himself and to others, 
but his success as Senior Chancellor's Medallist made 
up for everything, and gave him his true place among 
the ablest men of his year. He was ordained Deacon 
in 1S53 and Priest in 1857. 

^ "The Teacher's Frceduni " in Living Theology, by .\rchbishop 
Benson, 2nd edition, 1893, p. 47. Cf. Fis/urs of Men, pp. 72-4. 


His fellowship at Trinity did not keep him long in 
residence, and he went to Rugby as a Master, where 
he first was brought into contact with Dr. Temple, 
whose strong character greatly attracted and influenced 

In 1859 he was elected first Head Master of the 
newly founded Wellington College. Here, his creative 
genius found ample scope for successful organisation 
and development of the new school, which has ever 
since held a high place among the great public schools 
of England. He made many friends among masters 
and boys, and favourably impressed Queen Victoria and 
the Prince Consort, who felt a keen interest in the 
prosperity of the College. The impression thus made 
was not without its influence in his selection for the 
successive offices of Bishop of Truro and Archbishop 
of Canterbury. 

One who knew him well, both at Rugby and Wel- 
lington, bears testimony to his ability as a teacher, 
and his success as an organiser. At the former 
school, he is said, in teaching the upper forms, to 
have united " two sfreat Sfifts, beino- clear and vigorous 
in his style of teaching, and giving a general stimulus 
to the minds of his pupils. He taught and in the 
true sense of the word educated. . . ." At Wellington 
"difficulties were unusually great, but Dr. Benson, by 
clearness of purpose and by unfailing courtesy and 
tact, made them disappear. During his tenure of 
office, a marvellous change took place in the sandy 
waste which at first surrounded the Colles^e. The 


wilderness literally blossomed as the rose ; houses 
were built, gardens laid out, roads were made. . . . 
The distinofuishino- mark of Dr. Benson's Headmaster- 
ship was his earnest desire to produce and fasten a 
religious tone in the school." In describing "the beauti- 
ful and striking Chapel " and its services, the writer 
records the great attention paid to the hymns used 
and the book compiled for the College by Dr. Benson, 
and adds, "The effect of the whole was to feel — 
certainly, this College is meant to be a place of 
religious education, a training place, not only for this 
life, but for the higher life which is to come."^ 

The fifteen years spent at Wellington were to him 
(to use his own words) a time of "ever-increasing 
happiness."" The work was very congenial. He 
loved the very uphill labour that made his head- 
mastership something of a leadership in a warlike 
conflict. He had to meet, from time to time, not 
a few difficulties arising out of questions of discipline 
and relioious teaching. He was attacked from one 
side, as too extreme a High Churchman, and from 
another, as a Latitudinarian. There were perhaps 
some superficial grounds for these two contradictory 
impressions concerning him. While he never was in 
close sympathy with the Tractarian School, and had 
a singularly inadequate opinion of the great powers 
and commanding character of Newman, he was, 
nevertheless, from his earliest days, an enthusiastic 

' "The Bishop-Designate of Truro," a paper by W. J. Tait, in The 
Church in Cornwall, January, 1877, PP- -'8, 219. 
- Li/c, p. 56 r. 


admirer of all that was great and noble in the history 
of the Catholic Church. He was possessed by an 
ever - increasing interest in oreat Churchmen, their 
lives, characters, and achievements. Men, like St. 
Cyprian and St. Hugh, fired his imagination, and 
compelled his veneration. He was passionately 
devoted to ancient cathedrals and everything con- 
nected with their constitution and worship ; he fully 
appreciated careful and reverent ceremonies ; was 
particular about the cut of a rochet, and Indignant 
at unworthy heraldic details in the design for a seal.^ 
Very early in life he prayed for the revival of 
cathedrals. In early manhood he began to recite 
the canonical hours ; and, from a careful study of 
ancient Liturgies was led to see the beauty of prayers 
for the departed, and the authority for them in very 
early primitive days." 

But, on the other hand, the influence of such minds 
as Maurice and Kingsley moulded his character to 
a very considerable degree. The memory of the 
personality of the latter remained fresh and keen to 
the very end of his life. He thought the strong 
feeling- roused by Dr. Colenso's writings needlessly 
exao-aerated and unbalanced, and even subscribed to 
a fund raised for the defence of the Bishop of Natal. 
This act, that has received strong adverse criticism, 
was probably inspired by his great natural sense of 
fairness, and not from any sympathy, either with 

^ See note at the end of this chapter. 

- See Prayers Public and Private, by the Most Rev. E. W. Benson, 
sometime Archbishop of Canterbury, pp. 214, 223, 227. 


Dr. Colenso's views, or with the manner in which 
they were laid before the world and the Church. 
He criticised freely, and even severely, the now 
almost forgotten volume Essays and Reviews, but 
considered that Dr. Temple had been, without reason, 
implicated in the charge of unsoundness of doctrine, 
brought against all the seven writers, whose essays 
had been included in the book. He was never in 
sympathy with " Evangelicalism " as a party, or even 
as a school of thought, but at Wellington he adopted 
one of its modern innovations, Evening Communions, 
curiously combined, however, with language and 
ritual derived from a very different source. In later 
life he diverged altogether from this particular usage. 
And yet he could thoroughly understand and value 
much that the Evangelicals held dear. He knew 
very well the great importance of that spiritual 
awakening, which is involved in the word "conver- 
sion," however much it has become perverted and 
misused. He certainly came to realise, that, no 
clergyman had any chance of accomplishing any real 
spiritued work among the Cornish, who had not some 
true, real, inward experience of the soul, such as is 
often called by that name. At the same time, the 
shallow and merely emotional excitement, that too 
often passes for a true "change of mind," met with 
no sort of encouragement from him. 

It was the next stage in his life that, beyond all the 
previous epochs in proportion to its length, moulded 
and trained his character. His appointment as 


Chancellor and Canon Residentiary of Lincoln by 
Bishop Christopher Wordsworth, who had, in 1869, 
shortly after his consecration made him his Examining 
Chaplain and Prebendary of Heydour in his cathe- 
dral, broueht him into close contact with one who 
was not only an accomplished scholar, biblical com- 
mentator, and learned theologian, but a Bishop whose 
Ideal of his high office and admirable discharge of 
his episcopal duties have seldom been equalled. He 
has been well described "as a Churchman in every 
fibre of his beino- • he was also the soul of chivalrous 
honour, and of undoubted faith, with the touch of a 
Prophet upon him. ... It was a splendid type of 
consecrated scholarship."^ Benson came under the 
spell of this strong but sanctifying personality, and 
was greatly Influenced by it. It is not too much to 
say, that, at Lincoln, he received a fresh kind of 
inspiration that restrained something of the strong 
impetuosity of his nature, and elevated and refined 
the whole tone of his character. It was here that, 
more fully than ever, there was developed in him 
that romantic love for cathedrals which had shown 
itself in his boyhood, which led him to take exultant 
dello-ht in the noble buildlno^s at Rheims and Amiens, 
and now in the glorious Minster crowning the hill of 
the old Roman city. Later on It showed Itself in the 
absorbing keenness with which he gave himself to 
plan every detail of his "own dear Cathedral at 

1 Canon Scott Holland, Journal of Theological Studies, October, 
1900, vol. ii., No. 5. 


Truro." At Lincoln he studied, with reverent care 
and intelliL>ent historic insight, the statutes of the 
ancient Minster. He made these the basis and model 
of those statutes at Truro which, thoucjh even now 
possessing no actual legal force, have been ever care- 
fully studied and obeyed, by those who worked with 
him and followed him in the Cornish Cathedral. It 
was at Lincoln that he learned to understand and 
value the all-important place that the cathedral once 
occupied in tlie ancient Church, and gathered material 
for his plans for the revival, in our own day, of the 
influence that the Mother Church ought to exercise 
throughout the diocese, which he developed in his 
book The Cathed7'aL and in his visitation chars^es and 
conference addresses, first at Truro and afterwards at 

It was at Lincoln, too, that he had his first actual 
experience of pastoral work in a city, for which his 
previous life at Cambridge, Rugby, and Wellington 
had given him little or no opportunity. Now he 
threw himself into the work of night schools, 
temperance meetings, special missions. He had 
close intercourse, and even friendships, with lads and 
men, artisans, and others ; and in his afternoon 
sermons, in the nave of the Minster, preached gener- 
ally from slight notes, he attracted and impressed 
large congregations of people of the middle class. 
By some short remarkable expositions of St. John's 
Gospel at early morning prayers, twice a week, he 
touched other classes. Two iniportant features of 


his life at Lincoln, both of which trained him for his 
future work in Cornwall, were the restoration of the 
Scholcc Cancellarii, and the formation of the Society 
of Mission Preachers, afterwards known from its 
motto, taken from the Vulgate of Hosea x, 12, chosen 
by himself, as the " Novate novale," " Break up your 
fallow ground." 

The Scholce Cancellarii was an ancient institution 
for the training of candidates for Holy Orders, that 
had existed in old times as a part of the foundation 
of many cathedrals, both on the Continent and in 
England, the head of which had generally been the 
Chancellor of the Church. Benson, holding this 
office at Lincoln, felt impelled to revive the ancient 
Chancellor's school. He threw himself into it with 
ardour and delight. He took great pains with the 
preparation of his lectures, and drew up an admirable 
little manual on reading and prayers, called Vigilermis 
et Orevncs, for the use of the students. The " prac- 
tical hints" on "how to begin and end a subject," 
"how to prepare for lectures," contain excellent 
advice, not only for theological students, but also for 
clergymen of all stages of experience. He laid great 
stress on "reading aloud," and recommended the 
reading of Greek and Latin writers in this way, as 
well as the great masters of English. It is charac- 
teristic of him to give the advice, " read authorities 
whom you love." He endeavoured to foster the life 
of prayer and meditation, and his counsels on "orderly 
devotions," and "a sense of God's loving presence," 


made it quite clear that, in his o[)inion, these were 
"conditions" without which study would prove barren 
and useless. In the development of the Scholae he 
was happy in finding sympathetic colleagues in 
Canons Crowfoot and Worlledge. 

The Society of Mission Priests, which was founded 
in 1876, had the advantage of his guiding hand as 
first Warcien. The first fruit of the society was a 
general mission throughout the city of Lincoln early 
in 1876. The Chancellor took a prominent part in 
it. The effect upon the people was great, but not 
greater than the effect upon himself. Dr. Mason, 
afterwards so closely connected with him in his work 
in Cornwall, has described this as "a o-reat comino; 
02U into the directness and freedom of spiritual 
ministry, which was so much needed for success in 
Cornwall." This was indeed a time when he, and 
those closely connected with him, came under special 
influences of teaching about personal religion that 
are usually called "evangelical." There was opened 
out that side of spiritual truth, which must be the 
complement of dogmatic and ecclesiastical ortho- 
doxy, if the Christian is to be truly "perfect" and 
"throughly furnished." There were those at Lin- 
coln who were able to contribute towards the 
realisation of this most valuable and precious side 
of truth, which, instead of contradicting the reality 
of sacramental grace, enables the soul to use every 
ordinance of the Church with a keener and more 
fervent desire to become increasingly united with 



the beloved and adorable Person of the Incarnate 
Lord and Saviour, This side of truth belongs not 
to a sect or school of thought, but is the heritage 
of the saints and a priceless element of the Catholic 
Faith ; it finds its expression in the devotions of 
Thomas a Kempis, as well as in the hymns and 
sermons of St. Bernard. And so he and his, thus 
illuminated and enlarged, were all the better fitted 
for that great opportunity and work, that was awaiting 
him among those people of warm religious instincts, 
over whom he was so soon to be called to rule. 

This life at Lincoln has been described "in years 
a very short one ; but, like his life as a whole, it was 
a very full one." And it certainly formed a most 
admirable time of preparation and training for what 
was, perhaps, the most striking and characteristic 
epoch of his life, the six years of his episcopate in 

" He never got nearer to the flesh and blood of average 
men than he did in those few years at Lincoln. And this 
told on him. It opened fresh doors. It taught him his 
powers. It softened and enheartened him . . . the spiritual 
transformation that was begun at Lincoln was completed at 

The announcement that Dr. Benson had received 
the offer of the Bishopric of Truro aroused great 
interest everywhere, and in Lincoln was received 
with no little regret. His stay there had been only 
too short, and he had begun many things that, 
perhaps, another Chancellor might not be able to 


carry out. He himself hesitated at first, but the 
opinions of his nearest friends were unanimous in 
favour of his acceptance of the office. And so he 
prepared himself to take the next great step in the 
advancing progress of his life's work. 

Before he left Lincoln, the students and tutors of 
the ScJiolcc Cancellarii presented him with a hand- 
some pastoral staff of Celtic design, which he used 
for nearly twenty years in his dioceses of Truro and 
Canterbury, and which now occupies a niche in the 
southern or "Benson" transept of Truro Cathedral. 
Underneath is a brass with the following inscription, 
composed by his son, Mr. A. C. Benson : — 

"This pastoral staff was presented to Edward White 
Benson, first Bishop of Truro and ninety-second Archbishop 
of Canterbur}-, b\' the Tutors and Students of the SdioUc 
Cancellarii at Lincohi, Wednesday, 21st March, 1877, and 
borne by him for a sign, that he should, as a Father in God, 
rule with diligence and guide with love. It comforted his 
ministries for nearly 20 years, and was by him bequeathed 
to his own most dear Cathedral Church, a.d. 1896." 

He received also a pectoral cross and a ring, now 
deposited in a case with other memorials in the 
chapter room of Truro Cathedral, from the Society 
of Mission Clergy ; a service of silver plate from the 
city of Lincoln, and a set of dessert dishes of bronzed 
metal from a Bible-class of mechanics. 

When the third Bishop of Truro was about to be 
enthroned, and the pastoral staff which he now uses 
in the diocese was not yet ready, Dr. Benson was 


asked to lend his staff for the occasion. His charac- 
teristic and humorous letter, granting a somewhat 
reluctant permission, is given in his Life.^ 

The first Bishop of Truro was consecrated by 
Archbishop Tait in St. Paul's Cathedral on St. 
Mark's Day, April 25th, 1877. This festival has, in 
later days, gained for English Churchmen a fresh 
significance as the birthday of John Keble and the 
foundation day of the great college at Oxford that 
commemorates his name and holy life. For Cornish 
Churchmen it will long possess a special and sacred 
interest. For on this day Cornwall once more re- 
gained its ecclesiastical Individuality, when the first 
of a new line of Cornish Bishops was consecrated to 
his office. Six years later, this interest was renewed 
afresh, when, on the same festival, the second Bishop 
of Truro was sent forth to fill the throne, left vacant 
by the elevation of the first to the Primacy of All 
England. Dr. Benson was presented by two Bishops 
specially connected with himself and his work, Bishop 
Wordsworth of Lincoln and Bishop Temple of 
Exeter. That the former should have undertaken 
this office w^as the natural sequence of their fellowship 
in Church work at Lincoln : and It was very fitting 
that the latter should do the same, as the Bishop of 
the undivided Western See and as his old Rugby 
friend. That the two should thus act together was 
a happy circumstance and symbol of unity, when it 
is remembered that, eight years before, Dr. Words- 

' P- 434- 


worth felt it to be his duty to oppose the appoint- 
ment of Dr. Temple to the See of Exeter. Canon 
Lightfoot, his schoolfellow and lifelong friend, preached 
the sermon, remarkable for its eloquence, "in a voice 
broken with emotion." After the consecration Dean 
Church sent the new Bishop on his way with sanguine 
words of happy augury : — 

" I hope you may be permitted to add in Cornwall another 
to the many victories, which the revived English Church has 
achieved, and which, in spite of disasters, and many troubles, 
make it the most glorious Church in Chcistendom."^ 

The Bishop's enthronement at Truro, on the festival 
of St. Philip and St. James, May ist,was the occasion 
of tJ-reat rejoicing. Finis coronal opns was felt to be 
the true expression of many a Cornish Churchman's 
joy at the fulfilment of long-deferred hopes. The 
authorities of the county and the city, the Lord 
Lieutenant (the Earl of Mount Edgcumbe), the High 
Sheriff (Mr. Jonathan Rashleigh), the ]Mayor of Truro 
(Mr. J. G. Chilcott), and a great company of leading 
laymen, united with the clergy of the diocese, in 
CTivine a true Cornish welcome to their new Bishop, 
introduced by their tried and well-beloved friend and 
pastor, the Bishop of Exeter. The service of enthrone- 
ment in St. Mary's Church was dignified and stately. 
The new Bishop was received by the Rector, the 
Rev. C. Fox Harvey, the churchwardens, and other 
officials. The Bishop of Exeter enthroned him, and 

1 Dean Church's Life and Letters, p. 257. 


then he celebrated the Holy Eucharist and preached 
his first sermon from the text, St. John xvii. 21, 
"That thev all may be one." It was a strikino- 
setting- forth of the power of Christian unity, and an 
affectionate call to Cornish Christians to consider the 
disastrous results of religious separation, and to work 
and pray for a restoration of the unity that had been 
lost. He summed up the plan of his work as 
follows : " Perfect Life, positive Teaching, fearless 
Labour. These three words sketch the chart of our 
spiritual campaign. The weapons God Himself pro- 
vides — daily grace and growing knowledge." At 
Evensong the preacher was Archdeacon Earle, of 
Totnes,^ Vice-Chairman of the Bishopric Committee, 
who commended the Bishop and his great work to 
the Church in Cornwall, and to the affectionate and 
willing obedience and co-operation of those who were 
now his flock. 

And so, if in one sense a great work had been 
accomplished by generous sacrifice and hopeful per- 
sistence, yet, in another, a great and serious responsi- 
bility was laid upon him who had been given to 
Cornwall as its chief pastor, to gather together in 
disciplined order, and lead onward, the forces of the 
Church in faith and patience, towards a victorious 
triumph of truth over error, and holiness over sin. 

^ Afterwards Bishop Suffragan of Marlborough and Dean of Exeter : 
his efforts, at a peculiar crisis, were of invaluable service in securing 
funds for the See of Truro. 



The Arms of the See of Truro involved Dr. Benson, immediately 
upon the publication of his nomination, in a long and intricate 
correspondence. Through the Earl of Devon, Mr. Stephen 'J'ucker, 
who was at the time Rouge-Croix Pursuivant of the College of Arms, 
expressed a desire " to design and pass the Patent for the Arms of 
the new Cornish Fiishopric." At St. Germans, on a carved oak 
fragment of a thirteenth-century bench-end, there is a shield charged 
with key and sword in saltire with wards and hilt upward, which was 
supposed to be the Arms of the old Cornish Bishopric, but, as 
Rouge Croix truly observed, " Whether the seat of that See was at 
Bodmin or St. Germans, 1 think we may safely assume that it was 
extinct before the time when any heraldic cognisance could have 
been associated with it." The ^dXXxco. gules on a field argetit was even- 
tually adopted to signify, as it is St. Patrick's Cross, the Early Irish, 
or more correctly Scotic Christianity, which gave rise to the Cornish 
Episcopate, but it does not seem to have occurred either to the 
Heralds' College, or anyone else, at the time, that the key and 
sword also most fitly introduced into the Truro Arms are far more 
likely to have had some connexion with the Arms of Exeter^ 
than to have been even a medieval sign of the old Cornish 
Bishopric. Into all the details of the Arms, Dr. Benson entered 
with the utmost minuteness, but certain suggestions appear to have 
caused quite a disturbance in the corporation of the Heralds' 
College. Prebendary J. F. Wickenden put all his accurate know- 
ledge into the discussion ; Professor Westcott, in a singularly 
interesting and characteristic letter, offered his suggestions. Garter 
King-at-Arms took alarm at any representation of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary — the dedication of the Cathedral Church— finding 
a place in the coat, so apprehensive was he of any Romanising 
tendencies, while a long discussion ensued on the impaling of the 
Benson family Arms {argent, a quatrefoil between two trefoils slipt 
• sable, between four bendlets gtdes). Prebendary Wickenden desired 
a simpler coat, and illustrated his arguments by an amusing descrip- 
tion of the Arms of the Bishopric of Worcester (as they might have 

' The position of the key and sword is peculiar, and not unlike the 
coat of the Priory of Plympton, of which it »iay be an inaccurate 
representation. That great priory was near St. Germans. 


been) in " the historico- Victorian style," in contrast with the Arms 
of that See "as they are happily." However, at last, after a 
correspondence of more than three months' duration, the coat was 
completed, and the following description from the pen of Bishop 
Benson will be read with interest : — 

"The following bearings have been assigned by the College of 
Heralds under the warrant of the hereditary Earl Marshal to the 
Bishopric of Truro. ^Argent on a saltire gules, a key ward upwards 
and a sword hilt upwards salterwise or, in base a fieur-de-lys sable} 
The whole within the bordure of Cornwall, viz. sable, fifteen 
bezants.' Such regard as was possible has been had to the high 
antiquity of the Cornish See. From primitive centuries British 
Bishops ruled in Cornwall. . . . The saltire gules is the earliest 
heraldic symbol of the Celtic Church, and as such is borne on the 
cross of Saint Patrick. The bordure sable with its fifteen bezants 
is the oldest form of the famous cognisance of Cornwall, and was 
thus borne by the King of the Romans in the thirteenth century. 
More recently the Princes of Wales have borne the bezants on 
a sable shield. The cross, sword, and key are from a unique shield 
in the church of St. Germans, traditionally indicating the seat of 
the Bishops there, in a fashion not unusual after the general adop- 
tion of heraldic devices. The fleur-de-lys, as a difference, symbol- 
ises the transference of the Cathedral to St. Mary's, at Truro. It 
has a corresponding reference in the Arms of the City of Lincoln." 

The Bishop afterwards summarised the correspondence in an 
amusing dramatic sketch entitled, " How they made him a coat 
of many colours," in which the many distinguished personages 
involved in the controversy all figure, and the variety of opinions 
expressed are skilfully hit off. 

With equal care the design of the Episcopal See was elaborated 
in correspondence with Messrs. J. S. and A. B. Wyon and Preb- 
endary Wickenden, and within a few months of the Bishop's arrival 
in Truro, when in September, 1877, by Letters Patent, the town 
was raised to the rank of a city, the Mayor turned to him for 
counsel as to a motto for the City Arms. A draft of his reply, 
written, corrected, and re-written with his usual care remains. 

1 The Rev. W. Jago, f.s.a., of Bodmin, has explained that the lily of 
the Blessed Virgin Mary is depicted sable, because the field of the shield 
of Cornwall was of that tincture, and the lily had to be placed on the 
argent ground of the entire composition. 


"I thought," he wrote, "we ought to have in our motto an 
allusion (i) to the elevation of the town into the city; (2) to the 
religious feeling with which we regard the city and its duty (most 
old mottoes have a touch of ancient piety in them); (3) if possible, 
a verbal allusion. It is quite the character of our older mottoes. 
I venture, therefore, to submit to your consideration, before it goes 
to your committee, words from i Samuel ii. i, Exaltatum Cornu 
in Deo— Hannah's Song, 'Mine horn is exalted in the Lord.' The 
Cornu giving an allusion to Cornubia, and is by some people 
thought to be the origin of the word (in some Celtic co-relative) 
Horn being used for a cape or promontory. Perhaps, too, it is 
graceful for Truro to wish to share her honour with all Cornwall, as 
if she felt that all Cornwall would rejoice with her." ^ 

' This note has been supplied by Chancellor Worlledge. 



AS has already been stated, there was no episcopal 
L palace provided in the city of Truro, and the 
residence of the Bishop was fixed at Kenwyn Vicarage, 
surrounded by ample grounds about a mile out of 
Truro, with a very agreeable aspect, and conveniently 
situated. During one of his visits to Cornwall, John 
Wesley was a guest at Kenwyn Vicarage, and de- 
scribed it in his Journal as "fit for a nobleman."^ This, 
though perhaps not untrue of the environment and 
the grounds, is, as regards the house, an exaggerated 
and misleading description ; for, before it could be 
made suitable for an episcopal residence, a fund had 
to be raised out of which a library and some additional 
rooms and offices were built. But even now, the 
house is inadequate for its purpose ; there is no real 
chapel, and quite insufficient accommodation for re- 
ceiving candidates for Holy Orders and other guests. 
But the place has many charms, and the Bishop and 
his family spent many happy days there. The view 

1 "Sept. 1787, Mon. loth. I went to Mr. Mill's, the Rector of 
Kenwyn, half a mile from Truro ; a house fit for a nobleman ; and the 
most beautifully situated of any I have seen in the zo\xn\:jr— Wesley's 
Journal^ edition 1864, vol. iv. p. 382. 



of the Truro river, the pleasant walks and rides, and 
above all the quiet and peaceful services " in the 
dimly lighted silent church," had qreat attractions. 
Dr. Benson called the house " Lis Escop," the old 
Cornish equivalent for " Bishop's Court." The name 
has been reproduced in a far-off Queensland diocese, 
just as the Cathedral of Truro, its services and its 
statutes, have served as models to more than one 
colonial bishopric at the Antipodes. 

The Bishop and his family entered warmly into the 
work of the parish where they lived ; he, Mrs. Benson, 
and their children worshipped at Kenwyn Church 
more often than at Truro, where his Cathedral was, 
though he himself, when not encjacjed elsewhere in 
the diocese, was generally present at St. Mary's 
Church in the city once on a Sunday. He has 
recorded that he had preached, on each Friday in 
the Advent of 1878, a course of sermons "on pre- 
paration for the Christmas Communion." His sub- 
jects were, "The way and the tree of life"; "The 
pure offering"; "The One Altar [Hebrews] of the 
Cross"; and adds, "I had some of Wesley's Sacra- 
mental Hymns printed to be sung."^ 

A year or two later he gave a well-remembered 
series of addresses on his favourite St. Cyprian. 

But he felt the somewhat anomalous position of a 
Bishop in relation to a cathedral, which was to all 
intents and purposes still a peirochial church. The 
difficulties of the situation are, to some extent, ex- 

' Diary. 


pressed in a letter addressed by Bishop Benson to 
the Cathedral Establishment Commissioners,^ where 
he makes certain sua-aestions for the reconciliation 
to be effected between the conflicting interests of 
cathedral and parish, which eventually formed, through 
the report of the Commissioners (1883), the basis for 
the Act of Parliament^ which established the present 
condition of things at Truro. It cannot be denied that, 
in those early days, and indeed for some time after- 
wards, the situation was a very perplexing one. On 
the one hand, the Bishop and the Canons were eager 
to evolve and develop the capitular system, and make 
the cathedral a real and vioorous diocesan centre. On 
the other hand, the parochial authorities felt it in- 
cumbent on them to protect the individuality and 
rights of an ancient parish, with interesting character- 
istics, and long-standing traditions. These circum- 
stances, however, perhaps only acted as an additional 
stimulus to that ardent desire of Bishop Benson to 
found a true cathedral, which happily he was able to 
accomplish with so much success, with so little 
opposition, and within so comparatively short a 

Dr. Benson was particularly fortunate in the friends 
and companions who came with him into Cornwall ; 
or perhaps it would be more just to say, that he 
possessed, in a remarkable degree, the gift, so neces- 

^ " Her Majesty's Commissioners for inquiring into the condition of 
Cathedral Churches in England and Wales," appointed 1S79. 

^ Truro Bishopric and Chapter Acts Amendment Act, 1887 (50 and 
51 Vict. ch. 12). 


sary to a ruler and a statesman, of choosing able and 
cong-enial fellow-workers. Arthur J. Mason, Fellow 
of Trinity, Cambridge, served him as a son with a 
father, and, like G. H. Whitaker, Fellow of St. John's, 
had been an assistant master at Wellington under 
him. John Andrewes Reeve, afterwards successively 
Vicar of St. Just and Addington and Rector of 
Lambeth, became his intimate friend and close neiorh- 
bour as Curate of Kenwyn. Later, George Howard 
Wilkinson, Vicar of St. Peter's, Eaton Square, was 
appointed one of his Examining Chaplains, and 
eventually became his successor as second Bishop of 
Truro. How great was the value to the new Bishop 
of these able and earnest men, may be gathered from 
one of his early letters from Kenwyn. " What brave 
helpers He bestows upon us, as it were direct from 
heaven ! Mason to spread the fire, Whitaker to 
broaden knowledge, Wilkinson to deepen and deepen 
us all without stopping." ^ 

How much spiritual power he recognised in him 
who became his immediate successor may be learned 
from the following extract from a letter : — 

"The candidates for Orders are here now, and Mr. Wilkin- 
son, of St. Peter's, Eaton Square, is staying with us, and is, 
oh ! such a holy man of God. He made us all not merely 
have, but keep tears in our eyes. Not by anything particular, 
but by simply making us feci the truth and greatness of the 
work to be done for Jesus Christ, and the poor creatures we 
are, in working out the Kingdom of God, though God Him- 
self gives us such storehouses of power if we will only draw 

' Life, abridged edition, p. 184. 


from them. ' Nothing impossible waits you,' he said. And 
he brought out wonderfully the power of one single soul for 
good on the society about it, if it's really in simple earnest, 
and sees things as they cd-c. He made the next world seem 
(as it is) all ready to burst in on this, and the separation so 

But it must not be supposed that the new Bishop 
was compelled to import able and enthusiastic workers, 
because there were no men among the existing Cornish 
clergy who were worthy of being called to his coun- 
sels, or of becoming fellow-helpers with him in his 
great work of organising the newly created diocese. 
There had been, as Bishop Benson always recognised 
and repeatedly said to Dr. Mason, for many years 
excellent Priests, appointed to their benefices either 
by private patrons like the Rev. W, P. Chappel, 
Rector of Camborne (who for more than forty years 
did an excellent work in a very difficult parish), or 
the Rev. R. F. Wise, Rector of Ladock, or the Rev. 
R. H. K. Buck, Rector of St. Dominic ; or appointed 
by colleges, like the Rev. Paul Bush, successor to 
Dean Scott (Master of Balliol and Dean of Rochester). 
There were earnest workers like Saltren Rogers, the 
amiable cultured Vicar of Gwennap ; the Rev. G. 
Martin, d.d., of St. Breward ; the Rev. R. Martin, of 
Menheniot ; the Rev. A. Mills, at St. Erth ; the Rev. 
J. Balmer Jones, at St. Ives ; the Rev. F. Hockin, 
Rector of Phillack with Gwithian for nearly half a 
century, a man of learning, generous in gifts to the 
Church and the poor, an excellent Parish Priest, 
Proctor in Convocation, and Dean Rural of Penwith, 


afterwards Canon of Truro, author of many useful 
pamphlets and books ; the Rev. C. R. Sowell, at St. 
Goran ; the Rev. T. Lockyer Williams, at Porthleven ; 
to name only a few, who held up a hi^h standard of 
clerical life and work with excellent results. The 
new-comers brought fresh zeal and fervour, which 
quickened these older labourers, and cheered them 
in their difficult work.^ 

There were three principal spheres in which the 
new Bishop planned his schemes of actixity. (i) 
Education, and specially the training of the clergy. 
(2) Awakening of the spiritual life of the people in 
Church-like fashion, through parochial missions and 
kindred agencies. (3) Organisation of the diocese, by 
the unifying and inspiring influences of a cathedral. 

Without attempting to follow out a stricdy chrono- 
logical history of the way in which each of these parts 
of the new Bishop's great plan of a spiritual campaign 
was organised, set on foot, and carried out, some slight 
sketch of each will now be laid before the reader. 

It was not long after his arrival in Truro, that the 
first steps were taken to form the Theological College, 

^ Among the clergy of Cornwall who have been distinguished for 
scholarly and literary work during the last quarter of a century should 
be mentioned, besides Dr. Mason and Canon Whitaker, the Rev. A. J. 
Worlledge, Canon and Chancellor of Truro Cathedral, author of Prayer 
in the " Oxford Library of Practical Theology" ; Canon C. E. Hammond, 
Vicar of Menheniot, author of Outlines of Textual Criticism, and 
Liturgies, Eastern atui Western; Canon J. Hanmiond, \'icar of St. 
Austell, author of Church and Chapel, and other works ; the Rev. Dr. 
Eagar, Vicar of Manaccan, author of Butler's Analogy and Modern 
Thought; the Rev. G. H. S. Walpole, author of Daily Teachings of the 
Christian Year, a Commentary on Joshua, and other valuable works. 


or Schohc Canccllarii, on very much the same plan as 
had been followed at Lincoln, though under far less 
favourable conditions. There was none of the pres- 
tige of an old cathedral city, no endowments for a 
Chancellor or Tutor, no building of a suitable character 
in the city. But Dr. Benson was not deterred by 
any difficulties, nor discouraged by any lack of re- 
sources. Canon Mason was selected to begin the 
work of instruction. Of him one of the earliest 
students thus writes : — 

" I remember the impression produced by Canon Mason 
on me when I first saw him in the Hbrary of the Hostel, and 
the way in which he pointed out the need of whole-hearted 
consecration to the service of the Church. In a letter written 
to me at Christmas 1877, I remember his defining personal 
faith as ' the sober, serious, responsible way of regarding 
unseen things, which the Bible calls faith.' This definition 
has never been forgotten by me. ... His sermons were ' town 
talk,' especially a course on the Holy Catholic Apostolic 
Church. ... I do not suppose that there ever was in Truro, 
so outspoken an advocate for the distinctive doctrine and 
practice of the English Church, as Canon Mason in those 
early days. He did not scruple to speak openly and plainly 
of the differences between Church and Dissent, yet I doubt if 
any man has ever been so respected, and even beloved, by 
Nonconformists, ministers as well as people."^ 

Another early student states that, in those days, 
" some of the men thouo-ht it the correct thinor to 

o o 

copy Mason in everything — the tone of his voice, his 
walk, and even made vain attempts to wear their 

' From a letter sent by the Rev. F. W. Newman, Vicar of St. George's, 


hair in the same way." The Sc'.me correspondent 
writes that, in the early part of the year after the 
opening' of the College, " Mason told me that they 
had secured the best Chancellor in England for 
Truro, and when Whitaker came he at once won all 
our hearts."^ I am indebted to the Rev. J. Isabell, 
formerly Rector of St. Sennen, for the following 
interesting- reminiscences of the early days of the 
Scholcc Cancellarii : — 

" I saw Dr. Benson in the room behind the S.P.C.K. depot 
in the summer of 1877, and was, to all intents and purposes, 
admitted then and there as the first member of the projected 
ScholiV Cancellarii. The Scholce was actually inaugurated in 
October of that year, by a celebration of the Holy Com- 
munion in the old St. Mary's Church, followed by a solemn 
address by the Rev. A. J. Mason. The service was held at 
7.30 a.m. on a very dark morning. The church was dimly 
lighted, and I believe the congregation consisted only of the 
above-named, together with Mrs. Benney and Jackson the 
Verger. The somewhat weird scene has left an indelible 
impression on my memory. 

" Lectures were given, during the first term, in a little 
back room of the Hostel (10, Strangways Terrace), by 
Mason and Walpole ; the first-named taking as his subjects 
the Gospel of St. Matthew, the .Apostles' Creed, and Earl}' 
Church Histon,-, and the second dealing with the Psalms. 
The gospel was treated with microscopic minuteness, the 
whole of the first term being taken up with the first two or 
three chapters. 

" After Christmas Whitaker came, and Mason ceased to 
take part in the training of the students. Under Whitaker's 
rule students came rapidly ; and at the beginning, I think, of 
the third term, there were about twenty in residence. 

' The Rev. J. J. Murley, Vicar of St. Day. 



"At the beginning of 1S78, Canon IMoor of St. Clement's 
formed a small class for Hebrew, attended by Newman, 
Behenna, and Isabell. 

" Weekly sermons on prescribed subjects were required 
from the beginning ; the first text given by Canon Mason 
being ' The Gospel of. the Kingdom,' suggested probably by 
his lectures on St. Matthew's Gospel. Westcott's Introduc- 
tion to the Study of the Gospels was used at an early date, 
but was afterwards abandoned as being too stiff for the 
average man. 

" Whitaker's early subjects included St. Cyprian's De 
Oratione Doinmica, a very able summary of Hardwick's 
History of t]ie Thirty-nine Articles, ■a.wA lectures on the Gospel 
of St. Matthew in a less concentrated form. 

" Beyond having the students to dine with him once or 
twice, the Bishop rarely came into contact with them, though 
he was kept well informed of their doings. I do not 
remember seeing him in the lecture-room more than once 
or twice. 

"The first four men to complete the full two years' 
training were Behenna, Isabell, Lock, and Newman. They 
took ' the Preliminary Examination for Holy Orders ' in 
October, 1879, and all passed, two obtaining firsts. 

"Just after the death of Martin White Benson,^ Bishop 
Wordsworth gave Bishop Benson his Conunentary on the 
New Testament for one of his students, in memory of the 
lad, and Dr. Benson offered it to the man of the Scholce 
Canccllarii who should pass the best examination in Priest's 
Orders. The book is now in the possession of John Isabell, 
and bears the inscription, ' Li menioriani Martini White 
Benson, tov fxaKaplrov,' together with the signatures of both 

" Parish work was undertaken by the students, almost 
from the first, together with services and- addresses at 
St. Mary's Mission Chapel. Whitaker extended this work 
to Kenwyn, St. Clement's, St. John's, etc., himself preaching 
the first sermon in the Fairmantle Street Schoolroom." 

' See chapter ix. pp. 172 seq. 


The writer of the above interesting statement was 
doubtless accurate in his remarks on the infrequent 
presence of Bishop Benson at the lectures, or indeed 
at the whole daily routine of the ScJiolcs Cancellarii. 
But it must not be inferred that his Interest in its 
work was slight, or his knowledge of its progress 
superficial. Me felt that he was able thoroughly to trust 
those to whom he had committed its discipline and 
teaching ; and, like a wise ruler, he knew that it was 
his place to watch over it and pray over it, unseen 
and unheard as far as possible. But, from time to 
time, he showed himself keenly, and even passion- 
ately, alive to the merits and also the faults and 
defects of the students. And he could praise and 
rebuke with his well-known justice and generosity 
when occasion required. It was like himself, with all 
his large grasp of great principles combined with 
a careful attention to details, to devise the College 
hood of black stuff trimmed with grey fur, luid keenly 
to resent, years afterwards, a suggestion to alter it for 
some ambiguous type with a coloured edging. 

What w^ere Dr. Benson's own feelings towards the 
Truro Scholce Cancellarii may be gathered from the 
letter of farewell, addressed to its members on his 
departure from Cornwall. 

"Lambeth Palace, S.E., 

''July 20th, 1883. 
" Mv DEAR Friends, 

Students of the Chancellor's School at Truro, 

" I have just received and worn for some days the 
noble engraved sapphire signet, which you have, with so 


much love, given me. It is my wedding ring to my new 
See ; and I rejoice to think that you, as it were, constitute 
yourselves to be ' The Bridegroom's Friend,' and have marked 
his wedding by this most perfect gift. 

. " I cannot attempt to describe it, except by saying that it 
incessantly reminds me of ' the body of heaven in his clear- 
ness,' like the sapphire which the elders saw ; and that the 
engraving of it is exquisite in execution and design — but 
any of }'Ou who will come to see it /;/ digito anmilari will be 
indeed welcome. 

" I feel how little I did, or could do, for you while at 
Truro, save by my poor prayers, which you had and have 
frequently still ; but I know that you share with me a 
devoted love for the Chancellor, and my real help to you 
is, that I have placed you in contact with a character and 
gifts, which must always bind together those who have lived 
and worked near him. 

" Once more thanking you most affectionately, and feeling 
sure that you will always do what I have most at heart, viz, 
that you yourselves should keep the love of your College, 
both whilst you are in it, and by personal interest in it when 
you have left it, pure and high and bright with all the 
associations which it is in your power to invest it with, and 
praying that every one of you may in His time prove himself 
'an able minister of the New Testament' in Christ Jesus, 
" I remain, 

" Your devoted friend, 

"EdW: CanTUAR:" 

The work of the Scholcc Canccllarii continued for 
many years with considerable though varied success. 
After Bishop Benson succeeded to the primacy, Canon 
Whitaker remained at its head for a year or two 
longer, till 1885 ; but being recalled to Cambridge to 
take up duties at St. John's College, of which he was 


Fellow, the Rev. J. V . Keating (now Pantonian Pro- 
fessor of Theology, and Chancellor of St. Mary's 
Cathedral, Edinburgh) acted as Principal for nearly 
two years, until the appointment of the second 
Chancellor, the Rev. A. J. W^orlledge, formerly Canon 
of Lincoln and Tutor at the Lincoln Scholcc Cancel- 
larii, and afterwards Principal of the Clergy School 
at Leeds. 

The Theological School at Truro has had some 
able tutors: the Rev. G. H. S. Walpole, first Suc- 
centor of Truro Cathedral, and at present Principal 
of St. Bede's Training College, Durham ; the Rev. 
H. O. F. Whittingstall, first Vice-Chancellor of Truro 
Cathedral, afterwards Vicar of Great Marlow and 
now Rector of Chalfont St. Giles ; the Rev. C. H. 
Robinson, now Honorary Canon of Ripon and 
Editorial Secretary of the S.P.G. ; and the Rev. H. R. 
Jennings, at present Vicar of Millbrook, Cornwall. 

In spite of several earnest efforts to revive interest 
in the College at the Universities, and other places, 
by the third Bishop of Cornwall, the Archdeacon of 
Cornwall, and others, various causes combined to 
brincr the work of the ScJioUc Cancellarii of Truro 
to a conclusion in 1900. The growing sense of the 
importance of a stricter entrance examination, as well 
as the increasing desire for a previous university 
training, have seriously diminished the number of 
persons entering the smaller non-graduate colleges. 
Moreover, the alarming decrease of young men pre- 
sentino- themselves as candidates for Holv Orders 


everywhere has made itself felt in the case of colles^es 
such as that of Truro, more than anywhere else. It 
is also very probable that the remoteness of the 
Cornish diocese, its distance from all the great centres 
of intellectual culture, the absence of any large 
parishes in Cornwall, with teeming populations, where 
young curates can have wide and varied experience 
and manifold training, are potent factors in the dying 
down of the earlier enthusiasm that marked its first 
beginnings. Nevertheless, in the early days of the 
newly formed diocese, and indeed through the whole 
period of its existence, the College supplied a real 
want, and many excellent clergymen have received 
their training there. From 1878 to 1900 about 145 
clergymen, mostly non-graduates, but some graduates, 
were trained for their future work at Truro. ^ 

Dr. Benson was not only anxious about the train- 
ing of the younger clergy, but, as was natural from 
his own experience and work at Rugby and Welling- 
ton, very desirious of raising the whole standard of 
education so far as his influence extended. In Truro, 
with the co-operation of Mrs. Benson, Miss Bramston, 
Miss Hedley, to whom many parents and children 
owe a debt of gratitude, and other friends, he 
laboured hard and successfully in the foundation 
of an excellent High School for girls, which 
now possesses its own admirable buildings, and 

^ One of the two houses, rented as a hostel, is at present (1902) 
retained, and occasionally candidates for Ordination are received there 
for private instruction by the Chancellor. The Library and Oratory are 
preserved, and the examinations for ordination are held in the building. 


under three very capable Head Mistresses — Miss 
Key, Miss Arnold, and Miss Morison— has estab- 
lished itself as a place of solid teachin.c^ and culture 
for a lap^e number of the girls of Truro and else- 
where. His efforts were also directed towards making 
the ancient foundation of Truro Grammar School, 
dating from 1549, as good and efficient a secondary 
school for boys as the High School has proved to be 
for girls. He was ably seconded by the Head Master, 
the Rev. Lewis Evans, and a scheme was drawn up 
and approved by the Charity Commissioners for the 
starting of a school of the foundation in its own build- 
inos, with the existincr endowments of the scholarships 
created by the Rev. St. John Eliot, formerly Rector 
of Truro (1746-61) attached to it. As yet this 
scheme (May, 1882) has not been completed, but 
provision has been made for the continuation of the 
old Grammar School at Newham House, Truro. 

When Dr. Benson left Truro he sent the following 
letter to the High School : — 

"Truro, 2W1 February, 1883. 
"My dear Headmistress, Mistresses, and Scholars 
OF Truro Hioii School, 

"The last letter I write on the last night in the old 
home shall be to you, for, while I grieve at leaving so many 
friends, I feel that in you I leave a dear part of my family 
behind me— leave you with the prayer that each may work, 
and live, and grow up in favour with God and all who know 
you, just as I should trust and pray for daughters of my 


" I shall always look on and use your beautiful seal — 


which so cleverly combines Cornwall and Canterbury — with 
great delight ; I thank you for it affectionately and for your 
most touching address, and for all the navies, so familiar 
to my ear, written so clearly and spotlessly by every one of 
your own hands. 

" Your progress and your honours, your mutual good feel- 
ing, high tone and earnestness in the faith and fear of God, 
will always be of the deepest importance to me. 

" And I look fondly forward to the time when, under the 
auspices of such a Head Mistress and such a Council as 
govern you, you may have a fine building of your own, and 
a history full of honour. May every one ever enjoy gifts, 
graces, and blessings from our Father, and those especially 
which He makes to rest on a diligent and faithful house and 

" Yours ever most sincerely and affectionately, 

"EdW: CantuaR: (Elect)." 

The following ode, written by Mr. A. C. Benson, 

for the twenty-first anniversary of the foundation, has 

been adopted as the school song for Truro High 

School : — 


(the school motto) 
Amid green vales the city lies, — 

Grey roof and climbing street; — 
The golden sea, 'neath sunset skies, 
Steals up to kiss her feet. 

All day, when landward airs blow soft, 

Or wrap the world in wet. 
The huge train thunders, borne aloft 

The airy parapet. 

And from her high vault echoing down, 

With hymn and chiming bell. 
The great Church guards the clustering town, 

A sacred citadel. 



And he, who sowed the gracious seed 

That flowers around, above, 
The fruit of whose unfaltering Creed, 

Was Labour, knit with Love, — 

He knew that to the heart of Youth 

Divinest dreams are given, 
That through pure Knowledge, purest Truth, 

The soul must climb to Heaven ; 

He might not see the sacred sign 

Surmount that vision fair, 
Borne to his Rest, within the shrine, 

Soft on the tide of prayer. 

All dreams of good, all hopes of Grace, 

All tender service sweet. 
Shall bloom within this quiet place, 

Where Love and Labour meet. 

Far hence, as from a secret spring. 

Whose welling waters rise, 
The tides of many a holy thing. 

Shall stream 'neath Western skies. 

Through hearth and home the stream shall roll. 

And, on its gentle breast. 
Shall bear the onward-speeding soul. 

Through Light and Love, to rest. 

The Bishop was also greatly interested in the work 
of the Diocesan Training College for Mistresses, and 
a passage in an address, delivered at the first anniver- 
sary after he became Bishop, was long remembered. 
Speaking of the trials and disappointments of teachers, 
he said : — 

" It is told of a great Frenchman (St. Cyr) that a teacher 
went to him, almost broken-hearted because he was having 


such ill success with those to whom he was laboriously de- 
voting his best energies in tr}nng to teach them. ' I am 
always bringing before them their religious duty of working 
better, yet I fail.' And this man took the teacher's hands 
tenderly between his own, and said, ' It is possible that you 
talk to them now too much about God. Take my advice, 
talk to them for the present a little less about God, but talk 
to God a great deal more about them.' " 

The following letter was written by him, after 

leaving Truro, in reply to a farewell communication 

sent to him by the authorities of the Training 

College : — 

"Lambeth Palace, S.E. 

" To the CoiiiDiittce of tJie Truro Diocesan Training College. 

"MVVERYDEAR FRIENDS, — It is a little difficult to thank 
you, as I ought, for the kindness and reality of your farewell 
words to me. 

" I beg you to receive, and also to convey to the subscribers, 
at whose annual meeting your report was passed (as you 
kindly tell me), the assurance of the gratitude with which 
I accept this pledge of their regard. 

" But my little difficulty arises from this, that you thank 
me so affectionately and trustingly for doing what not only 
cost no trouble to do, but for what was so very much less 
than I meant to do, when I first had the happiness of being 
added to your body. But the fact was that the constant 
success, and the admirable condition, of the College called 
for no exertion. The accuracy and the harmony with which 
the committee worked, the skill and the loving energy of the 
officers, the bright relations with the clergy of the parish, 
moved my affection and my respect, but gave me nothing 
to do. 

" The kindness with which they several times granted me 
favours, the pleasure which a visit to the College always in- 


spired, the happiness of the few devout services which 1 
enjoyed with the staff and the pupils, and all my intercourse 
with yourselves, will always place my recollections of the 
College among the brightest of my Cornish life — and for this 
and for all you are contributing through teachers, so well 
trained and of such high character, to the instruction of the 
poor and their education in all that most concerns for this 
life and for that which is to come, I beg you to accept my 
most grateful respect. 

" I trust that you may have ever increasing support, and 
rejoice that a practical connection will still subsist between 
myself and what must ever be almost the most important of 
the diocesan institutions of Cornwall. 
" I am ever 

" Your loving and grateful servant, 

"EdW: CaxTUAR:" 



IN Cornwall perhaps more than in any other 
county, what is commonly spoken of as "mission 
work " in distinction from ordinary parochial minis- 
trations, is an essential element in successful Church 
life. First, because of the widely scattered popula- 
tions that so often in the larger parishes live far away 
from the "church town" and ancient parish church. 
Secondly, because of the great alienation of many 
persons from the doctrines and practices of the 
Church, arising from the insufficient care for them 
in times past, resulting from non-residence and other 
causes, combined with the distinctly hostile opposition 
that has grown out of the Wesleyan movement, which 
was meant by its founders to supplement and not to 
rival, the work of the Church. Bishop Benson saw 
that there was need not of any spasmodic effort here 
and there to awaken dead souls and quicken indi- 
vidual parishes, but of a thoroughly well-organised 
and sustained effort to send throughout the diocese 
a band of trained and earnest preachers, who would 
come to the help of the parochial clergy, refresh and 
revive them and their people by visits and efforts 



that should, by God's providence, be marked by un- 
mistakable sii^ns of spiritual awakening, and be 
followed by solid results in the strengthening and 
building up of the Church of God. 

From the first he contemplated the foundation of 
a body of preachers similar to the society called the 
Novate novale inauo-urated bv him at Lincoln. But 
at Truro he was very desirous to link the work defin- 
itely and closely with the Cathedral as the centre of 
the life and work of the whole diocese. He there- 
fore appointed the Rev. A. J. Mason the first Canon 
Missioner, not only of the Diocese of Truro, but the 
first who has held this office in the Church of 
England. At the Diocesan Conference held in 
October, 1S77, some months after his arrival in 
Truro, Bishop Benson thus explained his purpose : — 

" The work anciently expected of the old Prebendaries 
who preached up and down the diocese, seconding, aiding, 
and enforcing the work of the Parish Priest, at his own 
request, is no less required than ever. The tired and weary 
and often lonely clergyman asks it ; the people ask it ; their 
condition asks it. I should be no true shepherd here did 
I veil the truth from such an assemblage as this. And sure 
I am that the chaotic religious beliefs and the inexplicable 
severance and gulf which in some places exists between 
moral practice and fervent religionism, do absolutely need 
this identical work to be done. One missioner attached to 
the Cathedral will be Umcs pro vuiltis, will stand single- 
handed to represent the man\' mission preachers of the old 
idea. But I believe he will not want for helpers ; I believe 
that the mission chapels, fast multiplying, with their la\- 
readers, who will need some help, some caution, some train- 


ing, will be deemed by us all to offer great scope for such 
work — to say nothing of parochial missions which have so 
happily affected the well-being of many parishes." 

An important paper read by Canon Mason at the 
same Conference dwelt on the distinction between 
a " Mission " and a " Revival." 

" No late hours, no setting of young persons of opposite 
sexes to pray or reason with each other, no groaning or 
crying out to arouse (like Dervishes) fictitious enthusiasm ; 
no shaking or striking of persons as I have known in 
revivals. . . . 

" The ' Revival ' expects the conviction or conversion to 
take place in the meeting itself, and the persons who show 
signs of yielding are detained, prayed at, goaded on. . . . 
We expect the main struggle with God, which ends in the 
soul's daybreak, to take place, as Jacob's did, when all the 
company is departed, and the soul feels itself alone, in 
the closet with the door shut to, face to face with the 
living God." 

He laid great stress on realising diocesan unity in 
Cornwall in connection with the mission work. "As 
a rule, the missioners should not be strangers to the 
diocese." Everything should be clone "authorita- 
tively under the eye of the Bishop." The missioners 
when at home should be "incessantly engaged in 
study and in prayer and in the training of others." 

Canon Mason has recently published some very 
important results of his experience in mission work ; 
and, speaking of "the cause of a great many failures 
in evangelistic work," puts it down to the fact that 

" Excitement has been too much relied upon, and it has 
been allowed to push beyond its proper place. A little 


experience of the development of this method in Cornwall 
would be enouLjh to undeceive any who were inclined to 
favour it. 

" In one place, a Methodist said that he preferred the 
revivals at the Bryanite Chapel to those at the Wesleyan 
(or vice versa, I forget which), because at the one place you 
could sometimes hear a little of what was being said, while 
at the other you could hear nothing, the uproar was too 
great. I myself have seen, in a revival which was supposed 
to be going on under Church control, a room in similar 
uproar, and a poor body rocking backwards and forwards 
in intense effort, surrounded by persons of experience 
clamouring to her, as they swayed with her swayings, 
' Say, I yield ; only say, I yield ' ; and at last she said it, 
and rose up and made the round of the room with smiles 
to receive the congratulations of her friends. There seemed 
to me, looking upon it with eyes which desired to be as 
sympathetic as possible, to be no difference between this and 
the religious methods of the Dervish."^ 

It was on the sober and Churchlike lines indicated 
in both the addresses above quoted that the mission 
work of the diocese was begun and carried on. 

" Among the early missions held in the diocese after Bishop 
Benson's coming to Truro was one at St. Erth. The Bishop 
came down and remained during the service unknown to the 
congregation, but at the after-meeting joined the other clergy 
in speaking to those who remained, and gave a few words of 
counsel and his blessing on the work. This parish included 
the Hayle Foundry, and three hundred men employed 
assembled daily for an address by one of the missioners. 
At the daily evening mission services and after-meeting on 
the north side of the Church might be seen men touched 

^ The Ministry of Conversion, pp. 67-8. (In the series " Handbooks 
for the Clergy," Longmans, 1902). 


by the Holy Spirit, kneeling in humble, earnest prayer, 
guided, helped, and wrestled for by some devout laymen ; 
while on the south side a band of women prayed as earnestly 
for the souls of their own sex, who were touched by the 
same gracious influence. The clergy in the meantime, either 
in the vestry or in the quieter corners of the Church, saw any 
who specially wished for counsel and advice."^ 

But the first reo-ularlv authorised " diocesan " 
mission was held in January, 1879, at Veryan, of 
which the Rev. J. R. Cornish was the Vicar, who 
was afterwards so well known as Canon Cornish, 
Vicar of Kenwyn and Archdeacon of Cornwall. 
Canon Mason, the Diocesan Missioner, and the 
Rev. F, E. Carter, Prebendary of Endellion, were 
the principal missloners, assisted by the Rev. R. E. 
Trefusis (now Bishop of Crediton) and the Rev. G. 
Perrin, late Vicar of St. Mawgan-In-Pydar. The 
services were well attended and the addresses listened 
to with close and Intense Interest. 

The followino- recollections of the mission have 
been kindly supplied by Archdeacon Cornish : — 

"There were two main centres — the parish church and 
the mission chapel at Portloe, with occasional services at 
Port Holland, Reskivers, and other places. I well remember 
entering the church on the first Saturday evening about five 
minutes before service began, and the little start Canon 
Mason gave when we found it quite empty. About seventy 
or eighty, however, came a few minutes later. The special 
characteristic of the mission was its extreme quietness. We 
were at first almost afraid of it. But it was not indifference. 
An old Wesleyan, now gone to his rest, said to me of one 

^ Cliiircli. in Cor/t7vall, January, 1878, p. 5. 


of the services. ' I never felt the Spirit of God so clearly 
present before.' This was the more striking as shortly before 
there had been a revival in two chapels in the parish, and a 
man who had attended both expressed his preference for one, 
because in it \-ou could hear when the preacher was preach- 
ing, though you could not when he was praying ; whilst 
at the other you could not hear him at either time. Large 
congregations were present at the services, and a consider- 
able impetus was given to religious life in the parish, which 
was subsequentlx- maintained by a monthly prayer-meeting 
after Evening Prayer in the church. During the three or four 
years that I remained in the parish, the number that stayed 
for this averaged about fifty. A considerable amount of 
house-to-house visitation took place ; and, although at first 
none came, and then a i^w, to seek advice, before the end 
several came to the room at the Vicarage, where Canon 
Mason saw all who wished to see him. As ever the good 
old fishermen were most hearty in responding to all efforts 
made to help them. A useful feature of the mission was the 
use made of the Vicar, when it was possible to do so, so as 
to identify him with the mission, and strengthen his hands 
in carr}-ing on the work, after it was over." 

This mission was shortly afterwards followed by 
one at Launceston, inaugurated by a quiet day for 
Church workers with addresses by the Bishop. The 
Rev. V. S. S. Coles was the principal missioner, 
assisted by Canon Mason and Mr. Carter. The im- 
pression made upon the parish was remarkable, and a 
great many Nonconformists, who were present at the 
services, showed the deepest interest and sympathy. 

A mission which was held at Kilkhampton, in 
March of the year 1879, where the Rev. Canon A. C. 
Thynne has been Rector for over forty years, is 



described as " very quiet without noise or excite- 
ment. . . . Every evening, for sixteen days, the 
church was occupied by numbers of earnest hsteners 
and devout worshippers. The Rev. J. Andrewes 
Reeve assisted the Canon Missioner." 

In July of the same year a mission was held at a 
small agricultural parish in North Cornwall, with a 
population of four hundred. In spite of drawbacks 
good results were produced. 

The following extracts from Canon Masori's diaries 
give some interesting particulars of the work carried 
on by iiim and his fellow-workers : — 

"Callington, Febniajy 2\st, 1880. — We held our first 
meeting at 7.30, and the church was full — though the first, 
and on Saturday ; and we hardly know what we shall do 
later on. The St. Dominick people (where a mission had 
been held a year before) are threatening to come in waggon- 
loads, and I have been obliged to send over a message with 
a letter to the people there beseeching them not to come. 

"February 2^tk. — Preached this evening on Judas. . . . 
At the beginning, many of the people seemed in the highest 
spirits, laughing and talking, and I had to speak very sharply. 
I saw one young woman afterwards crying, who began with 
great levity, and the congregation were remarkably still after 
the first few minutes. We made an attempt at a second 
sifting to-night : after the instruction we sang a hymn, and 
then held a prayer-meeting, which caused several to stay, 
and give us opportunities of speaking with them then and 

" Wednesday, February 2^ih, 1880. — ... In the afternoon. 
Evensong ended, the missioners sallied out, with four or five 


others, and sang a liymn at the entrance of the market, and 
then I spoke for a few minutes, and invited them into church, 
and preached on ' Buy the truth and sell it not.' It was 
a strange sight and they were much affected. . . . We were 
able to get hold of several people at the end. ... In the 
prayer-meeting we adopted Aitken's and the dissenting plan 
of moving about from one to another, but none of us liked 
it, and though we got several names of persons to come and 
see us, I do not think we shall try it again. 

" Thursday, February 26th, 1880. — Heard that there was 
a sort of missionary meeting last Friday at CI think; the 
Bible Christian Chapel here, at which the superintendent got 
up and inveighed against the coming mission, and told how 
bad and what a failure the St. Dominick mission had been ; 
whereupon the superintendent of one of the other sects who 
was present, said that he believed the mission would do a lot 
of good, and that, if he were permitted he would help it all 
he could ; and one of the St. Dominick local preachers rose 
and spoke most warmly of the mission there, how the people 
had flocked to it, and what good had been done. 

"Monday {St. David), 1880.— Mr. Mann (Vicar of St. 
Issey) preached a noble sermon yesterday morning with the 
utmost fire and eloquence. 

" Thursday, March ^th, 1880. — I have had a grand thanks- 
giving service to-night. . . . During the last few days there 
has been a most marked wave among the people, and several 
— especially men — have taken a step forward. One whom 
I visited this morning stooped down and kissed my hand 

as I left his house. Poor dear X thanked me again most 

kindly to-day and said . . . 'You have both lifted me up and 
brought me down.' " 

The results of this mission m;iv be traui^-ed to some 

extent by the followin^j;- later entries : — 

''April yd, 1880. — Heard from C that the number of 

communicants at Callington was larger than ever belore. 


" Sunday, J\IaTch 6th, i88i. — . . . Left Truro yesterday at 2.8 
for the anniversary of the mission here [at Callington]. Very 
few people last night, as was natural ; but very good con- 
gregations to-day at all the services — to-night crammed to 
suffocation. The most striking feature, however, hitherto was 
the afternoon gathering. It was supposed to be chiefly 
intended for the members of adult Bible classes. They 
occupied the nave — men on the south, women on the north — 
and completely filled both sides. They say that these are 
entirely the fruit of the mission. Blessed be God ! " 

The following relate experiences at another 
mission : — 

"April i6th, 1880. — Found this morning that a good deal 
of blasphemy had been going on, and bitter cavilling, which 
had caused sad grief to some of the devout old people. 
To-night the church was rather fuller than ever ; and though 
I had felt all abroad during the day, and distracted with the 
thought of the opposition raised, when it came to the preach- 
ing and after-meeting. God helped me so much, and the 
people seemed deeply impressed. The last night or two 
I have ventured in the after-meeting to catechise the people, 
and they have answered very readily, and to-night I have 
heard that they have been much pleased with it. I have 
long wished to do so, but never had the courage before. 

" Third Sunday after Easter, April I'iih, 1880. — . . . 
Preached to the men in the afternoon upon the adulteress, 
(St. John viii.), and to-night upon the necessity of an effort in 
religion and in prayer. The people were extremely attentive, 
and in five minutes we might have had a revival, if we had 
wished, with the people leaping and shouting. 

" Wednesday, April 21st, 1880. — . . . Have had several 
visitors to-day; one dear man of about fifty told me that he 
' passed all Tuesday night as Jacob did': and he could do nothing 
but laugh very quietly and happily, when he tried to express 


what it had ended in ; he had been quite surprised at what 
he found. . . . Preached to-night on St. Paul's conversion, 
as compared with Saul's in the morning's lesson ; and it was 
very noticeable how the dear people's countenances fell when 
we got to the subject of Baptism. Up to that point they had 
been as light and sympathetic as possible, and, all of a sudden, 
it was like lifting lead. 

" Friday, April 2yd.— . . . The people wept much at the 
evening sermon on the Crucifixion, but was very dry myself. 

" Tuesday, April 27th, 1 880.— Last night we had a really 
grand thanksgiving service. The church was nearly as full 
as on Sunday, and not so many strangers, and the feeling 
was one of real joy through the whole congregation. Several 
very interesting interviews. . . . This morning a beautiful 

The characteristics of Cornish fishermen, and their 
reliolous enthusiasm, are recorded in the account of a 
mission at Sennen. '' Sunday, January yth, 1883. — 
Beautiful celebration at ei^^ht, the dear fishermen 
coming in a row, with many groans and heart-deep 
cries of ' O Lord ! '" And the following days were 
spent amid a "tremendous gale from the west all 
night and day," followed by "floods of rain; . . . 
the Longships sometimes completely lost in solid 
spray." Here a warm-hearted man called the missioner 
back into the church after Evensong one day, saying, 
" I've something to tell you," and then with loud voice 
and waving hands, told the joyful news of his having 
"found Christ," being as the missioner said "quite 
intoxicated" in the spirit, "but quite real." And the 
mission closed "on a most glorious morning" after all 


the violence of the storm, quite a type of the peace 
that comes to troubled souls when the Sun of Right- 
eousness shines upon them in love and forgiveness. 

Bishop Benson has noted one or two reminiscences 
of the earlier missions. At St. Issey, which he visited, 
and where he found "a crowded church and most 
devout service from the whole congregation, the 
churchwardens told me afterwards, with tears in their 
eyes, of the mission work of ' dear Canon Mason ' and 
the number of people who had been affected by it, 
coming on the top of the long preparation. Fancy 
Cornishmen talking of ' Canons ' in this way ! " Later 
on he says : — 

" Carter's mission to Endellion has been very happy. At 
first they refused him the Board school to have service in. 
Then when he went away to St. Issey for a day or two, a 
young farmer rode thirteen miles to tell him they had found 
him a large boat-house. Then the Bible Christians offered 
him their chapel ; then the Wesleyans said ' It would never 
do for him to have such a shabby room at Port Isaac, they 
must give them their new chapel' His simplicity, faith, and 
resolution won all hearts soon." ^ 

And so the missionary work began, and was carried 
on with much zeal and earnestness and love. Some- 
times, in a fishing village, the mission would be 
prolonged for three weeks or a month : sometimes the 
mission took the form of itinerant work, the missioners 
passing from parish to parish, holding outdoor services 
at different centres. At other times the Canon Mis- 
sioner would stay in a parish, and visit from house 

1 Uiai-v. 


to house : and now and acrain take charcre of a llock, 
in the absence of the pastor or during a vacancy. 

In the early days of the newly formed diocese, there 
was no lack of readiness to hear the message, and 
welcome the messengers. Apart from the comparative 
freshness of the efforts that were being made, the 
strangeness, to some at least, of the Cornish people, 
of such aggressive spiritual work on the part of what 
they had deemed a dead Church ; the singularly at- 
tractive natural gifts and personal piety of the first 
Canon Missioner and his assistant, won great accept- 
ance everywhere. The warm-hearted and emotional 
Cornish folk recognised, not without surprise, in the 
cassock-clad preachers who came amongst them, the 
unmistakable tone of " converted men," and were 
even willing to listen to teaching that previously had 
not formed part of "the gospel" received by them. 

Canon Mason's labours as missioner were very 
arduous. Bishop Benson in his Diary records that 
" the Canons have worked well. Mason will have 
eight or nine long missions this year." A little later 
he says : — 

"In the year 1879 Alason had two remarkable missions — 
Torpoint and St. Dominick. At the latter, where there is 
a very High Churchman, the local preachers helped with all 
their power. The crowds were surprising, and (most strangely) 
they proposed themselves to commemorate the mission by a 
beautiful cross, which they solemnly placed on the altar in 
time of service, with a special hymn and sermon. This is 
beautiful when it rises spontaneous!}' out of the people 


Canon Mason continued to act as .'iiissioner until 
1884, when he was appointed to All Hallows, Barking, 
near the Tower of London, by his friend and chief. 
Dr. Benson, then lately translated to the Archbishopric 
of Canterbury. Canon Mason accepted the post, 
after long and painful heart- searchings. He had 
already refused more than one important office both 
abroad and at home. Cornwall was very dear to him, 
and it was not until he was persuaded that it was his 
duty to obey the call of his friend and Father in God, 
that he made the sacrifice of long-cherished schemes 
for his life and work in Cornwall. At All Hallows 
he gathered a band of clergy, living together in a kind 
of community, going out from time to time to preach, 
conduct missions, and hold " quiet days " and retreats, 
wherever invited. 

