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Full text of "The Black Sea Pilot: The Dardanelles, Sea of Marmara, Bosporus, and Sea of Azov"

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N(XAj- \\5H ^-xb r\ 



^attarb Collesr Itlitacg 



No^ H5'-l,i .1 



I 



J^arbatti College t,tl)rars 



UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 



rn 



V 



F 



H. O. No. 155 



THE BLACK SEA PILOT 

THE DARDANELLES, SEA OF MARMARA. 

BOSPORUS, BLACK SEA, AND 

SEA OF AZOV 



FIRST EDITION 



PUBLISHED AND SOLD BY THE HYDROCRAPHIC OFHCE 

UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE 

SECRETARY OF THE NAVY 



PRICE, 90 CENTS 



KloLM-Hb^.^o.-j 



Harvard College Library 
Sept. 23, 1020 
From 
United States Qto ernment 



H. 0. 165. 

A Snmmary of B'otices to Kariners, for the year 1920, affecting this 
publication will (if published) be sent free of expense upon the receipt 
of this coupon at the TTnited States Hydrographic Ofice, Washington, S. C. 
(See Preface.) 



Name 



Address. 



a 



H. 0. 155. 

A Summary of Notices to Mariners, for the year 1921, affecting this 
publication will (if published) be sent free of expense upon the receipt 
of this coupon at the United States Hydrographic Of&ce, Washington, D. C. 
(See Preface.) 

Name 



Address. 






i 



r 
« 



H. 0. 155. 

A Summary of Notices to Mariners, for the year 1922, affecting this 
publication will (if published) be sent free of expense upon the receipt 
of this coupon at the United States Hydrographic Office, Washington, D. C. 
(See Preface.) 

Name ^ 



Address. 



m i.»J-Fil«»',JJ^ji> J-» »J 



4. 

t 
( 



e 
* 
c 

t 



H. 0. 155. 

A Summary of Notices to Mariners, for the year 1923, affecting this 
publication will (if published) be sent free of expense upon the receipt 
of this coupon at the United States Hydrographic Office, Washington, D. C. 
(See Preface.) 

Name 

Address 



E. 0. 155. 

A Stunmary of Notices to Harinen, for the year 1924, affecting this 
publication will (if published) be sent free of expense upon the receipt 
of this coupon at the United States Hydrographic Office, Washington, D. C. 
(See Preface.) 

Name 

Address 



J .J 



H. 0. 155. 

A Summary of Notices to Mariners, for the year 1925, affecting this 
publication will (if published) be sent free of expense upon the receipt 
of this coupon at the United States Hydrographic Office, Washington, D. C. 
(See Preface.) 

Name 

Address 



•- * r - - 



H. 0. 155. 

A Summary of Notices to Mariners, for the year 1926, affecting this 
publication will (if published) be sent free of expense upon the receipt 
of this coupon at the United States Hydrographic Office, Washington, D. C. 
(See Preface.) 

Name 

Address 



-S « «• J •> 



H. 0. 155. 

A Summary of Notices to Mariners, for the year 1927, affecting this 
publication will (if published) be sent free of expense upon the receipt 
of this coupon at the United States Hydrographic Office. Washington, D. C. 
(See Preface.) 

Name 

Address 



H m 



PREFACE. 



This publication contains sailing directions for the Dardanelles, 
Sea of Marmara, Bosporus, Black Sea, and Sea of Azov. Commenc- 
ing at the western entrance to the Dardanelles, the European and 
Asiatic shores are described in the order as given above. 

This work is taken principally from the British Admiralty Black 
Sea Pilot, sixth edition, 1908, and supplements to 1917 for same. It 
contains the latest information from reliable sources and is corrected 
to N. M. 11, 1920. 

The bearings and courses are true and are given in degrees, from 
0° (north) to 360° (clockwise). 

Bearings limiting sectors of lights are toward the light. 

The directions of wind refer to the points from which they blow ; 
of currents, the points toward which they set. These directions are 
true. 

Variations, with the annual rate of change, may be obtained from 
H. O. Chart No. 2406, Variation of the Compass. 

Distances are expressed in nautical miles, the mile being approxi- 
mately 2,000 yards. 

Soundings are referred to mean water level. 

Heights are referred to mean water level. 

The latest information regarding lights, their characteristics, sec- 
tors, f ogsignals, and submarine bells should always be sought in the 
Light Lists, as all the details are not given in this volume, and 
changes are likely to occur. 

Summary of Notices to Mariners. — While it is the intention of 
the Hydrographic Office to publish about the first of each year a sum- 
mary of Notices to Mariners of the preceding year affecting the vol- 
ume, it must be understood that these summaries are intended to in- 
clude only important changes and corrections and that their publica- 
tions may be discontinued at any time, especially when a new edition 
of the book is issued. 

Masters of vessels should keep complete files of weekly Notices to 
Mariners and supply themselves with the latest List of Lights, and 
seek from local authorities, pilots, and harbor masters the latest 
information relative to any special regulations in force in the particu- 
lar locality visited. 

Mariners are requested to notify the United States Hydrographic 
Office, Washington, D. C, or one of its branch offices of errors they 
may discover in this publication, or of additional matter which they 
think should be inserted. 

m 



CAUTION. 



Due to the abnormal conditions existing in the area embraced in this 
publication, accurate information regarding the latest changes in 
navigational aids and mine fields is not available. Therefore all 
mariners navigating in these waters are urged to use extreme caution. 
All ships entering the Black Sea should stop at Constantinople to 
correct their mine warnings to mariners and obtain the latest details 
regarding mine fields and routes, 
ly 



CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Preface ^ in 

Information relating to navigational aids and general navigation 1 

Index 325 

Index chart ; faces in 

List of Hydrographic Ofllce agents L 349 

Glossary__i vi 

Appendix i 1 321 

Chapteb I. 

General remarks — Communications — Climate — Winds and weather — 

Water level — Currents — Fogs — Pilots 15 

» 

Chapter II. 

The Dardanelles 21 

Chapteb III. 

Sea of Marmara 49 

Chapter IV. 

The Bosporus 103 

Chapter V. 

Black Sea, western shore; Bosporus to Odessa 125 

• Chapter VI. 

Black Sea, northern shore; Odessa to Gertch Strait 183 

Chapter VII. 

Kertch Strait and Sea of Azov 233 

Chapter VIII. 

Black Sea, Caucasian or eastern short ; Kertch Strait to Batum 273 

Chapter IX. 
Black Sea, Anatolian or southern shore ; Batum to the Bosporus 299 

V 



GliOSSARY OF RUSSIAN WORDS THAT MAY BE OF USE TO THE 

NAVIGATOR. 



Russian. 




Admiralteistvo 

Aneliski konsul 

Bakan 

Baklan 

Banka ^ 

Bashnya 

Bereg 

Blizhnl 

Blokshiv. 

Bochka ^ 

Bolshol 

Bot 

Brosityakor 

Bukhta 

Buksir 

Bunm.... 

Burva 

Byeli 

Chaika 

Chelovyek 

Cherni 

Dalni 

Den..., 

Derevo 

Derevnya 

Dlinni.... 

Dno 

Bolgota 

Dom 

Doroga 

Dozhd 

Farvater 

Flagshtok 

Fut 

Oavan 

Glubina 

Gluboki 

GoUk 

Golova 

Gora 

Gorizont 

Gorod 

Gruda 

Gryaz 

Guba 

II 

Izba 

Kabeltov 

Kamen 

Kanal 

Kanat... 

Karan tin 

Karta 

Kater 

Kayuta 

Kholm 

Kholodni 

Khoroshi 

Khudoi... 

Kladbische 

Kladovaya 

Kolyeno 

Eompas 

Korabl 

Kosa 

Exasni 

Krest 

KrugU 

Krutoyar 

Kryepki 

Kurgan 



Govenunent dockyard. 

English consul. 

A buoy. 

A cormorant. 

A shoal. 

A tower, a seamark. 

The coast. 

Near. 

A hulk. 

A buoy, a cask. 

Great. 

A boat. 

To anchor. 

A bay, a creek. 

A tug. 

A breaker (surf). 

A storm. 

White. 

A gull. 

A man. 

Black. 

Distant. 

A day. 

A tree. 

Village. 

Long. 

Bottom. 

Longitude. 

A house. 

A road. 

Rain. 

A channel. 

Flagstaff. 

Foot. 

A harbor. 

Depth, soundings. 

Deep. 

A broom (on spar buoy). 

The head (of a pier). 

A hill, a mountain. 

The horizon. 

A town, a city. 

A cairn, a pile. 

Mud. 

A bay, a gul. 

Slime, mud. 

A hut. 

A hawser, a cable's 

length. 
A rocK, a stone. 
A channel, a canal. 
A chain cable. 
Quarantine. 
A chart. 
A boat. 
A cabin. 
A hill. 
Cold. 
Good. 
Bad. 

A cemetery. 
A storehouse. 
A reach (of a channel, 

etc.). 
A compass. 
A ship. 
A spit. 
Red. 
A cross. 
Round. 
Steep banks. 
Hard. 
A tumulus. 



Russian. 



Kuterma 

Led 

Ledyanaya gora 

Lodka..: 

Lotzman 

LotzmansM tot 

Lot 

Luda 

Lima 

Lyes ^ 

Lyesnoi 

Lyeto 

Lyevl ,.. 

Lyevo rulya 

Lyevo naoort 

Matros 

MaU 

Marevo or Mirazh 

Mayak 

Medvy ed . . : 

Mel... 

Melkoe myesto 

Melkovodie 

Mis 

Mokri 

More 

Moroz 

Morskaya voda 

Morskoikot 

Moryak 

Morzh 

Mirak 

Mutitsya 

Myagki 

Myed 

Na bereg or Na mel . . . 

Naberezhnaya 

Nizki 

Nizhni 

Nizkaya voda 

Noch ;. 

Nos..... 

Novi 

Ogon 

Osen 

Ostrov '.. 

Otdat yakor 

OtUv 

Otvalivai 

Ozero 

Peleng 

Pere myenni ogon 

Peresheek 

Peschani 

Pesok 

Plavni 

Plavuchi mayak 

Pochtamt 

Podnyat yakor 

Podvodnl 

Polden 

Polnoch 

Polnaya voda 

Polovhia 

Polovoda 

Poluostrov 

Polyana 

Port 

Postoysmni ogon 

Postoyannis probles 
kami ogon. 



English. 



A snowstorm. 

Ice. 

An iceberg. 

A boat. 

A pilot; 

A pilot boat. 

A sounding lead. 

A rock or reef out of 

water. 
The moon. 
A forest. 
Wooded. 
Summer, year. 
Left, port. 
Port the helm. 
Hard-a-port. 
A sailor. 
Little. 
Mirage. 
A Hothouse. 
A bear. 
A shoal. 
A shallow place. 
Shallow water. 
A point, a cape. 
Wet. 
The sea. 
Frost. 
Sea water. 
A fur seal. 
A seaman. 
A walrus. 
Darkness, gloom. 
To become muddy. 
Soft. 
Copper. 
Ashore. 
A quay. 
Low. 
Lower. 
Low water. 
Night. 
A cape, a headland; bow 

of a vessel. 
New. 

Fire," a light. 
Autumn. 
An island. 
To let go the andior. 
Ebb tide. 
Shove off. 
A lake. 
A bearing. 
An alternating light. 
An isthmus. 
Sandy.' 
Sand. 
A mud flat overgrown 

with reeds. 
A lightvessel. 
A post ofSce. 
To weigh anchor. 
Submerged. 
Noon. 
Midnight. 
High water. 
Half. 

High-water spring tides. 
A peninsula. 
An ice field. 
A port, a harbor. 
A fixed light. 
A fixed and flashing 

light. 



VI 



GLOSSAEY. 



VII 



GLOSSARY OF RUSSIAN WORDS THAT MAY BE OP USE TO THE 

NAVIGATOR— Continued. 



Bussisn. 



Povorot 

Pozadl 

Pravi 

Pravo rulya 

Pravo na bort 

Priboi 

Pribilaya voda 

Piibrezhenie 

PriUv 

Fristan 

Piistavaite 

Probiesk 

Probleskovl ogen 

Prokhod..* 

Proliv 

Pryesnaya voda 

Pyatno 

Reid 

Rif 

Riba 

Rul 

Rulevoi 

Rumb 

Ryeka 

Sazhen 

Seld 

Selo 

Shirota 

Sbkval 

Shlyupka 

Sini 

Skala 

Sklonenie 

Snyeg.. 

Sofeni 

Sobitse 

Sredi 

Stan or Stanovishche . . . 

Start 

Storona 

Stvor 

Stvomie znaki 

Snkhoidok....: 

Syeri 

Syever 

Syevemi 

Tamozhnya 

Techenie i 

Tenmi...^ 

Tepli 

Tina 



English. 



Turning, tacking, a bend. 

Astern. 

Bicht, starboard. 

Starboard the helm. 

Ilard-a-starboard. 

Rollers. 

High water. 

The beach. 

The flood tide. 

A landing stage, a pier. 

Come alongside. 

A flash. 

A fiashine light. 

A gullet , a passage. 

A strait. 

Fresh water. 

A shoal, a patch. 

A roadstead. 

A reef. 

A fish. 

A rudder, the helm. 

A helmsman. 

A compass point. 

A river. 

A fathom. 

A herring. 

A village with a church. 

Latitude. 

A squall. 

A boat. 

Blue. 

A rock, a cliff. 

Magnetic variation. 

Snow. 

Salt. 

The sun. . 

In the middle. 

A station, a camp, a 

settlement. 
Old. 

Side (of achannel,etc.). 
A leading line. 
Leading marks. 
A dry dock. 
Gray. 
North. 
Northern. 
Customhouse. 
Current. 
Dark (color). 
Warm. 
Ooze. 



Russian. 



Tishlna 

Tolstoi 

Tombui 

Tonki 

Tuman 

Tyulen 

Tserkov 

Ubilaya voda 

Uglublenle 

Ugol 

Utes 

tJtro 

Uzel 

Vecher 

Vertyashchisy a ogon 

Vesna 

Vkhod 

Vnutrrami 

Vnyeshni 

Voda 

Vodopoenmi 

Vodopol 

Vodorosl 

Vohiya 

Vorota 

Vostok....; 

Vostcchnl 

Vpered 

Vyeter 

Vyekha 

Yagel 

Yakor 

Yakoinoe mj^esto. . . 

Yel 

Yug 

Yuzhni 

Zakol 

Zalif *. 

Zapad 

Zapadni 

Zjtvod 

Zavdd 

Zavorot 

Zeleni 

Zemlya 

Zhelti 

Zhelyezhaya deroga . 

Zhelyezo 

Zima 

Znak 

Zoloto 

Zvyezda 



Eni^llsh. 



A calm. 

Thick. 

A buoy. 

Thin. 

A fog. 

A seal. 

A church 

Low water. 

Draft of water. 

Coal. 

A cliff. . 

Morning. 

A knot (a nautical mile). 

Evening. 

A revolving light. 

Spring. 

Entrance. 

Inner. 

Outer. 

Water. 

Under water, submerged. 

Overflow of a river. 

Seaweed. 

A wave. 

Qates, a channel. 

East. 

Eastern. 

Ahead. 

The wind. 

A perch, a spar buor. 

Lichen, white moss. 

An anchor. 

An anchorage. 

A fir tree. 

South. 

Southern. 

A weir. 

A bay, a gulf. 

West. 

Western. 

A bay, a creek. 

A factory. 

A turning. 

Green. 

Land. 

Yellow. 

Railway, 

Iron. 

Winter. 

A beacon. 

Gold. 

A star. 



Tin 



tajOSSABY* 



GLOSSARY OF TUSKI8H WORDS THAT MAT BE OF USB TO 

NAYIGATOB. 



TmMfli. 



I 



Agmteli, Adncfa, A^iftj. 

A%im 

AOu 

Ak 

AUJidft, Adassi 

Bfthrifth Feriki 

Bakshish 

Babrhik 

BMh 

BaUrfn 

Bazar 

B«fat 

Boffbax or Boghaxi 



Borun, Bama, or Bur 
nar, 

Buytik ' 

Capitan or captan 

CTial : 

(^hamur ' 

Oilfllk 

I a«rh, Tarh, or rage.,.i 

VemiT-yeri 

Ven\i or I enlzU 

Den or T'eresl 

Uertn 



T*«3inneiii, 
Di 



I 



Eski 

Fenftr 

Gmjl, Ohol, orOol. 
Oharb, Oharbi.... 

Oyumnik 

Ich. Icherch 

Inflnallah 

Irmak 

I8ki>le or Tskale$)i . 

Jaml 

Jenub. Jenubl 

Kat)a-kum 

Kale 

Kapti 

Kara 

Kaya 

Ka:ttllk 

Keiirfaz 

Khan 

Klol 

KUaKUz 

KlIiMa 



Tree. 

AeuntMh. 

Entrance. 

White. 

Island, islet. Ulands. 

Vice admiral. 

Gratuity. 

Clar. 

Head.cfaiaf. 

A marsh. 

Market. 

WhiVt. 

A channel, ttrait, or 
estuary. 

A <iipe. point, promon- 
tory, DMdland. 

Great. 

Commaiider of a ship. 

A river. 

Mud. 

A (arm. 

A mountain. 

Anchorage. 

Hea. 

A valley. 

I eep. 

A windmill. 

An isthmus, point, spit 
of sand. 

Old, ancient. 

A beacon. 

A lake. 

West. 

Customhoose, 

Inner. 

Please OodI 

A river. 

A landing place. 

A mosque. 

Southerly. 

Gravel, 

A castle. 

A Fate, a pass. 

Black. 

Bluff, cliff, rocky. 

Rocky. 

A gulf. 

An inn, hotel. 

A village, hamlet. 

A pilot. 

A church. 



I 



I' 



I 



Kizfl,Krimxi. 

Kyapm. 

K uyn. 

Koyun .... 

Kndiok 

Kinrfex 

KuDeh 

Kum 

Ki 



A brldfls. 

A ireH. 

A btttat, a oow. 

SmalL 

A tower. 



Kynpra. 
Lonan.. 



Uva 

Maden 

Marhreb 

Memd 

Mudir 

Moucaddess 

Nehir 

Nishan 

Nizam 

Orman 

OvaorOvasi 

Palanka 

Rakitsau 

Reis 

Saniak 

San]ak-i-Humayun. 

Sanjak sheriff 

Sarai 

Selam 

Si 



Sielie 

Shamandirah . . . 

Shark 

Shehr or Sheher. 

Shemal 

8u 

Tatia 

Tiash, Tashrah.. 

Tashlik 

Tai)e orTei)esi.. 

Tersane 

Terjuman 



Togroiik. 
Vilayet.. 

^ar 

Yeni.... 

Yer 

Yol...:. 
Yukari.. 



AMdee. 

A port, a baifoor, a bay. 
Port admiral. 
Coontry. 
A mine. 
West. 

A smaD mosque. 
Governor of a dty. 
Saint, holy. 
A river, a stream. 
A beacon. 
A refculation. 
A forest, a wood. 
A plain. 

A tort, a fortress. 
Stillwater. 

Chief, captain of ship. 
A flag. 

Imperial standard. 
A relieious flag. 
A palace, a hoa5«. 
Health, a salutation. 
Of. thus: deresi, valley ot 
A Dank, a shoal. 
A buoy. 
East. 

A town, a city. 
North. 

Water, stream. 
A battery. 
Outer. 
Stonv. 

A hill, a tnmulns. 
The Turkish Admiralty. 
An interpreter, a drago- 
man. 
Bar of a river. 
Country. 
Bluff, cltff. 
New. 

Land,countrv. 
Channel, road. 
Up. 



INFORMATION RELATING TO NAVIGATIONAL AIDS 

AND GENERAL NAVIGATION. 



Publications. — The principal publications of the United States 
Hydrographic OflGice for the use of navigators are: Charts, Sailing 
Directions, American Practical Navigator, Altitude and Azimuth 
Tables, Internationar Code of Signals, Light List, Notices to Mari- 
ners, Pilot Charts, and Hydrographic Bulletins. Of these the 
Notices to Mariners and the Hydrpgraphic Bulletins are free to 
mariners and others interested in shipping. The Pilot Charts are 
free to contributors of professional information, but are sold to the 
general public at 10 cents a copy ; other publications of the office are 
sold under the law at cost price, and can be purchased directly from 
the office or through its sales agencies, but are not sold by branch 
hydrographic offices. 

Charts when issued are corrected to date. 

The dates on which extensive corrections are made are noted on the 
chart on the right of the middle of the lower edge; those of the 
smaller corrections at the left lower corner. 

The edition, and corresponding date, of the chart will be found in 
the right lower corner, outside the outer neat line. 

Planes of reference. — The plane of reference for soundings on 
Hydrographic Office charts made from United States Government 
surveys and on Coast and Geodetic Survey charts of the Atlantic 
coast of the United States is mean low water; on the Pacific coast 
of the United States as far as the Strait of Juan de Fuca, it is the 
mean of the lower low waters ; and from Puget Sound to Alaska, the 
plane employed on Hydrographic Office charts is low water ordinary 
springs. 

On most of the British Admiralty charts the plane of reference 
is the low water of ordinary springs ; on French charts, the low water 
of equinoctial springs. 

In the case of many charts compiled from old or various sources 
the plane of reference may be in doubt. In such case, or whenever 
not stated on the chart, the assumption that the reference plane is low 
water ordinary springs gives a larger margin of safety than mean 
low water. 

Whichever plane of reference may be used for a chart it must be 
remembered that there are times when the tide falls below it. Low 

1 



2 ACCURACY OF CHART. 

water is lower than mean low water about half the time, and when 
a new or full moon occurs at perigee the low water is lower than the 
average low water of springs. At the equinoxes the spring range is 
also increased on the coasts of Europe, but in some other parts of the 
.world, and especially in the Tropics, such periodic. low tides may 
coincide more frequently with the solstices. 

Wind or high barometer may at times cause the water to fall 
below even a very low plane of reference. 

Our coasts where there is much diurnal inequality in the tides, the 
amount of rise and fall can not be depended upon and additional 
caution is necessary. 

Mean sea level. — The important fact should be remembered that 
the depths at half tide are practically the same for all tides whether 
neaps or springs. Half tide .therefore corresponds with mean sea 
level. This makes a very exact plane of reference, easily found, to 
which it would be well to refer all high and low waters. 

If called on to take special soundings for the chart at a place 
where there is no tidal bench mark, mean sea level should be found 
and the plane for reductions established at the proper distance 
below it, as ascertained by the Tide Tables, or by observations, or 
in some cases, if the time be short, by estimation, the data used being 
made a part of the record. 

Accuracy of chart. — The value of a chart must manifestly de- 
pend upon the character and accuracy of the survey on which it is 
based, and the larger the scale of the chart the more important do 
these become. 

To judge a survey, its source and date, which are generally given 
in the title, are good guides. Besides the changes that may have 
taken place since the date of the survey in waters where sand or 
mud prevails, the earlier surveys were mostly made under circum- 
stances that precluded great accuracy of detail ; until a chart founded 
on such a survey is tested it should be used with caution. It may, 
indeed, be said that, except in well frequented harbors and their 
approaches, no surveys yet made have been so thorough as to make it 
certain that all dangers have been found. The number of the sound- 
ings is another method of estimating the completeness of the survey, 
remembering, however, that the chart is not expected to show all 
soundings that were obtained. When the soundings are sparse or 
unevenly distributed it may be taken for granted that the survey 
was not in great detail. 

Large or irregular blank spaces among soimdings mean that no 
soimdings were obtained in these spots. When the surrounding 
soundings are deep it may fairly be assumed that in the blanks the 
water is also deep ; but when they are shallow, or it can be seen from 
the rest of the chart that reefs or banks are present, such blanks 



KAVIGATIONAL AIDS — GENERAL NAVIGATION. O 

should be regarded with suspicion. This is especially the case in 
coral regions and off rocky coasts, and it should be remembered that 
in waters where rocks abound it is always possible that a survey, 
however complete and detailed, may have failed to find every small 
patch or pinnacle rock. 

Fathom curves a caution. — ^Except in charts of harbors that 
have been surveyed in detail, the 5-f athom curve on most charts may 
be considered as a danger line, or caution against imnecessarily 
approaching the shore or bank within that curve on account of the 
possible existence of undiscovered inequalities of the bottom, which 
only an elaborate detailed survey could reveal. In general surveys 
of coasts, or of little frequented anchorages, the necessities of navi- 
gation do not demand the great expenditure of time required for so 
detailed a survey. It is not contemplated that^ships will approach 
the shores in such localities without taking special precautions. 

The 10-fathom curves on rocky shores is another warning, espe- 
cially for ships of heavy draft. 

A useful danger curve will be obtained by tracing out with a col- 
ored pencil, or ink, the line of depth next greater than the draft of 
the ship using the chart. For vessels drawing less than 18 feet the 
edge of the sanding serves as a well-marked danger line. 

Charts on which no fathom curves are marked must especially be 
regarded with caution, as indicating that soundings were too scanty 
and the bottom too uneven to enable the curves to be drawn with 
accuracy. 

Isolated soundings, shoaler than surrounding depths, should always 
be avoided, especially if ringed around, as it is doubtful how closely 
the spot may have been examined and whether the least depth has 
been found. 

The chart on largest scale should always be used on account 
of its greater detail and the greater accuracy with which positions 
may be plotted on it. 

Caution in using small-scale charts. — ^In approaching the land 
or dangerous banks, regard must always be had to the scale ^f the 
chart used. A small error in plotting a position means only yards on 
a large scale chart, whereas on one of small scale the same amount of 
displacement means a large fraction of a mile. 

Mercator chart. — Observed bearings are not identical with those 
measured on the Mercator chart (excepting only the bearings north 
and south, and east and west on the equator) because the line of sight, 
except as affected by refraction, is a straight line and lies in the 
plane of the great circle, while the straight line on the chart (except 
the meridian line) represents, not the arc of a great circle, but the 
loxodromic curve, or rhumb line, which on the globe is a spiral ap- 



4 COMPASS ROSES — ^LOCAL MAGNETIC DISTURBANCE. 

proaching but never in theory reaching the pole, or, if the direction 
be east and west, a circle of latitude. 

The difference is not appreciable with near objects, and in ordinary 
navigation may be neglected. But in high latitudes, when the objects 
are very distant and especially when lying near east or west, the 
bearings must be corrected for the convergence of the meridians in 
order to be accurately placed on the Mercator chart, which represents 
the meridians as parallel. 

Polyconic chart. — On the polyconic chart, since a straight line 
represents (within the limits of 15 or 20 degrees of longitude) the 
arc of a great circle or the shortest distance between two points, bear- 
ings of the chart are identical with observed bearings. 

The Mercator projection is unsuited to surveying, for which pur- 
pose the polyconic projection is used by the Hydrographic Office 
and the Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Notes on charts should always be read with care, as they may 
give important information that can not be graphically represented. 

Current arrows on charts show only the most usual or the mean 
direction of a current ; it must not be assumed that the direction of a 
current will not vary from that indicated by the arrow. The veloci- 
ties, also, of currents vary with circumstances, and those given on the 
charts are merely the mean of those determined, possibly from very 
few observations. 

Compass roses on charts.^ — ^The gradual change in the variation 
must not be forgotten in laying down on the chart courses and bear- 
ings from the magnetic compass roses, which become in time slightly 
in error, and in some cases, such as with small scales or when the lines 
are long, the displacement of position from neglect of this change 
may be of importance. The date of the variation and the annual 
change, as given on the compass rose, facilitate corrections when the 
change has been considerable. It is better to reduce all magnetic 
bearings and courses to true and then use the true compass rose. 

The change in the variation for a change of position, is in some 
parij of the world so rapid as to need careful consideration, requir- 
ing a frequent change of the course. For instance, in approaching 
Halifax from Newfoundland the variation changes 10° in less than 
500 miles. 

Local magnetic disturbance of the compass on board 
ship. — The term "local magnetic disturbance" has reference only 
to the effects on the compass of natural magnetic masses external to 
the ship. Observation shows that such disturbance of the compass 
in a ship afloat is experienced in many places on the globe. 

Magnetic laws do not permit of the supposition that the visible 
land causes such disturbance, because the effect of a magnetic force 
diminishes so rapidly with distance that it would require a local 



NAVIGATIONAL AIDS — GENERAL NAVIGATION, 5 

center of magnetic force of an amount absolutely unknown to affect 
a compass J mile distant. 

Such deflections of the compass are due to magnetic minerals in 
the bed of the sea under the ship, and when the water is shallow 
and the force strong, the compass mayloe temporarily deflected when 
passing over such a spot; but the area of disturbance will be small 
unless there are many centers near together. 

Aids — Buoys. — Too much reliance should not be placed on buoys 
always maintaining their exact positions. They should therefore be 
regarded as warnings, and not as infallible navigational. marks, espe- 
cially when in exposed places and in the wintertime; and a ship's 
position should always, when possible, be checked by bearings or 
angles of fixed objects on shore. 

The light shown by a light buoy can not be implicitly relied on ; it 
may be altogether extinguished, or, if periodic, the apparatus may 
get out of order. 

Whistle and bell buoys are sounded only by the action of the sea; 
therefore, in calm weather, they are less effective or may not sound. 

Lights. — All the distances given in the Light Lists and on the 
charts for the visibility of lights are calculated for a height of 15 
feet for the observer's eye. The effect of a greater or less height of 
eye can be ascertaii^d by means of the table of distances of possible, 
visibility due to height, published in the Light Lists. 

The loom of a powerful light is often seen far beyond the limit 
of visibility of the actual rays of the light, and this must not be 
confounded with the true range. Refraction, too, may often cause 
a light to be seen farther than under ordinary circumstances. 

When looking out for a light, the fact may be forgotten that aloft 
the range of vision is much increased. By noting a star immediately 
over the light a very correct bearing may be obtained from the stand- 
ard compass when you lay down from aloft. 

On first making a light from the bridge, by at once lowering the 
eye several feet and noting whether the light is made to dip, it may 
be determined whether the ship is on the circle of visibility corre- 
sponding with the usual height of the eye, or unexpectedly nearer 
the light. 

When a light is sighted it should be identified at once by checking 
its characteristics. This is particularly necessary when approach- 
ing well-lighted coasts, where lights with similar characteristics are 
often found close together. 

The intrinsic power of a light should always be considered when 
expecting to make it in thick weather. A weak light is easily ob- 
.scured by haze, and no dependence can be placed on its being seen. 

The power of a light can be estimated by its candlepower or order, 
as given in the Light Lists, and in some cases by noting how much 



6 SAILING DIRECTIONS — ^PILOT CHARTS, 

its visibility in clear whether falls short of the range corresponding 
to its height Thus, a light standing 200 feet above the sea and 
recorded as visible only 10 miles in clear weather is manifestly of 
little brilliancy, as its height would permit it to be seen over 20 miles 
if of sufficient power. 

Sailing Directions or Pilots are books treating of certain sec- 
tions or divisions of the navigable waters of the globe. They con- 
tain descriptions of coast lines, dangers and harbors, information of 
winds, currents, and tides, and directions for approaching and enter- 
ing harbors, and much other general information of interest to 
mariners. 

The Sailing Directions are corrected, as far as practicable, to the 
date of issue from the office ; they can not, from their nature and the 
infrequency of their revision, be so fully corrected as charts and 
Light Lists, and for that reason, when they differ the one of the most 
recent issue should be accepted as correct. 

Light Lists, published about once a year, are corrected before 
issue, and changes affecting them are published in the weekly Notices 
to Mariners. 

The navigator should make notations of corrections in the tabular 
form in the Light Lists and paste in at the appropriate places the 
slips from the Notices to Mariners. 

Notices to Mariners, containing newly acquired information 
pertaining to various parts of the world, are published weekly and 
mailed to all United States ships in commission, Branch Hydro- 
graphic offices and agencies, and United States consulates. Copies 
are furnished free by the main office or by any of the branch offices on 
application. 

With each Notice to naval vessels is sent also a separate sheet, 
giving the items relative to lights contained in the latest Notice, 
intended especially for use in correcting the Light Lists. 

Pilot Charts of the North Atlantic, Central American Waters, 
and North Pacific and Indian Oceans are published each month, and 
of the South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans each quarter. These 
charts give the average conditions of wind and weather, barometer, 
percentage of fog and gales, routes for steam and sailing vessels, ice, 
derelicts, ocean currents, storm tracks, and other useful information. 
They are furnished free only in exchange for marine data or observa- 
tions. 

Hydrograpliic Bulletins^ published weekly, are supplemental to 
the Pilot Charts, and contain the latest reports of obstructions and 
dangers along the coast and principal ocean routes and other informa- 
tion for mariners. They are to be had free upon application. 

The bulletins are supplemented by the Daily Memorandum pub- 
lished daily, Sundays and holidays excepted, in order that the in- 



KAVIGATIONAL AIDS — GBiraSRAIi NAYIGATIOK. 7 

formation relating to dangers and aids to navigation received may 
be disseminated as quickly as possible. 

Tides. — ^A knowledge of the times of high and low water and of 
the amount of vertical rise and fall of the tide is of great importance 
in the case of vessels entering or leaving port, especially when the 
low water is less than or near their draft. Such knowledge is also 
useful at times to vessels running close along a coast, in enabling 
them to anticipate the effect of the tidal currents in setting them on 
or offshore. This is especially important in fog or thick weather. 

Tidal currents. — In navigating along doasts where the tidal range 
is considerable, special caution is necessary. It should be remem- 
bered that there are generally indrafts and corresponding outdrafts 
abreast of all large bays and bights, although the general run of the 
current may be nearly parallel with the shore outside the entrances. 

The turn of the tidal current offshore is seldom coincident with 
the times of high and low water along the shore. In some channels 
the tidal current may overrun the turn of the vertical movement of 
the tide by three hours, the effect of which is that at high and low 
water by the shore the current is running at its greatest vel6city. 

The effect of the tidal wave in causing currents may be illustrated 
by two simple cases : 

(1) Where there is a small tidal basin connected with the sea by 
a large opening. 

(2) Where there is a large tidal basin connected with the sea by 
a small opening. 

In the first case the velocity of the current in the opening will 
have its maximum value when the height of the tide within is chang- 
ing most rapidly, i. e., at a time about midway between high and low 
water. The water in the basin keeps at approximately the same level 
as the water outside. The flood current corresponds with the rising 
and the ebb with the falling of the tide. 

In the second case the velocity of the current in the opening will 
have its maximum value when it is high water or low water without, 
for then there is the greatest head of water for producing motion. 
The flood current begins about three hours after low water, and the 
ebb current about three hours after high water, slack water thus 
occurring about midway between the tides. 

Along most shores not much affected by bays, tidal rivers, etc., the 
current usually turns soon after high water and low water. 

The swiftest current in straight portions of tidal rivers is usually 
in the middle of the current, but in curved portions the most rapid 
current is toward the outer edge of the curve, and here the deepest 
water will generally be found. The pilot rule for best Water is to 
follow the ebb tide reaches. 



8 TIDE TABLES — FOG SIGNALS. 

* 

Countercurrents and eddies may occur near the shores of straits, 
especially in bights and near points. A knowledge of them is use- 
ful in order that they may be taken advantage of or avoided. 

A swift current often occurs in a narrow passage connecting two 
large bodies of water, owing to their considerable difference of level 
at the same instant. The several passages between Vineyard Sound 
and Buzzards Bay are cases in point. | 

Tide rips are made by a rapid current setting over an irregulat 
bottom, as at the edges of banks where the change of depth is con- 
siderable. 

The Tide Tables^ which are published annually by the United 
States Coast and Geodetic Survey, give the predicted times and 
heights of the high and the low waters for every day in the year 
at 81 of the principal ports of the world, and, through the medium 
of these by means of tidal differences and ratios, at a very large num- 
ber of subordinate ports. The tables for the Atlantic and the Pacific 
coast ports of the United States are also published separately. 

It should be remembered that these tables aim to give the times 
of high and low water, and not the times of turning of the current or 
of slack water, which may be quite different. 

The distinction between " rise " and " range " of the tide should be 
understood. The former expression refers to the height attained 
above the datum plane for soundings, differing with the different 
planes of reference ; the latter, to the difference of level between suc- 
cessive high and low waters. 

Full explanations and directions for their use are given in the 
Tide Tables. 

Fog signals. — Sound is conveyed in a very capricious way through 
the atmosphere. Apart from the influence of the wind large areas 
of silence have been found in different directions and at different 
distances from the origin of sound, even in clear weather ; therefore, 
too much confidence should not be felt as to hearing a f ogsignal. The 
apparatus, moreover, for sounding the signal often requires some time 
before it is in readiness to act. A fog often creeps imperceptibly 
toward the land, and may not be observed by the lighthouse keepers 
until upon them; a ship may have been for many hours in it, and 
approaching the land in confidence, depending on the signal, which 
is not sounded. When sound travels agaipst the wind, it may be 
thrown upward ; a man aloft might hear it though inaudible on deck. 

The submarine bell system of f ogsignals is much more reliable than 
systems transmitting sound through the air, as sound traveling in 
water is not subject to the same disturbing influences; the fallibility 
of the lighthouse keeper is, however, about the same in all systems, so 
that caution should be observed even by vessels equipped with sub- 
marine bell receiving apparatus. 



NAVIGATIONAL AIDS — GENERAL NAVIGATION, 9 

r 

Submarine bells have an effective range of audibility greater 
.than signals sounded in air, and a vessel equipped with receiving 
apparatus may determine the approximate bearing of the signal. 
These signals may be heard also on vessels not equipped with receiv- 
ing apparatus by observers below the water line, but the bearing of 
the signal can not then be readily determined. 

Vessels equipped with radio apparatus and submarine bell receivers 
may fix their distance from a light vessel having radio and submarine 
bell, utilizing the difference in velocity of sound waves of the radio 
and the bell. Sound travels 4,794 feet per second at 66° F. in water, 
and the travel of radio sound waves for practicable distances may be 
taken as instantaneous. 

All vessels should observe the utmost caution in closing the land in 
fogs. The lead is very often the safest guide and should be faith- 
fully used. 

Radio compass stations. — Most valuable aids to navigation in a 
fog are the radio compass stations, which will fix a ship's position by. 
two or more bearings from a single radio station, or by simultaneous 
bearings from two or more stations. 

In localities where only one radio station is available, mariners 
may use the single bearing, like Sumner's line of position, or a single 
bearing of any object whose position is known. 

All reports from mariners indicate great accuracy in the bearings 
given by the radio station, and they ghould be used whenever available. 

PILOTING — FIXING POSITION. 

Piloting^ in the sense given the word by modem and popular 
usage, is the art of conducting a vessel in channels and harbors and 
along coasts, where landmarks and aids to navigation are available 
for fixing the position, and where the depth of water and dangers to 
navigation are such as to require a constant watch to be kept upon the 
vessel's course and frequent changes to be made therein. 

Piloting is the most important part of navigation and the part 
requiring the most experience and nicest judgment. An error in 
position oh the high seas may be rectified by later observations, but 
an error in position while piloting often results in disaster. There- 
fore the navigator should make every effort to be proficient in this 
important branch, bearing in mind that a modern vessel is usually 
safe on the high seas and in danger when approaching the land and 
making the harbor. 

The navigator, in making his plan for entering a strange port, 
should give very careful previous study to the chart and sailing direc- 
tions, and should select what appear to be the most suitable marks 

172982"— 20 ^2 



10 PILOTINa. 

for use, also providing himself with substitutes to use in case those 
selected as most suitable should prove xmreliable in not being recog- 
nized with absolute certainty. Channel buoys seen from a distance 
are difficult to identify, because their color is sometimes not easily 
distinguished and they may appear equally distant from the observer 
even though they be at widely varying distances. Kanges should be 
noted, if possible, and the lines drawn, both for leading through the 
best water in channels, and also for guarding against particular dan- 
gers ; for the latter purpose safety bearings should in all cases be laid 
down where no suitable ranges appear to offer. The courses to be 
steered in entering should also be laid down and distances marked 
thereon. If intending to use the sextent and danger angle in passing 
dangers, and especially in passing between dangers, the danger circles 
should be plotted and regular courses planned rather than to run 
haphazard by the indications of the angle alone, with the possible 
trouble from bad steering at critical points. 

• The ship's position should not be allowed to be in doubt at any 
time, even in entering ports considered safe and easy of access, 
and should be constantly checked, continuing to use for this purpose 
those marks concerning which there can be no doubt until others 
are unmistakably identified. 

The ship should ordinarily steer exact courses and follow an exact 
line, as planned from the chart, changing course at precise points, 
and, where the distances are considerable, her position on the line 
should be checked at frequent intervals. This is desirable - even 
where it may seem unnecessary for safety, because if running by the 
eye alone and the ship's exact position be immediately required, as 
in a sudden fog or squall, fixing at that particular moment may be 
attended with difficulty. 

The habit of running exact courses with precise changes of course 
will be found most useful when it is desired to enter port or pass 
through inclosed waters during fog by means of the buoys; here 
safety demands that the buoys be made successively, to do which 
requires, if the fog be dense, very accurate courses and careful atten- 
tion to the times, the speed of the ship, and the set of the current: 
failure to make a buoy as expected leaves, as a rule, no safe alterna- 
tive but to anchor at once, with perhaps a consequent serious loss of 
time. 

In passing between dangers where there are no suitable leading 
marks, as, for instance, between two islands or an island and the 
main shore when the conformations of the shore line are very similar, 
with dangers extending from both, a mid-channel course may be 
steered by the eye alone with great accuracy, as the eye is able to 
estimate very closely the direction midway between. 



NAVIGATIONAL AIDS — GENERAL NAVIGATION. 11 

In piloting among coral reefs or banks, a time should be chosen 
when the smi will be astern, conning the vessel from aloft or from 
an elevated position forward. The line of demarcation between 
the deep water and the edges of the shoals is indicated .with surpris- 
ing clearness. This method is of frequent application in the numer- 
ous passages of the Florida Keys. 

Changes of course should in general be made by exact amounts, 
naming the new course or the amount of the change desired, rather 
than by ordering the -rudder to be put over and then steadying when 
on the desired heading, with the possibility of the attention being 
diverted and so of forgetting in the meantime, as may happen, that 
the ship is still swinging. The steersman, knowing just what is 
desired and the amount of the change to be made, is thus enabled to 
act more intelligently and to avoid bad steering, which in narrow 
channels is a very positive source of danger. 

Coast piloting involves the same principles and requires that the 
ship's position be continuously determined or checked as the land- 
marks are passed. On well-surveyed coasts there is a great advantage 
in keeping near the land, thus holding on to the marks and the sound- 
ings, and thereby knowing at all times the position rather than keep- 
ing offshore and losing the marks, with the necessity of again making 
the land from a vague position, and perhaps the added inconvenience 
of fog or bad weather, involving a serious loss of time and fuel. 

The route should be planned for normal conditions of weather, 
with suitable variations where necessary in case of fog or bad weather 
or making points at night, the courses and distances, in case of 
regular runs'* over the same route, being entered in a notebook for 
ready reference, as well as laid down on the chart. The danger 
circles for either the horizontal or the vertical danger angles should 
be plotted, wherever the method can be usefully employed, and the 
angles marked thereon ; many a mile may thus be saved in rounding 
dangerous points with no sacrifice in safety. Ranges should also 
be marked in, where useful for position or for safety, and also to 
use in checking the deviation of the compass by comparing in cross- 
ing the compass bearing of the range with its magnetic bearing as 
given by the chart. 

A continuous record of the progress of the ship should be kept by 
the officer of the watch, the time and patent log reading of all changes 
of course and of all bearings, especially the two and four point bear- 
ings, with distance of object when abeam, being noted in a book kept 
in the pilot house for this special purpose. The ship's reckoning is 
thus continuously cared for as a matter of routine and without the 
presence or particular order of the captain or navigating officer. The 
value of thus keeping the reckoning always fresh and exact will be 



I 

12 FIXING POSITION. 

especially appreciated in cases of sudden fog or when making points 
at night. 

Where the coastwise trip must be made against a strong offshore 
or head wind, it may be desirable, with trustworthy charts, to skirt 
the shore as closely as possible in order to avoid the heavier seas and 
adverse current that prevail farther out. In some cases, with small 
ships, a passage can be made only in this way. The important saving 
of coal and of time, which is even more precious, thus effected by 
skillful coast piloting makes this subject one of prime importance to 
the navigator. However, many vessels have gotten into serious 
trouble by attempting to save time and cut down distances by round- 
ing too closely dangers and aids, and navigators should always bear . 
in mind that the safety of the vessels is the first consideration. 

Fixing position. — ^A navigator in sight of objects whose position 
are shown on the chart, and which he can recognize, may locate his 
vessel by any one of the following methods : 

1. Sextant angles between three known objects. 

2. The bearing of a known object and angle between two known 
objects. 

3. Cross bearings of two known objects. 

4. Two bearings, of a known object, separated by an interval of 
time, with the run during that interval. 

5. The bearing and distance of a known object. 
Besides the foregoing there are two methods by which, without 

obtaining the precise position, the navigator may assure himself 
that he is clear of any particular danger. 

1. The danger angle. •• 

2. The danger bearing. 
These various methods are fully explained in most textbooks on 

navigation and in Bowditch's American Practical Navigator, a copy 
of which should be in the navigator's outfit. 

The first method of fixing the position, by the " three-point prob- 
lem," is the most accurate of all methods, but requires expertness in 
the use of the sextant and protractor. However, the choice of the 
method should be governed by circumstances, depending upon which 
is best adapted to prevailing conditions. 

Soundings are of very great advantage when approaching land 
or shoal banks in determining the position, and the convenience in 
the use of modern sounding machines renders any neglect to take 
soundings inexcusable. 

Soundings taken at random are of little value in fixing or check- 
ing position and may at times be misleading. In thick weather, 
when near or closing the land, soundings should be taken continu- 
ously and at regular intervals, and, with the character of the bottom, 
systematically recorded. By laying the soundings on tracing paper, 



NAVIGATIONAL AIDS — GENERAL NAVIGATION, 13 

according to the scale of the chart, along a line representing the 
track of the ship, and then moving the paper over the chart, keeping 
the line representing the track parallel with the course untihthe 
observed soundings agree with those of the chart, the ship's position 
will in general be quite well determined. 

At sea the only methods of determining the position of the vessel 
are by "dead reckoning" and by observations of heavenly bodies, 
though observations may be made use of by various methods. . (See 
American Practical Navigator and textbooks on navigation.) 

The one which should be best understood and put to the most 
constant use is that employing position or Summer lines. These 
lines give the most comprehensive information to the navigator with 
the least expenditure of labor and time. The knowledge gained is 
that the vessel must be somewhere on the line, provided the data 
used is accurate and the chronometer correct. As the information 
given by one line of position is not sufficient to determine the definite 
location of the vessel, it is necessary to cross this line by another 
similarly obtained, and the vessel being somewhere on both must 
be at their intersection. However, a single line, at times, will 
furnish the mariner with invaluable information; for instance, if 
it is directed toward the coast, it marks the bearing of a definite 
point on the shore, or if parallel to the coast it clearly indicates 
the distance off, and so will often be found useful as a course. A 
sounding taken at the same time with the observation will in certain 
conditions prove of great value in giving an approximate position 
on the line. 

The easiest and quickest way to establish a line of position is by 
employing the method of Marcq St. Hilaire, as modified by the use 
of tables of altitude. 

A very accurate position can be obtained by observing two or 
more stars at morning or evening twilight, at which time the horizon 
is well defined. The position lines thus obtained will, if the bearings 
of the stars differ three points or more, give an excellent result. 
A star Or planet at twilight and the sun afterwards or before may be 
combined; also two observations of the sun with sufficient interval 
to admit of a considerable change of bearing; in these cases one 
of the lines must be moved for the run of the ship. 

Use of oil for modifying the effect of breaking waves. — 
Many experiences of late years have shown that the utility of oil 
for this purpose is undoubted, and the application simple. 

The following may serve for the guidance of seamen, whose 
attention is called to the fact that a very small quantity of oil, 
skillfully applied, may prevent much damage both to ships, espe- 
cially of the smaller classes, and to boats by modifying the action 
of breaking seas. 



14 USE or OIL. 

The principal facts as to the use of oil are as follows : 

I. On free waves, i. e., waves in deep water, the effect is greatest. 
9. In a surf, or waves breaking on a bar, where a mass of liquid is 

in actual motion in shallow water, the effect of the oil is uncertain, 
as nothing can prevent the larger waves from breaking under such 
circumstances ; but even here it is of some service. 

3. The heaviest and thickest oils are most effectual. Refined 
kerosene is of little use ; crude petroleum is serviceable when no other 
oil is obtainable, or it may be mixed with other oils ; all animal and 
vegetable oils, such as waste oil from the engines, have great effect, 

4. In cold water, the oil, being thickened by the low temperature 
and not being able to spread freely, will have its effect much reduced. 
A rapid spreading oil should be used. 

5. A small quantity of oil suffices, if applied in such a manner 
as to spread to windward. 

6. It is useful in a ship or boat either when running, or lying-to, 
or in wearing. 

7. When lowering and hoisting boats in a heavy sea the use of oil 
has been found greatly to facilitate the operation. 

8. For a ship at sea the best method of application appears to be 
to hang over the side, in such a manner as to be in the water, small 
canvas bags, capable of holding from 1 to 2 gallons of oil, the bags 
being pricked with a sail needle to permit leakage. The waste pipes 
forward are also very useful for this purpose. 

9. Crossing a bar with a flood current, to pour oil overboard and 
allow it to float in ahead of the boat, which would follow with a bag 
towing astern, would appear to be the best plan. 

On a bar, with the ebb current running, it would seem to be useless 
to try oil for the purpose of entering. 

10. For boarding a wreck, it is recommended to pour oil over- 
board to windward of her before going alongside, bearing in mind 
that her natural tendency is always to forge ahead. If she is aground 
the effect of oil will depend upon attending circumstances. 

II. For a boat riding in bad weather to a sea anchor, it is recom- 
mended to fasten the bag to an endless line rove through a block on 
the sea anchor, by which means the oil can be diffused well ahead of 
the boat, and the bag readily hauled on board for refilling, if 
necessary. 



CHAPTER' L 



THE DARDANELLES, SEA OF MARMARA, BOSPORUS, BLACK SEA, 
AND SEA OF AZOV— GENERAL REMARKS— CLIMATE— WINDS 
AND WEATHER— CURRENTS— WATER LEVEL^FOGS— PILOTS- 
COMMUNICATION. 

General remarks. — The European side of the Dardanelles is 
bordered by hills and mountains and the shore is steep-to, while the 
Asiatic side, with few exceptions, is bordered by flat plains and the 
shore is fringed for almost the entire length of it by a shallow bank 
extending from it. 

The Sea of Marmara, which is about 160 miles long east and west 
and 60 miles wide at the widest part, is bordered for almost the entire 
extent of it by high and mountainous land. The coast line is quite 
irregular, consisting of many indentations and projections. It con- 
tains four groups of islands, the largest island of any of the groups 
being Marmara Island, from which the sea derives its name. 

The Bosporus, which connects the Black Sea with the Sea of Mar- 
mara, is about 17 miles long and, like the Dardanelles, it resembles 
a river with abrupt and angular windings, the projecting points of 
which check the velocity of the current through it. 

The Black Sea, containing an area of about 170,000 square miles, 
separates European Kussia from Asia Minor. The shores, while 
varied in aspect, are in most parts high. From Cape Rumili to Cape 
Kaliakra the shore is of moderate height, backed by mountains mostly 
of a very picturesque appearance. The coast thence, including the 
Delta of the Danube, is low, slightly increasing in height toward the 
Crimean Peninsula. This peninsula, as is also the eastern and south- 
ern coasts, is bordered by high and lofty mountains. 

The Sea of Azov contains an area of about 14,000 square miles. The 
northern coast ranges from 90 to 130 feet in height and has a reddish 
appearance. On its surface, which is flat, a few hills ftiay be seen. 
Extensive spits of sand, bordered by banks, are formed around all the 
promontories. 

Climate. — ^Although the climate of the Dardanelles may be con- 
sidered as. generally good ; during summer and autumn, in the neigh- 
borhood of swamps, the miasmatic exhalations rising from them pro- 

15 



1 6 WINDS — CURRENTS. 

duce fevers. Chanak is said to be free from climatic disease, and 
the climate of Gallipoli very healthy; "whereas Lampsaki, on the 
opposite side of the strait, is stated to be the reverse, which is prob- 
ably due to the swampy nature of the land in the vicinity. 
. The fever and ague, caused by malaria or marsh poison, is to be 
apprehended over most partis of Asia Minor, from the end of April to 
the end of September ; or in exceptionally healthy years, from the end 
of May to the middle of September ; and although low ground is to be 
avoided dui'ing that season, moderately elevated land is not neces- 
sarily exempt from these malarious exhalations, which may be 
brought by the wind blowing over pestiferous marshes. 

The climate of Constantinople depends greatly on the direction of 
the winds, as those from the Black Sea are generally cold, and charged 
with moisture, while the winds from the Sea of Marmara render the 
atmosphere soft and genial. The weather is very variable, and dur- 
ing the winter months heavy falls of snow are often experienced. 

In the Black Sea the severe winters are succeeded by pleasant 
summers, especially on the south coast of .the Crimea, where the 
warm, clear atmosphere is favorable to the cultivation of the vine. 
At Varna the mean winter temperature of the months of December, 
January, and February is about 34° ; the summer mean temperature 
of June, July, and August 75°, and the annual means 55°. 

At Odessa in the same months of winter and summer the means are 
25.2° and 70.7°, respectively, with a mean annual temperature of 
49.3°, and in the Caucasus the climate is at all seasons very pleasant, 
the means of winter, summer, and annual temperature at Tiflis in the 
same months being 35.6°, 73.9°, and 55.2°. About Batum and Poti 
the coast has the reputation of being exceedingly unhealthy, and in 
some parts of Anatolia the previous remarks regarding fevers in 
summer and autumn apply. 

Winds.— The north and northeast, or Etesian winds, named Mel- 
tem by the Turks, prevail on an average nine months of the year, 
whereas the irregular westerly winds last scarcely three months, dur- 
ing which period it frequently happens that they are not felt in the 
Archipelago, where it is generally a calm. The winds are most vari- 
able at the equinoxes, and generally any change from north to south 
will take place at new or full moon. 

Currents. — There is a general flow of the Black Sea water through 
the Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, and Dardanelles to the Mediterra- 
nean, probably caused by the combination of three elements — firstly, 
the prevalence of northeast winds in the Black Sea; secondly, the 
excess of water received from the large rivers over the amount lost 
by evaporation at some seasons; and, thirdly, the difference of spe- 
cific gravities in the two seas. 



GENERAL REMARKS, 17 

Of these, the wind has by far the greatest influence, for it has been 
observed that the current in the Bosporus is generally stronger in 
the afternoon than in the forenoon, and as the mornings are usually 
calm, and the northeast wind gains strength during the day, the 
increase in the strength of the currents seems to be due to the wind. 

There is, in general, a countercurrent setting under the surface 
stream in an opposite direction, namely, from the Mediterranean to 
the Black Sea ; the undercurrent seems to be dependent oh the surface 
current, for, when the latter is slack, the undercurrent is slack also. 

The average velocity of the surface current in the Bosporus is 
estimated at 2^ knots, and in the Dardanelles IJ knots. 

Water level. — The depths shown on the charts of the Sea of 
Marmara, Black Sea, and Sea of Azov are the depths at the mean 
level of the water. Although not subject to tidal influence, the level 
of the water is subject to variations caused by barometric height and 
by wind. 

In the Gulf of Perekop strong winds oflFshore frequently lower the 
level of the water as much as 2 or 3 feet. 

The level of the water in the Dardanelles rises sometimes as much 
as 2 feet above the normal, and strong southerly winds will raise 
that of the Bosporus by a similar amount. 

At Kilios, near the Black Sea entrance to the Bosporus, the level 
of the water has been reported to vary from 3 to 5 feet. 

A continuance of strong northeasterly winds will reduce the depths 
in the delta of the Don as much as 5 feet, and increase the depths in 
Kertch Strait about half that amount. When these winds subside, a 
reaction taT^es place, and the current runs back into the Sea of Azov 
until the ordinary level is established. By the second day, the depth 
in the strait '^ill have decreased 1 foot or more. 

A continuance of southwest winds will cause the current to run 
into the Sea of Azov, reducing the depths in Kertch Strait by 1 
foot or more. 

Fogs. — In the Bosporus during the months of October to Feb- 
ruary inclusive, and in the beginning of March, fogs, with calms 
and light winds from northeast are experienced, but they clear off 
at sunrise. Fogs sometimes come on with light southwest winds 
during the period mentioned, but clear away in the afternoon. 

From the middle of April to the middle of May, the fogs prevalent 
in the Black Sea generally enter the Bosporus during the night and 
morning, filling the channel and rendering it unnavigable ; they more 
particularly cling to the coast of Europe, and seldom clear off till the 
sun is near the meridian. If they should hang in spots, especially 
toward the Sea of Marmara, southwest winds may be expected. These 
fogs are said to be unhealthy. 



I 

18 PILOTS — COMMUNICATION. 

If the weather be fine in the Bosporus, and the Black Sea entrance 
at the same time be hidden by a fog bank, a shift of wind to northeast 
may be expected. In winter, sudden shifts of wind are, as before 
remarked, frequent and dangerous, especially if, as it often happens, 
they come on at the same time as a thick fog; a vessel then caught 
aback in the middle of the channel would be in a very awkward posi- 
tion. A good lookout should therefore always be kept when near the 
entrance of the Black Sea, and no sailing vessel should delay anchor- 
ing, or making fast to the shore, when these warning signs are 
observed. 

Pilots for Constantinople, the Black Sea, Sea of Marmara, Enos, 
or the Archipelago may be obtained at Chanak, and they are some- 
times engaged at Constantinople by masters of vessels proceeding to 
the Black Sea and Sea of Azov. This practice is said to be fraught 
with considerable risk, as there are few, if any, competent pilots for 
the navigation of those seas to be obtained at Constantinople, the men 
who call themselves pilots being mostly stevedores and interpreters. 

Pilots for the Danube may also be obtained at Chanak. A bargain 
must also be concluded with them; there is no fixed price. 

There is a large staff of pilots at Sulina, 16 of whom are exclusively 
set apart for piloting ships into the Sulina Mouth, and there are 47 
pilots for the upper portion of the river. The pilots meet ships about 
1^ miles outside the mouth. 

Pilots will probably meet vessels both at the Kertch and Sea of 
Azov enti:ances to Yenikale Channel. 

There are pilot stations at Odessa, Ochakov, Nikolsev, Karkinit 
Bay, Kertch (for Sea of Azov pilots), Mariupol, Rostov (for Don 
River pilots) , Poti, and Batum. 

Communication— Railways. — There is no railway communica- 
tion along the shores of the Dardanelles, or on the north or south 
shores of the Sea of Marmara, except where the line from Constanti- 
nople runs for a short distance on the north coast as far as Kuchuk 
Chekmejeh, before turning inland; and on the south coast, where a 
short line connects Mudania with Brusa. On the east coast of the 
Sea of Marmara the railway from Haidar Pasha, on the Skutari side 
of the Bosporus, skirts the shore as far as Paulo Liman, where it cuts 
inland across two points, between which is Tuzla Bay; then runs 
close along the north shore of the Gulf of Ismid, to the town of 
Ismid, from thence to Ada Bazar, where it turns to the southward 
and at Afion Kara Hissar, joins the main line between Smyrna, 
Konia, and Eregli. There is a branch from this railway to Angora. 

In normal times Constantinople was in railway communication 
with the whole railway system of Europe, via Adrianople, Philip- 
popolis, Bellova (at the foot of the Balkans) , Sofia, and Belgrade* 



GENEBAL BEMABKS. 19 

The Yamboli-Burghaz Railway connects the port of Burghaz, on 
the western shore of the Black Sea, with Yamboli, a distance of 67f 
miles ; from thence there is a line to Tirnova, on the Constantinople & 
Philippopolis Railway, 

The Varna & Rustchuk Railway, 140 miles in length, which belongs 
to an English company, connects Varna with Rustchuk, situated on 
the Danube at the foot of the Balkans; and opposite Rustchuk, on 
the other side of the Danube, a line from Giurgevo runs to Bukarest, 
which is connected with Wallachian and Transylvanian lines. 

The Danube & Black Sea Railway, from Constantza to Cherna- 
voda, 40 miles, cuts off a portion of the lower Danube, and was con- 
structed principally for the corn trade. 

There is direct railway communication between Odessa and St. 
Petersburg by way of Moscow, 1,441 miles. The shortest route is 
via Vilna, Rbvno, Berdichef , and Kazatin. A third route is by Kiev, 
on the right bank of the Dnieper, one of the most ancient towns of 
Europe, which has been named the Jerusalem of Russia. 

Nikolaev, Kherson, Sevastopol, Theodosia*, Ghenichesk, Berdiansk, 
Mariupol, Taganrog, and Rostov are connected with the railway sys- 
tem of Russia. Rostov is also connected with Novorossisk on the 
Black Sea, and with Baku on the Caspian, via Vladikavkaz and Pet- 
rovsk. A railway is proposed connecting Vassurin, on the Ekateri- 
nodar-Novorossisk Railway, with Taupse, thence along the shore of 
the Black Sea through Sukhum, forming a connection with the 
Trans-Caucasus Railway. 

The Trans-Caucasus Railway, from the Black Sea to Baku on the 
Caspian, has a junction at Samtradi, which connects the branch lines 
f rom Poti and Batum. Between both places and the junction, about 
64 miles, the railway passes through poisonous swamps and jungles. 
At Tiflis, 227 miles from Batum, there is a branch line to Kars and 
Erivan. 

At Baku the oil wells, producing petroleum, number about 300, 
with varying depths of 100 to 800 feet, and the supply is appar- 
ently inexhaustible. The petroleum waste is extensively used for 
fuel on the Russian and Central Asia railways and in the steamers on 
the Black and Caspian Seas. 

Steamships. — Prior to 1914 facilities for <;ommunication by regu- 
lar steamers. with the Dardanelles, Bosporus, and Black Sea were 
numerous and much augmented during the summer months by steam- 
ers carrying grain, and although some of the ports in the Sea of 
Marmara were only occasionally visited by regular steamers during 
that period, they often had direct communication with Europe. 
Chanak is not a port of call for British steamers, which generally 
proceed straight to Constantinople, after obtaining pratique, yet it 



20 



ooMMtnncATioir. 



may be said to be almost in daily communication with the Mediter- 
ranean, Constantinople, and the Black Sea. 

Telegraphs. — ^The telegraphic service in the Dardanelles, Bos* 
poms, and Black Sea was in normal times excellent. Chanak and 
Constantinople were in communication by cable with all parts of the 
world, and telegrams to Great Britain could be sent in Bnglish. 
Most places of any importance in the Marmara, Black, and Azov 
Seas were in telegraphic communication. 

At certain signal stations, telegrams could be received from vessels 
by International Code and forwarded to their destination. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE DARDANELLES— FROM WESTERN ENTRANCE Ta KILID BAHR 
AND CHANAK KALESSI— EUROPEAN SHORE. 

The DaxdanelleSy leading from the Grecian Achipelago into the 
Sea of Marmara, separates Europe from Asia. The length of th^ 
strait in a general northeasterly and southwesterly direction is 35 miles, 
while its breadth, averaging about 2 miles, varies from 1,400 yards 
at its narrowest part to 4 miles at its widest. The depth in mid- 
channel is from 25 to 55 fathoms. The European side of the strait 
is for the most part steep-to, but the Asiatic shore is fringed almost 
throughout its length by a shallow bank extending in some places 
upward of J mile from the land. 

The western entrance to the Dardanelles,^ miles wide, is defended 
by two fortified castles, built by Mahomet the Fourth, on either side 
of the strait, and named Kum Kale and Seddul-Bahr, and near them 
are other fortifications. 

There is a marked difference in the conformation of the two shores 
of the Dardanelles. The coast of Asia, generally flat toward the sea, 
extends in the form of an amphitheatre to the foot of Mount Ida. 
This vast plain, watered by numerous springs, is fertile and well culti- 
vated. Shoals, banks, and ledges border the Asiatic coast line, which 
affords bays and roadsteads, most of which are good and easy of 
access. 

The European coast is generally high and, almost without excep- 
tion, steep-to. Partly from its cliffy character and partly from its 
superior cultivation (chiefly corn), it presents at times a uniformly 
yellow and apparently arid aspect. The Asiatic, less steep and more 
thinly populated, affords by its wooded hills and tree-covered plains 
and valleys an agreeable relief to the yellow glare of the northern 
side. 

Cape Helles. — ^The European shore of the Dardanelles is the 
ancient Chersonese of Thrace. It commences at Cape Helles (Lat. 
40° 2" 40" N., Long. 26° 11' 10" E.) or, as it is named by the Turks, 
Cape Greco, a high headland, IJ miles in breadth, projecting to the 
southwest, and formed by three steep points of a white color. Thie 
westernmost. Cape Tekeh, is the ancient Mastusium Promontory ; on 
the second point, Cape Helles, stands some ruins and a tomb said to 
be that of Protesilas; and on the third, or Cape Greco, is built the 
castle of Seddul-Bahr, which, with that of Kum Kale, defends the 

21 



22 SEDDUL-BAHB — MORTO BAY. 

entrance to the strait. The headland, though steep, is fronted by a 
flat of rock and sand, which extends seaward about 300 yards from 
Capes Tekeh and Helles. 

Cape Helles Light, group flashing white, 78 feet above high 
water, visible 10 miles, is exhibited from a white hexagonal stone 
towei?" located near the extremity of the caj)e. 

The Castle of Seddul-Bahr, a quadrangular inclosure, with solid 
walls, having low towers at the angles, stands on the side of the hill 
which slopes to Cape Greco, with its lower wall on the water's edge, 
and is the largest fortress (in acreage) in the Dardanelles. About 
400 yards to the northwestward of it there is a battery, also one above 
Tekeh village ; and on the height behind the castle there is a fort in 
ruins named Shahim-Kalessi. 

The small towns of Seddul-Bahr stands on the hill beyond the 
castle. There is a pratique pffice here for the use of coasting vessels. 

Seddul-Bahr Light, flashing green, 36 feet above high water, 
visible 5 miles, is exhibited from a white iron framework tower, lo- 
cated on the south point o"f the fortress. 

Anchorage. — There is a slight indentation of the coast between 
Cape Helles and Seddul-Bahr, which affords an indifferent anchor- 
age. The best berth is found in 7 fathoms, sand, with Cape Helles 
Light bearing 334° 650 yards and Seddul-Bahr Light 70° 800 yards. 
The 5- fathom curve lies about 300 yards from the shore line. 

Morto Bay. — ^About IJ miles east of S.eddul-Bahr is another bold, 
steep, white point, named Eski Hisarlik, surmounted by De Tott's 
battery, which is now in ruins. Morto Bay, formed between Seddul- 
Bahr ajid Eski Hisarlik, extends about i mile into the land, and has a 
low sandy shore, except near its east end. It is almost filled by a 
shoal bank of sand and rock, which, curving around Seddul-Bahr, 200 
yards from it, extends i mile off the shore farther east, where it turns 
in to the head. of the bay. The eastern side of the bay is similarly 
choked. In the center of the bay there is a narrow opening in the 
shoal bank, which affords indifferent anchorage. The current runs 
across the mouth of the bay with great velocity. 

Aqueduct. — Northeast of Seddul-Bahr and northward of Morto 
Bay, about 650 yards from the shore, are five hydrants, having the 
appearance of square pillars. 

Buoy. — The eastern extremity of the bank off Seddul-Bahr, on the 
port hand entering Morto Bay, is marked by a red buoy in 6 fathoms, 
with 3 fathoms close inside it. From the buoy Seddul-Bahr Light- 
house bears 262° 1,700 yards. 

Anchorage. — Entering Morto Bay, bring the western hydrant to 
bear 322°, and steer for it, till about 400 yards past the buoy, anchor- 
ing in 14 fathoms about J mile west from Eski Hisarlik Point. The 
bay may be found a convenient anchorage for steam vessels entering 



DABDAKELLES. 23 

the strait just before sunset, but there is very little swinging room 
in it. 

Coast. — From Eski Hisarlik Point to Namazieth Battery, 10 miles, 
the coast trends 56*^, and is everywhere steep and barren, with a depth 
of 10 to 13 fathoms within a short distance of the shore. Two small 
indentations afford anchorage in cases of necessity, but they are not 
recommended. 

Suan Dere. — There is anchorage in this creek 400 yards from the 
shore in from 10 to 13 fathoms. 

Anchorages. — There is anchorage off the small valley of Avuzlar, 
2 miles west of Kilid Bahr, but it is not recommended except in cases 
of necessity. 

Vessels may also anchor f mile south westward of Kilid Bahr, in 6 
to 8 fathoms. The two last-mentioned anchorages are easily recog- 
nized by the many vessels which are seen there, but it must be borne in 
mind that a vessel should not anchor more than 400 yards from the 
shore, for farther off there is 24 to 27 fathoms. 

Water may be easily obtained at these anchorages from the foun- 
tains on the coast, that to the northeastward of Avuzlar yielding a 
good supply of excellent quality ; but if fresh provisions are required, 
they must be brought from the town of Chanak, 1^ to 2| miles on the 
other side of the strait. 

Nazamieth Battery. — On the point, forming the northern side 
of the western entrance to the narrows, is an open earthwork, named 
Nazamieth ; another battery is located 40Q yards south westward of it. 

Kilid Bahr Light, flashing green, 30 feet above high water, visible 
5 miles, is exhibited from a white iron column located near Namazieh 
Fort. 

ASIATIC SHORE. 

Cape Tenl-shehr (lat. 39° 59^' N., long. 26° 11^' E.), the ancient 
Sigeum Promontory, at which the eastern or Asiatic shore of the 
Dardanelles commences, may readily be distinguished by a hill about 
230 feet high, on the summit of which is a large house, also by nine 
windmills, to the south of which is the village of Yeni-shehr. North- 
east of the cape, and a short distance inland, are two conspicuous 
tumuli, which are said to be the tombs of Achilles and Patroclus. 

Yeni-shehr Bank. — Cape Yeni-shehr springs from high lands, 
perpendicular on the side toward the sea, but terminates on the shore 
in a low point of land from which a wide and dangerous bank, with 1 
to 3 fathoms water, extends i mile from shore, and follows the trend 
of the coast to the northeast as far as Kum Kale, where it extends 
200 yards from the land. The northwestern part of this bank is re- 
ported to be extending. 



24 AREN KIOI BAY. 

Anchorage. — Southward of the Yeni-shehr Bank there is an 
anchorage much used by tugs, or vessels waiting for a fair wind. The 
best berth is in 12 fathoms, with Cape Yeni-shehr bearing 39° and 
the tumulus on Demetris Point 146°. 

Coajst. — From Cape Yeni-shehr the coast trends northeastward 
about IJ miles, and then northward to a point on which is built the 
new castle of Asia or Kum Kale, an old stone castle. 

Kum Kale Light, flashing red, 36 feet above high water, visible 
4 miles, is exhibited from a mast on a white house located at west 
battery, south side of western entrance of the Dardanelles. 

Mendere River rises at the foot of Mount Ida, crosses the plain 
of Troy, and empties into the strait about 400 yards eastward of the 
castle of Kum Kale. 

Mendere Bank, a continuation of the mud bank which lies off- 
shore in the vicinity of Kum Kale, extends a distance of 1,400 yards 
from the shore eastward of Kum Kale and is steep-to. 

Buoy. — The northern part of Mendere Bank is marked by a red 
and white buoy in 7 fathoms, 1^ miles eastward from Kum Kale. 

Kavanlik Liman. — Vesesls frequently anchor in Kavanlik 
Liman, the bight between Kum Kale and the most projecting portion 
of Mendere Bank, awaiting a fair wind ; but caution is necessary, the 
edge of the bank being, as already remarked, steep-to. Navigators 
unacquainted with the locality should not anchor in less than 14 
fathoms water. The best holding ground will be found westward of 
the buoy and on a line joining the buoy to Kum Kale Point. The bot- 
tom is mud and gravel, but within this line the water shoals rapidly. 

Aren Kioi (or White Spot) Bay. — The coast is low and swampy 
for 2 miles east of Kum Kale, after which it becomes steep and cliffy 
for 7 miles, till Kephez Point is approached. The summits of the 
hills on the coast are 600 to 700 feet high. Vessels may anchor in 
almost any part of this bay. Soundings of 10 or 12 fathoms will be 
found 300 to 400 yards from the shore and 21 to 24 fathoms over 
muddy bottom at 1,000 yards. A good berth is with the north part of 
Aren Kioi or Ghelmez village (situated about 1 mile inshore) , bearing 
157° in 16 fathoms, about 600 yards from the shore. In Aren Kioi 
Bay avoid, as a general rule, anchoring in less than 10 fathoms, be- 
cause at this limit the soundings decrease rapidly, and there might be 
danger of taking the ground in swinging. The roadsteads are easy to 
recognize, when entering the strait, by the numerous vessels generally 
to be seen at anchor in them. In one or two indentations of the 
coast landing is possible, and there is a small pier about 2^ miles east- 
ward of Kum Kale Point. 

White Cliffs (or Aspra Homata) Anchorage is situated 2J 
miles 199° from Kephez Point, near some conspicuous white cliffs. 



DARDANELLES. 25 

The anchorage is in 12 fathoms, abreast the White Cliffs, 600 or 800 
yards from shore, with Kuz Kioi (Kuz village) bearing 121°. There 
is a pratique office here for the use of coasting vessels. 

Water. — There are some springs of good water near the shore, 
about i mile north of the White Cliffs, 

Kephez (or Barbers) Point (lat. 40° 6^' N., long. 26° 23' E.).— 
Kephez Point is low, flat, and distinguished by its white appearance. 
There is a battery to the northward on the highest part, and an old 
fort in ruins to the southward. 

Kephez Point Lights flashing red, 59 feet above high water, 
visible 12 miles, is exhibited from a white iron tower located on the 
southwestern extremity of the point near the battery, which is in ruins. 

Kephez Shoal. — ^A bank, composed of mud and sand, extends 
along the shore for 1 mile to the southward of Kephez Point. This 
bank is a continuation of the shoal ground which skirts Aren Kioi 
Bay. There is not more than IJ fathoms on the bank; close to the 
shore, are two small rocks awash. 

Buoy. — ^The south elbow of the shoal ground, which skirts Kephez 
Point, is marked by a red and white buoy moored in 6 fathoms, 800 
yards 228° from Kephez Lighthouse. 

Anchorage. — There is anchorage about 50 yards southward of 
this buoy, in the bight named Kephez Bay, which will accommodate 
a number of vessels. 

In Aren Kioi Bay, in a zone of 1 mile, from and parallel to the 
shore, slight eddies are met with, which favor navigation and assist 
vessels in working up the strait to Kephex Point. The inshore limit 
of the prevailing current is shown by a line on the chart. 

Caution. — Great caution is required when closely skirting Kephez 
Shoal, in order to avoid the strength of the current. The shoal is 
curved, and the buoy is placed slightly to the northward of its actual 
extremity, so that a vessel passing round very closely, runs a great 
chance of striking. Vessels are frequently stranded here. 

Ancient Dardanus (lat. 40° 5' N., long. 26° 23' N.).— On a low 
hill at the back of Kephez Point stand the foundations of what is sup- 
posed to be the town of Dardanus, a city older than Troy. 

Sari Siglar or Chanak Ealessi Bay. — From Kephez Point the 
coast trends about 1 mile in an easterly direction, thence northeast 
and north 2^ miles to a point similar in formation to Kephez Point, 
and on which stands the Old Castle of Asia or Chanak Kalessi. A 
bay is thus formed 2J miles in length from point to point and 1 mile 
in depth, skirted with banks of sand and mud which have less than 
3 fathoms on them, and extend 600 to 1^200 yards from the shore. 
172982°— 20 ^3 



26 KILID BAHR. 

At the northern part of the bay the bank extends 800 yards from 
shore, has less water, and is steeper. 

Entering the bay from the southward, Kephez Light should be kept 
to the southward of 225® to avoid the shoals in the southern part of 
the bay; the red tiled slaughterhouse near the beach, about | mile 
southward of Chanak Kalessi, with several bathhouses near it, may 
be steered for when bearing 56°, until the western wall of Chanak 
Kalessi is in range with the guardhouse southward of Keoseh Kalessi, 
bearing 14°, when anchorage may be taken as convenient. 

Vessels proceeding eastward entering the Dardanelles at night may 
proceed as far as the anchorage below the Inner Castles (Chanak 
Kalessi and Kilid Bahr), but not farther, between sunrise and simset. 

Warning. — Vessels contravening upon this Order will be fired on. 

Anchorage.— -Vessels anchor in Sari Siglar Bay in 10 to 13 
fathoms water, muddy bottom, } mile from the shore and 1^ miles 
to the southward of Chanak Kalessi. The best anchorage in the bay 
is in the center, in 10 fathoms, with the right extreme of Namazieh 
Fort bearing 339° and the slaughterhouse 38°, Sari Siglar Bay is 
the best anchorage in the Dardanelles. 

FROM KILID BAHR AND CHANAK TO KARAKOVA 
BURNU AND BERGAZ CHAI — EUROPEAN SHORE. 

Kilid Bahr.— The castle of Kilid Bahr (Key of the Sea, or Old 
Castle of Europe) , standing on sloping ground on the edge of the 
strait, was built by Mahomet the Second, and is a picturesque stone 
fortress, of a heart or trefoil shape in plan, with a tall keep, of a 
similar shape, rising in its center. Close to the castle is the Cynossema 
or Tumulus of Hecuba. 

The town of Kalid Bahr, of slight importance, stands on the side 
of the hills, which here rise to a height of 650 feet above the level of 
the sea. Its houses are constructed of wood and surrounded by a 
great number of cypress trees. The population is composed of the 
garrison of the fort only, and the town offers no resources to vessels 
which put in for shelter. 

It has beeii already stated that the narrowest part of the strait is 
between Kilid Bahr and Chanak, between which the current some- 
times attains a velocity of 4 knots; only with a fair wind can a sailing 
vessel make headway. 

Bank. — Namazieh Point is free from danger, but adjoining it to 
the southward is a bank of sand and rock 1^ miles long, and 2 fathoms 
on it; it extends 100 yards from the land. The edge of the bank is 
steep-to. 

Coast. — Beyond Namazieh the coast trends north-northwest for 
3 miles to town of Maitos. This part of the coast is free from danger 



DARDANELLES. 27 

and steep-to, except for one spot between Dermaburnu and Cham 
Kalessi, where a bank 400 yards long extends 100 yards from the 
coast. Between Namazieh and Cham Kalessi the land rises abruptly 
from the water, but from the latter place to Maitos, a plain, with 
hills behind, borders the sea. Thpre is no anchorage to be found on 
this part of the coast ; the current sets strongly on it, and then toward 
the Asiatic shore. 

Dermaburnu Battery is a small earthwork, standing at the 
water's edge i mile beyond Kilid Bahr. 

Cham Kalessi (lat. 40° 10' N., long. 26° 22^' E.), 1 mile north- 
northwest of Dermaburnu Battery, is an old whitewashed stone fort. 
The fort stands low, and is half hidden behind a cliff which slightly 
projects to southward, in which direction, about 400 yards, there is a 
small batlery. 

A battery named Kiamleh is situated a little to the northward of 
Maitos, on a hill 400 feet high, which slopes toward the strait, and to 
the southward of EJielia Tepe, on a hill 300 feet high, there is also 
another battery. 

Maitos (ancient Madjrtus) stands on a low cliff at the end of 
the valley that extends across the peninsula at this point, and at the 
foot of Maitos Tepe, which forms the north side of that valley. It is a' 
small town, with a large conspicuous Greek church standing in the 
center and several windmills in a line to the north and south of the 
town. There is a small cotton factory at the north extremity of the 
houses, distinguished by its tall chimney. 

Three miles northeast of this village the remains of an old castle 
are seen. The Turks have built there the village of Yallova; and 
between it and Maitos, on a slightly projecting low, flat, rounded 
point, formed at the entrance of the Bokali Valley, by the stream 
that runs down it, stands an old quadrangular whitewashed fort, 
named Bokali Kalessi, having a conispicuous minaret in its center and 
in an east-northeast direction. 

At the north end of Maitos the coast makes an almost rectangular 
bend to the north and east, and thence maintains a general northeast 
by east direction to Gallipoli, 19 miles distant. 

Anchorage. — There is anchorage off Maitos, in 17 fathoms, 
abreast the factory, 500 yards from the shore, but the anchorage 
is not recommended, as the current is variable in this locality. The 
coast bank here extends 200 yards from the shore. 

Khelia Liman, situated J mile to the north of Maitos, is a well- 
sheltered bay facing southeast, i mile wide at the entrance and 800 
yards long. The sides of the bay are formed by the steep slopes of 
Matios and Khelia hills, which are destitute of vegetation. A small 
river empties at the head of the bay. 



28 AK BASHI UMAN. 

Anchorage. — There is anchorage in the center of Ehelia Liman, 
in 14 fathoms, and the shore is moderately steep ; but the anchorage is 
seldom occupied, being subject to squalls and out of the track of ves- 
sels. Sailing vessels pass this part of the strait either with a fair 
wind or in tow of a tug. 

Water. — ^Water may be procured from a fountain near some 
ancient ruins on the west side of the bay. 

Bokali Kalessi Lights flashing green, 38 feet above high water, 
visible 5 miles, is exhibited from a white iron framework tower 
located on the forward fortress, 900 yards northeastward of Khelia 
Liman Bay. 

Mai Tepe^ a hill 520 feet high, situated IJ miles northward of 
Khelia Liman, is conical and conspicuous, having the appearance of a 
large tumulus. Two miles inland is a small Turkish village, named 
Codjadere. 

From the north point of Khelin Liman the coast trends northeast- 
ward round the foot of Khelia Tepe, past the mouth of Bokali Valley, 
and along the foot of the coast range to Sestos Point, 3 miles. 

Bank. — A bank of 16 feet runs along the coast from Khelia to 
Bokali, and extends in some places about 300 yards from the shore, 
but beyond Bokali not more than 200 yards from shore. 

Anchorage. — ^Under the lee of the point of Bokali a vessel can 
anchor in 12 fathoms, with the fort bearing 34° and Khelia Tepe 
275° ; but as the water shoals very suddenly, it is not recommended. 

Submarine telegraph. — Three hundred and fifty yards eastward 
of Bokali Kalessi, a submarine- cable crosses the strait to Nagara 
Point. Its termination on the European side is marked by a stone 
house. 

Sestos Point (lat. 40° 13^' K, long 26° 26' E.) is bluff and steep; 
near its extremity is a ledge, 20 feet above the sea, on which there is 
a road. The 3-fathom line of soundings which skirts the shores of 
Ak Bashi Liman is here 200 yards from the coast, and the bank is 
steep-to. 

Buoy. — The southeast extremity of the bank is marked by a red 
buoy in 6 fathoms. From the buoy, Bokali minaret bears 261° 1| 
miles. 

Ak Bashi Liman^ a bay of which Sestos Point is the southwest 
extremity, is f mile broad and J mile long. The north shores are low 
and sandy, and a small stream falls into the middle of the bay. 

On the hills at the back of Sestos Point, forming the west side of 
Ak Bashi Valley, are the remains of an old Byzantine castle, 300 
feet above the sea. The castle is not easily seen, as its walls are of 
the same color as the ground on which it stands, but a Tekeh or 
monastery adjoining it, surrounded by plane trees and cypresses, 
indicates its position. 



DARDANELLES. 29 

Anchorage. — ^There is good anchorage in Ak Bashi Liman. A 
depth of 11 fathoms will be found in its center, with the brick kiln 
at the bottom of the bay bearing 337® 400 yards. 

Coast. — From Ak Bashi the coast, forming many small sandy 
bays, trends northeast for 3^ miles to Uzun Bumu ; deep water will 
be found at 200 yards from the shore. A succession of small hills 
and cliffs rise to a central hill, 820 feet high, named Bakajak, which 
is, from most views, of a remarkable conical shape. 

Uzun Burnu is very low. A bay, open to the east and the pre- 
vailing winds, is formed north of the point. A depth of 20 fathoms 
will be found J mile from the shore. 

Ulgar Dere. — ^The Ulgar River empties into the strait a few yards 
to the northward of Uzun Bumu, and in winter is a fair-sized 
stream, but in summer only a small rivulet. To the southward of 
Ulgar Dere, the coast bank, which is composed of sand and mud, 
extends 300 yards from the shore. About 2 miles inland are the 
villages of Ulgar Kioi and Pazarli. 

Coast. — From Uzun Burnu the coast extends in a northeasterly 
direction for 4 miles. It is steep, and can be approached within 200 
yards except in the little bays opposite Bergaz, where shoal water 
extends 200 vards from shore. 

Indji Liman is a bay formed by the projection of Karakova 
Burnu. In the center of the bay there is a good night anchorage, pro- 
tected from northeast winds, in 7 fathoms 600 yards from the shore. 
In the northern part of the bay the bank extends 300 yards from the 
shore. The western side of Indji Liman is moderately high, the spurs 
from Bairak Tepe extending to the beach, but the north and east sides 
are low. - 

Karakova Burnu is a low sandy point having deep water 200 
yards from shore. The Karakova River empties at the north end of 
the point, and in winter the whole coast is swampy. 

Karakova Burnu Light, flashing green, 33 feet above high water, 
visible 5 miles, is exhibited from a white iron framework tower lo- 
cated on Point Galata at the eastern extremity of Indji Liman. 

ASIATIC SHORE. 

Chanak Kalessi is a massive quadrangular fort situated on the 
shore of the strait and at the north point of Sari Siglar Bay. The 
north point of Sari Siglar Bay is low and projects a little to the west- 
ward toward the coast of Europe, from which it is 1,400 yards. The 
point is free from danger ; 200 yards from it the depth is 18 fathoms. 
In this, the narrowest part of the Dardanelles, the depth is about 50 
fathoms, sand, stones, and shells, and the deep water is close to either 



80 C3HA29^AK — COICHUNICATIOK. 

side. The prevailing southerly current runs with great velocity, leav- 
ing no slack or eddy near the shores, thus making these narrows the 
most difficult part of the strait to pass. 

Chanak Kelassi Light, flashing red, 47 feet above high water, 
visible 6 miles, is exhibited from a white iron framework tower lo- 
cated on the low battery at the west side of the town. 

Bhodius Biver, running south of the point and under the walls 
of the castle, discharges itself at the north point of Sari Siglar Bay, 
and carries with it in the winter time a great quantity of sand and 
mud, which gives a yellowish color to all that part of the channel. 
The river, nearly dry in summer, but in winter a torrent, is crossed 
by a large wooden bridge, which is seen from the strait. 

A shoal, with a depth of 23 feet over it, is reported (1905) to have 
formed about 100 yards seaward of the entrance of the river. 

Chanak, called by the Turks in ordinary conversation Chanak 
Kalessi, and in official correspondence Sultanieh, is known by Euro- 
peans as Dardanelles. It has a population of 22,000 and is probably 
the cleanest town in Turkey. The land at the back of the town forms 
the plain of Rhodius Eiver, but 3 miles in the interior picturesque 
hills rise on either side of the river to a height of 1,500 feet. 
Chanak (the Turkish word for pottery) is the most important place 
in the Dardanelles and is the seat of Government of the Valyat of 
the Archipelago. 

Communication. — Chanak not being a port of call, only the mail 
steamers stop regularly, British steamers generally proceeding direct 
to Constantinople after obtaining pratique. Daily communication 
with Constantinople and Europe may be obtained. There is tele- 
graphic communication with nearly all parts of the world by Eastern 
Co.'s cables, also a Turkish telegraph line, and a military telegraph 
communicating with forts on the European side. 

Signal station. — ^A signal station is established at Chanak, a 
short distance north of the castle. 

Repairs.— Divers using the latest diving apparatus, and capable 
of effecting temporary repairs to a ship's bottom, are to be found 
here. There are a few shipwrights and blacksmiths in the town, but 
no appliances for effecting repairs. 

Pilots. — Pilots for the Dardanelles and the Sea of Marmora to 
Constantinople may be obtained here. 

Tugs. — Chanak is the headquarters of the tugs which lie in Dar- 

dan Bay. Masters of vessels are advised to get the assistance of their 

consul in concluding a bargain for towage, for there is no fixed tariff 

' and the prices sometimes paid are enormous. The tugs usually tow 

two or three vessels at a time. 

Pratique. — ^AU ships bound for Constantinople and Black Sea 
ports must stop here. It is best to time navigation to arrive at sunrise. 



DARDANELLES. 31 

Hospital. — There is a Turkish military hospital. Foreigners can 
be received by permission of commandant. 

Dardan Bay (lat. 40° 9J' N., long. 26° 24^' E.).— To the north of 
Chanak Point the coast curves and forms a bay, which is 1 mile 
across from north to south. Dardan Bay, however, is not a good 
anchorage, for its shore is bordered by a hard bank of gravel, sand, 
and rock, having a depth of 9 to 18 feet, and which extends 400 
yards from the shore. Outside the bank the water deepens suddenly 
to 20 fathoms. The current sets strongly to the southwest in the 
middle and along the south shore of the bay abreast the town of 
Chanak, but along the east and north shores it almost always runs to 
the northward ; and as vessels must necessarily anchor near the line 
of separation between the two currents, they will be alternately in 
either current. Small vessels use the anchorage, also the tugs, which 
lie in the shoal water. 

Medjidieh Battery. — ^At the north side of Dardan Bay low hills 
again come close to the coast line. Under these, and on the north 
point of the bay, stands the earthwork battery of the Medjidieh. 

Anchorage. — ^The best berth is in the northern part of the bay, in 
18 fathoms, mud, with the west end of the Medjidieh Battery bearing 
5° and the barracks in the depth of the bay, east. The shoal in the 
north part of the bay is almost awash, and extends 200 yards from 
the shore. 

The anchorage in Dardan Bay has been reported to be foul in 
places on account of the moorings .of buoys which have foundered ; 
also anchors and cables lost from ships. 

From Medjidieh Battery there is good anchorage along shore as 
far as Nagara Point, in 10 to 16 fathoms, 400 to 800 yards from the 
land. 

Caution — Submarine telegraph. — Vessels are cautioned not to 
anchor in the vicinity of the submarine telegraph cable, which passes 
from the north angle of Chanak Kalessi to the north angle of Kilid 
Bahr. t 

Firman. — In Dardan Bay all vessels of war must stop and show 
their firman for passage and obtain pratique before they are allowed 
to proceed through the strait; and though merchant vessels are no 
longer under this restriction, it is one of the places where vessels 
can get the necessary vise to their bills of health in order to receive 
pratique at Constantinople. 

Eeoseh Kalessi. — ^A small, low, flat point projects slightly | mile 
to the northward of the Medjidieh Battery, and on this is built 
Keoseh Kalessi, which is an old stone fort. 

Nagara Bay (Liman) may be said to commence to the north of 
Keoseh Kalessi. There is good anchorage, in 10 to 16 fathoms 400 
to 800 yards from the shore, in any part of the bay, well protected 



82 KAGABA POINT — ABYDOS POINT. 

from northeast winds and out of the current. The best berth is 
north of the landing place called the Tekeh. All Nagara Bay is in 
the eddy current which runs to the northward, the strength of which 
depends upon the strength of the main current. The Turkish fleet 
usually lies in this bay. 

Nagara Point (lat. 40° 12' N., long. 26° 2^' E.), a long, low, 
sandy spit, which projects to the westward from the coast hills 1,600 
yards, is distinguished by a large white square fort, Nagara Kalessi, 
at the northwest angle of which there is a mosque, also white, fre- 
quently mistaken for the lighthouse. This fort is built on the site 
of the ancient castle of Abydos ; there is a battery ^ miles southeast 
from it, and another one south of Abydos Point. 

A submarine telegraph cable crosses the strait from Nagara Point 
to Bokali Kalessi. 

Nagara Point Light, flashing white, 36 feet above high water, 
visible 5 miles, is exhibited from a circular white tower on the point. 

Nagara Spit. — The extremity of Nagara Point is a sharp-pointed 
bank of sand that runs out to the westward, shelving gradually under 
water 400 yards from the parapet of the fort, where it drops to 4 
fathoms. Outside this the water gradually deepens to 6 fathoms 
800 yards from the fort. The bank appears to extend much farther 
from the shore, but this appearance is simply due to discolored 
water running along the coast and round the spit. 

Buoy. — A buoy, painted white and exhibiting a flashing red light, 
10 feet above high water, visible 2 miles, is moored in 5^ fathoms 
600 yards west of Nagara Point Lighthouse. 

The current, the direction of which is here 244°, sets strongly over 
the end of the bank and past the buoy. Vessels should not attempt 
to pass inside the buoy as the water shoals suddenly. 

Firman vessel. — The firman vessel, a small hulk, painted black, 
is moored 1,950 yards 186° from Nagara Lighthouse and 300 yards 
from shore in Nagara Bay, where every ship on her return voyage 
is bound to stop and deliver her bills of health, etc. The vessel has * 
one mast with a yard, and at night exhibits one red light over two 
white lights, placed triangularly. 

A tug, painted white, stationed near Nagara Point, will come 
alongside, and take the firman, bills of health, etc., to the firman 
vessel, for a nominal fee. 

In Nagara Bay, eastward of the fort, is the lazaretto, a large yel- 
low house. 

Abydos Point (lat. 40° 12' N., long. 26° 25' E.).— From Nagara 
Point the coast trends 70°, a little more than ^ mile, at which part 
the line of grass-covered low coast hills from Dardan Bay extend to 
the shore, and form Abydos Point, which is a steep-looking cape, 
about 100 feet high, and shows green or yellow, according to the 



DARDANELLES. 33 

season. It is steep-to, but the bank of rock and sand extends only 
100 yards from the shore, when it deepens suddenly to 13 fathoms. 
About f mile south of the point, on this range, is an old redoubt that 
stands up very prominently over Nagara Bay. 

Coast. — From Abydos Point the coast runs in an easterly direction 
for 3 miles, and then curves round to the northeast for 6 miles to 
Kodjuk Burnu, the shore being indented by small shallow bays and 
skirted by a bank of sand and mud, extending in some places J mile. 

This bay is well sheltered from all southerly winds, but a vessel 
could only lie here in fine weather if the wind blew from the northeast. 
On all this part of the coast an eddy exists, which, though weak, is 
made use of by sailing vessels. 

Abydos Bank^ about J mile in extent, with 16 feet on its shoalest 
part, lies from J to 1 mile east of Abydos Point, and about 900 yards 
from the nearest part of the shore. 

Clearing mark. — The summit of Maitos Tepe, kept a little open 
of Abydos Point, 260°, leads in 4 fathoms clear of Abydos and Ay' 
lani banks. Between Abydos and Ay' lani banks a depth of 5 
fathoms will be found 300 yards from the shore. 

Ay^ lani or Towshan Point is low, rocky, and white, and com- 
posed of a conglomerate of oyster shells. 

Bes Chamlik or Seven Firs (lat. 40° 11' K, long. 26° 27' E.).— 
At the back of Ay' lani Point, and 1 mile inland, stands a conspic- 
uous clump of seven fir trees, known by the Turks as Bes Chamlik. 

Ay^ lani Bank. — From Ay' lani Point the coast bank of that 
name extends northeast about 900 yards, at which spot there is a 
depth of 8 feet ; the edge of the bank then turns to the eastward, and 
i mile farther on approaches the shore to within 400 yards. The gen- 
eral depth on the bank is 2 fathoms. 

Coast. — Kair Burnu, low and formed of white rock, is similar in 
appearance to Ay' lani Point. From it the land again sweeps round 
to the southeast and northeast, forming a shallow bay to the point 
where Moussa Kioi River empties into the sea. Thence the coast 
extends, with little deviation, northeastward 2 miles to Saltik Liman 
Burnu. 

Moussa Banky a projection of the coast bank, lies off the mouth 
of Moussa Kioi Chai, a depth of 3 fathoms being found at 700 yards 
from the shore. Yapildak River, J mile eastward of Moussa Kioi 
Chai, may be known by a flat piece of land immediately northeast of 
the river. Both these rivers, though not absolutely dry, cease run- 
ning in the summer, and except in time of floods are never more than 
small streams. 

Buoys. — The northwestern extremity of Moussa Bank is marked 
by a red and white buoy moored in 4J fathoms. 



34 BER6AZ ISKALESSI — ^FALSE BAY. 

Clearing mark. — Should the buoy not be seen, Bes Chamlik, in 
range with Kair Bumu^ 225°, will lead to the north of Moussa 
Bank in 15 fathoms. Yapildak Tepe, a conical tree-covered hill, 
bearing 125°, will lead to the eastward of it in 5 fathoms. 

Anchorage. — ^After passing Moussa Bank a vessel can approach 
the shore, within 300 yards, as far as Saltik Liman Burnu. There is 
excellent anchorage all along this shore, especially in the bight be- 
tween the Moussa and Ay' lani Banks, in 12 fathoms, mud, and vessels 
working up are recommended to anchor on this side of the strait in 
preference to the other, as the water is shoaler and the eddy favorable. 

Aspect. — ^AU the shore from Ay' lani to Yapildak Chai is low, 
and in many places swampy in winter. Behind this plain, however, 
the hills rise gradually, till, 9 miles inland, they culminate in the fine 
pyramidal peak of Aghi Dagh, 3,010 feet above the sea. This part of 
the country is poorly cultivated, but several villages are scattered 
throughout it, the whole presenting to the eye an agreeable picture, 
large numbers of trees covering the valleys and slopes. 

The villages seen from the strait are: Kemel, high up the hills 
behind Ay' lani, and just under a large dark quadrangular planta- 
tion; Okjolar, a small village farther to the northeast; Kezil Kechili, 
a little below the last ; Yapildak, of which only a minaret and a few 
houses are visible from the sea, over the trees of Yapildak Tepe. 
None of these villages are conspicuous, except in certain lights, when 
the white minarets and mills shine out brightly. 

Bergaz Iskalessi (lat. 40° 15^' N., long. 26° 33^' E.), a bay 1,400 
yards across, and open to the northwest, lies northward of Saltik 
Liman Burnu, a conspicuous headland of white rock, 70 feet high, 
and the only rocky point in the neighborhood for some miles; the 
north point of the bay is low and sandy. A conspicuous knot of 
trees, named Bergaz Clump, is situated on the northeast summit of 
some hills IJ miles inland and when bearing 147° leads into Bergaz 
Iskalessi, but the trees disappear when the vessel is close inshore, the 
coast range riding them. Bergaz Iskalessi is the place of ambarka- 
tion for the produce of the rich valley of Bergaz and the district ' 
connected with it. A few fishermen's huts are situated at the bot- 
tom of the bay. 

Anchorage. — Ships anchoring in Bergaz Iskalessi must be careful 
not to run too far into the bay, as the 3-fathom curve extends 500 
yards from the coast and then quickly deepens to 7 fathoms. The 
best anchorage is in 14 fathoms, mud, with the lighthouse on Kodjuk 
Burnu showing just outside of the north point of Bergaz Iskalessi. 

False Bay. — To the northeastward of Bergaz Iskalessi another 
small bay is formed, filled by a sand bank, with only IJ fathoms at its 
edge, which projects 200 yards outside the bay. The shore is low and 
sandy, and vessels frequently ground in this bay. 



DARDANELLES. 85 

Bergaz Asmak River.— The bank in False Bay has been formed 
by the debris brought down by the river Bergaz Asmak, which runs 
into the bottom of False Bay, and is in summer a lagoon, but in 
winter is fed by the water from Kangarli hills. 

Bergaz village, exhibiting three minarets, is camparatively large, 
and situated 3 miles from the coast gn the hills facing the strait ; the 
village is visible from a vessel in the channel. On the hills bordering 
the plain of Bergaz are also the hamlets of Kangarli, Giok Kioi, and 
Sandal Ovasi, but hone of them are visible from the strait. Over the 
hills is again seen the summit of the mountain Aghi Dagh. 

Kodjuk Burnu (lat. 40° 16^' N., long. 26° 34^' E.) is a low, flat, 
rounded point, and from a distance appears to project much farther 
into the strait than it actually does. The lighthouse, which stands on 
the extremity of the point, appears also to rise from the .water itself. 
The point is nearly steep-to, the shoal water not extending more than 
100 yards from the shore, and the strait is here narrowed to 1^ miles. 
The land of which Kodjuk Burnu is a part is the end of the large 
valley and plain of Bergaz, which extends from the shore in a south- 
easterly direction. The mouth of the Bergaz River is situated 1 mile 
to the northeastward of the lighthouse, and is never entirely dry. 

Kodjuk Burnu Lights flashing red, 38 feet above high water, 
visible 6 miles, is exhibited from a white iron framework tower located 
north-northwest of Bergaz village. 

Bergaz (or Fisherman) Bank. — Beyond the lighthouse the 
shore of Kodjuk Burnu, or point, gradually curves around to the 
east, and then sweeps in east-southeastward, forming a bay of some 
depth. At the point where this bay commences, Bergaz Eiver empties 
into the strait, and has deposited, opposite to its mouth, a bank which 
fills all the bay. The 3-f athom curve of soundings is 800 yards from 
the shore, the 5-f athom curve extends 1,400 yards, and the portion of 
the bank between these depths makes a good overnight anchorage, 
the holding ground being good. 

Buoy. — Bergaz Bank is marked by a red and white buoy, lying on 
the center of the outer part of the shoal in 4 fathoms, with Bergaz 
LighthousiB bearing 241° 1^ miles. Small vessels can pass inside this 
buoy in working up, but it is not recommended for a stranger to do 
so. 

FROM KARAKOVA BURNU AND BERGAZ TO THE SEA 

OF MARMARA — EUROPEAN SIDE. 

Coast. — ^The Greek villages Galata and Bahir are conspicuous, as 
they stand on the summit of the coast range. Galata is i mile from 
the sea, and Bahir 1^ miles. There are a number of windmills close 
to both villages. 



86 GALLIPOLI BAY. 

Beyond the entrance to Karakova River the coast trends in nearly 
a straight line 3 miles to Galata Burnu, with a sandy beach, and is 
steep-to. 

Galata Burnu, the southwest termination of the Bay of Gallipoli, 
is a low point, at the back of which is the plain formed by the 
entrances of the valleys of Kuslu Dere and Buyuk Dere that circle 
round the mountain of Ak Yarlar. 

Buoy. — Off Galata Burnu is a red buoy, in 8 fathoms, 250 yards 
from the shore. Close inshore of the buoy there is a depth of 3 
fathoms. 

Gallipoli Bay. — From Galata Burnu the coast trends to the north 
and east, forming Gallipoli Liman (or bay), which is 3 miles broad 
and about 1 mile long. The bay is divided into two nearly equal 
parts by a point, which projects about 800 yards into the channel. 
The shores of the bay for the most part suddenly terminate in low 
yellow cliffs, about 80 feet high, with small ravines between. The 
low tablelands that form the immediate background are destitute 
of trees and present a desolate appearance. The mountain of Ak 
Yarlar, 1,050 feet high, with its picturesque white and yellow chalk 
cliffs, bears 257° from the town of Gallipoli. 

The southwestern portion of Gallipoli Bay is skirted by a rocky 
shoal, in some places 'nearly awash. The shoal is J mile long and 
extends 6<K) yards from the shore." 

Middle Bank (lat. 40° 24' N., long. 26° 39^' E.) fills the north- 
eastern half of Gallipoli Bay. The center and most projecting part of 
the bank lies 1 mile 250° from Gallipoli Point, and nearly 800 yards 
from the shore. Here the soundings suddenly diminish from 5 
fathoms to 16 feet, then shoaling toward the shore. 

A tall chimney near Utze Bridge, bearing 32° and in range with 
the easternmost of a row of mills to the north of the town, will lead 
clear of the bank. This bridge is a wooden one and spans a small 
stream called the Utze Keupri Dere (Three Bridges Valley). 

Anchorage. — ^The anchorage in Gallipoli Bay is much frequented 
by sailing vessels as a night anchorage when working to windward. 
It is well protected from all winds except those from south and east. 
These winds, however, raise but little sea, and the holding ground is 
good. The best berth is just to the eastward of the bearing of the 
clearing mark given for Middle Bank, where good holding ground 
will be found in 9 fathoms, with the south point of the town bearing 
99° 1,200 yards. Near the town, and in a more convenient position 
for communicating, the water is deeper. The swell from the Sea of 
Marmara sets around the point. 

There is also anchorage on the west side of the bay, on a bottom 
of mud, in 8 to 9 fathoms. Vessels are well sheltered from northeast- 
ward, but they will have the whole force of the wind from the east- 



DARDANELLES. 37 

ward, and would be in an awkward position if it came on to blow 
hard. 

Another good anchorage is, in 14. fathoms, with the Pacha's office 
(a conspicuouis yellow house which stands on a low conical hill in the 
center of the town) in line with the health office (a yellow house on 
the shore to the north of the camber). 

OallipoU Point (lat. 40° 24' N., long. 26° 41' E.).— The east point 
of Gallipoli Bay is rocky, and foul ground extends oflf it to a rock 
with 12 feet over it which lies 248° 100 yards from the point. There 
is deep water close outside the rock. 

From Gallipoli Point the shore trends northeastward for 'i mile, 
forming the sea face of the town of Gallipoli. This piece of the coast 
is all rocky, ^ith low perpendicular cliflFs, and outlying rocks extend- 
ing about 60 yards from it. The coast then sweeps in round the 
lighthouse point to Baschesme Liman, the north anchorage of Gal- 
lipoli. 

Oallipoli Lights flashing white, 111 feet above high water, visible 
15 miles, is exhibited from a white masonry tower located on the 
cliff northeast of the city. 

Gallipoli^ the largest town on the Dardanelles, is built on the 
rocky promontory between Gallipoli Bay and that of Baschesme, and 
has a population of about 13,000, consisting of Turks, Greeks, and 
Jews. The town, which is the seat of government of the Province of 
Gallipoli, in the Vilayet of Adrianople, possesses many mosques and 
minarets, and has great notoriety as a burial place for Mussulman 
saints. Its cemeteries are very extensive. There is a telegraph sta- 
tion. 

Cambers. — On the south side of Gallipoli Town are two small 
cambers. The outer one has an area of 1 J acres and a depth of 7 feet, 
with an entrance 30 feet wide, and is much used by coasting craft. 

The inner one, by the side of which is an old Genoese tower, is about 
one-third the size of the other, and not much used. 

Quarantine. — The health office, which stands just west of the 
entrance to the port, is a yellow building. Vessels in quarantine are 
not given pratique here, unless pratique has been already given at 
Chanak or Constantinople. They are permitted to take in provisions 
and send telegrams if they have health guardians on board. 

Coasting vessels can obtain pratique here. 

Baschesme Liman is situated on the north side of the promontory 
of Gallipoli. Round its rocky south point the coast trends west, and 
then, losing its rocky character at once, sweeps round north with a 
sandy beach for 800 yards, when it turns east and again becoming 
rocky, runs with little indentations 1 mile to the north point of the 
bay, called Eski Fanar Burnu. 



38 COAST. 

Anchorage. — There is anchorage in Baschesme Bay, in 13 fath- 
oms, about 500 yards from the shore, with Gallipoli Lighthouse bear- 
ing 223®. There is no protection here from northeast winds; a con- 
siderable swell sets in, and the holding ground is not so good as that 
of Gallipoli Bay. Shoal water extends from the sandy bottom of the 
bay for 200 yards, and a northeast wind makes a heavy surf in it; 
otherwise the bay is clear of danger. 

Water. — ^Landing can generally be effected in the northwest cor- 
ner of Baschesme Bay, under the lee of a small rocky point, not far 
from the fountain that gives its name to the bay and where casks can 
be filled in boats. 

Eski Fanar Bumu (lat. 40° 25' N., long. 26° 42^' E.) is a rocky 
point, about 25 feet high, on which stands GallipoU old lighthouse, a 
square white tower, 30 feet high. Off the point, rocky ground of 
6 fathoms depth, on which the water is much discolored, extends for 
about 200 yards. 

Coast. — From Eski Fanar Burnu the land trends north for 2 miles 
in a long extent of sandy bay, having deep water within 400 yards. 
An isolated remarkable rock named Chan Kair lies on the beach 800 
yards north of the point. The plain behind this bay is called Ok 
Meidan, and is well cultivated. Through it passes the road from 
Gallipoli to the interior, across the Isthmus of Bulair. 

From the head of this bay the coast trends east-northeast past the 
foot of Karaiokus Hills, then stretches away .with very slight devia- 
tions from a straight line for 30 miles, forming the north shore of the 
western part of the Sea of Marmara. In the northern part of the 
bay a shoal bank of less than 3 fathoms extends^off the land for 700 
yards, but gradually closes the shore, till 1 mile farther east it is but 

200 yards. 

ASIATIC SHORE. 

