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^'o -il 4 ^<6 








. JUL 'f8l • 



22L. I . 3^0. 

, ,zi;i:,C00gk' 



A WORD ought to be said as to the circum- 
atances under which my experience of South 
African affairs was gathered. In 1877 I ac- 
cepted an oflfer to proceed to Natal and under- 
take the Editorship of the Natal Witness, the 
oldest established journal in that Colony. My 
connection with that journal lasted till the 
end of 1879, when I left Natal for Cape Town, 
for the purpoae of conducting a new paper, 
which, although started under conditions very 
favourable to success, collapsed through finan- 
cial mismanagement. My experience of South 
Africa extends, therefore, over a period of 
something more than three years. 





GbTTINO tttbhb 1 

Table Moum'aiit 13 

Capb Politics 30 

CapkWdik 50 

The Capk Pakkkb 63 

Thb Dutch GtEiBVAMca . .... 78 

The Dutch Exodus 100 



English Eittebpbisb 116 

The Raw Native 135 



The Refined Nathtb 178 

The Teutstaal .196 


The Cubsb op Sodth Apeica . . 216 


COKFEDBEATION . ^ . . 236 

What is Wanted . .... 259 




So here we are at last ! 

At last ! — not a very long time, however. It is 
just three weeks to-day since the great gray steamer 
with the h^ red fmmel slipped out of the land- 
locked harbour at Dartmouth — since we saw the 
little steam-tendet puffing its way back towards the 
wharf, and knew that we were getting our last sight 
of Ei^lish land. Three weeks only, and three weeks 
of comfortable and easy steamii^. A very different 
state of thii^ this from that which prevailed only 
some ten years ago, when a little crank, ill-found 
vessel thought well of herself if she landed the mails 
at Cape Town thirty-six days after she left South- 
ampton Water. But there came a time of waking 
up; and who was it that woke up the Cape mail 
service "but our friend Mr. Donald Curriel The 
opening was there, and ha stepped into it, and all 

./ B 



the world, especially the South A&ican world, thanks 
him for so doing. That he has made his own profit 
out of his enterprise is a foot to which no one can 
take exception. Neither can any one complain that 
he has the right to wear at his hutton-hole the little 
star, on the hope of obtaining which so many colonial 
officials in aU parte of the world daily and hourly 
study the whims of the Colonial Office. The C.M.G. 
— ^for of course, as you know, it is to this mystic de- 
coration that I refer — has sometimes been given dubi- 
ously. But never was it better earned than by the 
managing owner of the famous " Castle Packets." 
And it was earned all the better by reason of the 
fact that he did not care whether he got it or not. 

Of course to the old stagers in the trade — the 
quondam monopolists of Cape traffic — Mr. Cume 
has simply been the evil one. But what then ? 
One needs most go where the evil one drives, and 
the evil one has in this case driven his competitors 
to give the public facilities far in advance of any 
they would have been likely to obtain if the old 
system of things had heen left undisturbed. Nay, 
they even claim to have made the quickest passages 
between England and Cape Town. But who cares for 
quickest passages? They may pay, though even 
this is doubtful, as an advertisement, just as it pays 
as an advertisement to carry an ex-Empress to Zulu- 
land and back. But do you know what they cost 
in extra coal and in wear and tear ? Three weeks is 



quite fast enoi^h, from Friday at Dartmonth to 
Friday at Cape Town. Suppoae you get in on the 
Wednesday, what are you the better? Do you 
think there are expresa trains in South Africa which 
you will have to catch ? 

Three weeks 1 and what a pleasant three weeks ! 
Of course you are moderately sea-sick in the Bay 
of Biscay. It does not often fall to one's lot to cross 
that venerated expanse, as I have done, with the sea 
like a null-pond ; nor does it always Ml to one's lot, 
as it has also fallen to mine, to have a foot of Bay of 
Biscay water washing about in your cabin. To have 
a moderate sea, and to be moderately sick, is quite 
the best thing for you. All Saturday you are 
in misery; on Sunday morning you have a try at 
your breakfast ; and by Sunday evening you are 
watching yonder white brigantine that seems to be 
shaping her coarse for the Straits of Gtibraltax, and 
wondering when the dinner-bell is going to ring ; for 
the dinner-bell, as you speedily find out, is a crisis 
in this three weeks' life afioat, and you soon learn to 
appreciate the wisdom of the maxim that it is weU 
to know when you are well oft Twenty-one such 
dinners are certainly better worth having than 
eighteen. You look upon the square saloon, with its 
four long tables and its ten ports on a side ; with its 
piano comfortably lodged in a recess behind the 
skipper's chair, and flanked by the two book-cases, 
respectively containing hymn-books for Sunday and 



novels for week days ; with its lofty skylight, where 
the children peep in in hopes of oranges — ^yoii look 
upon this little space in mid-ocean with the same 
sort of affection that a good-living monk felt towards 
hia refectory. It is very wicked, no doubt, to be a 
gonnandiser, but — ^well, the fact is that sea-air is 
sea-air, and an enforced fast in the Bay of Biscay 
has its natural consequences. 

Then Madeira ! — Ton remember Madeira ? You 
remember how, as you coasted by the little gray and 
green island of Porto Santo, you thoi^ht you could 
see the shape of hills growing out beneath that bank 
of cloud ahead ? You remember how the doubtful 
edges became sharply defined, how you caught here 
and there patches of sunlight on the high green 
slopes ? You remember how queer-shaped rocks 
seemed to rise out of the sea as you went on, and how 
these gradually connected themselves, and were 
recognised as the lower part of the island ? Then 
you remember how, an hour or so later, you rounded 
the little island crowned with a lighthouse, that 
forms the island's extreme eastern point, and ran 
along a coast dotted with white specks of houses, and 
green with terraced vineyards, till, round a bold 
bluff in front of you, the vision of Funchal aU at 
once flashed into view. That is a sight which yon 
will never forget, however dull you may ordinarily 
be. Then you remember how the anchor splashed 
down into water as clear as crystal, and how aU 



kinds of odd-ahaped boats with odd-shaped -wicker 
chairs for sale thronged loimd the gangway. Then, 
too, there were the boys, who, with their drenched 
linen drawers clinging round their brown limbs, 
plunge into the water after threepenny-bits, or will 
even dive under the steamer's keel for a considera- 
tion. Then up anchor again, and away steaming 
south towards the tropics, with a blaze of crimson 
sunset on the starboard side, and a sparkling track 
of foam streamii^ out astem, as white as snow over 
water as blue as liquid ultramarine. And now, 
early in the morning, you hear the tramp of feet and 
the boatswain's whistle on deck, and you lounge up 
to find the white canvas — topsails and topgallants on 
both masts, and a foresail big enough to make 
carpets for Leviathan — swelling gently out to the 
north-east trades. The Canaries? Ah, you passed 
them in the night — Qomera, with its twinkling 
lighthouse at the water's edge, looking like a mere 
cloud under the stars; Teneriffe, far away to the 
east, and hardly to he seen from the course we are 
taking. The sun is getting more overhead now, and 
you know the difference when you step out from 
imder the awning. Cape Verde glides past presently, 
with its double lighthouse, and with a breath of hot 
air from the desert If you get wrecked on that 
coast, it is some satisfaction to know that there are 
savages who might think twice about eating you. 
But you are fairly in the tropica now, and both 



eating and sleeping become problematical To Bit in 
a bath all day and to Ee on the deck all n%ht 
seems to represent the most natural condition of 
things. And yet there are people who persist in 
getting up dances, concerts, theatricals even, down in 
that oven which the airy saloon has become. Theatri- 
cals — yes ; for — did you know it ? — there is a com- 
plete set of stage scenery and all other accessories on 
board. That brass rod across the ceiling of the 
saloon, which so sorely puzzled you, is there for the 
express purpose of rising up a curtain — a curtain 
which, not having room to fall, must perforce draw 
aside. In half-an-hovir a couple of carpenters have 
fized np the whole thing, and, as if by some semi- 
providential sort of arrangement, the Chief Steward 
is eminent for his skill in organising a dramatic 
company. But the difficulties, you say. What 
difficulties ? For aU the motion of the vessel you 
might as weU be in Fleet Street. There is, to be 
sure, the muffled thump, thump, thump of the 
engines ; there is the pleasant sound of the wash of 
the waves coming in through the open ports ; there 
is, if you look out, the sparkling line of phosphor- 
escent foam rising and falling as it recedes from the 
bows on either side. But heaving, or rolling, or 
anythii^ to upset the most sensitive stomach of the 
most nervous voyager, there is none. The waves, 
whatever they may do elsewhere, have been ruled 
hereabouts to some purposa 



Then St Helena, with ita weitd ravmes and its 
solemn memories, with the ladder ranning np &oni 
the beach-level to the top of the cliff, and its contin- 
gent of speculators who sell seed-braceleta and all 
sorts of relics that never came from anywhere near 
the tomb of Napoleon. And then, once more, into 
the open sea again, steering dead in the teeth of the 
south-east trades, that may trouble you or may not, 
according to their own good pleasure. Fifteen days 
. from Dartmouth to St. Helena, six days more from St. 
Helena to Cape Town — that is about a fair division 
of the time. And now if the south-east trades should 
be fi'esh, you will find the advantage of having got 
over your sea-qualms in the Bay of Biscay. Perpetual 
sea-saw for six days and nigbtei on end is, with the 
best, not a lively state of things ; and about the fourth 
day, if the Fates are really so unpropitions, the im- 
pression makes itself felt that you have had about 
enough of it. Flirtations are looked down and pack- 
ages are looked up, just as you begin, when you come 
up to London from Scotland, to hunt for your rug- 
straps at Watford. Two days, however, is a good long 
time on a voyage, just as twenty miles is a good long 
time on a railway journey. As for land, of course you 
saw it a dozen times when it was utterly impossible 
that you could see it. An appeal to a map shows 
that it is useless to look for land on the port side. 
It is not only miles away, but is also mostly as flat 
as the Bedfordshire fens. There is nothing to be 



done but to look straight ahead and be patient. If 
you sight Table Mountain at seventy miles' distance, 
you will do well. How you sight it you never quite 
make out. It doesn't rise out of the sea in firont of 
you ; it rather grows, square-shaped and unmistak- 
able, out of the sky near the horizon. Seventy miles 
off and there it is, and almost at the same moment a 
keen-eyed watcher, with a powerful telescope, on one 
of the lower peaks of that dim blue mountain, has 
seen you, and hoisted up his signal flags for the 
benefit of the good bm^hers of Cape Town. It is ten 
o'clock in the morning when you first make it out, 
and you may have lunch in comfort and overhaul 
your traps afterwards before there is a chance of 
your being near enough to go ashore. But all this 
time the engines are pounding on, and every turn of 
the screw lessens by some yards the remaining dis- 
tance. More mountains, steep-ridged and purple 
with the distance, peep up &om behind the square- 
shouldered giant that still seems like an island. Then 
you get a trace of a low line of mainland running out 
to meet it, and you can begin to distinguish between 
the black precipices and the green slopes underneath 
them. There are houses under the shelter of the hUl, 
and down near the beach on which the smooth At- 
lantic rollers are breaking. There is a l^hthouse on 
a low green point, and the staging of a yet unfinished 
breakwater beyond it And now, as the great gray 
steamer, with slackened speed, moves round the end 


I,] "BANG!" 9 

of the breakwater, there, seen first through a grove of 
masts and rigging, lie the white hoaaes of Cape Town, 
filling up a natural amphitheatre under the level line 
of the summit of Table Mountain, and looking as if 
in some former days some giant had 


Well, possibly that gun, our welcome to the South 
African metropolis, was not without its uses in brii^- 
ing us back from the region of poetry to the land of 
fact We have got here at last — we have set foot, 
or shall do so directly, on South African soil — and 
we want to know aomething about the place that all 
these good people, both in Parliament and out of it, 
are quarrelling over. You, my dear good Mend, 
whom I have persuaded to come at least thus far, 
did not know, when you set foot on board the steamer 
in the London docks or at Dartmouth, anything about 
South Africa, And, not knowing anything about it, 
you did not care anything. All you knew was that 
South Africa was a part of the Empire which was 
continually in hot water; that people go to war there 
in a very unnecessary and esjiensive manner ; and 
that, when they get into war, they do not know how 
to get out again. You knew that there were a large 
number of natives there, who, as yoa believed, didn't 
care much about clothes, and had a desire to get guns 
to replace their assegais. You knew that there were 
Dutchmen in South Africa, whom you pictured to 
yourself as broad in the beam, not particularly fond 



of freah ■water, and intensely ignorant of evetythii^ 
they ought to know. As to how they got there, that 
was a matter you didn't trouble yourself about. Ton 
knew, too, that there were people somewhere called 
Boers, who have proved themselves unpleasantly 
expert in the use of the rifle, and who, to your amaze- 
ment, do not torture the priaonera they may capture. 
You believed that Sir Bartle Frere was partly wrong 
and partly right — right when you read bis dee^atches, 
and wrong when you saw the results of his policy 
— and that with a certain expenditure of powder and 
an uncertain amount of bloodshed, everytiiing would 
be made right until it got wrong ^ain. You had seen 
a South African diamond ; you bad possibly heard 
of South Afdcan wool ; and a friend, with whom 
you will not again on any account, trust yourself to 
dine, once prevailed on you to taste a decoction he 
called Cape sherry. AH this information was 
undoubtedly veiy useful as far as it went, but per- 
haps, having come so for and eiyoyed your voyage 
80 much, you will not mind going a little farther. 

Let ns, then, make a bargain. I want to show 
you what the country is, and what the people are ; 
to show you what the country and the people have 
been, and what they may become ; to show you the 
root of all the perplexities that vex both you and me, 
and all Ez^lish people in respect of this part of the 
Empire, and to show, as well as I can, the way 
out of these perplexities. This is one side of the 


1.] THE THREE "ffS." 11 

bargain. On the other side, I will engage to keep 
out of the cloudland of poetry, and to give you only 
facta, only askiiig to be allowed to give the facts 
in my own way, which, I tmst, you will not find 
wearisome ot unpleasant. If you give in your adher* 
ence to this bai^ain, get your things tt^ther and 
come ashore. There is — mirahUe diciK— a hansom on 
the quay there, in which we can drive for the sum of 
one shilling to the " villi^e," as the Yankee seaman 
once called it, and when we are there — it is a ten 
minutes' drive at the outside — we can take the train 
— for there is even a railway at Cape Town ! — and 
reach a quiet nook I know of, where we may have a 
preliminary consultation. 

Only, first of aU, get this one idea fixed in your 
mind. The South African problem, which we are 
going to look at, is a three-cornered problem. There 
is no chance of your comprehending it unless you lay 
down this fact as the basis, on which every ai^ument 
has to be built, and the standard to which every ex- 
perience must be referred. You remember, no doubt, 
the three-cornered duel in Midshipman Easy — how 
Mr. Easy fired at Mr. Biggs, the boatswain, how Mr. 
Biggs fired at Mr. Easthnpp, the purser's steward, 
and how Mr. Easthupp fired, or should have fired, at 
Mr. Easy. Keep this odd three-cornered arrangement 
in mind, and you will have a ready means of recol- 
lecting the three-cornered nature of South A&ican 
pontics, by which I do not mean such stuff as is 



implied by references to dates and blue books. Poli- 
tics mean the people and the circumstances under 
which they live, and these I am going to show you. 
And aa there have been in times past in England 
three " E'e ," and as there are in times present in Ire- 
land three " Fs," ao let us say that the three sides 
of the South African question are represented by the 
three "B's" — Blacks, Boers, and British. 

And now, having taken leave of otir kind and 
genial skipper, who has so often enlivened ua by the 
way with tales of his adventures in the Baltic, let us 
walk ashoie. 




It is with me an article of faith, that whoever ■would 
get a hold upon South AMcan politics must first of 
all know something, and care something, about Table 

There is not a mountain like it in the world — 
80 large, so majestic, rising so suddenly as it does 
between the level Atlantic on one side, and the 
isthmus of level land that joins it to the mainland 
on the other. It is not merely a ridge in a range, 
but a mountain by itself, as high as Snowdon, and 
as isolated as the Nelson column in Trafalgar Square. 
It fills up the whole of the larger end of the odd- 
shaped little peninsula — an island surely once — on 
which Cape Town is built. No mountain that I 
know of presents so many varieties of scenery and 
of character. If seen from the sea side, it rises up 
in large confused slopes, with the dark rocks showing 
between. On the Cape Town side it appears little 
else than a gigantic wall of rock, flanked on either 
aide by lower elevations that stretch round their 



arms as if trying to embrace the city. On the third 
side it is, by reason of its beauty, almost indescrib- 
able. Yet an attempt must be made. 

We spoke just now of the railway station. That 
is one of the new glories of Cape Town, a building 
that woidd do credit to any good-sized provincial 
town in England, with a pile of offices flanking it, 
in which the Railway and Telegraph departments of 
the Cape Glovemment find a home. Here is a train 
just ready to start for Wynberg, the terminus of 
what may be called the suburban line from Cape 
Town, that carries its thousands daily between their 
homes under the shadow of Table Moimtain and 
their businesses in the citj. Now we have started, 
and run close under the walls of the old star-shaped 
fortification known as Cape Town Castle, from the 
ramparts of which, just overhead as you roU by, 
poor Cetywayo used to watch the ships in the bay 
and count the trains on the railway. Still forward, 
with the grand dark mass of Table Mountain on the 
right, the level sandy shore of Table Bay — once, in 
pre-breakwater times, the scene of many a disastrous 
wreck — on our left, past the big military hospital, 
■where the blue-jacketed convalescents can be seen 
playing at quoits, till we reaoh our first stop at Salt 
Biver Junction, all in a sandy, marshy, waste, over 
which the fiunous south-eaaters howl with a fury 
that has to be known to be appreciated. That 
unpretentious narrow guage line that branches out 



on the left is the high road to the interior, stretching 
out an already completed length of nearly 350 miles. 
But this is not the line we want to-day. Carving 
sharply to the right, round the wooded spur of the 
mountain, we take an altogether different course. 
Here on the left is to yon, a freshly landed English- 
man, a novel sight — none other than an ostrich farm, 
with the gaunt young ostriches running up to the 
back door of a white farmhouse. A little iarther on 
the same side, and there is the roof of the Observatory, 
famous for its connection with the name of HerseheL 
A little farther, and the bleakness of the surround- 
ings is gone. We are moving throi^h a veritable 
land of gardens and vineyards, with the precipices of 
the mountain showing higher than ever through the 
tree tops. 

No, we are not going as for as Wynberg to-day. 
We will get out at this English-looking station with 
the pretty name of Eondeboach, and first of all look 
about us. Did you ever see such a sight as that 
mass of mountain ? It looks, with all the hollows 
in its precipices showing out clearly cut through the 
pure South African air, perhaps some fifteen hundred 
feet high. On that sharper peak to the right — the 
Devil's Peak, they call it — you can, with a steady 
glance, make out a fiag-pole. Let us consider a 
moment We have ascended, on our way ftom Cape 
Town, perhaps some 30 or 40 feet above the level 
of Table Bay, certainly not mora Practically, there- 



fore, we ate at sea - level still. And that immense 
wall of rock in float of ua is as high as Snowdon 
himselfl Can you realise it ! I have tried over and 
over again, and I confess I cannot. Tet the feet is 
80, Throw a stone over the edge of that highest 
precipice in the centre, where the mountain seems 
to take the shape of a double bastion of some Titanic 
fortress, and it would fall at the very least 1500 feet 
before it plui^ed into the foliage on the slopes be- 
low. The foliage — yes, that is what strikes you here 
next after the precipices. Was ever mountain so 
beautifully clothed? You can trace, even from this 
railway platform, what the foliage consists of. There 
is the gray stone-pine, the tree of Turner's Italian 
landscapes, marching in avenues, or grouped together 
in almost impenetrable masses. There is the beauti- 
ful silver tree, almost peculiar to this little comer 
of South Africa, on whose leaves you may write as 
on the finest paper. Oak is there in profusion, 
while all among and between the larger tree-stems 
the brushwood grows thick. Such a mountain, so 
clothed, ia worth coming thousands of miles to see. 
It would be worth Mr, Euskin's while to come here 
to live under it, and talk about it as he only could 
do. Take it when and how you will — whether with 
light of the summer sunset streaming across its face, 
and adorning those inaccessible rocks with a glory 
never to be forgotten; or whether with the rain 
mists of winter hanging round it, when every but- 



tress and bastion seems black as night, and the 
vrater courses, marked each with a white thread of 
foam, can be heard roaring down from for above the 
cloud level — it is surely a mountain much to be 

Can we ascend it? Scarcely, so far as these 
southern precipices are concerned, though you may, 
with a little trouble, climb up from the Cape Town 
Bide. But we may, and will, at least accomplish a 
little of the ascent. There are lanes and there are 
paths, arched over with foliage and known to the 
initiated, which will lead us out at last where we 
can see how the country looks from Table Mountain. 
"We can leave the station, and cross the high-road — 
such a high-ioad 1 as smooth and hard as marble, 
running through an almost continuous tunnel of oak 
foliage! — and then our ascent begins. If we go 
through this ancestral-looking gateway, and walk up 
what looks like — and is — a private avenue, in the first 
instance, we can get a peep at a veritable Dutch 
country residence as we go by. This is "Groet 
Schuur," a name best rendered into English by the 
words " The Grange," and is the ancestral mansion 
of the aristocratic Van der Byls, who let it to Sir 
Henry Barkly for a country residence when he was 
Governor at the Cape, You would hardly guess, as 
you look from the high-road, that a house could he 
there, and only at a sudden turn to the left, and as 
you come to the end of a taU hedge, do yon realise 



the feet that there is only the length — though a 
length of some hundred jaids or so — of a bright 
sloping garden between you and a house that needs 
not to go into a picture, for it is one. That white 
house, with its' broad flights of steps, its wide veran- 
dah — you will call it a " stoep " when you have been 
here a week or two — with its pillared front, its lofty 
windows, its hedged garden bright with roses and 
quaint with a stone sundial and vases, with its im- 
mediate bacl^roand of dark green masses of foliage 
and its more distant background of the gray sum- 
mits of the mountain — that is the home of a Cape 
femily, and has been their home for generations. 
They were here loi^ before the English flag ever 
flew from the Castle at Cape Town ; they will be 
here long after — but this is not only jmtieipation but 

But let us now keep away to the right, and follow 
the path that strikes up steeply through the woods. 
We are still theoretically within the limits of the 
demesne of the big white house, but Dutch people 
are not churls, and no one will forbid us a passage. 
"Winding round the side of a veritable fairy ^en, 
from the dark depths of which the long straight 
tree -stems spring up almost to die level of oar 
narrow pathway, the word is constantly upwards. 
And now, scrambling up a steep slope, slippery with 
the needles dropped from the pine-trees overhead, 
we are out on a clearer space. The mountain is 



Still in front of ns, bigger, more incomprehensible 
than ever, and all round there is that strange still 
silence which sometimes haunts a summer afternoon 
in England. Not a breeze, not a cloud, not a move- 
ment of the tall pines — the stone-pine still — that 
form the avenue running up the hillside in front of 
U3. Where trees are planted in a double row there 
will surely be a path, and that path we will take. 
Still up, then ; gently, for the sun is hot. Up be- 
tween the young treelings lining the path on either 
side ; up past the point where a second avenue, that 
seemed at first to be running parallel to our own, 
strikes into it ; up till the gray mountain precipices 
seem scarcely more than a stone's throw distant, 
though really still distant many hundred yards. 
And here at last, where the stone-pines seem to 
end, and where the pa£h plunges into thicker brush- 
wood, we can make a pause and look around. 

There is still perfect sunshine, perfect silence — 
or, if sound at all, the Mutest rattle among the diy 
bor^hs overhead, as a faint breeze shivers up the bill 
and through the heather on which the fir cones fall 
noiselessly as on a carpet. Sunlight, and silence, 
and air, such air ! Air that you seem able to drink 
in like water ; air impregnated with a thousand 
dreamy and half recognised scents ; air just warmed, 
as it would seem, with the light that moves about 
through it. Silent and solemn, but not sad. What 
shadow there is is shadow of distance and not shadow 



of cloud. It is the colour-scale of Paul Veronese, and 
not of Rembrandt, that prevails here- to-day, and 
yesterday, and to-morrow, and all through the long 
weeks of the rainless Cape Town summer. Are those 
clouds, those ru^ed outlines seen through the trees 
in front of ua, as we sit with our backs to the preci- 
pices of the mountain ? No, those are mountains 
some forty miles away — the mountains to the east 
side of False Bay, that for years formed the bound- 
ary of the early Dutch settlement. " This is ojir Hol- 
land," it was said to the Hottentot tribes, " on this 
side of these mountains ; that is your Holland 
on the other side ;" and so the Hottentot Hol- 
land mountains were christened. Hugged as to 
their peaks, they are more rugged as to their passes ; 
beautiful in this warm quiet summer time, they are 
even more beautiful when the rain-clouds break up 
over them, or when the winter snow is white on 
their ridges. There, a little more to the right, is 
the broad blue expanse of False Bay, with its rollers — 
you can catch the flash of them even at this distance 
— beating along the shore of the sandy flat that links 
the Cape Town peninsula to the mainland. More to 
the right still runs out the high land that shelters 
Simon's Town and Simon's Bay from sight, and 
at the southern extremity of which is the " Cape of 
Storms," which Vasco de Gama so long vainly strove 
to double. More to the right still, but nearer, are 
spread out the famous Gonstantia vineyards, acres 



upon acres, climbing up steep hill-sides, aud spiead- 
ii^ themselves ovei the edges of valleye. And vh&t 
in iront ? Have you seen anythii^ more lovely, in 
the way of quiet landscape, than this bird'»-eye view 
of the belt of pine- woods, and green lawns, and scat- 
tered white houses, that stretches all along the base 
of the mountain ? Can anything he more exquisite 
in colour than tte expanse of flats beyond this belt, 
an expanse like a carpet, in which all possible shades 
of green mix themselves up with grays and yellows, 
and even with the deep purply brown of the rarest 
heathers ? Can you wonder that the air is so fresh 
and so liqiiid, when the breezes that stur it about 
come to you from those far-off hills and across those 
far-reaching flats ? 

The place cannot be very different to what it was 
some four hundred years ago, when Vasco de Gama 
was beating about in the vain endeavour to get to 
India by way of the Cape. There were perhaps fewer 
trees then, though this I would not take for certain, 
and there were undoubtedly more baboons, which have 
now completely vanished from the neighbourhood of 
Cape Town. That was at the end of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, and it was not until the seventeenth century was 
well started on its way that the Dutch East India 
Company sent their agents to form a permanent settle- 
ment here. What manner of men they were, yon 
doubtless know — men saturated to the bone with that 
fierce and stubborn Calvinism which was necessary 



to point Dutch resistance to Spanish oppiession. 
There, on the site of the star-shaped fortifications we 
passed just now, they bailt their fort and organised 
theii little State, adopting maxims of government 
which antiquaries may still unearth in old records 
both in Europe and in South Africa Their position 
was precarious, though they owned their independ- 
ence, and their independence presently attracted 
people who gave a greatly increased strength to 
their position. It was an ill wind for France that 
blew so many of her best citizens out of the country 
when the Edict of Nantes was revoked. But it was 
a wind that blew good to South Africa at least. 
While one section of the French Protestant exodus 
turned northward towards England, another section 
turned southwards towards what was to them in very 
deed a Cape of Gtood Hope, bringing with them 
sound hearts and good heads, and names, like De 
Villiera, Joubert, Eoubaix, and Marais, that are to- 
day found all over South Africa. They brought with 
them, too, Uieir own language ; but this was a thing 
absolutely prohibited to be imported. Welcome 
enough they were, and homes were assigned them 
with ready good will They m%ht build, they might 
plant, they might do as they pleased. But one 
thing they might not do. They might not speak 
their own language. " Tn two years' time," the man- 
date was, "your pastors must preach to their con- 
gregations in Dutch, or you will not be allowed to 



remain." An odd and arbitrary command Burely, 
yet one that did not seem over-poweringly so to men 
who had been threatened with death and with torture 
for preaching at all The Dutch were masters of the 
position, and the French immigrants obeyed. Within 
the time aJlowed French tongues wagged in the 
pulpit to Dutch syllables, and but for the preservation 
of the French tradition in the names that meet you 
now almost at every step, Dntch unity would seem to 
have been as clear a fact then as it is now. 

And 80 things jo^ed on as quietly and as sleepily 
as they did in most parts of the world, until, at the 
end of last century, Europe b^an to waken into new 
life at the bidding of the revolutionists of Paris. 
Some small fr^ment of the republican contagion, 
being hurled away to South Africa, took root there 
and sprouted. Dutchmen in several districts rebelled 
against their own government — a wretched, unprogres- 
sive affair, soaked with all the worst maxims of pro- 
tectionism — at Cape Town. In 1795 this happened, 
and Tory England, the sworn protector of the divine 
rights of incompetent kings, could not look on with 
indifference. A fleet and an army, with an admiral 
in command of the one and a general in command of 
the other, took possession of the Cape in the name 
and on behalf of the Prince of Orange. Batteries 
were built round about Table Mountain — ^you may 
see them yet standing on spurs of the hiU, empty 
and desolate, and wondering how ever they got there. 



If the Dutcli did not love their own government very 
much, you may be sure they h)ved the British rigime 
still less. They are a Btubbom aet, these Africanders, as 
indeed not a few people are to-day finding out to their 
cost They would have nothing to s&j to the repre- 
sentative of Oreat Britain, even though he was the 
owner of a peer^e. He m^ht govern them, but 
they would neither eat nor drink with him. He 
asked the use of the Town House for the puipoae of 
celebrating the Kill's birthday ; and the burghers, 
by formal vote, refused their permission. So, as may 
be imagined, it was a relief to both sides when, on 
the signing of the peace of Amiens, it was decided to 
withdraw the British troops — the latter-day doctrine 
of no withdrawal had not then been invented — and 
to restore the Cape to the Dutch Sepublic. 

Five years went by, and there was a change 
again. Table Mountain re-echoed to the sound of 
English cannon. There was a fight going on between 
British troops under Sir David Baird and the Dutch 
hui^hera. The Cape suffered for the ain of its parent 
state in Europe — the sin of having anything to do 
with that unholy thing the first French Empire. 
The buighers were beaten, and the city capitulated. 
How could it do otherwise, when a fleet was at hand 
to knock it into splinters ? That the Dutch butghers 
loved the British flag any better than they did before 
can hardly be supposed. They waited, however, 
presuniing that some day or other the fighting in 



Europe would cease, and the Cape would once 
more be given up. It was not, however, given up. 
Plunder wag restored in various directions by the 
gentlemeD who settled the affoira of Europe and of 
the world among them at Paris. But the King 
of the Netherlands was a veiy small sovereign, 
and Great Britain was a very Great Power, and 
the plunder which the Great Power wished to re- 
tain was, of necessity, ceded by the small sovereign. 
The fiict was, the value of the Cape as a half-way 
station to India had been felt. Indiamen could con- 
veniently call there to revictual on their six months' 
voy^es. Troops could be halted there on their way 
irom the heat of India to the cold of Europe. In- 
valids could be sent there for a last chance of life. 
The troops and the Governor, and all their beloi^jngs, 
lived on the peninsula, pleasantly happy among them- 
selves. The Dutch settlers lived on the mainland, in 
and about their villages with Dutch names and their 
farmhouses with Dutch gardens. Community of 
feeling, community of interest, there was about as 
much as there is between cats and schoolboys. 
SuperdHous contempt was answered by bitter tolera- 
tion. The soldier ruled, and the farmer, if his feel- 
ings were not too much irritated, obeyed. Some- 
times, however, he did not obey, of which more anon. 
But they are a stubborn race, these Africanders, 
and l^eir stubbornness seems to have the power of 
affectii^ those who live in contact with them — a 



category which obviously does not include the 
Imperial officitda who, in those early military daya, 
did not live in contact with ihem. Governors there 
were in those daya, as there have indeed been in 
these, who played strangely fontastic tricks. There 
was, to wit, Lord Charles Somerset, who, in 1825, 
and again in 1827, took upon himself to Bupprees 
the first newspaper started in Cape Town, for the 
grave feult of criticising his own policy. The story 
is still told with gnsto by old inhabitants — how Mr. 
Fairbaim, the editor, appealed direct to the home 
government; how the Governor thereupon sought to 
compromise the matter; how the compromise was 
declined, and how the home government, acting in 
a spirit which in these days would seem to have 
been foi^tten, supported the cause of common 
sense and justice, and censured their representative. 
A free press was established, despite the lU-will 
of the British Governor, even though, before the 
right of public comment and criticism could be 
permanently recognised, Mr. Fairbaim had to make 
a voyage to England and back. If a colonist with 
a grievance came home to represent his grievance 
to-day, does any one think he would have much 
chance of being listened to ? 

That was one great fight made by the stubborn 
Africanders for their rights, A little more than 
twenty years later they had another. A paternal 
government at Westminster, looking round for some 


II.] " BO YCOTTING." 27 

place in which to dispose of its social rubbish, thought 
that no spot would serve so well aa the Cape Colony. 
In other words, the determination was arrived at to 
make the Cape a penal settlement There were, 
after the Irish rebellion of 1847, Irish convicts 
to be disposed of — rubbish at least in the view of 
the Imperial authorities, whatever might be their 
worth to Ireland and to themselves. The Africanders 
not unnaturally adopted the official view of the 
matter, and resented the forced importation of 
rubbish into their midst. On the 19th September 
1849 the convict ship arrived in Table Bay. Do 
you know what the Cape people did to defend their 
shores &om the dreaded contamination ? The thing 
is one . of the oddest ever known in history. To 
prevent the influx of Irish immigrants, they 
" boycotted " the government. Boycottii^ was, in 
fact, first invented at Cape Town, for the express 
purpose of avoiding contact with the political fore- 
fathers of the Irish boycotters of to-day. And never 
was boycotting more thoroughly and successfully 
carried out. As soon as the Hfeptwm, as the convict 
ship was somewhat oddly named, arrived in Table 
Bay, the anti-convict Association issued an order 
forbidding the inhabitants to supply food to the 
convict ship, or to the troops, or to the Government 
officials, until the obnoxious Order in Council, by 
which the Cape was designated a penal settlement, 
was cancelled. Nor was the order allowed to remain. 



a dead letter. Those who ventured to disregard it 
soon fotmd that they, too, were incladed in the black 
list, and were doomed to starvation along with 
Governor, and troops, and convicts. There was only 
one thing for the Governor to do, unless he resorted 
to military force, and that was to submit, and pledge 
himself as far as be could that the Order in Council 
should be rescinded. Some attempt was made by 
an accommodating Chief Joatice to level a charge of 
sedition against the boycotters. But it would not 
hold water. The grand jury rejected the hill laid 
before them ; the Order in Council was rescinded ; 
and hiead once more found its way into the homes 
of hungry officials. 

Am I not then justified in saying that the 
Africanders are a stubborn race^ This little boy- 
cotting business had one result^' at any rate, of 
something of more than immediate value — it hastened 
the grantii^ of a more popular form of government 
Growing out of a petition adopted at a great public 
meeting in 1850, came a grant of representative 
institutions in 1853, the first Parliament, consisting 
of an Upper House called the Legislative Council, 
and a Lower House known as the House of Assembly, 
being opened in 1854. Friction between an elected 
l^islature and an irresponsible executive might have 
been predicted, and actually followed. "Whether the 
Cape Colony was fit for the more popular form of 
government thrust upon it in 18'72 remains to he 



seen. Only two Cabinets have aa yet held office 
under the shadow of Table Mountain. The first was 
exploded by Sir Bartle Frere in 1S78 ; the second, 
appointed by him in his own interest and for his 
own ends, is probably on the eve of exploding itself. 
Have you a mind to know something of Cape 
politicians and Cape politics ? Then let us step 
into the House of Assembly for a few minutes, and 
see what is going on. 

But, before going in, admit, if you please, that 
Table Mountain is at least worth all that I have 
said of it. 




A VEBY dull title, and a very dull chapter, no doubt. 

Well, I don't know. It is, of course, possible to 
make politics very dull indeed, and as the fashion is 
to do so, the very word politics has come to be re- 
garded ae a sort of literary scarecrow, warning readers 
to fly over into the next field at once. I should be 
sorry if the title of this third chapter of mine had 
that effect, for I think I may be able to amuse you 
to some extent, if I can do nothing else. Take only 
one view of the matter. If you saw a lai^e dog 
pacing majestically down the street, conscious of its 
own dignity, and clearing the way for itself, if 
necessary, by the faintest approach to a growl ; 
and if trotting beside it came a very small dog, 
aping the airs and manners of the big one, puttii^ 
majesty into a stride of some three inches, and dis- 
dainfully ignoring all curs that attempted to enter 
into treaty relations with it — if you saw this, you 
would regard it as something irresistibly ludicrous. 

That picture of the small dog is exactly the 



picture of Cape politics aping the lai^ dog of 
Imperial politics. Everything connected with l^ie- 
lation and administratioD ia, theoretically, an imita- 
tion in miniature of Engliah procedure and practice. 
There is your Legislative Council, your colonial 
House of Peers, with ite high property qualification, 
and presided over by the Chief Jastice as the nearest 
possible approach to the Lord Chancellor. It is true 
that the seats are not hereditary, the members being 
elected half for ten and half for five years, and liable 
to share the fortunes of a dissolution of parliament. 
But peers they are in every practical respect. They 
take their ease as regards their parliamentary duties ; 
they never get excited over a debate ; they have a 
keen regard for vested interests, especially their own ; 
and no one, ^part from matters of practical legis- 
lation requiring their sanction, attaches any par- 
ticular weight to their opinions. And as they only 
number twenty-one — three to represent each of seven 
electoral districts — against some five hundred and 
odd in the peerage of the United Kingdom, it is clear 
that on each member of the Legislative Council de- 
volves the duty of supporting the dignity of some 
three-and-twenty members of the House of Lords. 
And he is quite aware of the fact. 

Then there is your House of Assembly, with its 
sixty-eight members elected by thirty-three con- 
stituencies for Sve years. Strange and motley are 
the constituencies, and curious the inequality in their 



claims to consideration. That Gape Towa should 
return four members seems not unnatural ; it seems 
also natural enough that Fort Elizabeth, the " Liver- 
pool of South Africa," as its residents proudly term 
it, should return two, its population being about half 
Uiat of Cape Town proper. But the population of 
Port Elizabeth is some 15,000, and here is the King 
William's Town division, with its population of over 
100,000, returning only two members; Queenstown, 
with its 50,000, doing the same ; while Namaqua- 
land, with a population of some 12,000 only, enjoys 
like privileges. But then nine-tenths of the popula- 
tion of the division of King William's Town, and four- 
fijths of the population of the division of Queenstown, 
are black — or perhaps it would be safer to say " were," 
for under the presiding genius of Sir Bartle Frere a 
great clearance of blacks has been made in the King 
William's Town division since the last census was 
taken. And blacks, of course, do not vote, not but 
what they may if they possess the requisite qualifi- 
cation. There is no distinction of colour recognised 
by the Cape Constitution, and with reason enough, 
seeing that a large proportion of the voters in Cape 
Town itself are Malays, who monopolise almost the 
whole of the handicrafts of the place. But a black 
who owns little more than a wife and a blanket does 
not present a very favourable article for registration. 
He remains the " great unrepresented " — unrepre- 
sented, that is, save by those who have made it their 



burdeneome and thankless busine^ to keep vatch 
over his interests. Presently we shall see who 
these are. 

But if we regard the electoral division of King Wil- 
liam's Town, with its 1781 square miles and its nine- 
tenths of unrepresented blacks, as an odd sort of 
constituency, what shall be said of Namaqnaland % 
Yon saw, when your steamer came into the dock at 
Cape Town, a nondescript sort of screw*vessel lying 
there, that looked as if she might once have towed 
baizes up and down the Thames ? That is a mail 
steamer, however, — ^tbe one connecting linlr between 
Namaqualand and the capital of the Cape Colony. 
Get on board that uninviting looking vessel, and make 
yourself as comfortable as yon can as she rolls out 
of Table Bay, and rolls, sometimes under water and 
sometimes above it, along the coast northward 
towards the mouth of the great Orange Biver. Eoll, 
roll, roll, — thump, thump, thump, — as the waves 
travel by and the screw goes round, while a hot, 
clear sun stands high overhead, and a hot breeze 
comee wafted fiom the land to the east. A purga- 
torial voyage this in every sense, extending over 
some five degrees of latitude, till at last some one 
is good enough to point out a lighthouse ahead. 
And not only a lighthouse, but a pier, and, marvel- 
lous to relate, a railway. This is Port Nolloth, and 
the railway, a sort of shabby reproduction of the 
little Festiuiog line, runs iuland nearly one hundred 



miles. But -why, you ask, a railway here? Who 
lives in this country ? What grows in it t Almost 
ahsolutely no one ; quite absolutely nothing. Sandy 
waste for miles and miles, and when the sandy 
waste ends, rocky hUls 'without a shmh or a tree, 
unless it be an Aeaeia horrida — a sort of thom-bush 
that might just as well grow in the moon as any- 
where else, for it seems totally independent of moist- 
ure. For rdin is even more rare here than in Egypt, 
while the great Orange River, which is still some way 
to the north of us, ia in no respects a Nile. Yet this 
fitubhom little railway goes winding on, dipping into 
valleys, climbing over hills, impudently asserting its 
existence against the utter want of existence sur- 
rounding its course. Surely, however, to some pur- 
pose and with some object. Yes ; its purpose and 
object is — copper. Up on the top of the plateau 
yonder, which overlooks the singular terminus of this 
singular line, are to be found the shafts of the 
famous Ookiep mine, the property of the Cape 
Copper Mining Company, who built the lighthouse 
and made the railway, and whose £10 shares yon 
will find negotiable on the Stock Exchange at 
something over £40. No copper like Ookiep cop- 
per, say the smelters, and the supply is simply in- 

But what a constituency I Twenty thousand 
square miles of treeless and rainless territory, with 
these mines spotted down in the middle of it, and 



this mere epider-liiie of a railway keeping them in 
connection with the sea. Twenty thousand square 
miles, and a population of about twelve thousand men, 
women, and children ; some — about two thousand five 
hundred — forming the European residents at the port 
and round the mines ; some six thousand scattered 
aborigines — ^remnants of the yellow Hottentot race, 
who have been crushed between black invasion from 
the north, and white invasion &om the south ; and 
the rest mere stra^lers of all shades of colour and 
every kind of origin. What a constituency ! About 
six-tenths of a human being — if Hottentot babies can 
be included among human beings — to the square 
mile ! Imagine the excitement of a general election I 
Fancy the thrill when an honourable member comes 
down all the way from Cape Town to address his 
constituents ! Picture the task of conveying outly- 
ing voters to the polling places I But don't be too 
contemptuous. Any stick, as we know, will do to 
beat a dog with, and any constituency may have the 
honour of returning a brilhant l^ht of statesman- 
ship to a representative assembly. Have we not had 
instances of this in England? Did not Mr. Glad- 
stone once sit for Greenwich ? Did not Lord Pal- 
merston for years sit for Tiverton ? And can it then 
be considered matter of surprise that the dry and 
dubious constituency of Namaqualand is represented 
by no less a personage than the Honourable John X 
Meiriman ? ' 



Mr. Merrinutn is oa his 1^ now id the Hooae of 
Asaembly. Take note of him, please, for he is an 
historicaL character. It is on the front Opposition 
bench — need I say that in this small-dog reproduc- 
tion of the House of Conuaons there are red-covered 
benches, a mace on the table, a press gallery above 
the Speaker's chair, and a Stranger's and Speaker's 
gallery at the farther end 1 — ^it is on the front Opposi- 
tion bench that Mr. Herrinian now sits. Yet once, ' 
in palmy and not very distant days, he sat on the front 
bench on the other side of the House, jehoing the 
Molteno Ministry till he jeha'd it into the ditch of dis- 
missal Clever, hard-working, self-confident, impetu- 
ous, utterly devoid of tact and savdrfaire, the honour- 
able member for Namaqualand was hardly likely to 
pull well witii Sir Bartle Frere. The smooth worker 
must have smooth tools, and to be smooth was not 
in the nature of that restless Commissioner of Crown 
Lands and Public Works. So one night, some three 
years a^, the member for Namaqnaland went to bed 
a minister, and arose next morning to find himself a 
minister no longer. The Ministry had been dis- 
missed, and Sir Bartle Frere, master of the situation, 
had found a more pliant instrument in Mr. Spr^. 
It was a terrible blow to Mr. Meniman's colleagues, 
who woke up half-dazed to realise the fact that there 
had been a collision, and that they were aU strewn 
over the road. Eecrimination followed ; who can 
wonder at it } The country justified the course taken 



by thfl Gtovemor; who can wonder at that either} 
Those were the days of Sir Battle Fiere's moial 
supremacy, when all over South Africa a thing was 
r^arded as right because he said it, when he had 
but to hold up his finger, and the wind of politics 
would blow the other way. They said that there 
was personal animosity at the root of the matter. 
Perhaps there was ; there was room for it Fancy 
an old Indian like Sir Bartle Frere, skilled in all the 
mysteries of the durbar, an authority upon ceremony 
- and precedence, a man used to have colleagues under 
him as servants — iancy him in his Governor's office, 
composing one of those despatches which have been 
the marvel of the readers of Blue books — fency him 
thus, when, unannounced, stalks in a long and lean 
Commissioner of Crown Lands, who, with a high- 
pitched and long-drawn "W-e-e-ll?" sits down on 
the nearest table ! Fancy this, and you wUl at least 
own that Sir Bartle Frere bad some provocation. 