Canon Mason was succeeded by his friend the 
Rev. F. E. Carter, for many years his companion 
and fellow -worker, who was appointed Canon of 
St. Cybi and Diocesan Missioner in 1885. He carried 
on the admirable traditions of his predecessor, in his 
laborious work and excellent methods, till he was 
appointed Tait Missioner and " Six - Preacher " at 
Canterbury Cathedral. After five years' work in that 
diocese he was invited to go out to South Africa as 
Dean of Grahamstown. Canon Carter will long be 
remembered for his deeply spiritual discourses, and 
for what was once well described as his "cultured 

His place was taken by the Rev. B. G. Hoskyns, 


Vicar of St. Denys, Southampton, under whom the 
diocesan mission work has grown in various ways.^ 
Canon Carter was able to organise what Bishop 
Benson and Canon Mason greatly desired — a society 
of mission clergy on the lines of the Novate Novale 
at Lincoln ; but Canon Hoskyns largely increased the 
numbers of the clersjv belonoino;- to it, and added a 
useful band of lay associates, including men of all 
ranks and positions in the diocese, some of them very 
well qualified to take an active part in mission 
services. In addition to this, a very useful and pro- 
mising society for men, called " The Brotherhood of 
the Cross," has been formed. It numbers several 
hundreds of members, organised into branches in 
some of the principal parishes of Cornwall. It has 
a simple rule of life and of prayer ; and, without 
makinof too oreat a demand upon the time of its 
members, gives much support and encouragement to 
men anxious to become earnest Churchmen, and to 
persevere in their good resolutions. 

As time went on, the regular and systematic "paro- 
chial missions " held by the first missioners, lasting as 
a rule for ten days, and sometimes even longer, were 
not so frequently held. "Itinerant missions" were 
attempted from the very first, and continued to be 
held from time to time. In these a body of missioners 
was gathered at a centre, and went out, day after day. 
to villages and hamlets in a fairly wide circuit, passing 

' He was appointed Vicar of Hiighton in 1903, and was succeeded 
by the Rev. Gerald \'ictor Sampson of the Gloucester Diocesan Mission. 


Irom one parish to another, for Sunday and weekday 
services in church, as well as holding- outdoor meet- 
ings at china-clay pits, or quays and harbours of 
fishing villages and "porths," or in the streets and 
open places of "church towns." 

"St. Issey, Saturday, August ^th, 1882. — Arrived here 
to-day from our first itinerant mission, which began this day 
three weeks, July 15th. It embraced the three parishes of 
Endellion, St. Minver, and St. Kew. We proceeded ac- 
cording to a fixed plan, which Francis made out in advance, 
and had printed and circulated in the district. We aimed at 
and fulfilled, as nearly as we could in modern life, the in- 
structions given to the Seventy. On Sundays we preached at 
the parish churches, but on weekdays, every afternoon and 
evening, at one of the scattered hamlets, never twice con- 
secutively at the same, and making pretty nearly the circuit 
of the three parishes thrice in the three weeks. Two young 
laymen — George Scantlebury, of St Winnow, and Fred 
Thomas, of Helston — ^joined us for the last ten days : though 
I sent Thomas back on Tuesday. We walked everywhere in 
our cassocks and capes, and carried our bags, no one seeming 
to think it anything but ' fitty.' On ' St. James', Wednesday,' 
we preached at Polseath races, and the people were perfectly 
respectful, though we had been told beforehand that there 
would be a disturbance. We stayed about in various farm- 
houses, and sometimes smaller houses as well, meeting every- 
where the greatest kindness, not less from Dissenters than 
from Catholics ; indeed, three times I stayed at Lower Amble, 
with Mr. Charles Menhinnick, the leading Dissenter of that 
part. It is an experiment in missions which has not been 
tried before, but bids fair to be very useful, in popularising 
Church ministrations at any rate, quite apart from the con- 
version of souls. The Parish Priests have been most kind, and 
deeply interested. On arriving at any hamlet we selected 
our station, and then went round to each house to invite the 


people ; then, after a hymn and short invocation, came a 
lesson and a sermon, another hymn and prayer, and then one 
or two more addresses with hymns and prayers, kneeling 
down wherever it was dry cnouc,d-i. We visited the sick 
wherever we went, and tried to go to all the houses by the 
wayside on our journeys. Mr. Mann helped us several 
times, Townend once, and Magor, of Lamellyn, once. The 
substance of our teaching (almost entirely taken from the 
daily lessons) was chiefly repentance and holiness." 

The following interesting- details of this mission, 
written for The Church in Cornwall (a periodical that 
for several years recorded the work of the diocese 
monthly) : — 

" Nothing could exceed the hospitality and kindness of the 
people. . . ." The missioners " were never reduced to paying 
for lodging and board, or to going without. It was not only in 
the houses of the clergy, nor even only in those of professed 
Churchmen, that they were warmly received. Poor people 
and well-to-do farmers received them with equal cordiality; 
and everywhere they were told that they ' must look for no 
compliments.' It would be difficult for them to express their 
gratitude for the innumerable kindnesses shown them for 
their work's sake. 

" One scene deserves special mention. On the \\'ednesda\- 
after St. James' Day, it has long been the custom for the 
parishioners of St. Kew to picnic in great numbers on the 
lovely beach of Polseath, near the mouth of Padstow Harbour, 
together with friends from all the country-side. For some 
years past the old famil\- character of the da)- has been a 
good deal spoilt, by the introduction of racing and a canteen. 
The missioners had hoped to visit Polseath that day without 
their intention being known before; but the people got wind 
of it, and many persons tried to dissuade them from going, 
lest some insult should be offered to religion in their persons. 


When the da}- came, liowcver, and they presented tlicmselves, 
in company with the much-loved Vicar of the parish, they 
were as kindly received as anywhere. Two services were 
held at 2.30 and 6.30 p.m. The preachers stood on the slope 
of the low cliff, and gathered the people round them in the 
usual way — in the evening to the number of seven or 
eight hundred at least. It was a sight worth remembering 
— perfect weather, the green waves breaking crisply on the 
broad beach, and the fine headlands of Stepper Point and 
Pentire, and the happy crowd, as respectful and attentive as 
could be. Even some of the jockeys rode up in their gay 
costume, and listened quietly among the rest. It was 
magnificent when the company took uj) the hymn ' All hail 
the power of Jesu's Name' to its noble old tune." ^ 

The results of such efforts are not easy to gauge or 
tabulate. Impressions are made, that do not always 
manifest themselves on the surface at the tinie ; but 
there can be no doubt that the Church missions 
of Cornwall have had an excellent effect in various 
directions. They have largely dissipated prejudice, 
and removed the deeply rooted belief that the Church 
is not a spiritual body at all. The Cornish have at 
least been led to see that the Church cares for their 
souls, and desires their salvation. Perhaps the self- 
restraint of the missioners of the Church has been 
sometimes unfavourably compared with the fervour 
(not to say noisiness) of the Methodist revivalist. 
"Ah! sir," once said a warm-hearted man to a 
missioner from Truro, "just let me and one or two 
praying men have our way at the after-meeting, and 

^ The Church in Cornwall, No. I. vol. i., new and enlarged series, 
July, 1882, pp. 47, 48. 


you will soon see a grand sight." The missioner 
declined to let the reins go from his own hands. The 
preaching of repentance, eminently necessary as it is 
where sometimes lofty profession is not followed by 
moral obedience, has been not infrequendy criticised as 
dwelling too much on "sin," and not enough on "the 
gospel." 1 Ijv this is implied a somewhat one-sided 
aspect of the mercy and forgiveness of God, which 
errs in the direction of not insisting sufficiently on the 
need of a very deep contrition or thorough confession 
of sins, and is too apt to rest satisfied with a somewhat 
shallow emotionalism, that never leads to any true 
or lastino- change of heart and life. 

o o 

But a considerable alteration of feeling has taken 
place even since those days ; and, after twenty years 
or more, among the more thoughtful, cultured, and 
enlightened Wesleyans, the strong and coarse methods 
of the old "revivals," with all the serious dangers that 
accompanied them, are being less and less approved 
and used. It is, however, greatly to be hoped, that the 
erowth of reverence and of self-restraint, will not be 
followed by a loss of real earnestness, religious sim- 
plicity, and spiritual fervour. 

A very great deal of help is given to the parishes 
of Cornwall outside the regular lines of " Parochial 

1 On the other hand Dr. Mason gives wise counsel when he says : 
"An evangehst not only commits a theological mistake, but throws away 
an important opportunity, and is in danger of actually repelling and 
alienating souls, if he begins his work by dwelling upon sin and its 
consequences, h is more profitable in most cases, as well as more true, 
to begin with that which is inviting, and attractive, and hopeful."— .J/////>/r>' 
of Conversion^ pp. 79, 80. 


Missions." Courses of sermons in Advent and Lent, 
quiet days for clergy and lay people, " Sunday visits," 
are planned by the Canon Missioner, and undertaken 
bv himself and the members of the Mission Society 
of Clergy, year after year, throughout the diocese. 

The first Bishop of Truro was particularly anxious, 
in connection with the mission work of the diocese, to 
found a Society for Holy Living. This had been begun 
in one or two places some years before by the Rev. 
A. Mills, Vicar of St. Erth, and the Rev. J. Sidney 
Tyacke, Vicar of Helston, afterwards Canon of 
St. Li in Truro Cathedral. Canon Mason and Mr. 
Tyacke were selected by the Bishop to inaugurate 
it on a new footing. He preferred, as he recorded, 
a "single society" "ramifying through the diocese, to 
having a variety of guilds united more or less loosely, 
but wholly dependent for continuing on the clergyman 
for the time being in the parish, and liable to be 
extino-uished, all at once, if ever a time of deadness 
comes." " We want a closely bound religious society, 
which shall incorporate the clergy of the Established 
Church, each in their parishes ; and which, while he 
is a holy man, shall work under him, but, if he is a 
careless man, shall not cease to exist." ^ A manual 
of prayer and work was drawn up, the Bishop was 
to be the head, with two general wardens for the 
diocese, and the parochial clergy to be invited to 
become local chaplains. He strongly recommended 
the newly confirmed to enrol themselves for mutual 

1 Diary. 


help in this society. V^ery many did so, and there- 
were instances wliere ycjuni;- jjersons suffered ridicule 
and persecution for membership in it. 

The Canon Missioncr made use of it to gather up 
the fruits of his work in many parishes. 

This "Church Society," as it came to be called, has 
lived on in the diocese, in some places with a con- 
tinuous and vigorous existence ; in others in a more 
languid and fitful manner. If it has not altogether 
answered the expectation of its founders throughout 
the diocese, it has, in not a few places, supplied a 
greatly needed spiritual means of help. 

Much mio-ht be recorded of the blessinos that came 
to individual souls, through the spiritual revival that 
was manifested in many parts of the diocese. Godly 
fishermen and earnest miners, and simple souls in 
agricultural parishes, were moved by the Spirit of 
God, and became joyous and consistent followers of 
Jesus Christ, and loyal and ardent children of His 
holy Church. 

Tales like the following might, without difficulty, be 
multiplied, illustrating the blessed results both of earnest 
mission and faithful pastoral work at this time : — 

" I was told of two girls, sisters, living in an ungodh' 
farmhouse, miles away from the church, who since their 
Confirmation have never missed a Communion. It is their 
business to milk the cows ; and when the Communion is 
early, they get up at half-past four, and the elder milks five 
cows, and the younger three, and then they dress and go 
to church." ^ 

' Canon Mason's Diary, January 22, 1880. 


But there are two lives, that have been written, 
that deserve some special notice in any account of 
Church work in Cornwall, in the times that are now 
under consideration. One is that of Mary Ann 
Davies, whose spiritual history has been published 
in a little book, prefaced with a short notice by 
Canon Mason, who knew her well, and valued her 
truly Christian character.^ She had a somewhat 
broken and varied experience in her soul's life. 
Much illness and sorrow through the loss of children, 
hard work and penury, were among her trials, cul- 
minating in the death of her husband, and finally her 
ov/n broken health ending in paralysis. In the parish 
where she came to live, St. Mawgan-in-Pydar, with 
its lovely wooded vale of Lanherne, is a convent, 
formerly the manor house of the Cornish Arundells, 
afterwards the property of Lord Arundell. Here in 
the days of the great French Revolution, a com- 
munity of Carmelite nuns took refuge. Ever since 
that time there has been a resident Roman Catholic 
Priest, and a good deal of influence exercised by the 
community and their chaplain among the people of 
the village. But Mary Ann, though in her early 
days a member of the Bryanite or " Bible Christian " 
body, came to feel the restfulness and comfort of the 
teaching of the Church of England. " She entered 
into its public services and private rules of life so 
fully ; following the daily Psalms and Lessons, enter- 
inn- deeply into the spirit of the Christian seasons ; 

1 Told for a Memorial Third edition. James Nisbet, etc. 


and valuing, above all, the Holy Communion, which, 
when unable to come to church, she especially desired 
to receive on her birthday, as well as at the time 
of special Christian festivals."^ Her quaint cottac,^e 
is described, with its "furniture painted by her own 
hands a bright blue colour, . . . the walls covered 
with pictures, many of them having a history. Placed 
just where she could see them were two portraits, the 
Archbishop of Canterbury (Dr. Benson), and the 
black Bishop of the Niger (Dr. Crowther), character- 
istic of M;iry Ann's two special interests, the Church 
at home and in the mission field ; while, put under these 
pictures, stood her missionary box, wonderful in shape, 
of her own making, but such an unspeakable treasure 
to her, that when it went away for a few days to 
be emptied, she would speak of herself as being 
'fine and wisht ' without it."' For the last ten years 
of her life she only went to church twice, "brought 
down a very steep hill in a wheelbarrow." She lived 
a life of patient resignation and constant intercession, 
that was greatly valued by her Bishop, who, when 
leaving for Canterbury, sent her the following message 
written on a card : — 

"Mary Anne, — I doubt not your quiet lonely prayers 
have helped me man\' a time, when I knew it not. Go on 
praying, and send me, from time to time, one of your kind 
messages. God grant we may see each other in Paradise, 
if not before. - E. \V. TruR0N:"=^ 

1 Ibut, p. 86. - Ibid., pp. I2 and 13. 

2 J bid., p. 27. 


She valued greatly the friendship of Canon Mason 
and Canon Carter, and helped the interesting work 
at Port Isaac, carried on by the latter with her fervent 
intercessions ; and contributed by generous offerings, 
out of her poverty, towards the mission church in that 
place. The former was "the last person to whom she 
spoke intelligently ; and she passed away on May 
1 8th, 1884." She is described as of singularly tender 
conscience, of great calmness and self-possession, 
with much quaint and shrewd wisdom and spiritual 
insight, due " to her constant study of God's Word and 
direct communion with Himself."^ 

Another life, equally interesting in its spiritual 
earnestness and depth of character, is that of Mrs. 
Benney, also written by the same author that has 
given us the one already alluded to. Sarah Pollock 
Benney was the wife of a steamboat proprietor and 
skipper, plying on the River Fal between Truro and 
Falmouth. At one time an attendant at Wesleyan 
places of worship, she came under the influence of 
Canon Mason, the missioner during the early days 
of Dr. Benson's episcopate. The teaching of Canon 
Whitaker, and, later on, of Canon Carter, greatly 
moulded her devotional character and life. Her full 
surrender to the Church's Lord and Master in her 
own soul's life, was accompanied by a singularly loyal 
and constant devotion to the interests of His Holy 
Church. The worship of the sanctuary, the daily 
offices of Mattins and Evensong, the Holy Eucharist 

^ Ibid., p. 90. 


on Sundays and weekdays, were her never-endini^ 
joy and satisfaction. Her brioht, keen countenance, 
as she sat in her place in the Cathedral, was in itself 
an inspiration to the preacher, while she followed the 
unfoldino- of his subject, and L^ave evident signs of 
delight in all that concerned her dear Lord and 
Saviour, and His blessed Person and redeeming 
work. Nor did she rest satisfied with her own 
spiritual privileges and blessings, received in the 
ministry of the Word and Sacraments. When first 
she oave her adhesion to the Church's rules and 


order, she asked what "private means of grace" 
were provided for Christian souls. Her delight was 
great when she found that, not only might she herself 
have the "benefit of absolution together with ghostly 
counsel and advice," but that God would use her, if 
she so willed, to work with Him and for Him, in 
winning and building up the souls of others. Hence- 
forth she became (|uite a centre of spiritual acti\'ity. 
She held a Bible-class in her own rooms, and some- 
times in the vestry of the wooden church ; cottage 
meetinos for reading- and praver in more than one 
humble house in Truro ; and, by her vigorous spiritual 
life, infiuenced a large number of persons among her 
neighbours and friends. Grace softened a naturally 
strong and vehement nature, which yet never lost its 
natural quick alertness ; and the change that came 
over her character, in gentleness and courtesy, was so 
remarkable as to attract much notice from her early 
friends. She was a keen business woman, and the 


Steamboats, navigated by her husband and sons, owed, 
to a great extent, their financial success to her excel- 
lent manao-ement. She was a orenerous o^iver, as 
became one who had " first o-iven herself to the Lord," 
and no good and deserving object failed to receive her 
cordial support. She entered with all her heart into 
her Bishop's great idea of the Cathedral, and con- 
tributed quite a large sum towards its erection. When 
the site of the present nave was being laid out with 
grass, before any hope of the foundations being put 
in had as yet been conceived, slie said one day, as she 
passed two members of the Building Committee in 
the High Cross, "Gentlemen, you ought to be sowing 
it with buildinor stones." Not loner before she died, 
after her speech had become greatly affected, she met 
one of the secretaries near the Cathedral, and put 
Into his hand a packet of sovereigns, pointing signifi- 
cantly to the place where she hoped the walls of the 
nave would soon be rising. When the second Bishop 
of Truro started the Cornish Women's Association 
for supplying the " Internal fittings " of the Cathedral, 
Mrs. Benney undertook to collect the money required 
to purchase the chairs ; and, with indomitable energy 
and perseverance, raised sufficient to purchase one 
thousand of these. She was moreover very generous 
in her private benefactions. " She never could pass 
over any distress that came under her notice, without 
ministering to body and soul."^ She treated one in 
trouble "like a mother, taking her to her house at 

' A Mother iit Isi-ael^ p. 86. 


a time of trial and bereavement, and keeping- her 
there for nearly a year, and afterwards makini,^ her 
feel she had a friend she could always turn to for 
comfort and advice."^ 

She was devoted to Bishop Benson, whom she 
looked u}) to as a "prince of the Church, grand and 
simple."" Canon Mason and Canon F. E. Carter 
valued her friendship, and have borne willing testimony 
to her many spiritual gifts. Bishop Wilkinson used to 
say often "We should like to hear what Mrs. Benney 
has to say upon the subject." The ]\I other of the 
Community of the Epiphany found that, "in all her 
intercourse with the Sisters, she was so perfectly 
natural." When her clerical friends left Cornwall she 
still kept in touch with them, and went to missions at 
Croydon and Hackney, conducted by Canon Mason, 
saying, " It's my holiday, and going to church is a 
rest for both soul and body " ; •' for, as Canon Carter 
said, she was "satisfied with the pleasure of God's 
house." She visited Archbishop Benson at Addington 
and Lambeth. There was no obsequiousness of any 
kind in her ; she could, as she said, accept the Arch- 
bishop's courtesy in the name of her Master, and sit 
down at his table "without embarrassment. Her 
features are portrayed in the window erected to her 
memory in Truro Cathedral, where Eunice is present 
at the consecration of Timothy ; and the legend ' Fac 
opus Evaiigclistcc' ('Do the work of an evangelist') 

1 Ibid., p. 87. - Ibid., p. 30. 

3 Ibid., p. 54. 


may indeed be taken to represent the message which, 
both by word and example, she urged upon clergy and 
laity alike." ^ 


The accomplished authoress of the two Uttle books quoted in this 
chapter, Mrs. Perrin, wife of the Rector of St. Mawgan-in-Pydar, 
who met with a fatal accident in the Engadine, August, 1901, 
laboured with the most untiring zeal and energy in her husband's 
parish for twenty-seven years. Her work was only ended by her 
departure from Cornwall after his decease. 

^ Ibid.^ Preface by Canon Mason, p. xii. 


DR. in<:NS()i\'S life at Lincoln, as well as his 
early love for cathedral institutions, led him, 
very soon after his appointment to Truro, to direct 
his mind to the formation of a capitular body. At 
first, there were no endowed stalls, but he was not 
deterred by this lack of monetary resources, which, 
however desirable, were, as he always maintained, by 
no means essential to the existence of a real Cathedral 
Chapter. He had already given to the world, in an 
article in the Quarterly Review (vol. cxxx. No. 259), 
and in an essay in a volume edited by Dean Howson 
of Chester, his views on the place that the cathedral 
ought to occupy in the Church's system. In 1878 he 
developed his ideas still further in the volume called 
The Cathedral : its necessary place in the life ajid 
work of the Church."^ He made the best of the 
material ready to his hand, and having appointed 

' John Murray, 1878. The Dedication prefixed to this book is quite 
charming and altogether characteristic: " Viris venerabiHbus, Fratribus 
suis, Dominis Canonicis Honorariis Cathedralis B.\^ Mariic Truronensis, 
una cum adpropinciuantium Amabihbus Umbris, Canccllariorum, 
Pnccentorum, C;eterorum, qui, niodo foxit Deus, Rei Christians 
fanuilabuntur, I stud opusculuni d. Episcopus." 



certain Honorary Canons, the first eight of whom were 
installed on January 17th, 1878/ he gave to several of 
them definite offices and assigned to them distinct 
duties. Canon Whitaker was appointed Chancellor, 
with charge of the Divinity School ; Canon Mason, 
Diocesan Missioner ; Canon Phillpotts of Porth- 
gwidden, nephew to Bishop Phillpotts and a generous 
benefactor of the see and Cathedral, was made 
President of the Chapter of the Honorary Canons ; 
Canon Thynne, who had resigned his prebend at 
Exeter to take his place in the new chapter at Truro, 
was appointed Treasurer. In accordance with Bishop 
Benson's ideas, the Canons not only met, from time to 
time, in chapter and formed an Episcopal Council, but 
gave much time to the delivery of lectures throughout 
the diocese, on theological and ecclesiastical subjects. 
But the Bishop looked far ahead to the foundation of 
a complete capitular body in the future, and prepared, 
with great care and research, a body of statutes for 
its government and regulation. In his Diary, dated 
Saturday, December 31st, 1881, he writes: — 

" I am very busy all my spare time, which is very little, 

^ Dr. Benson notes in his Diary, January 25th, 1878 : ''On the 17th 
I installed eight Canons as the beginning of a chapter. . . . Above the 
first is Canon Thynne, transferred by his own desire from Exeter. I 
have named the Rector of St. Mary's and the Vicar of Kenwyn, because 
one has given a church, the other a house to the see ; then three busy 
Chaplains ; and then three out of honour to age-principle, and the remoter 
regions of the county." The following were the first eight Canons : 
A. C. Thynne (St. Neot), R. Martin (St. Corentin), T. Phillpotts (St. 
Aldhelm), R. Vautier (St. Germans), S. Rogers (St. Piran), J. R. Cornish 
(St. Buriena), C. F. Harvey (St. Carantoc), A. J. Mason (St. Cybi), 
G. H. Whitaker (St. la). 


with framiiif^ the statutes for the Cathedral which the Com- 
missioners have committed to me, with the hint that they will 
be the basis of the statutes of the other new sees." 

He took as his model a cathedral of the Old 
Foundation — Lincoln — whose history he had closely 
studied, and which he had learned generally to under- 
stand, and thoroughly to value. He not onl\- made 
himself well acquainted with the Laudtun or Award 
of Bishop Alnwick and his Noviuu Registriim^ a 
body of draft statutes, a.d. 1439, and also with the 
earlier and, as is now clearly discovered, more miportant 
chapter register of customs and statutes, the celebrated 
Liber Ahgc?-, or the " Black Book," and some of the 
other interestino- and full records, which, owini/ to the 
labours of his old friend Canon Wickenden, Canon 
Maddison and others, have since been published under 
the joint editorship of the late Henry Bradshaw, and 
Canon Christopher Wordsworth (Cambridge Uni- 
versity Press, 1892-7) ; but, during the years that he 
held the offices of Canon Residentiary and Chancellor, 
he did all that lay in his power to give life and reality 
to the ancient traditions, and existing practice of the 
Cathedral at Lincoln. In recalling those investigations 

^ In the Life of Bishop Christopher Woriisworih, p. 526, Archl^ishop 
Benson gives an illustration of that prelate's quaint humour. An ancient 
copy of the Cathedral Statutes, and a fairer one of the Laudum and 
Novum Rci^istriivi were placed on a dish at the dinner-table at Rise- 
holme. "I wish," said the Bishop to Dr. Benson, who had, shortly 
before, been talking of them, " you would car\e some ratlier old venison, 
which has been sent me. Everyone will take some. Put the venison 
before Dr. Benson." The cover was lifted, and there was in the dish a 
folio manuscript in very bad condition. 


in a letter, written a few months before his death in 
1896, to Canon Christopher Wordsworth, the Arch- 
bishop said, " What a piece of work It was ! It was 
then my eyes began to go ! " 

The statutes that Dr. Benson framed for the 
Cathedral Church of Truro are very full and complete, 
and provide for every possible requirement of a 
cathedral ; both as regards the life and work of the 
chapter and the officials, greater and lesser, connected 
with such a body. There are added, besides, all the 
forms of service for the enthronement of a Bishop, 
installation of a Dean and Canons, even down to the 
admission of a chorister. Throughout, ancient pre- 
cedent is carefully, though not servilely, followed. 
Provision was made for the special needs of a modern 
cathedral, and for the local requirements of Cornwall. 
For instance, the office and work of a Canon Missioner, 
for the first time, had an important place in the con- 
stitution and statutes of an English cathedral. 

Dr. Benson's solicitude for the Cathedral and its 
eovernment did not end with his resionation of the 
Cornish see. When it was found necessary to amend 
the Bishopric of Truro Act (1876), and the Truro 
Chapter Act ( 1878), the Archbishop's advice was gladly 
given. On a confidential memorandum as to the 
Truro Bishopric and Chapter Acts Amendment Act, 
passed in 1887, the little docket pinned on to the 
printed papers in the Primate's own handwriting, tells 
its own tale. " These should now be bound up with 
the mass of Truro Cathedral papers at Addington, 


and dc[)Ositcd in the Cathedral Library," If the 
Cathedral stands so long, it may be, that on this 
" mass of Cathedral papers," all of which are now- 
catalogued and indexed as the founder wished, anti- 
quarians may be at work, five centuries hence, with 
the same reverent care as Archbishop Benson, Canon 
Wickenden, and Canon Christopher Wordsworth 
studied Le Black Book at Lincoln, or the famous 
Award and draft statutes of Bishop Alnwick. 

Residentiary Canons were ordered to keep a real 
residence of eight months ; and, above all, to have 
actual duties assigned to them of a practical nature, 
useful, not only within the Cathedral itself, but in the 
diocese at large. A special point was insisted on, that 
the Bishop should have a distinct position both in the 
Cathedral and chapter, and should preside, when 
present, both in the residentiary and general chapters. 
The Honorary Canons were to have a real status in 
the Cathedral, not only the right to preach in turn in 
the Cathedral pulpit, but a voice in the business of the 
general chapter ; they take part in the election of the 
Capitular Proctor, and (according to the intention 
of the Draft Statutes) of the Bishop also, although 
under legal advice they decided, on the first occasion 
of electing a Bishop, in 1 891, to refrain from the exer- 
cise of their right, which may, however, hereafter be 
fully asserted. Later legislation has secured to them a 
share in the exercise of the patronage of the chapter 
benefices. The statutes were written in quaint and 
archaic language, but their meaning was perfectly free 


from all ambiouity. The Bishop explained in very 
felicitous diction, in his " Proem " to the statutes, the 
reasons for careful minute attention to the details 
of the capitular constitution : — 

" And if to any man it shall appear, that of these statutes 
some things be left out which might have been well defined, 
and others definitively laid down w^iich are of small moment, 
let him remember first, that in some matters, of even grave 
concern, laudable custom ought to grow to have power of 
law, provided it be not contrariant to what is writ, (and the 
Canons shall do well from time to time to record and keep in 
a customary book such uses as, from time to time, shall be 
found convenient for their guiding), and that, diversely, in 
certain very small matters, experience hath taught that, 
if such like be not early defined, discrepancy doth lead to 
needless discussion, and vexation, to hindrance in most 
weighty concerns, touching even the safe keeping of the flock 
of souls. Wherefore we have noticed how many antient 
statutes in their preamble set forth the moment of peace 
and love, in such-like corporations and religious companies." 

At the end of the section concerning " Order in 
Divine Service and of precedency," in which are laid 
down the rules for reading Lessons, and for the pro- 
cessions on great occasions, it is stated, with charac- 
teristic common sense and quaint phraseology, "all 
which is here set down that none may trouble them- 
selves or others of small matters, when they would be 
about oreat thinors." 

The Bishop inserted in the statutes the custom 
of certain cathedrals of the Old Foundation, for the 
recitation of the Psalter daily by the Canons ; the 
Psalms being divided for this purpose among the 


Bishop, the Dignitaries, and the IIonorarN' Canons. 
Dr. Benson consulted his friend Mr. Henry Bradshaw 
about tlie compilation of these statutes, and the most 
important parts of them have been printed in the 
volume of the statutes of Lincoln Cathedral, above 
referred to, published by the Cambridi^'e University 
Press. ^ 

Through the kindness of Mr. A. C. Benson, a series 
of documents and memoranda connected with the 
Truro Chapter Act (187S), and the gradual evolution 
of the Draft Statutes, and their final adoption by the 
Cathedral Establishments Commission, has been de- 
posited among the muniments of the Truro Chapter. 
They extend from the date of the issue of the Com- 
mission, July 4th, 1879, to the adoption of "the 
Report upon the Cathedral Church of Truro," embody- 
ing " the Draft of Statutes," with appendices and corre- 
spondence, on February 26th, 1883. Few persons, 
probably, except those immediately associated with 
the Bishop, could have formed any conception of the 
minute care involved in this work ; while the mere 
task of studying many Acts of Parliament and Orders 
in Council, transcribing and retranscribing drafts of the 
statutes, resolutions respecting them, and proposals 
affecting the relation of the Cathedral to the parish 
church of Truro, must in itself have been most 
laborious. In the work, besides Mr. Henry Bradshaw, 

^ Lincoht CatJicdral Siatuies^ Bradshaw and Wordsworth, part ii. 
pp. 748 seq. : and see A Mt')noir of He my Bradshaw, by G. W. Prothero 
(1888), pp. 345 and 282. 


Archbishop Temple (then Bishop of Exeter), the 
Bishop of Winchester (then domestic chaplain to 
Archbishop Tait), Lord Ashcombe (then Mr. George 
Cubitt, M.P.), Mr. Godfrey Lushington, Mr. Arthur 
Burch, Canons Mason and Whitaker of Truro, 
Christopher Wordsworth and Wickenden of Lincoln, 
the Right Hon. A. J. Beresford Hope, M.P., and Mr. 
A. B. Ellicott, the secretary of the Commission, gave, in 
different ways, assistance and advice to the founder of 
our Cathedral ; but his own hand is everywhere im- 
pressed on its code of government. Nothing escaped 
his attention and supervision. In a series of large 
note-books three successive drafts of the statutes were 
made, chiefly in the Bishop's own hand. When in 
type, they again underwent successive revisions for 
the Commission. They were, at last, finally confirmed 
on St. Andrew's Day, November 30th, 1882, and on 
February 20th, 1883, Bishop Benson, then Archbishop- 
elect of Canterbury, signed the Commissioners' 

Parts of the Truro statutes have been embodied in 
Acts of Parliament affecting the chapter, but they 
have not as yet received, as a whole, any legal 
sanction or authority, nor was Bishop Benson at any 
time particularly anxious that this should be given to 
them. He always quoted other capitular codes, as 
havino- nothino- more than the authority of custom and 
use, and recommended that the Truro statutes should 
be tested by experience and practice, and by custom 
o-row into law. As a matter of fact, allowing for 


certain modifications rendered necessary by Parlia- 
mentary legislation, the statutes have, as a whole, and 
in most particulars, been faithfully observed, and 
portions of them are read aloud annually at one of the 
three principal meetings of the general chapter. It 
has been found that their author, not only devised an 
exceedingly interesting body of regulations, faithfully 
reproducing the spirit of the best times of ancient 
cathedral life and work, but has handed down a 
thoroughly useful and practical working code. Until 
the residentiary chapter was constituted legally in 
1887 by Act of Parliament, the statutes could not be 
fully obeyed ; and, up to that date, an abridged form 
of them, called " Regulations," was printed and put in 

The building of a cathedral seemed to the Bishop to 
be, not merely a desirable embodiment of a true 
ecclesiastical idea, but an essential instrument for the 
successful carrying out of a vigorous diocesan life and 
work. The present writer, some years before he had 
any idea that he would be called to work in Cornwall, 
heard Dr. Benson preach in St. Paul's Cathedral in 
behalf of the building fund that had recently been 
started. His text was "One Body and one Spirit," 
and the needful existence of the outward and visible 
organisation of the Church to enable it to put in 
action its spiritual powers, was ably laid down. He 
went on to maintain the great importance ot the 
visible symbol and framewcjrk of a church, to be the 
perpetual reminder of the Spiritual Society in every 


parish. From this he naturally passed on to show- 
that the true ecclesiastical unit, the diocese, ought 
also to possess its outward embodiment and symbol in 
the cathedral. The impression made by his sermon 
on the present writer's mind is still, after many years, 
strong and vivid ; as is also the characteristic story 
which he told on the occasion, and which he used as 
an incentive for the consfre^ation at St. Paul's to 
assist in the building of the far-off cathedral in the 
West. After the Great Fire of London in 1666, 
collections were made, all over the country, towards 
the rebuilding of St. Paul's ; and Dr. Benson quoted 
the records of an obscure sea-coast parish in Cornwall, 
which showed that the poor fisher-folk there had 
contributed a few shillings towards the rebuilding of 
the cathedral in the ■Metropolis. " To-day," he said, 
"we ask for the return of this kindness." 

The whole sermon was an admirable summary of 
the oft-repeated teaching of Dr. Benson, to be found 
in his diocesan addresses, letters, and books. 

At the first Diocesan Conference in 1877, the 
subject was brought forward in a paper read by the 
Rev, Thomas Phillpotts, and a committee appointed 
to consider the subject. A few weeks after, the 
Rector and churchwardens of St. Mary's Church 
pointed out to the Bishop, that the condition of the 
buildino- was insecure, the roof beino- in a most 
dangerous state. A considerable amount of money 
had been collected for the restoration of the parish 
church, but all action was suspended on the part of 



the parochial authorities until the wishes of the Bishop 
and of his advisers were known. In January, 1878, the 
Cathedral Committee met, under the presidency of the 
Lord Lieutenant, the Earl of Mount Edgcumbe, who, 
from that time forward, has shown himself, not only a 
wise and considerate chairman, but a warm and generous 
advocate of the Cathedral, and subscriber to its funds. 
Certain differences of opinion were expressed as to 
the kind of buildinL!' it was desirable to erect. Some 
considered that an enlaroed church, of the parochial 
type, would suffice for all the needs of so small a 
diocese as that of Cornwall, But the Bishop, and 
others who appreciated his views, pleaded earnesdy, 
and, in the end, successfully, for the erection of a true 
Cathedral, with all the dignity of height and length 
that such a building involves. Some were of opinion 
that it would be better to begin with the nave, and 
let the choir and transepts follow in a succeeding 
generation. But, here again, the foresight of the 
Bishop was justified in pressing for the completion 
of a noble choir, with an east end that would impress 
worshippers ; believing that, when the need of further 
space was felt, the nave, and other portions of the 
buildine, would follow. The event has proved the 
wisdom of this view, and the trial of having to face 
the ugliness of a blank temporary wall has not been 
inflicted on the congregeition, but on the clergy, who, 
for fifteen years, have had to endure it when turning 
towards the people. Canon C. Fox Harvey, the 
Rector of the parish, had generously, in the previous 


summer, made over to the Bishop the advowson of 
the rectory of which he was patron ; and thereby had 
removed some possible difficulties of a serious char- 
acter in the way of the future status of the Cathedral. 
The money already collected for the restoration of 
the church was now, by the consent of the subscribers, 
handed over towards the new building. The question 
of the site had of course occasioned some discussion. 
But it was determined, mainly, by the fact that St. 
Mary's Church was named as the Cathedral Church, 
in the Act of Parliament constituting the see. By 
some an entirely new building, visible far and near, on 
some lofty spot in the outskirts of the city, was 
suo-CTested. Against this, amono" other difficulties, 
was objected the creation of a new ecclesiastical 
centre, in addition to the already numerous parish 
churches of Truro. It was, indeed, thought inex- 
pedient by many to plant a splendid architectural 
pile low down in the city, with little space about it, 
with houses and shops clustering around. But, on 
the other hand, the desirability of identifying the 
Cathedral with the old ecclesiastical centre of Truro, 
of linking it with the many associations and historic 
memories of a most ancient municipality and parish, 
prevailed. On the whole, this cannot be regretted. 
The narrow streets and lanes, by which the Cathedral 
is approached, remind those who visit it of many an 
old French town, with its ancient minster, hemmed in 
by humble dwellings in the heart of the population, 
close by its market, town hall, and other daily resorts 


of the inhabitants. What was wanted was, not a 
show-place for visitors, with a pleasant, trim environ- 
ment, but a mother-church and workinof ecclesiastical 
centre. The agreeable " amenities " (as a Scotch 
gardener would say) of a cathedral close, with the 
peaceful retirement of a deanery and its garden, quiet 
canonical residences and the like, things very desir- 
able in themselves, are necessarily wanting under 
existing circumstances, or at least indefinitely post- 
poned. But, on the other hand, it is a real advantage 
that Truro Cathedral is not altogether new. It has 
incorporated into itself a substantial portion of the 
parish church, and retains much of the old associa- 
tions of the past ; it stands in the old " High Cross," 
and is reached through the old "Church Lane." 
Underneath its crypt and nave lie the buried remains 
of many a citizen and worthy of olden times : their 
monuments are preserved, and their history not alto- 
gether forgotten. Those who worship in the old 
parish aisle, and even in the new Cathedral, are 
kneeling on the ground consecrated by at least six 
centuries of prayer and praise. 

The old church contained some interesting monu- 
ments, among them a fine Jacobean tomb to John 
Robartes and his wife, of the year 1614. This had 
been fairly well preserved, but had suffered from the 
figures being periodically black-leaded as the most 
effective wav of cleanino^ them, accordino- to the 
notions of the officials of eighteenth and early nine- 
teenth centuries epocli. It has been admirablv 


restored by Lord Robartes. There was also a group 
of memorials of the Vivian family, including the first 
Lord, better known in history as Sir Hussey Vivian, 
cavalry commander at Waterloo. A former Rector, 
named Phippen or Fitzpen, who suffered for his prin- 
ciples in the days of the Commonwealth, is commemo- 
rated in a brass ; and his brother by a tombstone, 
relating his marvellous escape from captivity on board 
a Turkish galley, which he succeeded in capturing by 
aid of his fellow-prisoners, and bringing into a Spanish 
port, as a prize worth ^6,000. Some fragments of 
stained glass coeval with the building, which was 
erected in 15 18 on a site where two earlier churches 
had successively stood ; a fine specimen of the carved 
waggon roof so usual in Cornwall, long hidden by a 
plaster ceiling ; a sweet-toned organ by Byfield, built 
for the Chapel Royal, Whitehall, but never placed in 
that building; a quaint- inlaid wooden pulpit, and some 
later stained glass of unequal merit; all these make up 
the details of what was a typical Cornish church. These 
have been, so far as possible, carefully retained in the 
portion of the old church now remaining; the principal 
monuments, after judicious and conservative repair, 
being placed in the north transept of the Cathedral. 

In the autumn of 1880 the old church was pulled 
down, with the exception of the south aisle ; the north 
side of the building and the western tower were not 
of either sufficient age, beauty, or interest, to rescue 
them from demolition. But the portion that has been 
preserved, with its external carving similar to that 


which maybe seen at St. Austell, St. Mary Magdalene. 
Launceston, and elsewhere, not only gives an element 
of antiquity to the youngest of English cathedrals, 
but has proved, under the skilful treatment of the 
architect, an occasion for adding special constructional 
beauty in the internal arrangements of the arcades 
of the aisles and ambulatory. It must, however, be 
recorded that Dr. Benson was never at all anxious to 
preserve this portion of the old building. He would 
have been better pleased if the new Cathedral had 
been unrestricted in its design, and unhampered by 
being linked to an old fragment, left, as he said, " in 
our mistaken deference to the ignorant London anti- 

" 1 


There was not a little pathos surrounding the final 
act of worship in the old parish church, where, for so 
many centuries, Truro Churchmen had met for worship. 
At an early celebration of the Holy Communion, 
Canon Fox Harvey being the officiant, held on 
Monday, October nth, 1880, more than one hundred 
communicants received the Bread of Life, for the last 
time, in the time-honoured sanctuary endeared by 
many memories of joy and sorrow." 

The choice of an architect lay between Messrs. 
Bodley and Garner, I\Ir. Piers St. Aubyn, Mr. G. E. 

' Diary, July i3lh, 1882. 

- Seven years later, when the time came to leave the temporary 
wooden building that served for a church, during the erection of the 
Cathedral, a touching sermon, entitled " New and Old," was preached by 
Canon Phillpotts on October 30th, 1887, "the last Sunday in the wooden 


Street, r.a., Mr. Pullan, Mr. Burgess, Mr. J. O. Scott, 
and Mr. J. L. Pearson, a.r.a.^ The last was eventually 
selected, his previous work in churches in Red Lion 
Square (St. John's), Kilburn (St. Augustine's), and 
elsewhere, winning much approval. 

In a letter accepting the appointment as architect 
of the new Cathedral, Mr. Pearson wrote : — 

" I shall have very great pleasure indeed in undertaking 
the work at Truro. At the same time, I much fear that 
I ma}' not be able to realise all that may be expected of me, 
and all that I myself would desire. I feel it a great privilege 
to have to design and build such a work, and I had scarcely 
dared to hope that the chance of doing so would ever come 
to my lot. But, as I presume that there is every chance 
of the General Committee approving the report of the 
Executive, and that therefore this building will be placed 
in my hands, I can only say that I will endeavour to do 
my best, with the means you may anticipate being able to lay 
out upon it." 

The events connected with a new cathedral founda- 
tion in England are so remarkable, that it is not 
to be wondered that every effort was made to mark 
the occasion. 

The laying of the foundation stones took place 
on May 20th, 1880, and was surrounded with every 
possible circumstance of dignified ceremony and public 
rejoicing. The city of Truro was elaborately deco- 
rated, and to it flocked all the leading people of the 
Duchy to do honour to their Duke and Duchess, 
the Prince and Princess of Wales, who, with their two 

1 Afterwards R.A. 


young sons, came into Cornwall to take part in the 
<-rreat ceremony. Processions of Freemasons were 
formed at the Town Hall, and of clerc^y in the old 
church ; and a great inclosure, erected in the High 
Cross, was filled with a dense throng of people. The 
Archbishop of Canterbury (Dr. Tait) was too ill to take 
his appointed place on an occasion truly historic. The 
Bishop of Truro was filled with joy and gladness, at 
the sight of so hopeful an inauguration of his great 
ideal, and took part in the proceedings with much 
enthusiasm. He thoroughly appreciated the kindness 
of the Prince and Princess of Wales in taking so deep 
an interest in the Cathedral, and the noble hospitalities 
of the late Lord Falmouth in entertaining them and 
their suite at Tregothnan. He was pleased with the 
part taken by the PVeemasons, under their Provincial 
Grand Master, Lord Mount Edgcumbe, though some 
Churchmen were not particularly keen about the 
introduction of that ceremonial element into the pro- 
ceedings. He admired the dignified manner in which 
the Prince performed his share in the laying of the 
two memorial stones, one of which was on the site 
of the nave, and, surmounted by a portion of a shaft, 
which for many years stood there, a solitary and pro- 
phetic token of the extended building that was to be. 
Besides the royal personages and the great Masonic 
Brotherhood, there were present the Bishops of Exeter 
(Dr. Temple) and Madagascar (the Right Rev. R. 
Kestell-Cornish. son of a former \'icar of Kenwyn) ; 
the body of Honorary Canons, and a large assembly 


of the clergy of the diocese : while a choir, gathered 
from all parts of Cornwall, sang the appointed Psalms 
and hymns. 

Dr. Benson thus spoke of that " really happy 
day " : — 

''■ The weather was gorgeous. When the ceremony was 
at its height, the sky was more beautiful than I ever beheld 
it. One deepest lustrous blue over the whole heaven above 
the great inclosure, and right above us, and in view, the 
tiniest, most delicate white clouds flecked it all over in the 
most symmetrical arrangement." ^ 

How highly he appreciated the enthusiastic help of 
his laymen, will appear from the following letter 
written to the honorary treasurer of the Building 
Committee, who had organised a band of collectors : — 

"Truro, 24/// May. 

" My dear Mr. Nix, — Thank you very much. The 
amount was, I think, most satisfactory. Poor people and 
Dissenters must have given freely. We might have continued 
the singing more immediately, if we had known how many 
would be giving. 

" I cannot tell you how immensely everyone feels indebted 
to you for the arrangements made both times for collecting. 
They were very difficult to make, and were most skilfully 
organised. You had a charming and obedient troupe of 
croupiers, who will always be proud of having served under 
you that day. " Yours sincerely, 

"E. W. Truron:" 

On the Sunday after the stone-laying, a very re- 
markable service was held, at which the Bishop 

^ Life, abridged edition, pp. i8i, 182. 


preached from the words " Not by mic^^ht nor by 
power, but by My Spirit, saith the Lord of Hosts." 
Many walked miles to come to it. The stands, 
erected for the great ceremony of the 20th, were still 
remaining, and about four thousand people were 
present, mainly of the working classes. The singing 
of the hymns led by two cornets was most impressive. 
A spectator has thus described the scene and the 
central fiorure : — 

" The Bishop stood, his face pale with emotion, and yet 
irradiated with the tenderest smile of hopefulness ; he seemed 
like a man who had won a victory by prayer : his place was 
by a pillar base ; as he gave out hymn after hymn, which 
were taken up and sung with the most moving intensity by 
the crowd, his hair waving in the sharp gusts which whirled 
the dust and shavings of the inclosure about, it was as 
though we were translated out of the nineteenth century into 
some strange chapter of mediaeval religious life." ^ 

P>om that day forward the work proceeded steadily. 
A large sum (^10,000) had to be expended on the 
purchase of the site and the adjacent property, and 
the foundations were of necessity deeply laid and 
costly. But Cornish men and women were generous 
and energetic, the ^15,000 subscribed in the room, 
at the first meeting held in 1878 to promote the 
building of a cathedral, had already swelled to a large 
amount, and contributions llowed in unceasingly from 
all parts of the kingdom, as well as from Cornwall. 

^ Li/t\ abridged edition, pp. 1S3, 184. 


The design was a very striking one, and worthy 
of the architect's reputation. 

In addition to other features, the baptistery (by 
some considered the gem of the whole building) was 
built as a memorial to Henry Martyn, a son of Truro, 
the distinguished Senior Wrangler, devoted missionary, 
and learned linguist, who died at Tokat in Pontus 
in I Si 2. Canon Phillpotts of Porthgwidden gener- 
ously gave the beautiful south porch, by some critics 
considered too ornate for the severity of the style 
of architecture adopted for the Cathedral ; but justi- 
fied as serving to blend the more florid portion of 
the old Perpendicular south aisle with the new Early 
English building. Advantage was taken of the slope 
of the ground to build a crypt under the lofty choir. 
The principal features of the building are its height, 
its fine groined roof, and the absence of a too exact 
and mechanical symmetry in its parts and details. 
The architect has won great praise for the very 
successful way in which he has solved the problem of 
uniting the old St. Mary's aisle with the Cathedral 
by an ambulatory, so designed as to become the 
support of the vault over the choir ; the steady ascent 
from St. Mary's aisle to the centre of the church by 
successive flights of steps is a fine achievement. A 
great variety of mouldings, inequality of span of 
arches, and other designed departures from uniformity, 
relieve the building from a hard and dull monotony. 
Cornish materials have been largely used in the 
building. The walls are, externally, of the hard grey 


St. Mabe granite ; internally, of St. Stephen's china 
clay stone, a species of soft granite. ^ The dressings 
are of Bath stone, but the detached shafts of grey 
polyphant from I^ast Cornwall. The Lizard has 
supplied serpentine, of \arious shades of colour, for a 
considerable part of the steps to the choir and 
baptistery, as well as for the shafts of the arcading of 
the latter-named portion of the building. Cornish 
copper has been employed for the roofing of the spire 
of the clock tower : and, had not the cost been too 
great, would have been used for the other roofs as 
well. It is acknowledged, on all sides, that the 
architect has succeeded in his efforts to build a real 
cathedral ; that, not only from an artistic point of 
view, has he produced a beautiful specimen of Gothic 
architecture of the purest style, but that his creation 
has a peculiar power to impress those who enter it, 
with a sense of reverence as well as of admiration. 

Bishop Benson looked forward to the time when 
Cornish Churchpeople would realise, and resort to, 
the Cathedral as their mother-church. Nor has his 
anticipation been altogether disappointed. 

Annual gatherings of choirs, Sunday-school teachers, 
temperance societies, G. F.S. members and associates, 
assemble within its walls, knd prove that it is to 
them something more than a mere ecclesiastical 

1 Great trouble was taken about the choice of building materials. 
Colonel Cocks of Treverbyn devoted a great deal of time and anxious 
labour to the matter. Seventy-two varieties of stone were reported on. 
The oolite was shown to be superior to all others. (Cf Journal of the 
Royal Insliliition of Cornwall^ vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 86, April, 18S2.) 


or architectural show-place. On these occasions, 
surprising efforts are made by the more distant 
parishes to send up their representatives to the 
cathedral city. If choristers or Church - workers 
from the rugged cliffs by Tintagel and the north 
coast, or the Land's End, or from the moorland 
parishes between Bodmin and Launceston ; from 
the porths and coves of the Lizard district and south 
coast, or from the borderland of the Tamar banks, 
desire to take their place, along with the miners of 
Redruth and Camborne, and the townsfolk of Fal- 
mouth and Penzance, in some great Church gather- 
ing, it often involves rising with the sun and 
returning home after midnight, tired out with a long 
day's journey, but cheered and refreshed by a great 
act of common worship, and a joyous sense of fellow- 
ship. The Cathedral, in fact, has in fifteen years 
become a real centre and rallying-point for Cornish 
Churchpeople. They have learned to realise, more 
than ever, their unity and strength, and the memories 
of old Cornish Churchmen have helped this. As 
they walk about its aisles, they cannot fail to see 
that it is their own Cathedral. They remember that 
the second Bishop of Truro has in his possession 
a book containing twenty - three thousand of their 
names, as contributors to the building and its fittings ; 
and that, though there were indeed some large and 
splendid gifts, yet the Cathedral was built by the 
many, not the few. An inscription on a monument 
or in stained glass recalls to them, that this deanery 


or that parish L;ave a screen or a window, a marble 
pavement or a Canon's stall ; that a Robartes, a Pole- 
Carew% a Fortescue, a Willyams, a Bolitho, is here 
or there commemorated ; that a famous Cornishman 
like Jt)hn Couch Adams, of Laneast, the astronomer, 
or Henry Martyn the missionary, or Hussey Vivian 
the soldier, have their renown recorded within its 
walls. Indeed, the Cathedral already promises to 
become a kind of Westminster Abbey for the worthies 
of Cornwall of all times. Those who first planned it 
had some thought of this in their minds. 

It was a statesmanlike stroke of policy, though the 
matter may appear trifling, to give historic or local 
associations to the Honorary Canons of the Cathedral, 
and link them with the names of ancient saints. 
Ecclesiastical commissioners, and other officials, sel- 
dom rise above the prosaic level of entitling cathedral 
stalls as "canonry number one," "number two," etc. 
Bishop Benson added a touch of poetry and quaint- 
ness to his Cathedral, by affixing to the stalls the 
names of St. Piran, St. German, St. Germoc and 
others. This example has since been followed at 
Wakefield and Newcastle, where the leaders of the 
ancient northern Church are now commemorated on 
the Canons' stalls. Dr. Benson also very rightly 
pressed for certain alterations in the proposed figures 
on the altar screens in the sanctuary, by which are 
now recorded the names of the early Cornish Bishops 
and missionaries, as Bishops Kenstec and Conan, 
St. Pctroc. and others. Moreover in the elaborately 


planned scheme of subjects for the stained -glass 
windows, illustratincr the sacred history of the world 
under the Old and New Testaments, and the varied 
gifts of the Holy Spirit in all the ages of the Christian 
dispensation, notable Cornish saints and worthies are 
o-iven a prominent position. Some of them, like 
St. Constantine, St. Winnow and others, are already 
to be seen in the lancet windows of the baptistery.^ 

A somewhat humorous story may be told in con- 
nection with these Cornish saints. A rather timid 
friend of the Church in the north of England, who 
was interested in Truro Cathedral, was attacked by 
a person, keenly alive to the smallest indications of 
supposed Popery, on the ground that at the Cathedral 
there were images of extraordinary saints, quite 
unknown to the Anolican Calendar. The informa- 
tion sent by a Truro Canon that, neither were they 
to be found in the Roman Calendar, apparendy 
relieved the distressed friend and silenced the critic. 

Bishop Benson followed every step of the building 
operations with keen interest and delight ; and, as it 
prew, its graceful form seemed to present a "singular 
and beautiful picture, in the tall slender columns in 
advance of the east window ; and all the pillars of 
the choir, standing, as it were, balanced on the mighty 
piers of the crypt."" He took a deep interest in the 
workmen, and drew up a form of prayer to be used 
daily at the close of the day's work. When the nave 
was in course of erection, prayer was said at the 

1 See Appendix. - Diary. 


be^c^innino- of each week, and thanksgiving offered 
at the close. On the whole, this was a better plan 
and secured a far larger attendance. There were 
no serious accidents during the progress of the work, 
bill all connected with the Cathedral and the Huilding 
Committee were distressed at the death of the first 
clerk of the works, Mr. Bubb. Not only did the 
architect feel greatly the loss of one devoted to him- 
self and his work, but he had won the respect of 
Cornishmcn, who are slow to take to a "stranger." 
He was of the greatest value in carrying out the 
erection of the crypt, before the appointment of a 
contractor ; and to his skill is owing, in a great 
measure, the successful restoration of the south aisle. 
He had a wide experience in building materials ; and, 
together with Colonel Cocks, visited a large number 
of quarries for the purpose of selecting suitable stone. 
" Certainly a remarkable man ; and not one friend 
did he lose by plain rough speech, not one did he 
make by withholding a fact."^ This is the estimate 
of one who was his friend as well as Bishop. Dr. 
Benson proceeds to describe the funeral, on the 
second anniversary of the foundation (May 20th), 
carried out in accordance with Mr. Bubb's own wishes. 
A procession was made to the foundation stone : the 
sino-incr of the hvmns '' Ans'nlare Fnndainentuni'' and 
" Brief life is here our portion " by the choir and 
clergy was taken up by the workmen, 110 in number, 
" the stonemasons wearing according to the custom 

1 Diai-v. 


of the trade, over their black clothes white working 
aprons tied with black riband." He was laid in 
St. Mary's Burial Ground "in the earth he had 
himself removed from old St. Mary's Church. The 
Rector began the service, the Missioner who had 
prayed day and night beside him, and the Chancellor, 
took part. I never saw so still and large a funeral 
crowd. He was a gentleman of the Nature which 
makes gentlemen at her will." 

Mr. Bubb was succeeded, as clerk of the works, by 
Mr. Robert Swain, who remained in charge of the 
building operations until after the consecration of the 
choir and transepts in November, 1887.^ 

The following prayer was composed by Bishop 
Benson and authorised for use during the building of 
the choir : — 

Lord God of our Fathers, Who of old time hast accepted 
them that offered willingly and gave for the House of God ; 
and Who hast filled men with Thy Spirit to devise skilful 
works in all manner of workmanship for the service of the 
Sanctuary ; We beseech Thee to prepare the heart of Thy 
people unto Thee, of Whom all things come and are all 
Thine Own ; Remember them that shew kindness for Thy 
House, and for the Offices thereof; and put wisdom into 
the hearts of men that are wise-hearted to make all after 
Thy Will ; that in a holy and beautiful house our children 
may praise Thee, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. 

^ Some portions of the description of the Cathedral given here are 
taken from an article contributed by the author to the first number of the 
Cornish Magazine^ and reproduced by permission of the publisher, Mr. J. 
Pollard, Truro. 



DR. BENSON rapidly became acquainted with 
the country and the people of Cornwall. It 
was not lono- before he had made a fjeneral tour 
of the diocese, and gained a wide knowledge of it, 
which became deeper and deeper as the years went 
by. The distinction between the more English side 
on the east of the county and the western and more 
Celtic extremity; the difference of "tone of mind" 
and "type of face" were quickly observed; and the 
great contrasts of life and calling among the miners, 
fishermen, and agricultural labourers, duly noted. 
Besides all this keen and alert observation, he took 
pains to study the records of the places he visited. 
He delio-hted in notino- the architectural historv of 
churches like St. Michael Penkivel, St. Carantoc and 
its College of Priests ; in making acquaintance with 
old inscriptions and carvings at St. Just or Camborne, 
ancient stone dragons at INIorwenstow or Week St. 
Mary : he interested and astonished the parishioners 
of Luxulyan ( Lan Julian), by telling the beautiful 
story of the martyrdom of St. Cyrus and St. Julitta, 
to whom ilie church was dedicated ; and amused the 

K 129 


people of Scilly with the account from OHver's 
Monasticon of monks from Tavistock, of which great 
Abbey there was a cell at Tresco; "who obtained leave 
from the Bishop of Exeter to depart and leave two 
secular Priests in their place, because it was not right 
that such valuable persons as monks should be sub- 
jected to the storms and piracy and vice of the Isles." 
At the reopening of the churches of Perran-ar-Worthal 
and of Perranzabuloe, he preached, and related the 
story of St. Piran, his life, travels, his love of animals 
and his memorials. He alluded to the ancient "buried 
church" in the sandhills, "the little stone tabernacle," 
of which " the mouldering walls yet remain." 
" There is no older sanctuary in the land except, 
perhaps, St. Martin's, Canterbury." The "old story 
about St. Piran cominof across the sea on a millstone 
. . . and St. Petroc on an altar stone, showed very 
strong love, which led lonely people in such days to 
come amono- wild tribes" — "to teach them how to 
ofrind for themselves the Bread of Life." On a 
similar occasion, at St. Pinnock, he reminded the 
people of their patron saint ; who, clad in sheepskins, 
visited St. Gregory of Tours, on his way to Jerusalem 
as a pilgrim, in 578, and was ordained a Presbyter by 
him, as Valde religiosiis, to induce him to stay at 
home and work. 

Twenty-five years ago, the railway communication 
in Cornwall was scanty, and the service of trains far 
less frequent and rapid than at present. Bodmin had 
not its branch, nor Helston its extension, there was no 


North Cornwall Railway ; and a great part of the 
diocese could only be reached by road. Bishop Benson 
enjoyed the long- drives in his own carriage ; some- 
times alone, a mode of travelling he found "most 
refreshing," "often in sight of the glorious coast, 
bluest water, freshest sea, and most enchanting sea- 
birds," "between the hard work of the Confirmations, 
each of which generally lasts two hours or more, from 
first to last."^ He took the greatest interest in his 
Confirmation work ; and has recorded in his Diary 
many of his experiences, and a great deal of his own 
impressions. Confirmation had been regarded, by a 
large proportion of the inhabitants of Cornwall, as 
unnecessary, unreal, and unscriptural. Dr. Benson 
took great pains to inform their ignorance and remove 
their prejudices. He drew up a "Form of Service" 
for his Confirmations. The " Order of Confirmation " 
was largely supplemented by instructions and devo- 
tions, and preceded by the public reading of the 
chief passages from Holy Scripture, bearing directly 
on the apostolic practice, of " Laying on of hands." 
Every effort was made to instruct the people as to the 
reality of the gift of grace, bestowed in the rite, and 
of the need of true preparation of heart in each 
individual recipient. In the service, he introduced 
the custom of putting the question as to the three- 
fold baptismal promise, not only to the whole body 
of candidates, but also to each one separately ; and 
the readino- out of the Christian nanies and the several 

' Diaiv. 


response " I do," had its own special impressiveness, 
as well as the united answer of the whole company. 
The custom has its advantages, and among the im- 
pressionable Cornish may be specially useful. When 
there are a few candidates the service is not thereby 
unduly prolonged ; but, at a large Confirmation, it is 
scarcely desirable, and the quaintness of some of the 
Cornish names is sometimes apt to provoke a smile. 
Dr. Benson's successors have continued the practice, 
though not invariably in all cases. 

In the midst of a people alienated from sacramental 
teaching, and suspicious of all " outward and visible 
signs " of spiritual grace, it has been difficult to recover 
lost ground. But the first Bishop of Truro felt that, 
perhaps more than any part of the Church's teaching, 
it was important to reassert the forgotten truths about 
Confirmation. To him it was nothing less than the 
imparting of a great gift, that of the Holy Spirit 
Himself "The gift of the Holy Spirit is limited in 
the New Testament to Confirmation. The new birth 
of the Spirit is the imparting of the Christian Priest- 
hood." ^ Of course there was, and still is, a very 
determined opposition to this teaching. Sometimes 
candidates were openly hindered from coming to the 
service. One farmer said to his lad, who asked for an 
afternoon off that he might go to be confirmed, "If 
you wanted to go to the circus, I would have given 
you leave, but not for such a folly as that." "^ But yet 
there were many instances on the other side. " In 

' Diary. - Ibid. 


the West," he records, " I have been surprised with 
the numbers of elderly people coming to Confirmation. 

, At G a weeping farmer of the congregation 

asked nie, ' Did you ever before have such old men 
with such tender little things beside them kneeling 
to be confirmed together?' It was indeed most 
striking."^ Sometimes there would be, after the 
Cornish manner, quite an open and ecstatic expression 
of feeling among the candidates ; cries of " Praise the 
Lord ! " being heard in the church. At another place 
it was said, that a Methodist revival had been held to 
counteract the teaching on Confirmation. "They 
emptied the Bible Christian and Primitive chapels — 
drew one boy from the Sunday school — converted the 
stationmaster from long-professed infidelity. When 
he had been one week with the Methodists, he came 
to the clergyman — told him he could not possibly 
remain with the ^lethodists, 'because they had no 
means of grace,' and requested to be prepared for Con- 
firmation. I confirmed him." - Bishop Wilkinson, years 
after, related a somewhat similar story of a Church- 
man, aroused from a dead state of soul by Salvation 
Army preachers, after some months returning to the 
Church for " food for his soul "' ; not ignoring the 
blessing of the awakening he had received, but 
hungering for satisfying " means of grace " such as the 
Church alone could give. Of some of his later Con- 
firmations Dr. Benson records, " I ended to-day the 
main body of Confirmation for this year. The series 

' Diarv. . - Ibid. 


have been in many ways different from former years. 
There had been steady organised opposition to Con- 
firmation, on the part of the Methodists, in every one 
of my thirty or forty centres. Revivals, denunciations, 
and indi\-idual deaHng with our candidates."^ In one 
place it is said " that the plain effect had been to make 
many people search their New Testaments on the 
subject, and that many had convinced themselves." '" 
Elsewhere " they succeeded in detaching a few; and 
in some places the candidates confided to the clergy 
that they could not at present face the persecution in 
the farms and workshops."'^ Though there had not 
been any considerable increase of numbers confirmed, 
in proportion to the population, yet the Bishop noted 
the "vast increase in the numbers of the people 
attending the Confirmations. In almost all places the 
churches have been full, and in some crowded and 
overflowing. I have, moreover, this year been struck 
by the devout, reverent, and (so to speak) ' interces- 
sory ' manner of the people." ^ This is all the more 
interesting as the novelty, so likely to impress the 
Cornish, of the work of their Bishop among them, 
and the fascination of his own striking and attractive 
personality, were no longer new and fresh. Sometimes 
an individual case was specially impressive. 

" At St. Erth confirmed thirty-three people, nearly all 
adults, and all but two of them men : twenty-three from 
St. John's, Penzance. Among the St. Erth men an old miner 

J Diary. ^ /^y^/ 

3 Ibid. * Ibid. 


who had been vigorousl}- assailed, since he determined to be 
confirmed. The other day five or six men, laughing at him 
about Baptism, said, ' Why, what good can water do you ? What 
does the water matter ? ' He answered ' if you be so stiff- 
necked that you ^vo)lt have the water, do you think the Lord 
will give you His Spirit ? " ^ 

" The Rector pointed out a stalwart miner whom I con- 
firmed two or three years ago. ' This happened with him,' 
he said, 'the other day. They were chaffing him similarly. 
He had been a great drinker and a great swearer. They 
said, " What can the liishop's hands do for you ? What's the 
good of his hands?" "Well, I can tell \-ou one thing," he 
said, " ever since I felt his hands on my head, I have never 
felt even inclined to swear."'"- 

It was a great pleasure to him to \isit H.M. 
training ship Ganges, then stationed in Falmouth 
Harbour, and confirm the lads. He found this, as 
did his successors, "always an affecting" Confirmation." 
To see the hundred and twenty, or hundred and 
fifty, well trained and disciplined lads kneeling, 
row after row, before him to receive the gift, and to 
know what had been their trials in the past in many 
cases, and to look forward to their doing well in the 
future, was particularly touching, to a man with a 
true paternal heart. In later years on several 
occasions the Ganges boys came to the Cathedral to 
be confirmed, greatly to their own delight and much 
to the good of the people who were edified by their 
orderly and reverent demeanour. ]\Iany people, 
beside the h^almouth residents, missed the ship and 

1 Diarv. -' Ibid. 


its officers and its boys, when it was removed else- 
where in 1899. 

