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Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2008 with funding from
Director ^Art, State Normal
School, Salem, Massachusetts
Piihlished by MILTON BRADLEY COMPANY
BOSTON NEW YORK PHILADELPHIA
ATLANTA SAN FRANCISCO
By MILTON BRADLEY CO.
V/ (^ 1 b
ABILITY to draw easily and well on the blackboard is a
power which every teacher of children covets. Such
drawing is a language which never fai's to hold attention
and awaken delighted interest.
It has been considered impossible for most of us, because
we have never done it. It has been strongly recommended, but
no one has really shown us how.
A book like this which does show how, step by step, from
the first practice strokes to completed and effective sketches,
will be everywhere welcome. No one can follow the plain
suggestions given without appreciating the possibilities of chalk
and charcoal for ordinary school-room illustration, and finding in
himself a steady development of power to sketch on the black-
The book is not the product of theor.es about drawing, but
the fruit of long experience of one who has drawn with and for
children and students and teachers, and has been more success-
ful than any one I know in inspiring them by that means. I
welcome the book and predict for it a potent influence for in-
creasing and improving blackboard drawing throughout the
schools of the land.
North Scituate, Mass.
2./ ? ^ y
This collection of blackboard sketches and the accompanying
text has been planned at the request of many teachers and pu-
pils who desire lessons and suggestions along this line, but who
are unable to secure personal instruction.
In general, these requests have been for simple sketches
dealing with the various lines of school work, and at the same
time for strokes and explicit directions for using these in the
drawings. For these reasons there are given upon nearly every
plate the strokes of the chalk useful in producing the desired
effect, and upon the opposite page such directions as are gener-
ally given to the students in the classroom.
A few of the lessons deal with the strokes and their applica-
tion to the very simplest objects possible, but even these may
be found useful as illustrative material. They are recommended
in order that the teacher may become familiar with the medium,
^j and with the simplest and the most direct manner of handling
^ it before attempting sketches which require a great variety of
. touches. I have tried to have the other sketches cover as
^ great a variety of subjects as possible.
^j Plates 3, 5, 8, lo, ii, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 22, 23 and 29
have been used with the little people in different forms of sto-
ries, language and reading lessons. Plates 7, 8,9, 10, 11, 18,
27, 28 and 29 are suggested for geography lessons in various
grades. Plates 8, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 27, 28 and 29 may be used
in history lessons. Plates i and 3 have been used in primary
numbers, and plates 27 and 28 for arithmetic, when the problems
had to do with commission, measurement, etc., or when the
problems referred to lumbering or manufacturing. Plates 4, 5,
6, 1 1, 12, 13, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27 and 28 will be found
helpful in many lines of nature study, especially when the nature
specimens are difficult to obtain. Plates 9, 24, 25 and 26
illustrate the value of this line of drawing in the study of litera-
ture ; and many of the other drawings may be used in a similar
manner. The teacher who uses this type of illustrative sketch-
ing will readily see how the drawings may be applied to other
Teachers have occasionally asked for illustrations for the
different months of the school year, something to use with
calendars, or for different holiday drawings. Several sketches
given on the plates are suitable for the various months. For
calendars I suggest discarding the plaided pumpkin for Novem-
ber, the numbeied bricks in a fireplace for December, the kite
covered with numbered squares for March, etc., etc. A regular
numbered calendar may be used, with an appropriate sketch
above or at one side. See Plate 13, goklenrod. The holiday
itself should suggest the character of the sketch.
Although these sketches are recommended as illustrations
for certain subjects, it is not intended that the teacher should
merely copy these drawings, but that she should be able to
appropriate these strokes, enlarge upon them, and apply them
in illustrations for the particular subjects she is teaching; and
there are many subjects which require just this sort of expres-
sion on the part of the teacher.
"Children are not all ears; they take in more through the
eyes than in any other way."
Since all teachers know this is true, they should realize the
usefulness of illustration on the blackboard.
A few moments now and then devoted to the practice of
these strokes, and frequent application of them, will enable the
teacher better to express and emphasize certain facts, details, or
incidents connected with a lesson ; better to hold the interest
and attention of the class, and more readily to create an interest
in drawing. She will thus, by example, lead the children to
make the drawing a natural and spontaneous means of expression.