There, too, on that same bench sita Mr. Ho&neyr, 
editor of that widely-circulating Dutch newspaper, 
the Zuid AfrUman, the recognised leader of the 
Dutch party, precise and incorruptible in spectacles, 
who speaks, as you may have occasion to hear, excel- 
lent and forcible English, though with that peculiar 
clipping short of the words which seems to haunt 
you all round the streets of Cape Town. Mr. Hof- 
meyr is a comparatively young man, and has not as 
yet held office. That he will, however, be found 



holding office before very long may be regarded as a 
strong probability. And the day when Mr. Hofmeyr 
takes office will be the day of recognised Dutch as- 
cendancy. Consider this feet well ; don't turn away 
from it with supercilious contempt, saying to your- 
self that the Cape is a British Colony, and that in a 
British Colony British influence must have the first 
place. It is true that Cape Town is the capital of a 
British Colony. A British Governor holds his court 
at Government House ; the Union Jack flies from the 
flagstaff on the castle ; a British regiment is quartered 
in those melancholy-looking and prison-like barracks. 
But, nevertheless, the whole of the Westeru Province 
of the Cape Colony, from Cape Town to Port Eliza- 
beth eastward, from the Indian Ocean to the Orange 
River northward, a territory, roughly speaking, some 
400 miles square, is Dutch to the very marrow. 
There are the Dutchman's grazing ferms, his vine- 
yards, his comlands; there are the homesteads that 
pass on from father to son in unbroken succession. 
He is a stay-at-home creature ; he loves his fire- 
side better than the street ; he has a keen eye, 
almost as keen as a Torkshireman's, to the main 
chance, and he will under all circumstances make the 
best of things. He made, as he deemed it, the best 
of things, this Western Province farmer, when he 
schooled himself to tolerate the presence of the 
British flag over the castle at Cape Town. But now 
look what you have done. Some e%ht or nine years 



^o yon thrust upon him and upon the colony, nolens 
wlena, a popular form of govemment He did not 
particularly want it^ but you may be sure he will not 
part with it now he has got it. He knows that he 
is in a majority, and may make use of his power. 
He has not, you will say, done so yet. Very true ; 
the first ministry at Cape Town, headed by Mr. 
Molteno, was a sori; of trial ministry, containing 
various shades of political colouring. The second — 
Mr. Sprig^s — is essentially an English ministry. 
The Westem Ptovinoe Dutchman has nerer yet put 
forth his political strength for two reasons. In the 
first place, he is slow to move. In the next place, 
no one has hitherto taken any great trouble to tread 
on his toes. Now, however, you have trodden on his 
toes. You have engaged in an unjust war with his 
kinsfolk in the Transvaal, and he is tingling to his 
finger-ends with animosity towards you. If he 
moves at all, he moves altogether, as you have seen 
in the Transvaal And if he moves altogether, 
what becomes of your British ascendancy in the 
Cape Colony ? "What becomes of it in South AMca ? 
For in the whole European population of South 
Africa, there are at least two Dutchmen to one 

Take note, then, of Mr. Hofmeyr, for he does not, 
when he speaks, speak only for himself There are 
hundreds and thousands of Dutchmen in South 
Africa who echo every word he says. And if what 



lie says should seem in any way antagonistic to 
Britisb rule, take note of bia words all the more. 

We are still watching the Opposition side of the 
House, and no wonder, for all the best heads in the 
Colony are there. Mark, too, that though Mr. 
Sprigg's Ministry is an English Ministry, supported 
to a latge extent by English members from the East- 
ern Province, there are Englishineu of note who are 
ranged with the Dutch party on the Opposition side. 
That member with so distinguished an air, whose 
handsome profile and white beard attract you. at 
once, is a pure Englishman. That is Mr. Fuller, 
who last year moved a vote of censure on the Spri^ 
Ministry in respect of their Basuto policy — a vote 
only lost by a narrow majority of seven. There are 
few better heads than his in the House, and few better 
speakers. He is one of the few men who can take 
an all-round view of the situation, and give political 
opponents credit for good intentions, Mr. Fuller 
represents the Cape Town mercantile class, for he is 
flgent here to Mr. Donald Currie's rivals, the Union 
Steamship Company. Nor is he without bis asso- 
ciates of the same class. There are men with deep 
purses and long heads, who think with him and act 
with him, and who, little as they are Dutchmen in 
any one respect, are strong and imwavering oppo- 
nents of the second-hand Imperialism with which 
Sir Bartle Frere inoculated the Cabinet of his choice. 
For let this be clearly anderstood — the Sprigg 

DiqilizDdbyGoOgle - 

Ul] cape parties. 4t 

Cabinet is a Frere Cabinet, Belected by that veiy 
able administiator for the purpose of carryiiig Out 
bis own projects. It was Sir Bartle Frere who 
taught the members of that Cabinet all they knew ; 
vho inspired them with a tact which surpriaed 
tbemselres ; who made them alive to the supreme 
importance of splitting up the Dutch vote. With 
Sir Bartle Frere in England, the Spri^ cabinet is 
nothing, or worse than nothing. The vaunting and 
despotic ideas are there still, it is true, but the ability 
to carry them out is gone. Would Sir B^Ie Frere 
have kept a deputation of Dutch colonists, chaiged 
with a most serious representation with regard to 
affairs in the Transvaal, running about from pillar to 
post in a vain endeavour to obtain an interview? 
Yet this is what Mr. Sprigg did only a very few 
months ago. And Dutchmen do not forget 

West veraus east — Dutchman vtirms Englishman — 
the Dutchman conservative in his tendencies, and 
yet semi-republican in his principles — the English- 
man in his tendencies progressist and radical, though 
in his principles an unwashed and unadulterated 
imperialist, — such, as you will begin to see, is the 
chief distinction between parties in the Gape Parlia- 
ment. Yet always with tMs amount of reserve — 
that the Englishman who has bis home, or who 
r^reaents a constituency in the Western Province, 
is &r more moderate in his political ideas than the 
Englishman who comes straight from the almost 



purely English connpunitiea in the Eastern Pro- 
vince. Not must it be supposed that the English- 
man is the only progressist, or that the DutohmaQ 
is obstinately opposed to progress. It was by the 
Molteno ministry — and Mr. Molteno, though not 
Dutch ia origin, is Dutch in all hie surroundings 
and interests — that the system of railways that now 
bring every seaport into connection with vast inland 
districts was planned and commenced, and his suc- 
cessors, though completing his work, have themselves 
originated nothing. No, the Cape Dutchman is not 
an adversary of progress ; do not suppose or believe 
this for an instant. But he is cautious and hesitat- 
ing, as befits a man who feels that hia home and the 
home of hia children, and of his children's children, 
is in South Africa, and who does not look forward, 
as the Gape Englishman too often does, to ending his 
days in semi-civilised misery in a house, vainly called 
a mansion, at Norwood or Highbury. 

But the natives, the natives, you ask — Basntos, 
Fingoes, Tembus, Galekas, Hottentots, Fondos — how 
are they represented ? If not represented directly — 
if a blanket and a wife, and probably a gun, do not 
constitute a suE&cient qualification for the electoral 
franchise — is there no indirect representation ? Natal 
colonists, in recently discussing with the Imperial 
authorities the question of responsible government 
for themselves, suggested — and the suggestion did 
them infinite credit — the formation of an Tippet 



House, nominated by the Crown, with which alone 
should rest the power of initiating legislation in 
respect of native affairs. Was no arrangement of 
such a kind made when, in 1872, popular institu- 
tions were thrust upon Cape colonists? Did the 
Imperial Grovernment, then represented in the 
Colonial Office by Lord Kimberley, take no care 
that native interests should not be handed over, 
holus-bolus, to the tendet mercies of colonists ? No, 
the Imperial Government took no care whatever of 
native interests. Note this fact weU, and all the 
more because Lord Eimberley and friends of his, in 
and out of the Cabinet, may to-day be seen holding ap 
hands of holy horror at the unyielding temper shown 
by Mr. Sprigg and his colleagues towards the Basutos, 
The Cape Legislative Council — the Upper Chamber, 
that is — is elected by the same voters as the House 
of Assembly, so there is no extra security for the 
protection of native intereste to be found there. 
From the case of the Basutos learn the case of all. 
To save them from annihilation at the hands of the 
Free State burghers, the Basutos were, in 1868, taken 
under British protection by Sir Philip Wodehouse. 
They recognised the Queen as their sovereign ; the 
Governor at Cape Town as the Queen's representa- 
tive and their supreme chief. A little later Sir Henry 
Barkly was seat out to force popular institutions upon 
the Cape Colony, and to compel colonists to rely upon 
their own reeonrces. The supreme executive author- 



ity waa taken out of the handa of the Governor and 
placed in the handa of hia reaponaible adviaers. 
Were any means taken to prevent native interests 
being made the plaything of popiUar politics ? No. 
Were the Baautos even informed of the change that 
had been made, and of the manner in which it 
affected themaelvea ? Again, No. Why. not ? Sir 
Henry Barkly told ub why in the columns of the 
Times only a few weeks ago. He had received "no 
instructions" on the subject. Now, next time yon 
are going to lose patience with South A&ican colo- 
niats for their Jingo propensities tijwazds natives, 
remember these two things — here was a Secretary 
of State in a Liberal and, by supposition, humani- 
tarian Cabinet, who knew and cared so little about 
South African affairs as to fling a whole native popu- 
lation bound hand and foot into the fiery furnace of 
popular politics. And here was a Governor and 
High Commissioner with so small a sense of respon- 
sibility as to plead the fact that he had " no instmc- 
tiona" as an excuse for the gravest omission of duty. 
No instructions t A man might as well plead that 
he had no instructions to save bis grandmother &om 

Mine illce lacryTncB : the Basutos are a lawful prey 
to Hr. Sprigg, who has attempted to inform them as 
to his powers by styling himself " The Master of the 
Cohmy," Lord Kimberley freta and fumes, and 
mildly deprecates, and weakly censures. But if pro- 


in.] "-O DANIEL I " 45 

phetB could be in these days sent to English Cabinet 
ministers as they vere once sent to Hebrew kii^, 
and some prophet could tell Lord Kimberley in a 
parable the story of the Basutos, and ask him to 
declare with whom the responsibility for the wrong 
and the bloodshed lies, do yoa think the result of the 
interview would materially differ from the result of 
the interview of Nathan with David ? I trow not. 
The Basutos appeal to the Queen, whom they rec<^ 
nise as their sovere%n. They know that if they 
could once appeal direct to the Queen, they would 
have the fullest consideration shown to their petitions 
and representations. But the fiat oi the Colonial 
Ofiice bas gone forth — a fiat ae unalterable as the 
law of the Medes and Persians. The Colonial Office, 
which is responsible for things being as they are, eaa 
do nothing to protect those who are thereby vic- 
timised. Surely it must have been with Colonial 
Office red-tape that Daniel was bound when he was 
thrown to the lions 1 And surely Lord Kimberley, 
when he goes and cries with a lamentable voice, and 
asks the Basutos how they are getting on, must 
know in his heart that the time is past when either 
monarchs or ministers can be saved by a miracle 
irom the consequences of their own guilty weak- 
ness! , 
It is not altogether a joke, . then, is it, this 
question of Cape politics % The small dog with the 
three inch stride has yet considerable power over 



human life and human happiness. And there is one 
man on the Opposition benches in this House of 
Assembly who knows it. You hear that thin, clear, 
somewhat strident voice that is now being listened 
to in breathless silence ? You hear fact pUed upon 
fact, argument upon argument, the keen cutting sar^ 
casm alternating with the stem denunciation ? That 
Toice is worth listening to, for it is the voice of 
the man who, through evil report and good report^ 
has made the cause of the natives his own. But 
adequately to understand the power of the voice, and 
of the mind from which it speaks, you must under- 
stand the weakness of the man. That is an old 
man's head upon — let us speak low — upon a child's 
body. Arrest of developement, inherited tendency, 
something there was — no one knows what — that left 
the body puny like that of a dwar( but did not touch 
the mind and the brain. There need be no delicacy 
in alluding to a fact that every one in South Africa 
knows — to a fact that, in all right feeling minds, 
secures a double respect for the owner of the voice 
we are listening to. An old man's head and face, 
every line and feature instinct with knowledge and 
intelligence that show themselves at every tnm of a 
speech to which you listen without wearying. You 
feel, without knowing why, that you are listening to 
the words of a man whose influence is not limited 
within South African boundaries. And you are 
right ; for that is none other than Mr. Saul Solomon, 



the proprietor of the Capt Argus, a political paxty in 
himself a maker of Ministries, the unflinching advo- 
cate of native righta, the fearless exposer of native 
vrongs, the moat influential man, without exception, 
in the whole South African continent. 

No ; Mr. Saul Solomon is not a Cabinet Minister, 
has never been one, and probably never will be. He 
is rather a maker and an adviser of Ministries. He 
was in the councils of the Molteno Ministry, and it 
was to him that Mr. Spri^ first resorted for advice 
when the Molteno Ministry was dismissed, and he 
himself took ofBce. It was from Mr. Saul Solomon 
that Mr. Sprigg constantly sought advice, till hb 
thought he was strong enough to turn round and 
abuse his political helper, and, in earlier times, 
political patron. To identify himself with one party 
or another would lessen his influence. Besides, he 
is in complete sympathy with neither. His path 
lies by itself, and will not easily amalgamate with 
that of either Dutch or English , politicians. On 
constitutional points he will stand as firm and deter- 
mined as the most republican Dutchman ; but on 
points of native policy Dutchmen somewhat suspect 
him. The difference, however, is likely to be bridged 
over. Mr. Saul Solomon would see the native tribes 
that are still intact in South Africa placed under the 
direct control of the Crown, and saved from the dis- 
astrous influence of colonial party politics. The 
Transvaal Boers themselves, as we have seen, would 



provide foi some kind of arbitration pointing in the 
same direction. Hence Mr. Saul Solomon is to-day 
on the Dutch side, and bis paper, the Argus, adopts 
the Putch cause. A significant alliance enough ; 
can it mean that the best friends of the South 
African native on the spot are convinced that Dutch 
treatment of tiie natives is to be preferred to English ? 
We may come later upon some facte bearing on this 
important question. 

^o ; Mr. Saul Solomon is not a Cabinet Mini^r ; 
it is enough for him to be Mr. Saul Solomon. But 
hov is it possible not to vonder at and admire the 
energy and resolution of the man who, in spite of 
disadvantages that might easily have withheld him 
for ever within the circle of private life, has not 
only taken a prominent part in public life, but a 
part which is, on the whole, eminently unpopular ? 
No one, during the last three years at least, has been 
more abused in Cape Town, and in South Africa at 
large, than Mr. Saul Solomon. He has, for his 
earnest advocacy of native interests, bad the most 
outrageous charges levelled against him. He has 
been accused of promoting rebellion among native 
tribes to serve his own ends. He has been silenced 
at public meetings, vilified by a Jingo press, carica- 
tured even — though it may hardly seem credible— 
by the varlets and pot-lickers of a sham Imperialism. 
Yet he has neither flinched nor swerved, and brings 
the same guns to bear on his enemies again and 



again with the most nnsbakeii pertinacity. He is a 
man to be teckoned with, a man to get upon yottr 
side. But if you get him upon your side, it will not 
be by cajoliDg, or by indirect bribery, but by the 
pure weight of logic and of reason. 




"Why should it be taken for granted that Cape wine 
can only be a synonym for everything that is soar 
and inferior and tindrinkable ? That the fact is so is 
beyond doubt It was one of the visible signs, yon 
may remember, of poor old Sedley's low social con- 
dition in Vanity Fair, that he broi^ht ont Cape 
sherry to regale his friends. One can see and feel 
the shudder that ran through his visitors at the bare 
suggestion, the haste to make some excuse, such as 
Sqiiire Hazeldean offered, when Dr. Kiccabocca in- 
vited him to partake of wine which was pore, and of 
his own making. 

It is true, it is to be feared, that what passes in 
the English market by the name of Cape wine 
deserves everything bad that can be said of it. It ia 
horrible stuff; doctored, fortified, made cheap for 
the consumption of people who cannot afford to pay 
dear. How much that is sold of inferior wine under 
other names ia really manufectured from Cape wine, 
is a q^uestion. But the fact is indisputable that^ as 


IV.] WHY NOT f 51 

things atand at present, to designate wine of way 
kind as coming from the Gape is just the same as to 
give a dog an ill name. You may as well hang the 
dog, and spile the wine casks, at once, for all that 
sober respectable people will have to say to one or 
the other. 

Is the verdict deserved? Partly yes, but still 
more partly no. Why the grape shotild not, under 
favourable conditions, grow as well in the southern 
hemisphere as in the northern, it seems hard to 
say. Grant the climate and the soil, and the fit- 
ness of the original plant, and, provided the same 
skill is there in the possession of wine-growers and 
wine-makers, it seems to follow that there roust 
be an ec[ually valuable result. Take the mere ques- 
tion of latitude. There is not a vineyard in Europe 
nearer to the eq^uator than 36 degrees. The latitude 
of Cape Town, however, is 34 degrees. Take the 
climate. What do you want better ? There are the 
rich soft rains of the Cape winter ; these begin in 
April and keep on, with breaks of fine weather, to 
October. There is the clear dry heat of summer, 
lasting, settled, and certain, from October to April. 
There is none of the frost which is the dread of wine 
cultivators in Europa It is impossible at the Cape, 
as it may happen in every wine-growing country in 
Europe, for a single night's late frost to nip all yont 
young shoots and spoil yonr crop for the season. 
As for soil, where could a better be found % Take 



the slopes of Table Mountain as typical of what is to 
be found scattered all over the ■western part of the 
Cape Colony. What is the soil of those slopes com- 
posed of ? Those rocks that fonn the upper preci- 
pices of the mountain, mostly unfossiliferons old 
eandstoue as they are, are veined and traversed all 
through with rocks more or lees volcanic in their 
origin. Every shower that has washed down the face 
of those huge precipices for hundreds of thousands 
(Of years has carried with it tiny particles of the 
yielding rock, and deposited them over the lower 
slopes in that beautiful concave curve which, almost 
a generation ago, Mr. Buskin first taught unscientific 
people to understand and to admire. There, too, 
from year to year, as vegetation has died out and 
been renewed, the vegetable deposit, held firmly in 
the rock ledges, has increaaed and thickened till the 
SOU is the richest in the world — the soil that the 
grape vine loves above all others. Is it to be 
supposed that the Huguenot immigrants, coming 
hither from the vineyards of France two centuries 
ago, did not know a good vine-growing soil when 
they saw it ? Settling down in Stellenbosch and 
around the Paarl — quaint Dutch towns which you 
should visit if you have time — they put into the 
ground the vine cuttings they had brought, as if by 
mere chance, from their deserted fields in Europe. 
The success of the experiment was clear, and the 
example proved contagions. A year or two Uter, 


IV.] A CAPE CART. . 5» 

under the care of a member of the old Cape family 
of the Van dei Stalls, the vineyards were planted at 

Evety one goeB to Conetantia who gets a chance 
in pB^sing through Cape Town ; and though it by no 
means follows that the Conataatia vineyards grow 
the best wine, or are best worth seeing, they are 
worthy of a look, if only for the exquisite beauty of 
the drive thither, and of their surroundings. It is 
not very far ; you may, if you like, travel hy the 
little suburban railway we traversed just now, only, 
instead of alighting on the way, go on to its terminua 
at Wynberg. There, if you choose, you may select 
one out of a numerous attendance of Cape carts with 
Malay drivers waiting for hire, and pay ten shillings 
for the drive to Constantia and back, including wait- 
ing as long as you please at your destination. It is, 
however, far more pleasant to take a cart from Cape 
Town, if you have not yotir own private conveyance, 
and no one offers to drive you, and keep to the road. 
Do you know what a Cape cart is ? It is a peculiar, 
but pleasant, institution — something like what was 
once in England called a " Whitechapel," on a pair 
of high wheels, with a cosy leather or canvas hood, 
and drawn by a pair of horses. It will hold four 
people easily, and can often be made to hold six ; 
and, with a good pair of horses, can be made, aloi^ 
the smooth hard roads of the Colony, to go almost 
any pace you pleasa 



Here we are, then, oa the road, but pray don't 
espect to enjoy yourself for the first mile or two. 
Of all the desolate, ankempt looking places in the 
world, this suburb of Cape Town, as we drive out 
under the shadow of the mountain, is the most un- 
kempt and desolate you can well picture. The 
reason is dear ; this is not an acceptable side of the 
town, and no one lives here who can possibly avoid 
it. For it is here that the celebrated south-easter — 
the " Cape Doctor," as Anglo-Indians wese in olden 
days wont to call it — blows its strongest. And the 
"Cape Doctor's" strongest is no joke. Where it 
comes from no one quit« knows ; for it is a purely local 
wind, and it always seems possible to get behind it 
by going a few miles to windward. Some people 
aver that it is brewed at the top of the mountain, 
and comes down just upon Cape Town itself, and no- 
where else. That all sorts of c[ueer things go on on 
the top of the mountain is clear ; witness, for 
instance, the celebrated white tablecloth that hangs 
over it whenever a south-easter is at work. But 
wherever it comes from, it is an unmistakable 
reality, as you soon find out as it whirls barrow-loads 
of gravel in your face, or spins you round like a tee- 
totum at a street comer. It is lucky that on this 
day of our drive to Constantia we have not to face 
it, as you would then learn at last what dust means — 
dust whirled up from a red ironstone road, choking 
you, blinding yon, making you despair of existence. 


IV.] A DRIVE. 55 

But there is nothing of this kind to-day. Table 
Mountain is as clear of cloud as thoi^h south-eastere 
never bad had any place in the natural economy of 
things ; the air is as soft and tender as a poet's 
dream ; the dust is well laid down to the hard load 
along which we bowl smoothly at the rate of twelve 
miles an hour. For there has been — an unusual 
thing for this grape time of the year — a shower in 
the early morning, and far away there to the south- 
east the clouds are still hanging round and between 
the sharp peahs of the Hottentot Holland Mountains, 
bringing out into relief angles and buttresses whose 
existence you never before suspected. Two miles, or 
say three miles, and Cape Town has disappeared as 
completely as if it had been rubbed out of existence. 
We have turned the angle of the great mountain — a 
fact which you become startlingly aware of when 
you find the outline you watched from Cape Town 
exactly reversed. And as we turn the angle, deso- 
lation ceases, and something like paradise begins. 
The road is a perfect avenue, with the level vine- 
yards on the left, the slopes of the mountain, here 
green and bright with the dwarf vines, there darkly 
shadowed by close-growing fir-trees, on the right. Or 
where the vineyards cease, you have a continuous 
line of rose-covered cottages, or quaint Dutch-built 
houses, shadowed by immemorial oaks, and with the 
nets set for lawn tennis on the carefully levelled 
sward. Here, from a schoolhouse door, come a crowd 



of children of all colours, unmistakably white, doubt- 
fully brown, indubitably black. Those brown-feced, 
black-eyed children are a peculiar product of the 
place — a result of the mingling of half-a-dozen dis- 
tinct races at one of the Btreet-comerB of the world. 
And here is — fortunate that we are to see it — a 
Malay holiday party in a &r smarter cart than our 
own, and with a pair of horses that take the wind 
out of our sails altc^ther. Did you ever see such 
goigeousness of array, both male and female I Would 
you venture to make a bet as to the value of the 
clothes of the whole party ? There is not an inch of 
silk, not a yard of mnslin — and how many yards of 
moslin Malay women consume in their innumerable 
skirts, I should be sorry to have to say — ^that is not 
of the finest and of the best quality. There is not a 
sparkle of jewellery that is not genuine. How they 
live at home, crowded together in insanitary filthi- 
ness in the back slums of Cape Town, it were better 
not to inquire. How they eiyoy themselves when 
they go out for a holiday, no one seems to know. 
But take a Malay on his way trom his home to his 
holiday, and he is a thing of wonder and of beauty. 
To-morrow, may be, he wiU be driving your carriage 
or mending your window ; to-day he is as gorgeous 
as Solomon, and nothing elsa 

But now, deeming ourselves, save for the sharp- 
pointed aloes on the roadside banks, in the midst of 
Derbyshire lanes, we leave the high road. Not that 



we need, but tliat our cunamg Jehu would take ii8 by- 
a quieter route that ekiits the mountain a little 
higher up. The mountain, as we drive on, still goes 
with us. There is still its clear edge, high overhead, 
against the clearest blue sky ; still its solemn masses 
of rock rising up perpendicularly from among the 
tree-tops ; still glimpses of the mingled foliage of 
silver tree, pine, and oak clothing the slopes. Shall 
we never get rid of it? It is only when we have 
come upon and passed the pretty white church at 
Wynberg that the mountain seems to alter, when we 
get well in front of the dip beyond which, as we are 
told, lies the Atlantic, rolling its blue breakers into a 
land-locked bay. And now the country seems all 
at once to flatten and roll out The roads are more 
level, the fields wider ; instead of thick plantations, 
we have only single lines of trees in the hedgerows. 
Eight and left of ua, and in front of us — covering the 
level ground and reaching up every visible slope — are 
the Gonstantia vineyards. And here, after shooting 
through a stone gateway, and rolling up a long drive 
.between shrubberies, here we are drawing up at the 
very door of Mynheer Van Itenen's mansion. You 
need not be shy, or apologise very deeply ; visitors 
from Cape Town are almost a daily phenomenon, and 
the old spirit of Dutch hospitality is as full and as 
sound as ever. 

Well, you have seen it all, and you are, to say 
truth, a little disappointed. You have seen the laige 



vats in the storehouse ; you have tasted balf-a-dozen 
different varieties of Pontac, including that wonderful 
wine which your boat sent over, by way of a joke, to 
the Philadelphia Exhibition, and won a prize with ; 
you have seen that cbarming old-fashioned drawing- 
room, that looks as if it bad come straight to yon 
out of the reign of Queen Anne. And this is all. 
Tou can see, plainly enough, that there are plenty 
of grapes to be had, and you can testify that wine, 
some of it good, some of it indifferent, is made from 
them. As for theories of grape growing, you have 
not time to digest them, nor do you perhaps wish to 
do sa Very good ; only take this fact into your 
mind, and expand it in your imagination — ^that even 
here, at tbe traditional head- quarters of grape- 
growing, there are, for every acre already under cul- 
tivation, at least ten acres fitted for the same pur- 
pose. And if you ask why they are not cultivated, 
the answer, which is twofold, is equally suggestive — 
first, because a small estate pays its owner so well 
that there is no great temptation to extend opera- 
tions ; and next, because so long as Cape wine-, 
farmers are unable to take general advantt^e of 
foreign markets, they are growing and making as 
much wine and brandy as they can do with. 

Here you are placed, then, in contact with the 
crucial point of the whole matter. Keep these plea- 
sant vineyards of Constantia in your mind's eye ; 
multiply them by the vineyards spread all over this 



rural Westera Province ; think of the vineyards at 
Stellenboach and at the Faarl ; the vineyards that 
you may see lining the whole course of the railway 
to the interior, when once the sandy flat near Cape 
Town has been crossed, for a length of forty nules or 
more ; think of the hundreds of families living in 
comfort, often in wealth, upon the products of their 
vineyards ; and then think of the thousands upon 
thousands of acres upon which, were the fore^n 
markets only more accessible, the vine might be 
planted with success. Do you, taking these facts 
into consideration, see no great and growii^ future 
for this country, provided only the comer can be 
turned, and — a fact which I forgot — SirWUfrid 
lawson does not become absolutely supreme m the 
universe ! 

What is the comer to be got round ? Simply this 
— that the Cape wine farmer has got into a rough and 
ready way of growing his grapes and making his 
wine, and it is difficult, very difficult, to get him out 
of it Why should he get out of it ? be asks. He 
brings his grapes in from the vineyard, and as soon 
as fermentation has well set in, he checks it by adding 
as much alcohol as is requisite. The result is a wine 
that he can place almost at once on the market, and 
which you can buy retail at sixpence or sevenpence 
a bottle, and drink, notwithstanding its sweetness, 
with a certain amount of enjoyment. But that is 
not a wine which you can export, evidently ; and the 



difficulty is to get the Cape wine-grower to try an- 
other system, and to wait for a year or two till he has 
got Bomething which he can, with a due r^ard for his 
own reputation, send abroad. Suppose, for example, 
by a greater care in the selection of your grapes and 
your modes of fermentation, you could, all over this 
Western Province, produce a light, sound, unfortified 
wine, with a character of its own, that will bear a 
voyage through the tropics, and come into England 
at the one shilling duty. Would you not then regard 
the Cape Colony as a place, at least, worth thinking 
about and going to see ? 

This is exactly the problem which is in the courso 
of solution, and on the success or failure of that solu- 
tion there are vast interests depending. And here 
let me say a word in praise of one whom it may, I 
am afraid, fall to my task to blame — Sir Baxtle 
Frere. Whatever may be said of Sir Bartle Frere's 
general policy, of one thing there can be no doubt. 
He took an immense amount of trouble while he was 
in South Africa to learn all about the coimtry and ita 
resources. There was no question relating to the 
prospects of the country about which he did not in- 
form himself from the most competent authorities ; 
and so long as his main hne of policy is not involved, 
you may trust his information and his statements 
implicitly. This, you will say, is doubtful praise — 
Bomethii^ like the praise bestowed on Gilbert Glossin 
by Mr. PleydeU, when he said that Glossin was a 



good lawyer enough if he didn't let a steek down on 
purpose. Be that as it may, the interest taken by 
Sir Bartle Fiere in all matters affecting colonial pro- 
gress and resources might serve as a valuable example 
to Imperial officials who, with far less ambitious 
designs, are far less disposed to make a study of the 
conditions of the country in which they are set down. 
Now this wine question is one the value of which 
Sir Bartle Frere immediately saw and specially went 
into. And if the Governor of a colony possessing 
responsible government can do nothing else, he can 
at leasts by reason of his great social and personal 
influence, emphasise the importance of such under- 
takings as seem to him to be fitted to the conditions 
of the colony in which he is placed. 

Ton want to see what can be done with South 
African wine? You will not see anj^hing at present 
unless you take the trouble to visit a great airy shed 
not far from the Cape Town docks, where at this 
moment thousands of pounds worth of wine, belong- 
ing to a company supported by the capital of local 
merchants and wine growers, is waiting till it is fit 
to send to England. In making this wine the old 
rough and ready methods have been discarded, and a 
new method employed, under the supervision of an 
expert from Portugal And the rough and ready 
wine has become — what? Look at it and see it as 
it is drawn from the huge casks — leaguers they call 
them here — and glows in the wine-glass. Where 



did you ever see a wine so purely goldeo, so clear, so 
sparkHiig? Test it, and you mil find it, too, well 
under the limit of the R liilli ng duty. Pontac % No, 
it is not Pontac, which, as you know, is a dark red 
wine. Neither ia it sheiry, nor any other name that 
is known in the English market. It is a wine 
peculiar to itaelf, that will one day have a name of 
its own. 

But not yet ; leave it still to grow older and 
mellower before you challenge a verdict on thia side 
of the eq^uator. 




£t this time you will have had almost enoi^h of 
Cape Town, in every sense. Pretty as are its snr- 
roundings — at least on one side of it, to use an Hibet- 
nianism — it is not a place of which, in itself, you 
can get foni It is not given to every one to live 
eveiy day amid the sweet-scented fii-woods at £on- 
debosch, or the broad, bright vineyards of Constantia. 
And as for Cape Town itself, it is the oddest, most 
nncomfortable place yon can be in. True, there is 
the bread shaded walk that runs between the 
grounds of Gtovemment House on the one side, and 
the Botanic Gardens on the other — at the foot of 
which, by the way, are being laid the foundations of 
a magnificent palace of L^slature, in which fondly 
imaginative minds already see a confederated parlia- 
ment sitting. There is the drive round the " Kloo^" 
with its maguificent views of sea and mountain ; 
there is the Grey Library and the Museum ; one with 
its really fine collection of rare works, presented by 
Sir Geoi^ Grey ; the other with a singularly rich 



collection of singularly ugly South African insects, 
under the charge of a most courteous and talented 
curator. Eut then we cannot be for ever driving 
round the Kloof, or patrolling the broad walk by 
the gardens, or inspecting manuscripts or beetles, 
however old or ugly. And after this there is 

Per the truth must be told — Cape Town is itself 
the most dirty, unscavenged, ill-provided town in the 
British Empire. There is not a single street up 
which you can walk without danger of breaking your 
neck. If an Englishman's house is his castle, a 
Cape Dutchman's castle is his " stoep " — the space 
in front of his hou&e, which in all Christian towns 
would be occupied by a foot-walk, but which he 
keeps, for his own private convenience, at any level 
and in any condition he pleases. Not even in 
Adderley Street, the street of big shops and big 
buildings, can you walk from one end to the other 
without turning on to the roadway. For a part of 
its length, it is true, an attempt has been made to 
provide walking accommodation. For twenty yards 
yon go smoothly ; then there is a step up, over 
which you trip ; then, at a street comer, three steps 
up, climbing on to a high level crowded with casks 
and cases, which no pedestrian, if he loves his shins, 
attempta As for the side streets, they are indescrib- 
able. One householder has his " stoep " railed round 
with a neat iron fence ; another has it left unpro- 



tected, with a precipice some four feet deep towards 
the lower end (for all side streets in Cape Town are 
on a slope). As for traffic regulation, there is non& 
A Mala7 WE^gon-driver ttu'eatens to crush you on 
one side, while a Hottentot cab-driver makes an aiiy 
shot at you on the other. And they that make it 
are like unto it. There is a corporation without 
authority ; there are water-works without water ; 
drains that cany away nothing ; fire-engines without 
a fire brigade. And over all, for a third of the year 
at least, this eternal, dry, south-east wind blow, 
blow, blowing, till you wonder where on earth the 
stock of granite dust conies from. 

There is one thing which Sir Eartle Frere did, 
soon after his arrival at Cape Town, for which I 
always feel grateful He invited the Mayor and 
members of the Corporation to come and see him at 
Grovemment House, and then and there gave them 
his mind roundly, and told them that the state of 
the town was simply a disgrace to them. Energetic 
and necessary, but scarcely in accordance with one's 
notions of gubernatorial fitness. 

If yon ask why thii^s are so, I should say that 
it arises from the absence of a responsible lower 
class. The lower orders are, as you know by this 
time, mostly Malays, who, except on festive occa- 
sions, prefer the cheapness of dirt to the taxation of 

You win not be sorry to leave here, whatever 



your destmation. But, before we go, we must take 
a trip acroas to the mainland — for Cape Town is, 
socially speaking, on an island — and see how people 
live there. We have an invitation, and a warm one, 
to go and stay with a Butch family of farmers 
some thirty miles away ; and the life of the Dutch 
fanner is a thing worth knowing something about. 

lUiil again, then, and here we are, staggering out 
of the station in the very teeth of a south-easter, 
that takes the spray from the crests of the waves as 
they break, and whirls it backward twenty yards out 
to sea again. Not the Wynberg line this time ; we 
turn off sharp to the left at the junction you know 
of, and take the straight main line — as stra^ht as 
rule can make it — across the Flats. The pace ia not 
lively ; the vehicles, being constructed for a 3J feet 
gauge, are cramped. Imagine a " miiLed " train on a 
branch of the Great Eastern line, taking it veiy 
easy, with a great deal of noise and commotion, and 
there you have it. Shut your eyes and listen to tiie 
rapid panting of the engine, and you think of the 
Irish mail ; open them, and you feel disposed to get 
out and walk. But the poor thing's driving- wheels 
are only about three feet in diameter, so its fussiness 
may be pardoned ; and you would find, too, if you 
went far enoi^h to get to the steep grades up 
countiy, that this miniature locomotive can do its 
work marvellously welL And so on and on, across 
the sandy flats, some twelve weary miles without a 



station, the only relief being to watch the cloud 
shadows moving about the mountain ranges that 
grow very slowly nearer on the right. These flate, 
as you know, were, in the old days of waggon 
travel, the great dread of all people who loved their 
cattle. The sand shifted and drifted into heaps 
wherever you least expected, and for a wa^on to 
sink up to its axle was a common oocnrrence. There 
is a quaint story told of an up-countiy farmer, who, 
accuBtomed to the drifts and delays of the road, 
came to Cape Town for the first time by raO. He 
sat breathless and wonder-struck, clenching the seat 
with his hands, as the train went steadily on past 
the points which he recognised as well-known stick- 
ing places. At last the long stretch was nearly done, 
and the engine, as is natural with engines under such 
circumstances, whistled. Our friend the farmer, re- 
laxii^ his hold of the edge of the seat, smiled grimly 
and shook his head. " Ah, you rascal," he said ; 
" you can whistle now, but you daren't have whistled 
in the middle of the flats." 

A station ? Tes, positively a station, at which we 
draw up with the greatest possible tenderness, like a 
steam-hammer afraid of breaking an egg. This is 
D'Urban Eoad, a station much frequented by volun- 
teer marksmen, who hold hereabouts their South 
African Wimbledon. There is a fearful excitement 
on the platform ; a universal chatter of high-pitched 
Dutch ; a rush on the part of male passengers for 



refresbmeats. A long drawn stop, and then — then, 
surely we are off again. dear, no! There JB a 
great deal to be done yet ! There are two tracks to 
be taken o£^ and three to be picked up, and other 
trucks whose position in the train has to be trans- 
posed. So we are first pulled forward a little way, 
and then pushed backward ; then we are stopped 
with a bump that sends half of us flying off our 
seats ; then started with a jerk that does the same 
with the other half. Twice we fondly im^ine the 
performance has come to an end, and twice it b^ins 
again At this rate, we think, we shall become so 
ranch inured to concussions of the spinal marrow 
that a good honest railway coUision in England 
would not hurt us. But at last — yes, at last — we 
" really go," amid a waving of hands and a clattering 
of tongues that suggest a departure for the world's 
end at least. Truly the " spoorweg " is a great in- 
stitution ! 

But we are at our destination now — at least so far 
as the " spoorweg " is concerned ; and there, just out- 
side this pretty country station, is a high Cape cart, 
with a pair of dashing-looking bays, waiting for us. 
The horses are imeasy, and Hendrik, our host's 
eldest^ who has them in charge, asks us, after a hur- 
ried greeting, to be quick. So we stow ourselves as 
speedily as possible, and the horses spring away 
homewards with an eagerness that makes our young 
but self-possessed Jehu compress his lips and tighten 


v.] "OURS." 69 

np his reins. Away forward, gently rising as the 
load, without a het^ or a tree, cuts Its way through 
a green country, with here and there a square of 
sandj-lookiog ploughed land. The country, undulat- 
ing gently, is open for miles round ; here and there^ 
in the distance, ia a white house, which, after a little 
experience, you know to be a substantial homestead. 
Behind us, looking blue and distant, but with all its 
outlines as clear cut as ever, is Table Mountain, 
which we presently lose as we dip into a hollow and 
clatter through a farm. And now, with a motion of 
his whip and a nod of his head, Hendrik shows ns, 
about a mile away, an unusual object in the bare 
landscape — a clump of trees. " Ours," he says, as he 
eases the horses over a watercourse, giving them 
their heads a little up the rise beyond. And in a 
few minutes, rounding the end of a bam-like lookii^ 
building, with a clump of gum trees on the right, we 
dash up to the gate of the quaint little Dutch flower 
garden, and are conscious of a welcome waved from 
the stoep above it. 

Passing through the gate and up towards the 
broad flight of steps to the stoep, we become aware 
that a Cape farmer's house is — a house. Solid, sub- 
stantial, with the old-fashioned roof coming low 
down to make a deep shade over the stoep, which 
has at one end an aviary, where the children keep 
their pets ; at the other a small room bnilt out from 
the main body of the house, apparently as an after- 



thought Hendrik walks the borsea round to the 
atables ; while our hostess, bo qmet and lady-like, 
and so young-looking to have that grown-up son and 
these grown-up daughters, greets us at the top of the 
steps. Our host is out on the farm, she explains ; 
indeed, he seldom conies in till evening. But here 
are Eertha and Maiy, all smiles, aud some of the 
younger fry hanging shyly in the doorway behind. 
Eertha is &esh from a " finishii^ " school in Cape 
Town ; Wary, her junior by a year, is still under- 
going the process of being " finished ;" but it is holi- 
day time just now, so we have them both at home to 
greet us. Both are iair and fresh and substantial, as 
all good Dutch people are. Perhaps you would call 
Bertha, for a girl not seventeen, a shade too plump ; 
but there is plenty of height, so what does it matter ? 
Bertha's fece is a continual smile ; Mary's is a con- 
tinual ripple of laughlets ; there could hardly be a 
great contrast of expression between sisters 80 much 
alik& Maiy you are at home with directly — I fancy 
she gets a gentle reining in occajsionally from head- 
quarters ; Bertha is more silent. But that does not 
matter, for she has a mouth which, though provok- 
ingly small for a somewhat full outline of face, is 
perfectly irresistible. It is worth while to sit oppo- 
site her at the table, simply to see her look up azid 

But the sun is getting low in the direction of 
Table Mountain, — you know where it is, though you 



cannot see it, — and we tura, at the sound of a step 
behind «s, to confront our host himself. A quiet — 
very quiet man, with iair hair and his youngest 
daughter's features; he, too, looking sutpriaiuglj 
young for such a hurden of family responsihilities. 
He is roughly dressed, for he haa been about the 
farm ; and a Cape farmer is no drone, yon may be 
sure. But a gentleman every inch — a gentleman in 
his quiet greeting, his question or two as to the 
journey, the very touch and grasp of his hand. A 
few minute's desultory talk, and you are conscious of 
a sort of general movement and stir. By some sort 
of instinct, bom perhaps of an innate sense of punctu- 
ality, every one seems to know that it is supper-time 
— for supper at seven and dinner at twelve is the 
rule in these latitude& And so we move in, finding 
ourselves in a room some thirty-five feet long and 
twenty feet wide, with a long and seriously laden 
table down the centre. There is a touch of home 
everywhere ; the array of chairs waiting to be occu- 
pied; the whatnot, where the children keep their 
books ; the sewing-machine in the window, where, 
at appointed times, tiie girls sit to overhaul rents 
in garments and holes in stockings. 