The widow of a clergyman, lately passed away, has 
recorded her impressions of the Bishop's visits, which 

" were marked by more than kindly interest — inspiration, 
encouragement, a share felt in the work going on. Before 
one Confirmation he said to my husband at lunch, ' What line 
would you like me to take in my address? I should like to 
say that, which will help you most in the circumstances of 
your parish.' What those village Confirmations were to 
the people, as well as to the clerg}'men, I feel tempted to 
illustrate by an incident. Calling on a good woman, who, 
though a Bible Christian by profession, was a regular 
attendant at weekday Church Cottage services, held in the 
hamlet where she lived, and whose daughter had been 
specially reverent and attentive at the religious teaching 
given in the day school, Mrs. C. suddenly remarked, ' There's 
going to be a Confirmation down to church, isn't there? 
You've said nothing to K. about it ? ' ' Well no, Mrs. C, we 
thought, not being Church people, you would not think about 
it.' ' But,' she answered, ' I wish K. to be confirmed. I was 
down to Truro last Sunday, and I heard the Bishop preach, 
and he took for his text, " The slothful man roasteth not that 
which he took in hunting," and I wish K. to be confirmed.' 
I gathered from Mrs. Benson that this incident exactly 
carries out what, from her recollection of the sermon, it was 
meant to teach, that often great spiritual good may have 
been attained, and yet that the realisation of it may be lost 
by the rejection of further means of grace. Mrs. C. added, 
' I wish K. to have the benefit of the prayers of such a good 
man.' Surely her wish was realised, for in a letter received, 
after the Bishop had become Primate, he wrote, ' Tell my 
confirmees that they are all remembered every day before 
Him who sealed them.' " ^ 

^ A Mother in Israel, pp. 27 seq., by the author of l^old for a 


What the Bishop's own view of Conhrmatioii was 
is illustrated by the followini,^ extracts from letters to 
one of his sons, who was about to be confirmed : — 

" May God in Christ come near you. Xo figure of speech 
tJiat — but the one reality which we are sure of in this world. 
All things change their forms and pass away except the 
word of Christ. It is your own, if you will have it— and 
I am sure in Him that you will make that eternal thing 
your own, by offering yourself to God to be His. He, who 
made and loves you, will do nothing with >-ou that you will 
not inorc than like ; if you do just give yourself to Him. Do 
not be afraid. 

" It is the completing of Baptism, it is the receiving of the 
strengthaiing Spirit ; as an infant you received the life-giving 
Spirit — now it is the Spirit of strength^ 

And again, of the kind of preparation required he 
wrote : — 

" About your Confirmation. 1 hope you will have careful 
and wise preparation for it. . . . But of course as well, and 
better than I can tell you — your own heart tells you that the 
true preparation is within. That knowledge and motive may 
come from without, but can only be fruitful and effective 
by your own earnest use of all the means bf approaching 
God which you possess. You will be richer in these means 
after you are confirmed. But God gives grace only in very 
large measure, when the smaller measure has been well 

"Try to think of Confirmation in tliis way. In Hol\- 
Baptism the seed of new life was given )-ou ; like all life 
of plants, animals, human beings, it was nnconscions for a 
time. Then came a time, when (marked b\- God alone) the 
life became conscious of itself. Ever since that you have 
been responsible for this life you live. But many ideas, many 


temptations, grow with growing age — and now is the time 
when you want the Holy Ghost to give you His second gift 
— strength. Life may be %vcak. It is necessary that it should 
be made strong. The strength it may attain is luiliinitcd. 
You must pray with new energy, however simply, that God 
will, in Confirmation, give you strength. The seven different 
kinds of strength are enumerated in the splendid collect in 
the Confirmation Service. 

" But if you feel also that, in the interval between Baptism 
and now, there has not been (as there should have been) 
a steady development of the Inner Life, and you alone (by 
God's help) can know this — then you must also pray for the 
complete convcrsio)i {eTri(jTpa<l>'i']vai) of your will to God ; to 
turn quite away from anything that you cannot do and 
think and feel in Him, and to be turned by Him fully and 
directly towards Him, ' I have gone astray like a sheep that 
is lost : Oh ! seek Thy servant, for I do not forget Thy 
commandments.' " 

His visits to different parishes were not, however, 
always for Confirmations. Sometimes it was to a place 
in the northern part of the diocese, where he records 
" having- slept one night at Poughill Rectory, the wild 
beautiful coast from Trevalga to Bude, affording no 
harbourage, I went on to Kilkhampton. There we 
had a Holy Communion early and I preached. It 
was Jioly. There were thirty people on a weekday 
morning ; many of whom had walked two or three 
miles to be there at eight o'clock — and whose devo- 
tion and quietness made me feel more happy, in the 
sense of real Church work going on, than I have been 

Sometimes, in the early days of his episcopate, he 


went to stay at some large centre ; in order to gauge 
the spiritual condition of the place, and to devise the 
best way of remedying deficiencies. Redruth, Cam- 
borne, and other mining centres ; Callington and 
similar important parishes in the east, were visited 
by him. iM-om such men as ^Ir. Chappel, Rector 
of Camborne, whom he described as "a fine, white- 
haired, rosy, powerful man," who had done much 
for Church schools and penitentiary work ; and ^Ir. 
Thornton, \^icar of Southhill and Callington, both 
.afterwards Honorary Canons of Truro, he learned niuch 
of the history of the church in the past and its 
requirements in the present. Sometimes, when there 
had been some serious trouble in a parish, his presence 
was asked for and thankfully welcomed. For instance 
in November 1880, at St. Newlyn, where the Rev. 
H. H. Du Boulay was Vicar,^ there had been a 
terrible outbreak of typhoid fever; 125 people, one 
in six of the population, had it severely. The 
Bishop came to bring consolation and help to pastor 
and people. A month later, on the last night of 
the year, he notes in his Diary : — 

''December 31J/. — On last night of old year I preached in 
the church there ; to a crowded congregation, who wept. 

' Afterwards Honorary Canon of Truro, Proctor for the Chapter in 
Convocation, Archdeacon of Bodmin and Rector of Lawhitton. Bishop 
Benson records his excellent work in his young days when chaplain to 
his grandfather 15ishop Phillpotts of Exeter. " Young as he was he was 
the real and very wise \'izier " {Diary). Among his many labours for the 
Diocese of Truro will always be remembered the editorship of the 
Diocesan Kaletuiai\ which he carried on for a quarter of a century with 
untiring energy and perseverance. 


They have suffered sadly. !\Iany more cases since I was 
there, but now only two lingering. I tried to be plain and 
loving too." 

And then follows his quaint comment, like a saying 
of Charles Kingsley v^hom he loved so well : — 

'"They thought it was the will of the Lord, but Miss 
Annie said it were drains.' No contrast. The will of the 
Lord will work through drains, if we don't regard His laws 
of clean body and soul, clean living and clean thinking." ^ 

A card in memory of the service, and bearing the 
Bishop's text, "If Thou, Lord, shouldest mark iniquity, 
who shall stand .^ But there is forgiveness with Thee, 
that Thou mayest be feared " (Ps. cxxx. 3, 4), was 
presented to every one on leaving the church. When 
the sad time was over, and the plague stayed, a 
thanksorivino- service was held ; a beautiful cross was 
placed in the churchyard, as a token of God's mercies 
and deliverances, and a noble chancel screen was 
erected later in memory of their beloved Bishop. 

It is interestincr to record here a siniilar circum- 
stance that happened many years later. In August 
1900 an outbreak of enteric fever occurred in 
the village of Ladock, which lasted till Christmas; 
thouo-h the cases were of a serious character, 
they were, with one exception, brought through 
by the care and skill of the nurses, of whom there 
were, at one time, three working together. The 
period of three or four months was a time of much 

1 Diary. 


anxiety and prayer in the little community. The 
single death removed one, who had for years identified 
herself, in the fullest sense, with the Church life of the 
place, and had been foremost in helping every good 
work. Such a death was a serious loss to the parish. 
Happily, by the beginning of 1901, the disease had 
died out ; and the Parish Feast, which coincided that 
year with the Festival of the Epiphany, was kept in 
the village as a day of special thanksgiving for relief 
from the epidemic. The Bishop (Dr. Gott), at some 
inconvenience, was present at the morning service, 
celebrated the Holy Communion, and preached from 
the text, " So the Lord sent pestilence upon Israel . . . 
and the Lord commanded the angel; and he put up 
his sword again into the sheath thereof." (i Chron. 

x.Ki. 14-27)- 

Bishop Benson took careful note of the person- 
ality and work of his clergy. Of one deanery he 
records : — 

"The clergy whom I have seen are apparently very 
earnest in their work, and some of them devoted men ; 
others have taken holidays, and only a small number have 
prepared candidates for Confirmation." ^ 

Of another: — 

" There is a large cluster of clergy who seem to be excellent 
friends. They arc all High Churchmen, and have beautifully 
restored and decorated churches. ... At all their churches 
were fair numbers to be confirmed. And there were as many 
men as women." - 

' Diarv. - Ibid. 


Another scene in a different place is worth re- 
cording" : — 

" Nowhere had I such a sight. We could scarcely move 
through the road or get out of church. The candidates 
were many. They sang most sweetly, as we walked up hill 
to church. They sang with all their power, a crowded church 
full. They sang back again. While we were taking tea, they 
sang hymns under the trees ; and, after half an hour's revisit 
to the church to see its great curiosities, they were singing 
hymns still when we returned ; and we drove off while they 

In a letter he gives a similar account of one of his 
Confirmation tours : — 

" Kenwvn, JA?;r//, 1878. 

" I have been through Penwith confirming in the day 
and preaching at night— such congregations ! and such fine 
services ! I preached last night to two thousand people, 
standing, as well as sitting, all through !— in Penzance. I 
wonder whether the Church will make way before they are 
better educated." 

How greatly he yearned for the spiritual welfare of 
his Cornish flock is expressed in the words of his 
Diary for May 31st, 1879: "Give me this people, 
O Lord." 

But full churches did not by any means imply that 
there were great numbers of Churchmen, as the 
clergy often told him. Yet " those who were attached 
to the Church arc usually very strong Church people 
and very full of good works." The clergy trained 

1 Diary. 


under Bishop Phillputts, from " ihc pressure they live 
under amoni;- the Dissenters, are of a decidedly high 
type of doctrine. The exceptions are most rare. I 
am particularly anxious to have one Evangelical 
chaplain. I cannot hear of an Evangelical clergyman, 
who commands enough respect, to be so nominated." ^ 
Of the work done by Evangelical clergymen in the 
past, he says that, " in the memories of the older 
inhabitants ... no serious impressions now exist that 
are referred to it; no institutions seem to survive." 
Of the High Churchmen, who laboured in the early 
days of Bishop Phillpotts' episcopate, he says : — 

" They were earnest men . . . had daily prayers at 8 a.m. or 
10 a.m. and observed saints' days . . . catechised and baptised 
after the second Lesson on Sunday afternoons, and they 
preached in surplices . . . they made and read good sermons 
to those who came to listen. But these were few." 

The upper farmers and gentry appreciated this type 
of parson, though the mass of the people did not ; at 
least from a religious point of view. 

"They have made people once more proud of their 
restored churches ; and kept them friendly, as ever, per- 
sonally. And now, four winds are blowing. The Evangelical 
blows very faintly. . . . The Ikoad Churchman is nothing to 
Cornwall, and Cornwall nothing to him. The old-f^ishioned 
High Churchman's work is done. And a more fresh and 
living tone of Evangelical-Catholic aims is running through 
the veins here and there; and this is the hope of Cornwall . . . 
the>' are cxtevipore preachers, many of them lively and good ; 
and they arc ready to preach in any schoolrooms, to get 

' Diary. 


licensed readers, and to preach out of doors, if need be. 
Their doctrine is naturally inclined to an over-sacramentalism, 
but this is balanced by firm beliefs in either the true latency 
of the Spirit Life, or by a firm adherence to the practice of 

He thouoht some of the old-fashioned Hisfh Church- 
men hard, and some of the " RituaHsts " extreme ; 
but he could admire the " manliness " of some of those 
who tauMit systematic confession like Mr. Mills, the 
self-denying Yicar of St. Erth, as well as the "living 
piety " of Mr. and Mrs. Mann of St. Issey, " true 
gentleman and lady as ever stepped." Certainly, by 
his genial sympathy, and true wide fatherly methods, 
he made himself most acceptable to the clergy of 
Cornwall of all shades of opinion. They recognised 
in him one who was truly Evangelical and intelligently 
Catholic ; one who took the pains to understand their 
special troubles, and was able to help them towards a 
solution of their serious difficulties. 

Besides those already named as earnest labourers in 
the vineyard, must not be omitted the Rev. R. H. K. 
Buck, Rector of St. Dominick and afterwards Honor- 
ary Canon of Truro ; the Rev. Canon Shuttle worth. 
Vicar of Egloshayle, father of the late Professor H. C. 
Shuttleworth ; the Rev. T. Hullah of Calstock, also 
Canon; and the Ven. W. J. Phillpotts, son of " Henry 
of Exeter," Vicar of St. Gluvias, and Archdeacon of 
Cornwall. He was a very shrewd and able ecclesiastical 
lawyer, though his action in opposing the Exeter 

1 Diarv. 


reredos, failed in its purpose. Foremost among the 
older clergy was the Rev. Reginald Hobhouse, Vicar 
of St. Ive, an earnest pioneer in the work of the 
foundation of the bishopric, whom Dr. Benson ap- 
pointed as the first Archdeacon of Bodmin, when the 
newly formed diocese was subdivided into two arch- 
deaconries in 1878. 

Mr. Hobhouse was for fifty years Rector of St. Ive, 
and died in January, 1895. His character and work 
are very well delineated in a sermon preached on 
Februar)- 3rd following by Canon F. E. Carter. The 
"stedfast immovableness," free from "stagnation," of 
his character was brightened by "gladness and free- 
dom," and a keen "sense of humour." "His last 
absence from his parish was his visit to St. Germans 
... on the occasion of the reopening of the church, 
when his delight was unbounded at meeting again his 
old Diocesan and friend, the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury" (Dr. Benson). ^ 

The following letter indicates the great value that 
Bishop Benson put on the character and work of 

Archdeacon Hobhouse : — 

" Palace, Exeter, 

'"^th January, 1883. 

"Mv DEAR Mr. Archdeacon, — You will not have 
thought my silence strange. The last eight or nine days 
have brought me a thousand letters. And I would let no 
one else write for me to you. 

" I am most grateful for your kindness — constant, strcngth- 

' Sermon preached at St. Ive by F. E. Carter, M.A., Canon Missioner 
of Truro Cathedral. 


ening, and devout. I am sure you will maintain your prayers 
for me. I value and need them more and more. 

" It was a very awful decision (if I may say so) — at least 
I thought it so. But though the thought of it deepens, 
I have the, to me rare, but peaceful conviction that it was 
right to decide so — ^just enough conviction to live upon. 

" I had planned with Mr. Burch, but had not settled the 
details, and could not immediately write — to visit one arch- 
deaconry in one year, and the other in the next ; and, for the 
sake of your health and your church restoration, to take your 
archdeaconry this year — but now, I suppose, nothing will 
be known just yet. I shall advise my successor to adopt this 

" I am most thankful to hear from Canon Martin that you 
are, and that you feel, better. I pray for your perfect restora- 
tion. The very fact that you were Archdeacon has been 
a joy and comfort to me. You have done far more for me 
than you think, and I felt always that I had where to turn, 
if I should want aid and thoughtful advice. This is no light 
matter when responsibilities are heavy. 
" Dear Mr. Archdeacon, 

" With kind regards to your daughters, 
" Believe me, 

" Sincerely yours, 

" EdW: TruroN:" 

The Rev. Prebendary Hedgeland, who for many 
years was Vicar of St. Mary's, Penzance, the town 
where the climate, as the Bishop of Truro said (quoting 
Norton the old historian), was "gentle and generous, 
cherishing God's earth with a continued sweet dew," 
and who, besides other various labours, had done 
much for Church extension and the erection of 
St. John the Baptist's Church, was greatly appreciated 


by Dr. Benson. His "refined intellectual qualities, 
and his kindness and Christian love, known and valued 
by all," were openly recoL^nised by his Bishop. 

Another clergyman's name deserves special notice, 
and even much larger and more extended mention 
than is possible in these pages. The Rev. J. R. 
Cornish, formerly Fellow of Sidney Sussex College, 
Cambridge, after a distinguished university career 
became Vicar of St. John's, Truro, and afterwards 
of Veryan. When Canon Vautier resigned Kenwyn, 
he was appointed to that parish and made an 
Honorary Canon of Truro. Under three successive 
Bishops, he has fulfilled the duties of Examining 
Chaplain ; he is Principal of the Diocesan Training 
Colleoe, one of the secretaries of the Diocesan 
Conference and of the Cathedral Building Committee ; 
and since 1888 has been Archdeacon of Cornwall. 
He is a very able advocate of religious education, and 
an acceptable speaker at the C.E.T.S. and White 
Cross meetings : no part of the organisation of the 
diocese but has felt the vigour of his touch, the 
encouragement of his voice, and the perseverance 
of his example. Every Bishop of Truro has found 
him to be an indispensable agent, in the starting 
of new enterprises, in the successful management of 
committees and conferences, and in the working 
of every department of ecclesiastical machinery and 
diocesan organisation. 

In 1890 Archbishop Benson invited him to join 
him as Archdeacon of Canterbury and Suftragan 


Bishop of Dover ; but he preferred to remain in 
Cornwall, where he had laboured for so many years, 
and among a people with whom he had many ties. 
It was a time also when the health of the second 
Bishop of Truro was such as to make any serious 
changes, among those upon whom he relied most 
for aid in the administration of the diocese, very 
undesirable. Cornwall was 'grateful for the choice the 
Archdeacon made. 


'wa/i S/^j3Crw Gri^mfiq L 

( u/r/ // //vv//// ( V/4/y////A 


IT would be a serious mistake to suppose that 
Dr. Benson was only the Bishop of the Clergy. 
He was very soon recognised, admired, and beloved, 
as the Bishop of the Laity. He had learned by study 
of Church History, and was realising in Cornwall 
daily, that lesson which he afterwards put into clear 
language at Canterbury. The " English laity," he 
said, "have on some questions a vox decisiva, and 
on almost all a vox deliberativay ^ There is not, and 
ought not to be, any cleavage between clergy and 
laity, for, as he said on the Epistle of St. Peter, 
" Save for nine lines of his letter, there is nothing 
limited to Pastors or Elders. The pathetic, stirring, 
sacred utterances are to the laity of the Christian 
Church. Not one duty of this social sort, either of 
work, or self-denial, or of any Christian principle 
is laid on the clergy which is not bound equally 
on every layman. There is no difference made or 
marked."-' Aoain, "The lavman has, in virtue of his 
position as a member of Christ, the child of God, 
and an heir of the kingdom, a high order of privilege 

^ Seven Gifts, pp. 69, 70. - Christ ami His Times, p. 35. 



and responsibilities," which he proceeded to show 
might be exercised in four ways : (i) over the young, 
(2) for the people, (3) through the "Great Societies,"^ 
(4) through the diocesan societies." And again, he 
invited the clergy to invoke fearlessly the aid of their 
lay people. "The laity must speak for the Church 
if they are the Church. . . . The laity of the Church 
are to be trusted. They will be true to their traditions 
and to themselves."^ When so trusted and so used, 
their "personal work" is splendid. " No tongue can 
tell, no mind can follow the endless charities of life, 
in kindness, in faith, in humbleness, which flow from 
the man and woman, to whose mind and heart the 
teachings of the Church come home as realities."^ 
At the first Diocesan Conference of the new 
bishopric, he brought this question well to the front, 
and expressed his intentions in no obscure language. 
" I am aware," he said, "that, in many dioceses, there 
are solid objections to the officiating of laymen, their 
reading prayers, or preaching in licensed chapels. 
For instance, in London, an immense proportion of 
the churches in the most frequented and wealthily 
tenanted quarter, are such licensed and proprietary 
chapels as require the services of a body of clergy, 
as much as any parish churches ; but, in our wide- 
spread tracts of moor and mining districts, of clay 
workers, quarriers, or country labourers, where there 
is literally no numbering the perpetual groups of five 

' Christ cmd His Times, p. i6o. '" Ibid., p. 171. 

3 Ji)ici^ ■» Seven Gifts, p. 1 24. 


or six, or ten cotta;j^es, how different is the picture ! 
Each such ;^roup^ — each Tre, or Pol, or Wheal, — 
needs its holy means of grace, its well-led prayers, 
its perfectly simple but sensible, scriptural, reasonable 
instruction, as much as Squares and Crescents ask for 
refined studies of thought or ritual. Why should the 
Church have so shrunk from committing such manly 
offices to her own laymen, (who reverence the laymen's 
standpoint too much to depart from it) that such 
functions have passed in hamlet and roadside far and 
wide into the hands of other laymen, to whom a 
theological distinction is a deceit, unendurable because 
to them unintelligible, and a mystery is only a chal- 
lenge to a familiar handling. I see no other way, 
and I think this a very good way, and am prepared 
to walk in it. ... It is a common newspaper reproach 
that the clergy ignore the laity as counsellors. I am 
afraid it is not very long since the clergy ceased 
' to ignore ' themselves in that capacity. But ruri- 
decanal chapters now frequently ask the co-operation 
of lay members, and I hope will still more generally 
do so. It is easy to reserve (if it be required) an 
hour, first or last, for any exclusively clerical, or 
doctrinal questions. The deliberations of our church 
deaneries, like those of this Diocesan Conference, 
have arisen as practical associations for general uses, 
and have not even a traditional mark of appropriate 
limitation to one order." 

With regard to the history and organisation of 
ruri-decanal chapters it is interesting to remember 


that the ancient office of Rural Dean, which some 
think has existed from the fourth century, but which, 
with far more probabiHty, was developed fully in 
Normandy and Norman England in the tenth and 
eleventh centuries, and was existing- in England 
certainlv in the reio-n of Edward the Confessor, was 
expressly intended to be preserved in the English 
Church at the time of the Reformation, as appears 
from the canons of 1571.^ In the old Diocese of 
Exeter alone was the office kept up without a break ; 
the clergy, by ancient custom, (still retained, and 
followed in recent times in other dioceses,) have 
always elected their own Rural Dean, subject to the 
Bishop's approval. During the nineteenth century 
one diocese after another revived the ofiice. Ruri- 
decanal conferences of laity with the clergy, assembled 
in synod, more or less informal, had come into being 
in the old Diocese of Exeter during the time of 
Bishop Temple: but even good Church workers would 
not attend merely by invitation. " I will attend at 
once," said a good layman, "when I have a right to 
attend, but not before I have it." And so, by degrees, 
it came about, under Bishop Benson's fostering care, 
that in the Diocese of Truro, conferences of clergy 
and laity as distinct from synods and chapters of the 
clergy, were held in every deanery ; lay representatives 
from the parishes being elected at parochial meetings. 
These conferences have continued to retain the 

^ Except where altered in quite recent times the boundaries of the 
rural deaneries mark the oldest divisions of England. 


interest of the laity ; and the presence of the Bishop 
of the diocese, and the discussion of a special subject 
laid before the meeting by himself, have prevented 
them from degenerating into mere routine gatherings, 
where dull and jejune reports are presented and 

Dr. Benson took a great interest in these conferences. 

" My Ruri-decanal Conferences also are nearly over, and 
the attendances of the laity have been very large. They 
have not spoken much, nor spoken very freely. But every- 
where they express themselves as feeling, and as ready for, 
the necessity of Lay Help ; but it is difficult to get the 
individual layman to move himself in that direction." - 

At another he says : — 

" There were but a dozen able to attend at so inconvenient 
a season. But they were of every rank — from a banker to 
a farmer's son and a seaman." 

A very affecting circumstance occurred in connection 
with this conference as related by the Bishop. 

" Dear Dr. Martin, Vicar of St. Breward, was there, having 
asked leave to come to listen, and he was greatly impressed. 
This meeting was held on loth January. Dr. Martin had begged 

to be allowed to come to T that day to finish some work 

for the Church, which had been fixed for the 27th. ' / shall 

not be able to come to T on tJic 2ph,' he said ; on the 

nth he breakfasted with us, and was full of the Readers' 
experiences and energies. After this he liad a {cw days' 

' I :im indebted for the above information to an interesting paper 
read at the Diocesan Conference 1S79 ^y Canon J. R. Cornish (now 
Archdeacon of Cornwall). 

- Diary. 


illness. On the 24th he was delirious and asked, ' Have you 
seen the Bishop and how is he? ' and then recited the whole 
of one of those speeches. On the 25th (Conversion of St. Paul) 
he died. A more devoted son of the Church never lived." ^ 

His impressions of the Diocesan Conferences are 
also particularly interesting. 

" These meetings are extremely important, but for reasons 
quite other than those for which the debaters think them so. 
The discussions were full of interest and never flagged, the 
attendance was large, and the audience also larger than ever. 
For purposes of settling questions, if that were the object, the 
subjects are too many and the time too short. Next year 
in choosing subjects we must act on this hypothesis. The 

best papers were one of Mr. U on Parochial Councils ; 

Canon M , on the Salvation Army, and an anonymous 

one, by Mrs. M , on Workhouse Children. Such papers 

ought to give a stimulus to anyone who has the progress 
of the laity and of the poor at heart." - 

A person who knew Cornwall well, but had had 
also wide experience of Church life elsewhere, once 
wrote as follow^s : — 

"The Truro Conference has a certain tone and origin- 
ality of its own. The speaking is generally above the 
average, and that of the lay members exceptionally good. 
There is plenty of brightness, life, and ' go ' ; and, as a local 
paper truly observes, there seems less tendency here than 
elsewhere to make the Conference a mere occasion for the 
adoption of reports and resolutions, in which little real interest 
is felt, and for the making of speeches upon well-worn and 
'safe' subjects. The fact is, that this small and remote 
diocese contains not a few remarkably able men." 

Bishop Benson was always more than willing to 

1 Diai-y. - Ibid. 


meet laymen of cill ranks and occupations, and give 
them what intellectual, moral, and spiritual help he 
could. The following- extract from his Diary for 
December 1881, gives a specimen of this branch 
of his intercourse with laymen : — 

" One of the most interestiiiL,^ things which has happened 
to mc this year was m)' lecture at Hayle to the artisans and 
others. A larLje bod)' of able men who never go to church, 
and few of them anywhere. A. Mills (the Vicar of St. Erth) 
has had afternoon lectures for them on Sunday afternoons, on 
any sort of subject with a religious turn any way capable 
of being introduced. They have been popular, and a few 
of the men have actually begun to come to church. The 
Town Hall was full and crowded. We began at once without 
prayer or any apparent introduction. I took for my subject 
' Visible Beginnings,' showing them how life, ' biologically 
considered,' was external to the body, which had powers 
beyond anything that could be considered mechanical, and 
which recorded its own results, for what ? Then to their own 
work, which, in ever}' feature, from its intricacy in arithmetic, 
or in any manner of skill, led on to perfectibility. And how 
trifles turning up in nature were endlessly the seeds of science, 
and how it was the very character of science to look on 
endlessh-, and all to what ? Everything, the motive power, 
the instrument, and the things achieved, all were plainly 
'beginnings' for an Individual quite as much as for Society, 
and where was the end and what ? 

" As I came away they formed into a lane, quiet, motion- 
less, and without an}- further demonstration, but just that they 
for vied!' 

It was natural that, not only men like the artisans 
of Hayle should appreciate the manly words of a man 
of intellect, who appealed to their higher reasoning 


powers, and called out their noblest aspirations, but 
that the men of the most advanced culture in the county- 
should enlist his aid in behalf of their undertakings. 
He was elected in 1880, President of the Royal 
Institution of Cornwall, a society that has for its 
scope. Science in many of its branches. Archaeology, 
Architecture, and other kindred studies/ Bishop 
Benson, without any claims to be called a man of 
science, was well able to appreciate the lives and 
achievements of Cornish men like John J ope Rogers, 
Edward Hearle Rodd, Sir John Maclean, and Dr. 
Barham, who united (as he said) "minute mastery 
of detail," "sweetness of disposition," and "manly 
influence," in their pursuit of knowledge. " Peace," 
he said in his presidential address, "be with the holy, 
manly, memories of men like these. Religion and 
science, all social honour, all domestic affection, keep 
their graves open, and may we be worthy of having 
known them."- And, on the other hand, with his 
accurate knowledge and keen observation, he was 
able to contribute not a little information on such 
a subject as the proper mode of "naming places" in 
Cornwall. He deprecated the indiscriminate use of the 
prefix "Saint" to all Cornish parishes named after 
some hermit, preacher, or missionary. He invited 

^ Of Bishop Benson's term of office the Late Ur. Barham testified 
(November i6th, 1881): "His lordship has been a most valuable and 
indefatigable president, and has introduced us to a sphere of useful- 
ness which we could not have followed half as well under any other 
chief." — Journal of Royal Institiitio7i of Cormuall^ vol. vii. p. 82. 

- No xxiii. oi Journal of Royal Institution of Cornwall. 


co-operation in the conipilation of a complete chronicle 
of the details of "the whole of our Cornish churches 
from St. Levan to Morwenstovv," on the plan so 
admirably carried out b\- Sir John Maclean in the 
case of Trigg- Minor Deanery. He was a vigorous 
opponent of that kind of church restoration in which 
"we and our architects" are "spoiling" "interesting 
features as fast as we can, and trying to make them 
like the Devonshire churches or Lincolnshire churches 
our architects have got books about, and which we 
have admired without reflection, and imitate without 
intelligence." ^ The closing words of this address 
are worthy of being preserved. 

" I would appeal to higher enthusiasm, in whose train lower 
results for good never fail to grow even unsought, unbidden. 
Be free, be liberal, be generous, and men ' will give good 
measure, pressed and trodden, and running over,' in return, 
without your calculating on it. 

" Let us make 

' This our city a little Academe, 
Still, and contemplative in living art'; 

and very soon you will find the bus}- and the practical 
develop themselves alike, a material body round the essence 
spiritual. And the architecture of your Cathedral, if you 
fling your hearts into it, and the science and the literature 
whicii you pursue, if you pursue it as nobly enamoured of 
' that angel knowledge ' (as Shakspere calls her) ; all, all if it 
is indeed ' living art,' will live itself into solid greatness. What 
is true of righteousness is true of all that God has given for 
the consolation and the elevation of man out of his depression 
and his low-thoughtedness. ' Seek ye first the Kingdom of 

1 Ibid. 


God,' ' seek the regions in which hes the law by which He 
reigns,' and all these things, all that man really needs, ' shall 
be added unto you.' " ^ 

Among" the many laymen who, in the days of the 
first Bishop of Truro and since, have nobly given of 
their time, their substance and personal service to 
build up the Church of God in Cornwall, must be 
named, first and foremost, the Earl of Mount 
Edgcumbe, who in every branch of Church work, 
philanthropy, and social effort, has won himself a 
name for Christian courtesy, untiring industry, and 
unstinted generosity. To mention only a few of the 
spheres of his labours it is sufficient to say that, in the 
building and maintenance of the Cathedral, and the 
improvement of the financial position of the clergy, he 
has taken such a lead as none else could have done. 

The names of Lord Robartes (whose title has been 
merged in that of Viscount Clifden), Colonel Tre- 
mayne, Mr. Edmund Carlyon, Mr. A. R. Boucher, 
Mr. A. C. Willyams, Mr. A. P. Nix, Mr. J. C. Daubuz, 
Messrs. R. and L. C. Foster, and Mr. T. R. Bolitho 
stand out prominently among a large company of 
faithful and earnest laymen, who welcomed and 
rallied round the episcopal leader whom God sent to 
them, after so many prayers and laborious sacrifices. 
It is one of the brightest and most encouraging tokens 
of Church revival and progress in Cornwall, to reckon 
up the numbers of Christian men, gentle and simple, 
who from the ranks of the laity serve on the com- 

' Ibid. 


mittees and attend the conferences of the Cornish 
diocese with so much wilHng perseverance and con- 
stant devotion, or as Readers minister in tlie many 
mission chapels that have of late years been so greatly 

Sometimes Bishop Benson had a public opportunity 
of expressing his thanks for the valuable services 
rendered by the laymen of Cornwall. Such an one 
was offered to him when a portrait of himself was 
presented to Sir Philip Protheroe Smith, of Tre- 
morvah, Truro. The Bishop has recorded in his 
Diary, May 22nd, 1877, his interview with ]\Ir. Smith 
(as he then was) and Lord Kimberley, whose agent 
he was, on the subject of the " Rector's rate " at 
Falmouth. (He again referred to this matter in his 
Diary, February loth, 1878.)! "Mr. Smith's appear- 
ance," as Dr. Benson said in his speech, " gready 
took his fancy," and the reputation he bore, as well as 
that of his wife for many years so well known and so 
deservedly beloved and respected for her devoted 
Christian life and work as Lady Protheroe Smith, 
was that of one " upon whom in every good work 
every one could depend." He was Mayor of Truro, 
at the time of the laying of the foundation stones of 
the Cathedral by the Prince of Wales, and received 
the honour of knighthood in connection with that 
event. Bishop Benson ended his panegyric with a 
Latin couplet, sent to him by Canon Phillpotts, who 

' This very thorny question has been happily set to rest in the days 
of the third Bishop of Truro. 


was unable to be present, inscribed under a portrait of 
" another very different Philip ■. — 

' Viventis potuit Durerius ora Philippi, 

Mentem non potuit pingere docta manus.' 

which put into plain English means — 

' Here Durer Philip's living face designed, 
But all his cunning could not paint his mind.'" 

On another occasion, Dr. Benson bore witness to 
the sterling good qualities of English working men, in 
an address given at the opening of a club in Truro, 
and eave sound counsel on readino- and on home life. 
The working man ought to say, " I will not go to the 
club to-night simply for my own enjoyment, but I 
must find out something to carry home to my wife in 
which she will be interested, and make the wife, more 
than was the custom in England, a participator in his 
intellectual pleasures." Speaking of working men he 
said, " I was taught as a boy a great many things 
which I ought not to have been taught, but never by 
a working man. My father trusted me to go out and 
in among them, and never once can I recollect a 
single instance of a working man using in my presence 
words, or talking about things, which I ought not to 
have heard." ^ 

During his episcopate there came a time of serious 
distress through the decay of the mining interest. 
Dr. Benson was very active in co-operating with 

1 "The Bishop . . . told us how his father had made him learn, among 
working men, when he was a boy, carpentering and Ijricklaying and 
stone-cutting."— Canon Mason's Diary, July 27th, i88i. 


those who were devising means of relief. He had a 
hicrh regard for the patience and endurance of the 
working people. "Under distress," he wrote, "the 
Cornish miner is noble." The following letter indicates 
how his interest and sympathy were aroused : — 

"Kenwvn, i-jth March, 1879. 

" To-day we have a meeting of the County Central Com- 
mittee on the Cornish distress. It is very severe. The sad 
thing is that so many of the very best men are in utter 
distress — people who never were near to distress before. 
Now they have lost shoes, food, clothes, and savings, and 
have to receive charit}^ 

" A pretty little coincidence quite raised the spirits of the 
people at Mousehole — just the very day that the first i^ioo 
was voted to them, a new boat came in from its first voyage 
bringing two thousand mackerel — the first-fruits of the year's 
fishery. xAnd things do look a little brighter." ^ 

One, who was in his service, has told the present 
writer much of his bright and kindly ways with poor 
people and working men. He would stop, again and 
again, on his way up or down Pydar Street, between 
Kenwyn and Truro, to speak a pleasant word. At 
a railway station his quick eye would at once fasten 
on a fisherman or miner among the crowd, whom he 
had seen at a Confirmation or other occasion, and he 
would shake hands, and leave a sense of friendliness 
that won many a heart. When he visited fishing 
villaees like St. Ives, he deliohtcd to go in and out 
among the cottages, and make acquaintance with the 

> Letter to his son. 


seafaring folk and their families. And all this was 
done without any sort of affectation of patronage or 

The brightness of Bishop Benson's manner, his 
wide reading, his genial disposition made him a very 
acceptable person in general society. He was recog- 
nised by all classes as a favourite and as a leader 
of men. But he never allowed himself to descend to 
the level of a seeker after popularity ; nor, though 
of broad sympathies, would he ever sacrifice principle 
to gain any man's favour. He could, if occasion 
required, speak out in very plain and trenchant 
language on the shortcomings and failures of duty 
on the part of laymen, as well as of clergymen. 
When preaching, on one occasion, in behalf of religious 
education, he dwelt on the great duty resting on 
landed proprietors in this matter. "Very heavy," 
he said, " is the responsibility of those who suffer 
schools to pass out of religious management ; for 
very great is the blessing upon those who rear 
children for the kingdom of heaven. By every prin- 
ciple of the Church, by civil principles which lie at 
the root of English polity, this maintenance of the 
best education devolves, in towns, upon the Christian 
liberality of the inhabitants; and, in the country, on 
the occupancy of the soil. Time was when the tenure 
of land was distinct. The Count or Earl for the 
county, the Duke for his dukedom, the Marquis for 
the marches, was responsible for justice to be done, 
forces to be raised, defences to be maintained. As 


time went on, some public duties merged in other 
duties, requirements grew less rigid, but they became 
more moral ; demands, and the response to them, grew 
less constrained, but more generous. But still the 
tenure of so special a kind of property ever retains 
obligations of a special character to those poor, who 
dwelling on it and cultivating it, or by many indus- 
tries and trades enriching it, give land a value quite 
its own, in which they do not participate. But now, 
sometimes, we hear it said that land is like any other 
possession, saleable and purchaseable without any 
such obligation, and that the children of the soil 
are like any other merchandise or cattle, valuable 
for their work, and creating for their employers no 
other responsibilities. If ever that doctrine were 
established everything else would be cast into the 

Then, as in after years, he was deeply interested in 
all social problems, especially those that affected 
"suffering populations." While disapproving of 
violent revolutionary measures, he could not regard 
" non-interference " as Christian. These difficulties 
are "phenomena of the very world in which Christ 
is now living." ''His 'kingdom of God' was not 
the reign of private interests." "Christianity 
must then have a distinct relation to poverty, and 
an encouraging one." "The principles . . . mapped 
out by Christ, make essential reference to social 
problems now before us. The Christian Fathers 
never doubted that they did, and indeed give some- 


what alarming point to those which bear on rights 
of acquisition, tenure and expenditure." " But 
one spinal cord there is which animates all the 
humanitarian words of Christ. One principle de- 
ducible from 'all these sayings.' Every one of them 
is directed not to a mere amelioration of conditions, 
but to the elevation of the man — the improvement 
of the receiver, and coincidently of the giver. 

"It is impossible to make the man happier, (no, nor 
even permanently richer) by any act or scheme, unless 
you make him better. . . . The most coveted social 
changes work nothing but confusion, unless they are 
the accompaniments of enlightenment, of habits 
governed by judgment, and of religious temper, . . . 
There is no amelioratincr of condition, which is not 
worked through the building up of character."^ 

With all his sympathy for the democracy he could 
take a very real pleasure in cultured society, and in 
the pleasant environments of old houses, with their 
historic associations and artistic treasures. The fol- 
lowing letter illustrates his tastes in this direction : — 

" CoTEHELE House, 

" Calstock, Tavistock, 

" \a,th October, 1878. 

" My dearest Arthur, — I must write from here to you. 
How I wish you were here with us ! You would enjoy this 
wonderful old house. It is where Lady Mount Edgcumbe 
Hves — the old Dowager Countess. I am writing in my bed- 
room all hung with tapestry. On one side a noble group of 

^ Christ a7id His Times, \)^. (^^-"j I. 


old hounds, large as life, standing under Renaissance arches 
and fruit festoons, with blue-green forests behind, waiting for 
orders. There ' ROMELUS CUiM viciNOS AD Tragedias 
Splendid scene of confused drapery and trumpets while 
' Romelus ' and his queen are settling their wedding in a 
staid and princely manner. Over the fireplace with its logs 
and dogs, a melancholy Roman is sacrificing ' ignoto Deo,' as 
the altar says, and the jewels on his shoulders are as bright as 
ever — and so it goes on. My windows look into a square 
court, which would make you dance ; fifteenth century and 
some much older ; a gateway opposite with the bloodstains 
visible in wet weather ; where some old Sir Richard killed the 
porter, and in the corner of my room a retired closet, which 
has a window opening into the chapel, for the ancient dame 
to pra)' in. The chapel below, loveI>' with old glass and old 
screens — and green encaustic tiles. It is like living in a 
story, and the old lady is worthy the old house." 

Amono- the various movements for social and 
spiritual reform. Temperance has always held a 
prominent place in Cornwall. Less than thirty years 
ago a Bill for "Sunday Closing" in the county 
very nearly passed into law. Dr. Benson, without 
adopting an extreme attitude, warmly supported this 
measure, and other useful schemes, for checking an 
evil recognised by all, but strangely failing to secure 
strong and vigorous support among leading politicians 
of the first rank. Cornish people have for many 
years been remarkable for their persevering efforts 
in this direction. Dr. Benson clearly recognised this, 
and gave all the weight of his office and his personal 
sympathy in aid of the movement. The following 


letter addressed to the Rev. F. E. Gardiner, Vicar 
of St. Paul's Truro, (now Sub-Dean and Rector of 
Truro) on the occasion of an important C.E.T.S. 
meetino- in favour of Sunday closing, expresses his 
mind on the question : — 

" Lis Escop, 

''July yd, 1882. 

" My dear Sir, — If you would read this letter for me to 
the meeting of the Church of England Temperance Society, 
I should be very much obliged to you. I want, not only to 
apologise, but to express my strong feeling of disappointment 
on the present occasion. I am more sorry than I can say 
to be compelled to be absent from the festival, in which I had 
hoped to share, and which had been fixed as well as could 
be, with a view to my being present, and taking part in it — 
though, at this time of year, hindrances are unavoidable. I 
have received a summons to business in London, have tried 
in vain to obtain an alteration, and am compelled to be 

"As to the great part which Cornwall is taking in promot- 
ing public measures on the subject, I trust nothing will defeat 
the Bill. 

"It is said that legislation will never make men sober. I 
daresay that is true enough. I am equally sure it is true 
that, without legislation, men will not find it possible to be 
sober. With so little of self-restrained habit prevailing, with 
such temptations on every side abounding, the average work- 
ing man, in average circumstances, has not a fair chance. 
Let legislation, imposing a little restriction on the diffusion 
of liquor, give people, so situated, the same liberty of choice 
which social restrictions upon temptations impose on other 
classes, and the habits will change below, as they have changed 
above. Few of the middle and upper classes are exposed 
to the ceaseless temptation, ' Drink ! drink ! Drink here ! 


Drink there! Drink of my drink ! Give me drink ' ; which 
custom thrusts on a far larger body of men. 

" Legislation will, at any rate, check the customs which 
are worst on the best day. Let men be bold against evil 
customs everywhere, whether they choose to abstain, or 
choose to be temperate onh' (which some find harder), all 
can contribute to break the neck of evil custom. Let them. 

" A good tone is more potent than legislation. One of 
the most important aims we can have, is the providing, and 
helping to provide, occupation and recreation good, innocent 
and thorough. 

"At the same time I trust that the religious basis of all 
true life will not (among all our little pleasant devices) be 
lost sight of. Many are the stories of people becoming 
Christian because the}' had become temperate, I wish there 
was more thought of the number who become so, and are 
temperate, because they become and are Christians. It is 
not in the nature of religious hearts to assert themselves. 
But it would help the causes both of temperance and of the 
Church (which are one), if we were more ready to observe 
how temperance, as a principle of life and not merely a bye- 
law about one article, is set down by St. Paul as ' a fruit 
of the Spirit.' " Your faithful servant, 

"E. W. Truron:" 

But, with all this ready sympathy with the temper- 
ance movement, he was quite alive to the mistakes 
and exaggerations of many of its advocates. On 
one occasion he attended a meeting, where he was 
astounded at the statements of " a fanatic, who told 
us, that the Nazarites of the Old Testament were 
the true patterns of the New Testament Christian, 
and that, while they were pledged to drink no strong 
drink, others were allowed to do so, provided it was 


unintoxicating. And, that of John the Baptist it was 
predicted, ' that he should be a mighty man before the 
Lord, fo7' he shall drink no wine nor strong drink.' 
This brought thunders of applause, for what he called 
'the direct teaching of the Holy Ghost.'" It is 
scarcely to be wondered, that the Bishop adds, "I see 
many indications that the Cornish are very ignorant 
indeed of their Bibles."^ 

He strongly desired to oppose to the public-house 
a counter attraction. Speaking at the opening of a 
working man's institution, he said: "There is no 
cause more fraught with good for the future than 
the cause of temperance. But, much as my own 
feelino-s are enoao-ed on that side, earnest as I am 
that every possible motive should be brought to bear 
upon this great question, yet I feel, wherever I go, 
that, when one has to speak about temperance, or 
listen to others, I always want to show what there 
is to be said on the other side. Solomon said, ' The 
legs of the lame are not equal," and there is a world 
of good sense in that quaint proverb. It is what 
I think must rise in the heart of many a poor fellow, 
who goes to hear temperance speeches. He knows 
it will be good for him if he does what he is told, and 
keeps out of the public-house ; but he asks ' Where 
am I to go ? ' . . . The answer ought to be given 
by the erection everywhere of institutions like this." 
But there were occasions also, when direct and 
important results from temperance meetings came to 

' Diary. 


his notice, as he has himself recorded. "On Monday 
night a crowded meeting for the Church of iMigland 
Temperance Society, at which they had to desist from 
enrolhng members, simply because it grew so late at 
night, and they could not write down the names fast 
enough." ^ 

There is another and far more prev^alent evil in 
Cornwall than drunkenness, which appalled Dr. 
Benson. He mentions it in his Diary, as "a very 
widespread immorality of a very dark character. . . . 
This is summarising what they tell me of them- 
selves. They attribute it to the Celtic character, 
with a smile. But we know the beautiful chastity 
of the women in Ireland."- He was shocked at the 
prevalence of illegitimacy, and anticipation of marriage 
intercourse. Among the causes that contributed to 
these unhappy results, he was constrained to believe 
that not the least important were "the inflammation 
of sexual passion, induced upon the awful sensuous 
agitation" of certain hysterical "Revivals"; the 
defective teaching on the Incarnation, and an " un- 
sacramental view of all things. The marriage tie, 
the human temple, the birth of a child into the world, 
having nothing mystic or mysterious in them. They 
resent the very word ' mystery ' in a sermon ; and 
until the idea can be borne in upon them again, and 
the Society of Christian men be recognised as a Unity 
not to be sinned ao-ainst, this frio-htful evil will not be 

^ Diary. "- Ibid. ^ Ibid. 


In after years the Church of England Purity 
Society was founded, and was warmly supported by 
him. The painful subject of incontinence was care- 
fully dealt with by him, in his Visitation Charge at 
Canterbury, published under the title Christ and His 
Times. He considered in detail the supposed causes 
of impurity, which was "the despair of science"; 
overcrowding, bad literature, evil example of the 
upper classes, the public school system, imperfect 
legislation. For him the hope lay " in Christianity 
alone." There is none in mere " publicity," such as 
had been attempted in the notorious pages of a 
magazine by a certain writer. "It has been said," he 
proceeded, "'sewers must be cleansed.' But sewers 
are not shot into market-places. It has been said 'a 
cannonade can spare neither women nor children.' 
But Christ's words on Purity are very unlike can- 
nonading. Publicity leads to shamelessness." ^ He 
had no great confidence in the "confessional," as a 
potent or permanent remedy. That, he believed, lay 
in " the inner life." As to how the White Cross 
League should work, he proceeded to show : — 

" Meetings rare. Language measured and delicate. No 
sensationalism. The individual taught, not to fix his thought 
on his own evils, but to divert it: helped to the reality of the 
' inner Hfe ' ; to what his faith can do for him ; to the feeling 
that, in a purer air, his own strength becomes the strength of 
ten, and that companionship for good is the knighthood of 
our time. Let no one fancy that our trust is in organisations. 
They are but ways of coming face to face, of bringing face to 

^ Christ and His Times, p. 93. 


face. Some such ways there must be, when men are real, 
when men have real purposes." ^ 

In Cornwall, as elsewhere, excellent work of the 
kind above indicated, has been done by Lieutenant- 
Colonel Everitt, late Secretary of the White Cross 
League (Church of England Purity Society), and his 
successor Lieutenant-Colonel Bourne. The Diocese 
of Truro owes a grreat debt to the Rev. C. F. P^^raser 
Frizell, formerly Vicar of Chacewater, to Dr. Hammond 
of Liskeard and to Mr. W. G. N. Earthy of Truro, 
("a succourer of many," in all branches of Church 
work), for their patience and zeal, in maintaining the 
work in Cornwall, under difficult and almost dis- 
heartenino- circumstances. And not a few Cornishmen 
have learned to pray, with all their hearts, the prayer 
composed for the Church of England Purity Society 
by Edward White Benson : — 

" O Lord Jesu Christ, sinless Son of Man, Who art ever- 
more ready to succour them that are tempted ; Grant unto us, 
Thy servants in this league, both valour and constanc}-, that 
we may keep undefiled our own purity, fight manfully against 
the corruption that is in the world, and shield and rescue 
those that are in peril and sore beset. Restore the fallen, O 
Lord, to themselves and Thee ; and, in garments white 
through Thy Blood, bring us all unto the home where the 
pure in heart see God. 

" These things we ask, of the Love of the Father and the 
Power of the Holy Ghost, in Thy Name, Who, with Them, 
livest and reignest, one God world without end. Aiiioiy 

^ Ibid., pp. 115, 116. 



THE years passed swiftly by. The home at 
Kenwyn was "idyllic." "No sweeter place 
could well be imagined than Lis Escop." ^ The 
spiritual work done in the parish, in which Mrs. 
Benson took a deep interest, and indeed an active 
and earnest part, was watched over and greatly in- 
spired by the Bishop, whose "dear and valued friend " 
the Rev. J. A. Reeve, Curate of Kenwyn, laboured 
with loving enthusiasm among a receptive people. 
But a great sorrow had broken in upon that happy 
life, early in the days of his episcopate. His eldest 
son, Martin White Benson, scholar of Winchester, 
"a boy of the most singular gifts of thought and 
expression," died at school in February 1878. The 
Bishop's grief "was perfectly tragic." The wound 
was an open one throughout his life — "an inexpli- 
cable grief." His diaries reveal, again and again, the 
secret anguish of his soul. " Nearly every year on 
the anniversary of his death " the Bishop with his 
wife and daughter " visited Winchester ... to pray 

' Lifc^ abridged edition, p. 162. 


beside the grave." ^ Among his private devotions, 
are found the following :■ — - 

Na), Ki'^/6, Kai ui'cnruucroi' toi' MnpTiiov fxov cu tuttw (J)0)Teii'a\ 
OTTOv eTTKTKOirel TO 0(0? Tov TrpocrwTrov crov, evua aireSpa XuTrt] 
Kcu (TTei'ay jULOi;. 

[Yea, Lord, and give rest to my Martin in a place of light where 
he may behold the light of Thy countenance, where sorrow and 
sighing is fled away.] - 

and these lines : — 


O Amor, o Pastor, qui, quem tibi legeris agnum, 

Vitali tingis morte, sinuque foves, 
Nos, qui tarn dulces per te reminiscimur annos, 

Due ubi non caeco dctur amore frui. 


O Love, O Shepherd, who dost touch with life-giving 
death the lamb whom Thou hast chosen for Thyself, 
and dost cherish him in Thy bosom, 

Lead us, who by Thy mercy look back upon such 
happy years, to that place where it may be granted us to 
enjoy a love without blindness.] ^ 

His son, Mr. A. C. Benson, says, "The home-life 
was here, as always, the bright background of his 
work ; and my brother's death, though he could not 
speak of it to us for a long time, seemed to draw out 
his tenderness for his children more than ever, and 
to increase his constant desire for their society,"'* 

^ Li/e, abridged edition, p. 274. 

' Prayers Public and Private^ edited by the Re\-. Hugh Benson, 
p. 169. 3 Ibid., pp. 240, 241. 

* Life, abridged edition, pp. 196, 197. 


One very interesting and touching token of the 
Bishop's constant thought of his eldest son, remains in 
three school note-books, unused by the boy, in which 
his father sketched the drafts of various offices for the 
Admission of a Missioner [Missionarioriim Capitis), of 
Members and Associates of the G.F.S., of the Rules 
for the Church Society, "to be submitted to Com- 
mittees "; of the Order for laying the Foundation Stone 
of the Cathedral, and of the Dedication of the Oratory 
at Lis Escop. '' Cum pia memoria Martini mei^ in 
beatis citjus fnit hie libellus, M. W. B., Winton. 
Jan. 1878." 

Beyond the circle of his home, he had many friends, 
and his correspondence with his clergy reveals the 
affectionate relations that existed between them and 
their Father in God. The following letter, addressed 
to a clergyman to whom he was greatly attached, 
shows how lovingly he could administer rebuke. It 
was an answer to a letter, in which the Catechism 
had been described as difficult and unintelligible, and 
in some respects unsuited for young children. There 
were other questions dealt with, which are omitted, 
as not being of sufficient present interest to record. 

"■November ^th, 1879. 

" Dearest Son, — Of course I put that to show this is to 
be a very unpleasant letter. X. is not to be blamed : he 
wanted me to write, or enter into, or prescribe to him to 

^ "Ltbellus Martini^^ so are the books inscribed. The offices, written 
and revised, are all compiled with equal care, the most private ones as 
well as the most public. 


write, loni,^ disquisitions on each point. But I said, theologians 
composing a catechism of divinity, need to have attention 
directed by only one word t(j an)thing requiring one. And 
I must hold to that now. / am not composing a catechism, 
and 1 do not think it necessary. What is wanted is, the living 
intelligent bright explanation, in word, of clerg>-, who really 
themselves understand the Church Catechism ; those who do 
not understand, because they have never worked hard at 
it, are many. I mean, who have never themselves mastered 
its theology, in such a way as to bring it home in talking. 
Its merit, as a theological work, is far beyond that of any 
other catechism of any other Church. (Trent not excepted, 
which seen in the peculiar figments of the Church of Rome, 
is a very wonderful statement.) But what you say of the 
children having begun almost to forget it, to call it ' Prayers,' 
and, as they grow up, to have been let slip into ignorance 
of its meaning, is the worst thing I have heard of the Church 
in Cornwall. It reveals a new danger, and explains the 
Methodism of the people more than anjthing. I am certain 
that, if the Catechism were steadily explained on a Sunday 
afternoon to children, in presence of parents, it would do 
more for the Church than an>-thing we have thought of. The 
clergyman wants help in drawing out his own thoughts into 
clearness, and illustrating them copiously from the Bible ; 
and, for ///;;/, Bishop Overall's or Bishop Nicholson's 
(especially) Exposition of the Church Catechism are ad- 
mirable. Anyone who knew it would be a shepherd 
indeed, and would find no difficulty in making children know 
and believe it. Whose fault is it, if it 'might have been 
as well written in Latin ' ? I know plenty of villages where 
it is known and understood and loved, ... I am very hard 
driven, and )-ou must pardon brevity. When you complain 
that theologians don't write simple catechisms, it is because 
no human task could possibl}- require so much theolog}', and 
such power of expression. But it is within anyone's power 
to get up one catechism, and teach it viva voce, which is what 


the Church orders to be done. Of course we know better 
than to obey and have not faith enough to trust. Why do 
}-ou not trust me, my affectionate son ? 

" Your ever loving 

" Edw: TruroN:" 

In another letter it is possible to gather something 
of the careful, but wide-minded, viev;^ he took of 
difficult questions referring to Dissent, and the best 
way to uphold Catholic doctrine and practice, without 
hard and repellent treatment of individuals. 

" Truro, November ^th, 1881. 

" My dear Mr. Moorp:, — Mr. Body preferred speaking to 
writing, and only yesterday had a talk with me. He advises 
the postponement of the mission, and I have quite agreed, 
feeling the full force of what I know you felt, but I think we 
might look forward to January 1883 as a good time for a 
mission. This would give us Advent 1882 for the more 
immediate preparation ; and, before that, full time for getting 
all our cords into order, and moulding the Church workers. 

" As to the baptism of cJiildren, who are at Dissenting 
schools and attend Dissenting meetings with their parents : 
(i) the nature of the baptismal grace ; (2) the 'opening of 
the door ' through the interest and affections of both parents 
and children, would seem to make it right to give, or not 
withhold, what is (3) 'generally necessary^ to their salvation. 
Confirmation, not being thus ' necessary,' is a different thing. 
I would not give that to young persons, who meant to go on 
in Dissenting habits, under most circumstances. 

" Great hostility to the Church on the part of the parents 
(though wishing to receive the Sacrament for their children), 
would seem to be a reason for postponing even Baptism, and 
endeavouring meantime to soften hearts. 

" The Church's commission to baptise seems so general, 


that to require more than the prescribed conditions, or even 
to put the closest construction on ' Uost thou believe in the 
Holy Catholic Church?' seems not right. But here, as in so 
many things, the characters and circumstances seem necessary 
to be reviewed, by the prayerful judgment of the priest on 
individual cases, with only very general principles such as I 
have touched on. I should like however to talk with you, on 
your own views of the case and learn them. 

" Yours sincerely, 

"Edw: TruRON:" 

The Bishop was very particular about details of 
business, especially those that concerned the Cathedral, 
its services, and their attendant expenses. Scarcely a 
week passed without his spending some time in going 
through the accounts, in suggesting economies, or 
better distribution of funds. 

Mr. T. H. Hodge, formerly of the Cornish Bank, 
was invited by him to act as Honorary Sub-Treasurer 
of the Cathedral. He spent many laborious, but 
agreeable, hours with Bishop Benson in the transaction 
of such business; and, from that time up to the present 
day, he has been the faithful adviser of those who 
have had charge of idie funds available for the main- 
tenance of the fabric and services. 

There was much kindly, and even loving, intercourse 
between the Bishop and his family on the one side, 
and not a few of the residents of Truro and the 
neighbourhood, and of all parts of Cornwall also, on 
the other. The following is only a specimen of letters 
that passed between him and his Cornish corre- 



spondents, years after he left Truro, and which show 
that the friendships then formed were deep and 

"Addington Pai^, Croydon, 

" 1st January, 1891. 

" My dear Mrs. A., — My New Year's note in answer to 
your Xmas card bears back, — if it were oxAy possible, — with 
interest of affection, }'our most affectionate wishes and 
assurances that we are all bound up in your great love for 
my dear wife. You know all we feel ; but we know also that 
God alone knows what Happiness is for any of us. We wish 
you the brightest He has to give, and your P. and all, and 

Mr. A. especially « yours affectionately, 

"EdW: CaNTUAR:" 

In the midst of all these ceaseless activities, busy 
schemes and plans for his diocese ; while he was 
leading a very busy but pleasant life, always returning 
to a happy home — came the call to the great and 
responsible office of Primate of all England. That 
he was likely to succeed to this high place some at 
least of those, who knew the mind of those with 
whom the appointment rested, were well aware. The 
dying Archbishop, Dr. Tait, himself said, " The 
Bishop of Truro will come forward and do a great 
work. For me twenty-six years is long enough." ^ 
Dr. Benson was summoned to his death-bed, a month 
before he passed away, and the visit was to him 
"like a patriarchal benediction."^ Dean Church also 
indicated him as a suitable successor, when he himself 

^ Life of Archbishop A. C. Tait, vol. ii. p. 592. 
2 Life, abridged edition, p. 228. 


tacitly declined the appointment, and when it became 
known that Dr. Harold Browne, on account of his 
advanced years, would not be called to bear so heavy a 
burden. Members of his own family were prepared 
for the news, especially Mr. A. C. Benson, who "had 
been told at Cambridge that many people believed it 
would be offered to him."^ But, that he himself had 
any definite expectation on the subject does not 
appear. Less than ten days before Mr. Gladstone's 
offer was sent. Dr. Benson in a letter, dated Truro, 
December 7th, 1882, wrote to a friend: "The noble 
sweet Archbishop rests well. . . . There is no one to 
come after him. — Your loving Edw. Tr." 

And then there came the actual definite call, con- 
tained in the letter, given later on, from the Prime 
Minister, and the still more striking and remarkable 
letters from the Queen ; the original autographs of 
which have, by the kindness of Mr. A. C. Benson, 
been deposited in the Chapter Room of Truro Cathe- 
dral, together with seals, rings, pectoral cross and 
other personal belongings of Dr. Benson. 

It is scarcely possible to give any adequate record 
of the feelings of Cornish Church people, when they 
heard that their Bishop was to be removed. They 
were proud that the first Bishop of Truro should be 
called to the highest office in the Church of England, 
and indeed of the whole great Anglican Communion. 
But it was a sore trial to them to part with him, after 
scarcely six short years of his presence among them, 

^ Life^ abridged edition, p. 216. 


during- which time they learned, not only to appreciate 
his remarkable gifts as a ruler of men and an organ- 
iser of Church institutions, a teacher and a guide, but 
to love him for himself, for his gracious manners, 
kindly sympathy, and benevolent character. 

That he himself felt the wrench of the separation 
greatly is w^ell known. " My heart is with you, and 
it always will be " ; he said at a public meeting held 
at Truro on January 22nd, 1883. "Dear Cornwall 
shall ever be in my daily morning and evening 
prayers." And his farewell address to the Diocese ~ 
expressed this still more plainly. 


" 10, Downing Street, Whitehall, 

''December i6th, 1882. 

"My dear Bishop of Truro, — I have to propose to your 
lordship, with the sanction of Her Majesty, that you should 
accept the succession to the Archbishopric of Canterbury, now 
vacant through the lamented death of Archbishop Tait. 

" This proposal is a grave one, but it is I can assure you 
made with a sense of its gravity, and in some degree pro- 
portioned to it ; and it comes to you, not as an offer of 
personal advancement, but as a request that, whereas you 
have heretofore been employing five talents in the service of 
the Church and realm, you will hereafter employ ten, with the 
same devotion in the same good and great cause. 

" I have the honour to be, my dear Lord Bishop, with 
cordial respect, « Sincerely yours, 

" W. E. Gladstone. 

" Were not this letter sufficiently charged already, I would 
ask what information can your lordship give me concerning 
Mr. Wilkinson (of St. Peter's, Eaton Square)." 


the bishop of truro to mr. gladstone. 

" Tkuro, 

''December i8///, 1882. 

" My dear Sir, — I am sure that you will be ready to 
believe that I cannot, and ought not to, do more to-day than 
simply acknowledge a letter which — with Her Majesty's 
gracious sanction — seems to be a call so momentous. May 
I beg for a few da}\s' interval, in which I may see one or two 
friends, who both know my affairs and will counsel me as 
Christian men, with no eye to anything but the service to be 
done and the burden to be borne for the Church and her 
^'^^^^ " I remain, etc., etc., 

"E. W. Truron:" 

from her majesty the queen. 

" Osborne, 

^'December 22nd, 1882. 

" The Queen wishes to express to the Bishop of Truro her 
earnest hope that he will accept this offer which she has 
made to him through Mr. Gladstone, of the ver}' important 
and high position of Primate — as she feels that he will 
thereby conduce greatly to the well-being and strength of the 
Church — and be a great support to herself 

" The Queen, and her dear husband in byegone days, 
always had a high opinion of, and sincere regard for, the 
Bishop of Truro." 

to her majesty the queen. 
" Truro, 

"December 2 ^rd, 18S2. 

" Madam, — Your Majesty's writing was a most gracious 
act for which I am deeply thankful. With extreme dread of 
failing in so high a trust, I was nevertheless drawn to the 
conclusion, under the advice of the few whom I could trust 


to ivarn me, that I ought to obey the call of Your Majesty, 
made to me through Mr. Gladstone. The immediate arrival 
of Your Majesty's letter has dispelled the last doubt, and 
especially the most deeply kind assurance of personal con- 
fidence gives me a fresh and real hope. 

" I ask of God, and hope, that worthier prayers than mine 
may obtain for me, the grace to fulfil for the Church and 
country what Your Majesty expects from me, and to be the 
most faithful servant of your throne. 
" Your Majesty's 

" Most devoted servant and subject, 

"E. W. Truron:" 

the bishop of truro to mr. gladstone. 

" Truro, 

'' December 22trd, i?>?>2. 

" My dear Sir, — I hope that I have not exceeded the 
time that I might properly be allowed. 

" I have now received the judgment of those from whom 
I most wished to hear — whom I most trusted to speak out to 
me with perfect sense of their responsibility — and specially 
from some of the Bishops. 

" Advised by them all in one way — and nevertheless with 
all awe which would, if it were suffered, degenerate into 
fears — I accept the Primacy — or in words of your own which 
are far more serious and inspiring, 'the succession to the 
Archbishopric of Canterbury.' 

" God give grace. God give all that I only can know to 
be so fearfully wanting. I will give all that He gives to the 
service of the Queen, and people, and Church. 

" That Her Majesty herself approves it, knowing almost 
better than anyone some earlier work, is a thought full of 

" May I say — God forgive me if I ought not — how much I 
feel its coming through you, with your heart-deep love of the 
English Church, and your devotion to her work and her life." 


from her majesty the queen. 


''December 28///, 1882. 

"The Queen has received with much gratification and 
pleasure the Bishop of Truro's kind letter accepting the high 
and responsible office of Primate. 

" From all sides she hears such expressions of thankfulness 
at this decision, and such confidence expressed in the Bishop. 
Her best and most earnest good wishes will attend him in his 
arduous and high calling ! 

"The Queen has heard with great satisfaction that Mr. 
Davidson is (for the present at any rate) to give him his 
valuable assistance, in the same position which he held with 
his beloved father-in-law. 

" The Queen has just had a letter from the Dean of West- 
minster, in which he speaks of the Bishop and Mr. Davidson 
in the warmest terms. 

"When it is possible for the Bishop to get away for a 
night, the Queen would be most anxious to see him." 


"My dear Brethren and Friends, — It is with heavi- 
ness of heart, and still with that trust which must at last 
overcome heaviness, that I speak of parting. 

" But I must speak — and speak at once, or I shall cause 
you inconvenience. 

"The circle of Confirmations, which through the grace 
of God I have found ever fresh and reanimating, the Con- 
ferences brimming with strength and hope, which have bound 
me to all the clerg)- and to such numbers of the laity in more 
than friendship, and all the other appointments made and 
looked forward to with zest, must, this year and henceforth, be 
held by another ; I had planned to begin them so early that 
many ma}- have to be postponed. 

" Of m}sclf few words. I believe >-ou think it was right 


to accept this call to the Primacy, I could never have 
thought so, but for the constant prayers offered far and wide 
ere it came, and for strange concurrences of circumstance 
which preceded and attended it. 

" I consulted the chief layman of the county. His judg- 
ment was, that, whilst it would have been wrong to exchange 
this for any other see, however distinguished, I had no right 
to decline a leadership, full of labour and anxiety, and not 
wholly detaching me from the hope of working with and for 
you still. This judgment concurred with what I seemed to 
see right. 

" Dear Brethren in God's Ministry, you have worked with 
me untiringly, and admitted me to your intimacy ungrudgingly, 
and I have learnt to love every Home and Church and School 
of yours. 

" Your Rural Deans have been my wise and constant coun- 
sellors ; and Canons have been like brothers, as if the old 
Cathedral idea were once more to spring into bright activity. 

" To the Laity I would speak in terms of deepest respect 
and gratitude. Some, from elevating perceptions of what 
the Church is in Her Divine Master's view ; some, from 
experience gained in bodies which honestly endeavoured 
to make up what was left undone in the past ; some, from 
practical insight into the grievous needs of the actual present ; 
have recognised the fact that they are the Church of God in 
its power and in its obligation. 