For the first lesson I advise trying the simplest possible
stroke, and its application in the sketching of very simple
things. The stroke is a straight mark with the side of the
Take half or two-thirds of a stick of chalk, discard the
small end, and use such a piece in nearly all the lessons given.
In this case place the chalk horizontally upon the board, and
drag it gradually downward, keeping an even pressure upon the
chalk. Try this in various directions.
The oblique lines show what a variety of width may be ob-
tained by changing the angle of the chalk. At i, the full
length of the chalk is required to give the broad stroke desired.
At Nos. 2, 3, 4 and 5, the line above the stroke indicates the
angle at which the chalk is placed in order to give the width of
the strokes below. The use of the chalk in this manner ena-
bles one to obtain any desired width of line, without constantly
changing the piece of chalk. A light or dark tone is produced
by varying the pressure upon the chalk.
In drawing the telegraph pole, draw first a delicate vertical
stroke, then add the horizontal cross pieces with a stronger
accent, and last the white strokes indicating thickness.
In the case of the chicken coop, draw first the oblique slats,
then with a stronger pressure upon the chalk, add the hori-
zontal slats, and lastly, with the point of the chalk add the ac-
cented bits of detail.
Almost any simple object composed of straight lines may be
drawn in this manner.
The strokes upon this plate are more often used than any
others which will be given in these lessons. These strokes are
made by holding the chalk by one end rather than in the middle,
and then by drawing in any direction desired, letting the pressure
come at the end of the chalk, thus giving a graded stroke from
side to side. For example, stroke i was made by taking about two-
thirds of a stick of chalk, holding it by the left end, placing it
horizontally upon the board, and then drawing downward, accent-
ing a little with the left end of the chalk. Stroke 5 was made
in a similar manner, the chalk being held by the right end, and
the pressure being also at that end.
Practice these strokes in many directions, and then apply
them to drawing some simple objects. On the plate the cylin-
der, barrel, and canoe are illustrated to show the application of
such simple marks.
In the cylinder, strokes i and 5 are used for the left and
right outlines ; then three curving strokes will finish the top and
In sketching the barrel, use similar strokes, curving them a
bit. Add curving strokes for the hcops, using a short piece of
chalk ; then add markings here and there with the point for
The canoe is one long, nearly horizontal stroke accented at
the upper end of the chalk. A few small touches similar to
those at 3 will give the rocky shore, and a hue or two with the
point, the necessary details.
The lesson planned at illustration 3 is useful in a number of
school lessons in the lower grades. I have seen it used in
teaching reading in the first grade. In this case, some word
from the lesson was written upon each apple, and the children
were asked to see how many apples they could gather and put
into the basket ; in other words, to see how man}' words they
could read. When a word was recognized, it was erased. Again,
it has been successfully used in teaching number, form, etc.
See also the ladder, plate 10.
Stroke i is made by placing the chalk upon the board in a ver-
tical position and then drawing it across the board, varying the
pressure frequently so as to give the effect seen in the basket.
The strokes at 2 are produced in the same manner. Here the
light spots in the stroke are alternated,- coming beneath the
dark spots in the stroke abo\'e. Try a number of these in the
curving direction suggested at 2.
In making a sketch of a basket, draw lightly the elliptical top,
then add as many strokes as are necessary to give the desired
depth, and lastly add the handle. Strokes 3, and the ellipse
below them, show the manner of producing this effect. Place
the chalk horizontally at the top of the basket, decide where the
handle should end at the opposite side, then draw upward with
a heavy stroke, across the top lightly, then downward with a
slight pressure. Keep the chalk in a horizontal position through-
out the stroke. Add a line of accent to the nearest edge of the
The tree trunk back of the basket is drawn with strokes i
and 5, plate 2, the stroke being curved a bit at the lower end.
The gi"ass is added by the use of stroke 5, which is made by
using a short piece of chalk, and by moving the hand rapidly
up and down. A little accent may be used occasionally.
In drawing the apples study stroke 4. These are made
like those on plate 2, by accenting with the end of the chalk.
Use a very short curving stroke, first toward the left, then toward
the right. Add stems, etc., with the point of the chalk.
Lesson 4 introduces a stroke entirely different from those
already given, and one which will require more practice in order
to obtain the desired results and to apply it readily in quick
Stroke i is made by placing the chalk in a horizontal posi-
tion upon the board, and drawing it downward, gradually twist-
ing it to the vertical ])osition. Stroke 2 is the exact opposite.