Coast. — From the mouth of Bergaz River the coast trends east- 
southeast for I mile, and then northeast for 5^ miles, with a few small 
indentations, as far as Lampsaki. All the shore line is low and com- 
posed of either sand or shingle, but from the bottom of the bay above 
the river, eastward, the land rises at once, and thence gradually to the 
summit of the Leskioi Tepesi Range, 3 miles inland, where the hills 
rise to 1,230 feet above the level of the sea. The background, one 
monotonous uniform slope, without cultivation, house, or feature 
of any kind to relieve it, is covered with short scrubby brushwood. 

Lampsaki Liman^ formed by the curve of the land to northward, 
is 1 mile across from the low point on the southwest which juts very 
slightly into the strait, and on which stand five windmills in a row. 
Chardak Ova, the northern point of the bay, which is also low, is the 
extremity of a flat plain, projecting from the foot of the hills behind. 



V 



DAHDANELLES. 89 

Anchorage. — Good anchorage may be obtained in Lampsaki Bays 
with protection from northeast winds, but there is a bank, with a steep 
outer edge, extending from the shore 550 yards, which necessitates 
caution in anchoring. 

The best berth is in 19 fathoms, 1,200 yards 209'' from ChardakOva, 
with the outer mill o| Lampsaki bearing south, and a large rounded 
tree at the bottom of the bay 101°. In this position slack water, or 
an eddy current, never very strong, will be found, and vessels are 
well protected from the swell from the Sea of Marmara. In the 
northeast part of the bay the shore is steep-to. 

Lampsaki (lat. 40° 20^' K, long. 26° 41^' E.).— On the south 
shore of the bay is Lampsaki, a small town possessing a conspicuous 
mosque and minaret and surrounded by trees. The town is prettily 
situated, on a slightly rising slope, at the northern entrance of the 
Valley of Kush Ovasi, through which the Lampsaki River runs, and 
empties into the sea 500 yards southwest of Lampsaki Point. 

The town, which has a population of about 1,400, is unhealthy, prob- 
ably from the swampy nature of the land at the mouth of the river, 
combined with the bad quality of the water, which is said to produce 
fever. The water is brought from the hills by pipes, which supply the 
fountains in the town, whence it is obtained in casks. Quantities of 
vegetable produce, besides cattle, sheep, and wine for Constantinople, 
are exported. There is a telegraph station at Lampsaki, and a 
pratique office here for the use of coasting vessels. 

CSiardak Bank. — From Chardak Ova the coast takes an easjb- 
northeast direction for 1^ miles to the mouth of Chardak Lagoon. 
Shallow water of 3 fathoms and Jess extends from Chardak Ova 
Point 400 yards. It then follows the direction of the coast 600 yards 
to Chardak Lagoon. 

Buoy. — ^A red and white buoy is placed in 6 fathoms off the 
extremity of the bank near Chardak Ova. Close inside of the buoy is 
a depth of 2 fathoms, and, as the edge of the bank is round and broad, 
it must not be passed too closely. 

Chardak Liman. — Northeastward of Chardak Ova is another 
bay, formed by the abrupt projection of Chardak Spit to the north- 
west. The entrance to Chardak Lagoon is at the northeast part of 
this bay, and the bay, though bordered for 600 yards by the shoal 
bank above mentioned, forms another good night anchorage for a 
vessel about to work through Gallipoli Strait. The village, contain- 
ing a population of about 1,200, is pleasantly situated on the well- 
cultivated plain, bordering the sea at this part, with the hills of Kale 
Bair rising behind to a height of 830 feet. 

Anchorage. — A vessel may anchor, 300 yards from Chardak 
Burnu, in 14 f atho/ns, with the lighthouse bearing 27°, and the domed 
mosque in the village of Chardak 119°. 



40 ZINDJIR BOZAN BANK. 

Chardak Bumu Light, flashing red, 38 feet above high water, 
visible 6 miles, is exhibited from a mast on a white house located on the 
low sandy point. 

Chardak Spit and Lagoon. — Chardak Lagoon is formed by a 
narrow strip of sand extending northeastward If miles from Chardak 
Spit, and then joining the coast. The breadth of the lagoon at the en- 
trance is 250 yards, widening inside 700 yards. Chardak Spit is 
steep-to on its southwest side. 

The lagoon is supposed to have been the port of the ancient Lamp- 
sacus, but at the present day it is too shallow to be of use, except to 
the small coasters, who use it as a careening place. The depth of water 
at the entrance, where there is a small wooden pier, is 11 feet, shoaling 
to 8 feet, 200 yards farther in. The remainder of the lagoon is very 
shallow. It abounds with duck during the winter. 

Shoals. — ^A patch of 18 feet lies i mile 23° from Chardak Bumu 
Lighthouse, and is connected with Zindjir Bozan Bank by a shoal of 
24 feet. Patches of 24 feet and 27 feet lie 400 yards to the south- 
westward of the 18-foot patch. 

Gallipoli Strait, the northeast entrance of the Dardanelles, is 
nearly 2 miles wide at Chardak. On the European side of the strait 
is the town of Gallipoli. 

Zindjir Bozan Bank. — The edge of this bank, which is also 
known as Diana Shoal, extends from the shore near Chardak Burnu 
Lighthouse, in a 53° direction for 3 miles; it then turns east-southeast, 
and trends in again to the shore 1 mile beyond Fanous Hills. The 
edge of the bank at its northern extremity is 1 mile from the shore. 
Depths of from 2 to 4 fathoms will be found on the bank, but the 
bottom is uneven. 

The outer edge of the west part of Zindjir Bozan Bank is every- 
where steep-to. On the outer edge of the north part there are several 
small 3-fathom heads, outside of which the water deepens suddenly 
from 5-fathoms to 15 and 25 fathoms. 

The northeastern side of the bank has no shoal heads on it. To the 
eastward of the northern 3-fathom patches a vessel can approach to 
within J mile of the bank. 

Buoy. — A buoy, red and white in horizontal bands, exhibiting an 
occulting red light, 13 feet above high water, visible 5 miles, is 
moored 2,520 yards 336° from the ruins of Fanous Lighthouse. 

Clearing marks. — Gallipoli Lighthouse, in range with the center 
of the remarkable white chalk cliffs, near the summit of the rounded 
Ak Yarlar Mountain, bearing 257°, leads in 12 fathoms to the north 
of Zindjir Bozan Bank, but very close-to. Care must be taken not 
to bring the lighthouse to the right, or north, of the center of these 



DAEDANELLES. 41 

cliffs. This mark is easily distinguished. The lighthouse is white, 
and the cliffs generally show white also. After rain they will, how- 
ever, appear of a reddish yellow, and are not so conspicuous. 

Chardak Lighthouse, in range with the center of Derebidi, a low. 
rounded hill near Saltik Liman Burnu, bearing 220^, will lead clear 
to the westward of the northwest edge of Zindjir Bozan. This will 
form a good clearing mark for a vessel when abreast the center of 
the shoal. 

A vessel working to the eastward must be careful not to pass south 
of the clearing mark for the north part of the shoal until she brings 
the highest part of some white cliffs in range with the summit of 
Codja Flamur Hill 136°. This hill is easily distinguished by an 
enormous tree, towering above the other foliage on the hill and look- 
ing like a large stone, and when the tree bears 144° a vessel can stand 
in as close as i mile from the shore. 

Fanous Hill. — The coast line inside Zindjir Bozan Bank is low. 
Chardak Spit extends east-northeastward If miles, and the shore then 
turns gradually round to the east, where there are some low cliffs and 
a small isolated hill 120 feet high, presenting a cliff on its sea face, 
and named Fanous Hill. On the hill stands the ruins of an old light- 
house tower, long since abandoned. 

Winds and weather. — In the Dardanelles, north and northeast 
winds prevail on an average nine months of the year, whereas the 
irregular westerly winds last scarcely three months, during which 
period it frequently happens that they are not felt in the archi- 
pelago, where it is generally a calm. The winds are most variable 
at the equinoxes, and generally any change from north to south will 
take place at new or full moon. 

Northeast winds. — ^In winter northeast winds often blow hard 
for several days if the wind should have set in from that quarter after 
a squall. These winds are often accompanied by fog and snow. 
Navigation then becomes impracticable in the Dardanelles for a sail- 
ing vessel. 

In the summer north and northeast winds are more constant. 
They are clear, agreeable, and moderate, and the barometer stands 
high. They spring up generally in the morning, die away with the 
setting of the sun, and are followed by light offshore breezes, chiefly 
in the deep bays. The regular but gentle sea and land breeze is 
called the Imbat, and prevails all through the archipelago for a con- 
siderable time. It lasts sometimes so long that it is iBot a rare oc- 
currence to see 200 or 800 vessels in Tenedos Channel or in the other 
anchorages waiting a favorable and enduring breeze. With every 
slight southerly air they get underway, but only to shift from one 

172982**— 20 1 



42 WINDS. 

anchorage to another, and they reach the Sea of Marmara after hav- 
ing accomplished the distance by short stages. 

When in the morning a luminous horizontal streak, level with the 
land, is seen in the eastern horizon (provided the streak is perfectly 
distinct, and topped with grey clouds) , a breeze of wind from the 
northeast may be expected, which will freshen duriYig the day and die 
away at night. 

At the equinoxes, and in the winter, if the wind comes suddenly 
from the northwest or north with a squall and heavy banks of clouds, 
it will veer to northeast and blow hard for about three days. But 
generally the northeast wind does not blow hard for more than a day. 

Northwest winds occur occaisonally at all seasons, the barometer 
standing at about 29.85. During the summer these winds blow fresh 
and the weather is clear. In winter they are accompanied by heavy 
squalls. 

When white clouds are seen rising from the coast of Europe, it is a 
sure sign that the wind will be from the northwest ; and if the clouds 
revolve in rising, it will blow hard from that quarter. Heavy squalls 
will then sweep along the European shore, and if great care be not 
taken will cause serious damage to vesaels under sail. 

Thunderstorms sometimes occur. They come from all directions, 
but more generally from northwest, with violent rain aod heavy gusts 
of wind from different quarters. 

Southwest winds may occur in any month. In winter they are 
frequent, blow hard and bring rain; the sky is loaded with clouds, 
and the barometer usually stands at about 29.65 inches. It often 
happens that southwest winds, though very violent in the Mediter- 
ranean, hardly reach the archipelago, and fall calm at the entrance 
to the Dardanelles. Sometimes, however, they blow home to the 
strait, and there suddenly fly round to the northeast in a squall. 
Whenever a vessel approaches the Dardanelles, with the wind from 
west or southwest, however long it may have held, a good lookout 
should be kept for the least brightening of the horizon towards the 
Sea of Marmara, to prevent the vessel being taken aback by the sud- 
den and dangerous shifts of winds. In autumn and in winter, after 
entering the strait with fresh southerly winds and clear weather, a 
vessel may almost be sure of finding the wind from the southeast 
in the Sea of Mfirmara. 

In autumn the weather with southwest winds is clear. The wind 
veers to south in the Dardanelles, and southeast in the Sea of Mar- 
mara ; and they arein one respect favorable to navigation, as the land 
is then very distinct. 

Whenever in the night, in fine weather, with a clear sky, a heavy 
dew should fall, the wind is almost sure to come round to the west- 



DARDANELLES. 43 

ward, and is sometimes the precurser of a violent west or southwest 
wind; but, although there is then a decided appearance of bad 
weather, the wind will generally, in a few hours, fall light, and, with- 
out reaching the Sea of Marmara, will subside in copious showers of 
rain. 

During the period from March to September southwest and south- 
east winds are rarely experienced. At that time it is indispensable 
that vessels should take advantage of offshore winds, if it be only to 
shift from one anchorage to another. A light south wind will some- 
times commence in the afternoon, veer to the north at midnight, and 
blow hard. The change will sometimes be preceded by rain, but 
more frequently by a calm, clear night with a heavy dew. 

Ciirrents. — In the Dardanelles the points projecting from the 
land have the effect of changing the course of the current by causing 
eddies, of which, in some parts of the strait, especially in the bays, 
advantage may be taken by a vessel proceeding eastward with a light 
wind. In general, alsong the coast of Europe, where the points are 
less prominent, there are few eddies ; and on the coast of Asia, though 
favored by eddies in the bays, a vessel has to go through the whole 
strength of the current when rounding the points. 

The strength of the current, which is variable, depends much upon 
the direction and force of the wind, and, as will be easily understood, 
upon the heavy rains and snows of winter, which swell the large 
rivers, falling into the Black Sea. At that time, when it blows hard 
from the northward, the violence of the current increases, especially 
in the narrows, where it has been known to attain during the first few 
days a velocity of 5 knots between the old castles (Chanak Kale^i 
and Kilid Bahr). During strong southwest winds the current is 
sometimes reversed. But this is unusual, and as northeast winds 
prevail nine months of the year, the southwesterly current may be 
regarded as almost permanent. From Gallipoli to Kum Kale, the 
average velocity of the current may be estimated at IJ knots for the 
whole distance. The set of the current in various parts of the Darda- 
nelles, which is now given, should be studied by the seamen in con- 
junction with the directions for proceeding through the strait under 
various conditions of wind and weather. 

Southwest Entrance. — Between Kum Kale and Seddul Bahr the 
current sets west-southwestward an average velocity of IJ knots, the 
maximum being about 3 knots. The current has a greater velocity on 
the Asiatic side, and runs along the edge of Yeni-shehr Bank with 
great velocity. 

Kephez Point. — The current runs close past Kephez Point, but 
to the southward of it, along the Asiatic coast to Kavanlik Liman, 
therB is an eddy extending nearly 1 mile from the land. 



44 THE NARROWS — NAQARA POINT, 

The main current again strikes the Asiatic shore on Mendere Bank, 
and runs along to Kum Kale Point with great strength. 

Sari Siglar Bay. — On the Asiatic shore, in Sari Siglar Bay, there 
is an almost constant eddy, setting from Kephez Point to Chanak 
Kalessi ; but this bay is so filled with shoals that the eddy is not of 
much use to vessels, except that it makes the anchorage a quieter one. 

On the European side, slack water, extending 300 yards from the 
shore, will be found for 3 miles to the southward of Namazieh Point. 
The current runs along the European shore to Eski Hissarlik, and 
thence across the mouth of Morto Bay, running over the shoals on its 
western side and passing 400 yards outside Seddul Bahr. 

At the bottom of Morto Bay there is a slight eddy that sometimes 
extends to the northward of Eski Hissarlik. 

The Narrows. — At Chanak Kalessi the current is more rapid than 
in any other part of the strait, and this is the most difficult part to 
pass. The current extends from shore to shore, with no eddies, and 
is stronger at the sides than in the center. Its average velocity is 
about 2 knots, its maximum 4 knots. To the south and southwest of 
the Narrows there are eddies on either side. 

Nagara Point. — At Nagara Point the average rate of the current 
is nearly 2 knots. The stream sets west-southwesterly over the end 
of the spit across to the European shore, to the south of Maitos, and 
is there deflected to the south. On the European side it follows the 
line of coast from Sestos Point to Bokali Kalessi. Between Bokali 
Kalessi and Maitos there is an eddy. 

Under the lee of Nagara Point, and on the Asiatic shore, as far 
south as Chanak Kalessi, there is an almost continuous eddy extend- 
ing some distance from the shore. 

Abydos and Sestos. — Between Abydos and Sestos Points, where 
the channel narrows, the current again becomes stronger. There is 
occasionally a slight eddy on either shore to the eastward of these 
points. 

Eodjuk Bumu. — ^At Kodjuk Bumu, and along the shore north- 
ward of it, the current runs strongly. Its maximum strength oflf the 
point is about 2^ knots. This is one of the most difficult points for a 
sailing vessel to pass, there being no eddy on either side. 

Under the lee of Kodjuk Burnu there is, however, slack water, or an 
eddy sometimes very strong, but of no use for navigation to the north- 
ward of Saltik Liman Burnu, as it extends only a short distance from 
the shore. Between Saltik Liman Burnu and Abydos the eddy is suffi- 
ciently broad for a vessel to work to windward in. 

On the European side the current runs close along the shore the 
whole way to Bokali Kalessi, the only exception being a slight slack in 
Ak Bashi Bay. 



dabdaneu.es. 45 

Galata Bumu. — At Galata Point, where the strait again narrows, 
the velocity of the current on the average is 1 knot, and here there is 
no eddy on either side of the strait. 

At Karakova Point the same may be said, but there is slack water in 
Indji Liman on the southwestern side of that projection, but only in 
the bight of the bay. 

Gallipoli Strait.— In Gallipoli Strait the current becomes stronger 
and varies between 1 and 2 knots. The current extends from shore to 
shore, but is slacker at the sides than in the middle. 

In Gallipoli Bay there is an eddy, running round the bottom of the 
bay toward the town. 

In Chardak and Lampsaki Limans the same weak eddy exists, but 
is by no means regular. 

Approach to Dardanelles. — ^A vessel from the southwestward, 
bound up the Dardanelles, will first identify the entrance by the white 
cliffs of Cape Helles, which form the north point of the strait, and 
on which stands conspicuously a white stone lighthouse. On the 
south side are the cliffs of Sigeum, terminating at the mouth of the 
strait with the hill of Yeni-shehr, also steep and cliffy. Another very 
conspicuous distinguishing mark on the European side is Tree Peak, 
730 feet above the level of the sea, 5 miles northeastward of Cape 
Helles. It makes as an isolated conical peak, with one large tree on 
its summit. 

On approaching nearer, the small towns of Yeni-shehr and Sed- 
dul-Bahr will be preceived on their respective sides of the strait. The 
former is built on the summit of the hill of the same name, 230 feet in 
height. Only a few houses will be seen while the ship is still to the 
southward, but on bringing it to bear more to the northeast, the 
houses will open up, and also a remarkable row of nine windmills 
which stand on the north side of the town. The castle of Kum Kale 
will then be seen standing on a low point that stretches from the hill 
on Yeni-shehr to the north. 

Seddul-Bahr is on the north side of the strait, and stands on the 
slope of the hill, forming Cape Greco, which is | mile east of Cape 
Helles. Here is one of the old stone fortresses, which gives its name 
to the town, and is a conspicuous object from its great size and the 
low but massive towers that rise at the angles of the castle. When 
these two towns can be distinguished, the entrance of the Dardanelles 
will be plainly open. 

Directions — Dardanelles. — ^A steam vessel, or a sailing vessel 
with a strong fair wind, bound to the Black Sea, is recommended to 
keep on the European side of the strait, about 400 yards offshore, 
except in the narrows at Chanak, where the current is weaker in the 
center of the strait than at the sides. 



46 BEGULATIONS — ^PRATIQUE. 

Beyond the Narrows keep on the Asiatic side to avoid the current, 
and steer north to pass outside Nagara Buoy, which may be passed as 
close as possible, but vessels should not pass eastward of the buoy, as 
there is but little water and the current sets toward the spit. 

After passing Nagara Buoy steer northeastward for Sestos Point, 
until within 600 yards of the European shore, then steer along the 
coast, keeping that distance outside all points, and crossing the en- 
trances of the little bays until the Sea of Marmara is reached. Steer 
direct from Galata Point to Gallipoli Point to avoid the Middle Bank. 
On this course a steam vessel will nearly always be in the adverse 
current, but not in its strength, and the time lost in stemming it will 
be more than gained by the directness of the course. 

A sailing vessel, with a foul wind, will find it is almost impossible 
to proceed under sail through the strait; and a master will have to 
choose between paying for a tug or waiting, perhaps many days, for 
a fair wind. 

Regulations. — Merchant vessels arriving at the Narrows at Cha- 
nak from the Mediterranean between sunrise and sunset can pass the 
Dardanelles without any formalities or stoppage, except for the pur- 
pose of taking pratique for Constantinople or other ports. Masters 
of vessels entering the Dardanelles shall hoist their colors when 
passing between the forts of Kum Kale and Seddul-Bahr. 

At nighty between sunset and sunrise, vessels may proceed as far 
as the anchorages below the inner castles (Chanak Kalessi and Kilid 
Bahr) and are recommended to anchor in Sari Siglar Bay. 

Sunset is indicated at the south entrance to the Dardanelles by two 
green lights, placed vertically, being exhibited from Seddul-Bahr, 
and by two red lights, placed vertically, exhibited from the northwest 
angle of Kum Kale. 

Vessels approaching the forts Namazieh and Chanak Kalessi with 
the apparent intention of entering the Narrows will be warned by 
the successive discharge of three blank shots; and on these admoni- 
tions proving fruitless, solid shot will be fired. 

After the usual warning, the regulation is peremptory to fire into 
any vessel disregarding it. 

The Narrows begin at Forts Namazieh and Chanak Kalessi. 

Pratique. — ^Regulations respecting pratique to vessels arriving in 
the Dardanelles from the Mediterranean are in operation. 

The sanitary inquiry for vessels arriving in the Dardanelles from 
the Mediterranean may take place either on board or at the pratique 
office (Chanak) at the captain's option. Should it be desired that 
the inquiry may be effected on board, a flag, consisting of five red 
and five yellow alternate stripes horizontally, must be hoisted, ai\d 
the vessel must approach the pratique office as near as possible. 



DARDAKELLBS. 47 

The health officer before boarding will ascertain what port the 
vessel is from, where bound, and the sanitary conditions of the per- 
sons on board during the voyage and on arrival. If the result of the 
inquiry be satisfactory, pratique will be given; should it be unsatis- 
factory, the vessel, unless bound beyond the Ottoman ports, will be 
ordered to Clazomenee (Vourlah) to perform quarantine. The sani- 
tary inquiry for coasting vessels is made at either of the pratique 
office's in the straits, viz., Seddul-Bahr, Aspra Homata, Chanak, 
Lampsaki, or Gallipoli. 

Steamers from an infected port and bound for a non-Ottoman port 
in the Black Sea or Sea of Azov may, if free from cholera, plague, or 
yellow fever, pass the Dardanelles and Bosporus without detention. 
These vessels will, however, be subject to the preliminary interroga- 
tion of the health officer, and if free from infection, two health 
guardians will be placed on board, and the vessel can proceed in 
quarantine. These guardians must be landed at the Monastir-Aghzy 
lazaretto at Kavak. 

Should there have been infectious cases on board, the vessel will be 
ordered back to Clazomenae. 

Vessels wbich pass the straits in quarantine must not stop anywhere 
between the Dardanelles and Kavak, and must carry a yellow flag 
the entire run. 

Sailing vessels from an infected port may not pass through the 
straits in quarantine. 

On arrival at Constantinople, the bill of health must be shown ; and 
should the vessel be proceeding to the Black Sea, two firmans can 
then be obtained, one to pass on to the Black Sea, the other to return 
again through the Bosporus and Dardanelles. Should Constanti- 
nople be her destination, one firman only is needed to pass back again 
through the latter strait. 

Naval vessels arriving at Constantinople must send their bill of 
health on shore as pratique is not granted until it has been delivered. 

On proceeding to the Black Sea the vessel must stop off Anatoli 
Kavak, near the north end of the Bosporus, on the Asiatic side, when 
the pilot is landed, who will carry the firman ashore to the firman 
offices. 

The sanitary fees are collected at Chanak. 

Beturn voyage. — On return from the Black Sea, the vessel must 
again stop off Anatoli Kavak, between sunset and sunrise, and send 
on shore to obtain pratique, subject to fines for nonobservance. 

At Nagara, just above Chanak, she must, under any circumstances, 
lie to and deliver on board the firman vessel her firman for passage, 
and receipts for all sanitary and light dues, which should be obtained 



48 FIBMAN VESSEL. 

at Constantinople on the voyage eastward. Vessels bound outward 
may pass the Dardanelles at any hour if they comply with these regu- 
lations. 

Finnan vessel. — The firman vessel in the Dardanelles is a small 
hulk, painted black, having one mast with a yard. At night she ex- 
hibits one fixed red light over two fixed white lights placed triangu- 
larly ; by day she flies the Turkish flag. She is moored in the slack 
water close inshore near the pier in Nagara Liman. 

The firman vessel is in communication, by signal, with the castles 
north and south of her. 



CHAPTER HI. 

SEA OF MARMARA. 

General description. — The Sea of Marmara; united to the Black 
Sea by the Bosporus and to the Grecian Archipelago by the Dar- 
danelles, is about 110 miles in length from east to west, without 
reckoning the deep gulfs of Ismid and Mudania, and 40 miles in 
breadth in its widest part from north to south. The width at the 
western end for about 30 miles eastward of Gallipoli, is from 3 to 
10 miles. From Gallipoli, the north shore trends to the northeast, 
a distance of 60 miles, and then turns to the east, 57 miles to Con- 
stantinople, The south shore trends in an easterly direction for 
about 110 miles, then turns toward the north and joins the north 
coast at the Bosporus, thus forming a vast gulf. Its general east- 
erly direction is broken in two places — ^by a projection of land to the 
northward between capes Tarsana and Kara, and by the Peninsula 
of Artaki. 

The Sea of Marmara is bordered almost throughout its length by 
high and mountainous land; and is terminated to the eastward by 
two deep gulfs, of which one, that of Ismid, is 26 miles in length, and 
the other, that of Mudania, 17 miles. These two gulfs are separated 
by a high peninsula. There are two other smaller gulfs on its south 
coast at the Bosporus, thus forming a vast gulf. Its general east- 
sula of Artaki or Kapu Dagh. They are separated by a small strip 
of land, over which two wooden bridges had been thrown to com- 
municate with the shore of Asia. 

The islands of the Sea of Marmara are divided into four groups. 
The first is perceived on leaving the Dardanelles, and lies a short 
distance to the northwest of Artaki Peninsula. 

The most important island of this group is that of Marmara, which 
has given its name to this sea, and divides it into two channels of 
unequal breadth. The channel to the north is formed by the coast 
of Europe and the Island of Marmara, and is from 10 to 18 miles in 
breadth. The other, formed by the island of Marmara to the north 
and the islands of the group to the south, varies from 2^ to 5 miles 
in breadth. 

The second group is called the Princes or Prinkipos Islands, and is 
composed of nine islands, of which the largest, Prinkipo, has given 
its name to the group. They lie parallel with the coast 6 miles south- 
east of Constantinople, and Pliny speaks of them as the Propontides. 

49 



50 CURREliirTS. 

The third is Kalolimno Island, which lies off the entrance of the 
Mudania Gulf and abreast of the mouth of the Moalitch River. 

And lastly, the little islands of Mola, which are three in number, 
and lie off the eastern point of the Peninsula of Artaki. 

In its eastern portion the sea of Marmara attains a considerable 
depth, surroundings of 650 fathoms being found 7 miles southwest- 
ward of Princes Islands, and between the Artaki Peninsula and the 
coast of Europe. Elsewhere depths of SO to 40 fathoms are found 
5 to 10 miles from the shore. 

Currents. — The Sea of Marmara is so bounded by the coasts of 
Europe and Asia and so connected with the Black Sea and the 
Archipelago that these two seas have an unceasing influence on its 
waters. 

The Black Sea, lying in the direction of the northerly winds, which 
blow the greater part of the year, sends through the Bosporus its 
snows, fogs, and storms, and the excess of its water; while the Archi- 
pelago exercises a more favorable influence, as its numerous elevated 
islands break the force of southwesterly winds and reduce the strength 
of the current. From the fact of these two opposing influences con- 
stantly working, it is almost impossible to know what weather to 
expect in the Sea of Marmara, from what has been experienced in 
passing through the Dardanelles or Bosporus ; but a vessel going east- 
ward can, to a certain extent, know whether she will find the currents 
regular and strong or not, according as to whether the winds in the 
Archipelago have been assisting them by blowing from the northeast, 
or checking them by prevailing from the opposite direction. 

The currem^ in the Sea of Marmara are produced by the excess of 
water that the Black Sea almost constantly pours into it by the 
Bosporus. Their general direction is, therefore, westward toward 
Gallipoli, but with a few slight variations, owing to its islands and to 
the sinuosities of its coasts. 

A continuance of strong southwest winds will, however, check the 
currents in the Bosporus and Dardanelles, and even occasionally 
reverse them. At these times everything is disorganized, and the 
currents in the Sea of Marmara may run in any direction. 

As a rule, the stream on leaving the Bosporus to enter the Sea of 
Marmara spreads out in the shape of a fan, the left branch setting 
toward Princes Islands, and through their channels, and thence 
toward the gulf of Ismid, round which it runs from west to east along 
the south coast, and from east to west along the north coast. Between 
this current and the coast of Asia, from Skutari Point to Tuzla, there 
is a zone of back or countercurrent, which sets toward the Bosporus, 
and inside this again is a narrow strip of southerly current setting 
close to the shore past Bostanji as far as Mai Tepe Burnu. 



SEA OF M ABM ABA. 61 

The central branch takes a southerly direction toward Boz Bumu, 
turns eastward along the south coast of the Gulf of Mudania, and then 
again westward along its north coast, setting out very strong to the 
westward abreast Armudli village and past Boz Burnu. Lastly, the 
right branch take a southwest direction, but leaving between Seraglio 
and Stef ano points a space where the current is generally weak, and 
even sometimes forms an eastern eddy or countercurrent. 

In the channel northward of Marmara Island the current generally 
sets westerly, or southwesterly, and its strength is much increased in 
the vicinity of Hora. Here the current runs entirely along the Eu- 
ropean shore and in the center, the Asiatic side being protected by 
the Marmara Islands. Its maximum velocity at Hora is 1 knot. In 
tlie lesser channel to the southward of Marmara Island, the current 
s(;ts northwesterly; but also pouring through Rhoda and Arablar 
channels between the islands to the southward, and then eastward 
along the north shore of the great bay of Artaki, round which it 
sweeps before resuming its westerly course along the south shore 
toward Gallipoli Strait. 

The different directions which have been thus ascribed to the 
Marmara currents must not be taken as absolute on all occasions, but 
they will be found correct in ordinary weather. It has been said that 
an eastern eddy is to be found along the north coast of this sea. Such, 
indeed, may be perceived off Stef ano Point when the stream through 
the Bosporus first meets the southwesterly wind and swell; but no 
countercurrent or eddy will be found westward of that point. The 
general currents, however, are much weakened, and sometimes alto- 
gether checked when the wind has been blowing a long time from the 
southwest. 

In the Sea of Marmara it is difficult to ascertain the general veloc- 
ity of the current, as it is governed by so many causes. The stream 
from the Bosporus very quickly loses its strength on entering the Sea 

of Marmara, but it always increases with a gale from the northward 
and northeastward, as well as during the heavy rains in winter, when 
the Black Sea sends into it a mass of water much larger than usual. 
The thaws in April, May, and June, combined with northeasterly 
winds, which are prevalent in that season, tend also to increase the 
strength of the current. This strength diminishes when violent south- 
westerly winds prevail. The currents are also generally weaker in 
calm weather, and their average velocity in the main channel must not 
be estimated at more than 1 knot with a fresh breeze from northeast- 
ward, 1^ knots with a strong gale from that quarter, and i knot in 
calm weather. In a gale from northeastward it has been found to set 
to westward 1 knot, about 8 miles southward of Erekli Peninsula, 



52 WINDS AND WEATHEB. 

Winds and weather. — ^What has been said of the winds, as well 
as almost all the observations on the weather, when describing the 
Dardanelles, are applicable to the Sea of Marmara. Thus north and 
northeasterly winds are prevalent in this sea almost all the year. In 
the summer they are clear and moderate and die away at sunset. In 
winter they are sometimes very violent and raise a short cross sea, 
which obliges vessels to seek shelter amongst the islands to the south- 
ward, or at Gallipoli, if they have not passed the Island of Marmara. 

The weather varies much in different years in the Sea of Marmara. 
Winter, with its gales and occasional jfine days, lasts till the end of 
March. In some winters southwesterly gales will prevail, with 
scarcely one from the northeastward. In others (the more usual 
case) it is the contrary, and the winter is consequently more severe. 
Spring is very short, leaves and vegetation appear rapidly, and sum- 
mer arrives in May. 

The Meltem, or summer northeasterly breeze, is not regular in its 
appearance, and until it does come to relieve the air, there are many 
hot, close days. It generally begins in the latter part of June, and 
should last until September. On those days when it prevails, the 
temperature is pleasant, but in early mornings up to 10 o'clck, before 
it sets in, and on days when it is superseded by the warm south- 
westerly wind, it is oppressively hot. During these months rain is 
rare. 

In September will come the equinoctial rains, and perhaps a gale 
or two, and weather is uncertain. October is generally a beautiful 
month, the Meltem returns, and it is fine, with delightful temperature. 
November is often the same, and the fine weather may last well into 
December, but it often breaks up earlier with southwesterly gales 
and rain, and the winter is begun. 

Thunderstorms are most prevalent in May, June, and July, but 
their continuance or frequency much depends on whether the Meltem 
sets in regularly or not, and on whether southwesterly winds in the 
Archipelago cause a conflict of currents of air, which result in these 
phenomena. They gather quickly and bring furious blasts with 
them. 

In autumn and the beginning of spring south and southeast winds 
are frequent, especially along the northern shore. They are often 
fresh, but always clear, and they render the land very distinct. In 
all cases in the summer the Meltem causes a haze, whereas southerly 
winds make the atmosphere very clear. April and May are the 
clearest months. 

In summer the wind will be very different in different parts of the 
sea. Generally speaking, the Meltem is much more regular in the 
northeastern part than in the west and south, and sometimes even a 



SEA OF MARMARA. 58 

fresh Meltem will not absolutely fetch the southern shores of the 
Marmara, while a few miles off it will be blowing fresh. 

Along the European shore the Meltem draws much along the land. 
Thus at Erekli it is nearly east, and in Eodosto Bay east-southeast, 
while a few miles outside it is northeast. Vessels working to wind- 
ward should not therefore close the European shore too much, east- 
ward of Kodja Burnu. South and southwest winds will prevail about 
the Marmara Islands when the Meltem is blowing farther eastward. 

During winter the barometer generally rises during northeasterly 
gales, sometimes as high as 30.60, and turns just before the gale slack- 
ens ; at others a heavy northeasterly gale will blow for two or three 
days, with a constantly falling barometer. This instrument can not 
therefore be said to be a sure guide for these winds, but a low barom- 
eter is an invariable indication of southwesterly winds, although they 
may not actually fetch into the Sea of Marmara, but may only blow 
hard in the Archipelago and send their rain alone, east to the Darda- 
nelles. 

As this probably depends on the strength of the northeasterly winds 
blowing at the time in the Black Sea, it is impossible to judge in the 
Sea of Marmara whether the southwesterly wind will force its way in 
or not. The safest plan is to assume that it will, and with a threaten- 
ing appearance of the sky and a low barometer be prepared. When 
southwesterly gales do occur, they are heavy and squally, but gener- 
ally last a comparatively short time, and veer through west to north- 
east, from which quarter they will again blow for a couple of days. 

Sailing directions. — The navigation of the Sea of Marmara 
offers but few difficulties, the weather being generally fine. A steam 
vessel, or sailing vessels with a fair wind, on leaving the Dardanelles, 
may from abreast Eski Fanar steer a course east-northeastward to 
clear Heraclitza Point. No vessel should try to pass within 1 mile of 
the shore, as the dangerous bank of Oohan Asian, on which many ves- 
sels have struck, extends f mile from the land. It is now marked by a 
lightvessel, but in thick weather it would be advisable not to stand 
into less than 12 fathoms water in this vicinity. 

By night, when Hora light is sighted, care should be taken, when it 
is approached within 10 miles, not to bring it eastward of 51°, as Her- 
aclitza Point is low and dangerous. 

If the wind should blow hard from northeast even a fast and power- 
ful steamer should not hesitate to close the coast of Europe, where 
there would be less sea ; by doing this, time would be gained and the 
passage shortened. 

Vessels bound to Constantinople during the day generally make the 
land at Stef ano Point, which is low and of a red color, and may be 



54 DIBEOTIONS. 

distinguished by the houses on it, and the lighthouse to the eastward. 
To vessels approaching from the westward, Constantinople is hidden 
by Stef ano Point. By not bringing Stef ano Point Light to bear east- 
ward of an 82° bearing, a vessel will not approach the land, which lies 
westward of Stef ano Point, within 3 miles. 

After passing Stef ano Point, to which a berth of 1 mile should be 
given, steer for Seraglio Point, but take care to avoid the bank south- 
ward of it. 

Sailing vessels when past Hora Point, instead of steering for 
Stefano Point should keep the northern coast on board, partly to 
avoid the current, but chiefly either to be in a position to work up 
along that coast if the wind should veer to northeastward, or to 
anchor, if it should come on to blow hard from that direction. 

If the weather should appear threatening, with the wind north- 
easterly, and a vessel has not advanced farther eastward than Hora 
Point, do not hesitate to bear up for Gallipoli; but if as far on as 
Rodosto, she might anchor on the coast with north and northeast winds. 
If, on the other hand, the wind is more eastward, it would be prefer- 
able to keep away to the southward, and wait till the gale is over, in 
one of the good anchorages which will be described hereafter. 

Vessels engaged in the Black Sea trade usually prefer in winter 
the channel southward of Marmara Island, because south and south- 
east winds are then more frequent, and in the case of adverse winds, 
they are close to good anchorages; but in the summer season, the 
north channel is the best. Large vessels in all seasons should keep in 
. the north channel, and in case of bad weather they can easily run for 
one of the good anchorages to the southward. 

A sailing vessel with a foul wind. — In a fair working breeze, 
a vessel should always keep on the coast of Europe, northward of a 
line leading from the north point of Marmara Island to Gallipoli 
Light. 

DoHAN AsLAN Shoal (lat. 40° 30' N., long. 26** 51^' E.).— A vessel 
must tack short here and not approach within 1 mile of the shore; 
but the light vessel will be a good guide. 

Boz Bank, off Yuriji or Boz Burnu, should not be approached 
within J mile; the coast in the vicinity has a steep appearance. 
Beyond this, the shores are free from dangers outside i mile. 

Heraclitza Burnu is dangerous at night, as it is low, and the hills 
rising at the back mislead the judgment as to distance. Hora Light 
can be seen over Myriojjhyto Point, and many vessels trusting to this 
have been wrecked on the point. A vessel should tack before Hora 
Light bears 50°. 

Myriophtto Point is of a similar character to Heraclitza, but does 
not seem so dangerous. 



SEA OF MARMABA. 55 

In turning to windward, in clear weather, between Rodosto and 
Stefano Point, a vessel should favor the coast of Europe, as often 
in fine weather the wind will be more northerly inshore, so as to 
enable her to make good easting, and she will also find the current 
there much weaker. In foggy weather, and during the night, a good 
lookout should be kept when approaching the land, and the lead kept 
constantly going. Do not shoal less than 17 fathoms water. The 
vessel will lose sight of Stefano Point Light when bearing eastward 
of 81°, and will then be approaching within 3 miles from the shore. 
In passing Stefano Point give it a berth of 1 mile. 

In working along the shore between Stefano Point and Seraglio 
Point, with the wind from northeastward, there is a great advantage 
in standing as close in as possible on the starboard tack, not only to 
take advantage of the eddy current, but also because the sea is smooth. 
A vessel can stand well in to the edge of this bank (which 600 yards 
seaward has a depth of 3 fathoms) , by tacking, when the trees on the 
conical mountain of Bulghurlu, which lies 3 miles to the eastward of 
Skutari, come in range with the west angle of Selimiyyeh Barracks, 
Skutari, bearing 71°. This restriction should continue only till 
abreast of the Seven Towers, when she may stand within 600 yards 
of the walls, as far as Seraglio Point. Here a vessel may, if desir- 
able, anchor and await a fair wind or proceed as follows (see direc- 
tions for Constantinople). 

EUROPEAN SHORE OF THE SEA OF MARMARA. 

Dohan Asian Bumu (lat. 40° 30' N., long. 26° 51^' E.).— From 
Eski Fanar Burnu (Gallipoli) the coast trends in an easterly direc- 
tion 9 miles to Dohan Asian Burnu, which has yellow sloping cliffs, 
95 feet high, and projects so little that, unless very close in, it does 
not appear as a point. On the rising ground above Dohan Asian 
Point is a large white farmhouse, and farther inland, and higher, a 
remarkable conical mound, 66 feet in height, standing on a spur of 
the Megarislik Hills, at an elevation of 740 feet. This, supposed to 
be the tumulus of Lysimachus, is known by the Turks as Mai Tepe, 
and is an excellent .mark for identifying the point. 

Shoal. — Off Dohan Asian Burnu is a bank of sand and rock called 
Dohan Asian Bank, the rounded extremity of which is 1,300 yards 
from the shore. Here there is a depth of 3 fathoms, with 4 and 5 
fathoms immediately outside ; the water then deepens very gradually 
to 20 fathoms 3 miles distant. 

The shoalest part of the bank is 1,100 yards from the shore, and has 
but 9 feet. Gallipoli Point, in range with the notch between Ak 
Yarlar (known by its white cliffs) and the next summit to the left, 
bearing 246°, leads clear of Dohan Asian Bank in 8 fathoms. 



56 INJEH BUKNU. 

There is a 3-f athom channel used by the coasters inshore, but it is 
obstructed by a shoal head of 10 feet. 

Light. — ^A conical buoy, painted red and white in horizontal 
bands, surmounted by a truncated cone and exhibiting a flashing 
white light, 11 feet above the water, visible 8 miles, is moored on the 
east side of the 5-f athom shoal. 

Caution. — As a wreck lies to seaward of this buoy, vessels in pass- 
ing, should give it a good berth. 

Wreck. — ^The wreck of a lightvessel, with masts showing, lies 
1,800 yards 142° from Dohan Asian Burnu. 

Buoy. — The southern edge of Dohan Asian Bank is marked by a 
red buoy in 8 fathoms, with Dohan Asian Burnu bearing 11° 1 mile. 

Bulair^ a large Turkish village on the north side of the Karaiokus 
Range, can not be seen from the sea. The summit of its minarets only 
may be discerned from a considerable distance eastward. 

Dohan Asian Bay. — ^Beyond Dohan Asian Point the coast ex- 
tends northeast, and, curving round to the east, forms a long shallow 
bay to Injeh Burnu, 7 miles. This bay is free from danger. Dohan 
Asian Bank soon turns into the shore, and the 3-fathom line is then 
nowhere more than 700 yards from it. The shore is sandy, backed 
by low clay cliffs, similar to Dohan Asian to the west, but soon be- 
coming low to eastward and in some parts swampy. 

At the back the hills of Megarislik drop to the eastward. On its 
east spur is the village of Examile, of which only a few mills are 
visible from the sea. 

Injeh Burnu forms a cliff 32 feet high facing the sea, and gently 
rises inshore to the west end of the Halva Tepe Range, which com- 
mences here and extends along the background of the coast to the 
eastward, till behind the village of Heraclitza it culminates in the 
peak of Elia Tepe. 

Off Injeh Burnu a bank of rock and sand with 4 fathoms on it ex- 
tends f mile. A shoal head of 3 fathoms lies with the point bear- 
ing 32°. 

Anchorage. — There is good anchorage 1 mile westward of Injeh 
Burnu, in 8 fathoms, with the point bearing 60°. 

Coast. — Beyond Injeh Burnu the land trends 33° for 3 miles, curv- 
ing round to east for 4 miles farther to Sar Kioi. This part of the 
coast is free from danger, and can be approached to a distance of 
400 yards. The land rises from the coast sometimes as low cliffs, 
sometimes gradually, to the Halva Range Island. The low lands at 
the foot of the hills, all along this part of the coast, are subject to 
inundations, particularly in the summer. The village of Keziljadere 
is seen on this rising ground 1 J miles inland. 

Sar Kioi is a large village on the seashore, standing on the low 
plain at the foot of Arapli Tepe. It has two mosques, three Greek 



SEA OF MARMARA. 57 

churches, and a mill eastward of the town, and contains a population 
of about 5,000, chiefly Greeks. 

Water. — There is a small wooden pier abreast the center of the 
village, where there is a fountain of good water. 

Anchorage. — The anchorage of Sar Kioi is not recommended; 
there is good holding ground, but no protection from prevailing 
winds. The bank that borders the shore for 300 yards falls sud- 
denly into deep water. The best berth is in 16 fathoms, about 500 
yards from shore. 

Heraclitza Burnu (lat. 40° 37^' N., long. 27° 11' E.), 3 miles to 
the eastward of Sar Kioi, forms the south point of a small bay which 
lies eastward of it, in which is the village of the same name. The 
point is broad, low, and sandy, 'and oflF it the shoal bank extends 500 
yards. Inshore. from Heraclitza Point the country is level for about 
i mile, when Arapli Tepe rises abruptly. 

On this hill the village of the same name is conspicuous. 

To clear Heraclitza Point, Hora Light, distant 7^ miles, should not 
be brought to bear eastward of 45°. The light can be seen over the 
intervening land. Caution is therefore necessary, as wrecks fre- 
quently occur in this locality. 

Myriophyto, a large thriving village, 3J miles 65° of Heraclitza, 
is the residence of the Kaimakam of the district. 

There is a point similar in character to Heraclitza Point imme- 
diately west of the village, but though shoal water extends off for 
some distance, it is not the scene of frequent wrecks, as is Heraclitza 
Point. There are some mills nearly on the extremity of Myriophyto 
Point, which perhaps serve as beacons. 

Elia Tepe.^ — Two miles and a half from the coast, and equidistant 
from Myriophyto and Heraclitza, is the remarkable peak of Elia 
Tepe, or Sterna Tepe, 2,255 feet in height. Though not so high as 
the Ganos Mountains to the eastward, the shape and comparative 
isolation of Elia Tepe make it conspicuous. 

Anchorage. — Off Myriophyto is the best anchorage on this part 
of the coast. Holding ground is very fair, and the anchorage bank, in 
6 to 14 fathoms, is 800 yards wide, but the extremity of Myriophyto 
Point should not be brought to bear southward of 258° as the shore 
bank of 2 and 3 fathoms is very steep-to. 

Hora, 4 miles northeastward of Myriophyto, is a small village 
standing on the sea at the mouth of Kerasia Deresi, a deep ravine 
rising in Elia Tepe, which is dry in its normal condition, but the 
heavy thunderstorms, frequent in this vicinity in summer, and heavy 
rains in winter convert it, in a few hours, into a roaring flood. All 
the ravines in this neighborhood are of this character. 

172982**— 20 5 



58 GANGS — RODOSTO. 

Hora (Elioraz) Lights group flashing white, 164 feet above high 
water, visible 19 miles, is exhibited from a white iron tower lo- 
cated on the summit of South Cape. 

Anchorage. — There is fair anchorage oflF Hora, in 5 to 18 
fathoms, mud, and sand, with the center of the village bearing about 
324°. 

Oanos^ a village 2 miles northeastward from Hora, stands higher 
than the other villages on the coast, being mainly built on the steep 
sides and top of a spur about 100 feet above the sea, and is remark- 
able from this circumstance. Just east, some large ravines join as 
they reach the coast, and, united, have brough down, when flooded, a 
broad belt of sand and stones, which is conspicuous from the sea on 
account of its barrenness. 

Coast. — From Heraclitza to Ganos the coast, though backed by 
high hills (the lower spurs of which rise almost immediately from 
the water), is in no part cliffy, but eastward of Ganos, for 8 miles, 
to Kodja Bumu, high cliffs rise directly from the sea to heights 
varying from. 200 to 900 feet, and the summits of Ganos Daghlar, 
nearly 3,000 feet in height, approach near to the sea. There are no 
villages on this part, and the coast is steep-to, with no anchorage 
worth mentioning. 

Kodja Burnu is a fine bluff headland, without danger, .from 
which the shore trends northeastward for 7^ miles to Kodosto. 

One and one half miles north of Kodja Burnu, at the little village 
of Kum Bagha, the high cliffy coast line ceases, and the shore line is 
again comparatively low, with small cliffs occasionally. The country 
behind is well cultivated and has many villages. 

There is anchorage all along this shore, but it is not good, and 
landing with the ordinary northeasterly winds is very diflScult, es- 
pecially between Panidos and Rodosto, where a rocky ledge lies about 
200 yards outside the beach and is an insurmountable obstacle to a 
boat. 

Bodosto (lat. 40° 58^' N., long. 27° 32' E.), named by the Turks, 
Tekfur Dagh, or Tekir Dagh, is a large town containing a popula- 
tion of about 42,000 in 1914, consisting of Turks, Armenians, Greeks, 
and Jews. 

The town is built on the gentle slopes of a hill facing south, and 
looks very imposing from the bay, with a sea front of nearly 1 mile, 
and numerous trees interspersed among the buildings. The upper 
houses are 350 feet above the sea. It is, however, a dirty, ill-built, 
and ill-paved town, without modern conveniences, but the climate is 
said to be very healthful. 

Anchorage. — Rodosto Road is a fair anchorage, but the ordinary 
winds from southeastward cause a tolerably heavy swell. In a very 
light breeze landing is diiBcult, and there are no piers. 



SEA OF MABMABA. 59 

The water shoals very gradually, there being 5 fathoms 800 yards 
from the shore. The best berth will be in about 6 fathoms, sand, with 
the large-domed mosque bearing north. The mill standing by itself, 
east of the town, makes a good mark for anchoring. 

Communicatioii. — ^There is communication with various cities 
by irregular steamers. There is a telegraphic communication with 
all parts, also daily mail by railway to Constantinople, the railway 
station being about four hours distant to the northward. Small 
steamers also ply to and from Constantinople three times a week. 

Coast. — From Eodosto the coast trends about northeastward with- 
out sinuosities, for 10 miles, and then curves southeastward for 6 
miles to Karga Burnu. 

Low cliffs are the general characteristic of this part, from which 
the land rises very gradually to heights of about 600 feet to 3J miles 
back from the coast. 

These hills are rounded downs, either cultivated with com, or cov- 
ered with a small yellow prickly weed that can not be called grass, 
and are destitute of trees, except in the valleys, which are for the 
most part wide and fertile. There are no villages on the shore, but 
many ancient tumuli dotting the country. 

Anchorage. — There is excellent anchorage off the whole of this 
shore; the water shoaling gradually from 20 fathoms at IJ miles 
to 5 fathoms at 400 yards. Eastward, in the bay between Kiupriji 
Deresi and Karga Burnu, the 5-f athom curve is f mile from the shore. 
The bottom varies between sand, shells and sand, and muddy sand 
inshore to mud in 15 fathoms. 

Karga Bumu^ at the eastern end of some low earthy cliffs, is a 
projecting spur, 55 feet high, from which foul and rocky ground 
stretches off for more than 200 yards, with a steep edge. A very 
conspicuous tumulus, called Kurtnar Tepe, rises IJ miles 33° from 
Karga Burnu. 

Venedek Tash is a rocky patch, 1 foot above water, which lies 
1 mile east of Karga Burnu and 700 yards from the shore. 

From Karga Burnu to Erekli, 4 miles, the shore is njainly sandy 
beach, backed by low steep hills. Kocky foul ground borders the coast 
for 400 yards, and off the south side of Erekli Peninsula, which is 
cliffy, a flat ledge of rock extends 80 yards. 

Erekli Bay. — Erekli Bay, situated northward of the peninsula, is 
a convenient anchorage in any winds but easterly, which bring in a 
short, choppy sea ; the bottom is mud and sand. The ordinary north- 
east winds of summer draw nearly due east, and come in very fresh. 
The remains of the ancient mole, which runs for 250 yards in a 
northwesterly direction from Adar Burnu, the southern point of the 
bay, is still of service in sheltering the inner part of the bay from 
the swell. 



60 BBEKLI — COAST. 

Erekll Lights fixed white, 164: feet above high water, visible 15 
miles, is exhibited from a white iron tower Ipcated on the eastern 
part of Erekli Hill. 

Anchorage. — A small vessel can anchor in 6^ fathoms with a large 
house to the north of the town bearing 278*^, and the extreme of 
Adar Burnu 129°. For a larger ship, a berth with Adar Bumu 
bearing 126°, and the house above mentioned 258°, in 8 fathoms, 
mud, will be found convenient. 

Pier. — The only pier, which is at the customhouse, is 55 yards in 
length and has a depth of 12 feet at its outer end. 

Erekliy or Eregli, and more lately Heraclea, a small village, 
of no importance and with little trade, stands on the site of the 
ancient city, of which innumerable fragments and foundations 
remain, on the northern slope of a small hilly peninsula and on the 
south shore of Erekli Bay. The governor is a mudir only. Coming 
from either east or west along the shore, Erekli Hill makes as an 
island. 

There is a telegraph station. 

Coast. — The coast trends northeastward from Erekli for about 3 
miles, and then bends away gradually eastward and southeastward 
to Baba Burnu, which is 26 miles nearly due east of Erekli Light- 
house. OS the whole of the coast in the wide bay thus formed there 
is fair anchorage and good landing as a rule, but the summer north- 
east winds, which draw very much to the east, when strong, roll 
enough surf on the beach westward of Silivri to make landing diffi- 
cult, except in little corners under the points, and with southerly 
winds landing is often dangerous. , 

The shore is mostly low, with sandy beach, with here and there 
cliffy points, and in many parts it is very shallow for some distance 
from the land. 

The ground rises very gradually from the shore, treeless, and to all 
appearances arid and uncultivated, but corn is grown in patches, and 
might be raised in large quantities. Water is to be found almost any- 
where by sinking wells. Bound all the villages are fine prolific vine- 
yards, especially in the neighborhood of Boados. 

The skyline from the sea, about 5 miles back on an average, is the 
smooth top of rounded downs 700 feet in height, though they do not 
look so much. Nine miles northeast of Erekli, and near Chanta 
village, is a somewhat conspicuous table hill, 880 feet in height, on 
which the two large tumuli, Kara Kioi Tepe and Chanta Tepe, show 
well against the skyline. Northeastward from Boados, the hills above 
Chatalja rise 1,030 feet above the sea, and are the highest ground in 
this locality. There are many ancient tumuli in the neighborhood, 
especially round Erekli, some of which are very conspicuous from the 
sea from certain directions. 



SEA OF MABMARA. 61 

Ancliorage can be found anywhere, as mentioned above, at about 
half a mile from the knd, in 8 to 12 fathoms ; bottom sandy, with mud 
in depths over 10 fathoms. 

SiUvri (lat. 4P 4' N., long. 28^ 15' E.> is a small dilapidated town, 
built on the site of the old city on the eastern side of Silivri Bay, 
nearly midway between Erekli and Baba Burnu. It is the residence 
of a Kaimakam, and stands well on the slopes of a hill which, imme- 
diately east of the town, presents precipitous earth cliflFs, 185 feet in 
height, to the south, which are very conspicuous from seaward. The 
old walls, on the eastern side, are conspicuous on the summit of these 
cliffs, as is the long bridge crossing the valley westward of the town. 

Anchorage. — The best anchorage is in 8 fathoms, mud, on a line 
between Kaba and Karga Burnu, the points of the bay, with the left 
extreme of the town bearing about northeast. Protection is afforded 
to caiques by the remains of an old mole. 

BoadoSy Greek Epivates, is a small but somewhat thriving place 
on the shore, 5^ miles eastward of Silivri; there is a caique harbor 
formed by a mole. 

Triklinos Bock. — One-fourth of a mile eastward of the village 
and 400 yards from the beach is Triklinos Rock, with 4 feet of water 
on it; the ground westward inshore of this is all rocky and foul. 

Anchorage. — There is a good roadstead here, but care must be 
taken not to shoal the water under 5 fathoms, as the edge of the bank 
is steep. Anchor in 7 to 9 fathoms, with the tower bearing 11°. 

Baba Bumu^ 9 miles eastward of Boados, is cliffy, with the conical 
hill of St. Elias immediately behind, and rocks and shoal water ex- 
tend over 200 yards from the'point. 

Buyuk Chekmejeh Bay (lat. 40° 58^' N., long. 28° 34^' E.).— 
Baba Burnu is the western limit of a large circular bay, named 
Buyuk Chekmejeh (Great Bridge), which is about 2^ miles long, 
2J miles wide, and affords excellent and safe anchorage in most seasons 
to vessels having good ground tackle. The entrance is open from 
168° to 225°, from which quarter gales, excepting in some winters, 
are not frequent in the Sea of Marmara ; but a considerable swell rolls 
in during these winds, which, though not endangering a well-found 
vessel, still makes the bay a rough berth. In a very heavy south- 
westerly gale, such as occasionally occurs, Buyuk Chekmejeh can not 
be considered a safe anchorage. 

A reef extends nearly 800 yards from Manda Tash Burnu (or 
Chifut Burnu), the southeast point of the bay, to clear which keep 
the foot of a conspicuous peaked hill, named Azrathena (which rises 
within the northwest corner of the bay), in line with the western 
extreme of four arched bridges, which are connected, and extend from 
the village of Buyuk Chekmejeh. This village stands on thie north- 
eastern shore, across the low land at the head of the bay. 



62 LAGOON — COAST. 

The depths decrease gradually from 20 fathoms water between the 
headlands of the bay to 5 and 6 fathoms at its upper part, about | 
mile from the shore, the bottom throughout being stiff mud and good 
holding ground. In turning to windward, do not stand toward either 
shore into less than 7 fathoms water. 

Anchorage. — The best anchorage is in 6 fathoms, with the Greek 
town of Kalikratia or Kalierachi, which stands on the west side of the 
bay, bearing 315° 1,100 yards, and the southern minaret of Buyuk 
Chekmejeh bearing 83°. This will keep the vessel clear of a broad 
bank or shoal having a depth of 3 fathoms, which extends nearly 
800 yards from the shore abreast of the cliffy point upon which the 
town of Kalikratia is built. Small knolls of ballas, having only 14 
or 15 feet of water over them, rise from this bank. 

Water. — There is a fountain of good water on the beach at Kali* 
kratia, which runs all the year round and is sufficient for the require- 
ments of several vessels ; and for the convenience of loading boats, 
three slight wooden piers extend from the town into 4^ feet water. 

Lagoon. — Westward of the village of Buyuk Chekmejeh is the 
channel, which communicates with a large but shallow lagoon to the 
northward. Th§ road from Constantinople to Rodosto crosses this 
channel by the four bridges of ancient date, mentioned above ; under 
the bridges there is 2 feet of water. 

The lagoon is 4 miles in length in a northwesterly direction, and 
from 1 mile to i mile in width, with nowhere more than 5 feet of 
water. The northern end is lost in reeds and swamps, through which 
pass the Kara Su and Kug Dere, two small streams which flow down 
the broad Chatalja Valley. North of the bridges the entrance is 
closed by a fish weir, a gate in which affords entrance to caiques. 

The outer line of the defenses of Constantinople, which crown the 
heights on the eastern side of the Chatalja Valley, terminate at the 
eastern side of this lagoon. 

The railway from Constantinople to Adrianople passes IJ miles to 
the northward of the lagoon, but there is no station nearer than 
Chatalja, 4 mil^s farther northwest. 

Coast. — From Manda Tash Burnu to Ambarli village, 5^ miles, 
the coast is cliffy, and fringed by shoal water and foul ground for 
400 yards from the shore. There are several rocks nearly awash 
about 200 yards from the beach, and vessels should be cautious in 
approaching this shore, as the water shoals rapidly. 

To the eastward of Deirmen Burnu Are some white marl cliffs that 
are very conspicuous. 

Kuchuk Chekmejeh Bay (lat. 40° 58' N., long. 28° 46' E.) is 8 
miles eastward of Manda Tash Burnu. The bay affords no protec- 
tion except during northeasterly winds, but the lagoon, which is 
larger than that of Buyuk Chekmejeh, is deep, and, doubtless, at one 



SEA OF MABMARA. 68 

time was a valuable port. The entrance is now reduced to a narrow 
stream, up which a gig may be dragged with difficulty. The south- 
em portion of the lagoon, which is over IJ miles square, has a large 
area of 6 to 10 fathoms water. The northern portion, 3 miles in 
length, is narrower and not so deep. 

Kuchuk CheKmejeh village, which stands at the southeast corner 
of the lagoon, is very small. 

The railway skirts the eastern shore and crosses at the head of the 
lagoon; 1 mile southward of the village, and on the shore, is the 
Chekmejeh Floria Station. 

Landmark. — The Russian military monument, which stands about 
i mile from the shore to the eastward of the village, is a conspicuous 
mark from seaward. 

Anchorage. — There is fair anchorage in Kuchuk Chekmejeh Bay. 
A berth in 12 fathoms, with the Floria Station bearing 45°, is about 
the best. There is no landing in southerly winds. 

Stefano Point, 3 miles southeast of Kuchuk Chekmejeh, and 7 
miles from the entrance of the Bosporus, is a red cliflF 50 feet in 
height. The village of San Stefano, mostly composed of brightly 
colored houses, stands on the western part of the cliflF. 

San Stefano is the most distant of the suburbs of Constantinople 
to the westward, connected by a daily service of rail and steamers. 

Stefano Point Light, fixed and flashing white, 75 feet above high 
water, visible 14 miles, is exhibited from white stone tower located 
about i mile east of Sail Stefano. 

Stefano Shoal. — Vessels bound to the Bosporus generally close 
the land about San Stefano Point, and, in their anxiety to keep out 
of the current setting out of the Bosporus, which, however, does not 
pass within 3 miles of Stefano Point, not infrequently hug the shore 
so much as to ground on the sandbank which extends i mile south- 
eastward of Stefano Lighthouse. From the outer edge, where there 
is 5 fathoms, this bank shoals gradually to the shore. The 3-f athom 
line is 700 yards from the point. 

Buoy. — A red buoy is moored 700 yards from the edge of the shoal, 
with Stefano Point Lighthouse bearing N.N.W. i W., distant about 
1,400 yards. It is not to be relied on. 

Clearing mark. — The western tower of the Selimiyyeh Barracks 
(a huge yellowish building, with a tower at each angle, standing on 
the Skutari shore), in line with the northern and highest summit of 
Chamlija Hill, or Mount Bulghurlu, 68°, will clear Stefano and 
Seraglio Points Shoals in 5^ fathoms. 

Makri Eioi. — The coast forms a bay eastward of Stefano Point, 
and on the eastern side of this, and 2 miles 67° from the lighthouse, 
is Makri Kioi, a growing suburb of StambuL Close to Makri Kioi, 
on the west, are the Government powder mills of Zeitunlik, and 1 



64 MARMARA TOWER — SERAGLIO POINT. 

mile eastward is the gun foundry of Demir Khan, with its immense 
chimney, a conspicuous object on nearing the Bosporus. 

Marmara Tower. — Four miles 67° of San Stefano, the south- 
western angle of Stambul is reached, where the old sea and land walls 
of Constantinople join at the Marmara Tower, a square building on 
the seashore. Immediately behind are the variously shaped towers 
of the old castle, known as Yedi Kule, or Seven Towers. The sea 
walls to Seraglio Point are 3 miles in length. 

Eastward of Stefano Shoal, as far as the Marmara Tower, the 
shore bank extends off for 500 yards, diminishing its distance up to 
Seraglio Point, where.it again stretches seaward for 600 yards. 

Anchorage. — From Stefano Point to Seraglio Point there is good 
anchorage in 7 to 13 fathoms. Off Makri Kioi, and the western part 
of this anchorage, the deeper water is the better holding ground ; near 
Seraglio Point, and under the eastern part of the south walls of the 
city, where sailing vessels usually anchor while awaiting a fair wind 
to enter the Bosporus, deep water, and a mud bottom, will be found 
close to the shore. 

All this anchorage is exposed during southerly or westerly winds, 
but as it is generally used only as a temporary stopping place, it does 
not matter so much, every vessel taking advantage of the first breath 
of south wind to move into the Bosporus. No loading or unloading 
takes place on the south shores of Stambul, except from the local 
. caiques that bring wood or provisions from the shores of the Sea of 
Marmara. 

Seraglio Point (lat. 41° 0' N., long. 28° 59' E.) is surrounded by 
a mud bank which deepens gradually, from 3 feet to 5 fathoms, about 
400 yards, to the southward, and forms a rounded extremity; the 
bank thence gradually approaches the shore northward, which it 
skirts as far as Old Seraglio Point. A vessel, in order to pass round 
Seraglio Point in 5^ fathoms, should keep the highest peak of Mount 
Bulghurlu in range with the western tower of Skutari Barracks, 68°, 
till the great summer palace of Dolma Bagche is well open to the 
eastward of the walls of the Old Seraglio. 

There is a good anchorage near the southwest edge of the bank 
which surrounds Seraglio Point, but in order to be sheltered from the 
strength of the current, which sets along its eastern side, a vessel 
should anchor with Leander Tower in line with the point of the Old 
Seraglio, and never open that tower eastward of it, as the current 
would make it difficult to weigh from a berth outside of that bearing. 

ASIATIC SHORE. 

From Fanous Hill, described in the previous chapter, the Asiatic 
shore of the Sea of Marmara is low. The small river Bairam Dere, 
draining the valley of the same name, falls into the sea 600 yards 



SEA OF MARMARA. 65 

eastward of the hill. Farther on, the hills, on the east side of the 
Bairam Dere, approach the sea, and show cliffs of about 220 feet in 
height; the highest part of these, at the east end, in line with the 
summit of Codja Flamur Hill, 136°, is the clearing mark for Zindjir 
Bozan Banks. Beyond the cliffs the coast, alternately low or cliffy, 
continues its easterly direction for 5 miles to Cape Yuriji or Boz ; the 
hills, rising higher and higher in the interior, are moderately wooded. 

Several shoals, of 14 to 16 feet, rock and sand, lie off this part of 
the coast about 600 yards from the shoue, with deep water inside them. 

Cape Yuri ji or Boz Burnu (lat. 40° 24J' N., long. 26° 55' E.) is 
a triple point, about 70 feet in height. A shoal of 18 feet, about 
400 yards in extent, in a northeasterly and southwesterly direction, 
named Boz Bank, lies nearly 1 mile 292° from the point. The summit 
of Ak Yarlar Dagh, on the Gallipoli Peninsula, just open northward 
of the old lighthouse tower on Fanous Hill, bearing 268° leads north- 
ward of this shoal and of the others that lie to the westward. 

Yuriji Bay. — Eastward of Cape Boz the coast trends southeast 
for 2^ miles, then east for 3^ miles, thence north-northeast 2 miles 
to Kamir or Kamaris, and forms a large bay named Yuriji. Immedi- 
ately beyond Boz Burnu the shore is straight, flat, and sandy, the hills 
standing a little distance from the coast, but at the east end of this 
sandy shore the hills are close to the coast and present precipitous cliffs 
of varied heights, diversified by little sandy coves. From the sea, 
wooded hills appear to rise one over the other with pleasing variety, 
the valleys are cultivated and rich in flocks and herds, and this char- 
acter of coast is maintained to Kamaris. 

There are no dangers in Yuriji Bay, the coast being generally steep- 
to, with the exception of a few rocky islets lying near the shore in some 
places. There is no good anchorage in the bay, the prevailing north- 
easterly wind blowing directly on the coast, while the holding ground 
is bad. 

Village. — The large village of Yuriji is situated If miles from the 
coast, in a fertile valley. Its produce is brought down to one of the 
little sandy bays above mentioned, named Keresli Iskalessi. A large 
quajitity of charcoal is shipped from here. 

Kamir or Kamaris Liman. — At the northern extremity of Yuriji 
Bay is Kamir Liman, a sandy bay about 1 mile across, formed by the 
curving of the coast line to the north -northwest, and terminating in 
Cape Tarsana. Kamir Liman affords protection from northeast 
winds. 

Kamir Chai. — The Kamir River empties itself in the center of 
Kamir Liman. In the winter, the flat land round its mouth is gen- 
erally under water, but in summer exhalations from this plain cause 
much malaria and sickness in the town. The river, which drains the 



66 TABSAVA BUBIOT — ^YUMUBTA ISLET. 

large plains of Kamir Orasi, is of considerable depth and width for 
many miles, and never ceases flowing; in summer a dry bar forms 
across its mouth, through which the water filters to the sea. 

The town (lat. 40^ 25' N., long. 27° 4' E.), named Kamir by the 
Turks and Kamaris by the Greeks, situated on the shore of the bay, 
is a collection of miserable houses on the right bank of the river, 
under a high cliff that stands a short distance back from the coast. 
Kamir contains a population of about 3,000, and possesses one mosque, 
situated on the beach. The part of the bay to the north of the town 
is still called the Arsenal, though no trace exists of any buildings. 
Fine Hellenic walls of white marble may be traced for a great dis- 
tance, probably the ruins of the encircling walls of the old town. A 
theater can also be seen on the hillside facing the northeast, below the 
mill on the point. Heaps of stones, fragments of Roman walls, and 
underground passages abound in the valley to the east of the present 
town. Half a mile up the Kamir Valley two arches span it. The 
ruins of Parium may be seen on the other side of the hill behind the 
town. 

Communication. — Kamir has telegraphic conmiunication with all 
parts. 

Water can be obtained from a fountain in the town, but it is not 
considered good. 

Anchorage. — Good anchorage may be found in Kamir Liman 500 
yards from the shore, in 12 fathoms, mud, with the extremity of 
Tarsann Burnu bearing north and Kamir Minaret 140°. The an- 
chorage is well protected by the land northward and eastward, but 
is open to westerly winds. 

From the point under the conspicuous mill to the left of the town 
the remains of an old mole runs out under water, which must be 
avoided. 

Tarsana Burnu (lat. 40° 2^' N., long. 27"" 4' E.), a white rocky 
point, 26 feet high, extending to the northwest, forms the termina- 
tion of Kamir Liman. The coast line beyond trends southeast for 
^ mile, and then turning northeast, continues generally in the latter 
direction for nearly 2 miles, forming several sandy bays, with rocky 
points and cliffs between. 

Tuzli Islet situated 2 miles northeastward of Tarsana Biirnu, and 
500 yards from the nearest part of the shore, is 125 feet high, and 
composed entirely of white marble. The islet is steep-to and there 
are 7 and 8 fathoms between it and the shore. 

Tumurta Islet. — Eastward of Tuzli Islet the coast forms a shal- 
low bay to another point 1 mile distant. Off this point lies Yumurta 
Islet, 120 feet high, and, like Tuzli, formed of marble, but its appear- 
ance is not so white as the latter. Yumurta is connected with the 



SEA OF MABMABA. 67 

land by a submarine ridge, having just enough water for a boat to 
pass over. A ridge of 5 fathoms extends 400 yards north of the islet. 

Anchorage. — ^A vessel can anchor between Tuzli and Yumurta 
Islets, close to the latter in 13 fathoms, opposite a small valley in 
which two mills in Deirmenjik are visible. In this berth Aksas 
Burnu will appear just to the southward of Yumurta Islet. The 
anchorage affords protection from east winds. 

Coast. — Beyond Yumurta, the coast. extends east, 1^ miles, to Aksas 
Burnu, forming a shallow bay between, broken up into sandy beaches 
and cliffy points. Between Tarsana and Aksas points it is free from 
danger, and deep water will be found 400 yards from the shore, the 
5-f athom ridge north of Yumurta Islet excepted. 

Shah Melik Liman. — From Aksas Burnu, a cliffy bold headland, 
the coast trends southeastward, for 2^ miles, to a small bay called 
Shah Melik Liman, where anchorage in about 13 fathoms can be 
found and protected landing, but the northeast wind brings a good 
deal of swell into the anchorage. Behind Shah Melik Liman the 
country is hilly and uncultivated, with a good deal of brushwood 
cover. 

Aksas village. — The little village of Aksas, inhabited by Greeks, 
stands on the sandy beach to the westward of Shah Melik Liman. 

Kara Burnu (lat. 40*^ 28^' N., long. 27° 17^' E.) is a fine headland, 
6 miles eastward of Aksas Burnu. A few rocks above water, that lie 
100 yards northeast of the point, are steep-to; the cape is otherwise 
clean. Between Kara Burnu and Shah Melik Liman the shore is 
cliffy and steep. 

Kale Burnu is 4J miles 157° from Kara Burnu, the coast between 
being high and cliffy. It is 50 feet in height, and is the sharp termi- 
nation of the promontory forming Karabuga Bay. Excepting some 
rocks awash, 50 yards from the shore, the point is clean. 

Karabuga Bay. — From Kale Burnu the coast runs back westward 
for 1| miles, and then turning south and southeast forms Karabuga 
Bay. 

West of the peninsula, which is edged by a low cliff, the shores of 
the bay are nearly all sandy beach. Chal Tepe, a rounded hill with a 
double summit, stands about 660 yards from the beach on the western 
side, leaving a narrow strip of flat ground between the foot and the 
sea, and forming the northern boundary of the great plain of Biga 
Shehir, down which flows the Biga Shehir Chai. 

Eunning from sea to sea, across the root of the peninsula, are the 
decaying remains of some fine Byzantine walls, the ruined towers on 
which are very conspicuous from the sea. Low walls can also be 
traced round the whole peninsula, and the remains of an ancient 
mole, forming a galley port, are nearly awash off the middle of its 
southern shore. 



70 ABTAKI BAY — ^AIDINJIK. 

produce in the northern valleys. Villages are scattered round the 
shore of the peninsula, Erdek or Artaki, situated on the southwest 
point, being the chief town. 

Of the two great bays formed on either side of the isthmus, the 
western one, Artaki Bay, is the most useful as an anchorage, as the 
northeasterly winds blow home strong into Peramo Bay, the eastern 
one, at all seasons. 

The north side of the peninsula, although steep, is nowhere so 
steep-to as to prevent a ship fi-om anchoring, if drifted in during a 
calm, and numerous sandy bays afford good holding ground in ordi- 
nary breezes. 

Artaki Bay (lat. 40° 22' N., long. 27° 49' E.), on the western side 
of the isthmus, connecting the peninsula to the mainland, is 3 miles 
across at the entrance from Topchu Bumu to Murad Bair, and 4 
miles from east to west. 

It is a capacious anchorage and, excepting in southwesterly winds, 
smooth in all weathers. Holding ground is very good everywhere, 
especially in the deeper water at the northwest portion. South- 
westerly winter gales are ordinarily rare, but when they do occur 
they are heavy. They give, however, ample warning by a fall of the 
barometer and threatenii^g appearance of the sky to the southward. 

Southwest of Murad Bair, and separated by a navigable channel 
^ mile wide, is the rocky and desert island of Towshan Ada. 

By anchoring to southeastward of Murad Bair, communication is 
easy with Artaki town; but for a single ship the anchorage off the 
town itself is preferable for this purpose. 

The land on both sides of Artaki Bay is high. On the southern 
shore the hills rise at once from the beach, but on the peninsula there 
is a stretch of flat land, between the foot of the mountains and the 
bav, which is well cultivated with vines and olives. 

The ancient Cyzicus stood on the fftland and ends on the spurs 
adjoining the isthmus. Though once very large, and richly adorned 
with marble and stone temples and public edifices, but little now re- 
mains. All the larger blocks of marble have been from time to time 
carried off to aid in building Constantinople, and the fragments of 
smaller size have been collected into thick walls, which divide from 
one another the fields and vineyards with which the site of the old 
town is completely covered. There are, however, considerable por- 
tions of the amphitheater left standing which was built across a 
valley 1 mile from the sea. Parts of the walls that faced the isthmus 
also remain. 

The isthmus is mostly swampy on its western side, and on the 
eastern side are low, bare sand hills. 

Aldinjiky a large Turkish village, about 1,350 yards back from the 
south shore, is picturesquely placed on a dip between the hills, which 



SEA OF MARMARA. 71 

divide the seacoast from the elevated plain of the Maniyas Lake, and 
with its minarets is very conspicuous from Artaki Bay. 

Murad Bair (St. Simeon Hill)^ on the point forming the north- 
west termination of Artaki Bay, is very conspicuous in approaching 
from west or north, being 340 feet in height and cone shaped. It has 
a curious crust of marble, overlying other rock, and was in former 
days fortified. The remains of heavy walls and towers still exist on 
the northeastern or land side. 

Towshan Ada (Baonusa), a small, rocky, and arid island, 150 
feet in height, is steep-to on all sides. 

Simeon Channel^ separating Towshan Ada from Murad Bair, is 
nearly J mile in width, with from 10 to 17 fathoms of water, except 
in one spot, nearly on the line joining the summits of Murad Bair 
and Towshan Ada, and 300 yards distant from the shore of the 
former, where there is a rocky patch of 3^ fathoms. In passing 
through this channel, a vessel must therefore hug the island side, 
which is quite steep-to and clear. 

Erdek or Artaki is a considerable place, with a population of 4,000 
to 6,000. There are several mosques with tall and conspicuous 
minarets. It stands at the northern point of a small sandy bay, just 
to the northward of Murad Bair, and occupies the site of the old Greek 
town of Artace. The Kaimakam of the peninsula lives here. 

Communication. — A steam vessel runs here from Constantinople 
once a week, and a telegraph line connects Artaki with Constanti- 
nople via Panderma. 

Zeitin Ada, a small rocky island, lying 270 yards from the shore, 
at Artaki town, is covered with old foundations, and has the remains 
of an old mole extending from its northern point. From the main- 
land point the relics of another mole stretch out for 120 yards toward 
Zeitin Ada. Between these two is a channel 150 yards wide with 
2 fathoms of water, used by native craft. 

Three-fathom Rock. — Five hundred yards southwest of Zeitin 
Ada is a small rocky patch of 3 fathoms, with deep water around it. 

Anchorage. — There is a good anchorage in the bay between Zeitin 
Ada and Murad Bair, both of which are steep-to. Anchor in 10 
fathoms, with the south point of Zeitin Ada bearing N. W. i W. and 
a tall chimney in the center of the bay 84°. 

Coast. — From Artaki the coast trends to the northwest for 7 miles 
to Mutha Point. To Korakhia Point, 3 miles from Artaki, it is low 
and safidy, an extensive plain intervening between it and the foot of 
the hills; but Korakhia Point itself is steep and cliflFy, being the 
termination of a rounded hill called Panar Tepe and from here to 
Rhoda, mountains rise directly from the sea. 

There is good holding ground, in 16 to 20 fathoms, 1 mile off- 
shore, between Artaki and Korakhia Point. 



72 MUTHA POINT — HALKO. 

Gk>nia Bay, from the shore of which rise the steep sides of Mount 
Klapsi^ 2,530 feet high, is on the north side of Panar Tepe. It has a 
considerable area of anchorage ground in from 8 to 17 fathoms, but 
in northeasterly winds, heavy squalls come down the ravines oc- 
casionally, even when there is but a moderate breeze on the north 
side of the peninsula. The village is very small, with a little flat 
land around it. 

Rhoda Channel between the western part of Artaki Peninsula 
and the Island of Pasha Liman, affords access to Artaki Bay from the 
north. It is a little over 1 mile wide at its narrowest part, and free 
from all dangers with the exception of a sand shoal that runs off 
from Mutha Point for 400 yards. 

There is anchorage everywhere in the channel, which is nowhere 
deeper than 20 fathoms. 

Mutha Pointy on which Bhoda village stands, is a low sandy spit, 
difficult to see at night. Off it, as before mentioned, stretches a shoal 
with 5 fathoms 400 yards. Excellent water, brought down from the 
mountains, can be obtained from a mill at Rhoda. 

There is fair anchorage south of Rhoda village, in about 16 
fathoms water, but by far the best anchorage is 1 mile to the north in 
Palios Bay. 

Palios Bay has excellent holding ground and is well protected 
from the northeast. The best spot for anchoring is midway between 
Palios and Glaromiti Points, in 12 fathoms. 

Palios (Palaio) Point Lights two fixed red, 131 feet above high 
water, visible 6 miles, is exhibited from a mast on a white house 
located on the west point of Artaki Peninsula. 

Harakhi Pointy also bold and high, is the northwest point of 
Artaki Peninsula, and i mile north of the lighthouse on Palios Point. 
A rocky shoal extends to the westward 200 yards. 

From here the coast trends northe?istward 2 miles and is bordered 
by rocks and shoal ground. 

Likos Bocky 400 yards from the shore, 1 mile northeast of Ha- 
rakhi Point, has only 4 feet of water on it, and does not generally 
show. There is shoal water 200 yards outside the rock. When turn- 
ing to windward, by tacking before the summit of the peninsula of 
Hukhlia, in Pasha Liman Island, disappears over Harakhi Point, a 
vessel will be clear of the rock., 

Halko is a small island, 120 feet high, lying 600 yards from the 
Artaki shore and If miles from Harakhi Point. There are several 
rocks around it, but all are above water. The channel inside Halko 
is obstructed by patches of 2 fathoms. 

Pavlimi Bay is too open to the northeast to be of much use as ian 
anchorage. Its eastern side is shoaL 



SEA OF MABMARA. 73 

Drakontas Bay^ 1^ miles east of Halko and separated from Fay- 
limi Bay by a narrow mountain spur, is the best anchorage on the 
north side" of the peninsula. It is a square bay, ^ mile long by a 
little less wide, and is open to the north ; the eastern shore, however, 
curves round so as to give protection against northeasterly winds 
to a vessel anchoring in 13 fathoms, mud, with the eastern extreme 
of the bay 14° and the few houses in the southeast corner of the bay 
bearing 118°. Drakontas village lies up the valley, the lower part 
of which is well cultivated. 

Vathi Bay, 2 miles east of Drakontas, is a rectangular-shaped 
inlet, f mile in each direction and open to the northeastward. The 
village, which is small, is in the southwest part of the bay. 

Its shores are steep, with no dangers, and the spurs that form its 
sides dip precipitously to the sea. Inside the line of the points there 
is good holding ground, anywhere in 10 to 20 fathoms, but the best 
berth is toward the southeast corner, in 14 fathoms, muddy sand, 
with the eastern point of the bay bearing 33°, the chapel on a spur 
north of the village, 258°, and the western point of the/ bay, 331°, 
but with a northeasterly wind of any strength there will be some 
sea here, and, despite its superior size, Vathi is not such a good 
anchorage as Drakontas. 

From the sandy beach at the head of the bay a fertile valley, nearly 
flat, runs back f mile, but is surrounded by abrupt spurs of the 
mountains. 

Coast. — From Vathi Bay the coast, which is very picturesque, the 
mountains being of good shape and well clothed with trees and 
bushes, trends generally 101° for 11 miles, cliffy and steep, with the 
mountain spurs rising abruptly from the water. There are many 
small sandy bays, but none of sufficient depth to give any protection 
to a large vessel; in the eastern corners boats can land and caiques 
obtain shelter. A ship can anchor nearly anywhere in 12 to 20 
fathoms between 250 yards and i mile from the shore, bottom vary- 
ing between mud, sand, and gravel; the deeper water the better 
holding ground. 

Eapsala Bumu (lat. 40° 29' N., long. 28° 2' E.), the eastern point 
of the Artaki Peninsula, is cliffy and has a rocky ledge running off 
northeastward 400 yards. 

Coast. — From Kapsala Burnu the shore trends south-southwest- 
ward for li miles to Moda Bumu, and then turns southwest by 
west into Peramo Bav. 

Pasha Liman Group consists of four islands, lying west of Ar- 
taki Peninsula. The surfaces of all of them are very broken, and 
their shores rocky, except in the bays, which have sandy beaches. 
172982°— 20 ft 



74 PASHA LIMAl^ — CAPE KUKUMAB. 

'Pasha Liman, the largest and easternmost, possesses an excellent 
harbor and is well cultivated with vines. The other islands are only 
cultivated in the vicinity of their little villages and are otherwise 
covered with grass or scanty bush. 

Kutali Road, between Kutali and Arablar Islands, is a good anchor- 
age in northerly winds and much frequented during the winter by 
sailing vessels, waiting for a change, to get eastward. 

Pasha Liman is separated from Artaki Peninsula by the Bhoda 
Channel. Its shape is irregular, and the southeastern portion, where 
the village of Hukhlia is located, forms a peninsula, only connected to 
the main island by a narrow and low isthmus. The length of the is- 
land is, from northwest to southeast, 5 miles and its breadth 3f miles. 
The surface is very varied ; the hills are mostly rounded, and at the 
northern extremity the symmetrically conical hill of Mount Elias, 
700 feet high, is very conspicuous from all sides ; it is also the highest 
point of the group. On the Alichi Isthmus are some disused salt pans. 

There are several small islands lying off the shores of Pasha Liman, 
of which Kuyus Adasi, the largest, forms, with a deep indentation 
into the main island, the secure port of Pasha Liman Harbor, and 
anchorage is to be had in any of the bays in the island, but they are 
all open from some direction, and holding ground is not good. 

There are five villages on Pasha Liman, all small and miserable. In 
Pasha Liman, on the eastern shore of the harbor, there are a few 
Turks, and this is the residence of the Mudir, the governor of the 
group ; the other villages are all exclusively Greek. Wine is the prin- 
cipal production, and the larger part of the island is covered with 
vines. 

Excepting a few olives, there is not a tree on the island. The gray 
partridge is to be found in considerable numbers. 

A steamer from Constantinople is supposed to call at Pasha Liman 
once a week, on her way to Artaki, but during the winter the island is 
sometimes weeks without any communication with the metropolis. 

Pasha Liman Harbor is secure from all winds and has sufficient 
room for a squadron, the anchorage ground being 1^ miles long by i 
mile wide, with moderate and fairly uniform depth and a good hold- 
ing mud bottom. Entrance is easy from the north and not difficult, 
with a fair wind, from the west. 

With a southwesterly gale a little swell will come in through the 
west pass, which will affect vessels in that line, but not to any great 
extent. 

Cape Kukumar (lat. 40° 31' N., long. 27° 36' E.), the northwest 
point of Pasha Liman, is a bold headland to look at, but has a rocky 
ledge running off it to southwestward for over 300 yards. 



SEA OF MARK ABA. 75 

From this southward the bank on the eastern side of the harbor is 
narrow, and follows the shoi*e up to the town, where it turns across 
and fills up all the i mile at the bottom of the bay. 

Glarozniti Point is low, and has shoal water extending from it 
for over 400 yards. 

Middle Ground is a shoal patch, 300 yards in length, with only 
9 feet on it. It lies on the line between Glaromiti Point and Pasha 
Liman village, i mile from the former, and though it partly spoils 
the harbor, it protects vessels lying in the southern part of it from 
the swell which enters during a southwesterly gale. It does not show, 
and must be carefully avoided in picking up a berth. 

Fairway Patchy a small rocky patch, with 18 feet water on it, in 
the west pass, midway between Glaromiti Point and South Centre 
Island, greatly spoils that entrance, being situated in the middle of 
the channel and generally not visible.. Vessels must pass southward 
of the bank; the leading mark is given hereafter, but is not easily 
made out. 

Kuyus Adasiy which forms the northwestern side of Pasha Liman 
Harbor, is a narrow rocky island covered with grass. It is 2 miles in 
length north and south, including the Islet of Mamalia, which lies 
to the north, and is only separated by a shallow opening a few yards 
wide. The rounded hillocks which crown its ridge rise to 415 feet 
at the north end and 295 feet at the south. The latter hill is covered 
with large white erratic bowlders, looking like a flock of sheep. 

There is a narrow rocky ledge all round the island, which widens off 
the southern end into a very shallow bank, extending nearly 600 yards 
to the south into the west pass, and 800 yards to the east into the 
harbor; it is steep on all sides, and can generally be seen, but has 
patches of only 6 feet in many places. 

Centre Islands are two small flat-topped islets, standing on the 
eastern edge of the last-mentioned bank. The southern and largest, 
50 feet high, is useful as a leading mark on entering the harbor from 
the north. 

Directions. — ^North. Pass is clear of danger, with the exception 
of the rocky ledge extending from Cape Kukumar Pasha Liman 
Island. 

To enter' by this channel, bring the west peak of Pasha Liman, a 
well-defined hill, 380 feet in height, in range with the eastern edge of 
South Centre Island bearing 190°. This will lead in mid-channel, 
and when Cape Kukumar bears 81° steer 177° for the windmill, stand- 
ing on the beach, just west of Alonyi village, and anchor as convenient. 

"West Pass is narrow and encumbered with -banks, but a depth of 
7 fathoms can be carried in bv attention to the marks. In usinsr this 
entrance, bring the northern high house in Pasha Liman village in 



76 PANAGIA — ^ABABLAR ISLAND. 

range with a ruined mill, on the ridge behind the town, bearing 85*^, 
This will lead midway between Fairway Patch and the shoal water 
extending from Glaromiti Point, and when the North Centre Island 
is open clear, to the east of the south one, steer as convenient for an 
anchorage. 

In consequence of the construction of several houses to the north of 
Pasha Liman village, the leading mark for West Pass has become 
difficult to distinguish. 

Fanagia^ a small island, 115 feet high, with a smooth grassy top, 
lying 800. yards to the westward of the southwest point of Pasha 
Liman, is surrounded by a shallow bank, in most directions, for 
about 300 yards, but its western or seaward point is steep-to. A 
shoal bank also connects it with a small islet (30 feet high) which 
lies 600 yards from the south point. 

The channel between Panagia and Argero Point, nearly 600 yards 
wide, is navigable. Shoal water extends about 150 yards from the 
points on either side, but it is otherwise clear and steep. 

Arablar Channel, between Arablar and Pasha Liman Islands, is 
1 mile wide at its narrowest part, and perfectly clear. At the north 
end the points are steep-to, but off the southwestern point of Kuyus 
Adasi and off Yalipliman Point in Arablar, the 5-f athom line extendi* 
400 yards. 

Arablar (Aflsia) Island is about the same size as Pasha Liman. 
Its surface is very broken, hills craggy and bare, and cultivation 
only exists in a few of the valleys and near the Turkish village of 
Arablar, on the east coast, and Afisia, the Greek village, on the west 
coast, both poor, but the latter is the better of the two. 

There is no harbor in Arablar Island, and, though protection may 
be found from northeast winds off Afisia^ a better, and in many re- 
spects handier, anchorage will be obtained in Kutali Koad. 

Shoals. — ^The shores of Arablar are generally rocky, with foul and 
shoal ground extending 100 to 300 yards, but on the northern side 
this stretches farther. 

Off a small point on the north coast, midway between Voli Point 
and Marmara Point, the shallow water extends 375 yards to the 
northeast, with a small islet 15 feet high on it, and farther to the 
northeast, 800 yards from the shore, is a rocky patch, with only 24 
feet water, surrounded by depths of 9 fathoms. 

Between Voli Point and Afisia village, the 3-f athom bank stretches 
a long way to the northwest. 

Boun Rock, a small rocky islet, 20 feet high, in the southern part 
of the channel between Arablar and Kutali, is connected to the 
Arablar shore by a 9-f athom bank, which stretches off from the low 
sandy point, north of Afisia village, on which there is a conspicuous 
mill. It is situated 1 mile from the shore of Arablar and IJ miles to 



SEA OF MARMARA. 77 

the northward of Pandjar Point, and is surrounded by a rocky shoal, 
which extends 400 yards northeast and 100 yards northwest, or on 
the passage side. 

Seven hundred yards to the northeast is a rocky patch of 24 feet, 
but as this lies in the direction of the north point of Arablar it is no 
obstruction to navigation. 

Kutali Bead Light, fixed white, 49 feet above high water, visible 
12 miles, is exhibited from a white iron tower over a house located 
on Roun Rock off Arablar Island in Kutalia Road. 

Ekinik (Kutali) is a small and narorw island lying } mile north- 
westward of Arablar. It is 2 miles long by 800 yards wide, and the 
shores are all rocky or cliffy. St. Elias Hill, with rounded sides and 
a flat summit, rises to 500 feet on the western side of the island, the 
center and eastern portion of it being much lower. The town stands 
in the center of the southern side of the island, and formerly possessed 
a good deal of small shipping, plying in the Marmara and neighbor- 
ing seas, but its trade has now much decreased. 

Water. — There is a good fountain of water, but being on the north 
side of the island it is all but inaccessible to boats. 

Kutali Channel, between Arablar and Kutali Islands, is not 
available for vessels of over 23 feet draft of water, as a bank of 24 
feet connects the two islands. The channel is, moreover, consider- 
ably narrowed by banks of 3 fathoms, which extend from both shores, 
and from the eastern point of Kutali, but is much used by sailing 
vessels trading to Constantinople in the winter, as they generally 
take this route when going eastward, especially with a westerly wind. 
Starting from the Dardanelles in the morning, a large number of 
these vessels frequently anchor in Kutali Road in the evening, either 
to await daylight for their further advance or when fearing a change 
in the direction of the wind. 

On the Kutali side, the shallow bank stretches 300 yards south of 
Kalolimionos Point, and is here, and up to Kutali village, exceed- 
ingly steep. One-fourth of a mile eastward of the point it runs with- 
in 100 yards of the shore, and then again increases its distance, till 
157° of the village it forflis a narrow horn projecting J mile. East- 
ward again of this it maintains a width of about 400 yards, which is 
also the distance to which a rocky ledge called Hudro Plaka extends 
southeastward of St. Triada, the eastern point of Kutali. The cur- 
rent makes a very distinct ripple on the Hudro Plaka Ledge. 

On the Arablar side of the channel, off Voli Point, the 3-fathom 
edge extends only 100 yards from the shore. From here it trends 
westerly for f mile, where it is 800 yards from the Arablar shore; 
it then turns sharply to the south, and runs into the coast at the low 
sandy point north of Afisia. 



78 KUTAU ROAD — MAHMARA ISLAND. 

No leading mark can be given for passing through Kutali Channel, 
but a course in mid-channel, steering 70°, will take a vessel of 23 feet 
draft clear of danger, if attention be paid to keep well in the center. 

The current runs about west, and will edge a vessel over toward 
the Kutali side ; but unless going very slowly, it will hardly be felt 
in the short distance. 

Rocky Patch, 1 mile southeastward from Kalolimionos Point, is 
a rocky patch, about 300 yards in diameter, with 24 feet on it. 

Kutali Road is a good anchorage in northeast winds and much 
frequented in the winter by sailing vessels. The anchorage, in 6 to 
10 fathoms, sandy mud, is situated south of the village, and west- 
ward of the 3-f athom horn before mentioned. 

The best berth is in 8 fathoms, with. the west end of the village 
bearing 348°, and a red-roofed mill on the point immediately east of 
the town, in line with a hill 170 feet high on the north point of Kutali, 
bearing 45°. There is a little swell here in strong northeasterly winds 
but nothing to aflfect a ship with good ground tackle. In southwest- 
erly gales Kutali Boad affords no protection, and should be avoided. 
In this case a vessel should run for Pasha Liman. 

Khairsiz Ada^ or Ayansha, is a barren rock of a gray color, 330 
feet high and about 1,200 yards in length, lying westward of the 
northwest point of Marmara Island, from which it is, separated by a 
channel If miles in breadth, with 35 to 45 fathoms of water. 

Marmara Island^ Mermer Adasi of the Turks, is the principal 
island of the sea to which it gives its name. It is 10 miles in length 
from east to west, 5^ miles in breadth, and lies 40 miles 78° from 
Gallipoli Lighthouse, 20 miles southward of Bodosto, and 5 miles 
northwest of Artaki Peninsula. 

The island is mountainous throughout. The summits of the double 
chain of hills, which extend more or less from east to west, are fre- 
quently seen from Gallipoli, and serve as a mark for vessels navigate 
ing to or from the westward. It is divided into two distinct geological 
portions, the northern half from Galimi Village to Beyaz Burnu 
being all of white marble, with scarcely any soil on it. The hills are 
angular, the valleys abrupt, and, excepting ^t the bottom of the latter, 
there is no vegetation or cultivation. The southern half of the island 
is of a slaty rock, with occasional patches of granite, and the valleys 
and lower slopes are well cultivated and fertile. The mountains of 
this portion, which are higher than the northern, are craggy, but have 
good downs amongst their summits. Psili Dagh, the highest peak, 
is a long ridge, which shows as a peak only from a northeast or south- 
west direction. It is 2,320 feet high. 

The celebrated marble quarries in the northeastern part of the 
island, which have been worked in all historic times, and of which the 
ornamental buildings of all towns on the Marmara have been built, 



J 



I 

SEA OF MAEMABA. 79 

are still worked, but on a very small scale compared with the works of 
former years. The debris from the quarries have formed on the 
shores of Mermerjik Bay a steep white slope, very conspicuous froiA 
the northward. 

Villages. — There are six small villages in Marmara, all on the 
coast. The shores of the island are steep and free from danger, with 
the exception of the Laza Rock in Klazati Bay. The water off the 
north and west shores is very deep. 

Anchorages. — On the south side vessels can anchor in any of the 
small bays, but heavy squalls, which vary considerably in their direc- 
tion, come off the land, and the anchorage bank is narrow and gener- 
ally steep; The best anchorage, on the south shore, is off St. George's 
Monastery, in the eastern part of Klazati Bay, in about lj5 fathoms, 
with the monastery bearing 33°. 

Marmara channels. — Marmara Island divides the sea of Mar- 
mara into two channels. The northern, between the island and the 
European shore, is 10 miles wide and free from danger, and used by 
nearly all vessels bound to the Bosporus during the finer season of the 
year. 

The southern channel, known as Marmara Channel, between Mar- 
mara Island and the Pasha Liman group, 3 miles wide at its narrowest 
part, and nearly as clear as the northern one, is much used in the 
winter by vessels going eastward, starting with fair winds, as south- 
erly winds are believed to be more frequent on that shore. There are 
also good anchorages handy in case of bad weather, but the westerly 
going current runs much stronger south of Marmara than to the 
north, and with northeast winds the wider north channel is to be 
preferred. 

Dangers. — The shores are everywhere steep-to, with the following 
exceptions : The 4-f athom patch, lying 900 yards off the middle point 
on the north side of Arablar, and which is only a danger to vessels of 
heavy draft ; and the Laza Rock off Klazati Bay in Marmara. 

The southern channel is by no means a bad route when going from 
Constantinople to the Dardanelles, in clear weather, as by adopt- 
ing it the stream of steamers coming in the opposite' direction through 
the north channel is avoided. The light on Fanar Adasi is a good 
guide for entering the channel, and the south points of Marmara are 
bold and easily seen at night. 

Marmara village is on the site of the ancient town, of which no 
remains exist. The anchorage is not good, and the foregoing remarks 
with regard to squalls refer especially to this bay, which is backed by 
high and abrupt mountains. There is good water to be had in the 
town, but in a dry summer the supply is scarce. 

Laza Rocky situated 800 yards 168° from the eastern point of Kla- 
zati Bay, is very small and surrounded by deep water. It has 9 feet 



80 PALATIA BAY — MOLA ISLAND. 

on it, but never shows, and there is 28 fathoms between it and the 
shore. It is only a danger to vessels hugging the shore, or running 
for an anchorage in Klazati Bay. The south part of Kutali Island 
kept open of Venetico Point 254° will lead south of the Laza Rock. 

Falatia Bay is an inlet on the northeast part of the island in the 
neighborhood of the quarries. The northeast wind blows home, but 
there is protection in the eastern part in 6 fathoms, with the left 
extreme of the point to the northward, bearing 22°, and the 
northern end of the long sandy beach 98°. The village is poor, in- 
tensely hot in summer, and water is scarce, but there is a good well at 
Ay loanni Monastery, a little way inland. 

Mermerjik Bay^ an inlet immediately east of Palatia, is entirely 
open to the northeast. There was formerly a village in the eastern 
corner, but the quarries are now so little worked that it has been 
long deserted. 

Nisi Island, with its surrounding rocks and islets, is cliffy and 
sterile, and has a boat channel between it and the main. 

Fanar Adasi, a marble islet lying 1,200 yards east of Beyaz 
Burnu, the eastern point of Marmara, is 100 feet high and steep-to on 
all sides, except on the west, where shoal water with some rocks awash 
extend for nearly 400 yards. 

Marmara Island Light, alternating fixed and flashing with a 
red flash, 134 feet above high water, visible 15 miles, is exhibited from 
a white quadrangular stone tower located oflf the east point on Fanar 
Adasi Islet. 

Mola Islands, three in number, lie off Kapsala Burnu, the eastern 
point of Artaki Peninsula, from which Ay Andrea, the nearest, is 
IJ miles southeastward. The islands are all rocky and have outlying 
rocks in several directions. Ay Andrea, the largest, is 200 feet high 
and nearly f mile in its extreme length. Ay Georgios and Mexa are 
about J the size of the other, and are, respectively, 150 and 110 feet 
high. 

A^ia Petra is a sunken rock awash, lying f mile 137° from Mexa. 
It seldom shows, and is separated from Mexa by a 15-f athom channel 
1 mile wide. 

Anchorage. — There is capital anchorage under the Molas in 
northeast winds, in about 14 fathoms with the left extreme of Ay 
Andrea bearing 334°, and the right extreme of Mexa 98°. The bot- 
tom is mud with coralline lying on its surface, which alone the lead 
will bring up. 

An 8-f athom bank, which extends off the southwest point of Mola, 
is not so good, being mostly of sand. 

Feramo Bay, the eastern gulf formed by the peninsula of Artaki, 
is 7 miles long and 3^ miles wide. It is fully exposed to the north- 



— 4 



SEA OF MARMARA. 81 

east winds, from which there is no protection, excepting in two small 
anchorages on the Artaki side. 

Villages. — On the peninsula are the villages of Muhania, near the 
eastern point, Peramo, which gives the bay its name, 2 miles f ai'ther 
west, and Ermeni Kioi, 2 miles east of the isthmus. These are all 
thriving little places. The jfirst has a small mole to protect caiques, 
and at Peramo the shape of the bay also affords good shelter. Yeni 
Kioi, at the peninsula side of the isthmus, is a mere hamlet. 

The town of Panderma and the small villages of Mamun and Dut 
Liman are situated on the south shore of Peramo Bay, which is mostly 
steep-to. 

Anchorages. — Kum Liman, halfway between the villages of 
Peramo and Ermeni Kioi, has a considerable area of anchorage 
ground, in 11 to 18 fathoms, mud, and the point of Velar Burnu 
affords a little protection in northeast winds, but they, draw too far 
east to prevent all swell from coming in. There is a good streaEm in 
St. Athanasius Valley, the western valley of Kum Liman. * / 

There is a better anchorage in the bay east of Ermeni Kioi, into 
which the swell does not fetch so much, in 14 fathoms, with the point 
immediately eastward of it and Kalin Burnu in line, atid a smaH-'bliffy. 
point in the bay bearing north. 

Panderma (lat. 40° 21^' N., long. 27° 58 J' E.), a large town with 
a mixed population of 17,000, stands on the slope of the hill facing 
the west, in a small bay in the southernmost part of Peramo Bay. 
The exports are wool, cotton, opium, valonia, sheep, cattle, and 
cereals to Constantinople, arid a certain amount of boracite ore from 
some mines on the upper Moalitch; and the imports consist of calico, 
woolen and linen goods, iron, copper, steel, tin, coffee, and sugar. 
The town is advantageously placed, as the land at the back of Pan- 
derma Bay is the lowest in the neighborhood ; | mile inland it rises 
to 260 feet and then slopes almost imperceptibly to the shores of Lake 
Maniyas, 6 miles inland. West of this dip rise the bare rounded hills 
of Deleki Bair, 1,150 feet high, and to the eastward the spurs slope 
steadily up to the higher mountains of Kara Dagh. 

A few English steamers and some Greek vessels of small size call 
every year for cargo for Europe, and steamers ply between Constanti- 
nople and Panderma daily. There is also telegraphic communication 
with Constantinople, Brusa, Artaki, and the Dardanelles, telegrams 
being sent in any European language. 

Anchorage. — There is good anchorage off the town, in about 11 
fathoms, but in strong northeast winds a heavy sea fetches in. A 
small mole protects small craft only. The breakwater is destroyed, 
the head which is under water being marked by a post. 



82 MANIYAS GESITL. 

Two quays, 1,000 and 500 feet long, respectively, and a jetty 600 
feet long with a^ depth of 8 fathoms at its end, are being constructed, 
as well as three smaller jetties. 

Supplies. — ^About 1,000 tons of coal was imported annually, 100 
tons being usually kept in stock, but is not for sale. Liquid fuel 
could be obtained. Fresh provisions could be purchased; also good 
water. 

Maniyas Oeiil, a large sheet of water, 10 miles long from east to 
west, with a breadth of 7 miles, stands on an extensive plain, which 
also contains Abuliona Geul, and is bounded on the north by the hilly 
country bordering the Sea of Marmara and on the south by high 
mountains far inland. Eastward the plain extends to the slopes of 
Olympus. There are many small villages and farms in this plain, 
which is, however, mainly under grass and supports a large quantity 
of cattle. The Maniyas Lake, which abounds with fish and is the 
resort of thousands of waterfowl in the winter, has for its outlet 
the river called the Kara Su, which falls into the Moalitch a little 
below Moalitch town, and would probably be navigable for boats of 
light draft were it cleared of trees and snags. 

CofUst. — Eastward of Panderma the coast line trends eastward for 
24 miles to the mouth of the Moalitch* To within 6 miles of the 
river the shore is rocky and for the most part precipitous, the land 
rising rapidly to Kara Dagh, 2,730 feet high, the summit of the 
wooded range which backs all this piece of coast. 

At a small village called Yeni Kioi, 6 miles west of the Moalitch, 
the hills rejfcire from the sea 1^ miles, leaving a perfectly flat plain 
between them and the low sandy shore, which is for the most part 
inundated in winter. 

The villages on this coast are small and wretched. A quantity of 
firewood is cut for use at Constantinople. 

Anchorage.- — There is no protection, even for caiques, except off 
the small village of Dut Liman, built on a low promontory 4 miles 
east of Panderma, where the natural configuration of the land is aided 
by a small mole, and the holding ground is good; but vessels can 
anchor anywhere on this coast from i to J mile from the shore, in 
from 10 to 20 fathoms. Holding ground varies, but is generally good 
mud; off Kurshunlu village especially, the mud is very stiff, and 
from here eastward, the anchorage ground widens considerably. 

Moalitch or Susurlu Chai (lat. 40° 24' N., long. 28° 31' E.) 
flows through the center of a broad plain, and falls into the sea 7 
miles south of Kalolimno Island, which has probably been pushed 
out by the river itself, and now projects 2 miles northward of the hills, 
through which the river finds its way, making a low rounded point 
in the coast line. The narrow pass in the hills, through which the 
river runs, is open when bearing 202°, and plainly visible from sea- 



SEA OF MARMABA. 88 

ward. The plain extends 4 miles on either side of the river. On it 
are large lagoons and swamps, which swarm with wild fowl in the 
winter. 

The mouth of the river at the extremity of the point (Sazkaveh 
Burnu) is about 200 yards wide, and may bcJ distinguished by a coffee 
house (the only house on the shore for miles), which .stands on the 
western side of the entrance. 

Bar. — ^The position of the bar varies, and the depth of water on it 
ranges from 8 to 7 feet. A man from the coffee house waves a flag in a 
manner which, to the initiated, conveys information as to the deepest 
channel, but without knowing the meaning of his signs, they are not 
of much assistance. When there is much water in the river, and con- 
sequently a strong current running out, a very slight wind from the 
north raises a roll on the bar, which is dangerous to deeply laden boats. 

Ascending the river to Vavara, 5 miles, a depth of 6 feet will be 
found in all seasons, but in summer shallows extend across from bank 
to bank, which prevent all but very small boats passing, and here 
caiques load and unload. From October to May, when the river is 
full, craft drawing 5 feet can pass up to the town of Moalitch, 13 
miles in a straight line from the entrance, or to Lake Apollonia. 

The Apollonia River, which flows from the lake, joins the Moalitch 
proper 10 miles from the coast, and is deeper and larger than the 
main riveri 

The Kara Su, which drains Lake Maniyas, joins the Moalitch 2^ 
miles above the other junction. The river is obstructed by snags and 
fallen trees, but could probably be made navigable if required. 

At Moalitch town, a large place standing on a low hill in the plain 
south of the coast ranges, there is a shallow part of the river, where 
once stood a mill dam. 

Anchorage. — There is good holding ground on the extensive mud 
flat, which is formed by and extends off the Moalitch for 2 niiles. A 
berth in 7 fathoms, with the coffee house bearing 236°, will be found 
convenient, as from there the river is open, and boats can be watched 
crossing the bar. 

A good deal of swell comes in with a northeasterly wind, but vessels 
have ridden out a fresh gale without moving their anchors, and it was 
found that the thick river water lessened the sea considerably. 

Abuliona (Apollonia Lake) y . about 13 miles from east to west 
and about 6 miles in breadth, is shallow, having nowhere more than 
2f fathoms as far as sounded, and its southwestern shores are edged 
with thick reeds to such an extent that it is impossible to determine 
where the true shore lies. The area submerged varies greatly with 
the season in this portion, but the north and southeastern shores are 
permanent. The lake is fed by the Adirnas Chai, which empties 



84 KALOLIMNO ISLAND — W^ST BAY. 

through the reedy swamps in the southwest portion, and the town 
of Apollonia is on a peninsula toward its eastern end. 

To the west of the lake stretches the wide plain through which the 
Moalitch runs and which also includes Lake Maniyas: The north is 
undulating ground, rising gradually from the lake, while to the south 
and east, high hills, spurs of Olympus, come more or less close to the 
borders of the lake. . 