" As holding its ancient offices of Churchwardens and 
Sidesmen, as members of conference, ruri - decanal or 
diocesan, as Readers, as Churchworkers, as Managers and 
Teachers in every rank of life, as helpers with worldly means 
of good, or as responsible before God for the godly education 
of His little ones in the knowledge of His will, the Laity 
of our day have opened a fresh era in the Church. 

" All this is not the fruit of a few years. It has been 
preparing for a long time past, and the far greater works 
which remain, God will also bring to perfection. 


" Little justice should I do to my creed or my feelings 
if I did not yet once again, as often in the past, acknowledge 
with love and gratitude that activity for Christ's sake, that 
openhandedness, that kindness towards all good works, that 
favour at beholding growing activities in the Church, which 
have been shown by the Wesleyans and b>' man\- others, who 
nevertheless have, and use energetically, organisations of their 

" Where I go I have a noble holy example before my eyes 
— my great predecessor in the Archiepiscopal See. But how 
hard to follow! The greatness was God's gift of nature. 
But the holiness and the sweetness of his charity — for that 
I am bound to strive as I may. You (I know it) will pray 
for me often (for I shall belong to you still) and specially 
in that Holiest Communion, where we are together unsevered 
by time or by space, that I may not strive in vain. I bless 
God for some little knowledge of the strong dignity of his 
work, and yet more for the sight of his fervent love to all 
men, and of his dying yearning for peace among Christians, 
which by God's special goodness was allowed to me, from 
time to time, in his weeks of ebbing life, 

" For my successor here I pray with you, while it is known 
to God only who he shall be. I scarce think you can have 
one who will love Cornwall better than I — her primeval 
Church and warmhearted children, and her vestiges of old 
story, her shores and shrines, and the fair House of God 
which is rising in the midst ; but I will beseech you to pray 
for one, who will work in the Spirit of Christ more faithfull}', 
more zealously, more intelligently. 

" For her prosperity, both temporal and spiritual, I and 
mine shall never cease to pray ; for her enrichment in every 
grace, in hope and love and generosity, in purit)- of faith and 
purity of life, in perfect truth and perfect peace. 
" I subscribe myself for life, 

" Your devoted servant, 

" Christmas, 1SS2." " E. W. TRURON: 


No sooner had Dr. Benson been desiofnated for the 
Primacy, than a small committee was formed at Truro 
to devise means whereby he might be presented with 
an archiepiscopal cross. Canon Thynne acted as 
secretary, and the committee was enlarged by members 
of Convocation, for each diocese of the southern 
province. The gift was a very beautiful and costly 
cross of silver gilt, glittering with pearls, sapphires, 
and clusters of diamonds and rubies, for which the 
Rev. Dr. Finch raised a special fund ; and other 
offerings were made. It was designed by Messrs. 
Bodley and Garner and executed by Messrs. Hard- 
man, under the direction of the late Canon F. H. 
Sutton. The niches include the fiorures of the four 
Evangelists together with St. Peter and St. Paul ; and 
those of St. Augustine of Canterbury, his conse- 
crator. St. Vigilius of Aries ; Archbishop Theodore 
of Tarsus, St. Hugh of Lincoln ; and St. Piran and 
St. Petroc for Cornwall. The cross was presented 
to the Archbishop at the Library, Lambeth Palace, 
on April 29th, 1885. 

At the enthronement in Canterbury Cathedral of 
their first Bishop on March 29th, 1883, the Cornish 
clergy were well represented by the two Proctors in 
Convocation, Canons Thynne and Hockin, Chancellor 
Whitaker, Canons Bush, Coulson, Mason, Du Boulay 
and Rogers, and Prebendary F. E. Carter. In spite 
of his overwhelminor work, there was a constant inter- 
course between himself and his old diocese. At 
Lambeth garden - parties a visitor from Cornwall 

CHANGES ■ 187 

would be sure to meet many old friends, lay and 
clerical, men and women, from the Western Duchy. 

"Ah ! IMason," said the Archbishop one day, half 
in earnest, half playfully, to Canon Mason, as they 
were talkinij;- over old days and old work, " depend 
upon it, it was a great mistake when you and I left 
Cornwall." But, though his heart was with Cornwall 
and its Church, his opportunities of revisiting the 
scene of his great work there were very rare. There 
was the great and glorious day, the fulfilment of his 
dream, when the Cathedral was consecrated, and he 
preached the first sermon within its walls. There 
was a later visit in 1894, when he stayed at Port 
Eliot, and was present at the reopening of the noble 
church of St. Germans by Bishop Gott ; and when, 
after seeing several other old friends, he spent a quiet 
Sunday at Truro, taking a simple part in the services 
of the Cathedral, reading the Lessons, while his im- 
mediate successor. Bishop Wilkinson of St. Andrews, 
preached the sermon. 

And then, two years afterwards, came the great 
shock of his departure. The news of the Arch- 
bishop's death was known in Truro just before Even- 
sonof. on that memorable Sundav in October. The 
Canon in course, out of consideration for the feelings 
of not a few, who would have been quite over- 
whelmed if the announcement had been made 
without some kind of preparation, quietly, at the 
close of the service, said tlie [)rayer for All Saints' 
Day ; and. after the congregation had dispersed 


during- a solemn voluntary, the startling news had 
quickly spread. 

At the funeral at Canterbury, Chancellor Worlledge 
was among the pallbearers, and there were also 
present from Cornwall, the Archdeacon of Bodmin 
(the Ven. H. H. Du Boulay), Canons Bush, Chappel, 
Flint and Whitaker, and the Worshipful R. M. Paul, 
Chancellor of the Diocese, and several Cornish ladies. 

It is interesting to note, that the Rev. F. E. Carter 
(Tait Missioner and afterwards Hon. Canon of Canter- 
bury Cathedral), Dr. Benson's fellow-worker and friend 
at Truro, was the one wdio arranged the company of 
watchers round his coffin, and acted as ccvenioniarius 
at his funeral. 

At Truro Cathedral a great Memorial Service was 
held, attended by a vast congregation, including the 
Mayor and Corporation, many laymen from all parts 
of Cornwall and a large number of the clergy. 

In an article on "The Funeral of the Archbishop" 
the Guardian said : — - 

"The great influence on the life of the Church which is 
exercised by the Primacy, in the hands of a strong man, was 
fitly represented by the vast numbers of clergy that attended 
the funeral . . . Laud, Tillotson, Tait have, each in their way, 
left their mark on the history of the Church. Archbishop 
Benson will be reckoned in the same rank. The famous 
judgment, which has spread peace over the land, will stand 
as a lasting memorial to his rule." ^ 

But, to Cornish Church people, and perhaps even 

1 Guardian, October 21st, 1896. 


to Others who knew him before he was called to 
Canterbury, his work at Truro will always remain the 
most valued, the most interestini^-, and certainly the 
most picturesque. To have had the unique and great 
opportunity, of guiding a new diocese into ordered 
ways and wise disciplined action, is not often given 
to any man. But he, by his own initiative, grasped 
and used with enthusiasm, tact and judgment, another 
opportunity ; that of founding and building a new 
cathedral, which, in its fabric, organisation, and work, 
should realise, in these later days, the great ideals that 
he had himself learned to appreciate, in the ancient 
and venerable ecclesiastical foundations of the past. 

His greatest and most conspicuous monument will, 
as the years pass by, be recognised to be, not chiefly 
the beautiful canopied effigy that covers the actual place 
of his burial in the great Metropolitical Cathedral 
at Canterbury, nor even that which marked in so 
significant a way a new era in the administration of 
the Primacy, the written memorial of his lucid, wise 
and tolerant " Lambeth judgment " ; but in that well- 
ordered diocese of the western peninsula of Cornwall, 
and the noble cathedral that is the centre of its 
Church life. 

The following is a very true estimate of his work 
at Truro : — 

"... When all has been said, it remains that the spiritual 
value and significance of the Cornish period were unique. 
Never again, in the after-years, weighted by measureless 
responsibilities, was he able to give full fling to the joyous 


outbreak of all the strength and beauty that he had it in him 
to give to the Kingdom of God. Down there, on that hidden 
headland, he could allow his exuberant energy of work free 
play, unhindered by the anxieties which encumber a great 
position under incessant criticism. His buoyant idealism 
was kindled by the poetic contrast between the thing that he 
found to hand, and the thing that he meant to do. All his 
creative faculty of organisation was evoked, with its equal 
delight in the depth of the foundations to be laid, and in the 
perfection of the smallest detail to be foreseen. His warmth 
of feeling responded to the imaginative emotion of the 
Cornish. Strange memories, archaic visions, hovered mistily 
over uplands and hollows : the past, in its fascinating 
shadowiness, in its weird oddities, met him at every turn of 
the road, in the quaint form of suggestive aloofness which 
most appealed to his swift curiosity. Everything that he 
undertook went through with enthusiasm. He had all the 
joy of multitudinous beginnings : and he left, before the drag 
had begun of seeing to the continuance of what had been 
begun, among a people who are quicker to welcome than 
they are stable to sustain."^ 

It is true that the whole Cathedral at Truro is his 
monument, but there are not wanting special memorials 
of him, within and without its walls, in stained glass, 
statue, carved inscription. Chief among them are the 
words cut in stone of the south transept, now called 
by his name : — 

" To the glory of God this transept was erected to com- 
memorate the restoration to Cornwall of its ancient bishopric 
and the episcopate of Edward White Benson, D.D., first Bishop 
afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury." 

1 Canon H. Scott Holland, Journal of Theological Studies, vol. ii. 
No. 5, October, 1900, p. 34. 


Another is the figure, engraved in brass, near the 
baptistery, given by clergymen ordained by him at 
Truro and Canterbury ; with the following inscription : — 

"»^ Reverendissimum in Chri.sto patrem Edwardum White 
Benson Cantuar: Archiepum, apud Cantuar: sepultum, funda- 
torem hujus Ecclic-e et epum primum summa pietate Clerus 
ab ipso ordinatus commemorat. MDCCCXCVI." 

together with the words selected by himself for his 
epitaph : — ^ 

" Miserere mei Deus. Per crucem et passionem tuam libera 
me Christe." 

On July 8th, 1899, the noble monument, designed 
on lines similar to that erected to the memory of 
Archbishop Peckham, standing under the north-west 
tower of Canterbury Cathedral close to the Arch- 
bishop's grave, was unveiled by H.R. H. the Duchess 
of Albany. The Dean of Canterbury and the Lord 
Chancellor (Lord Halsbury) paid fitting tribute to the 
greatness of his life and work ; but Cornwall was 
once more in evidence near his tomb, when Canon 
Gardiner, Sub- Dean of Truro Cathedral, represented 
the Chapter of his old Cathedral, and the Earl of Mount 
Edgcumbe, Lord Lieutenant of the county of Cornwall, 
bore witness to the deep affection ever felt towards him 
by the laymen of the West, and commended to the 
Church people of England the completion of Truro 
Cathedral, as his most appropriate memorial. 

^ In a private memorandum found among his papers he wrote : " I 
would have these words put abo\e my grave and no others." 


Whenever hereafter men shall recall the memory 
of the first beginnings of the Diocese and Cathedral 
of Truro ; when they shall inquire, When was this 
o-ood tradition in organisation or work or worship 
beo-un? Who was it that first inspired this noble 
idea, that has grown into form and beauty in- 
creasingly, as the years have passed ? Who first 
gave us this or that form of prayer or stately 
ceremony, this or that wise rule for conference or 
chapter? Most often, if Cornish Churchmen are 
faithful to his great example and leadership, the 
answer will be found in the history of the episcopate 
of Edward White Benson, first Bishop of Truro 
and founder of its Cathedral. 

At a meeting of the General Chapter, held on the 
festival of SS. Simon and Jude, 28th October, 1896, 
in the Chapter Room of the Cathedral, the following 
resolution with reference to the death of the Most 
Reverend Edward White Benson, Lord Archbishop 
of Canterbury, was unanimously passed : — 

" That we, the Bishop and Canons of Truro, in General 
Chapter assembled, desire to express our deep sorrow at the 
removal from the Church on earth of our late Archbishop, so 
honoured, trusted, and beloved, some time the first Bishop of 
this reconstituted diocese. 

" While recalHng, with gratitude to Almighty God, all the 
Archbishop's unwearied service to the Church and the nation, 
and the varied gifts so reverently offered in that service, we 
feel that it is our especial privilege to record our sense of the 
wisdom which planned the foundation of this Cathedral, the 
skill with which its statutes were drafted, and the hopeful 



enerj^y which communicated to many hearts a determination 
to continue what had been so happily begun. 

" That we desire further to express to Mrs. Benson and 
her famil)' our deep s>'mpathy with them in a sorrow in 
which man}- have most truly shared, and an assurance of 
our continued pra}-ers that, together with him who has now 
entered into his eternal rest, they may evermore be guarded 
b}' the peace of Christ." 

The resolution was signed by the Bishop, as presi- 
dent of the Chapter, and by Chancellor Worlledge, as 
secretary, and was forwarded to Mrs. Benson. 

To the above resolution, the following reply was 
received : — 

" Eton College, Windsor, 

''November \6th, 1896. 

'•Dear Mr. Chancellor, — My mother had hoped to 
be able to acknowledge the kind resolution of condolence, 
forwarded to her by the Bishop and Chapter of Truro, but 
she has not been able to do so yet. She therefore asks me 
to express her sincere gratitude for the affectionate sympathy 
expressed, and for the touching allusions to my dear father's 
work in Cornwall. 

" May I add one word ? Of all the various positions that 
my father held, though he threw himself with equal zeal and 
interest into the work of each, yet I am sure, from many 
things he has said to me, that his work at Truro was nearest 
to his heart : he felt the stimulus of Wellington, he loved the 
antiquity of Lincoln ; and the historical traditions of Canter- 
bury, combined with the sense of the hourly growing energies 
of the Church, ga\e him a deep sense of solemn responsi- 
bility : but the Truro time was what touched his affections 
most. To hear him speak of Truro, and Truro people and 
Cornish folk was alwa}-s a delight ; he thought that they 


loved him, and his own love for them was peculiarly tender 

and eloquent. Even in times of sadness and anxiety, it 

always brightened him to think and speak of Cornwall. 

" Will you kindly convey to the members of the Chapter 

our sincere thanks for the resolution, and believe me, dear 

Mr. Chancellor, 

" Most sincerely }^ours, 

"Arthur C. Benson." 



in the county of Uurh;im, and educated at 
Durham under Dr. Henry Holden. He was elected to 
a scholarship at Oriel College, Oxford, and graduated 
in Honours (Literal Humaniores, Class II.) in 1855. 
He was ordained to a curacy at St. Mary Abbot's, 
Kensington, under Archdeacon Sinclair the elder, 
and held the livings of Seaham Harbour and Bishop 
Auckland in the Diocese of Durham from 1859 to 
1867. His experience as an active Parish Priest, 
among the mining population of the North, was en- 
larged by his transference to London in 1867, when 
he was appointed Vicar of St. Peter's, Great Wind- 
mill Street. Here he laboured, for three or four years, 
among a poor and sadly depressed population, which 
afforded only too sufficient material for rescue and 
penitentiary work. In 1870 he was appointed to the 
large and important parish of St. Peter's, Eaton 
Square, the inhabitants of which include some of the 
wealthiest residents in London, and some of the most 
cultured of "Society" families. The history of his 
thirteen years' ministry in that parish cannot be 



told here, in any sort of adequate manner. All that 
can be said is, that nothing less than a constant spirit 
of missionary effort was kept alive, that instructions 
in the "Way of Salvation," and the "Devotional 
Life " ; teaching about the need of true conversion 
and real vital religion, created the deepest impression 
on multitudes whose antecedents and environment 
made it far from easy to escape the deadening in- 
fluence, and exhausting excitement, of fashionable 
Society and of the London Season. The fervour, 
that might easily have taken the form of mere 
Methodist Revivalism, was held in check, not only 
by a cultured refinement, but by a reverent regard 
for "the proportion" of the Faith: and the stirring 
of the emotions was balanced, both by appeals to 
the understanding, and by a careful regard for the 
authority of the Church. And so, the results achieved 
were, in no little degree, a successful combination of 
Evangelical piety and Catholic devotion. The sub- 
jectivity of the prayer-meeting did not prevent those 
who came to it from estimating the Sacraments at 
their true value, nor from duly using them. Interest 
was awakened in all kinds of Church work ; vast 
sums were freely given by those who had "first given 
themselves to the Lord " ; the great ugly church was 
transformed and glorified ; the services were well 
ordered and the music beautifully rendered : a centre 
of spiritual life and light, in the very heart of London, 
spread its influence far and wide. Mr. Wilkinson's 
powers as a mission preacher were exercised, not 


only in his own parish, but in very many parts of 
England. Perhaps his most remarkable effort in this 
direction was at the great mission held at Leeds in 


He w^as associated with Bishop Benson, as one of 

his Examining Chaplains, very early in his episcopate, 

and was appointed Honorary Canon of St. Petroc in 

Truro Cathedral in June 1878. He not only gave 

most moving addresses at many of the Ordination 

Retreats, but greatly impressed the clergy of the 

diocese at the Devotional Conference. Of one of 

these occasions L)r. J3enson has recorded : — 

"Wilkinson told me, that he himself was quite carried 
away with the possibilities that opened out before him of the 
Church in Cornwall ; and, that at his first Communion in our 
homely little Cathedral, the text, ' The glory of the Lord 
shall be revealed,' was borne in upon him, with such a divine 
force, that he changed all the outline of what he meant to 
say into this theme, and gave up the plan of what he had 
prepared." ^ 

Dr. Wilkinson was thus in close touch with many 
of the Cornish clergy over whom he was called to 
preside. He had, from the first, enthusiastically 
entered into Dr. Benson's ideas about the building 
of the Cathedral ; he was present at the great event 
of the laying of its foundation stones on May 20th, 
iSSo; and it was noticed how carefully he looked 
after the Bishop whom he loved so much, leaving his 
own head bare that he might screen his master's neck 

• Diary. 


from the fierce rays of the sun. He had bright and 
sanguine hopes of progressive and united Church 
work in Cornwall ; and, in a sermon preached in 
London after one of his visits to Truro, "in pro- 
phesying good for the English Church, he said, 
' There is one diocese where parties seemed to have 
died under the sense of common duties.' "^ 

It was not surprising that such a man should be 
marked out for promotion to the episcopate ; and, 
when, in a postscript to the letter that offered the 
Primacy to Dr. Benson, Mr, Gladstone asked, "What 
information can your lordship give concerning Mr. 
Wilkinson ? " he was answered with words that en- 
larged upon the "deep inner devotion and marvellous 
tact" of his friend, and with the assurance that "the 
religious heart of Cornwall, where the social and 
religious separations are so great, would be (as I have 
seen it so) remarkably susceptible of his influence." 

The announcement of the selection of their Vicar 
for the vacant Bishopric of Truro, called forth mingled 
feelings among the parishioners of St. Peter's, Eaton 
Square. Both they and he felt the summons to be 
"a call from God," but " this did not lessen the pain " 
of the coming separation ; of which however he could 
say, " God helping us, nothing will ever really break 
the link which binds us to each other."" This 
certainly proved to be true, in the constant help given 
by his friends in London to the new Bishop of Truro; 

^ Bishop Benson's Diary. 

- Letter to his parishioners, January 26th, 1883. 


in personal work, liberal offerings for the building and 
adornment of his Cathedral, and the generous support 
of many Church works and enterprises. At once 
a remarkable movement took place, to raise a 
"Wilkinson Testimonial Fund," of which Lord Col- 
ville, Sir James McGarel Hogg (M.P. for Truro, and 
afterwards Lord Magheramorne) were the leaders. A 
sum of about ^4,000 was collected, which was expended 
in the purchase of a handsome book signed by all the 
subscribers, a carriage, and other personal gifts ; a 
ring, a pastoral staff, and a pectoral cross were pre- 
sented by the ladies of the congregation and the 
assistant clergy of the parish. At the presentation 
of these gifts the donors spoke thus : — 

" For all that you have done for us we desire, first of all, to 
bless God's Holy Name, and then, to offer our grateful thanks 
to you." 

The Vicar was able to say in his reply : — 

" Every man, woman, and child, could feel that they are 
part of a great family, and bound to do what they can to 
help on the work of the Church. It has not been by ones 
or twos, or by tens and twenties, but by fifties and hundreds, 
that the Church-workers, thank God, can be counted." ^ 

Dr. Wilkinson was consecrated on St. Mark's Dav, 
April 25th. 1883 (the sixth anniversary of his pre- 
decessor's consecration), in St. Paul's Cathedral, 
together with the Bishops-elect of Llandaff and Tas- 
mania, Drs. Lewis and Sandford. The Archbishop 

^ St. Petals Magazine, May, 1SS3, pp. 12 seq. 


had a peculiar interest in consecrating, as his successor, 
one so loved and trusted by him as his Chaplain and 
a Canon of the Cathedral ; while the Bishop of 
London (Dr. Jackson), and the Bishop of Lichfield 
(Dr. Maclagan, formerly Vicar of Kensington), had 
the pleasure of presenting for consecration to his high 
office, one closely united with themselves by friendship 
and common work in the great city. 

On May 15th, the new Bishop was received in the 
city of Truro with a thorough Cornish welcome by a 
very large gathering of the clergy and leading laymen. 
Dr. Temple, the Bishop of Exeter, commended him 
to the "attachment" and "loyal respect" of the Church 
people of Cornwall. The friendly words of the Mayor 
of Truro, Mr. Martin, a Nonconformist, gave Dr. 
Wilkinson the opportunity of speaking of Dissenters 
in a kindly strain, and of declaring his intention to 
carry on the work of his predecessor ; he determined 
to have as his ideal "the highest that a Bishop 
of Truro . . . can put before his mind, to be ... a 
father in God, to be on earth a representative of what 
the great Father is, to be a father, as He is Father, 

The ceremony of enthronement took place in the 
little wooden church, that had been erected after old 
St. Mary's Church had been demolished, with such 
ceremonial as was possible under the homely conditions, 
of which Dr. Wilkinson had said some years before, 
that the besrinninors of the new Diocese of Truro 

' St. Peter's Magazine, June, 1S83, jjp. 133 seq. 


reminded him of the primitive simpHcity of the Acts 
of the Apostles. The new Bishop preached from the 
words "Jesus Christ, the same, yesterday, and to-day, 
and for ever." 

With such a happy inauguration Bishop Wilkinson 
entered upon his work. Great expectations were raised 
of what he might be able to accomplish, especially 
as he had already for some years past proved 
himself to be in full sympathy of spirit with earnest 
men of widely different convictions. He thoroughly 
entered into the aspirations of those who loved a 
well-ordered service, and who, loyal to the teaching 
of the Prayer Book, valued the grace given through 
the Sacraments of the Church. But he was an 
"Evano-elical," in the best sense of the word. Personal 
religion was, to him, as essential to the well-being 
of the individual soul, as corporate religion is to the 
spiritual stability of the Church, and every member 
of it. It had been his great aim, as Vicar of a London 
parish, to bring the two into true co-ordination, and 
he set before himself the same object, in his new 
and far more difficult position as Bishop of so unique 
a diocese as that of Truro. 

The position of the Church in Cornwall, owing to 
the causes referred to in the first chapter of this book, 
is that of a Church, supposed to be " established," tace 
to face with a great body or bodies of professing 
Christians, outside her pale, rendering her no alle- 
giance, and very often deriding her claims and oppos- 
ing her work. A faithful Churchman looks at the 


situation as, for instance, Bishop Benson regarded it. 
He cannot fail to recognise the spiritual power of the 
"great John," the "complete manner of the work 
done by him in Cornwall." It cannot be denied that 
he "kept a living though insufficient religion alive." 
Bishop Benson says with great truth, " As a logician 
he [Wesley] is something like J. H. Newman, But 
his moral power — the beauty with which he delineates 
what he sees with such intense accuracy, both of faults 
and of graces, is marvellous — and, except for the 
witchery of Newman's language, I should place 
Wesley above him as a heart-reader." But, on the 
other hand. Dr. Benson, with all his eager desire 
to appreciate the work of John Wesley and his 
followers, was unable to deny that a " deterior 
progenies " had succeeded to his work. The doctrine 
of "assurance and perfection," however guardedly 
taught by the early Methodists, had results too often 
unsatisfactory. Apart from the special evils already 
mentioned in a previous chapter, the whole idea of 
the Christian Faith had been lowered. " It is a 
religion in which Repentance is minimised, pressed 
indeed into minutes, while Assurance, and the con- 
viction of Self-perfection reached, are as attractive 
as Repentance is to nobler minds." And all this 
system has been organised and entrenched in every 
town and villao-e, sometimes with its hug-e barrack- 
like meeting-house, at other times its little wayside 
whitewashed chapel. Bishop Benson, early in his 
ministry, was accused of insulting the Methodist 


ministers, because he had used the phrase "a legiti- 
mately descended ministry " of those in the Holy 
Orders of the Church of I^ngland. He was said, 
in "furious letters," to have branded Wesleyan 
preachers as belonging "to a bastard ministry." 
They started, it is thought, a Wesleyan College for 
boys in Truro as a counter movement to the bishopric 
and the Cathedral, and all the Church educational 
ao-encies connected with those institutions. So great 
a man as John Bright, in a speech at Rochdale, 
accused Dr. Benson of having "charged the Cornish 
clergy and laity to ' contend with and, if possible, 
suppress Dissent in Cornwall.'" The Bishop, in a 
public speech at Truro, said, " I will never contend 
with Dissent with any weapons save those of faith 
and holiness — my message is one of peace and good 
will only : my object is to urge Churchmen to work 
their own work and live holy lives, and all else 
I leave to God."^ From all this it is (juite evident, 
that any Bishop, coming into Cornwall, however con- 
ciliatory his character, however tactful his language 
and conduct, must be prepared to face a great amount 
of misapprehension, if not downright opposition, 
when he delivers, in all its fulness, his message as 
a Chief Pastor of the Church. 

Whether, if Dr. Wilkinson's episcopate had con- 
tinued for many years unbroken by the sad interrup- 
tions of repeated ill health ; whether, if he had been 

' This and other statements on this subject are ciuoted from 
Dr. Benson's Diarv. 


able to show, as he began to do, in Ills own attractive 
and inimitable manner to the more spiritually minded 
Wesleyans the spectacle of a. "truly converted man," 
holding at the same time quite firmly the doctrines 
of Apostolic Succession and Sacramental Grace, the 
Divine origin and constitution of the Visible Church; 
and yet able to sympathise tenderly with their deeper 
religious experiences, and even to adopt some of their 
methods of speaking and acting; any great results 
towards the reunion of Christians in Cornwall would 
have been achieved, it is not possible to say with any 
degree of certainty. 

Dr. Wilkinson, with a most loving and tender 
yearning for souls, and an ardent longing for unity, 
went very far to meet those who were separated from 
the Church. Some of the clergy and the laity of the 
diocese w^ere, perhaps, apprehensive, on one or two 
occasions, lest the principles of Church order, if not 
Church teaching, should be in danger of being- 

But no real risk was run, at the hands of 
one so loyal to the Prayer Book and so deeply 
attached to the Catholic faith. But it may be doubted 
whether, then or now, any definite approach towards 
corporate reunion between the Church and Methodism 
is possible, until some very great and radical changes 
take place in the minds of the leaders of thought 
among the latter. The Anglican Communion has 
declared its own mind in the definition of principles 
of unity laid down in the Lambeth Conference of 


1888:^ it is impossible to imagine that any further 
reduction of terms can be offered without stultifying 
the whole ecclesiastical and doctrinal position of the 
Anglican Church. Those terms were (i) the Holy 
Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as 
"containing all things necessary to salvation," and 
as being the rule and ultimate standard of faith ; (2) 
the Apostles' and Nicene Creeds ; (3) the two Sacra- 
ments of Baptism and the Supper of the Lord, and 
(4) the Historic Episcopate.- 

Until Dissenters grasp what it is that Churchmen 
understand by the Catholic Church, no advance is 
possible. The idea which fills the mind of the average 
Dissenter is that of a number of denominations of 
which the Church is one ; with no special spiritual 
claim upon his allegiance beyond an interesting 
history and certain State -given privileges, without 
any divinely ordained authority, or venerable con- 
stitutions resting on apostolic foundations. So long 
as this idea prevails, as it certainly does in Cornwall, 
there is naturally no reason why the average Dissenter 
should submit to any claim made to him on behalf of 

1 The Lambeth Co7ifercttces of 1867, 1878, a)id 18S8, edited by the 
Bishop of Winchester, pp. 280, 281. 

- In 1897 the fourth Lambeth Conference passed a group of 
resolutions on promoting " visible unity amongst Christians," indicating 
the duty of special intercession for the unity of the Church, in accordance 
with our Lord's own prayer ; and suggesting other methods for en- 
couraging any tendencies in this direction, not only with "different 
Christian bodies" at home, but with the churches of the East, the Unitas 
Fratruin or Moravians, and the "Church of Sweden " abroad. — Report of 
the Lambeth Cofiferetice, 1897, pp. 4?, 43. 


the Church. On the other hand, the spiritually 
minded Methodist is not likely to surrender his inde- 
pendence at the call of the most cleverly reasoned 
arguments, that convince the understanding but do not 
touch the heart. The truly devout Wesleyan, who 
loves his Lord and Saviour with all his soul, will not 
be moved by dry arguments about Church government 
or organisation, or appeals to antiquity however un- 
answerable. He will only be brought to love the 
Church and delight in the Sacraments, when he 
realises that, the Church is the dear Spouse of Christ, 
and the Sacraments the very means that his Lord has, 
in tender love, ordained for the needs of his soul. 
Some of them have learned, and are now learning, all 
this. Dr. Benson records : — 

" I was shown an old man aged eighty-two, who had been 
always an earnest man about religion, and had been a 
member of every sect. One evening he broke out of a brown 
study to a friend who was sitting with him, in these words : 
' Why be I to chapel now ? All the good I ever got was to 
church.' His neighbour sagely replied, 'Well I'm sure I 
don't know why ye be to chapel' The next Sunday he 
came to church and has clone so ever since. This old man's 
unmeant alienation for so long from the Church, is a sort of 
parable of the Cornish people. They are, in very many 
cases. Dissenters without meaning it : they will come in 
crowds to church and sing ' We love Thine Altar, Lord,' with 
endless fervour, and listen to the highest doctrine, without 
remonstrance, and subscribe to the restoration of the churches 
freely. By-and-by they will inquire ' Why be I to chapel ? ' " 

And again under the date May 7th, 187S : — 

" An old bright woman came to Mason and told him she 


and her husband had broken out together over their dinner, 
' Why shouldn't we do something for the Cathedral ? ' And 
they had resolved to give ten pcjunds or fifteen pounds, at 
the rate of two pounds a year, ' And here are our first two 
sovereigns. We say, we were born in the Church, baptised 
in the Church, married in the Church, and only been 
Methodists for some years since, and why shouldn't we 
belong to the Church still, and come back to it ? for after all 
it's tJie Church — the Church — it's the Church.' " ^ 

Down at the bottom of their hearts, in spite of long 

years of alienation, the claims of the Church still keep 

a place. Dr. Mason has recorded in his Diary : — 

"September 20th, 1881. — . . . Old Caroline Pascoe, a 
beautiful and devout old woman whom I visited for the first 
time. I asked if she belonged to the Wesleyans. ' Xo,' she 
said, ' I don't like pride ; I like to meet with a humble little 
people. So when I came here twenty years ago 1 joined the 
Bryanites, for they was a little humble people then. I've 
been with them ever since, but now they'm got so proud as 
the Wesleyans.' I told her I thought that the old Church was 
after all 'the humble little people' she wanted. 'Ah!' she 
said, ' that's of it ; the Church is the mother of us all." 

What is wanted to revive or recreate loyalty for the 

Church is an earnest ministry. Once more Dr. 

Mason's Diary speaks for itself. 

"October 18///, 1881. — In the e\eiiing \\\\ Rible-class, and 
then a visit to poor Ann Bluett, in bed again. . . . ' A 
woman,' she said, ' asked me the other day, " Where do you 
go now?" "To church," I said. "To church!" said she. 
" Why, how's that ? Did you ever hear of an}'one being 
saved under the parsons ? " I advised her to tell them, the 
next time, that St. Peter and St. Paul were ' parsons.' " 

1 Diary. 


A priesthood full of spiritual vigour may surely win 
this people. 

So far as Dr. Wilkinson was able to exhibit a 
friendly, and even an affectionate, attitude towards 
Nonconformists, and certainly always to think and 
speak of them in a most loving spirit, he did not 
a little to soften the bitterness of religious controversy. 
But it would be misleading to let it be supposed that, 
so far as can be seen, any definite breaking down 
or even any loosening of the barriers has taken place. 
Indeed since Wesleyanism has claimed, by some occult 
process, to develop itself from a Society into a Church, i 
since its chapels more and more provide elaborate 
musical services of the cathedral type, the spirit 
of rivalry has increased, and the desire for unity 
proportionately diminished. There are still too many 
indications of a tendency to use persecuting methods, 
to deter young persons from offering themselves for 
Confirmation; and the cry for "Religious Equality" 
too often really means the denial of the just rights 
of the Churchman. Refusals to provide consecrated 
crround in public cemeteries, and appoint Chaplains in 
workhouses,- have been notoriously general. Any- 
thing- like the spirit of compromise between Church 
and Dissent is doomed to failure in Cornwall ; to 
some extent it has been tried in the past and been 

1 See note at the end of this chapter. 

2 In not one Poor Law Union in Cornwall is the workhouse provided 
with a chapel or with a chaplain appointed, as required by law, by 
Boards of Guardians ; everything is left to voluntary effort. 


found wanting. In the early days of Methodism, 
there were undoubtedly excellent persons who were 
staunch members of the "Society" and regular com- 
municants of the Church.^ But, as time went on, the 
" Society " drifted further and further till it adopted 
the attitude of a rival "Church." The combination 
of morning attendance at church, with evening 
attendance at "chapel." very common indeed through- 
out Cornwall up to recent times, did not tend to 
produce a very satisfactory or wholesome type of 
religion, and certainly not one that built up a strong 
kind of Churchmanship. Cornish people like a 
decided form of religion ; they can delight in a " red- 
hot " revi\-al, and in some places at all events have 
become enthusiastic adherents of teaching on the 
Sacraments, private confession, and ceremonial, which, 
by some, might be deemed extreme. A thorough- 
going and consistent "Evangelical" parson will be 

^ I am indebted to the Rev. A. H. Malan, Vicar of Altarnun, for the 
following very interesting inscriptions on tombstones in his churchyard, 
that illustrate, vfery well, the original intention and practice of the first 
Methodists in Cornwall, (i) "Sacred to the memory of Digory Isbell, 
who died in the Lord 23rd June 1795, in the 77th year of his age, and 
of Elizabeth his wife, who exchanged earth for heaven 8th of October 
1805, in the 87th year of her age. They were the first who entertained 
the Methodist preachers in this county, and lived and died in that 
connection, but strictly adhered to the duties of the Established Church. 
Reader, may thy end be like theirs." (2) " This stone is erected by Henr>' 
Harris to the memory of his father, Jonathan Harris, who departed this 
life. May 19th, 1805, aged 84 years. Also to the memory of his mother, 
Susanna Harris, who departed this life, June 9th, 183S, aged 66 years. 
He was for seventy years one of the Methodist Society, and died in that 
connection, yet strictly adhered to his duty as a member of the Estab- 
lished Church." 


sure to make his mark. But the colourless and so- 
called " safe " form of religion that aims principally at 
avoidine offence, will not strike fire from the Western 
Celt, nor leave any definite result behind it in a 
Cornish parish. 

After all, the best means to promote unity is not 
controversy or compromise, but prayer ; such prayer 
as Bishop Benson wrote in his Diary, February 12th, 
1871 :— 

" Grant, Lord, that Thy Church may war without carnal 
weapons. Grant simplicity and godly sincerity, to preach 
Christ without contention and to advance Thy Church without 
part}% or faction, without animosity, without disputation." 

As might have been expected from his antecedents, 
Bishop Wilkinson was keenly interested in the special 
mission work in his diocese, as the following letters 

Bishop Wilkinson was always very particular in 
sending out a missioner with his own personal 
blessing and, if possible, after private conference and 

Nor did his own share in the work then cease. He 
was glad to receive, when time permitted it, accounts 
of the spiritual progress of a mission, and was always 
ready to encourage the missioner, and the incumbent 
of the parish with inspiring messages and wise 

The following extracts from letters sent to a 
missioner will illustrate this side of his character : — 


" Lis Escoi', Truro, 

''December ^th, 1886. 

" Mv DEAR ... I must send you and the Vicar and all 
workers a word of blessing for your first Sunday. We have 
been day by day remembering the work. I am thankful to 
have been in the church on a Sunday and so to be able 
better to realise the mission. May the God of hope fill you 
with all joy and peace in believing, and enable missioner and 
Vicar and workers to abound in hope (however discouraging 
may be the aspect which Satan presents) by the power of the 

Holy Ghost 

"... Do not take the trouble of writing a regular letter, 
but send me a mem. if there be any special need. Be ver\- 
careful about your health, food, sleep, etc. I have often 
found it a blessing to make an act of faith in our blessed 
Lord, when over-tired, and even to miss a Celebration, so as 
to have the needed rest. He knows whereof we are made. 
" With kind love to them all, 

" I am, my dear . . . 

" Affectly. yours, 

" GeoRG : H. TruRON : " 

" Lis Escor, 

"■February Jth, 1889. 

"... We are not failing to remember you, day by day, in 
our chapel, as well as privately. The mission was also 
remembered the day that I was at the Cathedral for Holy 

" ' Be strong and of a good courage, for the Lord }-our God, 
He it is that goeth before }-ou.' ..." I will guide thee with 
mine eye.' .. Kver affectly., 

"GeORG: H. TruRON:" 


And two days later : — 

" Lis Escor, 

'' February gth, 1889. 

"... Thank you for your letter, with its cheering account 
of answered prayers and breaking Hght and comfort for your 
own soul. . . . May He continue to bless you in your own 
soul and in the work. 

" Ever, my dear . . . 

" Affectionately yours, 

"Georg: H. Truron:" " 

The following letter was sent to a Priest, conducting 
a mission at a sea-coast parish in beautiful scenery, 
with cloudless moonlight at night and sunlight by clay, 
just a week or two before the " Great Blizzard " of 
March 1891 : — 

" Lis Escor, 

" February 21st, 1 89 1 . 

"... I am thinking much of you, and hope that the 
glorious weather and beautiful light of that ' pale empress of 
the night ' (as someone calls the moon) have been to you 
outward and visible signs of blessing, given to the Church at 
large and to your own individual souls. What an illustration 
the pathway of the moonbeam on the waters gives for a 
mission ! 

"The dark waters on either side — the bright pathway of 
the moonlight. 

" The solitary ship — like a separate soul — comes into the 
beautiful light— as doubtless many are now coming at R. 
The tiny vessel pauses awhile in that glittering light. For a 
moment every sail and rope and spar is irradiated. 

Well for it — if it let down its anchor and abide in the 
liirht — for often — even as we gaze — the vessel moves — so 


slowly and silently but so surely — out of the li^^ht into the 
deep unutterable darkness. 

" And for the dear people, whether belongin<:,r to church or 
chapel, who love our Lord, what echoes are sounded in their 
ears from last Sunday. The Grace of God. The Grace of 
the Incarnation, the Atonement — their Baptism, their Con- 
firmation, their Hoi)' Communion — received in vain to no 
purpose — etV Kevov — that solemn ' now ' (2 Cor. vi. 2). And 
for ourselves, what searching questions arise from each word 
of the epistle. 

" My love to X. and to Y. The almighty and merciful 
God bless, preserve and strengthen and guide you. 

" Ever affectionatel)', 

"GeORG: H. TruRON:" 

After his departure from the diocese, and while 
still in precarious health, he continued to remember in 
his prayers the mission work of Cornwall, and wrote 
to the same missioner about a parish in which he was 
greatly interested, and the Parish Priest. 

"He is such a good fellow. , . . Repentance, 
peace and joy ; perfect surrender to our Lord ; 
these are the needs of a Parish Priest." 

There was in the place a poor suffering" girl who 
wrote books. The Bishop added that the Parish Priest 
and others would be sure to tell the missioner about 
her, and wrote : " Will you call and give her the 
Blessing from me, with my love. Ask one ot the 

B s to write and tell me how the mission 


With reference to an allusion to their "late dear 
Bishop" in the preparatory letter sent by the missioner. 


he said, " I know how you will miss me. I was 
touched by words in your letter." 

On beino- told of the o-ood fruits that followed the 
distribution of some of his books — Break up your 
Fallow Gro7ind, The Way of Salvation, and others — 
" I was much touched by the way in which you 
ofather too^ether the indications of God's blessino- on 
my books." 

Certainly a Bishop like this was a wonderful support 
to his mission clergy. 

Dr. Wilkinson took up the threads of episcopal 
work, just where his predecessor had dropped them. 
He had several of Dr. Benson's fellow- workers who 
were also his own friends, to assist him — Canons 
Mason and Whitaker, the Rev. F. E. Carter, and the 
Rev. J. A. Reeve. He brought with him as Domestic 
Chaplain, the Rev. John Maxwell Lyte, one of the 
Curates of St. Peter's, Eaton Square, a clergyman 
of singularly attractive personality and gifts, whose 
premature death early in 1887, deprived, not only his 
Bishop of a valued friend and helper, but the diocese 
of a bright example of clerical character and high 

He called to his aid, as Examining Chaplain, the 
Rev. H. Scott Holland, Senior Student of Christ 
Church, and now Canon Residentiary and Precentor 
of St. Paul's Cathedral. He was Honorary Canon 
of Truro from 1883 to 1884, and still acts as 
Examining Chaplain to the present Bishop. 


The new Bishop, as was to be expected from his 
antecedents, made every effort to set before his clerjry 
a lofty standard of pastoral work, as well as to deepen 
in them b\- every means the inner spiritual life. lie 
was, as has already been mentioned, greatly interested 
in the Devotional Conference of the Clergy of Corn- 
wall while he was Chaplain to Dr. Benson; and, from 
the beginning of his episcopate onwards, he helped 
it by his presence and by addresses delivered at its 
meetings. Of these conferences his predecessor had 
formed a high opinion ; they " were full of life and 

energy and spirituality too — and as jNI— said to me 

privately, ' there was a wonderful sense of fellowship ' 

throughout all — of course they are the cream of the 

clergy, but the cream was Cornish cream." ' After 

Dr. Wilkinson's arrival as Bishop, in addition to the 

Devotional Conferences, an annual Diocesan Retreat 

for the Clergy was established ; mainly through the 

care and devotion of the second Canon Missioner, 

the Rev. F. E. Carter. This has been maintained 

ever since, and some of the greatest masters of the 

spiritual life in the Church of England have come 

to Truro for the purpose of conducting these retreats. 

Among them may be mentioned the late Bishop 

Bickersteth of Japan, Archdeacon Hutchings, Canons 

Body, Bodington, Gore, and Newbolt, Fathers Benson 

and Puller, the Revs. \ . S. Stuckey Coles, H. Bromby 

of All Saints". Clifton, and J. Wylde of St. Saviour's, 

Leeds. Bishoji W'ilkinscMi himself conducted the retreat 

' Dr. Ijcnson's Diary, April 25th, 1882. 


in iSS6, which was held at St. John's Church, Truro. 
The addresses were mainly on "The Pastor dealing 
with Individual Souls," and were characterised by the 
spiritual insight that was the fruit of the speaker's 
own long experience and devoted labours. Since the 
Cathedral was built and consecrated the services of 
the retreat have always been held within that noble 
sanctuary, in view of the beautiful reredos. 

The preparations for Ordination had under the first 
Bishop of Truro always been most careful. The 
peaceful surroundings of the grounds of Lis Escop, 
the quiet churchyard and impressive dimness of the 
church at Kenwyn ; the services in the little chapel of 
the Bishop's house : the earnest addresses given by 
some well-known spiritual guide, form elements of a 
memory that will live long in the hearts of many 
clergymen ordained for work in the Truro diocese. 
There was always one very helpful part of the week's 
work, and that was the conversation, or rather con- 
ference, after dinner when some chosen subject was 
passed round the table for all who wished to contribute 
a share in the discussion and finally summed up by 
the Bishop in wise and fatherly words. 

The Ordination services continued to be held in 
various parochial churches, until the consecration of 
the Cathedral, where (with the one exception of the 
Trinity Ordination at Bodmin in 1895) they have 
ever since taken place. 


The new Bishop had his hands more than full of 
work inaugurated by Dr. Benson. But lie did not 
shrink from the breaking fresh ground and undertaking 
new responsibiHties, One of these was connected 
with women's work in the Church. 

Besides the ordinary work done by Christian women 
in the Church, such as that of district visiting, Sunday- 
school teaching and the Hke, Bishop Wilkinson had a 
great appreciation of organised Community Life, and 
was very anxious to foster it in his diocese. Indeed 
the idea of such a religious community of women for 
Cornwall had already occupied the mind ot the first 
Bishop of Truro, who has recorded in his Diary an 
interesting discussion at the Ruri- Decanal Con- 
ferences on this subject. " At every one of them 
clergy and laity have unanimously been of opinion 
that some distinct organisation of women into Sister- 
hoods or Deaconesses' Institutions, with distinctive 
dress and vows, at least temporary, and solemn 
episcopal sanction, are become now absolutely 
necessary in the Church of England. I am surprised 
to find the feeling what it is." Nor must it be for- 
o'otten, that, for verv manv vears a branch of the 
Comniunity of St. Mary the \^irgin, \\^antage, had 
been established near Lostwithiel, where a House of 
Mercy dedicated to St. Faith, has received many 
penitents, whose lives have been changed and their 
future well-being furthered. Bishop Benson and his 
successors valued this work highly. The Sister-in- 
Charcre, Sister Anna, was a '-reat favourite of his. In 


his Diary he speaks of her as "an ever grand old lady. 
Brown as a nut, and wiry and bright-eyed." He 
approved of the methods of the community, as not 
having too "precise rules and many silences, easy for 
the Sisters and hard for the girls." The Sisters were 
called by the people of the neighbourhood " Mercy 
Ladies." The Rev. W. F. Everest, during a lengthy 
period, was the pious and faithful Chaplain, and his 
services were greatly appreciated and duly recognised 
by Bishop Wilkinson, who appointed him to an 
Honorary Canonry in the Cathedral in 1890. 

Nor must it be forgotten that a notable example of 
a consecrated life had many years been seen in 
Cornwall in the person of " Mother Charlotte," widow 
of the Rev. W. Broadley, Vicar of Carnmenellis. After 
twelve years' devoted work with her husband in that 
newly formed and lonely Cornish parish, she devoted 
herself after her husband's death, to ministering to the 
needs of the orphan children of her sister, and went to 
reside in London. Here she became known to the 
Rev. G. W. Herbert, founder and first Vicar of 
St. Peter's, Vauxhall. After a time, she became a 
Probationer of the sisterhood formed in that parish, 
and in 1866 was chosen first Mother Superior. After 
eleven years of untiring labour among the poor of 
Kennington, she was compelled, after her third period 
of office, to retire from active work and returned to 
Carnmenellis in 1877. Here she lived a life of devotion 
guided by strict rule, and with her nieces established 
many agencies for the spiritual well-being of the 


people. In 1882 she was called away, leavinc^ behind 
an example of "a life of prayer and lovinL;- ministry 
diat will not easily be forgotten."^ 

But the second Bishop of Truro desired to see at 
work in Cornwall a Diocesan Community under his own 
immediate q-uidance and control, strengthened by his 
episcopal sanction, and (as he hoped) increasing in 
such numbers, as might make it available for various 
kinds of work in all parts of the diocese. The 
materials for the first nucleus of such a community 
were already to hand. 

The following account has been supplied by the 
Communit)-, and is inserted without alteration : — 


In the years between 1876 and 1880, when Vicar of St. 
Peter's, Eaton Square, he fek the great need of the work 
of consecrated women in his parish. He therefore gathered 
together a band of hidies, with a view of founding a Religious 
Communit}', which he intended should be established in the 
Parish of St. Peter's, for the purpose of carrying on the 
various parochial and mission works. 

These ladies took up their residence in Hobart Place, close 
to the Church of St. Peter's, in 1880; but, finding the need 
of more quiet preparation for their future life, they went 
to Boyne Hill in 1881, where they took charge of an Indus- 
trial School for committed children, in compliance with a 
request from the Committee of the School, who were members 
of the St. Peter's congregation. 

At Boyne Hill they were close to All Saints' Church, 

' For further details, her life by Louisa Herbert (published by Lony- 
hurst, KenninL;ton) should be consulted. 


where they had the advantages of the daily Celebration and 
frequent services, while the Vicar of St. Peter's visited them 
fortnightly for teaching and ministerial help. 

During this time, the Constitutions and Rule having been 
drawn up, the Community was established, and the Novitiate 
duly inaugurated. 

In 1883 when the Vicar of St. Peter's was appointed to 
the See of Truro and enthroned in the month of May — on 
the following July 5th, the Sisters came to Truro— taking up 
their abode at Alverton, which has become the Home of the 
Community. On November ist of the same year all the 
Sisters were professed by the Bishop— and the Mother 
installed in her office.^ 

At the present time there are seventeen professed Sisters 
and three Novices. Since the foundation of the Community 
the works have grown considerably, so that the Sisters have 
to refuse many calls. 

The works consist now of: — 

The Mother House, the centre of the life and work 
of the Community. 
There are three Branch Houses : — 

{ci) A Laundry Home for penitents. 

iU) A Convalescent Home for working men at St. 

{c) A Mission House in the town, where the Sisters 
hold classes, etc., for factory girls. 

In addition they have — 

Charge of the Rosewin Training School for Servants. 
The care of the altars in the Cathedral and St. Paul's 
Parish Church. 

District work in the parishes of St. Mary's, St. 
George's, and St. Paul's as far as their numbers allow. 
A Church Needlework Society. 

The supply of altar breads to churches in the diocese. 
The Community of the Plpiphany is diocesan, under the 

1 Over the door of the House is inscrilied : " There they dwelt with 
the King for His work" (i Chron. iv. 23). 


control of the Bishop. On the resignation of Bishop 
Wilkinson, the present Bishop became Visitor. 

Canon Body, D.D., of Durham is Warden, and the Rev. 
D. E. Young holds the office of Sub-Warden, for many years 
filled by Canon F. E. Carter. 

The following sentences are inscribed on the ebon}' cross 
bearing a silver Epiphany star, worn by the Sisters : — 

"We have seen His Star, and are come to worship Him." 
" Behold Th}- servants are ready to do whatsoever My 
Lord the King shall appoint." 

" Fear not. I have called thee b}- th)' name. Thou 
art Mine." 

The Bishop himself e.xplained the objects and 
principles of the sisterhood in his first address to his 
Diocesan Conference in 1883 : — 

" The value of sisterhood life has long been felt in the 
diocese, and the self-denial and patient work of the Sisters at 
Lostwithiel is well known to many here present. The historj- 
of this new sisterhood may be quickly told. The need of 
women, entireh- devoted to the work of God, was pressed 
upon me in my London parish, and I was fortunate enough 
to secure the assistance of five of the most earnest of those 
who had helped in our parish. The plan of the sisterhood is 
very simple. The Bible as interpreted by the Prayer Book 
in its obvious meaning is their standard. Loyal submission 
to their Bishop is their guiding principle. While it is my 
dut)', as their Father in God, to guard them from all mere 
idle curiosit}-, ever)- detail of their rule will be gladly shown 
to any who are interested in their life. At present they are 
working in the schools, visiting the sick, and helping, so far 
as they are able, all who need their assistance The special 
object, however, which I hope to accomplish b)- their in- 
strumentalit)', is the developing and deepening of woman's 
work in the diocese. If it be God's will that the)- remain in 
Truro, and if it be God's will that their numbers, and 


that they succeed in winning the confidence of the diocese, I 
hope that they will be invited to stay for two or three weeks 
at a time in our towns and villages, to strengthen the hands 
of the Church, and to render any help, which they are able, to 
the clergy of the parish. I hope also that women will be sent 
to the sisterhood in order to be trained in the various branches 
of parochial work, and then go back to their homes better 
able than before to help their clergyman, better acquainted 
perhaps with the deeper laws of the spiritual kingdom." 

Reference has already been made in a previous 
chapter to the excellent help given by the community, 
in parochial and mission work : and the thoroughly 
loving and perfect manner in which they care for the 
Cathedral building, its altars and ornaments, is the 
admiration of all who visit it. Not only are a number 
of carefully selected women employed by them to 
clean the building, but a band of lady volunteers assist 
in taking charge of the choir and sanctuary, arranging 
the flowers and changing the frontals. They meet 
rec'-ularly for prayer and occasionally for instruction. 
The following prayer has been provided for their 

use : — 

Collect for Cathedral Workers. 

O Lord Jesu Chrlst, Who when Thou wast on earth 
didst cleanse Thy Father's house from all defilement ; Bless 
us Thy servants in the work belonging to us in this holy and 
beautiful house, and enable us to do it faithfully as in Thy 
sight. Give us more love for Thee and Thy service. Make us 
kind and forbearing towards those with whom we work ; and 
grant that we, who minister in Thy temple on earth, may 
hereafter see Thee face to face, where, with the Father and 
the Holy Ghost, Thou livest and reignest, one God world 
without end. Amen. 



On llic front page of the Minutes of Conference, up to very recent 
years (a.d. 1891), the title ran, "Minutes of several Conversations 
at the [number] Yearly Conference of the People called Methodists 
in the Connexion established by the late Rev. John Wesley, a.m., 
begun in [town] on [date folloii's]." At the top of this page there has 
of late appeared " Wesleyan Methodist Church " with a line beneath. 
The explanation is given under " Standing Orders, part ii. i " 
printed in Section V. of each volume of Minutes of Conference. 

" Title of the Connexion. — Having regard to the terms used in 

our Trust Deeds and other legal documents, it is not possible for the 

Conference to alter the title of the Connexion as it appears on the 

front page of the Minutes of Conference. The Conference declares, 

however, that the title hitherto used is not, and never has been, 

inconsistent with the assertion for ' the People called Methodists ' 

of a true and proper position as a church, with all the authorities, 

privileges, and responsibilities belonging to the New Testament 

Church ; and in this view of our principles and of the facts of the 

case, the Conference, so far from discouraging, distinctly approves 

of the general and popular use of the term, ' The Wesleyan 

Methodist Church'" {Minutes, 1891, p. 321). From the Annual 

Address of the Conference (1892) to "the Methodist societies," it 

appears that "we might have remained content with the simpler 

title which the circumstances of our origin imposed, if it had not 

been made necessary by arrogant gainsayers to assume explicitly 

what we have always claimed" {Minutes, 1892, p. 367). In the 

same address it is stated (p. 366) that "John Wesley, in the living 

portrait of his Journals, is a perpetual source of inspiration to his 

spiritual children." In Wesley's Journal, under January 2nd, 1787, we 

read the following : " I went over to Deptford, but it seemed I was 

got into a den of lions. Most of the leading men of the society were 

mad for separating from the Church. I endeavoured to reason with 

them, but in vain ; they had neither sense nor even good manners 

left. At length, after meeting the whole society, I told them, ' If 

you are resolved, you may have your service in Church hours ; but, 

remember, from that time you will see my face no more.' This 

struck deep ; and from that hour I have heard no more of separating 

from the Church." ( Wesley's Works, third edition, with the last 

corrections of the author, vol. iv. p. 357.) 



IT would obviously be impossible in a work, like 
the present volume, to attempt to give any 
adequate account of Bishop Wilkinson's inspiring 
ministrations throughout the diocese. Spiritual fer- 
vour, and the magnetism of a character and per- 
sonality rarely met with, affected greatly all who 
came within the sphere of their influence. In public, 
whether at a great Church gathering, missionary meet- 
ing, or conference, his appearance on the platform was 
sure to attract a large audience. At the Cathedral, 
the announcement that he would preach was sure to 
bring a congregation, too numerous for the incomplete 
buildino- to accommodate with convenience. At Con- 
firmations. Church dedications, and other special occa- 
sions, crowds of people, not by any means all members 
of the Church, flocked to listen. What did they see ? 
A slight figure, a pallid face, raven black hair, an 
eager look dashed by a shade of melancholy. What 
did they hear? A voice of strangely vibrating 
quality, not perhaps musical in tone, but thrilling 
and penetrating. But there was much more. The 

look and the voice were the e.xpression and the 



vehicle of ei message sincere, convincing-, affectionate ; 
sometimes almost terrifying. Men, and not women 
only, felt sure that before them was one, who had a 
Divine message to deliver, to which even against their 
will they were bound to listen. In private, with all 
who sought his advice, whether on matters directly 
spiritual or ecclesiastical, or on secular business, there 
was felt to be round them an atmosphere, created by 
a life of devotion and communion with God. 

It must not be supposed that, with all this spiritual 
fervour, his Lcmi)erament was so hi(>"hlv strunQ- or 
overwrought as to make him unpractical, or dreamy 
in matters of e\-eryday life, or lacking in the business- 
like qualities, so necessary to the administration of a 
diocese, and the government of men and affairs. On 
the contrary, he was always recognised by the laity, 
as well as the clergy, as an excellent chairman in 
committees, conferences, and every kind of meeting. 
He organised his diocesan work, his Confirmation 
tours, and other visits to all parts of Cornwall, with 
no little method and systematic care ; and, while he 
spent much of his time at Lis Escop, and was fre- 
quently present at the Cathedral services, he was, so 
long as his health permitted, constantly moving about 
in the outlying parts of the diocese, carrying with 
him to many a clerical home that warm sympathy and 
tender encouragement, which he knew so well how to 
give, to those isolated and often disheartened clergy, 
who niinister under trying conditions, and, too often, 
among an uns\mpathetic, if not an estranged, people. 


The followine e'ives an admirable idea of his 
character and disposition : — 

" His own native character combines in one, two tempers, 
which look so opposite to one another, and yet which are so 
constantly united in the typical Celt. He is at once mystical 
and practical. Is there anyone in the world more shrewd 
and thrifty, when thrift is the word, than your Irish peasant 
with all his religious intensity? And the Bishop, rapt and 
intense as he is on the spiritual side, has the most curious 
regard to the smallest practical details : he loves minute and 
exact method ; he keeps his affairs in the most absolute 
order ; he has an enthusiastic belief in punctuality ; he is a 
first-rate chairman at a business committee ; he has a strict 
eye for the use of every minute of time ; he takes positive 
pleasure in the careful scheming of details. His note-book of 
engagements is a miracle of precision. And moreover, his 
eye, in detecting and noting down what is happening all about 
him, is unexpectedly rapid, and even alarming. He misses 
nothing, when you least imagine him to be observing — a 
passing expression in a man's face, a txny faux pas or lack of 
tact, a touch of difference in a tone of voice, a jarring phrase. 
And be it observed that this combination of mysticism with 
practical shrewdness is no mere alternation of rival moods. 
Far from it. The Bishop never slackens the tension of the 
spiritual exaltation. The religious point of view is sustained 
without break or interval. It would be impossible for him to 
abandon it and then resume it. He cannot conceive life, 
except in its mystical significance. Yet, without any sense 
of contradiction, without any drop in the spiritual level, his 
practical instincts are at work with shrewd precision, with 
exact observation of details, at the very moment and within 
the same impulse in which he is putting out his spiritual 
energies. Has this not been a trait in many of the good 
mystical teachers? Was not St. Teresa herself remark- 
able for her keen common sense in the management of 


affairs? The combination is, in reality, more normal than 
we are apt to fancy. No one would understand the 
Bishop fully who had not appreciated both sides of his 
character." ^ 

In addition to all the other duties of his office there 
was pressing- upon him daily the task of the building 
of the Cathedral, and niakin;^- it in all respects fit for 

The departure of Ur. Benson from Cornwall might 
have been supposed to be the signal for the slackening 
of the interest aroused by his enthusiasm in the 
foundation and erection of the Cathedral ; were it not 
that, in his successor, there was found, not only a 
similar enthusiasm and a perfectly loyal purpose of 
carrying on all the great tasks he inherited ; but a 
remarkable powerjof influencing men and women, to 
give generously to the many objects of Church work, 
which he placed before their notice. Besides, there 
was a strong desire to commemorate permanently the 
great initiatory work of the first Bishop of Truro, in 
the building he. had so successfully founded. It was 
therefore determined to add to the choir and aisles, 
the south transept as a monument to the founder. 
Lord Mount Edgcumbe once more took the lead in 
this fresh effort, and was vigorously supported by the 
laity of the diocese. That part of the building, now 
known as the Benson transept, was accordingly begun. 
Later on, it received as memorials, the stone tracery 

' H. Scott Holland in tlie Cornish Magazine, vol. ii., January, 1899, 
PP- 4, 5- 


of its rose window as a gift from the masters and 
scholars of his old college at Wellington ; ^ and, in 
after years, his episcopal staff, left in his will to his 
"own dear Cathedral"; besides family monuments, 
and a brass effigy of himself, given by clergymen 
ordained by him at Truro and Canterbury, The 
erection of the baptistery as a memorial to Henry 
Martyn ; the north transept, the central tower as far 
as the lantern stage, the clock tower of the parish 
church, followed each other in comparatively rapid 
succession : and proved how strong was the desire, in 
the hearts of Cornish Churchmen, to follow the lead 
of their first Bishop, and remove the reproach, that 
so long lay on the Anglican Church, that she had 
so little real belief in her principles, and so little 
real enthusiasm for the worship of the Almighty, on 
a scale of real dignity, as to have shrunk from the 
task of building a single new Cathedral for many 

Mr. A. P. Nix, Major Parkyn, and Mr. R. Swain, 
clerk of the works, were among the most energetic 
of those who raised funds for these successive addi- 
tions to the building. 

Moreover, under Bishop Wilkinson's rule, not only 
was a noble fabric built, but it was filled with beautiful 
decorations, and furnished with rich and abundant 

^ A brass commemorates this gift with the following inscription : — 
"Ad majorem Dei gloriam, Reverendissimum Edwardum White Episco- 
pum Truronensem amore et pietate prosecuti hanc rosam fenestralem 
Wellingtonenses sui ponendam curaverunt. A.D. MDCCCLXXVII." 


ornaments cind furniture, worthy of the architectural 

That this was possible, was due to the admirable 
efforts of Cornish women, who. in the space of about 
a year, raised nearly ^16,000 for the internal httings. 
When it is remembered that, in after years, at a time 
when efforts were being made to complete the nave, 
about ^5,000 more was collected by the same agency, 
it will go down to history as a great achievement, 
that, more than ^20,000 for the ornamentation and 
completion of a cathedral, was collected in the last 
sixteen years of the nineteenth century, by the earnest 
and persistent work of devoted Churchwomen of the 
West. Stained-glass windows, a complete organ, a 
noble reredos, marble pavement, all the stalls and 
woodwork of the choir, the font, the splendid altar 
plate and magnificently embroidered frontals, form 
part of these rich and noble offerings. 

Nothing poor or mean was permitted to find an 
entrance into so fair a sanctuary, and the architect 
exercised a thorough and careful supervision over the 
details of every separate gift. 

The utmost care and reverential exactness was 

^ Canon Mason had, at the Diocesan Conference in October, 1883, 
humorously alluded to the lack of provision made for any ornaments 
or furniture. " With the exception of a noble lectern and a few books, the 
Cathedral is (so far as I know) as yet unprovided with a single article 
of furniture. Perhaps, however, we might, like our brethren of the 
Eastern rite, bring crutches with us to lean upon, and dispense with seats 
and hassocks which are ordered by no rubric, and therefore might even 
be considered as prohibited ornaments." From that time attention was 
specially directed to the subject. 


exercised in making every part of the building, not 
only artistically harmonious and in good taste, but 
to minister to the devout influence that should be 
helpful to worshippers. 

" The portion of east window" (so the Bishop wrote) 
" which is done, requires some alteration ; but it is, 
I think, quite glorious. The prayers, so far, have 
been answered." 

He had been with the sculptor of the reredos, and 
prayed with him, that the figure of the crucified Lord, 
in the centre, might be a worthy one, and helpful to 
all who should hereafter see it. Even small details, 
such as the type and binding of books for the altar 
and Canons' stalls, were carefully considered. The 
women of Padstow collected £\oo for the purchase 
of books. The design for the binding, and other 
particulars, were submitted, as had been done in the 
case of all the rest of the ornaments, to the architect. 
The Bishop wrote as follows : — 

" Septejiibcr ist, 1887. 

"... I gave Mr. Pearson instructions about the books 
and had a long interview with him. The enck)sed has just 
come. Will you compare it with the list which you have 
and write me a line by bearer to say if it is correct, and also 
to answer Mr. Pearson's question about the Bible." 

Many of the smaller gifts offered to the Cathedral 
had interesting personal associations ; none perhaps 
more touching than the embroidery of a fair linen 
chalice veil mentioned in the following letter : — 


" Lis Escop, 

".']// Saints Day, 1888. 

"... I send herewith a t^ift for our Cathedral, not unworthy 
to be placed b\- the side of the Alabaster Box. It is the work 
of a poor ^^o\erness, who has sat up man}- a lonel}' hour, in 
order to make it ready for the anniversary of the consecration 
at the 8 a.m. celebration of Holy Communion. Could you 
send me a short note of acknowledgment which I can send 
to cheer her in her lonel}' life? 

" Ever sincerely yours, 

" GeORG : H. TrURON : " 

The following- instances were given by Bishop 
Wilkinson in his address at the Diocesan Conference 
of 1884:— 

" A letter written by a husband from the deathbed of his 
wife contains these touching words : ' My wife wishes me to 
tell you, that she is doing her best to get her card for the 
Cathedral filled up.' ' I send you,' says another, ' the proceeds 
of a book written b}- one who is now, we humbly believe, in 
Paradise rejoicing over the work which is being done for 
God's Cathedral.' ' I have thought,' said a }-oung girl, when 
she parted with a beautiful trinket, ' what there was I cared 
for more than anything else I possessed,' and the best was 
freely given, unasked, to beautify the house of God." 

After he had left Cornwall, the Cathedral and all 
its services held a large place in his affection as the 
following letter will show : — 


'' October 26th, 1891. 

" Thank you ver}- much, m}- dear Precentor, for }'our 
affectionate letter and the copy of the service [the order for 


the enthronement and installation of his successor as Bishop 
and Dean]. 

" How beautiful the Cathedral will look. How God's help 
in raising that ' holy and beautiful house,' and furnishing it in 
all its wonderful perfection, is a pledge to you all, for ever, 
that His blessing shall rest upon the diocese, and His help 
for it never be invoked in vain. God bless you all. 
" Yours affectionately, 

"George H. Wilkinson, 

" Bishop." 