And so we sit down ; how many are we ? Our 
hostess coimts up, and says, " Seventeen ;" adding 
with a smile, " But we can easily do with more, and 
we always had rather have the table full than 
empty." A model hostess, surely! There is no 



division of interests here — no attempt to conceal the 
fact that it 18 a really family circle round the table. 
Side by side our host and hostess sit at the head of 
the board ; why not ? They are joint chiefs over Uie 
household, and they know their responsibilities. 
Then come the guests — for there are other visitors 
besides ourselves ; then the boys' tutor and the iaxm. 
overseer ; then the children, in strict order of merit, 
from Hendrik, and Bertha, and Mary, down to the 
last smallest importations from the nursery. There 
is a quiet cheerfulness over ail the table ; the chUdren 
chatter Dutch together unrestrained, not that they do 
not all talk English fluently and naturally, but 
because Dutch comes most easily to their tongues. 
Occasionally our host, who confines himself mostly 
to English on our account, plunges into the warfare 
of Dutch voices, extricating himself again with a 
laugh and an apology, and perhaps a translation of 
the account of Mary's adventure with the lizard she 
thought was a snak^ or of smaU Jan's tumble into 
the horsepond. 

But the meal is over; the smaller people dis- 
appear; and we elders migrate into the drawing- 
room, a sister apartment to the one we have left 
We catch, as we enter, that pleasant smell of varnish- 
ed floors which haunts old rectory houses in rural 
English counties — a smell which seems to have a 
peculiar power of awaking pleasant associations. Our 
host is in his wonted easy chair, still sitting neat our 


v.] MARY'S MUSIC. 73 

hostesB, with whom he interchai^eB, in a low tone, 
little scraps of information on the events of the day. 
There is the same look of home here as in the 
dining-room, with a shade more of laxury. The 
lai^ windows cosily curtained; the centre table, 
with a few choice books ; an ottoman, the resnlt of 
onr host's own carpentry and upholstery ; a piano- 
forte and a harmonium to boot. There must be 
some mnsic produced. Hendrik is accused of being 
a performer on the violin ; but he is shy, and the 
matter is not pressed. Bertha has no great musical 
gift, but Maiy has all the newest songs from Eng- 
land, and is no mean songstress. She sings in 
English, of course, — no one seems to take the trouble 
to write Dutoh songs, — and you note that, good as 
her English is, there is still the Dutch accent. You 
would dislike it in some people ; in Mary it sounds 
only piquant. " Poor," for instance, seems to have 
a tendency to contract itself into "poo'," while 
terminal " d's " become occasionally almost " f s." 
But what does it matter ? You can laugh at Mary 
for her Dutch pronunciation, and she will langh 
back again, and make a joke of her own little short- 

And now our host mokes a move, and that is a 
well understood signal to part company. It is scarce 
nine o'clock" yet ; but the master of the house, and 
Hendrik, and even the girls themselves, were up at 
half-past four this morning, and will be up at t^e 



lite hour again to-morrow. Do you nuderstaDd now 
where the girls get their clear bright complexions? 

It is pleasant to wake in the mornii^ with the 
son stealing through the half- closed shatters and 
casting a l^ht along the dark polished floor, while a 
gentle coBveraation between the fowls outside is the 
only sound, un^il, with the crack of a whip, and the 
shout of the driver, and the rattle of wheels and har- 
ness, the mule wa^on comes swinging past your 
window on its way to some distant part of the farm. 
Then, as you are just about thoroughly roused, comes 
a knock at the door, and in comes the seven o'clock 
cap of coffee by the hands of a coloured servant — 
and such cofTee 1 The day has begun long ago for 
the rest of the household. The girls were up nearly 
three hours back seeing after the farm labourers' 
break&sts, and they are probably now snatching 
their own as they look after their father and the 
children. But you are a visitor, and for you liiere 
are special preparations, which you find when at 
your leisure — say about hal^ast eight or nine — 
you drift into the big dining-room (there are no 
stairs or upper floors in these Dutch farmhouses). 
Here, as you enjoy your own breakfast, your host- 
ess, who has had hers long ago, comes in to sit and 
talk, while the girls, in plain print dresses, with 
their sleeves tucked up, and perhaps with a duster 
in hand, come in and out on their household avoca- 
tions. Presently they will go to make the bread 



in the kitchen, kneading the dough in a trough 
as wide as you can stretch ; while the black cook 
who keeps in attendaDca pops the finished loaves 
one after another into an oven big enongh, you would 
say, to bake the whole family. 

Dinner is at twelve, and you may if you like in 
the morning lounge round the farm and make dis- 
coveries. Here, in a range of buildings on one 
side, is the schoolroom, where the boys are at 
work with Uieir tutor. In another rai^e you 
find your hosfs sanctum, the tutor's apartments, 
and Hendrik's room too, where you may perhaps, 
by lyii^ in ambush, catch him practising on that 
shy violin of his. Farther off are the cottages 
for the lamily retainers, where the small coloured 
children may be seen playing about, while their 
mothers, who are sure to have a bright- coloured 
handkerchief somewhere about them, sit lazily in 
the doorways. There are the yards for the horses 
and cattle ; the pond, with its sloping aide, where the 
cattle go down to drink ; the big haystack, on and 
arouad which the children can play all day Tfithout a 
chance of hurting themselves. Then, after dinner, 
there is a luU in the house, while every one disap- 
pears for an hour's siesta. Then the pleasant after- 
noon life follows. There has been a picnic arranged, 
with a long ride in the mule-wa^on to reach the 
chosen camping ground. Or there are calls to be 
paid at neighbouring farmhouses, where the ladles 



talk Dutch cosily tc^ether. Oi Cape carts vill roll 
ap to the dooi hringiug visitors, who will exchange 
a few words and pass on, or get down to extend tiieir 
chat in onr hostess's diawing-ioom. 

And 80 the quiet patriarchal life goes on, not in 
one homestead, nor in ten, nor in a hundred, bat in 
thousands all over this Western Province. Sometimes 
there is less refinement, sometimes more, but ever 
the same unpretentiona life, the same coupling of the 
most ordinary household or agricultural pursuits with 
a sterKng self-respect, and a regard for whatever 
higher culture comes in the way. There is no sham 
about it all, no parading of simple habits, no dis- 
guising of cotnfort and of wealth. Bertha and Mary, 
with their print dresses on and their sleeves turned 
up, are not self-conscious " lady-helps ; " nor are they, 
when in the drawing-room, servant girls boasting a 
thin vamiah of accomplishments. Those who move 
in this life are all sincere to it. It is part of them ; 
they cannot see in it any particular drawbacks or 
any particular advantages. It is their life, and they 
live it And what can men or women do more X 
The land is onr host's own; he pays no rent to a 
feudal lord ; he is utterly r^ardless of that doctrine 
of a triple interest which the author of Eniymiim 
laid down as indispensable to the right understanding 
of all landed questions. His &ther worked the farm 
before him ; his son will work it after him. It is a 
family property, in which aU the family have an in- 



terest, and the possession of wMcb is regarded more 
as a responsibility than aa a privilege. There is no 
entaiUiig or eDCuiuhering of estates in this part of the 
world — no waiting for dead men's shoes. For — and 
this is the point which will strike you as strangest — 
our host's parents are still living, occnpying an un- 
pretentious little cottage on the farm, visited and 
honoured by their children and grandchildren, living 
the quaintest, pleasantest, most contented Darby and 
Joan life you can possibly picture. They have had 
their share of the work of the world, and they have 
retired, to rest contentedly and to see those who come 
a^r them enjoying the results of their care and fore- 
thought. In time our host and hostess, too, will 
give up the farm to their son, and themselves retire, 
stiE loving and beloved by all who now crowd round 
their table, watchii^ the younger lives growing up 
without a thought of envy, or jealousy, or even re- 
gret. And then for them, too, at last, there will 
come one day a deeper, more solemn sunset than 
that which looks at us here from far away by Table 
Mountain ; and like faded leaves they will quietly 
sink down to their rest, enriching by their memories 
the life out of which they have sprung. 





It is time for tw now to be leaving the Weatem 
Province, and taking a look eastward. Port Eliza- 
beth, the "Liverpool of South Aftica," is the next 
point we have to aim at. And how to get there ? 
By land or by sea ? By road or by rail ? One day 
soon, no doubt, you will be able to get to Port Eliza- 
beth from Cape Town by raiL Already the line 
from Gape Town runs eastward as far as Beaufort 
West, a distance of 338 miles; while to Graaff Keynet^ 
which is some 150 miles east again of Beaufort West, 
there is a line already open from Port Elizabeth. 
But, in the meantime, this gap of 150 miles is an- 
bridged by railway, and is not a pleasant one to tra- 
verse by road. The mail-cart comes that way, it is 
tme ; but then mail-carts, as you will perhaps pre- 
sently find out, are in South Africa curious and 
amphibious things, not to be travelled in without 
much inconvenience and some risk. 

By sea, then, it must be ; and so, seeking the 
docks once more, we place ourselves on board one of 



the handy little steamers which our good friend Mr. 
Donald Currie has specially built to keep up the 
commumcation along the coast. There is, observe, 
no absolute necessity to give ap the dignity of the 
ocean steamer for the comparative confinement of the 
coaster. The ocean steamer will always carry yon 
between Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, which is the 
terminal point of her voyaga Variety, however, is 
charming, and the man who has been seasoned in 
the Bay of Biscay on the passage oat ought not to 
mind a little knocking aboat roand Cape Agulhas. 

A little knocking about 1 Of course no one minds 
anything in moderation ; but nevertheless the fact 
must not be lost sight of that this voyage, round &om 
Cape Town to Port Elizabeth, and thence to Natal, 
is often one of the most dangerous and roughest con- 
ceivable. Here, off Cape Point, — ^the Cape of Storms 
that bothered old Vasco de Gama so horribly, — you 
are at the meeting of two oceans, the Ind^ and the 
South Atlantia The westerly swell that sets in here 
from the Atlantic has a clear run of some 3000 miles 
from the Sooth American coast ; the south-easterly 
swell of the Indian Ocean gets a start from no one 
quite knows where ; while, to make matters worse, 
the Agulhas Bank plays that uncomfortable trick 
with the ocean rollers which such shoals always play 
— doubles them up short, and turns a long, smooth, 
gentlemanlike sort of sea into a sea of all sorts of 
shapes and angles, that stands perpendicularly above 



you, and tumbles down on the top of you, while all 
you can do is to keep your machinery going dead 
slow, and hope that nothing will give way in the 
engine-room. Nor ia this alL To make matters 
worse stiU, your compasses all along this coast are 
subject to all sorts of odd vaxiations, necessitating 
constant attention and comparison. 

After this, it will not surprise you to learn that 
the skipper of a South Afiican coasting steamer 
seldom takes off his clothes while under way round 
the coast, and that wrecks of mail and other steamers 
are not uncommon. It is worth while to see how a 
north-wester can blow round the Cape, if only for 
the recollection of the experience. But the experi- 
ence is not always, even in a big vessel, a pleasant 
one. It is not in every way pleasant to steam for 
two nights and a day before a wind that fills every 
hollow between the waves with a white mist of spray, 
with the engines working as if for dear life, with the 
saloon half drowned out, and a big sea curling every 
few minutes over the taffrail ; and all the while con- 
scious of a vague sort of doubt whether your floating 
home — a long, narrow, lengthened vessel, hastily char- 
tered to fill up a gap in the regular service — may not, 
with her bows plunged deep into one sea and her 
stem into another, think it convenient to break in 
two amidships. 

But we wUl waive unpleasantnesses for the moment, 
and suppose that everything is tolerably propitious. 



We ■will suppose that we have got safe out of the 
Cape Town docks, round the end of the breakwat«r, 
past the lighthouse we saw when we steamed in 
&om our oceuL voyage ; past the entrance to Hout's 
Bay, the veritable landlocked bay that lies just 
beyond the Constantia vineyards ; past the Albatross 
Bock, to which, mindful of the fate that has befallen 
navigators in not vety distant days, we give a wide 
berth. And now, rounding the black precipices of 
Cape Point at a safe distance of two or three miles, 
we can shape our course south-eastward, crossing the 
wide entrance of False Bay, out of which, as you 
know, opens on tiie western side the important naval 
station of Simon's Bay, with the town of that ilk. 
The range of the Hottentot Holland Mountains 
stands out h^h on our port side, a little forward 
of the beam, and our skipper seems to have no great - 
fancy for shaving the land very close. And is he 
not r^ht ? There is hardly a more fatal comer on 
the South African coast than that ovei-shadowed by 
the end of that mountain range. There the ill-fated 
steamer Bv-kmhead was wrecked in 1852, when con- 
veying reinforcements to the Ka&r war, — you know 
the story, how the soldiers kept their ranks on the deck 
until the ship broke in two and went down 1 There, 
too, the troopship Clyde was wrecked in 1879, when 
taking out stores and troops tor the Zulu campaign, 
not a lif^ luckily, being lost. There, too, at an 
intermediate date, the Union Company's steamer 



CeU was lost — yoa can etill, if you venture near 
enough, see some part of her hull and her boilers 
above the line of breakers. They call that comer 
Danger Point, — surely a name that has a meaning. 

But we need not compUe an itinerary, more 
especially as by nightiall it might all be compressed 
into two sentences : — "At this point, on the left, is 
the continent of Alrica ; on the right is the Antarctic 
Pole." We look in at Mossel Bay in the morning, 
just dropping ^chor for a couple of hours to bundle 
some bales into a lamp of a cargo boat that comes 
tossing alongside from a small collection of gray 
houses on a desolate shore. Then off eastward 
again, past the Knysna mouth, round which, in 
magnificent forests, elephants and buffaloes, preserved 
by a paternal government, still roam at large ; past 
the flashing light on Oape St. Francis, that looks pale 
in the early dawn, and in sight of distant mountain 
ridges with the oddest outlines in the woild, A low, 
desolate coast, it seems near at hand, with the white 
surf running far up a bright sandy beach, crowned 
with a brown expanse of turf. Presently another 
lighthouse, of the stumpy columnar order, is sighted 
on the port bow, and as we round it — Algoa Bay, and 
the good town of Port Elizabeth, looking hot and 
white in the distance, with its wharves and ware- 
houses seen between the gray hulls ot steamers and 
the black hulls of sailing vessels that swing at their 
anchors in the roadstead. 


VI.] ALGOA BA Y. 83 

A roadstead merely, not a harbour, and purely one 
of the oddest roadsteads in the world. There is talk 
of one day building a breakwater out in the middle 
of the bay, with loading bertha behind it, and a brii^e 
to link it with the shore. But in the meantime a 
roadstead only, with a good holding ground, it is trae, 
but otherwise a veritable doiw malejida earinis. True, 
it is sheltered from the west, and though the off-shore 
wind blows hard enough at times to cover a ship's 
deck with sand irom one end to the other, still the 
wave disturbance is little more than a ripple. But 
when the south-easter sets in, — when the big mail 
steamers with two anchors down and steam up can 
barely hold their own ; when it is only in a lifeboat, 
and at imminent risk, that communication can be 
kept up with the beach ; when ships, with half 
their crews on shore, slip their cables and scuttle out 
to sea as best they can to keep out of harm's way, — 
then it is a very different matter. Algoa Bay is not 
at such times a lively place to be at anchor in, while 
' as to danger — look at the melancholy remnants of 
wrecks strewn round the shore. That such a place 
as this should be the chief commercial port of South 
Africa surely speaks strongly of the general lack of 
harbour accommodation. 

The pulse of trade here beats quick, however, 
that is clear. These red-sailed, flat-bottomed cargo 
boats, that hold their wind with such obstinate perti- 
nacity — don't leave a boat towing astern while at 



anchor off Port Elizabeth, unlesB you vant her tb be 
smashed to splinters — and that budge out of the way 
for nobody, are in incessant motion, and the amoant 
of cargo they can stoT away under their half decks 
is calculated to astonish the etranger. These dark 
skinned, muscular fellows who handle them are 
Malays, mostly — men who will brook no interference 
with their rights, who take judicious toll of your 
goods as they cany them ashoie, and who are more 
handy with their knives in a quarrel than is pleas- 
ant. Ashore there is the same bustle as on the 
water. The business part of the town, it is true, 
with its massive buildings of yellow stone, is com- 
pressed into a somewhat narrow compass ; for the 
ground rises, almost at once, as steeply as a lyneside 
street ; and above, visible from the sea, but not from 
the wharves, lie the trim whito villas of the Fort 
Elizabeth plutocracy. Villas — yes, and a club ; the 
trimmest, snuggest, most hospitable club — so its 
members aver — in South Africa, with a broad veran- 
dah round two sides of a green garden, and a view 
over house-tops and shipping and blue ocean, to 
where the faint white clouds hang over a clear-cut 
far-distant horizon. And if you haven't learnt before 
that brandy-and-Boda is the national drink of South 
Africa, you will learn it here at any rate. 

All this town, its trade, its warehouses, its rail- 
ways that penetrate to Grahamstown to the north- 
east, to Oadock to the north, to Graaf Beynet 



towards the nortb-west, is purely of English msnu- 
factiire. Acknowledge the fact fteely and fully, and 
take off your hat to the enterprise that, unassifited 
by a sii^le farthing &om the Imperial Treasury, has 
established this firm civilisation in the midst of what 
was, fifty yeara ago, almost a peopleless waste. Fort 
Elizabeth is the capital, and a worthy one, of 
the Eastern Province, and the Eastern Province is 
the great English stronghold. If you want to know 
all about the Eastern Province, read any South 
African handbook that is published in England, for 
you wiU find ten words given to this part of the 
Cape Colony to every one that is devoted to the 
Western Province. This is natural imder the cir- 
cumstances, and perfectly excusabla Englishmen 
take a pride in English enterprise, and glorify each 
other for their success in all comers of the globe. 
Quite right ; let us grant eveiy word that is said, 
and then — let us look a little deeper. You wUl 
wonder why, perhaps, I should have broi^ht this bit 
of purely English scenery into a chapter on tbe 
Dutch grievanca The answer to this is simple, It 
is because in this Eastwn Province the Dutch 
grievance has its root, and unless, by understanding 
the history of affairs in this Eastern Province, you 
get to understand the real nature of the Dutch griev- 
ance, South African difficulties will for ever remain 
to you a sealed book. Once, bear in mind, this 
Eastern Province, except for the fact that it was 



pastotal instead of agricultural, was as Dutch as the 
Western ; and, but for certain important events that 
happened a little less than fifty years ago, io%ht 
have remained so. That it did not remain so — that 
its Dutch occupiers were driven out to caxry the 
torch of civilisation &rther inland, leaving their 
place to be filled up by a strong and growing British 
element, was an advantage and a blessing to South 
Africa at large. But do not fotget that what is a 
blessing to a country at large may be a deep source 
of grievance and injury to one section of its inhabit- 
ants ; do not foi^et that the advantage of this spread 
of population cannot be reaped, that South Africa,, 
within its present extended limits, cannot be made 
united, progressive, self-governing, and self-defending, 
unless the now organic and inherited grievance of 
of those who form the most solid port of its popula- 
tion is allowed for, considered, and, as far as possible, 

What is the Dutch grievance ? 

There is an answer ready made, which will be 
pnt into your month at' once. You will be told, on 
the authority of a number of well-meaning and infiu- 
ential people who have seats in Parliament, and 
luxurious offices in the city, and who keep up a 
certain active oiganisation that has its headquarters 
np three pair of stairs near Charing Cross, — you will 
be told by these well-meaning people that the 
Dutch grievance against British Government in 



South Africa lies in this — that the Dutch are by- 
nature slave-ownera and oppressors of the native 
races, and that they hate the British Government, and 
have always striven to escape from its jurisdiction, 
because the British Government has been the con- 
sistent enemy of slavery, and protector of the 
coloured races. 

Now this is a belief so imptKtant, exerciaiDg at 
this moment, as it has done for half a century, such 
a pernicious effect upon the proq]ects of peace and 
progress in South Africa, that plain speaking is 
absolutely necessary. And, therefore, I trust you 
will not be shocked when I tell yon in as few words 
as possible that this statement is a fiilsehood. 

It is a falsehood, and a most dangerous falsehood, 
for two reasons. In the first place, it is dangerous 
because it is a falsehood for which no one person can 
be now made responsible — for you do not suppose that 
I mean to imply that those who now make it their 
business to force it on your attention give counten- 
ance to what they believe to be untrue ; they are 
themselves deceived on the subject, though perhaps 
it would have been better if they had taken the 
trouble to hear the other side of the (Question before 
they branded a whole people vrith infamy. This is 
one reason why it is dangerous. The other reason 
is because it is a falsehood of old standing — a fifty 
years' lie, which cannot, therefore, be met with simple 
contradiction, but which has to be rooted up, ex- 



ploded, blown oat of the groand of British memoiy 
and imagination. 

I wish to state this conviction — this feet — in as 
few and as plain words as possible. And, lest any 
mistake should be made, I must, even at the risk of 
incurring the chai^ of egotism, allude to my own 
position in regard to this question. Lest you should 
think this is merely the view of one utterly careless 
of native rights and interests, I may tell you that 
when, during the miserable months of the Zulu war, 
the war fever was at its highest, when the popular 
voice in Natal was demanding nothing lees than Zulu 
extermination, I incurred abuse, social isolation, the 
risk of personal violence and of loss of income, for 
pleading week after week for some show of that 
moderation and just dealing which seemed to me to 
be national characteristics of some worth. You need 
not take my word for this. Ton may ask every 
journalist in South Africa, every special correspond- 
ent who represented the Loudon press, every colonist 
in Natal, every officer who was present with the Im- 
perial forces; you may ask, if you think it worth 
while. Sir Bartle Frere himself who, I think, will at 
least credit me with a sincere intention to make him 
uncomfortable and unhappy. 

One word more. The well-meaning persons to 
whom I have alluded may or may not take the 
trouble to controvert what I have said. There 
is only one answer to them in case they should 



do SO. Let them employ their influence in Far- 
littment to procure the appointment of an un- 
prejudiced Bojal Commission, in which the Datch 
element shall be fairly represented by such men as 
you can find in the person of Sir Henry de Villiers, 
the Chief-Justice of the Cape Colony ; in his brother 
Amelius de Villiers, the Chief-Justice of the Free 
State ; in Mr. Kotze, the wrongfnlly superseded 
Chief-Justice of the Transvaal ; in which the EngUsh 
colonial element shall be represented by Sir Henry 
Connor, the Chief-Justice of Natal ; by Dr. Colenso ; 
by such representative colonists as Mr. Saul Solo- 
mon, of Cape Town ; Mr. Walter Macfarlane, the 
late, or Mr. J. W. Akerman, the present Speaker 
of the Natal Legislative Council, — let the friends of 
the native in South A&ica, I repeat, clamour for such 
a Commission as this, and be content to abide by 
the result of its inquiries, and they will not only be 
largely contributing to the peace and prosperity' of 
South Africa, but to the welfare of the native himself. 
Bat as long as they decline to do this — so long, that 
is to say, as they deny to the Transvaal Boers, who 
ara their special enemies at this moment, the open 
inquiry which the Transvaal Boers have over and 
over again demanded, not a single word of the slander 
which they level at the heads of a brave and high- 
spirited people has the faintest claim to be beard. 

No, the Dutch grievance is not the slave-owner's 
grievance ; the Dutch retreat from British rule was 



not caused by the desire to carry slave-owning in- 
stitutiona into r^ons beyond the reach of British 
jurisdiction. Grant that wrongs have been com- 
mitted upon natives by both English settlers and by 
Dutch, — and it would be difficult to imagine any 
wrongs inflicted by Dutchmen greater than the Zulu 
war, the treatment of the Griquas on the borders of 
Katal, or the filching of the mouth of the St John's 
river from the Pondo chief Umquikela, — grant that 
such wrongs have been committed in the past and 
must be guarded against in the future ; but do not, 
if you have any care for 8outh African interests at 
all, march away with the idea that where Dutchmen 
are supreme native interests suffer, and that wher- 
ever the British ^ag flies native interests are pro- 
tected. Ask those who know, — instruct your Boyal . 
Commission to inquire as to what goes on, for ex- 
ample, in that intensely British community, as it 
regards itself, at the Diamond Fields, — and they will 
soon make you understand why a native, almost 
everywhere in South Africa, will serve a Dutchman 
better, and for less wages, than he will ser^ an 
Englishman. It is true that the Dutch colonist — 
and I speak now of things as they are in Natal — 
will chastise his servant, without reference to a 
ma^strate, for neglect of duty. But it is equally 
true that the English colonist, whose conscience may 
be tender with regard to the rights of the powers 
that be, chafes because the magistrate persists in 



awarding fine oi impriaonment instead of personal 
correction. And it is also true — shockingly true, if 
yon will — tliat while the chastised servant of the 
Dutch master will mb his back and go about his 
work without a thought of ill-will, the fined servant 
of the English master will run off to his kraal for a 
week's holiday, leaving his employer in the lurch, 
or go to aome apeculating law-agent to trump up a 
charge of ill-uaage. 

The Dutch grievance has been simply the griev- 
ance which might naturally be expected to arise 
when a government, military in its spirit, if not 
actually military in its personTiel, exercieea away over 
a people alien in nationality, in language, in ideas, 
in everything. Go back fifty years or bo, and put 
yourself in the position of the despotic British Gover^ 
nor at Cape Town, and then in the portion of the 
conquered Dutch farmers scattered over the Cape 
Colony. Could any gulf be imagined wider than 
that between Governor and governed ? It was not 
part of the serious business of the Governor at Cape 
Town to understand the feelings and wishes of Dutch 
farmers. What he had to do was to hold the Cape 
as a naval and nulitary station againat all comers, 
and to take care, as we shall see presently, that no 
other European power got a foothold anywhere on 
the South African continent If the British Gover- 
nor encouraged the making of a road, it was with a 
militaiy object; if he interfered with the Dutch 



farmei's employmeDt of nativee, it was that he might 
tise them himself. Do yon know vhat Sir John 
Cradocb, who was then Governor at Cape Town, did 
in 1812 ? He issued a proclamation empowering 
the landdrost — that is, the magistrate — in every dis- 
trict to seize Hottentot children of eight years old, 
whose parents had been in his service, and apprentice 
them for ten years tc whomsoever he pleased. That 
was done, some people will tell you, to please the 
Dutch, and to purchase a certain amount of Dutch 
support for the British Government, jnst as, in order 
to please the Dutch of the Transvaal, Sir Bartle 
Frere levied war on the Zulus. Sir John Cradock, 
however, failed to please the Dutch, just as Sir Sartle 
Frere failed to please them ; while the morality of the 
two actions was about on a par. 

Do you know what was the custom of Cape Gover- 
nors as late as the years immediately precedii^ the 
abolition of slavery ? I will quote from the pages of 
an essentially English work on South Africa — a work 
in which everything that can exalt the English 
colonist and prejudice the Dutch is given the utmost 

"They (the Hottentots) were in a condition of virtual 
slavery, without, however, any of the corresponding obUga- 
tions which actual ownei^hip entaila on the part of the 
master. The Colonial Government claimed and exercised 
the right of forcibly enlisting them into the Cape regiments, 
or compelling them to do any public work at the most trifling 
remoneralion. Those not in Government employ vere, by 



virtue of Lord Oaledon's proclamation, ... at the mercy of 
' the magiBtrates and the fanners. Trae, in case of ill-treat- 
ment, the law provided for an appeal to the neighbouring 
ma^trate. But if his master refused a pass, it wae scarcely 
possible for the complainant to reach the magistrate's residence 
without being arrested on the way, and punished as a vaga- 
bond. If he escaped this peril, and reached the magistrate's 
office, he would be lodged in the common prison witii felons 
for one, two, three weeks, of more, ^ that official was at 
leisure to invest^te the charge. Then, if he foiled to sub- 
stantiate the charge, or if the ill-treatment, though proved, 
did not seem bad enough to the magistrate to warrant inflict- 
ing a punishment on the master, the poor Hottentot was 
severely flexed." 

This evidence, which I quote from page 39 of the 
last edition of Silver's Samdbook to South Africa,, is 
pretty conclusive with regard to the manner in which 
British Grovemors, previous to the abolition of slavery, 
protected native interests. Can you wonder that, 
when a pinch arose, the Hottentots sided with their 
Dutch owners rather than with their British pro- 

Such B pinch arose — to retrace our steps for a 
moment — in 1815 ; whether it would have arisen ' 
hut for the presence of a special element of mischief, 
an element still existing and powerful in South 
Africa, is doubtful. Sixty years a^, as to-day, there 
were people in South Africa who saw in the stirring 
up of quarrels between British of&cials wid Dutch 
formers a means of bettering themselves. Lately 
there were dozens of English adventurers fighting 



valiantly on the side of the British troops in Pretoria 
because they expected to profit by speculating in the 
Dutch farms that would, as they believed, be confis- 
cated and thrown on the fnailiet when the war was at 
an end. Sixty years ago there were those who, in the 
Cape Colony, stirred up bad blood between Governor 
and governed for very similar purposes. A crusade 
was preached against the Dutch farmers. Circuit 
Courts were opened, at which monstrous charges of 
cruelty to native servants were levelled at the most 
respected Dutch families — charges in almost every 
case, though at the expense of the accused persons, 
disproved. At last, in one of the eastern districts, a 
farmer named Eezuidenhout, who was summoned to 
appear before the Circuit Court on a charge of ill- 
treating a Hottentot, refused to comply. A force of 
soldiers was sent to arrest him, their employment 
on such duty being totally illegal Bezuidenhout 
resisted — fired upon the advancing party — and, 
accompanied by a faithful Hottentot servant, fled 
and took refuge in a cave. Here he was pursued, 
surrounded, fired upon, mortally wounded; his 
faithful Hottentot — what a pity that no one with a 
sense of irony has taken the trouble to stamp on the 
comer of a sheet of letter-paper a picture of this 
Hottentot slave risking his life to screen hia Dutch 
master from British authority !t— surrendered. Then 
followed resentment and insurrection ; battles among 
the mountains, in which the Dutch insurgents were 



dieperaed and taken priaoners. Thirty-nine were 
tried for high treason ; five were condemned to death. 
The execution, which took place at a spot known aa 
Slaghter's Nek, in the presence — so the sentence ran 
— of the relatives and friends of the snfierera, was an 
awful one. The gallowB broke down with the weight 
of the five men, who fell to the ground scarcely 
injured. Crawling up to the feet of the British 
officer in charge, they implored mercy. Their rela- 
tives, pressing in among the troops, joined in the 
cry. But British justice was inexorable. The scaf- 
fold was reconstructed ; the five men were hanged 
separately, instead of t<^ether ; and their bodies, 
denied to the prayers of their friends, were buried at 
the foot of the gallows. 

Put yonrself, I repeat, in the place of these Dutch- 
men — put yourself in the place of their descendants, 
who to this day are burghers of the Transvaal, and 
endeavour to realise their feelings towards the British 
fl^. Put yourself, too, in the place of the English 
historian of to-day, and judge whether he has not 
reason for passing over lightly such an episode as 

But the Cape Boers were slaveowners, were they 
not? Certainly they were, just as your West Indian 
planters were slaveowners — just as British subjects 
in all parts of the globe were slaveowners, until the 
national conscience woke up, and the abomination 
was kicked overboard. Let this be admitted, though 



it might, if it were necessary, be shown that the 
Dutch system of slavery was far more humaiie and 
patriarchal than any existing at the time elsewhere. 
The Dutch farmers were slaveowners, and especially 
those in the Western Province, where society was 
more advanced, and where the greater prevalence of 
agricultural pursuits rendered slave labour more 
necessary. But, slaveowner as he was, the Dutch 
fanner had a deep respect, as he has to this day, for 
the principles of law and order. Under the Eoman- 
Dutch code, which he brought with him from Hol- 
land, and which is still in force all over South Africa, 
the State is granted the right of interfering with 
private property and interests for public ends, so long 
OS private interests do not unreasonably suffer. When, 
therefore, the proposal for the emancipation of their 
slaves, accompanied by the promise of compensation, 
reached the Cape farmers, they raised no objection 
whatever. A Government valuation was made, and 
the amount requisite to provide them with adequate 
compensation was set down at £3,000,000. When, 
however, the amount had to be paid, only £1,200,000 
was forthcoming, as the proportion to be paid by the 
British nation to the South African slaveowners. 
Nor was this all ; the reduced amounts were, in the 
following of some red-tape maxim or other, made 
payable in London, The farmers, unskilled in busi- 
ness arrangements, were victimised right and left by 
speculators, who, having first depreciated the value of 


VI.] RUIN. 97 

the Treasury promises to pay by the diligent oir- 
culatioD of false reports, bought them up at an enor- 
mous discount, and, of course, made an enormous 
profit. In all cases the farmers saw themselves 
suddenly deprived of a most valuable part of their 
property. In many cases banks which had made 
advances on the security of slave property were com- 
pelled, in self-defence, to foreclose their mortgages. 
There was little but financial ruin from one end of 
the Colony to the other. 

This blow was felt in the Eastern Province as well 
as in the Western, though it was felt in the Western 
Province most severely. Two or three years after- 
wards occurred the great exodus of Boers from the 
Gape Colony into the Free State and Natal This 
exodus, however, was from the Eastern, and not &om 
the Western Province. Yet it was, as we have seen, 
the Western Province that had most reason to com- 
plain. Why was there, then, no exodus from the 
Western Province? 

Because the slave question was not the question 
which formed the main ground of contention between 
the Cape farmers and the British Government: 
because the assertion that the Boers m^rated in 
order to he free to carry on their slave-owning pro- 
pensities, is, as I have characterised it, a falsehood. 

There was disappointment and bitterness, as may 
be well imbued ; but this was not by reason of the 
abolition of an institution to which the farmers were 



attached, but by reaaon of the bad faith kept by the 
British Government in the matter of compensatioQ. 
It was hiter, in 1835, that Butch grievances reached a 
climax. In that year the representatives of British 
authority — still absolute as ever, and still as mis- 
chievous, as ignorant, and as meddling as they proved 
on many occasions both before and since, — plunged 
the eastern frontier into war, which commenced with 
a dire destruction of life and property. In one week 
at the close of 1834 — for the war began in that year — 
forty farmers were murdered, 460 farmhouseB burnt, 
4000 horses, 100,000 head of cattle, and 150,000 
sheep, carried oflt The British settlers, who had been 
brought into the colony some fifteen years before, 
fared no better than the Dutch. Driven from their 
wrecked homes, they were received at Algoa Bay, 
helpless and homeless, as poor as when they were 
landed there. 

Nine months of fighting followed ; European firm- 
ness and discipline were too much, as they have always 
been, for the incoherent and wavering impulse of the 
native hordes. Peace was re-established ; an in- 
demnity was paid by the native chiefs who had 
taken part in the conflict ; and British sovereignty 
was accepted by all the tribes to the west of tte Kei 
Eiver, which still forms the eastern boundary of 
the Cape Colony proper. And then, by a stroke of 
the pen of Lord Glenelg, who was then Secretary of 
State, the whole results of the stru^Ie were reversed, 



and both settlers and Grovemment included in one 
sweeping censure. That the Cape Government, whose 
miachievouB and capricious policy had produced the 
war, deserved censure, may be admitted ; that the 
settlers, who had suffered bo enormously, deserved 
it, must ever be denied. 

Pat yourself in the place of these Dutch fanners, 
slandered as they had been, and (in their own view) 
defrauded by the Imperial Government ; put your- 
self in their place as they came out of this war, with 
the loss of homes, of stock, of Mends and relatives, 
and were told that their acts of self-defence were 
unjustifiable, that the natives — the warlike Amaxosa 
— who had burnt their homesteads and driven off 
their flocks and herds, were in the right, and that 
they themselves were in the wrong, — put yourself in 
their place, and ask whether or not the moment had 
not come when longer endurance was impossible ? 





" No," they said ; " it is too much. We have en- 
dured this Government long enough ; but we can 
endure it no longet. We have endeavoured, having 
once accepted it, to be loyal towards it, and have 
done our best to understand what it wants of us. 
We have, at its bidding, given up our slaves, and 
found ourselves pecuniarily ruined; we have, with 
its approval, fought for our lives against ruthless 
marauders, and find ourselves blamed and slandered ; 
we find the peace we have so dearly purchased thrown 
away, and the Kafir, whom we chased yesterday far 
within his own boundary, encouraged to plunder our 
farms and molest our homesteads ; we find that 
whoever, no matter for what reason of revenge or 
covetousnesa, has a bad word to breathe into the 
ears of British Governors against us Dutch folk, is 
listened to without question ; while to us even a 
request to be heard is denied. We have borne much, 
and we can bear no more. We must go — that is, if 
this British Government will let us. We will go to 
the Lieutenant-Governor, Sir Andries Stockenstrom, 



who, though a Bervant of the British Crown, is yet 
one of ourselves, and aak him for leave to depart. 
We will meet him at UitenhF^e, and he will tell 
U8 — will 'he not? — that there is neither legal nor 
political impediment in the way of our proposed 
removal Very well, then ; the die is cast, and we 
will ga Inspan the oxen, Piet and Hendrik ; put 
the little ones in the waggon ; drive on the flocks 
before ns. Eead the last verse out of the well- 
worn Bible ; sing the last hymn round the table by 
which we have gathered so long. Leave the hearth 
empty, and the door open ; it has never been closed 
in the face of a stranger, and need not be closed now. 
Our farms ?— let them go ; the British land specu- 
lator will come in, and, giving us a mere handful, will 
reap a bushel of profit for iimaelt We care not, 
for our hearts as well as our goods are going with us, 
and our memory will be blotted out. There is danger 
before us, we know ; the treacherous and pitiless 
savage ; the wild beast — the lion and the hyena ; 
the flood that overwhelms, the lightning that blasts ; 
murrain for our cattle, hunger, it may be, for our- 
selves. There is danger before us, but there is at 
least freedom. We shall have our own arm to rely 
upon — our own arm, and the Hand that both guides 
as and protects. Wife, sons, children, — a last look 
at the old home, and we are gone. We go forth, 
not knowing whither ; but we go forth in faith, 
doubting not that the Lord will provide." 



Northward, yes ! — that mast be our first thought. 
Northward through the passes of the Stormbeig — 
northward till we reach the banks of that great 
Orange Kiver, beyond which, on the wide plains we 
have heard of, we may surely hope to have peace. 
Northward, acattering, by God's help, and in pitched 
battle, the forces of the great chief Moselikatze, who 
comes f^ainst us ; northward, settling down here 
and there, as the chance falls out, until we begin to 
people the land. What! further yet? It is Piet 
fietief — bold leader that he has been — who, with a 
band like minded with himself, has explored that 
pass, turning to the southward through the giant 
Drakensberg, and who has from its farther end 
looked down on the fair plains of Natal, as Spanish 
adventurers once looked down from a peak in Darien 
upon the blue Pacific. Their wagons have passed 
through ; their flocks ; their families. A hazardous 
enterprise, surely ; for all that plain, now lying waste, 
is a portion of the conquests of the Zulu king, Chaka, 
whose son Dingaan holds, it is said, bloody court 
near the Tugela. Hazardous, too, in another respect ; 
for it is whispered that a little settlement of English- 
men are already on the coast. The English visitors, 
however, take no notice of us, while the Zulu king 
is more than friendly. He invites us to visit him ; 
he offers us a cession of the territory which is his by 
undoubted conquest. Leaving our camps unpro- 
tected, we aooept the invitation. All is friendly, 



peaceful, good-hamonred. A deed of cession is 
drawn up, to which the Zula king affixes his royal 
mark ; and our careful Betief, his day's business done, 
roUs up the document and places itiii the bandolier 
orer his shoulder. What does the black monarch 
ask of us ? One more act of friendly fraternisation. 
Lay aside your arms, he says, and drink with me in 
the midst of my unarmed warriors. A suspicious re- 
quest surely ; but our careful Eetief is noble-minded 
and repels the suspicion. He gives us the otder, 
and we obey it ; our arms are laid aside ; we enter 
the royal circle. And then the countenance of the 
chief changes ; with a single shout, whose fatal 
meanii^ we just have time to gather, he springe to 
his feet The dusky imarmed regiments rush upon 
us from behind. Unarmed ? No, for in every man's 
hand is that short stabbing assegai which forty years 
hence the British soldier shall learn to dread. Eetief 
is down, stabbed in a dozen places at once ; one by one 
— unarmed, yet resisting — we fall over him, praying 
with our last breath for those helpless ones left in 
the camp by the Bushman's river. 

Ah I we might well pray; yet no — for prayer 
would be in vain. The Zulu's treachery has been 
complete, and even while we are still struggling, 
another band of exterminators is stealing upon that 
camp — upon the wives washing their garments in the 
river, the little children playing round the waggon 
wheels, the few men smoking their pipes and olean- 



ing their guns aa they sit on the waggon-cheet. 
Warning there ia none ; the black destroying clond 
is in the camp as soon as seen; tesistance is iin- 
availing, for there are none to resist , Surely the 
children, as they huddle blether nnder tlie waggons, 
will he spared ? Surely the dogs, that bark loudly, 
and then cower in the nearest place of shelter, will 
escape ? No ; the Zulu, sent out on a mission of 
extermination, spares nothing. The weapon that 
transfixes the child is plunged in another instant 
into the dc^ ; nothing must be left alive. Make 
certain, were the orders of th^ chief, make certain 
that the wizards — these men who woidd ju^le me 
out of my lawful dominions by the mark of a pen on 
a piece of parchment — are killed. Well might they 
give to that camp the name of " Weenen," or weeping, 
for in that massacre there was not a family that did 
not lose some of its best and dearest. 

But is the Dutch emigration to be entirely ex- 
terminated? How fares it with that other camp 
under command of the brave Fretorius ? He has had 
warning, thank God, — short warning, it is true, but 
still warning sufficient for the occasion. The w^^ns 
are hastily laagered, locked together in that almost 
impenetrable circle which, had some one only had 
the forethought, would have saved hundreds of 
British lives on a field still freshly remembered. The 
Zulus rush on, confident of victory. They press 
round the laager on every side ; but they cannot 


VII.] " DINGAAN'S DA Y. " 105 

break throagh. The guns of the Dutchmen are at 
voik, and the aseailante fall thickly. And see I the 
brave Fretorias has got a gun — a queer shaped three- 
pounder, hut a gun all the same— mounted on the 
front of a wf^on, Axim whence, chatged with what- 
ever comes handiest, it Sashes out wholesale slaughter. 
The Zulu wanioTs waver — hesitate — retire, leaving 
their dead on the groirnd, and a solemn sense of vic- 
tory with t^e defenders of the laager. There were 
sad and anxious times for a while, and then came 
victory and revenge. For in the pitched battle by 
the Bloed river, on the 16th December 1838 — "Din- 
gaan's Day," as it has been called ever since — the 
Zulu hosts were routed, Dingaan fleeing only to 
perish by the same kind of treachery as he had 
himself practised. And then it was, and only then, 
that, visiting the scene of the first massacre, the 
remains of Eetief were found, with the deed of 
cession still safe in the receptacle in which he had 
placed it a short half-hour before be fell a victim 
to the hidden assegais of the Zulu braves. 