Ealolimno (Imrali Island) lies 7 miles to the north of the 
Moalitch Eiver, and 10 miles to the westward of Boz Burnu, on an 
extensive bank of soundings, which affords good anchorage ground 
on all sides of the island. It is 3J miles in length from north to 
south and IJ in breadth at the widest part. The surface of the 
island is much broken, the highest peak, a sharp conical one, 690 feet 
high, being at the northern extremity, which is of a hammer-head 
shape, and thereby affords protection in northerly winds to the baj^s 
on either side of the island. It is inhabited entirely by Greeks, and 
generally goes by its Romaic name of Kalolimno. 

Its shores teem with fish, but being situated to leeward of Con- 
stantinople, both as regards the prevailing wind and the current, 
prevents any trade in such a perishable article. A considerable por- 
tion of the island is cultivated, prominence being given to the pro- 
duction of onions. Enough wine for the use of the populace is 
made from grapes grown on the slopes above the town,' which is a 
small and dirty place, built on the north shore of the eastern bay, 
and bears the same name as the island. 

East Bank. — Off the eastern side of the island a sand and-eoral 
tank with from 16 to 20 fathoms water on it, stretches 6J miles 
southeast. 

Anchorage. — East Bay is the best anchorage in ordinary summer 
weather when the northeasterly winds, though fresh, are not suffi- 
ciently strong to be feared; but in the heavy gales of winter the 
western bay is preferable. Milos Point, on which are three mills, 
bearing 40°, and the eastern extremity of the town 348°, is a good 
berth in 10 fathoms, sand and mud, with fair holding ground, 400 
yards distant from the town. 

The native caiques lie close to the town, inside a small breakwater. 

West Bay has the disadvantage of being open to the westward, 
but is a very good place in northerly and northeasterly winds. The 
bottom is sand only, but it holds well. With a heavy northeasterly 
gale and sea, the anchorage here will be quiet, and the wind seldom 
shifts from that quarter to the westward. 

The western extreme of the island bearing 11°, and a small house 
in the bight of the bay 112°, is a good position, in 7 fathoms, but a 
small vessel can go farther in with advantage. 



SEA OF MABMABA. 85 

West Bank.-7-The bank of shoal water on the west side of the 
island also extends a considerable distance from the land, the 10- 
f athom line being as much as 2^ miles from the shore of West Bay. 

Dangers. — At a distance of 2 miles west-northwest from Agios 
Elias Point are some 9-f athom patches of sand and coral. 

Lena Reef. — From Lena Point, the low southern extreme of the 
island, a narrow spit of sand and coral with patches of less thun 6 
feet water extends 213° 2 miles, where the depth falls suddenly ixom 
2 to 20 fathoms. This reef is nearly always visible, and the current 
frequently races over and round it, creating overfalls, which b^lp 
to loark its position. 

Coast— Eskel Liman (lat. 40° 22' N., long. 28° 40' E.).— From 
the Moalitch the shore trends east-southeastward for 7 miles to Eskel 
Liman, a small bay, where a vessel can anchor in fine weather and 
where there is good landing at a small breakwater at all times. 

From Utgu Bumu, the eastern point of Eskel Liman, the coast 
becomes cliffy and steep, the spurs and ridges from the high land of 
Kuzghunjuk Bair stretching to the very shore. The shore line trends 
in a general easterly direction, for 10 miles to Mudania, diversified 
by a few insignificant bays and the villages of Trilia and Sii. Off 
this coast there is no anchorage. 

Injir Liman (Oulf of Mudania) is a broad and open gulf, 
formed by the lofty peninsula of Boz, projecting to the westward 17 
miles from Gemlik, which is situated at the head of the gulf. 

The water is deep throughout, and in the whole of its 40 miles of 
coastline th^re are but two fair anchorages — one close to the south- 
eastward of Boz Burnu, the other at Gemlik — for though Mudania 
is used as the port of Brusa, and has most of the trade, the anchorage 
is very inconvenient, not to say unsafe, and the same may be said of 
the other spots where there is room to drop the anchor. A short but 
heavy swell gets up with any fresh wind, and heavy squalls come off 
the mountains from all directions. If running for shelter in a north- 
erly gale, the anchorage under Boz Burnu, off Armudli, will be found 
convenient and safe and much less out of the way than Gemlik. 

The gulf is surrounded by mountains on all sides, mostly bare or 
covered with stunted brushwood, but the higher peaks, such as those 
in the. center of the Boz Peninsula and the lofty Kieulu Dagh to the 
eastward of the gulf, are well clad with pine forests. The Mysian 
Olympus, named by the Turks Keshish Dagh, with its long and 
generally snowclad ridge, 8,190 feet above the sea, and at the foot of 
which stands Brusa, is conspicuous in the south. 

There are numerous small villages on or near the shore. The 
valleys round the gulf are very beautiful and fertile, and are for 
the most part cultivated, mulberry trees predominating. 



86 MUDANIA — ^BRUSA. 

In the mountains of the Boz Peninsula are bears and deer, but they 
are not easily found. 

Arnaut Bumu (lat. 40° 23' N., long. 28'' 52' E.), the point west 
of Mudania, is a conical headed eminence, 370 feet in height, which 
shows well on approaching from the westward. A road which winds 
round, and halfway to the summit, serves also to distinguish it. 

Mudania, on the south shore of the gulf, is 10 miles south-south- 
eastward from Boz Burnu. It is built on a fiat shore, backed immedi- 
ately by well-cultivated hills, and the vicinity is populous, Mudania 
itself having a population of about 4,000 or 6,000. 

From here a well-kept macadamized road leads to Brusa, 14 miles; 
there is also a railway. The road ascends for the first 5 miles, where 
it crosses the hills 1,000 feet above the sea. It then dips to the broad 
Brusa plain, about 200 feet above the sea, and crossing the Ulfer Chai 
rises again gently to Bi-usa 600 feet. 

The port of Mudania is entirely open and loading is performed by 
lighters, which in bad weather is impossible. There is a pier belong- 
ing to the railway company. The depth of water alongside is about 
22 feet. A rocky shoal situated about 100 yards northwest of the 
wooden railway pier at Mudania is marked by a small red buoy 
moored outside it. 

Communication.' — Steamers run between Constantinople and Mu- 
dania three times a week in summer and twice a week in winter. One 
train runs daily each way over the railway between Mudania and 
Brusa. There are also numerous carriages and vehicles of all descrip- 
tions to convey travelers and goods to the capital of th/a Province, 
There is a telegraph office. 

Anchorage is indiflferent, the bank of soundings being narrow. 
A vessel must drop her anchor in 20 fathoms to have room to veer, 
and, as heavy squalls sometimes come suddenly from northwestward, 
a good lookout must constantly be kept. The water shoals quickly 
from 15 fathoms, the best berth being in 20 fathoms, mud, about 500 
yards from the shore to the eastward of the town, with the railway 
pier bearing 258° distant about 400 yards. Westward the bank is 
narrower, and therefore not so convenient for anchoring. 

Brusa (lat. 40° 12' N., long. 29° 4' E.), the chief city of northern 
Asia Minor, lies at the northern foot of Keshish Dagh (Olympus), 
and is 14 miles in direct line south-southeastward of Mudania and 
15 miles south-southwestward of Gemlik. It is celebrated for its 
beautiful situation and its silken fabrics, and contains a population 
of about 76,000 of mixed nationalities, the majority being Turkish. 
It stretches about 2 miles from east to west, has about 150 mosques, 
large and small, and is built in the usual irregular way common to 
Turkish towns, with narrow and dirty streets. The supply of water 



SEA OF MARMARA. 87 

is abundant and excellent. It stands about 600 to 800 feet above the 
sea, with the steep sides of Olympus rising immediately behind, and 
conmiands an extensive view to the north across the plain of Brusa 
(which in the vicinity of the town is well cultivated and dotted with 
trees), to the fine mountains around, and to the east of the Gulf of 
Mudania. The summit of Olympus, 6 miles southeast, is not visible 
from Brusa. 

Communication. — ^A railway connects Brusa with Mudania; by 
road it is a four hours' drive. From Gemlik the journey occupies 
five hours, but carriages are rarely obtainable at the latter place unless 
ordered from Brusa. There is also telegraphic communciation. 

Keshish Dagh. — ^The summit of Keshish Dagh, or Mysian Olym- 
pus, a long bare ridge, stretching west-northwestward and east-south- 
eastward, with small peaks of nearly equal height, rises 8,000 feet above 
the sea, the highest peak being the third from the western end of the 
ridge and 8,190 feet high. Theer is snow in the gullies all the year 
round, hardly discernible at a distance during the sunmfier months. 

Coast. — From Mudania to Tuzla Burnu, 10 miles eastward, the 
coast curves into a bay, but the water is too deep for convenient anchor- 
age, though in the bight of Kavakli Liman, east of Kurshunlu village, 
the same kind of berth, as at Mudania may be found. Behind Altintas 
and Kurshunlu rises the craggy mountain of Filar Dagh, 1,940 feet 
high. 

Tuzla Biimu is low and sandy, with salines and marshes behind. 

Gemliky at the head of the gulf on the north side of the bay, is a 
thriving to'^n having a population of about 5,000, and has a more 
modern and clean-looking appearance than any other town on the 
shores of the Sea of Marmara. 

The hills around are thickly planted with olives, and the valley, 
which extends back for a short distance eastward, is well cultivated. 

The pass through the mountains eastward, down which flows the 
rapid but shallow outlet of the Isnik Lake, affords communication 
with the rich country around the lake, and a certain amount of trade 
is carried on from that direction, chromium, amongst other things, 
being brought down to Gemlik for shipment; but the commerce of 
Brusa nearly all goes to Mudania, as, though there is also a macad- 
amized road between Brusa and Gemlik, the gradients are steeper, it 
is slightly longer, and not kept in as good repair as the more fre- 
quented route to Mudania. 

On. the south side of Gemlik Bay are the remains of the naval 
yard, now deserted, westward of which fish traps extend for about 
150 yards from the shore. There is also a wooden mole, but in a bad 
condition ; about i mile south of this mole there is a silk factory and 
several buildings, which afford a good landmark. 



88 COAST. 

Five hundred yards back from the beach, to the southeast, are some 
hot springs, over which baths have been built. 

Commumcation. — Steamers from Constantinople call twice a 
week. Carriages for Brusa are obtainable at a day's notice. There is 
a telegraph station. 

Anchorage. — The most sheltered position is in the southeast cor- 
ner of the bay, and a very good berth will be found in 15 fathoms, 
with the bridge over the hot springs stream 118°, and the minaret 
at the southeast corner of the town 42°. A small vessel can lie closer 
in- to the southeastward with advantage. Though westerly winds 
blow home here, there is little sea, and the holding ground is good. 

There is a pier, with 12 feet of water alongside it, situated at the 
south end of the town. 

Coast. — From Gemlik the shore trends northwestward 6 miles to 
Kara jail. A little west of Kumli Iskalessi, which is to be known by 
a white house standing near a small pier, is a narrow bank of pre- 
carious anchorage. 

Yassi Burnu, 8 miles 281° from Gemlik, is a headland similar to 
Arnaut Burnu, near Mudania. 

From Yassi Burnu to the point of Boz Burnu is 9^ miles, the shore 
being steep-to until abreast of Armudli village, with the exception of 
a small 5-fathom bank, with thick mud on it,- situated 200 yards from 
the shore, about 400 yards to the westward of Fistikli Valley. 

Armudli Anchorage. — A little eastward of the southern angle 
of Boz Burnu, and opposite the village of Armudli, is very good 
anchorage in northerly winds. The lead will only bring up a small 
branched coralline, but underlying the surface is stiff mud, in which 
the anchor will get a good grip. The best position is east of a 
5-fathom bank that extends off Meykhane Burnu, in about 13 fathoms, 
with the left extreme of Boz Burnu bearing 298°, and the rounded 
summit of Moskov Tepe 348°. 

Boz Burnu^ a bold headland with cliffs, is steep-to, and can be 
rounded within J mile. 

A bank stretches off the northwest point for about 700 yards, where 
from 9 fathoms it drops quickly to 20 fathoms. 

Coast. — ^The north shore of the Boz Peninsula from Boz Burnu to 
Deve Boyunu Burnu, 19 miles, is bold and steep-to. The mountain 
ranges extend their spurs directly to the beach, and there is no safe 
anchorage. A vessel can bring up, however, on a narrow bank off the 
village of Ay Kiriaki, in southerly. winds, but could not remain with 
a strong breeze from the north, and the same may be said of the bay 
to the west of Deve Boyunu Burnu. 

Katirli is a village, inhabited by Albanians, about 1 mile south- 
west of Kalem Burnu. Three miles southeast, and on the summit of 



SEA OF MARMARA. 89 

Beylik Karlik Dagh, frozen snow is collected, which supplies the 
metropolis during the year. 

Deve Boyunu Burnu^ from its quoinlike shape and steep cliffs, 
100 feet in height, facing the north, shows prominently from the east 
or west. 

One mile eastward, off the village of Kuru Kioi, is another tem- 
porary anchorage. 

Coast. — From Deve Boyunu Burnu to Chatal Burnu, 11 miles east, 
the coast changes in character, the higher hills retire into the back- 
ground, and the sandy beach is only backed by low spurs. 

' Yalova, the principal village in this locality, consists of about 
50 houses, and is equidistant between the two points. There is a stone 
pier at the village, 140 yards long, with a depth of 9 feet alongside, 
and there is also a very snug little port 1 mile westward, formed by a 
breakwater protecting the mouth of the Samanli Dere, and into which 
caiques can run in nearly all weather, over the little bar, on which is 
4 feet of water, though it breaks with a fresh breeze. This break- 
water, at the- extremity of which is a white stone beacon, is a private 
enterprise, and caiques are charged a small sum for its use. 

There is a telegraph station at Yalova, and a regular service of 
steamers connects it with Prinkopo and Constantinople. 

Anchorage. — The best anchorage on this shore is just eastward of 
the breakwater, in 19 fathoms, mud, with the beacon bearing 146° ; 
holding ground good and plenty of room. There is also good anchor- 
age, in 13 fathoms, stiff mud, off the village, about 350 yards from the 
pierhead. 

Chatal Burnu, a low, rounded, sandy point, is the commencement 
of the Gulf of Ismid. There is no bank off its extremity. There are 
a few conspicuous chifliks (farmhouses) on the shore between Chatal 
Burnu and Yalova. 

Landing places. — On the north shore of the Boz Peninsula there 
are small breakwaters, forming landing places for boats, at the fol- 
lowing spots: Hum Burnu, Pasha Iskalessi, on the. western side of 
Deve Boyunu Burnu, i mile west of Kuru Kioi, and the mouth of the 
Samanli Dere. Landing can generally be effected at Ay Kiriaki. 

Topography. — The Boz Peninsula is a mass of lofty mountains, 
intersected by numerous and picturesque valleys and passes. The 
culminating point on the peninsula is Tash Dagh, 2,970 feet high, but 
Yel Dagh, 5 miles northeastward of Gemlik, and therefore not strictly 
on it, is 3,140 feet in height. The main passes from the north side to 
the south all converge toward Yalova, and are Samanli Dere, which 
leads by a pass 800 feet above the sea to the Kumli Valley ; Darli Dere, 
Up which is a path leading to Oemlik over a mountain ridge 2,600 

172982**— 20 7 



90 GULF OF ISMID. 

feet high ; and Balaban Dere, up which a causewayed road carries the 
main traffic to the large villages of Chengiler, Bazar Kioi and Yeni 
Kioi, situated on the northern side of the Isnik Lake. 

There are some hot baths in Hamam Dere, a subsidiary valley of 
Samanli Dere, which were formerly of great repute. They are roman- 
tically situated, near a remarkable sharp peak, called Sivriji. 

Gulf of Ismid. — This most beautiful arm of the sea, 27 miles in 
length, from Chatal Burnu to Ismid, is a deep cut through the moun- 
tains, in an east and west direction. Its shores are in general very 
steep, and convenient anchorage is only to be found at certain places. 
The width of the gulf varies from 1 to 5 miles, and it is divided into 
three bays by the approach of the shores to one another in two places. 
The eastern one of these forms a very good harbor, with convenient 
depths throughout. 

The borders of the gulf are extremely picturesque, and present an 
alternation of tree-clad mountain, valley, and plain, which, as seen 
from the sea, is seldom surpassed, especially in the spring, when the 
blossom of the numerous orchards relieve the more somber colors of 
the forests crowning the higher ridges. Villages are numerous, and 
around them the ground is usually well cultivated, but much rich land 
lies waste. 

Very heavy squalls come down the valleys, especially with southerly 
winds, and in thunderstorms, prevalent in some years, the puffs are 
sudden and violent. A short choppy sea gets up with strong westerly 
winds which sometimes blow completely home to the head of the gulf, 
making boat work unpleasant even at Ismid. 

Fever is exceedingly prevalent after May, until the break up of 
the weather, late in autumn, and at Ismid itself, which is very un- 
healthy, the residents seem to be liable to it at all times of the year. 

Coast. — From Chatal Burnu to Dilburnu, 6 miles, the coast forms 
a bay called Topche Bay. There the coast hills begin to rise again 
and assume a steeper face to the sea, but a little flat ground inter- 
venes between it and their foot. 

A little to the eastward of Chatal Burnu, the Chukur Kioi Deresi 
falls into the sea. This river flows down a broad and fertile valley 
between the Kabakli and Chukur Ranges, and at times is a consider- 
able stream. Seams of indifferent coal are found up this valley. 

Topche Bay Anchorage (lat, 40° 41 J' N., long. 29° 26' E.).— 
In the bight of Topche Bay is a large area of good anchorage, 600 to 
1,400 yards from the shore, in 5 to 20 fathoms, mud. The best posi- 
tion is off a boat landing place (Topche Iskalessi), but should the 
wind come strong from northwestward there is more protection to 
be found at Kavak Iskalessi, eastward of Dil Burnu. 

Dil Burnu projects far into the gulf and is very low. 'A small 
hill stands 1 mile to the south of the point, which at a distance ap- 



SEA OF MARMAKA. 91 

* 

pears as an island. West of this hill lies the village of Hersek, from 
which travelers by land take a fresh departure for Brusa or other 
places in the interior after crossing the gulf from Dil Iskalessi on 
the northern shore. 

Dil Burnu Shoal. — Dil Burnu is bordered by an extensive shoal 
bank of mud and sand, J mile wide on the western side, and stretch- 
ing 600 yards north of the point; it is steep-to, and should be ap- 
proached with caution. The sand bank, which forms, as it were, the 
core of this shoal north of the point, varies much in height and 
length, according to the strength and direction of the previous winds, 
being sometimes above water, at others awash. The extremity of the 
shoal is not visible to the eye. The discoloration oflf the point is 
due to the wash of the currents, and does not coincide with the limits 
of the bank. In rounding the point give it a berth of i mile. Two 
miles west-southwest of the point, and 800 yards from the shore, are 
some 9-foot patches, on the edge of the bank. 

Two and one-half miles southwest of the point is the mouth of the 
Yalak Dere, which, when full, discharges a considerable quantity 
of muddy water into the sea and discolors it far beyond the extent of 
the shoal water. 

Gulf of Ismid Light, fixed green, 40 feet above high water, 
visible 8 miles, is exhibited from a mast on a white house located on 
Dil Burnu, south entrance point. 

Coast. — From Dil Burnu the coast turns sharply to south-south- 
eastward 4 miles to Kavak Iskalessi. Off all this €oast there 
is good anchorage, but the shore is still skirted by the shoal bank, 
over 800 yards. A large lagoon, full of fish, opens to the sea 1^ miles 
from Dil Burnu, and the entrance is trapped. 

Anchorage. — Kavak Iskalessi is the best anchorage in the western 
portion of the Gulf of Ismid, the holding ground being very good, 
with sufficient room and fair protection. With a northeasterly wind, 
a short chopping sea will get up, but landing can generally be effected 
at the little piers. The position is marked by two small houses, off 
which vessels anchor in 11 to 15 fathoms. 

Coast. — From Kavak Iskalessi the coast takes a general direction 
of 78° for 12 miles to Geulzuk Burnu, wijh only minor sinuosities 
and no good anchorage in the whole distance, although a vessel may 
anchor in 20 fathoms nearly anywhere and have room to swing, but 
the squalls off the hills render it desirable to have more space than is 
generally available. 

Karamusal is the largest village along this shore and is the resi- 
dence of the Kaimakam. 

The vicinity of Karamusal produces quantities of fruit, but not of a 
very superior quality. Cherries are ripe in May and are followed by 



92 KILES DERESI — ISMID. 

plums, peaches, apricots, walnuts, apples, and pears. A fishery has 
been established. There is a telegraph station here. 

The hills approach closely to the water on this side, rising, range 
after range, to* a height of 3,700 feet, and the valleys among them are 
very pretty. 

Geulzuk Burnu is a low sandy spit, and with Zeitin Burnu, 1 
mile, on the opposite side, forms the entrance to the eastern bay 
of the Gulf. Shoal water extends about 150 yards off it. There is a 
lagoon behind the point. 

Coast. — From Geulzuk Burnu the coast takes a general direction 
of 101*^, with several large bights, and there is good anchorage every- 
where. It is all low, and the hills recede from the shore again after 
Geulzuk Burnu is passed. 

At Bash Iskalessi, the landing place for Ovajik, the end of the 
gulf is reached, and the coast turns north to the town of Ismid. 

Eiles Deresi. — The eastern shore is very low and swampy, con- 
taining the delta of the Kiles Deresi. This stream takes its rise be- 
hind the fine mountain of Giuk Dagh, flows down a beautiful valley 
south of Ovajik village, in which part trout are to be found, turns the 
machinery of a large Government cloth factory at Kular, where it 
debauches into the plain about 4 miles southeast of Ismid and dis- 
charges through swamps and marshes 1 mile south of the town. The 
deposit brought down by this stream has pushed forward the delta 
and is gradually shoaling the depths in the whole of the eastern bay 
of the Gulf of Ismid. Nothing but the lightest boats can enter the 
mouth of the Kiles Deresi. 

The flat plain at the head of the Gulf of Ismid stretches eastward to 
Lake Sebanjeh, which discharges its waters into the Sangarius, 
eastward, and not into the gulf. This plain is bordered on the south 
by the magnificent ranges of Giuk Dagh, the summit of which is 
6,330 feet high, and on the north by lower hills. It rises imperceptibly 
to Lake Sebanjeh, 8 miles away. 

Ismid is a town with a population, in 1905; of 13,487. It stands 
on the face of some spurs, sloping south, is built mainly of wood, on 
stone foundations, and is very picturesque, most of the houses 
being situated amongst, trees and gardens. There is a mosque at the 
east end of the town, which affords a good landmark. 

Ismid is the seat of a Mutesserif , whose authority extends along the 
entire south shore of the Gulf of Ismid, and along the northern as far 
as Guebze. The small dockyard at the western end of the town has 
been closed. 

The line of the old Roman wall is still to be traced in many places, 
especially behind the upper part of the town. 

Palace. — Conspicuous from the sea is the palace of the Sultan, 
which, though small, is remarkable owing to its white color and 



SEA OF MAKMARA. 93 

surrounding yellow walls, as well as its commanding position on a 
hill above the dockyard. 

A handsome clock tower is situated a short distance westward from 
the western gateway of the place. It is lighted at night and affords 
a useful anchorage mark. 

Communication. — The railway from Haidar Pasha, a suburb of 
Skutari, which passes through Ismid, is open for traffic to Angora, 
also to Konia and Eregli. The service of trains from Haidar Pasha 
to Ismid takes about four hours. Steamers ply to and from Constan- 
tkiople every other day. There is a telegraph station. 

Supplies. — Fresh provisions were plentiful and good water could 
be obtained. There is no coal kept in stock. 

Anchorage. — There is excellent anchorage for any number of 
vessels off the town of Ismid, in 5 to 12 fathoms, stiff mud, the best 
position being in about 6 fathoms, with the Sultan's palace bearing 
348°. Westerly gales blow completely home and raise a disagreeable 
sea for boats, especially in less water than 6 fathoms, but wind from 
this direction is not common, and when from any other direction the 
water is smooth. 

Bank. — ^The bight between the town and the mouth of the Kiles 
Deresi and the water off the eastern part of the town is all shallow, 
but off the dockyard, and as far east as the customhouse pier, the 3- 
f athom curve is close to the shore. West of the town the bank again 
projects 400 yards. 

To clear the bank when approaching or leaving, keep the Sultan's 
palace in line with the western tower of the dockyard walk bearing 
45°. These towers are small and octagonal and by no means con- 
spicuous. 

Coast — Derinji Burnu. — From Ismid the shore trends in a west- 
erly direction 4 J miles to Derinji Burnu, thence 2 miles to Zeitun 
Burnu. This is all low coast, with bays, and mostly shallow. The 
bay, however, just west of Derinji Burnu, on the shore of which stands 
a kiosk and chiflik of the Sultan, is fairly deep. At Derinji Burnu 
there are two piers, connected by shore branches to the main line of 
the Anatolian railway. Derinji Burnu has become a place of some 
commercial importance, and although the anchorage is open it is con- 
sidered safe. Steamers of about 3,000 tons can lie alongside the rail- 
way pier. There are four mooring buoys abreast the two large gran- 
aries situated on the eastern pier. 

Tutun Liman^ the bay immediately east of Zeitun Burnu, affords 
good anchorage for one vessel, in 8 fathoms, mud, in the center of the 
bay, with the eastern point of the bay bearing east, and the chiflik 
which stands a little inland, north. 



94 KAVA BTJRNU. 

Water.— There is good water running from a pipe into a reservoir 
just below the chiflik. 

Zeitun urnu, a low sandy spit inclosing a lagoon, has shoal 
water extending over 200 yards from the shore. 

Light. — A fixed red light, 33 feet above high water, visible 8 miles, 
is exhibited from a mast on a white house, located on the extremity of 
Zeitun Burnu. 

Coast. — From Kileri Burnu, J mile west of Zeitun Burnu, the 
coast turns to north-northwestward, with a low shore for 2^ miles to 
Kuchuk Iskalessi, where is situated the railway station of Yaremdji. . 

Anchorage. — There is good anchorage along this coast, with a 
muddy bottom, in any .depth required. 

From Kuchuk Iskalessi to Herekhe the coast line trends to the 
west, and the shore is too steep for convenient anchorage. 

Water. — ^There is a good watering place under Kule Tepesi; a 
copious spring gushes out of the rock, from which a hose can be led to 
the boat anchored off, but there is no anchorage for a vessel near. 

In Herekhe Bay is a large silk manufactory. The anchorage here is 
not recommended, although a short stay might be made in fine 
weather, but the holding ground is not good. From this to Dil 
Iskalessi there is no anchorage. 

Towshanjik is a large village on the hills, a little back from 
the sea. 

Kava Burnu (Dil Iskalessi Point) is 1| miles north of Dil 
Burnu and steep-to. Eastward is an extensive bank of 12 to 18 
fathoms, sand. and stones. There is a railway station at Dis Iskalessi 
and a ferry to Hersek. 

Light. — ^A fixed red light, 39 feet above high water, visible 8 miles, 
is exhibited from an iron support over a square white house located 
on Kava Burnu, east bank of Dilderesi River. 

Coast. — From Kava Burnu to Deridja Burnu, 6 miles west, the 
coast is steep-to, with np anchorage. 

At Eski Hissar are the remains of an old Byzantine castle, and on 
the ridge, 1 mile northeast of it, is the reputed tomb of Hannibal, 
marked by two isolated cypresses. A little farther north is the village 
of Guebze, with some picturesque groves of cypresses and minarets, 
only visible from certain directions. The Kaimakam of this district 
lives at Guebze. 

Deridja Burnu has yellow cliffs just to the westward of it, and 
shoal water extends for nearly 400 yards off the point. The village 
of Deridja is prettily situated on the slopes behind the point. On 
the ridge northwest of Deridja is an old mill, a very conspicuous 
mark. 

Yelken Kaya Burnu, the north entrance of the Gulf of Ismid, is 
a fine bold point with a high rock close to the land at the point which 



SEA OF MARMARA.. 95 

is fairly steep-to. Just north are some conspicuous white cliffs 230 
feet high. 

Gulf of Ismid Light, flashing white, 66 feet above high water, 
visible 13 miles, is exhibited from a white circular stone tower 
located on Yelken Kaya Burnu, north side of the entrance. 

XTch Burnu, a flat peninsula with three low points, though 70 feet 
in height, appears lower on account of its shape and is not easily 
distinguished from the. back land. 

Tuzla Bay is a considerable bight and affords anchorage and 
protection for a large number of vessels in northerly winds; although 
exposed to the southwest, the holding ground is very good and the 
sea is not heavy. The sand and coral which, the lead will bring up 
in depths under 18 fathoms is underlaid by mud of a slimy char- 
acter, in which the anchor will get a good grip. 

Anchorage may be taken anywhere, according to circumstances. 
For a small vessel a berth in 7 fathoms, with the left extreriie of 
the town bearing 16° and the point of Mezar Burnu (on which is 
a conspicuous clump of cypresses) east, will be found convenient, and 
in westerly gales, somewhat under the lee of the land running out to 
Tuz Burnu. For a large vessel a berth more to the southward will 
be better. 

Banks. — Shoal water stretches 300 yards southward of Mezar 
Burnu and 800 yards northeast of the eastern Deserter Islet. There 
is also a 22-foot bank i mile 22° from the eastern Deserter Island, 
which obstructs the anchorage ground. 

Current. — ^A strong current generally sets west through Tuzla 
Bay and past the Deserters. 

The Mungafa rivulet rises in some beautiful springs 1 mile inland, 
but the water is impregnated with gas and is insipid to the taste. 

Tuzla village is of the usual dilapidated character, and contains 
a population of about 2,000. The railway station is 1 mile north- 
east of the village. A small breakwater from Liman Burnu gives 
protection to caiques and affords good landing in all weathers. 

Water. — There is good water in a well adjoining the chapel, be- 
hind the vineyard, at the western end of the village. Supplies are 
scarce and indifferent. 

Tuz Burnu is a peninsula with rocky shores of the same character 
as Uch Burnu, and about the same height. Rocks, awash, and above 
water, are scattered around it, the farthest danger being the Selvi 
Rock with 6 feet on it, 600 yards 216° from the point. On Tuz 
Burnu are some large salines from which it takes its name. 

The Deserters are two rocky islets lying 163° 1,400 yards and 
135° 1 mile from Tuz Burnu, on separate banks, with navigable 
channels between them and the mainland. The eastern island is culti- 



96 . DIRECTIONS. 

vated and has some large subterranean tanks of Byzantine architec- 
ture. Shoal water and foul ground stretches i mile northeast. 

Directions. — Vessels may pass southward of the islets within 100 
yards. Coming from the north, and intended to anchor off Tuzla 
village, there is a capital channel to the north of the Deserters, with a 
good leading mark, viz, Towshan Tepe (a detached hill to the south- 
ward of the Aidinli Hills) , in line with the north summit of a distant 
saddle hill, bearing 63°. This will lead through in 7 fathoms to the 
anchorage off Tuzla. 

There is nothing to be gained under ordinary circumstances by 
passing between the two islets, but, if necessary, the western of the two 
houses on the isthmus at the back of Tuz Burnu, in range with the 
summit of Andreas Island, bearing 2° will lead through in 6^ fathoms. 

Coast. — ^Ay Giorgios Burnu^ f mile northward from Tuz Burnu, 
rises to a summit 75 feet high. From there the coast trends eastward 
and northward, forming a bay at the head of which are a few houses 
and a breakwater. 

Andreas Island, rocky, 145 feet in height, and having a clump 
of pine trees on its summit, situated IJ miles northeast from Ay 
Giorgios Burnu, and on the south side of the entrance to Paulo Bay, 
stands on a 2-f athom bank which connects it to a peninsula projecting 
from the mainland. The trees distinguish it from Paulo Burnu, which 
is of a similar shape, but bare. 

Paulo Liman is a large bay with even depths of 6 and 7 fathoms 
over a large area. Holding ground is excellent, and the island of 
Andreas affords good shelter from southwest winds to a small vessel 
anchored in the southern corner of the bay, and even to a ship more 
in the center, but the main part of the bay is op«n to the westward. 
The shores of the bay are low, and on the south side is a large open 
lagoon used as a fish preserve. 

Buyuk Dere River, which falls into the northeast corner of the 
bay, has a shoal bar, but is used by caiques as a port for local trade ; 
above, it is a mere rivulet. 

Paulo Burnu is a bare island peninsula, 165 feet in height, with 
rocky shores. 

Mavro is a small low island covered with trees, 400 yards north- 
ward of Paulo Burnu. Inside is a shallow bay used by the native 
caiques. 

Pendik, a small but growing town, is the farthest of those popu- 
lated by Europeans. 

Communication. — Daily steamers and train service connect it 
with the metropolis, 15 miles away. 

Anchorage. — Pendik Road is a good anchorage in the summer 
northeast winds, but not in other circumstances. 



. SEA OF MABMARA. 97 

Water. — There is a good watering place near a large plane tree 
J mile east of the town, where a hose can be led directly into a boat 
from a running stream. 

Kartal is a larger town than Pendik, but the anchorage is not good. 

Mai Tepe Burnu is fairly high, with a rocky shore. A 5-f athom 
bank extends southward nearly f mile, following the eastern side of 
Prinkipo Channel. 

Drakes Tepe. — Immediately back of Mai Tepe Burnu rises an 
isolated, bare, rocky, hog-backed hill, 350 feet in height, called 
Drakos Tepe. The railway runs at the back of it. 

Coast. — From Mai Tepe Burnu the coast is low and straight in a 
north-northwesterly direction for 3 miles. It then curves to west- 
northwestward, and is much broken up into little bays, with low red 
cliifs, for 3^ miles to Fanar Bagche. The land behind slopes gently 
upward to the mountains on Kaish Dagh, a treeless, but fairly culti- 
vated, ridg6, 1,400 fed: high, standing 3 miles back from the coast. 

Mai Tepe is a small semi-European village. 

Anchorage. — There is anchorage off all this coast, the water 
shoaling very gradually to the shore. A shoal bank extends off for 
about 300 yards, but outside that a ship may anchor anywhere between 
the mainland and the Princes Islands, in 6 to 17 fathoms, sand and 
mud, excepting near the shallow water about to be described. 

Mai Tepe Bank^ of sand and coral, is an extensive area, with an 
average depth of 4 fathoms, that projects for nearly 2 miles from the 
coast between Mai Tepe and Bostanji. It has four clusters of rocks, 
which much encumber the passage between the Princes Islands and 
the nrain. 

Vorthonas, the outer rock, is 3 feet high and stands at the western 
extreme of the Mai Tepe Bank, about midway between Mai Tepe 
and Proti Island. One hundred and fifty yards westward the water 
deepens abruptly to 10 fathoms. Four hundred yards 66° from 
Vorthonas, on the same bank, is a small cluster of rocks 1 foot high. 
Shallow water extends for 1,600 vards farther northeastward. 

Batmez Vorthonas, nearly 1 mile 22° from Vorthonas, is 3 feet 
in height. It is surrounded by a 3-f athom bank 500 yards in length. 

Sikli Vorthonas, the northernmost rock, is only 3 feet high, and 
has a very small patch of shallow water round it. 

Between these banks and the mainland is a 24-foot channel, nearly 
i mile wide, but of little service for navigation. 

Landmarks.^On the peninsula formed by the Gulf of Ismid, the 
Bosporus, and the Black Sea are several mountains which serve as 
landmarks from various directions. Coming from the westward, 
Aidos Dagh, Kaish Dagh, and the intervening hills are the most con- 
spicuous. These stand not far from the coast, east of the Princes 



98 CHATAL DAGH — FANAR BANK. 

Islands, Aidos Dagh, 1,733 feet, being the highest land about. North- 
ward of these, the two rounded summits of the Chamlija Hills, 850 
feet high, show up well in front of Alem Dagh and Chatal Dagh, 
which are 11 miles inland, and do not appear remarkable from this 
side. 

Alem Dagh is 1,460 feet high, and stands 7 miles 101° from 
Kandilli on the Bosporus. 

Chatal Dagh, called by the English navigators The Brothers, is 
a hill with two equal and similar peaks, 1,270 feet high, and lies 4 
miles 123° from Alem Dagh. Coming from the eastward in the Black 
Sea, Alem Dagh and Chatal Dagh are very conspicuous, the former 
appearing as a single peak. There are other summits in this locality, 
but those mentioned are by far the most conspicuous. 

Fanar Bumu is a small peninsula-shaped point, flat, edged with 
red and white cliffs, 10 feet high, and well covered with trees, the 
grassy ground under which is the resort of many Greeks and Turks 
on holidays. It projects about ^ mile southwest of the general line of 
coast and forms the south side of Moda Bay. The ancient Chalcedon 
was built on and immediately east of Fanar Burnu. Villa residences 
now cover the site, which is known as Fanar Bagche. 

Fanar Burnu Light, fixed white, 83 feet above high water, visible 
12 miles, is exhibited from a white, circular, stone tower located on 
the west side of the point. 

Hereke Tash. — ^This rock lies a little over 200 yards west-south- 
westward of Fanar Burnu and has a pile of stones on it 10 feet high. 
There is deep water 150 yards west of the rock, and a 2- fathom pas- 
sage inside it for boats. 

Moda Liman. — North of Fanar Burnu is the small bay called 
Moda Liman, f mile long and the same distance across. Its southern 
and eastern shores are low, but the northern is a cliff 50 feet in height.. 
The bottom of the bay is shoal, but in the middle and outer portions 
are from 4 to 6 fathoms water, sand and mud bottom. 

The Kurbagha Deresi falls into the north corner of Moda Bay. A 
boat can get about J mile up the river, as far as the Kadi Kioi cricket 
ground. 

Fanar Bank is a long Sandy bank which stretches 1^ miles 191° 
from Moda Burnu, the northwest point of Moda Bay, with 3J 
fathoms water on its shoalest part, and closes Moda Bay to large 
vessels from the west. Between its eastern edge and Hereke Tash is 
a narrow 7-fathom channel, leading into the bay, but no particular 
marks can be given for it. 

Clearing mark. — The right extremity of Dolma Bagche Palace, 
open west of Leander Tower, bearing 358°, clears the Fanar Bank 
to the westward. This clearing mark can also be used by night, 



SEA OF M ARM ABA. 99 

Leander Tower exhibiting two fixed red vertical lights, and Dolma 
Bagche Palace being distinguishable by a distinct line of lights. 

Moda Burnu. — The northwest point of Modoa Bay is a cliffy 
faced headland. On the point, and extending north and east from it, 
is the thriving and extending suburb of Kadi Kioi, populated mainly 
by Europeans. 

Coast. — From Moda Burnu the coast trends north for 2^ miles to 
abreast Leander Tower. This shore is in some parts low and in others 
bordered by sloping cliffs, but is edged throughout by a rocky flat with 
detached bowlders. This makes landing difficult everywhere, except- 
ing in the bight between Kadi Kiori Haidar Pasha, which is sandy. 

!Bocky Ridge^ probably a relic of an ancient mole, stretches 300 
yards from the shore i mile north of Moda Burnu. A pier is being 
built on it. 

Haidar Pasha. — One-half a mile north of Rocky Ridge is Haidar 
Pasha, the terminus of the Ismid Railway, which extends to the quay, 
where the steamer from Constantinople comes alongside. The ceme- 
tery is along the top of the cliff, just north of Haidar Pasha, and 
again a little to the northward are the Selimiyyeh Barracks, enormous 
yellow painted buildings, with square towers at each angle, and which 
serve as a leading mark on making the Bosporus. Behind these the 
town of Skutari begins. 

Harbor. — The harbor is formed by a breakwater 650 yards long, 
nearly parallel with the coast. There is a quay, 330 yards long, with 
an arm projecting 165 yards from its southern end. An elevator, 
situated at the northwest end of the quay, is capable of dealing with 
2,400 tons of grain per day. 

Alongside the quays there is a depth of 22 feet, and between the 
quays and breakwater the general depth is 24 feet. The northern 
entrance is 400 yards wi(^e ; the southern, which is only used by small 
vessels and boats, is 130 yards wide. 

A pier is being built at Kavah Burnu, about i mile to the north- 
ward of the harbor. 

Buoys. — Two black buoys, with cylindrical topmarks, are moored 
on the northeastern side of the north entrance channel in a depth of 
26 feet to mark the limit of the fairway. 

There are three mooring buoys in the harbor. 

Lights. — On each end of the breakwater stands a white lighthouse, 
47 feet in height. An obelisk stands on the center of the breakwater. 

A fixed red electric light is exhibited from the northwestern light- 
house and a fixed green electric light from the southeastern one. 
These lights are elevated 46 feet above the sea and should be visible 
from a distance of 12 miles. 



100 BOSPHORUS APPROACH. 

A fixed green light is shown from the northwest corner of the quay 
and a fixed red light from the southwest corner of the arm. 

Directions. — By day, vessels entering the harbor from the north- 
ward must leave the black buoys with cylindrical topmarks on the 
port hand. 

By night, the fixed red light on the southwest angle of the quay 
should be kept midway between the fixed green light on the north- 
west corner of the quay and the fixed red light on the northwest end 
of the breakwater. 

Strong gales from west and southwest send in a little sea. 

Bosporus approach — ^Anchorages. — From the extremity of the 
Fanar Bank to Leander Tower is a good anchorage ground of variable 
width and generally out of the current. From Leander Tower to the 
Selimiyyeh Barracks it is narrow, and the edge of the shore bank is 
steep. It must therefore be approachied with caution, but this is the 
part that is most used as an anchorage, mainly by steamers waiting 
orders or Only calling for a few hours, to whom it is the handiest posi- 
tion for communicating with Galata. 

South of the Selimiyyeh Barracks the anchorage ground widens 
considerably, and from abreast them to the southward of Moda Burnu 
is over ^ mile wide, with depths of 5 to 14 fathoms. Here, in fact, 
the deep-water channel leading from the Bosporus is very narrow, 
and with the exception of this a vessel can anchor anywhere across 
from Stambul to Kadi Kioi. This ground is, however, but little used, 
as it is too far to leeward with regard to the current for communica- 
tion. 

There is also good holding ground swnd convenient depth anywhere 
between the Princess Islands and the shores of Europe, but of no 
service save for a fleet or to a vessel becalmed and carried away by 
the current. ^ 

Princes Islands^ nine in number, take their name from Prinkipo, 
the largest of the group, and lie parallel to the coast of Asia, south 
of the entrance of the Bosporus, from which the nearest is 6 miles. 
They are in general high, with cliflPs of a bright red and yellow hue, 
owing to the large amount of iron and other minerals in the composi- 
tion of the rock. The four larger islands — Prinkipo, Halki, An- 
tigone, -ind Proti — which are inhabited, are the summer residences of 
many of the European merchants of Constantinople, Prinkipo being 
the favorite. The others are little better than barren rocky islets. 

Water is only obtained by tanks, into which the rain is led. 

Prinkipo (lat. 40° 51 J' N., long. 29° 7^ E.), the largest of the 
group, is celebrated for its fine healthy climate, which is doubtless 
partly due to the dwarf pines with which a laKge part of the island is 
covered, and also to the comparative dryness of the northeast wind. 



SEA OF MARMARA. 101 

It lies 10 miles 46® from Seraglio Point, and its length from north to 
south is over 2 miles by an average of J mile in breadth. 

The island is high and is divided into two portions by a dip in the 
hills. The southern and highest portion, 655 feet in height, is bare, 
rocky and uninhabited, save for a monastery on its summit. The 
northern portion of the island is clothed with dwarf pines, and on 
this face is the town of Prinkipo, with its prettily arranged villas, 
standing for the most part in gardens. There is telegraphic commu- 
nication by cable with the mainland. A pier is situated on the western 
side of the island, off which there is a mooring buoy. 

Prinkipo Bank is a sand and coral shoal that extends off the 
north shore of the island for i mile, with only 2 and 3 fathoms on it. 
The edge of this shoal, which is of very irregular shape, is mostly 
steep on all sides, and care must be taken on anchoring to give it a 
berth. 

Prinkipo Channel. — Between Prinkipo Bank and the shoal water 
extending south from Mai Tepe Point is a 6-fathom channel, J mile 
wide, with several 5-fathom patches in it. 

To pass through this channel, and northward of Prinkipo Bank, 
keep Pita Island summit open north of Halki Island, bearing 271°, 
which will lead in 5 fathoms. 

Around the other shores of Prinkipo, 5 fathoms will be found 200 
yards offshore, excepting off the northern part of the west shore, 
where that depth is nearly 400 yards from the shore. 

Andirovitha, a small i^and, 180 feet high and ^ mile in length, 
lies east of Prinkipo, from which it is separated by a deep channel 
1,200 vards wide. 

A patch I of 4J fathoms lies 400 yards northward of Andiroritha, 
which is otherwise fairly steep-to. 

Niandro is a rocky islet, 85 feet high, 1 mile southward of Prin- 
kipo. A rocky bank, with from 4 to 30 fathoms, extends off the 
north and east sides 300 yards. 

Halki, 445 feet high, the next island northwestward of Prinkipo, 
is 1^ miles long by f mile wide and fairly steep-to on all sides, except 
to the eastward. It has a number of dwarf pines on it, but is other- 
wise bare and rocky. The town lies on the eastern side and is much 
smaller than the settlement at Prinkipo. 

Colleges. — The Turkish naval college is situated at the eastern 
point of the island. On the rounded elevation which forms the north- 
ern portion of the island is a Greek theological college, and on the dip 
of the hill north of the Cham Liman is a large Greek secular college. 
There is a telegraph station on the island. 



102 ANTIGONE — PROTI. 

On the south side of the island is a picturesque little bay, called 
Cham Liman, in which there is room for two ships to moor in 8 fath- 
oms, but it is completely open to the south. 

Halki Channel^ between Prinkipo and Halki, is 1,300 yards wide, 
but much narrowed by the shoal banks which project from either 
island, and though there is a S^-fathom channel, it is so narrow that 
without buoys a ship can not make certain of carrying more than 
4^ fathoms through, as there is no leading mark. At the latter depth 
there is a passage 600 yards wide, to pass through which it is only 
necessary to keep in mid-channel. 

Antigone, lying west-northwestward from Halki, is a square- 
shaped island, 535 feet high, f mile across, and fairly steep-to on 
all sides, with a little pine wood on its summit and along the southern 
spur eastward. Otherwise it is rocky and bare. The south coast is 
a fine cliff 500 feet in height. On the east side, and just south of the 
village, a rough mole projects 200 yards from the shore and protects 
the landing pier from southwest gales. 

Pita, a bare rocky islet between Halki and Antigone, 60 feet in 
height, has anchorage and a navigable channel on both sides of it. 
Between the south end and the mole stretching from Antigone is a 
channel, 350 yards wide and 8 fathoms deep ; and between Halki on 
the southeast and Antigone and Pita on the northwest is an 8-f athom 
passage 500 yards wide. This latter is a capital anchorage, with good 
stiff mud holding ground with a surface of coralline. 

Proti, 375 feet high, 1 mile north of Antigone, is similar in size 
and shape but is perfectly bare. The settlement is the smallest of 
those in the Princes Islands. Shoal water nowhere extends over 250 
yards from the coast, and the channel between Proti and Antigone is 
wide, deep, and clear. 

Plati, a rocky islet, 150 feet high and J mile in length, lies 2^ miles 
258° from Antigone. It has been cultivated, and there are still a 
good many fruit trees on it. A castellated residence on the summit is 
now falling into decay, but looks imposing at a distance. The island 
is steep-to excepting at the eastern end, where a shoal extends off for 
150 yards, and there is good landing in an artificial camber at the 
eastern point. 

Oxia, nearly 1 mile northwest of Plati, is a steep mass of marble, 
300 feet in height, and the resort of the sea birds of the vicinity, which 
breed here in gi*eat numbers. A bank, with 5 to 16 fathoms, extends 
300 yards off the northern and eastern sides. 

Current. — The current generally sets to the southwestward in all 
the channels which Princes Islands form with each other, but it then 
turns and sets slowly to the northwestward, near the shore, between 
Tuz and Fanar Points, 



CHAPTER IV, 

THE BOSPORUS. 



General description. — The Bosporus may be said to begin at 
Seraglio Point on the European shore and' the town or Skutari on 
the Asiatic shore, and to terminate at the entrance of the Black 
Sea at the two capes, on which are built the lighthouses of Rumili 
and Anatoli. Its length from the Sea of Marmara to the Black 
Sea, including its numerous windings, is about 17 miles. The 
breadth varies from 80Q yards to 1^ miles, and the general direction 
is south-southwest and north-northeast. Like the Dardanelles, it 
resembles a river with abrupt and angular windings, the projecting 
points of which break the impetuosity of its stream, quiet its surface, 
and afford shelter under their lee. The northern part of the Bos- 
porous, however, from Buyukdere to the Black Sea is straight, and 
its general direction is northeast. The depths in the Bosporus are 
from 20 to 66 fathoms, over a mud bottom. 

Both shores are studded with painted houses, many being mag- 
nificent palaces, in a quaint and picturesque manner. The European 
side is covered with them throughout its length, but on the Asiatic 
shore they are separated by rather longer intervals and are every- 
where backed by hills, whose rich vegetation admirably varies this 

r 

noble spectacle. 

At Old Seraglio Point the Golden Horn, the port of Constanti- 
nople opens out, the w^aters of which present a scene of great activity 
from the steamers and numerous light and elegant caiques skimming 
over it. On its south shore stands the cit3\of Constantinople, and on 
its north shore, the towns of Topkhana, Galata, and Pera, which lie 
close to each other, and appear as one, being built on the same hill. 

On both sides of the northern end of the Bosporus are numerous 
fortifications, built at different times and in various styles. 

Directions. — A steam vessel, or a sailing vessel with a strong fair 
wind, should keep on the European shore, closing it gradually as 
Orta Kioi Point is approached. By acting thus, the vessel will 
keep in the eddy or countercurrent, the boundary line of which may 
be clearly perceived between Topkhana and Defterdar Point and 
will meet, in proceeding northward, no other difficulties than those 
arising from the numerous vessels that are always riding at anchor 
in this part of the Bosporus, taking care not to come within 100 

103 



104 DIRECTIONS. 

■ 

yards of Orta Point, to avoid the small bank which fringes it. At 
Defterdar Point the countercurrent loses its strength, but the main 
current is scarcely felt. 

After passing Orta Point close the shore, and keep in the eddy that 
reaches to Arnaut Point, taking care to avoid Duimi and Kuru 
Banks, which are marked by a lighthouse and a white house, respec- 
tively. A vessel could pass between these shoals and the village, 
but it will be prudent at all times to pass outside them, unless wish- 
ing to make fast to the shore. On clearing these banks again hug 
the shore till close uplo Arnaut Point, when, by gradually edging 
across the current for tlie opposite coast,' the vessel will fetch a little 
southward of Kandilli. In rounding Kandilli, give it a berth of 
at least 100 yards, to avoid the fringing shoal of 3J fathoms, but 
be ready to give immediate port helm when the current catches the 
starboard bow. 

Kandilli to Kiobashi Point. — Between Kandilli and Khanlijeh 
the shore must again be neared, recollecting, as Anadolu Hissari is 
approached, to keep 200 yards from the shore, in order to clear the 
bank which fronts the mouth of the Kuchuk Ghiok Su. 

Having advanced as far as Khanlijeh Point, slant across the current 
and close the coast of Europe, where the vessel will be greatly favored 
by the eddy that runs from the Balta Liman to Kiobashi Point, taking 
care, in approaching that point, to bring Rumili Hissar on with Khan- 
lijeh Point to avoid Yeni Kioi Bank. A good berth should be given to 
the lightvessel marking Yeni Kioi Bank, as her position changes 
slightly with the varying strength of the current. 

Kiobashi Point to Bumili Light. — From Kiobashi Point sheer 
across the current, and pass into Beikos Bay, where the vessel will 
profit by the eddy up to Selvi Burnu, when a course may be steered 
either eastward or westward of Englishman Banks. 

Vessels well used to the navigation of the Bosporus frequently 
pass eastward of the banks when coming from the southward, for, 
besides shortening the distance, they can, in case of meeting with a 
foul wind, easily turn to windward, as the current is always weaker 
in this bay than in the main channel, and moreover, when close in, 
thev will be assisted bv a weak eddv to the northward. Caution, how- 
ever, is requisite, as Umur Bay is generally crowded with shipping. 

The tree near distant tall house just open of Bushy Peak 15° leads 
eastward of Englishman Banks and westward of the shoal flat border- 
ing Selvi Burnu. 

The tall house on summit ridge, in range with the right extreme of 
a conspicuous yellow house on Telli Point, 22°, leads westward of 
Englishman Banks. 



BOSPORUS. 105 

After passing Englishman Banks the vessel should again close the 
coast of Europe at Mezar Point and run along that shore to the Black 
Sea. 

With a fresh southwesterly breeze the vessel may follow the Asiatic 
shore, and will find slack water in Majar and Kechili Bays; but this 
course is not to be recommended, as from their great depth of water 
they afford no convenient anchorage, besides the liability to calms 
under Giants Mountain. 

Dikili Bock. — A vessel may pass either eastward or westv ard of 
this rock, which has a beacon on it. In this passage between the rock 
and the shore there is a depth of 9 to 13 fathoms. 

Give a berth of 300 yards to the point w^hich lies i mile northeast 
of Rumili Kavak, on which there is a guardhouse, as it is bordered 
by a flat and rocky ledge extending 200 yards from the shore. 

Give a berth also of 300 yards to the foul ground in the neighbor- 
hood of Buyuk Bay. 

A sailing vessel, with a foul wind, should employ a tug, as it 
is impossible, even with a smart vessel well handled, to proceed at once 
through the Bosporus into the Black Sea against a foul wind, owing 
to the strength of the current in different parts of the channel. 

There are numerous tugs at Constantinople. 

Currents. — In whatever direction the wind may be, the current 
almost invariably sets from the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara, it 
being fed by the superabundance of water poured into the Black Sea 
in winter by the great rivers and in the spring by the thawing of the 
snow. Its general direction is that of the channel, but the numerous 
windings produce a variety of countercurrents and whirling eddies 
under the points. 

The axis of the current is generally in the middle of the strait, and 
its edges are almost always defined by straight lines from point to 
point on the same shore, with the exception of Kiobashi Point, round 
which it curves outside the bank. Between these lines and the shore, 
especially in the bays and behind the points, it always leaves an eddy, 
which increases in strength according to the rapidity of the main 
current. 

The strength of the current in the channel is nowhere uniform and 
is influenced by so many different causes that only a general estimate 
can be given of it for the use of the navigator. The variations in the 
breadth of the Bosporus are one of those causes, but the great fluctua- 
tions in its rapidity and direction are partly due to the angular forms 
of the two shores, the disposition of their points and elbows being such 
that in some places the waters are occasionally driven from them 
toward the opposite coast with such violence that their first direction 
is almost reversed. 

172982^—20 8 



106 CURRENTS. 

Again, the winds and the seasons are some of the principal causes 
which modify the current in the Bosporus ; and the period when the 
snow thaws, which is about the time when north and northeast winds 
prevail, may be supposed to bring on the maximum of its rapidity. 
This generally happens between the latter part of June to the end of 
August, when it sometimes attains the rate of 5 or 6 knots in certain 
parts of the channel, and is impossible to stem in a sailing vessel, 
unless with a fair wind. This strength decreases with southerly 
winds, and when the principal causes just named cease to act it be 
comes very weak. 

In the autumn it has been observed that fresh southierly winds in 
the Bosporus will in a few hours arrest the southerly current and 
cause it to flow to the northward with a velocity, depending on the 
strength of the wind, and which sometimes reaches 2 or 3 knots. This 
current occasionally continues for a day after the southerly wind has 
ceased. 

Southerly winds, which are violent and lasting in the Archipelago, 
jBind are more or less felt in the Sea of Marmara, have the effect ©f 
decreasing the action of the current both in the Dardanelles and the 
Bosporus, especially if they blow after a gale from the northeast, 
which has left the level of the Black Sea very low at the entrance to 
the Bosporus. By keeping back the water of the Black Sea, a strolig 
southerly gale raises the level of the Bosporus, which rising, although 
amounting to 2 feet, is rarely enough to destroy the difference of level 
between Marmara and the Black Seas, the first and absolute cause of 
the constant direction of the current to the southward. 

If immediately following this rise, or if after a south gale, the 
winds shift suddenly to the north and blow hard, the waters of the 
Black Sea are sent with such force into the Bosporus that they break 
with impetuosity on the advanced point of Kiobashi, causing a strong 
countercurrent, which very often extends halfway across the strait. 

At such time, except during the depth of winter, when both wind 
and current are very violent, a smart sailing vessel, if advanced as far 
as Khanlijeh, and well handled, by making short boards in the eddies 
and countercurrents, might easily beat up to Kiobashi Point. From 
thence she may cross to the coast of Asia, work up along Beikos Bay, 
and then eastward of Englishman Banks, by which process she would 
no doubt reach Buyukdere Bay. 

The set of the current in the various paiis of the Bosporus is now 
given. 

From the Black Sea the current runs in a southwesterly direction, 
the ordinary velocity being about 2 knots, and parallel to the coast 
of Europe, toward Buyukdere Bay (which it does not enter) to Kirich 
Point J mile northward of Therapia, passing over Englishman Banks, 



BOSPORUS. 107 

and washing Kiobashi Point. Thence taking a southeasterly direc- 
tion, it shoots over to the Asiatic shore a little south of Injir Bay. 

From the southward of Injir Bay it runs along the Asiatic coast as 
far as Khanlijeh, whence it is again deflected toward the European 
shore, attaining a velocity of 5 knots between the two Hissars, or 
castles, of Eumili and Anadolu, and strikes the western shore at Ar- 
naut Point. At this part it has been named the Devil's Current. 

Between Arnaut Point and Defterdar Point it follows the direc- 
tion of the two shores, with a marked tendency to advance toward that 
of Asia, till, having passed Defterdar Point, it directs itself almost 
wholly toward Skutari. 

The current at the entrance of the Bosporus from Skutari sets 
strongly over to Old Seraglio Point, which divides it into two 
branches, the southern one falling into the Sea of Marmara. The 
western stream, filling the Golden Horn, rushes up as far as the 
second bridge at the entrance to the naval port and abreast the dry 
dock in the arsenal. It is there met by the current coming down from 
the upper basin, and, turning round to the eastward, washes the quays 
of Galata and Topkhana, leaving behind it a zone of eddies which 
vary every six hours. 

It is difficult to state exactly how far this reaction extends north- 
ward, probably not beyond Defterdar Point, where it again turns 
and mixes with the main current down the Bosporus. 

An eddy does, however, sometimes continue about 1{ miles to the 
northward of Defterdar Point, or nearly up to Arnaut Point, and, 
what is very extraordinary, between these two points it is stronger 
than that part of it between Topkhana and Defterdar Points. This 
is a singularly favorable circumstance to the navigation of the Bos- 
porus, for it occasionally attains a velocity of 1 knot, and extends in 
breadth more than 400 vards from the shore. 

Winds and weather.— In the Bosporus the usual winds are those 
from the north to northeast and south to southwest. Northeast winds 
are the most , frequent. Northwest and southeast winds are but sel- 
dom felt. 

The wind is generally variable at the time of the equinoxes, but dur- 
ing the summer months, from the beginning of May to the middle of 
September, the Meltem or «olar winds blow very steadily from north 
and northeast and bring fine weather. These winds spring up early 
in the forenoon, increase in strength until 3 or 4 p. m., and fall with 
the sun, calm prevailing through the night. 

During the other months of the year the winds are variable in the 
southwest quarter, except about full and change of the moon, when 
they sometimes veer to the northeast. Southwest winds, when strong, 
are generally accompanied with rain, but with fine weather when they 
are light ; in the winter they bring fogs. 



108 WrSDS AXD WEATHEB. 

In stunmer the winds never blow across the Bosporos. althoo^ that 
maj sometimes happen at either of its entrances. Thus, in the mom- 
in|^ li^t southeasterly breezes occasionally come in from the Sea of 
Marmara* and light northwesterly winds in its northern reach, espe- 
cially about Buyiikdere Bay. In the intermediate space, if there be 
land breezes they are very light, and do not reach mid-channel. 

During the day sometimes a smart gale springs up from the east- 
ward, but it never lasts after sunset. 

Northerly winds with fine weather freshen in proportion to the 
heat of the sun. 

In summer it sometimes happens that the wind is from southwest 
in the southern and from northeast in the northern parts of the 
channel leaving it calm between Amaut Point and Selvi Bumu, and 
it is not of rare occurrence to see vessels going different ways, both 
with a fair wind. In these cases, if the breeze is fresh from northeast 
it will be certain to prevail, and the vessel coming from the south- 
ward should immediately make for an anchorage unless prepared to 
work to w^indward. At other times southwesterly winds blow strong 
at Buyukdere and in the upper part of the Bosporus, while they are 
hardly felt at Constantinople, or they do not reach it till some hours 
later. When this takes place the wind is sure to be from southeast 
in the Black Sea, and favorable for vessels bound to Odessa or the 
Sea of Azov. 

In winter southwesterly winds are frequent. When they blow 
hard, with an overcast sky, and the barometer is down to about 29.60 
they are generally accompanied with rain, and last several days. As 
they moclerate, the temperature becomes milder and the weather 
fine, which is in fact its usual feature during this season. Bad 
weather generally comes on after sunrise and rarely lasts beyond 
Kunset. If it should last all night a gale of wind may be expected. In 
thifl Hcason sudden shifts of wind are frequent atnd dangerous. 

If a light southerly wind commences to blow in the afternoon, im- 
mediate advantage should be taken of it, as in that case the wind 
generally veers round to the northward at midnight and blows hard. 

In winter strong winds from northeastward are always accom- 
panied with rain, which generally clear away as they moderate. 

Snow sometimes falls in February and at the beginning of March, 
when the wind is light from the northward, with hazy weather. 

THE EUROPEAN 8HORE OF THE BOSPORUS. 

Oolden Horn (Port of Constantinople) (lat. 41° 1' N., long. 
28° 59' p].), is a good harbor, always crowded with vessels of all 
nations. It was known by this name in the time of the Greek Empire, 
being then the center of the commerce of the world, whose produce is 



BOSPORUS. 109 

received. It extends 3 miles in a northwesterly direction and then 
1 mile north and northeast. Its breadth varies from 400 to 800 yards 
from its mouth up to its northern extremity, which forms a basin, 
named in Turkish, Kiaghat Khane, or the Sweet Waters of Europe, 
and into which flows a small stream named the Lykus. 

Port regulations. — Except in case of unforeseen accident, vessels 
are forbidden to anchor between the new bridge and a line drawn 
from Seraglio Point to the outer line of buoys without a written 
authorization from the captain of the port. 

Except in case of fire, no tugboat, local passenger boat, or trading 
vessel is permitted to be under way between one hour after sunset and 
half an hour before sunrise. 

Constantinople Light, fixed and flashing white, 115 feet above 
high water, visible 16 miles, is exhibited from a white tower located 
northeast of Seraglio Point. 

Approach. — ^A vessel in approaching Constantinople from the 
Sea of Marmora, on parsing Stefano Point, will quickly observe on 
the port bow numerous domes and spires, surmounted by the golden 
crescent. On a nearer approach the south side of the city opens out 
with its numerous mosques and crowded houses, painted in various 
colors, the whole mass rising in the form of an amphitheater from 
the middle of a forest of cypress. Near its western angle is seen the 
Tower of Marmora, on the margin of the sea, and the famous State 
prison, called the Castle of the Seven Towers. 

On the Asiatic coast also will be seen the mountains of Kaish Dagh 
and Aidos Dagh, situated about 3 miles from the shore east of the 
Princes Islands, which serve as marks for vessels coming from the Sea 
of Marmora, and northwestward of them rises Mount Bulghurlu, or 
Chamlija, at the foot of which lies the large town of Skutari, with a 
forest of cypress surrounding a vast cemetery. 

Anchorage and wharves. — To facilitate the immense intercourse 
to which the commercial transactions of Constantinople and Galata 
give rise, two bridges have been thrown across the harbor which sepa- 
rate the naval from the commercial parts of the port. The eastern 
or new bridge consists of masonry arches resting on iron pontoons. 
The central sections are movable and allow a passage 90 feet wide. 
The western or old bridge is about i mile above the new bridge, its 
construction being similar. No vessels go above it excepting Turkish 
naval vessels. 

Between the two bridges is the commercial port, in which vessels 
ate moored head and stern to buoys placed for the purpose, being 
admitted early in the morning. It is now only used by sailing vessels. 
The depth of water is 12 and 13 fathoms along the northern quays, 20 



110 COKSTA3f TIN OPLE. 

to 22 fathoms in the middle, and 10 to 13 fathoms off the quays of Con- 
stantinople, over mud bottom. 

The Galata quays, opened in 1895, consist of a narrow strip, 810 
yards long, extending from the new bridge to the Topkhana Arsenal, 
having depths of 36 feet alongside in the center, 30 feet at their 
western end, and 24 feet at the eastern end. These quays are chiefly 
used by tugs, and by the steamers engaged in the local traffic. 

Buoys. — ^The foreign trade of Constantinople is carried on by 
steam vessels, for whose convenience buoys have been laid down out- 
side the new bridge between Old Seraglio Point and Topkhana. 
There is at present accommodation for about 30 vessels between the 
buoys. The principal regular lines of steamers have certain buoys 
assigned to them for their sole use, and it is only at the four north- 
eastern buoys that chance steamers may make fast, and that only for 
24 hours. For this temporary accommodation no charge is made. 

Directions. — A steam vessel, after rounding the shoal off Se- 
raglio Point, may approach within 200 yards of the quays, guarding 
against the current, which has a velocity of 4J knots ; but, owing to 
the large number of vessels generally assembled in this locality, it is 
preferable to keep the Asiatic shore on board until abreast Leander 
Tower, then steer across to the European shore. 

A sailing vessel, with a fair wind, having passed Stefano Point, 
should close the shore of Europe in order to avoid the current and 
profit by the eddy, and also be in a position to anchor under the walls 
of the city if the wind should fall light or calm. 

With a fair wind she may, preserving a depth of not less than 5 
fathoms water, close the land between the Seven Towers and Seraglio 
Point to within 600 yards, and after rounding the shoal off Seraglio 
Point, to which point a berth of 800 yards should be given, should 
keep nearly in mid-channel, which is eastward of the strength of 
the current until the port of Constantinople is well open. Then, 
edging across the current for the artillery quay at Topkhana (lat. 
41° 1' N., long. 28° 59' E.), she will be able to gain an anchorage 
in the port. By acting thus a vessel will avoid the strength of the 
current, which sets on to Seraglio Point, and will have time to stow 
her sails and pick out a good berth in the port. 

A sailing vessel, with a foul wind, having worked from Stefano 
Point to Seraglio Point during daylight, should take a tug, or 
anchor either off Seraglio Point or off the Asiatic coast and await a 
fair wind. 

The anchorages along the Asiatic coast, from 1 mile north of Fanar 
Point to Leander Tower, are generally preferable to that under the 
walls of Constantinople for vessels going farther up the Bosporus, 
as it often happens that strong south and southeast winds reach this 
anchorage, while it is calm on the opposite shore. Also there is no 



BOSPORUS. Ill 

sea with northerly winds, and a vessel will lie sheltered from the cur- 
rents of the strait. 

Towboats, — ^There are numerous tu^ available. Two floating 
steam fire engines are held in readiness to render assistance at once. 
One engine is stationed outside the new bridge, the other is kept be- 
tween the bridges. 

Constantinople (lat. 41° 0' N., long. 28° 67 Y E.).— This great 
city called Istambul, or shortly Stambul, by the Turks, is built on 
the triangular promontory which forms the west side of the south 
entrance to the Bosporus. It is surrounded by an old wall or ram- 
part, flanked by 20 towers, with a good moat and pierced by 28 gates, 
of which 14 open toward the harbor. Near the gate of Adrianople 
are still seen the ruins of the palace of Constantine and the breach in 
the wall where the last Greek Emperor was killed. Both towers and 
walls are in a very bad state. The castle with the Seven Towers con- 
sists of seven towers, united by galleries. 

Constantinople, like ancient Rome, covers seven hills, and the popu- 
lation, including the suburbs, may be estimated at 1,106,000 persons. 
Its houses are mostly built of wood, and consequently exposed to 
numerous and terrible fires, and its streets are narrow. 

The chief manufactures are those of silk and cotton fabrics, fire- 
arms, morocco leather, saddlery, horse trappings, and shoes, and other 
articles of ordinary use and consumption, also meerschaum tobacco 
pipes. The fisheries of Constantinople are important; the harbor 
and adjacent sea abound with shoals of tunny and swordfish, and the 
Sweet Waters with a profusion of* fresh-water fish. 

CommuLnication. — The communication by steamer with all the 
chief ports of the Mediterranean and Sea of Marmara niay be con- 
sidered as almost constant. Rail with all parts of Europe, via Adri- 
anople; and from Haidar Pasha, on the Skutari side of the Bosporus, 
to Ismid, Angora, Konia, and Eregli. There is a short subterranean 
railway up the steep incline from Galata to Per a ; trains run every 
few minutes. Telegraphic communication with all parts by land 
line and cable. 

Passenger steam vessels ply between the Golden Horn, Bosporus, 
Marmara Islands, and the neighboring seaside villages. • 

Caiques of graceful appearance are constantly gliding about ihe 
Bosporus ; and their light, sharp, and swift build enable them ea;sily 
to stem the currents, however strong or rapid. Their hire is mod- 
erate, and under all circumstances they are preferable to ships' boats. 

Coal and supplies. — In normal times about 15,000 tons of coal 
was kept in stock at the various depots and was put on board 
lighters. There are special coaling buoys, and it is very rarely, even 
in severe southwesterly gales, that coaling is interrupted. There are 



112 DOCKING AND REPAIRING. 

also coaling wharves having 7 fathoms alongside. If vessels coal at 
Therapia or Beikos Bay an extra charge is involved. 

Every description of supplies can be procured, and there is a con- 
tract for supplying British naval vessels with fresh provisions, fresh 
water of very good quality being also supplied by the contractor at a 
reasonable rate. 

Becking and repairing. — The naval port lies immediately above 
the western bridge, and to it particularly applies the name of the 
Golden Horn; ships of any draft can pass beyond the bridges. It is 
800 yards in breadth and is reserved for the vessels of war, which 
anchor off the north quay, abreast of the naval arsenal, where they 
moor generally in 16 fathoms, mud. In the imperial dockyard there 
are steam hammers, and floating sheers that will lift 80 tons. The 
rolling and bending plant of the dockyard is used, when necessary, by 
the private firms who undertake repairs. The arsenal contains large 
stores for the fleet, stocks and slips for building and repairing ships, 
victualing magazines, steam sawmills, barracks for the officers and 
seamen, and a naval school. 

Large repairs can be effected at the imperial dockyard and at the 
engineering works of private companies. 

Hospitals. — The hospitals include the British Seamen's, situated 
in Rue Madresse, Galata, near the consulate general ; German, Italian, 
and municipal hospitals; besides which there is a British Sailors' 
Home in Rue Djami, Galata. 

Stambul Liman. — Above the Golden Horn lies Stambul Liman 
Reach, having a depth of 2 to* 7 fathoms, extending as far as the 
village of Eyub, which stands on its right bank and near the Sultan's 
palace. It is to a mosque of this village that the Sultan comes to gird 
on the sword of Othman when he ascends the throne. 

After passing the village of Eyub is the Kiaghat Basin, the boat 
channel to which is marked out by stakes, beginning abreast a large 
barrack on the right shore. 

Serai. — At the eastern extremity of Constantinople, and facing the 
Bosporus, lies the Old Seraglio, which occupies a large portion of 
the peninsula. It is of triangular form, and surrounded on its north, 
south, and west sides by high gray walls, which join those of the city. 
All the northern and most picturesque part of the Seraglio was burnt 
some years ago, and the extremity of the point is now bare, but the 
remainder of the ground is covered with buildings, everywhere re- 
lieved by clumps of cypresses. 

The quay which skirts the eastern wall of the Seraglio on the 
Bosporus is nearly f mile in length from north to south; and from 
the termination of the mud bank at Seraglio Point, its south extrem- 
ity, where there are only 12 feet water 300 yards from the point, the 
shore is free from danger outside the distance of 200 yards, so that a 



BOSPORUS. 113 

steam vessel may pass very close. The current at this spot sometimes 
attains a velocity of 4^ knots. 

Pera stands, with the town of Galata and Topkhana, on the rising 
ground opposite Constantinople. Its houses are irregular and the 
streets narrow, and it is bounded by large cemeteries and promenades 
planted with cypresses. 

It is at Pera that foreigners enjoy all their rights and privileges. 
They may possess houses and gardens and practice in perfect security 
the exercise of their creeds. The ambassadors of foreign powers 
reside there in magnificent palaces. The Turkish Government have 
also authorized the establishment of Christian churches, and it fre- 
quently happens that the voice of the muezzin from the top of the 
mosques, calling the faithful to prayer, is interrupted by the sound 
of the bell of a Christian church. 

Oalata^ to the south of Pera, is an old town, built by the Genoese 
and formerly surrounded by an old loop-holied wall. Here merchants 
of all nations have established their offices and warehouses. Its lower 
part is a vast labyrinth of mud and filth, and fevers are always preva- 
lent. The population consists of Armenians, Greeks, Jews, Maltese, 
Genoese, and the sailors of the numerous vessels which make fast 
alongside its quays. 

Halfway up Galata Hill is a remarkable white round tower, which 
has the appearance of a large minaret. From its top the view em- 
braces the Bosporus and all Constantinople, and from thence the 
alarm is given in the frequent fires which devour the four adjacent 
towns. 

Pera, Galata, and Topkhana appear as one town and occupy the 
whole face of the hill from the summit to the sea shore. 

Topkhana lies eastward of Galata, along the bank of the Bos- 
porus, and faces the Old Seraglio and Skutari. It is a dull Turkish 
town, the greater part occupied by the Turkish Army, especially the 
artillery, who have a large park there and an exercising ground on 
the quay. Topkhana is to the army what the arsenal is to the navy. 

A small bank extends 100 yards offshore, abreast the quay of Topk- 
hana, but, being beaconed off with piles, it is easily avoided. 

Between Topkhana and Orta Kioi stands the palace of Dolma 
Bagche, which has been a frequent residence of the Sultan since the 
palace of the Old Seraglio was abandoned ; and to the southwest of 
Dalma Bagche, near Fundukli, another palace has been erected, which 
borders the bank of the Bosporus. All this part of the shore is covered 
with magnificent houses, besides the two large villages of Beshik Tash 
and Fundukli. 

Further to the northeast is the marble palace of Cheraghan, another 
of the imperial residences, which, including the harem buildings, ex- 
tend along the shore of the Bosporus for nearly J mile. 



114 ANCHOBAGE — ORTA KIQI. 

Ancliorage. — There is anchorage all along this shore in 10 to 17 
fathoms, and vessels can either moot or remain at single anchor. 
Care should be taken not to anchor near the line, where the two cur- 
rents meet, as they produce violent* reaction, which sheer vessels in 
all directions and may cause collisions. Though it is easy to perceive 
on the surface of the water the boundary line which separates the 
permanent current from the eddies, it is varying its position from 
hour to hour, and if the anchorage is crowded, it is sometimes very 
difficult to avoid dropping the anchor near the dividing line. Vessels 
bringing up in the Bosporus should therefore always moor. The 
holding ground is mud. 

There is a berth with two mooring buoys for the use of His Ma- 
jesty's ships to the eastward of the Topkhana Arsenal. As the sta- 
tionnaires are moored very close to one another, it is advisable for 
vessels lying at these moorings in the winter months, and at all times 
when the weather is threatening, to be prepared to slip at short notice. 

Caution. — Care must be taken with the cables both in anchoring 
and weighing, as there are many stray anchors on the bottom. Vessels 
are constantly running into or drifting on one aother. A sharp look- 
out must be kept, therefore, in squally weather, especially on the 
smaller craft, which seem always to be at a short stay. 

Orta Kiel. — Orta Point is easily distinguished by a white mosque 
on the extreme point. From the point a small spit projects about 
30 yards, which would have been scarcely worth mentioning but that 
vessels usually hug that point. 

Water may be obtained at Orta Kioi from a fountain which also 
supplies the population. 

Defterdar Burnu (lat. 41° 2^' N., long. 29° 2' E.).— At Defterdar 
Point the central current is much weakened, and is often driven back 
by the countercurrent from Constantinople, which reaches as far as 
this point and then turns off into the general southwest current. 
Sailing vessels, however, frequently find it difficult to pass with light 
southerly winds, and, as at Arnaut Point, to the northward are 
obliged to warp round it. 

Duimi and Kuru Banks. — About i mile northward of Defterdar 
Point are two banks, 300 yards apart, lying nearly parallel to the 
shore. Duimi, the southernmost, over which the depth is 3 feet, is 
200 yards long north and south, 100 yards wide, and lies 100 yards 
from the shore. There is a depth of 7 to 10 fathoms between the bank 
and the shore, but no safe passage. Kuru Bank, formerly a shoal, with 
a depth of 4 feet, but now above water, is nearly the same size as Duimi, 
and lies abreast the village of Kuru Chesmeh, 200 yards from the 
shore. As there are depths of 7 to 12 fathoms between the bank and 
the quays, a vessel may pass inside it, though at all times it will be 
more prudent to keep outside, unless wishing to make fast to the 



BOSPORUS. 115 

shore. The south extreme of Duimi Bank is marked by a lighthouse. 
On the northern end of Kuru Bank a large square house has been 
built, and the whole bank, or islet, is now occupied by a garden sur- 
rounded by a yellow wall. Vessels frequently make fast their hawsers 
and cables to these banks. 

There is anchorage between the two banks, and generally many 
sailing vessels are at single anchor off here, waiting for a fair wind 
to get farther north. 

Duimi Bank Light, flashing green, 23 feet above high water, 
visible 3 miles, is exhibited from an iron lamp post on a white house 
located between Defterdar and Chesme villages on the bank. 

Ck)ast. — Between Defterdar Point and Arnaut Point there is a 
zone of eddies setting northward, which sometimes, near the shore, are 
strong, but all of which turn off on reaching Arnaut Point and unite 
with the main current. Small vessels frequently land their crews and 
track round the point. There is anchorage under the point in 14 to 
17 fathoms, sheltered from the current, but within 200 yards of the 
shore. 

There are good anchorages off the quays of the different villages 
which stand on this shore, the largest of which is that of Kuru 
Chesmeh, near which is seen the palace of the Sultana Valideh. 

Bebek Bay, between Arnaut Point and Rumili Hissar, is deep, 
and, as the current never enters it, would afford some facilities for 
navigating the Bosporus were it not obstructed by a bank. This 
bank over which the depth is only from 3 to 6 feet, extends into the 
bay from abreast the quays on the north side of Arnaut Point about 
600 yards to northeastward. Its termination is marked by a white 
stone pyralmid, which also serves for warping. 

Bebek Light, flashing green, 15 feet above high water, visible 3 
miles, is exhibited from a white masonry pyramid located on the 
extremity of the bank. 

Suxnili Hissar. — The point of Rumili Hissar is overlooked by a 
hill, on which still stand some towers and an old fortified castle. 
It was from this point that Darius contemplated the passage of his 
army, and from this also the Goths and the Crusaders crossed into 
Asia. The conquering Turkish Army, under Mahomed II, also 
crossed into Europe here, immediately before the siege and fall of 
Constantinople. 

Telegraph cable. — Cables are laid between Rumili Hissar and the 
opposite shore. Care should be taken not to anchor near the cables. 

With light southerly winds vessels can run up to Rumili Hissar 
nearly as far as the castle, southward of which they can either make 
fast alongside the stone quay or anchor, in about 8 fathoms, very 
near the shore. 



116 KIOBASHI POINT, 



Ruznili Hissar Light, flashing green, 36 feet above high water, 
visible 3 miles, is exhibited from a white iron column on a white 
square tower located on the wall of the fortress 110 yards from the 
guardhouse. 

Devils Current. — In this part of the strait, which is Q^ly 800 
y*rds wid^, the current attains a velocity of 5 knots an hour, and is 
known as Devils Current. 

Balta Liman is a small village nearly halfway between Rumili 
Hissar and Yeni Kioi. It gave its name to the treaty by which 
Sussia agreed to enter the Danubian Provinces only in concert with 
Turkey and in case the population should rise in arms. 

Istenieh Bay, small and of a circular form, is sheltered from all 
winds and currents. About 100 yards from its western side there is a 
depth of 5 fathoms, shoaling toward the shore. Its entrance is 200 
yards wide, and although the bay has a depth of 6 to 14 fathoms, ves- 
sels seldom use it, but prefer working up in the eddy and anchoring 
under Kiobashi Point, the latter being a better berth from which to 
weigh. 

There i&a mooring buoy in the entrance to the bay. 

Kiobashi Point— Yeni-Kioi Bank (lat. 41° 7' N., long. 29° 4' 
E.). — From this point a bank, having a depth of 5 fathoms on its 
outer edge, projects 300 yards from the shore. It begins northward of 
the point and borders the shore to the southward as far as Istenieh 
Bay ; and on this bank, about 200 yards from Kiobashi Point and 125 
yards from the shore, lies a sunken rock, having a depth of from 1 to 
2 fathoms. 

Clearing mark. — Eumuli Hissar Point, in range wi|h Khanlijeh 
Point, 201°, leads outside Yeni-Kioi Bank. i 

Anchorage. — ^A flat extends 200 yards outside Yeni-Kioi Bank, on 
which vessels may anchor in 5 to 14 fathoms, sheltered from northerly 
winds, also from the channel current, which, by its divergence from 
Kiobashi Point toward the coast of Asia, causes a cpuntercurrent that 
rims nearly up to the point. 

Two mooring buoys, for the use of the Austro-Hungarian station- 
naire in summer, are situated off Yeni-Kioi. 

Light. — A white buoy, exhibiting a flashing green light 10 feet 
above the water, visible 3 miles, is moored on the edge of Yeni-Kioi 
Bank. 

Therapia Bay is small, but sheltered from all winds. It has a 
depth of 6 to 9 fathoms, but accommodates only a few vessels, which 
generally make fast alongside the quays. A vessel entering must 
avoid being set to the southward, and should therefore hug as much as 
possible the northern shore, for the current, which is but slightly felt 
in the bay, sets toward a sunken rock off the little mole which forms 



BOSPORUS. 117 

the southern entrance point; and Shoal water also extends within the 
bay from its southern shore. 

During summer nearly all the available space in this little bay is 
occupied by the stationnaires attached to the different embassies in 
Therapia. Vessels seeking temporary anchorage should anchor on 
the opposite shore, either in Beikos Bay or off Sultans Valley. 

The summer residences of the French, English, and Italian ambas- 
sadors lie between Therapia Bay and Kirich Point, and are built near 
the broad quay that fronts the Bosporus. The French palace, which is 
red in color, is the northernmost of the continuous line of houses north 
of Therapia Bay. The English one stands conspicuously by itself, at 
the point north of the French palace, and is white with a gray roof. 
The Italian palace stands on the quay southward of the French 
palace. 

. Kiritcli Bumu Lights flashing green, 26 feet above high water, 
visible 3 miles, is exhibited from a mast on a white house located 
about i mile 333° from Therapa. 

Buyukdere Bay is formed between Mezar and Kirich Points, in 
front of a magnificent valley. It affords shelter from all winds and 
is the best anchorage in the Bosporus. The town occupies the north 
shore and contain^ the ordinary summer residences of the ambassa- 
dors, consuls, and rich merchants of Constantinople, who live there in 
magnificent villas. A smaller village, named Kechli Kioi, lies on the 
southwest shore, near the south minaret. The north minaret stands 
at the head of the bay. 

Andiorage. — Vessels may anchor in any part of Buyukdere Bay, 
in 18 to 24 fathoms at its entrance, 10 to 12 fathoms in the middle, 
and in 4" to 7 lafhoms at its head, over mud and fine sand, taking care 
to avoid a spit of 9 feet extending from 100 to 200 yards from the 
shore throughout the bay. The best and most convenient anchorage 
is about 600 yards southward of the town of Blyukdere, in about 8 
fathoms, with the north minaret of Kechli Kioi bearing 278°. Ves- 
sels in picking up an anchorage often find so many craft riding in the 
bay that they can not choose a convenient berth. 

Current. — The main current from Mezar Point increases in. 
strength, and, passing Buyukdere Bay without entering it, sets di- 
rectly on to the battery at Kirich Pointj and also over Englishman 
Banks. Although the current does not enter the bay, yet there is 
always in it a weak eddy, which becomes very irregular and change- 
able when the current in the channel is strong, for it then sometimes 
sets up to Kirich Point, and to the northward of the village, and even 
beyond Mezar Point and Yeni Mahalleh ; and it has been known to 
reach as far as Buyuk Bay in the zone where the water is generally 
slack. 



118 PATENT SLIP. 

Quarantine. — There is a pratique office here which is used only 
by sailing vessels. 

Patent slip. — There is a patent slip in Buyukdere Bay with a 
cradle 154 feet long And having a lifting power of 450 tons. The 
depths over the cradle is 10 feet forward and 11 feet aft. 

Water supply. — ^West of Buyukdere, in the forest of Belgrade, 
lie the reservoirs (or bends) which furnish Constantinople with water. 
These, with their aqueducts, were commenced by Constantine the 
Great, and have been added to and replaced by successive Emperors 
and Sultans. 

The forest, principally composed of chestnuts and oaks, is the 
eastern portion of a vast wooded area stretching tq the northwest. 
The part available for catching the water covers ground much broken 
and cut up into valleys, the lower ends of which, when dammed, form 
the reservoirs. Of late years the forest has. been much reduced by 
want of care in preserving it from fires and the same lack of super- 
vision has permitted the dams, aqueducts, and watercourses to fall 
out of repair. The solidity and magnificence of these works, built in 
some instances entirely of marble, attest that Sultans as well as 
Emperors fully recognized their immense importance. 

The aqueduct of Ibrahim, which crossed the head of Buyukdere 
Valley and carries water into Pera, is visible from the Bosporus and 
is the latest of their structures. It collects water from four bends 
near the village of Bagche Kioi, at the edge of the forest. 

The Great bend is near the village of Belgrade, about 5 miles from 
Buyukdere, and well in the forest. A well macadamized road leads as 
far as the village. 

Three other bends assist in the supply of Stambul, and their water 
is carried over the two magnificent aqueducts of Constantiie and Suli- 
man, near the village of Burgas, and that of Justinian farther south- 
west, and so round the head of the Golden Horn into the town. 

Mezar Bumu is bordered by a shoal bank, which extends 100 
yards seaward. 

Northward of Mezar Point the coast forms a small bay, in which 
anchorage, free from the main current, may be obtained. Here are 
seen the villages of Sari-yar and Yeni Mahellah. Between these two 
places a small stream named Guldere empties into the sea. 

Telli Point. — On Telli Point stands a ruined battery and a con- 
spicuous yellow house. 

Bumili Kavak is a small village in a pretty valley just opposite 
Kavak Point in Asia. On the hill above are the traces of an old 
Genoese Castle, and at the waterside is a small stone battery. 

Dikili Bocks. — Abreast Rumili Kavak, and nearly 400 yards from 
the shore, lies a cluster of rocks, 200 yards long northeastward and 
southwestward, and 150 yards broad. The south end of Dikili Rocks 



BOSPORUS. 119 

is a little north of a line joining the two large forts, which stand 
beneath the castles of Rumili Kavak and Anatoli Kavak. They are 
marked by an iron tripod beacon which is surmounted by a spherical 
cage. Some of the rocks are above water; others break in rough 
weather. A good lookout should always be kept for them, especially 
during the night, as they are very dangerous. 

Between Dikili Rocks and the shore there is a passage having a 
depth of 9 to 13 fathoms. 

A vessel may anchor near the southwest end of Dikili Rocks in 8 to 

10 fathoms water. There is deep water within a short distance of 
the rocks. 

Telegraph Cable. — A telegraph cable crosses the strait from 
Rumili Kavak to Kavak Point. Vessels should avoid anchoring in 
its vicinity. 

Coast. — From Rumili Kavak the coast extends nearly in a straight 
line to Buyuk Bay and is bordered by a shoal bank, which extends 
about 125 yards into the strait, and in some places bordered by steep 
rocks, of considerable height, lying close to the shore. A weak current 
sets northward along this part of the coast. 

Buyuk Bay. — In «alm weather there is occasional anchorage be- 
tween Rumili Kavak and Buyuk Bay, 300 yards, in 8 to 12 fathoms, 
but the best berth is southward of a powder magazine and a battery 
which stand on a hill forming the south point of the little Bay of 
Buyuk, to the head of which no large vessel can go, as there are only 

11 feet water. A flat extends for upward of 400 yards into the chan- 
nel from the northeast point of this bay, on the outer edge of which 
there is a depth of 5 fathoms. 

Karlbjeh Point (lat. 41° 12^' N., long. 29° ^' E.).— The coast 
between Buyuk.. Bay and Karibjeh Point maintains the same char- 
acter, and is fringed by the shoal bank before mentioned, and which 
extends 125 3^ards into the strait. On the outer edge of the bank 
there is a depth of 5 fathoms. 

On Karibjeh Point is an antiqiiated stone castle, and on a hill pro- 
jecting northeastward lies the large battery of Karibjeh, round which 
are seen a few barns and a small village. 

The coast northward of Karibjeh Point forms a bight open to the 
northeast, and fringed by a shoal bank, in which the current generally 
sets northward, though weakly. In fine weather a vessel may anchor 
in this bight, 800 yards from the shore, in about 10 fathoms water. 

Papas Point. — On a hill of moderate height named Papas Point, 
and southward of a little minaret, stands a battery. 

Cape Rumiliy on the northwest point of the European shore of 
the entrance of the Bosporus, on which stands the lighthouse and the 
Greek village of Fanaraki, is surrounded by a belt of high rocks with 
steep faces, on one of which, named Kyani Island, is still seen the 



120 SKUTART. 

remains of an altar dedicated to Csesar Augustus. Two hundred 
yards eastward of the island there is a depth of only 3J fathoms. 
A vessel may anchor during southwesterly winds in fine weather, 
or in a calm, 800 or 1,000 yards southeast of the island, in 15 
fathoms, over mud bottom. 

Ruxn'ili Light, fixed white, 190 feet above high water, visible 18 
miles, is exhibited from a white circular stone tower located about 600 
yards south of the battery. 

Fogsig^al. — ^The fogsignal is a siren. 

ASIATIC SHORE. 

Skutarl (lat. 41° 1' N., long. 29° 1' E.).— The town of Skutari, or 
Uskudar, surrounded by numerous gardens and cypresses, stands on 
the Asiatic bank of the Bosporus, opposite the entrance to the Golden 
Horn. Its streets are wider and off^r a more lively appearance than 
those of Constantinople, and it is the rendezvous of caravans arriving 
from the center of Asia and the point of departure of those going to 
Mecca. The position is admirable, and the view finer than at Con- 
stantinople, especially from Mount Bulghurlu, which lies to the east- 
ward of the town. Its population may be estimated at 35,000, of 
which the greater portion are employed in the production of silk. 
There is a telegraph station. 

A vast cemetery lies at the back of the town calkd the Dead Quar- 
ter, which is equally used by the Turks of Constantinople. At Sku- 
tari water is obtained in abundance, and vessels lying at Constanti- 
nople are supplied during the warm season. 

Lea^der Tower. — The seashore of Skutari is bordered by a sand 
flat which extends from 300 to 800 yards from the shore and on the 
outer edge of which there is a depth of 5 fathoms. At the extremity 
of a rocky ledge, extending 200 yards from the west point of Skutari, 
is a rock nearly awash, on which is built a square white tower, with 
a gallery, named Leander Tower, but locally known as Guz Couli 
(Maiden's Tower) , at the foot of which is a small battery. 

Skutari Light, flashing red, 36 feet above high water, visible 4 
miles, is exhibited from a white iron column on wall near Leander 
Tower on the east side of the strait. 

Selimiyyeh Barracks. — A short distance southward of Skutari 
stands Selimiyyeh Barracks, a large square yellow building, flanked 
by four towers at its angle. 

Northeastward of Skutari are the two villages of Kusgunyuk and 
Istavros. Eastward of the latter, and near the shore, is the white 
marble palace of Beyler Bey. 

The coast from Leander Tower to Kandilli Point is bold and has 
deep water within a few yards of the shore. This side of the channel 



BOSPORUS. 121 

is rarely frequented by vessels going northward, as there are neither 
eddies nor anchorages, in case of calms or a sudden shift of wind. 
Southward of Kandilli, and in the little bay of Vanikioi, a narrow 
zone is found where the water is slack. 

Kandilli Bank. — OflF the point of Kandilli a shoal bank, on the 
outer edge of which there is a depth of 5 fathoms, extends 100 yards 
into the strait. 

Kandilli Point lAght^ flashing red, 90 feet above high water, 
visible 4 miles, is exhibited from a white iron mast located near the 
extremity of the point. 

Anadolu Hissari. — Between Kandilli and Anadolu Hissari is a 
bay, the shores of which are steep except near the latter place, where 
a fringing bank, with 9 feet of water, extends 100 yards into the 
strait. 

At Anadolu Hissari an old Genoese castle is seen, which commands 
this part of the channel ; also a pretty valley, through whiph runs a 
small stream named Ghiok Su, or the Sweet Waters of Asia, where a 
greater portion of the Turkish population of Constantinople, the 
women especially, assemble on Fridaj'^s to enjoy various amusements. 

The two castles of Anadolu and Rumili Hissar, now in ruins, the 
latter on the European side, are situated at the narrowest part of the 
channel. The chief part of the northern maritime defenses of the 
capital was formerly concentrated here. 

From Anadolu Hissari the coast trends nearly due north as far as 
Khanlijeh, when it trends eastward. Between the two places, men- 
tioned the water is always slack, of which advantage is taken in south- 
erly winds. 

Khanlijeh Point Lights flashing red, 82 feet Hbove high water, 
visible 4 miles, is exhibited from a white iron column located 110 
yards from the shore. 

Chibukli Bay. — The little bay of Chibukli affords no good anchor- 
age, owing to the great depth of water and being open to the strength 
of the current. 

Injir and Beikos Bays offer a large and safe roadstead for a con- 
siderable number of vessels, sheltered from the influence of the main 
current, which, in crossing this great bight, is diverted into a zone of 
weak northern eddies within 800 yards of the shore. The village of 
Yali Kioi lies northward of Beikos, and that of Injir to the southward. 

Vessels generally prefer the Bay of Beikos to that of Injir and an- 
chor, in 18 to 26 fathoms, about 400 yards from the shore, abreast the 
villages of Yali Kioi and Beikos, whereas the anchorage off Injir is 
much obstructed by a mud flat, extending 600 yards from abreast the 
old minaret, and carrying only 6 to 15 feet, with some points of rocks 
172982^—20 9 



122 SELYI BURNU. 

and ledges of gravel on its outer edge. Vessels should moor as taut 
as practicable, and great attention is necessary to keep the hawse clear. 

The small bay oflF Sultans Valley lies between Selvi Burnu and the 
north point of Beikos Bay, on which stands an outpost of the health 
offline. It has a depth of 7 to 12 fathoms, mud mixed with sand, and 
is fringed by a bank, extending 50 to 150 yards from shore, on the 
outer edge of which are 5 fathoms. The bay is named after that pic- 
turesque valley, which is studded with trees, and in which is seen a 
kiosk belonging to the Sultan. A little stream runs through the valley 
into the bay; but as the water is obtained with some diflSculty, it is 
preferable to get it from Beikos, which offers more convenience, the 
water being brought alongside in water boats. 

English naval vessels on this station sometimes moor in this bay, 
northeastward and southwestward, with 50 fathoms on each cable, in 
8 to 10 fathoms, but the most sheltered anchorage is with Selvi Burnu 
bearing 329° 900 yards, and the French ambassador's flagstaff at 
Therapia 284°. 

Selvi Burnu. — The promontory of Selvi Burnu is likewise named 
Unkiar Skalessi, and a block of granite, in the form of a pyramid, has 
been raised there. 

Selvi Burnu is fringed by a bank the outer edge of which has a 
depth of 5 fathoms and is 100 yards from the shore. 

Between In jar Bay and Selvi Burnu the channel current is but lit- 
tle felt inshore, but there are generally slight eddies which will assist 
vessels in working to Selvi Burnu. 

Englishman or Umur Banks, although lying in the widest part 
of the channel, are dangerous to the navigation of the Bosporus on 
account of the current, which sweeps across them from Mezar Burnu. 
Their northeastern edge, of 3 fathoms, with 5 fathoms close-to, is 600 
yards southwestward from the southern extreme of Mujue or Umur 
Point, the north extreme of Umur Bay. The northern edge of 5 
fathoms lies northwestward 150 yards from this spot. There is also 
a small patch of 5 fi^thoms situated 350 yards southwest of Mujue 
Point. 

From the northern edge of 5 fathoms the banks extend 1,800 yards 
in a southerly direction and terminate 500 yards northwestward of 
Selvi Burnu. Their breadth varies from 200 to 400 yards. 

These shoals are separated by a channel running east and west, 150 
yards in breadth from their edges in 5 fathoms, and havinjg a depth 
of 6 to 13 fathoms water, but the channel can not be made use of, as 
the current sweeps across it. They thus form two distinct banks, of 
which the larger, sometimes named Selvi Bank, is to the southward 
and occupies two-thirds of the whole length. This bank has a depth 
of 6 to 18 feet over a bottom of sand and gravel with stones. The 
smaller and northern bank has 9 feet least water. 



BOSPORUS. 123 

The water on Englishman Banks is often discolored. 

Buoys. — The south and southwest sides of Selvi Bank are marked 
by red can buoys. 

As vessels generally pass westward of Englishman Banks and 
round to at the south end, these bouys are most useful, as formerly 
vessels frequently grounded on the edge, when keeping close to the 
bank to avoid being swept down the Bosporus. 

Caution. — The buoys on Selvi Banks are not to be depended upon. 

Umar Bank (Englishman) Light, flashing red, 26 feet above 
high water, visible 4 miles, is exhibited from an iron mast over a 
gray hut located on the southwest edge of the bank. 

Bange marks. — The Sultan's Kiosk, open to the southward of 
Selvi Burnu, bearing 123°, leads southward of Englishman Banks. 
The tall house on summit of ridge, in line with the right tangent of 
a conspicuous yellow house to the left of Telli Fort, bearing 24°, 
leads westward of the banks, and the tree near distant tall house 
bearing 16°, and just open of Bushy Peak leads eastward of the 
banks. 

Umur Bay, in the mouth of which lie Englishman Banks, is 
rtbout 1 mile long and about 550 yards wide and has a depth of 5 
fathoms 50 yards from the shore. This bay, the quarantine ground 
for vessels arriving from the Black Sea, affords excellent and much 
frequented anchorage in the eddy current which there prevails, in 
10 to 13 fathoms, mud, 300 yards from the shore. 

Madschiar Kalessi. — Nearly i mile northward of Mujue Burnu 
stands the large fort of Madschiar Kalessi. 

About i mile to the southeastward of Madschiar Kalessi rises a 
lofty hill of a round form, named Yusha Dagh, Kusha Dagh, or 
Giants Mountain, which serves as a mark for vessels from the Black 
Sea entering the channel in the daytime. Its sides are covered with 
vegetation, and on its summit stands a large white building. 

Madschiar Bank. — About 300 yards northeast of Madschiar 
Kalessi, and extending 200 yards in that direction, lies a rocky bank, 
150 yards long, having 5 fathoms on its outer edge and only 5 feet 
in the middle. 

Vessels closing the coast of Asia, in coming from the northward, 
will avoid this bank by keeping the small battery or minaret,, which 
lies a little southward of Kirich Point on the European shore, open 
westward of the west extreme of Madschiar Kalessi. 

Buoy. — The northeast edge of this bank is marked by a red conical 
buoy. 

Ma jar Bay. — Between Madschiar Kalessi and Kavah Point a deep 
bay is formed, where the channel current is only slightly felt. The 
coast about this bay being high, causes calm with the winds from the 
southward and eastward. Vessels rarely anchor in it, there being 17 



124 COAST. 

fathoms 200 yards from the shore, and when passing up the channel 
with a fair wind, they give it a wide berth to avoid bafiSing airs under 
the high land. 

Kavak Feint. — On this point is situated the fort of Kavak. It - 

faces that of Rumili Kavak in Europe, from which it is distant nearly \ 

1,200 yards. Behind this fort stands the castle of Anatoli Kalessi, an 
old Genoese building now in a bad state. 

The health office of Anatoli Kavak is situated a short distance 
southward of Kavak Point. 

Kavak Point Lights flashing red, 62 feet above high water, visible j 

4 miles, is exhibited from a mast on a white house located in the fort. 
Coast. — Between Kavak Point and Fil Burnu the coast forms a 

deep bight, called Kechili Bay, having deep water close to the shore, 
except at its head, where a flat, having 1 to 5 fathoms of water, ex- 
tends 200 yards fron[i the shore. A weak eddy sets around this bay I 
to the northward. 

Fil Burnu. — On this point stands a battery built on a hill, extend- 
ing to the westward. 

The coast northward forms a small bay, which has a depth of 1 to 

5 fathoms ; and along the high land of Fil Burnu there are some rocks | 
with steep edges, but they are close to the shore. From Fil Burnu to 
Anatoli Lighthouse the shore is studded with rocks, and although 

there is generally a depth of 5 to 12 fathoms 400 yards from the coast, 
yet the anchorage is bad on account of the currents. 

Poiras Point, on which stands an old stone castle, faces that of 
Karibjeh in Europe. 

Anatoli JAghty alternating fixed and flashing red and white, 249 
feet above high water, visible 20 miles, is located about 2 miles 124° 
from Rumili Light. 

Pogsignal. — The f ogsignal is made by gunfire. 



CHAPTER V. 



BLACK SEA. 



The Black Sea is said to have received its name from the Turks, 
who, being accustomed only to the navigation of the archipelago, whera 
the numerous islands and their convenient ports afford many places 
of rqfuge in case of danger, found the traversing of such an open 
expanse of waters, subject to storms, very perilous, and accordingly 
they expressed their fears by the epithet "black." The Greeks, on 
the contrary, gave it the name of Euxine, or hospitable. 

This sea, which divides the southern Provinces of Russia from 
Anatolia, or Asia Minor, lies between the parallels of 41^ and 46° 30' 
N., and the meridians of 27° 30' and 41° 45' E. Its length, from Bur- 
ghaz on the -west coast to St. Nikolai on the east, is about 600 miles, 
and its greatest breadth from the Melen Su to Odessa is 330 miles ; but 
it is much narrowed in the middle by the projecting peninsula of the 
Krimea, which reduces the breadth to 144 miles. It is bounded on the 
west by Turkey, Bulgaria, and Koumania ; on the north by South Rus- 
sia, including Bessarabia, Kherson, and Taurida ; on the east by the 
Russian Provinces of Circassia and Trans-Caucasia ; and on the south 
by Asia Minor ; and it is connected with the Sea of Azov by the Strait 
of Kertch, and with the Grecian Archipelago and the Mediterranean 
by the Bosporus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles. By the 
first it receives the drainage of a part of southern Russia, and by the 
second it sends off the surplus waters which are not lost by evapora- 
tion. With the exception of the Yellow Sea, there is probably no 
portion of the ocean which receives the drainage of a greater extent 
of country than the Black Sea. As the area which drains into the 
Black Sea is of an irregular ovate form, and said to comprehend 
960,000 square miles, while the surface area of the sea contains only 
180,000, it follows that each square mils of its surface receive the 
drainage of 5^ square miles, which will account for the small degree 
of saltness of its waters. The specific gravity of the surface compared 
with that of fresh water is as 1,014 to 1,000. That of the Baltic is 
1,004, while that of the water of the Atlantic is 1,026 to 1,000. The 
specific gravity of the bottom water close to the Bosporus is 1,020. 

The deepest water found in the Black Sea is 1,227 fathoms, near the 
parallel of 43° N. and on a line joining Capes Kerempeh and Kherso- 
nesti. Soundings taken on the Caucasian coast show deep water ol 

125 



126 CUKRENT. 

about 1,000 fathoms 20 miles, and from 300 to 500 fathoms 10 miles 
from the shore. 

Although the«temperature of the surface waters of the Black Sea 
changes with the seasons, below 200 fathoms it is fairly constant at 
48° F. 

The shores of the Black Sea are varied in aspect, but are in most 
parts high. From Cape Rumili to Cape Kaliakra the shore is of mod- 
erate height, backed by mountains, mostly of picturesque appearance. 
The coast thence, including the delta of the Danube, is low, slightly 
increasing in height toward Krimea. This peninsula as also the 
coasts of Circassia, Armenia, and Anatolia are bordered by lofty 
mountains. 

Current. — By far the greatest quantity of water is received into 
this sea at its northwestern comer, where the rivers Dniepr, Bug, 
Dniestr, and Danube fall into itr Most of the countries through which 
these rivers run are covered for three or four months of the vear 
with snow ; and in springtime all the moisture which has descended 
on them .during the winter, and has been preserved in a solid state, 
suddenly dissolves and descends through the channels of the rivers 
with great velocity, producing a current running to the southward. 

There is also an almost constant current from the Sea of Azov, the 
natural oiitpour from the Don and other rivers. It acquires its 
greatest strength in spring and autumn, and, with a strong east-north- 
easterly wind blowing, it attains a velocity of 5 knots in the narrows 
of Kertch Strait. It runs, however, fairly through. 

The strong current which sets out of Kertch Strait takes a south- 
westerly direction along the coast of the Krimea. Westward of Cape 
Khersonese it spreads out in diflferent directions. That to the north- 
ward, toward Eupatoria and Cape Tarkhan, bends to the westward, 
and meets the waters of the Dniepr, the Bug, and the Dniestr, which 
turn it awav to the southward. A vessel, when between the western 
extremity of the Tendra Peninsula and Cape Fontana, but more par- 
ticularly near the latter, will feel the influence of this current, which, 
uniting with the water which flows out of the Danube, forms a current 
of about 1 mile an hour toward the Bosporus. 

The accumulation of the waters toward this strait, especially with 
strong northerly winds, is so great that it is not able to carry off all of 
it. and a portion is pressed against the coast of Anatolia, where it gives 
rise to another current running to the eastward, and which makes its 
way along the coast of Asia and mingles with the waters of the 
Sakarieh, the Kizil, the Yeshil, and the Chorokh, which carry it on to 
the eastward between Anatolia and the Caucasus, where it meets with 
the Eion, the Kodor, and other rivers which add considerably to its 
strength. It then follows in a northwesterly direction the Caucasian 



BLACK SEA. 127 

shore, receiving all the waters from the mountains and the River 
Kuban as far as the Strait of Kertch, where it completes, but only to 
commence anew, that circular movement which has been described. 

Between Cape Khersonese and Kertch the strength of the south- 
westerly current setting along the coast of the Krimea will depend 
greatly on the state of the rivers flowing into the Sea of Azov and the 
direction of the wind. As in spring and autumn, and with strong 
northeast winds, the volume of water running out of Kertch Strait 
is much greater, thereby increasing the velocity of this current. 

The westerly current, which sets along the Caucasian coast, increases 
in strength as it passes the Black Sea mouth of the Kuban, and meet- 
ing the stream from the Sea of Azov westward of Tuzla Bank and the 
sunken breakwater, causes a large deposit between them and the light- 
vessel. Thence the combined streams take a direction southwestward 
parallel to the coast to Cape Takil, thence westward along the coast of 
the Krimea. 

On the Caucasian shore the coast current running to the northwest 
is much felt in the locality of Cape Kadosh. On the Anatolian coast, 
near Sinub (Sinope), the effects of a current running westerly as far 
as Cape Kerempeh have been experienced, extending only a short dis- 
tance from the shore, but at a greater distance to seaward it sets to 
the eastward. 

The different directions which have been thus ascribed to the Black 
Sea currents must not be taken as absolute on all occasions as they 
are sometimes influenced by the winds or by local circumstances. 
There are counter currents or eddies in the bay on the coasts of 
Rumelia and Bulgaria and also at a little distance from the shores of 
Anatolia. 

For instance, in December, 1852, 13 vessels bound from Odessa to 
Varna were wrecked near Cape Shabler, and in March, 1855, 6 more 
between that cape and Mangalia when bound to Varna from the 
Krimea. As this loss may have been caused by an unusually strong 
current to the west or even northwest, the mariner should be on his 
guard against such an occurrence. 

With a moderate gale from northeastward, an unmistakable set on 
to the coast and to the southward was experienced, amounting at first 
to only I knot, but getting stronger as the wind increased, and was 
such as might have caused the loss of many vessels had the coast lights 
not been seen. On the passage from Burghaz to Constantinople, with 
calms and light southerly winds, no current was experienced, which 
appears to point to the fact that the currents are greatly influenced 
by the prevailing wind. If southeasterly and southerly winds have 
been blowing for three or four days, a set of about i knot will be 
observed in a contrary direction. 