One ornament must be singled out for special 
mention, and that is, "the Bishop's chalice." It was 
made from a large number of beautiful jewels, given 
to Bishop Wilkinson, which have, as far as possible, 
been retained in their original settings ; six hoop 
rings being mounted on the band of the knop and six 
roses on its upper lobes. It is of considerable in- 
trinsic value, and of excellent design and workmanship. 
The following is engraved beneath the foot : — 

" 1887. All Saints' Day. This sacred vessel is a memorial 
before God of the spirit of devotion, which, in these latter 
days, He has quickened in the Church of England. The 
gold, and ' precious stones for beauty,' are the gifts of a large 
number of persons, who have severally offered that which 
they most value, for the glory of God and the service of His 
Holy Table." 

An eminent Nonconformist leader, when he saw 
it, said, "It is a beautiful symbol, in gems and gold, 
of loving self-sacrifice." 

Bishop Wilkinson stirred up this great effort by his 
enthusiasm, he fanned it by his eloquence, and con- 


secrated it with prayer. It was inaugurated in May. 
1884, by a great gathering in the temporary Cathedral 
at a celebration of the Holy Eucharist, and followed 
by a meeting in the Public Rooms. 

Queen Alexandra, then Princess of Wales, was in- 
vited to be president, Miss S. Thornton was the first 
secretary, and was succeeded by Mrs. Arthur Tre- 
mayne of Carclew, who for many years, by her per- 
severing devotion, has led the women of Cornwall to 
emulate her own enthusiasm, and bring their work to 
a successful issue. When their work was being com- 
pleted, the Bishop issued the following letter : — 

"Truro, August sij-/", 1887. 

"My dear Friends,— It is alike my duty and m\- 
pleasure, before our Cathedral is consecrated, to thank you 
for the way in which you have responded to your Bishop's 
appeal, when he asked >-ou to provide the internal fittings for 
the house of our God. 

"Your work, by the power of the Holy Spirit, was done 
heartily, unitedly, quickly, and thoroughly. 

"You bore cheerfully the various difficulties, which, from 
time to time, arose in connexion with this great effort. 

"Old and young, rich and poor, Nonconformists and 
Churchwomen, united, with one accord, to give their pence, 
and silver and gold. 

" In a ver}- short time you collected more than fifteen 
thousand pounds. 

"You have given an example of devotion to God's Church, 
which has been followed in other dioceses. 

"You have, to an extent which you will never know on 
earth, gladdened the heart of the Bishop, and strengthened 
his faith in the power and goodness of God. 


" You have, I humbly beHeve, done much to set forward 
the kingdom of our blessed Lord and to manifest His 
glorious Name. 

" God bless you, dear people, in your own souls — your 
hearts — }'our parishes. BeHeve me, 

" Yours ever sincerely, 

"GeoRG: H. TruRON:" 

All these efforts were entirely in accordance w^ith 
the mind of his predecessor, who warmly seconded 
Bishop Wilkinson's desire for a beautiful and well- 
furnished cathedral, as the following letter shows : — 

" Lambeth Palace, S.E., 

"April 2lth, 1884. 

"My dear Bishop of Truro, — When I was in Corn- 
wall I was anxious for the Cathedral to be built, fitly pro- 
vided, and used as the great Central Agency for doing all 
those things which the parochial clergy see and say must be 
done centrally ; as well as for enabling the parochial clergy to 
take their part in organisations for effecting equably and 
economically those spiritual purposes which cannot be sus- 
tained dispersedl)'. 

" Now that I am away from Cornwall 1 see the necessity for 
it more strongly still for that dear Cornwall's sake ; and I see 
it moreover now as the necessary bond by which all the 
centralised work of dioceses may in turn be knit together in 
the still greater unity of the province and of the Church. 

" One great means of unifying laity, clergy, Bishops into 
federal work for God's Church, and for carrying out objects 
which can never be adequately attempted in isolation, is by a 
living use of the cathedral system. Some cathedrals of 
course have not the least idea of their powers, others have, 
and I trust in God to see Truro grow into its fulness of use- 
fulness and service. 

" I earnestly hope that your appeal will meet with a hearty 
response. " Yours affectionately, 

" Edw : Cantuar : " 


As the time approached for the completion of the 
Cathedral, it became necessary to review the whole 
ecclesiastical position of the parish in which it stood, 
and adjust the relations between the somewhat compli- 
cated rights and privileges belonging to both Cathedral 
and parish. On the one hand, it was important to 
guard and maintain, in its entirety, a very ancient 
parish ; to prevent it from being unduly overshadowed, 
or even absorbed, by the Cathedral with its capitular 
body, and its central diocesan dignity and authority. 
Bishop Wilkinson was able to bring, not only his tact 
and courtesy, but his sympathy, as an old Parish 
Priest of lono- standino-, to the aid of the Rector and 
churchwardens ; while, on the other hand, his strong 
appreciation of the great value of a true cathedral, 
with its central position as the mother church of the 
diocese, and his perfect loyalty to his predecessor's 
ideals, made it impossible for him to consent to any 
compromise, that would sacrifice that position. Long 
and anxious discussions took place between the Rector 
and churchwardens on the one hand, and representa- 
tives of the Cathedral on the other, under the presi- 
dency of the Bishop ; and the result was, that a Bill 
was drawn up, embodying the recommendations 
arrived at, which eventually, through the care and 
watchfulness of the Right Hon. \V. H. Smith, 
passed into law as " The Truro Bishopric and 
Chapter Acts Amendment Act" (50 and 51 \'ict. 
c. 12). By this Act. the old south aisle of the 
Church of St. Mary was recognised as the parish 


church, and secured in full parochial rights and privi- 
leges without interference by the capitular body ; and 
only subject to a special regulation as to hours of 
service by the Bishop, to prevent collision with those 
of the Cathedral. The newly erected Cathedral was, 
on the other hand, delivered from any possible danger 
from being hampered by the intrusion of parochial 
ratepayers into its internal government ; and its 
Chapter legalised, with all the rights and privileges 
belonging to other similar capitular bodies. So Truro 
secured its position with its Residentiary and General 
Chapters — its right to elect a capitular Proctor, as 
well as its Bishop under the congd-cCelire; and to hold 
property as a corporation. To the new Chapter were 
afterwards transferred twelve benefices in Cornwall 
previously held by the Dean and Chapter of Exeter. 
Under the provisions of the Act above mentioned the 
office of Sub- Dean is held in conjunction with that of 
Rector of the parish ; and, so far as could be, every- 
thing was done to secure unity of action, between 
parish and Cathedral ; and the existing parochial 
officials were, quietly and without a break, attached 
to the Cathedral, in the same or similar positions 
hitherto occupied by them. 

The office of Dean was, for a time at least, to be 
held by the Bishop ; and residence was not required 
such as would interfere with episcopal work in the 
diocese. While it is very important, in new founda- 
tions, to secure for the Bishop a recognised position in 
the Cathedral, and to make it impossible that the 


scandalous spectacle, that has sometimes been seen, 
abroad and at home, should be ever again repeated, 
of a Bishop being excluded from the pulpit of the 
church where his Cathedra is set up ; yet, it may very 
well be cfuestioned, whether, as a rule, the union of the 
two offices is politic or desirable. The duties of a 
Dean, as resident head of the Chapter, lie mainly 
within the cathedral city, and the mother church ; 
the office of the Bishop is exercised, far and wide, 
throughout the length and breadth of the diocese ; 
and it is almost impossible for the same person to give 
complete attention to the demands of both. ^ In new 
foundations it might, perhaps, be well to revive the 
precedents of Llandaff and St. David's, where, until 
the monotonous levelling Act of 1840, in the former, 
the Archdeacon, and, in the latter, the Precentor acted 
as President of the Chapter : or, possibly, it would be 
better still, to have a Provost elected by the Canons 
themselves, as in early days Deans were chosen. 

At Truro, after the legal establishment of the Dean 
and Chapter, the Honorary Canons were by no means 
relegated to the mere shadowy position, occupied by 
such dignitaries in many cathedrals. They were, by 
the Acts, recognised as having a share in the patronage 
of the Chapter ; and, in practice, they exercise their 
vote in the election of the capitular Proctor ; besides 
being summoned, at least three times a year, along 
with the Residentiaries for business and deliberation. 
In actual practice, as in theory, by the draft statutes, 

' Cf. Bishop Benson, The Catlwdral, p. 43. 


the Cathedral Chapter acts as the Bishop's Council, 
which, indeed, according to Canon Law, is its essential 
idea. They also preach in turn, ordained by statute, 
at least once annually, in the Cathedral pulpit. In 
fact, they occupy a position very similar to that held 
by Prebendaries or non-residentiary Canons in Cathe- 
drals of the " Old Foundation." 

Bishop Wilkinson, as might have been expected, 
was not content to exercise every possible care to 
provide his new Cathedral with all beautiful and 
necessary furniture, and to secure for the capitular body 
as complete a contribution as possible ; he was also 
especially anxious to prepare the minds of his people, 
to make a due use of the noble Cathedral that was 
soon to be consecrated in their midst. Some months 
before the date fixed for the dedication, he com- 
missioned the Rev. F. E. Carter, the Canon Missioner, 
to organise and carry out, at several centres, a number 
of quiet days for prayer and devotion, by way of 
preparation for the great event. The addresses were 
mainly directed to impress upon people's minds the 
true principles of worship ; and the devotional acts 
were largely made up of intercessions for the diocese 
and its needs, and for the Divine blessing upon the 
services that should be held within the Cathedral 
walls, and the work that should centre round and 
emanate from its staff of clergy. Throughout his 
episcopate, all who knew Bishop Wilkinson felt how 
much he depended upon such days or seasons of 
prayer. Whether it was the starting of the women's 

PREP A RA riON 239 

association for providing internal fittings, or the intro- 
duction of the Cathedral Bill into Parliament, or the 
commencement of some new diocesan society; nothing 
was ever entered upon without a special celebration 
of the Holy Eucharist, or a largely attended service 
of intercession when some deeply solemn and fervid 
address would stir the hearts of men and women, and 
inspire them to go forward in some new enterprise. 
Then, when the success was gained, or the peril 
passed, sometimes beyond all expectation, the secret 
of it all was felt to lie hid, in the prayers and inter- 
cessions that had been offered with so much united 
earnestness and faith ; and then, there would follow 
a service of thanksgiving, a special Eucharist, or a 
Te Deuin. 

The Rector of St. Mary's, Canon J. H. Moore, 
Sub- Dean of the Cathedral, arranged for a series 
of devotional services to prepare the worshippers at 
the Cathedral and his own parishioners, for their 
entrance into their new and greatly enlarged sanctuary, 
with proper dispositions of heart. The services were 
conducted by the late Rev. E. Steele, Vicar of St. Neot, 
and made much impression — especially the chanting 
of the Litany in the main streets of the parish. The 
following letter was issued by the Rector to his 

parishioners : — 

"St. Mary's Rectory, Truro, 

" September 26th, 1S87. 
" Dear People, — The time for consecrating the Cathedral 
to the worship of God is fast approaching, and I am very 
anxious that this event should be a blessing to all of us. 


''• Besides its Beauty and Glory, which strike all who enter 
it, the consecration of the Cathedral is something even more 
than this to the people of St. Mary's parish, and to those who 
have sacred memories of the old church. 

" The Cathedral is the Mother Church of the Diocese ; 
many from distant parts of Cornwall will come, we hope, 
from time to time, and feel at home there, and find a welcome 
from us, and a blessing from God. But that, which to others 
in the diocese can only be an occasional help and blessing, 
will be to you a constant privilege ; for Sunday by Sunday, 
at least, you will be invited to worship there, where there 
is room for all, using our south aisle and its altar for lesser 
occasions, or when found more convenient. 

" So the consecration of the Cathedral has for you all the 
interest and solemnity of your parish church opening. 

" One principal thought on the reopening of a church 
is_that we must enter it with hearts and lives prepared 
for worship. 

" To help us in this, the Rev. E. Steele has very kindly 
consented to come here on Sunday, October i6th, until 
Thursday the 20th, to help us, as God may give him power, 
by sermons and addresses suited to the occasion. Full 
particulars will be given you of the hours, etc., and I hope to 
have an early opportunity of giving you further details of the 
arrangements for November 3rd and following days. 
" Further I wish to say : — 

" This Cathedral Consecration is a call to all of us : those 
w^ho have learnt best how to worship, know best how hard 
it is, and will gladly use this further help. 

" But this is a call also to that large number whom I long 
to see awakened to a higher and truer life, especially a large 
number of men who are strangers to worship of any kind. 
To these also I send this appeal. Here is a blessing offered 
to them ; for the Cathedral opening is, in part a fulfilment of 
our blessed Lord's parable which shows the responsibility both 
of the messenger and of the people, — ' A certain man made 


a great supper and bade many ; and sent his servant at supper 
time, to say to them that were bidden, Come, for all things 
are now ready.' And then a second time, — ' Go out quickly 
into the streets and lanes of the city, and bring in hither the 
poor, and the maimed, and the lame, and the blind : and the 
servant said, Lord, it is done as thou hast commanded, and 
yet there is room.' And yet a third time ' the lord said unto 
the servant, Go out into the highways and hedges and compel 
them to come in, that my house may be filled.' 

"Your faithful Pastor, 

"James H. Moore. 

" Here is a prayer for all of us to use : — 

" Almighty God, Who wast pleased to show a pattern 
of heavenly worship to Thy servant Moses, teaching us 
thereby with what reverence and holy care Thou wouldest be 
worshipped on earth ; Grant to us, we beseech Thee, such 
a right understanding of earthly worship, as may fit and 
prepare us for a place in Thy Church Triumphant, through 
the merits and intercession of Jesus Christ our Lord. Ameny 

The Bishop issued the following Pastoral Letter, 
which was sent throughout the diocese. 

He called attention to certain arrangements that 
would be made for the Day of Consecration, and 
invited his people to prepare their hearts for so 
great an occasion. 


" November yd, 1S87. 
" ' This is the da}- which the Lord hath made : 

We will rejoice and be glad in it.' 
" ' O come, let us worship and fall down : 
And kneel before the Lord our Maker.' 
'"Ye shall reverence My sanctuary. I am the Lord.* 



" Dearly Beloved in the Lord, — The circumstances 
of this day are exceptional. Directions therefore given, with 
reference to the services, are not to be regarded as precedents 
for the future use of the diocese — or as, of necessity, 
expressing the mind of the Ordinary. 

" It is requested : — 

" I. That, those, who can conveniently do so, communicate 
at one of the Early Celebrations ; in order to reduce the 
number of communicants at the Consecration Service. 

St. Mary's 


St. Paul's . ... 7.30 

St. George's . . .7-30 

St. John's . ... 7.30 

Kenwyn . ... 8.0 

"II. That, those, who desire to communicate at 11 a.m., 
forward the enclosed paper to Chancellor Worlledge, 4, 
Strangways Terrace, Truro, not later than October 31st; so 
that due provision may be made for the administration of the 
Holy Communion. 

" III. That, in order to avoid confusion, the congregation 
remain through the entire service, and until the Prince 
of Wales, the Archbishop, Bishops, and clergy have left the 

" IV. That, all who worship in the Cathedral, carefully 
attend to the rubrical directions as to standing, kneeling, etc. 

" V. That, above all things, each member of the congrega- 
tion so prepare his heart by prayer and study of God's Word, 
that he may be kept by the Holy Spirit from wandering and 
unworthy thoughts, and be enabled to offer, this day, a Holy 
Sacrifice of Praise and Thanksgiving. 

"The blessing of God Almighty, the Father, the Son, 
and the Holy Ghost be upon you, and remain with you 
always. Amen. 

" Your affectionate Father in God, 

(Signed) Georg : H. TrurON : 

''Truro, October, 1887." 


Every care was taken to prepare a dignified service 
for the consecration of the Cathedral. For some 
months previous to that great event, Bishop Wilkinson 
had been in communication with the Archbishop, who 
with his keen love of a correct ritual, and his wide 
liturgical knowledge, entered with enthusiasm upon 
the task. The Bishop of Truro laid before the 
Residentiary Chapter the oudines of the service, which 
received great care and attention from several com- 
petent authorities, before it took final shape. The 
Cathedral committees held frequent meetings, to 
prepare and carry out plans for the proper representa- 
tion of every class of person, at the services of the 

As the time drew near, the building presented, 
within and without, signs of the great beauty of its 
architecture, and the perfection of every detail of its 
decorations and furniture. But, up to the last moment, 
workmen were seen hurrying to and fro, giving a 
touch here and there, finishing a piece of carving, 
smoothing a rough edge, fixing a piece of marble 

The night before the consecration, there were 
assembled at the Rectory, the Archbishop, the Bishop 
of Truro, the Residentiary Canons and others, to 
review carefully all the details of the coming cere- 
monies. Here it was that some of the special gifts of 
the Archbishop were manifested. At one moment he 
pointed out a flaw in the Precentor's plans for the 
procession to be corrected ; at another a bright 


sueeestion or telling addition was offered, for the 
improvement of the order and dignity of the whole 
service. The time went rapidly by, the hour of the 
dinner-party, at which the Archbishop was expected, 
had long passed ; and still the litde company sat on, 
undl all was arranged, and every possible emergency 
provided for. 

It is by such care and trouble that disorder and 
confusion are avoided, on occasions when orderly 
arrangements maintain the reverence and dignity of 
a great act of worship. 


AT last the long:-expected day arrived. Seven 
years had passed since the foundation-stones 
were laid, in hope and faith — seven years of patience 
and of prayer, which were to be crowned by success, 
and happy realisation. 

In the early morning— at 7, 7.30, or S — quiet 
celebrations of the Holy Communion were held in 
every parish church in Truro; when thanksgivings for 
the past were offered, and prayers sent up for blessings 
upon the services of the day, by companies of com- 
municants, composed not only of inhabitants of Truro, 
but of others, who had already come from distant 
places for the great solemnities of the day. At halt- 
past nine the streets were filling with numbers of 
persons, who were either making their way to the 
various doors of the Cathedral, or taking up posts of 
observation to witness the outside procession, and the 
arrival of the Prince of Wales. The streets and 
High Cross were gay with Hags and decorations, and 
the closed shutters of the shops and places of business 
proclaimed that Truro was keeping universal holiday. 



The Duke of Cornwall, on arriving from Falmouth, 
where he had, on the previous afternoon, amid a 
storm of wind and rain, laid the foundation-stone of 
All Saints' Church, was received at the Truro station 
by the Lord-Lieutenant, and the Mayor of Truro 
(R. M. Paul, Esq.). In the course of his reply to a 
loyal address, presented by the Mayor and Corporation, 
His Royal Highness said : "It affords me the most 
unfeigned satisfaction to be able to attend the great 
religious service which is held here to-day, and to 
be present at the consummation of the important 
ceremony in which I took a leading part more than 
seven years ago." After expressing the unabated 
interest taken by the Duchess of Cornwall as well as 
by himself in the progress of the work, the Prince 
added : " I join most heartily in the expression of 
your hope, that the western part of the building may 
ere long be completed, and I trust that circumstances 
will then allow me once more to visit a town, which 
can boast of having been mentioned in the Domesday 
Book eight hundred years ago." 

Within the Cathedral all was bright, and in perfect 
order for the approaching service. On the retable 
were four vases filled with white flowers, flanked by 
the candlesticks with their tall wax tapers. The 
splendid altar cross glittered with its silver gilt and 
jewels ; and the festal frontal, with its varied em- 
broidery, made a central point of rich magnificence. 
There was a mass of gold and silver on a side 
table, at the south side of the altar. This was 


the Communion plate, soon to be solemnly con- 
secrated, which was carefully guarded by the Sacrist 
(the Rev. J. J. Agar-Ellis). who stood, in surplice 
and stole, at the entrance of the sanctuary. Now 
and then a gleam of sunshine lit uj) the tiers of 
figures on the reredos, and touched the warm colours 
of the crimson draperies of the Prince's seat, and the 
purple hangings over the Archbishop's chair. 

The southern and north-west and south-west doors 
were now opened, and the worshippers flowed in ; and 
were silently conducted to their places by the numer- 
ous and efficient band of laymen, told off for this 
service ; consisting of Mr. A. P. Nix, the Treasurer 
of the Cathedral Building Fund, the churchwardens 
and sidesmen of St. Mary's parish, and others. 

The wide space under the tower, the transepts, the 
south aisle, or parish church of St. Mary's, were all 
soon thronged with an orderly multitude. There were 
two spacious, but temporary, galleries, one above the 
other, at the west end of the building, from which a 
commanding view of the ceremony could be obtained. 
These, and the permanent gallery in the north tran- 
sept, were rapidly filled ; while, through the arcades 
of the triforium, could be seen a large body of the 
workmen, who had raised the walls and arches of 
that structure, whose consecration they were now 
assembling to witness. 

About 2,500 persons were accomniodated in the 
building, besides those in the choir, choir aisles, and 
triforium. In this number were included representa- 


tives of all classes : the subscribers, the general, 
executive, and ladies' committees ; Church workers of 
every kind, working men, as well as magistrates, 
churchwardens, school teachers, widows of clergy 
who in olden days had laboured in the diocese : in 
short, every one who had done any kind of work 
for the Cathedral and diocese was either present, 
or was represented by one of those with whom he 
or she had worked. The seats were assigned by 

At I0.20 all were seated, and as the organ com- 
menced a triumphal march, the first act of the great 
ceremony began. A procession was seen to enter the 
Cathedral from the wooden building, that so long had 
served as a pro-cathedral. It was that of the great 
body of the clergy of the diocese, and passed, in 
two divisions, through the north-west and south-west 
doors, up the church, into the north and south aisles 
of the choir. Each division was headed by a cross- 
bearer. That on the south consisted of the students 
of the Divinity School, the Readers of the diocese, 
and the junior clergy; that on the north of the senior 
clergy of the diocese. The two divisions were under 
the guidance and direction of the Rev. ]. Brown, Vicar 
of St. John's, Truro ;^ and the Rev. F. E. Gardiner, 
Vicar of St. Paul's, Truro (afterwards Rector of 
Hackney, and now Sub-Dean and Rector of Truro). 

And now could be heard from without the ancient 
hymn, Urbs Beata, according to the version translated 

^ Now the Rev. J. Gardner Brown, Vicar of St. James', Clapton, N.E. 


by Dr. Benson, as the Bishops and others passed out 
of the crypt in the following' order : — 

Cross Bearer and Attendants. 

Instrumentalists, two and two. 

Choristers, two and two. 

Lay Clerks and Vicars Choral, two and two. 

Precentors of Cathedrals, and of St. Peter's, Eaton Square. 

Diocesan Inspector of Truro, Vice-Chancellor of Truro Cathedral. 

Rural Deans of the Diocese, two and two. 

Prebendaries of Endellion, two and two. 

Honorary Canons of other Cathedrals, two and two. 

Prebendaries of Exeter, two and two. 

Canons Residentiary of other Cathedrals, two and two. 


The Dean of Chester. 

Canons of Truro, two and two. 

Archdeacons of the Diocese of Truro. 

Bishops, two and two, each attended by his Chaplain. 

The Registrar of the Diocese, and the Architect. 

The Pastoral Staff, borne by the Bishop's Private Chaplain. 

The Lord Bishop of the Diocese. 


The Apparitor-General of the Province (Sir John Hanhani). 

The Mace Bearer. 

The Archbishop's Cross, borne by His Grace's Domestic Chaplain. 

The Lord Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Train Bearers. 


Provincial Registrar (Sir John Hassard). 

In the procession of Bishops were, the Bishops of 
Argyle and the Isles and Aberdeen, Bishops Mitchin- 
son and Blyth of Jerusalem, the Bishops of Bedford, 
Nottingham, Colchester, Trinidad, Ely, Salisbury, 
Exeter, Southwell, Newcastle, Lichfield, St. Asaph, 
Bath and Wells, Bangor, Winchester, and London ; 
besides the Bishop of Truro and the Archbishop of 


Canterbury. The procession of Bishops was under 
the special direction of Canon Thynne ; that of the 
dignitaries was ordered by Canon Mason ; that of the 
diocesan clergy by Canons Harvey and Du Boulay ; 
Mr. Sinclair had charge of the choir ; while the Pre- 
centor, Canon Donaldson, was responsible for the 

The Precentor gave the signal, which was taken up 
by Mr. Sinclair, and passed on to the scarlet-clad 
musicians of the Royal Marines, who headed the 
procession, and to the stately tune " Oriel," the 
solemn hymn was sung by the choir and clergy in 

The procession, having passed out of the Cathedral- 
yard and round the eastern and southern sides, entered 
the covered way at the west end of the Cathedral. 

Here the choir and clergy formed into two double 
lines, reaching from the ante-room to the west door ; 
while the Bishops with the Primate and the Bishop of 
the diocese, awaited, in the ante-room, tog-ether with 
the Mayor and Corporation of the city and the 
representatives of the Cathedral Committee, the 
arrival of the Prince and his attendants. This was 
not long delayed ; punctual to the appointed time the 
Duke of Cornwall drove up, amid the applause of the 
crowd and the salute of the ist Volunteer Battalion of 
the Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry. 

When all was ready, the Bishops led the way 
through the lines of surpliced choristers and clergy, 
and were followed by the Primate and the Bishop of 


the diocese, who preceded the Prince, attended by the 
Earl of Mount Edc^^cumbe (Lord Lieutenant of the 
county), Lord Suffield, and Colonel Stanley Clarke, 
and accompanied by the General in command of the 
Western District and his aide-de-camp, in scarlet and 
gold, and the commander of H.M.S. Osborne in the 
blue and gold of the Royal Navy. 

And now began the solemn service at the door. 
The prayer of deprecation " Remember not. Lord," 
with its response, was said, sine notd, and the Bishop, 
taking his staff, struck thrice at the door, and said, 
" Lift up your heads, O ye gates." 

This the choir outside repeated, in simple harmonised 
cadence, and the clerks within sang, " Who is the 
King of Glory?" and then, when both Bishop and 
choir had answered " The Lord of Hosts," at the 
consecrating prelate's command, the door was thrown 
open by Mr. R. Swain, clerk of the works, and the 
procession entered. 

The Diocesan, the Primate, with their Chaplains, 
cross and pastoral staff, passed up the church, followed 
immediately by the Prince and his attendants, the 
Mayor and civic authorities ; and then the Bishops, 
after whom followed the choir and clergy, headed by 
the silver processional cross carried by Mr. Kendall. 
In the open space under the tower the procession 
halted, while the Lord Lieutenant prepared to present 
the petition ; the Prince of Wales and suite standing 
on the south, with the Bishop of the diocese to his 
left, and on the north the Archbishoi") and his 


attendants, with Lord Mount Edsfcumbe to his ricjht. 
On the steps of the choir were grouped the Bishops 
in their scarlet Convocation robes, the whole forming 
a most striking scene, with bright masses of colour 
and quaint varieties of costumes ; the rich furred robes 
of the Mayor, and the uniforms of the military and 
naval officers, the lawn and line linen of episcopal and 
priestly robes, the bright scarlet cassocks and caps of 
the little acolytes, who held the Primate's train (sons 
of the Precentor and the Treasurer of the Cathedral). 

The petition was now read by the Registrar 
(Mr. Arthur Burch, Mayor of Exeter) ^ in a clear 
voice, and then onwards came the choir of ninety men 
and boys, composed of the Truro Cathedral choristers 
and lay clerks, reinforced by contingents from St. 
Paul's, Bristol, Exeter, Gloucester, Hereford, Lichfield, 
Christ Church (Oxford), and Wells Cathedrals, and 
the parish of St. Peter's, Eaton Square ; who, by the 
generosity of their respective Chapters or other 
authorities, had been sent to sing the service, and 
showed how widespread was the sympathy of the 
whole Church with the day's great service. The organ 
gave out the chant (Hayes in A) and the well-known 
Psalm xxiv., Domini est terra, was sung by the men 
and boys alternately, with an occasional burst of full 
unison or harmony, and the whole procession passed 
into the choir. The choristers were marshalled by 
their conductor, Mr. Sinclair, organist of Truro 
Cathedral ; the clergy and Bishops filled the stalls 

^ At the time Mr. Burch was actually Deputy-Registrar. 


and other seats prepared for them, while the Prince of 
Wales was conducted to the canopied seat on the 
south side of the presbytery. Standincr near him, as 
he knelt at the faldstool, were the Archbishop and the 
Diocesan with their Chaplains ; four Canons of the 
Cathedral ascended the steps of the sanctuary,' where 
the Precentor intoned the suffrages for the Queen, to 
which the choir responded ; and the Bishop then said 
the prayer for the Queen, and after some special 
suffrages, a prayer for the Prince of Wales and Duke 
of Cornwall, "his wife, his sons and daughters, and all 
who are near and dear to him." Then, when all had 
taken their places, there followed a solemn silence 
before the commencement of the great act of con- 
secration, which was ushered in by the singing of 
Veni Creator, to Attwood's familiar and sweet- 
toned phrases. The clear voices of some forty well- 
trained bovs orave out the first verse with almost 
thrilling power. Presently the Lord Lieutenant came 
forward, and reverently kneeling, presented the in- 
strument of donation which was placed on the altar 
by the Bishop, who first addressed the congregation ; 
and then, accompanied by Staff-bearer and Chaplains, 
and preceded by the Chancellor, Sub-Dean, Missioner, 
Treasurer, passed out of the choir to the baptistery, 
while the organ played soft and appropriate music ; 
one after another the various parts of the building — 
font, lectern, pulpit, place of marriage, and of Con- 
firmation — were solemnly hallowed, the great con- 
gregation standing, silent, as the litde company passed 


onwards ; ever moving eastwards, as the organist 
(Mr. Lloyd, of Christ Church, Oxford) skilfully played 
suitable strains in the intervals between the reading 
of the lections (by Canon Mason), and the prayers 
offered up by the Bishop. At length the altar was 
reached and solemnly blessed, and the choir and 
organ burst out into the full "Amen" at the prayer of 
the consecrating Prelate. Now came a very solemn 
moment, as the Bishop turned to the west, and, with 
uplifted hand, said, " Behold a ladder set up on the 
earth," after which the Archbishop offered a prayer 
of benediction derived from ancient sources. 

Then the Chancellor of the Diocese (the Worship- 
ful and Ven. \\\ J. Phillpotts, Archdeacon of Corn- 
wall) came forward from his stall, and read at the 
altar the sentence of consecration. This was signed 
by the Bishop ; and, as he did so, the Bishop of 
Salisbury passed from the Archbishop's side across 
to the Prince's seat, and requested the Duke of Corn- 
wall to si^n the document as a witness. 

This done, there followed the solemn celebration of 
the Holy Communion, admirably sung by the united 
choir to Smart's service in F, with Stainer's arrange- 
ment of the Sursum Corda and Lord's Prayer. 

The Bishop of Truro was celebrant. The Epistle 
was read by the venerable Bishop of Winchester, 
formerly Vicar of Kenwyn ; the Gospel by the Bishop 
of London, to whom, when Bishop of Exeter, Corn- 
wall owed so much. The grand strains of the Nicene 
Creed over, the Bishop, with his Chaplains, conducted 


the Prince of Wales and his attendants to the Dean's 
stall and seats at the south side of the choir, where 
they remained for the rest of the service. The Arch- 
bishop, preceded by his cross bearer, ascended the 
pulpit and delivered the sermon. It is not difficult to 
imagine, but impossible to describe, the feelings of 
joy that must have been in the heart, both of the 
preacher and those whom he addressed, at the wonder- 
ful realisation of that grand idea which he conceived, 
and which they helped so zealously to carry out — the 
rearing in Cornwall of a Cathedral, as a visible 
emblem of that revived diocesan life which he was 
first called upon, in the providence of God, to guide 
and develop. 

The subject of his sermon was "Unity through 
Truth," from the text, "In due season we shall 
reap, if we faint not" (Gal. vi. 9). One passage 
which greatly impressed all who heard it must be 
given : — 

'" Respoiidete natalibiisl was the cry of Cyprian to the 
Church of Carthage—' Rise to your birthrights.' How it 
would ring from his lips to-day, if he saw the Bishop of an 
unbroken line, in the presence of the Royalt}' of England, 
receive and offer His Church material, and his Church 
spiritual, in one offering before the King of Kings, and knew 
all that is needed outside. 

" ' Rcspondete natalibus', would he echo the word to \-ou — 
that old second Bishop of the newly-united dioceses — who, 
held by the hands of Edward the Confessor and Queen Edith, 
paced up the fresh-built Cathedral Church of Exeter, and 
received it as their gift. Would he not say, rejoicing that 


the Church in Cornwall is her own again, ' Rise to your birth- 
right ' — your English, Catholic, Apostolic, Christ-given birth- 
right — help, comfort, strengthen, revive, found ?"i 

The sermon ended, the offertory followed. The 
choir sang two appropriate hymns, while the alms 
were collected, and presented ; and the holy vessels 
and ornaments were brought, in succession from the 
side-table, by the Chancellor and Missioner, and 
solemnly offered by the Bishop, together with a 
parchment record of other gifts ; the organ, in the 
quaint old-world English of the rubric, "playing a 
still verse the while." And then, the choir sang the 
words of David, "Who am I, and what is my 
people?" etc. (i Chron. xxix. 14), to a composition 
by Mr. C. H. Lloyd ; after that, in silence, each piece 
of plate was blessed by the Bishop, and a solemn 
prayer of consecration completed the dedication of 
the sacred vessels. The Communion Service pro- 
ceeded, the Confession was said in quiet monotone ; 
the Sursum Corda and Sanctus rang out grandly ; 
and, after the Consecration Prayer, the " Sevenfold 
Amen " was sung with perfect reverence and delicate 
gradation of "light and shade." And then followed 
the Communion. The reception of the Sacrament 
by the Archbishop and then by the large company of 
Bishops, in their scarlet robes, kneeling across the 
Sanctuary at the altar rail ; the solemn carrying of the 
Sacred Elements to the altar in the south aisle, to 

1 Twelve Sermofts preached at the Consecration of the Cathedral 
Church of Truro, p. 1 2. 


communicate those who were kneeHng- there, were 
striking episodes in the service. 

During the Communion time, Cowper's lovely hymn, 
"Jesus, where'er Thy people meet," was sung with 
a quiet feeling, that moved many hearts, perhaps more 
than any other part of this beautiful service, and made 
them feel that "God was with them of a truth." There 
were, in spite of the letter circulated by the Bishop 
advising as many persons as possible to receive at any 
early Celebration, four hundred and fifty communi- 
cants ; and this part of the service was consequently 
much prolonged; but there was great quiet and order all 
the time ; and it was, doubdess, a great satisfaction and 
happiness to so many of the clergy and laity, who had 
come up from distant places, to receive the blessed 
Sacrament of Christ's Body and Blood at the newly 
consecrated altar of their mother church. The Lord's 
Prayer was solemnly sung to the old plain -song 
arranged by Stainer ; and the Gloria in Excelsis, to 
Smart in F, made a glorious act of thanksgiving at 
the close of the Celebration. The Archbishop gave 
the Blessing, after offering two final prayers, one 
in behalf of benefactors, and the other for God's 
acceptance of the service. 

The Prince and his suite, preceded by the civic 
authorities, and followed by the Archbishops and 
Bishops, left the church and went down to the western 
door of the covered way, through the lines of the 
diocesan clergy, who had previously filed out of the 
choir aisles, in the same order in which they entered ; 


while the hymn, " Hark, the sound of holy voices," 
was triumphantly sung. 

The procession of dignitaries and others then passed 
out from the choir, and the vast congregation quickly 
melted away. When the service, which had occupied 
nearly four hours, was then brought to a conclusion, 
the Duke of Cornwall was driven to the Public Rooms, 
where some four hundred of the principal residents of 
Cornwall, with the Archbishop and most of the Bishops, 
and other dignitaries, both clerical and lay, were as- 
sembled at luncheon. The streets were packed by 
cheering people, while the roadway was kept by de- 
tachments of the I St Volunteer Battalion of the Duke 
of Cornwall's Light Infantry. The Lord Lieutenant 
presided at the luncheon, and in replying to the toast 
of his health, the Prince said that among the different 
visits which he had been able to pay to his ancient 
Duchy, " none had given me greater pleasure and 
satisfaction than that which I am paying at the present 
moment. . . . The most interesting service and 
religious ceremony, at which we have assisted to-day, 
are not likely to be forgotten by me nor by any 
of you. It is the event of a lifetime, and I con- 
gratulate you, the Duchy, the county, and all concerned 
with it, on the erection of so noble an edifice, and 
I trust that, before long, we may see the completion 
of the building. It is a real sorrow to me that the 
Princess of Wales and some of my children should 
not have accompanied me on this occasion, as they 
did when the foundation-stone was laid. Although 

FUL FIL ME NT 2 5 9 

they arc far away, you may feel sure that they take 
a great interest in what is being done here to-day." 
The Prince concluded by proposing, in highly eulogistic 
terms, "the health of our Lord Lieutenant," who then 
spoke of the admirable work of the architect of the 

In the afternoon Evensong was sung at four. There 
was a procession from the west door to the choir, 
sineino;, "At the Name of Jesus." The " preces and 
responses" were rendered with the full five-part 
harmonies of Tallis ; the "service" was Stainer in 
E flat, and the anthem, " Great is the Lord," by 
Ouseley. The Lessons were read by the Bishops of 
Aberdeen (Dr. Douglas) and Newcastle (Dr. E. R. 
Wilberforce), and the sermon was preached by the 
Bishop of London (Dr. Temple). 

It was a powerful discourse, and delivered with 
great vigour, and made a deeper impression than any 
other of the sermons preached during the Consecration 
and Octave services. The subject was " Catholicity 
and Individualism"; and the preacher set forth the true 
idea of the unity of the Church, as declared in the 
New Testament, and especially in the Epistle to the 
Ephesians from which the text was taken. One 
passage must be quoted. 

" We are sometimes asked to think that the Church only 
exists in the union of believers, and has no reality of its own. 
Now, it is perfectly clear that, in the New Testament, the 
idea of the Church is not that. Men talk sometimes as if a 
Church could be constituted simpl\- by Christians coming 


together, and uniting themselves into one body for the 
purpose. Men speak as if Christians came first and the 
Church after ; as if the origin of the Church was in the wills 
of the individual Christians who composed it. But, on the 
contrary, throughout the teaching of the Apostles, we see 
that it is the Church that comes first, and the members of it 
afterwards. Men were not brought to Christ and then de- 
termined that they would live in a community. Men were 
not brought to Christ to believe in Him and in His Cross, 
and to recognise the duty of worshipping the heavenly 
Father in His Name, and then decided that it would be a 
great help to their religion that they should be united in the 
bonds of fellowship for that purpose. In the New Testament, 
on the contrary, the Kingdom of Heaven is already in 
existence, and men are invited into it. The Church takes its 
origin, not in the will of man, but in the will of the Lord 
Jesus Christ. He sent forth His Apostles ; the Apostles 
receive their commission from Him ; they were not organs of 
the congregation ; they were ministers of the Lord Himself."^ 

At the close of the service, which was excellently 
rendered by the choir, the Precentor intoning the 
prayers, before the Blessing was pronounced, the 
" Hallelujah Chorus" from the Messiah was sung. 

The congregation at Evensong, was, to a very 
great extent, a different one from that which was 
present in the morning ; and, in order to give to 
others still one more opportunity of taking part in the 
services of the day, an evening " Service of Praise " 
was arranged. This was held at 7.30, and the con- 

1 Twelve Serfnons preached at the Cotisecratioji of the Cathedral 
Church of Truro, p. 17. For some similar thoughts on the Church, cf. 
The Ascension atid Heavenly Priesthood of our Lord. Baird Lecture, 
1891, by the late William Milligan, D.D. 


greg-ation were quietly ushered into their seats by a 
company of stewards organised by Mr. Mack, for 
many years a devoted member of the Cathedral choir. 
The choir entered in procession, while ]\Ir. Sinclair 
played on the organ Sterndale Bennett's " Barcarole." 
Then followed "The old hundredth psalm," sung by 
the vast conereoration as well as the choir, with most 
impressive effect. The Precentor then said some 
collects and the Lord's Prayer, after which was sung, 
"Now we are ambassadors" (by two lay clerks from 
Oxford), and the chorus, " How lovely are the 
messengers." Mr. Sinclair then played a " Sonata in 
D Minor" (Guilmant), which gave him full opportunity 
for displaying the rich capabilities of the splendid 
organ. Perhaps the most striking vocal performance 
of the evening was the solo in Hear viy Prayer 
(Mendelssohn) by Master Y . Thomas, leading treble 
in the Truro Cathedral choir ; 1 which, with its motet 
and chorus, was followed by the recitative and aria 
from the Elijah "Ye people, rend your hearts," etc., 
by Mr. C. W. Fredericks, of Lichfield Cathedral. 
This concluded the first part. During the singing of 
the hymn '' O worship the King," the alms of the 
people were gathered. The conductor of the first 
part was Mr. C. H. Lloyd, who now changed places 
with Mr. Sinclair, and gave a fine performance of a 
" Finale Fugato," by H. Smart, and a " P^antasia in 
F Minor" by Mozart. The other items in the second 
part being, "Why do the heathen" (Handel), finely 

' Now organist of St. Austell parish church. 


sung by Mr. Sunman, of Christ Church, Oxford ; and 
the duet, '' Love divine," from Stainer's Daughter of 
Jairus, exceedingly well rendered by Master F. 
Thomas and Mr. C. W. Fredericks. The whole 
concluded with the " Hallelujah Chorus," and the 
Blessing. And so ended a long but happy day, that 
will certainly live in the memories of all who took 
part in its services. 

In the evening also the Mayor and Mayoress of 
Truro gave a brilliant reception at the Town Hall, 
and the city was extensively illuminated.^ 

The Octave Services 

The consecration of the Cathedral was meant to be 
an era in diocesan life. Numerous and representative 
as the congregation on November 3rd was, they only 
formed a portion of the people in Cornwall who 
wished to share in the oreat event. It was therefore 
a happy idea, that took form in the Bishop's mind, to 
hold a series of services throughout the octave, at 
which the country parishes might send up their 
representatives of clergy, choirs, and church workers 
in large numbers, and claim the Cathedral as their 
own great mother church. The plan was very 
successfully carried out. The twelve rural deaneries 
of the diocese were grouped and arranged for the 
various days as follows : — 

^ For the benefit of a large number of residents and visitors who 
could not find room in the Cathedral at any of the services, concerts of 
high-class music were provided at the Public Rooms in the afternoon 
and evening. 


Friday . Nov. 4th . Penwith and Stratton. 

Preacher, The Bishop of Winchester (Dr. E. Harold Browne). 

Saturday . Nov. 5th . Powder. ^ 

Preacher, The Rev. C. Gore. 

Monday . Nov. 7th . Pydar, Bodmin, and Trigg Minor. 
Preacher, The Bishop of Newcastle 

(Dr. E. R. Wilberforce). 

Tuesday . Nov. 8th . Kirrier, East and Trigg Major. 
Preacher, The Rev. Canon A. J. Mason. "^ 

Wednesday Nov. 9th . Carnmarth. 

Preacher, The Rev. C. Bodington. 

Thursday . Nov. lOth . St. Austell and West. 

Preacher, The Rev. Canon A. J. Mason. 

There were assembled throughout the octave prob- 
ably no fewer than 10,000 people, from all parts, of 
whom 2,000 were singers of the diocese, some 700 of 
these being in surplices. Each day the white-robed 
company came in procession to the choir, marshalled 
in due order by the Precentor, headed by the 
Cathedral choristers and cross-bearer, and singing 
"Blessed city, heavenly Salem." On several occa- 
sions it overflowed the limits of the choir, and added 
one or more white lines to the body of singers out- 
side. Each day the great central space was tilled 
with unsurpliced singers, men and women, girls and 
lads. Each day large congregations filled the whole 
available spaces. The fishermen, miners, agricul- 

1 (I 

' The undesigned coincidence " of the combination of '* Powder " (the 
name of a hundred and rural deanery-) with November 5th caused 
much amusement. 

- In the place of Canon liasil Wilberforce. 


turists of Cornwall were there, among the Sunday- 
school teachers, members of the Church Society, 
parochial guilds, etc. ; while the parochial clergy 
filled the chairs at the eastern end of the choir. Each 
day a Rural Dean read the Lesson, and one or more of 
the clergy of the deaneries intoned the appointed 
prayers. The service itself was simple but solemn, a 
few versicles with the Lord's Prayer, the Dedication 
Psalm xxiv., a lesson, a hymn, collects, and prayers ; 
hymns before and after the sermon, and on entering 
and leaving church ; the Te Deinn after the collection 
of the alms. The chants and hymn tunes were easy 
and melodious, and were sung with most impressive 
power, revealing, if it was not known before, what a 
force of musical gifts is treasured up in the Church 
choirs of Cornwall. 

Archbishop Benson, who was present at the services 
on two of the days of the octave, wTote thus after he 

had left : — ^, , ,, ^ 

" Addington Park, Croydon. 

" My dear Mr. Precentor, — Your glorious work is 
over. I wish I could have gone on as a member of each 
rural deanery in turn. 

" I congratulate you on the extraordinary unity of your 
choirs, and every detail of arrangement. 
" Blessing was upon all things. 

" Yours sincerely, 

" Edw : Cantuar : " 
And in another letter he adds : — 

" I wish I could express to the Precentor how beautifully I 
thought all his plans came out. 

" I shall never see anything which can touch or impress 
me more than these services.'' 


Notice must not be omitted of the services on the 
Sunday in the octave, wiili the sermons by Canon 
Scott Holland and the Chancellor of the Cathedral, 
who filled, at a short notice, the place of Canon Knox 
Little ; and the solemn choral celebration of the Holy 
Communion, which, to many, was one of the not least 
impressive services of the whole octave. The most 
striking feature of this Sunday's services was, however, 
the great gathering of men in the afternoon, to hear 
the Bishop of Newcasde (Dr. E. R. Wilberforce). 
It is calculated that a thousand men, of all ranks and 
stations, met toQ^ether on this occasion. 

Evening Meetings 

It was felt that the consecration of the Cathedral 
was an event that touched the life of the Church as a 
whole, and not the Diocese of Truro only ; it was 
also the opinion of those who were mainly responsible 
for the consecration services, that the Church's work, 
as well as the Church's worship, should be prominently 
set forth on so important an occasion. 

Two evening meetings were, therefore, arranged in 
the Public Rooms, under the presidency of the Bishop : 
the one held on Friday, November 7th, the subject of 
which was entided, "The Church's witness to her 
Lord abroad " ; the second on Tuesday, November 
8th, when the subject was, " The Church's witness to 
her Lord at home." The Concert Room was, on both 
occasions, filled with an audience, to a great extent 
composed of working people. Simple and stirring 


hymns were sung, such as "Rock of Ages," "The 
Church's One Foundation," " Allehjia ! sing to Jesus," 
"From Greenland's icy mountains," "Through the 
nieht of doubt and sorrow." 

The speakers were carefully selected, and they 
delivered most earnest and able addresses. The 
Bishop of the diocese spoke affectionate words of 
welcome, and the Archbishop struck the keynote of 
"joy " at the happy consummation of the work of 
raising the Cathedral, which contained the Henry 
Martyn Baptistery, as a perpetual witness for foreign 
mission work. The Bishop of Winchester, with 
much emotion, alluded to his old parish of Kenwyn, 
saying, "If you have forgotten me, I have never for- 
gotten you," and called upon all in Cornwall to unite 
in spreading the gospel throughout the world. Lord 
Nelson and the Bishop of Bedford (Dr. W. Walsham 
How) spoke of the need of spiritual discipline and 
self-sacrifice, and the Bishop of Newcastle (Dr. E. R. 
Wilberforce) urged the necessity of zeal and en- 
thusiasm ; while the Bishop of Salisbury (Dr. J. 
Wordsworth) gave some account of the Church of 
England's relation to the Old Catholics of Europe, 
and the Rev. Charles Gore ^ of mission work in 
India, both of these speakers drawing from their 
own personal experience. 

On the second occasion, Canon Scott Holland 
delivered an address on " Purity " and the need of 
some oreat national reforms in this direction ; the 

1 Now Bishop of Worcester. 


Rev. C. Bodington^ laid down the true principles 
of Temperance ; and Canon Mason concluded with an 
address on "Truth and Loyalty to our Lord Jesus 
Christ " ; showing how personal devotion to the Head 
of the Church involved love for, and obedience to, the 
laws of His mystical Body, the Church. These two 
great meetings proved very interesting and profitable 
elements in the proceedings of the octave. 

On November 13th, the Sunday following the 
octave, there was a kind of " after-glow " of en- 
thusiasm evoked by the teaching of the Rev. 
R. W. Randall, then Vicar of All Saints', Clifton,'- in 
his sermon, and his sympathetic address to the 
assembled children of the five parishes of Truro, when 
a hymn specially written for the occasion by the 
Bishop of Exeter (Dr. E. H. Bickersteth) was sung, 
beeinninof " Great God of our salvation " ; and by the 
solemn baptism of seven infants in the afternoon by 
the Bishop, who preached, in the evening of that day, 
his first sermon in the new Cathedral, on "The Earthly 
Temple, the symbol of the Heavenly." 

There remains only to be added that the sum 
of ^2,005 was collected, of which i^ 1,735 ^^'^^ given 
on the consecration day itself. In the week following 
November 13th was held the first Confirmation, to be 
followed a few weeks later by the first Ordination ; 
and so Truro Cathedral was given up to God and 
His Church, for the great work of maintaining the 

' Now Canon and Precentor of Lichfield. 
- Afterwards Dean of Chichester. 


constant worship of the Almighty, and the edifying 
of His people.^ 

The following prayer, compiled by Archbishop 
Benson, and used in a fuller form in the actual 
consecration service, was adopted as "the Collect for 
the Cathedral," and has become the regular prayer 
for anniversaries, as well as for societies specially 
connected with Truro Cathedral, 

Collect for the Cathedral 

O Lord, Who, by the prayers and hands of Thy servants, 
hast raised high in so fair sanctity this House of Thy doctrine 
and service ; We humbly beseech Thee to build and bind Thy 
people, one and all, into one spiritual, fitly framed temple ; 
and so to manifest Thyself in this Thy sanctuary, that Thou, 
Who workest all Thy will in the sons of Thy adoption, mayest 
continually be praised in the joy of Thine heritage ; through 
Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. 

' Some portions of the account given in this chapter of the consecra- 
tion of the Cathedral are reproduced (by the kind permission of the 
owners of the copyright, the Sisters of the Community of the Epiphany) 
from the Appendix written by the author for the volume entitled 
Twelve Ser7)ions preached at the Consecration of the Cathedral Church 
of Truro. 1888. 


THE services held in the Cathedral on the day 
of its consecration, and during the octave, gave 
the Churchmen of Cornwall a very vivid and inspiring 
sense of their Unity in one Body. This was exacdy 
the result desired, and hoped for, by the founder 
of the Cathedral and those who furthered his efforts. 
Some immediate fruit followed. 

The following typical communication was sent to 
Truro by the Rev. E. Douglas Jones, Vicar of Looe 
and Rural Dean of West, being a resolution passed 
by his synod, held at Liskeard : — 

"That the Dean Rural convey to the Bishop, the Pre- 
centor, and Cathedral Committee, the thanks of the clergy 
of this deanery, for the great trouble they have taken in 
enabling the choirs and parishioners of the different deaneries 
in the diocese to attend the octave services in the Cathedral, 
in connection with the consecration ; and to express a 
hope that similar services may be annually held in the 

The result of this, and similar communications, was 
the formation, a year later, of the Diocesan Choral 
Union ; and the commencement of a series of annual 



gatherings of choirs and Churchworkers at the 
Cathedral, which has continued, with unbroken regu- 
larity and no slight measure of success, up to the 
present time. For fourteen years there has been each 
year a great festival, at which a body of singers varying 
in numbers from six hundred to a thousand has taken 
part, in a carefully rehearsed service for which a 
diocesan book is annually published. One deanery 
after another heartily took up the scheme ; until, in 
1 90 1, each of the twelve deaneries in the diocese, either 
held its local festival or sent up its choirs, according 
to a triennial cycle, to take part in the diocesan service 
at the Cathedral. At the outset the organist of the 
Cathedral, Mr. G. R. Sinclair, gave very valuable help 
as diocesan choirmaster ; and, for twelve years past, 
his successor Dr. M. J. Monk has bestowed ungrudg- 
ing labour upon the work of training the choirs of 
the diocese with conspicuous success. One great 
value of these gatherings lies in the fact, that they 
are not only musical festivals ; but, that, on each 
occasion, a large contingent of Churchworkers and 
parishioners accompany the choirs ; and a very great 
number of Cornish folk from remote parishes, on 
either coast and in distant villages, visit their mother 
church, learn to appreciate its beauty, and claim it as 
their own possession ; besides realising their member- 
ship in the unity of the Church, on a greater scale 
than is possible in the limited sphere of a small 
parish. Soon, other gatherings of Sunday-school 
teachers, temperance societies, the G.F.S., and kindred 


organisations, followed, until it has become a familiar 
idea to (rather each branch of Church work, in its 
members or at least through its representatives, round 
the central altar of the diocese. Nothing can be 
more stimulating and invigorating than this. 

When the question came up for consideration as to 
how the ordinary services of the Cathedral were to be 
maintained, a difficult situation had to be faced. It 
was, of course, quite within the reach of the Bishop 
and the Chapter, to establish and maintain, without 
serious outlay, simple daily services, including the 
daily celebration of the Holy Eucharist. It has been 
a source of the greatest strength, comfort, and blessing 
that, from the first day on which the altar of Truro 
Cathedral was dedicated, on November 3rd, 1887, up 
to the present time, every morning of the year has it 
been prepared and ready for the celebration of the 
" Holy Mysteries," and for the communion o{ the 
faithful. Not only has this blessed privilege been a 
source of united strenofth to those, who throuoh Ion"' 
years have striven to uphold and extend the useful- 
ness of the Cathedral for the welfare of the diocese, 
as well as for the glory of God ; but it has pro\cd to 
be an inestimable and ever-ready blessing to great 
numbers of communicants and worshippers. To be 
able to feel sure that, when in Truro on any day in 
the year, it is possible to unite the gratitude of the 
individual soul, for mercies received, with the Divine 
Eucharist ; to plead for blessings, spiritual and 
temporal, in behalf of others or for one's own needs, 


in union with the o-reat Memorial Seicrifice, offered 
once on Calvary and perpetually pleaded in heaven, 
and mystically presented at the earthly altar ; all this 
has been, and is, an unspeakable consolation to many 
a Christian man and woman. Not only has a regular 
scheme of subjects for intercession, at the daily 
Eucharist, been drawn up by the Dean and Chapter, 
but constantly requests for prayer and praise are sent 
up, from many parts of the diocese, and even from 
beyond its borders. For this alone the Cathedral has 
proved worthy of the cost bestowed upon it, and has 
fulfilled a great ministry. 

It was possible to secure the services of an efficient 
set of choir men, from those who had been voluntary 
members of the old parish choir, and were glad and 
willing to continue their free-will services in the 
Cathedral. But the cost of the maintenance of the 
fabric, the ordinary expenses of Divine service — ^as 
heatino- liCThtinof, and other matters — would have, it 
seemed, to depend upon the somewhat precarious 
support of collections in church. Several generous 
friends of Bishop Wilkinson came forward, and 
o-uaranteed some hundreds a year to tide over the 
difficult crisis. But it was felt, that a serious effort 
should be made to obtain some permanent and de- 
pendable income for the very necessary objects above 

It was determined to make an appeal to Parliament, 
for powers to enable the Ecclesiastical Commissioners 
to assign certain endowments, to which Cornwall ap- 


peared to have some equitable claim, for the mainten- 
ance of the Cathedral and its staff. 

In order to understand the position of affairs, it will 
be necessary to give a brief summary of legislation 
carried out, or attempted, in connection with the 
Truro Bishopric. Chapter, and Cathedral. 

First there was the Act of 1876 (39 & 40 Vict. 
c. 54), by which the Bishopric was founded after so 
long a period of patient working and waiting, and by 
which Cornish Churchmen at last received the permis- 
sion of the State to have a Bishop for themselves, 
supported by an endowment provided by their own 
strenuous effort and self-sacrifice. The last clause of 
the Act (following precedents) jealously prohibited 
the Ecclesiastical Commissioners from applying "any 
portion of their common fund towards the endow- 
ment of the Bishopric of Truro, or of the Dean and 
Chapter thereof." 

Secondly, in 1878 was passed, not without difficulty 
and opposition, the Truro Chapter Act {41 & 42 
Vict. c. 44). By its provisions, the fifth canonry of 
Exeter Cathedral was transferred to Truro ; out of it 
to be founded two endowed canonries ; power was 
given for the formation of a Truro Chapter Endow- 
ment Fund (not out of endowments held by the Com- 
missioners, but from private sources). Provision was 
made for the creation of a Dean and Chapter, (a Dean 
and not less than four Residentiary Canons) as a body 
corporate, with the same powers and privileges as 
other sin-iihu- bt)dies. But residentiary canonries 



might be formed, as soon as funds permitted, before 
the complete Chapter was created. 

It was a serious mistake that the annual income 
of the Dean was fixed at a minimum of ^i,ooo. A 
smaller sum, as in some of the Welsh cathedrals, 
would have sufficed. 

Bishop Benson recorded in his Diary under June 
loth, 1878, some account of this Act. "The passing 
of the Chapter Act was singular in its circumstances." 
After recounting how the Bishop of Exeter and the 
Dean and Chapter of that cathedral, and the Ecclesias- 
tical Commission had assented, and the Home Secretary, 
Mr. Cross, afterwards Viscount Cross, was ready to intro- 
duce the Bill as a Government measure, he states : " The 
Bill having passed the House of Lords, the second 
reading was to come on in the House of Commons, 
when for some unknown reason, in the very thickest of 
the work in July, Mr. D. and Mr. C. [two well-known 
members of Parliament] had given notice that they 
would oppose the Bill." The Bishop received a hint 
that it might be advisable to see Mr. C. " But 
of course," said his informant, " it's possible that it 
might do more harm than good to interfere with 
him."^ Bishop Benson quite accidentally met Mr. C. 
in the street. " Something withheld me from saying 
to him, as we stopped to chat with mutual astonish- 
ment at the odd meeting, ' Why can't you let our little 
Bill alone?' I thought it would be rather an unfair 

' It has been lately said " There is no surer way of securing Mr. C.'s 
opposition than by getting him on your own side." 


thrust just then, but did not doubt that the little 
cordiality would be a help to nie within thirty-six 

The foundation of two canonries, from the fifth 
Exeter canonry, authorised by this Act, was not 
actually completed till March loth, 1885, when an 
Order in Council announced their creation. 

Thirdly, there was the Truro Bishopric and 
Chapter Acts Amendment x'\ct, 1887 (50 & 51 
Vict. c. 12.) This has already been referred to 
in a previous chapter, and it is sufficient to say here, 
that, the provisions of this Act legalised the present 
stattis of the Chapter, as a corporate body composed 
of the Bishop holding the office of Dean (until further 
provision can be made), two Residentiary Canons 
with endowed stalls, and the Sub- Dean and another 
Canon holding either of the offices of Missioner, 
Treasurer, or President of the Honorary Canons. 
The limits of the Cathedral and the parish church 
(the present south aisle of the choir) were defined ; 
the transfer of capitular patronage in Cornwall, before 
held by the Dean and Chapter of E.xeter, to the new 
body at Truro was authorised ; ^ and powers were 
given to that body to hold and manage a "Truro 
Cathedral Endowment Fund." But no transfer of any 
endowment by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners to the 
Cathedral at Truro was permitted. 

1 This was canietl into effect by an Order in Council dated Februarj' 
22nd 18S9, after the consent of the Dean and Chapter of E.xeter had been 


Bishop Wilkinson always felt that a special Provi- 
dence had watched over the successful passing of this 
Bill through Parliament, in answer to earnest and 
persevering prayer. It was felt by him, and others, 
that, in the then condition of politics, and in the 
attitude that many took up in Parliament towards 
Church questions, it would be exceedingly difficult to 
carry such a Bill. He therefore "fell back," as he 
said, "upon the supernatural power of the interceding 
Church, linked with the Great Intercessor, the Lord 
Jesus Christ, before the Father's throne in heaven." 
And the answer came. The Bishop, sitting one day 
in the Athenreum Club, in much perplexity about the 
measure, unexpectedly met, first one, and then another 
friend, members of both Houses, who by advice, 
counsel, and action, removed difficulties, improved 
clauses, and at length secured its passage. As he 
said, " A very influential person, when he looked back 
upon the great difficulties which beset the passing 
of the Bill, confessed, in a simple-hearted way, that, to 
his mind, there was something more than mere human 
influence and human power at work ; for he could not 
otherwise explain how it passed so smoothly and 
easily." And the Bishop added "when he was in the 
Home Office, in the House of Lords, or in the 
library of the club, he called upon God, and the Lord 
'did not cast out his prayer,' but 'led him by the 
rio-ht wav ' and delivered him out of all his difficulties." 
It was in accordance with the Bishop's usual custom 
that, not many months afterwards, a special service 


of thanksgiving, for these and other great blessings, 

together with intercessions for the future work of the 

Cathedral, took place at Truro Cathedral on the Feast 

of the Purification, February 2nd, 1888. 

While the Bill was being prepared Bishop Wilkinson 

wrote from London : — 

''February Wi, 1887. 

" God is raising up many old friends to help me with the 
Cathedral Bill— but I think of dear Lyte's text : ' O God the 
Lord, in THEE is my trust.' 

" I have been analysing it to-day, so that the short analysis 
may be printed and sent round the Cabinet, that they may 
decide whether to help us or not. You will, I know, pray." 

A local circumstance, surrounded with certain 
difficulties, is referred to in the following letter : — 

''September ist, 1887. 

" Yesterday was a difficult da\- ; but it is happier when we 
feel that all these hindrances and difficulties are only the 
translation into the nineteenth-century life of the great 
law of limitation, which so pressed upon the Spirit of our 
blessed Lord." 

A further attempt was made, in the same year, to 
obtain some endowment for Truro Cathedral, from 
funds at the disposal of the Ecclesiastical Com- 
missioners. A Bill was drafted intituled, " An Act 
to provide a Fund for the Repair and Services of the 
Cathedral Church of Truro." hi the preamble refer- 
ence was made to large estates held by the Coni- 
missioners, originally given for Cathedral and capitular 
purposes to the old Diocese of Exeter, out ot which 


the Truro Diocese had been taken ; it was noted that 
much of this property was situate within the present 
Cornish Diocese ; it recalled a previous Act (29 & 
30 Vict. c. 3, s. 18), by which the Commissioners 
were empow^ered, under certain circumstances, to make 
provision for the stipends of officials, choristers, and 
others ; it proposed to extend these powers to Truro, 
and to assign, out of the common fund (and particularly 
out of estates situate in Cornwall), ^3,000 a year 
towards the repair of the fabric, and the maintenance 
of Divine service in Truro Cathedral. A memorandum 
was drawn up, giving full information about the 
Truro bishopric and Cathedral and the requirements 
of the latter, which was circulated among members of 
the tw^o Houses of Parliament and other influential 
persons. ^ 

Lord Mount Edgcumbe, with his accustomed zeal 
for Truro and its Cathedral, introduced the Bill into 
the House of Lords. In an able speech he called 
attention to the sacrifices made in Cornwall for the 
foundation of the see and Cathedral : and Bishop 
Wilkinson seconded the measure, expressing his belief 
that, in the end, the granting of the sum asked for 
would not have the result of depriving any of the 
poorly endowed clergy (with whom he had the deepest 
sympathy) of what they might justly claim : it would 
stimulate generosity, and make the Cathedral an 

^ It was stated that the Commissioners received, or would very 
shortly receive, from estates in Cornwall, a nctf balance of nearly ^5,ooo 
a year after deducting local grants made. 


efficient centre of diocesan work, and therefore would 
be helping those who were, and had been, helping 
themselves. Earl Stanhope, as representing the 
Ecclesiastical Commission, opposed the measure ; on 
the grounds of the diminution of funds through the 
agricultural depression, as well as on the general 
principle that, to make this grant would trench upon 
the Common Eund, and be contrary to the whole 
original intention of the Commission and its work. 
Lord Grimthorpe objected to the creation and endow- 
ment of capitular bodies. " They get on," he said, 
"very well without them at St. Albans. It seems to be 
an annual puzzle what to do with Deans and Chapters; 
their chief function is now said to be to quarrel 
with the Bishop." Viscount Cranbrook supported the 
Bill, and it was read a second time ; but later on it was 
referred to a Select Committee. Evidence was taken 
before the Committee from ^Ir. De Bock Porter, then 
financial secretary to the Ecclesiastical Commission, 
the Dean of Exeter (Dr. Cowie), and the Chapter 
Clerk of Exeter Cathedral (Mr. W. J. Battishill). 
Finally, the Committee decided against proceeding 
with the Bill, but carried a resolution, by seven votes 
to six, in fa\'our of the following resolution : — 

" That, in the opinion of the Committee, any money to be 
granted for the maintenance of the fabric and services of the 
Cathedral of Truro, should be obtained from the money paid 
to the Dean and Canons of Exeter, on the occurrence of 
vacancies, anrl should not exceed ;^i,ooo a }'ear." 

Twelve years have elapsed since that resolution 


was carried, but no further action has been taken 
in the matter. 

Yet another attempt, on a much smaller scale, was 
made in the following year to obtain aid towards the 
fabric and services fund. Once more Lord Mount 
Edorcumbe o-allantlv brought forward the " Arch- 
deaconry of Cornwall Bill." The object of this 
measure was a very simple one. When the fifth 
canonry of Exeter was transferred to Truro its 
income of ^i,ooo, in accordance with a long-standing 
rule, was charged with the payment of one-third of that 
sum to the Archdeacon of Cornwall. It had been then 
provided that, at the next vacancy of the Archdeacon's 
office, the stipend should be reduced to ^200 instead 
of ^333 : giving ^400 each to the two Residentiary 
Canons of Truro. The Bill proposed that the Arch- 
deacon of Cornwall's stipend should be paid (as in 
many other cases) from the common fund of the 
Ecclesiastical Commission, and ^200 set free ; so 
that the whole income of the fifth Exeter canonry 
might go, as it was legitimately urged, to Truro 
Cathedral. This ^200 a year was, however, to be 
devoted, not to any clerical stipend, but for the main- 
tenance of the fabric and services, as part of the 
"Truro Cathedral Endowment Fund." 

Looking back, it is difficult to believe that men, 
who had no personal interest in the question which 
was a purely local Church one, should year after year 
have persistently blocked the Bill, supported as it was 
by every ecclesiastical authority ; including the Arch- 


bishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of London, who 
were of course personally acquainted with the local 
needs, as well as by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners 
themselves. It required not less than niiK^ years' 
patient and persevering advocacy, on the part of the 
Earl of Mount rxlL^cumbe and those who helped him. 
to bring the matter to a successful issue. On June 3rd 
the Archdeaconry of Cornwall Act, 1897 (60 Vict, 
c. 9), was passed. 