The story reads like a tale of New England settle- 
ment of the seventeenth century. Yet it is Uttl^ 
more than forty years since the pilgrim fathers of 
Natal — for surely they were such — brought their 
waggons down the steep elopes of the Drakensberg. 
Only the other day, a survivor from that Weenen 
massacre— one who was a child at the time, and who 
was foond two days afterwards, still living, witii 



nineteen asaegai wounds in het body — died in Pietet- 
maritzbu]^. Only the otfaet day, old Solonion 
Maritz, brother of the very same Gert Maritz who 
came with Eetief over the Drakensberg, died on 
hia farm in NattiL Forty yeara is not a long time 
.to look back upon stirring events, and the Dutch- 
man's memory is no short one. It may, therefore, 
be guessed that he has not, in Ifatal, lost sight of 
the importance of his own efforts at early settlement. 
That he is right to regard them as of importance is 
clear ; for it was owing to that defeat of the Zulus 
on " Dingaan's Day " that Natal only became 

But the emigrant Boers in Natal had other foes 
to deal with besides the Zulus. The report of their 
doings had reached Cape Town, and, in the following 
of the old exclusive policy with regard to South 
AMca, it was deemed necessaiy to assert authority 
over them, notwithstanding the fact that they had 
had full liberty to leave the Cape Colony and seek 
their fortune where they pleased. Under the military 
rigvme then prevailing at Cape Town, it was only a 
step &om a suggestion to a proclamation. The pro- 
clamation was, to say the least, a strong one ; and so 
the emigrant Boeis of Natal must have thought, when, 
returning from their hardly won victory over the 
Zulua, they found it thrust in their &ces, so to speak, 
by an officer in charge of a small body of British in- 
fantiy which had arrived from Gape Town. For this 



officer was empowered to search foi, seize, and de- 
stroy all arms and maoitions of war found in pos* 
session of any person in the districts around Port 

A task more easily set than fulfilled, it is clear ; 
and, as a matter-of-fect, the officer in charge of the 
party, who was a man of common sense and human- 
ity, never attempted to fulfil it. He recognised the 
fact that the Boers were de facto in possession of the 
country, and that they had to hold their ground in 
the presence of savage enemies who might again 
disturb them. The two parties — Dutch Boers and 
British troops — quietly ^ored each other's exist- 
ence, and in the course of time the latter were with- 
drawn. British sovereignty in Natal, in fact, was 
virtually abandoned ; a letter was forwarded to the 
Dutch leaders from the Cape Governor, then Sir 
George Napier, wishing them success in their new 
enterprise ; and the few British residents in the 
place made, up their minds Uiat the country was to 
be Dutch, and independent. 

A year or two later there was a change. A 
reprisal carried out against some native cattle-stealera 
by the Boer Government of Natal gave the Cape 
Government an excuse to reassert an authority about 
the abandonment of which it had always felt uneasy. 
A small force of infantry and artillery was sent to 
Durban overland from the eastern frontier of the 
Cape Colony. Its commander, possessed of that 



easy self-confidence that has more than once led 
British generals in South Africa into disaster, was en- 
countered a mile or two &om Durban, at a spot known 
as Congella, and completely defeated, mainly owing, 
curiously enough, to the superior tactics of a Dutch 
field-comet named Joubert. Hastily retiring within 
a rough intrenchment, the British force had to wait 
to be starved out or to be relieved. To make matters 
worse, the Boere, by an admirable piece of strat^y, 
seized upon the stores that had been sent round by 
sea for the use of the British troops, including one 
or two guns, which they turned against their right- 
ful owners. Things were getting desperate, when a 
frigate with reinforcements appeared off the port. 
An English resident of Durban had, when the siege 
began, swum across the mouth of the harbour, and, 
taking horse on the southern side, ridden alone 
through hundreds of miles of the wildest country, 
arriving at Grahamstown in nine days, with the 
news of the British defeat and peril — a performance 
still spoken of by colonists as " Dick King's ride," 
and worthy to be placed side by side with the ride 
of Paul Eevere ' from Charlestown to Concord, 
Prompt action was as natural to British commanders 
under such circumstances then as now. The troops, 
arriving off Durban, were quickly landed ; an action 
followed ; the Boers were defeated ; the garrison was 
relieved ; and the object of the expedition seemed to 
have been accomplished. 


VII.] PIET UYS. 109 

The difficulties of the British commiiiider, how- 
ever, fact, only just beginning. Had not that 
commander been a man of quick ins^ht, detennina-- 
tion, and, above all things, a Dutchman by birth, it 
is impossible to say how long the struggle might 
have gone on. The British troops, for -want of 
transport, and through ignorance of the conntry, 
could only advance a very short distance from the 
coast But their difficulties were not known to the 
Dutch leaders, and Colonel (now General Sir Joaias) 
Cloete, a member of one of the oldest Cape families, 
who had obtained a commission in the British army, 
seized the opportunity to negotiate. Accepting an 
invitation to a conference, he rode boldly to Fieter- 
maritzburg, accompanied only by two officers. The 
first person he met was Piet Uys, the very same man 
who, then grown old, enlisted the respect of Sir Evelyn 
Wood during the Zulu war, Piet TJya, who had 
often shot with the colonel over hia father's estates 
at Cape Town, was petrified. " My God, Josie i" he 
cried out in Dutch, " was it you riding at the head 
of the troops when they landed the other day ? And 
I had laid my gun for you, and grumbled when it 
missed fire." 

Then followed long and warm discussion, the 
more extreme party among the Dutch being for fight- 
ing, the more moderate for a compromise. On one 
thing Colonel Cloete insisted — submission before 
negotiation, ofiering an amnesty to all but one or two. 



and specially excepting one Serraas Van Breda, who 
had commanded the Bntch forces. At last, helped 
much by the British commander's knowledge of the 
men, and of their language, and by the tact displayed 
by a young Dutchman, Mr, J. N. Boshoff (who after- 
wards became President of the Free State), a settle- 
ment wttB arrived at The Boers who chose to remain 
in the country acknowledged the Qneen's sovereignty, 
and returned to their homes with their arms and 
their horses. Hose who disliked the position — and 
these were not a few, and included the family of Uya 
— ^retired above the Drakensbei^ seeking a rougher 
independence in the then almost nnknown districts of 
the Transvaal In Natal itself the pacification was 
for the moment complete, thanks to the moderation of 
Colonel Cloete, who, praised by the Government, 
was abused for his moderation by those who had in 
view the profit to he made oat of confiscated farms. 
Even the exceptions to the amnesty were not adhered 
to, and only a year or two ago the very same 
Servaas Van Breda, on whose head a price was set 
in 1842, might be seen sitting as a member of a 
Legislative Council convened in the name of the 

So far, then, the Dutch exodus bad in this direcn 
tion led to the establishment of a new centre of 
civilisation. Later, an active English element was 
brought into the Colony, and grafted into the old 
Dutch stock, making that happy combination of 



qualities which, unless seeds of bitterness are 
allowed to be perpetuated, will one day make South 
Africa a great country. 

Meantime, how fared things to the north of the 
Otange river? How did the Boers, who had settled 
there, get on with their new-found independence? 
For six years they remained undisturbed, fondly 
believing that they had at last reached a place where 
the British Government ceased from troubling. 
Then an odd phenomenon occurred. A Cape Colony 
Judge, acting on his own authority, and forestalling 
the action of Sir TbeophUus Shepstone, one day 
crossed the Orange river, and proclaimed as British 
territory the whole country to the northward of 
. the 25th degree of south latitude, and to the east- 
ward of the 22d degree of eaat longitude, — a pretty 
sweeping transaction, seeing the country so pro- 
claimed to be annexed included the whole of Griqna- 
land West and the Free State, the greater part of 
the Transvaal, and a vast portion of the great Kali- 
hari Desert. Repudiated in letter by the Governor of 
the Cape, this little act of annexation was, neverthe- 
less, accepted in spirit As in Natal, so in the Free 
State ; the British Government, acting the part of 
an Irish landlord, deemed it necessary to confiscate 
the Dutchman's improvements. Soon opportunity 
arose for a more open act of interference. The Free 
State Boers were involved in a quarrel with the 
neighbouring Griquas, and the Cape Government 

■ DiqilizDdbyGoOgle 


sent tbe Griquos armed support This was in 1846, 
and three years later, though not until the battle of 
Boomplats had been foi^ht between Bntiah troops 
and Dutch fermera, the Queen's authority over the 
Free State was formally declared. Again, as in 
Katal, part of the Boera submitted ; part trekked 
farther away, crossing the Vaal river, and eatablish- 
ing the Transvaal Eepublio. They might, perhaps, 
have saved themselves the trouble, for in 1854 — aii 
yean after the battle of Boomplats, and two years 
after the recognition of Transvaal independence by 
the Sand Eiver Convention — Great Britain grew 
tired of the Orai^ Eiver Sovereignty, as the Free 
State was then called, and cast it off to shift for itsell 
But, though since then independent, contented, and 
prospering, maintaining peace in its borders, and 
growing the greater portion of the South A&ican 
wool that is shipped from Cape ports, and for which 
the Cape Colony claims credit, the Free State has 
not been left unmolested and unplundered. 

The discovery of diamonds some ten or twelve 
years back led to the annexation, partly by intrigue 
and partly by force, of an undoubted portion of Free 
State territory to the British Crown. Why should 
independent Dutchmen have diamond mines in their 
territory ? Owing to the tact and temper displayed 
by President Brand, there was no open rupture, 
however. The matter was compromised ; an imagin- 
ary boundary line was drawn which placed the 



ricbest diggings just outaide Free State jurisdiction ; 
and a sum of £90,000 waa paid to the Free State as 
compensation oat of the Imperial Treasury. 

There, then, in this quiet and pastoral State, 
where the Englishman lives cheerfully and uncom- 
plainingly beneath a Dutch Kepublican Government ; 
where, in the capital, an English bishop has his 
cathedral and his other works of usefulness ; where 
the two European langu^s of South Africa m^t on 
equal terms, the Dutch for the fireside, the English 
for the banker's counter and the merchant's desk, — 
there is anoljfier result, and a happy one, of the great 
Dutch exodus from the eastern districts of the Cape 
Colony. With the exception of the war with the 
Basutos in 1868, the history of the Free State since 
its abandonment by the British Government in 
1854 has been a history of unbroken peace, and slow, 
gentle progress. There, on those wide extended 
plains, some 5000 feet above the sea level, buttressed 
half-way round by the giant masses of the Dmkens- 
berg, the Free State farmer has bred his horses, 
■ shorn his sheep, raised his com, planted "his orchards, 
in the purest and driest atmosphere, perhaps,- in the 
world. Wars have raged all round him, but he has 
not been touched; British Governors, each with a 
policy reversing that of his predecessor, have come 
.and gone at Cape Town, producing unequal political 
strains that have given rise to agitations, anxieties, 
even outbreaks. But the Free State farmer has lived 



and prospered undisturbed, welcoming all i 
yet holding his own against aU. There were those 
who, in 1854, prophesied that the abandonment of 
the Free State to its own devices would lead to an 
internecine war for supremacy within its borders 
between English and Dutch. But there has never 
been a trace or sign of such a thing. Leave the 
Englishman in a Dutch State alone, and he knows who 
are his best customers, and he does not quarrel with 
them. Leave the Dutchman alone, and his natural 
sense of hospitality will for ever prevent his setting 
his face against people who come to hiijj openly and 
honestly, without intent to intrigue against his 
liberty or to vilify his character. 

But the Transvaal, — ^was that a happy result of 
the Boer exodus-? Yes, certainly, though even in ' 
one sense no. It was a happy result in this respect, 
that it brought under the touch of civilisation — 
civilisation rough and rude enoilgh, it is trae, but 
still civilisation — vast districts into which, save as a 
hunter or an explorer, the Englishman would never 
have passed.' It was not a civilisation of external • 
refinement ; your attorney's clerk, who has tumbled 
into disgrace in London, and goes out to practise 
law in what was once a South African Alsatia, sneers 
at the rude manner of living that prevails over .the 
country districts, and subscribes to get a billiard. 
table and a mixer of "drinks" imported from 
England. But, in spite of this rudeness of external 



things, that Transvaal civilisation has been a civilisa- 
tion of moral virtues of no small worth, which, long 
denied, are to-day recognised. In one sense happy, 
but in another not ; for in the Transvaal havo been 
of necessity collected the most uncompromising 
Dutch natures — the men who, in their extreme of 
political Calvinism, would hold no parley with 
British rule either in the Free State or in KataL 
There, beyond the Vaal, have passed the men 
inspired with the bitterest memories — the Prinsloos 
and Bezuidenhouts, who were concerned in the rising 
that led, in 1815, to that awful tragedy at Slaghter's 
Nek. Men whose natures are cast in so stem and 
uncompromisLDg a mould, are not, if left to brood over 
Uieir traditional injuries, likely to be happy in them- 
selves. But they are nevertheless men who are 
likely — far, more likely than their kinsfolk who have 
remained in the Free State and in Natal — to resist 
desperately, and to the last.- There is not left for 
them that door for retreat which was opened for 
their grandfathers across the Orange Biver, for their 
fathers across the Vaal. British authority asserts 
itself in front of them ; the tropical wilds of Central 
Africa lie behind. Should they prove desperate, 
whose fault wiU it be ? 




Bdt it is really time, you will say, to hear sorae- 
thing about what Englishmen have done ia South 
Africa. Even admitting all that is lu^ed on behalf 
of the Dutch, still there is a strong British element 
in the country, and that strong British element must 
be considered and consulted in respect of anything 
that is done in the future. 

Without doubt there is this strong British element 
— an element which is of the utmost importance 
both for the present and for the future. We got a 
glimpse of what it can do when we looked in at 
Port Elizabeth ; ■ and if first place has been given to 
Dutch nations and interests, it has been in a great 
degree because those came first to hand, and also 
partly because English interests have never any 
lack of people to represent them. Besides, the 
Dutch came first in point of time, and have, as has 
been seen, laid the foundations of civilisation wher- 
ever they went. Building on these foundations, 
with the good will and cordial agreement of those 


vni.] BY SEA TO NATAL. 117 

■who laid them, the Ei^lishman in South Africa can 
do much that the Dutchman can never do. Let him, 
however, beware how he dis^;ree8 with his founda- 
tions, or seeks to kick them away after he has raised 
his own structure upon them ; for in that case his 
own stmcture, substantial though it may seem for a 
time, will infallibly, crumble to pieces. 

Where shall we go to see what English enterprise 
can do ? Aa 1 have said, we got a glimpse of it in 
the Eastern Province of the Cape Colony, but it is 
not there that I intend to take you for the purpose 
of tracing out ite work. Just now we followed the , 
Dutch exodus across the Orange Eiver, and through 
the passes of the Drakensbeig, till we emerged with 
its leaders on the plains — thoi^h plains is a mis- 
nomer — of NataL That was the Dutch road to 
Natal Now let us take the English road ; let us 
follow the great eea-path round the coast, — the path 
that was taken by Oolouel Cloete and his reinforce- 
ments when that message of peril to a British force, 
brought by Dick King to Gtahamstown, reached the 
ears of the Governor at Cape Town Castle. 

We have got to Port Elizabeth already, as you 
know, and the same little steamer, the Melrose — did 
I mention her name before^ — will caxry us on to 
NataL The Melrose was built specially for the service 
between Cape Town and Katal, aa was also her sister 
vessel, the Dwakdd; for our friend Mr. Currie, when 
he got a special mail contract signed for Natal, was 



far too liberal a man to put off Ms new customera 
■with old steamers. It would neither pay him, he 
considered, nor them. And so these two pretty bat 
remarkably sabstantial little steamers were put on 
the coast for the express purpose of giving Natal 
colonists their letters from England regularly once a 
fortnight. The Melrose, curiously enough, began her 
experiences with a remarkable nrn of bad luck, for 
she broke her screw-shaft twice, and was compelled 
to idleness while a new shaft was sent out irom. 
England. Since then, however, she has ran without 
a mishap, notwithstanding the dangers of the coast 
and the buffeting of those curiously perpendicular 
seas off Cape Agulhas. And she is well commanded, 
toa If you ever want to light upon a sample of a 
thoroughly trustworthy and plucky British seaman, 
remember Captain Rose of the Melrose. There have 
- been certain exploits of his in the way of saving life 
along this dangerous coast which other people very 
well remember, though the hero-in-chief has possibly 
forgotten them. 

So the anchor at Port Elizabeth is weighed, and 
away we run to the eastward, parallel with a line of 
low, sandy, desolate-looking coast, anything but sug- 
gestive of the presence of an active and pushing 
British community. The weather is calm enough 
to-day ; the wind that was blowing off shore at Port 
Elizabeth dies away as we leave the anchorage be- 
hind, confirming the notion that, like the Cape Town 



south-easter, it is only a local affair. A little farther 
and there is an island ahead, low and sandy, like the 
mainland o£f which it lies ; and as the weather is ' 
clear, and there is no sign of a breeze from any- 
where, our skipper deems it no harm to cut off a 
comer and pass inshore of it. Still the same inter- 
minable line of level coast, wearying to look at as 
we pass, with the white beach showing bright in the 
moonlight when the night fidls. We left Algoa Bay 
at about five in the evening, and by five or six next 
morning we shall be, so says the firat officer, at East 
London. So we are up early to look out, for any- 
thiDg is a relief in this monotonous coasting trip. 

Sure enough, as the day wakes up and we come 
round a blunt point of land — South Africa had all 
its sharp points, with the exception of Cape Point, 
rubbed off ages ago — there is a little collection of 
shipping to be seen ahead of us. But where is the 
port ? Is there a port there at all ? These vessels 
seem simply lying off the coast, between which and 
themselves there is a blear interval of horizon, Yet 
they coiild hardly have got there accidentally. No ; 
that must be the port of East London, after all. But 
what a place ! A port, according to all previously 
formed ideas, should be marked by some sort of an 
estuary, or a natural harbour, or a bay, or some- 
thing of that kind, Even at Fort Elizabeth there is 
a bay, though a shallow one. But here there is 
absolutely nothing of the kind. The coast, somewhat 



higher than it has been before, preserves an unbroken 
line, and down through a narrow gap cornea a river 
that enters the Indian Ocean at right angles, as if 
making a fatile shot at the Antarctic Pole. Yet 
there must be trade heie, for there are houses 
planted pretty thickly on the high bank at either 
side of the river, and you can catch, moreover, the 
■white puffs of steam from an ei^ine on the wharf. 
Do we go in there ? No ; nothing in the way of 
shipping ever goes in there. There is a bar at the 
river mouth, and a fearful surf ; and though there are 
people who hope that by means of a breakwater now 
constructing the bar may be scoured away, as yet the 
results are singularly small " But then," plead the 
friends of the breakwater, " its benefit cannot pos- 
sibly be felt till it is finished." Finish it, then, with 
all speed ; but in the meantime do not be surprised 
at that verdict of merchant skippers, which declares 
that to be sent with a caigo to East London is as bad 
as being sent with a cargo to — well, to purgatory. 

For though it is fine weather to-day, it is still 
pretty easy to see that a considerable surf is running 
on the bar, and that the big lumps of cargo-boats 
have some trouble in getting in and out. It is a 
curious work getting ashore here. Look at these 
East London passengers, too many to be taken in 
the lifeboat (a wet and unpleasant business often 
enough). So, after a goodly number of packages, 
seeming mostly to contain champt^e and brandy, 


have been extracted from the forehold and bomped 
down into the bottom of the caigo-boat alongside — 
a mere ugly black bai^, without a mast or a sail of 
any kind — the passengers are informed that they 
must mova If it is too rough for them to jump, 
then they can be let down in a basket ; but in 
either case down they must go and sit on the cham- 
pagne cases. And then, just when they are feeling 
uncommonly uncomfortable, the hatches are put on 
over them, and they are most carefully covered up. 
A small tug that has been hovering about takes them 
in tow, conducts them to the outside of the surf 
opposite the river-mouth, and there leaves them. 
And now, if you are ujiluc^ enough to be down in 
that close, queei^smeUing hold, and lucky enough 
to retain your stomachic equilibrium, you will very 
soon find out why the hatches were so carefully 
replaced. There is a buoy hereabouts tossing in the 
broken water, and a little groping about near this 
bnoy with a boat-hook reveals a rope. That rope is 
laid right across the bar, from the smooth water in 
the river to a point outside the surf, and on that 
rope depends your chance of gettiog safely inside. 
It is a very simple matter in theory ; all you have to 
do is to get the rope on board and warp yourself 
along with it, till the inner harbour is reached. But 
it is by no means so simple a matter in practice, 
with the large rollers sweeping in and covering the 
boat's deck from one end to the other, threatening to 



twist her bowa round, and hurl her, broadside-oo, to 
instant and certain destruction. 

Long, however, before our late fellow-passengers 
have got half-way over the bar, we, who pity their 
iate from the secure deck of the steamer, are out of 
sight round the next comer, and beginning our 
twenty-four hours' run to the Port of NataL And 
now the coast becomes a shade more interesting. 
Presently we pass the mouth of the Kei Eiver, the 
boundary between the Cape Colony proper and those 
"Transkeian Districts" which, peopled almost en- 
tirely by natives, are under the control of the Cape 
Government. Then we pass Mazeppa Bay, if it can 
he called a bay, where a futile attempt was made 
during the frontier war of 1877 — the war that 
brought downfall to the member for Namaqualand 
and his colleagues — to land a force of troops. The 
truth is, landing on this coast under any circum- 
stances is almost an impossibility by reason of the 
surf. So unbroken is the coast-line, that, keeping 
the shortest course possible to our destination, we 
are never more, and not often less, than a couple of 
miles from it. And now there is a complete change 
in the scenery. Instead of a flat, barren, sandy 
shore, there are precipitous rocks, some hundreds of 
feet high, and crowned with munificent timber. 
And, suddenly, the rocks seem to split asunder, and 
we get a sight of a deep gorge, through which, 
clearly, a river finds its way to the sea. That is the 


VIII.] " NABOTH'D. " 123 

mouth of the St. John's river, often known hy its 
prettier native name of Umzimvubn, the scene of 
One of the most high-handed outrages against native 
T^hts ever perpetrated in the name of the Queen. 
For we are now off the coast of Fondolaud, whose 
independent chief, TJmquikek, has been, as was hia 
lather before him, a staunch ally of the Biitisli 
Government. Yet hia fidelity could not save- him, 
in the days when the small Imperialism of South 
Airica was treading in the steps of the big Im- 
perialism of Great Britain, from being slandered, 
intrigued against, held guilty of an offence he had 
never committed, and sentenced to the loss of the 
very slice of his territory which he had, in answer 
to more straightforward overtures, over and over 
again refused to part with. You know what it is 
to " boycott " a man. Do you know what it is to 
"naboth" him? For Umquikela was "naboth'd" 
most completely. There will be more to say about 
this some day. 

But we have meantime been steaming on ; we have 
long ago passed certain landmarks which are known 
to the initiated as marking the boundary between 
Fondoland and NataL The coast, which has ^ain 
become flat, is, however, now thickly wooded, and 
on a high bluff a few miles ahead there is seen a tall 
white lighthouse, with a lofty flagstaff beside it. 
There is an tmmistakable look of business about 
this new object^ and yon know almost without being 



told that round that bluff lies our ultimate destina- 
tion. Still, the thought cannot help occurring that 
this is & strangely disrespectful manner in 'which to 
approach a great continent. If the coast had some 
deep indentation, or if there were an island or two 
lying off it, or anything to break the approach, there 
would be a fitness about the arrangement which you 
could appreciate. But no, — that is Africa, just as it 
might be the Isle of Wight, stretching, as soon as 
you land, without a break to the Mediterranean. 
There is, however, little time to reflect upon all this, 
for in a few moments more we round the Bluff, and 
open out the anchorage. 

"What a pretty place!" is your first exclamation. 
And it is surely justified ; for the port of Natal is 
quite the prettiest port in South Africa. The barren 
aspect of the coast has gone. Everywhere there is 
the freshest green, with that semi-tropical touch 
about it which serves to remind you that you are 
now some four degrees nearer the line than you were 
at Cape Town. The steep bluff, — it is simply "The 
Bluff" and nothing more in the Natal colonist's 
speech and thought, — with its thickly wooded sides, 
now bounds the shoreward landscape to the left, 
while just below it you look into the narrow 
entruace, the Bluff Channel, of the land-locked 
' harbour. It was across that channel, from the low 
point of land towards the rights that Dick King 
swam before he started on his memorable ride to 



Grahamstown ; and it is a far longer swim than it 
looks from here, as you will find if ever you take a 
boat Bcroas. That gaudy point — called "the Point," 
as the bluff is called the Bluff — is where all the 
shipping business of the port goes on, for the town is 
a couple of miles away. There, clustered together by 
the wharves, are the Custom House, the Bailway 
Station, the Harbour-Master's Office, and all other 
necessary adjuncts of a busy seaport. Yes ! busy ; 
for Durban is by no means an idle or a sleepy placa 
It is, in fact, the most go-ahead town in South 
Africa, let Port Elizabeth folk say what they will. 
Forty years ago, when Colonel Cloete landed hrare 
with his much welcomed force, there was just a hut 
or two built in the bush near the Point, Now, there 
is a population of 10,000, and a town which we will 
have a peep at presently. As for newspapers — and 
they constitute a pretty good test of the enterprise of 
any place — Durban is the best supplied town in 
South Africa. Cape Town, for instance, with its 
population of 35,000, has its two English daily 
papers, and its two Dutch papers, each published 
three times a week. Port Elizabeth, with its 15,000, 
has never started a daily paper yet. But Durban 
has for some time provided its 10,000 with two 
papers every day. And one of these papers, the 
Natal Mercury, conducted by one of the most pro- 
. minent members of the elected Legislature, is cer- 
tainly the most enterprising journal in South Africa; 



and as I totally dislike its politics, I may claim to be 
an impartial witness. 

Tou will not now, I hope, complain tbat I am 
disposed to depreciate the English element in South 
Africa. It wonld be foolish, and worse than foolish, 
to do so. The English element has enonnoua power, 
and, if not misguided — if not encour^ed from 
without to place itself in antagonism to the Dutch 
element, which is its co-worker and best friend — • 
it will achieve wonders. But let us go ashore in the 
little steam tender that has come alongside — even 
in this respect there is a vast superiority over Port 
Elizabeth — and see what there may be to be seen. 

The bar has to be got over ; you have heard of 
the Natal Bar, no doubt, — a standing joke at pubUc 
dinners, and a standing nuisance to both shippers 
and skippers. It is, however, not nearly as bad as 
the East London Bar! There the depth of water is 
not more than three or four feet ; here there is from 
eight to twelve, and sometimes more. The Melrose 
will come in easily at the next tide, and lie moored 
in perfect security in perfectly calm water till the day 
before she is due to depart westward again. But the 
bar is a drawback, there can be no doubt, and all 
round you can see traces of vain and uncompleted 
— perhaps vain because uncompleted — efforts to 
diminish or remove it. Every civil engineer who has 
ever had a foothold in the colony has had a try at the 
solution of the bar problem, and some of their tries 


viii-l CROSSING THE BAR. 127 

have been tolerably expensive. Under tbe Bluff you 
can see a short length of timber staging that repre- 
sents one of these attempts — an attempt that was 
going on entirely to the satisfaction of its projector, 
until one night the sea swept the work nearly all 
away. On the right, and running a long distance out 
from the Point, is another attempt, which, though 
not obliterated, has been hardly more successful. 
If any one could understand the ways of the bar, the 
task would be a good deal easier. But the truth is, 
no one has as yet managed to get at the root of the 
matter. The channel shifts from day to day, and 
only the pilots who go in and out daily and hourly 
know its esact condition. Sometimes the bar is 
"good," no one knows why. Sometimes, on the 
very day perhaps on which you wish it to be good, 
it behaves as badly as possible. And notwithstand- 
ing the fine weather, it is not behaving particularly 
well to-day ; for here is one of the breakers putting 
a considerable portion of its crest over our taffrail, 
and deluging half the deck and most people's legs 
with water. 

It is only, however, for a minute or so that this 
crisis lasts. The engines never flag for an instant, 
and another fifty yards places us in smooth, still 
water, as much beyond the reach of the swell outside 
as if a door had been shut behind us. We steam 
rapidly up the channel between the Bluff and the 
Point, and then, as we turn sharply round to the 



■ light to make for the landing place, we hecome more 
completely aware of the rare beauty of the aeene. 
For this harbour of Natal is a landlocked tidal lake, 
wooded down to its very edge all round, with low, 
wooded islands filling up its centre, and wooded 
ranges looking down upon it on every side except 
that nearest the sea. Yonder you may mark where the 
white houses of Durban peer out of the deep foliage 
by the water's edge ; farther up the same side of the 
hay — wiU you remember that the three leading 
features of the harbour of Natal are the Bay, the Point, 
and the Bluff? — lies CongeUa, where forty years hack 
that cunning Pield-comet Joubert oat-manceuvred 
and defeated the little British force ; while behind 
all, some three miles distant, lies the picturesque 
ridge of the Berea, dotted with its sumptuous villas, 
the houses of the British merchants of Durban. 
These are few houses in South Africa more' luxurious 
than these. But even luxury has its drawbacks, 
and the Berea haa its snakes, and it is always just 
as well to look under your bed every night, especially 
if your room opens off a verandah. A big black 
snake is not a pleasant thing to have crawling about 
you in the dark. 

As for the town, which we reach after a few 
minutes' railway journey from the Point — the streets, 
the people, the of&ces, the hanks — they are English 
to the letter. There are Germans in the place ; there 
are Frenchmen, sugar-planters from Mauritius ; but 



of Dutchmen I don't think you wonld find one. The 
only remnant of the Dutch rigime is the ox ■waggon, 
and erea this is disappearing since the railway was 
opened up-country. The railway, it is true, is not 
all that it should be, or all that the bustling English 
community here would, if they could have had their 
own way, have made it, Nat^, though possessing 
its elected Legislature, is still under the thumb of 
the Colonial Of&ce, and the Gobnial OlHce makes it 
its peculiar business first to thwart and then to mar 
the efforts of colonists everywhere after self-advance- 
ment The colonists would have laid their line with 
steel rails, fifty pounds at least to the lineal yard. The 
Colonial Office insisted that there should only be iron 
rails, forty pounds to the lineal yard. The colonists 
have asked to be allowed to try the Jairlie engine, 
as specially suited to the steep gradients that have to 
be surmounted. The Colonial Office thinks that 
Fairlie engines are &r too recent an invention for it 
to take cognisance of. The colonists would like as 
much steam as is necessary, but the Colonial Office 
thinks a pressure of 120 lbs. to the square inch is 
quite as much as can with safety be allowed in a 
colony possessed of a laige native population. And 
so the railway, its carrying capabilities being limited, 
has not altogether driven out the ox wi^gon as yet. 

Yet that railway, crippled and trammelled aa it 
is, is the most certain outward and visible sign of 
the presence of the progressive English element. It 



has sunnomited the most formidable eagineering 
obetacles, as you may see if you take the trouble to 
make a journey by it &om the port to the capitaL 
Natal, as you know rises up from the sea to the 
Drakeusbei^ in a series of steps. In the first ten 
miles of direct distance there is a rise of 1200 feet, 
and before Maritzbu]^ is reached — the "Pieter" is 
always dropped by the colonist — a height of nearly 
3000 feet has to be crossed. When the railway is ex- 
tended inland, the very first thing to be done will be 
to Bormount a step up of some 1700 feet in a direct 
distance of seven miles — a work only to be accom- 
plished by a careful laying out of the line in ser- 
pentine curves along the hillsides. Some day, and 
before very long, that will be done, however, and by 
that time it may be hoped that the Colonial Office 
wiU have repented itself and will not seek to compel 
the adoption of appliances which wiU render useless 
the expenditure of colonial capital and the pledging 
of colonial credit. 

All this English enterprise has done, and more 
than all this. It has brought in the eugar-cane, 
planted the si^ar-estate, introduced the machinery 
for the sngar^mill. It has, with much expense, and 
after repeated fwlures and disappointments, improved 
everywhere the breeds of cattle, of sheep, of horses. 
It has spent money in i^icultural experiments, 
sometimes with success, always with instruction. It 
has covered bleak hillsides with magnificent planta- 


vili.] ALL OUT OF NOTHING. 131 

tious. It has erected the saw-mill, now working 
busily by steam on the bank of the stream that once 
supplied, in more primitive days, the only available 
motive power. It has laised the public buildings 
that adorn the streets, the banks and warehouses 
unequalled in any town in South Africa. It has laid 
out the public gardens and the parks ; it has made 
the roads and built the safe and solid bridges over 
dangerous rivers. And all this without the expendi- 
ture on its behalf of a sii^e penny out of the 
Imperial treasury. 

And all this in less than forty years, and posi- 
tively out of nothing. When Dick King swam 
across to the Bluff, Durban, as I have said, consisted 
merely of a few huts. Maiitzburg had, it is true, 
been laid out by the followers of Pieter Eetief and 
Gert Maritz, whence its name ; but the town was 
still a mere skeleton — streets planned and named on 
which the native grass and biushwood was still 
growing, and along which not a house had been built 
English enterprise might, indeed, be said to date 
from only thiriiy years back, for it was only in 1849 
that any great influx of British settlers took place. 
And these settlers, there can be no question, were 
most miserably deceived. They were brought out 
under representations which were utterly false, and 
pitched down in the country to shift for themselves. 
And they did shift for themselves. They saw that 
they had been grievously cheated, but, there being 



no help for it, they made the best of the position. 
Turning their hands to ■whatever came next^ they, 
in almost every instance, rose to prosperity or even 
fortune on their very disappointments. There is 
probably not one of them -who is now occupied in 
the manner in which, when he left England, he ex- 
pected to be occupied. Yet it is doubtful whether 
any one of them has not done better than his ori- 
ginal expectations led him to hope. And all this 
snccess has been made, as it were, out of nothing. 
There baa been no special and exclusive stimulus to 
progress in Natal. There has been no gold-rush, 
such as raised Melbourne in a few years from a small 
hamlet to a city fit to compare with those of Europe. 
TiMe, the discovery of diamonds at Kimberley gave 
Natal colonists a lift. The colony was In a bad 
way financially at the moment, and the springii^ up 
of the new enterprise saved it, some say, ftom some- 
thing like bankraptcy. But after all, the influence 
of the diamond-fields has been very much divided. 
The export trade in diamonds all goes through Cape 
Town, while Fort Elizabeth, not less than Xatal, has 
a hold on the import trade by which the diamonds 
are paid for. 

Tou admit the enterprise of the English colonist 
in Natal, but you do not like the man ? Ah I that 
is just because you do not know him, and be- 
cause, too, whenever yoiir attention has been drawn 
to him in any marked manner, it has always hap- 



pened that he has been misrepresented, and has been 
bent on miaiepresentlng himself. In some respects, 
indeed, the English colonist has been as badly slan- 
dered to all you good people at home as the Dutch 
Boer has been. The Dutch Boer has been repre- 
sented to you as a slave-owner by nature and by 
habit, while the English colonist has been represented 
as equally given to native ill-treatment, though in a 
different sort of way. He does not enslave the 
native, you think, but he kicks him, shoots him 
down, steals his land, and so on. There have been, 
no doubt, cases of native ill-treatment at the hands 
of British colonists, and there have been times when 
the spirit of passion, bom partly of panic, and partly 
of mistrust of the intentions of the Imperial Grovem- 
ment — keep this last fact in mind — ^haa pitched the 
public voice into a frantic shout for something almost 
like native extermination. This state of feeling ex> 
isted after the disaster of Isandhlwana, and a very 
unpleasant state of feeling it was for those whose 
convictions and ideas led them in a contrary direc- 
tion. Something of the same feeling, too, existed in 
1873, when the Langalibalele rebellion — if it was a 
rebellion— occurred. But there were in each of these 
cases certain special exciting causes which I may 
hint at elsewhere, and to suppose that the feeling 
manifested then is any true criterion of the feeling 
of the enterprising British colonist of Natal towards 
the natives who live beside him, would be to make a 
capital error. Wait a little, and we shall see. 


Take him, then, as he is ; try to understand him 
Eind to do him justice, and you will like him. Don't 
seize upon some prominent fiiiling, as mere flying 
visitors are prone to do, and regard this as including 
and expressii^ his whole character. Put yourself — 
as yon did with the Cape Dutchman of fifty years 
ago — put yourself in his place. And remember, 
aboTe all things, what you must not expect to find. 
You will not find a man — and I am speaking of the 
average specimen — well educated or cultured, accus- 
tomed to look very deeply into the causes and 
meanings of things. A ready-minded man, he takes 
the ideas that come readiest to hand, and these are 
often enough cheap and commonplace. The British 
soldier is to hirr^ the most concrete manifestation of 
Imperial authority, and hence his notions as to 
Imperial policy are "military. For the same reason 
a Tory Government at home claims bis admiration, 
however great a Sadical he may be himself in respect 
of local concerns. He is generous in his impulses, 
hearty in his hospitality. If he likes you, he will 
do a good deal to serve you, and it will take a good 
deal to make him dislike you. But there is a limit 
which you must not pass — there are two sins which 
you must not commit, for they are unpardonable. 
You must not write a book abusing the colony ; and 
you must not be a follower, in the matter of politics, 
of Dr. Colenso. 





Yes, it is here that you will find him, in Katal ; 
the raw native, living aide by side with the civilised 
European, and presenting, therefore, a problem to be 
dealt with. 

In Natal, rather than anywhere else. - The condi- 
tions imder which the native lives elsewhere may 
sometimes resemble the conditions under which he 
lives in NataL But the problem to be solved will 
not there present any greater difficulties than it pre- 
sents in NataL And if you can solve the native 
difficulty in Natal you can solve it anywhere. 

Take things as they are at this moment, and see 
how the native is situated all over South AMca. 
What is his position in the Cape Colony, for ex- 
ample, — the Cape Colony proper, exclusive of any 
jurisdiction that may be held to prevail over regions 
to the north of the Orange river, and exclusive, too, 
of the essentially native districts to the east of the 

In the Cape Colony proper the natives have ceased 



to exist, except aa units. Whether the steps that 
have led to this result have been wrong or right, the 
fact is 80 at the present day, and nothing can alter 
it For years after that war of 1835, which led to 
Lord Glenelg's unfortunate and mistimed despatch, 
the warlike tribes on the eastern frontier, inhabiting 
in a large degree the districts formerly known as 
British Xaf^ria, were a source of appreheuBion and 
anxiety to the Colonial Government. These tribes, 
known by the collective title of the Amaxosa, and 
including both Gaikas and Galekas, were, next to 
the Zulus, the most formidable native race in South 
Africa. They were concerned in the fourth Kafir 
war, — the "War of the Axe," — in 1847, and in the 
fifth Eafir war in 1850 and 1851. Each time that 
war broke out they were pressed farther eastward, 
unto, in the war of 1877-78, which led to the down- 
fall of the Molteno Ministry, they were finally 
broken up, and their remnants removed across the 

It is useless now to go into the rights and wrongs 
of the questions involved in this series of wars, 
though it may be useful, in connection with another 
matter, to take note of the manner in which some of 
them were brought about. It is sufficient to recognise 
the &cts as they exist, and to recognise the most im* 
portant fact of all, — ^that, so far as the Cape Colony 
proper is concerned, there is no native question to be 
dealt with. There are natives living as units among 



the European population, but these axe subject to the 
oidinary law of the Colony, and demand no epecial 
treatment There can be no doubt that, no matter 
\ij what means this state of things has been brought 
about, the way is very much cleared as regards the 
future. There is a clear and distinct line drawn 
now between the territories which are European and 
the territories which are native; and it becomes, 
therefore, much easier to place the two under dif- 
ferent forms of government and administration. 
This it is that enables Mr. Saul Solomon, and 
other defenders of native rights, to stand forward 
and say : — " Leave us in the Cape Colony to our 
own self-government, as provided by the arrange- 
ments entered into when the Molteno Cabinet first 
took ofQce, and place the purely native districts 
under the direct authority of the Crown, exercised 
through the Governor at the Cape. These natives will 
gladly pay sufficient taxes for the purposes of their 
own Grovemment; and the surplus revenues can be 
devoted to their own gradual elevation and improve- 
ment. You will need European magistrates, probably 
with native assessors, thus to give the chiefs some 
interest in the preservation of order ; you will need 
a native police, probably under European officers, to 
keep the peace. And if the colonists, through their 
elected representatives, are given some right of veto 
in respect of legislation for these native districts, so 
that they may have a locus standi, and be aware of 



what is goii^ on, they would probably be perfectly 

This is an arrangement that would include the 
Basutos, and all the tribes in the Tianskeian dis- 
tricts, such as Gftlekfts, Tembus, Fingoea, Pondomise, 
even Pondoa, if the last-named are willing to suirender 
their nominal independence. It is an arrangement 
which might, perhap8, one day be applied to Zulu- 
land, or even to those districts to the north of the 
Transvaal which inquiry may show to be distinctly 
native. Wherever, in fact, there is a distinctly 
homogeneous native population, occupying a distinct 
piece of territory, the solution of the native question 
would not be , difficult, if only the matter can be 
approached' with a quiet and patient temper, and 
with a resolve to avoid, as far as possible, friction 
with reasonable colonial interests. 

For let me give you a warning. Bad as you may, 
either by prejudice or by proot think colonists to be 
in respect of their treatment of native races, you will 
gain nothing for the native by adopting his cause 
gainst the colonist. This was the capital mistake 
made by Lord Glenelg in 1835, and the results of 
that mistake are still, even five-and-for^ years later, 
to be felt Ton may, by going on the humanitarian 
tack to-day, force colonista to submit to measures 
they dislike. But to-morrow the humanitarian fit 
in England will have gone by. An occasion of 
renewed conflict wiU arise between colonista and 



natives, and the colonista will, without consciously 
intending it, take their revenge upon the natives for 
your interference upon the former occasion. I am 
not stating a mere abstract proposition. This is 
what has actually ere now happened. For there 
can be no doubt whatever that the fourth Kafir war 
of 1846, resulting in the annexation of a laige extent 
of what was before purely native territory, sprang 
directly from Lord Glenelg'a unfortunate interference 
with Uie results of the war of 1835. The European 
colonist, remember, is bound to win in the long run, 
for as soon as ever there seems anything like a pro- 
spect of his being exterminated, the whole nation 
would rush, regardless of cost, to his assistance. 
And if, therefore, you have any regard for the native, 
keep on good terms with the colonist. It will cost 
you little, and it will repay you much. 

Our work is not now, however, with the raw 
native who occupies his own territoiy, as distinct 
from territory occupied by Europeans ; nor is it with 
the native who, living as a unit in the midst of a 
European population, is subject to the ordinary law 
of the colony. What we have to do with is the raw 
native living a distinct life of his own, yet in the 
midst of a European population. This is the most 
difficult problem of all ; and if we can solve it satis- 
fiictorily, we need not despair of solving any other 
South African difficulty. It is a problem that pre- 
sents itself with peculiar force in Natal, and it is in 



Natal that it must be studied. And the seriousness 
of the cLuestion ■will be better understood when it is" 
remembered that, while the European population of 
Katal does not exceed 30,000, the native population 
cannot be set down at less than 300,000. 

"What then!" you cry out; "Natal is clearly 
a native district, and most be treated as such. 
Where is the r^ht of the 30,000 Europeans, be they 
Dutch, English, or Germans, to dominate ten times 
their number of natives 1" 

Wait a moment ; the position has, I admit, this 
sort of look abont it at first s^ht. But you vill, I 
think, find reason considerably to modify the impres- 
sion first made. 