Place the chalk vertically upon the board, draw it downward and
gradually twist it to the horizontal position.
In drawing strokes 3 and 4, combine those already given at
I and 2. For 3, place the chalk vertically, draw it downward,
quickly twMSting it to the horizontal position ; then, w'ithout
removing it from the board, bring it back to the vertical posi-
tion. Try stroke 4, beginning with the horizontal position of
the chalk, twisting it to the vertical, then back again to the
Stroke 5 shows a curving effect produced in the same man-
ner as stroke 3, but with a curving instead of a vertical ten-
In drawing the cat tails, use strokes i and 5 on plate 2.
These are slightly curved at the upper and lower ends. Keep
some of them very delicate, others quite white. The leaves are
drawn by using strokes i, 2, and 3, on plate 4. Let the tone
desired in the drawing govern the pressure used upon the chalk
The palms are drawn by using the same strokes. Draw iirst
very delicately with the side of the chalk, then with strokes i , 2
or 3 add stronger strokes for accent.
A new stroke will be introduced for this lesson. It is a reg-
ular or irregular curve as the case may require, and is useful in
all sorts of nature drawing.
First try the long curving stroke No. i, accenting with the
left end of the chalk. Reverse the stroke, accenting with the
right end of the chalk. Now try No. 2, making a series of
nearly parallel strokes, keeping the accent at the left.
The pumpkin is drawn by combining these strokes, varying
the pressure to obtain the desired tone, and accenting with the
left end of the chalk, then reversing the stroke for the right
side of the pumpkin. Add the stem by the use of a few irreg-
ular strokes and a bit of accent.
Stroke 3 may be used in drawing any large leaves, such as
squash, grape, etc. Try this in a great variety of positions,
always keeping the accent for the edge of the leaf. Apply this
in drawing the .grape foliage in the illustration below. Draw
first the mid-rib and then represent the surface of the leaf by
using stroke 3. The grapes are added by the use of stroke 4,
which is stroke i very much reduced. Let the grapes be drawn
with a short, quick twist of the chalk. Lastly add stems and
Almost any vegetables may be drawn after a little practice of
the strokes given at 5. These are made exactly like stroke i,
with changes in direction. Try a single onion or carrot, then
a group of vegetables. Do these as simply as possible, obtain-
ing the effect, if you can, with three or four strokes, then add
a few touches for details.
The strokes given in this lesson, although not used as fre-
quently as those previously given, are nevertheless valuable.
No. I shows the manner in which the stroke is produced.
Place a piece of chalk in the position indicated by the line
below the stroke, then swing the chalk rapidly back and forth,
shortening the stroke and gradually twisting the chalk to the
vertical position No 2 is produced in the same manner.
Place the chalk obliquely as indicated, and keep the movement
oblique, shortening the stroke, and twisting the chalk gradually
to the horizontal position.
The fern is drawn by first sketching a few main lines, No. 3,
and then upon these apply the strokes given as shown at No. 4.
Hardly touch the board at first, keeping the tones very gray ;
then add a few white ferns as in the sketch.
No. 6 illustrates the same stroke used in a much bolder
fashion and in a generally horizontal direction. After applying
this stroke, accent here and there with a much shorter stroke,
and add the trunk and branches.
Study the trees given on plate 1 2 in connection with this illustra-
tion and notice the variety of strokes given for the different trees.
In this lesson we will put to practical use such strokes as
those given in the first few lessons. The sketches of this
character are often valuable in the schoolroom when studying
the mountains, the hillside, the river, etc., and the teacher who,
with a few strokes of the chalk, can interpret to her class the
thing about which they are studying, and can make an illustra-
tion which the whole class can see and appreciate, has an inval-
Experiment with the strokes given at i, 2 and 3. As in
previous lessons the side of the chalk is used, and the accent is
with one end. Try to give the effect of snow, of rocks, of a
bright day, or of a cloudy c'ay, by varying the tone or pressure
upon the chalk. Sometimes use the chalk for sky, leaving the
board for the hills. Then reverse the stroke, letting the sky
remain gray and using the chalk to represent the mountain,
accenting with the upper end of the chalk. No. 3 is a comli-
nation of i and 2, the chalk being used in both sky and moun-
tain. In No. 4, the eraser or a soft bit of cloth is used to take
out the trees after the chalk has been applied.