It will be probably agreeable to the reader to pass, 
from these somewhat dr\- parliamentary details, to the 
more interesting subject of the generous and freewill 
offerings of faithful Church-people ; upon which, after 
all, the maintenance of all the chief enterprises of the 
Church in our day must mainly depend. There were 
received, at this time, such helpful bequests as that of 
a house left by Miss Nankivell, which eventually 
came into the hands of the Dean and Chapter : a sum 
of money from a legacy by Miss Field for the education 
of the Cathedral choristers. Later on a large and noble 
bequest came from Miss Anne Pedler of Liskeard, who. 
in her will, signified her wish to carry out the in- 
tentions of her brother Edward Moblyn Pedler, who 
for many years had desired to benefit the Cathedral 
at Truro. Mr. Pedler was a Churchman of the old 
type, self-denying, generous, and loyal. He was 
greatly interested in archaeology and Church history, 
and wrote a volume on The Anglo-Saxon Episcopate 
of Cornwall, which contains valuable information, and 
shows much painstaking research. In- the will ot his 


sister the large sum of /^i 5,000 was received by the 
Cathedral, or rather by trustees appointed to distribute 
the amount for certain specified objects. Part was set 
aside for the Building Fund ; part for the formation of 
scholarships for the choristers ; part for the main- 
tenance of the services ; part for the creation of 
a bursary in the Divinity School ; ^ and between 
^4,000 and ^5,000 towards the endowment of a third 
residentiary canonry. This last-named object is 
likely, before very long, to be realised ; for, in addition 
to certain other sums, the above amount has, for some 
years, been accumulating at compound interest, and 
will soon produce the required minimum income of 
^300 a year. 

But, in spite of these large gifts, the responsibility 
of maintaining the fabric and services was a serious 
and anxious one. The liberal promises of the two 
or three friends of Bishop Wilkinson in London, 
already mentioned, could not be expected to be 
continued for more than two or three years ; and some 
Cornish Church-people, among whom were conspicuous 
Canon Phillpotts (already a generous benefactor of 
the see and Cathedral), Lord Mount Edgcumbe, 
Colonel Tremayne and others, determined to make a 
special effort to raise an annual sum for the main- 
tenance of the services and the repair of the fabric. 
On May 20th, 1889, a considerable subscription list 

^ By a slig^ht modification in the scheme, the usefulness of this Bursary, 
as a help in the cost of training a candidate for Holy Orders for work in 
the Diocese, has been recently (1902) extended. 


was started, collectors in each rural deanery were 
appointed, and collections in [)arish churches asked 
for. For the last thirteen years, " the Cathedral 
Union." as this new association was called, has done 
a work without which it would have been well-nigh 
impossible to carry on the Cathedral services. An 
annual income from ^450 to ^500 has been raised, 
to meet the lan^e deficiency that would otherwise have 
overwhelmed the Chapter, had they been left to 
depend upon the slender resources at their disposal 
from their very small endowments and the collections 
at the services — generous indeed when the means of 
most of the cono-res^ation are considered, but small 
enough, in actual amount, to meet the necessary ex- 
penses.^ Dr. Benson, then Archbishop of Canterbury, 
was very pleased to hear of this effort and referred to 
it, in one of his visitation charges, as an example 
which might have to be followed in some of the older 
cathedrals, whose revenues have of late become so 
seriously diminished. 
His words are : — 

" It gives me pleasure here to note, that a Cathedral Union 
proposes to raise over ^500 a year towards the maintenance 
of the Service and Fabric of Truro Cathedral. This was an 
ancient plan elsewhere. And so disastrous, through unfore- 
seen lcL;islation, is the position of some of our Mother 
Churches, that wc must almost expect it to be resumed."- 

' Throuyh the efforts of the Cathedral Union, since 1S89 to 1902, the 
sum of ;^8,678 15J. <\d. has been raised within thirteen years for these 
purposes, very largely within the Diocese. 

- Fishers of Men, p. 1 1, note. 


With such hmitecl resources, the services at Truro 
Cathedral have not been able to attain any high 
degree of elaboration, or lofty standard of musical 
excellence. As has already been noticed, the choir 
was the old parochial choir, transferred from St. Mary's 
Church to the new Cathedral. But the first organist, 
George Robertson Sinclair, was a man who knew 
how to make the best of existing material ; and, with 
undaunted courage and consuming enthusiasm, to 
attempt and to succeed in noble ambitions. He was 
a pupil at Sir Frederick Gore Ouseley's College 
of St. Michael's, Tenbury, and had worked under 
Dr. C. H. Lloyd at Gloucester Cathedral (after- 
wards orofanist at Christ Church, Oxford, and now 
precentor of Eton). 

Coming as a youth to Truro, he attracted Dr. 
Benson by his ardent love for his art and his untiring- 
energy.^ Step by step he led on the choir, until he 
succeeded in making them fit to render the best 
cathedral music ; and later on to execute works like 
Mendelssohn's Hymn of Praise, Spohr's Last Jttdg- 
ment, and Stainer's Dmighter of Jairtis and Si. Mary 
Magdalene. ~ 

After nine years' work at Truro, where in addition 
to his Cathedral duties he was conductor of the Phil- 
harmonic Society and musical teacher at the Training 

1 Canon Mason records in his Diary : "Saturday, Oct. 8, i88i, was 
to have returned at midday, but Walpole left me to hear the boy Sinclair, 
who had come to try for our organistship— a wonderful young fellow." 

- Mr. Ivor Atkins, the able organist of Worcester Cathedral, was for 
several years a pupil of Mr. Sinclair at Truro. 


College, he was appointed organist of Hereford. As 
conductor and organist of the " Festival of the Three 
Choirs," and also as conductor of the Birmingham 
Musical Festival, he has gained a very high reputa- 
tion. He received several years ago the honour of 
the Lambeth degree of Doctor in Music, from the 
present Archbishop of Canterbury (Dr. Temple), and 
was appointed " Grand Organist" of the Grand Lodge 
of Freemasons of England. 

Dr. ^L [. Monk, who succeeded him, has maintained 
the good traditions set by his predecessor ; and, as a 
musician of refined taste, has been able to train the 
choir to do justice to a repertoire of high-class Church 
music, pronounced by the late Dr. Troutbeck, of 
Westminster, to be unusually large and varied, con- 
sidering the number of choral services rendered. For 
it must be remembered, that the revenues at Truro 
only suffice to provide a choir for the principal Sunday 
services; for Evensong on Wednesdays, Saturdays, 
and holy days ; and certain other special occasions. 
Competent critics have, from time to time, judged 
favourably of the music at Truro, a small city of 
eleven thousand inhabitants, and consequently con- 
taining a very limited area from which to draw voices, 
where there are competing parochial choirs and no 
such financial resources as enable other cathedrals to 
attract singers from afar. 

The ceremonial, in use at the Cathedral, cannot be 
called in any sense "extreme." It aims at dignity 
and stateliness ; and those who are responsible for 


the ordering of the services have striven after simpli- 
city and reverence, taking the use of St. Paul's, 
London, as a pattern to follow. 

When the" Lincoln Judgment" had been pronounced, 
the following statement was issued by the Dean and 
Chapter, after a few additions had been made to the 
ritual of the Holy Communion at the Cathedral, 
which were introduced for the first time on Easter 
Day. These included the use of two lights at the 
early celebrations (afterwards extended to all celebra- 
tions) and of stoles of the colour of the season at the 
altar services ; the ablutions taken at the altar instead 
of in the vestry ; the singing of a hymn (now almost 
always the Agmts Dei) during the Communion of the 

"In making these changes the Dean and Chapter desire to 
meet the feeHngs and wishes of various classes of wor- 
shippers ; and to make the Cathedral services minister, more 
and more, to the glory of God and the edification of His 
people. The additional enrichments of the ritual are in 
harmony with the exquisite beauty of the building and all 
its fittings. They are, moreover, in conformity with the law 
of the Church, as stated in the ' Ornaments Rubric,' and have 
been declared, by the recent judgment of the Archbishop's 
Court, to be not contrary to the mind of the Church of 
England. It is believed that they will be proved to be instru- 
mental in giving increased expression to the reverence and 
devotion of the worshippers." 

It would be impossible to find space for any detailed 
notice of some of the great services that have been 
held in Truro Cathedral during the last fifteen years. 


Solemn memorial services for the late Queen Victoria, 
the Duke of Clarence, Mr. Gladstone, Archbishop 
Benson. Intercession services during the recent war in 
South Africa ; thanksi^ivings after victory, as when 
Mafeking was relieved. Impressive Advent and Lent 
courses of sermons and instructions ; addresses to men, 
Sunday-school teachers. Church workers, lay readers. 
Perhaps one of the most striking of all is the annual 
service, held on Christmas Eve, when a '' Service of 
IX. Lessons," drawn up by Dr. Benson, is used. The 
lessons are read by a series of readers, beginning with 
a chorister, and ending with the Bishop. Carols and 
anthems follow each lesson. The catalogue of special 
services is a long one, and space fails the writer in any 
attempt to enumerate, or describe them in detail. 

It must not be supposed that it is only great cere- 
monies and stately functions that have been conducted 
within the walls of Truro Cathedral, or in connection 
with the work of its Chapter. Many have been the 
efforts made to reach souls by simple methods, as 
well as by unusual and special means. 

One great spiritual attempt was made in November, 
1892, by a general Mission throughout the city, in- 
cluding all the parish churches as well as the Cathedral, 
to awaken souls and invigorate Church life. 

Bishop Wilkinson had greatly desired that during 
his episcopate such a mission should be held ; and 
Bishop Gott did all he could to ensure its success. 
The Canon Missioner (Canon F. E. Carter) worked 
for many months beforehand indefatigably, together 


with the city clergy, with Sub- Dean Bourke at their 
head, to make thorough, prayerful, and earnest prepara- 
tion. A very impressive day of solemn intercession, 
at which nearly all the churchworkers, with many other 
communicants in the city, were present, was held in 
the Cathedral, shortly before the Mission took place. 
Canon Georo-e Bodv o-ave the addresses. Without 
pronouncing that the effort failed to produce the results 
desired, it nevertheless did not make so strong^ an 
impression as had been expected. No doubt indi- 
vidual souls received much blessino- but the visible 
fruits were not discernible, in any general advance 
in Church life and work in the cathedral city. 

Perhaps it may be said, with some approach to truth, 
that in a place where there is so constant a round 
of frequent services, and so many sermons delivered 
by a succession of different preachers, including not 
a few men eminent for learning and eloquence in the 
Church at home and abroad ; an effort, like a ten 
days' mission, does not so greatly strike the imagina- 
tion, or arouse the interest, as in the case of less 
favoured places. 

But then, the favoured place ought to take heed 
concerning its privileg'es. 



IT was the habit of Bishop Wilkinson to receive, 
from time to time, at Lis Escop, eminent Church- 
men ; and especially members of the Home, Colonial, 
and American Episcopate. Among these were Bishop 
Scott of North China, formerly his Curate at St. Peter's, 
Eaton Square, Bishops Edward Churton of Nassau 
and Kennion of Adelaide.^ Bishop Doane of Albany 
visited Truro, during the absence of its Bishop, 
while endeavouring to obtain restoration to health 
in Switzerland. He preached in the Cathedral, was 
much struck by its services, and enchanted with its 
architecture. " This time," he said, " I have seen the 
shrine, next time I hope to see the saint." Since 
then, he has had the satisfaction of erecting a very 
substantial part of his own cathedral at Albany, to 
the dedication of which he invited several of the 
clergy of Truro Cathedral. Bishop Webb, formerly of 
Bloemfontein and afterwards of Grahamstown, who was 
always in Cornwall when he visited England, was an 
old friend of Bishop Wilkinson, and had preached at 
St. Peter's, Eaton Square, those discourses on the 

^ Now Bishop of Bath and Wells. 
U 289 


Holy Spirit, which have since been pubHshed in that 
most instructive volume, entitled The Presence and 
Office of the Holy Spirit. He was able to give 
efficient help to his friend, by taking- Confirmations 
during times of illness ; and once, at very short 
notice, undertook an Ordination ; himself giving the 
addresses to the candidates, during the previous days 
of retreat. These addresses were afterwards pub- 
lished, under the title of The Minister of the True 
Tabernacle ; and, among other valuable instruction, 
contain a very striking statement of the Anglican 
position, as regards doctrine and worship. It is not 
surprising that Bloemfontein and Grahamstown have, 
since then, always held a place in the affections of 
Cornish Churchmen ; who have been glad, by the 
support they have given to these South African 
dioceses, to express the gratitude they felt for one 
who showed much brotherly kindness to their Bishop 
and his diocese. 

When Dr. Wilkinson's illness made it necessary 
for him to prolong his absence from home for a 
considerable time, in Egypt, Italy, and Switzerland, 
he was able to obtain the services of an episcopal 
commissary, whose name will not easily be forgotten 
by Cornish Church-people. Dr. Speechly, for many 
years a missionary in Southern India, was first Bishop 
of the Diocese of Travancore and Cochin, from 1879 
to 1889. On his retirement, he found not a few 
opportunities of assisting English Bishops, who re- 
quired occasional episcopal help, and came to Truro 


in 18S9, to su{)ply the place of the aljsent Bishop. 
His kimlly and simple manners, and amiable disposi- 
tion made him a welcome Li'uest in the houses of the 
clerg-y, among whom he exercised an admirable over- 
sight, during his temporary term of office. Without 
possessing any remarkable gifts of oratory or acquire- 
ments of learning, he had a very true episcopal faculty 
of insight into character, and a power of gauging 
work ; and when, some years later, he passed away at 
his living in Kent, there were many in the Diocese of 
Truro who lamented his death, and respected his 

During these years, and later, many visitors from 
a distance entered the doors of Truro Cathedral, to 
be greatly impressed by its beauty, and the complete- 
ness of its details : Roman Catholic dignitaries and 
eminent Nonconformist leaders, royal princes and 
princesses, politicians of different opinions. The 
Right Hon. W. H. Smith, who, by noble gifts for 
the rebuilding of the parish church at Portsea, and 
for the restoration of two remote but beautiful Cornish 
village churches, proved his generosity, as well as his 
interest in church architecture, greatly admired the 
Cathedral. His quiet, and almost silent, appreciation 
was in remarkable contrast with that of Mr. Gladstone, 
who, when on a political tour in the West during 
June 1 889, snatched, with some difticulty, a hurried 
quarter of an hour for the inspection of the building. 
" What a surprise ! I was quite unprepared for this ! 
It is the most beautiful modern Gothic buildine I have 


ever seen ! " was his exclamation as he entered the 
south porch, and looked up at the groined roof. And 
then, as he walked through the aisles and the choir, 
he left to the Canon in residence, who acted as his 
guide, nothing to say or do, but to listen with admira- 
tion to his own description of the architect's skill, and 
the beauty of the building. In many cases, the 
admiration thus aroused, has borne fruit in the deter- 
mination of Churchmen elsewhere, far away in the 
Colonies or the United States of America, to obtain 
for themselves a worthy cathedral, as nobly designed 
and beautifully furnished as that at Truro. Not once 
or twice, have Bishops, at the ends of the earth, 
written home for copies of its statutes, or of some 
of the forms of services used on great occasions ; to 
be reproduced or adapted in those new lands, where 
England's Church has planted its offshoots, and where 
the sister or daughter Churches, that long to have in 
their midst all the ancient usages and time-honoured 
institutions that cathedrals have preserved, have been 
encouraged by the example of the latest born of 
English Cathedrals at Truro. 

As has already been indicated. Dr. Wilkinson's 
health began, only too soon, to show signs of serious 
failure. Early in 1888, not many months after the 
consecration of the Cathedral and the Diocesan 
Conference that followed it, he was compelled to 
leave home for a prolonged rest ; and henceforth, 
for about three years and a half, he maintained a 
pathetic, but brave, struggle against weakness of body, 


and its still more tryiiiL;- accompaniment, depression 
of spirit. The causes of this breakdown are not to 
be sought, merely or chiefly, in the arduous duties 
of his episcopate, in the anxiety and strain of carrying- 
out the plans for building the Cathedral and providing 
for its future, in his sympathetic sharing of all the 
trials, and even failures of his clero-v, or in the 
enervating influence of the damp warm climate of the 
West ; but, in that previous exhaustion of every part 
of his nature, through the almost unparalleled efforts 
made by him in the great work, carried on for thirteen 
years, in the parish of St. Peter's, Eaton Scjuare. 

There were, besides, other exhausting trials, 
anxieties, and heart-wounding troubles, from time to 
time, connected with one or two painful scandals in 
the diocese, the details of which need not be referred 
to ; which, to a nature sensitive to a degree, and 
strained between the two conflicting duties, of assert- 
ing discipline and dealing mercifully with individuals. 
were beyond measure trying. Something of what he 
felt about such matters may be read, "between the 
lines " of words uttered b}- him, in a sermon preached 
in a parish, where some unhappy circumstances had 

" The history of the Church in this parish has been an 
instance of God allowini^ Satan to triumph up to a certain 
point. When some man in this churcli first came to me 
about the Church's shame at X., it seemed that we could 
do nothing — we could but pray. My children pra\-ed, and 
my servants prayed, and I got about eight hundred people in 


the diocese, who were bound together in the Church Society 
for the purpose of intercession, to pray for X. Weeks and 
months passed, and no deHverance came ; until it came 
within an hour when I might have been obHged to pubhsh 
the scandal all through Cornwall, and might have done 
irreparable injury to the work of God ; and then, from 
a source I knew nothing of before, came a letter, and the 
way was opened up from that minute for all that happened 

There were times of partial recovery and return 
to work, alternating with compulsory departures from 
home and the employment of an Episcopal Commis- 
sary. At length, to the great grief of Cornish Church- 
people, by whom their Bishop was greatly beloved, 
and who had hoped great things from a personality so 
specially gifted for the work of this particular diocese, 
it was announced, after Easter in 1891, that he had 
felt it his duty to resign his See. On Ascension Day he 
celebrated the Holy Communion for the last time at the 
Cathedral altar, and bade farewell to the Residentiary 
Chapter and his Chaplains assembled at Lis Escop. 
The following parting address was presented by leading 
representatives of the clergy and laity of the diocese: — 

" To the Right Reverend Father in God 
"George Howard Wilkinson, D.D. 

" By Divine Permission 

" Lord Bishop of Truro. 

" My Lord Bishop, — As representatives of the Cathedral, 
the Diocesan Conference, and various departments of the 
work of the Church in the diocese to which, eight years ago, 
your lordship dedicated, in whole-hearted devotion, every 


power of body, soul, and spirit ; \vc have felt that we might 
venture to express, before you leave us, the sense of deep 
regret at your departure, of abiding gratitude for your self- 
sacrificing work, and of affection never stronger than at this 
moment for your person, felt throughout Cornwall, since your 
intention to resign the See of Truro became known. 

" This is not the occasion to place on record what the 
diocese owes to its second Bishop, nor could we presume to 
speak in its name. But, on behalf of the various organisations 
through which it is our privilege to offer service to God, we 
desire to thank Him for the faith which you have been 
enabled to strengthen in many hearts, the hope which you 
have so often rekindled, and the charity by which ' \'ou have 
maintained and set forward quietness, love and peace among 
all men.' The courage with which you have led us, the 
unselfishness which has marked every action, the ungrudging 
care bestowed upon each detail of work, and the delicate 
consideration for every worker, will always remain among the 
most cherished recollections of the people committed to 
your charge". 

" To one great event that has marked your episcopate we 
may allude. In the annals of the Cornish See the name of 
Bishop Wilkinson will ever be linked with the consecration 
of the Cathedral Church, as the name of Bishop Benson will 
be associated with its foundation. In days to come, as in 
those that are past, man>- a worshipper in our Cathedral will 
still thank God for the Bishops who taught them amidst ' the 
ceaseless supplication for Grace, the perpetual Intercession, 
the endless Praise,' to ' stir their souls from sluggish sloth, to 
reach forth behind the veil into the presence chamber of the 
King of kings and the Lord of lords — the Presence Chamber 
where He lives, surrounded by the angels and archangels and 
all the company of heaven.' 

" The works which you have entrusted to us in the 
Cathedral and in the diocese we will, with the help of the 
Lord, Who in His risen and ascended life is 'still working 


with' His Church, and 'confirming the Word with signs 
following, endeavour — one and all — loyally to maintain. 
We look forward to many opportunities of receiving you, 
strengthened anew for the service of God and His Church, in 
a city and county where a real welcome will ever await 
yourself and those nearest and dearest to you, who have so 
completely shared your hopes and fears, your sorrows and 
your joys. We assure your lordship of our heartfelt 
sympathy in this hour of present trial, and of our constant 
prayers for every future blessing, as we bid you in the Name 
of the Divine Master, at whose command you obeyed the call 
to accept the charge, which in ready submission to His will 
you now unselfishly resign, an affectionate and respectful 

" Signed, on behalf of the clergy and laity assembled at 
Lis Escop, Ascension Day, May 7th, 1891, 

"Mount Edgcumbe, 
John R. Cornish, J. C. Daubuz, 

Aug. B. Donaldson, R. M. Paul, 
Cecil F. J. Bourke, Arthur Tremayne, 
James H. Moore, Edmund Carlyon, 

A. R. ToMLiNSON, Arthur P. Nix." 

The members of the General Chapter drew up and 
presented the following address : — 

" To the Right Reverend Father in God, 

"George Howard Wilkinson, D.U., 

" By Divine Permission 

" Lord Bishop of Truro, and Dean of the Cathedral Church. 

" My Lord Bishop, — We, the Canons Residentiary and 
Honorary of your Cathedral Church assembled in the General 
Chapter, ask your permission to assure your Lordship of our 
deep regret at your resignation of the See of Truro, of our 
heartfelt sympathy with you in so searching a trial, and 
of our abiding gratitude for the services, which, by the Grace 


of God, you have rendered, durint,^ the eight eventful years 
of your episcopate, to the Cathedral and the diocese. 

" It is largely owing to the confidence reposed in you, 
to your energ)' and kindliness, that the organisation of the 
Cathedral, and its relation to the parish and the city of Truro 
have been arranged so as to give every opportunity for 
united worship, and harmonious work ; to your sense of 
reverence, that the Cathedral, in the beauty of its ornaments 
and the dignity of its service, is felt to be a means through 
which ' men's whole being is to be stirred within the veil, and 
to see the hidden things which God has in store for those 
who love Him'; to your wise and courteous presidency, in 
your twofold capacity of Bishop and Dean, that we have, as 
we trust, secured that unity in counsel, which is the in- 
dispensable condition of unity in action. 

" To one aspect of your Lordship's office and work we feel 
that we may, as the Chapter, especially refer. Your un- 
ceasing solicitude that the candidates for Holy Orders should 
be spiritually, as well as intellectually, prepared for their 
sacred duties ; your thoughtful hospitality during the Ember 
weeks; your manner of conducting the Ordination itself; 
demand the grateful acknowledgment of all who feel that the 
spiritual life of the Church largely depends on a deepened 
sense, among the clerg}^ of the high dignity, and the weighty 
office, and charge to which they have been called. 

" We could add much more, but we refrain. The lessons 
of devotion and self-denial, to be drawn from your episcopate, 
will not be forgotten. We pray that every blessing and every 
opportunity for service in the Church of God may still be 
yours, so that the mysterious bonds which link the members 
of Christ one with the other, may even be strengthened 
between us by the Holy Spirit, when it is no longer permitted 
to worship and labour in bodily presence. 

" With true respect and dutiful affection, 
" We remain, my Lord Bishop, 

" Your Lordship's faithful servants. 

" Chapter Room, Truro Cathedral, 
''May i2th, 1891." 


The Bishop ordered the following Pastoral Letter to 
be read in all the churches of the diocese, on the 
Sunday next after his departure, at Morning and 
Evening Service. 

" Lis Escop, 
^^ Ascension Day, 1891. 

"Dearly Beloved in the Lord, — I wish that it had 
been possible to see you once more — to thank you, one by 
one, for the unfaihng affection which I have received from 
you — the unfaihng readiness with which you have responded 
to my every appeal. The Archdeacons, the Canons, the 
Deans Rural, the Parish Priests, the Churchwardens and 
Sidesmen, the Readers, the Choirs, the representatives of our 
Diocesan Conference, the members of our committees, the 
men and women, by whose work and prayers and alms the 
Cathedral was reared and furnished in all its fair sanctity ; 
the Sisters, the District Visitors, the Teachers of our colleges 
and schools ; the numbers of Cornish men and women who 
have so heartily welcomed their Bishop into their homes — one 
and all, rich and poor, old and young, masters and servants. 
I desire with a great desire to see you once more — once 
more to grasp your hands and to bless you in the Name 
of the Lord. 

" This however is impossible — I can only commend you to 
God and His unfailing love ; and pray to Him that Pie will 
give you abundantly, above all you can ask or think, for Jesus 
Christ's sake. 

" Dearly beloved, hold fast, I beseech you, the faith once 
delivered to the saints. 

" As members of Christ and children of God be satisfied 
with no mere external improvement, with nothing short of 
entire consecration of your whole being to Christ your King. 

" Be watchful about your prayers, and quiet hours of com- 
munion with God. Read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest, 
His Holy Word. 

TRIALS 2 09 

" Train up your children to value aright, and look forward 
to, receiving; the great gift of Confirmation. 

" Prepare reverently for, and go regularly to the Holy 

"Thank God continually that, of His tender love. He 
has given His only Son Jesus Christ to suffer death upon the 
Cross, and that His Precious Blood does indeed cleanse from 
all sin, 

" Never speak or think lightly of sin. Be sure that, what- 
ever Satan may whisper to the contrar)', every sin, great and 
small, will surely find you out. 

" Rejoice always as those who are partakers of a priceless 
heritage, whose hearts have been fired with a divine hope of a 
glorious future. 

" Love from the heart fervently all who are called by the 
Name of Christ. 

" Help, by your prayers and alms and personal self-denying 
work, the increase of Christ's Church at home and abroad. 

"May the God of Peace, Who brought again from the 
dead the great Shepherd of the sheep, through the Blood 
of the everlasting Covenant, make you perfect in every good 
work, to do His will ; working in you that which is well- 
pleasing in His sight — through Jesus Christ, to Whom be 
glory for ever and ever. Amen. 

" God bless you, my dear people. Pray for us, as we shall 
ever pra\" for you. 

" Your affectionate Father in God, 

"GeoRG: H. TrURON:" 

For nearly a year and a half Bishop Wilkinson 
remained in retirement, and in comparatively weak 
health. But. at the end of that time, to the great 
joy of all his friends in Cornwall and elsewhere, he 
was so much restored to bodily and mental vigour 
as to be able to undertake preaching and other work. 


And, at length, on the death of Dr. Charles Words- 
worth, Bishop of St. Andrews, he was elected to 
the vacant see, and enthroned in St, Ninian's Cathe- 
dral, Perth, on April 27th, 1893. 

. On that occasion Dean Rorison spoke of him 
thus : — 

" We have a Bishop now, whose name is known, and never 
mentioned without respect, wherever the Book of Common 
Prayer is used in all English-speaking lands. He is worthy 
to sit in the seat of Charles Wordsworth : that is no light 
saying, for Bishop Charles Wordsworth was a Bishop who 
had the ear of Scotland, and he was a prince in the Anglican 
Communion. Our new Bishop enjoys the unique distinction 
of having been a Bishop of one of the youngest sees in the 
Church of England, and he is now Bishop of the most ancient 
of all our Scottish sees." 

Mr. Speir, of Culdees, one of the most earnest of 
Scottish laymen, also said : — 

" I remember a great Free Churchman, when he and 
I were talking over the call that was giv-en to Dr. Liddon 
to the See of Edinburgh, saying these words . . . . ' the 
Scottish people will always follow the Church where they 
find the greatest spirituality.' I believe our Bishop will have 
an attractive power in him, in his personal character, to draw 
all the best of the Presbyterians ; certainly, at the very least, 
an intense amount of sympathy." 

Not long afterwards he paid a visit to Cornwall, at 
the same time that Archbishop Benson was in the 
west. They met at Truro Cathedral, where Bishop 
Wilkinson preached, with all his old fervour, to a vast 


He has held the (;rcat joy of seeing his cathedral 
in Scotland much enlarged and beautified ; and his 
numberless Cornish friends continue to watch his 
work there, with the keenest interest and j)rayerful 
gladness. Not least do they rejoice, that it has of 
late been given to him to take a leading part, by 
prayer, and conference, with all the great leaders of 
Scottish Christianity, to heal the " breaches of Zion " : 
and restore unity to the divided spiritual and ecclesi- 
astical fragments of that oreat and religious nation. 

O C5 O 



ONLY fourteen years had elapsed since the 
foundation of the Bishopric of Truro and 
already two Bishops had occupied the see and left 
it. It was therefore felt to be a serious and important 
event, when the successor of two such eminent pre- 
lates had to be selected. The vigorous leadership of 
Dr. Benson, and the example of a life devoted to 
God and His Church in the case of Dr. Wilkinson, 
demanded, in the minds of Churchmen everywhere, 
and in Cornwall specially, the appointment of a suc- 
cessor worthy of his predecessors, and of the work 
they had created and developed. Earnest prayers 
were offered throughout the diocese, and in many 
other places, that God would direct the minds of 
those, in whose hands the choice lay, to select one 
fitted for the office. It was therefore with great 
satisfaction that the following announcement was 
made in Truro Cathedral: "A letter has been 
received from our present Bishop, and also from 
the Dean of Worcester, the Very Rev. Dr. Gott, 
confirming the news of the appointment of the latter 
to succeed to the bishopric, when Bishop Wilkinson's 


.Uh Jj>'//. (A(^\ 


formal resignation is completed. Our Bishop has 
heard of the selection of Dr. Gott to be his successor 
with great thankfulness. Dr. Gott fervently desires 
the earnest prayers of the diocese on his behalf, that 
he may be prepared to enter upon the duties of the 
sacred office, which after much hesitation, he has 

The appointment was much approved everywhere. 
A High Church Review expressed its belief that he 
would "win the Cornish folk to the Church which 
their ancestors loved and fought and suffered for." 
Other papers spoke of his "well-defined Church 
principles" and "very attractive personal character"; 
and said, "the more he is known in Cornwall the 
better he will be liked, and the more good work 
will he be enabled to do." Another, in answer to 
some objections against a High Church Bishop being 
sent to rule over a diocese so full of Dissent as Corn- 
wall is, said, with much truth, "A self-respecting 
Dissenter, who knows why he is such, is far more 
likely, we think, to respect a Bishop, who is not ready, 
for the sake of appearances, to make light of his 
Church and Order." Within the diocese, one re- 
spected clergyman who had seen the foundation of 
the bishopric towards which he himself had given 
much assistance, and who has served under four 
Bishops, wrote in his parish magazine: "We have 
reason to hope that he will be to the diocese a true 
Father in God, and a meet successor of such saintlv 
men as our late beloved Bishop and the Archbishop 


of Canterbury ; we oi]g"ht to be thankful to Almighty 
God that Dr. Gott has been selected to be Bishop of 
Truro." And, after quoting- from Dr. Gott's book,^ 
where he said "System is no substitute for personal 
dealing with individual souls. The warm and loving 
touch of heart to heart . . . ministering to hearts 
and not to cases ... is the only life of a masterly 
system," he went on to say "A man who will live up 
to such a sentiment as this, will win the hearts of the 
sympathetic Cornish labourers, miners, and fishermen, 
as surely as ever he won the hearts of sturdy York- 
shire mechanics." 

Another clergyman, deeply interested in the mission 
and evangelistic side of Church work in Cornwall, 
told his people, " Our late Bishop once took a mission 
at Leeds, at which there was great blessing, and he 
is, I know, devoutly thankful that Dr. Gott is to be 
his successor. I gather from this that our future 
Bishop is full of sympathy with mission work ; and 
will do all he can to promote those special efforts 
which have of late years changed so much the aspect 
of Church work, and which will, I deeply believe, if 
t^ratefully and bravely undertaken in Cornwall, entirely 
change the current of Church life and Church hopes 
in this diocese of the kingdom of God." 

The new Bishop's personality was far from being of 
a common type ; very different from, but worthy to be 
compared with, that of his predecessors. The nobly 
moulded features, bright expression, flowing hair of 

^ The Parish Priest of the Towft. 


the first Pjishop of Truro, the almost Oriental outlines 
of the countenance of the second, were contrasted 
with the thoroughly English aspect of the third. 
The bright keen eyes, clear ruddy complexion, hair 
of which he said in after years, when he felt the first 
onward steps of advancing age, that his "gold was 
becoming silver," proclaimed a Yorkshireman. 

John Gott, born at Leeds, was educated at Win- 
chester and Brazenose, Oxford. He took his degree in 
1853. After a year with Canon Pinder at Wells Theo- 
loo-ical Colleee, he was ordained to the curacy of Great 
Yarmouth in 1857, where he remained till 1863; during 
the latter part of the time having charge of St. Andrew's 
Church, and ministering specially to fishermen and 
seafaring folk. This great and important parish has 
been blessed with eminent rectors, among whom may 
be named Dr. Hills, afterwards first Bishop of British 
Columbia, Canon Venables, and Archdeacon Nevill. 
The noble church, which disputes with St. Michael's, 
Coventry, the distinction of being the largest paro- 
chial building in England, has gathered round it a 
number of district and mission churches. The parish, 
however, has not been broken up, but is worked as a 
whole with certain advantages, and has formed an ex- 
cellent training school for young clergymen, many of 
whom have passed from a curacy at Yarmouth to some 
important sphere, at home or abroad. Mr. Gott was 
appointed X'icar of Braniley, near Leeds, in 1863, and 
worked in that parish for ten years, among a popula- 
tion not far short of nine thousand. He was elected 



Vicar of Leeds in 1S73, and remained at the head of 
that great parish for thirteen years. To be Vicar of 
Leeds means, not only (since the days of Dr. Hook, 
the great pioneer of the revival of parochial work in 
our large towns) to be placed in a position towards which 
the eyes of Churchmen everywhere are constantly 
being turned, and from which so many have passed 
like Aday, Woodford, Jayne, and Talbot, to the epis- 
copate ; but also to be the occupant of an office, almost 
unrivalled for gaining a unique experience of pastoral 
work. Few towns in England, or indeed anywhere, 
have so many staunch supporters of every branch of 
Church work ; and in few is there so wide a scope for 
the exercise of a vigorous and wise ecclesiastical rule. 
Dr. Gott had much to assist him in his work from his 
family connections. A church was built and endowed 
by his relatives and friends, at a cost of ^30,000. 
But his own bright sympathetic nature won him many 
friends among all classes. The story of those thirteen 
years cannot here be told ; some of its lessons are 
gathered up and treasured, for the benefit of other 
labourers, in the book, The Parish Priest of the Town, 
which, by its ripeness of experience, and many- 
sidedness, will long hold its own as a handbook for 
pastors of the English Church. 

Amongr the institutions founded or fostered by Dr. 
Gott at Leeds, was the Clergy School, at one time 
under the principalship of the Rev. A. J. Worlledge, 
afterwards Canon Residentiary and Chancellor of 
Truro Cathedral. He was, in this way, brought into 


contact with a large number of young clergymen, some 
of whom became connected with his work elsewhere. 

In 1886 Dr. Gott was appointed Dean of Wor- 
cester. Coming as he once said, "a tired man" to 
the beautiful deanery, and splendid cathedral, of that 
ancient and attractive city on the Severn, he spent 
five happy years in useful and refreshing work. 
He did much to encourage theological study by 
lectures for the clergy, and Bible - reading for the 
laity. One who knew him well at Worcester com- 
mended him to Cornwall, with the promise that " all 
will find, what everyone who has the privilege of 
knowing him has found, that John Gott, Curate, 
Vicar, Dean, and Bishop, is ' theirs heartily.' " 
Another, "a layman," writing as "a native of Corn- 
wall" at present residing near Worcester, said, "His 
loss will be bitterly felt here. When our late Bishop 
resigned, a very strong hope was expressed that 
Dr. Gott might be his successor ; but it was not to 
be. Dr. Gott is no less liked and valued here than 
at Leeds, and that is saying a good deal. . . . He is 
an excellent preacher, and speaks out straight and 
with no uncertain sound. He says plainly what he 
thinks." Another said, " No diocese has possessed a 
kindlier, more sympathetic, more genial-hearted Dean. 
He has shown special concern for children, with whom 
he is immensely popular. . . . Though he is a man of 
deep convictions, he is absolutely free from intoler- 
ance." On leaving Worcester he was presented with 
a very beautiful episcopal ring, by the Chapter of 


W^orcester Cathedral ; and he preached a farewell 
sermon to a vast congregation assembled in the nave, 
from the words, "O God, Thou art my God." An 
address signed by the leading laity of the diocese, 
including the Lord Lieutenant of Worcestershire, the 
Earl of Coventry, was presented to him, with warm 
expressions of regard and appreciation of his work. 

The first two Bishops of Truro were appointed by 
Royal Letters Patent, as is the case when there is no 
capitular body to elect the new Diocesan. But, as by 
the Act of 1S87 a Chapter was created at Truro with 
full rights and privileges, the election took place, 
according to customs prevalent in other cathedrals, on 
Thursday, August 3rd, 1891. It was hoped that 
under the Truro Chapter Act of 1887, the Honorary 
Canons, as well as the Residentiary Chapter, would 
have taken part in the election, as is the case in 
cathedrals of the "Old Foundation," such as York or 
Exeter, where the Prebendaries are summoned on 
these occasions. The question was submitted to Mr. 
A. B. Kempe, K.C., of the Inner Temple, Chancellor 
of the Dioceses of Newcastle, St. Albans, and South- 
well, for counsel's opinion, by a committee of the 
General Chapter ; and that gentleman decided that 
the procedure at Truro must follow those of other 
cathedrals of the " New Foundation," like Peter- 
borough or Ely, where the Residentiary Canons alone 
elect.^ The Residentiary Chapter, therefore, assembled 

^ It may here be stated that the late Archbishop of Canterbury (Dr. 
Benson) expressed regret, in a private letter written not long before his 
death, at this decision : it certainly was contrary to the intention of the 


at four o'clock in the chapter room. Mr. Arthur 
Burch attended as acting Chapter Clerk, and the 
High Sheriff of Cornwall (Mr. J. C. Daubuz) and the 
Chancellor of the diocese (the Worshipful R. M. Paul) 
were present as witnesses. Mr. Ikirch, having read 
the cong(i d'dlirc in which Her Majesty required "the 
Dean and Chapter " to elect " such a person for their 
Bishop and Pastor as may be devoted to good and 
useful works, and faithful to Us and Our Kingdom," the 
Chapter proceeded to the choir, when Evensong was 
sung to the close of the Psalms. They then returned 
to the chapter room, the great bell tolling meanwhile, 
to notify that the election was about to take place, 
when the "letters missive" were read; in which Dr. 
Gott was recommended for election. The consent of 
the Chapter having been given for election, each of the 
Canons declared his consent singly ; and the sentence 
of the election was then read by the President of the 
Chapter, the Sub-Dean. On returning to the choir, 
the Sub-Dean declared the election to the congrega- 
tion, from the choir steps, in the following words : — 

" Be it known unto all men that we, the Dean and Chapter 
of this Cathedral Church of Truro, in full Chapter assembled 
in the Chapter Roon:i, in obedience to Her Majesty's licence, 
have this day rightly and duly elected the Very Reverend 
John Gott, D.D., to be the future Bishop and Pastor of the 
Cathedral Church, Bishopric, and Diocese of Truro, in the 
room of the Right Reverend Dr. George Howard Wilkinson, 
late Lord Bishop thereof" 

Draft Statutes, and it may be hoped that, not at Truro only, but in all 
Cathedrals of the New Foundation, the whole of the Capitular Body 
may take part in the election of Bishops. 


The service then proceeded as usual, the lessons 
beino- read by the Canon Missioner and the Chancellor. 
At its conclusion the Chapter returned to the chapter 
room, where certificates of the election were sealed 
to the Queen, the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the 
Bishop-elect. Sir John Hassard, of Doctors' Commons, 
principal registrar of the province of Canterbury, 
Mr. Arthur Burch, registrar of the diocese, and 
Mr. Harry W. Lee, of Westminster, were appointed 
Proctors, under the seal of the Dean and Chapter, to 
present the certificate, and transact all other business 
necessary for the confirmation of the election, which 
took place at the Church of St. Mary-le-Bow, Cheap- 
side. After the minutes of the proceedings had been 
signed, the Sub-Dean concluded the meeting of the 
Chapter with the Benediction. 

The occasion was one of considerable interest, as 
this was the first time that a Bishop of any of the 
dioceses, founded within recent years, viz. St. Albans, 
Southwell, Truro, Liverpool, Newcastle, and Wake- 
field, had been elected as the Bishops of the other 
dioceses always are. The order observed in the 
proceedings was mainly that of Exeter, with certain 
modifications, for which the procedures of Lincoln and 
Winchester were consulted. These elections are in- 
creasingly felt, both by Bishops and Chapter, to be 
something more than a formality ; and the ceremonial 
testifies to the practice of early times, when it was 
thought convenient that the laity, as well as the 
clergy of the Church, should concur in the election ; 


that he, who was to have the orovernment of all in the 
diocese, after his consecration by the Bishops, should 
come in with the consent of all. 

Dr. Gott was consecrated at St. Paul's Cathedral 
on the Feast of St. Michael and All Angels, 1891. 
The ceremony was described as a "very imposing" 
one. About ten thousand people were, according to 
one account, present. Together with the Bishop of 
Truro, were consecrated the Bishops of Lichfield 
(Dr. Legge), and Zululand (Dr. Carter),^ and the 
Suffragan Bishops of Coventry and Southwark 
(Drs. Bowlby and Ycatman'-). The Archbishop was 
assisted by the Bishops of Winchester, Rochester, 
Salisbury, Carlisle, Wakefield, Worcester, Southwell, 
Bedford, Shrewsbury, and Bishops Blyth and Mitchin- 
son. The sermon was preached by Prebendary 
Gibson, Principal of Wells Theological College, from 
the text "And ... in His right hand seven stars. 
. . . The stars are the seven ancjels of the seven 
churches" (Rev. i. 16 and 20). Referring specially 
to the Bishop of Truro, he said, "The Church of 
Christ becomes all things to all men. To a Cornish- 
man the Bishop must be a Cornishman, that he may 
bring all men to Christ. I>e he a Yorkshireman he 
must be a Yorkshireman no longer, but a Cornishman 
among Cornishmen." Dr. Gott was presented to the 
Archbishop by the Bishop of Wakefield (Dr. W^alsham 
How) and the Bishop of Southwell (Dr. Ridding. 
formcrK" Head Master of Winchester). 

^ .-Yftcrwiuds Bishop of Pretoria. - Now Veatman-IJiggs. 


On the festival of St. Simon and St. Jude the new 
Bishop was enthroned at Truro Cathedral. 

Previous to the service Dr. Gott was received at 
the Town Hall, Truro, by the Mayor and Corporation 
of the city, the Lord Lieutenant of the county (the 
Earl of Mount Edgcumbe), the High Sheriff of the 
county (Mr. J. C. Daubuz), and the Mayors of the 
borouo-hs of Cornwall. The Mayor of Truro wel- 
corned the new Bishop to the city, the Lord Lieu- 
tenant and the Hia-h Sheriff assured him of the 
support of the laity of the county, and the Arch- 
deacon of Cornwall promised him the faithful alle- 
giance of the clergy. The service at the Cathedral 
was described by a competent critic as " the best 
ordered I have seen at any great function, except the 
consecration of Truro Cathedral itself" In the pro- 
cession were thirty-two lay readers and theological 
students, sixty assistant curates, one hundred and 
twenty-five incumbents, besides the Residentiary and 
Honorary Canons. The new Bishop was enthroned, 
in conformity with ancient custom, by the Archdeacon 
of Canterbury (Dr. Eden, Suffragan Bishop of Dover), 
according to the form drawn up by Archbishop Benson 
in the Truro Statutes, a form pronounced by Dr. Eden 
to be the most complete and accurate at present in 
use in England. After his enthronement, the Bishop 
gave the right hand of fellowship to all the digni- 
taries, and addressed the assembled clergy from the 
same text as that used by the preacher at his conse- 
cration ; and concluded with the words, " I pray that 


this vision . . . may inspire each one of us, and 
energize us to go forth, and to live, and to work, as 
men who have seen ourselves and our people in the 
vision of God. Each helping and encouraging each 
other by prayer, by example, by fellowship ; and may 
this vision inspire me, whom you in God's name have 
placed here, as your brother, as your father, and above 
all, as the servant of the servants of God." 

Dr. Gott was also duly installed as Dean of the 
Cathedral, by Sub- Dean Bourke, after the Psalms for 
the day had been chanted ; and preached to the great 
gathering of the laity from the words " Our Father 
. . . Thy Kingdom come." He spoke of the great 
event of the " first enthronement of a Bishop of 
Cornwall in our own Cathedral since the Conquest, 
the only cathedral built in England proper since the 
Reformation." He dwelt on the many ways "the 
Kingdom " might be spread in Cornwall, and ended, 
" You and I should be the men to do it, because we 
are fellow-subjects in the Kingdom of God — fellow- 
children of one common Father, with a noble life to 
live, and a Cireat Kinodom for which to be ambitious, 
and to increase by prayer, and work, and love."' 

After the service the whole Cathedral body, from 
the installant down to the youngest chorister, passed 
before Dr. Gott separately, and promised true and 
canonical obedience to him, both as Bishop and Dean. 

In the evening, the Mayor of Truro, the High 
Sheriff of the county, the Archdeacons of the Diocese. 
and the Canons Residentiarv of the Cathedral crave 


a reception to about seven hundred people of the city 
and county. 

Dr. Gott, departing from the precedent set by his 
two predecessors, did not reside permanently at Lis 
Escop ; but provided himself with a private residence 
at Trenvthon, formerlv the home of Colonel Peard, 
well known as " Garibaldi's Englishman." The situa- 
tion is a lovely one, with a view of St. Austell Bay, 
and with fine grardens and orrounds. 

There were not a few, both of the clergy and of 
the laitv, who regretted this chancre of residence on 
the part of the Bishop of Truro. There was a com- 
parative simplicity about Lis Escop, a by no means 
palatial abode. For it was little more than the old 
vicarage of Kenwyn, given up by Canon Vautier with 
the goodwill of the parishioners, and enlarged by sub- 
scriptions; and was quite in keeping with the newer and 
better conditions of modern episcopacy in England. 

The combination of the two offices of Bishop and 
Dean, in one person, seemed to demand a residence 
near the Cathedral. The newly selected dwelling did 
not appear to be more conveniently situated for the 
general purposes of the diocese, or for reaching its 
more remote districts. But the new Bishop explained 
his reasons for the step he had taken, both in a letter 
to a local newspaper, and at the ensuing Diocesan 
Conference ; when he stated that, besides the accom- 
modation necessary for due hospitality towards his 
clergy and laity, the house at Trenython appeared 
to him "from a general's point of view, as the best 


base of operations for a long campaign : near a station 
on the main line where every train stops, and the only 
four cross roads, I think, on the Cornish lines ; it is 
also hard by the boundary between East and West 
•Cornwall." But, whatever opinion may be entertained 
as to the change of residence during the present Episco- 
pate, no one in Cornwall can say that the Bishop has not 
abundantly fulfilled the promise, made at that time, to 
throw himself heartily into the work, and go from place 
to place, everywhere making himself known to all.^ 

It might have been thought that one, who had 
spent all his ministerial life in large towns, would have 
found himself in uncongenial surroundings in a county 
like Cornwall. There are no large centres of popula- 
tion, and the parishes are, as a rule, sparsely inhabited 
and widely isolated. But the new Bishop imposed 
upon himself, at the outset, the task of such a thorough 
visitation of his diocese, as should enable him to 
become personally acquainted with the circumstances 
and environment of each Parish Priest. 

Such visits have been greatly valued, and have 
brought much refreshment and strength. Few, that 
have not experienced or observed it, can realise the 
depressing effects of such isolation as falls to the lot 
of the Cornish clergy, in very many parts of that 
remote county. Summer visitors at some porth or 
cove, are charmed by the quietness of the scene and 
the simplicity of the inhabitants. But the parson has 

' It must be remembered that Dr. (K)tt inherited a magnificent 
library, besides many other valuable heirlooms, which could only be 
lodged in a much larger house than Lis Escop. 


to live all the year round, greatly dependent upon his 
own intellectual resources, with no neighbour within 
easy reach, no libraries available, no easy access by 
rail to centres of activity. His pastoral work is greatly 
increased and hampered by the long distances between 
hamlet and vicarage and "church town." Often, if he 
be not of Western race, he finds it very difficult to 
understand his fiock, and they him. The danger 
of spiritual degeneration is a very real one, under such 
circumstances; and the visit of some brother Priest, 
from the cathedral city, or elsewhere, brings freshness 
and sympathy which are very welcome. How much 
more the inspiring presence of a true Father in God, 
who, from his own full experience of pastoral cares 
and anxiety, could lift away something of the burden 
of long isolation and saddening disappointment. 

The first Bishop of Truro knew very well the 
"wonderful loneliness" of the "wild beautiful coast" 
of North Cornwall, that which he graphically called 
" Cornubia Petra^a " ; and it was a great part of the 
work of himself and his successors to brighten these 
solitudes, as often as possible, by their Inspiring 

Frequently, in connection with Bishop Gott's visits 
to the parishes of his diocese, simple social gatherings 
have taken place. These have given the Bishop an 
opportunity of becoming acquainted with the humbler 
members of his flock; and served an excellent purpose, 
in removing something of the ignorance and prejudice 
with which the episcopal office is even now regarded. 


in some of the more remote parts of the Duchy. 
During the first few years of his episcopate, Dr. Gott 
was able to make a very thorough visitation of his 
diocese ; in a less formal, LuL more effective and 
practical, manner than can he done by that which is 
technically known as a "Visitation." 

At the end of the fii'st year of his episcopate, he 
could say at the Diocesan Conference, " I have 
ministered in one hundred churches of the diocese, 
and in many 1 have watched work that seems to 
me of the highest and holiest quality. I have stayed 
with men whose lives I should like to copy." 

What was the manner of spirit in which he entered 
upon his work, may be best gathered from the follow- 
ing pastoral, issued shortly after his enthronment : — 


"'All Saints' Day, in the year of Grace 1891. 

" My true Brothers and Sisters in Christ, and you 
also my children, dear to me, for you are the children of my 
Father — fellow-heirs of the Kingdom, fellow-members of 
Christ and His true Church, blessing, atonement, and holiness 
be yours, from God blessed for ever. 

" I come to you in the Name of the Father, and of the 
Son, and of the Holy Ghost ; the Name at which every knee 
shall bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, aiid things 
under the earth ; whatever faith, hope, or charit}', I may bring 
you, this is its daily source and power. 

" Receive me, therefore, I pray you ; receive me into your 
churches, your homes, your hearts ; for my Lord and \-ours 
has sent me to His ancient Church of Cornwall ; receive me 
in Christ, and Christ in me. 


" Very reverently and deeply feeling my unworthiness, let 
me say to you, that He hath anointed me to preach Good 
Tidings unto the poor ; He hath sent me to bind up the 
broken-hearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives of sin, 
even the liberty of the sons of God ; to comfort all who 
mourn, to give to you beauty for ashes, the oil of joy for 
the spirit of heaviness, that He may be glorified. 

" He has called me to help you to become partakers of the 
Divine Nature, and to receive the true image and likeness 
of God. 

" If my Lord strengthens, blesses, comforts, hallows me, it 
will be mainly for your service, and very much by your 
prayer and fellowship. 

" Your clergy, my brothers, true yoke-fellows, my partners, 
and brother slaves of Christ, are already labouring among 
you with devotion and self-sacrifice. May God grant me 
grace to help, encourage, and lead them onward and upward. 

" A Bishop's service is threefold : — 

" I. To confirm— to strengthen you with the Holy Ghost; 
and to lead you to offer your hearts and your lives to God. 

" 2. To ordain — to find and test, to set apart and send 
forth, true men of God, to live out lives of sacrifice and 
service, in every town and village of the diocese. 

" 3. To bless— to be ready to touch, with a hand that is 
held by his Lord, all things, all men who seek it ; to bless 
with His blessing that changes us, purifies us, and unites us 
perfectly to our Lord, filling us with His Holy Spirit, and 
bringing to us, even in this life, an assured pledge of that 
benediction which He has prepared for His elect in heaven. 

" ' But who is sufficient for these things ? ' ' My grace is 
sufficient for thee.' ' By myself I can do nothing, in Christ I 
can do all things.' 

" I follow two Bishops, whose lives lift me, and whose 
work stimulates me ; they do not cease to pray for us. I 
pray you to pray for me, to help me, and to bless me. 

" I hope soon to spend a day or two with you, visiting 
every church in Cornwall, that we may become true friends. 


" ' God is my witness, Whom I serve in my spirit and the 
Gospel of His Son, that without ceasing I make mention of 
you in my prayers, making request that I may come to you, 
for I long to see you, that I may impart unto you some 
spiritual gift, to the end that ye may be established ; that is, 
that I may be comforted together with you, each of us by 
the other's faith, both yours and mine.' 

"This is my daily prayer for you. 

"'I bow my knees unto Thee, O Father of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, of Whom every family in heaven and earth is 
named, that Thou wouldest grant to Thine ancient Church 
in Cornwall, according to the riches of Thy glory, to be 
strengthened with might by Thy spirit in the inner man ; 
that Christ may dwell in our hearts by faith ; that ue, being 
rooted and grounded in love, may be able to comprehend 
with all saints, what is the breadth, and length, and depth, 
and height ; and to know the love of Christ, which passeth 
knowledge ; that we may be filled with all the fulness of God. 
Now unto Him, Who is able to do exceeding abundantly, 
above all that we can ask or think, according to the Power 
that worketh in us, unto Him be glory in the Church by 
Christ Jesus throughout all ages, world without end. Amen.' 

" And will you once a week, on Sunday morning ]:)erhaps, 
pray this for me ; they are the words of an apostle of the 
ancient Church of Britain, and have come down to us in the 
language your fathers once spoke in Cornwall. 

'" May the Power of God guide our Bishop, and the Wight 
of God uphold him ; may the Wisdom of God teach him, 
and the Word of God give him speech ! Christ be with him, 
and within him, Christ before and after him ; Christ over and 
beneath him, Christ on his right and left ; Christ in the heart 
of every man who thinks of him, Christ in every e}-e that 
sees him, and Christ in every ear that hears him.' 
" Believe me ever your true and loving 

" Bishop and Father in God, 

"Lis Escop, "JuIIN: Truron : 

" SS. Simon and Judr^s Day, 

'^aud the day of my Entkronemoit, 1 89 1." 



THE Primary Visitation of the Diocese of Truro 
by Bishop Benson was held, at Boscastle July 
9th, Launceston July loth, Liskeard July 27th, Bod- 
min July 28th, Helston July 29th, Penzance July 30th, 
Truro July 31st, 18S0. 

It would not appear to have presented any features 
of special interest. 

The order of the Visitation was : — The Office of the 
Holy Communion, to the end of the Nicene Creed : a 
short sermon : the citations of the clergy read : the 
election of Rural Deans : the Bishop's Charge : the 
conclusion of the Communion Service. 

The Articles of Enquiry, issued to the clergy, were 
concerned with (i) services: (2) fabrics of parish 
churches : (3) churchyards : (4) glebe buildings : (5) 
schools : (6) miscellaneous subjects. 

The Articles of Enquiry, issued to the church- 
wardens, were of the usual kind. 

By permission of the Bishop, the Archdeacons held 
their Visitations during the same year. 

The answers to the Articles of Enquiry are bound 
up in a volume kept at the Bishop's House — Trenython. 


J'/WGRESS 321 

ProL^rammcs of a X'isitcition of the Diocese of Exeter, 
held about the micMle of the eighteenth century, and 
of one held in 1833, are pasted in the book. These 
Visitations seem to have occupied six weeks. 

The charge delivered by Dr. Benson at his Primary 
Visitation was not published. But the substance of it 
was afterwards used by him for his addresses de- 
livered at his Primary Visitation of the Diocese of 
Canterbury, which were published under the title of 
The Seven Gifts, a volume full of deeply interesting 
teaching and facts. 

In a note prefixed to the addresses it is stated, 
" The form of these addresses on the inner and home 
work of the Church explains itself. Certain portions, 
spoken on the same plan in Cornwall, are now printed, 
with affectionate memories." 

The first Bishop of Truro had been making plans 
for the Second Visitation of the diocese, when he was 
called away to Canterbury. The second Bishop was 
prevented first, by the consecration of the Cathedral, 
and then, by ill health, from carrying out his inten- 
tions of doing the same thing ; and it was not until 
1896, nearly five years after his own consecration, and 
sixteen years after Dr. Benson's Primary Visitation, 
that the next formal Visitation of the Diocese of Truro 
took place. 

The proceedings began with the Visitation of the 

The Bishop issued a mandate to the Sub-Dean, 
Canon Loraine Kstridge, to summon every member 



of the Cathedral body to appear before him on the 
second day of June ; having previously sent to all 
the members of the General Chapter and other 
officials, a paper of questions going very fully into 
all the details of the Cathedral work and its worship, 
and the discipline and duties of every person con- 
nected with it. 

On Tuesday, June 2nd, the proceedings took place 
as follows : — 

Mattins was said at 7.30 a.m. The Holy Com- 
munion was celebrated, as usual, at 8 a.m. At ten 
o'clock there was a choral celebration of the Holy 
Communion, the Bishop, with his officers, having 
previously been received at the west door. The 
Introit was the hymn Veni, Creator Spiriins — " Come, 
Holy Ghost, our souls inspire." The Collects were 
(i) that for the day ; (2) the second for Good Friday ; 
(3) that for Whit-Sunday. The special Epistle was 
I St. Peter i. 3-22 ; the special Gospel, St. John xvii. 
All the ministers and members of the Church ap- 
peared vested in their robes, and in their places in 
the choir. The service being ended, the bell was 
rung, and the Cathedral Body proceeded to the 
chapter room singing the hymn Veni, Sande Spiritus 
— "Come, Thou Holy Spirit, come" (No. 156, Hyinns 
A. and M.) — in procession. The Bishop took his 
accustomed seat, and the Chancellor of the Diocese 
and the Bishop's Registrar occupied places at the 
table. The Canons occupied their stalls, and the 
other persons took their seats in due order. The 


names of those cited to appear were called by the 
Bishop's Re;^istrar, and each person present answered 
" Here." A short Office was then said by the Bishop, 
consisting- of the Lesser Litany, the Lord's Prayer, 
and Versicles, Psahn cxxxiv.. Ecce quani bonuvi, and 
the following collects : — 

(i) The Cathedral Collect. ^ (2) "O Heavenly Father, 
strengthen us, we beseech Thee, in love one to another by 
drawing us to an increasing love of Thyself; keep us from 
all envy and jealousy, in little things or in great, and teach us 
to rejoice in seeing Thy work done by others rather than b>- 
ourselves ; and, finally, we pray Thee, grant us grace so faith- 
fully to serve Thee, with one heart and soul, in this life, that 
the brotherhood which has begun on earth may be perfected 
in heaven ; through our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. 
Amen" (3) "O Lord Jesu Christ, Who saidst unto Thine 
Apostles, Peace I leave with you, My Peace I give unto you ; 
Regard not our sins, but the faith of Thy Church, and grant 
us that peace and unity which are agreeable to Thy holy 
will ; Who livest and reignest with the Father and the Holy 
Ghost, one God, for ever and ever. Amen!' (4) "O eternal 
Lord God, Who boldest all souls in life ; We beseech Thee to 
shed forth upon Thy whole Church, in Paradise and on earth, 
the bright beams of Thy light and heavenly comfort ; and 
grant that we, following the good examples of those who 
served Thee here and are at rest, particularly the founders 
and benefactors of this See and Cathedral, for whose memory 
we continually give thanks unto Thee, may, with them, at 
length enter into Thine unending joy ; through Jesus Christ 
our Lord. AnienT 

After which all totjk their seats, and the Bishop de- 
livered his Charge. The Charge being ended, the 
Bishop directed the Registrar to inciiiirc (^i the senior 

^ See p. 268. 


chorister, In the name of the rest, if any of them had 
any complaints to make. The Precentor and Choir- 
master, together with the master of the school to 
whose charge the education of the boys is, at present, 
entrusted, were also asked if they had any complaint 
to make of the conduct of any of the choristers. The 
complaint was made, with no little appearance of im- 
portance, by the senior chorister of an insufficient 
supply of drinking water in the vestry. The choristers 
were then dismissed. Similarly, the cholrmen and 
vergers were interrogated, and their only complaint, 
that they were unable to hear the sermons from 
their places In the choir, was noted, and they were 
then dismissed. The same was done in the case of 
the Priest Vicars. The subordinate ministers and 
members of the Church having been dismissed, the 
Bishop remained in Council with the General Chapter. 
Questions which concerned the whole body of Canons, 
were first considered, and then those referring to the 
services, discipline, and revenues of the Cathedral 
Church. The proceedings were concluded shortly 
before four o'clock, at which hour Evensong was 
said In the choir. Anything requiring reformation or 
correction, discovered by the Bishop was to be dealt 
with by a monition on the subject issued to the 
Chapter, who were to be allowed three months to take 
order as to such reformation or correction, and to 
report thereupon to the Bishop. If such order were 
not taken, the Bishop was to take steps to correct 
any defects left unreformed. 


Visitation of the Diocese. 

The Bishop's Charge as a whole was, when j)ub- 
lished, entitled The Ideals of a Parish; but the 
Charge delivered at the Cathedral formed an intro- 
duction to the rest. It was preceded by "A Bishop's 
exhortation to his elder clergy " ; which was the 
substance of two special addresses, delivered on 
June I St, at a devotional gathering of the General 
Chapter held on the day before the Visitation ; and 
in it he set forth the vocation, duties, and reward of 
the priestly and canonical offices. The subject of 
the Charge to the Cathedral body was "The beauty 
of holiness." The following extract gives some idea 
of the Icadino- thoughts of the whole : — 

"This house is the picture of the Church in the beauty of 
holiness ; here we both celebrate and become a Communion 
of Saints. 

" God gave beauty to art by the Greek, He gave beauty to 
government by the Roman, He gives beauty to life by the 

" Holiness is the beauty of God Himself, it is the only 
beauty of His Bride which is the Church, and the true 
beauty of each Christian heart and life ; it is our likeness 
of our Lord, it is our claim to be His Church, it is our 
witness before men Whose we are and Whom we serve. The 
wealth of the Church lies in its loving alms-deeds ; the 
strength of the Church lies in its living faith ; the beauty 
of the Church lies in its holiness; and the saintliness of 
the whole lies in the personal holiness of every old man 
and maiden, young man and child, each radiating and com- 
municating his sacred fire to the Church. 


" Therefore m\- charge to the members of the Cathedral 
is : 'Be ye holy, for the Lord ' of this house ' is holy.' We 
are the living Cathedral, living stones of the life-giving 
Church, and ' Holiness becometh His house for ever.' They 
tell us that the architect said, as the vision of our Cathedral 
rose gradually before him, ' I will build a cathedral which 
shall force every one who enters it to bend his knees.' It 
was a great ideal, and accounts for the emotion that stirs our 
souls as we thoughtfully pass through its doors." ^ 

He spoke of " the three gates to the way of 
holiness" (i) the Holy Bible, (2) Holy Communion, 
(3) Holy Orders : and concluded a most helpful 
Charge thus : — 


" Your office of Canon was never more needed than it is 
to-day — for it is yours to lift men's ideal of holiness, to 
increase the beauty of the Church, and to bring into men's 
lives that holy discipline which is the secret of the rule 
of God." •'- 

The following was the plan of the whole Charge : — 

I. The ideal of Christian life - holiness. (Delivered at 
the Cathedral.) 

H. The ideal of the Parish Church. (At Penzance.) 
"It is the conscious presence of the Trinity in the midst 
of the village." 

III. The ideal of the Parish Priest. (At Helston.) " He 
is the man of God among us, the ambassador of our heavenly 
kingdom, the messenger, watchman, steward of the Lord, 
who must give an account of every parishioner." 

IV. The ideal of the Sacraments. (At Truro.) " They 
turn all our water into wine and ourselves into Christ." 

1 The Ideals of a Parish. A Charge delivered by John, Lord Bishop 
of Truro. 1896. S.P.C.K., pp. 35, 36. 

- Ibid., p. 55. 


V. The ideal of Church work. (At Liskeard.) '"Son, 
go work to-da)' in My vineyard ' is said, not to clergy only, 
but to every child of God." 

VI. The ideal of the Christian home. (At Bodmin.) 
"It is the birthplace, the nursery, and the loving shelter 
of every family of God." 

VII. The Parish is part of a greater ideal. (At Laun- 
ccston.) " For the earth is the Lord's, and the fulness 

In a summary of the Articles of Enquiry v^'hich 
accompanied the Charge, and which were very full 
and searching, the Bishop was able to report the 
following progress " in a decreasing population " : — 

1892. 1895. 

Confirmation candidates . . 1,482 1,643 

Baptised . ... 4,835 4,772^ 

In Sunday Schools . . 19,001 19,842 

In l^ible Classes . . . 3,021 3,939 

The estimate of the numbers of the communicants 
could not be accurately made, because only hve- 
elevenths of the- clergy had kept a roll of communi- 
cants, and marked their attendance with regularity. 
But it was believed that, the great majority of those 
confirmed during the past five years were persevering 

The I)ishop printed a very interesting religious 
census taken in 1676 in Cornwall, "by command of 
the Archbishop of Canterbury," by which it appeared 
that there were in the Cornish rural deiuieries at that 

• The decrease of sixty-three was accounted for by " the diminution 
of the population.-' 


time 6/ " Papists," 842 " Nonconformists, " and 65,81 i 
" Conformists," ^ 

In the Charge much was said of the great import- 
ance and value of the Church work of the laity, and 
reference made to its various and manitold depart- 
ments. But perhaps the most striking sentences that 
dealt with this part of the Church's ministry were the 
following : — 

" There remain two other Church-workers whom I have not 
mentioned, and if their service is less visible and less or- 
ganised, it is none the less necessary and acceptable to God. 

" For there is among us a multitude whom no man can 
number, though our Lord counts them as His own, and 
calleth them all by their names. These are they who visit 
the sick, and raise the fallen, and convince the doubtful, and 
awake the sleeping, and put their own life into the careless, 
throughout every hamlet of the diocese. They enter in, 
whenever their Lord opens the door of a neighbour's heart ; 
they knock at many a door that seems bolted with steel, they 
do what they can. Their work may be miscellaneous and 
rather nondescript ; but their heart is in it, their Lord accepts 
it, and its fruits will appear to the whole world at large. 