If yon come to examine the title of Europeans to 
the possession of Natal, you will find it hardly pos- 
sible to imagine a title so completely without a flaw. 
Colonisation is, as we know, frequently brought 
about by conquest A small party of European 
pioneers land on shores occupied by some independ- 
ent native race, and receive permission to establish a 
trading settlement The Europeans, belonging to 
the stronger and more active race, become gradually 
^gressive. Dispute arises, followed by war, and the 
result of the war is the conquest of a certain portion 
of native territory by the Europeans, which is never 
given up again. That is the manner in which a 
good deal.of colonisation in South Africa has been 
brought about You may regard this as a process 



which is inevitable, but it neverthelesa is a process 
which, looked at from a high moral point of view, is 

The history of the colonisation of Natal ia, 
however, totally &ee from any trace of European 

When, in 1836, Pieter Betief and his followers 
came down upon Natal through the passes of the 
Drakeusbetg, the colony was swept almost com- 
pletely clear of population. It had been conquered 
by the armies of the great Zulu king Chaka, and its 
original native population, a peaceful and ino^ensive 
race, swept far away to the westward, finding a lodg- 
ment in the western parts of what are now known 
as the Transkeian districts. The Fingoes, whom you 
hear of to-day as constituting a loyal frontier tribe 
under the control of the Cape Government, are, in 
. fact, a remnant of this aboriginal native population 
of NataL The country was in Zulu possession ; the 
Zulu king Dingaan was its chief; and Dingaan, 
as you know, formally ceded it to the Dutch under 
Eetief The act of cession was made out and duly 
signed, and was in Betiefs possession before the 
treacherous slaughter began. 

Had Dingaan a r%ht to cede that territory? 
Undoubtedly lie had ; he was master of it by con- 
quest. That he did not, perhaps, intend to cede it 
is another question. But there are not many people 
who will contend that his act of cesdon was iuvali- 



dated by one of the most horrible and treacherous 
massacreB ever perpetrated. That maBsacie ^ras 
avenged, as you know, by the defeat of the Zulus at 
the battle of the Bloed Kiver in 1838— a battle 
which, there can be no doubt, made the em^rant 
Boers the absolute owners of what is now the colony 
of Natal. Then came the conflict between the emi- 
grant Boers and the British authorities at the Cape, 
resulting in the proclamation of the Queen's authority 
over Natal, which has been maintained ever since. 
The British Government of Natal, therefore, took up 
the rights conferred under the act of cession, and 
those rights — if the ai^ument is' worth any t iling 
— have always been recognised, first by the Zulu 
king Panda, whom the Dutch raised to the chieftaia- 
ship of Zululand after the defeat and flight of the 
treacherous Dingaan, and afterwards by Panda's son 
and successor, Cetywayo. 

Who then are the natives in Natal ? Why are 
there so many of them ? What is their position ? 

The natives in Natal are almost entirely Zulu 
refugees. Some of them have at one time or another 
nkade their exit from Zululand in order to avoid 
enforced military service ; others, and probably the 
laigest number, represent the tribes and families that 
took part against Cetywayo when, during his father's . 
lifetime, a stm^le took place for the right of succes- 
sorship between himself and another scion of the 
royal Zulu house. A tremendous battle between the 



two Zulu &ctdona was thea fought iu Zululand, near 
the banks of the Tugela — the river that divides the 
lower portion of Natal from Zululand — and hundreds 
and thousands of the warriors on the vanquished 
side took refuge under the British Government then 
established at Fietenuaritzhuig. For the accommo- 
dation of these refi^ees, large districts in several 
parts of the colony, which were then unoccupied, 
were set apart under the name of " native locations," 
in which a native chief, though subject to the British 
Goremment, and acknowle%ing the lieuteoant- 
Govemor as his "Supreme Chief," exercised, and 
BtiU exercises, a practically unlimited authority. 
This is the scheme invented hy Sir Theophilus 
Sh^tone, iu whose hands centred aU the threads of 
native government for upwards of thirty years. Of - 
the success of the plan adopted you may be able to 
Judge presently. 

Observe^ then, that in Natal, at least, the usual 
condition of things is reversed. The native is in a 
majority, it is true, but it is the native who has come 
upon the land of the European settler, and not the 
European settler who has come upon the land of the 
native. The native came or^nally to seek the pro- 
tection which a settled European Government could 
give him, and that protection has served him in such 
good stead that he has increased and multiplied and 
grown wealthy. And if, in return for the protection 
given him by the European Government, he is to 



stand in the way of civilised progress, and to oust 
the European settler from his land, the injustice 
would be rather a bitter one. 

And now, having got some notion as to the status 
of the raw native in Natal, let us have a look at him. 
There is no place where you will see him to better 
advantage than in Matitzbut^ ; for there, while 
visible in his perfectly raw condition, he is at the 
same time forced into an odd sort of contrast with 
civilised life which serves to bring the problem into 
all the more vivid relief. Down in Durban and on 
the coast the imported Coolie has somewhat super- 
seded the Natal Zulu as a labourer and a domestic 
servant, and the Ooolie, though picturesque enough, 
is not interesting from an African point of view. 

Here comes the raw native down the main street 
of Maritzburg, or rather, here comes a bevy of his 
female relations — his sisters, and his cousins, and 
even his aunts, for the withered old crone in the 
middle of the group must surely be an aunt to some- 
body. They started from their kraals, perhaps a 
dozen miles away, at sunrise this morning, and have 
come into town all the way on foot, following a path 
known only to themselves — a path that leads across 
country, up hill and down dale, through the long 
damp grass on the hill slope, under the overhanging 
rock, in and out of deep ravines, tiU it drops some- 
where down on a high road in the outskirts of the 
town. It was somewhere hereabouts that the party 



robed themselves for their visit, for you must not 
suppose that they would trouble themselves with 
garments all through their long tramp. No ; they 
started from their kraals just as they live at their 
kraals ; one of them, probably, carrying on her head 
the bundle containing their town attire. And how, 
you ask, does the raw native woman live at her 
kraal — or rather at her father^ or husband's kraal ? 
Save and except for a small apron of beads hung on 
a string round hei hips, she lives in a sublime state 
of nature. There never were a people so wantiog as 
the Zulus, whether in Natal or out of it, in a sense 
of — I was going to say propriety, but it would be far 
more correct to say that they are wanting in a sense 
of impropriety. As far as their own natural feelii^s 
are concerned, they would walk unclothed down the 
main street of Maritzburg with as little concern as 
they move along the hill-side. A higher power has, 
however, intervened. A law has been laid down by 
the Great Inkos' — put the heaviest possible accent on 
the second syllable, and sound the vowel as it is 
sounded in " hose" — a law has been laid down by 
tiie Great Inkos', the Supreme Chief, who lives at 
Qovemment House, and who only appears even to 
the most privileged native through the person of 
the Secretary for Native Affairs, that, whatever may 
be the custom in the country, clothes of some kind 
are to be worn in the towns. 

So outside the town the robing takes place, and 



the procession is presently ready to march in. The 
operation is a simple one enough, though its results 
are in some respects odd The EngUah girl com- 
mences with her skirts short, and sees them get 
longer and longer the farther her head is ftom the 
ground. The Kafir custom is just the reverse of 
this, These two little comical-looking, bright-eyed 
slips of children, some ten years old, are each swathed 
up in dignified folds of a brown-coloured blanket, 
with their heads just peeping out at the top, and their 
toes showing at the bottom. One of them has a huge 
gourd balanced on the top of her head, and you would 
say that, as her glance takes in everything on the two 
sides of the street, its equilibrium ought to be in 
jeopardy. But no ; it never seems to concern her in 
the least With arms closely folded in her majestic 
blanket, she moves easily along, and you look in vain 
for any hint of a movement of her elbow to save the 
load on her head. Then come two girls a few yeais 
older, whose blankets, being the same size as those 
of the small imps, do not cover quite so much of 
them. They have on their heads bundles of firewood 
which they have picked np on the way, and which 
they will sell for a shilling a piece before they leave 
town again for home. All these, you will observe, 
wear their short woolly hair in the natural fashion, 
lying close round their heads. But this somewhat 
older and more dignified young person, arrayed, not 
in a brown blanket^ but in a more elegant and per- 



hapa more airy costume of flowing blue, over a short 
leather kilt or petticoat, with brass wire rings round 
her arms above the elbow, and round her legs just 
below the knee —she has adopted a differeDt fiishion, 
and has her hair piled up in a kind of crown some 
inches above the top of her head. Adopted the 
&shion, or rather grown into it, for she is a married 
woman, and expresses the dignity of her position 
accordingly. One day, no doubt, if you could be 
sure of identifying her, you will see her march into 
town with a bundle on her back coDtuning a small 
black baby, that sleeps contentedly, hung up though 
it is in a kind of compulsory hammock, all the way 
from the kraal to the city. 

Is the life of these native women a happy one ? 
They are, as you know, little else than as slaves to 
their husbands, and as chattels to their fethers. The 
Kafir woman does all the bard work at the kraal, 
including the preparation of the soil for that 
" mealie " crop upon which the inmates of the kraal 
depend in a large measure for their subsistence. In 
the matter of marriage they have no choice ; their 
father, or, if their &ther is dead, the inheritor of his 
paternal rights, sells them as wives to the highest 
bidder, receiving their price la cows, with which he 
may himself, if he chooses, purchase new beauties for 
his own harem, l^ese conditions of life do not seem 
to have anything particularly cheerful in them. But 
it is, notwithstanding, impossible to trace any lack of 



cheetfalaeas in the faces of the gronp we have been 
lookup at The -women are less demonstrative than 
the men, as they should ha They are silent and 
dignified as they walk down the street, returning 
no response to the rallyii^ of sable male admirers 
from the kerbstone. But there is nothing that sug- 
gests want, or conscious hardship, or lack of ability 
to protect themselves. They are plump and well 
fed — a Kafir hassy's lower limbs would excite the 
enthusiasm of Tam o' Shanter himself — while their 
arms and hands are often perfect models of sym- 
metry. See Uiem when, having turned a deaf ear to 
the compliments of unrecognised admirers, they 
meet a friend in the street This smart young feUow 
with a radiant face and with his wool arranged round 
his head in a perfect halo of horns, who comes up 
and shakes hands with the party all round, is a 
Government messenger. You can tell that by Ms 
spotless whit« uniform — a loose blouse, and trousers ' 
down to the knee — with its red edging, by the red 
letters worked on the front of the blouse, and even 
by the short knobbed stick, locally known as a " knob- 
kerie," which he carries loosely in his hand. He is 
an old friend, evidently. Probably he hails from a 
neighbouring kraal, which he will visit when he gets 
leave of absence ; possibly he is a relation But is 
not the scene, as you watch it, a ludicrous counter- 
part of European manners — the small girls standing 
silent in the background, while the older girls talk 



over family affairs and the news of the day with a 
fluency that does credit to their tongues, and a smile 
that does justice to their teeth ? 

They are women of business, too. They know the 
value of money, and know how to make it go farthest. 
There is always something to he bought when they 
come into town. A new hoe is wanted for the 
meaHe-garden — did I say that the word " mealies " 
is simply a synonym for Indian com ? - Or a new 
cooking-pot is required ; and the trade done in these 
can be estimated from the number always ready 
waiting outside a Kafir storekeeper's door. Perhaps 
new blankets are in demand, or a bright handkerchief 
or two, or brass wire for armlets. It is not a mere 
matter of taking whatever is offered, and being off 
again Very far &om it. The storekeeper who de- 
pends on this class of customers very soon finds that 
he can't keep their custom unless he meets their 
views and consults their wishes. The quality of the 
blanket must be carefully examined ; the pot must 
be minutely inspected for possible flaws ; and if 
what is wanted cannot be obtained at one store, the 
party wiU pass on to another. But why wonder at 
this exhibition of shrewdness? The Eaflrs are a 
veritable nation of bai^ainers — a fact which is not 
without its significance with r^ard to the future. 

And the men ? Ah, the men, lazy fellows though 
they are, can hardly be quarrelled with. Were thereever 
such a people for seeing the comical side of everything 



— for uuderstandiiig a joke, even if made at theii own 
expense ? As to the Natal Zulu's costume, if left to 
himself to select European habiliments, it is simply 
indescribable, A lad once came to me on the look- 
out for work arrayed, in perfect conformity with the 
letter of the regulations regarding clothes, in an old 
black cloth dress -waistcoat, buttoned behind, and a 
pair of long-cloth tucked — but no, the costume was too 
indescribable ! As for wearing a tall wide-awake hat 
with the crown fitted somehow on the head, and the 
brim in the air, that is a small eccentricity, I shall 
never forget the ludicrousuesa of a scene once 
enacted with r^ard to such a hat. It was during 
the time of the Zulu war, and I was walking up the 
main street of Maritzburg in company with an utterly 
irrepressible Irish member of the Army Medical De- 
partments Presently we came upon a ring of some 
half-dozen Kafirs, mostly in the employ of neighbour- 
ing stores, hobnobbii^ together on the footwalk, the 
nearest of whom, standing with his back to our line 
of advance, bad on his head, turned upside down, an 
enormously tall wide-awake, the hollow cavity of 
which looked up towards the sky. Stepping up 
noiselessly behind the owner of the hat, and standing 
on tiptoe, the Irish M.D. gazes down into the cavity 
with an expression of intense curiosity. The joke is 
grasped at once, and the other five members of the 
group nearly explode themselves with delight Pre- 
sently the owner of the hat, seeing that the cause of 



the excitement in some way concerns himself, looks 
round and up over his shoulder, to meet the gaze of the 
irrepressible MJ). looking down. Do you think there 
■was any resentment in the mind of the owner of the 
hat in thus being made a jest of? Not a shadow. 
Hia whole face expanded into exuberant laughter, 
and you could see at a glance that he appreciated 
not only the fact that a joke wa^ intended, but what 
the joke was. 

This power of appreciating humour may seem 
a small thing, but it is nevertheless without doubt 
a very valuable index to general character, A sense 
of humour is almost of necessity associated with a 
power of judging rapidly and correctly with regard 
to events and persons, and in this the Zulus of Natal 
are wonderfully expert. But it is aJso not seldom 
associated with a species of sensual laziness for 
which an antidote may have to be found. 

For lazy the Natal Zulu unquestionably is: He 
has no sense of time whatever. One hour is to him 
much the same as six, and six much the same as 
one. Why should he not he lazy ? is his own argu- 
ment, if appealed to on the subject. Hia wants are 
startlingly few, nor is there any reason why they 
should all at once become larger. What are his 
expenses ? If he lives at his kraal, they are next to 
nothing. He grows — or rather his wife grows — his 
mealies, and grinds them when ripe, and this sup- 
plies nearly all the food he wants. Occasionally he. 



with some of hia {riends, kills an ox, or, better still, 
an ox dies somewhere of itself, and he gets, for a day 
or two, aa much beef as he wants. If he lives in 
one of the locations, he pays no rent ; if, there being 
no room in a location, he builds his kraal on unoccu- 
pied Government ground, he still pays no rent. All 
he pays, in recognition of his obligation to the State, 
ia fourteen shillings a-year as "hut-tax." If he 
erects his kraal on private land, he is not so well 
off, it is tru& He will have to pay a comparatively 
heavy rental, besides providing a certain amount of 
labour every year, if required, for the owner of the 
ferm his kraal is on. But even then, what a lucky 
fellow he is ! If he goea out to work he is certain 
of his twenty-five to thirty shillings a month, and as 
he gets his food, and in nearly all cases his clothes, all 
he receives in the way of wages is clear gain. When 
once, in fact, a Natal Zulu has established himself 
with a wife and a kraaJ of his own, it is not worth 
his while to work for any one. He can enjoy him- 
self in dignified repose at his kraal, taking care of 
his stock — for he is passionately fond of cattle-^ 
basking in the sun, looking out for the best bai^gains 
for himself in the shape of husbands for his daughters. 
Cows and marriages — round these two points the 
Natal Zulu's whole existence revolves. And these two 
points are in a very great degree one. For — and this 
is a matter which occasions not a little scandal among 
precise-minded people — no marriage is legal under 



Kafir law unless the wife has beea purchased 
from her father, or from the inheritor of paternal 
rights, by the payment of cattle. And the woman 
is as strong on the subject as the man. No Zulu 
woman, with a regard for her own reputation, would 
be married in any other way. So strong is the feeling, 
so deeply rooted the tradition, that even where, at 
the mission stations, nominal Christians are married, 
the payment of cows, as the civil ceremony, takes 
precedence of the religious rite before the pastor. 
Surely a strange and anomalous state of things. 

The only good point about the arrangement is 
this — that it provides a stimulus to work to a portion, 
at least, of the native population. The younger man, 
who is independent of his lather, will work for a cer- 
tain length of time every year, though seldom for 
more than six months together, in order to accumu- 
late money enough to enable him to purchase a wife ; 
and as a wife is worth perhaps five cows, and a cow 
ia worth five pounds, it may be some little time before 
he can accomplish his wishes. That his bride has any 
choice in the matter no one supposes for an instant. 
She is simply sold to the most eligible purchaser. 
And if she resists — if she is foolish and wilful 
enough to have a choice of her own — there are 
means to compel her, of which dwellers in the towns 
seldom hear anything. Would you believe that in 
a British Colony, under the direct government of the 
Crown, women may be tortured to compel tliem to 



many against their will ? Yet that cases of such 
torturing have occurred in Natal is undoiibted. 

And thia, observe, i^ the state of things encouraged 
and allowed to exist among a people who have re- 
sorted to the protection of a British Government, 
and who are therefore, it m^ht be thought, under 
some obligation in return. As it is, the system under 
which the raw native lives in Natal la considerably 
worse for him than the system from which he escaped. 
All the virtues of a savage life disappear, while all 
its vices are retained, Faithfiil as he is towards the 
Government that protects him — and all throi^h the 
trying time of the Zulu war his loyalty was splendid 
— keen politician as he ia, industrious trader, when 
he gets the chance, as fond of law as Dandie Din- 
mont himself, astute, long-memoried, good-natured, 
hospitable, utterly devoid of malice or vindictive- 
ness, — yet it cannot be denied that, in respect of 
many of his practices, he is unutterable. And it is 
as he gets older and wealthier that he gets worse. . 
Sensual as he is, there is yet one stronger instinct to 
which be yields — the instinct after money making. 
Cattle are the wealth he loves to have about him, 
and what means so good for the obtaining of cattle 
as the sale of bia children? If he pays away cows 
for another wife for himself, he ia aure to get them 
back one day by the sale of a daughter. And the 
British Government — not the Government so far as 
the coloniats are concerned, for they have never 

:, Google 


been allowed to have any voice in respect of native 
matters, but the Government as represented by offi- 
cials directly responsible to the Crown — baa not only 
not diacouiaged a system so vicious, but has given 
to it the sanction of law. It has recognised the sale 
of women by fixing the price payable for a wife ; it 
has resisted every attach,' direct or indirect, upon this, 
the citadel of native immorality ; it has organised 
polygamy by laying down rules of precedence for the 
several wives of those who may have cows enough 
to become polygamists ; it has sanctioned the right 
of a native insolvent to include the marriageable 
value of his daughters ia the assets of Ms estate ; it 
has set its seal of recognition to practices too abomin- 
able to mention. It will hardly be believed that in 
a British colony magistrates have been compelled to 
hear and decide in cases involving the price paid, or 
to be paid, for actual immorality. Tet the feet is 
so, and none know it better than the magistrates of 
Natal, who are obliged to consider and pronounce 
upon cases which are revolting to every instinct of a 
European gentleman. 

This is the result, then, of the treatment accorded 
to the raw native of Katal under the system invented 
by Sir Theophilus Shepatone. It may not be alto- 
gether Sir Theophilus Shepstone's fault. It is often 
asserted, and perhaps not without truth, that in 
earlier days he would have recommended a system 
of a very different kind, and that the Imperial 



Government would neither sanction his proposals 
nor countenance the expense they would involva 
This, however, is only shifting the blame a step 
farther back, and adding another to the sins of South 
African misman^ement for which successive occu- 
pants of the Colonial Office have to answer. To say 
that this so-called native system — which has simply 
meant giving the native, who is in this case the in- 
truder, full liberty to do exactly as he pleases— has 
acted as a blight upon the prosperity of Natal, is to 
say what is neither more nor less than true. The 
colonist, whether Dutch or English, is a man of 
sterling good qualities and some inconvenient preju- 
dices. The native is a being with high capabilities 
for civilisation, yet possessed nevertheless of savage 
and unpleasing traditions. You have repressed the 
colonist's good qualities — his enterprise, his desire to 
rely upon himself — and strengthened his prejudices. 
You have discouraged the native from the paths of 
civilisation, and done your utmost to perpetuate his 
evil traditions. 

And this you call policy I 




" But why, then, does the Eritiah colonist hold Br. 
Colenso's political doctrlQes in detestation ? Dr. 
Golenso is a good man— even we say that, who would 
not for worlds admit him into our pulpits. And 
when a good man is held in dislike, the conclusion 
which most people aie likely to draw is that those 
who dislike him are wicked." 

Here we get upon difficult ground. The British 
colonist in Soutih Africa is undoubtedly a strong 
opponent of Dr. Colenso, and Dr. Colenso is undoubt- 
edly a man who may be in every sense called good. 
And yet to conclude that the British colonist is, 
therefore, an altt^ether worthless being would be to 
make a perilous mistake. 

Up till the year 1873 there was no one more 
popular in Natal than Dr. Colenso. His conflict 
with ecclesiastical authority had rather brought him 
friends than made him enemies. The colonial idea 
was that his defiance of orthodoxy was spirited and 
plucky, and that the treatment he received at the 



hands of his eccleaiastical opponents was marked 
by bigotry and vindictiveness. 

Then, in 1873, came a stir amoi^ the native 
refugees in Natal The chief Langalibalele, who 
lived with his tribe on his location near Estcourt, 
showed signs of insubordination towards the Govern- 
ment. He was, there can be little doubt, an intriguing 
and dangerous character — a man looked up to by 
other native tribes in Natal as possessed of magical 
powers. Disagreeable rumours got about of an in- 
tended rising of the natives. The native population 
became restless, the colonists anxious, the Govern- 
ment nervous. 

Things came to a crisis. Langalibalele, summoned 
to attend before the Supreme Chief at Fietermaritz- 
bui^ and give an account of himself, refused to go, 
urging as a reason that he feared treachery. Whether 
the excuse was a sincere one or not, has been a 
matter of long discussion, and remains a matter of 
doubt. But at any rate there was an open defiance 
of the authority of the Giovemment, and it became 
the duty of the Government to act with fimmess. 

The Government lacked the capacity to act with 
firmness. No one in the district in which the chief 
lived expected serious mischief. Colonists who knew- 
him well did not hesitate to remain quietly on their 
farms. The district magistrate offered to go down to 
the chiefs kraal with a single policeman, and arrest 
him. But the Government, paralysed and frightened. 


X.] ALARM. 169 

and not improbably in ita inner coimeila divided 
eigainst itself, did nothing. The agitation and anxiety 
became greater and greater ; a farmer, living in the 
district moat concerned, was stabbed by a Kafir who 
came to his door at night. The act was probably 
one of private revenge, but it seemed like a confir- 
mation of the worst apprehensions. And in the 
middle of it all, LangaJibalele, taking his tribe and his 
cattle with him, abandoned his location with the in- 
tention of quitting the colony. 

Then the weak heads in Pietermaritzburg acted 
as might have been expected. They became panic- 
struck. The troops were ordered out ; the volunteer 
forces called to arms ; native contingents asked for 
from the chiefs, who, it was believed, could most be 
depended om To prevent the escape of the recusant 
chief — as some have averred, to give an appearance 
of a desire to prevent his escape — one of the most 
inaccessible passes of the Drakenaberg was occupied 
by a force of volunteers and natives, commanded by 
the very same Colonel Dumford whose memory is so 
inextricably mixed up with the disaster at Isandhl- 
wana. If the desire on the part of the colonial 
authorities was to assume an appearance of vigour 
while really allowing the recusant chief to escape, 
their plans were weD. laid; for the greater part of 
the tribe had already got over the pass, and all that 
remained to traverse it was the rear-guard. 

Up the pass came the retreating Kafirs ; at its 



summit stood the force, a small one enough, of Natal 
Carbineers, supported by a number of loyal natives. 
With chwacteristic folly, the Government had tied 
the hands of the commanding officer, and given 
biin the strictest orders not to commence hostilities. 
The Kafirs, armed with guns — for the law against the 
possession of guns hy natives was habitually violated, 
and its violation winked at by the authorities — 
crept np nearer and nearer to the colonial forces, 
taking cover behind the rocks which abounded on 
the spot. Still not a move was made nor an order 
given. The attitude and manner of the enemy were 
menacing in the extreme, and they were near enough, 
too, to taunt the colonial lads, many of whom they 
knew by name, for their inaction. At last matters 
became so serious that, the advantage of the positfon 
having long ago been thrown away, the order was given 
to retire. The result was what, with such an enemy, 
might have been anticipated. Fire was opened from 
the rocks on all sides. Three volunteers and two 
loyal natives were shot down, and the remainder re- 
tired as speedily as possible. The wonder is that the 
casualties were so smalL But your native is seldom 
a good shot with a gun, and the better the gun the 
worse his sbootii^. For, under the impression that 
it in some way improves the shooting qualities of hia 
weapon, he invariably, no matter how short the range, 
puts up the sight as high as it will go. 

What followed does not require very much space 



to telL Baming with iudignatiou at the charge of 
cowardice unworthily levelled at them by Imperial 
military officera, the colonial volunteers quickly 
organised an expedition for the purpose of following 
up and capturing the flying chief Penetrating the 
almost impassable fastnesses of the Diakensberg 
mountains into Basutoland, they found that he had 
there been arrested by a Basnto chief, from whose 
hands they took him over, and brought him prisoner 
to the Natal capitaL A court was formed for the 
trial of Langalibalele and the other native prisoners, 
over which the Governor, Sir Benjamin Pine, installed 
himself as president in his capacity of Supreme Chief 
of the native population, "When the accuser sits as 
jui^e, conviction of necessity follows, and Langali- 
balele and others of his tribe were found guilty 
of rebellion, and sentenced to transJKirtation for life ; 
the Cape Parliament passing an Act enabling their 
Government to take charge of the convicts, and to 
keep them in safe custody on Eobben Island, a small 
desolate island, occupied only by a convict station, 
near the entrance to Table Bay. 

There was enough, and more than enough, in all 
this to arouse the indignation of generous-minded 
men. The court which sat for the trial of the 
offenders was notoriously partial, while, owing to 
the excitement of the moment, the action of those 
who might have seen fair play was paralysed. Dr. 
Colenso, who had followed and analysed the evi- 



deuce, saw, or believed, that an immenae wrong had 
been done, and detetmined, with all the energy of 
which he was capable, to set it right. In taking this 
course he was fighting against a narrow official clique, 
whose weakness and mismanagement first of aU 
brot^ht about the rebellion, for which they then pro- 
ceeded to infiict the most ext^gerated punishments. 
In fighting tiiis clique Dr. Colenso believed that he 
would have the feeling of the colonists, who them- 
selves likewise bore no goodwill towards it, on hia 
aide. But he unfortunately reckoned without his 

He visited England at his own cost ; he pleaded 
the cause of the imprisoned chief with the Colonial 
Office ; he exposed to view, there can be no doubt, not 
a few of the evils of the native system that had been 
built up in Natal He procured an order for the re- 
lease of Lsngalibalele from Sobhen Island, and for 
his restoration to his place in KataL So far his 
mission succeeded completely. But his influence 
with Natal colonists was gone from this moment. 

"What, then ? "The Natal colonist was then, and 
is now, the abettor of unjust dealing towards the 
natives who are in his power." 

It may seem to you to be aa But, whatever you 
do, if you have a regard for the future of South 
Africa, do not quarrel with the l&itish colonist un- 
necessarily, and do not call him worse names than 
you can help. I have asked you, perhaps not with- 



out effect, to place yourself in the position of the 
Dutch settler who emigrated from the Cape Colony 
some five-and-forty years ago. Try to place yourself 
also in the position of the ftitish colonist, and see if 
yon cannot be more just to him than you have been. 
And again, at the renewed risk of incurring a charge 
of egotism, let me remind you of my own credentials 
in respect of this native question. 

Suppose the fear entertained of a general native 
rising at the time of the occurrence of this Laogali- 
balele incident had been realised, what would 
have been the position of the colonists of Natal? 
Let us grant that theje were, including men, women, 
and children, 25,000 European colonists in Natal, 
and grantii^ that they were all — or as many as were 
fit — in some way armed, what could they do against 
a general rising of 300,000 natives, 50,000 of whom, 
at least, would be grown men? 

tJltimfttely, you will say, even these odds would 
not avail the nativQi who would be completely beaten 
in the long run. This I believe; but then look at 
the intervening anxiety, the loss of life, the loss of 
property. Look at what has been done in native 
risings in South Africa — in that war of 1835, for 
example, when 450 homesteads were burnt in one 
week. Think, too, of the Kafir war of 1851, when, 
to the horror of all the Cape colonists, the Hottentot 
police, on whom they lai^ely relied, deserted and 
went over to the enemy, taking their arms and 



These are possibilities which the British colonist, 
who lives in the presence of a large native popula- 
tion, will always have before Mm, In ordinwy 
times he will, with clear common sense, count np the 
pros and cons, and reasonahly discredit the idea of 
danger. He knows — and I am speaking of Natal now, 
as it is a case in point — that the natives value the 
protection of the British Government, finding that 
under it no grievous individual wrong will be done 
them, and that their lives and property are secure. 
He knows that, owing to inter-tribal jealousies 
among themselves, a combination of natives is a very 
unlikely thing to happen. He knows that a small 
European force is very competent to deal, if promptly 
need, with a very lai^e body of natives. He even 
believes that, did a rising take place, his wife and 
his children would not be molested, though he him- 
self might be murdered. Believing all this, he lives 
on his farm, separated perhaps by nules from his 
nearest neighbour, with as much confidence as that 
with which you occupy your house at Hampetead or 
Sydenham. Nay, with even more confidence, be- 
cause you live in nightly dread of buiglars, and he 
can leave all his doors unbolted and his windows 
open, and not lose a pin. 

At times, however, a different feeling comes over 
him. He gets nervous and anxious, and what seemed 
the faintest possibility seems to come nearer and be- 
come almost probable. How can you account for t^? 



You cannot account for it, any more than yon can 
account for the accessions of jiDgoism in England 
that periodically send the whole nation, together 
mth the Times, r^ing on the war-path. Nothing 
may happen, and this fit may pass harmlessly off. 
But it may not, and you know perfectly well that 
when people grow for any reason suspicions they are 
very liable to see whatever they suspect. Every- 
thing wears a distorted and exaggerated appearance. 
One little occurrence seems to connect itself with 
another in a murner which would at ordinary times 
be laughed to scorn. Picture the state of Othello's 
mind when he began to be jealous of Desdemona, 
and you will have a very good idea of the state of 
the South AAican colonist's mind when he b^ins to 
suspect the loyalty of the natives around him. And 
as he gets nervous, his Government gets nervous too, 
and suddenly acts in a way which is really a proof 
of its own groundless apprehension, but which seems 
to him as confirmatory of his worst fears. Then, 
perhaps, as in the Langahbalele case, there comes 
actual collision ; Europeans actually lose their lives, 
and European prestige — a fer more important thing 
to him than British prestige is to you — is in danger. 
He may exf^gerate the danger; he is willing to 
acknowledge that perhaps he does. But of one thing 
be is firmly and unalterably persuaded, — that if any 
one thing more than another will tend to bring about 
the combination which he dreads, it is the spectacle 



of European authority set at nought and European 
forces defeated. He will not preach a general 
crusade against natives, or alter his native policy, 
or allow the spirit of distrust altogether to take 
possession of him. But in this particular case a 
firm and strong course must be adopted, and an 
eloquent example made. Firmness is alone that 
which the native understands, and with firmness 
offenders must be treated. It is best for the natives 
themselves, lest they should rise in mischievous 
though futile rebellion, that this should be done. 

Apply this reasoning to the Langalibalele case, 
and you will, I think, understand it better. There 
had been, without doubt, a defiance of British 
authority. A confict had occurred in which Euro- 
pean preside had, no matter &om what unavoidable 
causes, suffered. The lives of colonists had been 
taken by the followers of the recusant chie£ Per- 
haps the court that tried him was not fairly con- 
stituted ; perhaps the sentence was excessive-r-even 
colonists will admit this. But to do, they say, as Dr. 
Colenso would have us do — to bring back the chief 
who had been thus sentenced and to reinstate him 
over his tribe as if he were the injured party, and we, 
the colonists, were the offenders — to do this would 
simply be to proclaim to every native chief in Natal 
that he was at liberty to ignore the behests of the 
Government whenever he pleased, and to place our 
lives and our property at native disposal. 



The thing was not done. By the advice of Sir 
Gamet Wolseley, who shortly after temporarily 
undertook the admimstration of aETairs in Natal, a 
compromise was arrived at, and the recusant chief, 
released "from his island in the sea," was allowed to 
occupy, under surveillance, a farm near Cape Town, 
But can you, considering everything, wonder that 
Dr. Colenao is no longer popular among Natal 
colonists t Admit, if you wUl, that the colonist is 
wrong, but at least try to understand his case. He 
does not, you will say, act in these matters as a 
high-minded and generous English genUeman would 
act. Of course he does not ; because he is not a 
high-minded and generous English gentleman, and 
no one knows it better than himself. He is what 
he is ; and if you have any regard for the future of 
South A&ica, or for the future of the South AlHcan 
native, you must make the best of him. He has 
good qualities, if you only take the trouble to find 
them, and these, if enlisted on your side, will carry 
you a long way. Eun athwart him — accuse him of 
being the brutal oppressor of the native, and treat 
him as such — and who do you think will ultimately 
be the greatest auiferer ? The native, undoubtedly. 
The thing has happened before, and will happen 
again. For the colonist is on the spot, and you are 
not ; and as the danger of the situation falls to big 
share, so he can, if he chooses, work things round in 
a manner altogether to confuse you, and to bring out 



an army — which will always come at such a call — 
to save himeelf &oiu eztermiuatioiL 

And that, you will say, is what he did in respect 
of the Zulu. business. 

This is certainly what colonists have been accused 
of doing — of cryii^ out for troops to save them from 
dif&cnlties mostly of their own making, plundering 
those troops when they came, refusing to bear any 
portion of the expenses of a war for their own sal- 
vation. If these charges were true, they would be 
serious. But they are, every one, entirely and abso- 
lutely false. The Zulu war was, so far as the British 
side of it was concerned, the production of one man, 
unabetted and unassisted by a single colonist. And 
that one man was Sir Bartle Frere. 

You will, doubtless, have imagined the colony of 
Natal, during the months immediately preceding the 
outbreak of the Zulu war, as in a state of agitation 
and alarm, with farmers deserting their homes upon 
the border, the press frantically crying out for troops, 
and every one immediately expecting to hear of a 
Zulu army marching across the Tugela. 

The actual state of things was as different from 
this as anything could be. There had been, a short 
time before, some anxiety with regard to the Zulu 
question \ but it was believed that the worst of that 
was over. The main cause of dispute between the Brit- 
ish Government and the Zulu King was in respect 
of the boundary between Zululand and the Transvaal. 



That, however, had been taken in hand by Sir Henry 
Bulwer in the beginning of 1878 — the tdtimatom, 
you may remember, was sent to Getywayo in the 
last month of that year — and it waa nnderstood that 
the evidence waa favourable to the Zulu side of the 
qoeation. Why, then, should the Zulus be on bad 
terms with the British Government, and why, more 
especially, on bad terms with the (rovemment of 
Natal, which had always maintained a cordial under- 
standing with the Zulus ? 

But there was the violation of Natal territory ly 
the sons of Siiayo, and the outrage on the load 
engineers by the Tugela. Surely these events had 
left an unpleasant impression 7 

As regards the last-named of these matters, my own 
conviction is that nine colonists out of ten had never 
even heard of it until they saw it included in the 
ultimatum as one of the things for which compensa- 
tion was to be made. As regards the first — the vio- 
lation of Natal territory by the sons of Sirayo — the 
effect produced was hardly any greater. Not a single 
fanner along the exposed border where this occurrence 
took place left his farm in consequence ; while six 
weeks later, a gentleman who had been on business 
to Utrecht, in the Transvaal, drove back to Pieter- 
maritzbnrg alone, through the very middle of the 
district in which the outrage occurred, and reported 
that the utmost quietude prevailed. More than this, 
— he drew up a written statement of his impressions, 



at Sir Eartle Frere's request, and forwarded it to Mm 
through an ofBcer of the Natal Govemment. That 
document, however, did not find its way into any 
blue-book. And with good reason ; for at that very- 
date, the beginning of October, 1878, SirBartle 
Frere waa writing despatches describing the state of 
alarm that existed in the colony. 

Who created the alarm? Without doubt. Sir 
Bartle Frere himaetf. Who insisted on the despatch 
of extra reinforcements from England? Sir Baitle 
Frere, and no one else. 

What, then, was the state of mind prevailing 
among coloniata ? Their state of mind, previous to 
the outbreak of the war, was one of the most perfect 
confidence in Sir Bartle Frere, coupled with the belief 
that he, above aU men in the world, would solve any 
dif&culty that existed with the Zulus by peaceable 
means, if any peaceable means could by any possi- 
bility be found. The presence of the troops — and it 
must be borne in mind that only the two battalions 
of the 24th and the 90th, three battalions in all, had 
been added to the three battalions previously in 
Natal and the Transvaal — was regarded as a wise 
measure of precaution, and not as containing the pre- 
parations for an invasion of Zululand.^ So high stood 
the prestige of Sir Bartle I^ere's name and reputation, 
that had he announced his intention of declining to 

* The 4tli and 99th only arrived a vetj few days hefbie hoBtOitieB 
actually commenced. 


X.] THE ZULU WAR. 171 

resort to the sword, and of setting the example of a juBt 
and generous method of dealing with savage races, the 
whole colony would have cheered "him to the echo. 

What followed was the natural consequence of this 
statft of feeling. When it was -seen that Sir Bartle 
Frere was determined to go to war, the whole colony 
took it for granted that there mnet be some very 
good reason for it, and, pinning their faith still upon 
his reputation, approved every step which he took. 
Weak, perhaps, you will say, bat intensely excusable. 

Accuse them, then, of preferring Sir Bartle Frere'a 
reputation to their own reason, but of nothing more 
than this. The war was none of their making ; it 
was made over their heads. So closely was the whole 
matter kept &om them that, although the Natal Legis- 
lative Council was holding its sittings into September, 
nothing was communicated to it on the question of 
the impending war, nor was any resolution passed 
expressing apprehension or demanding additional 
guarantees for security. Nay, more; attempts at in- 
quiry as to what was going forward, and the meaning 
of the mihtary movements that were visibly taking 
place, were stifled, by direction from high places, by 
the ofScial members of the Legislature — men, it must 
be borne in mind, who were responsible to the Crown, 
and not to the colonists. 

Then there came to be a question of calling out 
the volunteer forces of the colony, and on this there 
was but one feeling. The colony must not be back- 



ward. The Imperial Government was at last taking 
an interest in South African affairs. Here were troops 
ready to protect coloniats, if need were, and a High 
Commissioner who seemed to have the interests of 
the commnnity at heart. Under such circnmstances 
the colony must not be backward. By "rights these 
boys — for boys the greater part of them were — could 
only be called on to serve within the limits of the 
colony, and for defensive purposes. Should they 
insist on their right 'i What was defensive warfare ? 
If, for example, the Zulus were massing, or said to 
be massing, in their own territory for an invasion of 
Natal, would it not be an act of defensive warfare to 
cross over and attack them ? If the Zulus invaded 
the colony, and were driven out i^ain, would it not 
be an act of defensive warfare to follow them up ? 
The (question was cunningly put — at whose instance, 
it were bard to say — and generously answered. 
There was not a boy among them all who did not 
sign bis name to a declaration expressing his willing- 
ness to go beyond the limits of the colony, should 
the duty be required of theuL Alas ! they were 
signing away their lives ! 

But who anticipated danger ? Was it not said of 
the Zulus, as was tiie other day said of the Transvaal 
Boers, that their defence — for the idea of a march to 
TJlundi became popular during the few weeks pre- 
ceding the actual commencement of hostilities — ^waa 
it not said that the defence of the Zulus would 



collapse and break down ? Bid not Sir Theophilus 
Shepstone himself, when visiting Lord Chelmsford's 
camp six days before the great disaster, saj so? 
And did any one know more about the Zulus than Sir 
Theophilus Shepstone ? And so, when they marched 
oat of the city, the little troop of some five and 'forty, 
with the military band at their head, and the crowd 
marching with them for a mile of the route, there 
was anxiety, but no apprehension. They were the 
Natal Carbineers, the heroes of the affair at Bush- 
man's Pass in 1873. They were going to redeem 
their reputation, and to fight, if fightii^ indeed should 
be necessary, under the eye of Lord Chelmsford him- 
self On one thing they congratulated themselves — 
they were not going to fight under Colonel Dumford, 
whose stubborn adherence to his orders not to fire 
the first abot brought them loss six years before in 
the passes of the Brakensberg. 

And so they marched out, and we — what did we 
do who retuained at our businesses in town % They 
must be made comfortable, these boys of ours ; they 
must be able to feel that there are people thinking 
and caring for them while they were there on the 
borders of Zululand, taking a manly part in what 
might be— must be — a crisis of grave import to the 
colony. For they were not of the commoner sort, 
these boys. Their families were, in many cases, of 
the best blood of the colony, who were not ashamed 
that their sons should serve as privates in the ranks 



of the Carbineers. Then Christmas time came, and 
there must be Christmas dinners sent np to the 
front. There were meetings, discussions, subscrip- 
tions — how vividly these things can be remem- 
bered ! — division as to whether it was best to send 
soda-water in bottles ready made, or to furmsh the 
means of making it. The Christmas waggon, with its 
stores of good things, got to the camp some days too 
late, but it did not matter. Its contents came in for 
New-Tear's Day, and were appreciated all the same. 
And then, before a fortnight of January was well 
passed, there came news of an action. TheBufialohad 
been crossed ; Lord Chelmsford was on Zulu ground ; 
there had been a skirmish, and our boys had behaved 
well. Of course they had behaved well ; eveiy one 
knew they would. And then came a pause ; there 
was delay in the advance ; Pearson was to push on, 
it was said, along the coast road to Ulundi, and the 
road seemed by all reports to be clear. The 22d 
January came and went ; a quiet, dull day to those 
who waited at home, with an eclipse of the sun that 
was watched through dull overhanging clouds. Then 
the next day brot^ht news. Pearson had been 
eng^ed ; the enemy had attacked him in force, and 
had been driven off after two hours' fighting. That 
was well ; for if the enemy fought, it was said, it 
would the sooner be over. And so every one with 
sons or brothers in the field went to bed more cheerM 
that ni^t, never guessing that even at Uiat moment 



there were men galloping towards the city cbai^d 
with the worst and heaviest news that had ever come 
to it since the day it was foanded — no one guessing 
that while we were watching that eclipse of the sun 
a tragedy was beii^ enacted which will never he for- 
gotten as long as Natal has a name. 