128 WIXDS AJSTD WEATHEB. 

With the exception of the indraft to the Bosporus, the currents in 
the vicinity of the entrance are variable, being influenced by the 
prevailing wind, though, as a rule, they set to the eastward along the 
shore of Asia Minor, with a velocity of i to 1 knot. 

Winds and weather. — The observation of several navigators 
establish approximately a line of demarcation from Cape Aia in the 
Krimea to Cape Kerempeh in Anatolia, thus dividing this sea into 
two parts — the western and the eastern. It is rare to pass this line 
without observing a change, and vessels that come up to it with a 
fair wind are often obliged suddenly to brace their yards sharp up. 
There is a second division, established by the direction of the winds, 
which divides the northern from the southern part of the Black Sea. 
This line, 'more vaguely marked, varies in the western basin from 
Cai>e Kaliakra to the mouths of the Danube ; and in the eastern basin 
on the Caucasian coast, from Subeshik to Cape Idokopas, near Pshad. 
It will be obvious that these two lines of demarcation are much less 
observable in the open sea than they are near the shores. 

On the west coast the two most dangerous winds that blow are from 
the south and southeast. They are uncommonly violent during the 
equinox and are the chief cause of the havoc committed in the Black 
Sea. The three great rivers — the Bug, Dniestr, and Danube — also 
bring large masses of water to the sea from opposite points of the 
compass; and if a south or southeast wind is blowing, produces the 
so-called " hacking " waves. These dangerous winds do not frequently 
occur in the summer, for a northerlv wind blows almost without inter- 
mission at that season. 

Southwest winds are strongest in spring and autumn and are 
dangerous on the Caucasian coasts. 

A northeasterly wind brings with it clear weather and cold in 
winter. Northwesterly and westerly winds, on the contrary, are often 
accompanied by fog and moist weather. Toward the middle of 
summer the northerly wind is generally steady, and although at a 
later period it gives place to a southerly wind, it often reappears in 
January, and sometimes in February and March, and during all the 
spring. These remarks relate principally to the western portion of 
the Black Sea, which is subject to the influence of the Carpathian 
Mountains and the chain of the Balkan. 

At Constantza it was noticed that from May to August the land 
and sea breezes were fairly regular, the sea breeze, between northeast 
and southeast, coming in about 9 a. m. and lasting till sunset, the land 
breeze, northwest to southwest, springing up about 3 a. m. and dying 
away about 8 a. m. 

Occasionally during this period a strong northeasterly breeze was 
experienced, and at times strong westerly breezes accompanied by 



BLACK SEA. 129 

rain, lightning, and thunder. A dull humid atmosphere gave notice 
of these thunderstorms. 

In winter, gales which blow from north-northeastward to east 
generally commence more westward. A heavy swell, however, assures 
the sailor that the wind will shift. 

On the north coast, in the spring and summer, the winds blow from 
northeast and southwest, sometimes very strong. In the autumn they 
are more variable. High winds cause a confused sea in Kherson Bay, 
but the effect in the River Bug is but slight. On the southern coast 
of the Krimea south or southeast .winds seldom blow home; but 
there are exceptions to these general rules, and they are the more 
remarkable as they are invariably violent, which was proved in 1836 
by the sevpre tempest, which occasioned the loss of several Russian 
^ips of war and transports on the coast of Circassia, and the heavy 
gale of November 14, 1854, when several English transports were 
wrecked in Balaklava and Eupatoria Bays. Southerly gales are said 
to moderate after veering round to west and north. 

In the neighborhood of Yalta it sometimes blows very hard from 
the northwest, and at Lampat the southwest wind often blows with 
violence through an opening formed by the Ayu Dagh and the other 
mountains. 

• In the Sea of Azov the most prevalent winds are from the north- 
west. In the eastern portion of the Black Sea the influence of the 
lofty range of the Caucasus and of Asia Minor is felt, and it is a 
remarkable fact that the prevalent winds in winter on this coast, 
from Anapa to Subeshik, are those from the northwest, and from 
Subeshik to Mingrelia, from the southeast, although Subeshik forms 
no very prominent point on the coast. The northeast wind, by the 
violence with which it blows from the tops of the mountains, is said 
to come from "The Be<d of Boreas," a term given by the ancient 
Greeks and which applies at the present day. The winds from the 
Anatolian shore are also, in many parts the strongest that blow 
there. 

At Novorossisk the northeast winds, which are prevalent from the 
month of September to the beginning of April, sometimes blow with 
the fury of a hurricane, rushing down from the Varada Mountains 
with violence, and causing such a sea that vessels are driven on shore. 
ITiese tempests are preceded by clear weather and by small white 
flaky clouds above the mountains. 

It has been observed on the coast of Caucasus that west or south- 
west winds seldom blow home. Land winds from east and northeast 
prevail at night and sometimes are very fresh. Strong sea breezes 
generally haul round to the northward about sunset and lose their 
strength. 



180 BUOYAGE — WHITE FOGS. 

The coast of Asia Minor is rarely exposed to the violence of 
northerly winds. When they do occur they seldom blow home, being 
deflected toward east or west by the lofty range of mountains which 
extend in that direction throughout the country. Westerly winds are 
the most dangerous on the eastern part of the Anatolian coast, but 
north and northeast winds do not reach it, and easterly storms also 
arp always light and the climate generally mild. The western part 
as far as the Bosporus, on the contrary, is cold and chilly, and the 
winds from west to north and northeast are accompanied by storms 
of hurricane force, which occasion numerous shipwrecks and loss of 
life. Cape Kerempeh deserves the name of Spartivento (Separator 
of Winds), which has been given by the Italians to several capes in 
the Mediterranean, for a strife between the winds is often observed 
abreast of it. 

During the month of May the western part of the Anatolian coast 
is sometimes visited with a gale from the north-northeast, which on 
one occasion caused the wreck of eight or nine vessels, but during the 
months of June, July, August, and September it is said to be per- 
fectly safe. 

At the entrance to the Bosporus, during the summer months, from 
the beginning of April to November, the prevalent wind is from the 
northeast, with a fine clear atmosphere. Southwest winds prevail 
during the remainder of the year and blow sometimes with great 
violence in the months of December and January, the northeast gales 
being more frequently experienced in the months of September, 
October, and November. 

Winter buoyage. — During the winter all buoys are replaced by 
spar buoys. 

In the Black Sea it is the custom in November to remove the light- 
vessels and buoys in Kherson Bay, Kertch Strait, and the Sea of 
Azov, their positions being marked by spar buoys of the same color. 
When navigation is resumed in the spring (about April), the light- 
vessels and buoys are again laid out. 

Lights. — During the winter, the shore lights of the Black Sea and 
Sea of Azov will cease to be lighted as soon as the whole visible hori- 
zon therefrom shall be covered with solid ice. The lights will again be 
exhibited as soon as open spaces are seen, or that the ice appears to 
begin to move. Should a vessel be seen at that time, even if the 
movement of the ice be arrested, the lights will not be discontinued 
unless the crew have abandoned the vessel and communication can 
not be effected. 

White fogs. — In the Black Sea these fogs come on at times with 
inconceivable rapidity during calm weather, enveloping everything 
with a thick white vapor, through which nothing is visible. As the 
mist, however, occasionally rises to the top of the cliffs, and some- 



BLACK SEA. 131 

times clears away altogether for a few moments, glimpses thus caught 
of the land, beacons, or whitewashed marks may give a knowledge of 
the vessel's position, obviating the necessity of vexatious delay on the 
part of a steamer and enabling a sailing vessel finding herself un- 
expectedly close to the shore to take all necessary precaution to avoid 
the danger. 

From July to September is the period during which the white fogs 
are most frequently experienced, though they occur occasionally dur- 
ing the other months. 

In time of fog, however, and during bad weather, when dense 
clouds hang about the hills in the background and the driving rain 
renders everything obscure, great caution is necessary on approaching 
the coast, as at those times there are some localities that bear a strange 
resemblance to the entrance of the Bosporus, and if the land can not 
be seen the lead must be resorted to when, if proper care is taken, and 
due regard paid to the soundings, a good knowledge of the vessel's 
position can be arrived at, and the entrance steered for accordingly, 
when the f ogsignals from Kumili and Anatoli will probably be heard. 

Ice. — ^The winters are severe in the Black Sea, but more particu- 
larly on its northern shores, and it is recorded that in 401 A. D. it was 
entirely, and in 762 A. D. partially, frozen over. The month of De- 
cember and the second half of January are often called the least 
dangerous of the season. Ice being more prevalent where water is 
shallow, and the salinity lowered by the discharge of rivers, the 
mouths of the Dneipr, the Dneistr, and sometimes those of the 
Danube, the port of Odessa, and the Strait of Kertch, where the water 
is all but fresh, are frozen every winter more or less. The ice seldom 
extends far to seaward, and often a southerly wind springs up and 
clears it all away with wonderful rapidity. It is rare, indeed, that the 
cold has been severe enough to leave traces of ice after the end of 
February. The time of its formation at Odessa is toward the end of 
December, and in the space of 20 years there were only three or four 
consecutive years in which this port was completely free of ice. 

WESTERN SHORE; THE BOSPORUS TO ODESSA. 

Bosporus Approacli. — At the northeast entrance to the Bosporus 
the coast is of moderate height, but the landmarks on it, which serve 
to guide the navigator, are often enveloped in thick fogs, which are 
especially dangerous in these parts, so wanting in places of refuge 
that one mistake may cause a shipwreck. The entrance, nearly 2 miles 
wide, is marked by Rumili Lighthouse on the coast of Europe and by 
Anatoli Lighthouse on that of Asia. From Cape Rumili westward 
as far as Kilios the coast presents a very broken outline; small coves 
appear here and there, each with its little strip of white beach, 
bounded on either side by jutting rocky points. The shore is fringed 



132 ROCKETS — ^LIFEBOATS — ^REFUGE STATIONS. 

with cliffs and may be approached as close as ^ mile, 8 fathoms being 
obtained close to the rocks. 

Caution. — The coast beyond Kara Burnu, which is 21 miles north- 
westward of Cape Eumili, bears a resemblance' to the land in the 
vicinity of the Bosporus, which circumstance has given it the name 
of the False Entrance, and the error in taking it for the true Bosporus 
has caused the loss of many vessels. 

The current in the approach to the Bosporus, which sets to the 
southwestward during the prevalence of northeasterly winds, has 
been the cause of many vessels running ashore in Kilios Bay. 

Brocket^ lifeboat, and refuge stations. — This service, estab- 
lished at the Black Sea entrance to the Bosporus, extends on the 
European coast from Cape Rumili to just beyond Mandre, 28 miles 
to the westward ; and on the Asiatic side from Anatoli to Kilia Point, 
21 miles to the eastward. 

There are 80 men, 4 officers, 2 fireboats, and 19 rocket stations on the 
European side. The principal stations are cream colored, and the 
intermediate cement washed. There are 84 men, including officers, 2 
lifeboats, and 18 rocket stations on the Asiatic side; the rocket houses 
on this side are painted white with black gable ends. The greater 
part of the stations on both sides stand on high ground and form good 
landmarks. 

On the European side the lifeboat stations are at Kilios, about 
3 miles west of Cape Eumili, and at Kara Burnu, 17 miles farther 
west. The stations where a rocket apparatus is kept are distributed 
along the coast, being rarely more than 2 miles apart. On the AsiatiV; 
side the lifeboat stations are near Eiva Fort, 2| miles east of Anatoli 
Lighthouse, and at Kilios Point, 19 miles farther east. The rocket 
stations and houses are situated at intervals along the coast, being 
about 1 mile apart when near the entrance to the Bosporus, while east- 
ward of Kara Burnu the distance is greater excepting at Kilia Point, 
where there are several rocket houses within a short distance of 
one another. 

By day and by night the whole coast from Cheshmedjik to Kilia is 
watched by lookout men, and by patrol parties during a gale of wind 
or in thick snow or foggy weather. Shipmasters in position of danger 
or difficulty will, on all occasions, receive gratuitously advice or assist- 
ance from the officers and men of the Lifeboat and Rocket Service, 
who may easily be recognized by their uniform, which bears a dis- 
tinctive badge on the coat collar. 

Landmarks. — The cliffs in certain places on the Asiatic side are 
whitened, and thus afford an easily distinguishable mark to vessels 
approaching it. On the European side, between Kilios and Hissar 
Kaiasi, the red sands of Dumus Dere are visible in clear weather from 
a long distance seaward. 



BLACK SEA. 133 

liightvessel. — A lightvessel, exhibiting 2 fixed white lights 28 feet 
above the water, visible 9 miles, is stationed about 14J miles north- 
east of Eumili Lighthouse. 

Fogsignal. — The fogsignal is a^siren. 

Coast. — Uzunga Burnu, westward of which there is a rocket 
house, is the most projecting of the rocky points between Rumili and 
Kilios. This point forms the eastern side of the largest of several 
coves, open only to the northward, in which 3 fathoms are obtained 
200 yards from shore. There is good landing for boats. 

This is the most inviting spot in the vicinity in the event of having 
to run a disabled ship on shore as a last resource for saving life. 

There is a rocket house and a rocket station between this point and 
Eumili Lighthouse. 

Kilios Point (Eski Panaraki Burnu) (lat. 41° 15' N., long. 
29° 2' E.), situated about 3^ miles westward of Rumili Lighthouse, 
slopes gradually from a hill behind, terminating abruptly in a cliff, 
leaving a gap of a few yards wide between it and a large rock that 
at one time was evidently a portion of it. 

Village. — The cliffs of the point continue, for some little distance 
to the westward, meeting the sandy beach which stretches eastward 
from Hissar Kaiasi. On these cliffs stand an ancient castle and bar- 
racks for a small garrison. The Turkish village of Kilios is built on 
the slope behind the castle, so that but little of it is seen from the 
sea. This locality is well marked by three pillars of an ancient aque- 
duct, standing in the little bay to the westward, and which appear 
like the tall chimney of a factory. 

A lifeboat and rocket station is established here from which tele- 
graphic or telephonic messages can be sent to Constantinople. 

Telegraph cables. — The Odessa and Constantza telegraph cables 
are landed in Kilios Bay. 

Kalaphotia Rock. — In a north-northwesterly direction from Ki- 
lios Point, about 600 to 800 yards, is a rock, awash ^nd steep-to, named 
Kalaphotia, after a Greek vessel that was lost there. The sea breaks 
in bad weather in a channel between it and Kilios Point, in which 
there is a depth of 5 fathoms. A patch of 2J fathoms lies 100 yards 
northward of Kilios Point. 

Anchorage. — The anchorage abreast the village of Kilios is in 
3 or 4 fathoms, over a bottom of hard sand, 400 or 600 yards from the 
shore, sheltered from southerly and easterly winds. 

In Kilios Bay, with a northerly wind, the sea immediately rises, and 
the whole bay is filled with breakers. The swell generally sets in be- 
fore the wind, and vessels at anchor should stand out on the first 
indication of an approaching norther. There is a remarkable indica- 
tion in Kilios Bay of the force with which the wind and sea beat in 
on the shore from the Black Sea, for the whole bight of the bay, 



134 DUMUS DERB — ^AQATCHILI. 

about 1 mile in extent, is covered with sand, which has evidently 
been flung up by the waves and carried by the wind over the low hills 
on the coast, which themselves were probably formed in this manner. 
These form such a marked contr|ist of color to the other parts of the 
coast that they may be seen at a considerable distance and are the 
best marks for recognizing, the locality. 

The depth of water at Kilios Point has been reported to vary 
from 3 to 5 feet according to the wind. 

Coast — ^Bank. — Westward of Kilios a long sandy beach com- 
mences, backed by reddish hills, the summits of which are covered 
with verdure. This beach is broken only at Hissar Kaiasi and Kara 
Burnu, otherwise it is quite straight, tending 303° for 37 miles. It 
is faced by a sand bank, with a depth of 5 feet, 400 yards from the 
shore, upon which vessels disabled and desirous to beach are stranded 
and lost, if not carried over by the waves. 

Dumus Dere — Sand patches. — The red sands of this valley, 
situated midway between Kilios and Hissar Kaiasi, form a good land- 
mark for vessels making the entrance to the Bosporus. There is a 
rocket house here. 

Westward of Dumus Djpre, and between it and Kara Burnu, are six 
other remarkable patches of red sand, the westernmost being situated 
1^ miles westward of Ak Bunar Valley. 

Each of these sand patches extends on both sides of the valley 
entrances in which they are situated, and from the offing appear 
double until the bottom of the valley becomes visible. 

Hissar Kaiasi, a rocky point projecting slightly into the sea, has 
ground rising gradually behind it. On the summit of the point is a 
battery and a few houses stand on the western slope, hidden from the 
eastward. West of this point the beach again commences, and con- 
tinues as far as Kara Burnu. There is a rocket station about f mile 
westward of Hissar Kaiasi, and rocket houses at Yali Tarla, 1^ miles, 
and at Molos, 3^ miles farther west. 

Reef. — From Hissar Kaiasi Point a reef, about 100 yards in width, 
extends in the direction of Kilios Point 300 yards from the coast, the 
depth on which is from 6 to 13 feet. Between the reef and the shore 
the water deepens. 

Agatchili. — A rocket station and refuge house is established at 
Agatchili, and there is a rocket house about 2 miles westward off it. 
The valley contains many houses and gardens, and a government 
farm is situated about 2 miles inland. Molos Valley, in which is 
situated the center sand patch of the seven patches mentioned above, 
lies 1 mile eastward of Agatchili. 

Ak Bunar and Kunduz have each a rocket house. There is no 
village, but a refuge house at the latter. Two miles westward of 
Kunduz is another rocket house. 



BLACK SEA. 135 • 

Yeni Eioi, situated on a height about 1^ miles westward from 
Kunduz, is conspicuous from seaward and has a rocket house. 

Kara Burnu^ situated 21 miles to the northwestward of Cape 
Rumili, is a broad headland stretching a considerable distance into 
the sea, forming a small bay on either side. It has a nearly perpen- 
diclar face and is steep-to, 20 fathoms being obtained about 200 
yards from the shore. 

Lifeboat. — In the bay to the eastward is the lifeboat house, and 
on the top of the headland a rocket station. 

Kara Burnu Light, flashing white, 302 feet above high water, 
visible 24 miles, is exhibited from a white tower with a green cupola 
located on the edge of the cliff. 

Village. — On the summit of the headland and on the eastern slope 
stands the small village of Kara Burnu, which is connected with 
Constantinople by telegraph. There are two ruined batteries situ- 
ated on the cliffs to the northeast, in which a few old brass guns 
are mounted. From here there is. a fair road all the wav to Con- 
stantinople, which meets the telegraph wires at the village of Derkos 
(situated near the southeast end of the lake), and then runs along 
by their side the remainder of the distance. 

Coast. — Westward of Kara Burnu, a high rocky coast continues as 
far as Kilidj Burnu, where there is a rocket house. Farther west, 
between the brushwood, are seen patches of sand, and the western 
part of this high coast, at Derkos Deresi, consists of a large patch 
of whife sand destitute of all vegetation. This last palch is not visi- 
ble from seaward, except a vessel is westward of the meridian of 
Kara Burnu. 

Lake Derkos (False Entrance) , the locality of which has so 
frequently been mistaken for the entrance to the Bosporus, is bounded 
to the southward by an irregular range of hills, which, bearing some 
resemblance to the winding self-closing^banks of the Bosporus, add 
greatly to its deceptive appearance in thick weather. It has been ' 
given the name of the False Entrance on account of the numerous 
mistakes occurring under the supposition that it is the true en- 
trance of the Bosporus, an error frequently resulting in shipwreck. 
Although the coast is lighted, the beacons which distinguished the dif- 
ferent l(5calities having been discontinued, care is necessary to guard 
against any mistake. Here is the outlet of the lake, the mouth of 
which is frequently closed during the summer months. Two ferries 
exist for the passage of this outlet, the one belonging to the Lifeboat 
and Eocket Service being near the shore and the other at the distance 
of f mile inland. 

Landmarks. — The following remarks should assist the mariner 
in distinguishing between False Entrance (L§ike Derkos) and the 
entrance to the Bosporus : 



136 CHESHMEDJIK POINT. 

1. False Entrance does not appear as a strait, except when seen 
from the northwestward, whilst the Bosporus does not open until on 
a southwesterly bearing. 

2. The seven red sand patches, previously mentioned, which form 
one of the principal marks for recognizilig the western ap'^roach to 
the Bosporus are situated east of False Entrance. 

3. Should a mountain with two summits situated westward of 
Kara Burnu be mistaken for Alem Dagh or for Chatal Dagh (The 
Brothers), it is sufficient to recollect that the two latter are situated 
eastward of the Bosporus, whilst the former is to the westward of the 
False Entrance. 

Attention should also be paid to the soundings and the nature of the 
bottom. 

Cheshmedjik Pointy 3 miles westward of Derkos Deresi, which 
is steep and rocky and covered with brushwood and stunted trees, 
marks the commencement of the low hills, extending along the shore 
to the northwestward, which show a yellowish face seaward. 

A reef of rocks extends about 300 yards from the shore, about 1 
mile westward of Cheshmedjik. 

Refuge house and rocket stations.-— At Derkos Deresi there is 
a refuge house, and 1 mile farther westward is a rocket station. 
Cheshmedjik, 2J miles westward of Derkos, in a small valley, has a 
rocket house ; and at Mandre, 2 miles to the westward, is the western- 
most rocket house on this coast. 

Orman.-^The country in the immediate vicinity of Lake Derkos 
shows no sign of cultivation, being covered with brushwood, arbutus, 
and scrub oak trees. The nearest village, Orman, is several miles 
inland, and has no communication with the sea. It is so named from 
its situation in a well- wooded country (Orman, meaning woods), and 
is of some importance, being the chief village of a large district and 
also a telegraph station. ^ 

Cape Malatra^ 26 miles northwest of Karu Burnu, is steep, high, 
and rocky, but is not easy to distinguish from the offing. 

Chelengos Deresi, 2^ miles southeast of Cape Malatra, is a small 
cove open to the ijortheast where a vessel of light draft might obtain 
anchorage with offshore winds, bottom sand and shell ; but it is stated 
that better anchorage will be found at Kastro Deresi, 5 miles north- 
west of Chelengos, some protection from north and northeast winds 
being afforded by a rock situated close to the southward of the 
northern point of the cove, the anchorage, in 3 fathoms, being with 
the southern extremity of this rock bearing east-northeast, bottom 
sand. 

Serveh Burnu (lat. 41° 40' K, long. 28° 7' E.), 32 miles north- 
westward of Kara Purnu and 52 from the Bosporus, projects con- 



BLACK SEA. 137 

siderably to the eastward and would alTord shelter from northerly 
winds if the bottom were nc t bud and rocky. It is noticeable in ap- 
pearance from its having rocky streaks of a reddish color on its slopes. 
A pyramidal rock is situated at the extremity of the cape, and a reef 
extends 300 yards in a southeasterly direction from it. 

Midiah. — ^About 2 miles to the southward of Serveh Burnu is a 
steep cliff between the mouths of two small rivers, above which is 
built the small town of Midiah, where there is a telegraph station. A 
little creek about 100 yards in breadth is formed on its southern side, 
which serves as a shelter against northerly winds to small vessels that 
can anchor in from 1 J to 2 fathoms over a sandy bottom. 

Sandal Point, 4^ miles northwest of Serveh Burnu, may,be recog- 
nized by its white cliffs. 

Cape Kuri. — Nearly 13 miles to the northward of Serveh Burmi 
is Cape Kuri, which is of moderate height, projecting to the south- 
ward. Its shores are sloping, of a yellowish appearance, and a clump 
of trees on its extremity, as well as the lighthouse, serves to distin- 
guish it. 

The depts in the immediate vicinity of the cape are very uneven. 
It should not be rounded within 400 yards. 

Cape Kuri Light, group flashing white, visible 15 miles, is exhib- 
ited from a white masonry tower located near the extremity of the 
cape. 

Inada (Yniada) Boad. — Inada Point, the western angle of the 
promontory of which Cape Kuri forms a part, is bordered with rocks, 
and between it and the village and fort of that name, which lies 2J 
miles to the westward, is Inada Koad. A ,reef of rocks extends off in 
a southwesterly direction, 400 yards from a ruined tower, which 
stands nearly f mile northwestward of Inada Point on the northern 
shore of the road. There is a telegraph station at the village. 

Tersana Burnu. — This cliff, situated about i mile southward of 
Inada village, is remarkable on account of the whiteness of its rocks. 

On its northern slope is a large warehouse, and farther to the 
northward are several buildings and an isolated tree. 

Anchorage. — A vessel in approaching the road with a northerly 
wind should keep close round Cape Kuri and Inada Point, as the 
wind will fail inside, taking care to avoid the rocks off these points 
and off the ruined tower.. The best anchorage is west-southwestward 
of the tower, about J mile from the shore, in 6 to 7 fathoms, over a 
bottom of sand with fair holding ground, with Inada Point bearing 
98°, 1^ miles. There is a depth of from 3 to 4 fathoms about 800 
yards from the head of the bay. If making a long stay, vessels should 
lift their anchors from time to time, otherwise they become so deeply 
embedded that it is difficult to weigh them, 
172982*^—20 ^10 



138 AGATHOPOLI — ^ANCHORAGE, 

Vessels very often visit this roadstead, particularly in autumn and 
winter, to allow the bad weather to pass ; and although it has afforded 
security to many, yet the sudden changes of wind to which it is sub- 
ject have been occasionally the cause of shipwrecks. Here, as all 
along the coast, the winds veer toward the shore every night. A 
heavy swell sets in at times, which causes vessels to roll very heavily, 
and then an eddy sets strongly toward the cape. At the bottom of 
the road there is a beach. The usual landing place for boats is at the 
quay near Inada. 

Cape Stefano lies 4 miles to the northward of Cape Kuri and 
projects very little to the eastward. 

Agathopoli. — About 15 miles to the northward of Cape Kuri is 
the little town of Agathopoli, named by the Turks Ak Teboli, from 
which Mount Paphia, one of the most remarkable mountains on the 
coast of Rumelia, bears 284°, 4 miles. A small cove lies to the south- 
ward of the town, formed by two points, on the northernmost of 
which stands the town, about 52 feet above the water, which is recog- 
nizable from a distance by the windmills in its neighborhood. The 
point to the southward is about half that height. The entrance to the 
cove, a little more than 100 yards wide, is between a reef of rocks 
which borders the northern point and the southern point, which is 
bold to approach. Most of the rocks are visible and appear as large 
as buoys above the water, the greatest depth in the channel being 
about 4| fathoms. Fresh provisions can be obtained at the town. 
There is a telegraj)h station. 

Anchorage. — On entering the cove a solitary building, which is a 
church dedicated to St. Constantine, is seen a little to the southward 
of the southern point. The anchorage is in about 4 fathoms, over a 
sandy bottom, sheltered from all but easterly winds, which can be 
avoided by approaching nearer the town and securing the vessel's 
stern to the shore, which is composed of shingle. 

Basiliko (Vasiliko) Harbor (lat. 42° 10' N., long,27°54' E.).— 
The little harbor of Basiliko lies about 5 miles 329° of Agathopoli 
and about 2 miles eastward of a mountain to the northward of Mount 
Paphia. On the southern point of the harbor stands the village and 
mills. To the eastward of it, about J mile from the shore, are several 
rocks rising a few feet above the water. 

Anchorage. — The entrance to the harbor is about 600 yards wide, 
and is formed between a reef which extends off the northern point 
and the point to the southward on which stands the village. A vessel 
will find 6 fathoms at the entrance and should keep the point of the 
village aboard and anchor to the westward of it, about 100 yards 
from the shore, in 3 to 4 fathoms, over a good holding ground of sand, 
sheltered nearly from all winds. In the other parts of the harbor 



BLACK SEA« 139 

the holding ground is not good, being composed of sand and flat 
stones, over which the anchors are liable to drag. 

The best place for landing is on the northern side of the bay, where 
the inhabitants haul up their boats. 

Kara Agatch. Cove. — The anchorage at Kara Agatch is in a small 
cove 5 miles northwest of Basiliko. The entrance to it is southward 
of a long and wide reef, which extends from the northern point for 
§ mile in a southeasterly direction, with a depth of 12 to 14 fathoms 
between its extremity and the southern point of the cove. The ap- 
proach to this roadstead, which is, however, but little frequented, is 
from the southward, and a vessel should keep the western shore on 
board before standing for the anchorage, which is in the northern part 
of the cove, in about 4 fathoms, abreast of a river and well sheltered. 

Cape Kara Agatch, the northern point of Kara Agatch Cove, is 
easily distinguishable from the other points in its neighborhood, being 
white and steep and having on its summit a clump of large trees. 
The southern frontier of Eastern Eumelia comes down to the coast 
between Cape Kara Agatch and Athanatos Point. 

Athanatos Bay. — About IJ miles to the northward of Kara 
Agatch Cove is a small bay, open to the eastward. It is formed by 
two points bearing nearly north and south from each other, 1^ miles 
apart, and carries a depth of from 4 to 8 fathoms over a sandy bottom. 
Athanatos, the southern point, has a reef extending from it for more 
than 300 yards to the northward, with a few of the rocks above water. 
Zunaritsa, the northern point, has a similar reef running out about the 
same distance south-southeastward. 

Anchorages. — A vessel proceeding to anchor in the southern part 
of this bay should, on opening out the little bight formed between 
the cliifs to the westward of Athanatos Point, steer for it when it bears 
due south. There is room here for five or six vessels, in about 4 
fathoms, if they secure their sterns to the shore. A creek, about 130 
feet wide, forms part of this bight, the entrance into which is only 
large enough to admit a small vessel, but there is space enough inside 
for three or four vessels drawing 16 feet water. 

There is anchorage in the northern part of the bay, in about 4 fath- 
oms, with the vessel's stern secured to the shore, between the reef 
which extends off Zunaritsa Point and the beach which borders the 
northern shore. The sea sometimes sets in when it is blowing fresh 
from the southeastward, but the wind doeg not blow home. Care must 
be taken in approaching this anchorage to avoid a long flat shelf of 
sunken rocks, which extends off to the southward, from the second 
prominence to the westward of Zunaritsa Point. A vessel, therefore, 
after passing to the southward of the reef off Zunaritsa Point, should 
continue on to the westward, and only haul up when the end of the 



140 GULF Of bukghaz, 

beach bears northwest. There is a rivulet in the northwest part of the 
bay, which collects its waters in the plain, but it barfely finds a passage 
to the sea at the foot of the heights. 

Cape Zeitin, 3 miles northeastward from Zunaritsa Point, which' 
is high and steep, projects considerably to the eastward and should 
not be approached within } mile, as it is bordered with rocks. Bagh- 
lar Point (Cape Korakas) lies 2 males to the northward of Cape 
Zeitin and is safe to approach. 

In the bay south of Cape Zeitin the bottom is rocky in places, 
making it unsuitable for anchorage. 

The Gulf of Burghaz (Pyrgos) is the only part of the Black 
Sea which affords several good anchorages. Its two extremities are 
Baghlar Point, to the southward, and Cape Emineh, to the north- 
ward, bearing from each other 64° and 199°, distant 22 miles. The 
town of Burghaz lies at the bottom of the gulf. 

Burghaz Gulf, with the exception of Chingani Bay, has no water- 
ing place, and its northern side, being incommoded by extensive 
shoal water and by several insulated patches of rock and foul ground, 
affords no anchorage for a fleet. 

Kavak Bay. — About 1^ miles to the southeastward of Sizepoli, a 
tongue of land, nearly 1 mile in length, forms the north extremity of 
Kavak Bay. In the northwestern angle of this bay several copious 
springs rise out of a bed of loose sand about 400 yards from the shore. 
These when united would form a stream at which vessels, by sinking 
casks, could obtain a supply of excellent water, clear as crystal and 
of high repute for its wholesome quality. The spot is well indicated 
by circular clumps of trees at the sources of the springs. 

Anchorage. — There is good summer anchorage off this bay for a 
fleet, 1^ miles from the springs, in 18 to 20 fathoms on mud. The 
coast of the bay appears to be bold, except about 400 yards south 
of the southeast point of the tongue, where there are some rocks above 
water. Large vessels should anchor with this point bearing to the 
westward of north. 

Sizepoli (Cape Pribachi) . — This town, on the south side of the 
gulf, is built on a peninsula projecting § mile to the northeastward 
and is about i mile wide. It contains from 3,000 to 4,000 population, 
nearly all of whom are Greeks. The climate is healthy. The town is 
joined to the mainland, which is high, by a low and narrow isthmus. 
Bakirli, an isolated mountain, of a round form, serves as a landmark 
for making Sizepoli, from which it is distant about 6 miles. There 
is a telegraph station at Sizepoli. 

Port. — A small isalnd, of a triangular shape, named Ayios Petros, 
or Joannes, lies about 300 yards westward of Sizepoli, and forms, 
between it and the peninsula, a little port of about 200 yards in length 



BLACK SEA* 141 

and the same in breadth. The entrance is from the northward and is 
much narrowed by rocks, which leave near the island a passage of 
from 40 to 46 feet in breadth, which will only admit vessels of light 
draft. They anchor in 2 to 2^ fathoms over a sandy bottom and are 
quite safe. This port has no outlet to the southward, as a bar of 
sunken rocks runs across it with only 3 to 4 feet water over them. 
There is a well of very good water on the island, but the large well, 
33 feet deep, which supplies the town, would not be convenient for 
ships, even if it could afford a sufficient quantity for both such de- 
mands. 

Supplies. — Beef, mutton, and fowls could be obtained, also bread 
of fair qualit3^ at a moderate price. Vegetables are cheap. 

Sizepoli Bay, to the westward of the peninsula, is of a semi- 
circular form, abolit 2 miles wide and IJ miles long. 

Megalo Nisi,- or Eyrios, a small island, about i mile in length 
from east to west, lies about that distance to the northward of 
Sizepoli, forming thus two passages into the bay. A vessel in taking 
the passage between the island and the town, which carries a depth in 
the middle of about 10 fathoms, should give the small islet of St. 
Peter, which is connected to the eastern end of Megalo Nisi by a reef, 
a berth of 200 yards, and also take care to avoid the shoal of IJ 
fathoms lying about 400 yards southwest of Megalo Nisi. The chan- 
nel north of Megalo Nisi is much the wider and has a depth of 11 to 
13 fathoms in the middle. 

Burghaz Bay Light, group flashing white, 143 feet above high 
water, visible 18 miles, is exhibited from a white concrete tower 
located on Megalo Nisi Island, west side of entrance to Sizepoli. 

Anchorage. — The best and most sheltered anchorage in Sizepoli 
Bay is in the southeast part, in 6 to 7 fathoms, opposite a ravine in 
the cliff, where there is a coal depot, with the west extreme of Ayios 
Petros Island touching St. Peters ^Islet, or in less water farther in, if 
desired. 

In the eastern part, about 500 yards west of the isthmus and south- 
ward of Ayios Petros Island, there is a shoal with 3 feet on it. 

Cape Trias, or Eaves Svitera, is a. small peninsula forming the 
western point of Sizepoli Bay. Foul ground extends nearly 350 
yards eastward of it. 

Winds. — In Sizepoli Bay, in ordinary weather, as elsewhere in the 
Gulf of Burghaz, toward midnight the wind rises from the north- 
westward, freshens until sunrise, and falls toward noon, veering 
through northeast to southeast. In the afternoon it freshens from 
this last direction and falls toward sunset, veering through souUi and 
west to northwest. 



142 ANASTATIA ISLAND. 

Cape NikolOy about IJ miles to the northward of Cape Trias, is 
bold to approach. A bay is formed between it and Cape Akin, which 
lies li miles 306°, but vessels seldom anchor in it although it car- 
ries a convenient depth from 7 to 9 fathoms, as it is open to th<» 
northeast. A rocky spit runs off nearly 400 yards northeastward 
from Cape Akin, on which are several rocks above water, with a depth 
of 8 fathoms between them and the cape. 

Cape Sarleatiy or Monopetra Athia £avo, which may be easily 
distinguished by an isolated round wooded hill that rises J mile 
south of its extremity, bears about 284° 2 miles from Cape Akin, 
and is bordered by a reef above water, forming, with the latter cape, 
a bay of about 1 mile in length, open to the northward. It affords 
safe shelter from southeasterly winds in 5 to 9 fathoms over a bottom 
of sand. Care must be taken to avoid a 9-foot shcfal in the western 
part. 

Anastatia Island. — About IJ miles 284° of Monopetra Point is 
Anastatia or Papas Island. It is small, and shallow ground encir- 
cles it for a short distance, with some dry rocks close off the south 
end. A lighthouse, convent, and a mill stand on the island. The 
landing place is oft the southwestern side. 

Light. — A fixed whit elight, 69 feet above high water, visible 10 
miles, is exhibited from a white concrete tower located on Anastatia 
Island. 

Sukala Point lies f mile southwest of Anastatia Island, between 
which and Monopetra Point is another curved bay, affording good 
anchorage, in 5 to 8 fathoms water, sand, and mud. Off Sukala 
Point a reef extends a short distance, and a shoal, with 4 feet of 
water over it, lies in the western part of the bay. 

Chingani Bay. — To the westward of Sukala Point is the excellent 
bay of Chingani, or Katsevelo Scala, about 2 miles long and shel- 
tered from all winds. Vessels that seek shelter in the Gulf of 
Burghaz generally anchor in this bay, which is capable of berthing 
a large number of vessels. The greatest depth is about 8 fathoms.^ 
with 2 to 3 fathoms near the shore, over a bottom of mud, good hold- 
ing ground. Small vessels that load with wine anchor close to the 
shore, near a rivulet at the bottom of the bay, where there are some 
booths and storehouses, which are, however, abandoned in winter. 
This landing place is named Chingani. A little to the westward 
there is another riv^alet, which, carrying a great deal of mud into the 
sea, has formed a bank, with IJ fathoms about 400 yards from the 

shore. 

Quarantine. — A quarantine station has been established close to 
the shore in a small cove on the west side of Chingani Bay. It con- 
sists of seven houses and a pair. There is a flagstaff in front of the 
houses. 



BLACK SEA, 143 

Poros Bay. — Poros Point, the western point of Chingani Bay, is 

bordered by a rocky shoal, which extends about 400 yards to the 

northward. Close westward of it is situated Poros Bay, of about 

1 mile long, having 4J to 5 fathoms at its entrance, which is open to 

the northward. Within the entrance the bay shoals rapidly, and a 

mud flat, which dries, extends nearly J mile from its head. 

As at Chingani, the country vessels that remain here during the 
bad season lie on the mud near the short. There is a channel at the 

southern part of the bay, with 3 to 18 feet in it, leading to a passage 

carrying a depth of 2 to 2J fathoms, which serves as an outlet to a 

large lagoon, or liman, named Akrianu Geul. 

Burghaz Bay. — The western shore of Burghaz Bay, which is low, 
sandy, and covered with reeds, extends to the northward as far as the 
base of the high land on which the town of Burghaz, or Pyrgos, 
stands. At the northern end of this shore or spit, which separates 
the bay from Burghaz Liman or Muris Geul (which is about 5 miles in 
length from east to west and 2 miles in breadth), the beach is only 
200 yards across. 

The town contains about 13,000 population. The climate is un- 
healthy in summer. 

The surrounding country is very fertile, and in the neighborhood 
are copper mines which were formerly worked. 

Since the. opening of the Yamboli-Burghaz Railway, which con- 
nects the town with the main line between Constantinople and PhiJ- 
ippopolis, and the coming in force of a commercial treaty between 
Great Britain and Bulgaria, the import trade has greatly increased. 

On the sand drive near Muris Channel, about | mile westward of 
the stone turret in the town of Burghaz, stands a windmill very dis- 
tinctly visible frona seaward. 

Communication. — There is railway communication, via Yamboli, 
with Tirnova, on the main line between Constantinople and Philip- 
popolis; also tlegraphic communication with all parts. The Turkish 
steamers and a small Greek steamer ply regularly between Constanti- 
nople, Burghaz, and Varna, and occasionally to Constantza. 

The steamers from London call regularly. 

Coal and supplies. — From 500 to 1,000 tons of Turkish coal was 
in normal times usually in stock. Fresh provisions could be obtained 
at reasonable prices. 

Hospital. — There is a public hospital with 32 beds. 

Harbor. — The harbor of Burghaz is formed by two breakwaters. 
The eastern one, starting from the southeast corner of the town, ex- 
tends in a southeast by south and southerly direction for 1.220 yards. 
The w^estern one, which commences at Orchard Point, extends in a 
south-southeasterly direction for 780 yards, then easterly for about 
750 yards. A short arm extends from the eastern toward the western 



144 LIGHTS — ANCHORAGE. 

breakwater, leaving a passage a little over 200 yards in width. Two 
wharves are proposed to be built in the western part of the harbor, 
and the eastern portion of the inclosed area has been dredged to a 
depth of 24 feet. There is a small patch of 22 feet of water 200 
vards to the southward of the western breakwater end. 

Lights. — A fixed light, 34 feet above high water, is exhibited 
from a small dark gray cylindrical iron tower located at the entrance 
to the port on the head of the west breakwater. 

A fixed red light, 34 feet above high water, is exhibited from a 
small dark gray cylindrical iron tower located at the entrance to the 
port on the head of the short arm extending west from the eastern 
breakwater. 

An occulting white light, 49 feet above high water, visible 12 
miles, is located on the head of the east breakwater. 

Fogsignal. — ^A fog bell located at the southern extremity of the 
eastern breakwater is the fogsignal. 

Burghaz Shoals. — Burghaz Shoals are numerous detached rocky 
banks to the eastward of the town and harbor ; the outermost, with 
3 J fathoms least water, lying about 2,200 yards 81° from the eastern 
breakwater light. Between this shoal and the shore there are sev- 
eral patches of between 2 and 3 fathoms water. Daghutli Peak in 
range with the Tumulus 21°, leads eastward of the reef. 

Anchorage. — Burghaz Bay is open to the eastward. Winds from 
that quarter throw in a heavy swell and short sea, and shelter must be 
sought in the southern bays if it should blow hard from that quarter. 

Buoy. — ^A mooring buoy is situated 1,700 yards 191° from the 
western minaret in the town. 

Akhilu. — The town of Akhilu or Ankhelu, 70°, 8J miles from 
Burghaz, stands on a rocky point connected to the mainland by a 
tongue of sand, on which are salt pans communicating with Ankhelu 
Geul, which lies northward of the town. The point is surrounded 
by a reef, which extends nearly f mile in a southeast direction to the 
depth of 5 fathoms, and 1^ miles in a northeast direction to the same 
depth. The former is named the Southeast Ankhelu Reef, and the 
latter Northeast Ankhelu Eeef . 

f 

Communication. — The steamers of a Turkish company running 
between Constantinople and Varna touch here. There is a telegraph 
station. 

Supplies. — Bread and fresh provisions could in normal times be 
obtained. The principal articles of export are grain, salt, and wine. 

Anchorage. — There is safe ancohrage in the western part of the 
bight to the westward of the town of Akhilu with northeasterly winds, 
in 4 to 5 fathoms, over a bottom of sand, 400 or 600 yards irom the 
shore. A 3-fathom spit extends nearly 1 mile to west-southwestward 
from the eastern shore of this bight. The outer anchorage to the 



BLACK SEA. 145 

southwestward has from 6 to 7 fathoms, over sand and mud, but with 
easterly or southeasterly winds vessels must run for shelter either 
to Poros or Chingani Bays. 

Shoals. — The coast between Burghaz and Akhilu forms a large 
bight, in and near which are the following shoals : 

Blonde or Burghaz Bock^ situated 2f miles 70^ from Burghaz 
Point, carries a depth of 4| fathoms. Muris Dagh Peak, open south- 
ward of Burghaz Point 263°, leads close southward of the rock. Some 
rocky patches, named the Soka Shoals, having from IJ to 3 fathoms 
over them, lie about 3^ miles northeastward of Burghaz Point, in the 
northwest part of the gulf. Their outer edge, in 4 fathoms, is 1 mile 
from the shore. 

Lakanathes Bock, having only 3 fathoms over it, is 1 mile 146^ 
of Akroteri Point, on the northern shore of the gulf .^ Another rocky 
patch of 2 fathoms lies 800 yards south of the same point. 

Spitfire Bpck, situated 4J miles 81° from Burghaz Point, has a 
depth of 3 fathoms, with 6 fathoms close to its western side. Cape 
Emineh, open to the eastward of Aktiilu Point 57°, leads eastward of 
the rock. 

Stavro Bbck lies about 2 J riiiles 199° from Akhilu Point and 3 
miles east from Spitfire Rock. Akhilu minaret, on with the high 
peak on the Balkan range 8°, leads over its shoalest part in 15 feet. 

Ankhelu Bank. — The middle of a rocky bank named Ankhelu 
lies about 1^ miles 222° of Akhilu Point. It is about i mile in length 
from north to south and from 400 to 600 yards in breadth, with a 
depth of 3J to 5 fathoms on it. 

Crescent Shoal^ of 4^ to 5i fathoms, is IJ miles to the eastward 
of the Ankhelu Bank. A sandy patch of 5 fathoms lies i mile to 
the southward of this shoal. 

Coast — Bhavtha Burnu.— From Akhilu Point the coast runs 
northward for 4^ miles, and then bends round eastward to Hhavtha 
Burnu, forming a large bay 1^ miles long. Several rocky patches 
exist in this bay. 

Chemose Bocks^ nearly in the middle of the bay and about f mile 
from the shore, have from 3^ to 5 fathoms on them. 

Bhavtha Bock^ on which the depth is 3 fathoms, lies nearly f 
mile south-southwestward of Rhavtha Point. The western extreme 
of the town of Messemvria, open of Kavo Kroti 53°, leads 500 yards 
eastward of the rock. Rhavtha Burnu- lies about J mile to the south- 
ward of the village of Rhavtha and is bordered by a rocky reef ex- 
tending J mile from the shore. 

Water. — A summer watering place for a fleet will be found at the 
Chemose River, which flows into the sea between Messemvria and 
Akhilu, near the hamlet of Chemose. It is next in size to the Kamchy 
and is said to run all the summer. Both these rivers are very turbid 



146 MESSEMVRIA. 

at this season, but the quality of the water is considered to be not 
affected by the discoloring sediment. Launches can approach close to 
the Chemose and water from it with convenience. 

Anchorage. — ^There is anchorage off Chemose during the summer 
season in 12 fathoms on a muddy bottom, but not nearer the mouth 
of the river than 2 miles for a fleet, owing to the several shoals which 
contract the inner anchorage. 

Eavo Eroti. — From Khavtha Bumu the coast trends to the north- 
eastward as far as Messemvria Point, 3J miles. Nearly midway 
between them is a steep rocky point, named Kavo Kroti, west- 
ward of which a reef extends for nearly i mile from the shore. 
" Messemvria (lat. 42° 40^' N., long. 27° 47' E.).— This town, like 
that of Akhilu, occupies the whole rock on which it is built and is con- 
nected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus of sand, which is some- 
times covered by the sea. The rock is nearly surrounded by a reef, 
which extends from it nearly J mile to the southeastward^ and is about 
the same distance in breadth. 

The town contains many ruined Byzantine churches, testifying to 
its former importance, also one mosque. The population numbers 
about 1,000. There is a telegraph station. Fresh meat, poultry, and 
vegetables could in normal times be obtained in small quantities only. 

Anchorage. — ^The anchorage, to the southward of the town, is 
abreast of the isthmus in a small bay, in 5 to 8 fathoms, 800 yards 
from the shore, over a bottom of sand and shells. There is anchorage 
also to the northward of the isthmus, in about 7 fathoms, but vessels 
are here exposed to the squalls which during northerly winds blow 
violently from Mount Emineh. 

Coast.— From Messemvria the shore becomes sandy and curves to 
the northward about 3 miles, when it bends abruptly to the eastward 
and runs in a straight line for nearly 8 miles to Cape Emineh, forming 
a large bay, which affords very good anchorage all over it in from 10 
to 12 fathoms. It is open from east to south, and vessels that run in 
for shelter generally anchor in its western part, which is called Ka- 
ridies. 

On this part of the coast advantage should be taken of the north- 
west wind, which sometimes precedes a north-northeasterly or easterly 
gale in the winter months, to gain an offing, unless an anchorage can 
be secured, a heavy swell generally giving notice that the wind is 
about to shift. Should the vessel be between Cape Emineh and the 
Bosporus she may reach shelter at Inada Boad before thick weather 
comes on. 

Cape Emineh is a bold-looking headland, with a monastery on it 
dedicated to St. Nicholas. From the southward it appears as an 
island. A few rocks extend about 400 yards eastward of it, and a 
depth of 5 fathoms will be found i mile from the shore. 



BLACK SEA. 147 

Mount Emineh, a rounded mountain, which rises to a height of 
1,257 feet, IJ miles within the extremity of the cape, forms a con- 
spicuous landmark. 

Cape Emineh Light, flashing white, 207 feet above high water, 
visible 20 miles, is exhibited from a w||ite tower located 6 yards from 
the extremity of the cape. 

Water. — The coast under the cape affords no watering place after 
July, as the only streamlet which flows from the Balkan to this part 
of the coast is then insignificant, if not quite lost in the upper part of 
the valley. This streamlet descends through the first ravine to the 
westward of Cape Emineh, about 2 miles from it. 

Anchorage. — The best anchorage under the cape seems to be be- 
tween this ravine and the next conspicuous valley, about 1^ miles 
farther west, off which the bottom is mud. 

Cockatrice Shoal, with 5 fathoms of water, is situated 3^ miles 
194° from Cape Emineh Lighthouse. 

Coast. — The coast from Cape Emineh takes a 14° direction for 27^ 
miles to Cape Galata, and the following points and anchorages are 
between them: Kotsan Point, 3^ miles to the northward of Cape 
Emineh ; and Cape Aspro or Ak Burnu (White Point) , 6 miles to the 
northward of Kotsan, oft' which breakers were seen, extending J mile 
eastward of the cape. There is anchorage abreast of the village of 
Joski (Keoscheh), which lies about 3 miles southward of Cape Aspro. 
It affords some shelter with northwesterly winds. 

Kotsan Point is steep and wooded on its southern side. Between 
this point and Cape Emineh is a sandy valley through which a river 
flows. 

Four miles northward of Kotsan Point is a sharp point which has 
a clump of large trees near its extremity. 

Aspro. — The village of Aspro, about 1 mile southward of Cape 
Aspro, has a roadstead abreast it which is open from north, round by 
the eastward to south. Small vessels anchor here, in 4 to 5 fathoms, 
to load wood. A wooded hill above the village is conspicuous from 
seaward. Between this valley and Cape Aspro the shore is white in 
appearance, but the cape itself is dark in color, and its slopes are 
covered with wood and brushwood. 

From Cape Aspro the coast inclines a little to the westward of 
north for 8 miles, up to the mouth of the Kamchy River, and from 
thence for 2 miles, a little eastward of north, to Ilanjik Point. 

Kamchy Biver (lat. 43° 0' N., long. 27° 55' E.).— The Kamchy 
River issues about 10 miles southward of Cape Galata. A broad 
and wooded plain breaks here through the hills and white cliffs, and 
the river winds round the northern edge of this plain or valley. It 
runs throughout the summer, and inside the bar was found to carry 
a depth of 16 feet for more than 1 mile above the entrance. 



148 CAPE GALATA — YARN A BAY. 

The river has a bar of 2 to 3 feet depth, but launches can anchor at 
a convenient distance outside and water from the river with long 
hos^s. A low hill teripinates within a short distance of the northern 
bank of the river, with much brushwood upon the top and rear of 
the ridge. ^ 

Firewood, — A thick forest grows on the banks of the river and 
supplies Constantinople with large quantities of firewood. Large 
stacks of* billets are generally lying on the beach for sale, both at this 
river's mouth and on other parts of the coast. 

Anchorage. — There is good anchorage off the Kamchy Eiver 
during the summer in 10 f athofns water on a bottom of mud, li miles 
from the shore; and no large vessel should approach nearer to its 
mouth than 1 mile as a bank of rock and gravel exists that distance 
^ mile from it, on wTiich there are depths of 2^ and 3 fathoms with 
7 fathoms within it. 

From Ilanjik, 2 miles north of Kamchy Eiver, Cape Galata bears 
22° about 8 miles, and the depths between them are 5 to 10 fathoms 
about ^ to 1^ miles from the shore. 

Cape Galata^ the southern point of Varna Bay, is steep and high, 
and is covered with cultivated fields, which give it a bright color in 
comparison with the somber verdure of the trees which cover the 
coast to the southward. 

Galata Burnu Li^ht^ group flashing white, 213 feet above high 
water, visible 21 miles, is exhibited from a white stone tower located 
at* Varna Bay. 

Varna Bay. — From Cape Galata the coast bends aburptly to the 
westward, forming Varna Bay, the entrance to which lies between 
Cape Galata and Cape St. George, or Georgof , bearing from each other 
northeast and southwest, 4 miles distant. The bay is spacious, with 
good holding ground, composed of mud and sand, and well sheltered 
from southerly, westerly, and northerly winds, but open to easterly 
winds, which, it is said, seldom blow home. It carries a depth of 10 to 
5 fathoms, the latter depth being found from 400 to 1,000 yards from 
the shore all round the bay. 

Anchorage. — The best anchorage iii the bay is eastward of Varna 
breakwater, in 7 fathoms of water. 

Foul ground. — An area of foul ground lies in the southern part 
of Varna Bay, f mile northwestward from Galata Lighthouse. It 
appears to be about 50 feet in length, with two pinnacle heads of 3J 
and 4J fathoms, upon neither of which will the lead remain, with 5 
or 6 fathoms around only a few feet distant ; and the ground is foul 
for anchoring nearly 400 yards each side of it, there being other col- 
umnar points of rock rising to within 4J fathoms of the surface, with 
possibly less water on them, as the pinnacles are so small that the lead 



BLACK SEA. 149 

will not remain upon their summits. The bottom in the vicinity 
appears to be rock, thinly covered with sand. 

Varna has a population of 37,155. 

The town occupies a picturesque situation at the head of the bay 
on a plateau sloping gently toward the sea. High minarets show 
here and the»e above small white houses, surrounded by verdure. 
The most conspicuous building is the Bulgarian Cathedral, which 
has six cupolas. 

Communieatioii. — The steamships of the principal lines trading 
to the Black Sea call at Varna regularly. There is communication 
by rail with Eustchuk, and with Sofia via Tirnova; also by tele- 
graph with the continental system. 

Coal and supplies. — About 1,000 tons of Welsh coal was in nor- 
mal times usually in stock. Fresh provisions were abundant and 
cheap ; good water can be obtained, brought off in a water boat. 

Hospital. — There is a large hospital. 

Harbor. — The harbor is formed by two breakwaters. Th^ eastern 
one, starting from the southeast corner of the town, runs in a south- 
erly direction for 1,360 yards, having a short arm 110 yards long on 
its western side, 500 yards from its end and abreast the western 
breakwater. The western breakwater, starting from the western 
shore, runs in an easterly direction for 740 yards, leaving an opening 
220 yards wide between the two breakwaters. The harbor has been^ 
dredged to a depth of 4 fathoms. A railway pier has been built on 
the western side of the harbor and extensive quays constructed on 
the northern shore. 

Lake Devno, about 5 J miles in length in an east and west direction, 
with a width varying from J mile to 1 mile, and with general depths 
of from 7 to 10 fathoms, is situated westward of the harbor, from 
which it is separated by a marshy neck of land about 1 mile in width. 

A canal to connect Lake Devno with the harbor is in course of 
construction. 

Varna Bay Light, fixed red, 36 feet above high water, is located 
on the head of the west breakwater. 

Lights. — An occulting white light, 56 feet above high water, is 
located on the east breakwater 1,250 yards 174^ from Evlar Burnu 
Tabia. 

A fixed red light, 36 feet above high water, is located on the head 
of the arm of the east breakwater, east side of the entrance. 

Coast. — From the town of Varna the coast trends 81° toward Cape 
St. Demetri and Cape St. George, and is covered with country 
houses and gardens. The water shoals gradually to within 700 
yards from the shore, with the exception of some foul ground which 
lies about J mile eastward of the town, 600 yards from the shore. 



150 CAPE ST, GEORGE. 

Eiixinograd Bay lies westward of Cape St. Demetri. A small 
breakwater shelters the landing place for the royal summer palace, 
which is situated near Cape St. Demetri. This palace with its tower 
forms a conspicuous landmark. 

When the Prince is in residence, the palace and the park which 
surrounds it are lighted by electric lights, the glare of which is s^isi- 
ble 10 miles. 

Cape St. Q-eorge. — ^The northeast point of Varna Bay, named 
Cape St. George after a monastery behind it, should not be ap- 
proached nearer than 500 yards, as some foul patches lie fuJly 300 
yards from the cliffy points. 

St. George or Chingani Reef lies 2^ miles northeast from the 
cape and consists of several rocky patches, extending nearly ^ mile 
along the coast and the same distance off it, over which there are 
only 3 and 4 feet water. There is shallow water for J mile outside 
the rocks, so that no vessel should approach the coast nearer than 
1^ miles, or shoal her water less than 10 fathoms either abreast or 
to the northward of the reef. The marks for clearing the reef are 
the western end and summit of Mount Galata (the highest flat liill 
south of Varna Bay), a little open east of Cape St. George^ bearing 
233°. 

A banky about 3 miles long and the same distance offshore, with a 
depth of 10 fathoms over it, is shown on the chart to the northeast- 
ward of Cape St. George. 

Kavarna Bay. — The vast curve that the coast takes to the north- 
ward and eastward between Cape St. George and Cape Kaliakra 
(Jelegra), which bears 81°, distant 22 miles, is named Kavarna Bay, 
in which are the smaller bays of Batova Baljik and the roadstead 
of Kavarna. 

Keef . — A reef, having a depth in places of from 1 to 2 fathoms, 
borders the shore from St. Geprge Reef to Baljik, and extends with- 
in the 5-f athom line, from ^ mile to 1 mile from the coast. 

Batova Bay lies 9 miles northeastward of Cape St. George, and 
abreast a thickly wooded and very swampy plain, across which west- 
northwesterly winds blow with great strength. The anchorage is in 
7 or 8 fathoms about IJ miles from the shore. 

Baljik Bay — ^Anchorage. — Baljik Bay, abreast of the village of 
that name, about 3^ miles northeast of Batova Bay and in the north- 
west bight of the great bay of Kavarna, serves as a place of refuge 
for vessels, not only in northerly winds during the winter months 
but from all bad weather. It is open to southeasterly and southerly 
winds, which the natives say never blow home, and therefore allow 
their vessels to winter there with great confidence. The anchorage is 
to the southward of the village, about | mile from the shore, in 5 to 6 
fathoms, muddy bottom. There is good anchorage for a fleet in 



BLACK SBA. 151 

Baljik Bay, sheltered from the prevailing winds, over a bottom of 
tough clay, gradually shoaling to the coast. There is a telegraph 
station in the village. 

Supplies. — ^Any quantity of water may be obtained from a stream 
situated at the bottom of a ravine i mile westward of the village of 
Baljik. Sheep, fowls, eggs, fruit, and vegetables could in normal 
times be procured. 

Kavarna. — About 9 miles eastward of Baljik and about 6 miles 
northwestward of Cape Kaliakra is a deep ravine divided in the 
middle by a triangular isolated hillock, which is easy to distinguish 
from all directions. Near the sea are several storehouses for grain ; 
and at the head of the ravine, on the heights, an hour's walk from 
the landing place, is the village of Kavarna, which is not visible from 
the sea. This roadstead also serves for shelter to vessels in bad 
weather, but they are not equally safe as in that of Baljik, for the 
bottom is not so inclined at this receding portion of the coast. The 
anchorage is the same distance from the shore and in the same depth 
of water as at Baljik. 

Cape Kaliakra, or Jelegra, which rises 80 feet above the sea, is 
the southern extremity of a small peninsula about 800 yards long 
and 200 wide. Its shores are sloping and of a reddish color, and from 
a little distance to the eastward it appears quite isolated from the 
mainland, which is higher. The cape is bordered by a reef, to which 
a berth of a cable must be given in passing. Shelter in northwest 
winds may be found under the cape. 

Cape Kaliakra is remarkable for its prominence as well as for its 
being a point of demarcation between the high and low land. The 
western coast of the Black Sea for 100 milesto the southward of this 
cape affords (at the foot of mountains generally very picturesque) a 
great number of bays, coves, and harbors, more or less secure ; but to 
the- northward the aspect of the coast changes to a moderate height 
and level surface, with shores only slightly indented, affording but 
little shelter all the way to Odessa. Near Kaliakra also the bottom 
of the basin of the Black Sea rises suddenly to the depth of about 50 
fathoms, which depths continue toward Eupatoria and Sevastopol. 

Cape Kaliakra Light, flashing white, 196 feet above high water, 
visible 20 miles, is exhibited from a white tower located 190 yards 
•from the extremity of the cape. 

Anchorage can be obtained in 7 fathoms about 2 miles westward 

of the cape. 

Cape Shableh. — From Cape Kaliakra the coast, which is flat- 
topped, steep, and rocky, trends northeast for 12J miles to Cape 
Shableh (beacon), on which may be seen a tower, built in the form 
of a pyramid, and a little farther on a hillock. 



152 MANGAUA — ^EbCKS. 

Abreast the cape a reef extends 300 yards from the shore, on which 
the sea breaks when there is any swell; and off the hillock a reef 
extends 600 yards. 

Nearly midway between Capes Kaliakra and Shableh is a large 
village surrounded by large trees which are conspicuous. 

Cape Shableh Light, jfixed white, 98 feet above high water, 
visible 16 miles, is exhibited from a white octagonal stone tower 
located on the cape. 

Caution. — Local magnetic attraction has been observed between 
Capes Kaliakra and Shableh. 

Coast. — From Cape Shableh the coast trends almost due north as 
far as Cape Midia, and is very monotonous in appearance. 

The boundary line between Bulgaria and Rumania is near Ilanlik, 
12^ miles north of Cape Shableh. 

Mangalia. — This small town, 16 miles to the northward of Cape 
Shableh, may be recognized by its little hills and by two high 
minarets, of which the northern is the higher; also by a pier, con- 
structed of piles, which shows conspicuously against the sandy beach. 
There is but little trade. Sheep, fowls, and vegetables could in 
normal times be obtained. 

Anchorage. — Vessels generally anchor eastward of the town, 
about 1 mile from the shore, in 8 fathoms; but smaller vessels may 
anchor southward of the town, in 4^ fathoms, 1,000 yards from the 
shore, nearly abreast of a little valley, through which a small river 
flows, forming a lagoon on the beach. The roadstead is open to the 
eastward. 

Two red buoys and a black buoy mark the approach to the latter 
anchorage, but they are unreliable. The red buoys should be left on 
the starboard hand in approaching from the eastward and the black 
on the port. The best anchorage is in from 4 to 5 fathoms, 400 to 
600 yards to the southward of the inner red buoy. Should the buoys 
not be in position, a good mark for the anchorage is a minaret to the 
south of the town, bearing 295°, and Cape Tuzla, just open of the 
headland north of the town, bearing 22°. 

Rocks. — A narrow ridge of rocks, supposed to be the remains of 
an old mole, is situated 300 to 500 yards from the shore to the south- 
eastward of the town. Another ridge of rocks, with less than 6 feet 
water over them, lies J mile offshore southward of the inner anchor^ 
age. 

Landing. — There are numerous rocks along the shore near the 
town, and landing is difficult during easterly winds. Boats can land 
to the right of the mosque near a path which leads to the town. The 
best landing place is northward of the height on which the town is 
built. The pier is in a bad state of repair. 



BLACK SEA. 153 

Mangalia Light, fixed white, 50 feet above high water, visible 12 
miles, is exhibited from a red and white iron framework tower located 
on the quay. 

Two fixed red lights, 28 feet above high water, visible 4 miles, is 
exhibited from a small white tower located on head of the north dike 
500 yards 137° from Mangalia Light. 

Cape Tuzla, 11 miles to the northward of Mangalia, is of mod- 
erate height and sloping. A few rocks run out a short distance from 
the cape. 

Cape Tuzla Light, group flashing white, 206 feet above high 
water, visible 20 miles, is exhibited from a white iron framework with 
a central column on keeper's dwelling, located about 550 yards north 
of the cape. 

This light has a red sector visible 6 miles. 

Fogsignal. — The fogsignal is a siren. 

Coast. — Sand hills extend for about 3 miles to the northward of 
Cape Tuzla, but at 3^ miles a large depression appears, in which is 
Lake Tuzla, separated from the sea by a low sandy isthnius. This 
depression and the lighthouse form the best landmarks in this neigh- 
borhood. Between Cape Tuzla and Constantza shoal water extends 
in places for over 1 mile from the shore, and it should be given a 
berth of at least 2 miles. 

Shoal. — About 2 miles to the southward of the town of Constantza 
a rocky spit extends from the coast, on which there is a depth of only 
9 feet, 600 yards from the shore. 

Port Constantza (Kustenjeh), 11 miles north of Cape Tuzla, is 
located on the southern side of Cape Constantza, which protects it 
from the north. 

The harbor is formed by two breakwaters — ^the southern and the 
eastern. The southern breakwater begins at the shore near Trajans 
Wall and expends southeastward 950 yards, then eastward 660 yards. 
The eastern breakwater extends southwestw^ard about 1,400 yards 
from the southern extremity of the town. About 460 yards from the 
outer end an arm, 130 yards long, projects toward the southern break- 
water, leaving an entrance 175 yards wide. 

Constantza Light, flashing green, 36 feet above high water, 
visible 8 miles, is exhibited from an iron tower located on the west arm 
of the new east breakwater. 

Approach. — Approaching from.eastw^ard, a tumulus, located about 
1 mile northwestward of the cape and having a fort on the summit, 
is a good landmark and is generally the first object seen. 

The cathedral and a large hotel are the most conspicuous buildings 
in the town. 

172982°— 20 11 



154 ANCHORAGE AND WHARVES. 

Entrance. — ^The entrance, about 175 yards in width and protected 
from the northeast and east by the eastern breakwater, has a depth of 
28 feet. It is marked by lights and a lightbuoy. 

Buoy. — A whistlebuoy, exhibiting a flashing white light, is moored 
140 yards south of the southern end of the east breakwater. 

Lights.— A group flashing white light, visible 20 miles, is located 
on the south end of the east breakwater. 

A flashing red light is exhibited from a white iron tower located on 
the east head of the southern breakwater. 

Fogsignal. — A fog siren is located at the eastern end of the south- 
em breakwatei'. 

Anchorage and wharves. — The harbor, being artificially formed, 
does not afford an anchorage outside of the breakwater and vessels 
go inside of the harbor to discharge their cargoes at the wharves, 
there being sufficient berths for 29 vessels. The depths alongside of 
the wharves is 28 feet. 

A special basin for the use of vessels loading petroleum is located 
to the left of the entrance inside of the southern breakwater. 

A fixed red light, 25 feet above high water, is located on the south- 
west angle of the extension of the old east jetty. 

Caution. — With all the protection of the breakwaters, there is 
sometimes so great a scend of the sea alongside of the wharves that 
it is advisable for vessels to secure coir hawsers in preference to wire. 

Pilots. — Pilotage is compulsory. 

Constantza (Kustenjeh) . — This town is on Cape Constantza, a 
low promont;ory projecting half a mile southeastward. It has a popu- 
lation of 25,000, which is rapidly increasing, l?ut has no regular 
system of water supply, the water being brought in water carts 2 or 3 
miles. A large number of the houses are built of stone and several 
stories in height, the most conspicuous buildings being the cathedral 
and a large hotel. 

Constantza is one of the nearest points on the Black Sea to Cherna- 
voda, on the Danube, from which it is but 29 miles. 

Communication. — A railway to Chernavoda, on the Danube, has 
been constructed instead, and is the principal means of conveyance 
for the grain which is grown in the adjoining districts to the steamers 
for transport to the European markets. Steamers call frequently. 
Telegraphic communication with all parts. There is a cable to Kilios 
at the entrance to the Bosporus. 

Radio. — ^A wireless telegraph station has been established on the 
western side of the harbor, near Trajan's Wall. 

Supplies. — In normal times all kinds of provisions can be ob- 
tained. Beef, mutton, poultry, and game were plentiful and cheap. 
Water could be obtained by water tanks, but it was not good. 



BLACK SEA. 155 

Coal. — ^^Coal in normal times could only be obtained in small quan- 
tities and was dearer than at Sulina. 

Pratique. — The vise of the Rumanian legation at Constantinople 
is necessary upon the bill of health of all vessels arriving from there. 

Cape Gonstantza is the eastern projection of the promontory and 
is bordered by some rocky uneven ground, extending upward of i 
mile in an east-northeastward direction from the cape, where there 
is a rocky patch carrying a depth of 3f fathoms. Care must be taken 
in approaching the land to the northward of the cape for between it 
and Singhol Point, which lies 2J miles to the northward, there are 
several rocky patches, more or less dangerous, lying nearly 1^ miles 
from the coast. 

Cape Midia (lat. 44° 21' N., long. 28° 43^' E.) bears 17° about 8^ 
miles from Singhol Point and affords but slight shelter from north- 
erly winds. The villages of Kara Harman, with a wood and a mill, 
stand on high ground 6^ miles northward of the cape, and this high 
land is visible for a long distance. Northward of these villages the 
coast becomes low and sandy, which indicates the approach to the 
mouths of the Danube. 

River Danube. — At its source the Danube is about 3,000 feet 
above the level of the sea and its course lies through an Alpine country 
to Ulm, where its elevation is 1,500 feet above the sea. At Ulm the 
Iller joins the Danube and it becomes navigable for flat-bottomed 
boats of 100 tons. The river here is 300 feet broad. 

At Donauworth, 40 miles below "Ulm, the Danube is 180 yards wide 
and steam navigation begins as steamers ply daily from May to 
September between Donauworth and Ratisbon. Between Neustadt 
and Katisbon the river forces its way through a defile (named Lang 
Wand), nearly 1 mile in length, the sides of which consist of per- 
pendicular cliffs 400 to 600 feet high. The summits of these cliffs 
are in places not more than 150 feet apart and overhang the water. 
At the eastern end of the defile is Kelheim, at the junction of the Alt- 
muhl with the Danube, and the Altmuhl is joined to the River Main, 
at Bamberg, by the Ludwig Canal, 110 miles long and 7 feet deep, 
so that it is possible to traverse the European continent by water 
from the North Sea to the Black Sea. Ludwig Canal has 100 locks, 
each with a depth of from 3 to 6 feet. Kelheim is much exposed to 
ice bursts and inundations. 

From Ratisbon (Regensburg) , the most northern point of the 
Danube where there is a harbor, to Passau, on the borders of Bavaria, 
the difficulty of navigation is so great that steamers have ceased to 
run between, these places, but works are shortly to be undertaken to 
render this part navigable. 

At Passau, a frontier town of Bavaria, the Ina River joints the 
Danube, which is here- 800 feet above the sea, 220 yards in width, 



156 RIVER DANUBE. 

and 23 feet deep. At Passau the steam navigation of the Danube 
again proceeds, and Austrian steamers ply regularly in summer be- 
tween the town and Vienna. Below Passau the right bank of the 
river is Austrian and the left Bavarian as far as Engelhartszell, just 
above which a reef of rocks produces a rapid. 

Below Engelhartszell the valley of the Danube becomes wider, 
but about halfway between that town and Aschach is contracted by 
a second defile, which causes much commotion in the stream of the 
river. Between Aschach and Linz is an archipelago, and the channel 
of the river is so constantly changing that navigation is intricate. 
Before reaching Linz the Danube passes through a chain of moun- 
tains which descend to the river in steep cliffs. At Linz, a town of 
58,000 inhabitants, the river is crossed by a stone and iron-trellised 
bridge, 1,700 feet in length. 

From Linz the distance by the river to Vienna is 126 miles, arid 
steamers leave daily, descending in 8 or 9 hours, but occupying 18 
to 20 hours in the ascent. A few miles below Linz is Enns. From 
here the fall of the river to the frontier of Hungary amounts to 348 
feet, or an average of 2^ feet per mile. Below Grein the Danube 
passes through a granitic chain of hills and forms a rapid named 
Greiner Schwall. At Mantern, about two-thirds of the way from 
Linz to Vienna, a wooden bridge crosses the river and is the only 
bridge between Linz and Vienna. 

The minimum depth between Passau and Vienna is 4 feet when 
the river is low, excepting at the Fischameat-Thabea Rapids, where 
it is 3 feet. 

From Vienna the Danube flows east for 150 miles through a wide 
expanse of flat country to Waitzen, and then turns south to Buda- 
pest, 182 miles below Vienna. Between Vienna and Pressburg the 
river is split up into numerous narrow channels, but from Pressburg 
to Budapest, viz, at Grein, it is again shut in by high land, and, 
being here a wide expanse of water, looks more like a lake than a 
river. Steamers occupy about 13 hours on the voyage from Vienna 
to Buda-Pest. 

At Budapest the river is spanned by a suspension bridge, 1,200 
feet in length and 37 feet in width, beneath which the Danube, 54 
feet deep, attains a velocity of 7 to 8 knots. A harbor is being con- 
structed at Budapest, consisting of three basins, with a minimum 
depth of 10 feet. 

From Budapest to Semlin, 305 miles, the Danube runs south and 
southeast with numerous windings, and widens out, occupying a bed 
disproportioned to the volume of its waters, and the navigation is con- 
sequently constantly impeded by shallows and shifting beds of sand 
and gravel. Semlin is a frontier tpwn of Hungary on the right bank 
of the Danube, and, being near the junction of the Danube, Save, and 



BLACK SEA. 157 

Theiss, and upon the high road from Vienna to Constantinople, is a 
place of considerable trade. Here the Danube is nearly 3 miles wide, 
and there is a steam ferry boat running across the Save to Belgrade, 
the capital of Servia. The river steamers occupy 32 hours on the 
voyage from Buda-Pest to Semlin. 

From Semlin to Old Moldova, 76 miles, and from thence to Old 
Orsova, 63 miles, tlie Danube flows nearly due east. At Old Moldova 
it enters a series of rocky gorges, unequaled in Europe for grandeur, 
and after sweeping through a succession of deep pools and shallow 
rapids, confined within the passes of Steuka, Izlaz, and Kasau, 
finally reaches its last and most formidable rapids, called the Iron 
Gates, 632 miles from Vienna and 570 miles from the Black Sea. The 
Iron Gates, 6 miles below Orsova, the frontier town of Hungary, are 
wholly within the territories of Rumania and Servia, and are nearly 

1 mile in length, with inclinations of 1 in 507 at high river, and 1 in 
307 at low water — the extreme variations between high and low river 
being here 14 feet 6 inches at the upper end and 22 feet 6 inches at the 
lower end of the gates. The level of low river at Old Moldova is 
201 feet above sea level and at the lower part of the Iron Gates 118 
feet. 

The depth at low river in the rapids between Old Moldova and 
Orsova is in places 1 J feet, and when the river falls to 3 feet above its 
lowest level all navigation is suspended there. Steamers drawing 5 
feet can only navigate the Iron Gates in safety when the river is 8 feet 
above its lowest level,' as shown on the Orsova gauge. The average 
annual interruption to the navigation owing to ice obstruction and 
the low level of the river is said to be 150 days. 

A canal commencing at Orsova on the Servian shore of the river 
enables vessels to avoid the rapids of the Iron Gates. 

The general width of the Danube between Vienna and the Iron 
Gates is from 2,000 to 6,000 feet when the river is low, and from 7 
, miles to 30 miles when the river is high, but there are exceptions to 
this, viz, at Peterwardein, 50 miles above Belgrade, the width is 800 
feet ; and at Kasau, a pass 5^ miles in length, 600 feet ; but in those 
places the depth is greatly increased, being 40 feet at Peterwardein 
and 80 feet at the Kasau Pass, when the river is low, and the difference 
between high and low river at the Kasau Pass is about 23 feet. 

The mean velocity of the current from Vienna to the Iron Gates is 

2 or 3 knots, but at the narrow defiles it attains a velocity of 8 knots 
at high floods. . 

The traffic between Belgrade and Budapest is carried on in barges, 
with a carrying power of 250 tons, and about 600,000 tons is annually 
transported up river., The largest steamers are from 220 to 250 feet 
long, 25 to 27^ feet broad, and 10 feet deep, with a displacement of 
about 450 tons. 



158 LOWER DANUBE. 

Lower Danube. — The lower Danube commences at the lower 
end of the Iron Gates, 570 miles by river from the Black Sea. The 
fall of the river gradually decreases as it nears the sea, being 103^ 
feet between the Iron Gates and Chernavoda, 338 miles, or an incli- 
nation of 1 in 19,800; between Chernavoda and Braila the fall is 
11 feet in 76 miles, or 1 in 36,500, whilst from Braila to Sulina the 
fall is but 3 feet in 92 miles, or 1 in 186,360. 

The width of the Danube 8 miles below the Iron Gates (at Turnu- 
Severin) is 3,000 feet, and its maximum depth 18, feet. From here 
to Widin (83 miles) its course is tortuous and generally in a south- 
erly direction, h\it from Widin to (vhernavoda its course is in a gen- 
eral east direction for 300 miles, and at Chernavoda the width of 
the main river is 2,000 feet, and its depth, when low. 38 feet and 
14^ feet above the sea level, the extreme variation between high and 
low river being 23 feet, ^'^hen the river ristj^s 18 feet above its low- 
level, the whole country is inundated, ^nd the swollen waters extend 
across to the village of Fetesti 8^ miles. 

The Danube at Chernavoda, 171 miles from Sulina, is but 40 
miles from Constantza on the Black Sea. There is a railwav be- 
tween the two places which crosses the Danube p.t Chernavoda by 
a bridge 100 feet above the water, with spans 460 feet wide, vath 
the exception of the central one, which has a width of 630 feet. 

Below Chernavoda the Danube bends to the north for a distance of 
90 miles to Galatz (11 miles below Braila), thence it (lows in a south- 
easterly direction to the sea. 

The Danube discharges itself into the Black Sea at the St. George 
and Sulina mouths, and through the numerous outlets of the delta 
of the Kilia ; and if the volume of water flowing out is, for the sake 
of comparison, supposed to be constituted of 100 parts, it is esti- 
mated that 24 of these issue from St. George, 9 from Sulina, and 67 
from the Kilia branches. Tulcha, situated on the right bank proper 
of the Sulina branch, is distant 39 miles from the entrance, and, 
Ismail, on the left bank of the Kilia branch is 55 miles from Sulina 
Mouth. From the same entrance, Isakcha, Reni^ and Galatz are 56, 
70, and 81 miles, respectively. 

Navigable depths. — Between the Iron Gates and Braila the 
general width of the river when low is about ^ mile. At times when 
the river is very low the depth at certain spots between tliose places 
does not exceed 9 feet; and over three shoals, Nicopoli, Sistov, and 
Chernavoda, it is then 7, 6, and 4J feet, respectively. Owing to the 
existence of these shoals, which often shift their position, seagoing 
vessels rarely ascend higher than Braila. At ordinary high river, 
vessels drawing 12 feet can navigate the river from the Iron Gates 
to Braila without difficulty. From thence to thcj sea a minimum 
depth of 18^ feet is maintained. 



BLACK SEA. 159 

The extreme difference between high and low river is 24| feet at 
Turnu-Severin, 23 feet at Nicopoli and Chernavoda, and 19J feet at 
Braila. 

Cuttings have been made across bends in the Sulina branch, there- 
by straightening the ship channel and reducing the distance in the 
river by 11 miles. The cuttings are 300 feet wide at the bottom, 34:0 
feet at the water line, and have a minimum depth of about 18J feet. 

At the bifurcation of the river, about 4 miles to the northwestward 
of Tulcha, is the Chatal d'Ismail, an artificial embankment or mole, 
stretching out into the river in a northwest direction. This, divert- 
ing a portion of the stream from the Kilia into the Tulcha branch, in- 
creases the volume of water and scours out the Sulina Channel. The 
depths at the entrance and in the river depend altogether on the 
month of the year and the character of the season, and a standard 
zero has been established to which surroundings over any part of the 
river may be reduced, showing the actual depths which would exist 
over all the shoals if the river was at its lowest. 

Dates of high and low river. — The highest water in the river 
may be expected from February to July and the lowest from Sep- 
tember to December, depending altogether on the state of the weather 
during the year. The river and Black Sea are about zero at Sulina 
Mouth during winter months, but the level is sometimes raised 2 feet 
by winter floods. 

During the low water season the level of the river for several miles 
from its entrance is raised by easterly, and lowered by westerly winds, 
but when the river is in flood this influence of the wind is not ob- 
served, excepting near Sulina, where the Black Sea affects the level. 

In the year 1889, spring floods were very high and the water rose 
11 feet 7 inches above low water mark at Tulcha ; in 1890 there was no 
marked flood, the level being only 7 feet 8 inches above low water at 
Tulcha ; and in October of the same year the water was only 4 inches 
above the lowest known, the available depth 44 miles from Sulina 
being 16 feet 3 inches; but during the whole of this period of low 
water the depth of 20^ feet was maintained at Sulina* Mouth, and a 
similar depth was preserved during the year 1891. 

The statistics of different years are given with a view to show the 
changes in the river under various circumstances. It will be noticed 
how little they actually affected the normal depth at Sulina Mouth. 

Current. — The current setting down the river varies in velocity 
according to the conditions, the maximum observed being 5 knots 
at the mouth in abnormally heavy floods and the minimum ^ knot 
during the very low water, the ordinary rate not exceeding 3 knots. 
During a river flood with a northeasterly gale the water has been 
banked up to 4 feet 3 inches above zero ; with strong westerly winds, 
and a low river, the water is reduced to 1 foot 6 inches below zero, 



160 BEACONS AND BUOYS. 

thus giving the extreme and mean ranges as 5 feet 9 inches and 2 feet, 
respectively, at Sulina Mouth. 

Ice. — The normal closing time is during the first 10 days in Janu- 
ary, but sometimes it occurs earlier and sometimes later; again it 
remains open all winter long. 

The general duration of the ice is 37 days. 

Before closing the river generally smokes for 1 or 2 days ; then the 
frost sets in hard and the river freezes rapidly. . 

European commission. — The maintenance of the channels in the 
Danube delta, and the regulation of the traffic as far as Braila, a dis- 
tance of 93 miles from the sea, is vested in a European commission, 
formed by representatives of the following nations: Austria-Hun- 
gary, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Rumania, Russia, and 
Turkey. 

This commission has power to levy dues on vessels navigating the 
river within its jurisdiction. 

Portici (lat. 44° 41' N., long. 29° 2' E.).— The southern mouth of 
the Danube, named the Portici, is 24 miles northeastward of Cape 
Midia, and leads into Razem Lake, which communicates by a very 
narrow channel with the Danube at Donavitza. From Portici Mouth 
the shore of Dranova Island, which forms part of the delta of the 
river, trends for 28 miles to the eastward, up to St George Mouth. 
It is very low and is marked in places by fishermen's huts. 

Anchorage^ which affords good shelter from northerly winds, 
may be obtained in about 54 fathoms, over mud and shells, 2^ miles 
from the coast. 

Beacons and buoys. — A tripod beacon, with horizontal battens 
and a black top, is situated near the Portici huts at the river entrance ; 
and a wooden beacon, 50 feet in height, stands near the beach 8;^ miles 
farther to the eastward. 

Eight buoys, in line, about 2^ miles apart, in a depth of 5 fathoms, 
mark the anchorage, a red buoy being at each end, with six black 
buoys between. From the western buoy the wooden beacon bears 
298°, 4i miles; from the eastern buoy, Sandy Island Lighthouse bears 
3° 3 miles. The two eastern buoys are spherical in shape and have 
each a spherical topmark. 

St. George Mouth. — This mouth of the Danube, IJ miles across 
from lower Olinka Island to St. George Point, is blocked up by 
extensive sand banks with 3 feet water over them,, and has three 
islands in the entrance. The principal channel is northward of this 
bank and cIosjb past St. George Point and has depths of from 8 to 12 
feet. The depth increases to 24 and 30 feet when inside, off the village 
of St. George or Kedrilles, above which the channel has depths of 
from 11 to 75 feet. Another channel, beginning with a flat of 3 to 4 
feet depth, lies between the Olinka Islands and the western shore. 



BLACK SEA. 161 

The St. George branch joins the Sulina branch at the Chatal de 
St. George, near the thirty-fourth milepost from Sulina., A black 
post, carrying a white lantern, from which is exhibited a fixed green 
light, marks the junction of the two branches. 

Since the improvements at the Sulina Mouth, this entrance to the 
Danube is not used as much as formerly, except by fishing boats. The 
principal industry carried on at this mouth is the sturgeon fishery and 
the export of caviare and isinglass. There is a telegraph station in 
St. George village. 

Danube River Eighty flashing whit, 65 feet above high water, 
visible 14 miles, is exhibted from a black wooden tower located on 
Sandy Island, south of Olinka Island, at the St. George Mouth of the 
Eiver. 

Fogsignal. — An explosive fogsignal is used. 

Beacons and buoys. — The shoal ground, extending to the east- 
ward and southeastward from St. George Mouth and Sandy Island, 
is marked by beacons and buoys. 

The northern beacon, consisting of a mast surmounted by two 
cages, is placed in about 8 feet water, with Sandy Island Lighthouse 
bearing 23fl:°, 2^ miles. Approximate position, lat. 44° 52' 40" N., 
long. 29° 30' 30" E. 

The southern beacon, consisting of a mast surmounted by a barrel, 
is placed in about 4 feet water, 2 miles to the southward of the north- 
ern beacon, with Sandy Island Lighthouse bearing 343°, distant 2 
miles. 

The southern edge of this shoal ground is marked in 5 fathoms by 
the two spherical buoys with spherical topmark mentioned above. 

Caution. — Shoal water is reported to extend about 1 mile outside 
the beacons, or much farther eastward from the bar of St. George 
Mouth than is shown on the charts. 

The Sulina, or middle entrance to the Danube, which has been 
artificially regulated to pass between two piers stretching out from 
the coast at the mouth of the river, is 17 miles to the northward of the 
St. George, and is the only branch made use of for commerce on 
account of the greater depth maintained at its mouth. Its waterway, 
which has been shortened and straightened by various cuttings, 
extends 43 miles from the seat to Chatal d'Ismail Point, and is from 
300 to 600 yards wide. Its banks in some places are 7 feet high and 
never less than 4 feet, and it carries a minimum depth of 18^ to 19 feet. 

Depth on bar. — The channel over the Sulina Bar has been 
dredged to 24 feet lowest level. The depths are liable to change and 
will generally be least outside the pierheads about June, July, and 
August. The depths between the piers will be least in the winter 
months before the descent of the river floods, which generally com- 
mence in March. 



162 BUOYS — DIRECTIONS. 

Depth signals. — The depth of water (in feet) on the bar is shown 
in figures from the old lighthouse, so as to be visible from the bar 
by the aid of a telescope. ^ 

Lights. — An alternating and occulting white and red light, 38 
feet above high water, is exhibited from a white cylindrical tower 
with a green dome located on the south mole at Sulina Mouth. 

A fixed green light, 10 feet above high water, is exhibited from a 
pile beacon located on the south side of the channel. 

A fixed white light, 70 feet above high water, visible 14 miles, is 
•exhibited from a cylindrical white tower with a green dome located 
in the eastern part of the city. 

A fixed red light, 45 feet above high water, visible 8 miles, is ex- 
hibited from a white circular tower with a red dome located on the 
head of the north mole off Sulina Mouth. 

Fogsignals. — ^An explosive fogsignal and a fog bell are located 
at the Sulina Mouth. (See Light List.) 

Buoys. — An automatic whistlebuoy is moored off Sulina entrance, 
with the lighthouse at the outer extremity of the South Pier bearing 
247° 1.4 miles. A bellbuoy is moored in 25 feet, about 700 yards from 
the pierheads. Vessels should pass to the northward of it. A black 
buoy, in 25 feet, marks the eastern extreme of Sulina Spit, and an- 
other black buoy is moored nearly midway between the whistlebuoy 
and the bellbuoy. 

The old lighthouse in line with the North Pier Lighthouse, bearing 
246°, leads over the bar northward of the bellbuoy, in about 24 feet. 

Directions. — The master of a vessel who has never been at Sulina 
"should take his departure from Fido Nisi or Serpent Island, which 
bears about 75°, 23 miles from the North Pier Lighthouse, and steer 
258°, when, if the weather is clear, he will make right ahead, Besh 
Tepe, a remarkable mountain, rising from 700 to 800 feet above the 
sea. The Sulina water tower, lighthouses, and the buildings on both 
banks of the river will rise successively to view, and when near the 
whistlebuoy a vessel should stop or anchor and await the arrival of 
the pilot. 

The water becomes very muddy as the river is approached, a fact 
worthy of notice in thick and foggy weather. 

The set of the current in the offing is 157° with a velocity of J to J 
a knot. The surface water to the depth of about 3 feet is influenced 
by the wind. The inshore current is very variable both as regards 
strength and direction. 

When approaching Sulina from the southward, great attention 
should be paid to the soundings, and a vessel should not approach the 
shore within the 10-fathom curve. 

Caution. — As the effect of a river flood is the extension and shoal- 
ing of the Sulina Spit, or south bank off the Sulina Mouth, and the 



BLACK SEA, 163 

buoys are liable to be swept away by storms, vessels are cautioned to 
keep well to the northward on entering or leaving the river, more 
especially as the current sets south during the prevailing northerly 
winds. 

Fog and snow banks are peculiar to the vicinity of Sulina. 

Town (lat. 45° 9^' N., long. 29° 40' E.).— The town of Sulina, 
which includes the principal buildings of the European commission, 
the Marine Hospital, pilot and lifeboat stations, is situated on the 
south bank of the river, partly surrounded by swamps, the workshops 
and the houses of the employees of the European commission being on 
the north bank of the river. The population numbers about 5,000. 

A short distance west of the town there is a water tower 134 feet 
high, which may be seen from a distance of about 17 miles in clear 
weather. 

Loading. — Sulina is the chief shipping place for the grain of the 
entire Danube region, the cargo being brought down the river in large 
lighters, carrying from 1,500 to 3,000 tons. Vessels are loaded from 
floating steam elevators. It will always be advantageous to load at 
Sulina rather than at Galatz or Braila, the passage of the river being 
attended with risks even under the most favorable circumstances. 
The Danube is normally heavily charged with sediment, and in time 
of flood this condition becomes aggravated, and in consequence of 
this the season at which the greatest depth of water may be expected is 
the time when shoals form with the greatest frequency and rapidity. 
It may happen that a vessel with the regulation draft of water may 
suddenly find it necessary, under pain of heavy penalties, to stop and 
lighten cargo. It must be borne in mind that these occurrences result 
not from the falling of the water, but (so to speak) from the rising of 
the bed of the river. 

ComnLunication. — Steamers call regularly. There is telegraphic 
communication with Galatz. 

Coal and supplies. — In normal times about 5,000 tons of Welsh 
coal is kept in stock. There is a coal wharf 1,500 feet in length on 
the south side of the river at the western end of the town, alongside 
which two steamers can coal at the same time. About 1,200 tons can 
be loaded in 24 hours. 

Meat, vegetables, and bread could be procured, but are not plentiful. 
Good drinking water can be obtained at the south jetty. 

Lifeboats. — There are two lifeboats at Sulina. 

Hospital. — Seamen are treated gratuitously at the Marine Hospital. 

Seamen^s Institute.— There is a British Seamen's Institute in 
Sulina. 

Port regulations.— The roadstead of Sulina, extending 2 miles 
seaward, and the port 3 miles up the river from the entrance, are 
under the authority of the captain of the port. From thence an in- 



164 . PILOTAGE. 

spector of navigation has charge of the navigation of the river as far 
as Braila. Officers in charge of vessels are required to communicate^ 
with the captain of the port within 24 hours of their arrival and to 
obey all orders received from him, the inspector of navigation, or hi& 
subordinates, obedience to such orders being, if necessary, enforced 
by the naval vessels on the station. 

All vessels entering the Sulina Mouth must have at least 1 foot les& 
draft of water than the depth indicated as existing on the bar at the 
time. Steamers of more than 800 tons register are to be provided with 
an auxiliary rudder unless the captain of the port is satisfied that 
they are capable of navigating the river without it. 

Steamers which come down the river and exceed 130 feet in length 
are not allowed to turn in any part of Sulina Port occupied by other 
vessels ; and steamers, more than two abreast, may not move in the 
port when lashed together. 

No boats are permitted to move about in the port, or from the port 
to the roadstead at night unless carrying a lighted- lantern. 

Pilotag^e. — Pilotage is compulsory except in the case of vessels of 
less than 100 tons register or 150 tons when crossing the Sulina Bar ia 
ballast, and sailing vessels ascending the river when the master re- 
mains on board. Pilots meet vessels near the whistlebuoy, 1^ miles 
seaward of the entrance, in a steam pilot vessel, and are bound to 
board, when weather permits, or to signal how they may enter. The 
pilot vessels fly the flag of the Danube commissioners, and by night 
carry a red light at the foremast head 8 feet below the prescribed 
white light. 

Colors showing the vessel's nationality must be hoisted before enter- 
ing; and should explosives form any portion of the cargo, a declara- 
tion to that effect must be made to the pilot, and a red flag hoisted at 
the fore, special anchorage being provided under these circumstances^ 

Although the employment of pilots is compulsory, should the state 
of the weather prevent the pilot boarding, a blue flag will be hoisted 
at the lighthouse on the south pier. The captain may then enter the 
port without a pilot, but on his own responsibility. 

Officers in command of vessels incur a serious responsibility by pro- 
ceeding at a higher rate of speed than that indicated by the pilot or 
by inducing him t© adopt a higher rate of speed than his experience 
would warrant. 

The pilots place at the disposal of the captain their experience and 
knowledge of the river; but as they can not know the defects and 
difficulties in maneuvering, stopping, going ahead, ^tc, of each ship^ 
depending as they do upon its engines and construction, the responsi- 
bility for the vessel's movements lies entirely with the captain. The 
European commission admits no responsibility for damages incurred 
by the ship itself nor for other damages of any kind. 



BLACK SEA, 165 

The river pilots who take charge above the port form an entirely 
distinct service from the sea pilots. Naval vessels and vessels of under 
200 tons pay no dues or pilotage. Pilots are strictly forbidden to 
accept any gratuity. 

There are pilot offices at Sulina, Galatz, and Braila. 

Mooring at Sulina. — The port is divided into four sections, 
which are numbered from seaward. The limits of the sections are 
marked by posts of various colors on both banks of the river. The 
first section is reserved for naval vessels and vessels belonging to the 
European commission of the Danube. It is also used by steam ves- 
sels plying regularly to the Danube. The second section is for tugs, 
for laden vessels awaiting favorable weiather to go to sea, and for 
sailing lighters. The third section is for vessels bound upriver and 
for empty barges and lighters. The fourth section is for vessels tak- 
ing in cargo and is divided into 50 berths, 25 on each side of the river. 

Of the two berths allotted to naval vessels the one on the south side 
of the river is very inadvisable to have in the winter months as during 
the frequent northerly gales there is great difficulty in keeping the 
vessel off the .pier. 

The lower part of the port, on the left bank, below all other vessels, 
is reserved for vessels carrying petroleum. 

Vessels carrying explosives must fly a red flag and anchor in the 
upper part of the port above all other vessels. 

Ships must be anchored in the berths pointed out by the port offi- 
cials, who will give all necessary directions regarding the placing of 
hawsers. 

Anchors must always be ready for letting go, and a kedge for 
laying out in case of necessity. 

A bow and quarter pole must be taken on board. They can be 
obtained from the works of the European commission on the north 
bank of the river. The spike of the quarter pole is put in the bank or 
lashed to a bollard on the quay, and the other end of the pole against 
the vessel's quarter to keep her stern off the bank, whilst the bow is 
kept off by a bower anchor, the ship being breasted in with springs. 

Quarantine.— The detached mole on the north side of the en- 
trance to the port is reserved for vessels in quarantine. The health 
officer boards vessels opposite the British consulate. 

Ballast. — Ballast is landed at different places in the port of 
Sulina and on the river bank, which are selected from time to time bv 
the inspector and captain of the port. It is strictly prohibited to 
throw it overboard anywhere inside the 10- fathom curve, either in the 
port or roadstead. 

Regulations for navigation of the river. — Steam vessels of 
more than 800 tons register must be provided with an auxiliary rud- 
der before proceeding up the Sulina branch. 



166 KULES OF THE ROAD. 

Buoys and leading marks. — In difficult parts of the river the 
channel is marked by can buoys. 

Bed buoys indicate that the channel lies between them and the right 
bank, and they must therefore be left on the starboard hand by ves- 
sels proceeding upriver; and black buoys, that the channel lies be- 
tween them and the left bank. The channels are also marked by lead- 
ing beacons, consisting of posts with diamond-shaped topmark, 
painted black with a white vertical line, erected on the banks of the 
river. 

Mileposts on the left bank indicate the distance from Sulina in 
nautical miles. , 

Lights. — The first 8^ miles of the Sulina branch is lighted by red 
lights on the northern bank and white lights on the southern bank. 
There are nine lights altogether — ^five white and four red. 

A black post, surmounted by a white lantern, about 20 feet in height^ 
from which a fixed green light is exhibited, marks the junction of 
the Sulina and St. George branches. 

An iron framework lighthouse, about 20 feet in height, painted 
white, from which a fixed green light is exhibited, is situated on the 
extremity of a line of rocks jutting out from the south shore of the 
river about i mile below Tulcha. 

A white post surmounted by a white lantern, about 20 feet in height^ 
from which a fixed red light is exhibited, is situated at Chatal 
d'Ismail, and marks the junction of the Tulcha and Kilia branches. 

The rules of the road^ and regulations regarding lights, are the 
same as those in general use at present with the following additions : 
Vessels proceeding in the same direction should not as a rule endeavor 
to pass one another; and those passing in opposite directions should 
only do so in places where the breadth is sufficient. Ships going up 
the river should wait below all narrow places and bends to allow de- 
scending ships to pass; and the use of the steam whistle indicating 
direction of helm or reversal of engines is advisable, and the whistle 
signal of the descending vessel is the ruling one. 

When one steamer wishes to pass another going in the same direc- 
tion either of the following signals may be used : 

(a) Five strokes on the bell. 

(b) Five whistles. 

(c) Waving a flag on the forecastle. 

(d) Hoisting a blue flag half-mast by day. 

(e) Hoisting a white light half-mast by night. 

A steamer wishing to pass a sailing vessel should make one of the 
signals prescribed above and pass to leeward of her. Speed should be 
slackened when passing grain-laden lighters or dredgers, and in all 
cases where the wash is likely to be injurious, also when approaching 
bends, until it is assured that the river is clear ahead ; and steamers 



BLACK SEA. 167 

should never attempt to pass unnecessarily close to any vessel, 
especially one dropping down with the stream. 

A sailing ship overtaking another should hail the overtaking vessel 
and pass to windward of her. 

Sailing vessels tacking must avoid getting in the way of steamers. 
Sailing vessels with the wind free must keep out of the way of vessels 
close-hauled, or vessels drifting. Tugboats and light steamers pro- 
ceeding up the river navigate at night. 

Vessels anchored or moored in the river for the night are required 
to have a lantern placed on the yardarm, or other conspicuous part, 
on the side toward the channel, which can be seen both up and down 
the river. If more than 150 feet long, they must in addition show a 
white light at or near the stern of the vessel. Rafts navigating at 
night should show a white light at each angle and three white lights 
placed vertically at the masthead. When secured to the bank, the 
lights will only be exhij^ited from the angles toward the channel. No> 
boats are permitted to move about the port of Sulina or from the 
port to the roadstead at night unless carrying a lighted lantern. 

The ordinary f ogsignals must be used in thick weather by vessels 
under way, also sound signals by steam whistle to indicate the course 
to other vessels under way ; but ships anchored in the port of Sulina, 
or moored at the quays alongside the banks, are forbidden to use 
either steam whistles or foghorns under any circumstances, and the 
use of the steam siren is strictly prohibited between the bellbuoy and 
the third milepost. 

Speed limits. — Vesesls of more than 800 tons register must not 
exceed a speed of 8 knots per hour when navigating the Sulina branch 
of the Danube. When, however, the river is high, permission may be 
obtained from the inspector of navigation for vessels bound down the 
river to proceed at 9 knots. 

Vessels under 800 tons, which the commissioners consider might, if 
they exceeded 8 knots, cause damage to the river banks, may also 
receive instructions to proceed at this modified speed. 

When the river is low it is recommended that all vessels should 
reduce speed to 5 knots, especially in the upper portion of the Sulina 
branch and in the cuttings. 

Steam vessels must reduce speed as far as possible when passing 
through the ports of Sulina, Tulcha, Reni, Galatz, and Braila. 

Tracking. — There is a towing path on the south bank of the 
Sulina branch, having a least breadth of 20 feet, which is for use in 
tracking vessels by employing draft animals or landing a portion of 
the crew. The path may also be used for foot passengers and car- 
riages. As mooring posts have been put up along this branch, driving 
in stakes or fixing anchors for the purposes of tracking is contrary 
to regulation. 



168 ANCHORING AND MOORING. 

To haul a vessel up this branch with her crew, a 2 or 3 inch line 
should be rove through a block lashed at the foretopmast head and 
the running part sent on shore, the standing part being made fast 
to the deck, bearing in mind that there is no danger of grounding 
where the banks are high and perpendicular. 

Having advanced as far as Chatal Point, a vessel can not proceed 
any farther by hauling as there is no pathway on the right bank of the 
river and the Cossacks that patrol the left bank object to it. 

Anchoring and mooring. — Anchors must always be ready for 
letting go and a kedge for laying out in case of necessity. 

Posts are provided on both banks of the river to which vessels may 
secure; but if hawsers are laid out across the stream, they must be 
promptly slacked should another vessel require to pass, and on no 
account are they to be left across the stream during night or in foggy 
weather. 

Anchoring or mooring alongside the banks is forbidden in the 
bends, of the river in any portion situated between the posts having 
an anchor reversed painted on them, or in the navigable channel. 
Vessels must never be moored more than three abreast alongside 
either bank, and while at anchor the yards must be braced fore and 
aft. 

In the event of grounding in the river a lookout man must be sent 
to some suitable place, at least J mile above the spot where the ship 
has taken the ground to warn all vessels coming downstream and 
acquaint them with the position of the ship. With as little delay as 
possible, the circumstance should be reported to the inspector; and 
if necessary to obtain tugs and lighters, tenders for refloating should 
be telegraphed for. 

Pests, surmounted by red rectangular crosses, indicate places where 
large vessels descending with the current can most easily, in case of 
need, swing to their anchor. 

Caution. — As a general rule, when the banks of the river appear 
steep there is deep water ; where trees and reeds grow to the water's 
edge it iis shallow. 

Depth signals. — The depths on the shoals in the Sulina branch 
are posted in a conspicuous place on the south bank of the river at 
Sulina, also near the twenty-first milepost, and are shown in English 
feet. At Tulcha they are posted on one of the commission store- 
houses above the port. 

When sudden changes occur in the least depths of water in the 
Sulina branch, the amount is indicated by black balls hoisted on the 
flagstaffs of the inspectorates at Cliamourli, Gorgova, Chatal de St. 
George, and Tulcha, each ball shown representing a decrease in depth 
of 3 inches. 

Tugs, — Powerful tugs can always be obtaned. 



BLACK SEA. 169 

Dredging operations. — A space of about J mile above and below 
dredgers lying in any part of the river is marked at the extremities 
.by stakes surmounted by Mue flags, and when in this space passing 
vessels should proceed at reduced speed. When the stakes are sur- 
mounted- by two barrels, the space included is closed to navigation 
between the hours of 6 p. m. to 6 a. m. 

Lower Danube ports. — Vessels that have loaded at one of the 
ports on the lower Danube and do not require to stop at Sulina may 
proceed direct to Sulina roadstead. 

Tulcha (lat. 45° 10' N., long. 28° 48^' E.), situated on high ground 
on the south bank of the Danube 39 miles above Sulina, has a popu- 
lation of about 20,000 people of various nationalities. A prefect and 
the inspector of the European commission reside here, and there is 
a telegraph station. 

Hospitals. — There are two hospitals — a civil and a military. 

River level. — The zerd level of the river is only 1.01 feet above 
the Black Sea level, but during a heavy flood the river has been 
known to rise 14 feet 5 inches above the Black Sea, the mean range, 
being 9 feet. 

Caution. — When proceeding up river and rounding Tulcha bend, 
an anchor should be ready for letting go, as in endeavoring to avoid 
the rock (marked by a light beacon) oflf the right bank, vessels hug 
the other shore where the water is slack, but at the bend when they 
wish to turn up, the full force of the current catches the bow, swing- 
ing it off to port. This is said to be the cause of the numerous strand- 
ings at this point. 

Anchoring and mooring. — Vessels are not permtted to anchor 
in the navigable channel nor between posts bearing reversed anchors, 
and they must moor on the south bank of the river above the town 
and never more than three abreast. The buoys are not to be used for 
mooring, except by regular steamers, stopping for a short period. 
Ships may, however, use them for warping round the Tulcha Curve, 
but only one vessel at a time is allowed to haul on the same buoy. 

Isakcha (lat. 45° 16' N., long. 28° 28' E.), on the south bank and 
56 miles from Sulina, is a small town exporting tobacco. There is a 
telegraph station. 

Pier. — A pontoon landing pier, at which the river steamers berth, 
is situated about 1 mile below the town, with which it is connected by 
a good road. 

Reniy situated on the north bank, 69 miles above Sulina and 2 
miles below the mouth of the Pruth, is connected by railway with 
Odessa, via Kishinev; also, with Galatz, it has been opened by the 
Russian Government as a trading port. The population numbers 
about 5,000. 

172982 °-~20 12 



170 MOORING — DOCKS. 

Directions. — All vessels must pass Beni slowly. A blue flag 
hoisted at the yardarm of a flagstaff on the quay is a signal for vessels 
to pass Reni as slowly as possible. 

Pruth Biver. — The Pruth River, which falls into the Danube 
about 2 miles above the Reni, has a total length of about 500 miles 
and is navigable for lighters for about 217 miles. During the dry 
season the depth of water in places is not more than 2 feet, but in the 
spring the river rises from 10 to 12 feet. 

Galatz, situated on the north bank of the river and between 
the seventy-ninth and eighty -third mileposts aboVe Sulina, is a well 
laid out and beautiful town with a population of about 75,000. The 
river side is bordered by a quay which is lighted by electricity. Car- 
• riages can be hired at a moderate price, and there is an efficient service 
of electric tramcars. 

The heaquarters of the European commission of the Danube are at 
Galatz. 

Cominunication. — There is railway communication with Bucha- 
rest and with the continental system ; also telegraphic communication 
with all parts. 

Steamers run between Galatz, Reni, Tulcha, and Ismail, stopping 
off Isakcha if there are passengers or goods. There is also a good 
service of steamers which run to Braila. 

Steamers from London and Liverpool call regularly; other steam-: 
ers' lines call at irregular intervals. 

Mooring^. — ^Part of the quay is reserved for naval vessels and part 
for merchant vessels. It is necessary to let go the port anchor befoie 
making fast alongside. The most convenient berth for a naval ves- 
sel is halfway between the eighty-first and eighty-second mileposts, 
abreast the pilot office. The Rumanian Navy is moored in the 
stream. 

Docks. — A wet dock or basin is situated near the lower end of the 
town. Its dimensions are: Length, 1,640 feet; width, 395 feet; 
breadth at entrance, 131 feet; depth in the basin 16^ feet at zero; 
depth at entrance, 19J feet. There are two traveling cranes, one of 
which is capable of lifting 40 tons, also a fixed craoe, which will lift 
10 tons, and a grain elevator which will store 25,000 tons. 

There is a floating dock, 262 feet long and 55 feet broad, at en- 
trance. It is in two sections, which can be used either separately or 
combined, and has a total lifting power of 2,400 tons. The Gov* 
ernment dock is 167 feet long and 49 feet broad at entrance, with 
a lifting capacity of 300 tons. 

Coal and supplies. — About 7,000 tons of Welsh coal was in 
normal times usually kept in stock. Coaling can be carried out 
from bullock carts or lighters alongside the quay, where there is a 
depth of 30 feet, or in the basin. Fresh meat, vegetables, and bread 



BLACK SKA, . 171 

could be obtained, also water of excellent quality from hydrants on 
the quay. 

Braila. — This town, on the north bank of the river, is situated 
between the ninety-first and ninety-third mileposts, immediately 
above the junction with the Machin Branch. It is the limit of navi- 
gation for seagoing vessels. The town is lighted throughout by 
electricity, has electric trams, and contains a population of over 
60,000, 

Mooring^. ^ — ^A granite quay has recently been constructed, along- 
side which are six loading berths with two pontoons attached to each, 
connected with the quay by portable iron spans. It is proposed to 
extend the quay and add more loading berths. 