In the sketch given on the lower part of the plate combine
the suggestions given above. A few short, curving strokes
with the usual accent at one end of the crayon will give the
rocks, and the irregular horizontal and zigzag strokes already
given will produce the ripples in the river, and the foreground.
In the exercise illustrated on the opposite page you will find
-combinations of the strokes already given, but they are varied
somewhat in rendering these drawings. Any sketch or object
to be drawn should dictate the kind of stroke to be used and the
manner of handling the chalk, the pressure, accent, etc.
For the larger sketch, draw first the tree trunks as shown at
No I . Let the pressure be as gentle as possible, the chalk
hardly touching the board. After these are massed in the back-
ground, erase a triangular spot for the wigwam, and with the
oblique strokes 2, accented first at the left, then at the right,
obtain the general form required. Stroke 3 is added at the top
of the wigwam, and a bit of charcoal is used for the dark tone
at the opening. Now add the decorative details.
In order to complete the sketch, use stroke 4 for the fore-
ground. It is similar to those previously used, and is made by
an irregular, up-and-down movement of the chalk.
A pond, a canoe, or other suggestive detail may be used in
this sketch, and applied to the work in history, geography, lan-
Try the second little drawing, using similar strokes in a very
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Lesson No. 7 gave a few suggestions useful in geography
and landscape work. This time we will try another type which
will doubtless be found equally useful.
Stroke i is a horizontal stroke accented at the lower end of
the chalk by a decided pressure. This will readily give a tone
for the sky and a definite line for the horizon.
At No. 2, the sky is drawn in the same manner, and charcoal
or black chalk is introduced for the ocean. These touches are
made with the side of the chalk in irregular, wavy lines.
Spray may be represented by massing a little chalk near the
rocks or beach, and by rubbing the tip of the finger or a soft
bit of cloth into the body of chalk, gradually blending it into
the rocks or water. See No. 4.
To obtain a sketch like that given in this lesson, first draw
the horizon, then the wavy strokes for the sea. The cliffs or
rocks are drawn by using strokes like those at No. 3. They
are irregular strokes accented with one end of the chalk. Here
again the charcoal is useful in adding crevices or shadows in
the rocks. Erase spots for the boats and add details.
The effect of a beach may be produced by using the same
broad stroke as in the sky, accenting with the upper end of the
chalk to give the margin of the beach. Add a few ripples and
pebbles, or a bit of seaweed, using the point of the chalk.
The sketch given on this plate was used as an illustration for
A heap of bare and splintery crags
Tumbled about by lightning and frost.
The sketch on plate lo was suggested for geography. It is
very simple and requires only strokes already used a number of
The sky and hill are represented by the use of stroke i.
Place a long piece of chalk vertically, the accent at the lower
end giving the outline of the hill.
The marshy land is represented by a similar stroke carried in
a horizontal direction. The board is left free from chalk in the
case of the hill and the water. The village in the distance is
added with charcoal, and the reflections in the water with little
touches of chalk or charcoal.
Erase spots for the haystacks, and use stroke 3. This is a
very simple curving stroke with the side of the chalk, accenting
with the left end of the crayon ; then a reverse stroke, accent-
ing with the right end of the chalk. If shadows are desired
they may be added with charcoal or black crayon. Observe
that the tops of all the haystacks are on a level.
The sketch with the ladder was made for primary reading.
Different words were written on the different steps of the ladder
and the children tried to see how high they could climb ; in
other words, how much of the lesson they could read. If they
read all of the words they could climb to the top of the haycock.
Here again are very simple strokes which require only a little
practice for accomplishment.
The distance is represented as in the last plate, and the grass
and meadow are done in the same manner as the marshy land
on plate lO ; i and 2 show the strokes. A few up-and-down
touches with a short piece of chalk are added in the immediate
The fence is drawn by the use of the strokes given on plate
I, and shown at 3 on this plate.
After drawing the field and the fence, erase for the tree trunk
and tree and add the foliage. This is done with a short piece
of chalk and a quick back-and-forth movement. See plates 6,
12, and 24 for other trees and strokes. The skeleton of the
tree, as shown below the drawing, may be represented first, then
the foliage added.
This plate will be found useful in the early spring, as it shows
the tree in winter condition, the pussy willows, and the tree in
Spots 4 show the treatment of the " pussies." A very short
curving stroke of the chalk is first made ; then the finger is used
to give the downy, soft effect. Sketch a few delicate lines for
the stems, add the catkins as described above, and then finish
the stems with black and white chalk.