Does any one in Natal remember — or rather does 
any one forget — that Friday morning, the 24th Janu- 
ary, 1879, when the news came down to the capital 
of Natal of the dire disaster under the shadow of the 
hill at Isandhlwana? There never was a calmer, 
brighter summer dawn than there was in Natal that 
day. The whole thing is at this moment as distinct 
as if it were only yesterday. The dim feeling of 
midefined awe, when it was whispered that news 
had been brought of the disaster. Then the i^uestions 
hurriedly asked of the highest colonial official obtain- 
able ; the answer, " The news is just as bad as it 
can be ; " the question as to who was known to be 
killed ; the reply again, " Dumford's killed for certain, 
and Scott, and at least hdf the Carbineers." Buni- 
foid 1 How did he come to be there ? He was sap- 
posed to be eighty miles away. But Scott! — the 
recently-promoted lieutenant of the popular Car- 
bineers ; the best singer of a comic song ; the best 
amateur on the stage ; the very life of the cricket- 
field! Scott dead! — it seemed impossible to realise 
it. But somehow it got realised as the day went on, 
and as tiie conviction settled down on everybody 



that lialf of the gallant little band who marched out 
a few weeks ago would come back do more. And 
then, as the day wore, came sentences of indignation. 
How was it Dumford was there ? How was it that 
the Carbineers came to be again, as it would seem, 
under his command ? Had it not been enough that 
he had led them into danger six years ago ? 

So ran the tone at the momeut, but it changed 
five months later, when at last — delayed by heaven 
only knows what reason — a visit was paid by Imperial 
troops to the field, and the remains of the dead were 
allowed to tell their own story. Dumford was there 
indeed, still plainly recognisable, with Scott close 
beside him, and the boys of the Carbineers lying 
dead all round. It was they who had made that last 
rally, in the vain hope of stemming the rush of Zulu 
warriors, and gaining time for at least more fugitives 
to escape. Could any one have believed that sun 
and weather would have so loi^ left distinguishable 
remains which thus told one of the most pathetic 
stories ever known ? Yet it was so. And can it be 
doubted that the memories of Bushman's Pass are 
wiped out by the memories of the day when, in the 
last moments of existence, the mistake and misunder- 
standing of years was set right, and the boy fot^ht 
side by side with the man in the conflict which both 
knew could only end in death ? 

Take these things into yoor mind ; think of them 
well, putting yoorself in the place of the Natal 



colonist, and see if it is not possible to esteem him 
a little more, and despise him a little less, even 
though he i3 no disciple of Dr. Colenso's. If he is a 
Jingo, are not many of you good people in England also 
Jingoes ? 11^ once being engaged in a struggle with 
native races, he insists on the result of the stn^Ie 
being left unmistakably in his favour, so that the 
native races may have no doubt aa to who is master, 
is he not merely copying the example set him irom 
home % Do you good people in England feel much 
sympathy with politicians of the extreme Cobdenite 
school, who would give up Malta and Gibraltar, and 
every other fortress on which the English flag is now 
flying ? Dr. Colenso and those who in South Africa 
think and work with him are to the British colonist 
aa the givers up of Gibraltar are to yon. And they 
are worse than this ; for in the decline of European 
•prestige in South Africa the colonist sees imminent 
and immediate danger to his hearth and home. 

Bear with him, then ; and do not be severe upon 
him because he has, during and since the Zulu war, 
held up both hands in support of Sir Bartle Frere's 
Zulu policy. The sin is not his, but that of the pro- 
consul whose reputation would have enabled him to 
inaugurate in South Africa a policy of peace and 
moderation, but who, deliberately choosing the lower 
road, stirred up every base and bitter passion, and 
threw five millions of Imperial treasure clean into 
the sea. 





When, on ttat fatd day of Isandhl-wana, the broken 
line of fi^tives sought the drift over the Buffalo 
Eiver, which will now for ever be called after their 
name; when they came down breathless, with the 
enemy aronud them and on their heels, doubting 
whether they had strength enough left to make a last 
fight for life by plunging into the rapidly running 
stream ; as they paused and looked round and upward, 
measurii^ the distance of the advancing foe, and the 
width of the river that lay between them and the 
comparative safety- of the Natal shore — while they 
thus paused and wondered, there came the sharp 
report of rifles from the opposite bank. 

Was it a signal of life or of death ? Had the Zulus 
got across and intercepted their retreat, or was there 
a British detachment providentially in the way, 
covering their escape ? 

No, they were not British troops ; they were not 

^ The greater part of this chapter appealed in September 1879 
in the colimma of the Daily TiUyraph, utd is reprinted b7 the 
coDTteona permisdon of the proprietors ot that journal. 



even a colonial force. The men whose riflea they 
heard were aa black as the Zulus themselves, but 
they were not Zulus, for they wore a rough uniform 
and broad-brinuued hats, and carried their cartridges 
in a belt over their shoulders. There they stood 
by their shaggy little ponies, firing steadily across 
the river at the advancii^ awarm of Cetywayo's 
warriors. There was a Zulu down ; there was 
another. There was a check, a pause, a few 
moments more allowed for a dash into the river, for 
a stru^le to the other side ; a hasty climb up to 
where the little band of sable horsemen, each with 
only a few cartridges left in his belt, stUl stood 
fiicing the enemy. 

There were not many for whom even such a 
respite as this was obtainable. But none the less 
admirable was the conduct of the troop of native 
horse, who, with no European leader left to direct 
them, thus delayed their own retreat to save what 
they could of the remnant of the ill-fated force left 
in Lord Chelmsford's camp. 

Who were these men ? 

They were the Natal Native Horse — a force, 
some sixty strong, raised by Colonel Dumford from 
amoi^ the residents of the native settlement of 
Edendale, near Maritzbui^, First of all attached to 
Colonel Diumfoi'd's almost purely native command, 
they accompanied him to Lord Chelmsford's camp, 
when, on that memorable morning, he was ordered up 



from the drift across the Buffalo river to reinforce 
the detachments left in camp. Taking part, in the 
action that preceded the destruction of the camp 
and ite gallant defenders, they were ao far outaide 
the main body of the 2ulus as to be able to cut their 
way through and escape, losing only two or three of 
their number. Eetuming to their homes in the first 
instance, they volunteered immediately again for 
active service, passing through the whole of the rest 
of the campaign with the utmost credit 

They are at home ^ain now, and they are going to 
give a feast to celebrate their safe retiam. They have 
invited the Lieutenant-Governor, Sir Henry Bulwer, 
to be present, as well as other people of importance. 
You have seen the Kafir In his raw condition ; come 
with me to-day and see him as he can be made by 
education and the adoption of civilised habits. Here 
is a carriage and a pair of horses, and a celebrated 
Jehu of the place to engineer them along ; and if 
we are left last on the road it will be somewhat 

Six or seven miles from Maritzbuig stands Eden- 
dale, generally spoken of as the largest viUc^e in 
South Africa. A village, it is called, but it is cer- 
tainly a lai^er place than several that are dignified 
in Hatal by the name of town. The village of 
Edendale, it should be said, owes its origin to a Mr. 
Allison, who in former years did good work as a 
missionary in South Africa. Purchasing a farm of 



6000 afires from that very Andries Pretoriua whom 
we saw doing sach valiant work against the Zulu 
regiments, Mr. Alliaon aet about the formation of a 
native industrial settlement, attracting round him 
natives who had come under his influence, and over 
whom he had acquired an ascendancy. He settled 
in this quiet nook, in the midst of some of the richest 
country in Natal, and succeeded in his undertaking, 
as his energy and devotion entitled him to succeed. 
To-day 4000 out of the original 6000 acres are 
under cultivation, while the place has become a 
home of real and permanent native civilisation, which 
must spread its influence far and wide. 

leaving, however, the arid flats of history, let us 
endeavour to picture the place and the people as we 
se« them to-day. And what a perfect day it is ! 
The drawback to fine days in South Africa is almost 
always the utter absence of clouds. Hill and valley 
and plain lie steeped in one blaze of unbroken light, 
tiiat lasts from t^e instant the sun appears above 
the horizon to the instant of his disappearance. 
To-day, however, it is different ; there is a softness 
in the air speaking unmistakably of spring, and re- 
minding one of those delicious English April days 
which seem, by reason of their very beauty, to be 
au^estive in some way of melancholy. All round 
the horizon float soft, white, fleecy clouds, never 
seeming to change their position, yet always e^res- 
aive of the idea of motion, and easting upon the 



indmg hills shadows that bring out many a 
line and contour which would have been completely 
lost under the cloudless glare of a less-favoured day. 
And yonder, as we open out the valley, lies Eden- 
dala Bat surely this is not South AMca at alL 
This is a piece of Yorkshire, and that collection of 
white houses on the hill-side, some four or five miles 
off, is one of those manufacturing villages which line 
the valleys of the Wharfe and the Aire ; only the 
tall chimneys are missing, and, oddly enoi^h, Uiere 
are some clumps of gum-trees which, at that dis- 
tance, have all the appearance of chimneys of a 
dwarf description. Or is it after all a hit of West- 
moreland or Derbyshire ? 

But now the element of human interest comes into 
play. Drawn up by the roadside is the escort, some 
fifty strong, waiting for the Lieutenant-Governor. 
Every man wears a crimson sash over his velveteen 
shooting-coat. Gray felt hats of the nattiest and 
newest pattern are the rule, but here and there is a 
brilliant smoking cap with a gold tassel, while one 
man, the sergeant-major of the troop, is distinguished 
by a magnificent sealskin cap. This is Simeon 
Kambnla, son of that faithful old native Elijah 
Kambnla, who fell fighting in Bushman's Pass in 
1873, and whose name is recorded, together with 
the names of three Natal Carbineers, on the monu- 
ment that stands opposite the Maritzburg post-office. 
We 6ire saluted with smiles and lifted hats as we 



speed by, and soon find onraelves, after spUsMng 
through a stream, at the bottom of the main street 
of the Tillage. All ia holiday time here, plainly 
enough. The flags are flying up yonder in front of 
the red biiok schoolroom that serves also the pur- 
poses of a chapel, while the dark-faced villt^ers sit 
or stand in groups l>y the roadside, smiling their 
welcomes. But these neat built houses, with their 
galvanised iron roofs and green-painted verandahs, 
are surely not the residences of natives I They be- 
long, doubtless, to European families who find it to 
their advantage to settle here. It is not until a 
veritable black baby is seen peeping out at a window 
that conviction on the subject is possible, and that 
the fact ia realised that we are in the centre of 
black civilisation. Here and there, it is true, signs 
of original Kafir customs and habits are visible. 
Here is a kraal built up at the back of a neat 
cottage ; here is a mud hovel that m^ht have been 
transported direct from the wilds of County Galway, 
but the prevailing atmosphere is one of orderly pro- 
gress and high respectability. And now, having 
landed our vehicle in the midst of a little green 
paddock, already tenanted by half-a-dozen otiiera, 
we are greeted by the active and energetic Wealeyan 
pastor, who, in spite of his holiday air and the 
bouquet in his button-hole, wears an air of anxiety, 
as well he may, seeing that on his shoulders almost 
the whole work of administration has devolved. It 



is just -as well, after all, that we have arrived before 
Sir Henry Eulwer, as it gives ua time to look ahoat 
us. The schoolroom must be inspected — a room 
some eighty feet long and forty wide, which we 
enter by a door at the end The first thing that 
strikes the eye, after it has rested on the long table 
set out with fdl manner of good things, is the trophy 
of white Zulu shields at the ^irther end of the room, 
just above where the Native Choir is already seated 
waiting for the proceedings to b^in. Eonnd the 
room, inscribed in gilt letters on coloured calico, are 
the names of Isandhlwana, Zlobane, Eambula, and 
Ulundi — the battles in which the men of the Eden- 
dale troop have been engaged, while hanging on a 
nail over the name of Ulundi is the leopard-skin 
coronet of a Zulu chief slain in that last fight of 
the campaign. The table for the European guests 
— and let it be remembered that the givers of the 
feast are the black fathers of the village — is placed 
across the end of the room at which we have entered, , 
and is most bountifully supplied. 

Who is responsible for the laying and providing 
of the tables ? It is all done in the village by 
native hands. Even these table-napkins, folded so 
daintily, and each adorned with a miniature bouquet, 
have been arranged by the veritable givers of the 
feast Outeide there is a considerable crowd col- 
lecting, and it is reported that the escort is seen to 
be on the move. Coming out f^aiu, the news is 



visibly confirmed; for yonder is the long line of 
horaemen, and the Trhite top of the gubeniatoiial 
mule waggon. The chapel bell begins to ting, bat 
nufoitunately cannot get up a sufficient rate of 
speed to be otherwise than funereal, and is, after a 
few moments, suppressed. It has, however, served 
ita purpose as a signal, for here are the grand ladies 
of the village coming up the street in a sort of pro- 
cession, dressed in a manner which woidd make 
any sensitive rainbow hide its head in confusion. 
Yellow satin, green satin, blue satin, maroon satin, 
such are Uie colours and such is the material of the 
gala dresses of the black beauties of Edendale, while 
their heads are adorned to match with silk hand- 
kerchiefs of corresponding or possibly contrasting 
colours. As for the men — the fathers of the village, 
the givers of the feast — one feels quite ashamed 
alongside their irreproachable black suits and tall 
white hats. That man seated by the roadside in 
an elbow-chair, who rises and bows so profoundly 
as each carriage drives up, is one of Chaka's warriors, 
who has seen the day when the rule of bloodshed 
desolated the whole of South-Eastern Africa. Look, 
again, at this short old gentleman in spectacles, 
with such a characteristic curl in his hat brim, who, 
standing with his hands behind him, is discussing 
vill^e polities with all the quiet dignity of a Mem- 
ber of Parliament. Look at — but stay — look at 
the view behind the schoolroom, which was hidden 



&om U8 till we turned to see how the bell-ringing 
was getting on. Look at that splendid wooded 
bluff rising at the other eide of the valley, atretching 
away from u9 for at least a couple of miles. Look 
where that other slope comes down to meet it, 
forming a wooded kloof wherein nestles one of 
those beantifol waterfalls in which Natal abotmds ; 
and look where, higher up, closing in the valley, 
and reaching high up into the sky, the timbered cone 
of old Zwaartkop makes a backgrooud that is Alpine 
in its si^gestiveness, thoi^h strangely un- Alpine in 
its freedom from snow. That view alone is worth 
coming all the way to see ; but now, amid the 
cheers of the European visitors and the less noisy 
salutations of the native thror^, the Lieutenant- 
Governor has alighted. The Colonial Secretary is 
with him, and Sir John Bissett, a quondam Governor 
of Natal, who looks as bale and well-preserved as 
ever. There is a general move into the schoolroom, 
the European guests enterii^ at the end next their 
table, while the native guests, to the number of some , 
300 of both sexes, file in by a door at the farther 
end. A little time is lost in arranging every one 
in ttieir places. The worthy pastor, supported by 
Sir Heniy Bulwer and General Bissett, is in the 
chair, with the English visitors, including a goodly 
proportion of ladies, ranged right and left ; while at 
the native tables the role of alternation is strictly 
observed, no two men or two women sitting 


XI.] JOHN ZULU. 187 

tt^ther. At the upper end of the centre table 
sits young Simeon Eambida, with Ms future bride 
beside him, a damsel two or three shades Hghter 
than the ordinary run of native women, with a really 
pretty mouth and expression, and with her hair done 
up in an immense frisette at the back of her head. 
She is dressed in a pink and white striped muslin, 
less pretentious than the satins around her, and all 
the time keeps jealous guard over Simeon's sealskiu 
cap, nursing it on her knee. 

Opposite Simeon is John Zulu, a man whose por- 
trait should be painted. The Zulu type of face strikes 
one at once. It is just such a serious, good-humoured 
face as that of the renowned Zulu chief Dabulamanzi, 
with the addition of the greater intell^ence and trust- 
worthiness which a humane rel^ion and a consider- 
able education can give, John Zulu is something 
of a dandy in hia way ; his black velveteen coat is 
irreproadiable, so also is his white waistcoat, while 
the crimson sash over his left shoidder is secured 
by a triple gold ring on his right hip. Occasion- 
ally, it is true, there are incongruities, Yonder 
dame in blue satin is innocent of either stockings or 
shoes, for example ; but, as a rule, boots are of the 
best. Simeon's youi^ lady wears a pair which are 
really enviable, with high heels and drab tops, and 
not particularly lai^ either. Sometimes, however, 
it is evident that comfort has been sacrificed to 
appearances, or else, surely, this jolly-looking fellow. 



sitting with liis tack to SimeoQ Kambula, would 
never have slipped off one of hia boots under the 
table, exhibiting a spotless white stocking, which 
an Englishman in^ht envy. 

But grace is to be sung by the choir, who have 
long had all their books open and ready, and there 
is a general rising to the feet, followed by a 
moment's pause. Is tJiis singing to be an infiiction 
or a pleasure ? A moment more decides the ques- 
tion. It is not an infliction, at any rate. In perfect 
tune, and with the utmost precision as to time, the 
four-pait harmony, unaccompanied by any kind of 
instrument, swells out through the room. What 
magnificent bass voices, is the next thoi^ht Eound 
and smooth and full, they never seem to assert 
themselves with undue prominence ; while the 
trebles, a little harsh, perhaps, but always true, are 
totally unaffected by that lisping nervousness which 
is so often the bane of amateur choirs at homa 
The only thing left to be desired is, perhaps, a little 
more clearness in the pronunciation of the English 
words. " K any one," remarks a neighbour, " were 
to take that choir to England, and show them off at 
Exeter Hall, he would make his fortune." Very 
possibly; though it is to be hoped no such unde- 
sirable lot will be&ill the simple lads and maidens 
of Edendale. Several times during the course of 
the afternoon the choir are called upon, and are 
invariably listened to, with pleasure, and rewarded 



with appkusa There is a crispuefis in theix singing, 
and an attention to rests and pausea, which might 
Berve aa a most osefnl example to village choirs of 
far greater pretensions in England. The system 
upon which they have been taught is the tonic sol-fe, 
and the result might most justifiably be quoted as 
a triumph. 

It is now time for the speech-making ; and, in 
spite of the absence of any fluids besides tea and 
coffee for drinking the Queen's health, this is done 
with all the honours. " The Health of the Lieu- 
tenant-Governor" is followed by Sir Heiuy Bulwer's 
speech in reply, short, but thoroi^hly hearty. He 
regrets that he cannot say what he has to say to 
the Edendale men in their own language, and that 
he must ask the interpreter Jacobus to say it for 
Tii'th ; and as the sentences are given one by one, 
and consequentially translated by the little, stout 
TTisn in the gray tweed jacket, there is a satisfied 
silence. Sir Heniy desires to say with what plea- 
sure he is present, and how highly he appreciates 
the good aervice done by the Edendale men and 
their gallant conduct in the field. He thanks them, 
in the name of the Queen, and gives them a hearty 
welcome home again. He feels sure that as their 
conduct has been in war so it will be Ib peace, and 
that the time and strength they have so willingly 
given to the Government they will now employ in 
peaceful occupations, and self-improvement. Their 



behaviour has been a credit to Edendale, and a 
living testimony to the value of their pastor's 
labours and the success of the mission. The 
applause at the end of these utterances is hearty 
and thoroi^h, and presently the pastor rises to 
reply. It has been agreed, he says, that all that 
the Edendale men have done is to be made into 
writing and put in a book, and he proceeds to state, 
in few words, what they have done. He recalls 
the day when they went out into the field, not 
without having first, at a solemn service in that 
very room, committed themselves to liie protection 
of Giod. He refers to the battles they have foi^ht, 
the dangers to which they have been exposed, until 
at last the Queen's general gave them permission to 
return home. He tells his European hearers how, 
on the day of that return home, the men rode 
straight to the church and got off their horses, and 
did not exchange a greeting with a single friend till 
they had first publicly returned thanks to Giod for 
their safe return. They were still ready, should 
occasion arise, to do service for their Queen and 
their country. 

Hereupon the most enthusiastic applause breaks 
out, and the pastor sits down, leaving the task of 
welcomii^ home the sons of the village, in the name 
of their fathers and relatives, to the General Super- 
intendent of Wesleyan Missions, who has purposely 
come out from Maiitzburg for the occasion. And 


XL] " / HA VE NOTHING TO SA V. " 191 

now it comes to the turn of Simeon Kambula, who, 
leaving his betrothed in sole chai^ of his sealskin, 
steps out and confronts a lamblike interpreter, who 
is called up from the back of the room. Like all 
Kafirs, he b^ins with the words, " I have nothing 
to say ;" hat it appears, after all, that he has much. 
In simple, earnest language, the full eloquence of 
which is scarcely gathered from the English of the 
interpreter, he describes how their officera have 
always helped them. It began, he says, at Isandhl- 
wana; when they could not see the way to get out, 
and their officers showed them. " God bless them 
for it!" Fighting his battles over ^ain, Simeon 
speaks of the events of that day ; how they went 
out, at Colonel Durnford's order, to meet the Zulus 
when they saw them coming ; how Ihunford at last 
told them to get into a dor^a and fire as fast as 
possible ; how he told tiiem, later, that they must 
die for their Queen ; and how they were ready to 
do so ; how they saw their brethren of the 24th 
with the Zulus all round them, and Dumford told 
them to get away as quick as they could, because 
they had no more ammunition ; how they shot 
their way through the Zulus and took some gentle- 
men upon their horses and took them in to Help- 
makaar. Simeon gets a hint at this point tiiat time 
may be of consequence to some present, and adroitly 
profits by it, winding up his speech by a touching 
allusion to the love which they all felt for Colonel 



Dumford and for Gteorge Shepstone. Some one else, 
he says, -will give an account of the fight at Eambnla 
and at Ulnndi. This some oae else turns out to be 
John Gama, who takes us inch by inch over the 
ground of Zlobane, Eambula, and TJlundi, his in- 
terpreter usii^ now and then quaint expressions, 
which give a better idea of the speaker's meaning 
than any more finished translation could give. " We 
went out," he says, " at Ulundi to meet the enemy, 
and then were told to come inside the fort ; and this 
was not a fort of waggons, it was a bodies' fort. We 
were told to come inside the fort made of the 
soldiers' bodies, and they opened a way for us to go 
in, and it was so." The English, says John Gama, 
are a rock to us. It seems to him that they have 
two rocks ; there is a soul rock, which is God, and 
an earth rock, which is the English Government, 
and they rely on one as much as on the other. Can 
anything be more simply eloquent ? 

At t.hi» point there are loud calls for Captain 
Shepstone, Theophilus the younger, who rises and 
bears testimony to the conduct of these Edendale 
men in the field. He relates how, every mn ming 
and every evenii^, these men, no matter what the 
weather, sang their hymns, and went through their 
devotions; how the soldiers who at first came to 
listen out of mere curiosity stood round in silent 
respect ; how the night before and tiie night after 
Ulundi two such sennona were preached by one of 


XI.] STICK TO IT. 193 

their number to the rest aa he had never heard 
equalled. Is it to be wondered at that the European 
gueatfi, many of them probably careless enough about 
their own devotions, cheer hitn to the echo ? And 
then comes a little bit of a ceremony — a collection 
is to be made uuong the villagers, at their own 
BOggestion, as a thank-offering for the safe return of 
the troop. Fart of the sum collected is to go 
towards paying off a debt on the station, and part 
in the erection of a monument to the memory of 
those of their number who have fallen. A basket 
is passed round the tables. Meantime, a few more 
speeches are made. The Colonial Secretary speaks, 
and dwells on the fact that there had not been a 
particle of self-glorification in any word that had 
been uttered by any member of the troop. Old 
Mr. Tarboton, the lather of the village, as his black 
neighbours call him, speaks also, and then it is time 
to go. Simeon Eiunbula and John Zulu ttika leave 
of the En^ish visitors as they pass out, and many 
are the white hands that on this day for the first 
time touch a black. "I never shook hands with 
a nigger before," says an eneigetic individual from 
the city; "but I would shake hands a thousand 
times over with such fellows as thesa" Stick to it, 
my friend, stick to it. 

The day has been a day of complete pleasure, 
without a single jar of any kind, without even so 
much as a hint of that dement of cant which is 



unfortunately, so frequently found associated ■with 
assemblies of such a character. These men of Eden- 
dale are, it is plain, men who, while they are deeply 
religious both in thought and action, ate men who 
enjoy life ; they can fight as well as pray, and culti- 
vate their fields as well as fight To-day they are - 
honoured citizens of a British colony, capable of 
holding their own, either politically or coramercially, 
with their European fellow-subjecte. Thirty years 
back the settlement of Edendde was still unfounded, 
and the fathers of the now rising generation were 
little better off in any way than the subjects of 
Getywayo. This is what can be done with the 
Natal Kafir when due conditions are observed, and 
yet there are people who say that the native ques- 
tion in Natal is a hopeless puzde. 

Yet notice this one thing, for it is worth noting. 
These men have not risen to be what they are through 
any particular help to rise to it. On the contrary, 
they have had to experience severe, even if usually 
passive, opposition. Would you believe it, not one 
of these men has a vote for any member of the 
Legislature ? They are all still, theoretically, under 
native law, and being so, are bound to obey the chief 
of their tribe, whoever he may be. They cannot 
even be married without going through the ceremony 
of purchasiug a wife for cattle. Surely a strai^ 
and startling anomaly this, and one that will and 
must be made ere long to cease to exist. 





Yes, at last we are on our way theie ! But how are 
we going ? 

It is half-past ten on a Taesday moming, and the 
space in ^nt of the Poat-OfSce at Maritzbuig looks 
unusually lively. There are groups on the broad steps ; 
groups on the slopir^ expanse of gravel that stretches 
down from the foot of the steps to the edge of the 
street — the street which, being here a piece of the 
great highway that runs &oni the port at Durban to 
the capital of the Transvaal, is, ia its passage through 
Maritzhurg, worthily d^nified by the title of the 
Gommeicial Eoad. Standing on the Fost-0£Kce steps 
— and the Post-Office, as you know, occupies a part 
of that pile of public offices which is so creditable to 
the capital of Natal — ^we can look down the whole 
length of the Market Square, where, in older times, the 
w^^ns of the Dutch farmers would be outspanned 
for days tc^ther, when they came in with theiP' 
families to the periodical "NachtmaaL" Times have, 
however, changed wonderfully during the last few 
years, and some day before long the greater part of 



that "square" — ^really an oblong, some 400 yards long, 
and 160 wide — will be laid out in gardens for the 
beautification of the city. And here, at die nearest 
end of the square, and juBt inside the railings across 
the road, stands the pretty Gothic monument to the 
memory of the three colonial volunteers, and the two 
loyal natives, who fell in the affair at the Bashman's 
Pass in 1873. Note how the inscription speaks of 
"one cause and one country," thus linking native 
and European side by side ; and note, also, that there 
is not a colonist, rough though he may be, who sees 
in that inscription anything inconsistent with his own 
ideas of things. 

But what are we waiting for t We are waiting 
for the post-cart to start for the Transvaal, and 
waitii^ to get our seats in it, so far as a multipUcity 
of mail-bags will allow us. 

And here it comes &om the stables, sweeping 
round the comer of the Police Station yonder at a 
gallop, with a couple of casual Eafirs hanging on be- 
hind, scatterii^ the gravel and the idlers on every 
side, as Abraham, the half-caste driver, reins up his six 
roi^h-looking horses at the Post-Office steps. Not 
a promisii^ looking vehicle for a journey of some 
400 miles, is it? A strong, roughly-built kind of 
ununified dog-cart, painted yellow once, but splashed 
and weather-stained tHI the coloiir has in many 
places disappeared, with two seats back to back, 
each capable of holding three, and with a good wide 


XII.] " VOORSLAG. •' 197 

space between tiiem. There is no splash-board, so 
that those on the front seat sit almost over the taile 
of the two wheelers ; but there is a powerful foot- 
brake, ronnd Uie lever of which Abraham has tem- 
porarily fastened his collection of reins. Over the 
top there is a canvas tilt, disccJoured with innumer- 
able drenchings, and you may, too, see traces of 
canvas curtains to let down as an additional pro- 
tection against the weather. The springs are all 
carefully "served" round with stout twine, the 
centre, just over the axle, being protected by a 
stout leather pad ; when you bump at full speed 
into a hole you will understand how necessary this 
last contrivance is. As for the harness — did X say 
the horses are roi^h? Well, then, the harness is 
rougher. Patched here with strips of hide— what 
the Dutchman calls "voorslag" — there with string, 
yon marvel how it holds ti^ether. Where string 
has been used once, string can be used again, and 
Abmham is sure to have an inexhaustible supply 
in his pocket. 

Well, on the whole, not an uncomfortable-looking 
vdiicle, you think. The space between the seats 
will serve admirably for your li^^, and there is 
at least room to stretch your legs on the foot-board. 

Deceptive hope I For look, the big window under 
the colonnade of the Post-Office is at last opened, 
and out at that window are being tumbled, in rapid 
succession, an apparently interminable succession of 



nmil-bi^. These, as they are thrown out, are seized 
by two stalwart Post- Office Kafirs, and pitched 
bodily into the cart. The space between the seats 
is quickly filled apl and yon begin to feel a little 
uncomfortable. Still the mail-bt^ come pouring 
out, and the heap in the cart grows higher and 
higher. Tou b^n to understand now why you 
have been so strictly limited in the matter of lug- 
gage, and why every pound over the specified weight 
is jealously charged for. But it seems to become 
now not so much a matter of your luggage as of your- 
self, for the mail-bags are overflowing on to the seaj« 
and the foot-boards, and there are more yet to come. 
There, on the foot-board, which seemed to afford 
room to stretch your legs, a huge sack of newspapers 
has been secured, and, if you have a back seat, you 
win have to put your feet either on it or beyond it. 
As for the interior pyramid, it has very nearly 
reached the top of the canvas tilt, and it seems only 
too probable that part of your occupation on the 
journey will be an effort to keep the pyramid in a 
safe and normal position. 

But there is aii end to everything, and there is at 
last an end to the outflow of letter -bags from the 
Post-Office window. You are due to start at eleven, 
and it is a few minutes past that now. So climb up 
as best you can, and take your seat as best you may, 
and then — hold on. 

Well, after the first wild jolt off the gravel on to the 



high road, the sensation is not so unpleasant. The pace 
at least is good, as we rattle down GommeTcial Boad 
and across the level valley that has to be traversed 
before the long and tedious ascent of the Towu Hill 
begins — the Town Hill, that looks from below like 
a range of mountains, but is really only a step up on 
to a h^her tableland. There is a rise here of 1700 
feet in seven miles, and no one wUl rush his horses 
at ihat So we climb, climb, climb for an hour and 
more, appreciating, as we see teams of oxen stagger- 
ing and slipping with their heavy loads, the difficulties 
of South African transport. Sometimes the road is 
simply a broad track over the steep green slope, 
where waggons have had room to choose their own 
course. Sometimes it is along a cutting scarped out 
from a hill-side, where we have occasion, as we meet 
a string of waggons coming down, to thank our stars 
that Abraham is so accomplished a whip and is so 
accurately informed as to the exact width of his 
wheels. There is little enough room to pass, and 
here at last, in the very narrowest part of the road, 
the way seems hopelessly blocked. For there is a 
big wool-laden waggon a-head, with a small £afir boy, 
in a jim-cTow hat and a cast-off military tunic, hold- 
ing on to the heads of the leading yoke of oxen, and a 
coloured driver, in yeUow corduroys and with a whip 
like a salmon-rod in his hand, holding on to the screw- 
brake at the back. The wt^gon, which has stopped, 
is on the very verge of a precipice even now, and yet 



there seems anything but room enoi^h for us to 
pass between it and the rock. The little red-coated 
" voor-looper " looks at us appealingly as we draw 
slowly up ; an ox, with an unpleasant length of 
horn, makes a dig, happily withont effect, at one of 
our leaders ; while the corduroyed waggon - driver 
looks round the back of his wa^on with gesticula- 
tions of encouragement. And hia encoun^ment 
turns out to be based upon an accurate conception of 
the facts, for tliough we have about an inch to spare 
on one side and two inches on the other, we thread 
the narrow passage without mishap, and go on oar 
way rejoicing. 

Well, the largest hill must be climbed at last, and, 
taking our last look at Maritzburg, as it lies down in 
the valley at our very feet, we may hold on as best 
we can while we rattle down to the crossing of the 
Umgeni river at Howick, just above where the 
stream plunges, at a single leap, down the foce of a 
rock three hundred feet high. It is not the grav^ 
that ^es about now, or the dust ; it is the mud, for 
there has been rain overnight, and there will he rain 
again this ailernoon. Far away on the left there, 
amid the tops of those tumbled mountains, there is a 
cloud forming now under the hot sun, and that cloud 
will presently, as is the fashion of clouds on summer 
afl)emoons in Natal, let us know its business. No 
need to hurry, for hurrying won't help you ; the 
cloud travels many times faster than your horses can 


XII.] A STORM. 201 

possibly go. There I — ^theie was a flicker of wliite 
ligbtniug andei it now, though the distance is far 
too great as yet for you to hear any thunder. The 
cloud is rising rapidly, however, throwing out flank- 
ing parties on both sides, while its crest grows 
darker and darker, its shadow deeper and deeper. 
Ton can mark its progress exactly aa the hill-sidea 
to windward are shut out fi-om view one after an- 
odier by the gray deluge of rain. And now there 
is thunder in earnest, following on a flash that 
seems half-a-dozen flashes in one. Get yourselves 
Bs snug as you can, wrap your waterproofs well 
round you, and make the best of it, for a Natal 
thunderstorm is no joke. There is the rain coming 
gray and thick down the bleak hill-side, whUe the 
lightning is becoming an incessant blaze, and tiie 
thunder an unceasing roar. And now it is on us, 
and round ns, and over ns, empt^ng itself on the 
tilt of the cart like a water-spout, and sending a fine 
spray through on to letter bags and passengers. Did 
yon ever see such lightning ? There have been six 
discharges within the last minute, close, aa yon 
would say, to the horses' heads, and each discharge 
at least six flashes in one. It Tains lightnii^ here, 
and nothing else. What is this by the road-side ? 
A wa^on ? Yes, a waggon, covered over with a 
tarpaulin, and with the driver and " voor-looper " 
cowering panic-struck beneath it. And well they 
may, for though they are safe enough, there, are nine 



out of the sixteen oxen lying dead — killed by a single 
flash jurt hefore we came up. It is an everyday 
story here in summer time, and what wonder, 
when you have your oxen yoked at each side of a 
wire rope ? 

There is no idling along this road at Miy rate, and 
long as the distances are, they are got over in a sur- 
prisingly short time, considering the state of the 
roads. Estcourt has long been passed ; Golenso, 
with the big iron bridge over the Tugela river ; 
Ladysmith, where the road branches off on the left 
to the Free State. We have climbed the Biggars- 
berg ; we have sighted and passed through New- 
castle. We have dashed through the drift across the 
Ingogo, climbed the hill towards Hatle/s, traversed 
the plateau, and now the road is once more dropping 
down ^ain into the valley. 

Do you know this spot? Is not that ru^ed 
height towards the left the Majuba mouutain ? Is 
not that ridge over which the road runs in front of 
us, — is not that Laing's Nek? Is not the deep 
valley of the Buffalo river down below there on the 
right ? Are there not all round us the graves and 
the memories of brave men ? Is it a question that 
may still be asked, as it was asked once in the gate 
of an oriental city, " Who slew all these ? " 

Life — the individual life of man, woman, or child 
— is not, as you know, the most precious thing in 
the world. If it were, there would hot have been 



mea or women who would, at one time or another, 
have chosen death in preference to some other alter- 
native. There haa Bcarcely been a step forward in 
the world's histoiy that haa not been consecrated by 
hnman sacrifice, — sacrifice willingly offered np in 
their own persons by the few in order that the many 
might'be the happier. You can understand the act of 
Lucreece, the heroism of the defenders of Ther- 
mopylae, the rallying of the formers at Lexington 
court-house, the defence of the passes of Switzerland 
against the armies that had laid the best part of 
Europe under contribution. You can understand 
that in such cases as these life was given up as the 
price of something better worth having. You can 
understand, too, that there are cases which are 
doubtful ; cases of which it may be said that if such 
and such benefits have resulted, then life was not 
uselessly thrown away. But if there is no doubt, 
and if the certainty is all the other way, what then ? 
There were brave men, no doubt, who perished in 
the defeat and destruction of the Spanish Arroada. 
Did their deaths purchase anything worth the sacri- 
fice t If the attempt they were eng^ed in had been 
successful, and England had fallen bound hand and 
foot under the dominion of Spain, woiild it have been 
better either for En^and or for Europe, or for the 
whole world ? 

Is it ever better, has it ever been better, for the 
world, when a people desiring their independence 



have been coeiced into enbrnission ? There is, and 
can be, only one answer to that question. Yet there 
can be no doubt that, fighting in such a cause of 
coercion, many brave men have died. Who slew 
them \ And who slew all these brave men whose 
graves are scattered round the defile at Laing's 
Nek ? 

That is a question which one day history will 
answer in a far more emphatic manner than any in 
which it can be answered now. To some it may 
have seemed an impossibility, a monstrosity, that a 
nation pluming itself above all things on its inde- 
pendence should seek to coerce into subjection a 
people equ^y independent with itself, — monstrons 
that, at the very first whisper of protest and dissent, 
there should not have been some effort made at 
impartial inquiry, to see whether the nation was or 
was not on the verge of the commission of a crime. 
Nations, however, have their irrational momenta as 
well as individuals — their times of fever, when they 
deny all the principles by which they have been 
accustomed to live, and plunge into deeds the results 
of which can never be entirely effaced. It was 
during such a national fever that the annexation of 
the Transvaal took place, and the brave men whose 
graves lie scattered round about Laing's Nek are 
among the victims of that fever. Among the victims, 
because, as you know only too well, there are victims 
enough elsewhere — victims whose graves are to be 



found scattered up and down the plains and the 
passes of Afghanistan. 

But were there not contribating causes neaiei 
the spot ! Was there not mis-government, ill-tieat- 
meut of native tribes on one hand, and fear of them 
on the other % This is a matter to be looked into. 

About a quarter of a century ago, England was 
suffering, as regards her colonies, from a cold fit. 
In 1852 she entered into the Sand Eiver Convention, 
by which British jurisdiction beyond the Vaal was 
distinctly given up, and the emigrant farmers en- 
couraged to form their own government In 1854 
England withdrew also from the Orange Free State, 
leaving it to enjoy an independence which continues 
to this day. 

So complete was the determination to have no- 
thing to do with what went on beyond the Vaal river, 
that, at the time the Sand Kiver Convention was 
signed, not only native bat missionary interests were 
given unreservedly into the hands of the Soers. It 
would be difficult to credit the utter indiGTerence on 
the part of the British authorities at Cape Town if 
we had not independent testimony on the subject — 
the testimony of none other than Dr. Livingstone 

In 1852 Dr. Livingstone visited Cape Town pre- 
vious to starting on that first journey of exploration 
which made him &mous. The whole community 
was smarting with the remembrance of the events of 



the jiflb £afir war, in which the Hottentots had 
joined the Kafirs. The war was, in fact, then going 
on, and the animus against both natives, of whom 
nothing bad enough could be said, and missionaries, 
who were regarded as the ^ders and abettors of 
natives, was strong beyond dl precedent. living- 
stone found himself regarded everywhere with dis- 
like and suspicion ; it was then that be wrote one 
of bis most desponding letters with regard to the 
prospects of his family, complaining that, beir^ a 
missionary, he bore the brand of Cain on his fore- 
bead. It was vrith difficulty that he could get a 
supply of powder and shot to carry back with him to 
his station at Kolobeng, while a post-office official, of 
whom he had complained for the delay of soma 
letters, was encouraged to bring an action against 
him for defamation of character — an action only 
settled by the payment of a considerable sum of 

This state of feeling was abnormal, no doubt ; but 
it shows how complete was the intention of abandon- 
ment on the part of the British Government when, 
by the signing of the Sand Eiver Convention in 
January 1852, the Vaal river was declared the ex- 
tremest boundary of British jurisdiction. It shows 
what was meant when, in answer to a question from 
the Boers as to what was to be done with the mis- 
sionaries — the question especially relating to Living- 
stone, who had established himself near the north- 



west boundary of the Transvaal — it was declared, 
either ty the Governor himself or on Ma behalf, that 
the Boers might do anything they pleased -with the 
missionaries. And they did whatever they pleased. 
They suspected Livingstone and destroyed his station 
at Kplobei^ and had it not been for the fame which 
livingstone subsequently reaped as an e:tplorer, no 
one, in all probability, would have heard anything 
more about the matter. 

The cold fit, as by a law of nature, could not con- 
tinue. To abandon authority, and then seek to 
resume it, was the natural coui-se of British policy 
in South Africa. Authority had in this way been 
resumed over the emigrant Boers both in the Free 
State and in Natal ; the question was actually raised 
whether those in Natal should not be compelled to 
return within the limits of the Cape Colony. The 
resumption of authority over Natal took place sooner 
and continued unbroken because Natal had a seaport, 
into the possession of which some other European 
power might come. It was the dread lest another 
European power, strong enough to assert itself, should 
coma into possession of the Transvaal through the 
door of Delagoa Bay, that largely led to the annexa- 
tion in X877. 

But — ^let this be noted — ^the resumption of British 
authority over the Transvaal was expected some years 
before it actually took place. The land speculators 
were at work there long 9%o, as they were at work in 



the Cape Colony before the great Dutch exodtu. 
And as it was their basiness then to stir up bad 
blood between the Governor at the Cape and the 
Dutch subjecto of the Crown, to circulate slanders 
against the latter in the hope of profiting by any 
quarrel that ni%ht arise, so it became their business, 
as 300D as they thought there was a likelihood of the 
British Government interfering, to get up a great 
humanity cry against the Boers of the Transvaal. It 
was piecisdy the same sort of cry that was got up 
in the Cape Colony between 1812 and 1815, which 
led ultimately, as yon have seen, to local rebellion 
and the tragedy at Sh^hter's Kek. 

Take note of dates, and you will see the position 
better. The first sign of the cold fit of colonial policy 
abating occurred in 1868, when Sir Philip Wode- 
house took over the Basutea to save them from 
destmction at the hands of the Free State farmers, 
with whom they had been for some time at war. 
Two years later yon will find the humanity cry in 
full swing f^ainst the Transvaal Boers, a certain 
section of Natal colonists, who have ever been dab- 
blers in land speculation, being loudest in crying out 
for British interference. 

Well, no interference took place. Although the 
accounts of Boer outn^es against the native popula- 
tion in the Transvaal came officially before the heads 
of the Colonial Office — tihen Lord Kimberley and 
Ix)rd Braboume — not a finger was moved by way of 



rescua The CTy died oat and was utterly forgotten, 
the land speculator seeing that it vas hopeless to 
attempt to secure British interference by such means. 
So completely was the cry foi^otten, so utterly 
worthless was it known to be by persons nearest to 
the spot, that in 1877, when the annexation actually 
took place, not a whisper of it was heard. True, in 
1876, a story was got up about the use of explosive 
bullets by the Transvaal Boers in their war with 
Sekukuni ; and in the same year Lord Oamarvon 
addressed a strong remonstrance to President Bui^rs 
with T^ard to the employment of the Swazies as 
allies. But the slavery outcry had died out so com- 
pletely that not even a whisper of it was heard in 
the midst of annexation proceedings a few months 
later. Can you suppose that this would have been 
the case if the slaveiy outcry had been sincere, and 
the facts on which it was professedly based real ? 

Eealise the existence, then, in and about the 
Transvaal, of a busy, unscrupulous annexation 
clique, working for its own sole interests, trying one 
method of gaining British interference without 
BQCoess, and then falling back on another. Imagine 
a wind&ll put in the way of this clique by the coming 
into power of an ambitious Colonial Secretary like 
Lord Carnarvon, holding ofBce in a Cabinet inspired 
with a policy like that of Lord Beaconsfield — imagine 
these conditions, and yon will see that the annexation 
of the Transvaal bad, in 1877, become a matter of 



course. "WLetber the annexation would, even undet 
these conditions, have been justified on the anti- 
slavery ground put forward some years before for 
the benefit of a Liberal ministry, may be a matter of 
doubt. There was, however, no need to put this pre- 
■ text forward ; for, instead of the government of the 
Boeis being inherently inhuman in its treatment of 
native races, it was all at once found out to be inher- 
ently weak, and in danger of being swept away. 
Never were speculators more favoured by Provi- 
dence ! 