Bock. — ^The wet dock or basin is entered close to the ninety-first 
milepost. Its dimensions are: Length, 1,640 feet; width, 395 feet; 
breadth at entrance, 131 feet; depth in the basin, 16^ feet at zero; 
depth at entrance 19^ feet. There is a floating crane which will lift 
40 tons and a fixed crane which will lift 10 tons. Vessels will be 
allowed to winter in the basin by payment of a fixed tariff for the 
amount of space they may occupy. A grain elevator which will store 
25,000 tons has been erected. 

Hospital. — A British mariner's bed in the Rumanian hospital has 
been instituted, which is supported by a contribution from every 
ship. 

Coal and supplies. — About 20,000 tons of Welsh coal was in 
normal times usually kept in stock ; 500 tons per diem can be loaded 
from lighters. Meat (except mutton), potatoes, and bread were 
plentiful. The water is not fit for drinking. 

Above Braila a depth of 18 feet can be carried as far as Oltenitza, 
except during the months of October and November. 

Vessels drawing not more than 11 feet can reach Giurgevo, oppo- 
site Sustchuk. Vessels drawing 17 feet can reach a point 3^ miles 
below that town. 

A pilot for this part of the river can be obtained at Galatz. 

The Kilia branch of the Danube has six principal entrances, viz, 
the Staroe Stambul, East Branch, Novoe Stambul, Peschani, Otnojni, - 
and Ochakov Mouths. Besides these there are several others of small 
importance. 

Navigable dc^pths. — In the extreme north of the delta the Polu- 
nochnoe or Midnight branch has been deepened to a depth of about 
12 feet and connects the Ochakov Mouth with the sea by a channel 
about IJ miles long. Depths of from 12 to 40 feet can be carried up 
the Kilia Branch to its junction with the Sulina Branch, but its 
entrances, with the exception of the Midnight Branch, are blocked by 
sandbanks having only from 1 to 6 feet of water on them. 



172 VILKOV — ISMAIU 

Caution. — In thick weather it is advisable not to stand into less 
than 10 fathoms between the Sulina Mouth and the various outlets 
of the Kilia Branch. 

Buoys. — For the purpose of indicating the area within which 
fishing is prohibited, buoys have been established in 24 feet of water 
off the Staroe Stambul, East Branch, Novoe Stambul, Otnojni, Ocha- 
kov, Prorva, and Bielgorod Branches. 

Vilkov, situated at the junction of the Bielgorod Mouth with the 
main Kilia ^Branch, is a fishing village of about 5,000 population 
and is the center of the fishing industry of the delta, from which the 
fish is despatched to Odessa. Regular communciation is maintained 
bv the Black Sea and Danube steamers with Kilia and Odessa ; and 
the town is connected by telegraph with the Bussian system. 

There are two churches in the village. One, the Old Believers 
Church, having a white pointed steeple, is conspicuous from seaward 
and forms a good mark for making Ochakov Mouth. 

KUia (lat. 45° 27' N., long. 29° 16' E.), situated 16 miles above 
Vilkov. is a town of about 8,000 population, and is the highest point 
in the Kilia Branch to which regular steamship communication is 
maintained. 

Ismail, situated on the left bank, 23 miles above Kilia and about 
11 miles below Chatal d'Ismail, is a town of about 32,000 population 
and possesses a hospital with 30 beds. Vessels are moored close to the 
shore, enabling them to maintain communication by gang boards. 
The bottom consists of hard clay and sand. 

The principal trade is in grain and timber, the Black Sea and 
Danube steamers maintaining communication with Odessa via Sulina. 

Near Ismail, at the village of Starya Nekrasovka, is an obelisk 
situated in lat. 45° 20' 28" N., which is the south end of the Russo- 
Norwegian arc of a meridian of 25° 20'. 

Polunochnoe (Midnight) Branch. — The dredged channel into 
this branch, with a depth of 12 feet in it, extends for a distance of 
3,500 feet, 2° from the north entrance, and is 154 feet broad. It is 
marked on the western side of the approach by a black buoy exhibit- 
^ ing a fixed white light, and on the eastern side by a red buoy with 
bell, showing a fixed red light, thence by red buoys on the eastern and 
black buoys on the western side to the mouth of the branch. 

The southern entrance to the Polunochnoe Branch is marked bv 
buoys — ^two black buoys marking the western side and a red buoy the 
eastern side. 

. Note. — The Ughtbuoys are withdrawn in winter; also for a few days every 
6 weeks in summer, to be recharged with gas. 

Range lights. — Two masts, 980 feet apart, have been erected as 
leading marks on the western point of the north entrance to the 



BLACK SEA, 173 

branch, 20 and 27 feet high, respectively, surmounted by black tri- 
angles, the front one point upwards, the rear one point downwards. 
A fixed red light is shown from the front mast and a fixed white light 
from the rear. These masts or lights in range 182° lead through the 
dredged channel. The depth in this dredged channel is liable to 
change. 

Signal stations. — A signal mast stands on each side of the en- 
trance to Polunochnoe Branch. Prom the eastern one, which has a 
yard, depth signals are shown. The western one is used for communi- 
cating with vessels in the roadstead. 

Depths signals. — The depth on the bar of the entrance channel 
is indicated by balls hoisted' at the yardarms of the sigiial mast, as 
follows: A large ball indicates 6 feet; a medium-sized ball indicate 1 
foot ; a small ball indicates 6 inches. A depth of 12^ feet would thus 
be indicated by a large ball at each yardarm with a small ball under 
one of them. 

Zhebriyani ( Jibriani) Bay, into which the Midnight Branch 
Falls is situated on the north side of the Kilia Delta and affords 
anchorage in from 2 to 7J fathoms. 

Beacons. — A mast 55 feet high, surmounted by a checkered square, 
has been erected in the village of Zhebriyani (lat. 45° 30' N., long. 
29° 38' E.), which kept in range 294°, with Jibriani church steeple, 
a massive tower of a dark color, clears the shoals on the north side 
of the Kilia Delta, in 31 feet of water. 

A mast 32 feet high, surmounted by a checkered ball, has been 
erected on the north point of Prorva Island, the northeastern island 
of the Kilia Delta. 

Volchek Light, fixed white, 84 feet above high water, visible 15 
miles, is exhibited from a mast on a brick foundation located at 
Volchek. 

Caution. — Mariners are warned that the shoals outside the whole 
of the delta of the Danube have extended considerably, especially 
northward of Prorva Island, where the chart shows from 8^ to 
fathoms on the above leading line instead of 31 feet, as reported. 

Fide Nisi or Serpent Island. — This little island, named by the 
Greeks the Island of Serpents, bears 78° 24 miles from Sulina old 
lighthouse, and is about 750 yards in length from northeast to south- 
west and IJ miles in circumference. Its shores are composed of cliffs. 
There are several landing places, but the two best are those at the 
northeast and south ends of the island. Depths of from 2 to 4 fath- 
oms extend about 70 yards from the western and southern shores. 
On the eastern and northeastern shores these depths enter to nearly 
200 yards, and within these limits the bottom is foul. 



174 DNEISTER ESTUARY, 

Fidonlsti (Serpent) Island Lights revolving white, 195 feet 
above high water, visible 18 miles, is exhibited from a white stone 
tower located^dEAthe summit of the ^giand. 

Anchorage may be found 600 yards south of the lighthouse in 11 
fathoms with good shelter from winds between northeast and north- 
west. 

Coast. — Beyond the Kilia mouths of the Danube the coast trends 
in a northeasterly direction for about 80 miles to Odessa, presenting 
more and more as that town is approached a flat surface of no great 
height, with a reddish perpendicular shore, and salt lakes appearing 
at intervals as far up as the mouths of the Dniestr* Of these, Kunduk 
Lake, to the northward of Zhebriyani, (extends about 16 miles in a 
north and south direction, with general depths of 6 to 9 feet. The 
passage which connects it with the sea is usually closed by a shallow 
bar. 

The 5-f athom curve on this extent of coast lies J to 1 mile from the 
shore except at a point about 10 miles northeast of Zhebriyani, where 
a bank with 3^ to 3 J fathoms extends 2^ miles from the shore; also 
north and south of Dniestr estuary, where it extends 3^ and 2 miles, 
respectively. 

Balaban Cliff (lat. 45° 53' N., long. 30° 15' E.).— About 34 miles 
northeastward from Zhebriyani is the high cliff of Balaban, which 
may be seen from a considerable distance. It is sometimes called a 
cape, although not at all prominent, and when seen from seaward it 
appears isolated between two large salt lakes. 

Dneister Estuary. — About 17 miles northeastward of Balaban 
is the entrance to Dneister Estuary, or Ovidio Lake, a large lagoon 
or salt lake, formed by the waters of the Dneister before they reach 
the sea. It is 22 miles in length from northwest to southeast, 2J 
miles wide between Akerman and Great Otorek Point, and 6^ miles 
in its broadest part, with a depth of 4 to 9 feet; the town of Aker- 
man and th(B villages of Kaloglei, Ovidiopol, Roksolyani, and Karo- 
lina on the northern shores. 

The entrance to the Dneister Estuary, which may be recognized by 
a break of 5 miles between the cliffs, is formed by two tongues of 
sand with a low island in the middle, allowing the waters of the 
river a passage at either end. The channel to the northward is 
named the Ochakov Mouth arid has a depth of about 3 feet, but is 
never used; that to southward is the Trasigrad Mouth. 

Communieation. — There is steamer communication between 
Akerman and Odessa ; also between Akerman and Ovidiopol. 

Tsarigrad Mouth. — The Tsarigrad Mouth is alone made use of 
by vessels entering the Dneister Estuary. It sometimes has a depth 
10 to 12 feet but is much influenced by the wind. 



BLACK SEA. 175 

Lifeboat. — A decked Steam cutter and a lO-oared lifeboat are 
stationed at Bugaz, on the south side of the Tsarigrad Mouth. There 
is also a life-saving station at Oyidiopol. 

Buoys. — The Tsarigrad Channel is marked by black and red spar 
buoys located on the north and south side of the channel. These 
buoys are not reliable. 

There is a pilot station on the southern side of the entrance. 

Beacon. — A black framework beacon, surmounted by a mast and 
a ball, is situated on the south side of the entrance northward of 
the pilot station. 

Dneister Biver Lights alternating fixed and group/^flashing red 
and white, 77 feet above high water, visible 14 miles, is exhibited 
from a white iron tower located on the south side of Tsarigrad 
Mouth. 

Pogsignal. — The fogsignal is a bell located at the lighthouse. 

Bange lights.-^A fixed red light, 24 feet above high water, is 
exhibited from a red beacon located in front of the east beacon. 

A fixed white light, 56 feet above high water, is exhibited from 
a black mast located in rear of the west beacon. 

Caution.^ — The channel entrance is subject to frequent change 
from the continuance of northeasterly or southwesterly winds, and 
the lights and beacons are altered as required. The channel is very 
narrow, and it is not prudent for a stranger to attempt it. 

Dneister Biver. — The Dneister River, the entrance to which is 
situated 16 miles from the Tsarigrad Mouth, is navigable for vessels 
of 6 feet draft to Bender, 70 miles, at which place the railways from 
Jassy and Bucharest unite on the way to Odessa,. Steamers ascend 
the river as far as Mayake, about 8 miles, towing loaded lighters. 

The mouth was once dredged ,to a depth of 7 feet but has since 
silted up until now it has a depth of about 4J feet. The fairway into 
the river is marked by white buoys on the right hand and red on the 
left hand. 

Depth signals, to indicate the depth on the bar of the river, are 
made from a lookout house by means of balls, the larger ones each 
indicating a depth of 1 foot and the smaller ones a depth of inches. 

Light. — ^A fixed white light, 35 feet above high water, is exhibited 
from a white mast located on the west bank of the entrance to the 
river. 

Bange lights. — A fixed red light, 35 feet above high water, is 
exhibited from a white mast located on the east bank of the entrance 
to the Dneister River. 

A fixed white light, 42 feet above high water, is exhibited from a 
white mast located in the rear of the fixed red light on the east bank 
of the entrance to the river. 

These lights in range 120° lead over the ban 



176 GENERAL DIRECTIONS. 

Coast. — From the Dniester Estuary to Cape Fontana, 1ft miles, 
the coast consists generally of steep clay hills which are subject to 
frequent landslides. 

General directions. — In turning to windward along the coast 
great attention should be paid to the lead as the variety of soundings 
has often occasioned shipwreck. All along this coast from the Kilia 
Mouths of the Danube to Odessa, depths of not less than 5 fathoms 
are to be found from J to 1 mile from shore, but northward of the 
mouths of the Dneister these depths will be found 3^ miles off. 
Thence along the coast to the northeastward the bank narrows grad- 
ually from the last-named distance to J mile from the shore when 
abreast the lake near the village of Lustdorf, which lies 3 miles to 
the southward of Cape Fontana. 

Off-lying banks. — Exposed to the action of the current and the 
alluvial deposits of four great rivers, the Gulf of Odessa offers sev- 
eral very curious variations in depth, which might sometimes cause 
great uneasiness to the seaman in thick weather. The first bank is of 
large extent and lies from 7 to 10 miles 103° from the low island be- 
tween Tsarigrad and Ochakov mouths. It has a depth of 6 fathoms^ 
with 8 to 15 fathoms around it. 

Near the northern end of this bank, and 9 miles 86° from Tsari- 
grad Lighthouse, is Morskaya Bank (lat. 46° 6' N., long. 30° 41' E.)^ 
with a depth of 25 feet ; and 3^ miles westward of Morskaya Bank is 
a detached 5-fathom patch. 

About 21 miles 100° from Tsarigrad Lighthouse and 22 miles 159° 
from Cape Fontana is another bank of 7 fathoms, with 12 to 15 fath- 
oms around; and at 39 miles S. by E. f E. from Cape Fontana is 
a fourth bank, with a depth of 11 fathoms, and from 12 to 17 fath- 
oms around. 

Buoys. — A black spar buoy, with a cone, point upward, in about 
5 fathoms, marks the north extreme of Morskaya Bank; and a red 
spar buoy in the same depth, with a cone, point downward, marks 
the south extreme of the shoal. 

Caution — Local magnetic attraction. — From an investigation 
made in 1882 it has been reported that local magnetic disturbance 
exists in the space comprised between these off-lying banks and 
Odessa, and in consequence the compass error is increased on ap- 
proaching that port. Caution should be exercised when navigating 
in this locality in thick weather; more to seaward the disturbance 
vanishes. 

Coast. — On approaching Odessa the country appears covered with 
houses and mills. Two ravines will also be seen. In the first lies the 
Sukhoi Liman (the dry salt lake), which is of considerable extent,, 
and the village of Lustdorf occupies the other. 



BLACK SEA. 177 

A very conspicuous mill, with several church spires and domes, may 
be seen as Odessa Bay is neared, and the lighthouses on Cape Fon- 
tana will be concealed from view by a projection of the land named 
Little Fontana. 

Cape Fontana (lat. 46° 23' N., long. 30° 45^' E.).— This cape, 
situated about 6 miles southward of Odessa, rises perpendicularly 
124 feet above the sea. On it is a white cylindrical stone lighthouse 
65 feet in height, which is now disused. Near the lighthouse is a 
monastery. 

Cape Fontana Lights fixed white, 212 feet above high water, 
visible 21 miles, is exhibited from a white cylindrical iron frame- 
work tower located about 2 miles south of the town. 

Fogsignals. — A fog siren and a bell are in operation. 

Note. — For the convenience of passing vessels, adjusting their compasses^ 
it may be noted that Kovalev water tower when in range with Cape Fontana 
old lighthouse bears 246' 25', and Cape Fontana new lighthouse when in line 
with the old lighthouse bears 33° 15', 

Shoals. — Shoal ground with depths of 6 to 21 feet extends 1 mile 
southwestward of Cape Fontana. A rocky patch of 14 feet lies with 
Cape Pontana old lighthouse bearing 234°, nearly 1,400 yards, and 
nearly i mile from the shore. Vessels are accordingly recommended 
to give the cape a wide berth. 

Langeron •Point, situated 6 miles to the northward of Cape 
Fontana, forms the southern extremity of Odessa Bay. 

A bank, with 9 feet water, nearly 600 yards from the shore, is 
situated to the southeastward of Langeron Point. 

Vorontzovski lighthouse, in range with Holy Cross Church, at 
Peresip, bearing N. 30° W., leads about 800 yards to the eastward of 
this shoal. 

Odessa Bay. — The Bay of Odessa is extensive and the depth of 
water quite su3icient for the largest ships, but it is more or less ex- 
posed to the two most dangerous winds that blow on the coast — those 
from the south and southeast. 

The northerly wind, which blows in the summer, although less in- 
jurious to vessels, is extremely unpleasant to the inhabitants of the 
town, since, especially during the hot days of July and August, it 
brings the dust from the parched plains and steppe, occasioning in- 
sufferable heat, which is only slightly diminished in the evening. 
Vessels lying in the bay should always keep their spare anchors ready 
to let go as they may part in the heavy squalls. 

The sandy plain of Peresip, at the head of the bay, is formed be- 
tween two salt lakes, separated by some table-land. A suburb of 
Odessa stands on the plain to the northward of the town. From 
thence the shore curves to the northeast, toward Dembrovsk, or East 
Point, which bears 37° 5 miles from Langeron Point. The greatest 



178 HAKBOR. 

depth. at the entrance of the bay is 8 fathoms, which gradually de- 
creases to the shore, but vessels of light draft in turning to windward 
should not stand toward Peresip Beach into less water than 2^ 
fathoms, which depth will be found i mile distant and also take care 
to avoid the rocks and foul ground that extend to the. southward of 
Dembrovsk Point. *. 

Shoal. — A shoal, with 18 feet water, lies about IJ miles south of 
Dembrovsk Point, with Reidovi (Vorontzovski) Molehead Light- 
house bearing 238°, 2^ miles, and Holy Cross Church 289°. A red 
spar buoy, with inverted cone topmark, is moored in 24 feet on the 
jsouth side of this shoal. 

Lifeboats and rescue stations. — About 3^ miles to the eastward 
of Dembrovsk Point, on the neck of land separating Dovinovka 
Lake from the sea, a rescue station has been built and lifeboat estab- ' 
lished. The bell of the rescue station may be heard during fogs, 
but is not worked or intended as a fogsignal. 

A lifeboat is also stationed near Vorontzovski Lighthouse, and 
there is a refuge on Platonovski Mole, Odessa Harbor. 

Harbor. — The harbor located on the southwestern side of the 
.bay is divided into an inner and outer. 

The inner harbors are formed by five moles dividing the bay into 
four parts. The two western moles form the Imperial or Pratique 
Port, and the two eastern moles, the Quarantine Port, the interven- 
ing space with its center mole forming New and Middle Harbors 
and affording extensive quayage. 

The outer harbor is formed by the prolongation of the eastern 
mole (Karantinni), about 700 yards in a northeast arid northwest 
direction, forming an arch to the eastward. This portion is named 
the Eeidovi Mole ; also by a breakwater about 1,400 yards in length, 
parallel to the shore, with a channel between its eastern extremity and 
Eeidovi Mole about 300 yards in width, and in which there is a 
depth of 24 to 30 feet of water. The channel between the western 
-extremity of this breakwater and Pratique Port Moles is about 300 
yards in width and has a depth of 17 feet. The breakwater forms 
a safe and commodious port, protected from all winds and without 
tide, but the height of the water is slightly affected by the winds. 

Mooring bollards are placed at convenient distances along the 
harbor face of the breakwater to which vessels secure their stern 
fasts, and there are several mooring buoys in the harbor for the 
convenience of shipping ; also high and low level railways and large 
•elevators for loading grain. The harbor is lighted by electricity. 

Three-fourths of a mile northwestward of the port at Peresip is 
the petroleum harbor, sheltered from the northward by a long mole. 

Odessa Light, fixed and flashing red, 63 feet above high water, 
visible 13 miles, is exhibited from a white iron tower located on the 



BLACK SEA. 179 

extremity of Vorontzovski Mole, the prolongation of the old quaran- 
tine mole. 

Fogsig^al. — The fogsignal in use is a siren, but a bell will be 
sounded if the siren is not functioning. 

Lights. — ^The Volnolom or breakwater is marked by a fixed green 
light on the eastern extremity and a fixed white light on the western 
extremity. 

Anchorage.— The road comprises all the bay within a- line join- 
ing Vorontzovski Lighthouse and Dembrovsk Point. The bottom 
consists principally of soft mud with sand and shells. 

Vessels can anchor in the road or in the outer harbor to await the 
visit of the port authorities. 

Prohibited anchorage. — A submarine cable in connection with 
the electric lighting is laid between the breakwater and* the Reidovi 
Mole, and vessels are prohibited from anchoring near it. The posi- 
tions of the ends are marked by posts, painted black and yellow and 
surmounted by boards having the word " Kaoerl " on them. 

The quarantine port is formed by the Karantinni Mole, 870 
yards in length, arched to the northwest, and the Platonovski Mole, 
370 yards in length, which is curved toward the head of the former. 
The entrance is 200 yards in breadth, and the port is dredged to a 
depth of 24 feet with 28 feet alongside the quays. 

A pile, showing about 2 feet above water, is situated about 320 feet 
to the eastward of Karantinni Mole. 

New Harbor, situated between Platonovski Mole and New Mole, 
has been dredged to a depth of 26 feet. 

Middle Harbor, west of New Harbor, has been dredged to a depth 
of 21 feet, and vessels can load, protected by the breakwater, all along 
the quays. 

Pratique (Imperial) Port. — ^At the distance of J mile north- 
westward of Platonovski Pier and beyond the^rand staircase which 
reaches from the upper part of the city to the quay, near a second 
ravine, lies the Voenni Mole, about 440 yards in length, forming, with 
Androsovski Mole and its continuation at right angles named Pota- 
povski Mole, the Imperial port used by coasting vessels and steamers 
engaged in regular service between Odessa and other Russian ports in 
the Black Sea. The entrance between Potapovski and Voenni Moles 
is 65 yards in width and the port is dredged to a depth of 16 feet. 

Westward of Potapovski Mole a breakwater 400 yards along ex- 
tends from the shore with an arm to the southeastward 500 yards in 
length. 

Petroleum Harbor^ formed by a mole 900 yards in length, with 
an arm 235 yards long projecting to the southward from its outer end, * 
has an extreme depth of 24 feet. 



180 PILOTS — TUGS. 

Lights. — The various moles are marked by lights. (For details^ 
see Light List.) 

Pilots. — The employment of pilots is not compulsory. There is a 
pilot station in the quarantine harbor for the pilots of the Nikolaev 
Co., who are authorized by Government to pilot vessels between 
Odessa and Ochakov. A special pilot is employed to berth vessels in. 
the harbor. 

There is a pilot signal station on the quarantine mole. It is visible 
from seaward and by day flies the Russian pilot flag. Vessels' signals 
will be received and answered free of charge, the agents being com- 
municated with by telephone. 

Tugs. — There are several tugs stationed at Odessa. There is a 
fixed scale of charges. 

A steamboat fitted with a powerful centrifugal pump is available 
for fire-extinguishing purposes. 

Ice breaker. — When the port freezes, the ice breaker, which i& 
also a salvage boat, keeps the passages open and brings in and takes 
out vessels. Payment is exacted for salvgige work or for attendance 
upon vessels. 

Odessa. — ^This city, situated on the southern shore of the bay,, 
though not immediately at the mouth of any great river, is only 30 
miles from the channel or estuary receiving the streams of the Dniepr 
and the Bug and about the same distance from the mouth of the 
Dniestr. It is likewise well situated with regard to the Danube, beix^g: 
little more than 95 iniles from the Sulina Mouth, and has clear navi?; 
gation to the Bosporus. An artificial harbor has been built whic^Ji^ 
accommodates a large number of vessels, ,^g^ 

The city, the fourth in size in the Russian Empire, and situat^. 
upon a hill, which descends rather abruptly toward the sea, haj^^HjK^ 
pleasing aspect both from the interior and the sea. In the direction 
of the sea it is ornamented by a row of splendid houses, between which 
and the edge of the cliff is a handsome walk, planted with trees. 
The cathedral, situated near the center of the city, has a tall spire 
which is visible for a distance of 18 miles when coming from the 
eastward. 

A magnificent flight of steps, about 50 to 70 feet broad, leads down 
the cliff declivity, 80 feet high, to the shore and harbor. The blocks 
of stone of which the steps are composed are supported by arches, 
and the space between is open for traffic. There are both steam and 
horse tramcars in the thoroughfares and to the environs. 

In 1919 Odessa had a population of 613,000. 

Floating dock. — There is a pontoon dock which is 381 feet long,. 
63 feet wide (inside), and has a depth of 19 feet 8 inches over the 
blocks. The lifting power is 4,800 tons. It can be used in two parts,, 
lifting 2,740 and 2,060 tons, respectively. 



BLACK SEA. 181 

Patent slips. — There are two patent slips* at Odessa, which will 
accommodate vessels of 1,100 and 700 tons, respectively, if less than 
245 feet in length and 8 feet draft. Vessels are hauled up broadside 
on. The largest vessel taken on the slip was a steamer of 1,214 tons 
(gross), 240 feet in length, 35J feet beam, and maximum draft when 
hauled up 8 feet. Several vessels can in this manner be hauled up 
and placed, alongside one another. 

Repairs. — There is a foundry and machine factory where small 

steam vessels are constructed. There are several repairing shops, but 

... no large f orgings can be made nor are heavy plates or angles kept in 

^ ^stock. A Government floating crane, with a lifting power of 30 tons, 

,^^s g^vailable. 

..^m ^^ Coimnunication. — By rail to Bukarest, Moscow, Vienna, War- 
^,5ji^w, and the European system generally. Thej-e is regular steamship 
^^communication with the principal British and continental ports; also 
with ports in the Black Sea, Grecian Archipelago, and with Alexan- 
dria. With Constantinople there is an almost daily service. Five 
steamship companies trade regularly between Odessa and ports in the 
Far East. There is telegraphic communication with all parts of the 
world. 

Coal and supplies. — In normal times the* importation of Russian 
coal from the Sea of Azov was greatly on the increase, with a con- 
sequent falling off in the supply of English coal. About 50,000 tons 
of Russian (Donetz) coal was usually in stock, also about 7,000 tons 
of North Country coaL Coaling is usually performed alongside a 
quay, with depths of from 12 to 26 feet, or by lighters, and is in no 
wav impeded bv wind or sea. 

Supplies of all kinds could be obtained, fruit and vegetables in 
their seasons being exceedingly good. 

Water. — The water supply for the city is brought in pipes from 
the Dniestr, and the waterworks, which are on a gigantic scale, in 
1886 distributed 1,520,000,000 gallons of filtered water through 220 
miles of pipes. 

Hospital and quarantine. — There is a Russian hospital and a 
British seamen's home. 

Every non-Russian vessel, even though not coming from a suspected 
place, is sent to this port, and special limits are assigned for those who 
have to undergo quarantine. 



i; 



CHAPTER VI. 

BLACK SEA— NORTHERN SHORE, ODESSA TO KERTCH STRAIT. 

Coast. — From Dembrovsk Point the coast trends eastward for 23 
miles to Adzhiyask Point, and curves slightly to the northward, 
forming a long bay. The shore is of moderate height, steep, and of 
a reddish appearance, but a few lakes, separated from the sea by 
small bars of sand, and several villages, break its uniformity. 

Dofinovka, the first of the above-mentioned lakes, about 3J miles to 
the eastward of Dembrovsk Point, is separated from the sea by a low 
sandy isthmus, on which is a line of telegraph posts and a lifeboat 
station. 

Off this coast a depth of 5 fathoms will be found from 1 to IJ 
miles. Inside the 5-fathom line the soundings are irregular, more 
especially in the vicinity of the Trutaeva Bank, 4^ miles west of 
Adzhiyask Point. Off the coast, from 3 to 8 miles, is an irregular 
bank named Odessa Sand Bank. 

Odessa Sand Bank extends to the westward from Kinbum Spit 
to within 9 miles of Odessa, with irrejgular depths of 14 to 30 feet 
on it. Off the western extremity is a patch of 3^ fathoms, sand and 
shells, extending in a northwesterly and southeasterly direction about 
400 yards; and about f mile to the eastward of it is another patch 
of 3^ fathoms. Between and eastward of these patches the depth 
increases gradually, but to the westward of the former it suddenly 
increases to 10 fathoms. 

The depths to the southward of the bank increase gradually from 
3 to 5 fathoms, thence to 12 fathoms from 4 to 5 miles farther south. 

The channel to the westward of the bank, which is maintained by 
the united currents of the Dneipr and Bug, carries a depth of 11 to 
12 fathoms, and that to the northward leading to Kherson Bay> 
known as the Military Channel, of from 5 to 10 fathoms, over a 
bottom of mud and shells, with the exception of a patch of 24 feet 
lying in the fairway, 2f miles southeastward from the entrance to 
Nehmetskaya Valley, and a 5-fathom patch lying nearly 1 mile north- 
westward of it. 

Buoys. — A black and white spar buoy, surmounted by a black ball, 
stands on the 24-foot patch near the western extremity of Odessa 
Bank. 

The northern edge of the Odessa Bank is marked by four black spar 
buoys, surmounted by triangles, points upward — No. 1 in lat. 46°^ 

183 



184 BEREZAN ISLAND. 

33' 0'' N., long. 31° 3' 45'' E.; Xo. 2 in lat. 46° 33' 55" N., long. 31° 
^' 45" E.; No. 3 in lat. 46° 34' 00" W., long. 31° 18' 20" E.; and No. 
4 in lat. 46° 33' 30" W., long. 31° 21' 45" E. 

Lightbuoy. — A buoy exhibiting a group flashing red light is 
moored in the most northerly bight of the 10-f athom curve, 2f miles 
292° from the life-saving station at New Dofinovka. 

A buoy exhibiting a fixed red light is moored in 4 fathoms. If 
miles 156°, from the coast-guard station situated on an elevation on 
the shore to the east of Tiligulsk Lake. 

A red buo}^ is moored in 24 feet water, J mile to the southward of 
Adzhiyask Point. 

Caution. — The buoys in this channel can not be depended upon as 
they are liable to drift out of position. 

Berezan Island. — The coast between Adzhiyask Point and Ocha- 
kov Point, 8 miles farther east, recedes considerably to the north- 
ward. Between is the Island of Berezan, about i mile in length from 
north to south and 1 mile in circumference. The shores of Berezan 
Island are steep and of a reddish tint. The southern point is high. 
From thence the island falls toward the northward and terminates 
in a low point on which boats can land. From its south extreme a 
reef extends nearly i mile southeastward, whilst it is joined to the 
shore on its north side by a shallow bank. There is a depth of about 
14 feet IJ miles from its eastern side, and good anchorage will be 
found at that distance to the westward of it. 

Beacon.^A wooden beacon, 54 feet in height, surmounted by a 
latticework square and painted black, stands on the south extreme of 
Berezan Island. 

Buoy. — A conical buoy with spherical topmark, p-ainted red, 
moored in 25 feet water, marks the outer edge of the reef extending 
southward from Berezan Island. 

A short distance westward of this buoy is a red spar buoy sur- 
mounted by an upturned broom. 

Berezan Island Light, group occulting red, is exhibited from a 
red buoy moored on the point of the shoal south of the island. 

Fogsignal. — The fogsignal is a bell rung by the motion of the 
waves. 

Hange mark. — On Ochakov Heights, near the western shore, are 
two mast beacons — the northern, black, faced with a latticework 
triangle and surmounted by a ball, and the southern beacon, also 
black, surmounted by a latticework square. The northern beacon 
in range with Ochakov signal tower 74° leads southward of the 
shoal water off Berezan Island and northward of Kinburn Spit. 

Berezan Liman^ northward of Berezan Island, extends about 14 
miles to north-northeast. Seven miles within the entrance is a branch 
extending to northeastward, which forms the estuary of the Zaseck 



BLxVCK SEA — ODESSA TO KERTCH STRAIT. 185 

River, whilst at the head of the main branch is the Berezan River. 
Neither of these rivers is of any importance, being dry in the summer. 
On the shores of this inlet are numerous villages, but the only one 
visible from seaward is Viktorovka, situated on the western side near 
the entrance in a ravine running in a north and south direction. 

Beikuch Liman opens into Berezan Liman on the eastern side of 
the entrance, and at its head is the town of Beikuch. 

Bar. — The entrance to the liman, nearly 800 yards wide, lies be- 
tween a low point northeastward of Berezan Point and Berezan Spit. 
The bar has depths of 10 to 11 feet, within which the water deepens to 
30 feet, but shoals again to an inner bar with a depth of 18 feet over 
it. Above this, as far as Kaze village, the navigable depth is from 
20 to 33 feet. • 

Beacons. — About | mile northeastward of Berezan Point is a 
black beacon, elevated 38 feet above the sea, consisting of a mast sup- 
ported by wooden stays and surmounted by a St. Andrew's cross, and 
1,300 yards 320° from this beason is a similar beacon, also black, with 
a topmark consisting of six horizontal bars, elevated 44 feet above 
the sea. 

Directions. — Small craft of 6 feet draft can enter Berezan Liman, 

by keeping these beacons in range bearing 320°, afterwards passing 

between the black buoys on the starboard hand and the red buoys oti 

the port. 

Note. — Viktorovka range lights and Suvorov Ught, which are situated near 
the entrance to Berezan Liman, are to faciUtate entrance to Kherson Bay. 

Kherson or Dniepr Bay. — This extensive bay, or arm of the 
sea, is upward of 30 miles long in an east and west direction and 
from 3 to 8 miles in breadth. Receiving, as it does, the waters of the 
Dniepr and the Bug Rivers, which discharge their turbid streams into 
a tideless estuary, it is shallow for the most part, but a channel of 
25 feet has been dredged to allow access to the Bug River, on which, 
at Nikolaev, a large Russian dockyard and shipbuilding establish- 
ment is situated. 

The entrance to Kherson Bav is between Ochakov Point and Kin- 
burn Spit, and the approach is either northward of the Odessa Sand 
Bank, where the least water is 28 feet, until well within the points of 
entrance; or from the southwestward, between the eastern edge of 
the Odessa Sand Banks and the shallow water extending from Kin- 
burn Spit, where not more than 19 feet can be depended on. 

Bottom. — In the deeper part of Kherson Bay and the Bug River 
the bottom is soft mud, except where cross sand ridges are forming. 
The shoals at the mouth of the Dneipr River are of hard sand. 

Currents. — In Kherson Bay and in the Dneipr and Bug Rivers 
the strongest outward stream, caused by the melting of the snows, will 

172982°--20 13 



186 OCHAKOV — KINBURN POINT. 

be found in April and May. It is said the current never exceeds 2 
knots. In the fall of the year it is but slight in Kherson Bay and un- 
certain in direction in the River Bug, where it is influenced by the 
prevailing wind. 

Water level, — The water level is highest from April to June and 
lowest in the autumn. Fresh winds raise or lower the water about 
1 foot in Kherson Bay and 3 feet in the Bug River. 

Pilots. — Pilotage is compulsory for merchant vessels bound to 
ports in Kherson Bay or in the Bug River. Pilots are stationed at 
Ochakov and Nikolaev. 

Ice breakers. — The channels to Nikolaev and Kherson are kept 
opien throughout the winter as far as possible by means of ice 
breakers. 

Ochakov. — Ochakov Point on the north side of the entrance to 
Kherson Bay, lies 5^ miles to the eastward of Berezan Island. On 
it is a large battery, above which is the town of Ochakov, visible 
from a distance of 15 miles. The most conspicuous objects are the 
church, the chimney of the brickworks, and the signal station — a 
yellow stone tower w4th mast and yard. 

Signal station. — Telegrams will be received from vessels at the 
signal station by International Code and forwarded to their destina 
tion, to be paid for on delivery. 

Depth signals. — The depth in the dredged channel is shown from 
the signal station. 

Storm signals are shown from the signal station. 

Pilots^ stations, — The pilots' watch house is situated on a mound 
on the eastern side of Ochakov Point ; by day it flies the pilot flag. 

Pratique. — Vessels bound for Nikolaev are boarded at Ochakov 
by the health and customs officers. The latter seal the hatches, and 
there is a penalty for each seal broken before arrival at destination. 

Lifeboats. — There are two lifeboats stationed on the eastern side 
of Ochakov Point; one of them is fitted with runners. At Fort 
Nikolaev there is a lifeboat on runners. 

Pier. — The quarantine pier, on the eastern side of Ochakov Point, 
has depths of from 6 to 8 feet alongside. 

Kinburn Point. — The southern coast of Kherson Bay is low and 
sandy and terminates to the westward in Kil Burun or Kinburn 
Point, which is low, narrow, and subject to inundations. The ex- 
tremity of the spit extending from Kinburn Point lies nearly 2J miles 
258° from Ochakov Point and forms the southern side of the en- 
trance to Kherson Bay. 

Beacon. — Near the extremity of Kinburn Point is a black iron 
framework beacon, surmounted by a ball and elevated 37 feet above 
the sea. 



BLACK SEA — ODESSA TO KERTCH STRAIT. 187 

Spit — Buoys. — A shoal or spit with 1 to 2 feet least 
water extends 1^ miles northwestward of Kinbum Point, the ex- 
tremity of which is marked by an automatic whistlebuoy, painted 
black. In winter it is replaced by a black spar buoy with flag. 

The northeastern edge of the point of the spit is marked by three 
black spar buoys with black flags. 

Fort Nikolaev. — An artificial islet is situated nearly If miles to 
the eastward of Kinbum Point. On it stands a battery, known as 
Fort Nikolaev. 

Anchorage. — Vessels can anchor eastward or westward of Ocha- 
kov Point, according to their draft. Vessels must avoid anchoring 
on the line of the leading lights or beacons. 

Prohibited anchorage. — A telegraph cable connects Ochakov 
with Fort Nikolsev. The route is marked by spar buoys surmounted 
by flags. Anchoj'age is prohibited in the vicinity of this cable ; also 
in a space northeastward of the fort, near the entrance to the dredged 
channel, the limits of which are shown on the chart. 

North Coast — Ochakov Point to Adzhigiol Point. — Between 
Ochakov Point and Adzhigiol Point, lOJ miles, the northern coast of 
Kherson Bay trends to the northeastward and eastward, forming a 
bay the shores of which are high and composed of clay. In this bay 
are several villages; and 2 miles westward of Adzhigiol Point are 
situated two white lighthouses. 

liightbuoy. — A white lightbuoy, showing a red, blue, and yellow 
fixed light, is moored 400 yards eastward of Ochakov Pier. 

Adzhigiol Point (lat. 46° 37' N., long. 31° 49' E.), situated to 
the southward of Adzhigiol Valley, is low and marshy. A bank ex- 
tends to the southward of the point as far as the dredged channel, 
which here divides into two branches, one leading into the Bug 
River, and the other to Stanislav and the Dneipr River. 

South Coast — Kinburn Point to Prognoisk village. — The 
south coast of Kherson Bay trends southeastward for 3^ miles, then 
to eastward for 7 miles, when it again trends southeastward, forming 
a low, sandy point, on the eastern side of which, and opposite Adzhi; 
giol, is the village of Skadovka. 

Prognoisk village^ 4 miles farther to the southeastward, has a 
church, and a pier where salt is loaded. Eastward of this village, a 
low narrow point, covered with reeds, extends 1 mile in a north- 
westerly direction, forming opposite the village a bay sheltered from 
the swell, where small vessels can anchor in from 5 to 6 feet of water. 

Buoys and beacons. — A black spar buoy is moored about 3 miles 
309° and a red spar buoy 2-^ miles 309° from the church to mark the 
approach. Both buoys are surmounted by flags. The black buoy 



188 RANGE LIGHTS. 

should be left on the starboard hand and the red buoy on the port 
when steering toward the anchorage. 

Two mast beacons have been erected on the shore, 840 yards apart. 
The front beacon is 41 feet above the level of the sea and surmounted 
by a triangle, base upward. The rear beacon is 45 feet above the sea 
and is surmounted by a triangle, base downward. In range 130° 
these beacons lead up to the anchorage. 

Kherson (Dniepr) Bay Lights fixed white, 120 feet above high 
water, visible 17 miles, is exhibited from a white quadrangular iron 
pyramid located at Upper Victorovski on the heights at the west side 
of Berezan Lake. 

Beacon. — A black beacon, consisting of a mast carrying a rec- 
tangular framework and surmounted by three short horizontal cross- 
pieces, stands close to the lighthouse. 

Light. — A fixed red light, 48 feet above high water, is exhibited 
from a white quadrangular iron pyramid located at Lower Victorov- 
ski, on the cliff Berezan Guard, east side of Berezan Lake, 2^ miles 
135° from rear light. 

Beacon. — A black pyramidal beacon with spherical topmark 
stands close to the lighthouse. 

These lights or beacon in range 319° lead through Ochakov Chan- 
nel eastward of Kinburn Spit. 

Suvorov Lighty fixed white, 147 feet above high water, is ex- 
hibited from a white house located at Suvorov on a mound, north side 
of Kherson (Dniepr) Bay. 

This light is visible in its full brightness between the bearings 12° 
and 45° or within the limits of safe navigation in the southwest ap- 
proach to Kherson Bay for vessels drawing 15 feet. 

Near the shoals on both sides the light decreases in brightness. 

Caution. — Four powerful lights are shown in the town of Ocha- 
kov. Mariners are cautioned not to confuse these with Suvorov 
Light. 

Range lights — Port Nicolaev. — A fixed red light, 45 feet above 
high water, is exhibited from a white iron framework tower with a 
central column located on Fort Nicolaev at the entrance to Dnieper 
Bay. 

A fixed red light, 63 feet above high water, is exhibited from an 
iron framework tower located 64 yards 92° from the front light. 

The lights in range lead through Ochakov Channel from the line 
of the Viktorovka Lights to the line of the Adzhigiol Lights. 

Fogsignal. — ^The fogsignal is a bell. 

Adzhigiol. — A fixed red light, 112 feet above high water, is ex- 
hibited from a red square masonry tower located near the upper tele- 
graph station. 



BLACK SEA — ODESSA TO KERTCH STRAIT. 189 

A fixed white light, 170 feet above high water, is exhibited from a 
white square masonry tower located 1,380 yards 69° from the front 
light. 

After leaving the range of the Fort Nicolaev Lights these lights 
in range lead up to the dredged channel. 

Beacon. — ^A beacon stands behind the western lighthouse to render 
the leading line more visible by day. It consists of two masts with 
stays, 42 feet in height, each surmounted by a half sphere, base verti- 
cal, between which the eastern lighthouse can be seen. 

Ochakov dredged channel^ extends from a short distance east- 
ward of Ochakov Point to abreast of Volosh Point in the Bug 
River, 21 miles, and is divided into five reaches. This channel is 330 
feet wide at the bottom and has a lea^t depth of 25 feet. Vessels 
drawing more than 24 feet 4 inches are not allowed to use it. 

Beacons and buoys. — From the automatic whistlebuoy off Kin- 
burn Spit to abreast of Ochakov Point the channel is marked on the 
starboard side by black spar buoys with black flags, and on the port 
side by red conical buoys, and by red spar buoys with inverted cone 
topmarks. 

The dredged channel is marked by black spar buoys surmounted by 
upright cones on the starboard (southern and eastern) side, and by 
red spar buoys with inverted cones on the port (northern and west- 
ern) side. The spar buoys are placed in pairs, 1,000 yards apart, 
except at the bends, where the distance between them is lessened. 

Lights. — Three buoys, exhibiting red lights, mark the northern 
side of the second reach. 

Two buoys, exhibiting fixed white lights, mark the west and east 
end, southern side of the second reach. 

A buoy, exhibiting an occulting white light, is moored on the south 
side of the channel about the middle of the second reach. 

Lightbuoy. — A red buoy with a pyramidal tower and exhibiting 
a group occulting red light is moored 1,500 yards 143° from Sari 
Kamishi Beacon, in 20 feet, at the junction of the third and fourth 
reaches of the channel. 

These lightbuoys can not be depended upon. 

Depth signals. — The least depth of water in the channel from 
Ochakov to the Bug River is indicated at the signal stations at 
Ochakov and Parutino by means of the undermentioned signals 
hoisted at the yardarms of the flagstaff, thus : 

A black triangular shape indicates a depth of 21 feet. 

A black rectangular shape indicates a depth of 23 feet. 

A large ball in addition to the above indicates that 1 foot should 
be added. 



190 DIBECTIONS. 

A small black ball on the opposite yardarm indicates an additional 
3 inches. 

A red triangular flag will also be hoisted on the flagstaff when the 
depth in the channel is decreasing or when the ice in the river estuary 
is moving, and a white triangular flag when the depth in the channel 
is increasing or the ice is stationary. 

The above signals will be repeated from a flagstaff, 66 feet high, 
erected on Volosh Spit. 

Dredging. — The area in which dredgers are working is usually 
marked by white buoys. Vessels drawing less than 15 feet of water 
should leave the channel and pass northward of the dredger. Vessels 
of greater draft should give three prolonged blasts on the whistle and 
reduce speed. The dredger will then get as far as possible out of the 
fairway. 

Directions — Odessa to Kherson (Dneipr) Bay. — In proceed- 
ing from Odessa to Kherson Bay, northward of Odessa Bank, steer 
to eastward until Dembrovsk Point bears 0° (north) to clear the 
shoals in the northern part of Odessa Bay ; thence northeastward, in 
8 to 10 fathoms, until the coast guard station near the western shore 
of Ajalikski Lake bears 0° (north) 2^ miles, taking care to pass to 
northward of the 24-foot patch, marked by a spar buoy, located west- 
ward of Odessa Bank. An 83° course may then be steered toward 
Adzhiyask Point, passing to northward of the buoys marking the 
northern edge of Odessa Bank and to southward of the lightbuoy 
marking the southern edge of Trutaeva Bank. When Adzhiyask 
Point bears 0° (north) 1 mile, steer 94° until the black beacon on the 
southern extremity of Berezan Island bears 0° (north) 1 mile, from 
which position the signal station and the beacon on Ochakov Point 
should be in range. Proceed northeastward on this range, taking 
care not to deviate too far to the eastward and run afoul of Kinburn 
Spit until Upper and Lower Viktorovka Lights are in range; thence 
134°, with these lights in range astern, until Fort Nicolaev Lights are 
in range; thence 92° on that range until the Adzhigiol Lights and the 
beacon, located in the bight in the extremity of Kinburn Peninsula, 
are in range ; thence 70° on that range until the western entrance of 
the dredged channel, marked by a fixed red light on the northern side 
and a fixed white light on the southern side, is reached ; thence east- 
ward in the channel between the two lines of buoys marking it. 

By night. — To enter Kherson Bay by night, approach the Suro- 
rov Light within its arc of bright white light, and when Viktorovka 
Lights are in range, steer in, keeping them in one astern, until the 
lights from Fort Nikolaev are in range, when they must be steered 
for; then Adzhigiol Light in range will lead through the channel 
until the western entrance of the dredged channel is reached, when an 
easterly course will lead through the dredged channel between the 



BLACK SEA — ODESSA TO KERTCH STRAIT. 191 

light buoys. Pilotage is compulsory when a vessel is eastward of the 
meridian of Suvorov Light. 

Biver Dniepr approach. — The southern shore of Kherson Bay 
trends to the eastward from Prognoisk and continues low and sandy. 
Nearly opposite Cape Stanislav, on the northern shore, are the low 
islands Verbki and Yanushov, the latter being recognizable by the 
trees on it. 

Northeastward of Verbki the shore bank extends 1^ miles from the 
west and is steep-to, there being a depth of 40 feet between it and the 
bank extending from the opposite shore. From Yanushov Island the 
shore trends to the east-southeast for 6 miles as far as to Zburev Bay, 
the entrance to which is blocked with reeds. 

Fogsignal. — A fog bell is located on Verbki Island. 

Northern shore.— From Cape Bublikov, on the eastern side of 
the entrance to the Bug River, the coast trends eastward and south- 
ward to Cape Stanislav, forming a bay in which is the village of 
Alexandrovka. 

Cape Stanislav is salient and steep and has a large village with 
a church and several mills situated on it. 

A bank, with less than 6 feet of water, extends 1 mile south-south- 
west from the cape. 

Fogsignal. — A fog bell is located on Cape Stanislav. 

Kizim Point, on the north side of the Evach Entrance to the 
Dniepr, which is steep and of a reddish color, bears 92°, 7^ miles 
from Cape Stanislav, the coast between being high and forming a 
bay in which are the villages of Shirokaya and Sofievka. 

Kherson dredged channel. — This channel, which has a width 
of 350 feet and a least depth of 24 feet, branches off from the Ochakov 
Channel abreast of Adzhjgiol Point and runs 68° for 12^ miles until 
northward of Verbki Island, thence from southward of Cape Stan- 
islav, for 6 miles 76° to the Evach lightvessel, where it turns to the 
eastward and southeastward into the Evach Entrance to the Dniepr. 

Buoys. — The first reach of the channel is marked with black spar 
buoys with black flags on the southern side, and red spar buoys with 
red flags on the northern side, placed in pairs about 1,500 yards apart. 

The second reach, known as Evach Channel, is also marked by spar 
buoys placed in pairs, white on the southern side and red on the 
northern side. 

Note. — The dr^ged channel from Adzhigiol Point to Stanislav Narrows Is 
not lighted at night. 

Rvacb. Lightvessel, exhibiting two fixed white lights, has a 
black hull and two masts and is located in lat. 46° 32' 30" N,, long. 
32° 16' 50" E., at the entrance to Evach Channel. 



192 KIVER DNIEPR. 

Bange lights. — A fixed red light, 4G feet above high water, is 
exhibited from a white stone dwelling with a tower located on Kizim 
Point near Kasperovka. 

A fixed white light, 91 feet above high water, is exhibited from a 
red stone tower located about 1 mile 76° from the front light. 

These lights in range, bearing 76°, lead through the dredged chan- 
nel from Cape Stanlisav to the entrance of Rvach Channel. 

A fixed red light, 28 feet above high water, is exhibited from a 
black mast with a topmark located on the low islets near Kizim 
Point. 

A fixed white light, 50 feet above high water, is exhibited from a 
black mast with a topmark located on Kizim Point 96° 30' from the 
front light. 

These lights in range, bearing 98°, lead from Rvach Lightvessel 
at the entrance of Rvach Channel to the entrance of the Rvach 
river. 

River Dniepr. — The Dniepr River flows into Kherson Bay by 
nine mouths, which form clusters of islands covered with reeds and 
mostly uninhabitable. The mouths actually used are the northern- 
most, known as the Rvach Entrance, and the Zburev Entrance. 3J 
miles to the southward of it. 

The Dniepr is connected through the Prypot River to the Bug 
River by a channel. 

Ice. — The river is frozen for about two months, from the middle 
of December to the middle of February. Sometimes a strong south 
wind will break up the ice during this interval, but with the returning 
wind from the northward it soon again becomes frozen over. 

The Kherson and Rvach dredged channels are now kept open, so 
far as possible, by means of ice breakers. 

Rvach Entrance, which opens immediately southward of Kizim 
Point, is formed by two dikes running out into the bay in a north- 
westerly direction, the southern having a length of 1,260 yards and 
the northern one being 875 yards in length. 

Depths. — The Rvach Entrance and the river have been dredged to 
a depth which permits of vessels drawing 22 feet of water reaching 
Kherson. In the spring, when the river is high, vessels drawing 
more than 22 feet can use the channel, special permission being 
obtained in each case from the chief of the port. 

Bielogrudov Entrance (lat. 46° 30' N., long. 32° 18' E.) opens 
to the northward of the bay of the same name. 

The pilot police station, a yellow house with a green roof, stands 
on the northern side of the entrance. 

Depths. — This branch of the river has a depth of about 10 feet 
when the water is low and is used by vessels of light draft. 



BLACK SEA — ODESSA TO KERTCH STRAIT. 193 

Depth signals. — The depth of the water in the Bielogrudov En- 
trance is shown from the Bielogrudov Post and Dniepr Quay as 
follows : 

Each long cylinder indicates a depth of 10 feet. 

Each short cylinder indicates a depth of 1 foot. 

Each ball indicates a depth of 3 inches. 

A white flag below the signal indicates that the tide is rising. At 
slack water no flag is hoisted. 

Lightvessel. — A lightvessel, exhibiting two fixed white lights, 
having a white hull, two masts with a black ball at each masthead, is 
located in lat. 46° 30' 40" N., long. 32° 12' 10" E., south side of 
entrance of Bielogrudvo Channel. 

Lights. — ^Thfc channel above the lightvessel is marked on the 
northern side by eight fixed red lights and on the southern side by 
seven fixed white lights. 

Buoys. — The channel is also marked by red buoys on the north 
side and by white buoys on the south side. 

Directions. — From Adzhigiol Point follow the dredged channel, 
which is marked by spar buoys, as far as the Stanislav Narrows; 
thence, if bound for the Rvach Entrance, steer through the Rvach 
Channel, marked by spar buoys by day and by leading lights at night. 

If bound for the Zburev Entrance, after passing Stanislav Nar- 
rows, steer for the entrance to the buoyed channel. Pilotage is com- 
pulsory. 

Kherson (lat. 46° 38' N., long. 32° 37' E.).— The town stands on 
the right bank of the Dniepr, where it is J mile in breadth and 30 to 
40 feet deep. It is built in a semicircular form on a slight elevation, 
sloping down to the river at its junction with the Koshevaya Branch, 
and had in 1900 a population of 73,200. 

Ice. — The port may usually be considered to be open from Febru- 
ary to December of each year. 

Trade. — At Kherson there are several sawmills for manufacturing 
marketable wood from the large quantities of lumber floated down the 
river from the interior, and extensive wool washeries are in opera- 
tion on the quarantine island, Kherson being the most important 
town in Russia for merino wool. 

Timber and grain are the principal exports. 

Communication. — In normal times steamers run daily in spring 
and summer and three times a week in autumn between Kherson 
and Nikolaev ; also up the Dniepr as far as Alexandrovsk, from which 
place there is communication by rail with Sevastopol, Moscow, and 
St. Petersburg. * Steamers also run to Odessa. 

A railway connects Kherson with Nikolaev, and a line to Djankoi 
junction (for Sevastopol and Kertch) is under construction. 



194 BUG RIVER. 

Bugr River, — The entrance to the Bug River, which forms the 
waterway to the important town of Nikolaev, lies between Adzhigiol 
and Bublikov Points, which are 11 miles east and west from eacli 
other. The river is from 1 to 3 miles wide, with a tortuous course, 
the shores and points being bordered with sand flats, especially on its 
eastern side, where in some places they extend ouf beyond the middle 
of the stream. 

The right (western) bank of the river is almost everywhere clay, 
steep, and high. The left bank, on the contrary, consists of gently 
undulating hills and of low tongues of sand. 

The channel follows generally the right bank of the river, except 
to the southward of Volosh and Russian Spits, where it is in mid- 
river, and near Fort Konstantin, 2 miles south of Nikolaev, where 
it lies near the left bank. 

Depths — Dredged channel. — The depths in the river are very 
variable, but a channel with a least depth of 25 feet is maintained 
as far as the bridge over the Ingul River, on the north side of 
Nikolaev. 

Caution. — Dredgers are constantly at work in the river. Vessels 
passing them must reduce speed in good time in order to avoid 
causing damage. 

Depth signals. — Three miles to the northward of Sarikalsk 
Point on the western side of the river entrance, is the village of 
Parutino (Ilinskoe), a little southward of which is a round yellow 
tower surmounting an octagonal building, with a signal mast close 
to it, from which signals are made to indicate the depth in the 
channel. 

Vessels can communicate with the Parutino signal stations by Inter- 
national Code, and messages will be transmitted by telegraph to their 
destinations. 

Beacons. — On the west side of the entrance to Bug River, be- 
tween Sari Kamishi and Sarikalsk Point, is a black beacon with 
square topmark, 56 feet in height, which forms a useful mark, the 
coast hiBre presenting no conspicuous features. 

Range beacons are established on the east side of the river entrance. 
The rear beacon, a black truncated pyramid, 46 feet in height and 
130 feet above the sea, stands near the village of Khablova. The 
front beacon, a white truncated pyramid, 46 feet in height and 116 
feet above the sea, stands on Khablova Point. These beacons in 
range 64° lead through the third reach of Ochakov Channel. 

Buoys. — The dredged channel from Adzhigiol Lightvessel to 
Volosh Spit is marked on the starboard side by black spar buoys 
with upright cones and on the port side by red spar buoys with in- 
verted cones. The dredged channel from Didova Khata to Vava- 
rovka and into the Ingul River is marked on the starboard hand by 



BLACK SEA — ODESSA TO KERTCH STRAIT. 195 

black spar buoys surmounted by flags and on the port hand by red 
spar buoys surmounted by flags. A red buoy, showing a group oc- 
culting red light, is moored on the port side of the junction between 
the third and fourth reaches of the Ochakov Channel. 

The shallows extending from the sides of the Bug River are marked 
by buoys and beacons, red on the port hand (west bank), black on the 
starboard hand (east bank). Starboard-hand buoys on entering are 
surmounted by cones, with their points upward, and port-hand 
buoys by cones with the points downwards. A red spar buoy marks 
the edge of the shoal off Sarikalsk Point, 1,400 yards from the shore. 
This bank is steep-to and can not be approached by the lead, and this 
is the case with most of the shallows in this river. On the opposite 
side there is a black spar buoy about 1 mile to the westward of 
Khablova l^oint, and a similar one about f mile to the westward of 
Semenov Point. A red buoy, with inverted cone topmark, is moored 
off the end of Volosh Spit; and a black one, with upright cone, on 
the extreme of the Russian Spit opposite. Farther up, two black 
conical buoys and two black spar buoys show the edge of the shoals 
extending off Ozharsk Spit, and a black conical buoy and a black 
spar buoy the prominent points of the shallows off Krivaya 
(Crooked) and Balabanovka Spits. A red spar buoy is placed on 
line of the Siversov range lights at the extremity of the shoal south- 
east of Kozirka village. Nearly 1 mile to the southward of f^ort 
Konstantin a red spar buoy marks a projecting point of the shallow 
on which that fort is built; and the east extreme of the dike east- 
ward of the fort is marked by a red pyramidal. beacon buoy, with 
staff and ball, in a depth of 30 feet, which shows a fixed red light. 
Beyond it a red conical buoy and a red spar buoy show the northern 
edge of the shbal. 

Black buoys mark the edge of the shallows off the low land on tho 
south and west sides of the town of Nikolaev, the most important 
being a black pyramidal beacon buoy, with staff and ball, showing a 
fixed red light, moored on the southern edge of the bank extending 
from Lyeskov Spit, nearly opposite Didova Khata Lighthouse, where 
the channel is narrowed to about 400 vards. 

All the buoys in the Bug River are placed in not less than 18 feet 
water. 

Lights. — The lights in the approach to the Bug River have 
already been described. Those in the river are as follows : 

An alternating red and white light, 143 feet above high water, is 
exhibited from a small wooden yellow structure located 1 mile west of 
the village of Sari Kamishi, north side of Dnieper Bay. 

A buoy with a pyramidal tower, exhibiting a group occulting red 
light, is moored in 20 feet, 1,500 yards 143° from Sari Kamishi 



196 RANGE LIGHTS. 

Beacon. It marks the junction of the third and fourth reaches of 
Ochakov Channel. 

An alternating red and white light, 21 feet above high water, is 
exhibited from an iron hut on piles located at Lower Volosh, near the 
extremity of the spit. 

A fixed red light and a fixed white light, 130 and 133 feet above 
high water, respectively, are exhibited from a white house located 
at Upper Volosh on the first high bluff north of the spit. 

Two fixed white lights, 36 and 9 feet above high water, respectively, 
are exhibited from a white iron tower on piles located on the east 
bank of the river opposite Fort Konstantin. 

The river above Fort Konstantin is marked by five lights on the 
eastern shore and one on the western. 

Range lights.— A fixed red light, 80 feet above high water, is 
exhibited from a square iron tower located on Khablova Point, east 
side of the Bug River. 

A fixed white light, 133 feet above high water, is exhibited from a 
stone tower located 1.3 miles 64° from the front light. 

These lights in range bearing 64° lead through the third reach 
of the Ochakov Channel entrance of the Bug River. 

A fixed white light is exhibited from a white tower located on the 
south side of Luparev village, east side of the Bug River. 

A fixed white light, 195 feet above high water, is exhibited from 
a white house with a red roof located at Kisliakovka, about 3 miles 
41° from the light at Luparev village. 

These lights in range bearing 41° lead through the fourth reach of 
the Ochakov Channel. 

A fixed white light, 55 feet above high water, is exhibited from a 
white cylindrical iron tower located on the extreme point of Russian 
Spit. 

A fixed white light, 124 feet above high water, is exhibited from a 
red circular iron tower located on Ozaharsk Spit. 

These lights in range bearing 3° lead through the channel from 
Sarikalsk Point to Voloski Spit. 

Two fixed red lights, 38 feet above high water, are exhibited from 
a white quadrangular stone house located on Siversov Spit, east side 
of the river. 

A fixed white light, 187 feet above high water, is exhibited from 
a white stone house located 2,840 yards 44° from the front light. 

These lights in ralige lead clear of the shoals on both banks of the 
river. 

A fixed green light, 54 feet above high water, is exhibited from 
a red iron pyramidal-shaped tower with a fan-shaped topmark lo- 
cated 580 yards north of Konstantine Light. 



BLACK SEA — ODESSA TO KERTCH STRAIT. 197 

A fixed red light, 76 feet above high water, is exhibited from a 
red iron pyramidal-shaped beacon with a fan-shaped topmark lo- 
cated 117 yards 16° from the front light. 

These lights in range lead clear of the wreck in midchannel south- 
ward of Fort Konstantine. 

Directions for Bug River— By day. — From the Adzhigiol 
lightvessel steer between the spar buoys marking the dredged channel, 
with the Khablova beacons in range, 64°, until . Kisliakovka and 
Luparev Lighthouses are in range, 41®. Keep on this range until 
Ozharsk Lighthouse is in range with Svyatotroitza Lighthouse, 3°, 
which leads up to Volosh Spit. Pass between the buoys marking the 
shallows off this spit and Russian Spit, and then follow the curve of 
the west bank at i mile, leaving the black buoys and beacons to star- 
board. When abreast of Siversov Lighthouse follow the east bank 
of the river, passing between the red lightbuoy off Fort Konstantin 
and the lighthouse, thence along the same shore up to the quays at 
Nikolaev. 

By night. — From the Adzhigiol lightvessel steer 64° to pass 
southward of the lightbuoy off Sari Kamishi, which marks the junc- 
tion between the third and fourth reaches of the Ochakov Channel. 
From thence steer with Kisliakovka and Luparev Lights in range, 
41°, until Ozharsk Light is in range with Svyatotroitza Light, 3°, 
which will lead through the last reach of the dredged channel and 
up to abreast of Volosh Spit, when Upper Volosh Light will be seen. 
Steer for this light on 289° until Lower Voloshki Light opens, bear- 
ing 146, when course should be altered to 326°, keeping within its arc 
of visibility until the northern sector of white light from Upper Vo- 
losh Lighthouse comes iil view, when keep within the limits of this 
latter sector tat sufficient distance from the west bank, observing that 
the eastern limit of this light passes very near the shoals off Ozharsk 
Spit. Continue this* curving course until the Siversov Lights appear, 
which in range 45° will lead close up to Siversov Spit. The east 
bank should now be followed^ passing between the lightbuoy off Fort 
Konstantin and the light abreast of it and anchoring southward of 
the town. Pilotage is compulsory. 

Nikolaev (lat. 46° 58' N., long. 31° 59' E.).— The town of Niko- 
laev is situated 28 miles above Adzhigiol Point, on the eastern part of 
a peninsula formed by the Bug Eiver and its tributary, the Ingul, 
which latter, often following a shallow and sinuous course, flows into 
the Bug along the northern shore of the town. The western part of 
the peninsula is formed by sandhills, covered with vegetation, and on 
its northwestern shore are several country houses surroittided by 
trees. 



198 COMMERCIAL POINT. 

The southern and western sides of the peninsula are bordered by a 
shallow bank, which, southward and westward of Lyeskov Spit, ex- 
tends 1,400 yards from the shore. 

Comiziercial port. — The commercial port of Nikolaev, situated 
on the southern side of the town, comprises a granite quay, 3,850 
feet in length, with extensive wharf space and railway communica- 
tion, alongside which is a depth of 21^ feet. There are two grain 
elevators, at which four vessels can be loaded simultaneously. 

Cabotage Harbor^ situated westward of the commercial quay, 
is formed by a mole 900 yards in length extending from the shore in a 
southeasterly and easterly direction. It has been dredged to a depth 
of about 17 feet, and is used by coasters, by vessels plying regularly to 
the port, and by vessels wintering. 

Petroleum Pier, about 600 yards to the westward of Cabotage 
Harbor, is 900 feet in length and is used for shipping petroleum. 
About 800 yards to the northwestward of the pier are two white 
cylindrical reservoirs with a white tower between them. 

Naval port. — The naval yard and the arsenal are situated on the 
northern side of the town on the banks of the Ingul River. The 
naval yard is separated from the arsenal by a bridge the ends of 
which are carried on piles and the center on boats. This bridge can 
be opened for the passage of vessels. 

The channel leading from the Bug into the Ingul and up to the 
naval port is dredged to a depth of 25 feet. 

Bridge of boats. — A bridge of boats, ^ mile long, connects Spas- 
skoye with the village of Varvarovka on the western bank of the 
river. It is opened for the passage of vessels at 5 p. m. on Mondays 
and Fridays (market days at Nikolaev), and at 9 a. m. and 5 p. m. 
on other days of the week. 

At Spasskoye, just below the bridge of boats are two piers, the 
northern belonging to the Russian Steam Navigation Co., and the 
other to the arsenal, which latter is used by the boats of naval vessels. 

Swinging buoys. — A mooring buoy is situated in the anchorage 
on the central alignment 1^ miles 167° from the front beacon. 
Around this buoy are eight others, which permits of vessels being 
swung on eight equidistant points. 

Measured mile. — lliere are two pairs of beacons on the shore 
westward of Didova Khata, marking the ends of a measured mile. 

N. W". 
The course to be steered is 52° ; the depth on the course is only 
25 feet 

S. E. 

Beacons for adjusting compasses. — About 2| miles to the 
northward of Powder Magazine Point, on the left bank of the river, 



BLACK SEA — ODESSA TO KERTCH STRAIT. 199 

is a white wooden pyramidal beacon, v;ith staff and cone, and 800 
yards northward of it are five white stone beacons side by side. The 
alignment of the front beacon with one of the rear beacons enables 
vessels in the anchorage northward of the entrance to the Ingiil to 
ascertain the deviation of their compasses. 

The true bearings of these alignments are, respectively, N". 12° 3' W., 
N. 12° 48' W., N. 13° 33' W., N. 14° 18' W., and N. 15° 2' W. 

Ice breakers are stationed at Nikolaev for use in the Bug River 
and Kherson Bay. 

Pilots. — There is a pilot station on the Commercial Quay. 

The town, with a population of 92,060 in 1897, covers a large 
extent of ground. It is traversed by wide streets, which cross one 
another at right angles. The two principal, Khersonskaya. Street 
and Sadovaya Street, divide the town into four quarters, of which 
the western quarters are the best built. 

Communication. — In normal times steamers in tjie summer ran 
daily to Odessa (8 hours), and to Constantinople frequently. In 
the autumn they ran three times a week. Steamers also ran daily, 
Saturdays excepted, to Kherson and Voznasensk. There is constant 
steamer communication between Nikolaev and Ochakov. Rail to 
Kharkov, Moscow, and Petrograd by the Kharkov-Nikolaev line 
via Snamenka ; also to Kherson. Communication by telegraph with 
all parts. 

Coal a.nd supplies. — In normal times about 6,000 tons of Donetz 
coal was usually in stock. Vessels coal alongside the quay. Previous 
notice must be given if a large quantity is required. 

Supplies of all kinds could be obtained at reasonable prices ; vege- 
tables scarce. Water is brought to vessels alongside the quay in 
water carts. 

Storm signals are made from a flagstaff on the Commercial 
Quay. 

Time balL^From the observatory situated westward of the town 
on the highest point of the peninsula, 229 feet above the river, and in 
long. 31° 58' 28" E. of Greenwich, a black ball is dropped at noon, 
Nikolaev mean time, which corresponds to 21 h. 52 m. 6.1s. Green- 
wich mean time. A gun is fired at the same time. 

The ball is hoisted close up at five minutes before signal. If signal 
fails, the ball, after an interval of one minute, is lowered very slowly. 

Signal station. — A round stone tower with octaginal base, painted 
yellow, 92 feet in height, surmounted by a signal mast, stands close 
eastward of the observatory. 

Repairs. — The workshops in the naval yard have all the neces- 
sary appliances for the construction and repair of large vessels. 
The Chantiers Navals can also effect large repairs. 



200 KINBURN BAY. 

Patent slip. — There is a patent slip in the naval yard which will 
take up a vessel of 1,200 tons drawing 5J feet forward and 21^ feet 
aft. The cradle is 180 feet in length. 

Hospitals. — There is a naval and a town hospital affording excel- 
lent accommodations for seamen of all nationalities. 

Quarantine. — The health and customs officials board vessels at 
Ochakov. 

The customs officials seal the hatches. Care should be taken to see 
that everything is declared and the seals are kept intact as there is a 
fine for each seal broken. 

Health. — There are no climatic diseases, but during the hot season 
river fish and raw fruits should be avoided as liable to produce diar- 
rhea and cholerine. 

Kinbum Bay (Egorlitz Gulf) . — The coast from Kinburn Point 
continues low and sandy to the southeast 11 miles. It then bends in 
to the eastward, forming the spacious Bay of Kinburn, which affords 
plenty of room for small vessels, in depths varying from 12 to 20 
feet, over a bottom of mud and sand and sheltered from northwesterly 
and northerly winds. 

Southeastward of the northern entrance point of the bay are two 
low islands, known as Kruglie and Dolghi. The former is small 
in extent; the latter is 4 miles long and ^ mile wide. 

The entrance into the bay is about 2^ miles in breadth, between 
Dolghi Island and its southern shore, but the channel, with depths of 
12 to 15 feet, is only 1 J miles wide. 

The shores of the bay are generally low, the northern consisting of 
sand hills, some of which are wooded. The northern shore is in- 
habited, the village of Pokrovka covering a considerable extent of 
ground among the sandhills. Fresh water can be obtained at Po- 
krovka or from wells at the head of the bay. The water obtained 
from the wells on the southern shore is brackish. 

Weed is very abundant and forms a great hindrance to steam navi- 
gation owing to its fouling the propellers. Boats can not in most 
places approach the shores of the bay owing to the very shallow 
water. 

Ancliorage. — The usual anchorage is about 2 miles eastward of 
Dolghi Island. Northwesterly winds force the water into the gulf, 
causing a current which sets round the bay and keeps vessels tide-rode. 

Tendra Peninsula. — The long sandy plain which terminates to 
the westward in the Kinbum and Egorlitz Peninsulas is bordered to 
the southward by Tendra Peninsula, a long strip of sand, about B5 
miles in length and at its northern extremity about 1 mile in breadth, 
but as it trends to the eastward it gradually narrows to less than a 
quarter of a mile. Two narrow channels or breaks, named Vassal- 



BLACK SEA — ODESSA TO KERTOH STRAIT. 201 

skaya and Kazen, of about 200 yards in breadth, separate its eastern 
end from the mainland. 

The lead should be kept constantly going in approaching the 
peninsula. 

Tendra Peninsula Light, alternating flashing white and red, 45 
feet above high water, visible 6 miles, is exhibited from a yellow 
wooden hut on piles located about 200 yards 197° from the extremity 
of the peninsula. 

There is a conspicuous clump of trees on the coast about 1^ miles to 
the northward of the lighthouse. 

Signal station. — ^The lighthouse is connected by telephone with 
the village of Chemamorskaya Kolod. Telegrams will be received 
from vessels by International Code and forwarded to their 
destinations. 

Caution. — Wrecks, more or less visible, frequently exist in the 
southern approach to Tendra Lighthouse, which, not being always 
buoyed, form a danger to navigation. 

Light. — A revolving white light, 96 feet above high water, is 
exhibited from a white circular stone tower with two black horizontal 
bands locat3d 2.8 miles 194° from the north point of the peninsula. 

Fogsignal. — The fogsignal is a bell. 

Beacons. — ^The land of the peninsula being very low, and not 
visible sometimes even in fine weather at a distance of more than 3 
or 4 miles, three beacons have been erected on it, each about 60 feet 
in height. The first stands 4^ miles southeastward from the light- 
house, and consists of a mast, with supports, with spherical topmark. 
The second stands about 4 miles southeast from the first and has a 
head formed thus, (5) and the third, about 17 miles to the eastward 
of the second, between Vassalskaya and Kazen Ferries, has a square 
framework topmark. 

Tendra Bay. — ^There is good anchorage in Tendra Bay to the 
eastward of the lighthouse, in 6 to 7 fathoms, 2^ miles from the shore, 
well sheltered from the south and west, as far round as 327°, but the* 
bay open to the north-northwest. The space formed to the eastward 
between the eastern part of the peninsula and the mainland, known 
as Tendra Gulf, is very shallow, having only a depth of from 10 to 1^ 
feet in it. 

Buoys. — r>uring the summer the 5-fathom line on the north- 
eastern side of the bay is marked by three red spar buoys with in- 
verted cone topmarks ; on the southeastern and western sides by eight 
black spar buoys with upright cone topmarks. 

Anchorage. — Should a vessel when bound to Odessa meet with 
strong northerly winds, she may anchor to the southward of the 
peninsula in any convenient depth, as the shore is clean. There are 

172982**— 20 14 



202 DZHARUILGACH SPIT AND BAY. 

from 27 to 32 feet 1^ to 3^ miles from it, and from 7 to 9 fathoms IJ 
to 2 miles to the westward of the lighthouse, over a bottom of sand 
and shells. 

Caution. — The lowness of the Tendra Peninsula renders it very 
dangerous, especially as the current, which usually sets to the east- 
ward, is very variable in strength. This current is strongest with 
westerly winds, and vessels bound from the southward to Odessa, 
after ascertaining their position off Fido Nisi (Serpent Island), often 
sight Tendra Lighthouse when expecting to make Odessa. In foggy 
weather, therefore, when in this vicinity, the lead should be kept con- 
stantly going, and great attention paid to the soundings. 

Dzharuilgach Spit and Bay. — The coast to the eastward of 
Tendra Peninsula continues low with some high buildings on it, and 
runs in an easterly direction for 14 miles. From thence a long strip 
of narrow land, called the Dzharuilgach Spit, extends in the same 
direction for 22 miles to Dzharuilgach Point, forming with the main- 
land a deep bay, the outer part of which affords excellent anchorage 
for vessels of a moderate draft seeking shelter from west or south- 
west winds. The western end of the spit, near which there is a nar- 
row channel and a ferry, about 1^ miles to the southward of Sofievka 
village, is not more than 200 yards across, but 10 miles farther east- 
ward it widens and for the remainder of its extent, which is known 
as Dzharuilgach Island, it is from 1 to 2^ miles wide. 

A 3-fathom patch is situated about 2J miles to the southward of 
Dzharuilgach Point, the east extreme of Dzharuilgach Island ; and a 
shoal, with only 6 feet water, extends for more than 1 mile to the 
northeastward of this point, which should therefore be rounded with 
great caution. 

Ferekop Gulf Light, fixed white with red sectors, 80 feet above 
high water, is exhibited from a white iron tower located on Dzharuil- 
gach Point. 

Eogsignal. — The fogsignal is a bell. (See Light List.) 
. Beacon. — ^A beacon, 65 feet high, consisting of a mast with sup- 
ports, surmounted by a barrel, stands on Dzharuilgach Spit, about 
11^ miles to the westward of Dzharuilgach Point. 

Buoys. — The shoal around Dzharuilgach Point is marked by three 
red spar buoys, with inverted-cone topmarks and by a red conical 
buoy. The 3-fathom shoal 2J miles southward of the point is marked 
by a black spar buoy with upright cone topmark, moored i mile north- 
eastward of it. Within Dzharuilgach Bay the edge of the shore bank 
is marked in 4 fathoms by 2 black spar buoys, with upright cones 
on the northern side and by 2 red spar buoys with inverted cones on 
the southern side. 

Anchorage. — A vessel in rounding Dzharuilgach Point must be 
careful to avoid the shoal which extends from it, a good mile, to the 



BLACK SEA — ODESSA TO KERTOH STRAIT. 203 

northeastward, and is the beginning of a flat, carrying a depth of 7 
to 11^ feet, which encircles the whole shores of the bay. The best 
anchorage is in the middle of the entrance, iji 5 fathoms, over a muddy 
bottom, about 3 miles to the northward of the point. 

Weed is abundant in the bay during summer and autumn and forms 
a hindrance to navigation. 

Skadovsk. — The large village of Skadovsk is situated on the 
north shore of Dzharuilgach Bay, about 9 miles to the northwest- 
ward of the lighthouse. All vessels proceeding to any of the anchor- 
ages in Karkinit Bay are obliged to call at Skadovsk for pratique, 
customs examination, and to receive pilots. Arrangements can, 
however, be made by telegraph for a vessel to be met by the necessary 
officers off the lighthouse. Pilotage is not compulsory, though ad- 
visable, for the port of Skadovsk itself. 

A church, which forms a good landmark, is situated in the village. 

Basin. — Vessels usually load in the basin, which is 280 feet long 
and 210 feet wide and tas a depth of 25 feet. It is approached by a 
channel 1,120 feet long. The channel leading to the basin has been 
dredged to a depth of 25 feet. 

Anchorage. — Good anchorage may be obtained southward of the 
church, in 19 feet, 1 mile offshore, or in 25 feet, 2 miles offshore, cargo 
being brought off in barges. 

Buoy. — A white spar buoy is moored in 11 feet of water to mark 
the mail steamers' anchorage. 

Range lights. — A fixed red light, 29 feet above high water, is 
exhibited from a white mast with a triangle located at Skadovsk, 47 
yards from the water's edge. 

A fixed white light, 32 feet above high water, is exhibited from 
a white mast with a diamond located 245 yards 12° from the front 
light. 

These lights in range, bearing 12°, lead through the channel to 
the port. 

Communication. — In normal times steamers called here from 
Odessa weekly. It is proposed to connect the port with the Sevas- 
topol Railway. 

Gulf of Perekop, — This gulf, between Dzharuilgach Spit and the 
northwest shores of the Crimea, is about 40 miles wide at its en- 
trance, with depths of 17 to 6 fathoms, and forms the approach to 
Dzharuilgach and Karkinit Bays. 

Water level. — Strong winds offshore lower the level of the water 
in the gulf and adjacent bays 2 or 3 feet. 

Karkinit Bay, situated in the eastern part of the Gulf of Pere- 
kop, is bordered, especially on its northern and eastern shores, by ex- 
tensive shoal flats. It terminates to the northeastward in Perekop 



204 KHORLI. 

Bay, at the head of which, on the isthmus dividing it from the Sivash 
or Putrid Sea, is the village of Perekop. 

Bakal Spit — Beacon. — The southern shore of Karkinit Bay 
trends in a general west-southwesterly direction as far as Bakal 
coast guard station, where it turns to the northward, forming Bakal 
Spit, the extremity of which, known as Kuiln Murun or Saribula 
Point, situated 13 miles 159° from Dzharuilgach Lighthous, is 
marked by a black pyramidal beacon, 62 feet high, surmounted by a 
ball. 

Bank. — A narrow bank, with IJ to 3 fathoms, extending 10 miles 
in a northerly direction from Kuiln Murun, lies in the fairway of 
the approacrh to Karkinit Bay. The northern extremity is marked 
by a black conical buoy in 2^ feet of water. This buoy must not be 
relied on. 

The channel into the bay lies northward of this bank. 

Landmarks. — The shores of Karkinit Bay are low and flat, and 
in summer the recognition of the coast is rendered very difficult by 
mirage. 

The best landmarks are Dzharuilgach Lighthouse; Khorli Point, 
the extremity of which is steep and yellowish in color; Bakal Spit 
Beacon; and the coastguard station at Bakal, which stands on a 
slight elevation and consists of two well-built stone houses. 

Khorli. — This port is situated on the northern shore of the bay, 
at the southern extremity of the peninsula of the same name. The 
principal export is wheat. 

There is a wooden quay alongside which vessels load, and 50 yards 
eastward of it is a wooden pier. 

Khorli is connected with Perekop by telephone. There are sev- 
eral artesian wells and fresh water is plentiful. 

Light. — A fixed red light, 20 feet above high water, is exhibited 
from a beacon surmounted by a ball located on Kalanchak Island 
Spit. 

Dredged channels. — A channel, 105 feet wide, with a depth of 
18 feet, has been dredged from Karkinit Bay, in an easterly direction, 
into Khorli Anchorage. The channel is about 2^ miles in length, and 
its western end is situated 5f miles 80° from Dzharuilgach Light- 
house. 

It is marked on its northern side by red spar buoys and on its 
southern side by black spar buoys, those at the entrances having 
topmarks, inverted cones on the northern side, and upright cones on 
the southern side. 

A black buoy is moored in the western approach to the channel in 
a depth of 25 feet. Vessels must pass northward of it. 



BLACK SEA — ODESSA TO KERTCH STRAIT. 205 

From the anchorage a channel, 18 feet deep, leads up to the quay. 
It is marked on the western side by red spar buoys and on the eastern 
side by black spar buoys. 

An area has also been dredged off the quay, extending 500 feet 
seaward and for about the same distance parallel to the shore. The 
eastern part has a depth of 20 feet and the western part of 16 feet. 

Half a mile eastward of the pier is a small basin having a depth of 
9 feet with a channel of the same depth leading to it. 

Pratique. — ^A health officer is stationed here. 

Bange lights. — A fixed red light, 44 feet above high water, is 
exhibited from a red mast surmounted by a checkered triangle located 
at Khorli. 

A fixed white light, 66 feet above high water, ie exhibited from a 
yellow mast surmounted by a checkered disk located 273 yards 13® 
from the front light. 

These lights in range, bearing 13°, lead through the channel from 
the anchorage to Khorli. 

Churyum. — ^About 4 miles southeastward of Khorli is Churyum 
Pier with a depth of 9 feet alongside. The village of Alexsyeevka or 
Churyum is about 2 miles inland from the pier. 

Bakal (lat. 45° 44' N., long. 33° 13^' E.), situated in the south- 
western comer of the bay, has two piers which are used for embarking 
salt obtained from the salt pans in Bakal Lake. 

Anchorage, in 4 to 5 fathoms, shelly bottom, well sheltered from 
westerly winds, can be obtained eastward of Bakal Spit. 

The Crimea. — The Crimean Peninsula extends about J78 miles 
from east to west and 107 miles from north to south. Its figure is 
quadrilateral and . the angles are directed to the cardinal points. 
From the eastern point, however, a peninsula stretches out between 
the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea, terminating on the shores of 
Kertch Strait. On three sides the Crimea is inclosed by the Black 
Sea ; on the northeast it is washed by the Sea of Azov. Its area may 
be about 8,600 square miles, and the neck of land at its northern ex- 
tremity, by which it is. connected with the continent, is about 20 
miles long and 5 miles wide at Perekop. Its northeastern division is 
a steppe and has neither tree nor hill, but its southern part presents a 
far different appearance, the mountains rising to a considerable 
height and encircling valleys of great beauty and fertility. 

Northwest coast. — ^The northwestern part of the Crimea is about 
63 miles long from Kartkazak in Karkinit Bay to Karamrun Point, 
and is formed of elevated plains, which may be seen from a good 
distance. Its shores westward of Bakal Spit are bold and steep. 

Yaruilgach Bay. — About 20 miles to the southwestward of 
Kuiln Murun, the extremity of Bakal Spit, is Cape Kara Burnu, the 



206 AKMECHET HARBOR. 

northern point of the large Bay of Yaruilgach, which is bordered by 
a sandy beach and is prolonged by two large salt lakes. 

The entrance is about 1| miles in width, both points being fringed 
by rocky shoals. Within the entrance the shores of the bay are clean, 
and the depths from 5 to 6 fathoms over a sandy bottom. 

The northern part of the bay is sheltered from seaward by Cape 
Kara Bumu and the shoals off it. The bay is open to westerly winds. 

The village of Yaruilgach stands on a height eastward of Cape 
Kara Bumu, Its mills are visible from seaward. No supplies are 
obtainable. 

Yaruilgach Bay Lights fixed red, 28 feet above high water, is 
located on the east shore of the bay. 

Akmechet Harbor (lat. 45° 31_ N., long. 32° 42' E.).— Akmechet 
(or White Mosque) Harbor lies 16 miles south westward of Cape Kara 
Burnu, and is much frequented by vessels running between Odessa 
and the Crimea. It may be recognized by the high tower of the 
church, which has a spire and is elevated 200 feet above the sea. The 
remains of a tower stand upon the western point of the entrance, 
which is nearly f mile wide, but is narrowed to 600 yards by rocks 
bordering the points, shoal water extending 400 yards from the west 
point and 200 yards from the east. The harbor is nearly f mile long 
and has a village on its southern shore. 

Slioal. — A shoal, with a depth of 12 feet over it, is situated nearly 
400 yards northeastward from the inner western point. The range 
of leading beacons passes the shoal only about 20 yards. 

Beacons. — Two mast beacons, 55 feet in height, are erected in the 
southern part of Akmechet Bay for use as clearing marks. The front 
beacon, surmounted by a triangle, is situated on the shore to the 
northward of the village. The rear beacon, about 1,000 yards to the 
southward of the former, is surmounted by a ball. 

The beacons in range, bearing 178°, clear the shoals in the western 
part of the bay in 15 feet water. The northern beacon, in range with 
the Church of St. Zakhariah, which stands to the southward of the 
village, bearing 199°, leads close-to but clear of the shoal water off 
the eastern entrance point, in 25 feet water. The northern beacon, 
bearing 192°, leads up the center of the bay. 

Anchorage. — The best anchorage is about 600 yards, 21°, from the 
village, in about 4^ fathoms, on a sandy bottom, midway between its 
two inner points, which are also bordered by rocks. Between the 
village and the inner point, on the western shore, the coast recedes ^ 
mile to the southwest, forming a cove, which is used by small vessels 
to load salt, and in which they may anchor, in IJ to 2 fathoms, sandy 
bottom, well sheltered from northwesterly and northerly winds, to 
which they would be exposed in the harbor. 



BLACK SEA — ODESSA TO KERTCH STRAIT. 207 

Mole. — There is a depth of 8 feet aloixgside the stone mole. East- 
ward of it is a wooden pier, 490 feet long, with a depth of 3 feet at its 
outer end. There is a telegraph station in the village. 

Kamarun Point, the western extremity of the Crimea, is situated 
11 miles south westward from Akmechet Harbor. It is steep and of a 
reddish color. Northeastward of it is a remarkable point which 
descends to the sea in four declivities. 

Karadzha Bay, situated between Kamarun Point and Cape 
Tarkan, affords good anchorage in easterly winds, in depths of from 
5 to 10 fathoms, but is open to the westward. Protection is given to , 
this anchorage from northerly Avinds by Kamarun Point, and from 
southerly winds by a rocky bank ;which extends 1 mile to the west- 
ward of Cape Tarkati. A large house, with tower on the north shore 
of the bay, affords an excellent anchorage mark. 

The village of Karadzha is situated at the head of the bay, and 
westward of the house with tower is a small wooden pier. 

An iron mooring buoy is placed 600 yards southward of the pier. 

Life-saving station. — There is a life-saving station with rocket 
apparatus on the beach southward of the village. 

Karadzha Bay Light, fixed white, 70 feet above high water, is 
located 2.3 miles 15° from Cape Tarkhan Light. 

Cape Tarkhan (lat. 45° 21' N., long. 32° 30' E.), 2^ miles, 167°, 
from the southwest extreme of Kamarun Point, is low and only visi- 
ble from a short distance. 

Bank. — The rocky bank mentioned above, extending from Cape - 
Tarkan, has near its outer end a depth of only 12 feet and jnany 
sunken rocks. It should not be approached as it is dangerous. 

Cape Tarkhan Light, group flashing white, 117 feet above high 
water, is exhibited from a white circular stone tower located on the 
southwestern extremity, of the cape, 35 yards from the sea. . 

Fogsignal. — ^The fogsignal is a siren. A bell is sounded in case 
the siren does not function. 

Signal statioh. — A telephone station is anjiexed to the light- 
house. Vessels can communicate with the station by International 
Code and telegrams will be forwarcied to their destination to be paid 
for on delivery. Replies to telegrams will not be signaled to yes^^ls; 

Storm signals are shown near the lighthouse. 

Winds. — Near Cape Tarkan are often experienced changes of 
wind, squalls, or sudden calms, w^hen the current makes the sea short 
and broken. Off the cape the wind generally hauls around to the, 
northeast during the night. , . : 

Currents. — In passing Cape Tarkhan, or the Gulf of Perekop, a 
strong current will be felt setting to the eastward with westerly wii^ds ' 
and to the westward with easterly winds^ which must be carefully,, 



208 EUPATORIA POINT. 

watched in order to profit by its variations. A change takes plac« in 
the color of the sea off Cape Tarkhan, from a bright blue to a dirty 
and dark green, and the tint gradually deepens as Odessa is ap- 
proached. 

TJret Point. — From Cape Tarkhan the coast trends 101° for 7 
miles to Uret Point, where the shore forms an angle of white bold 
rocks. On the summit of the point is the village of Oirat with a 
minaret and two mills. Uret Point has shoal water off it, and the 
depth of 5 fathoms will be found nearly ^ mile to the southward. 
There is anchorage to the eastward of the point in about 8^ fathoms, 
over sand and mud, well sheltered from all northerly winds. 

The coast from Uret Point bends in to the northeastward and 
eastward for 9 miles, when the cliffs disappear and a sandy beach com- 
mences which trends to the southeast for 22 miles to Eupatoria Point. 
Westward of the village of Terekli, situated, 11 miles eastward of 
Uret Point, is the large salt lake of Donuzlav, separated from the sea 
by a narrow tongue of sand 5 miles in length. 

Between this lake and Eupatoria Point are several small salt lakes, 
off which are some small piers for embarking salt. A depth of 10 
fathoms will be found at If miles from the shore along this coast. 

Eupatoria Point is low and sandy, and should be approached 
carefully, as the soundings shoal quickly from 7 fathoms to 16 or 18 
feet. There is a depth of 4 to 5 fathoms nearly 1 mile southward of 
the point. A red spar buoy, with inverted cone topmark, is moored 
in 30 feet water on the edge of the shoal extending from Eupatoria 
Point, with the lighthouse bearing 16°, 1 mile. 

Eupatoria Point Light, alternating fixed and flashing red and 
white, 58 feet above high "water, is exhibited from a white circular 
iron tower with a red lantern located on the point. 

PQgsignal.— The fogsignal is made by gunfire. 

Kalamita Bay. — From Eupatoria Point the coast again bends 
eastward 7 miles. It then trends to the southward for 24 miles^ 
where it makes a .short turn to the westward to Cape Lukul, thus 
forming the Bay of Kalamita. The shore of the bay is clean, and 
a depth of 5 fathoms will be found J mile from the coast, except near 
the foul ground bordering Eupatoria Point, and off Cape Lukul. 

Eupatoria (Koslov) stands on low, flat, and sandy country in 
the northern bight of the bay. A little to the westward of the town 
the low point of the lazaretto (Quarantine Point) projects to the 
southeastward, and is bordered by a sand bank which extends 500 
yards from the shore, where 3. fathoms will be found. 

The Armenian church, a large building with a cupola; a mosque, 
near the shore, with a large Byzantine cupolo; and the orthodox 
church, with a green cupola, to the eastward of the mosque, are the 
principal objects seen when approaching the town. 



BLACK SEA — ODESSA TO KERTCH STRAIT. 209 

There are several windmills eastward o^ the town on the narrow 
neck of land separating the northern end of the great salt lake of 
Eupatoria or Sivash from the sea. To the southeastward of the town 
may also be seen the summits of several mountains on the southern 
coast of the Crimea, the most remarkable being Chatuir Dagh, 4,970 
feet high. 

The town is fronted by a promenade, off which is a wooden pier 
having a depth of 7 feet at its outer end. The population in 1897 
was 40,300. 

Commuiiication. — In normal times the steamers of the Rusisan 
Steam Navigation Co. called regularly twice a week on their way to 
and from Odessa and other Black Sea ports, except when hindered 
by bad weather. 

There is telegraphic communication, and a railway is projected. 

Eupatoria Lights alternating white and green, 30 feet above high 
water, is exhibited from a white iron house on piles located on the 
extremity of Quarantine Point, south-southwest of the city harbor 
landing. 

Fogsignal. — The fogsignal is a bell. 

Anchorage.— Vessels anchor to east-southeastward of Quarantine 
Point and to the southward of the mills situated to eastward df the 
town, where there is a depth of about 5^ fathoms, over a sandy 
bottom. 

Small vessels anchor nearer the shore, in 16 to 18 feet of water, 
between the town pier and Quarantine Point, the spit off the latter 
affording some protection from the sea which rolls in with a south- 
westerly wind. Easterly winds cause a choppy sea in this anchorage 
which hinders loading. 

There are two mooring buoys in the bay, one of which belongs to 
the Russian Steam Navigation Co. 

This roadstead is dangerous during south, southeasterly, and 
southwesterly winds, although the southeasterly blow from the shore. 
Harbor works are proposed. 

Supplies. — There is no coal kept in stock. Meat and vegetables 
could, in normal times, be obtained. 

Lifeboat. — There is a lifeboat and rocket station near the pier. 

Pratique.-^There is a health office at Eupatoria. 

The coast. — From Eupatoria the shore of Kalamita Bay takes a 
southeasterly and southerly direction for 25 miles to the Alma River. 
The shore is low and sandy for about 13 miles, and is bordered by 
salt lakes, off which are several piers for loading salt. Thence are 
some low red cliffs and farther southward a guardhouse. 

From this the coast continues low, with red cliffs as far south as 
the Alma, whence it becomes higher with steep perpendicular cliffs 
and table-land. 



210 CAPE LUKUL, 

The mouth of the Bulganak Eiver, 5 miles northward of Cape 
Lukul, is marked by a guardhouse on the north side of a deep gully 
in the cliffs. 

The shores of the bay, as mentioned above, are clear with regular 
soundings, excepting off Eupatoria Point and in the vicinity of Cape 
Lukul. 

Alma River. — ^The Alma River, 4 miles southward of Bulganak 
River and 1 J miles eastward of Cape Lukul, has regular soundings off 
it in a northwest direction, with a bottom of mud under a loose surface 
of gravel and shells. 

Cape Lukul (lat. 44° 50^' N., long. 33° 33' E.), the western point 
of the bay, into which the Alma River empties, forms a remarkable 
projection, being nearly perpendicular, of little elevation, and of a 
reddish tint. A flat extends 1 mile offshore northward of the cape, 
and rocks, nearly dry, lie J mile westward. This cape should not be 
rounded within 1 mile. 

Beacon. — ^A daymark, 50 feet higK and 125 feet above the sea, has 
been erected on Cape Lukul. It consists of a mast, painted blacky 
and with five horizontal laths near the top. 

Lukul Rock; i mile northwestward of Cape Lukul, is an oval- 
shaped rocky patch of 2| fathoms, nearly 400 yards long. 

Coast. — From Cape Lukul to the Kacha River the coast is one 
steep perpendicular reddish cliff with a table top, and about f mile 
offshore the soundings are very irregular, over a rocky bottom. 

Peter the Great Rocks. — About 3 miles south-southwest from 
Cape Lukul is Lukul Bluff, off which are Peter the Great Rocks, 
with a depth of less than 6 feet over them. They lie in a north and 
south direction, the northern rock being about 700 yards from the 
bluff, whilst seaward of them there is only a depth of 5 fathoms, 
about 1,600 yards from the shore. 

Terrible Rock, with 2 fathoms, 600 yards from the shore, is 
nearly 3 miles southward of Peter the Great Rocks and about H 
miles north of the Kacha River. 

Kacha Anchorage. — There is good holding ground off the Kacha 
River in 12 fathoms, mud, with the mouth of the river bearing 94®, 
1 mile; and Cape Lukul just shut in by Lukul Bluff, about 45®. Be- 
tween this position and the river the sdundings shoal gradually to 
the shore, and there is 4J fathoms 400 yards from the beach. The 
mouth of the river is not easily seen but is near the center of the 
beach. 

The coast between the Kacha and Belbek Rivers, about 4 miles, 
presents much the same appearance as to the northward, except that 
the cliffs are more sloping. Off the Belbek the approach to the 
beach is more regular and less rocky. The beach extends about J mile 
southward of the river, beyond which the coast again rises to steep 



BLACK SEA — ODESSA TO KERTCH STRAIT. * 211 

cliffs. A large church is conspicuous in the valley through which 
the Belbek runs, and mountains rise in triple rows to the eastward, 
the table-lands of their summits, with their white edges, giving 
them the appearance of fortifications, the Chatuir Dagh, or Tent 
Mountain, towering above all to the height of 4,970 feet above the 
level of the sea. 

Measured distance. — Five pairs of measured-distance beacons 
have been erected, the northernmost on Cape Lukul, the others at dis- 
tances apart of 5.998, 0.996, 1.03, and 4.02 miles, respectively, to the 
southward, marking a continuous distance of 12.044 miles. The 
course on the run is 1° or 181°, the depth of water varying from 
16 to 32 fathoms. The front beacons are surmounted by triangles, 
point downwards, and the rear beacons by triangles, point upwards, 
all the beacons being 47 feet high and painted white. 

The direction for running over the measured distance is given by 
the old church of St. Vladimir, oh the south side of Sevastopol Har- 
bor, in range with two beacons, bearing 181°. The frgnt beacon is 
painted white, and is situated 1-^ miles southward of the church; 
the rear beacon, which is painted red, is 1 mile southward of the 
front beacon. 

Cape Konstantin (lat. 44° 38' N., long. 33° 31' E.), nearly 2^ 
miles south of Belbek River, is the northern entrance point of Sevas- 
topol Harbor. Its western extremity is known as North Point, and 
on its southern extreme is Fort Konstantin. 

Shoal. — ^The cape is fronted by a rocky shoal, extending J mile 
259° from North Point, on which there is a patch with only 3 feet 
water 400 yards from the shore, while a depth of 5 fathoms is found 
1,000 yards from the cape. 

A vessel must give the southern point of Fort Konstantin a berth 
of 200 yards, at which distance there is a depth of 5 fathoms. 

Buoys. — 'A red whi^tlebuoy, in 7 fathoms, and a red spar buoy, 
with inverted cone topmark, are moored off the western edge of the 
shoal. The southern side is marked by red spar buoys, with inverted 
cone topmarks. The whistlebuoy must not be relied on. 

Range mark. — A white watch house, with red tiled roof, situated 
near the summit of Mount Rudolph, on the southern side of the 
harbor, kept in range with the cemetery chapel, biearing 163°, leads 
clear of the reef extending from Cape Konstantin. 

Sevastopol Harbor^ about 4 miles long east and west and J mile 
wide, has for its western extremity Cape Konstantin on the north 
and Alexander Point on the south. It has a depth of 6 to 10 fathoms 
in mid-channel with muddy bottom to within f mile of its head, where 
it becomes more contracted and shallow. The holding ground is good. 
It is said to be the best harbor in the Black Sea. 



214 ANCHORAGE AND WHARVES. 

Approaching from the east, south, or westward, a landfall should 
be made on Cape Khersonese Light, taking care, however, not to ap- 
proach too close, as shoal water the western extremity of which is 
marked by buoys, extends 500 yards from the western extremity of 
the cape. From th^ extremity of the cape a northeasterly course may 
be taken for the harbor entrance, but care should be observed not to 
get too close to shore, as it is fronted by shoal water. 

Light. — An alternating red and green light, 58 feet above high 
water, is exhibited from a white stone tower located 100 yards 276° 
from the old church at Vladimir. 

Entrance. — The entrance between Cape Konstantin and Alex- 
ander Point is about 1,100 yards wide and has depths of 7 to 9 fathoms 
to within 200 yards of either shore. 

Ouard ship.— A guard ship is anchored in the harbor entrance, 
off Fort Konstantin in summer and off Artillery Bay in the winter. 

Submarine cables — Buoys. — The position of the submarine tele- 
gi*aph cables which cross the harbor between Fort Konstantin .and 
Alexander Point is marked on each side of the fairway by two black 
and white buoys, each surmounted by a red triangle; also on Alex- 
ander Point by two red posts with disk topmarks, from which red 
lights are exhibited. A submarine cable is also laid between Nachiv- 
nova Battery site and No. 8 battery site. The shore ends of this ca- 
ble are indicated by white boards 32 feet high, marked '^Tejerpa^tt/' 
placed on the sites of the above batteries, that on No. 8 battery being 
further distinguished by being surmounted by a triangle, base up- 
ward. In order to indicate the line of the cable, a wooden pillar, 21 
feet high, and surmounted by a triangle, base downward, has been 
erected 50 yards in rear of the board at No. 8 battery. 

A line of brown buoys is laid across the harbor entrance from Fort 
Konstantin to Alexander Point, leaving a passage 60 yards wide. A 
red buoy, moored 30 yards northward of the range of the Inkerman 
Lights, marks the northern side of the passage and a black buoy the 
southern side. 

Life-saving station.^The guard ship is equipped with a life- 
boat. There is a refuge house in Artillery Bay. 

Anchorage and wharves. — The bay eastward of the town, 
known as South Bay, is used by naval vessels, and to a very limited 
extent by merchant vessels ^Iso. ' Immediately southward of Nicholas 
Point is Ekaterininski or Grafski Quay, having a stone staircase 
terminated by a colonilade. The quay is used as a landing place for 
boats. 

Southward of Ekate'i*l^ibfeki Quay is a wharf oti piles, and beyond 
this is the new dockyard,' where there are torpedo-boat slips and 
storehouses. 



BLACK SEA — ODESSA TO KERTCH STRAIT. 215 

Southward of the new dockyard is the Customhouse Quay with the 
customhouse standing on the hill above ic. Farther southward are 
piers. 

At the head of the harbor are quays and storehouses for wheat, 
under the management of the municipality, where trading vessels 
berth. 

The eastern side of the inner harbor is occupied by Government 
vessels and by a floating dock. The naval barracks stand on high 
ground on this side of the harbor, and on the low point northward of 
them is situated the Admiralty, and Lazarev Dockyard. Southward 
of Paul Point is Dockyard or Korabelnaia Creek, leading to the dry 
docks and to the suburb of Korabelnaia. 

There are numerous mooring buoys in the harbor. 

Submarine cable. — ^A submarine telegraph cable crosses the har- 
bor between the Customhouse Quay and the dockyard. Its direction 
is marked by the word " Telegraph " painted on the Customhouse 
Quay, and by a telegraph symbol on the front of a shed on the op- 
posite shore. 

Prohibited anchorage. — Ships are forbidden to anchor in the 
area occupied by the submarine cables, or between a line joining 
North Point and No. 10 battery on the west side, and a line joining 
Fort Michael and Nicholas Point on the east side. 

Caution. — It is not advisable to leave boats afloat for too long a 
time in this harbor as it abounds with worms which attack the wood. 

Port regulations. — Vessels must stop before arriving abreast of 
the guardship in order that they may be visited by the health and 
customs officers and may receive directions for anchorage. 

The only passage into the harbor is between the red buoy and black 
buoy mentioned above. 

Merchant vessels are not permitted to enter the harbor between 
sunset and sunrise, except from stress of weather, and any vessel 
attempting to do so will be fired upon. 

Vessels under stress of weather wishing to enter at night must, when 
approaching Vladimir Battery, show two blue lights on that side of 
the vessel and then anchor for examination before approaching the 
guardship. 

Measured distance. — Six pairs of beacons, marking a measured 
distance of 5 miles, are erected in the harbor and approach for the 
purpose of testing speed. The front beacons are surmounted by 
white triangles with the point upwards, the rear beacons by white 
triangles with the point downwards. 

The first pair are situated in GoUandiya Cove; the second on the 
east side of Sukhaya Creek ; the third on the south side of the hairbor 
between Artillery and Quarantine Bays ; the fourth, without the har- 



216 SEVASTOPOL. 

bor, on the east side of Khersonese Bay ; the fifth, on the west side of 
Streletska Bay ; and the sixth, on the west side of Peschana Bay. 

The course for running over the distance is marked by a beacon 
above White Cliff Point in range with the Inkerman Lighthouses 
bearing 194°. 

Deviation marks. — Southward of the dockyard, and facing the 
declivity behind it, is a stone wall, on which are painted vertical red 
lines, which when in line with the western chimney of the machinery 
works in the dockyard indicate the bearing of the chimney for every 
degree from south to 120°. 

Winds. — During the winter months the prevailing winds in 
Sevastopol are from the eastward. Sea and land breezes are very 
regular in the summer, the former blowing from 9 or 10 a. m. and the 
latter setting in at sunset. Gales are frequent in November and 
March. They blow especially from the southward, from which 
direction the harbor is well sheltered. Gales from the northeastward 
are comparatively rare. 

Pilots. — There is no regular system of pilotage. 

Sevastopol. — The town of Sevastopol is situated on the southern 
side of the harbor, on an eminence dividing Artillery and South 
Bays. The Cathedral of St. Vladimir, a white building, with gray 
oupola surmounted by a gilded cross, towers above the other buildings 
in the town and is a conspicuous object when approaching from sea- 
ward. The town is clean and well built, and the shore near Nicholas 
Point is fronted by a fine promenade. 

Sevastopol is now entirely a military port and can only be used by 
foreign vessels requiring docking or repairs, except by special per- 
mission, the commercial port being Theodosia. The population in 
1897 was 50,710. The climate is stated to be very healthy. 

Communication. — Rail to St. Petersburg or Moscow viaKharkof. 
A line to Yalta is under construction. The steamers of the Eussian 
Steam Navigation Co. call five times a week in summer to and from 
Odessa and Kertch, touxihing at intermediate ports. There is weekly 
communication with Constantinople, and the steamers of the Russian 
Freight-Transport Co. visit the port regularly. There is telegraphic 
communication with all parts. 

Storm signals. — Storm signals are hoisted on a special signal 
staff, situated in the upper part of the town near the house of the 
commander in chief. 

Bulletins giving the state of the weather in the Black Sea and Sea 
of Azov are posted up daily on Ekaterininski Quay. 

Time signal. — A time ball is dropped daily from the mast near 
the commander in chief's house at noon, Pulkova mean time, corre- 
sponding to h. 12 m. 47.5 s. Sevastopol mean time, and to 21 h. 58 m. 
41.4 s. Greenwich mean time. 



BLACK SEA — ODESSA TO KERTCH STRAIT. 217 

A ball is also dropped at the observatory on Paul Point. It is 
hoisted at 5 minutes before noon, Pulkova mean time, and dropped at 
noon. 

Seamen are recommended to use the observatory time ball for 
rating their chronometers in preference to the other one. 

Coal and supplies. — The Government and the Russian Steam 
Navigation Co. maintain stocks of coal for their own use, but there 
is no provision for the supply of coal, liquid fuel, or fresh water to 
foreign vessels. 

Docks. — There is a depositing (sectional) dock, 280 feet long and 
72 or 144 feet broad at entrance, with 20 or 22 feet over the blocks. 
This dock can take a vessel 400 feet long and is equal to a weight 
of 4,200 tons. 

The Alexievsay dry dock is 599 feet long overall, 500 feet on the 
blocks, 85 feet wide at the entrance, and has 27 feet water over the 
isill. A vessel of 10,181 tons, with 27 feet greatest draft, has been 
docked in it. The Alexandra dock is 553 feet long overall, 85 feet 
wide at entrance, with 30 feet water over the sill. 

There are two slips, one available for vessels up to 500 tons; the 
other can take vessels up to 1,500 tons. These docks and the patent 
slips can be used by merchant vessels when not required for men of 
war. (See also Dock book.) 

Repairs. — Ironclads of 12,000 tons have been built in the dock- 
yard for the Russian Navy. Engines and boilers can be constructed, 
and there is a large factory for repairing machinery. There are 
sheers lifting 80, and floating cranes lifting 100, 60, and 30 tons, 
also a pontoon for masting vessels. 

Quarantine. — Vessels ^coming from infected ports are subjected 
to three days' quarantine, to undergo which they must proceed to 
Theodosia. 

The coast from Sevastopol Harbor to Cape Khersonese, nearly 
6 miles, trends in a general west-southwesterly direction, and is 
rocky, moderately high, and deeply indented by several bays. 