" And there is many a saintly man and \Voman, who can do 
none of these things. Some have no time, and some have 
no courage to begin, and some have left all in despair ; some 
are bedridden, or at least confined to their house ; and yet 
we cannot afford to lose their help, for they pray for us who 
work, and for those for whom we work. Theirs is the priest- 
hood of intercession ; these also as Christians hope to inter- 
cede for the world, and I have felt long and often, when some 
Power greater than my own has kept me from falling, that, 
from the bedroom of one who is ill, or the heart of a child 
who pleads to God for me, strength descends upon your 
Bishop and his clergy, strength to serve and to conquer."- 

' See Appendix II. '" Ideals 0/ a Parish, pp. 141, 142. 


Among other interesting facts the Bishop stated : — 

" In the last ten years that I am able to account for, you 
have ofiered to God f(jr His Church within the diocese 
;^626,0OO, and the sums of each year show a constancy of 

Dr. Gott's Second Visitation was held in 1901, hve 
years after the Primary one. On this occasion the 
Cathedral was not visited. 

The plan of the Charge was divided under heads : — 

I. The Church in General. 

II. Visitation Inquiries. 

III. The Energy of the Holy Spirit. 

IV. Lay Priesthood, 

In the first subject the Bishop laid stress on the 

divisions of Christendom, and the weakness that 

results from them. Pie invited his clergy and laity 

" to put fresh fire into the prayers for unity, reunion with 
Greece and Rome, reunion with the many societies of Non- 
conformity at home ; and, above all, union and brotherly 
love within the Church. We require the faith and love that 
men like Father John, the Russian, would give us ; we want 
the sheer self-devotion of Lacordaire the French priest, and 
of Montalembert the French layman ; we require the clear 
insight of spiritual things of Milligan the Presbyterian, and 
of Dale the Congregational ist.'"- 

The Bishop referred to the great war in South 
Africa and its effect on " national character " ; to the 
report that Lord Roberts liad given, "of the tender- 

' I hid., p. 21. 

- The Work of the Holy Spirit and the Priesthood of the Laity. A 
Charge delivered by John Golt, D.D., Bishop of Truro, at his Second 
\'isitation, July, 1901, p. 7. 


ness of the English soldier " ; and expressed his 
belief, that this, and other instances of noble traits 
in the English nation, in spite of many terrible 
drawbacks and sins, were " the form and spirit of 
Christianity that is current among Englishmen," and 
he paid fitting homage to the character and life "of 
our last and greatest Queen," 

He also dealt in his Charge with the difficult ques- 
tions of the day, connected with the practice of 
" Reservation," and the use of private Confession, in 
a wise, conciliatory, but thoroughly English, spirit, and 
with unswerving loyalty to the teaching of the Book of 
Common Praver. 

From the answ^ers returned to his Visitation in- 
quiries, he was enabled to announce some interesting 
particulars of the state of the diocese: out of 1,194 
Sunday-school teachers 92 per cent, were communi- 
cants ; a roll of communicants was kept by 105 out of 
220 incumbents ; " family prayer was almost universal 
amonpf the educated classes of the diocese, in the 
homes of squires and professional men, but rare 
among the middle class and almost unknown in the 
homes of those who live on a weekly wage." There 
were still seventy parishes without catechising, and 
out of the Church elementary day schools, twenty 
where no religious instruction was given by the Parish 

On the energy of the Holy Spirit, he said there 
was everywhere a yearning after, and a belief, in the 
indwelling power of the Spirit : 


" I do not mean so much that our Lord has withheld 
hallowing knowledge from our fathers which He is giving to 
us by a new revelation, but I have strongly in my mind that 
ancient revelations are yielding fresh meanings to fresh minds. 
It seems that this thought is fermenting in many men: e.g. a 
theological book has come out this year by the Master of 
Trinity Hall, Cambridge, which ends with these words : ' I 
believe that the fuller and more practical recognition of the 
immediate presence of the Holy Spirit, prompting and actu- 
ating men, or striving with them, will be a distinguishing 
feature in the coming time, and the conviction of the inter- 
communion of souls with the Spirit which is Divine, will 
possess itself even more and more amply of the minds of 
men. The recognition of the presence of the Holy Spirit, 
not only brings us nearer to God in our own selves, but it 
keeps alive in us, what is a most vital element in Christian 
society, our hoh' reverence for man as man. Every human 
being is, or ma\- become, a sanctuary in which the Spirit of 
God shall abide. We cannot help looking around us with a 
worthier respect — shunning all hate, impurity, and scorn — if 
we regard ourselves and all around us as possibly containing 
the germ of an infinity to what is Divine, which the Holy 
Spirit may quicken into growth' {The Risen Master, pp. 461, 
462). Bishop Westcott writes : ' Little by little the Spirit is 
bringing home the uttermost realities of being, bringing 
home, that is, Christ and the things of Christ to each man 
and to all men. He is bringing to light new truths which 
may minister to the knowledge of Him who is the truth. 
He is ever fashioning for our use, as we gain power to use 
them, new forms of thought, new modes of worship, new 
spheres of action' {The Historic Faith, p. 108). My brother 
of Rochester has lately written to his diocese for the same 

And ai^ain : — 

"Writers both in Scotland and England {e.g. Dr. Milligan 
' \'isitation Char^i^c, 1 901, pp. 47-9- 


and Dr. Moberly) have been teaching us to. tov ITceiVaTo? 
' Ayiou, operations of the Holy Spirit which, perhaps, were 
not generally realised before. I mean that the inspired 
names, ' the Spirit of Christ,' ' the Spirit of Jesus,' have 
received a deeper meaning, awakened a holier understanding, 
and become in our thoughts a more powerful help than they 
were, in the character of men that were before us. He 
Whom we adore as ' Holy Spirit,' Whom we call to our 
aid as ' Paraclete,' Who possesses us, and Whom in some 
real sense we possess ; He is to us much more than the 
Spirit, Who ' moved upon the face of the waters,' the Creative 
Spirit, Creator Sphitus, more than the Holy Spirit Who 
inspired prophets and their people before Christ. To us He 
is the Holy Spirit, b}' Whom Christ our Lord was conceived, 
and the meaning of this grows more real to us, conditioning 
the ver\' body of every Christian, and enabling our flesh, 
yours and mine, to have fellowship with the Spirit of Christ ; 
and already to have, so far as each of us gives himself to it, 
a spiritual body, not yet free from sickness and sin, but over- 
powering these, consecrating sickness till it becomes a cross, 
and consecrating sin till it becomes the love of the greatly 

But, while the Bishop urged upon the clergy and 
laity the need of realising the presence and v^^ork of 
the Holy Spirit, he was careful to guard himself and 
them from any misunderstanding. 

" Brethren, I have no new means of grace — of course 
I have not ; but new insight into the Great Unseen is given 
to men, more and more : new sense of God's work, the 
drawing near of the end of all things, that is, their fulfilment 
and perfection. But there can be no new organisation of 
the Church, no new Sacraments, still less can there be any 
disuse of those means of grace that we have received from 
the Holy Spirit. It is in the better and fresher use of our 


hereditary helps, in their use more faithful and spiritual, in 
a heartier love and a gladder hope, that the Spirit grows 

within us." ^ 

That there is a real danger, at the present day, from 
other directions, the Bishop was careful to point out : 
"the danger of a spiritual person supposing himself 
to be infallible," the danger of an insidious growth of 
"the spirit of pride." and the consequent loss of "the 
grace of humility"; and, lastly, the danger sometimes 
lurking in the teaching of " perfectionism," the " temp- 
tation to the spiritual person " to claim and act upon 
the "assurance that sin is eradicated, that it has lost 
its power, and cannot return to one who has once 
been filled with the Spirit." The only safeguard is 
"godly fear," "a gift of the Spirit, even the seal 
that secures His presence and growth within us."- 

The Bishop in his Charge had spoken of the great 
South African War, as he did also, from time to time, 
at diocesan conferences and similar gatherings. Corn- 
wall, like the rest of the Empire, felt the strain and 
stress of the grave anxiety ; first of the terrible 
" week of disasters," and, afterwards, of the long 
period of exhausting efforts to bring peace to South 
Africa. The Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry, 
which has its headquarters at Bodmin, has not of 
late years contained a very large proportion of native 
Cornishmen, who appear to choose the Navy rather 
than the Army, when they oftVr themselves for the 

' Visitation Change, 1901, p. 60. "- pp. 64, 65. 


service of their country.^ But the regiment had, not 
long before, become well known by the march it had 
made throughout the county. On Trinity Sunday, 
May 28th, 1899, the second battalion encamped at 
Truro, and attended a special service in company 
with the local volunteers at the Cathedral, in the 
afternoon, when the Bishop addressed them." When 
the regiment was ordered abroad, the Bishop and the 
Lord Lieutenant had together bidden farewell, on 
November 4th, 1899, at Devonport, to the officers 
and men of the second battalion, the Bishop giving 
them his blessino- and a motto for them to remember. 
" Certainly I will be with thee." The movements of 
the " Duke's," as they were familiarly called, were 
closely watched by their many well-wishers in Corn- 
wall ; and the county was proud of their bravery at 
the assault on the Boer entrenchments at Paardeberg. 
But the achievement cost many valuable lives, among 
which were those of Colonel Aid worth, and other 
officers and men. Another gallant son of Cornwall, 
Major Hatherley Moor, R.A., son of Canon Moor 
(at that time Vicar of St. Clement), commanding 
the contingent from West Australia, after many acts 
of conspicuous skill and bravery, fell on the field of 
honour at Palmietfontein. Early in the war another 
brave Cornishman, Major-General Sir William Penn 
Symons, was mortally wounded, after a successful 

' Yet among the archers who won the battles of Crecy, Poictiers, and 
Agincourt, the proportion of Cornishnien is said to have been very large. 

''■ The late Colonel Aldworth, who fell at Paardeberg, said after the 
service, it was the best address given to soldiers he had ever heard. 


action at Glencoe, and has been commemorated in his 
parish church at Botus Fleming by a beautiful reredos 
and other monuments. A continjj^ent of Truro volun- 
teers, under Captain Jackson and Lieutenant Smith, 
joined the Cornish regiment, and did good service for 
more than a year in South Africa. The \^icar of 
Bodmin, the Rev. H. K. Southwell (now Hon. Canon 
of Truro), for ten months acted as Chaplain to the 
Forces with great acceptance ; and the Vicar of Looe, 
the Rev. A. L. Browne, went to the front in the same 
capacity. The matron of the Royal Cornwall In- 
firmary at Truro, Miss A. B. Trew, belonging to the 
Army Nursing Service Reserve, answered the call of 
duty, and worked with so much assiduity and success, 
that, on her return, she received from the hands of the 
King the decoration of the Royal Red Cross. For 
months, every Friday afternoon, a large number of 
persons met in Truro Cathedral for earnest supplica- 
tion, in behalf of individuals, and of all our soldiers, 
sailors, and others engaged in the war, in every 
kind of capacity ; and a long list of names of those 
prayed for was affixed to the notice-board ; and the 
same sort of service was held all ox'cr the diocese. 

From the foreign service of our soldiers and sailors, 
it is natural to pass to the foreign missions of the 
Church, and the share that the Diocese of Truro has 
in that noble work. It is natural that the county of 
Henry Martyn, and the city of Truro where he was 
born, in whose Grammar School he was educated, and 
in whose Cathedral baptistery his memory is en- 


shrined, should produce labourers, men and women, 
for the conversion of the heathen. Not a few have 
oiven themselves for this olorious work, and some are 
still labouring faithfully, far away from their dear 
Cornwall. Robert Kestell Cornish, first Bishop of 
Madagascar, born at Kenwyn ; Gilbert White (Curate 
of Helston), first Bishop of Carpentaria ; F. E, Carter 
(Canon Missioner of Truro), Dean of Grahamstown ; 
L. Cholmondeley (Curate of Kenwyn), of St. Andrew's, 
Tokyo ; B. E. Holmes (Curate of St. Mary's, Truro, 
and Priest Vicar of the Cathedral), Rector of King 
Williamstown and Rural Dean ; D. Ellison (Curate 
of Bodmin), of the South African Railway Mission ; 
C. Bice, of the Melanesian Mission ; Miss Thornton 
(daughter of Canon F. V. Thornton), of St. Hilda's, 
Tokyo ; Miss Rodd (daughter of Canon Rodd), of 
the Church of England Zenana Mission; Sister Louisa 
Jane, of Bloemfontein (daughter of Mr. J. Barrett, of 
Truro), are some of those, who, living and departed, 
have eone forth from the Cornish Church into the 
foreign mission field. ^ 

Of home mission work Bishop Gott once said, in 
his address to the Diocesan Conference, 1892 : "Our 
subscriptions to home missions are, I believe, the 
best in England." This must mean, in proportion 
to the population and resources at the disposal of 
the Church in Cornwall. But if Cornish Church- 
people, and especially Cornish women, ^ have been 

1 A more complete list is given in Appendix VII. 

2 Mention ought to be made of the late Miss Shearme, of Strattor, 


and still arc liberal in their support of the home 
missions of the Church, it is largely owing to the 
generous manner in which the London Committee 
have treated the diocese in their distribution of 
grants, and to the complete identification of the 
Diocesan Committee with the aims and work of the 
parent society. 

One thing never fails to strike a visitor to Cornwall 
from '• up the country," and that is, the almost univer- 
sally good condition of the fabrics of the churches, 
and the care bestowed upon them. This, in a county 
where the disinteeratino- force of moisture and storm 
are powerful and constant, is not a little remarkable. 
It is scarcely possible to find, anywhere in the diocese, 
a single ruinous church, or any that are in serious 
disrepair. Most of them are in excellent order. 
Restoration has sometimes been injudicious, and 
occasionally even disastrous ; but that was in earlier 
days.^ Now^ a wise conservative spirit is prevalent ; 
and architects like Mr. G. Fellowes Prynne and Mr. 
E. Sedding, can be thoroughly trusted with the work 
of making ancient buildings fit for worship in the 
present age, without destroying their historical or 
archaeological interest. It is not only a pleasure to 
visit such large and important churches as St. 

who, among almost countless good works, was for many years a zealous 
supporter of the A.C.S. 

1 Yet some of the early " restorers " were very self-denying persons. 
It is related that the Rev. J. Fisher, Rector of Roche 1819-34, renovated 
his church and rebuilt his rectory, raising a large portion of the expenses 
out of his income, by living upon fourpencc a day. 


Germans, St. Petroc's Bodmin. St. Mary Magda- 
lene's Launceston, St. Finbar's Fowey, St. Austell, 
and Probus, but to come unexpectedly^ close to the 
north coast, or near the borders of the moorland, 
upon beautiful village churches most carefully reno- 
vated, with all ancient features preserved, and noble 
screens and rood lofts, once more occupying the 
places intended for them. Even now, as these words 
are being written, one of the most interesting of 
Cornish churches that has suffered from long neglect 
as well as rough usage, St. Crantoc, has just received 
most lovinof and tender restoration. The church has a 
long and fascinating history. Dr. Benson delighted 
in the building and its past. 

"It lies in a desolate corner of the north coast, sheltered 
from the main blast by a large ' tovvan ' of sand, but scourged 
by every wind. It is skirted on the north by the long, narrow 
deep blue creek of the Gannel. The little compact tower, 
with battlements and machicolations, keeps up the tradition 
of pirate attacks, even if it was not actually built to resist 
them. The nave has a lower roof than the choir, and is 
aisleless, while the choir has not only aisles but transepts. 
It is on a higher floor than the nave; the base of the old 
screen and the deformed stumps of its moulded shafts, and 
the crumbling relics of it in the first choir arch on either 
hand, are the sole monuments of its capitular establishment 
of Dean, eight Canons and eight Vicars, which flourished ' in 
the days in which Edward the Confessor was alive and 
dead'; and flourished on until Henry VIII. dissolved it 
(if he did), and James I., more inexcusably, bestowed all its 
lands and rights on Phelips, and some other extinct laymen, 
leaving them only bound to find the merest pittance for the 


Vicars of Crantock, and of the church then dependent on 
it, St. Columb Minor." ' 

ConsidcrinLT all thai has been done f(jr church 
buildino- in Cornwall, it is not surprising that, when 
the third Ijishop of Truro first came into the diocese, 
he said : — 

" I wish specially to praise certain things. . . . The sacred 
enterprise which has restored to their strength and their 
beauty nearly all the parish churches of the county. When 
I left the Cathedral behind me, and penetrated into lonely 
villages far from the railway, I expected to find that the alms 
of the diocese had been absorbed by the great central effort 
at Truro ; but I found they had spread to every remotest 
corner ; and Chacewater on one side, and Poundstock on the 
other, both of them already in the architect's hands, are 
among the few that remain of the neglected and unworthy 
churches of Cornwall, a true s}-mbol, I trust, of the spiritual 
restoration, by which the churches are restoring and hallowing 
our people." - 

Since 1877, the Incorporated Church Building 
Society has made more than eighty grants, amounting 
to a sum between ^4,000 and ^5,000.^ During that 
period, ten new churches have been erected, fifty have 
been restored or rebuilt, and at least twenty- five 
mission chapels raised in every part of the diocese. 
Nothing struck the first Bishop of Truro more, than 
the need of planting in outlying hamlets, convenient 
mission chapels or mission rooms, to meet the needs of 

' Diary, .-Xpril 19th, 1S79. 
- Address at Diocesan Conference, 1892. 

■' The sums raised to meet these grants have not been ascertained, 
but the total must be very large. 


those who (as is so much the case In Cornwall) live 
far away from the parish church. 

" I think that no county can have such instances of 
original difficulties in the way of the Church as regards the 
situations of its buildings. At X. we have a church a mile and 
a half from Y., which, having been always large and having 
now fifteen hundred inhabitants, has no church nearer. At Z. 
the church is on a hill-top, a mile and a half above the village. 
There are seven hamlets ; not one of which had, till lately, any 
kind of service or help towards service, and there are seven 
thousand people in the parish." ^ 

The first Bishop of Truro was, as might have been 
anticipated and as has been stated above, a keen sup- 
porter of religious education in elementary schools. 
In Cornwall, after the passing of the Act of 1870, 
there had been prevalent, in some places, a feeling of 
despair, which resulted in the surrender of some of the 
Church day schools. Dr. Benson and his successors 
have used all their influence to check this tendency, 
with no little success. In a "starveling county," as a 
leading layman once called it, it is greatly to the credit 
of Churchmen that the day schools of the Church 
have been, and are still being, maintained. In 1881 
the population of Cornwall was 333,358, and there 
were then 124 Church schools teaching 11,858 chil- 
dren, 29 other voluntary schools teaching 3,226 
children, and 153 Board schools teaching 18,402 

^ Happily in most of these and in similar cases, the difficulty has 
been met, and mission churches built and regularly served. The late 
Mr. Michael Williams, of Gnaton Hall, Devon, built a beautiful little 
mission church near Newquay, which he served himself, whenever he 
was in Cornwall. 


children. In 1891 the population had fallen to the 
number of 325,031, and there were 13,943 children 
in 127 Church schools, 31 other voluntary schools 
instructing- 4,493 children, and 184 Board schools 
teaching 26,847. ^^^^^ struggle is arduous and in 
some respects discouraging ; but, in many of the 
principal towns, great efforts are made to maintain 
the Church schools. Within the last ten years in 
Truro, St. Mary's Schools have been entirely re- 
built ;^ a new boys' school has been erected in 
St. Paul's parish ; the practising schools of the Train- 
ing College, those of St. George's, and St. John's 
parishes, have received very considerable enlargement 
and improvement. The Diocesan Training College 
for Mistresses has been greatly extended, and now 
educates sixty students. At Camborne and Penzance 
large and well-equipped schools have been rebuilt. 
Recently, vigorous efforts have been made to 
strengthen the hands of those who wish to see 
justice done to voluntary schools everywhere, and 
important meetings have been held in the larger 
centres, to support the resolutions approved by the 
Joint Committee of the Convocations of Canterbury 
and York in 1901. 

' The Rev. C. F. J. Bourke, Sub-Dean and Rector of Truro (now 
Archdeacon of Buckingham), contributed towards this object a sum of 
/500, a portion of a parting gift from his parishioners at St. Giles', 
Reading, 1S89. 






Extra Parochial. 


1877 . . 










80 [ 



No. of Sunday School 
Communicants. Children. 


Bible r. ., , 
Classes. guilds. 

1894 . . 
190I . . 

11,374 19,033 
13,803 18,281 


3,050 2,159 
2,555 2,285 


Temperance 1 District 
Societies. j Visitors. 

Sunday School /-'i,„:„ 
Teachers. j <^''°"^^- 

1894 . . 3,492 
1901 . . 5,085 



2,068 ; 4,137 
1,810 1 3,845 




Church Parochial 


1894 . . 
1901 . . 





' II. M.S. Ganges in former years supplied at least 200 candidates. 






No. of 







£. , 



1884 . 







18S5 . 







1886 . 







1887 . 







1888 . 







1889 . 







1890 . 







1891 . 







1892 . 







'893 • 










^^529. 445'' 




Church Societies 

(General and 



Church and 


(Fabrics, etc.)- 


1894 . 
1901 . 








Weekly Celebration of Holy Communion 
and Daily Service. 


I. Parishes in which there was 
weekly celebration of Holy Com 
munion and daily service 

II. Parishes in which there is 
weekly celebration of Holy Com 
munion, but not daily service 

III. Parishes in which there is 
daily service, but not weekly cele 
bration of Holy Communion . 







* Include all parishes with churchwardens, or assessed for their own poor rate ; 
also all ecclesiastical districts. 

- These totals down to 1SS5 (inclusive) take no account of some .>{,'97.78o 
raised for the Cathedral. 

■' Including {a) ;^ii6 ; (/') ^2,229 ; («.) ^^8,282, for the Cathedral Maintenance 

■• After 1893 the form of return, as published in the Official Year Hook, was 



FOR nine years after the consecration of the 
Cathedral, no effort was made to continue the 
building, nor even to collect money for any eventuality 
connected with its continuation. It was felt that to 
have raised ^70,000 for the endowment of the 
bishopric, and nearly ^120,000 for the erection and 
adornment of the Cathedral, was an effort that might 
very well satisfy Cornish Churchmen, for at least 
a generation. There were very many things of 
parochial and diocesan interest requiring immediate 
attention, and the Building Fund was not put forward 
by those in authority. The increase of the endow- 
ments of the poorer livings, the necessity of raising 
considerable sums for religious education, appeared to 
be objects demanding large and generous contribu- 
tions. But, nevertheless, from time to time offerings 
and orifts were made to the Buildinsf Fund of the 
Cathedral, in the hope that some day, through perhaps 
far distant, might see the renewal of attempts to build 
a complete Cathedral. Out of Miss Pedler's bequest, 
alluded to in a previous chapter, ^1,500 had been 
assigned to the Building Fund ; and Canon Wise 



of Ladock, already a munificent benefactor of the 
Cathedral, some years before his death made the 
noble gift of £^,000 towards the erection of the nave. 
Dr. Benson, who was delighted at this splendid 
offering, wrote the following letter to the treasurer of 
the building fund ; with characteristic foresight he 
alludes to the need for endowment. 

"Addington Park, Croydon, 

"4/// October, 1894. 
" My dear Mr. Nix,— Thank you very much for giving 
me this magnificent news — what a princely old Canon ! I 
suppose it is the greatest gift the Cathedral has had. I wish 
now someone would give i^" 10,000 to the Chapter. I want to 
see their endowment grow. 

" It was delightful to meet you and pick up all the old 
threads. " Sincerely yours, 

" E. CANTUAR : " 

It was quite clear that Archbishop Benson's opinion 
concerninu- the orenerositv of Churchmen in the West 
had proved to be true. " In building your Cathedral," 
someone once said to him, "you have drained Cornwall 
of money." " Yes," he answered, " but not of zeal." 

xAnd so it was that, in the autumn of 1 896, the sum 
of no less than ^13,000 was already in the hands of 
the treasurer of the Building Committee. Then there 
came the sudden event at Hawarden, which some 
might call a catastrophe, but to others was more like a 
translation, and the removal of the great Primate and 
first Bishop of Truro. 

An important meeting was called, not many weeks 


after the funeral of Archbishop Benson, and there were 
present at the Church House, Dean's Yard, a large 
number of the Bishops and leading laymen. Church- 
men in Cornwall were represented by Archdeacon 
Cornish and Canon Thynne ; and friends of the Arch- 
bishop in Cornwall, and warm supporters of the 
Cathedral, anxiously waited to know the issue. The 
following telegram was sent by Canon Thynne : — 

'^ Laus Deo. Benson Memorial, effigy Canterbury Cathe- 
dral and Truro Cathedral continuation." 

Archdeacon Cornish wrote as follows : — 

" Church House, 

" November ^th, 2.30, 

"... We have had a wonderful meeting. The issue 
swayed to and fro, but finally it was decided to strike for an 
effigy in Canterbury, and some definite part of Truro 
Cathedral according to funds. The Archbishop (Dr. Temple) 
and the ]3ishop of Salisbury helped us greatly, and I thanked 
them afterwards and Lord Cross and others. Laus Deo!' 

A large meeting was called, in London, under the 
presidency of the Prince of Wales ; and a committee, 
includinof some of the most eminent men in Church 
and State, was formed to gather funds for the two- 
fold object decided upon. 

For various reasons, which need not be discussed 
here, the results of this movement in London were 
comparatively disappointing. Not more than about 
^5,000 was collected through this agency, of which 


about ^"2,000 was i^nven to Truro Cathedral, and the 
remainder expended on the; hcautiful recumbent effigy 
at Canterbury. 

In the opinion of many, it was probably a serious 
mistake, on the [)art of those who were responsible for 
the movement, to put the monument first, and Truro 
Cathedral second. 

Contributors to the local memorial at Canterbury 
would naturally only offer a comparatively small sum ; 
but, if the Cathedral had been made the prominent 
object, larger offerings would have been at once 

It became evident that, if the nave, or any consider- 
able part of it, was to be built as a memorial to its 
great founder. Cornish Churchmen would have to 
bear the main burden of the effort. At the Diocesan 
Conference of 1896 a resolution was passed, based on 
the expectation of a considerable sum being raised in 
London and elsewhere, that an effort should be made 
to proceed with the building ; and, later in the year, 
an important meeting was held at which it was an- 
nounced that considerable sums, including ^2,000 
from Lord Robartes, ^1,000 from Lord Mount 
Edgcumbe, and also from the Bishop, had been 
collected in Cornwall. In the early part of the 
following year, the Women of Cornwall's Association 
was revived, and meetings held in different parts 
of the county, at which the Bishop, and members of 
the Residentiary Chapter and others, gave addresses. 

On JNIay 20th, 1897, the seventeenth anniversary of 


the laying of the foundation-stone of the Cathedral, a 
commencement was made by the laying of the founda- 
tions of the whole nave and western towers. 

In the following year, nearly ,/!^30,ooo had been 
received, and the committee determined to build the 
nave and west front. The work began on May 29th, 
1 899, after an inaugural service, at which the Bishop 
officiated, and a large number of the clergy and laity 
of the diocese were present. 

The work progressed under the superintendence of 
?klr. F. L. Pearson, who, on the death of his father on 
December iith, 1897, was chosen by the committee 
to carry out the original plans for the nave. The 
contract was carried out by Messrs. Wilcock, of 
Wolverhampton, and an excellent clerk of the works 
was chosen, Mr. Edward Price. 

Many generous donations were sent, and chief 
among them the sum of ^5,000 from "a Cornish- 
man," who has successfully preserved the secret of 
his anonymous generosity. But, in spite of all the 
zealous efforts that had been made, it seemed probable 
that the committee would have to stop short of a 
complete fulfilment of its desire to see the nave 
finished. There was still a deficiency of more than 
^3,000 towards the erection of the western towers 
to such a height as would prevent an unsightly 
temporary structure, marring the effect of the upper 
part of the west front. The chairman of the com- 
mittee. Lord Mount Edgcumbe, with his accustomed 
zeal, wrote a letter to the Times, stating the facts of 


the case and askini;- for help. His letter concluded 
with tlu: following' words : — 

" I shall be happy to give another i^ioo, and another i^200 
more on the completion of the larger contract, if adopted, 
when the Lord Bishop of the Diocese who earnestly supports 
this appeal will also give another ;^ioo. And I venture to 
repeat the earnest hope of the Committee, that all who are 
likely ever to help us will do so now. I think it would 
be safe to promise, that, if this work can be achieved, the 
Ikiikling Committee will make no further appeal to the 
present generation." 

This letter bore fruit in a larore increase of dona- 
t.ions, among which was one from the Prince of Wales 
(His present Majesty, the Kino-) who, from the first. 
has taken a lively interest in Truro Cathedral ; and. 
before the close of the nineteenth century, the required 
amount, ^40,000, was given or promised. 

This was a great achievement. It is scarcely 
possible to give any record of how all this good 
work was accomplished ; nor is it easy to realise 
that, in a county so depleted of wealth, such a 
successful result should have been attained at all. 
But there were two great impulses that moved 
Cornish Churchmen at the time, one personal and 
immediate — their deep affection for the great first 
Bishop of their revived see, together with a desire 
to commemorate worthily his work among them — 
and the other more far-reaching and corporate — 
the awakened sense of diocesan life, and a keen 
determination to emphasize and embody it vividl\- 


in a completed cathedral. For those who were per- 
mitted to take an active part in all the meetings, 
committees, and other organisations that helped to 
secure the fulfilment of these expectations, there will 
always remain the recollection of a strong and irre- 
sistible current of feeling, moving the hearts and wills 
of men and women in this direction. In the presence 
of much that, at the time, seemed to offer nothing 
but obstacles and hindrances, or even, on occasions, 
presaged disappointment, perilously near to disaster, 
there never was lost the living hope that the Cathedral 
would be finished, for the glory of God and the welfare 
of His Holy Church. 

The forces that inspired and sustained this great 
effort were, besides those enumerated, a strong realisa- 
tion of the Divine origin and character of the Church: 
a sense of the great importance of Catholic unity, of 
which a noble church, and still more a great cathedral, 
is an unmistakable symbol. Moreover, the great 
awakening among English Church-people to the claims 
that orderly and reverent worship has upon them ; 
the recognition of the Divine Majesty and the Divine 
Presence, that is embodied in, and implied by, a 
splendid sanctuary, have, year after year, during the 
period since the teaching of the great Catholic revival 
began, been changing the whole aspect of the churches 
and cathedrals of England and Wales. And, in Corn- 
wall, the sense of opposition to all this on the part 
of so many outside the Church's pale, made the feeling 
all the more intense, and the desire for restoration 


of sacramental teaching and dignified worship more 
ardent than, perhaps, was the case anywhere else. 

And so, with much prayer and sacrifice, long labour 
and generous effort, Cornish Churchmen have suc- 
ceeded in realising a great ideal, such as has been 
worthily depicted by one of the most eloquent of 
preachers, and most devoted of England's greatest 
Churchmen : — 

"It has been said of the Reformation that, whatever else 
it achiev^ed or swept away, it sounded the death-knell of 
Christian art. In such a criticism there is truth so far as 
this : the Reformation involved a conflict of principles 
between, on the one hand. Churches conscious of the right to 
a self-government, controlled only by their allegiance to 
the sacred Scriptures and to the traditions of undivided 
Christendom, and, on the other, an illegitimate and encroach- 
ing central authority. It was natural that, at the time, 
and for long after, this conflict of principles should with- 
draw men's attention, from the outward mien and expres- 
sion of religion, to the practical interest at stake. The 
man who believes that he is struggling for his liberty or 
for his life, does not stop in the heat of the conflict to 
smooth his hair ; although it does not follow that this 
omission commits him to a lifelong habit of untidiness. 
Certainly, in the centuries that preceded the Reformation, 
the religious use of art had been the scene and pretext of 
some conspicuous abuses ; and the reaction, which reached 
its limit in the destructive fanaticism of the Puritan period, 
was perhaps more natural than we, at this time, can easily 
understand. Art, after all, is but the drapery of religion : 
religion can use art, she can profit by it, but she can dispense 
with it, if need be ; the life of religion resides in those 
activities of thought and will, concentrated upon the Being 
of beings, and upon that which He has revealed, whereby 


man is enabled to attain the true goal of his destiny. Yet 
it is paradoxical to suppose that, in the sixteenth century, or 
at any other period, the Church intended to promote a final 
divorce between religion and art. Should the Church object 
to the service of art, whether it be painting, or sculpture, or 
architecture, as an instrument for propagating and illustrating 
religious truth, while she retains a Bible in which the highest 
poetry is the consecrated handmaid of the inspiration of 
David and of Isaiah, she would be altogether inconsistent. 
Poetry, like painting, may of course, usurp the honours of 
that truth to which it ministers. But the scholar who should 
forget the spiritual teaching of the evangelical prophet in 
admiration of his matchless poetry, would not really furnish 
an argument for omitting the most beautiful book of the Old 
Testament from the public services of the Church. 

"To the criticism in question, and as a whole, St. Paul's is 
a magnificent rejoinder; it is, indeed, the only splendid 
cathedral that has been erected in England or in Europe 
since the Reformation." 

A note is here added to the following effect : — 

" Had the Cathedral of Truro been built when the sermon 
was preached, it would have obliged the preacher to express 
himself more guardedly." . . . and the preacher proceeded — 

"It has been said reproachfully of the modern Church of 
England, that she has inherited cathedrals which she knows 
not how to use. In the case of St. Paul's, the epigram might 
have had a touch of additional severity, since she has actually 
built it. . . . 

"Yes, St. Paul's is, indeed, a 'city set on a hill'; it is 
a material representation of the moral position of the Church 
of Christ. It is eminent by its position ; eminent by its 
history ; eminent by its outward beauty ; eminent, it must 
be added, in its failure, in too many ways, practically to 
realise what is due to its position, but conspicuously is it 
eminent by its wholesale internal neglect and desolation. 



And we, the clergy of this Cathedral, of all orders, under 
our Dean, acting, as we do, with one mind and heart in 
furthering the work, confidently entreat you to help us. It 
is your matter, brethren, after all, rather than ours. We are 
but the willing instrument of an effort which you must make, 
if it is to be made at all. Like all corporations, we possess 
great powers of obstruction ; but we can do little to construct 
without aid from without. Revenues which were once at our 
disposal have been largely surrendered to other hands, that 
they may be distributed far and wide throughout the country; 
and we, who for a short while have this great fabric in our 
charge, can onl\- appeal, as we mean persistently to appeal, 
to the generous instincts and Christian enthusiasm of our 
fellow-citizens on behalf of its obvious requirements. Yet it 
is not we, but }-our Cathedral Church itself, which pleads with 
you. We, its ministers of the hour, appear, one after another 
in quick succession, each doing his work, speaking his mes- 
sage, and then passing to his account. But the great Church 
remains, an image, in the realm of sense and time, of the 
eternal realities ; as were the hills which stood about Jeru- 
salem. It remains, with its outline of matchless beauty, with 
its reproachful poverty of detail, appealed to, yet condemned 
by the religious aspirations, while face to face with the bound- 
less wealth of London. It is for you to say whether this 
shall be so hereafter ; whether one more generation shall be 
permitted to pass away leaving St. Paul's, as it is, to a 
successor. It is for you to decide whether, by your present 
efforts, and b}' your persevering interest, a most important 
step is or is not taken, in our day, towards making this 
Church worth}-, to some extent, of its great position, at 
the heart of the metropolis of England and of English 
Christendom." ^ 

No one expected any further addition, than the 
completion of the nave, would be made to the build- 

' Christmastidc Sermons. By H. P. Liddon. XX\', St. Paul's and 
London, pp. 414 seq. Preached in 1S71 on behalf of the Cathedral 
Decoration Fund: republished in 1891. 
2 A 


ing of Truro Cathedral for many years to come. 
But, when on January 22nd, 1901, the great Queen 
passed away, and men and women everywhere were 
asking themselves, what form a memorial of her life 
and reign should take, Mrs. Arthur Tremayne of 
Carclew, the secretary of the Cornish Women's Asso- 
ciation, struck a note that met with immediate 
response. She suggested, in a letter to the county 
papers, that the memorial to Queen Victoria in Corn- 
wall should be the building of the central tower of 
the Cathedral, to be called the "Victoria Tower." 
Several contributions had been sent and others 
promised, when it was announced that a single 
individual was prepared to give the sum required 
for the buildincj of the central tower. For some 
weeks no name was divulged, but at a meeting held 
in March, 1901, the Bishop announced that Mr. James 
Hawke Dennis, formerly of Redruth, and now of 
Grenehurst Park, Surrey, was ready to bear the 
whole cost. The original estimate, given some years 
before, was ^10,000, but alterations in the price of 
labour had raised this to nearly ^15,000. Mr. Dennis 
was not deterred, on this account, from carrying out his 
intention, and in the autumn of 1901 the first steps 
were taken. 

It would be scarcely possible, or even desirable, to 
conclude this record of most interesting Church work 
in a diocese full of historical and even romantic asso- 
ciations, and among a people of attractive and unique 
characteristics, without adding some remarks on the 


prospects of ;i l;iru;c and fuller measure of success in 
the days that are to come. 

If education is removing, one after another, some 
of the quaint and fascinating peculiarities of old 
Cornish life, it is, at the same time, destroying some 
ancient prejudices, and hindrances to full intellectual 
and spiritual development. Churchmen who believe 
that in the Anglican Communion there has been pre- 
served, in all essential things, the best and truest tra- 
ditions of primitive worship and doctrine, will look 
hopefully on the future of the Church of Christ among 
a Cornish people, still religious, but hereafter to be set 
free from any of the narrowness born, of ignorance; 
lovers of spiritual things, without superstition or 

But there are, and will be, for some time to come, 
difficulties arising from local conditions and environ- 

It is not a mere prejudice of the stranger from " up 
the country " to think, that the mild soft air of the 
Cornish peninsula tends to a less vigorous activity in 
work, and a relaxed standard of moral and religious 
effort, both in the individual and the community. 

Many will sympathise with the following words of 
Bishop Wilkinson, spoken at the last Diocesan Con- 
ference over which he presided in 1890. 

"Why is it? Why is it that we do not gird up the loins 
of our mind with a steady resolve that, God helping us, we 
will, in very deed, develop our every faculty of body, soul and 


spirit, and will offer it up as a living sacrifice to Him Who 
died and rose again? Why is it? Is it the effect of our 
climate — with its soft caressing air? 

" ' In the afternoon they came unto a land, 
In which it seemed always afternoon. 
All round the coast the languid air did swoon, 
Breathing like one that hath a weary dream, 
And like a downward smoke the slender stream 
Along the cliff to fall and pause and fall did seem.' 

" Is it so ? Is there entering into any of our souls the 
subtle temptation to think, that it is no use, that there is 
no hope of mending ourselves, that it is no use to war with 
evil ? Is it so .'' And are we on this account beginning to 
dawdle our life away in the restlessness of busy idleness ? Is 
it so ? Are we tempted to substitute for active self-denying 
work, the formation of some new society, the development of 
some fresh organisation, which shall issue in the old line of 
high-sounding phrases, and well-framed resolutions, and new 
committees, to be followed by apparent success, and gradual 
decline, and final extinction ? Is it so? Is this the result of 
our Western climate? I cannot tell. It matters not — only 
in God's Name, let us have done with it, once and for ever — 
this dull, heavy, hopeless, afternoon existence. Let us wrestle 
with the God of our salvation, till He fills us with some of the 
joy and peace, the rich new wine of the new covenant, and 
enables us to abound in hope by the power of the Holy 
Ghost. ' The God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in 
believing, that ye may abound in hope by the power of the 
Holy Ghost.' " 

Unless the most thoughtful Churchmen of our day 
misread greatly the signs of the times, there is aw^ait- 
ing the Church everywhere, and perhaps not least of 
all the Church in Cornwall, a very serious time of 
conflict and difficulty. Many great political events, 


at home and abroad, have diverted, for a time, 
attempts already made on the Church's position and 
property : on her rii^ht to teach her own children 
"the faith once for all delivered to the saints"; on 
her right to minister to her own poor in workhouses ; 
and lay her own dead in consecrated ground. It is no 
mere militant spirit that animates lovers of the Church 
to defend her with every legitimate weapon. The 
drawings too^ether of other reliuious bodies into federa- 
tions and councils of so-called "Free Churches," would 
be welcomed by everyone who longs and prays for 
the restoration of " unity visible and invisible," among 
"all who name the Name of Christ " ; but, so long as 
these alliances are sometimes ominously spoken of as 
directed against the " Established" Church (so-called), 
and against its teaching concerning the Word and 
Sacraments, handed down in the One Holy Catholic 
Apostolic Church, it cannot be wondered that, in 
Cornwall, "Church defence" must largely engage the 
attention of Church-people, and find ample space in 
their deliberations at conferences and synods. 

But all devout Churchmen must take care that it 
be Church defence carried on in the spirit which 
Bishop Wilkinson expressed, in words spoken at the 
Diocesan Conference of 1885 : — 

" We dare not despair ; because God is with us. We dare 
not even despond ; because of the marvellous way in which 
the presence of God has been manifested in behalf of the 
Church of England during the last fifty years. We dare not 
presume, we dare not relax our efforts ; because we are not 


entering on any isolated warfare, not girding on our armour 
for any single battle — to be quickl}- begun and quickly 

" In resolving to defend our Church, we are preparing to 
take our part in a lifelong resistance against a carefully 
defined and carefully prepared system of attack (jueOoSelai), 
organised b}' an unseen yet potent kingdom ; a system of 
attack, the force of which is being felt along the whole line 
of the civilised world — an attack, which, in other countries 
at any rate, is being directed not merely against the Church 
of Christ, and the Sacraments of Christ, but against the 
Word of God, and the truth of the Incarnation. Our wrest- 
ling (as we heard this morning) is not against flesh and 
blood, not against our brethren : God forbid — we have no 
quarrel with them. We are fighting — though they know it 
not — in their behalf, and in behalf of their children. Our 
wrestling is not against flesh and blood, but against the 
principalities, against the powers — against the world rulers 
of this darkness. We are going to fight, and in God's Name 
to triumph over, that master spirit of deceit, who, as we 
believe, is using as his unconscious instruments the strong 
forces of this nineteenth century — even him by whom the 
Christ was crucified, by whom the Church, which is the Body 
of Christ, has been wounded in each succeeding age, and 
who is pledged never to cease from the deadly struggle, till 
the day of her Lord's appearing." 

There are some dansfers from within. Amono- 
these must be mentioned an almost exaggerated and 
over- elaborated organisation. In some ecclesiastical 
minds the formation of committees, the drawing up 
of reports, the sending in of returns, hold an alto- 
gether exaggerated place. That these are useful and 
necessary cannot be denied ; but it is possible for 
them to accumulate, to such an extent as to choke 


work, cUid exhaust the workers. Above all, there is 
the dan'j['er of such thincrs beinci" recfarded as ends in 
themselves rather than means. The Diocese of Truro 
is as well organised as any in England, perhaps better 
than most ; irs peril lies in the possession of a very 
complete machinery, working mechanically, with 
meagre results and barren show of activity. 

Another danger, not so easily remedied, lies in the 
isolation of so many of the clergy, and in the poverty 
of their endowments. Depression produced by soli- 
tude, and fostered by sordid cares, cannot but end 
in disaster to priest and people. How shall the peril 
be averted, and the remedy applied ? Shall it be 
through the return to ancient methods, the grouping 
of small parishes, the revival of collegiate churches, 
as at St. Buryan, Endellion, Crantoc, and Glasney ? 
Or, through some large and generous benefactions to 
re-endow^ impoverished benefices, or supplement their 
ever diminishing revenues ? 

The desirability of returning to some such plan, as 
the one suggested above, has been well expressed by 
Canon Mason, who knows perfectly the needs ot 

" There is more than one good large district, at the present 
moment, where it seems as if, because of the loneliness and 
the poverty-, the work of the Church cannot be carried on 
any longer upon a strictly parochial system, and where the 
only possibility is to form men into bands residing perma- 
nently, or for fixed periods, at some common centre, and 
working a group of parishes together in common. It was 
the way in which man}- of those districts were managed in 


mediaeval times, when the whole countn- was dotted, not 
only with monasteries, but with collegiate churches, to which 
were attached a dean or archpriest, and four or five or more 
prebendaries, doing their best for a stretch of country 
round them. We shall probably come back to that method 
in some places before long." ^ 

One vital element of success, in making Church 
work permanently strong in Cornwall, is sympathy 
between priest and people. It cannot be said that 
this has been achieved everywhere in the diocese, nor 
can this be a matter of surprise. It is far from easy 
for an outsider to understand, even to a limited extent, 
the mind of the Cornish man or woman. Men " from 
up the country " readily enter into the poetry of 
Cornish history and antiquities, the romance of its 
early Church and primitive saints ; they are enraptured 
with the loveliness of its scenery ; but how many of 
them really understand the people, or do justice to 
their special characteristics? It is so easy to fasten 
upon obvious blots and defects, and to pass by, or 
forget, the real, and even unique, merits of its popula- 
tion. If in Cornwall (though similar things are found 
in other places) the standard of morals in one direction 
is disappointing, the sobriety of its people is distinctly 
far above the average. Enthusiasm for the cause of 
temperance, during the last thirty or forty years, has 
been unmistakable throughout the county. 

The people are very lovable, and ready to love and to 
be loved. There has been very great affectionateness 

' TJic Ministry of Conversion, p. 157. 


of disposition displayed towards those who have taken 
pains to know them, and to become devoted to their 
welfare ; a loving response to personal work done 
among them by some parochial clergynien, who were 
not of Cornish birth, which could scarcely be matched 
anywhere else. It has been remarked of some clergy- 
men, who, while they were at work in the diocese of 
Truro, chafed under their difhculties and apparent 
want of success, and continually sighed for some other 
sphere of work ; that, after their removal, it was not 
so very long before they w^ere as anxious to return, to 
all the trials and troubles of Church work in Cornwall, 
as they had previously been desirous of escaping from 

There is sure to be lack of success, if some allow- 
ance is not made for the idiosyncrasies of the race ; 
if there is failure to appreciate its peculiar religious 
instincts, and even its spiritual tastes. The clergyman 
who declines, for instance, to countenance anything 
like prayer-meetings among his people, (such as have 
been for many years carried on in certain parishes by 
working men among themselves who were loyal 
Churchmen and regular communicants), will probably 
be unconsciously quenching fervour, and letting some 
of his best members slip away from his inliuence. 
To adopt a style of preaching frigid and didactic, to 
read sermons full of formal or pedantic mannerisms, 
will certainly be the wrong way of catching the atten- 
tion of those, who relish a lively, or even a somewhat 
noisy, style of address. It is sometimes said that in 


Cornwcill work of all kinds tends to get slack, and 
Cornish people soon get tired of effort, and take up 
novel plans and follow new guides, with a sort of 
light-hearted fickleness. There may be an element 
of truth in these charges, but there must be neverthe- 
less a great under-stratum of robustness at the bottom 
of the character of Cornishmen, to account for the 
success of so many of them in mining operations all 
over the world. It has been said that, wherever there 
is a mine, you will find a Cornishman at the top and 
at the bottom of it. Surely enough has been said to 
prove, that there are noble traits and sterling good 
qualities in the race, that may, by wise and loving 
master - builders of God's Church, be fashioned, as 
"great and costly stones," into the spiritual fabric, 
and lend a strength and beauty to the " City of God " 
that could perhaps not be supplied from any other 




Contributed to the Truro Diocesan Kalendar (on request) by the Rev. William 
Stubbs, Regius Professor of Modern Plistory, Oxford, and Canon of St. Paul's 
(afterwards successively Bishop oi Chester and Oxford). 

THE history of the early Church in Cornwall is very 
obscure. Considerations of race, of geographical 
relations and historical probability, would lead us to connect 
it with Ireland, Brittany, and Wales ; and such is the general 
inference from the legends of the saints of the four regions : 
Irish hermits found homes in Cornwall ; the sons of Cornish 
l^rinces appear among the Breton saints ; a Cornish king 
becomes a monk at St. David's ; and in some cases the dedi- 
cations of churches point to a common early history. 

The existence of Roman Christian inscriptions in Corn- 
wall may imply that Christian truth was within the reach 
of Cornish men as early as the fourth century. The ancient 
tradition of St. German's refers the conversion of the people 
to a saint of that name sent by Pope Gregory the Great ; 
but there can be no doubt that the St. German in question 
was the famous Bishop of Auxerre, who lived a century and 
a half before St. Gregory the Great, and paid two visits to 
Britain to confute the Pelagian heresy. The tradition, then, 
would rather point to the fact that there was already a 
Christian Church in Cornwall which had become infected 
with Pclagianism. If this be granted, it may be inferred 
— without reference to the merely legendary histories of 



martyrs and hermits, such as St. Melor, or Melior, who is 
said to have suffered in Cornwall in A.D. 411, and Saints 
Fingar, Piala, and others, companions of St. Patrick, who 
were martyred about A.D. 450 — that Cornwall had become 
to a great extent Christianised before the Romans left 

At or about A.D. 450, occurred the great migration from 
Britain to Armorica, which gave to the latter country the 
name of Britannia Minor, or Brittany. This was one result 
of the Saxon invasion of Britain ; the fugitives were British 
Christians, and the affinity of the Cornish and Breton 
languages leads to the conclusion that the emigrants were 
from that part of Britain which was pressed by the invaders 
engaged in founding the West Saxon state ; that is, from 
Hampshire, Dorsetshire, and Devonshire. Cornwall and 
Western Devonshire, known by the name of Damnonia, 
retained their independence under British princes, and their 
Christianity, in much the same form as it had possessed when 
the departure of the Romans broke the communication 
between the British Churches and Western Christendom. 
In the time of Gildas the prince of Damnonia was named 
Constantine or Custeint. He became a monk at St. David's 
in A.D. 589. Gerein or Gerran, according to the legend, was 
prince when St. Teilo in A.D. 596 returned from Armorica. 
About A.D. 705 St. Aldhelm, afterwards Bishop of Sherborne, 
wrote to another Gerein, Geruntius, or Gereint, prince of 
Damnonia, urging him to adopt the custom of keeping 
Easter approved by the rest of the Churches of the West. 
The parts of Damnonia which were subject to Wessex 
accepted the change, but the Cornishmen retained their 
independence, and probably their custom upon the point in 

During this period we have no historical list of Cornish 
bishops. But we know from the fact that British bishops, 
who could scarcely have come from any otiier region, 
assisted in the consecration of St. Chad in a.d. 664, that 


the Churches had proper superintendence, and legend has 
preserved some few names of bishops, as St. Rumon, the 
patron of Tavistock, St. Conoglas, who was buried at Glaston- 
bury, St. rieran, St. Carantoc, St. Withinoc, St. Barnic, 
St. Elidius, and St. Hildren, whose names are preserved in 
Cornish Kalendars, but who may have equally belonged to 
Ireland or Ikittany. 

In the year 813 ICgbert, the king of Wessex, overran 
Cornwall, but did not formerly annex it, as he seems to have 
annexed Devonshire, to the West Saxon kingdom ; for a 
king of Cornwall, Dumgarth, is found as late as the year 
875. Athelstan finally reduced Cornwall to subjection in 
the year 926, and the Cornish Church must now have become 
isolated. Egbert and the West Saxon kings were in the 
closest alliance with the See of Canterbury, and prudence, 
as well as the hope of maintaining an ecclesiastical system, 
must have led the Cornish church to submit to the See of 
Augustine. There is at Canterbury a copy of a letter 
written by Kenstec, or Kenstet, bishop-elect of the Cornish 
people, in which he professes his obedience to the Church 
of Canterbury, and declares his faith to Ceolnoth, Arch- 
bishop of Cantcrbur}-, A.D. 833-70. This may have been 
drawn up soon after Egbert's visit to Cornwall. King 
Alfred had property in Cornwall, in Triconshire, or Trigg, 
which is mentioned in his will. The spiritual superinten- 
dence of these domains and his dependencies in Devonshire 
he placed in the hands of Asser, a Briton of St. David's, 
afterwards Bishop of Sherborne. The influence of Asser in 
Cornwall may have either strengthened or supplanted that 
of the earlier episcopate. In the year 909 Edward the 
Elder founded a bishopric for Devonshire, with its see at 
Crediton, and annexed to it three towns in Cornwall, Paw- 
ton, Callington, and Lawhitton, to be missionary centres 
from which Eadulf, the newly appointed bishop, might 
annually visit the Cornish people who still persistetl in their 
opposition to the English and Roman discipline. The 


mission of Eadulf and the arms of Athelstan finally in- 
corporated the Cornish with the English Church. Conan, 
the native Cornish bishop, appears as a member of Athel- 
stan's witenagemot from A.D. 931, and Cornwall was thence- 
forward an English diocese. 

The names of Conan's successors are fairly well ascer- 
tained. A bishop named Comoere was contemporary with 
King Edgar, as was also Wulfsige, who must have been an 
Englishman, and whose name is attached to charters from 
A.D. 967-80. His successors were Ealdred, from A.D. 993 to 
about 1002, and Burhwold who flourished in 1018. Living, 
the nephew of Burhwold, and abbot of Tavistock, became 
Bishop of Crediton in 1027, and of Worcester in 1038, and, 
on Burhwold's death, held Cornwall with Crediton. Under 
Leofric, the successor of Living, who became Bishop of 
Crediton and Cornwall in 1046, the see of the now united 
dioceses was fixed at Exeter. 

It is not now known where the see was originally fixed. 
In the Irish and Welsh Churches the system of territorial 
dioceses was very imperfectly developed ; in the West Saxon 
Churches, until the very eve of the Norman Conquest, the 
dioceses coincided with the shires, in other words, in the 
Celtic period the bishops were bishops of churches, with 
dioceses very uncertainly defined ; in the West Saxon times 
they were bishops of dioceses, the sees of which were not 
permanently fixed. The Bishop of Wiltshire and Berkshire, 
for instance, fixed his see for the one county at Sunning, 
and for the other at Ramsbury, having a cathedral at 
neither. Somewhat later Dorset, with its See of Sher- 
borne, was annexed, and after an attempt to fix the sec 
at Malmesbury, it was finally settled at Salisbury. Some- 
thing of the kind may have taken place in Cornwall and 

The see of Bishop Kenstec, in the ninth century, was 
fixed in the monastery called Dinnurrin, possibly Dingerein, 
the city of King Gerein, now Gerrans or St. Gerran's. If 

AprENJ)ix r 369 

this was the regular seat of the bishopric, it had very soon 
to give way either to St. Germans or to Bodmin. 

1. St. Germans was the see of Bishop Burhwold, and 
there also the historian, Florence of Worcester, places the 
episcopal see of Cornwall. St. Germans is believed to have 
borne the earlier name of Lanaledh, and might also be 
Dinniirrin, for the name is very indistinctly written in the 
Canterbury MS., and in fact it requires little more strain 
on the letter of the MS. to connect it with Germanus than 
with Gerein. 

2. The church of St. Petrock at Bodmin was a frequent 
residence of the Cornish bishops. There were granted the 
manumissions of serfs, the best-ascertained of their acts. 
St. Petrock, co-ordinately with St. German, was a patron 
saint of Cornwall ; and William of Malmesbury, who was 
well acquainted with West Saxon traditions, was unable to 
decide at which of the two places the bishops had sat. 
St. Petrock's-stow was destroyed by the Danes in a.d. 981, 
and possibly the see was then transferred to St. Germans. 

It is quite possible that these two churches had equal 
claims to be the see of the bishop under the West Saxon 
rule of diocesan episcopacy, or that it was transferred from 
one to the other, in consequence of the ravages of the 
Danes, just as the See of Leicester was transferred to 
Dorchester. Earlier, native bishops may have ruled, each 
from his own monastery, and Kenstec have been bishop at 
St. Gerran's. 

Under the bishops of Exeter, Cornwall was formed into 
an archdeaconry, probably before the close of the eleventh 
century. It was reconstituted as a diocese with its see at 
Truro, in the year 1876, by the Act 39 &: 40 Victoria, c. 54, 
and the first bishop, Dr. Edward White Benson, was conse- 
crated at St. Paul's Cathedral on the Festival of St. Mark, 
1877, ~^y the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the assisting 
Bishops of London, Winchester. Hereford, Lincoln, Salisbury, 
Exeter, Ely, and the Suffragan Bishops of Nottingham and 

2 B 


Kenstec (Dinurrin) . 
Conan (St. Germans) 
Daniel (St. Germans) 
Comoere (Bodmin) . 

^isljops of (Korntoall 

c. 865 Wulfsige (Bodmin) . . 967 

. 931 I Ealdred (Bodmin) . . 993 

. 955 I Aethelred . . .1001 

c. 960 Burhwold (St. Germans) . 1018 

Eadulf . 
Elfwold . 
Sideman . 


^isljops of CreiJiton 

909 Elfric 

934 Elfwold . 

953 Eadnoth . 
• 973 

^islrops of Cornlin-tU aitD (Cr!:iiiton 
1027 ! Leofric 




William Warelwast 

Robert Chichester 

Robert Warelwast 

Bartholomew . 

John Fitz-duke 

Henry Marshall 

Simon de Apulia 

William Briwere or Bruere 

Richard Blondy 

Walter Bronescombe 

Peter Quivil 

Thomas de Bytton 

Walter de Stapledon 

James Barkley . 

John de Grandisson 

Thomas de Brantyngham 

Edmund Stafford 

John Catterick 


1 107 

1 161 
1 194 







of 6.tctcr 

Edmund Lacy 


George Nevylle 


John Bothe 


Peter Courtenay 


Richard Fox . 


Oliver King 


Richard Redmayne . 


John Arundell 


Hugh Oldham . 


John Veysey . 


Miles Coverdale 


John Veysey (restored) 


James Turberville 


William Alley . 


William Bradbridge . i 


John Woolton . 


Gevase Babington . 


William Cotton 


Valentine Cary 


Joseph Hall 






5 of (6i"ttcr — continued 

Ralph Brownrigg 


John Ross 


John Gauden . 


William Buller 


Seth Ward 


Henry Reginald Courtenay 


Anthony Sparrow 


John Fisher 


Thomas Laniplugh . 


George Pelham 


Jonathan Trelawny . 


William Carey 


Ofspring Blackall 


Christopher Bethell . 


Launcelot Blackburn 


Henry Phillpotts 


Stephen Weston 


Frederick Temple . 


Nicholas Clagett 


George Lavington 


Frederick Keppel 



^isbops of Cruro 

Edward White Benson . 1877 

George Howard Wilkinson . 18S3 
John Gott . .1891 



Decanatus Easte 


— Number of- 



Papists Nonconformists 

Quithiock . . -315 

.. — ... 19 







— - 
















— - 




St. Mellyn 




St. Dominick . 








St. Johns 








Minhinniott . 




Southill et Kellington 




Boterfleming . 











St. Stephens . 



.. 25 

St. Ive 







.. 91 

Printed in the Primary Vis 


Charge of 

3ishop John G 

ott, D.D., May, 

1896, and reproduced here by his kind permission. 




Decanatus West 

, Number of- 


Conformists Papists Nonconformists 

Duloc . . . 357 ... — ... lo 

St. Raine 

114 ... — 


St. Veype 

300 ... — 



• 541 ••• — 



280 ... — 



400 .. — 



250 ... — 


St. Nyot 

1000 ... — 



330 ■■■ — 


St. Martins 

720 ... — 

• 33 


. 1418 ... I 

... 79 


400 ... — 

I r 

St. Cleeve 

430 ... — 


St. Pinnock 

160 ... — 



. 90 ... — 



. 460 ... 7 



7250 ... 8 

.. 182 

Decanatus Trigg-AIajor 

Altemon . . .412 ... — ... — 


255 ••• — 


Mary Weeke 

250 ... — 



150 ... — 



100 ... — 



800 ... — 


St. Stephens 

437 ••• — 



60 ... — 



80 ... — 



145 ... — 


St. Giles 

no ... — 



200 ... — 



169 ... — 



630 ... — 



.350 ... — 



Decan.\tus Trigg-Major— ^^«//;«/'^^/ 

Conformists Papists 


St. Cleather . . . 73 ... 6 



2000 ... — 



63 ... - 



300 ... — 



500 ... — 


St. Thomas 

300 ... — 


St. Julyott 

123 ... — 



400 ... — 



250 ... — 



106 ... 4 


North Petherwyn 

300 ... — 



250 ... — 


North Tamerton 

360 ... — 



9173 ... 10 


Decanatus Trigg-Minor 

Lanteglosse . . . 334 .. — 



112 ... — 



1200 ... • — 


St. Tudye 

200 ... — 


St. Teath 

400 ... — 



77 ••• — 



354 ••• 



129 ... — 


St. Brewar 

• 320 ... — 


St. Minver 

550 ■•• — 



. 63 ... - 

— . 


144 ... — 



78 ... - 



• 530 ... — 



.300 ... — 


St. Mabyn 

. 150 ... — 


St. Kevve 

500 ... — 



126 ... — 



• 5567 ••• — 

... 90 



Decanatus Powder 

-Number of- 

Roch . 

Tywardreath . 

St. Sampsare . 




St. Tue 


St. Austell 

St. Blazey 


St. Dennis 


St. Just 

St. Michael Cashaire 



St. Mewan 

St. Stephens . 



St. Allen 



St. Michael Penkivel 







St. Erme 









1 10 







Papists Nonconformists 






Total 10,909 









Decanatus Pyder 

-Number of- 


Papists Nonconformist? 




CoUumbe Major 



Collumbe Minor 

St. Wenn 



St. Ennoder 



St. Just 

St. Hillary 



St. Earth 






St. Ives 







. 500 









. 310 .. 






. 700 



• 239 













otal .4311 






. 140 



• 130 



• 733 •• 



. 488 .. 






• 203 






. . S3 .. 












■ 250 






. 165 .. 






• 550 •• 









. 400 




otal . 6922 





Decanatus Kerrier 


— Nuiiiljcr 

f . 





. 800 



Ruan Minor . 





• 300 



St. Keverne 

• 150 








130 . 




. 140 




216 . 







St. Martins 























Ruan Major . 

S5 • 








2 12 

— . 






338 .. 








340 .. 






Peculiars of Exeter Dean and Chapter 

St. Winnaw 






Perran in ye Sand.s 


St. Agnes 






Peculiars of Bishops in Cornwall 

I Number of- 



St. Pethernyn . 


St. Germans . 


St. Erney 


St. Breocke 


St. Issy 

St. Iwall 

Little Petweke 

St. Meryn 

St. Ervan 





Gluivas Penryntown 












Peculiars of Bishop in Cornwall — 
„ Exeter Dean and Chapter — 
Pyder . 

















Excerpta ex MS. penes Bibliothecam Gulielmi Salt defuncti in 

January 2j, iSg6. 



1264. Dominus de Belsal, Sub-diaconus. Instituted to the Church 
of St. Mary of Tryeru, by Bp. Bronescombe. 

1278. Dominus Nicholaus de Castello, Capellanus. Instituted to 
the Church or Chapel of St. Mary of Triueru, by Bp. Brones- 
combe, at Teynton, on Monday next after Epiphany. 

No date. Dominus Elyas, Rector in 1283. 

1339. Dominus Galfridus in Venella de Tadelawe, Presbiter. 
Instituted to the Church of Treureu, by Bp. Grandisson, 
at Clist, on Aug. 22. Patron, Thos. Prideaux. 

1349. Dominus Radulphus de Polwyl, Presbiter. Instituted to 
the Church of Truru, by Bp. Grandisson, at CHst, on 
Sep. 20. Patron, John of Mountnyrom. 

1362. Johannes de Trewythenek, Clericus. Instituted to the 
Church of Trufru, by Bp. Grandisson, at Chudleigh, on 
Sep. 15. Patron, Robert Prideaux, of Nyweham. 

No date. Thomas Wille. Died Rector. 

141 2. Nicholas Treberveth. Instituted to the Church of the 
Blessed jMary of Treureu, on March 18. Patron, Robert 
Hull. Died Rector. 

1450. Dominus Simon Kestell, Capellanus. Instituted to the 
Church of Truru, by Bp. Lacy, at Chudleigh, on May 12. 
Patron, Henry Bodrugan. Died Rector. 

1461-2. Dominus Reginaldus Thomas, Capellanus. Instituted to 
the Church of the Blessed Mary of Truru, by Bp. Neville's 
Vicar, at Exeter, March 10. Died Rector. 

^ Compiled by the Rev. Prel). Hingeston-Randolph for the Cornish See atni 



1499. Dominus Thomas Baslegh, Presbiter. Instituted to the 

Church of Truru, by Bp. Redmayne's Vicar, on Sep. 10. 

Peter Eggecomb, patron. Resigned. 
1 5 13. Dominus Thomas Colcott, Capellanus. Instituted to the 

Church of Trewro, by Bp. Oldham's Vicar, on Sep. i. 

Died Rector. 
"1522. Dominus John Overowe, Capellanus. Instituted to the 

Church of Trewroo, by Bp. Vesey's Vicar, on Apr. 12. 

1533. INIagister Walter Burgayne, Instituted by surrogate of Bp. 

Vesey's Vicar-General, on May 10, to the Church of Truro. 

1 54 1. Thomas Ffuyche, Clericus. Instituted by Bp. Vesey, on 

Sep. I, to the Church of Truroo. Patron, Richard Edge- 
combe. Resigned. 
1546. Dominus Nicholas Wenmouthe, Priest. Instituted by Bp. 

Vesey's Vicar-General, on Dec. 20, to the Church of Truroo. 
1558. Dominus Richardus Ffosse, Clericus, Collated (by lapse) by 

Bishop Turbervile to the Church of Truro, May 12. 
1558. William Dawson {Inslituiion not recorded). Died Rector. 
1624. George Phippen. Instituted by Bp. Cary, at London, on 

Dec. 17, to the Church of Truroe. Patron, Hugh Bos- 

cavven. {^Apparently he was deprived by the Puritans^ 
No date. Josias Hall. Died Rector. 
1666-7. Samuel Thomas. Patron, Richard Edgecomb. Died 

Rector. Instituted March 22. 

1692. Robert Bovvbeare. Instituted March 25. Patron, Pearse 

Edgcumbe. Ceded. 

1693. Simon Pagett. Instituted Nov. 8. 

171 1. Joseph Jane, b.a. Instituted by Bp. Blackall (by lapse). 

Died Rector. Instituted May 29. 
1746. St. John Eliot, b.a. Collated (by lapse) June 3. {Also 

Rector of Ladock.) Died Rector. 
I 761. Charles Pye, b.a. Instituted July 9. Patron, George, Lord 

Edgcumbe. Died Rector. 
1803. Thomas Carlyon, m.a. Instituted May 3. Patron, Right 

Hon. Richard, Earl of Mount Edgcumbe. {Also Vicar of 

Probus.) Died Rector. 


1826. Thomas Stackhousc Carlyon, m.a. Instituted July 10. 

1833. Edward Dix, m.a. Instituted Dec. 12. Oded. {After- 
guards Vicar of Newly n.) 

1839. William ^Voodis Harvey, m.a. Instituted March i. {Pre- 
bendary of Exeter.) Patron, the same Earl. ( Whilt 
Rector., hifftse/f becafiie Patron. ) Resigned. 

i860. Edmund George Harvey, 1!.a. Instituted July 7. Ceded. 
{Afterwards Vicar of Mullion.) 