In sketching trees, one should bear in mind the general atti-
tude of the tree, its characteristic form and branching, and the
stroke which will best produce these.
One teacher can best draw the tree by using such strokes as
those at No. i to give the trunk and branches, and then appl)-
ing the stroke for the foliage ; while another teacher does better
work by massing the tree, as at No. 2, and then adding trunk,
branches and details. Either method is good.
The strokes above the trees show the manner of representing
the foliage of these particular trees. See plates 6, 1 1 and
24, for other trees.
Apply either of the methods described above, using half a
stick of chalk placed flat upon the board and moved rapidly in
the direction suggested by the stroke. For the elm it is a curv-
ing motion ; for the poplar up and down ; for the pine, back and
forth ; for the oak or apple, an irregular and slightly slanting
After the mass of the tree is drawn, accent here and there
with the same stroke, and add branches and details.
When working upon a gray background or against a light tone
for the sky, use black chalk or charcoal in the manner described
As stated in the introduction, there have been many requests
for suggestions for calendars. Whatever the month may be,
draw a simple calendar large enough to be seen by the children.
If a picture of some sort is desired, draw something which will
be appropriate to the month and arrange it in a vertical panel
at one side, or a horizontal panel above or below the calendar.
The goldenrod on plate 12 will show what is meant by this
All the strokes here given have been drawn before and are
easily applied. Strokes i are given for the goldenrod, strokes 2
for the rose hips and leaves, 3 for the roses, 4 for the thistle,
and 5 for the daisy. With a few light touches of the chalk in-
dicate the growth and position of the specimen ; then apply the
strokes for drawing the surface of flowers and leaves.
In sketching the thistle the pointed details are added with
the point of the chalk.
At No. I is a very simple stroke made by placing a piece of
chalk in a vertical position, and drawing it across the board in
any desired direction, breaking it at regular intervals by lifting
the chalk from the board. This stroke is useful in representing
tiles, brick, stone, or any broken surface.
In this particular sketch a horizontal stroke is first made for
the mantel, then the vertical strokes for the surface of the walls;
then the bricks are added by the use of the strokes given at i.
Erase the space necessary for the fireplace, and add black chalk
or charcoal, leaving the board where the fire is to be represented.
A few gray strokes with the side of the chalk will indicate
the logs, and the use of stroke 2 will add the fire and smoke.
Stroke 2 is made by massing a little white chalk, and then rub-
bing into it with the finger, gradually blending it into the tone
of the blackboard. The details, andirons, etc., are easily added.
If this sketch is used for Christmas, add toys, sleds, stock-
ings, or other objects suggestive of the day. They are all
drawn with the side of the chalk, the direction of the stroke
being dictated by the object.
The sketches in this and the following lesson may be used in
work in history, or to illustrate the type of house used by the
early settlers. The sketch on plate 1 5 is supposed to be Wash-
ington's home, and that on plate 16 is Lincoln's birthplace.
Study the horizontal lines at No. i. Though not like those
in the sketch below, they show how any such cabin may be
drawn. Try these strokes, accenting with the upper end of the
oJialk while making the horizontal line. Should one side of the
building be lighter than the other, obtain the desired effect by
varying the pressure upon the chalk.
No. 2 is made by the use of a long piece of chalk, and by
keeping a smooth, even tone throughout the stroke.
Stroke 3 is made in a similar manner to that on plate 14 in
the drawing of the bricks. Make it in a rather irregular fashion,
and add little touches of detail with chalk or charcoal.
Stroke 4 is made with a very long piece of chalk, with strong
pressure on the lower end. This will give a good tone for the
sky and serve as an outline for the roof of the building.
In making this sketch, take a short piece of the chalk and use
a stroke like No. i, beginning with a very short line; and in-
creasing the length of the strokes till the body of the house is
reached and then keeping the lines of uniform length to the
After the body of the building and the sky are represented,
erase the logs where the chimney, windows, or door are to be
drawn. Erase also whatever chalk may be upon the board where
the trees are desired, and apply the irregular touches already
given in drawing trees. Use chalk or charcoal, according to the
tone desired in trees, windows and chimney. See stroke 3.
See strokes on plate 16 and plate 12.
Study the strokes given on the pre\aous page, plate 15, for
suggestions for sketching this cabin. Those at No. 2, No. 3,
and No. 4 will be found helpful.