Quarantine Bay, situated i mile west of Alexander Point, is 
about 600 yards in length from the depth of 10 fathoms at its en- 
trance to 4 fathoms. From thence its form become very irregular to 
the southward, affording shelter for small vessels from all winds in its 
numerous windings. The bay may be recognized by the square tower 
with spire of St. Vladimir Church and by the other buildings of 
Khersonese Monastery, situated on its western side. The channel at 
the entrance is less than 200 yards wide, between the 5-f athom curves 
bordering its points, and to which a berth of 200 yards must be given 
on entering, as they are surrounded with shoal water ; and rocks run 
off nearly that distance from the eastern point, on which stands the 

172982**— 20 ^15 



218 DVOINAIA AND KAMIESH BAYS. 

Quarantine Fort. A patch of 3^ fathoms lies about 500 yards north- 
northwest from the entrance, 

Ehersonese^ a small sandy bay, about 1,200 yards to the westward 
of Quarantine Bay, has a depth of 4 fathoms at its entrance. A reef 
extends nearly 400 yards to the northward from its eastern point. 

Streletska Bay, J mile to the westward of Khersonese, is long 
and narrow, with a depth of 6 to 10 fathoms. It is about IJ miles 
long, but not more than 400 yards wide at its entrance. Two beacons, 
marking the termination of the fourth mile of the measured distance, 
are situated on the western side of Streletska Bay. 

Streletska Shoal fronts the shore for i mile westward of the 
entrance to the bay and extends nearly 600 yards seaward. It is 
marked on its northern side by 2 black spar buoys with conical top- 
marks. 

Streletska Bay Light, fixed red, 35 feet above high water, is 
exhibited from a gray, skeleton stone tower located on the spur of 
*the north mole, east side of the bay. 

Feschana Bay lies 1 mile to the westward of Streletska Bay, but 
as the water in it is shallow vessels anchor off its entrance in 6 to 
10 fathoms. A small island lies near the head of the bay with foul 
ground around it. 

Two beacons marking the termination of the Inkerman measured 
distance of 5 miles are situated on the western side of the bay. 

Shoal. — A black spar buoy with conical topmark marks the north- 
ern extreme of a shoal extending from the western point of the bay. 

Dvoinaia (Eazach) and Kamiesh Bays forms the first large 
opening to the eastward of Cape Khersonese. There is anchorage in 
15 to 20 fathoms, at a distance of i mile off #he entrance, on a bottom 
of muddy sand, where a stranger, if bound in, should anchor, or lie 
to, until communicated with. On the western side of the entrance 
to Kamiesh Bay there are two spar buoys, in depths of 5 fathoms. 
One, marking the northern extreme of the bank extending from the 
point between Kamiesh and Dvoinaia Bays, is red with inverted cone 
topmark. The other, black with an upright cone, is situated 350 
yards to the south-southeastward of the former. On the eastern side, 
off the entrance point, there is a red spar buoy with inverted cone in 5 
fathoms water. 

Bocks. — In entering Kazach or Kamiesh Bays the northwest 
point, and the point that separates them, should not be approached 
nearer than 500 yards; and no vessel should run up the western or 
Kazach Bay without a pilot, for this double bay, which looks clear 
and wide from outside, has a reef of sunken rocks extending nearly 
600 yards in a north direction from Dvoinaia Point, the tongue of 
land which divides the head of Kazach Bay into two parts. In the 



BLACK SEA — ODESSA TO KERTCH STRAIT. 219 

outer part of these bays the ground is a muddy sand with gravel and 
shells, and in less than 8 fathoms the holding ground is bad. In the 
inner part the ground is more tenacious. Kamiesh Bay is better, both 
as regards size and safety. 

These bays have given shelter to many vessels during the southerly 
gales, which have always moderated after veering round to 281°. 
How far they may be safe with winds from northward of this point 
is not known. 

A coast guard station, surrounded by trees, stands on the extremity 
of the point between Kamiesh and Kazach Bays. 

Bange marks. — The foul ground off Kazach Point extends 400 
yards from the land. Its northeastern extremity is marked by a black 
spar buoy with conical topmark. Fort Konstantin, well open of all 
the points of land on the south shore, 73°, clears this shoal. 

Cape Khersonese (lat. 44° 35' N., long. 33° 23' E.).— The west- 
ern coast of the Crimea terminates in a low shelving peninsula, the 
extremity of which is named Cape Khersonese. This cape is bordered 
by a reef running out about 500 yards to the westward an^ southwest- 
ward, at the edges of which there is a depth of 6 fathoms. 

There is good anchorage to the southward of the lighthouse with 
east, northeast, and north winds. 

Cape Khersonese Lights revolving white, 108 feet above high 
water, is exhibited from a white circular stone tower located near 
the extremity of the cape. 

Fogsignal. — The fogsignal is a siren, with a bell in reserve. 

Signal station. — A signal station is established here, and tele- 
grams communicated by the International Code will be forwarded, 
being paid by those to whom they are addressed. 

Storm signals (day and night) are shown near the lighthouse. 

Buoys. — Two black buoys, each surmounted by a cone, are moored 
in 8 fathoms, westward of the Lighthouse Shoal, 350 yards from the 
lighthouse. 

Directions.-^A vessel in rounding Cape Khersonese from the 
southward should keep Cape Feolent, a high perpendicular cliff, open 
of Cossack Point, a nearer and lower bluff, until the lighthouse on the 
cape bears 100°, or Fort Konstantin is seen well open of the north 
coast of the peninsula. Then a 61° course will round the cape and 
clear all the dangers off the points, none of the rocky ledges (which 
it is difficult to know the position of, on account of the uniform 
appearance of the coast) extending more than 600 yards offshore. 
As a general' rule the points on the north side of the Khersonese 
Peninsula should not be approached nearer than J mile. 

Cape Feolent. — From Cape Khersonese the coast is steep-to and 
trends to the southeast 7 miles to Cape Feolent, which is a high 



220 ST. GEORGES BAY. 

perpendicular cliff, with a sharp conical rock rising from the water 
on its southeast side. The extremity of the point is only a few feet 
above the level of the sea. A reef extends off it nearly 300 yards 
southwestward. 

St. Georges Bay — ^Anchorage. — From Cape Feolent the coast 
becomes more elevated and bends to the eastward, forming St. 
Georges Bay, where the shore is clear and the water deep. Vessels 
are induced to anchor there in northwest or west-northwest winds, in 
about 26 fathoms water, to the southward of the Monastery of St. 
George, which stands nearly 1 mile to the eastward of the point. 
The steeple of the monastery church is conspicuous from seaward. 

A patch of sand, with 7 to 12 fathoms on it, lies at the foot of a 
sort of landslip about 200 yards eastward of the Monastery of St. 
George. This anchorage may be of service to a steam vessel when 
waiting under the land until a northerly or northeasterly gale moder- 
ates sufficiently to allow her to round Cape Khersonese. 

Shoal. — A shoal, with a depth of 3 fathoms over it, is shown on 
the chart to be situated in the western part of the bay, 500 yards 66° 
from the southern tangent of Cape Feolent. 

Aspect of the coast. — Coming from the southeastward toward 
Sevastopol the land is very remarkable, forming three capes or 
headlands. The southernmost cape, Aia, makes as a very high bold 
bluff, looking very much like the North Foreland, but much higher. 
The next to the northward. Cape Feolent, is moderately high, with 
three notches like steps in it, and between these headlands lies the 
port of Balaklava. Cape KhersonesCj the northernmost, is long and 
low, and will be readily known by the lighthouse on it. n 

Landmarks. — A vertical white stripe, 40 feet long and 14 feet 
wide, is painted on the cliffs, 56 feet above the water, 2x% miles north- 
westward from Cape Feolent. 

A white equilateral triangle, base upwards, 14 feet above the water, 
is painted on the face of the cliff at Cape Feolent. 

Balaklava (lat. 44° 30' N., long. 33° 36' E.).— The entrance to 
Balaklava Harbor, which is not easily distinguished, lies about 4^ 
miles to the eastward of Cape Feolent, the intervening coast consist- 
ing of high steep cliffs of a reddish color, where landing is impossible, 
except in St. Georges Bay. An old Genoese tower and some ruined 
fortifications stand on the eastern point of the entrance, and the 
extremity of the western entrance point is marked by a whitewashed 
rock. 

The port, inclosed by steep and rocky hills of a reddish color, is 
about I mile long, including its winding, from north to south, and 
only 120 yards wide at its narrowest part. Nearly one-fourth of it 
is filled up with muddy flat, which has been carried into the head of 



BLACK SEA — ODESSA TO KERTCH STRAIT. 221 

the port by a rivulet running through a valley to the northward. 
There is a depth of from 15 to 24 fathoms in the channel at its en- 
trance, with a gravel bottom, 6 to 8 fathoms, in its narrow part, 7 
fathoms abreast of th^e town, and 3 fathoms nearly 400 yards from 
the head of the port, over a muddy bottom, where the mud flat before 
mentioned has only from 1 J to 6 feet on it. A small islet, bordered 
by rocks, lies 400 yards from the head of the harbor and about 70 
yards from the western shore. 

The town, which stands on its eastern shore, is fronted by a stone 
quay, near the center of which is a wooden pier with suflScient depth 
for moderate-sized vessels. 

A suburb is situated in the plain northward of the harbor: There 
is postal and telegraphic communication via Sevastopol. 

Balaklava Bock, IJ miles southeastward of the entrance to 
Balaklava Harbor, and 350 yards offshore, has 11 feet water on it, and 
7 to 11 fathoms are found near. The rock bears 189° from a white 
mark on a black cliff point in the curve of the bay. 

A rock with 4 fathoms over it lies nearly 800 yards 305° from 
Balaklava Rock. 

Clearing mark. — The highest round hill over the west side of 
the port kept open to southward of the southwest point of the en- 
trance, bearing about northwest, leads to the southward of both rocks. 

Outer Anchorage. — As a general rule good holding ground is 
not found outside Balaklava in less than 25 fathoms, in which, and 
in deeper water, the bottom is a tenacious sand. Vessels sometimes 
anchor near Balaklava Eock for shallower water. In doing so, keep 
the white streak on the cliff from 54° to 90° to avoid the rock. 

Inner Anchorage. — The anchorage is abreast the town, midway 
between the two shores, and in a depth of 7 fathoms, muddy bottom. 
A vessel anchored here is sheltered from all winds, but in •bad 
weather entrance to the harbor is sometimes difficult. 

Diri^ctions. — A steam vessel should keep in mid-channel and pro- 
ceed at a moderate speed, as the turns are very sharp. 

A sailing vessel enteringlnust be prepared to work quickly, as the 
space is very limited, and should have her boats ready to take her 
in tow, as the wind often fails when within the entrance. 

With southwesterly winds, violent squalls descend from the hills 
at the first bend. 

Before leaving the harbor the direction of the wind in the offing 
should be ascertained. Vessels usually get under way in the morning, 
before sunrise, with the land breeze, which they carry for 5 or 6 
miles. A good berth should be given to Cape Aia to avoid being 
becalmed. 



222 LASPI BAY. 

Cape Aia (lat. 44^ 25 J' N., long. 33° 39^' E.).— The coast from 
the entrance to Balaklava curves to the southward, its appearance 
being that of a long wall of gigantic rocks, about 1,500 feet in height, 
with a flat and wooded surface, the perpendicular extremity of which 
is Cape Aia, which bears 121° 8 miles from Cape Feolent, and is re- 
markable for its height, steepness, and reddish appearance. When 
to the northwestward of Sevastopol, Cape Aia is to be seen over the 
intervening lowland. 

Landmark. — A white horizontal stripe, 140 feet long and 7 feet 
wide, is painted on the face of the cliff at Cape Aia, 63 feet above the 
water. 

Anchorage. — Vessels sometimes anchor in the bend of the coast 
at about 2 miles southeast of Balaklava, and they may also shelter 
themselves under Cape Aia during violent easterly winds, where it 
will be quite calm, but they will be drifted to the westward by the 
current, and sudden squalls sometimes come down through the nar- 
row openings of the mountains near Balaklava. 

Laspi Bay. — Between Cape Aia and Sarich Point, 4 miles, the 
coast bends to the eastward and forms the little bay of Laspi at the 
foot of some high mountains, which affords a good anchorage 
sheltered from west, round by north to southeast, and is much 
frequented by vessels seeking shelter from the easterly winds which 
often prevail. 

The most sheltered anchorage is about 500 yards from the shore, 
in 10 fathoms, abreast of the small headland on the southern shore, 
on which stands a white house belonging to the coast guard. 
Coasters loading at this place approach nearer the shore at the head 
of the bay, and moor in about 4 fathoms, over a muddy bottom, 
which shelves very much from the shore. It is said that at this 
anchorage the westerly winds seldom blow home. However, those 
from south-southwest are generally considered dangerous, and a 
coaster must have good strong hawsers made fast to the shore to 
secure her against the strong northeasterly winds which sweep down 
the hills with great violence. The coast from Laspi Bay to Sarich 
Point is safe to approach, and at Kapkane a clear spring of water 
is found near the shore. 

Sarich Point, the most southern projection of Crimea, is of mod- 
erate height and bordered by bold and pointed rocks and a rocky 
bank of sunken rocks, extending 300 yards to the southward, where 
lies a rock about the size of a boat, named Sarich Rock, or by the 
Tartars, Chuban Kay a (Shepherd's stone), which is often passed 
unnoticed, while at other times it assumes the appearance of a 
formidable projection. 

Sarich Point Light, alternating fixed and group flashing white 
and red, 125 feet above high water, is exhibited from a white 



BLACK seA — OMSSA fo keJktch strAit. 223 

cylindrical iron tower located near the south shore of the 
Crimea on an isolated rock. 

Landmark.. — A white vertical stripe, 40 feet long and 4^ feet 
wide and 36 feet above the water, is painted on the cliffs f mile 
northwestward of Sarich Point. 

Fores Church, 2 miles eastward of Sarich Point, is conspicuous. 

Coast. — ^The southern coast of the Crimea from Cape Khersonese 
to Yalta is backed by table-lands of bold rocks, almost washed by 
the sea, and from Yalta to Cape Meganom by mountains of less 
uniform height, their bases being removed farther from the water's 
edge. 

The coast from Sarich Point to Cape Aitodor is bold to approach, 
with several little inlets, which ^-fford shelter for coasters with 
westerly winds, and in the fine season they are protected from those 
blowing at sea by the mountains on the coast. A depth of \^ 
fathoms will be found 200 yards from the shore, and 22 fathoms 
I mile. Care is, however, necessary to guard against the suddeii 
squalls to which some parts of this coast are subject. 

Cape Kikeneiz, ?^hich bears east 10 miles from Sarich Point, is a 
low and rocky projection, only recognized when running close to the 
coast. It is bordered by a few rocks, but they lie close to the shore. 

Landmark. — ^A white St. Andrew's Cross is painted at a height 
of 28 feet above the sea on Diva Kock, situated about 1 mile north- 
eastward of Cape Kikeneiz. 

Coast. — From Cape Kikeneiz the coast trends 78° for about 6J 
miles to Cape Aitodor, which may be recognized by its lighthouse, 
and forms a projection between them called Cape Ilmen, lying 2^ 
miles from Cape Kikeneiz. Between Cape Kikeneiz and Cape Ilmen 
several large rocks point out the anchorage near the village of Simeis 
(Simfis), where vessels lie sheltered from westerly winds in about 3 
fathoms, very near the shore, abreast of a beach on which are some 
houses and stores. 

About 1 mile eastward of Cape Ilmen is the village of Alupka, 
standing at the base of the angle of Ay Petros, or Mount St. Peter, 
a steep flat rocky hill, 4,046 feet high, which turns suddenly to the 
northward. The village may be easily recognized by a palace of 
considerable size, built of gray stone, a church having the appearance 
of a Greek temple, a pretty mosque, and other buildings surrounded 
with trees. On the heights between Alupka and Cape Aitodor and 
near Mount St. Peter are several beautiful dwelling houses, and on 
the shore an estate named Miskhor ; eastward of this is the village 
of Gaspra, conspicuous from seaward. Small vessels can anchor 
between Miskhor Estate and Cape Aitodor in a little cove, in 4 
fathoms, about 150 yards from the shore, abreast of the last trees in 



224 YALTA ROAD. 

the Miskhor garden and sheltered from the westward. There is a 
telegraph station at Alupka. 

Cape Aitodor (St. Theodore of the Greeks), the round extremity 
of a long, slightly inclined tract of land, bordered by limestone rocks, 
311 feet in height, is bold to approach. 

There is landing for boats in a small cove about ^ mile eastward 
of the lighthouse behind the eastern extremity of the cape, on 
which is a conspicuous house. . ^ 

Landmark. — A white equilateral triangle is painted, 21 feet 
above the sea, on the cliff 600 yards to the westward of the cape. 

Cape Aitodor Light, fixed white, 315 feet above high water, is 
exhibited from a yellow octagonal stone tower located at the entrance 
to Yalta Bay. 

Fogsignal. — The fogsignal is a bell. (See Light List.) 

Signal station. — A telegraph station annexed to the lighthouse 
transmits messages signaled from vessels by the International Code. 
Replies are not signaled to vessels. 

Caution. — The height of this fogsignal and the nature of its sound 
renders it improbable that it will be often heard by vessels approach- 
ing the cape. 

Yalta Road. — From Cape Aitodor the coast trends north-north- 
eastward 4J miles to the small town of Yalta. It then turns east- 
ward for about 4 miles to Nikitin Point, which bears 48° from Cape 
Aitodor, 7^ miles, forming between them an^ancharage named Yalta 
Road. 

From Cape Aitodor the shore is bold to approach until northward 
of Pototska, IJ miles south of Yalta, when a sand bank, with depths 
of less than 5 fathoms, commences, which fronts the town and ex- 
tends about 200 yards from the shore within the 5-fathom curve. 
This bank also borders the shore for some distance to the eastward 
of the town. 

Yalta Road is frequented by vessels, meeting with northeasterly 
winds, when bound to Theodosia or Kertch Strait. It is open from 
90° to 20° west, but although the winds from seaward rarely blow 
with any strength, the sea often rolls in with great violence, and ves- 
sels have been wrecked during the autumn months. It sometimes 
blows hard from the northwest. 

The anchorage is about J mile 144° from the town, in 10 fathoms 
over sand and mud; but small vessels anchor abreast of the town 
within the breakwater. 

Harbor. — A breakwater, 600 yards in length, extends in a south- 
westerly direction from Kilisi Point at the southern end of the town. 
There is a depth of from 21 to 25 feet inside the harbor and alongside 
the breakwater, except at the bend of the breakwater, where there is 
only 17 feet. Five mooring buoys are placed in the harbor. 



BLACK SEA — ODESSA TO KERTCH STRAIT. 225 

Yalta Lights two fixed green, 30 and 33 feet above high water, is 
exhibited from an iron post located on the extremity of the mole. 
' Light. — A fixed and flashing red light, 35 feet above high water, 
is exhibited from a tower located at the end of the harbor mole. 

Town. — The town of Yalta stands at the entrance of a beautiful 
valley in proximity to the ^nest scenery on the coast, and its white 
houses and churches may be recognized from a long distance at sea. 
Between Cape Aitodor and the town may be seen the ruins of the 
Imperial Palace of Oreanda, situated on a low part of the shore, with 
high cliifs and tall trees overshadowing it ; also the estate and mag- 
nificent Imperial Palace of Livadia, situated about 2 miles from 
Yalta. There is also a smaller Imperial Palace, named Eriklik, on 
the summit of Mount Megabi, reached by a road either from Livadia 
or Yalta. 

The population of Yalta in 1888 was about 3,000, largely increased 
in the summer season bv visitors. 

Communication. — Steamers call three times a week in summer 
and twice a week in winter both up and down the coast. A railway 
to Sevastopol is under construction. There is a telegraph station. 

Lifeboat. — ^A lifeboat is stationed at Yalta. 

Storm signals are shown from an' iron mast at the bend of the 
breakwater. 

XJrzuf.; — Nikitin Point, 4 miles eastward of Yalta, consists of a 
narrow shingle beach, above which the shore rises steeply and is 
covered with houses and gardens. The Government botanical gardens ' 
are situated on an elevation near this point. 

Rocks fringe the point and extend 150 yards from the shore. 
Thence the coast takes a northerly direction for 2^ miles to the 
village of Urzuf. and then curves 3 miles to the eastward to Cape 
Ayu Dagh. The houses of the village stand one above the other in 
the form of terraces on the western side of a high rock on the 
seashore, on which are the remains of walls. 

There is a post and telegraph office at Urzuf. 

Anchorage. — The anchorage in Urzuf Boad is in about 7 fathoms, 
over sand and mud, i mile south-southeast of the village. There is 
good anchorage J mile from the shore, in about 6 and 7 fathoms 
water, between the village and Adalar Rocks, 170 feet in height, 
which lie J mile to the eastward of it, and 600 yards to the southward 
of a white point. The rocks are steep-to, having a depth of 5J 
fathoms in the channel between them and 4J fathoms between the 
inner one and the white point. 

Between Adalar Eocks and Cape Ayu Dagh the shore bends into 
the northward, forming a cove, called Kiziltash, which is safe and 
deep. A vessel loading here with granite for the works of Sevastopol 



226 CAPE PLAKA. 

suffered no injury from a southwe^erfy wind when it was blowing 
hard in the offing. 

Cape Ayu Dagh (Bear Mountain) (lat. 44° 33' N., long. 34^ 
21' E.), although much lower than the other mountains on the coast, 
is still remarkable both from its form and color. Seen from the sea, 
its appearance is that of an island with a round surface, but when 
close in shore and approaching it either from the eastward or west- 
waixi it is easy to perceive the form from which it has derived its 
name, namely, that of a bear lying down. The Greek islanders of the 
Archipelago call it the Camilla (Camel). Its summit, which rises 
about 1,800 feet, is covered with trees, and its perpendicular shores 
may be approached without danger, the water being deep all round. 

Current. — The usual westerly current is felt at its greatest force 
near this cape. 

Cape Plaka. — From Cape Ayu Dagh the coast trends north - 
northeast for 2f miles to Cape Plaka, which is a bluff projecting to 
the eastward, rising in a conical form to 200 feet above the sea, and 
which may be recognized by a white square tower which stands on 
its summit. It is bordered by rocks, some of which are visible, and 
must be given a berth of more than 200 yards. The coast between 
forms a bay, in which are the villages of Partenit and Kuchuk Lam- 
bat. The former lies 1^ miles to the northward of the cape, and has 
a beach sheltered from the west and southwest, with a brook flowing 
through it. Kuchuk Lambat stands in the bend of the coast formed 
by Cape Plaka, projecting to the southeast, and is remarkable for 
its pretty houses. 

Anchorage. — The roadstead abreast of Kuchuk Lambat village 
is in great repute among the native coasters. Vessels generally 
anchor in 10 to 12 fathoms at 400 or 600 yards from the shore, but 
small vessels may anchor close in, with their anchors laid out to the 
southeast and southwest, and their sterns secured with hawsers to 
the rocks bordering Cape Plaka to the westward, which form a kind 
of jetty, sheltering them from the east-southeastward, but they are 
exposed to all winds between southeast and south-southwest. The 
southwest wind often blows with violence through an opening formed 
by the Ayu Dagh and the other mountains. 

Mount Kastel. — Between Cape Ayu Dagh and Cape Meganom, 
which bear from each other east-northeast and west-southwest 35 
miles, forming that portion of the southern coast of the Crimea 
which recedes to the northward, the shore is clean and safe to ap- 
proach. About 3 miles to the northward of Cape Plaka is Mount 
Kastel, 1,500 feet high, situated near the coast, covered with trees 
and very conspicuous. 

Chatuir Dagh. — The village of Alushta, 2^ miles northward of 
Mount Kastel, stands at the entrance of an extensive valley, at the 



BLACK SEA — ODESSA TO KBRTCH STRAIT. 227 

head of which rises Chatuir Dagh (Tent Mountain) to the height of 
4.970 feet above the sea, 6 miles from the coast. This mountain, 
the highest in the Crimea, is remarkable by its form and from its 
being isolated from the chain of mountains which it overtops. 
Mount Demirdzhi, with a summit of perpendicular rocks, lies 6 
miles northeastward of Chatuir Dagh. Between them rises the bare, 
steep, and rounded summit of Mount Indek. 

Alushta Anchorage. — There is anchorage abreast of Alushta 
Fort, which stands near the village, J mile from the shore, in about 
12 fathoms, over a muddy bottom, but this roadstead is open to all 
winds from east-northeast round bv south to south-southwest, and 
very heavy squalls come down from the mountains. 

The anchorage is only visited by vessels which call to load alcohol. 

Alushta Light, alternating white and red, 60 feet above high 
water, visible 6 miles, is exhibited from a red tower on pillars located 
on the southeast shore of the Crimea. 

Coast— Roadsteads. — About 5, 7, 8, 13, and 19 miles, respectively, 
northeastward of Alushta are the open roadsteads of Miliya Uzen, 
Sotera, Kuru Uzen, Tuak, Uskiut, and Kapskhor, which are more or 
less exposed to winds between east through south to southwest. The 
bottom, however, affords good holding ground. About 3 miles to 
the westward of Kapskhor the coast forms a little projection named 
Choban Kale or Khoban Kalessi,»on which stands a ruined tower. 

Sudak Bay — ^Anchorages. — About 7 miles eastward of Choban 
Kale are two other projections, named Chiken Point and Khoba 
(Koba) Point, and from thence the coast recedes to the northward, 
forming, between the latter point and Cape Meganom, a large bight, 
named Sudak Bay, which is divided into three parts. The first di- 
vision to the westward extends as far as Sudak Point, on which are 
the towers of the ancient Soldaya. It is bounded by woody moun- 
tains, and several buildings are about it. 

The anchorage in 9 fathoms, over a muddy bottom, is open from 
110° to 166°. There are 6 and 7 fathoms 200 yards from the shore. 

The second part of the bay is bordered by a long and wide beach to 
the eastward of Sudak Point, a steep rock with a tower on its summit 
and others on its sides at the entrance to a deep valley. 

The anchorage is in 10 fathoms, over a muddy bottom, about \ mile 
from the shore, with Cape Meganom bearing east-southeast, and 
Khoba point west-southwest. This is preferable to any other berth 
in the bight as it is a good position from which to get under way. 

The third division is between Cape Alchak Kaya (Alar Point) and 
Cape Meganom and is but little known, for vessels seldom anchor in 
it, although sheltered from 260° through north to 155°. A depth of 
10 fathoms will be found about \ mile from the shore. 



228 CAPE MEGANOM. 

Sudak Light, alternating green and white, 46 feet above high 
water, visible white 6 miles, green 3 miles, is exhibited from a yellow 
hut on pillars located on the southeast shore of the Crimea. 

The town of Sudak is situated 1 mile from the shore in the valley 
eastward of Sudak Point and is only partially visible from the an- 
chorage. 

Life-saving station. — There is a life-saving station, with rocket 
apparatus, near Sudak Point. 

Communication. — Steamers between Theodosia and Alushta call 
here. There is a telegraph station. 

Cape Meganom (lat. 44° 47^' N., long. 35° 5' E.).— The mountain 
that forms Cape Meganom is of moderate height, but it may be 
recognized at a distance from seaward on account of its projection 
to the southward. It is arid and even, and its sides form three angles. 
The coast all round is bold to approach, with a depth of 15 to 20 
fathoms i mile from the shore. 

Cape Meganom Light, fixed and flashing white, 324 feet above 
high water, visible flashing 25 miles and fixed 16 miles, is exhibited 
from a white octagonal masonry tower located on the extremity 
of the cape. 

Communication. — The lighthouse is connected with Sudak by 
telephone, and telegrams can be forwarded. 

Coast. — After rounding Cape Meganom the last great rocks of 
the Crimea will be seen to the northeastward, named Kara Dagh 
(Black Mountain), beyond which the country is more level. The 
cape below Kara Dagh is high, with an irregular surface of rocks 
resembling towers and with a considerable depth around it. At its 
foot, to the westward, lies the village of Otuz, off which there is an- 
chorage in 12 fathoms, bottom mud and shells. 

Eski Dagh (Mount Chalka), situated 5^ miles 258° from Kara 
Dagh, is 2,100 feet in height and has three summits. The center and 
highest has the form of a flattened cone and is covered with wood; 
the others are pointed and bare. This mountain, like Kara Dagh, is 
visible 40 miles and is a good landmark. 

From Kara Dagh the coast again trends to the northward for 3 
miles, and then runs to the eastward for 5 miles to Kiik Atlama 
Point, forming the picturesque little bay of Koktabel at the foot of 
the valley of that name. It affords excellent anchorage, but is open 
to the south and southeast. The eastern side of the bay is formed 
by a narrow point projecting i mile to the southward, to the east- 
ward of which, a little distance from the shore, will be seen two white 
rocks, like boats under sail. 

Kiik Atlama Point (Sta^s Leap) projects to the southeast, 
and its extremity is formed by a little hill with steep sides, which, 
being united to the coast by a low isthmus, gives it the appearance of 



BLACK SEA — ODESSA TO KERTCH STRAIT. 229 

an island when seen at any distance. A small portion of rock, de- 
tached as it were from its northeast extremity, has the appearance 
of an inaccessible islet, its separation from the point being about the 
length of a stag's leap. The point is steep-to and bold to approach. 

Dvuyakoma Bay Anchorage. — From Kiik Atlama Point the 
coast falls back 2 miles to the westward, forming Dvuyakorna Bay, 
called bjj^ the Italians Porto Genovese. It is open from 45° through 
east to 157°, and has a depth of 7 to 14 fathoms with a mud bottom, 
J to I mile from the shore, which is bordered in some places by little 
ridges of rock lying close to the coast. 

A small cove, which narrows the isthmus, is formed about } mile 
to the westward of Kiik Atlama Point. It is about i mile wide and 
5 mile long, and has from 6 to 7 fathoms at its entrance, over sand 
and mud, and 3 to 4 fathoms at less than 200 yards from the shore. 
The northeast wind blows right into it. 

Cape St, Elias lies 4 miles 22° from Kiik Atlama Point north- 
northeast. The land then turns to the northwest for nearly 1 mile to 
Theodosia Point. Some rocks border the cape, but a depth of 4 
fathoms will be found 300 yards, and 10 fathoms J mile to the east- 
ward of it. Shoal water also extends in a northerly direction from 
Theodosia Point for 450 yards, where there is a depth of 3J fathoms. 
A small white chapel, dedicated to St. Elias, stands on an elevation 
I mile to the westward of the cape and may be recognized from a 
long distance. 

Gape St. Elias Lights alternating white and green, 216 feet above 
high water, visible white 20 miles, green 10 miles, is exhibited from 
a white hut on pillars located on the south slope of the cape. 

Fogsignal. — The fogsignal is a siren. (See Light List.) 

Gulf of Theodosia (Kaffa Bay) .—Cape St. Elias is the south- 
western extremity of a deep semicircular bay known as Theodosia 
Gulf, or KaflFa Bay, formed between that point and Cape Chauda 
(Tash Kyryk), which lies 17 miles to the eastward, by the coast 
receding nearly 8 miles to the northward. It has the very convenient 
depth of 10 to 15 fathoms all over it and 5 fathoms within IJ miles 
of its shores, which are safe and clean to approach. 

After passing Cape St. Elias and Theodosia Point, to which a 
berth should be given of 600 yards, a vessel, with a southerly wind, 
should immediately haul up for the anchorage, as squalls are frequent 
from the mountains above the town. 

The roadstead abreast the town is considered very good, -the 
holding ground being excellent, and it is sheltered from all winds 
except those from east and east-southeast. These winds send in a 
heavy swell, which, however, is attended with but little danger. The 
usual anchorage is to the northeastward of the eastern pierhead in a 



230 THEODOSIA. 

depth of 8. fathoms, the bottom consisting of mud with sand and 
shells. 

Vessels in quarantine anchor off the quarantine station. 

Commercial Harbor. — There is an artificial harbor formed by 
two moles at Theodosia, having an area of about 26 acres and dredged 
to a depth of 24 feet, with quayage of 1,349 yards; and alongside the 
northern side of the western mole the bottom has been dredged to a 
depth of from 25 to 28 feet. This port in moderately severe winters, 
especially during the months of January and February, will be 
closed more or less by ice. 

Theodosia Light, fixed white, with a red sector, 43 feet' above 
high water, is exhibited from a white cylindrical iron tower located 
on the head of the east mole. 

Lights. — Two fixed white lights, 31 feet above high water, are 
exhibited from a white iron post located at the south angle of the 
head of the large west mole. 

Two fixed white lights, 31 feet above high water, are exhibited 
from a white iron post located on the north angle of the west mole. 

Theodosia. — The town of Theodosia, the ancient Kaffa of the 
Genoese, formerly the largest and most important in the Crimea, 
stands at the western side of Kaffa Bay, and is connected with Kertch 
by rail, also with the main railway to Sevastopol by a single line 
about 60 miles in length. Although prettily situated, as a watering 
place it is not considered so attractive as Yalta. It has become the 
commercial port of the Crimea instead of Sevastopol, and in 1900 
had a population of 27,236. 

Communication. — Steamers between Odessa, Kertch, Batum, and 
intermediate ports call several times a wek. Theodosia also is con- 
nected to the Russian railway and telegraph systems. 

Coal and supplies. — In normal times about 1,300 tons of Donetz 
coal was usually in stock. Coaling is carried out by means of lighters 
or alongside the quay, where there is a depth of 23 feet. 

The supply of fresh water is limited, especially in the summer 
months, when it barely suffices for local requirements. 

Lifeboat. — There is a lifeboat stationed near Theodosia Point. 

Quarantine. — Theodosia is a quarantine station for vessels com- 
ing from infected ports and bound for Russian ports in the Black 
Sea. 

The quarantine buildings are situated at the eastern end of the 
town and are in the old Genoese fortress, several towers of which are 
still standing. 

Cape Chauda (lat. 45^ 0' N., long. 35° 51' E.), Tash Kyryk of the 
Tartars and Chiavetta of the Italians, is bordered on its western 
side by some rocks lying close to the shore. In approaching from the 
westward it may be recognized by its lighthouse and a round hill 



BLACK SEA — ODESSA TO KERTCH STRAIT. 231 

called Mount Dyurmen, which appears connected with it, although 
lying 5 miles to the eastward. A Tartar village, named Karangat, 
stands near Mount Dyurmen, southward of which the coast projects 
and forms the little point of Dyurmen, which bears east by north 
about 5 miles from Cape Chauda. Between Cape Chauda and Dyur- 
men Point, foul ground extends nearly a mile from the shore. 

Chaudinski Lights alternating fixed and flashing white and red, 
121 feet above high water, is exhibited from a white quadrangular 
stone tower located 500 yards from the extremity of Cape Chauda. 

The green secto^r of Kyz Aul Light, visible between the bearings of 
60° and 70°, covers the rocks, and the white light in sight leads 
southward of them. 

Signal station. — Telegrams signaled by passing vessels are for- 
warded by telephone to Theodosia for transmission. 

Anchorage.— There is anchorage in a small inlet to the eastward 
of Dyurmen Point in 4 fathoms, over mud and sand, about J mile 
from the shore, sheltered from 247° through north to 90°. From 
thence the coast again recedes to the northward, and then trends 
eastward to Mount Opuk, which bears from Dyurmen Point 81°, 
distant llj miles. 

Mount Opuky which rises to a height of 630 feet, may be seen at a 
great distance, and is sometimes compared to Gibraltar, although it 
is much lower. Its summit is flat and covered with rocky projections, 
which have the appearance of fortifications. Mount Opuk can be 
rounded very closely, and between it and Elchan Kaya Rocks there 
are depths of 5 to 7 fathoms. 

The current here runs strong to the southwestward. ' 

Anchorage. — A vessel will find anchorage in 5 to 6 fathoms in 
the bend of the coast to the eastward of the mount, sheltered from 
247° through north to 78°. 

Elchan Kaya or Karavy Rocks. — The three rocks named Elchan 
or Karavy lie offshore, about 2 miles 247° of Mount Opuk, and when 
seen from the southward appear like two vessels and a boat under 
sail. . They are bold close-to, and a vessel may anchor near them, in 
about 9 fathoms water, with a mud bottom, when waiting for a favor- 
able wind to enter the Kertch Strait. 

Kyz (Kniz) Aul Point. — From Mount Opuk the coast line, 
which consists of landslips, is reddish or gray in color, and trends 
to the northward and eastward for 6 miles to Kyz Aul Point. 

Kertch Strait Lights fixed white, with red and green sectors, 204 
feet above high water, is exhibited from an octagonal stone towers 
with white and black vertical stripes, located on Kyz Aul Point, 
west side of the entrance of the strait. 

Fogsignal, — The fogsignal is a bell. 



232 KTZ AUL BAKK. 

Signal station. — ^Telegrams communicated by the International 
Code to the signal station at Kyz Aul Light will be forwarded, pay- 
ment being made by those to whom they are addressed. 

Storm signals are also shown from the Hothouse. 

Kyz Aul Bank. — A dangerous horseshoe-shaped bank, about 1 
mile in length and breadth, with isolated patches of less than 6 feet, 
lies southeastward of Kyz Aul Point. 

Buoy. — A bellbuoy is placed, in about 5 fathoms, close to the 
southeastern edge of the bank, 1.6 miles from the lighthouse. 

A red spar buoy, with inyerted cone topmark, is moored close to 
the bellbuoy. 

Spitfire Bock. — ^Another dangerous rocky bank, with 17 feet least 
water, lies nearly 3 miles to the southeast of Kyz Aul Bank, 5 miles 
southward of Cape Takil, and is in the fairway to Kertch Strait 
when coming from the westward. Two shoals, with 25 and 30 feet 
water, respectiyely, lie 1^ miles to the westward of Spitfire Rock. 

Bange marks. — Cape Chauda opens southward of Elchan Kaya 
Rocks, bearing 268°, leads southward of Spitfire Rock, but oyer the 
30 feet shoal mentioned aboye; and the highest tumulus oyer Ak 
Bumu well open of Cape Takil, bearing north, leads eastward of it. 



CHAPTER VIL 



KERTCH STRAIT AND SEA OF AZOV. 

Kertch Strait — Depths. — This strait, which unites the Black Sea 
with the Sea of Azov, is 27 miles in length, and varies in width from 
8 miles at its southern and northern entrances to only f mile in the 
narrows between Cape Eavloski (Paul) and Tuzla Spit. It is much 
encumbered with shallow banks, but a narrow channel has been 
dredged through, which vessels drawing up to 24 feet are permitted 
to use. 

Currents. — ^There is an almost constant current from the Sea of 
Azov, having a velocity of 1 to 2 knots. It acquires its greatest 
strength in spring and autumn, and with a strong east-northeast 
wind blowing, attains, in the narrows of the strait, a velocity of 5 
knots. It runs, however, fairly through. 

Water level. — A continuance of strong northeasterly winds will 
increase the depths in the strait by as much as 2^ feet. Southwesterly 
winds under the same circumstances will decrease the depths in the 
strait by 1 foot or more. 

After the subsidence of prolonged northeasterly winds, the current 
in the narrows will be found setting toward the- Sea of Azov, and this 
will continue until the ordinary water level is reestablished. 

Pilots. — Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels navigating Kertch 
Strait. Pilots may be obtained at Tuzlo Lightvessel, Kertch, Yeni- 
kale, and the guard ship off Yenikale. 

Vessels requiring pilots should hoist a signal flag and keep it 
hoisted until a pilot arrives. In answer to his signal a flag hoisted at 
the pilot station will indicate that the pilot is on his way to the 
vessel. 

A black ball hoisted instead of a flag indicates that on account of 
the weather a pilot can not board the vessel. Vessels are not piloted 
by night. 

WESTERN SHORE. 

Cape Takil (lat. 45° 6' N., long. 36° 28J' E.), 4^ miles northeast- 
ward of Kyz Aul Point, is about 270 feet in height, and forms the 
southwest extremity of Kertch Strait. The old light tower, painted 
white with a gray lantern, stands on the summit, and being elevated 
330 feet above the sea is a conspicuous daymark. 

172982'— 20 16 233 



234 KAMUISH BURNU. 

Niger Bock. — Cape Takil is bordered by a reef which, commenc- 
ing at Kyz Aul Point, extends at first only 400 yards from the 
shore, but near Cape Takil runs out in a southeasterly direction for 
about } mile. Near the eastern edge, and 143° from the old light 
tower, is the Niger Rock, with less than 6 feet on it, 1,200 yards 
from the shore. A depth of 5 fathoms will be found along the edge 
of the reef, but a vessel not seeing the buoy, which may be adrift, 
should give Cape Takil a berth of at least 2 miles. 

Buoy. — A red spar buoy with inverted cone topmark is moored 
eastward of Niger Rock. 

Coast. — About § mile to the northward of the northern extremity 
of Cape Takil the coast falls back a little to the westward, forming 
n point, abreast which, ^ mile from the shore, is a reef with only 7 
feet over it and 5 fathoms at its edge. To the northward, 4 fathoms 
will be found i mile from the shore. Another reef, with a depth 
of 6 feet, lies nearly ^ mile from the shore, 3^ miles north-northwest 
from Cape Takil and abreast of a cliff between Chongelek Point 
and the coast guard station south of it. Northward of this point, is an 
extensive salt lake, which may be seen from the deck of a vessel 
over the strip of sand dividing it from the sea. Near the edge of 
the reef off Chongelek Point there are 5 fathoms water, and the 
hhore from thence to Kamuish (Reedy) Burnu may be approached 
to i mile, where a depth of 20 feet will be found. 

Kamuish Burnu (lat. 45° 14' N., long. 36° 26^' E.), 91 feet high, 
situated about 8 miles northward of Cape Takil, will be easily 
recognized. It is the northern termination of the coast hills, and a 
coast guard station and mill lie about i mile to the southward of 
it. A few rocks border the point. 

From thence the shore is low and sandy, terminating 2 miles to 
north -northeastward in a low sandy peninsula, about 400 3^ards 
wide, bold to approach, having about 18 feet water off its northern 
end, 300 yards from the shore. Westward of the peninsula is a lake 
5 mile long, north and south, which has a depth of 12 feet and 
communicates with the sea by a narrow and shallow channel, only 
practicable to small coasting vessels, drawing about 6 or 6 feet. 

Kange lights. — Two fixed white lights, 112 feet above high 
water, are exhibited from a white octagonal stone tower located on 
Kamuish Burnu. 

A fixed green light, 102 feet above high water, is exhibited from 
the south side of the same tower. 

A fixed red light, 164 feet above high water, is exhibited from 
a white pyramidal stone tower located 1,686 yards 217° from the 
ffont light. 

The green and red lights in range, astern, lead through Burunski 
Channel, 



KERTCH STRAIT — SEA OF AZOV. 235 

Kamuisli Bumu (Ambelakl) Bay. — From the entrance to the 
lake, mentioned above, the coast trends a short distance to the west- 
ward, and then northeastward to Cape Pavlovski (Paul), forming 
between them the small bay of Kamuish Burnu or Ambelaki, which 
has a depth of 14 to 18 feet, and affords anchorage in 2 to 3 fathoms 
600 yards from the shore, avoiding a bank of 5 feet in the western 
part of the bay, 400 yards from the shore, near the head of the jetty. 
The bay is, however, exposed to northeasterly winds. 

Range lights. — A fixed red light, 105 feet above high water, 
visible 16 miles, is exhibited from a red square stone tower located at 
Kamuish, near Lazarett, on the cliff. 

A fixed white light, 347 feet above high water, visible 25 miles, is 
exhibited from a square stone tower located on the cliff west of 
Churnbash, 5 miles 247° from the front light. 

These light in range, bearing 247° astren, lead through the third 
reach of the channel. 

Cape Pavlovski (Paul) , 5 miles northeast of Kamuish Bumu, is 
of moderate height, with a battery and some buildings on it. 

Lights. — A fixed blue light, 224 feet above high water, is exhib- 
ited from a white square stone tower located on Cape Pavlovski, west 
side of the strait, 1,600 yards 248° from the 364- foot hill. 

A fixed red light, 336 feet above high water, is exhibited from 
a round iron tower on a skeleton truss located 717 yards 357° from 
the fixed blue light. 

These lights in range bearing 357° lead through Pavlovski Channel 
to its junction with Burunski Channel. 

Fogsignal. — There is a gong at the life-saving station. A cannon 
is fired in response to vessel's signals. 

Lifeboat. — A life-saving station, with lifeboat, is situated on the 
shore near the lighthouse. 

Beacons. — A white stone beacon^ 28 feet high and 289 feet above 
the sea, is situated 286 yards 340° from Pavlovski Lighthouse. This 
beacon, when in range with Cape Pavlovski Lighthouse, is intended 
to lead clear and westward of Tuzla Bank. 

Kertcli Fort stands on Cape Pavlovski and covers the adjacent 
heights, which rise 864 feet above the sea. 

A small harbor is situated on the northern side of the cape. 

Ak Burnu — Bank. — One mile to the northeastward of Cape Pav- 
lovski is Ak Burnu, remarkable both for its color and its numerous 
hillocks, on one of which stands a white house, visible a long distance. 
At Cape Pavlovski the depth of 15 feet is found about 100 yards from 
the shore, but from thence a bank of shoal water extends in an 
easterly direction for about 1^ miles. One-half mile to the southward 
and 1 mile east-southeastward of Ak Burnu there is also a depth of 



236 KEBTCH BAY. 

15 feet, and between the latter spot and Ak Bumu there are shoal 
patches of 6 feet. 

Buoys. — The southern side of the shoal is marked by three buoys, 
painted in red and white bands and with inverted cone topmark. The 
westernmost has three white bands, the next two white bands, and 
the easternmost one white band. A lightbuoy, painted red and 
exhibiting a flashing red light, is mqored in a depth of 22 feet at the 
eastern end of the shoal. 

Caution. — In view of the frequent grounding of vessels entering 
Kertch Strait, mariners are reminded that this bank can not be 
distinguished by discoloration of the water. 

Telegraph cable. — A submarine cable has been laid between Ak 
Burnu and Taman village, situated on the southern shore of Taman 
Lake. Its track is marked by black and yellow buoys, each sur- 
mounted by a black flag. Anchorage on the range of cable is pro- 
hibited. 

Kertch Bay. — From Ak Burnu the coast falls back 2 miles to the 
northwestward, forining a deep bay 2^ miles wide, at the head of 
which stands the town of Kertch. 

The depth in the bay decreases gradually from 20 feet near the 
eastern extremity of Ak Burnu shoal to 12 feet about 600 yards from 
the town. The bottom consists generally of mud and weed. The 
south shore of the bay from Ak Burnu is at first steep, then low and 
sandy as far as the town. On the low part of the shore are some 
factories, sheds, and several piers. 

On the southern side of the town is Mount Mitridate, on which 
there is a chapel. Lower down, on the slope of the hill, is a church 
having the appearance of a Grecian Temple. 

The town of Kertch, which presents a pleasing aspect, occupies 
the site of the ancient Greek colony of Panticapseum, once the queen 
city of the Cimmerian Bosporus, now Kertch Strait. The name 
Kertch, or more properly Kerch, is a corruption of the name Kher- 
seti, which the Turks gave to the fortress erected here by the Genoese. 
The population in 1897 was about 33,300. 

Harbor works. — The remains of an ancient mole, 2 or 3 feet 
under water, extends from near the lighthouse for 300 yards in an 
east-southeasterly direction. 

A new mole, which when completed will extend 1,260 feet from 
the shore, with a head or arm 420 feet in length, is under construc- 
tion at the north end of the town. The side walls are each marked, 
at their outer extremities by a red flag and at night by two red lights, 
placed vertically. Vessels must not pass within 350 feet of these 
red flags or lights or between them and the shore. Very little prog- 
ress has as yet been made with the work (December, 1907). North- 



KERTCH STRAIT — SEA OF AZOV, 237 

ward of the lighthouse the town is fronted by a quay, extending from 
which are several piers. 

Dredged channel. — A channel, 18 feet deep and 47 feet wide, is 
being dredged into the harbor now under construction. The depth 
at present (1907) is 14 feet. The channel is marked by buoys sur- 
mounted by red flags and exhibiting white lights at night. 

The eastern side of the channel is indicated by two columns in 
range, each 28 feet high, surmounted by a flag by day and by a light 
by night, situated on the northern shore of the bay about i mile 
eastward of the town. 

Lights. — Two fixed red lights, 36 feet abdve high water, are 
exhibited from a red circular iron tower located at Kerch, on the 
elbow of the Genoese Wharf. 

Two fixed red lights are exhibited from the pier of the Russian 
Steam Navigation Co. 

Lightbuoy. — A red buoy, exhibiting two fixed red lights placed 
vertically, is moored 400 yards 132° from the lighthouse. 

Pilots. — There is a pilot station near the lighthouse. 

Communication. — There is steam communication between Kertch 
and Poti, occupying 48 hours, calling at Novorossisk and Sukhum 
Kale en route. Steamers run in summer practically every day be- 
tween the ports of the Black Sea and Sea of Azov; and in winter, 
according to the severity of the weather. Navigation is usually 
closed for a period of from 4 to 6 weeks. There is telegraphic com- 
munication with all parts; also railway communication. 

Signal station. — There is a Lloyd's signal station at Cape Zmiini, 
3 miles eastward of Kertch. 

Storm signals are hoisted on a special staff on Mount Mitridate. 

Weather bulletins showing the state of the weather in the vari- 
ous ports in the Black Sea and Sea of Azov are posted up daily at 
the customhouse and on the wall of the customs watch house. 

Coal and supplies. — In normal times about 7,000 tons of native 
coal were kept in stock, and delivered alongside in barges ; but all 
strong winds, setting up a sea, interfere with coaling. Supplies of 
sorts could be obtained; fresh provisions were plentiful; the water 
is not of good quality. No repairs can be executed. In the event of 
sickness seamen are admitted to the town hospital. 

Quarantine. — The quarantine establishment. If miles to the east- 
ward of the town, on Quarantine Point, is marked by a flagstaff, 
Vessels bound to the Sea of Azov undergo, when necessary, quaran- 
tine at Kertch. The quarantine anchorage is between the red buoy 
off Ak Burnu and the quarantine station. The limit of this anchor- 
age on the side of the town is indicated by spar buoys surmounted by 
brooms. 



238 KBBTCH ROAD — YENIKALB. 

Vessels arriving at Kertch will be boarded by the health officer, and 
officers in command are not to communicate with the quarantine office 
to obtain pratique. Vessels requiring disinfection must proceed to 
Theodosia or Odessa for the purpose. 

Vessels outward bound must await the visit of the customs officer 
under penalty of a fine. Pratique is granted opposite the fortress 
and not at the Yenikale end of the channel. 

The hatches of vessels bound to ports in the Sea of Azov are sealed 
at Kertch. 

Kertch Road — ^Anchorages. — Naval vessels anchor off the prin- 
cipal pier southward of the lighthouse. 

Merchant vessels anchor in the bight northward of the old mole 
according to their draft. The bottom is very soft. 

Vessels completing their cargoes generally anchor southward of Ak 
Bumu Bank, in Tuzla or South Eoad, southward of and not less than 
200 yards from the range of leading lights for the Kertch- Yenikale 
dredged channel in a depth of from 21 to 23 feet. Vessels are per- 
mitted to load to a draft of 22 feet. 

Prohibited anchorages. — Vessels are prohibited from anchoring 
in the dredged channels, or within the limits of the sector of light 
shown from Kertch Lighthouse, or in the vicinity of the telegraph 
cable from Ak Bumu to Tuman. 

Cape Zmiini is situated on the northern shore of the bay, 1 mile 
eastward of Quarantine Point. Some rocky patches, with 4 feet 
water over them, lie 500 yards east-southeastward from the point, 
and are marked on their southwestern side by a red spar buoy with 
inverted cone topmark moored in a depth of 13 feet. 

There is a landing quay 600 yards northwestward of the point. 

Lloyd's signal station stands on Cape Zmiini. The signal 
mast, which is elevated 164 feet above the sea, has its lower part 
painted white and the upper part black. The lookout house, near the 
flagstaff, is painted white. 

Yenikale. — The town of Yenikale stands on a point at the nar- 
rowest part of Kertch Strait, about 5^ miles to the eastward of Kertch 
and about the same distance east -northeast of Ak Bumu. A 
fortress is erected on the curve of a steep shore, which gives the point 
a peculiar appearance. 

A broad sand flat, with 4 to 12 feet, which begins 1 mile to the 
westward of the town and terminates at the point, extends J mile 
to the southward as far as the dredged channel. 

Anchorage. — A vessel seeking an anchorage off Yenikale may 
approach the fortress and the sandy shore to the northward of it, 
which is named by the Russians Opasnaya (dangerous), to within J 
or ^ mile, where there is a depth of about 15 feet. Vessels from the 



KERTCH STRAIT — SEA OF AZOV. 239 

Sea of Azov used formerly to anchor here and discharge part of their 
cargoes to enable them to pass the shallows to the southwestward, 
but the dredged channel is now navigable by vessels of 20 feet draft. 

Krugoi Bank, situated about 1 mile 146° from Yenikale Point, is 
li miles in length and about | mile in breadth, with depths of 7 to 12 
feet over it. Its northern edge has been dredged to a depth of 20 
feet, forming a part of the Kertch- Yenikale Channel to the Sea of 
Azov. 

, Buoys. — ^A spar buoy, painted red and white and surmounted by a 
red flag over a white flag, is moored on the southeastern side of this 
bank, at about i mile to the southward of Yenikale Point. 

A black and white buoy, surmounted by a checkered ball, is moored 
in 8 feet of water on the northern end of Krugoi Bank and on the 
southern side of the dredged channel. 

Pilots. — The headquarters of the Kertch Strait pilots is at 
Yenikale. 

There is a pilot station in the town, also on board the guardship. 

Depth signals, to indicate the depth of water in the Kertch- 
Yenikale dredged channel, are made by the International Code from 
a signal mast at the pilot station in the town and are repeated from 
the guardship. 

Lifeboat. — ^A short distance southwest of the town there is a life- 
boat and rocket station, consisting of several buildings of white stone. 

Cape Yenikale.— Cape Yenikale (Fanar), which lies about 2f 
miles northeastward of Yenikale, is steep and rocky. Between the 
cape and Opasnaya Beach there is a depth of 8 feet in a little inlet 
formed by the shore receding to the westward. Mount Khronia, 
which rises 2 miles to the westward of Cape Yenikale, has a loiig 
crest, at the eastern end of which is a conspicuous small summit. 

Cape. Yenikale Light, flashing white with a red sector, 409 feet 
above high water, visible 27 miles, is exhibited from a circular stone 
tower located at the west side on the north entrance to Kerch Strait. 

Shoal. — ^A shoal about 30 yards in extent, with a depth of 18 feet 
and 24 to 25 feet around,* lies with Cape Yenikale Lighthouse bearing 
326% lA miles. 

Buoy. — The position of the shoal is marked by a black and white 
spar buoy surmounted by a black ball. 

Telegraph cables. — Submarine telegraph cables cross the strait 
from a point 800 yards northward of Cape Yenikale Lighthouse to 
Kosenko farm, on the opposite shore. Vessels are prohibited from 
anchoring in their vicinity. 

Cape Khroni, situated 4J miles 337° from Cape Yenikale Light- 
house, is high, rounded, and sloping, and forms the western entrance 
point of Kertch Strait from the Sea of Azov, 



240 VOLSKI. 

EASTERN SHORE. 

Cape Eishla, also known as Zhelyezni Bog, the southeastern 
point of Kertch Strait, is reddish in color with a flat summit and 
steep cliff, and lies at the foot of a hill between Bugaz Channel (the 
mouth of Kuban Lake) and Cape Panaghia. 

Outlying dangers — Eishla Beef. — About 2^ miles 140° from 
Cape Kishla is Chernyshef, an 18-foot isolated patch, which is the 
southeast extreme of a long and narrow reef, named Kishla, which 
thence curves for 2^ miles northwestward toward Cape KishFa, from 
which its northern extremity bears 213°, f mile. This reef as well 
as those westward of it is the more dangerous as the cape is not 
easily recognized, having nothing on it to distinguish it from the 
rest of the coast, which has the same bold appearance. It has 
patches with depths of 5 to 18 feet, with 5 fathoms at its edges, and 
there is a depth of 5 to 7 fathoms between the reef and the rocks 
which front Cape Kishla, which rocks extend 3 miles to the east- 
ward of it and i mile from the shore. There is a depth of about 4 
fathoms between the northern end of Kishla Reef and the cape. 

About 3 miles westward of the center of Kishla Reef several 
rocks exist. 

Highflyer Bock (Southeast Aksenof), over which the depth 
is 14 feet, lies 3 miles 230° from Cape Kishla. A patch of 28 feet, 
named Northwest Aksenof, lies 312°, 2.1 miles from Highflyer Rock. 

Buoy. — ^A black spar buoy, with conical topmark, marks the west- 
em side of Highflyer Rock. 

Volski, a patch of 18 feet, lies nearly IJ miles east of Highflyer 
Rock; another, with 24 feet, named Viper (Savenko) Rock, lies 1.2 
miles southeast; and a third, Andreyef, of 28 feet, 2^ miles east- 
southeast from the same rock ; but it is probable that all the ground 
between Highflyer Rock and Cape Kishla is foul. 

Clearing marks. — Vessels should pass outside these dangers by 
keeping Cape Tuzla well open to the westward of Cape Panaghia, 
bearing 343°, or at night by keeping in the sector of light shown 
from Pavlovski Lighthouse. 

Cape Panaghia lies 4J miles west-northwest from Cape Kishla, 
and nearly midway between them a spit of about 3 fathoms extends 
1 mile from the shore, but the whole space appears to be foul ground 
and should be avoided. In passing the cape give it a berth of 2 
miles to avoid the foul ground off it. 

Fulton Rock.— From Cape Panaghia a ridge of rocky pinnacles 
above and below water extends 275°, the outermost of which, 
named Fulton (Trutaeva) Rock, is nearly IJ miles from the cape 
and has only 3 feet over it. 



KBRTCH STRAIT — SEA OF AZOV. 241 

Clearing mark. — All these dangers will be cleared by keeping 
Cape Yenikale Lighthouse open of Cape Tuzla, bearing 11°. 

Buoy. — A black spar buoy with conical topmark is placed west- 
ward of Fulton Rock in a depth of 40 feet. 

Cape Tuzla^ 3J miles 337° from Cape Panaghia, is steep, and from 
it a ridge of dangerous rocks extends for nearly J mile to the west- 
ward. 

Between Panaghia Rocks and Cape Tuzla the coast should be 
given a berth of over 1 mile to avoid the rocky bank which extends 
offshore, in one place to as much as f mile. Some of the rocks on 
the bank are awash ; others have from 5 to 8 feet over them. Two 
patches of 16 feet lie, respectively, 275° 1 mile and 281° 1.7 miles 
from Cape Tuzla. 

Lightvessel. — Tuzla Lightvessel exhibits two fixed white lights, 
one from each mast, 32 feet above water, visible 9 miles ; straw color, 
black ball at each masthead is anchored near entrance to Pavlocski 
Channel, 6.5 miles 108° from Kamuish Burnu front light. 

Fogsignal. — The fogsignal is a bell. 

Tuzla Spit and Bank. — A narrow sand spit 7 miles long stretches 
out to the northwestward from a position 1 mile northeastward of 
Cape Tuzla, in the direction of Cape Pavolsks, and nearly bars 
Kertch Strait, leaving a passage of only ^ mile in width between the 
bank which prolongs it and the cape. There are some fishermen's 
huts on the spit, also a coast-guard station, and 6 miles northwest- 
ward of Cape Tuzla there is a beacon. At the outer end of the spit 
is a sunken stone barrier with a depth of only 6 feet over it. 

Tuzla Bank, which borders the spit, has a depth of 2 fathoms 
about f mile from the western side of the spit, and 3 fathoms from 
IJ to 2 J miles distant. The depth on the portion of the bank south- 
westward from the extremity of Tuzla Spit is only 14 or 15 feet. 

Lightbuoy. — A black buoy, exhibiting an occulting white light 
and surmounted by a whittle and lantern, is moored about 1,000 yards 
314° from the west end of Tuzla Spit. 

Fogsignal. — The fogsignal is a whistle sounded by the motion of 
the waves. 

Buoys.: — The western side of the Tuzla Bank is marked by five 
black spar buoys surmounted by cones. These buoys mark the eastern 
side of the channel. 

The Tuzla Bank buoys are not withdrawn during winter. 

Three red buoys, surmounted by hourglass topmarks, mark the 
southern limit of the spoil ground southward of Tuzla Spit. 

A black target buoy surmounted by a flag has been moored 1,700 
yards west from the Tuzla Spit Beacon. It is removed in winter. 



242 TAMAN LAKE. 

Clearing mark. — Should the light-and-whistle buoy be missing, 
the northwestern extremity of Tuzla Bank will be cleared by keeping 
Kamuish and Churubash Lighthouses in range, 246°. 

Anchorages. — ^Anchorage will be found to the southward of 
Tuzla Bank when northeast winds or the strength of the current pre- 
vent vessels from turning to windward. Large ships anchor to the 
westward of Cape Tuzla in from 30 to 40 feet water. 

Vessels also anchor in Tuzla or South Road, to the northeastward 
of the light-and-whistle buoy and to the southward of the range for 
the Kertch-Yenikale dredged channel. Two patches, with 18 and 
19 feet over them, respectively, lie in this anchorage. Each is marked 
by a black and whi);e checkered spar buoy surmounted by a ball. 

Caution. — Vessels entering or leaving this anchorage must not 
pass southward of the whistle-and-light buoy marking Tuzla Spit as 
it is moored close northwestward of a sunken stone barriet on which 
there is a depth of only 6 feet. 

Taman Lake. — ^Eastward of Tuzla Spit is an inlet, known as 
Taman Lake, which extends 20 miles in an east-northeast direction 
and is from 3J to 7 miles in breadth. 

The town of Taman stands upon the south shore of the lake about 
5 miles from Cape Tuzla. The coast between is bordered by rocks, 
but there is a depth of 12 feet J mile from the shore. There is a 
telegraph station in the town. 

About 1 mile to the eastward of Taman stands Phanagoria Fort, 
and thence the coast trends nearlv 2 miles northeastward, where 
Markitan Spit, a tongue of sand with 3 to 12 feet, projects 1 mile 
to the northward, nearly meeting a similar spit which extends 2^ 
miles southward from Rubanova Point, thus dividing the lake into 
two parts and leaving only a narrow passage, with a depth of 13 feet, 
between them. The eastern part of the lake, which is nearly 10 miles 
long, 3^ miles broad, and carries a depth of from 12 to 16 feet, over 
mud and shells, affords excellent shelter f rem all winds, but it is not 
frequented. 

Buoys. — The entrance to the lake from Kertch Strait, which is 
f mile wide and has a depth of 14 feet, is marked on the southern 
side nearly abreast of Tuzla Beacon by a black spar buoy, with up- 
right cone topmark, and on the northern side by a red spar buoy 
with inverted cone topmark. 

Chushka Spit is a tongue of sand stretching 9 miles in a south- 
west direction from a point 4J miles southwestward from Cape 
Kamennoi, which is the northern extremity of the coast of Taman. 
Its western edge is even and straight, but on its eastern side there 
are many indentations which vary in breadth from 100 to 1,000 
yards. A flat, which carries a depth of from 12 to 4 feet, surroimds 



KERTCH STRAIT — SEA OF AZOV, 243 

it, and at its southern end projects nearly 3 miles northwestward 
toward Kertch. The channel to Taman Lake lies between this bank 
and Tuzla Spit. Ak Burnu on a 306° bearing astern, leads through 
between the red and black spar buoys on the adjacent sand banks. 

Buoys. — A spoil ground between Krugoi Bank and Chushka Spit 
is marked by four black spar buoys, each surmounted by two cones, 
bases toward each other. 

Cape Kamennoi. — From the northern end of Chushka Spit the 
coast trends in a 33 "^ direction for 2 miles, when it turns to the east- 
ward, forming Cape Akhilleon. Three miles eastward of this point 
is Cape Kamennoi (Rocky), which forms the eastern point of en- 
trance of Kertch Strait and is of moderate height, steep, and of a 
reddish color. These capes are bordered by rocks, which will be 
avoided by keeping not less than 1 mile from the shore, where a 
depth of 5 fathoms will be found. 

Dredged channels. — A channel has been dredged through the 
banks in Kertch Strait. It consists of three sections, known as the 
Pavlovski, Burunski, and Kertch* Yenikale Channels, respectively. 

The three have a depth under ordinary circumstances of 24 feet 
and a breadth at the bottom of from 850 to 420 feet, which at their 
junction is increased to 490 feet. 

The depth in these channels is influenced by the direction of the 
wind, northeasterly winds increasing, and southwesterly winds de- 
creasing the depth. 

Pavlovski Channel^ the outer section, commences 3J miles 176° 
from Pavlovski Lighthouse. The Tuzla Lightvessel marks this posi- 
tion. The beacons southward of Pavlovski Lighthouse kept in range, 
bearing 356°, lead through the channel, which is about 2 J miles long. 

Burunski Channel, the second section, joins the northern end of 
Pavlovski Channel and is 2 miles in length. The beacons near 
Kamuish Burnu, kept in range, bearing 217°, lead through the 
channel which terminates abreast of Cape Pavlovski, when Kamuish 
and Churubash Lighthouse come into range, bearing 246°. 

Kertch-Tenikale Channel commences IJ miles east by south 
from Ak Burnu and is nearly 6 miles in length. Kamuish and 
Churubash Lighthouses kept in line, bearing S. 66° W., lead through 
the channel until its termination about If miles southward of Cape 
Yenikale. 

This channel cuts through the shoal tongue extending in a south- 
west direction from the town of Yenikale, leaving 8 to 9 feet on the 
north, and the point of the shoal with 12 feet on the south side of 
the channel. It also cuts into the north extreme of the Krugoi Bank, 
where there is a depth of 8 to 9 feet, opposite which, and on the 
north side there is a small patch of 12 feet. With these exceptions 
the depths on either side are from 13 to 17 feet. 



244 DIRECTIONS. 

Buoys. — ^The buoys marking the various banks in Kertch Strait 
have already been mentioned when describing the shores of the 
strait. 

The dredged channels are marked on the starboard hand, when 
proceeding from the Black Sea to the Sea of Azov, by black spar 
buoys surmounted by upright cones, and on the port hand by red 
spar buoys surmounted by inverted cones. These buoys are placed 
in pairs. 

A black spar buoy* surmounted by a black flag marks the western 
end of a 17-foot shoal situated on the southern side of the western 
entrance to Kertch- Yenikale Channel, and a black buoy, 125 yards 
farther eastward, marks the south side of the entrance to the channel. 
The eastern (Sea of Azov) entrance to the channel is marked on the 
southern side by a black buoy, and on the northern side by a red 
buoy. 

Southward of the dredged channel, abreast of the bank extending 
southward from Yenikale, the old channel is marked by two red 
buoys on its northern side and two black buoys on its southern side. 

On the northwestern shore of Kertch Strait, between the country 
house of Suvoruski and the Opasnaya coast guard station, a row of 
small buoys, with red flags as topmarks, are laid out annually, about 
1,200 yards from the shore, from October 1 until navigation is closed 
by ice, to mark the fishery limits. 

Caution. — The buoys are not to be depended on, as they are not 
always in position at the opening and closing of navigation and, 
moreover, are liable to be carried away by vessels fouling them. 

Directions. — Pilotage is compulsory for merchant vessels. 

Vessels proceeding from the Black Sea to the Sea of Azov by the 
dredged channel, after passing on either side o"f Tuzla Lightvessel, 
should leave the black spar buoys on the starboard hand and the red 
spar buoys on the port hand, and follow the range marks for the 
various channels, as given above and on the chart. 

If bound for Kertch Road, from a position midway between Cape 
Takil and the shoals westward of Cape Panaghia, steer 338° until 
Pavlovski' Lighthouse is in range with the beacon at its rear bear- 
ing 345°. Keep these objects in range until Mount Temir Oba is in 
range with Ak Burnu 23°, when they should be steered for on this 
bearing until Cherubash and Kamuish Lighthouses are in range 
245°. This latter mark leads between Tuzla Pit and Cape Pavlovski. 
When past the red buoy marking the east extreme of Ak Burnu 
Shoal, or when the chapel on the summit of Mount Mitridate is in 
range with the church resembling a Grecian temple on its slope, bear- 
ing 132°, a vessel can steer for the andiorage. 



KERTCH STRAIT — ^SEA OF AZOV. 245 

At night, when approaching from the southward, the dangers on 
either side of the southern entrance will be avoided by keeping Cape 
Pavlovski Light in sight between the bearings 353° and 331°. 

Beg^ations. — The following regulations are in force for the 
guidance of vessels using the dredged channel: 

1. Vessels drawing less than 13 feet are to pass by the old channel. 

2. Vessels of a greater draft than 13 feet are only allowed to navi- 
gate the dredged channel at certain times as follows : 

(a) If bound to the westward (Sea of Azov to the Black Sea), 
from sunrise to 8 a. m. from May 14 to September 14, and to 9 a. m. 
from September 14 to May 14, and from 1 to 5 p. m. all the year 
round. (6) If bound to the eastward (Black Sea to Sea of Azov), 
from 9 a. m. to noon from May 14 to September 14, and from 10 a. m. 
to noon froin September 14 to May 14, and from 6 p. m. to sunset all 
the year round. 

A red flag will be hoisted, on board the guardship below the latter's 
own flag, when vessels may pass through the dredged channel. This 
signal will be repeated by the dredger. 

The beacons marking the channel will be removed, if necessary, for 
dredging purposes. 

3. Vessels approaching the dredger must sound three prolonged 
blasts on the whistle or siren. 

4. Vesels are not to pass inside the area of the dredging operations, 
which is marked by special buoys. 

During the period when vessels may pass through the channel 
there will be at least 140 feet of space between the anchorage of the 
dredger and the side of the channel, while the chains of the dredger 
will be slackened on the side on which a vessel is passing. The 
barges lie on the outer side of the channel. 

5. Steam vessels while passing the dredger must stop their engines. 

6. Sailing vessels navigating the channel with a draft of more 
than 13 feet must, in the event of a contrary wind or other unfavor- 
able circumstances, either take a tug or wait for a favorable wind, 
and shall only pass through the channel within the times mentioned 
in paragraph 2. 

7. The entry into the channel or passage through it is absolutely 
forbidden during fog, thick mist, or bad weather. 

By night the anchorage of the dredger is indicated by two electric 
lights. 

8. Coasting vessels which have received permission to pass through 
the channel at night, when approaching the dredger, must leave the 
channel. 

9. The guard ship and pilot master are responsible that the 
present obligatory regulations are carried out exactly. 



246 TEMBIUK BAY. 

10. Any person Infringing these regulations, in addition to a 
penalty, will be responsible also for all damage caused to the 

dredger and her attendant vessels. 

« 

SEA OF AZOV, 

i 

Temriuk Bay. — Cape Pekli lies about 3^ miles east-southeast- 
ward from Cape Kamennoi, and thence the coast continues east-south- 
eastward for 20 miles to the entrance of the Temriuk Lakes, situated 
at the bottom of Temriuk Bay. The coast east of Cape Pekli is 
lower than to the westward and intersected by several little ravines. 
About 10^ miles southeastward of Cape Pekli a large opening, choked 
with sand, will be seen, named Akhtanizovka, the eastern side of 
which is formed by a narrow portion of land 9 miles in* length, of 
little height, terminating eastward in another collection of sand, at 
the extremity of which lies the entrance to the lower Temriuk Lake. 

On the neck of land between the Aktanizovka entrance and the 
entrance to the Temriuk Lakes is a small eminence which appears 
like an island. 

Temriuk Bank— Buoy. — ^A bank, with 9 feet water, composed of 
hard sand, extending 1 mile in a north and south direction, 200 
yards wide, lies in the fairway of Temriuk Bay, about 11 miles to 
the eastward of Cape Pekli and 2J miles from the nearest shore. It 
is marked by a black spar buoy with conical topmark, placed, in 22 
feet water, about ^ mile to the northward of it. 

Caution. — ^The vicinity of the small eminence eastward of Aktani- 
zovka is a center of volcanic disturbance, and new islets are some- 
times formed. In October, 1880, a small island was upheaved 300 
yards from the shore, its appearance being accompanied by steam 
and smoke. 

The island, which was elevated 10 feet above the sea, disappeared 
in the course of the following winter, and in the spring had become 
a shoal with a depth of about 1 foot over it. 

This was the third upheaval of an island within the memory of 
living inhabitants. 

Temriuk. — The town of Temriuk stands on the western extremity 
of the peninsula, which divides the upper Temriuk Lake from the 
lower. It exports grain and fish and has a population of about 
16,000 people. There is a telegraph station. 

Near the town the lakes communicate, by a narrow channel, 
through which the waters of the upper or western lake, fed by 
branches from Kuban River, flow with great rapidity into the lower. 
The lakes are very shallow and only navigable by flat-bottomed 
boats. The upper lake is called Akhtanizovka Liman, and the lower 
Lake Kurchan Liman. 



KEBTCH STRAIT — ^SEA OF AZOV, 247 

There are two wooden piers on the western entrance point to the 
lake. Steamboats of light draft take passengers and cargo up to 
Temriuk. 

Temriuk Lights group flashing white, 213 feet above high water, 
visible 20 miles, is exhibited from an openwork iron tower Ipcated 
at Temriuk. 

Harbor works. — A harbor is in course of construction at Tem- 
riuk, which will be reached from seaward by a channel 12 feet deep, 
cut through the spit into the lake. The entrance is protected by two 
breakwaters, which extend from the shore in a northwesterly direc- 
tion for a distance of about 550 yards. 

Anchorage. — In the month of May vessels arrive for cargoes of 
fish, for which these lakes are celebrated. They anchor in the bay, 
1^ miles from the entrance, in 16 or 17 feet water, over mud and 
sand, with Temriuk Church (which is conspicuous, and visible at a 
good distance from the shore) bearing about 191°. 

The anchorage is open from west through north to northeast, but 
shipwrecks are rare. The strong current setting out of the lakes 
tends to keep vessels from being thrown on the coast. 

Temriuk Harbor Lights fixed green, 18 feet above high water, 
is exhibited from a box on framework located on the dam at the head 
of the port. 

A fixed red light, 55 feet above high water, is exhibited from a box 
mounted on a framework located 920 yards 140° from the front light. 

These lights in range lead through the entrance channel. 

Coast. — Eastward of Temriuk the coast, which is low, marshy, and 
covered with reeds, has numerous fishing stations on it, and trends to 
the northward and eastward for 30 miles to Achuev, situated on the 
southern side of the northern branch of the Kuban River, which is 
named Protok (Cherno Protok). 

Achuev is also a fishing station, and is bordered by a great extent 
of marshy country which prevents all communication with tl^e coun- 
try inland. 

The mouth of the Protok River is about 650 feet wide and has a 
depth of about 3 feet. Within the bar the river has depths of from 
6 to 12 feet. 

Vessels mav anchor abreast the mouth of the Protok River 2 miles 
from the shore, in a depth of 4 fathoms, and also abreast Sladkii 
(Sweet) Rivulet, 7 miles to the south westward. 

Depths of 15 to 20 feet will also be found along the coast as far 
as Akhtar Lake, 25 miles to the northward of Achuev, to the north- 
eastward of which the land becomes a little more elevated and is 
marked by two hills. 

Akhtar Bay.-r-From Akhtar to Kamishevataya Point, which 
bears north-northwest 23 miles, the coast falls back to the eastward 



248 KAMISHEVATAYA POINT. 

and forms the large bay of Akhtar, 12 miles long, but its shallowness 
deters vessels from approaching its shores. A depth of 16 feet will, 
however, be found from 5 to 7 miles from the coast. There is a tele- 
graph station in Akhtar village. 

Steamers usually anchor about 9 mile^ from the coast, the cargo 
being brought off in steam barges. 

Akhtar Lights alternating red and white, 56 feet above high 
water, is exhibited from an iron framework tower located ftorth of 
the town. 

Beisug Harbor. — Eastward of the bay is Beisug Liman, a lake 
about 18 miles in length, the entrance to which is nearly closed by a 
projecting spit of sand, about 7 miles long, extending from the south- 
em shore. A fishery station is established on this spit about 4 miles 
from its northern extremity. The Beisug River flows into the lake. 

Kamishevataya Point is the northern extremity of Aktar Bay 
just described. Mills are situated near the point, eastward of which 
is a church and village. A spit of sand extends southeastward, 3^ 
miles, from Kamishevataya Point, beyond which to the southward, 
2J miles, there is a depth of 18 feet. 

Zhelyezin Bank, of sand and shells, about 15 miles in length in 
a northwest and southeast direction, with general depths of from 19 
to 23 feet and a least depth of 17 feet, is situated 23 miles 236° of 
Kamishevataya Church. From this bank a ridge of shoal water, 
with a depth of 21 feet on its outer end, extends in an easterly direc- 
tion to the shore. Two miles westward of Zhelyezin Bank the depth 
is about 30 feet. 

Dolga Point. — From Kamishevataya Point the coast becomes 
slightly elevated and trends north-northwestward for 15 miles to 
Dolga (Long) Point, from whence Dolga Spit, a sandy projection 
9 miles in length, extends in a northwesterly direction. Southward 
of Dolga Point is a hill or cliff at the foot of which is a church and 
village. . 

Yelenina Spit. — Two banks project off Dolga Point. The first 
Yelenina Spit, with from 6 to 17 feet water and triangular in shape, 
extends 258"^ for 15 miles from the point. There is a patch of 6 feet 
at 7 miles from the shore, 8 feet at 11 miles, and only 17 feet at 15 
miles. A bank which is the continuation of this spit extends 11 miles 
farther in the same direction when a depth of 30 feet will be found. 

Lightbuoy. — A black conical buoy, exhibiting a fixed white light, 
is moored in 38 feet, 13.8 miles 115° from Berdiansk front light. 

Fogsignal. — The fogsignal is a bell. 

Dolga Bank, the second of those mentioned above, runs off in a 
northwesterly direction for 6 miles from Dolga Spit, with depths of 
from 6 to 9 feet, the former depth being found only a short distance 
within its outer extremity. 



KEBTCH STRAIT — ^SEA OF AZOV. 249 

Lightbuoy. — A black iron buoy, exhibiting an occulting white 
light, is moored 7.5 miles 118° from Byelosarai Light. 

Eogsignal. — The f ogsignal is a bell sounded by the motion of the 
waves. 

Oulf of Taganrog, or of Azov, extends 70 miles to the eastward 
from Dolga Spit, and varies in width from 28 miles near its entrance 
to 12 miles near its head. In this gulf are situated the principal ports 
in the Sea of Azov, viz, Taganrog, Mariupol, and Yeisk. To these 
may be added Kostov, situated on the right bank of the Don River, 
which flows into the head of the giilf 25 miles below that town. 

The shores of the gulf are flat, uniform in appearance, fronted by 
landslips of clay, and rarely broken by ravines. Villages and farm- 
houses are numerous and are useful for ascertaining a vessel's posi- 
tion. 

The gulf is divided into three basins, formed by the differest 
banks which border its shores. The first is that of Mariupol, bounded 
by Dolga and Byelosarai Spits to the westward and by Peschani and 
Krivaya Banks to the eastward. The second is the Sazalnik Basin, 
which is formed between the latter banks and Chimbur and Petru- 
shina Banks to the eastward. The eastern basin is that of Taganrog, 
which lies at the head of the gulf. 

Caution. — Great caution should be exercised when approaching 
the several low spits in the Gulf of Taganrog, especially at night, as 
they are scarcely discernible, and several vessels have stranded on 
Byelosarai Spit when leaving the gulf for want of proper pre- 
cautions. 

Wrecks. — Owing to the shallowness of the gulf and its aproach 
the wrecks that occur form serious obstructions to navigation. Ves- 
sels bound for ports in the gulf should therefore proceed with great 
care, especially when in the vicinity of Byeglitzki Lightvessel. 

Southern shore — ^Yeisk Liman. — From Dolga Point the south- 
em shore of Taganrog Gulf turns to the eastward for 25 miles to 
Yeisk or Eisk Liman, which is of an oblong form about 13 miles in 
length from east to west and 6 miles wide from north to south. The 
entrance, nearly 2 miles wide, is formed between Glafirovka Point and 
Yeisk Spit, a low narrow strip of sand extending 4J miles in a north- 
easterly direction from Yeisk and which protects the inlet from 
northerly winds. A tongue of sand, named Naidena Spit, runs off 
in a southerly direction for 2 miles from Glafirovka Point, and then 
bends the same distance to the eastward, partly under water. This 
liman would form an excellent anchorage, but its maximum depth 
is only about 6 feet with 13 to 9 feet in the entrance. 

The village of Old Yeisk stands near the head of the inlet, 1^ 
miles to the northward of the mouth of the Yeisk River. The vil- 

172982^-:20 17 



250 GLAFIBOYKA. 

lages of Nikolaevka and Glafirovka are situated on the northern shore 
of the bay. 

A road of some importance leads south from Old Yeisk to 
Ekaterinodar, on the Kuban. 

Beacons. — Two black beacons, each 60 feet high and consisting 
of a mast with a triangular topmark, stand on the extremity of Yeisk 
Spit. The northern beacon has the triangle point downward and 
the southern has the triangle point downward. # 

These beacons in range 183° lead through a channel eastward of 
Peschani Islands. 

. Buoy. — A black spar buoy, with conical topmark, in a depth of 
13 feet, marks the northern extreme of Yeisk Spit. 

Yeisk. — The town of New Yeisk, or Eisk, was founded by Prince 
Woronzoff in the year 1848, on the western sandy point of the 
entrance near the deeper water, and has rapidly increased. The town 
has now a population of 41,000 people and possesses a cathedral and 
four churches. 

Harbor. — On the western side of Yeisk Spit an artificial harbor, 
dredged to 12 feet, has been constructed. It is formed by two moles 
extending from the shore in a northwesterly direction for 900 yards, 
and having an entrance 90 yards wide. A channel 1,400 yards long, 
90 feet wide, and having a depth of 13 feet leads up to the harbor 
entrance and is continued through the harbor to an inner basin, which 
is 350 yards long and has a depth of 12 feet. 

Yeisk Spit Lights flashing red, 51 feet above high water, visible 
10 miles, is exhibited from a black iron tower with a triangle top- 
mark point pown located on the northeast extremity of the spit. 

Yeisk Lights fixed red, 45 feet above high water, is exhibited 
f ronl a mast located on the north side of the basin. 

Piers. — On the eastern side of Yeisk Spit and northward of the 
town are two wooden piers used regularly by coasters and by steam- 
ers which ply to the various ports in the Azov. 

Communication. — Steam vessels maintain a daily service with 
other ports in the gulf during the summer. There is a telegraph 
station. 

Supplies. — Fresh meat and other provisions can be obtained in the 
market. 

Lifeboats. — There is a life-saving station with two lifeboats and 
sledges at the harbor. 

Another station, with a lifeboat on runners, is situated at Gla- 
firovka, on the eastern side of the entrance to the liman. 

Glafirovka stands on an elevated point at the northern end of 
Naidena Spit. One-half a mile south of the village is a two-storied 
stone house surrounded by storehouses, opposite which is a pier hav- 



KERTCH STRAIT — SEA OF AZOV. 251 

ing a depth of 5 feet alongside. Small coasting vessels load wheat 
here. 

Sazalnik Spit. — From Glafirovka Point the coast trends 6 miles 
to the northward and then 3 miles to the northeastward to Sazalnik 
Spit, a low sandy point. 

Sazalnik Village^ situated 2 miles south westward from the ex- 
tremity of Sazalnik Spit, may be distinguished by its church, which 
has five conical cupolas. Near the church are three conspicuous 
mills ; also some brickworks, which resemble a fort. 

Lifeboat. — A life-saving station, with lifeboat on runners, sl^nds 
on Sazalnik Pit. 

Sazalnik or Feschani Bank. — ^A ridge, with 1 to 4 feet over it, 
extends 4rJ miles west-northwest from Sazalnik Spit, and an exten- 
sive bank of sand, with general depths of from 8 to 12 feet, and 
many shoaler patches, extends 9 miles farther westward, and has 
several islets rising from it, about 5 miles from the shore, named 
Peschani or Sandy Isles, on which are fishing stations. 

Buoys. — Two black spar buoys, each surmounted by a cone, are 
moored in a depth of 17 feet 4| miles 313° from Sazalnik Church. 

Cockerill Shoal, with 12 feet water, about 13 miles 281° from 
Sazalnik Spit forms the northwest extremity of Peschani Bank; 
but within the 3-fftthom curve the bank extends for more than 1 
mile westward and 4 miles northward from this shoal. 

Between this .shoal and Krivaya Spit, 7 miles to the northwest- 
ward, is the fairway channel to Taganrog. 

Channel. — The beacons on Yeisk Spit, when in range bearing 
183°, lead between the shoal stretching southeastward from Peschani 
Islands and that from Sazalnik Spit. This passage, which is marked 
by spar buoys on either side, has a depth of about 8 feet and is only 
suitable for small coasters. 

Don River Entrance Light vessel exhibits a fixed white and two 
fixed red lights from a mast 40 feet above high water; black hull, red 
band near the water line, approximate position 47° 07' 12" N., 38° 
69' 30" E., anchored near the entrance of the new dredged channel. 

Fogsignal. — The fogsignal is a bell. 

Buoy. — About 80 yards east of the lightvessel there is a black spar 
buoy with cone in 25 feet of water. Vessels must pass north of the 
lightvessel and this buoy. 

Chimbur Spit. — From Sazalnik Spit the coast curves 79° for 17^ 
miles to Chimbur Spit, which lies northeast of two hillocks and the 
village of Margaritoyka. 

Lifeboat. — ^A life-saving station, with lifeboat on runners, is situ- 
ated at Margaritovka. There is a telegraph station in the village. 



252 BYELOSABAI SPIT. 

Orecheskaya Bank, a triangular-shaped shoal, projects about 
8 miles in a northwesterly direction from Chimbur Spit, with deptha 
of from 4 to 12 feet. This bank is extending to the northward. 

Lightbuoy. — A black buoy, surmounted by a topmark and ex- 
hibiting an occulting white light, is moored on the north side of 
Grecheskaya Bank. 

Ochakov Spit. — Between Chimbur Spit and Ochakov Spit, 9J 
miles 55°, the depth is only 8 feet at 2 miles from the shore, and 8 
miles to the eastward of this latter spit is the entrance to the southern 
branch of the River Don, near the village of Kagalnik. 

Two miles westward of Ochakov Spit is the important village of 
Semli Bakol, which has a conspicuous church. 

The bank which prolongs this spit joins that which extends from 
the mouths of the Don and fills up the eastern part of the gulf. 

liight-and-bell buoy. — A red bell buoy, with cage superstructure, 
from which is exhibited an occulting red light, is moored in a depth 
of 15 feet northward of Chimbur Spit, with Taganrog Lighthouse 
bearing 9°, distant 8f miles. A red spar buoy, with inverted cone, 
is moored a short distance eastward of it. 

These buoys mark the port side of the channel leading to Taganrog 
and the dredged channel into the River Don. 

The lightbuoy is replaced by a red spar buoy when withdrawn for 
repair or for any other cause. It must not be relied on. 

Byelosarai Spit. — The northern entrance point of the Gulf of 
Taganrog is formed by Byelosarai Spit, a low sandy point extending 
in a southwesterly direction for 7 miles from the village of the same 
name. Numerous fishing huts are built on this spit. 

Beacon. — Near the extremity of the spit is a mast beacon, 60 feet 
in height, with two horizontal battens as a topmark. 

Buoys. — A red spar buoy, surmounted by an inverted cone, 
moored in a depth of 26 feet, 2 miles to the southward of the beacon, 
marks the edge of the bank extending from the extremity of the spit. 
A similar buoy, also in a depth of 26 feet, situated 2 miles to the north- 
eastward of the former, marks the southern side of an 18-foot shoal, 

Byelosarai Light, fixed red, 70 feet above high water, visible 14 
miles, is exhibited from a white octagonal stone tower located 1.2 
miles 59° from the extremity of the spit. 

Fogsignal. — The fogsignal is a whistle. 

Lifeboat. — ^A life-saving station, with lifeboat on runners, is situ- 
ated near the lighthouse. 

The coast from Byelosarai Lighthouse trends 35° for 10 miles to 
the town of Mariupol, and is almost straight, the latter part from 
Byelosarai village being steep and uniform in height. A depth of 
14 feet will be found along this coast 1 mile from the shore until 
within 2i miles of the town. 



KERTCH STRAIT^ — ^SEA OF AZOV. 253 

Mariupol (lat. 47° 6' N., long. 37° 34' E.) is picturesquely situ- 
ated on the right bank of the River Kalmius, which enters the sea 
on the eastern side of the town. The population in the year 1900 was 
52,770. There is a hospital to which seamen are admitted. 

Communication. — There is direct communication by steamship 
with Hamburg and Antwerp, and daily communication with Azov 
and Black Sea ports. Mariupol is connected with the Russian rail- 
way system. There is telegraphic communication with all parts. 

Coal and supplies. — ^A large quantity of Donetz coal, bituminous 
and anthra.cite, was in normal times usually in stock. Coaling can 
be carried out alongside a quay in the port, where there is a depth 
of 18 feet, from railway trucks by means of hydraulic lifts, or in 
the roadstead from large lighters. 

The total output of the Donetz basin in 1906 amounted to 
14,380,280 tons of coal. Provisions of all kinds were plentiful. 

Repairs. — Only small repairs to machinery can be effected. 

Biver Kalmius. — ^The River Kalmius has a depth of 12 feet for 
about 2 miles, and there is the same depth in the channel leading to 
it from seaward. This latter channel is marked on the eastern side 
by white spar buoys with white flags and on thewestem side by 
red spar buoys with red flags. 

A wooden training wall extends from the eastern entrance point 
of the river in a southerly direction for about 550 yards. A bell- 
buoy is moored about 250 yards to the southeastward of its extremity. 

Vessels of 12 feet draft can enter the river where there is a large 
stone quay on the west bank. Coasters and the steamers plying to 
the various ports in the sea of Azov make use of this harbor. 

Leading mark. — The church of a monastery situated in the 
northern part of the town, which has five high-pointed cupolas in 
line with the pile driver on the western entrance point of the river, 
bearing 333°, leads through the channel over the bar. 

Water level. — ^After prolonged southerly winds the water in the 
river mouth will sometimes rise as much as 6 feet above the normal 
level. This phenomenon is, however, rare. 

Mariupol Lights fixed red, 32 feet above high water, visible 5 
miles, is exhibited from an iron tower located on the head of the 
south mole at the entrance to the new port of Zintseva. 

A fixed green light, 32 feet above high water, visible 5 miles, is 
exhibited from an iron tower located on the head of the north mole 
at the entrance to the new port of Zintseva. 

Note. — For other Ughts see Charts and Light List. 

Lifeboat. — A life-saving station, with lifeboat on runners, is situ- 
ated at the river entrance. 



254 PORT OF MARIUPOL. 

Anchorage. — Vessels anchor about 2 miles to the southward of 
the river entrance in from 15 to 16 feet of water, muddy bottom, 
and good holding ground ; but the roadstead is open from southwest 
through south to east. Nearer the shore there is a depth of 14 feet 
over a sandy bottom. 

Port of Mariupol. — Oposite Zintseva Valley, about 2^ miles to 
the southwestward of the town and connected with it by railway, 
is a port consisting of an inner and outer harbor covering an area of 
310 acres and approached by a channel If miles in length. The 
minimum depth in the channel and in the harbor is 17^ feet, and this 
is to be increased by dredging to 21 feet. 

Vessels are at present (1907) permitted to load to a draft of 17 
feet. 

The^port is formed by two moles or breakwaters J mile apart, 
which extend from the diore in a southeasterly direction for about 
1,600 yards, leaving a passage 395 feet wide. 

Within the harbor, 440 yards from the shore and parallel to it, is 
a detached breakwater 500 yards in length. 

The inner harbor, which is reserved for vessels loading coal, opens 
into the southern side of the outer harbor and is 1,000 yards long 
and 400 yards wide. 

The port is equipped with two hydraulic elevators for loading 
coal, one of which can embark in one day the contents of 150 railway 
trucks. 

Leading beacons. — Two beacons, 1.3 miles apart, the front one, 
49 feet in height, consisting of 2 vertical posts close together sur- 
mounted by a circular topmark, and the rear one consisting of an 
iron trestle, 33 feet in height, with a pentangular topmark, are 
situated in the valley to the northwestward of the port. The front 
beacon is painted white and the rear one black. 

These beacons, which are lighted at night, when in range 332° lead 
through the dredged channel and into the harbor. 

Pilots. — There is a service of pilots at Mariupol. Pilotage is not 
compulsory. It is proposed to make pilotage compulsory for all for- 
eign steamers, and for Russian stefamers of over 3,000 tons. 

Depth signals. — The depth of water in the channel and the 
dredged portion of the harbor is signaled from a mast on the southern 
mole head by balls and cones during the day and by fixed red and 
white lights during the night, each ball or white light representing 
1 foot more than 16 feet and each cone or red light 3 inches more. 
No signal will be made when the depth is less than 16 feet. 

Ice breaker. — ^An ice breaker is employed to keep the port open. 

Caution. — Vessels entering the port must be careful to avoid the 
anchors of the dredgers. 



KERTCH STRAIT — ^SEA OF AZOV. 255 

Coast. — From Mariupol the coast trends to the eastward as far as 
Taganrog, nearly 60 miles. 

This coast forms part of the territory of the Don Cossacks, whose 
villages occupy the valleys between the Kalmius and Mius Kivers. 

Krivaya Spit. — About 25 miles eastward from Mariupol a flat 
sandy point extends from the coast in a southerly direction for 2| 
miles, when it turns to the southwestward, forming Krivaya 
(Crooked) Spit. 

The village of Krivaya Kosa, situated on the eastern side of the 
point, has storehouses for wheat and a wooden pier. The steamers 
between Taganrog and Mariupol call here. 

There is a depth of 12 feet within J mile on the eastern side of the 
spit; but a bank, with 2 to 6 feet water, extends for nearly 2 miles 
southwestward from the extremity of the spit. 

Beacon. — A mast beacon, with supports, 60 feet in height, the top- 
mark consisting of 3 vertical battens, stands near the extremity of 
Krivaya Spit. 

Buoys. — Two red spar buoys, with inverted cone topmarks, axe 
moored in 20 feet of water about 8^ miles to the southwestward of 
the beacon. A red buoy, with inverted cone topmark, is moored in 14 
feet water about 3 miles 215° from the beacon. 

Lifeboat. — A life-saving station, with lifeboat, is situated on 
the spit. 

Peschani Lightvessel lies 5 miles southeastward from Krivaya 
Beacon. 

Peschani Lightvessel exhibits two fixed white lights, one from 
each mast, 36 feet above the water, visible 9 miles; straw color, two 
masts, and a black ball at each masthead ; approximate position 46° 
59' 45" N., 38° 13' 30" E., located near end of Cockrill Shoal. 

Fogsignal. — The fogsignal is a steam whistle. 

Byeglitzki Spit^ situated 20 miles eastward from Krivaya Spit, 
extends 2 miles to the southeastward from a point near the village of 
Varvatzi. Between Krivaya and Byeglitzki Spits the coast runs. 
, back, forming a bay about 3 miles deep, near the head of which is 
the village of Veselo Voznesensk, recognizable from seaward by its 
church and by a large stone windmill on the hillside. Four miles 
westward of the extremity of Byeglitzki Spit is the wide valley of 
the Mius River, the entrance to which is narrowed by two sandy spits 
having a shallow channel between them. 

Zolotaya (Golden) Bank^ with 3 to 5 feet water over the greater 
part of it, extends southwestward and southeastward from Byeglitzki 
Spit for a distance of 6 miles, where a depth of about 12 feet will be 
found. To the westward it joins the bank which fronts the shore 



256 ANCHORAGES. 

between Krivaya and Byeglitzki Spits; to the eastward it is con- 
nected with Petrushina Bank. 

Lifeboat. — There is a life-saving station on Byeglitzki Spit, and 
a lifeboat on runners is stationed at Zololaya Spit, 3 miles farther 
eastward. 

Byeglitzki (Golden Bank) Lightvessel exhibits two fixed red 
lights 59 feet above the water, visible 13 miles ; red hull, three masts, 
and name in black on white band on sides ; approximate position 47*^ 
01' 15" N., 88° 34' 37" E., north side of channel, 6.5 miles 175° from 
Byeglitzki Spit. 

Fogsignal. — The fogsignal is a siren. 

Petrushina Point lies 12 miles 80° from Byeglitzki Spit, the 
intervening coast being steep and above 60 feet in height. Four 
miles northeastward of this point is the town of Taganrog, the coast 
between forming a small bay. 

Petrushina Bank, with depths of 4 to 9 feet, extends nearly 6 
miles to the southward of Petrushina Point. 

Lightbuoys. — Southward of Petrushina Bank, and marking the 
channel to Taganrog, are two lightbuoys. 

Oherepakha (Tortoise Island) .—About IJ miles 159° of 
Taganrog is the low sandy island of Cherepakha, on which stands a 
red framework light beacon, 14 feet in height. Near the island there 
is a depth of 9 feet, with 12 and 14 feet to the westward. 

Taganrog Road occupies the eastern part of the gulf from a line 
joining Chimbur and Zolotaya spits to the mouths of the Don. 

Anchorages. — Vessels of the deepest draft that can enter the Sea 
of Azov anchor about 25 miles from Taganrog, to the southwestward 
of Byeglitzki Lightvessel. Other vessels anchor nearer the town, 
according to their draft, in from 14 to 18 feet of water. Foreign 
vessels anchor to the southward of Byeglitzki Lightvessel, within 
an area marked by spar buoys carrying green flags with a white St. 
Andrew's Cross. The customs steamer is usually anchored in the 
center of this space. 

Communication is carried on by steam barges, tugs, and lighters. 

The bottom in the road, in depths of more than 12 feet, consists 
of soft mud ; between 9 and 12 feet it consists of sand and mud, or 
of sand only. 

After several days in the anchorage it is sometimes difficult to 
wefigh the anchor, even when anchored where the bottom is hard. 

Caution — ^Water level. — Vessels should take precautions against 
swinging over their anchors on account of the variation in the level 
of the water caused by the winds. 

On account of these changes of level it is impossible to show on the 
chart the true depths, those given being the mean level obtained by 



KERTCH STRAIT — SEA OF AZOV, 257 

observation. Southerly and westerly winds increase the depth, and 
northerly and easterly winds diminish it by 2 to 3 feet. 

Occasionally, after a strong wind, the head of the gulf dries for a 
distance of 6 miles from the mouths of the Don ; and in the neighbor- 
hood of Taganrog the bay north of the town becomes nearly dry, 
and southward of the town it is sometimes possible to walk on dry 
land from the shore to the Island of Cherepakha. When this occurs 
the depths in the gulf are diminished by 7 feet or more. 

Ballast ground. — Four black spar buoys, with black flags, are 
placed in 16 feet of water, southward of Byeglitzki Lightvessel, to 
mark the northern limit of the space appointed for discharging bal- 
last. Vessels carrying water ballast, aftei passing through the usual 
customs formalities at Kertch, have an official placed on board, who 
proceeds with the ship to Taganrog Koad. On arrival a flag is 
hoisted, acquainting the customs authorities that the vessel has water 
ballast, when lighters and coasting vessels are permitted to proceed 
alongside at once and commence discharging their cargoes. Severe 
legulations exist respecting throwing stones overboard. These are 
recjuired to be landed under penalty of a fine, but this regulation is 
seldom attended to, and the roadstead is thereby severly injured. 
Most of the vessels, however, which enter the port carry water ballast. 

Quarantine. — All quarantine formalities are carried out at 
Kertch. 

Taganrog Light, fixed white, with red and green sectors, 161 feet 
above high water, visible 19 miles, is exhibited from a white cylindri- 
cal iron tower located on the elevated shore in the town. 

Fogsignal. — The fogsignal is a bell. 

Light. — A flashing red light, 15 feet above high water, visible 7 
miles, is exhibited from a red iron framework tower located on 
Cherepakha Island south of Taganrog. 

Port Taganrog. — The harbor, which lies at the southern point of 
the bay, is formed by two curved moles, 600 yards apart, with an 
opening 140 yards wide between their outer extremities. An inner 
mole, 200 yards in length, separates it from Petrovski Basin, and a 
third basin is under construction to the southwestward of the latter. 
The depth in the harbor is 12 feet. 

On the northeastern side of the town is a quay with depths of from 
2 to 8 feet. 

Dredged channels. — A dredged channel, about 1 mile in length, 
90 yards in width, and with a depth of 12 feet at mean water level, 
leads up to the harbor. It is marked on its western side by red spar 
buoys and on its eastern side by black spar buoys. - • 

A dredged channel, about 2^ miles in length, 47 yards in width, 
and with a depth of about 9 feet at mean water level, leads from 



258 TAGANROG. 

the north mole of the harbor to some metal works northward of 
the town. It is marked by buoys in a similar manner to the other 
channel. 

Beacons. — ^Three beacons, painted spirally white and black, the 
front one carrying a circular disk and the others a square black top- 
mark, situated on. the northern side of the harbor, in range, bearing 
355°, lead through the dredged channel to the harbor entrance. 

Two beacons, the front one painted green and the rear one white, 
situated at the metal works, when in line bearing N. 22° W., lead 
through the dredged channel. 

Lights. — ^A fixed red light, 19 feet above high water, visible 5 
miles, is exhibited from a red post located on the head of the south 
mole of the basin port side of entrance. 

Fogsignal. — The fogsignal is a bell. 

Bange lights. — ^Two fixed white lights, shown from the head of 
the north mole of the basin and two fixed white lights located 116 
yards 355° from the front lights when in range, lead through the 
channel from Cherepakha Island to the New Basin. 

Note. — For other harbor lights see Light List. 

Pilots. — Pilotage is not compulsory. Pilots can be obtained at 
Kertch. 

Taganrog^ situated on the southern point of the bay of the same 
name, is one of the most important ports in Russia. It has large 
and numerous warehouses and many very handsome private dwell- 
ings. The town suffers from occasional violent dust storms, and 
the sanitary condition is not good, there being no system of drainage 
and no water supply except from wells and cisterns. There is a 
private hospital for seamen, but infectious cases are not admitted. 
The population in 1905 amounted to 66,100. 

The surrounding country is fertile and produces excellent fruits 
and culinary vegetables. The vine and mulberry flourish, but the 
country is destitute of wood. 

Communication. — There is railway communication with Khar- 
kov, Rostov, and the general Russian system. 

Taganrog has regular communication by steamers with other ports 
in the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea ; also telegraphic communica- 
tion with all parts. 

Depth signals. — The depth of water in the dredged channel is 
indicated from a flagstaff on the south mole by the following signals : 

By day, the signals are made by means of balls, each large ball 
indicating 1 foot and each small ball 3 inches. 

By night, the signals are made by means of white and red lights, 
thus: — 

One white light indicates a depth of 5 feet. 
One white and one red light, 5J feet. 



KERTOH STRAIT — SBA OF AZOV, 269 

Two white lights, 6 feet. 
Two white lights and one red light, GJ feet. 
Three, white lights, 7 feet. 
Three white lights and one red light, 7^ feet. 
Four white lights, 8 feet. 
Four white lights and one red light, 8J feet- 
Five white lights, 9 feet. 
Five white lights and one red light, 9J feet. 
Six white lights, 10 feet. 
Depths above 10 feet are not shown. 
A red triangular flag is hoisted when the water is falling and a 
white triangular flag when the water is rising. 

Storm signals are shown from a signal staff near the lighthouse, 
and repeated by the customs steamer anchored in the outer road near 
the Byeglitzki Lightvessel. 

Lifeboat. — There is a life-saving station, with lifeboat, on the 
south side of the harbor. 

Ice breaker. — ^A small ice breaker is employed, but it is impos- 
iible to keep the gulf and harbor open during a hard frost. 

Coal and supplies. — In normal times a small quantity of native 
coal, of fairly good quality was kept in stock; and the collieries being 
in the immediate vicinity any quantity could be obtained by giving 
a short notice. Small vessels can coal alongside a quay where there 
is a depth of 12 feet. Vessels of heavy draft must coal in the road- 
stead, the coal being carried in lighters a distance of from 25 to 30 
miles, and with the least swell they could not remain alongside. Ves- 
sels, however, rarely coal at Taganrog as they can get better facilities 
and lower prices at other ports. 

Supplies of all kinds could be obtained, but no repairs to machin- 
ery effected, except at Kostov-on-Don. There is a slip in the harbor 
which will take small steamers. 

The water alongside will be found potable if the sediment be al- 
lowed to settle before it is used. 

Taganrog Bay. — From Taganrog the coast trends to the north- 
ward for 4 miles and then to the eastward for 3 miles to Kurichi Roz- 
hok (Armenia Point), forming Taganrog Bay in which there is only 
a depth of from 4 to 7 feet. The Sambek River flows into the north- 
ern part of the bay. 

From Armenia Point the coast runs in an easterly direction for 8 
miles, when it turns to the southward and is broken up into numerous 
low islands, between which the waters of the Don River flow into 
the gulf. 

Eiver Don. — ^The Don River empties into the head of the Gulf of 
Taganrog by several mouths, which extend from the village of Sin- 
yavka on the north to as far as Kagalnik, 12 miles to the southward. 



260 DREDGED CHANNEL. 

It overflows its banks in May but returns to its usual limits at the 
end of June or beginning of July. 

This noble river, which flows from Lake Ivan, in the Government 
of Tula, runs southeastward to within 40 miles of the Volga, when 
it turns abruptly to the southwest for 240 miles and empties into the 
head of the Gulf of Taganrog, its whole course being about 900 
miles. 

Entrances. — Of the several mouths of the river the two principal 
are the Egurcha Mouth, 5 miles southward of Sinyavka, and the 
Merinovoe, about 5 miles farther south. The former is the channel 
used by vessels proceeding to Rostov; the latter is only used by 
trains of timber rafts. 

Depths. — A channel 9J miles long, with a least depth of 14 feet, 
has been dredged through the bank at the head of the gulf and up 
to the Egurcha Mouth, and not less than the same depth can be 
maintained as far as Eostov, about 25 miles. 

Water level. — A continuance of strong northeasterly winds will 
reduce the depths in the delta of the Don by as much as 6 feet. 

Dredged channel — Buoys and lights. — ^The dredged channel 
leading into the Egurcha Mouth consists of three reaches, marked 
by black spar buoys on the starboard hand (south side) and by red 
spar buoys on the port hand, surmounted by brooms, in accordance 
with the Russian system, those in the first or sea reach being lighted 
at night with white lights on the starboard hand and red lights on 
the port hand. The bends and other points are also indicated by 
conical buoys, of the same color as the spar buoys. At night the 
first bend is marked by two vertical white lights on the south side, 
and the second bend by two vertical red lights on the north side. 

Sange lights.-— Lights are exhibited from openwork iron towers 
located on the artificial islands northeastward of the northern end 
of the first reach of the dredged channel. 

These lights in range bearing 58° lead through the first reach of 
the dredged channel. 

Depth signals. — The following signals, to indicate the depth of 
water in the dredged channel, are made from the lightvessel, and 
from the signal mast at the Pereboini pilot station. 

By day — 

Each red ball at the upper yardarm indicates a depth of 5 feet. 

Each large black ball (3 feet) at the lower yardarm denotes 1 
foot. 

Each small black ball (14 inches) at the lower yardarm denotes 
3 inches. 

By night — 

Each red light in the upper yardarm indicates 5 feet 



KBRTCH STRAIT — SEA OF AZOV. 261 

Each white light on the lower yardarm indicates 1 foot. 

Parts of a foot are not indicated by night. 

There are also tide gauges on either side of the first reach of the 
channel. 

Vessels are not permitted to use the channel unless their draft 
is at least 6 inches less than the depth shown by signal or by the 
gauges. 

Storm signals are shown at the pilot station on Pereboini Island 
and from the lightvessel. 

Lifeboat. — ^The lightvessel is equipped with a lifeboat. 

Tugs can be obtained to take vessels up to Rostov. 

Pilots can be obtained from Rostov. Pilotage is compulsory in 
the river. 

Ice breakers. — ^Two ice breakers are employed to keep the 
dredged entrance channel and river open, so far as possible, during 
the winter. 

Azov. — ^The ancient town of Azov, reduced at the present day to 
a village, stands on the southern bank of the Don River, 6 miles above 
the Merinovoe Mouth. It has a telegraph station. 

Bostov-on-Don is picturesquely situated on the elevated right 
bank of the Don, 25 miles above the Egurtcha Entrance. It is the 
largest commercial town on the Sea of Azov and one of the most 
important on the south coast of Russia. In 1906 the population 
amounted to 135,261, and that of the adjacent town of Nakhichevan 
was 36,077. It is the principal terminus of three great railways and 
the depot for all the produce of the rich territory between the Don 
and the Caucasus Mountains. 

Vessels berth at Rostov alongside the wharf, where there is usually 
a depth of 18 feet. 