But were the land speculators, you ask, at the 
bottom of the actual act of annexation ! Undoubtedly 
they were. It was they who pushed on Sir Theo- 
philus Shepstone to make full use of his powers, who 
gave him financial support, and, in one case at any 
rate, were decorated for their services — to themselves! 
The fact is known to every person of average intelli- 
gence in the Transvaal and Xatal, and the names of 
the principal agents are aa well known there as the 
names of any of Her Majesty's minister are known in 
England. If your curiosity should be aroused by this 
information, and you should take ship to Natal to 
make inquiiies for yourself, and yon show this passage 
to any well-informed Natal colonist, and ask him who 
is meant, he will name two names instantly. And if 
you press your inq^uiries farther, he will not improb- 
ably reply with a laugh and a shrug of his shoulders, 
and request you, as a personal favour, to ask some one 


XII.] GO AND ASK. 211 

else. Not that, he will explain, he could not tell you 
if he chose, but Natal ia a small place, and he does 
not care to make enemies. 

Go and ask ; if you wish to know in whose behalf, 
apart from that question of fevered national policy 
which is responsible for so much disaster in Afghan- 
istan as well as South Africa, the brave men whose 
graves are around Laing's Nek threw their lives away, 
— go and ask those who know, in Natal and in the 
Transvaal. Send out your Eoyal Commission to un- 
earth and expose the whole shameful story, with orders 
to betnraedasidebyno blind and notrickery. Instruct 
them to find out who were Sir Theophilua Shepstone's 
confidential advisers, and what was their personal re- 
lation to himself ; who it was that took the financial 
matters of the Republic in hand, and persuaded the 
Cape Commercial Bank to stop the credit of the 
Kepublican Government ; who it was that made use, 
immediately after the annexation, of a semi-official 
position, to break into the post-office at Pretoria and 
open private letters which were interesting to himself 
as a business man ; who it was that advanced money 
to Sir Theophilus Shepstone for the necessary public 
expenditure ; who it was that prepared financial state- 
ments for the inspection of the official sent out from 
the Colonial Office, so as to make out a case for 
annexation; examine, in short, into the whole doings 
of the Natal clique who planned the annexation for 
their own purposes, and made use of Sir Theophilus 



Shepstone to carry their plana into execution, and 
you will then know better on whose behalf so many 
hundreds o£ British soldiers have fired their laat shot 
in front of that entrenchment at Laing's Kek. 

It will not, you perhaps say, be worth while to 
stir up the mud to such an extent, especially in con- 
nection with matters some three or four years old. 
You may pleaae yourself about this, of coarse. 
Only, until you have made some inquiry into the 
matters I have hinted at, do not pretend that you 
know anything about the causes that led to the 
annexation of the Transvaal, or of what guarantees 
are needed in the future for the protection of interests 
on both sides. 

Do not suppose that the Transvaal Boer is fault- 
less. If we want to find a faultless people we shall 
have to go somewhere outside the limits of the nni- 
verse as we know it. The fact to be borne in mind 
is this — that he is at least not guilty in respect of 
the offences which were alleged in justification of 
the act of snatching away bis independence, or in 
respect of those which are urged as a reason why his 
independence should not be restored to him. We 
have seen him in Cape Town, and we have seen him 
setting forth on that weaiy exodus which has resulted 
in bringing new and immense districts under the 
plough of civilisation. The stock is the same every- 
where, varying, as regards outward appearances, with 
the surrounding circumstances. There is always the 



same love of home concema ; the same recognition 
of family ties ; the same uQwillingness to interfere 
in public matters so long as they \Fork ^ith tolerable 
smoothness. Ton will not find the Boer of the 
Transvaal or the fanner of the Cape Colony pressing 
eagerly forward to secure a public position. Even 
in Katal, where the Dutch fanner occupies a sort of 
intermediate position between the two extremes, only 
one Dutch representative will be found among the 
fifteen elected members of the Legislature. He has 
a prejudice, too, against direct taxation — a prejudice 
of which, before the annexation of the Transvaal, 
President Burgers felt the full force. These are 
weaknesses, perhaps, but hardly faults. But of the 
two faults which you lay to his charge — the fault of 
being unable to protect himself for which you took 
his independence away, and the fault of being by 
nature a persecutor of native races, for which you 
are to-day declaring that his independence is not to 
be restored to him — of these two faults he is as 
guiltless as any one under his circumstances could 
reasonably be. As for his power to protect himself, 
you see it, and it needs no further demonstration. 
It was in the day of his weakness that he shattered 
the Zulu power in that battle on the Bloed Eiver, 
What do yon think would be the fate of a Zuju 
army invading the Transvaal to-day ? As for his . 
relations with the native population, if you are in 
doubt, do at last as he has often asked you to do. 



iDstead of giving credit to the slanderous tales of 
irresponsible people, send out your Boyal Commission 
to inquire. 

We are still in front of that position at Laing's 
Nek. We still seem to hear the rifle shots ringing 
through the air, to see the wounded carried in, and 
the white flag sent forward for the burial of the 
dead. Is this a place, you ask, to parley in ? Is it 
here, in the presence of an army eager to avenge its 
reverses, of a colonial population dreading, as they 
say, an era of Dutch ascendancy, that these matters 
can be spoken of, that coneessions can be made, and 
future conditions talked peaceably over? Tes, here, 
and nowhere else. For it is only here that you 
ever realise adequately the mischief that can be done 
by a few men, who, far removed from that power of 
popular control which is the safeguard of the great 
heart of this great empire, play for their own petty 
and personal ends with interests involving the life 
and death of thousands. It is only in front of this 
position that you can realise the strength, whether as 
your friend or as your foe, of the stubborn race of 
Dutchmen, children of the Calvinists of the Nether- 
lands and the Huguenots of France, who have by 
their blood, and their toil, and their sufferings, made 
a pleasant and peopled land out of what was a few 
score years ago a waste which the savage and the 
beast of prey shared between them. It is only here, 
as you shake hands in solemn friendship over the 



graves of brave men, that 7011 can realise the magni- 
tude of the crime from which, by the exercise of a 
little moral courage, you have been saved. 

As for the British colonist, of whom you do not 
now think so badly as you once did, turn and talk 
to him, and take him into your confidence. It will 
pay you to do bo in the end, and he is not half so 
unreasonable as you may think. And he, too, has a 
right to be heard, for it is he, and not you, who will 
have to live side by side in the future with the inde- 
pendent Boer. 




Possibly you may by this time be begitming to 
gather Bome iokUBg as to what the curse of South 
Africa is. It is certainly not the Dutchman, for he, 
as you now know, has been the great pioneer of civi- 
lisation everywhere. It is certainly not the English- 
man, for he has always added to the solidity of the 
Dutchman that spirit of enterprise which is neces- 
sary for the full development of the resources of any 
country. Nor is the curse of South Africa the native, 
who, as you see, is a good fellow enough in his way, 
and capable of a very marked degree of progress 
towards that odd construction of railway trains and 
patent leather boots which we call civilisation. It 
is not the want of harbours, though these might be 
better than they are ; nor the superfluity, on occa- 
sion, of rainfall, though this is sometimes a temporary 
nuisance. Nor is the curse of South Africa snakes, 
or hot winds, or tsetse-fly, or horse-sickness among 
horses, or lung-sickness among oxen, or even the 
brandy -and-soda consumed in clubhouses and can- 



No, the curse of South Afiica has been and is — 
the Colonial Office. 

I do not suppose that this aesertion vill have the 
least effect in arousing the indignation of those emi- 
nently reapectable persons who preside, en jwrm«- 
vmx», over the affairs of the Colonial Empire, and 
instruct successive Secretaries and Under Secretaries 
of State in the performance of their duties. Persons 
so respectable are far beyond the reach of feeling in- 
dignation. Nor do I suppose that it will cause them 
the least uneasiness or vexation to know that, where- 
as some things I have said will doubtless be challenged 
by South African colooists of one shade of opinion 
or another, the expression of this latest stated con- 
viction will meet with the approval of every colonist 
from one end of South Africa to the other, no matter 
whether he be an earnest follower of Dr. Colenso, 
or an equally earnest advocate of native extermina- 
tion. The feet, however, is one that respectable 
gentlemen in Downing Street, as well as the public 
in England, ought to know. In &ct, if the news 
were to be telegraphed out to South Africa to-mor- 
row that, during the progress of an eai^hquake in 
London, the whole Colonial Office, with its political 
heads and its permanent staff; with all its pigeon-holes, 
and its red tape, and its blue-books, had disappeared 
for ever in the depths of an unfathomable chasm, 
every town in South A&ica would be illuminated, 
and the fatted calf at every out-of-the-way iarm-honse 



slain. " For," it would be said, " now there will be 
at least a chance of the affairs which are to us of such 
importance Teceiving some attention according to 
their merits, and not merely according to the whimsies 
of a number of utterly irresponsible people whose 
highest idea of duty is fulfilled when they conde- 
scend to accept their salaries." 

But alas ! London is not in the latitude of the 
Azores or the longitude of Lima, and there is there- 
fore little chance of the doom of sudden and total 
disappearance being shared by Lord Kimberley and 
his masters. Masters, — because in the Colonial OfBce, 
as in Dublin Castle, it is the servants who are the 
masters, and who work the nominal roaster accord- 
11^ to their own sweet will And as the number of 
colonies over which the masters of the Colonial OfKce 
exercise any real control is getting smsller and 
smaller; so it stands to reason that control is con- 
centrated on these in an increasingly effective man- 
ner. As more and more colonists become possessed 
of their own independent institutions, Colonial Office 
patronage becomes more and more limited as to its 
extent, and soon, if things go on at their present 
rate, there will be absolutely no patronise left, and 
the Colonial Office will simply become a place for the 
reception and despatch of correspondence after this 



From His Esxellenoy Sir Benjamin Jones, K.G.M.O., 
Governor of Tipperihoo, to tlie Uight Mtmourahle 
the Secretary of State for the Colonies. 

My Lord — My ministers have passed an Act 
through both Houses of L^slature declaring the 
■wearing of trousers illegal. Numerous arrests under 
the provisions of the new Act have already been 
made, and the greater part of the contents of three 
tailors' shops have been confiscated. 

2. I have not felt justified in withholding the 
royal assent to the new l^islation, but as I am per- 
sonally placed in a somewhat delicate position, I 
should be glad of your Lordship's instructions. — I 
have the honour to be, etc etc, R Jones. 

From the Seerdary of State for the Colonies to His 
Excellency Sir Benjamin Jones, K.GJd.Q., Governor 
of Tipperihoo. 

Snt — I am in receipt of yobr despatch of the Ist 
April, stating that your ministers have passed an 
Act rendering the wearing of trousers illegal. 

2. I quite approve the course you have followed, 
and need only impress upon you the extreme un- 
desirability of the representative of the Crown adopt- 
ing any line of condoct, either o£Bcially or personally, 
that may seem to conflict with the constitutionally 
expressed wishes of the majority of Her M^esty's 



loyal subjects in that portion of the empire to which 
your Commiasion refera. — I am, etc, 


Some day, no doubt, the time of the Colonial 
Office will be htly occupied in the reception and 
despatch of correspondence of this nature. But in 
the meantime the Colonial Office is invested with 
power to do much more than this. And as South 
Africa is the largest colony, or collection of colonies, 
left under its control, it is in respect of South Africa 
that its power is mainly put forth. 

But of what particular poUey in South Africa, it 
is asked, do you complain 7 

I complain because the Colonial Office has no 
policy whatever, and never had any. If it had only 
had energy and spirit enough to adopt some distinct 
line of policy, positively bad or positively good, and 
stick to it, things would be infinitely better than 
they are. A positively bad policy would have been 
better than none at all, for a bad policy would quickly 
have brought up colonial interests in revolt, and 
made it a question as to which should go to the wall ; 
and when this state of things came to pass the 
matter would pass out of the luinds of the Colonial 
Office into the hands of the nation. This is, in fact, 
what has happened in respect of the Truisvaal, where 
the obstinate refusal to reconsider annexation has 
brought matters to a crisis, from which they must 



take a new departnre. A bad policy, I repeat, would 
be infinitely preferable to no policy at all What la 
absolutely destractive of all confidence, all respect, 
on tbe part of South African colonists towaids the 
Department of State with which it is their mis- 
torttine to have to deal, is the purposeless, colourless, 
unstable drifting hither and thither ; the policy of 
committal, and reversal, and re-reversal ; the policy 
that one day blows hot and the next day blows cold ; 
that one day makes a new commandment and the 
next day chastises you ftir attempting to keep it ; a 
policy the guiding principle of which is the keeping 
of things quiet, and the main end of which is first 
to place, and then to pension comfortably, as many 
officials as the revenue of any unfortunate colony 
can be made to support, without r^ard to fitness, or 
competency, or any other qualification. 

Take the wider question first, and look how, in 
South African history, the policy, or no policy, of 
the Colonial Office has played mischief with the best 
interests of the country. It will be said, of course, 
that, up to vnthin a comparatively recent period the 
Colonial Office was not a distinct department^ the 
care of matters colonial being merely an appanage of 
the office of the Secretary of State for War. True, 
but the same guiding spirit was there. Since the 
date of the Crimean war, or thereabouts, the affairs 
of the War Office have been brought more into the 
light of day, and have in consequence undergone 



Bonie degree of reform. The old root, however, wae 
left in the Colonial Of&ce, and has sprouted aiid borne 
fruit abundantly. 

Go back to the date of that second Eaftt war 
in the Cape Colony, the war of 1818, and note how 
it waB brought about. Lord Charles Somerset, the 
same ofhcial who tried to suppress the first Cape 
newspaper, was then Governor of the Cape Colony: 
Acting without inquiry he entered into a treaty with 
the Kafir chief Ngqika, by which any chief to 
whose kraal stolen cattle cfluld be traced should be 
held legally accountable for compensation. What- 
ever power Ngqika may have had to treat for him- 
self, he had no power whatever to treat for others, as 
was soon found out. Some cattle that were missing 
were traced, or said to be traced, to the kraal of a 
chief named Ndlambe, Ndlambe refusing to make 
compensation, all the cattle that were in the neigh- 
bourhood were indiscriminately seized and driven off 
by a force of British troops. This rough and ready 
mode of levying execution upon other people's goods 
had its natural resolte. The plundered tribes came 
down on the unfortunate Ngqika and completely 
routed his followers in a pitched battle. The 
Colonial Government felt bound to support Ngqika, 
and invited him to assist the British troops in an 
invasion of the territory of his enemies. The in- 
vasion was in one respect a success. Some thousands 
of catde were seized, a portion of which were be- 



stowed upon Ngqika, and the remainder appropriated 
to the compensation of fannera from whom cattle 
had been Btolea But the matter did not end thera 
The Kafirs rallied and invaded the Colony in force. 
Grahamstowu itself was placed in imminent jeopardy, 
and only after several months of hard fighting, for 
the purposes of which eveiy colonist was pressed 
into the field, were the disturbances brought to an 

That war, the second Kafir war, was therefore the 
direct result of the mismanagement of an Imperial 

Go on to the third Kafir war, which broke out at 
the end of 1834. This war arose out of circumstances 
almost exactly similar to those that led to the out- 
break of the second war. Cattle-stealing— a matter 
serious enough, but still a matter for police repres- 
sion, if a police had existed — was again becoming 
serious, and another Imperial official. Sir Lowry 
Cole, determined to set on foot once more the system 
of reprisals — a system conveniently stated in the 
formula that if some one steals your cattle you steal 
some one's. The chief Maqoma, a son of Ngqika, 
was said, or believed, to have given shelter to cattle- 
stealers, and so it was resolved that his cattle should 
be seized. Some thousands of Maqoma's cattle were 
accordingly "lifted;" some were given by way of 
compensation to those fimnere whose cattle had been 
stolen, and the rest were returned to their lawful 



possessor. This good example was followed during 
the four or five succeeding years, till the Kafirs 
b^au to be tired of being robbed, and attacked the 
parties sent out catUe-raiding. In one of these 
attacks a chief, the brother of Maqoma, was killed. 
Thereupon there was general war. Within a fort- 
night after the death of Maqoma's brother forty 
farmers had been murdered, upwards of 400 farm- 
houses burnt, and hundreds of thousands of sheep 
and cattle carried off. No doubt the natives had 
ptOTOcation, but the provocation came direct from 
the Imperial officials who themselves invented and 
encouraged the system of reprisals, and backed up 
their illegal eicts by utterly unjustifiable war. 

After such destruction as this there was only one 
course open. The coloniats were compelled to fight 
for dear life, and succeeded in cruahii^ their enemies. 
As soon as the war had begun, its perils and its results 
were unnii3takabl& And then, on the conclusion of 
the struggle, came Lord Glenelg's dispatch censuring 
the colonial Government, which was right eaough, 
for the colonial Government was responsible for all 
the steps that had led up to the existing condition 
of things ; censuring the colonists, which was entirely 
wrong, for not only were they not responsible for 
what had passed, but they had also been the chief 

Blowing hot one day, as you see, blowing cold the 
next Presently it became time to blow hot once 



more, and then, as must ever be the case, the Kafirs 
became the chief sufferers through the censure pro- 
nounced against colonists on their behalf. Another 
war broke out over a very trivial matter in 1846. 
There was the usual initial disaster, the usual delay, 
the usual revenge, in the midst of which Sir Harry 
Smith was sent out with new powers to annex, 
which he immediately exercised by annexing the 
whoie of the native territory in the eastern districts 
of the Cape Colony as far as the Kei. 

Then it became time to blow cold again. The 
troops were withdrawn from the frontier, and four 
military villages, the inhabitants of which consisted 
of old soldiers, were planted with the view of securing 
peace. The Government might as well have planted 
matches in gunpowder. The British soldier is useless 
enough in the field against Kafirs ; plant him in close 
contiguity to the Kafir in his ordinary life, and be 
soon begins to find ground of quarreL Some of the 
military villagers, acting under the mistaken idea that 
they were searching for treasure, violated and plun- 
dered the grave of a Kafir chief. The Kafirs avenged 
the insult by a massacre, in which forty-seven of the 
residents in the military villages were killed, the 
women and children being allowed to escape unin- 
jured. The massacre led to another war — the fifth 
Kafir war, and the most formidable that had yet taken 
place, breaking out at Christmas 1850, and not being 
concluded till March 1853, 



Every one of these wars was made by officials 
possessing full control over the policy of the colony, 
and responsible to the Colonial Office alone. If the 
majority of these officials — for example. Sir Harry 
Smith, Sir Gieorge Cathcart, and others — were mili- 
tary officers, that was only the natural result of the 
placing of the colonial and military departments at 
home under one head. But in the meantime other 
instances of the hot and cold policy had been taking 
place. The Dutch emigrants had heen allowed to 
leave the colony, and had been pursued. Katal had 
been claimed, given up, claimed again. The Free 
State had been annexed by a Cape Colony ju^e, the 
annexation repudiated by a Cape Colony governor, 
concLuered by a British general, thrown off again to 
shift on itself. Missionaries had been one day belauded 
and helped, another day given over unreservedly in- 
to the hands of those who were, on political grounds, 
their bitterest enemies. The history of the govern- 
ment of the Cape Colony, from the date of the formal 
cession by the King of the Netherlands up to within 
the last few years, is the history of an unbroken 
succession of blunders ; and for all these blimders, 
not the colonists and settlers, but the imperial officials 
sent oat from England, were directly responsible. 

Am I right in saying that, up to that date at least, 
the curse of South Africa was the imperial policy, or 
no policy, emanating from the Colonial Office ? 

And now look at what has happened since then. 



Between the years 1854 and 1872 the Cape Colony 
was possessed of a government which, though not 
alt<^ether consistent or perfect, worked well enough 
for all practicsal purposes. There was the House of 
. Assembly and the Legislative Council, and the Exe- 
cutive, headed by the Governor. Except for the fact 
that there were two Chambers of Legislature instead 
of one, the constitution was much like that at present 
existing in Natal The general policy originated with 
the Executive, who held their offices permanently 
from the Crown; while the popular Assembly had 
control of expenditure and general legislation. It 
was determined in England that the colony should 
be made altc^ether to govern itself, and Sir Henry 
Barkly was sent out to carry the decree into force. 
No one particularly wanted responsible government ; 
but the thing had to be done, and it was done. With- 
out a word or a thought, the whole native population of 
the colony, then considerably more numerous than it 
is now, was turned over by the Colonial Office to the 
tender mercies of the colonists. No trouble was taken 
to explain to them — no, not even to the Basutos — their 
altered position. Why no trouble was taken you 
know. Lord Kimberley, who was then Secretary of 
State for the Colonies, knew and cared nothing about 
them ; and Sir Henry Barkly had " no instructions " 
on the subject. The idea was to shake oGT all respon- 
aibility in South Africa, and, no matter what the detri- 
ment to existing interests, the thing had to be done. 



Then a little later Lord Carnarvon stepped into 
Lord Kimbeiley'a place, on the same principle, it 
may be supposed, as that on which, when you are 
placing your men in the field at cricket, you put the 
most useless man in the eleven at short leg. No 
sooner was Lord Carnarvon in office than he began 
upon another tack altogether. The idea was now to 
get back part of the control over native interests 
under the grand scheme of confederation — to provide 
that while the Colonial Govemraent should pay the 
piper, the Imperial Government should call the 
tune. A system of intermeddling in the affairs of 
every South African community was forthwith com- 
menced. Mr. Froude was sent to the Cape Colony ; 
Sir Garnet Wolseley — for this among other purposes 
— to Natal; Sir George CoRey to the Transvaal; 
Colonel W. F. Butler— he of the " Great Lone Land " 
and not he of Geok Tep6 fame — ^was sent to the Free 
State. The strings were being pulled in all direc- 
tions. Sir Bartle Frere received a special engage- 
ment to do the leading part in the great comedy, as 
it was to be, the tragedy as it has turned out The 
Transvaal was annexed ; Natal was cajoled ; the 
Free State was threatened. And all this confound- 
ing and confusing of things to please — whom ? To 
please the permanent heads of the Colonial Ofi&ce, 
who saw that Lord Carnarvon would be pleased if, 
at his duU post at short leg, he could make a 
brilliant catch, and play a small second fiddle to the 



mightier Imperialism of Lord Beaconsfield and Lord 

It was in the following of this plan that Sir Bartle 
Frere, when the sixth Kafir war broke oat under his 
auspices on the Eaetem Frontier of the Cape Colony, 
in 1877; insisted, in the face of the opposition of his 
ministers, the mea of the Molteno Cabinet, on sending 
for more troops to England, Of course eveiy one 
knows now why Sir Bartle Frere wanted the extra 
regiments, for he was then, a good twelve months 
before his ultimatum was despatched to Cetywayo, 
planning with Lord Chelmsford the invasion of 
Zoluland. And it cannot have been particularly 
soothing to his feelings when his special enemy, the 
honourable member for Namaqualand, forwarded 
him a ministerial minute suggesting that the troops, 
having airived off the coast, might be sent to any 
part of Her Majesty's dominions where their presence 
was required. 

Then there was a hot fit on in the Colonial 
Office with a vengeance — Imperial troops being 
forced on colonists who did not want them. And 
now the cold fit i Colonists informed that nnder no 
circumstances will Imperial troops be allowed to 
assist them in their stru^les, whether aggressive or 
defensive, with native tribes, — colonists declaring 
they will ask help from anywhere except from the 
Imperial Government, — colonists sending to ask for 
the assistance of a contingent of Zulus, rather than 

DiqilizDdbyGoOgle ' 


let it be said that they have stooped to ask a favour 
of the Government to which they owe alliance I 

Can any one expect any respect to attend on a 
Department that thus zig-zags backwards and for- 
wards? Can any one wonder that the very name 
of the Colonial Office stinks in the nostrils of South 
A&ican colonists % 

But now look what the Colonial OfQce has done 
elsewhere. Look at the filching — "jumping," as the 
diamond-di^er would call it — of the Kimberley 
diamond-fields, as lawful a piece of the territory of 
the Orange Free State as any territory could be. It 
was Lord Kimberley who was responsible for that 
little piece of annexation, and it is quite fitting that 
his name should be perpetuated in connection with 
it It is Lord Kimberley who is responsible for Sir 
William Lanyon's presence in South Africa in a politi- 
cal capacity, though it was Lord Carnarvon who paid 
to the Orange Free State the price of the annexation 
of the diamond-fields, and who trusted Sir William 
Lanyon — then M^or Lanyon — with the care of 
affairs in the annexed district Why, nobody knows. 

Look at the jobs which the Colonial Office has 
perpetrated in the Transvaal ; look at the class and 
character of the people whom it sends there to re- 
present the Imperial authority. Mr. Joabert has 
complained t^t they, the Dutch, have been treated 
in their own country like dogs. The statements 
perfectly true. The stories that could be told of 


xm.] PRETORIA. 231 

official life in Pretoria during the last year or two, 
■would hardly be credited in England. The rule that 
has prevailed there has been an exact reproduction. 
of the rule that prevailed over the Cape Colony in 
the old bad days, when, as I have said, the governing 
class lived by themselves on the Cape Town penin- 
sula, and the governed lived by themselves on the 
mainland. 'What do you think of a Governor — an 
Administrator, if you like to call bim eo — who made 
the gossip of a drawing-room the subject of an official 
inq^uiry, and draped a lady's name into an of&cial 
dispute X "What do you think of an administrator, 
who, because one or two junior clerks in the Civil 
Service blackened their faces at an amateur entertain- 
ment, issued a public order forbidding Civil Service 
clerks to take part in any entertainments in future % 
Small things, you will say, but still straws. As 
for Sir William Lauyon's general capacity, or in- 
capacity, it stands out clearly enough in eveiy line 
of his despatches. Yet this is the elass of men, who 
to this day — for I have seen no sign as yet to the 
contrary — possess the unlimited confidence of the 
Colonial Office, whose word will be taken without 
question or inquiry in respect of eveiy public matter 
that may arise, who receive decorations, advance* 
ment, pensions. And it has been men of this stamp, 
who, regarding themselves as a sort of anointed class, 
have sneered down the independent yet patient spirit 
of a whole nation of Dutchmen. It has been hy 



men of tliis daas that the Dutch, the real possessors 
of the Transvaal, have been scoffed at, vilified, 
trampled on, till even Dutch patience coold bear 
it no longer, and an appeal vaa made to the sword. 

look again in Natal Look at the native system 
■which the Colonial Office has for years insisted on 
preserving there, in spite of the complaints of 
colonists, who saw that it was every year becom- 
ing more prejudicial to the interests of the colony 
and of the natives themselves. The system has 
been one of simple recognised and chartered sensnal- 
iam and slavery — a system under which all native 
vices have been confirmed, and all native virtues 
suppressed ; a system which encourages the forma- 
tion of harems by the older and richer men, the 
indulgence in a sanctioned immorality by the younger, 
the undermining of all native female virtue, the 
conversion of a man's daughters into chattels for 
sale. That is what your Colonial OflSce, to save itself 
trouble, and to keep things quiet and pleasant in 
their official pigeon-holes, does with the native 
population of NataL As for the European popula- 
tion — that Dutch population which lives in quietude 
on its farms, that English population which has 
made Durban the most rising town in South Alrica, 
which has planned and paid for railways, undertaken 
harbour improvements, kept np the roads, built 
bridges, — as for this European population, the aim of 
the Colonial Office is to subject it to every possible 



annoyance and mortification by which small people 
in power lite to display their authority. Do you 
know that a colony governed as Katal is governed, 
by an Executive responsible only to the Crown, 
cannot purchase so much as a cartridge or a ten- 
penny nail, except with the consent of the Colonial 
Office, except &om the parties to whom the 
Colonial Office, represented by the Crown Agents, 
deign to give the order ? I said something 
a chapter ot two back with regard to the inter- 
ference of the Colonial Office in the details of 
Natal railway management For years and years 
Natal implored, begged, prayed, the Colonial Office 
to allow her to make a start with her railways. 
Besolution after resolution was passed by the Legis- 
lative Council ; scheme after scheme, some workable, 
some not, was taken np and urged on the attention 
of the powers that in Downing Street be. Simple 
and stubborn refusal was all the answer that could 
be obtained. At last, after these repeated refusals, 
consent was given. A contract ready drawn up 
between the Crown Agents and certain railway con- 
tractors was, so to speak, thrown across to the 
colonists. " These kind gentlemen," they were told, 
" are prepared to construct these railways for you on 
these terms. The price is h^h, it is true, but you 
must take this or get nothing." Of course the 
colony took it, and — has ptdd for it. But whether 
the contract was entered into l^ the Crown Agents 



for the benefit of the coloniats or for the benefit of the 
contractors is a question about which some not ill- 
informed persons have their doubts. Even when the 
colony was allowed to have its railway, it was not 
allowed to have the means to work it properly. When 
the works were approaching completion, an order, put 
in the strictest red-tape form, was sent home for addi- 
tional locomotives. The Colonial Office, however, 
thought that a railway conid he worked without 
locomotives, and simply refused to fulfil the order. 
Nor is it only in respect of lailway matters that such 
miserable and petty interference is allowed to rule 
everything. Here is one very typical ease. The 
gaols of the colony of Natal were in bad repair — ^in 
fact, new gaols were urgently wanted to keep pace 
with the growing conditions of the community. A 
sharp despatch was sent out ai^ng the immediate 
expenditure of a considerable sum upon these very 
necessary matters. The colony, not unwillingly, 
obeyed, and passed a law empowering the raising of 
a loan for the purposes mentioned. What was the 
result % The necessary sanction to the proposed loan 
waa withheld, and the colony censured for daring to 
be 30 extravagant as to wish to spend money at all 

These things, you will say, are all small-beer 
chronicles. Perhaps, but then they are part of a 
system, and as long as that system exists— as long as 
the Colonial Office has power to play with public 
interests in colonies for the gratification of small per- 
sonal ends at home, so long colonial policy everywhere, 


and in South Africa especially, will remaio a source 
of continual miscliief and perpetuated misery. The 
Colonial Office stands ever, in small things as well 
as great, between the English citizen abroad and the 
English citizen at home. It constitutes an utterly 
impassable wall through which no whisper can be 
heard, from those who are surely best able to under- 
stand them, of the concerns of important outlying 
parts of the empire. Whoever in a colony is sealed 
with the seal of the Colonial Office is infallible ; 
whoever is not so sealed is Nehnshtan. Personal 
favour, personal prejudice, personal pique, are the 
three guiding principles that pre^de over colonial 
destinies, wherever, that is to say, colonial destinies 
have not been fortunately taken possession of by 
those who are moat concerned in them. When those 
who are more helpless become troublesome, there is 
an easy way of dealing with them, in South Africa at 
least. They are astutely gibbeted as oppressors of 
the native, and the whole country is down on them 
at once. They are, in fact, " naboth'd " as effectually 
as ever was the poor Pondo chief Umquikela. 

Is it possible that such a condition of things can 
be inquired into, publicly exposed, changed % It is 
hard to be hopefut Eed tape always dies hard, and 
vested interests die harder. A little moral djmamite 
is what is wanted, and then 

Then let the Colonial Office sink — or shall we say 
ascend ? — to its proper level as a department for the 
receipt and despatch of interesting correspondence. 

I _ I .Google 




A WORD that may be printed in letters of blood. And 
yet, as Goldsmitli said of Malagrida, Lord Carnarvon 
is a very good sort of man. 

If any one wanted a good illustration of the utter 
and complete ignorance that prevails in England with 
respect to South African affairs, be could hardly do 
better than study the use that has been made of this 
unhappy word by the English press in discussing 
them. Only the other day, for example, the Spectator, 
in kindly noticing an effort of mine to throw some 
light on South African affairs in the pages of the 
Fortnighdy Review, complained that I did not ex- 
plain why South African colonists would not accept 

The reason for this omission may be stated very 
briefly. It was this — because, regarding South Afri- 
can affairs from a South African point of view, the 
scheme of Confederation is absolutely beyond the 
limits of practical politics— ^as much beyond their 
limits as a scheme for an Ai^lo-Saxon Confederation, 
which should include both England and the United 



States, is as yet outside the limits of practical politics 
in England 

If some larger Lord Camatvon should suddenly 
awake somewhere to the desirability of bringing 
about an Auglo>Saxoa Confederation, and should 
diaw up a scheme — or rather steal a scheme ready 
made from somewhere else — and send it down to 
Great Britain and the United States, and the people 
in those two great countries should, jnst by way of 
civility, look at it, and talk about it, and turn away 
theit heads to laugh at it, and finally roll it gently - 
into the sea and leave it there ; and if a larger Spto- 
taior, anxious always to do what is best, should ask 
why the people in these two great countries did not 
accept the scheme of the larger Lord Carnarvon, do 
you know what the answer would be ? " My dear 
good Lord Carnarvon," the people of these two great 
countries would say, " my dear good Sjiedator, the 
truth is your scheme is utterly and entirely in the 
air. We grant that such a thing, if brought about 
in some way, might some day be very beautiful and 
highly desirable. But in the meantime we each have 
our own practical interests, and our own practical 
difficulties, and there are a score of questions to be 
dealt with and settled before we can tackle this one 
We are very much indebted to you for your solici- 
tude ; we are quite willing, as a matter of civility, to 
talk to yon about your marvellous though not original 
scheme. At the same time, when you have quite 



done talking about it, v& shall lie obliged, for we Have 
all of 113 practical business to attend to, and our tinte 
is somewhat limited," 

That is exactly the manner in which Confedera- 
tion has been regarded by Colonial Legislatures in 
South Africa. Out of politeness to Lord Carnarvon, 
they have looked at it and talked about it, and 
expressed themselves on some occasions as if not 
unwilling to adopt it. But the whole thing has been 
completely outside the limits of practical colonial 
. politics, and no one had ever the least intention of 
seriously adopting, though they have seemed to be 
seriously coneideriug, the proposition made to them. 

That is the reason Confederation has never been 
accepted — ^because it never seemed a matter which 
could really be seriously discussed. The proposals 
made met no difficulty that had been felt in South 
Africa, and promised no relief from any recognised 
grievance. And so &r from clearing up any knot of 
vexed colonial politics, it threatened rather to involve 
everything in inextricable confusion. And yet in 
England it has been spoken of by all parties as a 
sort of heaven-sent policy, placed in the hands of a 
beneficent Government for the purpose of warding off 
every possible colonial difficulty, and placing the 
colonist back in the self-same position as he occupied 
when he, or his forefathers, sailed from Europe. 

And yet Lord Carnarvon is a very good sort of 
man. He had sufficient discernment to admire t^ 


XIV.] " HERE IS A CO A T. ' 239 

complicated machinery which the Cauadians had in- 
vented for the purpose of governing themselves, with 
its Dominion government, and ite provincial govern- 
ment, its governors and lieutenant-governors, its ques- 
tions for provincial and its questions for Dominion 
legislation. And he thought it no harm to adopt this 
machinery just as it stood, even down to the numbering 
and arrangement of the sections and sub-sections, and 
present it to the astonished South Africans as a god to 
go before them. It was as if your tailor should say — 
" Here ia a coat ; I did not make it, but I stole it 
ready-made out of a railway cloak-room, I don't 
know whether you want a coat or not ; but you will 
be kind enoi^h to put this on, and fit yourself to it. 
If it should happen to be too long in the sleeves, or 
ridiculously short in the back, I may be able to shift 
a button a few inches, and I am at least unalterably 
determined that my name shall be stamped on the 
loop you hang it up by," And so was Lord Carnar- 
von determined that whatever else happened, the 
supreme Imperial official under the new order of 
things should be called a governor-general, and have 
a .salary of £10,000 a-year. Having settled this, 
everything else ought to have been easy. 

Unfortunately it was not easy, and one of the 
greatest initial difficulties arose from this — that two 
of the States that were to be confederated, that is, the 
Orange Free State and the Transvaal Eepublic, were 
not British States at all, but independent. 



Poor Lord Carnarvon ! his troubles began very 
early. He sent out a despatch to the Cape by one 
steamer, and Mr. Froude by the next He requested 
that the despatch might be published, and it vas. 
He did not request that Mr. Froude might be practi- 
cally sent to Coventry by the members of the Cape 
MiniBtry ; yet this happened also. 

The Africanders are, as I have said, a stubborn race. 
They had been granted a popular form of govern- 
ment, and they not only thoroughly understood their 
rights, but were resolved to maintain them, " We," 
said Mr. Molteno and his colleagues, " are responsible 
to the constituencies, and with us all measures ought 
to originate. This proposal for a conference to con- 
sider confederation ought to have originated with us, 
and we are not going to part with our rights for the 
best Secretary of State that ever breathed." 

Were they right or wrong % If you consider what 
happened afterwards, I think you will say they were 

Lord Carnarvon, however, would not give up his 
conference. It was clear he could not hold it in 
Cape Town. Mr. Froude went on a prepress through 
the country, coming into curious sympathy with the 
two most opposite kinds of people in the world ; get- 
ting indignant over the stories of Dutch wrongs told 
by Western Province farmers, getting enthusiastic 
over the prospects of the Eastfim Province merchants. 
But it was all in vain. Still, Lord Carnarvon would 



not give up his conference. He would liave it in 
London. Surely in London he would be able to be- 
guile the heart of the Cape Premier if he only once 
got him there. 

As the Cape would not send a representatiTe, and 
as there was no other British colony except Natal, It 
was on Natal that Lord Carnarvon concentrated his 
smiles. One official and two unofficial members of 
the Legislative Council, he suggested, might be sent 
to London to represent the Colony. Of course there 
was only one official member that could be thoi^ht 
of, and that was Sir (then plain Mr.) Theophilua 
Shepstone. The two unofficial representatives were 
the two senior members for the two leading towns — 
Mr. Akerman, now the Speaker of the Natal Legisla- 
tive Council, and Mr, Eobinson, proprietor of that 
enterprising newspaper the NeUal M&rcwry, of which 
I have already told you. How the hearts of the 
Natal speculators — the men who had their littie 
land jobs in the Transvaal — leaped within them 
when they saw the deputation set forth ! How they 
sharpened their ears to catch any whisper of what 
they guessed might be coming ! 

Did the conference meet? Yes, the conference 
met. Mr. Molteno was in London, on his own busi- 
ness perhaps, — ^perhaps on some indirect invitation 
from Lord Carnarvon; who knows ? Did Mr. Molteno 
come to the conference? No, he did not. Fancy 
the obstinacy of the man 1 He, a colonist, in London, 



and a peer of the realm and cabinet miniater beting, 
praying, almost going down on his knees to get this 
colonist to come to his conference, and the colonist 
bluntly refusing to have anything whatever to do 
with it. 

Who elae was in London? Mr, Brand, the Pre- 
sident of the Free State, was also in London, having 
gone- there to settle the little matter of the "jumping " 
of the diamond-fields. Did Mr. Brand go to the 
conference ? No, he too would have nothing what- 
ever to aay to it 

But the conference met ? Yes, the conference met. 
And who do you think were there? Sir Garnet 
Wolseley, Mr. Fronde, and Sir Theophilus Shepstone, 
sitting and talMng big at one end of the table, and 
the two unofftcial representatives from Natal sitting 
humbly at the other end, not allowed — at least not 
tm they insisted on it — so much as to speak. Wasn't 
this a curious combination I Who Mr. Froude and 
Sir Garnet Wolseley represented no one quite knows ; 
but there can be no doubt that Sir Theophilus Shep- 
stone represented the TranavaaL For — and here is 
the oddest thing of all — it was just at this pro- 
vidential moment, when Sir Theophilus Shepstone 
was in London, and in a position to receive verbal 
and confidential instructions, that news came from 
the Transvaal of the iailure of the attack on Seku- 
kuni And straightway Mr. Shepstone rose up and 
was knighted, and vas sent out to South Africa again 



post-haste as Sir Theophilua ShepBtone, to do what 
Lord Camarron in London, ajid the land speculators 
in Natal, desired. 

And the two unofficial memhers from Natal ? No 
one much cared what became of them. They were 
told that if they wanted aometbing to do they might 
go and discuss the terms of a mail-contract with Mr. 
Donald Currie, which they did. In the meantime 
Lord Carnarvon drew up — no, copied out — his famous 
South Africa Bill, without once asking for so much 
as an expression of opinion from the two members 
of the Natal Legislature who had travelled 7000 
miles to discuss Confederation. And that was Lord 
Carnarvon's idea of the best manner of introducing a 
popular form of Government all over South Africa. 

And yet Lord Carnarvon is a very good sort of 

nien the plot thickened, and the great pro-consul 
was sent out, in a new ship with an Imperial name, 
to set everything exactly as it should be. Landing 
at Cape Town amid thunders of applatise and rumours 
of annexation, he was regarded as essentially a mes- 
senger of peace. The colonial Jingo trembled, and 
doubted whether it would not be best for him to 
confess his deeds and bum bis books. But on second 
thoi^hts he waited, and, from his own point of vie*, 
he was wise to do so. For, in the name and for the 
sake of Confederation, South Africa was soon to be 
turned into an Aceldama, and the Jingo, whom it 



was believed the great pro-conaul was aent to carse, 
was to be blessed altogether. 

Three things had to be done, it was shortly fotind 
or believed, to make this odd-shaped coat of Oon- 
fedeiation fit the South AEcican back. The obstinatdy 
independent Cape Premier and his colleagues had to 
be got rid of; the Zulus had to be destroyed; and 
the people of the Transvaal had to be persuaded, 
cajoled, or, in the laat resort, bombarded, into accept- 
ing the act of annexation. And for all these thin^ 
the pro-conaul was, or deemed himself to be, sufficient. 

How the obstinate Cape Premier, who declined to 
obey orders in asking for more troops from England, 
was disposed of, I -have already hinted. Here the 
imprudence of hia lieutenant, the honourable memb^ 
for Namaqualand, waa a perfect God-aend to the great 
pro-consul, who found himself thus supplied with a 
dozen good reasons for his cawp S&,ai. The obstinate 
Ministry went, and a Ministry installed, which made 
it its business to register the great pro-consul's 
decrees. It was a singular thing, however, that the 
head of the new Ministry, the same Mr. Sprigg who 
informed the Sasutos that he was " Master of the 
Colony," was, when thus called away from his sheep- 
folds to be Sir Bartle Frere's chosen servant, a re- 
cc^nised opponent of Confederation. In the space 
of five weeks he was its most enthusiastic advocate. 

So far things had gone well, and there was already 
opportunity to pat at least one of the principles of 



Confederation in force. Had it not been laid down 
by Lord Carnarvon, in his very earliest despatches, 
that one of the results of Confederation was to be the 
establishment of a uniform native policy all over 
South Africa \ That uniform native policy Sir Bartle 
Frere proceeded to put in force ; it was simple, and 
on the whole effective. The native was declared to 
be the natural enemy of the European ; and, being 
the natural enemy of the European, of course there 
was only one thing to be done with him. He must 
be made to know hia place. Every native chief must 
have his power and influence destroyed, thoroughly 
and for ever ; every native must surrender whatever 
arma he possessed, and place himself at the disposal 
of the European, who had been declared his natural 
enemy. As for the Zulus, there was a double reason 
for subjecting them. In the first place, they were 
natives ; in the next place, they had an old-standing 
dispute with the Transvaal. If Sir John Cradock, in 
1812, tried to please the Boer of the Cape Colony by 
forcibly apprenticing Hottentot children, why should 
not Sir Eartle Frere, in 1878, try to please the Boer 
of the Transvaal by picking a quarrel with the Zulu 
king t What the experiment cost, you know ; how 
&r it succeeded you can judge when you cousider the 
fact that the " Balmoral Castle," which started on her 
first voyage from Dartmouth in March 1877, with 
Sir Bartle Frere on board, sailed again from Dart- 
mouth, in March 1881, with Sir Frederick Eoberts 



OD board, despatched on a mission of destroying these 
Transvaal Boers whom Sir Bartle Frere's slaughter of 
the Zulus had failed to paeiiy. 