Use stroke 4, plate 15, for the outline of the roof and the
sky, and add the smooth vertical or horizontal strokes for the
sides of the building. Accent here and there with the point of
the chalk and add details in a similar manner, but avoid a defi-
nite outline. Let the difference in tone make whatever outline
After erasing the spots for doors and windows, add the strong
dark tones with a bit of charcoal. The details at i and 2 on
the plate will show how these are made. No. 3 shows the treat-
ment for the roof.
After erasing for the trees, add a litde charcoal and chalk,
using the strokes given in the lesson on trees, plate 12. The
grass and the details in the foreground may be added last. The
sketch will readily show the strokes necessary and the move-
ment of the hand in making these strokes.
Whenever I have made a sketch of this kind it has always
given great pleasure to the children, and proved of more or less
-value in history, or in story -telling in the lower grades.
Stroke i illustrates the treatment for the sky and the horizon.
A few soft touches with the side of the chalk will indicate clouds.
Blend the white tone into the gray of the blackboard. The
chalk is held vertically and drawn across the board horizontally.
Next erase a spot or two for the sails and hull of the ship,
and apply stroke 2. This stroke is made by placing the chalk
in an oblique position and drawing a curving stroke downward,
the end of the chalk giving the outline of the sail. In the draw-
ing at the left a graded stroke was used, the eraser making the
edge of the sail at the left and the chalk at the right.
Stroke 3 is desirable in representing the ocean. It is made
by placing the chalk vertically upon the board and making a
long, sweeping stroke, accented with the upper end of the chalk.
In these sketches charcoal was used for the dark streaks in the
In drawing the hull of the ship, try stroke 4, using a short
piece of chalk or charcoal. The chalk is placed vertically and a
curving stroke is used with no particular accent. Add details
with touches of chalk or charcoal.
On plate i8 are suggestions for the month of March, or for
geography, history, or occupations and habits of the people.
Apply a few delicate, horizontal and curving strokes to the
board ; then with a soft piece of cloth erase for the distance, as
at No. I. Use stroke 2 for the sides of the windmill, stroke 3
for the wings, and touches of charcoal for the windows.
Stroke 5, plate 3, will help in representing the foregTound.
Use the chalk very delicately, accenting here and there with
stronger touches, and a vertical stroke now and then for the
reflections in the water — stroke 4.
The strokes illustrated on plates 2, 3, and 5 will be useful in
sketching the shores and other objects. Remember to allow
the pressure upon the chalk to indicate the outlines of objects,
and never to add definite marks with the point excepting for
necessary details or high lights.
This plate was planned as a review lesson, as well as to give
illustrations which teachers might use for a great variety of pur-
poses. All these strokes have been given before and are easily
For the turkey, sketch lightly a circle ; then with the side of
the chalk add broad, gray strokes. See No. i. After this is
done, add short touches with the side of the chalk, for the wings,
legs, feathers, etc.
Stroke 2 was given on plate 2, and, with the addition of the
little slanting and curving strokes here given, will produce the
lighthouse. This sketch will perhaps be useful in connection
with plate 9, in teaching the seacoast.
Strokes 3 and 4 are similar to those given on plate 5. Thev
are made by the use of curving strokes with the side of the
chalk, the accent being upon the end forming the outline. This
stroke is frequently used, the object to be drawn dictating the
direction of the stroke. Apply these strokes in drawing the rat,
the chickens, the mushrooms and the frog.
In the tree sketch, a background of gray is first drawn with
the side of the chalk ; then the strokes given on plate 6 are ap-
plied with charcoal, and the snowflakes added with strong
touches of white chalk. If the candles are desired, omit the
snow and use tiny strokes like those at 5.
No. 6 is desirable in representing the nest. After 6 is drawn,
add stroke 4 for the eggs and finish the nest by using strong
touches with the point of the chalk.
The strokes on plate 20 are so well defined that it hardly
seems necessary to describe them. For i a short piece of
. chalk is used, the side of the chalk giving the width of the line.
At 2 the stroke is similar, the accent being at one end of the
chalk. At 3 the stroke is slightly curving, the chalk being
placed vertically, and the accent being upon the upper end of
the chalk. No. 4 is drawn by placing the chalk vertically upon
the board, drawing it downward very quickly and twisting it to
the horizontal position. Apply these strokes in sketching the
lobster. First use stroke 3, then touches like 2 ; afterward
strokes i and 4 for details.