River steamers of light draft can navigate to Kalatch, about 335 
miles above Rostov. 

Communication. — There is railway communication with Mos- 
cow ; also with Taganrog and the general Russian system. To the 
southward there is communication with Novorossisk, on the Black 
Sea, and with Petrovsk and Baku, on the Caspian. 

The Russian Steam Navigation Co. and the Volga-Don Steamship 
Co. maintain a regular service with Black Sea and Azov ports. 
There is telegraphic communication with all parts. 

Patent slips. — There are three patent slips, the largest of which 
is capable of hauling up a vessel of 700 tons. The Volga-Don repair- 
ing works, opposite Nakhitchevan, undertake repairs to hull and 
machinery. 

Coal and supplies. — In normal times about 4,500 tons of bitu- 
minous and anthracite coal are usually in stock. It is brought off 



262 DIBBCJTIONS. 

in lighters and steam barges. Fresh meat, vegetables, and bread can 
be obtained. 

Directions for the Ghilf of Taganrog. — ^The best course to be 
steered by vessels after clearing Kertch Strait, if bound for the Gulf 
of Taganrog, is 10° for about 70 miles, from which position Berdi- 
ansk Point Light should be in sight, bearing about 281°. On this 
course the water will gradually deepen from 5 to 7 fathoms 43 miles 
from the strait, but commences to shoal beyond that distance. For 
an extent of 60 miles from the strait the bottom will be of mud, but 
to the northward it will be mixed with sand. Eastward of this track 
the water becomes shallower, and on approaching the shore the 
bottom is composed of reddish shells, but westward of the track the 
water is deeper and the bottom mud. 

With Berdiansk Point Light bearing 281° 9 miles, course may be 
altered to 45°, to pass about 4 miles southward of Byelosarai Light- 
house, and when it bears 315° distant about 4 miles, course should be 
altered to 67° and the dotted track shown on chart followed, which 
will lead through Mariupol Basfti southward of Krivaya Spit Beacon 
and northward of Peschani Lightvessel (moored off Peschani or 
Sazalnik Spit). On this course the depths will be from 30 feet off 
Byelosarai Spit to about 20 feet when nearing the lightvessel. 

From Peschani Lightvessel course may be shaped to pass about 
1 mile southward of Byeglitzki Lightvessel, the average depth be- 
tween them being about 20 feet. Vessels of heavy draft anchor in 
the outer roadstead, about midway between the lightvessels. Those 
of light draft continue on for Byeglitzki Lightvessel, leaving her on 
the port hand, and steer to the northeastward, passing northward 
of the black lightbuoy at the extremity of Grecheskaya Bank, when 
the depth will have decreased to 16 feet; thence southward of the 
red light- and-bell buoy off Petrushina Bank, when vessels bound for 
the port of Taganrog should steer 11° for the entrance to the 
dredged channel. 

At nighty vessels when about 3 miles eastward of Byeglitzki 
Lightvessel should steer to the northeastward for about 6 miles, keep- 
ing in the sector of white light shown from Taganrog Lighthouse 
until abreast the lightbuoy, near the extremity of Grecheskaya Bank, 
in 18 feet water. They must then enter the first sector of green 
light, steering to the eastward until past the light-and-bell buoy 
southward of Petrushina Bank. The second sector of white light 
will be entered, when the course may be shaped toward Taganrog 
and anchorage taken up as convenient, the water shoaling gradually. 

Return voyage. — On the return voyage southward toward 
Kertch Strait it will be prudent in unsettled weather to steer a little 
westerly to avoid the risk of being embayed on the low eastern shore 
with northwest winds, which are very prevalent in this sea. On 



KERTCH STKAIT — SEA OF AZOV. 263 

Hearing the strait three hills will be recognized, two of which are 
6 miles west-northwest of Cape Fanar, the third being the cape itself, 
which, seen from a distance, appears separated from the rest of the 
coast. 

Coast, — The western shore of Byelosarai Spit trends to the north- 
ward and northwestward for 5 miles to the village of Yalta, which 
stands in a ravine and is easily distinguished from seaward by its 
church and windmills. From Yalta the coast, which is steep and 
bordered by cliffs of a reddish color, trends for 18 miles in a 213° 
direction to the Berda River, the entrance to which is barred by a 
sand bank. On the northeastern shore of the river stands the fortress 
and village of Petrovskoi. A church in the village, with five cupolas 
and surrounded by white buildings, is conspicuous from seaward. 

Ursuf or Zelenoe village lies 7 miles southwestward of Yalta and 
is visible from seaward. 

The water is shoal to the westward of Byelosarai Spit, and 2 miles 
from its extremity a depth of only 16 feet will be found. 

Vesuvius Bocks, two in number, with depths of 3 and 9 feet over 
them, respectively, lie 8 miles to the southwestward of Yalta; the 
outer, with 9 feet, is nearly 2 miles from the shore. 

Anchorages. — Small vessels can find shelter from easterly and 
northeasterly winds in the southern part of the bay, between Byelo- 
sarai Spit and Yalta, in a depth of about 18 feet, at 2J miles to the 
westward of Byelosarai Lighthouse. 

Anchorage will also be found, in a depth of about 22 feet, off Berda 
River, with the fortress bearing northwest. 

Berdiansk Point. — From the Berda River the extensive sand spit 
of Berdiansk extends in a 213° direction for 12 miles, terminating in 
Berdiansk Point, the southern portion of which is about 5 miles in 
length and in some places only 200 yards wide. It is often submerged 
in the spring and after fresh winds from east to south-southeast. 

Shoal. — A shoal with 13 feet water lies with Berdiansk Point 
Lighthouse bearing 261°, 3 miles. 

Buoys. — Two red spar buoys, with inverted cone topmarks, in 29 
feet of water, and 2 similar buoys, in 25 feet of water, situated, re- 
spectively, 168° and 213°, If miles from Berdiansk Point Lighthouse, 
mark the extremity of the shoal water extending from the point. 

Light. — A flashing white light, 78 feet above high water, visible 
14 miles, is exhibited from a white octagonal tower with a red hori- 
zontal band located 600 yards from the extremity of the spit. 

Fogsignal. — The fogsignal is a horn. 

Life-saving station. — There is a life-saving station, with life- 
boat, on the point near the lighthouse. 

Berdiansk Boad. — Between Berdiansk Point and the coast to the 
northwestward is a bay 10 miles wide, at the head of which is the town 



264 BERDIANSK. 

of Berdiansk. This bay affords anchorage in depths of from 15 to 21 
feet, bottom of soft mud with shells, or sand and mud. 

This roadstead is open earlier and later in the season than that of 
Taganrog, and is sheltered from northwest to northeast. Winds 
from these quarters will lower the level of the water by as much as 
li feet. 

Berdiansk Light, two fixed white, 165 feet above high water, 
visible 19 miles, is exhibited from a white square tower on the 
keeper's dwelling located at the northwest extremity of the town. 

Ballast ground. — Two red buoys in the northwestern part of the 
bay mark the southern limit of the ballast or spoil ground. 

A beacon, situated near the shore, 226° from the upper lighthouse, 
when in range with it on that bearing, also indicates this limit. 

Wreck. — A wreck, with a depth of 11 feet over it, is situated in the 
roadstead, with upper Berdiansk Light bearing 33*^, 2 miles. It is 
marked by a black and white checkered buoy. 

Directions. — Vessels of more than 10 feet draft should pass about 
2 miles westward of lower Berdiansk Light and steer in for upper 
Berdiansk Lighthouse on a 33° bearing. At night the upper 
Berdiansk lights will be in sight between the bearings of 16° and 
46°. 

Berdiansk. — This town, which, in the year 1900, had 29,100 in- 
habitants, stands on the western part of the sandy spit, 7 miles 11° 
Berdiansk Lighthouse and at a short distance from the bold table- 
land which backs it. The town is regularly built, with wide, 
straight streets, and is surrounded by gardens. The Kutse Berdianka 
River, which is dry in summer, flows into the sea 4 miles to the 
westward of the town. 

Communication. — Steamers maintain an almost daily service in 
the summer with other ports of the Sea of Azov and Kertch and 
with Theodosia three times weekly. Railway conmiunication with 
all parts of Europe, also telegraphic communication. 

Harbor.-^A breakwater, 700 yards in length and about ^ mile 
from the coast line in front of the town, affords shelter from the 
southward and westward. A port is under construction within 
this breakwater, the western mole of which is completed. The depth 
in the port is 17 feet, which is being increased by dredging to 20 
feet. 

Dredged channel. — A channel IJ miles long, 280 feet broad, and 
with a depth of 17 feet has been dredged in a 39° direction up to the 
western end of the breakwater. Vessels drawing 16^ feet are al- 
lowed to use this channel. Dredging is in progress to increase the 
depth to 19 feet. 



KBRTCH STRAIT — SEA OF AZOV. 265 

The southeastern side of the channel is marked by black spar buoys 
with upright cone topmarks, and the northwestern side by red spar 
buoys with inverted cones. 

Beacons. — Three mast beacons, each 39 feet in height, have been 
erected on the shore, which when in range, 39°, lead through the 
channel. 

The front beacon, on the shore, is black and has a triangular top- 
mark; the second, on the slope of the hill, 1,280 yards from the first, 
is white and has a rectangular topmark; the third, on the hill, 70 
yards- from the second, is red and has a disk for a topmark. It is 
intended to place lights on the first and third beacons. 

Begulations. — Steam vessels must pass by the steam dredger at a 
very slow speed in order that the wash may not hinder the progress 
of the work. 

In positions indicated by a red flag or lantern vessels must stop 
their engines in good time and not start them again until these 
positions are passed. 

Harbor lights. — ^A fixed green light, 31 feet above high water, 
visible 3 miles, is exhibited from an iron post located on the north- 
west end of the breakwater. 

A fixed red light, 31 feet above high water, visible 3 miles, is ex- 
hibited from an iron post located on the southeast end of the break- 
water. 

An alternating white and red light, 31 feet above high water, is ex- 
hibited from a yellow cabin on wooden supports located on the ex- 
tremity of the west mole. 

Range lights. — A fixed red light, 38 feet above high water, is 
exhibited from a black triangular beacon located on the beach in 
front of the town. 

A fixed white light, 158 feet above high water, is exhibited from a 
red beacon located 1,350 yards 40° from the front light. 

These lights in range indicate the channel into the harbor. 

Coal and supplies. — Coal in normal times was not kept in stock 
for supplying shipping. It can be obtained by rail as required. Ves- 
sels coal at the wharf, where there is at present a depth of 16 feet. 
Supplies of all kinds can be purchased. Water is not good and is 
expensive. 

Repairs to machinery can be effected. 

The coast from Berdiansk is bold and cliffy and trends to the 
westward and southwestward for 19 miles, when another low sandy 
projection, known as Obitochna Spit, extends in a southwesterly 
direction for a farther distance of 14 miles. 

172982°— 20 18 



266 OBITOGHNA BANKS. 

At the northern end of Obitochna Spit is a rounded point above 
i/^hich, on higher land, are six hillocks, which form a good landmark 
and can be seen 13 miles. 

Beacon. — ^A black beacon, surmounted by a triangle, base upward, 
stands near the southwest extremity of Obitochna Spit, with Berdi- 
ansk Point Light bearing 78°, 28 miles. The beacon is elevated 58 
feet above the sea and should be visible in clear weather about 9 
miles. 

Obitochna Banks. — A bank, with irregular depths of from 18 to 
31 feet, will be found all along the eastern side of the spit, extending 
8 miles southeast from its northern end to nearly 20 miles east-south- 
east from its southern end, on which two patches of 18 and 19 feet 
lie, respectively, 13^ miles 78° and the same distance 112° from the 
spit beacon, with from 22 feet to 30 feet between them. 

A bank, with depths of from 10 to 17 feet, extends 6^ miles south- 
eastward from the beacon. 

These banks are called the Obitochna Banks. 

Buoys. — ^A red conical buoy is moored, in a depth of 25 feet, 7J 
miles, 140° from the beacons, to mark the southeastern extremity of 
the latter of the two banks mentioned above. A red spar buoy, with 
inverted topmark, is moored close to the conical buoy. 

Shoal. — On the western side of the spit, distant 12 miles west from 
the spit beacon, is a shoal patch of 16 feet, having 27 and 28 feet 
around it. It is situated about 7 miles from the nearest shore. 

Anchorage. — The bay to the northward of the spit affords good 
shelter from easterly and northeasterly winds. 

The Solenaya Eiver flows through a ravine into the head of this 
bay. A depth of 19 feet will be found at 5 miles southwest of the 
river. 

The coast from the mouth of the Solenaya River trends west and 
southwestward for 40 miles to Kirilovka Point, on which stand some 
houses and windmills. The point is preceded by a sandy shore to the 
eastward, about 6 miles in length, which separates from the sea 
Molosh Lake, into which the little river Molosh flows. 

On the rising ground at the northeast end of the sandy shore is the 
village of Stepanovka, having a solitary windmill. Ten miles north- 
eastward of the village is a remarkable hillock, surrounded by a 
column. 

Bank. — About 3J miles 123° of Kirilovka lies the center of a bank 
of 16 feet, which extends in a 33° and 213° direction 4 miles. 

Beriuch Peninsula (Fedotova) Spit. — The Beriuch Peninsula 
extends from Kirilovka Point, 12^ miles 213°, preserving the breath 
of about J mile. It then increases in breadth, and forms Fedotova 
Spit, which trends southwestward for 11 miles to Beriuch Spit, its 



^ 



KBRTOH STRAIT — ^SBA OF AZOV, 267 

southwestern extremity; then northeastward 4 miles to Stagshorn 
Point, where it is 3^ miles wide. A small piece of table-land on 
which is a farm with some large sheds, and which appears to have 
been detached from the coast, intercepts the peninsula 4 miles from 
Kirilovka Point. 

Beriuch Spit Light, fixed white, 85 feet above high water, visible 
15 miles, is exhibited from a white circular tower located near the 
southwestern extremity of the spit. 

Beacon. — ^A black mast beacon, with supports, 57 feet in height, 
surmounted by a ball, is situated lOf miles northeastward of Beriuch 
Spit Lighthouse, and serves to mark the low peninsula. 

Banks. — ^A depth of 18 feet will be found along the eastern side of 
Beriuch Peninsula, | mile from the shore, and 4 miles from it a bank 
with a least depth of 20 feet extends the whole length of and parallel 
to the peninsula. 

Westward of Beriuch Spit, the eastern point of entrance to Gheni- 
chesk Gulf, shoal water extends for 3 miles from the lighthouse. 
Near the extremity of the spit there are depths of 16 to 18 feet^ but 
^ miles 281° from the lighthouse there is only a depth of 11 feet, 
from which position the bank turns north-northeastward, parallel 
to the spit, the depth northwestward of Stagshorn Point being 18 
feet If miles from it. Thence the bank trends eastward with the 
shore. 

Buoy. — ^A red spar buoy, with inverted cone topmark, moored in a 
depth of 2f feet, marks the western extremity of the bank, extending 
from Beriuch Spit. 

Gulf of Qhenichesk. — This gulf, the upper part of which is 
known as Utlyuk Liman, lies between Beriuch Peninsula and the 
table-land which terminates at Ghenichesk. It is about 30 miles in 
length in a northeasterly direction, with a greatest breadth of about 
7 miles. 

The entrance, which is about 6 miles wide, but contracted to 3 miles 
by the bank extending westward from Beriuch Spit, has a navigable 
depth of 22 feet. Thence the depth gradually decreases to 15 feet 
westward of Kirilovka, 20 miles, from which position the water grad- 
ually shoals to the head of the inlet. 

On the western shore, abreast Stagshorn Point, is the town of 
Ghenichesk. Northeastward of the latter are the villages of Derev- 
nia and Boskuia. 

Shoals in approach. — The western side of the approach to 
Ghenichesk Gulf is formed by the Tonka and Arabat, off which the 
soundings are very uneven patches, with 18 feet water, 12 and 18 miles 
from the shore, 19 and 33 miles, respectively, southeastward from 
Beriuch Spit Lighthouse. 



268 GHENIGHESK STRAIT. 

A shoal, with a depth of 18 feet over it, is stated to exist about 11 
miles 126° from Beriuch Spit Lighthouse; and 1} miles 348° from, 
this shoal is another shoal, with 16 feet of water. 

A bank with a depth of 20 feet over it lies southeastward of the last- 
mentioned shoals and 17^ miles 126° from the lighthouse. 

Buoy. — ^A black buoy, surmounted by a cone, is moored in a depth 
of 24 feet on the northwestern side of the 20-foot bank. 

Light. — Two fixed red lights, 81 feet above high water, visible 16 
miles, are exhibited from a white quadrangular stone tower located 
on the west shore of the bay north of the town. 

Directions. — When entering the gulf for Ghenichesk Roadstead 
the lighthouse at Ghenichesk kept on a N.W. by N. | N. bearing, or at 
night the red lights in sight leads clear of all dangers. 

Boadstead. — ^There is a very good roadstead, where vessels load 
from lighters, between Ghenichesk and Beriuch Spit, in 18 to 21 feet 
water, over a muddy bottom, at about midway between the two 
shores, and open only to south-southeastward. 

The western shore of the roadstead abreast of Beriuch Spit has a 
depth of 21 feet ^ mile from the shore; abreast and northeastward 
of Ghenichesk the depth is only 18 feet 2 miles from it. 

Pilots. — Pilotage is not compulsory. Pilots can be obtained at 
Kertch if required. 

Ghenichesk Strait. — The entrance to the Putrid Sea through 
Ghenichesk Strait, which lies within Ghenichesk Gulf entrance, 8^ 
miles northwestward from Beriuch Spit Lighthouse, is formed be- 
tween the southern bold table-land which borders the northern shore 
of this sea and the northern extremity of the Tonka. It is about 150 
yards broad and deepened to 10, 12, and 15 feet by the current to 
which it gives a passage, and the channel over the bar at its entrance 
has been dredged to a depth of 12 feet. A railway bridge crosses 
the strait near its western end. 

The entrance channel requires redredging (1907). It is proposed 
to dredge it to a depth of 21 feet. 

Currents. — The currents in the strait, which are caused by the 
winds blowing from the Sea of Azov or from the Putrid Sea, attain 
a velocity of 3^ knots, at times 5 knots. Currents, due to the same 
cause, but of less strength, are also felt in the road. 

Water level. — The usual variation in the water level in the strait 
and roadstead, due to the wind, does not exceed 1 foot. The maxi- 
mum fall of the water is as much as 3 feet, and the maximum rise 
during easterly gales reaches 4 feet. 

Buoys. — The channel over the bar of Ghenichesk Strait is marked 
by black buoys on the starboard hand and by red buoys on the port 
hand, entering, and by a red spar buoy with a ball, at the entrance. 



kertch: strait — sea of azov. 269 

Range lights. — ^A fixed green light, 34 feet above high water, is 
exhibited from a gray pillar and hut located on the northern ex- 
tremity of Arabatsk Point. 

A fixed red light, 58 feet above high water, is exhibited from a 
gray pillar -and hut located 260° from the front light. 

A red iron buoy, exhibiting a flashing white light, is moored 2,520 
yards 83° from the front light. 

These lights in range give the direction of the channel. 

Ohenichesk.— The town of Ghenichesk, which contains a popu- 
lation of about 7,000, is situated on the northern shore of the strait. 
The church is conspicuous from seaward. There is a hospital in the 
town to which seamen are admitted. 

On the southern side of the town is a pier, connected with the rail- 
way, at which barges of 8 to 10 feet draught load or discharge cargo. 

Four white lights, visible 7 miles, are lighted in the port when 
cargo is being worked. 

Comxnunication. — Ghenichesk is connected with the Kussian rail- 
way system. There is communication with Kertch during the sum- 
mer, once or twice weekly, by the vessels of the Volga-Don Steam- 
ship Co., and telegraphic communication with all parts. 

Supplies. — Water of good quality can be obtained at the piers. 
Provisions can always be obtained. Coal is not kept in stock for 
supplying shipping. 

The SivaBh or Putrid Sea is divided into two irregular gulfs or 
branches, one of which runs westward to the isthmus of Perekop, and 
the other extends southeastward toward Theodosia (Kaffa) Bay, re- 
ceiving the waters of several rivulets from the Crimea. The whole 
of this part is very shallow, even for boats. 

Coast. — The Tonka (narrow) or Strelka (arrow) of Arabat is 
the western boundary of the Sea of Azov, separating it from the 
Sivash. It is a very low and narrow sand strip, 60 miles in length, 
slightly curving south-southeastward from Ghenichesk to Arabat 
Fort. The shore on its eastern side is higher than that on the 
western, from the quantity of sand that has been washed up by the 
sea almost on an even line. On the other side, however, it is very 
uneven, and formed of vegetable earth. Its breadth is irregular, the 
narrowest part being i mile across. A post road runs along it, and 
there are several wells of fresh water. 

Bank. — ^About 22 miles north-northwest of Arabat a bank has 
formed wit^;i a depth ot 9 feet, 4 miles from the shore, and 14 feet, 5 
miles ; but between it and Ghenichesk Strait, a depth of 18 feet will 
be found 1 to 1^ miles from the coast, over a bottom of sand and 
shells. 



270 KAZANTIP ANCHORAGE. 

Beacon. — A black mast beacon, with supports and triangular top- 
mark, 60 feet in height, is erected on the Tonka, abreast the 9-foot 
bank, from which the outer extremity bears 56^ 5 miles. 

Arabat Bay and Fort. — ^The ancient fortress of Arabat stands 
near the southern extremity of the Tonka, at the bottom of Arabat 
Bay. Vessels visit this bay to load salt. The bay is much exposed 
from northwest to northeast. Winds from the north and northeast 
send in much sea, which prevents all communication with the shore. 

Two miles eastward of the fort, on high ground, is the large Tartar 
village of Akhmanai. Good water can be obtained from the wells 
situated about 200 yards from the shore. 

Anchorage. — The depths in the bay diminish very gradually 
toward the shore. The best anchorage is in 25 feet, bottoip mud and 
shells, about 2^ miles northward of the village. Near the shore the 
bottom is sandyl 

Coast. — The sandy coast terminates at Arabat, bending round 
east-northeast for 13 miles to Kiten Point. It then trends 33° for 7 
miles to Kazantip Point, which forms the northern extremity of a 
peninsula projecting into the sea from the Crimea. 

Kazantip Anchorage. — Kazantip Point is rocky, of moderate 
height, bold to approach, and its eastern extremity affords shelter 
against north and northwest winds, in from 15 to 20 feet water, 
over a muddy bottom ; but the Wrangler Patch of 10 feet, lying 146° 
1 njile from the east point, must be avoided. 

When approaching this anchorage, the summits on Kazantip Point, 
being separated from the shore to the southward by a low sandy neck, 
appear as two islands and form a good mark for recognizing the bay. 

Ghagani Pointy recognizable by the numerous summits on it, two 
of which are higher than the others, bears 101° 9 miles from Kazan- 
tip Point, and between them the coast falls back 6 miles to the south- 
ward, forming a deep bay, known as Kazantip Bay, carrying a depth 
of 25 feet, over a muddy bottom, 1 mile from the shore. It is 
bordered by a beach and exposed to northwest and northeast winds. 

There is anchorage in the southeastern part of the bay, in a depth 
of 30 feet, off the village of Adjubai, 

From Chagani Point the coast trends to the eastward, and as far 
as Kertch Strait ig. backed by hills. 

Bagatubi Point, nearly 9 miles eastward of Chagani, is high, and 
near it is the salt lake named Chokrak. From thence the coast bends 
to southeastward, and about 2 miles farther on is Ziuk Point, a small 
elevation, steep and rocky on its seaward side and sloping gently 
toward the shore, connected to the mainland by a strip of sand. 

Banks. — Between Chagani and Bagatubi Points a bank of gravel 
fronts the coast for about 7 miles, extending, in its broadest part, 
about 2 miles from the shore, where there is a depth of 10 feet; and 



KERTCH STRAIT — SEA OF AZOV. 271 

from Ziuk Point, a bank curves to the northwest for 3 miles, with a 
depth of 15 feet on it, but there is a depth of 308 feet between it and 
the bank off Bagatubi Point. 

The outer. edge of this bank is steep, the depth decreasing suddenly 
from 30 feet to 12 feet. 

Tarkan Point lies ^ miles 101° from Ziuk Point, the bay between 
them being filled by a bank, with from ^ to 12 feet of water, which 
extends 1 mile from the shore. The village of Great Tarkan is 
situated in a bight on the western side of the point. 

Cape Khroni (Julia) lies 6 miles 101° from Tarkan Point, and 
between them the coast recedes a little to the southward, forming a 
bay, in which a depth of from 28 to 30 feet will be found 1 mile from 
the shore. The cape slopes down from a high steep coast and is cov- 
ered with large gray rocks which render it easily distinguishable 
when seen from the northward. Inland, above the cape, will be seen 
Mounts Khronia and Temir Oba. The first forms a long ridge with 
a cleft summit on its eastern extremity. The second, situated farther 
westward, has a rounded regular summit. Between these hills are 
other and lower hills. 

From Cape Julia the coast trends 146° for 5 miles to Cape Yeni- 
kale, and forms the western shore of the entrance to Kertch Strait. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



BLACK SEA— CAUCASIAN OR EASTERN SHORE; KERTCH STRAIT 

TO DATUM. 

Kuban Lake. — ^The channel leading into Kuban Lake is formed 
between Bugaz Point, the extremity of a narrow sandy projection 
extending f mile southeastward from Taman Island and the north- 
west point of Timiteia Peninsula. It is about 250 yards broad and 
has a depth of 19 feet, but seaward of the entrance there is but 5 feet, 
with 30 feet f mile offshore. The lake is only navigable by flat- 
bottomed boats. On Bugaz Point stands a large building, and the 
village of that name, and there are 6 or 6 houses on the point of 
Timiteia Peninsula. 

Foul ground. — In standing toward Bugaz Channel from the 
westward, care must be taken to guard against the foul ground which 
extends fully 3 miles southward from Cape Kishla. Cape Tuzla 
should be kept open of Panaghia outer islet until the Bugaz Channel 
bears 67°, and great attention should be paid to the lead. 

Mary Magdalene (Megsera) Bock. — This dangerous rock, with 
a least depth of 2 feet and a patch of 4 feet 200 yards from it, lies 
nearly 5 miles southeast from Bugaz Channel and IJ miles from the 
shore of Timiteia Peninsula. There is a depth of 15 feet J mile south- 
east of the shallow heads, and 10 fathoms ^ mile distant. Between 
the rock and the shore there is a depth of 5 fathoms. 

Range mark. — Cape Panaghia, open of Cape Kishla, 294°, leads 
southward of the rock. 

Beacons. — Two beacons on the shore serve as marks for Mary 
Magdalene Bank. The western mark, 57 feet high, is a mast sur- 
mounted by a checkered square, 5^ miles east-southeastward of Bu- 
gaz Channel. The eastern mark, 114 feet high, is a mast with two 
horizontal bars, situated 2^ miles from the western mark. 

The western beacon, kept on a 61° bearing, leads westward of 
Mary Magdalene Bank. 

Timiteia. — The Peninsula of Timiteia, about 15 miles in length, 
serves as a dyke to the waters of Kuban Lake. It takes a 112° 
direction from Bugaz Point, and toward its middle rises a platform 
about 3 miles in length, the sides of which are steep and of a reddish 
tint. About 11 miles from the Bugaz Channel is a coast-guard sta- 
tion and the Fort of Timiteia, now in ruins, but erected to command 

273 



274 ANCHORAGE. 

the road to Taman which runs along this isthmus. There is said to 
be a depth of 4 fathoms along the peninsula, about i mile from the 
shore, but great attention must be paid, especially during light and 
variable winds, as the current, which generally sets to northwestward 
along the Caucasian coast, sets here toward the land. The ground 
also is rocky and foul. 

Southeastward of the peninsula there are several hills and a plain, 
bordered by a sandy beach, which trends round to the southward and 
forms the roadstead of Anapa. The southern point of the roadstead, 
on which stands the town, is comparatively low and flat. 

Anapa Bead — Banks. — ^A rocky bank, with a least depth of 8 
feet, extending in an east and west direction 600 yards, lies 500 yards 
northward of the town; and the beach eastward of the town is 
bordered by a bank with 3 fathoms on its edge 600 yards from the 
shore. 

Foul ground extends 600 yards from the western side of the town 
oflF Anapa Point. 

Buoys. — The northern side of the 8-foot bank is marked by two 
black spar buoys, with conical topmarks, moored in 16 and 40 feet, 
respectively. A similar buoy, in a depth of 37 feet, marks the foul 
groimd westward of Anapa Point. 

Anchorage. — ^The best anchorage is in the outer road, in about 
5^ fathoms, mud and sand, with the white lighthouse on the north 
point of the town, bearing south-southwest about 1,200 yards; but 
this is exposed from northwest to south-southwest. More to the 
westward the bottom is mixed with gravel. 

The inner anchorage, in about 2 fathoms, for small craft, south- 
eastward of the 8- foot bank, is sheltered from southwesterly winds, 
and also protected from the sea by the foul ground to the northwest- 
ward. It may be entered by the channel between the 8-foot bank and 
the town, in which there is a depth of 3 fathoms, or by passing north- 
ward of that bank. 

Small vessels must be careful in standing inshore, for i mile north- 
eastward of the town a bar of sand is formed in the smnmer season 
off the mouth of Kumalir River. 

Anapa. — The town of Anapa, formerly fortified, occupies the 
whole southern shore of the roadstead and lies 21 miles from the 
Bugaz Channel. It stands on a projecting crag of a long slope from 
the most western mountains of Circassia, which slope is prolonged 
northward and eastward toward Kuban Lake. The houses are gen- 
erally of one story, and the streets are wide and straight. The otily 
church in the town is built of stone and has a high tower which forms 
a good landmark. On the south and west sides the walls rise from a 
perpendicular calcareous rock, nearly 200 feet in height^ but on the 



i 



BLACK SEA— KEETOH STRAIT TO BATUM. 275 

north the land slopes toward the roadstead. Southeastward of the 
town are numerous windmills. 

Communicatioii. — There is regular communication with Odessa 
and Batum and intermediate ports by steamer three times a week; 
also telegraphic communication with all parts. 

Pier. — A pier, 175 yards in length, extends from the northern 
shore of the town and has depths of from 7 to 12 feet alongside. 

Ai;apa Light, fixed red, 40 feet above high water, is exhibited 
from an open pyramidal-shaped iron tower located in the city. 

A fixed white light, 68 feet above high water, is exhibited from an 
open-shaped iron tower located 373 yards 120° from the front light. 

These lights in range lead to the roadstead. 

A fixed green light is shown from a tower near the city wharf. 

A flashing white light with a red sector is shown from a tower 
located near the southwest part of the city. 

Storm Signals are shown from a flagstaff near the guardhouse. 

Supplies are scarce, especially in summer. Water is brought in 
barrels from the Kumalir River, which, after having meandered in 
the plain, used many years ago to discharge into the sea J mile north- 
ward of the town. Mounds of sand have now formed at its mouth, 
and it is only in winter that it has the power of forcing a passage. 

Directions. — In coming from the southward, Anapa may be easily 
recognized by the diminished height of the mountains in its vicinity 
and by a long white cliff, which extends to the walls, but in the ap- 
proach from the westward is not so easily made out, as several moun- 
tains are seen, which completely change the aspect of the country. 
These gradually disappear as the coast is neared. In standing for 
the anchorage from the southward a vessel should give Anapa Point 
a berth of at least 800 yards to avoid a rocky ridge which borders it 
and extends eastward as far as the second bastion ; also the isolated 
8-foot bank before described. 

When coming from the westward or northwestward, the leading 
beacons by day or the leading light by night, 121°, lead to the outer 
anchorage. By day, if bound to the inner anchorage, the red tower 
near the pier in range with the pierhead, 184°, leads from the above 
range eastward of the 8-foot bank in a depth of about 11 feet. By 
night, vessels should keep within the limits of the green light shown 
from the lighthouse near the pier. 

Coast. — From the small bastion standing at the soutliern extremity 
of Anapa, the coast trends south-southeastward, and the shore, which 
is bold, gradually becomes higher, terminating about 5 miles to the 
southward in a steep white cliff, the base of which is washed by the 
sea. It is steep-to, having 5 fathoms 400 yards, and 8 fathoms 500 
yards from tlie shore. 



276 UTRISH POINT, 

irtrish Point (lat. 44° 45i' N., long. 37° 24' E.).— About 8^ miles 
158° from Anapa, between two high reddish cliffs, is a hill about 
250 yards in length, covered with brushwood, the extremity of which 
is named Utrish Point. When seen from the north or south it ap- 
pears like an island, and has often been taken for one, being con- 
nected to the mainland by a low isthmus, 350 yards in length, des- 
titute of vegetation. The point bordered by a shoal extending 
about 300 yards to the westward, but there are 8 fathoms close to its 
edges. 

IJtrlsh Point Light, flashing green, 50 feet above high water, 
visible 6 miles, is exhibited from a white hut on an iron truss located 
on the extremity of the point. 

Anchorage. — The shores north and south of the point are clean, 
and small craft may obtain shelter from southerly winds in the cove 
to the northward ; and from northerly winds in the cove to the south- 
ward, by anchoring close to the isthmus, in 5 or 6 fathoms water, with 
a hawser fast to the shore, as the bank is steep. 

Sampson Bock. — To the southward of the two reddish cliffs 
which back Utrish Point is seen a third cliff,. and then a low wooded 
shore backed by mountains terminating in a prominence 4 miles from 
the point, named Utrishenok, which has also the appearance of an 
island when seen a short distance from the coast. Sampson Rock, 
with a depth of 2^ fathoms, lies abreast of it | mile from the shore, 
with 14 fathoms inside. 

Ozerzik. — From Utrishenok the coast trends east-southeastward 
and bold white cliffs reappear at the foot of conical mountains with 
round summits, separated from each other by narrow valleys. That 
of Dirzye is the most remarkable on account of its beauty. It is 
followed by another steep cliff and by a smaller one of angular 
form. The coast from thence trends more to the eastward, and a 
rich and picturesque valley comes in sight, which is inhabited and 
bordered by a beach slightly receding to the northward forming 
Ozerzik Roadstead, which is 13 miles from Utrish Point. 

Anchorage. — The anchorage off Ozerzik, in 4 to 8 fathoms, is 
sheltered from winds from 292° through north to 112®, with good 
holding groimd, 200 or 300 yards from the shore. 

Miskhak Anchorage. — From Ozerzik the coast trends east- 
southeastward to Miskhak Point, which lies at the foot of a steep 
and elevated mountain. At its base, to the eastward, is the valley 
of Miskhak, abreast of which a vessel may anchor, sheltered from all 
winds from west through north to east-northeast. The shore from 
thence is low and runs about 2 miles east-northeastward to a small 
point, beyond which there is a lake and the low sandy point of 
Sudzhuk, which forms the western side of the entrance to Novo- 
rossisk Bay. 



BIAGK SEA — KBRTCH STRAIT TO BATUM. 277 

Novorossisk (Sudzhuk) Bay. — The entrance to Novorossisk or 
Sudzhuk Bay lies between Sudzhuk and Doob Points, which bear 
northwest by west and southeast by east from each other, distant 
nearly 4J miles. The bay is about 8 miles long in a northwest direc- 
tion from Doob Point to the circular beach at its head, which fronts 
a large wooded valley watered by the rivulet of Tzemess, the waters 
of which rarely reach the sea. The bay never freezes. 

Western shore. — Sudzhuk point is low, thence the western shore 
of the bay is of moderate height, and 1 mile from Sudzhuk Point, to 
the northward of a salt lake, will be seen a ruinied Turkish fort, while 
at the head of the bay is the harbor of Novorossisk, formed by two 
moles, extending from the northeastern and southwestern shores, 
respectively. On the western side of the harbor is the town of 
Novorossisk. 

Shoals. — A reef extends southwestward from Sudzhuk Point, 
with a depth of 3 fathoms over it f mile from the shore, and 5 
fathoms nearly 1 mile from the point. 

Northward of Sudzhuk Point 5 fathoms will be found from 200 
to 600 yards from the shore. 

Eastern shore. — Doob Point, the eastern point of entrance to 
Novorossisk Bay, near which stands a lighthouse, is remarkable, 
being surrounded by white angular cliffs and lying at the foot of a 
mountain of moderate height. A valley to the northward separates 
it from the ridge of the Varada Mountains, which rise to the height 
of 2,345 feet and border the bay to the northeastward. 

Kabardinski Fort stands at the head of a bay, 1^ miles 57° from 
Doob Point. Northward of this bay the shore becomes bold and 
steep. Three miles northwestward of the fort is Penai Point, com- 
posed of steep cliffs, and on which also stands a lighthouse. Thence 
the coast trends in a northwesterly direction to the head of the bay. 

Shoals. — In the bay northeastward of Doob Point, more than i 
mile from the shore, and west-northwestward of Kabardinski Fort, 
is a small oblong reef about 500 yards in length, from north to south, 
with a depth of from 3 to 18 feet. The least depth of 3 feet lies 
296° 1,100 yards from Kabardinski Fort. In the bay to the south- 
ward of this, the 5-f athom curve is about 800 yards from, with gradu- 
ally decreasing depths toward, the shore, but outside it there is a patch 
of 4J fathoms, which is nearly 600 yards 242° from the depth of 3 
feet already mentioned. 

With this exception, the northeastern shores of the bay are fringed 
with shoal water for about 200 yards, with 5 fathoms J mile from the 
coast. About 400 yards southwestward of Penai Point there is a 
depth of 2J fathoms. 

Middle Ground. — In mid-channel, and just within the entrance 
of the bay, lies a bed of sunken rocks, of irregular depths, which 



278 RANGE MARKS. 

within the 10-fathom curve is nearly IJ miles from north to south 
and 1^ miles from east to west. 

On its southeastern part is a patch named Penai Bank, about 700 
yards in extent, with a least depth of 2J fathoms, from the center of 
which Penai Point Lighthouse bears 34° 1^ miles; and a patch of 3 
fathoms, jibout 300 yards in length in a north and south direction, 
lies close to the westward of this position. 

On the western edge of the Middle Ground is a patch of 3J 
fathoms, from which Penai Point Lighthouse bears 48° If miles; 
and in a south-southeast direction from this depth, 400 yards, is a 
patch of 4f fathoms. 

On the northern edge of the Middle Ground is Scheskari Rock, a 
patch of 3^ fathoms, from which Penai Lighthouse bears 57°, 1 mile. 

Buoys. — Penal Bank is marked by a red spar buoy, with inverted 
cone topmark, moored in a depth of 5^ fathoms on the eastern side of 
the 2f-fathom shoal. 

The 3|-f athom shoal is marked on its western side by a black spar 
buoy with upright cone topmark, moored in a depth of 5J fathoms. 

Scheskari Rock is marked on its western side by a black and white 
spar buoy, with spherical topmark, moored in a depth of 6 fathoms. 

The buoys in Novorossisk Bay must not be depended on as they 
frequently break adrift. 

Range marks. — A pyramidal white stone beacon named Penai- 
ski, when in range with Penai Point Light bearing 57°, leads south- 
ward of the reef off Sudzhuk Point. 

A pair of leading beacons, similar to the above-mentioned beacon 
and named Tzemesski, situated at the head of the bay, kept in range 
bearing 330°, lead up the center of the bay. 

Lights. — ^A fixed white light, 337 feet above high water, is ex- 
hibited from a white stone tower located on Doob Point at the en- 
trance to the bay. 

A fixed red light with a sector alternating white and green, 64 feet 
above high water, is exhibited from a white house located on Penai 
Point. 

Novorossisk Harbor is protected by two moles. The eastern one 
extends 236° and is about J mile long. The western extends from the 
town 56° for a little over J mile. 

Lights. — A fixed red light, 32 feet above high water, is exhibited 
from a white iron post located on the west molehead at the entrance 
to the harbor. 

A fixed white light, with a flashing red sector, 43 feet above high 
water, is exhibited from a white cylindrical iron turret located on 
the east molehead at the entrance of the harbor. 

FogsignaL — The fogsignal is a bell. 



BLACK SEA — KERTCH STRAIT TO BATUM, 279 

Anchorages. — The anchorages off the town at the head of the bay 
is considered very dangerous during the autumn and winter months 
on account of the northeast winds which then prevail. 

Vessels waiting for berths at the piers anchor inside the moles as 
near the northeastern shore of the harbor as possible. If, owing to 
bad weather, they are unable to enter the harbor, the usual anchor- 
age is near the northeastern shore of the bay, in the bight formed by 
that shore and the eastern mole of the harbor. 

There is also anchorage in the small bay northward of Doob Point, 
in 5 to 10 fathoms, over sand and mud, about i to f mile from the 
shore, abreast Kabardinski Fort. 

Piers. — On the northwestern shore of the harbor there are seven 
piers where vessels load, with depths of from 19 to 29 feet alongside 
their outer ends. Five of these piers belong to the railway company, 
one to the Standard Petroleum Co., and one, the northeasternmbst, 
to the Russian Steam Navigation Co. 

On the southwestern side of the harbor, in front of the town, is a 
mole for the use of the coasting trade, which has a depth of 24 feet 
at its outer end and a dredged area on either side of it with a depth 
of 23 feet. 

Directions — East Channel. — Standing in for Novorossisk Bay 
at night, Doob Point Light, which is safe to approach, will be in sight 
when bearing northward of east and may be steered for, until the 
red sector of light from Penai Point is visible. Course must then be 
altered to north, or for the light, keeping within the red sector, which 
leads eastward of Middle Ground ; and when the white sector of light 
from Doob Lighthouse is seen it must be kept in sight astern, which 
will lead northward of Middle Ground, and in mid-channel, until 
the red sector of light from Penai Lighthouse is seen, which kept in 
sight astern leads toward Novorossisk Harbor. 

By day, the bearings of the lighthouses as given in the above direc- 
tions will lead safely through the eastern channel. 

West Channel. — To enter the bay by the western channel at 
night, Penai Point Light should be steered for, within the sector of 
white and green alternating light until the sector of white light with 
red flashes, shown from the lighthouse on the east mole head of 
Novorossisk Harbor, is seen, when it should be steered for, which 
will lead up to the harbor entrance. 

By day, the pyramidal white stone beacon, already mentioned, kept 
in range with Panai Point Lighthouse, bearing 57°, will lead be- 
tween the shoal water southeast of Sudzhuk Point and the 3f -fathom 
patch on the Middle Ground, and when the Tzemesski beacons in the 
north part of the bay come in range 337° they should be steered for, 
until the town of Novorossisk bears about 303°, when a course may 
be shaped for the anchorage or the harbor. 



280 PILOTS — QUARANTINE. 

Pilots. — ^Pilotage is not compulsory. A pilot from the railway 
company (unlicensed) comes on board to take vessels alongside the 
piers. 

The town of Novorossisk contained in the year 1900 a population 
of 40,384. The Standard Petroleum Co. have their works and place 
of shipment on the northwestern side of the harbor, where the oil is 
brought by pipes from wells many miles distant. Seamei^ are ad- 
mitted to the town hospital. 

Communication. — ^By rail to Tichorezkaia Junction, on the Ros- 
tov and Vladikavkas Railway; by steamer with the Black Sea 
ports by the Russian Steam Navigation Co. ; with Marseilles by the 
Messageries Maritime and Paquet Companies ; and with England by 
the Wilson Line. By telegraph, via Anapa, with all parts. 

Supplies. — In normal times fresh meat, vegetables, and bread can 
be obtained. The water is not good. 

Coal and liquid fuel are not kept in stock for supplying shipping. 

Repairs. — There are workshops where repairs to the hulls and 
machinery of vessels can be effected. 

Quarantine. — ^The quarantine station is not used. Vessels in 
quarantine must^proceed to Theodosia. 

Coast.— ^The long range of angular cliffs which border Doob Point 
is broken 4J miles to the southeastward by Ashampe Creek, where 
also is the village of Natukhadi. The coast then trends more east- 
ward, but gradually lessens in height as Ghelenjik Bay is approached. 
A small reef extends about 150 yards westward from an angle of 
a cliff not far to the southward of Ashampe Point. 

Ohelenjik Bay (lat. 44° 33' N., long. 38° 4' E.).— The entrance 
to Ghelenjik Bay is about 1 mile wide between Tliuvieuse Point 
(which is of moderate height, of a level surface, and without vegeta- 
tion) to the southeast, and a low point to the northwest. A long 
range of white cliffs extends from Tliuvieuse Point in a southeast di- 
rection toward Mezib, six of which are of semicircular form. 

The interior of Ghelenjik Bay, oval shape, is about 2J miles wide 
from northwest to southeast and 1^ miles long. It has a depth of 8 
fathoms at its entrance and 5 to 6 fathoms in the middle, over sand 
and mud, gradually shoaling to the depth of 3 fathoms toward the 
shore, which is bordered by a bank of sand. The village lies on the 
southeastern shore, westward of which is a small stream named 
Kunlezi Eiver. 

The bay is open from west-southwest to south, but the winds from 
that quarter are not dangerous. The northeasterly winds, although as 
frequent and violent as those in Novorossisk Bay, are less feared, as 
the entrance is open, and vessels anchored in the middle of the bay can 
slip and stand out to sea. It may here be noticed that the wind 



BLACK SEA — KERTCH STRAIT TO BATUM. 281 

blows with more violence in front of the ravines between the spurs 
of the Varada mountain ridge, than at their projecting point. Ves- 
sels intending to remain any time at anchor should moor with their 
large anchor to northeastward. There is good anchorage for those 
of light draft abreast the landing place, in 12 or 13 feet water. 

Shoals. — Shoal water extends in a west-southwest direction 800 
yards from Tliuvieuse Point, there being 3^ fathoms at that dis- 
tance, and a patch of 2^ fathoms, 600 yards, between which and the 
point there is a depth of 4^ fathoms. Also a patch with 1^ fathoms 
lies 600 yards 191° from the point. The northwestern side of the 
entrance is fringed by a bank extending from 200 to 400 yards. 

Buoys. — A red spar buoy, with inverted cone topmark, is moored 
in 5^ fathoms on the northwestern side of the entrance, 600 yards, 
191° from the western entrance point. 

A red spar buoy, with inverted cone topmark, is moored in 4^ 
fathoms, eastward of the.foiil ground on the west side of the bay. 

Ghelenjik Light, fixed red, 52 ieet above high water, is exhibited 
from a stone dwelling with a square tower located on the northeast 
shore .of the bay. 

An alternating white and green light, 63 feet above high water, is 
exhibited from a white iron hut on a truss located on the southeast 
point of the entrance to Ghelenjik Bay^ 

Beacon. — A pyramidal stone beacon^ 28 feet in height, and ele- 
vated 150 feet above the sea, stands on Ihe hillside 1,500 yards, 48*^ 
from the lighthouse. 

This beacon in range with the lighthouse, bearing 48°, leads into 
the bay. 

Communication. — ^There is regular steamer communication with 
Odessa, Batum, and other Black Sea ports. 

Coast— Mezib (False Ghelenjik of the Turks).— The valley 
of Mezib lies about 5 miles southeastward of Tliuvieuse Point, at the 
extremity of the white cliffs. Shelter may be found in the roadstead 
from northwest winds, round by north to south, in about 5J fathoms. 

Another white cliff will be seen at Khopitsai, which is 7J miles 
southeastward of Tliuvieuse Point, eastward of which is the valley 
of Dzhankot between two bold reddish cliffs, and then a projecting 
point, named Cape Idokopas. 

As a general rule the Caucasian coast is bold to approach, with the 
exception of a few points, which will be hereafter noticed, the aver- 
age depths being 6 fathoms at 600 yards, 8 fathoms at 800 yards, and 
10 to 12 fathoms at J mile from the shore. 

Cape Idokopas is one of the most projecting points of the coast. 
Its summit is flat and covered with pine trees, some of which hang 

172982^—20 19 



282 PSHAD ANGHOBAGE. 

over the red cliflFs. It is bordered by a reef and should be given a 
berth J mile. 

Pshud Anchorage. — Eastward of Cape Idokopas the coast, com- 
posed of roundish cliffs, trends 9 miles 112° to Chugovkopas Point. 
Between the eastern of these cliffs and the point lies the valley of 
Pshad, in which is situated the small fort of Novotroitskoe (New 
Trinity), in ruins. The anchorage is abreast the valley, which is 
fronted by a beach, but it is exposed from 146°, through south, to 
281°. A depth of 4 to 6 fathoms, over mud and sand, will be found 
300 yards from the shore. Care must be taken to avoid some sunken 
rocks which lie about 150 yards from the shore, off the mouth of a 
rivulet, backed by a mountain which bounds the valley to the north- 
ward and also off a small point on the southern shore. 

In approaching this anchorage from the southward, Chugovkopas 
Point, which is of moderate iieight and flat surface, with cliffs of a 
deeper tint than those of Idokopas and witli a high conical isolated 
mountain near it, will be first recognized ; then. Cape Idokopas and 
the bold circular cliffs, and in the interior a round summit and a 
peak, while nearer the coast a bare cone tops the other mountains. 

Beta and Vulan Bays. — From Chugovkopas Point the coast 
turns 1 mile northeastward to Beta Bay, which affords a good an- 
chorage, sheltered from westerly winds but open to the southward. 
From thence it recedes to the northward and trends again to the 
eastward to Vulan Valley, 6 miles from tbp point, off which another 
anchorage presents itself, but is more op«n to westerly winds. Fort 
Michailoffskoe lies on the western side of the anchorage. 

The village of Vulan is gituated in thp valley about 1 mile from 
the shore. 

Dzhubg Anchorage. — ^About 7 miles 112° from Vulan is the 
anchorage of Dzhubg, which is formed between the two headlands. 
This part of the coast is composed of white circular cliffs. The last 
of them, the headland eastward of Dzhubg, is bordered by a bank, and 
must be given a berth of 100 yards. 

Dzhubg Light, alternating red and green, 37 feet above high 
water, visibte red 6 miles, green 3 miles, in exhibited from a white hut 
on pillars located near the frontier coastguard station. 

Fogsignal. — The fogsignal is a bell. 

Communication. — There is regular communication by steamer 
with Odessa, Batum, and other Black Sea ports. 

Shapsukho (Nechepsuko) Bay lies about 2J miles eastward of 
Dzhubg, fronting a long valley which may be easily distinguished at a 
distance by a high mountain backing it to the northward. The valley 
is watered by a rivulet which reaches the sea through low ground, 
having a considerable beach in front. Here are several blockhouses, 
a fort, named Tenginskoe, constructed on the plain, westward of 



BLACK SEA — KERTCH STRAIT TO BATUM. 283 

which is Novo Michailoffskaya. In this bay, as in almost all the 
roadsteads on this coast, a vessel should anchor some distance from 
the shore in order to be able to clear it in case heavy weather should 
come on from seaward- Although this seldom happens, yet it will 
not be prudent to anchor in less than 5 or 6 fathoms, about 600 or 800 
yards from the beach. It invariably occurs, along this coast, that 
immediately the sea gets up the surf is very strong along the beach, 
and boats can not approadi it. 

From Shapsukho the coast changes its aspect, the mountains reced- 
ing farther from the shore, with their bold slopes wider apart, less 
regular in form, and much lower. 

Tu Anchorage. — Tu Point, 9 miles southeastward of Shapsukho, 
may be easily recognized by Mount Tu, of conical form, rising from 
its center. It stands to the northward of Tu Cove, which is about } 
mile in diameter and situated at the entrance of a valley. Vessels 
may anchor here in 5 or 6 fathoms between two cliffs, which mark 
the entrance and which are bordered by sunken rocks, extending 200 
yards from the shore. 

Tuapse Bay — ^dape Kadosh. — The coast from Tu Anchorage 
trends to the eastward, and then bends southward to Cape Kadosh 
or Chardak Point, situated 9 miles southeast of Tu Point and which 
is imemdiately followed to the eastward by Tuiapse Bay. This bay 
will be recognized by the lighthouse on Cape Kadosh, a steep cliffy 
pointy as well as by the village of Velyaminov, standing on table-land 
about 2 miles eastward of it. 

The roadstead is open to south and southwesterly winds, but pro- 
tected from the northwest by Cape Kadosh. Anchorage in 6 fathoms 
will be found 1 mile from the shore, and in 10 fathoms about 5 miles. 

Cape Chardak (Kadosh) Light, fixed and flashing white, 203 
feet above high water, is exhibited from a white octagonal ^one 
tower located on the cape. 

Tuapse Port. — The port of Tuapse, 1 mile eastward from Cape 
Kadosh, is formed by two moles. The eastern mole extends from the 
shore in a southwesterly and westerly direction for about 850 yards. 
The western mole, situated ^ mile from the eastern mole, extends 400 
y-ards in a south-southeasterly direction. The passage between the 
moles is about 125 yards wide. 

There is a depth of 24 feet in the port alongside the outer part of 
the eastern mole and of from 22 to 23 feet alongside the inner part 
of the same mole. The outer part of the port is dredged to a depth 
of 24 feet. 

The town of Tuapse is situated to the eastward of the port. 

Lights. — A fixed red light, 41 feet above high water, is exhibited 
from a red hut located in front of the entrance to the port. 



- V 



284 SOCHA BUITKH POINT. 

A fixed white light, 67 feet above high water, is exhibited from a 
white hut on pillars located 32*^ from the front light. 

These lights in range lead into the harbor. ' 

Two fixed red lights, placed vertically 32 and 37 feet above high 
water, are exhibited from a white iron post located on the extremity 
of the eastern mole. 

Two fixed white lights, placed vertically 30 and 35 feet above high 
water, are exhibited from a white iron candelabrum located on the 
southern extremity of the western mole. 

Communication. — There is steamer communication with Odessa, 
Batum, and other Black Sea ports. There is telegraphic communi- 
cation with all parts. 

Coast. — From Tuapse Bay the coast trends southeastward in 
almost a direct line for 34 miles to Zhoobzhe Point, which causes a 
difficulty in recognizing the different localities along its shore. The 
lofty summits of the mountains on the coast would serve as land- 
marks if they were not so often enveloped in fog or clouds. The 
most southern as well as the most remarkable, from its singularity 
of form, is Mount Nugaigus (Shugus), 10,640 feet high. 

Psezuape Road. — The valley of Psezuape may, however, be rec- 
ognized by the military fort of Lazareff, situated on the site of the 
old fort on the bank of a rivulet of that name. The roadstead is 
exposed to all sea winds from northwest to southeast. 

Subeshik Bay lies nearly 9 miles 146° from Psezuape, and may 
almost be mistaken for it, as the aspect of the beach is the same, and 
the small fort of Golovin (Shakhe), which stands here, has very 
much the appearance of the preceding one. This anchorage is also 
much exposed. A rivulet flows into the sea here. 

Socha Buitkh Point. — From Zhoobzhe Point, Socha Buitkh 
Point, which* is of medium height and rounded, lies southeastward 8 
miles. The space which separates them forms a large and verdant 
valley, intersected by hillocks and bordered by a beach. Fort Mamai 
Kale formerly stood here, on the bank of the Psakhe Eiver. Another 
river, the Socha Psta, finds its way to the sea a little to the north- 
ward of Socha Buitkh Point. The Russian fort named Navaginskoe 
(Dahovsky) stands on an eminence on the shore between this river 
and the point, and is commanded by a stone tower, which may be 
seen from a great distance. 

The current is much felt here running to the northwestward. 

Socha Light, fixed white, 120 feet above high water, is exhibited 
from a white stone tower located on Socha Buitkh Point. 

Socha. — The valley through which the Socha Psta Eiver flows is 
bounded on the east by a plateau on which stands the town of Socha. 
From seaward a stone church with bell tower will be seen, also a 



feLACIt SfiA — ItfiRfCH ST^iRAlT TO BAtUM. 585 

number of houses built on the low left bank of the river and on the 
plateau. Eastward of the church, along the shore, are a number of 
fine houses. Above the town are vineyards. 

Socha is the center for the administration of the district and pos- 
sesses Government offices. 

Coininunication. — There is steamer communication with Odessa, 
Batum, and other Black Sea Ports. There is a telegraph station at 
Socha. 

Anchorage. — Sailing vessels anchor off the town in a depth of 
about 16 fathoms, mud and sand. Steam vessels can anchor closer in. 

Coast. — From Socha Buitkh Point to Mustakuba Point, 7 miles 
to the southeastward, the shore is low, abrupt, and wooded, and is 
backed by a mountain named Khukhup. 

Many fine residences are situated along this coast. 

Khosta^ formerly known by the name of Kamisler, where a rivulet 
flows into the sea, is a little to the southward of Mustakuba Point. 
The low land commences here, covered with magnificent forests, run- 
ning dgwn to within 20 yards of the beach and extending beyond St. 
Duka Fort. To the southeastward some lofty mountains are seen: 

Small vessels can find shelter from northwest winds in the center 
of the bay, in a depth of about 3^ fathoms, over fine sand. In calm 
weather boats can enter the river. 

Adler Point lies 12 miles southeastward from Socha Buitkh 
Point, and thence the coast trends 2 miles southeastward to Konstan- 
tin Point. The old fort of St. Duka is a little northward of the 
mouth of the Mezyumta Eiver, which enters the sea southward of 
Adler Point and village. A bank of shingle has been formed off the 
mouth of the river, extending 200 yards from the shore, where there is 
a depth of 5 fathoms. 

Adler (St. Duka) Point Light, alternating white, red, white, 
and green, 36 feet above high water, visible white 7 miles, red 6 miles, 
green 3 miles, is exhibited from a white hut on pillars located on the 
beach about 700 yards northwest of the village. 

Anchorage. — There is a depth of 40 fathoms 600 yards from the 
shore, with the fort bearing 11° or 56° ; but between those bearings 
there is a depth of 20 fathoms at that distance. The best anchorage 
is in about 10 fathoms, with St. Duka Fort bearing about northeast 
500 yards from the shore. 

Communication. — There is steamer communication with Odessa, 
Batum, and other Black Sea ports. ' 

Gagri. — From Konstantin Point the coast trends 13 miles in a 
112° direction to the foot of Mount Oschten, which runs boldly down 
to the sea. At its base is a beach of small extent, on which stands the 
fortress of Gagri, near the entrance to a narrow pass. The depths 



286 PITSUNDA POINT. 

here are considerable and the anchorage indifferent. Three miles 
southeastward of the fort is the village of Oagri and between them 
is the mouth of the Gagripsh Biver. 

Gagri Light, fixed red, 56 feet above high water, visible 5 miles, 
is exhibited from a mast located on Gagri Pier. 

A fixed red light, 168 feet above hi^ water, visible 9 miles, is ex- 
hibited from a white rectangular beacon located 200 yards 26^ from 
the front light. 

A fixed red light, 217 feet above high water, visible 9 miles, is ex- 
hibited from a white rectangular beacon located 244 yards 26^ from 
the front light. 

These three lij^ts in range lead into the roadstead. 

A fixed green light, 72 feet above high water, is' exhibited from a 
pole on a white triangular beacon located about 1 mile southeast of 
the first alignment. 

A fixed green light, 129 feet above high water, visible 4 miles, is 
exhibited from a pole on a white triangular beacon 322 yards 108° 
from the front light. 

These lights in range mark the anchorage for small vessels. 

Communication. — Steamship service as at Adler. There is a 
telegraph station. 

Coast. — From the southern side of the gigantic rock of Gagri a 
low and wooded land trends for 4 miles southward to the Bzuib 
Eiver. From thence the coast runs 2^ miles southeastward to 
Pitsunda Point. 

Pitsunda Point has on it a small fort, near which there is a 
church, and may be recognized by the lighthouse, which, with a low 
dwelling house attached, stands to the southward of a thick clump 
of tall pine tress. The dome of an ancient church may be seen from 
some positions through openings between the trees. 

Pitsunda Point Light, alternating fixed and group flashing, with 
white and red flash, 118 feet above high water, is exhibited from a 
white circular iron tower located on the outer extremity of the point. 

Pitsunda Boad. — Eastward of Pitsunda Point, which is safe. to 
approach, is the bay of the same name. A long and wide beach be- 
ginning at the point extends 1^ miles to the northward, thence trend- 
ing eastward, when several white cliffs reappear, and extend in an 
easterly direction as far as Tolstoi (Abikhu) Point, 6 miles from 
Pitsunda Point. 

Shoals. — About i mile to the northwestward of Tolstoi Point 
rocks extend 500 yards from the shore; and southeastward of the 
point rocks extend to a distance of 1} miles. 

Anchorage. — The anchorage in this roadstead is inconvenient, 
there being a depth of 20 to 25 fathoms a short distance from the 
coast and from 6 to 8 fathoms 30 yards distant. It is also exposed 



BLACK SEA — KERTOH STRAIT TO BATUM. 387 

from east-southeast to south. There is a better anchorage, in 18 
fathoms, mud bcttom, abreast the first small cliff at the bottom of the 
bay, which is divided into two portions by a narrow gully. Small 
vessels may anchor 200 or 300 yards from the shore in 6 or 7 fathoms, 
but the mud is soft. This is a good anchorage for the vessels that 
load here with boxwood. It is said that the sea winds seldom blow 
home and that little inconvenience is felt from the swell rolling in 
from seaward. 

Bombori Bead. — The low cliffs beginning in Pitsunda Eoad ter- 
minate a little to the eastward of Tolstoi Point. Thence the coast 
trends southward to Suksu Point, 5 miles, forming the roadstead of 
Bombori. The greater part of this shore is backed by low wooded 
land and at a distance by high moui;itains, remarkable for their being 
divided in three deep gullies. From some positions may be seen, on 
an elevation which commands the plain of Bombori, a palace, with an 
ancient church near it, and nearer the sea the dwelling houses of the 
old Fort Bombori and part of its suburbs. On the shore are the 
ruins of a church, a guardhouse, and of several other buildings. 

Shoals. — Bocks extend 800 yards southeastward of Suksu Point, 
and also front the shore for 1^ miles to the northwestward of it. 
Vessels therefore should give the point a wide berth in passing. 

From the northern shore of the road near Tolstoi Point, rocks ex- 
tend, as mentioned above, to a distance of IJ miles. 

Anchorage. — Vessels anchor at various distances from the shore 
off Bombori. There are 20 fathoms 1^ miles, and 12 to 10 fathoms 
J or 1 mile, sheltered from 292° round by north to 135°. When 
the surf is not heavy, they anchor' abreast the guardhouse. Here, as 
elsewhere on the Caucasian shore, the Anatolian coasting craft are 
hauled up on the beach. 

Coast. — From Suksu Point the coast becomes irregular and trends 
eastward for 14 milea It then bends southeastward to Sukhum 
Point, which is 19 miles from that of Suksu. Nearly midway be- 
tween these points may be seen, rising near the shore, two conical 
hills covered with wood. On that to the eastward are the remains of 
some ancient walls and two towers, one of which crowns its summit. 
This locality, as also the river close to it, bears the name of Psereta 
(ancient Anakonii). About 14 miles to the northward of Psereta, 
between mountains covered with snow, may also be recognized a high 
vertical rock, surmounted by a peak, and commanding a pass, named 
by the Turk Pilav Tepesi, and by the Russians Tzeferbeya Shapka. 

Eastward of Psereta is Novo Afonski Monastery, near which is a 
small mole. 

Gudaut Anchorage lies in the bend of the coast, about 3 miles 
eastward of Suksu Point, but it is exposed to southerly winds and 
only used by coasters. 



288 SUKHUM BAY. 

The shores of the bay are foul to 400 yards, and a rock with a 
depth of 15 feet over it is situated 1,800 yards 118° from Gudaut 
Lighthouse. 

Oudaut Lights flashing red, 54 feet above high water, visible 6 
miles, is exhibited from a white hut on pillars located on the high 
ground at the extremity of the village. 

Beacon. — A mast beacon with supports, 30 feet above the sea, 
situated 50 yards behind the lighthouse when in range with it, bear- 
ing 305°, leads clear of the 15-foot rock mentioned above and of a 
rocky shoal, with 5 fathoms over it, situated 1.2 miles 137° from the 
Ughthouse. 

Communication. — Three steamers of the Russian Steam Na^viga- 
tion Co. plying between Odessa and Batum call regularly at Gudaut, 
and there is a telegraph station. 

Sukhum Bay. — From Sukhum Point the coast trends east-north- 
eastward for about 3 miles, and then again southward, forming Suk- 
hum Bay. In approaching it from the westward a narrow, deep 
gorge may be seen, bordered by steep precipices, and among their 
distant summits, white with snow, there is one in the shape of a 
saddle. The lighthouse on Sukhum Point and several barracks stand- 
ing on an eminence at the foot of the mountains serve to point out 
its position. From the southward, the village and fortress of Suk- 
hum Kale, situated on a plain backed by mountains, may be recog- 
nized from some distance. 

Sukhum Point may be rounded close-to, as a depth of 30 fathoms 
will be found 200 yards from it, but between the point and the 
fortress, on the edge of a gravel bank which borders the bight and 
extends 1,000 yards from the shore, there is only a depth of 5 fathoms, 
with deep water close-to the southward of it. 

Sukhum Light, flashing white, 121 feet above high water, visible 
6 miles, is exhibited from a white circular iron tower located on Suk- 
hum Point. 

Fogsignal. — The f ogsignal is a bell. 
. The town of Sukhum, built on the site of the ancient city of 
Dioscurias, is small, having a population of about 1,900, and has a 
pleasing aspect owing to the luxuriant vegetation which surrounds 
it, but the climate is deadly at certain seasons of the year, and with 
a view to its improvement numbers of the blue gum tree {Eucalyptus 
globulus) have been planted. 

Communication. — There is regular communication with Odessa, 
Batum, and other Black Sea ports. 

Anchorage. — The anchorage, which is indifferent, from the steep- 
ness of the bank and liability to be blown off, is in about 6 or 8 
fathoms, 200 to 300 yards southward of the customhouse and east- 
ward of the fort, as the depths do not increase so rapidly in this 



BLACK SEA — KBRTCH STRAIT TO BATUM. 289 

direction; but southward of the fort, it shelves off suddenly to 60 
fathoms i mile from the shore. Vessels moor with one anchor to the 
southwest and the other toward the mouth of Besleta Rivulet, which 
flows into the sea near the quarantine establishment. The bay is open 
to southwesterly winds, which are seldom dangerous, but send in a 
heavy swell. The land winds are sometimes troublesome. There are 
several mooring buoys in the anchorage. 

Beacons and lights. — Two white iron framework masts, 82 yards 
apart, each surmounted by a ball, situated on the northwest and south- 
east angles, respectively, of the fort, when in range bearing 284°, indi- 
cate the southern limit of the anchorage. 

. At night a fixed red light is shown from the front (eastern) beacon 
and a fixed white light from the rear beacon, at elevations of 38 and 
61 feet, respectively, above the sea. 

Eelasur Valley. — About 2^ miles southeastward of Sukhum Kale 
lies, the Valley of Kelasur, through which a rapid stream runs. A 
bazaar, backed by a hill on which stands the remains of an ancient 
fortress, draws a number of coasters here for the purpose of petty 
trade. 

Caution. — The bridge near the mouth of Kelasur River is lighted 
by six lantern lights, which should not be mistaken for the town 
lights at Sukhum. 

Kodor Point (lat. 42° 51' K, long. 41° V E.).— From Kelasur the 
coast trends southward 7^ miles to Kodor Point, which has given its 
name to the river flowing into the sea close southward of it. Care 
must be taken to avoid a bank which extends § mile northwestward 
from the point. 

Caution. — The coast line between Kodor Point and Batum, a dis- 
tance of about 80 miles, is said to be incorrectly shown on the chart, 
especially as regards longitude. A survey is in progress, and until 
the results of it are known the coast must be approached with caution. 

Coast. — From Kodor Point the coast trends 4 miles southeastward 
to Iskuria Point. It then bends eastward for 9 miles to the mouth 
of the Tamuish River, and from thence takes a 163° direction for 55 
miles to Fort St. Nikolai. 

The whole of the country, commencing several miles northward of 
Kodor Point, to beyond Fort St. Nigolai, which formerly was the 
Russian boundary to the southward, is an immense low plain, varied 
by some slight elevations covered with trees. It is bounded north- 
ward by the mountains of the Caucasus, the tops of which are always 
covered witl^snow and to the southward by some of the mountains 
of Anatolia. 

Reef.— A rocky reef fronts the shore from Baglan Point, situated 
1 mile westward of Iskuria Point, to Tamush Point, situated 6 miles 



■ I 



290 BEDOUTE KALSSBI. 

eastward of it. At Iskuria Point the reef is only 200 yards wide, but 
5 miles farther eastward it extends more than ^ mile from the shore. 

Ochexnchiri Anchorage* — All the anchorages along this coast are 
are exposed to winds from seaward, but several of them are fre- 
quented by coasters. 

Ochemchiri Anchorage, lying 13 miles southeastward of Iskuria 
Point,, has good holding ground at 1^ miles from the shore. This 
anchorage is dangerous during the winter months. There is a tele- 
graph station and a customhouse post at Ochemchiri. No supplies 
are obtainable. 

Oclieznchlri Light, alternating greto and white, 37 feet above 
high water, visible white 6 miles, greeli 3 miles, is exhibited from 
a yellow box located near the center of the village west of the fron- 
tier guard station. 

Anakria Anchorage is abreast Fort Anakria, which stands about 
20 miles southward of Ochemchiri, where the coast projects a little 
to the westward, and where the Ingtir River empties into the sea. 
The atichorage is on a bank 1| milesl from the shore, in a depth of 
7 to 10 fathoms, with the fort bearing 67°. This bank falls abruptly 
into depths of over 50 fathoms. There is a depth of 8 to 4 feet on 
the bar of the Ingur. The current in the river is very strong. Mount 
Olen, about 12 miles from the shore, lies eastward of this anchorage. 

Bedoute Kalessi. — This town and fortress stands at the mouth 
of the Khopi River, &i miles 157° of Anakria. Its commercial com- 
munications are of some importance. A flagstaff on the southern 
side points out the fortress, which, if intending to anchbr, should 
be brought to bear 95° IJ miles, where there is a depth of 7 fathoms 
over a muddy bottom. To the northeastward will be seen three small 
hills, the middle one of which. Mount Olen, is more striking than 
the others, as from this direction it resembles a saddle. The south- 
eastern one is known as Poti Hill. At this anchorage, with light 
winds, vessels will ride to the current, which tntis to the northward. 
After severe storms it sweeps along quantities of wood, which float 
down into the sea from the rivers on the coast. 

Elhopi Biver. — A bar of sand and stones, which is liable to shift, 
has formed at the entrance to this river, so that flat-bottomed boats, 
or craft drawing less than 5 feet, are alone able tp pass it ; inside, the- 
depths increase from 3 to 6 fathoms. In rough weather, the waves 
being then opposed to the current of the river, causes a kind of 
rapid, which makes it impossible for any craft to cross the bar. This 
is felt as a great inconvenience as the surf on the beach prevents 
goods from being landed outside. 

"Rion Kiver^ situated 7 miles southward of Redoute Kalessi, is 
navigable by boats for 80 miles. About 2 miles from its mouth the 



BLACK SEA — KERTCH STRAIT TO BATUM. 291 

river bifurcates, the larger and more important channel continuing 
to the southward* The other turning slightly north, forms with the 
main stream a triangular island, known as Bolshoi Island, which is 
now built over and forms a suburb of Poti. 

Potl Harbor. — The harbor, consisting of an outer and inner basin, 
is situated on the right bank of the northern entrance to the Bion. 

The works consist^of two moles formed of huge masses of concrete. 
The south mole or breakwater extends from the shore in a westerly 
direction for 600 yards and then in a northerly direction for about 
1,200 yards. The north mole, which is situated about J mile north- 
ward of the south mole, extends from the shore in a westerly direction 
for a distance of 400 yards; and on the east side of the outer basin 
is middle mole, 300 yards in length, which is being extended. 

The north mole, middle mole, and the inner basin are connected 
with the Poti-Tiflis Railway. 

The harbor is connected with the town by a narrow road, which 
skirts the Rion as far as the railway station, whence it crosses to the 
southern bank by a substantial iron bridge. A wooden bridge also 
connects the harbor with the island, but communication thence across 
the principal arm of the Rion is restricted to boats. 

A submarine cable has been laid across the entrance to the inner 

basin, marked by boards with *' Ka6eib'' on them. 

Foreign ships are berthed at the extension of the north mole and 

on the northern side of the inner basin. 

There is an elevator for loading manganese in the inner basini 

Depths. — The entrance to the harbor is 560 feet in width and has 
a depth of from 26 to 27 feet. Within the harbor there is a depth of 
from 22 to 26 feet, but it is liable to silt up. Dredging and other 
works are istill in progress. 

Buoys. — ^A red spar buoy is moored off the extremity of the north 
mole and a black spar buoy off the northern end of the south mole or 
outer breakwater. . ^ 

Poti Lights flashing white, with a green sector, 37 feet above high 
water, is exhibited from a white lantern on trusses located on the 
north head of the breakwater. 

Range lights. — A fixed red light, 27 feet above high water, is 
exhibited from a lamp-post north of the harbor. 

A fixed red light, 35 feet above high water, is exhibited from a 
lamp-post located 150 yards 114° from the front light. 

These lights in range lead into the new harbor. 

Harbor lights. — ^A fixed white light Is exhibited from the elbow 
of the breakwater. 

Two fixed blue lights are exhibited from the extremity of the 
north mole. 



S6S feEGtTLA*IOMg. 

Sange lights.— A fixed green light, 21 feet above high water, is 
exhibited from a square iron tower located on Bolshi Island. 

A fixed green light, 33 feet above high water, is exhibited from a 
square iron tower located 233 yards 161° from the front light. 

These lights in range lead into the harbor. 

Anchorage. — The anchorage in Poti Road is west-southwest ward 
of the mouth of the river, about 2 miles from the shore, in 10 or 12 
fathoms, muddy bottom, but the soundings are irregular. 

Lifeboat. — There is a lifeboat station and rocket apparatus estab- 
lished at the head of the north mole. 

Regulations. — Entrance into the port of more than on^ vessel at 
a time is prohibited. 

Vessels entering must give way to vessels leaving the port. 

Agents of vessels arriving must notify the port office not less than 
24 hours before the arrival of the vessel. 

Foreign vessels must not enter the harbor without a pilot. 

The pilot directs entering vessels from his boat. 

Foreign vessels can only enter or leave between sunrise and sunset. 

Pilots. — The pilotage into Poti Harbor is compulsory. Pilots will 
board vessels in the roads on thQ pilot flag being hoisted. 

Poti (ancient Phasis) (lat. 42° 9' N., long. 41° 38' E.) is situ- 
ated on the left bank of the southern branch of the Rion, about 1 mile 
from its mouth. Two small hills lie to the southward, which are 
slightly higher than Poti and Olen Hills to the northward. 

The town, which is very unhealthy, is chiefly composed of a col- 
lection of wooden houses, built on the swampy delta of the Rion. 
During the last few years, however, the town has improved, and a 
number of good brick and stone houses have been built. The marshy 
forests throw out dangerous fogs, which produce ague, especially in 
the months of July and August. The population of the town is about 
9,000. 

Communication. — ^There is regular communication with Odessa, 
Batum, and other Black Sea ports; also with Liverpool. Rail to 
Baku on the Caspian via Samtredi and Tiflis, and telegraphic com- 
munication with all parts. 

Storm signals are hoisted on the mast on the southwest angle of 
the south mole or breakwater. 

Quarantine. — Pratique is granted, and customs formalities car- 
ried out after vessels are brought into the harbor. 

Rion Entrance — Depths. — This river, like the Khopi, has a bar 
of sand and stones at its mouth, which, being exposed to westerly 
gales, is constantly silting up. Under ordinary circumstances there 
is a depth of about 5 feet on the bar of the southern entrance, but 
inside the depths increase to 3 f athcms. 



BLACK SEA — KERTCH STRAIT TO BATUM. 293 

Light. — ^An alternating flashing red and white light, 118 feet 
abov0 high water, visible 13 miles, is exhibited from a white circu- 
lar *iron tower located on the point near the mouth of the Rion 
River. 

Beacons and buoys. — ^Two movable beacon poles are situated on 
the south side of the southern entrance to the river, which, when the 
bar is passable, are surmounted by square shields. The square sur- 
mounting the outer mark is painted red, with a black disk in the 
center that on the inner mark is painted white. When the bar is not 
passable the square topmarks are removed. 

Spar buoys with flags as topmarks are placed on each side of the 
river inside the bar, those on the starboard side of the channel being 
white and on the port side red. 

A red spar buoy with inverted cone topmark, moored in a depth of 
32 feet, marks the extremity of a shoal extending in a northwesterly 
direction from the river entrance. 

Directions— Signals. — For small vessels wishing to enter the 
river, the beacons kept in range by day lead over the bar in the 
best water, the depth on which is indicated from the signal staff, 
near Poti Lighthouse, by the International Code. 

When inside the bar the channel is between the white and red 
buoys. It is not advisable to enter the river without a pilot. 

Coast. — Fort St. Nikolai is situated 16 miles south-southeastward 
of Poti, at the mouths of the Nathaniel (Natuyeba) and Cholok 
Rivers. There is good anchorage ^ mile offshore in 5 fathoms, but 
it is as much exposed as those which precede it. 

Eintrish. — From Fort Nikolai the coast still takes a southerly 
direction for nearly 6 miles to Kintrish, where the extensive plains 
of Mingrelia and Gurda gives place to the mountains of Anatolia. 
It then trends to the south westward, 11 miles to Batum. 

Batum Bay^ which is about IJ miles wide from east to west and 
J mile long from north to south, lies at the extremity of an extensive 
plain covered with verdant trees and watered by several rivulets. It 
is backed by terraced mountains, over which the summits of others 
of still greater height are seen. East-northeastward of Burum Tabia 
Point, the western point of the bay, is a very remarkable elevation 
near the shore, surrounded by the waters of the Kareli River, 
which empties into the sea. Its form is that of a flat cone with steep 
sides, and a large building stands on its summit. 

On Burun Tabia is a fort with arsenal and barracks, and a light- 
house. 

The Bartzkhana (Barshana) River flows into the bay about 1 mile 
eastward of Burun Tabia. 



294 WINDS. 

Shoals. — A shoal, with 2^ fathoms least water, about 200 yards in 
extent in an east and west direction, lies 800 yards eastward from 
the lighthouse on Burun Tabia. It is the western end of a narrow 
bank, about 200 yards wide, which extends in a westerly direction, 
about 1 mile from Tbili Tskhali River, on the east side of the bay, 
having several depths on it of 2f to 3 fathoms. From the western 
extreme of the bank, soundings of 4^ to 5 fathoms extend in a 
northerly direction for about i mile. The whole of the bay east of 
this is shoal, with depths varying from 2f to 4f fathoms. 

Buoys. — Two red spar buoys are situated 1,100 and 800 yards 
northeastward of Cape Burun Tabia to mark the 5-fathom curve. 

Winds. — Batum Bay affords shelter from winds between north- 
west through south to east, and the only winds to be feared are gales 
from the northward, which are, however, very rare. Northeast gales 
are said to never blow home, and only on rare occasions do vessels 
moored with their sterns fast to the shore have to haul off." Gales 
from south-southwest to north-northwest send a heavy sea into the 
bay, causing vessels to roll and pitch at thieir moorings and often to 
part their hawsers and cables, when, if the harbor is full of shipping, 
they run great risk of collision with other craft. Vessels within the 
breakwater have frequently with southwesterly winds to haul off 
from the quay. 

The prevailing winds and gales come from the westward and 
especially from the southwestward. This latter wind sometimes 
blows in. winter with the force of a hurricane. It is preceded by a 
fresh breeze from the southeastward, which rises after a calm and 
blows for several hours, accompanied by a sultry heat. The wind 
subsequently shifts suddenly to the southwestward *and blows with 
great violence ; the temperature falls and the barometer rises rapidly. 
Vessels anchored in the road or in the port should take all necessary 
precautions when the warm southeast wind sets in. Gales are most 
frequent in December. 

Batum Harbor. — The port is situated on the western and south- 
em sides of the bay. 

A mole, 200 yards long and 60 yards wide, extends in a north- 
northeasterly direction from the northwestern extremity of Burun 
Tabia. It is proposed to extend this mole to 600 yards, and to dredge 
the space eastward of it to a depth of 24 feet and to construct a quay 
at its inner end having a depth of 22 feet alongside. 

The Bussian Steam Navigation Co. have a small mole situated near 
the customhouse. 

The Petroleum Harbor is formed by a stone mole which extends 
from the south shore of the bay in a north-northwesterly direction 
for 275 yards. From its head one mole, called the Petroleum Mole, 
runs in a west by south direction for 440 yards. Another mole or 



BLACK SEA — KERTCH STRAIT TO BATUM. 895 

breakwater extends northeast by east for 275 yards. The western, 
or Petroleum Harbor, is dredged to a depth of from 24 to 30 feet. 
The eastern harbor, known ag the Cabotage (Coasting Trade) Har- 
bor, has a depth of from 7 to 17 feet. There are four mooring b^oys 
in the western harbor. 

There is a railway line on tb? Petroleum Mole; also, pipe lines for 
conveying petroleum to vessels alongside. The petroleum is brought 
from Baku in a conduit tube, 4 to 6 feet in diameter, which crosses 
the height of Surum between these places. 

Lights. — An alternating red and white light, 28 feet above |iigh 
water, visible white 10 miles, red 6 miles, is exhibited from a red 
quadrangular iron tower located on Cape Burum Tabia. 

A fixed white light, 65 feet above high water, visible 13 miles, is 
exhibited from a white octagonal stone tower located northeast of 
Burum Tabia Fort. 

Haxbor lights. — A fixed green and red light, 37 feet above high 
water, Visible 7 miles, is exhibited from a red quadrangular iron 
tower located on the head of the petroleum mole. 

Two fixed red lights, 21 feet above high water, visible 5 miles, 
are exhibited from a post located on the Burum Tabia Mole. 

Anchorage. — The importance of Batum as an anchorage arises 
from the fact of its being immensely superior to any other on the 
eastern shore of this sea as far as Kertch Strait, but its value ia 
much lessened by the inconvenient depth for anchoring in, which on 
the western side of the bay is 20 fathoms 100 yards from the shore, 
quickly deepening to 30 and 35 fathoms. 

Vessels anchor near the shore, in front of the town, in a depth of 
about 30 fathoms, and secure their sterns to bollards on shore by 
meang of hawsers. The space there is very limited, and it is neces- 
sary when anchoring to guard against fouling the anchors of other 
vessels. When waiting for a berth to become vacant, vessels anchor 
on the edge of the bank northward of the Petroleum Harbor. 

Berthing regulations. — On arrival at the port of Batum all 
steam and sailing vessels are to take up berths according to the indi- 
cation of the port authorities, and no communication with the shore 
is allowed until all the customhouse and other necessary formalities 
have been completed. 

All vessels, whether anchored in the roadstead or in the harbor, 
must have their anchors buoyed. 

Vessels are allowed to make their moorings f a«t only to the perma- 
nent mooring posts and chains, and this without obstructing the 
landing places along the quays or the beach. 

At the demand of the port authorities a master is bound to shift 
his moorings to neighboring mooring posts or chains, should neces- 



296 BERTHING REGULATIONS. 

sity arise, when another ship is being berthed, or for any other 
reason that may be deemed necessary. 

Vessels, whether lying off the beach or at the quay, which shall not 
have commenced to load or discharge within 24 hours after all the 
formalities required by law have been completed, or which have dis- 
continued siich operations for a period exceeding 24 hours, must move 
away from the berth they occupy if at such time there be any other 
vessel awaiting their turn in the roads. At the same time all holi- 
days and days on which no work can be carried on are not taken into 
account. 

Should notice be given that a vessel which is lying in the roads is 
not ready to receive cargo when her turn for berthing comes round, 
she can only again come on turn (as a fresh arrival) upon notice of 
her readiness to load being handed in. 

Immediately on completion of their loading operations from the 
shore, vessels are bound to move away from their beach or quay 
berths into the roads, and there continue to perform any further 
operations, in case such berths at the beach or the quay are required 
for other vessels. . 

Ocean-going steamers under the Russian jflag which enter the har- 
bor for the purpose of taking in Government stores are allowed to 
load and discharge their cargoes out of turn should the captain of 
the port so ordain. 

All vessels while lying in the roads are obliged to exhibit the pre- 
scribed regulation lights from sunset to sunrise. This rule applies 
equally to coasting vessels, barges, lighters, and rafts; 

In cases of fire or other disasters, whereby the safety of vessels or 
port property is endangered, all masters of vessels in the harbor, as 
also all boatmen and the railway authorities, are bound at the first 
call of the captain of the port to place at his disposal all available 
means and locomotives for rendering assistance. 

Vessels in the harbor are prohibited from changing berths with- 
out the permission of the port authorities. 

Steamers proceeding to and from the quays in the Petroleum 
Harbor are forbidden to move the engines, except in cases of extreme 
necessity, when permission will have to be obtained from the port 
oflSice. 

After the completion of the prescribed customs formalities, all 
vessels leaving the port must produce their papers to the captain 
of the port for permission to proceed to sea. 

Directions. — In foggy weather it is recommended to approach 
Batimi Bay from the southward, as the coast is high and abrupt and 
the lower part of the mountains can be seen when the summits are 
hidden. The muddy water discharged by the Chorokh River and the 



BLACK SEA — KERTCH STRAIT TO BATUM. 297 

beacon on the shore near its mouth also afford good marks for recog- 
nizing the position. A good berth should be given to Burun Tabia 
on account of the shoal extending westward from it. 

Comings from the northward, on the contrary, the coast is flat and 
the fogs are low. 

Pilots. — Pilotage is not compulsory, but no vessels enter or leave 
the port without a pilot. 

Repairs. — The Batum Naphtha & Trading Co. executes small 
repairs to vessels and their machinery, and there is a floating crane 
capable of lifting 40 tons. 

Batum. — ^The town of Batum, which stands on the western side of 
the bay, is unhealthily situated, being surrounded by the swamps of 
Kakhaber, which, although partly drained, are, from the rankness of 
the vegetation, the cause of fevers and agues, most prevalent between 
the months of June and October. 

European buildings are gradually replacing the huts of the origi- 
nal Turkish village, which now occupies but a small portion of the 
town. There are numerous piers, public and private, near which are 
storehouses and the customhouse. The health office is situated near 
Burun Tabia. Eastward of the town, on the south shore of the bay, 
are the storehouses and factories connected with the petroleum indus- 
try. 

There is no sailors' home. The sick are, by permission of the 
authorities, admitted to the town hospital. It has a population of 
about 30,000. 

Communication. — Batum is the readiest point of internal com- 
munication with Georgia, Armenia, and Persia, and is a principal 
transit port. It is in railway and telegraphic communication with 
Tiflis, Poti, and Baku, from which latter place enormous quantities of 
petroleum are sent to Batum for shipment. By sea, several times 
weekly with Odessa and other Black Sea ports by the Russian com- 
pany's steamers; and there are two regular passenger steamers be- 
tween Batum, Constantinople, Trieste, and Marseilles. The steamers 
of the Ellerman and Moss lines from Liverpool also call regularly. 

There is a railway to the military town (Voenni Gorodok), about 
3 miles distant, where the barracks, arsenals, and magazines are sit- 
uated, and from Tiflis a branch railway runs to Kars and Erivan. 

Lifeboat. — There is a life-saving station with lifeboat on Burun 
Tabia. 

Storm signals are hoisted on a special signal staff on the ex- 
tremity of Burun Tabia. 

Coal and supplies. — In normal times about 3,000 tons of Russian 
coal was usually kept in stock. Vessels coal alongside a quay in the 
harbor, where there is a depth of 26 feet. Petroleum waste is ex- 
172983°— 20 20 



298 GUNIEH. 

tensively used as fuel by the local steamers on the Black and Caspian 
Seas. 

Fresh provisions were plantiful and cheap. Water is of good 
quality and is brought off in a tank boat. 

Quarantine. — Vessels must remain in the road until pratique is 
granted. 

Coast. — Westward of Biirun Tabia a bank of 5 fathoms and less 
fronts the shore and extends to about J mile. This bank is said to 
be extending. Vessels coming from the westward are recommended 
not to approach the shore within 1 mile. 

Gunieh. — The lowlands, which are found near Batum, extend for 
6 miles to the southwest beyond the mouths of the Chorokh River, of 
which they are the alluvions, and from their marshy nature they 
render the west side of Batum Bay very unhealthy from July to 
October. On the most southern of these mouths stands the town of 
Gunieh, which carries on a coasting trade. Southeastward of Gunieh 
is a large valley, through which the Chorokh River flows. Beyond 
the lowlands the mountains gradually approach the shore and are of 
considerable elevation, with white cliffs appearing at intervals. 

Beacon. — A mast beacon, with three horizontal crosspieces as top- 
mark, elevated 57 feet above the sea and painted red, is situated on 
the shore near the mouth of the Chorokh, about 4 miles southwest- 
ward of Batum, and is visible for about 8 miles. It is a useful land- 
mark for vessels making Batum from the westward in thick or hazy 
weather. 

Boundary. — The boundary between Russia and Turkey is situated 
about 12 miles to the southwestward of Batum. 



CHAPTER IX. 



BLACK SEA— ANATOLIAN OR SOUTHERN SHORE; BATUM TO 

THE BOSPORUS. 

Anatolian coast. — This coast is nearly devoid of ports or harbors, 
and those that exist are at a distance from each other and would offer 
no security to shipping were it not for the mountains neutralizing 
effect of the sea winds, which do not blow home. From this circum- 
stance several anchorages afford shelter from tempestuous weather, 
although they have not a tempting appearance. Too much reliance 
must not, however, be placed on this observation as in certain locali- 
ties the shelter of the hills is far from being so good as in others. The 
westerly winds are the most violent on this coast. 

Coast— Anchorages. — From Batum Point the coast trends in a 
southwesterly direction for 43 miles to Kiz Kalessi. The anchorages 
of Makrialos, 7 miles south-southwestward of Gunieh, and 11 miles 
from Batum; of Kise, 8 miles beyond Makrialos; and of Sumla, 12 
miles farther on, are all more or less exposed to westerly winds. 

Telegraph. — A telegraph line follows the coast. There are sta- 
tions at Khoppa and Arkhava, situated, respectively, 1 mile north- 
east and 5 miles southwest of Kise; also at Athina near Seidol. 

Seidol Road. — The roadstead of Seidol is l;)etter and much used by 
coasters. It lies about 3 miles eastward of Kiz Kalessi, and 12 miles 
west-southwestward of Sumla, abreast Buleb, which is near Athina 
and a river of that name. A hill to the eastward, known to the 
natives as Eski Tarabozun (Old Trebizond), with three perpendicu- 
lar sides, appears as a table-land covered with trees. 

Kiz Kalessi (lat. 41° 12' N., long. 40° 52' E.) lies to the westward 
of Athina, and may easily be recognized by a bold rock on which are 
the ruins of an ancient castle. 

Coast. — From Kiz Kalessi the coast trends southwestward for 6 
miles to Kemer Point. From thence it continues in the same direc- 
tion for 12 miles to Pirios Point. In this distance it recedes about 2 
miles to the southward and is backed by very high mountains. The 
Askoros Eiver empties into the sea 3 miles eastward of Pirios Point, 
and the coast between falls back 1 mile to the southward, forming the 
Bay of Eizeh. 

Pirios Point is surrounded by a reef which extends } mile from 
the shore and a rock awash lies 700 yards 281° from its extremity 

299 



300 RIZEH BAY. 

and about 300 yards from the shore. Between the point and the 
town there is a tower and two others on the beach to the eastward. 
A hill, also near the beach, has an old tower on its summit. 

Sizeh Bay (Size) is 3 miles across from Askoros Point to Pirios 
Point and nearly 1 mile long. The town, which contains a popu- 
lation of about 14,000, is situated on the southern shore of the bay 
and on the rising ground behind it. The most conspicuous buildings 
are the governor's house, a white three-storied building; and the 
Kussian vice consulate, also white and of three stories, situated on a 
hill. The greater part of the houses are built oi wood. 

The town, in contrast to others on this coast, is said to be very 
healthy ; and the neighborhod is very productive. 

Bizeh Bay Light, fixed red, 59 feet above high water, visible 6 
miles, is located on Pirios Point. 

Anchorage. — There is a dejJth of 3 fathoms over a sandy bottom 
about 200 yards from the shore, and 5 fathoms 600 yards. To the 
northward of the town, toward Pirios Point, the bottom is sand and 
shells, and no mud will be found till within f mile of the shore 
northeastward of the town. The anchorage is exposed to winds from 
northward of northwest, which raise a heavy sea in the bay and pre- 
vent communication with the shore. 

Gales are prevalent from December to February. Vessels then 
proceed to sea, or else anchor in the eastern part of the bay. This 
anchorage is considered safe, and native sailing vessels winter there. 

The current from the Askoros River, which sets in a westerly di- 
rection, attains in summer a velocity of about ^ knot. In the winter, 
in the eastern anchorage, this current is strong enough to keep vessels 
at anchor with the wind from west or northwest from tightening 
I their cables. 

Communication. — The steamers of the Eussian Steam Naviga- 
tion and other companies call at Rizeh when the weather permits. 
The roads from the town to the interior are not practicable for ve- 
hicles. A high road to Erzerum, via Ispir, is under construction. In 
winter snow prevents all communication. There are Turkish and 
Russian post offices, also a telegraph station. Messages for transmis- 
mision must be in the Turkish language. 

Supplies. — ^Water is abundant and good. It is brought to the 
town by pipes. The water from the Askoros River is equally good. 

Surmena Bay. — Cape Fidji lies 6 miles 258° from Pirios Point 
and Cape Ereklia, nearly 14 miles 258° from Cape Fidji. The coast 
falls back about 3 miles between these capes, forming Surmena Bay, 
in which the water is also deep, but temporary anchorage may be 
found in the western portion of the bay. The locality, however, 
being extremely malarious, owing to adjacent marshes, is to be 



BATUM TO BOSPORUS. 301 

avoided during the summer season. There is a good landing in 
Surmena Bay in fine weather on a beach IJ miles in length, but 
exposed to northerly winds. There is a manganese mine near 
Surmena. 

OavgoSy a fishing village, situated 1^ miles westward of Cape 
Ereklia, at the mouth of the Yamboli Biver, has sheltered landing 
on a beach nearly ^ mile long. 

Kovata Bead.— From Cape Ereklia the coast trends 3 miles west> 
ward to Falko Point. From thence it again curves southward, 
forming a bay eastward of Kovata Point, which lies 7 miles 281° 
of Falko Point. The roadstead of Kovata, which affords shelter 
from westerly winds, is abreast the Drono River, which empties 
into the sea 2 miles southeastward of Kovata Point. There is a 
sandy beach, suitable for landing in fine weather, at Yomura village, 
situated at the mouth of the Drono. 

From Kovata Point the coast runs 295° for nearly 3 miles to 
Khop>si Point, between which and Kalmek Point, 2 miles to tiie 
westward, is the Bay of Trebizond, or Tarabozun, of the Turks. 

Trebizond. — The town of Trebizond is built on a rocky tableland 
sloping somewhat toward the sea, and the citadel commands the 
town and anchorage. It may be recognized by Boz Tepe, 800 feet 
high, rising behind it, on the side of which is a Dervish monastery, 
a large building surrounded by walls. 

The town, which has a population of about 45,000, is subject to 
malarious fever^ caused by the marshes in the neighborhood. Ad- 
mission to the civil and military hospital is given to sailors. The 
Moslem population live chiefly in the old walled town and westward 
toward St. Sophia; the foreign and business quarter is to the east- 
ward. 

Com m un ication, — ^There is constant communication with Con- 
stantinople, Odessa, and Poti by vessels of the Russian Steam Navi- 
gation and other companies; steam communication fortnightly by 
the Messageries Maritimes Co.'s steamers with London and Mar- 
seilles; and with Liverpool by the Moss and EUerman Lines. lu 
addition, there are regular services of steamers to other Black Sea 
ports, and telegraphic communication with Erzerum, also with 
Constantinople, Batum, and all parts. There are Turkish, Russian, 
French, and Austrian port offices in the town. 

Supplies. — Good water can be obtained from Deghirmen Rivulet 
by boats furnished with hoses. Coal is not kept in stock for supply- 
inqr shipping. ^ 

Kalmek Point, the northwest extremity of the anchorage of Tre- 
bizond, aflfords protection from westerly winds. Rocks extend off it 
to the northward about 70 yards. A battery, a lighthouse, and other 
buildings stand on the point. 



Trebizond Light, flashing white, 105 feet above high water, 
visible 16 miles, is exhibited from a white stone tower located on 
Kalmek Point between the two embrasures. 

Port. — ^A mole 150 yards in length, which extends in an easterly 
direction from Kalmek Point, affords loading and shelter to small 
craft. A breakwater, to extend 400 yards in a Northerly direction 
from Eleusa Point, is under construction ; about 200 yards are already 
completed. It is proposed to extend the Kalmek Point Mole another 
300 yards to the eastward, thus forming a harbor, the entrance to 
which, between the breakwater and the mole, will be about 300 yards 
wide. 

Anchorage. — The roadstead is eastward of Kalmek Point, and in 
strong westerly winds only affords fair anchorage to small craft 
under the shelter of the mole. Vessels load by means of lighters 
carrying from 25 to 30 tons. 

The best anchorage is with Kalmek Point, bearing about 292° i 
mile in 5 to 7 fathoms, with good holding ground of mu^ and sand, 
and just clear to the eastward of some high land, which causes the 
land wind in fine nights to come off in strong gusts. It is advisable 
to moor with an open hawse to the northward, the anchors laid well 
apart, and a good hawser and stream anchor out astern. The wind 
is so variable here, coming off the land every night, that if a vessel 
swings she will be continually broadside to the swell, and run th»' 
risk, from perpetual changes, of loosening her anchors in the ground, 
besides the difficulty of keeping a clear hawse. She may hang by her 
stern anchor without any fear, and at the commencement of a gale 
from the northwest the hawser can be veered to allow her to come 
head to wind. The breeze will soon be over, when it should be hove 
in again to keep the swell from the northward right ahead. 

Small vessels anchor in the bight of the bay close under Kalmek 
Point, in 2 to 4 fathoms, partly sheltered by the breakwater. 

The bottom of the bay is fronted by a beach ; and to the eastward of 
Eleusa Point, near the ruined castle in the bay, there is another beach 
bordering the entrance of Deghirmen Valley. A rivulet runs into the 
sea here, over which is a stone bridge with several arches. 

Landing dufing a heavy swell is very difficult. On these occa- 
sions a shore boat should be used, the crew of which run the boat up 
on the beach south of the customhouse. In fine weather the landing 
place is at the customhouse jetty, where there is sufficient water for 
boats to lie. 

Winds. — The prevailing winds at Trebizond are from the south- 
ward. Easterly winds, and in summer, northerly and northwesterly 
winds, however, blow ordinarily during the day. Northwesterly 
winds are of short duration, but are sometimes very violent and raise 
a heavy sea in the bay. 



BATUM TO BOSPORUS. 303 

The appearance of Cape leros gives a good indkatien of the prob- 
able weather. If the cape be free from clouds and clearly visible, 
fine weather may be expected. If the cape be covered with clouds, 
the weather will most likely become bad. 

Flatana is a town having a jpopulation of about 10,000, lying 7 
miles to the westward of Trebizond. Its roadstead is good and is 
often resorted to by vessels trading with Trebizond, it being some- 
times possible to discharge cargo and land passengers when they can 
not do so at that place. It is also a good winter anchorage, secure 
against the sea winds, notwithstanding it is exposed from north- 
northwest to east. There is a beach of loose sand opposite the town 
nearly J mile long, at the eastern end of which are several warehouses. 

Anchorage. — The anchorage is in a depth of 10 to 15 fathoms, 
about i mile from the town. Vessels moor with open hawse toward 
the shore as the land winds are violent. From the depth of 25 fath- 
oms, which will be found | mile north-northeast of the town, the 
water shoals gradually to 5 fathoms, over sand and mud, 300 yard^ 
from the shore. 

Sargana Point lies IJ miles 326° of the town and is bordered by 
rocks extending about 200 yards from the shore. The coast from 
thence trends northwestward for 5 miles to Zeitun Point, which forms 
the eastern angle of the broad promontory of which Cape leros is 
the western. 

Cape leros, nearly 4 miles westward of Zeitun Point, forms a 
useful landmark for vessels bound to Trebizond, as it projects to the 
northward, has several white patches in its vicinity, and a lighthouse 
120 yards within its extremity. Its shores are irregular, of a red- 
dish tint, and a conical hill rises at its extremity. 

Cape leros Light, flashing white, 98 feet above high water, 
visible 16 miles, is located 120 yards from the extremity of the cape. 

Zeitun Point — Anchorage. — Westward of Cape leros the coast 
trends to the southwestward, and thence northwestward to another 
Zeitun Point lOJ miles from Cape leros, forming a bay in which 
there is good anchorage abreast of Chesmeh Rivulet, sheltered from 
west round by south to east by north. 

Eureli and Kara Points. — Kureli Point is a low projection of 
the coast 2 miles 281° of Zeitun Point. Kara Point is also low, and 
lies 10 miles westward of Kureli Point. 

Tereboli (Tripoli). — This town stands on three small points, 
which form two coves 5^ miles 247° from Kara Point. It has a popu- 
lation of about 5,000. The western cove is full of rocks, but the 
other carries a depth of 3 fathoms and will contain 5 or 6 coasters. 
It is, however, exposed to northerly winds. The best anchorage is in 
the roadstead northeastward of the town, abreast Khaika^Vala 
Beach, in 8 to 10 fathoms. 



304 ZEPHYR BAT. 

Tereboli Light, flashing white, 79 feet above high water, visiblQ 
10 miles, is located on the extremity of the easternmost of the three 
points. 

Coxmnunication. — Russian and Turkish steamers, also those of 
the Austrian Lloyd Co., touch at Tereboli. There is a telegraph 
station. Messages for transmission must be in the Turkish language. 

Furun Islets. — Two rocky islets, named Furun, lie abreast a pro- 
jection of the coast 2 miles 247^ of Tereboli. 

A shoal, with a depth of 5 feet over it, is reported to lie 200 yards 
northward of the western islet. 

Zephyr Bay. — Cape Zephyros bears 258° 6 miles from Furun 
Islets, and between them the coast falls back 2 miles to the south- 
ward, forming Zephyr Bay. Zephyros village stands on its western 
shore, and the anchorage is abreast of it in from 5 to 10 fathoms, 
over sand and mud, and sheltered from 315° round by south to 67°. 
Toward the cape the shore is bordered by a rocky ledge which gen- 
erally breaks. 

Kerasunda (Kerassond). — This town, situated 10 miles,247° of 
Cape Zephyros, on a promontory projecting to the northward from 
the foot of the mountains, has a population of about 18,500. 

Coininunicatioii.^The steamers of the Russian Steam Naviga- 
tion Co. between Odessa and Batum call every fortnight, "tind those 
of the Austrian Lloyd Co. between Constantinople and Batum call 
once a week. The steamers of the EUerman and Moss Lines from 
Liverpool call occasionally. There is telegraphic communication. 

Supplies.^ Water is abundant and good. 

Dangers. — ^Palamida Beef^ which is awash, lies i mile 22° from 
the northern extremity of the promontory, and Kior Tain Bank^ 
about 300 yards in extent, consisting of several rocky heads, one of 
which is awash, lies 400 yards southward of it. Depths of 12 fathoms 
occur between this bank and Palamida Reef, and from 5 to 7 fathoms 
between it and the shore. It is not advisable to pass within J mile 
northward of Palamida Reef. 

From a point on the western side of the promontory of Kerasunda. 
a reef, formed by the remains of an ancient mole, projects in. a 
westerly direction for 350 yards. A Greek church, with spire, stands 
on this point. 

None of these dangers are buoyed. 

Kerasunda Light, two fixed white, 194 feet above high water, 
visible 12 miles, is exhibited from a mast on a white house located 
on the northeast part of the point. 

Anchorages. — Coasters anchor in Demir-kapi Bight, eastward of 
the promontory, a little distance from the shore, in 12 or 13 fathoms 
water, sheltered from west to northwest, but exposed to northerly 



BATUM TO BOSPORUS. 305 

winds when the surf is violent. There is better anchorage farther 
oflfshore in 16 fathoms, where one anchor will be sufficient. 

About 1 mile to the eastward of Demir-kapi there is a projecting 
point bordered with rocks, to the eastward of which is Pugachik 
Bight, where there is anchorage for coasters, in 10 or 12 fathoms, 
not far from the shore, sheltered, as at Damir-kapi, from west and 
northwest winds, and having Puga Islet 1 nrile to the northeastward, 
the additional shelter afforded by which makes this bight a good 
winter anchorage for three or four "coasters if moored. 

There is also anchorage in the bay close westward of Kerasunda 
Promontory, named Lonja, or the Bazaar, in 8 to 10 fathoms, but 
it is exposed to westerly winds, and, with all its faults, that of 
Demir-kapi is to be preferred. Lonja Anchorage is, however, the 
one used by the steamers that call at Kerasunda, and the usual land- 
ing place and the customhouse are on this side of the promontory. 

Vessels sometimes anchor in the roads to the westward of Lonja off 
the mouth of the Batlama Eiver in about 20 fathoms water. 

Cape St. Basili is fringed by rocks, and lies 5 miles 281° from 
Kerasunda. 

Shoal. — Along the coast westward of Cape St. Basili, a shoal of 
13 feet water has been reported, which in some parts extends more 
than 1 mile from the shore. 

Ordu. — The coast frorti Cape Basili runs nearly in a direct line for 
20 miles 281°, with occasional beaches, as far as the town of Ordu, 
which may be recognized by Mount Bos Tepesi, close northwestward 
of it, which forms a promontory projecting to the northeastward, 
between the beach of Melet and that of Pershembi. Some manganese 
mines are working in the vicinity of the town, one being situated at 
Bos Tepesi. 

The town contains a population of about 7,500. 

Coininunication. — Steamers of several lines trading in the Black 
Sea touch at Ordu. Telegrams are only accepted for transmission 
when in the Turkish language. 

Anchorage. — ^The roadstead of Ordu is good, with depths of from 
10 to 5 fathoms, over mud and sand, sheltered from westerly winds, 
but exposed to those from between north and east. 

Vona Bay. — ^At the northeastern extremity of Bos Tepesi Prom- 
ontory, there is a steep rock, named Buzuk Kale, separating Ordu 
and Pershembi Bays. From Buzuk Kale the coast trends westward 
and northwestward, forming Vona Bay, to Vona Point, which bears 
331°, 6 miles from Buzuk Kale. Vona Bay affords the best anchor- 
ages on this coast, and though exposed to winds from north to east- 
southeast, little is to be feared from them as they rarely blow home. 
The land winds, however, are violent, and must be guarded against. 



806 CAPE YASUN. 

Many of the vessels belonging to the Anatolian coast, having to win- 
ter in the Black Sea, resort to this bay. 

Vena Point Light, group flashing white, 120 feet above high 
water, visible 12 miles, is exhibited from a white iron column located 
54 yards from the extremity of the cape. 

Anchorage. — In the southern part of Vona Bay there is anchor- 
age in Pershembi Bight, which is rendered conspicuous by an exten- 
sive beach bordering the shore between it and Buzuk Kale. About 
600 yards from the shore there is a depth of 5 fathoms, sand and 
shells, which gradually increases to 20 fathoms 1,600 yards from the 
coast, over a bottom of sand mixed with mud. The anchorages, how- 
ever, abreast Agsi, 2^ miles northward of Pershembi ; of Keshalah, f 
mile to the northward of Agsi ; and Chesmeh, IJ miles southward of 
Vona Point, are much t& be preferred. That of Chesmeh is consid 
ered the best, there being a depth of 10 fathoms, over sand and mud, 
with a good holding ground, J mile from the shore. 

Cape Yasun lies 5J miles 281° from Vona Point, and between 
them the coast falls back 1 mile to the southward, affording an 
anchorage sheltered from east (through south) and west winds. The 
cape, with a monastery on it, is low, and projects to the northward in 
the form of a glacis. Khanet Kalessi, a small islet, with a tower, lies 
near the shore 2 miles westward of Vona Point. 

Shoal. — A shoal with a depth of 13 feet over it is reported to exist 
i mile to the northward of the monastery on Cape Yasun. 

Fatsa Bay and Beef. — From Cape Yasun the coast turife 
abruptly to the southwestward for 7 miles, and then curves round to 
the westward to Karejik Point, which is 10^ miles 230° from the 
cape, forming Fatsa Bay, which takes its name from the small town 
on the western shore. Fatsa Reef lies 1 mile eastward of Karejik 
Point, and is about 1,200 yards in extent, with 12 fathoms to the 
northward of it. A rock, the remains of an old breakwater, is re- 
ported to exist midway between Fatsa Reef and Karejik Point. 
Mariners are, therefore, cautioned not to use the channel westward 
of Fatsa Reef. Few vessels frequent this bay as it is open to the 
northward and deep, having from 13 to 30 fathoms close to the shore. 