Will the peacefal Spectator again ask why the 
colonists of South Africa have not accepted Confeder- 
ation i Surely, at any rate, here are reasons enough 
to prevent any honest and humane people in England 
wishing them to do so. The word is steeped in hlood 
and violence, and all the perfumes of Arabia will not 
sweeten it. This is the result of Lord Carnarvon's 
day-dreaming over Canadian Acte of Parliament ; 
and yet there can be no doubt that Lord Carnarvon 
is a very good sort of man. 

But there must be, you will say, more than a mere 
sentimental reason for the refusal to confederate. If 
the matter is as yet outside the limits of practical 
politics in South Africa, why is it thus outside ? If 
the exact scheme proposed by Lord Carnarvon is not 
a suitable one, is there nothing in the principle of 
South African union 1 Are there no natural tend- 
encies in such a direction ? 

That is a different question altogether, and we will 
come to it directly. In the meantime it is worth 
while to note the causes that led to the final over- 
throw of the Carnarvon confederation scheme — a final 
overthrow which occurred when, in Jime last, Mr. 
Sprigg, the head of the Cape Ministry, withdrew the 
question &om the consideration of the Cape House 
of Assembly. Mr. Spr^ withdrew the resolutions 



he had brought forward because he saw that if 
he pressed them he would be defeated; and the 
reason for this was that the whole of the Dutch 
members of the House of Assembly, influenced by 
their Mends in the Transvaal, had determined to vote 
with the Opposition. Why the Dutch of the Trans- 
vaal thus used their influence is very easily explained. 
The propose brought forward was for the summoning 
of a Confederation Conference — Lord Carnarvon's 
dish served up again, you see — in which the interests 
of the Transvaal were to be represented by three 
del^ates nominated by the British Government at 
Pretoria, The matter would, therefore, have been 
discussed without the smalleBt account being taken 
of the interests of the Dutch population — a course 
which that Dutch population could by no means 
sufTer or allow. Hence their opposition through theii 
Mends in the Cape House of Assembly. And hence, 
as will be clearly seen, the annexation of the Trans- 
vaal, which was expected to do such wondets in 
accelerating Confederation, tnmed out to be the very 
thing that, when it came to the final pinch, crushed 
the scheme for ever. The South AMca Act, com- 
monly called the South African Confederation Act, 
passed in 1877 amid the disorder of Irish obstruction, 
was passed for five years only, and expires in 1882. 
And when it expires there will be no one — not even, 
I imagine, Lord Carnarvon himself — to give it the 
honours of burial 



The reason, then, why Confederation was finally 
rejected is clear enon^ Begatding the qnestion in 
its more general aspect, is there nothing reasonable 
in a scheme for South African union ? Are there no 
tendencies already pointing in that direction ? 

There is undoubtedly much that is reasonable in 
the Bu^estlon of South African umon ; there ate 
undoubtedly tendencies pointing in that direction. 
The question may, indeed, come to be whether these 
tendencies may not need rather checking than 
strengthening. If, for example, the Transvaal and 
the Free State should agree to become one inland 
independent Sepublic, and if the western Province 
of the Cape Colony in a year or two joined itself to 
the Bepublic thus formed, you would have a united 
body of Dutchmen whose influence would be almost 
too much for you. You may, therefore, presently find 
yourself engaged rather in checking than in pro- 
moting union. Iliat a Datch State thus formed 
would be self-governing there can be no doubt. It 
would be likely to govern itself a great deal too 
freely and completely. That, indeed, would always 
have been the risk in the kind of Confederation 
which Lord Carnarvon wished to bring about. The 
Dutch element would have so far dominated in the 
united Parliament that British interests would have 
stood in some danger of being pushed aside. Lord 
Carnarvon, it is to be supposed, overlooked this very 
important fiict, or he would hardly have used so 



many persuasioiis to induce Mr. Brand to be present 
at the Confederation Conference of 1876. 

Let us suppose, however, that union is desired, 
what are the reasons why it is desirable 7 Two 
reasons are frequently assigned by writers in England, 
You will, for instance, find the Times continually 
talking about the necessity of union for the purposes 
of defence, and of the desirability of inaugurating 
a common native policy — though not necessarily of 
Sir Bartle Frere's stamp — throughout South Africa. 

Now that common native pohcy is exactly what 
you do not want throughout South Africa — unless, 
indeed, you are going to regard the native as the 
European's natural enemy, and determine to shoot 
him wherever found. You do not want that common 
native policy in South Africa, simply because there 
are in South Africa native tribes occupying the most 
utterly dissimilar positions — whose traditions and 
history are clear and distinct in themselves, and bear 
not the smallest relationship to each other. How 
could it be possible, for instance, to treat the in- 
dependent Pondos, living in their own territory under 
their own chief, in the same manner as you treat the 
refugee Zulus in Natal ? How are you going to treat 
either of them as you would treat the Basutos ? Are 
you to take your most civilised tribe for the measure 
of your uniform pohcy, or your least civilised ? If 
you take the most civilised as your measure, you 
clearly give other tribes too much. If you take the 



least civilised tribe, you give other tribes too little. 
Yoa do not aim at a sitccessM Govetnment of white 
people by ignoring their history and their sturoond- 
ings, and why shonld yon im^ine that yoa can 
govern black people snccessfully by ignoring the 
conditions under which they live and have lived? 
The South African native is not merely a black man, 
who may be lamped together with any other black 
men. It is only through your ignorance of the sub- 
ject that you can fall into such an error. Imagine 
treating a Katal Basnto in the same manner as you 
would treat a Baca, or a Fingo in the same manner 
as you would treat a Griqua. Why, one of the most 
troublesome little revolts that has occurred in South 
Africa during the last three years arose in a lai^ 
degree out of this very thing — sending a magistrate 
who had been accustomed to Fingoea, to exercise 
supreme dominion over Griquas. 

If, therefore, you regard Confederation, or Union, 
as a good thing, because it will enable yoa to inaoga- 
rate a uniform native policy, you must not be dis- 
appointed to be told that it is for that very reason — 
supposing such a reason to be associated with it — 
a bad thing. Instead of treating all natives alike, 
your truest course towards a satisfactory solution of 
the native question would be to find out as far as 
yon can what treatment suits each tribe best^ and to 
see that, subject to such modification as may be 
necessary from time to time, that line of treatment 



is followed. Native policy is not the rough and 
ready thing that you think it is. Of course, if 
you want to save trouble, an(l to seem to produce 
some immediate reault, you may imitate Sir Sartle 
Frere. Tou may classify all natives together as 
natural enemies of the European, and consider your 
case proved if he ventures to differ from you. But 
I hardly think you will find this a satiafaotoiy 
course in the end. 

" But Confederation, or Union, if you like it better, 
will render the South African colonies better able to 
defend themsdves, and save them from relying in 
dl emergencies on the aid of Imperial troops." 

Now, let us look at the various wars — and there 
have been plenty of them — that have occurred during 
the last four years, and see how far this assertion of 
yours holds good. 

In the Cape Frontier War of 18'7'7-78, a large 
body of volunteers was sent from the Diamond Fields 
and rendered most efficient service. 

The war with the Baphuti Chief, Moirosi, was 
carried on purely with colonial forces. 

During the Zulu war a very valuable body of 
irregular horse was employed, every man of which 
came fiwrn the Cape Colony, The same body of men 
were employed also in the Sekukumi war. 

During the present troubles of the Cape Gtovem- 
ment in Basutoland and in the Transkeian districts, 
very valuable help has been rendered not only from 
Natal but from the Transvaal also. 


So that, so far &s the mere principle of the matter 
is concerned, it will be seen that help nnder diffi- 
culties is already exchanged by the South African 
communities, notwithstanding often their great dis- 
tance from each other, and their comparatively thin 
population. Union, if it took place to-morrow, would 
certainly not make these distances less, nor, at the 
moment, would it make the population greater ; and 
all help exchanged over such distances as you get in 
South Africa must needs be limited. You cannot 
take the whole population of one colony and set 
them down temporarily in another. They are finding 
this out in the Cape Colony already, where burghers 
from the districts near Cape Town have been sent 
off a distance of 800 miles to fight the Basutos. If 
you had Confederation at this moment^ you would 
find that, in the event of a disturbance in any part 
of South Africa, you would not get a man more into 
the field than you can get without Confederation — 
that is, supposing the Imperial troops were all taken 
away, and colonists left to control their own concerns 
in every respect. But, as long as England keeps 
Imperial troops in, and controls the policy of, any 
South African colony, then the Imperial GJovemment 
is responsible for the peace and safety of that 
colony, and must act up to its responsibilities. 

There is, then, nothing specially argent in the 
defence question that bears upon the desirability of 
South African Confederation or Union. Let me show 



yoa now why the qaeetioo ia as yet outside the limits 
of practical politics. 

Do yon appreciate the size of South Africa, the 
distances from place to place, the scanty means of 
communication, the time consomed in makdng even 
a comparatively short journey? Do you appreciate 
the fact that from Maritzburg to Pretoria it is farther 
than from London to Edinburgh, and that the only 
regular means of communication over that distance 
ia by means of a post-carl^ that rune twice a week? 
Do you appreciate the fact that along this road yon 
may go for miles and miles without seeing a house? 
Fancy starting from Loudon in a rickety two-wheeled 
vehicle, with six shaggy horses, and stopping, for a 
few hours' rest, at Peterborough; then driving on 
again to York, then to Newcastle, and so on; &ncy 
the roads all desolate, mere tracks in the middle of 
an almost treeless landscape, with rivers coming in 
your way that have to be crossed in a "punt," or that 
possibly cannot be crossed at aU. Communication 
between Natal and the Free State is very much the 
same ; between the Free State and the Transvaal it 
is considerably worse. The sea-path between Natal 
and the Cape Colony is clear enot^h, but the 
overland road lies still through comparatively 
desolate and unpopulated districts. How is it 
possible for people to commimicate with each other 
freely along such lines as these ? How can they get 



to know anything of each other's wishes and ideas ? 
Cape Town newspapers are barely read in Katal i 
Natal newspapers are barely read in Cape Town. 
So, too, with the Dutch conununities, the Free State, 
and the Transvaal The population of each district 
centres, so to speak, round the seat of Government, 
and there are no means by which any free inter- 
change of ideas can be provided for. How is it 
possible, under these circumstances, to secure all in 
a moment any of that consensus of opinion which 
must go before the establishment of a popularly 
governed Confederation 7 Supposing that Mr. Mol- 
teno had not proved the obstinate man he was, — 
supposing that the Confederation Conference had been 
carried out to the results Lord Carnarvon antici- 
pated, and a Confederation formed off-hand, what 
would have been the result? Three years would • 
not have passed before the communities thus hastily 
joined t<^ther would have been olamomiDg for a 

Kor is this main question the only one that stands 
in the way. Who in England knows anj-thing of 
the complicated local questions which must be dis- 
cussed between the parties most concerned before 
anything like common action is possible? Take 
only the question of the Customs tariff. The Cape 
Colony import duty on all unspecified articles is 
10 per cent ad valorem, and it is difficult to see 



how the revenue could be maintained if it were fixed 
at any lower point. The Natal dnty on all unspeci- 
fied articlea ia only 6 per cent, and there la no doubt 
that Natal reaps a considerable benefit, so tar as the 
inland trade is concerned, from this lower tariff. 
That the Cape looks with jealousy upon the lower 
tari£f of Natal there can he no doubt, and if the 
Gape could by any means equalise the tariff of the 
two colonies, for the purpose of injuring the trade of 
Natal, it would certainly do so. But as the Cape 
tariff can hardly be lowered, this could only be done 
by the Natal tariff being raised. Why should the 
Natal tariff be raised to please the merchants of Port 
Elizabeth and East London? I once went closely 
into this question, and found that to equalise the 
tariffs of the two colonies the duties payable in 
Natal would in some instances have to be raised 
500 or 600 per cent. 

But the question has a still more serious aspect. 
Goods for the inland districts of the Free Stat« and 
Transvaal pay duty in transit at the Natal and 
Cape Colony ports. Why should these States be 
deprived of the advantages afforded by the lower 
tariff of Natal? Why should the Cape and Natal 
be encouraged, or allowed, to join hands for the 
purpose of plundering the Free State and the 

Then there is the question whether the inland 



States ought to be allowed any drawback on the 
duties levied at Cape and Natal ports. At present 
no such drawback is allowed, the view taken by 
Natal poUticians being that, as they are at the 
expense of keeping up a harbour and a road to the 
interior, they have a right to the duties levied on 
goods in transit. The plea may not be sound in 
every respect, but it is at least so reasonable that it 
would be the highest injustice to make alterations 
off-hand, and without the fullest and most careful 

Then there is the question of competition. Is it 
not better that there should be a &iir competition 
between the ports on the coast — that Natal should 
be left to push ahead in her own interest, rather than 
be subjected to the domination, ruled over by mer- 
cantile jealousy, of Cape politicians? The one thing 
that would best please a large class of Cape mer- 
chante at this moment would be to see Natal enter- 
prise crippled by every possible means, and for this 
end, more than for any other, they wiU deprecate and 
sneer at any request on the part of Natal colonists 
for more complete self-government. When a Cq>e 
merchant talks to you of the probability of native 
troubles in Natal if the colonists are g^ven any larger 
voice in native government, you know at once what 
he is thinking about For he knows that as loi^ as 
he can keep up an agitation on native questions in 



Natal, and can shake hie head over the prospect in 
store for the natives there, he is putting the brake on 
a competition which threatens to take the wind oat 
of his own sails. 

Then how is the native question t» be dealt 
with under any system of union ? Has the matter 
ever been considered at all? Lord Carnarvon 
thought he had dealt with it sufficiently when he 
threw a clause into his Confederation Bill giving the 
Crown a special right of veto in respect of legislation 
for natives. Knowing what you know of the past of 
the Colonial Office, you can gaess how this arrange- 
ment would work. For a few years the right of veto 
would slumber, and the Colonial L^islatures would 
be left to do whatever they pleased with native 
interests of all kinds. Then suddenly the Colonial 
Office would one day wake up, and make up for three 
years of blameable neglect — for if responsibilities are 
nndertaken, they ought to be discharged — by two 
years of abject mischief-making and interference. 
Then would follow more bloodshed, more recrimina- 
tion, more spending of money for colonial purposes 
out of the Imperial treasury — in short, all the old 
bad work over and over again. 

Looking at all these complicated matters, don't 
you think you have, on the whole, cause to be grate- 
ful to those who have put an extinguisher on Con- 
federation for the present 1 

And yet there are undoubtedly tendencies to- 



wards union — tendencies growing hopefully and 
surely, if you will only let them grow. Only beware 
of the mistake of thinking that union of the several 
South African States will inaugurate a South AMcan 
millennium. It will do nothing of the kind. 




What, then, is wanted in South Africa, to give ua a 
chance of placing the three-cornered problem which 
it presents Id a fair way for solution ? 

Light — ^peace — patience. 

Peace, perhaps, first of all. If in England, with 
its latger proportion, or at least its greater intrinsic 
weighty of higher political intelligence, you find that 
a state of war plays havoc with men's judgments and 
gives the supreme authority to some mere passing 
emotion — if this is so in England, how can it be 
otherwise in South Africa ? In England, when war 
breaks out and you talk of the maintenance of British 
preslige, you talk of a thing no doubt possessing 
some reality, but still far away from your own doors, 
When war breaks out in South Africa, and the- 
colonist talks of the maintenance of European pres- 
tige, he means a thing which touches his actual ex- 
istence, and the existence of those who depend upon 
him and gather round his hearth. And yet you ex- 
pect him to exercise more control over his feelii^ 



than you exercise yourself under conditions far less 
accentnated. Do you think a colonist is a saint, that 
you look for sncli virtue from him ? 

Peace, then, is absolutely necessary. Things mnst 
be allowed to quiet down. The excitement which 
foul years of Imperialism has created must be given 
time to subside. You cannot show a man ghosts 
and bogies, and frighten him into snatching up arms 
and lushing about, and then expect him to subside 
in an instant into an ordinary rational temper. 
The waves of the storm need time to sway them* 
selves to rest — time, and quietude, during which 
men may foiget all their bad dreams and harsh 
waking thoughts. 

Peace — yes, and light — light above all things, 
light clear, independent, and impartial, thrown on 
the picture by inquiry through men who have no 
official interest to serve or official reputation to 
protect. For sixty-five years since its final cession 
to England, South Africa has been governed in total 
darkness, and never once has even an attempt been 
made reasonably to enlighten Englishmen as to the 
nature of the questions to be solved, or the real 
reasons of the wars which they have had to pay for. 
You will think, perhaps, that 1 have levelled an ex- 
a^erated charge against the Colonial Office. I do not 
think it is exaggerated. But even if it were, no barm 
would be done if I could thereby impress you with 
the fact that the Colonial Office ia itself a portaon 



of the network of complication -which needs light to 
be thrown upon it, and that therefore no inquiry can 
be of the smallest value in which the Colonial Office 
has a voice. 

Do you know what people in South Africa say 
when you talk to them about a Eoyal Commission ? 
"A Eoyal Commission," they say, "would be of no 
use whatever, because it would simply prove what- 
ever it was sent out to prove," The expression is 
perfectly justifiable. The first duty of a Eoyal Com- 
mission sent out by the Colonial Office would be 
to protect the Colonial Office and its officials from 

Eemember that of all rabbit warrens of official 
corruption — offices in which personal interest and 
personal intrigue govern whatever is said and done, 
to the exclusion of consideration for the public wel- 
fare — ^the Colonial Office is the worst. I do not ask 
you to explore its ramifications at home. But it is 
absolutelynecessary that you should be independent of 
its influence in South Africa, that you should be able 
to call its officials before you as you would call any 
other witness, and make them tell their own story, 
and, above all, produce their own documents. There 
is reason enough for saying this. There is a mass 
of documents belonging, for example, to the depart- 
ment of native affairs in Natal, which no one has ever 
been allowed to see, and which no one ever will be 
allowed to see, so long as the Colonial Office has 



power to protect its officii from an authoritative 

This full and open and independent inquiiy is 
what the country has to demand, and to see that it 
gete, utterly regardless of all official protest and 
ministerial squeamishness. The opportunity is here, 
and it must he seized. You are going — at least so it 
is said — to appoint a Bojal Commission to examine 
into the Transvaal question, and you will, it is to be 
trusted and hoped, see that that Eoyal Commission 
is not merely a Colonial Office Commission, sent 
out to white-wash Sir William Lamyon and Sir 
Theophilus Shepstoue, and whoever else may stand 
in need of the white-washer's hrush. Yon must ex- 
tend the scope of that inquiry, and make it thorough. 
You must dissipate for ever the fog of petty mystery 
with which Colonial Office officials surround them- 
selves, like cuttle-fish in their own ink. You must 
let in light everywhere, and let those who are most 
concerned — the dwellers in South Africa — whether 
they be Blacks, or Boers, or British, see that you are 
for once in earnest^ and mean what you say. Let 
them see that for once, the first time in the course of 
three-quarters of a century of British occupation of 
South Africa, you have the interests of the country 
really at heart. Don't shake your head over the 
proposition, but try it. Yon would not hesitate to 
flpend two or three millions in a war with Dutchman 
or native. Spend a few thousands in the expenses 

L, ,z,;i , Google 


of your Commission, and the result will surprise you. 
You have seen with what enthusiasm British troops 
axereceived in a British Colony. Believe me — for I 
do not speak without knowledge — the advent of a 
Eoyal Commission, in which Colonial as well as Im- 
perial interests were represented, empowered to let 
in l^ht upon South African grievances and hppes, 
and bringing a promise that, as far as it lay in the 
power of the people and Government of England, the 
reasonable wishes of the population should be met, 
would be received with even a warmer enthusiasm 
than would be accorded to the Guards themselves. 
It would be the opening of a new day for South 
AMca, and nothing less. 

Patience, too, you must have, as well as peace and 
light. Do you know what your temptation will be 
at the present moment? Tou have seen the con- 
- stancy of the Butch character, and your Koyal Com- 
mission, if you send one, wiU show you the reality 
of Dutch grievances. Tour first impulse will be to 
do justice to the Dutchman at the expense of the 
Englishman and the native. Tou will say — " This 
Dutchman is a fine fellow ; a descendant of the 
Protestants who resisted religious oppression in the 
Netherlands ; we find that he has been consistently 
slandered by interested Englishmen ; we will shake 
hands with him over the graves of these brave 
men, and hope that even the grievous loss of life 
will not be without its compensating good. As 



for the English colonista who have slandered 

Te« ; bat that is exactly what you umat not say, 
or feel, or think. It iB not the English coloniste, as 
a body, who have slandered the Dutchman. It has 
been the interested land-jobbers, and the still more 
interested Colonial Office officials. For the Eng- 
lish colonist has always lived on the best terms 
with the Butch settler, and always wonld do so, 
unless wicked strife and dissension are stiired 
up between them — unless soi&e successor of Sir 
Eartle Erere puts into practical force the masim 
that English and Dutch are natural enemies in 
South Africa, just as Sir Bartle Frere himself put 
the T"ft""i into force that black and white are 
natural enemies. 

E«member that that seemingly cheap and easy 
method of playii^ off one section of the South 
African population against the other two ia one of 
the things at the root of all the mischief that has 
happened since South Africa became a part of the 
British Empire, and every word I have written will 
have been thrown away unless I have managed to 
convey the impression that this seemingly cheap 
and ea^ method is to be for ever done away with 
and given up. What you have to do now is not to 
look for and emphasise the faults and failings of 
your three classes of South Aftican population, but 
to get hold of and work upon the basis of their 


XV.] LIGHT. 265 

goTeming virtaea. Ytm have the Englishman's love 
of progress, the Datchman's love of independence, 
and the native's love of getting rich. And if you 
cannot, out of these three qualities, apart from any 
others, find a ladder oat of the slough of South 
A&ican complication, yon must be strangely deficient 
in ingenuity. 

But you must not only have light in Uie present ; 
you must provide for light in the future. Tou can- 
not let in light for a moment upon the of&cial cob- 
webs that hang round your South African possessions, 
and then leave things to disappear again into dark- 
ness. You must have a thorough and a complete 
changa Tou cannot permit a system to go on 
under which it was possible, as in the year 1878, for 
a war to be made over the heads of colonists, involv- 
ing their homes in imminent risk, without their 
having the power to say a word either in objection 
or deprecation. You cannot allow a system to go on 
under which the public money of a colony is used by 
officials in England for the purpose of patting good 
things in the way of friendly contractors. You can- 
not allow a system to go on under which colonists, 
striving honestly to do their best with a limited 
revenue, are one day assailed by a Secretary of State 
for not making one pound equal to two, and the nest 
day assailed for daring to act on the hint thus given. 
Go and talk to the colonists themselves about these 
matters, and they will make plenty of suggestions, 



and valuable ones. And if officials in the Colonial 
Office, who now get their conuniasions and their 
bonuses, do not like the new order of things, they 
need not. 

And you muat have peace in the future, as well 
as light. There can be no doubt that light will 
greatly promote peace. Neither the Langaljhalele 
affair nor the Zulu war would ever have occurred had " 
Natal colonists possessed the right to know before- 
hand what was going forward. Mystery on the part 
of officials b^ets fear — perhaps it is intended to do 
so— on the part of colonists. Nothing is explained, 
and consequently everything is exaggerated. It is 
presumed — not that experience in any way justifies 
the presumption — that responsible officials know 
best the risks of the situation, and do not act without 
reason. The staunch old colonist who was magis- 
trate in Langalibalele's district would, if he had had 
his own way, have arrested the contumacious chief — 
if he really was contumaciona — without a word,and in 
the most friendly spirit imaginable. Officialism, for 
some reason best known to itself, objected, and there- 
upon followed the Langalibalele outbreak, with its 
miserable harvest of bitterness on both sides — bitter- 
ness which still vexes the colony of Natal Months 
before the Zulu war broke oul^ another staunch old 
colonist, who knew the preparations for the invasion 
of Zululand that were going on, asked the question 
^-or rather gave notice of the question — in the Natal 


XV.] Wffy FORCE ITt 267 

Legislative Couacil, " Who is responsible for the 
peace of this colony 1" Had that question been put, 
and any intelligible answer given, the whole colony 
Would have at once known what was in progress, 
and at least have had the opportunity of protesting. 
But the question was not allowed to be put An 
officions Colonial Secretary, acting in the interest 
of the powers that then were, intervened. The 
questioner was brought under the induence of 
the very distinguished diplomatist who had the 
Zulu matter in hand, and — the question was with- 

Light will tend to peace, for it will tend to lessen 
the chance of panic and alarm. It is when the 
colonist is alarmed that he becomes unreasonable 
and vindictive. If you point out, in reply, that the 
Cape Government went into the Basuto war with its 
eyes open, and on its own responsibility, I admit the 
fact But the Cape Government was not then its 
own master. It was still nnder the influence of the 
diplomatist who brought about the Zulu war, and 
who instituted a uniform policy towards all South 
A&ican natives. And it is not likely that Sir Bartle 
Frere will be again sent to South Africa, 

Patience, too, yon must have in the future, not 
less than in the present. If South African union 
will not come about to-morrow, why complain, or 
try to force it ? If your united South Africa is to he 



aelf-goveming, the approach to Buch union must be 
the result of natural grovth. Already, even within 
the last three or four yeare, much has been done to- 
wards making union possible. Our friend Mr. 
Donald Currie has done a good deal in this direc- 
tion by his handy coasting steamers ; the extensioii 
of the telegraphic system has done more ; the de* 
velopment of railway enterprise will be even more 
effective in the same direction. Bring people within 
talking distance of each other, and they soon £nd 
out where their interests coincide. Anythii^ that 
helps forward rflilway construction in South Africa, 
is a distinct addition to the chances of permanent 
iiniou as well as of internal development And I 
say it most emphatically, that if, being saved from a 
war that would have cost ten millions and advant- 
aged you nothing, you could bring your mind to 
spend half that sum, or to guarantee the interest on 
it, in furthering railway construction in South Africa, 
you would soon see cause to feel that you had done 
welL The railway is your civiliser and consolidator 
of British rule in that part of tiie empire, and not 
the cannon or the bayonet. 

Have I written strongly % Have 1 wearied you 
with a damnable iteration ? Tou must pardon me, 
then, on the ground that it is 'impossible for me, 
knowing what I know of South Africa, knowing 
what it might become, and what is the nature 



of the influences that stand in the way, to do 
otherviBe than speak strongly. It is a con^tiy 
which, if you will helieve me, every one who lives 
in it must love. I do not know whether I have 
given you this impression ; but I have at least tried 
to do so. I might have said much more. I might 
have spoken of the clear liquid atmosphere, throngh 
which, even at twelve miles' distance, you can see 
every stone and stump upon a hill-side ; of the long 
dry Natal winters, without a cloud for weeks and 
weeks ; of the moonlight that is like daylight ; of 
the cosy hospitable homes embosomed in gardens that 
grow of themselves ; of the giant krantzes and 
impenetrable goi^a ; of the waterfalls that leap down 
hundreds xif feet at a bound into fathomless pools ; 
of the autumn colours upon hill-side and wide veldt ; 
of the oranges that gleam over rose-covered hedge- 
rows ; of the flowers that spring up as by magic at 
the touch of the first spring shower. I m^ht have 
speken of the sea-side, where the curving yellow 
beach lines the blue plain of tumblii^ waves ; of 
the forest land where the leopard may still be found 
wandering at large ; of English-lookii^ villages, 
through which runs the broad white highway, edged 
with broad margins of grass ; of the wooded klooGs 
loved of holiday makers ; of the clear brooks that drip 
down in strangely arched caverns. Or I might have 
^ken of the grandeur of the storm, the incredible 



variety of the lightning that jou can watch for 
hours ■when the storm has gone over ; of the dark 
passes through the Dratensbei^, where those three 
Katal volunteers lie buried, and where you will find, 
in out of the way comers, the grotesque drawings of 
the almost vanished Bushmen. If, however, you 
think it worth while to go there, you can see all 
these things for yourself, and yon will own that I 
have not said a word too much in its praise. 

What is it we want now ? We want to give a 
chance to a country which, great though its possi- 
bilities, has never yet had a chanca We want to do 
this by putting on one side, for a time, the ofScial- 
ism that has been its bane, and by sending to it men 
with clear unbiassed minds and high moral courage, 
who shall enable people in England to see the 
country and the people of South Afiica as they are. 
The problem to be solved is a complicated one, but not 
extraordinarily so. Any man of ordinary intelli- 
gence, who comes to examine it with an unpreju- 
diced mind, and who is unswayed by personal interest, 
should find it not hard to deal with. The door is 
open at this moment ; there is a pause in the march 
of events, an inclination to inquire, a spirit abroad 
of justice and patience. Do not let the opportunity 
he lost, for it may never occur again. Bo not, when 
you might by a generous stepping aside out of the 
ordinary path, give a new impulse to South African 



prosperity and happiness, be content with a make- 
shift settlement, with a half-fulfilled dnty, -with a 
problem only half solved after aU. 

That 18 what I ask you to mge and to strive for. 
Is it possible that what is needed will be done? 

PrmUdhj-S^ & R,,E&^m^ 



Bedford Street, Strand, London, W.C. 
February, 1881. 

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By Lord Georcb Campbxll, With Map. Piftk asA cfac^wr 
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^Sir. Carpenter's narrative is gracefully written and well arranged. 
ffe has had the candour to point out both the light and the shade of a 
•Btry remarkable character." — ACADEMY, 

Carstarea. — WILLIAM CARSTABES: a Character and Career 
of the RevolotionaiT Epoch (1649— 171S), By Robert Stort, 
Minister of Rosueatb. Evo. lU. 

Chatterton : a biographical STUDY. By Dakibl 
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LIUS CICERO; being a New TranslaElon of the Letters in- 
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Notes, by Rbv. G. E. Jeans, M.A., Fellow of Hertford College, 
Oxford, Assistant-Master in Haileybury Collie. 8vo. lo,f. 6d. 
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'* Mr. Jean^ s trantlatint desmies * _, .... 

DoBtefj and Vauf^aiis ' Republic,' and CkurcA and BtodriiSs 
' Tacitus.' "—St. James's Gmbtte. 

"4s a translator he deserves high p 
gaud En^isk, and hi always gives us % 

On Ik' ■whole hi it te be eongralvlnled on the thorough Jsiay he has aceom- 
plished hit task." — Satdrday Review, 

OF SAMUEL CLARK, M.A,, formerly Prmcipal of the 
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Introduction by his Wife, With Portrait. Crown 8vo. • 

Clifford (W. K.)— LECTURES AND ESSAYS. Edited by 
LiHLrE Stephen and Frederick Pollock, with Introdnction 
hy F. Pollock. Two Portraits, a vols. 8to. 25*- 
The Times of October 22, 1879, says :—" Many a friend of the 
author tm first up these volumes and remembering his versatile 
gmius and his keen enjoyment of all realms of intellectu/ii atlivity must 
hofe trembled lest they should la found to constsl of fi-aginentary ptetet ej 
Tvork, too disconnect^ to do Justice to his powers of evHseculnie reasming 
and too varied to han/e any effect as a vihole. Fortunal^y those fears art 
groundless .... II is not only in subject that the various papers are 
closely related. Tliere is also a singtdm- consistency of view and of method 
throughout .... -tt is in the social and metaphysical subjects that the 
richness of his intellect shows itself most forcibly m the variety and 
originality of the ideas which he presents to us. To appreciate this vctriety, 
it is aeeessaty to read the book itself, for it treats, in some form or other, 6f 
nearly all the subjects of deepest interest in this age of ^esUoning." 

Combe. — the life of GEORGE COMBE, Author of "The 
Constitution of Man." By Charles Gibbon, With Three 
Portraits engraved by JEENS. Two Vols. 8vo. 321. 



Henry Cooper, F.S.A., and Thompson Cooper, F.S.A. 
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the Gennan of Dr. Julius Meyer, Director of the Ro^ Gallery, 
Berlin. Edited, with an Introduction, by Mrs. Heaton. Coa- 

y. Cos., M.A., New College, late Esquire Bedel and CoTouer 
in the University of Oxford. Cheaper Edition. Crown 8vO. 6s. 

Cunynghame (Sir A. T.)— my command IN SOUTH 
AFRICA, 1874—78, Comprising Experiences of Travel in the 
Colonies of South Africa and the Independent Slates. By Sir 
Arthur Thurlow Cunykghame, G.C.B., then Lieutenant- 
Governor and Commander of the Forces in South Africa. Third 
Edition. Svo. m. (vl. 
The Times says -.—"It is a vi'lame of ^rtal inla-esi, .... full of 
tiinditili aiAici vividly illustrate the conduian of the Colonies and the 
charattir and habits of the natives It contains valuable illus- 
trations of Cape warfare, and at the pres »' moment it cannot fail to 
eammand wiac-spread attention. " 

'* Daily News."— the daily NEWS' CORRESPOND. 

ENCE of the War between Rnsiia and Turkey, to the fall of Kars. 
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PEACE. Cheaper Edition. Crown Svo. 61. 

Davidson.— THE life of a Scottish probationer ; 

being a Memoir of Themas Davidson, with his Poems and 
Letters. By James Brown, Minister of, St. James's Street 
Church, Paisley. Second Edition, revised aod enlarged, with 
Portrait. Crown Svo. -js. 6rf. 

Deak.— FRANCIS deak, Hungarian statesman = a 

Memoir. With a Preface, by the RIGHT HoM. M. E. Grant 
Duff, M.P. With Portrait. Svo. 121. dd. 

it is almost perfict." — Saturday 



Deas.— THE RIVER CLYDE. An Historical Description of the 
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govement of the River from Gla^ow to Port Gla^ow. By I 
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late Editor of the Time,. By Sir Oeoroe W. Dasent. D.C.L. 
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Denison. — a history of cavalry from the ear. 

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Plans. 8vo. 18/. 

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By Sit Charlss Wentworth Dilke, M.P. Sixth Edition. 

Crown Svo. &i. 

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Dolet. — ETIENNE DOLET : the Martyr of the Renaissance. A 
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By Richard Copley Christie, Lincoln College, Oxford, 
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Svo. \%s. 
" But first it it rucessarj' to say that we have netier met, either in 
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St. James's Gazette 

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.... cmd his iooi mcty he cited as in many respects a model biography. " 

— AthenjBUM. 

Doyle.— HISTORY OF AMERICA. By J. A. Doylk. With 

Maps. l8mo. +1. 6d. [Historical Course. 

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Dnimmond of Hawthornden : the stoRy of his 
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NOTES OF AN INDIAN JOURNEY. Willi Map. 8vo. iw. 6rf. 
Eadie.— LIFE OF JOHN EADIE, D.D., LL.D. By Jaues 
Brown, D.D., Aotliorof "The Life of a Scottish FrobatJMier." 
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S" JosiAH Bateman, M,A. With Pottrait, engraved by Jbbns. 
ird and Cheaper Edition. Extra fcsp, Sto, %t, 

Eire.— ESSAYS ON SHAKESPEARE. By Dr. Karl Elzk. 
Translated with the Author's sanction by L. DoKA Schhite. 

8yO. I2J. 

English Men of Letters. Edited by John Ho^iXi. A 

Series of Short Books to tell people what is best worth knowing 
as to the Life, Character, and Works of some of Ihe great 
English Writers. In crown 8vo. Price as. 6d. each. 

L DR. JOHNSON. By Lbslik Stephen. 

" Tkt new sirUi opms indl iiiitk Mr. LalU SUfhen't ikOch of Dr. 
^MniKn. II caaSi hardly have ban dene bdlrr; and il JviU caiai^ to 
tkt readtrt for viium ii is inlatdsi a putir istimn/e ef Jeknitn than 
tUkfr ef thi two essays af Lord MacauJay " — PALL MaLL GaZETTZ. 


" The tone of tke Tidume is excellatl throughout '' — ATHEn.CCM. 

" We cffuld net wish for a more sug^esltse intreJuctitm te Scoff at%d 
kit poems and naireh." — ExAMINBit. 


"As a dear, thoughtful, and attractive record of the life and works of 
tiegrtatest among the world's historians, it deserves the highest praitt." — 

rV. SHELLEY. By J. A. SysiobdS. 

" The levers af this great poet are to be congratolatat on hanng at 
their command so fresh, cleat, and intelligent a presentment of tkt a^tet, 
written by a man inadequate and wide cmllurtJ^ — AthehAhm. 

V, HUME. By Professor Huxley. 

" It may fairly te said that no one now living could kave expounded 
Hume with more sympathy or wilh equal perspicuity^ — Athkn^UM, 

VI. GOLDSMITH. By William Black. 

"Mr. Black brings a fine sympathy and lasit la bear in his eriikitm 
of Goldsmith' s writings as well as itt his sketck of the madenls of his life." 
— Athbn-BUU. 



English Men ot'LKX.tera.—csmimud. 

VII. DEFOE. By W. Minto. 

"Mr. Mintifs book is cartful and accurate in all tkat is stolid, ani 
faithful in all thai it suggests. Il loill repay reading more than ami. " 
— Athen^um. 

VIII. BURNS. By Principal Shairp. 

"Hit iMpossiilt to desire fairer criticism than PrinHpal Shai'p's 
an Btmrfs poetry .... Neni of the series has given a truer estintatl 
either of eharaeter or of genius than this litHevolitine .... andallviho 
read it laill he IhorougUy grateful to the author for this monument to lit 
fenms of Scotland's greatest poet." — Spectator. 

IX. SPENSER. By the Very Rev. the Dean of St. Fadl's. 
"Dr. Church is Blaster of his subject, and iBritis always viith gtoii 

taste'' — Ac ademy. 

X. THACKERAY, By Anthobv Trollope. 

" Mr. TroUopgs sketch is excellently adapted to fufil the purposi of 
the series in which it appears." — Athen^uk. 

XI. BURKE. By John Mori^y. 

" Perhaps the best crttidsm yet published on the life and character o, 
Bm-ke is contained in Mr. Morl^s compendious biography. His sty!e ts 
vigorous and tolishid, and both his fiolitical and personal judgment, ana 
hi! Hterary criticisms are Just, generous, subtle, and in a high degree 
mleresting.'' — Saturday Review, 

XII. MILTON. By Mark Pattison, 

" The writer knows the times and the man, and of both he has written 
Tvilh singular force and discrimination." — SPECTATOR. 

XIII. HAWTHORNE. By Henry James, jun. 

" frohaily no one living could have done so goods book en Hawthorne 
ashehas done." — Saturday Review. 

XIV. SOUTHEY. By Professor DowDEN. 

"A truly scholarly and delightful monograph of a great writer, why 
hu been ef late years undeservedly neglected." — EXAMINER. 

XV. BUNYAN. By J. A. Fboude. 

" The life and character of Bunyan stands out in bold relief, and for 
th! firs! time the author of the' VHrrrra's Progress' is portrayti at he 
really exittcd." — Westminster Review. 

XVI. CHAUCER. By Professor A. W. Ward. 

" An enjoyable and excdleni little book is this of Pnfessor U'a-^s. 
Rir away Ike best connected account of Chaucer and his TvJri to b; fjund 
in English."— Ac/LJ)Etiv. 



English Men of Letters. — continued, 
XVI!, COWPER. By Goldwih Smith. 

"Mr. Golilwin Smith has skitcktd, in a Jew 
pf the peet and -wialaiess of thi man." — I'AILY 

XVIII. POPE. By Leslie Stephen, 

"Thi ikrlch of Pof^i life TffMiih Mr. Leslir Stephtn has wrillm is 
iHlfrtitiu^ throughout . . . , A laork which one can only lay down m'lA 
the wish ti/ have a go-, d dial mirrt on Ike same tubjict by the same hand" 
— Academy. 

XIX. BYRON. By Professor NlCHOL, 

' ' Decidedly one of the most carrfiii and •Boluahle of the whole stria. 
When a tooi is so good as Professor ^'iehol's, there it Utile to be said 
about il, except to rici!vimend il aswidely as may he." — Athenscm. 

XX. LOCKE. By Professor FowLEB. 

"la Ike ease of Locke's biographer we venture to say that Mr. Morley 
has been exseptiomUly fortunate. A pen more csmpettnt than Professor 
Fowler's for this partieular jvori might have been sought, and sought in 

XXI. WORDSWORTH. By F. W. H. Mvkrs. 

" Mr. Myers gives us a picture of the man and an estimate of kit 
work, which is certairtly not inferior lo anything thai has preceded it."— 

XXII. DRVDEN. By G. Saintsbury. 

In preparation : — 
SWIFT. By John Morley. 

ADAM SMITH. By Leonard H, Courtney, M.P. 
BENTLEY. By Professor R. C. Jebb. 
LANDOR. By Professor Sidney Colvin. 
DICKENS. By Professor A. W. Ward. 
DE QUIKCEY. By Professor Masson. 
BERKELEY. By Professor Huxley. 
LAMB. By Rev. Alfred Ainger. 
STERNE. By H. D. Traill. 

Other Volumes to follom. 



English Poets : SELIZCTtONS, with critical Introductijna 
by various Writers, und a General loroduction I.y MatthBW 
Arnold. Edited by T. H, IA'aed, M.A., Ule Fellow of 
Brasenose College, Oxford, 4 vols. Crown 8vo. 71. (si. each. 
" A w.wk of the very k'gkat excdlenie, viAicA firomisa is be a mesi 
valuable additioH to t&t itandari eriliiism of English Itlerature." — 

" The critical ititrsdticliont are exee'lent, icmt of if em, indeed, being 
most vjluahU. The seltctions from the various poets are, it is needless to 
say, male -with care and fine taste." — St. James's Cizetpe. 

Eton College, History of. By H. C. Maxwell Lvte, 

M.A. With numerous IlluBtrations by Professor DeLAMOTTB, 

Coloured Plates, and a Steel Portrait of the Founder, engraved 

by C. H. Jeess. New and cheaper Issue, with Corrections. 

Medium 8vo. Cloth el<^ani. zii. 

" Wi areat length presented leith a work on England's greatest public 

school, worthy tf the subject of tahich it treats. . . , A really valuaileand 

' aulheniic history of Eton College. "— Guardian. 

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Contents; — Roman Imptriaiism : I. T%i Great Reman Rarelu- 

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PRESENT, Fifth Edition, enlarged. Fcap. Svo, 51. 

Vincent and Dickson.— a HANDBOOK TO MODERN 
GREEK. By Edgar Vincent and T. G. Dickson. Eottra 
fcap. Svo. 5/. 

Whitney — a compendious German grammar. By 

W, D. Whitney, Professor of Sansltrit and Instructor in Modem 
Languages in Yale Collqie. Crown Svo. 6j. 
" AJitr carefiil cxaminaHon wi art inclmtd te prBOBunti it tie bat 
grammar of modern language itit hai/e ever seen." — Scotsman. 

Whitney and Edgren.— a COMPENDIOUS GERMAN 

AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY, with Notation of Correspon- 
dences and Brief Etymologies. By Professor W. D. WhiTNeV, 
assisted by A. H. Edgren. Crown Svo. 7^. 6d. 

The GERMAN-ENGLISH Part may be had separately. Price S^.