No. 5 indicates the strokes first used in sketching the shells.
In drawing the outside of the nautilus, use a long piece of chalk
and with a curving stroke accented with the end, form the out-
line. With strokes similar to those at 2, sketch the light streaks
in the shell, and add dark details with charcoal. Use the tip of
the finger in softening the tones here and there.
In drawing the section, sketch first the spiral curve, then the
blended strokes connecting the outer with the inner curves of
the spiral, and add charcoal for shadows.
The oyster shell is drawn by the use of the lower stroke at
No. 5. Make the stroke,, accenting a little at the left end of the
chalk ; then reverse the stroke, accenting with the right end,
and add details with chalk and charcoal.
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- . The strokes and touches used upon plate 2 1 are more dehcate
than any previously given, though similar in character. No. i
is drawn with the side of the chalk, the accent being with the
left end. Allow the hand to tremble a bit and the texture de-
sired is more readily obtained. Stroke 2 is produced in the same
manner. After these are drawn add the shades, stems, and leaf
with charcoal, and high lights with touches of white chalk.
Stroke 3 is exactly like that at No. 2, plate 20, though drawn
with a much smaller piece of chalk. A series of these strokes,
with the addition of touches with the charcoal and point of the
chalk, as indicated in the sketch, will produce the caterpillar.
Strokes 4 and 5 are valuable in sketching a butterfly or moth.
They are gray strokes with the side of the chalk, the pressure
being upon the end forming the outline. In work of this kind
study nature very carefully, as no sketch or copy can do what
nature can for the teacher. After the general form of the but-
terfly is drawn with these light gray strokes, add the details,
using touches of chalk or charcoal, and occasionally blending
them with the tip of the finger.
A very few lines will often indicate the pose or action of an
animal. Try lines similar to those at i ; study other animals
and try a few characteristic lines. See No. i for the squirrel
and for the fish.
After practicing the pose, try 2 without sketching the
lines with the point of the chalk, but by using the side, as in
previous sketches. To finish the sketch add the few details
necessary, as shown in the other drawings.
The strokes used in these sketches are given on several other
plates. They are produced by using the side of about two-
thirds of a stick of chalk, and by accenting or letting the pres-
sure be greatest at the end of the chalk which is to form the
outline. This type of stroke is perhaps most evident where the
pressure was upon the left end of the chalk, as in the squirrel's
See also stroke 4, plate 3, and strokes upon plate 5.
The strokes used in the birds are exactly hke those described
in the previous lesson.
Sketch first an egg shape, No. i, using half or two-thirds of
a stick of chalk, and pressing a bit upon the outer end, letting
the stroke blend into the board.
Add to this a few blended strokes representing the form and
position of head, tail and wing. The sketches at 2, 3 and 4
indicate upon which end of the chalk the pressure should come.
Be careful to keep the delicate gray or middle tones.
After such drawings as those at 2, 3 and 4 are made, then
add the characteristic details with the chalk and charcoal. It
will be seen by studying these finished drawings that onl)' a few
touches are necessary to complete the sketches.
In order to obtain a contrast between the background and
the head of the bird in the lower sketch, a little chalk was
massed upon the board as a background. See plate 12.
These sketches are drawn as illustrations for literature, but
would be quite as useful in some other studies.
The strokes at i, 2 and 3 are those used in the tree sketch ;
I is obtained by two strokes of the chalk, placed vertically upon
the board and accented by a pressure upon the lower end.
These strokes give the sky and the hills in the distance. The
use of the eraser and a few blended strokes like those at 2 will
help in sketching the tree trunks. See plate 2. After these
are done, add stroke 3, and with it mass the foliage. See sug-
gestions on plate 12. The point of land in the distance and a
few of the branches are added with charcoal.
Study the lesson on plate 23 before sketching the sparrow.
Stroke 4 is made with a single broad mark of charcoal, and the
addition of tiny touches with the chalk. The branch is drawn
in a similar manner, and the background is added by a few soft
and delicate touches with the side of the chalk.
This plate was used as an illustration for Longfellow's "Flower-
de-luce." The pond-Illy may be used in nature study or as an
illustration for some poem.