The town contains a population of about 3,000, and has a small 
trade in eggs and nuts. There is a short broken-down landing stage, 
but landing is mostly effected on the open beach. There is a tele- 
graph station at Fatsa. 

Fatsa Bay Lights flashing white, 20 feet above high water, 
visible 5 miles, is exhibited from a white iron column located on 
Fatsa Reef. 

Tashkana Point (lat. 41° 8' N., long. 37° 9' E.), which beare 
nearly due west, 17 miles from Cape Yasun, is -bordered by a reef, 
which extends about 200 yards from the shore, and has a depth of 6 



BATTJM TO BOSPORUS. 307 

fathoms about J mile from it. About ^ mile westward of Tashkana 
Point, and close to the shore, there is a small islet, with a church on 
it dedicated to St. Nikolo. On the eastern side of the point is Unieh 
Bay. , 

nnieh. (XTniah). — This town (ancient CEnoe), built in the shape 
of an amphitheater, on the eastern declivity of Tashkana Point, has 
a handsome appearance, being backed by a range of wooded moun- 
tains. The houses are chiefly of wood, and those nearest the sea are 
erected on stone piers or pillars. The population numbers 12,000 
and is composed mostly of Greeks, who carry on q-^ considerable and 
increasing traffic with Constantinople and the Gritnea. There is a 
small pier near the customhouse, but landing is usually effected on 
the open beach. 

There is a telegraph station in the town. 

Anchorage. — The anchorage abreast the town is in 5 or 6 fathoms, 
mud and sand, about J mile from the shore. The depths from this 
position decrease gradually to the town, over a sandy bottom. A 
vessel should moor with open hawse to the northeast, as the winds 
from that quarter are dangerous. ^ " • 

Tashkana Point Light, group flashing white, 62 feet above high 
water, visible 10 miles, is exhibited from a white irbn column located 
north of Unieh village. 

Chaldi Point — Anchorage. — From Tashkana Point the shore 
becomes low and wooded, trending westward and northward to 
Chaldi Point, which lies 16 miles 203°. There is a good anchorage, 
in 4 or 5 fathoms, over a mud bottom, abreast of the Termeh River 
which empties into the sea nearly 4 miles to the southward of Chaldi 
Point, but it is exposed to northeasterly winds. 

Iris Point (Chiva Burnu) (lat. 41° 21' N.; long. 36° 39' E.).— 
The coast from Chaldi Point still continues low and wooded, trending 
17 miles 281° to Iris Point (Chiva Burnu). From thence it turns 
southward and westward to Kalion Point, which lies 14 miles 268° 
from Iris Point and forms Samsun Bay. The Yeshil Irmak (ancient 
Iris) empties into the sea 3 miles southwestward of Iris Point. 

Chiva (Iris) Point Light, group flashing white, 75 feet above 
high water, visible 14 miles, is exhibited from a whitie slteleton iron 
tower located on the point. 

Shoals. — Between Chaldi and Iris Points there are shoals, some 
of which are reported to extend more than 300 yards from the shore; 
and at the distance of about 1 mile from the coast the depths are 
variable, with not more than 3 J to 3f fathoms in some places. 

The depth of water off Iris Point is decreasing, there being, in the 
year 1898, only 4| fathoms at a distance of ^ ifiiles northward of the 
point. .-: 



y 



808 8AMSUN BAY, 

Samson Bay.— KaUon Point (lat. 41'' 19' N., long. 36'' 21' E.), 
which forms the northern extreme of Samsun Bay, is low and remark- 
able for its brownish appearance. The town of Samson is situated 
nearly 1 mile southward of it. A battery stands on Kalion Point, and 
to the westward may be seen two conical summits of the Nebiene 
Mountains. The point is bordered by sunken rocks, or the remains of 
a mole, extending nearly 800 yards offshore, on which the sea breaks 
heavily at times. There are also several rocks along the shore border- 
ing the town, which makes it sometimes dangerous for boats to ap- 
proach it in rough weather, but toward the battery southward of the 
town the shore is'clean. 

Samsun Bay Light, fixed white, 56 feet above high water, visible 
12 miles, is exhibited from a white stone tower located on Kalion 
Point. 

Anchorage. — ^Vessels anchor abreast the town in any convenient 
depth, as there are 8 fathoms, sand, \ mile, and 6 fathoms, mud, \ 
mile from the shore. But this anchorage is only good in summer, as 
northerly and northeasterly winds make it dangerous during the 
winter months. A- heavy swell generally sets in, which renders it 
difficult to ship and land goods, yet it is done in a very expeditious 
manner, and a flourishing trade exists. 

Piers. — There is an iron pier, 160 feet in length, for the use of the 
customhouse; also other piers, from 100 to 250 feet in length, situated 
along the shore, some of which are provided with cranes. 

Town. — The town of Samsun (ancient Amisus), which is the port 
of the caravan route to Baghdad and the principal commercial center, 
after Trebizond, on the Anatolian coast, contains a population about 
12,000, consisting chiefly of Turks and Greeks. It is unhealthy, 
owing to the marshes in its vicinity. There is a large hospital in the 
town. 

Between the northern end of the town and Kalion Point is a strip 
of land, partly marsh and partly gardens, which is said to be full of 
sewage. Landing on this part of the beach should therefore be 
avoided. 

Communication. — There is communication fortnightly by the 
steamers with London and Marseille, and four times weekly and 
three times fortnightly by steamer to the most important ports up 
and down the coast. The steamers from Liverpool call occasionally. 
A railway between Samsun and Diarbekir is proposed. 

Telegrams are accepted for transmission in most European lan- 
guages. There are Turkish, Russian, and Austrian post offices in the 

town. 

Supplies. — Water is difficult to obtain, there being no tank boats 

for bringing it off. It is also very muddy. 



BATUM TO*BOSPORUS. 809 

If 

Eumjugaz Boad. — ^Westward of Kalion Point there is a long 
beach, followed by lowlands covered with trees, trending northwest- 
ward for 14 miles, to the roadstead of Kumjugaz, which is well 
spoken of, and lies abreast of the mouth of a large lake. Thei*e is a 
depth of 5 and 6 fathoms over a muddy bottom from 1 to IJ miles 
from the shore, but the anchorage is exposed to winds from north 
to east-southeast. All this coast is clean, having a depth of 10 
fathoms 1^ to 3 miles from it. 

Halys Point (Cape Bafra). — Injir Point lies 7 miles due north 
of Kumjugaz, and from thence the coast trends northwestward for 
11 miles to Halys Point, or Cape Bafra, which is low and covered 
with trees, and where the Kizil Irmak (ancient Halys) empties into 
the sea by two mouths, forming an islet between them. 

Cape Bafra (Halys Point) Lights flashing white, 82 feet above 
high water, visible 14 miles, is exhibited from a white skeleton iron 
tower located on the nOTth extremity of the island. 

Coast.— T Westward of Halys Point the coast trends west By south 
for 18 miles, and is low and wooded. Thence in a northwest direc- 
tion the coast is bordered by mountains as far as Cape Sinub; the 
bay between, which is 39 miles across and nearly 15 miles deep ; in 
the northwest corner lies the town of Sinub. 

Gherzeh. — ^This little town (ancient Carusa) stands on a low 
point at the foot of a high mountain, about 13 miles southward of 
Sinub. A reef extends about 200 yards east-southeast of the point. 
Rocks also border the shore of the town to the distance of 100 yards. 

There is a telegraph station in the town. 

Anchorage. — The anchorage in this roadstead, in 5 to 7 fathoms, 
mud and sand, about 800 yards from the shore, is said to be.safe. A 
small vessel anchored in 3 fathoms, mud and shells, about 400 yards 
southward of the town, will be sheltered by the point from north and 
northeast winds. 

Cape Sinub is the northeast extremity of the peninsula of Boztepe, 
which projects about 3 miles to the eastward from a narrow isthmus 
connecting it with the mainland and on which stands the town of 
Sinub (ancient Sinope). In whaterer direction the cape is ap- 
proached, it may be easily recognized by the peculiar form of the 
peninsula, the summit of which is flat and the sides steep, except 
toward the isthmus. The isthmus is scarcely visible from a distance, 
so that the peninsula will make as an island. 

Boztepe Point. — A conspicuous rock lies about 400 yards north- 
eastward of Boztepe Point, the southeastern extreme of the peninsula. 
The rock is steep-to, with 14 to 19 fathoms water between it and the 
point. The northern shores of the peninsula are clean, but a vessel in 
running, or turning to windward, along the southern shor^ must not 
approach within 200 yards. 



310. AK umIn. 

The only landinf^ place on the south side of the peninsula is at the 
ravine below the village of Ada Kioi. 

Sinub (Sinope) Light, iixed white, 344 feet above high water, 
visible 12 miles, is exhibited from a white stone tower located on 
Boztepe Point. 

Sinub (Sinope). — ^This town, formerly the capital of Pontus, is 
divided into two distinct parts. The first, the fortress, the walls of 
which are washed by the sea, is built on the isthmus and inhabited by 
Turks. The second stands on the slope of the peninsula and is the 
residence of the. Christians, composed mostly of Greeks. It has a 
population of about 8,000. The governor of the district resides here. 

Anchorage. — The roadstead enjoys a good reputation, even in 
winter, and is the safest anchorage between the Bosporus and Batunu 
Vessels anchor in 5 to 10 f aMioms, mud and sand, fiom 200 to 800 
yards southward of the town, quite sheltered from westerly and 
northeasterly gales. The shore can be approached to the depth of 3 
fathoms, but off the town the bottom is foul with the remains of 
ancient jetties. 

Communication. — There is weekly steam communication with 
Constantinople and the various ports on this coast. Turkish steamers 
to and from Constantinople call at irregular intervals. Telegrams 
are accepted for transmission in either French or Turkish. 

Ak Liman,— Thi^ tittle. port (ancient Armene) lies 5 miles west- 
northwest of Sinub at the extremity of a low and sandy shore, which 
is backed by mountains bordered by white rocks. .It is about ^ mile 
long in a northwest and southeast direction and is about 800 yards 
wide in its w^idest part, but the entrance is narrowed to ^ mile by 
two islets which lie off the points. That to the northward is bordered 
by rocks, but the southern islet'has a depth of 3 fathoms close to it. 
The port, which is ppen to the eastward, has froruj 5 to 7 fathoms 
at a little distance within the entrance. Nearer the bottom of the 
port there is a depth of 2 and 3 fathoms, in the northern part of 
which vessels of light draft will find shelter from all sea winds, with 
2 fathoms water 300 yards from th^ shore. There is a landing 
place on the southern shore. ,.■ ,. . .. . 

Coast — Reef. — Beyond Ak Liman the coast becomes bold and 
rocky, and trends Yiorth-northwest for 3 mile^, forming three points, 
the northern of which ^s Pakhios Point. About 1 mile north of 
Ak Liman is a reef i mile from the shore. From Pakhios Point 
the coast trends west^vard to Cape Injeh, which is 3 miles. 

Cape Injeh (lat. 42° 6' JS'., long. 34° 58' E.) and Pakhios Point, 
the most northern points of Anatolia, are of a reddish tint and 
free from danger. The cape is flat and resembles a bastion. Capes 
Injeh and Sinub form a reniarkable feature of the coast, dividing 
the eastern and western parts of Anatoli£(* ' ^ 



BATUM TO BOSPORUS. 311 

Cape Injeh Light, fixed and flashing white, 92 feet above High 
water, visible 14 miles, is exhibited from a white stone tower located 
near the extremity of the cape. 

Kuildi Reef. — From Cape Injeh the coast turns abruptly to the 
southward and southwestward, whence it takes a westerly direction 
to Cape Kerempeh, which bears 267°, 76 miles from Cape Injeh. A 
bed of rocks, named Kuildi, about 2 miles in length from east to 
west and a good ^ mjle in breadth, lies 13 miles southwestward from 
Cape Injeh. Its outer edge is about 1 mile from the coast. Its 
eastern end is off the Valley of Kaza-kildi, which is covered with 
buildings, and another inhabited valley is nearly abreast of the 
shoal. 

Stefano Point — ^Anchorage. — Stefano Point is a small projec- 
tion of the coast, lying 21 miles to the westward of Cape Injeh. 
There is anchorage abreast of the town, which stands eastward of the 
point, sheltered from west and northwest winds, but open to the 
northeast. The depths are from 3 to 5 fathoms, sand and mud. 

Antonios Point— Anchorage. — Antonios Point, situated 6^ miles 
westward of Stefano Point, has some buildings and a rivulet east- 
ward of it. The anchorage is to the eastward of the rivulet in 3 or 4 
fathoms, mud and sand, but it is exposed to all winds from seaward. 

Apana. — From Antonios Point the coast takes a westerly direction 
for 8 miles to Kinogly Point, off which rocks extend to the north 
eastward. Thence the coast continues in the same direction to Apana, 
8 miles, off which coasters sometimes anchor, abreast of the village 
and rivulet. 

Ineboli (Niopoli). — Ineboli, a low projecting point, is situated 
llj miles westward of Apana. Off it a reef extends some distance, 
forming a roadstead to the eastward, abreast of the town of Ineboli. 
Here vessels anchor in 3 or 4 fathoms, muddy bottom. Vessels may 
enter the road during the night but are not granted pratique after 
sunset. . 

Cape Ineboli Light, two fixed white, 85 feet above high water, 
visible 10 miles, is exhibited from an iron mast located on the summit 
of the point. 

The town of Ineboli, which stands on the southern shore of the 
roadstead at the mouth of a ravine spanned by a girder footbridge, 
has a population of about 9,000. There is a military hospital to 
which seamen are admitted. A breakwater has been recently com- 
pleted, and there is a pier and a wharf where boats can land, with a 
depth of from 7 to 8 feet alongside. 

Communication. — The steamers of the various lines running 
between Constantinople and Batum couch at the port. There is also 
telegraphic communication. The town contains Turkish, Russian, 
French, and Austrian post oflSces. 



312 KIDROS: 

Cape Kerempehy situated 22 miles 281° from Ineboli, is the west- 
ern termination of the most prominent land of the Anatolian coast, 
of which Sinub i€ the eastern extreme. This cape, one of the highest 
in the Black Sea, is bordered by reddish cliflFs and may be easily rec- 
ognized by vessels coming from the Crimea, from which it is 140 
miles. These two promontories divide the Black Sea into two parts, 
the eastern and western, which are often very distinct, by the dif- 
ferent winds blowing at the same time in each. Cape Kerempeh is 
much dreaded by the coasters from the severe tempests which often 
occur in its vicinity. 

Cape Kerempeh. Light, alternating flashing white and red, 410 
feet above high water, visible 20 miles, is located 110 yards from 
the end of the cape. 

Coast. — From Cape Kerempeh the coast is safe to approach. It 
trends in a general west-southwest direction for 95 miles to Cape 
Baba. 

Kara-Agatch. — The village of Kara-Agatch, where formerly ves- 
sels^of considerable size were built, lies 14 miles from Cape Kerempeh. 
The anchorage, which is exposed to westerly winds, is only used 
by coasters. Fulo Mountain lies 3^ miles to the southeastward. 

Kidros. — The little port of Kidros, 4J miles westward of Kara- 
Agatch, is backed by a mountain in the form of a sugar loaf, which 
assists in identifying it. The port will accommodate 5 or 6 vessels 
in 3 to 4 fathoms, but it is exposed to northerly winds. In entering 
keep the eastern shore aboard, to avoid a rock which obstructs and 
considerably narrows the entrance. 

Amastra (lat. 41° 45' N., long. 32° 25' E.).— Amastra Bay, 23 
miles to the westward of Kidros, is formed between Chakras and 
the town of Amastra (ancient Amastris), which appears at a dis- 
tance like a group of islets. The town stands on a double peninsula, 
the eastern part of which is J mile in length from east to west, con- 
nected with the mainland by a low sandy isthmus about 125 yards 
in breadth. The western part is joined to the eastern by a narrow 
bar, over which the sea breaks in heavy weather and northward of 
which is a shoal close to the shore. About 200 yards northward of 
the eastern peninsula there is an islet, 340 yards in length from north 
to south, of moderate height and with bold yellow shores. Between 
it and the town there is a depth of 10 fathoms. 

The town contains a population of about 2,500. The trade is in- 
considerable. 

Amastra Light, flashing white, 312 feet above high water, visible 
16 miles, is exhibited from a stone tower located on the summit of 
the peninsula. 

Anchorages. — ^The best anchorage, about 600 yards in extent, is 
that southeastward of the town, abreast of the isthmus, in 8 to 3 



BATUM TO BOSPORUS. 313 

fathoms, sandy bottom, protected to the northward by an islet, 
which is connected to the peninsula by rocks. ' A reef extends 200 
yards eastward of the point of the islet, which serves to break the 
force of the sea with northerly winds. On the southern shore of this 
anchorage, off two points 600 and 1,000 yards eastward of the penin- 
sula, shoals extend 200 yards, and are said to be the remains of 
ancient jetties; but the eastern portion of Amastra Bay is clean, 
having from 4 to 10 fathoms close to the shore, oyer sand and mud. 

A cove, 200 yards in length, lies westward of the isthmus, but the 
anchorage is inferior to the eastern one and exposed to westerly 
winds. The entrance, 200 yards in breadth, is much narrowed by 
rocks which fringe the northern and southern shores. It has from 
8 to 2 fathoms over a sandy bottom. The commerce of this place is 
inconsiderable. 

Coast — Bartheni River. — The Bartheni River reaches the sea 7^ 
miles to the westward of Amastra and near a point of the same name. 
There is a depth of 3 fathoms near the shore, and 8 feet on the sand 
bar at the mouth of the river, the channel over which is narrowed by 
rocks on both sides. The river is available for coasters as far as 
Bartheni, which is situated 2 miles from its mouth. 

Ghizelji Hissar is a slight projection of the coast 6 miles southwest- 
ward of Bartheni Point, and between it and Philios Point, which lies 
nearly 8 miles farther on, there is a beach 6 miles in length. Kilimoli 
Point, which projects a little from the coast, is high, and lies 4 miles 
to the westward of Philios Point, the coast between them receding 
slightly to the westward. 

Sungul (Zong^ldak) Bay, although open to the north and west, 
affords fairly good anchorage in about 13 fathoms, sand, and mud, 
over rocks, and well protected from northeasterly winds. 

Harbor. — There is an artificial harbor in the northern part of the 
bay, protected by a breakwater 330 yards in length, within which are 
depths of 5 to 7 fathoms. 

Regulations. — Vessels desirous of entering the harbor must, as 
soon as they are within sufficient distance to be seen, hoist at the 
masthead a rectangular flag colored vertically half red and half white 
with the white to the mast. 

Shoal. — ^A rock, with a depth of 4 feet over it, is situated on the 
eastern side of the harbor 100 yards southwestward from the end of 
the pier near the quarantine station. It is marked by a red flag. 

Sungul Light, flashing white, 167 feet above high water, visible 
10 miles, is exhibited from a white wooden tower located on the point. 

A fixed red and white light is exhibited from the mole. 

Buoys. — There are two mooring buoys laid down in the entrance 
to the harbor. 

172982°— 20 21 



314 AKGHOBAGEL 

Pilots. — The Heraclea Co. send a boat to vessels arriving with a 
competent pilot who will berth them at the quay or take them to an 
anchorage where coaling can be carried out. 

Tugs. — There are two tugs stationed at Sungul Bay. 

Town. — The town of Sungul is situated on the eastern shore of 
the bay. 

Communication. — ^There is a telegraph office in the town; also 
Turkish, French, and Austrian post offices. 

Coal and supplies. — ^There are berths for two steamers alongside 
the breakwater, in a depth of 25 to 27 feet, where there are two 
steam cranes, which will load from 80 to 100 tons of coal per hour, 
and a transporter which will load a vessel at the rate of 200 tons per 
hour, the railway trucks being lowered into the vessel's hold. Vessels 
can also lie on the opposite side of the harbor at a pier near the 
quarantine station, where there is a depth of 25 feet, under a steam 
crane. Rough weather prevents coaling alongside. 

Koslu Bay. — The locality of Koslu Bay, which lies about 2 miles 
south westward of Sungul Bay, is best distinguished by the houses 
near the shore. The land about it presents ho remarkable object, the 
coast being generally bordered by high mountains covered with 
forests. 

Anchorage. — The bay affords a summer anchorage for steamers 
and coasters. Traders resort to it in May and later for the shipment 
of coal, anchoring northeastward of the valley to get better shelter 
from the point, the wind being generally to the eastward of north- 
east. The bottom is sand under the depth of 12 fathoms, with mud 
and sand in deeper water. The western extreme of the land, kept 
open of Alesso Point, will lead to a good berth J mile from the shore, 
but to expedite the embarkation of coal, a nearer berth may be taken. 

Coal. — Koslu Valley is one of the principal localities for coal 
mining in the Heraclea Basin, the other mining centers being Chatal 
Aghzi, Kilimli, and Sungul Valleys to the northeastward, and 
Chamli and Khandilli Valleys, near Bender Erekli, to the south- 
westward. The coal resembles Newcastle coal in quality and ap- 
pearance. 

It is shipped at Koslu into lighters from a small pier, alongside 
which there is a depth of 11 feet. From 600 to 700 tons can be 
loaded in a day when the weather is favorable. 

At Chatal Aghzi and Kilimli the coal is loaded into lighters and 
towed round to Sungul Bay for shipment. 

Bender Erekli Bay — Cape Baba. — From Koslu Bay the coast 
trends 17 miles 241° to the promontory of Cape Baba, which is faced 
with rocky cliffs and rendered remarkable by the sunken change in 
the aspect of the coast southward of it. 



BATUM TO B0SP0BT7S. 315 

Southeastward of the cape is the Bay of Bender Erekli, which is 
about 2^ miles in length from Cape Baba to Kara Sakal, its southern 
point, with a depth in the middle of 7 fathoms, over sand and mud, 
shoaling gradually to the shore. 

Evlidge Burnu Lights group flashing white, 252 feet above high 
water, visible 15 miles, is exhibited from a white masonry tower 
located on the western side of Kisi Agsi Bay. 

Cape Baba Lights fixed red, 78 feet above high water, visible 5 
miles, is exhibited from a white mast on a house with a red roof 
located on the south side of the cape. . 

Anchorage. — There is a depth of 4 fathoms 400 yards southeast- 
ward of the. mole, 200 yards from the shore, where small vessels 
may anchor, sheltered from 292° round by north to 191° ; but the 
anchorage northwest of the mole, between the town and Cape Baba, 
is to be preferred. Here small vessels may lie sheltered from west- 
erly winds in 3 or 4 fathoms, over mud and sand. The southwest 
winds are not dangerous as they seldom blow home; and the coast 
not being far off in that direction, the fetch of the sea is not great. 
The anchorage for larger vessels is in about 6 fathoms, 800 yards 
112° from the cape. 

The bottom in Bender Erekli Bay is clay and sand, affording good 
holding ground, but it is not a safe anchorage in a west or northwest 
gale, unless well up in the bay, between Cape Baba and the ancient 
mole. There some shelter may be obtained from those winds. Coun- 
try vessels lie moored head and stem in the bay during the whole 
winter and are said to be perfectly safe from every gale, although 
exposed to some fetch from the southwest. 

Town. — The town (ancient Heraklea), which has a population of 
about 10,000, stands on the northeast shore of the bay, f mile east- 
ward of Cape Baba, and was formerly of considerable extent. There 
was a castle and a mole, both of which are now in ruins. The 
remains of the ancient mole is about 300 yards in length, and ex- 
tends in a 202° direction from a battery which stands on the shore 
about f mile 112° of Cape Baba. 

Coal. — In normal times the Chamli and Kandilli mines, situated 
about 10 miles from Bender Erekli, have an output of about 110,000 
tons annually. This coal is said to have a heating power nearly 
equal to the best Welsh coal. Caiques were employed during the 
winter, when the weather permitted, to bring coal to this bay from 
all the valleys where it is piled. 

Coaling is performed by means of lighters. From 300 to 400 tons 
per day can be put on board. 

Coast. — Kirpen (Kefken) Point bears 52 miles 267° from Cape 
Baba, and between them the coast falls back nearly 12 miles to the 



316 KEFKBN BAT. 

southward, forming a deep bay. Westward of the Melen Su, which 
flows into the sea, 24 miles southwestward from Cape Baba, the coast 
is backed by mountains and fronted by a beach 27 miles in length, 
which terminates at Chalbi Point, where the mountains again border 
the shore. 

Sakarieh (Sargonius) Biver. — The mouth of the Sakarieh 
River is 13 miles to the westward of Melen Su. There is a depth of 
3 to 6 feet on the bar, whence the river has a depth of 3 fathoms for 
8 miles, with an average breadth of about 90 yards. 

Kirpen Island (lat. 41^ 13' N., long. 30° 17' E.) is low, about 400 
yards in extent, and lies about 400 yards northward of Kirpen Point, 
with a small islet close westward of it. From seaward the masts of 
vessels in Kef ken anchorage can be seen over the island. 

Shoal. — Shoal ground extends 250 yards westward of the light- 
house on Kirpen .Island. 

Kirpen (Kefken) Point Lights flashing white, 72 feet above 
high water, visible 12 miles, is exhibited from a white iron column 
located 66 yards from the western extremity of Kirpen Islet. 

Aspect of the coast. — From a position 10 miles northward of 
Kirpen Island, in clear weather. Mount Agvah, a high-peaked moun- 
tain some distance to the westward and 5 miles from the coast, may 
be seen bearing about southwest, and an isolated peak, about 30 
miles inland, bearing 191°, nearly over the two peaks of Mount 
Kandra, which are about 700 feet high and covered with trees, and 
back the anchorage of Kirpeh; also Kirpen Island Lighthouse. 
These observations may be useful, as the land in the vicinity of the 
point is said by some mariners to resemble the entrance to the 
Bosporus. 

Kefken Bay is formed between Kirpen Point and a point 2 miles 
west-southwestward of it. 

Shoals. — ^A rock above water lies close eastward of the southwest 
point of the bay, and a shoal, known as Kefken Shoal, about 1,000 
yards 78° from the eastern extremity of the same point. 

Anchorage. — ^The islands and point are safe to approach, avoid- 
ing the shoal extending 200 yards westward of the shore of the light- 
house, and vessels anchor near Kirpeh Point, protected by the islets 
from northerly and easterly winds, in 6 to 7 fathoms water. About 
1 mile southwest of Kefken Bay is an inlet named False Kefken, but 
it is not used. 

Kemeh and Kirpeh Bays lie about 2 and 3 miles, respectively, 
southwestward of Kefken Bay. Kerneh Bay has a depth of 3 to 4 
fathoms and affords shelter from the northward, and small craft 
protect themselves under a low point from westerly winds. A bold 
headland separates Kerneh Bay from Kirpeh Bay to the southwest- 
ward, and the latter bay, which is about J mile in length from east 



BATUM TO BOSPORUS. 817 

to west, is mucli preferred to the preceding one. In rounding the 
northern headland, give it a wide berth to avoid the rocks which lie 
to the southward of it, and anchor in 7 to 8 fathoms, sheltered from 
north and northwest winds and exposed only to the westward.. 

Bashna Island, 4 miles westward of Ki^peh Bay, has a tower on it. 

Eilia (Shilli) . — ^From Kirpeh Bay the coast trends in a westerly 
direction for 27 miles to Kilia Point, which slopes gradually toward 
the sea, terminating in a little chain of islands, evidently forming 
at one time a portion of it. The place to a stranger would seem to 
offer shelter in a northeast gale, as the cluster of islets appear to 
form a natural 'breakwater, but the sea rushes between them at such 
times with great fiiry and would render any attempt to ride out a 
gale extremely hazardous, more especially as the islets are surrounded 
by foul ground and the water shoals rapidly in the bay. 

The town of Kilia or Shilli, built on the top of the point, is of 
considerable size, and exports large quantities of charcoal, and stones 
for building purposes. The small craft engaged in this trade have 
to be drawn up on shore to receive their cargoes and await a favor- 
able opportunity f dr the return voyage to Constantinople. 

There is telegraphic communication with Constantinople. 

Landmark. — On the summit of the largest of the islets stands an 
old square tower, once part of an extensive castle, the ruins of which 
lie all round. The whole of the sea face of this ruin has been painted 
white, and is seen in clear weather at a great distance in all directions 
seaward. 

Kilia Point Lights flashing white, 220 feet above high water, 
visible 21 miles, is exhibited from a pink stone tower located 109 
yards from the extremity of the point. 

Lifeboat. — A lifeboat and rocket station is established in the bay 
westward of the lighthouse, where also is a white tower. 

Marah Bumu. — From the west end of Kilia Bay a range of hills 
extends along the shore as far as Marah Burnu, 5 miles. A few yards 
below the summit on the western slope of these hills in the mouth 
of a remarkable cave, which has given its name to the place. This 
cave runs a long distance inland, though the passage is very small 
and not sufficient to admit a man in an upright position. 

Bocket station. — On the eastern slope of the hills stands a rocket 
house, painted white, with black gable ends. 

AUajalee. — From Marah Burnu the hills recede about 1^ miles 
from the shore, having a low sandy piece of land at their foot, which 
about halfway between Marah Burnu and Kara Burnu stretches 
slightly into the sea, forming the sandy point of AUajalee. A few 
yards westward of the point there is a rocket house painted white 
with black gable ends. 



818 KAKA BURKU. 

Coast. — ^The sandy coast terminates at Armani ang, within 1} 
miles of Kara Burnu, where there are a few chalk cliffs, from the 
top of which the ground rises gradually to the summit of the range 
of hills, of which Kara Burnu is the termination of a spur. 

Between Kilia and Kara Burnu the shore is fringed with reefs and 
should not be approached within 1 mile as under that distance the 
water shoals rapidly. 

Rocket station. — ^At Armankiang, above the chalk cliffs, stands a 
rocket house painted white with black gables. 

Kara Burnu — ^Landmarks. — Kara Burnu slopes and narrows 
gradually as it stretches into the sea, but near its termination sud- 
denly rises and swells out, forming a mound, which has a curious 
appearance, as, the earth having been washed away from the top, the 
bowlders of which it is principally comprised stand up like the 
stones of a cemetery. The sea face of this mass of bowlders has been 
painted white, as well as a cliff of greater elevation a few yards east- 
ward of the point, and thus from the northward two patches are 
seen ; in other directions only one. Foul ground extends around the 
point to the distance of 200 yards. 

A few yards west of the rising ground, overlooking the mound, is 
a rocket station, painted white with black gable ends, as are all the 
rescue stations on the Asiatic side of the Bosporus. There is also a 
refuge house. 

Coast. — ^The country between Kara Burnu and Riva shows no sign 
of cultivation or of inhabitants, the nearest village being several 
miles inland. It is thickly covered with brushwood, arbutus, and 
other shrubs. A short distance westward of Kara Burnu, however, 
there is a small collection of huts named Mariola, where during the 
summer months a fishery is carried on, but which in the winter is 
deserted. 

Rocket stations. — ^Between Kara Burnu and Riva there are two 
rocket stations and three rocket houses, painted white. These can be 
seen in clear weather from a long distance seaward. Mariola, abreast 
the huts, is a good place to beach a boat in heavy weather. 

Adarjiklar Burnu. — From Mariola cliffs of a yellow color extend 
along the shore, with occasionally a small valley, at the entrance of 
which is generally a narrow slip of beach. Adarjiklar Burnu, one of 
the principal of these cliffs, projects somewhat from the shore, about 
4 miles west of Kara Burnu. Close to the summit of his point on the 
side of the hill is a rocket station and refuge house. 

Qalara Burnu — Landmark. — ^The next projecting point west- 
ward is long and sloping. It terminates in a rock separated from 
the land by a narrow passage of a few yards in width, but which 
rock, not being of greater elevation than tibie point, has not. the 



BATUM TO BOSPORUS. 319 

slightest resemblance to Kara Burnu. The three faces of the point 
have been painted white as a distinguishing mark, seen in all direc- 
tions seaward. 

Rocket station. — A rocket station and refuge house is established 
near the point. 

Khair Sis Islet — ^Landmark. — Kliair Sis, or Good-for-nothing 
islet, as this name implies, lies about i mile eastward of Elmas Tabia 
Point, and is surrounded by reefs. It should not be approached 
within i mile. There is deep water between it and the shore, though 
the channel is narrow on account of foul ground lying off the islet. 
The islet is high, rises abruptly from the sea, and consists of tWo 
portions, connected in the center by a low ridge. The cliffs under- 
neath the northern and larger portion have been whitened, present- 
ing a mark seen in all directions from seaward. 

Elmas Tabia Burnu (lat. 41° 14' N., long. 29° 13'' E.).^This 
place, so named frdhi the existence of a military station, is a bold 
headland, steep-to, and the termination of a range of hills that 
stretch away inland, forming the east side of the valley of Riva, 
through which runs the little river of the same name, reaching the 
sea at the foot and to the westward of the headland. 

Biva (Irva). — The river is navigable for large boats to a con- 
siderable distance in the interior, and large quantities of charcoal 
and firewood are exported to Constantinople by means of it. The 
passage over the bar, however, being only open during the winter, 
the cargoes have' in summer to be transhipped, which has necessitated 
the building of the village of Biva as a small seaport and home for 
the sailors engaged in this traffic. 

There is an old castle standing at the mouth of the river, in which 
are mounted a few pieces of artillery, so that it is probable the traffic 
on the river was formerly considerable and the place of more im- 
portance. 

Anchorage. — There is anchorage, in 4 fathoms, i mile westward 
of the village, the water shoaling quickly toward the shore. 

Lifeboat — Rocket station. — There is a lifeboat station at the 
entrance to the river and a rocket station on Elmas Tabia Burnu. 

Telegraph. — There is telegraphic communication with Constanti- 
nople from Elmas Tabia Fort. 

Coast. — From the mouth of the Riva a long beach commences, 
which extends westward along the shore of the shallow bay, termi- 
nating in Yum Burnu. This beach should not be approached within 
1 mile, as the water shoals rapidly. 

Sowaky an islet lying in the depth of the bay between Riva and 
Yum Burnu, connected to the beach by a sandy spit, is of considerable 
elevation, and shelters the few huts built on the shore, where a 
fishery is carried on during the summer monthSi 



820 YUM BITRKU, 

Sowakdere.— Near the termination of the beach, and where a 
stream reaches the sea, is the best point to beach a disabled vessel 
unable to weather Yum Burnu. 

Turn Burnu is a bold headland, steep-to, and so much more ele- 
vated than the land in the vicinity that the lighthouse on Cape 
Anatoli is not seen when approaching the entrance to the Bosporus 
on a course more westerly than southwest by west. Vessels from 
the eastward should accordingly be careful not to alter their course 
to southward in the thick weather or in dark nights, until both lights 
at the Bosporus are in sight. At those times, Elmas Tabia Point 
may be taken for Yum Burnu, and the vessel thereby placed in 
danger. 

Landmark. — Underneath Yum Burnu the cliffs are whitewashed, 
showing a mark in all directions seaward for 15 miles. It some- 
times appears double owing to a division in the marking. 

Fogsignal. — ^The fogsignal on Yum Burnu i£ made by gunfire. 



APPENDIX. 



REGTJLATIONS FOR VESSELS PROCEEDING TO SEA, VIA 8TTLINA, FROM PORTS 

IN THE LOWER DANUBE. 

Vessels which have shipped their cargo at one of the ports in the 
Lower Danube and do not require to carry out any operations in the 
port of Sulina may proceed direct to Sulina Roadstead. 

Masters of vessels desiring to avail themselves of this privilege are 
recommended to. communicate the fact by telegram to the captain of 
Sulina port on their departure from the port of loading, and mention 
in the telegram, as nearly as possible, the probable time of arrival at 
Sulina. Before reaching the Chatal de St. George, the vessel must 
hoist the Blue Peter at the foremast head, in order that the lookout at 
this station may notify the passing of the vessel to the captain of the 
port. This flag must be kept flying during the entire passage of the 
Sulina branch. 

On the arrival of the vessel in the port of Sulina, an agent of the 
port police will proceed on board with a pilot for the passage over the 
bar, and on receiving from the master the ship's list will give the pilot 
permission to take the vessel direct to the roadstead. 

As soon as the vessel has anchored, the master will return to the 
port in order to pay the navigation dues, present the bills of lading, 
and carry out other formalities required by the regulations. After- 
wards the master may go on shore, or may send in his place one of his 
officers, together with the agent of the port police, who must present 
to the port administration the ship's list received by.him. 

If the vessel can not proceed direct to sea, owing to water on the 
bar, bad weather, or other circumstance, the master will be duly ad- 
vised of this and must anchor within the bar. 

It is especially important that masters wishing to proceed direct to 
Sulina Roadstead should arrange to leave the port of loading so as to 
arrive at Sulina at an hour when the offices of the European commis- 
sioner of the Danube, the quarantine offices, and the consulates are 
open* 

821 



322 



APPENDIX. 



AEGULATIONS FOR THE PASSAGE OF VESSELS THROUGH THE FOLXTNOCHXOE 

(midnight) entrance to THE DANUBE. 

1. A ball by day, or two lights (red over white) by night, hoisted 
on the signal mast, indicates that the midnight mouth and channel are 
clear for a vessel proceeding out of the river. 

2. When no signal is shown from the signal mast, the entrance 
channel and mouth are clear for a vessel proceeding into the river 
from seaward. 

3. Independently of any signal on the mast, every vessel must 
immediately communicate (by means of whistles, etc.), whether the 
channel be clear or not, with the vessels of the dredging flotilla at 
work in the midnight branch. 

4. Steam tugs must fly a blue flag at the masthead by day, and carry 
two masthead lights by night. 

5. Vessels are only permitted to make fast to the right (eastern) 
bank of the midnight mouth. 

6. The draft of barges passing through the midnight mouth must 
not exceed 1 foot less than the depth in the channel. 

7. Sailing vessels drawing 8 feet and over must be towed through 
the channel. 

8. Two balls by day, or two red lights by night, hoisted on the 
signal mast, indicates that the channel is not clear for vessels either 
to enter or leave the river. 



1. •Instructions for steamers following the ice breaker through ice 
in the Btig River and Kherson Bay : 



Signals. 



No.l. Five short blasts on whistle. 

No . 2. Three medium blasts 

No. 3. Six short blasts 



No. 4. Four short medium blasts. 

One ball at the masthead. 
No. 5. Not less than 10 short blasts. 



From ice breaker. 



Go ahead and follow me 

Go astern or reverse engines 

(1) If you wish to take towroi>e, 
get ready. 

(2) Let go my towrope 

Stop 

(Order.) 
I am remaining for the night 



From steamer. 



Go ahead; or, I am going ahead. 
I am going astern; or, go astern. 

(1) Ready to take your towrope. 

(2) Have let go your towrope. 
Btopned; or, I am fast in the ice 

and can not move without help. 



2. All steamers following the ice breaker should be ready to receive 
a towrope, and when being towed should be prepared to let go the 
towrope immediately when ordered by the ice breaker. 

3. A steamer, when being towed, must not work her engines ahead, 
but must be always ready to go astern if the ice breaker gets into 
hard ice. 



APPENDIX. 823 

4. Steamers following ice breakers repeat the signaled whistles one 
after the other, in turn, beginning with the steamer nearest the ice 
breaker. 

5. If on a steamer following the ice breaker through ice there is 
any damage or leak, that steamer hoists the signal N C (O V in the 
Eussian code) in the International Code of Signals. The signal and 
whistles are repeated^ by each steamer lying between the vessel in 
distress and the ice breaker as soon as. the ice breaker notices and 
hoists the answering pennant, the steamers repeating the signal haul 
down. The steamer on board which there is the damage at the same 
time will connect the pumps to the place or compartment where the 
water should be pumped out first of all. 



INDEX. 



A. V&ge, 
Abikhu Point 286 

Abuliona Lake 83 

geul 82 

Abydos 44 

Bank 33 

Point 32, 33 

Accuracy of chart 2 

Achilles, tomb of 23 

Achuev 247 

Ada Kior ' 310 

Adalar Rocks 225 

Adam Kaya , 69 

Adar Burnu 60 

Adarjiklar Burnu 318 

Adirnas Chai 83 

Adjubai village - 270 

Adler Point - _- 285 

anchorage 285 

Light 285 

Adrianople - '- HI 

Adzhigiol Point -, 187 

Adzhiyask Point 183 

Afisia 76, 77 

A«atchili - 134 

Agathopoli 138 

Aghi Dagh 34, 35 

Agios Elias Point 85 

dangers 85 

Agria Petra 80 

Agsi - 306 

Agvah, Mount 316 

Aia Cape 220,221,222 

anchorage 222 

landmarks 222 

Aldinjik village ._ 70 

Aidinli Hills 96 

Aidos Dagh 97, 98, 109 

Aids 5 

Aiik Atlama Point 229 

Aitodor, Cape 223, 224, 225 

caution 224 

— • fog signal 224 

landmark 224 

Light 224 

signal station 224 



Pag«, 

Ajalikski Lake 190 

Ak Bashi 29 

Bay 44 

Liman 28 

Valley 28 

Ak Bunar 134 

Ak Burnu . 147, 

232, 235, 236, 238, 243, 244 

Bank 235, 238 

buoys 236 

Shoal 236, 244 

Ak Burtch 237 

Ak Liman 310 

coast 310 

Ak Yarlar 36, 55 

Dagh 65 

— Mountain 40 

Akhilleon, Cape 243 

Akhilu 144, 145 

Akhmanai .: 270 

Akhtanizovka 240 

c*aution 246 

Liman 246 

Akhtar __a 247, 248 

Bay 247 

Lake 247 

Light 248 

Akin, Cape 142 

Akmechet Harbor 206 

anchorage 206 

— beacons 206 

^ Shoal —J 206 

Akrianu geul 143 

Akroteri Point 145 

Aksas Burnu 67 

village 67 

Aksenof Rocks 24o 

Alar Point 227 

Albanians 88 

Alchak Kaya, Cape_! 227 

Alem Dagh 98,136 

Alesso Point 314 

Alexander Point ^__^ 211 

Alexandrovka village 191 

Alexandrovsk 193 

325 



326 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Alexsyeevka village 205 

Allchi Isthmus 74 

Allajalee 317 

Alma River 209 

Alonyi 75 

Altintas 87 

Altmuhl River 155 

Alupka 223 

Alushta anchorage 227 

coast 227 

Fort - 227 

Light 227 

Roadsteads 227 

village 226 

Amastra 312 

Bay - 312 

Light 312 

Amastris 312 

Ambarli 62 

Ambelakl Bay 235 

Amisus 308 

Anadolu 107 

Hissari 104, 121 

Anakonii River__^ 287 

Anakria anchorage 290 

Anapa 274 

Point 274,275 

Road *- 274 

Anastatia Island 142 

Light 142 

Anatoli 125 

Cape 320 

fog signal 124 

Kalessi ___• 124 

Kavak 47, 119, 124 

Light 124 

Lighthouse 124, 131 

Point 132 

Anatolia 293, 310 

Anatolian coast 299 

railway 93 

Andirovitha 101 

Andreas 96 

Island 96 

Andreyef 240 

Androsovski mole 179 

Angora 93-111 

Ankhelu Geul 144 

Antigone 1 100-102 

Antonios Point __ 311 

anchorage 311 

Apana 311 



Pag«. 
Apollonia 83, 84 

Lake 83 

River !___ gS 

Arabat 267, 269 

Bay 270 

Fort 269 

Arabatsk Point 269 

Arablar 51, 77, 79 

Channel 76 

Island : 74-76-77 

shores 76 

Arapli Tepe 56 

Aren Kioi 24 

Argero Point 76 

Arkhava 299 

Armankiang 318 

coast 318 

rocket station 318 

Armene 310 

Armenia Point— 259 

Armudi 51 

Armudli 88 

anchorage 88 

Arnaut Burnu 86-^8 

Point 104, 107, 108, 114, 115 

Arsenal 66 

Artace : 71 

Artaki 49, 51, 68, 70, 71, 80 

-: — Bay 70, 71, 72 

coast 71 

communication 71 

Gulf 68 

Peninsula 50, 69, 72, 73, 76, 80 

Artillery Bay 212 

Aschachtown 156 

Ashampe Creek 280 

Asiatic coast 109 

Askoros Point 300 

River 300 

Aspra Homata 24, 47 

Aspro Cape 147 

Athanatos 139 

Athina 299 

Avuzlar 23 

Ay Andrea r 80 

Ay Georgios 80 

Burnu 96 

coast 96 

Ay loanni Monastery 80 

Ay Kiriaki 88, 89 

Ay Petros 223 

Ayansha 78 



INDEX. 



327 



Pagre. 

Ayios Petros 140 

Island 141 

port 140 

Ayu Dagh, Cape 225, 226 

current 226 

Azov, Sea of 17,47,108,233,237, 

239, 244, 246, 249, 253, 258 

currents 233 

water level 233 

Azrathena . 61 

B. 

Baba Burnu ^ 60 

Cape 314, 316 

Bafra, Cape 309 

Bagatubi Point 270 

Bagche Kioi 118 

Baghdad 308 

Baghlar Point 140 

Baglan Point 289 

Bahir 35 

Bairak Tepe 29 

Bairam Dere ,64, 65 

Bakajak Hill 1. 29 

Bakal 205 

Lake 205 

anchorage 205 

Spit . 204 

Bank 204 

Beacon^ 2()4 

landmarks 204 

Bakirli Isthmus 140 

Baku 292, 297 

Balaban Cliff -174 

Baiabanovka Spits - 195 

Balaklava Harbor 220, 221 

— clearing marks 221 

directions 221 

inner anchorage 221 

outer anchorage 221 

Rock 221 

Baljik Bay 150 

anchorage 150, 151 

Balta Liman 104,116 

Baonusa 71 

Barbers Point 25 



Light- 



25 



Barshana River 293 

Bartheni River 313 

coast 313 

Bartzkhana River 293 

Baschesme 37 

Liman 37 



Page. 
Bash Iskalessl 92 

Bashna Island 317 

Basiliko 139 

Harbor — 138 

Batlama River 305 

Batmez Vorthonas 97 

Batova Baljik 150 

Bay 150 

Batum ^ 297 

Bay , 293' 

buoys 294 

directions 296 

winds 294 

communications 275, 

288, 293, 297 

Harbor 294 

anchorage 295 

Berthing regulations 295 

Lights - 295 

Point - 299 

Bazaar anchorage . 305 

Bazar Kioi ^ : 90 

Bear Mountain 226 

Bebek Bay 115 

Light 115 

Beikos Bay _ 104, 106, 112, 117, 121, 122 

Beikuch Liman 185 

town 185 

Beisug Harbor 248 

Liman 248 

River 248 

Belbek River 211 

Belgrade 118 

Bender Erekli Bay 314 

anchorage 315 

Berda River 263 

Berdiansk "__-_ 264 

communication 264 

Light 264 

Lighthouse 264 

Point Light 262, 263, 266 

Lighthouse 263 

Berezan Island 184 

Beacon 184 

Buoy 184 

fogslgnal 184 

Light 184 

range mark 184-194 

Liman 184 

Bar 185 

beacons 185 

directions 185 

Bergaz 29 



328 



INDEX. 



Paw. 
Bergaz Asmak River 35 

Bank 35 

Clump 34 

Iskalessl 34 

Lighthouse 35 

River 35, 36 

Berluch Peninsula 266,267 

Spit 266, 268 

Light , 267 

-i Lighthouse 267 

Bes Chamlik 33, 34 

Beshlk Tash 113 

Besleta Rivulet 289 

Beta Bay 282 

Beyaz Burnu 78,80 

Beyler Bey 120 

Beyllk Karlik Dagh 89 

Bielogrudov Entrance 192 

Biga Shehir 68-69 

Chal 67,69 

Biscuit Cove 2i:^ 

Black Mountain 228 

River 213 

Sea 15, 30, 43, 97, 98, 123, 125, 

230, 233, 237, 244, 261, 292, 298 

current 126 

Light 130 

northern shore 183 

weather 128 

white fogs 130 

winds 128 

winter buoyage 130 

Blonde Rock 145 

Blyukdere 117 

Boados 61 

Bokali Kalessi 27,28,44 

Light 28 

Valley , 27, 28 

Bolshoi Island 291 

Bombori, Fort 287 

Road 287 

Bos Tepesi, Mount 305 

Promontory 305 

Boskov Tepe 88 

Boskuia village 267 

Bosporus 15, 51, 79, 97, 

98, 100, 110, 111. 112, 114, 117, 
119, 122, 131, 132, 134, 136, 320 

anchorage 100 

approach 131 

currents 105,106 

directions 103 

general description 103 



Pacfi. 

Bosporus lifeboat station 132 

rocket 132 

to Odessa 131 

weather 107 

winds 107.108 

Bostanji 50, 97 

Boz Bank 54 

Burnu 51, a"), 84, 85, 88 

coast 88 

Cape 65 

Peninsula 88,89 

landing places 89 

topography 89 

Tepe— 301 

Boztepe Point . 309 

Braila 171 

coal 171 

Dock 171 

Hospital 171 

mooring 171 

supplies 171 

, Bridge of Boats 198 

Brothers, The 98 

Brusa 86 

communication 87,88.91 

Bublikov, Cape 191 

Bug River 189, 194 

general information 194, 

195, 196, 197 
Bugaz Channel 240, 273, 274 

Point 273 

Bulair Isthmus 38 

village 56 

Buleb 299 

Bulganak 20{) 

Bulghurlu 55 

Mount €3, 109, 120 

Buoys 5 

Burgas 118 

Burghaz 125, 140 

Bay 143, 144 

Light 141 

Gulf 140,141 

Liman 143 

Point 145 

Rock 145 

Shoals 144 

Burun Tabla 293,297 

■■ — Cape 294,295 

lifeboat 297 

Mole 295 

supplies 297, 298 

Burunski Channel 234,243 



n<n>EX. 



329 



Page. 

Bushy Peak . 104, 123 

Buyuk Bay 117-119 

Ohekmejeh 61, 62 

Bay - 61 

Dere 36 

— River 96 

Kale - 305, 306 

Buyukdere 108, 118 

Bay 106, 108, 117 

,: anchorage 117 

patent slip 118 

Byeglitzki 262 

Lightvessel 249, 256 

Spit ^ 255 

Byelosarai Liglit 249 

Liglithouse— 262 

Spit .249, 252, 263 

Byzantine 67, 94, 96 

Bzuib River 286 

C. 

Cabotage Harbor 198,295 

Calbi Point i 316 

Camel i 226 

Camilla 226 

Cape Baba Light 315 

Bafra Light 309 

Chardak Light 28 

Emineh Light 147 

Helles Light ^_ 22 

leros Light 303 

Ineboli Light 311 

Injeh Light 311 

Kadosh Light 283 

Kaliakra Light 151 

Kerempeh Light 312 

Kukumar Pasha Liman.Island 75 

Kuri Light . 137 

Pavlovski Light 235 

Shableh Light 152 

St. Elias Light 229 

Tuzla Lighi 153 

Yenikale Light 239 

Yenikale Lighthouse 239 

Shoal 239 

Tarkan Light 207 

Careening Bay 213 

Carusa ^ 309 

Caspian Sea 298 

Caucasus Mountains 261 

Centre Islands 75 

Chagani 270 

Point 270 

172982°— 20 22 



Page. 

Chal Tepe 67 

Chalbi Point 316 

Chaldi Point 307 

Chalka, Mount 228 

Chakras 312 

Cham Kalessi 27 

Liman 101,102 

Chamli coal mines 315 

Chamlija 109 

Hills 63, 98 

Chan Kair 38 

Chanak 23, 30, 37, 45, 47 

Kelassi 25, 29, 30, 44, 46 

Kelassi Light 30 

pilots 8 

point 31 

Chanta 60 

Tepe 60 

Chardak 45 

Bank 39 

Burnu Lighthouse i 40 

Lagoon 39, 40 

Lighthouse - 41 

Ova 39 

Spit 40 

Charts *_ 1 

largest scale 3 

small scale 3 

Chatal 89 

Burnu 89,90 

coast 90 

Dagh 98,136 

de St. George 161 

Chatalja 60 

Valley 62 

Chatuir Dagh 226,227 

Mountain J 209 

Chauda, Cape 229,230,231 

range marks 232 

Chaudinski Light 231 

Chekmejeh Floria Station 63 

Chelengos 136 

Deresi 136 

Chemose Rocks 145 

Chengiler village 90 

Cheraghan 113 

Cherepakha 256 

Island ^_ 257 

Chernamorskaya Kolod village 201 

Chernavoda 154 

Ghernaya River 213 

Chemo Protok 247 

Chernoe More 15 



330 



nnDEZ. 



Paga. 
Chernyshef 240 

Chersonese of Thrace 21 

Chesme village 115 

Cheshmedjlk 132 

Point 136 

Chesmeh 306 

Chiavetta 230 

Chibukli Bay 121 

Chicken Point 227 

Chifut Burnu 61 

Chimbur 249, 256 

— ^ Spit 251, 252 

Chingani . 142 

Bay 140, 142, 143 

Reef 150 

Chiva Burnu 307 

Point Light 307 

Choban Kale 227 

Chokrak 270 

Cholok River 293 

Chongelek Point 234 

Chorokh River 296,298 

Chuban Kaya 222 

Chugovkopas Point 282 

Chukur Kioi Deresi 90 

ranges 1 : 90 

Churubash 235 

Lighthouse 242, 243 

Churyum 205 

Chushka Spit 242,243 

buoys 243 

Cimmerian Bosporus 236 

Circassia 274 

Clazomenae 47 

Coast piloting 11 

Cockatrice Shoal 147 

Cockerill Shoal 251 

Codja Flamur Hill 41,65 

Codjadere village 28 

Commercial Harbor 230 

Compass roses 4 

Constantine 111, 118 

Constantinople 37, 

62, 109, 110, 111, 113, 118, 120 

anchorage 109 

approach 109 

buoys 110 

lifeboat 133 

Light 109 

port 108 

wharves 109 

Contantza Cape 155 

coal '. 155 



Pag«. 

Contantssa communication 154 

general information 153,154 

Light 153 

port - 153 

pratique 155 

- -radio 154 

supplies 154 

Cossack Point 210 

Crescent Shoal 145 

Crimea 205, 222, 223, 227, 228 

coast ^ 223 

northwest coast 105 

Crimean Peninsula 205 

Cynossema 26 

Cyzicus 70 

D. 

Daghutli Peak 144 

Dahovsky Fort 284 

Danube River 155 

general information 155, 

156, 157 

pilots 18 

Dardan Bay ' 31 

Dardanelles 15, 21 

climate 15 

communications 15 

currents 16 

fogs 17 

railways 18 

steamship 19 

telegraph 20 

water level 17 

winds 16 

Dardanus 25 

Darli Dere 89 

Dead Quarter 64 

Defterdar 115 

Burnu 114 

Point 104, 114, 115 

Deghirmen Valley 302 

Deirmen Burnu 62 

Deirmenjik 67 

Deleki Bair 81 

Delterdar Point 107 . 

Dembrovsk Point 178 

Demetris Point 24 

Demir-kapi Bight 304 

Khan 304 

Demirdzhi, Mount ■-.- 2Zl 

Derebidi 41 

Derevina village 267 

Deridja Burnu 94 



i 



UTUBZ* 



331 



Page. 

Derinji Burnii . 93 

coast 93 

Derkos Deresi— ' 135,136 

Lake 135 

village 135 

Deserters, The 95 

directions 96 

Islet 95 

De Tott's battery 46 

Deve Boyunu Burnu 88, 89 

coast 89 

Devils Current 107,116 

Devino Lake 149 

Light 149 

Diana Shoal 40 

Didova Khata Lighthouse 195 

Dikill Rock 105, 118, 119 

Dil Burnu 90,91,94 

coast 91 

Shoal 91 

Iskalessi 91 

Point 94 



Dilderesr River 94 

Dioscurias 288 

Dirzye 276 

Diumi Bank 114 

Diva Rock 223 

Dneiper Bay 185 

general information. __ 185, 

186 

River 192 

— approach 191 

general information 192, 

193 

Dneister Estuary 174 

caution 175 

Dneister River 175 

depth signals 175 

Light 175 

range lights 175 

Dofinovka Lake 183 

lifeboat 183 

Dockyard Creek 214 

Dohan Asian Burnu 55 

Shoal 54 

Dolga Bank-- 248 

fogsignal 249 

lightbuoy 249 



Point 248, 249 

• Spit 248,249 

Dolghi Island 200 



Page. 

Dolma Bagche 64, 113 

Palace 98,99 

clearing mark 98 

Don Cossacks 255 

River 249, 252, 259 

entrance lightvessel 251 

buoy 251 

fogsignal 251 

Donauworth 155 

Donetz 253 

Doob Lighthouse 279 

Points 277 

Dovinovka Lake 183 

Drakontas Bay 73 

Drakos Tepe 97 

Dranovo Island 162 

Drono River 301 

Duimi Bank 115 

Light--^^ 115 

Dumus Dere 132, 134 

Sand Patches 134 

Dut Liman J_._ 81, 82 

Dvolnaia Bay 218 

Dvuyakorno Bay 229 

anchorage 229 

Dyurmen, Mounts i 231 

Point 231 

anchorage 231 

Dzhankot Valley 281 

Dzharuilgach Bay 202 

Island 202 

Point 202 

Spit 202 

Dzhankot 281 

Dzhubg anchorage 282 

Light 282 

E. 

East Bank 84 

Bay 84 

anchorage 84 

Channel 279 

Point 177 

Eastern Rumella 139 

Egorlitz Gulf 200 

anchorage 200 

Egurcha Mouth 260 

Eisk 250 

Liman 249 

Ekaterininski Quay 214 

Ekaterinodar 250 



332 



IKDEX« 



Page. 
Bkinik 77 

water 77 

Elchan Kaya Rocks 231 

Eleusa Point 302 

Elia Tepe 56, 57 

Elias Mount 74 

Elmas Tabia Burnu 319 

anchorage 319 

lifeboat 319 

rocket station 319 

Point 319.320 



Emineh Cape 140-145, 146 

Mount 146, 147 

Engelhartszell 156 

Englisliman Bank 123 

Light 123 

Banks 104-lOG, 117-122, 123 



Enns 156 

Epivates .. 61 

Erdek 1 70-71 

Eregli 93, 111 

Erekli Bay 59 

Hill 60 

Light 60 

Peninsula 51, 59 

Ereklia, Cape__ 300 

Eriklik Palace 225 

Erivan , 297 

Ermeni Kioi 81 

Erzerum 300 

Eskel Liman 85 

coast 85 

Eski Dagh 228 

-^ — Fanar • 1 53 

Burnu 38 

Hissar 94 

Fanaraki Burnu 133 

Hisarlik 22, 44 

Point 22 



Tarabozun 299 

Eupatoria 208 

general information 208,209 

Eupatoria Point 208 

fog signal 208 

Light 208 

European shore 107, 110 

European shore of the Bosporus 108 

Euxinograd Bay 150 

Evlar Burnu Tabia 149 

Evlidge Burnu Light 315 

Examile village 56 

Eyub 112 



p. Page. 

Palrxi'ay Patch 75,76 

Falko Point . 301 

False Bay J 35 

Entrance 132,135 

-:?— Kefken 316 

Fanar __. 239 

Adasl 79,80 

Islet 80 

Bagche 97, 98 

Bank C8, 10i» 

Burnu 98 

Light 98 

Fanar, Cape 263 

Point 102, 110 

Fanaraki 119 

Fanous Hill 40, 41, 65 

Lighthouse 40 

Fathom curves, caution 3 

Fatsa Bay 306 

Light 306 

Fatsa Reef 306 

Favlimi Bay 73 

Fedotova Spit 266 

Feolent Cape 1 219,222 

Fldji, Cape 300 

Fido Nisi Island 173 

Light 174 

Fil Burnu 124 

Filar Dagh 87 

Fine Hellenic 66 

Fischameat-Thabea Rapids 156 

Fistikli Valley 88 

Fixing position 12 

Fog signals __• 8 

Fontana, Cape 177 

fog signals 177 

Light 177 

Shoals 177 

Fbros Church 223 

Foul ground 148 

Fulo Mountain 312 

Fulton Rock 240 

buoys 241 

clearing mark 241 

Fundukli 113 

Furun Islets 304 

G. 

Gagri 285 

communication 286 

Light 286 

Pier 286 



INDEX. 



333 



Page. 

Gagripsh River 286 

Galara Burnu 318 

landmark 318 

Galata 35, 100, 109, 111, 112, 113 

Burnu j 36-45 

Light 148 

Cape 147,148 

Hill 113 

Lighthouse _. 148 

Mount 150 

Point ^— 29, 46 

Quays 110 

Galatz 170 

coal 170 

communication 170 

docks 170 

mooring 170 

supplies 170 

Galimi village 78 

Gallipoli 49, 50, 78 

Bay 36, 37745 

Light 37,54 

Lighthouse 38,78 

Liman 36 

Peninsula 65 

— - Point - 36,37,46,55 

Strait 39, 45, 51 

town :_ 37 

Ganos Daghlar 58 

G.aspra village 223 

Oavgos 301 

Gemlik 87, 88 

coast 88 

Bay 87 

anchorage 88 

Genoese 230,236 

Fortress 230 

wharf 236 

Georgof Cape 148 

Georgia 297 

Geulzuk Burnu 91, 92 

coast 92 

Ghelenjik Bay 280 

Light 281 

Ghelmez 24 

4 

Ghenichesk 267 

—^-Roadstead 268 

Strait 268, 269 

Gherzeh 309 

Ghiok Su 121 

Ghizelji Hissar 313 

Giants Mountain 123 

Giok Kioi 35 



Page. 
Giuk Dagh 92 

Giurgevo 171 

Glafirovka 250 

Point 249, 251 

Glaromitl Point 72,75,76 

Goenen Chai 69 

sand bank 69 

Golden Horn 108-111-112,118-120 

GoUandiya Cove 215 

Golovin 284 

Gonia Bay 72 

Good-for-nothing Islet 319 

Grafskl Quay 214 

Granlcus 68 

Great Otorek Point 174 

Grecheskaya Bank 252 

Grecian Archipelago 21 

Temple 236 

Greco, Cape 21-45 

Greiner Schwall Rapid 156 

Gudant Lighthouse 288 

Guebze ^ 92 

Gulf of Ismld Light 91-95 

Guldere 118 

Gunieh 298" 

Gurda 293 

Guz Couli 120 

H. 

Haidar Pasha 93,99,111 

buoys 99 

Harbor 99 

Lights 99 

Halki 100, 102 

Channel 102 

Island 101 

Halko . 72, 73 

Halva Range Island 56 

Halva Tepe Range 56 

Halys Point 309 

Light 309 

Haman Dere 90 

Hamidieh Fort 30 

Hannibal 94 

Harakhi Point 72 

Hecula, Tumulus of 26 

Helles 45 

Cape 21,45 

Heraclea 60 

coal mines 314 

Heraclitza Burnu 54, 57 

Point 53 

Heraklea 315 



i 



834 



IBDBX. 



Paffe. 

Hereke Tash Rock 98 

Hersek 91 

- Tash 98 

Herekhe 94 

Bay 94 

Highflyer Rock 240 

Buoy 240 

Hissar Kaiasi 132,133,134 

Hissars 107 

Hora Light 54, 57 

Point 54 

Hudro Plaka 77 

Ledge 77 

Hukhlia ^ 72, 74 

Hum Burnu 89 

Hydrographic Bulletins 6 

I. 
Ibrahim 119 

Ida, Mount 21 

Idokopas, Cape 281 

leros, Cape 303 

Ilanjik 148 

Ilinskoe village 194 

Iller River 155 

Ilmen, Cape 223 

Imperial Port 179 

Imrali Island 84 

Ina River 155 

Inada Road 137,146 

Indek, Mount 227 

Indji Liman 29, 45 

Ineboli 311 

communication 311 

Ingul River 194,290 

Injar Bay 122 

Injeh Burnu 56 

Cape 310 

Injir Bay 107,121 

Liman 85 

Point 309 

Inkerman Lights 214 

Iron Gates Rapids 157 

Irva-^ 319 

Iris Point 307 

Isakcha , 169 

pier 1- 169 

Iskuria Point -289 

Ismail 172 

Ismid 49,92,93, 111 

anchorage 93 

communication 93 

Gulf 89,90,92,94,97 

railway — 99 



Pa8«. 

Isnik Lake 87 

Ispir ^1 300 

Istambul 111 

Istavros 120 

Istenieh Bay.— •- 116 

Italians Porto Genorese 229 

Ivan, Lake 260 

lalaz Pass 157 

J. 

Jelegra Cape 150,151 

Jibriani Bay 173 

beacons 173 

Joannes, Port 140 

Joski village 147 

Julia, Cape— ^ i 271 

Justinian 118 

K. 

Kaba Burnu 61 

Kabakli 90 

Kabardinski Fort 277, 279 

Kacha anchorage 210 

Kadi Kiori Haidar Pasha 99 

Kadosh Cape 283 

Kaifa 230 

Bay 229, 230, 269 

Kagalnik 252, 259 

Kaighat Basin 112 

Kaimakam 57, 61, 68, 71, 91, 94 

Kair Burnu 33 

Kaish Dagh 97, 109 

Kalanchak Island Spit 204 

Kalaphotia Rock 133 

Kalatch 261 

Kale Burnu 69 

Light — 68 

Kalem Burnu 88 

Kaliakra Cape 150,151,152 

Kalierachi 62 

Kalikratia 62 

Kalamita Bay 208, 209 

Kalin Burnu 81 

Kalion Point 307,308,309 

Kalmek Point 301 

anchorage 302 

Mole 302 

Kalmius, River 253 

Kaloglei village 174 

Kalolimno 84 

Island 50, 82 

Kalolimionos Point 77,78 

Kamaris___ 65, 66 

Liman 66 



IITDEX. 



335 



Page. 

Kamanin Point—: 207 

Kamchy River 147, 148 

Kamennoi Cape 242, 243, 246 

Kamiesh Bay 218 

Kamir , 65 

Chai 65 

communication 66 

Ovasi ^- 66 

River 65 

Valley 66 

water 66 

Kamishevataya Church 248 

'- Point 247, 248 

Kamisler 285 

Kamuish 235 

Burnu 234 

Bay 235 

range lights 235 

range lights 234 

Lighthouse 242, 243, 244 

Kandilli ^ 98, 104, 121 

Bank i 121 

coal mines 315 

Point 120 

Light 121 

Kandra Mount 316 

Kangarli 35 

Kapkane 222 

Kapsala Burnu 73, 80 

coast 73 

Kapskhor Roadstead 227 

Kapu Dagh 49,69 

Kara Agatch 312 

Cape 139 

Cove 139 

Bogha 68 

Burnu 67, 68, 132, 

134, 135, i36 172, 317, 318, 319 

Cape 205 

Light 135 

village 135 

Cape 49 

Dagh 81, 82, 228 

Kioi Tepe 60 

Point 303 

Su 62, 82, 83 

Karabuga 68, 69 

Bay 67, 68 

anchorage 68 

Village 68 

Karadzha Bay 207 

life-saving station 207 

— Light 207 



I Page. 

Karaiokus Hills 38 

Rang^ 56 

Karajali 88 

Karakova Burnu 29 

Light -^ 29 

Point 45 

River 29, 36 

Karamrun Point 205 

Karamusal 91 

Karangat village.J 231 

Karantinni Mole— 179 

Karavy Rocks 231 

Karejik Point 306 

Karell River 293 

Karga Burnu ^^ 59 

Karibjeh Point 119 

Karidies 146 

Karkinit Bay 203 

Karolina village 174 

Kartal 97 

Kartkazak 205 

Kasau Pass 157 

Kastel, Mount 226 

Kastro Deresi 136 

KatirU 88 

Katsevelo Scala Bay 142 

Kava Burnu 94 

coast . 94 

Kavah Burnu 99 

Kavak 47 

Bay 140 

Iskalessi 90, 91 

anchorage ^_ 91 

Point 119, 123, 124 

light 124 

Kavakli Liman 87 

Kavanlik Liman 24,43 

Kavama 151 

Bay 150 

Kavo Kroti 146 

Kavos Svitera 141 

Kaza-kildi Valley 311 

Kazach Bay 218 

Kazantip 270 

Bay 270 

Point 270 

Kaze village 185 

Kazen Channel 201 

Kechill Bay 124 

Kechli Kioi 117 

Kefken Point 315 

Shoal 316 

Kelasur River 289 



336 



INDEX. 



Kelasur Valley 28U 

Kelhelm 155 

Kernel 34 

Kemer Point 299 

Keoschlh village ^^ 247 

Keoseh Kalessl 26, 31 

Kephez Bay 25 

Light 1 26 

Point - 24, 43 

Kephex Point I. 25 

Kerasia Deresi 57 

Kerasunda 304 

Light 304 

Promontory 305 

Kefempeh, Cape 311,312 

coast 311 

Keresll Iskalessl 65 

Kerneh 316 

Kerpeh Bay 316 

Kertch 233, 259, 260 

Bay 236 

coal 237 

communication 237 

Fort T6b 

harbor works 236 

Light Buoy 237 

Lighthouse 238 

pilots 237 

Road _ J 238, 244 

Strait : 224,231, 

232, 233, 236, 239, 240, 241, 
242, 243, 262, 270, 271, 295 

caution 236 

depths 233 

Yenikale 238,242 

Channel 239, 243 

Keshish Dagh 86, 87 

Kezil Kechili 34 

Kezil jadere 56 

Khair Sis 319 

Islet - 319 

landmarks 319 

Khairsiz Ada 78 

Khablova Point 195 

Khalka Vala Beach 303 

Khanet Kalessi Islet 306 

Khanlijeh 104, 107, 121 

Point 104, 116 

Light . 121 

Kharkov 258 

Khelia Liman 1 27,28 

Bay 28 

Tepe 27,28 



Page. 

Kherseti 236 

Kherson 193 

Bay 183, 185, 186, 188 

communication 193 

ice— L 193 

trade 193 

Khersonese Bay 218 

Cape 219 

buoys 219 

directions 219 

fog signal 219 

signal station ^ 219 

storm signals * 219 

Khoba Point 227 

Khoban Kalessi 227 

Khopi 292 

River 290 

Khopitsai 281 

Khoppa 299 

Khopsi Point 301 

Khorli Port 204 

general information. 204,205 

Khosta 285 

Khroni Cape 239,271 

Khronia Mount 239, 271 

Khukhup 285 

Kiaghat Khane 109 

Kiamleh 27 

Kidros 312 

Kieulu Dagh 85- 

Kiik Atlama Point ^ 228 

Kikeneiz, Cape 223 

coast 223 

landmark 223 

Kileri Burnu 94 

Coast 94 

Kiles Deresi 92,03 

Bank 93 

Kilia 172, 317, 318 

- — Bahr 26 

Bay 317 

Point 132, 317 

Light 317 

Kilid Bahr 23. 31 

Kilidj Burnu 135 

Kilimoli Point 313 

Kilios 131, 133 

Bay - 132 

Point 133, 134 

Kilisi. Point 224 

Kiuburn Bay 200 

anchorage ■ 200 

Point 186 



INDEX. 



337 



Page. 

Klnbtirn Point Beacon 186 

Kinburn Spit__J 183,187 

buoys 187 

Kinogly Point 311 

Kintrisli L 293 

Kiobashi Point 104, 107, 116 

Kior Tam Bank 304 

Kirich 106 

Point — 106, 117, 123 

Klrilovka 267 

Point 1 266,267 

Kiritch Burnu Light.__ 117 

Kiri)eh ^ 316 

Bay 316 

landmark 317 

lifeboat 317 

Kirpen Island 316 

aspect of coast 316 

Lighthouse 316 

Shoal 316 

Islet ,_ 316 

— Point 315, 316 

anchorage 316 

Light 316 

Kise 299 

Kishla Cape . ^ 240, 273 

Reef 240 

outlying dangers 240 

Kisliakovka Light 196 

Kisi Agsi Bay 315 

Kiten Point 270 

Kiuprijl Deresi 59 

Kiz Kalessi, coast 299 

Kizil Irmak 309 

Kizilbash 225 

Kizim Point 191 

Klapsi Mount 72 

Klazti Bay 79, 80 

Koba Point 227 

Kodja Burnu 53 

Kodjuk Burnu 33,34,44 

Kodor Point- 289 

caution 289 

coast 289 

Koktabel, Bay 228 

Konia 93, 111 

Konstantin Cape 211 

buoys ,_ 211 

range mark 211 

— ^Fort 196 

Light 196 

Shoal 211 

Point 285 



Page. 

Konstantine Light 196 

Koragelnaia Creek 215 

Korak Point 124 

Korakas Cape 140 

Korokhia Point . 71 

Kosenko farm ^— 239 

telegraph cables 239 

Kpslov 208 

Koslu Bay:. 314 

anchorage 314 

Valley, coal ^ 314 

Kotsan Point 147 

Kovata Point 301 

Road - 301 

Kozirka village 195 

Krimea Peninsula 125 

Krivaya Banks__— — 249 

Spit 195, 251, 255 

Beacon ^ 262 

Krugoi Bank 239,243 

buoys 239, 243 

Kuban 250 

Lake 240,273 

River 246, 247 

Kuchuk Chekmejeh 63 

Bay 62, 63 

Ghiok Su 104 

Iskalessi ^ 94 

Lambat village 226 

Kug Dere_ 62 

Kuildi Reef 311 

Kuiln Murun 204 

Kuiz Point 231 

Kukumar Cape 74 

Kular 92 

Kule Tepesi 94 

water 94 

Kum Bagha 58 

Kale 21, 43, 45, 46 

Light 24 

— Point : 44 

anchorages 81 

Liman 81 

Kumalir River 274,275 

Kumjugaz Road 309 

Kumli Iskalessi_-_.i 88 

Valley ^ 89 

Kunduz 134 

Kunlezi. River 280 

Kurbagha Deresi 98 

Kurehan Liman Lake 246 

Kureli Point 303 

Kuri Cape 137, 138 



388 



IKDEX. 



Page. 

Kurlchl Rozhok 259 

Kurimaya Balka 218 

Kurshunlu 82, 87 

Kuru Bank 114, 115 

Chesmeh 114, 115 

Kioi ^ 

Uzen Roadstead 227 

Kusgunyuk 120 

Kush Ovasi 39 

Kusha Dagh 123 

Kuslu Dere , 36 

Kustenjeh Town 154 

coal 155 

communication 154 

pratique 155 

radio 154 

supplies 154 

Kutali 74, 76, 77, 78 

Channel - 77 

Island 77,80 

Road 74, 76, 77, 78 

Light 77 

Kuyus Adasi 74,75,76 

Kuz Kioi 25 

Kuzghunjuk Bair 85 

Kyani Island 119 

Kyrios 141 

Kyz Aul Bank 232 

Buoy 232 

Light 232 

signal station 232 

storm signals 232 

Point 231,233,234 

Lakanathes Rock 145 

Lampsaki 38, 47 

Liman 38,45 

Point 39 

Lang Wand 155 

Langeron Point 177 

Laspi Bay___ 222 

Lauriacani 156 

Laza Rock 79,80 

Lazareff 284 

Lazarett 235 

Leander Tower 64, 99, 100, 110, 120 

Lena Point 85 

Reef 85 

Leskloi Tepesi Range 38 

Light Lists 6 

Lights 5 

Llkos Rock - 72 



Liman Bumu. 
Llnz 



Pag«. 

- 95 

- 156 



Little Fontana 177 

Livadia Palace 225 

Lloyd's signal station 237 

Local magnetic disturbance 4 

Long 248 

Lonja 305 

Lower Danube 158 

ports 169 

River 158 

general informa- 
tion 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163 

Lower Volosh Light 196 

Viktorovka Light 190 

Ludwig Canal 155 

Lukul Cape 208,210 

Beacon 210 

Rock 210 

Luparev Light 196 

village 196 

Lustdorf village 167 

Lyeskov Spit 195 

Lykus 1 109 

Lysimachus 55 

M. 

Madschiar Bank 123 

Kalessi 123 



Maiden's Tower 120 

Main River 155 

Maitos 26, 27, 44 

Tepe 27,33 

Majar Bay 123 

Makri Kioi 63 

Makrialos 299 

Mai Tepe 28,55,97 

anchorage 97 

bank 97 

Burnu 50,97 

— ■ Burnu coast- 97 

Dere Burnu___ 69 

Point 181 

Malatra Cape 136 

Mamai Kale, Fort 284 

Mamalia, Islet of 75 

Mamun ^ — 81 

Mandre 132, 136 

Mangalia 152 

Light , 153 

Maniyas 84 

Geul 82 

anchorage 82 



IKDEX. 



339 



Page. 

Manlyas Lake 71, 81, 82, 83, 84 

^ anchorage 82 

Marah Burnu 317 

rocket station 317 

Margaritovka 251 

lifeboat 1 251 

Mariola 318 

Mariupol 252, 253 

Basin 262 

communication 253 

Gulf 249 

Light 253 

Port 254 

Markitan Spit 242 

Marmara 78, 80 

Channel 79 

channel dangers 79 

- — Island 15, 51, 54, 78, 79, 111 

Island Light 80 

Point 76 

Sea 15,21, 

30, 36, 42, 49, 50, 51, 97, 109, 111 

Tower 64,109 

village 79 

Marseille 308 

Mary Magdalene Bank 273 

Rock 273 

Mastusium Promontory 21 

Mauda Tash Burnu 61,62 

Mavro 96 

Mayake 175 

Mean sea level 2 

Mecca 120 

Mediterranean __: 111 

Medjidieh Battery 31 

Megabi, Mount 225 

Megalo Nisi 141 

Island 141 

Meganom, Cape 223, 226, 228 

Megarislik Hills 55 

Melen Su 316 

Melet 305 

Mendere Bank 24, 44 

River 24 

Mercator chart 3 

Merinovoe Mouth 261 ' 

Mermer Adasi 78 

Mermerjik Bay 79, 80 

Messageries Maritime & Paquet 

Companies 280 

Messemvria 145, 146 

Mexa 80 

Meykhane Burnu 88 



Page. 

Mezar 117 

Burnu 95, 117, 118 

anchorage 95 

Banks 95 

Point 117 

Mezib 280, 281 

Mezumta River 285 

Michailoffskoe, Fort 282 

Middle Bank . 46 

ground 75,278 

Harbor 179 

Midia Cape 152, 155 

Midiah 137 

Midnight Branch 172 

depth signals 173 

range lights - 172 

■- signal stations 173 

Miliya Uzen Roadstead 227 

Milos Point 84 

Mingrelia 293 

Miskhak Point 276 

Miskhor 223, 224 

Estate 223 

Mitridate Mount 236,237,244 

— storm signals 237 

Mius River 255 

MoalitchJ 82, 83, 84, 85 

anchorage 83 

Bay '- 83 

River 84 

Moda Bay 98 

Burnu 73, 99, 100 

coast 99 

Liman 98 

Modoa Bay 99 

Mola 80 

Islands 80 

Molas - 80 

anchorage 80 

Molos 134 

-Valley 134 

Molosh Lake 266 

Monopetra Athia Kavo 142 

Point 142 

Monastir-Aghzy 47 

Morto Bay 22,44 

Moscow 261 

Moussa Bank 33 

Moussa Kioi Chai 33 

River 33 

Mudania 49, 86, 87, 88 

coast 87 

communication 86 



340 



INDEX. 



Pag«. 

Mudania Gulf 50, 51, 87 

Mudir _1.^ 74 

Muhanla village 81 

Mujue Point 122, 123 

Mungafa 95 

Murad Bair 70,71 

Murls Dagh Peak 145 

geul 143 

Musacha 69 

Mussulman 37 

Mustakuba Point 285 

Mutesserif 92 

Mutha Point 71, 72 

Myriophyto 57 

— — Point — 54 

Mysian Olympus 85, 87 

N. 
Nagara Bay 32, 33 

Buoy 46 

Kalessi 32 

Lighthouse 32 

Liman 48 

Point 31, 32, 44 

Naidena Spit 249, 250 

Nakhitchevan 261 

Namazieh . 46 

Point 26,44 

Namazieth Battery 23 

Natukhadi 280 

Navaginskoe, Fort 284 

Nebiene Mountains 308 

Nechepsuko Bay 282 

Nehmetskaya Valley : 183 

Neustadt 155 

New Basin : 258 

Harbor 179 

Yeisk 250 

Niandro 101 

Nicholas Point 212 

Lightbuoy 212 

Niger Rt)ck 234 

Buoy , 234 

Nikitin Point 224, 225 

Nikolaev 197 

Fort 187 

anchorage 187 

prohibited anchorage 187 

range lights 188 

general information 197, 

198, 199, 200 

Nikolaevka 250 

Nikolai, Fort 293 

Nikolo, Cape --. 142 



Paee. 

Nine-fathom Patches !_-_ 85 

Niopoli L 311 

Nisi Island 80 

North Center Island 76 

Pass 75 

directions 75 

Northwest Aksenof 240 

Notes on charts 4 

Notices to Mariners 6 

Novo Afonski Monastry 287 

Michailoffskaya 283 

Novorossisk 237, 277, 279 

Bay 277, 279 

Harbor 278,279 

Novotroitskoe 282 

Nugaigus, Mount 284 

O. 

Obitochna Banks 266 

Spit__I . 265, 266 

Ochakov Channel 196 

dredged channel 189 

— • beacons 189 

buoys 189 

depth signals 1899 

lightbuoys 189 

lights 189 



Point 186 

depth signals 186 

lifeboats 186 

pilot stations 186 

pratique 186 

quarantine pier 186 

signal station 186 

storm signals 186 

to Adzhigiol Point 187 

Spit 252 

Ochemchiri anchorage 290 

— Light— 290 

Odessa 180, 238, 275, 297, 301 

general information 180, 181 

Bank 190 

Bay 177 

general information. 178, 179 

Light 178 

Sand Bank 183 

buoys ' 183 



caution 184 

Lightbuoy_I 184 

to Bosporus 131 

Dneipr Bay, directions— 190 

Kherson Bay, directions. 190 

Oil, use of 13 



ISDEX. 



341 



Page. 

Oirat village 208 

Ok Meidan 38 

Okjolar 34 

Old Genoese Castle 118 

Seraglio 112, 113 

Point 64,109,110,112 

Yeisk ^ 249 

Olen liills 292 

Mount 290 

Olympus 87 

Oohan Asian . 53 

Opasnaya 244 

Beach 239 

caution 244 

Opuk, Mount 231 

anchorage 231 

Oreanda Palace 225 

Orchard Point 143 

Ordu 305 

communication • 305 

Orman 136 

Orsova 157 

Orta Kioi 113,114 

Point 104, 113, 114 

Oschteu, Mount 285 

Othman 112 

Otuz : 228 

Ovajik 92 

Ovidio Lake 174 

Ovidiopol village 174 

Oxia 102 

Ozharsk Light 19i3 

Ozerzik 276 

Roadstead 276 

P. 

Pakhios Point 310 

Palamida Reef 304 

Palatia 80 

Bay 80 

Paiios Bay 72 

Panaghia 273 

Cape 240, 241, 244, 273 

Rocks 241 

Panagia 76 

Panai Point Lighthouse 279 

Panar Tepe 71,72 

Panderma 81, 82 

anchorage ^— 81 

Bay 81 

coast 82 

Pandjar Point 77 



P8g«. 

Panidos 58 

Panticapaeum 236 

Papas Point 119 

Paphia Mount 138 

Parium 66 

Partenit village 226 

Parutino village 194 

Pasha Iskalessi 89 

Liman 68,73,74,75,76,78,79 

.- — Harbor 74, 75 

Island 72 

Islands 76 

Passau : 155 

Paul, Cape 233,235 

Point 213 

Paulo Bay 96 

Burnu 96 

Liman 96 

P^ivlocski Channel 241 

Pavolsks Cape 241 

Pavlovski Cape 233,235,244 

fog signal 235 

Channel 235, 243 

Lighthouse 235, 240, 243. 244 

Pekli Cape 246 

Penal Bank__ 278 

Point ^__ 277 

Light 279 

Lighthouse 278 

Pendlk 96, 97 

communication 96 

Pendik Road 96 

anchorage 96 

Pera ^-_ 111, 113, 118 

Peramo 81 

Bay 70,73,80,81 

Pereboini 260 

Island 261 

Perekop Gulf 17, 203 

anchorage 202 

Beacon .. 202 

buoys ^1 202 

fog signal 202 

Light 202 

water level 203 

Pershembl 305 

Bay 305 

Peschanl 249, 251 

Bank 251 

5 Bay 218 

Islands 250 

Lightvessel 255.262 



342 



INDBX. 



Page. 

Peter the Great Rocks 210 

Peterwardlen 157 

Petroleum Harbor 179,294 

Ice-breaker 180 

Lights - 180 

Mole 294 

pilots 180 

tugs 180 

Pier 198 

Petrovskl Basin : 257 

Petrushina Bank 249, 256, 262 

Phanagoria Fort 242 

Phasis 292 

Phllios Point 313 

Pilay Tepesi 287 

Pilot charts 6 

Piloting 9, 10 

Pilots 6 

Pirios Point 299 

Pita 102 

Island 101 

Pitsunda Point 286 

Light 286 

Road 286 

anchorage 286 

Plaka, Cape 226 

anchorage 226 

Planes of reference 1 

Platana 303 

Plati 102 

Platonovski Mole 179 

Poiras Point 124 

Polunochnoe Branch 172 

— r— depth signals 173 

range lights 172 

signal stations 173 

Polyconic chart 4 

Pontus 310 

Portici 160 

Poros Bay 143 

Potapovski Mole 179 

Poti 237, 292, 301 

communication 292 

Harbor 291 

Hill 290 

Lighthouse 293 

Road 292 

Pototska 224 

Pratique port 179 

Pribachi Cape i40 

Prince Woronzoff 250 

Princes Islands 50,97,98,102,109 

current 102 

» 



Page. 

Princess Islands lOO 

Prinkipo 49, 100, 101, 102 

Bank . 101 

Channel 97 

Prinkipos Islands 49 

Prognoisk Village 187 

Protesilas 21 

Proti 100, 102 

Island 97 

Protok 247 

Pruth River 170 

Prypot River 192 

Psakhe River 284 

Psereta 287 

Psezuape Road 284 

Pshad Anchorage 282 

PsiU DagL 1 78 

Publications 1 

Puga Islet ^ 305 

Pugachik Bight 1 305 

Putrid Sea . 268, 269 

Pyrgos 143 

Gulf 140 

Q. 

Quarantine Point 237, 238 

R. 

Radio compass stations 9 

Ratisbon 155 

Redoute Kalessi 290 

Reedy 234 

Regensburg 155 

Reidovi Molehead Lighthouse 178 

Reni . 169 

directions 170 

Rhavtha Burnu 145 

coast 145 

Rock 145 

Rhoda 51, 71, 72 

Channel 72, 74 

Rhodius River ^ 

Rion River 290 

Riva 318, 319 

■' Coast 319 

Rizeh Bay 300 

anchorage 300 

Light 300 

Rizo 300 

Rocky P.atch 78 

Ridge 99 

Rodosto 58, 62, 78 

Bay 53 

Road ^- 58 



niDEX. 



343 



Page. 

Roksolyani village 174 

Romaic 84 

Rome 111 

Rostov 249, 258, 260, 261 

on-Don 259 

— communication 261 

Roun Rock 76, 77 

Bubanova Point 242 

Rue Djami 112 

Madresse 112 

hospitals — 112 

Rumelia 138 

Rumili__ ^ 107, 133 

Cape 119, 131, 132 

Hissar 104, 115, 121 

Light 116 

Point 116 

Rumili Kavak 118, 119, 124 

Light - 120 

fog signal-. 104,120 

Lighthouse 131, 133 

Lightvessel 133 

Russian Steam Navigation CJo- 237, 279 

Rustchuk 149 

Rvach Entrance 1 192 

Lightvessel 191 

S. 

Sailing directions ,__ 1 6 

Sakarieh, River ^___ 316 

Saltik Liman Burnu 34-41-44 

Samanli Dere 89-90 

Sambek River 259 

Sampson Rock 276 

Samsun 308 

Bay ^- 308 

communication 308 

Samtredi 292 

San Stefano '63 

Sandal Ovasi 35 

Point 137 

Sandy Islets 251 

Sangarius 92 

Sar Kioi 56 

Sargana Point 303 

Sargonius 316 

Sari Siglar Bay 25, 26, 29, 30, 44, 46 

Yar 118 

Saribula Point . 204 

Sarich Point 222 

Landmark 223 

Light 222 

Sarikalsk Point 194 



\ 

Page. 

Sarleati Cape 142 

Save River 156 

Sazalnik Basin 249 

Church 251 

Pit L 251 

lifeboat 251 

village 251 



Sazkaveh Burnu 83 

Scheskari Rock 278 

Sebanjeh Lake 92 

Seddul Bahr 2.1-22-43-45-46-47 

Lighthouse 22 

Seidol Road 299 

Selimyyeh Barracks- 55-63-99-100-120 

Selvi Burnu 104-108, 122, 123 

Rock 95 

Semli Bakol 252 

Semlin 156 

Seraglio Point J 54, 55, 101 

Serai 112 

Serpent Island 173 

Light 174 

Serveh Burnu 136, 137 

Sestos Point 28, 44-46 

Sevastopol 221, 222, 225, 230 

Harbor 211 

general information 211, 

212, 213, 214, 215, 216 

Town 216 

general information- 216, 217 

Seven Firs - 38 

Towers 64,110 

Castle 109, 111 

Shabeh Cape 151, 152 

Shah Melik Liman 67 

Shahim-Kalessi 22 

Shapsukho 283 

Bay 282 

Shepherd's stone 222 

Shilli 317 



Sli 



85 



Sikli Vorthonas - 97 

Silivri 61 

Bay— — 61 

Simels village 223 

Simeon Channel 71 

Simfis village 223 

Singhol Point : 155 

Sinope 309, 310 

Light 310 

Sinub 310 

Cape ^ - 309 

communication 310 



844 



IKDEZ. 



Page. 

Sinub Light 310 

Sinyavka J- 259 

Sivash - -- 269 

Siversov Lights . 196 

Slvrijl 90 

Sizepoli 140 

Bay 141 

Skadovsk 203 

anchorage 203 

Basin 203 

Buoy 203 

communication 203 

range lights 203 

Skutari 55, 93, 99, 111, 113, 120 

Barracks ^- 64 

Light 120 

Point 50 

Sladkil Rivulet 247 

Socha L 285 

Buitkh Point 284, 285 

Light 284 

Psta 284 

River 284 

Sofia 149 

Soldaya 227 

Solenaya River 266 

Sotera Roadstead 227 

Soundings 12 

South Bay 212 

Center Island-" 1 75 

Road 238, 242 

Southeast Aksenof 240 

Sowak - 319 

Sowakdere 320 

Spitfire Rock 145,232 

St. Andrew's Cross 223 

Athanasius Valley 81 

Basili, Cape 305 

Constantine 138 

Demetri Cape 149, 150 

DukaFort 285 

Light 285 

r Elias Cape 229 

fogsignal 229 

Hill 229 

George's anchorage 220 

aspect 220 

Bay 220 

Cape 79,220 

landmarks 220 

Monastery 79, 220 

reef 150 



Page. 
St Nikolai 125 

Fort 289 

' Peter 141 

Mount 223 

Simeon Hill 71 

Triada 77 

Zakhariah Church 206 

Stag's Leap 228 

Stagshorn Point 267 

Stambul 64, 100, 111, 118 

Liman 112 

Standard Petroleum Co 279 

Stanislav Cape 191 

Stefano Cape 138 

Lighthouse 63 

Point 51, 53, 109, 110, 311 

anchorage 31^1 

Light 63 

Shoal 63 

Steuka Pass 157 

Strelka 269 

Streletska Bay 218 

Light 218 

Shoal 218 

Suan Dere 23 

Subeshik Bay 284 

Submarine bells 9 

Sudak 228 

Bay 227 

anchorages 227 

coast 228 

communications 228 

Light 228 

Point ^227, 228 

life-saving station 228 

Sudzhuk *276 

Point 277, 279 

Sukala Point 142 

Sukhaya Creek 215 

Sukhum _- 228 

Bay - 288 _ 

communication 288 

Kale 237 

Light 288 

Point 1- 287, 288 

Suksu Point 287 

Suliman 118 

Sulina , 163 

general information. 163,164,165 

Lights 166 

pilots-- - 18 

Town 163 



INDEX. 



345 



Page. 

Sultana Valldeh Palace 115 

Sultans Kiosk 123 

Valley 117, 122 

SumJa 299 

Sungul 314 

Bay 313 

Harbor 313 

regulations 313 

communication ^ 314 

Light 313 

supplies 314 

Surmena Bay 300 

Susurlu Ghai 82 

Suvoruskl 244 

caution 244 

Suvorov Light 188,190 

Sweet Rivulet 247 

waters of Asia 121 

water of Europe 109 

T. 

Taganrog _' 251, 258 

Bay 2o9 

caution 249 

channel 251 

communication 258 

Gulf 249, 259, 262 

Light 257 

Lighthouse 252 

port 257 

road 256 

Tahirova — 69 

Takil, Cape 232, 233, 234, 244 

, coast 234 

Taman 236, 242, 274 

Island 273 

Taman Lake 231,242 

buoys 242 

telegraph cable 236 

Tamuish River 289 

Tarabozun Bay 301 

Tarkan Point 271 

Tarkhan, Cape 207 

-^ Bank 207 

currents- 207 

fog signal 207 

signal station 207 

— storm signals 207 

winds - 207 

Tarsana 49 

Burnu 66 

Cape 65 

172982^—20 23 



Page. 

Tartars 222, 230 

Tash Dagh . 89 

Dyryk 229, 230 

Tashkana Point 306,307 

Light '- 307 

Tbill Tskhall River 294 

Tekeh -._ 21 

Tekfur Dagh 58 

Tekir Dagh 58 

Telli, Fort 123 

Point 104, 118 

Temir Oba 271 

Mount 244 

Temriuk 246 

anchorage 247 

Bank 246 

Bay 248 

buoy 246 

church 247 

Harbor light 247 

works 247 

Lake 246 

Light 247 

Tendra Bay 201 

anchorage 201 

buoys 201 

caution 202 

Peninsula 200, 201 

'■ beacons 201 

caution 201 

fog signal 201 

Light 201 

signal station 201 

Tenedos Channel 41 

Tenginskoe 282 

Tent Mountadn 227 

Tereboli 303 

communication ^ 304 

Light 304 

Termeh River 307 

Terrible Rock ^ 210 

Tersana Burnu 137 

Theiss River 157 

Theodosla — 224, 228, 229, 230, 231, 280 

Bay 269 

coal 230 

Gulf 229 

lifeboat . 230 

Light- 230 

Point 1 230 

quarantine 230 

supplies 230 



I 



846 



INDEX. 



Page. 
Therapa 117 

Therapia 106, 112, U7. 122 

Bay 116 

Three-fathom Rock 71 

Tichorezkaia Junction 280 

Tidal currents 7 

Tide Tables 8 

Tides 7 

Tiflis 202 

Tiligulsk Lake 184 

Timitela, Fort of 273 

Peninsula 273 

Tirnova 143, 149 

Tlluvieuse Point 280, 281 

Tolstoi 286 

- — Point 286, 287 

Tonka 267 

Topche Bay 90 

anchorage 90 

Iskalessi 90 

Topchu Burnu 70 

Topkhana 110, 113 

Arsenal 110, 114 

Tortoise Island 256 

Towshan Ada 70,71 

Point 33 

Tepe ,_ 96 

Townshanjik .. 94 

Trajans Wall 153 

Trebizond 301, 308 

Bay - 301 

— ^ — communications 301 

Light 302 

winds 302 

Tree Peak 45 

Trias Cape— 141, 142 

Trlklinos Rock 61 

Trilia 1 85 

Tripoli 30:^ 

Trutaeva Bank 383,240 

Tsarigrad Mouth 174 

, Beacon 175 

Buoys- 175 

lifeboat 175 

Tu anchorage 283 

Cove 283 

Tuak Roadstead 227 

Tuapse Bay 283 

communication 283 

Lights 283 

Port 284 



Pag«. 
Tulcha 169 

anchoring 169 

caution 169 

hospitals 169 

mooring ^_ 169 

River level 169 

Tutun Liman 93 

Tuz Burnu 95, 96, 102 

Tuzla 50, 238, 244 

bank 235, 241 

— ■ anchorage 242 

buoys 241 

fog signal 241 

Tuzla Bay 95 

anchorage 95 

Tugla Burnu 87 

Cape 152, 153, 240, 241,273 

: coast 153 

fog signal 153, 241 

shoal 153 

lightvessel 241, 243 

Mount ' ; 283 

Tuzla Pit [ 244 

point 283 

Spit 233,241 

beacon 241, 243 

light buoy 241 

Tuzla village 95 

water 95 

Tuzli 66, 67 

Islet 66 

Tuzlo Lightvessel ^ 233 

Tzemess River 277 

Tzemesski 278, 279 

U. 

Uch Burnu _. 95 

Ulfer Chai 88 

Ulgar Dere 29 

Kioi 29 

River 29 

Ulm ^ 15."> 

Umar Bank 122,123 

Light 123 

Umur Bay 104,123 

Point 122 

Uniah 307 

Unieh 307 

Bay 307 



Unkiar Skalessi 122 

Upper Viktorovka Light 190 

Tula, Government of 260 [ Upper Volosh Light 195 



INDEX. 



347 



Page. 

Uret Point 208 

coast 208 

Urzuf 225 

road . 225 

— anchorage : 225 

Uskiut Roadstead 227 

Uskudar 120 

Utgu Bumu 85 

Utlyuk Liman 267 

Utrish Point ^ — 276 

Lighit- -- 276 

Utrislienok 276 

Utze Keupri Dere ^ 36 

TJzun Burnu 29 

Uzunga Burnu . 133 

V- 

Vanikioi Bay 121 

Varada Mountains 277 

Varna 143, 149 

Bay 148,150 

Light 149 

Varvatzi 255 

Vasiliko Harbor , 138 

Vassalskaya Channel — 201 

Vathi Bay 73 

' coast 73 

Vavara ^ 83 

Velar Burnu 81 

Velyaminov— 283 

Venedek Tash 59 

Venetlco Point . 80 

Verbki Island > 191 

Veselo Voznesensk 255 

Vesuvius Rocks ^ 263 

Vilkov - 172 

Viper Rock 24t) 

Vladimir Battery ^ 215 

Voenni Gorodok 297 

Mole 179 

Volchek Light 173 

Volga River 26L) 

Volga-Don Steamship Co 269 

Voli Point 76, 77 

Spit Light 196 

Volosh Point . 189 

Volski 240 

Vona Bay 305 

anchorage 306 

Point - 305 

Light - 306 



Page. 

Vorontzooski Lighthouse 179 

Molehead Lighthouse 178 

Vorthonas - 97 

Voznasensk . 199 

Vulan Bay 282 

W. 

Waitzen 156 

West Bay 84, 85 ,> 

cWnnel 279 ' 

Pass 75,76 

White Point 147 

Wrangler Patch 270 

Yalak Dere 91 

Yali Kiri 121 

Tarla 134 

Yalipliman 76 

Yalova . 89 

anchorage 89 

Yallova 27 

Yalta 223, 225 

Bay 224 

communication 225 

lifeboat 225 

Light 225 

Road 224 

Harbor 224 

storm signals 225, 230, 263 

Yamboli 143 

River 301 

Yapildak Chal 34 

River 33 

Yaremdji 94 

Yaruilgach Bay 205 

Light 206 

Yassi Burnu 88 

Yasun, Cape ... 306^ 

Yedi Kule 64 

Yeisk 249-250- 

communication 250^ 

Gulf 249 

Harbor 250 

lifeboat 250 

Light -1—1 -._ 250 

Liman .._ 249 

« southern shore 249 

piers 250 

River 249 



348 



INDEX. 



Page. 
Yeisk Spit 250 

beacons 250 

buoys 250 

supplies 250 

Yel Dagh 80 

Yelenlna Spit 248 

fog signal 248 

lightbuoy 248 

Yelken Kaya Burnu 94,95 

Yeni Klol 81, 82-90-116-135 

Bank 104, 116 

Light 116 

Mahalleh 117-118 

Yeni-shehr Bank 24-43 

Cape 23 

Yenikale 233, 238 

anchorage 238 

Cape 239.243,271 

depth signals 239 

lifeboat station .__ 239 

pilots 243,244 

Yeshil Irmak 307 

Yniada Road 137 

Yum Burnu 320 

coast-- 319 

fog signal 320 

landmark 320 

Yumurta 66 

coast 67 

Islet 66, 67 

Yuriji 54 

Bay 65 

Cape 65 



Page. 

YuriJl village 65 

Yusha Dagh 123 

Z. 

• 

Zaseck River -, 184 

Zburev Bay 191 

Zeitin Ada Island 71 

Burnu 92, 93, 94 

Cape 140 

Zeitun Point 303 

anchorage 303 

Zeitunlik 63 

Zelenoe village 263 

Zephyr Bay 304 

Zephyros, Cape 304 

Zhebriyani Bay 173 

beacons 1 173 

Zhelyezin Bank 248 

Rog - 204 

Zhoobzhe Point 284 

Zindjlr Bozan 41 

Bank 40,41,65 

Zintseva 253 

— — Valley 254 

Ziuk Point 270 

Bank 270 

Zmilml Cape 237,238 

Lloyds signal station 238 

Zolotaya 256 

Bank 255 

Zonguldak Bay 313 

Zunaritsa : 139 

Point 140 



* . 



■- \ 



I 7 



BRANCH HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICES. 

The offices are located as follows: 

Boston ^ 14th Flo'or, Customhouse. 

New York Rooms 301, 302, Maritime Exchange, 78-80 Broad Street. 

Philadelphia '. : Main Floor, The Bourse Building. 

Baltimore Room 123, Customhouse. 

Norfolk : Room 2," Customhouse. 

Savannah . Second Floor, Customhouse. 

New Orleans Room 215, . Customhouse. 

Galveston^ Room 301, Customhouse. 

San Francisco ^ Merchants' Exchange. 

Portland, Oreg Room 407, Customhouse. 

Seattle : Room 408, Lowman Building. 

Sault Sainte Marie Room 10, Federal Building. 

Duluth Room 1000, Torrey Building. 

Cleveland Rooms 406-408, Federal Building. 

Chicago Room 531, Post Office Building. 

Buffalo Room 340, Post Office Building. 

The Branch Offices do not sell any publications, hut issue the Pilot Charts, 
Hydrographic Bulletins, Notices to Mariners, and Reprints to cooperating ob- 
servers. 

They are supplied with the latest information and publications pertaining 
to navigation, and masters and officers of vessels are cordially invited to visit 
them and consult freely the officers in charge. Office hours, 9 a. m. to 4.30 p. m. 

Note. — By authority of the Governor of the Panama Canal some of the duties of 
Branch Hydrographic Offices are performed by the Captain of the Port at Cristobal and 
the Captain of the Port at Balboa. A set of reference charts and sailing directions may 
be consulted there ; and shipmasters may receive the Pilot Charts, Notice to Mariners, 
And- Hydrographic Bulletins in return for marine data and weather reports. Observers' 
blanks and comparison* of navigational instruments may 1)e obtained at the same time. 



AGENTS FOR THE SALE OF HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE 

PUBLICATIONS. 

IN THE UNITED STATES AND ISLANDS. 

Aberdeen, Wash. — The Evans Drug Co. 
Astoria, Obeo. — The Beebe Co., Astoria Branch. 
Balboa Heights, Canal Zone. — The Captain of the Port. 
Baltimore, Md. — John B. Hand & Sons Co., 17 South Gay Street. 
Bellinoham, Wash. — ^B. T. Matfaes Boole Co., 110 West Holly Street. 
Boston, Mass. — Charles C. Hutchinson, 154 State Street. 

W. E. Hadlock & Co., 152 State Street. 

Kelvin & Wilfrid O. White, 112 State Street 
'Charleston, S. C. — ^Henry B. Kirk, 10 Broad Street. 
-Chicago, Iu.. — ^A. C. McClurg, 330 Bast Ohio Street. 
Cleveland, Ohio. — ^Upson Walton Co., 1294-1310 West Bleventh Street. 
Obistobal, Canal Zone. — ^The Captaiu of the Port. 

349 



350 HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE AGENTS. 

DuLUTH, Minn. — Joseph Vanderyacht. 

Eastpobt, Me.— S. L. Wadsworth & Son, 5-S Central Wharf. 

Galveston, Tex.— Fred E. Trube. 2415 Market Street. 

Purdy Brothers, 2217 Market Street. 
Gloucesteb, Mass. — Geo. H. Bibber, 161 Main Street 
GuLFPOBT, Miss. — Southern Stationery Co., 2504 Fourteenth Street. 
Honolulu, Hawaii. — Hawaiian News Co. 
Jacksonville, Fla,— H. & W. B. Drew Co., 45 West Bay Street 
Ketchikan, Alaska. — Ryus Drug Co. 
Key West, Fla. — Alfred Brost 
Manila, Philippines. — Luzon Stevedoring Co. 
Mobile, Ala. — Cowles Ship Supply Co., 1&-19 Dauphin Street 
New Obleanb, La. — Woodward, Wight & Co., Howard Avenue and Constance- 

Street 
Rolf Seeberg Ship Chandlery Co., P. O. Box 1230. 
J. S. Sareussen, 210 Tchoupltoulas Street. 
Newpobt, R. I.— W. H. Tlbbetts, 185 Thames Street. 
Nbwpobt News, Va. — ^John E. Hand & Sons Co., 2310 West Avenue. 
New Yobk, N. Y.— T. S. & J. D. Negus, 140 Water Street 

John Bliss & Co., 128 Front Street 
Michael Bupp & Co., 112 Broad Street 
C. S. Hammond & Co., 30 Church Street 
Kelvfti & Wilfrid O. White, 38 Water Street 
NoBFOLK, Va. — ^William Freeman & Son, 243 Granby Street. 
Pensacola, Fla. — ^McKenzle Oerting & Co., 603 South Palafox Street 
Philadelphia, Pa. — Riggs & Bro., 310 Market Street. 

John E. Hand & Sons Co., 208 Chestnut Street 
PoBTLAND, Me. — Wm. Senter & Co., 51 Exchange Street 
Pobtland, Obeg. — ^The Beebe Co., First and Washington Streets. 

The J. K. Gin Co., Third and Alder Streets. 
PoBT TowNSEND, WASH.— W. J. Frltz, 320 Water Street 
PoBT Abthub, Tex. — N. M. Nielsen. 

Rockland, Me. — Huston Tuttle Book Co., 405 Main Street. 
St. Thomas, Vibgin Islands. — S. Fischer, Harbor Master. 
San Diego, Calif. — Arey-Jones Co., 933 Fourth Street. 
San Fbancisco, Calif. — Geo. E. Butler, Alaska Commercial Building. 

Louis Weule Co., 6 California Street. 
H. J. H. Lorenzen, 12 Market Street 
A. Lletz Co., 61 Post Street. 
San Juan, Pobto Rica — Joseph A. Rose, Lighthouse Service. 
San Pedbo, Calif. — Marine Hardw^are Co., 509 Beacon Street 
Savannah, Ga. — Savannah Ship Chandlery & Supply Co., 25 East Bay Street. 
Seattle, Wash. — ^Lowman & Hanford Co., 616-620 First Avenue. 

Max Kuner Co., 804 First Avenue. 
I Tacoma, Wash. — Cole-Martin Co., 926 Pacific Avenue. 

! Tampa, Fla: — ^Tampa Book & Stationery Co., 513 Franklin Street. 

Washington, D. C— W. H. Lowdermilk & Co., 1418 F Street NW. 

Brentano's, F and Twelfth Streets NW. 
Wilmington, N. C. — ^Thos. F. Wood, 1-5 Princess Street 

in fobeion countbies. 

Belize, Bbitish Hondubas. — ^A. E. Morlan. 

Buenos Aibes. Aboentina. — Rodolfo Boesenberg, 824 Victoria Street 



! 



HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE AGENTS- 851 

Canso, N. S.— a. N. Whitman & Son. 

Habana, Cuba. — Eduardo Menci6, 10 Mercaderes. 

Halifax, N. S.— Philips & Marshall, 29 Bedford Row. 

Manzaniixo, Cuba. — Enrique Lauten, Marti 44. 

Montreal, Canada. — Harrison & Co., 53 Metcalfe Street. 

Port Hawkbsbury, C. B. I., N. S. — ^Alexander Bain. 

Prince Rupert, B. C, Canada.— -McRae Bros., Ltd., P. O. Drawer 1690. 

Quebec, Canada. — T. J. Moore & Co., 118-120 Mountain Hill. 

St. John, N. B.— J. & A. McMillan, 98 Prince William Street. 

Shanghai, China. — Capt. W. I. Eisler, care American Post Office. 

o 



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