1865. Henry Bawden BuUocke, m.a. Instituted June i. Ceded. 

1875. Clement Fox Harvey, m.a. Instituted Apr. 30. {Honorary 
Canon of Truro.) Ceded. {Afterwards Vicar of Probus.) 

1885. James Henry Moore, m.a. Collated Oct. 7 by the Patron, 
George, Lord Bishop of Truro. {Hofiorary Canon and 
first Sub- Dean of Truro Cathedral^ Ceded. 

1889. Cecil Frederick Joseph Bourke, m.a. Collated May 7 bv 
the Patron, George, Lord Bishop of Truro. {Honorary 
Canon and Sub-Dean of Truro Cathedral.) Ceded. 

1896. Loraine Estridge, m.a. Collated Jan. 30 by the Patron, 

John, Lord Bishop of Truro. {Hon. Canon and Sub-Dean 
of Truro Cathedral.) Ceded. 

1897. Frederic Evelyn Gardiner, m.a. Collated Aug. 13 by the 

Patron, John, Lord Bishop of Truro. {Honorary Canoti 
attd Sub-Dean of Truro Cathedral.) 



Edward White Benson, d.d. . ... 187 7-1 883 

George Howard Wilkinson, d.d. . . . 1 883-1 891 

John Gott, D.D. . . . . . i8;i 


George Howard Wilkinson, d.d. . . . 1887-1891 

John Gott, D.D. . . . . 1891 


Augustus Blair Donaldson, m.a. . . . 1885 


George Herbert Whitaker, M.A.i . . . 1885-1887 

Arthur John Worlledge, M.A. . ... 1887 


Arthur James Mason, ]\i. A. . ... 1878-1884 

Francis Edward Carter, ai.a. . ... 1884-1895 

Benedict George Hoskyns, m.a, . . . 1 895-1 902 

Gerald Aviator Sampson, m.a. . ... 1902 

James Henry Moore, m.a. . ... 1887-1888 

Cecil Frederic Joseph Bourke, m.a. . . . 1889-1S95 

Loraine Estridge, m.a. . ... 1896-1897 

Frederic Evelyn Gardiner, m.a. . . . 1897 

1 Canon Whitakcr was Honorary Chancellor from 1S7S to 1885. 



(I rcasurcr 
Arthur Christopher 'i'hynne, m.a. 

Arrljiicitrou of (CornUiall 
William John Phillpotts, m.a. . 
John Rundle Cornish, m.a. 

S^rrbticaron of ^oiimin 
Reginald Hobhouse, m.a. 
Henry lioussemayne Du Boulay, m.a. 

^rcsiticnt of Ijonorarn ®anons 
Thomas Phillpotts, m.a. 
James Henry Moore, m.a. 

yjoiiorrtrn QDiiuons 
St. Coroitin . Richard Martin, m.a. 

Thomas Hullah, .m.a. 
St. German Richard Vautier, m.a. 

St. Piran . . Saltren Rogers, jm.a. . 
Si. Carantoc . Clement Fox Harvey, m.a. 
St. Biiriefia . John Rundle Cornish, m.a. 
-5"/. In . . George Herbert Whitaker, ini.a. 

Joseph Sidney Tyacke, m.a. 
St. Uni . . Thomas Borlase Coulson, m.a. 

Frederick James Bone, m.a. 
St. Braeca . George Martin, d.d. . 

Francis Vansittart Thornton, m.a. 

Edward Townend, m.a. 

Henry Kemble Southwell, m.a. 
St. Germoc . Richard Hugh Keats Buck, b.a. 

John Balmer Jones, m.a. 

John Stephen Flynn, b.d. 

Augustus Vansittart Thornton, m.a 
St. Petroc . . George Howard Wilkinson, m.a. 

Henry Scott Holland, m.a. 

Arthur James Mason, m.a. 

George Herbert Whitaker, m.a. 















Honorarn Cattons — continued 

St. Constant'uie . William Pester Chappel, m.a. 

Brian Christopherson, m.a. 
St. Paul . . Paul Bush, i\i.a. 
St. Samson . Henry Houssemayne DuBoulay, m.a 

St. Cybi . . Arthur James Mason, m.a. 

Francis Edward Carter, m.a. . 

Benedict George Hoskyns, m.a. 

Gerald A^ictor Sampson, m.a. 
St. Nedan . Allen Page Moor, m.a. 

St. Teilo . . James Henry Moore, :\i.a. 
St. Adivenna . George Herbert Whitaker, m.a. 

William Frederick Everest, b.a. 
St. Columb . Richard Farquhar Wise, m.a. 

Stamford Raffles Flint, m.a. . 
St. Winivalloe . Vernon Harcourt Aldham, m.a. 
St. Meriadoc . Cecil Frederick Joseph Bourke, m.a 

Loraine Estridge, m.a. 

Frederic Evelyn Gardiner, m.a. 
St. Aldheljti . Thomas Phillpotts, m.a. 

Joseph Hammond, b.a., ll.p,. 

Thomas Jackson Nunns, m.a. 
St. Neot . . Arthur Christopher Thynne, m.a. 
St. Rumon . Henry Tremayne Rodd, b.a. 

Charles Edward Hammond, m.a. 
St. Conafi . . Edward Shuttleworth, m.a. 

Frederick Hockin, m.a. 

Richard James Martyn, m.a. . 



































(Kljanciilor of tljc Qi'J^csc 
William John Phillpotts, m.a. . ... 1877-ii 

Robert Macleane Paul, m.a. . ... 1888 

ilcgistrar of tljc ^toccsc 
William Arnold Walpole Keppel, b.a. . . . 187 7-1 < 

Arthur Burch . . . . . 1888 



George Henry Somerset Wal[)ole, b.a.' 

Hubert Oakes Fearnley Whittingstall, m.a. 
Charles Henry Robinson, m.a. 
Henry Richard Jennings, m.a. 



James John Agar-Ellis, u.a. . ... 1887-1888 

Thomas Fisher Maddrell, m.a. . . . 1 888-1 891 

Henry Frederick Wilkinson . ... 1891-1892 

Edward Ormerod, n.A. ... 1 893-1 896 

Philip Upstone, m.a. . ... 1897-1899 

priest i^irar 

Carey Dickinson, u.\. . ... 1879-1882 

Thomas Fisher Maddrell, m.a. . . . 18S8-1896 

Philip Upstone, m.a. . ... 1897-1899 

William Henry Arthur Cullin, m.a. . . . 1899-1902 

|3nc5t ITkar anti Curate of ^t. ittarn's 

George Henry Somerset Walpole, b.a.^ . . . 18 78-1 880 

Bernard Edgar Holmes, m.a. . ... 1888-1S89 

Arthur Mirrielees Cazalet, b.a. . . . . 1 888- 1 898 

Edward Harry Shore, b.a. . ... 1S9S-1900 

Howard Willmore Sedgwick, b.a. . . 1900 

KjonontrtT ^ritst ITicar 

Charles Arthur Le Geyt, i;.a. . ... 1S94-1896 

piorcsan Hfnspcctor of ^cljools 

George James Athill, m.a. ... 1877-1883 

John Brown, m.a.'- ... 1883-1885 

Richard Henry Harris, m.a. . ... 18S5-1SS6 

Edward Francis Taylor, m.a. . . . ' . 18S7 

^ Now .m.a. and D.v. 
2 C 

- Now the Rev. John Gardner-Brown. 



IJrcbcntijTrks of (BntidaDu.i lS7!l-inO'> 

King's or Bodmin . Francis Edward Carter, m.a. . 1 880-1 885 

Arthur Lindsay Palmes, m.a. . 1885 

Trehaverock . . Frederick Bell, i;.a. . . 1873-1890 

Reginald Heber Treffry, m.a. . 1890 

Marnefs . . John James Glencross Every, k.a. 1876 


Thomas Henry Hodge 


©rganist anti ©bntnitaGtcr 

George Robertson Sinclair - 
Mark James Monk, Mus. Doc. 


The Prebends appear to have l)een founded, in the first instance, a.d. 1266. 
Mr. Sinclair received the Lambeth degree of Mus. Doc. on July 24th, 1899. 



The scheme of subjects for the above, which has been 
carefully prepared, and which it is hoped will some day 
be carried out in its completeness, is designed to illustrate 
the dealings of God with man from the beginning of creation 
until the consummation of all things, through His Eternal 
Word and Holy Spirit, manifested in the lives and characters 
of all His servants, both of the Old and New Covenant. 
The series begins with the 

Mcst MiniiDlit 
where, in the rose, will be depicted the symbol of the Creator 
Spirit, and in the four lights the Creation and the Fall. 

1. The Creation of Light, Herbs and Trees, Sun and Moon. 

2. Whales, Fowl, Beasts. 

3. Creadon of Adam, the Naming of the Creatures, the Forma- 
tion of Eve. 

4. The Temptation of Eve, the Judgment on Fallen Man, the 
Expulsion from Eden. 

At the sides, St. Michael and St. Gabriel, the Archangel leaders 
of the Heavenly Hosts, ministering to the race of men. 

The series is continued in the (Clcrtatorn where, in the thirty- 
two lights of the Nave, will be seen — 

Adam and Eve. Abel and Enoch. 

Noah and Shem. Melchisedek and Abraham. 

Sarah and Isaac. Rebekah and Jacob. 

Leah and Judah. Rachel and Joseph. 

Moses and Miriam. Aaron and Phinehas. 

Joshua and Rahab. Deborah and Barak. 

Gideon and Jephthah. Samson and Eli. 

Ruth and Samuel. Elijah and Elisha. 




In the Transepts — 
David and Solomon. 
Hezekiah and Eliakim. 
Josiah and Zerubbabel. 
Nehemiah and Esther. 

Ahiathar and Zadok. 
Jehoiada and Zechariah his son. 
Azariah and Hilkiah. 
Joshua (son of Josedech) and 

Simon (son of Onias) and 

Judas Maccabaeus. 

tljc (Kljoxr 

The four greater Prophets. The twelve lesser Prophets. 

South-east Transept 
Baruch and Tobit. 
Susanna and the Mother 
of the Seven Martyrs. 

North-east Transept 

Job and Agur. 
Author of "Wisdom," and 
Jesus son of Sirach. 


Simeon and Anna. Zacharias and Elizabeth. • 

©rgan (Kljambcr 

Jubal. Asaph. 

The Great Rose Window ^ of the 

llortlj f^ranscpt 

forms the link between the Church's life in the Old and New Testa- 
ment, and represents the genealogy of the Second Adam, the 
Incarnate Son of God, depicted as born of the Virgin Mary (in 
the centre), sprung from the first Adam, according to the flesh, 


1. Adam, Seth, Enoch, Noah. 

2. Shem, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob. 

3. Judah, Salmon, Boaz, Jesse. 

4. David, Solomon, Asa, Jehoshaphat. 

5. Joash, Hezekiah, Manasseh, Josiah. 

6. Salathiel, Zerubbabel, Matthat, Joachim. 

^ These are already inserted. 


In the Lancets below are depicted the women mentioned in 
the Genealogy — 

1. Eve. 4. Rahab. 

2. Sarah. 5. Ruth. 

3. Tamar. 6. Bathsheba. 

This series is now continued in the Great \Vindow of the 
|lortb-£nst S^ranscpt 

where, in the four upper lights, are given : — 


Burning Bush, Gideon's Fleece, Elisha stretching himself on the 
child, Jacob's Ladder. 


Sacrifice of Isaac, Passover, Brazen Serpent, Smitten Rock. 


Daniel coming out of the den of lions, Jonah, Joseph, Samson and 
Gates of Gaza. 


Elijah, Entry of Ark into Jerusalem, David's return after slaughter 
of Goliath, The Great Day of Atonement. 

In the lower lights are : — 


Formation of Eve, Aaron's Rod, Moses laying his hands on Joshua. 


Noah's Ark, Coming up from the Red Sea, Naaman in Jordan. 


Melchizedek, The Manna, The Grapes of Eschol. 


The Sceptre held out to Esther, The Seven-branched Candlestick, 
The Building of the Temple. 

The centre and climax of the whole series is in 

S>ljc ©rent (Bast uottiiDoUT ^ 
where is represented the fulfilment of all these types in the Person 
and work of the Incarnate Son of God, our Lord Jesus Christ. 

^ These are already inserted. 


III the three Loiver Lights 
are represented three great mysteries — The Incarnation, the Passion, 
the Resurrection, manifesting our Lord in His Humihation, passing 
onwards by the transition of the Resurrection Life to His Glory. 

On the left— 

1. The Annunciation. 

2. The Visitation. 

3. The Annunciation to the Shepherds. 

4. The Adoration of the Magi. 
/// the centre — 

1. The Last Supper. 

2. The Agony. 

3. The Ecce Homo. 

4. The Crucifixion. 
On the right — 

1. The Dead Christ on His Mother's knees. 

2. The Burial. 

3. The Women at the Sepulchre. 

4. The Resurrection. 

In the three Upper Lights 
The Lord in glory, surrounded by "Angels and Archangels and all 
the company of Heaven," and Saints gathered from among men of 
either covenant, and of all nations, and kindreds, and tongues, before 
the Throne and before the Lamb. The fulfilment of St. Paul's words 
in Philippians ii. 5-12. 

In the Central Light 

is seen above, the Glorified Redeemer ; at His feet, three mighty 
Archangels ; below, the Blessed Mother of the Incarnate Son of 
God, with the Holy Innocents ; and in the lowest compartment, the 
Adoration of the Lamb — Revelation v. 

/;/ the Northern Light 
are the patriarchs from Adam to Jacob, below them Angels, and 
then six Apostles with St. Paul ; again come Angels, and further 
still a company of Martyrs, most of whom are chosen as having 
Cornish Churches dedicated to them — St. Denys, St. Blaise, 
St. Alphege, St. Alban, St. Faith, St. Agnes, St. JuUtta, St. Mar- 
garet — and in the lowest compartment, the Glory of the Word of 
God as depicted in Revelation xix. 11. 


In the Southern Light 
Above arc the Prophets from Moses to St. John the Baptist, then 
Angels, and below six Apostles with St. Barnabas ; then again more 
Angels, and further still the four Greek and four Latin Doctors of 
the Church ; in the lowest compartment, the Angel showing St. John 
the visions. 

In the Cireat Window of the 

^outlj-cnst Oi^ranscpt ^ 

are seen events of the thirty-three years' life and ministry — 

1. The Appearance of the Angel to the Shepherds, the Adoration 
of the Magi. 

2. The Flight into Egypt, the Finding in the Temple, the Home 
in Nazareth, the Baptism. 

3. The Temptation, the first Miracle, the Sermon on the Mount, 
the Transfiguration. 

The link between the Person and work of the Great Head of 
the Church and the Saints of the New Testament is given in the 
window of the 

(in-cat .^outlj (EransEpt^ 

where, in the rose, is depicted the Mystery of Pentecost, the Descent 
of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles ; all of whom are represented 
in the twelve compartments, with their respective emblems. 

In the three lights below are depicted various manifestations of the 
working of that Divine Spirit in the various great crises of the Church's 
history, through which it has been guided by the abiding presence of 
the Holy Ghost since His first descent on the day of Pentecost. 

1. The work of Stephen, the Baptism of Cornelius, St. Paul 
at Athens. 

2. The Council of Jerusalem, the Council of Nice, and figures of 
great leaders of the Councils of the Church— St. James, St. Cyprian, 
and St. Athanasius. 

3. St. Lawrence displaying the poor as being the treasures of the 
Church, the Conversion of Constantine, St. Augustine preaching at 

The whole of the windows in the aisles is devoted to a great 
series of Saints and worthies of the Catholic Church, and of the 
English Branch of it, ranging from the earliest days since Pentecost 
down to the present day. 

^ These are already inserted. 


^t tijc (Bnti of tljE Unrtl) ^is\t^ 
is seen St. Stephen, the first Deacon and Proto-Martyr. 

St. John the Divine, two types of saintly character — the one of 
eager zealous work, the other of patient waiting contemplation, both 
sanctified by suffering, martyrdom, and confessorship ; two eminent 
manifestations of the Life of the Incarnate God, the Glorified 
Redeemer, "glorified in His saints." 

Below the figure of St. Stephen are the scenes of his testimony 
before the Sanhedrin and his death. 

Below that of St. John are the scenes of his leading the Blessed 
Virgin Mary from Calvary, and of his teaching in his old age at 

In the Retro-Choir 

are depicted Apostles, or companions and contemporaries of the 
same, mentioned in the Apostolic writings. 

On the South Side 
Light Scene 

[ St. Peter \ 

^ I- -| St. James the Great r Our Lord's Charge to St. Peter. 

I St. :\Iark J 

[ St. Tames the Less 1 c-*. t ■ • c^ -n i ^ 

1 I ; , , St. lames receiving St. Paul and 

^ 2. - St. Matthew \ .,, -d u 

K^,, bt. Barnabas. 

V St. Ihomas ) 

On the North Side 

Light Scene 

{ St. Paul \ 

^ I- -j St. Luke I The Conversion of St. Paul. 

I St. Mary Magdalene i 

j St. Timothy \ 

^ 2. • St. Denys r The Ordination of Timothy. 

' Onesimus i 

The series is continued with Apostolic Saints and Martyrs from 
the close of the first century, with typical martyrs, missionaries, 
doctors, confessors of East and West, Britain, England, and Cornwall, 
carrying us through primitive times, the days of Celtic Christianity, 

^ These are already inserted. 



the conversion of the English, the mediaeval ages of the Church, 
the Reformation period ; representing the missionary labours of 
modern times, the worthies of the later English* Church, poets, 
apologists, evangelists, missionaries, pastors, concluding with the 
figure of Edward White Benson, first Bishop of the restored See, 
the founder of the Cathedral. Taking them in order we have in 

flortb '^itic of tbc ^iolc 

{ St. Clement 

I- "i St. Ignatius 

I St. Polycarp 

r St. Pantx'nus 
^ 2. A St. Justin Martyr 

I St. Irenteus 

[ St. Cyprian 
^ 3- "j St. Perpetua and her babe 

V St. Lawrence 

[ St. Alban 
^ 4- \ St. Catharine 

I St. Pancras 

rSt. Helen 
^ 5- \ Origen 

I St. Jerome 

(St. Athanasius 
St. Basil 
St. Chrysostom 

r St. Monica 
^ 7- -| St. Ambrose 

I St. Austin 

[ St. Benedict 
^ 8. \ St. Anthony 

I St. Scholastica 

[ St. Piran 
^ 9- "i St. German 

i St. Petroc 

j" St. Gregory 
lo- - St. Martin 

I St. Patrick 


St. Clement instructed by St. 
Peter and St. Paul. 

St. Pantsenus embarking on his 
Mission to India. 

Beheading of St. Cyprian. 

St. Alban before the judge. 

The Invention of the Cross. 

Athanasius returning from exile. 


The penance of Theodosius. 

j St. Benet founding his monastery 
,- in the Temple of Apollo at 
.' Monte Cassino. 

The '^Mleluia" battle. 

j St. Gregory and the English boys. 
' These are already inserted. 



In the North Transept — Saints of England. 

Light Scene 

St. George ] 

St. Joseph of Arimathrea | St. George and the Dragon.^ 
St. Augustine of CanterburyJ 

In the Nave — The following series 

{ Theodore of Tarsus \ 

\ St. Wilfrid 
I St. Aidan 

r The Venerable Bede 

2- -J St. John Damascene 
I Alcuin 

{ St. Boniface 

3- \ St. Columban 

St. Methodius 
i Charles the Great 

I St. Olave 
r St. Edward the Confessor 

5- \ Bishop Kenstec 
I Bishop Leofric 
r St. Bernard 
6. \ St. Francis 
I St. Dominic 
r St. Anselm 
7- 1 Duns Scotus 

I St. Thomas Aquinas 
r Stephen Langton 
8. -| Edward I. 
I Grosstete 

Innocent III. 
j' St. Louis 
lo- \ Joan of Arc 

I Katherine of Siena 

Council at Hatfield.^ 

t Bede dying, dictating the trans- 
I lation of St. John's Gospel.^ 

St. Boniface cutting down the 

Coronation of Charles. 

Edward and his Queen enthron- 
ing Leofric, first Bishop of 
Exeter. 1 

St. Bernard preaching the 

St. Anselm confronting William 
the Red King. 

Signing of Magna Charta. 
Dante's meeting with Virgil. 
Death of St. Louis. 

1 These are already inserted or promised. 



j Jolin Hus 
1 1- 'I Savonarola 

I Thomas a Kcmpis 

r Colet 

12. - K 

I Erasmus 

I Thomas More 

j \\yclif 

13- 'i Coverdale 

I Archbishop Cranmer 
{ Hooker 

14- \ Bishop Andrewes 

I Bacon 
I Charles I. 

15- -^ George Herbert 
I Sir John Eliot 

r Margaret Godolphin 
i6. \ Bishop Trelawny 

I Sir Bevil Grenville 

j' Bishop Butler 
17- - Newton 

I Handel 

[ Henry Martyn 
1 8. \ Keble 

' Maurice 

r John Wesley 
19- \ Charles Wesley 

I Samuel Walker, of Truro 


I. Thomas a Kempis meditating 
I in the field. 

I. Colet and the children of St. 
I Paul's School. 


Martyrdom of Cranmer. 

Hooker rockins; the cradle. 

- The death of Charles I. 

I. Margaret Godolphin leaving the 
I court of Charles H. 

I. Butler presenting the Analogy 
I to Queen Caroline. 

,- Martyn among the Moulvies. 

Wesley preaching in Gwennap 

Opposite tljt .^outlj Jjorcb 

r Oueen Victoria attended 1 ^,, , , ., c; - 
'o - , ,- • r |- The Jubilee, 1S97 

I. by two historic figures ) ■' 

The first Bishop of Truro' 

(holding a model of the 

I Cathedral), attended by 

■ Foundation of Truro Cathedral.^ 

Faith and Hope 
Jl'esf Ends of AisAs—St. Michael and St. Gabriel. 
In the Vestibule of the IJaptistery are three lights illustrating the 
life of St. John the Baptist, with figures of himself, Noah, and 
' These are already inserted or promised. 


Elijah (Old Testament types of his person and work), and scenes, 
as follows — 

1. Zacharias and the Angel. 4. Baptising our Lord. 

2. Naming of the Child. 5. Rebuking Herod. 

3. Preaching in the Wilderness. 6. Beheaded in Prison. 

Erected in memory of Henry Martyn, contains, in the Vestibule, 
three lights, which illustrate the above scenes from the life of 
St. John the Baptist. The four lights of the apse contain the 
figures of four native Cornish saints and missionaries — St. Paul, 
St. Cybi, St. Constantine, and St. Winnow. Beneath are scenes 
from the life of Henry Martyn — 

1. Martyn at School at Truro. 6. Translating the Scriptures. 

2. Praying at Lamorran Creek. 7. Disputing with Persian 

3. Sailing from P^almouth. doctors. 

4. First sight of heathen wor- 8. Burial by the Armenians at 

ship. Tokat. 

5. Preaching at Cawnpore. 

This long and comprehensive series has been designed in 
the hope that some day the windows of the Cathedral of 
Cornwall may contain, in noble form and colour, a consecu- 
tive outline of the Church's history, and serve not only to 
give rich colouring and brightness to a completed building, 
but as a perpetual means of instruction to God's people, and 
a memorial of God's Saints, whose lives and heroic achieve- 
ments are the perpetual witness through the ages of the 
presence, in His Church, of the Eternal Son, in the power 
of " the Spirit, dividing to every man severally as He will." 
It will have the further advantage of suggesting subjects to 
future donors of memorial windows. In many of our older 
cathedrals, to say nothing of parish churches, the windows 
are often disfigured, not only by inferior glass, but incongru- 
ous subjects ; while in other cases, where the material and 
execution are good, there is a total lack of sequence of 
thought, and an absence of clear and definite meaning in the 
glass that has, perhaps, cost very large sums of monc}^ 



This devoted and accomplished servant of God and of His Church 
was born at Truro, February i8th, 1781. He was the third son of 
John Martyn, miner, of Gwennap, who, by his industry and enter- 
prise, raised himself in the social scale, and became clerk to a 
merchant of Truro. His son Henry was born in a house situated 
on the spot where the Miners' Bank now stands. At the age of 
seven he was sent to Truro Grammar School, under the head master 
of that day, Dr. Cardew. He was a bright boy, and made good 
progress in his studies, and after an unsuccessful attempt to gain 
a scholarship at Oxford, entered St. John's College, Cambridge, 
October, 1797, the former University losing the noble alumnus thai 
the latter gained. 

Here he was most successful, being first of his year in the college 
examination of 1800, and Senior Wrangler 1801, while still under 
twenty. His spiritual awakening and development were mainly owing 
to intercourse with the Rev. Charles Simeon, for whom he ever after- 
wards entertained the deepest feelings of gratitude. He was elected 
Fellow of St. John's, 1802, and obtained other university and 
college distinctions. His mind was directed to the foreign mission 
work of the Church, partly by the teaching of Simeon, and partly by 
the example of self-devotion given by Dr. Carey in India, and David 
Brainerd among the North American Indians. Henry Martyn was 
led to offer himself to the missionary organisation afterwards known 
as the Church Missionary Society. But it was not till 1S04, when 
a great temporal loss was the occasion of his determining to go 
abroad, that he began to realise the idea thus formed. In 1803 he 
was ordained deacon at Ely, and served as curate of Holy Trinity, 
Cambridge, under ]\Ir. Simeon. A year later he offered himself as a 
candidate forachaplaincy under the East India Company, and in 1805 
received a sudden summons to leave England in ten days. He was 
ordained priest on February i8th (his birthday), and left Cambridge. 
The circumstances of his farewell to England, his agony at partini: 
from friends and his beloved Cornwall, form a most touching narra- 


tive. His ardent love for souls made him *' instant in season and 
out of season " on board ship during his voyage out to India in 
"preaching Jesus Christ," both by earnest word and a holy and 
self-sacrificing example. His labours among his own countrymen in 
Calcutta, and among the Hindus and Mohammedans at Dinapore, 
Cawnpore, and elsewhere, cannot be dwelt upon here. He made a 
long journey into Persia and Armenia for the purpose of making 
thorough and complete translations of the Bible into the languages 
of these countries, and, after severe fatigue and privations, fell a 
victim to fever at Tokat, October i6th, 1812. His lofty char- 
acter greatly endeared him to the native Christians, and even 
the Mohammedans of those countries, and he was buried with all 
respect ; Dean Stanley goes so far as to say, with all " the honours 
due to an archbishop." His remains were afterwards translated to 
a new cemetery, and an obelisk placed over them bearing an in- 
scription in English, Armenian, Persian, and Turkish, in memory 
of one who "was known in the East as a man of God." It lies 
" on a broad terrace overlooking the whole city, and shaded by 
walnut and other fruit trees and weeping willows." The following 
words of Henry Martyn deserve to be noted and made known 
among his fellow-Cornishmen : " Even if I never should see a 
native converted, God may design, by my patience and continuance 
in the work, to encourage future missionaries." 

For fuller particulars of Henry Martyn's life, character, and 
labours, the reader is referred to Life and Letters of the Rev. Henry 
Martyn^ by the Rev. John Sargent, Rector of Lavington, and to 
a very interesting and instructive article on " Henry Martyn," in 
the Church Quarterly Reviezv, October, 18S1, by Canon Mason. 

It is most devoutly to be wished that the memorial baptistery 
may be not only a perpetual monument of the life and labours of 
a holy man, who, in an age when Englishmen of education and 
talent rarely, if ever, thought of devoting their gifts to the mission 
work of the Church, led the way for others who have since followed 
the same noble career, but also an incentive and example to our 
own day. Cornwall has in recent times sent many workers, men 
and women, to distant fields of work in Japan, China, India, South 
Africa, and elsewhere. May the number of these be greatly en- 
larged. Every year, on the anniversary of his death, a special 
service with sermon is held in the Cathedral. 


The following lines were written by Canon A. J. Mason, d.d. 

O Christ, the Saints rejoice to own 
Their glories clue to Thee alone, 
And when Thine Advent light we see, 
Thou in them all admired shalt be. 

Our home-born Saint shall manifest 
Thy praise among the first and best. 
Who led the way to Gospel war 
On Indian and on Persian shore. 

He left the learned ease of home. 
High place, and true love, forth to roam ; 
And, fain to lean on human friend. 
His lonely life had loneliest end. 

The sighing heathen fill'd his heart. 
But Thou didst give the harder part, 
In alien lands to turn again 
To God his twice-dead countrymen. 

If he the preacher's joy would ask, 
Thou gavest him the penman's task, 
To sow in tears, and fall asleep 
Leaving to other hands to reap. 

O Lord, our God, raise up within 
This Cornish Church, his kith and kin, 
A zeal like Henry Martyn's own. 
To preach Thy word through every zone. 

Give us, like him, our sins to see, 
And look away from self to Thee ; 
And for our trespasses to take 
Revenge by work for others' sake. 

Grant him, O Lord, the joy to know 
How his example makes us glow ; 
And may his powerful prayers be heard 
In aid of all who spread the Word. 




I. — The West Porch 

Here there are two series of niches, in an upper and lower tier, 
fifteen in each series, in five buttresses. It is proposed to fill the 
upper tier of niches with figures of Kings, in chronological order, 
representative of epochs in history, especially, in certain cases, with 
reference to the West of the Island. 

a. — In the centre Inittress. 
{Middle space) 
{Side spaces) 

b. — Buttresses to the North. 

c. — Buttresses to the South. 

King Edward VII.i 

Queen Victoria {N.).'^ 

Queen Alexandra {S.). 






Edward the Confessor. 

10. William the Conqueror.^ 

1 1. Edward I.^ 

12. Henry V.^ 

13. Henry VIII.i 

14. Elizabeth.^ 

15. Charles I.^ 

It is proposed to fill the loiver tier of ?iiches with figures of 
Bishops, in chronological order, representative of epochs in the 
history of the Church of England, especially in the Western 

' Already given. 



a — In the centre hiittress. 
(Middle space) 
{Side spaces) 

/>. — Buttresses to the North. 

c. Buttresses to the South. 


Archbishop Benson. 


Bishop Gott (.y.)- 


Bishop Wilkinson (5.), 










Ue Grandisson. 


De Stapledon. 



1 1. 










Over the Gables there are twelve niches, three in each of the 
four spandrels, in an ascending scale, the niches diminishing in size 
as they rise upwards. It is proposed to fill these with allegorical 
figures of the Moralities, a subject common in English ecclesiastical 
sculpture, admitting of much picturesque treatment, and impressing 
the lesson of a strong moral basis for all true religion. (Compare 
Wisdom viii. 7.) 

On the Parapet at the apex of either Gable are two niches, which 
it is proposed to fill with figures appropriate to the series mounting 
towards them in the Gables. The series will run thus in each case, 
from the foot to the summit of the Gable. 


— Northern Gable. 

I. Temperance. 4. Prudence. 

2. Soberness. 5. Wisdom. 

3. Chastity. 6. Knowledge. 

Meeting in Apex, 

7. Humility. 


—Southern Gable. 

8. Justice. II. Fortitude. 

9. Mercy. 12. Patience. 

10. Faith. 13. Veracity. 

2 IJ 


Meeting in .\pex, 

14. Concord. 
(Allusion to the Cornish motto, "One and All.") 

Note. — The figures in the Northern Gable represent the Personal 
virtues. The figures in the Southern Gable represent the Social 

In the Gables over either arch are two Panels. It is proposed to 
fill 'these two panels with two historic scenes, illustrative of the 
figures of Humility and Concord above them, and embracing also 
the episcopate in Cornwall from Bishop Kenstec to Bishop Benson. 

a. — Northern panel, Humility. 

Submission of Bishop Kenstec to the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, a.d. S65. 
b. — Southern panel, Concord. 

Bishop Benson at the laying of the Foundation 
Stone, A.D. 1880. 
Panels in the Tympana over the two doorways. It is proposed to 
fill these with representations of 

1. The Sermon on the Mount. ^ 

2. The Feeding of the Five Thousand,^ illustrative of the 

Ministry of 

(1) The Word. 

(2) The Sacraments. 

II.— The West Gable ( West Front). 

a. — Here are Six Niches over the Arch. These are filled with 
six figures illustrative of the planting of the Church in Cornwall, 
namely, SS. Buriena, Cybi, Petroc, Piran, Meriadoc, and la. 

b. — And two quatrefoil panels over the Arch. These are filled 
with representations of the building of the Oratory at Perranzabuloe 
by St, Piran, and of the manumission of slaves at Bodmin 
(Petrock-stowe) by St. Petroc. 

III. — The South Porch {Nave). 
The general idea of the sculpture suggested is to illustrate the 
central truth of the Incarnation of our Blessed Lord as foretold in 
prophecy, fulfilled in His Nativity, and taught by His Church. 

' Already given. 


a. — Sm.ill Quatrefoil Niche in the Gable. 

Panel. — A seated figure of St. Mary the A'irgin, with our 
Lord standing on her knees. 

b. — Two N^iches {beloiv) above the doonvay. 

Panels. — Scene of the Visitation (St. Luke i. 40). 
I. St. Mary. 2. EHzabeth. 

c. — The Niches in the Pinnacles {at the angles) of the Porch. 
There are eight niches, two on each of the four sides of either 

pinnacle. Provision is made for figures in each, the fourth group 
at the back of the pinnacles being distinct from the rest, in case 
these niches should not be filled. 

^;^(^tv/.— Prophetic figures, each holding a scroll bearing appro- 
priate words from Holy Scriptures. 

1. Eve. 9. Daniel 

2. Abraham. 10. Micah. 

3. Jacob. II. Habakkuk. 

4. Moses. 12. Malachi. 

5. David. 13. Balaam. 

6. Isaiah. 14. Solomon. 

7. Jeremiah. 15. Amos. 

8. Ezekiel. 16. Zechariah. 

d. — Four Niches {ttvo o?i either side) over the Arch. 
The four doctors of the Western Church, each with a scroll ; the 
figures subordinated to the words on which each one is meditating. 

St. Ambrose St. Luke i. 38. 

St. Augustine St. Luke i. 46. 

St. Jerome St. Luke ii. 48. 

St. Gregory St. John ii. 4. 

e. — Three Pattels {Central Sex/oil and Side Quatre/oils over door- 
way). Three emblematic figures, or flowers. 


IV. — The Front of the Western Gallery 
{Interior of the Nave) 
In the spandrels of the two Arches there are a central niche, two 
large side niches, and four small niches. 


Central Niche 

Our Lord Jesus Christ 


Large Side Niche (S.) 






Small Side Niche (S.) 

St. Matthew. 



St. Mark. 



St. Luke. 



St. John. 

V. — a. The Baptistery 
Three Buttress Niches.— Yx^wxe.?, of three eminent Missionaries 
connected with the West of England in modern times. 
Henry Martyn (India). 
Bishop Patteson (Melanesia). 
Bishop Smythies (Central Africa). 

b. The South Transept (Phillpotts') Porch 
Eight Buttress A7V/?if.r.— Figures of Founders and Benefactors of 
the See and Cathedral of Truro, and of two representatives of 
Science connected with Cornwall have been suggested. There 
have been proposed for selection among others : — • 

Emily Lady RoUe. Sir Humphry Gilbert. 

The twelfth Earl of Devon. Sir Bevil Grenvil. 

Canon Phillpotts. Dean Prideaux. 

Canon Wise. Sir Humphry Davy. 

Mr. J. L. Pearson, r.a. Professor Adams. 

And others now living. 

Above the Porch are already placed figures representing the 
Annunciation and the Nativity. Within it is a large figure of the 
Good Shepherd, and in the panels and tympana, our Lord in 
majesty with the Twelve Apostles, and other saints and angels. 

On either of the Doors are represented Elijah and St. John the 
Baptist, with scenes from their lives, as great preachers of repent- 
ance, and St. Peter and St. Paul, the great builders of the Church 
of God. 



At the request of the General Committee of the Diocesan 
Choral Union, the Precentor of the Cathedral, who is 
also the Secretary of the Union, instituted an inquiry as to 
the number of choirs using the Gregorian Tones, with a 
view to the possible establishment of a Gregorian Festival. 
The question of Choral Celebrations having also recently 
been before the Committee, the Precentor thought it advis- 
able to add that subject to the inquiry, and eventually the 
whole scope of the returns asked for was enlarged, so as to 
include as much information as possible concerning Church 
music in Cornwall. The kindly co-operation of the parochial 
clergy, and their general willingness to respond to the ques- 
tions asked, have made it possible to present a fairly exact 
and certainly interesting account of what Cornish choirs are 
doing, so far as figures represent that work. It is, however, 
almost needless to add that statistics, however complete, form 
only a partial means of judging the real state of Church 
music among us. 

Parishes that have made returns (out of 235) . . 219 

A. — Total fiumber of Choirs .227 

Of which the surpliced - are . . 97 

Unsurpliced . . ■ •■13° 

' Presented to the Diocesan Conference, 1S95. It is not proposed to present 
a similar report until after an interval of ten years. 

- In forty-two of the churches where these surpliced choirs exist, there are 
also bodies of auxiliary singers— men, women, and children— unsurpliced. 




B. — Total number of Singers^ . ... 

Of which there are in surpliced choirs, 930 boys, 

699 men . . ... 

Unsurpliced singers — men, women, and children . 

C. — To fa/ number of Organists (inckiding players on 
harmoniums, etc.) . ... 

Of whom there are receiving payment, from a mere 
nominal sum up to salaries of ^30 or ^40 

Unpaid (including many wives and daughters of 

Uncertain (probably voluntary) 
D. — Instruments. — There are in the diocese, Organs 

Harmoniums and American Organs 

Number of parishes using orchestral instruments 
varying from a fairly complete band down to a 
single cornet . ... 

E. — Psalters. — 

" The Cathedral Psalter " . .is used by 

" Psalter, with Chants Ancient and ^Modern " 
"Monk and Ouseley" 

"Oxford and Cambridge" 
" Helmore " 
" Elvey " 

" Ravenshaw and Rockstro " 

" Brown," " James," " Meadow," " Westminster," 
"Paragraph" . • each 

N.B. — In a few choirs no Psalter is used. 

' Comparing these figures with the numbers that (i) attended the Octave 
Services in November, 1887, it is found that on that occasion there were present 
from the twelve Deaneries, surpliced choirs, 379 boys and 311 men = 690; and 
unsurpliced singers, male, 587, and female, 770=1,457, making a grand total of 
2,147. (2) Those that have attended the Diocesan Festivals from the twelve 
Deaneries number 1,054 surpliced and 1,195 unsurpliced singers, making a grand 
total of 2,249. 











— Chants — 


Anglican Chants are being used by . 




Gregorian Tones are being used by . 




" Greek Chants " arc returned as beintr 

in use ir 

1 . 



— Hymn Books — 

" Hymns Ancient and Modern " 




" Church Hymns '" 



" Hymnal Companion " 



"Common Praise" 


Extra Hyjmials — 

" The Office Hymn Book " 



" The Altar Hymnal " 



"The Children's Hymn Book" 



" ^^'ood\vard's Hymn Book " 



Mission Hymn Books — 

The Durham Mission Book 



The London „ 



The Truro „ 



Church Parochial Mission Society's Book 



Church Army Mission Book 









Sankey's " Songs and Solos " 



H. — Niw.ber of Alusical Services — 

i. The Holy Communion is rendered chorally 
On Sundays by . 
On Festivals by . 
Partially on Sundays by 
Partially on Festivals by 
Occasionally by . 

Hymns are sung at the Holy Communion 
On Sundays by . 
On Festivals by . 
Occasionally by . 





Mattins and Evensong are rendered chorally 
On Sundays by 
On Great Festivals by 
Occasionally by 
Partially on Sundays by 
Partially on Great Festivals by 

-Anthems are sung 
On Sundays by 
On Great Festivals by 
Occasionally by 

" Services " for the Canticles are sung 
On Sundays by 
On Great Festivals by 
Occasionally by 







1 1 



K. — Choir Training. 

i. Parochial. — In a large number of cases the training of the 
parish choir is in the hands of the organist, who is often in Cornish 
parishes also the teacher in the school. Not a few of the clergy 
train their own choirs, while in some cases the clergyman's wife or 
other member of his family undertakes the duty. The scattered 
character of many country parishes makes frequent and regular 
practices difificult. 

ii. Ruridecanal. — There are recognised choir trainers who visit 
those of the parochial choirs that desire their services, in ten 
deaneries out of the twelve into which the diocese is divided. 

iii. Diocesan. — There is a diocesan choirmaster who visits the 
deaneries whose choirs come up in turn to the diocesan festival. 
Each year he holds rehearsals of combined choirs in about six 
centres. In the course of each triennial period he visits about 
eighteen or twenty centres in all parts of the diocese. 


L. — Diocesan Organisation. ^ 

The Diocesan Choral Union was founded in 18S8. It has 
organised and held seven [fourteen] festivals at the Cathedral, and 
no choirs from all the twelve deaneries, numbering 2,250 voices, 
have attended these festivals. The Precentor of the Cathedral is 
the secretary, and the Organist of the Cathedral the choirmaster of 
the Union. There are eleven [thirteen] ruridecanal or local associa- 
tions in the twelve deaneries of the diocese, ten [twelve] of which 
are affiliated to the Diocesan Union. 

Since the foundation of the Diocesan Union, 15,350 [30,830] 
copies of the festival books have been sold throughout the diocese. 
Of The Diocesan Choir Book, Part I. (containing the Versicles and 
Responses, and Litany) nearly 3,000 [4,830] copies have been sold. 

^ The numbers in brackets represent the total brought up to date, 1902. 





The Most Rev. W. B. Bond, d.d., Archbishop of Montreal, 
and Metropohtan of Canada. 

The Right Rev. Gilbert White, Bishop of Carpentaria. 
The Rev. C. Bice (formerly of the Melanesian Mission), 

Newcastle Cathedral. 
The Rev. C. C. Gillett, Queensland. 
The Rev. R. W. Leigh, Sydney. 
The Rev. F. G. Masters, Adelaide. 

The Very Rev. F. E. Carter, Dean, Archdeacon, and Rector 

of Grahamstown. 
The Rev. B. E. Holmes, Rector of King Williamstown, R.D. 

J. Gordon, Grahamstown. 

D. Ellison ,, 

A. H. Harcourt- Vernon, Bloemfontein. 

W. W. Bickford, Pretoria, 

W. L. Vyvyan, Zululand. 

R. Prior, U. M. to Central Africa. 

S. J. Peake, Lebombo (formerly of the Corea Mission). 

Henry Martyn, Calcutta, Cawnpore, etc. {deceased). 
H. C. Carlyon, Cambridge University Mission at Delhi. 
G. Hibbert Ware, Cambridge University Mission at Delhi. 
J. H. Collins, j 

G. R. A. Courtice, 
A. H. Langridge, 
S. S. Scott, 

Civil Chaplains. 



The Right Rev. R. Kestell-Cornish, i>.i)., Bishop of Madagascar 

The Rev. L. B. Chohiiondeley, St. Andrew's, Tokyo. 

The Rev. R. Richards. 

New Zealand 
The Rev. W. A. Pascoe, Canon of Christchurch, Vicar of 

West Indies 
The Right Rev. R. Rawle, d.d., Bishop of Trinidad {deceased). 
The Rev. C. E. Meeres, Rectory of St. Mary's, Nassau. 



Miss Harriet Rodd (Church of England Zenana Mission). 

Miss Thornton, St. Hilda's, Tokyo. 

Miss B. Martyn, Cashmere. 

Miss Barrett (Sister Louisa Mary) Bloemfontein (deceased). 


Adams, Professor J. Couch, 125 
Addington, loi, 106, 17S, 264, 345 
Agar-Ellis, Rev. J. J., 247 
Aitken, Rev. R., 18-20, 83 
Aitken, Canon W. H. M., 20 
Alexandra, Queen, 283, 400 
Alfred, King, 367 
All Hallows, Barking, 88 
Altarnun, 209 
Alverton, 220 

Amendment Act (Bishopric and Chap- 
ter), 275 
Anna, Sister, 217 

Archdeaconry of Cornwall Act, 280 seij. 
Armorial Bearings, Truro, 55-7 
Arnold, Miss, 71 
Arthur, King, 3, 400 
Arundell, Lord, 96 
Ashcombe, Lord, no 
Athelstan, King, 5, 8, 367 
Aubyn, St., Mr. Piers, 117 
Austell, St., 337 

Baldhu, 16, 19, 20 

Baptism, Holy, 24, 25, 85, 137, 176 
seq., 213 

Barham, Dr., 156 

Benney, Mrs., 65, 98 seg. 

Benson, A. C, 51, 109, 173. I79. ^94 

Benson, E. W., i, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 
22 ; early life, 40 ; Cambridge career, 
41 ; at Rugby, 42 ; at Wellington, 
42-5 ; at Lincoln, 45 se(/. ; conse- 
cration, 52 sc\/. ; life at Kenwyn, 
58 sc'^. ; diocesan plans, 63 scu/. ; 
educational work, 70 seg. ; mission 
work, 76 se(/. ; foundation of Cathe- 

dral, 103 Sdi/. ; diocesan work, 129 
set/. ; work with laymen, 149 seg. ; 
kindliness to working people, 161 
seg. ; dealing with social problems, 
163 ; temperance, 165 seg. ; purity, 
169 seg. ; grief at loss of eldest son, 
172 seg. ; Church questions, 174 seg. ; 
correspondence with friends, offer 
and acceptance of the Primacy, 178 
seq. ; farewell to Cornwall, 183 seq. 
enthronement at Canterbury, 186 
visits to Cornwall, 187 ; death, 187 
funeral, 188 ; estimates of his work 
and character, 188 set/. ; memorials 
at Truro and Canterbury, 190 seq. ; 
at consecration of Cathedral, 243 .r^^. ; 
sermon, 254 

Benson, Father, 215 

Benson, Rev. R. H., 173 

Benson, Martin W., 66, 172 seq. 

Benson, Mrs., 59, 70, 136, 193 

Bernard, St., 50 

Bible Christians, 133 

Bickersteth, Bishop E., of Exeter, 

Bickersteth, Bishop, of Japan,[2l5 

Birmingham, King Edward's School, 

Bishopric^^, Additional, Endowment 
Fund, 35 

Bishoprics, new, 27 sec/. 

Bishopric of Truro Bill, 36, 106, 235, 

Black Book, 105, 107 
Bodington, Canon, 215, 263, 267 
Bodmin, i, 8, lo, 27, 29, 124, 130, 216, 





Body, Canon, 176, 215, 221, 288 
Bolitho, Mr. T. R., 158 
Borlase, Rev., 13 
Boscastle, i 

Boucher, Mr. A. R., 158 
Bourke, Canon, 287, 313, 341 
Bourne, Colonel, 171 
Bradshaw, Henry, i, 105, 109 
Bramston, INIiss, 70 
~ Bray, Billy, 20-2 
Breock, St., 5 
Breward, St., 14, 62, 153 
Bright, Right Hon. John, 203 
Brittany, 4 

Broadley, Rev. W., 218 
Bromby, Rev. H., 215 
Browne, Bishop E. Harold, 16, 179, 

254, 263, 266 
Bryanites, 79, 96, 133, 207 
Bubb, Mr., 127, 128 
Buck, Canon, 62, 144 
Bude, 138 
Budock, St., 5 

Burch, Mr. A., no, 252, 309, 310 
Burgon, Dean, 24, 27 
Buriena, St., 4, 125 
Buryan, St., 4, 8, 359 
Bush, Canon, 62, 186, 18S 

Callington, %2 seq., 139 

Calstock, 144 

Calvinism, 18 

Camborne, 62, 129, 139 

CamV^ridge, 41, 47, 68 

Canons, Honorary, 104, 107, 125, 236, 

237, 296 
Canon Missioner, "jS seq., 104 
Canons, Residentiary, 107, 237, 243, 

211 seq., 296 
Canterbury, 97, 180, 188 scq., 193, 228, 

346, 347 ; St. Martin's, 130 
Carantoc, St., 8, 129, 338, 359 
Carew, historian, 1 1 
Carlyon, Edmund, 33, 34, 158 
Carnmenellis, 218 
Carol service, 287 

Carter, Canon F. E., 50, 81, 86, 88, 89, 
98, loi, 145, 188,215,221,238,287 

Catechism, 174 seq. 

Cathedral, The, 47, 103 

Cathedral Commission, 30, 60, 105. 
109, no 

Consecration of, 245 seq., 352 

Fittings, 100 

Offices and occupants, 382 seq. 

• Truro, 33, 34, 46, 103 seq. 

Union, 282 seq. 

Census, religious, 327, 372 

Ceolnoth, Archbishop, 5 

C.E T.S., 147, 166, 169 

Chacewater, 339 

Chalice, Bishop's, 232 

Chantries, Cornish, 8, 9 

Chappel, Canon, 62, 139, 188 

Chapter Act, Truro, 106, 109, 235 seq., 

Chapter, Truro, 104 seq. ; resolution 

of, on death of Archbishop, 192 ; 

patronage of, 236 
Charles I., King, 10, 400 
"Charlotte, Mother," 218 
Chilcott, Mr. J. G., 53 
Choral Union, 269 seq., 405 seq. 
Church, Dean, 53, 178 

Defence, 357 seq. 

Society, 94, 95, 294 

Churches, Cornish, 78, 337 

■ Mission, 9, 339 

Clement's, St., 66 

Clifden, Viscount, 158 

Cocks, Colonel, 123, 127 

Colenso, Bishop, 44, 45 

Coles, Rev. V. S. S., 81, 215 

Collegiate Churches, 8, 159, 360 

Columb, St., 30, 31 

Commissioners, Ecclesiastical, 26, 272 

seq., 279 
Communion, Holy, 97, 138, 213 
Community of the Epiphany, loi, 

219 seq. 
Conan, Bishop, 5 
.Conference, Devotional, 215 , 



Conferences, Diocesan, \^o seq, 

Ruridecanal, 151 seq., 217 

Confirmation, 131 seq., 213, 242 
Conge •d\' lire, 236, 309 
Constantine, St., 126 
Cornish, Archdeacon, 80, 147, 148. 

153. 346 
Cornish character, ],seq., 355 ^<?'/. 
Cornish, Rev. G. J., 16 
Cornish saints, 3-5, 126, 127, 129, 130 

See, 27 seq. , 366 seq. 

Cornish Women's Association, 100, 

22^ seq., 347 
Cornwall, Scenery and History, i-ii, 

131, 212, 360 
Bishop Benson's farewell to, 183 

Cotehele House, 164 
Cowie, Dean, 279 
Cranmer, Archbishop, 27 
Crediton, Bishop of, 5, 80 
Cross, Brotherhood of the, 89 
Crowfoot, Canon, 49 
Crowther, Bishop, 97 
Cyprian, St., 44, 59 

Daubiiz, Mr. J. C, 15S, 309, 312 

Da%'id, St., 4 

Davies, Mary Ann, 96 seq. 

Day, St., 65 

Dennis, Mr. J. Ilawke, 354 

Devon, Earl of, 31, 55 

Disraeli, Right Hon. B., 35 

Dissent, 173, 208 seq. 

Dominic, St., 82, S3, 87 

Du Boiilay, .Xrchdcacon, 139, 186, 1 88, 

Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry, 

250. 258, 333 
Dumbleton, Prebendary, 25 

Eagar, Dr. A. E., 63 
Earle, Archdeacon, 54 
Earthy, Mr. W. G. N., 171 
Eaton Square, St. Peter's, 195, 198^^1/., 
219 seq., 252, 289, 293 

Edgcumbe, Mt., Earl of, 53, 113, 119, 
158, 191,227,246, 251,253, 278 5^/ , 
296, 312, 347. 348 

Edgcumbe, Mt., Lady, 164 

Education, Church, 340 

Edward the Confessor, King, 5, 400 

Edward VI., King, 9 

Edward VII., King, 349, 400. 
See Prince of Wales 

Egloshayle, 144 

Endellion, 8, 80, S6, 90, 359 

Erth, St., 62, 79, 94, 134, 144, 155 

Essays and Reviews, 33, 45 

Eucharist, daily, 98, 271 

Evangelicals, 45, 49, 143, 201 

Evans, Rev. L., 71 

Everest, Canon, 218 

Everitt, Colonel, 171 

Exeter, Bishops of, 5-7, 23 seq. 
See Appendix I., 366 seq. 

Exeter College, 7 

Synod of, 25 

Falmouth, 36 

Falmouth, Viscount, 119, 135 

Field, Miss, 281 

Fisher, Rev. T., 13 

Fittings, Internal, Fund, 100, 229 

Flint, Canon, 188 

Ford, Prebendary, 25 

Foster, Mr. L. C, 15S 

Mr. R., 158 

Foundation stone of Cathedral, 118 

Fowey, 337 

Fraser-Frizell, Rev. C. F. , 171 

Ganges, II. M.S., 135, 136,342 

Gardiner, Canon F. E., 166, 191, 24S 

German, St., 125 

Germans, St., Earl of, 30 

Germans, St., 8, 145, 187, 337 

Germoc, St., 125 

Gladstone, Right Hon. W. E., 179 

seq., 198, 286, 291 
Glasney, 8, 359 
Gluvias, St., 144 



Gore, Bishop, 215, 263, 266 

Gorham, Rev. G. C, 24, 25 

Gatt, Dr. John, 141, 187; early life 
and education, curacy at Yarmouth, 
Vicar of Bramley, 305 ; Vicar of 
Leeds, 306 seq. ; Dean of Worcester, 
307 ; elected Bishop of Truro, 308 
seq. ; consecrated, 311 ; enthroned 
and installed at Truro, 312 seq. ; 
activity in diocese, 315 ; Pastoral 
Letter, 3175^(7. ; Primary Visitation of 
Cathedral and diocese, 321 seq. ; 
Second Visitation, 329 seq. 

Grammar School, Truro, 71 

Grandisson, de, Bishop, 7 

Gregory, St., cf Tours, 130 

Gwennap, 62 

Gwennap Pit, 15 

Hammond, Canon C. E., 63 

Canon J. , 63 

Dr., 171 

Harvey, Fox, Canon, 53, 104, 113, 

117, 250 
Hawker, Rev. Robert, 10 
Hayle, 79. 155 
Hedgeland, Prebendary, 146 
Hedley, Miss, 70 
Helston, 130 

Henry VHL, King, 9, 27, 400 
High Cross, 100, 115 
High School for Girls, 70 seq. 
Hingeston-Randolph, Prebendary, 6 
Hobhouse, Archdeacon, 30, 145, 146 
Hockin, Canon, 14, 22, 62, 186 
Hodge, Mr. T. H., 177 
Holland, Canon Scott, 46, 190, 214, 

227, 265, 266 
Hope, Beresford, Right Hon. A. J., 

Hoskyns, Canon B. G. , 88 seq. 
Hostel, The Truro, 65, 70 
How, Walsham, Bishop, 266, 311 
Hugh, St., 44 
Ilullah, Canon, 144 

Intercession Services, 277 

Isabell, Rev. J., 65, Ot 
Issey, St., 4, 86, 90, I 
Ive, St., 145 
Ives, St., 10, 62, i6i 



Jago, Rev. W., 56 

James II., King, 10 

Jennings, Rev. H. R. , 69 

Jones, Canon, 62 

Just, St., in Penwith, 13, 18, 24, 129 

Kalendar, Diocesan, 9 

Kea, 16, 20 

Keating, Dr. J. F. , 69 

Keble, Rev. J., 395 

Kenstec, Bishop, 5, 125 

Kenwyn, 16, 58^-^^., 66, 119, 161, 172, 

Keverne, St., 8 
Kew, St., 90, 91 
Key, Miss, 71 
Kilkhampton, 81, 138 
Kingsley, Rev. C, 44, 140 
Kinsman, Prebendary, 13 
Kynance, i 

Lach-Szyrma, Rev. W. S. , 13 
Ladock, 62, 140, 141, 345 
Lambeth, 186, 234 

• Conference, 204, 205 

Lamorran, 13 

Land's End, 16, 18, 124 

Lanherne, i 

Launceston, 8, 10, 16, 81, 117, 124, 

Lawhitton, 139 
Lay work, 149 seq. 
Lee, Bishop Prince, 40 
Leofric, Bishop, 5 
Levan, St., 157 
Liber Niger, 105, 107 
Library, Bishop Phillpotts', 25 
Liddon, Dr. , 353 
Lightfoot, Bishop, 40, 53 
Lincoln, 46 seq. 
Lincoln Judgment, 285 seq. 



"Lis Escop," 59, 172, 216, 225, 2S9, 

294, 314 
Liske;ird, i 
Lizard, the, 124 

Lloyd, Dr. C. H., 254, 256, 261, 284 
Longley, Archl)ishop, 32 
Lostwithiel, St. Faith's, 217, 221 
" Luce Magistra," 72 
Ludgvan, 13 
Luxulyan, 129 
Lyfing, Bishop, 5 
Lyonesse, 3 
Lyte, Rev. J. Maxwell, 214, 277 

Maclagan, Bishop, 200 
Maclean, Sir J., 157 
Madagascar, Bishop of, 119 
Magheramorne, Lord, 199 
Malan, Rev. A. H., 209 
Mann, Rev. C. N., 83, 91 
Martin, Dr. G., 14, 62, 153 
Martin, Rev. R., 62, 146, 153, 154 
Martyn, Henry, 122, 125, 228, 266, 

397 seq. 
Mason, Dr. A. J., 49, 61, 62, 63, 64, 

65, 77 seq., 98, 101-4, 110, 160, 186, 

1S7, 207, 229, 250, 254, 263, 267, 

Maurice, Rev. F. D., 44, 395 
Mavvgan-in-Pydar, St., 80, 96 
Methodists, 12, 14 seq., 86, 133, 201 

seq., 209 
Mewan, St., 4 
Michael's Mount, St., 8 
Michael, Penkivel, St., 129 
Mills, Rev. A. H., 8, 62, 94, 144, 155 
Miners, Cornish, 124, 161, 362 
Missioner, 174 

Mission Preachers, Lincoln, 49, 51, 89 
Mission work, 76 seq., 210 seq., 287 
Missions, foreign, 335, 336, 410, 411 
Missions, itinerant, 89-92 
Mithian, 16 

Monk, Dr. M. J., 270, 285 
Moor, Canon A. P., 66 
Moore, Canon J. H., 239 seq. 
2 E 

Morison, Miss, 71 

Morwenstow, 4, 129, 157 

Murley, Rev. J. J., 65 

Music, Church, in Cornwall, 405 seq. 

Mylor, 5 

Nankivcl, .Miss A., 281 
Nave of Cathedral, 345 seq. 
Newbolt, Canon, 215 
Newlyn St. Peter, 13 
Newlyn, St., 139 
Newman, Cardinal, 43, 202 

Rev. F. W., 64, 66 

Newquay, i, 340 

Nix, Mr. A. P., 120, 15S, 228, 247, 

Non-Residence, 17, 38 
" Novate novale," 48, 49, 77, 89 

Octave services, 262 seq. 
Ordination, 216, 267 

Padstow, 91, 230 

Palmerston, Lord, 30, 31 

Parish Priest of the Toivii, 304, 306 

Parker, Rev. F., 25 

Parkyn, Major, 228 

Pastoral Letters, Bishop Gott's, 318 

Bishop Wilkinson's, 242, 298 

Paul, Chancellor R. M., 188, 246 

Paul, parish of, 5 

Paul's, St., Cathedral, III, 112, 199, 

252, 352 seq. 
Pearse, Rev. Mark Guy, 22 
Pearson, Mr. F. L., 348 
Pearson, Mr. J. L., 118, 230, 348 
Pedler, Miss A., 28 1 

Mr. E. II., 281 

Pendeen, 18, 19 

Penwith, 142 

Penzance, St. John's, 146 

St. Mary's, 146 

Perran-ar-Worthal, 130 
Perranporth, I 
Perranzabuloc, 4, 130 



Perrin, Rev. G., 80, 102 

Perrin, Mrs., 102 

Petroc, St., 125, 130 

Phillack, 62 

Phillpotts, Archdeacon, 144, 254 

Bishop, 23 seq., 30, 32, 104, 143 

Canon, 104, 112, 117, 122, 159 

Pinnock, St., 130 

Piran, St., 4, 125, 130 

Polwhele, Rev., 13 

Porthleven, 63 

Port Isaac, 98 » 

Poughill, 138 

Poundstock, 339 

Prayer for Cathedral, 268 

for Cathedral Builders, 128 

for Cathedral Workers, 222 

for St. Mary's Parish, 241 

for White Cross League, 171 

Price, Mr. E., 348 

Primacy, the, 178 seq. 

Prince Consort, the, 42 

Probus, 8, 337 

Prothero Smith, Sir P., 159, 160 

Lady, 159 

Prynne, Mr. G. F., 337 
Psalter, Recitation of, 108 seq. 
Puller, Rev. Father, 215 
Pusey, Dr., 24 

Qttor>n, Daniel, 22 

Randall, Dean, 267 

Rashleigh, Mr. J., 53 

Reading, Bishop of, 311 

Redruth, 139 

Reeve, Rev. J. A., 61, 82, 172, 214 

Repair and Services Bill, 277 seq. 

Residence of clergy, 23, 38 

Residentiary Canons, 107 

Retreats, 215 seq. 

Revivals, 78, 79, 92, 93» I33> i34, 169 

Robartes, Lord, 158, 347 

Robinson, Canon C. IL, 69 

Roche, 13 

Rogers, Canon J. J., 156 

Canon S, 104 

Rolle, Lady, 35 

Royal Institution of Cornwall, 156 seq. 

Rugby, 42, 47, 70 

Sacraments, 17, 18, 206, 357 
Sampson, Canon G. V. , 89 w. 
Schoke Cancellarii, Lincoln, 48 seq., 51 

Truro, 63 seq., 282 

Scilly, 27, 130 
Scott, Dean, 62 
Sedding, Mr. E., 337 
Sennen, St., 4, 65, 85 
Shaftesbury, Earl of, 30 
Shuttleworth, Canon, 144 

Professor, 144 

Sinclair, Dr. G. R., 250, 252, 261 seq., 

270, 284 
Sisterhoods, 217 seq. 
Smith, Lady Prothero, 159 

Sir P. Prothero, 159 

Right Hon. W. H., 235, 291 

Social Questions, 162 seq. 

Sowell, Rev. C. R., 63 

Speechly, Bishop, 290, 291 

Staff, Pastoral, Bishop Benson's, 51, 

Stafford, Bishop, 7 

Stannaries Court, 36 

Stapledon, Bishop de, 7 

Statistics, 342 

Statuary, Scheme for, Appendix VI., 
400 seq. 

Statutes, Lincoln, 47, 105, 107 

— — Truro, 47, 104 seq. 

Steele, Rev. E., 240 

Stephen's, St., by Launceston, 8 

Sunday Closing, 165, 166 

Swain, Mr. R., 128, 228, 251 

Tait, Archbishop, 52, 119, l^'iseq., 188 

Tamar, 3, 124 

Tatham, Prebendary, 30, 33 

Teilo, St., 4 



Temperance, 165 seq., 360 

Temple, Archbishop, 33-5, 52, 53, 1 10, 

119, 200, 259, 260, 254, 346 
Thomas a Kcmpis, 50 
Thomas, Master F., 261,262 
Thornton, Canon F. V., 139 

Miss S., 233 

Thynne, Canon A. C, 81, 104, 186, 

250, 346 
Tintagel, i, 13, 124 
Torpoint, 87 
Tractarian Movement, 23, 24, 28, 43, 

Training College, Truro Diocesan, 22, 

73, 74, 147, 341 
Transept, Benson, 227 
Trelawny, Bishop, 10, 1 1 
Trema)Tie, Colonel, 158 

Mrs. A., 233, 354 

Trenython, 314 

Tresco, 8 

Trevalga, 138 

Truro Cathedral, 33, 34, 46, 99 seq., 

103 seq., 177, 190 

St. George's, 16, 64, 220, 341 

St. John's, 16, 66, 216, 248, 341 

St. Mary's, 36, 53, 59, 65, 112, 

114 seq., 122, 128, 200, 220, 235, 

2Z^seq., 247, 283, 341 

St. Paul's, 166, 220, 248, 341 

Rectors of, 379 seq. 

Tyacke, Canon, 94 
Tywardrealh, 8 

Vautier, Canon, 104 

Veryan, 80 

Victoria, Queen, 42, 179 seq., 285, 354 

Tower, 354 

Visitation, Bishop Benson's Primary, 

Bishop Gott's, 321 seq. 

Vivian, Lord, 116, 125 

Wales, Prince of, 118, 119, 159, 242, 
245 seq., 251, 2S1 seq., 346, 349 

Wales, Princess of, 233 

Walker, Dr. E., 30, 31 

Rev. S., 11-13 

Walpole, Rev. G. II. S., 63, 65, 69 

Wantage, St Mary, 217 

Webb, Bishop, 289, 290 

Week St. Mary, 129 

Wellington College, 42 seq., 70, 193, 

Wesley, Charles, 14 

Wesley, John, 9, 12, 14-17. SS, 202, 

Wesleyans, 86, 203 seq., 223 

Wcstcott, Bishop, 40, 55 

Whitaker, Canon, 61, 63, 65, 68, 98, 
no, 186 

White Cross League, 147, 170 seq. 

Whitley, Mr. H. M., 9 

Whittingstall, Rev. l\. O. F., 69 

Wickenden, Prebendary, 55, 56, 105, 
107, no 

Wilberforce, Bishop E., 265, 266 

Bishop S. , 27 

Wilkinson, BishopG. IL,6i, loi, 133, 
180, 187, 194 seq. ; Chaplain and 
Canon, 197 ; consecration, 199 ; en- 
thronement, 200 ; relations with 
Methodists, 201 seq. ; mission work, 
210 seq,; sermons, 224; diocesan 
business, 225 ; building and conse- 
cration of the Cathedral, 227 seq. ; 
efforts for endowment, 271 seq. ; 
ill health, 290 seq. ; absence from 
Cornwall, 294 ; resignation, 294 ; 
farewell to diocese, 298 seq. ; re- 
covery, 299 ; elected to St. Andrews, 
300 ; reunion work in Scotland, 301 
Williams, Mr. Michael, 340 

Rev. T. L., 63 

Willyams, Mr. A. C, 158 
Winchester, Bishop Harold Browne of, 
16, 179, 254, 263, 266 

Bishop Davidson of, no, 183 

Windows, stained glass, 387 seq. 
Winnow, St., 126 
Wise, Canon, 62, 344 



Women's Work, 216, seq. 
Wordsworth, Bishop Christopher, 31, 
32, 46, 52, 105 

Bishop T-, 266 

Canon Christopher, 105, no 

Workhouses, 154 

Working people, 161 seq. 

Worlledge, Canon A. J., 49, 57, 63, 

69, 188, 193, 306 
Wylde, Rev. J., 215 

Young, Rev, D. E., 221 




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