The strokes necessary or useful in drawing these bits are
shown at No. i, No. 2 and No. 3. At No. i the chalk is placed
in an oblique position, drawn gradually downward, and at the
same time twisted to the horizontal position at the middle of the
stroke. Try this stroke in a great variety of positions. The spots
produced will be found useful in much of the flower and leaf
drawing. Apply these in the fleur-de-lis.
The strokes at 2 for the leaves were given and described on
plate 4, and may be appropriated wherever reeds or grasses are
to be drawn.
Stroke 3 is simple, yet often found troublesome by pupils.
Place the chalk in a vertical position, draw it quickly downward,
twisting it to a nearly horizontal position. Let the accent be
at the upper end of the stroke. Try a number of these strokes,
letting them meet at the centre of the flower. In making the
drawing of the pond-lily, accent the nearest petals.
The reflection in the water, and the reeds in the background
are obtained by delicate vertical strokes, crossed in the water b}'
occasional horizontal touches. Use simple curving strokes for
the lily pads.
Here is given another literature illustration, which is drawn
with such strokes as those indicated in the upper part of the
Stroke i has been described many times already. After this
is drawn indicate the distance by the use of a few touches with
charcoal, and the water with a delicate line or two of chalk. Let
the strokes be horizontal.
The rocks are represented with such strokes as No. 3. See
also plate 9, stroke 3. Accent here and there for the light
touches, and add bits of charcoal for the dark.
Stroke 2 is drawn by placing the chalk in a vertical position,
and drawing it in the desired direction with a rather irregular or
uneven stroke. See stroke 3, plate 15. When the strong,
bright tones are desired, accent with the chalk, and when the
gray tones are necessary, hardly touch the board. The windows
are added with strong strokes of charcoal.
This plate was planned especially for arithmetic lessons, as it
shows in the sketches the various processes through which the
cotton passes before reaching the retailer, thus suggesting a
number of practical problems. It may be used quite as well in
geograj)hy, history, and nature study.
Spot I is produced by massing a bit of chalk and then rubbing
it into the desired shape by the use of the finger tip. The ])<)d
is drawn with a short stick of charcoal, used in the same man-
ner as the chalk.
No. 2 shows the stroke for the sky and horizon, and has
already been described in many other lessons.
To produce the effect shown at No. 3 use the side of a short
piece of chalk, and with a rather irregular stroke draw the twigs
and stems. Accent the spots for the cotton balls.
In^he other small sketches the strokes are so evident that
they hardly need description. A white, smooth sky, erased
where the mills and chimneys appear, will produce the effect in
the lowest drawing. A little charcoal may be added for the
darkest tones, a stroke of the eraser for the smoke, and little
touches of chalk for the windows.
These sketches were also suggested for problems in arithme-
tic. The problems relate to lumbering, measurement, and com-
No. I illustrates the beginning of a forest sketch. With a
single stroke of the chalk, accented at the lower end, draw the
sky. With a second more delicate stroke show the distance;
then with a few quick, nearl)^ vertical strokes with the eraser
show the positions of the trees. Later with chalk or charcoal
and the use of such strokes as those given on plate 2, and at
No. 3 on this plate, add the shading in the tree trunks.
No. 2 shows the strokes useful in drawing the camp, the
wood pile, or the. lumber. These have already been given in
such sketches as those on plate 1 5 .
The sketch of the house in the original had the dimensions
marked upon it, and the pupils were to find the shingles required
for the roof, the clapboards for the walls, etc
Before trying this sketch, study plates 15 and 16 for strokes
The accompanying plate was taken from a lesson in a first
grade. The little boy was dressed in an impromptu costume
of cotton batting, and the background hastily sketched by the
The horizon was drawn as on plate 9 ; then a few soft oblique
strokes were added to the sky. The shore was drawn with irreg-
ular back-and-forth strokes, as in many of the previous sketches,
and a sheet was tacked to the board in order to obtain the white
An almost vertical stroke accented with the end of the chalk
was used in drawing the icebergs, and a few strokes of charcoal
The huts were drawn with a curving stroke accented with
the upper end of the chalk, and they were finished by applying
stroke 2, plate 3, and adding a few details with the point of the
Any teacher can easily arrange such backgrounds and cos-
tumes with the simplest material at hand, and in this manner
add essentially to the interest and value of a lesson. A Japan-
ese Day, An Indian Entertainment, A Soldiers' Camp Ground,
A Lumber Camp, and many others, are easily arranged.
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY
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